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Historical Society Papers 




Secretary of the Southern Historical Society. 


Published by the Shciety. 

i 910. 







I. Recollections of the Last Months in the Army of Northern 

Virginia, by Captain Frederick M. Colston i 

II. Roster of the Amelia Troop, Which constituted Company 
"G," First Virginia Cavalry, from the Beginning to the 
End of the Confederate War 16 

III. Centennial of Birth of Admiral Raphael Semmes, Cele- 

bration in Honor of, in Baltimore, Md., September 27, 
1909 22 

IV. Restoration of the name of Jefferson Davis to Cabin John 

Bridge, Washington, D. C, The Leading Correspond- 
ence leading thereto 4 1 

V. List of General Officers and their staffs in the Confederate 

Army furnished by Virginia, by Joseph V. Bidgood 156 

VI. Stuart in the Gettysburg Campaign, A Defence of the 

Cavalry Commander, by Col. John S. Mosby 184 

VII. Battle Flag of the Third Georgia 210 

VIII. Meeting of the Confederate Veterans at Memphis, Tenn.; 
Address by Col. Bennett H. Young ; Achievements of 
the Confederate Cavalry 217 

IX. Virginia Mourning Her Dead. Address at Lexington, Va., 
by Major Holmes Conrad on the Occasion of the Unveil- 
ing of the Statue by Sir Moses Ezekiel 221 

X. Lost Chapter in History 24 

XI. The Flag of the Confederate States of America— Extracted 

from Preble's History of the United States Flag 243 


XII. Reports of the First, Seventh and Seventeenth Virginia 

Regiments in 1S62 262 

XIII. Stonewall Jackson, by Lieutenant-Colonel G. T. R. Hen- 

derson — A Review of by Captain Randolph Barton. . . . 268 

XIV. Confederate Veterans who fell in battle Re-interred in 

Maryland, by Colonel Winfield Peters, U. C. V 28S 

XV. Maryland Line Confederate Soldiers' Home; Approaching 

Centenary of; Great Events in 1814 289 

XVI. Many Generals of the War 1 S61-5 still survive 290 

XVII. United Confederate Veterans, Isaac R. Trimble Camp, Bal- 

timore, Md 292 

XVIII. Monument to Confederates to be Erected at Point Look- 
out, Md., by the United States Government 295 

XIX. Address of Hon. John Lamb at New Market, Va., August 

19,1910 298 

XX. A Confederate Woman's Kind Act, by Dr. R. G. Crouch. . 309 

XXI. Unwritten History of the Gettysburg Campaign, by Wil- 
liam Youngblood, of Alabama 3T2 

XXII. Baltimore in 1861 ; Recollections of Stiring Events in 319 

XXIII. Fourth Virginia Cavalry; Colonel William R. Wooldridge 

and its record 325 

XXIV. Jackson's Valley Campaign, Front Royal and Winchester, 

1S62 • • • • • 327 

XXV. Cruise of the Confederate States' Steamer "Nashville," 

by Lieutenant W. C. Whittle 334 

XXVI. Career of General Joseph E.Johnston, "The Very God 

of War " 340 

XXVII. Why Jefferson Davis was never tried 347 

XXVIII. Emma Sansom, Heroine, by Mary Bankhead Owen 330 


XXIX. Inscriptions for Memorial to the Women of the Confede- 
racy, by W. E. Gonzales, of Columbia, for South Car- 
olina 359 

XXX. Battle of Wilson's Creek, or Oak Hills ; Monument to those 

who fell there 363 

XXXI. Lee and Stuart at Harper's Ferry 372 

XXXII. Major John Pelham, Hero, by H. H. Matthews 379 


Page 22. For aucestry read ancestry. 

Page 23. For Kearsarge read Kenrsage. 

Page 34. For Simms read Senw 

Page 157. For Payton read Pey ,.. 

Page 167. For Jonathon read Jonathan. 

Page 172. For Baunhead read " nkhead. 

Page 177. For Stephenson read Stevenson. 

Page 178. For " 

Page 243. For Prible read Prel 

Page 326. For Woolridge read Mfoldriage. 

Page 33'. For Grigsley read Grigsby. 

Southern Historical Society Papers. 

\ OL. XXXVIII. Richmond, Va., January-December. 1910. 



In September, 1864, after passing the examination of. the 
Ordnance Board, I was commissioned "Captain of Artillery on 
Ordnance Duty," having born previously ordnance officer of 
Alexander's Battalion of Ar^llery, Longstreet's Corps, and I 
was assigned as assistant to the Chief of Ordnance of the army, 
Lieutenant-Colonel Briscoe G. Baldwin. 

One of my duties was the charge of the reserve ordnance 
train of the army, which wa ,hen encamped near Chester Sta- 
tion (now Centralia) on the Richmond and Petersburg Railroad, 
and I took up my quarters and mess there with three fine young 
sergeants whom I found there, and all of whom had been dis- 
abled or wounded and assigi^d to that duty. 

This was the custom of the army, where a man able to do full 
duty was needed for the front, and this illustrates our habitual 
shortage of numbers. 

They were Joseph Packard, Bob. Burwell and Everard Meade. 
Packard passed the ordnance examination and was commissioned 
lieutenant and placed in direct charge of the train, relieving me 
of that part of my duty. He is now very prominent and appre- 
ciated in Baltimore and elsewhere. Bob. Burwell was of the 
well-known Virginia family and died a few years ago. Meade, 
a grandson of Bishop Meade, is now rector of the historic Pohick 
Church, in Fairfax County, Va., the church of George Wash- 
ington and George Mason. 

2 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

General Lee's staff, of which the only survivors are Colonel 
Walter H. Taylor, of Norfolk, his A. A. G., and Major Henry 
E. Young, of Charleston, the judge advocate general, was a 
very small one, though very efficient, but military critics of the 
present day marvel at it and contend that it should have been 
larger in numbers and organization. 

The general staff of the army was also not over officered, and 
there was plenty of work for all. 

My first important work came almost at once, early in October, 
and was an order to mount the heavy guns in Batteries Wood, 
Semmes and Brook. These batteries were on the south side of 
James River, and intended to command the Dutch Gap Canal, 
which General Butler was having dug to flank the heavy battery 
at Howlett's Bluff, on the river approach to Richmond. 

It is reported that General Lee was in much doubt at first as 
to Butler's object, but when the project was developed the bat- 
teries were located and work on them rushed. 

I was told that the guns would be delivered at Chester Station 
(now Centralia), on the Richmond and Petersburg Railroad, 
where I was to receive them, transport them to the batteries, 
about two and one-half to three and one-half miles distant, 
respectively, and mount them. The guns were of the Brook 
banded type, weighing over ten tons, constructed at the Tredegar 
Works in Richmond, and a special carry-log, with twelve-foot 
wheels, was sent with them. With much labor the gun would 
be slung under the carry-log and then the team would be started. 
Imagine about thirty miles in a team, with the negro drivers 
all yelling and cracking their whips ! It was like a charge of 

The road was a sandy soil through the pines and the wheels 
sometimes sank so that the gun rested on the ground, and the 
difficulty of transport often seemed insurmountable. Some- 
times good progress would be made and sometimes a whole day 
would be spent on a few yards. But by main strength and 
determination the guns were all gotten there. George Apper- 
son, chief quartermaster sergeant of the train, a fine man, is 
entitled to the credit of this part of the work. 

I remember that once, just as we were getting across the Rich- 

Last Months in the Army of Northern Virginia. 3 

mond and Petersburg Turnpike, General Lee came along and 
looked with interest at our doings, after acknowledging my 
salute. I 

I was provided with a special headquarter's order, which per- 
mitted me to go in and about the army at all times, and call on 
all officers, etc., to give me any aid required. 

When the guns were gotten into the batteries I called on Com- 
modore Mitchell, commanding the gunboats on the James River, 
presented the order, and asked for sailors and tackle to help in 
mounting them, and they were promptly furnished. The jackies 
sustained the reputation of the service as "hardy men." Three 
companies of the Engineer Regiment were also sent to help in 
the work. 

The enemy soon found out what we were about and shelled 
us vigorously, so that we had to abandon our work in the day- 
time and do it only at night. With insufficient light our work 
was rendered more difficult, and several times when a gun was 
nearly in place a slip would come and down it would go, and we 
had it all to do over again. 

The cheerfulness and vigor with which the sailors and 
engineer soldiers worked all night excited my admiration and I 
wanted to give them a treat, so I went up to Drewry's Bluff, 
about two miles above, and asked for some whiskey. General 
Lee's name on my order was, of course, potent, and I was given 
a big demijohn. I carried this down and asked an officer for a 
reliable man to take care of it. He said that he would give me 
the best he could, but even doubted anyone under the circum- 
stances, so a sergeant was called up and the demijohn committed 
to him. When we knocked off work at daylight I called for 
the sergeant and found him happily drunk. Fortunately, there 
was enough left for a drink around, but thereafter I took charge 
of the demijohn myself, and wherever I went in directing the 
work I carried the demijohn and sat on it. 

The earth-work was being done at the same time, with a dif- 
ferent force and superintendence, as it was a hurry job. It took 
us about thirty days, and for the most part of that time I never 
slept at night, but went back at daylight to my tent, which my 
messmates had moved nearer to the works. 

4 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

I had the satisfaction of reporting that all the guns were 
mounted, but they never fired a hostile shot, and were abandoned 
when we retreated in April. 

The train was then moved to near the Lippincott house, on 
the south side of Swift Creek, about a half mile from Brander's 
Bridge, where we established winter quarters. 

During the winter, life was tolerably easy for us, but I had 
enough to do to keep me occupied. Much of my work called 
for riding along the lines, and I kept well posted on what was 
going on. 

Our quarters were comfortable — two tents joined together 
with a mud-chimney between — but our rations were very scant, 
both in quantity and variety. Knowing that all the people near 
us were as badly off as the army was, I never encroached upon 
their hospitality, but Packard and I made acquaintance with the 
hospitable Widow Duvall, who lived beyond Chesterfield Court- 
house, and we visited there. Supplies were fairly abundant 
there, and I thought nothing of the eighteen-mile ride, on a cold 
winter night, nominally to see the widow's pretty sister, but really 
for one good meal. 

Some of our wagons were employed all the winter in being 
driven over the battlefields and picking up the enemy's unex- 
ploded shells, which were sent to the Richmond Arsenal and 
prepared to be returned to them from our guns. 

Near the end of January, 1865, I was requested to take 
horses and go down to a landing on the James River, where I 
was to meet Admiral Raphael Semmes, who was coming by 
boat from Richmond to visit General Lee. The Admiral was 
accompanied by Colonel Ives, of President Davis' staff, and 
when we got to General Lee's, quarters, at the Turnbull house, 
he and the Admiral retired, and Colonel Ives joined a group 
of the General's staff. I remember the fierce attack that Col- 
onel Marshall made on the commissary situation and Colonel 
Ives' attempted defense. Admiral Semmes spent the night 
with General Lee. In his "Memoirs" he says that the "grand 
old chieftain and Christian gentleman seemed to foreshadow, 
more by manner than by words, the approaching downfall of 
the cause for which we were both struggling". 

Last Months in the Army of Northern Virginia. 5 

About the last day of February, Colonel Baldwin ordered me 
to go to Amelia Courthouse and Lynchburg, see the ordnance 
stores there and report on them. I went by train, and at Amelia 
Courthouse I found a large supply of ammunition, etc., stored 
in the open, but protected by tarpaulins, and in charge of a 
wounded officer. On account of representations made to me by 
some citizens, I directed the ammunition to be moved to a dif- 
ferent location, for the safety of the village. There was a good 
house there with a large yard with trees and grass. It was 
occupied by Mrs. Francis L. Smith, a refugee from Alexandria, 
and I was invited to spend the evening there. In the course of 
conversation Mrs. Smith remarked that General Lee was a rela- 
tive of her husband and Arlington familiar to her, but that 
she had never seen him since the war commenced. I casually 
remarked that the war had seen many changes of field, and that 
General Lee's quarters might even be in her yard before it 
closed, thinking of the fine surroundings. This was entirely a 
casual remark, and no attention was paid to it at the time. But, 
when we got to Amelia Courthouse, on our retreat^ General 
Lee's tent was pitched in the yard. I heard at that time that 
Mrs. Smith recalled that remark and charged me with knowing 
of the retreat and of not giving her warning. But this was not 
correct. Of course, I could not help having my own idea that 
this meant provision for a possible retreat along, that line, but 
that idea was never put into words. We never talked retreat. 

But I take this occasion to comment upon the efficiency of the 
ordnance service. At the beginning of the war, military critics 
thought that we might fail for want of guns and ammunition, 
and our first supplies of both justified that criticism, but with 
captures and manufacture we kept supplied and always had 
guns and something to put into them. Our manufacture has 
never received the attention of military historians that it de- 
served. Even our cap-machine was considered superior to that 
used by the United States. The wonderful record of the Ord- 
nance Department was published a few years after the war by 
General Gorgas, Chief of Ordnance, in the Southern Historical 
Society Magazine, and also by Colonel Mallet (now of the Uni- 
versity of Virginia) in the same in 1909. But we never had 

6 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

the immense advantage that the enemy's cavalry had in their 
repeating carbines. Their success towards the end of the war 
was largely owing to that. 

At Waterloo, the important post of La Haye Sainte, was lost 
because ammunition was not supplied. The brave garrison 
had shot off everything and were massacred to a man when the 
French broke in. I cannot remember any like instance of a 
failure of supply in our war. 

But it is well known that the failure of the rations to be at 
Amelia Courthouse, as ordered by General Lee, caused a day's 
delay there, enabled the enemy to overtake us, and forced Appo- 
mattox upon us five days later. Otherwise, we would have 
reached Danville, our objective, Lynchburg being the alternative. 

The ammunition at Amelia Courthouse was distributed as far 
as needed and the balance destroyed when we left on our retreat. 

From Amelia Courthouse I went to Lynchburg and inspected 
the supplies there. While there, Sheridan was coming down 
the Valley to join General Grant and threatened Lynchburg, in- 
tending to cross to the south side of the James River, but he 
only got to Amherst Courthouse, and found the river in flood, 
and he was unable to cross, so he came down by way of Han- 
over Courthouse, on the north side. Lynchburg was in a semi- 
panic, and I was dreadfully fearful of being captured away from 
the army, which had been my home for many months, and where 
I felt safe. 

On March 28, 1865, I was sent for by my chief, Colonel B. G. 
Baldwin, chief ordnance officer, and was told that the state of 
the armament of the cavalry was giving much trouble to the 
Ordnance Department, owing to the variety of arms carried by 
the men. It was actually the case, he told me, that a single 
company might have half a dozen different kinds of carbines. 

It was almost impossible to supply the different kinds of am- 
munition at all times and consequently many men would be 
out of action when most needed. General Lee had directed that 
an effort be made to correct this state of affairs, and I was to 
go down to the cavalry division, then about Dinwiddie Court- 
house, have the men paraded and, by swapping the arms, try 
to make squadrons at least uniformly armed. 

Last Months in the Army of Northern Virginia. 7 

I told him that this would be a difficult and disagreeable task, 
as these arms had been captured by the men in battle in most 
cases and were, consequently, valued and their exchange would 
be objected to. 

Colonel Baldwin replied that he recognized that, but that it 
must be done and that the assistance of their officers could be 
called for. 

This illustrates one great difficulty in our service, especially 
in the cavalry. Too many calibres to furnish. Modern service 
has developed that one calibre for all small arms is the best. 

So I got my orders, and the next morning early started out. 
I was afraid to ride my own fine little mare down amongst the 
cavalry and I took an old white horse which was used in the 
train. Before leaving, Colonel Baldwin had given me the map 
used at headquarters, and which was issued only to corps com- 
manders and heads of departments. I made some demur to 
taking it, for fear of capture and consequent blame, but Colonel 
B. said that I had better have it, as it would be necessary in 
finding my way. I went down the Boydton Plank Road and 
joined a couple of cavalrymen who were en route to their com- 
mands. At Burgess' Mill, on Hatcher's Run, we passed through 
our lines and into the debatable ground beyond. We heard a 
report that the enemy were on the plank road beyond us and at 
the junction of the Quaker or Military Road (a mile from Bur- 
gess' Mill) ; we turned into it, hoping to flank them. We had 
passed Gravelly Run, two miles down, and had come within 
sight of the Vaughn Road, when we suddenly saw, in front of 
us, men with knapsacks on, running across the road. As our 
men did not carry knapsacks, we knew them to be the enerav. 
We had ridden right into the flank of Warren's Corps, march- 
ing on the Vaughn Road, having crossed Hatcher's Run at 
Monk's Neck Bridge, some distance below. We turned at once, 
but not before several shots had been fired at us and an energetic 
voice had been heard calling out, "God damn you, halt." Then 
commenced a race in which I experienced the feeling of the fox 
in the hunt, I suppose, for there were more of them; they were 
better mounted and armed, whilst I had a poor old horse and not 
even a penknife. 

8 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

The chase was nearly a four-mile one, and very interesting — 
too much so to me — for I thought of many things during it, and 
particularly of that infernal map. I knew that its capture would 
be duly lauded in the United States papers, and dreaded the 
consequences on me at our headquarters. 

I had thoughts of jumping from my horse, hiding the map in 
the leaves and surrendering myself (thus sacrificing myself for 
the map), but the instinct of self-preservation kept me going. 

The enemy was uncertain of their own position and came on 
with caution when the fortunate turns of the road hid us, but 
when they turned and saw us still going they came on with re- 
doubled energy and with shouts and shots. The better mounted 
cavalrymen soon left me behind, and I had serious fears that my 
old horse would not last, but fortunately he did, and I ran into 
the protection of our lines at Burgess' Mill, badly scared, but 
safe and sound and the old map also. 

The Confederate troops that we encountered were General 
YV. P. Roberts' Cavalry Brigade of General W. H. F. Lee's Di- 
vision. General Roberts and his A. A. G., Captain Theodore 
S. Garnett, of Norfolk, were in advance, and questioned me as 
to what we had seen. A sharp engagement soon followed, and 
later the enemy, in heavy force, drove our lines back. Captain 
Garnett states that he in person reported to General Lee this 
movement of Warren's Corps moving across to Sheridan's relief 
at Dinwiddie Courthouse. 

My horse collapsed as soon as we got in, and I had to walk 
and lead him back to Petersburg, some ten miles. 

I reported to Colonel Baldwin and he laughed at my adventure 
and, in reply to my question whether I should try again, told 
me that it was now too late. "The movement has commenced," 
he said, and this was the movement of General Grant around 
Lee's right, which led to Five Forks, the retreat from Peters- 
burg and Appomattox. 

The next few days were full of anxiety and apprehension, 
and early on the 2nd of April we were apprized of the results of 
the battles of Five Forks and on our right line, and notified to 
be ready to move. The day was spent in active work, moving 
our surplus ammunition to Dunlop's and distributing some for 
the use of the troops on the retreat. 

Last Months in the Army of Northern Virginia. 9 

We received our instructions for our route, which was to 
Amelia Courthouse by way of Brander's Bridge, over Swift 
Creek, Chesterfield Courthouse, and Goode's Bridge, over the 
Appomattox River, and about dark the train moved. Near 
midnight Packard and I rode to Dunlop's, where the surplus 
ammunition was blown up, and then on to join the train. At 
Chesterfield Courthouse I met Huger's (formerly Alexander's) 
Battalion of Artillery, where I had previously served, and we 
looked back at the great clouds of smoke over burning Rich- 
mond, and I remember the anxious looks and pale faces of 
Parker's "Boy Battery", which was from Richmond. They 
never blanched in front of the enemy but at leaving "home and 
mother" to an unknown fate. 

That night our quartermaster insisted upon going into camp 
at the Cox house, which turned out to be outside of our lines, 
but the next morning, Monday, April 4th, we moved early, and 
soon came to a brigade which had been sent out to receive and 
protect us. We arrived at Amelia Courthouse about sundown 
and camped near it. 

The next morning I rode to the courthouse to get my orders 
for the day from Colonel Baldwin, and I remember General Lee's 
tent in Mrs. Smith's yard. I rode on to overtake the train and 
when I got to it I found a great state of confusion and disorder. 
It had been attacked by the enemy's cavalry, under General 
Davies, near Painesville, about eight miles from Amelia Court- 
house, who were soon driven off by our troops, but not before 
they had destroyed some of our wagons and killed some of the 
animals. There is a picture of this affair in the last volume 
of "The Battles and Leaders of the Civil War". We reorgan- 
ized the train and resumed our march, and moved all night, pass- 
ing through Deatonsville. We continued this on the next day, 
Thursday, April 6th, without stopping to rest or feed either our 
animals or ourselves. 

Sheridan's "terrible cavalry" (as General Lee called them) 
and artillery soon commenced making determined attacks upon 
us from our left flank at every opening. In one of them the 
driver of our personal wagon, black Tom Peters, was so fright- 
ened that he drove the wagon against a tree-trunk and there it 
was stuck with the shells bursting all around it. 

10 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

I ordered Tom to go in to rescue our belongings, and even 
threatened him with my sword, but the poor fellow, ashy colored, 
only said : "Oh ! Massa Captain, I will do anything for you, but 
I can't go in dar," so I said to Burwell : "Life in this Confed- 
eracy is not worth having without my clothes or anything else, 
and I am willing to risk my life for my things." Bob cheer- 
fully replied: "I am with you, Captain." We got a wagon and 
Bob drove it alongside the stalled one and our belongings were 
thrown from one into the other. Fortunately, the enemy's fire 
slackened, but never before was so much done in so short a 

In these operatons our train had been broken up into de- 
tached fragments and our force was divided accordingly. Col- 
onel Taylor stated that during one of these attacks the head- 
quarter wagons were in danger of capture, and the men in charge 
burned the chest containing the headquarter archives, including 
order books, letter-copying books and other valuable documents, 
an irreparable loss and an unnecessary one, as the wagon was 
eventually saved. Late in the day I got to the ground overlook- 
ing Sailors' Creek, where there was a block, owing to the con- 
vergence of trains and a narrow passage over the creek on a 
rickety bridge. General Ewell was there and told me to make 
the wagons double up, saying: "If they don't get away from 
here they will all be captured." Warned by this, I went into 
my wagon and got out my best coat and a few other things. Just 
then the enemy appeared on the crest behind us and opened a 
heavy fire. There was a general "sawve qui pent," and we 
galloped down the hill. One man next to me was struck, the 
bullet making a loud whack. We crowded on the bridge and 
had to take it at a slow pace under the heavy fire. One officer, 
on a fine, black horse, thinking the bridge too slow, took to the 
stream, but got mired in it. This crossing was by the S. W. 
Vaughn house. When I got across I looked back and saw the 
enemy setting fire to our wagons. Thus I lost all of my treas- 
ures of the war, for which I had risked my life only a few hours 

I was told by one of the officers at the War Records Office 
in Washington that the burning of those wagons was much de- 

Last Months in the Army of Northern Virginia. 11 

plored. It was not necessary, and many valuable records and 
documents were lost to history. 

I rode up the hill, on the west side of Sailors Creek, and came 
upon General Lee. He was reclining on the ground and hold- 
ing Traveller's bridle. He was entirely alone and looked worn. 
I was then "dead beat" in mind and body. I had been more 
than forty consecutive hours from Amelia Courthouse in the 
saddle, practically without food or sleep, while the reflection that 
I had then no clothes, no blankets, and nothing else except what 
I had on was oppressive. 

After crossing the bridge over the Appomattox, at the foot of 
the railroad High Bridge, I came upon Major John P. Branch, 
of Richmond, encamped there. He took me in, and I spent the 
night there. He says that he did not feed me, as he had noth- 
ing to eat himself. The next morning, Friday, April 7th, I 
moved on, and by great good luck came upon Packard, who had 
saved some wagons with a few necessaries in them, and I then 
got my first meal in twenty-four hours. We moved on very 
slowly all that day and night, and also on Saturday, the 8th, 
camping that night near Appomattox Courthouse, near the place 
where General Lee had his headquarters. During the day I met 

Major , of Pickett's staff, who spoke of surrender as 

the proper course at that time. This was a great shock to me 
as it was the first time that I had heard the word "surrender". 

The next morning, the fateful April 9th, we remained station- 
ary, and Packard and I walked up to see what was going on. 
While we were standing there, General* Lee rode past, attended 
by Colonel Marshall and an orderly. He was in full dress, 
wearing his sword and sash. As I had never seen him wear 
his sword except at a review, 1 was struck at once by it, and 
turned to Packard and said: "Packard, that means surrender." 
While we were there we saw a Union officer galloping up, wav- 
ing a white handkerchief. He was recognized as General Custer 
by his long, yellow hair and the red neckerchief of his command. 
He rode up to General Longstreet and one of Longstreet's staff 
waved the bystanders off so that I saw, but could not hear, the 
interview. But it was told to us immediately afterwards, about 
as follows : Custer said : "I demand the surrender of this army," 

12 Southern Historical Society Pajyers. 

to which Longstreet replied that he had no more right to sur- 
render it than Custer had to demand it. Custer then said that 
Longstreet would be responsible for the bloodshed to follow. 
Longstreet replied that he could "go ahead and have all the 
bloodshed that he wanted." Custer then learned that General 
Lee had gone to see General Grant, and mounted his horse and 
rode off. Captain Sommers, our quartermaster, had been cap- 
tured, paroled, and recaptured in the attacks on our train, and 
he went up to General Custer and asked his status, but Custer 
said impatiently, "Oh, I've no time to attend to that now." 

General Longstreet mentions this incident, and Alexander 
says of it, that Longstreet rebuffed him more roughly than ap- 
pears in Longstreet's account of it. 

I have related it as it was stated at the time. 

Shortly after that we saw General Lee coming back, and a 
crowd of officers and soldiers gathered around him with cheers. 
He stopped his horse, and, looking around, said: "Men, we 
have fought the war together and I have done the best I could 
for you. You will all be paroled and go to your homes until 
exchanged." I was close to him and climbed upon a wagon-hub 
to see and hear distinctly. He said a few more words which I 
cannot repeat accurately, but those which I record are engraved 
upon my memory. I looked around and the tears were in many 
eyes and on many cheeks where they had never been brought by 

Words cannot describe our feelings then. All of the struggles 
and sacrifices of the long years were in vain and the future 
loomed before us, dark and unpromising. Even the fate of 
those who had not lived to see that day was envied then. The 
rest of that day was given to sad reflections and gloomy fore- 

The next morning, Monday, April ioth, we moved over to the 
grove where General Lee had his tent and pitched a wagon sheet 
about one hundred yards from his tent, which was the only one 
there, as I remember. All of the headquarter departments were 
assembled there. 

The terms of the surrender were then known, and we began 
to discuss the future. General Alexander said that he was 

Last llonths in the Army of Northern Virginia. 13 

going to try to go to Brazil, and I wanted to go with him. I 
have an interesting letter from him from the "Brandreth House, 
N. Y., April 22nd, 1865," telling of the inability of getting there 
and asking that it be communicated to Latrobe, General Long- 
street's A. A. G., who also thought of going. We could not 
then see into the future, but fortune has been kinder to General 
E. P. Alexander, Colonel Osmon Latrobe and myself than an 
exile to Brazil could have brought. I mention this only to show 
the feeling of the time. 

It rained, not heavily, but persistently, and our spirits were 
as gloomy as the weather. In the afternoon, while we were 
seated on some logs over a smouldering fire, we heard a clatter 
of horse-hoofs and saw General Meade approaching with some 
members of his staff and an escort. General Meade was taken 
into General Lee's tent and they talked in private, while the 
members of his staff, of whom I remember Captain Meade, his 
son, joined the group at the fire. I felt quite envious of Cap- 
tain Meade, a young fellow of about my own age, well dressed, 
well equipped and well groomed as he was, and I thought of the 
inequalities of our services. 

When General Meade left, General Lee called Colonel Taylor 
into his tent, and when he came out he told what the "Old Man" 
(as General Lee was always called by those around him) told 
him of his talk with General Meade. I remember one part very 
well. General Meade asked him how many men he had before 
Richmond and Petersburg, and when General Lee told him he 
replied: "I had more than five men to your one." 

Colonel Marshall, of General Lee's staff, had been a fellow- 
student at the Warren Green Academy, Warrenton, Va., but was 
then a resident in Baltimore, as I was. I went to him to consult 
about our going home, and after a little talk he said: "Fred 
Colston, General Lee has told me to write a farewell address. 
What can I say to those people?" I took this for a hint, of 
course, and left him to write that well-known address which 
General Lee revised and issued. 

On Tuesday, April 10th, we signed the parole-sheets and our 
paroles were issued to us. These paroles were printed for us 
by the enemy, as they had a printing press with them by" that 

14 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

time. As is well known, they were signed for the Confederates 
by their immediate commanding officers, generally the brigadiers 
or colonels of the regiments or battalions. Mine is signed "By 
command of General R. E. Lee, W. H. Taylor, A. A. G." 

Colonel Taylor signed the paroles of the officers at the head- 
quarters, but his own was signed by General Lee, as Colonel 
Taylor could not sign for himself. This was the only parole signed 
by General Lee personally. 

There was a fund in United States current funds kept at the 
headquarters to pay scouts, etc., who had to go into the enemy's 
lines. This was divided around, and I got enough to pay my 
way towards home. 

The Union officers were anxious to buy "Rebel chargers,'' 
and many an officer sold his for enough gold or greenbacks to 
give him a start, but I disposed of my fine little Nellie, who had 
given me such good service, to my fellow-officer, Major A. R. H. 
Ranson. Packard and I went into General Lee's tent and bade 
him farewell. At my request, he wrote his name and the date in 
a pocket testament which had been given to me in June, 1863, 
by three charming young ladies of Richmond, and which had 
been always with me since. General Longstreet was with Gen- 
eral Lee and he also wrote his name with his left hand, as his 
right was still disabled from his wound at the Wilderness. This 
book is one of the very few mementos of the war that I saved. 

The next morning, Wednesday, April 12th, I started for Rich- 
mond, riding an old horse which I got from the train. I joined 
Captain Raleigh T. Daniel, of Richmond, and Sergeant Tucker, 
of General A. P. Hill's staff, on the way, and we traveled to- 
gether. When we got to the Appomattox River, we found that 
the river had overflowed its banks, owing to the continued rain, 
and we had to go through a considerable distance with the water 
nearly belly-deep to my horse. Tucker was on foot, and I took 
him on behind me, but in the middle of the flood the old horse 
groaned and laid down, and I was immersed to my neck in the 
muddy water. My sweetheart's picture was in my haversack 
and the muddy stain is on it yet. 

After getting across, we found ourselves amongst the United 
States colored troops. There seemed to be thousands and thou- 

Last Months in the Army of Northern Virginia. 15 

sands of them. We heard that they were robbing the Confed- 
erates passing through (which proved to be untrue) and we 
sought the protection for the night of an encampment of a regi- 
ment. The colonel and his officers were kind and hospitable, 
set up a tent for us, dried my wet clothes and fed us. They 
even had out their band to play for us. The regiment was the 
Eighth United States Colored Troops, and the colonel, S. C. 
Armstrong, afterwards the General Armstrong of the Hampton 
Institute. Some years afterwards I met General Armstrong, 
and we compared recollections of this night. He wrote an ac- 
count of it in the paper published at the institute, in 1892. 

The next morning I rode to Burkeville Junction, to which 
point the South Side Railroad had been rebuilt from Petersburg, 
abandoned the old horse and took the train to Petersburg and 
City Point, and then by boat to Richmond. After a day or two 
there I applied for permission to go to my home in Baltimore, 
but in the meantime President Lincoln had been assassinated and 
times were harder for the poor Confederates. It was decided 
that I had voluntarily abandoned my home and could not return 
there. In this controversy I was denominated "The so-called 
Captain Colston," so that I had apparently neither habitation 
nor name. 

It was not until more than one month afterwards that by the 
kind assistance of General E. O. C. Ord, the commander, and 
General N. M. Curtis (of Fort Fisher fame) I was permitted 
to go home, where I had even to get permission of the provost 
marshal to have my picture taken in my uniform. 

Thus ended my service in the Confederate Army, the recol- 
lection of which is more gratifying to me than that of anything 
else that I have been able to do in my life. 

16 Southern Historical Society Papers. 


Which constituted Company "G," First Regiment Virginia 

Cavalry, from the Beginning to the End of the 

Confederate War. 

This roster was compiled from memory by George M. Wilson, 
with the assistance of William A. Gresham, B. B. Vaughan, 
James A. Mann, William R. Wilson and other members of the 
company. It was published twice in the Amelia County News, 
and corrections and criticisms requested. It has been recently 
revised and corrected by Major Charles R. Irving (our first war 
captain), Norvell W. Harris and Charles M. Harris. It is 
believed to be as nearly correct as it is possible, after so many 

The Amelia Troop was organized about fifteen years prior 
to the war between the States, and was mustered into service 
of the Confederate States at Ashland, Va., on the 9th day of 
May, 1861, by Colonel (afterwards Lieutenant-General) R. S. 
Ewell. It was ordered thence to Winchester and assigned to 
Colonel J. E. B. Stuart's First Regiment of Virginia Cavalry, 
and was designated Company "G." 

This company participated in all the principal battles fought 
by the Army of Northern Virginia, besides many cavalry en- 
gagements, from the first battle of Manassas to Appomattox 
Courthouse. The history of the First Regiment of the First 
Brigade is its history, for it helped to make it; and wherever 
praise is bestowed on J. E. B. Stuart, it reflects credit on Com- 
pany G, to which, in conjunction with the other companies com- 
posing the First Regiment, General Stuart used to say he was 
largely indebted for his military achievements and promotion. 
We should each and every one feel a pardonable pride in having 
been associated with such a regiment and with officers who bore 
so honorable a record. 

Roster of Amelia Troop. 17 

Officers and Men. 

Weisiger, Samuel S., captain at the beginning of the war; 
resigned July 21, 1S61. 

Irving, Charles R., promoted captain July 21, 1861 ; promoted 
major of the regiment July 16, 1863. 

Gills, J. M., second lieutenant; promoted first lieutenant July 
21, 1862, and held the office until the reorganization, in May, 

Gills, Robert, junior second lieutenant; resigned in May, 1861. 

Wilson, William R., elected junior second lieutenant in May, 
1861 ; appointed assistant surgeon of the regiment in May, 1862. 
He, with many other surgeons, was left behind after the Battle 
of Sharpsburg, to assist in attending to the wounded of both 
armies, and when their duties were done, they were imprisoned 
in Fort McHenry. 

Southall, Frank W., elected first lieutenant at the reorganiza- 
tion, in May, 1862; promoted captain July 16, 1863; wounded 
in the Valley Campaign in 1864. 

Jeter, Henry Allen, elected second lieutenant in May, 1862 ; 
promoted first lieutenant in July, 1863. 

Johns, Richard D., elected junior second lieutenant in May, 
1862; promoted second lieutenant July 16, 1863; wounded at 
Cedar Creek. 

Adams, Edward T., private. 

Adams, William, wounded at Spotsylvania Courthouse. 

Archer, Adolphus, died in the service. 

Bland, Robert E., wounded at Haw's Shop. 

Bland, John, died in the service at Fredericksburg. 

Blanton, James A., corporal. 

Blanton, Robert W., quartermaster-sergeant during the whole 

Booker, Henry. 

Booker, Peyton, second corporal ; died in the service. 

Boisseau, Watson, lost an arm at Nance's Shop. 

Boisseau. John P., wounded in the Valley and died from the 
effects of the wound after the war. 

18 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

Burton, Sidney, second sergeant; killed at Todd's Tavern, 
near Spotsylvania Courthouse. 

Briggs, George R. 

Bridgforth, Robert E., discharged on account of disability in 

Carter, Thomas. 

Carter, Hill, captured and imprisoned at Point Lookout. 

Chapman, A. B., wounded by sabre cut at Ely's Ford. 

Clark, Nick, a Marylander; fourth sergeant; died in the. 

Clark, John. 

Cosby, James. 

Cousins, E. S. 

Deppish, E. C, a Marylander ; came in as a substitute. 

Dunnavant, John Phill. 

Dunnavant, William R. 

Eldridge, William M. 

Eggleston, William, second sergeant at the beginning of the 

Eggleston, George Cary, transferred to artillery. 

Farlev, Frank, captured and imprisoned at Point Lookout. 

Featherston, John, over the military age and discharged. 

Fowlkes, Adrian, a model soldier. 

Foster, Edmund, third corporal ; died in the service at Fair- 
fax Courthouse. 

Foster, John Booker. 

Gills, Miller, put in a substitute, an Irishman, who soon de- 

Gills, George Dabney, second corporal. 

Glenn, Lee, wounded at Winchester. 

Godsey, William A., captured at Spotsylvania Courthouse. 

Goode, John C, put in a substitute. 

Goode, Robert, detailed as courier for General Stuart. 

Gresham, William A., wounded at Fort Harrison; captured 
and imprisoned. 

Gresham, Edwin. 

Haskins, John, elected sheriff of Amelia County. 

Harris, Charles M., wounded at Reams' Station. 

Roster of Amelia Troop. 19 

Harris, Norvell W., a model soldier. 

Harvie, Charles Irving, transferred to General Jenkins' Staff; 
mortally wounded at Cedarville November 12th, and died at 
Winchester November 14, 1864. 

Hargrove, James, wounded at Haw's Shop. 

Hume, , a Marylander; killed while scouting in Mary- 

Imboden, J. A. R., transferred to General Imboden's Com- 

Jackson, Edward, died in the service. 

Jackson, William, mortally wounded at Spottsylvania Court- 

Jackson, Thomas, elected orderly sergeant at reorganization. 

Jackson, William F., captured and imprisoned at Point Look- 

Jenkins, Fernando. 

Jeter, S. B. (Tumpy). 

Johnson, Jack W., wounded at Five Forks. 

Johnson, Willis T. 

Johnson, J. W. (Bose). 

Johnson, William Wirt, captured, exchanged and died during 
the war. 

Johns, Walter, wounded at Culpeper Courthouse. 

Justis, Luther. 

Levy, Leopold, detailed in the Commissary Department. 

Levy, Sampson. 

Mann, Lawrence, over the military age and discharged in 1861. 

Mann, James A., detailed as courier for General Hood; cap- 

Mann, William Field, first sergeant at the beginning; after- 
wards sergeant major and commissary sergeant of the regiment. 

Marshall, Richard H. 

Marshall, Joseph W. 

Marshall, A. J. 

McMahon, E. W., came in as a substitute for Miller Gills. 

Meade, W. Z., transferred to the Western Army and killed. 

Miller, Anderson P., captured and imprisoned at Point Look- 

20 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

Mitteldorfer, Marx. 

Motley, Joel, captured and imprisoned at Point Lookout. 

Motley, Lou. 

Motley, Charles, died in the service. 

Morris, Harry J. 

Myers, Herman J., shot through the body near Mt. Sidney in 
1864; recovered and returned to his command. 

Nobles, Joseph. 

Overton, James M. 

Parrott, James, killed at Spottsylvania Courthouse. 

Phaup, George W. 

Phaup, Thomas. 

Porter, John E., substitute for J. C. Goode. 

Pride, Thomas B. 

Redford, Peter, third sergeant at the start ; captured and im- 

Rudd, Lawson, a gallant soldier ; killed at Catlett's Station. 

Robinson, Cass. 

Robinson, Henry, killed at Waynesboro. 

Robertson, Booker. 

Rucker, Harvie, captured. 

Sanderson, William D. 

Sanderson, George. 

Sanderson, John, killed at Spotsylvania Courthouse. 

Sanderson, Thomas, discharged. 

Sanderson, Olin. 

Scruggs, Joseph, lost his leg at Spottsylvania Courthouse. 

Scheil, Dr. Joseph, a Marylander. 

vSeav, Joseph, fourth corporal at the start ; died in the service. 

Southall, Dr. Joseph, discharged for disability in 1861. 

Southall, Giles. 

Southall, John T., wounded twice at Spottsylvania Court- 
house ; captured. 

Steger, Roger W., captured at Fredericksburg. 

Stringer, Sidney, killed at Front Royal. 

Taylor, Armistead G., transferred to General Robertson's 

Tavlor, George K. 

• Roster of Amelia Troo}). 21 

Taylor, Henry, drowned at Fredericksburg. 

Thweatt, Alfred F. 

Tucker, Joel, died during the war. 

Yaughan, Frank, killed at Winchester. 

Yaughan, Benjamin B., captured at Sailor's Creek. 

Warriner, Thomas. 

Wiley, William F., first corporal at the start; sergeant later. 

Wiley, George A. 

Willson, Frank C. 

Willson, Albert A. 

Wilson, George M., wounded while riding in column at Ma- 
nassas, July 21, 1861, by the accidental discharge of a comrade's 

Wilson, Edward H. 

Wingo, Elmore E., wounded at Spotsylvania Courthouse. 

Wilkinson, William S. 

Wood, Henry, killed near Mt. Sidney, in November, 1864. 

22 Southern Historical Society Papery. 



SEPTEMBER 27, 1809. 

Celebration in Honor of the Confederate Naval Hero Under 

the Auspices of United Confederate Veteran Camps, 

Baltimore, Md,, September 27, 1909. 

Address by Professor HENRY E. SHEPHERD, A. M. t L.L. D., Gallant 

Confederate Soldier, 1861-1865; Southern Musical 

Programme by the Linhards. 

Contributed to the Southern Historical Society Papers by Colonel 

WINF1ELD PETERS, Baltimore, Md., Member, Historical 

Committee, and on Southern School History, 

United Confederate Veterans. 

Born in Charles County, Maryland, September 2J, 1809, of 
Catholic parents, he lived and died in that faith. His death 
occurred August 30, 1877. 

Ancentry : Son of Richard Thompson and Catherine (Middle- 
ton) Semmes, and fifth in descent from the first American 
ancestor, Benedict Joseph Semmes, a native of Normandy, 
France, who came over with Lord Baltimore, A. D. 1640. 

To Confederate Soldiers and Sailors and All in Sympathy: 

In conformity with the announcement made at the Nineteenth 
Annual Convention and Reunion, United Confederate Veterans, 
held in Memphis, Tenn., June 8-10, 1909, the U. C. V. Camps 
in Baltimore propose to celebrate the one hundredth anniversary 
of the birth of Admiral Raphael Semmes, United States Navy 
(1826-1861), Confederate States Navy (1861-1864), and Con- 
federate States Army (1864-1865), September 27, 1909, in a 
manner befitting the services rendered by that distinguished 
officer to the cause he last served and loved. This celebration 
will be under the auspices of Isaac R. Trimble Camp, No. 1025, 
U. C. V., Baltimore, with the help of the other camps, U. C. V., 
and Confederates at large in city and State. 

Centennial of Birth of Admiral Raphael Semmes. 23 

The achievements of this great figure in the "War of 1861-1865 
appeal not only to Confederates and our noble, matchless, South- 
ern women, but to all who admire courage, heroism, daring and 
the struggle of that resourceful and brave sailor, against im- 
measureable odds. 

Semmes was the great central and inspiring figure in the naval 
history of the Confederacy. In his instructive and thrilling nar- 
rative embodied in his "Memoirs of Services Afloat" — a book 
without a rival — he tells of his contests, single-handed and prac- 
tically alone, against all the naval resources of his enemy ; esti- 
mating that every day the Alabama or Sumter was at sea it was 
at the cost of a vessel to his opponents. The dash, resourceful- 
ness and success of this daring leader, who scoured the seas 
with the enemy everywhere on the watch to crush him, stamps 
Semmes as a fighter and genius worthy to be ranked with the 
greatest naval leaders of any time or country. 

Semmes struck blow after blow upon the enemy's commerce, 
inflicting tremendous losses, obstructing traffic almost to the 
prohibitive point. Cruising over the world, he destroyed or 
forced under neutral flags one-half the enemy's commerce. 
The resulting terror in America startled other nations, dreading 
a like fate in time of war. 

Xo more heroic contest was, perhaps, ever made by any man 
than that waged by Semmes for the Confederacy, and his last 
act, in fighting his ship until she sank, off Cherbourg, France, 
was characteristic of the man, who was always ready to face 
any danger, and refused to shrink from the most appalling odds. 

Admiral Semmes' career on the seas terminated with the loss 
of his ship, the Alabama, Sunday, June 19, 1864, decoyed into 
an unfair fight by a treacherous foe. Throwing his sword into 
the sea, as he himself fell therein, he was rescued by a sympa- 
thetic English gentleman, who defied the threats of the com- 
mander of the U. S. S. Kcarsarge. 

Undaunted and undismayed, Admiral Semmes made his way 
from foreign soil to the South, reported at Richmond, was com- 
missioned Brigadier-General in command of the Xaval Artillery 
and Coast Defenses of the Confederacy , under General R. E. 
Lee. He surrendered and was paroled under General J. E. 
Johnston, in April, 1865. 

24 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

At the close of the struggle (a) Admiral (b) General Semmes 
accepted the inevitable ; returned to his home in Alabama, and — 
despite Federal molestations, imprisonment and persecutions — 
devoted his energies to building up the South, engaging in 
literary pursuits and the practice of law, holding a judgeship, 
having in early manhood been admitted to the bar in Cumberland. 
Maryland, even while a young naval officer. 

Responding to an invitation to be present at the Admiral 
Semmes Centennial Celebration, Rear Admiral Winfield S. 
Schley, U. S. N., a native of Maryland, wrote, September 14, 

"Admiral Semmes was one of the most accomplished officers 
of the old navy and the reputation he achieved during the Civil 
War ought to be honored everywhere by brave men and gentle 
women. As a Marylander his name will live in the history of 
his State among her illustrious sons." 

Emperor William II, of Germany, in 1894, said to the Ameri- 
can Consul at Breslau, Germany — Mr. Frederick Opp: 

"Then you are a native of the State [Alabama] that claims 
the great Raphael Semmes." After remaining silent about half 
a minute, his countenance bearing evidence of sincere interest 
and deep feeling, lie said: "Mr. Consul, I assure you. this meet- 
ing is indeed eventful for me. I reverence the name of Semmes. 
In my opinion, he was the greatest Admiral of the nineteenth 
century. At every conference with my Admirals I counsel them 
to closely read and study Semmes' 'Memoirs of Services Afloat.' 
I myself feel constant delight in reading and re-reading the 
mighty career of the wonderful 'Stormy Petrel.' ' : Mr. Opp. 
writing to Chairman Peters, added : "The occasion was the un- 
veiling of the statue of Emperor William I, at Breslau, Germany, 
in the spring of 1894, at which were present the crowned heads 
of Europe, or their ambassadors, and the Ambassadors and Con- 
suls of the United States, Field Marshals, Admirals, courtiers, 
civil and clerical dignitaries." 

Xo tribute from his surviving comrades in arms, sailors and 
soldiers alike, can be too high for such a splendid figure as 
Raphael Semmes. He represents the best blood and type of 

Centennial of Birth of Admiral Raphael Semmes. 25 

the Old South — of which Maryland was an integral part — who 
gave their services and substance and lives for the cause that by 
knowledge and faith was to them true and just. They have left 
a heritage to those who have followed worthy to be treasured 
to the latest time, and history that is truthful has chronicled their 
deeds for the admiration and wonder of the generations to fol- 
low. Their devotion to their righteous cause, their self-sacrifice, 
their valor — no matter what biased and malevolent critics may 
say — are fixed in the world's history of heroic achievements, 
beyond any injury from detractors. Their immortality in fame 
is secure. 

When according to Semmes the meed of praise, it should be 
remembered that Franklin Buchanan, another heroic and brilliant 
son of Maryland, was in his sphere of duty in the United States 
and Confederate States Navies unrivalled. His battle in Mobile 
Bay stamps him the world's leader among naval commanders, in 
action. His fight in Hampton Roads remains unrivalled, and in 
it he revolutionized naval warfare. Both engagements were 
practically fought singehanded against tremendous odds. 

The civilization of which Admiral Semmes and his Confed- 
erate confreres were exponents had its birth in colonial times, 
was developed by Washington and those who fought with him. 
and was defended by Lee and his followers — paladins — in a 
struggle, the greatest in many respects that the world has known. 

In those days of stress, suffering, abnegation and self-expatria- 
tion, there were men from Maryland, of whom their State is 
justly proud: Such leaders as Semmes, Buchanan, Waddell, 
Hollins, Barney (Confederate States Navy), and Generals 
Trimble, Elzey, Stuart, Johnson, the Winders, Brent, Archer, 
Tyler, Little, Tilghman, Mackall; subordinate officers and men, 
such as Andrews, Archers, (3) Annas, (4) Breathed, Booth, 
Browns, (many) Bonds, (2) Blackistones, (2) Briscoes, (seve- 
ral) Carys, (2) Carrolls, (2) Colstons, (2) Chew, Crane, Dor- 
seys, (numerous) Dement, Duvalls, (several) Davis, Emack, 
Elder, Freaner, Fentons, (2) Gilmors, (3) Goldsboroughs, (seve- 
ral) Gills, (3) Grogans, (3) Griffin, Howards, (many) Her- 
berts, (several) Hollidays, (4) Hoffmans, (several) Hewes, 
(2) Houghs, (2) Hodges, Hambleton, Johnsons, (many) Jones, 

26 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

(many) Jenkins, (several) Keys, (several) Knox, (2) Latrobes, 
(3) Lairds, (2) Murrays, (5) McKims, (2) Mackalls, (3) Mac- 
gills, (3) McNulty, Markoe, Morfits, (3) Maguires, (3) Nicho- 
las, Owen, (2) Pearre, Post, Pitts, Peters, (4) Robertson, Ritter, 
Rowan, Rasin, Smiths, (numerous) Snowdens, (several) Stu- 
arts, (3) Symingtons, (2) Schwartz, Shanks, Sothorons, (3) 
Sullivane, Steward^, (several) Sollers, (2) Thomases, (numer- 
ous) Tilghmans, (several) Torsch, Whites, (several) War- 
fields, (several) Wards, (2) Wheelers, (2) Wise, Wheatley, 
Young, Yellott, Zollingers, and a host of others, regardless of 
rank, among Maryland's (say) 22,000 enrolled in the Confed- 
erate States Army, Navy and service. 

"Unheralded, unorganized, unarmed," defying capture and 
penalty; they came, they fought, they suffered, they died: For 
conscience and right ! 

Lee said to Trimble : "The Marylanders are unrivalled sol- 
diers." A. P. Llill and Heth (in 1865) said: "Those Maryland 
men do not desert." Munford said: "You struck the first blow 
in Baltimore and the last in Virginia." Jackson, Johnston and 
Ewell relied upon them and were not disappointed. They were 
"yours to count on" with Stuart, Hampton, Fitz Lee, Ashby, 
Mosby, Pelham, et ah, and they knew it and responded accord- 
ingly, as did their prototypes of the Revolution, under Wash- 
ington, Howard, Gist and other commanders. 

"There's Life in the Old Land Yet!'' wrote the poet-soldier, 
Randall, following his "Maryland." 

A\ 'hat with authors of war lyrics — inspiring, inspiriting, true, 
world-famed and ineffaceable — in Francis Scott Key, James 
Ryder Randall and Dr. John Williamson Palmer, Baltimore out- 
ranks the world's cities. 

As a national anthem, the "Star Spangled Banner" is unriv- 
alled ; while "Maryland, My Maryland" — drastic of patriotic fare 
and arrogant of mettle and defiance — is second only to Key's 
famed ballad; and Dr. Palmer's "Stonewall Jackson's Way" best 
pictures America's most brilliant, meteorlike, fighting, soldier- 
saint — Illustrious Lee's right arm ! 

The entertainment, as announced, was held in the armory of 
the Xaval Brigade, Marvland National Guard. 

Centennial of Birth of Admiral Raphael Semmes. '11 

The address by Professor Henry E. Shepherd, on the career 
of Admiral Semmes, was scholarly, classical, edifying ; a splendid 
tribute to the genius and a review of the achievements of the 
great sailor and soldier. He dwelt upon the times and the 
people of the Old and New South, contrasting the civilization 
of the epoch from Washington to Lee with that which has fol- 
lowed. Dr. Shepherd was Captain, Company K, Forty-third 
North Carolina Infantry — an exceptionally gallant soldier and 

The music — both vocal and instrumental — excelled any rendi- 
tion of Southern songs and airs ever heard in Baltimore, and it 
required artistic musicians, such as the Linhards, to make it 
such a success. 

Aside from honoring Admiral Semmes' memory, the purpose 
of the celebration was to aid in a tribute to the Women of the 


Statuary group in bronze for every Southern city and county. 
The very best replica should be erected in Baltimore, near the 
monument to the Confederate soldiers and sailors on Mount 
Royal Avenue. Movement in charge of Lieutenant-General C. 
Irvine Walker, United Confederate Veterans, Charleston, S. C, 
in conjunction with the United Confederate Veterans, United 
Sons of Confederate Veterans and United Daughters of the 


Winfield Peters, Col. Q. M. Genl., Staff of Lieutenant-General 
C. Irvine Walker, commanding Army of Northern Virginia De- 
partment, U. C. V.; Maryland member, Historical Committee 
and on Southern School History, U. C. V. ; representing Isaac 
R. Trimble Camp, No. 1025, U. C. V., Baltimore, chairman of 

William F. Wheatley, Lt.-Col., Asst. O. M. G., staff of Lieu- 
tenant-General C. Irvine Walker, representing Isaac R. Trimble 
Camp, No. 1025, U. C. V., Baltimore, secretary of committee. 

28 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

Captain Samuel D. Buck and Rev. Dr. Henry M. Wharton, 
representing Franklin Buchanan Camp, Xo. 747, U. C. V., Bal- 

Dr. M. L. jarrett, Commander, and Charles H. Mettee, Adju- 
tant, representing James R. Herbert Camp, No. 657, U. C. V., 

Major James W. Denny and John McGregor, Esq., represent- 
ing Arnold Elzey Camp, No. 1015, U. C. V., Baltimore. 

With representatives from U. C. V. Camps in Annapolis, Cum- 
berland, Frederick, Easton, Rockville, Leonardtown and Hyatts- 
ville, Md. 


A Monograph by His Son, Captain S. SPENCER SEMMES, 
Osceola, Arkansas. 

Admiral Raphael Semmes was born in Charles County, Md., 
on September 27, 1809, of Catholic ancestry. His father was 
Richard Thompson Semmes, fifth in descent from the first 
American ancestor, Benedict Joseph Semmes, of Normandy, 
France, who came over with Lord Baltimore in 1640; and his 
mother was Catherine Hooe Middleton, a descendant of Arthur 
Middleton, one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence. 
There was only one other child, Samuel Middleton Semmes, 
later a well-known lawyer of Cumberland, Md. The mother 
died during the infancy of the boys, and when Raphael was 
about ten years old his father died, leaving them almost penniless. 
The two boys were taken into the family of Raphael Semmes, 
of Georgetown, D. C, an uncle, and when Raphael was about 
fifteen years old, he was appointed a midshipman in the United 
States Navy by another uncle, Dr. Joseph Benedict Semmes, 
who, at the time, was a member of Congress from Piscataway, 
Md. There being, at that time, no United States Naval Academy, 
young Semmes was placed on board the seventy-four-gun train- 
ing ship North Carolina. His first position, on leaving the train- 
ing ship, was with Commodore Wilkes, at his quarters on Capitol 

Admiral Raphael Semmes. 29 

Hill, Washington, D. C. Then followed a three years' cruise on 
the Mediterranean ; one in the South Sea with Commodore 
Wilkes' Exploring Expedition and then a cruise off the west 
coast of Africa and around the Cape to the East Indies. 

All through these years of his boyhood and early manhood, 
•whether on shore or in active service, he assiduously studied 
languages, literature and law, especially international and marine 
law, which prepared him for the trying experiences of later 
years in the Confederate service. 

On May 5, 1837, Raphael Semmes, then a lieutenant in the 
United States Navy, married Anne Elizabeth Spencer, the only 
daughter of Oliver Marlborough Spencer and Electra Ogden. 
Mrs. Semmes' grandfather, Oliver Spencer, a Revolutionary 
Colonel, moved from New Jersey to Cincinnati, when the latter 
was nothing more than a military post, and her father was the 
first mayor of the town. 

During the Mexican War, Lieutenant Semmes was in com- 
mand of the brig Somas, doing blockade duty off Vera Cruz. 
Whilst thus engaged his vessel was suddenly struck by a violent 
gale, was capsized, and the greater portion of the crew drowned, 
Semmes himself having been rescued by a boat's crew from the 
English ship Endymion. After losing his vessel, Lieutenant 
Semmes was ordered by the Secretary of the Navy, Mr. Marcy, 
to proceed to the City of Mexico under flag of truce, to inter- 
cede with the Mexican Government in behalf of some of the 
members of his crew who had been captured, and whom the 
government was threatening to execute as spies. Being for- 
bidden by General Scott, in command of the United States 
Army, from proceeding in advance of the army. Lieutenant 
Semmes, at the invitation of General Worth, became a member 
of that General's staff and accompanied the army throughout 
the entire campaign. 

In 1849 Lieutenant Semmes moved from his old home, on- the 
Perdido River, near Pensacola, Fla., to Mobile, Ala., which place 
he ever afterwards considered his domicil. Having seen con- 
siderably more sea duty than any other officer of his date, he 
was engaged in no active service until 1856 when he was ap- 
pointed lighthouse inspector on the Gulf of Mexico, from which 

30 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

position he went, two years afterwards, to Washington, as secre- 
tary of the Lighthouse Board, a place much sought after by 
naval officers, and which he filled until his resignation from the 
United States Navy, in i860, upon the breaking out of the war. 
At the time of his resignation he was a commander in the navy. 

Upon resigning, lie offered his services to Jefferson Davis, 
then Provisional President of the Confederacy, and was imme- 
diately sent North as a special agent for the purpose of purchas- 
ing machinery, guns and munitions of war, in which undertaking 
he was eminently successful. 

Returning to Montgomery, Ala. — the provisional Capital of 
the Confederacy — Semmes, now a commander in the Confederate 
States Navy, was placed at the head of the Lighthouse Bureau, 
but chafing and becoming restless at the inactivity of his position 
and longing for the smell of "salt-water" and the old "sea-life," 
where he might be able to strike some effective blows for the 
new-born government to which he had given his allegiance, he 
applied for and obtained permission to undertake the fitting out 
of a vessel with the view of preying upon the enemy's com- 
merce. As the most likely point for his enterprise, he proceeded 
to New Orleans, and, after a diligent search, he ran across a 
small sea-going packet of about 400 tons, named the Havana, 
which had been plying between New Orleans and the West 
Indies, as the most suitable material for his purpose. " As his 
own naval constructor, he at once commenced converting the 
little merchantman into the best war vessel practicable, and in 
the face of many difficulties, causing much vexation and con- 
siderable delay, he finally completed his task, renaming his minia- 
ture cruiser the Sumter. When finally ready for her mission, 
with as gallant a set of officers as ever trod a ship's deck and 
sturdy a crew as ever reefed a sail, the Sit inter was dropped 
down to the mouth of the Mississippi River to await an oppor- 
tunity to run the gauntlet of the Federal blockade. After a few 
days, perceiving that the Brooklyn, then on duty, had left her 
anchorage, and was no longer in sight, Semmes immediately 
shipped his pilot, got up a full head of steam, and made the 
clash for the. open sea. The Brooklyn, which had merely changed 
her position and was hidden by the shore line, discovering the 

Admiral Raphael Semmes. 81 

Sumter's escape, at once gave chase, and although the swifter 
of the two vessels, after a short time, abandoned the pursuit, 
leaving the little Sumter free to continue her voyage, as the first 
sea-rover of the Confederacy. This was on the 30th day of June, 

Xo sooner did the Sumter find herself free upon the bounding 
waves than she commenced her work of destruction to the 
enemy's commerce — some eighteen merchantmen, with their 
valuable cargoes, becoming her prey within the few months of 
her Confederate career, from the time of her running the block- 
ade, at the mouth of the Mississippi River, up to the date of her 
abandonment at Gibraltar. 

One of the cleverest feats of the Sumter was her escape from 
the Iroquois, at the Island of Martinique. Here the Iroquois 
had kept the Sumter under close vigilance for several days, de- 
termined upon her capture whenever she should attempt to put 
to sea. But Captain Semmes was too shrewd for the Iroquois' 
commander. Realizing that he must make his exit as soon as 
possible, or be absolutely cut off from escape by reinforcements 
of the enemy's vessels, Captain Semmes having in the meantime 
obtained information that a Yankee schooner had been employed 
to watch the movements of the Sumter and give warning to the 
Iroquois, took advantage of the first dark night for his dash for 
liberty. Accordingly, at gun-fire (8 o'clock), after which time 
the Iroquois was in the habit of drawing within a short distance 
of the port, the Sumter, with all steam on, sped south. When 
she reached the Yankee schooner the schooner gave the signals, 
as agreed upon, which Semmes, with his nautical intuition, at 
once read as saying: "The Sumter is fleeing south." Semmes 
thereupon extinguished every light aboard, and, Reynard-like, 
doubled upon his tracks, rushing north, and, as the Iroquois was 
racing after him to the south, by morning the two vessels were 
150 miles apart. 

Captain Semmes having taken the Sumter into Cadiz, Spain, 
for repairs — she being in a very leaky condition from having 
run upon a rock at Maranham, Brazil — he was received very 
politely by the commander of the port and at once permitted to 
go into dock at the naval station. His repairs made, he returned 

32 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

with the Sumter to Cadiz, but being harrassed by the commander, 
who had, in the meantime, hi en influenced by the Federal Con- 
sul, Semmes, in disgust, sailed for Gibraltar — capturing a vessel 
within sight of the harbor. Being unable to obtain coal at Gi- 
braltar, through the machinations of the ever-vigilant Federal 
Consul, and being without funds, as soon as they could be pro- 
cured from our Commissioner in England, which took about a 
month, the paymaster of the Sumter — Henry Myers — was dis- 
patched to Tangiers, Africa, to purchase and forward a cargo 
of coal. Upon his arrival in Tangiers, Myers was arrested, 
through the agency of the Federal Consul, handcuffed, thrown in 
jail, where he was robbed of his personal effects, maltreated and 
-finally transported to the United States. The Sumter being 
thus prevented from coaling, and being watched on the outside 
by Federal cruisers, she was abandoned by her commander and 
finally sold, again being converted into a merchantman, and 
singular to relate, sank a few years afterwards, almost in the 
same spot where reposed the remains of her successor — the 
Alabama — and the sword of her former gallant commander. 

In no ways daunted, Semmes, now a captain in the Confeder- 
ate States Navy, proceeded to England, where he found that the 
Lairds had nearly completed a vessel for the Confederate Gov- 
ernment, numbered the "290," and he was assigned to I*<r com- 
mand when ready for service. 

To avoid a violation of the neutrality laws, the "-90" left Eng- 
land without armament, and ostensibly as a merchantman, but, 
in fact, she proceeded to Terceira, one of the group of the Azores 
Islands, where she was joined by her commander and his offi- 
cers — the crew taking her out volunteering to remain — and her 
armament and supplies were placed on board from the trans- 
ports which had previously arrived. As soon as ready for sea. 
her commander had the Confederate flag run up, read his com- 
mission from the Confederate Government, announced the object 
of his mission, called for volunteers from among the crew — 
nearly all of whom enlisted — and named the new Confederate 
cruiser the Alabama. Thus was the Alabama, destined to become 
famous the world over, launched upon her career of destruction 
to American commerce and to teach Xew England shipbuilders 
and shipowners some of the costs of war. 

Admiral Raphael Semmes. 33 

For nearly two years the Alabama became the terror and the 
scourge of the seas, in so far as Federal interests were concerned, 
capturing sixty-two merchantmen, most of which, with their 
cargoes, were burned, and completely paralyzing or destroying 
the enemy's commerce. And this, too, although a vessel of 
not over 200 tons and a speed not exceeding thirteen knots an 
hour under the combined forces of steam and sail, not only 
prevented from entering "home ports" for the purposes of coal- 
ing, refitting and supplies, by reason of the rigid blockade of the 
entire Southern coast, but prevented, as well, from putting into 
neutral ports by the numbers and vigilance of the enemy's cruis- 
ers and gunboats, more on the watch to catch her, at disadvantage, 
and overcome her by force of numbers and weight of metal than 
in protecting their merchant-marine by seeking an equal en- 
counter. So that the Alabama's work was done almost entirely 
under sail and upon such supplies as she could draw upon from 
her captures. 

Being in bad condition from her long and laborious cruise, 
with the copper stripped from her bottom, which was foul from 
barnacles, the Alabama entered the harbor of Cherbourg, France, 
for much needed repairs, re-fitting and supplies. Three days 
afterwards the Kearsage, in command of Captain Winslow, in 
perfect condition, came from Flushing, England. As soon as 
she put in her appearance, Captain Semmes, realizing that he 
was to be blockaded with the probabilities of speedy reinforce- 
ments by the enemy's cruisers, although at great disadvantage, 
made up his mind to fight and sent word to the captain of the 
Kearsage to that effect. After patching up a little and taking on 
a small supply of coal, on Sunday morning, June 19, 1864, the 
Alabama steamed out of Cherbourg, to engage her enemy, and 
proceeding about seven miles from the French coast, the battle 
commenced. When the captain of the Alabama concluded to 
fight the Kearsage, although he knew that she was considerably 
the Alabama's superior in speed and somewhat her superior in 
size, staunchness of construction and armament, he considered 
the two vessels to be so nearly matched as not to be acting rashly 
in offering battle, but to justify him in entertaining a hope that 
he might be able to beat his adversary in a fair fight. But he 

34 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

did not have a fair fight. He thought, as he had every reason 
to believe, that he was engaging a wooden vessel, when, as it 
afterwards turned out, the Kcarsage was practically an iron-clad 
— heavy chain cables having been strung vertically from the top 
of her deck to the water's edge, which had been cleverly dis- 
guised by a covering of deal boards, thus completely protecting 
her sides, and, at the same time, giving her the appearance of a 
wooden vessel. This deception, added to the damaged condition 
of the Alabama's ammunition, no doubt lost her the battle, as it 
was shown by the ripped and torn boards, shattered cables and 
indentations made by the same upon the sides of the Kearsagc 
that the Alabama's shot and shell failed to make any penetration 
into the Kcarsage 's hull. In a little over an hour Captain 
Semmes, finding that the Alabama was sinking, hauled down his 
colors, indicative of surrender — notwithstanding which, five 
broadsides were afterwards fired by the enemy — and turned to 
the saving of the wounded and landsmen who were unable to 
swim by hurrying them off in his few remaining boats ; then, 
throwing his sword into the sea, he commanded his crew to 
assemble upon the edge of the Alabama's deck, and just before 
she made her final plunge he gave the order and every soul 
leaped into the whirling waters. 

Captain Simmes and about forty of his crew were picked up 
by the English yacht Deerhound, owned by Mr. Lancaster, and, 
thus escaped capture by being taken to England. Most of the 
remaining officers and crew were rescued by a couple of French 
fishing boats and the boats of the Kcarsage, which, after a tardy 
wait, finally came to their succor. Thus did the brave, good, old 
ship find a hero's grave instead of falling into the hands of the 
enemy. Her sacred bones lie buried at the bottom of that vast 
ocean, over the surface of which she once careered so gracefully, 
the scourge and terror of her foe's merchant-marine, where 
her requiem will forever be sung by the embracing waves, an 
example to all nations and all generations to come, of what one 
little craft, commanded by genius, probity and bravery, can ac- 
complish, when pitted even against a powerful nation. 

One of the most valuable and, at the same time, dramatic cap- 
tures of the Alabama was that of the Yanderbilt "Liner," plying 

Admiral Raphael Semmes. 35 

between New York and Aspinwall. The Alabama was lying in 
wait for a homeward bound vessel of the same "Line," in hopes, 
by her seizure, of being able to replenish her exhausted treasury 
from the gold bullion which usually constituted a portion of the 
cargo, and it was a disappointment, when, instead of meeting up 
with a homeward bound vessel, the Ariel, outward bound, came 
in sight. This "Leviathan of the deep" presented a beautiful 
picture as she "lay to" upon the placid waters, under the guns 
of the Alabama, with flags flying and the gay apparel of pas- 
sengers which crowded her decks, fluttering in the breeze. 

The Ariel's owner — Commodore Vanderbilt — had been very 
aggressive and active in the effort to capture or destroy the 
Alabama, fitting out, at his own expense, a cruiser for that ex- 
press purpose. And Captain Semmes was therefore itching to 
burn her, and was only prevented from doing so because of the 
fact that the Ariel had on board upwards of a thousand pas- 
sengers, of whom he could make no disposition. Reluctantly, 
therefore, the Ariel was bonded and permitted to go rejoicing 
upon her voyage. LSSS^O 

When the Ariel was "hove to," her passengers believing that 
they had verily fallen into the hands of the "Pirate," commenced 
hiding their valuables, and were in a great state of alarm. But, 
upon the handsome young Confederate officer, who boarded the 
Ariel, assuring the passengers that the Alabama was not making 
war upon women and children and private property, and that, 
therefore, none of their effects would be molested, they soon 
became pacified and even friendly, resulting in the young officer 
returning to the Alabama, shorn of all the brass buttons and gold 
lace from his uniform, which had been appropriated by the 
ladies as souvenirs of the meeting. 

One of the most troublesome foes Captain Semmes had to 
contend with was the irrepressible Federal Consul, to be met 
with at every point, constantly on the alert and active in throw- 
ing every obstacle in the way of his coaling and provisioning 
his vessels, when entering neutral ports. Most of these fellows 
were men of small mental calibre, whose only code of principle 
and honor was Yankee cunning and zeal in truckling to their 
'"Big Boss," and who, often, did not hesitate to stoop to under- 

36 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

handed and unscrupulous means in carrying on their incessant 

As an instance of their malignant and petty persecution, noth- 
ing was more contemptible than the enticing away of Captain 
Semmes' cabin-boy. When ready to leave New Orleans with the 
Sumter, Captain Semmes' relative — the Hon. Thomas J. Semmes 
—insisted upon his taking with him as his cabin-boy his negro 
diningroom servant — Xed — who had been raised in the family. 
Whilst lying in one of the Brazilian ports, Xed was in the habit 
of going to market every morning for the furnishing of the 
Captain's table. One morning the basket, with its contents, came 
on board, but without Xed. It was afterwards ascertained that 
the Consul, by making the most dazzling promises, had persuaded 
Ned not to return. As soon as Captain Semmes left port this 
poor, illiterate negro was abandoned by his rascally friend — the 
Consul — and left among utter strangers and thousands of miles 
away from home, penniless and to his own resources. The 
duped boy finally worked his way back to the United States and 
to Georgetown, D. C, where he was raised, and shortly after- 
wards died in a hovel from disease brought about by absolute 

After the loss of the Alabama, Captain Semmes, having first 
taken a much-needed vacation and rest, returned home — running 
the blockade in a little X T ew England schooner, which landed him 
at the mouth of the Rio Grande River, in a little town called 
Bagdad. From there he worked his way overland to Mobile, 
Ala. Here he spent a few days with his family, whom he had 
not seen in four years, and then proceeded to Richmond, where, 
upon reporting to Mr. Mallory, the Secretary of the Xavy, he 
was placed in command of the James River Fleet, with the rank 
of Vice-Admiral. In the hurry of evacuating Richmond, no 
orders were given to Admiral Semmes and no provision made 
for his leaving. But when he discovered that he had been left 
behind he blew up his fleet, organized his officers and crews into 
a brigade, marched them to the railroad depot in Richmond, Va., 
where he found an old, dismantled engine which he soon had 
sufficiently repaired to pull a train of cars, upon which he 
loaded his men, and was thus enabled to leave the city. He 

Admiral Raphael Semmes. 37 

joined General Joseph E. Johnston's army in North Carolina 
with the conferred rank of Brigadier-General in the Confederate 
States Army. And, shortly afterwards, was surrendered to 
General Sherman, as part of that army, he having taken the 
precaution of having his parole describe him, both as an Admiral 
in the Confederate States Navy and a Brigadier-General in the 
Confederate States Army. 

In his career with the Sumter and Alabama, not only did Ad- 
miral Semmes demonstrate his ability to do the enemy the great- 
est damage possible in the least time, wholly within the require- 
ments and rules of legitimate warfare, but he showed himself 
the true, chivalrous naval officer, the unexcelled disciplinarian, 
the learned international lawyer, the man of the most scrupulous 
probity and the modest, unassuming gentleman. He was ever 
kind and courteous to his officers, upon whom he looked as mem- 
bers of his family, and, although dealing with crews made up 
of almost every nationality except Americans — many of whom 
were tough subjects — he kept them under thorough control, not 
by means of curses and blows, but through the magnetism of his 
force of character, and doing everything possible for the pro- 
motion of their health and comfort, so that harmony and mutual 
confidence prevailed between officers and men. 

In the condemnation and destruction of his prizes, he never 
made a single mistake, although many of them had endeavored 
to disguise their nationality by sailing under false papers, which 
described them as neutrals. 

He never permitted the molestation of the private effects of 
any of the officers, crews or passengers of his captive vessels 
nor treated them otherwise than with kindness and respect. And 
he prohibited the appropriation by his officers and men of even 
as much as a box of cigars or pair of gloves from the cargoes of 
his prizes. Whatever was suitable and necessary for the supply- 
ing of his vessels was turned over to the purser, issued out by 
him, as Confederate property, and as such accounted for to the 
government. His care for those under his control was un- 
bounded. First and last he had as many as 500 men under his 
command of the two vessels — the Sumter and Alabama— and as 
many as 2,000 prisoners were confined for shorter or longer 

38 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

periods on board of the two ships, and yet he never lost a single 
man by disease. 

After the war Admiral Semmes returned to Mobile, Ala., 
which place he ever afterwards made his home, and entered upon 
the practice of law, but early in December, 1865, at the instiga- 
tion of the Secretary of the Navy, the Hon. Gideon H. Wells, 
the Admiral was arrested by a sergeant and file of marines and 
taken, a prisoner, to Washington, where he was incarcerated 
four months, although at the time he had a regular parole from 
General Sherman, as one of the prisoners of war surrendered 
by General Joseph E. Johnston. During Admiral Semmes' cap- 
tivity, every effort was made to obtain sufficient incriminating 
evidence against him of cruelty to warrant bringing him to trial 
before a military commission. But in every instance in which 
letters had been written to shipowners and ship captains, in the 
endeavor to obtain this evidence, the reply, substantially, was 
that, "whilst Admiral Semmes had destroyed their property, yet 
never had he committed a single act of cruelty or exceeded the 
strict rules of war in any of his captures." 

After being released, Admiral Semmes returned to Mobile, 
where he was unanimously elected to the office of judge of the 
Probate Court — the most lucrative position in the State, which 
he was prevented from filling by United States Military rule, as 
an unamnestied "Rebel." He was then invited to become the 
editor of the Bulletin, a daily paper published in Memphis, Tenn. 
After he had filled this position a few months, Andrew Johnson, 
then President, caused a controlling interest in the paper to be 
purchased by partisans, who ousted the Admiral from position 
of editor. 

After this venture, the Admiral again returned to Mobile and 
renewed the practice of law in connection with his second son — 
John Oliver Semmes — which he pursued until his death. 

Whilst entertaining the strongest convictions of the righteous- 
ness of the cause of the South and having done his whole duty 
in behalf of that cause, when the catastrophe came he accepted 
the result with the utmost philosophy and went to work to do 
everything in his power to bring about good feeling and har- 
mony, and this notwithstanding the animosity with which he 

Admiral Raphael Semmes. 39 

was pursued and hounded down by Mr. Johnson and Gideon H. 
Wells and their satelites and every obstacle thrown in the way 
of his efforts to make a quiet and comfortable support for his 

Whilst Admiral Semmes was stern and unyielding in the per- 
formance of duty, he was, in his family and among his friends, 
gentleness itself. No one could better express that side of his 
character than to give the following words of a kinsman — the 
late B. J. Semmes, of Memphis, Tennessee, who knew him 
through his entire life: "The dearest love of my boyhood, the 
highest esteem of my manhood belong to this great and good 
man, made truly after the image and likeness of his God." 

But Admiral Semmes was not only a good sailor — he was a 
learned scholar of distinguished attainments ; he was historian 
and statesman ; more than this, he was a profound lawyer, as an 
expounder of international law, in controversy with dignitaries 
and premiers of every nationality. He measured up to that 
intricate branch of jurisprudence, as familiar with it as Vattel 
himself, while, as a learned constitutional lawyer, in his exhaus- 
tive argument in justification of the South, he ranked by the side 
of Alexander H. Stephens ; with Dr. Bledsoe, in his great work, 
entitled "Is Davis a Traitor?"; with Jefferson Davis himself, 
and with the great Carolinian, John C. Calhoun. He was a 
patriot, he lived, fought and suffered for his county, and, above 
all, he was a Christian gentleman. 

Admiral Semmes' private life was as pure and spotless as his 
public life was heroic. Xo one meeting, on our thoroughfares 
or in the forum of our courts, the blythe, erect, but modest, form 
of the practicing attorney would for one moment have suspected 
that there stood before him the renowned and redoubtable "Sea 
King," whose daring deeds are written in imperishable letters 
upon every known continent. 

It would be doing injustice to his memory to omit mentioning 
that, besides his deep legal lore, and those attainments which 
make him the peer of the most distinguished and scientific men 
of our country, Admiral Semmes ranks high as a writer, and 
that his last work, "Memoirs of Service Afloat and Ashore," 
published a few years after the war, is as brilliant in style as it is 

40 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

profound in thought ; the introduction, purporting to be a synop- 
sis of the causes which led to the late Civil War, being one of 
the most remarkable constituional arguments that ever emanated 
from a statesman's pen. 

His death was a fitting close of his well-spent and glorious 
life. A few days' disease having admonished him that death 
was inevitable, he calmly prepared to meet it as he had met other 
overpowering foes. His worldly goods being few, demanded 
but little of his time ; to a noble, loving, devoted wife; to children 
whom he so dearly loved, he had no other inheritance to bestow 
but his own proud name, the souvenir of his virtues, the example 
of his patriotism. This done, he turned his thoughts to that 
higher kingdom, to which all aspire who have performed on 
earth their duty to God and man. A dutiful, obedient child of 
the Holy Catholic Church, he received at the hands of her worthy 
ministers all the sacraments with which she tenderly speeds the 
soul to the eternal abode. And it was, surrounded by a desolate 
family, and his hand clasped in the hands of a fatherly priest, 
that he gave up to his Maker that great and noble soul which 
never knew any other fear than that of doing wrong. 

To-day, in the narrow confines of an humble grave, on the 
green banks of a little tranquil brook, to which Bienville's brother 
gave his own name, in the retired and calm retreat of the Mobile 
Catholic graveyard, the remains of one so much loved by his 
country, so much feared by her enemies, now gently rests with 
nothing more than a simple monument to mark his last place of 

When Attila's soldiers were incising their eyes with their 
swords that they might weep over him with men's blood and not 
with women's tears ; when Napoleon's soldiers were hiding his 
grave, "Sur un rocher battit par la vague plaintive" ; when 

"Kings in dusky darkness hid 
Have left a nameless pyramid," 

the memory of Raphael Semmes will find in the pages of history 
and in the hearts of his countrymen "a monument more durable 
than iron or marble ever raised on the summit of the highest 

Restoration of Name of Jefferson Davis, 41 




Being an Official Correspondence Leading to This 

Reprinted from the Publication by the CONFEDERATED SOUTHERN 


The purpose of this article is to relate officially, in chrono- 
logical order, the history of the restoration of the name of Jef- 
ferson Davis, Secretary of War of the United States of America, 
to the Cabin John Bridge, at Washington, District of Columbia — 
a page of American history restored to its rightful place. 

For the information of those who are not familiar with the 
history of the Union Arch, better known as the Cabin John 
Bridge, the Aqueduct at Washington, D. C, the following facts 
are given : 

On April 21, 1852, the Congress of the United States took the 
initiatory steps to supply Washington and Georgetown with good 
water ; by appropriating $5,000 for surveys, &c. Later successive 
appropriations were made as follows: 1853, $100,000; 1855, 
$250,000; 1856, $250,000; 1857, $1,000,000; 1858, $800,000; 1859, 
no appropriations, but a law passed for the care of the aqueduct ; 
i860, $500,000; 1863 the masonry engineering was practically 
completed. The chief engineer was Montgomery C. Meigs, with 
Charles T. Curtis as general superintendent and inspector. Much 
of the detail of the plans and drawing was by Alfred L. Rives, 
of Virginia. 

The measurements, including the abutments, are : Over all 
length, 450 feet; single span, 220 feet; rise, 57.26 feet; at the 
crown, thick 4.2 feet ; brick conduit, 9 feet diameter ; and road- 
way about 100 feet above the ravine. Materials : Abutments, 
of gneiss from Maryland ; rubble arch and spandrels, of Seneca 
sandstone; and the stone arch, or ring of granite, from Quincy, 

42 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

The first work on the bridge proper began in 1857, while Jef- 
ferson Davis was Secretary of War. As the construction of 
this enormous undertaking was under the supervision of the War 
Department, his name was cut on the tablet in the western end 
of the bridge. 

The War between the States was declared 1861. Jefferson 
Davis, then member of Congress, resigned and returned to the 
South, where he was made President of the new government — 
the Confederate States of America — and was the only President 
during the existence of that government, 1861 to 1865. 

Owing to the pressure incident to war, on June 18, 1862, Con- 
gress transferred the work of construction of the bridge from 
the War Department to the Department of the Interior, of 
which Caleb B. Smith was secretary, with William R. Hutton 
as chief engineer. Feeling ran high in Washington against 
Jefferson Davis for casting his lot in war with his own people, 
the Confederates, and in 1862 his name disappeared from the 
tablet in the Cabin John Bridge. 

In 1892, twenty-seven years after the Confederate War, the 
former chief engineer of the bridge — General M. C. Meigs — 
died. At once rumor renewed the old story to the effect that he 
(General Meigs) had ordered the name of Jefferson Davis 
erased from the bridge. On September 8th of that year (1892) 
a card was published in Washington (D. C.) newspapers by 
William R. Hutton, chief engineer of the bridge in 1862 (the 
year the name was erased), when the construction was under 
the Department of the Interior — a card stating that when the 
construction of the bridge was transferred to the Department 
of the Interior, the first order given him (Hutton) by Caleb B. 
Smith was to erase the name of Jefferson Davis. Chief En- 
gineer Hutton continues: "Not taking seriously the Secretary's 
remarks, I did nothing in the matter." He further states that a 
week later the contractor, Robert Mclntyre, "arrived to resume 
work on the bridge" ; the Secretary gave Mclntyre the order, 
and that Mclntyre's "first work was to remove Mr. Davis' 

It is hoped that this clear statement of Chief Engineer Hutton 
as the final explanation of this unfortunate act will be accepted 

Restoration of Name of Jefferson Davis. 43 

by all. His personal part in the matter should be satisfactory 
as proof of the truth of his statement. 

In 1867 the supervision of the aqueduct was transferred back 
to the War Department from the Department of the Interior. 
On February 16, 1909, President Roosevelt ordered the name 
of Jefferson Davis restored to the Cabin John Bridge by the 
War Department. Four days later, February 20, 1909, the 
Secretary of W r ar, General Luke E. Wright, repeated this order 
to his chief of engineers. On May 14, 1909, the last letter — S — 
of Mr. Davis' name was carved. The entire face of the tablet 
was "resurfaced," without removing it from its position, and 
the original inscription, including the name of Jefferson Davis, 

For many of the above facts, I am indebted to an article in 
the '"Records of the Columbia Historical Society," by Mr. Wil- 
liam T. S. Curtis, vol. 2, 1899, page 293, published in Washington, 
D. C. This article is full of interesting and most instructive 
information. It is greatly enhanced by a liberal number of 
handsome illustrations of the progressive stages of the construc- 
tion of the bridge. 

Richmond is selected as the city of publication, because Jeffer- 
son Davis was occupying his official residence, as President of 
the Confederate States, in this city in 1862, when his name was 
erased from the bridge. 

At no time did any ceremony attend the work of restoration. 
But thousands went to watch the single stone-cutter at work, 
and to listen quietly while his ringing blows sang out the glad 
news. Among them were young girls from Virginia, West Vir- 
ginia, Maryland, North Carolina and other States. Some of them 
begged to be allowed to climb the scaffold, and the good-natured 
stone-cutter allowed it. When one would designate the exact 
bit of stone she wanted, he would chisel the tiny chip into her 
uplifted hand, to be carried away a treasure. 

When the restoration was completed, it passed silently into 
the records of a great nation. 

Mrs. J. Enders Robinson, 
Editor and Publication Committee. 

44 Southern Historical Society Papers. 




The following persons have been requested to serve on the 
"Cabin Tohn Bridge" Committee, and have accepted:* 

Hon. Adolph Meyer, M. C, from Louisiana, Washington, D. C. 

General S. D. Lee, Commander-in-Chief, U. C. V., Columbus, 

Mr. John W. Apperson, Commander-in-Chief, U. S. C. V., 
Memphis, Tenn. 

Mrs. Lizzie George Henderson, President-General U. D. C, 
Greenwood, Miss. 

Mrs. George S. Holmes, President, Jefferson Davis Monument 
Association, Charleston, S. C. 

Mrs. J. Enders Robinson, Secretary, Confederate Memorial 
Literary Society, Richmond, Va. 

Mrs. Alfred Gray, Acting President, Confederate Memorial 
Literary Society, Richmond, Va. 

Miss K. C. Stiles, Regent of Georgia Room, Confederate 
Museum, Richmond, Va. — declined. 

Miss M. B. Poppenheim, Ladies' Memorial Association, Char- 
leston, S. C. 

Mrs. W. J. Behan, President, C. S. M. A., chairman, 1207 
Jackson Avenue, New Orleans. 

Mrs. W. J. Behan, 
Mrs. Geo. A. Williams, President. 

Corresponding Secretary. 

* [Editor's Note. — At the expiration (November, 1907,) of her term as 
President-General of the U. D. C, Mrs. Henderson retired from the Cabin 
John Bridge Committee, and was succeeded by the incoming President- 
General of the U. D. C, Mrs. C. B. Stone. March, 1908, the Hon. Murphy 
J. Foster, of Louisiana, was appointed a member of the Committee to 
succeed Mr. Adolph Meyer, deceased. 1908, Gen. Clement A. Evans, Com- 
mander-in-Chief of U. C. V., was appointed a member of the Committee to 
succeed Gen. Stephen D. Lee, Commander-in-Chief, deceased.] 

Restoration of Name of Jefferson Davis. 45 

Upon the return of Mrs. Behan from the Richmond Conven- 
tion of the C. S. M. A. to New Orleans, she had a personal inter- 
view with the Hon. Adolph Meyer, member of Congress from 
Louisiana, relative to the restoration of the name of Mr. Davis, 
and at this conference he accepted the position of official repre- 
sentative from the C. S. M. A. to the United States Government. 
As soon as Mr. Meyer went to Washington he brought the matter 
at once to the attention of the Hon. W. H. Taft, Secretary of 


1907. Extract from the Minutes of the Convention of the 

Confederated Southern Memorial Association, 

Held in Richmond, Va., June, 1907. 

After the adoption of the resolution, Mrs. Behan spoke of the 
"History of the Memorial Associations of the South," which, 
she said, she would like to recommend, saying that "it was the 
only compendium of the work of the Women of the Confederacy, 
1861-65, an d that every library should contain a copy." Mrs. 
Behan stated that the copies on hand would be sold for the 
benefit of the Jefferson Davis Monument, to be erected in New 
Orleans, and that the corner-stone of said monument would be 
laid on June 3, 1908. She also said that there was another sub- 
ject which she would like to bring to the attention of the Con- 
vention, that it might be discussed and acted upon if agreeable 
to the members, and said: 

Ladies, it is this : As you are aware there is, in Washington, 
D C, or just outside of the city, the Washington Aqueduct, 
known as 'Cabin John Bridge.' It is a wonderful piece of engi- 
neering skill, and was constructed under the supervision of Mr. 
Davis while he was Secretary of War — 1853-1857 — and his name 
was inscribed on the keystone of the bridge. In 1862, his name 
was ordered cut off by Hon. Caleb B. Smith, Secretary of the 
Interior, under the administration of Abraham Lincoln, Presi- 
dent of the United States. The people of the South look upon 
this as an act of great injustice to Mr. Davis, and think the name 
should be restored. 

"It seems to me that this is the time for us to take some action 
on this matter, with the hope that we may succeed in having the 
name restored on or before June 3, 1908'." 

46 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

A motion was then offered by Mrs. J. Enders Robinson, dele- 
gate from the Confederate Memorial Literary Society, of Rich- 
mond, Va. : 

"I move that, in order that the true and accurate history of the 
construction of the Washington Aqueduct, familiarly known as 
'Cabin John Bridge,' may be preserved to posterity, and in order 
that justice may be done the memory of Jefferson Davis, who, 
as Secretary of War, under the administration of Franklin Pierce, 
President of the United States, supervised the construction of 
this most inspiring and wonderful structure, 

"Be it resolved, That we, the Confederated Southern Memo- 
rial Association, in convention assembled, in the City of Rich- 
mond, Va, on this, the first day of June, 1907, do request the 
United States Government to have the name of Jefferson Davis 
restored to the place on "Cabin John Bridge,* from which it was 
removed during the war." 

The motion was seconded by Mrs. Robert Emory Parke, of 
Georgia. It was then open for discussion. One lady thought 
that Jefferson Davis and his cause were more conspicuous by the 
absence of his name, because it showed the petty spite of those 
who had ordered it cut off. The majority, however, were in 
favor of making an effort to have the name restored. 

Among the honored guests were Mrs. J. Addison Hayes, the 
only surviving daughter of Jefferson Davis. After numerous 
and repeated requests from the members that she express her 
opinion upon the question, she very modestly and with great 
feeling said: "My father considered the erasure of his name a 
great indignity, and felt that it was done with a view of eliminat- 
ing from history the part he had taken in the construction of the 
bridge ; that he had been deeply interested in the piece of engi- 
neering and had given it his closest attention. It was his wish, 
and also the wish of my dear mother, that the name should be 
restored in justice to his memory." 

Convention called to order. 
The President asked Mrs. Chieves, the Vice-President of Vir- 

Restoration of Name of Jefferson Davis. 47 

ginia, to take the Chair. Mrs. Rehan moved that the "Cabin 
John Bridge" resolution be taken from the table. Motion car- 
ried. Mrs. Behan said that she felt convinced that if we made 
the request referred to in the motion, that we would be successful ; 
that this was an era of peace ; that time, with its healing influ- 
ence, had softened much of the bitter feeling that existed at the 
close of the war; that sectional prejudice is fast dying out; that 
the men of the North and those of the South had stood shoulder 
to shoulder in defence of our common country, against a foreign 
foe ; that the name of Jefferson Davis is more prominently 
before the public as time rolls on, it is received with more 
respectful consideration by the people of the North, his actions 
are judged less severely, and we have every reason to hope that 
this request will be granted. A motion was then made that we 
amend the former motion by adding after "the war," and "that 
we invite the United Confederate Veterans and all other Con- 
federate associations to unite with the Confederated Southern 
Memorial Association in its effort to have this patriotic and his- 
torical purpose accomplished on or before June 3, 1908." The 
amendment was carried, and the motion, as amended, was then 
read by the secretary, seconded by Miss M. B. Poppenheim, of 
Charleston, S. C, and unanimously carried. 

Recommended that the Chair appoint a committee to present 
this matter to the proper official, and that the Confederate organi- 
zation make an effort to have the name of Jefferson Davis re- 
stored on the "Cabin John Bridge" before the one hundredth 
anniversary of Mr. Davis' birth. 

Richmond, Va., June 18, 1907. 
Mrs. W. J. Behan, Pres. C. S. M. A., New Orleans, La.: 

My Dear Mrs. Behan, — Your letter of June 15, 1907, inviting 
me to serve on your Cabin John Bridge Committee received. 

I accept with pleasure, esteeming it a high honor to serve in 
such capacity. 

Yours very truly, 

Virginia Morgan Robinson. 
(Mrs. J. Enders Robinson.) 

48 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

Monteagle, Tenn., July 29, 1907. 
My Dear Mrs. Beiian : 

Your letter of July 22nd, forwarded from Greenwood on July 
25th, reached me Saturday. I will take pleasure in doing what I 
can toward carrying out the purpose of the resolutions you en- 
close. * * * I shall hold myself ready to do my part of any 
work which the committee shall decide on as furthering our 
object. My address, until August 8th, will be here, care Mrs. 
Carre, and I will send you my address from time to time as it is 
changed until I return to Greenwood, October 1st. 
With the friendliest greetings, I am, 

Very truly your friend, 

Lizzie George Henderson, 

Prcst. Genl, U. D. C. 

Greenwood, Miss., December 10, 1907. 

My Dear Mrs. Behan : 

I am just remembering that I have neglected to write and 
resign my position on the committee for getting the name of 
Jefferson Davis replaced on "Cabin John Bridge." The cause of 
resignation of course being that I am no longer Pres.-Genl. 
U. D. C. Y\ ishing you a Merry Christmas. 

Very truly your friend, 

Lizzie George Henderson. 

Richmond, Va., 1008 Park Avenue, 

,, September 9, 1907. 

My Dear Mrs. Beiian : 

I am just home from my summer outing, where your letter 
was forwarded me and it became misplaced, which must be my 
excuse for not replying before. I shall be most happy to serve 
on the committee for the restoration of Pres. Davis' name on 
"Cabin John Bridge," and trust sincerely that our united efforts 
may be of some avail. 

Hoping you have been well since I saw you last, I am, 

Very sincerely, 

Sallie P. Gray, 
(Mrs. Alfred Gray.) 

Restoration' of Name of Jefferson Davis. 49 

Galveston, Texas, 142 i Avenue E, 

January 3, 1908. 
My Dear Mrs. Behan : 

Since we met, the Old Year, with its joys and sorrows, has 
passed to the great volume of departed years, and the "New" has 
dawned with its unwritten treasury ; I trust that it will pour into 
your lap only the good things of life, thus making each of its 
days bright for you. Your letter came on the first and found 
that I was absent in Houston, where I had been called to the 
burial of Mrs. Abson Jones, the widow of the last President of 
the Republic of Texas. * * * But to the subject of your 
letter — and in reply I will say that it is a privilege to serve on 
the committee which will endeavor to have Mr. Davis' name 
restored to "Cabin John Bridge," and I was sorry to have missed 
the discussion of that matter last spring during the meeting of 
the Confederated Southern Memorial Association, in Richmond. 
Mrs. Rosenberg and I were invited out to luncheon and were 
late in getting back to the meeting, when we found that it had 
been brought up and the resolution passed to take up this matter 
and try to bring about such restoration. Jn the interest of truth- 
ful history, this should be done ; and in any way that I can assist 
this devoutly-wished consummation I am at your service, and I 
do hope that this may be accomplished in this contennial year of 
President Davis' birth, and that by June 3d it will be restored. 
With much appreciation of your appointment, and many thanks 
for your good wishes and gracious words, believe me, 

Cordially your friend, 

Cornelia Branch Stone. 

Mrs. William J. Behan, President Confederated Southern Me- 
morial Association : 
My Dear Madam, — It will afford me great pleasure to serve 
you upon a committee to secure the restoration to the Washing- 
ton Aqueduct or "Cabin John Bridge" of the inscription placed 
upon the original structure while the Hon. Jefferson Davis was 
Secretary of War. 

50 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

Since the inscription was obliterated by the order of the Secre- 
tary of the Interior, it would seem it could be replaced by the 
Secretary of War, and the appeal be made by the Congressman 
of Louisiana and any other appropriate States. Thanking you 
for the honor conferred, believe me, 

Yours faithfully, 

Nellie Hotchkiss Holmes. 
(Mrs. Geo. S. Holmes), 
President Jefferson Davis Monument Association, U. D. C. 

[When Mr. Adolph Meyer visited the "Cabin John Bridge," in 
June, 1907, to examine the tablet for the Confederated Southern 
Memorial Association, he had a photograph taken of it, that 
aroused speculation, as to his object. The newspapers an- 
nounced that he represented the United Daughters of the Con- 
federacy and the Confederate Ladies' Memorial Association. 
And this was repeated in the press for months thereafter. There 
is no doubt that the error was inadvertent, as there are so many 
Confederate organizations with very similar names. Further- 
more, the United Daughters of the Confederacy are more gener- 
ally known than the Confederate Southern Memorial Association 
of New Orleans. In 1907 two policies were decided on, in pro- 
moting the restoration, by General Stephen D. Lee, Mr. Adolph 
Meyer, Mrs. W. J. Behan and Mrs. J. Enders Robinson. First, 
to have the name of Mr. Davis restored by commission of the 
War Department, avoiding legislation in Congress, and second, 
to discourage all newspaper mention of the work, until Mr. 
Meyer could mature his plans. Owing to this latter policy, no 
public protest was made by the Confederated Memorial Associa- 
tion against the credit given the United Daughters of the. Con- 
federacy and Confederate Ladies Memorial Association, for the 
move. The Confederated Southern Memorial Association is 
composed of seventy Confederate Memorial Associations. 

The official correspondence in this article, setting forth an 
organized, continuous effort, give the Confederated Southern 
Memorial Association a clear title to the honor of having per- 
suaded the United State Government to accomplish the restora- 
tion. With reference to the error, by the press, substituting the 

Restoration of Name of Jefferson Davis. 51 

"United Daughters of the Confederacy" and "Confederate Ladies 
Memorial Association" for the "Confederated Southern Memo- 
rial Association," see letters of July 3, 1907, from Mrs. Behan 
to Mr. Meyer, and of July 8, 1907, from Mrs. Robinson to Mrs. 
Behan. — Editor's note.} 


From the Daily Picayune, New Orleans, La., Published 

by the Nicholson Publishing Company, Limited, 

Friday Morning, July 5, 1907. 

On yesterday, which was the glorious "Fourth," the birthday 
of this great nation, much was said in print about a united 
country after a terrible and tremendous sectional war and about 
the love and loyalty of the South to the Union. 

That is as it should be, but, nevertheless, there remains re- 
corded against the North an act which "was at the time wholly 
a wanton and unwarranted and pitiful and childish attempt to 
insult the Southern people, and to-day, when the story is told, it 
shows up in the light of a re-united country as something so 
contemptible that the brave and honorable people of the North 
should never rest until the wrong is righted and the shame of it 
effaced from the stone tablet in which it appears. 

The story briefly is this : Under President Pierce's adminis- 
tration as Chief Magistrate of this great Republic an elaborate 
system of works was constructed for the purpose of supplying 
the National Capital with water. The construction .was done 
under the direction of the United States Army engineers, Jeffer- 
son Davis being the Secretary of War. 

In the course^of the work water was brought in a magnificent 
stone acqueduct over Cabin John Creek, which flows into the 
Potomac on the Maryland side, not far from Washington. The 
crossing of the creek is made on a lofty stone arch of wide span, 
and as this structure is very conspicuous as an engineering feat, 
.an inscription on the keystone of the arch announced that the 
work was completed by the army engineers under the adminis- 
tration of President Pierce, Jefferson Davis being Secretary 
of War. 

52 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

After the secession of the South and the outbreak of the war 
between the States, Mr. Davis having become the President of 
the Southern Confederacy, was treated to much vituperation by 
ignorant or foolishly prejudiced persons in the North, and under 
some such pressure, the Washington water-works being then 
under the control of the Department of the Interior, Secretary 
Caleb B. Smith, who presided over that branch of the govern- 
ment for the first three years of President Lincoln's first term, 
had Davis' name chiseled out of the inscription on the Cabin 
John Bridge, the mutilated remains standing there to testify to 
the contemptible outrage that had been perpetrated. 

There has been some confusion caused by the statement that 
the mutilation was clue in obedience to an act of Congress, and 
that, therefore, another act would be required to restore the 
inscription. This idea is entirely erroneous, and, as the mutila- 
tion was a mere official act, it can be undone by official order. 

During the recent Confederate Reunion at Richmond the sub- 
ject was brought up in a meeting of the Confederate Ladies' Me- 
morial Association, and at the request of Mrs. W. J. Behan, of 
New Orleans, Congressman x\dolph Meyer, of Louisiana, had 
photographs of the bridge and of the mutilated inscription taken, 
and they will be used in a memorial which is to be sent to the 
President, asking that the name of Air. Davis be restored to the 
place it occupied. 

The Southern ladies have been very active and devoted in their 
efforts to secure this result, but there are people in the North 
who recognize that it would only be an act of justice to repair 
the useless and puerile but serious wrong that has been done, 
and in this connection the Picayune prints the following: 

Bridgeport, Conn., June 15, 1907. 
To the President: 

Ten years ago, when you were accomplishing some things in 
the City of New York that other people said could never be done, 
it was my privilege, as general manager of The United Press, 
to report progress to the country. This explains why I think 
there is one other thing you can do, which no one yet has ever 
succeeded in accomplishing. 

Restoration of Name of Jefferson Davis. 53 

I believe that the name of Jefferson Davis, which was removed 
from the Cabin John Bridge in the early days of the War be- 
tween the States, by some fanatic such as he who fired the Ephe- 
sian dome, should be restored. When I have visited Miss Barton 
at Glen Echo, in previous years, on Red Cross business, I have 
usually gone up to Cabin John Bridge, and I have never heard 
but the one opinion as to the mutilation of the structure in the 
interest of what somebody evidently conceived to be the sacred 
name of patriotism. But the question of patriotism was not 
involved. It was simply a silly proceeding, and it has been more 
generally condemned by Northern people than by our Southern 

In Mr. Kipling's charming story, "An Error in the Fourth 
Dimension," when all the explanations had been made as to why 
the special train was flagged, and apparently all had been said 
that was necessary to account for the unprecedented liberty that 
had been taken, one of the members of the committee chosen to 
investigate why an American should thus establish a most dan- 
gerous precedent, let go this Parthian arrow: "He offered to 
buy the road, you know, and it isn't for sale. And then, by 
George, it was the Induna that he flagged." Whatever estimate 
may be placed on Jefferson Davis by those who study his life, 
mistakes, achievements, and what not, from differing points of 
view, it comes down to this, that "It was the Induna." He was 
the Secretary of War when Cabin John Bridge was built, and 
whether posterity accepts him as a patriot or a traitor, and in 
despite of any differences of opinion that may have existed in 
the minds of his contemporaries, or that may leave that question 
undecided even unto days like these, there can be no dispute a:, 
to what relation he bore to the erection of a noble structure, 
which has been made doubly famous by the erasure of his name. 

May we not indulge the hope that you will do what you can 
to set the machinery in motion to put this ridiculous matter 

Very truly yours, 

Walter P. Phillips. 

54 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

The boasts made so freely, both North and South, that ours 
is a firmly united country and that sectional barriers have all 
been broken and burned away, should make it imperative that 
the offensive slur on the South so conspicuously near to the 
Capital of the United Nation should be removed. Surely the 
time has come for this. 

["Confederate Ladies' Memorial Association" should read 
"Confederated Southern Memorial Association." — Editor's 

[The Picayune Bureau.] 

Post Building, 
Washington, D. C, June 29, 1907. 

A request that the National Government again resume work 
on the Mississippi River along the water-front of the City of 
New Orleans was made to Secretary Taft to-day by Representa- 
tive Meyer, of Louisiana, acting in behalf of the Mayor and the 
City Council of New Orleans. For a time this work has been 
discontinued by the National Government while permission was 
granted to the Orleans Levee Board to construct certain bank 
protective work at its own cost. For various reasons the Board 
is anxious that the War Department again take up the work. 
Mr. Meyer urged on the Secretary the importance of the matter, 
and called attention to the fact that the Mississippi River Com- 
mission has a fund available from which money might be taken 
to pay for preliminary surveys toward any improvement which 
may be inaugurated. 


Representative Adolph Meyer, of Louisiana, to-day announced 
his intention of making an effort to have the name of Jefferson 
Davis reinscribed on the bridge which spans Cabin John Creek, 
about six miles above Washington. Construction of the bridge 
was started at the time that Mr. Davis was Secretary of War, 
and on its completion his name and those of a number of others 
who were identified with the work were chiseled on the surface. 
Mr. Davis' name was erased during President Lincoln's first 
administration by direction of Caleb Smith, then Secretary of 

Restoration of Name of Jefferson Davis. eo 

the Interior. At their recent Convention in Richmond, the 
Daughters of the Confederacy adopted a resolution asking for 
the restoration of Mr. Davis' name, and responsive to this Mr. 
Meyer will take active steps to have it brought about. Whether 
he will do this through the War Department or seek congres- 
sional sanction he has not determined. 

["United Daughters of the Confederacy" should read "Con- 
federated Southern Memorial Association." — Editor's note.] 

[From Washington Post, June 30, 1907. J 


Jefferson Davis' Name Wanted on Cabin John Bridge — 
Movement Becomes General. 

Societies and Individuals, North and South, Join in Effort to Restore 

Injustice to Franklin Pierce's Secretary of War— Representative 

Meyer Discusses Matter with Head of Department. 

The names of Abraham Lincoln and Jefferson Davis, both 
Presidents during the Civil War, will soon be graved upon the 
same tablet, if the Congress of the United States or some other 
authority heeds the earnest behest of the United Daughters of 
the Confederacy, which has just come from their recent session 
at Richmond. 

The Daughters make the plea that the name of Jefferson Davis, 
which was erased by vandals, be restored to its place of honor. 
The name of Jefferson Davis, who was Secretary of War at the 
time the erection of the great aqueduct span was begun, formerly 
stood above that of Abraham Lincoln, who was President at the 
time of its completion. 

For many years a blank space has occupied the place of honor, 
where at one time stood the name of the President of the Con- 
federacy. It is claimed that Mr. Davis should be given the 
honor which, as former Secretary of War, he deserves. It is 
urged, therefore, that his name be placed once more in close 
proximity to that of the leader who overthrew the Confederacy 
which Mr. Davis headed. 

56 Southern Historical Society Papers. 


As Secretary of War in charge of the corps of engineers that 
constructed the big aqueduct bridge, at the time of its construc- 
tion the longest single arch span in the world, and even to this 
day surpassed by only two bridges, Mr. Davis was deeply inter- 
ested in the work and very proud of the American engineering 
genius which created it. He was inspired by a common patriotism 
in the high respect which he felt for the men under him, who 
had shown themselves superior to the engineers of foreign 

It is claimed, therefore, that the name of the builder be re- 
carved upon this noble stone structure which rose under his 
supervision to its majestic might. It is "a thing of beauty," and 
surely the man who, with feelings of patriotic pride in the magic 
might of his fellow-countrymen, watched the graceful span of 
arched beauty rise from the lowly stream that flows beneath it 
toward the skies richly deserves to have it bear his name. Let 
the name of Jefferson Davis be restored to its rightful place, say 
his admirers. 

A number of Southern societies, other than the Daughters of 
the Confederacy, and many individuals, some of them North- 
erners, are taking an interest in the effort to have the blank 
space on the stone tablet refilled. 


At the request of Mrs. W. J. Behan, of New Orleans, Presi- 
dent of the United Daughters of the Confederacy, Representa- 
tive Meyer, of Louisiana, is starting a campaign with the powers 
that be in Washington to have this growing request of South- 
erners and Northerners, who are fast forgetting all differences, 

Mr. Meyer talked over the matter informally with Secretary 
Taft during a visit to the War Department yesterday, but no 
action was taken. If congressional action is found to be neces- 
sary, the question will be brought to the attention of the next 

["L T nited Daughters of the Confederacy" should read "Con- 
federated Southern Memorial Association." — Editor's note.] 

Restoration of Name of Jefferson Davis. hi 


New Orleans, La., July 3, 1907. 
My Dear General Meyer : 

I see by the papers you have announced your intention to act 
upon our resolution in regard to restoring the name of Jefferson 
Davis on Cabin John Bridge. This is fine, but you will excuse 
me for calling your attention to a very important fact, and that 
is, that the resolution was passed by the Confederated Southern 
Memorial Association at the convention held in Richmond, May 
30-June 1, 1907, and not by the Daughters of the Confederacy, 
as stated in the item published in the Washington Post, Balti- 
more Sun, Times-Democrat and the Daily Picayune. Please fix 
this point well in your mind : The Confederated Southern Me- 
morial Association and the Daughters of the Confederacy are 
two distinct organizations. The former is composed of the 
women of the Confederacy, to whom Jefferson Davis dedicated 
his great work, "The Rise and Fall of the Confederate Govern- 
ment" ; to the latter belong the younger element, with a few of 
the older women who have outlived the. memorial associations 
in their cities. You and your colleagues in Congress will re- 
member the efforts of the Confederated Southern Memorial As- 
sociation to obtain the favorable passage of the Foraker Bill, 
and we hope to meet with the same success in this movement, 
and secure from our government (the best on earth) the justice 
due a man who followed the dictates of his conscience in the 
performance of duty as it was given him to see it. In a few 
days I will send to your address a copy of the "History of the 
Memorial Associations of the South," with certain passages 
marked for special consideration ,and as a help in carrying on 
the proposed legislation, whether you conclude to work it through 
the Secretary of War, the Secretary of the Interior, or by con- 
gressional action. Please let me know in what way I may assist 
you, in addition to furnishing you with all data relating to the 

On my return from Biloxi, last Saturday, I met Hon. 

Bowers, of Mississippi, and talked to him on the subject. He 

58 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

seemed to think that it was not of sufficient importance to ask 
for its restoration ; that Mr. Davis was such a great man that 
he would outlive this petty piece of spite, etc. I differed with 
him, and thought that it was a great injustice to have removed 
his name, and that a government as great as ours could not 
afford to go down in history as being guilty of such a petty 
piece of spite. I told him that the matter had been placed in 
your hands and that any assistance that he would give you would 
be appreciated. * * * If you remember, it was not until his 
sovereign State seceded that Mr. Davis resigned his seat in the 
United States Senate and made his farewell address, which was 
an ardent and eloquent appeal for the preservation of the Union. 
I feel that you will succeed. 

It cannot be that the American people will deny this request, in 
justice to the memory of the man who served his country so 
faithfully and who was recognized as the most efficient Secretary 
of War that this country has ever had. * * * 

Yours very respectfully, 

Mrs. W. J. Behan, 

President C. S. M. A. 

P. S. — The Richmond Times-Dispatch of July i, 1907, has an 
editorial entitled, "Jefferson Davis and the Cabin John Bridge." 
In this article the Daughters of the Confederacy were credited 
with offering the resolution, and I wrote immediately to the 
editor, enclosing the article, and asked to have it corrected. The 
Vicksburg American of June 21, 1907, had an article on the 
same subject. So the work has commenced. God grant you 


Yours very respectfully, 

K. W. Behan. 

[From Rochester, N. Y., Democrat Chronicle, July 8, 1907.] 


The Civil War closed nearly half a century ago, yet some of 
the Southern people are still engaged in keeping alive the 
memories of that unhappy conflict and find their chief pleasure, 
apparently, in digging up incidents that might better be for- 

Restoration of Name, of Jefferson Davis. 59 

gotten. Just now this unreconciled element is occupied in an 
attempt to restore the name of Jefferson Davis as the chief 
martyr of the Confederacy. The bitterness felt in the North 
toward the president of the seceding States has in a measure 
died out, but the North will never place him on a pedestal 
alongside Abraham Lincoln, and any attempt to elevate him to 
such a position will only provoke controversy. 

The wrong which the admirers of Mr. Davis now seek to 
have righted has to do with the aqueduct over Cabin John 
Creek, a stream which flows into the Potomac on the Mary- 
land side, near Washington. This aqueduct was erected, while 
President Pierce was in office, as a part of the waterworks 
system of Washington. Jefferson Davis was Secretary of War 
at the time, and as the work was done by army engineers his 
name was inscribed on the keystone. The structure is conspicu- 
ous, and the name of Mr. Davis was a conspicuous object on the 

After the war broke out and the name of Mr. Davis was being 
execrated throughout the loyal sections of the country, attention 
was attracted to the inscription on the keystone of the Cabin 
John aqueduct. It irritated somebody in authority, and by direc- 
tion of Caleb B. Smith, Secretary of the Interior for three years 
under President Lincoln, who was then in charge of the water- 
works, the name was chiseled out of the keystone and the key- 
stone remains in that condition to-day. 

It is probable that few people now living in the North ever 
heard of the matter, or ever would have heard of it had it not 
been for the activity of the Confederate Ladies' Memorial Asso- 
ciation, which had photographs taken of the mutilated keystone 
and circulated at the recent Confederate Reunion at Richmond, 
for the purpose of arousing interest in the matter and securing 
signatures to a memorial to be sent to President Roosevelt, ask- 
ing that the name of Mr. Davis be restored. 

If the name had never been removed from the aqueduct it 
would be impossible to create any sentiment in the North to- 
day against its remaining there. Mr. Davis is dead, and the 
cause for which he stood is dead, an.l nobody desires to rekindle 
old animosities. But if restoring his name is to be regarded as 

60 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

an act of tardy justice to the memory of the leader of the Con- 
federacy and a confession that the government committed a 
wrong in removing it, then the North has abundant cause to 
interpose objections. A revival of the incident at this late day 
does not serve any good purpose. 

["Confederate Ladies' Memorial Association" should read 
''Confederated Southern Memorial Association." — Editor's note.] 

Answer to the Article in the "Democrat Chronicle/' of 
Rochester, N. Y. 

In answer to the article in the Democrat Chronicle, of Roches- 
ter, dated July 8, 1907, I wish to say: That in offering the reso- 
lution to have the name of Jefferson Davis restored to "Cabin 
John Bridge," the members of the Confederated Southern Me- 
morial Association had no intention nor desire to open up old 
animosities ; on the contrary, we hope, by our act, to cover up 
old animosities ; to heal the breach made by the act of one man, 
whose outrageous blunder is now charged to the American 
nation. We are too great as a people to permit such an act of 
injustice to stand against a man who served his country as a 
gallant soldier and as an able official. This wonderful and 
important piece of engineering skill was engineered and con- 
structed during the time that Mr. Davis served as Secretary of 
War (and no more efficient officer has ever filled the office) ; 
for this reason we ask that in the name of justice and for the 
truth of history that the name be restored. We do not ask that 
the name be restored to do honor to the memory of Jefferson 
Davis, the leader of the Confederacy, but to do honor to the 
memory of Jefferson Davis, Secretary of War 1853 to 1857, 
and in making this request we have the endorsement and sup- 
port of all right-minded, fair and honest people of the North. 
There may be a few who wish to keep up some agitation. To 
all such I will say, so far as the South is concerned the war is a 
thing of the past. The surrender at Appomattox was the final 
decree, and the men of the South at once began to rebuild their 
fortunes and to re-unite the country. The men of the South 
joined hands with the men of the North in defense of this our 
re-united country, and to-day we stand together, under the same 

Restoration of Name of Jefferson, Davis. 61 

flag, and our motto is E Pluribus Unum. As a great nation, we 
stand for truth and justice. In the history of the United States 
we read of the magnificent victory obtained by the United States 
troops under the command of Lieutenant Davis, in the Black 
Hawk War ; and later in the Mexican War, as commander of 
the First Mississippi Rifles, Colonel Davis gained signal victories 
at the storming of Monterey and at the battle of Buena Vista. 
Would our friend of the Democrat Chronicle, of Rochester, elimi- 
nate this brilliant record from our school histories, for the reason 
that Jefferson Davis was the hero? Xo, certainly not. Then 
why should he object to the restoration of his name to a structure 
engineered under his term of office as Secretary of War? I beg 
to include in this argument a copy of a speech made by Mr. 
Davis, when the "Liberty Bell" was sent to Xew Orleans for 
the Exposition in 1885, and I will close by quoting from the 
memorable speech of Hon. Abraham Lincoln ; and recommend 
that they be put into practice by one and all. 
With malice to none, and charity to all, 

Mrs. W. J. Behan, 
President C. S. M. A. 

Richmond. Va v 113 3d St. South, July 8, 1907. 

Mrs. XV. J. Behan, Pres. C. S. M. A.: 

My Dear Mrs. Behan, — I am very glad that you read the un- 
fortunate editorial in the Times-Dispatch of this city. I am at a 
loss to know why this newspaper should give the credit of the 
movement to restore the name of Jefferson Davis to the "Cabin 
John Bridge" to the United Daughters of the Confederacy. It 
seems to me a wise plan would be to drop the matter now. Later, 
when Mr. Adolph Meyer is prepared for the work, he will, of 
course, issue printed statements of the facts. But the error is so 
very remarkable ! Please let me know how and when Mr. Meyer 
will distribute the photographs of the inscription. 

I appointed one of my brothers to go and see the condition of 
the tablet on "C. J. B.," and he made an outline copy in pen and 
ink for me of the tablet. 

Yours truly, 

Mrs. J. Enders Robinson. 

62 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

[Letter of Captain S. E. Morgan, with the pen-and-ink copy for 
the Virginia Committee. — Mrs. J. Enders Robinson.] 

June 28, 1907. 
Dear Virginia : 

I went up to "Cabin John Bridge" (Aqueduct) and made a 
literal transcript of the inscription on the tablet. The above is 
an exact copy — the words on each line being exactly as written. 
The space to which the hand points marked thus 
is where the name of Jefferson Davis was inscribed and subse- 
quently erased. It is entirely obliterated. You will observe 
there is not a punctuation mark on the tablet. 

A casual observer, not knowing the facts in the case, would be 
perplexed to know whether Franklin Pierce was President or 
Secretary of War. It would take a shrewd one to translate 
into plain English what is left of the fourth line — "Building 
A. D. 1861." Upon the whole, it may be considered a queer in- 
scription utterly unworthy to have Mr. Davis' name upon it. 
The most charitable conclusion is, that the inscription was com- 
posed by some one whose wits were not in working order. As 
to the erasure of Mr. Davis' name, I would say, "The greatest 
government the world ever saw" (not my words) then and there, 
actuated by the meanest spirit that ever influenced human heart, 
stooped to do the littlest act recorded in the "annals of time." 

Your affectionate brother, 

S. E. Morgan. 

[The blank space in the tablet is now so well known it is 
unnecessary to give the "literal copy" made by Capt. Morgan. — 
Editor's note.] 

[From Charleston News and Courier, July 20, 1907. J 


The Name at Cabin John Bridge — A Great South Carolina 
Paper Advises That No Change Be Made. 

When Jefferson Davis was Secretary of War of the United 
States — and it is generally admitted that the United States have 

Restoration of Name of Jefferson Davis. 63 

never had a more competent man in that office — an aqueduct 
was built over Cabin John Creek as a part of the waterworks 
system of the City of Washington. The work was done by 
army engineers under his direction, and the names of those who 
were in authority at the time were inscribed on the keystone 
of the arch spanning the stream. When Caleb Smith was Sec- 
retary of the Interior under Abraham Lincoln, he ordered that 
the name of Mr. Davis, which had been chiseled into the stone, 
should be cut out, and it was done. If Caleb Smith ever did 
anything else during his term of office, we do not know it ; but 
at the time, we have no doubt that he was much trumpeted for 
this mark of bis loyalty to the cause of the Union. For more 
than forty years there has been a blank space in the keystone of 
"Cabin John Bridge." Every visitor to the place has asked 
whose name had been cut out of the stone ; nobody has asked 
who cut it out, so that it has come to pass that Caleb Smith has 
been forgotten and that Jefferson Davis lives on. This is exactly 
as we would have it and as it ought to be. 

The Confederate Ladies' Memorial Association, we are told, 
had photographs distributed at the recent great rally of Con- 
federate veterans in Richmond, showing how the mutilated key- 
stone at "Cabin John Bridge" looks, and obtained a number of 
signatures to a memorial praying President Roosevelt to have 
the name of Mr. Davis restored. The photographs and memorial 
are well enough for the purpose of keeping the incident fresh 
in the public mind ; but it is hoped that the memorial will not 
be sent to Mr. Roosevelt, and that he will not regard it if it shall 
be sent to him. It is far better as it is. It will attract more 
attention, it will make every visitor to the spot think of Mr. 
Davis and of his cause ; the very absence of his name from the 
keystone will attest his loyalty to his people and to the principles 
upon which the American Republic was founded. The mutilated 
keystone will attest at the same time the bitter hate, the narrow 
conceptions of patriotic duty of those who were arrayed against 
us in the great struggle, now nearly half a century ago. We 
would not have this act of vandalism covered up, this evidence 
of the old-time animosities forgotten. It is profitable for doctrine, 
for reproof, for instruction in righteousness. 

64 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

We are told by the Rochester Democrat and Chronicle that "It 
is probable few people now living in the North ever heard of the 
matter, or ever would have heard it had it not been for the 
activity of the Confederate Ladies' Memorial Association," and 
that is precisely where we would have the Association leave the 
matter. We want the people of the North, all the people of the 
North, to hear about it and if the 'activity' of the Association 
does nothing more than this, their purpose will have been accom- 
plished. We are told that 'if the name had never been removed 
from the aqueduct it would be impossible to create any senti- 
ment in the North to-day against its remaining there.' That is 
the very reason why we would not have it restored. Let is stand 
as it is. It is worth more to the country as it stands." 

Our Rochester contemporary, which is disposed to play the 
Caleb Smith act, even at this late day, remarks : "Mr. Davis is 
dead, and the cause for which he stood is dead." It is true that 
Mr. Davis no longer exists in the flesh — -the wonder is that he 
did not die when he was a prisoner of war at Fortress Monroe, 
under the care of Nelson A. Miles — but his spirit survives, and 
there is a better understanding of him now and a juster appre- 
ciation of his conduct than at any previous time for half a cen- 
tury. His appeal to the verdict of history for himself and his 
cause was not in vain. Time sets all things straight, and the 
mutilated stone in "Cabin John Bridge" is a mute but trust- 
worthy witness for him and his people and their desire to be 
relieved from political associations which had become on many 
accounts undesirable. Mr. Davis is dead ; but the cause for 
which he stood — the rights of the States, the sovereignty of the 
people, the supremacy of the Constitution — will never die. 

This is not a question of rekindling "old animosities," as our 
contemporary suggests. The people of the South did not mu- 
tilate the keystone at "Cabin John Bridge"; they have not ques- 
tioned the honesty of Abraham Lincoln and his purposes ; they 
have not cut his name out of the books taught in the Southern 
schools ; they have not sought to cover up the fact that he was 
born in the South ; they have heard with applause eulogies pro- 
nounced upon him by both Southern and Northern orators ; they 
would not object to statues erected in his honor on Southern 

Restoration of Name of Jefferson Davis. 65 

soil, and they believe that if he were living to-day he would 
stand with the people of Jefferson Davis in their resistance to 
the establishment of a centralized government at Washington in 
the place of the Union of the States, which he declared it to be 
his purpose to preserve. 

When Mrs. Davis died President Roosevelt sent a bouquet of 
flowers to be placed upon her coffin. It was a queer thing for 
him to do in all the circumstances, but it has been forgiven him 
by many persons, on the ground that he tried in this blundering 
way to make some atonement for his brutal treatment of her 
husband and her prayer that he would do the square thing by 
cutting out of one of his histories a cruel misrepresentation of 
Mr. Davis. The President cannot do better now with the peti- 
tion in the "Cabin John Bridge" matter than to let it alone. 

["United Daughters of the Confederacy" should read "Con- 
federated Southern Memorial Association." — Editor's note.] 

The foregoing article, entitled "Some Truths of History," is 
from the Charleston News and Courier of July 20, 1907. I beg 
leave to differ from the Charleston A T ezvs and Courier, and as a 
true and patriotic American and a loyal Southern woman, I am 
most anxious to have this "act of vandalism covered up, and all 
old-time animosities forgotten, for it is nearly half a century 
since the men of the North and the men of the South were ar- 
rayed against each other on many battlefields. When the closing 
scene of this great war was enacted at Appomattox, the war 
was over. We are now one people, one country, living under one 
flag. In the recent war with Spain the men of the South joined 
hands with those of the North, and together they stood in de- 
fense of this their common country. That sectional prejudice is 
fast dying out was proven by the return of the captured battle 
flags, and by the generous appropriation made for the proper 
care and perpetual maintenance of the graves of the Confederate 
dead now buried in Northern cemeteries. I am fully convinced 
that if the attention of the government officials is called to the 
absurd blunder made by Hon. Caleb B. Smith, in the heat of 
passion, that it will be regarded as a just request and that in 
due time the name of Jefferson Davis will be restored to its 

66 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

place on the keystone of "Cabin John Bridge," Washington, 
D. C. This is an era of peace — blessed peace! — and I would 
rather help. my brother cover up his fault than rejoice to have it 
stand against him and the whole American nation. Let us re- 
member that without that name on the bridge, the history of 
its construction is incomplete. It profits us nothing that the 
blank space points to another's spite of hatred; we zvant the name 
there, so that without question the visitor may read the name 
of "Jefferson Davis, Secretary of War." Let us remember and 
cherish the words of Abraham Lincoln and put them in practice : 
he said, "With malice to none, with charity to all." Let this be 
our motto, now and forever. 

Mrs. W. J. Behan, 
President C. S. M. A. 




[Mailed July 24, 1907, to Congressman Adolph Meyer from Louisiana.] 

The history of the construction of this wonderful piece of 
engineering demands that the names of those taking part in it 
should be inscribed thereon and preserved for future genera- 

As Secretary of War, from 1853-1857, under the administra- 
tion of President Franklin Pierce, Jefferson Davis supervised the 
construction of this remarkable structure, which is to-day con- 
sidered a masterly piece of engineering skill. 

If the name, Jefferson Davis, is not replaced on this tablet, 
what guarantee have we that future historians may not eliminate 
his name from the history of the Battle of Buena Vista, where 
his bravery and strategy gained such a signal victory for the 
American forces? 

If this act of injustice, this defamation of the fair name of an 
honorable servant of the people, was perpetuated without con- 
gressional action, by an official of the administration, why can- 
not restitution be made by the present Secretarv of War? 

Restoration of Name of Jefferson Davis. 67 

Hon. Caleb B. Smith, Secretary of the Interior, acted without 
authority ; if the present Secretary of War does not feel himself 
empowered to act, why cannot we make an appeal direct to His 
Excellency, Theodore Roosevelt, President of the United States ? 

It is not necessary to arouse the country in order to accomplish 
this act ; the name can be restored quietly, without fuss or com- 
ment, just as it was removed without authority. 

Much has been said and written about the magnanimity of 
General U. S. Grant, in making terms with General Robert E. 
Lee at Appomattox. Will our President and Secretary of War 
be less magnanimous in dealing with Jefferson Davis, who was 
no more guilty of treason than was General Robert E. Lee? 

There are some who oppose this movement and think that the 
erasure honors the name of Davis more than the restoration will 
do. In answer to this, I will say, as an American I desire my 
government to be just to every man, and as the chiseling off of 
the name of Jefferson Davis was an indignity offered to him, it 
is the duty of the government to make restitution and to replace 
the name where it properly belongs. 

This is the era of peace and good will. Sectional prejudice is 
fast dying out. Our young men, descendants of those who wore 
the gray, rallied around the Stars and Stripes and shed their 
blood in defense of our re-united country. Last year our gov- 
ernment appropriated $200,000 for the marking and perpetual 
care of the graves of Confederate soldiers buried in Northern 
cemeteries. This was a most generous act, and worthy of the 
great American people. Will these patriotic citizens deny this 
one act of justice to a man whose only fault was that he served 
his people faithfully, according to the light that was given him, 
and for which he was made the vicarious sufferer? 

This is the centennial year of the birth of Jefferson Davis. Is 
it not time to declare all animosities wiped out and to let the 
people of the whole country join hands and rejoice that peace — 
blessed peace ! — reigns all over the land ? 

Mrs. W. J. Behan, 
President C. S. M. A. 

68 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

Editorial Rooms, 

Charleston, S. C, July 25, 1907. 
Mrs. W. J. Beiian, New Orleans, La.: 

My Dear Madam, — I have received your letter of July 22<i A 
request from you to the editor of the Democrat and Chronicle, 
Rochester, N. Y., for a copy of that paper containing its article 
on "Cabin John Bridge" would be responded to with pleasure. 

I agree fully with you that the restoration of the name of Jef- 
ferson Davis to ''Cabin John Bridge" would be an act of justice, 
but I do not think it would in any way affect the truth of history. 
The fact that his name has been effaced from the keystone of 
that structure advertises the meanness of the people who cut it 
out really more than the restoration of the name would do. This 
is the point I tried to make in the article reprinted in the Morning 
Star from the News and Courier. 

Very respectfully yours, 

J. C. Hemphill, 
Editor the Nezvs and Courier. 

Columbus, Miss., July 25, 1907. 
Mrs. W. J. Beiian, President: 

My Dear Mrs. Behan, — I have your letter of July 22d, in 
reference to the restoration of the name of Jefferson Davis on 
the Washington Aqueduct or "Cabin John Bridge," in Washing- 
ton. I had heard somewhere that the name had been restored ; 
if not, certainly the action of the Confederated Southern Memo- 
rial Association was most appropriate in every way. I think that 
when your Congressman, Mr. Meyer, with others, brings the 
matter to the attention of the Secretary of War, the request will 
at once be granted. I hold myself ready to act with you and 
others in the matter, if necessary. I think, however, the effort 
should first be made as you inaugurated — through your Con- 
gressman. All the ugly inscriptions at Andersonville have been 
recently removed through a quiet presentation of facts. 

With kind wishes, Sincerely your friend, 

Stephen D. Lee. 

Restoration of Name of Jefferson Davis. 69 

Atlantic City, N. J., Aug. 6, 1907. 

Mrs. W. J. Behan, New Orleans, La.: 

My Dear Mrs. Behan, — Many thanks for your kind favors of 
the 24th July, with enclosures, which will prove of great service. 

I feel satisfied that we will succeed in the movement to restore 
the name of Jefferson Davis to "Cabin John Bridge" ; a confi- 
dence warranted by the results of several conferences I have had 
with Secretary of War Taft, whose voice will be practically 
potential in the matter. 

However, we must indulge ourselves in patience and proceed 

tactfully in order to meet conditions on all sides. It cannot be 

forced immediately. 

Sincerely yours, 

Adolph Meyer. 

General Headquarters, 


Memphis, Tenn. 

Nathan Bedford Forrest, John \Y. Apperson, 

Adjutant-General and Chief of Staff. Commander-in-Chief. 

August 10, 1907. 
Mrs. W. J. Behan, 

President C. S. M. A., New Orleans, La. : 

Dear Madam, — I have your favor of July 31, and would have 
answered sooner except for the fact that I had several calls out 
of the city recently, and have been so busily engaged that it has 
been impossible for me to reach this matter. 

I am in thorough accord and sympathy with the resolutions 
offered, and beg to advise that I will do everything in my power 
personally and officially. The family of Jefferson Davis were 
very dear to me on account of the intimate associations during 
their residence in Memphis. 

Please command me at any time, and I am, 

Yours very truly, 

J. W. Apperson. 

70 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

[From Indianapolis, Ind., News, August 14, 1907.] 


Some time ago the "Confederate Ladies' Memorial Associa- 
tion" asked that the name of Jefferson Davis be restored to the 
"Cabin John Bridge," near Washington, where it had been chis- 
eled out during the war. (It had been placed there because 
Davis was Secretary of War and had selected the plans for the 
bridge.) The Charleston News and Courier protested against 
the action of the Association on the ground that it was not the 
affair of the Southern people but of those that did the act, and it 
wanted to see' the mutilated stone stand. In turn we argued to 
a correspondent that this mutilation — done in the heat of war- 
time — reflected on us as a people and ought to be obliterated by 
a restoration of the name, and cited the argument of our Char- 
leston contemporary as revengeful and as evidence of its wanting 
to "feed fat its ancient grudge" by having the stone stay muti- 
lated. To this our contemporary (which, be it said, we highly 
regard and admire), replies that it has no grudge and is not 
animated by revengeful feelings ; that it simply protested against 
the action of the Southern Ladies' Association, because "it was 
not our affair," and that the correction should be made "by those 
that represented the vandals that did it." It continues thus : 

The mutilated stone on "Cabin John Bridge," as our Indiana 
contemporary says, "reflects on us as a people" ; not upon the 
people of the South, nor upon the interests represented by any 
Confederate Association, but upon the people of the ^orth. They 
mutilated the stone ; let them restore it. It does not make the 
least difference to Mr. Davis' people whether they do or not, 
but as long as it remains in its present condition it will continue 
to "reflect on us as a people." "We think," says our contempo- 
rary, "the name is better there for us than the blank space — far 
better." Doubtless that is true, but it is not a matter in which 
Mr. Davis' people should interfere. That is all. 

But "Mr. Davis' people" are "us people." They are part and 
parcel of this American people and their opinion is part of the 
public opinion that guides the country. They have their due 

Restoration of Name of Jefferson Davis. 71 

share of responsibility for any and all actions. That is where 
the "Confederate Ladies' Memorial Association" is wiser and 
broader-minded than the Neivs and Courier. What is done or 
acquiesced in to-day we are all responsible for. "Mr. Davis' 
people" cannot stand apart and say, "We have no responsibility 
for what was done by Mr. Lincoln's people." We are a common 
country and everything of national import affects us all ; and 
speaking to the case in point, the South would have its share 
of responsibility for the mutilated stone still standing if it did 
not speak, just as the North would have for letting it stand. 
There is no way in which any of us can "wash our hands" of 
any national matter. Those of us that are not of the "Govern- 
ment" belong to "His Majesty's opposition," and as good citizens 
of a common country have their part to play. So we must com- 
mend the Confederate Ladies' Memorial Association" for having 
done its duty and arraign the spirit that we regret to note prompts 
our esteemed Charleston contemporary as less wise and patriotic. 
If we grant that it is not revengeful (and we shall confess that 
we did not greatly fear the vengeful feelings of so wise an 
exemplar of good influences as the Charleston Nezvs and Courier) 
we must hold that it is unjustifiable; for there can be no aloof- 
ness or "non-intercourse" on the part of any good citizen in 
national affairs. It is not a question of what was done more 
than forty years ago by one side in the heat of civil strife. It 
is a question of what the American people do to-day and the 
magnanimity or malice of their action is compounded of the 
sentiment of the whole people. Whether nearly fifty years after 
a civil war we shall perpetuate a little thing like this done when 
men's minds were stirred with passion, or whether we shall 
obliterate it, is a conclusion to be reached by hearing from the 
whole country just as the return of the battle flags was based 
as much on the desire of the Southern States made known to 
receive them as on that of the Northern States to give them. 
So we say the "Confederate Ladies' Memorial Association" has 
chosen the better part and shown the larger spirit. 

["Confederate Ladies' Memorial Association" should read 
"Confederated Southern Memorial Association." — Editor's note.] 

72 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

[From the Daily States, August 19, 1007.] 


A short time ago the Confederate Ladies' Memorial Associa- 
tion addressed to President Roosevelt a petition asking that the 
name of Jefferson Davis be restored to the "Cabin John Bridge," 
near Washington, where it had been chiseled out by somebody's 
order during the Civil War, it having been placed on a stone of 
the arch because Mr. Davis was the Secretary of War who ap- 
proved the plan for the bridge and under whose supervision it 
was constructed. 

The Charleston News and Courier, it seems, protested against 
the action of the Memorial Association on the ground that it 
was not the affair of the Southern people but of those who 
were responsible for the mutilation of the stone. Our Charleston 
contemporary took the position that the stone should be left as 
it is, and in the event that the name of Mr. Davis is restored 
it should be done at the instance of and "by those who repre- 
sent the vandals that mutilated it." In this connection, the Neivs 
and Courier said: 

"The mutilated stone on 'Cabin John Bridge,' as our Indiana 
contemporary says, 'reflects on us as a people' ; not upon the 
people of the South, nor upon the interests represented by any 
Confederate Association, but upon the people of the North. They 
mutilated the stone; let them restore it. It does not make the 
least difference to Mr. Davis' people whether they do or not, 
but as long as it remains in its present condition it will continue 
to 'reflect on us as a people.' 'We think,' says our contemporary, 
'the name is better there for us than the blank space — far better.' 
Doubtless that is true, but it is not a matter in which Mr. Davis' 
people should interfere. That is all." 

The Indianapolis News thinks the argument of the Neivs-and 
Courier is offered in a revengeful spirit, and declares that the 
mutilation of the stone bearing the name of Jefferson Davis — 
an act done in the heat of war-time — reflected "on us as a people 
and ought to be obliterated by a restoration of the name." In 
quite a kindly spirit the Indianapolis paper argues that Mr. 

Restoration of Name of Jefferson Davis. 73 

Davis' people are our people"; that "they are part and parcel 
of the American people and their opinion is part of the public 
opinion that guides the country." Mr. Davis' people would like 
to think so, but there are so many things that prove the contrary 
that they are unable to do it. They are in the Union, but not 
in its councils, therefore their opinion does not amount to any- 
thing at all and does not guide the country in any sense. The 
Southern people, however, are not deploring such a situation, 
and we would not refer to the matter were it not for the sake 
of keeping the record straight. 

So far as the rather agreeable controversy between the Neivs 
and Courier and Indianapolis Neivs is concerned, it is a very 
trifling matter. The place of Jefferson Davis in history is per- 
fectly secure, and it does not interest his people in the least 
whether or not his name is restored to the mutilated stone of 
''Cabin John Bridge." 

["Confederate Ladies' Memorial Association" should read 
"Confederated Southern Memorial Association." — Editor's note.] 

Charleston, S. C, i Meeting Street, Aug. 15, 1907. 
My Dear Mrs. Behan : 

Yours of July 31st, with enclosures, has been received, and I 
am very happy to serve on the committee in connection with 
"Cabin John Bridge" matter. I stand ready to do my share of 
the work, and whatever is assigned me I shall look after to the 
best of my ability. The enclosures put the matter before me 
very clearly, and I am sure that you will prove a wise and tactful 
leader of the undertaking. I want to remind you that in the 
original resolution there was some discussion, and that when it 
was passed it was with the understanding that we should ask to 
have the name restored with the dates and words, "Removed 
1861, restored 1908," as there seemed to be a sentiment that these 
dates would be of historic value. Personally, I think they are, 
and if you remember, Mrs. Hayes took part in this discussion 
and thoroughly approved of the idea of the dates appearing in 
connection with the name. T just mention this so that you can 
know how to arrange matters with Mr. Meyer. I am sure you 

74 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

will understand all about it anyway. It certainly would be grati- 
fying if Mr. Taft would order the restoration of the name with- 
out the trouble of taking the matter before Congress, but at any 
rate we are starting on an enterprise which should be accom- 
plished some day. Please call on me at any time that there is 
something for me to do for our committee, and with kindest 
regards believe me to be 

Yours faithfully, 

Mary B. Poppenheim. 

Columbus, Miss., August 21, 1907. 
My Dear Mrs. Behan : 

I have your letter of August 17th, with reference to Mr. 
Davis' name on the "Cabin John Bridge." As I have written 
you, I think your referring the matter to Mr. Meyer was wise. 
Leave it in his hands without any conditions. I know Mr. Taft, 
Secretary of War ; he is a broad, conservative man. He will do 
what is right. What is done should be done quietly. 
With kind wishes, 

Yours truly, 

Stephen D. Lee. 

New Orleans, La., August 23, 1907. 

Hon. W. H. Taft, Secretary of War, 

Washington, D. C. : 
Dear Sir, — From a recent letter received from Mr. Meyer, 
M. C. from Louisiana, I learn with pleasure that he has had 
several conferences with you on the subject of restoring the 
name of Jefferson Davis to "Cabin John Bridge," Washington, 
D. C, and that he feels confident of success. It is not necessary 
to go over the history of the famous aqueduct — how it was built 
during Mr. Davis' term as Secretary of War; how in the heat 
of passion and sectional prejudice Hon. Caleb B. Smith, Secre- 
tary of Interior, by his own word, and without congressional 
action, ordered the name of Jefferson Davis cut off the keystone, 
where it had been inscribed with that of President Pierce. After 
nearly half a century we can view the action with more charity 
and we can truly say, "With malice to none and charity to all." 

Restoration of Name of Jefferson Dams. 75 

The movement to restore the name of Jefferson Davis to the 
"Cabin John Bridge" has met with the approval not only of the 
Southern people, but our Northern brethren are desirous of hav- 
ing it done ; believing, as the Indianapolis Neivs says, "The muti- 
lated stone reflects upon us as a people, and the name is far better 
there than the blank space — far better." 

I have just received a letter from General Stephen D. Lee, 
Commander-in-Chief of the United Confederate Veterans, in 
which he writes, in referring to this subject, "I know the Secre- 
tary of War, Hon. W. H. Taf t ; he is a broad and conservative 
man and will do what is right." * * * 

I read with pleasure your speech delivered at Lexington, Ky., 
yesterday, and I beg to say that, as Kentucky was the birthplace 
of Jefferson Davis, you would make yourself very popular in 
that grand old State by this single act of restoring the name of 
its favored son to the place where it belongs on "Cabin John 
Bridge," and I appeal to you as one all-powerful, to see that this 
act of tardy justice is granted. Hon. Adolph Meyer is in hearty 
sympathy with the movement, and I feel that he enjoys the 
esteem and confidence of the administration. If you could see 
your way clear to grant this request on or before the third day 
of June, 1908, it would be most highly appreciated by the mem- 
bers of the Confederated Southern Memorial Association. Mr. 
Secretary, we believe it is in your power, and we look to you for 
a favorable reply. 

Yours very respectfully, 

Mrs. W. J. Behan, 



Washington, August 29, 1907. 
My Dear Madam : 

In the absence of the Secretary of War, I beg to acknowledge 
the receipt of your favor of the 23d of August, concerning the 
restoration of the name of Jefferson Davis to the "Cabin John 
Bridge," and to say in reply that I have placed your letter in the 
hands of General Mackenzie, Chief of Engineers of the Army, 

76 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

who will present it to the Secretary upon his return from his 
present trip to the Philippine Islands. I beg to thank you on 
behalf of the Secretary for the kind words of your letter. 

Very respectfully, 

C. C. Wagner, 

Acting Private Secretary. 
To Mrs. W. J. Behan, 

President Confederated Southern Memorial Ass'n. 

[From Indianapolis, Ind., News, August 23, 1907] 


The Charleston News and Courier, whose kindly words and 
good opinion of this paper we appreciate and reciprocate, is still 
recalcitrant on the question of Jefferson Davis' name and the 
"Cabin John Bridge." It reminds us of the man that said the 
horse was seventeen feet high. When told that he evidently 
meant seventeen hands he admitted that he did, but that as he 
had said seventeen feet he meant to stick to it. The News and 
Courier "insists" that the people of the South "are not in any 
sense responsible for the "vandalism" that cut the name from 
the bridge. By the same reasoning, it declares we might as 
well hold the people of the South responsible for the burning 
of Atlanta and Columbia and the desolation of the country by 
Sherman's men on the march to the sea. Furthermore, it "does 
not care a copper" whether Davis' name is restored, but pro- 
tests against any people of the South asking for its restoration. 
Finally, it tells us that the war "was not a civil war, but a purely 
defensive war on the part of the South and a war of criminal 
aggression on the part of the North. It is all over now," it con- 
tinues, but it wants to "keep the record straight !" 

All right ! The horse is seventeen feet high — not hands ; we 
shall agree on that. But that is not the subject of our story. 
The South was not responsible for the "vandalism" that cut the 
name off ; nor was it responsible for the acts of Sherman's men. 
But we insist that it is responsible in its due share for the national 
opinion of the year 1907 concerning anything of national import, 
sentimental or material. It shares the responsibility for the 

Restoration of Name of Jefferson Davis. 77 

acquisition of the Philippines and our future policy regarding 
them ; and it was responsible for the return of the battle flags, 
in part, by creating the sentiment that so culminated, as it was 
also duly responsible for the act of Congress which was unani- 
mously passed correcting a mistake of Mrs. Jefferson Davis by 
which she had lost her copyright to her admirable memoirs of 
her husband and restoring this to her. These all were acts of 
the Republican party and Presidents that politically represented 
the North only, but officially they represented the whole country 
and the quality of their acts was compact of the opinions of the 
whole country mingling like the atmosphere to produce a certain 

The Charleston paper may hold whatever views it pleases of 
the late war and of the "Cabin John Bridge" incident. But when 
it comes to national action, not opinion, to-day, on any subject — 
as on this incident, for example — we insist that morally it will 
have to care a copper whether it wants to or not, for it is part 
and parcel of this nation ; and so the action of the Confederate 
Ladies' Memorial Association in letting their opinion be known 
as to the incident was right and proper and the part of good 

["Confederate Ladies' Memorial Association" should read 
"Confederated Southern Memorial Association." — Editor's note.] 

New Orleans, La., 1207 Jackson Avenue, 

August 28, 1907. 

To the Editor Indianopolis News, Indianapolis, Ind. : 

Dear Sir, — The copies of your paper were duly received, and 
I wish to compliment you on the article, "Crossing the Bridge," 
which is written in the true xA.merican spirit. Your ideas of good 
American citizenship agree with that of many prominent South- 
ern people, who do not feel themselves debarred from the re- 
sponsibilities of the nation by reason of their residence on the 
other side of Mason and Dixon line. In the name of the Asso- 
ciation of which I am president, I thank you for your honest, 
candid and patriotic views concerning the resolution offered at 

78 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

its recent convention, "to adopt the necessary means to have 
the name of Jefferson Davis restored to 'Cabin John Bridge,' 
Washington, D. C." It is nearly half a century since the clos- 
ing scene at Appomattox ended the War between the States. 
The country is re-united, and we are one common people, and 
as such it is the duty of all patriotic citizens to assist in obliterat- 
ing every evidence of the ill-feeling, malice and sectional preju- 
dice engendered by the war. The mutilated keystone on "Cabin 
John Bridge" stands out in bold relief as an act of indignity 
offered to a man who served his country in time of war and 
peace with exceptional ability and fidelity ; and while it is recorded 
as the act of one man who was blinded with prejudice, it reflects 
upon the honor of the whole American nation, and should be 
corrected as soon as possible. As the wife of a Southern Re- 
publican, I am proud of my government. Its recent action, in 
returning the captured battle flags, and the generous appropria- 
tion for the care of graves of Confederate soldiers buried in 
Northern cemeteries, will always be remembered with pride and 
gratitude. It was a most courteous act on the part of General 
Fred. Grant to furnish a military escort when the remains of the 
late Mrs. Jefferson Davis were removed to Richmond, Va., for 
final interment, and the floral tribute sent by President Roose- 
velt, on the same sad occasion, was highly appreciated by the 
Southern people. It had been the hope of Mrs. Davis that she 
would be spared to see the name so dear to her restored to "Cabin 
lohn Bridge," but fate decreed otherwise, and we now have it as 
a duty to render this tardy act of justice while we have with us 
the only surviving daughter of this distinguished man — I refer 
to Mrs. J. Addison Hayes, a resident of Colorado; and who 
claims Washington as her birthplace, having been born there 
during her father's term as .Secretary of War. You will find 
enclosed a copy of a letter from General Stephen D. Lee, Com- 
mander-in-Chief of the United Confederate organization, who is 
in hearty sympathy with this movement. As you will remark. 
General Lee is very hopeful that the Secretary of War can 
and will do the right thing, and we would prefer to have it done 
quietly, so as to prevent adverse and radical expressions from 
any party. 

Restoration of Name of Jefferson Davis. 79 

In conclusion, permit me to thank you for your sensible article, 
and to express a hope to have your co-operation if necessary. 

Yours very respectfully, 

Mrs. \Y. J. Behan. 

President C. S. M. A. 

New Orleans, La., August 28, 1907. 
My Dear General Meyer: 

I hope you will be patient with me. I am just like the average 
woman, more or less impatient to accomplish my purpose. For 
the last week or two the papers are full of the reported resigna- 
tion of Hon. \Y. H. Taft. This makes me uneasy, as we look 
to him as the man with the power and the good-will to do what 
we want. I know you are watchful and ever on the qui vive, but 
in this case we must "watch and pray." Enclosed find a copy of 
a letter that I wrote to Mr. Taft. I hope you will not consider it 
an unwise proceeding. Several of the Northern papers have 
taken up the matter, in reply to an article in the Charleston 
News and Courier — you will find these clippings herewith, to- 
gether with my notes (none of which have been given to the 
press), as I am waiting instructions from you. 

Mr. Phillips, of Bridgeport, a perfect stranger to me, wrote 
to the President and gave his letter to the Baltimore Sun. The 
New Orleans Picayune copied it, with a very fine article, which 
I sent to Mr. Phillips. He has had copies printed for distribu- 
tion. I have asked Mr. Phillips to confer with you when he 
goes to Washington next month. If you think well of it, I can 
get our papers and the Confederate Veteran to recommend the 
movement to the favorable consideration of the Secretary of 
War. Let me know when and how I can assist you * * * . 
Remember, my dear General Meyer, that we are most desirous 
to have the name restored before the third day of June, 1908 — 
the sooner the better. * * * 

Yours very respectfully, 

Mrs. W. J. Behan, 
President C. S. M. A. 

80 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

Tate Springs, Tenn., October 5, 1907. 

Mrs. William J. Behan, 

1207 Jackson Avenue, New Orleans, La.: 

Letter here ; do not think advisable taking further action now : 

will explain situation to you on my return. 

A. Meyer. 

Richmond, Va., October 2, 1907. 
My Dear Mrs. Behan : 

Yours received. No ! Do not think of giving out anything 
to newspapers until the restoration of Mr. Davis' name is assured. 
It would be foolhardy. You have Mr. Adolph Meyer at work; 
you have appointed your "Cabin John Bridge" Committee, who 
know the resolutions of the June Convention. My watchword is 
"Silence, and restoration by Commission of War Department." 

Yours hurriedly, 

Mrs. J. Enders Robinson. 



On March 8, 1908, the "Cabin John Bridge" Committee suf- 
fered the loss of an invaluable member by death, 

Honorable Adolph Meyer, 

The following extract from the Congressional Record of the 
Sixtieth Congress, First Session, Washington, Sunday, May 10, 
1908, shows the esteem in which Hon. Meyer was held by his 
fellow-citizens : 

Eulogies on the Late Representative Meyer. 

Mr. Ransdell, of Louisiana : Mr. Speaker, I offer the resolu- 
tion which I send to the Clerk's desk. 

Restoration of Name of Jefferson Davis. 81 

The Clerk read as follows : 

Resolved, That the business of the House be now suspended 
that opportunity may be given for tributes to the memory of the 
Hon. Adolph Meyer, late a member of this House from the 
State of Louisiana. 

Resolved, That, as a particular mark of respect to the memory 
of the deceased and in recognition of his distinguished public 
career, the House, at the conclusion of these exercises, shall stand 

Resolved, That the Clerk communicate these resolutions to 
the Senate. 

Resolved, That the Clerk send a copy of these resolutions to 
the family of the deceased. 

The resolutions were agreed to. 

Mr. Davey, of Louisiana, took the chair as speaker pro tem- 

Mr. Ransdell, of Louisiana : Mr. Speaker, I rise to pay a 
tribute of respect to the memory of my deceased colleague, Hon. 
Adolph Meyer, late a Representative in Congress from the First 
District of Louisiana, who died at New Orleans on the 8th of 
March, 1908, and is honored and mourned by his State and nation. 

General Meyer was born at Natchez, Miss., October 19, 
1842, and spent his childhood in that State. He matriculated 
in the University of Virginia, and before graduation left that 
famous training school of the South to enter the Confederate 
Army in 1862. During the trying times of the greatest Civil 
War the world has ever seen General Meyer played an active, 
honorable part, serving on the staff of Brigadier-General John S. 
Williams, of Kentucky, and holding the rank of adjutant-general 
when the war closed. In 1879 he was elected colonel of the First 
Regiment, Louisiana National Guard, and in 1881 was appointed 
by Governor Wiltz brigadier-general of the First Louisiana Bri- 
gade, embracing all the uniformed militia in the State. In con- 
nection with the organization of the State militia his services 
were very efficient. 

82 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

At the outbreak of the Cuban War, General Meyer was 
urged, on account of his military experience and ability, for a 
position as either brigadier or division commander of Southern 
volunteers. The following was written by General John S. Wil- 
liams, of Kentucky, upon whose staff General Meyer served : 

To the President: 

Your Excellency, — I beg leave to recommend to your favorable 
consideration Mr. Adolph Meyer, of Louisiana, for position of 
division or brigadier commander of Southern volunteers. 

Mr. Meyer served on my staff during almost the entire Civil 
War. He was pre-eminent for soldiery qualities, the loftiest 
courage, fidelity and endurance. In fact, he seemed a natural- 
born soldier and commanded the confidence and admiration of 
the entire command. 

I know of no young officer who manifested more military 
aptitude ; his resourcefulness in emergencies and quickness to 
avail himself of every possible advantage and devotion to duty 
were unsurpassed. 

Mr. Meyer's experience in actual war has been supplemented 
by command in the Louisiana Militia and National Guard. 

I know the appointment would be a good one and highly ac- 
ceptable to the Southern people. 

With sentiments of the highest regard, I am, 

Most respectfully yours, 

John S. Williams, 
Brigadier-General, afterwards Commanding Kentucky Di- 
vision. May 2, 1908. 

Mr. Lamb : Mr. Speaker, the frequent eulogies in this House, 
Sunday after Sunday, remind us of the solemn and serious fact 
that in the midst of life we are in death. A visitation of this 
grim monster has prevented my making as full and complete a 
eulogy on our departed friend and comrade as I had hoped to 
make, for no longer ago than yesterday I was called to witness 
the funeral of a splendid Virginia woman who met a sudden 
and tragic death by a runaway accident. I only left the city of 
Richmond this morning after a very early breakfast, in order 
that I might reach this House in time to comply with the re- 

Restoration of Name of Jefferson Davis. 83 

quest of my colleagues from the State of Louisiana to unite in 
this tribute to the life and character of our deceased friend. 

I have, perhaps, seen more of death in war than any other 
man in this presence, and as much in peace. Only this morning 
I came through the historic city of Fredericksburg, where in 
December, 1863, I counted on a surface no larger than this room 
the bodies of 285 of the dead men of Mear's Brigade, in that 
conflict of which I was an eyewitness. All I have here to say 
has been written on the train between Fredericksburg and this 
city. As my mind ran over the battlefield of old Virginia I 
thought of the apostrophe to death I have heard so often quoted 
on this floor: 

Come to the bridal chamber, Death ! 

Come to the mother's, when she feels 
For the first time, her first-born's breath ! 

Come when the blessed seals 
That close the pestilence are broke, 
And crowded cities wail its stroke ! 
Come in consumption's ghastly form, 
The earthquake shock, the ocean storm; 
Come when the heart beats high and warm, 

With banquet song, and dance and wine ! 
And thou art terrible ! — the tear, 
The groan, the knell, the pall, the bier, 
And all we know, or dream, or fear 

Of agony, are thine. 

We look upon death as the greatest of mysteries ; but to my 
mind, accustomed as I have been in war and peace to this dread 
monster, I regard what we call life as even more mysterious than 
death itself. 

Mr. Chairman, the life of Adolph Meyer was eventful and 
distinguished. Louisiana may well mourn and this House well 
honor this soldier, patriot, business man, and statesman. 

In him was combined those qualities of sterling character, rare 
fidelity, courage, and faithfulness in the discharge of every duty 
which justly entitles him to live in the hearts and memories of 
his countrvmen. 

84 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

Modest, unassuming, and genial, liberally educated, of broad 
business experience, he gave to his public duties that sound judg- 
ment and untiring effort which won for him the affection, respect 
and confidence of his colleagues. 

Adolph Meyer was a native of Natchez, Miss., born in Octo- 
ber, 1842. Educated at the University of Virginia, he left that 
institution while a student to enlist in the Confederate Army, 
serving with distinction under Brigadier-General John S. Wil- 
liams, first as captain, then by promotions until at the close of 
the war he held the position of adjutant-general. 

After the close of the war he returned to Louisiana, became 
the head of a firm largely interested in the production of cotton 
and sugar ; later he became a cotton factor in New Orleans, and 
was prominent and successful in commercial and financial pur- 

He was elected and served as colonel of the First Regiment, 
Louisiana National Guard, and was appointed in 1881 brigadier- 
general to command all of the uniformed corps of the State of 

New Orleans, La., April 6, 1908. 
Mrs. William J. Behan, 

1207 Jackson Avenue, City: 

Dear Madam, — By request of Mrs. Adolph Meyer, I send you 
the papers with reference to "Cabin John Bridge" which she 
found among General Meyer's effects. With my regards, I 
remain, Yours very truly, 

C. M. Eiseman. 


"Union Must Be Preserved" to be Replaced on Bust. 

Memphis, Tenn., April 9. — After an absence of forty-three 
years; Andrew Jackson's historic words, "The Union Must Be 
Preserved," will be restored to the monument of "Old Hickory" 
in Court Square. The bust of Jackson will be put in good 
shape immediately, a contract for the work having been let by 

Restoration of Name of Jefferson Davis. 85 

the Park Commission. "During the Civil War a local Confed- 
erate patriot took a chisel and removed 'The Union Must Be 
Preserved,' " said Colonel Galloway, a member of the com- 
mission. "Now that the Civil War is long past and we are all 
so proud of the Union, it seems to me that it would be only 
proper to put this language back." 

Appointment of Hon. Murphy J. Foster, United States Senate 
— to succeed Hon. Adolph Meyer — M. C. of Louisiana, deceased 
March 8, 1908, as representative from C. S. M. A. to United 

States Government. 

New Orleans, La., April 11, 1908. 
Hon. Murphy J. Foster, 

United States Senate, Washington, D. C. : 

Dear Sir, — As on previous occasions I have received evidence 
of your friendly services, and knowing you to be an influential 
member of the United States Senate, and that you are on friend- 
ly relations with the Administration, I write to ask that you will 
exert your best efforts in support of a question in which the 
Southern people are interested. 

In June, 1907, the Confederated Southern Memorial Associa- 
tion, of which I have the honor to be president, met in conven- 
tion in Richmond, Va. At the convention a resolution was 
adopted, asking that means be taken to have the name of Jeffer- 
son Davis re-inscribed on "Cabin John Bridge," or, as it is known 
on the records, as the "Union Arch." Upon my return to Xew 
Orleans, a few weeks after the convention, I met our mutual 
friend, General Meyer, and enlisted his interest and services. He 
expressed himself as in hearty sympathy with the movement, and 
said that he considered it an outrage that the name should have 
been erased ; that it was a piece of petty spite that he considered 
unworthy of an American citizen, and that such a blur should 
be removed from the American nation. When General Meyer 
returned to Washington, he placed the matter immediately before 
the Secretary of War, Hon. William H. Taft, and from what 
General Meyer told me, he was very confident of success, and 
believed that it would be done by the Secretary of War without 
bringing it before Congress. 

86 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

General Stephen D. Lee, Commander-in-Chief of the United 
Confederate Veterans, is in hearty sympathy with this movement, 
and, as you will see from his letter, he believes that the Hon. 
Mr. Taft can and will restore the name of Jefferson Davis to the 
tablet, where in justice and for the truth of history it belongs. 
On June 3, 1908, will occur the one hundredth anniversary of the 
birth of Jefferson Davis. We will celebrate the day in the honor 
of one of the greatest Americans the country has ever produced. 
We will honor him as soldier, statesman and patriot. He was 
said to be the most efficient Secretary of War that ever served in 
that office, and it was during his term of office that this wonder- 
ful structure, "Cabin John Bridge," was constructed; and to have 
erased his name from the tablet was a despicable act of prejudice 
that should be quickly repaired. 

In connection with this movement, I beg to call your attention 
to an enclosed clipping, which proves that to-day all sectional 
feeling has died, and the people North and South are ready to 
say with Jackson, "The Union must be preserved." In the 
name of my Association I hope you will be pleased to take this 
matter up where General Meyer left off, and that you will, with 
your usual success, bring it to a glorious conclusion. 

Yours very respectfully, 

Mrs. W. J. Behan, 
President C. S. M. A. 

[From New Orleans, La., Daily Picayune, April 22, 1908.] 


Resolution to be Offered by Mr. Carlin Looking to This. 

Washington, D. C, April 21. — Representative Carlin, of Vir- 
ginia, said to-day it was his purpose to introduce a resolution 
calling on the Secretary of War for all information relative to 
the erasure of the name of Jefferson Davis from the aqueduct 
bridge, near this city. 

Restoration of Name of Jefferson Davis. 87 

The bridge was completed during the term of Mr. Davis as 
Secretary of War, and his name appeared on the capstone of 
the abutment. During the War between the States the name 
was chiseled out, it is said, by the order of the then Secretary 
of War. 

Mr. Carlin's bill is preliminary to the introduction of a bill for 
the restoration of Mr. Davis' name. 

Richmond, Va., 113 3d Street, South, April 22, 1908. 

Representative Carlin, of Virginia, Washington, D. C. 

Dear Sir, — In the issue of the Times-Dispatch, this city, of 
this date, a telegraphic message from Washington states that 
you will ask Congress for all information concerning the erasure 
of the name of Jefferson Davis from "Cabin John Bridge." 

Will you be so kind as to let me know if the newspaper article 
is correct ? The movement to restore the name of Mr. Davis was 
started by the Confederated Southern Memorial Association, of 
New Orleans, La. I was appointed a member of the committee 
by the president, to represent the State of Virginia. 

Yours truly, 

Mrs. J. Enders Robinson. 

C. C. Carlin, 8th District of Virginia. 


April 28, 1908. 
Mrs. J. E. Robinson, 

113 Third Street, South, Richmond, Va. : 
Dear Madam, — I have your favor of the 22d inst., and for your 
information will say that I have introduced a resolution inquir- 
ing as to the reason for the elimination of the name of Jefferson 
Davis from the arch at "Cabin John Bridge," and what steps, 
if any, have been taken to restore same. It is my purpose to 
press this resolution at the fall session of Congress. 

Very truly yours, 

C. C. Carlin. 

88 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

New Orleans, La., 1207 Jackson Avenue, April 25, 1908. 

Hon. Mr. Carlin, 

House Representatives, Washington, D. C. : 

Dear Sir, — In the New Orleans Daily Picayune of date April 
24th, I read that you propose to introduce a resolution in the 
House, calling for an investigation into the removal of the name 
of Jefferson Davis from "Cabin John Bridge," and that you will 
subsequently offer a second resolution, directing that the name 
be restored to its former place on the bridge. 

As the Confederated Southern Memorial Association, of which 
I am the President, inaugurated this movement by offering such 
a resolution as is understood in your second resolution, I have 
thought it proper to give you the details of the origin of this 
patriotic and historic measure. 

The Confederated Southern Memorial Association met in con- 
vention in Richmond last June, and at this convention the subject 
of the removal of the name of Jefferson Davis from "Cabin John 
Bridge" was discussed with great feeling as to the injustice of 
the act, the petty spite displayed, and the many considerations 
that should impel the great American people to obliterate all evi- 
dences of sectional prejudice by restoring the name to its original 
place on the bridge. Mrs. J. Addison Hayes, the only surviving 
daughter of Jefferson Davis, was present, and said that her 
father had always considered it a great act of injustice, and that 
her mother had hoped to live to see justice done the name of her 
illustrious husband, who was the most efficient Secretary of War 
that this government ever had. 

After this spirited discussion, a resolution, which is here en- 
closed, was offered by Mrs. J. Enders Robinson, of Richmond, 
Ya., a delegate from the Confederate Memorial Literary Society 
(Confederate Museum), and the motion carried. The president 
was empowered to appoint a committee from the several Con- 
federate organizations who would give their endorsement, if 
necessary, in having the name restored. The committee list is 
also enclosed. I wrote to General Lee on the subject, and send 
you a copy of his letter, showing his approval of the action of the 
Confederated Southern Memorial Association and recommend- 

Restoration of Name of Jefferson Davis. 89 

ing that it be conducted as quietly as possible to avoid ugly and 
partisan criticism. 

After my return to New Orleans I met General Adolph Meyer, 
who was a personal friend and the Congressman of my district. 
I spoke to him of this movement, and he immediately expressed 
a willingness to take the matter in hand. He advised taking the 
matter directly to Secretary Taft, arguing that as the name had 
been ordered taken off without congressional action it might be 
restored in the same way by the Secretary of War. 

General Meyer had several very satisfactory interviews with 
the Secretary, and felt confident of success. Unfortunately death 
called him before the object was accomplished, but I feel that 
Mr. Taft is favorably disposed, if the matter can be presented to 
him in the proper light. 

On April 12th I wrote to Hon. Murphy J. Foster, giving him 
all the data that had been returned to me by the widow of 
General Meyer. If you will permit the suggestion, I would be 
pleased to have you confer with him, feeling that you and Sen- 
ator Foster hold the same views on the subject. I believe, how- 
ever, with General Lee, that it should be done quietly ; that we 
must be patient, and that at the proper time the Secretary of 
War will order the restoration in his own right of office and 
without bringing it before Congress. The enclosed data is sub- 
mitted that you may learn, in case you have not been informed 
already, that the movement originated with the Confederated 
Southern Memorial Association, and that a Virginia lady, Mrs. 
J. Enders Robinson, Secretary of the Confederate Museum, was 
the mover of the resolution. The newspapers in different parts 
of the country commented on the movement, and I am happy to 
report that the Northern press was favorable, the Rochester, 
N. Y., News, the Indianapolis Journal and a gentleman from 
Bridgeport, Conn., published very fine articles, and the New 
Orleans Daily Picayune and the Times-Democrat, as well as the 
Times-Dispatch, of Richmond, Ya., were in hearty sympathy with 
the movement. 

I hope to hear from you at your earliest convenience, and 
hope that with our united efforts we will accomplish our object. 
I have had an interview with Hon. R. C. Davey, with whom I am 

90 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

personally acquainted, and have asked him to see you. Senator 
Foster has promised all his assistance. 

Yours very respectfully, 

Mrs. W. J. Behan, 


Washington, D. C, May 16, 1908. 

Mrs. W. J. Behan, New Orleans. La. : 

My Dear Mrs. Behan, — I have been sick nearly the whole time 
since my return, and when I went to the House of Representa- 
tives Mr. Carlin would be away. I found him on Saturday and 
had quite a talk with him relative to "Cabin John Bridge." He 
stated to me that his father was interested in the matter before 
his death ; however, he does not intend to press it this session, 
but will endeavor to have it considered next session. 

With very kind regards, I am, 

Yours truly, 

R. C. Davey. 


On May 28, 1908, death claimed another member of the "Cabin 
John Bridge" Committee, in the passing of 

General Stephen D. Lee, 

Commander-in-Chief, United Confederate Veterans. 


Washington, D. C, May 25, 1908. 
Mrs. W. J. Behan, 

1207 Jackson Avenue, New Orleans, La.: 
Dear Madam, — I have not written before in regard to the mat- 
ter of restoring the name of President Davis to the "Cabin John 
Bridge," because I have been awaiting an opportunity of taking 
the matter up with Secretary Taft. 

Restoration of Name of Jefferson Davis. 91 

It must ultimately be referred to the War Department, and 
consequently will be left largely to his control. For this reason I 
have thought that the best policy to pursue would be to consult 
with the Secretary and ascertain his views. 

His presence in Panama at the time your letter was received, 
and his absence from Washington during the greater part of the 
time since returning to this country, has prevented the taking 
the matter up with him in person, but I have arranged to bring 
it to his attention. 

This, in my opinion, is the best course for the people interested 
in the matter to follow, for I think they can rely on the wisdom 
and justice of the Secretary. 

Yours truly, 

(Signed) Murphy J. Foster. 

General Clement A. Evans, Commander-in-Chief, was ap- 
pointed to fill the vacancy on the committee caused by the death 
of General Stephen D. Lee. 

Clement A. Evans. Wm. E. Mickle, 

General Commanding. Adjt.-Gen. and Chief of Staff. 

Office of Commanding General. 

July 27, 1907. 
Mrs. W. J. Behan, Pres., New Orleans: 

Dear Mrs. Behan, — I have read with great interest your letter 
and inclosures. I have made myself somewhat acquainted with 
the effort to have the words "Jefferson Davis" restored to the 
stone on the "Cabin John Bridge." Additional to the help you 
obtained from the Louisiana members of Congress, I observed 
that a member from Virginia introduced a resolution of inquiry, 
and I wrote to him about it and received his reply. I agree with 
all parties that this effort should be made without the slightest 
involvement with politics. The restoration of the name should 
be made as a simple duty to historical fact. The present blank 

92 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

on the tablet does not dishonor Mr. Davis, but it does discredit all 
of us, North and South, who approve the mutilation or object to 
the restoration. 

I feel perfectly sure that as soon as the present political can- 
vass for the Presidency is over, that either the present Secretary 
of War or the next Secretary of War will, on his best judg- 
ment, have "Jefferson Davis" replaced on the stone. It is so 
absolutely absurd (as I see the matter) to make a political issue 
on this question that I cannot imagine any patriot in the Union 
will be offended when it is done. 

Your noble spirit in all matters like this will commend you 
and your work to all our best countrymen, and will be remem- 
bered with gratitude by our Confederate soldiers. 

With great esteem, 

Clement A. Evans. 

New Orleans, La., Nov. 30, 1908. 
Hon. Luke E. Wright, 

Secretary of War, Washington, D. C. : 

Dear Sir, — I take the liberty of calling your attention to the 
enclosed copy of a resolution passed at the Confederated South- 
ern Memorial Convention, held in the city of Richmond, Va., 
June 1, 1907. 

By the action of the convention, I was made chairman of the 
committee by reason of my office as president of the Associa- 
tion, and I have associated with me as members of the com- 
mittee, General Clement A. Evans, of Atlanta, Ga., Commander- 
in-Chief United Confederate Veterans ; Mrs. C. B. Stone, of 
Galveston, Texas, President-General of the United Daughters of 
the Confederacy ; and Mr. John W. Apperson, of Memphis, 
Tenn., Commander-in-Chief United Sons Confederate Veterans. 
This committee, composed of prominent and influential persons, 
is in hearty accord with the movement. Immediately upon my 
return to New Orleans I saw Hon. Adolph Meyer, M. C. from 
Louisiana, and requested him to interest himself in the matter. 
He expressed himself freely on the subject as one deserving the 

Restoration of Name of Jefferson Davis. 93 

attention of our people, and cheerfully said, "I will do all in my 
power to have this request granted." 

Returning to Washington, Mr. Meyer had several satisfactory 
interviews with Hon. W. H. Taft, at that time Secretary of War, 
and, from all that I could glean from his letters, Mr. Meyer 
was confident of success. Copies of these letters will be sent to 
you for your information. Acting on the advice of Hon. W. H. 
Taft and Mr. Meyer, all active measures were delayed until after 
the election. In the meantime, Mr. Meyer died, and Hon. Murphy 
J. Foster, United States Senator, and Hon. R. C. Davey, M. C. 
from the same State, promised to do all in their power for the 
success of the movement. During the latter part of the last 
session I learned that Hon. C. C. Carlin, M. C. from Virginia, 
had given notice that he intended introducing a bill in Congress 
asking for the restoration of the name of Jefferson Davis on 
''Cabin John Bridge." I wrote Mr. Carlin, and had a member 
of the committee from Virginia to write him also, that the Con- 
federated Southern Memorial Association had already started a 
movement in that direction ; that we had placed it in the hands 
of parties authorized to act for us, and we respectfully asked 
that he would not introduce such a bill. 

We hope to accomplish our purpose without bringing it before 
the public, as it would probably meet with some objection, though 
I firmly believe the majority of the American people are in favor 
of proving our greatness by performing this tardy act of justice 
for the sake of truthful history. 

From all that I could learn, it was the opinion of Mr. Taft 
that the Secretary of War had the power and authority to order 
the name restored, or that the President, acting on the endorse- 
ment of the Secretary of War, would so order. 

Mr. Secretary, the election is over, and the American people 
have shown their wisdom by placing at the head of this glorious 
nation a man who will put truth, justice and honor above all 
else. Should you wish to place this matter before our honorable 
President-elect, you will find him in possession of all the facts 
as stated here, and favorably disposed to assist you in your 
efforts to bring about the desired result. As you are aware, 
this is the centennial of the birth of Jefferson Davis, and I 

91 Southern Historical Soc'ety Papers. 

believe it to be an opportune time for pressing our claim, in 
order that the truth of history may be preserved. If this matter 
is properly placed before our broad-minded and generous Presi- 
dent, Hon. Theodore Roosevelt, I believe he will be pleased to 
wind up his already glorious administration by ordering the resto- 
ration of the name of Jefferson Davis on the tablet from which 
it was shamefully cut off without authority by Mr. Caleb Smith, 
Secretary of the Interior, in 1861. It is a great honor and privi- 
lege to have in the office of Secretary of War one who not only 
knew Jefferson Davis personally, but one whom we honor and 
respect as a Confederate veteran. With you there is no question 
of the right and justice of this request, and we appeal to you 
with confidence in your willingness to act and ability to succeed. 
This magnificent structure is only one of the evidences of the 
great skill and efficiency of Mr. Davis while he was Secretary of 
War, and we should give honor to whom honor is due. It is a 
matter of record that the name of Mr. Davis was ordered cut 
off the tablet by Hon. Caleb B. Smith, who, in his passion and 
prejudice forgot that to the name of Jefferson Davis this country 
owes justice and recognition for services rendered on the field 
of battle, in the council chamber, and as one of the ablest men 
in the Cabinet of President Franklin Pierce. This act of petty 
spite stands to-day as a reproach to the American people, and 
should be obliterated by the restoration of the name where it 
rightfully belongs. When this is done — and let us hope that it 
will be done during the Davis centennial year — then, indeed, 
may we boast of the great American people and the re-united 

And now, in conclusion, Mr. Secretary, I will indulge in a 
short personal allusion as an introduction to you, as well as to 
our President-elect. I am the wife of General W. J. Behan, a 
Confederate veteran who served for four years in the Army of 
Northern Virginia, and who has since his surrender at Appo- 
mattox been a loyal citizen of the United States. Under separate 
cover, I will send you certain data that may be useful to you in 
working up this matter, and I am ready at all times to aid you 
in your efforts. If necessary. I will go on to Washington to urge 
prompt and favorable action. 

Restoration oj Name of Jefferson Davis. 95 

Thanking you in advance for your co-operation, and assuring 
you of my highest esteem, I am. 

Yours very respectfully, 

Mrs. W. J. Behan, 


Additional data mailed to Hon. Luke A. Wright, December i, 

1st. Copy of resolution passed by C. S. M. A., at Convention, 
Richmond, Ya., relative to "Cabin John Bridge," 

2d. Names of committee. 

3d. Copies of letters from the late Hon. Adolph Meyer; 
General Stephen D. Lee; Hon. W. H. Taft, Secretary of War; 
Hon. Murphy J. Foster, United States Senator from Louisiana. 

4th. Copy of C. S. M. A. minutes, of Richmond, Ya., con- 
vention, June 1-3. 

5th. Copies of letters from General Clement A. Evans, Com- 
mander-in-Chief ; from John W. Apperson, Commander-in-Chief 
U. S. C. Y. ; from Mrs. Cornelia Branch Stone, President-Gen- 
eral U. D. C. 

New Orleans, La., 1207 Jackson Avenue, 

December 2, 1908. 
Mrs. Cornelia Branch Stone, 

President-General, Lmited Daughters of the Confederacy, 

Galveston, Texas : 

My Dear Mrs. Stone, — I trust you have arrived home safe and 
are enjoying a well earned rest after the fatigues of the con- 
vention. Permit me to take this occasion to compliment you 
upon your executive ability and upon your admirable tact and 
patience in controlling such a large convention. 

I regret that you did not give me the opportunity to thank 
you, in the name of the Confederated Southern Memorial Asso- 
ciation, for your active interest in the "Cabin John Bridge" 

As an interested member of the "Cabin John Bridge" Com- 
mittee of the C. S. M. A., it is due vou that you be advised as to 

96 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

all that has heen done by the chairman, and to request that you 
co-operate with the committee in the plan adopted for accom- 
plishing this historical and patriotic work. 

As you are aware, the "Cabin John Bridge" resolution was 
passed at the C. S. M. A. Convention held in Richmond, Va., 
June i, 1907, and all Confederate Associations were invited to 
unite with the C. S. M. A. in its effort to accomplish this object. 
The Chair was authorized to appoint a committee, which was 
done, and I enclose a list, although I think this was done when I 
appointed you. Letters were received from General Stephen D. 
Lee, from Mrs. Lizzie George Henderson, Mr. John W. Apper- 
son, Commander-in-Chief of the U. S. C. V., and from other 
members of the committee, heartily endorsing the movement. At 
the expiration of Mrs. Henderson's term of office she resigned 
from the committee, and you were named by me as her successor. 
I wish to thank you again for your beautiful letter of acceptance. 
The Commander-in-Chief of the United Confederate Veterans' 
organization who succeeded the lamented General Lee has writ- 
ten me a strong patriotic letter, promising to co-operate with the 

The first step taken by me as chairman was to place the reso- 
lution in the hands of a very influential member of Congress from 
Louisiana, the Hon. Adolph Meyer. This was done during the 
month of June, 1907, and Mr. Meyer wrote me that he had had 
several very satisfactory conferences with Hon. W. H. Taft, at 
that time Secretary of War, and that he felt confident of success. 
It was deemed advisable, however, by Mr. Meyer and General 
Lee not to press the matter, but to bide our time in patience until 
after the presidential campaign was finished. A few months 
later Mr. Meyer died, and I immediately requested Hon. Murphy 
J. Foster, United States Senator from this State, to take up the 
matter where Mr. Meyer had left off. A very satisfactory letter 
was received from Mr. Foster, saying that he had made arrange- 
ments to have the subject presented to Hon. W. H. Taft, but 
he, too, advised patience. I wrote a personal letter to Hon. 
W. H. Taft and received a reply from his acting private secre- 
tary, advising me that Mr. Taft was absent, but that my letter 
would be referred to him on his return from the Philippines. 

Restoration of Name of Jefferson Davis. 97 

During the past week I wrote to Hon. Luke E. Wright, Secre- 
tary of War, and furnished him with all the necessary data which 
had been in the possession of the late Mr. Meyer, and duplicates 
of all this material are in the hands of Mr. Foster, the represen- 
tative of the Confederated Southern Memorial Association, in 
Washington, D. C. 

Last summer, just before Congress adjourned, my attention 
was called to a newspaper item which stated that Hon. C. C. 
Carlin, of Virginia, had given notice that he would introduce a 
bill in Congress asking why the name of Jefferson Davis had 
been removed from the stone on "Cabin John Bridge," and that 
his bill would ask that it be restored. I wrote immediately to 
Mr. Carlin, and to Hon. R. C. Davey, M. C. from Louisiana, 
asking him to see Mr. Carlin in person and to explain to him 
that the C. S. M. A. had at its convention in June, 1907, passed 
a resolution to the same effect, and that our Representative had 
already taken the matter up with the Hon. AW H. Taft ; and we 
begged him (Mr. Carlin) to defer his action, as we had been 
advised against bringing the subject before Congress. The 
advice from all sources, from Confederate as well as officials at 
Washington, is, to be patient and leave the matter in the hands 
of the Secretary of War. 

Mrs. J. Enders Robinson, of Richmond, Ya., the delegate from 
the Confederate Memorial Literary Society of Richmond, Ya., 
who offered the "Cabin John Bridge" resolution, also wrote to 
Mr. Carlin, explaining all that had been done, and asked for his 
co-operation with the committee. If we hope to succeed, there 
must be concert of action ; the committee must be united in its 
plan of procedure, as it is in its desire to accomplish this patriotic 

In every step that I have taken I have advised with the Com- 
mander-in-Chief of the United Confederate Yeterans, General 
Clement A. Evans. As chairman, I am willing and pleased to 
receive suggestions from the members of the committee, and from 
you in particular, in whose judgment I have great confidence. 
If you will pardone me, I would suggest that in printing your 
report in the Atlantic Minutes you would say that by reason of 
your office of President-General of the U. D. C, you are a mem- 

98 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

ber of the C. S. M. A. "Cabin John Bridge" Committee, and 
that, as a member deeply interested in the success of the move- 
ment, you called on President Roosevelt, etc. This will show to 
all our co-workers that we are working together towards one great 

With best wishes for all your endeavors, believe me, 

Yours sincerely and fraternally, 

Mrs. YY. J. Behan, 
President Confederated Southern Memorial Association, 
Chairman "Cabin John Bridge" Committee. 


Washington, December 12, 1908. 
Dear Madam : 

I beg to acknowledge receipt of your letter of the 1st, enclos- 
ing data in connection with the subject of the restoration of the 
name of Jefferson Davis on the tablet or stone on "Cabin John 


Very respectfully, 

Luke E. Wright, 
Secretary of War. 

Mrs. W. J. Behan, President Confederated Southern Memorial 
Association, 1207 Jackson Avenue, New Orleans, La. 

New Orleans, La., 1207 Jackson Avenue, 

Dec. 16, 1908. 

General Clement A. Evans, Commander-in-Chief United Con- 
federate Veteran Organization, Atlanta, Ga. : 
My Dear General Evans, — Some time ago I wrote you in 
reference to the restoration of the name of Jefferson Davis to 
"Cabin John Bridge," Washington, D. C. You expressed hearty 
sympathy with the movement and stated that you had written to 
a member from Virginia, who had introduced a bill in Congress 
on the same subject. As I wrote you at that time, it was and is 
still our desire to have this accomplished quietly and without 
bringing it before Congress. This was the advice received from 

Restoration of Name of Jefferson Davis. 99 

the late General S. D. Lee, and Hon. Adolph Myer, a member 
of Congress from Louisiana. Mr. Meyer was the agent of the 
Confederated Southern Memorial Association in Washington, 
and had had several very satisfactory conferences with the then 
Secretary of War, Hon. W. H. Taft. Unfortunately, Mr. Meyer 
died before the object was attained, and I have asked Hon. 
Murphy J. Foster, Senator from Louisiana, to take up the matter 
where Mr. Meyer left off. We were advised to keep quiet until 
after the presidential election. This we have done, but now that 
Congress has convened, we have resumed our task. The Vir- 
ginia member of our committee (Mrs. J. Enders Robinson, of 
Richmond, Va.) wrote to Hon. C. C. Carlin, the Virginia member 
who had introduced a bill in Congress, requesting him not to 
bring his bill before the House, but to co-operate with us in our 
plan of action. Enclosed please find Mr. Carlin's reply. 

Now, my dear General, if we hope to succeed this year we 
must be up and doing. I write to request that you write to 
General Luke E. Wright, Secretary of War, urging him as a 
Confederate soldier to exercise his authority as Secretary of War 
to have the name restored to its place on the keystone of "Cabin 
John Bridge" during this the Davis centennial year ; in the first 
place, for the accuracy of history; in the second place, as a proof 
that we are a re-united people; and lastly (but not least), as an 
act of justice to a man who gave the best years of his life in the 
service of the United States as soldier and statesman, and who, 
according to governmental reports, was the most efficient Secre- 
taiy of War who had ever held the office. 

Enclosed find certain data that may be useful to you as infor- 
mation, and let me urge you not to delay writing. If any other 
plan should suggest itself to you, please act upon it; perhaps you 
would like to write to the President, who, for the sake of his 
Georgia mother, might comply with your request. 

With best wishes for your continued good health, and wishing 
you the choicest blessings of this joyous and holy season, believe 

Yours very fraternally, 

Mrs. W. J. Behan, 
President C. S. M. A. 

100 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

New Orleans, La., December 21, 1908. 

To His Excellency, Theodore Roosevelt, President United 
States of America, Washington, D. C. : 

Hon. and Dear Sir, — I take the liberty of addressing you on a 
matter which, I believe, has been or will be brought to your 
attention by the Secretary of War, Hon. Luke E. Wright 

The subject is, the restoration of the name, Jefferson Davis, to 
the keystone of the Washington Aqueduct, or Union Arch. 
Under separate cover I send certain data in connection with the 
movement, and below I will give a summary of facts : 

Confederated Southern Memorial Association, in convention 
assembled : 

June, 1907. Resolution to bave the name, Jefferson Davis, re- 
stored to "Cabin John Bridge," Washington, D. C. Adopted. 
The president of the C. S. M. A. was authorized to appoint 
a committee to bring the matter to the attention of the 
United States authorities. 

July, 1907. The president of the C. S. M. A. placed the matter 
in the hands of Hon. Adolph Meyer, M. C. from Louisiana, 
who reported to her that he had had several satisfactory 
conferences with Hon. W. H. Taft, and felt confident of 

July, 1907. General Stephen D. Lee, Commander-in-Chief United 
Confederate Veteran Organization, endorsed the movement 
and gave its his active support. 

March, 190S. At the death of Hon. Adolph Meyer the president 
referred the matter to Hon. Murphy J. Foster, United States 
Senator from Louisiana. 

May, 1908. Upon the death of General Stephen D. Lee, his 
successor, General Clement A. Evans, of Atlanta, Ga., took 
up the matter with enthusiasm. He wrote to Mrs. Behan, 
"I cannot imagine any patriot in the Union will be offended 
when it is done." 

Restoration of Name of Jefferson Davis. 101 

Other prominent men from the North and the South have been 
consulted, and several newspapers from both sections have pub- 
lished strong articles in favor of restoring the name where it 
rightfully belongs. 

The Confederated Southern Memorial Association represents 
the "Women of the Sixties" from all parts of the South, all 
united in the request that all evidences of sectional passion and 
prejudice should be obliterated during this contennial of the birth 
of Jefferson Davis, who served his country as Secretary of War. 

Trusting to your good-will and noble desire to heal all differ- 
ences with a view of re-uniting the people of this great country, 
we appeal to you to make this the crowning act of your truly 
great administration. 

With expressions of the highest personal esteem, I am, 

Very respectfully, 

Mrs. W. J. Behan, 


New Orleans, La., December 21, 1908. 

Hon. Luke E. Wright, 

Secretary of War, Washington, D. C. : 

Dear Sir, — Your letter of the 12th inst. was duly received and 
appreciated. This morning General B. F. Eshleman, of New 
Orleans, called to see me to say that he had had a very pleasant 
and satisfactory interview with you regarding the '-'Cabin John 
Bridge" matter, and that as far as you know there was no objec- 
tion to the movement. He stated also that it was your intention 
to speak to the President on the subject within the next few- 
days. I write to thank you for the interest you have taken, and 
to implore you as a Confederate soldier and a citizen interested 
in all that tends to the best interests of these United States, not 
to permit the matter to be side-tracked nor overlooked, as is often 
the case. 

The Confederated Southern Memorial Association represents 
the "Women of the Sixties" from all parts of the South, and 
we feel that this is an opportune time to request the President 
of the United States to wipe out this evidence of the passion 

102 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

and prejudice of one man engendered by the war of i86i-'65, 
and which stands to-day as a reproach to the whole American 
people. We do not wish to stir up strife, but prefer that it be 
done quietly during this the centennial of the birth of Jefferson 

Again we beg of you to keep the matter in mind. 

Yours very respectfully, 

Mrs. W. J. Behan, 



Washington, December 28, 1908. 
Madam : 

I beg to acknowledge receipt by reference from the White 
House of your letter of 21st instant, addressed to the President, 
with additional enclosures, urging restoration of the name of 
Jefferson Davis on the tablet or stone on "Cabin John Bridge." 

Yours very respectfully, 

Robert Shoualter, 
Acting Secretary of War. 

Mrs. W. J. Behan, President Confederated Southern Memorial 
Association, 1207 Jackson Avenue, New Orleans, La. 

Atlanta, Ga., December 26, 1907. 

Mrs. W. J. Behan, New Orleans, La. : 

My Dear Mrs. Behan, — I am confident that you will secure the 
replacing of the name of Jefferson Davis to "Cabin John Bridge," 
for you are moving wisely and gaining friends. 

It seems to me that the present Secretary of War will be 
induced to quietly direct the restoration ; and that if Mr. Carlin, 
acting on your behalf, will take up the matter with the assistance 
of a few others about the middle of January, he will succeed. 
I will write to some members of Congress from Georgia, and also 
to the Secretary of War, but would like to know about the time 
Mr. Carlin will renew his endeavors. 

Restoration of Name of Jefferson Davis. 103 

We Confederates can never be as grateful to you as you de- 
serve, but you have won our united hearts forever. 

Your friend, 

Clement A. Evans. 

P. S. — I will return the valuable letters, etc., you sent me. 



Washington, January 4, 1909. 
My Dear Mrs. Behan : 

I beg to acknowledge receipt of your favor of the 21st ultimo, 
in regard to the desire of the Confederated Southern Memorial 
Association to have the name of Jefferson Davis restored to 
"Cabin John Bridge." I shall be pleased to take this matter up 
with the President and see what can be done. 

Sincerely yours, 

Luke E. Wright. 

Mrs. W. J. Behan. President Confederated Southern Memorial 
Association, New Orleans, La. 

New Orleans, La., Jan. 9, 1909. 
Hon. Luke E. Wright, 

Secretary of War, Washington, D. C. : 

Dear Sir, — I was so happy to receive your letter of the 4th, in 
which you said you would take up the matter of the restoration 
of the name, Jefferson Davis, with the President. Pardon my 
persistence, but the Memorial women of the South are deeply 
interested in this movement, and would like to know in what way 
they may further its accomplishment. 

The Memorial Association is more far-reaching than its name 
indicates. It is formed of organizations from each of the South- 
ern States. One of our Vice-Presidents is the daughter of 
Senator Bankhead, of Alabama ; another officer is the wife of 
Senator Clay, of Ceorgia ; and still another is Mrs. C. B. Bryan, 

104 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

of Memphis, Term., the daughter of Raphael Semmes, of Con- 
federate naval fame. 

Permit me to refer you to the correspondence with Hon. 
W. H. Taft and the late Hon. Adolph Meyer, M. C. of Louisiana. 
Mr. Meyer had several conferences with Hon. W. H. Taft, then 
Secretary of War, in which Mr. Taft said it was in the province 
of the Secretary of War to order the name restored. Mr. Meyer 
was very hopeful of success, and no doubt would have succeeded, 
as Mr. Taft was favorably disposed, had death not claimed him. 
President Roosevelt has a chance here to write his name in 
imperishable lines. In view of the Lincoln Centennial this year, 
let us repair this act of injustice to the name of Jefferson Davis. 

Yours very respectfully, 

Mrs. W. J. Behan, 


New Orleans, La., Jan. 9, 1909. 
Hon. Murphy J. Foster, 

U. S. Senate, Washington, D. C. : 

Dear Sir, — I have received a letter from Hon. Secretary of 
War, General Wright, dated January 4th, stating that he would 
be pleased to take up with the President the matter of restoring 
the name of Jefferson Davis to the tablet on "Cabin John Bridge." 
The time has come when men from the North and the South can 
afford to deal justly with each other, and should do all in their 
power to restore the friendly relations that should exist among 
such a great people. I beg of you to call on the Hon. Secretary 
in behalf of this movement. With this letter you will find a 
summary of what has been done by the Confederated Southern 
Memorial Association. The association is more far-reaching 
than its name indicates, as it is an association of organizations, 
not of individuals. One of the vice-presidents is the daughter 
of Senator Bankhead, of Alabama; another officer is the wife 
of Senator Clay, of Georgia ; and another officer is the daughter 
of Raphael Semmes, of Confederate naval fame, and the sister- 
in-law of General Luke E. Wright, our Secretary of War. 

Restoration of Name of Jefferson Davis. 105 

Hoping to have your active co-operation, and assuring you of 
the endorsement of every Southern man in Congress, whose aid 
is at your call, I am, 

Yours very respectfully, 

Mrs. W. J. Behan, 


Summary of What Has Been Accomplished Up to De- 
cember 21, 1908. 

Convention assembled in Richmond, Va., May 30, June 1, 

1907, June 1st. Resolution to have the name, Jefferson Davis, 
restored to "Cabin John Bridge," Washington, D. C. The 
President authorized to appoint a committee to bring the 
matter to the attention of the United States authorities. 
This was done. 

1907, July. The President placed the matter in the hands of 
Hon. Adolph Meyer, M. C. from Louisiana, who reported 
by letter that he had had several conferences with Hon. 
W. H. Taft, Secretary of War, and was confident of success. 

1907, July. General Stephen D. Lee, Commander-in-Chief U. 
C. V., endorsed the movement and gave it his active support. 

1908, March. At the death of Hon. Adolph Meyer, the President 
referred the matter to Hon. Murphy J. Foster, U. S. Senator 
from Louisiana. 

1908, May. Upon the death of General Lee, his successor, Gen- 
eral Clement A. Evans, took up the matter with enthusiasm, 
and wrote Mrs. Behan as follows : "1 cannot imagine any 
patriot in the Union will be offended when it is done." 

1908, December. Hon. C. C. Carlin advised Mrs. J. Enders Rob- 
inson, that in reply to her request he would withhold his bill 
a year or so. 

106 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

Letters have been written by members of the committee, and 
the President to the Hon. Secretary of War, General Luke E. 
Wright, to His Excellency, President Roosevelt, and to promi- 
nent citizens in the North and South. Several newspapers, 
North and South, have published strong articles in favor of 
restoring the name and thus obliterating the outrageous blunder 
of one man (Hon. Caleb B. Smith), who, blinded by passion and 
prejudice, ordered the name cut off and to-day his unauthorized 
act stands as a reproach against this great American people. 

The Confederated Southern Memorial Association does not 
wish to stir up strife, nor to take it before Congress; we prefer 
to have the wrong righted in a quiet, dignified manner, without 
any "hurrah.'' Our object is, to preserve to future generations 
the true and accurate history of the great and wonderful and 
imposing structure known as the Union Arch, which was con- 
structed while Jefferson Davis was Secretary of War. 

Atlanta, Ga., January n, 1909. 
My Dear Mrs. Beiian : 

I will write to-day a strong letter in the true vein to Secretary 
Wright on the matter of the restoration of the name of Jefferson 
Davis, which we so earnestly desire to have done. 

I feel sure that all the best men in Washington among the 
Republicans would be glad if it was quietly restored without any 
objections being made. 

It is the manner of doing it which bothers the Secretary of 
War. I will try to meet that point in my letter to him. 

Thanks to you for asking me to do anything for our cause 
which is on your heart. 

As always, your friend, 

Clement A. Evans. 


Washington, D. C, January 15, 1909. 
Mrs. W. J. Behan, 

1207 Jackson Avenue, New Orleans, La.: 
Dear Madam, — -I am in receipt of your recent favor, enclosing 
a summary of what has already been done by the Confederated 

Restoration of Name of Jefferson Davis. 107 

Memorial Association to have the name of Jefferson Davis re- 
stored to the "Cabin John Bridge." 

I note very carefully what you have to say, and, as stated in a 
former communication, I will be glad to co-operate; but still 
think, as I stated then, that it is a matter that may very well 
be left with Mr. Taft. 

He will be inaugurated in about six weeks, and having looked 
into the question when Secretary of War, I think it would be 
well to postpone the matter until he has an opportunity to act 
upon it. I will, however, be glad to advise with General Wright 
as to the best course to be pursued in the premises. 

Yours truly, 

Murphy J. Foster. 

Official Order to Restore Name of Jefferson Davis to the 
Aqueduct, "Carin John Bridge," at Washington. 

Washington, D. C, February 16, 1909. 

To the SecreTx\ry of War : 

Will you please direct that the name of Jefferson Davis as 
Secretary of War be restored to the "Cabin John Bridge?" 

Theodore Roosevelt. 

Office of Secretary. 

Memorandum for the Chief of Engineers : 

Restoration of the name of Jefferson Davis to the Cabin John 

By direction of the President, you will take the necessary steps 
to restore the name of Jefferson Davis as Secretary of War to the 
"Cabin John Bridge." The matter will be given publicity from 
this office. 

Luke E. W'right, 

Secretary of War. 
February 20, 1909. 

108 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

The Picayune Bureau.' 

Post Building, 
Washington, D. C, February 22, 1909. 


Largely on account of the influence of the late General Adolph 
Meyer, following the adoption of strong resolutions by the 
Daughters of the Confederacy at Richmond in 1907, the Secre- 
tary of War to-day ordered that the name of Jefferson Davis, 
who was Secretary of War of the United States, is to be restored 
to the tablet in the great masonry arch at "Cabin John Bridge." 
It was erased during the Civil War, after he had renounced his 
allegiance to the United States and became President of the 
Confederacy. Announcement of this decision was made at the 
War Department to-day. 

For fifteen years the question of restoring the name to the 
historic span has been agitated by Southern societies and men 
from the South prominent in the affairs of the nation. The 
efforts, however, failed of success until 1907, when General 
Meyer, co-operating with the Daughters of the Confedracy, 
induced Secretary Taft to have the matter of the erasure thor- 
oughly investigated. Major Spencer Cosby searched the records 
and reported in part : 

"The argument of Mr. Phillips for the restoration of the name 
of Jefferson Davis loses force from the fact that he is mistaken 
in his principal point. Jefferson Davis was not Secretary of 
War when "Cabin John Bridge" was built, and I can find noth- 
ing in our records to show that he ever saw or approved the 
plans for that structure. He was Secretary of W 7 ar when work 
on other parts of the aqueduct was started, in 1853, but the 
plans which he then recommended for approval showed a bridge 
of five arches over 'Cabin John Valley.' The actual construc- 
tion work on the bridge was begun in 1857, shortly after Mr. 
Davis ceased to be Secretary of War." 

The incident marking the erasure of Mr. Davis' name created 
quite a stir at the time, and has been a source of agitation ever 
since. The letters of the name were chipped from the stone 

Restoration of Name of Jefferson Davis. 109 

tablet, in which they were cut, by direction of Caleb Smith, Sec- 
retary of the Interior, during the Civil War. The order was 
issued on a motion made by Galusha Grow, of Pennsylvania, 
Speaker of the House of Representatives in 1862. 

["Daughters of the Confederacy" should read "Confederated 
Southern Memorial Association." — Editor's note.] 

Congratulatory Letters Received by Mrs. W. J. Behan, 

President Confederated Southern Memorial 


Atlanta, February 24, 1909. 
My Dear Mrs. Behan : 

I congratulate you with all my soul on your success in having 
the name, Jefferson Davis, restored to its appropriate historical 
place. I wish at an early date to advise with you in regard to the 
continuance in a true patriotic way of our efforts to maintain for 
rhe memory of Jefferson Davis its rightful place in all history. 
Very much more is depending on our fidelity to him than even 
our own people generally think. 

Thanking you, and even "blessing" you, for the noble measures 
you are taking to establish whatever is right in Confederate 
memories, T am, 

Your friend indeed, 

Clement A. Evans. 

New Orleans, La., February 24, 1909. 
My Dear Madam : 

You say, "Congratulations are in order." They are indeed, 
and no one recognizes so quickly and so cheerfully as I do the 
services rendered by you and your co-workers. That the women 
have accomplished this act of justice so long delayed, and those 
who bore the heat and burden of the day when the men of the 
South were in the front, commend them and their work to every 
Confederate soldier. I know you need no assurances from me 
as to the pleasure given me by the work accomplished by you, 
and I beg to add to it the assurances of my personal high regard. 
That you may live long to worthily earn other Southern laurels 

110 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

and still more endear yourself to Southern soldiers who care for 
their history, is the wish of one who is pleased to sign himself, 

Yours fraternally, 

Lewis Guion. 
Mrs. W. T- Behan, New Orleans. 

[From New Orleans, La., Times-Democrat, February 25, 1909.] 


By ordering the restoration of the much-discussed inscription 
upon ''Cabin John Bridge," President Roosevelt has performed 
a public service which deserves the thanks and appreciation of 
his fellow-citizens, North as well as South. The mutilation of 
the tablet by order of a vindictive Congress in 1862 was perhaps 
the pettiest act of which the National Legislature, in all its 
history, has been guilty. The bridge was in its day a notable 
accomplishment. It was planned and constructed by government 
engineers who worked under the direction of the Secretary of 
War. Begun during the administration of President Pie.rce, it 
was natural and proper that the tablet should record, along with 
the date, the name of the Executive and of the Secretary of 
War, Mr. Davis, who took a keen interest in the engineering 
plans and construction. The erasure of the latter's name, dur- 
ing the war, was ordered when sectional hate and fury was most 
intense and designated as a blow at the Confederate President. 
Years afterward it had something of the effect desired, for we 
are told that Mr. Davis, in his retirement, felt the injustice 

But in the truer sense the act reflected upon those responsible 
for it rathe'- than upon Mr. Davis. By the mere removal of 
bis name from the tablet, his would-be detractors could not rob 
him of the credit that accrued from his participation in the plan- 
ning and construction of the bridge any more than they could 
have destroyed the fact that he was one of the nation's ablest 
War Secretaries, by mere mutilation of the official records at 
Washington. The bridge continued to stand as a monument to 
the administration which urged its construction and to the 
abilities of the men who had to do with it. The mutilated inscrip- 

Restoration of Name of Jefferson Davis. Ill 

tion has only served through the years to emphasize the facts 
which a passion-swayed Congress sought to obliterate. The 
unsightly mutilation itself has borne witness during that time to 
the infinite littleness of the men who stooped to a display so 
childish of vindictiveness and sectional hate. 

The amends now ordered by Mr. Roosevelt should have been 
made years ago, in justice to Mr. Davis and in charity to the 
Congress moved by unreasoning fury to an act unworthy. It 
is an episode best forgotten. The people of the South have 
already testified their appreciation of Mr. Roosevelt's action, and 
we believe it will be, for the reasons above suggested, as heartily 
approved by their countrymen of the North. 

[Explanatory. — Full text of the replies from Virginia offi- 
cials received in January and February, 1909, will be found 
further on, under date, June 1, 1909, as part of Mrs. Robinson's 
report, entitled "Virginia's Part in the Resolution of," &c. — 
Fditor's note.] 


Printing Department. 

Bridgeport, Conn., March 1, 1909. 
Dear Mrs. Behan : 

Many thanks for your letter. From the enclosed cutting from 
the Washington Star you will see how the whole effort in which 
you and your associates were engaged, in 1907, was headed off 
by Major Cosby, who twisted things to suit his purpose, and 
the tenor of whose report was clearly hostile to the restoration 
of Mr. Davis' name. This report seems to have been sufficient 
to satisfy Secretary Taft that there was no use of doing any- 
thing. But Secretary \\ right seems to have had an inspiration 
to take matters up with the President, as a result of which in 
about fifty years from the date of the outrage, tardy justice will 
be done to one of the greatest of x\mericans, whatever the differ- 
ing judgment of North and South may be as to his construction 
of the Constitution as to States' Rights. 

Yours very truly, 

W. P. Phillips. 

112 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

[From Washington, D. C. , Evening Star ] 


President Orders It Put Back On Cabin John Bridge — Cut 

Out During War — Erased from Tablet by Official 

Order, It Is Said — No Record Ever Found. 

To-day's Action Result of Years of Effort on Part of Southerners — 
Major Cosby's Adverse Report. 

"The Secretary of War, by direction of the President, has 
instructed the chief of engineers, Unitd States Army, to take 
the necessary steps to restore the name of Jefferson Davis as 
Secretary of War to 'Cabin John Bridge.' " 

The above brief but significant memorandum was given to 
the press at the office of Secretary Wright in the War Depart- 
ment to-day. It marks the triumph of the persistent and long 
•continued efforts of the Southern people to remedy what they 
considered a blot on the memory of the President of the Con- 
federate States. At intervals since the Civil War the question 
of restoring the name to its former place on the bridge has been 
presented to Congress and the President, but without avail until 
the present time. 

Jt came up during the Cleveland administration, as well as 
before and since that time. It was left, however, for the present 
War Secretary — himself a Confederate soldier — to induce Presi- 
dent Roosevelt to order the restoration of the name so dear to the 
Southern part of a reunited country. 


"Cabin John Bridge" is one of the longest and most imposing 
single-span masonry arches in the world. It lies on the conduit 
road, about six and one-half miles northwest of the Aqueduct 
Bridge, and was built to carry over a small valley the aqueduct 
conveying the water supply of Washington. Two inscribed stone 
tablets are built onto the masonry in corresponding positions on 
the south sides of the two abutments. The tablet on the east 
abutment bears the following inscription : 

Restoration of Name of Jefferson Davis. 113 

Union arch. 

Chief Engineer, Capt. Montgomery C. Meigs, 

U. S. Corps of Engineers. 

Esio perpetna. 

The tablet on the west abutment contains the following in- 
scription : 

Washington Aqueduct. 

Begun A. D. 1853. President of the U. S., 

Franklin Pierce. Secretary of War, 

. Building A. D. 1861. 

President of the U. S., Abraham Lincoln, 
Secretary of War, Simon Cameron. 

The blank space in this latter inscription originally contained 
the name of "Jefferson Davis." 

ERASED IN l862. 

Although it is still a matter of dispute, it is generally accepted 
as a fact that the name was cut out in 1862 by order of Caleb 
Smith, Secretary of the Interior (then in charge of the aqueduct 
system), at the suggestion of Representative Galusha Grow, of 
Pennsylvania, afterward Speaker of the House. 

The most recent as well as the most determined effort toward 
the restoration of Jeff Davis' name was made in 1907. In that 
year the Society of the Daughters of the Confederacy, at Rich- 
mond, adopted strong resolutions in favor of the restoration of 
the name, and W. P. Phillips, W. B. Smith and other citizens 
joined the movement. Representative Adolph Meyer, of Louis- 
iana, since deceased, took a specially active part in the matter 
and induced the Secretary of War (Mr. Taft) to have the matter 
thoroughly investigated. 


Major Spencer Cosby, Engineer Commissioner of the District, 
was in charge of the Washington adueduct system at that time. 
He made an examination of all available records and made a 
full report of his researches in July, 1907. 

114 Southern Historical Society Peepers. 

After giving a short history of the bridge and telling of the 
erasure of Jefferson Davis' name. Major Cosby summarized his 
report as follows : 

"While I have been able to find nothing in the official records 
as to the erasure of this name, it is understood that it was cut 
out in 1862, at the order of the Secretary of the Interior, under 
whose department the aqueduct had at that time been placed. 

"In view of the name given the arch and inscribed on the 
corresponding panel of the oposite abutment, the replacing of 
the name of Mr. Davis at this time would partake of a certain 
grim irony which would mar what otherwise might seem a gra- 
cious act. The policy of such an act is not thought to be a 
proper matter for discussion in this report. 


"The argument of Air. Phillips for the restoration of the name 
of Jefferson Davis loses force from the fact that he is mistaken 
in his principal point. Jefferson Davis was not Secretary of 
War when 'Cabin John Bridge' was built, and I can find nothing 
in our records to show that he ever saw or approved the plans 
for that structure. He was Secretary of War when work on 
other parts of the aqueduct was started, in 1853, but the plans 
which he then recommended for approval showed a bridge of 
five arches over Cabin John Valley. The actual construction 
work on the bridge was begun in 1857, shortly after Mr. Davis 
ceased to be Secretary of War. 

"Many of the drawings and estimates made during the early 
period of the construction of 'Cabin John Bridge' bear the 
name of Alfred 1.. Rives as assistant or division engineer, in 
addition to that of M. C. Meigs as chief engineer. It does not 
appear that Mr. Rives' name was ever placed on the tablet at 
'Cabin John Bridge,' although it is engraved with that of five 
9ther assistant engineers in the gatehouse at Great Falls. It has 
been stated that it was the intention of Captain Meigs to have 
Mr. Rives' name placed on the bridge, but that he changed his 
mind when Mr. Rives left the work in 1861, when it was only 
partially completed. 

Restoration of Name of Jefferson Davis. 115 

"At the present time it is not usual to place the names of public 
officials upon structures erected by the engineer department. 
If it is decided to have any names inscribed on 'Cabin John 
Bridge' there are many Presidents, Secretaries of War, chief 
engineers and assistant engineers whose names it might be 
claimed should be among those selected." 

[Should read "Confederated Southern Memorial Association" 
wherever printed "Daughters of Confederacy."] 


Washington, D. C, March 9, 1909. 
Mrs. W. J. Behan, 

President Confederated Southern Memorial Association, 
New Orleans, La. : 
Dear Madam, — I am in receipt of your favor of the 27th ulti- 
mo, and assure you that I am very much elated at the order of 
President Roosevelt. He has done his duty, and is entitled to 
the credit. I feel confident that I could have passed my bill 
through Congress, but as it was results we were after rather than 
anything else, I am extremely glad to have the matter settled 
in so satisfactory a way. 

Very truly yours, 

C. C. Carlin. 


Department of Archives and History. 

Thomas M. Owen. L.L. D., Director. 

Montgomery, March 10, 1909. 
My Dear Mrs. Bei-ian : 

I wish to most heartily felicitate you and the Confederated 
Southern Memorial Association on the success of your agitation 
to secure the restoration of the name of Jefferson Davis to the 
tablet on "Cabin John Bridge." All Confederate organizations 
must rejoice in this act of simple justice on the part of the Fede- 

116 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

ral Government. Slowly and yet surely both history and public 
sentiment are coming to a right appreciation of the historic con- 
tentions of the South, and I confidently look for the time when 
the North will join us in doing honor, not only to the principles 
for which our fathers fought, but also to the men, both of high 
and low rank, who so nobly and bravely battled for these rights. 
I have the honor to remain with sincere esteem, 

Very respectfully, 

Tnos. M. Owen. 
Mrs. YV. J. Behan, New Orleans. 

Extracts from Letter Received from Major John J. Hood, 
of Jackson, Miss. 

March 15, 1909. 
Mrs. W. J. Behan, New Orleans: 

My Esteemed Friend, — I congratulate you most sincerely on 
the success you had with your laudable and strenuous effort to 
have the name of our great chieftain restored on the tablet on 
"Cabin John Bridge." It was doing justice to Mr. Davis as an 
able and honored servant of the government and was but per- 
petuating an historical fact — and it carries with it the order to 
restore a graceful sentiment of reconciliation, that though seem- 
ingly of little significance to the powers that be, means a great 
deal to us. 

As the Star, of Meridian, Miss., well says : "It was well done," 
it was a timely and appropriate thing to do, and will be recog- 
nized and appreciated by the people of the South as a silent 
renunciation (by Roosevelt) of a mistaken view formerly held 
of the character of one of the greatest Americans who ever 
lived." * * * The restoration of the name now stands a 
towering monument to him and to acknowledgment of his great- 
ness; so after all, the government is the honored one, for his 
name and fame were not born to die ! 

With thanks for courtesies, with renewed congratulations, 
and with sentiments' of high esteem, I am, madam, 

Cordially and sincerely your friend, 

J xo. J. Hood. 

Restoration of Name of Jefferson Davis. 117 

Atlanta, Ga., March 26, 1909. 

Mrs. W. J. Bei-jan, President C. S. M. A.: 

My Dear Mrs. Behaii, — I have no need to assure you of my 
great pleasure in having been permitted to have association with 
you so many years in the successful efforts to maintain the 
truth, the dignity and the honor of our Confederate movement. 
That movement by a great, intelligent, patriotic, Christian people 
is uplifted loftily above all the political, personal, ambitious, com- 
mercial, selfish movements in all history. 

The fame of the President and the great leaders is recognized 
by every fair patriot in all the world, I am ready to say, in quot- 
ing the notable petition of a great old man, "Now let thy servant 
depart in peace." But, alas, not quite yet. I want to live a few 
years more to enjoy with our whole country the harvest and 
bright results of the controversy we have had with those of our 
countrymen who were so hard to convince. 

As a present duty which we owe to the country we must follow 
at once in the best spirit the suggestions which the restored name 
of Jefferson Davis on the "Cabin John Bridge" make to the 
world. That apparently small event marks far more than even 
a grand Southern-built monument. I do not mean that we 
should exult in a triumph over foes in this restoration of the 
words "Jefferson Davis" upon "Cabin John Bridge;" but that 
we should appreciate the act in the right spirit and with suitable 
expressions. I desire that the quiet work of the Southern women 
in this matter shoul be told by whoever is selected to speak of it 
lief ore U. C. V. convention at an appropriate half -hour. 

Further, we must put our countrymen in possession of the 
personal, patriotic, historical character of Jefferson Davis — I 
emphasize the importance of this information as being greater 
than even the building of monuments to his memory. We must 
build the monuments but we must not leave them alone to speak 
for him and us. We must place him in fame for his splendid 
personal attributes — his extraordinary patriotic career — his won- 
derful patience in suffering through a long life, etc. We must 
place him alongside our revolutionary heroes — our Washington, 
Jefferson, John Adams — alongside our Presidents, our statesmen 

118 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

of the middle period — alongside President Lincoln as he is por- 
trayed to-day — Why not ? What is there left in the life of Jef- 
ferson Davis for any man to condemn ? 

Let his portrait be as widely distributed as the portrait of any 
other great man. Let our school books contain eulogies of Jef- 
ferson Davis as well as eulogies of President Lincoln. Let 
extracts from his speeches be used by our young boys in their 
declamations. In short, let us do for him whatever we do to 
make future generations remember any other great man. 

Well. Airs. Behan, I find that I have been carried away out of 
all discretion in writing this long letter. Forgive me ; I will not 
treat you so any more. 

Faithfully your friend, 

Clement A. Evans. 

Atlanta, Ga., March 29, 1909. 

My Dear Mrs. Behan, New Orleans: 

I write an immediate answer to your letter because I am 
always glad to be in co-operation with your good work. 

I am delighted by the fact that you will file yourreport with 
General Mickle, who will be glad to bring it to my notice at the 
proper time during the Reunion. 

I repeat that we must hold up the name of Jefferson Davis in 
high honor just as he well deserves. The country is getting in 
frame of mind to appreciate our noble President. 

With the most affectionate regard for you, L am, 

Your friend, 

Clement A. Evans. 

Atlanta, April 3, 1909. 
My Dear Mrs. Behan : 

Your approval of my suggestion as to the action of the U. C. V. 
in noticing the replacing of the name "Jefferson Davis" on 
"Cabin John Bridge" is very gratifying. We are under certain 
obligations in this matter — and what we do must be done deli- 
cately — Southern-like — unanimously and patriotically. I know 
that all this will be considered. The meaning of that restoration 

Restoration of Name of Jefferson Davis. 119 

is that Jefferson Davis himself is no longer looked upon as 
being sectionally or nationally persona noil grata. Hereafter he 
will be viewed on his merits, and they are sufficient to place him 
among the notable great statesmen of his period. Your sugges- 
tion of Colonel Hudson or Colonel Guion as suitable to make the 
important short speech suits me fully. I will suggest, however, 
that Colonel Guion has been selected or at least suggested to 
make the speech when the Vicksburg National Park and our 
Southern Monument there and particularly just now the bronze 
statue of General S. D. Lee shall be reported on. In connection 
with that park and Shiloh Park, as well as the general monument 
matters, I think that Colonel Guion should appropriately speak 
at that hour with others. Consult with General Mickle'and have 
the arrangements made. 

Anticipating great pleasure in meeting you at Memphis, I am, 

Your faithful friend, 

Clement A. Evans. 


Washington, D. C, April 9, 1909. 
Mrs. W. J. Behan, New Orleans, Ea. : 

Dear Madam, — I herewith enclose you article published in 
the Evening Star of a few days ago, which will give you full 
information with reference to the matter about which we have 
been corresponding. 

Very truly yours, 

C. C. Carlin. 


Bids Opened for Recarving Cabin John Bridge Tablet — 

Present Inscription to be Removed and New Letters 

to be Cut in the Fresh Surface. 

Proposals were opened to-day at the office of the engineer in 
charge of the Washington Aqueduct for restoring the name of 
Jefferson Davis to the stone tablet on "Cabin John Bridge," six 
miles west of the city, from which it was expunged in Presi- 

120 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

dent Lincoln's administration. The name is to be restored in 
accordance with orders given by President Roosevelt on Wash- 
ington's birthday, less than two weeks before he left the office 
of Chief Executive. Although the amount of work to be done 
is. comparatively small and the cost very little, yet it took con- 
siderable time to get the orders through the various channels 
to the officer directly in charge of the work, who at once went 
about completing the necessary details. The bridge is a high 
structure and considerable scaffolding has had to be erected 
where the mechanics will do their work. 


The restoration of Mr. Davis' name to the tablet will mark 
the culmination of many efforts with that object in view, which, 
however, will finally be accomplished without the immediate 
appeal of any organization or individual, but by the direct orders 
of Mr. Roosevelt himself. An allotment of $250 was made for 
the work by the engineer's office. The specifications asking bids 
for the restoration of the name read as follows : 

"Restoring the name of Jefferson Davis on the granite tablet 
on the west abutment of 'Cabin John Bridge' by removing the 
entire face of the stone about five by eleven to a depth approxi- 
mately one inch or sufficient to form a new, clean, smooth brushed 
surface and recutting the legend now upon the tablet with the 
addition of the name, Jefferson Davis, as shown upon the rub- 
bing with 'v'-cut letters. The present ogree marginel border 
around the tablet is to be bushed to a clean bevel cut one and 
one-half inches wide." 


The stone tablets are built in the bridge, one on each abut- 
ment (south face). One bears the inscription: 

Union Arch, 

Chief Engineer, Capt. Montgomery C. Meigs, 

U. S. Corps of Engineers. 

Esto perpetua. 

Restoration of Name of Jefferson Davis. 121 

The other; 

Washington Aqueduct. 

Begun A. D. 1853. 

President of the U. S., Franklin Pierce. 

Secretary of War, , 

Building A. D. 1861. 

President of the U. S., Abraham Lincoln, 

Secretary of War, Simon Cameron. 

The blank space in the above description indicates the place 
foimerly filled by Mr. Davis' name. Its absence from the tablet 
all these years has already stimulated curiosity on the part of 
sightseers, who made inquiries as to why the space was blank 
and whose name, if any, had filled it. The presence of the 
name there, as an army officer pointed out to-day, will put Mr. 
Davis' name in the same category as the others now on the 
tablet, which because of its comparatively inconspicuous position 
will not attract the attention that it heretofore has and will 
relieve the ubiquitous guide of one of his subjects for comment 
and an object of interest to be pointed out to tourists. 

It will probably take a workman two weeks to do the work 
required by the specifications. The use of the "V" shaped letters 
to be chiseled in the tablet is less expensive and less laborious 
than the square cut letters usually adopted, but at the same time 
they are conspicuous. 

[From Washington, D. C, Post, April 18, 1909.] 


Stonecutter Home Puts Love Into His Task — Loyal to 
Memory of Davis. 

Mississippian Tells How He Long Hoped for the Honor of Restoring 

the Name of Confederacy's Leader to Granite Slab on Cabin 

John Bridge— And His Dream Came True— Back to Dixie. 

James B. Home, native son of Mississippi, stonecutter by 
trade, loyal to the lost cause, and as stout of heart as he is strong 
of arm, is doing a labor of love out at "Cabin John Bridge," 
and, incidentally, making for James B. Home, of Moss Point, 
Miss., a little niche in the hall of fame. 

122 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

For several hours each week day one can find Mr. Home, 
perched high up on a frail scaffold, mall and chisel in hand, 
chipping away at a granite slab, with one end in view — to restore 
to its rightful place in the historic tablet on the historical span, 
the name of Jefferson Davis, Secretary of War when work on 
"Cabin John Bridge' was started by the United States Govern- 

Asked to tell something about the lure that brought him to 
the National Capital, here to ply his trade on one job alone, the 
Mississippian said while seated on the bank by the side of the 
little stream the bridge so proudly spans : 


"It is this way. There isn't anybody but my old lady and 
myself. You see we were in California last year knocking 
around. I have sort of retired, and we wanted to go there, so 
we did. Well," here Mr. Home plucked a blade of grass medi- 
tatively, "we wanted to see an inauguration, so we came on for 
Taft's. It was just after we had gotten here, when I read a 
story in the Post about the restoration of Jefferson Davis' name 
on the marble slab, and I said to my old lady, said I : 'I'm going 
to get that job if I have to pester the whole of the government 
to do it.' 

"But wait a bit. I'm going too fast. About ten or fifteen 
years ago, when I was working down in Birmingham, Ala., one 
day I read the name of Davis had been taken off. I was nothing 
but a boy when the Civil War was going on, but we all down 
there were mighty hot at having the name taken off, anyhow, and 
] had heard of it. But when I read that article I said to my old 
lady, said I : T sure would like to have the job of putting that 
name back on there, and, by George, if it ever is going to be put 
back I'll do it.' 


"Well, I didn't see any prospect of its ever being put back 
on, till, as I said, I came here. You may just reckon I was some 
glad to read that story in the Post. Then I learned there were 
going to be bids made on it. So I filled out a blank. I reckoned 

Restoration of Name of Jefferson Davis. 123 

on most all of the others bidding at about $200 or $250, so I 
said to myself, for the honor and glory of the thing I'll go lower, 
so down I put $210. 

"Well, then it came out as to how the bids had gone. Shelton 
& Co. had bid $147. Now, you know, I was knocked out. I 
said to my old lady, said I, 'I'll bet I lose.' Well, you know, 
after having wanted for fifteen years to have my wish it was 
mighty hard to give up then. But I got an idea. I went to the 
Shelton place, and I saw Mr. Shelton. 'Mr. Shelton,' said I, 'I 
sure do want to put Davis' name back on the slab at "Cabin 
John Bridge." Now, what's going to be done? Can I come and 
work for you?' 

" 'Sure,' said Mr. Shelton. Well, we started out, and I was to 
work by the day. Then he found out he was losing money, and 
so I said, 'Here, I'll take the thing.' So I did. Of course, the 
contract is in Shelton'' s name, but I'm doing the job. 


"You know there's some work on that thing. It isn't just 
putting the name in. Lord bless you no, child ! That whole 
thing has to be leveled off, first with one kind of tool, and so 
on through four. Then the whole tablet has to be all re-lettered. 
But I'll tell you what. You know I have to be through by May 
15th. I'm going to knock that in the collar and finish it between 
the 10th and that time. 

"I've done lots of jobs," said Home, "but this one sure is to 
my liking. You know, I'm an orphan, and, as I said, there is 
no one in our family but my old lady and me. But I have a 
little niece, Bessie. The other day I wrote to Bessie, and I 
said: 'Bessie, your Uncle Jim is sure enough putting those letters 
back on that thing.' And when I get through I'm going to get 
the history of the place, take some pictures of the bridge, and 
then go home. 

"You know, my old lady wants me to settle down, and for us 
to live here in Washington. Now, I haven't a thing against this 
place. But, bless you, a stonecutter has no home. W 7 hy, I've 
followed my work all my life. I've been all over the country — 
anywhere the work was. 

124 Southern Historical Society Papers. 


"And, anyway, when I've done what I wanted to I'm going 
back to my home, Moss Point, Miss., and settle down. But I 
sure have to be going on with that work now." 

So saying, Mr. Home scrambled up the bank, over the single 
plank that stood between him and the ground many feet below, 
and was soon safe on his little scaffold. Suddenly he turned 

"Hi, don't you all want a piece of this?" and so saying he 
tossed a bit of the granite over the intervening space, the valley 
re-echoing just afterwards to the sound of his chisel, as he plied 
ii, a song on his lips. 


Washington, D. C, May 15, 1909. 
Mrs. W. J. Behax, 

1207 Jackson Avenue, New Orleans, La. : 
Restoration Davis name "Cabin John Bridge" all done except 
finishing touches, May 14. Souvenirs by express. 

Samuel E. Lewis, M. D., 
Chairman Monumental Committee, U. C. V. 

Washington, D. C, May 15, 1909, 5 P. M. 
My Dear Mrs. Behan : 

Your telegram received this A. M. Visited "Cabin John 
Bridge," and went on scaffold with Mr. Home. Delivered your 
letter to him. He had received none of your former communi- 
cations. Mr. Home finished the cutting all the letters of the 
new inscription yesterday. He is now going over his work, 
doing the finishing touches here and there, as may be necessary 
to make his work smoother and more nearly perfect. He prom- 
ised that he would write you to-morrow. I brought home with 
me from the scaffold the fragments of stone which I send here- 
with. Mr. Home presented me with the enclosed photo taken 

Restoration of Name of Jefferson Davis. 125 

yesterday, when he was completing the name of Mr. Davis, and 

I turn it over to you. I telegraphed you immediately upon my 

return to the city. 

Yours sincerely, 

Samuel E. Lewis, M. D., 
Chairman Monumental Com. U. C. V. 

[From Washington. D. C, Post, May 16, 1909.1 

Contract for Restoring Davis' Name on Bridge Extended. 

Major J. J. Morrow, the engineer officer in charge of the 
Washington Aqueduct, has extended for one week the time to 
complete the work of restoring the name of Jefferson Davis on 
the stone tablet at "Cabin John Bridge." 

The contract called for the work to be finished yesterday, but 
it is understood that bad weather interfered with its progress. 

Washington, D. C, May 16, 1909. 
Dear Mrs. Behan : 

I telegraphed you yesterday the exact fact. The lettering of 
the entire inscription is all cut — was finished in the cutting Fri- 
day, May 14th. The only remaining work to be done is to put 
on the finishing touches, so that all letters and the entire surface 
shall be as smooth as possible. To do this finishing will require 
several more days. Mr. Home told me yesterday that even that 
would be done by next Thursday. 

The souvenirs by express probably were not called for at the 
agency last evening and may not be forwarded till Monday. In 
the same box is a short statement letter. 

Sincerely yours, 

Samuel E. Lewis, M. D., 
Chairman Monumental Com. U. C. V. 

N. B. — Remember that yesterday, the 15th, I myself was on the 
scaffold with Mr. Home and saw his entire work, and that I saw 
that all the letters of the entire inscription were already cut. 

Samuel E. Lewis, M. D. 

126 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

New Orleans, La., May 17, 1909. 

Hon. J. M. Dicktnson, Secretary of War, 

Washington, D. C. 

Dear Sir. — The "Cabin John Bridge" Committee appointed by 
the President of the Confederated Southern Memorial Associa- 
tion at its convention in Richmond, Ya., June, 1907, most respect- 
fully request information from the Department of the Hon. Sec- 
retary of War as to the progress being made in the work of 
restoring the name, Jefferson Davis, on "Cabin John Bridge," 
Washington, D. C. The chairman of the committee will appre- 
ciate advice from the War Department when the restoration is 


Very respectfully, 

Mrs. W. J. Behan, 
President Confederated Southern Memorial Association. 


Richmond, Ya., May 20, 1909. 
Mrs. W. J. Behan, 

1207 Jackson Avenue, New Orleans, La.: 
Yours seventeenth received. Congratulations on your grand 
work restoration name Jefferson Davis to "Cabin John Bridge." 

Mrs. J. Enders Robinson, 

Virginia Committee. 


920 Seventeenth Street, N. W. 

Washington, D. C, May 21, 1909. 
Mrs. W. J. Behan, 

President Confederated Southern Memorial Association, 
Chairman "Cabin John Bridge" Committee, 1207 Jack- 
son Avenue, New Orleans, La. : 
Dear Madam, — Your letter of the 17th inst., addressed to the 
Secretary of War. requesting information as to the progress 

Restoration of Name of Jefferson Davis. 127 

being made in the work of restoring the name of Jefferson Davis 
on "Cabin John Bridge," has been referred to this office for 

I have to advise that the work was completed on the 19th inst. 

Very respectfully, 

Jno. J. Morrow, 
Major, Corps of Engineers. 

[This circular letter to each member of the "Cabin John Bridge" 
Committee, relieving them from further duty.] 

New Orleans, La., May 21, 1909. 

The members of "Cabin John Bridge" Committee are con- 
gratulated on the success of their patriotic efforts to have the 
name of Jefferson Davis restored to its former place on the tablet 
on "Cabin John Bridge," Washington, D. C. 

The restoration is now completed, and the "Cabin John Bridge" 
Committee is thanked and relieved from further duty. 

Mrs. W. J. Behan, 
President Confederated Southern Memorial Association. 
Chairman "Cabin John Bridge." 

[Extract from letter from Mr. J. B. Home, of Moss Point, 
Miss., who re-carved the name, Jefferson Davis, on "Cabin 
John Bridge."] 

Washington, D. C, May 24, 1909. 

Mrs. W. J. Behan: 

Pear Madam, — Your kind letter of the 19th came to hand 
to-day. I received a splendid letter to-day from Mrs. Hayes, 
which I shall hold very dear. It was a surprise to me, and con- 
tained a nice present, which came in good time. The pieces of 
stone that I sent you are from around the space where Jefferson 
Davis' name was erased. You will notice that the edge is 
dressed, showing the depth of the panel. I could not get off a 
very large piece, as it was so hard. I have a large piece that 
came from bet wen the A and R in the word War, as Secretarv 

128 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

of War, and several smaller pieces from the same line. I don't 
know yet what I shall do with the tools ; would like to present 
them to the Museum at Richmond, and, if I am successful here, 
perhaps will at their next meeting. I made a great success of 
the work and have been praised by people from all over the 
country. It was a terrible strain on me, but I am resting and 
getting ready for the struggle again. If I ever get back I will 
surely call on you, and let you know that there are some men 
still living that never forget. 

Hoping that the souvenirs will reach you, I am, 

Very truly yours, 

J. B. Horxe. 
304 Indiana Ave., AYashington, D. C. 

[ Letter from Lieutenant-General C. Irvine Walker, Army North- 
ern Virginia. Department U. C. V.] 


Department United Confederate Veterans. 

Lieut.-Gex. C. Irvine Walker, Commanding. 

Charleston, S. C, May 25, 1909. 
My Dear Mrs. Behan: 

Yours of 22d inst. to hand. I certainly do rejoice with and 
add my congratulations that the splendid work that you advise 
me of has been completed. I think we have many evidences that 
the harsh feelings and bitterness engendered by the war are 
passing away. It is a fortunate provision of an all-wise Provi- 
dence that the gentle influence of time removes many of the 
acerbities of life. You and I are fortunate to have lived to see 
this, and to see, what is more remarkable, that even our quondam 
enemies are doing justice to our magnificient struggle for liberty. 

I hope to have the pleasure of seeing you often at the Memphis 
Reunion. With all good comradely love, 

I am, most sincerely, 

C. Irvine Walker. 

Bestoration oj Name of Jefferson Davis. 129 

[From. New Orleans, La., Daily Picayune, May 30, 1909.] ■ 


Work Completed and Name of Great Southern Leader 

Chiseled on Tablet May 14th, by Captain James B. 

Home of Moss Point, Mississippi. 

The name of Jefferson Davis has been restored to ''Cabin John 
Bridge,"' Washington, D. C. The last letter was cut May 14th, 
and the work is now complete. 

Back of this restoration is a story of rare interest to the whole 
South. Coming just at this time it will be of special interest 
because on June 3d, next Thursday, the anniversary of the birth 
of Jefferson Davis will be observed with the usual Memorial Day 
services and paying honor to the memory of sacred dead. 

Jefferson Davis was Secretary of War in 1853, during the 
administration of Franklin Pierce. This celebrated bridge, a 
great engineering problem, was constructed during the adminis- 
tration of Secretary of War Davis. His name was placed upon 
the tablet. In 1862, after the War of the States had broken out, 
the name of Jefferson Davis was ordered stricken off. It was 
erased with a chisel and the blank space has remained there until 
now restored. 

To the Confederated Southern Memorial Association belongs 
the credit of having originated the project to secure a restoration 
of the name, and having kept after it with unfailing energy until 
it was done. Mrs. W. J. Behan, 1207 Jackson Avenue, this city, 
is President of the Association. She is now serving her third 
term as President and in her tenth year. It was at the conven- 
tion in Richmond, Va., in June, 1907, that the movement to have 
this respect and honor shown the memory of the former great 
Confederate chieftain originated. 

Along with the patriotic direction of the movement by the 
Ladies' Confederated Association must be mentioned the story 
of heroism and patriotism of Captain James B. Home, of Moss 
Point, Miss., who has performed the mechanical work of restor- 

130 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

ing the name of Jefferson Davis. Mr. Home is a stonecutter 
by trade, of Moss Point. When the project had reached the 
point of having the tahlet resurfaced and the name re-entered 
upon it, Mr. Home left Moss Point and went to Washington to 
secure the contract. 

"Not for what there is in it, but for the love of my Southland 
and to be able to perform this little service in memory of Jeffer- 
son Davis," was the sentiment expressed by Mr. Horne as he 
took the train for the National Capital. 

When it came to letting the contract, the firm of J. H. Shelton 
& Son, of Washington, underbid the stonecutter of Mississippi 
and secured the contract for $147. Mr. Horne was sorely dis- 
appointed. He left his home in Moss Point with this one object 
in view. Determined to do the work at all hazards before ever 
returning to his native State, Captain Horne went to the con- 
tractors and offered to do the work for most nothing, just to have 
the honor. He was given the job. 

"It was a labor of love," wrote Mr. Horne to Mrs. Behan a 
few days ago, "but I feel that I have rendered a service for my 
people which nothing else could satisfy. I shall keep the tools 
with which this work has been done, twenty-four chisels and a 
hammer, and they shall never be used on another job if I can 
prevent it." 

Dr. Samuel E. Lewis, chairman of the Monumental Com- 
mittee, U. C. V., wired Mrs. Behan from Washington on May 
15th, as follows: "Restoration of Davis' name 'Cabin John 
Bridge' all done except finishing touches May 14th. Souvenirs 
by express." 

Mr. Horne also wrote Mrs. Behan of the final completion of 
the labor. The souvenirs mentioned consist of chips from the 
hard granite, while carving the name of Davis. 

Captain Horne and his wife will now return to Moss Point. 
He wrote a letter detailing some of his experiences while restor- 
ing the name. He referred to the small pay and the difficult 
undertaking. Having to work directly in front of him he found 
it exceedingly difficult. Dr. Gerald Webb, of Colorado Springs, 
who had married into the Davis family, called on him while at 
work. Since the completion, Mr. Horne has received a delightful 

Restoration of Name of Jefferson Davis. 131 

letter from Mrs. Addison Hayes, the only surviving child of 
President Davis. 

The history of how the restoration of Davis' name was accom- 
plished through the energies of the Confederated Southern Me- 
morial Association, Mrs. W. J. Behan, President, will form an 
interesting bit of Confederate history in years to come. It was 
at the Richmond Convention of the Association, in 1907, that the 
first steps were taken. Mr. J. Addison Hayes, of Colorado 
Springs, being present, spoke in favor of the movement. Mrs. J. 
Enders Robinson, a delegate from the Confederate Memorial 
Literary Society, of Richmond, Va., offered the following resolu- 
tion : 

"Be it Resolved, That we, the 'Confederated Southern Memo- 
rial Association,' in convention assembled, in the city of Rich- 
mond, Va., on this, the 1st day of June, 1907, do request the 
United States Government to have the name of Jefferson Davis 
restored to the tablet on 'Cabin John Bridge,' from which it was 
removed during the war." 

This resolution was amended by adding, "and that we invite 
the United Confederate Veterans and all other Confederate 
organizations to unite with the Confederated Southern Memorial 
Association in its effort to have the patriotic and historical pur- 
pose accomplished on or before June 3, 1908.'' 

The resolution, as amended, was unanimously adopted. The 
President of the Confederated Southern Memorial Association 
was authorized to appoint a committee to work in this connec- 
tion, consisting of the heads of Confederate organizations and 
delegates to this convention. The committee consisted of Hon. 
Adolph Meyer, member of Congress from Louisiana; General 
Stephen D. Lee, Commander-in-Chief, U. C. V. ; Mrs. Lizzie 
George Henderson, President-General, U. D. C. ; Mr. John W. 
Apperson, Commander-in-Chief, U. S. C. V. ; Mrs. George S. 
Holmes, President Jefferson Davis Monument Association ; Mrs. 
J. Enders Robinson and Mrs. Alfred Gray, delegates from the 
Confederate Memorial Literary Society, Richmond, Va. ; Miss 
M. B. Poppenheim, delegate from the Ladies' Confederate Me- 
morial Association, Charleston, S. C. ; Mrs. W. J. Behan, New 
Orleans, Chairman. Upon her return to New Orleans, Mrs. 

182 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

Behan had a personal interview with Mr. Meyer, who expressed 
a hearty sympathy with the movement and readily consented to 
take charge of the matter in the name of the Confederated South- 
ern Memorial Association. His advice was to be patient, and to 
act with prudence, that the matter should not be brought before 
Congress, but that it be left with the President or the Secretary 
of War. In July, 1907, Mr. Meyer wrote Mrs. Behan as fol- 
lows : "I feel confident of success, a confidence warranted by 
several conferences that I have had with Secretary Taft." 

In March, 1908, Congressman Meyer died. In April Mrs. 
Behan wrote United States Senator Murphy J. Foster, request- 
ing him to take up the matter where Mr. Meyer had left off. 
Mr. Foster accepted the task and took up the matter with Secre- 
tary of War William Howard" Taft upon his return from the 
Philippines. Mrs. Behan wrote Secretary of War Taft, to his 
successor, General Luke E. Wright, and to President Roosevelt. 
Prompt and courteous replies were received, which gave her 
every encouragement. General B. F. Eshleman, who was in 
Washington on business in December, 1908, called on the Secre- 
tary of War, who promised to take up the matter with President 
Roosevelt. Other negotiations continued until February,- 1909, 
when President Roosevelt issued his order to have the name of 
Jefferson Davis restored to the commemorative tablet on "Cabin 
John Bridge." There was great rejoicing in Confederate circles, 
and Mrs. Behan sent telegrams of thanks to the President, Wash- 
ington officials, and other interested parties. By this act Presi- 
dent Roosevelt won the esteem and admiration of all fair-minded 
persons North and South. Many congratulatory letters have 
been received by Mrs. Behan, and she wishes especially to thank 
General Clement A. Evans, Commander-in-Chief, U. C. V. ; 
Dr. Thos. M. Owen, Historian General, U. S. C. V. ; Colonel 
Lewis Guion, Chairman of History Committee, Louisiana Di- 
vision, U. C. V. ; Hon. C. C. Carlin, member of Congress from 
Virginia ; Major John J. Hood, of Jackson, Miss., and Mr. 
Walter P. Phillip, of Bridgeport, Conn., who had assisted the 
committee by writing a personal letter to President Roosevelt. 

General Evans wrote : "The replacing of Jefferson Davis' 
name means more than the building of a monument to him." 

.Restoration of Name of Jefferson Davis. 133 

On May 21, 1909, of the current month, General Clement A. 
Evans, General Commanding, issued a special order, No. 13, in 
which he noted the restoration of the Davis' name and said : 

"By this restoration an act of justice has been done to one 
of America's greatest statesmen. The fact is in itself trivial, 
but it is momentous in significance. It emphasizes the truth 
that our countrymen will recognize worth ; that Air. Davis, who 
was thoroughly Southern in his sentiments, can be truly valued 
by those who were once his enemies, and that he was actuated 
by lofty motives and conceptions of duty, as were other states- 
men and soldiers of the Confederacy. 

"It is possible that this desirable result would never have been 
reached had not our glorious women taken the matter in hand 
and pushed it to completion. The Confederated Southern Me- 
morial Association started the work in 1907, and Mrs. J. Enders 
Robinson, of Richmond, and Mrs. YV '. J. Behan, of New Orleans, 
assisted by the U. D. C. and kindred organizations have the thanks 
of all Confederates for the accomplishment of this work." 

On May 17th, of this month, Mrs. Behan released the Com- 
mittee appointed in Richmond in 1907, and extended her sincere 
congratulations over the result. The committee consisted of 
General Clement A. Evans, vice General Stephen D. Lee, de- 
ceased; Mrs. Cornelia Branch Stone, vice Mrs. Lizzie George 
Henderson, retired ; Mr. John W. Apperson,- Mrs. George S. 
Holmes, Mrs. J. Enders Robinson, Airs. Alfred Gray, Miss AI. B. 
Poppenheim, Hon. Murphy J. Foster, United States Sentaor, 
vice Hon. Adolph Meyer, deceased; Airs. W. J. Behan, chair- 



C. S. M. A., JUNE 7-10, 1909. 

The Name of Jefferson Davis Restored to Tablet 
on Cabin John Bridge. 

At the Annual Convention of the Confederated Southern Ale- 
morial Association, held in Richmond, Va., May 30-June 3, 1907, 
this important work w r as inaugurated. On Tune 1st, Airs. J. 

134 . Southern Historical Society Papers. 

Enders Robinson, a delegate from the Confederate Memorial 
Literary Society of Richmond, Va., offered a resolution to this 
effect : "That the Confederated Southern Memorial Association 
take the necessary steps to have the United States Government 
replace the name of Jefferson Davis on the tablet of "Cabin John 
Bridge," and that the United Confederate Veterans and all other 
Confederate organizations be invited to unite with the Confed- 
erated Southern Memorial Association in its efforts to accom- 
plish this patriotic object. The President of the Confedrated 
Southern Memorial Association was authorized to appoint a com- 
mittee, which was done, and the committe was as follows : Hon. 
Adolph Meyer, M. C. from Louisiana ; General Stephen D. Lee, 
Mississippi; Mrs. Lizzie George Henderson, Mississippi; Mr. 
Jno. W. Apperson, Tennessee; Mrs. J. Enders Robinson, Vir- 
ginia ; Mrs. Alfred Gray, Virginia ; Mrs. George S. Holmes, 
South Carolina ; Miss Mary B. Poppenheim, South Carolina ; 
Mrs. W. J. Behan, Louisiana, chairman. 

Shortly after my return to New Orleans from Richmond, I 
had a personal interview with Hon. Adolph Meyer, who declared 
himself in hearty sympathy with the movement and promised 
to do all in his power to bring it to a successful issue. In July, 
1907, he wrote as follows: "I feel satisfied that we will succeed 
in the movement to restore the name of Jefferson Davis to 'Cabin 
John Bridge' — a confidence warranted by the results of several 
conferences I have had with Secretary of War Taft, whose voice 
will be practically potential in the matter. However, we must 
indulge ourselves in patience and proceed tactfully, in order to 
meet conditions on all sides. It cannot be forced immediately." 

In the year 1908 it became necessary to change the personelle 
of the "Cabin John Bridge" Committee, owing to the death of 
Hon. Adolph Meyer, who died in March, 1908, and of General 
Stephen D. Lee, who departed this life on May 28th, same year. 
Those two vacancies were filled by the appointment of Hon. 
Murphy J. Foster, United States Senator from Louisiana, to 
succeed Hon. Adolph Meyer; and General Clement A. Evans, 
to succeed the late General Lee. Mrs. Henderson's term of 
office having expired in December, 1907, she resigned ; and her 
, successor, Mrs. Cornelia Branch Stone, was appointed to fill the 

Restoration of Name of Jefferson Davis. 135 

place. In accepting, Mrs. Stone expressed thanks and apprecia- 
tion for the appointment. 

From the start to the finish I was ever on the alert, studying 
the best policy to be observed, and was in constant correspond- 
ence with the officials at Washington, D. C. Prompt, courteous, 
and encouraging replies were received from Hon. W. H. Taft 
while he was Secretary of War, from his successor, Hon. Luke 
E. Wright, and His Excellency, President Roosevelt. 

Mrs. J. Enders Robinson, the Virginia member of the com- 
mittee and the mover of this patriotic resolution, rendered val- 
uable service. It was through her efforts that we succeeded in 
keeping th matter out of Congress. 

General Clement A Evans, also a member of the "Cabin John 
Bridge" Committee, w^as at all times in thorough accord with me, 
and was confident of success- He reported that he would write 
a strong letter to Hon. Luke E. Wright "in the true vein." 

During the month of December, General B. F. Eshleman, a 
brave and gallant officer of the Washington Artillery, of Xew 
Orleans, was called to Washington on business and at my request, 
he called on President Roosevelt and the Secretary of War in 
the interest of this important movement. He found the latter 
very favorably disposed and received assurances from him that 
the matter would be taken up with the President in a short time. 

On January 9, 1909, the following letter was received from 
Hon. Luke E. Wright : 

My Dear Mrs. Behan : 

I beg to acknowledge receipt of your favor of the 21st ultimo, 
in regard to the desire of the Confederated Southern Memorial 
Association to have the name of Jefferson Davis restored to 
"Cabin John Bridge." I shall be pleased to take the matter up 
with the President and see what can be done. 

Sincerely yours, 

Luke E. Wright. 

Mrs. W. J. Behan, President Confederated Southern Memorial 
Association, Xew Orleans. 

136 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

It was soon after this date that President Roosevelt ordered 
Chief Engineer Marshall to have the name of Jefferson Davis 
restored to the commemorative tablet on "Cabin John Bridge" 
and directed that the order be made public on February 22d. 

There was great rejoicing in all Confederate circles when 
this news was flashed across the wires. Thanks were sent in 
the name of the Confederated Southern Memorial Association 
to President Roosevelt, Hon. Luke E. Wright, and Murphy J. 
Foster, United States Senator from Louisiana, who had charge 
of the matter after the death of Mr. Meyer. 

By this act ex-President Roosevelt has written his name in 
imperishable lines. Congratulatory letters were received from 
General Evans, Commander-in-Chief, United Confederate Vet- 
erans; Col. Lewis Guion, chairman of the. History Committee 
of the Louisiana Division ; Mr. Walter L, Phillips, of Bridge- 
port, Conn., who had written to President Roosevelt, asking 
that this tardy act of justice be done the name of Jefferson Davis ; 
from Dr. Thos. M. Owen, Historian General, United Southern 
Confederate Veterans ; Hon. C. C. Carlin, member of Congress 
from Virginia, and others who were in sympathy with this 

General Evans wrote as follows : "I congratulate you with all 
my soul on your success," and closes his letter by saying, "Thank- 
ing you and even blessing you for the noble measures you are 
taking to establish whatsoever is right in Confederate circles, I 

Your friend indeed, 

Clement A. Evans." 

On May 15th, I received a letter from Mr. J. B. Home, the 
loyal and patriotic Mississippian who went on to Washington 
with a burning desire to carve the name of Jefferson Davis in 
its original place. Mr. Home sent me a few small pieces of the 
stone that he chiseled off, and also a postcard showing him on 
the scaffold, carving the letter "s" in Davis. From Dr. Samuel 
E. Lewis, Washington, D. C, chairman Monumental Committee 
U. C. V., I received a letter dated May 16th, saying: "The 
letters in the inscription were all cut yesterday. I was on the 

Restoration of Name of Jefferson Davis. 137 

scaffold with Mr. Home and I saw that all the letters of the 
entire inscription were cut on May 14th." 

On May 20th a telegram was received from Mrs. J. Enders 
Robinson, of the Virginia Committee, saying: "Congratulations 
on your grand work, restoration name Jefferson Davis to "Cabin 
John Bridge." 

On May 21, 1909, the following letter was received from the 
War Department: 


920 Seventeenth St., N. W. 

Washington, D. C, May 21, 1909. 
Mrs. \V. J. Behax, 

President Confederated Southern Memorial Association, 
Chairman "Cabin John Bridge" Committee, 1207 Jack- 
son Ave., New Orleans, La. : 
Dear Madam, — Your letter of the 17th inst., addressed to the 
Secretary of War, requesting information as to the progress 
.being made in the work of restoring name of Jefferson Davis on 
"Cabin John Bridge," has been referred to this office for reply. 
I have to advise that the work was completed on the 19th inst. 

Very respectfully, 

Jno. J. Morrow, 
Major, Corps of Engineers. 

Upon receipt of this document the following notice was mailed 
to the several members of the committee : 

New Orleans, La., May 21, 1909. 

The members of the "Cabin John Bridge" Committee are con- 
gratulated on their success of their patriotic efforts to have the 
name of Jefferson Davis restored to the tablet on "Cabin John 
Bridge," Washington, D. C. The object of the committee hav- 
ing been accomplished, and the restoration being complete, the 
committee is thanked and relieved from further duty. 

Mrs. W. J. Behan, 
President C. S. M. A. and Chairman "Cabin John Bridge" 

138 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

Committee. — General Clement A. Evans, vice General Stephen 
D. Lee, deceased ; Mrs. Cornelia Branch Stone, vice Mrs. Lizzie 
George Henderson, retired ; Mr. John W. Apperson ; Mrs. George 
S. Holmes; Mrs. J. Enders Robinson; Mrs. Alfred Gray; Miss 
M. B, Poppenheim; Hon. Murphy J. Foster, United States Sen- 
ator, vice Hon. Adolph Meyer, M. C, deceased; Mrs. W. J. 
Behan, chairman. 

Our Recording Secretary wrote to Mrs. J. Addison Hayes, 
the only surviving daughter of our distinguished chieftain, con- 
veying to her the glad tidings that the restoration of the name 
of Jefferson Davis to the tablet on "Cabin John Bridge" was 
completed on May 19, 1909. On June 5th I received the fol- 
lowing letter from Mrs. Hayes, and will treasure it with others 
received at various times from her dear mother : 

New Orleans, La., May 29, 1909. 
Mrs. J. Addison Haves, Colorado Springs, Colo.: 

Dear Mrs. Hayes, — T am directed by the President, Mrs. YY. J. 
Behan, to advise you of the restoration of the name of Jefferson 
Davis on -the tablet on "Cabin John Bridge," Washington, D. C. 
The order was-issued by President Roosevelt, February 22, 1909, 
and the contract awarded to J. H. Shelton & Son, Washington, 
D. C. The actual work was done by Mr. James Buchanan Home, 
a true son of Mississippi, who proved his devotion to the memory 
of your distinguished father by this labor of love. 

The Confederated Southern Memorial Association rejoices in 
the fact that you were present at the Convention in Richmond, 
Ya., June, 1907, when the resolution was adopted asking that 
the United States Government be requested to restore the name 
of Jefferson Davis to its rightful place on the tablet on "Cabin 
John Bridge." 

The members of the Association congratulate you and the 
American people on this truly patriotic and noble action of Presi- 
dent Roosevelt, which will serve to strengthen our love for this 
glorious republic. 

Very respectfully, 

Daisy M. L. Hodgson, 
Rcc. Sect'y C. S. M. A. 

Restoration of Name of Jefferson Davis. 139 

Colorado Springs, Col., 
832 North Cascade Avenue, June 3, 1909. 
Dear Mrs. Behan : 

I am a chronic invalid and a terrible sufferer, and therefore 
write very seldom and very little, but in answer to Miss Hodg- 
son's kind letter about "Cabin John Bridge," I feel I must thank 
you for the noble and persistent efforts you made; and to you I 
feel is due the restoration of my father's name to its rightful 
place. * * * I hope you are all well, and may God bless you, 
dear loyal friend that you have been to my beloved father's 
memory. I may never see you again in this life, but I will never 
forget all you have done. 

My greetings and best wishes to the members of the Associa- 
tion, and thanks for their congratulations. With love to you and 

Yours faithfully, 

M. H. J. D. Haves. 

While it has been stated that at different times efforts have 
been made to have this act of justice done — and I personally am 
aware that Mr. Walter L. Phillips, of Bridgeport, Conn., and 
Mrs. Longen and Mrs. Field, of Missouri, have written letters 
to Washington officials, in an endeavor to have the name restored 
— I believe 1 can safely assert, however, that the action of the 
Confederated Southern Memorial Association taken in Rich- 
mond, Va., June 1, 1907, at its eighth annual convention, was 
the first organized effort to have the name restored ; and we are 
satisfied that it was through our constant and unceasing efforts 
that President Roosevelt was induced to issue the order to restore 
the name to its rightful place. 

We are deeply grateful to all who assisted in this grand work, 
and are particularly desirous of expressing our appreciation of 
the gracious recognition of our services as contained in General 
Order No. 13, issued from United Confederate Veteran Head- 
quarters, and which is here attached. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Mrs. W. J. Behan, 
Chairman Cabin John Bridge Committee. 

140 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

[Editor's Note. — The C. S. M. A. regrets that the letters of 
. Mrs. Emma Williamson, Historian of the "Joe Desha Chapter," 
U. D. C, Cynthiana, Ken., received August i, 1909, were received 
too late to be mentioned in the report of the president (and 
chairman of the "Cabin John Bridge" Committee, of the C. S. 
M. A.), to the C. S. M. A. Convention, in Memphis, June, 1909 
Mrs. Williamson sets forth in these two letters her different 
conversations with, and appeals to various officials, to interest 
them in the restoration of Mr. Davis' name. These letters are 
another proof of the general desire to have the name restored.] 

[Memphis, Term., June 19, 1909.] 


Memorial Association Acts — Appreciates Restoration of 
Davis' Name to Cabin John Bridge. 

Mrs. W. J. Behan, for Nine Years President of the Organization, is 
Again Honored by Unanimous Vote— Official Badges Adopted. 

Be it Resolved, That the Confederated Southern Memorial 
Association, in convention assembled, do hereby extend their 
grateful and heartfelt thanks to ex-President Theodore Roose- 
velt and to ex-Secretary of War Luke E. Wright for courtesy 
shown to the Confederated Southern Memorial Association, in 
restoring the name of Jefferson Davis to "Cabin John Bridge," 
an act of justice which is appreciated by a united country. 

As a heartfelt expression of the members of the Confederate 
Southern Memorial Association a resolution thanking ex-Presi- 
dent Theodore Roosevelt and ex-Secretary of War Luke E. 
Wright for their part in the restoration of the name of Jeffer- 
son Davis to the "Cabin John Bridge," in the city of Washing- 
ton, D. C, was unanimously adopted by the tenth annual con- 
vention of the Confederated Southern Memorial Association as 
introduced by Mrs. C. B. Bryan, the local president, in the after- 
noon session yesterday, and a copy ordered sent to those two 
statesmen, who have again, after long and valued service, entered 
the ranks of public spirited citizens. 

Restoration of Name of Jefferson Davis. 141 





Report of the Virginia Committee, Mrs. J. Enders Robin- 
son, Richmond, Va., June i, 1909. 

Mrs. W. J. Behan, President, and Members of the Confederated 
Southern Memorial Association, New Orleans, La.: 

Ladies, — I now have the honor to report Virginia's part in the 
restoration of the name of Jefferson Davis to its place on the 
famous "Cabin John Bridge," the aqueduct, at Washington, D. C. 

Under date of June 15, 1907, our President, Mrs. Behan, 
notified me of my appointment to the C. S. M. A., "Cabin John 
Bridge" Committee. I accepted at once. In July, 1907, Mrs. 
Behan apointed the Louisiana Congressman, Mr. Adolph Meyer, 
to represent the C. S. M. A. in all communications with the 
United States Government relating to our object of restoration. 

During the summer of 1907, through correspondence with 
Mrs. Behan, two policies were decided on by Mr. Meyer, General 
Stephen D. Lee, Mrs. Behan and myself. These policies were: 
first, to avoid all newspaper mention, and, second, to ask that 
the name of Mr. Davis be restored by a Commission of the War 
Department. We decided that legislation should be our last 
resort. With these policies clearly understood, each one took 
up the work as assigned. 

Within my jurisdiction (Virginia) there was little to do until 
April, 1908. During that month I learned that the Hon. C. C. 
Carlin, of the Eighth Virginia District, had introduced a bill in 
Congress, asking why the name of Jefferson Davis had been 
erased from the bridge. I wrote him, inquiring if this was 
true. He replied as follows : 

April 28, 1908. 
Mrs. J. E. Robinson, 

113 Third Street, South, Richmond, Ya.t 

Dear Madam, — I have your favor of the 22A inst., and for 

your information will say that I have introduced a resolution 

]42 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

inquiring as to the reason for the elimination of the name of 
Jefferson Davis from the arch at "Cabin John Bridge," and 
what steps, if any, have been taken to restore same. It is my 
purpose to press this resolution at the fall session of Congress. 
I am glad to know we have a mutual friend in Mrs. A. S. 
Green. I esteem her friendship very highly. 

Very truly yours, 

C. C. Carlix. 

Richmond, Va., 
113 Third Street, South, December 7, 1908. 

Hon. C. C. Carlin, "Washington, D. C. : 

Dear Sir, — By to-day's mail I enclose you a copy of the minutes 
of this Association of 1907, with marked pages on a resolution 
adopted to restore the name of Jefferson Davis, ante-bellum 
Secretary of War, to the "Cabin John Bridge." 

With this letter I enclose a short account of the efforts of this 
Association for the above end ; I will add, that this Association 
is more far-reaching than its name indicates, as it is an associa- 
tion of organizations — not of individuals in the usual sense, and 
I beg that you will think well before introducing a bill in Con- 
gress that will assuredly arouse feeling in many Confederate 
men and women represented by the C. S. M. A. 

Yours cordially, 

Mrs. J. Enders Robinson, 
Va. Committee on "Cabin John Bridge," C. S. M. A. 

This bill gave me great uneasiness, as legislation was just what 
we wanted to avoid. After much serious thought on the matter, 
I decided to postpone definite action until the convening of Con- 
gress in the following December, 1908. During the summer of 
1908 the list of officials coming to our aid increased, but a 
cautious quiet prevailed among those friends of our cause. Im- 
mediately after Congress convened, I wrote Mr. C. C. Carlin 
the following letters, on December 7, 1908: 

Restoration of Name of Jefferson Davis. 143 

Richmond, Va v 
113 Third Street, South, December 7, 1908. 

Hon. C. C. Carlin, Washington, D. C. : 

Dear Sir, — It having come to the knowledge of the officials 
of the Confederated Southern Memorial Association of New 
Orleans, La., that you intend to introduce a bill in the ensuing 
Congress of 190S-1909 demanding to know of that body why 
the name of Jefferson Davis, Secretary of War, was erased 
from the "Cabin John Bridge," we, the officials, inform you with 
pleasure herein of the progress made by the C. S. M. A. to 
restore the name of Mr. Davis. . 

And we plead with you to withhold your bill, believing that 
by its absence our hands will be strengthened, and an advance 
will be made toward restoration ; while the presence of such a 
bill as we understand you propose to offer, or in fact the pres- 
ence of any bill bearing the name of "Cabin John Bridge" in 
relation to Mr. Davis, will tend to create confusion and mis- 
understanding. Furthermore, the worst passions of the Grand 
Army of the Republic, and in turn, of the Confederate Veterans, 
will be engendered, and our good work checked for many years 
to come. Now we implore you, as a Representative from a 
seceding State, as a friend of Confederates, as a citizen wish- 
ing harmony and peace in all sections for the betterment of the 
United States — we implore you to withhold your bill for a year, 
or more, until the C. S. M. A. has time to develop their plans 
for restoration. Relying upon your aid, we submit a summary 
of the facts : 

Confederated Southern Memorial Association. 

June 1, 1907. Resolution to restore name of Jefferson Davis 
adopted. President instructed to appoint a "Cabin John 
Bridge" Committee. This she did. 

July, 1907. President C. S. M. A. wrote to her Congressional 
Representative, Adolph Meyer, who took the matter up at 
once, reporting to Mrs. Behan that he had several inter- 
views with Mr. Taft, Secretary of War, that were most 

144 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

1907. General Stephen D. Lee, Commander-in-Chief, U. C. V., 
wrote Mrs. Behan, giving his active support. 

1908. On the death of Mr. Adolph Meyer, Mrs. Behan referred 
the matter to Hon. Murphy J. Foster. 

1908. Another friend was lost by the death of Gen. S. D. Lee. 
His successor, Gen. C. A. Evans, has taken the matter up 
with enthusiasm. 

Mrs. Behan consulted other prominent men, but the above are 
directly connected with the matter. Now, the one idea common 
to all is, that the matter should progress slowly, and nearly all 
believe that the name should be restored quietly, by the War De- 
partment, through some commission. This has always been my 
view of the case. Not wishing to weary you, and believing that 
you have sufficient facts to give you a clear idea of our work, 
I close, renewing my plea for your silence. 

Very cordially yours, 

Mrs. J. Enders Robinson, 
Va. Com. "'Cabin John Bridge," C. S. M. A. 


Washington, D. C, December 11, 1908. 
Mrs. J. E. Robinson, 

Confederated Southern Memorial Association, 113 South 
Third Street, Richmond, Ya. : 
Dear Madam, — I have your favor of the 7th inst., and for your 
information will say, that I introduced a bill at the first session 
of the present Congress for the restoration of the name of Jef- 
ferson Davis to "Cabin John Bridge." Since the receipt of your 
letter, I do not feel disposed to press it at present. I have but 
one object in view, viz., the restoration of the name, and if you 
think it can be accomplished better without legislation, which I 
very much doubt, I am perfectly willing to suspend activity 
for a while in order that you may have an opportunity to work 
out your ideas. 

Very truly yours, 

C. C. Carlin. 

Address all communications to House of Representatives. 

Restoration of Name of Jefferson Davis. 145 

This courteous, most considerate, and remarkably wise course 
toward the C. S. M. A., chosen by Air. Carlin, gave us renewed 
confidence in final success. 

In January and February, 1909, I wrote, asking the co- 
operation of our Virginia Governor, our two United States 
Senators, and our Congressional Representatives. On receipt of 
their replies I mailed copies of same to Mrs. Behan, who ex- 
pressed deep gratitude to Virginia. I herein give copy of our 
Governor's letter, with list of the Virginia officials who replied. 

List of Virginia Officials Heard From. 

Senior Senator (U. S.) John W. Daniel. 
Representatives (Congressional) : 

Third District — John Lamb. 

Fifth District — E. W. Saunders. 

Sixth District — Carter Glass. 

Seventh District — James Hay. 

Eighth District — C. C. Carlin. 

Ninth District — Bascom Slemp. 

Tenth District— H. D. Flood. 

Not Heard From. 

Junior Senator Thomas S. Martin. 
First District — W. A. Jones. 
Second District — H. D. Maynard. 
Fourth District — F. R. Lassiter. 

Doubtless in the rush of congressional duties, these latter gen- 
tlemen overlooked my letters. 


Governor's Office. 

Richmond, Va., January 15, 1909. 
Mrs. J. Enders Robinson, 

113 South Third Street, Richmond, Va. : 
My Dear Madam, — I am in receipt of your letter with enclos- 

146 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

ures, in reference to "Cabin John Bridge." In reply will say I 
will be glad to aid in the matter referred to. any way I can. 

I return herewith the letters enclosed to me, as requested by 

With kind regards and best wishes, I am, 

Very truly yours, 

Claude A. Swanson, 
Enclosures. Governor. 

Committee on Public Health and National Quarantine. 
Washington, D. C, February 5, 1909. 

Mrs. J. Enders Robinson, 

113 Third Street, South, Richmond, Ya. : 

My Dear Madam, — Acknowledging your esteemed favor about 
the restoration of the name of Jefferson Davis on "Cabin John 
Bridge." I beg to say that it commands my consideration and 
sympathy, and at the proper time I will do whatever may be 

I note the views set forth in copy of your letter to Mr. Carlin, 
with whom I will confer. 

I am, madam, with great respect, 

Very truly yours, 

Tno. W. Daniel. 


Washington, February 8, 1909. 
Mrs. J. Enders Robinson, 

Ya. Com'r "Cabin John Bridge," 113 South Third Street, 

Richmond, Ya. : 

My Dear Madam, — I am in receipt of your favor of the 8th 

and hasten to say that I shall gladly co-operate with our friends 

in restoring the name of Jefferson Davis to the "Cabin John 

Bridge." It will be an agreeable duty to aid in honoring in any 

way the memory of Davis and of assisting you ladies in this 

cause. Yours very truly, 

Tohn Lamb. 

Restoration of Name of Jefferson Davis. 147 

Committee on Elections No. i. 

Rocky Mount, Va., February 9, 1909. 

Mrs. J. E. Robinson, Richmond, Ya. : 

Dear Madam, — I am in receipt of your letter of the 8th inst., 
relating to the matter of restoring to the "Cabin John Bridge" 
the name of Jefferson Davis, and beg to assure you that I will 
take great pleasure in aiding you to the accomplishment of your 
purpose, in any way possible. 

Yours very truly, 

E. W. Saunders. 


Washington, D. C, February 12, 1909. 
Mrs. J. E. Robinson, 

113 Third Street, South, Richmond, Va. : 
My Dear Mrs. Robinson, — Referring to your letter of recent 
date, having reference to the restoration of the name of Mr. 
Davis to the "Cabin John Bridge," I beg to say that it will give 
me great pleasure to co-operate with my associates in Congress 
in an effort to induce the War Department to replace Mr. Davis' 
name on that structure. I quite agree with you that it would be 
better to restore it through the War Department than by Iegsila- 
tion. Very respectfully yours, 

Carter Glass, 


House of Representatives, U. S. 

Washington, February 8, 1909. 
Mrs. J. Enders Robinson, 

113 South Third Street, Richmond, Va. : 

My Dear Madam, — I have your letter with regard to the 

restoration of the name of President Davis to the "Cabin John 

Bridge," and can assure you that I will take pleasure in doing what 

1 can to bring about this restoration. 

Yours very truly, 

James Hay. 

148 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

Committee on Accounts. 

Washington, February 9, 1909. 

Mrs. J. E. Robinson, Richmond, Va. : 

Dear Madam, — I am in receipt of your letter of the 8th inst., 
in regard to "Cabin John Bridge." I will be glad to co-operate 
with you in the matter. 

Yours truly, 

C. B. Slemp. 


Washington, February 13, 1909. 

Mrs. J. E. Robinson, Richmond, Va. : 

Dear Madam, — Your letter in reference to the move to restore 
the name of Jefferson Davis to the "Cabin John Bridge" has 
been received, and I write to say that 1 will aid the movement 
to the extent of my ability. 

Sincerely yours, 

H. D. Flood. 

These replies received prove Virginia the same patriot as of 
old, and ready with hearty accord to join Eouisiana in pleading 
for the restoration to one of the pages of history of the name 
of Jefferson Davis, known to all men as of quiet dignity in pros- 
perity, and of calm greatness in adversity. 

I cannot close without expressing my admiration for the un- 
assuming executive ability, the tact, and the judgment that our 
President, Mrs. W. J. Behan, has shown in bringing to the aid 
of the C. S. M. A. the co-operation of the highest Confederate 
and Federal officials, for this grand work of restoring the name 
of Jefferson Davis to the "Cabin John Bridge" Aqueduct, at 
Washington, D. C. 

Restoration of Name of Jefferson Daris. 149 

A last word for the genuine patriot, Mr. J. D. Home, who, 
with his own hands re-surfaced the whole face of the tablet in 
the bridge, and then re-carved the entire inscription. To him 
we owe deepest and perpetual gratitude, and his name should 
be taught to our children forever. 

With great distress at my enforced absence from our conven- 
tion, and from the ever-glorious gathering of our beloved veter- 
ans, I am, 

Most sincerely yours, 

Mrs. J. Enders Robinson, 
(Virginia Morgan). 
Virginia Committee of "Cabin John Bridge," C. S. M. A. 

[Extract from the Minutes of the Confederate Reunion, held in 
Memphis, Tenn., June, 1909.] 


Mr. Commander, Comrades, Ladies and Gentlemen, — During 
the time that Franklin Pierce was President of the United 
States, and Jefferson Davis was his Secretary of War, a number 
of important works were projected. 

One of the most important, and as a splendid exhibition of 
engineering skill, was the "Cabin John Bridge." As many of you 
know, this was a massive stone bridge spanning with a single 
arch two hundred and twenty feet in length the "Cabin John 
Creek," and by an aqueduct bringing water to the city of Wash- 
ington from the falls of the Potomac. 

On the arch was cut the names of Franklin Pierce, President 
of the United States, and Jefferson Davis, Secretary of War, 
to commemorate the commencement of this work. 

In 1862, by an order of the Secretary of the Interior, the 
name of Jefferson Davis was erased. This was done when sec- 
tional feeling was very strong in the North against Jefferson 
Davis, who was then President of the Confederate States of 
America, and while the act cannot be condoned, it can be under- 
stood, when we consider the bitter feeling then existing. It 

150 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

suffices to say, that the act of erasure was not a wise one, 
because Jefferson Davis was then the Secretary of War, and 
the chipping of his name from the arch did not destroy a his- 
torical fact, and the erasure only accentuated it. I am glad to 
say that in the last few years a much more liberal opinion is 
being expressed by many in the North as to the character and 
reputation of Jefferson Davis, and they are beginning to under- 
stand him, and give him his true place in history. 

(One of the recent pleasant incidents, and which has caused 
a warm glow in the hearts of the Confederate soldiers, is the 
splendid action of Captain Fremont and Commander McCor- 
mick, in the ceremonies connected with the presentation of the 
silver service from the State of Mississippi to the warship Mis- 
sissippi, and on which appeared the bust of Jefferson Davis.) 

This act of erasure has always been resented by the Southern 
people, and a number of Confederate women have been particu- 
larly active in the good work of having the name of Jefferson 
Davis restored to the arch, and we now have the pleasure of 
knowing that this act of justice has been done, and that the 
work of restoration fell to the lot of a Mississippi workman. 

General Orders No. 13, from Headquarters of United Con- 
federate Veterans, properly pays tribute due to the act of resto- 
ration and to the part played by Confederate women : 

The following are the resolutions alluded to by Colonel Guion, 
which were offered by Major J. W. Gaines, of Army of Ten- 
nessee, Camp No. 2, of New Orleans, and were adopted by the 
convention : 

It is but right and proper that the United Confederate Vet- 
erans here assembled in annual convention in the city of 
Memphis, Tenn., should give expression of their approval of the 
order recently issued by ex-President Roosevelt, for the restora- 
tion of the name of Jefferson Davis on the tablet of "Cabin John 
Bridge," Washington, D. C. 

This act of justice must commend itself to every true Ameri- 
can patriot and will place the name of Jefferson Davis where it 
rightfully belongs as a matter of history; therefore, be it 

Restoration of Name of Jefferson Davis. 151 

Resolved, That we, the United Confederate Veterans, do 
express our appreciation to the United States Government for 
this recognition of the services of Jefferson Davis, Secretary 
of War, and for his further proof of the desire of the Federal 
Government to blot out all that remains of sectional prejudices 
and thus unite this great people under one banner ; and further- 
more, be it 

Resolved, That we express our thanks to the Confederated 
Southern Memorial Association for its action in bringing this 
subject so forcibly to the minds and attention of the officials at 
Washington by the adoption of a resolution to this effect at its 
annual convention in Richmond, June i, 1907. 


Washington, D. C, July 14, 1909. 

Mrs. W. J. Behan, Xew Orleans, La. : 
I have tools paid fifty dollars will write. 

Samuel E. Lewis, M. D. 

Affidavit of James Buchanan Hor;*e, Stonecutter. 

The Washington Aqueduct, known as "Cabin John Bridge," 
forms part of the system which supplies the city of Washington, 
D. C.j with water. It is 420 feet in length ; its span is 250 feet — 
one of the largest stone arches in the world. It was begun 
building in 1853, while Jefferson Davis, of the State of Mis- 
sissippi, was Secretary of War. During the War between the 
States the name of Jefferson Davis was erased through order of 
Caleb B. Smith, Secretary of the Interior, by John Babbinger, a 
stonecutter workman. In 1909 President Roosevelt ordered the 
name to be erased. J. B. Home, a stonecutter from Moss Point, 
Miss., subcontracted the work from the original contractor for 
the sum of $127.75. He began the work of restoration Tuesday, 
April 13th. The completion of the restoration of the name of 
Jefferson Davis was effected Friday, May 14th, 1909. The 
dressing of the 'work and final completion was ended May 19, 

152 Southern Historical Society Payers. 

The tablet was of the dimensions of 5 feet high by 11 feet 
long, embracing an area of 55 square feet. It was necessary 
to remove the entire inscription to a depth of one inch, and 
re-cut the same with the restoration of the name of President 

The tools with which this work was done consisted of twenty- 
four chisels and one hammer bought new for that work, and 
have never been used on any other work. These aforesaid tools 
are hereby sold to Mrs. Katie Walker Behan, of New Orleans, 
La., this 14th day of July, 1909, for the sum of fifty dollars, 
and are herewith turned over to her. 

J. B. Horne. 

Washington, D. C, July 14, 1909. 

District of Columbia, ss. : 

On this 14th day of July, A. D. 1909, personally appeared 
before me the said J. B. Horne, who being duly sworn, accord- 
ing to law, declared the matter and things set forth in the fore- 
going instrument to be true and correct to the best of his knowl- 
edge and belief, and the execution of same his act and deed. 

John L. Fletcher, 
[Seal] Notary Public, D. C. 

Washington, D. C, July 18, 1909. 

Mrs. J. Enpers Robinson, Richmond, Ya. : 

My Dear Madam, — I thank you for the favor of the informa- 
tion and suggestions contained in your note, and the copy of 
the letter written Mrs. Behan. 

In attending to the matter entrusted to my hands by Mrs. 
Behan, I shall endeavor to safeguard beyond question the iden- 
tity of the tools and the legal transfer to Mrs. Behan. 

I am very glad to learn that my letter to Mrs. Behan met with 
your approval. 

Yours very respectfully, 

Samuel E. Lewis, M. D., 
Chairman Monumental Committee, U. C. V. 

Restoration of Name of Jefferson Davis. 153 

Letter From Hon. Albert Estopinal, Louisiana Member 

of Congress. 

Washington, D. C, July 19, 1909. 

Mrs. W. J. Behan, New Orleans, La.: 

My Dear Mrs. Behan, — Immediately upon receipt of your 
wire, requesting me to see Dr. Lewis regarding the tools, I sent 
my secretary to Mr. Home's residence and learned that Dr. 
Lewis had just been there and purchased the tools. The evening 
of the same day the Doctor called on me to inform me of that 
fact. I am very glad you secured the tools, as I consider that 
you are rightfully entitled to them. No one furnished with the 
facts leading to the restoration of the original inscription on 
''Cabin John Bridge" can question the efficiency of your splendid 
work in bringing about that result, and the claim of no other 
person to the credit can be seriously maintained. 

Very respectfully yours, 

Albert Estopinal. 

Washington, D. C, July 31. 1909. 
Dear Mrs. Behan : 

To-day I succeeded in getting all the tools marked by Mr. 
Home. I think you will readily understand the inscriptions. I 
had to purchase for the work a set of steel letters at $2.20, and 
I paid Mr. Home $5.00. 

I am arranging to have a suitable box made for the tools, 
which will serve as a cabinet. I finally concluded it best to 
have that work done here, as it will avoid handling of the tools 
by strangers, and possible loss, should the matter be delayed 
to be done in New Orleans. 

Herewith I hand you Memorandum Sketch, which is descrip- 
tive and should be preserved. It is rather crude, but practical. 
I am sorry it is not in better style. 

Very respectfully, 

Samuel E. Lewis, M. D., 
Chairman Monumental Com. U. C. V. 

154 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

Final Repository of the Tools. 

New Orleans, La., 
1207 Jackson Ave., August 7, 1909. 
Mrs. J. Enders Robinson, 

Chairman "Cabin John Bridge" Publication Committee, 
Richmond, Va. : 
My Dear Mrs. Robinson, — In reply to your question as to the 
disposition of the tools, I desire to state that the tools used in 
the restoration of the name of Jefferson Davis on "Cabin John 
Bridge" will be placed in the Jefferson Davis Annex at Memo- 
rial Hall, in New Orleans. 

The Jefferson Davis Annex of Memorial Hall, in New Or- 
leans, contains many precious relics of the President of the Con- 
federate States of America, and of his daughter "Winnie," the 
Daughter of the Confederacy. The Annex has been set apart 
exclusively for the relics of the Davis family. 

At present the tools are the property of Mrs. W. J. Behan, of 

New Orleans, La. 

Yours very fraternally, 

Mrs. VY. J. Behan, 
President C. S. M. A. 

Xew Orleans, La., 
1207 Jackson Ave., August 7, 1909. 
Mrs. J. Enders Robinson, Richmond, Ya. : 

My Dear Mrs. Robinson, — You are hereby appointed chair- 
man of the "Cabin John Bridge" Publication Committee of the 
Confederated Southern Memorial Association. 

You are vested with full authority to contract for the print- 
ing of a book to contain a record of all that relates to the resto- 
ration of the name, Jefferson Davis, on "Cabin John Bridge," 
at Washington, D. C, as executed under the direction of the 
"Cabin John Bridge" Committee of the Confederated Southern 
Memorial Association. 

The cost of publication to be according to estimate submitted 
by the Richmond Press, Inc., of Richmond, Ya., the size of edi- 
tion, time of delivery, proof-reading, and all other details are 
left in your hands. As chairman of this Publication Committee 

Restoration of Name of Jefferson Davis. 155 

you will solicit subscriptions from Memorial Associations and 
other parties interested, and have said subscriptions made pay- 
able to you. Yours very fraternally, 

Mrs. W. J. Behan, 
President C. S. M. A. 


New Orleans, May 21, 1909. 
General Orders No. 13. 

I. The General Commanding has pleasure in expressing the 
satisfaction he feels in announcing officially that the name of 
JEFFERSON DAVIS has been restored to the tablet on "Cabin 
John Bridge.'' As Secretary of War of the United States he 
had been largely instrumental in constructing this aqueduct, 
and to note this fact his name with others had been placed on the 
tablet ; but, during the War between the States, partisans caused 
it to be chiseled off, Mr. Davis being at that time the President 
of the Confederate States. By this restoration an act of justice 
has been done to one of America's greatest statesmen. The fact 
is in itself trivial, but it is momentous in significance. It em- 
phasizes the truth that our countrymen will recognize worth ; 
that Mr. Davis, who was thoroughly Southern in his sentiments, 
can be truly valued by those who were once his enemies, and 
that he was actuated by lofty motives and conceptions of duty, 
as were other statesmen and soldiers of the Confederacy. 

II. It is possible that this desirable result would never have 
been reached had not our glorious women taken the matter in 
hand and pushed it to completion. The Confederated Southern 
Memorial Association started the work in 1907, and Mrs. J. 
Enders Robinson, of Richmond, and Mrs. W. J. Behan, of New 
Orleans, assisted by the U. D. C. and kindred organizations, have 
the thanks of all Confederates for the accomplishment of this 
work. By command of 

Official : General Commanding. 

Wm. E. Mickle, 

Adjutant-General and Chief of Staff. 

156 Southern Historical Society Papers. 








Major-General, commanding Virginia State forces, April, 

Brigadier-General C. S. A., May 14, 1861. 

General C. S. A., June 14, 1861. 

Commander of the Army of Northern Virginia, 1862. 

Commander-in-Chief of all the armies in the Confederate 
States, 1865. 

Died at Lexington, October 12, 1870. 


Colonel A. L. Long, Military Secretary; promoted Brigadier- 
General of Artillery September, 1863. 

Lieutenant-Colonel \Yalter LI. Taylor, A. A. & I. General. 

Colonel T. M. R. Talcott, First Regiment Engineer Corps. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Charles S. Yenable, A. A. & I. General. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Charles Marshall, A. A. G. & I. General. 

Captain A. P. Mason. 

Colonel Thomas Jordan. 

Colonel E. P. Alexander, Chief .-of Ordnance, 1862; promoted 
Brigadier-General of Artillery. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Briscoe G. Baldwin, Chief of Ordnance, 
November, 1862, to April, 1865. 

Lieutenant John M. Brooke, Virginia Navy, Adjutant and 
A. D. C, May, 1861. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Robert G. Cole, Chief Commissary. 

Lieutenant-Colonel James L. Corley, Chief Quartermaster, 
June 1 862- 1 865. 

List of General Officers and their Staffs. 157 

Major James R. Crenshaw, Assistant Commissary, April 29, 
1861 ; promoted Lieutenant-Colonel and A. A. G. June, 1861. 

Major George Deas, Lieutenant-Colonel, Chief of Staff, Vir- 
ginia State forces, 1861. 

Dr. Lafayette Guild, Medical Director, June 25, 1862, to April 
9, 1865. 

Lieutenant-Colonel William G. Gill, P. A. C. S., Ordnance 
Officer, November 1, 1861. 

Colonel George W. Lay, A. A. & I. General, March 6, 1863, 
to April 9, 1865. 

Major Henry E. Payton, A. A. & 1. General, November, 1862- 
1864; Lieutenant-Colonel to April 9, 1865. 

Lieutenant-Colonel E. Murray, A. A. & I. General, September, 
1863, to November 4, 1864. 

Major Giles B. Cook, A. A. & I. General, November 4, 1864, 
to April 9, 1865. 

Captain Henry E. Young, A. A. General; promoted Major 
September, 1863. to November 4, 1864; Major & A. A. & I. 
General to April 9, 1865. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Win. P. Smith, Chief of Engineers, Sep- 
tember, 1863-1864. 

Colonel W. H. Stevens, Chief of Engineers, 1864; promoted 
Brigadier-General April, 1865. 

Captain Samuel R. Johnston, Engineer, November, 1862; pro- 
moted Lieutenant-Colonel April, 1865. 

Dr. Joseph E. Claggett, Surgeon in charge of hospital. 

Dr. E. J. Breckenridge, Medical Inspector. 

Dr. T. H. Wingfield, Surgeon. 

Dr. James C. Herndon, Surgeon. 

Dr. Samuel M. Bemiss, Surgeon. 

Dr. E. D. Newton, Surgeon. 

Captain John M. Allen, Assistant Quartermaster Forage. 

Captain R. S. Bell, Assistant Quartermaster Forage. 

Captain J. T. Bernard, in charge of Ordnance Train. 

Captain W. M. Cary, Assistant Quartermaster, Issuing Officer. 

Captain John Galize. Forage Quartermaster. 

Colonel R. S. Garnett, A. A. General, 1861. 

Captain A. M. Garber, Assistant to Forage Quartermaster. 

.158 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

Major John A. Harman, Forage Quartermaster. 

Colonel Edmund J. Harvie, Inspector-General, 1861. 

Major E. H. Janney, Issuing Quartermaster, Army Northern 

Captain Latham Woodville, A. D. C, September, 1862. 

Major A. L. Land, Assistant to Chief Quartermaster. 

Captain N. C. Marrow, Paymaster. 

Lieutenant Thomas J. Page, Virginia Navy, A. D. C, 1861. 

Captain W. H. Richardson, A. A. G., May, 1861. 

Captain P. W. Smith, Military Secretary, 1861. 

Captain S. M. Somers, Quartermaster Ordnance Train. 

Captain G. W. Shell, Quartermaster Army Supply Train. 

Captain George G. Thompson. 

Captain W. F. Thomas, Depot Quartermaster. 

Captain Joseph E. Ivis, Chief Engineer, November, 1861. 

Major Charles Mannagault, A. D. C, November, 1861. 

Lieutenant-Colonel John A. Washington, A. D. C, May 6, 
1 86 1 ; killed at Valley Mountain September 13, 1861. 

Captain Thornton A. Washington, A. D. C. ; promoted Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel, A. A. G. 

Captain E. Cunningham, A. & I. General. 

Colonel R. H. Chilton, A. A. G., June, 1862; promoted Briga- 
dier-General, A. I. G. December, 1863. 

Major Fred. R. Scott, Assistant Commissary. 

Major John A. Seldon, x\ssistant Quartermaster. 

The following were ordered to report to General Lee Novem- 
ber 2, 1863: 

Captain James Hays. 

Captain St. Jules Randot. 

Captain Clifford Anderson. 

Captain Henry Boiling. 

Captain Ranson D. Spann, 

Captain James Walker. 
Major George Treanor. 

Captain George Williamson, killed. 

Anderson, Joseph R., Brigadier-General, September 13, 1861 ; 
resigned July 19, 1862. 

List of General Officers and their Staff's. 159 

Staff. — Captain. Wm. Morris, A. D. C, June-July, 1862. 

Captain Roscoe B. Heath; resigned October 12, 

Phil. Haxall. A. D. C. ; transferred to Staff of 
Brigadier-General B. H. Robertson. 

Major Robert T. Taylor, Quartermaster, June- 
July, 1862. 

Armistead, Lewis A., Brigadier-General, April 1, 1862; killed 
at Gettysburg July 3, 1863. 

Staff. — Captain James D. Darden, A. A. G. ; wounded at 

Captain Peyton Randolph, A. & I. General ; pro- 
moted Major Engineers, 1863. 

Captain Wm. L. Randolph, Ordnance Officer. 

Major R. H. Carter, Quartermaster. 

Major W. PI. Herbert, Commissary. 

Drs. (Major) J. N. McAlpine, John Spottswood 

First Leiutenant W. Keith Armistead, A. D. C. 

First Lieutenant J. H. Linebaugh, A. D. C. ; re- 
signed November, 1862. 

First Lieutenant John Dunlop, June, 1862, to Feb- 
ruary 7, 1863. 

Captain James \Y. Pegram, A. D. C, July, 1862 ; 
promoted Major and A. A. G. Dept. of Rich- 
mond, 1863. 

Captain B. J. Hawthorne, A. D. C. 

Ashby, Turner, Brigadier-General, May 23, 1862; killed June 
6, 1862. 

Barton, Seth M., Brigadier-General, March 16, 1862. 
Staff. — Lieutenant John R. Triplett, A. D. C. 
Lieutenant R. F. Patterson, A. D. C. 
Major B. Thompson, Quartermaster. 
Major \Y. E. Snead, Commissary, February, 1863. 

Beale, Richard L. T., Brigadier-General, February 6, 1865; 
died in Westmoreland County April 19, 1893. 

160 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

Cabell, W. L., Brigadier-General, January 20, 1863. 
Chambliss, John Randolph, Jr., Brigadier-General, December 
19, 1863; killed August 16, 1864. 

Staff.— Captain J. A'. H. Nash, A. A. G. 
Chilton, R. H.. Brigadier-General, December 21, 1863; resigned 

April 1, 1864. 
Cocke, Philip St. George, Brigadier-General, October 21, 1861 ; 

died December 21, 1861. 
Colston, Raleigh E., Brigadier-General, December 24, 1861. 

Staff. —Captain James T. Tosh, A. A. G. 
Cooper, Samuel, General C. S. A., May 16, 1861 ; Adjutant- 
General and Inspector during the war. 

Staff.— Major Charles H. Lee, A. A. G., October 27, 
1862; resigned May 31, 1864. 
Corse, Montgomery Dent., Brigadier-General, November 1, 
1862; died in Alexandria February 11, 1895. 
Staff.— Captain Philip B. Hooe, A. A. G. 

Captain Randolph Harrison, A. & I. General ; 

died in service. 
Captain Charles U. Williams, A. D. C. 
First Lieutenant Fenton M. Henderson, Ordnance 

First Lieutenant Herbert Bryan, A. A. G. ; 

wounded ; promoted Captain. 
First Lieutenant Philip N. Page, A. D. C, 1864- 

Major Dr. Y\ ni. Henry Shield, Chief Surgeon. 
Major R. H. Turner, Chief Quartermaster, 1863- 

Major W. C. N. Carr, Chief Ouartermaster, 1864- 

Major Y. M. Brown, Chief Commissary. 
Captain H. B. Taliaferro, Assistant Commissary. 
Dearing, James, Brigadier-General, 1864. 

Staff.— Captain Y\ m. E. Hinton, A. A. G. 
Captain Rutherford, A. & I. G. 
First Lieutenant Stuart, A. D. C. 

List of General Officers and their Staff's. 161 

Early, Jubal Anderson, Brigadier-General, July 21, 1861 ; Major- 
General, January 17, 1863; Lieutenant-General, May 31, 

Staff. —Major Samuel C. Moore, A. A. G. 

Major John W. Daniel, A. A. G. ; -wounded. 
Major Samuel Hale, Jr., A. A. G. ; killed May 

12, 1864. 
Lieutenant Andrew L. Pitzer, A. D. C. ; promoted 

Lieutenant \\ ni. G. Calloway, A. D. C. 
Lieutenant J. R. Wilson, vol. A. D. C, 1862. 
Colonel F. Gardner, A. A. G., 1861-1862; re- 
Lieutenant S. H. Early, A. D. C. ; resigned No- 
vember 19, 1862. 
Lieutenant H. Heaton, V. A. D. C, December, 

Major C. E. Snodgrass, Quartermaster, 1862. 
Major \V. W. Thornton, C. S., January 15, 1864. 

Echols, John, Brigadier-General, April 16, 1862. 
Staff. — Captain Hart Gibson, A. A. G. 

Captain R. H. Catlett, A. A. G., September, 1862. 
Lieutenant George H. Caperton, A. D. C, June 

11, 1862. 
Lieutenant I. W. Bauham, A. D. C, March 18, 

Captain W. R. Preston, A. A. G., August, 1862, 
to November, 1864. 
Ewell, Richard Stoddard, Brigadier-General, June 17, 1861 ; 
Major-General, January 24, 1862 ; Lieutenant-General, May 
23. 1863 

Staff. — Lieutenant-Colonel A. S. Pendleton, A. A. G. ; 
Chief of Staff ; killed at Fisher's Hill, September 
22, 1864. 
Major G. Campbell Brown, A. A. G. 
Captain Thos. T. Turner, A. D. C. 
Captain James Power Smith, A. D. C, wounded. 
Dr. Hunter McGuire, Medical Director. 

162 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

Colonel J. Thompson Brown, Chief of Artillery. 

Colonel Wm. Allen, Chief of Ordnance. 

Major John A. Harman, Assistant Quartermaster. 

Major W. J. Hawks, Chief Commissary. 

Captain A. Elhart, Assistant Quartermaster and 

Major John Hotchkiss, Topo. Engineer. 

Captain Melburne, Chief of Signal Corps. 

Captain W. F. Randolph, Black Horse Troop, 

Major James Barbour, A. A. G., April 28, 1862; 
resigned June 30, 1863. 

Major B. H. Green, A. & I. G., July, 1863. 

Lieutenant Harper Carroll, A. D. C, March, 1864. 

Lieutenant-Colonel John M. Jones, A. A. G., 1863. 

Lieutenant John Taliaferro, A. D. C, March- 
May, 1864. 

Captain R. E. Welburne, S. O., July, 1863. 

Floyd, John B., Brigadier-General, May 23, 1861 ; died August 
26, 1863. 

Staff. — Major I. B. Dunn, Assistant Quartermaster; re- 
signed December 21, 1861. 
Major Henry B. Davidson, A. A. G., April, 1861. 
Lieutenant Micajah Woods, A. A. G., 1861 ; trans- 
ferred to Jackson's Artillery. 

Garland, Samuel. Jr., Brigadier-General, May 23, 1862; killed 
September 14, 1862. 

Staff. — Captain Don. P. Halsey, A. A. G., June, July; 
same to General J. B. Gordon, 1862; same to 
General A. Parsons, Jr., May, 1863 ; same to 
General R. D. Johnson; retired 1864. 
Lieutenant Robert D. Early, A. D. C. ; same to 
General Early, 1862; promoted Captain and 
A. A. G. to General J. M. Jones; killed May 
5, 1864. 
Lieutenant E. M. Haywood, Jr.. A. D. C, June, 

List of General Officers and their Staffs. 16-3 

Captain J. Lawrence Meem, A. A. G., June. July, 

Garnett, Richard Brooke, Brigadier-General, November 14, 
1861 ; killed at Gettysburg July 3, 1863. 

Staff.— Chas. F. Linthicum, A. A. G. ; killed at Cold 

Harbor, 1864. 
Captain Edmund C. Fitzhugh, A. A. G. ; wounded 

at Hatchers Run, 1865. 
First Lieutenant James D. Mclntire, A. A. G. ; 

promoted Captain. 
Captain Henry D. Danforth, Ordnance Officer. 
First Lieutenant Chas. F. Berkeley, A. & I. Gen- 
Major (Dr.) Saml. A. McConkey, Chief Surgeon. 
Major S. Longwith Lewis, Chief Quartermaster, 

Major George T. Jones, Chief Quartermaster, 

1 862- 1 865. 
Major James Johnson, Chief Commissary. 
First Lieutenant John Simpkin Jones, A. D. C. ; 

wounded at Cold Harbor, 1864. 
First Lieutenant Thomas R. Harrison, A. D. C. ; 

wounded and captured at Gettysburg. 
First Lieutenant J. C. Griswold, A. D. C, 1864. 
First Lieutenant W. S. Fowler, A. D. C. 

On the promotion of General Hunton, these officers re- 
mained with him. 

Garnett, Robert Seldon, Brigadier-General, June 6, 1861 ; killed 
July 13, 1861, at Carrick's Ford. 
Staff. — Lieutenant Thomas Getty, A. D. C, July, 1861. 

Heth, Henry, Brigadier-General, January 6, 1862; Major- Gen- 
eral, May 24, 1863 ; died in Washington City September 26, 

Staff. — Captain Stockton Heth, A. A. G. ; promoted. 
Major R. PL Finney, A. A. G. 

164 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

Major Harry H. Harrison, A. A. G. ; retired De- 
cember 4, 1864. 
Major P. C. Hungerford, Chief Commissary, July, 


Major (Dr.) H. H. Hubbard, Chief Surgeon to 
October, 1864. 

Captain \V. H. Atwold, A. C. S. 

Lieutenant M. C. Selden, A. D. C. to July, 1863. 

Captain W. O. Slade, Acting Engineer to Novem- 
ber, 1864. 

Captain James W. Archer, Ordnance Officer, Janu- 
ary, 1863. 

Captain J. F. Cage, Assistant Quartermaster. 

Albert Gibboney, V. A. D. C, May, 1862. 

Lieutenant B. F. Steward, A. A. A. G., May, 1863. 

Hill, Ambrose Powell, Brigadier-General, February 26, 1862 ; 
Major-General, May 26, 1862; Lieutenant-General, May 24, 

Staff. — Lieutenant-Colonel \Ym. H. Palmer, A. A. G. 
and Chief of Staff. 

Major W. Norborne Starke, A. A. G.. 

Major L. Masters, 1862-1864; killed April, 1865. 

Captain Murray F. Taylor, A. D. C. 

Captain Frank T. Hill, A. D. C. 

Major Conway R. Howard, Engineer. 

Captain R. H. T. Adams, Chief Signal Officer. 

Major E. B. Hill, Chief Commissary. 

Captain W. S. P. Mayo, Assistant Commissary. 

Major James G. Field, Chief Quartermaster. 

Captain Henry M. Field, Assistant Quartermaster. 

Dr. J. W. Powell, Chief Surgeon. 

Dr. F. L, Frost, Assistant Surgeon. 

Major P. B. Stanard, Ordnance Officer. 

Brigadier-General R. Lindsay Walker, Chief of 

Sergeant George \V. Tucker, Chief of Couriers. 

List of General Officers and their Staffs. 165 

Himton, Eppa, Brigadier-General, August 9, 1863 ; died in Rich- 
mond October 11, 1908. 

On the death of General Garnett, his staff was retained 
by General Hunton. 

Imboden, J. D., Brigadier-General Cavalry, January 28, 1863 ; 
died in Abingdon, Yd.., August 15, 1895. 

Staff. — Captain Chas. S. Morgan, A. & I. General. 

Captain Frances B. Berkeley, A. A. G., Chief of 

Captain C. G. Merrett, Quartermaster. 
Dr. Cyrus Alexander, Surgeon ; resigned Septem- 
ber 4, 1863. 
Major J. J. Lafferty, Commissary, to close of war. 
Lieutenant John H. McCue, A. D. C, January, 

Jackson, Thomas Jonathon, Brigadier-General, June 17, 1861 ; 
Major-General, October 7, 1861 ; Lieutenant-General, Octo- 
ber 10, 1862 ; died from wounds received at Chancellors- 
ville, May 10, 1863. 

Staff.— Major R. L. Dabney, A. A. G., to April, 1862. 

Major A. H. Jackson, A. A. G., December, 1861- 

February, 1862; resigned March 11, 1862. 
Lieutenant-Colonel J. T. L. Preston, A. A. G., to 

February. 1862. 
Lieutenant-Colonel A. S. Pendleton, A. A. G. ; 
transferred to General Ewell on death of Gen- 
eral Jackson. 
Major John A. Harman, Quartermaster; trans- 
ferred to General Ewell. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Chas. J. Faulkner, A. A. G. ; 

resigned July 23, 1863. 
Colonel S. Crutchrield, Chief of Artillery, to Feb- 
ruary, 1863. 
Colonel James Jackson, Judge-Advocate, Decem- 
ber 30, 1862. 
Colonel Richard H. Lee, Presiding Judge Military 
Court, December 30, 1862. 

166 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

Lieutenant-Colonel B. F. Jones. A. D. C. 

Major J. L. Cross, A. A. G. ; transferred to Gen- 
eral D. H. Hill, September, 1863. 

Major J. D. Armstrong, A. A. G., April, 1862. 

Lieutenant-Colonel W. S. H. Baylor, I. G., Febru- 
ary, 1862. 

Major George H. Bier ( C. S. Navy), C. O., Sep- 
tember, 1862; relieved January 12, 1863. 

Major U. B. Bridgford, Provo-Marshal, January, 

Colonel David M. Carter, Judge-Advocate, De- 
cember, 1862. 

Dr. H. Black, Surgeon, May 2j, 1862. 

Dr. Hunter McGuire, Chief Surgeon. 

Colonel Wm. L. Jackson, A. D. C, September, 
1862, to April 14, 1863. 

Lieutenant George G. Junkin, A. D. C. ; resigned 
April 14, 1862. 

Lieutenant T. G. Lee, A. D. C, 1861. 

Cadet N. W. Lee, A. D. C, July 19, 1861. 

Captain J. M. Garnett, A. D. C. 

Captain J. Power Smith, A. D. C. ; transferred to 
General Ewell, 1863. . . 

Captain J. J. Lock, Assistant Commissary, March 

5, 1863. 
Major John S. Whiting, Acting Engineer and 

A. A. G., February, 1863. 
Lieutenant T. L. Snead, A. D. C, April 4, 1863. 
Captain E. F. Ritton, A. A. G., October, i862-'63. 
Major E. F. Paxton, A. A. G., October, i862-'63. 
Cadet J. West Thompson, A. D. C. ; promoted 

Lieutenant and O. O. to General Ferguson. 
Colonel Thos. H. Williamson, Engineer, May 10, 


Jackson, William Bother, Brigadier-General of Cavalry, Decem- 
ber 19, 1864. 

List of General Officers and their Staff's. 167 

Jenkins, Albert Gallatin, Brigadier-General, August 5, 1862; 
killed at Cloyd's Farm (mountain), \Y. Va., May 9, 1864. 
Staff. — Captain Nicholas Fitzhugh, A. A. G. 

Lieutenant George B. Hannah, A. D. C. 
Captain George G. Paxton, A. O. M., June 30, 

Johnson, Edward, Brigadier-General, December 13, 1861 ; Major- 
General, February 28, 1863 ; died February 22, 1873. 

Staff.— Major Benj. Watkins Leigh, A. A. G. ; kille 1 at 
Gettysburg, July 3, 1863. 

Major Henry Kyd Douglas, A. A. G. 

Captain R. W. Hunter; promoted Major and A. 
A. G. 

Lieutenant E. J. Martin, A. D. C. 

Lieutenant \Y. M. Davidson, A. D. C, December 
9, 1864. 

Major Thos. E. Ballard, Commissary, July-Sep- 
tember, 1863. 

Dr. G. \Y. Munroe, Assistant Surgeon, December, 

Dr. W. L. Lunday, Assistant Surgeon ; transferred 
to General Patton as Cbief Surgeon. 

Captain Thad. A. Smith, O. O., November, 1863. 

Captain W. H. Harmon, A. D. C, May 17, 1862. 

Captain W. W. Old, A. D. C, 1863; same to Gen- 
eral Early ; same to General Joseph E. John- 
ston, July, 1864. 

Colonel Abner Smead, A. A. G., 1862; transferred 
to General T. J. Jackson, then to General Ewell, 
January 26, 1863. 

Lieutenant Ed. AYillis, A. D. C, May 17, 1863. 

Jones, John Marshall, Brigadier-General, May 15, 1863; killed 
at the Wilderness, May 5, 1864. 

Staff. — Lieutenant Francis T. Jones, A. D. C. ; died Sep- 
tember 2, 1863. 

Jones, John R., Brigadier-General, June 2^, 1862; died in Har- 
risonburg, Va., August, 1861. 

168 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

Staff. — Major David A. Jones, Commissary, 1862 

Major James \Y. Bruce, Quartermaster; trans- 
ferred to General Terry. 

Lieutenant Mann Page, A. A. G., September, 1863. 

Lieutenant E. Holmes Boyd, Ordnance, Septem- 
ber, 1863. 

Captain Virginius Dabney, A. D. C, July 25. 1862. 

Johnston, Joseph Eggleston, Major-General Virginia State 
Forces, April 26, 1861 ; Brigadier-General C. S. A., May 
14, 1861 ; General C. S. A., August 13, 1861 ; died in Wash- 
ington City, May 21, 1891. 

Staff. — Colonel H. Cole, Inspector-General, March, 1862. 
Colonel E. J. Harvie, A. I. G., 1862. 
Major S. A. Carthwright, Medical Inspector, June, 

Lieutenant-Colonel George W. Lay, A. A. G. ; 

transferred to Conscript Bureau, June, 1863. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Osmond Latrobe, A. A. G. ; 

transferred to General Longstreet's Staff, 1864. 
Captain John F. Lay, A. A. G. ; transferred to 

General Beauregard, April 29, 1862 ; promoted 

Major and A. A. G. to General Sam Jones, 

then to General Hardie's Staff, March 29, 1865. 
Captain A. P. Mason, A. A. G. ; promoted Major 

and lieutenant-Colonel. 
Major Alfred M. Barbour, Chief Quartermaster, 

to July, 1864. 
Lieutenant James Barroll Washington, A. D. C, 

to December 4, 1862. 
Colonel Tohn J. Clark, Chief Engineer, March, 

1865. " 
Captain James Cooper, A. & I. General, 1865. 
Major John Johnson, Engineer O., 1865. 
M*ajor Pollock B. Lee, A. I. G., 1865. 
Major Richard J. Manning, A. D. C, April, 1864, 

to April, 1865. 
Captain J. P. Johnson, A. A. G., March, 1863; 

promoted Lieutenant-Colonel, 1864. 

List of General Officers and their Staffs. 169 

Dr. W. E. Kemble, Assistant Surgeon, January, 

Major Clark Kennerley, Chief Ordnance Officer, 
August, 1863. 

Colonel T. B. Lanor, A. A. G., December, 1862, 
to September, 1863. 

Captain Robert L. Maupin, A. A. G., July 18, 

Major Danville Leadbetter, Chief Engineer, Janu- 
ary-April, 1864. 

Lieutenant George D. Wise, A. D. C, May, 1862; 
promoted Captain and A. D. C. to General 

Beauregard; killed June 14, 1864. 

Jones, Samuel, Brigadier-General, July 21, 1861 ; Major-General, 
May 10, 1862; died in Washington, D. C, August, 1887. 
Staff. — Captain Giles B. Cooke, A. A. G. ; transferred 
from General P. St. George Cocke to General 
Beauregard ; to General Bragg ; to General Sam 
Jones ; and in the fall of 1864 to General 
R. E. Lee, as Major and A. A. G. 
Major C. S. Stringfellow, A. A. G. 
Major W. B. Myers, A. & I. G., December, 1862; 

same to General Gordon in 1865. 
Major Thos. Noble, Quartermaster; transferred 

to Alabama, 1864, on special service. 
Lieutenant P. C. Warwick, A. D. C, 1862. 

Jones, Wni. Edmondson, Brigadier-General of Cavalry, Sep- 
tember 19, 1862; killed at Piedmont, \'a., June 5, 1864. 
Staff.— Captain W. K. Martin, A. A. G. 

Lieutenant \Y. M. Hopkins, A. D. C. 

Jordan, Thomas, Brigadier-General, April 14, 1862; Chief of 
Staff to General Beauregard ; died in New York City No- 
vember 27, 1895. 

Kemper, James Lawson, Brigadier-General, June 3, 1862; 
wounded at Gettysburg July 3, 1863; Major-General, Sep- 
tember 19, 1864; died at Orange Courthouse, Ya., April 7, 

170 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

Staff. — Captain Wm. O. Fry ; wounded at Gettysburg, 

July 3, 1863. 
Captain Thomas Gordon Pollock, A. & I. General ; 

killed at Gettysburg July 3, 1863. 
First Lieutenant George E. Geiger, A. D. C. ; 

killed at Gettysburg July 3, 1863. 
Major James \Y. Green, Commissary, June, 1862. 
Major Nelson \Y. Cresler, Quartermaster, June, 

Captain Kinloch Wilson, G. O., 1S62; same to 

General Longstreet in 1863. 

Lagnel. Julius, Brigadier-General, April 15, 1862; declined the 

Lee, Edwin G., Brigadier-General, September 20, 1864; com- 
manded Virginia Reserves, Valley District, 1864. 

Lee, Fitzhugh, Brigadier-General of Cavalry, July 24, 1862; 
Major-General of Cavalry, August 3, 1863 ; died in Wash- 
ington, D. C, May, 1905. 
Staff.— Major Robert F. Mason, A. A. G., August, 1863, 
to close of war. 
Major James Dugue Ferguson, A. A. G. 
Lieutenant Charles Minnegerode, Jr., A. D. C. ; 

wounded April, 1865. 
Lieutenant Henry C. Lee, A. D. C. 
Captain Stith Lolling, Company G, Ninth Virginia 

Cavalry, February, 1863. 
Captain Thomas F. Bowie, A. A. & I. G. ; cap- 
tured 1864. 
Captain W. B. Warwick, A. C. S., July, 1863; pro- 
moted Major. 
Isaac W'alke, Ordnance Officer; killed in action. 

Lee, George Washington Custis, Brigadier-General, June 25, 
1863; Major-General, October 20, 1864; commanding troops 
for defence of Richmond, Ya. 

Lee, W'm. Henry Fitzhugh, Brigadier-General of Cavalry, Sep- 
tember 15, 1862; Major-General of Cavalry, April 2^, 1864; 
died at Ravinsworth, Fairfax County, October 15, 1891. 

List of General Officers and their Staff's. 171 

Staff. — Major Luke Turnan Brien, A. A. G. ; promoted 
Major Charles Waite, Quartermaster-General. 
Major A. G. Dade, Commissary-General. 
Captain Tohn Mason Lee, A. A. G., November 2, 

1863. ' 
Captain R. E. Lee, Jr., A. D. C, October 30, 1862. 
Captain Frank Robertson, Engineer. 
Lieutenant Theo. S. Garnett, A. D. C, June 1, 

Lieutenant Philip P. Dandridge, A. A. G., 1862. 
Major Gilham, Division Engineer. 
Captain Charles Pierce, Ordnance Officer. 
Major A. C. Randolph, Surgeon, Brigade and 

Division, to April 9, 1865. 
Captain Frank Robertson, Engineer. 

Lilley, R. D., Brigadier-General, May 3T, 1864 (commanded Peg- 
ram's Brigade) ; died at Staunton, Ya., November 12, 1886. 

Lomax, Lunsford Lindsay, Brigadier-General of Cavalry, July 
2^, 1863; Major-General, Cavalry, August 10, 1864. 
Staff. — Lieutenant James Hunter, Jr., September, 1863- 

Captain C. Powell Grady, A. A. G., 1863 ; promoted 

from ranks Sixth Virginia Cavalry to Staff of 

General Payne ; transferred 1864. 
Major C. S. Hart, Quartermaster, 1864. 
Captain Allen Dicker$on, A. A. G., 1864. 
Major Thomas Hill, 1864. 
Major Charles Howard. C. S. 3 1864. 
Lieutenant James Marchman, Provo-Marshal, 

April, 1863. 
Captain Thomas Rowland, A. A. G., November 4, 

Major Thomas Snowden, Quartermaster, 1864. 
Major Peter H. Woodward, Quartermaster, 1863 ; 

transferred to General Payne's Staff. 

172 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

Long, Armistead Lindsay, Brigadier-General of Artillery, Sep- 
tember 21, 1863; died April, 1891, Charlottesville, Ya. 
Staff. — Lieut. S. V. Southall, A. A. G. 

Magruder, John Baunhead, Brigadier-General, June 17, 1861 ; 
Major-General, October 7, 1861 ; died February 19, 1871. 
Staff.— J. M. Goggin, A. I. G., 1861. 

Lieutenant-Colonel John B. Cary, A. I. G., May 3, 

Major W. Hyllested, A. D. C, June, 1861. 

Lieutenant Henry Bryan, A. D. C. ; promoted Cap- 
tain and A. A. G. 

Lieutenant Wm. A. Alston, A. D. C, May 16, 
1861 ; Captain and A. A. G., October, 1862, to 
November, 1863. 

Captain Benj. Bloomfield, Chief Quartermaster, 

Lieutenant J. K. Bos well, Engineer, 1861 ; trans- 
ferred to T. J. Jackson, February, 1862; Cap- 
tain and Chief Engineer to General Jackson, 
1863; killed May 10, 1863. 

J. Randolph Bryan, A. D. C, May 3, 1862. 

Major George B. Cosby, A. A. G., July, 1861. 

Lieutenant James R. Crump, Engineer, November, 
1861 ; killed February 27, 1864. 

Captain H, C. Derrick, Engineer (Mulberry Island 
Point, Virginia), 1861. 

Captain Andrew G. Dickinson, A. A. G., Febru- 
ary, 1861, to December 11, 1862. 

Lieutenant Henry T. Douglas, Engineer, May 3, 
1862; promoted Captain and Engineer Officer 
to General A. P. Hill, June, 1862; same to Gen- 
eral Longstreet ; promoted Lieutenant-Colonel 
and Chief Engineer, Trans-Miss. Dept., March, 

Lieutenant Thomas J. Page, Virginia Navy, A. D. 
C, November, 1861. 

Lieutenant Hugh Mercer Stanard, A. D. C. 

List of General Officers and their Staff's. 173 

Captain \Y. R. Yaughan, A. Q. M., June, 1861. 
Captain Wm. Norris, S. O., May and June, 1863. 

Mahone, William, Brigadier-General, November 16, 1861 ; Major- 
General, June 1, 1864; died in Washington City October 9, 

Staff. — Captain Robinson Taylor, A. A. G. 

Captain F. M. Ironmonger, Asst. Quartermaster. 
Major R. I. Duncan, A. A. G., November, 1864. 
Captain W. N. McDonald, Ordnance Officer, 1864- 

Major Philip M. Slaughter, C. S. 
Captain Edward N. Thurston, A. D. C, 1864. 
Lieutenant Richard Walke, promoted Captain and 
A. A. G. Artillery, Third Corps. 

Maury, Dabney Herndon, Brigadier-General, March 12, 1862; 
Major-General, November 11, 1862; died at Peoria, 111., 
January 11, 1900. 
Staff. — Captain D. W. Flowerree, A. A. G. ; promoted 
Major and A. A. G. 
Lieutenant John H. Maury, A. D. C, April 28, 

McCausland, John, Brigadier-General, May 18, 1864. 
Staff. — Dr. Isaiah Bee, Surgeon, May 18, 1864. 

First Lieutenant Richard H. Burke, May 18, 1864= 
Captain George H. Eyster, A. A. G., November 4, 

Major N. Fitzhugh, A. A. G., November 4, 1864. 
Lieutenant Henry W. Cox, Ordnance Officer, May, 

Major Thos. J. Jenkins. Quartermaster, May, 

Major James W. Smith, Commissary, 1864. 

Moore, Patrick T., Brigadier-General, September 20, 1864; 
assigned to organization of reserve forces in and around 

174 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

Mimford, Thomas T., Brigadier-General Cavalry, 1864. 
Staff.— Captain \Y. K. Martin, A. A. G. 

Captain Henry C. Lee, A. & 1. G. ; transferred to 

General Fitz Lee's Division. 
First Lieutenant Lomax Tayloe, A. D. C. 
First Lieutenant W. H. McFarland, A. D. C. 
Captain B. B. Mason, Assistant Commissary. 
Major Albert McDaniel, Quartermaster. 
Lieut. A. Warwick, A. D. C. 
Captain M. M. Rogers, Pi;ovo-Guard. 
Major John W. Tayloe, A. I. G. 
Sergeant-Major Samuel Griffin, A. A. A. G. 
James E. Tucker, Headquarter Color-bearer. 

Page, Richard L., Brigadier-General, March 1, 1864; was com- 
mander in the Confederate Navy, June 14, 1861 ; commander 
Naval Station at Charlotte, N. C. Savannah, Ga., Fort Mor- 
gan, and defences of Mobile Bay. His brigade was com- 
posed of troops from Alabama and Tennessee ; died at 
Hagerstown, Md., August 9, 1901. 
Staff. — Captain Clifton Smith, A. A. G., October, 1862. 

Paxton, Elisha Franklin, Brigadier-General, November 1, 1862; 
killed at Chancellor sville May 3, 1863. 

Payne, William H., Brigadier-General Cavalry, November 1, 
1864; died in Washington City, March 9, 1904. 
Staff. — Lieutenant A. C. Dickinson. 

Lieutenant Charles E. Kimball, A. D. C, October, 

Lieutenant John Blackburn, promoted from ranks 

Sixth Cavalry ; Lieutenant and Ord. Officer. 
Dr. W. H. Fairfax, Assistant Surgeon, October, 

Dr. Robert Gait, Assistant Surgeon, November, 

Rev. Richard Davis, Chaplain, August, 1862. 
Dr. James C. Green, x\ssistant Surgeon, October, 

List of General Officers and their Staffs. 175 

Lieutenant Charles Digges, A. D. C. ; promoted 

from ranks Fourth Cavalry, 1864. 
Dr. James S. Lewis, Surgeon, August, 1862, to 

Lieutenant Robert Pendleton, Provost-Marshal, 

1865 ; promoted from ranks Sixth Virginia 

Major Win. Taylor, C. S., 1863-1864; promoted 

from ranks Sixth Cavalry. 
Dr. J. B. Shepherd. Assistant Surgeon, 1863. 

Pegram, John, Brigadier-General, November 7, 1862; killed at 
Hatcher's Run February 5, 1865. 
Staff.— Captain Robt. X. Wilson, A. A. G., April 18, 1862. 
Captain R. T. Daniel. Jr., A. A. G. 
Lieutenant J. F. Ranson, A. D. C, November 20, 

Rev. A. C. Bledsoe, Chaplain, April 20, 1864. 
D. C. Freeman, Jr., V. A. D. C, April, 1863. 
Captain H. Henly Smith, A. D. C, 1863. 

Pemberton, John Clifford, Brigadier-General, June 17, 1861 ; 
Major-General, January 1, 1862; Lieutenant-General, Octo- 
ber 10, 1862; died at Penllyn, Pa., July 13, 1881. 
Staff. — Major J. R. Waddy, A. A. G. ; promoted Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel and A. A. G., 1862. 
Captain A. J. YYaddy. A. A. G., September 11, 

Col. Henry W. Allen. Judge Military Court, Feb- 
ruary 13, 1863. 

Pendleton, William Nelson, Brigadier-General Artillery, March 
26, T862; died at Lexington, Ya., January 15, 1883. 
Staff. — Lieutenant Geo. W. Peterkin, A. D. C, May 22, 
1862 ; promoted Captain, 1864. 
Lieutenant E. P. Dandridge, A. A. G., 1864. 
Lieutenant Charles Hatcher, A. D. C, 1864. 
Captain Dudley D. Pendleton, A. A. G., May, 
1862, to November 4, 1864. 

176 Souther?} Historical Society Papers. 

Pickett, George Edward, Brigadier-General, January 14, 1862 ; 
Major-General, October 10, 1862 ; died at Norfolk, Ya., 
July 30, 1875: 
Staff.— Major Chas. Pickett, A. A. G. 

Major Walter Harrison, A. A. G. ; promoted Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel ; A. I. G., 1864. 
Captain Thos. Croxton, A. A. G., May 1, 1862. 
Captain W. S. Symington, A. D. C. 
Captain Robt. Johnston, A. A. A. G. ; promoted 

Colonel of Third Virginia Cavalry, 1862. 
Major (Dr.) Chas. W. Chancellor, Surgeon, 1862-* 

Major (Dr.) M. M. Lewis, Surgeon, 1863-1865. 
Major (Dr.) Jas. A. McAlpine, Medical Inspector, 

1 864- 1 865. 
Major R. Taylor Scott, Chief Quartermaster. 
Major Horace W, Jones, Chief Comissary. 
Captain David Meade, Assistant Quartermaster. 
Captain Thos. P. Wallace, Asst. Quartermaster. 
■ Captain Win. B. Edmunds, Asst. Quartermaster. 
Captain A. W. Williams, Division Paymaster, 

1 864- 1 865. 
Captain W. Douglas Stuart, Chief Engineer. 
First Lieutenant John S. Morson, Asst. Engineer. 
Captain Horace I. Cochran, Chief Ordnance Offi- 
cer, 1 864- 1 865. 
First Lieutenant Sam. G. Leitch, Ordnance Offi- 
cer, 1862-1864. 
First Lieutenant Edward R. Baird, A. D. C. 
Captain R. A. Bright, A. D. C. 
First Leiutenant I. W. Gossett, Provost Guard. 
First Lieutenant F. Brooke, Provost Guard. 
Captain Raymond Fairfax, Pioneer Corps ; pro- 
moted May, 1864. 
Captain Chas. Floyd, Assistant Quartermaster, 

Division Sutler. 
Captain A. Archer, A. D. C, May to July, 1862. 
Captain Peacock, A. D. C, 1863; trans- 
ferred to General Heth, 1864. 

List of General Officers and their Staffs. 177 

Pryor, Roger A., Brigadier-General. April 16, 1862; resigned 
August 18, 1863. 
Staff. — Captain Walter Wrenn; killed September 17, 
Major Thos. C. Elder, Commissary ; transferred 

to General E. A. Perry, May 9, 1863. 
Lieutenant B. F. Hudgins, A. D. C, May-June, 

1862; resigned October 20, 1862. 
Lieutenant Chas. McCann, A. D. C, September 
21, 1862. 

Randolph, George Wythe, Brigadier-General, February 13, 1862; 
Secretary of War, March 17th to December 18, 1862. 
Staff. — Captain R. G. Ft. Kean, February 24, 1862; re- 
signed April 14, 1862. 

Reynolds, Alexander W., Brigadier-General, September 14, 1863; 
died May 26, 1876. 

Robertson, Beverly H., Brigadier-General Cavalry, June 9, 1862. 
Staff. — Captain Walter K. Martin ; transferred to General 
Munford, as A. A. G. 

Captain Philip Haxall, A. A. G., 1863 ; transferred 
to General C. L. Stephenson. 

Captain Thomas L. Farish, A. A. G., June 24, 

Captain W. X. Worthington, A. D. C. 

Captain C. H. Gordon, A. A. G., June 3, 1862; 
resigned January, 1863. 

Sergeant G. W. Bassett, Company H, Ninth Vir- 
ginia Cavalry ; promoted Lieutenant and Ord- 
nance Officer May 5, 1863. 

Major R. H. Downman, Commissary, December, 

ijor W. W. Harvie, C. S., Commissary, June, 

Major George Melton, Quartermaster, 1863. 
Captain J. R. Holcombe, Quartermaster, 1861. 
Dr. W. H. Robertson, Surgeon, 1863. 

178 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

Major H. H. Selden, Quartermaster. 
Lieutenant A. G. Taylor, A. D. C. 

Ruggles, Daniel, Brigadier-General, August 9, 1861 ; assigned to 
Department of Georgia and Mississippi and other States ; 
died in Fredericksburg, Ya. 

Rosser, Thomas Lafayette, Brigadier-General of Cavalry, 1863; 
Major-General of Cavalry, November, 1864; died in Char- 
lottesville, 1910. 
Staff. — Major Peter Fontaine, A. A. G. 

Major Holmes Conrad, A. & I. General. 
Major A. Meade Smith, Commissary. 
Major Chas. B. Gwathmey, Quartermaster. 
Captain Philip B. Winston, A. D. C. 
Captain Jno. W. Emmett, A. A. G., December 20, 
1863, to November 4, 1864. 

Slaughter, J. E., Brigadier-General, March 8, 1862; Inspector- 
General, Department in the Army of Mississippi and Ten- 
nessee ; died in the City of Mexico January 1, 1901. 

Smith, William, Brigadier-General, January 31, 1863; Major- 
General, August 30, 1863 ; resigned December 31, 1863, hav- 
ing been elected Governor of Virginia ; died in Warrenton, 
Ya., May 18, 1887. 

Staff.— Captain Wilson, A. A. G. 

Lieutenant F. W. Smith, A. D. C. 

Stevens, Walter FL, Brigadier-General Engineers, August 28, 
1864; in charge of defensive work around Richmond, 1862- 
'63-'64 ; Chief Engineer Army Northern Yirginia, August, 
1864, to end of war; died in Vera Cruz, Mexico, November 
12, 1867. 

Stevenson, Carter L., Brigadier-General, February 27, 1862; 
Major-General, October 10, 1862; died August 15, 1888. 
Staff. — Major Joseph W. Anderson, C. A., 1863; pro- 
moted; killed May, 1863. 
First Lieutenant Henry F. Botts, A. D. C, until 
close of war. 

List of General Officers and their Staff's. 179 

Major Geo. L. Gillespie. Commissary, 1862; trans- 
ferred, 1863. 

Lieutenant Geo. A. Haywood, A. D. C., 1862-May 
2, 1863 ; promoted Lieutenant-Colonel and as- 
signed special service, 1865. 

Dr. H. M. Compton, Chief Surgeon. 

Captain J. W. Mathews, A. A. G., May to Septem- 
ber, 1863. 

Major J. H. F. Mayo, Commissary, 1863 to close 
of war. 

Lieutenant \Y. E. McElwee, Commander Pioneer 
Corps, 1863 to April, 1S65. 

Major Howell Webb. A. I. G., 1862 to December, 

Captain Chas. Veder, O. M. & P. M., 1863-1864. 

Major Richard Orme, Quartermaster, 1863. 

Captain Redmond Burke, A. D. C. ; killed at Shep- 
herdstown November 25, 1862. 

Captain Pollard, A. I. G., 1863 ; killed at Atlanta. 

Captain J. S. Redley, C. S., 1862. 

Dr. A. T, Sullivan, Surgeon, to end of war. 

Stuart, James Ewell Brown, Brigadier-General of Cavalry, Sep- 
tember 24, 1861 ; Major-General of Cavalry, July 25, 1862; 
Chief of Cavalry, Army Northern Virginia, January 31, 
1864; died in Richmond, May 12, of wounds received in 
the Battle of Yellow Tavern, May 9, 1864. 
Staff. — Major R. Channing Price ; killed at Chancellors- 
ville, May 1, 1863. 
Major Geo. Freaner, A. A. G., 1863; transferred 

to General Wade Hampton. 
Major Henry B. McClellan, A. A. G. 
Major A. R. Yenable, A. A. G. 
Major Heros Yon Borcke, A. D. C. and A. A. G. 
(A Prussian, but Virginian by adoption, and to 
the day of his death flew the Battle Flag of the 
Army Northern Virginia on his castle in his 
own country.) Wounded desperately in the 

180 Southern Historical Society Fapers. 

throat at Upperville, June 19, 1863; died some 
years after the war. 

Major Dabney Ball, C. S., October, 1861 ; re- 
signed July 25, 1862. 

Major G. M. Ryals, Provost-Marshal. 

Captain Wm. W. Blackford, Chief Engineer. 

Captain W. D. Farley, A. D. C. ; killed at Stevens- 
burg July 9, 1863. 

Lieutenant Frank S. Robertson, Asst. Engineer. 

Lieutenant Chiswell Dabney, A. D. C. ; promoted 

Lieutenant W. Q. Hullehen, A. D. C. ; promoted 

Lieutenant S. H. Farley, A. D. C, June 2^, 1863. 

Dr. Talcott Eleason, Chief Surgeon. 

Dr. John B. Fontaine, Surgeon Cavalry, Army 
Northern Virginia; killed at Five Forks, 1865. 

Lieutenant R. H. Goldsborough, A. D. C. ; killed 
April 6, 1865. 

Major A. G. Dade, Chief Commissary. 

Major J. Marshall Hanger, Asst. Quartermaster. 

Major R. F. Beckham, Chief of Artillery. 

Major R. S. White, Inspector-General. 

Lieutenant Henry Flagan, Chief of Couriers. 

Captain Jno. Esten Cook, Ordnance Officer. 

Captain Luke T. Brien, A. A. G. ; transferred to 
General W. H. F. Lee. 

Major J. S. W. Hairston, A. D. C. ; resigned 
March 1, 1863. 

Major R. Norman, A. A. G., July, 1862; Quarter- 
master to end of war. 

Captain Richard Frayser, Signal Officer, August 
30, 1863. 

Captain J. S. Clarke, V. A. D. C, July, 1863. 

Captain Samuel Hardin Hairston, A. D. C, May, 
1862; promoted Major and Quartermaster, 

Major Wm. I. Johnson, Chief Commissary, June, 
July, 1864. 

List of General Officers and their Staff's. 181 

Captain S. G. Staples, A. D. C, May, 1862. 
Captain Hardeman Stuart, S. O. ; killed, Second 

Manassas, August 29, 1862. 
Captain W. E. Towles, A. D. C, May and July, 

Captain B. S. White, C. S. ; promoted Major. 

Taliaferro, William Booth, Brigadier-General, March 4, 1862; 
Major-General, January 1, 1865; died at Gloucester Court- 
house, Va., February 27, 1898. 
Staff.— Major Wm. T. Taliaferro, A. A. G. ; transferred 
to General D. H. Hill, March, 1865. 

Lieutenant Henry C. Cunningham, Ordnance Offi- 
cer; assigned to duty at Savannah, Ga., July, 

Captain J. B. Brockenbrough. 

Captain W. B. Pendleton, A. A. G. ; wounded and 
disabled August 9, 1862; retired August 3, 

Lieutenant W. A. Taliaferro, A. A. G. 

Captain W. B. Brockett, Quartermaster, April, 

Lieutenant Geo. E. Harrison, Signal Officer, April, 

Major E. L. Holcome, Commissary; same to Gen- 
erals Harrison and Ripley, 1863. 

Lieutenant W. P. Kemp, A. D. C. ; promoted Cap- 
tain, 1863. 

Lieutenant R. K. Meade, Jr., A. D. C, September,. 

Captain J. Randolph Mordecai, Quartermaster ; 
promoted Major, 1865. 

Dr. Robert Sibley, Surgeon, July, 1864. 

Captain Redmond, A. D. C. ; killed near 

Jacksonville, Fla., March, 1864. 

Captain P. H. Waring, A. D. C. ; killed at Fort 
Wagner, S. C. 

Major W. B. Stanard, C. S. ; transferred to Gen- 
eral I. E. B. Stuart's Staff. 

182 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

Terrell, James Barbour, Brigadier-General, May 31, 1864; killed 
at Cold Harbor or Bethesda Church, May 30th, at the head 
of the Thirteenth Regiment, Virginia Infantry, while his 
commission as Brigadier-General was at headquarters of 
the Division Commander. 

Terry, William, Brigadier-General, May 19, 1864; died at Wythe- 
ville September 12, 1888. 
Staff. — Major James \Y. Bruce, Quartermaster. 
Major James B. Dorman, A. A. G. 
Captain R. J. Barton, A. A. G., November 4, 1864. 

Terry, William Richard, Brigadier-General, May 31, 1864; died 
in Richmond, Ya., March 28, 1897. 

Walker, Henry H., Brigadier-General, July 1, 1863. 

Walker, James A., Brigadier-General, May, 1862 ; died in Wythe- 
ville, Va. 
Staff.— Captain Randolph Barton, A. A. G., 1865. 

Captain John S. Braxton, A. A. G., 1862; trans- 
ferred to duty as Enrolling Officer. 
Lieutenant C. S. Arnall, Adjutant Fifth Virginia, 

A. A. A. G., July, 1863. 
Major Jacob R. Braithwaite, Quartermaster. 
Captain Samuel S. Coddall, A. A. G., 1863. 
Major Joseph C. Sexton, Com. S., 1863. 

Walker, Reuben Lindsay, Brigadier-General of Artillery, Feb- 
ruary 18, 1865; Chief of Artillery, A. P. Hill's Corps; died 
in Richmond, Ya., 1890. 

Weisiger, David A., Brigadier-General, May 31, 1864; succeeded 
to Command of Mahone's Brigade ; died in Richmond, Feb- 
ruary 23, 1899. 
Staff. — Captain Wm, E. Cameron, A. A. G., November 
14, 1864. 

Wharton, Gabriel C, Brigadier-General, July 8, 1863. 

Staff. — Captain C. A. De Russy, A. A. G., April, 1862, to 
November 4, 1864. 

List of General Officers and their Staff's. 183 

Major Findley Henderson, C. S., September, 1864. 
Dr. G. M. McDonald, Surgeon, June 9, 1864. 
Major S. T. Peters, Quartermaster ; transferred 

to FJast Tennessee, 1863. 
Major J. E. Pecklen, C. S.. April, 1863. 
Captain D. Bowles Thompson, A. A. G., 1863. 
Lieut. J. J. Wharton, A. D. C. 

Wickham, William Carter. Brigadier-General of Cavalry. Sep- 
tember 3, 1863; resigned November 9, 1864; died in Rich- 
mond, July 23, 1888. 
Staff. — Captain Peter Fontaine, A. A. G. 

Captain Charles Irving Harvie, November 4, 1S64. 

Wise, Henry Alexander, Brigadier-General, June 5, 1861 ; died 
in Richmond, Va., September 10, 1876. 
Staff.— Captain C. B. Duffield, A. A. G., 1862; transferred 
to G. J. Rains, February 20, 1863. 

First Lieutenant Richard A. Wise, A. A. & I. Genl. 

First Lieutenant A. Fred. Fleet, A. A. & I. Genl. 

Major Wm. F. C. Gregory, Commissary. 

Lieutenant James M. Wise, Ordnance Officer. 

Major H. C. Watkins, Quartermaster. 

Captain J. M. Nicholson, Asst. Quartermaster. 

Captain James H. Pearce, A. A. G., 1864. 

Captain W. B. Tabb, A. A. G., to August 6, 1861 ; 

Captain Geo. Douglas Wise, A. A. G., June-July, 

Captain W. Bacon, A. D. C, 1862 ; dropped June 
June 21, 1862. 

Lieutenant Barksdale Warwick, A. D. C. ; killed 
at Five- Forks, March 30, 1865. 

Lieutenant Daniel B. Lucas, A. D. C. 

Captain D. C. Cary, Quartermaster, 1861 to Au- 
gust, 1862. 

Dr. Walter Coles, Surgeon, June, 1862. 

184 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

[From Richmond, Va., Times-Dispatch, January 30, 1910.] 


A Defense of the Cavalry Commander. 


Below is printed Colonel John S. Mosby's answer to Colonel 
T. M. R. Talcott's criticism of his work on "Stuart's Cavalry 
in the Gettysburg Campaign." Colonel Talcott's article appeared 
in this column several weeks ago and consisted largely of direct 
citations from the "Official Records of the War of the Rebel- 
lion." showing General Lee's plan of campaign and elucidating 
his orders to his subordinates. Since Colonel Mosby's article 
was received Rev. Randolph McKim, D. D., of Washington, 
D. C, late aid to General Edward Johnson, delivered an address 
on the same subject before R. E. Lee Camp, No. i, Confederate 
Veterans, in which he vigorously defended General Lee. We 
hope soon to print this address. — Editor's note. 

Three letters have lately appeared in the Times-Dispatch 
from Colonel T. M. R. Talcott, in which he attempts to answer 
my objections to General Lee's two reports of the Gettysburg 
campaign in my book, "Stuart's Cavalry in the Gettysburg Cam- 
paign," which was published nearly two years ago. The ground 
of my objection is the injustice they do to the commander of the 

As his name is not mentioned in any of the official reports 
of the campaign, I do not know what were Colonel Talcott's 
relations with the army at that time, or what opportunity he 
had for observing its operations. He does not even profess to 
have discovered any new evidences to support the old and ex- 
ploded charge against Stuart of disobedience of orders, and all 
the documentary evidence he produces is quoted or referred to 
in my book. It is true that he publishes a letter to himself from 
Colonel Walter H. Taylor, Assistant Adjutant-General to General 
Lee, but as Taylor is already a discredited witness, his testi- 
mony is entitled to little weight in this controversy. 

Stuart in the Gettysburg Campaign. 185 

The statements in his letter to Colonel Talcott are contradicted 
by a letter from General Lee to Stuart, dated 5 P. M., June 23. 
1863. A copy of this letter appears in General Lee's letter-book 
in Colonel Taylor's handwriting. Colonel Taylor says Stuart 
"was admonished all the while to keep in touch with our main 
army and to keep General Lee informed as to the movements 
of the enemy." 

Colonel Taylor depends on his imagination for his facts. I 
defy him to point out one word in General Lee's letter to Stuart 
about keeping "in touch with the main army," or keeping Gen- 
eral Lee "informed of the movements of the enemy." 

"It was in reference to this oblivion which has come over 
General Lee's staff officers that I said the Homeric legend of 
the Lotus-Eaters, who lost their memory, is no longer a romance, 
but a reality. 


On June 22d, General Lee had written Stuart to leave two 
brigades of cavalry with him, and to cross into Maryland with 
three brigades, "and take position on General Ewell's right, place 
yourself in communication with him, guard his flank, keep him 
informed of the enemy's movements, and collect all the supplies 
you can for the use of the army. One column of General 
Ewell's army will probably move towards the Susquehanna by 
the Emmittsburg route, another by Chambersburg." This letter 
is in Colonel Charles Marshall's handwriting. General Lee was 
then in the Shenandoah Valley with the corps of Longstreet and 
A. P. Hill ; Ewell was about Hagerstown, Md., and had been 
ordered to the Susquehanna. 

According to Colonel Taylor, General Lee issued an absurd 
order requiring Stuart to cross the Potomac and put himself on 
Ewell's right flank on his march to the Susquehanna, and at 
the same time keep in touch with the other two corps ; and in 
addition to watch and report to him the movements of Hooker's 
army on the Potomac. If Stuart could have performed all 
those things he would have surpassed anything in the enchanting 
tales of the Arabian Nights. 

Colonel Taylor does not say what General Lee expected to do 
with the two brigades of cavalry he kept with him in Virginia. 

186 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

The letter of June 226. was sent to Longstreet, to be forwarded 
if he thought Stuart "can be spared from my (his) front." 
Longstreet did forward the instructions, and, referring to Gen- 
eral Lee, said : "Lie speaks of your leaving via Hopewell Gap 
[the Bull Run Mountain] and passing by the rear of the enemy." 
At the same time Longstreet, who was at Millwood, wrote to 
General Lee, "Yours of 4 o'colck this afternoon received. I 
have forwarded your letter to General Stuart with the sugges- 
tion that he pass by the enemy's rear if he thinks he may get 
through." This was notice to Lee of the route Stuart would go. 
So the cavalry movement around Hooker's rear had the approval 
in advance of both General Lee and General Longstreet. 

Hooker was then in Fairfax ; General Lee was in his front. 
General Lee could not have expected Stuart to pass around 
Hooker's rear 'to cross the Potomac, and at the same time keep 
in touch with the main army and in communication with him 
unless he had a machine that could fly over Hooker's head and 
navigate the air. Vet his report complains that "by the route 
he pursued the Federal Army was interposed between his com- 
mand and our main body — preventing any communication with 
him until he arrived at Garlisle." 


Nobody would suspect from reading his first report that Gen- 
eral Lee kept two cavalry brigades with him to watch the enemy, 
or that he ever authorized Stuart to cross the river in rear of the 
enemy ; or that Ewell had gone into Pennsylvania a week in 
advance of the main army. 

The first report is dated July 31, 1863, and was immediately 
published in the newspapers. It is the origin of all the criticisms 
of Stuart.- It says : "In the meantime a part of General Ewell's 
corps had entered Maryland and the rest was about to follow. 
* * * General Stuart was left to guard the passes of the 
mountains and observe the movements of the enemy, whom he 
was instructed to harass and impede as much as possible should 
he attempt to cross the Potomac. 

"In that event General Stuart was directed to move into 
Maryland, crossing the Potomac east or west of the Blue Ridge, 

Stuart in the Gettysburg Campaign. 187 

as in his judgment should be best, and take position on the right 
of our column as it advanced." 

The statement that Stuart was authorized to cross the Potomac 
east or west of the Ridge is true; but it is not the whole truth, 
for, taken in connection with the complaint of Hooker's army 
being interposed between Stuart and our army, persons who 
read the report naturally inferred it meant that Stuart had au- 
thority to cross at some of the fords east of Harper's Ferry, 
but in front of Hooker's army. The report did not say a word 
about Ewell's corps having been detached and sent on several 
days in advance to the Susquehanna, and that Stuart was ordered 
to join Ewell. It speaks only of Ewell being in Maryland. 

On the contrary, and one reading the report would conclude 
that the corps of Longstreet, Ewell and A. P. Hill united at 
Hagerstown, in Maryland, and that Stuart was ordered to put 
himself "on the right of our column as it advanced" into Penn- 
sylvania. Now, as Ewell was at Hagerstown when he received 
General Lee's order of the 22d to move to the Susquehanna, and 
as he crossed the State line that day while Stuart was still in 
Fauquier County, Virginia, it could hardly have been expected 
that Stuart would overtake Ewell before he reached the Susque- 
hanna, or that General Lee would rely on Stuart to watch and 
report Hooker's movements on the Potomac, especially as he 
had kept two brigades of cavalry with him. 

Yet Colonel Taylor says that General Lee expected Stuart to 
perform that miracle. 


Again, General Lee's final instructions to Stuart were written 
from Berry ville at 5 P. M., June 23d. As I have said, they 
were copied by Colonel Taylor in General Lee's letter-book. They 
were substantially a repetition of those sent through Longstreet 
the day before, but more explicit about crossing the Potomac. 
They gave Stuart the alternative of coming over the Ridge the 
next day, crossing the Potomac at -Shepherdstown and then 
moving on over the South Mountain to Fredericktown ; or he 
could pass around Hooker's rear, "doing them all the damage 
you can, and cross the river east of the mountain. In either 

188 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

case, after crossing the river, you must move on and feel the 
right of Ewell s troops, collecting information, provisions, etc." 
Clearly, when General Lee told Stuart that if he crossed at 
Shepherdstown he must move on over to Frederickstown, he 
did not mean for Stuart to stop there, but merely to indicate the 
best route to join Ewell, as he had written Stuart that one of 
Ewell's columns would move to the Susquehanna by Emmitts- 
burg. In this second letter he said : "The movements of Ewell's 
corps are as stated in my former letter" (22d). On that day 
he had written Ewell from Berryville: * * * "Aline of 
to-day authorizing you to move towards the Susquehanna, I 
hope has reached you. * * * I also directed General 
Stuart, should the enemy have so far retired from his front as 
to permit of the departure of a portion of the cavalry, to march 
with three brigades across the Potomac and place himself on 
your right and communicate with you, keep you advised of the 
movements of the enemy and assist in collecting supplies for 
the army." There is not a word in the instructions to Stuart, 
although the report says so, about his being left to guard the 
passes of the mountain or harass and impede the enemy, "should 
he attempt to cross the Potomac" ; for the plain reason that he 
was expected to cross in advance of the enemy and move on into 
Pennsylvania with Ewell. 

stuart's alternatives. 

Xobody can reconcile the statements about the cavalry in 
General Lee's two reports with his orders to both Ewell and 
Stuart on June 22d, and his letter of 5 P. M., June 23d, to 
Stuart, which is, as I have said, in Colonel Taylor's handwriting. 
No discretion was given to Stuart to remain with the arm}- in 
Virginia or join Ewell in Pennsylvania ; but discretion was given 
him to go by Shepherdstown, or cross in Hooker's rear at Seneca. 
Xo matter which route he went he would be equally out of 
sight of the enemy and out of communication with General Lee. 
Stuart would have been where General Lee put him. In his last 
letter to Stuart General Lee speaks of the movements of troops 
in the \ alley the next day. 

If General Lee had anticipated that it would break up Stuart's 

Stuart in the Gettysburg Campaign. 189 

plan of passing to the Potomac not around Hooker's rear, through 
Fairfax, but through the middle of Hooker's army, cutting it in 
two and destroying his transportation, he would have delayed 
the movement in the Valley, as there was no necessity for it that 
day. A. P. Hill was at Charlestown, about nine miles from 
Shepherdstown ; he should have stood still to give Stuart time 
to cross the river. 

Stuart would then have been so far ahead that Pleasanton's 
cavalry could never have overtaken him. From the day General 
Lee crossed the Rappahannock Hooker had always moved so as 
to keep in touch with Lee, and between Lee and Washington. 

It could not be expected that after the whole Southern Army 
had crossed the Potomac, Hooker would halt in Virginia and 
uncover Washington. 

hooker's prompt movement. 

On the 24th A. P. Hill's corps moved from Charlestown to the 
Potomac, in bight of the signal station on Maryland Heights. 
The news was telegraphed to Hooker, and he set his army in 
motion for the Potomac the next day. Stuart found Hooker's 
army marching on the roads which he had expected to travel, 
hence he had to change his route and make a detour through 
Fairfax around Hooker's rear. Instead of crossing the river 
on the evening of the 25th, he did not get over until the night of 
the 27th. Pleasanton's Cavalry Corps had been kept behind as 
the rear guard of the army, and crossed the Potomac some miles 
above on the same night. It was kept behind and neutralized by 
Stuart being in their rear, and gave no trouble to General Lee. 

Colonel Talcott quotes from my book what is said about the 
premature movements in the Shenandoah Valley, making the 
Gettysburg campaign the Iliad of the South, and claims that 
this is an admission that the disaster was clue to the absence 
of the cavalry. 

His conclusions are illogical — a non sequitur — no such mean- 
ing can be given to any language. Xo matter where Stuart 
crossed the Potomac — east or west of the Ridge — he would not 
have been with General Lee or anywhere near Gettysburg, but 
away off on the Susquehanna. I never said it was the cause of 

190 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

the loss of the battle, but of the failure of the campaign as 

originally planned. 

hill's responsibility. 

It was this movement of A. P. Hill on the 24th from Charles- 
town that disclosed our plan to the enemy and caused it to mis- 
carry. There never would have been a battle at Gettysburg if 
Stuart had crossed the Potomac on the evening of the 25th. as 
he had expected. With his transportation destroyed, the canal 
on the Potomac, which had become his line of supply, broken, 
and all communications cut between Washington and the Xorth, 
Hooker's attention would have been drawn from Lee to the 
Capital, and Stuart would have marched leisurely on to the 
Susquehanna. Longstreet was at Millwood on the 24th, and 
marched out of view of the signal station by Bunker Hill and 
Martinsburg to Williamsport. As he had to march about three 
times the distance that A. P. Hill had to march from Charlestown 
to cross at Shepherdstown, Hill might have waited a day and 
then he, Longstreet and Stuart would all have crossed the Poto- 
mac on the same day and would have left Hooker behind in 

Of course, General Lee did not anticipate that Hooker would 
follow so promptly and defeat the operation that was originally 
planned. Still Stuart did cross in the enemy's rear. 

Colonel Talcott says it was necessary for the two corps to 
move on the 24th to support Ewell. But Ewell's, Early's and 
Rodey's reports show just the reverse. A few militia met them 
at two or three places, but scattered without firing a shot. When 
Early got to York he sent Gordon to secure the bridge across 
the Susquehanna, but the militia set tire to the bridge and ran 
over the river. Hooker had detached no forces to follow 
Ewell. General Lee held him in Virginia, while Ewell foraged 
in Pennsylvania. Jenkins' cavalry was skirmishing with some 
militia in the suburbs of Harrisburg when Ewell, who was at 
Carlisle, recalled him. 

stuart's conduct on june 25TH. 

Colonel Talcott also says that when, on the 25th, Stuart found 
out that he could not pass through Hooker's army he ought to 

Stuart in the Gettysburg Campaign. 191 

have turned back, gone over the Blue Ridge and crossed the river 
at Shepherdstown. But it was easier then to go on than to turn 
back. He simply obeyed General Lee's order, kept on and 
passed around Hooker's rear. He could not possibly have 
reached Shepherdstown before the night of the 27th, which was 
the time he crossed at Seneca. General Lee had then been two 
days at Chambersburg. 

If Stuart had gone back to Shepherdstown he would have 
rested for a night, and then have moved on through some pass 
in the South Mountain to join Early at York. He would have 
reached there about the time Early was leaving to join Ewell. 

Stuart's crossing at Seneca, so near Washington, cutting the 
canal, intercepting communications and capturing supply trains 
seriously impeded the operations of the Northern army. Meade's 
attention was directed from Lee ; he sent two-thirds of his cavalry 
and three army corps off to the east to intercept Stuart, save Bal- 
timore, and open his communications, which Stuart had cut. But 
the fruit of these operations was lost by A. P. Hill's and Heth's 
Quixotic adventures in going off without orders to Gettysburg. 

Yet nobody would suspect from reading General Lee's two 
reports, or what his staff officers have written, that A. P. Hill 
and Heth broke up his plan of campaign. And here I will notice 
a statement in Colonel Taylor's book — "Four Years With Lee" 
— that does great injustice to his chief. He says that at Cash- 
town, on the morning of July ist, Lee stopped and had a talk 
with A. P. Llill before he started to Gettysburg. If true, it 
makes General Lee responsible for the blunder of that move- 
ment. Fortunately for General Lee's reputation, this statement 
is contradicted by the report of General Pendleton, who rode 
that day with General Lee. 

On the morning of July ist his headquarters were at Green- 
wood, about ten miles west of Cashtown. From there he wrote 
Imboden that his headquarters for the next few clays would be 
at Cashtown. It must have been long after noon when General 
Lee reached Cashtown, as Pendleton says he did not stop there, 
but rode rapidly forward to the sound of the guns. He reached 
the field, about eight miles off, near the close of the fight. Heth's 
report says he left Cashtown about 5 o'clock in the morning. 

192 Southern Historical Society Papers. 


Colonel Talcott also says that Hill and Heth did not know- 
that the enemy held Gettysburg. If he will read their reports he 
will see that they say they knew it ; and A. P. Hill says that on 
the day before he sent a courier to General Lee informing him 
of it. I admit that Colonel Talcott, in making this statement 
about ignorance of the enemy, follows General Lee's first report, 
which is contradicted by his second report. The first report 
says that "finding ourselves unexpectedly confronted by the 
Federal army it became a matter of difficulty to withdraw 
through the mountains with our large trains." The fine Italian 
hand of a lawyer is manifest here. Roth Hill and Heth say they 
knew the enemy held Gettysburg; if so, the meeting could not 
have been unexpected. Nor does the report explain why Gen- 
eral Lee could not save his trains without a battle, when he 
saved them with small loss after losing a battle. 

Nor does this report explain why Ewell, with Rodes' and 
Early's Divisions, was marching away from Gettysburg on the 
morning of July ist, if the army had been ordered, as it says, 
to concentrate at Gettysburg. Colonel Taylor's book says the 
order was for the concentration at Cashtown. He contradicts 
the first report, which says Gettysburg. It is clear the absence 
of three brigades of cavalry with Stuart had nothing to do with 
bringing on or losing the battle. Ewell and Early had at least 
2,000 cavalry with them, and General Lee had kept two brigades 
of cavalry with him. Nobody can show that General Lee did, 
or omitted to do, anything on account of his ignorance of the 
situation of the Northern army. As General Lee says that he 
had not intended to fight a battle unless attacked, it made no 
difference to him if the enemy were at Gettysburg, if they were 
not interrupting him ; all he had to do was to be ready when 
they came. His whole army would have been concentrated at 
Cashtown, or in supporting distance, that evening if Hill and 
Heth had not gone off on an excursion and dispersed it. It is 
not credible that General Lee should have stayed two days in 
Maryland, on the Potomac, and in the shadow of South Moun- 
tain, with Hooker's army on the other side and in the gaps, with 

Stuart in the Gettysburg Campaign. 193 

their signal stations on the peaks, without discovering their pres- 
ence. Such bucolic simplicity is inconsistent with the character 
of the Confederate commander. Every private in his army knew 
where Hooker was. 


No doubt he left when he was sure that Hooker's army was 
over the river. Nor could he have been surprised to hear it 
was at Gettysburg, unless he expected Hooker to stand still. At 
Williamsport he wrote Mr. Davis that he thought he could throw 
Hooker's army over the river ; and yet his report says he was 
surprised when he heard he had done it. For this reason I ex- 
pressed the opinion that he must have signed without reading 
the report. Colonel Taylor says he read it. I am sorry to 
hear it. 

It is strange that the biographers and staff* officers who have 
charged the Gettysburg disaster to General Lee's ignorance of 
the enemy's movements have ignored the letter from General 
Lee at Chambersburg to Ewell at Carlisle, dated 7:30 A. M., 
June 28, 1863, which refutes all they say, and proves that Gen- 
eral Lee knew perfectlv well where Hooker was. This letter is 
published in my book, on page 117. 

General Lee's report says : "It was expected that as soon as 
the Federal army should cross the Potomac, General Stuart 
would give notice of its movements, and nothing having been 
heard from him since our entrance into Maryland, it was in- 
ferred that the enemy had not yet left Virginia. 

'"Orders were therefore issued to move on to Harrisburg. 
* * * The advance against Harrisburg was arrested by intel- 
ligence received from a scout [spy] on the night of the 28th to 
the effect that the army of General Hooker had crossed the Poto- 
mac and was approaching the South Mountain." If General Lee 
had thought that Hooker was still in Virginia he would have 
marched directly to Washington and Baltimore. At least he 
ought to have done it. 


I have proved in my book that the spy was only a ghost that 

194 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

somebody saw, and that no order was issued to move on to 
Hafrisburg. Ewell was then over thirty miles north, at Carlisle; 
he had been a week in Pennsylvania and had detached Early's 
Division to go east to the Susquehanna ; Jenkins' Cavalry was 
about Harrisburg; General Lee, with Hill and Longstreet, had 
crossed the Potomac several days before. Xow I say that any 
private or teamster would have told General Lee that Hooker 
would not stay in Virginia when he was in Pennsylvania. That 
was something that any man of ordinary sense would have 
known without being told. 

According to Colonel Marshall, General Lee was thrown 
almost into a panic when he heard the news that Hooker was 
over the river and was following him. 

"As 1 can't believe it, I said in my book, and I repeat, that in 
my opinion, when General Lee signed a paper containing such 
an absurdity he had never read it. If he had thought, when he 
crossed the Potomac, that Hooker's army was still in Virginia, 
then instead of marching north he would have turned east. The 
Chambersburg letter shows that General Lee knew that Hooker 
was still keeping between him and Washington. It told Ewell 
that lie had written him "last night" (27th) that Hooker had 
crossed the Potomac and was moving towards South Mountain, 
and that he had directed Ewell to move back to Chambersburg; 
but if he had not already progressed on that road he wanted him 
to move east of the mountain in the direction of Cashtown or 
Gettysburg. So on the night of the 27th General Lee wrote 
Ewell what his report says he had first heard from a spy on the 
night of the 28th. Neither Colonel Talcott nor Colonel Taylor 
tries to explain this letter or make it consistent with the state- 
ment of the report. 


I anticipated in my book (pages 117-121 ) that some one would 
insist that the date was a mistake, and should have been the 
29th. But, if the letter in the Records should have been dated 
the 29th, then "last night's" letter would have been dated the 
28th. Xow, Early says that he received at York a copy of this 
letter on the evening of the 29th, and he started early the next 

Stuart in the Gettysburg Campaign. 195 

morning, expecting to join Ewell west of the mountain. It is 
about seventy miles, via Carlisle, from Chambersburg to York. 

The letter could not possibly have reached Early on the 29th 
if it had left Chambersburg later than the 27th. Again, Ed- 
ward Johnson's division left Carlisle on the morning of the 29th 
on the Chambersburg pike, and before the second order arrived 
for Ewell to move east of the mountain, and Ewell's trains 
were passing through Chambersburg at midnight on the 29th, 
which shows that they must have left Carlisle probably on the 
evening of the 28th. 

Again, Ewell says he arrived at Carlisle on the 27th, and was 
starting for Harrisburg on the 29th, but the movement was 
arrested by an order from General Lee to return. It is clear 
that Johnson left Carlisle and Early left York in obedience to 
the first order (27th). 

But Ew r ell remained at Carlisle with Rodes' division, after 
receiving the second order, to give Jenkins time to return from 
Harrisburg and to unite with Early, marching west, at Heidlers- 
burg. If the letter in the Records had been written on the 
29tb, then neither letter could have reached Ewell before he got 
to Harrisburg. His march north was arrested by the first letter. 
Of course, all presumptions are in favor of the correctness of 
the date of the letter published in the Records. The burden of 
proof is on those who impeach it. But Ewell's, Early's and 
Johnson's reports verify the latter in every particular. 

It would have been far better for General Lee's military repu- 
tation if he had written his own report of events of the cam- 
paign just as they occurred, instead of having an acute lawyer 
to write a brief for him ; this 

"Had been an act of purer fame, 
Than gathers round Marengo's name." 

I am aware that in Virginia there is a sentiment that tolerates 
only one side of a question that concerns General Lee. 

lee's last order to mosby. 

After General Stuart was killed, in May, 1864, I reported 
directly to General Lee. The following is the last order I ever 
received from him : 

196 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

'"Headquarters, March 27, 1865. 
"Rec'd 8-20. 
"Col. J. S. Mosby, 

"Care Major Boyle, Gordonsville : 

"Collect your command and watch the country from front of 
Gordonsville to Blue Ridge, and also Valley. Your command is 
now all in that section, and the General will rely on you to watch 
and protect the country. If any of your command is in the 
Northern Xeck. call it to you. 

"W. H. Taylor, 
"Assistant Ad jutant-G eneral." 

It was forwarded from Gordonsville by courier to me in 

A few days afterwards we heard from Appomattox. My 
battalion was then on the line of the Potomac, where the war 
had begun. For General Lee I have always had a deep affec- 
tion, but, to my mind, the fashionable cult that exalts him above 
mortality and makes him incapable of error is as irrational as 
the mystic faith of the Hindoo in Buddha. 

And now, in conclusion, I will say that some may think that 
Stuart needed no defense ; and will apply to my effort to rescue 
his memory from undeserved blame the words of Milton on a 
monument to Shakespeake — 

"Dear Son of Memory, great heir of fame, 
What needs't thou such weak witness of thy name." 

John S. Mosby. 
Washington, D. C. January, 1910. 

Siuarfs Cavalry in the Gettysburg Campaign. 197 


A Reply to the Letter of Col. John S. Mosby, Published in 
the Richmond, Va., Times-Dispatch, January 30, 1910. 

By Col. T. M. R. TALCOTT, Major and Aide de Camp to General R. E. 

Lee, 1862 and 1863, and later Colonel, First Regiment 

Engineer Troops, A. N. V. 

Richmond, Va #j March 7, 19 10. 

Editor of The Times-Dispatch : 

The avowed purpose of Colonel Mosby's book was to prove 
that General Stuart was not in any way responsible for the 
failure of the Gettysburg Campaign, and to do this it was neces- 
sary that he should prove that the movements of General Stuart 
were in accordance with his instructions. 

General Lee states, in his official reports of the Gettysburg 
Campaign, that he was embarrassed by the unexpected absence 
of the cavalry under General Stuart, from which it is inferred 
that Stuart did not act in accordance with General Lee's instruc- 
tions to him : and to meet this difficulty Colonel Mosby denies 
the authenticity of the reports, and holds them up to ridicule as 
the productions of a staff officer, to which General Lee affixed 
his signature without reading or having them read to him. 

After all of his contention that General Stuart "obeyed 
orders," Colonel Mosby, in assailing the accuracy of General 
Lee's reports, practically gives up his case when he says in his 
publication in your issue of January 30th : 

"There is not a word in the instructions to Stuart, although 
the report says so, about his being left to guard the passes of 
the mountain, or harass and impede the enemy, should he at- 
tempt to cross the Potomac, for the plain reason that he zvas 
expected to cross in advance of the enemy and move on into 
Pennsylvania with Ewell" (Italics mine.) 

198 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

Colonel Mosby here admits that Stuart was to cross the Poto- 
mac with three brigades, "in advance of the enemy and move 
into Pennsylvania with Ewell," and not, as he has heretofore 
insisted, "to move into Pennsylvania and join Ewell on the 

What Stuart understood to be his instructions with reference 
to the two brigades left in Virginia can best be seen by referring 
to the orders he transmitted to the commanding officer of these 
brigades, which were as follows: "Your object will be to watch 
the enemy ; deceive him as to our designs, and harass his rear 
if you find him retiring. Be always on the alert ; let nothing 
escape your observation, and miss no opportunity to damage the 
enemy. After the enemy has moved beyond your reach, leave 
pickets in the mountain gaps, withdraw to the west side of the 
Shenandoah, cross the Potomac and follow the army, keeping 
on its right and rear." 

Stuart himself says that General Lee directed him, "after 
crossing to proceed with all dispatch to join the right of the 
army in Pennsylvania." 

These two statements from General Stuart himself show 
clearly what he was instructed to do, but did not do with the 
cavalry, and fully justify General Pee in saying that "it was 
expected that as soon as the Pederal Army should cross the 
Potomac General Stuart would give notice of its movements; 
and nothing having been heard from him since our entrance 
into Maryland, it was inferred that the enemy had not left Vir- 
ginia." General Lee had a right to expect that he would be 
advised as soon as the enemy crossed the Potomac, and that 
all of Stuart's brigades would then be in the positions assigned 
them by his orders. Instead of that, Stuart and three of his 
best brigades were lost for a whole week, and, for all General 
Lee knew, were captured or destroyed ; and the two brigades 
which should have been on his "right and rear" in Pennsylvania 
assured him by their absence that the enemy was still in their 
front, until July ist, by which time Hill was fighting the head of 
Meade's Army at Gettysburg. 

Colonel Mosby says that General Stuart left two brigades with 
Lee and Longstreet. and that therefore Lee had all the cavalry 

Stuart's Cavalry in the Gettysburg Campaign. 199 

he needed in the absence of Stuart ; but such was not the case. 
Stuart instructed them to take position on the right and rear 
of the army when the enemy left Virginia, which they failed to 
do ; and in the light of events it cannot be doubted that Stuart 
erred in leaving General Robertson in command in Virginia, not- 
withstanding General Longstreet's suggestion that General 
Hampton should be left in command, and report to him. (See 
Longstreet's letter to Stuart of June 22d.) General Heth says 
"the eyes of the giant were out," but it was worse than that as 
regards the cavalry left in Virginia ; for that visual organ of 
General Lee's Army made him see the enemy in Virginia, when 
they were not there. 

This would have been less serious if Stuart had crossed the 
Potomac "in advance of the enemy," as Golonel Mosby says 
was expected of him, and taken position on Ewell's right. On 
the other hand, if Robertson's two bridges had been where they 
should have been, on the "right and rear" of the army in Penn- 
sylvania, the absence of Stuart would have been, to some extent, 
compensated for, but the absence of both left General Lee with- 
out any cavalry between him and the enemy at the critical mo- 
ment of the campaign, when General Meade changed the plans 
of General Hooker and was advancing rapidly towards Gettys- 
burg. It was under these circumstances that, as General Heth 
says, General Lee showed great anxiety to know what had be- 
come of his cavalry. 

Dr. McKim, in his address published in your issue of Febru- 
ary 12th, has very ably met Colonel Mosby's denial of the au- 
thenticity of General Lee's reports and his denial of statements 
in them; but whether it is believed that his reports were authentic 
or not, there can be no question that General Lee did attribute 
the failure of the Gettysburg Campaign in part to the absence 
of his cavalry, for in a letter to William S. McDonald, in April, 
1863, which was published in the Southern Historical Society 
Papers, Vol. VII, page 446, General Lee accounts for the failure 
at Gettysburg and refers him to the official accounts, which is 
an assurance of the correctness of his official reports, as follows : 

"As to the Battle of Gettysburg, I must again refer you to 
the official accounts. Its loss was occasioned bv a combination 

200 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

of circumstances. It was commenced in the absence of correct 
intelligence. It was continued in the effort to overcome the dif- 
ficulties by which we were surrounded, and it would have been 
gained could one determined and united blow have been deliv- 
ered by our whole line. As it was, victory trembled in the 
balance for three days, and the battle resulted in the infliction 
of as great an amount of injury as was received and in frustrat- 
ing the Federal campaign for the season." 

The evidence already before your readers is probably sufficient 
to enable them to determine the truth for themselves; but there 
are several statements in Colonel Mosby's articles of January 
30th and February 27th that I cannot allow to pass unnoticed. 

Colonel Mosby says : 

"Colonel Taylor depends upon his imagination for his facts. 
I defy him to point out one word in General Lee's letter to 
Stuart about keeping General Lee 'informed of the movements 
of the enemy.' " 

It seems to me that this is a mere quibble on the part of Col- 
onel Mosby, for the order to keep Ewell informed meant that 
he was to keep General Lee informed through Ewell, who was 
in command of the column with which he was ordered to move. 
He had been reporting through Longstreet south of the Potomac, 
and received Lee's instructions of June 226. through Longstreet, 
and he was to report through Ewell after he crossed the Potomac. 
The necessity for this was obvious. It kept the commander of 
the nearest troops informed of the enemy's movements as well 
as the Commanding General. 

Colonel Mosby invites a similar challenge when he says : "On 
June 22d, General Lee had written Stuart to leave two brigades 
with him and to cross into Maryland with three brigades." Here 
Colonel Mosby interpolates into General Lee's instructions to 
Stuart the words "with him," for they cannot be found in the 
record. General Lee's instructions required that these two 
brigades should join him in Pennsylvania as soon as the enemy 
left Virginia ; and it was unfortunate that these instructions 
were not complied with. 

Stuart's Cavalry in the Gettysburg Campaign. 201 

Colonel Stribling calls attention to the fact that it was the want 
of prompt information of this change of plan by the Federal 
commander that caused Lee to fall back from before Harrisburg, 
for he says : 

"But on the 28th, General Hooker was displaced and General 
Meade placed in command of the army. He immediately drew 
back the corps from Middletown to Fredericktown, so that they 
might be prepared to join in the general advance of the whole 
army towards the Susquehanna, on the east side of the moun- 
tain range, which advance was to be put in motion on the morn- 
ing of the 29th. Of this change of arrangement, General Lee 
had no intimation until the two armies came into collision near 
Gettysburg. Had he known that General Meade had withdrawn 
the corps from Middletown on the 28th, as he should have known 
if his cavalry had been watching those gaps, and was advancing 
as rapidly as possible east of the mountains as it advanced, the 
probabilities are that he would not have ordered the concentra- 
tion of his army east of the mountain, for he so distinctly states : 
'To deter him from advancing further west and intercepting our 
communications with Virginia, it was determined to concentrate 
the army east of the mountains.' " 

Again Colonel Mosby says : 

"The letter of June 22d was sent to Longstreet, to be for- 
warded if he thought 'Stuart can be spared from my (his) front.' 
Longstreet did forward the instructions, and, referring to Gen- 
eral Lee, said, 'He speaks of your leaving via Hopewell Gap 
(the Bull Run Mountain) and passing by the rear of the enemy.' 
At the same time, Longstreet, who was at Millwood, wrote to 
General Lee, 'Yours of 4 o'clock this afternoon received. I 
have forwarded your letter to General Stuart with the sugges- 
tion that he pass by the enemy's rear if he thinks he may get 
through.' This was notice to Lee of the route Stuart was to go. 
So the cavalry movements around Hooker's rear had the ap- 
proval in advance of both General Lee and General Longstreet." 

Here again, as in his book, Colonel Mosby ignores General 
Lee's final instructions to General Stuart of June 23d, when, as 
Dr. McKim has explained, the reason for Longstreet's sugges- 

202 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

tion that Stuart should cross the Potomac, east of the Blue 
Ridge, no longer existed. In his letter to The Richmond Dis- 
patch of January 28. 1896, Colonel Mosby based his defense of 
General Stuart on the instructions of General Lee of June 23d, 
and no reference was then made by him to any previous instruc- 
tions. Now again he quotes General Lee's letter of the 23d, to 
the omission of which from his book his attention was called by 
me, and as to General Lee's final instructions to Stuart, he says: 

"They gave Stuart the alternative of coming over the ridge 
the next day. crossing the Potomac at Shepherdstown and then 
moving on over the South Mountain to Fredericktown ; or he 
could pass around Hooker's rear. 

"No discretion was given to Stuart to remain with the army 
in Virginia or join Ewell in Pennsylvania, but discretion was 
given him to go by Shepherdstown, or cross in Hooker's rear at 
Seneca. No matter which route he went he would be equally 
out of sight of the enemy and out of communication with Gen- 
eral Lee." 

This statement is incomprehensible in view of the fact that 
had Stuart crossed at Shepherdstown on the 25th of June, as 
indicated by General Lee, he would have been with Ewell, who 
was never out of communication with General Lee ; and if he 
had turned back when he encountered the enemy at Haymarket, 
he would, as Colonel Mosby says, have been at Shepherdstown 
on the evening of June 27th, within twenty-two miles of General 
Lee, who was at Chambersburg, and within fifty-five miles of 
Ewell, who was at Carlisle, and the way open to both places. 

I have scrutinized very carefully General Lee's letters to 
General Stuart of the 22d and 23d of June, with a view to see 
how they should have been construed by General Stuart. 

On June 22d General Lee wrote: "If you find that he (Gen- 
eral Hooker) is moving northward, and that two brigades can 
guard the Blue Ridge and take care of your rear, you can move 
with the other three into Maryland and take position on General 
Ewell's right." In this letter it is clearly stated that Stuart's 
crossing into Maryland was required only in case the enemy ivas 
moving northward. 

Stuart's Cavalry in the Gettysburg Campaign. 203 

On the evening of June 23d, General Lee had evidently de- 
cided that it was time to send Stuart, with three brigades, to 
join Ewell, whether the Federal Army was moving northward 
or not, and he amended his instructions of the 226. as follows : 
"If General Hooker's army remains inactive you can leave two 
brigades to watch him, and withdraw with the three others." 

Taking these two orders together we see that Stuart was 
instructed, on June 23d, to join Ewell with three brigades of 
cavalry without further delay, and without reference to whether 
General Hooker was or was hot moving northward. 

In his letter of June 23d, after giving General Stuart instruc- 
tions to move at once to join General Ewell, General Lee further 
says: "But should he (General Hooker) not appear to be mov- 
ing northward I think you had better withdraw this side of the 
mountain to-morrow night (June 24th), to cross at Shepherds- 
town next day, and move over to Fredericktown." 

These were General Lee's final instructions to Stuart, but 
General Lee then goes on to say: "You will, however, be able 
to judge whether you can pass around their army without hin- 
drance (italics mine), doing them all the damage you can, and 
cross the river east of the mountains. In either case, after 
crossing the river, you must move on and feel the right of E well's 
troops, collecting information, provisions, etc." 

If I am right in this construction of General Lee's final in- 
structions to him, General Stuart was going contrary to them 
when he left Rectortown on the night of June 24th, in his attempt 
to pass through Hooker's army while it was still inactive. 

Neither General Lee nor General Longstreet seem to have 
contemplated Stuart's passing through Hooker's army while it 
remained inactive ; for they wrote only of his going around in 
rear of it, as Stuart finally did. Was not this because they 
were hourly expecting Hooker's arm}' to begin moving north- 
ward, closing the gaps between the several corps, which would 
make an attempt to pass through it abortive and cause the delay 
which actually occurred? for when Stuart encountered Han- 
cock's Corps at Haymarket, he first moved back to Buckland 
and then made a wide detour through Fairfax County, which 
caused serious delav. 

£04 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

"Colonel Talcott also says that Hill and Heth did not know 
that the enemy held Gettysburg. If he will read their reports 
he will see that they say they knew it." 

What I said was that Colonel Mosby claimed "'that Hill and 
Heth should bear the blame because they precipitated the battle 
by an unexpected collision with the enemy," and that "this 
might have been avoided if they had been informed of the move- 
ments of the Federal Army, of which they were ignorant be- 
cause the cavalry were absent." - 

Since then we have seen in your Confederate Column, Gen- 
eral Heth's account of how the collision occurred ; and Colonel 
Mosby's reply thereto, in which he says that "Heth's story is 
contradicted by A. P. Hill, the Commander of the corps." 

Here is what General A. P. Hill says in his official report : 

"On the morning of the 29th of June, the Third Corps, com- 
posed of the divisions of Major-Generals Anderson, Heth and 
Pender, and live battalions of artillery, under the command of 
Colonel R. L. Walker, was encamped on the road from Cham- 
bersburg to Gettysburg, near the village of Fayetteville. I was 
directed to move on this road in the direction of York, and to 
cross the Susquehanna, menacing the communications of Harris- 
burg with Philadelphia, and to co-operate with General Ewell, 
acting as circumstances might require. Accordingly, on the 
29th I moved General Heth's division to Cashtown, some eight 
miles from Gettysburg, following on the morning of the 30th 
with the division of General Pender, and directing General An- 
derson to move in the same direction on the morning of the 1st 
of July. On arriving at Cashtown, General Heth, who had 
sent forward Pettigrew's brigade to Gettysburg, reported that 
Pettigrew had encountered the enemy at Gettysburg, principally 
cavalry, but in what force he could not determine. A courier 
was then dispatched with this information to the General com- 
manding, and to start Anderson early ; also to General Ewell, 
informing him, and that I intended to advance the next morning 
and discover what was in my front." 

The direct route between Cashtown and York was through 
Middletown, about eight miles, and Heidlesburg, about ten miles 

Stuart's Cavalry in the Gettysburg Campaign. 205 

north of Gettysburg; and whether Hill was advancing toward 
York or Early was returning therefrom by this route, it was 
important to know what force of the enemy was on their flank 
at Gettysburg. That a force was there was disclosed by Petti- 
grew's attempt to get shoes for his men. In the absence of the 
cavalry, the only way to find this out was to make reconnaisance 
in force; and Hill would have been unfit to command an army 
corps if he had not attempted to do this. 

In order to understand the situation on the 30th, when Gen- 
eral Pettigrew found the enemy in Gettysburg, it will be neces- 
sary to locate General Ewell's corps, which we can do from his 
report and Early's. General Ewell says : 

"On the night of June 30th, Rodes' division, which I accom- 
panied, was at Heidlesburg with Colonel Brown's reserve artil- 
lery between Green Village and Scotland. At Heidlesburg I 
received orders from the General commanding to proceed to 
Cashtown or Gettysburg, as circumstances might dictate (italics 
mine ) , and a note from General A. P. Hill, saying he was at 
Cashtown. Next morning I moved with Rodes' division towards 
Cashtown, ordering Early to follow by Hunterstown." 

General Early says in his report : 

"On the afternoon of the 29th I received through Captain 
Elliott, Aide to General Ewell, a copy of a note from General 
Eee, and also verbal instructions which required me to move 
back and rejoin the rest of the corps on the western side of 
the South Mountain, and, accordingly at daylight, on the morn- 
ing of the 30th, I put my whole command in motion, taking the 
route with the main body through Weigalstown and East Berlin 
in the direction of Heidlesburg, from which place I could move 
either to Shippensburg or Greenwood by the way of Arendts- 
burg, as circumstances might require. I at the same time sent 
Colonel White's cavalry on the turnpike from York towards 
Gettysburg, to ascertain if any force of the enemy was on that 
road. At East Berlin a small squad of the enemy's cavalry 
was seen and pursued by my cavalry advance, and I received 
information at this point from Colonel White, by a messenger, 

20t5 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

that a cavalry and infantry force had heen on the York and 
Gettysburg road at Abbotstown, but had moved south towards 
Hanover. A courier from General Ewell met me here with a 
dispatch, informing me of the fact that he was moving with 
Rodes' division by the way of Petersburg to Heidlesburg, and 
directing me to move in that direction. I encamped that after- 
noon about three miles from Heidlesburg, and rode to see Gen- 
eral Ewell at that point, where I found him and Rodes' division, 
and was informed that the object was to concentrate the corps at 
or near Cashtown, and I received direction to move next day to 
the latter point. 1 was informed that Rodes would move by the 
way of Middletown and Arendtsville, but it was arranged that 
1 should go by the way of Hunterstown and Mummasburg." 

When on June 30th General Hill decided to advance on Get- 
tysburg next morning, he was at Cashtown, with Heth's and 
Pender's divisions of his corps, eight miles west of Gettysburg, 
and his other division (Anderson's) was about nine miles west 
of that place, near Fayetteville, under orders to follow next 

General Ewell, with Rodes' division, was at Heidlesburg, ten 
miles northeast of Gettysburg; Early's division was three miles 
east of that point, on the road from York, and Johnson's division 
of Ewell's corps was between Green Village and Fayetteville, 
probably ten or twelve miles west of Cashtown. 

Two divisions of Longstreet's corps reached Greenwood, about 
eight miles west of Cashtown, at 2 P. M. on the 30th, Pickett's 
division having been left to guard the rear at Chambersburg. 

On the morning of July 1st, Ewell, in pursuance of orders, 
was still moving towards Cashtown, when he says in his report: 

"Before reaching Middletown, I received notice from General 
Hill that he was advancing" upon Gettysburg, and turned the 
head of Rodes' column towards that place by the Middletown 
Road, sending word to Early to advance directly on the Heidles- 
burg road. I notified the General commanding of my move- 
ment, and was informed that in case we found the enemy's 
force very large, he did not want a general engagement brought 
on until the rest of the army came up. By the time this message 

Stuart's Cavalry in the Gettysburg Campaign. 207 

reached me, General A. P. Hill had already been warmly en- 
gaged, and had been repulsed, and Carter's artillery battalion of 
Rodes' division had opened on the flank of the enemy with fine 
effect. The enemy were rapidly preparing to attack me while 
fresh masses were moving into position on my front. It was too 
late to avoid an engagement without abandoning the position 
taken up. I determined to push the attack vigorously." 

General Early was on the road from Heidlesburg to Gettys- 
burg when ordered to the latter place. In his report he says : 

"Having ascertained that the road from my camp to Hunters- 
town was a very rough and circuitous one, I determined next 
morning (July ist) to march to Heidlesburg, and thence on 
the Gettysburg road to the Mummasburg road. After passing 
Heidlesburg a short distance, I received a note from yourself 
(Major A. S. Pendleton, A. A. G.), written by order of Gen- 
eral Ewell, informing me that General A. P. Hill was moving 
towards Gettysburg against the enemy, and that Rodes' division 
had turned off at Middletown and was moving towards the 
same place, and directing me to move directly for Gettysburg. 
I therefore continued on the road I was then on, and on arriving 
in sight of the town I discovered that Rodes' division was en- 
gaged with the enemy to my right on both sides of the Mummas- 
burg road." 

On June 30th, when General Hill decided to advance the next 
morning and find out what force was before him at Gettysburg 
and on the flank of General Ewell, a part of whose corps was 
to pass within four miles of that place the next day, General 
Lee was not ready for a general engagement, for in the absence 
of his cavalry, he was not informed as to the disposition of 
Meade's Army, and his own troops were not up ; but there is no 
evidence that at that or any subsequent time he disapproved of 
General Hill's proposed advance on Gettysburg. On the con- 
trary, as soon as he was informed of General Hill's intention, 
he instructed General Ewell, who was then at Heidlesburg, ten 
miles northeast of Gettysburg, "to proceed to Cashtoicn or Get- 
tysburg as circumstances might dictate." 

208 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

General Ewell left Heidlesburg with these instructions on the 
morning of July ist, and before reaching Middletown (four 
miles distant from Heidlesburg) he received notice from Gen- 
eral Hill that he was advancing upon Gettysburg, changed the 
direction of Rodes' column towards Gettysburg, sent word to 
Early to advance to that place, and notified General Lee that he 
was going to the support of General Hill. 

That General Lee expected Ewell and Hill to ascertain what 
force the enemy had at Gettysburg is clearly indicated by his 
reply as quoted by General Ewell, "that in case we found the 
enemy's force very large, he did not want a general engagement 
brought on until the rest of the army came up." 

General Ewell says that by the time this message reached him, 
the enemy were rapidly advancing to attack him, and it was too 
late to avoid an engagement without abandoning his position. 
He therefore determined to attack vigorously. 

By referring to the accompanying map it will be seen that 
General Ewell acted wisely, for with General Heth's division 
repulsed, and Early advancing from Heidlesburg, if Rodes' 
division, which was between them on the road from Mummas- 
burg, had been withdrawn or driven back, Early's division would 
have been in jeopardy. 

General Lee must have been on the held at this time, for Gen- 
eral Heth says General Rodes was heavily engaged when he first 
asked General Lee's prmission to renew his attack, and got this 
reply : "No; I am not prepared to bring on a general engage- 
ment to-day. Longstreet' is not up," and it was shortly after 
this that, as General Heth says, General Lee gave him permission 
to attack. 

Gaptain Stockton Heth says that it was about 12 or 1 o'clock 
that General Heth's division became engaged with General Rey- 
nolds' corps, and that it was about one and a half hours later 
that he went for an ambulance to carry his brother off the field, 
and General Lee spoke to him, General Ewell and General Hill 
being with him. Captain Heth also says that as he passed, re- 
turning, General Pender's division rushed forward with a rebel 
yell, and this would seem to fix the time of Pender's charge at 
12 130 P. M., which is consistent with other evidence. Yet Col- 

Stuart's Cavalry in the Gettysburg Campaign. 200 

onel Mosby tries to make it appear that General Heth's account 
is pure fiction ; that General Lee was not on the field, and knew 
nothing of Hill's advance on Gettysburg. 

As it was, the reconnaisance in force inaugurated by General 
Hill and supported by General Ewell not only removed all doubts 
as to the enemy's force at Gettysburg, but inflicted on them 
severe loss by the capture of 6,000 prisoners with five pieces of 
artillery, and the killing of the commander of Meade's First 
Army Corps, which, as General Hill says, was almost anni- 

General was already concentrating his forces at Cash- 
town, and, encouraged by this success, decided to deliver a crush- 
ing blow while his army was elated by victory and the enemy 
were weakened by losses, discouraged by defeat and depressed by 
the death of General Reynolds. Their reinforcements hurried 
to their support were arriving on the field, weakened in num- 
bers and wearied by forced marching, and had our attack been 
made promptly on the morning of July 2d, instead of being 
delayed until the afternoon of that day, the destruction of the 
Federal Army then on the field would have been inevitable ; 
for at that time the Army of Northern Virginia (with the excep- 
tion of Pickett's division and one brigade of Hood's division of 
Longstreet's corps) was concentrated before Gettysburg, elated 
by the success of the previous day's fighting. The delay of our 
attack until 4 o'clock P. M. gave the enemy twelve hours for 
concentration, and lost all of our advantage of numbers on the 
field in the morning. General Longstreet fought Federal troops 
in the evening, when he attacked, who were twenty-two miles 
from the field in the morning. 

The question raised by Colonel Mosby as to whether I was 
present at Gettysburg, and therefore qualified or not to discuss 
these matters, is apart from the case. We know more now about 
the Battle of Waterloo than the commanders on the field, and 
we will know more about the Battle of Gettysburg in the future 
than the commanders on that field. I feel sure that in the sift- 
ing and discussion of the evidence on the movements of the 
forces en that historic field, it will never appear that the absence 
of Stuart's great cavalry force of five brigades, under its famous 

210 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

leader, did not contribute to the failure at Gettysburg. What 
General Lee said in 1868 forbids such a conclusion. 

Never in his career did General Lee exhibit his greatness of 
soul in a stronger light than when, in agony at the miscarriage 
of his just hopes and plans, seconded as they were by the rank 
and file in heroic effort and sacrifice, he assumed the blame for 
the failure of others. 

At this date to have this pure gentleman charged with neglect 
of his duty and carelessness in not even reading his own reports, 
makes the "gorge rise," and it is imperative that notice should 
be taken of so monstrous an accusation by some one, whether 
he was on the field or not. 


When the Third Georgia Regiment became part of the Army 
of Northern Virginia, application was made to the proper au- 
thorities for a Confederate flag. The handsome regimental 
flag, Mrs. Wright's gift, was kept until May, 1863. In order 
to preserve this much worn treasure from total destruction, the 
officer then in command of the regiment sent it to the Governor 
of Georgia for safekeeping. Unfortunately, in the uncertainties 
of the time, the flag was lost. 

The regiment's battle-flag went through the years of fearful 
strife with never a touch of the enemy's hand. When the sur- 
render came at Appomattox the standard-bearer, Mr. Garland 
Snead, brother to the Colonel then in command of the Third 
Georgia, folded this tattered, stained and honored piece of bunt- 
ing beneath his tattered, stained and honored coat of gray, and 
thus saved it from capture. 

This flag first went to the front in the battles around Rich- 
mond. It was the 26th of June, 1862, when General Lee began 
his attack upon McClellan. There followed the week of bril- 
liant victory, which, so far as the Third Georgia is concerned, 
seemed to culminate at 

Battle Flag of the Third Georgia. 211 


On the 19th of June General Blanchard had been relieved 
from duty and Colonel Wright promoted to his office. Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Reid having resigned from the Third Georgia, 
Major John R. Sturgis was left in command of the regiment. 

The afternoon of July 1st General Wright received orders to 
bring his command together and charge the enemy in front, 
relying upon General Mahone for support. This movement of 
Wright's brigade drew the fire of the Federal infantry and artil- 
lery on the small column of men. The historian's description of 
the battle is a wonderful pen-picture : 

"A short time before the Battle of Malvern Hill, General 
Butler, commanding the Federal forces at Xew Orleans, had 
issued that offensive order respecting the women of New Orleans 
that made his name infamous. 

"The First Regiment of Louisiana Volunteers was a part of 
General Wright's brigade, and its battle-cry was 'Remember 
Beast Butler and our women.' " 

The call rang out clear and distinct as Wright's small brigade, 
the leader in front, sprang forward, eager to grapple with the 
enemy. It was literally rushing into the jaws of death, and men 
fell at every step. The enemy's long and heavy lines of infantry 
and many well-trained pieces of artillery swept down our ranks 
in a harvest of death. As our lines were thinned, we came 
together, and, showing an unbroken front, rushed on and up 
an open field towards our enemy. Regiment against regiment 
strove to reach the hilltop. Man against man madly rushed for- 
ward, each eager to the foremost. 

So charging, we went over an elevation and reached a ravine 
some 300 yards from the enemy's line. Here a halt was called, 
for a column of the enemy was seen approaching our brigade on 
the flank. 

The Third Georgia was upon this flank; Major Sturgis 
changed front and met the attack. 

The fight was hot and furious. Both determined and desperate 
sides wrested mightily for victory. Finally, we drove the Fed- 
erals back, and they broke in confusion to their rear. 

212 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

At this juncture an advance by a portion of D. H. Hill's troops 
diverted a part of the enemy's fire from our brigade. Seizing 
the opportunity, General Wright ordered another advance. 

"Remember Beast Butler and our women !" rang out along the 
line as the brigade sprang forward with shouts that sounded far 
across the field. So impetuous and rapid was the advance that 
we came suddenly upon a Federal line, supported by batteries. 
The Federal infantry retreated in wild disorder, and the artillery 
made for the rear of a barn and stables. 

When the Federal batteries came again into position we made 
our last and most desperate charge, coming within ioo yards of 
the Federal lines. 

The battle now raged furiously all along the lines. Officers 
and men fell so fast in the Third Georgia it looked as if we 
would all be left in the field. Major Sturgis, in command, was 
instantly killed. Captain Xesbit, next in rank, was wounded, 
and Captain Hamilton killed. At the time of most desperate 
fighting night came on and darkness added to the horrors of 
battle. It was difficult to distinguish friend from foe. 

Flashes from lines of battle were like the play of summer 
lightning. High, curving flames of fire, as shrieking shells flew 
through the air, were like a pyrotechnic display of the furies. 
Every musket seemed lighted on a mission of death. 

The roar of musketry, thunder of artillery, bursting of shells, 
whirring of grape and canister, shouts of command, huzzahs of 
the exultant, curses of the repulsed, cries of the wounded, groans 
of the dying, all combined in a scene of passion, fury and death 
that would make mercy hide her face and devils dance with 

The battle continued furiously until 10 o'clock. Wright's 
brigade, after the first order to charge, had not been forced to 
retire one step, and when the battle closed the men spread down 
their blankets and bivouacked under the muzzle of the enemy's 


The Army of Northern Virginia was made of such stuff as the 
Thir 1 Georgia, and went through the campaigns of Manassas 
and Maryland fighting and marching on three quarters of a 

Battle Flag of the Third Georgia. 213 

pound of meat and one pound of bread a day for each soldier — 
marching and fighting in ragged clothes and shoes outworn — 
fighting and marching with dauntless courage and marvellous 

It was at Sharpsburg, the 17th of September, that General 
Lee, with 40,000 men like this, met General McClellan, with 
37,000 well-armed, well-shod, well-fed, well-clad soldiers. "Every 
man in both armies who had been marching and fighting since 
the first of April knew that this was to be a battle of giants," 
writes the historian of the regiment. The Federal General Hook- 
er afterward wrote : "It has never been my fortune to witness a 
more bloody, dismal battlefield." 

What the Confederates suffered is shown in one scene General 
Hooker describes : "The Confederates were discovered by their 
gleaming bayonets, standing thick in a field of growing corn. 
The Federal artillery opened fire, and in less time than it takes 
to write the story every stalk of corn was cut to the ground. 
Every Confederate lay prone upon the earth." 

wright's brigade. 

Wright's brigade broke camp some five miles from Harpers 
Ferry about dark on the 16th, and marched all night, over heavy, 
wet roads, covering fourteen miles. In the early dawn the men 
reached the Potomac, and without a halt marched down the steep 
riverside and through the cold water, waist and knee-deep. These 
brave soldiers were very tired, and many had fallen by the way. 
Their number had also been reduced by hard service since April, 
so that when the brigade came within sight and sound of flaming 
shell and booming cannon, only from 100 to 150 of the Third 
Georgia were along. Nearing Sharpsburg the brigade met other 
troops that had marched all night to come to the aid of "Uncle 

A little after sunrise Wright's men flung down their knap- 
sacks, formed in line and very soon came upon the field of battle 
at a double-quick ! Answering the welcoming shouts of men 
already on the field, they rushed on in a desperate charge, a 
"death-like" struggle with the enemy; but the brigade lost heavily. 
General Wright was wounded; Colonel Tones took his place, was 

214 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

wounded advancing at the head of his men, and Colonel Gibson 
led the command the rest of that awful day. 

About 12 o'clock Wright's men went to the rear and had a 
dinner of roasted green corn and hardtack. They were called 
again to arms at 4, and fought until dusk. The battle closed, 
with Lee still in possession of the field. When the roll was 
called that night only 40 of the 100 or 150 Third Georgians who 
had gone into battle were left to answer. 

The killed, wounded and captured of both armies numbered 
about 22,743. 

One shudders at this cruel sacrifice of life on both sides, and 
hopes in the onward march of civilization the day may come 
when the whole world will shrink from the resort to "'blood and 
iron" in the settlement of national troubles. 


It was a Virginian who told the story of an old lady, standing 
in her doorway as the soldiers marched past and tearfully ex- 
claimed, "God bless every one of your ragged, dirty souls !" 

With some such feeling one learns how the men in camp 
"washed up their scanty clothing," and in the enjoyment of baths 
and mineral water gained in health and strength. 

Major Montgomery, who had been wounded at Manassas, now 
rejoined the command. This officer was a West Point graduate 
and inclined to "put on style." One day he ordered a dress 
parade, but the heroes of Sharpsburg were not in a stylish mood, 
and to a man resolved to poke fun at the Major. 

At the command to "order arms" the guns "came rattling to 
the ground from one end of the line to the other." 

"We will try that again, and all together," said the deep-voiced 

The second time was worse than the first, and each gun 
sounded like a "fire by files." 

The disgusted officer put up his sword and turned on his heel 
with the emphatic, "You all go to hell." 

At a later day the regiment passed in review before Generals 
Lee, Longstreet and Pryor. "Do some of your old-time drilling," 
urged the Major. 

Battle Flag of the Third Georgia. 215 

This time the regiment responded, and their showing was so 
splendid as to bring from the reviewing officers an additional 
salute. Said the Major, on dismissing the soldiers : 

"I am proud to command such men, and I love every damned 
one of you." 

One fancies the Virginia woman's "God bless you" to the Vir- 
ginians and the Major's sentiment, for the Georgians were not 
so far apart as the language would imply. 

December found the Third Georgia fighting at Fredericksburg, 
and with this victory closed the "year of battles." 

In the spring of 1863 came Chancellorsville. In July the regi- 
ment was fighting desperately at Gettysburg. 

July, 1864, found them bravely fighting at Petersburg. 


All the world knows that July, 1865, found the Third Georgia 
and all Confederates scattered to their homes, working out the 
South's salvation through the dark ages of reconstruction to 
Confederate veterans. 

If Georgia marches forward now at a double quick, it is 
because of the tireless energy with which her Confederate vete- 
rans have built up a new Georgia on the ruins of the old. 

soldier's home. 

How fitting, then, that a State upbuilded by those who fought ■ 
for her forty years ago should provide a home for such of her 
veterans as may need honorable consideration. How fitting that 
the State's aid should be supplemented by the furnishing of regi- 
mental rooms. The Third Georgia room is in charge of Captain 
S. Dalton Mitchell, of whom it has been said "the regiment had 
no better soldier." It is hoped that every regiment in Georgia 
has a guardian of its Soldiers' Home interests. How fitting, 
too, that mothers, daughters and sons of veterans throughout the 
State should unite to make up a rich soldiers' home memorial 
train on Memorial Day. 

"Our faces are toward the setting sun," remarks a veteran 

216 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

See to it, you who stand in the rosy light of young womanhood, 
young manhood, that veterans are gladdened by your active 
interest in all that concerns them. 

Gather up also scraps of history, ye daughters and sons of 
veterans, and tell it in song and story, for 

"Tell it as you may — 

It never can be told — 

The story of the glory 

Of the men who wore the gray." 

Alice Baxter. 


Address of Col. BENNETT H. YOUNG— Achievements of the 
Confederate Cavalry. 

The opening address at the reunion of Confederate Veterans 
at Memphis was made by Colonel Bennett H. Young, himself 
a gallant follower of the peerless John H. Morgan. In making 
comparison of the achievements of the cavalry of the Armies of 
Tennessee and Virginia, Forrest and Morgan are prominently 
mentioned, and ^'heeler only incidentally. Private W. C. Dod- 
son, of this city, ever on the alert where his old command is con- 
cerned, writes the following well-timed rejoinder for publica- 
tion in the Lost Cause, and which we are permitted to print in 
advance. It contains some matters of history not generally 
known, and will be read with interest by all ex-Confederates, 
and Wheeler's Cavalry especially. 

His rejoinder is as follows: 

I have just read the splendid address of Colonel Bennett H. 
Young, at the opening of the reunion at Memphis. In making 
comparison of the achievements of the Army of Tennessee with 

Meeting of the Confederate Veterans. 217 

that of the Army of Northern Virginia, he has done something 
I have for years wished to see done, and no one could have 
done it better, as his address is admirable in temper, conservative 
in tone, and eminently patriotic in sentiment. As he truly states, 
the valor displayed by Southern arms challenged the admiration 
of the world, and the record is the heritage of all Confederates 
alike, no matter to what army they belonged, and in calling atten- 
tion to what was done by the soldiers of the West he detracts 
nothing from those of the East, but simply adds to the glorious 
legacy bequeathed by the men of 1861 to 1865 to their children 
and children's children for all time. 

I am not one who insists that every man who served in the 
Confederate Army was of necessity a hero, but the men who 
followed the failing fortunes of our army from Kentucky to the 
Carolinas — passing and repassing, as many of them did, almost 
literally by the doors of their homes — who, with never a leader 
who commanded their entire confidence, yet who fought almost 
to annihilation and remained faithful to the end — I wish to go on 
record as saying that they had in them the stuff of which heroes 
are made. 


I wish, too, to say that I endorse all that Comrade Young says 
of Forrest, Morgan and Wheeler, though I might change the 
order in which he mentions them, in my estimate of the value 
they were to the Confederacy. I might even go farther and 
make comparison of. the different conditions under which our 
cavalry leaders of the Western Army earned their well-deserved 
reputations, and emphasize the advantage possessed by an officer 
with an independent command, free to advance or retreat at will 
and to select his own time and place for fighting, over another 
attached to and forming a part of a large army, and that army 
almost continually in retreat ; forced often to fight when defeat 
was inevitable ; forced to protect front and flanks of his army 
with picket lines sometimes nearly a hundred miles in extent ; 
with no base of supplies, and no time or place to rest or recruit 
either men or horses. But I will suggest this comparison in 
the same conservative spirit which Colonel Young displays in 

218 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

discussing the armies of Tennessee and Northern Virginia, and 
without any desire to detract from the fame of Forrest and 
Morgan, for whom I have the most profound admiration. 


This address must have given great pleasure to the survivors 
of the Western Army, and to the cavalry especially, though to 
the men who rode with Wheeler the pleasure was not unmixed 
with disappointment that their services to the common cause 
were not considered worthy of special mention. Surely this 
omission could not have been for lack of material, for is there 
not official record of the masterly manner in which they covered 
Bragg's retreat out of Kentucky, in which they were engaged 
twenty-six times before the pursuit was abandoned at Rock 
Castle; their grand raids around Rosecran's army, during the 
Battle of Murfreesboro, which so crippled the Federal com- 
mander's resources that he was not in condition to resume his 
advance for four months ; their participation in the Battle of 
Chickamauga, in which they killed, wounded and captured as 
many men as they had engaged ; their destruction of Rosecrans* 
wagon-trains in Sequatchee Valley after this battle ; their pro- 
tection of the rear flanks of Johnston's Army in the retreat from 
Dalton to Atlanta ; their fighting in the trenches during the siege 
of Atlanta, holding their part of the line as steadily as veteran 
infantry, and of their destruction of the grand raids sent out by 
Sherman in a last effort to use his cavalry to destroy Hood's 
communication ? This consisted of 9,600 of the flower of the 
Federal horse, whose object was, after destroying the West 
Point and Macon Railroads, to liberate the 35,000 prisoners 
confined in Andersonville. Wheeler, with 3,800 men, com- 
pletely defeated and dispersed this grand aggregation — Apple- 
ton's Annual Cyclopedia for 1864-1865 putting the Federal loss 
at 1,500 killed and wounded, 2,500 prisoners, and twelve pieces 
of artillery. Probably no cavalry achievement of the war sur- 
passed, if any equalled, this in importance and far-reaching re- 
sults, for had Hood's communications been destroyed and the 
Federal prisoners released, the campaign, if not the war, would 
have ended at Atlanta. 

Meeting of the Confederate Veterans. 219 

I could mention many other notable exploits of the "War Child 
of the Confederacy" and his men, but these, will be sufficient to 
show that they contributed their full share to the record for 
valor achieved by Southern horsemen. 


But the most beautiful tribute I have seen paid to our cavalry 
is contained in an article by Colonel Young, in "Campfires of the 
Confederacy/' in which he again gives instances of the prowess 
of Stuart, Forrest and Morgan, but makes no mention of Wheel- 
er or his men. The article concludes with the following eloquent 
peroration : 

"There came a time even when hope failed; when armies were 
shattered and scattered ; when Lee had surrendered and John- 
ston had capitulated ; when the illustrious Army of Northern 
Virginia was paroled, and its bronzed veterans turned their tear- 
stained faces toward their desolate homes and took up anew the 
burdens of life ; when the Army of Tennessee, where the rate 
of mortality reached the highest point, and whose unconquerable 
courage never failed in defeat ; when all the mighty legions east 
of the Mississippi, which for four years had withstood the mighti- 
est of conflicts, had stacked their arms and accepted war's stern 
decree ; when the President of our nation went forth from its seat 
of government, and, in sadness and gloom yet undismayed, 
sought refuge south of Virginia, there were still some who clung 
to his fortunes and defended his person in that period of com- 
pletest gloom and anguish. Even here a pitying Providence 
provided the retreating chieftain with protectors whose hearts 
still bled for the first and only Confederate President, and with 
him went some who, even in his reverses and humiliation, were 
ready to offer their lives to guard him and his Cabinet from the 
pursuing foe. 

"When the darkness of death was hovering around and over 
the Southern cause, when the last council of war had been called, 
when all was lost, there were those, even in such an hour as this, 
who made declaration of their constancy and devotion to that 
cause to which they already had sacrificed their fortunes and 

220 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

now anew tendered their lives, and the history of that moment 
glorifies the manly courage and gives those who participated in 
it a place on the brightest page which perpetuated human heroism. 


"When the last sun which should ever shine on the Confed- 
erate States as an organized nation was lengthening its rays, and 
finding repose in the mysterious depths of its westward course, 
and was sending forth a fading but sympathetic light to illumine 
the sad and dreary scene of a nation's dissolution; when its de- 
parting shadows made glorious and immortal the faces of the 
heroes who, in silent solemnity and reverential awe, looked upon 
the death throes of the Confederacy, it appeared to those who 
stood amid the terribleness of that moment to become fixed for 
an instant, as if to paint in fairest, brighest, and eternal colors 
the lineaments of those Kentucky and Tennessee cavalrymen, 
who in that supreme moment remained with its defenceless 

"Fate denied us victory, but it crowned us with a glorious 
immortality, and these are some of the leaflets which the cavalry 
of the Confederate States offer as their contribution to the 
superb record of patriotism, valor, chivalry, courage and devo- 
tion which make up the illustrious volume of Confederate his- 

As the author does not mention it, I would, in conclusion, ask 
what men were these who were as ready to serve the President 
of the dying Confederacy in his darkest hour as when he had 
benefits and emoluments to bestow? Of what command were 
they, who were thus faithful even unto the end, and who were 
the last Confederate troops Mr. Davis was to see before he 
entered into captivity? Colonel Young may or may not have 
known it in penning his beautiful panegyric, but it is a matter 
of history that they belonged to the very command which he 
ignores while extolling others — viz., the little-appreciated, hard- 
riding and hard-fighting, ragged and reckless Wheeler's Cavalry. 

Virginia Mourning Her Dead. 221 


Address at Lexington, Va., by Major HOLMES CONRAD, on the 

Occasion of the Unveiling of the Statue by 


[Major Conrad was of the Staff of Major-General L. Rosser, 
C. S. A., whose brilliant war record and whose success as a 
lawyer has been no less distinguished. The compliment paid to 
his argument in the West Virginia debt case, by Justice Lurton, 
may be cited. He said that "In his long experience upon the 
bench he had never heard a case more ably presented." This 
shows that his intellectual force has suffered no abatement. We 
gratefully acknowledge our indebtedness to Major Robert W. 
Hunter, now of Washington, D. C, for a copy of it. — Editor.] 

When the invitation to take part in this occasion reached me 
my impulse was to intrench myself behind a resolution long ago 
formed, and hitherto adhered to, and decline it, as I had, invari- 
ably, declined all similar invitations, but the subject was too 
pleasing to my mind; my resolution vanished; I accepted; and 
am here for duty. The poet and the orator have each, in turn, 
recounted in glowing words the thrilling incidents of that illus- 
trious event which the enduring bronze now to be unveiled, is 
intended to commemorate. For me there remains the humbler 
task, of Old Mortality, to deepen some lines that Time's effacing 
finger has worn well nigh smooth, and restore to view some 
features that have become obscured by luxuriant mould of rank 
and unchecked growth. 

It may con luce to a clearer understanding of the events to 
be reviewed, if we look for a moment to the objects which the 
movements directed by the commander of the Federal forces 
in Virginia were designed to reach and the results which it was 
hoped, thereby, to accomplish. 

222 Southern Historical Society Pajiers. 

By the spring of 1864, General Grant had abandoned the plan 
of suppressing the rebellion, by overcoming the Confederate 
Army, in open batle, in the field, and had resorted to the less 
heroic, but far more effective, policy of impairing the efficiency 
of that army, through starvation, by cutting off the sources of 
its supplies. The Battles of Spotsylvania Courthouse and the 
Wilderness had already closed, when, on May 17th, 1864, he 
despatched to Halleck, "Cannot Sigel go up the Shenandoah 
Valley to Staunton. The enemy is evidently drawing supplies 
largely from that source, and, if Sigel can destroy the road 
there, it will be of vast importance to us." About the same time, 
by another order, he directed the destruction of the Virginia & 
Tennessee Railroad, which brought supplies from the South- 

On the 2d of May, General Crook left the Kanawha River 
and moved with a large force in the direction of the Virginia & 
Tennessee Railroad, and on May 6th General Avirill left Logan 
Courthouse with about 3,000 men and joined Crook at Union, 
in Monroe County, on the 15th. Neither force had been idle 
in the meanwhile; General Crook had encountered a Confederate 
force, under General A. G. Jenkins, and had defeated it at 
Cloyds Mountain, on May 6th, mortally wounding General Jen- 
kins — the command of whose brigade and department then de- 
volved on Colonel John McCausland, a distinguished graduate 
of this Institute, who soon after was made a Brigadier-General. 
General Avirill had endeavored to strike the railroad at Saltville, 
at Wytheville, at Dublin and at Lynchburg, but with results which 
are clearly stated by General Crook in his report of May 20th, 
"heard that night by courier from General Avirill that he had 
not succeeded in reaching Saltville, but would strike the railroad 
at Wytheville, heard that he had met a large force and could not 
get to Wytheville, but would be at Dublin that night, I conse- 
quently sent him instructions to move to Lynchburg, destroying 
the railroad," &c. But McCausland and W. E. Jones and Mor- 
gan were actively and effectually guarding the line of railroad, 
and the object of this movement wholly failed, and the general 
result is told by General Grant in these concise words : 

Virginia Mourning Her Dead. 223 

"Headquarters, Armies oe the United States. 

May 1 8, 1864. 
To Maj.-Gen. Halleck, 
Chief of Staff: 

By information just received, I judge General Crook is going 
back to Cauley by the same route he went. If so, all the surplus 
force in General Sigel's department had better be collected at 
Harpers Ferry, so that it can be brought here, or sent up the 
Shenandoah, as may seem most advantageous. 

U. S. Grant. 

On the 1 st of May, Major-General Franz Sigel prepared for 
his movement up the Shenandoah Valley, by sending all surplus 
baggage to the rear, and soon after set out, with one division of 
infantry under General Sullivan, one division of cavalry under 
General Stahl, and five batteries of artillery. The General — as 
became a profound strategist — moved with caution, and by the 
end of two weeks had reached Xew Market, fifty miles south 
from Winchester. On the 15th of May this army of over 6,000 
men met the Confederate forces under General John C. Breckin- 
ridge, about two miles south from New Market. The Confed- 
erate force consisted of one brigade of infantry commanded by 
Brigadier-General Gabriel C. Wharton and another brigade of 
infantry commanded by Brigadier-General John Echols, a bri- 
gade of cavalry commanded by Brigadier-General Imboden, and 
two or three batteries and one section of a battery commanded 
by Major McCaughlin. 

A gratifying concurrence of opinion, as to the general result 
of this engagement, is disclosed by the brief reports of the oppos- 
ing commanders. 

General Sigel says : "A severe battle was fought to-day at 
Xew Market, between our forces and those of Echols and Im- 
boden. under Breckinridge. Our troops were overpowered by 
superior numbers ; I therefore withdrew them gradually from 
the battlefield and recrossed the Shenandoah at about 7 o'clock 
P. M. Under the circumstances prevailing, I find it necessary 
to retire to Cedar Creek. The battle was fought on our side by 

224 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

5,500 in all, against 8,ooo or 9,000 of the enemy. We lost about 
600 killed and wounded and 50 prisoners." 

General Breckinridge says : "This morning, two miles above 
New Market, my command met the enemy, under General Sigel, 
and defeated him with heavy loss. The action has just closed 
at the Shenandoah River. Enemy fled across North Fork of 
Shenandoah, burning the bridge behind him." 

On May 18th, three days after the defeat, and on the same 
day of Grant's despatch directing that Sigel be sent up the Shen- 
andoah Valley, we find General Sigel expressing himself as fol- 
lows : "Inform General Crook that Breckinridge has probably 
concentrated his whole force against me. Echols is here and 
there are probably no troops of the enemy between Lynchburg 
and Staunton. On the latter place Crook should operate." 

But the only response which this admonition appears to have 
evoked are these unequivocal words : 

"Near Spotsylvania C. H. 
Major-General Halleck, 

Washington, D. C. 
By all means, I would say, appoint General Hunter or any one 
else to the command of West Virginia. 

U. S. Grant." 

Major-General Sigel flits dimly through subsequent history . 
and then disappears. General Grant, although disappointed, 
was not discouraged by this double failure. We saw that he 
ordered the remains of Creek's army to rendezvous at Harpers 
Ferry. He had decided to renew the attempt to reach the Vir- 
ginia & Tennessee and the Virginia Central Railroads, and to 
conduct this renewed attempt, he selected Major-General David 
Hunter, who succeeded General Sigel in command of that de- 

General Hunter certainly achieved results more substantial 
than any that had fallen to his predecessor. He did reach 
Staunton, and did destroy the buildings and roadway of the 
Virginia Central Railroad. He did meet Brigadier-General W. 
E. Jones at Mount Hope, and defeated his forces and killed 
him. He did reach the precincts of Lynchburg and the line of 

Virginia Mourning Her Dead. 225 

the Virginia & Tennessee Railroad, but there tickle fortune de- 
serted him. 

On May 20th, General Grant wrote to General Halleck : 
"The enemy are evidently greatly relying for supplies on such 
as are brought over the branch road running through Staunton. 
On the whole, therefore, I think it would be better for General 
Hunter to move in that direction, reach Staunton and Gordons- 
ville or Charlottesville, if he does not meet too much opposition. 
If he can hold at bay a force equal to his own he will be doing 
good services." 

And in another communication to Halleck, which will be no- 
ticed more particularly hereafter, General Grant instructs Gen- 
eral Hunter as follows: "If compelled to fall back you will 
retreat in front of the enemy toward the main crossings of the 
Potomac, so as to cover Washington, and not be squeezed out to 
one side so as to make it necessary to fall back into West Virginia 
to save your army." 

But alas ! General Hunter did meet with "too much opposition*' 
in the ominous form of Tubal A. Early — a very serious person, 
with an invincible repugnance to all shams and frauds — and he 
failed utterly to overcome that opposition, and he was "squeezed 
out to one side" and did find it necessary "to fall back into West 
Virginia to save his army," and his discomfiture was so complete 
and his failure so utter, that General Grant dispatched to Gen- 
eral Meade as follows: "The only word I would send General 
Hunter would be verbal, and simply let him know where we are, 
and tell him to save his army in the way he thinks best, either by 
getting into his own department or by joining us." 

Nearly six months later, while indulging in melancholy retro- 
spect, General Hunter writes to General Grant, on December 6, 
1864: "When I relieved Sigel I found his command very much 
disorganized and demoralized from his recent defeat at Xew 
Market, and three Generals with it — Sigel, Stahl and Sullivan 
— not worth one cent ; in fact, very much in my way * * * . 
I dashed into Lynchburg and should certainly have taken it if it 
had not been for the stupidity and conceit of that fellow Avirill, 
who had joined me at Staunton." 

Amiable person, this Major-General Hunter, and magnanimous 

226 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

withal. He admits his failure, but has no thought of attributing 
it in any degree to himself. He lays the entire responsibility for 
it on his four Generals who served under him. He, too, for his 
proved incompetency, was supplanted by Sheridan, and he has 
his apothesis in the judicial murder of the widow Surratt. 

General Early, after defeating Hunter at Lynchburg, directed 
his course down the Valley of the Shenandoah, crossed the Po- 
tomac, and entered Maryland, encountered Lew Wallace at Mo- 
nocacy and defeated him and moved' on Washington. He en- 
camped at Silver Spring, seven miles from the city, and advanced 
his line to within gun-shot of the exterior works, but the arrival 
of the Sixth and Nineteenth Corps made further approach im- 
possible. The object of this movement of General Early's is 
shown in the letters of General Robert E. Lee, of July 7, 1864, 
to President Davis, in which he said : 

''It is so repugnant to Grant's principles and practice to send 
troops from him that I had hoped, before resorting to it, he 
would have preferred attacking me." 

And in his report of July 19, 1864, to the Secretary of War, 
he said: "It was hoped that by threatening Washington and 
Baltimore, General Grant would be compelled either to weaken 
himself so much for their protection as to afford us an oppor- 
tunity to attack him, or, that he might be induced to attack us." 

But General Grant was not lacking in either courage or wis- 
dom. He rightly considered that if by cutting off their supplies 
he could compel the withdrawal of the Confederate force from 
his front, or its attack upon his selected and entrenched position, 
it would be far better than imperiling his own command by the 
desperate chances of an encounter in the open field. 

So much then for the general history of that campaign, of 
the drama then enacted and of the principal actors who played 
their parts. We are concerned here with some of the scenes and 
some of the actors, who have, for us, a far deeper and more 
exciting charm. We would inquire here, with a peculiar and 
untiring interest, as to the victory achieved at Xew Market. 

To whom is the credit for that great victory due? 

The great statesman and soldier who commanded the Confed- 
erate forces on that day lays no personal claim to the honorable 

Virginia Mourning Her Dead. 227 

distinction. He says, in his official report : "My command met 
the enemy and defeated him." The admitted facts as thev are 
now disclosed, would have warranted the statement, "The Vir- 
ginia Military Institute met the enemy and defeated him." For 
see: Of the two brigades of infantry, one was commanded by 
Wharton, the other by Echols, both graduates of this Institute; 
of the regiments and battalions comprising those brigades, they 
were commanded by George B. Smith, George M. Edgar, Wil- 
liam Patton, Peter J. Otey and Scott Shipp, each and all of them 
graduates of this Institute, who had acquired here that skill and 
discipline which contributed essentially to the victorious result. 
And the artillery, commanded by Major McLaughlin ; he, while 
not a graduate, had doubtless acquired .through that insatiable 
inquisitiveness that distinguished him, and the opportunities 
which his residence in Lexington afforded, much of the knowl- 
edge and skill which made his guns so effective on that day. Who 
can venture to doubt that had these commanders been absent, 
and that glorious band of young immortals who went out from 
these halls been supplanted by some other regiment, that the 
result would have been other than it was. 

Many years after the sun of that hallowed day had gone down 
in triumphant splendor, it was deemed by one, competent to 
judge, and with adequate knowledge for sound judgment— by 
General Long, the Military Secretary of General Robert E. Lee— 
that the conduct of the Gadets on that day was worthy of a 
place in the life of his great Chief, on which he was then en- 
gaged, and he has thus recorded it : 

"The Cadets of the Virginia Military Institute formed a por- 
tion of Breckinridge's division, and behaved with distinguished 
gallantry; General Breckinridge wished to shield these youths, 
but they insisted upon being led forward, and were seen in the 
hottest of the fight, where they maintained themselves with the 
steadiness of veterans." 

Another witness, hardly less valuable — Major Harry Gilmor 

a participant in the battle, a man of large experience in war, and 
one not given to idle compliments, has said, in his "Four Years 
in the Saddle" : 

228 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

"Breckinridge has gained, all things considered, the most bril- 
liant victory of the war, achieved by small numbers against such 
fearful odds. Under his command was the Corps of Cadets from 
Lexington, under Major Shipp, composed of boys from fourteen 
to eighteen years of age. These boys fought like tigers, and 
were the admiration of friends and foes. At one time they ad- 
vanced on a battery stationed on an eminence covered with cedars 
and supported by a full regiment of infantry. They were going 
up in perfect line, the colors a little in advance. The battery, 
of four pieces, was pouring cannister into them, and two color- 
bearers were knocked down. When within four hundred yards, 
the infantry rose and opened upon them, Major Shipp halted and 
ordered them to fix bayonets, which they did under a terrible 
tire. While doing this Major Shipp was knocked down by a 
piece of shell, and lay for a moment breathless, but almost imme- 
diately was on his feet and calling out to the Cadets, 'Follow 
my lead, boys,' started for the artillery, all of which he captured, 
together with a large part of the infantry, who said they felt 
ashamed that they had been whipped by boys." 

Lieutenant-Colonel Shipp has given in his official report a de- 
tailed account of the operations of the Corps of Cadets, from 
the moment of their leaving the barracks until their return. His 
report is as follows : 

"Headquarters, Corps of Cadets. 

July 4, 1864. 
General : 

In obedience to General Orders Xo. , Headquarters, Vir- 
ginia Military Institute, June 2J, 1864, 1 have the honour to 
submit the following report of the Corps of Cadets, under my 
command, in the field, from May nth to June 25th, inclusive: 

In obedience to orders from Major-General Breckinridge, com- 
municated through you at 7 P. M. on the morning of May nth, 
the Corps of Cadets, consisting of a battalion of four companies 
of infantry and a section of three-inch rifled guns, took up the 
line of march for Staunton. The march to Staunton was accom- 
plished in two day-. 1 preceded the column on the second day 

Virginia 3Iourniwj Her Dead. 229 

some hours for the purpose of reporting to General Breckinridge,, 
and was ordered by him to put the Cadets in camp one mile south 
of Staunton. 

On the morning of the ioth, I received orders to march at 
daylight on the road to Harrisonburg, taking position in the 
column, in the rear of Echols' brigade. We marched eighteen 
miles and encamped, moved at daylight on the nth, marched six- 
teen miles and encamped. 

At i o'clock on the night of the 14th, received orders to pre- 
pare to march immediately, without beat of drums and as noise- 
lessly as possible. We moved from camp at 1 130 o'clock, taking 
position in the general column in rear of Echols' brigade, being 
followed by the column of artillery under the command of Major 
McLaughlin. Having accomplished a distance of six miles and 
approached the position of the enemy, as indicated by occasional 
skirmishing with his pickets in front, a halt was called and we 
remained on the side of the road two or three hours in the midst 
of a heavy fall of rain. The General having determined to 
receive the attack of the enemy, made his dispositions for battle, 
posting the corps in reserve. He informed me that he did not 
wish to put the Cadets in if he could avoid it, but that should 
occasion require it he would use them very freely. He was also 
pleased to express his confidence in them, and I am happy to 
believe that his expectations were not disappointed, for when 
the tug of battle came they bore themselves gallantly and well. 

The enemy not making the attack, as was anticipated, and not 
advancing as rapidly as was desired, the line was deployed into 
column and the advance resumed. Here I was informed by one 
of General Breckinridge's aids, that my battalion, together with 
the battalion of Colonel C. M. Edgar, would constitute the reserve, 
and was instructed to keep the section of artillery with the col- 
umn, and to take position, after the deployments should have 
been made 250 or 300 yards in rear of the front line of battle, 
and to maintain that distance. Having begun a flank movement 
to the left, about two miles south of New Market, the nature of 
the ground was such as to render it impossible that the artillery 
should continue with the infantry column, I ordered Lieutenant 
Minge to join the general artillery column on the main road and 

230 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

•to report to Major McLaughlin. After that I did not see the 
section of artillery until near the close of the engagement. Major 
McLaughlin, under whose command they served, was pleased to 
speak of the section in such complimentary terms that I was 
satisfied then that they had done their duty. 

Continuing the advance on the ground to the left of the main 
road, and south of New Market, at 12:30 P. M., we came under 
the fire of the enemy's batteries. Having advanced a quarter 
of a mile under the fire, we were halted and the column was 
deployed, the march up to this time having been by flank in. 
column. The ground in front was open, with skirts of woods on 
the left. Here General Breckinridge sent for me, and gave me 
in person my instructions. The General's plans seem to have 
undergone some modification. Instead of one line, with a reserve, 
he formed his infantry in two, artillery in rear and to the right, 
the cavalry deployed and guarding the right flank, left flank rest- 
ing on a stream. Wharton's brigade of infantry constituted the 
first line, Echol's brigade the second. The battalion of Cadets 
brigaded with Echols, was the last battalion but one, from the 
left of the second line, Edgar's battalion being in the left. The 
lines having been adjusted, the order to advance was passed. 
Wharton's line advanced, Echols followed at 250 paces in the 
rear. As Wharton's line ascended a knoll it came in full view 
of the enemy's batteries, which opened a heavy fire, but not 
having gotten the range, did but little damage. By the time the 
second line reached the same ground, the Yankee gunners had 
gotten the exact range and their fire began to tell on our line 
with fearful accuracy. It was here that Captain Hill and others 
fell. Great gaps were made through the ranks, but the Cadet, 
true to his discipline, would close in to the centre to fill the inter- 
val, and push steadily forward. The alignment of the battalion 
under this terrible fire, which strewed the ground with killed 
and wounded for more than a mile on open ground, would have 
been creditable, even on a field day. 

The advance was thus continued, until, having passed Bush- 
ong's house, a mile or more beyond New Market, and still to the 
left of the main road, the enemy's batteries, at 250 or 300 yards, 
opened upon us with canister and case shot, and their long lines 

Virginia Mourning Her Dead. 231 

of infantry were put into action at the same time. The fire was 
withering. It seemed impossible that any living creature could 
escape, and here we sustained our heaviest loss, a great many 
being wounded and numbers knocked down, stunned and tempo- 
rarily disabled. I was here disabled for a time and the com- 
mand devolved upon Captain H. A. Wise, Company A. He gal- 
lantly pressed onward. We had before this gotten into the front 
line. Our line took a position behind a line of fence. A brisk 
fusillade ensued, a shout, a rush and the day was won. The 
enemy fled in confusion, leaving killed, wounded, artillery and 
prisoners in our hands. Our men pursued in hot haste, until it 
became necessary to halt, draw ammunition and re-establish the 
lines for the purpose of driving them from their last position on 
Rude's Hill, which they held with cavalry and artillery, to cover 
the passage of the river, about a mile in their rear. Our troops 
charged and took the position without loss. The enemy with- 
drew', crossed the river, and burned the bridge. 

The engagement closed at 6 130 P. M. The Cadets did their 
duty, as the long list of casualties will attest. Numerous in- 
stances of gallantry might be mentioned, but I have thought it 
better to refrain from specifying individual cases, for fear of 
making individous distinctions, or from want of information with- 
holding praise where it might have been justly merited. It had 
rained almost incessantly during the battle, and at its termination 
the Cadets were well nigh exhausted. Wet, hungry, and many 
of them shoeless — for they had lost their shoes and socks in the 
deep mud through which it was necessary to march — they bore 
their hardships with uncomplaining resignation which character- 
izes the true soldier. 

The 1 6th and 17th were devoted to caring for the wounded 
and the burial of the dead. 

On the 17th, I received an order from General Breckinridge 
to report to General Imboden, with the request on the part of 
General Breckinridge, that the corps be relieved from further 
duty and be ordered back to the Institute. The circumstances 
of General Imboden's situation were such as to render for a 
time our detention for a time necessary. We were finally ordered 
by him to proceed to Staunton, without delay, for the purpose of 

232 Southern Historical Society Payers. 

proceeding by rail to Richmond, in obedience to a call from the 
Secretary of War. Returning, the corps marched into Staunton 
on the 2 1 st, took the cars on the 22d, reached Richmond on the 
23d, were stationed at Camp Lee until the 28th, were then 
ordered to report to Major-General Rancon, ordered by him to 
encamp on the intermediate line. On the 28th left Camp Lee, 
took up camp in Carter's farm, on intermediate line, midway 
between Brook and Meadow Bridge Roads, continued in this 
camp until June 6th. On the 6th received orders to return to 
Lexington, reached Lexington the 9th, Yankees approached on 
the 10th, drove us out on the nth, we fell back, taking the Lynch- 
burg Road, marched to mouth of the North River, and went into 
camp. Next day (Sunday, the nth) remained in camp until 
1 P. M., scouts reported enemy advancing, fell back two miles 
and took a position at a strong pass in the mountains to await 
the enemy. No enemy came. We were then ordered to Lynch- 
burg, went there, ordered to report to General Yaughan, ordered 
back to Lexington, reached Lexington on the 25th. Corps fur- 
loughed on June 27th. 

I am, General, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. Shipp, 
Lieutenant-Colonel and Commandant. 

Major-General F. H. Smith. 


But, it may be asked, indeed it has been asked, how came it 
that these boys, whose parents had placed them at this school for 
instruction and protection, were taken from it and placed in posi- 
tions of danger and made to perform the duties of enlisted men 
in the field ? By what authority were they placed in the military 
service of the Confederate States? The answer to these ques- 
tions has been already indicated in the statement of the objects 
of the Federal commander and the dispositon of forces made to 
effect those objects. That entire region of country was then 
threatened by the two converging armies of the enemy. In a few 
weeks later that region was occupied and the Institute itself was 
burned to the ground. The following extracts from the official 

Virginia Mourning Her Dead. 233 

records give an accurate statement of the facts in the order of 
their event. 

Under date of May 3, 1864, General F. H. Smith, Superin- 
tendant of the Institute, wrote to Major-General Breckinridge 
as follows : 

"I have the honor to inclose herewith a letter from General 
R. E. Lee, Commanding Army of Northern Virginia, addressed 
to the Adjutant-General of Virginia, also a copy of instructions 
from the Governor of Virginia, defining my duty as Superin- 
tendant of the Virginia Military Institute. Under these instruc- 
tions and suggestions, I now respectfully report to you for such 
order as the emergencies of the approaching campaign may call 
forth. The Corps of Cadets numbers an aggregate of 280, of 
which 250 may be relied on for active duty, leaving 30 as a neces- 
sary guard to the Institute, and disabled," &c, &c. 

And later on the following communication : 

"Headquarters Va. Mil. Inst. 

May 11, 1864. 
Major-General Breckinridge : 

General, — Your dispatch of yesterday by courier was received 
by me at 9 P. M. I immediately gave orders to Lieut-Col. 
Shipp, commanding Cadets, to have his battalion in readi- 
ness to move this morning at 7 o'clock. They are now form- 
ing, and will reach Bell's, sixteen miles, to-day, and be in Staun- 
ton to-morrow. I have issued to them rations for two days, and 
will send them 500 pounds of bacon and as much beef as I can 
find transportation for. I have sixty barrels of flour near Staun- 
ton. I send 100 bushels of corn for forage. The Cadets are 
armed with Austrian rifles and take forty rounds of ammuni- 
tion. The section of artillery will consist of three-inch, iron 
rifles, and the ammunition chests of the limbers and caissons 
will be filled. I have ten or twelve six-pounder, brass pieces 
here, mounted, and one twelve-pound howitzer, if any should be 
needed. Horses have been impressed for the artillery and trans- 
portation, but they are slow coming in. The artillery has orders 
to reach the infantry to-night * * *. Your dispatch finds 
me very unwell, but I shall hope to be with you to-morrow. 

234 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

Lieut. -Col. Shipp has orders to report to you on reaching Staun- 

Francis H. Smith, 

Brevet Major-General." 

But while it thus appears that the Superintendent of the Insti- 
tute was acting under explicit orders from the Governor of Vir- 
ginia, in placing the Cadets under the control of the Confederate 
authorities, was the Governor warranted by anything that appears 
from the records in giving such order? 

There appears the earnest desire of General Grant, repeatedly 
expressed, to destroy the Virginia & Tennessee and the Virginia 
Central Railroads, that the sources of supplies to the Confederate 
Army might thereby be cut off. There appears the two move- 
ments — the one under Sigel, the other under Hunter — to accom- 
plish this desire and their dismal and disastrous failures ; and 
there appears the clear, strong statements of General Grant that 
he was taxed in patience and sorely disappointed at these re- 
peated failures, and that other measures, more virulent and 
drastic than any yet employed in civilized warfare, would now 
be resorted to, to exhaust the sources of the Confederate sup- 
plies. General Grant conceived the purpose of depopulating 
and utterly destroying the region of country, in Virginia, from 
whence the food for the Confederate Army had been supplied. 

The following letter from General Halleck to General Hunter 
needs no commentary : 

"Washington, July 17, 1864, 12 noon. 

Major-General Hunter, 

Harpers Ferry, W. Va. : 
General Grant has directed General Wright, as soon as he 
assures himself of the retreat of the enemy toward Richmond, 
to return to Washington with the Sixth and Nineteenth Corps. 
He also directs that with the troops belonging to your command 
you pursue the enemy cautiously, even to Gordonsville and Char- 
lottesville, if you can. He further directs 'if compelled to fall 
back you will retreat in front of the enemy, towards the main 
crossings of the Potomac, so as to cover Washington, and not 
be squeezed out to one side, so as to make it necessary to fall 

Virginia Mourning Her Dead. 235 

back into West Virginia to save your army.' 'If Hunter can- 
not get to Gordonsville and Charlottesville, to cut the railroads, 
he should make all the valleys south of the Baltimore and Ohio 
Road a desert as high up as possible. I do not mean that houses 
should be burned, but every particle of provisions and stock 
should be removed and the people notified to move out.' He 
further says 'that he wants your troops to eat out Virginia clear 
and clean as far as they can, so that crows flying over it for the 
balance of the season will have to carry their provender with 

H. \Y. Halleck, 
Major-General and Chief of Staff." 

On the day of the date of this letter, Major-General Hunter 
issued Special Order Xo. 128, from his headquarters, by which 
he directed "Captain F. G. Martindale, 1st New York Cavalry, 
to burn the dwelling house of Andrew Hunter, of Charleston, 
with all the outbuildings, not permitting anything to be taken 
therefrom except the family" ; and by the same orders directed 
the same officer to burn the dwelling house and outbuildings of 
Charles James Faulkner, of Martinsburgh. The house of Mr. 
Hunter, with all its contents, was burned under this order, and 
General Hunter, in his report of August 12th, says: "On the 
12th I burned also the Virginia Military Institute and all the 
buildings connected with it" ; and also he burned the dwelling 
house of Governor John Letcher, of Lexington. 

Here, then, it appears that the wanton and cruel destruction 
of private property was not the act of irresponsible marauders, 
but was in pursuance of explicit orders from the General com- 
manding the armies of the United States, who declared it to be 
his purpose to convert the Valleys of Virginia into "deserts" ; 
to strip them of provisions and stock, and to make all the people 
living there "move out." Did any alternative remain to placing 
the Cadets in the field, with their arms in their hands, to defend 
themselves ? Their mothers and sisters were fugitives ; their 
homes in the Valley were stripped and tenantless. Pillars of 
smoke by day and of fire by night marked the advance of the 
invading armies. Xone doubt now, not even her whose only son 
gave up his life in that charge of the Cadets at Xew Market, 

236 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

that the command was just and reasonable and necessary by 
which the Cadets were placed in the field. 

And now, thirty-nine years after that memorable day, we meet 
here to dedicate this monument, commemorative of that glorious 
event, which is to stand forever as a convincing witness of the 
valor and heroism of those invincible boys who contributed so 
much to the achievement of that great victory. 

Let us clearly discern and justly appreciate its true significance. 

It will stand as a memorial of heroic valour and unswerving 
devotion to duty displayed under conditions of singular interest, 
unsurpassed in the annals of war. It will proclaim with an 
eloquence passing the power of speech, a truth hitherto unrecog- 
nized in the experience of mankind — that the spirit of heroic self- 
sacrifice — of "proud submission, of dignified obedience," which 
has been thought to reside only in mature manhood, was here 
exhibited in the character and conduct of immature youths, who, 
on the march, in the camp, and in the storm of battle had dis- 
played an intrepidity of spirit, a toleration of discipline, and an 
endurance of harship never surpassed by the hardiest veteran. 

It will stand as a perpetual reminder to the succeeding genera- 
tions of men, of those illustrious characters whose virtues and 
graces the South offers to history as her loftiest ideals of human 

We unconsciously imitate and grow in the likeness of those 
objects on which our minds habitually dwell in adoration and 

Our characters become formed on those principles to which we 
become early inclined, which we delight to practice, and which 
we develop by constant exercise. 

Carlyle has said: "Show me the man of honor; I know by 
that symptom, better than by any other, what kind of man you 
yourself are. For you show me there what your ideal of man- 
hood is, what kind of a man you long inexpressibly to be, and 
would thank the gods with your whole soul for being if you 

A people may be justly judged by those types of character 
which command their approval, their admiration and their imita- 

Virginia Mourning Her Dead. 237 

We look into a nation's Pantheon to discover the real objects 
of its worship, We, of the South, are content that the verdict 
which history may render on the merit of the cause in which 
these young heroes fell may be founded on the principles, the 
motives and the lives of themselves and their leaders. Aye, 
more. We are eager and anxious that the justice of the real 
cause for which the people of the South took up arms and fought 
to the death may be ascertained and determined by the relative 
height and breadth and depth of the lives and the characters of 
the leaders — civil and military — of the opposing side. 

We would — that in some vast Hall of Fame — these leaders 
be exposed, the one over against the other and their personal 
lives, as the eye of Omniscience reads them, be laid bare before 
the unerring scrutiny of Time. We would have them tried, as 
by some infallible touchstone, potent as Ithuriel's spear, that 
the purity of their motives, the unselfishness of their efforts, the 
temper of their courage and the truth of their patriotism might 
be ascertained and established. We would have them known by 
their fruits. Good men do not, by concerted, sustained and per- 
sistent action devote their lives, their fortunes and their honor 
to the defence and maintenance of an evil cause. Men of clean 
hearts and right spirit and sound minds do not confound moral 
principles, are not led away by false doctrines and do not conspire 
and combine to work iniquity. The righteousness of a cause 
may well be determined by the characters of the men who in- 
augurate, espouse and maintain it. We are content that in such 
Hall of Fame the lives and characters of the opposing leaders, 
from 1861 to 1865, may be set up for monuments, and the ver- 
dict of history be rendered on the issue so presented. 

There would be Abraham Lincoln, President of the United 

We need not to invoke divine aid for enlightenment as to his 
life and character. We accept, without qualification, the reve- 
lations made by his own admiring and approving biographers, 
who wrote as they were informed by intimate personal relations 
and friendship. His stability of purpose and fidelity to admitted 
obligations may be illustrated by a single extract from his most 
important official utterance. 

238 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

On the fourth day of March, 1861, in his first inaugural ad- 
dress, he reaffirmed his previous public avowals of duty and 
right by these declarations : 

"I have no purpose, directly or indirectly, to interfere with 
the institution of slavery in the States where it exists. I believe 
I have no lawful right to do so and I have no inclination to do so. 

"That the maintenance inviolate of the rights of the States, and 
especially the right of each State to order and control its own 
domestic institutions, according to its own judgment exclusively, 
is essential to that balance of power on which the perfection and 
endurance of our political fabric depends, and we denounce the 
lawless invasion by armed force of the soil of any State or Ter- 
ritory, no matter under what pretext, as among the gravest 

And yet, on the fifteenth day of the next month after this 
address was delivered, President Lincoln called forth the militia 
in the several States of the Union, to the aggregate number of 
75,000, in order to invade, by armed force, the States of the 
South. And, on the first day of January, 1863, by proclamation, 
he declared : 

"That all persons held as slaves within said designated States 
and parts of States are, and henceforward shall be, free, and that 
the Executive Government of the United States, including the 
military and naval authorities thereof, will recognize and main- 
tain the freedom of such persons." 

And over against Abraham Lincoln there would be Jefferson 
Davis, President of the Confederate States, who, from his child- 
hood to his grave, was conspicuous for a purity of life, a refine- 
ment of sentiment and thought, an elevation of aim and enlight- 
enment of mind, an unswerving inflexibility of purpose and an 
unselfish devotion to duty, which his more fortunate rival did 
neither imitate or understand. 

And there would be Ulysses S. Grant, the triumphant Com- 
mander of the Armies of the United States, a graduate of the 
Military Academy at West Point, equipped with all the attain- 
ments which the instruction there received could confer upon 
him. Of his personal career, both before and after his more 

Virginia Mourning Her Dead. 239 

conspicuous official experience, it would be distasteful — and on 
this occasion unseemly — here to dwell. Suffice it to say, that 
while by the dazzling glare of his official effulgence, this may be 
somewhat obscured, yet to the eye of impartial history it can 
never be effaced! He is dead. The volume of his life is closed; 
we would not here reopen it but for the vindication of the truth 
of history. It will never be forgotten that from him, and from 
him alone, emanated that cruel order which the exigences of the 
times did not justify, and which the standards of civilized war- 
fare must forever condemn. 

Over against this imposing figure there will appear the im- 
perial, sublime and inspiring image of Robert E. Lee. His life 
throughout is now known and read of all men. The eye of malice 
has not descried upon it spot or wrinkle or any such thing. 
Thoughtful and discerning men of all languages and peoples on 
the earth have united in giving him place among the greatest 
Captains in history. The elements of his personal character have 
received the recognition and won the admiration of mankind. 

A learned scholar, and a wise and good man, found it his duty 
to preface a later edition of his Thoughts of Marcus Aurelius 
with these words : 

"I have been informed that an American publisher has printed 
the first edition of this translation of Marcus Antonius. I do 
not grudge him his profit if he has made any. There may be 
man} - men and women in the United States who will be glad to 
read the thoughts of the Roman Emperor. If the American 
politicians, as they are called, would read them also I should be 
much pleased, but I do not think the emperor's morality would 
suit their taste. 

"I have also been informed that the American publisher has 
dedicated this translation to' an American, but in doing this, 
without my consent, the publisher has transgressed the bounds 
of decency. I have never dedicated a book to any man, and if 
I dedicated this, I should choose the man whose name seemed 
to me most worthy to be joined to that of the Roman soldier and 
philosopher. I might dedicate this book to the successful gen- 
eral, who is now the President of the United States, with the 
hope that his integrity and justice will restore peace and happi- 

240 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

ness, as far as he can, to those unhappy States which have suf- 
fered so much from war, and the unrelenting hostility of wicked 
men, but, as the Roman poet has said, Victrix causa Dies placuit, 
scd victa Catoui, and, if T dedicated this little book to any man, I 
would dedicate to him who led the Confederate armies against 
the powerful invader and retired from the unequal contest, de- 
feated but not dishonored, to the noble Virginian soldier whose 
talents and virtues place him by the side of the best and wisest 
man who sat on the throne of the imperial Csesars. 

George Long." 

There would be Joseph E. Johnston, and over against him 
W. T. Sherman; and then J. E. B. Stuart, and opposing him 
Philip Sheridan ; and John B. Gordon, and confronting him 
John A. Logan ; and so on, down through the rosters of both 
armies — always, of course, excepting Stonewall Jackson, as one 
with whom it were sheer profanity to suggest comparison or 
contrast. And what, besides such a history as these opposing 
walls afford, could any man, now or hereafter, desire? The 
lesson is obvious. To which wall of this chamber of fame would 
we direct the eyes of our children for that instruction in virtue, 
that enrichment of the mind, that inspiration to the higher life, 
that comes from the contemplation of noble lives. 

Indeed, to which of these walls, think you, will all intelligent 
and virtuous people of this land point their children, with the 
trustful hope that from such contemplation there may come the 
ardent emulation of those types of courage and virtue and noble 
manhood which are exemplified in the lives of the leaders of the 
Confederate armies ? 

• It may be, indeed, that in this age of shams and mockeries, 
when the acquisition and possession of wealth is accounted the 
highest evidence of human merit; when the standards and max- 
ims of our former civilization are perverted and distorted to 
dignify the vulgarity of a gross materialism, that among the 
votaries of the present time the exhibition of the lives we have 
here commended would be as the casting of pearls before swine. 

I need not say to you that true success in life is not to be 
tested or measured by its material results, but that it is to be 

Lost Chapter in History. 241 

found in the firm and unshaken fidelity to convictions of duty, 
to the persistent and unswerving obedience to the monition of 
conscience. "The man who works with absolute integrity of 
spirit, in obedience to the higher law of his own nature, and not 
for the sake of external rewards, is the truly successful man, 
whether he secures the material rewards of success or miss 
them." It is not wealth in silver or gold, it is not intellect or 
social rank — it is character, and that alone, that attains to true 

Don't heed the teachings of those who urge you to forget the 
past — who speak of it as dead and profitless. There may be 
those who may well wish to forget it, because for them the retro- 
spect affords nothing on which the mind can linger with satisfac- 
tion or delight. But for us who have this priceless heritage of 
glorious memories and experiences — the past is rich in all the 
lessons taught by the soundest philosophy and the purest religion, 
as these are illustrated in those lives of surpassing grandeur that 
were lived among us, and with whom it was our happy privilege 
to render sacrifice and service. 


We have reason to believe that, toward the close of the war, 
Prince Polignac, then commanding a brigade in the Confederate 
Army, under Lieutenant-General E. Kirby Smith, head of the 
Trans-Mississipi Department, was sent to Europe upon a very 
delicate and important mission. He was accompanied by Major 
John C. Moncure, a brilliant Southern officer. This much was 
well known among the officers at department headquarters, 
Shreveport, La. Gossip had it that Polignac went authorized 
from Richmond to offer to Louis Xapolean all that part of Louis- 
iana Purchase, then included in or claimed by the Southern Con- 

242 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

federacy, the consideration being that France would send an 
army to the aid of Jefferson Davis and otherwise co-operate in 
the establishment of his government in the rest of the Southern 
States. The scheme did not have the approval of all the leading 
Confederates — perhaps it was not liked by a majority of them; 
but disapproval of Mr. Davis was by no means uncommon at 
that time — indeed, it had been the rule rather than the exception 
since his removal of Joseph E. Johnston, at a critical moment 
in the Tenessee campaign some months before. At all events, 
Polignac, accompanied by Moncure, went to Paris — via Galves- 
ton, we think — and, though their mission was barren of result, 
so far as concerned the Confederacy, it leaked out when Mon- 
cure returned that Louis Napoleon had frequently consulted with 
Lord Palmertson, and that, so far from refusing to consider the 
proposition at all — whatever it may have been — the latter had 
given it a great deal of his time, and had finally dismissed it 
with reluctance. We have since been told that the Queen her- 
self intervened, but we rather think that the appearance of the 
Russian fleets at New York and San Francisco — with orders, as 
afterwards transired, to place themselves at the disposal of the 
United States Government — cut at least some figure in Lord 
Palmertson's philosophy. 

It is hardly probable that the details of this remarkable inci- 
dent will ever find their way into authenticated history ; but many 
men who knew of it — who knew Polignac and Moncure and 
heard the latter's account of the mission — still survive and still 
recall the events, the disclosures, and the accepted conclusions 
growing out of it. 

Flag of the Confederate States of America. 243 


Extracted from Prible's History of the Flag of the United 
States of America. 

As in the non-seceding Stales at the breaking out of the stu- 
pendous War of 1861-1865, between the States, there was a uni- 
versal and patriotic display of Union banners, so each of the 
seceding States made haste to desecrate and insult the Stars and 
Stripes and display banners with strange devices as emblems of 
State sovereignty. Three days after the passage of the ordi- 
nance of secession, a railway train came in from Savannah with 
twenty delegates of "the Sons of the South," representing three 
hundred and fifty gentlemen in Georgia. They brought with 
them the banner of their association, which was white, with the 
device of a palmetto tree, having its trunk entwined with a rattle- 
snake ; also five stars and a crescent, and the words, "Separate 
State Action." 

After a little while, in defiance of the very principles of seces- 
sion, these State flags were, as in the North, made subordinate 
to a general union flag established by the Southern Confederacy. 

On the adjourning of the South Carolina Legislature (which 
had provided for a convention), on the 13th of November, i860, 
a few days after the election of Lincoln was ascertained, the 
members were honored with a torch-light procession in the 
streets of Columbia. 

The old banner of the Union was taken down from the State 
House, and the Palmetto flag unfurled in its place ; and it was 
boastfully declared that the old ensign, "the detested rag of the 
Union," should never again float in free air of South Carolina. 

On the 1 6th of November, the Chancellor (Diinkin) of South 
Carolina closed his court, and expressed a hope that when the 
members should reassemble it would be "as a court in an inde- 
pendent State, and that State a member of a Southern Confed- 
eracy." The next day was a gala day in Charleston. A pine 

244 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

liberty pole, ninety feet in height, was erected, and a Palmetto 
flag unfurled from its top. The flag was white, with a green 
palmetto tree in the middle, and bore the motto of South Caro- 
lina : "Animis Opibusque Parati" ; that, ''Prepared in mind and 
resources; ready to give life and property." 

The raising of this flag was greeted with a roar of cannon a 
hundred times repeated, and the Marseillaise Hymn by a band ; 
then followed the miserere from II Trovatore, played as a requiem 
for the departed Union. Full twenty thousand people partici- 
pated in this inauguration of revolution, and the Rev. C. P. 
Gadsden invoked the blessing of God upon their acts. These 
ceremonies were followed by speeches (some from Northern 
men temporarily in Charleston), in which the people were ad- 
dressed as citizens of the Southern Republic. Processions filled 
the streets, bearing from square to square many banners with 
significant inscriptions; such as "South Carolina goes it alone"; 
"God, liberty, and the State" ; "South Carolina wants no stripes" ; 
"Stand to your arms, Palmetto boys"; "Hurrah for the Southern 
Confederacy" ; "Now, or never, strike for independence" ; "Good- 
by Yankee Doodle" ; "Death to all abolitionists" ; "Let us bury 
the Union's dead carcass," &c. 

Governor Gist, in his farewell message, December ioth, in- 
tended as much for the convention as the Legislature, stimulated 
it to revolutionary action, and said "he hoped that by the 25th 
of December no flag but the Palmetto flag would ever float over 
any part of South Carolina." 

Back of the president's chair of the South Carolina Conven- 
tion which adopted the ordinance of secession was a banner 
composed of cotton cloth, with devices painted by a Charleston 
artist named Alexander. 

The base of his design was a mass of broken and disordered 
blocks of stone, on each of which were the name and arms of 
the free States. Rising from this mass were two columns of 
perfect and symmetrical blocks of stone, connected by an arch 
of the same, inscribed on each of which, fifteen in number, were 
the name and coat of arms of a slave State, South Carolina, 
foremost in the triangle, forms the keystone of the arch, on 
which stood Power's statue of Calhoun, leaning upon the trunk 

Flag of the Confederate States of America. 245 

of a palmetto tree, and displaying to spectators a scroll inscribed 
"Truth, Justice and the Constitution." 

On one side of Calhoun was a figure of Faith, and on the 
other side one of Hope. Beyond them, on each side, was the fig- 
ure of an Indian, armed with a knife. In the space between the 
columns and under the arch was the device of the seal and flag 
of South Carolina; namely, a palmetto tree, with a rattlesnake 
coiled around its trunk, and at its base a park of cannon and 
emblems of the State's commerce. On a scroll fluttering from 
the trunk of the tree were the words, ''Southern Republic." 

Over the whole design, on the segment of a circle, were fifteen 
stars, the number of slave States, and underneath all, "Built 
from the Ruins." The banner was intended as a menace and a 
prophecy. After doing duty in the convention, the banner was 
suspended across the street, m front of the hall, and by the 
action of the weather became more faded. It was presented by 
Alexander, the artist, to a cousin of John H. S. Fogg, M. D., of 
Boston, who gave it to that gentleman in 1861. It remained in 
his possession until 1874, when he presented it to the New Eng- 
land Historical Genealogical Society, in whose custody it remains. 

The Kansas Historical Society has in its possession the flag, 
which was carried into that State by a company of South Caro- 
linians in the tumultous days of its history, and figured conspicu- 
ously in the famine during the burning of the Free State Hotel, 
and the destruction of the press and types of the Herald of Free- 
dom, May 2i, 1856. It was captured by Captain James A. 
Harvey, of Chicago, who commanded the "Free State Boys," in 
an engagement near Oskaloosa, on the nth of September. It is 
a crimson banner of cotton stuff, in size four by six feet, having 
in the centre and shown on both sides a large white star ; and on 
one side the inscription, "South Carolina," and on the other, 
"Southern Rights." 

The Ordinance of Secession having passed the South Carolina 
Convention, December 19, i860, was welcomed by the firing of 
cannon, the ringing of bells, and other demonstrations of joy. 
The .State had become a free and independent nation. A pro- 
cession of gentlemen repaired to St. Philip's church-yard, and, 
encircling the tomb of Calhoun, vowed to devote their lives, their 

246 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

fortunes and their sacred honors, to Carolina's independence. 
The sidewalks were crowded with ladies, wearing bonnets made 
of black and white cotton, decorated with ornaments of palmetto 
trees and lone stars. 

In the frenzy of their unstinted patriotism, they impressed the 
men. At the signing of the ordinance — a ceremony declared to 
be profoundly grand and impressive — a venerable clergyman, 
whose hair was white as snow, implored the favoring auspices 
of heaven. 

The Governor was authorized to receive ambassadors, con- 
verts, etc., from abroad ; to appoint similar officers to represent 
South Carolina in foreign countries, and to organize a cabinet. 

A banner of red silk was adopted. It bore a blue cross, on 
which were set fifteen stars for the fifteen slave-holding States; 
one of them central, and larger than the rest, represented South 
Carolina. On a red field was a palmetto and crescent. Polkas 
and the Marseillaise Hymn were played in the streets. The 
Charleston newspapers published intelligence from other parts 
of the United States, under the title of Foreign News. Several 
of our national airs were struck from the music books in South 
Carolina and replaced by revolutionary melodies of France, with 
the necessary variations to suit the change of place, etc. 

In June, 1861, a Charleston (S. C.) ship hoisted the flag of the 
Confederate States at Cronstadt, and for so doing the captain 
was arrested and placed in the guard house by the Russian 

On the 21st of December, i860, there was a general demon- 
stration at New Orleans over the secession of South Carolina. 
One hundred guns were fired, and the pelican flag unfurled. 

The Southern Marseillaise was sung as the flag was raised, 
amid reiterated and prolonged cheers for South Carolina and 

A month later, on the 21st of January, the Legislature of 
Louisiana convened at Baton Rouge, when a flag, with fifteen 
stars, representing the number of slave States, was raised over 
the dome of the Capitol. The convention met at the same place 
two days later (23d), and on the 26th adopted the Ordinance 
of Secession by a vote of 113 ayes to 17 noes. When the result 

Flag of the Confederate States of America. 247 

was made known, President Morton arose, with great solemnity 
of manner, and said: "In virtue of the vote just announced, I 
now declare the convention, the State of Louisiana and the Fede- 
ral Union dissolved, and that she is a free sovereign and inde- 
pendent power." 

Then Governor Moore entered the hall with a military officer, 
bearing a pelican flag. This was placed in the hands of President 
Morton, while the spectators and delegates, swayed with excite- 
ment, cheered vehemently. When all became quiet, a solemn 
prayer was offered, and the flag was blessed, according to the 
rites of the Roman Catholic Church, by Father Hubert. 

A committee of the convention having in charge the subject of 
a State flag did not approve of the pelican as a bird, "in form 
unsightly, in habits filthy, in nature cowardly" ; and also that they 
learned, to their amazement, from Audubon "that the story of the 
pelican feeding its young with its own blood is gammon." They 
therefore did not recommend this waterfowl as a fit subject for 
this flag, but rather one of loathing and contempt. 

Subsequently the convention adopted as the flag of Louisiana 
a flag of thirteen stripes — four blue, six white and three red, com- 
mencing at the top with the colors as written. 

The union was red, with its sides equal to the width of seven 
stripes ; in its centre was a single, pale yellow, five-pointed star. 

This was the flag which was hoisted on the city hall at New 
Orleans when Farragut appeared before that city, April 25, 1862. 

Two days after the pelican flag was raised at New Orleans, 
on the 22d of December, i860, a secession flag-pole, one hundred 
feet high, was raised at Petersburg, Va., amid the cheers of the 
people, and a palmetto flag hoisted on it. An unknown Union 
patriot, however, during the night sawed down the pole and car- 
ried off the flag. A week later, December 28th, the palmetto 
flag was raised over the custom house and postoffice at Charles- 
ton, S. C, and upon Forts Moultrie and Pinckney ; and on the 
1st of January, 1861, the Palmetto Guard held possession of the 
United States Arsenal, under the palmetto flag. 

Captain McGowan, reporting the firing upon his vessel, the 
Star of the West, on the 9th of January, by a masked battery on 
Morris' Island, believed to be the first instance in the history of 

248 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

our flag having been so insulted by our own people, mentions 
that a red palmetto flag was flying over the battery where it 
opened its fire. 

These palmetto flags were of various shape, color and mate- 
rial. There is now in the Museum of the Naval Library and 
Institute at the Boston Navy Yard a large, white flag, made of 
bunting, which seems to have seen some service. In the centre 
of the field there is a blue palmetto tree, among the leaves of 
which are two crescents or half-moons. Surrounding this device 
is a blue ring, three or four inches in width, on which is wrought, 
in white silk, a star and the legend, "South Carolina." The his- 
tory of this flag is unknown. 

In the flag museum of the War Department at Washington 
there is displayed the first flag that waved over Charleston in 
1 86 1, and, in fact, the first secession flag raised in the Confeder- 
acy. It is a perfect caricature. The material is of dirty white 
bunting, with a very poor representation of a palmetto tree in the 
centre. It has eight branches, but no leaves, and looks more like 
a huge spider than anything else. It is surrounded by eleven red 
stars and a red moon just rising. It was used at Forts Sumpter 
and Moultrie, and in the fortifications around Charleston. 

On the passage of the Alabama Ordinance of Secession, De- 
cember, i860, an immense mass-meeting was held in front of the 
Capitol at Montgomery, and a secession flag, presented by the 
women of Montgomery, was raised on the State House; salutes 
were fired, and in the evening the town was illuminated. At 
Mobile, on the reception of the news, a crowd assembled at the 
secession pole at the foot of Government Street, to witness the 
spreading of the Southern flag, and it was run up amid the 
shouts of the multitude and the thunder of cannon. The crowd 
then repaired in procession to the United States Custom House 
with a band of music playing the Southern Marseillaise, and a 
lone star flag was waved amid enthusiastic shouts. 

In the fireworks and illuminations the ensuing evening the 
Southern cross gleamed in lines of fire, and competed with the 
oft-repeated Lone Star. 

The constellation of the Southern cross cannot be seen any- 
where within the boundaries of the Southern States. 

Hag of the Confederate States of America. 249 

An Alabama State flag, originally white, having on one side 
the State arms and motto, and on the other a scroll, inscribed 
"Our Homes, Our Rights We Entrust to Your Keeping, Brave 
Sons of Alabama," surmounted by seven stars linked together, 
is preserved in the War Museum at Wilmington. 

In the Virginia Convention an ordinance was passed that the 
flag of the Commonwealth of Virginia should hereafter be bunt- 
ing, "which shall be a deep blue field with a circle of white "in 
the centre, upon which shall be painted or embroidered, to show 
both sides alike, the coat of arms of the State, as described by 
the convention of 1776 for one side of the seal of the State, viz., 
Virtue, the genius of the Commonwealth, draped like an Amazon, 
resting upon a spear with one hand and holding a sword in the 
other and treading a tyranny, represented by a man prostrate, a 
crown fallen from his head, a broken chain in his left hand, and 
a scourge in his right. In the evergreen the word Virginia over 
the head of Virtue, and underneath the word, Sic Semper 

The flag, thrown to the breeze from the flag-staff of the State 
Capitol of Georgia, when an artillery salute announced that the 
Ordinance of Secession was adopted, bore the coat of arms of 
the State, viz., the arch of the Constitution, supported by the 
three pillars of Wisdom, Justice and Moderation, on a white 
fold. The flags used by the State troops during the Civil War 
bore the same device, with the name of the regiment on the 

These were the State flags before, as well as during the war. 
No State secession flag was adopted by Georgia. 

In the Washington Museum there is a "Stars and Bars" flag 
with the coat-of-arms of Georgia in the centre of the union, 
surrounded by silver stars, and beneath a scroll, inscribed on 
one side, "Presented by the ladies of Henry" ; on the other, 
'Lackey Rangers, Victory or Death." 

The flag adopted by the Convention of North Carolina, May 
26, 1861, .consisted of a perpendicular red bar with the staff, in 
width one-third the length of the flag, the fly of the flag being- 
divided equally in two horizontal bars — white and blue — the white 

250 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

in chief. The centre of the red bar was charged with a 
larger five-pointed white star, and above and beneath it, in white 
letters the inscription, "May 20, 1775," "May 26, 1861," the dates 
of the Mecklenburg declaration of independence and of the State 
Ordinance of Secession. 

A flag of this description, captured from the Thirty-fifth North 
Carolina Volunteers, is in the Washington Museum. After the 
naval battle at Hatteras Inlet, July 30, 1861, Lieutenant Bank- 
head, of the United States ship Susquehanna, brought off from 
the forts two flags as trophies. One was a color-standard, made 
of heavy twilled silk, fringed with gold ; the colors, red and 
white, the union blue, having a gilt star on each side. On one 
was inscribed, "Presented by the ladies of Shiloh, Camden 
County, to the North Carolina defenders."' Over the star was 
"'May 20, 1775"; underneath, "May 20, 1861." The letters and 
star were gold gilt, and beautifully executed. The other flag 
bore this inscription, "Independent Grays, August 1, 1859." Its 
union had nine stars. 

Early in February, 1861, a convention of six of the seceding 
States, viz., South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, 
Louisiana and Florida, assembled at Montgomery, Ala. These 
States were represented by forty-two delegates. Jefferson Davis, 
of Mississippi, was elected President, and Alexander H. Stephens, 
of Georgia, Vice-President, of the Confederate States of America 
for the current year. 

While the committee had the matter of a permanent govern- 
ment under consideration, the convention discussed the subject 
of a national flag. 

Various devices were presented. The designers, in many in- 
stances, were patriotic ladies, and many of the designs were 
but modifications of the grand old Stars and Stripes. 

On the 9th of February, Mr. Memminger presented to the con- 
vention a flag sent by the young ladies of Charleston, S. C, as a 
model flag for the Confederate States. The device was a blue 
cross on a red field, with six five-pointed stars or mullets blazoned 
on the cross. At the same time he presented another, from a 
gentleman, which had fifteen stars within a cross, but the cross 
upon a different ground. 

Flag of the Confederate States of America. 251 

On presenting the flags, Mr. Memminger said : 

"Mr. President, the idea of union, no doubt, was suggested 
to the imagination of the young ladies by the beauteous con- 
stellation of the Southern cross, which the Great Creator has 
placed in the Southern heavens, by way of compensation for the 
glorious constellation of the North Pole. The imagination of the 
young ladies was, no doubt, inspired by the genius of Dante and 
the scientific skill of Humboldt. But, sir, I have no doubt that 
there was another idea associated with it in the minds of the 
young ladies — a religious one — and although we have not seen in 
the heaven the "In hoc signo vinces," written upon the 
laburnum of Constanline, yet the same sign has been 
manifested to us upon the tablets of the earth ; for we all 
know that it has been by the aid of revealed religion that we 
have achieved over fanaticism the victory which we this day 
witness ; and it it becoming, on this occasion, that the debt of the 
South to the cross should be thus recognized. I have also, Mr. 
President, a commission from a gentleman of taste and skill, in 
the City of Charleston, who offers another model, which em- 
braces the same idea of a cross, but upon a different ground. 
The gentleman who offers this model appears to be more hope- 
ful than the young ladies. They offer one with seven stars, — six 
for the States already in this Congress, and the seventh for 
Texas, whose deputies we hope, will soon be on their way to 
join us. He offers a flag which embraces the whole fifteen 
States. God grant that his hope may soon be realized, and that 
we may soon welcome their stars to the glorious constellation 
of Southern Confederacy.'' 

These remarks were applauded, and a committee of one dele- 
gate from each State was appointed to report a device for a 
national flag and seal. 

Mr. Brooke, of Mississippi, offered a resolution to instruct 
the committee to report a design for a flag as similar as possible 
to that of the United States, making only such changes as should 
give them distinction. In his speech he spoke of the associations 
which clustered around the old ensign — associations which could 
never be effaced. "Sir," he said, "let us preserve it as far as 

252 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

we can ; let us continue to hallow it in our memory, and still pray 

that (T 

Long may it wave 

O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave.' " 

His eulogy of the old flag was so full of Union sentiment that 
it was regarded as treasonable; and Brooke was severely re- 

William Porcher Miles, of South Carolina, the chairman of 
the committee, protested against the resolution and the utterance 
of the mover. He gloried more, a thousand times, in the pal- 
metto flag of his State. 

He had regarded from his youth the Stars and Stripes as 
an emblem of oppression and tyranny. He was so warmly ap- 
plauded that Brooke, at the suggestion of a friend, withdrew 
his motion. 

W. W. Boyce, of South Carolina, who had been a member of 
United States Congress seven years, presented a model for a 
flag which he had received, with a letter, from Mrs. C. Ladd, 
of Winnsboro, who described it as "tri-colored, with a red 
union, seven stars, and the crescent moon." 

She offered her three boys to her country, and suggested 
"Washington Republic" as a name for the new nation. 

In presenting the flag, Boyce said: "I will take the liberty of 
sending her letter to the Congress. It is full of authentic lire. 
It is worthy of Rome in her best days, and might well have 
been read in the Roman Senate on that disastrous day when 
the victorious banner of the great Carthaginian was visible from 
Mont Aventine. And I may add, sir, that as long as our women 
are impelled by these sublime sentiments, and our mountains 
yield the metals out of which the weapons are forged, the 
lustrous stars of our unyielding Confederacy will never pale 
their glorious fires, though baffled oppression may threaten with 
its impotent sword, or, more dangerous still, seek to beguile 
with the siren song of conciliation." 

Chilton, Tombs, Stephens and others presented devices for flags. 
They were sent in daily from the cotton-growing States, a great 
many of them showing attachment to the old banner, yet accom- 
panied by the most fervid expressions of sympathy with the 
Southern cause. 

Flag of the Confederate States of America. 253 

Two -young women, Rebecca C. Ferguson and Mollie A. D. 
Sinclair, in the art department of the Tuscogee Female College, 
sent in seven designs. In their letter they said that "amidst all 
their efforts at originality, there ever danced before them visions 
of the star-gemmed flag, with its parti-colored stripes, that 
floated so proudly over the United States. Let us snatch from 
the eagle of the cliff our idea of independence, and cull from 
the earth diamonds, and gems from the heavens, to deck the 
flag of the Southern Confederacy. With cotton for king, there 
are seven States bound by a chain of sisterly love that will 
strengthen by time, as onward, right onward, they move up the 
glorious path of Southern independence." 

In the seven devices offered, the principal members were an 
eagle and a cotton bale. These devices were presented by Mr. 
Chilton, of Alabama. 

A public man notes in his diary, under date "Washington, 
March 6, 1861 : At Montgomery I found the women much more 
violent and disposed to mischief than the men, many of the 
ladies almost openly expressing the wish to see the 'Confederate 
flag' planted at Washington." 

It appears, too, that of this same Confederate flag, a number 
of models have been furnished by ladies. 

Copies of some of these had brought on, and he ex- 
hibited them to me. 

Nothing can be imagined more childish and grotesque than 
most of them were. The older men at Alontgomery, he tells me, 
are urgent that the seceded States should claim the flag of the 
United States as their own, — a proposition which I should sup- 
pose would be quite agreeable to Mr. Sumner and others who 
have not gotten over their disposition to denounce the Union as a 
"covenant with death and an agreement with hell." 

On motion of Mr. Miles, of South Carolina, the subject of a 
flag for the Confederacy was referred to a committee of six 
members, one from each State represented in the 'convention, 
viz., Messrs. Miles, of South Carolina; Morton, of Florida; 
Shorter, of Alabama; Burton, of Georgia; Sparrow, of Louis- 
iana: and Harris, of Mississippi; and on the 5th of March, Mr. 
Miles, the chairman of the committee to whom the subject was 
referred, submitted the following report : 

254 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

"The committee appointed to select a proper flag for the Con- 
federate States of America, beg leave to report that they have 
given this subject due consideration, and carefully inspected the 
designs submitted to them. 

The number of these has been unknown, but they all may be 
divided into two great classes : First, those which copy and pre- 
serve the principal features of the United States flag, with slight 
and unimportant modifications. Secondly, those which are very 
elaborate, complicated, or fanatical. The objection to the first 
class is that none of them, at any considerable distance, could 
readily be distinguished from the one which they imitate. 

Whatever attachment may be felt, from association, for the 
Stars and Stripes (an attachment which your committee may be 
permitted they do not all share), it is manifest that, in inaugu- 
rating a new government, we cannot retain the flag of the gov- 
ernment from which we have withdrawn with any propriety, or 
without encountering very obvious practical difficulties. There 
is no propriety in retaining the ensign of a government which in 
the States composing this Confederacy had become so oppressive 
and injurious to their interests as to require their separation 
from it. 

It is idle to talk of keeping the flag of the United States when 
we have voluntarily seceded from them. It is superfluous to 
dwell upon the practical difficulties which would flow from the 
fact of two distinct and probably hostile governments, both em- 
ploying the same, or very similar, flags. It would be a political 
and military solecism. It would lead to perpetual disputes. As 
to the glories of the old flag, we must bear in mind that the 
battles of the Revolution, about which our fondest and proudest 
memories cluster, were not fought beneath its folds ; and al- 
though in more recent times, in the war of 1812, and in the 
war with Mexico, the South did win her fair share of glory, and 
shed her full measure under its guidance and in its defence. We 
think the impartial pages of history will present and commemo- 
rate the fact more imperishably than a mere piece of v striped 

When the colonies achieved their independence of the mother 
country (which up to the last they fondly called her.), they did 
not desire to retain the British flas:, or anvthin? at all similar to 

Flag of the Confederate States of America. 255 

it. Yet under that flag they had fought in their infancy for their 
very existence, against more than one determined foe. Under 
it they had repulsed and driven back the relentless savages, and 
carried it farther and farther into the decreasing wilderness as 
the standard of civilization and religion. 

Under it youthful Washington won his spurs in the memorable 
and unfortunate expedition of Braddock, and Americans helped 
to plant it on the plains of Abraham, where the immortal Wolfe 
fell, covered with glory, in the arms of victory. 

But our forefathers, when they separated themselves from 
Great Britain, — a separation not on account of their hatred of 
the English Constitution or of English institutions, but in conse- 
quence of tyrannical and unconstitutional acts of Lord North's 
administration, and because their destiny beckoned them on to 
independent expansion and achievement, — cast no lingering looks 
behind. They were proud of their heritage in the glories and 
genius and language of Old England, but they were influenced 
by the spirit of the North, of the great Hampden, J'istigia nulla 

They were determined to build up a new power among the 
nations of the world. They therefore did not attempt to keep 
the old flag. We think it good to imitate in this comparatively 
little matter, as well as emulate in greater and more important 

The committee, on examining the representations of the flags 
of all countries, found that Liberia and the Sandwich Islands 
had flags so similar to that of the United States that it seemed 
to them an additional, if not a conclusive, reason why we should 
not keep, copy or imitate it, They feel no inclination to borrow 
at second hand what had been pilfered and appropriated by a 
free negro community and a race of savages. 

It must be admitted, however, that something was conceded 
by the committee to what seemed so strong and earnest a desire 
to retain at least a suggestion of the old Stars and Stripes. 

So much for the mass of models or designs, more or less 
copied from, or assimilated to, the United States flag. With ref- 
erence to the second class of designs, those of an elaborate and 
complicated character ( but many of them showing considerable 
artistic skill and taste), the committee will mainly remember 

256 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

that, however pretty they may be when made up by the cunning 
skill of a fair lady's fingers, in silk, satin, and embroidery, they 
are not appropriate as flags. 

A flag should be simple, readily made, and, above all, capable 
of being made up in bunting; it should be different from the 
flag of any other country, place, or people; it should be signifi- 
cant; it should be readily distinguishable at a distance; the 
colors should be well contrasted and durable; and, lastly, and 
not the least important point, it should be effective and hand- 

The committee humbly think that the flag which they sub- 
mit combines these requisites. It is very easy to make. It is 
entirely different from any national flag. The three colors of 
which it is composed — red, white and blue — are the true repub- 
lican colors. In heraldry they are emblematic of the three great 
virtues — of valor, purity, and truth. Xaval men assure us that 
it can be recognized at a great distance. The colors contrast 
admirably, and are lasting. In effort and appearance it must 
speak for itself. 

Your committee therefore recommend that the flag of the 
Confederate States of America shall consist of a red field with 
a white space extending horizontally through the centre, and 
equal in width to one-third the width of the flag; the red spaces 
above and below to be of the same zmdth as the white. The 
Union blue, extending down through the white space, and stop- 
ping at the lozver red space; in the center of the Union, a circle 
of white stars, corresponding in number with the States of the 

If adopted, long may it wave over a brave, a free, and a 
virtuous people. May the career of the Confederacy, whose 
duty it will then be to support and defend it, be such as to endear 
it to our children's children as the flag of a loved, because a 
just and benign government, and the cherished symbol of its 
valor, purity and truth." 

The report was adopted, and, on motion of Mr. Withers, of 
South Carolina, the whole report was entered upon the journal 
of the day previous, thus making the birth of the "Stars and 
Bars," as the flag soon came to be called, the symbol of the new 

Flag of the Confederate States of America. 257 

empire simultaneous with the inauguration of Abraham Lincoln 
as President of the United States at Washington. 

The flag with seven stars in its union was first displayed in 
public on the 4th of March, 1861, when it was unfurled over the 
State House at Montgomery, Ala. Coming, as it did, from a 
committee whose chairman had said in debate, "He had always 
looked, even from the cradle, upon the Stars and Stripes as an 
emblem of tyranny and oppression," it is conclusive that there 
still existed a strong yearning in the popular heart for our old 
flag, and all the memories and battlefields on which it had been 

It is reasonable to hope that, with time, its restoration will be 
as popular to the Southern sentiment as its abandonment was 
distasteful. The Confederate General Williams Carter Wick- 
ham, in a letter written after the war, said : "I have often said 
to those with whom I was on terms of friendship that I never 
saw the United States flag, even when approaching it in 
battle, that I did not feel arising those emotions of regard for 
it that it had been wont to inspire. I have in like manner said 
that one of the most painful sights I had even seen was on the 
night of the first battle of Manassas, when I saw an officer 
trailing the flag in the dust before a regiment of the line." Many 
incidents show that the old flag was not surrendered in the 
people's hearts without a struggle. Even Captain Semmes, the 
Captain of the Alabama, confessed his regret that the Stars and 
Stripes had to be abandoned. 

The editor of the Savannah Morning News says : "I was 
present in Montgomery at the organization of the provisional 
government of the Confederate States, and during the session 
of the first provisional Congress, my friend and countryman, 
General F. S. Barlow, was chairman of the committee on the 
flag and seal, and being much in his room, I had an opportunity 
of seeing the numerous designs for a flag which were sent from 
all parts of the South, and often discussed with him and other 
members of the committee their respective merits. There was 
a very general desire to depart as little as possible from the old 
flag, and yet the necessity for distinction was felt by all. The 
difficulty was to preserve the liberty colors, and yet to have a 
flag that did not too much resemble that of some other nation. 

258 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

Many very elaborate and quaint designs, modelled in silk and 
painted on paper or canvass, most of which could not have 
been made of bunting, were submitted and rejected. The session 
was on the eve of closing, when, as a last resort, the Stars and 
Bars were adopted. This flag was used, and, by its resemblance 
to the Stars and Stripes, caused some confusion at the first 
battle of Manassas, in which General Barlow fell. 

The flag adopted by the Confederate Congress on the 5th day 
of March, 1861, did not meet with general approval, and numer- 
ous designs, considered by their authors more appropriate, con- 
tinued to be presented. 

The Stars and Bars did not satisfy those who wished to retain 
the old flag, and was too nearly allied to the old flag in its devices 
to suit those who wished to tear away from it altogether. In 
use on the battlefield its resemblance to the Stars and Stripes 
led to confusion, and mistakes. At the first Battle of Bull Run, 
July 21, 1861, called by the Confederates the Battle of Manassas, 
the opposing regimental colors were so alike that each accused 
the other party of displaying its colors. On that account, Gen- 
eral Joseph E. Johnston attempted to substitute State colors for 
those of the Confederacy, but being unable to obtain them, except 
for the Virginia regiments, designs were called for. Most of 
the designs were by Louisianans, and presented by General 
Beaureguard ; the one selected had a red ground, with a blue 
diagcnal cross emblazoned with white stars, one for each State, 
and when first submitted was oblong in shape. General John- 
ston changed this oblong to a square flag, the infantry colors 
being four, artillery three, and the cavalry standard two and a 
half feet. They were furnished by the quartermaster's depart- 
ment, and adopted by all of the troops that served east of the 

The Stars and Bars continued to be flown as the ensign of the 
Confederacy on flag-staffs and by the shipping. In the field it 
was almost entirely superseded by General Baureguard's battle- 

No other flag was used by the Confederates in the field after 
it was adopted and furnished to the troops in Virginia, October, 
1 861. 

The full history of the flag is contained in the following letter 

Flag of the Confederate States of America. 259 

from General Beauregard. The original design, prepared by 
Mr. E. C. Hancock, of New Orleans, April, 1861, and pre- 
sented by Colonel J. B. Walton for adoption, September, 1861, 
is in possession of the Southern Historical Society of New Or- 
leans : 

"Office New Orleans & Carrollton Railroad Company. 

New Orleans, La., January 24, 1872. 

"Dear Sir, — In answer to the inquiry contained in your letter 
of the 3d inst, relative to the origin of the Confederate battle- 
flag and the devices of the Louisiana State flag flying on the 
City Hall of New Orleans when Commander Farragut appeared 
before this city in April, 1862, I give you, with pleasure, the 
following information : 

"At the Battle of Manassas, on the 21st of July, 1861, I found 
it difficult to distinguish our then Confederate flag from the 
United States flag (-the two being so much alike, especially when 
General Jubal A. Early made the flank movement which de- 
cided the fate of the day) ; and I then resolved to have ours 
changed, if practicable, or to adopt for my command a battle-flag 
which would be entirely different from any State or Federal 
flag. After the battle it was found that many persons in both 
armies firmly believed that each side had used, as a strategem, 
the flags of his opponent. General Joseph E. Johnston, com- 
manding the Confederate State forces, determined to have the 
troops furnished with their State flag, and I entered into corres- 
pondence with Colonel William Porcher Miles, the chairman of 
the House Military Committee, to have our national flag changed. 
But that was found to be impossible at the time, and none of 
the States except Virginia having furnished flags to their troops, 
General Johnston, in consultation at Fairfax Courthouse, Va., 
with General G. W. Smith, commanding the Army of the Shen- 
andoah (Second Corps), and myself, commanding the Army of 
the Potomac (First Corps), decided to adopt a battle- flag for 
our forces. Many designs were presented, and we gave the 
preference to one of those offered by Colonel J. B. Walton, 
commanding the Louisiana Washington Artillery, which corre- 
sponded closely to the one recommended to Congress by Colonel 

260 Southern Historical Society Pojiers. 

Miles as our first national flag. Both were oblong; the field 
was red, the bars blue, and the stars white ; but Colonel Walton's 
had the Latin cross, and Colonel Miles' the St. Andrews, 
which removed the objection that many of our soldiers might 
have to fight under the former symbol. General Johnston pre- 
ferred a square flag, to render it more convenient to carry ; and 
we finally adopted, in September, 1861, the well-known battle- 
flag of the Army of the Potomac (as it was first called), to 
which our soldiers became so devoted. Its field was red or 
crimson, its bars were blue and running diagonally across from 
one corner to the other, formed the Greek cross ; the stars on 
the bars were white or gold, their number being equal to the 
number of States in the Confederacy ; the blue bars were sepa- 
rated from the red field by a small white fillet. The size of the 
flag, for infantry, was fixed at 4x4 feet, for artillery at 4x3 
feet, and for cavalry at 2y 2 x2 J /2 feet. It had the merit of 
being small and light, and of being very distinct at great dis- 
tances. But it was not accepted by the Confederate Govern- 
ment until it had been consecrated by many a hard-fought battle, 
when it became the union of our second and third Confederate 
national flags. When I assumed command of the troops in west- 
ern Tennessee, February, 1862, I found that General Polk had 
adopted for his forces a flag nearly similar to the one I had de- 
signed for the Army of the Potomac. In September, 1862, when 
I returned to Charleston, I substituted the same banner for the 
State flags, then principally used in the department of South 
Carolina, Georgia and Florida. It became thus in our armies 
the emblem of Southern valor and patriotism ; and should we 
ever be compelled to have a foreign war, I trust that this standard 
will be adopted as our national battle-flag, to which the Southern 
soldiers will always gladly rally to a just cause. 

"The State flag referred to by you was adopted by the Seces- 
sion Convention, and contained thirteen stripes — four blue, six 
white, and three red — commencing at top with the colors as 
written. The union was red, with its sides equal to the width 
of seven stripes ; in its centre was a single pale yellow star, with 
five points. 

"I remain, yours truly, 

"G. T. Beauregard." 

Flag of the Confederate States of America. 261 

The second national flag of the Confederacy, at a distance, 
bore a close resemblance to the English white ensign, and was 
always objected to as resembling a flag of truce. These objec- 
tions ultimately proved so valid that a broad transverse strip of 
red was added to the end, or fly, of the flag. This, the third 
and last national ensign of the short-lived Confederacy, was 
adopted by the Senate, February 4, 1865, and was thus officially 
described : 

"The width, two-thirds of its length; the union — now used as 
a battle-flag — to be in width, three-fifths of the width of the 
flag, and so proportioned as to leave the length of the field on 
the side of the union twice the width below it; to have -a ground 
of red, and broad blue saltire thereon, bordered with white 
and emblazoned with mullets, or five-pointed stars, correspond- 
ing in number to that of the Confederate States. The field to be 
white, except the outer half of the union, which shall be a red 
bar, extending the width of the flag." 

Specimens of each of these ensigns were captured, and are 
preserved in the Flag Museum of the United States War De- 

262 Southern Historical Society Papers. 


We are indebted to Comrade E. Leslie Spence for the follow- 
ing interesting reports, which have not, we think, before been 
published : 

Casualties in the First Virginia Regiment at Battle of Grove- 
ton, August 29th and 30th, 1862; Report of Captain Ph. S. 
Ashby, commanding Seventh Virginia Regiment, of engage- 
ment of August 29, 1862; Report of Captain F. A. Langley, 
commanding First Virginia Regiment, at Battle of Groveton, 
October 15, 1862; Report of Colonel M. D. Corse, commanding 
Seventeenth Virginia Regiment, of Battle of Boonesborough, 
September 14, 1862, and of Colonel L. B. Williams, Jr., De- 
cember 13th and 14th, 1862. 

List of Casualties in First Virginia Regiment, at Battle 
of Groveton, August 29T11 and 30TH. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Skinner, wounded. 
Company B. — Killed : Captain G. G. Goddin. 

Wounded : Sergeant B. M. Crow 

Provost L. W. Oggden 
Provost C. C. Carter, severely wound- 
Provost I. W. Radcliffe, since dead. 
Provost W. A. Straber 
Provost W. H. Crigen, 
Provost J. O. Figg, slightly. 

Company C. — Killed: John Danahugh. 

Wounded : Sergeant FI. Sullivan. 

Comapny D. — W'ounded : First Lieutenant E. J. Reeve, badly. 

Sergeant W. A. Morris, since dead. 
Provost G. T. Porter, badly. 
Provost G. L. Meanley 
Provost A. G. Steger 
Provost T. S. Morton, slightly. 

Reports of the 1st, 7th and 17th liegiments. 263 

Company G. — Wounded: Provost R. G. Stuart, severely. 
Company H. — Killed: Captain William A. Tymajor, since 

William Wight. 
Wounded : Sergeant John W. Wynne, severely. 
Provost John A. Meanly, severely. 

Company I. — Wounded : Captain J- W. Tahb, since dead. 

H. C. Ballew, slightly. 
Sergeant John Crew, slightly. 
Provost I. H. Smith, since dead. 
Provost G. R. Glenn, severely. 
Provost Joseph Sinskoe, severely. 
Provost C. L. Parker, slightly. 
Provost I. T. Ayers, slightly. 

Provost Priddy, slightly. 

Private H. I. Walthall taken prisoner. 

Headquarters, /th Regiment, Virginia Infantry. 

Camp near Winchester, 

October 14th, 1862. 

Col. : I have the honor to report that this Regiment was 
under a severe fire of artillery on the afternoon of the 29th of 
August, but met with no casualties. 

On the afternoon of the 30th the Regiment was again in action, 
commanded by Colonel Patton. Near the battery taken by the 
7th and 24th Va. Col. Patton, Lieut. -Col. Florence, Major Swin- 
dler, Adjut. Patton and Capts. Bolen, Harris and Fry, with 
Lieuts. Miller, Estes, Dean, Mullins and Rosser were wounded. 
After passing the battery the right wing moved forward and the 
left wing formed in line of battle facing to the left, and ad- 
vanced in pursuit of the enemy until relieved. It is impossible 
for me to give the number of men engaged in the action. Officers 
and men all behaved with the greatest gallantry. 

Respectfully, Your ob't Servant, 

Ph. S. Ashby, 
Col. M. D. Corse, Capt. Com'd'g Rcg't. 

Com. 1st Brig. 

264 Southern Historical Society Papers. 


Killed — Officers, none 

Enlisted men, 5 

Wounded — Officers 12 
Enlisted men 36 


Bivouac near Winchester, 

October 15th, 1862. 
Colonel Corse, 

Com'd'g 1st Brig. 
Colonel: In compliance with your orders, I have the honor 
to forward to you a report of the part taken by the 1st Va. 
Reg't in the battle of Groveton. This Reg't arrived under com- 
mand of Lt. Col. Skinner, with the brigade upon the right of 
our lines, on the railroad leading from Gainesville to Manassas 
on Friday, the 27th of August, at about half-past one o'clock; 
from there we moved across the railroad about half a mile 
under a heavy shelling from a battery of the enemy to our left. 
We then fell back under cover of a woods, and after remaining 
in that position an hour, returned, marching past the first posi- 
tion and formed in line in rear of Hood's Brig., remaining there 
that night and until Saturday evening, when at 4 o'clock we 
were ordered forward, and to the left to support Genl. Jenkins. 
Passing through a small woods we came into a large field, having 
the "China House" to our left. There we were ordered to 
make a left half-wheel and then forwarded under a heavy 
canonade for about five hundred yards, the enemy holding on 
most stubbornly, but, unable to stand, they fell back, leaving in 
the battery in our hands. Here, Colonel, allow me to call atten- 
tion to the gallant bearing of Lt. Col. Skinner, who, at the head 
of his Regiment, rode into the battery, cutting down two of the 
enemy at their guns. We advanced beyond the battery down a 
slope into some pines and there remained, holding that position 
until night, then falling back and bivouacing near our first posi- 
tion. Loss during both days, four killed and twenty-six wounded 

Reports of the 1st, 7th and 17th Regiments. 265 

(three since dead), and one missing. I have, Colonel, the honor 

to remain, 

Very Resp't your ob't se'v't, 

F. A. Langley, 

Capt. Comdg. 

Bivouack iith Virginia Regiment, 

Near Winchester, Ya., 

Oct. 19th, 1862. 

Colonel : Agreeable to your order, I herewith transmit a 
report as made by Capt. Mitchell, of the part taken in the Battle 
of Manassas, August 30th, 1862, by the nth Ya. Regiment. 

"The regiment went into this action under command of Major 
Adam Clement, and in conjunction with other regiments of this 
brigade captured two batteries ; drove their supports from the 
field and held a position a hundred yards in advance of the posi- 
tion of the batteries, keeping the enemy at bay — we being too 
few — having lost considerably — to advance against such odds as 
confronted us, until our supports came upon the field, when we 
retired by order to reform. 

"In consequence of the absence of the Adjutant, 1 am unable 
to state, with any certainty, the number carried into this engage- 
ment. Both officers and men conducted themselves with their 
usual skill, courage and bravery, losing nine (9) killed and fifty- 
five (55) wounded/' 


Geo. W. Lazenby, 

Act. Adjutant. 

Headquarters. 17TH Regiment, Virginia Infantry. 

Camp near Winchester, 

Oct. 13th, 1862. 

Gen'l. : I have the honor to report the part taken by this 
Regiment in the Battle of the 14th of September on the moun- 
tain near Boonsborough, Md. By your order my Regiment was 
placed in line of battle about 4 o'clock P. M. in a field to the 
right of the road leading to the summit of the mountain and to 
the left of Crampton Gap. 

266 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

In the act of taking their position the Regiment was subjected 
to a very fierce shelling from a battery of the enemy about six 
or eight hundred yards on our right which enfiladed our line; 
fortunately, however, we suffered very little loss from this, hav- 
ing but two men slightly wounded. I moved the Regiment for- 
ward about a hundred yards by your order, towards a road in 
our front and ordered Lieut. Lahew with his company to deploy 
forward as skirmishers into the woods and to engage the enemy 
who were supposed to be there. Very soon I heard shots from 
the skirmishers ; your aid, Capt. Beckham, at this time delivered 
me an order to move my Regiment by the left flank and to con- 
nect my line with the nth, occupying a cornfield, which order 
was obeyed. We remained in this position a few moments when 
Col. Stewart's Reg't, 56th of Pickett's Brigade, joined my right, 
immediately the Brigade on our right became hotly engaged ; 
we reserved our fire, no enemy appearing on our front. After 
the fire had continued fifteen minutes, Col. Stewart reported to 
me, that the troops on his right had fallen back. I also observed 
that they had abandoned the left of the nth. I communicated 
my intention to Col. Stewart and to Major Clemmons, of the 
nth, to fall back about ten or fifteen steps behind a fence, 
which was simultaneously done by the three Regiments in good 
order. We held this position until long after dark, under a 
severe fire of musketry obliquely on our right flank, and in front 
until nearly every cartridge was exhausted. 

Shortly after the enemy had ceased firing, about 71/2 o'clock 
P. M., I received your order to withdraw my Regiment, which 
was done in good order, and halted to rest on the Boonsborough 
and Fredericktown road with the other Regiments of your 

In this engagement I was particularly struck with the deter- 
mined courage of officers and men ; they held their ground man- 
fully against largely superior numbers, as far as I could judge 
from the heavy fire of the enemy upon our right and front. 
Those who deserve particular mention for distinguished gallantry 
and activity were Capt. I. T. Burke, of Company D ; Lieut. 
Thos. Perry, of Company A; Lieut. S. S. Turner, of Company 
B, and Lieuts. Athey and Littleton, of Company C; Color Cor- 

Reports of the 1st, 7th and 17th Regiments. 267 

poral I. Murphy, of Company C; and Color Corporal W. Harper, 
of Company E, won my highest admiration for their cool bravery. 
Respectfully submitted, with a list of casualties. 

M. D. Corse, 

Col. Com'd'g. 

A Brief Report of the Operations of the First Virginia 
Regiment, on the 13TH and 14TH of December, 1862. 

Headquarters, ist Virginia Regiment. 

December 18th, 1862. 

The reg't on the morning of the 13th with the brigade took 
position as support to Genls. Armstead's and Garnett's command, 
occupying that position until half past three o'clock, when it 
moved with the brigade to the left and down the Telegraph road 
in the direction of Fredericksburg, turning to the left where 
that road reaches the foot of the bluff, crossing a millpond and 
halting under the point of a hill to the left of said road, remain- 
ing there as support to Genl. Ransom, during which manoeuvre 
and halt we were subjected to a heavy fire of artillery and mus- 
ketry, in which seven of its men were wounded. At dusk the 
regiment was carried forward and put into position behind a 
stone wall in the suburbs of Fredericksburg where the above- 
mentioned leads into said place. During the night the regiment 
took four prisoners, coming into our lines, one of whom was 
sent to the Gen '1 commanding the brigade, the other three (two 
officers and one private, all mounted) were turned over to Gen'l 
Kershaw with horses, etc. Nothing more of interest occurring 
during the night. 

The morning of the 14th brought on a sharp skirmish, which 
was kept up during the day, with a loss of two men to the reg't 
and, as far as could be seen, some ten or twelve to the enemy. 

At 11 o'clock upon the night of the 14th the reg't took up the 
line of march with the brigade and returned to bivouac, occu- 
pied the night of the 12th. 

The conduct of the men and officers was such as to call forth 
the highest praise. Not one absenting himself the whole time. 
Respectfully submitted, 

L. B. Williams, Jr., 

Colonel Com'd'g. 

268 Southern Historical Society Papers. 


By Captain RANDOLPH BARTON, Assistant Adjutant General 
of the Stonewall Brigade 

i. Stonewall Jackson and the American Civil War. By Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel G. T. R. Henderson, Major in the York and 
Lancaster Regiment, Professor of Military Art and History 
in Staff College. In 2 volumes. Longmans, Green & Co., 
London and New York: 1898. 

An English military critic, reviewing General Longstreet's 
book, "From Manassas to Appomattox," says "the reminiscences 
of soldiers who have seen much active service are always fasci- 
nating reading. Even if the writer played but a minor part in 
some famous campaign, the realistic touches of a personal nar- 
rative give a life and spirit to the picture of events which is 
necessarily absent from more elaborate compositions." And so 
we have thought, after reading Lieutenant-Colonel Henderson's 
captivating life of Stonewall Jackson, if in its preparation he 
was compelled to take so much of his material second-hand, 
how intensely interesting his work would have been if he had 
been thrown in close contact with the subject of his memoir in 
his private life and military career. From sources which he 
has diligently followed, he has from time to time enlivened his 
books by incidents in the life of the great soldier which bring 
the man more and more before the reader with the interesting 
touch of familiarity, — but yet there is wanting the eyes that 
have seen him and the hands that have touched him. 

We almost feel the yearning that must have possessed Colonel 
Henderson, as time and again he bursts into enthusiastic praise 
of General Jackson, to have been with him, to have looked upon 
the face rejoicing in the approach of battle, bracing for the awful 
clash, and following the well-delivered blow with the fierceness 
of a Nemesis. But these advantages were denied the writer, and 
his work was built upon the next best data, a visit to the country 
over which Jackson fought, a diligent correspondence with those 

Stonewall Jackson. 269 

who still live to tell what they saw, and a conscientious study of 
his life and campaigns as recorded by many who have written 
about him. 

With the true English belief in genealogy, Colonel Henderson 
has not been satisfied to present the distinguished soldier upon 
the stage as one born in armor, but goes back infinitely further 
than General Jackson would have gone, or any one would have 
gone for him, but for the marvelous change in the part he played 
in the affairs of his nation, to show of what sturdy stock he 
came. He is not content to treat his subject with the eye of a 
sculptor. It was not his intention merely to give to his subject 
a lively and express image. His task was to dissect the char- 
acter and achievements of General Jackson to their inmost 
recesses, and to lay bare before us all the springs of motion and 
all the causes of his great superiority as a man in the walks of 
civil and military duty. 

To the Southern people, and especially to his cotemporaries, 
this delineation of General Jackson will stand as a monument. 
Coming as it does from a highly accomplished officer of the 
English army, it is a distinction won by no other soldier of either 
Federal or Confederate forces. We have often wondered that 
some Northern military writer, who excels in the treatment of 
commanders and armies — Mr. John Codman Ropes, for instance 
— has not taken upon himself, from his point of view, the treat- 
ment of some such strong character as General Jackson. We 
believe that such a writer, animated as he evidently is by the 
spirit of the historian rather than of the eulogistic biographer, 
could fill a void in the history of the greatest shock this nation 
has ever felt. W T e believe it is almost without precedent for the 
life of the idol of one side to be written by a hostile hand, and 
just for this reason would it be the more interesting. The public 
mind likes nothing better than to hear the other side, and so it 
happens that Colonel Henderson has assumed what is almost the 
duty of some Northern writer. It is safe to say that a review of 
General Jackson, even from the pen of an enemy, would be read 
with the greatest interest. 

We all, moved by various reasons for so doing, turn Back to 
the early days of those who reach the high points among men. 
Curiosity perhaps is the main incentive. The vicissitudes of life 

270 Southern Historical Society Payers. 

are always entertaining, whether they manifest themselves in a 
great bound into distinction or in a horrible plunge to obscurity, 
and so even the deadly dull life of General Jackson as a boy 
absorbs us; his youthful trials and reverses, the counterpart of 
which are to be seen every day, nevertheless hold our attention, 
and with the brilliant contrast of his later life, lead us through 
pages of commonplace experience with undiminished interest. 

Perhaps at no time in General Jackson's life was his obscurity 
more complete than during the few years immediately preceding 
the Civil War. The opportunity, even to those gifted with greater 
personal attractions, to win distinction was very narrow. Lex- 
ington depended for its redemption upon the intelligence and 
hospitality of its citizens and the beauty of its surroundings. Its 
remoteness from what we know now as the active world, its 
inaccessibility to anything cheering but the sun, its peculiar fit- 
ness for the life of a student, barely gave it a claim to a name 
upon the map of the country. General Jackson in this quiet vil- 
lage walked upon a very tread-mill. He had for ten years moved, 
but not advanced an inch. In 1861, to all appearances, a blank 
wall rose before him. His pleasure consisted in his wife, his 
quiet home, his Presbyterian Church and his Sunday-school 
classes (one colored), and possibly the belief that he had the 
respect of the little community in which he lived. He certainly 
did not have their admiration. His personal qualities furnished 
nothing specially attractive or particularly unattractive. He was 
a neutral. He gave no offence, and except to his immediate and 
very small family (he had then no children) he gave no pleasure. 
As we recall him, morning after morning, not varying a moment 
from week's end to week's end, striding down from the village 
to the barracks of the Virginia Military Institute, where the 
writer was a cadet in i86o-'6i, we feel the depressing sensations 
of a succession of cold, gray, cheerless November mornings. 
His action during the day when at the barracks was absolutely 
mechanical. He had little talent for teaching. He was quite 
deaf, and in movement and figure ungainly. His countenance 
was noble, and his features were good. Put his singularity of 
life and manner brought upon him more than the usual jests and 
tricks of the cadets. Pie was called "Hickory," "Old Jack." and 
"Square box," from the unusual size of his feet. Xot infre- 

Stonewall Jackson. 271 

quently would the black-board in his '"section" room be deco- 
rated with a drawing of an enormous foot. If he happened to 
leave the barracks on his return to the village when the corps 
was waiting for orders to fall in ranks, it was not an unusual 
circumstance for some dare-devil to close in behind him and 
follow him in lock-step, to the great amusement of the corps. 
Major Jackson, never turning his head, and apparently oblivious 
to the close proximity of the daring student, would march on 
as if absolutely alone. The writer has seen a class seated around 
him in a horseshoe curve, the heels of which were a trifle behind 
him, and while he was intently watching the reciting cadet, those 
at the heels of the curve would be bombarding each other over 
his head with paper pellets. On the drill ground the light pieces 
of artillery being drawn in their evolution by cadets, a favorite 
trick was to whirl the gun on Major Jackson in order to force 
him undignifiedly to skip about for a safe place. It is said that 
seeing through the joke on one occasion, bracing himself, he 
held his sword pointed towards the rapidly advancing team and 
forced a deflection without moving from his tracks. 

No one recalls a smile, a humorous speech, anything from him 
while at the barracks. He was not sullen, or gloomy, or par- 
ticularly dull. He was simply a silent, unobtrusive man, doing 
his duty in an unentertaining way — merely an automaton. And 
yet the cadets held him in high estimation. There was no en- 
thusiasm felt for him. The feeling was one which no one could 
well describe. He was not praised ; he was not abused. He 
was the' butt of boyish pranks, but not the victim of malevo- 
lence. It was known that when the opportunity occurred in the 
Mexican war, he had displayed great courage. All were con- 
vinced, as if by intuition, that he would display it again if the 
occasion for it arose. The boyish mind, without definitely 
analyzing Major Jackson's make-up, knew that something more 
than common lay beneath that calm and serene exterior. The 
writer turns to a "scrap book" kept by a cadet at the Institute 
in 1855, and finds this doggerel: 

"Hickory, alias Major T. J. Jackson." 

"'Like some rude brute that ranged the forest wild, 
So rude, uncouth, so purely Nature's child, 

272 Southern Historical Society Payers. 

Is 'Hickory,' and yet me thinks I see 

The stamp of genius on his brow, 

And he, with his wild glance and keen but quiet eye, 

Can draw forth from the secret recesses where they lie 

Those thoughts and feelings of the human heart. 

Most virtuous, good and free from guilty art, 

There's something in his very mode of life 

So accurate, steady, void of care or strife, 

That fills my heart with love for him who bears his honors 

And who wears the laurels of a hero." 

And this about expressed the sentiments of the entire corps. 
The lines are devoted to a diagnosis of Major Jackson alone, 
but they occur in a review of the "Faculty of the V. M. I.," 
and the singular penetration of the author would be more in- 
teresting if propriety would permit the publication of the very 
strong contrast in the opinion of the composer between Jack- 
son and the other professors. 

And thus we get a glimpse of the man unknown and un- 
honored, save in a very small circle, down to the spring of 1861, 
when war between the States became imminent. Up to prob- 
ably April, 1861, the citizens of Lexington were strongly Union 
in sentiment, while the cadets were all ardent secessionists. This 
difference of opinion came near resulting in a bloody fracas, 
and after the cadets had returned to their barracks and quiet 
had been restored a corps meeting was called to listen to ad- 
dresses on the situation from the professors. After several had 
spoken Major Jackson remained seated, and was only aroused 
bv a continuous demand from the cadets for a speech. This 
was the first symptom of what was to come. Instinctively those 
glowing youths knew that the man of war was now to have his 
opportunity, and turning from the more attractive oratory of 
the other professors they would have nothing but a speech from 
the silent man who for so many years had afforded them so 
much amusement. With unaffected diffidence Major Jackson 
slowly arose, and turning to his youthful audience, said: "Gen- 
tlement, I am a man of few words ; when the time for fighting 
comes, I draw the sword, and throw away the scabbard" — and 
then sat down. 

Stonewall Jackson. 273 

The thrilling effect of those words is felt by the writer to 
this day. They touched the heart of every boy who heard 
them, and men now gray will tell of the enthusiastic cheers 
which drowned all further speeches. Jackson had taken his 
step towards immortality. 

And now we have some faint idea of the man whose won- 
derful career seems to have fascinated Colonel Henderson. 

We have dwelt somewhat at length upon this period of Gen- 
eral Jackson's life, because we think if Colonel' Henderson's 
treatment of his subject is lacking at all, it is in not picturing 
with quite enough vividness the contrast between the man of 
i860 and the man of 1863. Fate was so gradually but so surely 
enveloping him in darkness; his life was so like the dull flint 
until opportunity struck the spark, that the marvel of his genius, 
so nearly buried, becomes the more brilliant when we realize 
the bound he made from the school teacher to the greatest 
figure produced in the Civil War, General Lee in some respects 
excepted. But of General Lee much was expected, and much 
was realized. His life for years before 1861, military and social, 
had been so different from Jackson's ; he was so widely known ; 
his family had for so long a time held so high a place in the 
history of the developing country, that his immediate accession 
to high rank in the Southern army and his splendid abilities as 
a soldier, were regarded as matters of course. But with Gen- 
eral Jackson the case was very different. At one time the army 
in front of Fredericksburg was under his command, General 
Lee being in Richmond or sick, and General Longstreet being 
south of Richmond towards Suffolk. The writer recalls the 
trace of uneasiness that manifested itself among the men at that 
time, and this even after the splendid exhibition of ability Gen- 
eral Jackson had shown in the campaign of 1862. And so it 
happened that the great peculiarity of General Jackson's case 
as a soldier was the almost unexpected and sudden development 
of his surpassing genius for just the kind of warfare it fell 
to his lot to wage. 

When Colonel Henderson speaks of the untiring energy of 
the man, the writer is reminded vividly of a scene he wit- 
nessed on what was known as the "Bath'' or "Romney" ex- 
pedition in January, 1862. About dusk on the day preceding 

274 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

the return of the army from the advanced point which overlook- 
ed Hancock, Maryland, one of the baggage wagons sank so 
deep in the mud that the straining horses were powerless to 
move it. Jackson was in the neighborhood, and at once dis- 
mounted, and, seizing the spokes of a wheel, aided the men to 
lift the wagon from the rut into which it had deeply sunk. The 
writer recalls the mutter of a Colonel who was looking on : 
"Yes, that is the business he ought always to be at." 

It may well be thought that Jackson was the most ener- 
getic, enterprising and indomitable man in the Confederate 
army. When he almost testily replied to the despairing cry of 
the gallant Bee at First Manassas, "General, they are beating us 
back" — "then we will give the bayonet," his courage knew 
no bounds. When during that battle his staff officer, the writer's 
uncle, who lost his life before Richmond gallantly leading his 
regiment, despairingly remarked, "General, I fear the day is 
against us," and he almost angrily replied, "If you think so, you 
should not say it," his indomitable will was asserting itself. 

Colonel Henderson passes in natural order from the picture 
of Jackson the professor to Jackson the rock upon which the 
Federal army split at First Manassas. The writer was in that 
battle as Sergeant Major of the 33d Virginia Infantry, which at 
that time, composed of eight companies, was commanded by 
Colonel C. Cummings. who still lives, the only surviving regi- 
mental commander of the Stonewall Brigade as it was organized 
in July, 1 86 1. In September, 1896, Colonel Cummings in a let- 
ter says, that as Griffin's and Rickett's batteries descended from 
the elevation west of the Warrenton turnpike following the 
Sudley Mills road to gain the hills on which the Henry and 
Robinson houses are situated — supported in their movement by 
the powerful Federal Infantry — General Jackson rode quietly 
along the line of his brigade and cautioned his officers to with- 
hold their fire until the enemy had approached "within thirty 
paces." Visiting in 1896 the very ground on which on the edge 
of the pine and stunted oak growth the line of the brigade was 
partially concealed, the meaning of this order became a mystery. 
The presence of the Confederate line could hardly have been 
concealed from the advancing enemy, and it was subjecting the 
raw recruits, who so splendidly fought in that battle, to an un- 

Stonewall Jackson. 275 

bearable strain. And yet we believe the order was given just 
as Colonel Cummings repeats it, and that General Jackson meant 
it to be carried out. Had the order been given to him as a 
private in .the ranks, he would have withheld his fire until the 
enemy had come exactly within thirty paces, and then if his life 
had been spared we know what would have occurred. As a 
matter of fact, when the line of Federal infantry appeared just 
over the ridge of the gentle hill on which Griffin's battery was 
coming into position, the riflemen of the 33d could no longer 
restrain their impatience, and Colonel Cummings, feeling that 
the critical moment had come, and seeing the futility of attempt- 
ing to obey the "thirty paces" order, rang out the order 
"Charge," and the little battalion broke from its cover and 
rushed fiercely upon the astonished enemy. Griffin's battery was 
captured ; at the first fire it was utterly disabled, the writer, be- 
fore being wounded, getting close enough to see the splendid 
horses dying in heaps, and the gunners strewn dead or helpless 
among the guns. As we Americans have for months been re- 
galed with newspaper accounts of the terrible slaughter at San- 
tiago, it may be of interest to state that in that and the succeed- 
ing charges made by the 33d (for although repulsed this raw 
regiment made three efforts to hold the battery, and with the 
splendid assistance of their comrades, succeeded in the last), out 
of about four hundred and fifty men it lost forty-three killed 
and one hundred and forty wounded. It may be late in the day 
to make the claim, but we believe it can be demonstrated that 
this pardonable breach of orders by Colonel Cummings, this im- 
pulsive and uncontrollable rush of his green boys, not a month 
from the plough and the shop of the mechanic, was the first 
check the Federal advance had met, and was the turning point 
in the battle. Colonel Henderson refers to the respite given to 
the Confederates as McDowell advanced his batteries, with their 
supporting infantry from the hills beyond the Warrenton turn- 
pike, from which he had driven Bee and Evans to the next ridge, 
on which stood the Henry and Robinson houses. And it is un- 
doubtedly true that the momentum of the Federal advance was 
somewhat lost by this most natural movement. But before it 
could be regained, before the deadly batteries of Griffin and 
Ricketts could resume their destructive work, just in the nick 

276 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

of time the 33d rushed upon the hostile guns, and in a moment 
this most offensive arm of the advancing line was shattered. 
It is pleasing to the writer to note that Colonel Henderson in his 
researches has found confirmation of Colonel Cummings' recol- 
lection of the "thirty paces order." The slight variance given 
by Colonel Henderson, who says that "fifty yards" was the ex- 
pression used, like the difference in the narratives of the Apos- 
tles, merely tends to a more substantial support of what the 
Colonel of the 33d remembers. We think, however, that the 
order was given before the 33d made its first charge, and not 
after, as Colonel Henderson locates it. Indeed, the charge of 
the 33d opened the battle for the Stonewall Brigade, and after 
that General Jackson had only to rush his men forward, and this 
he did with a spirit, perhaps equaled but never excelled in the 
history of martial affairs. 

The writer has examined with the utmost closeness all the 
incidents of that battle. With brothers and relatives in the 2d 
Virginia, and an uncle and brother-in-law serving on General 
Jackson's staff, and being his own first battle, it is not unnatural 
that the impressions were deeper than, perhaps, those made by 
any other event of his life. And so from a never-tiring search 
after all the facts of the battle, it is not surprising that he has 
occasionally wandered into speculations upon some matters 
which have been veiled in mystery. It is certain that the 33d on 
that day covered itself with glory. It is certain that after the 
battle the regiment took a high place in the estimation of the 
brigade, and that its two field officers, one of whom was killed, 
had behaved with the utmost courage, and yet something was 
wanting to elicit from General Jackson the praise which it was 
thought ought to have followed. To the writer, when he recalls 
the treatment Garnett received after Kernstown for giving an 
order to retreat upon his own responsibility, no cause can be 
assigned for the moderation with which General Jackson men- 
tioned the action of the 33d, than his disapproval of its dis- 
obedience of orders in charging before the exact time indicated 
by him. His intense accuracy in obeying orders had somewhat 
narrowed his capacity to make allowance for changing circum- 
stances. His intense self-reliance made him feel that in battle, as 
far as he governed its movements, his plans, and his alone, must 

Stonewall Jackson. 277 

be followed. And that was not vanity or self-esteem. No 
mortal was freer from those vices. It was simply the product 
of a heart that quailed at nothing, of an intellect brilliant in 
military conceptions, of a will that knew not how to bend from 
a worthy purpose and from a confidence in the righteousness 
of his cause that knew not how to shake. No two men are 
exactly alike, just as no two leaves are exactly alike, but most 
men, even most distinguished men, have something of a coun- 
terpart. Has Jackson's "double" ever been suggested? It is 
certain that no man in the Confederate army ever approached 
his completeness as a soldier — General Lee always excepted, but 
cast in a mold, with personal traits so different, that compari- 
sons cannot be made. And in the Federal army Sheridan alone 
seems to have taken some lessons from the Confederate soldier. 
Two revelations have been given to the public in Jackson's 
character and equipment, in his literary attainments and his 
warmth of feeling. When his letters to his wife were, by the 
permission of that interesting lady, given to the public, surprise 
at the tenderness they displayed was universal. From the day 
his speech of farewell to his brigade was published allowance 
was made, and it was supposed that some partial friend with 
graceful and felicitous rhetoric had smoothed and embellished 
it. But for the assurance Colonel Douglas has just given in his 
review of Colonel Henderson's book, that with Sergeant Towner 
he wrote it from memory within fifteen minutes after its de- 
livery, and that when finished he and the orderly sergeant both 
thought it absolutely correct, we should still harbor the sus- 
picion of friendly embellishment, so inconceivable is it to the 
writer that the Major Jackson of the V. M. I. could make a 
speech so perfectly fitting the occasion. Colonel Henderson has, 
from his resources, well painted the picture of this parting, but 
it may be entertaining to read the version given in a quaint 
book written by Private John C). Casler, of the 33d Virginia 
Infantry, entitled, "Four Years in the Stonewall 'Brigade." He 
says : 

"On the 4th of October General Jackson was promoted to 
Major-General, and ordered to Winchester to take command of 
the forces then in the Shenandoah Valley, and he had his bri- 
gade paraded to bid them farewell. We all had the blues, for 

278 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

we did not want to part with him as our Commander. Besides, 
we all wanted to go with him, as nearly all of us came from 
the different counties in the Shenandoah Valley. 

''General Jackson and his staff officers rode up in front of the 
brigade after we had formed on the hillside, and looked up and 
down the line. He then slowly raised his cap and said : 'Offi- 
cers and soldiers of the First Brigade, I am not here to make a 
speech, but simply to say farewell. I first met you at Harper's 
Ferry, in the commencement of this war, and 1 cannot take 
leave of you without giving expression to my admiration for 
your conduct from that day to this, whether on the march, the 
bivouac, the tented field, or the bloody plains of Manassas, where 
you gained the well-deserved reputation of having decided the 
fate of that battle. 

" 'Throughout the broad extent of country over which you 
have marched, by your respect for the rights and property of 
citizens, you have shown that you were soldiers, not only to 
defend, but able and willing both to defend and protect. You 
have already gained a brilliant and deservedly high reputation 
throughout the army and the whole Confederacy, and I trust, 
in the future, by your deeds on the field, and by the assistance 
of the same kind Providence who has heretofore favored our 
cause, you will gain more victories, and add additional lustre 
to the reputation you now enjoy. 

" 'You have already gained a proud position in the future 
history of this, our second war of independence. I shall look 
with great anxiety to your future movements, and I trust when- 
ever I shall hear of the First Brigade on the field of battle, it 
will be of still nobler deeds achieved and a higher reputation 

"Here he paused and glanced proudly around him. Then 
raising himself in his stirrups and throwing the reins on his 
horse's neck, he exclaimed in a voice of such deep feeling that 
it thrilled through every heart in the brigade : 'In the army 
of the Shenandoah you were the First Brigade ; in the army of 
the Potomac you were the First Brigade ; in the Second Corps 
of this army you are the First Brigade; you are the First 
Brigade in the affections of your General, and I hope by your 
future deeds and bearing you will be handed down to posterity 

Stonewall Jacksov. 279 

as the First Brigade in this, our second war of independence. 
Farewell !' 

"For a moment there was a pause, and then arose cheer after 
cheer, so wild and thrilling that the very heavens rang with 
them. General Jackson waved farewell to his men, and, gath- 
ering his reins, rode rapidly away. 

"Although I was there and heard General Jackson speak the 
above words, I have copied them from 'Pollard's Life of Jack- 
son.' This was the only time I ever heard him open his mouth 
to speak, except once afterward he spoke a few words in my 
presence. He was a man who had very little to say. 

"Now, I don't consider that the 'Stonewall Brigade' was better 
than other brigades, for there were plenty of other brigades 
that did just as good service as we did ; and if any other brigade 
had been similarly situated at the first battle of Manassas I 
have no doubt they would have done as well as we did, and 
gained the same reputation. 

"We had to pay dearly for our reputation afterwards, for 
whenever there was any extra hard duty to be performed Gen- 
eral Jackson always sent his old brigade to that post of duty, 
for fear the other brigades under his command would think 
and say that he favored his old command. Consequently, we 
often had harder duty to perform than the others. 

"We all returned to camp after his farewell address, con- 
siderably out of humor, for we wanted to go with him wherever 
he went and be immediately under his eye, and especially to the 
valley, as our homes were there." 

Reading this short and inspiring address, our views of the 
fitness of General Jackson to judge of declamation are some- 
what modified. On one occasion while at the V. M. J. the 
writer recalls the fact that in the absence of the professor of 
declamation, Major Jackson was called upon to take his place. 
It must be pardoned if we remember with pleasure that out of 
the fifteen or twenty cadets who went through the exercises 
of the evening four or five, of which the writer was one, re- 
ceived from Major Jackson commendatory remarks. 

When General Jackson in the autumn of 1861 reached the 
field of his new assignment, the Valley of Virginia, the oppor- 
tunity of his life first presented itself. Comparatively independ- 

280 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

ent in his plans and movements, in a country the pride of his 
heart, with his every faculty bent in intense strain upon baffling 
and beating the enemy, the trials of his early life, his dismal ex- 
perience at West Point, his habits of self control, perfected un- 
der the almost fanatical discipline of years, and above all his 
genius as a combatant, all bounded to the surface to lead him in 
this his time of trial. His winter expedition to Bath and Rom- 
ney, the apparent uselessness of the suffering to which his 
little army was exposed, and his singular and unusual conduct 
brought again to the front the suspicion which had always been 
felt while he was at Lexington, as to the entire soundness of his 
mind. As he rode quietly and serenely along the battle line 
at Manassas his men saw the warrior and forgot the eccentric 
man, but suffering in the blasts of winter, discontent at the 
failure to accomplish anything and the usual readiness of civilian 
soldiers to find fault, revived the old stories of his unaccountable 
singularity. The Loring episode was undoubtedly precipitated 
by the belief that Jackson's brilliancy at Manassas had been 
dimmed by the emptiness of his winter campaign, and that the 
ante-bellum peculiarities of the curious man were leading to 
his downfall. 

How narrow the escape from immortality. One cannot but 
speculate upon the consequences an acceptance of his resigna- 
tion would have brought to him, and to the Confederate cause. 
Xo Confederate officer feels disparaged when he hears it said 
that no man the South could have so effectually neutralized the 
70,000 men commanded by McDowell, Banks, Fremont, Shields 
and Milroy as did General Jackson. Colonel Henderson views 
the great achievements of the spring of 1862 in the Valley of 
Virginia and the mountains of the west of the Valley, as if, 
looking upon a map of McClellan's battlefield, he had located 
this host as his strong right wing. And so it was, taking the 
simultaneous advance of the Federal army into Virginia as one 
grand mass movement extending from the Alleghanies on the 
west to the James River on the south and east. The true con- 
ception of the work of Jackson is thus to consider what he did. 
His army barely averaged 20,000 men of all arms during his 
Valley Campaign, and yet boldness, swiftness of movement, 
lirmness in battle and supreme untiring energy held in check 

Stonewall Jackson. 281 

and beat back one-half of McClellan's army, scattered though 
the movements were, as McClellan's detachments were scat- 
tered. If his successes had been concentrated in a field of a 
dozen miles in length the results would have been looked upon 
as little less than miraculous. They are none the less so because 
scattered over a country traversed by mountains and rivers. It 
was the misfortune of General Longstreet to have said, with 
traces of spitefulness, that by good fortune, General Jackson 
encountered in the Valley political generals — Banks, an ex- 
Speaker of the House of Representatives ; Fremont, a scouting 
pathfinder ; Schenck, an Ohio politician ; and Shields ( the man 
who once went on the field to fight a duel with Lincoln) a de- 
cayed adventurer. And yet he used these men up effectually. 
Then confronting Pope, Franklin, Sumner, Hooker and Meade, 
so successfully disposed of them that one can hardly withhold 
the judgment that, place him where you might, he would never 
fail to meet the requirements of the moment. 

During the fall of 1862, immediately after the Sharpsburg 
battle, a rapid reorganization of the army became necessary. 
The battles around Richmond, Manassas, and the Maryland 
campaign ending at Sharpsburg had so thinned the ranks and 
depleted the officers that rough and ready measures were essen- 
tial to a speedy reorganization. We have always understood that 
just at that time almost arbitrary power was given to General 
Lee and his immediate subordinates, Longstreet and Jackson, in 
the selection of officers to fill vacancies. It is certain that just 
at that time Jackson was subjected to severe criticism in the 
Stonewall Brigade because of his selection of Paxton, a former 
townsman in Lexington, a lawyer when the war began, and at 
the time of his appointment serving on his staff, to command 
the brigade. Paxton was killed at Chancellorsville on the morn- 
ing of May 3, 1863, falling in the arms of the writer, then As- 
sistant Adjutant General of the brigade. But whatever may have 
been said, and may yet be said of Jackson's inability to pene- 
trate the character of men, no matter how wretchedly some of 
his appointments failed, many, as many perhaps as with other 
men, proved worthy of the confidence of their chief, and among 
them no example was more conspicuous than that of General 

282 Souther?! Historical Society Papers. 

Perhaps the confidence of his superiors and his subordinates 
was at high-water mark in the autumn of 1862, when on his 
way to take position on the right wing of General Lee's army 
at Fredericksburg he led his corps through the gloomy shades 
of the "Wilderness," over the very ground and within twenty 
steps of the spot where, on the night of the 2d of May, he 
was to close his splendid career. 

And yet even then the question was frequently asked, could 
he, if in supreme command, handle a large army as General Lee 
or even General Longstreet could. The writer does not believe 
that this failure of perfect confidence, the confidence, for in- 
stance, felt in General Lee, in Jackson's ability to fill any posi- 
tion which fell to his lot originated or even existed in the rank 
and file. He attributes it rather to the officers of the corps, be- 
ginning possibly with those of high rank, who resented Jackson's 
reticence and taciturnity. They felt snubbed by his refusal to 
take them into his confidence, and then again comparisons will 
always be made, and as late as Fredericksburg, Jackson was al- 
ways pitted in comparison with Lee and Longstreet, an ex- 
ceedingly severe test to subject the quiet school teacher to. 

The Stonewall Brigade was encamped in the winter of 1862-3, 
below Fredericksburg, very near Jackson's headquarters. Their 
camp was called "Winder," after the revered and respected, but 
disliked Brigadier, who was the immediate officer of that rank, 
preceding Paxton in command of the brigade. The punctilious 
piety which always made Jackson among the first in attendance 
at the religious services of his old Presbyterian pastor, Dr. White, 
stuck to him during that winter and up to his death. As soon as 
the Brigade had completed its winter quarters at Camp Winder, 
a chapel, in shape like the letter L, with the preacher's stand 
in the angle, was erected. The forest of noble pines furnished 
logs in length amply great, and riven boards covered the roof. 
Rude seats were built upon the uncovered floor, and with great 
regularity General Jackson attended the services. The writer 
can in memory see him now, as seated immediately behind him, 
in the midst of the earnest soldiers of his old brigade, his close 
and devout attention to the sermon would unfailingly attract 
attention. His entrance into the rude building was as modest 
and apparently as uninmportant as that of the humblest private. 

Stonewall Jackson. 283 

His demeanor was exactly that of the quiet ante-bellum school 
teacher. As he entered he found his way to the nearest seat, 
with no commotion among the men other than that prompted 
by the natural feelings of gentlemen making room for a gentle- 
man. As the congregation dispersed he made his way slowly 
through the departing crowd, and any soldier might upon feel- 
ing the pressure that came against him have seen General Jack- 
son at one elbow and his messmate at the other. For military 
display Jackson had not an atom of fondness. He stuck to his 
old blue V. M. I. military suit until it had the shabbiness of re- 
duced gentility. And this was not from indifference to personal 
neatness. He was too absorbed to give thought or time to the 

If we are not mistaken, Lord Wolseley has somewhere found 
fault with General Lee's failure to accomplish greater results at 
Fredericksburg. We trust merely to memory in making this 
statement, for he has expressed the greatest admiration for both 
General Lee and General Jackson. But, if he has so stated, 
the very clear and graphic account given by Colonel Henderson 
of the difficulties which would have confronted Jackson had he 
rushed across the plain upon Franklin's 40,000 men resting be- 
hind the natural entrenchments furnished by the roads of the 
country and covered by the powerful batteries on both sides of 
the Rappahannock, should answer the criticism. While it must 
forever remain a matter of speculation, we have many reasons 
to believe that Jackson was never satisfied with the decision not 
to make the proposed night attack upon Burnside, and, again, 
when the situation was in many respects repeated in April, 1863, 
with the conclusion not to strike Sedgwick, who, crossing at 
Fredericksburg, extended his left so as partly to reach or ap- 
proach the ground held in December, 1862, by Franklin. Colonel 
Henderson quotes General Lee as saying: "Jackson at first pre- 
ferred to attack Sedgwick's force in the plain of Fredericks- 
burg, but I told him I feared it was as impracticable as it was 
at the first battle of Fredericksburg. It was hard to get at the 
enemy, and harder to get away if we drove him into the river, 
but if he thought it could be done, I would give the order for it." 

"Jackson," continues Colonel Henderson, "asked to be al- 
lowed to examine the ground, but soon came to the conclusion 

284 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

that the project was too hazardous and that Lee was right.'' 
The writer has always remembered with interest that on the 
afternoon of April 30, 1863 (he believes this to have been the 
date), some circumstance carried him to an elevation overlooking 
the Fredericksburg plain, and he found himself close upon 
General Jackson, who standing with folded arms was intensely 
gazing towards the enemy. An unexpected shell exploding near 
by caused the unruly animal upon which the writer was seated to 
prance senselessly backwards and forwards, approaching so near 
General Jackson as to cause him, with unusual quickness of 
movement, to jump aside. To the quick glance of the General 
the writer apologetically lifted his hat, and as his untutored 
horse regained some composure, moved off. The reflection 
comes that possibly this trivial circumstance interrupted the 
great soldier in his calculations, and the consolation remains 
that possibly a conclusion not to make the perilous attempt, 
against which General Lee had advised, was hastened. 

Little can be added to the account Colonel Henderson gives 
of the closing scenes of Jackson's career. Chancellorsville was 
Undoubtedly his masterpiece. A generously entertained dif- 
ference exists as to who was the author of that bold battle, and 
who designed the audacious flank movement of Jackson's 26,000 
men. It was like the conceptions of General Lee, yet so fittingly 
matched the hobbies of General Jackson that we are content to 
let the origination of the plan of battle be attributed to either. 
But it fell as usual to the lot of Jackson, great in hurling a mass 
upon the flank or rear of the enemy, as he was impetuous in his 
front attacks, to lead his column by a sinuous course through 
the dense woods and over a single-track lumber road, across the 
front and almost completely around and to the rear of Hooker's 
widely extended right wing. The writer last saw General Jack- 
son about 4 p. m. on the afternoon of May 2, 1863, at the junc- 
tion of the Brock road with the Orange plank road. The fifteen- 
mile circuit had been completed. Like the men, he was brown 
with the dust of the heavily-traveled road. He had been led 
by General Fitzhugh Lee, commanding the cavalry at that point, 
to the little elevation, Burton's Hill, and from his concealed 
position had looked down almost into the eyes of the unsuspect- 
ing foe. Seated uuon a log, his arms folded, his entire manner 

Stonewall Jackson. 285 

that of the utmost composure, he was giving General Paxton 
directions how and where to deploy the Stonewall Brigade. 
Perhaps never before had Jackson greater cause for confidence 
in himself and in his men, and better reason for contempt for 
the boastful Hooker. The last lines of his life to General Lee 
were written "near 3 p. m. v "The leading division is up, and 
the next two appear to be well closed." The march had been 
one of excessive severity, and yet from the first step the men 
joyously knew that "Old Jack" was bent on coming in at the 
back door of the enemy. As we rode along the line of march 
with General Paxton, little encouragement was needed to keep 
the brigade which brought up the rear of the division well closed 
up. The men got an exultant swing. Fredericksburg had been 
to them an unusual exercise. Not since they had encircled Pope 
had they experienced the animating influence of a well prepared 
surprise, and they knew that their invincible leader was about 
to crown their performances with the most brilliant of his move- 
ments. "Tell old Jack not to begin the fun until we get there," 
they would sing out to passing horsemen, and thus with few 
stragglers, between sunrise, when we looked to the west, and 
four o'clock, when they completely reversed and looked to the 
east, this body of 26,000 veterans of Richmond, Cedar Run, 
Manassas, Sharpsburg, and Fredericksburg was swung by Jack- 
son's mighty will completely behind the unfortunate foe. The 
story of the tornado which Jackson let loose upon the Eleventh 
Federal Army Corps, within an hour or two after his review of 
the situation from Burton's Hill, is now as familiar to persons 
who read of military performances as are the results of Water- 
loo. A few years ago, with three Confederate officers who were 
with Jackson's corps during the Chancellorsville engagement, 
among them Major Blackford, who commanded the skirmish 
line of Jackson's first division (Rodes'), and four Federal offi- 
cers of the Eleventh corps, the writer spent the night and the 
ensuing day on the field, our headquarters being the Talley farm, 
the storm centre on the evening of May 2, 1863, now the per- 
sonification of peace and plenty. We examined the location of 
the Federal troops with extreme accuracy. Colonel Hamlin, the 
historian of the Eleventh corps, or more particuarly of its par- 
ticipation in the Battle of Chancellorsville, being at the time 

286 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

with us and engaged in the preparation of his book. With a 
surveyor's line distances were ascertained, and we left the field 
with the assurance that at ieast we had mastered the details of 
that battle. It was with some feeling of discomfort that we con- 
cluded that Jackson's great success had been greatly aided by 
the reckless disregard of the ordinary rules of field service 
on the part of some of the Federal officers. It seemed to dimin- 
ish the hazard of the game Jackson so splendidly played. But 
when we stood upon the spot where with their glasses Federal 
line officers declared they saw during the mid-day hours of May 
2, 1863, Jackson's column, as from time to time, like the move- 
ments of a great constrictor, it showed itself in the unavoidable 
openings of the forest on its encircling march, we felt that Jack- 
son was borne up not only by his own splendid audacity, but also 
by a supreme contempt for the host he was about to assault. 
Blackford says that just before he caused his bugler to ring 
out the signal for the advance of the skirmishers, Jackson rode 
up to where, with Rodes, he was waiting. "Are you ready, 
General Rodes?" he asked, and with the reply "yes," he waived 
a forward movement with his hands, and the band opened. 

What Jackson would have done had he not been stricken 
down must forever remain a subject of speculation. The enemy 
was in a great state of disorder. The flying Eleventh Corps had 
infused a panic into the entire right wing of the Federal army. 
Rather a feeling of demoralization than of absolute panic. 
Hooker had received a terrible blow in the back. Sickles had 
only discovered the great danger of his isolated position. The 
southern and eastern fronts of Hooker's army was kept in con- 
stant apprehension by General Lee using to the utmost the di- 
visions of McLaws and Anderson. The discouraged forces of 
Hooker were ignorant as to the direction from which the next 
blow would come, or the strength of this unexpected assault. 
Every condition in the Federal army favored a night assault, and 
that Jackson contemplated this is too clear for discussion. 
There, disorder existed in two divisions, Rodes' and Colston's, 
broken up as all alignment had been by the impetuous rush 
made through the tangles of the wilderness. But Hill was in 
comparative good order, and his men were full of fight. 

Jackson might well have cut in on a northeasterly course, and. 

Stonewall Jackson. 287 

while protecting his left flank with a small force, have carried 
consternation into the ranks of the enemy in front. General 
Lee was pressing up from the south and east to touch elbows 
with Jackson's right flank, and the energy of those men would 
have infused itself into every man in the Southern army, while 
Hooker, bewildered and utterly in the dark as to what was 
best to be done, would inevitably have sought to extricate his 
army by as orderly a retreat as possible in this dark wilderness, 
on a dark night, with an unfordable river on one side and Lee 
and Jackson with their exultant army on the other. One can- 
not help believing that destruction or surrender at discretion 
would have been Hooker's hard alternative before midnight. 
Jackson had a longing for a midnight tight. At Fredericksburg 
he hardly restrained himself. At Chancellorsville his impetu- 
osity was at its maximum when he was unhorsed by a ball from 
his own men. 

It is a discouraging task to look for faults in Colonel Hen- 
derson's book. It is discouraging even to attempt to add any- 
thing to his charming and noble work. We should greatly like 
to know the opinion entertained of General Jackson by officers 
of the German, Russian or French army after they have ex- 
amined Colonel Henderson's faithful picture of him. The 
American soldier educated to war in a country with the topog- 
raphy of Virginia, in its valleys, and wildernesses and swamps, 
must admit that Jackson waged his battle with perfection, and 
that for the special duties which devolved upon him his equal 
could not have been found. But we should like to know how 
the strictly neutral foreign soldier will regard the man who has 
drawn from Colonel Henderson so enviable a biography. If 
Colonel Henderson could realize with what pride the soldiers of 
Jackson have treasured up the memory of their service under 
him, with what absorbing pleasure, as they turn the leaves of 
his work, they see themselves again in a triumphant whirl, he 
would feel that at least he has been rewarded by the gratitude 
of the fast thinning ranks of the soldiers of Stonewall Jackson. 

And oft when hoary grandsires tell 
Of bloody battles past and gone; 

The children at their knees will hear 
How Jackson led his columns on. 

288 Southern Historical Society Papers. 


Generosity of Maryland Legislature and People — Mary- 
land Line Confederate Soldiers' Home. 

By Col. WINFIELD PETERS, U. C. V., Baltimore, Md. 

As soon as practicable after the war (1865). at the instance 
of surviving Confederates and others in sympathy, the Legis- 
lature of" Maryland appropriated money to remove the remains 
of Confederates — of which many lay in scattered graves — and 
properly re-inter them, collectively. Those enactments were as 
follows: In 1870, $3,000 was appropriated to purchase two 
acres of land in which to re-inter the remains of Confederate 
soldiers who died while prisoners of war at Point Lookout, Md., 
appointing a board of trustees to have the work done ; and in 
1874 an additional $1,000 was appropriated to improve and com- 
plete the Point Lookout Cemetery. Again in 1870, $2,000 was 
appropriated to remove the remains of Confederate dead in 
Frederick County, Md., to Mount Olivet Cemetery, adjoining 
Frederick City. Again in 1870, $5,000 was appropriated to re- 
move the remains of Confederates who fell in the Battles of 
South Mountain, Crampton's Gap, Sharpsburg and Monocacy, 
and other places in the State of Maryland, and those who fell 
at Gettysburg or died en route. The act provided for the pur- 
chase of ten acres of land within one mile of Hagerstown, Aid., 
or for an agreement with a cemetery association in that city for 
the re-interments, and a board of trustees was created to carry 
out the work. The cemetery proviso was adopted, and in June, 
1878, the Confederate plot was dedicated, General Fitzhugh Lee 
being the orator of the occasion. 

In 1874, $5,000 was appropriated and paid over to the Society 
of the Army and Navy of the Confederate States in the State of 
Maryland, headquarters in Baltimore, to be expended in the dis- 

Maryland Line Confederate Soldiers' Home. 289 

cretion of said Society, in the removal of the remains of Mary- 
land soldiers who died while serving in the Confederate States 
Army ; to be re-interred in the Confederate burial plot in Loudon 
Park Cemetery, near Baltimore City, and in enclosing, extend- 
ing or otherwise improving said plot. Under Major John R. 
McNulty, President of the Society, the work was speedily done, 
and on June 6, 1874, the new section in the Confederate plot was 
dedicated. General Bradley T. Johnson, then of Richmond, Va., 
was the orator. 


Approaching Centenary of Great Events in 1814. 

Since that time (1874) the Confederate plot in Loudon Park 
Cemetery has been further enlarged, to make room for those 
who have died in the Maryland Line Confederate Soldiers' Home, 
Pikesville, Md., the capacity of which — about 100 — is nearly al- 
ways occupied by soldiers and sailors from the Confederacy 
everywhere. This fine property of some fifteen acres, with its 
substantial buildings, situated about eight miles from Baltimore, 
was formerly the United States Arsenal. It was by the govern- 
ment turned over to the State of Maryland, and, in 1887, wa:: 
transformed and enlarged for its present use. The State of 
Maryland annually appropriates $12,500 for the maintenance of 
the Home, but this fund is and must be augmented by subscrip- 
tions and entertainments ; the ladies — at large — helping immensely 
and continuously, throughout the year. They provide a large 
entertainment on the spacious grounds, annually, on September 
12th, in celebration of the Battle of Xorth Point (September 
J2th) and the bombardment of Fort McHenry (September 13th) 

290 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

in 1814, ending in a British defeat. The Star Spangled Banner 
was written under patriotic fervor. and stress, by Francis Scott 
Key, from the bow of a British ship, where he was held as a pris- 
oner, as through the mist of the early morning (September 14th) 
he descried the flag above the fort. 

The Centennial Celebration of these great events will occur 
in Baltimore in 19 14, during which it is purposed to have the 
Annual Reunion of the United Confederate Veterans held in 


Companion List From Federal Army to That of Confeder- 
acy, Recently Published. 

(See Ante, page 156.) 

General Marcus J. Wright, who has been engaged in compiling 
records of the Confederacy, reports from his search of available 
records, that President Davis appointed to the Confederate 425 
general officers of all grades, of whom one lieutenant-general, 
four major-generals and twenty-two brigadier-generals are living. 
The names of the surviving officers recently appeared in the 

A recent statement from Brevet Brigadier-General A. B. Net- 
tleton shows that President Lincoln appointed 131 major-generals 
and 549 brigadier-generals, of whom the following named are 
living : 

Major-Generals — Grenville M. Dodge, age seventy-nine years, 
Council Bluffs, la.; Xelson A. Miles, age seventy-one years, 1736 
N Street, Northwest, Washington, D. C. ; Daniel E. Sickles, age 
eighty-four years, 25 Fifth Avenue, New York City; Julius 
Stahel, age eighty-four years, Hoffman House, New York City. 

Many Generals Still Survive. 291 

Brigadier-Generals — Adelbert Amos, age seventy-five years, 
Lowell, Mass.; Christopher G. Andrews, age eighty-one years, 
St. Paul, Minn. ; John Beatty, age eighty-two years, Columbus, 
O. ; Cyrus Bussy, age seventy-seven years, Washington, D. C. ; 
R. F. Catterson, age seventy-five years, Minneapolis, Minn. ; 
Joshua L. Chamberlain, age eighty-two years, Brunswick, Me. ; 
Augustus L. Chetlain, age eighty-six years, Chicago, 111. ; Powell 
Clayton, age seventy-seven years, Eureka Springs, Ark. ; John 
Cook, age eighty-five years, Ransom, Mich. ; Jos. A. Cooper, age 
eighty-seven years, St. Johns, Kan. ; Lewis A. Grant, age eighty- 
one years, Minneapolis, Minn. ; D. McM. Gregg, age seventy-seven 
years, Reading, Pa. ; Edward Harland, age seventy-eight years, 
Norwich, Conn. ; G. F. McGinness, age eighty-four years, Indian- 
apolis, Ind. ; Frank S. Nickerson, age eighty-four years, Need- 
ham, Mass. ; Peter J. Osterhaus, age eighty-seven years, Dulsburg, 
Rhine, Germany; Charles J. Paine, age seventy-seven years, Sears 
Building, Boston, Mass. ; Byron R. Pierce, age eighty-one years, 
Grand Rapids, Mich. ; Wm. H. Seward, age seventy-one years, 
Auburn, N. Y. ; Alexander Shaler, age eighty-three years, Ridge- 
field, N. J.; Wm. Sooy Smith, age eighty years, Chicago, 111.; 
Alexander S. Webb, age seventy-five years, Riverdale, N. Y. 

292 Southern Historical Society Payers. 

[Froru Baltimore, Md., Democratic Telegram, January 14, 1911.] 


Isaac R. Trimble Camp, Baltimore, Md.— Gallant Major W. 

M. Cary Now Commander — Was on Staff of Lee and 

Johnston — Perilous Exploit of Himself and Sisters 

with Battle Flags — Reception by Maryland 

Confederate Regiment. 

Contention of Fair School Histories— Encouragement Over Disclosures 
in Hearing by Mayor Mahool. 

The Isaac R. Trimble Camp, No. 1025, United Confederate 
Veterans, Baltimore, on Tuesday, 3d inst, held its annual election 
of officers, when the following were chosen, unanimously : 

Commander, Major Wilson Miles Cary ; First Lieutenant Com- 
mander, Winfield Peters ; Second Lieutenant Commander, Spotts- 
wood Bird; Third Lieutenant Commander, James W. Denny; 
Fourth Lieutenant Commander, William F. Wheatley; Adjutant, 
Luther W. Hopkins ; Quartermaster, George W. Walker ; Sur- 
geon, Dr. James G. W hiltshire ; Assistant Surgeons, Dr. Alex- 
ander T. Bell, Dr. Louis W. Knight and Dr. William L. Morgan ; 
Chaplains, Rev. Henry M. Wharton, D. D., Rev. Henry T. Sharp 
and Rev. William C. Maloy ; Officer of the Day, Captain Henry 
Gwynn ; Paymaster, John Brune Cary ; Commissary, Edward 
Kershaw ; Vidette, J. Murray Wliarton ; Chief Musician, Alex- 
ander J. Hubbard; Sergeant Major, William H. H. Raleigh; 
Quartermaster Sergeant, Charles Murray Jackson ; Commissary 
Sergeant, Henry H. Martindale ; Ordnance Sergeant, A. Camp- 
bell Glocker; Color Guard, viz: Judge Myer J. Block, First Ser- 
geant; George C. Minor, Second Sergeant; Gustavus W. Lurman, 
First Corporal ; Charles E. Biedler, Second Corporal ; Solomon 
Wright, Third Corporal ; N. Frank Neer, Fourth Corporal. 

Death claimed six members of the Camp during the past year, 
namely, Captains John G. Lobban and John E. Sudler, Lieutenant 

Isaac R. Trimble Camp, U. C. V. 293 

Thomas R. Hill, Color Sergeant Richard T. Knox, Mr. Patrick 
J. McKenna and Mr. William A. Glascock. 

Major-General Isaac Ridgeway Trimble was the second oldest 
and the most distinguished Maryland officer in the Confederate 
States Army, conspicuously so under Generals Lee and Jackson. 
He lost a leg at Gettysburg while leading Pender's decimated 
division in support of Pickett's famous charge. He died in Bal- 
timore in 1888, at the age of eighty-six years. 

Major Cary, the new Camp Commander, had an exceptionally 
meritorious and gallant career in the Confederate army, serving 
upon the staffs of Generals R. E. Lee and J. E. Johnston. In 
1861 he was volunteer aid to General Johnston, was promoted 
to Captain and Assistant Quartermaster and finally to Major and 
Quartermaster on General Lee's Staff. 

In the late summer of 1861, going from Baltimore, as the escort 
and protector of his two brave and lovely sisters, the trio sur- 
prised the First Maryland Confederate Infantry, at Fairfax Sta- 
tion, Va., by a visit, the Misses Cary having with them three silk 
battle-flags, which thereupon were presented to Generals John- 
ston, Beauregard and Van Dorn, and the ladies were given a 
rousing reception by the regiment, under Colonel George H. 
Steuart. The little party had come through the Federal lines, 
despite the perils of detection and incarceration, and bullets, as 

Following the Battle of First Manassas (July 21, 1861), Gen- 
erals Beauregard and Johnston designed the new battle-flag, 
thereafter adopted and carried throughout the Confederate 
armies : Square, red field, with blue St. Andrew's cross, with 
thirteen white stars. Immediately, the Cary girls and helpers in 
Baltimore made the three flags, of finest silk, and themselves 
promptly carried them to the desired destination. At once their 
exploit made the Cary sisters famous in the South, where they 
remained during the war. One married a distinguished Con- 
federate General, who, a few weeks thereafter, was killed in 
battle. She, too, is deceased. The other sister survives, and 
resides in Baltimore City, with her brother, Major Cary. 

The Carys come of Virginia ancestry, remote and distinguished 
for the highest type of the culture and elegance characteristic of 
the South. 

294 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

Major Cary possesses fine scholarly and literary qualities. He 
is engaged in genealogical researches in America and Great Brit- 
ain, making occasional visits to Europe. He is a member of the 
University Club, where may be found the flower of Southern 
culture in Baltimore. Major Cary for many years was deputy 
clerk of the Criminal Court, Baltimore. 

Mr. John Brune Cary, a brother, was a faithful and gallant 
soldier in the First Maryland Confederate Cavalry. He is the 
secretary and treasurer of the Wilson Distilling Company, of 
Baltimore, Md. 

First Lieutenant Commander Peters, the only survivor of the 
First Maryland Infantry present at the meeting, spoke of the 
enthusiastic reception given the Misses Cary, from Baltimore, in 
the camp at Fairfax Station, Va. Colonel Peters nominated 
Major Cary for Camp Commander, himself declining the place. 

Colonel Peters (chairman), from the Committee on Investi- 
gation by the four U. C. V. Camps, in Baltimore, of histories in 
the public schools, and the elimination of those unfair, sectionally, 
especially to the South, reported that much interest has been 
aroused among the better educated and conservative elements in 
the city and State, looking to the end in view. And encourage- 
ment is felt over disclosures at the late hearing by Major Mahool, 
since Commissioner Hooper opposed any change in the books and 
would ignore the petitions from the Confederates, and President 
Semmes had expressed his satisfaction with the books now and 
for years past, in use. And Superintendent Van Sickle is not 
regarded as blameless. The petitions from the Confederate Vet- 
eran Camps to the School Board, since July, 1907, and thereafter, 
will be pressed at the earliest time practicable, with the promise 
of able advocates. It is felt that the community is as much alive 
in the matter of fair school histories as it is in the operation of 
the West Race Segregation Ordinance, and that the whole State 
is alike concerned, for truth on the one hand and for decency 
on the other, and will be satisfied with nothing short of either. 

Mr. Luther W. Hopkins, who was re-elected Adjutant, is the 
author of "From Bull Run to Appomattox. A Soldier's Story of 
the Civil War." Favorably noticed by the press and literateurs ; 
now going through its second edition. 

Monument to Confederates. 295 

P. S. — Upon consultation with Comrades — all present and par- 
ticipating — Colonel Peters has corrected the above noted flag inci- 
dent : The flag presented to the First Maryland at Fairfax Sta- 
tion, Va. — made in Baltimore and brought by the Misses Cary — 
was the regimental (State) flag, and thereafter was carried until 
the muster out of the regiment, August 17, 1862 — an ill advised, 
injust and unfortunate act, done at the War Office, Richmond. 
The three regulation battle-flags were presented to the three dis- 
tinguished Generals at Centreville, Va., while the First Maryland 
was encamped there and were cognizant of what occurred. 


To be Erected at Point Lookout, Md., by United States 
Government — Central Monument with Bronze Tablets. 

Graves Cannot be Identified— Special Enactments by Congress. 

A large masonry monument is to be erected at Point Lookout, 
Md., by the United States Government in memory of 3,384 Con- 
federate soldiers and sailors who died in Northern prisons dur- 
ing the War' between the States and are now buried in that 

A contract for the construction of the monument has been let 
by the War Department, but it could not be built without author- 
ity from Congress, as the Foraker Act, passed in 1906, providing 
for the marking of the graves of Confederates who died in North- 
ern prisons, directed the War Department to erect over every 
such grave a white marble headstone. 

This work has been in progress during the past four years, 
under the direction, first, of Colonel William Elliott > of South 
Carolina, the Commissioner for that purpose, appointed in March, 

296 Southern Historical Society Payers. 

1906, by President Roosevelt. Upon the death of Colonel Elliott, 
the President appointed as Commissioner in his stead, former 
Governor William C. Oates, of Alabama. 

Governor Oates died last October, and since that time former 
Senator James H. Berry, of Arkansas, has been in charge of the 
work. In executing the law, General Oates and General Berry 
have found in several places, among them Point Lookout, that 
the remains of Confederates had been removed from the places 
of original burial, and in the re-interment the identity of the 
remains had been lost, making it difficult to erect separate head- 

This was true of the 4,400 Confederates buried under a mound 
in Oakwood Cemetery, Chicago. An elaborate monument has 
been erected there by their surviving comrades, who have formed 
an association to look after the place of sepulture. This associa- 
tion protested against the plan of the government to place a large 
number of small white headstones in rows. 

A somewhat similar condition was presented to General Berry, 
at Point Lookout, Md., which is at the southern extremity of the 
peninsula separating the Potomac River from Chesapeake Bay. 
A large prison camp was maintained there during the war, and 
many Confederate soldiers and some sailors died there. A prison 
cemetery was established near the camp, where 3,384 were buried. 
After the close of the war, about the year 1874, a small tract of 
land was acquired by the State of Maryland, at some distance 
from original place of interment. There the remains of the Con- 
federate dead were re-interred collectively and a small monument 
was built to their memory. The work was done under the 
supervision of the late Captain George Thomas, C. S. A., of St. 
Mary's County, Md. 

The transfer of the remains was carried on under such condi- 
tions that General Berry believes it practically impossible to erect 
the small marble tablets with any assurance that they would indi- 
cate the final resting places of the Confederates in whose memory 
they were to be erected. 

In a letter received December 15th by Senator Warren, of 
Missouri, . from Secretary of War Dickinson, the statement is 
made that in view of the uncertainty of identification the proper 

Monument to Confederates. 297 

authorities of Maryland refuse to permit the establishment of 
the small marble markers, but are willing to permit the erection 
of a central monument containing tablets upon which the names 
of the individual Confederates can be inscribed. As in the case 
at Chicago, a contract has been let for the construction at Point 
Lookout of a central mass of masonry of suitable form, on which 
are to be placed bronze tablets containing the names of the dead. 
The monument is to be completed by September, 191 1, according 
to the plans. 

To grant legislative authority for this work, Senator Warren, 
on December 15th, reported to the Senate a joint resolution, 
which was passed, granting authority to erect the monument and 
extending the Foraker Act for two more years. Otherwise, its 
provisions would have expired February 26, 191 1. 

General Berry reports that 14,617 separate headstones have 
been placed over the graves of Confederate soldiers, under the 
Foraker Act, while the monuments, to 4400 more at Oakwood 
Cemetery, Chicago, and to 3.384 at Point Lookout, will bring the 
total to 22,401 by next September, leaving only a few hundred 
more graves to be marked. 

During the session of Congress, 1905-6, Senator J. B. Foraker, 
of Ohio, introduced a bill, which promptly became a law, appro- 
priating $200,000 for the cost to locate and mark the graves of 
Confederate prisoners of war who died in Northern prisons ; also 
a commissioner, to carry out the work, was created, to be ap- 
pointed by the President, which, as before stated, was done, and 
successively. Two years was given to perform the work, but the 
time has been extended twice by Congress. 

298 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

[From New Market, Va., Shenandoah Valley, August 25, 1910.] 


[The subjoined address was delivered by Hon. John Lamb, a 
gallant Confederate soldier and member of Congress from the 
Third Virginia Congressional District, of Richmond, Va., at 
the Twelfth Annual Reunion of the Nerr-Rice Camp, U. C. V., 
No. 1 194, near New Market, Va., on Friday, August 19, 1910.] 

Hon. Mr. Lamb expressed appreciation of the honor of speak- 
ing where so many distinguished speakers had spoken, and in a 
country which suffered the greatest horrors of war and devasta- 
tions of armies, in the burning of mills, barns, and other private 
properties, saying that many were present who saw that wanton 
destruction and lurid flames which had lighted up this valley 
and showed starvation to man, woman and child — a despicable 
act to aid in overpowering a noble people. He spoke of the 
heroism of men of the Valley, the fortitude of the women, and 
paid a tribute to Breckenridge and his men, who, in sight of 
these grounds, had achieved, against fearful odds, a great victory, 
and the fame of the cadet boys in this fight would continue in 
history, as long as there were people and nations. 

After referring to this beautiful and prosperous valley, which 
overcame the ravages of war, by its people unaided, and with 
some general remarks, he spoke substantially as follows : 

Memorial day has grown into an institution in our Southland. 
The old Confederate naturally becomes reminiscent when in the 
presence of his comrades he recalls the sacrifices and conflicts 
of forty years ago. The features and forms of those who stood 
shoulder to shoulder with him in the conflict, or fell by his side, 
come before his mind's eye as distinct as the scenes of yesterday. 

This is a day of sadness to him, not unmixed however with 
the proud recollection that he was an humble factor in one of 
the grandest struggles of self-government that has ever occurred 
on earth. 

Address of Hon. John Lamb. 299 

The writers and speakers of the South owe it to our dead 
leaders and the noble men who followed them to vindicate their 
action in the eyes of mankind, and prove to all the world that 
those who fought for the South were neither rebels nor traitors. 

For this reason, my comrades and the older people here will 
indulge me while I present some views not new to them, but in- 
tended for the rising generation — those, perhaps, who studied 
Barnes' and Fiske's histories. 

We do not meet on memorial occasions to discuss the abstract 
question of the right or wrong of the conflict that was waged 
with such fury forty years ago. The historian of the future 
may probably declare that upon the strict construction of the 
Constitution one side was right, and owing to the changed con- 
ditions of national thought, the other side was right. The Vir- 
ginia soldier did not discuss even the expediency of the question 
after the Old State made its choice. 

Our comrades who sleep beneath the sod died for the right, as 
they saw it. While memory holds its place you and your sons 
and daughters will pay the homage of grateful and loving hearts 
to their heroism, as annually you strew their graves with flowers 
and teach your children to lisp their names and revere their 

The necessity for the war was written in the history of the 
colonies, in the climate, soil and productions of the different 
States ; on the flag of the first ship that brought slaves to North 
America. The splendid eloquence and patriotism of Henry Clay 
and others delayed it — the madness of a few on both sides has- 
tened it. Two questions had to be settled : The right of seces- 
sion and chattel slavery. W T e will show that the right of seces- 
sion rested with the South, while slavery was an incident of the 
war, and would have ceased in time without so drastic a measure. 
The Southern States exercised a power that had been claimed 
from the adoption of the Constitution. The proceedings of the 
convention which framed the Constitution, as well as those of 
the States that ratified, together with the debates, go to show 
that at that time there was little difference of opinion as to this 
question. Had the framers of the Constitution declared their 
intention to create a supreme central government, to bind the 

300 Southern Historical Society Peepers. 

States beyond all power of withdrawal, it would never have 
been ratified. The States of New York and Virginia, possibly 
others, inserted in their resolutions of ratification a declaration 
that the powers vested by the Constitution in the United States 
of America might be resumed by them when they should deem 
it necessary to prevent injury or oppression. 

Early in the nineteenth century the doctrine of secession, 
characterized as treason and rebellion in 1861, was openly advo- 
cated in Massachusetts. The famous letter of Colonel Pickering, 
a member of Washington's Cabinet, written in July, 1804, shows 
that he believed that the doctrine of secession had the approval 
of New England, as well as New York and New Jersey. 

In 181 1 the admission of the .State of Louisiana was violently 
opposed in Congress. During the debate Air. Quincy, of Massa- 
chusetts, said: "If this bill passes it is my deliberate opinion that 
it is virtually a dissolution of the Union ; that it will free the 
States from their moral obligations, and, as it will be the right 
of all, so it will be the duty of some definitely to prepare for a 
separation, amicably if they can, violently if they must." 

He was called to order. The point of order was sustained by 
the Speaker of the House. From this decision an appeal was 
taken and the Speaker was overruled. 

Here was an open contention of the right of secession by a 
Massachusetts representative and a decision by the House that 
it was a lawful matter for discussion. 

The proceedings of the Hartford Convention of 1814 are 
familiar to these school children here. I need not recite their 
famous resolution. 

The New England States, in 1844, threatened a dissolution 
of the Union. In that year the Legislature of Massachusetts 
adopted this resolution : "The Commonwealth of Massachusetts, 
faithful to the compact between the people of the United States 
according to the plain meaning and intent in which it was under- 
stood by them, is sincerely anxious for its preservation ; but that 
it is determined, as it doubts not that the other States are, to 
submit to undelegated powers in no body of men on earth." It 
further declared that the project of the annexation of Texas, 
unless arrested on the threshold, may tend to drive these to a 
dissolution of the Union. 

Address of Hon. John Lamb. 301 

Prior to the Louisiana Purchase, the settlers on the Mississippi 
River who were harassed by the Spaniards, petitioned Congress, 
saying if Congress refuses us protection ; if it forsakes us, we 
will adopt the measures which our safety requires, even if they 
endanger the peace of the Union and our connection with the 
other States. No protection — no allegiance. 

You see, the right to secede was advocated by the North and 
West, and threats to avail themselves of this right were made 
by Northern legislatures, leading statesmen and petitions to 

Through fifty years of our history this discussion continued, 
and the eloquence of Webster and the logic of Calhoun were 
exhausted while no satisfactory conclusion was reached. 

Finally, when the Southern States, for grievances that are 
fresh in our memories, and far outweighed all the fancied evils 
that New England suffered, or all the trials the Mississippi Val- 
ley settlers bore, withdrew from the Union, and reasserted their 
sovereignty, they were coerced by Federal powers, and falsely 
represented, not only to the world, but to our own children, as 
traitors and rebels. 

The question of the justice of our cause having been so com- 
pletely established, why should our people admit, as we know 
they sometimes do, that it was best after all that we failed in 
the attempt to establish a separate government? Does the fact 
of failure prove that we were wrong and our enemies right in 
the contention? Was Providence on their side, and were we 
fighting against the fiat of the Almighty? If so, why? Were 
religion and character on the side of the North? 

If America had to suffer the penalty of violated law, were we 
of the South sinners above all others? In the conduct of the 
war, which side exhibited most of the Christian and least of the 
brutal character? To ask these questions is but to answer them. 

In the "Confederate Secession," a work by an Englishman, the 
author draws a deadly parallel between the methods and aims of 
the two people, and sums up the matter with these significant 
words : "All the good qualities were on one side and all the bad 
on the other." 

Let us discard the old superstition that heaven is revealed in 

302 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

the immediate results of "Trial by combat." We know that the 
Christian civilization of the first centuries went down in the dark- 
ness of mediaeval times ; we know that Paul was beheaded and 
Nero crowned and Christ crucified. Our defeat was but another 
instance of "Truth on the scaffold and wrong on the throne." 

The North succeeded because they mustered over 2,555,000 
men and had the world to draw supplies from; while the South 
failed because she only mustered 600,000 and was confined to her 
own territory for supplies. 

Northern writers and speakers have attempted to show that 
the South plunged this country into desperate war for the pur- 
pose of perpetuating slavery. Do the facts of history sustain 
this contention? The colonies protested time and again to the 
King of England against sending slaves to these shores. The 
House of Burgesses enacted laws on twenty-three different occa- 
sions against the importation of slaves. The King of England 
vetoed each act. 

In 1832 the Legislature of Virginia came within one vote of 
passing a law of emancipation. 

On page 88, vol. I, of Henderson's Life of Stonewall Jackson 
you will find an interesting letter written by General Robert E. 
Lee, showing what he thought of slavery before the war. Lee 
set free his slaves before the war began, while Grant retained 
his until freed by the proclamation. Not one man in thirty of 
the Stonewall Brigade owned a slave. A Northern writer says : 
"Slavery was the cause of the war just as property is the cause 
of robbery." 

If any man will read the debates between Lincoln and Douglas 
just prior to the war, or the Emancipation Proclamation, he will 
see that slavery was not the cause of action or its abolition its 
intent. Emancipation was a war measure not affecting the 
border States. 

Mr. Webster said at Capon Springs in 1851, "I do not hesitate 
to say and repeat, that if the Northern States refused to carry 
into effect that part of the Constitution which respects the resto- 
ration of fugitive slaves, the South would no longer be bound to 
keep the compact." 

Did you ever see a soldier who was fighting for slavery? A 

Address of Hon. John Lamb. 303 

celebrated English historian, in treating this subject, remarks: 
"Slavery was but the occasion of the rupture, in no sense the 
object of the war. Slavery would have been abolished in time 
had the South succeeded." 

The enlightened sentiment of mankind, the spirit of the age, 
was against chattel slavery. England and France had freed 
their bondmen. Russia emancipated her serfs about 1880. In 
1873 the Island of Porto Rico taxed itself $12,000,000 and freed 
30,000 slaves. Does any one suppose that the enlightened and 
Christian people of the Southern States would have set them- 
selves against the moral sentiment of mankind, and refused to 
heed the voice of civilization and progress? 

Under the leadership of Lee and Gordon, Vance and Currie 
and thousands of others, these Southern States would have 
carried out a destiny full of moral grandeur and glory. The 
problems that now challenge the patience, courage, and endur- 
ance of a mighty people would not have, in all probability/ arisen. 
At all events the one black, dark cloud that overshadows our 
domestic and political horizon would have been turned back 
through wiser and more humane legislation, or at least prevented 
from spending its force through false teaching, inspired by a 
band of the most selfish and ignorant fanatics that were ever 
permitted to prey upon a noble and defenceless people. 

On memorial occasions such as this the speaker, anxious always 
to leave some abiding thought in the minds and on the hearts of 
his hearers, turns to those who made our history a half of a 
century ago and by precept and example impressed themselves 
on their countrymen. What Cromwell was to the English Com- 
monwealth ; what Washington was to the Revolution, Lee was 
to our Southern cause. Let me give you a pen-portrait of our 
Chieftain from an English viewpoint. In a translation of Homer, 
dedicated to General R. E. Lee, the most stainless of living com- 
manders, and except in fortune, the greatest, Philip Stanley 
Worsley, of Oxford, wrote: 

''The grand old bard that never dies, 
Receive him in our English tongue ; 
I send thee, but with weeping eyes, 
The story that he sung. 

304 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

Thy Troy is fallen, thy dear land 
Is marred beneath the spoiler's heel, 

I cannot trnst my trembling hand 
To write the things I feel. 

Ah ; realm of tombs, but let her bear 

This blazon to the last of times ; 
No nation rose so white and fair, 

Or fell so free of crimes. 

The widow's moan, the orphan's wail 
Come round thee, yet in truth be strong ; 

Eternal right, tho' all else fail, 
Can never be made wrong. 

An angel's heart, an angel's mouth, 

Not Homer's, could alone for me 
Hymn well the great Confederate South, 

Virginia first, and Lee." 

The crowning virtue in General Lee's character was wonder- 
ful gentleness. His letters to his friends and family show this, 
as well as many of his general orders and his reports of engage- 
ments. The students looking for an example ; the young man 
or woman seeking to improve their characters, and bearing in 
mind that "Gentle minds by gentle deeds are known, and man 
by nothing is so well betrayed as by his manners," will find in 
the life of Lee an inspiration to noble living and high endeavor 
such as is nowhere else found in profane history. 

The poet had in his mind's eye just such a character when he 
sung : 

"His life was gentle, and the elements 
So mixed in him that nature 
Might stand up and say to all the world, 
This was a man." 

A man whose strength was the might of gentleness and self- 
command. We cannot have too many biographies of him. We 
cannot raise too many monuments to him. We cannot see his 
gentle face too often. Every time we look on his form in bronze 
or marble we exclaim with the poet : 

Address of Hon. John Lamb. 305 

"The bravest are the tenderest, 
The loving are the daring." 

The poet laureate voices the sentiments that fill our hearts as 
we review this strong, brave, tender loving character : 

"My good sword carves the casque of men, 
My short lance thrusteth sure, 
My strength is as the strength of ten 
Because my heart is pure." 

On occasicns like this our hearts turn to one who was impris- 
oned, manacled, and treated with many indignities, although no 
more responsible for the action of the Southern States than other 
public men. His persecutors were unable to bring him to trial. 
The text-book on the Constitution taught at West Point came in 
the way. For the Chief Magistrate of the young republic that 
arose so full of hope and noble purposes, and died so free of 
crime, the Commonwealth of Mississippi gave Jefferson Davis ; 
soldier, statesman, and vicarious sufferer for a people who will 
cherish his memory so long as valor has a votary or virtue a 


We pause to pay a tribute to the mighty host of brave officers, 
soldiers, and sailors who fell under the banner of the lost cause. 
We cannot call their names — all honor to them. They were 
spared from witnessing the flag furled. A large number of these 
did not return from the fated field of Gettysburg, as did some 
here with the burning thought that "someone had blundered." 
The tragic scenes at Appomattox could leave no regretful and 
sorrowful memories in their hearts and lives. 

"As the mist of the past is rolled away, 
Our heroes who died in their tattered gray 
Grow taller and greater in all their parts, 
Till they fill our minds as they fill our hearts, 
And for them who lament them there is this relief, 
That glory sits by the side of grief, 
And they grow taller as the years pass by 
And the world learns how they could do and die." 

306 Southern Historical Society Papers. 


We sing praises to the officers ; we erect monuments of bronze 
and marble to their memories ; we hang portraits on the walls of 
our camps that will remind our children's children of their un- 
dying fame and imperishable valour, but we do not emphasize 
on every occasion as we should, the self-sacrifice and noble devo- 
tion to duty of the private soldier and sailor, who made possible 
the fame and glory of their soldiers. 

The Confederate private soldier was far above the average of 
the armies of the world. No country ever had a larger per- 
centage of thinking and intelligent men in the ranks ; men more 
thoroughly imbued with moral principle. 

To their everlasting honor stands the fact that in their march 
through the enemy's country they left behind them no wasted 
fields, no families cruelly robbed, no homes violated. 

An English writer contemporaneously says : 

"In no case have the Pennsylvanians cause to complain of per- 
sonal injury, or even discourtesy at the hands of those whose 
homes they had burned ; whose families they had insulted, robbed 
and tormented. Even the tardy destruction of Chambersburg 
was an act of regular, limited and righteous reprisal." 

"I must say that they acted like gentlmen, and their cause 
aside, I would rather have 40,000 rebels quartered on my premises 
than 1,000 Union troops," was said by a Pennsylvania farmer 
during that invasion. 

None who participated in that struggle could have failed to 
observe the unselfish devotion of the private soldier. The gen- 
erals and line officers, charged with responsibility and -nerved 
with ambition,, had a stimulus and hope of reward that did not 
often stir the private soldier. His breast was fired and his arm 
nerved by devotion to duty. He was in many cases better born 
and more intelligent than his officers, yet he was obedient to 
orders and marched into the jaws of death with a heroism and 
courage that challenged the admiration of the world. He knew 
that in the story of the battle the officers' names would be men- 
tioned, and if among the slain, they would be borne to a well- 
marked tomb, over which loving hands and grateful hearts would 

Address of Hon. John Lamb. 307 

spread flowers and shed tears ; while over his unmarked grave 
most likely the winds would sing a sad requiem and no loving 
hand would plant a single flower. 


No story of our war ; no record of the gallant defenders of our 
stainless banner; no recital of the deeds of daring and the un- 
selfish sacrifies of these men w r ould be complete without mention 
of the heroic spirit and undying devotion of the noble women of 
the South. The old stories of the Roman matrons and self-sacri- 
fices of the Spartan women, were reproduced in every State, and 
nearly every home of this Southland. 

It would be easy to furnish from memory of the stirring events 
during the War between the States, incidents that would show 
the most exalted patriotism and highest conception of duty on 
the part of the noble women of the South that the history of any 
people in any age can furnish. 

We are proud of the fact that their mantle has fallen upon the 
shoulders of the Daughters of the Confederacy, whose hearts 
burn to-day with a love and devotion as pure and sacred as that 
of their mothers when they sent forth their sons to battle with 
the Roman matron's injunction; or gave their parting kiss to 
loved ones, whom they cheerfully resigned to their country's call. 

The unselfish devotion of the noble women of the South upheld 
and prolonged the unequal struggle, while their patience and 
sacrifices at home, rearing their children, and praying for the 
absent husband and father, often with no protector save the 
faithful slaves who stood guard at their doors, furnishes the 
most striking example of love and devotion that this world has 
ever seen. When under the Providence of God our vexed prob- 
lems are settled, and the South comes again to her own, as under 
the unvarying law of compensation she surely will, another monu- 
ment will rise in our Southland, erected by the Sons and Daugh- 
ters of the Confederacy, and dedicated to the noble women of the 


A land without ruins is a land without memories. A land 
without memories is a land without history. "Crowns of roses 

308 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

fade. Crowns of thorns endure. Calvaries and Crucifixions 
take deepest hold of humanity. The triumphs of might are tran- 
sient ; they pass and are forgotten. The sufferings of right are 
deepest on the Chronicles of Nations." 

The shadows of the evening are lengthening on our pathway. 
The twilight approaches ; for the most part you have lived brave 
lives. May you die worthy patriots, dear to God and famous to 
all the ages ! 

Our battlefields are around us ; the graves of our dead com- 
rades remind us of the sacrifices the Southern soldiers made for 
their convictions. The evening song of our declining years may 
find passionate longing in the plaintive strain of our Southern 
bard : 

"Yes, give me the land where the ruins are spread, 
And the living tread light on the hearts of the dead ; 
Yes, give me the land that is blest by the dust 
And bright with the deeds of the downtrodden just; 
Yes, give me the land where the battle's red blast 
Has flashed to the future the fame of the past ; 
Yes, give me the land that has legends and lays 
That tell of the memory of long vanished days ; 
Yes, give me the land that has story and song 
Enshrining the strife of the right with the wrong ; 
Yes, give me the land with a grave in each spot 
And names in those graves that shall ne'er be forgot ; 
Yes, give me the land of the wreck and the tomb, 
There is a grandeur in graves ; there is glory in the gloom ; 
For out of the gloom future brightness is born 
As after night comes the sunshine of morn, 
And the graves of the dead with the grass overgrown 
May yet form the footstool of Liberty's throne, 
And each single wreck in the warpath of might 
Shall yet be a rock in the Temple of Right." 

A Confederate Woman's Kind Act. 309 


Letter From a Soldier Boy to His Mother— Sympathetic 

Richmond Woman Shows Herself True Samaritan — 

Her Exquisite Sympathy and Hospitality 

to Two Confederates. 

Contributed by Dr. R G. CROUCH. 

The noble woman referred to in the following letter was Mrs. 
Robert C. Stanard, then residing at the southeast corner of 
Grace and Sixth Streets, now the Westmoreland Club, of Rich- 
mond, Va. 

The mother to whom the following affectionate letter was 
written, inclosed it to a gentleman of Richmond, Ya., request- 
ing him to ascertain, if he could, to whom she was indebted for 
the kindness of which her son so gratefully spoke. With her per- 
mission we lay it before our readers, not only because it con- 
tains a handsome and well merited compliment to one of Vir- 
ginia's most accomplished matrons, but also daguerrotypes an 
incident which, alike in its occurrence and results, reflects 
infinite honor upon human nature : 

Monterey, Va., August 10, 1861. 
My Beloved Mother: 

Among other promises which I made you when, upon the 
eve of our departure from home, you gave me your parting kiss 
and blessing, I well remember that I told you I would, when 
our regiment reached its destination, sit down and sketch you 
a history of whatever incidents of interest might transpire upon 
our journey. 

Between home and Richmond, however, nothing occurred to 
break the general monotony of dullness which generally reigns 
along railroad routes ; but when we were about leaving Rich- 
mond, an incident did occur which must forever, stili lingering, 
haunt the greenest spot on my memory's waste. 

310 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

For several days previous to the receipt of marching orders by 
our regiment, I had been quite indisposed, and some of the boys 
in our mess attempted, even on the very morning we struck 
our tents, to dissuade me from accompanying them ; but I rallied 
my feeble energies, and resolved to face the music ; but before I 
had marched a half-mile towards the depot, I found I would be 
bound to fall in the ranks if I attempted to stay there ; so I 
got leave to withdraw, and proceeded to the depot in a vehicle. 
Charley was allowed to attend me, and as we were proceeding 
slowly along the street in search of a conveyance, we passed by 
the gate of one of the most splendid residences I ever saw in 
my life, at the door of which a lady about your age, dear mother, 
was standing. She was dressed in mourning, and as soon as 
I caught the glance of her dark, lustrous and intelligent eye, 
I read in an instant the history of a great and noble heart in 
her beautiful face. Yes, mother, she is very beautiful, illustrating 
the truth recorded by the poet when he said, "The autumn of 
the beautiful is beautiful." 

Bending upon me a look of motherly and generous sympathy, 
she exclaimed to Charley, on whose arm I was leaning, in accents 
soft and sweet as the tones of an angel's harp, "Why, young 
man, is not your friend sick? Surely, he is very sick; come 
bring him into my house and let me do something for him. or 
send for a doctor." If an angel had come sailing down out of 
the skies and lit before us, and offered to fan my fevered brow 
with its golden wings, it could not have struck Charley and me 
more literally all up in a heap than this beautiful woman did. 

We, however, after making a stagger or two at something 
polite to say, finally shook off our embarrassment, and thank- 
ing her, told her we were compelled to hurry forward. But do 
you think she was to be turned aside after any such fash"on \s 
that? Not a bit of it. "Hurry forward, indeed!" said she. 
"You are not able to go at all." And with graceful and hospita-, 
ble wave of her hand, and a smile that I have seer, my dear 
mother, a thousand and one times since, and mingled its light 
with the light of those fond memories brought from home to 
span with I he rainbows of hope the dark clouds that lower over 
a soldier's lent, she bade us "come in," and so como 1 etelv were 

A Confederates Woman' 's Kind Act. 311 

we mesmerized, that we obeyed her as promptly as if it had been 
the Colonel giving an order, or St. Peter inviting ns into heaven. 

Well, we were soon seated in her spacious dining-room, glori- 
ously refreshed with some of the most delicious wine I ever 
smacked a lip over. Oh, mother, I can taste it yet ! She then 
made us sit up to her breakfast table, and I found myself sud- 
denly decidedly convalescent. Our appetites were soon with ns, 
and it was precious little like a sick man — I came down to my 
work then and there. 

To tell you the truth, mother, I was at a loss to decide with 
which I was most infatuated, the beautiful hostess, her delicious 
wine, or her superb breakfast. It would be a reflection upon all 
the good taste and sense among the educated gentlemen of Vir- 
ginia, to suppose that any such woman can be single. That is 
clear out of the question, or, if it is not, it amounts to an awful 
commentary upon the real claims of Virginia gentlemen for 
worthiness. But let her be married or single, I want you, 
mother, to pray that over her path, through this vale of tears, 
happy stars may shine, and in it the fairest flowers may bloom, 
for she has been more than a "Good Samaritan" to your poor sick 

When we rose to leave she pressed Charley and me to remain 
a few days, until I should recover my health, and when we assured 
her that could not be, she loaded us down with wine and nick- 
nacs, which were as great godsend to us on our weary march, 
as the manna which was rained on the children of Israel in the 
wilderness was to them. And now, mother, after all, I blush to 
tell you I do not know her name. 

Her house is covered with Quaker-colored stucco, and stands 
on the corner of Grace and Sixth or Seventh Streets, and you 
must not be surprised, my dear mother, if I tell you that, in those 
dreams heaven sends to bless the soldier's pallet of straw, in 
which he flies 

"To those fields traversed oft 
In life's morning march when his bosom was young," 

that on my way through dreamland, back to "The home of my 
Fathers," I also revert to that palatial residence where I met such 

312 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

a gentle kindness, for never, no, never, while I breathe heaven's 
vital air, will I forget the incidents of that morning. With the 
diamond-pointed pen of gratitude they have been recorded upon 
the tablets of my memory, and there they will glow and glisten 
until with me "the silver cord is loosened and the golden bowl 

is broken." 

Your affectionate son, 



Longstreet's Courier — Memorable Words of Confederate 

Leaders — A Time when they were Sorely Tried — What 

Might Have Been — The Part Played by Hood. 


For many years I have thought of writing out for the public 
what I know of the battle of Gettysburg; but the political sur- 
roundings of myself and of him conspicuously interested have 
deterred me.. To every one to whom I have ever told this incident 
of my soldier's life he has said that I ought to reduce it to writing 
and give it to the world or to the people of this country — that it 
might go into the archives. I have determined to tell the story 
in this way, every word of which is the truth, absolute and pure. 

In June, 1863, Lee's army commenced the movement to Penn- 
sylvania: I was then a private soldier in the Fifteenth Alabama 
Regiment, commanded by Colonel William C. Oates ; our divi- 
sion crossed the Blue Ridge Mountains at Ashby's Gap, and soon 
came to the Shenandoah River, where our Commander, General 
Hood, was sitting on his horse directing the crossing. I ap- 
proached General Hood and asked for permission to take off 
my clothes before wading the river, but was told to go in — "No 

Unwritten History of the Gettysburg Campaign. , 813 

time could be allowed for dressing and undressing" — so in I 
went with the balance ; and although it was a hot June day, the 
water was biting cold, so cold that I crawled upon a projecting 
rock in the middle of the stream until I was forced to leave it. 
We moved down the river, where we camped for several days. 
At Millwood, in the Valley of Virginia, 1 went to General Long- 
street and appealed to him to detail me to his headquarters as 
courier upon his staff. He sent the order to General Lee for 
approval, making it special, giving me ten days' leave of absence 
to obtain better clothes and to mount myself. Within the ten 
days I joined Longstreet six miles to the north of Hagerstown, 
Md., on the pike to Chambersburg, Pa., which place we. reached 
within a day. 

At Chambersburg we halted to await the movement of General 
A. P. Hill, who was near Gettysburg. In a few days we moved 
on toward Gettysburg, General Longstreet and his staff in ad- 
vance of the troop. It was less than a day's ride for the General 
and his staff. We arrived at or near where the line of battle was 
being pitched about four in the afternoon. General Longstreet 
looked over the field and surroundings that evening, which was 
the first day of July, went back behind Cashtown and pitched 
tents for the night. The troops had approached to about three 
or four miles of Gettysburg, arriving about night, and had gone 
into camp. I had not had time to unsaddle and feed my horse 
before Colonel Sorrell called me to his office (a fly tent) and told 
me I must go back to Chambersburg for General Pickett ; that 
I would find him on the east side of the town awaiting orders. I 
asked for time to feed myself and horse, and was given thirty 
minutes. This started me on my night's ride to Chambersburg, 
through an enemy's country, on a dark night. I found the ride 
as lonesome and dull as if no man was near or had a few hours 
before passed over it. As I passed the smouldering ruins of 
Thad Steven's iron works I could smell the unsavory smoke, 
and it seemed as if I was passing the burial ground of some 
ruined hospital with the dead and dying all around. I found 
General Pickett, as I expected. As I approached a sentinel 
called out, "Halt! Who goes there?" I answered, "A courier 
hunting: General Pickett." 

314 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

A man lying upon the ground at the foot of a tree arose into 
a sitting position and said, "Here is General Pickett; from whom 
do you come?" I replied, "Longstreet." One of his staff 
struck a match, and the General read the dispatches which I had 
brought, and said to the staff officer, "We must move at once 
into line and lead the movement." There was not ten minutes' 
time consumed in this movement. Pickett and staff were 
mounted and we all rode off together, the men following silently 
in a steady tramp behind. I had been in the saddle from early 
morning till then, except the thirty minutes referred to. It was 
about i o'clock A. M. at night. It was about 4 o'clock when I 
turned my old jaded horse into clover field, dropped his rein 
upon the ground, lay down in a fence corner, and a few minutes 
was sound asleep. I waked up about 6 o'clock by the tramp of 
the soldiers going by. I hurried into a long trot until I had 
overtaken General Pickett, told him of the road in front of him, 
and as he was instructed to halt near Cashtown I forced my horse 
and found General Longstreet in a wheat field about 8 A. M. 
awaiting the coming of the troops, some of whom were passing 
into position on the battle line. I begged a morsel of food from 
one of the couriers ; my horse ate the heads of wheat. 

In the afternoon about 2 o'clock General Barksdale's brigade 
of Mississippians having taken position, General Wofford, of 
Georgia, with his brigade of Georgians, filing in on Barksdale's 
right, and a South Carolina Brigade passing very near to General 
Lee, Longstreet and Hood getting into position upon Wofford's 
right, while the Alabama (Law's) Brigade was being put into 
position on facing Round Top, and upon the South Carolinians' 
right ; this was our extreme right. I was sitting on my horse 
within hearing of Generals Lee, Longstreet and Hood. There 
were some others (I don't remember who) nearby. General Lee 
was standing upon the ground ; an orderly was holding his gray 
nearby; all others were in their saddles. General Hood said to 
General Lee : "My scouts report to me that there is a wagon 
road around Round Top, at its foot, which has been used by 
farmers in getting out timber, over which I can move troops. I 
believe I can take one of my brigades, go around this mountain 
and simultaneouslv attack from the flank or rear, with the men in 

Unwritten History of the Gettysburg Campaign. 315 

front, and capture Round Top." General Lee asked General 
Longstreet's opinion, Long-street said "I have great faith in 
General Hood's opinions and his ability to do whatever he plans 
to do." This was all the reply Longstreet made. General Lee 
stood with head bowed, looking upon the ground in deep 
thought, for, it seemed, a long time. When he raised his face to 
look at Generals Longstreet and Hood he said : "Gentlemen, 1 
cannot risk the loss of a brigade ; our men are in fine spirits, 
and with great confidence will go into this battle. I believe we 
can win upon a direct attack." Extending his hand to General 
Longstreet, he said : "Good-by, General, and may God bless 
you"; turned and, shaking General Hood's hand in farewell, 
said, "God bless you, General Hood ; drive them away from 
yon, take Round Top and the day is ours," and with tears in 
his eyes he turned, mounted the iron gray and rode away. 

Hood went to his command. Longstreet dismounted and 
held his reins over his arms, dispatched his staff officers and 
couriers along the line of battle to note and watch the move- 
ments and report to him, selecting me to remain with him. The 
South Carolinia men had passed and the line was formed, and 
thirty minutes after General Lee left us the cannonading gave 
the signal for attack. General Longstreet quickly threw him- 
self into the saddle. I followed suit, and side by side we spurred 
to the front, and the men were upon the charge. 

Just as we rode from the timber into the open, which brought 
us face to face with the Lnion army, I noticed that we were 
riding in front of Wofford's men. I called General Longstreet's 
attention to this, and suggested the danger of being shot down 
by our own troops. He checked his horse and held him until 
Wofford's men had gotten in front of us. The Union army 
was found between our people and the peach orchard upon a 
road along which they had piled rails and whatever else they 
could get that would aid in making a breastworks, and were 
lying behind these rails awaiting our attack. The peach orchard 
was on Wofford's left and Barksdale's right. General Long- 
street from the minute he came into the open where could see 
Round Top, had his field glasses constantly upon that end of 
his line, deeply interested in Hood's efforts. Upon approach- 

316 Sow her a Historical Society Papers. 

ing the peach orchard the Union forces had fallen back beyond 
the orchard ; our people were driving them, but General Barks- 
dale's Brigade had halted behind the small breastworks which 
the enemy had abandoned, while Wofford's men had gone on. 
I called General Longstreet's attention to this, and said, "Do 
you want General Barksdale to halt?" He turned his head and 
said, "No; go tell him to retake his position in the line." I 
turned my horse and dashed to Barksdale's, jumping a fence 
to do so, when I fell, pulling myself back into the saddle by 
my horse's neck. I found General Barksdale on his horse 
standing behind a brick milkhouse, and giving him the order 
from General Longstreet he put spurs to his horse, dashed a 
little ways along his line, giving the order to charge at double- 
quick, when I distinctly heard a shot strike him and saw him 
fall from his horse. I went back to General Longstreet, who 
was guiding his horse into the peach orchard, told him of 
Barksdale's fall ; when he said, "Go on beyond this orchard 
and tell General Alexander to advance his artillery, and to keep 
in touch with Wofford's left. I hunted my way to this battery. 
The smoke, noise of shells, thunder of cannon, the hissing of 
balls was so thick and so great that one of the artillerymen 
led my horse to General Alexander, whom I found a few feet in 
front of his own guns, his glasses to his eyes, standing the 
bravest of the brave. I gave him the order; he pointed and 
said, "Tell General Longstreet that as soon as I drive back this 
column of advancing enemy I will advance." This column was 
coming into the vacuum caused by Barksdale's halt. 

Simultaneously Wofford's men had seen that they were not 
protected or supported on the left, and had begun to retreat, 
which Longstreet's and Wofford's personal appearance on the 
field prevented from becoming a panic. I aided in rallying 
Wofford's men get the line reestablished and rested for the 
night. Darkness was coming upon us ; a little daylight only 
was left. Just at this moment Major Walton, of Yicksburg, a 
member of Longstreet's staff, came up to me, face powder- 
stained from biting off the cartridges, told me that his horse 
was killed, and being afoot on the battlefield, he got a gun 
from a fallen Confederate and went into the fight. He asked me 
for my horse, telling me to go seek the headquarters and wait 

Unwritten History of the Gettysburg Campaign. 317 

there for him. I gave him my horse, and as he rode away, 
leaving me there on the battlefield, I looked around for a mo- 
ment, when a Georgia soldier directed my attention to a horse 
grazing between the two lines of battle, with saddle and bridle. 
I told him how dangerous it was to get that horse. He laughed 
and said, "It is easy." So I went upon hands and knees, keep- 
ing the horse between me and my friends, the enemy. The 
horse was too tired and hungry to escape. I mounted him, 
and, lying along his body and neck, I put both spurs into his 
flank and quickly had him out of range. I heard the whistle 
of several balls in making this run. He proved to be a good 
draft horse, but a poor saddle horse. 

Thus with me ended the great battle day, the 2d of July. Both 
sides lay on their guns. General Pickett was in reserve, about 
four miles from the battlefield. To me, whatever was done until 
Pickett's charge was without note. The next day General 
Longstreet (Lee having consented to General Pickett that he 
might make the charge) took his position in full view of both 
lines, and upon the booming of 100 guns, which our side had 
placed to open upon the enemy's line. General Pickett was seen 
coming back in a gallop, his long black hair waving in the 
wind, and he was yelling, "Where is General Longstreet?" I 
was dispatched to intercept him, and as he approached General 
Longstreet in terrible agony, he cried out: "General, I am ruined; 
my division is gone — it is destroyed." General Longstreet con- 
soled him by the assurance that it would not be so bad as he 
thought; that in a few hours he would get together quite a 
number of his men. What occurred after that I know not. 

That night about midnight I was called to Colonel Sorrell's 
tent (we had headquarters near the "Black Tavern") and he told 
me that I was to hunt up some officers along the line and give 
them sealed orders. It was then drizzling and the night was 
dark. I had but little trouble in finding the people I was sent 
to, except as to. Colonel Walton, Chief of Artillery, Longstreet's 

On my return to the Black Horse Tavern, I found General 
Longstreet's wagon, and he and staff in the road, waiting on 
somebody or for some signal. We moved on in the rain for an 
hour or more. I did not know, but we had a presentment that 

318 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

our move was a retreat. It was a hard, very hard march. The 
roads were muddy, wagon ruts deep, the night awful. We 
had, besides our own people, about 7,000 prisoners to take 
care of. After a hard march of a day and night we approached 
falling water on the Potomac, where the pontoons had been 
laid to cross into Virginia. The rain had swollen the Potomac, 
and all had to cross on the pontoons. I had been out doing 
courier work all day and night, and arrived at the pontoon a 
little before daylight, .where General Longstreet was on the 
ground directing the men, wagons, artillery, etc., across. I 
pushed off to one side, out of the way and out of sight, squatted 
at the root of a tree, tied my bridle reins to my arm, and did 
not wake until after daylight, when to my horror, I found my- 
self within a few feet of the river, and my horse so close that 
one step more would have put him over the bank. I made my 
way to the bridge. General Longstreet told me to go on across. 
I went over and up the bluff into the main road. Looking to 
my left I saw General Lee on his horse, accompanied by some of 
his staff, watching the pontoon and the men coming across. 
While there a man whom I did not know rode up and said : 
''General, there is a rumor throughout the army that General 
Longstreet failed in his duty is the cause of our disaster at 
Gettysburg." General Lee, with firmness and fire, replied: "It 
is unjust. Longstreet did his duty. Our failure is to be charged 
to me. My shoulders are broad and can bear it." 

Thus ends what I know of the battle of Gettysburg. Who 
knows what might have happened if General Hood had been 
permitted to make the flank movement he advised? Who 
knows what might have happened if General Barksdale had not 
lost his position in the line of battle, when we had the Union 
army going to the rear? 

No State ever furnished braver nor better soldiers than that 
grand old State of Mississippi. No troops were ever com- 
manded by a braver man than General Barksdale. Wofford's, 
Kershaw's and Law's Brigades were beyond reproach, as game 
and true as ever carried a sword or gun. This was Hood's 
Division. "That could, with Hood to lead, cut their way 
through any line that could be formed against them" — 
boasted General Hood. 

Baltimore in 1861. 319 


Recollections of Stirring Events in the Monumental City — 
An Exciting Sabbath Day. 

Rumors of Ihe Advance of Federal Troops— An Interview With Presi- 
dent Lincoln, Who Expresses Pacific Intentions. 

On the afternoon of Friday, April 19, 1861, at 4 o'clock, there 
was a great mass-meeting in Monument Square. Speeches were 
made by Dr. A. C. Robinson, Mayor Brown, William P. Preston, 
S. Teakle Wallis, Jon E. Wethered, Robert L. McLane and 
Governor Hicks. The people were counselled to rely upon the 
authorities, which would protect them. The invasion of the 
city and the slaughter of citizens were denounced. Mr. Wallis 
said it was not necessary to speak. "If the blood of citizens on 
the stones in the streets does not speak," he said, "it is useless 
for man to speak." His heart, he said, was with the South, 
and he was ready to defend Baltimore. The Governor made 
his famous declaration that he would suffer his right arm to 
be torn from his body before he would raise it to strike a sister 
State. That night ex-Governor Louis E. Lowe made a speech 
to a great gathering in front of Barnum's Hotel. The streets 
were thronged with people discussing the events of the day, 
and many citizens walked the streets with muskets or guns in 
their hands. 


The condition of Baltimore on Saturday, the 20th of April, 
the day succeeding the riot, reminded the old inhabitants of 
similar incidents on the nth and 12th of September, 1814, 
many of whom had witnessed those events. 

* * * The militia were called out and 15.000 citizens were 
enrolled and put under the command of Colonel Isaac R. Trim- 
ble. All day long companies of the State militia were arriving 
from the counties. The first to come was a company of rifle- 
men from Frederick, under command of Captain Bradley T. 
Johnson. Between 300 and 400 colored men offered their ser- 

320 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

vices to the Mayor. Early in the morning the City Council 
met in special session and appropriated $500,000 to be used 
under the direction of the Mayor in putting the city in a state 
of defence. The banks held a meeting, and a committee con- 
sisting of Johns Hopkins, John Clark, and Columbus O'Donnell, 
all of them Union men, waited on the Mayor and placed the 
whole sum in advance at his disposal. Considerable money was 
contributed by individuals, both Southern and Union men, for 
the same purpose. Later in the day a dispatch was received 
from the committee which had been sent to Washington giving 
assurance that troops would be sent around and not through 
the city. This dispatch gave much comfort ; nevertheless the 
preparations for the defence of the city continued. Another 
committee, consisting of Senator Anthony Kennedy and J. 
Morrison Harris, was sent to Washington. They telegraphed 
back that they had seen the President, members of the Cabinet, 
and General Scott, and that orders would be sent to stop the 
passage of men through the city. * * * 


The climax in the excitement of this memorable period in 
the history of Baltimore was reached on Sunday, April 21st. 
The town was like a powder magazine, and only needed a spark 
to produce an explosion. The spark came in the form of news 
that more troops were approaching the city from the North. 
In the afternoon a dispatch, came from Mayor Brown, at Wash- 
ington, saying that the President would order the return of the 
troops to Harrisburg. The genuineness of this dispatch was 
doubted, and no attention was paid to it. 

But it was true. At 3 o'clock Sunday morning the Mayor 
received a dispatch from President Lincoln, asking him to 
go to Washington by special train, in order to consult with Mr. 
Lincoln for the preservation of the peace of Maryland. The 
President also desired the Governor, but he was not in the 
city, and so the Mayor went, George W. Dobbin, John C. 
Brune, and S. T. Wallis accompanying him at his request. The 
special train left Baltimore at 7 130 and arrived in Washington 
at 10. At the intervielw with the President the Cabinet and 

Baltirrurein 1861. 321 

General Scott were present. The President admitted the excited 
state of feeling in Baltimore and his desire to avoid a collision, 
but urged the necessity of a transit through the State for troops 
to defend Washington. On the cars returning from Washing- 
ton Mr. Wallis, at the Mayor's request, wrote an account of the 
interview, which was afterward published under the Mayor's 
signature. "The protection of Washington, the President as- 
serted with great earnestness, was the sole object of concentrat- 
ing troops there, and he protested that none of the troops 
brought through Maryland were intended for any purposes 
hostile to the State or aggressive as against the Southern States. 
Being now unable to bring them up the Potomac in security, 
the President must either bring them through Maryland or 
abandon the capital." 

There was a full discussion of routes by which troops could be 
carried around Baltimore, and the party left with the distinct 
assurance upon the part of the President that no more troops 
would be sent through Baltimore unless they should be ob- 
structed in their transit around the city. In the interview with 
the President reference was made by Mr. Simon Cameron to 
the injury of a Northern Central bridge. In reply, Judge 
Brown says, "I addressed myself to the President and said with 
much earnestness that the disabling of this brige and of the 
other bridges had been by authority, and that it was a measure 
of protection on a sudden emergency, designed to prevent blood- 
shed in Baltimore and not an act of hostility toward the General 
Government ; that the people of Maryland had always been 
deeply attached to the Union, which had been shown on all 
occasions, but that they, including the citizens of Baltimore, 
regarded the proclamation calling for 75,000 troops as an act 
of war on the South and a violation of its constitutional rights, 
and that it was not surprising that a high-spirited people, hold- 
ing such opinions, should resent the passage of northern troops 
through their city for such a purpose. 


"Mr. Lincoln was greatly excited, and, springing up from his 
chair, walked backward and forward through the apartment. 

322 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

He said with great feeling, 'Mr. Brown, I am not a learned 
man ! I am not a learned man !' that his proclamation had not 
been correctly understood ; that he had no intention of bring- 
ing on war, but that his purpose was to defend the capital, 
which was in danger of being bombarded from the heights 
across the Potomac." 

On returning to the railroad station to leave for Baltimore, 
the Mayor received a dispatch from Mr. John W. Garrett, presi- 
dent of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company, as follows : 
"Three thousand northern troops are reported to be at Cockeys- 
ville. Intense excitement prevails. Churches have been dis- 
missed and the people are arming in mass. To prevent terrific 
bloodshed the result of your interview and arrangement is 
awaited." The Mayor in reply sent a dispatch to Mr. Garrett, 
saying: "Be calm and do nothing until you hear from me 
again." Having dispatched this, Messrs. Brown, Brune, Wallis 
and Dobbin returned in haste to the President and exhibited to 
him Mr. Garrett's dispatch, which gave the President great sur- 
prise. The President summoned the Secretary of War and 
General Scott and urged the recall of the troops, saying he had 
no idea they would be there. Lest there should be the slightest 
suspicion of bad faith on his part in summoning the Mayor to 
Washington and allowing the troops to march on the city during 
his absence, he desired that the troops should, if it were practi- 
cable, be sent back at once to York or Harrisonburg. General 
Scott adopted the President's view, and an order was prepared 
by the Lieutenant-General to that effect and forwarded to Major 
Belger, who accompanied the Mayor and his colleagues back to 
Baltimore. The troops were ordered back to Harrisburg, thence 
to Philadelphia. From that city they were to go to Perryville, 
and thence as Major-General Patterson should direct. 


The troops at Cockeysville, numbering 2,400, about half of 
them unarmed, did not receive their orders to return to Penn- 
sylvania for several days. During the interval they were in sad 
plight, without food and proper, camp equipment. There was 
some sickness, due to want of food, and Marshal Kane sent 

Baltimore in 1861. 323 

wagon-loads of bread and meat to them. After the alarm about 
the invasion had been quieted by the Mayor many citizens of 
Baltimore went to Cockeysville to visit the camp. * * * 
On May 5th General B. F. Butler occupied, with two regi- 
ments, the Relay House, and on the 13th he entered Baltimore, 
which was then as quiet as it is to-day. He occupied and forti- 
fied Federal Hill, and issued a proclamation treating the city 
as conquered territory. For this achievement, which was en- 
tirely unopposed, he was made a Major-General of Volunteers. 


From this time began a series of outrages upon the citizens 
of Baltimore of unparalleled ferocity and injustice, which con- 
tinued until the war was over. Even then political persecution 
did not cease until the Constitutional Convention was called by 
the Legislature, in January, 1867. 

After the subsidence of the acute excitement of April 19th, 
and the following days, a reaction set in and the people divided 
in sentiment, some being for the Union, some for the South. 
As soon as the belief that the State could, or would, secede 
was abandoned, thousands of the best young men of the State 
escaped across the Potomac and joined the Confederate army. 
The number of them has been estimated as high as 20,000, and 
a great many joined the Northern army. 

It was not merely the attack on the Massachusetts Regiment 
which made the North and the Federal Governm/ent hostile to 
the city. Before that event the people of the city had been 
maligned in the Northern press. A conspicuous instance of 
this was the story that the assassination of the President-elect 
as he passed through Baltimore was contemplated. There never 
was the slighest foundation for any such report, and yet Mr. 
Lincoln in going to Washington for his inauguration would go 
from Philadelphia to Harrisburg and thence to Baltimore by 
the Northern Central. The day fixed for his arrival in this 
city was Saturday, February 23d, at 11 -.30 A. M. 

Lincoln's trip to Washington. 

Mayor Brown was at Calvert station, accompanied by the 

324 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

Police Commissioners and a strong force of policemen, at the 
appointed honr to meet Mr. Lincoln. The Mayor had a car- 
riage in waiting, in which, as he said, he was to have the honor 
of escorting Mr. Lincoln through the city to the Washington 
station and of sharing in any danger which he might encounter. 
"It is hardly necessary to say I apprehended none," Judge 
Brown continues in his narrative. "When the train came it 
appeared, to my great astonishment, that Mrs. Lincoln and her 
three sons had arrived safely, and without hindrance or molesta- 
tion of any kind, but that Mr. Lincoln could not be found. It 
was then announced that he had passed through the city 
incognito in the night train by the Philadelphia, Wilmington and 
Baltimore Railroad, and had reached Washington in safety at 
the usual hour in the morning. For this signal deliverance 
from an imaginary peril those who devised the ingenious plan 
of escape were, of course, devoutly thankful, and they accord- 
ingly took to themselves no little amount of credit for its suc- 
cess." Of this episode Colonel Lamon, the friend and bio- 
grapher of Lincoln, said : "Mr. Lincoln soon learned to regret 
his midnight ride. His friends reproached him, his enemies 
taunted him. He was convinced that he made a grave mistake 
in yielding to the solicitations of a professional spy and of 
friends too easily alarmed." 

Fourth Virginia Cavalry. 325 


Concerning Col. WILLIAM B. WOOLRIDGE and his Record. 

To the Editor of the Dispatch: 

Much of the interest has been given in regard to this dis- 
tinguished regiment in several recent issues of the Dispatch, 
but it is to be hoped that one of your correspondents, Mr. 
Hotzlaw, was more accurate in regard to the other officers than 
he was as to Colonel William B. Wooldridge. 

In stating that Colonel Wooldridge never returned to the 
regiment after he was wounded, he is entirely in error, and 
though I am sure unintentionally, is apt to create a false im- 
pression among those who do not know his record. 

I was intimately associated with Colonel Wooldridge for many 
years, and though he always spoke of his own military career 
in the most modest and simple way, there have been none of 
his superior officers or comrades, from General Fitzhugh Lee 
down to privates, who do not give the fullest testimony to his 
great skill, coolness and gallantry. 

From Colonel W'oolridge's widow and other relatives I have 
also discovered that he did return to the regiment as soon as 
possible after his wound was healed. But this evidence is un- 

I have before me a rough sketch of his application for mem- 
bership in the Association of the Army of Northern Virginia, 
dated October 30, 1879. It is as follows : "I entered the cavalry 
servicse on. the 23d of April, 1861, as First Lieutenant of Com- 
pany B, Chesterfield Cavalry, which company, at the organiza- 
tion of the Fourth Regiment of Virginia Cavalry, became Com- 
pany B, of said regiment; was promoted to Captain January 1, 
1862, and reelected Captain at the reorganization of the regi- 
ment in the spring of 1862. Promoted to Major in the fall of 
1863; wounded at Spotsylvania Courthouse May the 9th, 1864, 
and leg was amputated. Promoted to Lieutenant-Colonel June, 
1864; promoted to Colonel December, 1864; assumed command 

326 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

of the Fourth Regiment January i, 1865, and remained with it 
to Appomattox Courthouse. Left there with the cavalry and 
was paroled in Manchester, April 23, 1865." 

Colonel Wooldridge's wound was a very serious one, and his 
leg was amputated above the knee. 

Colonel Edward A. Palfrey, of the Confederate Adjutant- 
General's office, and now of New Orleans, La., informed Colonel 
Wooldridge's family that his commission as Brigadier-General 
was made out at the close of the war, and that he (Colonel 
Palfrey) had seen it, but the abrupt close of hostilities prevented 
its being sent. 

The members of the gallant old regiment may be interested 
to know that some of the records of the organization are still 

Soon after the war the officer who had charge of them sent 
to Colonel Woolridge a box of the regimental papers. These 
papers were, I think, for a time in the hands of Captain Henry 
C. Lee, who, about 1875, proposed to write a history of the 
brigade, but as his purpose was not carried out, they were 
returned to Colonel Wooldridge. Of couse they were highly 
prized and were preserved in what was believed to be a secure 
place ; but unfortunately, mice got into the box, and did some 
damage. The poor Confederate ink, too, had somewhat faded. 

After Colonel Wooldridge's death, his widow decided to give 
the papers to the Southern Historical Society, and I have no 
doubt they are now safely preserved among the archives of 
that association. 

If my memory is not incorrect there were two complete 
rosters, one, I think, in 1863, and the other in 1864. 

A memorandum found among Colonel Wooldridge's papers; 
but not written by him, of operations beginning at Mechanics- 
ville, March 27th, and ending at Appomattox, April 9, 1865, has 
been published in one of the volumes of the Southern Historical 
Society papers. 

Jackson's Valley Campaign. 327 


Front Royal and Winchester, 1862. 

By One of Jackson's "Foot Cavalry." 

The following graphic account from an active participant in 
Jackson's valley campaign, was written by a gallant Confederate 
veteran who took it from his weekly notes "taken on the spot" 
at the time of the occurrence of the events therein described and 
is a valuable contribution to the future history of the War be- 
tween the States, as well as of thrilling interest to our present 

The first of May, 1862, finds Stonewall Jackson's command 
in Swift Run Gap, about twenty miles south of Harrisonburg. 
We learn there on the third, march to Browns Gap, cross the 
Blue Ridge Mountain into Albemarle county, and reach 
Mechum River station on the evening of the fourth. We take 
the cars next day and go to Staunton same day. We leave there 
on the sixth, going to McDowells, where we fought the battle 
with Milroy, defeating him and driving him further into the 

General Ewell with his division and two regiments cavalry 
occupy a position on the Rappahannock River, in Culpeper 
county; he moved his command to Swift Run Gap as soon as 
Jackson left there, thus preventing Banks, who had a large force 
in the neighborhood of Harrisonburg, from making an attack on 
Jackson's rear while his movement against Milroy was being 
carried out. 

Jackson now has an open field in the upper valley and turns 
at once to it, and on reaching Harrisonburg on the 20th, he 
was joined by that magnificent brigade of Taylor's Louisianans, 
of Ewell's Division. The valley campaign is now fully launched. 

Next day Jackson marched down the valley pike ; when he 
reached New Market he took the road to the right, crossing the 
Massanutin Mountain into the Luray Valley, where we were 
joined by the remainder of Ewell's command. Jackson now 

328 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

has the largest army he has ever commanded. He had fought 
from the Shenandoah Mountain. General Edward Johnson's 
force, consisting of six regiments and some artillery, and he 
now has it besides his old command, that of Ewell's. 

On the 23d of May, 1862, Jackson's army left its bivouac, near 
Luray, taking the road to Front Royal, the head of the column 
reaching there about 3 or 4 o'clock in the afternoon. General 
Jackson, as usual, immediately made an attack with what few 
men were up. His eagerness all through this campaign was 
surprising, and his escape from death was almost a miracle. 
The enemy were found drawn up in line of battle in a strong 
position on the opposite side of the Shenandoah River. He had 
a line of skirmishers formed under his eye and gave them the 
command forward, and pushed them and some advance cavalry 
from the start. The yanks, finding things getting so hot, set 
fire to the two bridges and were immediately charged by the 
cavalry and skirmishers who saved the bridges in a damaged 
condition. They crossed at once and were right in the midst 
of the enemy. Jackson right along with them. The enemy 
made a bold stand and fought well, but they could not stand 
Jackson's mode of warfare and retreated to a farm orchard and 
buildings. Here they made a gallant stand, but the regiments of 
Flournoy and Munford's Cavalry are now up and are formed 
under Jackson's eye and charge the protected enemy. Our 
cavalry swept everything before them and the entire force of 
the enemy were killed, wounded and captured. In one of the 
attacks on the enemy, in a different direction, that gallant Cap- 
tain Sheets, Ashby's right hand, was killed. He was known 
throughout Jackson's command for gallant deeds and his was a 
Severe loss. We captured 600 or 700 prisoners, some artillery, 
a large quantity of stores and several hundred beef cattle. 

Next morning as our brigade passed the prisoners one 
of them hallowed to us, "How are you, Tom?" Tom replied, 
"What are you doing in such bad company, Bob?" Tom, 
however, left our ranks and went inside the prison lines and 
had a hearty shake of the hands, and a few minutes conversa- 
tion. -Coming back, he said it was his brother. Here literally 
is brother asrainst brother. We march in the direction of Win- 

Jackson's Valley Campaign. 329 

Chester. When we reach Cedarville, Jackson, with his old 
division and Taylor's Brigade, take the road to the left. The 
remainder of the troops, under Ewell's command, keep the direct 
road to Winchester, Company B, of Maryland, belonging to our 
regiment, who were mustered into service for one year, having 
served their time, leave us at this point, and the twenty-first 
Virginia Regiment have only nine companies after this date. 

The force under Jackson's march to Midleton on the Valley 
pike. When we get in sight of the pike, we find it filled with the 
enemy, as far as the eye can see, on their way to Winchester, 
and we have surprised them on their march. We attack them 
at once, and cut their marching column in two, one part keep- 
ing on towards Winchester, the other turning back towards 
Strasburg. These the second brigade are ordered to pursue. 
We continue after them until getting in sight of a bridge over 
Cedar Creek, when we are recalled and join in the general move 
towards Winchester. In marching through Middleton, we find 
long lines of knapsacks of the enemy's behind the stone walls 
along the pike, it looked as if whole regiments and brigades 
had unslung them in order to make a stand and as soon as 
we made the attack, they left in such a hurry that it seemed 
none were taken. At the junction of the Cedarville and Valley 
roads, the road was literally blocked with dead horses. 

On reaching Newtown we come to a long wagon train of 
the enemy's standing on the side of the road. Some of the 
wagons had been fired by them. As we pass them a very singu- 
lar thing struck the writer, about the contents of those wagons ; 
in every one that had articles in sight, you could see portions 
of women's clothing; in one wagon you would see a bonnet, 
in another a shawl, a dress in the next and in some all of a 
woman's outfit. I never saw the yankee soldiers wearing this 
kind of uniform and why they carried it, it was beyond my 
knowledge. Some of our men suggested that it had been "con- 
fiscated." from citizens of the Valley. Marching a little further 
we are halted, as the enemy have some artillery on the opposite 
hill and are shelling our road. Our advance runs out some 
guns, and those with our advance skirmishers soon have them 
retreating again. It is dark now and we soon come to another 

330 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

long train of wagons and a pontoon bridge train. The men 
looked at the latter with much interest, as they were the first we 
had ever seen. Marching a little further a string of fire is seen 
along a stone wall and the crack of muskets tell it is from the 
enemy's rear guard. They stop now at nearly every wall and 
give us a volley. General Jackson, who is always in front on 
an advance, came near being shot from one of those walls. 
The first we know of their presence is in seeing a string of 
fire along a wall, then the crack of their muskets and the ping of 
bullets. We captured over one hundred wagons during the 
night, keeping up the pursuit without intermission until near 
daybreak, when we were halted and allowed to rest an hour 
or two in our places along the road. Soon after daybreak on 
the twenty-fifth, we are on the move again. When we reach 
the mill about two miles from Winchester, find that the enemy 
have made a stand on the hills behind the mill. We were met 
here by one of our skirmishers who was wounded ; he was 
hatless and had been shot in the head ; the blood was stream- 
ing down his face so freely that he could hardly see. The 
Stonewall Brigade in the lead, take position behind some old 
rifle pits on the brow of the hill ; the Second Brigade take the 
road to the left, march a short distance, file to the right and 
form line of battle under the hills and left of the Stonewall 
Brigade, the Twenty-First Virginia Regiment, supporting the 
Rockbridge Battery. 

We could see Ewell's command way round to our right on 
the Front Royal road engaged with the enemy. 

The mill is situated in the junction of a road with the valley 
pike, at the foot of a range of hills that run back behind and 
beyond Winchester. The enemy in our -front are behind a stone 
wall that runs entirely across the open field and little way behind 
them on a higher point are two batteries of artillery. A piece 
of Rockbridge Battery is run out on a knoll on our left ; they 
are met with a hail of grape and minie ; every man at the piece 
is killed or wounded ; nothing daunted they run out another 
piece, but are more careful not to expose it as before ; the men 
are soon picked off by the enemy behind the wall and they are 
forced to abandon both pieces ; the pieces are safe, however, as 

Jackson's Valley Campaign. 331 

they are in our line and if the enemy want them, they will have 
to fight for them. 

About this time General Jackson makes his appearance, rides 
to one of the hillocks in our front. Colonel Campbell, com- 
manding our brigade, accompanies him on horseback. Colonel 
Patton, of the Twenty-first Virginia, the commanding officer of 
Stonewall Brigade, and Colonel Grigsly, of the Twenty-seventh 
Virginia, all on foot. . They are met by grape and minie balls, 
Campbell is wounded. Grigsly has a hole shot through his 
sleeve and says some ugly words to the yanks for it. It is right 
here General Jackson issued one of his characteristic orders to 
the commander of the Stonewall Brigade, "I expect the enemy 
to occupy the hill in your front with artillery ; keep your brigade 
well in hand and a vigilant watch, and if such an attempt is 
made, it must not be done, sir; clamp them on the spot!" As 
soon as Jackson had satisfied himself as to the enemy's dis- 
position, he turned his horse and quietly rode back. On getting 
to the road he called for Taylor's Brigade and led them in per- 
son to their position. The road ran here through a deep cut 
that screened the movement from the enemy. He gave General 
Taylor his order. Taylor says in his book he replied, and added, 
"You had better go to the rear, if you go along the front in 
this way some damned yankee will shoot you." 

He says General Jackson rode back to him and said, "General, 
I am afraid you are a wicked fellow ; but I know you will do 
your duty." Taylor formed his brigade in the road about 200 
or 300 yards to our left. We were on his flank and could see 
nearly the whole of his advance. When the order to forward 
was given, the men scrambled up the bank as best they could. 
General Taylor found a way to ride and when the men lined up 
at its top he was mounted and in their front. He rode up and 
down the line seeing that it was properly formed and he then 
rode in front, drew his sword, called the line to attention and 
ordered them to forward, march ! Every man stepped off with 
his left foot, and were touching elbow to elbow, the line nearly 
perfect. His march was in an open field, a gentle rise to the 
top of a long hill. About midway was the same stonewall that 
ran in our front ; it extended beyond Taylor's left ; the whole 

332 /Southern Historical Society Papers. 

wall was occupied by the enemy, and beyond that were the two 
batteries of artillery. As soon as General Jackson saw Taylor 
had commenced the advance he rode back to the hillock in our 
front to watch the effect of Taylor's attack. 

The enemy poured grape and musketry into Taylor's line, soon 
as it got in sight. General Taylor rode in front of his brigade, 
drawn sword in hand, occasionally turning his horse, at other 
times turning in the saddle to see that his line was up. They 
marched up the hill in perfect order, not firing a shot ; on getting 
about halfway to the yankees, he gave the order, "Forward! 
Double quick! Charge!" in a loud and commanding voice that 
could be heard over nearly the entire battlefield. With a yell 
and a rush, over the wall they go, and the enemy are running. 
At the same time General Jackson gave the command in that 
sharp, crisp way of his, "After the enemy men." Our whole 
line moves forward on a run, the enemy broke and ran in all 
directions, the Rockbridge Artillery men jump to their pieces 
and give them a parting salute. 

That charge of Taylor's was the grandest I saw during the 
war; officers, file closers, and every man was in his proper place. 
There was all the pomp and circumstance of war about it, that 
was always lacking in our charges, not that it was more effective 
than those of the old rebel yell, where most of the men would 
race to be the foremost. 

On getting near Winchester the advance artillery, who had 
been firing from every rise over the heads of our infantry at 
the fleeing enemy, have to stop. A scene is now witnessed that 
has no parallel in history, that 1 know of. The men of several 
batteries unhitched the lead horses from the cannon and caisons, 
threw the traces over the horses' backs, mounted and charged 
the enemy through the town, capturing and bringing back many 

On passing through Winchester, the citizens met us with 
cheers and were perfectly wild with delight ; men, women and 
children ran into the streets to welcome us ; they would wring 
your hands with both of theirs and some even embraced some 
of our men, nearly all crying for joy. The bullets are flying 
through the streets, but it made no difference to those people ; 

Jackson's Valley Campaign. 333 

it seemed that joy had overcome fear. Such a scene I never 

The Second Brigade followed the enemy about five miles be- 
low Winchester, when they were halted and went into camp. 
Other troops followed the enemy, some following them into 
Maryland and were only stopped by Jackson, on receiving in- 
formation of an attempt by the enemy to march other forces in 
his rear. 

The enemy on this occasion were commanded by General 
Banks. Jackson captured off him vast stores, several hundred 
beef, cattle, several hundred wagons with their teams, eleven 
thousand muskets in boxes that had never been opened, large 
amount of ammunition and over three thousand prisoners. Jack- 
son's loss was very small, but he had marched us for three 
weeks as hard as men could be marched. In an order to his 
troops next day, he said he thanked us for our conduct and 
would refer us to the results of the campaign for marching us 
so hard. Every man was satisfied with his apology. To accom- 
plish so much with so little loss, would march six months. The 
reception at Winchester was worth serving a whole lifetime. 

John H. Worsham, 
F Company, 21st J^a. Regt., Jackson's Command. 

To a gentleman who showed him the foregoing, Mr. E. J. 
.Hamilton wrote : 

"Tell Mr. Jno. H. Worsham that you showed his article on 
Front Royal and Winchester to a man then twenty-two years 
old and Ordinance Sergeant of Company G, Eighth Louisiana 
Regiment, Taylor's Brigade, who participated in the events so 
accurately described. No one but an eye-witness, one actually 
on the spot, could have written the details of that campaign so 
perfectly. Though nearly forty-three years have intervened, the 
attack at Front Royal, the march to Winchester, through Mid- 
dletown and Newtown, along the pike strewn with burning 
wagons, and other stuff abandoned by the fleeing and demoral- 
ized enemy, stand out prominently on the tablet of memory." 

334 Southern Historical Society Papers. 


By Lieut. W. C. WHITTLE. 

In 1861 the Nashville, then used as a freight and passenger 
steamer, was seized in the port of Charleston, S. C, by the 
Confederate authorities and soon fitted out for the purpose of 
taking Messrs. Mason and Slidell to Europe. She was a side- 
wheel, brig-rigged steamer, of about twelve or fourteen hundred 
tons, and was, therefore, deemed by them too large a vessel to 
run the blockade. That purpose was accordingly abandoned. 
Captain R. B. Pegram, then in command of the Nashville, fitted 
her with two small guns and made her ready for sea, with a full 
crew of officers and men. The following is a list of her officers : 
Captain, R. B. Pegram; First Lieutenant, Charles M. Fauntleroy ; 
Second Lieutenant, John W. Bennett ; Third Lieutenant, Wil- 
liam C. Whittle ; Master, John M. Ingram ; Surgeon, John L. 
Ancrum ; Paymaster, Richard Taylor ; Chief Engineer, James 
Hood; Assistant, Murphy, and two others, and the following 
midshipmen : W. R. Dalton, William H. Sinclair, Clarence Cary, 

J. W. Pegram, W. P. Hamilton, Thomas and Mc- 


On the night of October 21, 1861, she ran out of Charleston, 
and touched at Bermuda. After stopping there a few days for 
coal, she headed across the Atlantic, and on November 19th, 
captured in the entrance of the P3ritish Channel the ship Harvey 
Birch, an American merchantman in command of Captain Nel- 
son. She was boarded by an officer and boat's crew who carried 
away all that was valuable, and burned the ship. On the 21st 
she arrived at Southampton, Eng. 


The Nashville enjoyed the distinction of being the first war 
vessel to fly the flag of the Confederate States in the waters of 
England. Here we remained until the latter part of January, 

Cruise of the C. S. Steamer Nashville. 335 

1862. About the 1st of February, 1862, we sailed for the Con- 
federacy, evading the United States steamer Tuscarora, which 
had for some time been watching an opportunity to capture the 
Nashville, having been sent for that purpose. The manner of 
our escape is worthy of mention. The Queen's proclamation of 
neutrality required that neither belligerent should leave port 
until the twenty-four hours after the hour set for the sailing of 
the other. The Tuscarora immediately got under way 
and lay off the port to avoid the restriction, awaiting our 
departure, but one evening came to an anchor near the Isle of 
Wight, within the limit of British jurisdiction. Captain Pegram, 
learning this, at once notified the government that he would 
set sail at a certain hour the next day, and the Tuscarora was 
notified that she must remain until the expiration of the twenty- 
four hours thereafter. A British vessel was sent clown to see 
that this order was not violated, and the Nashville, with flying 
colors, steamed proudly by the Tuscarora and passed out to sea, 
leaving her commander and crew to meditate on the delightful 
uncertainties of the law of nations. 

The run to Bermuda was without incident, save that we en- 
countered a gale of wind which did us considerable damage. 
After repairing and coaling ship we took on board the master 
and crew of a North Carolina schooner, which had been wrecked 
by the gale at Bermuda. The master agreed to pilot us into the 
harbor of Beaufort, N. C, and we made for that port. On the 
passage the schooner Giljillan was captured and destroyed. Ar- 
riving off Beaufort we found one United State blockade steamer 
and determined to pass in by a ruse de guerre. 


A steamer very much like the Nashville was then employed 
by the United States Navy in carrying the mails and communi- 
cating with the blockading squadron. Personating this steamer 
and flying the United States flag, we ran confidently up to the 
blockader and made signal to her to come and get her mails. 
The Nashville was hove to under gentle pressure of steam and 
the blockader lowered a boat. While pulling toward us we 
changed our course and ran for port. Before their mistake 

336 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

was discovered the Nashville was out of reach of the enemy's 
guns, which, however, fired shot after shot in impotent rage, all 
falling short as we widened the distance under full steam, mak- 
ing safe harbor at Morehead City on the 28th day of February, 

Captain Pegram, after visiting Richmond and reporting to the 
Navy Department for instructions, returned to the ship, bring- 
ing information that the Nashville had been sold to private 
parties in Charleston. The order to remove all Confederate 
States' property, including armament, charts and instruments, 
from the vessel, was promptly executed, and the ship was left 
under my command, with two midshipmen, Messrs. Sinclair and 
Hamilton ; Boatswain Sawyer, Chief Engineer Hood, three 
sailors, four firemen, cook and steward, to be kept in order until 
taken possession of by the agent of the purchasers. 

General Burnside's movement upon Newbern, N. C, was then 
being executed, and Captain Pegram, with the officers and crew 
of the Nashville, went through on one of the last trains that 
could escape, after which all communication inland was com- 
pletely cut off. Burnside's expedition was moving upon More- 
head City, and the capture of the Nashville seemed inevitable. 
The blockading fleet had been increased, and the Federal troops 
were on the march to seize the vessel as she lay tied up at the 


Without a crew or means of defense, without even a chart or 
chronometer, short of coal and provisions, the idea of saving the 
ship was simply vain. There seemed a single chance, however, 
and I determined to take that chance. The fall of Fort Macon 
was only a question of time, and a very short time at that ; the 
blockade must, therefore, be broken. Quietly and secretly we 
set to work, and being assured by my Chief Engineer (Hood) 
that with his small force and the assistance of the deckhands he 
could keep the vessel under steam, we made ready to run through 
the blockading fleet. I was fortunate in securing the services of 
Captain Gooding, an excellent coast pilot, who was then in 
command of the sailing ship blockaded in the harbor. He 
brought with him a chart, chronometer and sextant, and such 

Cruise of the C. S. Steamer Nashville. 337 

instruments as were deemed absolutely necessary for naviga- 
tion, with the promise that if his efforts were successful the 
ultimate command of the ship would be given him by the pur- 

Having made all my preparations to destroy the ship, if necessary 
to prevent her capture in passing out, I dropped down under the 
guns of Fort Macon. Colonel White, in command of the fort, 
came on board and told me of the efforts that were being made 
for my capture. He suggested that, as I had no means of de- 
fense, I should, on the approach of the expedition, destroy my 
vessel and come into the fort as a reenforcement to him. I then 
divulged to Captain White my plan of escape, and notified him 
of my intention to run out that evening, requesting him to see 
that I was not fired upon by his command. He was delighted 
with the plan and wished me Godspeed. On the evening of 
March 17, 1862, between sunset and moonrise, the moon being 
nearly full, I tripped my anchor and ran out. As soon as I was 
under way a rccket was sent up from the lower side of Bogue 
Island, below Fort Macon, by an enemy's boat, sent ashore from 
the blockaders for the purpose of watching me, giving me the 
assurance that my movement had been detected. 


Steaming towards the entrance at the bar, I found the three 
vessels congregated close together under way and covering the 
narrow channel. Just before reaching the bar I slipped my 
anchor, which on hoisting had caught under the forefoot, in 
order to prevent its knocking a hole in the ship's bottom, as I 
knew we would strike on going over the bar. We were going at 
full speed, say fourteen knots per hour. I was in the pilot-house 
with Gooding, and two others were at the wheel. The block- 
aders, under way and broadside to me, were across my path. 
I ran for the one furtherest to the northward and eastward, 
with the determination to go through or sink both ships. As I 
approached rapidly I was given the right of way and passed 
through and out under a heavy fire from the three vessels. They 
had commenced firing as soon as I got within range, and con- 
tinued until I passed out, firing in all, as well as we could de- 
termine, about twenty guns. The moon rose clear and full a 

838 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

short time afterward and found us well out to sea, no attempt 
being made to pursue us that we could discover. 

We ran on out to the inner edge of the Gulf Stream, where 
we remained until the next day, and in the afternoon of the 18th 
of March shaped our course for Charleston. Arriving in the 
midst of the blockading fleet there before dawn of the 19th, we 
discovered their position by the great number of rockets which 
they were sending up to signal the fact that our presence was 
known. This, together with the fact that the stone fleet had 
been sunk in the channel, leaving only the Mafflts Channel open, 
and not knowing how far even that was obstructed, made me 
conclude not to attempt to run in. With an exhausted crew and 
short of coal, I put back and ran clear of the blockaders. At 
daylight on the 19th I made Captain Roman, steaming close in 
to land, and tracked up the beach, intending to try to enter 
Georgetown, S. C, but seeing the smoke of two steamers to the 
northward, I stopped the engines and made ready to destroy 
the vessels on their approach, as we were in a condition too ex- 
hausted to run successfully. 


Fortunately the smoke of the blockaders disappeared on the 
horizon, and we steamed up to the entrance of Georgetown, but 
on going in we got around on the bar. Sending out a boat to 
take soundings, I observed a boat pulling around a point of 
land inside filled with armed men. At the same moment a body 
of horsemen came down to the beach. Not knowing but that 
this port also had fallen into the hands of the enemy, called my 
boat alongside, and made such preparations for defense as I 
could devise. When close enough, the boat hailed up to know 
what ship it was. I answered by asking whether they were 
Federals or Confederates. Their reply was, "We are South 
Carolinians," and I answered : 

"This is the Confederate States steamer Nashville," which at 
first they seemed to discredit. Finally they approached, and I 
was told by the officer in command that Colonel Manigault, who 
was commanding ashore, had directed that if it was a Con- 
federate vessel I should hoist another flag under the one already 

Cruise of the C. S. Steamer Nashtille. 339 

up. I told him I had no other except the United States flag-, and 
that might mislead him. I then told him that I needed a pilot." 
He readily and very quickly pulled ashore and returned with 
one, bringing me a message from Colonel Manigault that I 
could place implicit confidence in him, to let him take the ship 
up to Georgetown, and requested me to come ashore and confer 
with him. In the meantime, the Nashville, having been gotten 
afloat by me, was placed in charge of this pilot and steamed up to 

I went ashore and was received by Colonel Manigault, of the 
South Carolina forces, with a hearty welcome and with cheers 
from his troops. Colonel Manigault inquired whether I had seen 
the blockaders off Georgetown. I replied that I had seen their 
smoke going off up the coast, whereupon he informed me that 
this was the first day for many weeks that they had absented 
themselves from their post in front of the harbor. I proceeded at 
once to Richmond and reported to S. R. Mallory Secretary of 
the Navy, who directed me to return to Charleston and confer with 
Messrs. Fraser, Trenholm & Co., the purchasers of the vessel, 
and to take all necessary steps to effect her transfer to them as 
speedily as possible. I went to Charleston, and in concert with 
them or their agents, the business was closed, they giving the 
command of the ship, at my request, to Captain Gooding. Being 
unable to carry out any cargo, on account of the bar, she sailed 
in ballast, having taken on coal and such crew as could be se- 
cured for her. She left Georgetown in the broad light of day, 
flying the Confederate flag, before the blockaders returned to 


After this she made several successful trips through the block- 
ade and later was transferred to other parties, and subsequently 
she was attacked by the enemy and destroyed at the mouth of the 
Ogeechee River. I am persuaded that the Federals did not 
know that the Nashville went into Georgetown until it was re- 
vealed to them by my capture below New Orleans in April, 1862. 
I had then among my private papers, the rough draft of my re- 
port to Secretary Mallory, in which I had announced to him the 
escape of the vessel from Morehead City and her entrance into 

340 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

Georgetown. The Federal officer who read this report seemed to 
have the impression that the Nashville had sailed direct to 
Nassau, and so expressed himself to me. On my telling him that 
I had taken her into Georgetown, he was greatly surprised, and 
the circumstances of her escape were thus, for the first time, 
communicated to the Federal Government. 

W. C. Whittle, 
Lieutenant C. S. N. 

[From Richmond, Va., THmes- Dispatch, February 19, 1911.] 


In August, 1910, I was requested by Mrs. Thomas Hardaway, 
President of the United Daughters of the Confederacy, of 
Amelia County, Va., to write an extended sketch of General 
Johnston's life. I submit it now without comment, and hope it 
will serve the laudable purpose she has in view. 

General Johnston was born in Virginia, February, 1807. Died 
at his residence, Washington, D. C, March 21, 1891. What of 
him? I shrink from the task to portray the character of such a 

Of his early life before the war, I know very little. It was 
spent in Prince Edward and Washington Counties, Va., until 
he was appointed a cadet at West Point, graduating in the class 
of 1829. The first time I ever met General Johnston was in the 
United States Quartermaster-General's office in the summer of 
i860. I had just returned from the Pacific coast and brought 
with me letters from prominent army officers and politicians of 
California, recommending me for promotion in the Quarter- 
master's department. In October, 1861, I was ordered to the 
Army of Northern Virginia, General Johnston commanding. A 
few days after 1 was appointed to a position on his staff. From 

Sketch of Career of Gen. Joseph E. Johnston. 341 

that time to the day of his death I was his devoted friend. The 
first time I ever saw him under fire was at Williamsburg, 1862. 
Mounted on his celebrated roadster, Sam Patch, he placed him- 
self in an open plateau where balls and shells came thick and 
fast, apparently as calm as a May morning. Let me add in 
passing that never by accident while T was with him did he ever 
select comfortable quarters on the field of battle for himself or 
his staff. I believe it was Turenne who said: "The general 
who has never made mistakes has never made war." But I 
defy any military man to point out a mistake made by General 
Johnston on the field of battle. At Williamsburg he appeared 
to me the very God of War. Something about the distribution 
of troops in Fort Magruder seemed to worry him. Turning in 
his saddle and catching my eye he said: "Ride at once to the 
officer in command of those troops and tell him to station them 
differently," telling me just what he wanted. Dismounting and 
leading my horse by the bridle, I crept along under the ramparts 
until I found the officer in command, delivered the message with 
which I was entrusted, and did not stand on the order of leaving 
that fire pit. Early the next morning we left Williamsburg. 

On our backward move to Richmond I heard him say, "The 
folly of sending this army down the Peninsula is only equalled 
by our good fortune in getting away from there." He was un- 
fortunately wounded at Seven Pines when he had victor)- within 
his grasp. His staff was transferred to that of General Lee. 
Six months after, he reported for duty, and on his application I 
went back to him. A few years before his death — this to show 
the modesty of the man — I told him the greatest compliment 
ever paid to me was by himself, when he applied for me to 
rejoin his staff. He replied, "Not equal to yours to me, sir, 
when you left General Lee's staff for mine." 

The geographical command to which he was then assigned 
was big in name, empty in reality. He looked more like a 
caged lion than a man in command of two great armies. The 
geographical command referred to included Bragg's army at 
Tullahoma, Tenn., and Pemberton's army at Yicksburg. When 
Pemberton was outgeneraled, and about the time of his over- 
whelming defeat at the Battle of Edward's Depot, General John- 

342 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

ston was ordered to Mississippi, and he quickly assembled a 
force of 24,060 men. His orders to Pemberton were to leave 
Vicksburg and try and save his army. A diversion, he thought, 
to the northwest, and in conjunction with the troops he himself 
had assembled might reasonably be expected to succeed. When 
his orders were disregarded, Vicksburg and its garrison were 
doomed. Capitulation soon followed. In December, 1863, 
General Johnston .was ordered to take command of the Army 
of Tennessee, headquarters at Dalton, Ga. The spring follow- 
ing the Dalton-Atlanta campaign opened, and then blazed out 
the resplendent genius of this great commander. He had to an 
eminent degree the power of hurling large bodies of men against 
detachments of the opposing army — as Forrest would say, "Get- 
ting the most men there first." This is strategy. The limits of 
this paper preclude my going into detail ; but contemporaneous 
history will, I think, show that General Sherman's army was 
nearly three times as large as that of the Army of Tennessee, 
and that he lost on that campaign as many men as we had all 
told. Xo one will venture to deny that, after deploying before 
our whole front, General Sherman had one, sometimes two, corps 
with which to threaten our communications and flank us out of 
position. We were flanked out of Northern Georgia, not whipped 
out of it. General Sherman is reported to have said he never 
picked up so much as a wheelbarrow on the retreat. At Resaca, 
General Johnston, surrounded by some thirty men, stationed him- 
self at the side of a hill exposed to the enemy's sharpshooters. 
A ball of some kind took off the head of a man nearby and his 
brains were sprinkled over me. W r e all wanted safer quarters, 
but no man in that group had the temerity to suggest it. A most 
remarkable retreat. Every day a victory — from Dalton or 
Ringold to Atlanta, Resaca, Dallas, New Hope Church, Kenne- 
saw, etc., would each make a thrilling chapter. I recall a single 
dramatic scene, when, with our horses saddled, we waited, Gen- 
eral Hood saying he was flanked on the right. General John- 
ston, with an exclamation, said, "It is impossible," and sent 
General Mackall to ascertain the facts and report. That night, 
after the council of war, shared in by Generals Johnston, Polk, 
Hardee and Hood, had assembled and adjourned, I was sum- 

Sketch of Career of Gen. Joseph E. Johnston. 343 

moned to headquarters with Lieutenants Manning, Hampton 
and Mr. Curry (a volunteer aide), and charged with important 
duties. Not one of us slept that night. 

Fighting by day and retreating by night we at last reached 
Peach Tree Creek, and here began the Iliad of our woes. Gen- 
eral Johnston was relieved of command and General Hood in- 
stalled in his place. Like a clap of thunder in a clear and cloud- 
less sky came this unexpected blow. Even General Hood seemed 
appalled. The Confederacy seemed doomed. Long after the 
war General Johnston told me if he had not been relieved of 
command he would have won that campaign. In common with 
others, I think so, too. When at or near the close of the war he 
was again placed in command, he applied for me. I joined him 
promptly, and was by his side at the Battle of Bentonville. the 
last great battle of the war. 

At different times during the war the signal for active work. 
An aide came with sweating horse from General Johnston, who 
had upon his staff some very able men, among them I may men- 
tion, without disparagement others : 

General William W. Mackall, Chief of Staff, an officer of the 
old army, and the most accomplished staff officer I was ever 
thrown with; Colonel Benjamin S. Ewell, Adjutant-General, a 
man among men when Virginia was full of giants, President of 
William and Mary College before and after the war ; Lieutenant- 
Colonel Thomas B. Lamar, Assistant Adjutant-General, one of 
nature's noblemen, without previous training he quickly mas- 
tered the duties of the office and became a power on the Staff; 
Major James B. Eustis. in charge of military courts and courts- 
martial, represented his State ( Louisiana ) in the United States 
Senate after the war, and recently ambassador to France from 
the United States. 

I never heard General Johnston tell an anecdote, and yet he 
appreciated and enjoyed wit. I recall two stories which he and 
Mrs. Johnston made me tell more than once. Followed by his 
Staff on the retreat from Dalton he was passing a long line of 
army wagons. The roads were bad and one of the wagons stuck 
fast in the mud, the driver cursing and swearing and lashing 
the mules. Just then an army chaplain rode up and said, "My 

844 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

friend, do yon know who died to save sinners?" The answer 
seemed to hiss from the teamster's mouth : "D your conun- 
drums; don't you see I'm stuck in the mud?" Again some 
officers met in a tent (I won't say where); furniture scarce, only 
a box in sight and upon it a little brown jug surrounded by tin 
cups. One of the officers, drawing upon his imagination for 
facts, told of European trips, etc., etc. Finally he returned to 
America and went to live in Florida, where he proceeded to tell 
of capturing an alligator twenty feet long. A little man in the 
company ventured to cast just a shade of doubt on the statement. 
"Surprised are you?" said the unsurpassed story-teller. "Oh, 
no," replied the little man, "not at all. I am a liar myself." 
These stories would always make the General hold his sides. 

Extract from letter of Ex-Governor Porter, of Tennessee, to 
Colonel Harvie : 

"After the Battle of Chicamauga General Bragg dissolved 
Cheatham's division, and gave him a division of troops from 
other States, allowing him to retain one Tennessee brigade, upon 
the ground that so large a body of troops from one State in one 
division prompted too much State pride at the expense of pride 
in the Confederate States. When General Johnston assumed 
command of the army at Dalton, one of his first acts was to 
restore the old organization. The order to this effect created 
unbounded enthusiasm in the division. With one impulse the 
men marched to army headquarters with a band of music, and 
called for General Johnston. General Cheatham escorted him 
from his room to the front door, and presented him to his com- 
mand with a heartiness as genuine as it was unmilitary. Plac- 
ing his hand upon the bare head of the chief of the army, he 
patted it two or three times. Looking at the men he said : 'Boys, 
this is Old Joe.' This was a presentation speech to captivate 
the soldiers' hearts ; they called their own chief 'Old Frank,' and 
it meant that here is another to trust and to love. That was the 
happiest presentation speech ever made by any man — happy be- 
cause General Johnston had the good sense to appreciate, and 
happy because it touched and thrilled the hearts and minds of 
soldiers who loved their own chief. General Cheatham was the 
only man in the Army of Tennessee who could have made such 

Sketch of Career of Gen. Joseph E. Johnston. 345 

a presentation speech without offending General Johnston, and 
to my mind it was a supreme test of the good sense of the last 
named that he received it in the presence of several thousand 
private soldiers with all the kindly grace of manner that charac- 
terized every act of his noble life." 

I was paroled by his side. Alone and almost broken-hearted, 
I turned from him, realizing that I was leaving behind me the 
grandest military character that 1 ever got close to. 

After the close of the war, he was actively engaged in the 
industrial reconstruction of the South, especially with agricul- 
tural, commercial and railroad enterprises, residing at Savannah, 
Ga. Later he came to live in Richmond and was elected to 
Congress from the Richmond (Va.) district, and served one 

After this lie was appointed United States Railroad Commis- 
sioner in Cleveland's first administration, I think, and then re- 
tired to private life in Washington. 

Soon after his death I was asked by Confederates living in 
Washington to write a tribute to his memory. iVt the expense 
of repeating myself, I incorporate it with this article : 

A prince among men has fallen. General Joseph E. Johnston, 
ripe in years and full of honor, died at his residence, in Wash- 
ngton, D. C, March 21, 1891, n the eighty-fifth year of his age. 

In his death the country loses a great, conspicuous and noble 
character ; the South its highest type of chivalry and manhood. 
The peer of Lee. The central figure of a hundred glorious tab- 
leaux, looming like Saul "from his shoulders and upward, higher 
than any of the people." It is to us a labor of love to pay tribute 
to the memory of him who lived and died without fear and with- 
out reproach. \\ e loved and honored the man, were influenced 
by his example and now mourn his death. His place is beyond 
the reach of adverse criticism; the judgment of history has made 
it secure ; and his campaign in Georgia is a study for military 
men all over the civilized world. 

Of the generals on either side it may be safely said that John- 
ston was excelled by none for energy, courage, skill, pugnacity 
and prudence. He could be Caesar or Fabius as circumstances 
demanded. The ciuickness with which he could strike was shown 

346 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

at Manassas, Seven Pines and Bentonville, and his strategy was 
never questioned. When young he learned all the lessons drawn 
from the world's campaigns, and the knowledge of the great men 
who managed them. He absorbed their wisdom and applied it 
in action. 

The news of his death was received throughout the country 
with sorrow and regret, and in the South, where he was re- 
garded as the embodiment of Southern sentiment, tears of old 
and young fell without restraint in homes whose inmates idolize 
his name. Great in war, he remained great when war reigned 
no more. Fierce and strong as a soldier, he was gentle and 
winning as a civilian. Foremost when called to battle, he re- 
mained prominent in the avocations of citizenship after he had 
faithfully performed the duties to which the war assigned him. 
A Virginian by birth and education and a gentleman by the 
grace of God ! Green be the turf that rests over the grave of 
this immortal son of a glorious mother. 

Graduating from West Point in the class of 1829, we see him 
first in Florida, where he was severely wounded just as he had 
saved a small force from being destroyed by Indians, through 
the incompetency of the officer in command. 

In the Mexican War he made a daring recunnoissance and 
gave to another, high in command, his plan of the Battle of 
Cerro Gordo, where he was again wounded. In the capture of 
Chapultepec he lead the assaulting force, and at the gates was 
shot down, leaving the glory to his successor. 

In the War between the States how grand, how commanding. 
On the secession of Virginia, his native State, he resigned his 
commission as Brigadier-General and Quartermaster-General of 
the United States Army, went to Richmond and was immediately 
made Major-General of Virginia troops. Placed in command 
at Harper's Fern', he began by eluding Patterson, and appeared 
with his army on the field of Manassas in time to secure that 
great victory. 

In command of all the troops in Virginia, and realizing the 
strategic importance of the Valley, and the value of Stonewall 
Jackson, it was Johnston's order to this mighty warrior to guard 
that gate, which led'to the ever memorial Valley campaigns. 

Why Jefferson Davis Was Never Tried. 347 

In his attack on McClellan's left on the 31st of May he had 
beaten two corps, one-third of the Army of the Potomac, and 
had victory within his grasp when at the close of the day he 
was seriously wounded. The command of the army then fell 
into other hands. 

We next find General Johnston assigned to an extensive com- 
mand in the West, where he was loaded with responsibility, while 
practically powerless. In the campaigns in Georgia, his opera- 
tions were masterly — too well known to need comment here. In 
his last battle in North Carolina, with an inferior force, he de- 
feated one wing of Sherman's army, and held the ground until 
his wounded were removed from the field. 

The terms entered into with Sherman at the close of the war 
stamp him the statesman. 

He rises before us a born leader of men, commanding alike 
in war or peace. 

[From Richmond, Va., Times-Dispatch, February 19, 1911.] 


Consultation Night Before Case Was Called— The Chase 
Dinner — Unrecorded History. 

The Chief Justice of the United States just appointed is an 
ex-Confederate soldier, and two of the associate judges are 
Southern men, and this fact may lend special interest to an inci- 
dent which occurred more than forty years ago, and very soon 
after the termination of the War between the States. 

Jefferson Davis had been indicted for treason, and, at the time 
I refer to, was on bail, one of his bondsmen being Horace 
Greeley. His counsel were James Lyons and William H. Mac- 
farland, of Richmond ; Charles O'Connor, of New York, and 
William B. Reed, of Philadelphia. Some wonder was expressed 
that Chief Justice Chase had come to Richmond to sit with Judge 

348 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

Underwood, it not being supposed that there was anything of 
particular moment before the court, and Mr. Davis was known 
to be absent at some quite distant point, and it was deemed cer- 
tain that his case would not be called up. 

I was invited to meet Justice Chase and United States District 
Attorney Beach at dinner at Mr. Lyons', who resided at Labur- 
num, since then the home of the late Joseph Bryan. I went there 
in company with Mr. Macfarland and noted that we were start- 
ing a good deal in advance of the hour named. On arrival I 
found that there was a consultation to be held between the various 
men who had Mr. Davis' case in charge. They soon began the 
discussion, and I learned that the subject before them was 
whether or not they should accept a proposition made by the 
government to have a nolle prosequi entered on the next day. 
There could be no doubt on this point, and the papers were even 
then being prepared. The men were all of the opinion that 
there should be no hesitation on their part in assenting. I felt, 
of course, that the responsibility was entirely on them, but I 
could net help holding another view, convinced also as I was 
that Mr. Davis would agree with me. I did not consider that 
he was any more guilty of treason than I was, and that a trial 
should be insisted on, which could properly only result in a 
complete vindication of our cause, and of the action of the many 
thousands who had fought, and of the many thousands who had 
died for what they felt to be the right. I, like all of the Con- 
federates whom I knew, was confident that such would be the 
result of a trial before an honest judge, and believed Salmon P. 
Chase to be such a one. 

The men, however, than whom no more high-toned men ever 
lived, differed from me, and clearly I was, indeed, an outsider. 
They had full charge of the interests of Mr. Davis, and it so 
happened that he was away from any possible communication by 
telegram, and it was pretty certain that the offer would not be 
left open to await the result of such slow correspondence as 
could be availed of to reach him. Attention was invited to the 
fact that his life was at stake, and that they were bound to take 
advantage of the opportunity of securing his honorable release 
from all danger, an opportunity which might not and indeed 
would not occur again. Tt was thought quite sure that if he 

Why Jefferson Davis Was Never Tried. o49 

were to be tried before Judge Underwood his conviction would 
be inevitable with such a jury as could be counted on, and that 
it would not be wise to expect anything from an appeal to the 
Supreme Court as then constituted. 

I was decidedly of the opinion then, and am now, that if the 
matter could have been presented to Mr. Davis, he would have 
agreed with me and have insisted upon having the point of any 
risk to himself disregarded, but it was manifestly not practi- 
cable to obtain his wishes, and it was, as they thought, and as 
they believed, to be wholly in accordance with the well recog- 
nized obligatory principles of their profession, their duty to 
acquiesce in a course which would bring security to their client 
and relief from a situation which had been most trying. 

And so it was that on the next day the illustrious prisoner was 
released and with no stain upon his name, but without that 
thorough vindication of his cause and his people which, I think 
it is now generally recognized, would have resulted from a fair 

I alone survive of those who were present at this dinner, but 
my memory is perfect as to every detail, and I am sure I state 
precisely what occurred on that occasion. So far as I know, 
there has been no statement made by any of Mr. Davis' counsel 
of the particulars of what transpired at the time of his release, 
and I cannot but think that it may be well to have this that I 
have written made a matter of record. 

350 Southern Historical Society Papers. 


By MARY BANKHEAD OWEN, in the Montgomery Advertiser. 

Note. — Emma Sansom was born at Social Circle, Walton 
County, Ga., in 1847. Her father removed his family to the 
farm near Gadsden, Ala., in 1852. In 1864 she married C. B. 
Johnson, a Confederate soldier of the 10th Alabama Regiment. 
She died in Calloway, Texas, in 1900, leaving live sons and two 

On July 4, 1907, there was unveiled in Gadsden, Ala., near 
the site of her immortal deed of courage, a monument to Emma 
Sansom, the Confederate heroine. 

No such signal of honor has been bestowed upon any other 
woman participant in the daring deeds of those epic years in our 
history embraced in the early sixties of the nineteenth century. 

It is true that a memorial tomb has been placed above the 
grave of Winnie Davis, in Hollywood Cemetery, Richmond, 
because she was tenderly cherished as the "Daughter of the 
Confederacy," having been born to the family of the new re- 
public's President during the existence of that historic govern- 
ment ; but the conditions are not comparable. 

The United Sons of Confederate Veterans have in operation 
plans by which they propose erecting in every Confederate State 
one splendid monument of uniform type to the "Women of the 
Confederacy." The citizens of Macon and of Sandersville, Ga., 
respectively, have laid corner-stones of proposed monuments ; 
and Captain E. White has reared a shaft to them in Confederate 
Park, Fort Mill, South Carolina, but so far, to the girl heroine 
of Alabama the distinction belongs of having reared in her honor 
an individual monument, which bears upon its pedestal her figure 
in Italian marble, and in relief upon the base, scenes from the 
incidents which gave her fame, together with epigramimatic in- 
scriptions that perpetuate that fame for all time in history. 

Emma Sansom, Heroine of Immortal Courage. 351 

It was to Emma Sansom's memory also that Dr. John A. 
Wyeth dedicated his monumental Life of General Nathan Bed- 
ford Forrest. Among the dedicatory lines is found this en- 
comium: "She was a woman worthy of being remembered by 
her countrymen as long as courage is deemed a virtue," and in 
the text of the book he says further : "As long as the fame 
of Nathan Bedford Forrest shall last among men — and it must 
endure forever — coupled with it in artless womanhood and 
heroic pose will be the name of Emma Sansom." 

Soon after the incident occurred which brought this moun- 
tain country girl into public view, and placed her immemorially 
in the hearts of all who have a true soul and brave, the State 
of Alabama in General Assembly adopted a series of joint reso- 
lutions donating her a section of land and a gold medal "in 
consideration of public services rendered by her." 

To the uninformed as to her specific act, is given a gist of the 
facts in the eulogistic clauses of the preamble to those reso- 
lutions, in which it is told that " 'she exalted herself above the 
fears of her nature and the timidity of her sex,' with a maiden's 
modesty and more than a woman's courage, tendered her ser- 
vices as a guide, and, in the face of an enemy's fire, and amid 
the cannon's roar, safely conducted our gallant forces by a 
circuitous route to an easy and safe crossing, and left them in 
eager pursuit of a fleeing foe, which resulted in a complete and 
brilliant victory to our arms within the confines of our own 
State. By her courage, her patriotism, her devotion to our 
cause, and by the great public service she has rendered, she has 
secured to herself the admiration, esteem and gratitude of our 
people, and a place in history as the heroine of Alabama." 

Several times since this act, efforts have also been made to 
have the State seal changed from its present form to a scene 
representing Emma Sansom riding behind General Forrest, and 
directing him to the now immortal "lost ford." 

There transpired no more heroic or picturesque occurrence 
during the War Between the United States and the Confederate 
States than the adventure in which this incident figured, an 
adventure reflecting glory upon all participants, Federal and 
Confederate alike, for it was one calling for high courage, daunt- 
less daring, and the best mettle of true soldiership. 

352 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

After the battle of Murfreesborough, Major-General W. S. 
Roseerans, of the Federal army, determined, if possible, to 
manoeuvre Major-General Braxton Bragg, commanding the 
Confederate Army of Tennessee, south of the Tennessee River, 
in order that the Confederates might not get possession of the 
natural stronghold of Chattanooga. One step towards this end 
was to destroy the two railroads leading from that mountain 
city, one to Atlanta, the other to Knoxville, by which sustenance 
for the Confederates could be supplied. The undertaking was 
entrusted to a body of raiders under the leadership of Colonel 
Abel D. Streight, of India. The plans of "this great enterprise, 
fraught with great consequences," for it was thus that the order 
ran, were carefully laid by Roseerans and his chief of staff, 
Brigadier-General James A. Garrield, with the aid and advice 
of the intrepid Hoosier who was to be its leader. 

The commands selected by Colonel Streight were the Fifty- 
first and the Sevevnty-third Indiana, the- Third Ohio, the Eigh- 
teenth Illinois, and two companies of Alabama Union cavalry, 
about 2,000 officers and men in all. 

With impatience and high hopes the Streight raiders set out 
from Nashville on April 10, 1863, under orders to repair "to 
the interior of Alabama and Georgia, for the purpose of de- 
stroying the railroads in that country." 

Upon the entrance of the raiders into North Mississippi, they 
were joined by a considerable force under General Grenville M. 
Dodge, whose orders were to facilitate the advance of Streight 
upon his important mission. It was the intent of the Federals 
to so divert the Confederates under Colonel P. D. Roddey by 
minor skirmishes in which they engaged them as to cause them 
to lose sight of the movements of Streight. 

On the 26th of April, 1863, just past midnight, through almost 
impenetrable darkness and steady downpour of rain, Streight's 
"lightning brigade" rode out of Tuscumbia, Ala., over broken 
and boggy roads, headed for Mount Hope, thirty-six miles dis- 
tant, where they were to make their encampment. At sunset, 
hungry and weary, having made only one halt for food, they 
reached their destination, with the cheering news, however, from 
General Dodge that he had Forrest, the "Wizard of the Saddle," 
whose pursuit was Streight's greatest fear, upon the run in an- 

Emma Sansonr, Heroine of Immortal Courage. 353 

other direction. Early morning found the raiders pushing for- 
ward with all possible progress through rain, mud and across ' 
swollen streams, buoyed, however, by the hope of success. Again 
at nightfall they rested, but on the morning of the 29th, scarcely 
beyond midnight, they once more rode off in the darkness and 
the rain. 

Forrest and his band of 1,000 men had cut loose from in front 
of Dodge, and they, too, were riding through the night with its 
ceaseless downpour, in hot pursuit of the confident raiders, and 
only sixteen miles behind them. 

On through these early hours the two bodies of soldiers rode, 
Streight bound for Rome, Ga., and Forrest bent on capturing 
Streight. Both forces moved along at a steady gait, and by 
night of the 29th, the Federals, after having swept the country 
clean for a swath of several miles on each side of the road, of 
all the mules and horses, firearms and forage, rode into Day's 
Gap, the gorge that leads to the summit of Sand Mountain. 
Here the raiders rested for the night, as quiet and supposedly 
secure as the Sidonians of old. 

Forrest's men rode on in dogged pursuit, mile after mile, with 
only one hour's rest for man and beast. By midnight they were 
only four miles behind their quarry. Knowing that his men 
must have food and rest, Forrest ordered a halt, and soon his 
band, all except the famous "Forty Scouts," were deep in sleep 
upon the ground, a thousand inanimate bundles in blankets and 

At daylight Streight moved forward, but before he had pro- 
ceeded two miles his rear guard was attacked by Forrest. 

The following three days' contest across Sand Mountain, as 
these contending foes struggled to outwit, outfight and over- 
master each the other, affords a dramatic spectacle rarely equaled 
in military annals. The setting was most auspicious for the 
tragic action — a rugged country with precipitous cliffs and deep 
ravines, cut across here and there with leaping streams ; the 
combatants, two bands of men who were soldiers all, patriots all, 
venturing for their consciences' sake that for which it is said a 
man will forswear all things else, his life ; the roar of cannon, 
the rattle of musketry, the clank of crossed swords, the silences 

354 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

of ambush, the cries of victory, the groans of death ! And over 
all, now April showers had ceased, clear spring skies of the 
silver rays of the southern moon. 

The Alabama soldiers, with the Federals, were familiar with 
the passes, and this fact was of service to Streight, for with his 
dreaded foe at his heels, and detachments circling around the 
mountain sides endeavoring to form a juncture to meet his ad- 
vance, he seemed to be caught in a trap. As he ascended the 
western crest of the mountain, which is the southwestern termi- 
nation of the great Appalachian range, and looked below to the 
valley which surrounded him, the bold Indianian saw that he 
was in a capital position to make a stand. He laid an ambush 
which was measurably effective. Counter-strategem and some 
vigorous fighting followed, in which Forrest's only two cannon 
were captured and a number of men and horses killed on both 

The "Wizard of the Saddle" told his band that their guns 
must be retaken if every man died in the attempt, and that they 
must dismount, hitch their horses to saplings and begin their 
task, assuring them that if they did not succeed they would 
never need their horses again. The "fiery, turbulent spirits" un- 
der him loved to execute just such desperate orders as their 
beloved chef was giving them, for they had charged with him at 
Shiloh, escaped with him from Fort Donaldson, made glory with 
him at Murfreesboro, at Thompson's Station, at Brentwood, and 
they knew the inflexible dauntlessnes of the man. 

From this moment there was a running fight across Sand 
Mountain, with death to mark the trail. Streight advanced as 
rapidly as possible, and when finding- his rear too hard pressed 
would take his stand and fight or ambuscade his adversary. 
Forrest harried him constantly, attempting to circle around him, 
and steadily shooting at "everything blue" to "keep up the scare." 
Seeing the difficulty of his movement, because of the natural 
barriers of gorges, precipitous mountain sides and broken paths, 
the Confederate chief ordered a portion of his command to ad- 
vance in "a general direction parallel with the route upon which 
Streight was moving," to prevent his escape by way of the cross- 
roads, while he himself led the remaining troops in pursuit of 

Emma Sansom, Heroine of Immortal Courage. 355 

the swift marching raiders. Streight still had Forrest's two big 
guns ! The Confederates had been compelled to unhitch their 
horses from the saplings. 

That night the fight was renewed, Forrest, as always, leading 
the assault in person. The encounter became so spirited and so 
desperate that the participants grappled hand to hand. When 
he could no longer withstand the attack, Streight ordered retreat, 
leaving Forrest his covered guns, which, however, had prudently- 
been spiked. At once, with renewed eagerness, the Confederates 
were upon the heels of their fleeing foe. Late in the night, un- 
der the light of a full moon, there was fighting, following an am- 
buscade, and again more fighting following another ambuscade. 

Assured of thwarting Streight's plans, Forrest allowed his men 
a brief respite for rest, and while they slept the raiders descended 
the eastern slope of the mountain, and on May-day entered the 
little town of Bluntsville, took a little rest, a goodly number of 
mules and horses, and then their departure. 

By afternoon Forrest rode in and fell upon the Federal rear 
guard with vigor. Ten miles further away, on the banks of the 
Black Warrior, Streight was again forced to take his stand and 
fight in order to secure a crossing over this swift and dangerous 

The following morning the raiders reached Black Creek, "a 
crooked, deep and sluggish stream, with precipitous clay banks 
and mud bottoms," which has its source on Lookout Mountain, 
"the southern limit of which range is less than one mile to the 

Before reaching the bridge which crossed Black Creek there 
was an unpretentious country home owned and occupied by the 
widow Sansom and her two daughters. This home was entered 
by the dreaded "Yankees," and thoroughly searched for firearms 
and saddles. The only son and protector of the home was far 
away in a Confederate command fighting for the Stars and Bars. 
The indignity of this invasion was keenly resented by the three 
lone women, and to appease their fears the raiders' chief placed 
a guard around the house "for their protection." Emma, the 
young sixteen-year-old daughter, true to the traditional "high 
spirits" of mortals possessing red hair, was still in high dudgeon 

356 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

over the occurrence when General Forrest, a little after the 
"Yankees" had taken their departure, rode up to the gate. He 
found an eager little Confederate volunteer. 

"They have burned the bridge! They have burned the 
bridge !" she cried, "but I know the way through the lost ford. 
No one else can show you. No one else knows!" 

"It will take me three hours to reach the bridge above this' 
ruined one," Forrest said, meditatively. "I cannot lose three 
hours. Come, show me the way." 

Streight's rear guard was still posted across the river, and 
cannon balls and rifle shots were flying through the air. 

"There is great danger to you. Maybe you had better go 
back," the General said to the young girl, whom he had taken 
up behind him on his horse in his haste to discover the crossing. 

"I am not afraid," she declared, stoutly. 

"Are you sure about the ford?" Forrest asked, anxiously. 

"I have seen our cows pick their way over in low water. 
I am sure !" 

As they neared the place which she indicated they dismounted 
and crept through the underbrush towards the ford. When 
they came into view of the raider sharpshooters across the river 
their lives were in grave peril ; but the girl's courage was of the 
quality of the fearless Confederate leader, and she stood her 
ground. On they went to the very spot where a reasonably 
safe footing was to be secured for the daring riders in gray, 
winding their way down the mountain road. When his young 
guide had pointed out to him the zigzag course across the swift 
stream she returned to the little home, which from that hour 
sprang into existence as among the historic sites in American 
history, the home of Emma Sansom, the Confederate heroine of 

When Streight, who had halted in the town of Gadsden, four 
miles distant, to destroy some commissary stores there, dis- 
covered that Forrest was again after him, he felt that indeed he 
was a veritable wizard, and one, too, that was in covenant with 
hell and leagued with the devil. 

Again the raiders went forward with determination and all 
possible speed towards their objective, encouraged by the hope 
of burning the bridge at Rome after they had passed over. 

Emma Sansom, Heroine of Immortal Courage. 357 

"On to Rome!" they cried. "On to Rome!" 

"After them, men !" shouted Forrest, as he dashed forward, in 
the lead as ever, his flashing sword an oriflamme to his tired men, 
who, thus ordered, put spurs to their flagging mounts and with 
a "rebel yell" and but one will, their chieftain's will, answered: 
"After them!" 

The Federals had to their advantage, by virtue of their ad- 
vanced position, the first choice of fresh horses, which they seized 
without formality as they passed through the country, not only 
to procure fresh mounts for themselves, but to thwart their pur- 
suers of them, and also the tremendous advantage of the deadly 

The Confederates, but half the Federals in number, had but 
Forrest for their leader. 

Streight sent 200 picked men ahead of his column to seize 
and hold the bridge until his arrival. Anticipating this move, 
Forrest dispatched a courier, who rode with the speed of the 
Persian angari to give warning to the Romans. 

When Streight's detachment arrived they found the bridge 
barricaded and amply protected by the home guard. In the 
meantime, the main bod}', their way lighted by the moon and 
the stars, reached the banks of the intervening river, the" Chat- 

The ferryboat had mysteriously vanished. Nothing daunted, 
Colonel Streight led his men for some miles through the dense 
woods, a wilderness, along the riverside, in quest of a bridge. 
Many of his band were so exhausted from the ride of 150 miles 
over the mountain and rough country roads, from hunger, con- 
stant fighting and from weary vigils, that they were sound asleep 
in their saddles. Finally the site of the Chattanooga bridge was 

It was but charred ruins, the bridge had been burned! 

Still wandering through the wilderness in search of a cross- 
ing, the rising sun found the raiders worn and sleep-ridden. At 
9 o'clock a halt was called for rest and breakfast. The faith- 
ful band, too exhausted to crave food, fell off their horses to the 
ground and slept. The tireless raider chief was the only wide- 
awake, unspent soldier of the troop. 

358 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

A courier presently arrived, bringing the tidings of Rome's 
defended bridge. Rumors also floated into camp that Con- 
federate troops were advancing to the defence of the city and 
the railroads. But the paramount evil announced itself — For- 
rest was again upon his track. Burnt bridges nor sequestered 
ferryboats had not stayed him. While the raiders wandered 
through bog and river bottoms in search of a bridge he had 
rested his followers. Now the pack was in full cry and the 
quarry in reach ! It was to be a fight to the death ! 

Streight aroused his sleeping band with difficulty from their 
heavy slumbers to take up arms in defense of their lives. 

A desperate, though losing fight, ensued. Seeing his victory, 
General Forrest sent a number of his staff to Colonel Streight 
under a flag of truce to demand a surrender. To accede to this 
demand was the only course left to the brave raider, and honor- 
able terms were agreed upon. 

To the three hours which Emma Sansom saved him at Black 
Creek, Forrest ever attributed this victory of his arms. Not 
alone was Rome saved, but one of the great Confederate lines 
of transportation and supply was also saved, and an historian 
has said that had "the Congress of the Confederate States or the 
President, in the light of this brilliant achievement, with the 
recollection of Fort Donelson, Shiloh, Murfreesborough, Thomp- 
son's Station and Brentwood, fresh in mind, appreciated the great 
military genius they were hampering with such a small force and 
had placed him then in command of all the cavalry of the Army 
of Tennessee, they would have brightened the prospects of an 
independent Confederacy, and have won the appreciation and 
confidence of the Southern people." 

Inscriptions for Memorial to Women of Confederacy. 359 

[From Richmond, Va., News Leader, November 1, 1910.] 


Beautiful Sentiments Composed by Editor W. E. GONZALES, of the 

Columbia State, for South Carolina's Tribute— Lauds Courage 

of Southern Soldier and Those He Left Behind Him. 

Inscriptions which are to be placed upon the South Carolina 
monument to be reared to the women of the Confederacy have 
just been decided upon and made public in Columbia, S. C. 

A number of writers complied with the request and the pro- 
posed inscriptions were submitted anonymously to a committee. 
As a result of the work of this committee, the commission has 
adopted the inscriptions proposed by Captain William E. Gon- 
zales, editor of the Columbia State and secretary of the com- 

The two principal inscriptions were selected several months 
ago, but, owing to delays occasioned by correspondence between 
the commission and the sculptor in Paris regarding mechanical 
strictures and other details, the inscriptions are only now avail- 
able for publication. 

The monument commission asked a committee of five to pass 
on about thirty of the compositions considered worthy of their 
consideration. That committee was composed of Miss McClin- 
tock, president of the College for Women ; Stanhope Sams, Litt. 
D. ; the Rev. Dr. W. M. McPheeters, Professor Yates Snowden, 
LL. D., and Colonel U. R. Brooks. 

The commission adopted the report of the committee of judges. 
Captain Gonzales, being a competitor, had absented himself from 
the meeting and his compositions were selected as the inscrip- 
tions for the south and north sides of the monument. 

The four next succeeding compositions were submitted in the 
order reported by the committee, by Dr. George Armstrong 
Wauchope, head of the English department of the University of 
South Carolina, by Dr. E. S. Joynes, professor emeritus of 
modern languages at the university, by the Rev. A. M. Fraser, 

360 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

D. D., of Staunton, Ya., who last summer was invited to become 
president of the Columbia Theological Seminary, and by W. 
Banks Dove, formerly superintendent of city schools of Wash- 
ington, N. C, and now Assistant Secretary of State. Their re- 
spective works are submitted in this article as exhibits A, B, C 
and D. 

Following is the formal inscription prepared by the com- 
mission : 


The South Carolina Women of 
the Confederacy. 


by the Men of Their State. 

The Legislature's part will be conveyed in a line "Enacted by 
the General Assembly of the State of South Carolina" legible on 
a scroll being held up to the women by a bronze cupid. 

Following are the two inscriptions accepted for the North and 

South sides : 

(South Side) 

In this Monument 

generations unborn shall hear the 


of a grateful People 

testifying to the sublime Devotion 

of the Women of South Carolina 

in their Country's need 

Their unconquerable spirit 

strengthened the thin lines of grey 

Their tender care was solace to the 


Reverence for God 

and unfaltering Faith in a righteous 


inspired Heroism that withstood 

the immolation of sons 

and Courage that bore the agony of 

Inscriptions for Memorial to Women of Confederacy. 361 


and the shock of disaster. 

The tragedy of the Confederacy may 

be forgotten 

but the fruits of the noble Service 

of the Daughters of the South 

are our perpetual heritage. 

(North Side.) 

When reverses followed victories ; when want displaced plenty ; 
when mourning for the flower of Southern manhood darkened 
countless homes ; when government tottered and chaos threat- 
ened the women were steadfast and unafraid. They were un- 
changed in their devotion, unshaken in their patriotism, un-' 
wearied in ministrations, uncomplaining in sacrifices, splendid in 
fortitude they strove while they swept. In the rebuilding after 
the desolation their virtues stood as the supreme citadel with 
strong towers of faith and hope around which civilization rallied 
and triumphed. 

The other inscriptions, which were already decided upon, are 
as follows : 

This monument is erected to keep alive in the hearts of future 
South Carolinians the virtues, services and sacrifices of the 
women of the Confederacy who, by their constancy, under the 
trials and sufferings of war by their inspiring sympathy with 
the men at the front by their tender ministrations to the sick 
and wounded ; and by their material aid and unwavering fidelity 
to the common cause, have won the undying love and gratitude 
of the people of the South, and have bequeathed to their chil- 
dren from generation to generation the priceless heritage of their 

To The Women 

of the Confederate South 

Whose Constancy 

Sustained the Courage 

of the Confederate Soldier 

362 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

in Camp and Field 

Whose Virtue protected his Home 

Whose Service ministered to his needs 

Whose tender care nursed his sufferings 

Whose affection cheered his dying hour 

Whose smile welcomed his return 

And Brightened the Poverty 

of his 

Desolate Home 

They knew their cause was just. They put their trust in God. 
They gave their men to the war, and cheered them on to im- 
mortal deeds and endurance and to death. They ministered to 
the sick, the wounded and the dying. They braved unspeakable 
dangers in their defenseless homes. They welcomed poverty as 
a decoration of honor. In defeat and desolation they inspired 
the rebuilding of States. They have adorned the whole land 
with monuments to their fallen heroes. 

Erected in memory of those who in the sorrow of the silence 
and separation endured the agony of a conflict they might not 
share, whose courage sustained the Southern soldier amid the 
carnage of the battlefield, whose love and fidelity soothed the 
suffering of his sickness, whose gentle hand brushed from his 
pale face the gathering dews of death, whose faith and fortitude 
faltered not in the darkest hr ar, whose inspiration transformed 
the gloom of defeat into the nope of the future, and whose mem- 
ory shall not be forgot even in the hour of peace. 

Wilson's Creek. 363 

[From Richmond, Va., Dispatch, April 21, 1931.] 


Monument to be Erected to Heroes Who Fell There- 
Fierce Struggle of Seven Hours. 

Roster of the Hanover Grays of the Gallant 15th Virginia Regiment- 
The Proposed Monument to Forrest— Reunion Notes. 

From Springfield. Mo., H. Clay Neville writes to the 
Memphis Appeal: 

On the ioth of next August, the fortieth anniversary of 
the Bat''.e of Wilson's Creek, a monument will be unveiled at 
the Confederate Cemetery, four miles south of Springfield. 
This will be one of the most important events commemorative 
of the Southern cause that has ever occurred west of the Mis- 
sissippi River, and all of the ex-Confederate associations in 
Missouri are now working together with much zeal to make 
the occasion comport with the sacred memories which the 
monument is designed to perpetuate. 

The States of Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas 
have a common interest in the Confederate Cemetery at Spring- 
field, as each has sons sleeping there who fell in the first great 
battle fought in the West. The four States named will have a 
formal representation at the unveiling of the monument, and 
never again, perhaps, will so many Confederate veterans meet 
in any reunion west of the Mississippi. All of the States and 
Territories of the West and Southwest will be invited to par- 
ticipate in the dedication of this memorial shaft. The Missouri 
State Camp of ex-Confederate Veterans will meet here the day 
before the anniversary of the battle and conduct the exercises 
of the unveiling. It is the aim of the various ex-Confederate 
associations that have the arrangements of the affair in hand 
to bring every survivor of the Battle of Wilson Creek who is 
able to travel to Springfield to witness the dedication of the 
monument. General John B. Gordon and Senator Daniel, of 

364 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

Virginia, will perhaps be two of the speakers for the occasion, 
and the Governors of Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana and Texas 
are expected to be present. 

The monument was designed by the Italian sculptor, Chevalier 
Trentanove, who is now at work on the bronze statue in Flor- 
ence. The statue is 12 feet 7 inches in height, and represents 
a private Southern soldier. The figure stands with folded 
arms, gazing slightly upward, and weaponless, except a pistol 
belted at the side. The dress of the soldier caused the question 
of propriety to be raised by some of the ex-Confederates here, 
who said the uniform was incongruous because of the fact that 
the designer put cavalry boots on his model. Others contend 
that the mixture of dress makes the statue represent the two 
important branches of the army — the infantry and cavalry — 
and on that account gives the monument a more general character. 

The base of the monument will be 14 feet square and made 
of Vermont granite. The foundation will be in four pieces, 
and each succeeding layer will consist of a solid stone. The 
base of the monument will be 18 feet high. 

The Confederate Cemetery at Springfield contains about four 
acres of ground, and is inclosed by a wall of limestone that will 
stand for ages without the need of repair. 

There are about 500 graves in the cemetery, most of them 
marked unknown, for the Confederate dead were not interred 
here until several years after the close of the war, and the bones 
gathered up at Wilson Creek and other battlefields near Spring- 
field could seldom be identified. 

The Southern forces lost at Wilson Creek about 263 men 
killed on the battlefield or mortally wounded. 

On the 8th of January, 1863, what is known here as the 
Battle of Springfield, or "the Marmaduke fight," was fought 
in the southern part of the old town. General John S. Marma- 
duke, afterwards one of the governors of Missouri, commanded 
the Confederate forces in that engagement. The Southern 
dead were left on the field, and buried by the citizens of Spring- 
field the day after the battle. The graves were dug just south 
of what was then the southern edge of the town, and in 1868, 
when it became necessary to extend South Street, the workmen, 

Wilson's Creek. 365 

in excavating, unearthed many of the bones of the Confederate 
soldiers. This caused the question of a cemetery site to be dis- 
cussed, and the Southern people of Springfield selected the 
present grounds for that purpose and began to gather up the re- 
mains of all the Confederate dead around Springfield and inter 
them there. 

The battlefield of Wilson's Creek, eight miles west of the ceme- 
tery, had not been protected during the seven years, and some 
graves were, of course, never found. The little valley of Wilson's 
Creek had often been flooded by heavy rains, and now and then 
the skeleton of a Southern soldier was washed down into the 
James River and lost. 

All possible care was used in searching the battlefield for the 
remains of the dead, and, considering the impoverished condition 
of the Southern people in and around Springfield at that time, 
this work was done with remarkable faithfulness. 

The struggles of the Confederate Cemetery Association to get 
money to protect their dead now seem almost as pathetic as 
some of the events of the war, and form a part of that great 
tragedy of the Lost Cause, whose complete history will never be 
written. Jefferson Davis gave the monument his personal aid, 
and General Robert E. Lee sent a lock of his hair to be sold as a 
souvenir at an entertainment gotten up to raise funds for the 
cemetery. Mrs. D. C. Kennedy, of Springfield, wife of an 
ex-Confederate soldier, who was the founder of the first Demo- 
cratic newspaper published here after the war, and Consul-Gen- 
eral at Malta under President Cleveland's last administration, 
has now that braid of the great Southern Chieftain's hair which 
he would have contributed to no other cause in the world. 

The Battle of Wilson's Creek, or Oak Hills, as it is called in 
the Confederate reports of the engagement, was a hard and 
bloody struggle of seven hours' duration, fought in an open 
field by troops most of whom had never before been under fire. 
The war was then just opening in the West, and on the ioth of 
August, 1861, the sound of hostile cannon had never been heard 
by the people of Springfield and the inhabitants of the surround- 
ing country. It was more than 100 miles from the battlefield 
to the nearest railroad, and news of the progress of the war on 

366 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

the Atlantic coast reached the Ozark mountaineers very slowly. 
But meagre reports of the great Southern victory at Bull Run 
had been received by the people of Southwest Missouri when the 
Battle of Wilson's Creek brought the realities of war to their 
very doors. 

General Nathaniel Lyon, at the head of the Army of the 
Southwest, occupied Springfield. General Franz Sigel, a soldier 
of foreign birth and education, was the second officer in the 
Union army. The Federal forces were well equipped and 
drilled for that stage of the war. Some of General Lyon's men 
were soldiers of the regular army. General Sigel's troops were 
German volunteers, and some of these had done service in the 

General Ben. McCulloch, a Texas veteran who had helped 
avenge the butchery of the heroes of the Alamo, at San Jacinto, 
was the senior officer of the Confederate forces advancing on 
Springfield from the Arkansas border. General Sterling Price, 
affectionately called "Old Pap Price" by his men later on in the 
war, commanded the Missouri State Guards, at the Battle of 
Wilson Creek. In General Price's command were many raw 
recruits from Arkansas and the mountains of Missouri, who 
had no other weapons than the flintlock rifles and shotguns they 
had brought from their cabin homes in the Ozark wilderness 
when the signal of war called them away to fight for "Southern 
rights" against "Northern invaders," as Union soldiers were 
called by the adherents of the young Confederacy. All kinds 
of weapons known in the ante-bellum days were used at Wilson's 
Creek. Flintlock pistols picked up on the battlefield thirty-five 
years ago are now kept as prized souvenirs by some of the farm- 
ers who owned the ground where the two armies struggled. 
General McCulloch was moving to attack General Lyon, and 
bivouacked on the 9th of August near the mouth of Wilson's 
Creek, to rest his men and allow them to kill some beeves and 
roast green corn for rations. It would have been but an easy 
half day's march to Springfield, and the plan was to reach the 
town by night, and give battle to the Union army early on the 
morning of the 10th. The order to break camp at Wilson's Creek 
had already been given, and th~ Southern Army was astir for 

Wilson's Creek. 367 

the final march before the expected battle when 1 a summer 
shower began to fall. The ammunition of the soldiers was ex- 
posed. Some of the men carried rudely-made cartridges in 
their pockets. The powder in the horns of the hunter recruits 
might get wet. General McCulloch saw this danger, and coun- 
termanded the order to march, and the soldiers were told to keep 
their powder dry. In an hour or two the rain had ceased, but 
the army remained in camp that afternoon in the Valley of 
Wilson's Creek, and many of the Missouri and Arkansas volun- 
teers molded bullets for their old deer guns. 

General Lyon that afternoon decided to anticipate the attack 
of his enemy, and after dark marched down to Wilson Creek, 
reaching the pickets of the Southern Army about daylight. Gen- 
eral Sigel, commanding the flanking column of the Federal 
army, had started out of Springfield several hours in advance of 
General Lyon, and he was in position for the attack long before 
the Confederate camp began to stir. The Union commander's 
plan of battle was to attack the Southern forces in front, drive 
them back on General SigeFs flanking column, and thus, if pos- 
sible, bag the prey. 

The battle began about sun-up on the front and rear of the 
Confederate camp. The surprise was almost complete, and fully 
half of the Southern soldiers were either in bed or preparing 
breakfast, when General Lyon's battery, commanded by Lieu- 
tenant Totten, afterward a famous artillery officer in the Union 
army, opened fire from the top of what is now known as "Bloody 
Hill" on the Confederate camp in the valley below. 

There was some demoralization among a portion of the South- 
ern troops at first. There were a thousand or more of the new 
recruits that had no guns of any kind. That was a time, too, 
when a large number of Southern volunteers wanted to fight 
on horseback they thought. The cavalry service was very at- 
tractive for the cavalier spirit of the South, and fully half of 
General Price's State Guards saddled their horses when they 
took down their rifles from the old gunracks and started to join 
the army. 

At Wilson's Creek these horses proved to be a great encum- 
brance to General Price, and he had to get his unarmed men out 

368 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

of the range of the Federal guns before the other troops could 
do much effective service in resisting the attack. 

When the Confederate commanders realized that they had an 
enemv in their front and rear. General McOulloch selected the 
Third Louisiana, led by Colonel Hebert, to repel the attack of 
Sigel's flanking column, which by this time held a strong position 
on a hill south of the center of the camp and about one mile 
from Lyon's camp. The Louisiana troops made a splendid 
appearance as they marched up that little mountain slope in the 
face of Sigel's battery. They wore bright, new uniforms of 
gray and their equipments were the best in General McCulloch's 
army. The German soldiers on the hill saw the advancing col- 
umn and they mistook the Louisiana troops for the First Iowa — 
one of General Lyon's regiments that wore gray uniforms. They 
thought the attack in front had been successful and that Lyon 
had broken through the Southern camp. General Sigel watched 
the advancing column through his glass, and at last exclaimed : 
"They carry the secession flag." Still his men held their fire. 
They could not believe that the approaching line, so superb in 
bearing and equipment, belonged to the Confederate Army. The 
Pelican Rifles were so unlike the raw recruits Sigel's column had 
first encountered in the valley below. 

The Third Louisiana came close to the admiring Dutch troops 
before they levelled their guns. A deadly fire then blazed in the 
faces of Sigel's artillerymen. With a wild battle-cry the gallant 
soldiers in grey rushed up the hill and captured the battery 
before a gun could be bred. Sigel's whole column was routed 
in rive minutes. His army became a panic-stricken mob, and 
every man sought safety in his own way. As the Dutch troops 
scattered and fled towards the James River the Texas cavalry 
took up the pursuit, and the daring riders who had done service 
for years on the Indian frontier now did deadly execution with 
their carbines and big revolvers. 

Sigel was thus quickly put out of the fight. He retreated 
back to Springfield early in the day, followed by the straggling 
survivors of his demoralized army. 

The Louisiana troops then hurried to the front and joined 
their Missouri and Arkansas comrades engaged with General 

Wilson's Creek. 36 d 

Lyon. Here the storm of battle raged incessantly over and 
around "Bloody Hill" till about n o'clock. For seven hours 
there was no pause in the deadly struggle. The Union com- 
mander fought heroically. With Sigel routed and hurrying 
far away from the field the odds were against Lyon, but he 
fought on and exposed himself to the enemy's fire recklessly. 
His horse was shot on the summit of the fatal hill. The General 
was also bleeding from a wound. He mounted another horse 
and started to lead the First Iowa, that had been rallied for one 
more charge. At the head of this decimated regiment the Union 
commander fell, and then the battle suddenly ended. The rem- 
nant of General Lyon's army followed Sigel's stragglers back to 
Springfield, and the victory of Oak Hills was emblazoned on the 
arms of the young and hopeful Confederacy. 

That the fighting at Wilson's Creek was stubborn and deadly is 
shown by the losses on both sides. The killed and wounded of 
the Federal army numbered 1,235. The First Missouri Infantry 
had seventy-six men killed on the field. The First Kansas lost 
seventy-seven. The aggregate losses on each side were about 
the same. The fighting was always at close range. The Southern 
troops marched up within a few rods of the Union line and fired 
their double-barrelled shotguns and flintlock rifles right in the 
faces of the foe. The buckshot of General Price's Missouri 
Volunteers did fatal work on "Bloody Hill." The guns of those 
trained mountaineer hunters were loaded heavily, and when the 
battle was over many of these raw recruits that had escaped the 
enemy's fire found their shoulders very sore. This was caused 
by the "kicking" of the old muzzle-loaders. 

The Union army stopped a few hours at Springfield, then re- 
sumed the retreat toward St. Louis. At Rolla, Mo., the demor- 
alized command was reorganized and remained there inactive for 
several months. 

General McCulloch buried his dead on the battlefield, and the 
next day, Sunday, August nth, he marched into Springfield. 
The wounded of both armies were moved to the little town and 
distributed among the public buildings, hotels and private houses. 
The courthouse and several churches became hospitals, and al- 
most every woman of Springfield, of either side, who could 
endure the sight of mangled soldiers, found service as a nurse. 

370 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

The old St. Paul Methodist Church, on South Street, was then 
the largest house of worship in Southwest Missouri. This build- 
ing was full of the wounded of both armies. A young Confed- 
erate soldier stopped as his regiment marched into town from 
Wilson Creek and looked in at this improvised hospital. Thirty- 
five vears later that veteran of Oak Hills was the pastor of the 
St. Paul Church. That ex-Confederate soldier, the Rev. Dr. 
C. C. Woods, is now the associate editor of the Christian Advo- 
cate of St. Louis. 

After the battle of Wilson's Creek the deepest gloom over- 
shadowed the hearts of the Union people of the Ozarks, while 
the Confederate soldier and the Southern sympathizer revelled in 
an estacy of enthusiasm. 

Those were the golden days of the Southern cause, when the 
"rebel yell" was proclaiming victory for the proud young stand- 
ard of "Dixie Land" from the Potomac to the Western frontier. 

In the camps of Generals McCulloch and Price, at Springfield, 
just after the Battle of Wilson's Creek, were some of the most 
picturesque spectacles witnessed anywhere during the War be- 
tween the States. Here were gathered together a strange and 
heterogeneous host of Southern defenders. The Louisiana 
troops gave the Confederate Army its highest military tone. 
These gallant sons of the Creole State, who had left luxuriant 
homes to fight in the ranks for Southern independence, were 
idolized by the Southern ladies of Springfield. 

From the western frontier of the imperial Lone Star State, 
where the waters of the Rio Grande are musical with a thousand 
memories of romantic adventure, the daring Texas ranger had 
ridden all the way across the vast intervening plain to participate 
in the glorious achievement of driving back the "Northern in- 
vader." This bronzed Indian fighter, attired in his broad som- 
brero, fringed buckskin pants, capacious boots, jingling spurs, 
and pistol belt, was the most interesting spectacle of the Confed- 
erate camp. For the entertainment of his civilian admirers, this 
centaur of the West would now and then pick up a gravel from 
the street or lasso a steer on the town commons while running 
his horse at full speed. 

The ranger was an unknown quantity yet in the War between 
the States, but to the people of Springfield just after the Battle 

Wilson's Creek. 371 

of Wilson Creek he seemed the most promising champion of the 
Southern cause. He came from the Indian frontier with the 
fame and paraphernalia of the resistless hero. The tales that 
were told of the ranger's prowess and skill in fighting the wily- 
savage on the Western plains could hardly have been more im- 
probable, but that was a credulous age, and few of the partisans 
of the South, who gazed on the marvelous feats of horseman- 
ship exhibited by the bold Texan as he dashed about the camp, 
doubted the truth of these wonderful legends. That the knight 
of the lasso would perform new wonders in driving back the 
"hireling foe,"' all Southern sympathizers about Springfield in 
the latter part of August, 1861, firmly believed. 

When Generals McCulloch and Price occupied Springfield, 
after the retreat of the Federal army to Rolla, the new recruits 
from the mountains of Missouri and Arkansas began to learn 
their first lessons in the art of war. Boasting of neither patrician 
birth nor heroic adventure, these 'ungainly sons of the Ozarks 
had left their homes to fight for the glittering cause which allured 
all classes of men to the field of death. The experience of 
these unlettered followers of the Confederate standard had been 
narrow, indeed. Beyond their primitive homes, made of oak or 
pine logs, where the boys had been born and reared, their knowl- 
edge of the world did not extend far. The thrilling 'coon-hunt, 
the shooting-match, the camp-meeting, and the Christmas dances 
were the events that had given life its coloring of adventure for 
the young mountaineers, who were now trying so hard to master 
some of the simpler elements in the manual of arms. The tradi- 
tions of the war in southwest Missouri say that some of Price's 
youthful recruits had never been "up-stairs" till they came to 
Springfield and explored the architectural wonders of the old 
Greene County Courthouse, a three-story building, which still 
stands on the west side of the public square. 

Of the prominent Confederate officers who took part in the 
Battle of Oak Hills, only General Price survived the close of 
the war. General •McCulloch was killed at Pea Ridge the fol- 
lowing March. General Slack and several other officers, who 
took part in the battle near Springfield, fell there also. 

General Price always regarded the Battle of Oak Hills as a 
great victory for his troops, and after he was moved to the 

372 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

Trans-Mississippi Department he often reminded his men of the 
valor they exhibited there as an incentive to other achievements. 
There is a bill now before Congress to make the battleground 
of Wilson Creek a national park. An option has already been 
secured on about 300 acres of the battlefield. Aside from the 
historic memories associated with this part of the Ozark Plateau, 
the reservation could be made very attractive, for the ground 
has great diversity of scenery, and the winding valley of Wilson 
Creek, viewed from the summit of "Bloody Hill," where a pile 
of native stone marks the spot on which General Lyon died, looks 
very picturesque. 

[From Richmond, Va., Times-Dispatch September 19, 1911.] 


How Lieutenant Stuart Cut Down Ossowattomie Brown 
During Murderous Raid — Cavaliers and Puritans. 

Assassination of Lincoln, Garfield and McKinley Were Products of 

the Period. 

On the evening of the ist of June last, while the Confederate 
Reunion was on. Colonel Winfield Peters, of Baltimore, read 
before the Veteran Cavalry Association of the Army of Northern 
Virginia a lengthy historical paper on the circumstances of the 
wounding of General J. E. B. Stuart, which is said by many to 
be the only authentic account ever made public. Colonel Peters 
obtained his information from the men who saw Stuart wounded. 
He was at the time a Lieutenant, and was on the Yellow Tavern 
Battlefield, between the lines, getting the wounded removed, 
when Stuart received his mortal wound. 

The narrative of Colonel Peters, as related before the Cavalry 
Association, is very lengthy, but it ought to be preserved, and 
as he has kindly furnished "Our Confederate Column" with the 
manuscript, it is published in three parts : Last Sunday the 
first part appeared, this Sunday the second part is printed and 
next Sunday the third and concluding paper will appear. 

Lee and Sluart at Harper's terry. 373 

It has been creditably asserted that General R. E. Lee, upon 
the surrender at Appomattox, said, "The war has only begun." 
Obviously, the war between the Cavalier and the Puritan, which 
will last while there is a vestige of the formier and the latter are 
in evidence ; many of whom yet mourn and apotheosize John 
Brown, justly condemned. The seditionary and murderous raid 
of this Puritan disciple at Harper's Ferry, Ya., in October, 1859, 
was cut short by Lieutenant-Colonel R. E. Lee, Lmited States 
Army, aided by Lieutenant J. E. B. Stuart, of the First United 
States Cavalry, who, with Lieutenant Green and a detachment 
of marines, broke into "Brown's Fort." Instantly Brown was 
on the ground with a cut from Stuart's sabre — as the story goes. 
Grabbing the culprit and lifting him to his feet, the Lieutenant 
said, "You are 'Ossowattomie' Brown." "Yes, Lieutenant 
Stuart, I am 'Ossowattomie' Brown," trembling as he answered. 
Old "Ossowattomie" Brown, hunted in Kansas by United States 
Cavalry, under Stuart and others, for the murder of fifty citizen 
settlers, because salveholders, making model laborers, harmless 
and happy, out of savage negroes, with cannibals for daddies. 
But this, in the satanic minds of Brown and his Puritan aboli- 
tion co-conspirators, was a crime against the cardinal virtues ! 

Lee, Jackson and Stuart were cast in the same mould of per- 
fect manhood ; shared the identical, matchless civilization ; like 
ancestry and evolution, precisely as did Washington and his 
confreres. And while these three incomparable leaders, with 
their paladins and warriors, kept the field, their army was demon- 
strably invincible. The "invincible Confederate infantry" was a 
by-word in the Brithish Army. 

When the mysterious mind of Providence decreed the fate 
of the heroic Confederate people. He removed His servam, 
Stonewall Jackson, as has been said. Likewise, Stuart fell, and 
it was sealed. And in the ^eatn throes of Lee's scarred, bloody, 
decimated army A. P. Hill fell. His was the name last on the 
lips of Lee and Jackson in the uelirium of death. 

But other Confederate armies likewise had their illustrious 
dead on the field of patriotic valor and glory : Albert Sidney 
Johnston, at Shiloh ; Bishop Leonidas Polk, at Kennesaw ; John 
Morgan, the Mosby of the West, at Greenville, Tenn. O holo- 
caust of matchless leaders, chief and subordinate, martyrs all ! 

374 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

"It is good that we lay down our lives for the brethren." 

The gloom and grief that followed the death of Jackson was 
typically told by the little girl who lived not far off, who said, 
"Mamma, I wish I could die instead of General Jackson, because 
only you and papa would cry. But if General Jackson dies all 
the people will cry." 

Lee, the sublimest of our heroes, was providentially preserved 
— a Moses among his suffering people — to endure a living cruci- 
fixion and illustrate how God-like a mortal man may be, even 
a soldier and a civilian, and leave a flawless, incomparable exam- 
ple and imperishable fame. 

These are the jewels ; the Confederate people are the crown. 

But they are gone, all but a remnant ; so is, perhaps, their 
God-given civilization, born of generations. The other side, 
"our friends the enemy," are in the saddle. After this, mayhap, 
the deluge ! 

Typically considered, a Scottish poet put in verse and in truth : 

"Within the bounds of Annandale 

The gentle Johnstons ride. 
They're been there a thousand years ; 

A thousand more they'll bide." 

Did ever poet write thus of a Puritan apostle? And why not? 
The analogy is lacking, forsooth. 


At Spotsylvania, May 12, 1864, early in the morning, the 
Yankees, under Hancock, took the Confederate salient by pene- 
trating the line extending from the left, then changing front 
and rushing torrentlike in the Confederate rear, while the troops 
within the salient were successful in front; moreover, certain 
Confederate artillery had been withdrawn in the night. Later 
in the day the salient was retaken after a desperate battle and 
heavy losses. 

General J. E. B. Stuart died the evening of that day. Four 
days before, on May 8th, he parted from General Lee, and on 
May nth fought Sheridan at Yellow Tavern, and was mortally 

Lee and Stuart at Harper's Ferry. 375 

Major-General Edward Johnson and Brigadier-General 
George H. Stenart, Jr., with some 2,500 men, were captured 
in that salient and taken to General Hancock, who extended 
to them a cordial greeting, shaking hands with Johnson ; but 
Steuart turned his back on Hancock with the remark, "I refuse 
to shake hands with the enemies of my country." 

Graduates from the United States Military Academy at West 
Point, these three fellow-officers had been social intimates in 
the regular United States Army prior to the war. 

General Steuart afterward said to me and others that he had 
vowed he would never speak to a former such officer who fol- 
lowed Lincoln's war to the infamy of making soldiers of stolen 
negroes. I said to him, "General Steuart, your name will ever 
be revered for that act of patriotism and moral courage." 

Who, besides this typical regular of Maryland ancestry and 
fame, would have thus "bearded the lion in his den," and with 
dogged perspicacity have inflicted this contemptuous rebuke? 

George H. Steuart came of Scotch ancestry ; J. E. B. Stuart's 
ancestors were from Wales. There was an absence of English 
in both. 

Hancock was styled "The Superb," pluming himself par excel- 
lence worthy to be classed among the Southern chivalry of the 
United States Army before the war, who, in 1861, almost to 
a man, quit it (with not a few of Northern birth) to defend 
their sovereign States ; so taught at the United States Military 
Academy ; following the Democracy instituted by Washington 
and Jefferson, destroyed by the anarchy and communism of 
Lincoln, whose acaunt coureur was John Brown, the abolition 
rebel, justly executed for his crimes, so admitted by his own 

It was General Hancock's sublime privilege to be in supreme 
command at the execution of the martyr, innocent Mrs. Mary 
Surratt, sacrificed to satisfy the bloodthirsty Puritans. General 
McClellan as bravely arrested the Maryland Legislature, whom 
Seward (by the ring of his little bell) jailed many months, never 
venturing a trial. Seward, in a speech in the United States 
Senate, in January, 1861, denied the right of the government 
to coerce the seceded States. 

87t> Southern Historical Society Papers. 


The Cavalier, in his way, through evolution, having- at the 
outset goaded the Puritan into allied rebellion, created a revo- 
lution for justice and sovereign rights; having France for an 
ally, disdaining the dogma of ducats and self — while holding 
down the lid on the Puritan — after seven years of righteous resist- 
ance. Providence gave the courage of youthful David, and they 
flung a sovereign across the Atlantic. But this dogmatic veto 
of despotic power and money lust was not without its sacrifices. 
They had warred against the English progenitors of the Puri- 
tans as full-fledged with diabolism. 

The Revolution won, the Cavaliers thereupon instituted the 
greatest democracy of government known among men, and con- 
ducted it nearly eighty years, until surrendered to Puritan 
"Black Republicanism." The Czar and his satellites had come 
to America. The Black Republicans facing unabashed, a minor- 
ity of 900,000 of the electorate, put a man in the chair of Wash- 
ington who was not only his antithesis, but Washington im- 
perilled his liberty, his life and his possessions to build and save 
what Lincoln destroyed. 


The many histories and chronicles of Washington's life and 
deeds have had one hundred years' sifting and verifying. Not 
so with the so-called histories of Lincoln, all written with brazen 
bias and apotheosis, profanely linking him with Washington. 
But a Virginia Cavalier has excerpted from them some stern 
facts that dampen the fire of those historical fables and fads. 
Read "The Real Lincoln," by Prof. C. L. C. Minor, Johnson 
Publishing Company, Richmond, Ya. 

Washington, like a Christian and patriot in a righteous cause, 
died at his home in peace. 

Lincoln's assassin was maddened by his broken promise to 
him to reprieve John Yates Beall, whom he hung. Beall was a 
Yirginia naval hero and a warm friend of Booth since the John 
Brown Raid. 

Lincoln chose Good Friday night and a theatre in Wash- 
ington to receive the adultations of the mob, unmindful, doubt- 

Lee and Stuart at Harper's Ferry. 877 

less, of the first Good Friday and the Saviour's injunction to 
the disciple who used his sword: "Put up thy sword in its 
place ; for all that take the sword shall perish by the sword." 
After eighteen and a quarter centuries we had another Pilate, 
Stanton was the Plerod, Seward the Caiphas and Scott the cen- 

Lincoln died April 15, 1865, and on April 15, 1861, he, by 
proclamation, declared a "Rebellion," which, by this act, imme- 
diately plunged the country into fratricidal war. 

Contrasting Washington and Lincoln, supernatural powers 
seemingly of antipodal purposes ruled and directed these two 
types of men, and it only needs to contrast their minds and 
methods, not in fancy, but in fact, and their final ends. Lincoln 
had the relation to 'Washington such as a demon of wrong has 
to an apostle of right. 

Lincoln's assassin having been a product of his period, so, 
likewise, were the assassins of Garfield and McKinley. How- 
ever we may deplore those acts, we can with equal horror con- 
demn the political environs and crimes characteristic of the 
times. Put, I have digressed. 

The alliance with France was essential to the success of the 
colonists, and was certified and cemented by several fortuitous 
causes, viz : First, the inherited hatred of France against Eng- 
land and Puritan perfidy and agression. Second, The sovereign 
patriotism and valor of the Americans. Third, John Paul 
Jones's victories. Fourth, The statecraft of Franklin and the 
examples of Lafayette, Pulaski and other foreigners. Fifth, 
The effective good offices of John Carroll, the Catholic Yicar 
Apostlic of America at Baltimore, and, through him, the Arch- 
bishop of Paris. We know, historically, that the Catholic King 
of France was largely influenced by the highest Catholic digni- 
tary, and probably at the crucial point for America. 

Xo unprejudiced American citizen needs to be assured that 
the Catholic hierarchy stands always for truth and righteous- 
ness. Pope Pius IX, recognized the Confederate States. Gen- 
eral Early thereupon remarked that his title to infallibility was 
secure. Upon the downfall of the Confederacy, and while other 
European potentates were hedging and squirming to hide the 
aid to the Confederacv that they had winked at, this same holy 

378 Soul/tern Historical Society Papers. 

father, Pope Pius, sent words of comfort to President Davis, 
shackled in Fortress Monroe. And the guns of that fort were 
wont to roar in his honor when War Secretary, and the great- 
est the country ever had. So much by way of parenthesis to 
my story. 

Reflecting upon all this and our government under Washing- 
ton and his successors, down to Taylor, the last Southern 
President, and the degradation growing deeper and deeper since 
Lincoln's advent in 1861. In the spirit of Christian fortitude 
and resignation, we, with all reverence, cry within our hearts, 
"My God! My God! Why hast Thou forsaken us?" 

Another contrast for deep reflection occurs between Jefferson 
Davis and Abraham Lincoln : Who and what they were and 
represented ; how they lived and how they died. The one a true 
type, and remained with his people ; the other an anti-type, 
and turned against them. But he was not to the manner born. 
Likewise, oppositely considered, Robert E. Lee and Ulysses S. 
Grant, as soldiers and civilians. But Grant at Appomattox 
was magnanimous, apprehending the grandeur of Lee and the 
valor of his veterans, which he evinced. A thorough and truth- 
ful sifting of the respective leaders, and by comparison, produces 
startling results and dumfounds him who would fathom the mys- 
terious ways of Providence. And as the storm) of sectional 
strife approached and continued, analyze in like manner : as 
Vice-Presidents, John C. Breckenridge and Hanibal Hamlin ; as 
Secretaries of State, Judah P. Benjamin and William H. Seward; 
as Secretaries of War, Jefferson Davis and Edwin M. Stanton; 
as Chief Justices, Roger B. Taney and Salmon P. Chase, and 
the impartial student is enabled to separate, and widely, the 
Cavalier from the Puritan. 

In the military service, even the Southern school children 
know the great gulf between the crowning merits of Lee, Jack- 
son, Stuart, both Johnstons, both Hills, S. D. Lee, Smith, Hood, 
Polk, Hardee, A. P. Stewart, Buchanan, Semmes, Maury, Maffit 
— all educated and trained soldiers or sailors — and the despica- 
ble renegades who espoused the Puritan side — the Tories and 
traitors of the Confederate War — such as Scott, Thomas and 
Farragut, born Virginians, and who apprehended their true 
allegiance until seduced. by the Lincoln government. 

Major John Pelham, Confederate Hero. 379 

[From Richmond, Va., Times-Dispaieh, March 29, 1908.] 


General Lee Called Him "the Gallant Pelham" — Records 
Prove His Bravery. 

Editor of the Times-Dispatch: 

Sir, — There appeared in the Times-Dispatch of February 16th 
over my signature a few words of tribute to Major James 
Breathed, of the Stuart Horse Artillery, Army of Northern 
Virginia. The Times-Dispatch very kindly gave me space in 
their widely circulated paper and published the above mentioned 
tribute. I come before you again asking that I be granted the 
same courtesy, that I may place upon the grave of the gallant 
Major John Pelham (the organizer and first captain of the cele- 
brated Stuart Horse Artillery) a few forget-me-nots and sprigs 
of laurel, that those who did not have the great privilege of 
knowing the gallant boy-major may read in a measure of what 
manner of man he was and how he was esteemed by all of 
those whom he came in contact with, from the immortal R. E. 
Lee to the most humble private in the ranks. Pelham and 
Breathed were in the same battery ; kindred spirits indeed ; loyal 
to the cause of the South ; terrible hard fighters, with a stub- 
bornness that would not yield ; an aggressiveness that was irre- 
sistible. The gallant Pelham (as he was called by General R. 
E. Lee) was born in Calhoun county, Ala., near Alexandria, 
September 7, 1838. His father, Dr. Atkinson Pelham, came to 
the county from Kentucky in 1837, and was for many years a 
prominent physician. His mother was a Miss McGehee, whose 
family came from Person county, N. C, to Calhoun county 
about 1832. 

John Pelham was appointed to the United States Military 
Academy from Alabama July 1, 1856, aged seventeen years and 
nine months, through the influence of the representative of his 
district, the Hon. S. W. Harris, at the request of Hon. A. J. 
Walker. His standing in the class was low, but his commission 
was passed on, and he would have received it had he remained 

380 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

a week longer. But his love for the South, and especially for 
his State, called him home ; consequently he crossed the line 
in April, disguised as one of General Scott's couriers. Repair- 
ing at once to Montgomery, Ala., he reported for duty, and 
was commissioned first lieutenant of artillery, regular army, and 
ordered to take charge of the ordnance at Lynchburg, Ya. He 
was only there a few days when he was ordered to Albertus's 
(afterwards Imboden's) Battery, at Winchester, Ya. He handled 
a section of this battery in such a masterly manner at First 
Manassas July 21, 1861, as to attract the attention of Brigadier- 
General T. J. Jackson (Stonewall) and J. E. B. Stuart. When 
General J. E. B. Stuart conceived the idea of organizing a bat- 
tery of horse artillery to operate in conjunction with his cavalry, 
his eyes naturally turned towards the young artillery officer that 
had displayed so much gallantry and knowledge in the handling 
of his pieces at Manassas. In November, 1861, the battery ot 
Stuart's Horse Artillery, consisting of eight guns, was organ- 
ized, and the young officer, a mere boy in appearance, Lieutenant 
John Pelham, was commission its first captain. This battery 
under his leadership and command became famous and was 
second to none in the Confederate States Army. The battery 
became as celebrated as the name of its commander. I do not 
know a spot among the hills and dales of the Confederacy that 
has not heard of the Pelham-Breathed Battery, Stuart's Horse 
Artillery. Its deeds of valor has been written of by poet and 
historian ; even the men who opposed it on the Federal side sing 
its praises in no unmeasured tributes. The official records of 
the war are replete with the daring of this gallant officer and 
his men. He handled, in addition to his own battery, the 
artillery of General T. J. Jackson, at Fredericksburg, Ya. ; was 
with him at Second Manassas, where he was given discretionary 
power to place his battery where his judgment dictated. No 
such privilege had ever been given any other of General T. J. 
Jackson's subordinates. He was with him at Mechanicsville, 
Ya., receiving praise and thanks from the great commander for 
the skilful handling of his guns against the superior forces of 
the enemy's artillery, holding in check with one Napoleon gun 
two of the enemy's full six-gun batteries. We find him again 
with him at Sharpsburg, Maryland., where shell and minie ball 

Major John Pelham, Confederate Hero. 881 

rained like hail around us, but he never quailed, but kept his bat- 
tery in position, returning shot for shot with the enemy's artil- 
lery until his battery became so crippled that General J. E. B. 
Stuart's quartermaster had to supply horses to remove the bat- 
tery from the field. He and his celebrated battery flashed like 
a meteor from battlefield to battlefield ; always in the advance, 
fighting on the skirmish line until it seemed at times that noth- 
ing but Providence would save that devoted band of heroes 
from capture or certain death, but just as the overly confident 
Federals were certain of the prize, Pelham's ringing voice would 
be heard, "Limber ! rear ! Gallop !" and away we would go, 
laughing at the disappointment of the enemy. I could enum- 
erate many instances of this character, but lack of space for- 
bids. General R. E. Lee commended him for promotion as 
Lieutenant-Colonel of Artillery only a few days prior to his 
death. General Pendleton, General R. E. Lee's Chief of Artil- 
lery, had vainly tried to persuade General J. E. B. Stuart to 
allow him to be transferred to the infantry-artillery c jrps, but 
without any success. The successful resistance whicli General 
Stuart was enabled to oppose the Federal Cavalry was in a 
great measure due to the skilful handling of his artillery. Two 
spirits more congenial than Stuart and Pelham never met on the 
field of battle. Stuart's fondness for artillery was a craze with 
him. Pelham's skill in its management amounted to genius. 
Stuart, Pelham and the peerless Breathed imparted to the horse 
artillery an independency of action and a celerity of moment 
which characterized it to the end of the war, and which was 
nowhere equalled or imitated. But in the Providence of God 
he was not allowed to remain with us very long. No one knows 
what his record would have been if he had lived until the close 
of the struggle — brilliant, matchless, no doubt ; an example for 
the whole world to have followed. But this was not to be. On 
March 17, 1863, he fell while leading the Third Virginia Cav- 
alry in a charge against the enemy's cavalry (Averill's), who 
had crossed the Rappahannock River at Kelly's Ford, and was 
making for Culpeper Courthouse. Fitz Lee's brigade was resist- 
ing the advance of Averill's forces, consisting of 2,100 men, suc- 
cessfully. The Horse Artillery, then under command of Captain 
James Breathed (Pelham having been promoted Major), ar- 

382 Southern Historical Society Payers. 

rived on the scene and at once opened on the enemy's cavalry 
and Martin's Independent Horse Battery of New York, six 

General J. E. B. Stuart and Major John Pelham were in Cul- 
peper Courthouse attending a military court, when the firing 
of Breathed's guns announced the attack of Averill's force upon 
Fitz Lee. They mounted their horses and immediately rode 
to the scene of the conflict rapidly. Major Pelham, on reach- 
ing the field, came up quickly to the battery (Breathed's), and 
finding that Breathed was working his battery to great advan- 
tage, and the fire of the enemy's battery seemed to be slackening, 
he said to Breathed: "Captain, do not let your fire cease; drive 
them from their position." These were the last words I ever 
heard him utter. He then rode off in the direction of the Third 
Virginia Calvary, who were on our right, and who were form- 
ing to charge the enemy's cavalry on the other side of the stone 
wall. The Adjutant of the Third Cavalry writes: 

"At the moment a regiment of Federal cavalry swept down 
upon us. Pelham's sabre flashed from its sheath in an instant. 
At that moment his appearance was superb. His cheeks were 
burning; his bright blue eyes darted lightning, and from his lips, 
wreathed with a smile of joy, rang, 'Forward!' as he cheered 
on the men. He looked the perfect picture of a hero, as he was. 
For an instant he was standing in his stirrups, his sabre flashing 
in his grasp ; for a moment his clarion voice rang like a bugle 
that sounds the charge, and then I saw him hurled from his 
saddle under the tramping hoofs of the horses. With a single 
bound of my horse I reached him. He lay with his smiling face 
turned upward; his eyes closed. A shell had burst above him, 
a fragment of which had struck him on the head. He was 
gone, and his young blood, sacred to the men of his battery and 
the entire command, had bathed Virginia's soil." 

He was placed tenderly across his faithful horse and con- 
veyed most tenderly by Lieutenant McClellan, the Adjutant of 
the Third Virginia Cavalry, and some men to the house of Judge 
Shackelford, at Culpeper Courthouse, Va. When he reached 
the Courthouse he was just breathing, and in a short while the 
soul of the gallant soldier winged its flight to the God that gave 
it. That night the men of the battery bade good-bye to their 

Major John Pelham, Confederate Hero. 883 

gallant and idolized commander as he laid in the parlor of Judge 
Shackelford's house. General Stuart also came. With measured 
step, his black plumed hat in hand, he approached the body, 
looked long and silently upon the smiling face, his eyes full of 
tears ; then stooping down he pressed his bearded lips to the 
marble brow. As he did so the breast of the great Stuart was 
shaken, a sob issued from his lips, and a tear fell on the pale 
cheek of Pelham. Severing from his forehead a lock of the 
light hair, he turned away, and as he did so there was heard in 
low, deep tones, which seemed to force their way through tears, 
the single word, "Farewell.'' It was Stuart's last greeting on 
this earth to the spirit of Pelham, soon to meet each other 
where the roar of battle never comes. 

The next day General Stuart sent to Mr. Curry, his represen- 
tative in the Confederate States Congress, the following dis- 
patch : 

"The noble, the chivalrous Pelham, is no more; he was killed 
in action ; his remains will be sent you to-day. How much he 
was loved, appreciated and admired let the tears of agony we 
have shed and the gloom of mourning throughout my command 
bear witness. His loss is irreparable." 

Afterwards, in a general order to his command, he says: "He 
fell mortally wounded with the battle-cry on his lips and the 
light of victory beaming in his eyes. His eye had glanced over 
every battlefield of this army, from the First Manassas to the 
moment of his death, and he was, with a single exception, a 
brilliant actor in them all. The memory of the gallant Pelham, 
his many victories, his noble nature and purity of character is 
enshrined as a sacred legacy in the hearts of all who knew him. 
His record has been bright and spotless, his career brilliant and 
successful. He fell the noblest of sacrifices on the altar of his 

Such is a brief but resplendent record of this boy hero, the 
American "La Rochejaquelein." One who loved him from his 
old State of Alabama writes : 

"In person he was of ordinary statue and light build, but re- 
markably sinewy. He was considered the best athlete at West 
Point, and he was there noted for his fondness for fencing, box- 
ing, etc. The Prince of Wales (now Edward VII) was struck 

384 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

with his horsemanship when he visited the Academy in i860. 
He had a boyish appearance; erect and neat address. Modest 
as a maiden in the social circle, he shone with the mild effulgence 
of a Pleiade, but the battlefield transformed him into the fiery 
meteor with its dazzling glare. He was calmly and recklessly 
brave, and saw men torn to pieces around him without emotion — 
his heart and eve were on the stern work he was performing. 
Even in early youth he fought a larger schoolfellow till he fainted 
with exhaustion." 

Well might old Stonewall say: "If you have another Pelham, 
General Stuart, give him to me." 

His mind was of a pious turn, his language was chaste, 
and his bearing courteous. He never spoke of himself, and 
seemed to be unconscious of his own merit. Like his dear friend 
and comrade, Major James Breathed, his body rests in a little 
unpretentious graveyard at Jacksonville, Ala. 

Such is the imperfect picture I have attempted to draw and 
present of my old friend and commander. March 17th being 
the anniversary of the death of that brilliant soldier, I could not 
fail in my duty as a member of the original battery of Stuart's 
Horse Artillery, in a small measure, at least, to say a word on 
this, the forty-fifth anniversary of his sad removal from this 
earth. I know it is presumption on my part to attempt the task 
of paying in the smallest degree tribute to Pelham and Breathed ; 
but my sense of duty and the great love I hold their memory in 
prompts me to pen these lines that I have submitted to the paper 
for publication. I realize that men like Pelham and Breathed 
never die ; their names will go thundering down the decades of 
ages a household word in the American nation, not only in the 
South, but in the confines of this boundless continent of ours. 
I cannot cease to return thanks that it was my good fortune and 
great privilege to have been in close touch with these two heroes ; 
to have known them, and been under their command ; to have sat 
at the same camp fire and been inspired by their loyalty and love 
for the starry cross banner of the Southland. 

Very sincerely, 

H. H. Matthewe, 
Pelham-Brcathcd Battery, S. H. A. 
Pikesville, Md., March 10, 1908. 


Adams, Capt. R. H. T.. 164 
Alabama, The Confederate States 

Alexander, Gen. E. P., 12, 156, 316; 
Dr. Cyrus, 165 

Allen, Col. Henrv W., 175; Capt. John 
M., 157; Col. Wm., 162 

Amelia Troop, Roster of, 16; Ord- 
nance stores at, 5; delay of ra- 
tions at, 6 

Anderson, Capt. Clifford, 158; Brig. 
Gen. Joseph R., 158; Maj. Joseph 
W., 178 

Apperson, Geo., 2; John W., U. S. C. 
V., 44, 69, 133 

Appomattox, surrender forced from 
failure of rations to reach Amelia 
Courthouse, 6 

Archer, Capt. James W., 164; Capt. 
A., 176 

Ariel, of Commodore Vanderbilt, The, 

Armies, of the North and South, 
Types of, 374 

Armistead, Gen. Lewis A., 159; First 
Lieut. W. K., 159 

Arms of the Confederacy in 1865, Va- 
riety of, 6 

Armstrong, Col. S. C, 15; Maj. J. 
D., 166 

Army of Northern Virginia, Recol- 
lections of the last months in 
the, 1 

Arnall, Lieut. C. S., 182 

Artist Alexander, 245 

Ashby, Capt. Ph. S., 263; Brig. Gen. 
Turner, 159 

Atwold, Capt. W. H., 164 

Avirill, Gen., 222 

Bacon, Capt. W., 1S3 

Baird, Lieut. E. R., 176 

Baldwin, Lieut. Col. B. G., 1 

Ball, Major Dabney, 180 

Ballard, Major Thomas E., 167 

Baltimore in April, 1S61, 319 

Barbour, Major Alfred M., 16S; Major 

James, 162 
Barksdale's Brigade at Gettysburg, 

Barlow, Gen. F. S., 257 
Barton, Capt. Randolph, 182, 268; 

Gen. Seth M., 159 
Bassett, Serg't G. W., 177 
Batteries Wood, Semmes & Brooks, 2 
Bauhara, Lieut. J. W., 161 

Baylor, Lieut. Col. W. S. H„ 166 
Baxter, Alice, 216 
Beale, Gen. Richard L. T., 159 
Beast Butler and our women, Re- 
member, 211 
Beckham. Major R. F., 180 
Bee, Gen., 274; Dr. Isaiah, 173 
Behan, Mrs. "W. J., Pres. Confederate 
Southern Memorial Association, 44 
Bell, Capt. R. S., 157 
Bemiss, Dr. Samuel M., 157 
Berkeley, Lieut. Chas. F., 163; Capt. 

Francis B., 165 
Bernard, Capt. J. T., 157 
Berry, Senator James H., 296 
Bidgood, Joseph V., 156 
Bier, Major Geo. H., 166 
Black, Surgeon, Dr. H., 166 
Blackburn, Lieut. John W., 174 
Blackford, Capt. W. W., 180 
Bledsoe, Chaplain A. C, 175 
Bloomfield, Capt. Benjamin, 172 
Boiling, Capt. Henry, 158; Lieut. 

Stith, 170 
Boswell, Lieut. J. K., 172 
Botts, Lieut. Henry F., 178 
Bowie, Capt. Thomas F., 170 
Bovce, Hon. W. W., 252 
Boyd, Lieut. E. Holmes, 168 
Braithwaite, Major J. R., 182 
Bragg, Major-Gen. Braxton, 352 
Branch, Major John P., 11 
Braxton, Capt. John S., 182 
Breathed, Capt. James, 381 
Breckenridge, Dr. E. J., 157; Gen. 

John C, 223 
Bridgeford, Major D. B., 166 
Brien, Col. Luke T., 171, 180 
Bright, Capt. R. A., 176 
Brockenbrough, Capt. J. B., 181 
Brocket!, Capt. TV. B., 181 
Brooke, Lieut. F., 176; Lieut. John 

M., 156; of Miss., Hon. Mr., 252 
Brooks, Col. U. R., 359 
Brown, Major C. Campbell, 161; Col. 

J. Thompson, 162; Ossowattomie, 

373; Major V. M., 160; of Baltimore, 

Major, 319 
Brown's Fort, 373 
Bryan, Lieut. Henry, 172; Lieut. 

Herbert, 160; Major J. Randolph, 

Bruce, Major James WV, 168. 182 
Burke, Capt. Redmond, 179; Lieut. 

R. H., 173 
Burwell, Bob, 1 

386 INDEX. 

Cabell, Brig.-Gen. W. L., 160 . Dade, Maj. A. G., 171, 180 

Cabin John Bridge, Restoration of Dandridge, Lieut. E. P., 175; Lieut. 

Jefferson Davis's name on, 41; P. P., 171 

measurements of, 41; Committee Danforth, Capt. Henry D., 163 

on, 44 Daniel, Hon. John W., 145, 146, 161; 

Calhoun, John C, 244 Capt. R. T., 14, 175 

Calloway, Lieut. Wm. G., 161 Darden, Capt. James D., 159 

Cameron, Capt. Wm. E., 182 Davey, of Louisiana, R. C, 81, 97 

Caperton, Lieut., Geo. H., 161 Davidson, Maj. Henry B., 162; Lieut. 

Carlin, Hon. C. C, 87, 79, 115, 145 W. M., 167 

Carroll, Lieut. J. Harper, 162 Davis, Jefferson, 365; why he was 

Carr, Major W. C. N., 160 never tried, 347; Restoration of 

Carter, Col. David M., 166; Major R. name of, on Cabin John Bridge, 

H., 159 41-155; Chaplain, Richard, 174 

Carthwright, Major S. S., 168 Dearing, Gen. James, 160 

Cary, Lieut. Col. John B., 172; Capt. 3eas, Lieut.-Col. Geo., 157 

W. M., 157; Capt. D. C, 183; Misses, Deerhound, English Yacht, 34 

The 293; John Btune, 294; Wilson Dennv, Major James W., 28 

Miles, 293. DeRussy, Capt. C. A., 182 

Catlett, Capt. R. H., 161 Derrick, Capt. H. C, 172 

Cavalier and Puritan in Revolution Dickinson, Capt. Allen, 171; Lieut. 

and Evolution, 376 A. C, 174; Capt. Andrew G., 172 

Cavalry, Achievements of Confed- Diggs, Lieut. Chas., 175 

erate, 216 Dodge, General, 353 

Cavalry, Fourth Virginia, 325 Dodson, W. C, 216 

Chancellor Surgeon, Dr. Chas. W., Dorman, Major James B., 182 

176 ' Downman, Major R. H., 177 

Chambliss, Jr., Brig.-Gen., John Douglas, Lieut. H. T., 172; Major 

Randolph, 160 Henry K., 167 

Chilton, Brig.-Gen. R. H., 158, 160 Duffield, Capt. C. B., 183 

Claggett, Dr. Joseph E., 157 Duncan, Capt. R. J., 173 

Clark, Capt. John J., 168 Dunkin, Chancellor, 243 

Cochran, Capt. Horace I., 176 Dutch Gap Canal, 2 
Coddall, Capt. Samuel S., 1S2 

Cole, Col. H.. 168 Early, Gen. Jubal A., 161, 162, 205, 

Cole, Lieut.-Col. Robert G., 156 206; Lieut. Robert S., 162 

Coles, Surgeon Walter, 183 Echols, Gen. John, 161, 223, 227 

Colston, Brig.-Gen. Raleigh E., 160 Edgar, Geo. M., 227 

Compton, Surgeon H. M., 179 Eiseman, C. M., S4 

Confederate, Generals surviving, 156; Elder, Maj. Thos. C, 177 

States FMag, History of, 243; States Eleason, Suregon, Dr. Talcott, 180 

Flag, The, 243; States Battle flag, Elhart, Capt. A., 162 

293; States America, General Offi- Elzey Camp, U. C. V., 28 

cers and their staffs, 156; Soldiers Emmett, Capt. John W., 178 

and Sailors, 296: Veterans of Eshleman, Gen. B. F., 135 

Maryland, Officers of, 292; Women, Estopinal, Hon. Albert, 153 

Inscription for Memorial to, 360; Evans, Gen. Clement A., 44, 92, 102 

Woman's Kind Act, 309 Eyster, Capt. Geo. H., 173 

Confederates in Chicago Cemetery, Ezekiel, Sir Moses, 221 
296; who died in Northern Prisons, 

Monument to be erected to at Fairfax, Capt. Raymond, 176; Dr. W. 

Point Lookout, 295 H., 174 

Conrad, Major Holmes, 178, 221 Farish, Capt. Thos. L., 177 

Cook, Major Giles B., 157; Capt. John Farley, Lieut. S. H., 186; Capt. W. 

Esten, 180 D., 186 

Cooper, Gen. Samuel, 1G0; Capt. Faulkner, Lieut.-Col. Chas. J., 165 

James, 168 Federal Generals Surviving, 240 

Corley, Lieut.-Col. James L., 156 Ferguson, Maj. James Duque, 170; 

Corse, Gen. M. D., 160, 262, 263, 269 Rebecca C, 253 

Cosbv, Major Spencer, 113; Major Field, Maj. James G., 164; Capt. 

Geo. B., 172 Henry M., 164 

Cox, Lieut. Henry M., 173 Finney, Maj. R. H., 163 

Crenshaw, Maj. James R., 157 Fitzhugh, Capt. Edward C, 163; 

Cresler, Major N. W., 170 Capt. Nicholas, 167, 173 

Crook, Gen. George. 223 Flags of United Stages, Preble, 243 

Crouch, Dr. R. G., 309 Flowerree, Capt. D. W., 173 

Crump, Lieut. James R., 172 Fleet, Lieut. A. Fred., 183 

Crutchfield, Col. S., 165 Fletcher, John, 152 

Cunningham, Capt. E., 158 Flood, Hon. H. D., 145, 148 

Curtis, Chas. T., Supt. and Inspector Flood, Cant. Chas., 176; Gen. John 

Cabin John Bridge, 41; Gen. N. M., B., 162 

15; Wm. S. C, 43 Floyd, Gen. John B., 176; Capt. Chas., 

Custer, Gen. G. A., 11 162 

Fogg, Dr. John H. S., 245 

Dabney, Lieut. Chiswell, 180; Major Fontaine. Major Peter. 178, 181, 183; 

R. J., 165; Capt. Virginius, 168 Surgeon John B., 180 



Forrest, General, 353 

Foster, Hon. Murphy J., 44, 85, 91, 

Fowler, Lieut. W. S., 163 
Fraser, Trenholm & Co., 339 
Fravser, D. D., Rev. A. M., 360; Capt. 

Richard, 180 
Freaner, Maj. Geo., 179 
Freeman, Jr., D. C., A. D. C, 175 
Frost, Dr. F. L., 164 
Fry, Capt. Wm., 170 

Galize, Capt. John, 157 

Gait, Dr. Robert, Assistant Surgeon, 

Garber, Capt. A. M., .157 

Gardner, Col. F., 161 

Garland, Jr., Gen. Samuel, 162 

Garnett, Capt. J. M., 166; Gen. Rich- 
ard Brooke, 163; Gen. Robert Sel- 
den, 159, 163; Capt. Thos. S., 171 

Geiger, Lieut. Geo. E., 170 
'Generals Surviving, Confederate, 
156; Federal, 291 

Georgia, Battle Flag of the Third 
Regiment, 210 

Getty, Lieut. Thos., 163 

Gettysburg Campaign, 184; unwrit- 
ten history of, 312 

Gibboney. Albert D. D. C, 164 

Gibson. Capt. Hart, 161 

Gilliam, Maj., 171 

Gill, Lieut. -Col. Wm. G., 157 

Gillespie, Maj. Geo. L., 17!> 

Gilmore, Major Harry, on Battle of 
.New Market, 227 

Gist, Governor, 244 

Glass, Hon. Carter, 145, 147 

Glasscock, Wm. A., 293 

Goggin, Maj., J. M., 172 

Goldsborough, Lieut., R. H., 180 

Gonzales, Editor W. E., 359 

Gordon, Capt. G. H., 177; Gen. John 
B., 162 

Grady, Capt. C. Powell, 171 

Grant, Gen. U. S., 223 

Gray, Mrs. Sallie P., 44, 4.8 

Gregorv, Maj. W. F. C, 1S3 

Green, Lieut., 373; Maj. B. H., 162; 
Maj. James W., 170; Dr. James C, 

Griffin, Serg't-Major Samuel, 174 

Griswold, Lieut. J. C, 163 

Groveton, Battle of, Reports of Va. 
regiments at, 262 

Guild, Dr. Lafayette, 157 

Guion, Lewis, 110; Address of, 149 

Gwathmey, Maj. Chas. B., 178 

Hagan, Lieut. Henry, 180 

Hairston, Maj. J. W. I., 180; Capt. S. 

H., 180 
Hale, Jr., Major Samuel, 161 
Halleck, Maj. -Gen. H. W., 223, 234, 

235; order of Gen., to Gen Hunter, 

Halsey, Capt. Don P., 162 
Hampton, Gen. Wade, 179 
Hanger, Major J. Marshall, 180 
Hannah, Lieut. Geo. B.. 167 
Hardawav, Mrs. Thos., 340 
Hardie, Gen.. 168 
Harmon, Maj. J. A., 158, 162, 165 
Harper's Ferry, 372 
Harris, Hon. S. W., 379 
Harrison, Lieut. Geo. E., 181; Maj. 

Harry H., 164; Capt. Randolph, 

160; Lieut. Thos. R., 163; Lieut.- 

Col. Walter, 176 
Hart, Maj. C. S., 171 
Harvie, Capt. Chas. Irving, 183; Col. 

E. J., 158, 168; Maj. W. W., 177 
Harvey, Capt. James A., 245 
Hatcher, Lieut. Charles, 175 
Hatcher's Run, 175 
Hawks, Maj. W. J., 162 
Hawthorne, Cap... B. J., 159 
Haxall, Capt. Philip, 159, 177 
Hay, James, 145, 147 
Hayes, Mrs. J. Addison, 138 
Havs, Capt. James, 158 
Havwood, Lieut. F. M., 162; Lieut. - 

Col. Geo. A., 179 
Heath, Capt. Roscoe B„ 159 
Heaton, Lieut. H., 161 
Hemphill, J. C, 68 
Henderson, Maj. Findlay, 1S3: Lieut. 

Fenton M., 160; Col. G. T. R., 268; 

Mrs. Lizzie Geo., 4 4, 4 8 
Herbert, Col., 368; Maj. W. H„ 159; 

Camp, U. C. V., James R., 28 
Herndon, Dr. James C, 157 
Heth, Brig.-Gen. Henry, 163, 176, 191; 

Capt. Stockton, 163 
Hicks, Governor, Thomas H., 319 
Hill, Gen. A. P., 164; Capt. Frank T., 

164: at Gettvsburg, 190, 191; Maj. 

E. B., 164; Gen. D. H., 181; Lieut. 

Thos. R., 293; Maj. Thomas, 171 
Hinton, Capt. W. E., 160 
Hodgson, Daisy M. L„ 138 
Holcome, Capt. J. R., 177; Maj. E. L., 

Holmes, Mrs. Geo. S., 44 
Hood, Gen. John B., 312, 315; Maj. 

John J., 116 
Hooe, Capt. Philip B., 160 
Hooker, Gen. Joseph, 188, 189, 194, 

199; at Gettysburg, 189 
Home, Stonecutter, Capt. James B., 

121. 129, 152 
Hotchkiss, Major John, 162 
Howard, Maj. Chas., 171; Maj. Con- 

wav R„ 164 
Hubbard, (Dr.) Maj.. H. H., 164 
Hudgins. Lieut. B. F., 177 
Hullehen. Capt. W. Q., 180 
Hungerford, Maj. P. C, 164 
Hunter, Andrew, Home of, burned, 

235; General David. 224, 235; Maj. 

Robert W., 167, 221; Jr., Lieut. 

James, 171 
Hunton, Gen. Eppa, 163, 165 
Hutton, Wm. R., 42 
Hyllested, Maj. W., 172 

Imboden, Gen. J. D., 165, 223, 225 
Ironmonger, Capt. F. M., 173 
Irving, Maj. Chas. R., 16 
Ives, Capt. Jos. E., 158 

Jackson, Maj., A. H., 165; Col. James, 
165; Lieut.-Col. Wm. Lother, 166 

Jackson, Stonewall, by Col. Hender- 
son, Review of, 268; his reply to 
Bee, "We will give them the bay- 
onet," 274: his farewell address, 
284; in the Civil War, 268; Gen. 
Thos. J., 165, 167, 172, 373 

Jackson's Vallev Campaign, 327 

Jarrett, Dr. M. L., 28 

Jenkins, Gen. Albert G., 167, 222; 
Lieut. Geo. G., 166; Maj. Thos. J., 



Jennev, Maj. E. H., 158 

Johnson, Albert Sidney, 3(3; Gen. 

Bradlev T., 319: Gen. Edward, 16 1 ; 

Mai. James, 163; Maj. John, 168; 

Capt. J. P., 168; Gen. R. D., 162; 

Maj. Wm. I., 180 
Johnston, Gen. Joseph E., 16S; sketch 

of 340; Col. Robert, 176; Capt. 

Samuel R., 159 
Jones, David A., 168; Lieut. B. F., 

166; Gen. J. R., 167; Lieut. John M., 

162 164, 167; Lieut. John Simpkin, 

163; Maj. Geo. F., 163; Gen. Sam, 

168; Gen. TV. E., 224 
Jordan, Lieut. -Col. Thomas, 156 
Jordan Springs, 24 
Joynes, Dr. E. S., 359 

Kean, Capt. R. G. H., 177 
Kearsage, U. S. cruiser, 33 
Kemp, Capt. TV. P., 181 
Kemper, Gen. James L., 169 
Kennedy, Mrs. D. C, 365 
Kev, Francis Scott, 26 
Kimball, Lieut. Chas. E., 174 
Knox, Color-Serg't. R. T., 293 

Ladd, Mrs. C, 252 

Lafferty, Maj. J. J., 165 

Lagnel, Gen. Julius, 170 

Lamb, Hon. John, 145, 146; address 

of, at New Market, 298 
Land, Maj. A. L., 158 
Langley, Capt. F. A., 262, 265 
Lassiter, Hon. F. R., 145 
Latrobe, Lieut.-Col. Osmond, 168 
Lay, Lieut.-Col. Geo. TV., 157, 168; 

Capt. John F., 168 
Lazenby, Adjt. Geo. TV., 265 
Lee and Stuart at Harper's Ferry, 

Lee, Maj. Chas. H., 160; Gen. E. G., 
170; Gen. Fitzhugh, 74, 170; Gen. 
G. TV. C, 170; Capt. Henry C, 170, 
174, 326; Capt. John Mason, 171; 
Cadet N. TV., 166; Maj. Pollock B., 
16S; Gen. R. E., 156, 365, 372: Gen. 
R. E., survivors of staff, 2; R. E.. 
gentleness of, 304: Gen. Robert 
Edward, farewell address, 13; Jr., 
Capt. R. E., 171; Gen. Stephen D., 
44, 74, 90; Lieut. T. G., 166; Gen. 
Wm. Henry Fitzhugh, 170, 180 
Lee's Report on Gettysburg, 185 
Leigh, Maj. Benj. TV., 167 
Leitch, Lieut. Samuel G., 176 
Lewis, Surgeon Jas. S., 175: Surgeon 
M. M., 176; Maj. S. Longworth, 163; 
M. D., Samuel E., 124, 130, 152 
Lilley, Gen. R. D., 171 
Linebaugh, First Leiut., 159 
Linthican, Ass't Adj't-Gen. Chas. F., 

Lincoln, Abraham, 55, 151 
Lincoln's disregard of the Constitu- 
tion, 238 
Lobban, Capt. John G., 292 
Lock, Capt. J. J., 166 
Lomax, Gen. L. L., 171 
Long, Gen. A. L., 156, 172, 240 
Longstreet, Gen. G. A., 12, 16S, 170, 

Lost Chapter in History, 241 
Louisiana offered to France, 241 
Lucas, Lieut. Daniel B., 183 
Lunday, Dr. TV. L., 167 

McAlpine, Dr. (Maj.) J. A., 159, 176 
McCann, Lieut. Chas., 177 
McCaughlin, Maj., 223 
McCausland, Gen. John, 173, 222 
McClellan, Maj. Henry B., 171, 179, 

McClintock, Miss, 359 
McConkev, Dr. Samuel A., 163 
McCue, Lieut. John H., 165 
McCulloch, Gen. Ben., 366, 371 
McDaniel, Maj. Albert, 174 
McDonald, Surgeon G. M., 183; Capt. 

W. N„ 173; Wm. S., 199 
McElwee, Lieut. TV. E., 179 
McGowan, Capt., 247 
McGregor, John, 28 
McGuire, Dr. Hunter, 160, 164 
McGruder, Gen. John Bankhead, 172 
Mclntire, Capt. Jas. D., 163 
Mclntvre, Robert, 42 
McKim, Rev. Dr. Randolph, 184, 199 
McLane, Robert L, 319 
McPheeters, Rev. Dr. TV. M., 359 
Magruder, Gen. John B., 172 
Mahone, Gen. TVm., 173, 182 
Mallory, Sec'y S. R., 36, 329 
Malvern Hill, Battle of, 211 
Mannagault, Maj. Chas.. 158 
Manning, Maj. R. J., 168 
Marchman, Lieut. Jas., 171 
Marmaduke, The Fight, 364 
Marshall, Lieut.-Col. Chas., 156, 185 
Martin, Lieut. E. J., 167; Senator 
Thomas S., 145; Capt. Walter K., 
174, 177 
Marvland, Confederate Veterans, of- 
ficers of, 292; Confederate Monu- 
ment to, 295; Gen. Lee's tribute to, 
26; leaders in C. S. Army and 
Navy, contributed by, 25; line, 
Confederate Soldiers, home of, 289 
Mason, Lieut.-Col. A. P., 156, 168; 
Capt. B. B., 174; Major Robert F., 
Masters, Maj. L., 164 
Matthews, Capt. J. W., 179; H. M., 

Maurv, Gen. Dabney, 173; Lieut. John 

H., 173 
Maynard, Hon. H. D., 145 
Mayo, Maj. J. H. F., 179; Capt. W. S. 

P., 164 
Meade, Capt. David, 176; Everard, 1; 

Jr., Lieut. R. H., 181 
Meem, Capt. J. Lawrence, 163 
Meigs, M. C, Engineer, 41 
Melburne, Capt., 162 
Melton, Maj. Geo., 177 
Menninger, C. G., 250, 251 
Memorial Association of South, The, 

Memorial to Women of Confederacy, 

Inscription of, 359 
Memphis, Tenn., Confederate Meet- 
ing at, 216 
Merritt, C. G., 165 
Meyer, Hon. Adolph, 41, 50, 6S, 69, 80; 

Sketch of, 81 
Mickle. Adj't-Gen. Wm. E., 91 
Miles, Wm. Porcher, 252 
Minnigerode, Jr., Lieut. Chas., 170 
Minge, Lieut., 229 
Minor, Prof. C. L. L., 376 
Moncure, Maj. John C, 241 
Montgomery, Maj., 214 
Moore, Gen. Patrick T., 175; Maj. 



Samuel C, 161; of South Carolina, 

Governor, 247 
Mordecai, Capt. Randolph, 181 
Morgan, Capt. Chas. S., 165; Capt. 

John H., 373; Capt. S. C, 62 
Morris, Capt. Wm., 159 
Morrow, Maj, John J.. 137; Capt. N. 

C, 158 
Morson, Lieut. John S., 176 
Mosby, Col. John S., 184, 196, 197, 

Munford, General T. T., 174, 177 
Murfreesboro, Battle of, 218 
Murray, Lieut. -Col. E., 157 
New Market, Va„ Address at, 298; 

Battle of, 223 
Newton, Dr. E. D., 157 
Norman, Maj. R., ISO 
Norris, Capt. 173 
Nicholson, Capt. J. M., 1S3 

Oak Hill, Battle of, 371 
Oates, Gov. Wm. C, 296, 312 
Ord, Gen. E. O. C, 15 
Orme, Major Richard, 179 
Otey, Peter J., 227 

Owen, Marv Bankhead, 350; LL. D., 
Hon. Thomas M., 115, 136 

Packard, Joseph, 1 

Page, Lieut. Mann, 168; Lieut. Phil. 

N., 160; Gen. Richard L., 174; Lieut. 

Thomas J., 158, 172 
Palfrey, Col. E. A., 326 
Palmer, Col. Wm. H., 164 
Parish, Capt. Thomas, 177 
Parsons, Jr., Gen. A., 162 
Patterson, Lieut. R. F., 159 
Patton, Wm., 227 
Paxton, Maj. E. F., 166; Gen. E. F., 

174; Capt. Geo. G., 167. 
Payne, Gen. W. H„ 171 
Peacock, Capt., 176 
Pearce, Capt. Jas. H., 183 
Pea Ridge, Battle of, 37 
Pecklen, Maj., J. E., 183 
Pegram, Gen. John, 175 
Pelham, Dr. Atkinson, 379; Maj. John 

W., Confederate Hero, 379 
Pemberton, Gen. John C, 175 
Pendleton, Col. A. S., 161, 165, 297; 

Capt. Chas. D., 175; Capt. D. D., 

175; Gen., 191; Lieut. Robert, 175; 

Gen. Wm. Nelson, 175; Capt. W. 

B., 181 
Perrv, Gen. E. A., 177 
Peterkin, Capt. Geo. W., 175 
Peters, Maj. S. T., 183; Col. Win- 
field, 22, 27, 288, 292, 372 
Peyton, Maj. Henry C, 157 
Phillips, Walter P., 53, 113 
Pickett, Maj. Chas., 176; Gen. George 

E., 176; Gen. at Chambersburg, 313 
Pierce, Capt. Chas., 171 
Pitzer, Maj. Andrew L., 161 
Point Lookout, Md., Cemetery at, 296 
Polignac, Prince, 241; authorized to 

offer Louisiana to France, 241 
Polk, Gen. Leonidas, 373 
Poppenheim, Miss M. B., 44, 74 
Powell, Surgeon J. W., 164 
Preble, Commodore Edward, 243 
Preble's History of our Flag, 243 
Preston, Lieut-Col. J. T. L., 165; 

Capt. W. R., 161; Wm. P., 319 
Price, Maj. R. Channing, 179 

Pryor, Gen. Roger A., 177 
Putnam's Stonewall Jackson's Way, 


Rains, Gen. G. J., 183 

Randall, Jas. R., "There's Life in the 

Old Land Yet," 26 
Randolph, Maj. A. C, 171; Gen. Geo. 

W., 177; Capt. Peyton, 159; Capt. 

W. F., 162; Capt. W. L., 159 
Randol, Capt. St. Jules, 158 
Ranson, Lieut. J. F., 175; Gen. Rob- 
ert, 267 
Redley, Capt. J. S., 179 
Redmond, Capt., 181 
Revnolds, Gen. A. W., 177, 209 
Richardson, Capt. W. H., 158 
Ritton, Capt. E. F., 166 
Rives, Alfred L., 41 
Roberston, Gen. B. H., 177; Capt. 

Frank, 171; Lieut. F. S., 180; Dr. 

W. H., 177 
Robinson, Dr. A. C, 319; Mrs. J. En- 

ders (Virginia Morgan), 44, 47, 61, 

80, 97, 131 
Rodes, Gen. R. E., 205 
Rogers, Capt. M. M., 174 
Roosevelt, Theodore, 107 
Rosecrans. Gen. W. S., 352 
Rosser, Gen. Thos. L., 17S; Maj. -Gen. 

L., 221 
Rowland, Capt. Thos., 171 
Ruggles, Gen. Daniel, 178 
Rutherford, Capt., 160 
Ryals, Maj. G. M., ISO 

Sams, Dr. Stanhope, 379 

Sand Mountain, Fight at, 354 

Sansom, Emma, Heroine, 350, 356 

Saunders, Hon. E. W., 145, 147 

Scott, Maj. Fred. R., 158; Maj. R. 
Tavlor, 176 

Secession flag, The first, 248 

Secession and chattel slavery, 299 

Selden, Maj. H. H., 17S; Maj. M. C, 

Semmes, Admiral Raphael, 4; Cen- 
tennial of birth of, 22; Monograph 
by his son, Capt. S. Spencer 
Semmes, 28; Emperor William II 
of Germany, tribute to, 24 

Sexton, Maj. Jos. C, 182 

Sharpsburg, Battle of, 213 

Shell, Capt. G. W., 158 

Shepherd, Dr. J. B., 175; Henry E. 
A., A. M., LL. D., address by, 22 

Sheridan's terrible cavalry, 9 

Shield, Maj., Wm. Henry, 160 

Shiloh, 354 

Shipp, Scott, 227, 232 

Showalter, Robert, 162 

Siblev, Dr. Robert, 181 

Sigel, Gen. Franz, 223, 366 

Sinclair, Mollie A. D., 253 

Slaughter, Gen. J. E., 178; Gen. 
Phillip, 173 

Slavery, Gen. Lee's View of, 302 

Slemp, Hon. Bascom, 145 

Smead, Col. Adam, 167 

Smith, Maj. A. Meade, 178; Capt. Clif- 
ton, 174; Gen. E. Kirbv, 241; Gen. 
Francis H., 234; Lieut. F. W., 178; 
Geo. B., 227; Capt. H. Henry, 175; 
Capt. James P., 161, 166; Capt. P. 
W., 158; Capt. Thad. A., 167; Gen. 
Wm., 17S; Lieut. -Col. Wm. P., 157 



Snead, Lieut. T. L., 166; Maj. W. E., 

Snodgrass, Maj. C. E., 161 

Snowden, LL. D., Yates, 359 

Somers, Capt. S. M., 158 

South, Justice of Cause of,. 305; Wo- 
men of the, 307 

Spence, E. Leslie, 262 

Springfield, Mo., Battle of, 364 

Stahl, Gen., 223 

Stanard, Maj. W. B., 181; Lieut. H. 
M., 172; Mrs. R. C, 309 

Staples, Capt. S. G., 181 

Starke, Maj. W. N., 164 

Stephenson, Gen. C. L., 177, 17S 

Stevens, Gen. Walter H., 178 

Stewart, Lieut. B. F., 164 

Stiles, Miss K. C, 44 

Stone, Mrs. Cornelia Branch, 44, 49 

Stonewall Jackson's Way, 26 

Stuart, Gen. J. E. B„ 179, 181, 1S8, 
372, 376; in Gettysburg Campaign, 
A Defence of, 184, 197; Horse Ar- 
tillery, 380; Lieut., 160; Capt. Har- 
deman, 181; Capt. W. Douglas, 176 

Sudler, John E., 292 

Sullivan, Surgeon A. T., 179; Gen., 

Sumter, C. S. Cruiser, 37 

Surgis, Maj. John R., 211 

Swanson, Gov. Claude A., 146 

Symington, Capt. W. S., 176 

Tabb, Capt. W. B., 181, 1S3 

Taft, Hon. W. H., 74, 93 

Talcott, Col. T. M. R., 156, 184, 197 

Taliaferro, Capt. H. B., 160; Lieut. 

John, 162; Lieut. W. A., 1S1; Gen. 

Wm. Booth. 1S1 
Taylor, Lieut. A. G., 17S; Maj. John 

W., 174; Capt. Murray F., 164; 

Capt. Roberson, 173; Maj. R. H., 

160; Lieut. Walter H., 156; Col. 

Walter H., 184; Maj. Wm., 175 
Terrell, Gen. Jas. Barbour, 182 
Terry, Gen. Wm. A., 168, 1S2; Gen. 

Wm., 1S2 
"There's Life in the Old Land Yet," 

Thomas, Capt. Geo., 296; Capt. W 

F., 150 
Thompson, Maj. B., 159; Capt. Geo. 

G., 158; Capt. D. Bowles, 1S3; Cadet 

J. West, 166 
Thompson's Station, 354 
Thornton, Maj. W. W. 161 
Thurston, Capt. Edw. N., 173 
Tosh, Capt. Jas. T., 160 
Towles, Capt. W. E., 181 
Treanor, Maj. Geo., 158 
Trimble, Col. I. R., 319 
Triplett, Lieut. John R., 159 
Tucker, Jas. E., color-bearer, 174- 

Sergt. Geo. W., 164 
Turner, Maj. R. H., 160; Capt. Thos. 

T., 161 

Vaughan, Capt. W., 173 
Veder, Capt. Chas., 179 
Venable, Maj. A. R., 179; Lieut.-Col. 

Chas. S., 156 
Virginia Military Institute Cadets, 

Gallantry of, 227 
Virginia Mourning Her Dead, 221; 

Regiments, Reports of 1st, 7th, 
17th in 1862, casualties in, 262 
Von Borcke, Maj. H., 179 

Waddv, Capt. A. J., 175; Maj. J. R., 

Wagner, C. C, 76 
Waite, Maj. Chas., 171 
Walke, Isaac, 170; Capt. Richard, 

Walker, Hon. A. J., 379; Lieut. -Gen. 

C. Irvine, 27, 128; Gen. H. H., 182; 

Gen. A. J., 1S2; Capt. Jas., 158; 

Gen. R. Lindsay, 164, 182, 204 
Wallace, Capt. Thos. P., 176 
Wallis, S. Teakle, 319 
Walton, Col., 317 
Waring, Capt. P. H., 181 
War of 1861-'5, Necessity for, 299 
Warwick, Lieut. A., 174; Lieut. 

Barksdale, 183; Capt. W. B., 170. 
Washington, and Lincoln, 367; Lieut.- 
Col. John A., 158; Lieut. Jas. B., 

16S; Capt. Thornton A., 158 
Watkins, Maj. H. C, 183 
Wauchope, Dr. Geo. Armstrong, 359 
Webb, Maj. Howell, 179 
Webster, Daniel, His Views of the 

Constitution, 302 
Weisiger, Gen. D. A., 182 
Welburne, Capt. R. E„ 162 
Wellford, Dr. John Spottswood, 159 
Wethered, John E., 319 
Wharton, D. D., Rev. Henry M., 28; 

Gen. G. C, 182, 223, 227; Lieut. J. 

J., 183 
Wheatley, Lieut.-Col. W. F., 27 
White, Maj. R. S., ISO, 181 
Whiting, Maj. John S., 166 
Whittle, Lieut. M. C, 340; S. C, 340 
Wickham, Gen. Wm. Carter. 183 
Williams, Capt. A. W„ 176; Capt. 

Chas. U., 160; Mrs. Geo. A., 44; Gen. 

John S., 81, 98; Col. L. B., 262, 267 
Williamson, Capt. Geo., 158 
Willis, Lieut. Edward, 167 
Wilson's Creek, or Oak Hill, Battle 

of, 364; Monument to Heroes Who 

Fell at, 363 
Wilson, Capt. Kinloch, 170; Lieut. J. 

R., 161; Capt. R. N., 175 
Wingfield, Dr. T. H., 157 
Winslow, Capt., 33 
Winston, Capt. Phil. B., 178 
Wise, Capt. Geo. Douglas, 183: Gen. 

Henrv A., 181, 183, 231: Lieut. Jas. 

M., 181, 1S3; Lieut. Richard A., 183 

Young. Col. Bennett H., 216; Capt. 

Henry E., 157 
Youn'gblood, Wm., 312