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The Southern Planter. 



Agriculture U the nursing mother of the Arts.— XENOPHON. 
Tillage and pasturage are the two breasts of the State.~SULLY. 

64th Year. 

Richmond, January, 1903. 

No. 1. 


In our opening article in the issue for January, 1902, 
we remarked that a new era was opening up for the 
farmers of the South, and commenting on this said : 
" This era has in it more promise for the future than 
any which has preceded it since the country was first 
settled. The South, in the near future, is to become 
not merely the producer of raw staple crops as in the 
past, but the manufacturer of these raw staples into 
finished products in the shape of cotton cloth, beef, 
mutton, hog meat, milk, butter, and tl e high priced 
luxuries of the table in the shape of fruits and vegeta 
bles. We shall have at home a market for a large part 
of these products, and we shall also have manufactured 
at home and largely from home produced materials, 
the mills, machinery and means for the making and 
transport of our surplus products. To the farmer, 
this development of our resources means a call for a 
higher degree of intelligence, a more perfect under- 
standing of the laws governing the successful produc 
tion of crops, and the profitable conversion of those 
crops into the finished products ; and above all, it 
means the conversion of the farmer into a successful 
business man. It means the utilization of all the pro- 
ducts of the soil in the most economical manner, so 
that that which is produced with labor, which means 
cost, shall return its cost back to the pocket of the 
producer with the largest profit capable of being real 
ized. To accomplish these results, it will be necessary 
for the farmer to understand much more thoroughly 
the laws governing the growing of crops and the feed 
ing of the same, so that they may be made to yield 
maximum returns ; and it will also require that the 

science of live stock husbandry shall be better under- 
stood than ever in the past. The farmer of the South, 
in order to meet the demands which this development 
of her manufacturing indostries is going to entail, will 
require to understand how to breed and feed the thou • 
sands of fat cattle, sheep and hogs, which the workers 
in her mines and factories are going to consume, and 
how to secure from the cows the milk and butter which 
the households of these workers are going to demand. 
In the past, the North and the West have largely sup- 
plied even the requirements of the farmers themselves 
in these respects, and have met practically the whole 
demands of the cities. The result is seen in the wasted 
character of most of our lands and the constant com- 
plaint of thousands of farmers that " farming does not 

Every day that has passed since these words were 
written has only tended to confirm and emphasize 
what we then said. The marvellous development of 
Southern prosperity, the constantly increasing num- 
ber of our manufacturing plants, and the daily increas 
ing numbers of our people, who find highly remunera- 
tive employment in these plants, and to obtain which 
leave the country and take up their residence in the 
cities and towns, has worked almost a revolution in 
the condition of agriculture in the South. Thousands 
who were producers of agricultural staples are now 
consumers of these articles, and with their increased 
prosperity are, together with the long-time residents of 
the cities and town, consumers, not only of the staples 
but largely of the luxuries of life. In the era now past 
a very large proportion of the staple necessities of 
life for the people of the South, in the shape of beef, 
mutton, baoon. lard, butter and cheese, have been gap 



North Carolina State CoFlege 


I January 

plied from the North and West, and the opinion has 
been held that the South conld not produce these ne 
oeesitiee profitably in competition with the North and 
West. The wonderful prosperity of the whole conn- 
try and the changed conditions of the West, where the 
area of free range for live stock ha? been so much cur 
tailed by settlement and conversion of the lands into 
enclosed farms, has completely changed the conditions 
affecting the production of the staple products of the 
West, and caused them to so advance in price as to ren- 
der it beyond question that the South can well afford to 
produce these articles, and in addition many of the lux 
uries of life, if only our farmers will equip themselves 
for the task. This equipment means not merely 
the establishment of herds and flocks to supply the 
beef, mutton, bacon, milk and butter which the people 
need, but the knowledge to enable them to make the 
change in their system of farming which these herds 
and flocks will entail if their management is to be 
profitable. The census returns go to show that the 
acquisition of live stock in the South is already mak- 
ing considerable headway and creeping up gradually 
in numbers to those which existed in the South before 
the West was opened out to settlement, and when the 
South, East and North made their supplies at home. 
In 1850 Virginia, including West Virginia, had 
J17,619 dairy cows. In 1870, this number had been 
reduced to 188,471. In 1890, the number had increased 
to 281,876. In 1850, Virginia had 758,658 other cat 
tie. In 1870, this number had beenireduced to 323,272. 
In 189D, the number had grown to 543,636. In 1850, 
Virginia had 1,310,004 sheep. In 1870, the number 
was 370,145. In 1890, the number had grown to 
392,125. In 1850, Virginia had 1,829,848 hogs. In 
1870, the number was 674,670. In 1890, this number 
had grown to 946,443. North Carolina had in 1850 
221,799 dairy cows. In 1870, the number was 196,731. 
In 1890, this number had increased to 233,178. In 
1850, North Carolina had 471,711 other cattle. In 
1870, this number had been reduced to 324,431. In 
1890, this number had increased to 391,340. In 1850, 
North Carolina had 595,249 sheep. In 1870, thia num- 
ber had been redribed to 463,435. In 1890, the num- 
ber was 208,812. In 1850, North Carolina had 1,812,813 
hogs. In 1870, the number had been reduced to 
1,075,215. In 1890, the number had increased to 
1,300,469. South Carolina had in 1850 193,244 dairy 
oows. In 1870, this number had been reduced to 
98,693. In 1890, the number had increased to 126,684. 
In 1850, South Carolina had 584,442 other cattle. In 
1870, this number had been reduced to 150,610. In 
1890, the number had increased to 316,214. In 1850, 
South Carolina had 285,551 sheep. This number has 
decreased each decennium until in 1890 the number 
was only 52,436. In 1850, South Carolina had 1,065,503 Mention the Soiohem Flanter to yonr ftienda. 

hogs. In 1870, this number had been reduced to 
395,999. In 1890, this number had increased to 618,995. 
Coincidentally with this increase, there has undoubt- 
edly been a great improvement in the quality of the 
animals kept. 

This improvement has been much more marked in the 
last decennium than in any other period, and it would 
not probably be an exaggeration to say that the aver- 
age increase in weight of the carcasses of beef, mut- 
ton and hogs has been increased nearly one fourth, 
and in productive capacity in milk and butter of the 
dairy cows of nearly the same quantity. The South 
is yet a long way behind the West and North in the 
average quality of the stock kept, and, as a conse- 
quence, a long way behind those sections in the aver- 
age profit made in handling stock. To overcome these 
drawbacks has been one of the objects which TJie 
Planter has kept steadily in view ever since it came 
into our hands. We have striven month by month 
to bring before the farmers of the South the necessity 
for attention to live stock husbandry and the im- 
portance of this factor in the improvement of our 
lauds and the economic condition of the farmers. To 
secure this end, we have striven to encourage the read- 
ing habit amongst farmers by reducing the cost of thia 
journal to a minimum and by making it the medium 
through which the experts and master minds in live- 
stock husbandry should popularize their teachings. 
We have in this way sought to overcome the prejudice 
so deeply rooted In the South against so-called "book 
farming," and by making the journal the exponent of 
practical as against theoretical farming have endeav- 
ored to evoke an intelligent and understanding com- 
prehension of the science of agriculture, so that in- 
stead of working by "rule of thumb," farmers may 
work in the light of the rules of science and practice. 
This issue we have made a special live stock number, 
and illustrated it with pictures of some of the leading 
breeds of live stock adapted to Southern conditions. 
The articles accompanying these pictures are written 
by leading experts In the particular lines which they 
treat upon, and we are satisfied that the information 
to be found In this Issue will be of constantly increas- 
ing value to every reader. It is our intention during 
the year to continue our monthly talks on " Work for 
the Month," and our replies to questions through the 
"Enquirers' Column," and to make each department 
of the journal as full of information on the particular 
specialty therein dealt with as our limits will allow. 
We appeal to our friends to give us their assistance 
In increasing the circulation of The Planter, assuring 
them that our whole concern and thought will be to 
advance the prosperity of Southern farmers. 



Farm Management. 


The higher range of valaes for all agricaltural pro 
ducts which has now continued for more than two 
years still holds good ; indeed, in respect to some of 
these, prices have still further advanced during the 
year just closing, and this satisfactory condition of 
affairs for the farmer will, we think, be not likely to 
floon come to an end, certainly not so long as labor 
continues to be so well employed as at present. The 
consumption of all the staple products of the farm, 
and of most of the luxuries, some of which, like to 
bacco, we produce largely in the South, is enormous, 
and it would require an immense overproduction of 
these to seriously affect market values whilst business 
<3ontinue8 good. Whilst we have had large wheat and 
oat crops, and an immense corn crop, yet these, and 
especially corn, came at a time when there was no 
large surplus held over from previous years; indeed. 
In the case of corn, when there was an immense defi- 
cit caused by the failure of the crop a year ago. The 
supplies of fat stock of all kinds are short, and are 
likely to continue so for years, as the great source 
from whence these come — the West — was compelled a 
year ago to sacrifice, in a half fat or store condition, 
immense numbers of animals which should have been 
held over for this and next year. 

Until the deficit thus caused is made good, which 
will be a slow process whilst consumption con 
tinues so large as during the past year, prices must 
remain good. When prices are high, the temptation 
to sell stock which should be held over either for 
breeders or for better finishing is too great to be re 
sisted, and hence the progress of recuperation of 
stocks is a slow one. Dairy products have advanced 
in price since the unfair competition of oleomargerine 
has been destroyed or largely curtailed, and this ad 
vance is likely to hold and make further progress. 
With such a prospect before them, we see no reason 
why farmers should not prepare to make large crops 
during the year now commencing, and especially so 
with those crops which are to be converted on the 
farm into meat or dairy products. This is the true 
line on which farmers should seek to develop their re 
sources, as it will not only result in the securing of a 
better return for their labors, but will also result in 
continued improvement of the fertility of the farm. 
The one difficulty which largely confronts South- 
ern farmers is the labor question. Thousands of col- 
ored hands have left the country districts, and found 
employment in the large cities and towns, and on the 
railroads, and this exodus of labor is going to continue 
BO long as trade continues good. The only way to meet 

it is to turn large areas of arable land into permanent 
grass and meadows and to make use largely in the 
working of the arable land and of the meadows, of the 
labor saving machinery which has been invented and 
put on the market at such reasonable prices. With 
this machinery hands can be dispensed with and 
better work be done and crops be made and saved at 
less cost than ever in the past. Another means of sav- 
ing cost must be found In the production of larger 
crops on the same area of land. This will be found 
easy when the crops are largely converted into meat 
and dairy products on the farm, resulting in a larger 
production of home-made manure, which is the best 
and cheapest fertilizer which a farmer can use, and 
which. If supplemented where needed with commer- 
cial fertilizer, will easily result In doubling our pres- 
ent crops without adding one acre to the land under 
cultivation. The cost of making and saving a crop 
of 40 bushels of wheat, or of 50 bushels of corn to 
the acre, will be found to be very little more than 
that of making and saving our present meagre crops 
of 12 or 15 bushels of wheat and 15 to 25 bushels of 
corn to the acre. The secret of this Increased pro- 
duction to the acre will be found in better prepara- 
tion of the land before planting, and In the use of 
farm-yard manure and the leguminous crops to sup- 
ply humus to the soil. The profitable conversion of 
these crops into money lies in the use of better bred 
live stock, which will mature in half the time re- 
quired by the present scrub stock, and which will 
make meat and dairy products always commanding 
the top figure on the market. In this issue we have 
brought together a large mass of information as to 
these better bred animals with pictures of typical spe- 
cimens of the breeds. We bespeak for this matter 
the careful study of our readers. It means thousands 
of dollars In the pockets of Southern farmers and a 
complete change in the appearance of thousands of 
acres of land. 

The work that can be done on the land during 
the present month is usually small, as it is the one 
month in the year when, if we are to have any win- 
ter we are pretty certain to get It ; yet In the major- 
ity of years there are days even In this month when 
plowing can be done and the clearing up of land 
intended to be cropped can make progress, if only 
labor can be secured. The N«w Year's holiday, how- 
ever, largely prevents any reliance being placed on the 
hands till towards the close of the month. It is well, 
therefore, not to attempt much beyond seeing that 
abundant supplies of feed are kept on hand at the barn 



convenient for fee«iing, so that if any hard weather 
Bhonld set in there will be no fear of the stock suflFer 
ing. If the weather be mild and the land dry enough, 
plowing should be done, so as to lessen work later in 
the spring. Let this work be done thoroughly. Plow 
deep, and where possible and the subsoil is a good clay 
one, subsoil as well. In plowing land deep so as to 
add depth to the soil, do not turn the furrow slice 
completely over, but leave it on edge, so that the new 
soil may be mixed with the old soil in working. New 
soil brought from the bottom of the furrow will not 
produce large crops until thoroughly serated and dis 
integrated by the action of the weather, and this takes 
time ; hence, this deep plowing should not be done 
late in the spiing. The mixing of the old and new 
soil tends to hasten the fitting of the soil for crop pro- 
duction, and hence the importance of bo plowing as to 
admit of this. The value of subsoiling where the sabsoil 
is a good one, is not half appreciated as it ought to be. 
It breaks loose the hard pan nearly always to be found 
where shallow plowing has been the rule for years, 
and renders this permeable by the rainfall where the 
water is stored for the use of the crop in the summer. 
It makes largely available inert plant food in the 
shape of phosphoric acid and potash, which is always 
present in the soil in more or less abundance, and only 
requires the action of th« atmosphere, water and humic 
acid supplied from decaying vegetable matter to be 
come available for the necessities of the crop. Our 
own experience has convicced us that in every case 
except where the subsoil is sandy or leachy, subsoiling 
may be done with profit. 

Whenever the land is dry enough to haul on, get 
out farm yard manure and top-dress wheat, oats or 
grass land, or apply it on the land newly plowed and 
which is to be put in crop in the spring. The mineral 
fertilizers, acid phosphate and potash, may be applied 
along with the manure on the plowed land without 
fear of loss, and then the whole can be worked in to 
gether later in the spring, and thus much time be 
saved. Farm yard manure is much better on the land 
than leaching away in the farm-yard and pens. 

Glean up land intended to be cropped which has 
laid untilled for years. Whatever is done in this way 
let it be done thoroughly. Qet out all stumps and 
haul off all rocks. Left on the land they only serve 
to harbor weeds, briers, insects and fungoid diseases, 
and are a constant hindrance to good cultivation. Use 
the rocks to repair the roads. Let all fences be re 
paired and make them straight. An old worm fence 
which is insufficient to turn stock, will often supply 
rails enfficient to make a new straight fence capable 
of turning any stock. Set posts the length of the rails 

apart and fasten four or five rails to these posts, holdings 
them in place by running a piece of plain fence wire 
from the bottom to the top of the post on one side. 
Fasten the wire to the post with staples, making loops' 
to hold the rails in the proper places. 

All wet places should be drained and ditches b& 
cleaned out so as to give a quick fall to the water and 
a good outlet. In putting in drains put them in deep^ 
three feet to three feet six inches is little enough. It 
is the underlying water which requires to be got rid 
of. The surface water will soon enough find its way 
off the land when there is no underlying strata of 
water to keep it on the surface. 

Fill the ice house at the first opportunity. The firab 
opportunity is often the last in the South. Use plenty 
of sawdust in packing the ice. It is the surest pre- 
servative against waste. 

On wet and stormy days clean up, repair and paint 
all tools and implements. Time spent in this way 
will be money saved. 


Pecans — Sorrel — Timothy in South Carolina — 
Alfalfa — Lettuce Qrowing, Etc. 

Editor Southern Planter : 

Tour types in the December number make me say 
just what I did not intend to say. I meant to say that 
I agreed with you in not advising the planting of pe- 
cans outside the cotton belt. 

Mr. Knapenberger is right in saying that the pres- 
ence of acid plants, like sheep sorrel, is not neces- 
sarily an indication that the land is sour. The acid in 
the sorrel does not come from the soil, but is one of 
the results of the assimilative action of the green 
leaves, and comes from the air. But there is no doubt 
that some plants can abide acidity in the soil, while 
others cannot. The soil that grows sorrel may be acid, 
and if this is the case, it will not grow clover well, for 
the microbes that live on the clover roots cannot thrive 
in an acid soil. Then, frequently the best means for 
banishing the sorrel is to introduce, through liming, 
the conditions favorable to the clover, and thus 
smother out the sorrel. If I had land infested with 
sorrel, I would test it for acidity with blue litmus pa- 
per, and if found to be acid, I would have a short road 
to banishing the sorrel. Get a heavy growth of clover 
on the land and the sorrel will have no chance. 

I think that your correspondent in Lexington county, 
S. C, will find that timothy will make but one crop 
there after seeding, and the summer will kill it out> 



He had better use red top and meadow fescae, and get 
far better reenlts than from timothy in his climate. 
The fescue will make the main part of the first cutting 
and the red top will give him a late mowing. I saw a 
beautiful piece of alfalfa the past summer at Athens, 
Oa., on a mellow red clay loam, and was told that it 
was cut five times during a season. At Occoneechee 
Farm, near Hillsboro, N. C, Colonel Carr has a large 
field of alfalfa on red clay upland which has been pro 
ductive now for a number of years. There is no doubt 
that as the conditions for success are better understood 
in the South, alfalfa will be largely grown, and with 
plenty of hay from alfalfa and the cow pea, we may 
hope to see stock feeding grow in importance in the 
cotton country. 

I had rather have strychnine and a good shot gun 
for sheep killing dogs than any dog law that was ever 
put on the statute books. 

My frame lettuce is rapidly being destroyed by the 
etem-rot fungus. It is largely due, I believe, to the 
use of heavy applications of fertilizer in which the 
nitrogen came from cotton seed meal. Where none of 
this was put I have no rot. Then, too, I made the 
mistake of not changing the soil in the frames, but 
planted the same soil that was used last winter. The 
result is, that I shall lose fully half the crop, and as I 
am now getting 75 cents a dozen, this means quite a 
loss. Old lettuce soil and cotton seed meal fertilizer 
have been responsible. Hereafter we will get nitrogen 
for our lettuce fertilizer, either from fish scrap or 
dried blood. Stable manure seems to have the same 
effect in promoting fungus that the cotton seed meal 

That potato yarn Mr. Jefifers reports where four po 
tatoes weighing 8i lbs. tilled a barrel, is rather thin. It 
takes 150 lbs. of sweet potatoes to make a barrel. We 
had one that weighed a fraction over 9 lbs., and it 
would have been a small barrel that four such would 
have filled. The quince Mr. J. tells about is probably 
the Chinese quince. It is too tender for the North, 
but should be grown largely from Mar j land, south 
ward. W. F. Massey, 

Editor of Practical Farmer. 


Editor Southern Planter : 

A most common mistake of farmers is to expect too 
much of fertilizers, due to no little extent no doubt to 
the extravagant claims made by many fertilizer deal- 
ers. Fertilizers are simply a form of concentrated ma 
nnre, and their use arose largely from the fact that not 
enough farm yard manure can be made on the average 
farm to keep the soil in good condition. Careful til- 
lage is just as important with fertilizeis as with farm- 

yard manure. It is true that fertilizers do not stock 
up a soil with all kinds of weed seeds, but keeping the 
soil pulverized and porous and the maintenance of the 
earth mulch is not the less important on this account. 

Farm yard manures are more or less a complete 
manure ; and while it is true that the potash and phos- 
phates contained in same become available as plant- 
food much less rapidly than the nitrogen, still a large 
proportion ultimately become serviceable to growing 
plants. This is the point too generally overlooked by 
farmers in buying fertilizers. Figured on a fertilizer 
formula, manure contains equal percentages of potash 
and nitrogen, and half as much phosphoric acid. Fer- 
tilizers need not follow these proportions closely be- 
cause the nitrogen is needlessly large when we con- 
sider the enormous quantities stored in soils by plants 
of the clover family. So far as the mineral plant food 
elements are concerned, and by mineral plant food is 
commonly meant potash and the phosphates, it is very 
probable that farm yard manure represents closely 
the actual needs of average crops. 

This is the point to establish clearly before we go on 
the subject of tillage. If the fertilizers are unsuitable 
for the crop, tillage of itself can do nothing. The cor- 
rect balancing of the plant- food in fertilizers must be 
studied with reference to the actual needs of crops in 
plant food, and the largest crop it is hoped to make. 
A well balanced fertilizer for 20 bushels of corn per 
acre, for example, cannot make 40 bushels. Farmers 
must read and study out these points for themselves. 
The problem is neither intricate nor difficult, simply 
a matter of studying t^e composition of crops, being 
particular to take the whole crop growth into consid- 
eration, for plant-food is as much required to make the 
roughage as to make the valuable sale portion, and 
the one cannot be grown without the other. 

The function of tillage is to prepare soil conditions 
lavorable to the germination of seed ; that is, to keep 
the soil open and porous, and well pulverized, and 
even. It also serves to conserve moisture by the well 
known earth mulch, by keeping an even soil texture, 
and by keeping down the growth of weeds which use 
moisture thus robbing the valuable plants. Tha func 
tlon of fertilizer is the same as that of manure of 
all kinds. It simply supplies plant food — nitrogen, 
potash and phosphoric acid. Plant food can do little 
without tillage, tillage can do nothing without plant- 
food. These are things to keep In mind. 

As mentioned before, the composition of the fertil- 
izer Is Important, for plants must have certain pro 
portions of the three elements, and no great excess of 
any one, or of any two for that matter, can make up 
for the scarcity of any one of them. On this account, 
It Is of first Importance to study the composition of 
the fertilizers used. 

P. J. Christian. 




Bnqairiee shoald be sent to the office of 7^ Southern Planttr 
Sichmond, Va., not later than the 15th of the month, for re 
pliee to appear in the next month's issue of the Planter. 

Utilization of Dead Animals, 

Please describe in your answers to queries some 
ea^y and practical way by means of which the farmer 
can utilize the bodies of dead animals as fertilizers, 
and nob turn them over to the dogs and vultures. A 
large quantity of nitrogenous material is wasted in 
this way each year on every farm. 

Lackawanna Co., Pa. Thos. A. Kay, M. D. 

The only means of utilizing the dead carcasses of 
animals so that they may be efifectually converted into 
fertilizer without becoming offensive or a nuisance, is 
to put them into a tank and pour sulphuric acid over 
them. This will dissolve the flesh and bones, and the 
resultant matter can then be mixed with dry soil and 
be then applied to the land. There is, however, con 
BiderabJe risk in thus dealing with them, as the hand- 
ling of the acid is dangerous work unless provided 
with proper appliances. Some farmers dispose of 
carcasses by placing them in a pit and covering with 
qaick lime and soil. This process is slower than with 
the acid, but much safer. Probably the easiest and 
Bafeet way to dispose of animals which have died 
from disease, is to burn them. In this way all traces 
and germs of the disease are destroyed and the result 
ing ashes can be used as a fertilizer. In any event, 
dead carcasses should not be left about the farm for 
dogs and buzzards to consume. The practice of thus 
disposing of them is the prolific cause of the dissemi 
nation of disease amongst animals. We have had 
positive evidence of hog cholera being thus carried 
from one fai m to another by buzzards. We would 
like to see a law passed making it compulsory to de- 
stroy every buzzard in the country. If we had no 
buzzards, farmers would bury or burn their dead ani- 
mals and danger of the spread of disease would be 
lessened. — Ed. 

Fall and Winter Plowing. 

1. I notice that The Planter is an advocate of faU 
plowing on general principles, but as there is a diver 
sity of opinion as to how far fall plowing should be 
practiced, I would ask the Editor if, in his opinion, 
such plowing should be done in all cases. 

2. A field on which wheat is grown is covered in the 
fall with weeds and grass which will make a mnlch 
through the winter in case one doesn't care to put 
in grain to farm a mulch, would it be best to plow 
under the trash in the fall or leave it as a mulch, at 
least till late wint«r t 

3. Another piece of rather heavy land of low fer 
tility, having a tendency to run together and wash, is 
covered with a light coat of grass and weeds, en9ngh to 

prevent washing. Would this land be benefited by fall 
plowing, in case no grain crop is sown 1 

As the above described fields are typical of large 
sections of the South, with slight variations, consider- 
ation of the subject will no doubt prove helpful t* 
others as well as myself. 

Surry Co. , Va. J. A. Moobe. 

1. There is, no doubt, a diversity of opinion as to the 
wisdom of fall and winter plowing of land in a coun- 
try where the winter is usually mild, but our own opin- 
ion is strongly in favor of the practice for reasons 
which we have fully explained in numerous articles- 
Wherever the work can be done early enough to per- 
mit of the sowing of a winter-growing crop we would 
always seed such a crop because of its value as a con- 
server of fertility and maker of humus, which almost 
all Southern lands need even more than fertilizer. 

2. We would turn down the grass and weeds before- 
they seed in order to lessen the plague of weeds which 
make so much unnecessary work and rob the soil. If 
allowed to remain on the surface until winter they 
will have shed their seed and make work and rob the- 
soil of fertility. Weeds consume plant food and mois- 
ture just as surely as profitable crops, and make> 
no return for what they take. 

3. The way to cure this land of its tendency to wash 
and run together, if both conditions can exist simulta- 
neously, which is doubtful, is to plow it deeply and 
get it filled with humus. Therefore it should be plowed 
deeply early enough to seed, in a winter growing legu- 
minous croj) to be turned down in the spring. — Ed. 

Service of Sow. 

I notice your reply in the December number of the 
Planter to G. W. B., of Middlesex county, with refer- 
ence to the number of times a sow may drop a litter 
of pigs within ten months. You said that a sow will 
usually accept service within a week after dropping^ 
pigs. Ton will please tell us in the January number 
of the Planter how she is brought in heat so soon. 

Mecklenburg Co., Va. A Subscriber. 

The sow (like a mare) will naturally accept service 
within a week after farrowing. There is no necessity 
to use any artificial means. — Ed. 

Canada Peas. 

Having read the article in the December issue of 
the Planter about Canada peas sowed for hogs, I hav» 
ordered 3 bushels to plant on a trial basis. 

How do you prepare them for feed 1 Do you turn 
the hogs in on them while in a green state, or cut them 
like oats and feed them 1 How many bushels per acre 
is a good crop of them 1 

Baltimore, Md. S. D. JONES. 

This crop is usually grown for a hog pasture, iur 
which case the hogs should be turned in as soon as the 
peaa are about half grown in the pods. They will then 



consume both the vines and pods. If grown for hay, 
of which it makes a fine quality, cut when the peas are 
fully formed but before they commence to ripen and 
then the vines can be saved with the leaf on them. 
Always have the crop off the ground before the hot 
weather sets in or it will likely be lost. The crop may 
be cut for green feed like Crimson clover or oats, if 

It is not a suitable crop to grow for seed in the 
South, as before the peas ripen the hot weather causes 
mildew to attack it, and when this starts the whole 
crop is soon lost. — Ed. 

Grazing Wheat. 

We are asked as to the advisability of grazing wheat. 
Wherever wheat has made a strong growth ejfrly in the 
winter it is a good practice to graze it with calves and 
sheep whenever the land is dry during the winter and 
up to about the 1st of April. It should not, however, 
be grazed too close. The effect of grazing is to make 
the plant tiller and spread over the field. — Ed. 

A Dark Cow Barn. 

A lady in Patrick county, Va., writes us that her 
husband has built a barn in part of which he has a 
cow stable, but has made no provision for lighting the 
stable except a small hole into each stall. She says 
the cows object to go Into it, atjd one can scarcely see 
how to milk them. She wants to know if this is a 
proper place for cows. 

In reply, we would say that such a place is no more 
fit to keep cows in than it would be for a human be- 
ing to live in. Sunlight, daylight and plenty of fresh 
air are as essential to the health and welldoing of live 
stock of any kind as they are for mankind. Cattle 
kept in such a barn as this can never long be healthy. 
The surest destroyer of all disease germs is sunlight. 
— Bd. 

Lightening a Clay Soil. 

I have some clay galls I am going to cover with rot 
ten sawdust and plow under, and then apply ground 
silica, barrow and sow in cow peas, or soy beans. 

1. How much silica would you advise to put to the 

2. Would you sow before or after plowing ? 
Cleveland, Tenn Henry D. Ayee. 

1. As the only effect of the silica will be a mechan 
leal one, you may apply such a quantity as, in your 
judgment, you think will sufficiently lighten and dis- 
integrate the clay, so as to make it more of a loamy 

2. We would apply after plowing and harrow it into 
he clay soil. — Ed. 

Lame Horse. 

I have a horse that is lame in one of his hind legs. 
It seems to be hip joint lameness. Can you give me a 
remedy for it? I have tried several liniments, and 
nothing I have tried has relieved him. There is no 
swelling or enlargement anywhere on th« leg, but he 
is lame when he trots. It does not affect his work only 
in driving. 

King and Queen Co., Va. E. J. Vatighan. 

If the trouble really be in the hip joint, it is doubt- 
ful whether any treatment will be of service now. To 
prevent permanent lameness from hip joint injury the 
remedy should be applied at once after the injury, 
and even then the result is doubtful. A long period 
of rest is absolutely essential. A shoe with high heels 
should be fitted, and hot water fomentations should 
be frequently applied to the part, and mercurial oint- 
ment be well rubbed in. — Ed. 

Pasture Grasses for Light Land. 

I have some rather steep land that is loose and in- 
clined to wash, which I want to set in grass next 
spring for pasture. What variety of grass do you re- 
commend? How would Johnson grass do? Is it a 
good pasture and hay grass ! I want something that 
will make a good sod and prevent the land from 

Bristol, Tenn. SuBSCEiBEE. 

Plow the land deeply, and thus make it possible for 
the water to get down into the subsoil instead of wash- 
ing off the surface soil. Work fine, and then seed in 
March or April or in August or September a mixture 
of the following grasses: Orchard grass, perennial rye, 
Virginia blue, meadow fescue and Hungarian brome. 
Sow at the rate of three bushels to the acre. Johnson 
gra-s is not adapted to such land as this. It should 
be sown on level loamy land, where it can remain 
permanently and will not encroach on other arable 
land. It makes gaod bay when cut before maturity, 
and also good grazing. It is closely related to the 
sorghums, and grows much like them, but makes long 
jointed underground stems like wire grass.— Ed. 

The two most potent factors in a country's progress 
are roads and schools. And they arc inseparable, 
where one is really good the other will not long remain 
bad, and where one is neglected the other is not found 
much in advance. — Southern School and Home 

If I had some magic gift to bestow, it would be to 
make our country youth see one truth, namely, that 
science as applied to the farm, the garden and the 
forest has as splendid a dignity as astronomy; that it 
it may work just as many marvels and claim as high 
an order of talent. — John Graham Brooks. 


[Jan nary 

Trucking, Garden and Orchard. 


Not much work of any kind can be done in the gar 
den or orchard daring this month, except completing 
the clearing np and breaking of land which has been 
In late fa!l crops. Let this work be done effectually. 
Leave no trash, weeds, or wasted vegetables or stalks 
on the gronnd, bnt bnrn them np and thus remove all 
winter hiding places for insects, and destroy their eggs 
and the fnngns spores, which are so prolific of damage 
in summer. Break the land deeply and leave it rough, 
so that the frost and weather can penetrate it. Farm 
yard manure can with advantage be hauled out on to the 
land after it has been plowed, and phosphate and pot- 
ash fertilizers may be spread on at the same time with 
out fear of loss from leaching. A good dressing of 
freshly slacked lime — say, 50 bushels to the acre — will 
on land which has been long used for growing vegeta 
bles be fonnd of more help to it than manure, but lime 
and farm yard manure should never be applied at the 
same time. Apply the lime now and manure may be 
applied in March or April. 

The composting and mixing of farm yard manure, 
leaves, sods and other vegetable matter, should receive 
attention. This will be required in February and 
March for the hot- beds and frames and later for the 
crops in the open ground. Tain over and mix well 
two or three times during the winter, so that it may 
be sweetened and uniform in quality. 

In Tidewater Virginia and Eastern North and South 
Carolina, English peas may be sown for the early crop 
if the ground is dry and in nice working condition. 
A field that grew Irish or sweet potatoes last year 
makes the moet desirable land for the pea crop, as 
peas do not want fresh manure or too lich soil. If any 
fertilizer is needed it will probably only be phosphoric 
acid. This may be given by using 300 or 400 lbs to 
the acre of acid phosphate. If any potash is needed 
apply 50 to 75 lbs. to the acre of muriate of potash. 
English peas should be put in deeply — say, with a 
cover of 4 or five inches of soil. Sow in drills two 
feet apart, putting the peas In the bottom of the 
drills in a wide row — say, 3 or 4 inchts wide, and 
scattered pretty thickly. Tread into the soil and cover. 

Towards the end of the month small sowings of rad 
ishes and lettuce may be male in the above sections, 
in sheltered situations or where protection can be given 
by mats or sash. 

The pruning of orchards and vineyards shonld be 
continued in mild, dry weather. 


January is usually regarded as a "rest month" by 
the farmer. He feeds stock, builds fires, and eats of 
the things he spent latt summer and fall, growing 
and storing away. It is a time when the Virginia 
farmer asually "tarns over the new leaf," tries to 
balance accoants, and matures plans for next year's 

These occupations, however, really make it one of 
the most important months of the year to the farmer* 
since he draws conclusions from the past year's expe- 
rience, and decides upon plans to be followed during 
all the iJext twelve months. If these plans are not 
good, the year's work will be largely a failure, hence 
the very great importance of well matured plans. 

What variety of apples should be added to the or- 
chard ; when and how should they be planted ; when 
and how should the pruning be done. (We prefer to 
do most of ihis work in February and March, and 
expect to give full instructions along these lines in 
the February and March issues of the Planter.) Where 
should the potatoes be planted, Irish and Sweet t Are 
the prospects favorable for growing an early crop for 
the near by markets? Should a late crop of cabbage 
be grown for shipmeiit to the Gulf States during the 
later part of summer and early fall? Do the garden 
fence and gates need attention t 

You may prune the grape vines between now and 
the middle of March. How should they be pruned t 
What ftrtilizers should be used on the crops next 
year t How can a good home made fertilizer be made t 
These are some of the many things the farmer should 
consider during this, the first month of 1903. 

Put a winter mulch on the strawberry plants at once 
if not already done. Is there a real farmer in the 
Southern States who has no strawberry plants in his 
garden? If so, he is missing something in this life. 
His more fortunate neighbor should invite him over 
to see the large, luscious, crimson colored berries 
peeping through the rich green foliage of the plants 
early in Jane. Let him gather some berries and sam- 
ple them with a liberal sprinkling of sugar and cream, 
and then watch his enthusiasm rise to 105 degrees. 
This kind of horticultural teaching will bear fruit 
both for the pupil and for the teacher. 

But I am wandering from what I started to say. 
How should the mulch be applied t Take straw, pine 
needles or any similar material, that has no weed feed 
in it, and cover all the strawberry ground with it 




after the ground has frozen an inch or more. Hold 
the plants in the frozen bed till yon want them to 
grow in the spring. Judging from my own experience 
along this line, I agree with Mr. Blacknall, who stated 
in the December issue of the Planter that it was doubt- 
ful about winter mulching being beneficial to straw 
berry plants in the Gulf States. Later on, I will tell 
how I obtained good results by summer mulching in 
the dry climate at the Texas Expepiment Statien. It 
Is more important in the Gulf States to know how to 
carry the plants through the summer in a strong, 
healthy condition than it is to know how to take them 
through the winter. But I believe, from my own ex 
perience, that winter mulching is advisable in all that 
section of Virginia west of Pied mont. I have seer 
excellent crops of strawberries grown at the Virginia 
Experiment Station by winter mulching (in fact, I 
helped to grow them), while the near by crops that 
were not mulched were almost failures. In fact, I 
believe, by careful winter mulching, other conditions 
being favorable, that a good strawberry crop can be 
grown over a large portion of Virginia and Tennessee 
with more certainty than a wheat crop. As to profits, 
there is nj comparison. 

Besides the strawberry, which is the first fruit to 
ripen, the farm should not fail to have some good 
EJack Cap Eispberries growing to follow the straw 
berry closely. Pot this fruit down on your list for 
planting in March. What varieties should be planted. 
There are a number of good black cap varieties sold 
by nurserymen, but the farmer can frequently get good 
raspberry plants along Old Virginia worm fences that 
will cost nothing but a little time to go after them. 
Many people like to get something for nothing. Here 
is a chance. The berries are not usually as large as 
the cultivated varieties, but the flavor is frequently 
better. Better have these than none. Let the boy 
take his first lesson in horticulture by setting them out 
and taking care of them. Let him see how they prop 
agate by branching in the fall and taking root at s*v 
eral places at the tips. Each one of these tips may be 
taken up the following spring and be used to start a 
new plant. The plants should have been marked while 
in fruit for transplanting, but had better be done now 
than not at all. 

Then there are currants, gooseberries, pears, peaches 
and quinces to follow later on. 

What kind of literature are you reading thtse win 
ter evenings t 

Do you read the bulletins issued by the United 
States Department of Agriculture t If not, why ? 

Are you deriving any benefit from the State Depart 
ment of Agriculture? Have you read the bulletins 

i8su€d by the Commissioner of Agriculture, Rich 
mond, Va. If not, why not ? 

Are you deriving any benefit from the Virginia Ag- 
ricultural Experiment Station, Bla^kebnrg, Va. 1 If 
not, why not t Is your name on the mailing list for 
the various bulletins issued to farmers free. If not, 
write a postal card row to any of the three depart- 
ments mentioned above and ask to have your name 
and address placed on the regular mailing list for free 
bulletins. As my farm is only ten miles from the Vir- 
ginia Experiment Station, I may have more to say 
about this institution in a future issue. 

Have you left any of the tools out in the damp win- 
ter weather. If so, they will help to bring on a good 
crop of farm mortgages. I believe, as a rule, more 
tools rust out and rot out in Virginia and other South- 
ern farms than are worn out. I know this is a strong 
statement, but according to my own experience as a 
Virginia farmer and my observation in extensive travel 
over the Southern States, thi^ conclusion has forced 
itself upon my mind. 

Take those tools in out of the wet. Eepa'r them. 
Give the wood work a coat of paint and the iron and 
steel parts that go into the ground, on such tools as 
shovels, hoes, plows and cultivators, a good coat of 
linseed oil. This will help to keep met away and 
thus enable the tools to shed the dirt better in the 
spring. Clean tools will save the temper of the man. 

Clean up the gardens. "When harvesting some cabbage 
and turnips from my garden in November, I noticed 
many lice on the roots of the turnips and on the heads 
of some cabbage. I will not leave a single plant for 
these pests to winter on. An attempt will be made 
to starve them out in the dead of winter. All the 
weed seed that I can get together will be burned. The 
idea being that it is easier to burn a weed seed or an 
insect egg in the winter than it is to pull a weed up 
during a hot summer day or feed the progeny of an 
insect. Of course, an attempt was made to prevent 
these parasites multiplying daring the summer, bat 
the warfare must be kept up by the farmer. 

E. H. Peice. 

This Department will have contributions each month 
from Prof. E. H. Price, of Montgomery county, Va., 
who has had much experience as a practical farmer 
and horticulturist in this State, as well as having had 
charge of the Horticultural Department of the Texas 
Agricultural Experiment Station during the past ten 

When corresponding with advertisers mention the 
Southern Planter. 




Report of Annual Meeting. 

The Annual Meeting of the Virginia State Horti 
cultural Society was held in the Masonic Hall, Lynch 
burg, on December 2ad and 3rd, with a large attend 
ance. A most interesting programme was presented, 
and discussed in a spirited manner. Local members 
brought specimens of apples, pears, peaches and some 
very fine vegetables. The Society had purchased a 
box of the highest grade Pacific Coast apples to be 
had in New York market as a comparison with our 
own, and also to show the Pacific Coast methods of 
packing and grading. These apples were of the Spit 
zenberg variety and sold in New York for $3 75 per 
bushel box. They did not compare with the Virginia 
fruit on the tables in either appearance or flavor. Mr. 
Collingwood, editor of the Rural New Yorker, who was 
present as one of the speakers, said publicly that this 
was his first visit to Virginia, and that he had for 
years been attending meetings of various Societies in 
the Northern Sta'es, but that with the single excep 
tion of one exhibit in Maine he had never seen such 
fine apples ; they were perfect ; and he expressed sur 
prise that the people of Virginia did not let those 
outside the State know what fine fruit they had. He 
said it was our duty to advertise ourselves. 

The Society passed a resolntioa urging the passage 
of a bill for an appropriation for St. Louis Expo- 
sition by the Legislature, and binding members of the 
Society to do all in their power to get petitions signed 
and forwarded from their respective counties to mem 
bers of the Legislature. 

President S. B. Woods urged the necessity of good 
roads, and the proposal to form an Appalachian 
Forest Reserve by the Federal Government in Vir 
ginla, North Carolina and South Carolina, which were 
endorsed by the Society. 

Mr. H. P. Gould, of the United States Department 
of Agriculture, read an interesting paper on "Why 
Some Orchards Fail," and referred to the progress in 
development of the fruit industry, from the first or 
chards which were planted merely for elder. He im 
pressed the necessity of cultivation, spraying and in 
telllgent pruning. The subject of shipment of peaches 
and pears to Earope was taken up by Prof. W. A. 
Taylor, of the United States Department of Agr"icul 
ture, whose remarks were Interesting aud illustrated 
by statistical charts. 

Dr. M. L. McCue, a prominent and successful or 
chardlst In Albemarle county, read an able paper on 
" Care of Orchards;" describing methods from plant- 
ing to bearing stage. Prof. Alwood and Senator Lup 
ton, of Winchester, gave an illustrative lecture on 

packing and grading fruits ; samples were shown of 
how apples should be graded, and various kinds of 
packages were exhibited. 

Mr. A. T. Todd, of Crozet, took up the subject of 
packing peaches in a similar manner- 
Mr. O'Rork, of Staunton, talked about the bye- 
products, evaporating, &c., showing the best means 
of utilizing what has usually been wasted. 

Prof. Alwood talked on canning, showing samples 
of product. 

Mr. Collingwood, editor of the Burul New Torlcer, 
spoke on Handling Fruit for New York markets. He 
is a most pleasing speaker, and during his long and 
interesting talk held the close attention of his audi- 
ence. His method of illustrating the points he desires 
to impress by humorous anecdotes was greeted with 
hearty laughter. His description of life in New York 
flats, with 1,GOO people to the acre and twice that 
number in the tenement districts, gave an insight into 
an existence altogether unusual to his hearers. He 
showed how, under these conditions, the tendency was 
to smaller packages of fruit, and advocated the use of 
bushel and half bushel boxes instead of barrels for 
apples. He instanced the profitable business accom- 
plished by California under these conditions. He said 
if they could buy our Winesap instead of the Ben Da- 
vis they now got they would appreciate red apples 
instead of shunning them as at present. 

A lengthy discussion followed Prof. Alwood's re- 
sume of San Jos6 scale work. Some members con- 
tended that the law had not been properly adminis- 
tered by the State Inspector, and the general feeling 
was that in its present condition it was not far reach- 
ing enough, and also unworkable. 

A committee was appointed to present the views of 
the Society to the members of the Legislature and urge 
amendments in the law to make it meet the exigencies 
of the cise, it being pointed out that if scale were 
discovered on our fruit in the larger markets, espe- 
cially New York, they would immediately quarantine 
against all Virginia fruit. 

Mr. W. Whately, of Crozet, secretary and treasu- 
rer, in his report, showed that the Society was making 
steady increase in membership each year, and showed 
a satkfactory balance in hand in his financial state- 

The election of officers for 1903 resulted in Mr. W. 
W. Otey, of Pala^ki county, taking the place of Mr. 
W. A. Francis, of Salem in the list of vice presi- 
dents, the other officers being continued in office. Mr. 
Whately desired to resign the office of Secretary- 
Treasurer, but was unanimously voted in, and bowed 
to the will of the members. 

Interest in the meeting held to the last, the final 
session lasting up to 11 P. M., Mr. Collingwood giv- 

1»03 J 



ing a second talk, which was as popular as the one ear- 
lier in the day. 

Prof. Van Deman, who is always a favorite with Vir 
ginia horticulturists, was in attendance, and was sev- 
eral times a speaker, his remarks receiving the usual 
attention accorded to them. 

The Society was requested to meet at Charlottes- 
ville, Lynchburg, and Pulaski next year, the claims 
of each being warmly advocated, and after a spirited 
friendly contest, the members from the Southwest 
gained the victory they deserved, and Pulaski was de- 
cided on as the place of next meeting. 

The report of proceedings that will shortly be issued 
will be of even greater interest than its predecessors, 
which is saying a great deal. All members obtain 
copies free, and no horticulturist can afford to be with- 
out it. Annual membership being only $1.00 for each 
year, any one may be placed on the list by remitting 
this amount to Mr. Whately, Secretary Treasurer, 
Crozet, Va. 


Editor Southern Planter : 

Believing your statement in the November issue, 
that the pecan is unsuitable for planting anywhere in 
Virginia, is a mistake, which yon would gladly cor 
rect, when convinced that you are in error ; as well 
for the benefit of any of your subscribers who have 
planted the pecan, o r may be contemplating doing so, 
I enclose under another cover a copy of the Daily Ad 
vance, published here (Lynchburg), which contains 
facts in a leading editorial that somewhat combat 
your views as to the pecan. I will add that I lived 
at a place here on which was flourishing a p€caa tree, 
that I believe is the largest tree of any kind in the 
city to day; and it has large crops of nuts each year. 
My boys sold most of them to Mr. Samuel A. Boyd, 
who was then, and had been for many years, the leid- 
ing confectioner here, and he told me on several occa 
sions that he preferred them to any he could buy on 
any other market because of their superior flavor and 
their shells, which were generally filled with sound 

Lynchburg, Va. J. D. Pendleton. 

In the article referred to, the editor of the Lynchburg 
Advance says : 

Our Georgia exchanges are having much to say about 
nut culture in that State, especially pecans. Experi 
ments have proved that the pecan tree flourishes ad 
mlrably in Georgia and produces profitabla crops. 
Groves have been planted in various localities, and 
some of them have already come into bearing, bring- 
ing handsome returns to the owners. It has been sug- 

gested that the tree would flourish in Virginia, but 
the Southern Planter discourages the attempt to grow 
them in the State, believing that the climate and soil 
are not suited to them. In the December number of 
the Planter, two correspondents take issue with that 
journal and tell of flourishing pecan trees in the coun- 
ties ol Prince William and Norfolk. In Norfolk coun- 
ty, there are two immense tiees seven feet in diameter 
near the ground, which make admirable shade and 
produce nuts worth from $75 to $100 annually. The 
Planter replies that climatic conditions in Eastern Vir- 
ginia may suit this tree, but they will not thrive in 
Piedmont Virginia. Now, we can tell the Planter of 
several flourishing pecan trees in Lynchburg, one of 
them, two and a half feet in diameter, has been bear- 
ing abundant crops for years. The other two are 
younger, and not so large. There is another big tree 
in the country, not far from the city, which has been 
bearing good nuts for years — so the tree will grow in 
Piedmont Virginia. But we agree with the Planter 
that it is not its proper habitat, and it would not be 
well to go into the business of raising pecans here. 


Editor Southern Planter : 

I was much interested in reading the experience of 
your correspondents who have attempted the raising 
of nuts. 
If of interest, my experience is as follows : 
Some twelve years since, I purchased from a New 
Jersey nurseryman ten trees of each of the following 
varieties: Japan Chestnut, Pecan and English Wal- 
nut. Three of the Pecans are alive to day — one 20 
feet, one 15, one 8 feet high — but none have ever set 
fruit, although they are strong hardy trees. 

Of the English walnuts, five are living, one of which 
is ten feet high ; the others have made but little 
growth, although all are apparently thrifty, but no 
fruit has set on any of them. 

Of the Japan chestnuts, six are living, several of 
which have made a satisfactory growth, and two of 
them have been bearing for several years. One of 
these produced a gallon of nuts last season. 

As for filberts, I imported with other trees some 30 
years ago two trees from England. They send up 
shoots from the root, but have never matured a fruit- 
All of these trees were planted in fine rich soil, 
and, after a year or two, the blue grass was allowed to 
grow about the trees, as they were planted in the houee 
grounds. My farm is four miles north of James river 
at Scottsville. 

Albemarle Co., Va. W. Q. M, 

Mention the Planter when corresponding with ad- 




Live Stock and Dairy. 


Editor Souihrm Planter : 

Iq Darning ihe dairy breeds of cattle, as distinct 
from btef l)reeds and dnal or general purpose cattle, 
those races only should be considered which have 
well eetablifrhed reputations for the profitable pro 
dnction of milk. Other desirable qualities may be 
ignored. As thus defined and known in America, 
the dairy breeds are the Ayrshires, Gnernsejs, Hoi 
steins, and Jerseys. If other parts of the world were 
searched, a few additional breeds might be found hav 
ing claim to recognition in this list. Repnsentatives 
of some of thete are occaf^ionally seen iu this country, 
but none have made anj' serious impr«6s upon onr 
dairy industry, and they are not likely to do so. Their 
reputation is limited, and however meritorious they 
may be locally, there is not sufiBcient cause for de 
scribing thfm In this connection. 

The four breeds named all produce thrifty calves 

tained fixed characteristics of great dairy excellence. 
They are medium sized cattle, muscular and active, 
the beet of foragers, and accustomed, in their native 
country, to subsisting on pasturage in summer and 
almost exclusively upon hay and straw in the winter. 
Ayrshire cows may be fairly said to excel the other 
dairy races in earning their living under difificultiea 
and giving a profit upon the roughest forage. They 
are naturally hardy and admirably adapted to grazing 
OTer wide ranges of broken and rugged pastures. 
While they respord to good care and pay well for it, 
they are comparatively iudiflferent to exposure and in- 
clement wea'her. Bred to abundant air and exercise, 
they soon show the ill effects of too close housing and 
crowding in ill ventilated stables. No brted i^ hardier 
if rationally treated, and none succumbs sooner to un- 
sanitary conditions. 

The general form of the Ayrshire is the wedge- 
si ape — rfgarded as typical of cows of dairy excel- 



■when properly treated, and, although some of them 
are small, they make good veal. Steers from them 
can be rais»d at a profit, but not as economically as 
from other breeds. Young bulls and young females, 
non breeders or dairy failures (th? "black sheep" 
which occasionally appear in every fluck), can be 
readily turned into excellent heef. But aged animals, 
which have terved their purpose as breeders and 
dairy producers, cinnot be profitably fatted. None 
of these side issues should be depended upon for in 
come. If entitled to be called dairy cattle, the cows 
should be capable of such profit during their years of 
dairy production as to render o'her considerations In 
significant, except the rearing of enough selected 
calves to maintain the composition of the herd. 
The Ayrshire breed has been developed within a 
century in the southwestern part of Scotland and at 

lencc— and they are short legged and fine boned. The 
face is usually rather long and straight, but clean and 
fine, with a fall growth of horn which curves outward, 
then inward, and turns well up, with tip« inclined 
backward. This gives an upright and bold appear- 
ance to the whole head. A black muzzle is the rule, 
although white seems to be no challenge of purity of 
blood. The eye is peculiarly bright, with a quick 
movement indicating extreme watchfulness. The 
whole appearance is of a highly nervous tempera- 
ment. The prevailing color of the body is red and 
white, variously proportioned and in spots, not mixed. 
Probably three fourths of all this race of cattle can be 
thus described in color. A generation ago the dark 
markings predominated, but there has lately been a 
strong trend towards more white, especially in Can- 
ada. The red is sometimes bright, but often of a rich, 
sherry brown, like the shell of a horse chestnaL 

1903 J 



Mometimes the color is a dull brown, and occasionally 
a brindle appears. Nearly all the good animals of 
the breed have broad, flaf, well arched ribs, giving 
1 oom for capacious digestive apparatus. The udder 
(iixtends both forward and back, is held well up, has a 
broad attachment to the body and a level bottom line. 
It is a snug, compact organ, admirably fitted by its 
nhape and elasticity for the elaboration and storage of 
lailk, and when the glands are at rest, it occupies but 
little space. The teats are small and cylindrical 
lather than cone shaped. In many cases the teats are 
too small for comfortable milking, but careful breed 
(irs have remedial this defect, and whole herds can be 
found with superb udders and teats of good size. 

The Ayrshire cow is a large and persistent milker, 
although she usually demands a dry season of six to 
eight weeks before calving. A. yield of 5 500 lbs. a 
year as the average for a working herd is often real 
ized. Records of eighteen well managed herds, col 
lected from different sections and averaging twelve 

fipeoial reputation which this breed has enj>3ed as 
finperior cheese makers is not sustained by the facts. 
In the hands of capable makers, Ayi shire milk will 
make little if any more cheese from a given weight 
than will the milk of other breeds. Yet, the uniform 
distribution of fat is an advantage, and there is less 
liability to lose fat in converting this milk into cheese 
than in the case of richer milk with fat globules larger 
and more irregular in size. 


Guernseys originated upon and are imported from 
ijhe second in size of the Channel Islands, lying be- 
tween England and France. The early importations 
to this country were not well distinguished from the 
Jersey, and all these island cattle were indiscrimi- 
nately and incorrectly called "Alderneys." About 
thirty years ago the Guernseys became recognized in 
America as a distinct breed. Since that time theie 
Jiave been importations nearly every year, and the 
Ijreed has steadily increased in numbers in this coun- 

oows each, show an annual average product of 5,412 
Ibi. One noted herd, averaging fourteen cows in milk, 
has an unbroken record for twenty years with an aver 
age yield of 6,427 lbs. a year to the cow. One year 
the average was 7,000 lbs. Single cows have pro 
duced 10,000 and even 12,000 lbs. of milk. Butter 
records are not numerous, but the milk of the herd 
referred to averages over 4 per cent, of fat, and the 
cows from 244 to 512 lbs. of butter each, with an aver- 
age of 353 lbs. There are single authentic records of 
over 600 lbs. of butter in a year. The milk of this 
breed is not exceptionally rich, but rather above the 
nverage of cows, or 3 i to 4 per cent, fat for mixed 
lierd milk throughout the year. The fat globules are 
email and very even in size, so that cream rises slow 
ly ; it has comparatively little color. The Ayrshire 
is therefore not a first claas butter cow, but its product 
is admirably suited for market milk, safely above 
legal standards, uniform and capable of long trans 
portation and rough handling without injury. A 

'.ry and as steadily gained in favor wherever intro- 
duced. There are now just as many Guernseys as 
Ayrshires on this continent, rough estimates placing 
the number of each at 25,000. 

The Guernseys are a size larger than the Jerseys, 
with which race they can best be compared, and are 
stronger boned and coarser in appearance. But the 
cows are generally handsome and attractive to the 
dairyman. They are claimed to be hardier and larger 
milkers, but both these points are stoutly dented. The 
one hundred best Jerseys in the United States are un- 
doubtedly the equals as dairy animals, in every re- 
spect, of the hundred best Guernseys. But the latter 
have been selected for importation with better judg- 
ment, and it is probably true that the average Guern- 
sey cow in this country to day is a better producer 
than the average Jersey. In other words, there are 
many more poor Jerseys than poor Guernseys. 

The head of the Guernsey is rather long, the neck 
slender, the body large, deep and rangey, the rump 




prominent, the flanks thin, thighs incurved and twist 
open and roomy. Altogether, the animal is at once 
recognized as bneinesslike and belonging to the pro 
noanced dairy type. The breed is almost always light 
in color, yellow and orange predominating, with con 
siderable white, usually in large patches. Darker 
shades, approaching brown, are found upon some cows 
and often upon bulls. The muzzles are almost inva 
riably buff or flesh colored, surrounded by a fillet of 
almost white hair. Occasionally a black nose is found, 
showing the influence of some distant ancestor from 
Brittany, or suggestive of more recent exchange of 
compliments between the Jersey and Guernsey isles 
which have undoabtedly although rarely occurred. 
The horns aie small, curved, fine, thin shelled and 
waxy in appearance ; they often show a deep, rich 
yellow for a third of their length from the base. A 
characteristic Oi the breed is a very generous secretion 
of yellow coloring matter which pertains to the whole 
skin, but is seen especially where the hair is white, in 

stated, in natural color. They may be especially 
recommended as batter cows, as well as for market 
milk where quality secures a relatively high price. 
They demand good treatment and liberal feeding, but 
are noted for rich production combined with economy 
of food. From 5,000 to 6,000 lbs. of milk per year 
should be expected and upwards of 300 lbs. of butter. 
One herd of over one hundred cows of all ages in this 
country gave 5,317 lbs. of milk and 318 lbs. of butter. 
Single cows have ranged up to 10,000 and 12,000 lbs. 
of milk a year and a few sfclll more, producing 500 to 
750 and even 900 lbs. of butter. The mixed milk of 
this breed is often found to average 14 to 15 per cent, 
of total solids and 5 to 6} per cent, of fat. The 
globules are large and the cream separates easily. 

Guernsey bulls have proved extremely satisfactory 
in grading up a herd with fairly selected dairy cows 
of no particular breeding ; the offspring usuiUy make 
very acceptable dairy stock. Guernseys have not yet 
been largely introduced in tha South, and will deserve 

the ears, around the eyes and about the udder. The 
bright golden undertone of the white parts of the 
body, when in strong light, is often very noticeable. 
This gives a distinctive "richness" to the animal, and 
causes the milk and butter produced to be of a higher 
color at all seasons of the year than that of any other 
breed. A single Guernsey cow will give color and 
attractive tone to the milk and butter of a dozen cows 
of kinds deficient in this respect. The udder and 
teats are large and well shaped and placed in selected 
specimens, but these and other dairy markings do not 
appear to be as uniformly fixed throughout the breed, 
as in the case of Jerseys, which have been subjected 
to a larger course of careful breed development. The 
cows possess a highly nervous temperament, and yet 
are extremely quiet and gentle when properly handled. 
Much lees trouble is reported in the management of 
aged bulls than with Jerseys of like age. 

The cows of the breed produce liberal quantities of 
milk, of uncommon richness in butter fat, and, as 

more attention in this section. 


Holsteins is the popular name for the strongly- 
marked black- and white cattle of North Holland and 
Friesland, although the herd book title is Holstein- 
Friesians. They constitate one of the very oldest and 
most notable breeds of cattle. Holland has been 
famous for dairy products for at least a thousand 
years, aud the great bicolored beasts upon which this 
reputation has been gained have been slowly bat 
surely developing their present form of dairy ex- 

The large frame, strong bone, abundance of flesh 
(particularly in the males and all young), silken coat, 
extreme docility and enormous milk yield of these 
cattle, result from the rich and luxurious herbage of 
the very fertile and moist lands upon which the breed 
has been perfected, the close housing and uncommonly 
good care given them for half the year, and the inti- 
mate association of people and cattle. The striking 




features in the appearance of this breed, are the color 
markings and the groat size of both sexes. The shining 
jet black contrasts vividly with the pure white — the 
fine silky hair being upon a soft and mellow skin of 
medium thickness. In some animals the black pre 
dominates and the white in others. Black has been 
rather preferred among American breeders, yet a few 
noted animals have been mainly white. The average 
animal carries more black than white, and the mark 
Ings are extremely irregular. The black and white 
are never mixed, the lines of demarcation being usu 
ally sharply drawn. The Holsteins are much the 
largest of all the dairy breeds. The big, bony frames 
are well filled, and the chest, abdomen and pelvic re 
gion fully developed. Cows range in weight from 
1,000 to 1,500 lbs., with an average of 1,200 or more. 
Bulls at maturity often exceed 2,500 lbs. in weight. 

The head Is long, rather narrow and bony, with 
bright yet quiet eyes and large nostrils and mouth. 
The horns are small and fine, often incurving and fre- 

above their own live weight in milk monthly for ten 
or twelve consecutive months. There are authentic 
instances of daily yields of 100 lbs. or more for sev- 
eral days, and 20,000 to 30,000 lbs. of milk in a year. 
Cows giving 40 to 60 lbs. per day are regarded aa 
average animals, and 8,000 lbs. or more per year is 
depended upon as a herd average. One herd record 
for four years, gives twelve cows an average of 8,805 
lbs. a year. The milk of the large producers is often 
thin, low in percentage of total solids, and deficient in 
fat. The cows have been favorites for the milk sup- 
ply business, but it is frequently found expedient to 
mix in more or less milk of Guernsey or Jersey blood, 
to add color and meet standard requirements. There 
are families of Holsteins, however, and single animals 
are numerous, which give milk of average richness 
and are large butter producers. Cows have frequently 
made 15 to 25 lbs. of butter a week, and 30 lbs. in a 
few cases, with even 1,000 lbs. or more in a year. The 
milk of the breed is characterized by fat globules of 

qnently white with black tips. The ears are large, 
thin and quick in movement. The neck is long, 
slender and the upper line often concave, in the cows. 
The back line is usually level, particularly with the 
males, and the hips broad and prominent; some have 
well-rounded buttocks, but a drooping rump is not nn 
common. The legs appear small for thb weight car 
ried, and are quite long; the tail is long and fine and 
a white brush is required. The udder is often of ex- 
traordinary size, extending high behind but not always 
well forward, with teats well placed and very large, 
sometimes uncomfortably so. The milk veins are 
prominent and in some cases remarkably developed. 
In temperament, these animals are quiet and docile, 
the bulls in particular. They have great constitu 
tlonal vigor, in their capacity as feeders and in their 
large size at birth and very strong and thrifty growth 
of the calves. 

Holstein cows yield milk in conformity to their 
size ; they are famous for enormous production. 
Becords are numerous of cows giving an average 

small and uniform size, separating slowly by the 
gravity method of creaming and having a very pale 

Holsteins have done well in the South where, in- 
stead of depending upon pasture and with much ex- 
posure to the sun, they have been kept stabled and 
generously fed. A cow bred and raised in Texas, 
when five years old and 1,350 lbs. in weight, made a 
record of 707 lbs. of milk in seven days, which pro- 
duced 22 lbs. of butter, and in one month, 2,958 lbs. 
of milk containing fat e univalent to 86 lbs. of 80 per 
cent, butter. 


Jerseys were built up into a distinct breed, from a 
foundation of French cattle, by a long course of skill- 
ful breeding, upon the largest and most southern of 
the islands of the English Channel. Early in the 
eighteenth century steps were taken to prevent out- 
side cattle coming to Jersey, and in 1779 a law was 
made, which is claimed to have been rigidly enforced 
ever since, prohibiting under heavy penalties the land- 




Ing upon the island of any live animals of the bovine 
race. Jereeys have, therefore, been purely bred for a 
longer time than any other breed of British origin. 
They were brought to the United States first from 
fifty five bo seventy years ago as "Alderney cattle," 
and this name is still somewhat used. Bat it is wholly 
wrong ; Alderney is an insignificant little island with 
no breed of cattle of its own. There is really no such 
thing as an Alderney cow. 

Jerseys are the smallest in average size of the four 
dairy breeds. The cows range from 700 to 1,050 lbs. 
weight and the bulls from 1,200 to 1,600, and some 
times 1,800 lbs. Yet there are herds which, by careful 
management, have been brought to an average of over 
1,000 lbs. for mature cows. In color, this breed varies 
more than any other. For a time there was a craze 
for "solid colored" animals in this country, and some 
persons have the idea that no pur« Jersey has white 
upon it. This is a great mistake ; all of the earliest 
imported were broken in color, and there have always 
been such among the noted cows. Pure Jersey 8 are of 
all shades of brown to deep black and of various shades 
of yellow, fawn and tan colors to a creamy white; also 
mouse color or squirrel gray, Bome light red and a few 
brindle. With all these colors and shades, there may 
be more or less white, in large patches or small and on 
any part of the animal. Bulls are darker in color 
than cows of the same families. There are always 
tigns or markings about a pure Jersey, or a high 
grade, irrespective of its color and hard to describe, 
by which the blood is plainly shown. 

The head of the Jersey is small, short, broad, lean, 
and the face generally dished. The muzzle, including 
under Up, is black or a dark lead color, surrounded 
by a mealy fillet of light skin and hair. Occasionally 
a bufif nose is found, but objected to as showing a 
probable infusion of Guernsey blood, although per- 
haps very distant. The eyes are wide apart, bright 
and prominent ; the horns small, waxy, with thin 
skulls, often tipped with black and much crumpled. 
Ears small and delicate ; neok clean ; legs fine and 
short ; body well rounded with capacity for food and 
breeding ; tail long and fine with a full brush often 
reaching the ground, and black, white or mixed. The 
skin is mellow or loose, with fine, silky hair. The 
udder is of good size, more pendulent than in the 
Ayrshire and with quarters more distinctly defined. 
Teats sometimes small and conically inclined. The 
square, close, "Ayrshire udder" is also found, well- 
nigh perfect. Milk veins are frequently highly de 
veloped, tortuous and knotty. This breed is second 
only to the Guerniey in the abundant secretion of col 
oring matter, which shows itself on the skin on diflfer- 
ent parte of the ^body, makes the fat of the carcass a 
deep orange, jives a rich tint to mUk and cream and 

a golden hue to the butter. But this attribute is by 
no means as pronounced or as general in the breed as 
with Gaernseys, and in some Jersey families it is de- 
ficient. Jerseys are irregular and sharp in outline, 
being picturesque rather than symmetrical, with the 
spare habit of flesh which is deemed favorable to dairy 
quality and enough muscular development fo» healthy 
activity and full digestive force. They aie light, 
quick and graceful in movement. 

For generations Jerseys have been bred almost ex- 
clusively for butter. In America, breeders have suc- 
ceeded in increasing the milk yield while mainlaining 
its high quality. Three and four gallons a day are 
common yields — not infrequently five; and these cows 
are noted for persistence and great evenness of product 
through a long season. Dairy records are numerous. 
Ten herds selected as having average dairy farm con- 
ditions, include 140 cows and cover six years; the an- 
nual milk product per cow was 5,157 lbs., yielding 293 
lbs. of butter. One of three herds had twenty five 
cows of all sizes with a continuous record of seven 
years ; the annual average was 5,668 lbs. of milk and 
342 lbs. of butter per cow. Several herds for shorter 
periods show averages of 6,000 and 7,000 lbs. Single 
cows are on record as producing 10,000, 12,000 and 
several over 15,000 lbs. of milk in a year. The char- 
acteristic of the milk of this breed Is a high percentage 
of total solids, with 4 to 5 per cent, of fat as usual, and 
higher in many instances. The butter globules vary 
in size, but a great proportion are large and the cream 
separates readily. Butter records are correspondingly 
large ; good herds yield 350 to 400 lbs. for every milk- 
ing animal. Individual cases are authenticated by 
the hundreds of cows making 15 to 20 lbs. of butter a 
week, with numerous records of 25 to 30 lbs. Several 
yearly tests have resulted in 800 to over 1,000 lbs. of 
butter from one cow in twelve months. 

Jersey cattle are of the nervous order of tempera- 
ment, highly developed. They are excitable for cause, 
but the females are very placid and docile when prop - 
erly treated. . The bulls have the reputation of being 
fractious and difficult to handle after attaining matu- 
rity; this is largely a matter of early training and 
judicious management. The cows of this breed are 
heavy feeders with great capacity for assimilation. 
They have strong constitutions, and will bear forced 
feeding for long periods uncommonly well. In the 
good animals all the extra food is converted into 
milk. The Jersey cow is essentially a machine for 
producing milk and butter, responds readily to varied 
treatment, and is remarkably adaptable to widely dif- 
ferent conditions. The breed has been generally dis- 
tributed in the South, and has done well in every 
State. Yet, there are far too many kept solely be- 
cause of purity and pedigree, and withont profit; the 




dairy performance of sach animals does not jostify 
their existence oi reproduction. 
Grade Cows. 

Grade cows of all four of these breeds ar« eminently 
satisfactory as dairy animals. Any herd of mixed 
blood, with fair dairy qualities, can be rapidly built 
up and improved by the use of a well selected, pure 
bred bull from any one of the four. They all seem to 
<5ro88 adyantageously upon what is called " native 
stock" and upon females having a perceptible grade, 
or more, of Shorthorn or Durham blood. Guernsey 
and Jersey grades are especially satisfactory aa dairy 
«ow8. Bat the pure animals of these strongly bred 
races do not generally cross well among themselves. 
The Holsteins are very prepotent, and stamp their 
characteristics upon all their grades and crosses, yet 
they seldom "nick" well with pure animals of the 
other three breeds. The Guernseys and Jerseys mix 
well, but without improvement upon the parents of 
either side. The Ayrshire eire does not cross well 
with any of the others. A very superior dairy animal 
ifl, however, the usual result of crossing a good Jersey 
•ire with an Ayrshire dam. 

It is gratifying to note that while the creation or de- 
velopment of these four breeds of dairy cattle must be 
credited to foreign countries, every one of them has 
been improved under the conditions and management 
which they have received in the United States. With 
the possible exception of the Ayrshire, all have been 
subjected and made adaptable to far greater variations 
of climate, food and general environment than in their 
native countries, and have here made records of dairy 
performances exceeding anything known among their 
progenitors or the cotemporary non-imported animals 
of their respective breeds. 


I. — Sdmmary op Results of Ninety Day Bdtteb Test at the 

World's Colombian Exposition, Chicago, June, July, 

August, 1893. 

Cows in Test. 

S o 




25 Jerseys 73 489 3,516 4,274 1,747.37 587.50 1,323 81 

25GnernsPv....fil.7X2 9.7s.=5 3.36i> 1 :^=iS 14 4V4 14 W7 fi4 




II. — Su.MM.\RYOF Results op Six Minths Test, Showing Profit 
ON Butter Product, Estimated From Fat. 

Pan-American Exposition, Buffalo, May 1-Oct. 31, 1901. 

Cows in Test. 

6 Ayrshires 

5 Guernseys 

6 Holstein- \ 

Fneaians J 

5 Jer^»'vs.. 





M a 

<u = 

a » 




CO o. 
2 ^ 




> 03 















1 .4 V) 



a o 


Note.— The Holstein Friesians and Jerseys were Canadian 
cattle, and not furnished or endorsed by the regular American 
Associations of breeders. 

Ill- — Average Composition op Milk op Different Breeds. 

I Prom a Report of the New York Agricultural Experiment 
Station, 1S91.'\ 






86 95 

132 87.62 
238 84.60 




12.39 9.07 3.46 

15.40 l9.8() 5.61 


3.39 4.84 .735 540 
3 91 5.15 .743 .618 


Henry E. Alvord, 
Chief Dairy Division, Bureau Animal Industry. 
Spring Hill Farm, Fairfax Co., Va. 

Note.— In preparing the foregoing, much has been taken, in 
a 8 )mewhat condensed form, from Farmers' Bulletin No. 106, of 
the U. S Department of Agriculture, by the same writer. It 
is ueither »asy nor desirable to describe the same thing twic» 
without laigely making use of the same language. 


Editor Southern Planter ; 

The term "dual purpose breeds" of course means the 
two purpose breeds — that is to say, breeds which are 
adapted to the production of both meat and milk. In 
the current agricultural literature of the day, for the 
two decades subsequent to 1880, the place for such a 
cow on the farm was said not to exi^t. This at leask 
was true of nearly all the agricultural literature pro- 
duced in America. It was true also of nearly all the 
platform teaching on agriculture during the same pe- 
riod. The very idea of a place for the dual-puipose 
cow was only mentioned to be held up to ridicule. The 
dual purpose cow, or, as she was then called, the gen- 
eral purpose cow, was denounced aa a " delusion, a 
myth, and a snare." To try to get milk from such a 
cow was compared to hunting prairie chickens with 
bull pups or seeking a winning trotting horse in a 

Ex Oovernor Hoard was a leader in this cruiade, 
and the signal ability as an advocate shown by this 
splendid man gave great impetus to the acceptance 
and extension of the unfortunate heresy. This flood 
of false teaching was greatly accelerated in its progress 
by depression in the prices of meat. The result was 
that many of the best herds of dual-purpose cattle in 
the land were so crossed with dairy blood that the 
Ability to produce beef was greatly weakened, a blun- 
der which the owners are now trying to rectify by 
using bulls of the dual types. It would be interesting 
could the facts be ascertained to know how many tens 




Grade Shobthokn Cow Duciijiss. 

Weight in fair flesh 1,550 lbs. 

Milk in one year 9,628 lbs. 

Butter in one year 439.83 lbs. 

Average test 4.4 per cent, butter fat. 

This cow ate during the year $33.93 worth of feed, and her products were 
valued at $101.00, leaving a profit of $67. 07. The average cost of each pound 
of butter produced during the year was 7.7 cents. 

of millions of dollars this false teaching cost the farmers 
of this country. 

The faith of the writer on this question is as follows: 
I believe in a special dairy cow. She includes the 
Holstein, Dutch Belted, Ayrshire, Guernsey, Jersey, 
Trench Canadian and Kerry of the pedigreed breeds 
in America. Her place is on farms where cattle are 
kept almost entirely for the dairy products wliich they 
famish, or in the stable of the individual who keeps 
but one cow. I believe in the special beef cow. Her 
place is on the range, or on the large farm where clr 

There are in America five pedigreed breeds of daal- 
purpose cows. These are the Shorthorn, the Polled 
Durham, the Brown Swiss, the Red Poll and the Devon. 
Eich of these will be considered below. In the mean- 
time, It may be said that the dual-purpose cow is at 
present far more numerously represented in the graded 
than in the pure bred form. In the grade form, she 
may be possessed of various blood elements, but by 
far the larger number of grade dual parpose cows are 
grade Shorthorns. This is due in part at least to the 
fact thit Shorthorns in the pure form are far more 

cumstances forbid the milking of the cows by hand, ou merous relatively than any of the other dual-purpose 

Her domain in America has probably more than at breeds, and they have been in the country for a much 

tained a maximum, since large farms are being divided, longer period. 

I believe in the dual-purpose cow. Her place is on These grade dual purpose cattle may be known by 

the arable farm, where the farmer is not a dairyman the following indications as to form : 1. Medium to 

in the special sense, and where production is suffi large size for the breed or grade. 2. Good length and 

oiently ample to justifj' the reariug of steers for beef. 
This means that there is a place for her on probably 
two-thirds of the farms of the United States, and that 
on theie she can be reared more profitably than either 
of the other two classes of cows. 

depth in the coupling, especially in the females. 3. 
Good development of udder and milk veins. 4. Good 
constitution as indicated by good width through the 
heart. 5. Head and neck inclining to long and fine ; 
and 6. Bibs of medium spring, open spaced and cov- 




ered with a good handling skin. In the pare form, 
these cows have essentially the same characteristics as 
to form, but with some differences pertaining to breed 
peculiarities. The more minute indications of correct 
form and function in detail cannot be given within 
the limits of this paper, but the reader who wishes to 
pursue further this phase of the question will find 
such details stated with considerable fulness in the 
book, "The Study of Breeds," by the writer. 


The Shorthorns of one hundred years ago were good 
milkers. They were generally good milkers. This 
cannot be said of them to-day, but it can be said of 
many of them. That they are not generally good milk 
ers is not the fault of the breed, but of the breeders. 
In America, the practice has been general of rearing 
the calves on the dams, a practice which, if long con 
tisued, will injure the milking qualities of any breed. 
Notwithstanding, the average milking capacity of the 
Shorthorn is unquestionably higher than the average 
of what are known as the distinctive beef breed. In 
Great Britain are some herds noted for the abundance 
of milk production which they possess. They have 
been milked for successive generations. In the United 
States are a few such herds, and in coming days these 
will be multiplied. Bat few doors stand to widely 
open at the present time and are so full of promise as 
that which forms the avenue to the breeding of n»ilk- 
ing Shorthorns. 

In the grade form good milking cows, essentially 
Shorthorn, can be found in almost any of the States 
north, east and west in considerable numbers. A good 
judge of the dual form can pick them up with safety, 
even though he should not be able to find out particu 
larly about the breeding. The owners of such cows 
will not part with them unless paid a higher price 
than they would ask for other cows in their herds, 
and this shows very clearly the estimate in which they 
hold them. 

The testing of Shorthorn grades in this country as 
to their milking capacity has only been attempted by 
a limited number of experiment stations. Foremost 
among these are those of Iowa and Wisconsin. The 
results in both instances were extremely satisfactory. 
It was found that Shorthorn grade cows not only pro 
duced as much butter per year as the best dairy cows 
obtainable, but they also produced it about as cheap 
ly; and while thus producing milk they gave birth 
to calves which were grown into beef of the finest 
quality, and which brought top prices in the market. 
The particulars relating to these investigations may be 
obtained by writing to the stations which conducted 
them. It is to be hoped that those testi will be con- 
tinued at the stations named; and that other experi- 
ment stations will take up the same line of testing. 

No more important line of work could be engaged in 
by these institutions. 

Polled Duehams. 
As is generally known, the Polled Dnrhams are of 
two distinct lines of ancestry. One of Iheee Is pure 
Shorthorn ; the other is essentially Shorthorn — that is 
to say, it is the outcome of successive crosses of pure 
Shorthorn bulls upon muley cows of good size and 
form, and on their hornless progeny. These muley 

Polled Durham.— Goodness 15th, bred by J. H. Miller, 
Peru, Ind. 

COWS, when the crossing was begun some thirty years 
ago, were possessed of good milking properties, or at 
least many of them were. The former are Shorthorn 
in all characteristics excapt that they have no horns. 
The latter are essentially Shorthorn, and do not differ 
from the former in essential characteristics except in 
so far as their milking qualities are superior, because 
of inheritance of the same from the old muley ances- 
try on the side of the dam 3. To these general state- 
ments there will be some exceptions caused chiefly by 
the way In which the herds have been bred and ban- 
dit d. Where the herds have been milked, the milk- 
ing qualities of the muley foundation have been im- 
proved upon rather than injured. 

Beown Swiss 

Brown Swiss cattle are pretty uniformly good milk- 
ers. They have borne this character for generations. 
They are also good for beef production, but not quite 
80 good, relatively, as for milk production. They are 
of good size, and they grow quickly. The steers at- 
tain to good weights, but the bone Is a little strong for 
best results in beef making ; and yet, for this purpose, 
they answer far better than any of the straight dairy 
breeds. On the continent of Europe, it would proba- 
bly be correct to say that this breed of cows is more 
popular than any other. They have onlv been in the 
United States for about three decades, and yet they 
are now found in a majority of the States. 

The breeders of Brown Swiss cattle in the United 




Bbows Swiss Cow Mrorro. 

StJitM have not, in many Instances, paid that atten 
tion to the maintenance and improvement of the milk- 
ing qualities of their herds which thould have been 
given to this feature. Many of them have committed 
the egregious mistake of suckling the calves upon the 
dams, a process which, If long continued, will injure 
the milking qualities of any breed. In the United 
States, milk records have not been kep: of the per 
formance of herds in milk production to the same ex 
tent as with the Red Polls and some other breeds ; and 
where these have been kept, comparatively little effort 
has been made to place the results before the public 
The breeders will say that they rely upon the merits 
of their cattle to do this, but they forget the important 
truth when they talk thus that merit properly placed 
before the public will accomplish much more for a 
breed than merit hidden in various little corners. The 
Brown Swiss cow Brienz Xo. loS, in a public test in 
Chicago, 1891, produced 245 pounds of milk in three 
days, which contained 9 32 pounds of butter fat. Good 
herds of Brown Swiss cattle will easily average 6,000 
pounds of milk in a year. 

Red Polls. 
The Red Polls originated in the counties of Norfolk 
»nd Suffolk, England. Their introduction into and 
diffusion through the various States has been chiefly 
made through the last three decades. They are rapid 
ly growing in popularity. There is unquestionably a 
fine future before this breed in the United States. They 
are already fonnd in a large majority of the States in 
the Union. 

Red Polls are not so large as Shorthorns, but are 
somewhat larger than the Devons. The average of a 
mature cow would be somewhere in the vicinity of 
1,200 pounds. They are of sufficient refinement in 
form, and, as the name implies,, are red in color and 

'ihe dual quality in Red Polls has been more clear- 
ly established than in other breeds of the dual types — 
that is to say, the records of milk and meat pioduc- 

Red Poll Cvw B.\ey E.t::. X . v-,- 

tion are more ample from which to draw conclusions. 
In England are many herds in which records have 
been kept of all the cows in the same for many succes- 
sive years. Data is also accessible relating to the per- 
formance of many animals on the block and in the fat 
stoek shows. Whole herds, in some instances exceed- 




ing 100 animals, have averaged from 5.000 to 6,000 
poanda of milk in a year. In several instances, cows 
have produced more than 10,000 pounds per annum. 
From these game herds steers have been sent, from 
time to time, which have been winners at the Smith 
field in competition with steers of the strictly beef 
producing types. 

In the United States also in several instances Red 
Polled cows have produced more than 10,000 pounds 
of milk per annum. Notable among such producers 
waa the cow Mayflower 12th in the herd of Captain 
V. T. Hills, Delaware, Ohio. In this herd the famous 
cow Mayflower 11th No. 2965, produced 52 8585 
pounds of milk in five years, a record that is proba 
bly unrivalled in the annals of milk production by 
one animal. It has also been found that Red Polled 
high grade steers properly fattened command top prices 
at the stock yards. 

Red Poll sires are also very satisfactory when used 
In grading by crossing them on common stocks. The 
progeny are polled, and the inheritance shows most 
strikingly the piepotent character of Red Poll trans 
mission. This crossing should answer well on farms 
In the Atlantic and Southern States, as well as those 
North and West, since the Red Polls are somewhat 
less in size than Shorthorns. 


The Devons are a tidy little breed of cattle, which, 
as the name implies, originated in Devonshire, Eog- 
land. They were noted for meat and milk production 
more than a hundred years ago. They are the small 
est in size of all the dual purpose breeds, and yet the 
average Devon cow matured and in good flesh should 
weigh about 1,000 pounds. They are a whole red in 
oolor, usually a dark red, and are neat in form. Com- 
pared with Shorthorns, they are less massive, some 
what finer in bone, longer relatively and finer in the 
nose, and have longer, finer and more upturned and 
spreading horns. They are also more active on foot. 
In New England, there are some fine herds of milk 
ing Devons in the pure and also in the graded form. 
The same is true of Pennsylvania, Ohio and some 
other Stites. Some of these average more than 6,000 
pounds of milk of good quality per year. Many of 
the herds on the other hand have been grown only for 
beef and for successive generations. The milking 
qualities of these are not a little impaired. There is 
no question of the fact, however, that Devon cattle 
fatten readily and make an excellent quality of beef. 
They kill well — that is to say, the dressed meat in a 
carcass is relatively large. Owing to the want oi 
massiveness in the frame, and to the active habits of 
the Devon cattle, they have peculiar adaptation for 
broken and somewhat rugged pastures, and for condi- 

tions where production is not of the very best. There 
should be a large field for Devon cattle in the South- 
ern Srates. Mr. W. C. Edwards, of Rockland, Ontario, 
Canada, has one of the best herds of Shorthorns in 

Canada. He keeps them on productive land. He has 
also a good herd of Devons. He keeps them on rug- 
ged, hilly and rocky land. He told the writer some 
rime ago that while the Devons did well under those 
conditions, he was satisfied that under the same con- 
ditions the Shorthorcs would not be a success. 

It has been shown that there is a wide place for the 
dual purpose cow. It has been shown that we have 
dual purpose cows in the grade form and dual purpose 
breeds in the pure form. It has also been made appa- 
rent that because of well meant but misleading teach- 
ing, during the last two decades the dual element in 
grade cows has gone backward rather than forward. 
Now that public sentiment is coming in like a flood in 
the opposite direction, how is the farmer to proceed 
who desires to build up a herd of dual purpose cowsT 
The plan is simple if the material can be found. Let 
him purchase dual purpose cows of correct form 
wherever they can be found. He need not be much 
concerned about the blood elements if he can get cowi 
of sufficient size and correct form. If these are con- 
fciderably mixed, it will be no detriment to the work 
which he is trying to do. In making such purchases, 
the only outlay is for the animals. Nothing addi- 
tional has to be paid for blood. Thus far the work is 

The next step is more difficult. It is not so easy to 
get suitable bulls They should be chosen from the 
dual purpose breeds, and should invariably be purely 
bred and of good individuality. If from dams and 
grandams of superior milking capacity, the writer 
would not object, though they should have a prepon- 
derance of leaning toward the beef form — that is, to 
the form that guards stamina and vigor. Any ten- 
I dency toward undue fleshiness in the female progeny 




can be connteracted by selection. Continue to choose 
males thns, and from only one breed, and the result 
will be dual purpose cattle. 

But it may be objected, will not a good many of the 
progeny be unsnited for retention in the herd! Cer- 
tainly, that is true of all breeding, but it may be ex- 
pected to lessen as this style of breeding, wisely con- 
ducted, progresses. Unsuitable animals will appear 
In all herds every season, no matter what the style 
of breeding, and when they do they must of course 
be sent to the block. These undesirable variations will 
decrease in proportion as line-bred and vigorous males 
are used. 

In the principles that govern the breeding of dual 
purpose cattle, there is nothing essentially difficult. 
In the practice, there is, at the present time. Sup- 
pose the individual fixes upon the Shorthorns, the 
Polled Daihams or the Devons from which to draw 
his balls. • In the United States it is not easy to find 
such bulls in thtse breeds, owing to the general trend 
of the breeding during recent ytars. But some of 
them can be found, and their relative numbers will 
increase since more and more attention is going to be 
given to the breeding of this class of cattle in the fn 
ture than in the past. The bieeding of the dual type 
of Shorthorns will unquestionably have an important 
future in this country. It has had an important past 
in England, and it has an important present. 

In answer to the statement that dual purpose cattle 
cannot be bred as such, the existence of the Eed Poll 
and Brown Swiss breeds furnish sufficient evidence 
regarding its falsity. Here are two breeds that have 
possessed the quality for a long time, insomuch that it 
is stamped upon them a« a characteristic. If dual types 
can be bred in on« breed, they can aUo in another. 
And because of this fact, linked with the great de 
mand for such animals, the day is near when they will 
overshadow other types of cattle in this country on 
the arable farms. Thos. Shaw, 

Recently Professor of Animal Husbandry at the 
University of Minnesota. 


Editor Southern Planter : 

Cattle may be classified in one of two ways— either 
as natives, common or graded, and pure breds, or as 
special beef, special dairy, and general or dual pur 
po«e. A half century ago the predominating type of 
cattle In the country was the native or scrub, but du- 
ring the past few years the introduction of pure bred 
sires has so changed and Improved the quality of our 
cattle that the larger part of them may be properly 

classified as graded stock ; that is, containing one or 
more crosses of the pure bred sire on the original na- 
tive cows. Pare bred cattle are those entitled to reg- 
istration by reason of their long lineage in which no 
admixture of foreign blood appears. This classifica- 
tion is, of course, defective in that it does not distin- 
guish the qualities, or better, the functions of the sev- 
eral kinds of neat cattle. 

In the United States we have a trifold interest in 
breeding cattle in that we raise them for the produc- 
tion of milk and butter ; hence the distinct dairy type ; 
for beef ; or for the purpose of combining both beef 
and milk, so far as possible, in one and the same ani- 
mal. This classification is very satisfactory in many 
respects, though it is a question sometimes to know 
where to place certain of the milking strains of Short- 
horns, Bed Polls and other animals of the dual- purpose 

Beef Breeds in the South. 

Following the above classification it appears that 
there are five principal tj pes of pure bred beef cattle 
scattered over the South, and well adapted to that por- 
tion of it comprised in the Appalachian region which 
is sometimes called the middle South. These breeds 
are the Shorthorn, Hereford, Aberdeen Angus, Gallo- 
way and Sussex. Of course, there are some other 
well known beef breeds in the United States, and sev- 
eral well established ones, that might be introduced 
from foreign conatries, but as they have not been tried 
in the South, their adaptation to our conditions is 
simply a matter of conjecture, while the purpose of 
this article is to discuss briefly the qualities of some 
of the bretds which have been reeident long enough in 
the country to enable a fair estimate of their value to 
be safely made. 

Oeigin of the Breeds. 

Strange as it may seem, all the five breeds men- 
tioned originated in Great Britain ; the Shorthorn, 
Hereford and Sussex in England, and the Aberdeen 
Angus and Galloway in Scotland. The oldest of these 
breeds is the Shorthorn or Durham, the latter name 
being taken from the county in which they originated. 
They are a cosmopolitan breed, their first improvers 
being the Colling Bros., of Ketton, England, who 
commenced their work previous to 1780. Among 
other distinguished fanciere of these cattle were Messrs. 
Bates, Booth and Cruikshanks, men who have stamp- 
ed their ideals on the strains which bear their names. 
It is interesting to note that the first Importation of 
Shorthorns in America is said to have been mide by 
Messrs. Goff and Miller, of Virginia. 

The Hereford originated in Herefordshire, and ref- 
erences were made to them by Speed and Marshall in 
1627 and 1788. Benjamin Tompkins and John Price 
were the two most celebrated improvers of this breed 




which is first supposed to have been imported into 
the United States by Hon. Henry Clay, of Kentucky, 
in 1817. 

Aberdeen A.ngU8 cattle originated from the native 
stock of the country , and the most notable improver 
of the breed was Hugh Wat8on, who estiblished the 
Keillor herd in 1808. This breed was first introduced 
Into the United States in 1873. Wherever it has gone 
it has made ready friends for itself, owing to the splen 
did feeding qualities of the animals and their uniform 
appearance and kindly disposition. 

The Galloway cattle originated in the district whose 
name they bear in Scotland. Being reared in a cold, 
bleak country, frequently 1,500 feet above the sea 
level, they are a hardy, aggressive breed, and have 
been celebrated for many jears for the high quality of 
meat they produce. They were first introduced into 
America by Graham Bros., of Vaughan, Ontario, Can- 
ada, in 1853. Since then they have found favor in al- 
most every section of the United States. 

numbers in America. It is a very difficult matter to 
discuss the relative merit of these different breeds, be- 
cause there are splendid individuals in all of them, 
and the success of a breed is more frequently measured 
by environment, and the skill, care and treatment 
given it by the owner than by any other factor. It is 
impossible to discuss the relative merits of the five 
breeds here mentioned in detail, but in order that the 
reader may get a fair idea of their many excellent 
qualities, the following table has been prepared, which 
gives a fair idea of their relative merit. To study them 
intelligently, it is first necessary to consider their spe- 
cial qualities, contrast their strong and weak points, 
and 80 ascertain their value for special locations. 
Why People Fail with Impkoved Stock. 
One reason why so many people have become dis- 
gusted with improved breeds of stock is due to the 
fact that they have selected their breeding animals 
without regard to the environment from which they 
came and to which they are naturally best adapted. 

The Sussex cattle originated in Sussex county, Eag 
land- and were supposed to have been cotemporaneous 
with the Devons at an early date. They made fine 
records at the Smithfield Pat Stock Show in London 
many years ago, though a Sussex herd book was not 
established in England until 1860. They were first 
Imported into the United States by Hon. Overton Lea, 
of Nashville, Tenn., in 1884, and while 'hey are a most 
excellent breed, they are not widely disseminated in 
the United States, owing to the comparative newness 
of the breed and the small number of persons who are 
interested in their production. 

A Comparison of the "Qualities" oe the 
Several Breeds. 

Thi?, then, will give the reader some idea of the ori- 
gin of the principal beef breeds introduced into the 
South. As our forefathers all came from Great Britain, 
it is easy to understand why the special types of beef 
animals developed so successfully across the water, 
have found so much favor and increased so largely in 

Then, after purchasing the animals, they have failed 
to realise that improved qualities are engrafted and 
maintained by reason of the greater skill exercised in 
the care and feeding, breeding and management of the 
stock. Animals brought up under favorable condi- 
tions, and suddenly removed from these, will surely 
deteriorate in the direction of the scrub. Considering 
the vital interest be«f husbandry should have for our 
people, it is very important that they familiari«e 
themselves with the qualities of the various breeds of 
stock before purchasing them, else they may choose 
animals unsuited to their environment, and so reap a 
harvest of thorns instead of shekels, though, in the 
long run, their own carelessness is the cause of their 
final misfortune. 

The Shorthorns give their best results on good pas- 
tures and on arable lands. They also do well on the 
range, the Shorthorn grades being the predominating 
type of graded cattle found in every part of the United 
i States. Probably th«y have given better results on 







Aberdeen Angus. 




C«n/ormalion . 

CtloT Markingi... 









All over U. S. and in 
many foreign coun- 

Good, predominate on 
ranges all over coun 

Rectangular, blocky, 
symmetrical outline 
and gracaful car- 

Red, white or ro»n 
mixed indiscrimi 

367,950 U. S. H. B. 

The most cosmopoli 
tan and best knowu 

Very wide; best on 
arable, level lands. 

Widely distributed in 
U. S and Canada, 
also in S. A. and Aus. 

Bred in many State.= 
and in many foreign 

Best results on ranges Medium, 
of south and south- 

Unsurpassed - 

Rectangular, compact 
body ; smooth out- 
line; docile. 

White chiefly on face, 
breast belly and 
back ; red on neck, 
side and quarters. 

95 000 A. H. B. 

Second only to Short- 

Wide adaptability; 
splendid rustlers for 
range country. 

Practically equal to 

2 4 -30 Equal to Shorthorns. 


Utility /or Cross'g 


Excellent on good pas 

First class. 

High per cent, of good 
meat; excellent 

Amount small; qual- 
ity good. 

More largely used in 
past than all other 

In some instances 
weak constitution 
due to inand-in 
breeding; tendency 
to sterility. 


About equal to Short- 
horn. Inclined to 
patchineas under 
forced feeding. 

Kill well ; produce fine 
juicy meat. 

Quality good; quan- 
tity deficient. 

Good on natives and 
on Shorthorns and 

Poor milkers, large 
dewlap, light in 

Low, sturdy, smooth 
cylindrical in out- 

32,500 A. H. B. 

Not so well known as 
some other breeds 
great favorites where 

Temperate climates; 
arable, undulated 

Found"<<;hiefly in Mo., 
III. , Kan., Minn, and 

First class. 

Low set,, sturdy, ro- 
bust, coat curly, fea- 
tures fine. 


14,491 A. H. B. 

Not so well known a? 
breeds previously 

Limited to Tenn., Me.^ 
HI., Ind.,Okl.,Tex.^ 
Kan., Colo, Canada. 


Smooth and symmetri- 


No U. S. record book. 
Popular where known 

Fine for range pur- 
poses, especialy in 

Nearly equal to Short- Do not scale quite so 
horns and Herefords. well as other breeds 

Equal to Shorthorns 
and Herefords. 

First class; unexcelled 

Marbling of meat 
slightly better than 
Shorthorn or Here 
ford ; kill well. 

Quality good ; quan- 
tity deficient. 

Excellent on common 
stock and Shorthorn 

Indifferent milkers — 
somewhat lacking in 

Under ' 

forced feed,' 


Take on flesh smooth 
ly ; good feeders. 

Finely marbled and 
very delicate in fla- 

Quality good ; quan- 
tity deficient. 

Excellent on common 
stock ; remarkably 

Poor milkers ; slightly 
deficient in scale. 

Best for temperate cli- 
mates and rich pas- 

Larger in frame than> 
Galloway, though 
smaller than other 

Not quite equal to 
Shorthorn and Here- 


Put on flesh rapidly 
and distribute it well. 

Excellent quality^ 
bone a little coarse. 

Excellent, but defi- 
cient in quantity. 

Not been used exten- 
sively for this pur» 

Dissemination too lim- 
ited to enable a cor»- 
rect estimate. 

the ranches of the West and Northwest, and in the 
Appalachian region of the South, than some other 
breeds. The Shorthorn grade is still regarded by the 
majority of American breeders and feeders as the best 
general purpose animal that has ever been produced. 
The Herefords are well adapted for rnstliBg and 
hunting their food over wide areas, They have given 

the most excellent results on the ranches of the Sonth 
and Southwest, where they have increased wonderfully 
in numbers in the past few years. In fact, the Hereford 
sires have been so largely used on some ranches that 
the type of the native has entirely disappeared and 
given place to the popular white face and red mark- 
ings of the Hereford breed. As rustlers for range pojr 


North Carolina State Cortege 




Hereford Bull at the head of the '' Herbert Domain Herd of Tennessee." 
poses, especially in the Southwest country, the Here- laud quantity of food the various improved types re- 
fords have something of an advantage over any of the quire. It is impossible to answer this question spe- 
other improved breeds at the present time. : cifically, for it is a matter that has not been worked 

The Aberdeen Angus, on the other hand, has not out experimentally. While individual animals vary, 
been tried for that purpose so extensively as either of the bieeds as a whole do not differ materially as to the 
the other breeds. Naturally, they are more like the \ amount of food consumed for a pound of gain. In 
Shorthorn, and give better returns on arable lands sections where white clover or blue jrass, or other 
and good pastures. For stall feeding purposes, they tame paetuies can be established and utilieed for the 
are probably unexcelled, taking on flesh and fat more entire summer and partial winter grazing as well, 
rapidly and uniformly than any of the other breeds, ! there will be no difBculty about maintaining any of 
and being short in the leg, compact in conformation, the above breeds, while for the supplemental feeds re- 
and cylindrical in appearance, with a jet black coat, quired for the winter feeding, or for the finishing of 
they finish up in the most superb form when placed the grades of these breeds, there will be still less diffi- 
«n "forced feeding." culty. The whole area is well adapted to the cultiva- 

The Galloway, on the other hand, is well adapted tion of corn. On improved lands, even of upland 

for range purposes. It does well on the Northwestern 
prairies, where the winter is particularly trying. It 
has a long, shaggy, curly overcoat, with a thick, fine 
undercoat, enabling it to stand the cold weather with 
comparative impunity. 

The Sussex are more of the type of the Shorthorn 
and Aberdeen- Angus, and will give their best results 
when placed under a similar environment. 

In the diversified country of the Appalachian re 
gion, the animals best adapted for rarge purposes will 
be the grade Shorthorns, Hereford and Galloway. 
Those best adapted for maintenance on the rich valley 
lands or the excellent pastures that prevail over wide 
areas of this section, or for winter feeding on surplus 
eorn and cotton products of the rich river bottoms, 
are the Shorthorn, Angus and Sussex. 

MAiNTAmiNQ Improved Stock. 
The next question that arises is as to the quality 

types, 30 to 40 busht'ls of corn can be raised under in- 
tensive culture, while on the bottoms it will frequent- 
ly go to 100 bushels. Cotton is raised more or less in 
all parts of the region under consideration, and cot- 
ton seed meal, combined with corn meal, forms a per- 
fect concentrate for the maintenance of breeding ani- 
mals or for the winter feeding of the grades. In ad- 
dition, So) beans do well, and will produce from 25 
to 40 bushels per acre under proper treatment, thus 
adding another concentrate of the highest feeding 
value for the purpose mentioned. Pea hay can also 
he produced in large quantities at a moderate cost. 
Corn stover can be had in abundance. Silage, con- 
taining from 15 to 25 per cent, of cow- peas, can be 
made from sorghnm or corn at a cost of about $1 per 
ton, while yields of 12 to 15 tons per acre show the 
readiness with which the soil will yield suitable crops 
for the winter feeding of beef cattle when given proper 
culture and fertilization. There is thus no difficalty 



[ Jannai j 

Grade Hereford Calves in the " Herbert Domain " Herd, showing the result of crossing a pure V^red sire on native cows. 

in the way of maintaining either the improved breeds 
intact, or the grades on the range in the sammT or 
"on feed" in the winter. 

If there is any difi&culy in the way of introducing 
or handling improved stock by reason of the scarcity 
or high prices of suitable food stnflfs, it is certainly 
the fault of the farmer, because nature has done her 
part in that she has provided an environ a.ent in 

Miss Stuffe, Lady Nosegay French and liarun Koseby, types 
of Aberdeen-Angus cattle, owned and bred by A. L. French, 
of Fitzgerald, N. C. 

which the most desirable crops for the maintenance of 

cattle can be grown to perfection, whether the end in 

view be cheap fodder or hay or rich concentrates. 

Stockmen Needed. 

A little study and forethought will overcome the 
difl&cnlties of the feeding problem, but there is an 
other obstacle which may prove more serious, and 
that is the lack of generations of training in the man 

agement of improved stock. While education will 
make a live, up to date stockman, the process is often 
slow with inexperienced and untrained laborers. Men 
who have learned to till the fields, or to cultivate cot- ■ 
ton, do not take kindly to what they term the drudge-^ 
ry of the live stock business, an idea that loses casfce 
very quickly when one becomes well acquainted with 
the live stock business. The man who would be a 
successful feeder and breeder must know his animals 
individually; he must study their needs each day in 
order that he may supply their varying wants prompt- 
ly. He must grow up with his animals, as it were, 
and they must become a part of his being. This does 
not require personal sacrifice to the real student of 
iDimal production, yet it constitutes the principal es- 
sential of success in a stockman. The man who enters 
into the breeding of live stock should have an inhe- 
rent love for animals, and be willing to devote his 
time and attention, his thought and his energies, to 
the development of animals of unequalled excellence, 
for this should be the obje 't of every successful stock- 

Need of a Fence Law. 

Another and mo3t serlons difficulty in the way of 
introducing improved stock in the Appalachian re- 
gion is due to the need of an adequate fence law in 
many sections of the country. In other words, the 
owner of a farm must fence his land to keep out his 
neighbor's stock. This certainly seems to be wrong, 
and is one of the most serious drawbacks to stock- 
husbandry at the present day. It is a drawback be- 
cause it permits the slothful and indiflferent man to 
turn loose upon the community males of the most in- 




different quality, which not only prove a menace to 
the highly bred stock of the progressive farmer, but 
also seriously interferes with the legitimate develop 
ment of his business. The present system of fencing, 
as it exists in some of the States of the Appalachian 
region, is altogether wrong, and must be righted be 
fore our live stock will improve as rapidly as the nat 
ural conditions now warrant. The sooner the live 
stockmen can get together in a grand co operative 
movement, and see that this unjustifiable nuisance is 
abated and properly regulated by law, the better it 
will be for every agricultural interest of the South, 

as in many other sections of the country. In the sum 
mer time, the large number of running streams pro- 
vide an abundance of pure water, and in no section 
of the United States do trees grow more vigorously 
or lend more grateful shade during the heat of the 
day. In the winter time, snow raiely falls, and if it 
does, stajs but a day or two, while it is a matter o 
common remark among "the oldest inhabiants" 
when the thermometer goes below zero. Even then 
it will only be a temporary matter, lasting for two or 
three days. Andrew M. Soule, 

Vice Director and Agriculturist. 
Experiment Station, Knoxville, Tenn. 

Sussex Steer. — Rosewood, Champion Yearlina;, Fat Stock Show 
1888, the property of Mr. Overton Lea, Nashville, Tenn. 

for there is no interest more widespreading in its in- 
fluence, or which needs to be developed more consist- 
ently and rapidly for the greatest good of our farmers 
than our animal industries. 

A Superb Climate. 
Some have urged that the Southern climate is hot, 
and that the heavy beef breeds will of necessity not 
do so well. There is nothing in this contention so far 
as it applies to the Appalachian region. The eleva- 
tion of the country above sea level is sufficient to pro 
vide the most equable climate, both in summer and 
winter. Extremes of heat and cold are not met with 


Editor of Southern Planter. 

Secretary Wilson's appeal to Congress for an emer- 
gency appropriation of $L.000,000, to enable the De- 
partment of Agriculture to suppress the foot and mouth 
disease that has broken out among cattle in New Eng- 
land, should meet with the hearty approval of every 
American farmer. 

In my visits to Germany and Switzerland I hava 
been frequently struck with the ravages of this dis- 
ease, despite the unceasing activity of the govern- 
ments and local authorities, as well as of agricultural 
societies, live stock insurance companies and private 
individuals. In my foot tours through the Swiss Alps, 
last summer, I noticed a large number of roads and 
paths leading to infected districts that were closed and 
guarded. Both of these countries have adopted every 
known precautionary measure, and are well provided 
with very capable veterinarians, but still the " Maul- 
nnd Klauen seuche" holds its own. 

In Germany it is quite probable that a new stock 
disease law will be enacted at thiseefsion of the Reich- 
stag or the old quarantine law amended, as it has been 
shown that quarantining foreign cattle on the German 
frontier has not been able to prevent the spread of the 
disease. Sam'l Rolfe Millar, 

Warren Co.,ya., Dec. 10, 1902. 





BdUor Southern Planter: 

Sheep fill a most important position in advanced 
agriculture. The presence of a flock, on any farm, 
may be taken without qaeetion as an indication that 
it is in the hands of a wise and successful farmer. 
There are several reasons for this. The mere feeding 
of sheep is conducive to profit. There is no other ani 
iBal kept on a farm which returns so much income dl 
rectly, and no other which exercises so useful a result 
on the land by its mere feeding. It is an omnivorous 
feeder, and the larger part of its feeding is made up of 
what would otherwise be wasted. It gleans the fields, 
it picks up all the small residues of other animals feed 
ing, and it turns itj food into three different sources 
of income to the farmer. Moreover, by its needed de 
mauds on the farmer it forces him to practice the most 
economical methods of working his land, and growing 
crops. Let us give at this point oae single exam- 
ple. There is a fodder plant of the turnip family 
known as rape. Two pounds of seed sown on an acre 
at the last working of the corn crop, or oa any other 
convenient otherwise idle part of the farm, will feed 
thirty sheep from the time the corn is cut to the snow 
fall, or even later, as conditions may permit. The 
rape will renew its growth early in the spring, and 
contribute still more feed until the next crop, which 
iB usually oats, is sown ; and then after it is harvested 
the growth on the stubble will contribute still more 
feed. Tills is only one instance, mentioned in the oat 
Mt of this article, among many which go to show the 
simple and easy manner of supporting a flock on any 
&rm under common methods of culture. And in this 
manner the feeding of the flock will come in a sort 
of rotation with other uses of the land, every one of 
which is conducive to economy, profit, and improve 
ment of the soil by which other parts of the farm man- 
agement may be increased in productive value. There 
1* no difficulty about it. The only single thing to be 
done is to go and do it by whatever easiest method it 
may be. And as soon as one season has give.i the 
needed experience, the work will be easier and sim 
pier, and the owner of a flock will be amated that he 
did not fall into the habit earlier. We are not just 
now studying the methods by whieh the flock may be 
■npported and managed all through, but only the kinds 
of sheep which are best salted to the conditions of ag 
ricultare in the South ; indeed, everywhere in fact ; 
for the special circumstances by which the Southern 
farmer Is surrounded and controlled are varied very 
little by his special environments. In fact, his circum 
stances make it an easier business to him than to any 
farmer in other localities, and one single thing only 
need be mentioned to make this very plain. This is 

that in the South sheep may live every day in the 
fields, and gather their subsistence on what in other 
localities might go to waste as far as making money 
profit out of it ; and a flock may be so managed as not 
only to subsist itself with ease but at the same to so 
improve the soil by the improved conditions — growing 
out of the feeding of the flock, as that each acre of 
land may soon doable its produce without any other 
addition to the resources of the farm. 

And in thus adding to these resources it matters lit- 
tle whac kind of sheep is kept. A sheep is a sheep, 
in this respect ; and it is only a matter of convenience 
and fancy which breed is chosen for this use Yeb the 
fancy goes a long way in regard to tlie pleasure and 
profit of keeping a flock. Tastes differ in this respect ; 
and so the kind of shcp chosen should please the 
fancy of the owner ; for what we love best in this re- 
spect we make the most successful and profitable. 

Breeds of Sheep Most Suitable. 
Sheep may be distinguished as fitted for the farm or 
for the range, and some for the special purpose of rear- 
ing lambs for the early markets, when there is a de- 
mand for tender lamb of two or three months' growth, 
which has been increased to the greatest extent by 
skillful feeding. On account of the favorable climate 
and nearness to the best markets for thes ), those sheep 
most eminently fitted for this use In the South should 
be first noticed. Sheep, indeed, are the most easily 
adapted to varying conditions of all domestic animals ; 
but while this is so, and by a little education a flock 
may be trained to bring the lambs at any desired time, 
yet there is a breed which has been so trained for many 
years as a special business that lambs may be had at 
any time of the year, or in fact twice in the year, if ib 
is desired. This special breed is known as 

The Dorset Breed. 

In our description of the best sheep for the South 
this one we choose first, both for the ease of its man- 
agement and its value. In addition to these special 
qualifications, it has the advantage of having been 
reared in a warm climate, very much similar to the 
average of the Southern Stites ; and, which is a most 
important consideration, the principal great consum- 
ing markets for the lambs are in close proximity to 
the most convenient and suitable localities for the 
breeding and rearing of them. 

The Dorset sheep is a horned breed, which is a na- 
tive of the county of Dorset, in the south of England, 
of which the climate is mild and pleasant, having no 
severe we*ther in the winter, but the flocks are able 
to pasture out the whole year. The climate has its 
special features repeated in several localities of the 
South, especially on the sea coast and adj*cent low- 
lands, with the low ridges further west. Both rams 




Dorset— Sweepstake Ram at the great Omaha Exposition. 
Bred and owned by R. Stuyvesant, owner of the Tran- 
quility Stock Farms, New Jersey. 

and ewes are horned ; the face is white, broad, and 
neatlj formed, the horns curving spirally on each side, 
giving a solid, stately and substantial figure to the 
whole animal. This breed is able to maintain itself 
in defense against dogs, which in the South are really 
the only serious obstacle to the success of the flocks ; 
for the other conditions, as the weather, the soil, the 
climate and the feeding, are more favored by nature 
than in any other part of the whole Union. In fact, 
we have everything in favor of the shepherd's Indus 
try, and our especial conditions of agriculture all go 
to make sheep keeping not only profitable in itself, 
bnt advantageous to the whole culture of the soil, under 
our greatly vaiied system of agiiculture. This useful 
sheep is exceedingly hardy, and less subject to diseases 
which arise from neglect than any other breed. It 
yields a fleece of five pounds of pure, white, medium 
fine wool, most favorably adapted for the smaller kinds 
of home manufacture common in the South. The 
wethers, when fed for market at two ytars of age, 
yield a dressed weight of eighty pounds of excellent 
mutton. Oq the whole, we may very justly give this 
breed the first place in the list of sheep best adapted 
to Southern conditions. Its long and careful breeding 
has given it a strong constitution and a remarkably 
successful ability of the ram to impress its character 
on the native sheep, so that nearly every half bred 
lamb is horned like its sire. 

The Sheopshibe. 
For several good reasons this sheep enjoys the repu 
tatlon of bei*g the moat desirable of all the breeds. It 
has been bred everywhere, and from Florida to the 
far Northwest among the great range flocks, it main 
tains its reputation for hardiness in cold or heat, under 
spare or luxurious living, and as the mother of strong 

which are most suitable to the conditions of the South- 
ern farmer ; quite as well as to those prevailing in the 
far West and Northwest, where the flocks rat ge over 
the dry ranges, and have to contend with the fierce 
storms which the Bistern shepherd is unable to real- 
ize even in his dreams. It is one of the oldest breeds, 
and one of the first to be brought from its Eoglish 
home, on the most fertile farms of that well farmed 
country, and it has miintained here its character for 
hardiness, good feeding, healthfnlnes-s, and its value 
for its mutton and wool. Its fleece is well adapted to 
the conditions peculiar to the South, especially for the 
us 9 of the local country mills, and is marketable at the 
highest prices anywhere. The wool is between fine 
and coarse, and the fleece varies in weight as its keep- 
ing may have been, from six to eight pounds for ewes, 
and proportionately more for wethers and rams. It 
will yield over twenty pounds to the quarter of the 
very best of mutton, when in moderately good condi- 
tion, after a reasonably good feeding. It fattens easily, 
and for domestic use may be taken from the pasture 
any day in the year, and furnish the best of meat. Its 
habits are quiet ; it is not given to wander from its 
pasture or its home. It is an attractive sheep having 
a dark face, varying from black to a light smutty or 
brown color, all over, or in patches. It is an excel- 

Shkopshire.— First Prize Shearling Ram at the Royal Show, 
owned by R. P. Cooper. 

lent dam for the early market lambs, and when bred 

to a Dorset ram, or when the ram of this breed is used 

with the common native sheep, the lamb will easily 

reach a weight of fifty pounds at ten or twelve weeks 

age. The Shropshire ram is the best animal to cross 

on our common native S )uthern ewes, and two crosses 

will produce sheep which will e isily go for purebred. 

It may be said, that with the exception of the Merino 

ram, it is by far the best kind to cross on our common 

Southern ewes for the purpose of improving a flock. 

The Hampshiee. 

This breed of sheep was introduced into Virginia by 

hardy lambs. It is one of the mediam-sized breeds I George Washington, and until its complete destraotioa 




HAMrsHiBB.— Cambuscan, First Prize Hampshire at the Royal 
Show, owned by J. <j. Massey, of Colorado. 

in tbe war, was quite commoa and conspicuous by its 
dark face and large size on the best of the Southern 
farms. Since the prostration, as may be said, of South- 
ern agriculture by the baibarities of war, it has dis- 
appeared except in a few localities, bat even there and 
under partial care it is now what it should be by its 
nature, the finest of those dark faced breeds commonly 
called the Down breeds. It is a native of the Hamp 
shire downs, or rolling meadows of the South of Eng- 
land, and is one of the most ancient of the English 
breeds. It is a large sheep and has a heavy fleece of 
wool longer than that of the Shropshire. An arerage 
fleece should weigh eight pounds, and the wool is com 
monly over six inches in length. But it is most valu- 
able for its mutton ; the flesh is tender and well mixed 
with the fat, and mora live weight of carcass is made 
in proportion to the food by this breed than by any 
other. A well fed yearling wether of this kind will 
easily make a dressed weight of eighty to ninety 
pounds. The Hampshire ram is the most valuable of 
all breeds for crossing on the small native sheep, al- 
though its size and weight might seem to be nnsuita 
ble for this use. The size of the ram, however, does 
not interfere with the progeny in any injurious way ; 
for it is the ewe, and not the ram, which gives the size 
to the new-born lamb. The ram gives to the lambs the 
habit and ability to make growth after birth, and it 
is the fact that the most growth fiom the same allow 
anceof food has been made by this breed in every test 
made ; and this ability to make rapid and profitable 
growth is not equalled by any other breed, even under 
ordinary conditions of the farm. This characteristic 
is the mo9t important for the consideration of the 
farmer who is rearing sheep for profit. For the same 
feed this breed gives more wool and more flesh than 
any other, and thus the farmer who desires profit may 
well choose this for the means to be used. 

The Southdown. 
This sheep is universally considered by all experts 
to be the mosi beautiful animal of the kind in the 
world. At the exhibitions of live stock the pens occu- 
pied by these sheep are the most observed and fre- 
quented, and the beautifully formed, smoothly wooled, 
and generally attractive animals in the pens set apart 
for the SjuthdowDS attract the attention and the ad- 
miration, even of the children. Its beauty of form ; 
smooth, clean, round body, short legs, clear fine head, 
and broad saddle, combine to attract those who never 
owned a sheep, as well as every observer who has or 
does. Its history justifies this praise. For, daring 
nearly two thousand years this sheep has existed and 
furnished industry and wealth to the English farmers 
in that part of that fertile and beautiful isle commonly 
known as the Downs. This breed has been used for 
improving nearly every other. The Shropshire, Hamp- 
shire, and other so called Down breeds, all owe their 
finest points to the infnsed bload of the Southdown, 
while most of the more than dozen breeds, bred in 
England — the home of all our American sheep except 
the Merino — have been improved by the mixed blood 

Southdown.— Champion Shearling Rams at the Rival Show, 
1902, owned by the Kins; of England. 

of thi^ beautiful sheep. One becomes in love with 
this sheep on sight ; and if sheep were kept only for 
their beauty, this breed would be the only one in ex- 
istence. But it is not only beautiful, but is good as 
well. That this should be so consists with the value put 
on it as an improver of every one of the so called Down 
breed ; and not only of these, but several other breeds, 
have been refined by the mixture of Southdown blood 
in them. For itself alone it is the choice of every 
wealthy sheep farmer in the South, whose lawn is or- 
namented as well as made useful by being made the 
pasture of a flock of these sheep. It is chosen to orna- 
ment the parks of the great cities of the North, and it 
is not only beautiful but it is as good as it is beautiful. 
Its carcass famishes the very best mutton in the most 




desirable and economical form, Bach as the saddle of 
mntton, the leg, and the shoulder ; while every other 
part of the animal is econoaiical for use on the table 
on account of its fine bone and the liberal covering of 
Bweet, juicy meat. For this natural excellence it has 
been adopted as the general improver of other breeds, 
and even now a cross of it is found desirable by bre«'d 
ers of the other so called Down breeds. For this 
refines the gradually increasing coarseness of the 
others, and so adds to the value of the flock 
BO improved. There is no other sheep which in 
BO many pointi deserves general admiration; but yet 
It Is not by any means the most popular. This test of 
Talue is owned by the Shropshire most of all the coarse 
wool breeds; and the Southdown has several other 
successful competitors. lis lamb by a Merino ewe is 
the plumpest and fattest of its age of all other kinds ; 
but yet the coarser, heavier breeds are more popula 
as sires for the market lambs. For ornament on the 
lawn of any farmer who can afford to sacrilice a dollar 
or two to gain satisfaction in this way, or for their 
beauty in a well kept meadow, there is no other breed 
equals this ; and as well as its beauty, it supplies the 
best of all mutton, although at a little higher cost. 
For the farmer who is not wholly in pursuit of piofit 
all the time, and is desirous of sacrificing a few possi 
ble dollars for the sake of pleasure, this beautiful 
sheep cannot be excelled. It is not meant that it is 
not a profitable sheep, but that it may not be as prof 
itable as some of the other breeds described ; and yet 
It may be so under special circumstances, for one will 
always do the best with what he loves the best, and so 
this sheep may really be the most profitable because, 
on account of its beauty of form, it will attract not 
only the care and attention of its owner, but his love 
and admiration as well. When used as the sire of mar 
ket lambs by a Merino ewe, the produce will easily 
bring a dollar a head more than that of any other sire; 
but in general the size and weight of a lamb goes with 
the multitude before mere quality, this qualification 
being most popular with the fewest purchasers. And 
yet for love of this beautiful sheep the writer would 
make this sacrifice, and commend this disposition in 
his readers. Its wool furnishes the best material for 
the finest blankets and the softest clothing material ; 
its flesh is the sweetest mutton , but it requires, as all 
other excellent things do, the very best material for 
the making of it. It delights in a short, thick, blue 
grass pasture, and is by no means a coarse feeder. A 
well fed two- year- old will make eighteen pounds to the 
quarter, but the light weight is compensated for some- 
what by the finer lighter bone. Two thirds of its live 
weight of salable meat of the best quality is the ordi- 
nary product of a sheep of this breed. It will not do 
well on coarse keeping, and thus is not the right sheep 

for a careless farmer. But in the right place, It will 
well repay the keeper for all his care. As an improver 
of every other breed, and as a refining influence. It 
has a special value for the most intelligent and enter- 
prising shepherds. 

The Mbeino. 
By far the mo?t numerous breed of sheep now in 
existence is the Merino. It is the most numerous In 
our own country, while in some other countries it Is 
practically the only breed kept. This is due to the 
value of the wool, which is the staple clothing wool of 
the world. But of late sub breeds of this valuable 
sheep have been produced, which have generally im- 
proved the race, and have made some kinds of these 
as valuable for mutton as any of the so called mutton 
sheep. The only objection made to the meat of these 
sheep is the "eheepy" flavor of the meat, as much in 

RAMBoriLLET. — The great ram in the German Empire in 1902 
now owned by Beaver Stock Fam, North Dakota. ^' 

the same way we call the flesh of the goat strong in a 
peculiar flavor. The special flavor of the meat is 
really an advantage, as when once used to eat mutton 
this peculiarity of the flesh becomes decidedly agree- 
able. But, actually, as the common sheep kept is 
more of a Merino than anything else, and this is the 
staple supply of the markets at the present, and has 
always been in the past, the Merino of any of the va- 
rieties is equally as excellent for mutton as any other 
kind of sheep. This breed of sheep is most remarka- 
ble for the large quantity of yolk and oil in the fleece, 
and as this is secreted by the skin, of course there is 
at all times more or less of it in the pores of the skin, 
but it is by no means necessary that the flesh should 
be tainted in the least by this special odor of the 
sheep than that the flesh of the hog should be so af- 
fected by the special odor of that animal. Indeed, the 
woolly flavor of the home dressed mutton is simply 
due to mistake in dressing the carcass. It does not 
come from the skin, but from th« interior cf the ani- 




mal, and if the carcass of a sheep is empi^^^d of its 
contents quickly, and the removal of the skin is left 
until the interior of the animal is freed from its con 
tont«, from which this special odor ia derived, the 
muttOB is then free from any odor whatever, and is as 
sweet as the meat of a young, lamb. 

Thus the various sub breeds, as they may be called, 
of the Merino may be as valuable for mucton, in spite 
of the oillness and the yolk of the fleece, as any other 
kind of sheep; and even with the little care taken in 
dressing a sheep, and by skilful cooking, the mutton 
of a Merino of any kind may be really as good and 
well flavored as that of a Southdown. 

The best of the Merinos Is the French or Eambouil 
let ; an exceedingly valuable sheep and a very great 
improvement on the small old-fashioned Merinos, as 
much so as the big Shorthorn cattle are on the com 
mon scrubs. This class of sheep, however, is kept 
mostly for fleece, which consists of the finest kind of 
wool used for the most costly kinds of clothing ; and 
the enormous quantity of wool of this most valuable 
kind borne by this sheep gives it a special value for 
the farmer's flock. It is exceedingly hardy, and 
makes quite as much of the best meat as the favorite 
Southdown ; the only difference being one cent a pound 
in the value of the legs alone, all other parts bringing 
in the market as high prices as the best of all other 
breeds. It is the form of the animal by which its 
value to the butcher is ma le ; and while the Merino 
is a little deficient in its finished weight altogether, 
yet, in regard to the Southdown, the Merino exceeds 
it in the value of the ribs and loins, parts which we 
all know go to make up the most value of a meat 

For crossing on the common native sheep, there is 
no question of the excess in value of the Rambouillet 
Merino, commonly called the French Merino, and 
this variety is to be commended and recommended 
for the use of the farm, both for its most valuable 
fleece as to quantity and the market price of it, and 
next only to the best of all other breeds for its mutton. 

We wish to say a few words in regard to the value 
of the fl Jck as improvers of the soil. The sheep's foot 
is golden, is a very ancient proverb, and its history 
from the most ancient time to the present proves the 
truth of the adage. The sheep lives well on the sur 
plus of the farm, which for want of it will go to waste. 
It returns in the manure more value from its food than 
any other animal. It gives to its feeder three profits 

ite fleece, its growth, and its lamb. It is the gleaner 

of the wastes otherwise lost. It makes more profit, 
too, in its early maturity for market, and its lambs, 
costing actually only a few cents, when two or three 
months old, bring over twice as much as any two year 
old sheep will. Quick returns make big profits, and 

there is no quicker profit in anything made than In a 
three-months old lamb, which sells for twice as much as 
its dam will. Everywhere, the best farming is accom* 
panled by, and really is a result of, a well kept flock. 
MacoH Co., N. G. Heney Stewabt. 


Editor Southern Planter : 

These cattle, with reference to whom Youatt said 
"The very best are the best in the world," have many 
staunch admirers, and without a mention of them evea 
a holiday number of the Planter would be shorn of an 
attraction in the eyes of lovers of the somewhat small 
but perfect type of North Devon. The old type of 
North Devon has been studied and most carefully coa- 
ferved in its original habitat, and most of the stock in 
the United States traces not only to the best recorded 
ancestry, but to th« beat reputed herds in existence 
long prior to registration, and its impression is neces- 
sary for character and quality in Devon herds grazed 
on richer land and more liberally fed, which naturally 
develope larger and heavier frames in course of time. 
The writer has been a Devon breeder for over twenty 
J ears, and finds these hardy red eattle well adapted to 
his surroundings, which are not good enough for Shorl- 
horns and Herefords. The Devon thrives well on short 
grass, quickly responds to any extra feed, and whea 
fat weighs uncommonly well. His ability to stamp 
his good qualities of shape, thriftlness, color and do- 
cility on any breed of any color he may be mated with 
makes him a most valuable animal to the stock grower 
on moderately fertile land. As a dairy animal, th« 
Devon can hold its own, and for the production of oxen 
for the yoke stands pre-emiaent for strength, quick- 
ness and powers of endurance. In my experience the 
only weak point in the Devon is that he does not ma- 
ture until three or four years old ; indeed, I have 
known oxen fed at seven years old make considera- 
ble growth up to that time. In these days of ' ' baby 
beef" and early maturity this is quite a drawback. If 
the Devon was as precocious as the Angus or Gallo- 
way he would easily be monarch of all he surveys, 
and no other beef animal would be grazed or fed. 

The Eastern States have from early days carried th« 
biggest proportion of Devon cattle, but now there are 
many fine herds to be found in th« South and South- 

I can hardly close without referring to Dr. Morris, 
of Chester county, Pa., who has done the State, and 
the Devon interest particularly, some service by im- 
porting those rare good bulls "Taurus" and "Duke 
of Molland," who, I believe, trace back through the 
"Famous" family to "Long-horned Curly," the moat 
valuable of all Devon foundation pedigrees. 

Orange Co., Va. E. J. P. 

1903. ] 



Beekshirb. — Imported Highclkrb Topper 51934. 
Sditor Southern Planter : 

Since a good brood sow is a sine qua non for success 
ful hog raising, I do not know of any section of this 
Industry that should be of more general interest. I 
will commencs with a few chief requirements which 
go to make a sow profitable to the raiser of fat pigs for 
the market. First of all, these are, roughly, size or 
development, combined with good formation and a 
certain matronly appearance that is hard to describe, 
a rangy roomy sow without being loose or leggy and 
that promises to make a good milker. Not coarse in 
the shoulder, but with all the depth of sides possible, 
and good deep and wide hams, and strong, straight, 
and even slightly arched back as indicating good con 
dition and vigor ; ample heart and lung room, and 
at least twelve teats of even size, should all be looked 
for. I say of even size, for occasionally a sow will 
have some of the teats blind, and this is, of course, a 
■erions defect, and one which is certainly hereditary. 
The number of pigs which a sow will have in a litter 
is also largely hereditary, some females being much 
more prolific than others. For this reason, sow pigs 
which are to be kept for breeding from should be ee- 
lected out of large and even litters. 

As a general thing, insufiBcient attention is given to 
the fact that sows will vary largely in the amount of 
milk they produce, almost as much as cows, and there 
is, therefore, a correspondingly quicker or slower 
growth of the pigs. I will not go so far as to say one 
OBght to look for dairy type in a brood sow, but it 
comes very near to this. There is a certain type of 
short coupled and necked and heavy shouldered nat 
■rally rounded all over sow that in nine cases out of 
ten will not make a first-class milker, and it is unfor- 
tunately a fact that the show sow, which cannot be 
beaten in the ring, is not always the producer of the 
most thrifty litter unless she is prepared and fed with 
great care for a long time beforehand, and even then 
It is very uncertain. 

Disposition is another hereditary trait. An excita- 
ble, ill-tempered beast is not worth fooling with, as 
the odds are in favor of her get being the same|way, 

and she will certainly give undue trouble to the at- 
tendants during and just after farrowing. As this ar- 
ticle is more in the interest of the production of pork 
on a small scale than breeding thoroughbred animals 
I will say nothing abiut such points as good feet, for- 
mation of head and ears, setting on of tail, etc., all 
of which are not necessary in this case and less im- 
portant than the above. However, there are none of 
these excppt color, placing and shape of ears and set- 
ting on of tail but what are founded upon practical 
requirements, and every owner of a few pigs can cer- 
tainly lose nothing by studying over the score cards 
of the different breeds and trying to figure out the 
reason for the division of points. 

As to the sow's breed, she is, I hope, a grade and 
not a scrub. One cross, at least, or two crosses, by a 
thoroughbred boar of some of improved breeds upon 
a razor-back hog, will work wonders both in early ma- 
turity, increased value of sides and hams, and quick 
fattening at very little cost. I am, myself, naturally 
in favor of the Berkshire grade. They are certainly 
good grazers, average well for the number in litter, 
and the blood is so very prepotent owing to the length 
of time during which Berkshires have been bred pure 
that one cross will do a great deal, T think more than 
any other breed when used on the scrub or razor-back. 
The Tamworth just now has been creating some at- 
traction, but the breed is only about one- third the age 
of the Berkshires ; moreover, the sweepstakes at the 
Birmingham Fat Stock Show (a strong place for the 
consideration of fancy bacon and ham points), was 
this year won by the Berkshire, and the sweepstakes 
for the car load of fat hogs at the Great International 
at Chicago this year was also won by the Berkshire. 
So, apparently, both sides of the "pond" have come 
to the same conclusion. 

The tendency and the greatest profit foi the last few 
years has been for marketing young pigs, especially 
since so many have realized that it costs far less grain 
and time to make a pound of pork in a young pig that 
is under one year old than it does afterwards. In 
other words, the first two hundred pounds is the 
cheapest. After that, every pound that is added in- 
creases in cost. Moreover, these young pigs of me- 
dium weight bring the highest prices in the market. 
The farmer, therefore, must breed his sows to satisfy 
the economy of his farm. If they are bred to come in 
the first of the year, and I think in the Southern cli- 
mate this is the best time, they are then fat and ready 
to kill in November or December, and by this means 
the greater part of the fattening process can come on 
during warm weather at a time of the year when the 
greatest number of pounds can be secured from a 
bushel of corn, and when this yield can be still more 
increased by feeding it in connection with suitable 




pastures. If sows are to farrow any time before Apiil, 
farrowing pens must be provided. Ttiese, however, 
can be of very ciieap construction so long as they can 
be kept clean and dry, and, above all, are open to the 
south. I would rither have a litter of pigs under a 
pine brush roof, so long as it is water tight and open 
to the south, than have to winter them in the bast 
possible building that was located as I have seen 
many. There is hardly an animal more subject to 
rheumatism and other ilh if they are raised in cold, 
damp buildings than is a pig during its early days. 

The feeding of the sow before and after farrowing 
would take more to go into than my entire space 
would allow. The main point is to let them come in 
in good condition, but not fat, and not feed on heating 
foods and not to start the milk with warm slops until 
all the inflammation, or danger of inflammation, is 
over, as a good milking sow, like a cow, is much more 
apt to suffer from caked teats than the poor sow. 

There are quite a variety of feeds that can be drawn 
upon for sucnlent feed in winter. The Irish potato (I 
have had no experience with sweet but they are verj 
favorably reported upon) is the favorite. Potato rais 
ers can use their small and cull potatoes very profit i- 
bly and easily. Probably the quickest way to prepare 
them is to steam them by cooking in a large iron boiler 
that can be tightly covered, with two or three gallons 
of water only in the bottom. A small fire will soon 
boil the water and after a time the steam will bring 
the whole mass to such a heat that it only requires to 
be left covered up to complete the process. The ex 
cess of water, however, should be poured off before 
mashing the potatoes, as it is supposed to extract the 
poisonous substance from the potato skins, but I have 
never cared to make the experiment as to whether it 
is so or not. Mangels, another root that is both cheap 
and serviceable for furnishing a suckling feed during 
the winter (although English breeders object to feed 
ing them to sows soon due to farrow, but we hare fed 
them off and on here and never noticed the slightest 
injurious effect). Pumpkins are another most valua- 
ble suckling feed, but are not raised in the South as 
much as they should be. Among the grains, the stand 
»rd is a mixture of bran and shorts, but it is frequently 
economical to use instead of the bran Brewers' Grains 
when the market price makes this the cheapest feed. 
However much corn on hand this should be reserved 
for the fattening process and the mixture of bran and 
shorts fed as a slop to the biood sow and her young 
litter. If the lucky breeder can add skim milk he 
will then push them along with the greatett possible 
r»pldity. In lieu of this there are very favorable re 
ports upon the use of dried blood. 

At the present market price of pork it certainly 
pays to go to the trouble and expense of giving a little 

extra attention and feed to the sow and her young lit- 
ter. The proposition, of course, is a very different 
one, if she farrows later on and can be turned out 
on clover and alfalfa fields or an old meadow, There 
are some most valuable experiments as to the value 
of growing good red clover or alfalfa when marketed 
in the way of pork. There is certainly no cheaper 
way of growing a pig, and with the present market* 
there is no reason why every farmer, however small, 
should not have a certain area in one of these cropa 
which he can market through his pigs. 

For a late fall and winter run for hogs many feeder* 
have found it pays well to put in special crops, allow- 
ing the hogs to gather them, and feeding at the same 
time their corn or other fattening ration in connection. 
Sweet potatoes, chufas and artichokes lead the list in 
popularity. A woodland run is of great benefit dur- 
ing the late winter months, as a hog doubtless enjoys 
rooting and certainly picks up a little varied diet 
which does much towards keeping the digestive organi 
in tone. I think that one of the commonest faults in 
fattening hogs for the market is insuflacient varying of 
the feed, often confining it to the staple article corn. 

Finally, it is a mistake to breed from Immature ani- 
mals. *A sow is hardly in condition to take care of a 
licter before she is a year old, and a boar should not 
be used for service under nine months. While a sow 
can be made to bring three litters a year, it is difficult 
aad certainly not profitable. Two litters in one year 
is all that should be asked from her if pigs that will 
grow off quickly and with plenty of vigor are desired. 
The diseases met with are not many and are caused 
chiefly by bad feeding, dusty and dirty quarters, and 
are chiefly met with in the shape of colds, bowel com- 
plaints and the parasitic worms with which many lots 
are infected and which attack the young Utters very 
early, lodging In the bronchial tubes and lungs. 

Hog cholera, the most dreaded of all diseases and 
certainly the most contagious, has, In the end, been a 
good thing for the breeders of thoroughbred hogs ; as, 
whilst many herds are almost wiped out of existence 
the market Is Increased for the others ; but this Is even 
worse as there Is no Indirect profit In the case of the 
man raising pigs for pork. Careful quarantining of 
all animals that have come In from outside on some 
outstanding farm, or as far away from where the per 
manent pigs are kept, Is the only way to keep this out 
of the herd, and even with every care It will some- 
times break out. I am glad to say that I have had 
most favorable reports of an antl- toxin treatment 
which is certainly the most rational and the first pre- 
ventive that recommends Itself as based upon sound 

Buncombe Co., N. 0. G. F. W. 




The Poultry Yard. 


At the West Virginia Experiment Station, a series 
•of experiments has been conducted with different foods 
«8 sources of protein so essential for laying hens, 
and also with ground grain as compared with whole 
grain and mash fed in the morning and at night for 
laying hens. 

In the first series of experiments, high-grade beef 
scraps were obtained from one of the packing houses 
in Chicago. Milk albumen was supplied by a com 
pany which manufactures milk sugar. Fresh meat and 
bone was obtained from a local butcher and ground as 

Three pens of fowls were employed in the test, each 
pen containing ten White Leghorn pullets, ten two 
year old hens, and two roosters. They were fed the 
same grain ration, and in addition during the first 
period pen 1 received beef scraps, pen 2 milk albu 
men, and pen 3 ground fresh meat and bone, while 
during the second period pen 1 received fresh bone, 
pen 2 beef scraps, and pen 3 milk albumen. During 
the experiment an attempt was made to feed as nearly 
as possible the same amount of protein to each pen. 

At no time during the test were the fowls fed heav 
lly for egg produccion, as many of the eggs were used 
for hatching. This was especially true during the sec 
ond period, when, in order to secure fertile eggs, very 
little mash was fed. 

The fowls were confined in the houses. One of the 
runs belonging to each house had been sown to rye in 
the fall of 1901, and the other runs were sown to oats 
in the spring, thus providing an abundance of shade 
and green food. Water, mica crys'al grit and granu 
lated bone were supplied ad libitum, and the whole 
grain which was fed was scattered in the litter in the 
scratihing room. The experiment began November 
1, 1901, and was divided into two periods of 120 days 

In this experiment, more eggs were laid by the fowls 
when fed beef scraps than when they received either 
ground fresh meat and bone or milk albumen. The 
health of the fowls remained uniformly good through 
out the test, and the low egg yield was due partly to 
the fact that the houses in which the fowls were kept 
were not constructed warm enough for economical egg 
production during the winter, and partially to the 
fact that the fowls were not fed heavily at any time 
for egg production, as many of the eggs were Incu 
bated, and strong, vigorous chicks were desired. 

In experiments made at other Stations, having the 
same objects in view, the general results obtilned 
point to the conclusion that the dried and ground ma 
terial, when pure and untainted, is equally as valu 
able as the ground fresh meat and bone. The beef 
scraps, further, possess the advantage that a supply 
sufficient for several months can be obtained at one 
time, while with fresh meat and bone there is always 
considerable trouble and expense connected with ob 
taining the supply regularly and grinding it. 

In the second of the experiments conducted at the 
West Virginia Station, comparing ground grain with ,,^. ,, , .. <, .^ .. ^ 

whole grain and mash when fed in the morning and ditions, the real cost of the food would only be a frae- 
at night, the object was to arrive, if possible, at some t^<*° ^^ ***** ^***®^ ^°°^^- 

definite conclusion on a point upon which there is 
much diversity of opinion. 

On most poultry farms, it is the custom to feed to 
laying hens in the morning a mash in which corn 
meal, ground oats, wheat bran, steamed clover, beef 
scraps, or other feeding stuff are incorporated in va- 
rious proportions. Toward evening, whole grain is 
usually scattered in the litter, and the fowls are thus 
obliged to scratch vigorously for their evening meal. 
On the other hand, some poultrymen strongly advo- 
cate the practice of feeding the whole grain in the 
morning and the mash at night, claiming that by so 
doing the hens are kept busy during the entire day 
and that they consequently take more exercise, result- 
ing in an increase in the egg production. 

The experiment was begun April 23, 1901, and was 
divided into two periods of sixty days each. Five 
pens of fowls were employed. Each of pens 1, 2 and 
3 consisted of twenty White Leghorn hens and two 
cocke, nearly one yeir old at the beginning of the ex- 
periment. Pens 4 and 5 contained the same number 
of White Leghorn hens and cocks about four years old. 

The grain ration consisted of corn and oats, ground 
and unground. Beef scraps were fed dry to those 
fowls which received the whole grain ration, and in 
the other cases it was mixed with the mash, which 
was made by moistening the ground feed and scraps 
with water at the ordinary temperature. At the be- 
ginning of each period the food for each pen was 
weighed out in bulk and stored in boxes in the scratch- 
ing sheds. The fowls were fed liberally, and each lot 
was fed as nearly the same amount of food at each 
meal as could be done by measure. At the end of 
each period the food remaining in the boxes was 
weighed, and thus the total amount of food consumed 
was determined. 

The fowls were supplied at all times with granulated 
bone, mica crystal grit and water, and each flock was 
allowed the use of two runs, one of which had been 
seeded to rje, furnishing shade, and the other sown 
to oats, thus providing a liberal supply of green feed. 

1. In this experiment the egg productien was prac- 
tically the same when the mash was fed in the morn- 
ing as when fed at night. 

2. With both young and old fowls better results 
were obtained when about one third of the grain ra- 
tion was fed ground and moistened than when all of 
the grain was fed whole and scattered in the litter. 

3. During the test the average food cost of the eggs 
laid by the young fowls was 5 8 cents per dozen, while 
with the other hens the cost was 6.4 cents. In this 
connection it should be remembered, however, that 
these fowls had a very restricted range, and that all of 
the food that they received was charged to them at 
full market rates. On the other hand, on the ordi- 
nary farm, where the fowls have unrestricted range, 
much of their food consists of bugs and worms and 
grain which is scattered here and there and which 
otherwise would go to waste. Under these better con- 




The Horse. 


A well-known Virginia breeder of Hackneys writes 
ns that he recently sold a three year- old colt for 
$10,000. Hackneys and Hackney crosses on Virginia- 
bred mares having a good dash of thoroughbred blood 
are always wanted at paying prices. They should be 
bred out of good sized mares to give them size and 
weight enough to handle the heavier carriages now in 
use.— Ed. 


At the Acca Farm track, W. L. Bass is wintering 
■ome fifteen head of trotters and pacers, all of whom 
are doing quite nicely. Those with records are Joy- 
ful Maiden, 2:19i, pacing bay mare, by King Nutwood, 
dam by Petoskey; Pern, 2:21i, pacing bay mare, by 
Petoskey, dam Mannie, by Ajax, Eed Light, 2:21 J, 
chestnut mare, by Eed Wilkes, Jr., dam Moonlight, 
by Twilight ; Eliza Ingram, 2:21i, chestnut mare, by 
John E. Gentry, 2:00J, dam Blondette, dam of Gov 
ernor Holt, 2:15, by Leland ; and Marie, 2:30J, bay 
mare, by Jolly Friar, dam Parker Holland, by Sam 
Purdy, while those that have no marks are Medin- 
•wood, full sister to Firewood, 2:17J, by King Nut 
wood, dam Medina, by Middletown; Maxie K., bay 
horse, by McZeus, dam Miss Bird, by Young Jim, a 
bay filly, by McZeus, dam Louise, sister to Branch- 
wood, 2:22i, by Woodburn Hambletonian, and a cou 
pie of good looking bays, one a gelding, 6, and the 
other a mare, 6, both of whom were sired by Omar 
Pasha, full brother to Mosul, 2:09}^, and are owned by 
Congressman Eixey, of Culpeper. The foregoing list, 
however, does not include a nice looking bay colt, 
foaled 1891 and sired by a son of Eed Wilkes, recent 
ly purchased by Bass from James A. Graham, who 
owned the dam, the great brood mare Eemembrance, 
the daughter of George Wilkes that produced El Ba- 
necia, 2;17i ; Virginia Jim, 2:121, etc. This colt is 
good gaited, and acts as if he would go fast and in 
crease the list of performers and producers to the 
credit of his dam. 

Mr. S. F. Chapman, of Gordonsville, will stand for 
public service, during the season of 1903, the large, 
handsome bay stallion Wealth, 2:37i, by Gambetta 
Wilkee, dam Magnolia, by Norfolk, the sire of Mies 
Nelson, 2:1H. Breeders and owners of desirable 
mares In that vicinity who wish to mate them with a 
richly bred and fast trotting bred stallion can make 
no mistake in patronizing Wealth. Gambetta Wilkes 
is one of the finest looking and most successful sons of 
the immortal George Wilkes. As a eire of new stan- 
dard performers, he leads all others, having seventeen 
of his get enter the list, among them being Wealth; 
whose record of 2:17} does not indicate his speed limit 
by long odds, as he was timed separately in a race in 
2:08. Wealth will stand for service during 1903, at 
the very moderate sum of $20 the season with return 
privilege, or $26 to insure. 

At the recent Fasig Tipton Company's big New 
York sale of trotters and pacers, J. L. Justis, Parkes- 
ley, Va., secured a well bied three year old in the 
bay filly Miss Peno, 2:29, by William Penn, 2:07J, 
dam Sister Willing, by Willing, son of Wilton. She 
fell to his bid of $230. D. S. Jones, of Newport News, 
was also on hand, and paid $300 for the bay yearling 
filly, by Oakland Baron, 2:09i, dam Minnie P., 2:10J, 
by Earnest, son of Volunteer. Oakland Baron got 
the famous blind trotter Ehythmic, 2:08, and this filly 
is entered in the Hartford Faturity, $10,000. At the 
same sale the Eastern Shore of Virginia breeders, the 
Floyd Brothers, of Bridgetown, secured a likely pros- 
pect for speed and race horse quality in the Texas- 
bred colt, Eed Oliver, foaled 1901, by Electrite, 2:28J, 
out of the great brood mare, Lady May, dam of six in 
the list, by Port Leonard. Eed Oliver is a full brother 
to the faet trotter Blondie, 2:13}, and is well engaged 
in stakes, among them the Hartford and Kentucky 
Futurities. This colt was purchased to place in the 
Stud, and his speed will be developed by the Messrs. 
Floyd, who look for him to make a sire of note. 

In the bay stallion Great Stakes, 2:20, by Billy 
Thornhill, dam Sweepstakes, by Sweepstakes, W. H. 
Nelson, 1416 E. Franklin street, Eichmond, Va., offers 
for service a trotting sire of tested capacity as a sire . 
of speed. He was a trotter himself and good race- 
horse along with it, while in the Stud he has gotten 
good performers like Captain, 2:16i, pacing ; Foxhall, 
2:19i ; W. H. N., 2:23}, and others able to get out and 
win money. For several years Great Stakes headed 
the Foxhall Stud, Norfolk, Va., where a number of 
his get are still owned and thought highly of. Great 
Stakes will stand for mares during 1903 at a service fee 
of $25 the eeason. 

In the Christmas issue of "The Horseman," which 
is attractive in design and full of interesting read- 
ing matter, is a cut of the twin stables of E. B. 
Smathers and the former Eichmonder, A. B. Gwath- 
mey. The buildings and land co t these gentlemen 
over $100,000, while the trotters and pacers kept for 
road driving represent a tidy sum as well. Among 
the horses owned by Mr. Smathers is the famous Lord 
Derby, 2:05}. Mr. Gwathmey has among others Tiv- 
erton, 2:12i ; Tudor Chimes, 2:13, and Senator Mills, 
2:29}, a son of Electrite, bred in Texas. The Senator 
has trotted quarters in 30 seconds — a two minute gait 
— and will be driven on the Harlem Eiver Speedway. 

The services of the Hackney stallion Heidrick, by 
Imp. Danegelt, dam Imp. Heroine, are offered breed- 
ers during 1903 at the moderate sum of $10 the sea- 
son, or $15 to insure, by Messrs. C. J. and Joseph But- 
ton, Laurel Hill Farm, Walker'si Ford, Va. This horse 
is a nice bay in color, sixteen hands high, and richly 
bred, while he has great natural action and should 
sire grand looking harness horses. He has a nice dis- 
position with an even temper, and these, along with 
soundness and fine size, are transmitted to the foaJs 
sired by him. 




The Orange Horseman's Association, whose annual 
Horse Shows are held at Orange, Va., met there re 
cently and elected officers. The soecess of the Asso 
elation since its organization has been remarkable, as 
after paying for improvements to their new grounds 
a nice balance remains in the treasury, and the out 
look for the season of 1903 is of a most encouraging 
nature. Good men are at the helm, and the affairs of 
the Association have been wisely managed from the 
beginning. The following gentlemen were elected offi- 
cers : President, W. W. Sandiord ; Vice Presidents, 
William Dupont, E. C. Booten, W. G. Crenshaw, Jr. ; 
Secretary and Treasurer, L. S. Elcketts ; Directors, 
C. C. Taliaferro, F. B. Perry, H. A. Willis, J. T. 
Lightfoot, William C. Williams, H. D. Holladay, Jr., 
J. W. McComb and L. S. Ricketts. 

Mr. W. W. Sanford, the new president of the Orange 
Horseman's Association, is well calculated to fill the 
position, as, aside from his business qualifications, he 
is an able Judge of form, and as the proprietor of 
Woodley Stock Farm, Orange, Virginia, he is widely 
known as an owner, breeder and exhibitor of hunters, 
jumpers and harness horses. 

Mr. Harry Hogshead, a well known druggist and 
breeder, Staunton, Va., is wintering his trotters near 
there, and reports them in ?ood shape. He has the 
large, handsome and well bred stallion Prince Red 
wood, trial, trotting, 2:16i, by Prince Eugene, 2:21i, 
out of the great brood mare Speedy Fanny, dam of 
Sady M., 2:13 j, etc., by Black's Hambletonian, and 
the brood mares Fanny Keystone, by Keystone, and 
Pdychine, formerly known as Hilpa, by Wilkes Boy. 
The latter dropped a nice colt this year by HosFSon, 
eon of Red Leo, and was bred to Prince Redwood, as 
was Fanny Keystone. 

The well known North Carolina horseman, George 
M. Harden, of Raleigh, is wintering his stable of trot 
ters there, and among them is the young stallion 
Sweet Rector, by Director, 2:17 i, dam Sweet Alca, by 
Alcazar ; also the fast chestnut mare Petronel, 2:19J, 
by Expedition, 2:15i, dam Petronel, by Onward. The 
latter made her record at Savannah this /all. She has 
shown a trial in 2:141, going the latter half in 1:055. 
The brown gelding Rubico, 2:23i, by Pamlico, for 
several seasons a good bred winner of the Harden 
stable, has been exchanged with T. M. Arrasmith, of 
Oreensboro, for the Tennessee bred pacer John T. 
Moore, a bay colt, foaled 1899, by Hal Wooldridge, 
dam by Locomotive, second dam by John Dillard. 
Mr. Harden also owns the good brood mare Burtie 
Wilkes, by Red Wilkes, dam Burtie Amos, by Blue 
Bull, and her foal of 1902, a bay filly by Sweet Rector. 

The black gelding General Johnson, by Lynne Bel, 
dam Miss Mack, by Fairlawn, son of Nutwood, bred 
and formerly owned by Mr. Charles Sharp, Norfolk, 
Va., -was one of the thousand and odd horses that 
passed through the Fasig Tipton Company's "Old 
Glory Sale" in New York, and John MtGuire got a 
bargain in him at $700. The black son of Lynne Bel 
was consigned by W. L. James, of Baltimore, who 
has raced him for two seasons past and drove him to 
a record of 2:12h 

C. A. Pusey, the veteran trainer and driver, who in 
the eighties won in grand circuit company with the 
Blue Bull mare Lona GifiBn, 2:23i, and who during 
more recent years scored victories with Mosul; Bust- 
ler, 2:15i; Little Betz, 2:23i, and others, is now jog- 
ging a stable of well bred youngsters and a few older 
horses for S. P. Clay, the well known railroad con- 
tractor, whose place is out on Church Hill. Mr. Clay 
has recently purchased some good prospects by suc- 
cessful sires of speed, and Pusey hopes to get a few 
of them at least ready for the races another season. 

Algernon Daingerfield has sold to John E. Madden, 
Lexington, Ky., the chestnut mare Lady Scarlet, 
foaled 1896, by Btrathmore, dam Pappoose, sister t« 
Parole, by imported Leamington. Lady Scarlet is a 
half sister to Mirthful, dam of Aceful. Mr Dainger- 
field has recently sustained quite a loss in the death, 
which occurred in Virginia, of the bay filly All Saints, 
4, by St. Saviour, dam Imported St. Cypria, by im- 
ported St. Gation. The former Virginian, Algernon 
Daingerfield, now assistant secretary of the Washing- 
ton Jockey Club, and who divides his time between 
Washington and Lexington, Ky. , was married on De- 
cember 7th to Miss Margaret Duncan, daughter of 
Mayor Henry T. Duncan, of Lexington. 

Mr. Robert Neville, Welbourne, Va., has recently 
purchased and added to his stud, the black horse 
Black Dick, foaled 1898, by Sir Dixon, dam Merdin, 
by Hindoo. The horse was purcha3(d at public auc- 
tion, and $1,550 was the price paid. 

W. C. Daly has sold to C. Mack the Virginia-bred 
gelding Alsike, a bay, foaled 1896, by Flatlands, dam 
Lucky Clover, by Bersan. Alsike is a product of the 
Fort Chiswell Stud of J. H. McGavock, Max Meadows. 

Broad Rock. 


Editor Southern Planter : 

A method of seeding grass seed adopted by a few 
farmers in my neighborhood, may interest many of 
your readers who fail in getting a stand of grass. 

The quantity of seed for an acre (and it should be 
liberal), is thoroughly mixed with a quantity of fer- 
tilizer required for the same amount of land. It is 
then bagged and taken to the field and placed in the 
drill to be delivered with the wheat or oat crop or by 
itself, as the case may be. Two advantages are gained 
by this method. The grass seed, whether orchard 
grass, clover, timothy, or other, comes in direct 
contact with the fertilizer, and it is put deep enough 
to come in contact with moisture without dying for 
lack of it, as it frequently does when placed near the 
surface. W. G. M. 

Albemarle Co., Va. 

Mention the Fkmi«r to yoor firiends. 






We are glad to notice that a member of the Hoase 
of Delegates of Virginia (Mr. D. H. Leake) has intro 
dnced a bill having for its object the changing of the 
present law as to fences in this State. At present, an 
owner of land in Virginia must fence out his neigh- 
bor's stock if he desires to have fall and peaceful en 
joyment of that property which he has bought and 
paid for. If the bill becomes a law, as we most heart- 
ily hope that it will, this obnoxious and un j ust position 
will be at an end, and each owner of land must fence 
in his stock and keep it from trespassing on any other 
man's property. This object we sought to accomplish 
In the suit which was carried to the Court of Appeals 
two or three years ago, in which it was contended that 
the present system was unconstitutional. The Court 
decided against this view in a judgment which we have 
always regarded as a most shallow one reached by ar 
guments which could not stand the test of careful con 
Blderation and based much more on sentiment than 
reason. The patron of the bill has promised to send 
U3 a copy of it as soon as printed, when we will pub 
llsh the same. Meanwhile, we would ask farmers 
erery where in the State who desire to have the peace 
fnl and full enjoyment of their own property to write 
their representatives in the Senate and House asking 
them to support Mr. Leake's bill and assist its passage 
in every way possible. Until such a law is passed, we 
can never make that progress in live stock husbandry 
which means so much to the State. 


Sditw Southern Planter : 

Accepting your iuTitation contained in the last issue 
of jour valuable journal, to say something on the sub 
ject indicated above, I would say to " Greenhorn," 
"Be not discouraged at the ridicule your ideas in this 
regard may excite among your neighbors. I am a na 
tive Virginian myself, as were my fathers for seven 
generations before me, and know how hard it is for 
them to see any better way of farming than the meth 
ode pursued by their fathers before them. Take heart ; 
you may be in error as to details, but you are on the 
right track." 

There was in my father's library an old geography, 
■written'.by a man named Morse, and published about 
the year 1810, in which, in alluding to the climate of 
Virginia, the writer stated that the greatest drawback 
to agriculture in the State was the fact that, as a rule, 
drought cut short the crops. That this is true is be 
yond question, notwithstanding the abundance of rain 

in the State during the laat two years. "When crops 
fail, such failure cannot be charged to the soil or to 
other climatic conditions ; but may be generally traced 
to the lack of moisture at some period of their growth. 
The past summer and autumn have been exceptlona- 
bly wet and seasonable, and the result is that, in my 
section of country, no such abundant crops have been 
seen for years. That irrigation would, where the con- 
ditions are such as to enable the farmer to practice It 
properly, be of vast benefit here, cannot be doubted. 
If irrigation paj s in the arid parts of the We«t, as & 
matter of coarse it would pay here ichen moUture i» 
needed by the crop3. It is practiced in the State of 
Utah, because no rain is expected. It is not practiced, 
as a rule, here, because, no matter how dreadful th& 
drought, the farmer hopes and prays for " the early 
and the latter rains." But if he was prepared to irri- 
gate his arid fields, and the rains did come so as to 
render his artificial means of supplying water unne- 
cessary, he would be as well or better off than the maa 
who depends entirely upon irrigation. 

Now for seven years I have practiced irrigation npon 
a very small scale, not as an experiment, but because 
I have found by experience that it was one of the most 
interesting, satisfactory and paying Instltntlons wlthiiL 
my reach. 

In 1895 I formed a garden on a meadow, through 
which ran a never failing brook. It was a flat piec© 
of land in the shape of a parallelogram, about one hun- 
dred yards long from east to west and about seventy 
yards wide. The brook approaches it from the west, 
the fall being east. On the south side a ditch conducts' 
the stream along the side of the garden, and a dike on 
the south and west sides protect it from high water in 
time of fr*shets. It is also ditched on the other two 
sides, and thoroughly underdrained. The rows of veg- 
etables run lengthways — from west to east — the direc- 
tion of the fall, and the cultivation is mainly done by 
horses, the rows being about one hundred yards long.. 
When irrigation is needed, by a simple and inexpen- 
sive contrivance, water is brought to the upper end, 
and run down the rows of the vegetables to which ifc 
is desirable to apply It until the ground is sufficiently 
soaked, when it is shut off — the surplus water escaping 
Into the eastern ditch. The result has been a wealth 
of vegetation I have never seen elsewhere ; and by thl* 
method I have succeeded in doing what I could never 
do before — namely, raise enormous crops of celery and 
late cabbage, and have English peas and spinach dur- 
ing the entire summer. Even last summer there wero 
occasions when I resorted to Irrigation with excellenfe 
reealta — e. g., when I planted celery, late beans, eta. 

1903 ] 



In dry seasons, when neighboring gardens were parch 
ed and dry, this one revelled in luxuriant verdure. 

That irrigation would be far more successful when 
applied to grass lands in Virginia cannot be doubted. 

Goochland Co., Va. M., OF Northside. 


Editor Southern Planter : 

The article in the December number of your jour 
nal, entitled " Irrigation Problems in Virginia," deals 
with a question which this office has been studying for 
several years, and it may be that our experience will 
be of some service in helping to answer the inquiry of 
your correspondent. 

Speaking broadly, the investigation of this office to 
determine the value of irrigation in the humid por 
tions of the United States has shown that there are 
few sections where, at some time daring the growing 
season, the ability to apply water, if for a brief period 
only, would not secure largely increased jields ; but 
no general answer can be returned as to whether or 
not this kind of irrigation will pay. It depends in 
part upon the outlay required to provide a water sup 
ply, the character of the water, the soil to which it is 
applied, and the kinds of crops grown. The best re- 
sults thus far secured have come from the irrigation 
of crops having a high acreage valre Irrigation of 
small fruits has almost always pr.P'-en profitable. Toe 
irrigation of rice in Louisiana and Texas and enor 
mously advanced land values and transformed the in 
dustrial conditions of a large poriion of the Gulf Coast. 
Prof. Waters, of tha State Agriiultnral Experiment 
Station of Missouri, believes that in that State an 
ontlay of $200 an acre can be profitably made for the 
purpose of irrigating nursery stock. Ability to irii 
gate young trees during the midsummer drouth of that 
State enables them to be marketed a year sooner than 
would otherwise be possible, and mjkos them larger 
and of better form, so that they command a higher 

The irrigation of small fruilt las pi oven generally 
profitable in New Jersey, and tho market gardeners 
around Boston are nearly all equip^^ed with facilities 
for irrigating their more val able crops. 

The invention of the gasoline engine and the im 
provementa made in pumping machinery &re making 

plans for installing a considerable number of pumping 
plants by farmers, and there are a number of requests 
on file for assistance of this kind in the spring of 1903, 

The following extract from the report of an iniga- 
tion plant, installed last summer, may be of interest 
to your inquirer and others. This report was furnished 
by Mr. Hamilton Yancey, of Rome, Georgia, who is 
pumping water from the Coosa riv^r for about ^00 
acres of land. This pump is driven by a 35 hcrse- 
power engine, lifts water 30 fest, and has a capacity 
of 2,000 gallons per minute. It was not completed 
until July 25. The season was unusually dry, and ca 
July 25 a field of corn planted in June was not over 
4 to 8 inches in height, bleached almost white, and 
apparently dying. On the evening of July 25 acd 
succeeding day this field was irrigated by running 
water between the rows, a considerable portion of the 
field, howeeer, being flooded. Without irrigation thero 
could have been no crop. This single irrigation pro- 
duced a yield of between 50 and 60 bushels to the acre 

Another fluid of early corn had reached t he earing 
stage when the pump was completed. It was suffering 
severely for water, the tassels bleached and the com 
in twist. Four to six hours after the irrigation, the 
stalks gave evidence of reviving, and a gcod crop o 
corn and heavy yield of fodder were harvested. Other 
flelda near by were cut for forage only, no ears ap- 
pearing on the stalks, 

Mr. Yancey writes as follows about his oat crop s 

I may add, for the first time in my planting experi- 
ence and knowledge, my full oat crop, after reaching 
a fine growth of straw, "failed to make seed from the 
absolute want of moisture. Had I been prepared to 
give one good irrigation to this field of oats in the 
early part of May last, the yield would have practi- 
cally paid for the installation of my plant. 

It is believed that there are few sections in the 
South where it will not pay farmers or gardeners to 
provide for the irrigation of from one to ten acres of 
land Whether or not it will pay for the general field 
cultivation of crops can only be determined by the 
conditions of each particular case. In the ease of 
your correspondent, much will depend on the charac- 
ter of the soil. I question whether irrigation will 
produce as great an increase in yield on a Vir- 
ginia farm as on the lands of the arid region. These 
lands are very rich in the mineral elements of plant 
life, because the arid climate has prevented their fer- 
tility being leached out. All that they need to be- 
As a rule, 

It possible to supply water for small tracts at a lest 

outlay and with greater assurance of success than was I come enormously productive is water. 

possible ten years ago. Hence, the number of irriga- water does not supply the elements which make land 

tors east of the Mississippi river is rapidly increasing productive. It simply makes them available. If the 

The greatest progress which is being made is in the Virginia lands are not fertile to begin with, water 

South, and it is here that the conditions promise the alone will not make them so, and I doubt whether the 

most satisfactory results. During the past year this benefits of the silt spoken of will be as great as an- 

office furnished advice, and in some cases prepared ticipated. 




Another qaestion which would needito be looked 
Into would be the drainage of these lands. li there 
Is good natural drainage, the results will be much 
more satisfactory than if this is lacking. The amount 
of water mentioned would be sufficient, and if the soil 
conditions are favorable, I see no reason why the irri 
gation of hay land would not both increase the yield 
and the quality of the product. Meadows are being 
Irrigated in Italy and England at a profit, both coun- 
tries in which the rainfall is equal in amount and as 
well distributed as in the South. 

Bulletin 119 of this office contains the reports of 
studies of irrigation in the humid sections for 1901. 
It can be had on request. 

Sincerely yonra, 

Elwood Mead, 
Chief of iTingaiion Investigations. 

Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. G. 


Editor Southern Planter : 

In your December issue, your correspondent from 
Hanover county, under title of "Irrigation Problems 
in Virginia," states his case in terms identically par 
allel to my own, even down to the ridicule of my 
neighbors for entertaining the "foolish notion." 

Every season finds some one of my crops cut nearly 
half In two for want of moisture. This fact keeps the 
thought alive in my mind, but I still lack the "nerve" 
to brook all opposition and go ahead and irrigate. 

My situation is : The floods and freshets in times 
past have graded and leveled ofiF over 100 acres of my 
farm ready for the irrigator. A lift of 20 feet will put 
the water over the bank, and gravity ditches will 
carry it all over the land. I can install a plant for 
pumping the water with link belt elevator giving 600 
gallons of water per minute for something like $200. 
I have on hand the engine and wood to run it. I es 
timate that at a cost of 25 cents I can pump one inch 
of water over one acr« of land. If three good flood- 
Ings will make a crop in the West, where they have 
little or no rain to help out, it ought to make a crop 
here. Two incheji of water at a flooding would mean 
six inches for the season, costing $1.60 per acre. 

Heat, light, food and water are the essentials for a 
full crop. The food and water are in mau's power to 
supply. If the water is deficient, so is the crop, even 
though the heat, light and food be present. The ques 
tion is, if $1.50 per acre will give you six inches of 
water, is there not a big profit in supplying itt 

L?t your answer be yea or nay. I am aware that 
there is a great deal in the "Inr.rhow" to irrigate ; 
ehat It takes experience to tell when and how much 
water to apply. It is aloni< this line that the Eastern 
irrigator, I fear, will experience his greatest troubles. 
Let on the light, particularly at this point, as well as 
on the entire subject. 

Another Qkeenhoen. 

RocMnghatn Co., Va. 


We had hoped to have illustrated the live stock ar- 
ticles in this issue with pictures of some of the fin« 
stock kept by Southern breeders, many of whom ar« 
our subscribers. In response to our appeals for pho- 
tographs, we received very many pictures, but regret 
to say that they were uniformly of such a defectlv* 
character that oar engravers could not use them to 
make plates from. They were almost invariably small 
pictures taken with Kodak Cameras by amateurs, and 
it is impossible for satisfactory plates to be made from 
such work. We were therefore compelled to resort to 
other outside sources. The pictures showing cattle ia 
three positions have been reproduced from photo- 
graphs made at the BufiFalo Exposition for the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture by one of the best animal pho- 
tographers in the country. The single column pit- 
tares are from photographs or plates made for tho 
owners of the animals, or from plates kindly supplied 
to us by the Secretaries of the different Breed Associ- 
ations, to whom our acknowledgments are due and 
tendered for their courtesy. The pictures of the sheep 
are from photographs most kindly supplied by th« 
proprietors of the "American Sheep Breeder," Chi- 
cago, to whose courtesy and ready response to our ap- 
peal for help we desire to tender our warmest thanks. 
We believe no such perfect pictures of fine stock m 
appears in this issue have ever before been published 
In any Southern journal. 


Since our live stock forms were made up and print- 
ed we have received reports of the premiums awarded 
at the greatest stock show ever held which has jurt 
closed at Chicago. We take the following comment 
on these from the Breeders" Gazette : 

"It was a 'black year' at the show. The grade Ab- 
erdeen Angus bullock was dominant. Whether in the 
pavilion, in the pens or in the slaughter test, the color 
was 'black and all black.' Never has a breed accom- 
plished such sweeping victories at a fat stock show. 
Two out of three of the breed championships by aget, 
the grand championship of the show, the grand cham- 
pion herd and reserve for the herd, fell to the black* 
within the building, while in the pens the carload lots 
made almost as sweeping a victory. On the block It 
was repe»ted, as five of the ten prizes for carcasses fell 
to the ' blackskins,' together with the championship." 

The Short horns, Heretoru , . ; Galloways were clo8« 
followers of the Angus in quality in the order men- 
tioned, and each breed was represented by remarka- 
ble exhibits. The Red Polls also made a good showing. 





Southern Planter 



Issued on 1st of each Month. 

Editor and Greneral Manager. 

Business MAiTAass. 

Btiie card ftirnl8hed on application. 


Tiia Soatbern Plamtor Is mailed to anb- 
HTlbcra In the Unlt«d State* and Canada at 
■e. per annum ; all foreign countries and the 
Olty of Richmond, 75c. 

■«iBlttanc«B should be made direct to this 
Oflloe, either by Reglst«red Letter or Money 
Ord er, w hich will beat our risk. When made 
otherwise we cannot be responsible. 

AIwaTS Klve tbe Name of the Post Office 
to which your paper Is sent. Your name can- 
not b« found on our books unless this Is done. 

■afcscrlbers CalUng to receive their paper 

SrompUy and regularly, will confer a favor 
y reporting the fact at once. 

m* Date on yonr I,»bel shows to what 
tima your subscription Is paid. 

W» laTit« Farmera to write us on any 
■(rlcultural topic. We are always pleased to 
noalTe practical articles. Crltlolam of Artl- 
elea, Suggestions How to Improve Thk 
PiAHTKR Descriptions of New Oralns, Roots, 
or Vegetables not generally known, Partlcu- 
Imrs of Experiments Tried, or Improved 
Methods of Cultivation are each and all wel- 
eoxne. Contributions sent us must not be fur- 
nished other papers until after they have ap- 
paared In our colnmuB. Rejected matter wUI 
D« returned on receipt of postage. 



Detail Index to Enquirer's 

Utilization of Dead Animals 6 

F»ll and Winter Plowini; 6 

Beryice of Sow 6 

Canada Peas 6 

Grazing Wheat 7 

A Dark Cow Barn 7 

Lightening a Clay Soil _ 7 

Lame Horse _ 7 

Pasture Grasses for Light Land 7 

A Naat BINDER for yonr back nam- 
b«n can be bad for 26 cents. AddiMB 
tlM Bniineu Office. 


To Correspondents. 

NotwirhstandiDg the fact that we 
have largely increased the space 
which we uaaally give to commu- 
nicatioDS from correspondente, we 
are compelled to hold over a num 
ber of interesting articles for which 
we have no space. The matter pub- 
lished will, however, we hope, be 
foand so full of interest and in- 
struction as to compensate for that 
omitted. In our next issue we will 
endeavor to find space for the mat- 
ter held over and for such further 
communications as may reach us 
before the 20th of the month. We 
cannot undertake to publish any 
communications which do not reach 
us before the 20th of the month 
previous to the date of issue. 

A Word of Acknowledgment and 

In sending out the first issue of 
the 64th volume of The Planter we 
desire to offer our warmest thanks 
to the farmers of the South for the 
support they have accordf d us du 
ring the year just passed. We have 
added more subscribers to our list 
than ever before were added in any 
single year of The Planter^s long 
life, and we have received an innu 
merable number of letters from 
readers of the journal compliment 
iag us on the work we are doing 
for the farmers. It would requite 
a volume nearly as large as the 
year's issue of The Planter to pub 
lish even a selection from these let 
ters. It is very gratifying to us to 
receive these commendations, and 
imparts a stimulus to us to en- 
deavor to do still more for onr 
readers in the year now beginning. 
We promise that no effort on our 
part shall be wantin.' to make The 
Planter still more iv aful to South- 
ern farmers. We t'ink that thi? 
issue will be evidence of this. We 
believe we are ccrect in saying 
that never before has any South- 



Do best in t> e " Sunny South, be- 
cause they are specially grown and 
selected with a full knowledge of 
the conditions and requirements of 
our section. Twenty-five years ex- 
perience and practical growing of 
all the diflferent vegetables, enables 
us to know the very best, and to 
offer seeds that will give pleasure, 
satisfaction and profit to all who 
plant them. 


^Ready early in January) is full of 
good things, and gives the most 
reliable information about all 
seeds, both for the farm and 


Seedsmen, • Richmond, Va. 

-wir-e: fence 

Heavy lateral wires, heavy hard steel stays, 
colled spring wire. Sure Qrip lock. In strength, 
appearance, and durability, the Hard Steal 
cannot be excelled. Write for catalogue and 

Cuyahoga Falls, Ohie. 


1 KV M ii:n UNCI ( < 

V , i «/ai^)eso Ifiyi LAWN FENCE 

Many designs. Chea^ i 
wood. Si pft(?e Catalo^OB 
free. SprcUII'rWBtolVme. 
Urleiai>dCbBr«h«H. Address 



•bow WIRE WORKS- Louisville.Ky^ 

MADE. Dall. 

etrong. Chlckeo. 
tlgbt. Sold to the Farmer at nboUssl* 
Pritee. PoJly Wfti-ranud. Catalog bYe^ 





WeoflferOne Hundred Dollars reward 
for any case of Catarrh that can not be 
cured by Hall's Catarrh Cure. 

F. J. CHENEY & CO., Prop's, 
Toledo, 0. 

We, the undersigned, have known F. J. 
Cheney for the last 15 years, and believe 
him perfectly honorable in all business 
transactions, and financially able to carry 
out any obligation made bv their firm. 
West & Truax, Wholesale Druggists, 
Toledo, 0. 
Wai^dinq, Kinnan & Marvin, 
Wholesale Druggists, Toledo, O. 

Hall's Catarrh Cure is taken internally 
acting directly upon the blood and mu- 
cous surfaces of the system. Price 75c. 
per bottle. Sold by all druggists. Testi- 
monials free. 

Hall's Family Pills are the best. 

ern agricultural journal published 
such a fine series of pictures of live 
Btock as appears in this ls<ue. They 
are true to the breeds represented, 
and finely bring out the points em 
phasized in the articles to which 
they form pendants. We trust the 
effect may be to arouse in reader?, 
a desire and determination to have 
better bred live stock, and this will 
certainly result in greater profit. 
Although we have so] mnch to be 
thankful for, yet, like Oliver Twist, 
we still "ask for more." We want 
each reader of this issue to see his 
neighbor or friend, and show him 
The Planter, and tell him of its 
merits, and secure if possible a new 
eabjcriber for us. Ask him to give 
you 50 cents, and send the same to 
U8 with his name and address, and 
yon can rest assured that he will, 
when he has read The Planter a 
year, thank you for having Cone 
him the greatest kindness, widlst 
we shall fed ourselves under a (^oep 
obligation to you. 

Read the Advertisement 

In this issue will be found tLo ad- 
vertising matter of most of the well 
known business houses with Tvhom 
farmers have need to have deij'.ings. 
We ask for these adverti« lente 
the careful attention of all ou; .ead- 
ers. We can assure our i "juds 
that there is Lot to our knowledge 
an advertisement from any house 
or merchant in this if sue with whom 





;|i AN ErncAdous external remedy.^==^ 





g i.=rPREPAR ED Only By.:::^;^— ^'j^f^; . ,...>;^'^** I 

WI'rFbros. q( 



:::•:■ U.S. A'. :^;;--v.,.. 


T/kKE: NO sxjbsxitxtte:. 

1903 J 



any farmer need have any doubt 
whatsoever as to dealing. We ex 
ercise the greate-t care at all times 
in keeping out of our columns 
the advertisements of all "fatirs" 
»nd dishonorable firms, and posi- 
tively refuse to carry any adver- 
tisements of an immoral tendency, 
mnd we make it part of our du^y to 
see that no one whose advertise 
ment appears in our columns takes 
any unfair advantage of any of our 
■nb3criber8. While we cannot guar 
antee that stock or any other article 
offered comes up to the full require- 
ments of what such stock or other 
article should do according to re 
quirements of any standard, jet we 
can and do require that it should 
reasonably satisfy such require 
ments, and if it fails to do so we do 
do not hesitate to publish the facts 
and expose the advertiser, and will 
not in future carry his adver 
tisements. We do not intend that 
any purchaser through our columns 
shall be imposed upon by any ad 
vertiser, and will use every means 
In our power to prevent this. 


Both Fistula and Poll Evil are far more 
prevalent throughout the Southern States 
than in the North, and most forms of 
treatment that have been recommended 
have either failed entirely or cured only 
in occasional cises. A remedy that can 
be relied upon to cure these diseases is 
capable of saving hundreds of thousands 
of dollars annually to Southern horee 
owners. Fleming Brothers, a firm of 
chemists located at the largest live stock 
market in the world, manufacture a line 
of veterinary remedies that are unique in 
that they are made to cure the most difh. 
cult diseases and blemishes known to 
veterinary science. One of these reme- 
dies is Fleming's Fistula and Poll Evil 
Cure, which they guarantee to cure any 
case of either disease, no matter of how 
long standing. Another is for the cure 
of Lump Jaw in cattle. Still others cure 
Bone Spavin, Ringbone, Curb, Splint, 
Sweeny, et^-. A cure for Knee-Sprung in 
horses is their latest achievement in the 
veterinary field, and this, like all their 
other preparations, is backed up by a 
positive guaantee. Readers of this paper 
who will write to Fleming Bros., No. 22 
Union Stock Yards, Chicago, 111., stating 
the kind of a case they have to treat, will 
receive two instructive booklets free. 

When corresponding with advertiseri, 
kindly mention that you saw their adver- 
tis«ment in the Sauihem Planter. 




Paris, 1900. Pan-.American 1901. 


For over a hundred years have been universally recognized 
as the standard of excellence. They received the GOLD 
MEDALS (the highest award) both at the Paris Exposition 
ot 1900 and at the Pan-American, 1901. 

r^iip — the I02d successive annual edition — con- 

^ . I tains a more complete assortment and fuller 

V-.Q fQil./C|UC- cultural directions than any other seed annua] 
published. It is beautifully illustrated, not with highly colored 
exaggerations, but with the finest half-tones from life photo- 
graphs. It contains 128 large size pages, and in addition 16 
full page half-tone plates, and is in every respect and with- 
out exception the most complete, most reliable, and most 
beautiful of American Garden Annuals. We will mail it free 
on receipt of 10 cents in stamps, which amount may be 
deducted from your first seed order. .... 

MflrkCl" ^'^^ invited to send for our special price-list 

^ , of high-class vegetable seeds for truckers and 

VlOrCliSriiCI o large market growers. It contains all sorts 
of approved merit. 


36 Cortlandt Street NEW YORK. 

The TomaLto 

never has been produced that can equal in | 
flavor and fine form our 


Bred and trained for years, this tomato is extra large 
and heavy, hardy, early, free from blight, and will not 
crack nor scald. Pronounced by growers remarkably 
solid, full fleshed and free from seed. The 
price on the market, it pleases the ev 
keeps unusually well. 800 bus. per ac 
seed is all com 

,d color to bring the 
and brings most money. Ships and 
3 is the record for this tomato and the 
leu Liv us, .. ...= lu'day forour new illustrated cataloeue. 
Showing our new Leader Cibbage. Dark Fortune Cucumber. Ruby King Rocky Ford Cantaloupe. Alaska Peas, Valentine Beans, Oradus 
Peas.andallof our big line of garden and field seeds. It is free. Write now. 
J. BOLGIANO & SON. Dept. P 7, Ba.ltimore, Md^ 





Kiirdener and the mark*-i cardener 
who crow vegetables for profit will 
each find in this 

"Pl&net Jr." No. 12 Wheel Hoe 
the best and most efficient earden 
tool ever offered the public Cul- 
tivates all vegetables astride or be- 
tween the rows; deep or shallow; 
kills all weeds: breaks up the top 
".rust after rains; saves the soil mois- 
ture, plows, opens furrows, etc. 
' ' istable to various width 
One man c^n do more 
iih it and do it 
nd better than ?ix 


They are so easy to linndle that 
many boys and even girls operate 
them successfully. 

This is but one of the fifty 
Beedinc and cultivating imple- 
ments which we make. The list 
includes plain and combined 
Seed Sowers. Wheel Hoes. Hand 
Cultivators- Walking Cultivators, 
_nd One and Two-Horse Ridii 
^ Cultivators. Special Sugar Be 
I Tools, etc. Our new 1<*03 cata- 1 
1 loeue is just publiihed. It contains t>ve 
I lOO illustrations *ith full description 
ind prkti. It cci* y. .1 nnthing and I 
will mai:e you incney. \^ rite us fun' 

S. L. AIXZN & CO., 
Box 1107-X, Philadelphia, Pa. \x3 




strictly iic-w. pt-rlict. Serui Hardened 
Met'l bliM'lf;, 21*vt wide. Clee lung. Tht 
b«-»l Hovflnc, hldlRK or IVIIlei; you Ctta asK 
No experience ncce»isary to lay it. An 
ordinary ti&mmer or hatcbet the only 
tools you need We fumieli nails fie« 
and paint roafln^ two sicles. Comes 
eiiher flat, corruk-ated or "V" crimped. 
Drlh*Tv4 Trtr of all rharcf^ to a!l |>oltiC9 
In tlii- IV S..(a>t of the MiK<^lssippi River 
andNui-tb of tht- Ohio Kivt-r 


PrlwM ta olhrr p«lBe« or ■|iflirkilot> A t-juaie mtan* IM 
atiaarefift- Writt- f..r f re- 1 (lUi.oyue ^o Ir.h 

CM1CA60 HOUSE VRECKIN6 CO.. W. 35lh and Iron Sts.. Chlcico 


Best. Bimplesl, Btrong- 
eff I and luotst durable 
Dlic Harrow iiiHilr. Ml 
•teel. Double levers. 
Low btlcb. Center 
draft. Alls 
Witb or wltb- 
out seeding 
Wrile for <lr- 
c u 1 a r 
TOLEDO PLOW CO.. - Toledo, Ohio 




STRtnOft M.C. CO., UI 76 ERIE, P*. 




Who has not heard of the Lehman 
heater? The man who uses, during the 
winter, an open buggy or a closed carriage 
can make himself comfortable by its use. 
The cold weather ie now about to visit us, 
and a demand for gome handy and un- 
cumt)ereome appliance to obviate the 
frigidity of the winter climate is appa- 
rent, and the less cumbersome and more 
useful the article the more acceptable it 
is The achievement has been reached 
by the Lehman heater. It takes up but 
little room, is always ready and for two 
cents will keep a carriage warm for twelve 
hours in the depth of winter. 

Twenty years ago the bulk of the peo- 
ple slept in a cold room, waking and 
dressing in it, and went forth into a prac- 
tically cold house, breakfast being gener- 
ally over before the inadequate furnace 
arrangement of those days sent heat 
through all the house or apartments. 
The consequence was that injury to health 
ensued. As above stated, the Lehman 
heater (ills the bill. It should be more 
generally known. It is made in the sol- 
idest fashion and should be in the hands 
of every man who nses a horse convey- 

There are 17-5,000 in use by horsemen, 
etc , who speak very highly of them. 
You cannot enjoy your ride in cold 
weather without one. Don't fail to write 
for circular and price list to Lehman 
Bros., manufactnrers, 10 Bond street, New 
York, or J. W. Erringer, general Western 
sales agent, 297 Wabash avenue, Chicago, 
mentioning the Southern Planter. 

Daane H. Nash, of Millington, N. J., 
who is the long time advertiser and man- 
ufacturer of the famous Acme Pulverizer 
Harrow, Clod Crusher and Leveler, goes 
further to meet the purchaser on the sale 
of his implement than any manufacturer 
we have any knowledir • of Mr. Na«h 
wil' send the .^cme Har to any man 
anywhere who orders . and will give 
him ample time to ir e a thorough test 
of its good qualities the preparation of 
any kind of soil, ur r any and all condi- 
tions, and for an'- op. 

If the Harrow a not found to be en- 
tirely satisTactory in every way the pur- 
chaser may return it at Mr. Nash's ex- 
pense; That is a simple, straightforward 
business proposition which must com- 
mend itself to the mind of any fairly dis- 
posed man. It is further, a strone and 
indisputable evidence of the faith of the 
manufacturer in the high quality and 
utility of the implement which he ie man- 

It is not necessary, however, for us to 
dwell upon the quality of the Acme Har- 
row. It has long been advertised in these 
columns, and we doubt not but that hun- 
dreds of our readers have bought and are 
now using them with success. In all these 
years we have never heard a single com- 
plaint either against Mr. Kash or the 
Acme Harrow. 

These Harrows are delivered free on 
board at distributing depots conveniently 
located, and can therefore be shipped 

Write the manufacturer for prices, 


Chsnberlii Mfg. Co., Olen, N T.. D. 8. A. 


AM Sizes and Prices. Catalogue Free. 



Most Powerful. Handiest 

and Strongest Built in 

the World. 

We make 4 kinds la tlMa 

to Ruit all needs and of amy 

desired strenfth. Sarei tltno 

and does the work right. Thm 

operation of pa 1 1 ImK 

Btnmpsand tree* by (mr 

methods is simple aa4 

ea^jr- ^end for Fr«« 



'.» L« Sftlle Mi^t, aicin», IM. 


Clears an acre sf heavytlmtierland sach day. 
Ci*ar» all slninps id a circle of 150 ft. without 
moTiDK or ctiaDgiDS machlue. Stronjeat, 
most rapid working and best made. 
Hercules Mlg Co . 413 1 7thSI..Centr«»lllt. Iowa. 


From anxiety over 
wash dav. are all wh» 
WA'HER. We Kuaran- 
tee li to be the bfst. A 
trial machine sent at 
factory price. Auent* 
wauted for exclusive 
terrliory. Write for 

cata'ogue with full description. We will 

surely please you. 






Whatever you it tend to 
do about SPRAMNG pre- 
pare for it during the w in- 
ter. Order your Spraying 
outfit and material now 
and you are prepared for 


Barrel Pumps 
Bordeaux Mixture 


Fungicides, &c. 



-•^-Send for our book on 8PRAYIN 

Get the Best 


good pump. Asprac-M 
1 fruit growers we f 
were using the com- 
[iion sprayers in our 
own orchards — found 
their defects and then invented 
The Eclipse. Its success 
practically forced us into man- 
ufacturing on a large scale. 
You take no chances. We have 
done all the experimenting. 

targe fully illustrated 
Catalooiie avd Treatise 
on Spraying— FREE. 


n Harbor. Mich. 

1^ Beming 
^ Field 

odel im- 
plemeut for 

ull Nu 

One Man Can Operate. 

Can be attached to any barrel sprayer and fitted 
to any wagon- Fitted with famous Bordeaux or 
Demibg-Vermorel nozzles. We fit everybody'.^ 
needs in bucket, barrel, knapmick and other 
Bprayerg. Write for free spraying catalogue. 
THE DEMINO CO., Salem. Ohio. 


BS Save Mokby MS 

^^ BY Buying One of Ours. ^^ 
They will do as much work, being all brass 
»re lighter to handle ard are more durable, 
will generate a higher pressure thereby mak- 
ing them the easiest pumps to operate on the 
market. Write for catalog and get treatise on 
•praying free. Agents wanted. Mention this 
paper. J. F. Gavlord, Successor to P. C. Lswii 
Manufacturing Ctmpany, Catskill. N. C. 

Mention the Southern Planter when cor 
(eepondiog with advertisflTs. 

printed matter and terms of trial. Kind 
ly say, in writing, that you saw this in 
our journal. 


With the cold snap of December the 
egg supply usually drops off; not alto- 
gether, however, from the actual cold as 
from change in the feeding ration of the 
hens. At this time more than ever, poul 
try needs a liberal supply of animal food 
to take the place of the insects and worms 
the hens get on the range in summer 

The Stratton Manufacturing Company, 
Erie, Pa., have just issued a very attrac- 
tive book, entitled " More Money From 
Your Hens." It goes into the question 
of winter feeding very thoroughly and 
describes in detail the Dandy Bone Cut- 
ter, a well built, substantial machine for 
reducing green bone to poultry food. The 
manufacturers make a very strong claim 
of excellence for the Dandy, and sell 
every machine with a warranty to take it 
back and refund every cent paid for it 
should it prove unsatisfactoiy in any way 
after the purchaser gives it a fair trial. 
It is sold at a very reasonable price and 
is manufactured in a variety of sizes and 
styles. We know that every reader of 
The Southern Planter will be interested in 
the Dandy catalogue. It is sent free. 


The subject of this il- 
lustration and paragraph 
is familiar to most of our 
readers. It is the com- 
bination feed cooker and 
heater manufactured by 
the Rippley Hardware 
Company, of Grafton, 111. 
■| In- aiiw iiisement setting forth its uses 
in brief appears in another column. No 
reason if< apparent why a machine fitted 
to cook food for stock might not easily 
be made to go a step farther and furnish 
lipat for Stock buildings. The Rippley 
Company seem to havec.iught the idea in 
a very comprehensive manner. The farm 
er would frequently use heat in the dairy, 
poultry and swine buildings if it could he 
supplied without great expense, or by 
connection with a fire in operation and 
doing duty in other lines. This Rippley 
Cooker, considered merely as a cooker, is 
one of the most practical and uieful on 
the market. It takes on a double value 
when it is employed to heat water in 
stock tanks two or three hundrtd feet 
away ; to heat dairy, poultry and other 
buildings ; to furnish steam for such ne- 
cessary uses as grinding, separating cream, 
churning, etc. It can be used in the yard 
or set up and attached to a chimney in 
any building. Though small and com- 
pact and easily handled, one of its special 
strong points is that frequent removal is 
not necessary, it being able to perform its 
numerous duties equally well at any rea- 
sonable distance. Those of our readers 
who are interested in feed cookers or 
heaters should send for the Rippley cata- 
logue. It is mailed free on application. 

T* naktcowt pay, nst Sharp)** Cr*aai S*parat*r*. 
Book "Bnalne** Dairying " A Oat. 806 frae. W. 
I ObMtor, Fa.S 

Wagon World Awheel. 

Halt a million of these steel 
wheels have been sent out on 
ourown wagons and to fit other 
wagons. It is the wheel that 
determines the life of any 
wagon, and this is the longest 
hved wheel made. Do vou want 
a low down Handy Vi'agon to 
use about the place? Wewillfit 
out your old wagon with Elec- 
tric Wheels of any size and 
any shape tire, straight or stag- 
gered spokes. No cracked hubs, do 

loose spokes, no rotten felloes, no resetting. Writ« f.r 

the t)iK new catalogue. Itisfree. 

Electric Wheel Co.| Box 146 Quincy, IllSa 


IRECTto User 


Hickory Wheels, 
best steel Springa 
aud Axles. Quar- 
anteed fully. 
Sen 1 for catalogue or call. 
CHAS. C. CLARK & CO., 25 S. Main St., St. Louis. 


Porcelain Bowl. Hardwood B*»t and TaBk, 
Nickel Plated Hush and supply pipes, com. 
ple(e,eacti 911.00, 
Cost Iron Roll Rim Bath Tub5, 

length 6 ft. Complete 
with full set of nickel 
plated fitting, eacb, 
SI 1.00. 

They are new ^oods, 
ask for free catalogue 

eiricago Hous* WretUng Co.. W. 35Hi ui \nt Uu.tHmm 



Is no MAKESHIFT, but the 

Ditching and Drainage. Price 
JS and $10, including Tripod 
and Rod. Send for dcscriptire 
circulars and Treatise on Ter- 

Bostrom, Brady !Mg. Co., 

311-2 W.Alabama St., Atlanta, Ga. 


(Newton'e Patent.) 





Take Your Choice 

Conv»x— very iimple, quick 

rate. Bully V—lacestaadc 

rful V-Koifo Diado. Sent 

Calf Dishorner and other 

e9. Send for catalog. 

V^estcrn orden filled 


We want to send into every town ^^^^^^^P 
and county a sample of our new F f^u^m^ 
self-operating Kant-Klog Sprayer. 
No farmer, fruit or vegetable grower can afford to 
be without one. They increa-'^e crops both in quan- 
tity and quality, and double your yearly profit. 

^A JftOrMTC ■ *aO,00 A DAT is wh»t ODt 

I If nUILIl 19s new a^eat made. Anotberhu 
sold and delivered 660 mochinea and has 100 more sold for 
later delivery. With thecomplete detailed in-'tructions we send 
our ageuta any man of ordinary ahility can do as well. 
For further Informatiori address, 

RochesferSprayPumpCO., 21 EastAv. Rochester, N.Y- 




The Automatic 




Yards FlDe Poultry 

premises and lind out 
what the 

ReliaJile IncubaLtor 

«ic. Poultrj bo«k. No. ig.forlOcp^ti 

RfliabUlDcb. andBrooderC' 

Boi B- II (JulntT, III. 


Uore made 

more prizes won than 
ALL OTHERS combined. 

ogue-just owl-fin- 

' " ' -^ ' paper A 

send for 

est ever IssuedTMeni 





Good condition, used abort Omo only* cewthnadi 
•Bd coupling, for Steam, Gm or Water, alEea from U 
•ttU inch diameter. Our price per tool on ktMkiS 
•bi OD 1 tech 4c. Write for free catalogne K» i^- 


n. still and iroD Bu., niicaeo. 

Krauaera' IMiuid 
Extract of Smoke 

Siiiukes iiifat jicrfootly in a 
<. .Made luckon' w«.d. 
(Mcantr. cheaper. No 


Our readers will remember the Marvin 
Smith Company as having been the 
largest exclusive farm implement house 
in the countrj'. Their well-known relia- 
bility and responsibility in this direction 
induced their many friends and patrons 
to wiite them from all sections of the 
country, sending in orders for goods 
which they did not then carry. It was 
this constant demand which induced 
them to add departments of hardware, 
tools, builders' supplies, builders' hard- 
ware, gentlemen's clothing all kinds, of 
hosiery, all kinds of underwear, gloves 
and mittens, cook stoves, ranges and 
heaters, sewing machines, tin and enamel 
ware of all kinds, lanterns, household 
supplies, trunks, valises, etc. 

In looking over the catalogue, one can- 
not help express both surprise and won- 
der at the remarkably reasonable prices 
at which the various articles are sold 
For instance, take their new High Art 
Colonial Cabinet, Ball-bearing Sewing 
Machine. The price is only $18.95, a 
much better machine in every way than 
we had to pay t35 to $40 for elsewhere. 
Then there are sicb other cises of quali- 
ty and value as the following: Men's full 
fleece-lined heavy winter underwear at 
the ridiculously low price of 45c. per gar- 
ment; ladies' part wool underwear, jersey 
ribbed winter weight with all the latest 
and newest conveniences and methods of 
making at 50c. per garment; these same 
goods are usually sold at 75c. or more per 
garment in our home stores ; a boy's split 
buckskin fleece-lined work or school mit- 
ten for 23c. per pair ; men s split back 
glove, all seams welted, fleece-lined and 
with patent string fastening, at 35c. per 
pair ; ladies' dressed kid gloves in medium 
weight, very fine and dressy, at i\ ; just 
about such a glove as the stores usually 
charge $1.50 for. 

By all means, send to these people for 
their latest catalogue if you have not al- 
ready done so. The book is almost cer- 
tain to save you money on every article 
which you wish to buy. 

Some idea of the Incubator business is 
gained when it is known that over 
100,000 incubators were sold last year. 
The use of the incubator and brooder in 
poultry-raising is no longer an experi 
ment. One of the firms that got a good- 
ly share of this business is the Hawkeye 
Incubator Company, of Newton, Iowa. 
They were well pleased with their busi- 
ness of last year, but to say they are feel- 
ing good over prospects for the coming 
season is to put it mildly. Their advance 
sales for 1903 already exceed the entire 
output of last season. The Hawkeye is 
used in every State in the Union, and in 
('anada, and in many foreign countrieb. 
No wonder, for this Company guarantees 
every machine to give entire satisfaction 
or money refunded. They even sell on 
.30 days' free trial, giving the purchaser 
an opportunity to complete a liatch be- 
fore accepting his machine. By all means, 
write to them for their catalogue if you 
are thinking of buying an incubator or 
brooder. Address Hawkeye Incubator 
Company, Newtown, la. Mention this 


_i strictly by ourselves for the , 

South. East and West, each variety in the 
soction which secures its highest develop- 
ment. Weaim to have everrtlimg the strong- 
est and best of its kind. 


We do not 



IS lartre and the most complete. Write for handsome 
new Catalogue No. 10 Sent FREE. 

Griffith & Turner CO., 205 Paca St., Baltimore, Md, 


I have for sale several blocks of the 
finest two-year old Winesaps Apple trees 
ever grown in the State The trees are 
well branched and measuse from five to 
eight feet in height Trees are dug from 
the nursery the day they are shipped. 

8c. each for the finest lot under 100. 

7c. " " " " " over 100. 

6 to 7c. wholesale. 

CHAS. P. HACKETT, Manager, 

Bonavista Narseries, 
Albemarle County, Greenwood, V«. 



100,000 2-yr.-old Asparagus roots, 
6 varieties A special rate of $3.50 
per 1000 for 2 mos. for BARR'S, 


A large general assortment, in- 
cludine WINESAPS and YORK 

Splendid Assortment of 

Ornamental, Shade 

and Fruit Trees. 

Splendid lot of POL A.ND-CHINA 
pigs ready for shipment. Also pure 

fowls at $1 each. 




Use the 

Made by F. H. Jackson & Co., Winchester, 
Ky. write to them for free samples. 

liM>3 , 




Friction Feed OR ft IIIILL) 

with patent feed, patent 
doffs and set works is the 
most convenient. durable, 
perfect in operation, ana 
the cheapest high-class 
mill on the market. There 
are more of these mills in 
use than any othermake, 
because they combine all 
the latest improvements. 
The sawyer ttanding in 
one position, controls the 
engine, sets the log, and 
regulates the feed of the 

age. The carnage IS 
ved forward and back- 

vard hy means of the Reamy patent feed and backing device. 


Pennsylvania Disk or Hoe Drill. 

This Low-Do 

great strength and lighti 
Each disc works independ- 
ently and has an adjustable 
coil eprine pressu 

It is sure to put in the seed 
every time. Chain drive 
force feed, for^ain, grass 

main axle. No jolt— saves 
horses* necks. Accurate 
grain, grass, phosphate, and 



Here is a name 



that stands for merit. 


This portable Engine is 
made most carefully of 
the best material. The 
Boiler is made of the best 
grade of boiler steel, 
tensile strength, 65,000 to 
6fi,000 pounds. The steel 
fire boxes are strongly 
riveted and tested at 
double the strain they 
will ever be required to 
use. No Fiirqiihar 
" " ' ever exploded. 

3st improved pat- 

V . arid of the best 

material known. Tou 
lebt to know about 


threshes i 

I kinds of 

grain and del 
in better condition' 
than anv other made. 
No cracting or wast- 
ing of grain. The sep- 
arating capacity is 
very large and the 
machine cannot be 
crowded. It will eas- 
ily take care of all the 
grain that can be put 
through the cylinder 

■We also make Clover Iluller Attochn 


All these things fully described in the catalogue. It is free. 

Also full line including all kinds of farm machinery. 

The most popular Machine in use for Peanut Picking and Grain Threshing are the 


Machines, and they have splendid improvements for 1903. 
They are built in first class manner, and are strong and dur- 
able. The price is within the reach of all. We guarantee 
them to do the work satisfactorily. We will mail catalogue 
and testimonials, and quote prices on application. 








Tbls cut 8h05is our 5 and 7 h.p, "Ll'tle 
som " Vertical Automatic Engine, 

DE LOACH " MACHINERY. ?erd?i°aiiTwS;e?r""* pickers: cuttm. 

Larger sizes also furnished. 

STRATTON & BRAGG, 20 and 22 N. Sycamore St., Pctcrsburg,Va. 





How a Virginia Woman 
Was Cured. 

Mrs. S. P. Thompson, of Rodophil, 
Va finfifered terribly with indigestion for 
yeare Every mouthful of food was a 
Martyrdom. Every meal was a repeti- 
tion of agony-until Bhe heard of YA- 
CELERY- From the first bottle thtre 
was an improvement. Food beuan to do 
her good instead of injuring her health. 
Mealtime became a pleasure instead of a 
time of suffering. YAGER'S SARSA^ 
PARILLA changed the whole aspect of 
life for Mrs. Thompson, it has done the 
game for hundreds of others in similar 
.ituations. Her gratitude to the medi- 
cine does not stop with simpiy appreci- 
ating it— she has told her friends and 
neighbors of it, and of the wonderful 
cure it has effected in her case. 

CELERY is working astounding cures in 
hundreds of -owns to day. Every mail 
brings notable additions to the great 
Tolume of evidence already accumulated 
as to the curative power in all diseases of 
the nerves, blood and functional derarge- 
ments. It is sold by all druggists, 50c. a 
bottle. Made by Gilbert Bros. & Co , 
Baltimore, Md. 

The Baby 

Had Group 

—one of the ehlldrjn had a cold ; father 
had bronchitis; mother had atou^h of 
Pleurisy They all took Honey- Totu. 
ind weie cured. Sold by all druggleU, 
loc. a Dig bottle, Made by 









It is the Farmer Boy who takes the 
lead in the Base Ball and Foot Ball 
teams of the present day, who from ear- 
ly childhood ha? gained brawn and brave- 
ry through hard work upon the farm; 
yet he rarelv gets the credit of it, for the 
success of a' team is usually attributed to 
the city lads, when, really, it is due to 
one or two rough farm boys who pulls 
them through. 

The fact is established by the follow- 
ing little story of actual occurrence: 

A wail of despair arose in one of the 
principal Academies of the State when 
its base ball team was organizing for its 
spring work. The trouble was that young 
Hal Ilavseed, who bad been Captain of 
the team the previous session, had not 
returned, and his place could not be suc- 
cessfully filled. After much debating and 
consultation, it was decided to send a 
committee of three, one of the teachers 
and two of the boys, to visit old Farmer 
Hayseed, who lived not far away, and 
persuade him to send his son back, mak- 
ing him liberal offers for his tuition and 
advancement in study. 

As they approached the farm, they 
found young Havseed busy ploughing for 
corn in the 6eld, dressed in his rough 
farm suit. 

""What a pity that such a fine fellow 
should be thus working among the clods," 
exclaimed one of the boys as they drove 

"Yes, and to lose such valuable time 
from his studies," said the teacher. 

" ! we must get him awav from here, 
for our team cannot do without him," 
cried the third. 

Young Hayseed saw the approach of 
his former companions, so dropping his 
lines, he came forward smiling and greet- 
ed tbem heartily. 

There was no abashment in his face at 
being found in such menial work, but, 
with a manlv voice, welcomed them to 
the farm, and took them to the house to 
see his father. 

They found the old man busy in his 
garden planting seeds; he saw the ap 
proach of the young gentlemen, and 
guPHsed their errand: and though shak 
ine his head ominously, yet he dropped 
his work and greeted his young visitors 

The old gentleman listened respectful- 
ly to their praise of his bov, and their 
wish to do him ereat good : he was touch- 
ed and snrprioed at suMi liberal offers to 
supply his son's place on the farm by 
other help, but he quickly saw that their 
chief object was to place him on their 
base ball team. 

The old man now spoke plainly. 

" Young gentlemen, my son is all the 
help T have on the farm ; if you take 
him, T am helpless, for I cannot supply 
his place! I wish to give him an educa- 
tion and protession, but do not intend to 
part with him for base ball or foot ball 
playing; now. ask him which he prefers, 
to work for me or play Kill." 

It was a great temptation and allure- 
ment to Young Hayseed, as presented by 
hii eay and festive companions; and too, 
a great compliment to h'S skill at ball 


per acre more 
Wheat, Oats, 
Rye or Barley 
may be raised 
for each loo 
pounds of 


used as a Top Dressing on the 
soil. Frequent trials at Agricul- 
tural Experiment Stations the 
world over fully prove this to 
be so. 

Your address on a Post Card will bring 
you our yVe-f Bulletin "Practical Hints 
for the Profitable Application of Nitrate 
of Soda as a Fertilizer," and others full 
of interest to farmers. 

controlled by adac 

Good's Caiutlc Potash Wliale 
Oil Soap, No. 3. 

It alio prevent! Curl Leaf. Endoraed by ia> 
tomologlits. Thli loap !• a fertUlMr aa wall 
MlniecUolde. 60 lb. kegs, C30; 100 lb. kesi, 
H.GO. Half barrels, 270 lbs., at SKc. per lb. ; 
barrele, 425 Iba., at 8Vo. Large qoantlUM, 
tjiealal ratei. Send for olrooiar. 


J81M1 N. Front St., philadclphi*. m. 


ylxic Grease th'l^worid. 
wearing qualltlee are ansurpassed, »o- 
,lly outlasting 3 bx<. any olber brand, 
t affected by heat. •9-6<t the Qenalne. 



Send for Circulars and Prlce-LUt. 



Bodley, Autrusta County, Va. 



4 and 6 Governor Street, 

and Commercial Printers. 




Few young men could resist such an 
offer, for he knew the good times and 
high praist his learn would have in many 
a contest over the State; so it was some 
momenta before he spoke alter his old 
father had turned to him and said, "Say, 
my sou, what is your wish?" 

Drawing himself up proudly, he re- 
plied -" iSo, boye, 1 cai.not leave the 
farm; 1 have begun the crop auU will go 
through \Mlh it; 1 would like to be wilti 
you to strujigle for the championship on 
the ball team, but my latuer needs me, 
and my duly is heie.' 

His haudsomely-dressed companions 
were silenced for a moment, and then 
turning iu admiiation of him, the teacher 
shook Ills hand lieartiiy as he taid— 

" You are right, aud we honor your de- 
cision, though regielting deeply you can- 
net be witli us;" sosajing ihey drove 
off with lather tad counteuauces, while 
young Hayseed returned to the field and 
took up ploughing again. 

There wa« a loud wail in the school 
when the boys saw the committee return 
witi.oui Hal Hayseed, and the exclama- 
tion went up — ' What shall we do !" 

Hal, too, felt grievously disappointed 
that he was necessitated to eiay on the 
farm, yet he felt he was doing bis duty 
and stuck manfully to his vvorg, planted 
aud cultivaied his litile crop of corn ihor- 
ougbly, and it beiiig a good season, his 
heart was made glad ulien at laot he saw 
the crop sately boused, and was compli- 
meuted by bis neighuors od his success; 
and his satisfaction was still greater as he 
saw the ueaui of j^iy and gratitude upon 
his old falber's face. 

The autumn days had come, and his 
work laid by, aud now he made a visit to 
his former schoolmates to see how the 
foot-ball team was pri greasing. 

At the bight of Hal, the boys raised a 
great shout of joy, lor they had just re- 
ceived a challcijge to a foot ball contest, 
and were in a ijuandary how to fill it; 
but at the sight of Hai'a smiling face they 
felt that he could help them out of the 

'■ Yes, boys," replied Hal to their eager 
question, " the corn crop is housed, and I 
am now free to help you. My farm work 
has only served to harden me for the 
gridiron and I have not forgotten how 
to play." 

It 18 needless to say, the challenge was 
accepted. Hal was given the chief posi- 
tion and by his skill and prowess they 
easily won the game. 

Hal Havfeed now received many enco- 
miums Irom his old schoolmates, whoad- 
mired him all the more, not only for 
helping them, but for siicking to the 
farm and helping his old father first in 
the needi of the family. How many 
farmers boys are now doing the same ? 

Albemarle Co., Va. E. C. M. 

The annual report of the Secretary of 
Agriculture is one of the most interesting 
reports ever sent out from the depart- 
ment. It bears ev.dence of being the 
work of a man thoroughly competent 
and fu ly conversant with all the d tai's 
of agricultural life and deeply imbued 
with the iujpo tai'ce of the application 
of fcience to the practical wnrk of the 
&rm. Every farmer should send for a 
copy of the report. 

Feed Your Land 

with fertilizers rich in Potash and 
your crop will crowd your barn. 
Sow Potash and reap dollars. 

A Fertilizer Without 


Is Not Complete. 

Be good to your land and your 
crop will be good. Plenty of 
Potash in fertilizers spells qual- 
ity and quantity in the harvest. 

Our Five Free Books 

are a complete treatise on fer- 
tilizers, written by men who 
know. They are useful to 
every man who owns a field 
and a plow, and who desires 
to get the most out of them. 
Your name on a postal will do. 






The latest improved. Does all 
kinds of work. Mort (durable; 
baegroun lover 15,000 bushels 
without repair or expense The 
fastest grinder; has ground 300 
busbels In 4 hours. Lightest 
draft and lowest price. The 
World's Best I Send for prices 
to the manufacturers. 
N.M. FIELDMFQ. CO.,St. Louis.Mo. 

It Never Ohokes 




5 nn/del (ur (rHn.l.ns: all 
m and unshuLkc.i torn. 
feed regulal'Tan.l >,-rinds 

re. Make^excellentmeal. 
irinds feed t^ any fineneiS. Is nmM substantial, ftte 1 I„ any 
p«wer. Irec..itiK.i;.LrviiicesvouoritssuperiorU> ^^ r Ic (■ r it. 


The Old Reliable Aotl-Frictioo, F»ur-Burr 


No gearing, no friction. 
Tboaiiands in use. Four- 
horse mill grlnda 60 to 80 
buB. perboor. W'emakea 
full line of Feed Mills best 
ever sold. Including the fa- 
raouR Iowa grinder Xo. 2. 
for?l'2.5C. Send for free cat. 

Manufactured and .sold by the 
Iowa Grinder and Steamer Works, Waterloo, Iowa 



prind com cobs and all 

r p-Alo- Mftk* 


^^IBIBBII^ Fifteen Days Free 
SPHOTT, W.^LDROX A- CO.. Boi 30 MnncT,Pa 


»iB (rtader k«1« and u« 

rliitel to Itt TM pT<TT« tt. 


f M-^^ TiHpl* Ovarrd RaU Bearing 

dtjr. easiest roii&er, doo't kaep 


^Vhea j«u wantg(K>d rebuilt mfr 
chlaeiry At b&rgfUjl prlce«, wrlto tor 
our Catalogue. No. 166 We cinj 
all UDOfl oi eaeloed (K4UI, irajK>leiM 
and 0teaiD yower). bollerv, ptuupa, 
and mm eappUee In ffttnerml. 

Wcat Stth and boa f ta_ Cblcac*. 

This issue contains the advertisements 
of the leading business tirins of the coun- 
try, and we bespeak for them the liberal 
patronage of our readers. 

The Lenox Sprayer and Chemical Co., 
of Pittstield, Mass., are advertising their 
well known Bordeaux Mixture and Spray- 
ers for applying same, in this issue. 

The famous Elk Garden herd of Short- 
horns is oflered by Mr. H.C.Stuart. Spl n- 
did chance for some good Shorthorn 

Polled Durhams are advertised else- 
where in this issue by Mr. J. L. Hum- 
bert, University of V'a. 

Look up the advertisement of the Bu- 
cher & Gibbs Plow Co. Their Imperial 
Plows are already well known to num- 
bers of our readers. 

Oak Ridge Farm is offering some nice 
Red Polls, at right prices. 

The Miller Manure Spreader is offered 
by the Newark Machine Co., of Newark, 
Ohio. Send for circulars and prices of 
this labor-saver. 

Messrs. C. M. Armes & Co. are adver- 
tising an excellent old Virginia planta- 
tion in this issue. 

Baker's Jack Farm has 150 Jacks and 
Jennets for sale. 

Spectacles, Optical Goods and Cameras 
are advertised bv the 3. Galeski Optical 
Co., of Kichmond, Va. 

Messrs. J. M. Thorburn & Co., Seeds- 
men, New York, would like to mail their 
102nd Annual Catalogue to our readers. 
Look up the advertisement. 

Mammoth Bronze Turkeys crossed on 
Wild Turkeys are advertised by Mrs J. J. 

The Merchants National Bank of Rich- 
mond, Va., makes a splendid showing in 
its annual statement published elsewhere 
in this number. 

The Iowa Grinder and Stea-ner Works 
are new advertisers in this issue. They 
have a good feed mill, about which they 
would like to inform our readers. 

C C. Clarke & Co., St. Louis, Mo., offer 
buggies, etc., in another column. 

Knight & Jetton, Murfreesboro, Tenn. 
offer Jacks and Jennets in another col 

The Biltmore Farms advertise their 
annual Brond Sow sale in this istue 
Look up the advertisement and write for 
a catalogue. 

Mohland & Co.. Burlington, la., are ad- 
vertising Stump Pullers in this number. 
The Ohio Carriage Mfg. Co., Cincinnati 
Ohio, bpgin the season's advertising with 
a card in another ('olumn. 

Biltmore Standard Poultry is offered in 
a half-page advertisement on another 

The Sydnor Pump and Well Co., Rich 
mond, Va., are new advertisers in this 
issue. Gasoline Engines are prominent 
in this month's advertisement. 

A splendid Weeder is advertised by 
the Keystone Farm Machine Co., York, 

The Roderick Lean M'fg Co., of Mans- 
field, Ohio,.are advertising the celebrated 





Builders' Exchange. Phila.. Pa., U. S. A. 

Write for Cat.alogue and price. 




Made l>y experi 
enced workmen ol 
special material. 
Acknowledged by farmcro ^a^.c!iui toall 
Spike Tooth Harrows. Spring Tooth 
Harrows. Disc Harrows. 
Land Rollers. Hand Carls. 
Writ* for 

Mansfield, 0. 
Wheels or Shoes on '^ear. 




Want It for 1 or 2 years, with privilege o 
buying. Musi be as good as new. jf,jo ^ MARTIN Qreeowood, Va, 



, Minneapolis, Minn. ^^ , 


Dlllf CIIDC Write for free price-list. 

nnif r UnOi Head F^B AND WOOL,, 

only paper of Its kind lo the world. 

Copy free, 

3. B. UANLOVE, ^ pushneU, lU 





Cows That Will Not 
Get With Calf. 

About one cow in ten is barren. Usually large 
milkers have this trouble. The common cause 
is a weakness of the private organs, making the 
animal either refuse to mate at the regular time, 
or. if she will mate, the desired result will not be 
obtained. The loss from one barren cow will eat 
up the profit of at least five paying ones. For 
this trouble we recommend 

Kow - Ku re 


Thousands of barren cows have been made to 
breed by the use of this great cow medicine. 

Hadley. Pa., Dec. 13. 1900. 
Dairy Association: 

Gentlemen:— \ had a cow. the best one on the 
farm, which I could not get with calf. I fed one 
box of Kow-Kure and she caught the first time I 
drove her. Yours, A. E- McDowell. 

Kow-K,ure is in powder form, to be given in regular 
feed. It cures abortion, barrenness and scours, re- 
moves retained afterbirth and caked udder, strengthens 
the appptite, purifies the blood, vitalizes the nerves, 
and prevents disease. It increases the milk. Itisa 
medicine for cows only, made by the Dairy Associa- 
tion, LyndonviUc, Vt. Price 50 cents and #1.00, 


and POTOMAC R. R. 

Form the Link connecting the 
AtlanUc Cost Line R. R., 
Baltimore and Ohio R. R., 
Chesapeake and Ohio R'y. 
Pennsylvania R. R., 
Seaboard Air Line R'y 
and Southern R'y. 
Between all points, via Richmond, Va. 

Fast Mall, Passenge- ar d Express Route be- 
tween Richmond, Fredericksburg. Alexan- 
dria, Washington, Baltimore. Philadelphia, 
New York, Boston, Pittsburg, Buffalo and All 
Points North, East and West. 

W P. TAYLOR, Traffic Manager, Rlchmsnd. Va 

r,pan Harrows and Roller in another col- 

The Prairie State Incubator ,wel! known 
to many of our readers, is offered by its 
makers in this number. 

Nursery Stock, Sirawberv Plants, etc., 
are advertised by W. T. Hood & Co. W. 
F. Allen, Franklin Davis Nursery Co., H. 
Lightfoot and others. Get catalogues be- 
fore making up your list. 

The Eureka Mo*er Co., Utica, N. Y., 
advertisfs a 81 lendid line of implements 
in another column. Look up the adver- 
tisement and write for prices on what 
you need. 

The Davidson Harrow Co., Utica, N. Y., 
which is among the largest makers of 
Harrows in the world, has an advertise- 
ment in this issue. 

Yager s Sarsaparilla with Celery is ad- 
vertised as usual in this issue. Ask your 
druggist for a trial bottle. 

The J. A. Salzer Seed C J., La Crosse, 
Wis., starts the season's advertising with 
an advertisement in this number. 

Look up the ad vertisement of the Stand- 
ird F. O. Incubator in this issue. 

Morrill & Morley, Benton Harbor, 
Mich., make the Eclipse Spray Pumps, 
and are advertising them elsewhere in 
this issue. It is interesting, and it gives 
one confidence in their goods to know 
that this firm were originally, as they 
still are, one of the largest growers of 
fruit in this famous section, and in using 
the b»st spraying apparatus obtainable at 
that time, f lund all open to objection as 
not d ing perfect work. Ttiey tet to work 
and made a machine alter their own 
ideas, which gave such satisf;iction that 
neighboring growers insisted on dupli- 
cate outfits. Ai tual test by the most 
practical people in tlie country has de 
velnped a high degree of ediciency inthe 
Kclipse, and has made its makers one of 
the largest manufsicturers of spraying 
machinery in the country. 

Write for their catalogue, which em- 
bodies valuable information about spray- 
ing, and mention seeing advertisement in 
this journal. 

The Reliable Incubator continues year 
after year to lead the world iu sales, both 
in this country and abroad. It has lony 
ago proved its worth. Experiencfd poul- 
tryraen know exactly what they can 
count upon when they start it; they run 
no risks. The Reliable is built by prac- 
tical pouUrymen who devote all their 
time and energy to the poultry and incu- 
bator business and keep constantly i no - 
proving their product. The long years of 
experience which they have had is worth 
thousands of dollars to poultry raisers 
A pari of this experience is iiuorporated 
in the new catalogue they have just 
ifsue<l, and we know that every one of 
our readers will find it of great interest 
and practical value. D,3n't fail to send 
for a copy, enclosina 10 cents for postiige. 
Address, Reliable Incubatorand Brooder 
Co., Quincy, 111. 

Mention the Southern Plar.ter when cor- 
responding with advertisers. 


give satisfaction. 



A safe, speedy 
positive cure 


Curb, Splint, Sweeny, Capped Hock, 
Strained Tendons, Founder, Wind Puffs, 
and all lameness from Spavin, Ringbone 
and other bony tumors. Cures all skin 
diseases or Parasites, Thrush, Diphtheria. 
Removes all Bunches from Horses or 

As 1 '^ ^ 

Every bottle of Cauatlc ISalsnia sold is 
Warranted to pire satisfaction. Price 91. SO 
per bottle. Sold by dru(?^sts, or sent by ex- 
press, charges paid, with full directions for its 
use. Send for descriptive circulars, testimo- 
nials, etc. Address 
TEB LlWRBNCE-WIllIiKSCOMPAm.CleTeland, Oliio. 



. -AND 




medicine which makes 
Tials weU. the diseased 
whole, the weak strong and the 
thin fat. It wiU restore lost Appetite, 
expel Wotms and care Chronic Cough, 
Heaves, Influenza, Distemper, Hide- 
l bound, Indigestion, Constipation, Flat- 
k ulency and all Stomach and Bowel 

Fistula and 
Poll Evil . 

lou can 
treat these 
d i seawes 
y o li r s e 1 f 
and cure thein in 1.5 to .SO dayf . FlPm- 
Ing's h'istulnand Holl Evil Cure is easy 
In apply, peif'ctly safe \n use, and 
vonr money is promptly refunded if it 
slioiiUi ever fall to cure. 

Interesting Booklets Free. 
We have two booklet-i to send you. 
Oue tells about FIMula, Poll Evil, 
Spavin. Ringbone, Cnrb, Splint, Knee- 
Sprung, T,nnip.Iaw. etc., with instruo- 
tlf>ns how to fure Ihena. 

The oilier proves that you can cure 
them. Write 1o day. 

FLE ■ INO BHOS., Chemists. 
22 Union Stock Yards. - Chicaeo. HI. 

J Tor irinl 

^ti troubiea 

ng rtfoamriidB. $1 pel 

IJealera, mall or Bz.pald 

AewtoD Horw kBe^r C« 
I T > ToUdo. OhU 





4 1 ACRES or tbe finest land in the Stale n' 
VIrEliila. lying four miles north of the City of 
Rfjaiioke. In the very best sectlou of Roanoke 
county. Ihl8 lau'i has been wotked a little 
bard, but could easily be brought ba'^k to Us 
oncehlKB siaK-ofculiivatloM. Itsold before tbe 
Civil War, without any bul dings for $100 per 
a re. There Is upon It an old favhloned Vir- 
ginia Mans on (brick), with leu rooms, which 
cost the owner wheu bu it, some thirty years 
ago, rJOOO . The dwelling Is filthily out of 
repair, but a few hundred dollars «|ent would 
make 1' one of tiie flnCKt farm houses in tlie 
stale of Virginia- In fact, e(iual lo most citv 
mansions. <jood bam, and all necessary out- 
buildings. The land Is all level and In falrlv 
good Ilx, good orchard, and a well of water as 
cold as Ice at the lack d. or. With a couple of 
thousand dollars si ent on this plnce, it can be 
made one of the finest farms In ihe Slate of 
Virginia. Owing t . the fact that It must be 
sold In order tow ud up an estate, it is oll'cred 
at the remarkably low price of IIS.OOO. 

Terms: One-third cash, balance in one and 
two years Possibly easier terms can be ar- 
r<inged. Any one wanting an ideal old Vir- 
ginia country home will buy this property 
If they once see It, Writ« us or come and let 
us show you this property. 

If you have any real estate for sale, no mat- 
ter where located, send us d-scription and 
price. We can sell It. If you want to buy 
real estate anywhere In the Uulled States, 
wrile us. Youi wants will ue supplied. 

No 119. CH.\S. M. .ARMES & CO., 
So. 213 Jefferson Street, - lioanoke, Va. 



No plate in the United States can a mat 
do BO well at farming, for tbe money in- 
vested, as in Virginia. Lands are cheap ; 
climate good, and the beet of markets 
close at hand. It is the State of all 
others, for a comfortable all the yeai 
round home. The James River Valley 
Colonization and Improvement Company 
offer superior advantages to land pur 
chaaers. For free 36 page land pamphlet, 

W. A. PARSONS, Vlnlta, Va. 



Is the title of a new pamphlet Issued by the 
Norfolk and Western Railway Company We 
will gladly mall you a copy. 


G.P. A, Landt and Immigration, 

Roanoke, Va. 



Large house; liio acres land »ell watered 
and wooded, wood enough to bring the price 
aaken for the place. 1 mile 'roni ihe growing 
manufacturing lown of Henderson N C 

Price, 83 .TOO. One-half cash, balance In I and 
2 years. Will sell cows wlih dairy If desired. 

Reasons for selling, can't looknfiemiv office 

and dairy 

Dr. C G TAYLOR. Henderson, N C. 

/ CajdJ^ell Your Farm 

BO maner *liCTe it U. Send dosLtirti.m, state pric# ud 
imnho- E»t.-,«. Hletotrefcnics. Office ir,4 cldS: 

W. M. OtUander.iijggN, a. Bide., FhiUdclpbla 


The "New Year" number of Lippin 
cott's Magazine is a veritable mine of 
good fiction, containing a whole novel 
and nine short otories, besides several 
papers of timely interest, some choice 
verse, and fun galore in the department 
called "Walnuts and Wine." 

Tbe novel is "The New Ileloise," by 
Mrs. Si-buyler Crowninshield. In this 
there is new eviiience that "Love Laughs 
at Locksmiths' and stone walls— even 
those of a French convent There is a 
yuuiig probationer behind these walls 
seeking refuge in priestly garb from a dis- 
tasteful marriage arranged by a too zeal- 
ous siepmother. But he is not destined for 
such a life, and Love is waiting for him 
in the form it as charming a French 
girl as can be imagined. A candidate is 
lost to celibacy and happiness reigns 

Edgar Fawcetc's story, "The Kesurrec- 
tion of Edith," is an absolutely novel 
plot, both weird and fascinating. There 
are two Western tales ; one by E Bolt 
wood called 'A Bivouac de Luxe," and 
one by H. Giovannoli called "A Bull 
Mountain Pastoral." Both of them are 
so good it is difficult to pick the winner. 
Albert Payson Terhune contributes what 
may be considered his best effort, and 
his is a name well known in the sfory- 
wriiing worlii. It is entitled "The Man 
With the Shoulders." "Judith in Mack- 
ford's Entry," by Grace Rhys (wife of 
the English novelist, Ernest Khys), is a 
pathetic story of a pretty Irish girl who 
was induced to go to London to better 
herself, and who was lured into the dis 
reputable "Mackford's Entry.'' Ina Bre- 
voort Roberts, tl.e author of that popular 
novel published in Lippincott's entitled 
"The Lifting of a Finger," contributes a 
delightful tale entitled "The Decision," 
W. A. Fraser's story, "The Hesurrection 
of P. I. G.," is both humorous and earn- 
est. "A Stolen Day," by Harriet Clay 
Penman, is about a day's journey on the 
cars, with a phyeicological touch which 
is charming. Bernice C. Caughey con- 
tributes an attractive sketch called "A 
Fair Fee," in which a man shows how 
clever he can be to win the girl he loves. 

'The proper ripening and maturing of 
whiskey depends on the care and method 
of storage. The warehouses of the Hay- 
ner Distilling Company are of the most 
modern and improved style, constructed 
entirely of brick and steel, and etjuipped 
with the hot air system of heating and 
ventilating, which keeps the whiskey at 
a uniform temperature the year round. 
As a result, their 7-year old is as fully 
developed as 14 year-old aged in the or- 
dinary old-fashioned way, and it's better, 
too, for an uneven temperature of ex- 
treme heat and cold destroys the qualitv 
and flavor. 

During the entire process of manufac- 
ture, and from the time it is stored in 
barrels in their warehouses, until seven 
years later, it is bottled and shipped, 
Hayner Whiskey is under the watchful 
care of ten of Uncle Sam's tiovernment 
officials. It goes direct from their distil- 
lery to you, with all its original richness 
and flavor, carries a United States Regis- 
tered DiBtiller's Guarantee of Parity and 


If any person desires to purchase a 
splendid James River Piantitlon con- 
sisting of 1 000 acies of the best land In 
the State, togethtr with all stock, im- 
plements, grain, et •., I ofl-r mine at 
»20.tlO0 Afier y.iu see It, and have par- 
ticulars, you will agree it Is cheap at 
Ihls figure. Address 
"PLANTATION.- ca'e Soul-e'n Planter Office 



Ten, Klfty and One Hundred Acres each, with 
good buildings, close to steam and tiolley 

lines, easy ace s> to the city. Also 


From 100 to 1 OOii acres at low prices, all the 

way from ib to »,50 per acre. Write for 



J. R. HOCK.4DAY, Manager. 

"PIEDMONT ft^pllcf?' 

Good land, climate, markets, shipping fa- 
cilities, churches, nchools, good health, mode- 
rate prices, eas.v terms. 
MACON & CO., Orange, V«, 

riNT PiRMQ 'i^ ">« K<'^t fruit grain anO 
I inL rHnmO stocksectlon of VIHOmiA. 

Best climate and water In the LT. S. Near 
great markets, with best educational advan- 
tages. For further Information, address 

Sam'l B. Woods, Pres. Charlottesville, Va. 

Virginia Farms 

\11 prices and sizes. Free list on application. 
WM. B. PIZZIHI CO., Richmond, «a. 



Easy Payments- Catalogue FRrc. 

-JEO. E. CRAWFORD & CO., Richmond. Vt. 

Established ll$75. 




Communicate with us. Write for free 
" Virginia Real Estate Journal,' con- 
taining many splendid bargalLS. 
R B. CHA»F1N & CO.. Inc., 

No. I N. lOih St., Richmond, Va 

"Crop Growing 
# Crop Feeding" 

BY Prof. W. f. masscv. 
383 Pp. Cloth, St. 00; Paper, 60c. 

We otier this splendid work in conneo- 

tlOD with the Southern Plantar 

at the folllowlng prices: 

Southain Planter tnd Cloth 

Bound Volume, $).2B 
Southern Planter and Paper 

Bound Volume, 9Bc. 
Old or new aubaciipUona. 





Have lur .-alt- a (Miiui;ii mnuner of Single 
Comb Brown aud Wliite Leghorn Pullets and 
Roosters. Be.-it layers known. Prize winning 
stock, -rire, *1.00to«l..')0eaeli. Eggs In .season 
at $1.00 for Hi ; 8.5 00 per 100 Satisfaction guar- 
anteed. Addre-s 

A T MATTHEWS, Box 36, Parksley. Va. 


Has for sale a few Extra Fine Cockerels of 

Barred Plymouth Rocks, 
White and Silver- Laced Wyandottes, 
Light Brahmas, 

All vigorous, thoroughbred stock. 

Write for f-rices. 


HoHvbrook Farm. Richmond, Va 



Choice pnrenredspec- 

imensoff-itl erex.Sl 

each, inany quantity. 

Kggs In season. 

Dr. H H. LEE, 

Lexington, Va 


National Strain, 


Descendants of prize winners. Hold in 
pairs or trios. Lar^ e, beautiful birds, 
at exceedingly low price**. The first 
orders will gi-t pick of iaige fluck. 

Correspondence solicited. 
Miss E. Cat le Gdes. Prop., Whittle's Depot, Va. 


7 Each pure bred 



At $1 00 Apiec-. 
a. F. COX, - Irwio. Qoochland County, Va. 


FOR. sa,1j.e:. 

Apply to R. E. CREE, Crozet, Va. 

Age, and saves you the enormous profits 
of the dealers. Read the Hayner Com 
pany's offer elsewhere in this journal. 


T. \V Wood & Sons, Seedsmen, Rich- 
m)nd, Va. This old firm, which con- 
ducts the largest seed business in the 
South, has issued one of the finest seed 
calalonues which it has ever got out. It 
is replete with iuformation of the great 
est value to every farmer, trucker and 
gardener, and will be tent free to all 
who apply for it. 

Prairie State Incubator Co., Homer 
City, Pa. This company has issued the 
finest catalogue we have ever seen got 
ten out liy an incubator company. It is 
beautifully illustrated and got up in the 
finest style. It is really a work of art. 
All who desire information on incubators 
should send for it. 

McCormick Division International Har- 
vester Co. of America, Chicago, 111., are 
sending out a beautifully executed 
pamphlet descriptive of their well-known 
machines. Farmt-rs should send for this. 
Every detail of the machines is fully de 
scribed and illustrated. 

The Stover Manufacturing Co., Free- 
port, III., send out a fine catalogue of 
their well known grinding mills, of which 
they make the largest and most com- 
plete line of any company. 

Aspinwall Manufacturing Co., Jackson, 
Mich. Catalogue of potato machinery. 
Every potato grower should see this cat- 

•John Lightfoot, Sherman Heights, 
Tenn. Catalogue of strawberry plants. 

We beg to acknowledge, with thanks, 
the receipt of a copy of the Congressional 
Directory from Senator Mar, in. 

The International Slock Food Com- 
pany, Minneapolis, Minn., inform us 
that they have j ist purchased for $60,000, 
the chAinpion harness horse of the 
world, D.iU Patch, l:fi9i His perma 
nent home will be the IneiTiational 
Slock Food Farm, near Minneapolis, 
where his owners have built the finest 
barns and stables on any farm in the 
country. These stables follow lines 
which we have frequently suggested in 
these columns. They are practically de 
tached from the barn and only one story 
in height and lighted from both sides. 

Ignis Fatuus ? A problem in Fuel, sub- 
mitted by Edward Atkinson. Ph. D. 

In this little pamphlet Mr. Atkinson 
suggests the possibility of the farmers 
beating the coal barons in supplying the 
fuel needed to keep the people warm and 
the wheels of industry revolving by so 
preparing corn ttalks as to make them a 
feasible fuel. As the result of an exam- 
ination by an expert, it is found that '20 
tons of Corn stalks and fodder is equiva- 
lent to about 14 tons of good coal. The 
problem is now to put this into good 
hape for handling on the market. 


Of the best breeding. One lamb weighed 
14.5 lbs. at 5 luos. old. PrI ;es right. 


Are the most domeslic, US per pair. 


81 each. 
J. D. THOMAS, - Round Hill, Va. 

WHTTF ^^^"^u"'"" ^ocKs, 


Fine strains and beautiful birds. Will 
be sold at reasonable prices. Farm 
bred birds and very healthy; six 
months old. A few Setter puppies a 
month old. For pricesa nd particulars 


200 B. P. ROCK ind S. G. B. LEGHORN 

At only tl each. This »tock is pure, 

aod win please. 

P H HEYDENREICH, Prop , Staunton, V«. 


(Single Comb ) 

Some fine, vigorous, cockerels atJil.OO each. 
6 firnts at Richmond Show, Nov. 2J-2U, 1902. 


R. W. HAW, Jr., - Centralia,Va. 


Cocks and Cockerels, 81 ..tO aud $1.00 each, 

trios, 8.5.00. 

FRED NUSSEY, - Summit. Spotsylvania Co, Va. 


75 cents each. 


$S.OO per pair. 


$5.00 each. 
W F. FLANA9AN. - Chrii'iansburg Va. 


The unnersigued can furnish them In 

liuiited quantities at 8J for 100. 

F. O. B. at Claremont, Va. 

J. M. HUGHES, Claremont, Surry Co.. Va. 





Mrs. J. J. KRAXKLIX, - Pamplin City. Va. 

M. B TURKEYS. 86, 50 a trio. 

Pt KIN DUCKS « I. .50 per pair. 



Mils CLARA L. SMITH, Croxtoi, Cirollne Co., Va. 

Pure Bred Bronze Turkeys 

For sale. Some from the prize-winning stuck 
of Madison Square Ganieu show 1902 Price 
Cocks, $3.00; Hens, 2..50; Pairs, $5.00. 

Mrs. WM. S. WOODS, Ivy Depo Va. 





Lion Coffee 

is 1 6 ounces of pure 
coffee to the pound. 
Coated Coffees are 

only about 14 ounces 
of coffee and two 
ounces of eggs, 
glue, etc., of no 
value to you, but 
money in thepocket 
I of the roaster. 

MAleU (.Kckftr* >ni'jret Qui- 











Wrl'e fi>r prices aid brrediog. No belter 
Klock lo be had and nolliioe but good in 
dlvliKiaLs t^hlpped. 


Sam'l B. Woods. Prop. CharlottesvlIle.Va. 


Have tlie true GoMen Hoof, ami 
make Sotnliern farmeis more profit 
than any other stotk. Write the 
Secretary of the Contioental Dor- 
se* Club for information and lists 
of breeders. 
JOS. E. WINO. .Mechanicsburg. Ohio. 


H.ARMSTRONG, • Lantz Mills, Va. 



We have an iinuxUMlly choice and sirone lot 
or ^.jU.VU RAM-* and Hill spare a KKW 
EWEs. inouttli we pan with Iheiu uuwiii- 
lugly. Our deilihiol cusioiut-rs. ealihfled lus 
toiuerH. in the .s„uiu are our wnrn.e^t ajv.i- 
cales. (),ir I'orNeiMuakc- ns nioie lui.iiry and 
give us more pJeasure lUan any other Btuck 
we have ever bandUtl. 

JOS. E. and WILL'S 0. WING. Me hanicsburg, Ohio. 

Hftke udSaT»BurjrwlibM 

rUA>>O.V.''VIJW A I 

U. S. Department of Agriculture, Wash- 
ingtoD, 1). C. Report of the Secre- 
tary of Agriculture, lt>02. 
Dureau of Animal industry. Circular 
3:*. Foot and Mouth Disease Warn- 
ing to all Owners of Cattle, Sheep 

and Swiue. 
Bureau of Chemiitry. Bulletin No. 70. 
M.<nufacture of Table Syrups from 
.Sujrar Cine. 
Office of Experiment Stations. Circu- 
lar 48. What the Deiiartment of 
Agriculture is Doing for Irrigation. 
Cilice of Experiment Slationg. Exp>eri- 
meut Station Record, Vol. XIV, >"os. 
3 and 4. 
Farmers' EuUetin Xo. 161. Practical 
Suggestions for Fruit Growers. 
Arizona Experiment Station, Tuczon, 
Ari. Bulletin 4-3. Timely Hints for 
Coloiado Experiment .Station, Fort Col- 
lin?, Col. Bulletin 74. Swine Feed- 
ing in Colorado. 
Balletin 75. I.Amb Feeding Experi- 
ments, 1900-02. 
Bulletin 7G. Feeding B»et Palp to 
Louis'ana Experiment Station, Baton 
Rouge, l.a. Bnlietin 65. Analyses 
of Commercial rVrtilizers. 
Bulletin Oil. Sugar Cans Experiments 

in Cultivation. 
BuUelin 07. Broom Corn— How to 

Grow and Cuie it. 
Bulletin K. Home-grown vs. Pur- 
chased Seed. 
Bulletin G9. Pecans. 
Bulletin 70. Cine Borer. 
Bulletin 71. North Louisiana Experi- 
ment Station. Ilvport for 1901. 
Maryland Agricultural College, College 
Park, Md. College Qiarterly, No- 
vember, 1902. Short Winter Courses 
in Agriculture and Dairying. 
Maryland Experiment Station, College 
Park, Md Bulletin S'i Ttie Influ- 
ence of Pn-i-ervjtLves Upon the Food 
Value of Mdk. 
Nebraska Exp>riment Station. Lincoln, 
Neb. Bulletin 75. Fee.fing Expen- 
ineuts wall CUtlle and I'lgs. 
New Hampshire Experiment Station, 
Durham, N. H. Technical Bulletin 
No. 4. Effect of Acetyline Gaslight 
on Plant Growth. 
New York Experiment Station, Geneva, 
N. Y. A Method of Combating 
Rusty .Spot in Cheese. 
Bulletin 2lti. Report of Analyses of 
Commenidl Fertilizers. 
Rhode Island Ex(>eriment Station, King- 
ston, R. I. Bulletin 87. Fowl Ty 

Bulletin 88. The Forests of Rhode 

Bulletin 89. Commercial Fertilizers. 
University of Tennessee, Knox vi lie, 
Tenn. University Record, Agricul- 
tural Ynar-book. ' 
Wyoming Experiment Station, Laramie, 
Wyo. Bulletin 5o. The Birds of 


$2.50 ; 

a., (.lam I 

on-rraofSrctl Potatoealn .\nierl 

il .^cir \ ort. r- rlve»»«l«ir« i: 

lr> »>le-l<l or T^fbo. per«. Prirr* ' 


Kcllr, Alai-aroBl V. heat.«8ka. prr 

loTer, f: .1-. a r- , - •. ct I«c t^.>t..,. 

ALZERSEEDCO. l.«Cro..e. WK , 


Now ready forehlptrent: Lady Thorapson. 

Exrelvtor. Klondvke. Jiihosons' 

MicbelB Early at C per 1.000. 

.\xoiiia, Bubacb. Gandr and BraDdywlnet2 

1.000. Ca>h wnli order. 

Send fir New Caalogne of 40 varieties. 

H. LIOHTFOOT, Chattanooga, Tenn. 


Varieties: C'harl'ston 'Wakefield. Brill'e 
Early rial Dutch. Hrice. cash ^.o b. Charles- 
ton. ll.:S per 1.000 tl 00 per 1,000 above 5,000. 

ALSO 500.000 

1 and 2 years old. grown exclusively from 
iBiniried leeds, at S5 00per 1 OOO 
ALFRED JOl ANNET. Mount Pieasint, S. C. 

Law and Collection Issociation, 

Established 18&4. Claims collected 
in all parta of the United States. 
No collection — no charge. 

r. 0. Box hO'i. 905 ■,' East Main Str««t, 


Certtie treit^eM of THE LIOUOR. O^IIM. MORPHINE wi4 
itr,er Dr.g Addictions. Thf ToDDacc* Habrt. Heni ExhauttiM 


By prit»- winning Imported lirM and trailed 
dami. Eligible, fil for l>«nch. ranch or finm, 
Pri**. 110. either avx. Alio a book on tb« care 
asdirmlDlngoftbeCohlerorall pracUoal ntaa. 
Price. 60e. Copy of book free lo parctuuer of 

Stock Fmrm. •' .MAPLEO .NT ." AJkwj, Ver. 

FOR. SJLJ^^:. 



8 loi'Ditis old. well bred, good lookei^. and 

jast b.glnulng to bum. For partlcQ- 

Urs, apply to 

A.S.CRAVEN. Greenwood. VA. 

Rigisfered l^fUlS^" 

C Whites. Fine larK>- 
straius. .\ll ages, mated 
not *kln. 8 week. pigs. 
Bred suwk. ."Service boars 

and P.juUry. Wrllefor pr.cesanuireecircuiar. 
F. H>MILT0^. Cochrauvllle, Chester Co.. Pa. 


Ea»y laltlOD. 
Posiijons secured. 
Free Catalogue. 
T. C. TELEGRAPH Sk;HOOL, Dept. D, Uhrlchrllle, 0- 






1 to « yrs. old. Fine Jacks a 
specialty. Write for 
what you want. 
W E. KN16HT Ji CO., 



Mulfs are equal to Gold Dollars, from 

" youth to old age." Several nice ones 

and 2 very fine Jeunetts for sale. Buy 

Jack now and get hlra ready for spring. 

Write your wants to 

722 W. Campbell Ave., - Roanoke, Va. 

150 Jacks, Jennets & Mules 150 

Best assortment 1 
ever owned Can 
suit you exactly. 
Write for descrip- 
tion and pi ices. 

Also will sell two 
Percherou stallions 
at close figures. 

L-^wrence. Indiana. 


Breeders of and Dealers In 

Jacks, Jannits, 

Fine lacks A Specialty 

Write for cat. 


Raise mules and 
get rich. 200 lari-e 
Black Spanish Jacks 
for sale. 14 to 16 
hands high. Good 
ones and money 
makers. Cheaper 
now than later on. 
Stock guaranteed. 

Also some fine 
large Jennys and 
; Kiuleg. 

Write for prices. 

KtENLER'S JACK FARM, Wtst Elkltn. Prebia Co. 0. 

70 EWES TO SELL, also I 

The ewes are native grade Merinos, and bred 
to one of the finest registered Dorset bucks. 
They are all in flue condition and perfectly 
healthy, and none over three years old. Also 
I Registered Dorset Buck, a very fine animal. 


Oak Ridge, Nelson, Co., Va. 
As Mr. T. F. Ryan wishes to make this a 
stock farm with thoroughbred cattle to benefit 
himself as well as afford a good opportunity 
to all Virginians to Improve their stock. I 
wish to say that we have 


Red Poll Bull Calves 

For saleat reasonable prices. Thelrages range 
from 4 to U months old. Write or come and 
see them. 

AD. C. RUCKER. Sup't. 

Mention th3 Southern Planter when 
writing adTertisers. 

Virginia (Hampton Institute), Hampton, 
Va. Nature Study Leaflet, No. 7. 
Beautifying School Houses and 

Virginia Weather Bureau, Richmond.Va. 
Report for November, 1902. 

AVest Virginia Experiment Station, Mor- 
gantown.W.Va. Bulletin 83. Poultry 

West Indian Bulletin. Bridgetown, Bar- 
bados. Vol. Ill, No. 3. 

West Indies. Agricultural News, Barba- 
dos, November 22, 1902. 

The Petaluma Incubator Co., of Petal- 
uma, California, to keep pace with the 
enormous growth of its business, has 
within the last few weeks not only com- 
pleted a large three-story brick building 
a? an addition to its factory by which the 
capacity has been more than doubled, 
but has also opened a large store and 
warehouse at 33 Market Street, San Fran- 
cisco. The latter move was made to not 
only aid in the sale of Incubators and 
Brooders but to enable them to better 
handle all the various lines of goods for 
which they are Pacific Coast and Export 
agents. Mr. L. C. Byce, President of the 
Company, is accredited with having done 
more to advance tl e poultry interest 
than any man in the world, and whose 
personal efforts has made Petaluma and 
vicinity the greatest poultry raising sec- 
tion in the United Siates. 

The factory and main office at Petaluma 
is in charge of Mr. Byce, Mr. R. C. Gray, 
General Manager, Mr. H. R. Campbell, 
Manager of Poultry Supply Department, 
while the Eastern House at Indianapolis, 
Ind., is directed by Mr. E. S. Coming, the 
Vice-President, and Mr. C. H. Taft. Secre- 
tary of the Company, is in charge of the 
San Francisc ) business. 




Mr. Ed. Gay Butler, proprietor of the 
above farms, has just purchased and 
brought home the splendid Hereford 
bull '• Prince Rupert." This bull has 
for the past two years been at the lead 
of the prize-winning herd of Mr. W. H. 
Curtice, Eminence, Ky. While Mr. But- 
ler paid a pretty long price for him, we 
consider him fortunate in being able to 
secure him for his splendid breeding es- 
tablishment in the Valley of Virginia. 
We hope to show a picture of him in our 
next issue and also give an extended 
pedigree and a record of his winnings. 
Look up Mr. Butler's advertisements of 
Berkshire and Herefords elsewhere in 
this issue. 

Cannon Snow & Co., of Quincy, 111., are 
advertising with us this issue their book 
of plans and instructions by which any 
one who is handy with tools can build 
an incubator of 200 egg capacity at a cost 
of about $8.00. This is less than half the 
usual price and includes their furnishing 
the parts difficult to make, such as lamp, 
regulator, etc. 

Now is a good time to begin, as the 
hatching season will soon be here. Write 
for full particulars. Address as above. 



OWING to pressure of bu» 
Iness engagementsin 
other directions, which will 
occupy me Tery cloaely for 
some Time to come. I have 
decided to disperse th« ELK 
GARDEN HBRD of Short- 
horn cattle, with the excep- 
tion of two bulls and six or eight females. I 
do not care to hold an auction sale and there- 
fore propose to offer my cattle at private 
treaty, either as whole or in lots to suit pur- 
chaser ; prdferrint to cloie out to one buyer. 

The herd now numbers about 90 bead, con- 
sisting largely of straight Scotch families, such 
as Duchess of Gloster, Rose of Strathallan, 
Miss Ramsden, Mlna, Lavender and other 
noted Scotch tribes. There are also some fine 
Scotch-topped and double Scotch-topped cattle 
founded on such valuable Bates-lopped fami- 
lies as Young Mary, Reulck Rose of Sharon, 
Kirklevingion Duchess, etc. My Scotch fami- 
lies were the pick of Canada. Our younger 
cattle are mainly the get of Knight of the 
Thistle 108656, and cows now in calf to the pure 
Scotch bull Blood Royal 16S876, a splendid 
yearling of the Princess Royal tribe. 

The cattle are in good breeding condition, 
having been on grass without grain since 



Thoroughbred Horses 


Pure Southdown Sheep 
and Berkshire Pigs. 

f oB 8.4LB. R. J. Hancock: & son, 

Charlottbsvilli, Va. 



Choice bull and heifer calves for sale. 
Will make price very low for next 60 

JAMES F. CLEMMER, Snmmerdean, Va. 


Model Dchorner. A few choice bull 
CALVES of this most popular breed 

for sale. 

L. HUMBERT, Charlottesville, Va. 

FOR SALE at SlOeach, 

Three pure-bred 


Price includes crating and delivery on 

cars at Columbia, Va., C. & O. R. R. 
A good flock of Angoras can be built 
up by using pure bucks In cross- 
ing with common does. 

C. E. JONES, - Carysbrook, Va. 

profitable. For larg« olr- 
oolaraddrMa E. W. COLE & CO . Kenton, Ohlt. 






Represents the 

Finest Blood Lines 

In bnglaad or America. 

Stock (or sale at all times. 


Correspondence Solicited. 

Inspection Invited. 

EDW. 0. BUTLER, Anoefield Farms. 
Briggs, Clarke Co , Va. 


Farm Bulletin 

We are off -ring some nice BERK- 
SHIRE PIQS. Let us have your 
orders early. Choice stock ; prompt 

0. 0. NOURSE, Prof, of Agr. 
Blaoksburg, Va. 


Cl08«ly related to sucli famous hogs as 
Anderson's Molel, Model of 97 and 
Hands Off. Pigs, boars, gilts and bred- 
sows for salo. Also some good SHORT- 
HOR>l bull calv.'SaDd SHROPSHIRE sheep. 
Stock guaranteed a« represented or 
monej refunded. 
. F. DURRETT4. - Birdwood. Albemirlt Co.. Vs. 

CHOICE Poland China 

PIks. both sexes. .3 mos. old. not akin, for 
sale, i-lrert by C IE« B ST ' son of "TEcti.M- 
.siiH 2na" and "Mookish PEKFKcrioN 3rd," 
gianilhon of "Oh it f HKKFttTioN ^ua " fri>itt 
'^Tecumsku Black L'. S." and "Fkee 
Tkade" .Sows. 

Reg. PFR HERON FILLY S yrs. old. In foal to 
line bred b a.k Registered Brllliaul Stallion— 
good size and .-lyle, yjod worker and sound. 
THOS. R. SMITH, Lincoln, Loudon Va. 

M. B. TURKEYS Very Fins. 

B. 1". R. Chicken Eggs in season. 


J. T. OLIVER, AIIen'8 Level, Va. 

tyrsblres, Berkshires and Oxford-Downs. 

Ayr* Ire calves of boih sexes, Hersshlrt 

gigs and boai, and L'Oxf.jrd-Down Kjims For 

£MOS B. HEStj, Manager, Casanova, Va. 


The following is from an address de 
livered by Mr. John Gould at the recent 
meeting of the New York Dairyman's 
Association : 

The farmer of a century ago was a cy- 
pher among the industries ; now he is 
able to buy four times over, all the other 
mduetries combine<i. Some s-ingle States 
make butler enough in one year to buy 
all the gold mined in the United States 
in twelve months. The American farmer 
owns 400,000.000 acres, divided into 
5,700,000 deeded farms, not including 
ranches valued at ?16 500.000.000. Hie 
bnildingo are worth $4,000,000,000; ma 
chinerv, $800,000 OO'i; live stock, 
WOO.Ol O.OdO In 1900 he produced 
$o.(H)0 000 000 worth of farm produce, 
and has on deposit in savings and other 
banks of the country $2,0u0,000,000, prac- 
tically equal to the present money circu 
lation of this country. On these 7,600,000 
farms last year the farmer raised 
91,(100,000 acres corn, worth $751,000,000 ; 
40,001 ',000 acres wheat, worth $323,000,000, 
while the gold and silver of the mills 
only yielded $153,000,000 or $900,000,000 
less than these two crops. The cotton 
crop waa worth J4b5 OHO 000, and the to- 
bacco crop far beyond $100(00.000. The 
dairymen's income was $447,000 000 more 
than the output of the g 'Id and silver 
mines. Besides, there are 18,000,000 cows, 
1.8,000,000 horses. 61,000,000 sheep 
62,0001X10 hogs, 50,000,000 other stock 
— one-fourth of all the domestic an 
imals in the world. The wool clip 
last year was 162,000 000 lbs.; cotton 
made. 9,500 000 bales. (Jf our si rplns are 
exported $844,00u,000 from the farms, 
wt.ile from all other sources the exports 
amounted to $556,000,000 ; in other words, 
for every $100 we exported, 168 came 
from the farms, making us a creditor na- 

The farmer, in addition to feeding him- 
self with every farm food indigenous to 
the United Slates, eating 1,000,000 (jOO lb- 
of butter and 540,000,000 lbs. of cheese, 
sent to the various nations of the earth 
$8,40 worth of farm produce for each liv- 
ing inhabitant of the nation. Farming 
from 1850 went forward with a bound. 
Land values doubled ; villages sprang up ; 
the whole land was covered with a net' 
work of railways. It p it machinery into 
every department of farm woik ; itmade 
a net-work of telegraph wires overhead; 
it sent the over-populated East 9ying to 
oi-cupy the great praine lands of the 
We^t; the " wild cat" currency and '• red 
dog" banks were driven into oblivion, 
and currency was made forever safe and 
good. This revolutionization had a be- 
neficent effect on the dairyman who has 
backed in its golden sunshine ever since. 
His $10 to $15 cow became worth $25 and 
$30; liis 3Jc. cheese — sold now green 
weight— for 5 and 6 cents cash — no more 
store pay— and he was placed in the way 
of invention, improvement and progress. 
Science and lilerature came to his aid, as 
did most profound and wise investigators 
and chemists. What was this force, this 
influence and expamlini; power? The 
diwovery of gold in California. In the 
five yearj from 1849 that new province 
turned into the cofiers of this land more 


One eight yearoH brown raare. Hackney and 

TrottercroBs, fine drive-, gentle handBomB 

and stylish, very fastt Welsht, 1 200 lbs. 

Price. $17.5. Worth double that monej on 

any city inarkCL 
One fine, re,r. Aberdeen-.^ ngus bull calf, six 

monihsold. ver^ finely bred. 
Vine head beautiful, reg. .\rgora QoaU; On* 

Buck; Price, saO Six D<ie«: Price, 112 each. 

Two Buck Kids; Price, 110 each. Lamp 

price of nine goats, 1100. 
Two One. reg. Dorset Ewe lambs, abont 1 yr. 

old. Price, SIO. each. 
One Sclenilflc Grinding Mill, nearly new, 

made bv Foos Manufacturing Co., Spring 

field. O." Price. »2i. 

Address W. M. WATKIN5 t SONS, 
Cottage Valley Stock Farm, 

Randolph, Charione Co , Va. 


Bull calves, $40 'oJ60. heifers 5 to7mo8. old, f75. 
Limited quantity 


Seed at $1 50 per bup.; tbU millet will prod ace 
•i crop of seed aud h fair quality of hay at the 
•«me time. It lefuUy two weeks earlier than 
he GerraKD millet, «"'f fluer qual.ty, but wUJ 
not yield quite as much. 

C E, JONES, Carysbrook, Va. 


Registered and uoiec rded. Slock firsts 
clas8, and breeding the best. 


First class yearling rams, ai'd ewes of 
all ages. Several FL>E FARMS for sale. 

WARREN RICE, ■ Winchester, Va. 


One Young % Guernsev 

^ge2Vi years. G^nIle; in good condition; a 
flue animal : weight about UOO lbs. 
Also, o\er 

20 EWES 

From One to Thr 
Years Old, 

iTom my two Registered Southdown Rams, 
White Kniflit. No. ;iti.>l. and Z>-b. \ ance, No. 
l-'LW. and m,e flue LOhSET PWE, • o 
7883, RECO - DED. «nd a lew TROSS DOR- 
SET and SoLTHlJoWN EWES, from my 
Registered l)o ►et Ram. No. 8066. For prices, 
particulars, eic, address, eucloting stamp, 

L. G. JONtS Bethania, N. C. 

Large English Berkshire Hogs, 
Barred Plymouth Rock Chickens 

BEN. BOLT, 60TJ7, 410 lbs. as a yearling at 
head of herd. «»-EGiJS IN SE.^suN. 

JOHN P. FOSTER, Nocreek, Ohio Co., Ky. 








X Prince Rupert, No. 79539 x 

X Winner of the Grand Sweepstakes at Kansas City, igoi. Sired by the famous herd if 
A bull Beau Donald, No 58996. Grandsire Beau Brummel, No 51817. X 

y^ The herd is rich m " ANXIETY " blood, the most desirable and sought O 
X after breeding to-day. Stock for sale at all times. Inspection ]f 

X invited. Correspondence solicited. X 

I EDWARD G.BUTLER, Annefield/Briggs, Clarke Co., Va. | 


• F/LSrO/V FARM. • 




BULL C«LVES and for the first lime. Heifers 
bred to Impoited Onlrteu Peter, and Heifer 
Calves and a few aged Cows. 

BERKSHIRES. all ages, sired by Imported 
Storm Klnsr, or Iinportfd Esau 2nd, 8l»e. 
good shape ^tnd large litters. 

Visitors welcome. Address for Book of The 
Farm, or prices 

E. M GILLET, Clerk, Glencoc, Md. 
ASAB GARDINER, Jr., Manager 

Swift Creek Stock and Dairy Farm 

Has for sale a large num 
ber of nice young regis 
tered A. J. C. C. 


None iitiu-i Urea lu the South. Comhinlni 
clo>"eIv the mo»t noted and up-to-dnte blooc 
In Arnerlca. Bulls 10 to 12 months old. fiSOO 
Heifers, same age, SSn.OO. POL.\Nt>-CHlNA 
PIO.S, 15.00 each. Send check and get what 
yoo want. 

T. P BRaSWELL, Prop., Battleboro. N. C. 

FOR SALE— Special Bargain in 


To avoid In-breedlhi;. I will sell Lord 
Fitch, No. 22ti8.5, H. F. H. B. 

than $270,000.0(10 in gold, and on its 
strength the nation took on a new lease 
of life. From that day we ceased to be a 
people of barter and exchange, and be- 
came otie of cash on delivery. It was the 
dairyman's first triumph ! After 18.52 (he 
dairy became an industry ; hefore, it was 
a strui/gle. Eveu in the fierce war of '61 
came the cheese factory. Hardly a State 
to-day but has its Dairy Associa ion, and 
the best -"tatistics place the number of 
milch cows at 18,500,OiiO, the income from 
these dairies being approximately 
J60il,000,0' 0— double that of any other 
farm indiiptry. 

The dairyman and his brother farmer 
have po88e^'sed the land of this country 
and covered it with their flocks and herds 
and increased the prodiic-ng power of the 
soil four-fold, so that while in 1850 they 
had only $.500,000,000 worth of live stock, 
in 19 Othey were valued at S4 000,000,000. 
This has forced the semi-dairy farmer to 
market purplu» abroad, "o that last year 
of our surplus we supplied nearly 30 | er 
cent, of the meat and 18 per cent, of the 
grain Europe consumed outside of Russia. 
Dairying has become a science and 
art Not a prac ice of 50 vears ago now 
exists in the dairy, pave hand milking. 
Four distinct lines of dairy Vireeda have 
been made prominent in our dairvine. 
while 10 000 dairymen have mixed all the 
breeds together and produced tbe ijenerHl 
purpose cow, whose purpose i" to eat all 
she can lay lip to and give in return as 
little, aside from \ er company, as possi- 

It ia compated that we are now pro- 




In want o) a PIANO will find it to their 
Inierest to write to us. Weassure thera 
there is such a thius; as buying an 
honestly made Instrument at a mode 
rale price. 

We make COSH and TIME SALES, 

an 1 are willing t<> take pail payment 
iu St. ck and ear" Products. 

Write and state your wishes. 





A. J. C. C. Emperor Nero, No. 54171, 

LEGHORNS, White, S, C. Brown, R. O. 


SI W) per uead, three lor 1(2 M. 
J. B IT-'NSON Clover Htll Farm. Wanas'MS V->, 




are, no pay. ALEX SPKIKS. Box »4I 

Mention the ■^(juIIihil i'kniltr vtlit:n cor- 
responding with advertisers. 






Poultry Yards Department. 

N. C. 

More than 50 matings of prize-winning standard birds from which we will ship a certain number 

\ Plymouth Rocks. Light Brahmas, Buff Cochins, > 

\ While and Barred. p 

> Wyandottes, Black Langshans, Pekin Ducks, < 

\ Golden, ijilver aod While. x 

(Leghorns, Black Minorcas, Cor'sh Indian Games ? 

i S.C.Wlilteand Brownand 11. C. White c 

\ Toulouse Geese, M- Bronze Turkeys, W. Holland Turkeys. ^ 

MTE, A^FtE, FOR. 1303 

On a larger scale than ever. Sending out better birds at more reasonable prices" 

More than ever anxious to please customers. 

OUR YEARLY SALES for the last three years have nearly doubled themselves each year over that of the preceding year. 

jilM' I ti'iiitl III iH.|i|lM I Hafy^'aB^a^Ppqg:^a)^ftT-g-';^->f='=fpi'ljY , tiiu|i|| (\ iLiTll ]i|"ii_i^f f i" M'lil 

BILTMORE FARMS, - Biltmore, N,C. 

Headquarters for GOUDEN LAD JERSEYS, 

Also get of TREVARTH and GEN. MARIGOLD. J^ J^ J^ 

GOLDEN LAD'S SUCCESSOR, First and sweepstakes OTer all at the Pan-American Exposition, the 
champion JERSEY BULL OF AMERICA, and out of Golden Ora, our great prize-winning cow, both 
bom and developed on these Farms, is among our service bulls. 

Biltmore Jerseys are a combination of large and persistent milking qualities with an individoality 
that wins in the show ring. 

SPECIAL TY. Write for descriptive circular of the beet lot of young bull calvee ever offered, both for breed- 
ing and individuality. They are by noted sires and oat of large and tested selected dams. Many of the«e 
calves are fit to show and win in any company. 

> > 


J- > 

SPECIALTY. Write for descriptive circular of eggs from our prize- winning pens. Over 50 yards to select 
from, made up of the winners at the leading shows for the last two seasons. If you want winners yon 
must breed from winners. 

Headquarters for the best IMPORTED ENGLISH BERKSHIRES. 



Third Annual Brood Sow Sale, 

FEBRUARY 3, 1903- 

The demand for Biltmore Berkshirea during the last year has made it almost impossible to reserve a lufBcient num- 
ber of high class individuals to make up a sale list. Therefore we decided rather than disappoint the many breeders that 
yearly select foundation stock and out-crosses from these oflferings, to make a special importation for this sale. 

This IMPORTATION represented nearly a month hunt over the whole of England, and we would willingly retain 
the larger part of the sows, but realize that this is impossible without hurting the sale. 

All are choicely bred and guaranteed safe in pig ; and moreover, this will probably be the last chance to select 
from BO many Imported animals, as we hope next year to confine the sale to sows of our own breeding. 

The entire importation of 65 head will be sold without reserve. 

They are the tops representing our first choice from the most successful 

English breeders. 

English Live Stock Papers say ''this is the choicest, largest and most 
costly purchase of Berkshires that has ever left England." 

All guaranteed safe in pig to such great boars as Loyal Berks, The Duke 
Imported, Royal Carlisle (First Prize at the Enghsh Royal Show), 

Manor Faithful, etc. 

Every Sow either sired by, out of, or a producer of WINNERS. 

Take a Winter Tourist's Ticket at lys fare [for the round trip, to Asheville. Money refunded to all 
purchasers of $125.00 worth of stock or more. If you cannot come send a mail bid to the Farms, or write 
for Mr. W. R. Harvey, one of the most noted expert judges of America, who will be present in person, 
to select you, in his opinion, one of the best bargains of the sale within a certain limit. 





dacing 1,400,< OO.i 00 lb. of butter annual 
Iv- anil about 50<i.O OOdO lb. of chfe?e. in 
a'd.ntion to the milk tiailf, anH are ex- 
Dortins i.iailii-allv n thine, while even 
in 188Uwe sent ai'.roa.l 127,0iV10OO lb ..f 
ohet-se and -lO.iiOo.iKK) lb. of liutter. 'Why 
thie change? Be<-ause. with e<1ucation 
and skill, with colli Morage and better 
waT8 of bandlinp, we are now makine 
our butter and cheese so muc'i finer that 
we are coiisummir it at home and eavine 
freight and i-onimi-fion. It is safe to 
predict that we shall soon be importing 
no inconsiderable proportion of the but- 
ter and cheese we consume. At present, 
no market in Europe can pay Jamestown 
prices for these commodities 

To the daiivman, new influences out- 
side of the dai'ry are coming to help him 
and make his country 1 fe one of higher 
attainments. The dairying of the whole 
country is in a rapid ttate of tiansition, 
not only in labor but in protit. The dairy 
man has now rural mail delivery, the tel- 
ephone, the troUev; »n<l, better and grand- 
er than all. with far wider- reaching influ- 
ences, is the centralized counry school, 
that gives the dairyman's boy and g il 
the best English etlucation at their own 
homes and associated with home and 
rural influences— the verv thing which 
makes for national morality and loyal 
citizenship, the stability that shifta the 
balance in our oft rocking "hip of State, 
and again puts her on her course with 
level keel. 

WYTnEviLLE,V.\ , Feb. I, 1902. 
Newton's H^ave and Distemper Cure is 
the best mwlicine I ever had in my sta 
ble. It doe- exactly what you claim. 
Others here say the same thing. 
Yours respectfully, 

M. M. Sltherland, 

Dealer in Horses. 

We need not urge upon our readers 
again the importance of grinding f. ed 
for live stock. All farmers recognize its 
economy. We do want to urge, how- 
ever, the importan''e of getting a good 
grinder of your own, an t desire to call 
esvx-cial attention to tiie offer of G. M. 
Ditto, of J'liiet, III, to send one of his 
triple geared, i>all hearing grinders to any 
resjM)iii-ible farmer on approval You can 
try il before you buy it. The Ditto .Mill 
is well and favora' ly known throughout 
the country, and we believe our reailers 
will be interested in the attractive lite- 
rature Mr. Ditto sen Is out. 



I received Isi on pen. 1st un lien, l.-i and 

2o(l "Il pnlleu-. 3r(l on om kt rel. 

Chol-e lookerelH. S-J Ui ^'l Hens and pulleig, 

t2tolo. W.lie iiie.Miur Wiini-. I can please 

you Eggs $2 per 15 in seafcon. 

C 6 M. FINK. 1409 W. Leigh St , Rlcxmond.Va. 

WE PiY S2o i WEEK ^, ^f,rm,Tod"i 

• Hi liltrVI k I'akl toccilleciiind snllclt near 
$Z4 nttKLl tioine. BUlLUCK S LEGAL 
bU-.EAU, Indlanapsll*, Inl. 


and several sm&ller ones 

I received the past season 
for Stra^v berries (not 
plantsV That was because 
I have only the best. It 
pays to get the best. I 
but the best. I can't afford to 

cost of plants is comparatively a small 
none too good. 1 will send my beauti- 
fully illustrated catalogue with lithographed covers of 
^ High Gnde Strawberry Plants by reram mailfortwo 2c 
"X stamps. If interested send to-day. This will not appear 
again. Address, 

W. F. ALLEN. Salisbury. Md. 




The WESTERTOWN ROSE sun of U.aY BLACKBIRD (the sire of Qay Lad). 

Most of the leading families of the breeil — Coquett Queen Mother, Westertown 
Rose, Rose of .Adno. Ni'segay, Violets etc , — sired by fuch no'ed buils >b Gay Black- 
bird, Ermoor 18171, bv Koval Eiie; Eulalies Erie 15568, bv Heather Lad 2nd; Bean 
Bill lS6i7; Baron lea 20184: Dirk Prince 'Ott^S. 

Quality combined with best of breeding, our motto. 
No fancy prices, but business cattle at business prices. 
Write for what you want. 

■ A. L. FRENCH, Proprietor. Fitzgerald. N, O. 

Kockingham Co., 24 miles south-west of Danville, Va.. on D. A W. Ry. 




Headed by ALLENHURST KING IV 4ri99, 

Assisted by VICTOR G., No. 3r693. 

I am now offering for sale a few choice young balls of serviceable age, at a 
bargain. Any one wanting bulls from prize winning families at a moderate 
price, will save time and money by calling on or addressing 

GLEN ALLEN STOCK FARM, W. P. ALLEN, Prop., Walnut Hill, Va. 

Farmers Mutual Benefit Association 

A Fire Insurance Association, chartered by the State for the farmers 
of Virginia, under an amended and well protected plan. 

Insures, against hire and Lightning, only countir property — no stores or nnsaff- 
"-iska. Average cost per year for three years has been |3.63| per $1000, inclndinf 
Iwellings, bams, produce, ic., — about one-third the usual cost of insurance tt- 
farmers. Amount of property insured $325,0ci0. Estimated security in real and 
other estat*, $60(1,000. 

For fvirther information, address, CHAS N FRIEND, Genera Accn t 

vtmnriom tmib joumm*!.. CHBSTmi9. VIROIMIA 

^-'^^ Radish. 

can he forced | 
:&cs or frames »ith« 
ng pithy, and is reinvkal>Jyprodu< 

atiish for every 

King — =- ■_■ • 

iid. Colux rich scarlet- 

The Ide&l Radish for either Gardener or Amateur. 

■r :l.i>il,< ><ir<l < irijiulaiipe. Alii>tik I'ras. VulenUne 
nil:-. l.ruJu. l'cn>. I'iilil iinil (.iinlcn Srtil. Bulbustid Pliinta. 

li;. J. Bolgiano a Son. Dtpi, P 5, Baltimore, Md 




Look for the full name IRON ACE ^^^^^^^ o" *he too! 

Don't be imposed upon liv dealers selling implements made in iniitatk.ii oi tbe famous Iron Agi 
All the IROJ* AGE tools i»re SIARKEU WITH THE FUJL.I. NAME. Thi- name is lor your prot 
It is a guarantee of best materials, best ideas, best workmanship, and all tlie merits that hav 
Iron Age tools popular with three generations of farmers and gardeners. Write for a FREE 
of tbe SiEW IRON AGE BOOK, telling all about these marvelous labor savers, and giving prie 
on Cultivators. Horse Hoes, Seed Drills, Wheel Hoes, Riding Cultivators, the Improved-Kobbins 
Potato Planter, &c. 

BATEMAK MFG. CO., Box 167, Grenloch, N. J. 


A B C of Bee Culture. A Cyclopaedia 
of Everything Per'ainicg to the Care of 
the Honey Bee. By A. i. Root, fievised 
by E, R. Root. 

We have lately received the 1903 edi- 
tion of the A B C of Bee Culture, an illus- 
trated enclopedia devoted entirely to thp 
subject of beea. To all who are interest 
ed, or those who want to know ni<-Te 
about bees, we are sure that this boo 
will be a real help, and we are glad to re- 
commend it as being many times worth 
its cost. Pric •, $1.20, postpaid. It can be 
obtained from the publishers, The A. I. 
Root Co., Medina, Ohio, or we can supply 
it at the publisher's price. 

Ginseng. Its cultivation, harvesting, 
marketing and market value, with a 
short account of its hist iry and botany. 
Revised, greatly enlarged and brought 
down to date. Illustrated, 144 pages, f)x7 
inches. Clot'. Price, postpaid 50 cents. 
Orange Judd Company, New York. 

The impetus given to the American 
Ginseng industry, through the ai pnar- 
ance of the first edition of the book, has 
been almost phenomenal. Ginsenii grow- 
ing hat made such rapid strides and the 
demand for information has increased so 
greatly that a second and extended edi- { 
tion has become necessary. The informa- 
tion contained in the present volume, 
which 18 nearly three times as large as 
the first, has been culled from a larg»- 
mass of material and is, decidedly, the 
best that has appeared since ginseng cul- | 
ture first attracted attention in America 
Every deail bearinsj upon successful gin 
seng growing 18 fully and minutely elab 
orated ; and the author is confident ihat 
ginseng culture will sirow in proportion 
to the application of intelligence to it. 
To any one intending to embark into this 
industry this book must prove invalua 
ble. We can supply the book at the 
publisher's price. 

Coffee Planting, a short treatise com- I 
piled with special reference to the condi 
tions of culture in Cuba and Porto Ri( o. 
By Joseph Hillman. Puhllfiht-d by Wm. ] 
S. Myers, Director Chilian Nitrate Propa- 
ganda (nitrate of soda), 12 John street, 
New York. 

Mention the Southern Plamier when cor- { 
responding with advertisers. \ 


All testify to his prepotency, nor is 


Unlike him In strong points of transmission or reproduction 

Every pig I ship has individual merit, aside 
from the purest Englis*i strain of LARGE 
BKRKSHIRES that I could import from 
the most famous breeder in EngUnd 



at Farmers* Prices 

TUOS. S. WHITE, Fassiferu iStock Farm, Lexiugton, ^h. 


TecuMSEH G. 49283. 

Have sold out all pigs on hand and am now booking orders for pigs 
from my spring litters. Have a limited number of YOUNG SOWS 
in pig FOR SALE. Address 


FOR SALE— Three Finely Bred 

V%. ■%/%^%/*/%^ ■%'%^%'%'%^ ■< 


PIGS ; ready the latter part of January. 

FOREST HOME FARM, Purccllvillc, Va. 





"The cattle busineFS does not offer op- 
portunities for poetry now," said a sun- 
Dumed Westerner to' his Wall St. friend 
the other day. The two men were taking 
luncheon together at a downtown restau- 
rant, and as the waiter spread the cloth 
the city man remarked : 

"What could a poet ever do out in your 
wild West, except be a tenderfoot and an 
easy mark, as we say now adays?" 

"Well, what I meant was that ranch 
ing is not such a romantic and picturesque 
business now as some writers paint it," 
was the reply. ''There was a time, be- 
fore I was baldheaded, about thirty years 
ago, or perhaps less, when the cattlemen 
had no fences to their pasture grounds. 
They simply branded their cattle, and 
once a year they went out and rounded 
them up. Each man then singled out the 
cattle of his mark, and then came a long 
drive to the railroad. These early ranch- 
ers thought that they owned the prairies 
by divine right. 

"About fifteen years ago a change came. 
Hundreds of thousands of emigrants 
came pouring in, the great majority of 
whom were from Scandinavian countries. 
The opening up of the Indian lands of 
Oklahoma and its division into smaller 
farms took away many a hundred square 
mile from the old pasture lands. At the 

E resent time a cattle-raiser must fence in 
is property, own it or lease it, and by 
irrigation get as much vegetation out of 
it as possible. His cattle are carried 
away from his barns b5' express trains, in 
refrigerating cars, and everything is sys- 
tematized as in a department store." 

"Well, I shouldn't think a poet could 
get very fervid over refrigerated beef," was 
tne answer, as the Wall St. man drank a 
glass of iced spring water. 


In the Eastern part of the country the 
value and extent of underground waters 
are illustrated oy the enormous quantity 
used in the city of Savannah, Ga. In 
1888, the entire' supply of the city was 
drawn from wells yielding 5,850,000 gal- 
lons a dav, a total for the year of 
2,13.5,842 000 gallons. In the course of 
time, this supply somewhat diminished, 
and it was suspected that the flow was 
obstructed in its entrance to the wells. 
The pipes were accordingly flushed by 
forcing into them water under bigh pres- 
sure, and the flow was markedly im- 

The"study of underground water in its 
relation to the effective water supply of 
the country is one of the most important 
departments of the work of the United 
States Geological Survey. It is carried on 
in the arid regions, where water for irri- 
gation is of the greatest value; in the 
Middle West, where grazing and success 
fnl farming largely depend on it, and in 
the East, where an unpolluted supply for 
domestic and municipal use is yearly be- 
coming a more serious problem. 

One of the greatest triumphs for an 
ambitions young man is to learn to be 
contented, to be satisfied with doing a 
good honest day's work ; to be contented 
to live humbly, if necessary, while his 
neighbors roll m wealth. — StuxeM. 


are cultivation and keepiner down weeds. 
M-'pe important than tieep cultivatiuu is 
kt't-pinj? the surface stirrea, breafcin^ the 
LTustdue to rains, and allowiu^ the lijjht, 
air. moisture and warmth to penetrate 
quickly to the roots of the prowinp plant. 
I For do'ins just these things the ideal imple- 
ment is the 

Adjustable Weeder 
and Shallow Cultivatop. 

It kii'.< tlie weeds at tirst .■ihowiDK. the top soil is pulverized and kept mellow, the plant 
roots are u .t disturbed and the moist soil is not brought up to dry in the sun. Adjustable 
in width. Narrows to 30 Inches, widens to 754 'eet. StrouB, runs steady, no cumbersome 
sliafts. Furnished either with round teeth or with flat to suit different soils, as we are 
licensed by the Hallock Weeder Conipunv to use their famous flat teeth. Weeder booklet 
mailed free We also make lust vies Corn Planters, li styles Cultivators.SO styles Com Shel- 
lers, hand and power. Harrows, Field Rollers, Feed Cutters, etc. Write tor catalogue C. 

KEYSTONE FARM MACHINE CO.,- 1554 N. Beaver St., York, Pa. 


A Perfect Weeder 

in all soils, under all conditious. The all important feature of tlexibihty 
of teeth is near perfection in the YORK IMPROVED. 

Made of square sprin^steel with round points, an>isetstaff- 
pered in stronpr bat flexible ong^e Fteel frame. Wide clearance, no 
oloirelnff. teeth t«o utrone to break. Multiplies producing qualities 
of soil and does not whip or bruise grnwinff plant. Adjustable 
handles and shafts. Write for free descriptive cirouiar. 

Spangler Manufacturing Co., 501 Queeo Sheet, York, Pi. 


CISMOST STOCK FARM offers well developed young 
Dorsete of the beat blood of England and America. 

Prices reasonable. 

G. S. LINDENKOHL, Kaswick. Albemarle Co., Vi. 



Purchapers are olTered (^elections from our herd, both male and female ; 
our C0W8 are of the leading strain?, including De Kols, Pauline Pauls, Mech- 
thildes Hengervelds, Nether andg. Aggies, etc., etc. They are 11 well bred 
and milking from 40 to ti"> lbs. per dav. Herd headed by Dry ALWINA 
Count Paul De Kol and DeKol 29 Butter Boy 3rd No 2. 

THOS. FASSITT & SONS, Ury Stock Farm, Sylmar, Md, 




^ ^ ^^^V^^^^V^^^^^^^^»^X>^A^»V»^^^^^»X 


^^^vou,,, EpiAL- C A-WTOKT, OHIO. 


""«iST*''^*"°^°'"^°"''^ MANUFACTURE A FULL LINE OF 



This popular Plow is 

made strong and durable. 
Gives satisfaction to the 
Our full line of goods for 
sale by 

XH£: IlMCPI.E:iM[EN"r coi^pji\.ny, 

Catalogue Free. General Ascents, I302-I304 E. Main St., RICHMOND, VA 


Cardwell Machine Co., 

Cary and ipth Sts., l^ichmondj Va„ 





Tobacco Machinery, Trucks, Screws, Elevators, Hand and Power, for 
Stores, Factories and Wareliouses. 

Successors to J W. CARDWELL & CO. and H. M. SMITH & CO. 





You can first visit the school and see 
that the house is dean before the feesion 
opens ; that there ate enough seats au<l 
books, or nails, for hatn, wiaps and lunch 
(•a^kels; that there are a pail for water, 
drinking vtssels, basin, towels and soap ; 
that thi^ yard is clean, and s-oine 8hrul)B 
and trees planted, with vines to screen 
out-iUiliiiii(!S. If the yard is muddy, anil 
especially if it be the rt-d mud, tie mre to 
have a walk made, and a few boards will 
help a great deal. PUce on the walls one 
or more good pictures. Copies of the 
world's niaster pieces can be had for a 
penny each, and large pictures for from 
five to twenty five cents each. But do 
not dfgrade the -rchool-room by filling it 
with trash : better a perfectly bare room 
than one filled with tawdry decorations 
covered with dust Start a hbrary. 

I have been in many comfortable 
homes where the only hooks were a 
few old school-books, the Bible, and the 
Almanac, and it is no wonder that we 
have suffered at ihe hands of the 
hictorians when this is true. Help the 
teacher by aiding in and arranging for 
social evenings and ntertainmentsa' the 
school houce. Vi-it the school and inter- 
est others in d' ing so. The women of the 
State can do for the school-houses a work 
similar to that which they have done for 
every clun-h, and the hopes of all good 
women will be realized just in proportion 
to the rational development and the 
feteady progress of the civilizing work of 
churches and schools. - jlfr.*. C. 1). Mrletr 
in an Arldrers in A'ortli Carolina Federation 
of Women'! Hubs. 

Two excellent maps of portions of 
North Carolina have rt-cently i-ome from 
the press of the United States Geoli gical 
Survey. One of them, that of the Wil- 
1 amston quadrangle, shows a section of 
Bertie, Martin and Pitt lountiesand that 
P' rtion of Roanoke Valley between Ham 
ilton and VVilliams-on. The other, that 
of Ihe Cranberry quadrangle, shows the 
extreme northwestern portion of the State 
in the heart of the Blue Ridgf, ai d in- 
cludes pirtioneof .Mitchell, C.Mwell, Wa- 
tautia, Ashe and Wilkes counties, N. C, 
and of Carter and Johnson counties, Tenn. 
Orandfaiber Mountain, with an elevation 
of 5,'.iGt feet, is the highest represented 
on tl e sheet, but many others are seen to 
reacii the 5,i'i Ofool elevation. 

Both these mans areunusually accurate 
in derail, fhowing all roads and trail- anrl 
even indicating the locations of dwellings 
in the country dihtiict.4. 1 hey employ 
contours, or lines of erpial elevation, to 
indicate the topography, which g ves 
vivid impressions of the shapes and 
elopes of bills and mountninp, and espe 
cially in the Cranberry (juadrangle. 


It was Communion Sunday in a church 
where little Dorothy had never before 
attended. On the way home she said to 
her mother: 

"Well, mamma, that is the first church 
I ever was in where they served refresh- 
ments."— /anuari/ LippincoU'i Magazine. 



wanttneet ! 

e bncgy i 

, "BLoulilsund fof'ibe mamoiotli c.ualOk'u 


will tell you ^■boutour HJO eic]u«iv8 alyles of vehicles mad. _. 
wth Split Hickor)—t.|.lit. not kaw.<.l-auy ot which will be made 

^o',' 30 DAYS' FREE TRIAL 

. iifter trirtl if not just, as joa expected. We have satia- 


Imho bifnest bu«(ry baruain in Ihe world. De-^ 

Send" for that 



The bre»>(llngcow» and herd buUsat "Paiitxlla" havo been se- 
lecled with one aliri; THE BEST. REUARDI ESS TO COST. Herd 
headed by Ihe sa.OOO 00 Imcirted SALISBljRV. aRsi.-te.i b.v LAVS. 
JR I Imve D*»w ftir sale a very fine bunch of bull calves by Ihese 
Oullh. also a few feraaleH. Vibitors are welcome aud met at statluu. 

Wille your needs. 


Keswick, Va. 



MOTTO— Satisfaction or no Sale. 


Glencoe, Maryland. 

NHKOPNHlRi; NHEKP.— BuckB, One yearold and over. 116 to CU. Buck Lambi, July Oe- 

llvery, $10. and «r2. Ewe Lambs, Jaly delivery, $8. and $10. 
pol.AI«D-«'HINA HO«n — Plge. «lx weeks old, 15. Pigs, two or three months old, r.M 

H gs, Ovt months and over, 815 to 120. 
M. BRORZe TrRKETN — Toms, M. Hens, $3. Eggs, per sitting of 12, when In seMon $4. 
II|IN<M»VT nrcKN. - Pnre Whlt<- Drakes, J1.28. Pure White Dncks, »1. Pairs. 12.26; trios, » 
RARKF.D Pl.TMorTH RO<«,)i4. 
Ri>r FN UKEME — Uanders, J2.S0. 0«e«e. 18.60. Eggs, per sitting, $3.00 

WILUAM L, Jr., No. 21068. half brotbor uf Axtell, will serve a Umlted namberof mare* ttn 
tUS the season. Marea boarded at lowest llgnies per month. 

1903 J 





in Richmond, the BEST MARKET for all grades of Tobacco. It 
is the home of sun and air cured Tobacco and headquarters for 
flue-cured and shipping types. Here are located the head offices and 
stemmeries of all the large corporations, Regie representatives and the 
largest number of independent factories and buyers in the United States. 


Has the largest lighted space, insuring equal attention to every pile. 
Ample accommodations in every way for all our customers. 
Correspondence solicited. 

SILAS SHELBURNE & SON, Props., 12tli and Canal Sts.. RICHMOND, VA. 






All of Virginia. 

These vehicles are gjaranteed to be as good as can be bought elsewhere ; material and workman- 
ship unsurpassed ; all sizes and styles, prices low. We can save you time, money and freight by 
purchasing our vehicles. Send for our illustrated catalogues. Drop in our warehouse and inspect our 
stock. Inquiries cheerfully answered. 


J. T. DUNN, Manager. 




We tnifit that none of oar readers will 
overlook the seed advertisement of the 
Griffith & Turner Company of Baltimore, 
Md., which ie running in our columne. 
We believe it contains a suggestion which 
cannot but be helpful in selecting seeds 
for the new crop. Aside from the imper- 
ative necessity of changing seeds from 
time to time, bringing something new to 
the same old soil which constitutes the 
farmers' plant for a generation, it must 
appeal to every one as being the wise 
thing to procure the seed from that part 
ticular region of country where that par- 
ticular kind of seed reaches i's highes- 
development. Right here is where the 
Griffith & Turner people come in. They 
make a study of seeds and seed-growing 
in connec'.ion with climate and from the 
region there any particular kind reaches 
its best form, in that region they grow 
and bring their supply to their Baltimore 
house, and are thus enabled to furnish to 
patrons in any part of the country what 
18 certain to be the most protitable seeds 
to plant This policy has been a most 
advantageous one to the company, result- 
ing in recent years in a most rapid exten- 
sion of their trade, particularly through 
the Xorthern regions. The firm is per- 
fectly reliable and painstaking. Any one 
writing for their catalogue, which is 
mailed free, may rest assured that he is 
about to deal with a firm whose chief 
concern is to supply seeds which will 
produce the very best results. 

Every boy bom in the world should be 

Eut in the way of maintaining himself in 
onest independence. No education that 
does not make this its first aim is worth 
anything at all. The being able to do 
Bomething is of infinitely more value 
than the ability to answer questions. 

More and more is it coming to be seen 
that the industrial hope of the South is 
in a wider dissemination of scientific, tech- 
nical and manual education, in making 
universal, so far as maj- be, that knowl- 
edge of the forces of mechanics that will 
le^ to the development and mastery of 
the material resources that still lie slum 
bering in the depths of our hills and 
fields and forests — this is the supreme 
need of our impoverished Southland. — 
Prof. C. C. Thach, of JJfibama PolyUchnic 
InstUuie. ' 


"De punishment what Dives — de rich 
man — got down yonder is wusser than 
fire," said the colored preacher. 

" How come dat, parson," asked a mem- [ 
ber of his flock. ; 

"Digapp'intment," was the reply. 
" Ever' time he hear a rumblin' noise I 
overhead, he 'low ter hisse'f it's thunder i 
en it's fixin' t«r rain en ter put de fire 
out ; but Satan des chuckle ter hisse'f, 
en say ter 'im : ' Brace up, ole man 1 — dat ! 
ain't no thunder ; it's only yo' frien' Lath- 
erus snorin' on Abraham's buzzum.' " — 
Atlania Constitution. 

A NEAT BINDEB for your back i 
numbers can be had for 25 centfi. Ad- 
dress the Business Office. 


w^iflfOT^tei^ie. THE NEWARK MACHINE CO., - Newark, Ohio. 

Mention the Southern Plaster when you write. 


Manure Spreader 


ia place s^d ready to receive the load without 

any tuming^backcitheTt'yhan-i or complicated. 

easily broken machinery. ThefroDt and rear 

axles are of same length which, with tbs 

Broad Tires Prevents Ruttio£^ 

LIGHT DRJiFT. SPREADS ALL KINDS OF MANURE, s...d.. .c.p...^.>c.^. 

hulls, etc. C«ii be cinnced InHontly to «prea<l thick or thin Vi "^ Jil-ll^ ..l^.ll.'' 

"d^°i' POSITIVE GUARANTEE Sn.r.e'ii'L'i'/^^^^ 

Cataloroe— theSest3.Edmo5t cczip'.ete s^rc:iitT c3.t^.>g ever p-thiV-e.i. «___ ... 


n— s <o*a 

cf best m»- 
=e ye 

»^^^^^» ^ ^^^V» 




D6rkShir6 HOSS, youne boars ready for 'ervice. and Pigs in pairs or trios not 

akin. Large, young Bronze Turkeys. A few Plymontli Rock and Brown 

Leghorn Fowls. All the above stock ready for shipment now. 


M. B. ROWE, - Fredericksburg. Va. 


Pasteur Blackleg Vaccine ready for use. ||pARi,Tlf 

Single Blacklegine (for commou stock): 10 dose box, $1.50; 
20 dose box, §2. oO; 50 dose box, $6.00. Double Blacklegine (for 
choice stock) $2.00 for 10 dose.s, first lymph aud second lymph inclu- 
sive. Blacklegiue Outfit for applying Blacklegine, 50 cents. 

Pasteur Vaccine Co., 


1903 J 



The ammoniate market is steady and 
firm. Continued inquiries fiom the South 
ftie being reported, but the business as 
yet has not developed very large propor- 
tions. Nitrates are inclined to be stiff, 
but quotations are generally unchanged. 
The demand for fish scrap and dried 
blood continues active, while the supply 
iB not large. 


Nitrate of soda, spot, per 100 lbs....$2 05 
Kitrate of soda, futures, 100 lbs... 1 95 
Cottonseed meal, ton, c. i. f. N. Y.. 28 00 

Bulph. ammonia, spot 3 00 

Sulph. ammonii, shipment 2 97i 

Dried blood. New York grades 2 47J 

Dried blood, Western, high grade, 

fine ground 2 60 

Fish scrap, at New York 2 55 & lOe. 

Tankage, per unit 2 60 & 10c. 


Acid phosphate, per unit 60 

Bone black, apot, per ton 17 00 

Ground bone, per ton 23 50 

8. C. phosphate rock, ground, per 

2,000 lbs 5 50 

8. C. phosphate rock, undried, f. 

o. b. Ashley River, 2,400 lbs 3 25 

do. do do. dried.. 3 50 

Florida, high grade phosphate rock, 

f. o. b. Fernandina, per ton „ 7 60 

Florida land pebble phosphate rock, 

f. o. b. Fernandina, per ton 4 50 

Tennessee phosphate, f o. b. Mt. 

Pleasant, domestic 3 50 

do. do. do. foliage.. 4 00 


Kainit, future shipment, per ton.. 3 05 
Keiseret, future ehipment, per ton, 7 60 
Mur. potash, 80 p.c, future shipm't 1 80 
Double manure ealt (48a49 percent. 

less than 2}^ per cent, chlorine), 

shipment, per lb 1 00 

Basis 48 per ct. 
High grade manure salt (90a93 per 

cent, sulphate potash) shipment, 2 09 
Basis 90 per ct. 
Manure salt in bulk, 20 per cent. 

perunit, 0. F 64 

— Journal of Commerce {N. Y.) Dec. S9, 'OS. 

[Only highest prices quoted. — S. P.] 


On December 4, it was pointed out that 
while most of the recognized private au- 
thorities were indicating a wheat acreage 
smaller than last year, the actual area 
was probably not much short of that 
seeded last year, and much larger than 
that harvested. The report of the De- 
Bartment of Agriculture issued on the 
10th, more than confirms this position, it 
placing the acreage seeded at 34,000,000 
acres, against 32,000,000 seeded last year, 
and 27,000,000 harvested. This actual 
increase in breadth comes as a surprise 
and is at variance with all other informa 
tion. The official estimate of area was 
certainly too low for the last crop, and it 
is quite possible that some correction of 
past figures is involved In the present 
estimate. To illustrate the differences 
that now exist in erop-reporting circles. 


The Line Includes 
Up-to-Date Disc Plows, 
Sulky & Gang Plows, 
Stalk Cutters, 
Cultivators, Etc 

Farm Right and Prosper. 

farmer's genius is shown and his prosperity meas- 
ured by what he works with. 


have t lie mod- 
9 ern idea, 
make yoxir 
lands yield the most 
with least labor, ^ive you such 
; as money makersin other call- 
ingsenjoy. Write our nearest house 
about any Lahor-Saving Im- 
plements you require. 

B. F. Avery & Sons, 

Louisville, Ky, 
Memphis, Tenn. 
New Orleans, La. 
Dallas, Tex. 


Bred from high-testing St. Lambert Cows. 


The BACON BREED now leading all other breeds for making 
high-priced bacon. 

HWDIAX GAMES— The king of table fowls. 

WHITE ^WYANDOTTES— The best general-purpose fowl. 

WHITE IiEGHORjrS-All.sold out. 


CATTLE of the Netherland, De Kol, Clothilde, Pietertje and 

Artis families. Heavy milkers and rich in butter fat. 

Stock of all ages for sale. 

Reg. BERKSHIRES From noted strains. Imported Headlight, Lord 
Highclere and Sunrise. 

^^:^^DO/?SE'T SHEER. .^^ 

B. PLYMOUTH ROCK CHICKENS, Fifteen Cockerels for sale 

N. and \V. and Southern B. B. 

T. O. SANDY, Burkeville, Va. 




2 Reg. Bull Calves; 2 Reg. Cows; 1 three-year-old Reg. Bull (immune) raised south 
of Petersburg. Va. All right in every particular. 

- I B. B. BVCHANAIV, Bedford City, Va. 


o^mMo^utn $163111 Gookcrs 

Id undera guarantee torcookiDgfeed,lieating Poultry, Hop and 
Dairy houses, heating water in stock tanks or cooking feed 200 ft, 
from Cooker. Aremade of boiler steel; no flues to niBt or leak. Can 
be usedoutsideorinhouse. Safe as a stove. Wlllcook25bu.offeed 
inShrs. Used and endorsed by Wis., la,, Va.. Ga. and Ont. State 

Sieam Coolcera. Cooker uid Broeden' Supply C&talogne and prices m&iUd free. 





it ma-v be pointed out that the Kansas 
State report shows wheat seedinfr 3.7 per 
cent, less than last year, while thf bureau 
BhowB an increase of 8 per cent., Illinois 
reports 5 per rent, less, government 6 per 
cent, more, Missouri reporta 10 per cent. 
leea, government 11 per cent. more. 


Mary ■Washington. 
After writinir a series of articles on va 
rious Southern artists, such as Allston, 
Sully, F. Hopkinson Smith, and others, 
I received some belated intelligence of a 
few others of which I will make, as it 
were, a codicil to mv former articles. One 
of these artists is Mr. J. D. Woodward, a 
native of Virginia, though he has been 
for several years a resident of New York, 
when he has not been in Europ". adding 
to his culture in art. His pictures are 
well known in the exhibitions in New 
York, as well as in other art centres, and 
he enjoys a very good standing in his own 

Mr Woodward is a landscape painter, 
mostlv in oil, but has done a great deal 
of work for the publishers in bl ck and 
■white, notably for the Appleton series of 
" Picturesque America, Europe and the 
Holv Land," besides contributing illus- 
trations to a number of other publica- 

Mr. Woodward's parents lived and died 
in Virg nia, and his brother and ner.hew 
are still prominent merchants in Riih- 

Amongst the many objects of interest 
in the Confederate museum in Ricbmond, 
Va., may be mentioned a tet of water- 
colorel pictures (twelve in number), hy 
Mr. Wm. Shepherd, a Richmond (Va.) 
man, illnBtraling the life of the Confed 
erate solder. The subjects are as fol- 
lows : 
The Meis Bov. 

Running the Blockade on Chesapeake 
Newspaper in the Trenches. 1861. 
Sunday in Camp in 18M. ! 

Opening of Spring Campaign. 
Company O. Stragglers. 
News from Home. 
Wounded Comrade. 
A Last Parting. 

Equipment in 1S61 (black and white). 
Then there is an oil painting of Mr. 
Shephenl's, representing an artillery 
fight, and called "Virginia." 

"in addition to the artistic talent and 
ekill Mr. Shepherd has put into these 
pictures, he has furthermore had the ad- 
vantage of having had an intimate per- 
gonal knowleilge of the scent-s he por 
trayed, by which meaua he wa» enahlwl 
to depict them in a far more life-like 

Richmond has also produced a female 
artist of talent. Miss Adele Williams, 
who IB perhaps the tiest known Virginia 
artist of the vourger generation. Her 
wirk ranks high, especially in pastel por- 

I regret that I have only been able to 
procure such meagre information a^nut 
the above-named gifted lady, but suffice 
it to say she is an artist who does great 
credit to the South. 


3to13 1-2 Feet. 


Pulverizing Harrow 

Clod Crusher and Leveler 


be returned at my expense if not satisfactory. 
The best pulverizer — cheapest Riding Har- 
row on earth. We also make walk- 
Acmes. The Acme 
crushes, cuts, pulverizes, 
^. turns and levels all 
soils for all pur- 
poses. Made en- 
tirely of cast steel 
and wrought iron 

Catalog and Booklet, ".4i /</«/ f/arrou." by Henr>- Stew-art. mailed free. 
I deliver free on board at New York. ChicsfO. Colnmbns. Loaisvllle, Kansas City. Minneapolis, San Francisco, dc. 



iD DROPI NEW UNIVERSAL. I new universal j ^,=*==*=^ 

1 ^\m^^": "''■ °' c^riforrpiV: Sn'S.Orill 4 cultivator^ Jftmripi 



anisi t-el Wheel Plows. 

jtmcd. Adit5a:letoanydcpth |jijjj^5f,.,^ For Garie: 
POPULAR PRICES. 19ri3 calalr-rue of latest snips now rc'i'ly. Free. an i Po:;!terexs. 



Farmers' $125 Saw Mill. 

Cnti 2000 ft. InmlMr t day witli only 4 k. f , 

Oar large, handsome catalocae tails all 
alKiut the lanioas DeLoacti Variable Frte- 
tlon Feed Saw Hills, 4 to 10(1 h p.. IIJS up. 
I>L«ach Saw Mill Machinery Planara, 
Shingle. Ijih and Corn Mills. W»t«r 
Wheels, •!«. Writ* for calalogne and prto* 
t o. b. yonr depot, DbIX)ach Mill Mrs. 
CX>., Box em. Atlanta, Oa. (Branch, UM 
Liberty 8U, New York.) 

Japan Plums 

And all other deairable standard and new 
varieties of PLUMS, APPLE, PEACH, 


The Most Billable Variety Ever rrown In 
the South. 

Three bnndred and flrij- aorem under onlUvaMon. Write 
II j»»u foiiiempliile pUntinc Catalogue tree. 


^AT. T. »:ooo 







Latest Improved FARM IMPLEMENTS. 


These machine* Mil at •Ight. They have heavy fly 
wheels and mak« thre« can to each turn of th« crank. 
■I hey will cut h»y, uti-aw or fodder, ano will cut ftom 
y, to 1 1ncbaa. They are »lilpped K. D., securing the 
lowest possible freight rates. 


The frame Is made of thoroughly dry hard wood- 
Thtjoliita mortUed tenoned and bolted. The bear- 
ings are bolted on to th« frame Instead of screwed. 
The iron work Is made from thejvery best material, 


evrr piece lscar<-fuliy Inspected before being put on. 
This machine Is high gracte all the way through. " '° 
handsomely palnt«d, striped and varnished. 

Th» SCIENTIFIC Urinding iWills. 

Are unequalled for grinding ear Corn, shucks on or ofl, 

Com, Oats, Whtiat and all other grains, 

single or mixed. 


POWER MILLS In Five Sizes, 

2 to 30 horte power. 


Geared— plain and combined, with horse power. 

Wood Saws for Long or Short Wood. 
Wood or Steel Frame. 


FodderCutters, Fodder 
Shredders, Ontt»^rB for 
all purposes. Corn Shel- 
lers, GrIndlDg Mills, 
Horse Powers and 
Wood Saws. 


SS styles and sizes. For horse or steam power. 
Write for prices and catalogues. 

Buckeye Force 



W«od Pumps. 

Wood and Steel 

Wind Mills. 

Bennett's Improved Stump 

Three sUes and 10 styles. 
Write for catalogues and price§. 

Write for special catalogues aud price on 
any Implements wanted. 

Special prices given on Studebaker and 
Brown Wagons, Buggies and Carts. 

Studebaker Buggies, all styles, Studebaker 
Carriages. Studebaker Carts, Stude- 
baker Runabouts. 


Wood Harr«ws— All sizes. 
Disc Harrows— All sizes. 
Ipring Tootli Harrows— All sizes. 
Aeme Harrows— All sizes. 

Harrows of all styles kept in stock at low- ver Plows and Repairs is at H36 and 1438 Eas 

est net prices. *'*'° ^^^^^' ^""^ 

I in town who claim 
to sell Oliver Plows and Repairs only sell the 
Imitation, Bogus, Cheap Goods. The only 
place in Richmond, Va., to buy Genuine 011- 



HENtNQ & NUCKOLS, cH'.ri!1.°rNll., 1436-38 E. Main Street, mmm, Vi. 





A colored man, who worked for a 
white man who believed in Faith Cure, 
Christian S<.-ience,or whatever it is called, 
was an hour or eo late reporting to work 
one morning. His employer, upon in- 
quiry, was told that he was detained at 
home on account of the illnefp of his 
brother. The Ctiristian Scientist ridi- 
culed the idea of the brother's illne.«e, 
and said : 

"Henry, your brother is not sick. He 
just thinks he is sick If he will just 
use his mind, exercise his will-power, 
decide that he is not going to be sick, and 
will have faith in God, he will get right 
up, and you won't have to use any medi- 
cine " 

This was all new and strange doctrine 
to Henry, but he did not think it wi=e 
to get into any kind of argument with 
his boss, 80 he scratched his head and 
said nothing. 

The third day after this conversation, 
Henry remained a»ay from work the en 
tire day. AVhen he reported for work 
the next morning, his employer said : 

"Well, Henry, how is your brother to- 
day? Does he still think he is sick ?' 

■The colored man replied : "No, sir ; we 
buried him yesterday. I reckon by this 
time he thinks he's dead." — Silas X. 
Floyd, in January Lif^pincotl's Magazint. 


Kitty Collins is a Newfoundland fish- 
wife whose sharp tongue and dealings 
have made her a celebrity the length of 
the East Shore. The man or woman is 
yet to be born who can beat her on any 
trade which savors of fish. 

She lives in one of the out-ports and 
brings her fish ti S;. John's to market. 

Early one spring she •••rought the first 
salmon f.f the season to the house of 
the Bishop to sell. It wa? a tine salmon 
weighing eight pounds, and the Bishop 
was so pleased that he gave her not only 
the high price she asked for it, but a lit- 
tle extra to show his appreciation of 
Kittv's enterprise. 

When the salmon was dressed it was 
found to he stuffed with about two 
pounds of gravel. The Bishop was angry 
that the fish-wife should dare tiy her 
tricks on him, and demanded that he 
should be notified when she appeared 

Kitty was not long in making a return 

When Kitty stood before him, the 
Bishop, terrible in his righteous wruth, 
thundered : 

"What do you mean, woman, by sell- 
ing me a fish filled with rocks?" 

"Oh, but, sir, your Grace," replied 
Kitty, smiling and unruffled, "don't you 
remember that last gale, sir? He took 
on ballast, your Grace " — Lock- 
BART, in January LippinroU't MiKjmine. 



Pay Your Child's Way Thro' College. 

id Ihe whnJe pr 
T.. bi 
T«rj- bt*it lucuii 


Froe Illnstrated Catalo 
d receive in addii 

leading poultry paper. 

HAWKEVE INCUBATOR CO., Box 49, Newion, la. 


Tbousands of these incubators are iu successful 
operation in the United States, Canada, South 
Africa. New Zealand. Sweeden, England, Hollatd, 
and Germany. These machines operate to perfec- 
tion and always bring off a large brood of strong, 
healthy chicks. Catalogue with full particulars 
The Standard F. C. Incubator Co., Dept. 5. Rochester, N. Y.. U. S. A. 

Highest Typewriting Possibilities 
Available Only to Users 



Known ETcrj-where. Employed by Governments and Great Corporations which command only the 
best facilities. Illustrated Catalogue and *' Touch" Typewritinfi Instruction Book Free 


No. 519 Eleventh St., N. W., WASHINGTON, D. O. 

jf- THE ^ 








Would a country where work can be carried on the entire year »nd where larjf* 
profits can be realized interest you? 

The SEABOARD Air Line Railway traverses six Southern States and a repon 
of this character. One two cent stamp will bring handsome illustrated literatnre 
descriptive of the feition. 


THOS. W. JARMAX. • Yancey Mills, V». flen. indastrial Agt., Portsmouth, Vs. Traffic Mgr. fien. Pass. Ag., Portsmouth, V». 


I have a choice lot of (Vicks and StagR for ^ale 

cheap, writf for price.**. Kkh». 8*-' t>ersitl;ng. 

Guarantee SHtlefaotlou. 

1903 ) 



Agricultural Implements and Machinery 

The HockingValley Cider and Wine Mills 

Have crushing rollers made of wood, which 
Impart no taste or discoloration to the Juice. 

Buckeye Grain and Fertilizer Drill 

With hoes or disc. Drills grain of all kinds, 
corn, peas, grass seed and fertilizers. 

Our Five-Hoe Drill 

For seeding between rows of standing oom Is 
a great success. 

Continental Disc Harrows, 

Changed to straigbtor slanting tooth wlthoat 
stopping team. 

Ensilage and Feed Cutters. 

Capacities from 600 to 16,000 pounds per hour. 

The Union Cutter. 

Crushes the stalk after it leaves the knives- 
far superior to shredding. 
The Combined Feed Mill and Horse Power 
Is indispensable to every farmer. Qrlnd» 
corn, shelled or on cob, grain of all kinds, 
and is a flrstrclass horse-power for any pur- 
pose. Three machines In one. 

The McCormick Corn Binder 

Works like a grain binder, cutting and tlelng 
the corn and delivering In bundles. 

The McCormick Husker and Shredder. 

The most complete machine of its class made. 
The very low price brings it within the means 
of all. 

■^^ Corn Shelters 

For hand or power, separating corn from cob. 

Ch u rns— Improved Buckeye 

Unequalled for cheapness, with 
simplicity, strength, durability 
and perfect work. 

JTaed and Ensllag-e Cutters. All Sizes. 

Cane Mills and Evaporators. 

Turned rollers, steel shafts, brass 
boxes, enclosed gearing. Made of 
special Iron of great strength. 

Portable Evaporators 

With furnace. Pans of galvanized 
st«el or copper. 

Cucumber Wood Pumps 

Willi porcelain-lined cylinder, for 
wellB up to to feet In depth. 

The Hancock Disc Plow, 

Improved for 1902. 
Will work In any land, and with less aran. 
than any other disc plow. 

Hand Power Press. 

Full Circle Horse-Power Press. 


Franklin and i 5th Streets, 






A Washington housekeeper rejoices in 
the po95e«»ion of a irasherwoniaii of the 
olden style, and jjete much amusement 
from the olil woman's converBalion. Ke- 
cently, while counting over the d'lthes 
the hou.ekeeper obietved Aunt Martha 
gazing at herself in the mirror. 

"What yo' think of this bonnet, Miss 
Molly? It's new." 

" It'i very becoming," said the lady, 
more politely than truthfully, "but, 
Annt Martha. I am afraid yoa are get- 
tini{ very extravagant. I am sure yon 
are spending all you make in clothea." 

"I certainly do that thing." said Annt 
Martha seriously. " I certainly do. You 
Bee, I saved money once, and it was stole, 
and I said then, " I'll spend ez I go, ez I 
go,' Miss Molly, 'and th«n I gets the good 
of it • " 

" Btit, Martha, 8ur«ly you are putting 
by a little money, just to bury you ?" 

"Not much, I ain't. I ain't got none 
of thi»t foolishness 'bout me. I'll enjoy 
myself while I live, and I gness after I'm 
dead I c»n stand it above ground jea' as 
long ai any one kin stand havin' me." — 
NiSA E. Ali.esdkr, in Lippincott's Maga 
tine for January. 


Not unlike some other great m^-n, Chief- 
Justice Mar-ball gare little attention to 
dress or to personal pulchritude, although 
his face was unusually handeoiie A 
•tory is told of a young man who had 
recently remored to Richmond. 'This 
new comer saw in the market a rusty- 
looking old man making hlg way slowly 
through the entrance, and walking up to 
him abruptly, asked Mm if he woold not 
like to make a ninepence by carrying a 
tarkey home for him. Th«old man qui 
etly took the turkey and walked behind 
the newlv-arrived citizen without a word 
mntil thelatter had reached his own gata. 

" Catch !" said the young man, tossing 
ft ninepence to his hireling. 

The old man caught the ninepecce,and 
aa he turned to walk away a gentleman 
passing by bowed deferentially to him. 

"Who i4 that shabby old fellow?" 
uked the turkev buyer. 

"The Chief-J^ustice of the United 
States," was the reply. 

" Impoaaible," stammered the blunder- 
er. " Why did he bring the turkey — 
why " 

" To teach yon a lesson in good-breed- 
ine." interrupted the gentleman. "He 
will give the money away before he gets 
h- mfl. but I have no doubt he is enjoying 
the joke you have so condetcendingly 
giien him."— Z Cocke, in January Lip- 
pincoW$ Magazine. 

We invi'e attention to the advertise- 
ment of the Bowmont Farms, to be found 
elsewhere in this issue. The offering this 
month consists of Jerseys, large York- 
•hire hogs anil Indian game fowls. You 
will always get good stock and treatment 
from OjI- Bowman, the proprietor. 

A NEIT BIND EH for your back 
numbprs can be had for 25 cents. Ad- 
dress the Business Oflice. 




The N. C. Department of Agriculture uses this engine in the 
portable style on their Test Farm. 









The areatcst Comfort Is to be Derived 
Therefrom in Cold Weather. 


SALES ANNUALLY OVER 10.000. 175,000 IN USE. 

For BooKlet and other Information address 


10 BOND ST., NEW YORK. Gen'i Western Sales Aft.. 

Mention Southern Planter when ivrilinff. J97 Wabash Ave., - CHICAGO, ILL 

ASSE TS. $900. 000. 

Virginia Fire and flarine 

Insurance Company, of Richmond, Va. 

Insures Again st Fire a nd Lightning. 




,.^,, DAVISON HARROW CO. ' ^,^=^> 


yl^^^i SFRxisra- tooth hahro-ws ^^/sx . " 





For COTTON when used on land with a fair amount of veget*tion or with COMPOST (which is better the 
crop» are as good as from any Fertilizer. It prevents RUST and SHEDDING and keeps the plants green much 
longMr in dry weather. 

PEANUTS With the same conditions as above, it is a COMPLETE FERTILIZER for this CROP. Our 
cu-tomers say it is eq'jal to the BEST FERTILIZERS ON THE M ARKET. 

DARK HEAVY TOBACCO Hani oat your farm pen .scrapings, plow under and broadcast 500 to 600 
Us. per acre (the eadier the better), and you will get a heavy crop of Tobacco and a fine ciop of Wijeat and 
Clover or other grass, and by proper rotation will have a rich lot for any crop. 

BRIGHT TOBACCO Oar customers say that 200 lbs. per acre in the drill with other Fertilizer will prevent 
the fobacco from FlRlNli and ijiving it a GOOD BODY and increase its value $20 per acre For Wheat, Oats, 
Clover and other grass it is exceptionally good. 

It prevents RUST. SCAB and SMUT in WHEAT and and all say it is the best thing for clover thev ever used. Fruit 
Growers will find a WONDERFUL IMPROVEMENT by it use on their Orchards and Vineyards. 



Has been tested for six years and has proved equal to and in some cases superior to the high-grade ammoniated 
goods on the market We put in no useless filler and ihe farmer gets the 20fi0 lbs. to the ton of valuable fertilizer 
for the ciops and THE LAND. Hence they saj their succeeding crops are much better than from oUier fertilizers 

Our SPECIAL CORN FERTILIZER For land where there is not an abundance of vegetation is equal to any. 

J^General agents for B1.4CK DEATH BCO KIL.IjER for destroying Potato Bugs, Tobacco Worms- 
and all insects injurious to vegetation; and Sifters and Insecticide distributors for applying it. 


^ Constantly on hand at lowest prices. In car lots «t lowest market price from kilns- 


Pedigreee traced and tabslated. Catalogues compiled and cir- 
culars prepared Special attention given registration 
matters pertaining to thoroughbred and trotting horses 

TAT. J. CA.JEVrm¥t (Broad Rock), 

p. O. Box 929, RICHHONO, VA. 

Sepresentlng the 

RiOHMOMD Times, Richmond, Va. 
SoaTHKBN Planter, Richmond, Va. 
Spirit of the Times, >J«w York. 
KEPTTOorr Stock Farm, Leilnfton. Ky, 
Bbesdek and Sportsman, San Franclaco, Cal. 


Nor 8. 10 and 12 Tenth St., RiGHMONO, VA. 

Building Carriages to order is our special businei*. 
Repairing and Repainting done, and best material used. 
A full line of all the latest styles. Orders for all 
classes of Vehicles solicited. 

1903. IN THE STUD I903. 

WEALTH, 29579. 

RACE RECORD, 2: 17 J, Pacing. 

Timed separately in 2:08 in a race at Indiana 
State Fair, 1902. 

Bay horse, foaled 1897 ; 16 hands high, weight, 1,200 
lbs. Sired by Gambetta Wilkes, 2:19^ dam Mag- 
nolia, by Norfolk, 3670, Wealth is grand 
individually and in appearance. 

FEE, $20 the Season with rituri privilegt, or $25 to insure. 
Address S. F. CHAPMAN, Gordonsville, Va. 


•t- HEIDRICK ■*• 

Bay horse, foaled 1898 ; 16 hands high. This horse 
has great natural action, and is capable of getting 
the highest class harness horses. 

FEE, $10 00 the Season or $15 00 to Insure. 

Address C. F. & J. BUTTON, Walker's Ford, Va. 


RACE RECORD, 2:20, Trotting. 

Bay horse, by Billy Thornhill, 2:24, dam Sweetstakes, 

by Sweep Stakes, 298. Great Stakes has sired 

Captain, 2:i6i; Foxhall, 2:19!, and four 

others in the list. He is handsome, 

well-formed and sires speed 


FEE, $25.00 for the Season of 1903^ 


W. H. NELSON, • 1417 E. Franklin St, RIohmond, Va. 





Although the farm keeps the balance 
of trade ia the nation's favor, furnishes 
two-thirds of our exports, contributes to 
our manufacturing supremacy by provid- 
ing cheap food for our mechanics, com- 
paratively little has been done toward 
educating the farmer for his work. To 
be sure, the United States has done more 
for him than any other country. In 1862, 
Congress endowed agricultural colleges 
to teach the sciences relating to agricul 
tnre. In 1867, experiment stations were 
provided for where research might be 
made into the operations of nature. 

But considering that Americans pay 
more money for public education than 
any other people on earth, a compara- 
tively small proportion of the sum is de- 
voted to stimulating and aiding that half 
of our population who cultivate the soil. 
The tendency of primary education has 
been to lead the country youth away 
from the farm instead of helping him in 
the study of sciences relating to 
production. It would be politic and pa- 
triotictoincorporateintothe farm vouth's 
education some knowledge that shall bear 
more directly upon his future life and 
work. — James Wiiso.v, Secretary of Agri- i 
culture, in the Youth's Compardon. 


Attorney Jacobi had just successfully 
defended Sim Walton, who was charged 
with stealing a watch. When they were 
outside the court-room, the lawyer asked 
Sim for the ft-e, which was ten dollars. 
Sim turned to him and said : 

"Boss, I ain't got a cent." 

"Well, haven't you something you can 
give me as security until you can raise 
the money?" asked .lacobi.' 

Sim replied: "I ain't got nuthin' but 
dat ol' watch I stole. Vou is welcome to 
dat, ef you'll tek hit."— Sil.\s Xavier 
Floyd, in January Lippincotl's Magazine. 

St. Nicholas for January starts the New 
Year in the happiest wav. Edwin L. 
Sabin. Louisa M. Alcott, Howard Pyle, 
Clara Morris. Malcolm Douglas, Harriet 
Prescott Spofiford. Rov Benson Ri^^hard- 
8on, Virginia Woodward Cloud, Zitella 
Cocke. John Bennett, Cliftord Howard 
Sarah M. B. Piatt, Albert Bigelow Paine, 
and Carolyn Wells are onlv part of the 
long list of writers and artists who con- 
tribute to the current month's feast for 
young folks. Really, the pirl or boy who 
does not have .St. Nicholas to read ia to 
be pitied. 

Notable among the stories in the Janu 
ary St. Nicholas is John Bennett's " Bob- 
by's Newspaper," which has much of the 
charm that made the author's " Master 
Skylark" and " Barnaby Lee" immediate 
readers young and old 
John Bennett has never visited England" 




Prof. Henry's Great Book for 
li < and Stockmen, 

vered anywhere for - - ^2.00 
With the SOUTHERN PLANTER, 2.26 

Your money back 

If you are not satisfied 

DO YOU SUPPOSE that a company with a capital of $500,000.00, paid In full, and the 
pioud reputation of 36 years of continuous success, would make such an otter and not cuttj 
It out to the letter? 

DO YOU SUPPOSE we would jeopardize our standine with the public and our chances 
of still greater success by failing to fulHl any promise we make ? 

DO YOU SUPPOSE we would make such an otter if we did not have the utmost confi- 
dence in the satisfying quality of our goods ? 

WE KNOW we can please you and save you money, for HAYNER WHISKEY goes 
direct from our distillery to you, with all its oriirtnal richness and flavor, carrying a UNITED 
you the big profits of the dealers. That's why it's best for medicinal purposes. That's why 
it's preferred for other uses. That's why we are regularly supplyine over a quarter of a 
million satisfied customers. That's why YOU should try it 

Direct from our distillery to YOU 

Saves Dealers' Profits I Prevents Adulteration ! 




OLD RYE for $3.20, and we will pay the express charges. When you receive 
the whiskey, try it and if you don't find it all right and as good as you ever 
drank or can buy from any body else at any price, then send it back at our 
expense and your $3.20 will be returned to you by next mail. How could 
an offer be fairer? We take all the risk and stand all the expense. If 
the goods do not please you. Won't you let us send you a trial order? We 
ship in a plain sealed case; no marks to show what's inside. 

Orders for Ariz., Cal.. C!ol., Idaho. Mont. Nev., N. Mex.. Ore.. Utah. Wash, 
or Wvo.. must be on the basis of 4 Ooarts for »4.00 bv Express 
Prepaid or !tO Quarts for S16.00 by Freiglit Prepaid. 

Write our nearest office and do it NOW. 




ers of j» 

5WN J 

Mauufacturer* of 



No 13 South Fifteenth Street, RId-IMOND VA 

BETWEEN MAIN AND GARY STS., lA I ^rf PI ITI <>i/ l>l 1/ j » n. 

TO THE PUBLIC: My connection with the corporation known as the Watt Plow Co. has 
been i-evered, and the manufacturing of tbe CKOWN. CRESCKNT and W.\TT Plows, and 
repairs for same. Is now conducted solely by THE CALL-WAIT CO.. of which I am general 
manager. The new Arm bi-lng owner of all patterns for the.'.e plows, the trade-names which 
are duly reRistercd under the tiade mark laws, and hiiving purchased from The Watt Plow Co. 
their entire stock ol said plows and repairs, is prepared to furnish same promptly, and on 
liberal terms. 

In addition to these special plows, we hope to nupply the trade with the various plows 
and castings now In general use; also. .AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS. M.ACHINERY, 
VEHICLK.S and HARNESS for all purposes. All articles are guaranteed to be strictly as 

I take this r>ccasion to tender my thanks to all my old f lends whose patronage has been 
bestowed upon me during the thirty yejirs in which 1 have been engaged in the raanufactur* 
and 8*le of Agricultural Implements In this city, and solicit a couilnunnce of their favors with 
the new firm. They and the public generally are assured that ail business entrusted to me will 
receive careful and prompt attention. M \NFRE1) C.M.L, 

Manager, The Call- Watt Co, 

1903. J 



If You Want 



I mean buy your supplies right. You should lay aside a few Gold Pieces 
yourself, you might ask how it can be done— easy, dead easy— stop paying 
high, country prices. The mail comes to your home six times a week, I car 
get a letter from you every day. 



The railroads almost pass your house. Uncle Sam spends millions yearly 
to give you mail and railroad accomodations. You need not come to town, 
let Uncle Sam do your shopping. He can knock the spots out of you in 
buying— just try him. No matter how small your order I will be glad to have 
it and ship promptly. Here is what your groceries will cost you 


Arbuckle'a Green Coffee 9i 

Granulated Sugar ih 

Best Family Flour 4 25 

Byrd Island — have no other. 

10,000 lbs. Nice Family Pork 9 

7 Boxes Axle Grease 25 

800 Bbls. White Oil 12 

1,000 Bushels Seed Rye 68 

600 Tons Fine Timothy Hay, hun- 
dred 75 

300 Tons Choice Clover Hay, hun- 
dred 70 

10 Large Cakes Fancy Soap 25 

C r y 8 ta 1 Washing Soda, Light, 
Smooth, and Durable, makes 

Washing Easy 30 

Washing Powders, 8 for 25 

Fine Gun Powder Tea 40 

Ben Mocha and Java Coffee Roasted 18 
Large Fat Mackerel in Nice Buck- 
ets or Kits, about 15 lbs 1 25 

New River Herrings, 750 fish in the 

barrel, Large and Fat ." 5 50 

New Cut Herrings, barrel 5 50 

Finest Cream Cheese 15 

Baker's Chocolate — 2 Cakes 25 

New Table Raisins— 6 Lbs 60 

Fine French Candy 8 

Pure Lard gj 

610 Tons Pure City Made Shipstuff, 

hundred \ Oo 

Cotton-Seed Meal, Nothing Finer. 
510 Tons Cotton-Seed Hulls— an ex- 
cellent Winter Food, Cheap and 

Nutritious, per hundred .... 50 

This is as good as Coarse Meal for 
60,000 lbs. Rock Salt for Stock— try 
a bag, keep it in the Trough, im- 
proves Stock very much, $1.00 for 
100 lbs. 

Chalmer's Gelatine, 3 for 25 

Seedless Raisins in Packages 9 

Cleaned Currants, per lb 8 

New Citron for Fruit Cake 12 

Home Made Mince Meat 8 

1011,000 lbs. New Mixed Nuts 11 

Virginia Hams, Choicest of Meat. I 
have a Nice Lot of Hams Made 

in Smithfield, Va 14 

Fine Sweet Cider, per gallon 20 

Home-Made Black Berry Brandy, 5 
years old and nice. 

Family Tonic, quart 20 

Northampton Anple Brandy, 6 years 
old— pure — Apple Juice— nothing 

finer made— gallon 2 00 

Clemmer's Fine Old Mountain Rye 
Whiskey, double distilled, sweet 

and wholesome, quart 40 

Juniper Gin, sure cure for bladder 
and kidney troubles ; relieves the 
cutting, stinging ache in your back, 
quart 45 

I Gibson's Fine Old Rye Whiskey ; fit 
for a king, get a quart 75 

' O'Grady's Pure Malt. Try a bottle 
of Malt for that hacking cough. It 
is a sure cure. It is good for dys- 
pepsia. Indigestion it cures at 
sight. Warms the inner man; 
makes new rich blood, and stimu- 
lates the whole system. It has 
saved many and many a man and 
his family. 75 a quart. The price 
is insignificant compared to the 
benefit it will do you. 

Country Cured Bacon Sides 13} 

100,000 bushels finest Oats 40, 

60,000 bushels fine Corn 66 

Water-ground Corn Meal, made of 
the finest White Corn, and ground 
by one of the finest mills in Vir- 
ginia. Bushel 72 

I have everything that is required 
by a farmer from a 1.000 acre farm 
to a mouse trap. Write for my 
price list that will give you more 
information than a gossiping 

Clover Seed, prime Crimson Clover 
Seed 2 90 

Choice Crimson New-Ciop Clover 
Seed _ 4 26 

Fine Winter Turf Oats (seed) 76 

Prime Winter Seed Oats 60 

I have an immese stock of NEW YEARS' GOODS, CAKES, CANDIES. 
FRUITS of all kinds, and I will ship any quantity required. 

D. O'SULLIVAN, Eighteenth and Main Sts., Richmond, Va. 




bat his quaintly delightful ''Master Sky- 
lark" is on tile in the reference library at 
Stratford on Avon, and devout Shakes- 
peare pilgrims use it as a guide book. 

The Review of Reviews begins a new 
Tolume with one of its characteristic 
numbers— a publication that could never 
by any possibility be mistaken for any 
other magazine in the world — 128 pages 
as fiill of real "news" as the morning pa- 
per and y«-t as solid and well considered 
as the best of the foreign quarterlies. 
Venezuela is very much at the front at 
the opening of the New Year, and the 
Review not ocly gives space to a valuable 
editorial discussion of the British and 
German claims and the proposed modea 
of adjustment, but opens its pages to a 
full presentation of the case of the pow- 
ers against the little South American 
State, as set forth by Mr. A. Maurice 
Low, a well-informed Washington jour- 
nalist. The '-man of the month" in in- 
ternational affairs is our Minister to Ven- 
eiuela, Mr. Herbert W. Bowen. A char- 
acter sketch of this typical diplomat of 
the American school, written, it is un- 
derstood, by an intimate perponal ac- 
quaintance, forms a noteworthy feature 
of the January Review. Ainong the 
subjects engaging the attention of Con- 
gress, hardly one can be named that is 
more important in its bearings on the 
public welfare than the question of pro- 
tecting the grazing lands of the West, 
from which comes the nnional meat 
supply. This is the theme of the author- 
itative and judicious article from the pen 
of Dr. E. Benj»min Andrews, who has 
made a special study of the Western cat- 
tle situation. Dr. Andrews' article ia ac- 
companied by an exhaustive inquiry 
into the present advance in beef prices 
by Mr. Fred. C. Croxton, of the National 
Department of Labor. Another of the 
problems before Congress— that of the 
currency— is clearly outlined in a paper 
by Charles A. Conant describing the ex- 
pedient* recently resorted to bv the 
Treasury to relieve the stringency in 
the money market. The rural' free 
delivery service, the advantages of which 
were emphasized in President Ronse- 
velt's message to Congress, is the subject 
of an illustrated aniule by Dav Allen 

Editor Southern Planter: 

Our market will open up on Tuesday 
the 6th, and we look for good prices. No 
doubt it will tie a good time to sell, as our 
buyers will want stock to begin work on 
Receipts will be light, and we are in- 
clined to think it will be advisable to sell 
what you have ready during the week, 
as receipts will be heavy again as soon 
as we have a good season. 

We will be in a better fix than ever 
to handle your crop, having secured the 
services of Mr. A. 0. Davis, of Wilson, 
N. C, ai auctioneer, who is the best auc- 
tioneer to be found in the trade. We 
want you to come and hear him and 
judge for yourfelf. We believe he can 
put more life in the sale and get you bet- 
ter prices for your tobacco. 

Silas Shelbubme & Bon. 


We wish to state to readers of this magazine and the 
public generally, that owing to the warm weather we have 
h3d this Fall, we were unable to dispose of our Stoves and 
Heaters which we bought in large quantities. 

In order to reduce our stock, we are offering all 


At greatly reduced prices. 

if you intend coming to the city before the holidays, it 
will pay you to see us before leaving, and if you cannot 
come, drop us a postal and we will be glad to quote you prices. 

Our stock of 



and everything for HOUSEKEEPING is complete and prices 

Bear in mind the name and number, 

M. ROSENBLOOM & SON, The Mail order House, 

1536 E. Main Street, Adjoining: New Main Street Depot, RICHMOND, VA. 



We are the largest optical establishment South, and give proper adjustment 
of SPECTACLES and EYE GLASSE-. Completf- manufacturing plant on the 
premises. Mail us the pieces and we will from them duplicate your Glasses. 
Glasses bv mail our specialty. 


is also complete with CAMERAS, KO- 
veloping and printing linely executed. 

Oarlineof QRAPHOPHONES, with latest recorda. OPER-^ QLASSES. 
FIELD GLASSES, Incubator and Dairy THEREnonETERS, etc, etc., is 
also complete Lowest charges in all cases. 


« THE S. GILESKI OPTIGl CO., Stii and Main Sts., Richmiind, Va. 


Z Where an establlshvd repuutlon warrant* continued confidence. The name of V 

A LUMSOENonanytblnglu tbeJEWELRY or SIL«tlW*IIE UnelsasTAifDABD of m 




A SIX SOLID STERLIN6 SILVER TEA SPOONS, $8.40. Write for our cataloeue, H 

A coutAlus mau7 articles on whlcb we can save .vou money. m 

I C. LUMSDEN & SON, Established 1835, 731 E. Main St., Richmond, Va. f 

AtftfJMI^AAA AAAAAAtfMI e£^A AtfMt^ C££A Adktf^tflAAAA Atft££ AAA£ I^AAA^A^^bB 





Breeders of 

^ Exhibition Barred 
Plymouth RocI<s 


For information, address 

Ivanhoe Poultry Yards, Box 258, Richmond, va. 


26 N. Ninth Strett, RICHMOND, VA., 

Has just received 
an entirely new 
Stock and com- 
plete line of 





We are contractors for 


Correspondence Solicited. 




The roUowlng list of papers and periodicals 
ue tbe most popular ones In this section. 
We can SAVE YOU MONEY on whatever 
lonmal yon wish. 

LIA IlilPfl. pR,oe WITH 


Tbe Dispatch. Richmond, Va 1 3 00 5 3 00 

g 00 3 00 
600 eoo 

nie Times, " " 

The Post, Washington, D. O 


The Dispatch, Richmond, Va 

The World (thrlce-a-week), N. Y.... 

1 OO 


Harper's Weekly „ i UO 

Bazaar 1 00 

Montgomery Advertiser 1 00 

Nashville American 50 

The Baltimore Sun „ _ 1 00 

Breeder's Gazette „ _ 2 00 

Hoard's Dairyman „ „ 1 00 

Oonntry Qentleman. „ 1 50 

The Times, Richmond, Va 80 

Bellgloas Herald, Richmond, Va.... 2 00 
Central Presbyterian, " " ... 2 00 

Christian Advocate, ■' " ... 1 60 

Turf. Field and Farm „ 4 00 

Spirit of the Times 4 00 

Horseman 8 00 


Wool Markets and Sheep.. 60 

Dairy and Creamery 50 

Oomraerclal Poultry 50 

All three 1 60 


North American Review 6 00 

The Century Magazine 4 00 

Bt Nicholas " 8 OO 

4 00 
1 00 

, 1 CO 
1 00 
1 00 

. 1 25 
I 00 
1 00 

1 25 
1 25 

4 00 
I 40 
1 00 
I 8i 
1 85 

1 76 

2 25 
I 75 

1 35 

lilpplncott's " 

Harper's " , 

Forum " 

Borlbner's " 

Frank Leslies " „.. 

Cosmopolitan " 

BJverybody's " 

Munsey " 

Strand " 

McClure'B " 

Puritan " 

Bevlew of Reviews 2 50 2 75 

X^elsure Hours.„ 1 00 IK 

Blooded Stock _ 60 50 

Where yon desire to subscribe to two or more 
of tbe publications named, you can arrive at 
the net subscription price by deducting 50 
cents from " onr price with the Planter." II 
you desire to subscribe to any other publica 
tlons not listed here, write us and we will 
cheerfully quote clubbing or net subscription 

Subscribers whose time does not expire 
until later can take advantage of our club 
rotes, and have tbelr subscription advanced 
one year from date of expiration of their 
■Qbscrlptlon to either tbe Planter or any of 
tbe other publications mentioned. 

Don't hesitate to write us for any Informa- 
tion desired ; we will cheerfully answer any 

We furnish no tampU eopietot otbar perl. 

Seed House of tbe South. 


OATS and 

"Whatsoever One Sowelh, That Shall He Reap." 

We seU strictly reliable FIEIiD AXD GARDEN SEEDS wt 

every variety at liOwest Market rates, Incladed In wblcta 



Our Ojxrn Brands of Fertilizers 

For Tobacco, Corn. Wheat. Potatoes, &c. 

Pare Raw-Bone Meal, Nova Scotia and Tirginia Plaster anA 

Fertilizing Materials generally. 

Parties wiabing to purchase will find it to their interest to price onr gooda 
Samples sent by mail when desired. 

Wm. A. Miller & Son, # 

IOI6Main Street 

Headquarters for 
Nursery Stock. 

We make a specialty of handling dealers' orders. 







Nectarines, Pecans, Ornamental and 

Cherry, Chestnuts, Shade Trees, 

Quinces, Walnuts, Evergreens, 

Almonds, Small Fruits, Roses, Etc. 





B€# 6 fe C C C< I C < 

Baltimore, Md. < 

1903. 1 




WHEN AN " -*®=— ^^'^™- 



THE AMERICAN FIELD FENCING is made in many heights and styles for 
turning the smallest to the largest animal. Write for special catalogue and prices. 

PEA HULLERS* — it win pay to inspect the " STAR." 
Will hull and clean from 10 to 15 bushels of peas every hour. 

DISC HARR O WSb — send for special catalogue of 
the " THOMAS," lightest draft and strongest harrow made. 


For hand or power. The strongest, simplest and best made. 
Write for prices, catalogues and testimonials. 


Has no equal for grinding shelled grain, corn and cob into excellent feed. The ' 
Horse-Power is very useful for lunning other machinery as well. A full line of 
mills for horse and steam power. 


For one horse. A very useful size for small farms. Price, $15.00. 

PLOWS. — Try an "Imperial" and you will not want any other. It is admitted by all who have uaed 

it to be the best in the world. 


Made in lengths of from 5 to 10 feet. The most economical roof for 
barns and all out houses. 

■ A N N I N C M I L LS. — We can strongly recommend the 
" LYONS " for cleaning any kind of grain or grass seed. Does its work clean, 
and praised by every one who has used it. 

If you are needing a wagon, try a " BIRDS£IiIi " with steel skeins, and be convinced there is none better made. 
All irons used are either wrought or steel. The price too is very reasonable. 

The finest and largest stock of BUGGIES, CARRIAGES, HARNESS and SADDLES in the South. 

Write for special catalogue. 


THE IMPLEMENT CO., 1302 and 1304 E. Main St., Richmond, Va. 




JOHN KERR BRANCH, Vice-President. 

JOHN K. GLENN. Cashier. 

JOHN P. BRANCH. President. 

fJnhnP Brunch, Fred. W. ficott, C, S. Stringfellow, A. H, Biiford. John Kerr Branch, J.P.George. Thos. B. Hcott, 

DIRECTORS. I 3 yy Branch, B. B. Munford, Jan. H. Uuoley, Alex. HamUton, R. C. Morton, S. T. Morgan, A. Plizlnl. Jr 

CAPITAL STOCK, $200,000 00 

Surplus and Profits. $600, coo. oo 


Comparative Statements for the Following Years. 


June 80, 1877. 

June 30, 1882. 

June 80, I8S7. 

June 30, 1892. 

June 30. 1897. 

June 30, 1902. 

»310,427 34 
1.886 50 
2,2.50 10 
S.pOO (K) 
2.5 4.55 30 
94.342 11 

S6(>4.880 05 

1,82.5 42 

11 800 00 

20O.UU0 0O 

23 .501 49" 

152.616 15 

t464.«6« 32 
60.000 00 
9.1100 00 
700.00" 00 
80.(X)0 00 
6K 2(IS 0« 
119,724 83 

11,161 8.36 11 

69.1:« 77 

9.(100 00 

4210(10 00 

.34.000 no 

69 B.36 21 
48S.<>Stl 32 

$1,12.5,610 04 
83 ffl6 117 
9 010 00 
400 LI2 00 
S:t..5.53 55 
174 076 44 
785.187 42 

$1,284 060 45 

74.088 34 

10,000 00 

961.260 00 

22 763 48 

686,430 48 

1,023..506 10 

S489,361 25 

«1,054,823 11 

11,559,599 15 

12,249,767 41 

$2,610,775 52 

$4,082,108 85 


CLOSE OF BUSINESS ON June .30. 1877. June 30, 1882. June 30. 1887. Jnnr SO, 1892. June 30, 1897. June SO, 1902 

Capital Stock 

Surplus and undivided Profits.. 

$200,000 00 

15.149 40 

45 000 00 

226.711 85 

2.500 00 

8200,000 00 
5rt..5.51 Si 
180 (HIO (10 
618,071 79 

(200,000 00 
105.B76 K5 
180 000 00 

1,073,922 30 

8200 000 00 
186.7.58 68 
ITT.WX) 00 

1,685,108 78 

8200 000 80 
■m l:« 87 
176 4011 (10 

1,957,242 65 

$200 000 00 

588 017 55 

200 Olio 00 

8.074.091 30 

BUSINESS Paper Discounted for Customers on Favorable Terms. 

A 8D«clalty made of collections In Vlrjlnla, West Virginia, Kentnrky, Tennesee. and Norlh Oirollna. Dally and dtrpct oommunlcatloa 

with over three-fourths of the baakirg pDlnts (n VlrKini^. Bcini; the lareest 'l-pository for bank* between Bultlmore and New 

Orleans, tbU bank offers superior facilities fur direct and quick collv tlons. 





Editorial— 1903 1 

Work for the Month 3 

Random I^T?8 ^ - •• 4 

Fertilizers do Not Replace Tillage 6 

Enquirer's Column (Detail Index, page 41) 6 


Editorial— Work for the Month '. 8 

Garden and Orchard Notes 8 

Virginia State Horticultural Society 10 

Pecans in Virginia - 11 

Nut-Growing in Virginia _ 11 


The Dairy Breeds of Cattle 12 

The DualPiirpose Brteds of Cattle, 17 

Special Beef Breeds for Southern Farmers' 22 

Foot and Mouth Disease in Cattle 27 

Breeds of Hheep for the South 28 

Deron Cattle 32 

The Brood Sow 33 

Feeding Experiments 



Hackneys Sti!! in Demand 38 

Notes ., 38 

Seeding Grass 37 


Editorial — Fence Laws in Virginia 38 

Irrigation 33 

Irrigation Problems in Virginia 39 

Irrigation 40 

Editorial — Our Illustrations 40 

The International Stock bhow, Chicago, 1903 _ 40 

Publisher's Notks 41 

Advektisembnts 41 

The Southern Planter. 



Agriculture U the nursing mother of the Arts.—XENOPHON. 
Tillage and pasturage are the two breasts of the State."SULLY. 

64th Year. 

Richmond, February, 1903. 

No. 2. 

Farm Management. 


At the opening of a new crop year it may be of in- 
terest and advantage that we review what was done 
in the way of crop production in the Southern States 
during the year just ended. Lessons may be learnt 
from a consideration of this question which may re 
suit in much benefit, and a comparison of these results 
with what has been done elsewhere may lead to efforts 
for greater results in the future. The past year, it may 
be remarked, was in the South, on the whole, a fairly 
normal one, so far as weather and climatic conditions 
were concerned, except in respect to the wheat and 
winter oat crops which suffered severely from very 
late seeding in the fall of 1901, owing to the wet con- 
dition of the land and also from severe weather in the 
early winter. The area planted in corn in Virginia 
In 1902 was 1,879,348 acres ; the yield per acre was 
22 bushels ; the crop produced was 41,345,656 bushels 
of the Talue of $21,499, 741. The area planted in corn 
in North Carolina was 2,706,682 acres ; the yield per 
acre was 13 bushels ; the crop produced was 37,622,880 
bushels of the value of $22, 573, 728. The area planted 
to corn in South Carolina was 1,825,837 acres; the 
yield per acre was 10 bushels ; the crop produced was 
18,988,705 bushels of the value of $13,102,206. The 
area planted in corn in Maryland was 628,982 acres ; 
the yield per acre was 32 bushels ; the crop produced 
was 20,379,017 bushels of the value of $10,393,299. 
In Tennessee the area planted in corn was 3,337,047 
acres ; the yield per acre was 21 bushels ; the crop 

produced was 73,081,329 bushels of the value of 
$34,348,225. The wheat crop of Virginia was grown on 
637,806 acres ; the yield per acre was 5 bushels ; the 
crop produced was 3,635,494 bushels of the value of 
$2,872,049. In North Carolina the wheat crop was 
grown on 867,558 acres ; the yield per acre was a little 
over 5 bushels ; the crop produced was 3,055,757 bush- 
els of the value of $2,811,296. In South Carolina the 
wheat crop was grown on 267,673 acres ; the yield per 
acre was 5 bushels ; the crop produced was 1,495,969 
bushels of the value of $1,528,948. In Maryland the 
wheat crop was grown on 757,000 acres ; the yield per 
acre was 14 bushels ; the crop produced was 11,129,223 
bushels of the value of $8,013,041. In Tennessee the 
crop of wheat was grown on 840,381 acres ; the yield 
per acre was 7 bushels and the crop produced was 
6,050,743 bushels of the value of $4,598,565. In Vir- 
ginia the oat crop was produced on 222,074 acres ; the 
yield per acre was 17 bushels ; the crop produced was 
3,886,295 bushels «f the value of $1,632,244. In North 
Carolina the oat crop was produced on 238,143 acres ; 
the yield was 12 bushels per acre ; the crop produced 
was 3,024,416 bushels of the value of $1,542,452. In 
South Carolina the oat crop was grown on 216,541 
acres ; the yield per acre was 13 bushels ; the crop 
produced was 2, 836, 687 bushels of the value of $1, 673, - 
645. In Maryland the oat crop was grown on 42,132 
acres ; the yield per acre was 26 bushels ; the crop pro- 
duced was 1,124,924 bushels of the value of $427,471. 
In Tennessee the oat crop was grown on 180,071 




acres ; the yield per acre was 17 bushels : the crop 
produced was 3,219,028 bushels of the value of 

When we come to compare the yields of these cereal 
crops with the production of the like crops la other 
States north and west, we find that not only do these 
Southern States fall in nearly all casf s much below 
the average for the whole of the United States, but 
very seriously below the yield per acre in other States 
not nearly so naturally well situated for the produc- 
tion of the crop. Take for example the New Englaod 
States in the matter of corn. There the yield runs 
from 21 to 31 bushels per acre. In Pennsylvania the 
yield was 36 bushels per acre, whilst in the great corn 
belt of the West the yield runs up as high as 39 bash 
els to the acre. Again, take wheat. Whilst the aver 
age for the United States was 14 bushels per acre here 
we only made 5 bushels, this being the lowest vield 
made in the South for many years, and about half the 
usual average. The average yield of oats in the United 
States was 34 bushels to the acre. Here we made less 
than half that yield. Surely such a showing as these 
crops make cannot be regarded with satisfaction by 
our people. There is no reason whatever, either in 
climatic or soil conditions, why the production of all 
these staple cereal crops should in the South fall so j 
much below the average of the country and so greatly 
below that of other States not nearly so well situated. 
The great underlying cause for this bad showing is 
poor preparation of the land before seeding, and in the 
case of the corn crop careless, inadequate cultivation 
after planting. Sufficient effort is not made to secure 
deep, well broken land, capable of conserving the 
rainfall and moisture so much needed, especially in 
the South, nor is adequate consideration given to the 
necessity for filling our soils with vegetable matter — 
(humus). Many Southern farmers insist that the 
small yields of cereals here cannot be avoided on land 
which has been so long under cultivation as Southern 
lands have. That this conclusion is erroneous is shown 
by the average yields of the cereal crops in England, 
where the land has been under cultivation hundreds 
of years longer than in the South. The average yield 
of wheat in England was last year nearly 34 bushels 
to the acre, and for the last ten years the average is 
nearly 31 bushels per acre. The average yield of oats 
there last year was nearly 44 bushels per acre, and for 
10 years nearly 40 bushels to the acre. Corn is not 
grown in that country, and therefore cannot be com 
pared. It is time for the Southern farmers to take 
this matter of crop yield per acre into serious consid- 
eration with the determination that such paltry yields 
as are now made shall cease. There can be no profit 
in producing 20 bushels of corn or 5 or even 14 bush- 
els of wheat, or 17 bushels of oats to the acre. What 

is needed at the least is to double the yield per acre 
and this will be soonest brought about by halving the 
acreage planted or sown and giving the reduced area 
the extra working and cultivation which in the past 
has been expended on the larger area, and by p'anting 
leguminous crops on the abandoned area and feeding 
these to stock to make manure to feed the reduced 
area and make it rich and productive. The crop sta- 
tistics issued by the Department of Agriculture, from 
which we have quoted the foregoing figures, in one 
particular refute strongly the commonly current idea 
that the South is not a section adapted to the produc- 
tion of hay. These show that "Virginia devoted last 
year 472,913 acres of land to the production of hay 
and that the average yield per acre was 1.06 tons, pro- 
ducing a total crop of .501 2SS tons of the value of 
86,807,491. In North Carolina the average yield of 
hay per acre was nearly 1* tons. In South Carolina 
the average yield was nearly li tons per acre. The 
average production of hay over the whole country 
was only 1* tons per acre. In New York State, which 
grows the largest acreage of hay of any State in the 
Union, the average production was only H tons per 
acre. In this respect, therefore, the South compares 
favorably with the rest of the country, and this fact 
should iaduce greater attention to this crop, which is 
one which conserves the fertility of the land, renders 
possible the keeping of a greater head of live stock, 
and thus provides the means for producing heavier 
crops without recourse to fertilizers. It is a crop also 
which is as readily salable, as corn on the market, 
and with our ability to produce the heaviest forage 
crops on the arable land, can often be wisely converted 
into a sale crop and its place be taken in feeding stock 
by the forage crops. 

The production of tobacco in the South Atlantic 
States last year was in Virginia 136,769,250 lbs. grown 
on 182,259 acres. In North Carolina, 142,520,950 lbs. 
grown on 219,263 acres. In South Carolina 25,625,408 
lbs. grown on 34,912 acres, with a small acreage in 
Georgia, Florida and two or three ether States.. The 
value of the tobacco crop in Virginia is put at 
$12,309,232, in North Carolina at $15,677,304, and in 
South Carolina at $3,331,303. In Maryland the quan- 
tity produced was 31,300,625 lbs. grown on 34,081 
acres, and of the vaiue of $1,491,044. With the ex- 
ception of Kentucky, which produced 257,755,200 lbs. 
grown on 322,194 acres. North Carolina and Virginia 
are the largest tobacco producing States in the conn- 
try. The yield per acre, however, in these States is 
much below that of the New England and other North- 
ern tobacco- producing States. In Virginia, tha aver- 
age yield per acre was 750 lbs., in North Carolina 650 
lbs., in South Carolina 734 lbs. In the New England 
States, the average yield runs from 1,500 to 1,800 lbs. 




to the acre, whilst in Pennsjlvaniathe yield was 1,275 
lbs , and in Wisconsin 1 340 lbs. to the acre. Much 
of this difference in the j ield is no doubt to be ac- 
counted for in the different types of tobacco grown in 
the South, but there is, nevertheless, room for great 
improvement in the yield per acre here. We have 
known over 2,000 lbs. of tobacco to be grown on an 
acre here on several occasions, and something much 
nearer this figure than 750 lbs. ought to be grown of 
the dark heavy shipping types which are so largely 
produced in this State. The same cause lies largely 
at the bottom of this deficient production as of the de- 
ficient production of the cereal crops, and the same 
remedy should be applied. More intensive and less 
exieimve farming. 

The weather since the new j ear came in has been 
quite seasonable. We have had severe frosts, but lit- 
tle snow. We are always glad to have wintery weather 
in January. It is needed for the beat interests of the 
farm. Insect and fungous pests are very apt to be 
come serious troubles during the period of crop pro- 
duction unless we have sharp weather in January. If 
we do not get winter in January in the South, we are 
very apt not so get it at all, as the heat of the sun be 
comes quite an important factor in February. With 
sharp frosts in January, the ice crop can be seemed, 
and this is quite an important feature in the South, 
especially on dairy farms. This year good ice has been 
secured right up to the Atlantic Seaboard. The frost 
and wet condition of the land when not frozen has 
put a stop to plowing, and it will take some little time 
of dry warm winds to fit it again for the teams. The 
long fine fall acd early winter gave abundant oppor- 
tunity for fall and winter plowing, and very much 
more land has been broken for crops than is often the 
case. Where this work was properly done, there is 
now a reserve of moisture in the ground, which, if 
carefully conserved, will do much to meet the needs 
of crops during the growing season. Land not al 
jeady plowed should be given attention as soon as dry 
enough to break, but do not be in too great a hurry. 
Land plowed whea wet never makes a good sedbed, 
however much it may be cultivated. Land already 
plowed should not be allowed to dry out too much. 
As soon as it is dry enough to harrow down freely, 
put the harrows on it, and commence the preparation 
of the sedbed. This will prevent the loss of moisture 
from the subsoil and conserve the water for the crop. 
It will also be the means of making available the in 
ert plant food in the soil. Even in soils said to be 
largely exhausted, there is always a great reserve of 
mineral fertility, which can be made available for the 
support of crops by frequent cultivation. Southern 
farmers have been in the past very remiss in this re 

spect. They will plow the land once and harrow once, 
and then proceed to plant the crop either without fer- 
tilizer or with just a small application, and then com- V 
plain that the crop makes a poor yield. It cannot do ^ 
otherwise, because of the mechanical condition of the 
toil. Even the fertilizer applied cannot be properly 
or fully available for the crop under such conditions. 
Experiments made in a numlier of States have shown 
conclusively that it is possible to make a profitable 
yield upon land said to be largely exhausted without 
the application of any fertilizer by frequent and per 
feet plowing and cultivation. Plowing too often fails 
altogether to fulfil its proper function. Good plowing 
is not merely the inversion of the surface soil — it is 
the inversion and breaMng and mixing of the soil. It 
is impossible for the fine hairlike root fibres, which 
carry food to the plant to permeate and search out the 
plant food in the soil where it is full of hard lumps. 
The whole seed bed should be made as fine as possi- 
ble, then these little fibres can thread their way in 
and out of the interstices of the soil and appropriate 
by the aid of moisture, the food elements always more 
or less present. Another great purpose served in the 
fine breaking of the soil by repeated plowing and cul- 
tivation is that it permits of the free working and 
multiplication of the soil microbes, uponiwhich large- 
ly depends the fertility of all soils. A hard lumpy 
soil is largely a dead soil, and a dead soil is an unpro- 
ductive one. This necessity for microbic life in a soil 
is largely a new discovery in agricultural science, but 
the more fully it is investigated the^more important 
appears to be its necessity. The^^presence of humus in 
the soil and an alkaline conditicnjare found to be con. 
ditions precedent to this active microbic life. Hence 
the necessity for lime and leguminous ;; crops ;^in the 
development of soil fertility. The; two^greatf factors 
necessary to fertility are soil 'moisture^'and microbic 
life, and these are both encouraged and maintained by 
finely worked and brokan soil. Where it is intended 
to apply mineral fertilizers to the*land, such as acid 
phosphate and potash, these ingredients^^may be more 
profitably applied nowthanjat thejtime of|seeding the 
crops. Th«y require time to become available and 
thoroughly assimilated with the^soil. a There need be 
no fear of loss by leaching. Where^farm yard manure 
is to be applied, it should be got on the! land at once 
and be spread and worked into; the soil with harrow 
and cultivator. 

Get out all farm'^pen >ndjstable7 manure as it is 
made, and spread it on sodlorjarable land. It had 
much better leach out on 3the^ laud], than in the farm 
yard. The leachings there ;will'noti be lost, as is too 
often the case withjthose in^ the ^farmlyard. If grass 
land, which is Intended to |be mown for hay be top- 




dressed with manure from the yard, which is an ex 
oellent way in which to improve the soil, the manure 
should be got out at once and be spread evenly on the 
land. Afcer it has laid a week or two, run over the 
land with a bush harrow and thus break the mauure 
out finely and work it into the roots of the grass. Then 
follow the bush with a horse rake, and thus get off 
the long, strawy matter which, if left en, will mix with 
the hay and spoil the sample. 

It is too early yet to seed any crop, except Canada 
peas and oats, in either Virginia or North Carolina. 
Further South, oats may be sown after the middle of 
the month. Canada peas and oats may be sown up to 
the end of the month in Middle and Eastern Virginia 
and North Carolina, and up to the middle of the month 
of March in Piedmont and the mountain sections of 
those States. This crop is better seeded in December 
and January than in February, and we advised atten- 
tion to it in those months. We have, however, known 
good crops made seeded in February. It is a North 
em climate crop, and reqi ires to complete its growth 
before the hot weather sets in, or mUdew will destroy 
it. Its value as an early forage crop for hogs, sheep 
and cattle is great, and it also makes fine hay. Sow 
li bushels of peas per acre, and plow them down or 
put in deep with a drill ; they should have a cover of 
at least four or five inches. Then sow broadcast three 
quarters of a bushel of oats and harrow in. If the 
land is poor, apply 300 lbs. of acid phosphate to the 
acre and work in with the harrow. When the peas 
and oate have commenced to grow freely, apply 75 to 
100 lbs. of nitrate of soda to the acre aa a top-dress- 
ing, and a vigorous g rowth will be assured. Where 
the land is in fair fertility and has grown peas before 
the nitrat« of soda will not be needed, as the peas 
will soon be vigorous enough to secure their own 
nitrogen from the atmosphere. 

Grass and clover seed not seeded in the fall (which 
Is the proper time all through the South, except in 
the mountain sections) if a good stand is to be confi 
dently expected, should be sown during this month 
and in the first half of March. We have always ad 
vised against sowing grass and clover with a grain 
crop where a permanent stand of grass is desired; and 
each year that passes only adds to our certainty that 
we are right in this view. More money has been 
wasted on clover and grass seed seeded with grain 
than in almost any other way on the farm. The prac- 
tice of 60 seeding was introduced from England, where 
climatic conditions are so different from our own. 
There, there is always an abundance of moisture in 
the ground, and none of the hot, burning weather 
which we have in the summer. Harvest time is much 

late r, and thus the shading of the young grass and 
clover is continued until the cool fall montts. Here, 
lack of moisture in the land begins to be felt early in 
the summer, and the grain crops matare and are cut 
just at the time when the power of the sun is greatest 
The result is, that the growth of the grass and clover 
is weak and spindling, and it is laid bare to the burn- 
ing sun just when it most needs protection. Thousands 
of acres are thus lost every year. If seeded in the 
fall, a much stronger root growth is secured before the 
hot weather sets in, and the cutting of the grain may 
not result so fatally; but our advice is, whether seed- 
ing in fall or spring (but most certainly when seeding 
in the spring), never to seed along with grain. The 
grain crop is much more robust and quicker in growth 
than the grass and clover, and is thus better able to 
forage for support, and appropriates the moisture 
which the small plants so greatly need. Instead of a 
nurse crop, the grain crop becomes a robber crop, and 
the grass and clover is a failure. When seeded alone, 
the grass and clover is given a chance to secure what 
it needs, and being unshaded, becomes robust and 
hardy in growth and able to resist the power of the 
sun and rarely fails to make a good stand if soil fer- 
tility is sufficient; and if — and this is a great if^weeds 
are not so numerous as to smother it out. Weeds will 
beat even a grain crop in killing out a stand of graes 
and clover. Never seed grass and clover on land full 
of weed seed. It is only labor and seed wasted. If 
land is clean, then sow from two to three bushels of 
grass seed to the acre, with 10 or 12 lbs. of clover seed, 
and a fair stand may be expected. We believe in 
heavy seeding of grass. Our experience has con- 
vinced us that only in this way can a satisfactory sod 
be secured. The percentage of seed which is viable 
and will grow, is in grass seed always much lower than 
in the case of larger seeds, and much of that seeded 
never comes to a mature plant. Even if it sprouts, a 
large proportion has not vitality enough to resist un- 
favorable conditions of weather and soil. Let the 
land be well prepared and the seed bed be made aa 
fine as possible before seeding, and do not spare ma- 
nure and fertilizer. An application of 300 or 400 lbs. 
of bone meal to the acre will always be found profit- 
able when seeding to grass. It gives up its plant food 
slowly, and thus the effect is long continued. After 
seeding roll the land if it is dry enough to roll with- 
out packing on the roller. This will do much to en- 
sure quick germination. If a piece of land seeded 
with grass or clover in the fall has failed to make a 
good stand, this may be improved by harrowing 
lightly and then reseeding with about a half seeding 
of grass and clover, following with the roller. As to 
the kind of grass to be seeded: For a permanent 
meadow on good sound land, we would seed a mixture 




of Orchard Grass, Tall Meadow Oat Grass, Herds Grass 
(Bed Top), and Meadow Fescue. On low, damp land, 
we would seed Italian Rye Grass and Herds Grass — 
adding in each case from 5 to 8 lbs. of red clover. 
Timothy should be seeded alone. For a pasture, a 
much greater variety of grasses is best, as they ma- 
ture at differeat seasons and thus lengthen the season 
of feeding. For this purpose sow on sound, loamy 
soils Tall Meadow Oat Grass, Meadow Fescue, Virginia 
Blue, Orchard, Pe ennial Eye, Red Top, and 2 or 3 
lbs. of Red Clover. For moist bottom land, sow Red 
Top (Herds grass), Italian Rye, Meadow Fescue, 
Orchard Grass, Perennial Rye, and Alsike Clover. 

Tobacco plant beds should be got ready and be 
seeded as soon as possible. See that the land is well 
burnt and all weed seeds destroyed and the surface 
soil made fine and rich, so that the seed, when it ger 
minates, may be able to grow off quickly. Select land 
that is well filled with vegetable matter, se that it will 
not crust and pack hard, and mind that provision is 
made for drainage and for keeping the bed moist. 
CJover with plant- bed muslin. 

After deciding the location and area of the different 
«rops to be grown, make out lists of the seeds and fer 
tllizers required and give your orders to the merchants 
at once, so that these articles may be on hand when 
wanted. Do not have to wait and lose the best op- 
portunity for putting in your crops from inability on 
the part of the merchants to deliver goods just imme 
■diately when ordered. 


Editor Southern Planter : 

By purchase we came onto a rather ancient and 
much abused farm. Its barn was on the old-fash 
loned plan of two log pens about 30 feetlsquare with 
drive way through center under roof and a story 

A shed about 12 feet wide was built all the way 
round and boxed up. After the first season's winter 
feeding in the face of fast and frozen blasts, laden 
frequently with sleet, snow and rain, we concluded 
the thing was too open and friendly in its disposition 
and that we would shut some m»re of the weather out. 
So cracks on north, east and west sides were all bat 
tened up tight, light studding was put up inside, cov 
€red with building paper (this only cost 75 cents for 

which had hitherto gone to waste on the dirt floor, 
even in spite of a liberal use of bedding. One could 
not read your paper long and continue to ignore the 
saving of this moat available source of plant food for 
the thin places in his land. 

A thorough investigation of stall plans seemed to 
indicate that the Van Norman would tuit us best. 
With mill stuffs a cent and a quarter or half a pound, 
and even hay nearly a dollar per cwt., it was estima- 
ted to save its cost, extra over some of the simpler 
sorts, in feed during a single season. What's lumber 
here anyway . We bought two inch hard wood for these 
floors and manure troughs at 50 cents per 100. 

We find it almost impossible for a cow to waste a 
particle of either bran or roughness out of these feed 

One shed on the south side of barn was taken up 
by the feed alley running next to the log wall, thus 
throwing all the droppings and walkway next the out- 
side of barn. Through the outside of this shed we 
cut holes about 18 inches wide and 3 feet long, one to 
each two or three cows. The manure is thrown out 
of these directly from the fork into a eecond leanto, 
thus avoiding its handling twice and wheelbarrow 
rolling. This addition is merely a light framework 
running the full length of the barn or the south side 
with shingle roof and sides looking very much like a 
plank fence with the fence turned wrong side out. It 
is handy to load manure from along side, and as the 
manure thrown out is kept well covered with straw 
and the sun shines into the shed nearly the whole 
of a winter day, it makes a favorite place for the 
Shorthorns to lounge around, basking In the sun- 

A weekly sprinkling of dry dirt or Tennessee phos- 
phate or gypsum prevents the escape of ammonia 
whilst the tramping of other stock pacVs It down 
after the tearing up of hogs hunting waste grain. 
Heating Is thus avoided. The beneficent Influences of 
dry dirt and sunlight are not fully appreciated by the 
average farmer. We know from experience that stock 
do better when given the freedom of covered yards 
protected against north winds, and are of opinion that 
a better quality of manure Is made thereby. Certainly 
less water is uselessly loaded and hauled to the fields 
than is the case when taken from manure cellars or 
the stalls themselves. With all sorts of feed stuffs $1 
per 100 pounds it is difficult to see much profit in 
stock feeding without counting in the manure. This 
is not unreasonable so long as we pay $20 per ton for 
fertilizers. Manure carefully saved and wisely used 

500 square feet), then ceiled with rough lumber up to 

loft. Two heavy rolling doors were made to close will of itself pay a fair profit on the production of the 

np the drive way from the north, each 13 feet wide. feed. The feeder's cash outlay for concentrated feeds 

Having completed these cheap but most paying should be repaid otherwise, 
mpro vements, we thought of all the liquid manure 






SdHor Southern Planter : 

In yonr November numbtr, under the head of "Farm 
Management," yon say, "A crop of wheat that can be 
well seen above ground before hard frosty weather seis 
in will almost invariably make a better yield than one 
which is two or three inches high at that time." This 
does not agree with the opinion of most of the practi 
cal farmers of this section. The aim is here to sow 
as soon as can be done and avoid damage by the 
"fly." There are gome farmers who are willing to 
risk the fly in order to get their wheat in early, say 
ing that late sowing has been more damaging than the 
fly. This has been a very favorable fall on the wheat. 
The land was or could be put in fine order, and the 
rains have come In right quantity and not washing. 
My neighbor, among many who sowed very early this 
season, started his drill September 9th. Mine was 
started September 22d. Both fields have a rank 
growth. His has been well pastured and minegrazed 
a little. There are those here who claim that wheat 
pastured by sheep will yield four or five bushels more 
per acre on ffood land. Still another successful farmer 
says he does not think wheat should be pastured, that 
he never saw any too rank in the fall. What I call a 
rank growth is Irom 6 inches to 12 inches high, vary- 
ing according to the lertility of the soil. 

What you eay of a thorongh preparation of the soil 
must be concurred in by every observing tiller of the 
land, but my opinion is that this should apply to all 
other crops. Tillage and clover is my motto In farm 

We are all anxious to learn more, and we would like 
to know, Mr. Editor, why you consider a short growth 
of wheat in the fall better than a larger one which has 
a chance to become well rooted before freezing weather 
commences 1 

Lexington, Va. P. M. W. 

In leply to the foregoing we would say that the 
opinion given was largely founded on personal expe 
rieoce in wheat growing. We have vividly in remem- 
berance a crop grown many years ago which so forci 
bly impressed the lesson of too early sowing as to cure 
us permanently of the habit. In that year we sowed 
the first wheat on the 30th of September. We contin- 
ued to sow as the laud was ready all through the 
month of October, and finished seeding on the 5th of 
November. At Christmas the wheat sown on the 30th 
September was eo tall and rank as to completely hide 
a hsre in the field. The wheat sown on the 5th of No 
vember was nicely out of the ground — say 2 or 3 inches 
high. The winter was not a very severe one, but 
on the whole favorable for the crop. At harvest time 
the difference between the earliest and latest seeded 
crop was very marked. The earliest leeded had thou 
sards of oars more per acre than the last seeded, but 
these ears were small and badly filled, whilst the last 
seeded were long and well filled. When thrashed the 
last seeded made more than twice the yield per acre 
of the early sown crop, and the quality of the grain 
was very much superior. This has also been our ex- 

perience in other years The effect of the early seed- 
ing is to cause the wheat to spindle up and tiller too- 
freely, thus inducing a weakly growth very apt to fall 
down in wet weather and to stay down. The weak, 
slender straw does not carry suflicient food to the ear 
to make a good, plump long ear. Its root growth is 
defective. Whilst, therefore, experience has convinced 
us that reasonably late sowing is preferable to too early 
seeding we desire not to be set down as advocates for 
very late seeding. There is a proper time to seed, and 
this we believe to be neither too soon nor too late. In 
this section of the South we think October is the best 
time, and not before the 10th of that month. We like 
to have a sharp frost before we sted, and then we are 
reasonably sure that we shall not suffer from the fly. 
After the 10th of October there is plenty of time for 
wheat on well prepared land to make all the growth 
needed for it to go through the winter without serious 
damage, and it will then start off in the spring vigor- 
ously and with a strong root growth to maintain vig- 
orous growth. There is considerable difference of opin- 
ion as to the grazing of wheat. If the land be dry 
and the crop has made a rapid fall growth we think 
the practice one to be commended as tending to induce 
root growth, but a weakly plant ought not to be 
grazed. — Ed. 


Editor Southern Planter : 

The longer I look around the more I become im- 
pressed with the fact that I need advice by the 

There is a good deal of so called "waste land " on 
this place. The slopes, bends, gullies and low lands 
along acreek take up about 50 acres, including about 
ten acres that were in cultivation up to a few years 
ago. This ten acre patch I have plowed and sown to 
rye (with fertilizer) for early pasture. I hope the 
stock will leave enough standing so that I will not have 
to sow it again next fall, and can keep it seeded by 
plowing under what grain may be left over. 

Part of the 50 acres is covered with tall grass, 
among which young pines have grown up here and 
there. I think this would make fair grazing by 
burning the old grass and cutting down the few pines. 

Part is grown .thickly with young pines. I pre- 
sume there is nothing better to be done than to cut 
these down and wait until the stumps rot. 

Part — about ten acres — is grown up so thickly with 
bushes and briers of all sorts that a dog can hardly 
get through. I have been told that it will cost not 
less than $10 per acre to clear this land. Is there no 
other way than to grub out the bushes? If cut, will 
not the stock keep down the young growth? 

I have enclosed this 50 acres, together with 10 acres 
of heavy wire grass, with twelve strand woven fence. 
Nearly all of the sixty acres are fairly good clay soil. 
Some places wash badly, and these I shall plant to 

1903 J 



wire gr£i88. Would plant wire grass all over but for 
the fact that it lasts only for such a short season. 
How would a mixture of native blue grass, red top 
and fescue do for the wet places and timothy, orchard 
grass, white clover, red top and, perhaps, a little Ken 
tncky blue grass for the hillsides ? 

If I can get a nice green sod on this waste land, I 
shall consider it the most valuable part of the farm. 
But I have other waste lands, little corners cut off by 
ditches from the fields, river banks and corners of all 
sorts, that are either too small or not conveniently lo 
Gated to be attached to the pastures. The largest of 
these patches may be five acres, others are only afrac 
tion of an acre; some are grown up to weeds, others 
to broom straw, others to scrub pines, and others to 
timber that is of little or no value owing to location. 
Some of this land is loam, some clay, and some gravel 
or sand. These waste lands are unsightly, bring no 
revenue, and add nothing to the value of the place. 
I have been thinking of planting a few acres to cedars 
to provide posts for the future, as I am clearing the 
better located woods for fields. Would it be advisable 
to plant young fruit trees, such as stacdard varieties 
of apples, plums and cherries ? I might manage to 
give them one or two cultivations for a few years, but 
could not give much care to the trees. There are prob 
ably over 30 acres of corners on the place that are not 
easily accessible with wagons and machinery or acces 
sible only during the dry months. I would like to 
put this land to some moderately profitable use. Tbej 
are now eyesores and harbors for all sorts of vermin. 

Sanover Co.,Va. "Greenhorn." 

The work of cleaning up the odd waste patches and 
corners on a farm is one that is much too often neg- 
lected. Even if the direct profit resulting from the 
utilization of the land is not large, there is an indirect 
profit which is a large one. The attractiveness of the 
place is enhanced and value is added to it in the eyes 
of a prospective bujer. As breeding places for insect 
pests and fungoid diseases, and as nurseries for the 
growth and perpetuation of weeds, they are sources o( 
never ending loss on the farm until cleaned up. We 
are thertfore heartily in sympathy with our carres 
pondent in his effort to get rid of these places on his 
farm. Wherever these places are covered with pines 
and other forest growth, not of snflScientvalueto make 
lumber, these should be cut down in the summer-, aijd 
the stumps will then rot out in a couple of years. 
Where there is a heavy growth of reeds and coarse 
grass, these should be burnt off in the early spring, 
and if the patch is not large enough to cultivate in an 
arable crop, then Japan clover should be sown on it 
at the rate of 12 pounds to the acre. This will grow 
up with the grass, and in the end cover all the plot, 
and at the same time improve the laud and fit it to 
carry a better sod. This clover will make only graz 
ing in this section, but will be found a great addition 
in that respect, and will continually reseed itself. 
Where the patch is large enough and the soil good 
enough to carry a grass sod, we would break it with a 

small harrow or cultivator, and the damp low ljing\ 
places we would seed with red top (herds grass), \ 
meadow fescue, peiennial rye and meadow grass. The 
drier land we would setd in the same way with or- 
chard grass, tall mea(?owoat grass, Virginia blue grass 
and red fescue. Bermuda grass (wire grass) will also 
do well on the drier land and keep green in the hot- 
test weather. If along with the Bermuda grass some 
Virginia blue grass, meadow fescue and perennial rye 
grass was sown, it would help to make a winter pas- 
ture. We could not advise the planting of fruit trees 
on these low lying lands, as the chance of a crop would 
be very doubtful. Frost is always more destructive 
to fruit blosEom on these low Ijing lands than on the 
hillsides. The cold cunents of air are there stagna- 
ted, and even late blooming varieties are made un- 
fruitful. Besides, fruit grown in such places never 
keeps well. The idea of growing cedars for fence posts 
on part of the lots is one worth considering. We would 
suggest the growing of ca alpa trees on part of the lots 
for the same purpose. Several of the large railroad 
companies are now planting thousands of acres in ca- 
talpa for ties and fencing purposes. The tree grows 
fast, and makes excellent posts, rails and ties. The 
Department of Agriculture has recently issued a bul- 
letin on this subject which it may be well to obtain. 
Wherever pieces of land are large enough and acces- 
sible enough to be put under cultivation, we would, 
as soon as the stumps are rotted out, put irto a crop 
and work for at least a couple of years and then put 
down to grass. In no other way can a good sod of 
permanent grass be had. Whilst young cattle will 
browse on bushes to gome extent, yet they will rarely 
succeed in so keeping them down as to ultimately de- 
stroy them. Goats will, however, do so, as they pre- 
fer to browse rather than graze. In an experiment 
recently made in one of the New England States, a few 
Angora goats cleaned up a piece of brush land thor- 
oughly in a couple of years. We should be inclined 
to try this plan with some of the plots. The cost would 
not be great, and the goats would bring in some in- 
come, besides fitting the land for a better use, and at 
any rate making it more sightly.— Ed. 

Planting Bermuda Grass. 

Will you please tell me in the next month's Planter 
if it will do to plant Bermuda grass roots in the latter 
part of February and March. I planted in August, 
September and October, and did not get a stand. 

Iredell Co., N. G. O. E. Shook. 

Yes.— Ed. 

When corresponding with advertisers mention the 

Southern Planter. 





Enqniriea should be sent to the office of The Southern Planter 
Richmond, Va., not later than the 15th of the month, for re- 
pliee to appear in the next month's issue of the Planter. 

Qrass for Pasture. 

Please let me know through your inquirers column 
the kind of grass seed to sow on a field of woodland 
which I have cut off. The land is a gray land with 
red clay subsoil. I want to coulter it np and sow it in 
February or March. 

Orange Co., Va. E. M. Harnsbeegee. 

We presume that this is intended for pasture as no 
thing is said about having removed the stumps. We 
assume the land to be dry and light. On this we would 
sow 2 to 3 bushels per acre of a mixture made up of 
Tall Meadow oat grass, orchard grass, Herds grass, 
Virginia Blue grass, Meadow Fescue and Perennial 
Eye grass. — Ed. 

Nitrate of Soda on the Oat Crop. 
Would you recommend the nee of a nitrate of soda 
on oats and wheat? If you can, please state best time 
to use it, and how much per acre. C. A. 8. 

See reply in this issue as to the use of nitrate of soda 
on wheat. Use iu the same way on oats.— Ed. 

Canada Peas — Angora Qoats, 

I tax you for a sufficiency of your valuable time to 
answer the following questions : 

Is it practicable to buy Canada field peas to sow this 
winter now, here in Louisa county, with no visible 
chance of getting them in the ground as early as you 
advise in a recent issue of the Planter T Seed quoted 
by a Richmond firm at $1 65 a bushelt 

Having 135 acres of land, nearly all thicket, just 
such as yon find over much of this section unfit on ac 
count of growth for grazing cattle or sheep, would 
you advise the purchase of a flock of Angora goats to 
feed on this land ; and if so, how manj! 

Would four strands of barb wire be a sufficient fence 
to enclose? Have line, roomy barn, shedddd on three 
sides on land, and land lies convenient to my farm. 
Please state comparative profit of goats and sheep, 
and also as nearly as you can, what first cost of goats 
per head would be. 

Apple Grove, Va. James H. Quisenbeeey. 

We have known a crop of Canada peas and oats, 
seeded in the first week in March in Chesterfield 
county, to make a fair crop; but the spring was a 
cold one. They should be got in earlier than this to 
give them a fair opportunity. If you can seed this 
month, the ciop might be worth the cost, and the land 
would be improved for the cow peas to follow. 

In this issue you will find a reply to a query as to 
Angora goats, to which we refer you. We are strongly 
of opinion that on such land as you describe, goats 
will be found profitable, both directly and indirectly. 
They will clean it np and fit it for cultivation cheaper ' 

than in any other way. You should have at least fifty 
goats to get ahead of the brush growth on 135 acres 
of land. We think four strands of wire would en- 
close the goats. — Ed. 

Rotation of Crops. 

I have been sowing wheat every other year after 
wheat — sowing clover with wheat in every instance, 
cutting only one crop of clover when I gob a stand, 
and when I did not get a stand of clover, I sowed 
peas. Thus you see I got a clover or pea fallow each 
time I Fowed wheat, using at time of seeding a heavy 
application of bone meal and acid, and my lands seem 
very much improved ; yield of wheat increases every 
year. But now comes the question: Will they continue 
to do so with this mode of treatment and farming, or 
would you advise a rotation of crops 1 If so, please 
name crops in rotation that should be cultivated on 
these lands before they come to wheat again. These 
lands, when I started four years ago, were as poor as 
poverty; could not reasonably expect to more than get 
my seed back, but I now get from ten to fifteen bush- 
els per acre. C. L. Doggett. 

Mecklenburg Co., Va. 

Yes. Your lands will continue to improve under 
this system so long as yon take care to supply every 
year, or every other year, a sufficient quantity of 
phosphoric acid in the shape of bone meal or acid 
phosphate to meet the needs of the crops raised and 
to balance the nitrogen gathered from the atmosphere 
by the clover and peas. It would be an advantage to 
use a dressing of, say 25 bushels of lime per acre 
every third year on the clover fallow. This would 
make available the potash and phosphoric acid in the 
soil, and also tend to keep the soil alkaline enough 
for the production of clover, which cannot grow in 
acid soil. The turning down of so much green veg- 
etable matter has a tendency to cause acidity, and 
hence your clover fails sometimes. Possibly an ap- 
plication of 50 lbs. of muriate of potash with bone 
meal, and acid phosphate every few years, might also 
be of service, though we think it likely that you have 
a fair supply of potash in the soil naturally. — Ed. 

Peas and Sorghum. 

I have a forty acre field that was fallowed and sown 
in wheat (red land), and sown with timothy and clover 
with 200 lbs. of fertilizer. The drought caused no 
growth in the fall, and in the spring the drought again 
prevented any growth until late in May. The result 
was no grass, and only some 240 bushels of wheat. I 
am thinking of sowing it in peas, with a little sor- 
ghum, by a disc drill, after plowing, say three fourths 
bushel peas, two quarts sorghum, and 100 lbs. fertil- 
izer per acre, in May, and cutting it by mower, when 
peas are forming to make hay. Would this improve 
the land and allow a crop of corn to follow in spring 
of 1904; or can this be improved 1 

Oulpeper Go.,Va. B. F. Clark. 

The land should be in sufficiently good fertility to 
make a crop of corn after the peas and sorghum; but 
it would be an improvement to make an application of 




200 lbs. of acid phosphate, instead of 100 lbs. of ferti- 
lizer. Peas are great consumers of phosphoric acid, 
and can never do their best and thus supply all the 
nitrogen they are capable of doing unless it is present 
in abundance. — Ed. 

Cow-Peas, Soy Beans, Crimson Clover, Rape, &c. 

I would be glad to know the besC way to cultivate 
the following, and when to seed the same : Ist. Cow 
peas. 2nd. Navy beans. 3d. Crimson clover. 4th. 
Rape and Mangel Wurtzel beets for cattle or sheep in 
fall and winter. J. W. Bonnee. 

We shall deal with the raising of these various 
«rops in our issues during the spring and fall months 
when seasonable, and to these issues refer the enqui 
rer. — Ed. 

Horse Training — Articholces, 

Please recommend to me some good book on train 
ing horses from their birth up. Also please tell me 
when and how to plant artichokes. 

Isle of Wight Co., Va. N. Peyton Young. 

The Saddle Horse — a complete guide to riding or 
training. Price, $1.09. Horses — How to handle and 
edacate vicious — Gleason. Price, 50 cents. We can 
supply these books. In this i3«ue will be found ad- 
vice as to artichokes. — Ed. 


In this neighborhood, people tell me that we cannot 
raise corn except we plant the corn on ridges and 
then keep it ridged as much as possible. Then I have 
been told that it is an old custom and nothing in it. 
That we can plant the corn just the same as in the 
North and get just as good corn. Please give me the 
best way, as I do not wish to make a mistake and lose 
my corn. 

Norfolk Co.,Va. Joe M. Christensen. 

We shall deal with this subject fully in our spring 
issues, to which we refer the enquirer. Meanwhile, 
we would only say, take no notice of people who ad- 
vise you to ridge corn. We have for years been preach 
ing level cultivation of corn, and have got thousands 
to follow our advice, and always with success. — Ed. 

To Kill Wire Grass. 

Could you give me a plan or system by which one 
<3an most easily rid a piece of land of wire grass? 

I have recently bought a piece of land, and five or 
six acres of it is strongly set in wire grass, and has not 
been cultivated for several years. 

Any information along this line will be much ap- 
preciated. Would be glad to know if wire grass and 
Bermuda grass is the same in every respect. 

Edgecombe Co., N. C. F. J. Doziee. 

The only way to get rid of wire grass is to shade 
it heavUy. We know of a case where a piece 
of land similar to that described was completely rid 
of the grass in two years by planting two crops of 
corn on it. The corn was planted in rows three feet 

apart and six or eight inches apart In the row, and^ 
was cut for the silo. The corn made a very heavy 
growth, and at the end of first year very little wire 
grass could be found. The second crop completed 
the work. Bermuda and wire grass are the same. —Ed. 

riaintaining Fertility of Land — Dorset Sheep — 
Sheep for Mountain Land. 

1. Can rolling land be kept up to its present fertil- 
ity, or improved, by the following method of rota- 
tion : Sow cow peas in corn at the last working, 
and when the corn is in hard roasting ear state turn 
in enough hogs to "hog down" the entire crop, then 
sow rye on same land, and when it is large enough 
graze with sheep or hogs as late in the spring as it 
will be safe for it to make a crop; after the rye has 
matuied "hog-down" the entire crop again. After the 
rye is all consumed and the rag wteds have made a 
good start commence to plow the same land again for 
corn the following spring, subsoiling when possible 
and sowing peas when practical, and "hog down" the 
whole crop as before, then sow in rye and so on in- 
definitely? The foregoing method would obviate the 
risk of clover, save labor, machinery, a great deal of 
worry and more money, if it does not impoverish 
the land. 

2. Do you know it to be a fact that Dorset sheep 
will defend themselves against dogst 

3. What breed of graie sheep would you recom- 
mend crossing Dorset rams on to breed up a flock of 
high grade Dorsets, providing you could not procure 
grade Dorsets at a reasonable price! Are Dorsets as 
good or better than some other breeds for mountain 
land! C. T. Black. 

Boyle Co., Ky. 

1. Such a rotation and system of consuming the 
crops on the land as you suggest would no doubt 
maintain and enhance the fertility of the land for a 
time, but could not be indefinitely continued without 
impoverishing it and ceasing to be profitable. The 
several crops named are large consumers of phosphoric 
acid and potash, and whilst the existing supply of 
these minerals in the land continues sufficient, the ro- 
tation would be successful; but as soon as these begin 
to fail, then profitable production would cease. You 
cannot supply the deficiency in one form of plant food 
by a superabundance of another. They must each be 
present in equivalent proportion. If 300 or 400 lbs. 
of add phosphate and 50 lbs. of muriate ol potash 
was applied per acre each year, thea the rcc licn 
might go on almost indefinitely with success, as 1 1 
peas would supply the nitrogen from the atmosphere. 

2. Dorset sheep we know will defend themselves 
better from dogs than any other breed. We have one 
advertiser of this breed who offered to make good 
any Dorset sheep supplied by him which were killed 
by dogs. 

3. Whilst the Dorsets are hardy sheep, we do not 
regard them as especially a mountain breed. Their 
original home was on the low rolling lands of one o 




the warmest coanties in England, and they are most 
fitted for similar lands in this country. The Merinos 
will do better on high moantainous land, and the true 
mountain sheep of the north of England and Scotland 
still better. We would cross the Dorset rams on Me- 
rino ewes. — Ed. 

Nitrate of Soda for Wheat. 

"When is the best time to apply nitrate of soda to 
the wheat crop, and what quantity should be used! 
Should it be harrowed in, or will it do as well left on 
the surface? How much will it increase the yield? 

C. M. H. 

Nitrate of soda should never be applied to any crop 
until it is commencing to grow. It is 60 very soluble 
that unless root action is active, much of the nitrate 
is apt to ba lo^t by leaching into tlie sabsMl. A.pply 
to wheat just when the crop starts in the spring; 
we have seen it make a wonderful change in the color 
and rate of growth in a week. Apply from 75 to 100 
lbs. to the acre, broadcast. It need not be harrowed 
in, but it is well to harrow the wheat before sowing 
the fertilizer to break the crust and incite root action. 
We have frequently known it to Increase the crop 
from five to ten buthels to the acre, and make what 
would have been a complete failure a fair crop. — Ed. 

Qrinding Bones for Fertilizer — Preparation for 
Corn — rielon Growing, 

I am starting on a farm outside the city. Among 
other things, I shall raise some poultry. 

1. I have bought a Mann bone mill to run by power. 
Would it pay me to grind bones for fertilizer as well 
as for chicks? I have plenty of green bones from my 
own shops, and have the power on my premises. For 
what crops would the bone be most suitable, and 
abont what should be its marketable value? How 
should it be applied ? 

2. I have some land fallowed for corn. Would it be 
best to broadcast the manure on now, and let it lay, 
or keep it in the barn yard till spring, and then apply 
just before planting time? Apply it now, will not 
the ammonia and other parts of it evaporate and 
be lost ? 

3. What is the most approved manner for preparing 
the ground for melons, and what is the best manure 
and fertilieer? A. B. Burcher. 

Warwick Co.,Va. 

1. We do not think that you would find it practical 
to grind bones for fertilizer with a Mann mill. The 
bones used for fertilizer are first freed from grease and 
fat by boiling before being ground. The fat is of no 
value as a fertilizer, but rather a hindrance. These 
bones are then dried and ground to a powder much 
finer than a Mann mill will produce. Bone meal is 
valuable, is a source of phosphoric acid, and has also 
a small percentage of ammonia. It is one of the most 
useful phosphatic fertilizers used — being lasting in its 

action. It is excellent for wheat and grass produc- 
tion, and should be applied broadcast at the rate of 
300 to 500 lbs. to the acre. 

2. Apply the mannre broadcast at once. It will 
waste less in the field than in the barn yard. 

3. The land should be deeply plowed as soon as dry 
enough, and be left rough for the weather to break it 
down until April. Then work it fine and lay off the 
hills by running furrows lengthwise six feet apart and 
cross furrows six feet apart. At the intersection of 
these furrows, open a space with a hoe three feet in 
diameter and put in two or three forkfuls of good 
farm yard manure, upon which spread a handful or 
two of good truck feitilizer and mix the two. Then 
cover with good soil to the depth of three or four 
inches and plant the melon seeds on this bed after the 
ground is warm. — Ed. 

Alfalfa Growing. 

I want to raise alfalfa for meadow, and as it is a 
new grass in Southwest Virginia, I want jou to please 
advise me how to start it. 

The Southern Planter recommends sowing it in fall; 
but I do not think it can stand the freezing here in 
winter, as the soil is of such a nature as to be readily 
heaved by the alternate freezing and thawing. 

What time in the spring do you recommend sowing 
it? We very often loose red clover by sowing early 
in the spring, and the frost killing it. Is alfalfa easily 
killed by frost? Is it best to sow broadcast or drill 
it? How much seed is required per acre? Ought it 
to be fertilized? If so, what kind and how much per 
acre? If it be fertilized, would it be bett to mix 
grass seed and feetilizer together and drill, or not? If 
sown in March or April, and it grows off nicely, should 
it be mowed this year or not? The land is good where 
I am going to sow it. Jno. B. Ferguson. 

Busseil Co. , Va. 

Whilst we are strongly of opinion that alfalfa should 
in the South, as a general rule, be seeded in the fall, 
yet exception should be made in the mountain sec- 
tions — say above 1,000 feet in elevation, or wherever 
the winter is very severe. Where these conditions 
apply, the crops may be seeded in the spring at any 
time from April to June. The land should be well 
prepared and a tine seed bed be made. If not rich, it 
ought to have an application of 250 lbs. of bone meal 
to the acre, and if at all acid, which is nearly always 
the case where clover fails, it should have a light 
dressing of lime worked into the soil after it is plowed, 
say 10 to 20 bushels to the acre. Alfalfa will not grow 
on sour land. If alfalfa has never been grown on the 
land before, it will succeed much better if a sprink- 
ling of soil from a field which has grown alfalfa be ap- 
plied. This will infect the laud with the necessary 
bacteria. Some of these are always found on the seed, 
but usually not as many as necessary to make the best 
growth. Sow 20 lbs. of seed per acre broadcast. Do 




not sow with a grain crop of any kind. Be careful to 
BOW only on land free from weeds. These are the worst 
enemies the crop has usually to contend with in the 
South. After the crop has grown five or six inches 
high, run over it with the mower, clipping it back to 
three inches. Eept at this three or four times during 
the summer, leaving the clippings as a mulch, unless 
they become too heavy and fit for hay, when they 
should be removed. 

The following remarks by Professor Hopkins on the 
growing of alfalfa in the Middle West are so valuable 
that we desire to bring them to the notice of all our 
readers. We take them from the Breeders^ Gazette: 

1. Nitrogen costs at least 15 cents a pound in com 
mercial fertilizers, and the farmers of the Uaited States 
(chiefly in the older States) are paying millions of dol- 
lars every year for commercial nitrogen. 

2. The atmospheric pressue is fifteen pounds to the 
square inch; four fifths of the atmosphere is nitrogen; 
there id as much nitrogen resting upon every square 
inch of the entire surface of the earth as is contained 
in one ton of ordinary farm manure. 

3. Alfalfa requires moie nitrogen for successful 
growth than any other farm crop and more than even 
our rich prairie soils can furnish; and, consequently, 
to grow alfalfa without bacteria not only exhausts the 
soil of nitrogen, but requires heavy applications of 
manure to keep the alfalfa from dying. 

4. When inoculated with the proper bacteria and 
grown on soils which are not acid, alfalfa has free ac 
cess to the unlimited and inexhaustible supply of at 
mospheric nitrogen, and it then becomes the greatest 
nitrogen gathering plant known to American agri- 

5. Alfalfa hay contains at least 2 J per cent, of nitro 
gen and eight tons of alfalfa hay which frequently 
have been, and can be, and should be, produced from 
one acre of land in a single season contain at least 400 
pounds of nitrogen, which is as much nitrogen as is 
contained in 400 busheh of corn or in forty tons of 
farm yard manure, an amount of nitrogen which in 
the form of commercial fertilizers would cost at least 

6. These are not estimates; they are facts, absolute, 
positive and well established facts; and if we can put 
our soils in suitable condition to grow alfalfa — by in 
oculating the soils which need inoculation, by liming 
the soils which need lime, by applying phosphorus to 
the soils which aie becoming deficient in phosphorus 
(and even at the expense of a few dollars per acre) — 
shall we not do itt 

7. The Illinois Experiment Station has cured four 
crops of alfalfa hay without loss and without difficulty 
during the very wet season of 1902. But even if we 
should lose a crop of hay because of wet weather, 
we could well afford to use it for manure. For ma 
nurial purposes one ton of alfalfa hay is worth more 
than four tons of ordinary farm yard manure. 

8. Alfalfa hay is an excellent feed for horses, cattle, 
sheep or swine. It is a richer feed than red clover and 
requires less corn to be fed with it to produce equal 

Cotton Fertilizer— English Peas. 

1. Muriate of Potash for Cotton. — I would like to 
know if I can safely use 100 lbs. of potash per acre 
for cotton. I used 50 lbs. per acre last seasoa with 
satisfactory results. My lands are old cultivated, me 
dium light soil, with clay subsoil. 

2. English Peas.— I would like to have some infor- 
mation in regard to English peas. How many bushels 
(in the hull) is considered a fair crop per acre — say 
land that will yield forty bushels of corn per acre 
with good fertilization? Are they a profitable crop for 
shipping to Northern markets, provided they are 
ready for shipping in May ? 

Vegetables and Fruit Packed in Lime. — I would like 
to hear from others that have tried the lime receipt ia 
the October issue. I packed a lot of tomatoes, some 
nearly ripe, some green, in a box with air slaked lime 
as per instructions, some two months ago. I opened 
them recently, and found that some of them had rotted 
and others had dried completely up. 

Marlboro Co., 8. C. J. Pletchee. 

In South Carolina a very elaborate and carefully- 
conducted series of experiment* was made upon the 
Experiment Station farms some years ago to determine 
the fertilizer requirements of the cotton crop. The 
soils selected were typieal of the upland soils of the 
State, and had been much exhausted. The conclu- 
sions reached were in part as follows: 

1. Cotton requires nitrogen, phosphoric acid and 

2. Of the three, phosphoric acid is relatively the 
most important, and controls the action of the other 

3. Nitrogen Is relatively more important than potash. 

4. Potash, when applied separately, is of little value. 

5. With proper allowance for cost, as well as the 
effect of each application, the requirements may be 
more exactly given as follows, for a crop yielding 300 
lbs. of lint per acre : Nitrogen, 20 lbs. ; phosphoric 
acid, 50 lbs.; potash, 15 lbs. 

It is concluded that the amount of phosphoric acid 
and proportionate amounts of nitrogen and potash 
cannot be indefinitely increased with the expectation 
of obtaining a corresponding increase in the crops. 
The maximum quantity of fertilizer that can in gen- 
eral be used with advantage, is concluded to be an 
amount that will furnish per acre phosphoric acid, 50 
lbs.; potash, 15 lbs.; nitrogen, 20 lb3. In general, the 
most effective amount of fertilizer was 652 lbs. per 
acre, made up of — 

Acid phosphate 468 lbs. 

Nitrate of soda 130 lbs. 

Muriate of potash 54 lbs. 

652 lb3. 
It would seem, threfore, that it would not be wise 
for you to increase the potash to 100 lbs., even though 
you correspondingly increased the other ingredients. 





2. Very large crops of English peas are grown in 
Tidewater Virginia for shipping in May and June to 
the North and for canning. They are in a good season, 
usually regarded as a profitable crop, and the area 
planted is constantly increased. We have no reliable 
data as to the average yield per acre. You ought to 
be able to grow them quite as profitably in South 
Carolina, as you should strike a very early market 
when the price is high. They ought to be in the 
ground now to do this. — Ed. 

Grass Seeding. 

Will you please state in your next number how 
much Evergreen should be seeded to an acre. Some 
say one bushel, bat I want to know for certain how 
much, and how much red top or herd grass. 

Campbell Co., Va. W.C.Jones. 

We presume you refer to Tall Meadow Oat Grass 
when you speak of Evergreen grass. We would seed 
from a bushel and a half to two bushels of the meadow 
oat grass and a bushel of herds graas. We believe in 
heavy seeding of grass seeds, and this belief is founded 
on long practical experience. We never sowed less 
than three bushels to the acre, and nearly always se- 
cured a good stand sufficient to smother down the 
weeds. — Ed. 

Pecans — Qrass 5eed. 

Enclosed find half dozen "pecans" that I shook 
from tree to day — 9th January. I have six trees 15 
to 35 feet in height — the larger ones 40 inches in cir- 
cumference—from Texas nuts planted about fifteen 
years ago. Four of the trees have borne a few nuts 
for some three years; two produced nuts not quite so 
good as the ones enclosed. They bear more, but on 
account of late ripening, they do not mature before 
cold weather or frost. I do not know how those nuts 
compare with the first nuts grown, but think they are 
as good as the average nut oflfered in the stores. We 
propose to graft some on seedling Hickories to try to 
get them to come into bearing earlier. The trees stand 
in stiff clay land or sod, but fertile. 

I would take advantage of this opportunity to ask 
you or yoar readers to advise us the best and most 
practical way to get rid of "persimmon bushes." 
They are a great nuisance with us. I have them from 
half an incb to three inches in diameter at bottom 
and ten to twelve feet in height. Will Angora goats 
eat persimmon bushes? 

What is the advantage of the lawn grass mixtures 
over Kentucky blue grass for lawns where the soil is 
stiff red clay and naturally runs into blue grass and 
white clover! Z. 

Rappahannock Co.,Ya. 

Our Virginia friends se( m determined to prove to 
na that pecans will grow in Virginia. We never dis 
puted this, but merely said that it was not the best and 
natural latitude for them, and that we could not ad- 
vise planting them in this State for profit. The nuts 

sent us are fair ones, but not so fine as those sent xxs 
from Norfolk county, Va. 

The advantage in seeding lawn grass over Kentucky 
blue grass alone is, that yon secure a mixture of 
grasses which mature at different times, and therefore 
tend to keep a lawn in fine order through a longer 
season than one variety alone. We know of no other 
way to get rid of persimmons than to grub them out, 
except that if browsed for years by goats sufficiently 
numerous to keep them from leafing, they will die 
out. Any tree or plant kept from leafing will even- 
tually die, but some, like persimmons, are very tena- 
cious of life. — Ed. 

Improving Mountain Land. 

My father has recently purchased about 2,000 acres 
of very rich mountain land in Mitchell county, N. C. 
Some 800 acres of this land is cleared, much of which 
lays as smoothly as valley land, and is covered with 
native sod, which seems to fatten cattle fairly well. 
He is thinking of plowing up this sod and sowing 
blue grass and red top, thinking that he can carry a 
greater number of cattle. If any of your correspon- 
dents have had any experience with this kind of land, 
I would like to get some information as to whether it 
is practical to establish a permanent blue grass sod. 

The soil is very deep and black, and the timber is 
mostly sugar tree, buckeye and bass wood. Timothy 
grows to perfection, will produce about two tons to 
the acre. How would a timothy seed farm pay on 
this land? What machine would yon recommend for 
thrashing timothy, oats and rye? This land is not 
suited for growing wheat, as it lays from three to four 
thousand feet above the sea level. 

Sullivan Co., Tenn. J. H. Eeynolds. 

We would like to hear from some of our subscribers 
on this subject, as it is one with which we have had 
no practical experience. Please oblige us. — Ed. 

Fertilizer for Qrass and Clover. 

I have a field well set with timothy and clover — 
would it be profitable to sow Orchilla guano this 
spring towards making a good hay crop, and next 
spring to be turned under for corn, and how much 
should I use per acre ? 

York Co. , Pa. A Stjbsceiber. 

We doubt much whether you would derive any 
benefit in the hay crop from the use of Orchilla guano 
ai a top dressing. This is a phosphatio fertilizer, and 
wants to be mixed with the soil to secure Its benefit. 
You would derive much more advantage from an ap- 
plication of 75 to 100 lbs. to the acre of nitrate of 
soda just when the crop commences to grow. This is 
a very soluble fertilizer, and will benefit the crop at 
once. Apply the Orchilla guano in the early spring 
after plowing down the sod in the fall or winter, and 
it will benefit the corn crop. — Ed. 




Artichokes— Best Cross for Qrade Hogs. 

The Southern Planter is the best "farming imple 
ment" on my farm, and I can't do without it. Please 
give in your next issue information about artichokes, 
what is the best variety! how many to the acre! what 
is the best time to plant 1 what kind of land is best 
for them ! and what is the method of cultivation ! 

Which makes the best hog, Poland China male on 
Berkshire sows, or Berkshire mjile on Poland China 

Northumberland Co.,Va. W. S. Dillee. 

We have a high opinion of the value of artichokes 
as a feed for hogs. They are also good feed for milch 
cows, but it is as a hog crop that we most value them. 
Curiously enough, we have this month a letter from 
an old subscriber complaining that his hogs will not 
eat them. In all our long experience, we have never 
before had such a complaint. We have subscribers 
who grow acres of them and feed large herds of hogs 
on them with the most complete success. The best 
variety to grow is the Jerusalem or White French. 
This variety will produce from 300 to 700 bushels to 
the acre, according to the fertility of the land and 
the season. They should be planted in rows about 3 
feet apart and about 2 feet apart in the rows. Pre 
pare the land as for corn. Then open out a furrow 
and drop the sets as with Irish potatoes. These sets 
may be either whole roots if small or cut ones if large. 
Every piece with two or three eyes will make a plant. 
Cultivate as for corn. In the fall turn in the hogs 
and let them harvest them for themselves, digging 
sufficient first to provide seed for another year. If 
desired, a portion of the crop may be lifted, and be 
stored like turnips to be fed to the hogs when the 
land is too hard frozen for them to root them out. 
If not needed for the hogs, they may be fed to cows. 

A cross of Berkshire male on Poland- China sows 
will be best, as the Berkshire is more prepotent than 
the Poland China, having been longer bred pure. — Ed. 


Cattle Dying — Texas Fever or Blackleg 

Through my pasture is a stream of running water 
(a creek). The past summer being an exception it 
dried up, except in holes. This my cattle would drink. 
Fresh water was drawn for them daily, but they seem- 
ed to prefer the creek water. In September two heifers 
were sick three or four days, died, and were carried 
off, and no one seemed to know what was the trouble. 
In October two more young heifers died. In their case 
I fouad it a genuine case of hemorrhagic fever. I be- 
gan the use of quinine, but I think too late. In case 
of another attack, will yon kindly tell me what to do ! 
Will kerosene oil, poured on hogs until it runs off their 
•ides, damage them ? Object, to kill lice. 

Cumberland Co., N. C. W. C. Fields. 

We are inclined to think that your cattle died from 
either Texas fever or Blackleg. If there was a puffed 
and swollen condition of the skin on the legs up near 

the body, and this when rubbed over with the hand- 
gave out a crackling sound, the disease was Blackleg. V. 
For this, inoculaCion with Blackleg vacine, which is ad- ^ 
vertised in our columns and ean be had from the Ex- 
periment Station Blacksburg, is a certain preventive.. 
If the disease was Texas fever this is caused by ticks, 
and there is no known cure. The remedy is to keep 
the cattle free from ticks. Clean off all ticks by pick- 
ing and then grease them about the legs and under 
the body with grease of any kind, in which mix a lit- 
tle carbolic acid. A pasture which has carried cattle 
which have had Texas fever is sure to be infested 
with ticks and no other cattle should be put on that 
pasture for a year. The ticks will then be extermi- 
nated as they cannot perpetuate themselves unless they 
have cattle to feed and breed on, nor can they crawl or 
fly out of the fields. Such a field so cleared can only 
again become infested by the introduction of ticky 
cattle and will be perfectly safe for clean cattle even 
from the North. 

We have frequently poured kerosene on hogs to 
kill lice without any injury to them. Very thin 
skinned hogs will sometimes be blistered by it. It 
is not necessary, however, to do more than pour a 
little oil down the centre of the back. This will 
soon spread in a thin layer over the whole body 
and will kill the lice without hurting the hog. — Ed. 

Angora Qoats. 

I am considering the purchase of a flock of Angora 
goats, and as I know little more about them than 
what I have read in the farm papers, I would like to 
have your views on the matter. Are conditions in 
this section favorable to them ! Will ordinary sheep 
fence turn them ! Best age to buy ; about price ; lot 
of say 25 head ; amount wool they shear ; its worth, 
increase in kids per year. Will they cross on sheep! 
Demand for Angora venison, &c., &c. 

Caroline Co., Va. C. B. 

In our July, October and December issues of last 
year we published a considerable amount of informa- 
tion on Angora goats, to which issues we refer our 
correspondent. We believe that there is a field for 
this kind of stock in this State, and that they would 
do well here in any part of the State. You will find 
them advertised for sale in our columns, and a letter 
to our advertisers will give you the prices at which 
they are selling. These run all the way from $10 to 
$50. A good sheep fence will confine them. The wool 
is always in demand at from 15 to 50 cents a pound, 
according to quality and length and fineness of staple. 
We would purchase young goats and breed up a flock. 
They will not cross with sheep. There is not any de- 
mand for Angora venison as such, but it sells well we 
are told for lamb. If our correspondent has not the 
issues of the Planter referred to, we will try to find 
them for him if he desires. — Ed. 




Clover Seeding. 

I would be glad to have discussed through the col- 
umns of your paper the best methods of getting a stand 
of red cloves as adapted to this section. 

Fall, winter, or spring sowing 1 Is it best to harrow 
in seed ! With or without nurse crop ? What do you 
think of early spring sowing — covering seed lightly j or June 
and sowing rye at same time as a protection against sun 
— the rye to be grazed or cut for ha^ when ready ? 
How wo aid this combination do for August or early 
September sowing? 

I believe the salvation of much of our farming land 
lies in the cultivation of clover and other legumes, and 
therefore merits our most careful investigation. So 
let us have a full discussion of the subject and the 
opinions and experience of our up to date farmers. 

I would also be glad to hear the best methods of 
preparing a clover crop for the huller. Best time 
to cut and cure 

Culpeper Co..Va. A. G. Pake. 

Tour land probably needs lime. Clover will not 
grow on acid land, and this is probably the condition 
of yours. Eender it slightly alkaline by using 25 
bushels of lime to the acre. The clover microbes can- 
not live or work in acid soil. We believe more clover 
seed is lost by no^ covering sufficiently where the land 
is in suitable condition for its growth than from any 
other cause. We always harrowed it in lightly and 
rarely failed of a stand. In another part of this 
issue (Work for the Month) we have given our views 
as to seeding grass and clover with grain. We are 
opposed to the practice in this climate. Try the lime 
and seed alone in the fall, or if not ready, then in the 
spring. We think yon will succeed. We shall be 
glad to have the views of our readers on the hulling 
question. — Ed. 

lbs. of acid phosphate or bone meal be applied and 
be seeded with cow peas. This will smother the 
weeds. After the peas are cut off for hay, cultivate 
lightly with a harrow or cultivator and sow the alfal- 
fa. In your section, the crop should be sown in Ma^ 

Qreen Crops for Hogs— Sick Hogs. 

I have five pigs ten weeks old which I wish to make 
average 200 pounds at killing time. Propose sowing 
three acres in oats and Canada peas, as this is the ear- 
liest green feed I can get for them to grate on. During 
summer they can have cabbages, squash, melons, 
etc., and September will be turned in a pea field. 
Would it be reasonable to expect 200 pounds each 
with such fseding! The same pigs are at present 
broken out with small sores all over; their hair looks 
dead, yet they eat heartily. What is the probable 
trouble with them ? What kind of medicine do they 

Many farmers have lost fattening hogs this season 
through this section. They stem to take almost in- 
stantly sick with a cough, hard breathing, very rapid 
as though choked, and never eat anything scarcely, 
and after a day or so of sickness they die. What do 
you think the trouble is ? Three lots of those killed on 
being dressed weie found to be full of little worms 
about an incti long. They are principally around the 
kidneys, though some were found in the livers. Those 
so affected throve very poorly in the pen, and in most 
cases were weak across the loins. Is there any tonic 
which if given would kill such parasites 1 

Mecklenburg Co., Va. A Subsceibee. 


Can we grow alfalfa here on a well drained red clay 
soil? No lime in our soil here, but we can grow red 
clover. We have made a crop of corn, wheat and 
buckwheat on the land, and now wish to seed it to al- 
falfa. Please give us your advice as to seeding It. 

Grayson Co., Va. P. 

Yes, alfalfa can be successfully grown all through 
the South if the proper conditions for its culture are 
observed. It requires rich sound land with a subsoil 
Into which the roots can penetrate, and must be free 
from weeds, which are the greatest trouble with which 
it has to contend in the South. In all sections except 
the mountains, it should be seeded in the early fall. 
The best preparation for the crop is to spend the sum 
mer months in preparing the land intended to be 
sown, and in killing out all -weeds by constantly 
bringing the seeds near the surface, and, as soon as 
they have commenced to grow, destroying them by 
cultivation. Then in August give the land an appli 
cation of 300 lbs. of bone-meal to the acre, harrow in 
and seed ; or the land may be well prepared and 300 

It is impossible for us or any one else to say that 
hogs will make any particular weight on certain feeds 
within a certain time, but thousands ot hogs fed 
largely on green crops and only finished with a little 
corn, make fevery year the weight you suggest before 
they are a year old. Ton will, however, need to sup- 
plement your peas and oats with some other crop to 
carry the hogs to September, when the peas are ready. 
Canada peas and oats make a fine grazing crop when 
put in early enough (they ought to be sown before the 
middle of this month at the latest); but the period of 
their usefulness ends as soon as the hot weather sets 
in. They cannot stand heat. You should plant some 
sorghum and corn to come in for use in July and fol- 
lowing months until the peas are ready. 

As to the sickness of the little pigs : Give them a 
little sulphur in slop feed, and keep them warm until 
it has worked off. 

As to the worms : These should be expelled by giv- 
ing them a little turpentine, say a spoonful per hog, 
in slop feed, followed with some Epsom salts in the 
food to carry oft' the worms. It is impossible for us 
to say from what the hogs died; probably from some 
form of disease of the digestive organs or obstruction 
of the bowels.— Ed. 

1903 j 



Fertilizer for Garden Crops— Lettuce. 

I wonld respectfully ask your opinion as to the best 
fertilizer to use on garden truck, especially lettuce, 
and as to the application of nitrate of soda as a top 
dressing. When so applied, should it be covered by 
earth, or simply put on top near the plant ? 

Cuniberland Co., N. C, H. J. McDuffie. 

The beat fertilizer for all garden and truck crops is 
rich farm-yard manure. This tends to keep the soil 
full of humus and vegetable matter, without which it 
is impossible to grow good vegetables. The soil can 
scarcely ever be made too rich for truck crops, as un- 
less grown quickly they are never of good quality. 
Farm-yard manure can be profitably supplemented 
by fertilizers espscially rich in nitrogen, like nitrate 
of soda, blood, cotton seed meal and tankage. Nitro- 
gen tends to induce quick and abundant leaf growth. 
The cruciforous crops, like cabbages, also call largely 
for potash, as also do Irish potatoes. In fact, nearly 
all the vegetable crops require an abundant supply of 
potash in the soil. The cereals, like corn, call also for 
phosphoric acid. For lettuce, a fertilizer having 
about 6 per cent, ammonia, 5 per cent, phosphoric 
acid, and 8 per cent, potash, is about right. This may 
be made up of 300 lbs. nitrate of soda, 800 lbs. cotton- 
seed meal, 600 lbs. acid phosphate (13 per cent.), and 
309 lbs. muriate of potash — to make a ton. 

Nitrate of soda need never be plowed under. It is 
as soluble as common salt, and will soon melt and find 
its way into the ground. — Ed. 


Will you kindly write an article on tomato culture? 
1st. The character of soil best adapted. 2d. The best 
seed to be used. 3d. The preparation of the land. 
4th. Which is best to use, fertilizer or manure f 

We have a new cannery and a number of farmers 
in this neighborhood are anxious for the information. 

King George Co. , Ya. H. T. Garnett. 

We will write fully on this question of tomato grow- 
ing in our next issue. Meanwhile, we would say that 
the best land for the crop is a light loamy soil, which 
should be deeply plowed and finely prepared. The 
work of getting the land in order should be underta 
ken as soon as ever the land is dry enough to work, 
so that by 1st May it may be in good order and nicely 
warmed, that the plants may start off freely. The 
hot beds in which to raise the plants should be got 
ready this month. They should be made up as for 
striking sweet potato slips. Do not sow the seed un- 
til a nice gentle bottom heat has been developed, 
cover the manure with about 3 inches of loamy woods 
earth. Sow the seed in this not too thickly about the 
first week in March for the earliest plants. Stone, 
Beauty, Acme and Trophy are good varieties for can- 
ning purposes. — Ed. 

Hen Manure. 

Having gone into the poultry business on a small 
scale, something like 260 chickens, and by gathering 
the droppings once every week, I believe in one year's 
time I will have a large pile of hen manure. I would 
like to use this on my wheat in the fall. 

1. Is this the crop to use it on ? Wheat and corn, are 
the principal crops here in the northern part of Vir- 

2. How would you keep it from heating ? At the 
present time I am mixing kainib with it, but do not 
know if this will prevent it from heating. Wanted 
this fall to take one part hen manure, one part potash, 
one part acid phosphate. 

3. Will this make a good fertilizer for wheat and 
grass ? 

4 Will you tell me a better way to use my hen ma- 
nure? People tell me it is a very rich manure, but 
have never been able to realize much out of It. 

Shenandoah Co., Va. N. D. Hite. 

Hen manure is rich in nitrogen with a small per- 
centage of potash and phosphoric acid. It should be 
gathered up regularly once or twice a week and be 
stored in barrels. Kainit, or acid phosphate, or plas- 
ter should be dusted over it under the roost every day 
or two, and this will prevent the nitrogen from being 
lost. It should be kept moist, not wet, in the barrels 
or it will be difficult to handle when wanted, as it dries 
into very hard lumps. Being rich in nitrogen, it is 
more suited to vegetable or forage crops than wheat. 
It lacks the phosphoric acid and potash which the 
cereals call for. If used for wheat it should have three 
or four parts of acid phosphate to one of the hen ma- 
nure applied with it. The mixing of kainit with the 
manure as It is gathered will supply the potash need- 
ed. Used in this way it will make a good wheat fer- 
tilizer. — Ed. 

Budding Peaches. 

I want to bud some peach trees next June. Will 
you please tell me when to cut the buds! Please 
answer by mail or through the columns of your jour 
nal for February; and by so doing, you will greatly 
oblige J. H. Davis. 

Monroe Co., W. Ya. 

The buds must be cut from a shoot of this year's 
growth. The shoots containing the buds should be cut 
when so mature as to be rather firm and hard in tex- 
ture. They are usually in the best condition after the 
terminal bud has formed. — Ed. 

Holstein-Friesian Associations. 

Have there ever been two Holstein-Friesian Asso- 
ciations in America 4 If so, did one fail? 

Nottoway Co. , Ya. Subsoeibee. 

There was at one time a Western Holstein Friesian 
Association, which was organized on October 28, 1891, 
and held its first annual meeting at Marshall, Mo. ; 
but this was consolidated with the Holstein-Friesian 
Association of America in the spring of 1898. Mr. 
F. L. Houghton, of Putney, Vt., is secretary of this 
Association. — Ed. 




Trucking, Garden and Orchard. 


Not much can be done in the garden or track field 
this month in the way of planting crops, but much 
may be done in the way of getting the land into 
condition for planting, and in applying the manure 
»nd fertilizer necessary to ensure good crops. The 
point we have emphasized in '-Work for the Month" 
in the Farm Management Department is equally as 
necessary here, yea, indeed, more necessary if that be 
possible, and that is, the more perfec) preparation of 
the soil for the crops before planting. Plow and re 
plow, harrow and re- harrow, if you want to secure 
the best results. In no other way can the Inherent 
fertility of the soil be made available, nor can the 
plant food supplied in the way of manure and fertil- 
izer be otherwise made to give the best results. Get 
out the barn-yard manure on to the plots and do not 
be sparing in its application. A hundred loads to 
the acre will not hurt the crops, and this may be sup- 
plemented with 500 lbs. of acid phosphate and 100 
lbs. of muriate of potash per acre. Spread the phos- 
phate and potash on the barn- yard manure and work 
all in together. These fertilizers are better applied 
now than at the time of planting the crops, as they 
require time to become available as plant food. 

The crops which may be planted in this month, 
in Tidewater Virginia and Eastern North and 
South Carolina, are English peas and Irish potatoes. 
In other sections of these States, and the States West 
and North, March is soon enough to get in these 

English peaa are very hardy, and even a sharp frost 
will not hurt them much. They should be planted in 

rills 2 feet 6 inches apart, and be given a cover of 4 
or 5 inches of soil. Scatter the peas in broad rows, 
and tread into the soil before covering. The early 
smooth varieties are the hardiest, and should be first 
planted. If the land needs additional fertilizer (though 
it is not well to make land too rich for peas, as it tends 
to cause them to run to vine,) apply acid phosphate 
and potash, say 300 lbs. of phosphate and 50 lbs. of 


The planting of Irish potatoes in this month is al- 
ways attended with some risk, afl they are very sus- 
ceptible to damage from late frost, and, when once cut 
off, rarely make much yield, but the price of the ear- 
liest potatoes is always a good one, and it is worth 
while to take some risk. Commercial fertilizer usual 
ly makes a better yield and sample of potatoes than 
farm yard manure. Manure has a great tendency to 
make the potatoes scabby. The spores of the disease 

causing scab are often present in manure. A good 
fertilizer for Irish potatoes may be made up of — 

300 lbs. nitrate of soda. 

600 lbs. cotton seed meal or fish scrap. 

800 lbs. acid phosphate. 

300 lbs, muriate of potash. 

2,000 lbs. 

This may be applied at the rate of from 500 to 1500 
lbs. to the acre broadcast. If less than 500 lbs. is ap- 
plied per acre, it may be put in the rows, but must 
be well mixed with the soil before planting the sets. 
Open the rows 2 feet 6 inches or 3 feet apart and drop 
the sets 12 to 15 inches apart in the rows. The sets may 
be if cut large, so as to leave two or three eyes on each 
piece. Cover to the depth of 4 or 5 inches. The crop 
should be cultivated with a harrow or weeder before 
the plants come through the ground to kill off weeds 
and open the soil. Cultivate frequently and keep level. 

Small sowings of lettuce, radishes and other early 
salads may be made in sheltered spots. 

Hot beds should be got ready for raising tomato, 
cantaloupe, melon, egg and pepper plants, and for 
striking sweet potatoes. Make up the beds and cover 
the manure, which should be fresh horse litter and 
leaves with 3 or 4 inches of soil, but do not plant the 
seeds until the first hot fermentation of the manure ia 
over. What is needed is a gentle steady heat. 

Spinach and kale may be seeded towards the end 
of the month. These crops should be sown in rows 
where they are to complete their growth and not In 
seed- beds. If the weather is very cold, March is soon 
enough to sow them. 

Cabbage seed may be sown in frames for plants to 
set out to follow the fall sown crop. 

Asparagus beds should have attention. They should 
be worked over and covered with manure and soil to 
the depth of 10 or 12 inches. New beds may be made 
and the plants be set out this month and the next. In 
making the bed, plow out the soil as deep as possible 
in the line of the rows, and then in the bottom of this 
deep furrow spread 2 or 3 Inches of good soil and set 
out the plants 12 or 15 inches apart. Cover with 2 or 
3 inches of good soil, and make firm over and around 
the plants. The rows should be not less than 6ifeet 
apart, so as to provide for plenty of soil to cover.^the 
beds the second year. 

Don't delay ordering your seeds andnfertilizerluntil 
time to plant the crops. If you do, yon are pretty 
sure to have to wait for them, and thus miss the, best 
time for planting. 





Editor Southern Planter : 

Start the pruning implements now. What tools 
should I use on the vineyard and in the orchard ! A 
pair of lopping shears and a pair of ordinary hand 
shears will do the work in the vineyard if moved by 
the hand of an intelligent farmer. For the orchard, a 
small hand saw, in addition, will be all that may be 
needed. You can buy these of most large nursery 
men and seedsmen, who advertise in the Planter. But 
how shall I prune f Why should I prune? Whole 
books could be written in answer to these two ques 
tions. No one should prune who cannot give a good 
reason for each operation and tell what the results of 
each operation will likely be. This rule will exclude 
the mere mechanic from fruit plantations. Fruit trees 
and vines should not be cut because the tools are 
sharp, nor for the sole object of permitting cultiva- 
tors to go through the orchard more readily. Each 
vine and each tree presents a separate and distinct 
problem to solve before pruning. It requires as much 
brains to manage a pruning implement properly as it 
does to read Blackstone intelligently. The time has 
arrived in the Old Dominion when many people be- 
lieve it. But the State needs many more jnst such 
believers. Training is quite a different thing from 
pruning. We prune in order to train. Therefore, we 
should have a well settled idea of training before we 
attempt to prune. In pruning the grape, it is well to 
remember that the fruit is borne in a few clusters near 
the base of the growing shoots. These growing shoots 
come out from wood of lasb season's growth. Thus it 
<!an readily be seen that the amount of fruit a vine 
will bear can be easily controlled by intelligent pru 
ning. The shoot that grows out from each bud will 
usually bear from three to four clusters of fruit. Forty 
buds left on the bearing canes will produce about 150 
clusters of good sized fruit. Strong vines will carry 
more and weaker ones fewer. What system of train 
ing is best f That depends upon the species or variety 
you are growing, and also upon what system you like 
best. After testing a number of the systems, we like 
thelMunson system for several of the long caned spe 
cies, and some modification of the old Kniffin system 
for the shorter vined varieties, like many of the Ldbrusca 
species. The bearing wood should be kept as near the 
ground as possible to hold the vine in manageable 
limits, to facilitate spraying and to make the fruit 
easier to gather. Aiter pruning, we like to have the 
bearing canes tied to the wires almost in a horizontal 
positiOH, so fjhat the sap will be distributed as evenly 
as possible to all growing shoots. About three or 
four spurs with two buds each should be left near the 
main trunk for bearing canes next year. 

For more exhaustive discussion of this subject, send 
postal card for Bulletin No. 48, Texas Experiment Sta- 
tion, College Station,Texas, and Bulletin on the Grape, 
published by Virginia Experiment Station, Blacks - 
burg, Va. These bulletins should be in the hands of 
all grape growers of the State. They may be ob- 
tained if the editions are not exhausted. 

* * 


Commence pruning your trees this month, lor fear 
yon may put it off till the sap starts and much dam- 
age may be done when the bark slips. Daring my 
travels over the State, I notice a very large number of 
fruit trees planted out with the tops unpruned. They 
are frequently left to grow with the same switch like 
top they usually have when taken up from the nur- 
sery where they grew in a crowded condition. This 
crowded condition made the young trees push their 
tops up in a tall and slender manner. The nursery- 
man usually encourages this form of growth to meet 
the erroneous popular demand for the tallest young 
trees. The conditions are entirely changed for the 
young tree's growth in the orchard. Nature will 
usually try to correct this slender top herself by 
pushing out thrifty sprouts lower down. These young 
and thrifty sprouts will usually grow faster than the 
older top growth, and thus make a very ugly and un- 
desirable top. We usually prefer well-grown, one- 
year trees, so that we can cut the top back within two 
feet of the ground for most apple sections of the South- 
ern States. The side buds usually push out readily 
when growth starts, and, by a little early summer 
pinching, we can usually start the top according to 
our own ideal the first year. We like the low vase 
form of top, with stout spreading^branches. The trees 
are easier to spray, the fruit more readily gathered, 
and the wind does not do so much damage to the tree 
and fiuit. 

Limbs that cross and are likely to rub'each other, 
should be taken out early. The top should be made 
open and spreading to carry a heavy load, and let the 
sunlight and air enter freely to give color and size to 
the fruit. Slender limbs should^belcntjback to keep 
them from bending down too much'and°to cause them 
to branch. When limbs are cut;off at the trunk, the 
operation should be performed just outside of the col- 
lar, and lihe cut surface be made parallel with the 
main body of the trunk to facilitiite thellhealing over 
of the wound. If pruning be intelligently done each 
year, it will rarely be necessary to cut a limb off the 
main trunk over one inch in diameter. White lead 
paint is an excellent thing to put on the cut surface to 
keep out disease germs and to facilitate the healing 
over of the wounds. 

These general remarks apply more specially to such 
pomaceous fruits as the apple and pear, where the 




frnits are borne on spurs that grow out all along the 
older limbs. The peach bears its fruit quite differ- 
ently. In this instance the fruit is produced from 
buds that are borne directly, nearly always^ on one- 
year old wood. If all this wood is cut off, there will 
be no peach crop the following season. We like to 
prune ofif about one third of the previous year's 
growth. This lessens the number of fruit borne, and, 
accordingly, causfs the limbs to branch more, lessens 
the tendency of the limbs to droop down and split ofif, 
causes the tree to make more bearing wood for next 
season, and increases the size of the remaining fruit. 
Go out into the orchard and bring into the house some 
apple and peach twigs. Notice the difference between 
an apple bud and a peach bud. Learn the prospects 
of a fruit crop the coming season. Teach the boy the 
difference between a fruit bud and a leaf bud. This 
may give him his first lesson in nature study and fitart 
him in the study of horticulture. The State needs him. 

For further study along this line, write for Bulletin 
No. 58, on Pruning and Training Peach Orchards, 
Texas Experiment Station, College Station, Texas, 
and also the Bulletins on Pruning Orchards, pub 
lished by the Virginia Experiment Station, Blacks 
burg, Va. 


Make preparations now for war on Injurious insects 
and fungous diseases. Order a good spraying outfit. 
Some good machines are advertised in the Planter. 
Order a supply of bluestone to make Bordeaux mix 
tore. This may be ordered from your local druggist. 
Tou cannot afford to share your crop of fruit with in 
sects and diseases. The bitter rot has done immense 
damage to Virginia apple crops, and it is almost sure 
to be ready to begin work again this coming season. 
While pruning your apple orchards, notice very care- 
fully for cankered places on the upper sides of the 
limbs. Disease producing spores come from such 
places, and cause bitter rot of the fruit. Cut out all 
such limbs at least twelve inches below the infected 
places, and burn them. Take off all dried up fruit 
still hanging on the trees, and burn these also. Pre- 
pare to give the orchard a good spraying with Bor- 
deaux mixture before the buds swell. Begin work on 
pear blight. Cut out all affected )imbs in the same 
way, and burn them. The effectiveness of this work 
will depend largely upon the thoroughness with which 
it is done. If one single tree with diseased wood on it 
is left in the orchard, a number of trees near it may 
be seriously afiected from it. If all diseased parts are 
cut out and destroyed early in the season, and this 
work be followed by a good spraying with Bordeaux 
mixture before the buds open, more than half the bat 
tie has been won. 

Give all garden soil a good, deep plowing as soon a» 
possible. A freeze 1 will do^more in one night in help- 
ing you to put the soil in a fine mechanical condition 
than many days work! with harrows. The advice in 
regard to early plowing," especially on heavy clay 
soils, frequently given in the Planter, is good. It will 
give the old pea vines, grass and weeds, a chance to 
loake manure for the crops. Are you hauling out all 
the manure from the barns during these lengthening 
days of February to save time for pressing spring 
work ? 

Have you decided upon the best varieties of vegeta- 
bles for your locality 1 Write a postal card to several 
seedsmen for seed catalogues. T. W. Wood & Son, 
Richmond, Va., and Geo. Tait & Sons, Norfolk, Va., 
publish valuable seed catalogues. You may learn- 
something valuable by reading them. If yon want 
any of Uncle Sam's garden seeds, write to your Con- 
gressman for them. These politicians will be glad to 
send them, but I cannot vouch for the satisfaction 

they will give yon. 

* * 

The annual report of the Commissioner of Agricul- 
ture of Virginia for (he year 1902, is before me. Have 
you received a copy f If not, write for it. The report 
contains some interesting information. The illustra- 
tions of the San Jose scale insect and bitter rot of the 
apple will interest our orchard friends. We hope the 
Commissioner will permit us to make a few friendly 
suggestions. While we realize the difficulties under 
which the Commissioner has labored — such as the 
limited use of tho money at the command of this de- 
partment and lack of facilities — still, if the Commis- 
sioner desires this general style of report, would it not 
be better for Virginia farmers and Virginia horticul- 
turists to write more of the articles for this report in- 
stead of gathering them promiscuously from various 
States and taking a number of second hand ones? Ifc 
seems to me this would more readily meet the condi- 
tions confronting the average Virginia farmer. While 
it is true that science is the same the world over, still, 
the correct application of scientific principles will de- 
pend upon the peculiar conditions that characterize 
each locality. We like reports concentrated upon one 
subject — such as one upon beef in Virginia, one upon 
apples in Virginia, one upon blue grass in Virginia, 
one upon sheep in Virginia, one upon trucking in 
Virginia, etc. Let these reports be made as exhaustive 
as possible. They would be handed down from one 
generation to another as standard works upon each 
topic. The reports would become reference books in 
the Old Dominion. While I may seem to be too crit- 
ical, still, it seem» to me that the same mistake is be- 
ing made at the Test Farm. Too wide a scope of work 
is being undertaken for the force and the means at 




hand. Many Experiment Stations made the same 
mistake in the beginning, in order to meet what was 
thought a univeral demand for general information. 
Many of those Stations had to begin over and spe 
cialize. Some have never gotten over the A, B C'ti 
along this line yet. Consequently, there is always 
some "hindering cause" that prevented conclusions. 
Let me urge the Commissioner to specialize more, 
both in his reports and on the Test Farm. The best 
reports that I have seen along this line are published 
by the Secretary of the Board of Agriculture of 
Kansas. I am reliably informed that the State has made 
marvelous progress, both in stock husbandry and in 
general agriculture, since these reports began to be 


What a great pity our Commissioner of Agriculture 
was made elective by popular vote. Agriculture is 
certainly broad enough for any man without being 
forced to build political fences. The politician ' ' got 
in a little of his work" on this law while the friends 
of agriculture least expected it. These latter sentences 
have no reference whatever to the report in question, 
which we believe is an improvement upon several 
previous reports, nor to the Commissioner. The De- 
partment cannot be made what it should be under this 
law. The man with industrial training and scientific 
learning does not fit in with the politician. The in. 
dustrial man is coming to the front in Virginia now. 
A revolution along this line is silently taking place. 
This law will be changed, Ijecause it is a step back- 
wards. But the farmers must look after their repre- 
sentatives more closely, and vote a little with the 
postage stamps. R. H. Price. 

Montgomery Co , Va. 


Editor Southern Planter : 

This is a good time to form new resolutions and 
make out a plan of campaign for the year. Probably 
I can drop a word to others who may profit by it. 

First, let me just say a word about sweet potatoes. 
They are the best crop I know of to raise on poor land. 
Because you can do as I have done for several years, 
raise 300 bushels per acre, and on as poor a gall as ex 
isted in this old State. Plow land deep in the fall. 
Do not harrow, let it stay rough, to crumble all winter 
by the repeated freezing and thawings, crumbling and 
disintegrating all winter. In the spring harrow early 
and destroy weeds, if any ^rotU thereon. Then in May 
after repeated harrowings, plow again and harrow 
again, to destroy weed seeds. 

Then about May 15th take your big plow and open 
big furrows, four feet apart, running twice in the row. 

Fill the trench so made full with good, well rotted ma- 
nure, and put a bag (200 pounds) of tobacco fertilizer 
on the top of the manure ; cover with two furrows, 
making a good cover of earth on the top of it. Then 
harrow longways, to bring it down nearly level. Then 
either roll or drag a slab longways, to smooth the 
top. If a rain comes run a weeder to prevent baking. 
Now you are ready to set slips. Set your slips out 
small, dcn't wait until they are a yard long to sap the 
potato in the bed, six inches will do very well. After 
setting (I always wait for a season) and after I get the 
slips started, I work ciossways with a weeder, which 
makes them just jump up and grow. I pulled out 
only 7 in 8,000 plants last year. Don't be afraid 
to work them. A garden rake beats a hoe every 
time to work a garden with. Keep the ground loose 
on top. Use the Iron Age Cultivator in the rows 
often, and beyond all things keep your crop clean until 
the planti commence to run, when they will smother 
the weeds themselves. I always set slips 15 to 16 
inches apart, which is about right. 

About digging. Sweet potatoes grow until a frost 
hits the Tines. I always await a frost myself. Still 
they can be dug earlier. My sweet potatoes are put 
away in boxes in my basement, where I keep about 
50 bushels for seed, selling at $1 per bushel each 
spring. They should be kept, not too warm and not 
too cool, but at an even temperature of from 50° to 
60°, if possible. If too warm they sprout badly ; if 
chilled, they rot. 

When fed to stock, I know one bushel of sweet po 
tatoes and two of corn will beat three bushels of corn, 
as I have often proved to my entire satisfaction. All 
corn is too heating to keep a hog, steer, or sheep in 
good health, whilst fattening, and the one third sweet 
potatoes makes the animal enjoy his corn the more. 
Any root will act the same, but sweet potatoes fatten 
as well, for I fattened a large beef with sweet potatoes 
alone one year, and have often fattened hogs on them. 

Now, in conclusion, let me say I can raise as many 
sweet potatoes on one acre as I can corn on 8 or 10 
and that land will produce a fair crop of wheat the 
following year, and grass as well, if the manure is 
properly worked out and scattered by repeated har- 
rowings and re harrowings, and the ground be put into 
good order for a grain crop. I have raised 20 bushels 
of wheat after my sweet potato crop, and you, brother 
farmers, can go and do likewise. But I put work on 
that sweet potato patch. One hundred dollars would 
not buy my crop when I dig it. Have yon an acre to 
pay more, even in tobacco ? I don't want to ride my 
hobby to death nor do I want to tire others, but I want 
all to try a sweet potato patch and report. 

My potatoes have an extended redigree, probably, 
but all I know of them is just this : A lot were in 




my cellar when I came here eight years ago, and I 
have the same kind yet, with some additions now and 
then from a good neighbor who gave me two or three 
potatoes, and I put them in my hot bed because they 
tasted so good when roasted of a cold winter's day or 
night. My potatoes are some big, some little, from 
eight pounds to one pound, every shape, size and 
color. I pick them as I feed them, and always put 
good shaped ones not too large or small into my hoc 
bed for slips. 

Yours for Sweets, 
GoodHand Co.yVa. W. Elliot Hajimond. 


[Excerpt from Bulletin 130.] 

Editor Southern Planter : 

The Horticultural Department of the Experiment 
Station is issuing at this time a second series of bnlle 
tins dealing with the Experiment Station orchards. 
This series Is entitled "Orchard Studies," and the 
third number discnases some of the more important 
varieties of apples growing in the test orchards. 
Thirty two varieties are discussed in the bulletin; six 
summer varieties, nine autumn, and seventeen winter 
varieties. The bulletin is too long to be reproduced 
in one issue of the Planter, hence the more Important 
details are condensed and presented in advance of the 
official publication for the benefit of the readers of 
the Planetr. 

While, as shown in the official publications, the 
orchard studies deal with both scientific and practical 
matters, the chief object of the bulletins issued for 
the farmer is to convey information that is usable in 
his work, hence, in condsnsing for the press, mention 
is only made of those varieties which are summarized 
in the bulletins as the most important. Under the 
head of 

Selection of Vakietits, 
the question is sure to occur to every one familiar 
with even the limited list treated in this bulletin, 
"What shall I plant for my purposes!" To thisques 
tion the following list is suggested as in part answer- 
ing the same: 

For Summer. — Select, Early Eipe, Yellow Transpa 
rent and Oldenburg, as cosmopolitan varieties which 
thrive in all apple soils. Chenango and Summer Rose 
are fine amateur sorts for the home orchard. Jefferis 
is a promising late summer variety here, but not well 
enough tested to warrant distinct commendation — 
quality excellent. 

For Autumn.— Select, Maiden Blush, Buckingham 
and Wagoner, again fairly cosmopolitan varieties, 
which thrive almost everywhere. Bonum, Pall Or 
ange, Tolman and others have special value for per- 
sons desiring fine quality, and a commercial value 
where they can be sold on their meriti. 

lor Winter. — Speaking first of those which are not 
cosmopolitan, and must be planted with nice discre 
tion as to soil, conditions, etc., select, Albemarle Pip 
pin, Winesap, and possibly Lawver. For standard 

cosmopolitan sorts, select, Arkansas, Gano or Via and 
York Imperial. As a secondary selection for quali- 
ty, Grimes, Eoxbury or Smokehouse may be suggest- 
ed, but these are not keepeis in ordinary storage. 

The really interested orchardist can't afiford not to 
try, in a small way, a varied list of old and new sorts, 
for otherwise he misses the finest pleasures of his call- 
ing, and gratification of his own aesthetic tastes for 
fine fruits, but the Commercial Orchard must be kept clear 
of experiments. 

Desceiptive Notes on Above Named Vabieties. 

All the varieties mentioned herein ware planted in 
spring of 1889. 

Early Ripe. — An old variety — origin, Pennsylvania. 
While this variety resembles in some characteristicB 
of trte and fruit the Early Harvtst, it is a decidedly 
superior variety at least for this district. Tree quite 
vigorous grower, measures at 14 years old in the or- 
chard here 33 inches in circumference at base of trunk 
and 29 inches just below limbs, free from blight, and 
fruit free from rots. 

First bloom noted in 1894, and bore few fruits in 
189.5, fair crops in 1897, 1899 and 1901. The fruit is 
larger than Early Harvest, roundish oblate, greenish 
yellow, qaality acid, but good for culinary use and 
eating. The best general purpose variety of the very 
early sorts. It is to be regretted that it cannot al- 
ways be purchased with certainty. Season with Early 
HarreBt, but lasts better. 

Yellow Transparent. — A recent but comparatively 
well known early variety of Eussian origin. The tree . 
is a vigorous though not large grower, and has been 
very healthy here. In this respect surpasses some of 
the other Eussians. The fruit has also been entirely 
free from fungous diseases. After 14 years' growth, 
the trees measure in circumference at base 24 inches ; 
and at point where limbs start 22 inches. The head 
is upright, compact. The first bloom was observed 
on this variety in 1893, and in 1895 it bore a heavy 
crop for the size of the trees. It has continued to 
bear a heavy crop in the fruit years of 1897, 1899 and 
1901, and also has borne a moderate crop the ofif years. 
We have gathered as high as three bushels per tree. 
The fruit here is mostly medium in size, rarely large, 
although in some other parts of Virginia it grows to 
excellent size. The shape is somewhat conical, color 
light green, shading to an opalescent tint when fully 
ripe, and can be called a beautiful fruit. The quality 
is acid, but pleasant and agreeable when ripe, and 
may be rated as a valuable dessert variety. It is far 
the best dessert variety of any Russian fruit grown 
with us. As an early variety, and a sure bearer, it 
rather surpasses the other varieties mentioned in this 
section. It is highly commended for home use and 
for nearby market, where there is demand for sncli 
fruit. Season follows Early Ripe. 

Oldenburg (Duchess of.) — A well known variety of 
Eussian origin, and quite generally planted for early 
market and culinary purposes. The growth here is 
fairly vigorous, but not heavy. Thus far entirely free 
from blight and the fruit from rot. The trees now 
measure 22 inches in circumference just above the 
ground and 2© inches in circumference at the point 
where the head starts. The growth is upright, rather 
This variety bloomed first in 189i, and shows bloom- 




Ing dates from April 28th to May 2d, daring the last 
nine years. A few fruits were borne in 1892 ; a fair 
crop for age of tree in 1895. Subsequently fair crops 
have bepn produced in 1897, 1899, 1901, and moderate 
crop in 1902. The fruit with us is never large, but a 
good medium size, striped and handsome. Quality 
suited only for culinary use. It is one of the very 
best market sorts for local sale. Season 2ud early to 

Chenango. — An old variety — origin New York State. 
Only fairly vigorous in growth, subject to blight, and 
fruit slightly subject to bitter rot. Tree at this time, 
after fourteen summers' growth, measures 25 inches in 
circumference at base and 22 inches at point where 
limbs start ; head thick and round ; growth of wood 

Bloomed first 1893 ; fruited, few specimens, 1895 ; 
very fair crop in 1897; lees crop 1899 and 1901. Fall 
ing off in productiveness attributed to blight. Fruit 
is beautiful pale green and striped with red, elongate 
in shape. 

Quality very good; one of the best for high class 
dessert use. An amateur sort of the first rank for des 
sert and the home orchard. Highly commended for 
home use ; does not seem to warrant commendation 
for commercial growing. Ripens mid season to late 

Summer Bose. — An old but not well known variety 
of Neiv Jersey origin. The tree is a vigorous grower; 
forms an upright, compact head ; not subject to blight, 
and the fruit quite free from fungous diseases. The 
trees at fourteen years old measure 30 inwhes in cir 
cumference at bise and 25 inches in circumference at 
point where the head starts. 

This variety shows its period of full bloom betwef n 
the dates of April 24th and May Gth; bore a few fruits 
in 1892. In 1895, the trees fruited very well for their 
age, and in 1897 bore a full crop; in 1899. 30 per cent, 
of a crop; and in 1901 a fairly heavy crop, about four 
bushels per tree. The fruit is small to medium in size, 
round and very prettily marked with stripes of red. 
The quality is very good, especially suitable for des 
sert use. While the fruit is not overly rich, it has a 
very pleasant flavor. We consider it one of the very 
best early dessert fruits, but the fruit appears to be 
quite tender ; the skin cracks easily. Ripens mid- 

Maiden Blush. — A generally disseminated old vari 
ty of New Jersey origin, but which has merits that 
warrant its larger use in our plantations. The tree is 
a healthy, vigorous grower, not subject to blight. 
Measures 29 inches in circumference at base, and 27 
inches at head of trunk. The habit is moderately 
spreading, upright, and forms a very good top. First 
bloom was observed upon this variety in 1893 ; it bore 
a few fruits in 1895 ; and a very fair crop in 1901. The 
largest crop has been 3 bushels per tree. This vari- 
ety is acid, of very good flavor, desirable either for 
home use or market. The size of fruit ia medium. 
Color, greenish with a fine blush on one cheek. To 
bp commended for the family orchard, or for market 
whore fruit of this class can be disposed of. Season 
early to mid autumn. 

Buckingham. — This well known variety of Virginia 
origin has also been called Fall Qaeen, but is now 
rightly known as Buckingham. The tree is a fairly 

vigorous grower but not large, comparatively free 
from blight and other fungous diseases, and the fruit 
is also quite free from disease here. Measurement of 
trees at this time, 25 inches in circumference at the 
base, and 22 inches in circumference at point where 
the head starts. Head upright, moderately spread- 
ing. First bloom noted in 1892, and also three speci- 
mens of fruit were produced on one tree, 1895, a very 
good crop for size of trees; and the same was true in 
18*7. In 1899 the trees set so full that there was slight 
breaking of the limbs, produced about four bushels 
per tree; 1901 the crop was light. The fruit is of good 
size, medium to large, and colors here so as to be most- 
ly red. In quality it Js excellent, and very desirable 
for both dessert and culinary purposes. It seems to 
be very good for canning. Recommended for home 
use, and for market where fall fruit can be disposed 
of. Season mid autumn to late. 

Wagener — An old variety of New York origin, but 
rarely met with in our fruit plantations. The tree is 
only a moderate grower, with well formed, open top, 
wood short. Trunk 21 inches in circumference at base, 
and 18 inches at head. Quite healthy, free from blight, 
and moderately so from other fungous diseases. Bore 
a few fruits in"lS92, three years alter planting; and a 
full crop for size of tree in 1895 and 1897; in 1899 three 
bushels per tree were gathered; fruit of good size and 
fine quality. In fact, this variety fruits so heavily it 
does noi; develop sufBcient wood. In 1901 the crop 
was light, and also the present off year, 1902. The 
fruit is medium to large, roundish oblate, greenish 
ground, splashed and striped with red. Quality not 
rich, but pleasant sub acid. Desirable for culinary 
use and for market. This variety is one of tha most 
promising as a bearer of any in the list of fall apples. 
We have found it desirable for canning. Season mid 
autumn to late. 

Bonum. — A well known variety of North Carolina 
origin. Tree fairly vigorous, but not large in growth. 
Comparatively free from disease, both as to tree and 
fruit. Size of trunk at base, 24 inches circumference; 
at head, 20 inches. Upright, spreading habit. The 
first bloom on this variety was observed in 1893; a 
very few fruits were produced in 1895; in 1897 a fair 
crop set; but in 1899 only a very few fruits were pro 
duced; in 1901, the crop was fair, measuring 2} bush- 
els per tree. A small but showy fruit of the very best 
quality. Desirable either for dessert or market. Sea- 
son is late autumn at this altitude. 

Fall Orange — This is an old variety of Massachusetts 
oriein; it is not common in the orchards and gardens 
of Virginia The tree is a strong grower and compara- 
tively healthy; measures at base, 21 inches in circum- 
ference, and 20 inches at point where limbs start. 
Head upright, moderately spreading. This variety 
bloomed first in 1893, and produced a few fruits in 
1895; in 1897, a good crop, and in 1899 a light crop 
was produced; 1901, the trees produced 2! bushels of 
fruit each, which is a full crop for this size. The fruit 
is medium in size, of a yellowish red color here, and 
fine looking. The quality is excellent either for des- 
sert or culinary purposes. It is generally free from 
rot. Rioens early to mid autumn. 

Tolman Sweet. — An old variety of Rhode Island ori- 
gin. It is rarely met with in our fruit plantations, 
but is worthy of more attention, especially for the 




farmily orchard. The tree is moderately robust in 
growth, forming a broad, spreading top of quite dis 
ttnct and peculiar type. This variety has shown some 
blight, bat not serious. Trees measure 2!) inches in 
circumference at base, and 25 inches at head. First 
bloom was observed in 1894, and a few fruits in 1895. 
The trees bore a full crop for their size in 1897; and a 
light crop in 1899; in 190 1, a very fair crop was borne, 
averaging about 4 bushels per tree. A. very light crop 
was produced the present year, 1902. The fruit is 
medium to large, round, compressed, of a yellowish, 
golden color; and fairly free from disease; has shown 
some a'^tack from the black and bitter rot on one occa 
sion. The qualitj is rich, sweet, with a fine perfume, 
making it an excellent variety for preserving and other 
culinary uses. This apple is regarded as of special 
value for home made goods of above description, and 
should sell well for special uses where it becomes 
known. Season mid autumn. 

Wm. B. Alwood, 
Dec. W, 1902. Horticulturist. 



Editor Southern Planter : 

Winter is now upon us. Growing vegetation is al 
most at a standstill. This is true of a very large part 
of the country. But our country is so large, and cli- 
matic conditions so varied, that we must take broad 
views. While one section is clothed in ice and snow, 
other sections are enjoying strawberries and vegeta 
bles from open air gardens and fields. We have all 
the gradations from 72° above to 22" below. Hence, 
it is more or less timely to write of the spring gardec, 
even in mid winter; but we write rather from another 

It is always wise to look ahead and prepare for 
coming duties. That ve may have the best spring 
garden, it is necessary to do much of the work now. 
Then, whether we live where spring comes in March 
or in May, we can be ready to welcome her coming, 
and gather the fruits of our thoughts and plans. 
Preparing the Soil. 

This is an important part of successful gardening. 
The best soils for producing the most luscious fruits 
and the choicest vegetables cannot be prepared hasti 
ly. Time is needed for atmospheric action. For the 
best 1 esults, we cannot have our soils too line, too deep 
or too rich. We should break them very deep. And 
this breaking should be done now if it has not already 
been done. This will enable the rains and the snows 
and the freezes to do their work. Their work is all 
important, and we cannot do it. When we have used 
plows, spades and harrows, we still leave millions of 
little lumps or clods. These need to be broken finer. 
The agents of nature will do this when we have pre 
pared the way by doing our part. Aeration requires 

Manuring and Fertilizing. 

Manuring is putting on vegetable matter and ani- 
mal voidings to rot in the soil. It takes time for 
these to become thoroughly incorporated with the soil 
and to become soluble in water. They should be put 
on as early as practicable, and mixed in with the soil. 
Then they will decay. In so doing, they start fermen- 
tation. This assists aeration, and the two working 
together, get the plant-food in soluble form, ready for 
use by the plants. But when we have done this, we 
do not always supply all the elements of plant life 
needed, neither do we give them in proper propor- 
tions. This is very important. 

One of the most important elements in plant-growth 
is potash. This enters into the composition of all 
plants. It gives health to the plant, and strength to 
do its work. This element is very abundant in near- 
ly all garden crops It is especially needed for all 
those crops which have numerous seeds, and also for 
crops which are liable to fangus diseases, such as rust, 
wilt, etc. 

Most soils are deficient in this element. Hence, it 
is very important to supply it. German kainit and 
muriate of potash are the cheapest and most reliable 
of the sources of supply. These should be used libe- 
rally on garden and truck patches. Phosphoric acid 
is also needed. This we can get from superphosphates 
and bones. The nitrogen is usually supplied from the 
manuie and vegetable matter. 


Having made the soil rich and warm, we can begin 
planting quite early. There are many vegetables, such 
as radishes, lettuce, mustard, turnips, onions, salsify, 
and so on, which, in many sections, grow all winter. 
These can be planted early. Irish potatoes can be 
planted in all the South any time you are ready. Pat 
them in rather deep; cover with rotting straw or 
leaves or other decaying vegetable matter; then throw 
on soil as deep as you think best. As spring ap- 
proaches, rake off the crust with a light harrow. 

We do not propose to enumerate here what you can 
plant. Tour locality and the seed catalogues will 
help you to decide. But be sure to be ready to have an 
early garden. This contributes so much to the happi- 
ness of the family, and brings an income at a time 
whtn cash is scarce. A garden may be ever so large, 
or ever so small. But be sure to have a garden. 

Atlanta, Ga. James B. Hunnioutt, 

To winter twenty animals on the food that would 
give best returns if fed to only fifteen, is poor policy. 
Although the twenty might not starve, the extra time 
required for them to regain their normal condition 
would prove the experiment a sorry failure. 




Live Stock and Dairy. 


Sditor Southern Planter : 

We see a great deal writtea in the stock journals of 
the country about beef and dairy breeds of cattle, and 
also the " general purpose," or farmtr's cow, but we 
seldom see anything fcald about one breed — the De 
von — one of the oldest breeds In the United States, 
and one which we do not think has yet outlived its 
usefulness. Whilst there is eo much written about 
the Red Polls, Holstein, etc., as " general purpose" 
animals, we are sure that if there is a breed of cattle 
worthy the name of "General Purpose" the Devon is 
that one. We believe in the "general purpose" cow. 
Sh« is not a myth by any means, as some writers seem 
to think. When the good qualities of the Devon for 
beef, butter and milk are taken into coi sideration, 
the breed will be lound among the stayers, and will 
always leave its mark. Now that "baby" beef is so 
much in demand the Devon Is certainly in the race, 
for they fattf n well at any age. The flesh is well mar 
bled, and they kill well with less loss In offal than 
most breeds. WhIJst we do not claim that they are 
as large as the stately Shorthorns or Hereford s, they 
are a medium size. Steers at two years old, weighing 
1,725 pounds, when well fattened. The fat does not 
lay in lumps, as we see In some of the other breeds. 
Bulls of this breed weigh 1,700 to 2,100 pounds. Cows 
900 to 1,500 pounds. The steers grow rapidly, 
and are always hearty, and while their weights are 
not aa large as those of the other beef breeds, they are 
plenty large enough for the general market for a 
large portion of our country. In a hilly country where 
the feed is not so abundant as it is in some of our West 
«rn States, this breed does well, and even in the West 
they make their mark. We quote from an Eoglieh 
writer: "The Devon breed has been traced from 
the earliest period when its existence was scarcely 
known beyond the then remote county from which 
it derives Its name, and it having been shown 
how a small band of farmers, j ustly proud of their 
native breed, by their own exertlors sustained Its pn 
rity and carried it triumphantly through a critical 
period until at length its own intrinsic merits attract- 
ed the attention at first of a few discriminating judges, 
and finally of the general public, leading to Its in 
troduction into various parts of Great Britain, Ireland, 
France, Jamaica, Mexico, Australia, Canada, and last 
ly, in the United States. A breed whose native home 
is a bleak, hilly district several hundred feet above 
sea level. Flourishing as they do there, it is not sur- 
prising that they maintain their reputation when 
transplanted to a richer soil and milder climate." 

Another writer says of the Devoa: "In all points 
the Devon is the finest formed, most blood like and 
active of cattle. He Is to his congeners what the Ara- 
bian is to other horses." Another writer of experi- 
ence says: "I find Devon cattle the most profitable 
breed in America, and can raise more valuable beef 
on them with the same amount of food than on any 
other breed." 

We quote from a South Dakota ranchman as fol- 
lows : " I am thinking of buying Devon bulls to turn 
on the range with Shorthorn cows. Shorthorns are 
too large and slow for the short grass country. Here- 
fords I do not like, and Angus are shy breeders. De- 
von cows will last two or three years longer on the 
range than Shorthorns, and always be in better fix. 
They have proved to be the best of breeders with a 
good calf every spring. The steers are good ones. 
This is a short grass and a short feed country, and we 
want something that can get a hustle on. Some of our 
farmers here milk their cows and I think Devons 
would suit them." 

A South Carolina breeder says of the Devon : " My 
experience and observation of the Devon steer leads 
me to think that they are far superior to any other 
breed of cattle for beef purposes. They are far more 
thrifty and docile than any cattle I have ever seen, 
and can be fattened on one third less feed than is re- 
quired for any other breed of cattle. They are par- 
ticularly hardy and will thrive where others would 
almost starve. 

The dairy qualities of the Devons are not lacking. 
A Pennsylvania breeder says: "My cows give six 
times their weight In milk per year. Such an animal 
should not be despised. I have not bred for quantity, 
but rather for quality and ualformlty. All my cows 
have the wonderful staying qualities that stamp the 
Deven breed the world over." Mature cows of the 
Devon breed yield from fifteen to twenty quarts of 
milk per day, testing from 4 to 6 per cent, butter fat. 
One ten- year old heifer has a record of 7,000 pounds 
of milk and 423 pounds of butter for her first year. 
She Is now nearly dry and In perfect beef condition. 
Her dam has a record of 453 pounds of butter per 
year, and her grand dam has a record of over two 
pounds of butter per day, showing that this cow is no 

We quote once more from a large breeder of Devons 
and Shorthorns In California (he has over 100 head of 
Devons) as follows : " From here southward is a dry 
country, and we find the Devons do better than any 
other breed where they have to go a long distance to 
water. We have sold very few Devon heifers, as It Is 




onr intention to Increase our herd. Our bulls find 
ready sale all over tbe coast. The Derons are not 
only an excellent beef breed but are also great milk- 

The above experience of those who have handled 
other breeds besides Devons goes to show that they 
are certainly a general- purpose breed of cattle. They 
are good for btauty, beef and butter, three B's that 
are hard to beat. 

Newark, Ohio. L. P. Sisson. 


Editor Southern Planter : 

I saw an article in a Blacksburg bulletin claiming 
that black leg in calves was a germ disease. I don't 
agree with them. I bought some yearlings and put 
them on blue grass, and salted every day for 5 days. 
One died and another went lame. I bled the one that 
was lame, and skinned one that died, and found that 
the blood had settled in one leg and neck. I moved 
them to a field that was short grass, and lost no more. 

2. My neighbor had over a hundred yearlings in the 
woods and lost nine, supposed black leg to be ihe cause. 
He said that he knew it was not for the want of salt, 
for he had two men salting every day. I told him 
that the salting was what was killing them, and he 
quit salting and lost no more. Last fall in dry weather 
some of my neighbors salted their yearlings everyday, 
and several died. Water was scarce, and. after the 
cattle drank water, they had strong appetite and eat 
very heartily, and, having very rich blood, lay down 
and died. The blocd would settle in some place aud 
that caused death. Y. 

We referred the foregoing to the Blacksburg author- 
ities for their comment. Below is their reply. We agree 
with theui. Black leg is undoubtedly a germ disease, 
and salt has nothing to do with it. 

"The party from Warm Springs, Va., has no know- 
ledge of the nature of the highly infectious disease, 
black leg in cattle, or else he could never have made 
the foolish statement that the disease was the result of 
cattle being allowed to have sodium chloride (common 
salt). Nor has he a knowledge of the action of the 
salt on the healthy animal. 

When I tell jou that I have sent out from this Sta 
tion a vaccine, which is prepared by the Bureau of 
Animal Industry, Washington, D. C, and is made 
from the muscular tiesue of the animal which has died 
from black leg, thus containing the germ, in an atten- 
uated form, and (hat this vaccine has so successfully 
prevented the disease in cattle in this State that the 
farmers have written for and obtained over five thou 
sand doses of this vaccine during the last four months, 
which they have seed with the satisfactory result of 
preventing the outbreak of blackleg, you will doubt 
less see that we t.o understand the cause of the dis 
ease, and are not simply guessing at it." 

J. G. Fernethough, 

Blacksburg, Va. State Veterinarian. 


Editor Southern Planter : 

Those fortunate enough to be able to visit the last 
great International L'.ve Stock Exposition, were 
struck, in the first place, with the vastness of the 
show; and in the second, by the uniform high quality 
of the numerous exhibits. A really poor animal was 
hard to find. Taken altogether, it was simply a mass 
of grand individuals of the horse, cow, sheep, and 
hog kind. 

To see the draft horse show alone was well worth a 
thousand mile trip, while in the cattle classes, the 
show was grand beyond conception. The long rows 
of fine breeding animals led one to iconder at the vaab 
improvement made in the several beef breeds, even 
in the past ten years. 

The Breeders' Gazette, in its report of the show, 
said "It it was a 'black year' at the show. The ejrade 
Aberdeen Angus bullock was dominant. Whether in 
the pavilion, in the pens, or in the slaughter test, the 
color was 'black, and all black.' Never has a breed 
accomplished such sweeping victories at a fat stock 
show. Two out of three of the breed championships 
by ages, the grand championship of the show, the 
grand champion herd, and reserve for the herd (sec- 
ond), fell to the blacks withiu the building, while in 
the pens the carload lots made almost as sweeping a 
victory. On the block it was repeated, as five of the 
ten prizes for carcasses fell to the 'blackekins,' together 
with the championship." 

This victory was the more remarkable because of 
the great inducements offered by the other breed asso- 
ciations — one of which offered $1,000 for the grand 
champion car lot should it fall to their breed. In the 
sales of these, both single animals and car lots, the 
Angus again demonstrated the fact that the breed was 
at the top in the estimation of the butchers — the 
champion steer selling at 56 cents per pound; cham- 
pion car lot at $14.50 per hundred gross. 

Prom Chicago the writer made a trip to Channing, 
Texas, and visited Mr. Boyce, manager of the X. I. T. 
ranch, the largest in the world. 

He there raises all three breeds of beef cattle — each 
breed in separate pastures — and all given the same 
treatment. Speaking of the qualities of the different 
breeds, Mr. Boyce said : "I wish all of our cattle were 
the Angus, as the Angus feeders always sell first. We 
never have to keep onr Angus steers until three years 
old, but have a good many of the other breeds of that 
age; generally sell all the Angus steers as calves and 
yearliugs. I spent a pleasant week at the ranch, and 
brought home five cars of two year old Angus heifers 
as souvenirs. No one in the 'Pan Handle' has a word 
to say against the 'doddies,' but every one who is so 
fortunate as tu own a black herd, speaks in the highest 




terms of them; and it must be remembered that the 
Angus bull was unknown on the range twelve years 

Taken altogether, I believe the Angus breeders have 
have every reason to congratulate themselves upon 
the achievements of their favorite breed, and are in 
position to shake hands with themselves, and 

"Hurrah ! for the doddies ; 
With their glossy black bodies. 
Hurrah ! for the doddies ! hurrah ! hurrah !" 

Rochingham Co., N. C. A. L. Feench. 


Editor Southern Planter : 

As I Irequently get letters asking what I consider 
the proper management of and feed for cows in order 
to make them profitable, I concluded that I would 
write a short article giving my experience with Hoi- 
stein cattle at the Grove Stock Farm, Nottoway coun- 
ty, Ya. It may be of interest to some of your name 
rous readers. These cows have not been made to do 
their best, as they were running on a broom straw 
field from the Ist of May until the 10th of August. 
Then I commenced t o feed some green corn, peas and 
such green crops as were then on hand. I milked on 
an average eleven cows during the year. From this 
number I sold $1,623 worth of cream and skim milk 
in the twelve months. This skim milk was allowed 
to sour and was used for baking purposes. One half 
of the skim milk was fed to calves and hogs. Each 
cow had a calf during the year, the price of which 
would average $25. 

The manure frem these cows is worth a great deal 
In bringing a farm up to a high standard of fertility. 
The daily ration per cow, when in full flow of milk, 
is two bushels of ensilage, eight pounds of bran, and 
all of the cut coi n fodder they will eat up clean. The 
cost of this would be as follows : 

Ensilage 4c. 

Bran 7c. 

Corn fodder 2c. 


I feed this ration five months of the year. I feed 
bran summer and winter. It pays to feed it in warm 
as well as in cold weather. My experience is that 
cows will do better when fed ensilage in winter than 
when feeding on the best grass in summer. Ensilage 
is truly the poor man's friend. Think of the amount 
that can be raised on an acre — from twelve to twenty 
tons. With ensilage and peas for feed, both of which 
can be produced at small cost, we can raise cattle in 
Eastern Virginia at a profit. 

Nottoway Co., Va. T. O. Sandy. 


Editmr Southern Planter : 

Many people seem to get the Eed Polled and Polled 
Durham confused, or to think the Polled Durham are 
grade cattle. I take the opportunity of answering in- 
quiries through your valuable journal. 

The pure Shorthorn branch of Polled Durhams are 
known as "Double Standards," because, being of re- 
corded Shorthorn ancestry, they are eligible to registry 
in the Shorthorn record. Being naturally polled, they 
are also eligible for registry in the Polled Durham 
Eecord. The origin of the breed is as follows: Oak- 
wood G Wynne Fourth, registered in Vol. 15, p. 803, 
had loose horns or scurs. When bred to seventh 
Duke of Hillhurst, 34221, she dropped a pair of horn 
less roan heifer calves, now named and recorded aa 
Mollie and Nellie Gwynne. 

Oakwood Gwynne Fourth to the service of Bright 
Eyes Duke Eighth, 31874, produced a hornless red 
bull calf, recorded as King of Kine, No. 23, Polled 
Durham Record, and No. 87412, Shorthora Herd Book. 
King of Kine, bred to these heifers, laid the founda- 
tion of this popular breed. 

All Shorthorn breeders know that the Gwynnes are 
of the Princess family, from which more noted dairy 
cows have come than from any other strain. The 
Princesses are known, wherever Shorthorns have been 
bred, as "Milkino- Shorthorns." The Princesses, too, 
have the distinguished honor of the longest recorded 
ancestry found in the Herd Books. It is a matter of 
history (see Sander's Shorthorn Cattle, p. 94. Belve- 
dere, 1706, of the Princess blood); that when Mr. 
Bates came to the point of calling on an out-cross to 
reinforce his celebrated Duchess tribe, he bought Bel- 
vedere, 1706, in the conviction that in all the strains 
of Shorthorn blood there was none worthy to be com- 
mingled with it but that of the Princess blood. It was 
a fortunate incident that so good a family produced a 
hornless animal. J. L. Humbert. 

Albemarle Co., Ya. 

There is also a single standard Polled Durham which 
is only eligible for registry in the Polled Durham reg- 
ister. This strain came originally from a Muley 
and Shorthorn bull. — Ed. 

It may not be gCEerally believed that a horse wilJ 
put on flesh more readily if watered regularly. A 
light drink in the morning before feeding will assist 
very materially in improving the digestion and gen- 
eral health of our noble friend. 

Mention the Planter when corresponding with ad- 




The Poultry Yard. 


If yoQ intend to have good winter laying hens, it is 
time that yon set about the work of hatching the 
chickens from which the pulleta which are to be the 
beet of these layers are to be selected. If large num- 
bers are to be kept, you want an incubator to do this 
work. If only a few fowls are needed, the old hen 
will meet the requirements. If you determine to try 
an incubator, buy a good one from a reliable firm 
which has a reputation to maintain. Tou will find all 
the best machines advertised in The Planter. We have 
friends who are making successes with nearly all the 
different makes advertised, and therefore we do not 
feel justified in selecting any one maker's machine for 
special commendation. When you have got the ma- 
chine, follow the instructions given for operating it 
closely, and do not experiment with your own ideas. 
If the machine is to have a fair trial, operate it ac 
cording to the maker's directions. If it fails, then the 
machine is at fault, and the maker should be held re 
sponsible. When you buy an incubator, buy a brooder 
as well, or your Investment in the incubator may be 
a waste of money. Incubator chicks must have brooder 
mothers, or they will make but poor progress in 
growth. It is true that it is not a difficult matter to 
make a brooder which will do good work, but 
this requires time and a knowledge of the require 
ments for maintaining an equable temperature nei 
ther too high nor too low. Later in the season, 
when the weather is warm, this is not a matter of so 
much importance, as the chicks are not likfly to snf 
fer, even though the temperature in the brooder may 
not be exactly right. If you do not have, or intend to 
have, an incubator, select some short legged, year old 
hens, well feathered, and encourage them to become 
broody by leaving them some eggs in the nest (mark 
these so that they may not get mixed with those sold 
as new laid eggs), and (eed the hens with a stimulating 
heating diet like corn and warm maehes. When they 
take to the nest, make up nesta in a house where the 
other hens will not disturb them, and give them no 
more than eleven eggs each at this early season. The 
house in which they are set should be a warm house, 
free from drafts, and not too light. We prefer always 
to set a hen on the ground on a dirt floor, as the mois 
ture from the soil helps the hatching of the eggs. If 
more than one hf n is set in a house, cover each hen 
with a wire coop or put a wire door before each nest. 
This will pi event the hens leaving their nests and 
crowding two or three on one lot of eggs and spoiling 
the otheis. Take the hens off every day, and feed and 
water them and air the eggs. See that they return to 

the eggs in due time — say fifteen minutes after being 
taken off. 


Editor of Southern Planter. 

It takes a lot of big words and long phrases, per- 
haps, to write an up todate article on Incubators, bat 
some how or other I have been reasonably successful 
with just common United States language when it 
comes to the hatching question. 

Let us be plain and call things by their right names. 
A fertile egg is a seed ; it must have ihe necessary 
warmth to sprout and grow — a temperature of 103 ; it 
must, also be cultivated, the eggs must be turned, aired 
and manipulated after nature's ways. 

A temperature of 103 seems to be a standard, al- 
though very few recognize that placing the thermom- 
eter differently would necessarily mean that it would 
read differently, but such is the case. With the ther- 
mometer between the eggs showing 103, the eame ther- 
mometer lying on the eggs would show 104, or if sus- 
pended above the eggs near the tank it would show 
still more. I prefer placing the thermometer on the 
eggs, thus showing the combined heat of the eggs and 
the heat applied to them. Still more, I prefer a varia- 
tion of temperature as tke hatch progresses ; for in- 
stance, 102 to 103 first week, 103 second week, and 
104 third week ; this variation being due to the in- 
creased animal heat in the eggs as the chick devel- 
ops. This temperature will bring good results. 

There are bushels of iron clad preset ibed rules 
about turning the eggs just so, but my advice is to 
turn them as often as you have time, and air them 
as often as you have time. I don't mean that it would 
be necessary to put in your whole time or even a tenth 
of it turning and airing the eggs, but I do mean that 
they should be turned at least once every day, and 
twice every other day, and that when looking at the 
thermometer the tray should be pulled out and let the 
eggs get a whiff of pure air. Why t yon would ask. 
I will tell you. Turning the egg ripens it clear around, 
the germ comes to the top ; every movement of the 
egg makes a corresponding movement of the embryo 
chick ; besides ripening the shell clear around, these 
movements wake the chick up, it's exercise for it, ifc 
moves, expands and develops its own strength ; this 
principle applies to all life, whether stock or eggs ; 
for instance, a stock breeder would not pen up a dam 
in close quarters to bring a strong young one. There 
is simply nothing mysterious or unaacoantable in 
hatching eggs ; a little reasoning in advance of the 
real thing explains most everything about it. 

1903 .j 



Now about moisture. An egg must get rid of a lot 
of moisture before it can hatch. Eggs during incuba 
tion get smaller and lighter ; this being the case ap 
plied moisture could not enter the egg. The moisture 
and ventilation questions are so entwined with each 
other that the effects©' one are often taken for the 
effects of the other. Personally, I do not believe in 
dosing out the air in prescribed quantities. There is 
lots said about governing the siae of the air cell by 
opening or closing the dampers, but I prefer correct 
and continuous ventilation. If the incubator is cor 
rectly fitted there need be no dosing of the air in z. 
mystical way with dampers. I prefer a constant mild 
circulation of air, and depend on airing the eggs in the 
open air to conform to nature's ways. 

What's the good of airing the eggs ? might be asked. 
In answer, I will say that the egg shells, like many 
other things, expand in heat, and contract in cjld. 
This expansion and contraction breaks down the 
tough fibres of the shell, and when the chick is due to 
hatch it can hatch. I am sure moisture, however light, 
is good for shells, good for the reason that it affects 
the shell only. 

Good hatches are made with and without moisture. 
Opinions are about equally divided. I am satisfied, in 
fact I know, it does no barm to apply a little moisture 
directly to the shells if the ventilation is sufficient. 
Have tried all the moisture plans, and plans without 
moisture, and have, at this time, more faith in the old 
fashioned way of sprinkling the eggs occasionally than 
any new way. 

The old fashioned sprinkling is applied directly to 
the shells, and does not make a heavy, continuous, 
damp air in the egg chamber. It does not matter 
about exact dates in sprinkling, exact dates would be 
nonsense, but I can guarantee that you will do the 
eggs no harm if you sprinkle them with tepid water 
on the 12th, 15th and 18th days. 

Ohio. M. M. Johnson. 


Editor Southern Planter : 

I would not advise any one who has a good healthy 
flock to undertake doctoring them with drugs with a 
view to forcing egg production, either summer or win 
ter. On most farms, there are plenty of feeds that 
would go towards making a perfect balanced ration, 
if we took advantage of them. The secret in making 
bans lay. is simply providing them with suitable feed; 
and it is the safe way. 

Corn, wheat, oats, barley and millet seed are good 
poultry feed; some do not believe In corn, but their 
reasons are mostly like the small boy's "because." 

The Agricultural Experiment Stations tell us that 
corn is one of the best feeds for poultry, buti they do 
not tell us to feed it exclusively; still more, cool rea- 
soning would not suggest that we feed it exclusively. 

The natural make up of their feed is a variety; a 
little of this and that and constant exercise in procur- 
ing it. Some tell us to make them t cratch for their feed. 
A more correct way to say it would be to let them 
scratch for their feed; they would rather do it than 
not; besides, it does away with gorging and encoura- 
ging a lazy disposition. 

Corn exclusively, or wheat or millet exclusively, is 
too heavy and too rich; something to make bulk must 
be added. I know of nothing better than wheat bran to 
balance up a heavy rich food; it is so common, though, 
that it is hardly popular. Bran makes bulk; not only 
bulk, but it clears the passages and keeps the diges- 
tive organs in condition. Bran alone would be too 
light for exclusive food; besides, it would not be in 
line with nature to feed nothing else. The craw is a 
grinding mill, and we must keep i» at work. 

The different grains would not be a perfect feed 
alone. Grass, insects and dozens of things we hardly 
think of, go towards completing the natural wants. 
Fowls on free range usually find these extra knick- 
knacks; but penned up fowls, or fowls in winter, must 
have their equivalent in some form, or they cannot do 
the very beit. Cut clover or alfalfa hay, or cut vege 
tables and green cut bone, help to make summer out of 
winter as near as it is possible. All these things are 
within our reach, and the time required to procure 
them win return a nice profit. These means will bring 
eggs, and it is the safe way. M. M. Johnson. 

Clay Center, Neb. 


I never fed very much green bone until last fall, 
when I started early and fed all winter, and was more 
than paid for my trouble with an abundance of eggs. 
In the month of January, I received more eggs than 
in any other month of the year, but the previous win- 
ters the eggs did not pay for the chicken feed. The 
cost of the green bone is a mere trifle, and it requires 
only an ounce to each hen about every other day, and 
it is enjoyed and craved for above all the other foods. 
A bone mill is as much a necessity to a poultryman as 
an anvil is to a blacksmith. As an egg producer, a 
bone producer, and a health producer, green bone la 
unexcelled. B. H. Sewell. 

Galva, 111. 

When corresponding with advertisers, kindly in«a- 
tlon the Southern Planter. 




The Horse. 


Imported Diomed, thoroughbred son of FJorizel 
and the sister to Juno, by Spectator, was a chestnut 
horse, foaled 1777, and brf d by Sir C. Bunbury, Ei g- 
land. He was imported to Virginia in 1799, when 22 
years old, and died the property of Col Hoomes, in 
1808, aged 31 years. The initial Derby, probably the 
most noted of English classicj of that character, was 
run in 1780, and won by Diomed, then three years 
old, which gained him distinction, and he was for a 
term of years well patronized in the stud, but then 
his popularity bf gan to wane, and he was sold for 
export Tn Virginia, importtd Diomed Eired such 
horses as Ball's Florizel ; Euroe, the sire of American 
Eclipse, and Sir Archy, who got Timoleou, sire of the 
famous Boston. What Diomed did toward the im- 
provement of the thoroughbred in this country is a 
matter of history, and in its annals the name of this 
famous son of Florizel will endure as long as the 
horse holds a place in the afifections of the peoplp. 

Mr. A. PoUaid, who removed from Toronto, Cana 
da, during the early part of 1902, to the Dunraven 
Farm, three miles east of Richmond, reports that he 
is well pleased with his purchase, his determination 
being to devote the place mostly to breeding, grazing 
and rearing of live stock. The greater attention, how 
ever, will be given to horses, for which Dunraven is 
admirably adapted on account of its location and the 
fine loads in the vicinity. During the past season, 
Mr. Pollard lost by death the registered hackney stal 
lion Aristocrat, ches'nut, foaled 18S9, by Bauca, dam 
Polly, by Nf rfolk Hero. Among the horses now at 
Dunraven are Margery, the good looking half bred 
hackney mare, by Eo?eberr) . She was foaled 1893, 
and is in foal to Aristocrat. The yearling chestnut 
colt, by the tackney stallion Squire Rick els out of 
Margery, is a fine specimen, as also a couple of fillies, 
viz, a black two year old and a yearling chestnut, 
both by Squire Rickels, out of a well made bay mare 
of Morgan blood. The latter is owned on the farm, 
and will be mated this season with some good thor- 
oughbred sire, and the prodace should make a high- 
claas hunter. 

among them the fine young mare Princess, of Ridge- 
field, by Prince Belmont, now in foal to the great 
young sire Lynne, 2:10}. 

The Ainslie Carriage Company, of this city, report 
that the season has been a prosperous one and the de- 
maud good for all classes of fine pleasure and business 
vehicles. Among the orders recently filled was one 
for a new ambulance for the Virginia Hospital, which 
s ■^ model in point o' workmanship, and finished and 
furnisbed with all modern conveniences. Mr. David A. 
Ainslie, ths head of this concern, sho«s, among other 
innovations at the Company's bi? warerooms, a new 
style of runabout vagon, the body of which swings 
higher and is finished in gaudy colors, wide stripes 
being noticeable and yellow the most prominent 
shade. The carriage house of Ainslie has been estab- 
lished for generations, and as designers and builders 
of the highest class of vehicles has gained a wide 

Dr. J. C. Walton, prominent for years as a physi 
cian and railway surgeon, also as a breeder and owner 
of light harness horses at Reid?ville, N. C, has re 
moved to Chase City, Va., where he has headquarters 
at "The Mecklenburg," the elf gant new hotel and 
sanatorium there, which is under the same manage- 
ment as "The Jefferson," in this city. Chase City 
has become noted for its lithiaand chloride of calcium 
waters, while The Mecklenburg has complete electri 
cal and hydriatic apparatus, with a splendid chemical 
and microscopic library. Dr. Walton is the resident 
physician at Chase City, and his presence and wide 
experience is likely to be of lasting benefit to this new 
health resort. During recent years, the Doctoi has 
owned and driven such good horses as Lucy Ashby, 
2:21} ; a full sister to her, who was sold for export ; 
Matie, 2:30i ; Miss Parker, trial, 2:39}, and others, 

The imported Hackney stallion, The Duke, son of 
Silver Star and Lady Fanny, Rob Roy, offered for sale 
in our advertising columns by T. O. Sandy, of The 
Grove Farm, Burkeville, Va., should prove a most 
desirable acquisition to any stock farm or breeder in 
search of a horse whose get develop into well made, 
handsome and serviceable horses. The Duke is regis- 
tered in both the English and American Hackney Stud 
Books. He is well preserved, unusually vigorous, and 
in rugged health, while kind and tractable in harness 
and under the saddle. This good stallion will be sold 
at a price which he can more than earn if placed in 
proper hands in a single season. Statements made by 
Mr. Sandy can be relied on, and he will be pleased to 
furnish full particulars. 

Capt. C. B. Denson, widely known as a soldier, 
statesman and scholar, and for more than a quarter of 
a century past prominently identified with the affairs of 
the North Carolina Agricultural Society in the capac- 
ity of secretary, treasurer and member of the Board 
of Directors, died at Raleigh on January 15th, his 
death being due to general debility, at the age 65. 
Capt. Denson was born at Suffolk, Va., September 29, 
1837, but had passed the greater part of his life in 
North Carolina. 

Broad Rock. 

The thoroughbred stallion. Saint Charles, out of 
Carita, by Saint Blaise, owned by D. H. Barger, pro- 
prietor of "Walnut Grove" Farm, and L. E. Johnson, 
vice president and general manager of the Norfolk and 
Western Railway, has been given by these gentlemen 
to the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and Experiment 
Station, at Blacksburg. Saint Charles is one of the 
best bred horses in America, and is a great acquisition 
to the pure -bred stock of the farm. The thanks of the 
people are due these gentlemen for their liberility. 






Editor Southern Planter: 

The Division of Forestry of the National Govern- 
ment in recent years has given much attention to the 
improvement of forestry and the prevention of the 
destruction of the timber of the country. The im- 
mense devastation of property by forest fires, which 
sweep over the extensive mountain territory annually, 
leaves a charred and blackened district repulsive to 
the eye and destructive to the fond expectation and 
hopes of the dwellers on the surrounding farms, many 
losing their fences and also their humble homes, filled 
with terror in danger of their personal safety. The 
desolation can be more easily imagined than described. 
The beautiful Blue Ridge, once the pride and resource 
of the Valley of Virginia, now, in large part, periodi- 
cally i3 made to resemble a smoking volcano, denuded 
of her valuable forests and the population discouraged. 
Other mountain districts of the State, suffering like 
wastes of immense values. The causes of these fires 
are numerous, but a majority of them from moat trivial 
and unpardonable recklessness, neglect, don't care and 
badness. The public and private persons have snfifered 
so long and so frequently from "the fire fiend" that 
this great evil has been regarded as a matter of course, 
and a resort Is sometimes had to insurance. But this 
does not restore the forestry which has gone up in 
smoke. It only transfers the loss from one pocket to 
another. The value is irretrievably wasted. 

A remedy proposed by the Forestry Division is to 
arouse public sentiment and direct it in an organized 
and effective action to express by suitable official vigi 
lance, strengthened by official legislation. The time 
has passed for continued indulgence In a slipshod neg 
lect, "I didn't think," "I don't care," or a "defective 
flue," to satisfy the reasonable and just demand of a 
thinking and moral civilization. Those who are inca- 
pable of handling the many modern combustibles can 
be taken care of by the State. An aroused and vigilant 
public sentiment can save more values from destruction 
annually than any increased toil and enterprise can 
replace. If we would have capital and immigration 
come to Virginia, we must show a resolute disposition 
to protect both by intelligent methods. But to return 
to forestry proper. At once measures should be em- 
ployed to restore the denuded places in the farm for- 
ests by plantations of walnut, locust, white oak, hick- 
ory and other timbers. It is entirely practicable. If 
prompt action is taken, there can still beiseed from 
last J ear's crop gathered. Do not conclude that the 
profit is too remote. The cost will be small in labor 
and expense. It will be a goodjinvestment for poster. 

ity. It will add value to the farm, if for sale. Cases 
are reported by the papers of remarkable success in 
the boost of values produced in ten to fifteen years. 
The annual value of the growth of new timber on our 
barren wastes, if protected from fire, would increase 
from year to year until in twenty-five to forty years it 
would amount, at a low estimate, to $500,000, or per- 
haps $1,000,000. The necessities of the State will con- 
tinue with the lapse of time. A wise forecast demands 
attention to this waste of public and private resources. 
If we have a government, it should govern. If it is 
"up to date," it should immediately suppress this In- 
dian lelic of barbarism and stupid indifference to the 
future prosperity of Virginia. 

Augusta Co., Va Peo Bono Publico. 

This appeal for attention to our forest valnes comes 
from one who was long honored with the confidence of 
his fellow citizens as their representative in the Legis- 
lature, and who only retired when the pressure of long 
years made the burden of attention too onerous. He 
is one of the far-sighted and thinking men of the State, 
yet withal most conservative in hi i views, and what 
he says ought to have great weight given to it. "We 
are heartily in sympathy with his views. — Ed. 


Editor Southern Planter : 

Age usually brings infirmities, but after the lapse of 
more than sixty years. The Southern Planter comes to 
us rejuvenated as if she had bathed herself in the 
fountain of youth. 

Tour last issue has determined, 'in my mind, that 
you have found the philosopher'sjstone. If there is 
any one thing that the Southern ifarmer must learn, 
either sooner or later, it is that all successful agricul- 
ture has a sure and abiding, foundation in stock rais- 
ing. It is a pity that your.last number could not find 
its way into every Southern 'home. As a boy at the 
beginning of the war, liwas sent to school in East Vir- 
ginia, and when I came back my father was greatly 
amused at my impression of the country. Its vast 
sedge fields, red and'guUied hillsides and scrub pine 
forest, gave to my youthful mind^ia weird and deso- 
late picture. My frequent visits li to that part of the 
State since has never rellevedimy mind of those early 
impressions. The good oldi days; of yore have de- 
parted. The negro as a farm laborer is a thing 
of the past. Tobacco must in i part be supplanted by 
clover and peas, and they in^tumlby other cultivated 
grasses and followed by'cattle, sheep and hogs. When 
that happy day shalljcome, then your brightest hopes 
and the labor of all these :years^will have found their 
full fruition and 01d];Virginla will. blossom as the rose. 




It is time that Sonthwestem and Eastern Virginia 
shonld become acquainted. Tt was my good pleasure, 
some months ago, to introduce to our people a gentle 
man from Orange county, and before he left he bought 
ten head of thoroughbred Angus cows and heifers 
from one of our breeders, and he went away happy, 
because he found here what he wanted at prices much 
lees than if he had gone North for them. If more of 
such wide awake farmers could be induced to venture 
this way, they would realize what it is to be a stock 
raiser, and they would aho see a fine grass country 
with plenty of fine cattle, sheep and hogs, and find a 
prosperous, sleek and saucy yeomanry. 

PulasU Co.,Va. , B.E.Watson. 

Accept thanks for your kind words and compli 
menta. May the day of grass, forage crops and live 
stock soon come to every farmer in the South. Then 
truly will he be in the way of prospeiity.— Ed. 


Editor Southern Planter : 

I want to write you of a little patch of turnips 
grown by one of our friends who has a habit of 
calling on us now and then, and he always has a 
pleasant effect— something like a strengthening 
plaster on a weak back. It makes us feel better 
long after he has gone, because he lias a way of put- 
ting matters up in a cheerful sort of way, which 
makes one more hopeful and more happy than be- 
fore his visit. 

In February, 1902, he planted two acres in pota- 
toes—a small patch by itself— and dug therefrom in 
June 90 barrels of fine potatoes, which he sold at 
$3.25 per barrel. 

The last week in August he sowed the two acres 
to clover, and mixed with his clover seed 25 cents 
worth of turnip seed, sowing both with one hand, 
one motion and one time. 

Now he has finished harvesting or pulling fully 
1,000 bushels of turnips from the two acres, and his 
clover is looking fine and promises three good cut- 
tings next year, good for not less than five tons to 
the acre. 

Where land can be so handled, there surely is 
profit in tilling the soil. On being asked if the 
pulling of the turnips did not injure the clover, he 
replied: "No; the stirring up of the soil did not 
dislocate the clover. On the contrary, it operated 
as a sort of cultivation of the clover, and it grew 
faster than ever." 

Upon another patch of two acres, adjoining the 
first two acres mentioned, he sowed clover alone, 

and the seed potatoes, or potatoes left in the ground 
from the potato digging in June, came up thickly 
through the clover, and about the middle of Decem- 
ber he went through and pulled up the potato vines 
and saved 14 barrels of fine potatoes for winter's use 
and to plant in the spring. 

Your readers can figure out the profit of such 
farming. They have plenty of time when the 
Northern winter rules at the North, East and West. 
Here it is — viz.: " Forty-five barrels of potatoes to 
the acre, and 500 bushels of turnips in one season, 
and the land — the acre — in a fine stand of clover 
for another year. Potatoes sold for $3.25 per bar- 
rel, and the turnips worth fully 20 cents per bushel 
to feed on the farm and cost only 25 cents for seed 
for two acres and the cost of harvesting the crop." 

This is not a big thing, it is true. But still it may 
be called a big little thing, which can be repeated 
and duplicated upon every farm in Eastern Vir- 
ginia, especially on each farm which lies under the 
warm and genial influences of the "Gulf Stream." 

This same farmer has 200 acres of cleared land 
in cultivation, but cultivates only a small portion 
thereof himself, renting out the balance to colored 
farmers, who handle the land under his direction. 
He dictates or stipulates what crops are to be grown 
and how the soil is to be handled, and under his 
instruction both the soil and the tenant prosper. 

It is not so where the tenant rents from year to 
year and has his own way. That is one great rea- 
son why Virginia lands, as a rule, do not improve. 
They, under the tenant system, have been robbed 
for years and years. 

Our farmer referred to above does not consider it 
any trick at all to grow 45 barrels of potatoes to the 
acre and 500 bushels of turnips on the same land 
in one growing season, and then leave the land in 
such a fine stand of clover as to yield him five tons 
of good hay the next year, worth, right on the farm 
where grown, fully $10 per ton. Land so handled 
pays well. Land so handled improves each year. 

The soil, the climate, and the markets permit the 
intelligent owner here to handle his land just as a 
skillful teamster handles his team. We want more 
clover; more stock; more general farming. The 
farmer referred to above did not wait for " things to 
turn up," but he "turned out" a tater crop and then 
" turned up a turnip crop ; " and when the " returns " 
are all in for the year, there will be no " sheriff's re- 
turns" to disturb the dreams or interfere with the 
peace of mind of the "turnip" grower. 

It is just so with this same farmer with his cow- 




peas and his corn. He grows the best and largest 
crops of peas and corn of any man in his section, 
and he does it "just as easy as falling off a log." 
He does not get out so very early in the morning, 
nor does he stay out in the fields at work late at 

He does not do a real hard day's work in the year. 
But he manages matters. The principal ingredients 
in his management are simply "git," "grit" and 
"gumption," with a very strong emphasis on the 
last-named qualification. 

If our Virginia farmers, as a rule, would " turn 
up" the soil a little more vigorously, and engage 
more in the raising of turnips and such like crops, 
and "turn up" at the country grocery a little less 
frequently to discuss politics, a wave of prosperity 
would sweep over the Old Dominion sufficiently 
large and strong enough to crowd out all the 

Let us dig up new ideas and new methods ; tur^i 
up new soil with new implements, and beat the 
world in results, as we already excel all other sec- 
tions in great natural and acquired advantages. 

Norfolk, Va. A. Jeffers. 


I have observed that plowing is the work that makes 
corn. The stalk does not need a large hill of dirt 
heaped np around it to become "baked" and com 
pressed; but the earth being made loose around it is 
the prime necessity. 

If the fence rows are not kept clean and free from 
briers and bushes, the rails will rot and the fence will 
settle down to a rotten mass. 

Fowls will do much better if they can be allowed the 
"run" of a stretch of woodland upon the farm instead 
of being confined in close unhealthy quarters. They 
will present a much neater and cleaner appearance 
nnder such conditions, and the man who comes round 
with the poultry wagon will notice the difference. 

Ton cannot get more strength from the horse than 
you give him through his feed. The horse is the farm- 
er's best friend, and he should be more than half 
cared for. 

There is nothing like doing everything on the farm 
at the proper time. A few day's delay of work while 
the weeds are growing will make extra work. If the 
farmer gets behind hand with his work, it is most 
probably his own fault. 

Dickenson Co., Va. T'rank Moneoe Bevekly, 

Mention the Plcmtar t» yonr friendn. 


Editor Southern Planter : 

It is a question well worth consideiing, how little 
reading is done by farmers, and how well satisfied 
they are without it. 

A vast number of our land-owners go on year after 
year doing the s»me things their fathers did before 
them, in the same old wajs, and generally with the 
same results, contentedly asking nothing better. 

No thought is given new ways and means that are 
daijy coming in use to shorten and make work easier 
and more profitable, the success of the reading man 
often being attributed to unfairness and greed. 

There is something new under the sun, and it only 
remains for men to avail themselves of such know- 
ledge as will benefit them in their life work. 

A reading farmer has a decided advantage over his 
neighbor who does not read, and he is very quick to 
use this advantage to the detriment of his non-reading 
neighbor; and why shouldn't he! He knows from 
his agricultural journal that prices are higher on all 
cattle this week than they were last. He knows that 
hogs are higher in price and scarcer than ever. He 
also knows that fodder and hay need only to be seen 
to bring fancy prices. 

This much he has learned from the market quota- 
tions he has taken pains to have in hand ; consequent- 
ly, he is on the alert for the non-reading farmer who 
labors without this knowledge. 

His watchful eye tells him where to go to find cer- 
tain farm products, cattle, &c., that the careless far- 
mer must dispose of in order to live, and thither he 

The non reader sells, and is glad to do so, thinking 
of his necessities, not of the possibilities of the future, 
with which he would b e familiar but for shortsighted- 
ness, stinginess, or, what is oftener, self conceit, some- 
times called lack of time. 

Many men know too much for their own good; very 
often they are so full of their own ideas concerning 
things that no room remains to imbibe ideas of men 
better informed ; in other words, they are self sufifi- 
cient and suffer blindly, while they labor with no 
visible success, ascribing failure to everything except 

Farm papers, and good ones, are to be had for a 
mere song in this day of enlightenment. A man must 
own himself behind the times who does not read and 
keep abreast of the times. While no one will as- 
sert that every idea contained in a farm paper is in- 
fallible, yet the wheat can be sifted from the chaff, 
and a man with good common sense, willing to learn, 
can cull a vast amount of information in a year's time 
beside helping the press to disseminate the knowledge 
in fields where it is possibly more needed. 




A wide awake business man or woman must read 
or suffer themselves to be justly called old-fashioned 
and out of date. 

Knowledge is now no more a fouatain sealed. 

Jno. F. Payne. 


A bill to prevent live stock from running at large and 
trespassing upon the lands of others wlttin the 
State, or tanging upon the public highways thereof, 
and authorizing the holding of an election on the 
petition of freeholders of any county, to determine 
whether such county or district shall be subject to 
the provisions of this act. 

1. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of Vir- 
ginia, That it shall be unlawful for the owner or man- 
ager of any horse, mule, cow, sheep, swine, cattle or 
goat, or any herd of such live stock, to permit the 
same to go or range at large or trespass upon the 
lands of others within this State, or range upon pub 
lie highways thereof unattended, or to permit such 
live stock to range over or upon the public highways 
of the Commonwealth for the purpose of grazing 
thereon. For each and eve y violation of the forego 
ing provision, the owner of such animal, or herd of 
animals, shall be proceeded against as prescribed in 
sections 2,042, 2,049 and 2,050of the Code of Virginia 
of 1887, and bs subject to the fines prescribed in said 
sections; provided, however, that this act shall not 
apply to any lands or territory within the limits of 
any incorporated city or town of this Commonwealth. 

2. Whenever a petition shall be presented to the 
circuit court of any county of this Commonwealth, 
signed by a majority of the freeholders cf such county, 
or any magisterial district within such county, peti- 
tioning said court to order an election of the qualified 
voters thereof to determine whether such county or 
district thereof shall be subject to the provisions of 
this act, it shall be the duty of such circuit court to 
order an election, to be held within sixty days from 
the presentation of such petition, within such county 
or d&trlct, as the case may be, notice of which elec 
tion shall be published once a week for four succes- 
sive weeks in such of the _ ewspapers published in such 
county if it be a county election or such newspapers pub- 
lished in the district, if it be a district election, as the 
couJt making the order may designate, and also by no- 
tices posted at each voting precinct within said «ounty 
or district requiring an election to be held to determine 
the question whether such county or district will be 
subject to the provisions hereof, the question to be 
voted upon and printed or written upon the ballot 
shall be ''for the stock law," or "against the stock 
law," which election shall be held, canvassed and re- 
turned in the mode prescribed by law for the holding, 
canvassing and returning of county elections, and if 
a majority of all the votes cast shall be against the 
stock law, then, and in that event only, the provis 
ions of this act shall not apply in such county or dis- 
trict, and which return shall be duly certified by the 
commissioners of election to the said circuit court, and 
it shall be the duty of said court to enter of record the 

result of such election, and if it be determined against 
the application of the law to the county or district, 
the said court shall in its order so declare and deter- 
mine, and thereafter this act shall be of no force in 
such county or district. 

3. Nothing in this act shall be construed to alter or 
change the laws now in force in reference to the fencing 
of lines of railroads and right of way thereof through 
this Commonwealth, nor to amend or repeal the exist- 
ing laws in force in any of the counties of this Com- 
monwealth in regard to the trespassing of stock where 
no fence is required. 

4. This act shall be in force after January 1, 1904. 
This is the form in which Mr. Leake's bill has come 

fiom the Committee of the House. Whilst not alto- 
gether what we should like, it is an improvement on 
the existing laws and should have the support of all 
farmers. We would like to see every man's line made 
his fence, and every crossing of this line by man or 
beast be at the peril of the trespasser. — Ed. 

Feed for Hens — Service of Sow. 

Will you please tell me what amount of feed and 
what hind to give to chickens. I have got 50 laying 
hens and get but very few eggs. I am afraid I have 
got them too fat, although I keep them scratching all 
the time. My chickens are yarded and I feed them 
fresh bone every other day. I also have 50 puUeta 
and I am not getting very many eggs from them. 

Also, will you please tell me if it is advisable to keep 
a boar with the sow all the time or just when she is 
ready for service t 

I always have grit and oyster shells before my 

Gloucester Co. , Va. Peed Schway. 

If our correspondent will refer to our last October 
and November issues he will find this subject of feed- 
ing hens for egg production very fully discussed. If 
the hens are fat, no way of feeding will make them lay. 
They must be reduced in flesh by short feeding and 
plenty of exercise. Feed plenty of green food, or in 
its absence roots. 

Put the boar to the sow only when in service, and 
after service take him away. — Ed. 


The former millions of wild pigeons of Ashtabula 
county, O. , says the Jefferson Sentinel, are only known 
to the "oldest inhabitant," and now the chestnut, the 
king of all nuts for boys, will soon only be known 
as a cultivated nut. Parties at Harriman, Tenn., are 
preparing to locate a mill for grinding chestnut tim- 
ber into pulp for tanning purposes. It is proposed to 
consume one hundred cords per day. At this rate, 
and with the destruction the hard headed borer is do- 
ing, chestnuts to eat will soon be a thing of the past. 
In the early set clement, chestnuts, it is said by early 
settlers in Tennessee, were so abundant that the In- 
dians, after burning the leaves off the ground, would 
pick them up roasted and sell them at the stores for 6i 
centa per bushel. — Country Gentleman 





Southern Planter 





Editor and General Manager. 

BUBINSSS Manaosb. 

Bate card fUmlKhed on application. 


me BontberB PlaHt«r i« mailed to sub- 
svlban In the United States and Canada at 
503, per annam ; all foreign oountrlei and the 
Oity of Richmond, 75c. 

Remittanoes should be made direct to this 
OlBo*, either by Registered Letter or Money 
Order, which will be at our risk. When made 
otherwiie we cannot be responsible. 

Wa iMTlte Farmers to write ui on any 
•Crlcaltural topic. We are alway« pleased to 
raoeive practical articles. Criticism of Artl- 
aleo, Suggestions How to Improve Thi 
Plahtir, Descriptions of New Grains, Roots, 
or Vegetables not generally known. Particu- 
lar* of Experiments Tried, or Improved 
Methods of Oultivation are each and all wel- 
•oma. Contributions sent us must not be ftir- 
nlahed other papers until after they hare ap- 
Beared in our columns. Rejected matter will 
M returned on receipt of postage. 


RICH mono, VA. 

Detail Index to Enquirer's 

Planting Bermuda Grass 87 

Grass for Past .re 88 

Nitrate of Soda on the Oat Crop 88 

Canada Peas — Angora Goats 88 

Rotation of Crops 88 

Peas and Sorghum 88 

Cow Peas, Soy Beans, Crimson Clover, 

Rape,&c 89 

Horse Training — Artichokes 89 

Corn-Growing 89 

To Kill Wire Grass 89 

Maintaining Fertility of Land— Dor- 
set Sheep — .~heep for Mountain 

Land 89 

Nitrate of Soda for Wheat 90 

Grinding Bones for Fertilizer — Prep- 
aration for Corn— Melon Growing, 90 

Alfalfa Growing 90 

Cotton Fertilizer —English Peas 91 

Grass Seeding 92 

Pecans— Grass Seed 92 

Improving Mountain Land 92 

Fertilizer for Grass and Clover 92 

Artichokes —Best Cross for Grade 

Hogs 93 

Cattle Dying — Texas Fever or Black- 
leg — Lice on Hogs 93 

Angora Goats 93 

Clover Seeding 94 

Alfalfa 94 

Green Croos for Hogs — Sick Hogs 94 

Fertilizer for Garden Crops— Lettuce, 95 

Tomato-Growing 95 

Hen Manure 95 

Budding Peaches 95 

Holstein-Friesian Associations 95 

Feed for Hens — Service of Sow 112 


Our January L sue. 

We have been the recipients of 
congratulations without number 
on our January issue, and what 
has been, and still is more pleas- 
ing to us, of hundreds of new sub- 
scriptions. For these favors, we 
beg to tender our warmest thanks 
and aesure those who have sent 
the messages and subscriptions 
that it will be our constant en- 
deavor to merit the same by de- 
votion to the interests of agricul- 
tural advancement in the South. 
We would ask that all to whom 
we have sent sample copies of the 
January issue will carefully read 
and examine the same, and note 
particularly the low yearly sub- 
scription. We feel assured that if 
they do this, we may confidently 
count upon receiving their sub- 
scription to the journal. We asked 
in our last issue that each old sub- 
scriber should send us at least one 
new subscription with their own 
renewal. Hundreds have done 
this, and hundreds more have 
sent us two new names with their 
own renewal at our special rate. 
May we again urge this request. 
There are still thousands of South- 
ern farmers who take no agricul- 
tural journal. They cannot ex- 
pect to make advancement in their 
calling until they become readers 
and students of the facts, princi- 
ples and science underlying the 
scientific cultivation of the soil, 
and the breeding and feeding of 
live stock. If they will read The 
Planter regularly, and practice 
what it teaches, they will soon see 
better results from their labors, 
and cease to complain that "farm- 
ing does not pay," Every one of 
our r'egular subscribers knows of 
neighbors who never read an ag- 
ricultural paper. See some of 
these men, and try to interest 


Farm Seeds 

are the best that can be obtained 
— free from weed seeds and impur- 
ities and of st ong germinating 
qualities. It is very important if 
you desire to secure good stands 
and good crops to purchase the 
highest grade seeds obtainable. 
This you can always do by pur- 
chasing ■' Wood's Trade Mark 
Brand " of Farm Seeds. 

Wood's New Seed Book for 1903 

mailed on request tells all about 

Vegetable and Flower Seeds, 
Grass and Clover Seeds, 

Seed Potatoes, Seed Oats, 
Tobacco, Seed Corn, 
Cow Peas, Soja, Velvet and 
Navy Beans, Sorghums, 
Broom Corn, Kaffir Corn, 
Peanuts, Millet Seed, etc. 
Write for Seed Book and prices 
of any Farm Seeds required, 


Seedsmen, Richmond, Va, 




Builders' Exchange, Phila., Pa., D. S. A 

Write for Catalogue and price. 

"BOYS AND GIRLS." Send for latest 

game out, " The Magic Orarle." .Sent by return 

mail witli our large, new illustrated catalogue, 

for only lOcts, in coin (no stanipe). 

1 STANDARD SPECIALTY CO., Dept. 1, Anton, Me. 




them in the matter of reading. 
Get them to give you 50 cents, 
and let us send The Planter for a 
year. Every new subscriber se- 
cured enables us to make The 
Planter a better journal, and there- 
fore benefits not only the new 
subscriber, but every old reader. 
Give us your help, and we can 
yet add thousands of new names 
to our list before the winter's sub- 
scription season is over. 

by local applications, as they cannot 
r^h the (lieea-sed portion of the ear. 
There is only one wav to cure Deafness 
and that is by constitutional remedies 
Deafness is causeti by an inflamed condi 
tion of the mucous lining of the busta 
chian Tube. When this tube gets m 
flamed vou have a rumbling sound or 
imperfec't hearing, and when it is entirely 
closed Deafness is the result, and unless 
the inflammation can be taken out and 
this tube re.stored to its normal condition, 
hearing will be destroyed forever; nine 
cases out of ten are caused by catarrh, 
which is nothing but an inflamed condi- 
tion of the mucous surfaces. 

We will give One Hundred Dollars for 
any case of Deafness (caused by catarrh) 
that cannot be cured by Hall's Catarrh 
Cure. Send for circulars, free. 

F. J. CHENEY & CO., Toledo, 0. 
|»-Sold by Druggists, 75c. 

Hall's Family Pills are the best. 


The Morewood Farms are new adver- 
tisers in this issue. They ofi'er prize- 
winning poultry. — > 

The Elkhart Carriage and Harness 
Manufacturing Co. begins the season's 
advertising with a card in another 

W W. Boob, maker of buggy and 
wagon wheels, renews his advertising 
contract for a year, beginningwith this 
issue. — rJZ '' -5» ■•■^ 

A H. Reid, of Philadelphia, is oflTer- 
ing his excellent Separator in this issue 
to our farmers and dairymen. 

H. C. P. is advertising for a position on 
a farm in the South where he can learn 
the business. 

The celebrated BuUfield Farms of Dos- 
well, Va , are advertising some well-bred 

W G Owens, proprietor of "The Ce- 
dars " Midlothian, Va.. is advertising 
Thoroughbred Poultry, Pekin Ducks and 
Bronze Turkeys in this issue. _^ ^.i^ 

Rand, McNally & Co., New York, want 
some salesmen for their well-known pub- 

B. W. Stone & Co., Nurserymen, 
Thomaiville, 6a., offer some choice stock 
in another column. 

Schiider Bros., Chillicothe, 0., Grow- 





















V.\i^:\\:\^A±V \UMUY.\m 

^='Prepared Only B v-sr-^r;^ 



B A LTiM OH E , /A; Di i 

* ^ .:.--U.S.A.--'. ■ i, 


TJkXEE NO sxtbstitxtte:. 




«r8 of Onion Seed, have an advertise- 
ment in this issue. 

The Neck of Land Farm, Jamestown, 
is for rent, and a good lot of stock, etc., 
•with which it is equipped, is for sale, as 
•will be seen by advenisementa elsewhere 
in this issue. 

R. A.Courtenay,of Pennsylvania, desires 
to purchase a good farm of 250 or 3U0 
acres. Look uo his ad. 

Stratton & Brags, Implement Dealers 
and Hardware Merchants, Petertburg. 
have an extra half page ail. in this num- 
ber. We invite the attention of our read- 
•ers to it. 

Mrs. J. D. A. Fisher, Salisbury. N. C, 
is advertising Thoroughbred Poultry 
«lsewhere in this number. 

The International Stock Food Co., 
Minneapolis, have a large ad. on another 
page. Kindly refer to it and answer the 
<}uestions they ask, and get a })3,000 stock 
book free 

In addition to its Weeder advertise- 
ment, the Spangler Manufacturing Co. 
offers its celebrated Ccrn Planter to our 

Meyer & Son, Bridgeville, Del., have 
made a good hit with their Premo Dew- 
berry. They advertise in another column. 

A new advertisement this issue is the 
Economy Co. of Cincinnati. Look 
up their ad., if interested in their line of 

The Cyphers Incubator Co. advertises 
with us for the first time in this issue. 
We take pleasure in referring our poul- 
trymen to the card of this company. 

The well-known firm of Hench & 
Dromgold Co., York, Pa , resumes its ad- 
vertisement in this issue. This firm 
makes a full line of farm implements, 
and offers a seasonable one in another 

The Columbus Carriage and Harness 
Co. are out with their usual spring an- 
nouncement in this issue. They have 
been selling their goods from factory to 
consumer for a number of years, as many 
of our readers well know. 

The Oakland Poultry Farm is adver- 
tieing Thoroughbred Poultry and Eggs 
in this issue. 

The Indiana Steei and Wire Fence Co. 
is a n^ w advertiser with us this season. 
Look up their card on another page. 

J. W. Hall is advertising a new Straw- 
berry. Look up the advertisement. 

J. W. Apperaon & Bro., Yancey's Mills, 
are advertising Farms and Homes in 
Piedmont Virginia. 

The Dairy Association, Lyndon, Vt., 
is advertising its preparations in this 

Gilbert Bros. & Co., Baltimore, have 
their usual announcement of Yager's 
Liniment in another olumn. Kindly 
refer to the advertisement, or better still, 
inquire of your merchants for a bottle. 
It will be found very useful in emer- 
gency cases. 

Note the change in the advertisement 
of S. L. Allen & Co., makers of the fa- 
mous "Planet Jr." Implements. 
The Marvin Smith Co. has several ad- 



Paris, 1900. Pan-American, 1901. 


For over a hundred years have been"universally recognized 
as the standard of excellence. They received the GOLD 
MEDALS (the highest award) both at the Paris Exposition 
of 1900 and at the Pan-American, 1901. 

Oijp — the io2d successive annual edition — con- 

^ . I tains a more complete assortment and fuller 

v-OlQlvlCJUv^ cultural directions than any other seed annual 
published. It is beautifully illustrated, not with highly colored 
exaggerations, but with the finest half-tones from life photo- 
graphs. It contains 128 large size pages, and in addition 16 
full page half-tone plates, and is in every respect and with- 
out exception the most complete, most reliable, and most 
beautiful of American Garden Annuals. We will mail it free 
on receipt of 10 cents in stamps, which amount may be 
deducted from your first seed order. .... 

MclPkCt are invited to send for our special price-list 

^ . of high-class vegetable seeds for truckers and 

vICll vH^mCI ^ large market growers. It contains all sorts 
of approved merit. 


36 Cortlandt Street NEW YORK. 

Seed for New Leetder Cabbage 

is now ready for the public. The greatest money maker ever produced. Will yield big crops of the 
finest large, flat, solid, perfect keeping cabbages ever bred. Tested thoroughly, and proven to b 
derful improvement over any extra early cabbage now grown. The best of all early flat headed v 

Bol^idLivo New Leader 

is the cabbage that will make your fields yield you big returns. Write for 
large, free illustrated catalogue of Rocky Ford Cantaloupe, Alaska 
Peas, Valentine Beans, Oradus Pens and all Sesde, Plants, Bulbs, 
etc, for the Garden and Farm. Write now. 

J. BOLGIANO S. SON. Dept. P 6, Baltimore, Md. 

(^'•Special line of Tiwiato, Cucumber, Radish and alt garden seed." 


hecond crop Seed Potatoes, etc. 

It contains more coints of excellence 
than anv other varieiv introduced la 
recent years. WRITE FOR FREE CA.TALOGUE; it tellR you all about this 
grand variety and forty other varieties of choice stock free from all diseases. 
^ J a._j T..._. .. J.W. HALL, Marion STATION, Mo. 





Best, simplest, Btrong- 
est and most durable 
Disc Harrow made. All 
steel. Double levers. 
Low hitcl). Center 
draft. All sizes 
With or with- 
out seeding 
Write for cir- 
culars and 

Toledo, Ohio. 

Don't Monkey with t'DCCDI CCC " 
anything but the rCCIlLCOd) 

If it is clean, unbroken 
peas you want. The 
•■PEEHLESS" Is easy to 
operate. light to handle, 
strong and durable, ele- 
gantly finished. Itwill 
clean peas to perfec- 
llnu, also millet, sor- 
ghum seed and velvet 
beans. .1. K. Sanders'.s 
latest Improved, fully 
guaranteed, ^^'o pay 
"'---^i-^v^ irelghts. Write to-day 
for prices, acldres.s, 

Kfausers' Liquid 
Extfaci of Sntolte 

Snin)<.'!i iru'iit ix-Tfcclly in a 

vertisements in this issue. This house 
can furnish anything needed on the farm. 
Write them for their latest catalogue. 

The "Iron Age" Cultivators are gain- 
ing in popularity. An ad. of them will 
be found in this issue as usual. If you 
have not yet gotten the latest ca'alogue, 
address the Bateman Manufacturing Co., 
Box 167. Grenlofh, N. J. 

Gleason's Horse and Cattle Powder 
should be in every stable. Look up the 
ad. in this issue. 

The Lansing Silo is offered to our read- 
ers by A yi. D. Holloway. The silo has 
many commendable features, and we in- 
vite those interested to write for cata- 
logue and prices. 

Foutz's Horse and Cattle Powder is ad- 
vertised elsewhere in this issue. It is 
recommended as one of the finest tonics 
on the market. Your dealer probably 
sells it. Look up the ad., and write for 
pamphlet No. 8, which will be mailed 

Tlie DeLoach Mill Manufacturing Co. 
are advertising their well-known Pony 
Saw Mill. This is a very low priced mill, 
and is guaranteed in every particular by 
its makers. 

The Richmond Plumbing and Mantel 
Co. have a half page advertisement in 
this issue. They are having a good run 
at present on their "Favorite" Range. 

Woodland Farm is offering some nice 
Dorsets this month. 

W. T. Thrasher is advertising Short- 
horns at right prices. 

The Ruumsy- Williams, C, St. Johns- 
ville, N. Y., are offering Gasoline Engines 
and Threshers in this number. Get prices 
and catalogues. 

The Peerless Pea-Huller Co., Dalton, 
Ga., is a new advertiser in this issue. 
They exhibit splendid testimonials re- 
garding the Peerless. 


To poultry raisers who read the SoiUh- 
ern Planter we will send a leading poul- 
try journal, subscription 50 cents, pre- 
paid, for one year, if you will fill out the 
following blank and forward it to us by 
earl y mail : 

How many hens have you? 

How many chickens do you expect to 
raise next year? Do you in- 
tend to buy an incubator? 

Cut out and mail to the Hawkeye Incu- 
bator Company, Newton, Iowa, Box No. 
119. Our contract is limited for subscrip- 
tions, send at once. 

Gasoline is to the country what elec- 
tricity is to the city ; with the " big end" 
in favor of the farmer, as he can get both 
light and power without running wires 
or paying bills which are measured out 
monthly by the meter system. 

As an economical and reliable power 
for the farmer, the Engine manufactured 
by the Weber Gas and Gasoline Engine 
Co., of Kansas City, Mo., seems to have 
solved the problem. A mechanical tri- 
umph, which requires no engineer, no 
fireman — in fact, can be operated as effi- 
ciently by the farm hand as by the ex- 
pert. A power which is ever ready and 
can be run without danger to life or its 

STuriP— ^ 


All Sizes and Prices. Catalogue Free. 



ChanberUi Hfg, Co., Oleu, N. ¥., D. S. A. 


Most Powerful. Handiest 
and Strongest Built in 
the World. 

>'e make 4 kindn In sIZM 

lit all needs and of any 

•ed strength. Saves kim« 

and does the work rifiht. The 

operation of pulllnff 

Btuiupsand trees by oor 

methods is simple and 

easy. Heud for Fre« 



" La Salle Street, ChlBaycs lU. 


Clears an acre af heavy timber land each day. 
Cleara all stumps In a circle of 150 ft. without 
moving or changing machine. Strongeat, 
most rapid working and best made. 
Hercules Mfg. Co.. 413 l7thSt..Cantravlll«, Iowa 


From anxiety over 
wash day, .are all who 
WASHER. We guaran- 
tee it to be the best. A 
trial machine sent at 
factory price. Agents 
wanted for exclusive 
territory. Write for 

catalogue with full description. We will 

surely please you. 

1903 1 







I lie Best ever de- 

' \ isui. we wiiuUl 

ij_,' iiDt buy ex pen- 

Mve sjiace to tell 
) ju about them. 
WRITE TO-DAY an^ we vrill Fend 
you a Booksliowing llie benefits derived 
by tlie Use of our Mixtures and Spray- 
ing OutHts. 

Lenox SBrayer & Clieinical Co,, Inc. 



abovcall others is the one who needs to spray. Good, 
smooth, even sized, disease-free, salable apples are now 
an I inpossibility without spraying. For the apple man's 
use nothing quite equals our 

Century Barrel Sprayer. 

Submerged brass cylinder, brass ball valves, everlasting 
plunder packing, automatic agitator. Unequalled fo> 
durthility, case of operation, free water avays. Eighteen 
stjlpBof Bpr»yer8. CaHUi-^uo with form ulna M^ tesdmonUlfl free. 
Western A^ts., llenion & llnbboll, ChJca^o. 

Get the Best 

A Gootl Spray Pump earns big- — 
profits and lasts for years. W 


good pump. As prac- ■ 
1 fruit glowers we ■ 
were using the com- 
mon sprayers in our 
own orchards— found 
their defects and then invented 
The Eclipse. Its success 
practically forced us into man- 
ufacturing on a large scale. 
You take no chances. We have 
done all the experimenting. 

Large fully illustrated 
Catalogue ovd Treatise 
on Spraying— FREE. 

MOKRIIvL A- MORLET, Benton Harbor. Mich. 


B9 Save Money B9 

^^ BY Buying One of Ouks. ^^ 
They will do as much work, being all brass 
are lighter to handle aud are more durable, 
will generate a higher pressure thereby mak- 
ing ttjem the easiest pumps to operate on the 
market. Write forcati>log audgel treatise on 
Bpraying free. Agents wanted. Mention this 

Baper. J.'F. Gaylord. Successor to P. C. Lewit 
linufacturing Csmpany, Catskill. N. C. 

Mention the Southern Planter when cor 
leaponding with advertisers. 

surroundings. Many of these engines, 
stationary, or mounted on all iron and 
steel trucks, are used for heavy work 
throughout the civilized world ; grinding, 
shredding, threshing, wood sawing, and 
many other classes of work requiring 
heavy and light power. This Company 
also makes a specialty of a Farm Engine 
of 2} H. P., called the " Weber Junior," 
which is used to great advantage on the 
farm and about the dairy in operating 
small machinery and pumping water for 
stock. These little engines are mounted 
on a wood base and so constructed as to 
be easily moved about as required, the 
weight being but 650 pounds. 

On every up to date holding will be 
found a gasoline engine of such size as 
amply meets the requirements. 

We are glad to direct the attention of 
our readers to the advertisement of the 
Field Force Pump Co., of Elmira, N. Y., 
which appears on another page of this 
issue. This pleases us in the iirst place, 
because these people are old and valua- 
ble advertising patrons of ours, and in 
the second place it pleases us, because we 
know that their goods are satisfactory to 
our readers. In any event, we have had 
no single complaint since we have been 
carrying their advertisement. They make 
a fall and complete line of spraying ma- 
chinery, apparatus and appliances. 

They are manufacturing only such 
things as have been thoroughly tested 
and have been found to be of merit to 
the orchardist and others who find it to 
their advantage to spray. Write them 
for matter touching the subject of their 


Nathan, when a small boy, once drifted 
into a Sunday-school, or was dragq;ed 
there — accounts differ — and when asked 
concerning the chief end of man, merely 
shook his head. The question was not 
clear. Trying again, the teacher sought 
to get from him some idea of moral re- 
sponsibility. There was no reply. A 
third effort was made by gradually ap- 
proaching the subject, the teacher asking 
him what he best liked to do. 

"Shirk work," was the prompt reply. — 
Dr. C. C. Abbott, in February Lippincott's. 

The Pastor. — I hope you never swear 
when the baby is irritable." 

The Parent.— "Oh, no; the baby at- 
tends to all that." 

" I 've made it a practice to put all my 
worries down in the bottom of my heart, 
then set on the lid an' smile." — From 
"Lovey Mary," The Century, January, 

Government statistics show that the 
Miami Valley in Ohio produces better 
grain and has purer water than any other 
section of this country. It is Nature's 
garden. Right in the heart of this favored 
spot is our distillery. We have at our 
very door the two essentials for produc 
ing the finest whiskey in the world — the 
best grain and the purest water. Add to 
these one of the most completely equip- 
ped distilleries ever operated and an ex 
perience of 36 years in distilling whiskey 

! hnveclTenanoivleaseof life to thousnnds ot oia 
i " a^-ons 1 h<..y can be luid in nny desired heik'lit.and 
t any « idth of tile up to 8 Inches. Witli a set oftbeso 
a «u..eisyoucaniiiafe\v minutes Lave either a high 
^o, a l.)w down wa-..,in. Ihe Eleelrlc Unnily 
J Wn^on IS made by skilled workmen, of best selecc- 
i Pel nniu- rial— white hickory axles, steel wheels, steel, etc. Guaranteed to can-y 4000 lbs. Here is 
a U..V wa-'on that will save money for you as it 
! liusts almost forever.Ourcntalogdesci-ibine the uses 
fl of these wheels and wagons sent free Writeforit 



d ssiJd 4 l!u£g; H krvls. Slul Tira UD, . ^t.SS 
-.ilh aubbi-r Tires, $I5,UU. I mfg. whetle ^i lo 4 in. 
rea,i. Top Baggies, 828.75; Harness. $S. 60. Write for 
imlogue. Ltarn how lo buy vcliirl-i and parts direcL 
VagoB tUubrellaFltEE. W.' V. BOOB, t'iacinnali, 0, 

MTEST — .,^gs> (Newton'i Pateat.) 

mpRovEo ' — *=^^ Guaranteo^ 


Ajsk your hardware dealer for them or write 



Is no MAKESHIFT, but the 
best one made for 
chingand Drain 
$; and SIO, including Tripod 
and Rod, Send for descriptive 
m Ter- 

A Kmd«B€log 


We want to send into CTcry town SP'^^^^K^ 
and county a sample of our new g^ ff^^/Ct 
self-operating Kant-Klog Sprayer. 
No farmer, fruit or vegetable grower can aflord to 
be without one. They crops both in quan- 
tity and quality, and double your yearly profit. 
•Pft mg^CttTti m »80.00 A DiY is vrhai one 
TU AUbN I 9 S ?c<> agent nmrle. Another has 
sold and delivered 660 machines and has 100 more sold for 
later delivery. With thccomplete dolailcd instructionswescnd 
our agents any man of ordin try ahility can do as well. 
For further information address, 

RochesterSprayPumpCO., 21 East Av. Rochester, N.V- 





Steel Ball Coupling Cultivator OouDle Rov 
HIanlcr and Ferliliicr 
Attachment Complete 
Ilc'l l<'aiii iMori'. 



and (• I o N 1 n ir Bliovel 

TheHENCH& DROMGOLDCO. Mfrs., York. Pa. 



The latest improved. Does all 
kinds of work. Moot durable; 
baa groun I over 15,000 bushels 
without repairer expense The 
fastest grinder; has ground 300 
bushels In 4 hours. Lightest 
draft and lowest price. The 
World's Best I Send for prices 
to the manufacturers. 
N. M. FIELD MFO. CO., St. Louis, Mo. 

Ground Feed 


Crushes and primis In any 
fineness, ahvays tinlfomi Mas 
1^ great capacity. l-asyninninR. 

The Old Reliable Antl-Frictloo, Four-Rurr 


No gearing, no friction. 
TboUNandH in use. Kour- 
horse mill grinds 60 to 80 
bus. per hour. Wemakea 
full line of Feed Mills, best 
ever sold, Inciurtlngihe fa- 
mous Iivwa grinder No. 2. 
for»12.5C. Send for free cat. 

Manufactured and sold by the 
Iowa Grinder and Steamer Works, Waterloo, Iowa 

Tile "Weber Junior" f •''-•"••■'"•'*- '^^-y •*■ 

im plug water. 

OS but Uttle foa- 

no I. Bhlpr.o.l 

- Jlca cumpletrlf 

J ef^etcd, all cuddoc- 

iftdo. Easytoilart.any 

-jQ oporato It. Every 

Kiiarant«ocl. Otlicr eizea 

jpio 60 H. P. Send for cnt- 

uog. Wnli«r Gas * Oa»()' 

Engl no Co.. Box 128 

Kaua&a City. 


jkDITTO'S J.Tp'kl 

if ^g 

''," ;.M4 Ball Bearing 

JLjMmI i^eed grinder. 

u ^MJfi 

X^^IQS^ Hnl.l on triiil. \\',.ftHkno 


It _^l«rK-CTt capoclty. (■unicM 

fpf • runnlnir mill niont durable. 

"^ don't liiip It. Circulars tree. 


and you have a combination that is un- 
equaled anywhere. That's why Hayner 
VVliiskey is the best for medicinal and 
other uses That's why we have over a 
quarter of a million satisfied customers. 
That's why you should try it. Don't for- 
get that it goes direct from our own dis- 
tillery to you, with all its original strength, 
richness and flavor, carries a United States 
registered distiller's guarantee of purity 
and age and saves you the dealers' enor- 
mons profits. Your money back if you're 
not satisfied. Read our offer eleewhere 
in this paper. The Hayner Distilling 


That's the name of our home county, 
and after selling our products here for 
over seventeen years, during the last year, 
1902, we sold to the farmers in this coun- 
ty alone, for their own use, over seventy- 
six thousand (7H,000) dollars worth of 
Page Fence— our own home county, so 
far, being the banner county to use Page 

If anything would make a company 
proud, how ought this to affect us. 

Here is where our first fences were 
erected, and here the bulk of our experi- 
menting was done, and still each year we 
sell more fence right here at home than 
we did the previous year. 

Our average total sales bv months for 
the year just passed, 1902, were over 
twenty seven per cent, greater than for 
the year 1901. 

During the latter month of 1902 there 
was quite a drop in the price of some 
qualities of fence wire, which accounts 
for other companies cutting prices a little 
below ours, but there was no drop in 
prices of the materials of which " Page- 
Wire" is made. Indeed, the pig-iron out 
of which it is made costs $5.75 per ton 
more to-day, December 11, 19C2, than it 
did December 11, 1901, and cannot be 
gotten for immediate delivery for less 
than eight dollars more than it cost a 
year ago. See prices in The Iron Age 
December 11, 1902, and December 11 

Thus, vou see, our prices mast remain, 
at least, as high as last year ; but, not- 
withstanding their lower prices, our sales 
have been larger than ever before. We 
cannot use their kind of wire. It will not 
hold the coil feature in our fences. 


N. \V. Ayer & Son, the Philadelphia 
advertising agents, who have a national 
re|)utation for "keeping eveilastingly at 
it," believe in sticking to a good thing 
when they have one. For instance, their 
calendar for 190.3 follows the design used 
for several years past, but with new col- 
oring. And in truth, it would be hard 
to improve upon their design ; the dates 
are plainly readable at fifty feet, yet the 
calendar is not unpleasanfly conspicu 
ous; it is artistic, simple and useful, and 
It is not surptising that it has become so 
popular an adjunct to business oilices 
thaJt the supply never equals the demand. 

While they last, one will be mailed to 
any address for 25 cents, which barely 
covers cost and postage. 


additional'lurers who Imve iK-en liilriiiK- 
InK unr patent. Tlie rule of law Is : "■I'he maker 
seller or user of an infringing deviie are aU liable' 
In daiiKiges to the owner of tlie patent infringed." 
1 lie .lanesvllle Utaclilne Co. and tlie Keystone 
lann Machine Co. arc the only firms licensed to 
tm! ajlcl loolh covered hy our patent, and we 
Unally warn sellersandiisersof all otlierinakes So 
ailuuraljly liavBtliewi.ow-lIallock" Wcedersdone 
the work for whi.h they were designed, that one 
niakerafteranolhersoughttocopy it. Ilowever 
Ipy I he various Courts' decisions, these makei-s are' 
luiiipelled to abandon tlie uianufacture of a 
W ceder having Hat teeth, and they are now ei- 
perhncTiIIng with other shapes; but It is the Hat 
toulh ih;,t mafle the "Hallock'' Weeder famous 
and 111 vievy of ttienianner in wliich our patent has 
been sustained, it IS dangerous to usean InfrlnirinE 
tootli. Write for descriptive circularsand prices. 
Box 839 York, Pa. 

Heavy lateral wires, heavy hard steel staya. 
oolled spring wire. Sure Grip lock. In strength! 
appearance, and durability, the Hard Steal 
o»nnot be e.Toelled. Write for catalogue anil 

Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio 

Page Poultry Fence 

ipelghs 10 pounds to the rod-bottom wires onlr 
M inches apart-and don't cost any more erected 
iban a Blazy nettine Send for descriptions. 


Many designs. Cbeapi 

, paKe Catalogoc 

free. Sprelal Prlrento Cvr— 
t«rleBaDdChDrchf>i. Addr 




'DOWWIRE WORKS- Louisville.Ky: 

MADE. Ball. 

stron*;. Chlckeiv 
tight. Sold to the Farmer at WbolKsaU- 
PrlMa. Folly WftrrftDt«d, Catalog Fre» 
„ „_„ 1 

e.g. 1. 





WE PAY S26 A WEEK ^"'> expenses to men 
poni.r., r. ^ "'"■'> '•'ss 'o introduce 

roultry Compound. 

I^TER^aTIO^AL M'F'G. CO., Parsons. Kan. 

$1 00.001 ^''"'fo'^I'HEECopyoftllcNEWMAGA. 

■ ZINH S,,.T,....I .. W.„n foy J.J. ^ 1 

For the BestI Siob. No m..ney requircTin thf!, „.. 

NA Hi! c" I Enclose 3C. stamp for particulars. NEWS- 
A M E I OS THE World Co., Rochester, N. i. 

1903 J 








Our money winning books, 
written by men who know, tell 
you all about 


They are needed by every man 
who owns a field and a plow, and 
who desires to get the most out 
of them. 

(Ill incr CPU r <^i"l other inaectB oai. 
OiN uUOL OUALL be coDtroUed bj aalmi 

Ctood'B Canstic Potash Wbal* 
Oil Soap, No. 3. 

It also prevenU Curl Leaf. Endorsed by u 
tomologlsts. This soap is a fertilizer as w«l 
as insecticide. 60 lb. kegs, t2.50 ; 100 lb. keei 
»4.50. Half barrels, 270 lbs., at SJ^c. per lb. 
barrels, 425 lbs., at 3Hc. Large quantltlw 
■I>eclal rates. Send for circular. 


Sge-U N. Front St., fhiladelphi*. »• 


y^xle Grease tue^worid. 
wearing qualities are unsurpassed, ac- 
.lly outlasting 3 bxs. any other brand, 
t affected by heat. svGet the Ssnain*. 



Send lor Circulars and Price-LUt. 

Bodley, Auguata County, Va. 



4 and 6 Governor Street, 

and Commercial Pnnters. 


The leading color pictures in the Feb 
ruary Century — the most novel and curi- 
ous in subject of any that magazine has 
yet published — are from interesting and 
beautiful studies of the aurora borealis 
made by Frank Wilbert Stokes while in 
the Arctics in the fall of 1892 and are 
richly worthy the subject. They repro- 
duce in tint for the first time in a popu- 
lar magazine the wonderful effects of the 
aurora. Mr. Stokes, probablj; the first 
real colorist to visit the Arctic regions, 
was with the Peary and relief expeditions 
on the Kite when he was privileged to 
see some color displays worth all the 
dangers and privations of the trip. His 
word painting is as vivid and interesting 
as his color work. 

That the Senate is the most powerful 
body in the government, that it has slip- 
ped out of its orbit and is describing a 
larger area in the political heavens than 
that which the fathers marked out, that 
its constituent elements make the Senate 
self assertive, tyrannical and prone to 
prefer the material to the moral advan- 
tages of the republic, these and many 
other statements not altogether compli- 
mentary are made and discussed by Hen- 
ry Loomis Nelson in his article on " The 
Overshadowing Senate" in the February 
Century, which is enlivened by plenty of 
lively anecdotes and clever pictures by 
A. I. Keller. 

For those to whom the fiction of the 
magazines is always first the February 
Century has provided liberally. Lovey 
Mary visits Miss Viny and goes with Mrs. 
Wiggsand in the family on a picnic which 
proves decidedly Wiggsesque. The sec- 
ond part of Abigail H. Fitch's " When 
the Consul Came to Peking" carries its 
characters to safety through some thrill- 
ing adventures. ''The Yellow Van" con- 
tinues in interest. There is wit in Vir- 
ginia Frazer Boyle's "Her Freedom," and 
much pathos in Kate W. Hamilton's "The 
Baby From Ruggles'e Dip." There is an- 
other Pa Gladden story, too, " Knights to 
the Rescue," in which Elizabeth Cherry 
Waltz takes her gentle, lovable hero on 
an unusual errand of mercy. 

Arnold's battle with the wilderness is 
the dramatic subject of the dramatic 
chapter in the February Century, form- 
ing the third installment of Justin H. 
Smith's " The Prologue of the American 
Kevolution." The sufferings and heroism 
of that terrible march to Quebec make 
sad but inspiring reading. Prof. George 
E. Woodberry, editor of the valuable Poe- 
Chivers papers, which are concluded in 
the February Century, finds in the cor- 
respondence evidence that Chivers, who 
thought himself a genius, was to Poe, who 
really was one, not unlike what Alcott 
was to Emerson. William Gage Erving's 
storv of his ISOOmile trip from Khartum 
to Cairo in an Adirondack canoe is full of 
exciting experiences, and tells something 
incidentally of Egyptian affairs. "Nobody 
associates fires with spinsters in any ' 
pleasant way," muses Lillie Hamilton i 
French in " My Old Maid's Corner," but 
her winter night dreams over the ashes 
are sweet and wholesome and tenderly 
sympathetic. There is much verse in the 
number, and the Century's standard of 
illustration is maintained. 


,000 offered for one in- 

venlion; SS,500 for anotlier. 

B<..iU- "How to Obtain a Patent" 

"Whattolnvenf'sentfree. Send 

^li sK-etch for free report as to 

patentability. We advertise your 

p.itent for sale at our expense. 

CHANDLEE & CHANDLEE, Patent Attorneys 

972, r Street, Wasliingtan.D.C. 


McMillan fur &. wool go.. 

Minneapolis, Minn. , 


Law and Collection Association. 

Established 1884. Claims collected 
in all parts of the United States. 
No collection — no charge. 

P. 0. Box 503. 905^ East Main Street, 





Extraordinary Statements Sapported by 

Strong Testimony (Iffered by People " 
of Four States. 

The unuBual claims made for Yager's 
Sarsaparilla with Celery, as to its won- 
derful effiMcy in curing the many dis- 
eases caused by impure blood and weak 
nerves, are substantially supported by 
unsolicited testimony from many States. 

J. F. Brown, of Delmar, Del., says: " I 
suffered greatly from rheumatism last 
fall and winter, and found no relief until 
fused Yager's Sarsaparilla with Celery. 
I am now on my third bottle and hope 
to be cured permanently." 

BKS.SIE K. SiicKi.EV, of Oranda, Va., says: 
"I have been taking Yager's Sarsapa- 
rilla with Celery for two years, and can 
say it is a great medicine ; it ha-i been of 
much benefit to me in restoring health. 
While taking two bottles I gained 101 lbs." 

E. B., Expert Penman and 
Teacher of Public Schools, Lanna, W. Va., 
says: 'During tbe summer and fall of 1899 
my health was very bad. I would get 
very hungry but could scarcely eat any 
thing. I wai weak and losing flesh all 
the time. In tbe latter part of tbe fall 
every little scatch on my skin woulo 
result ir a running sore. I had quite a 
number of boils Finally I was so weak 
and had such bad health I had to stop 
work. On the recommendation of 
friends I commenced to take Yager's 
Sarsaparilla with Celery, which has 
effected a positive cure, .'■ince taking a 
course of this valuable medicine I have 
never been sick. I have as good an ap- 
petite as is necessary for any man, and 
am gaining flesh all the time I heartily 
recommend it to those afliicted as I was." 

Ella Di.\o.n, Montford Ave., Aeheville, 
N. C., says : " 1 have taken onlv one bottle 
of Yager's Sarsaparilla with Celery, 
but it has done me so much good that I 
shall continue its use until I become a 
healthy woman, as I feel it will ultimately 
cure me. I cheerfully recommend it." 

These are four statements taken at 
random from thousands of similar state- 
ments recently received. Yager's Sarsa- 
parilla with Celery is sold by leading 
druggists, 50c. a bottle. Made by Gilbert 
Bros & Co.. Baltimore, JSId. 

DON'T NEGLECT, Get a Package 
to-day of 




Feed it to your stock and note the re- 
sults—they will Improve at once. It is 
the most reliable and uiidoubtfdly the 
best Powder for all kinds of stock. It 
can be had from any dealer, so ^Ive it 
a trial. Prepared by 

GILBERT BROS. & CO , Ballimore. Md. 



The prominent feature in Lippincott's 
Magazine is always a complete novel. 
That contained in the February number 
is by Alice Duer Miller, entitled "A Man 
of His Word." IMrs. Miller, by the way, 
belongs to a popular New York story- 
writing family. Both her mother and 
sister are well-liked contributors to the 
leading magazines. The motive in "A 
Manof His AVord" is the moral obliga- 
tion of a member of the Four Hundred 
to marry a young school-teacher because 
her mother'had saved his life at the ex- 
pense of her own. Before her death she 
whispers to her debtor, " Marry my 
daughter." On this foundation the author 
has built a tale of compelling interest 
and infinite diversion. 

In addition to the novel, eight striking 
short stories enliven the pages of the 
February Lippincott's" W. A. Fraser's 
"The Capture of the Canton" is a rattling 
good yarn of the sea. Beulah Marie Dix 
contributes one of her striking and unu- 
sual stories called " The Scythe in the 
Oak Tree " This is a Puritan incident 
where a man's " masterful temper" runs 
up against a younger man's obstinacy. 
" Deceivers Ever," by R. E. Vernede, is a 
bright sketch of a pretty, perverse girl 
who hated boys. The cause for sui-h a 
sentiment is the point of the story. Elliot 
Flower calls his humorous story "The 
Demure Wife of Ned Barrett." An oblig- 
ing friend of the husband's who consents 
to entertain her for a while is doubtful 
about the applicability of the adjective. 
" Brother Johnsing's 'Sperience," by Ella 
Middleton Tybout, has to do with a 
'• brother" of color whb is wont to stray 
from his own fireside. Clinton Danger- 
field writes a tale called "A Game of 
Chess" which has great dramatic quali- 
ties. The game is played between lovers. 
The man's life is staked on it, but his fair 
antagonist, unaware of this, uses all her 
skill in his undoing. "A Race Through 
the Night" is an exciting automobile 
story by Edgar Jepson ; and " Till A' 
the Seas Gang Dry" are letters written 
by a young widow to her " dear depart- 
ed." It is the collaborated work of Mary 
and Rosalie Dawson. 

A novel and attractive feature of the 
February St. Nicholas is an operetta in 
three acts, " Prince Charming's Fate," by 
Catherine C. Lovell, the full production 
calling for nineteen characters besides 
lords and la<lies, heralds, guards and 
pages, a gipsy tribe and a corps de ballet. 
The scenes are laid in the Kingdom of 
Imagination, and Prince Charming is the 
" leading man." There are directions for 
the stage business and costuming; and 
the girls and boys and their elders should 
have much enjoyment from " Prince 
Charming's Fate." 

Most important of the stories in the 
February St. Nicholas, of course, is the 
new installment of Howard Pyle's "The 
Story of King Arthur and His Knights," 
which tells of the Sable Knight and how 
King .\rtluir fought with him, even unto 
grievous wounding. Tudor Jenk's " The 
Castle of the Beeches" is a good, old-fash- 
ioned story of buried treasure. Jack Lon- 
don's " In Yeddo Bay" will delight every 
adventurous, loyal American lad. Charles 
Newton Hood's "The North Shore Lim- 

This illustration was made from the 
photograph of a field of Timothy. 
The portion on the left was not, 
that on the right was, fertilized with 

Nitrate of Soda 

400 pounds to the acre. Every far- 
mer is interested in getting the 
heaviest possible yield of grass. 

The latest edition of our Dullelin, " Food 
for Plants." contains an e.-scellenl article on 

" Grass Growing for Profit." with proof 
that the yield of barn-cured hay may he in- 
creased 1000 pounds per acre for each loo 
pounds of Nitrate of Soda used, will be sent 
/><■<■ to ail interested. Send name on Post Card. 


For Rand, XrcNally & Company's "Practi- 
cal Farming and Gardening" covering soil 
fertllHy, irrigation, drainage, cron culture, 
gardening, trucking, fruits, forestry, pruning, 
grafting, budding, training ihe giape, Injuri- 
ous Insects, plant diseases, spraying, selecting 
and feeding farm animals for profit, diseases 
of farm animals, silos and silage, making 
poultry pay, hand.v rules, useful information, 
farm cooker.v : a new work covering ail local- 
ities ; destined to have an extensive sale; 
those first in the lield will have the advan- 
tage; exclusive assignment of territory ; new 
plan of work makes it sell at sight; no pre- 
vious experience necessary; immediate re- 
turns guaranteed ; permanent employment. 


142 Fifth Avenue. New York. 

•?• iA£ K N T E D f 

Competent poultryman desires correspon- 
dence wltQ men having; capital with a view 
of establishing a Market Poultry and Duck 
Plant the coming summer. Salary expected, 
until business is on a paying basis. Qood 
references given from former employers. 

Those with land but no capital need not 
answer. Address 

i^TAT jil ro^ 7 e: D € 

Situation on a farm in the southern half of 
the State of Alabama, by a Chicjigo man, ZA 
years old, single, who wlshe? to study south- 
ern farming. Best of reference given. Cor- 
respondence solicited. Addre-s.-s 

H. C. P., The Southern Planter. 


I.i years practical experience with poultry. 
Understand artlUcial incubation. Caponiz- 
ing and raising capons for market. 

R. RANDOLPH CUYLER, - Orangre.Va, 


As manager of a stock or grain farm by a 
young man, a graduate of an Agricultural 
College. Can give good reference. Address 
CLARENCE SYMNS linsioe, w. v*. 

1903 J 





For 10c. in Stamps or Coin we will mall 
you one packet of our BLEMDED PANSY 
SEED, comprising all the bright rainbow 
colorings imaginable— a veritable flower 
garden-tot ether with our Illustrated An- 
nual ( FREE), containing valuable hints 
on flower seed culture. 


Dept. F. s4=S6 Dey St., New York. 

2IO Kinds for 16c. 

S;Uzer'a seeds are found In J 
^ and on more farms ibao^ 
■ in America. __ 

ir this. We own and op- 
oouo acres for ttie produc- 
c'loico seeds. In order to ^ 

, e you to try them i; 

the following unprecedented oirer:| 

For 16 Cents Postpaid ^ 

25 Bor's iTondfirful oaioos, 

Sa|ioerlp?iS Ipltuce varieties, 

S5 rare luscious radtob, 

S0 8)>lrnilitl beet sorts, 

*5slorlou!il7 bpiicliful flower eeeds,^ 

all CIO kind^ positively fumisliing 

ud lots 
ables. togeth-i 
ae telling all / 

Oiihn) fccd at bat 00c. a ponnd. 
La Crosse. Wis. 



Varieties: Charleston Wakefleld. Brill's 
Early Flat Dutch. Price, cash i.o. b. Charles- 
ton, 81.25 per 1,000, $1 00 per 1,000 above 5,000. 
ALSO 500.000 


1 and 2 years old. grown exclusively from 
Imported seeds, at 85.00 per 1,000. 
ALFRED JOUANNET, Mount Pleasant, S. C. 


Cabbage, Tomato, Radish, Lettuce, 
and all seed for hot bed. 

Send for Catalog of Garden, Farm 
and Flower Seed. 


SEEDSMEN, 1711 E. Franklin Street, 
Long Dlltance 'Phone 2966. RICHMOND, VA. 

ited" has the merit of being as true aa it 
is exciting. Joseph Blethen's "The Fire 
Cat" gives beside its thrills a fascinating 
storv of an Indian superstition and an 
Indian hero's bravery. Some animal 
sketches, an account of child life in Ger- 
many and verse and pictures, written and 
designed for the hearts and eyes of the 
girls and boys, fill up the February num- 

The pioneer manufacturer of the all- 
steel harrow was Mr. Roderick Lean, 
founder of the Roderick Lean Manufac- 
turing Co., of Mansfield, Ohio. From a 
meagre beginning in a small blacksmith 
shop to the largest barrow works in the 
world, is the typical illustration that true 
merit wins. Early in his career he real- 
ized that to merit success his product 
must not only be right in principle but 
also right in construction and material — 
honest through and through. The evi- 
dence that be applied in practice what 
he believed in theory, is proved by the 
universal use and recommendation by 
farmers throughout the length and 
breadth of this country, of Roderick Lean 
harrosvs, land rollers, band carts and 
other farm implements. Their catalogue 
is sent free on request. 


Artificial Incubation by Far the Most 
The fact is generally recognized by 
farmers and poultrymen, that to success- 
fully meet business compstition, the in 
cubator is a necessary acquisition. The 
question of quantity is not the only 
point of vantage over the hen's ruethod 
of raising her brood, but quality is also 
to be considered. The chick that owes 
its existence to the incubator and passes 
the earlv stages of life in a brooder in- 
herits a stronger vitality and is less sub- 
ject to the attacks of disease and vermin 
that beset the life of the chick that 
breiks through the shell in the chicken- 
house nest. 

I'he success of the incubator and brooder 
has created an industry that has rapidly 
grown to large proportions. Easily the 
leaders in this enterprise is the George 
Ertel Company, of Quincy, 11!., the 
makers of the celebrated Victor Incuba- 
tor. An idea of the magnitude of their 
business can be formed from the state 
ment that in one day of February, 1902. 
thev made the enormous shipment of 
five carloads of Victors, covering orders 
from every part of the world. 

The Victor has many proven points of 
superiority — the claim that it will hatch 
ever}' fertile egg is based on many record 
cases where 100 per cent, hatches have 
been realized. This is the crucial test of 
worth in an incubator — success in its pri- 
mary purpose — and should be the first 
point considered in purchasing a ma- 

The Ertel Company is a long estab- 
lished firm, and their products are 
known and appreciated in every part of 
the world. 

A very valuable book about poultry 
raising and breeding, illustrating and 


Are Reliable Seeds 

The best crop3 come from stte:^ tlmt ure thrown It 
best suited tn their proper develop- 

West. THi3i3 our speci;il business. 

A Large Crop 

Is dependent upon the eharafter of the seed 
you sow. We can please you. Everythiiip: for the 
Garden and Field. Prices riffht tor choice stoclc. 
Full and completelineot Kami, Garden, Dairy and 
Poultry Supplies. Write for new cataloR No. 10, 
free. HanHsoinerthanever; cnntainsmuch inform- 
ation. All Farmers and Gardeners should have it. 

20B N. Focn Street, Balllmore, MaryUnd. 


I have for sale several blocks of the 
finest two-year old Winesaps Apple trees 
ever grown in the State. The trees are 
well branched and measure from five to 
eight feet in height Trees are dug from 
the nursery the day they are shipped. 

8c. each for the finest in lots under 100. 

7c. " " " " " over 100. 

6 to 7c. wholesale. 

CHAS. F. HACKETT, Manager, 

Bonavista Narseries, 
Albemarle County, Greenwood, Va. 


I have been planting this corn for 4 
or 5 years, and never expect to plant 
any other kind. Ou ordinary land it 
makes from 25 to 80 bushels per acre. 
On 1% acres last year I gathered over 
70 bushels. It Is a flrm, while corn, 
and keeps well; ears under medium 
size. Averages about three ears to the 
stalk, some stalks having as many as 
Ave and six ears. Every farmer ought 
to plant It. Hena 15 cents in stamps 
for a start— enougbt to make jou two 
or three buphelf. .Will send one peck 
by express, collect, for 75 cents. 


Sylvania, Qa. 

Georgia melon Seed. 



Write for prices of .Select 
Pure Melon Seed. 

B. W. STONE & CO., Thomasville, Qa. 

Mention The Southern Planter. 






100.000 2-yr.-oia Asparagus roota, 
6 varieties A special rate of $350 
per icon for 2 mos. for BARR'S, 


A large general assortment, in- 
cluding WINESAP8 and YORK 

Splendid Assortment of 

Ornamental. Shade 

and Fruit Trees. 

Splendid lot of POLAND-CHINA 
pigs ready for shipment. Also pure 
fowls at $1 eacti. 




The Bonavlsia Nurseries will have some 
•xcepllonally fine apple trees for orchard this 
year. Wine Saps. Paraeon (M. B. Twig), 
York Imperial (J. F. Winter), Albemarle 
Pippin, etc. 

We did not have a complaint last season. 
Every tree Is perfeci. and guarantead, taken 
from the nursery block the day It is shipped, 
carefully packed. 

Our prices are the lowest. 

CHAS. F. HACKETT, Manaeer, 

Qreenwood, Va. 


Ir you GET (JooD Plants. One of ray cus- 
tomers the past season sold JIKXl.OO worth of 
Htraw'peirles from one acre. 1 sold him the 
plants for lai. You can do the sau.e If vou 
buy the best— and Unit's the kind 1 have. 
CataU g ! H. LIGHTFOOT, Ch>tlanooga. Tenn. 


We are large growers of Onion Seed, 

and can quote attractive prices. 
Write us when you are ready to buy. 
Estaolishcd 1876. 
SCHILDER BKOS., - Chlllicothe, O. 

1,000 Bushels SEED CORN. 

Horte loiilh variety. rjOc. per bun. 

200 Bushels BLACK PE'S. 

200 Bushels SOJA BEANS. 

W. H. WILSON, St. Bridea, Va. 

giving full information about the Victor 
machines will be sent to all who request 
it. It is not a mere advertisemj; circu- 
lar, but a book valuable as a work of 
reference. It is free for the asking. 

In addition to having distributing 
points all over the country so that he 
maj' fill orders from any quarter in the 
least piBsible time, Duane H. Nash, the 
manufacturer of the famous Acme Har- 
row, of Millineton, N. J., makes fair con- 
ditions for the patron to become ac- 
quainted with the implement which he 

Mr. Nash will send the Acme Harrow 
to any farmer, and will give ample time 
for its thorough trial and test. 

If the purchaser does not find it en- 
tirely satisfactory, he may return it at 
Mr. Nash's expense. This is a most fair 
and honest proposition, and relieves the 
purchaser from all element of chance in 
the expenditure of his money. The de- 
cision is left entirely in his hands, and 
he may render it according to his best 
judgment after trial. 

These harrows are delivered free on 
board at distributing depots conveni 
ently located, and can therefore be de 
livered promptly. 

In commendation of Mr. Nash and 
his business methods, and the quality 
and utility of the Acme Harrow, we 
must say that in all the years during 
which we have carried this advertising, 
we have never heard a single complaint 
against either of them. The implement 
is too well known to require commenda- 
tion at our hands. 

Write Mr. Nash for printed matter, 
prices and terms of free trial 

U. S. Department of Agriculture, Wash- 
ington, D. C. Report of the Secre- 
tary of Agriculture. Departmental 
Reports for ^he year ending June 30, 

Eighteenth Annual Report of the Bu- 
reau of Animal Industry for the year 

Rules and Regulations in regard to 
Renovated Butter in accordance with 
the Act of Congress approved May 9, 
1902, and information concerning 
Adulterated Butter. 

Report of the Editor for 1902. 

Experiment Station Record, Vol. XIV, 
No. 5. 

Bureau of Plant Industry. Bulletin 
.31 Cultivated Forage Crops of the 
Northwestern States. 

Farmers' Bulletin 163. Methods of 
Controlling the Boll Wet^vil. 
California Experiment Station, Berkeley, 
Cal. Report of Work of the Agri- 
cultural Experiment Station for the 
years 1898-1901. 

Bulletin 142. Grasshoppers in Cali- 

Bulletin 143. The California Peach 
Tree Borer. 

Bulletin 144. The Peach Worm. 

The Red Spider of Citrus Trees. 

New Method of Grafting and Budding 

At* one S 


Lion Coffee 

has better strength and 
flavor than many so-call- 
^ed "fancy" brands. 

Bulk coffee at the same 
price is not to be com- 
pared with Lion in quality. 

In I lb. air tr;;ht, 
seated packages. 


Prof. Henry's Great Book for 

Farmers and Stockmen. 

Delivered anywhere for - I2.0O 

*it.h the SOUTHERN PLANTER, 2-25 


For the treatment of THE LIQUOR, OPIUM, MORPHINE .n* 
other Drug Addictions. The Tobbacco Habit, Nerve Exhaustion 


^# All about them and other things for the 
dairy and creamery. A. H. REID, Phila.. P«. 


will buyan "0" size Eclipse 
hand cream Separator— 1 to 
3 cows— in perfect condition. 



A spcoiirt hand ONE-HORSE TREAD 
POWER. Must lie in good repair. Wive 
full particulars style, age, maker's name, 
condition and lowest price. 

A. S. CRAVEN, - Qreenwood, Va. 

and WOOD SAW. 
H. H. MESCHENDORF, Forest Depot, Va. 

Strawberry Plants 

AVe grow lliem on virgin soil, conse- 
quently tliey are free from disease and 
true to name. Leafing varieties, 81.65 
per 1.000 and up. Every one says we 
have the finest plant-bed the.y ever saw. 
ij acres In plants. Circular free. 
JOHN IIGHTFOOT. - Sherman Heights. Tenir. 


We offer for sale a limiled quantity of fresb 
seed, which we guarantee to be Qrstqaality, 
»10 per 1,000. Address 


Mentioa tlu Southern PiaiUrr when 
writine advei »«»erB. 




/ CariSellYpur Fann 

letrnhow. Est. "96. Highest references, b^ces in 14 cities. 

W. M« Osuander, ikj<6N. a. Bld^., Philadelphia 

Virginia Farms 

All prices and sizes. Free list on application. 
WM. B. PIZZINI CO., Rlchmeiid, Va. 

GO soon. 

For full p«rticularB 

write A. JEPFERS, 

Norfolk, Va. 



Eabv Payments. C*TALOaue Fhcc. 

eSO. E. CRAWFORD & CO.. Richmond, Ys. 

Established 1875. 

> stock section of VIBO-INIA. 
Best climate and water In the U. 8. Near 
rreat markets, with best educational adTan- 
laees. For further information, address 

Bam'i. B. Woods, Pres. Charlottesville, Va. 


Good land, climate, markets, shipping fa- 
cilities, churches, schools, good health, mode- 
rate prices, eas.v terms. 
MACON & CO., - Orange, Va. 


A Farm of about 250 or 300 acres, near R. R. 
station and town. Land must be first clasR in 
eevry way. With good buildings. Am willing 
to pay fair price for sucli a place. Anyone 
bavlng such a farm for sale, can address 
R. A COURTNAY, 339 Wyoming Ave .Scranton. Pa_ 

— FARMS — 

In the best fruit and agricultural 
sections of Virginia. 
Virginia Buoklet and information free. 

J. W. APPERSON & BRO., Yancey Mills, Va. 


Large house, plenty of out buildings In good 
order, SOJ;^ acres of highly iraproved land, with 
stock, crops and all equlpraenis. 6 miles from 
Richmond. A bargain can be secured in this 
property. Address 

"DAIRY," care Southern Planter. 


To a good tenant ou shares or otherwise, a 
fine, improved farm at Jamestown. Va. 1,100 
acres cleared land, stocked with cattle, sheep, 
horses and mules and all necessary imple- 
ments. Finest farm on the peninsula. Apply 


Jamestown, Va. 


Having a government position. I am com- 
pelled to sacrifice my apiary, poultry and 
fruit bnsinese located on 15 acres of fertile 
land on navigable tidewater river, about 25 
miles from Richmond; six-room dwelling, 
kitchen, hen-house, about 60 colonies of bees, 
Implements, etc. No malaria; very healthy. 
Price, real estate, 8750 ; bees, etc., about $250. 
B. F. BITCHIE, - Bichmond, Va. 

Illinois Experiment Station, TJrbana, III. 
Bulletin 79. The Corn-Bill Bugs in 
Bulletin 80. Methods and Results of 
Field Insecticide Work Against the 
San Jose Scale. 
Bulletin 81. Forcing Tomatoes. 
Kansas State Board of Agriculture, 
Topeka, Kas. Report of the Board, 
1901-1902. This, like all the reports 
of this Board prepared under the di- 
rection of Mr. F. D. Coburn, the 
well-known Secretary, is a volume of 
great interest and value not only to 
Kansas, but to all farmers every- 
where. The Report makes an octavo 
book of 1,118 pages, with a full Index 
in addition. It gives valuable infor- 
mation upon Shorthorns Herefords, 
Aberdeen-Angus, Galloway, Red 
Polled, and Polled Durham cattle; 
the breeding, rearing and fattening 
of farm animals ; the growing of al- 
falfa and numerous other crops, and 
full statistics of the products of each 
county in the State. It is a sample 
of what such a report should be, and 
makes the reports of our own State 
Board and many other States look 
miserable subterfuges. 
Louis'ana Experiment Station, Baton 
Rouge, La. A Report on the Geol- 
ogy of Louisiana. 
Minnesota Experiment Station, St An- 
thony Park, Minn. Bulletin 75. Fat- 
tening Lambs of Different Grades. 
Oats as a Factor in Feeding Lambs. 
Balanced and Unbalanced Rations. 
Bulletin 76. Fattening Steers of Dif- 
ferent Types. Feeding Steers for Short 
and Long Periods. Feeding Steers 
in the Stable and the Open Shed. 
Bulletin 77. Insects Notably Injurious 
in 1902. 
North Carolina State Board of Agricul 
ture, Raleigh, N C. Bulletin, No 
vember, 1902. Miscellaneous Sub- 
Columbus Horticultural Society, Colum- 
bus, O. Journal of the Society, De- 
cember, 1902. 
Pennsylvania State Board of Agricul- 
ture, State College, Pa. Bulletin 61. 
Annual Report of the Director. 
Hampton Institute, Hampton, Va. Na- 
ture Study Leafletf, No. 8. Winter 
Virginia Weather Bureau, Richmond, Va. 
Report for December, 1902. 
Department of Agriculture, Richmond, 
Va. Annual Report of the Commission- 
er of Agriculture. This is a small octavo 
volume of 170 pages, of which the Report 
of the Commissioner occupies three pages, 
the report of the manager of the test farm 
in Charlotte county 21 pages, and the 
report of the chemist 13 pages. The bal- 
ance of the book is mainly made up of 
clippings from agricultural and other 
journals published in various parts of the 
country. The only suggestions of the 
commissioner for making more efficient 
the work of the department for the ad- 
vancement of the agricultural interests 
of the State are one in favor of an appro- 
priation for the execution of a pure-food 




Communicate with us. Write for free 
"Virginia Real Estate .lournal," con- 
taining many i-plendid bargains. 
R. B. CHAFFIN & CO.. Inc., 

No. 1 N. 10th St., Richmond, Va. 



Ten, Fifty and One Hundred Acres each, with 
good buildings, close to steam and trolley 

lines, easy access to the city. Also 


From lOO to 1.000 acres at low prices, all th» 

way from ;5 to «50 per acre. Write for 



J. R. HocKADAT, Manager. 


No place in the United States can a man 
do 80 well at farming, for the money in- 
vested, as in Virginia. Lands are cheap ; 
climate good, and the best of market* 
close at hand. It is the State of all 
others, for a comfortable all the year 
round home. The James River Valley 
Colonization and Improvement Company 
offer superior advantages to land pur- 
chasers. For free 36 page land pamphlet, 

VV?A. PARSONS, Vinita, Va. 

"Crop Growing 
I Crop Feeding' 


383 Pp. Cloth, $1.00; Paper, 60c. 

We oiler this splendid work in connec- 
tion with the Southern Planter 
at the foil lowing prices: 

OW or new subscriptions. 


and POTOMAC R. R. 

Form the Link connecting the 

Atlantic Cost Line R. R., 
Baltimore and Ohio R. R., 
Chesapealce and Ohio R'y, 
Pennsyivania R. R., 
Seaboard Air Line R'y 
and Southern R'y. 
Between all points, via Richmond, Va. 
Fast Mall. Passenger ard Express Route be- 
tween Richmond, Fredericksburg, Alexan- 
dria, Washington, Baltimore. Philadelphia, 
New York, Boston, Pittsburg, Buffalo and All 
Points North, East and West. 
I W. P. TAYLOR. Traffic Manager, Richmond, Vi, 






It is to give uniformly bigger 
per cents in hatches than any 
other incubator, or your money 
back. Self-reKulatin«. self-vcn- 
tilating. supplies moisture auto- 
matically. The machine that 
makes its ownwayinto all parts 
of the world. Our brand new 
poultry book of l*'o paiies shows 
Cyphers Incubator and Brooder scenes in this 


htry, hnfjlanj. German,', Moll: 

jsses from practical and scientilic standpoints al- 
rry phase of the poultry business. It is without 
the greatest catalofpic and general 

.. „ poultry work 

ever issued. It is free, but we ask you to send us the post- 
age, 10*:. Write to-day f..r Book No. 177 Circulars free. 

The Automatic 

Sure Hatch 


s Free Trial 

luatlc. Nev 

iilutor— (rreatestimprn 

incubators. No conipIk-aiJons. 

of the bcsi 



illnstratfa catalogue free. 


Clay Center, Neb. or Columbus, Ohio 

onublc price. Don't pay double for ouiof dati 


More made-more sold- 
pri:;es won than 
ILL OTHERS Combined, 
3---ad for catalocie-just out-fin- 
est ever le sued. Monti on this pape: 






he KtlluMe 

molitur., I 

Yards Fine Poultry, g^^ Bell>bl.l»h, andBn 

BoxB II ,. qiiino,. 111. 

Build Your Own Incubatof, 

(rat4-<l I'lans Bad lo^ti^cUunH 

ng Incubators and Brooders hy 
which a SOO-Kge Hot Water (Q 

How 10 flake 

d Sato HoDey ,,Illi aa 

rnA>x«>N.sM>>r .( <i»..iiii.i. lan jjuin 


-J \i 


U«e the 


Made by F. H. J ack.son & Co., Winchester, 
Ky, Write to them for free gamples. 

law and another authorizing the depart- 
ment to analyze minerals and mineral 
waters, neither of which it would seem 
to U8 would amount to much in the way 
of helping firmers to make their labors 
more profitable. When one considers the 
cost and expenditures of the Department, 
which amounted in the year to $.35,070.10 
actually expended, and $8,500 in addition 
appropriated for work not yet executed, 
and the showing of the work done, as ex- 
hibited by these short reports, it would 
seem that, like Falstaff's celebrated tav- 
ern bill, there is an " intolerable amount 
of sack to very little food." The salaries 
and commissions of the officers of the 
Department and the oflice expenses 
pniount to $8,930.12, nearly as-much as 
c Legislature (when the Department 
was given an appropriation and the fer- 
tilizer tax was turned into the treasury), 
appropriated fer the whole cost and ex- 
penses of the Department and the cost of 
the fertilizer inspection. Now, in addi- 
tion to this outlay, there is an additional 
one of $6,.S97.U for expenses of inspec- 
tion. iSurely this is an extravagant out- 
lay for the work done ami recults attain- 
ed. We are also disappointed at the re- 
sults obtained at the test farm, as dis- 
closed in the manager's report. Perhaps 
it would be unjust to charge or blame 
this wholly to the manager as he seems, 
like the Israelites of old, to have been 
expected largely to make bricks without 
straw, notwithstacdingthe fact that there 
has already been expended on the farm 
during the vear $9,843.04, and appropria- 
ted for it, but not expended, .$4,500.00. 
He complains that he cannot make com 
rlete experiments and give the results 
reached frooa lack of scales to weigh his 
crops, and we judge from lack of measure 
in which to measure them, as he gives 
estimates of the production in many cases 
where actual measure ought to be given, 
even to fractions of a pound. Experi- 
ments conducted on such a loose system 
aa this can never result in supplying re- 
liable data for the guidance of farmers. 
Judging from the amount alrealy spent 
on the farm and appropriated for it, and 
the lack of equipment as yet for carrying 
on the work of an Experiment Station as 
disclosed in the manager's report, it 
would seem that this gift is likely to 
prove rather a costly one for the State 
before it makes any" returns. Frankly, 
when one compares what is being done 
by the Department of Agriculture of this 
State with that done by the Department 
of Agriculture of the State of Kansas, as 
disclosed in each case by the reports sub- 
mitted by the executive officer of each 
department, both of which reports the 
Virginia one of 170 pages, the Kansas 
one of 118 pages, are now lying before us, 
we are compelled to feel ashamed and 
humiliated at the poor showing made by 
tfiia State. It is time for an awakening of 
interest in the Department by those in 
whose interest it is supposed to be run 
and who supply the funds to run it by a 
tax levied upon the fertilizer they use, 
which tax they as certainly pay as though 
collected directly from them. So far as 
one is able to gather from the report the 
function of the Boa-d of Agriculture is 
now simply that of an auditing commit- 
tee for a fertilizer inspection department. 

Moorewood Poultry Farm, 

Chesterfield Co., - Wisevllle, Va. 


HlgliestrGiade Barred Plymouth Roclt, 
White Wyandotte, Black Minorca and 
Partridge Cochin Fowls. We won 19 prizes 
at late Richmond Show. Breeding stock 
and eggs for sale at al 1 times. If you mean 
business, write for Handsome and Valu- 
able Illustrated Catalogue and Poultry 
Guide. Write to-day. 


^ FOWLS ^ 


We have the winuiug pen of Madison 
Square Garden Show. Gobbler weighs 45 
lbs. ; beus, 26 lbs. 


Prize-winning drake at Philadelphia and 

New York Madison Square Garden. Young 

ducks weigh 14 lbs. pt-r pair. 
PLYMOUTH ROCKS, Barred and White. 

A limited number fowls and eggs for sale. 
Also pure bred P0L.4ND CHIN.A.S. SHET- 
CATTLE, the milk, butler and beef breed. 

Sam'l B. Woods, Prop. Charlottesville, W«. 


^ Fine Laying Strains <^ 


My best pen of Silvers will be headed this 
season with a fine cock direct from Mr. J. T. 
Orr, out of his famous laying htraln of Silver- 
Laced Wyandottes. EGGS at 81 00 per setting 
of 15 at Express Office, Salisbury, IN. C. 


R. F. D. No. 3, Salisbury, N. C. 



Cocks and Cockerels, 81.50 and 81.00 each, 

trios, 85.00. 

FRED NUSSEY, ■ Summit. Spotsylvania Co., Va. 

1903. J 





From Thoroughbred Poultry. 

In our poultry yards we have the loUowlDg 
thoroughbred poultry, all flrstrClass stock, 
•riglnallv started frora the bf st stock in this 
country,"aud carefully cross-mated so as to 
give strong and vigorous stock and the best 
laying strains of the different breeds that it Is 
possible to obtain : 

BARRED P. ROCK. $1.00 per sitting. 
BLACK LAN&SHAN. $r.oo per sitting. 
BUFF PLYMOUTH ROCK. $1.50 sitting. 
LIGHT BRAHMAS. $1.50 per sitting. 

$1.50 per sitting. 

WHITE WYANDOTTE. $1.50 per sitting. 

In addition to careful breeding, we pay 

special attention to the handling and packing 

of our Eggs, so as to ensure good fertility and 

a good hatch. 

We have also for sale a few tlrstrclass young 
cockerels of B.\RRb'.D and BUFF PLY- 
Price, 81.50 and S2 each, crated for shipment. 
P. 0. Box 330. Holl)brock Farm. RICHMOND, VA 



Choice purebred spec- 
imens of eitb er Eex, $1 
each, in any quantity. 
Eggs in season. 


Natioaal strain, 


Descendants of prize winners. Sold in 
pairs or trios. Lar^e, beautiful birds, 
at exceedingly low prices. The first 
orders will get pick of large flock. 

Correspondence solicited. 
MIssE.Calile Giles. Prop., Whittle's Depot, Va. 

Barred, Buflf and White P. Rocks, Light 
Brahnias, Whit-e Wyandottes, Buff Coch- 
ins, Partridge Cochins, Black Langshan, 
Black Minorca, S. C. Brown Leghorns and 
S. C. White Leghorns. Stock for sale cheap. 
Prize winner eggs, $1 for 1.3. A hatch of %, 
or order duplicated al half price. 

Box 5. C. 1. Warriner, Manager. 

' for stamp, 
if 3'ou men- 
this paper. 
J All poultry 

32 Varieties 
Best Poultry | 

keepers should have It. J NO. E. HEATWOLE, 
Harrisonburg, Virginia. 



I received 1st on pen, 1st on hen, 1st and 

2nd on pullets, 3rd on cockerel. 

Choice cockerels, 82 to $.5. Hens and pullets, 

12 to 15. Write me your wants, I can please 

you. Eggs, $2 per 15 in season, 

C. G. M. FINK, 1409 W. Leigh St., Richmond, Vi. 

Surely this was not what was contem- 
plated by the Constitution and the Legis- 
lature when it was created. It should be 
a force foT the advancement of the agri- 
cultural interests of the State with the 
Commissioner as merely an executive 


In the Iccubator World there are com- 
paratively few who discover at first hand 
and apply any necessary principle of arti- 
ficial incubation. There are many Jol- 
lowera. Ideas are quickly appropriated 
and dozens of coniems are constantly 
engaged in hurriedly throwing together 
machines and foisting them upon the 
market in imitation of any valuable dis 
covery, in the hope of getting a share of 
the profit. 

Perhaps the most important feature 
which distinguishes the Reliable from 
any and all other makes of incubators is 
its superb construction, which enables it 
to produce and hold a uniform tempera 
ture upon all parts of the egg tray 
throughout the entire hatch. This does 
not mean that it fails in any essential 
possessed by any other incubator, but in 


this one particular it stands in a class by 
itself. Poultrymen everywhere recognize 
the superior genius manifested by the 
Reliable's work. The manufacturing 
company is enabled to take a broad 
stand upon it. The offer they make 
shows that they never doubt for a mo- 
ment that the machine in comparison 
with others will give the highest per 
cent, in hatches under all conditions and 
in any impartial man's hands. They 
make the statement everywhere in the 
form of a positive guarantee that "the 
machine must prove satisfactory to the 
customer in his own hands and hatch the 
largest possible percentage of chicks 
from the fertile eggs or his money will 
be refunded." We are showing here cut 
of one of the incubators. 

For detailed description, we must refer 
our readers to the company's catalog and 
Poultryman's Guide, mentioned in the 
advertisement elsewhere in our journal. 
This book will be mailed to any one 
writing for it on receipt of ten cents to 
pay for postage. 

Now is the time to terrace and irrigate 
your farms. You should not delay this 
work any longer. See advertisement of 
Bostrom's Improved Farm Level in this 
journal. ' 'S:^SMilaiBl • . 

. _. r^r:* 

T* aakecows ^ay, ate Sharpies Crean Seearatert. 
Book "Business Dairytng " A Cat. 305 free. W. 
Oliester, Pit.B 

Have for sale a limited number of .Single 
Comb Brown and White Leghorn Pullets and 
Roosters. Best Layei's known. Prize-winning 
stock. Price, $1.00 to SI. 50 each. Eggs in season 
at 81.00 for 16 : 85 00 per 100. Satisfaction guar- 
anteed. Address 

A. T. MATTHEWS, Box 36, Parksiey, Va. 



High-grade at low prices, 
lor quick sales. 

CHtS, P. WINSTON, - Amelia, Va. 

Blaol( Langshans. 

Fine stoclr and free range. Only breed 

kept. Splendid winter layers, A 

few birds for sale. 

Cocks, $2..50; Hens, $1.50; Eggs. SI.50, perlo. 

Satisfaction guaranteed. 


Parksiey, Va. 



Choice Cockerels, Si. 50 t.o $2.50. Eggs, in sea- 
son, per 15, Jl.OO. Incubator Eggs, 83.00 per 
hundred. If not as good as you cau get else- 
where for twice the money, return and get 
your money back. 

Reference: Christiansburg, Va. 

Bank of Christiansburg. 


(Single Comb.) 

Eggs from prize winners and good layers S.I50 
per sitting. Reduction on larger lots. 


R. W. HAW, Jr., - Centralia, Va. 


The undersigned can furnish them In 

limited quantities at H for 100. 

F. O. B. at Claremont, Va. 

J. M. HUGHES. Claremont, Surry Co.. Va^ 





QEESE. DUCKS of all kinds, 


Write me for prices. 

Dr. CECIL FRENCH. - Wasliinston. D. C, 
TISTweltth St.. N. W. 


Best B P. Hooks in Virginia. 
I IHawkiiis. riii.inpsuu and Bradley sIraiDS. 

tl.ii p.-r titling .13i. 

M. B. Turkey Egtis. .iOc. each. M per dozen. 

Even the best is never loo good, you'd better 
buy of me Mammoth Pekin Hocks. 

P. and S. FARM. Midlothian. Va. 


.S. C. B. Leghorn. $i each, li for j... As 
good as the best. SatisfaclioQ or money 

TURKEYS all sold. 

Eggs from B. P. HOCKS. $1 per sitting. 

Mrs .I.Ml. K. PAYNE. 
Clairmont Dairv Farm. I'niversitv of Va. 


hite and Barred Rock 

single bird, *I.O0: trio. $-.".50. Eag* for hatch- 
ing. 7.5 els. for setting of 1.5. JERSEY BULL, 
No. S4I71. J.B.JOHNSON, 

Clover Hill Farm. M.\nass.\s, Va 


Fine strains and beantlfal birds. Will 
be sold at reasonable prices. Farm 
bred birds and very healthy; six 
months old. A few Setter puppies a 
month old. For pricesa nd particulars 



200 B, P. ROCK and S. C. B. LEGHORN 

At only II each. This stock Is pure, 
and will please. 

P. H. MEYDENREICM, Prop , Staunton, Va. 

FOR S.A.r.E:. 

This year's bird. Weighs 25 lbs. Price, 15. 


MRS. A. E. JOHNSON. - .Manchester, Va. 

Barred Plymouth Rocks 


.Strong, healthy, vigorous, larm-ralsed 
stock ; bred for laying : 75 els. per setting. 

WM. B. LEWIS, Irby, Nottoway Co., Va. 


FOK S.^i-K at reasonable prices, Barred 
Plvinouih Kock K tigs. SI per dozen. 
RObI. B. TAYLOR. Cedon Caroline Co . Va. 

I have a few purebred 


FOK SALrf. Price, tl apiece. 

W. C. DORSET, - Pllkiaton, Va. 


The best schools will never eradicate 
the evil of illiteracy until there is an effec- 
tive attendance law in every t^tate. To be 
etfective the law must be compulsory, 
with sjllicient penalties to cause it to be 
obeyed. This has been the exp rience of 
all other States and countries, and we may 
not expect a different result here in the 
South. The sooner we profit by their ex- 
ample the better. 

At pretent Austria, France, England, 
Scotland, Hungary, Italy, Norway, Swe 
den. Denmark, the Swiss Cantons, the 
German .States, British Columbia, New 
Zealand, Prince Edward Island.Taamania, 
Queensland, .South .■Vustralia, the prov- 
inces of Canada, and tbirly-two of the 
United States have compulsory attend- 
ance laws. With a few minorexceptions, 
these laws require artendame six, seven 
or eight years, from twelve weeks to ten 
months annually. In all the States in 
which such laws have been enforced 
longer than twenty-five or thirty years 
the percentage of illiteracy has been re 
duced to a minimum. These States and 
countries contain a population of more 
than two hundred and fifty million peo- 
ple, the freest and most progressive in 
the world— more than eighty per cent of 
all the people we call enlightened and 
progressive. Of the thirty-two American 
States having such a law only two — Ken- 
tuck}' and West Virginia — are Southern 
States. But what has been found good 
for all these great States and countries 
will probaoly not prove otherwise for ue : 
and it is noted with pleasure that the 
sentiment in favor of such a law is devel 
oping rapidly in all parts of the South. 

The following seems to be a fair sum- 
mary of the arguments for compulsory 
school attendance : 

1. Universal education is essential to 
the material, intellectual and moral wel- 
fare of the State. Illiteracy is a bur Jen 
and constant menace to public morals 
and civil liberty, and threatens the very 
existence of the State. The State pro- 
vides schools at public expense, collect- 
ing money for their support by law, and 
by force if necessary. It, therefore, has 
a right to enforce attendance, that its 
money may not be wasted and that its 
interests may be protected. 

2. Individual welfare depends on the 
general welfare. Having taken the money 
of one man to educate the children of an- 
other, the State must protect that man 
and his children from the oppression and 
dangers of illiterate neighbors and fellow- 

3. Children have rights as well as pa- 
rents, and the State must protect them m 
their rights. Chief among these is the 
right to such education as will enable 
them to live useful and happy lives and 
become intelligent and self-supporting 
citizens. The importance of this right 
and the necessity of its being recognized 
increase as comoetition becomes more 
fierce, the use of machinery more com- 
mon, the demand for intelligent labor 
greater, government more democratic, 
religious liberty more perfect, and the 
obligations of the individual to himself, 
his family, his country, and the world 
more complex and bindiing. Especially 

For Sale » "^^^ '^'"^ M. 8. TOMS 

EGGS In geaeon of M. B. Turke.vf. s. C. B. 
Legborn and Wbile \V>andolte Cblckens and 
Pe^in Ducbs. Addre&s aiiss CLARA L. SMI th. 
Croxton. Caroline Count). Virginia, 


.S. C Brows and White Leghoi'.vs and 

BcFF CocHi.N OmcHENB. and» 

DrcKS FOR SALB. oOcts to Jl. 

Re«. J. W HECKMAN. - Spot s>lvanla, Va. 


These Cocks won 90 per ct. of battles fought 

in 1901 and 1902. and have never losi a battle 

when gameness and cutting qualities could 

win. Kggs, $2 per sitting and st*jck for sale. 

THUS. W. JARM.^N. Yancey Mills, Va. 


Eggs from same, ?t per IX 
J. T. OLIVER, Allen^s Levef, Va. 


Must be good foal-geiler. 

ADDRESS, stating age. size, price, etc., 

WILLIAM E. SANDERS. Gratitude. Kent Co.. Md. 



Enclose 2 cent stamp for 
new catalogue. 
W. E. KNI6HT& CO., 

R. F. D. 5. Nashville. Tana. 



Mulfs are equal to Gold Dollars, from 

'• youth to old age." Several nice ones 

and 2 very flne Jennetts for sale. Bay 

Jack now and get hira ready for spring. 

Write your want* to 

L. 1_ THOHAS. 
722 W. Campbell Ave.. - Roanoke. V«. 


Breeders of and, Dealers in 

Jacks, Jsnnits, 

Fine lacks A Speciilt| 
Write for cat. 

150 Jacks, Jennets & Mules ISO 

Best assortment 1 
ever owned. Can 
suit you exactly. 
NVrlte for descrip- 
tion and prices. 

Also will sell two 
Percberon stalliona 
at close figures. 

Lawrence. Indiana. 


Will trade for Hereford bull and heifers 
or Angora go ts. Must be registered stock. 
Horse it No. 4561, .5ih Vol., American blud 
Book. Hecost, J1.4U0, flvejears ago. 

Wilte what you have. 

JO. HaROIE, Brown's Summit. N. C. 




Now we do not claim that Kow-Kure 
will make milk, because it is not a food, 
but it puts the digestive organs in condition 
to get the most out of what is eaten. In 
this way it makes the cow give a larger 
flow of richer milk. 

Sutton, Vt., March 6, iSgg. 
Dear Sirs; I had doubts about Kow-Kure 
increasing the flow of milk in a cow in the best con- 
dition. To make a test I weighed each milking. 
After feeding the medicine three days there was an 
increase of two pounds, and a gradual increase 
through the week until she had gained two and 
three-fourths pounds per day. This cow had the 
same feed while tjiking the medicine as she did 
before. I consider this result simply wonderful in a 
cowthatwasin the best condition. F. M.Abbott. 

Kow-Kure is in powder form, to be given in 
regular feed. It cures abortion, barrenness and 
scours, removes retained afterbirth and caked 
udder, strengthens the appetite, purifies the blood, 
vitalizes the nerves and prevents disease. It in- 
creases the milk. It is a medicine for cows only, 
made by the Dairy Association, Lyndonville, Vt., 
and for saie by 




In want of a PIANO will And it to their 
interest to write to us. Weassure them 
there Is such a thing as buying an 
honestly-made instrument at a mode- 
rate price. 

We make CASH and TIME SALES, 

an'l are willing to take part payment 
in Stock and Farm Products. 

Write and state your wishes. 



€m WFFIf I Y straight salary and ex- 
^aw ntblVbli penses pad to advertise 
and introduce our Poultry Compound in tlie 
country ; rig necessary. Encios*- staiup. 
Oept.ZI 8, Royal Co-Op. Mfg. Co.. Indianapolis, Ind. 

must it be regarded in those States in 
which the right of suffrage depends on 
educational qualification. 

4. Such a law cannot interfere with jny 
right of parents ; for no parent has a right 
to make a slave of his child or to rob it 
of the opportunity of gaining an element- 
ary education. Parents who would com 
mit this crime against their children 
should be restrained and punished. Such 
a law cannot be a burden to those who 
would educate their children without it. 
As the laws against stealing are not bur- 
densome to honest men, so a reasonable 
compulsory law cannot be burdensome to 
parents who desire to deal honestly and 
justly with their children. 

5. The experience of other States and 
countries has demonstrated that such laws 
may be made effective, and that they 
need not work any hardship on individ- 
ual citizens. 

Teachers, school officers, and all leaders 
of thought in the South must begin and 
continue to cultivate sentiment on this 
subject, until just laws are on the statute 
books and are properly enforced. 


J. M. Thorburn & Co., 36 Cortlandt 
street. New York, Seedsmen. This is a 
beautifully got up book, and contains 
much valuable information. The firm is 
an old and reliable one. 

Griffith & Turner Co., Paca street, Bal- 
timore, Seedsmen. A. handsome book 
replete with information on farm and 
garden supplies. 

H. Lightfoot, Chattanooga, Tenn. 
Strawberry plants. 

The A. I. Root Co., Medina, 0. Bee- 
keepers' supplies. 

Sure Hatch Incubator Co., Clay Cen 
ter, Neb., and Columbus, O. A useful 
catalogue for those needing an incubator 
or brooder. 

Landreth's Seed Catalog, Market street, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

James Vieks Son?, 191 Main street 
East, Rochester, N. Y. Seedsmen. 

J. I. Case Threshing Machine Co, , Ra 
cine, Wis. 

The Deming Co., Salem, 0. Spray 
Pumps and Nozzles, Hand and Power 
Pumps. This firm is one of the oldest 
makers of spraying appliances. 

John Lightfoot, Sherman Heights, 
Tenn. Strawberry plants. 

J. W. Jones & Son, Allen, Md. Straw- 
berry plants. 

F. S. Bullinton, Richmond, Va. White 
Minorca fowls. 

Bateman Mfg Co., Grenloch, N. J. 
Makers of the well known and highly 
satisfactory Iron Age Cultivators and 
other farm and garden implements. 

Lovers of flowers will find many inter- 
esting hints on flower seed culture in the 
1903 Illustrated Annual of Wm. Elliott & 
Sons, 56 Dey street. New York. It con- 
tains a valuable collection of flower, gar- 
den and vegetable seeds, and will prove 
interesting to every one interested in 
flowers. It is sent free with a packet of 
pansy seed. 

Horse Owners! Use 



i Saf0 Speedy and Positive Curt 
The Smfeat, Best BLISTER ever used. Takes 
tbe place ox all liniments i<jr mild or severe actioo. 
Removes Bunches^r ^J^erajshes from Hone* 

Every bottle sold l3 warranted to give satisfaction 
Price tl.SO per bottle. Sold by drupdista, or 
lent by express, charses pald» with full directiooS 
for its use. Send for descriptive Girculara. 



AND . 


A mtdidnc which makes 

animjis well, the diseased 

whole, the weak strong and the 

thin fat. It will restore lost Appetite, 

expel Worms and cure Chronic Cough, 

Heaves, Influenza, Distemper, Hide- 

k. \ bound, Indigestion, Constipation, Flat- 

t ulcncy ir.d all Stomach and Bowd 

The finest of al! , 
viulizers and I 
the only 



Fistula and 
Poll Evil- . . 

You can 
treat these 
d i seases 
and cure them in 1.5 to 30 days. FlPm- 
Ing's Fistula and Poll Evil Cure is easy 
to apply, perfectly safe to use, and 
your raoney is promptly refunded if it 
should ever fail to cure. 

Interesting Booklets Free. 

We have two booklets to send you. 
One tells about Fistula, Poll Evil, 
Spavin, Ringbone, Curb, Splint, Knee- 
.Sprung. Lump Jaw. etc., with instruc- 
tions bow to cure them. 

The other proves that you can cure 
them. Write to-day. 

FLE^'INQ BROS., Chemists, 
22 Union Stock Yards. - Chicago, III. 

temper and IndigfcfitioB Cur*, 

terlnary ipe^igo for irln4. 

Toledo. OhI.. 

As I retire from farming: Q ' I I pUriD 
this Spring: I wi 1 ,^ ,^ U LL UllLAr 

the following slock and implements little 
used, and almost as good as new : 


io horse-power, on wheels, 

7 foot cut. 

PRESS, 17x22, 

30 inch feed. 
Also Stallion. "KING IDLER," 

by King Alphonso, Idle Girl, a seal brown 
horse. \hY, hands, thoroughbred, has got some 
fine stock on Virginia Common mares, is a 
sure foal getter. Apply 

NECK-OF-LAnD farm, Jamestown, Va. 



t February 

• F/LSrOA/ FARM. • 




BULL C*LVES. and for the first time. Heifers 
bred to Imported Oolden Veler, and Heifer 
OalTfs and a few aged Cow8. 

BERKSHIRES. all ages, nired by Imported 
Storm Kins, or Imported Esau 2nd, 81»«, 
good shape HUd large litters. 

Visitors welcome. Address for Book of The 
Farm, or prices 

E. M. GILLET. Clerlt. Gleneot. Md. 
ASA B. GARDINER, Jr., Manager 

Swift Creek Stock and Dairy Farm 

Has for sale a large num- 
ber of nice young regis- 
tered A. J. C. C. 

jj Wmmm- AND HEIFERS. 

None better bred In the South. Combining 
Closely the most noted and up-to-date blood 
In America. Bulls 10 to 12 months old, $25.00. 
Heifers, same age, {35.00. POLAND-CHINA 
PIGS, $5.00 each. Send check and get what 
you want. 

T. P. BRASWELL, Prop., Battleboro, N. C. 

Thoroughbred Horses 


Pure Southdown Sheep 
and Berkshire Pigs. 

Fob Sali. B. J- HANCOCK & SON, 
Chabu)ttesvillb, Va. 

cook's creek herd, 



Herd Headed hy liovi-nior Tyler, 1.58548 
Yonng Bulls and Hiifer.s fur salt-. Inspection 
and correspondence invited. 
HEATWOLE & SITTER, Dale Enterprise, Va. 




Sired by Black Lad. No. 47427 and Spring- 
wood Guy, No. ^X^Vi. Pedigrees furnished with 
all stock sold. Ef;gs In season from M. B. TUR- 
KEYS and B. P. ROUK CHICKENS. Come or write. 



One choice Red Bull, old enough 
for service. 

JAMES F. CLEMMER, - Snmmerdean, Va. 

rk shire, 
C. Whitas. Kine large 
strains. All ages, mated 
not akin, 8 week. pigs. 

Bred sows. Service boars 

and Poultry. Wrlteforprlcesanrt free circular. 
P. F. HAMILTON, CochranvUle, Chester Co., Pa. 


Tlie market continues firm and steady, 
with an upward tendency. Southern 
business is picking up, and prices are 
well maintained. Nitrate of soda re- 
mains strong and sulphates of ammonia 
are a little stifl'er. 


Nitrate of soda, spot, per 100 lb8..$ 2 10 
Nitrate of soda, futures, per 100 

lbs 2 00 

Cotton-seed meal, per ton, c. i. f. 

N.Y 28 00 

Sulph. ammonia, spot 2 07J 

Sulph. ammonia, shipment 2 07i 

Driedblood,New York, low grade. 2 47J 
Dried blood, Western, high grade, 

fine ground 2 60 

Fish scrap, at New York 10 

Tankage, per unit 10 


Acid phosphate, per unit 60 

Bone black, spot, per ton 17 00 

Ground bone, per ton 23 50 

S. C. phosphate rock, ground, per 

2,000 lbs 5 50 

8. C. phosphate rock, undried, f. 

o. b. Ashley River, 2,400 lbs 3 25 

do. do. do. dried.... 3 50 
Florida high grade phoa. rock, f. 

o. b. Fernandina, per ton 7 00 

Florida land pebble phos. rock, 

f. o. b. Fernandina, per ton 4 50 

Tennessee phosphate, f. o. b. Mt. 

Pleasant, domestic 3 50 

do. do. do. foreign... 4 00 


Kainit, future shipment, per ton... 9 06 

Keiseret, future shipment, per ton 7 50 

Mur. potash, 80 p. c, future ship- 
ment 1 80 

Double manure ealt (48 a 49 per 
cent, less than 2 J per cent, chlo- 
rine), per lb 1 09 

Basis 48 per cent. 

High grade manure salt (90 a 93 
per cent, sulphate potash), ship- 
ment 2 08 

Basis 90 per cent. 

Manure salt, in bulk, 20 per cent, 
per unit, O. P 64 

—N. Y. Jour, of Commerce, Jan. 10, 1903. 
[Only highest prices quoted. — 5. P.] 

The Frank B. White Co. of Chicago 
and New Yoi'k, send us a very nicelj' got- 
ten up pamphlet — "Your Business and 
Ours" — in which they bring before ad- 
vertisers the advantages they can offer 
them in the way of preparing and dis- 
playing their advertisements and secur- 
ing their insertion in the best agricul- 
tural journals in this country. This firm 
makes a specialty of agricultural adver- 
tising, and does its work well. 

We beg to acknowledge with thanks 
the receipt from the Holstein-Friesian As- 
sociation of America of the official record 
of cows and their sires, and list of official 
butter and milk records of the Asso- 
ciation from 1894 to 1901. 

We acknowledge with thanks a copy 
of the Baltimore Sun Almanac for 1903. 
It is full of useful information. 


One thoroughbred Antfus cow, unregistered. 

coming 3 yrs., with heifer calf at foot 

Price, r75. 
Four three-fourths Angus heifers, two coming 

3 yrs., two coming 4 yrs., bred to reg. An- 
gus bull. Price, $oO each <« 
Four seven-eighths Angus heifers, coming 2 

yrs., bred to reg. Angus bull. (i50each. 
Three seven-eighths .\ngus heifers, coming 1 

yr. 830 each. 
Four one-half Angus heifers, coming 1 yr. 

i20 each. 
One bull calf, out of a thoroughbred Shorthorn 

cow, by a reg. Angus bull. Price, 850. 
One 9-mos.-old reg. Angus bull. Price JIOO. 
One 12-mos.-old reg. Angus heifer. Price, $100. 
All of the above cattle are blaclj. and as well 

polled as a thoroughbred Ancus. 
Eight beautiful reg. Angora goats, six does 

which will kid soon, two fine bucks. 

Price, $100 for the lot. 

Address W. M. WATKINS & SON, 

Cottage Valley Stock Farm, 

Randolph. Charlotte Co . V«. 


Registered and unrecorded. Slock Qrst- 
class, and breeding the best. 


First class yearling rams, and evres of 
all ages. Several FINE FARMS for sale. 

WARREN RICE, - Winchester, Va, 

FORiMlliertleen-Jnjus Cattle 

Choice breeding. Registered bulls ready for 
service. Address A. 0. PARR, care*. G. PARR, 
Jeffersonton, Va. 



No. 30672. 

ThisHolstein bull is3 yrs.old. His dam has 
given S gals, of milk per day, testing 4ft per 
cent, of butter fat. His sire is equally well 
bred. Price, 880. ; f. o. b. cars, Burkevllle, Va. 

T. O. SANDY, - Burkevllle, Va. 


Farm Bulletin 

We are offering some nice BERK- 
SHIRE PIQS. Let us have your 
orders early. Choice stock ; prompt 

0. 0. NOURSE, Prof, of Airr. 

1903 J 




At a price which he can easily earn 
himself out in a single season, the 

Imported and Registered 
Hackney Stallion ■ 

The Duke 

son of Silver star and Lady Fanny, 
by Rob Roy. This horse is good 
looking, of fine size and well made, 
having no waste substance. He is 
a sure foal getter and his produce 
sell readily. Simply offered be- 
cause I wish to procure a horse of 
diflerent breeding to cross on fillies 
sired by The Duke. Address 


The Grove Stock Farm, BrRKEVILLE,VA- 


By prize-winning Imported sires and trained 
dams. Eligible. Fit for bench, ranch or farm. 
Prloe, $10, either sex. Also a book on the care 
»nd training of the Collie for all practical uses. 
Price, SOc. Copy of book free to purchaser o( 

Stock Farm, " MAPLEMONT," Albany, Ver. 


Closely related to such famous hogs as 
Anderson's Model, Model of 97, Hands 
Oft, etc. Choice pigs, and gilts for 
Bale. Sock that will please and not 
disappoint you. References and testi- 
monials furnished Also extra good, 
dark-red, 8 mos.-old SHORTHORN BULL 
CALF for sale. Prices right. 
J. F. DURRETTE. Birdwood, Albemarle Co., Va. 


I have a few first-class eight weeks old 

BERKSHIRE PIGS for sale. From 

regl.^teied stock. Biltmorestraln. 

Prices quoted on request. 

HENRY W. WOOD, - Hollybrook Farm, 
Box 330. Richmond, Va. 

Large English Berkshire Hogs, 
Barred Plymouth RockChickens 

BEN. BOLT, 60747, 430 lbs. as a yearling at 
head of herd. VS-EQGS IN SEASON. 

JOHN P. FOSTER, Nocreek, Ohio Co., Ky. 

Ayrshires, Berkshires and Oxftrd-Downs. 

^Ayrsaire calves of both sexes, Berkshire 
pigs and boar, aud 2 Oxford-Down Rams For 

ENDS H. HESS, Manager, Casanova, Va. 

FOR SALE at SlOeach, 

Three pure-bred 


Price includes crating and delivery on 

cars at Columbia, va., C. & O. R. R. 
A good fiock of Angoras can be built 
up by using pure bucks In cross- 
ing with common does. 

C. E. JONES, - Carysbrook, Va. 


The boots, shoes and slippers made by 
machinery in the United States, every 
vear, would provide a pair of some kind 
for more than one-seventh of the inhab- 
tants of the eartb. If they were arranged 
by pairs, heels and toes touching, they 
would make a belt that would encircle 
the globe, with enough to spare to stretch 
across the North American Continent 
from New York to San Francisco. Placed 
singly, heel and toe, they would go around 
the world two and one-half times. If 
placed on the tracks of our great trunk 
railroads, the rights on one rail and the 
lefts on the other, they would cover the 
irons, from the Atlantic to the Pacific, of 
all the continental lines that now cross 
our country. The hides and skins used 
to form this immense quantity of shoes 
come from all over the world, but chiefly 
from the East Indies, South America and 
Europe ; and if they were sewed together 
in one sheet, they would make a tent 
large enough to cover Manhattan Island. 

The following statistics, showing the 
condition of the industry, were furnished 
in advance of their general publication 
by S. N. D. North, Chief Statistician of 
the United States Census for manufac- 
turers : 

Pairs of Boots and Shoes Made in 1900. 

For men, youths and boys 89,123,318 

For women, misses and chil- 
dren 107,415,855 

Slippers for men, etc 4,456,965 

Slippers, Oxfords and low-cuts 
for women 12,655,876 

Another kinds 5,583,4U5 

Total pairs 219,2.35,419 

Total value, wholesale $261,028,580 00 

Cost of materials used 169,604,054 00 

Capital invested 101,795,233 00 

Wages paid 59,175,883 00 

Average number of wage earners 
employed 142,922 

The industry is largely concentrated in 
New England, chiefly in Massachusetts, 
where, in 1900. 45 per cent, of the pro- 
duction was turned out, principally in 
Brockton, Lynn, and Haverhill, and the 
smaller places in the immediate neigh- 
borhood. The figures for Massachusetts 
are as follows : 

Value of product $117,115,243 09 

Cost of materials used 75,751,964 00 

Capital invested 37,577,630 00 

Wages paid 27,745,820 00 

Average number of wage-earners 

employed 58,645 

Since 1890 the production in the whole 
country has increased a little over 18 per 
cent.; the cost of materials used 42 and 
eight-tenths per cent.; while the capitali- 
zation has only increased 6 and eight- 
tenths per cent., and the number of 
wage earners 6 and nine-tenths percent. 
Ten years ago Massachusetts produced 
over -52 per cent, of the total ; but while 
she has made an absolute gain in the 
value of goods turned out, in 1900 she 
had less capital invested and fewer es- 
tablishments engaged in the manufac- 
I turf) of shoes than in 1890. During the 
last decade, the effectiveness of the ma- 

chinery used in the manufacture has 
been greatly increased.— iJofiert Grieve, in 
the February Success. 

That the Griffith & Turner Company of 
Baltimore, Md., propose to occupy a high 
position among seedsmen is apparent 
from the magniBcence of their catalogue. 
It is indeed a most handsome book. The 
attention is arrested at once by the ele- 
gant front cover page, and with any one 
at all interested in the garden, the inter- 
eat is kept up unti Ihe has looked through 
all its pages. It contains 145 pages, and 
is profusely illustrated with large size 
cuts of vegetables, fruits and flowers. 
They also catalogue a full and complete 
line of agricultural implements. One 
cannot escape the conclusion, both from 
the illustrations and from the extended 
and painstaking descriptions, that the 
Company is endeavoring to present only 
the best to their customers, and that 
their patrons are to know what the char- 
acteristirs aod qualities of what they are 
buying are, before p:acing their orders. 
Their advertising is elsewhere in this 
paper. They are perfectly reliable, and 
their trade, already large, ia rapidly 
growing. Every one interested in fruits 
or vegetables should at least send for ;he 
catalogue, which is mailed free. Look 
up the advertisement for correct address. 




HEADED by the Scotch bull ROYAL CAN- 
ADA 136788. Crulckshank and .Scotch 
tribes represented are Duchess of Gloster, Non- 
pareil, Mina, Rose of Strathalean, Ury, Crim- 
son Flower and Louisa. Also popular Amer- 
ican families. 

FOK SALE Cows, heifers and young bulls 
Foundation herds a specialty; inspection solici 
ited, and if notified parties wll I be met at depot 

D. M. KIPPS, Success, Warren Co., Va. 



Of 16 rams, 9 to U mos. old, we now have 
on hand, i are not quite good euough to head 
any herd in the United States. The best 
ram Harding could find In England now 
heads our fiock. Are buying a few ewes- 
none to sell, but are booklngorders for October 
dropped ewe lambs. 

WOODLAND FARM, Mechanlcsburg, 0. 
(.T. B. Wing, Willis O. Wing, Chas. B. Wing.) 


H. ARMSTRONG, ■ Lantz Mills, Va. 



From e mos. to 3 yrs. old. 


From 6 to IS mos. old.s At reasonable prices. 
HAYFIELDS STOCK; FARM, Cockeysville, Md. 

— i ou pay U when cured. 
No cure, no pay. ALEX. SFEIRS, Box 8U. 
Westbiook, Maine. 





The practical benefitB following theuBe 
of manure spreaders in llie country have 
led to a large demand for such machines 
throughout the entire United States. Va- 
rious manufacturers have added such a 
machine to their line, and jobbers have 
eeenthe advantage of carrying them also. 

The Miller Spreader has proved a win- 
ner in previous years, but 1903 has been 
improved in every particular where trou- 
ble has arisen. Malleable iron is used 
on this machine for every part where 
Btrenglh is required. A method has been 
devised for driving from both wheels, 
which gives double traction power. The 
cylinder is now made two inches larger 
than heretofore, and is made with eight 
beaters instead of six. A new end-gate, 
which can be raised or lowered at will 
from the driver's seat, does away with 
Bome of the objectionable features com- 
mon to most manure spreaders. This ma- 
chine is low down, which makes it very 
easy to load. There are other excellent 
and exclusive features, among which are 
the following: . , , , ^ jji 

It is just the right width to straddle 
corn-rows and leave all the land evenly 
covered with manure This is a strong 
feature on corn-stubble land, owing to the 
fact that other machines cannot do good 
work without driving team and spreader 
wheels on the cut corn-hills, a thing that 
any farmer knows is impossible. 

The Miller is the only spreader that 
will do perfect work in winter with ma- 
nure from the stable daily. We have 
solid bottom, which is scraped clean 
every load ; nothing can freeze to it, as in 
tread-power bottom machines. 

It doubles the value of manure by cov- 
ering two acres where you could only 
cover one by hand. 

For further particulars, address ihe 
Newark Machine Co., Newark, Ohio. 

The Studebaker Bros. Manufacturing 
Company, of South Bend, Ind., has just 
presented to the Young Men's Christian 
Association of that city $200,000 in cash, 
to be used in the construction and equip 
ment of a magnificent new building for 
theusesofthe Association. The buifdiug 
is to be a memorial to the original five 
Studebaker Brothers, who have always 
been closely identified with philanihio- 
pic and charitable work. This munifi- 
cent gift will give South Bend one of the 
handsomest Young Men's Christian Asso- 
ciation buildings in the United States. 

The 1903 Catalogue of the Deming Com- 
pany of Salem, Ohio, is justofi the press. 
It includes hand, bucket, knapsack, bar- 
rel, mounted and power sprayers. In 
certain sprayers of their line, notably the 
Century, Simplex, Peerless and Success 
Knapsack Sprayers, the mechanical agi- 
tation of the liquid, insuring the perfect 
mixing of poison with the water, is 
worked out to a nicety. The wide adap- 
tability and general usefulness of the line 
cannot be realized without perusing the 
catalogue, as usual. It will be mailed to 
any one writing for it. 

of the 

wnrfcprs that have made the Iron Age line of farm and garden implements 
irnnu-n all Over the continent. You can malje more money this year than lost 
If you will decide now to let them help you. Look at the good points of 

frofi /Ifiie Implements 

.. B iti . *^ i<0. 60 iron A(rc 

. .,i.Hoi,t,i.. p. ^^g out how much time, work, seed, fertill- pi.otHh 

zer, Ac, you might save with a very small «^ 

outla.v, by buying Iron Ajje implements. 
They have won their way by hon- 
est performance of every promise, 
Write for free book. 


Bred from high-testing St. Lambert Cows. 


The BACON BREED now leading all other breeds for making 
high-priced bacon. 

IIVDIAIV GAMTES-The king of table fowls. 

WHITE WYANDOTTES— The best general-purpose fowl. 

WHITE L.EGHORNS— All sold out. 

B03fl£7WVONT I=MR7M5S, Ski-bm. V«. 


jt jt. FOR SALE. ^ jt 

p POREST HOME FARM, - Purcellville, Vo. i 


Purchasers are ofl'ered selections from our herd, both male and female; 
our cows are of the leading strains, including De Kols, Pauline Pauls, Mech- 
thildes. Hengervelds, Netherlands, Aggies, etc., etc. They are »11 well bred 
and milking from 40 to 05 lbs. per day. Herd headed by Ury ALWINA 
Count Paul De Kol and DeKol 29 Butter Boy 3rd No. 2. 

THOS. FASSITT & SONS, Ury Stock Farm, Svlmar, Md. 

When corresponding; Avlth advertlsei^, always mention 
The Sonthern Planter. 

1903 .J 



for this top bupg>', pi 
body liU. 22 or 24 in. w 
seat has solid panel spring 
back. Wheels, choice o' 
height and size, 8 or 4 bou 
top. Boot, storm apron 
shafts and anti -rattlers. 

A'les top bugr^ies illuS' 
I trated with large 


fully described in catalog. 

ha^ For this top bui^L; 
._,, ./ixj,^ Guaranteed RubberTir«s. 

roomy' seats'with'soiiii panel Pif„"*J^°J^ 
spring backs and cushf i^^"- cr.^,. 


les 1 l-16in. Lamps and 
fenders extra. Every ve- 
hicle guaranteed for two 
full years. 

les surreys in 

22 oL';' 

big catalogue, 

For this large, roomy 
pli • - . - 

what ' 


It illustrates and fully < 
■ ■ "s ad out and i 

panel springbackandspring 
cushion, 3 or4 bowtop. The 
Most Wonderful Bargain 

in a guaranteed rubber tired 

bugp ever offered. Write ] bX^|ci;;th . Full pa"tent 
for free catalogue. It has ipaiiiar fenders, lam lamps 
large illustrations and full|ti>i)g distance axtce.' R«tailii 

solid panel 
spring back 33 in. high. 
Trimmed with heavy 
'-nported all 

For this high arched 
axle, low wheel. Cuor- 
anteed Rubber Tired 
driving wagon, open 
head springs, long dis- 
tance axles, Bradley 
couplers, Bailey loops, 
stick seat, rubber pad- 
ded steps .Trimming- fine 
whipcurd or broadcloth. 
21 other styles. Don't 
buy until you <iee 
catalogue and r 

Stick seat driving wagon, 
Long distance axles. Bai- 
ley loops All complete. 


spring wagon. 7 

No. 105 


t. body 

heavv gear and 



12 other styles 

Dbl. hame 



spring w 

agons in catalog. 



a CsUlopie. 


SS.S7-59 N. J.flerson SI- 


On another page of this issue of our 
paper will be found a new season's ad- 
vertisement of the Cyphers Incubator 
Co., Buflfalo, N. y. 

We wish to 
point out to 
those of our 
readers w h o 
have seen 
their annual 
books and cat- 
alogues in the 
past that the 
New Year 
Book for 1903, entitled " How to Make 
Money with Poultry and Incubators," 
now being sent out, is in every way supe- 
rior to its predecessors. Nothing has 
been left undone to make this Poultry- 
man's Guide and Catalogue most enter- 
taining and instructive, devoted exclu- 
sively to the real business of growing 
and marketing poul.ry for profit. 

" How to Make Money with Poultry 
and Incubators," consists of 19G pages, 
8x11 inches in size, is profusely illustra- 
ted, giving over 300 photographic views 
of many of the largest and most success- 
ful poultry plants in the United States. 
England, Germany, New Zealand and 
South Africa, and contains twelve special 
chapters, each written by an expert, 
treating of profitable poultry keeping in 
all branches, as follows: Starting with an 
Incubator, Handling Chicks in a Brooder, 
Feeding the Chicks, Duck Producing on 
a Large Scale, Broiler Raising, Profitable 
Egg Farming, The Egg and Poultry Com- 
bination, Egg and Fruit Farming, Scratch- 
ing Shed. House Plans, Incubator Cellar 
and Brooding House Plans, Feeding for 
Eggs, and Standard Bred Poultry. 

Everything is made so plain that it 
can be understood by all. Those of our 
readers who have never seen a "Cyphers" 
Annual Guide, and are interested in the 
latest developments in incubators, brood- 
ers, poultry foods and appliances, should 
write at once to the Cyphers locubator 
Company's nearest office, Buffalo, N. Y., 
Chicago, 111., Boston, Mass., or New York 
City, N. Y., and they will send a copy 
free, postage paid (during the next thirty 
Jays only), provided you mention this 

"I b'lieve in havin' a good time when 
Tou start out to have it. If you git 
knocked out of one plan, you want to git 
yerself another right quick, before yer 
Bperrits has a chance to fall." — From 
"Lovey Mary," The Century, February, 


CATTLE of the Netherland, De Kol, Clothilde, Pietertje and 

Artis families. Heavy milkers and rich in butter fat. 

Stock of all ages for sale. 

Reg. BERI^SHIRES From noted strains, Imported Headlight, Lord 
Highclere and Sunrise. 

<^^ DORSET SHEER. ^^^> 

B. PLYMOUTH ROCK CHICKENS, Fifteen Cockerels for sale. 
N. and w. and soothem R. R. T. O. SANDY, Burkeville, Va. 



DBrKShlrB HO£S, young boars ready for service, and Pigs in pairs or trios not 

akin. Large, young Bronze Turkeys. A few Plymouth Rock and Brown 

Leghorn Fowls. All the above stock ready for shipment now. 


. M. B. ROWE <& CO., Fredericksburg, Va. 


TECUMSEH G, 49283. 

Have sold out all pigs on hand and am now booking orders for pigs 
from my spring litters. Have a limited number of YOUNG SOWS 
in pig FOR SALE. Address 





2 Reg. Bull Calves; 2 Reg. Cows; 1 three-year-old Reg. Bull (immune) raised south 
of Petersburg. Va. All right in every particular. 

_B. B. BVCHANAJy, Bedford City, Ta. 



I February 

The Venezuelan and Panama Canal 
eituationB are editorially diecussed in the 
Review of Reviews for February. In ad 
dition to his commentB on these very 
prominent topics of the hour, the editor 
gives his usual valuable survey of the 
month's important happenings, at home 
and abroid. Among the contributed ar- 
ticles there are two character sketches of 
exceptional interest ; "Abram 8. Hewitt, 
a Great Citizen," is the subject of a dis- 
criminating tribute from the pen of Ed- 
ward 51. Shepaid, the New York lawyer 
and politician, who knew Mr. Hewitt in- 
timately, while George Perry Morris re- 
views the too brief career of Mrs. Alice 
Freeman Paloier, the former president 
of Welleelev College and a leader in 
many intellectual movements. The art 
treasures of the late Henry G. Marquand, 
manv of which were sold recently in New 
York at almost fabulous prices, are de- 
scribed in an illustrated article by Ernest 
knaufft. The latest developments in 
wireless telegraphy are recounted by 
Prof. A. Frederick Collins, while Mr. 
Thomas C. Martin describes the new Pa- 
cific cable lines— the all- American and 
the all-British. Prof. Frank A. Wilder 
elves much interesting information about 
the coal deposits of our great Northwest. 
The fullest statement yet published of 
the impending land reforms in Ireland is 
furnished by Mr. Walter Wellman, who 
has just returned from that country. The 
recent Taff Vale Railway decision in Eng- 
land on the rights and liabilities of labor 
unions in connection with strikes is re- 
viewed by Mr. A. Maurice Low. " Some 
Taxation'Problems and Reforms" is the 
subject of a comprehensive article by Sec- 
retary Commons of the National Civic 
Federation. " Some Cartoon Comments," 
" Leading Articles of the month," and 
the other regular departments, round out 
the number. 


To make coffee fruit cake, beat half a 
pound of butter to a cream ; add one cup- 
ful of brown sugar. Dissolve a tea.spoon- 
fiil of baking powHer in two tablespoon- 
fuls of water; add it to half a pint of 
New Orleans molasses; add this to the 
butter and sugar ; add a teaspoonful of 
allspice, one egg well beaten, a table- 
spoonful of cinnamon and one grated 
nutmeg. Mix a quarter of a pound of 
shredded citron, two pounds of seedless 
raisins and three-quarters of a pound of 
cleaned currants. Measure three cupfuls 
of pastry flour; take sufficient from it to 
flour the fruit thoroughly. Add half a 
pint of warm, strong coffee to the sugar 
mixture; then add the Hour; beat until 
smooth ;'add the fruit, pour into well- 
greased cake pans, and bake slowly in a 
moderate oven. 

"Don't you go an' git sorry for yerself. 
That 's one thing I can't stand in no- 
body There 'a always lots of other folks 
vou kin be sorry fer 'stid of yerself. 
Ain't you proud you ain't got a hare lip? 
Why that one thought is enough to keep 
me from ever gittin' sorry for myself."— 
From "Lovey Mary," The Century, De- 
cember, 1902. 


" PRINCE RUPERT," No. 79539. 

Winner Sweepstakes at Kansas City, 19C1. Herd rich in " Anxiety " blood. 



EDWARD G. BUTLER, - " Annefield Farms," Briggs, Clarke Co., Va. 


The breeding cows and herd bulls at " Castalia " have been se- 
lected with one aim; THE BEST, REGARDLESS TO COST. Herd 
headed by Ihe Si.OOO 00 Imported SALISBURY, assisted by LARS, 
JR. I have now for sale a very flue bunch of bull calves by these 
bulls, also a few females. Visitors are welcome and met at station. 

Write your needs. 

MURRAY BOOCOCK. - Keswick, Va. 



MOTTO— Satisfaction or no Sale. 


Glencoe, Maryland. 

SHROPHHIRE NHCEP Bucks, one year old and OTer, J15 to tao. Buck I/ambg, July de- 
livery, $10. and 512. Ewe Lambs, Jnly delivery, 18. and $10. 

P«I.ANI>-CHIKA HO€)S — Pigs, «iz weeks old, K. Plea, two or three months old, flM, 
pigs, five mouths and over, $15 to 130. 

M. BKOHZETCRKKTS Toma, M. Hens, tS. Eggs, per sitting of 12, when In season, $4. 

■VBOOTT DCOKJ* Pare White Drake*, $1.36. Pnre White Dnoks, tl. .Pain, «2.2S; trio*, W 


ROOEB tIBESE GHmders, tZJO. a««ae, ILSO. Ecn. P«r dtUng, $3.00 

WIL.LJAK L, Jr., No. 21068, half brother of AsteU, will Mrre a limited nnmbarof mara lor 

|3t the leasen. Mares boarded at lowwt agiam per M oatli, 




I I I I I I 


THE $60,000 


Just purchased by M. \V. Savage. Minueapolis, Minn., as one of 
the leading stallions for his "International Stock Food Farm." 
The purchase of Dan Patch was a tremendous sensation in 
horse circles, and was taken up and given columns of notices in 
all of the leading dailies throughout the entire country. The 
price was over Three times as much as was ever paid for a pacer, 
and by far the largest price paid for a harness horse for a long 
term of years. This farm is now one of the most famous horse- 
breeding farms in the world, as Mr. Savage owns the Three Fastest 
Stallions ever owned by one man or by one farm. Dan Patch 1:59 J^i— 
Directum 2:05'4— Roy Wilkes 2:06K. The establishing of this 
farm in Minnesota, 12 miles from Minneapolis, means a great 
deal for the live stock interest of the Northwest as well as for the 
entire world. It will add thousands of dollars every year to the 
live stock interests of Minnesota alone, and Mr. Savage expects 
to prove to the world that high-class harness horses can be raised 
in the Northwest as well as ia other parts of the United States. 
You are cordially invited to visit "International Stock Food 
Farm" wheneveryou are in this vicinity. You will find the cele- 
brated "International Stock Food" «i^3 FEEDS for ONt; CENT*^©* 
fed every day to our Stallions, Brood Mares, Colts, Race Horses 
and other stock. "International Stock Food" has the largest sale in 
the world for Horses, Cattle, Sheep. Hogs. Colts, Calves, I.ambs 
and Pigs. Over 50.000 dealers sell it on a "Spot Cash Guarantee" to 
Refund Your Money if the results of feeding it are not perfectly 
satisfactory to you. It will cause your colls and other young 
stock to grow rapidly even during the winter. Keeps them free 
from worms and tones up and strengthens the entire system. 
'^^It Wilt Fay You To Test It Al Our Risk On Your Slock. 


n* CoTer of this Book 

This Book 
of Uollirs. It dei 
History and lUust 

C?-Priiited In Six Brilliant Colorn. Book is ( 
i cover. It coit as $aoi>0 to have our Artists i 
ntains a Finely Illustrated V^terinsry Departmen 
hea common Diseases, and tells how to treat them 
ona of the Different Breeds of Horses, Cattle, Shet 
d Life EngravinEBof many very noted i 

Ihat will Save Vou Handrl•d^ 

It also gives Description 
), Goats. Hogs and Poultry 

The Editor Of This 

Will Tell You That You Ought To Have This Book In Your' Library For Koference. 

$10.00 CASH, we will send you. IF BOOK IS NOT AS STATED. 

TIlIi Book Mailed Free, Postage Prepaid, If TonWrKe Is (letter or postal) and Answer These 'J tioestic 
lit —Name This Paper. 'id.— How Much Stock Have You? 


s today for book. 

Largest Stock Food Factory i 

Capital Paid in, $1,00 

We Occupy liJ.OOO Feet of Fl 


I I I I I I I i 

International Stocli Food Co., 

■ INNEAPOLIS, Wc emrloy 
BINH., I. 8. A. ^ 


i I I I I I I I I 


A vehicle is only as 
strong as its weakest 
part. A wheel, with 
^•^hub, spokes and fel- 
^lows made from the 
.^strongest wood, if the 
'■^ wood is sawed across 
the grain, lias little strength. The "Split 
Hickory" line of vehicles, as their name 
indicates, is constructed of split hickory 
not sawed — and is of greatest strength 
and e n <1 u r ^ " 
a n c e and 
u n i f or nilv 
strong in all 
its parts. To 
obtain these 
splendid, strong and stylish vehicles, 
send to Station 41, the Ohio Carriage 
Manufacturing Company, Cincinnati, O., 
for complete illustrated catalogue. Their 
prices are low, quality high, and their 
thirty days' free trial offer is genuine and 
bona fide' 

Mention the Southern Planter in writing 

i n M 8 1 1 1 1 ! 1 1 i I n I e n 1 1 1 1 1 

Japan Plums 

And all other desirable standard and new 
varieties of PLUMS, APPLE, PEACH, 


The Most Reliable Variety Ever grown in 
the South. 

Three Iinndred and fifty acres under cnltivation. WriteiJuB 
if you contemplate planting. Catalogue free. 


•W. X. XIOOD A: CO., 





The American Free Trade League Bend 
us copy of the Free Trade Almanac, for 
which we return thanks. It would do 
the hide-bound protectionigte good to 
study the matter contained in this issue. 


When Miss Lucy wanted particularly 
fine chickens, she always drove over to 
Bee old Aunt Etta, who had a scrap of a 
&rm and made a specialty of raising 
chickens for the quality folks. 

One day, as the lady stopped in front 
of the cabin, Aunt Eita came out and 
hung over the gate. 

" Chickftns !" she exclaimed in answer 
to her customer's request,— "chickens ! 
Why, law, Miss Lucy, don't you all know 
there's been a camp-meetin' and preach- 
ers' conference down here? Why. 1 ain't 
got one chicken left. They're all done 
emtered the ministry." — N. E. Allender, 
in February Lippincott'g. 


The above cut is a faithfiil picture of 
the extensive new buiidinj; recently oc- 
cupied by J. Bolgiano & Son, of Balti 
more, Md. This concern is one of the 
oldest and most substantial in the East, 
with a record and reputation extending 
far back into the very infancy of modern 
seed business. Their growth has been 
most commendable, because it has been 
forced upon them more by the excellency 
of their product.-* than by a grasping de- 
sire to capture everything. Some of their 
most noted specialties this season are the 
New Century Tomato, Ruby King Rad- 
ish, New I.«ader Cabbage and the New 
Early Fortune Cucumber. In their sto<'k 
is also to be found fresh tested seeds of 
the Rocky Ford Cantaloupe, Valentine 
Beans, Alaska and Gradus Peas, and a 
general line of farm and garden seeds. 
Look up their advertisement elsewhere 
in our paper and write for the catalogue, 
kindly mentioning where you saw this 

A Neat BINDER for your back nom- 
ben can be Itmd for 25 cents. Addreee 
the Busineae Offloe. 

1903. ^;^Farm Right and Prosper. 

The farmer's genius is shown and his prosperity meas- 
y what he works with. 

The Line Includes 
Up-to-Date Disc Plows, 
Sulky & Gang Plows 
Stalk Cutters, 
Cultivators, Eto< 

have the mod- 
ern idea, 
make your 
lands yield the most 
^^ with least labor, give you such 

advan tastes as money makersin other call- 
ingsenjoy. Write our nearest house 
•■ aiKjut any Labor-saving Im- 
plements you require. 

B. F. Avery A. Sons, 

Louisville, Ky. 
Memphis, Tenn. 
New Orleans, La. 
Dallas, Tex. 




Assisted by VICTOR G., No. 3r693. 

I am now oflFering for sale a few choice young bulls of serviceable age, at a 
bargain. Any one wanting bnlls from prize-winning families at a moderate 
price, will save time and money by calling on or addressing 

GLEN ALLEN STOCK FARM, W. P. ALLEN, Prop., Walnut Hill, Ya. 



BARON ROSEBOY ( The great son of the world-famous 
GAY BLACKBIRD) in service. 

Nearly all the leading families of the breed represented by females sired by the 
most famous bulls of the age. Wechallenge oomparis on both as to individual excel- 
lence and pedigree. Another car of grand cows just arrived, personally selected 
from one of the best herds in central Illinois. Ttie tops out of one hnmired head. 
Six animals of the same family and strain as ROSEGAY (for two years the champion 
of Ametica), others equally good. All young stuff of weaning age sold ; am booking 
orders for future delivery. 

Write your wants; we are bound to please you. 
^=B- 4. L. FRENCH. Proprietor. Fitzgerald, N. G. 

Rockingham Co., 24 miles south-west of Danville, Va., on D. 4 W. Ry. 



Sired by sob of PROUD PERFECTION. Have now 8 on hand, from 

2 to 3 months old. Price, $10 for 2 months old, $11 for 3 months. 

Expressage prepaid to Virginia poinis. Your money back 

if you are not satisfiied. 

^ BULLPIELD PARMS, ■ -Doswelb Virginia. 




It is the farmers' boys who are most 
likely to succeed, whetlier in business or 
in professional life. Spending most of 
their time under the open sky, breathing 
fresh air, and eating simple food, they 
are more likely to have vigorous health 
and strong constitutions than are their 
city cousins. Brought into constant 
contact with nature, they absorb a 
great deal of useful knowledge, and ac- 
quire habits of observation. Then, too, 
the regular farm work, the '-chores," and 
numberless other little things keep them 
well occupied, and enable them to feel that 
they are earning their way, thus giving 
to them a sense of independence and cul- 
tivating a spirit of self-reliance and man- 

The performance of a deal of drudgery 
is an indispensable preparation for all 
real success in life, whatever the occupa- 
tion. A boy who is afraid of work or 
of soiling his hands need not expect to 
accomplish much in the world. Country 
boys have their full share of fun, but 
there are many disagreeable duties on a 
farm which farmers' boys learn to accept 
as a matter of course. Edward Eggleston, 
speaking of the value of his farm training 
when a boy, once said to me : " I learned 
one thing of great value, and that was to 
do disagreeable things cheerfully." — Jo- 
siAH Strong, in " Uncle Sam's Talks on 
Our Country," in February " Success." 

Dr. O. B. Joyful, 
21 Sunshine Avenue. 
Office Hours : 6 A. M. to 12 P. M. 
A little dash of water cold, 
A little leaven of prayer, 
A little bit of sunshine gold. 
Dissolved in morning air. 
Add to your meal some merriment, 
Add thought for kith and kin. 
And then as a prime ingredient 
A plenty of work thrown in ; 
Flavor it all with essence of love 
And a little dash of play ; 
Then a nice old book and a glance 

Complete the happy day. 
Take daily, and repeat. 

Patrick Murphy was taking a walk one 
Sunday through a field where cows were 
grazing. The bull took after him, and 
before he could get over the ft-nce the 
bull caught him with its horns and 
pitched him right over into the adjoin- 
ing field. When he got himself gathered 
up, the bull was standing on the other 
«ide of the fence, scraping and booing. 
" Oh, be me sowl," said Pat, " ye needn't 
stand there apologizing, for ye intinded 
it all the toime." 

Ruth was watching mamma for the 
first time prepare some hominy for break- 
fast. " What is tliat, mamma?" she 
asked. "It's hominy," said raanima. 
Ruth still looked puzzled, and pretty 
soon she said again. "What ie that?" 
"Hominy," mamma answered once more, 
*nd somewhat impatiently Ruth looked 
at her and said, "Why, I don't know how 

Portable Saw Mills 

Ith EiiBinej* and Boilcrt* Complete. 

JIade in seven aizes, friction feed, cable 
liglitninK Pb'. piiteut chain set works and 
improved dogs. A J AX CENTER 
CKVNK em; INK!* are constructed 
M, ith pspe<*ial reference to the peculiar 
,.-,..t re.iuired of them. This com- 
bmaiion of engine and mill 
miikesthe best sawujill 
oiuiit on earth. 





Have become so famous that I found a multiplication of their progeny 
necessary to the filling of orders; hence I have added a large 

number of purest-bred Imported and 
American Sows, no akin to my old herd, 
and most of them now in farrow to Im- 
ported Berkshire Boars of a new strain. 


A D U R H A n BULL CALF, a picture, 
cheap. Write for particulars. 

THOS. 8. WHITE, Fasslfern Stock Farm, liexlngton, Vm. 


CISMONT STOCK FARM offers well developed young 
Dorsets of the best blood of England and America. 

Prices reasonable. 

G. S. LINDENKOHL, Keswick, Albemarle Co., Va. 

RIPPLEY ScomblDOtlon 

Steam Cookers 

I ■ r IT bk I W UomDIDUliun ^pbwvb..* ^w^.-w- ■»■ 
,.7ld undera guarantee torcookingfeed, heating Poultry, K»B?yd 
Dalr^hou4f heating water in stock tanks or cooking f eed 20Ji f t. 
be°Sed°outtid^?SFoase sareasastoye. WUlcook^buotf^^^^^ 
'-,2hr9. Usednndenrtorsedljy Wis.,_Ia., Va., Ga. ana onl. state 


SuT™ Cooke,,. Cook.,ud Bit^cra- S^^plif cVwoji. wd p'""« °'^='> '"»• 


When corresponding with Advertisers, always |ay that you saw their 
advertisement in The Southern Planter. 




One very cold day Tom, in his first 
trousers, was walking along with his tiny 
overcoat turned back to its utmost limit. 
"Tom," said his father, meeting the 
child, " button your coat." But the boy 
demurred. " Look at mine," added his 
father. "Yes," said Tom, ruefully, and 
obeying under protest, "hut everybody 
knows that you wear trousers !" 

A minister whose education in business 
matters had been sadly neglected had a 
email charge, and eked out a living by 
writing for the papers. One day he re- 
ceived a check for $15, made payable to 
his order. He took it to the local bank, 
and, banding it in, was told to indorse it. 
He hesitated a moment, and then, taking 
up the precious document, wrote on the 
back : " I heartily indorse this check." 

To-day towns do not grow merely be- 
cause of their location, and this factor of 
location will become less and less impor- 
tant as the years go by. Chicago is situ- 
ated upon the most impossible an un- 
lovely of all places of human habitation. 
She is simply a city of transportation and 
is no better than her rails and boats, 
though by her rails and boats she lives 
in every Western State and Territory. 
The same is true of St. Louis and the 
vast Southwei?t. One railroad recently 
planned for Western extension, and laid 
out along its lines the sitesof thirty eight 
new towns, each of which was located 
and named before the question of inhab- 
itants for the towns was ever taken up. 
Another railway in the Southwest has 
named fifty cities that are yet to build, 
and Ptill others have scores of commuui- 
ties which in time are to he the battle- 
grounds of human lives, the stages of the 
human tragedy or comedy. The railways 
have not only reached, hut created prov- 
inces; they have not only nourished, but 
conceived communities. 

Maine Lawyer — What is vour opinion 
of the character of Deacon Blank? 

Witness (cautiousiy) — 1 never heard 
nothin' agin him. 

"Don't you know him to be an honest 

"Wall, he's befn fair an' square in all 
his dealin's with me, and with others as 
far as I know." 

"Isn't that sufficient to prove him a 
man of sterling integrity?" 

"Wall, I dunno. I never traded horses 
w th him." 

"You never kin tell which way any 
pleasure is a' comin'. Who ever would 'a' 
thought, when we aimed at the ceme- 
tery, that we 'd land up at a first-class 
fire?" — From "Lovey Mary," The Cen- 
tury, February, 190.3. 

"The way to git cheerful is to smile 
when you feel bad, to think about some- 
body elsf's headache when yer own is 
'most buBtin', to keep on believin' the 
Bun is a-shinin' when the clouds is thick 
enough to cut." — From "Lovey Mary," 
T he Century, .January, 190.3. 

Mention the Southern Planter when cor- 
«epo nding with advertisers. 


Is a machine every farmer should have. It will SAVE YOU its cost In a short while. 

wnflforSogue. THE NEWARK MACHINE CO., - 

Mention the Southern Plantbb when you write. 

Newark, Ohio. 

Made for the Man 
Who Wants the' 

ThO; Great Western 
Manure Spreader 

will also spread compost* Hmc, land plaster, enlt. wooJ o-hi _ _ 

do it quicker, better and more evenly than it can be done by hand. Spreads as much manure in one day as twelve 

load and spread by hand and the job is much better when done. Spreads the largest load a team can haul in 2 to 4 minutes. It 

makes thesamearaount of manure go three times as far and at the same time produce better results. 

)r little while in motion. Puts tlini C9Q | nnnu— always ready to load. Notumlngf 
orspots— Sto2JloadsDeracre. LnULLOu ArnUII back into position with crank, 
away from beater while loading and acts as hood in spreading, 
ig sticks, stones, etc. Front wheels cut under, and machine can 
izes. Capacity 30 to 70 bushels. It saves time, labor and moner 
d spreads it so evenly thatitisimmediatelyavailableforplantfood, 
I iDOr OlTll nfilir lObvKiinclies.withSUrcrecutsshowsthespreaderperfectlyanddescribcsitfuIly. Tellsalsohow 
LAnbt bA I aLUuUt to appiv manure to secure bestresults. Mailed tree. < 


wnlem^. Madein twostjles and foui 


Pasteur Blackleg Vaccine ready for use. UpARAxlf 

Single Blacklegine (for common stock): 10 close box, $1.50; 
20 (lose box, 12.50; 50 dose box, $6.00. Double Blacklegine (for 
choice stock) $2.00 for 10 doses, first lymph and second lymph inclu- 
sive. Blacklegine Outfit for applying Blacklegine, 50 cents. 

Pasteur Vaccine Co., 



Best sprayer made for nlnei 
Shrubbery, etc. Rite^ilj carric 


and you have an outfit always ready at a mementos 
notice for u small or larpe job in the 


i?iitb9 of all work, a?< Cotton, Tobacco, Potatoes, Cardans 

I luid worked, .simple and durable. C'ui.pnr tank foncaved to til 
hinp: to corrode. We also mako the Empiro King and Orchard 
rlartre operations, and others for all purposes. l-uUy described 

FIELD FORCE PUMP CO.. 223 Eleventh St.,Elmira. N.Y. 






work can be made easy and at a small cost. 




20 and 22 N. Sycamore St., PETERSBURG, VA. 

You can have your Bath 
Tub, Water Closet and Hot 
and Cold Water in your 
own Home. 




We have our own compe- 
tent and skilled workmen, 
which we send out to install 
our fixtures. 


- Let us figure with you. 


Breeders of 


Exhibition Barred 
Plymouth Rocks 


For information, address 

Ivanhoe Poultry Yards, Box 258, Richmond, va. 






The educational problem of the pre- 
sent is the problem of the rural school. 
The cry has gone up for longer term, bet- 
ter eupervLson, better teaching, better 
houses, with improved equ;pment, in- 
cluding well selected libraries. The de- 
mand is for a school that shall be in 
every respect the center of a richer social 
life. This can never be so long as we 
have eo many small schools. At the very 
basis of all reform of the rural school 
is the problem of consolidating small 
echools into larger ones centrally located. 
CoasolidatioQ of rural schools is made 
all the more necessary in the South be- 
cause of the great multiplicity of schools 
resulting from separate schools for the 
two races. In view of our problem, it is 
of interest to see the resnlta of consolida- 
tion in other States. 

A summary made up from the reports 
printed and written from the eighteen 
States in which consolidation has been 
tried, shows the following advantages ac- 
cruing from the consolidation of small 
echools and the transportation of pupils 
at public expense : 

1. The health of the children is bet- 
ter, the children being less exposed to 
etormy weather, and avoiding sitting in 
damp clothing. 

2. Attendance ie from 50 to 1-50 per 
cent, greater, more regular, and of longer 
continuance. There is neither tardiness 
nor truancy. 

3. Fewer teachers are required, so bet- 
ter teachers may be secured and better 
salaries paid. 

4. Pupils work in graded schools and 
both teachers and pupils are under sys- 
tematic supervision. 

5. Pupils are in better school houses, 
where there is better heating, lighting 
and ventilation, and more appliances of 
all kinds. 

6. Better opportunity is afforded for 
special work, such as music, drawing, etc. 

7. Cost in nearly all cases is reduced. 
This includes cost and maintenance of 
school huildings, apparatus, furniture, 
and tuition. 

8. School year is often much longer. 

9. Pupils are benefitted bv a widened 
circle of acquaintances and' the culture 
resulting therefrom. 

10. The whole community is drawn to- 

IL Public barges used for children in 
daytime may be used to transport their 
parents to public gatherings in the 

12. Transportation makes possible the 
distribution of mail throughout the whole 
township daily. 

13. Finally, by transportation the farm 
becomes, as ofold, the ideal place in which 
to bring up children, enabling them to 
secure the advantages of centers of popu- 
lation and spend their evenings and holi- 
day time in the country in contact with 
nature and work, instead of idiv loafing 
about town 

The Parson— Your wife, sir, is trying to 
run my church. 

Witherby— If that is really the case, 
the only thing for you to do is to join my 
poker club. 

ipmiE Pulverizing Harrow 

H U Ifl C ^B%^ Clod Crasher and Le 

3to13 1-2 Feet. 




be returned at my expense if not satisfactory, 
best pulverizer — cheapest Riding Har- 
row on eartli. We also make walk- 
ing Acmes. The Acme 
crushes, cuts, pulverizes, 
turns and levels all 
soils for all pur- 
poses. Made en- 
tirely of cast steel 
'-' and wrought iron 

Catalog and Booklet, ".4n Ideal Harrow," by Henry Stewart, mailed free. 
I deliver free on board at New York, Cfakafo, Colaobns, LoolsrlUe, Kansas Clly, Mlsoeapolls, Sio Francisco, etc 



SEE SEED OROPI NEW UNIVERSAL. I mew universal i V „fe,rf_ 

dOrill 4 Cultivator*^ J(Tr$f1?)D 

NEW UNIVERSAL. I mew universal 

In Plain '>«''''l» Whrei Single Wheol 

Sight ■■ 

The only implement 
made which cao be used 
as seeder and 
cultivator. 1 or -l 
■vheels as de- 
sired. Quickly 

POPULAR PRICES, i:*^ catal 


Wheel Plows. | 

Three stales. For Cai-deaeis Ij ( 




Famous f 

spent for 

a postal requesting illustrated catalogue will save you dollars in :tie 

"' ■* purchase of Spike-tooth. Spring-ton::i 

and Disc Harrows or Land Roi:- 

Don'tbuv until vou learn 

■/..■ the RODERICK LEAN 

RODERICK LEAN MFG.C0.,Mansf1eld,0. 

ASSETS, $900,000. 

Virginia Fire and flarine 

Insurance Company, of Richmond, Va. 

Insures Against Fire and Lightning. 


H. PALMER, President. w. h. WCARTHY, secretary. 

Farmers Mutual Benefit Association. 

A Fire Insurance Association, chArtered by the State for the farmera 
o( Virginia, under an amended and well protected plan. 

Insures in counties Burrounding and accessible to Richmond, against Fire and 
Lightning, only country propertj- — no stores or unsafe risks. Policv holders amply 
secured — all losses paid. Average cost per year less than other plans, and a great 
saving to farmers. Amount of property now insured, $330,000, and increasing 
yearly. Estimated security in real and other estate, t"50 000. 

For further information, addrees, CHAS. N. FRIEND, General Acent, 

mmmriom this joukhal. CHESTBR. VmaiMIA. 




BILTMORE FARMS, - Biltmore.N.O, 

Headquarters for GOUDEN LAD JERSEYS, 

Also get of TREVARTH and GEN. MARIGOLD. J- ^ * 

GOLDEN LAD'S SUCCESSOR, First and sweepstakes over all at the Pan-American Exposition, the 
champion JERSEY BULL OF AMERICA, and out of Golden Ora, our great prize-winning cow, both 
born and developed on these Farms, is among our service bulls. 

Biltmore Jerseys are a combination of large and persistent milking qualities with an individuality 
that wins in the show ring. 

SPECIALTY. Write for descriptive circular of the best lot of young bull calves ever offered, both for breed- 
ing and individuality. They are by noted sires and out of large and tested selected dams. Many of these 
calves are fit to show and win in any company. 

^ J6 


je j6 

SPECIALTY. Write for descriptive circjilar of eggs from our prize- winning pens. Over 50 yards to select 
from, made up of the winners at the leading shows for the last two seasons. If you want winners yon 
must breed from winners. 

Headquarters for the best IMPORTED ENGLISH BERKSHIRES. 


The most popular Machine in use for Peanut Picking and Grain Threshing are the 


Machines, and they have splendid improvements for 1903. 
They are built in first-class manner, and are strong and dur- 
able. The price is within the reach of all. We guarantee 
them to do the work satisfactorily. We will mail catalogue 
and testimonials, and quote prices on application. 










This cut shows our 5 and 7 h.p, " Little 
Samsom " Vertical Automatic Engine, for 

ii np I AlAU ff UAPIIiyCRV running threshers, peanut pickers, cnttins 

feed, sawing wood, etc. 
Larger sizes also furnished. 

STRATTON & BRAGG, 20 and 22 N. Sycamore St., Petersburg, Ya. 




Send for Our Catalogue 

il mnd cable tnck < 

It has 133 pagM. size 9t 

cut this ad out lad scn^ i 

i-yVi^tii' MARVIN SMITH CO., """-"lit^dS^UT' 


To try to farm without a judicious ap- 
plication of manure to your lands. 

To buy what you do not need because 
it is cheap — or nice. 

To plant more acres than you can prop- 
erly take care of in the way of cultivat- 
ing because you wish to have a ' big" 

To expect to grow crops without due 
attention being given to their cultivation. 

To expect to grow good crops from poor 

To expect to have good farm stock 
without feeding and giving attention to it. 

To expect to have good milih cows 
without providing for their comfort at all 

To leave your farm tools exposed to 
the weather. 

To lounge about the village store or 
postoffice when the weeds are growing in 
your crop. 

To talk of what your farming opera 
tions will be np.vt year while you are do- 
ing nothing this year. 

To plant fruit trees and then allow the 
cattle to destroy them. 

To leave your neighbors' gates open 
and then expect yours to be shut always. 
You thus teach a bad lesson by your own 

To elect to oflSce men who cannot take 
care of themselves by the ordinary pur- 
suits of life. 

To he surrounded by mud when you 
can easily have good paths about your 

Frank Moxeoe Beverlv. 

Dickenson Co., Va. 


With the exception of strawberries, 
says Prof. A. G. Gilbert, it takes three 
years to realize on small fruits ; a milch 
cow does not approach her full produc- 
tion short of three and a half years; ap- 
ple trees do not begin to bear freely short 
of seven or eight years. How about the 
hen? Three weeks from the setting of 
the hen you have a hatch of chickens; 
from four to four and a half months from 
hatching the cockerels are readv for the , 
market, and in five to five and a half 
months the pullets will begin to lay. Add 
to this the fact that in cities at the pres- 
ent time fresh laid eggs are selling at 30 
to 3-5 cents a dozen, and it is clearly de- 
monstrated that poultry-raising well- 
ma-^aged is one of the most profitable 
branches of farming. 

Author— My book, sir, will be in exist- 
ence long after you are forgotten. 

Critic— Yes, I should say that it is 
likely to escape the wear and tear of ex- 
cessive reading. 


-•———— — » 


We are the largest optical establishment South, and give proper adjustment k 

of SPECTACLES and EYE GLASSE-:. Complete manufacturing plant on the J 

premises. Mail us the pieces and we will from them duplicate your Glasses, f 

Glasses by mail our specialtv. k 


is also complete with CAMERAS, KO- 
veloping and printin; 

finely executed. P 

* Our line of QRAPHOPHONES, with latest records. OPERA GLASSES, i 
J FIELD GLASSES, Incubator and Dairy THEREnonETERS, etc , etc., is ' 
H also complete Lowest charges in all cases. p 

I TIIE8.G1LESKI0PTIC1' CO.,BtliandMainSts.,Ricliiiioml,Va. i 

J* THE <* 






TO — -. 



Would a country where work can be carried on the entire year »nd where large 
profits can be realized interest you? 

The SEABOARD Air Line Railway traverses six Southern States and aregioB 
of this character. One two cent stamp will bring handsome illustrated literatore 
descriptive of the sectioa. 


Gen. Indastrial Agt., Portsmoath, Va. Traffic Mgr. Gen. Pass. Aff., Portsmouth, Vt. 

When you write to an advertiser, always say you saw the adyer- 






in Richmond, the BEST MARKET for all grades ot Tobacco. It 
is the home of sun and air cured Tobacco and headquarters for 
flue-cured and shipping types. Here are located the head offices and 
stemmerles of all the large corporations, Regie representatives and the 
largest number of independent factories and buyers in the United States. 


Has the largest lighted space, insuring equal attention to every pile. 
Ample accommodations in every way for all our customers. 
Correspondence solicited. 

SILAS SHELBURNE & SON, Props., 12th and Canal Sts, RICHMOND. VA. 


26 N. Ninth Street, RICHMOND, VA., 

Has just received 
an entirely new 
Stock and com- 
plete line of 





We are contractors for 


Correspondence Solicited. 





By Maky Washington. 

No. 1. 

In rendering the records of modern in- 
ventors in the United Stales, two points 
strike me especially about them— tirst, 
that the great majority of them are me- 
chanics, or at lea-,1, plain, practical men, 
without scientific training; and eecondly, 
that thev have a much easier and more 
prosperoiis fate than the inventors of past 
ages, few of whom reaped any pecuniary 
reward, or even obtained recognition and 
appreciation of their services durmg their 

Among the long list of men in the 
United States who have made useful and 
important inventions during the last 
quarter of the 19th century, few of them 
except Dr. Alexander Graham Bell (in- 
ventor of the telephone) enjoyed the ad- 
vantages of early scientific training, al- 
though those who had a strong bent that 
way, managed to pick it up, to some ex- 
tent, in later life. 

In 8tud\ ing the career of Dr. Bell, it is 
very interesting to note how hi.s previous 
experience both in his studies and hfe 
work, and even in those of his father 
before him, seemed to pave the way to his 
great invention. His father. Dr. Alexan- 
der M. Bell, was an educator of deaf 
mutes, born in October in 1819. In 1843, 
he became a lecturer on elocution and 
voice cultare in the University of Edin- 
burgh and in New College, but his prin 
cipal work was instructing deaf mutes. 
In 1870, he removed to Camden, and in 
1881, settled in Washington City. He 
published many works on elocution and 
phonetics, but was chiefly distinguished 
as the author of "Visible Speecti," a 
method highly successful in teaching 
deaf mutes to speak. His son, the re- 
nowned Alexander G. Bell, was born in 
Scotland March 31, 1847. He was edu- 
cated in Edinburgh, but went to London 
in 1867, and to Canada in 1870. In 1872, 
he introduced his father's system of deaf 
mute instruction into the United States, 
and was made a Professor in Boston Uni- 
versity. After having experimented for 
years on the transmission of sound by 
electricity, and devised various apparatus 
for the purpose, he, at length, produced 
the telephone which he exhibited in 
Philadelphia, in 1870, and this seemed 
ft fitting climax to all his previous 
studies, efforts and labors which had all 
had a bearing on the human voice and 
on electricity. This invention brought 
him a large fortune, but not all at once. 
He carried the first working model of his 
telephone to John A. Logan, ofleriag him 
a half interest in it at $25, but Logan 
made light of his machine, and rejected 
his offer. Then he offered a tenth inter- 
est in it to an examiner in the Patent Of- 
fice for $100, but this ofler was also de- 
clined. Within fifteen years this tenth 
interest was worth a million dollari, so 
great a commercial success did the tele- 

fihone become, when its claims were fair- 
y set before the public. No one has done 
more than Bell to annihilate the barriers 
of space. Moise's work was wonderful 
enongh in enabling us to receive tele- 


Don't pay n-tail price fnr r:ir 
leurn iil>out our byBiem ufscilii 
il to yon. Saiisfactiufi 

■ harness. "VVHte for our catalogue and 
from factory lo customer. Two profits 
, meed, or you can return the purchase 
wtir pav freight charges both wavs. We have the largest assortment 
of huT'i«*s. surreys. pb!et4)U8, carriaees, and other hierh grade vehicles. 
well lis harnes.". "horse rups and other horse accessories, in America. 
Write fur the catalogue to-day. 

Factory and General Office. COLUMBUS. 0. \ V/rite to 

Western Office and Distributing House. ST. LOUIS, MO. /nearest office. 


, We are the larcrest manufacturers of vehicles and har- ^ 
ness in the world selling to consumers esclusivelv. tl^ 


butship auy\\ hero fur ex- 
amination, guaranteeing 
sale delivery. You arc 
out notbiii g if notsat- 
isfled We make l". 
styles ot vehicles au.. 
65 styles of harness. ; 
Visitors are always 
welcome at our 

1.42— DonbleSurre Harnr.<;s. 1 

As good as sells for^lOiuorc. 
Lrtrge Catalogue I EEE — Send for it. *"^ww»j . rio.33I — Surrey. 


R Perfect Weeder 

in all soils, under all conditions. The all important feature of flexibility 
of teeth is near perfection in the YORK BMPROVED. 

Made of square spring steel with round points, andsetsta^r- 

gered in stronj? but flexible aiifiHe steel frame. Wide clearnnce, no 
*-'^ogeine. teeth too stroni; to break. Multiplies producing (qualities 
of poii unci d'les not whip or bruise growing plant. Adjustable 
handles ai.d shafts. Write for free descriptive circuiiir. 

Spang'er Manufacturing Co.. 501 Qusen Street, York, Pa. 


are cultivation and keeping; down weeds. 
More important than deep cultivation is 
keeping the surface stirred, breakinsr the 
crust due to rains, and allowing the li^rht, 
air, moisture and warmth to penetrate 
quickly to the roots of the growine plant. 
For doing: just these things the ideal imple- 
ment is the 

Adjustable Weeder 
and Shallow Cultivator. 

It kills the weeds at first showing, the top soil is pulverized and kept mellow, the plant 
roots are not disturbed and the moist soil is not brought up to dry in the sun. Adjustable 
in width. Narrows to 30 inches, widens to 7J4 feet. Strong, rims steady, no cumbersome 
shafts. Furnished either with round teeth or with flat to suit different soils, as we are 
licensed by the Hallock Weeder Conipany to use tlieir famous flat teeth. Weeder booklet 
mailed free. We also make 10 styles Corn'Planters, 12 styles Cultivators. 20 styles Com Shel- 
lers, hand and power, Harrows, Field Rollers, Feed Cutters, etc. Write for cataJogue C. 

KEYSTONE FARM MACHINE 00.,^ 1554 N. Beaver St., York, Pa. 


Highest Typewriting Possibilities 
Available Only to Users 


Known Everywhere. Employed by Govemnients and Great Corporations which command only the 
best facilities. Illustrated Cataloeue and **^ Touch** Typewriting Instruction Book Free 


No. 519 Eleventh St., N. W., WASHINGTON, D. 0. 

1903. J 



graphic messages over the wires, but 
Bell's is far more marvellous, enabling us 
to hear the living voices of our loved 
ones with all their lesser peculiarities of 
accent and inflection. The Bell appara 
tus, however, was improved upon by a 
clerk named Emile Berliner, who evolved 
ideas which made the long distance tele- 
phone possible. The monopoly of the 
Bell Telephone Company is now held 
under Berliner's patents, and Emile Ber- 
liner has reaped prosperity from them. 

Thos. Alva Edison was born at Milan, 
Ohio. February llth, 1847, the same year 
in which Bell was born. He received all 
his early education from his mother, and 
at the age of twelve was a train boy on 
the railroad. A station-master taught 
him the art of telegraphy, in which he 
Boon became remarkably skillful. He 
studied the principles of the science, and 
his quick and inventive mind soon turn- 
ed towards making practical applications 
of electricity to the wants of every- dav 

When he made his first important in- 
vention, he carried it to a company on 
Broadway, N. Y., and the manager told 
him he would pay him 136,000 for it, but 
not a cent more. This announcement 
amazed Edison, as he had not dreamed 
of aspiring to so large a sum, and when 
the check was paid him he still distrust- 
ed that it might be a bogus one, especial- 
ly as the clerk refused to cash it off 
hand, but when Edison established his 
identity the money was paid to him with- 
out further difficulty. 

It would be tedious to enumerate all of 
Edison's hundreds of inventions. Sufii- 
cient to say, he has attained not only 
fame, but great wealth by means of them. 
Amongst his marvellous inventions may 
be mentioned the phonograph, which is 
the root from which have sprung the 
graphophone, gramophone, and all the 
talking and singing machines which can 
BO wonderfully reproduce the voices of 
the absent or even of the dead, the 
strains of concert singers, and of bands 
and orchestral music. 

Augustus Schultz, of New York, in- 
vented the modern method of tanning, 
which has reduced the process of making 
leather from a year or two to a few 
"weeks. All thin, tough leather now 
manufactured is made in this way. 
Prior to this invention, Schultz was very 
poor, but he became wealthy by means 
of it. 

L. C. Crowell, who was a day laborer, 
made a large fortune by his invention of 
a paper folder which made possible the 
present enormous edition of many paged 
newspapers. The Crowell folder takes 
the sheets as they receive impressions, 
packs them into neat shape and stacks 
them up, ready for distribution. 

Hugh Cook, of Dayton, Ohio, was a 
worker for wages when he made the in- 
vention on which the most efficient cash 
register in the market is based, from the 
proceeds of which he receives about 
$25,000 a year. 

Amongst the men who have reaped 
wealth from their inventions, I am glad 
to say I can enumerate Mr. John N. 
Gamewell, of South Carolina, who in- 
vented the fire and police alarm now 
generally used throughout the whole 

1 llw LJ^l^KJrW^t I Eight sizes, from Farmers' 4 h p. up to 200-h. p. 

If Interemted, write for large Illustrated catalogue ot OeLoach Patent Saw Mills to suit 
any power from 4 to 200-h. p.; Shingle Mills, Planers, Edtjers, Trimmers, Stave and Lath 
Mills. Bolters, Corn and Baljr Mills, Water Whf els, etc. To introduce our New Farmers' 
Saw Mill, fitted with De Loach Patent Variable Friction Feed, we make this special ofl'er: 

We will deliver on cars at factory our 
No. O Pony Farmers' Saw Mill, with 
Duplex Dogs, Imp oved Head Blocks 
and Ratchet Set Works, complete as 
shown in cut, except it has Carriage made 
in two 4-foi)t sections, with Rope Drive 
instead of Rack and Pinion, without Saw 
or Belt, for $115.00 Spot Cash I 
With .36" Solid Saw, iViTAO; 40", 8132.50; 

44", 8140.00; 48", .1:1.50.00. 
With 36" Inserted Saw. S147.S0: 40" 5152.50; 

44", 8100,00; 48", J170.00. 

Best Rubber Belting, 4-ply, 6", 20 cents 

per loot ; 8", 30 cents per foot, n et. 

No discount from these prices. 

Our Warranty: This mill is warranted to be made in a workman-llke manner, of first 
class material throughout, and to live perfect satisfaction if operated accoraing to our 
printed instructions, which are so simple that a boy can understand them. Any one with 
ordinary Intelligence can set and operate without the assistance of an experienced 
sawyer; will easily cut 2.000 to 2 .500 feet of first class board lumber per day with only 4-h. p.; 
3,000 ft. with 6-h. p.; 4,000 ft. with 8-h. p ; is adapted to any kind or size power up to 15-h. p. 
The DeLoach is the only mill made that is shipped to all partsof the world. Over 10,000 in use. 


doing her duty and making yoa easy i 

II The ilawkeye 

Made in eizes to suit your needs, from 60 
eggsto200, all of the finest and most approv- 
ed construction and ^aaranteed in every 
particular. Our littie price includes every- 
thing needed. W"e send our incubators on 
30 DAYS' FREE TRIAL. Sendforfree 
illustrated catalogue describing fully all 
sizes of Hawkeye Incubators and Brooders, 
paper, or send 10c and we 
leading poul- 



3 and s 
B year. 
Box 49, Nf 

m 9^ ^w^^^ ^..^ 

THE HATCHBNG INSTINCT. 1^,::^^'";:^::^:^ 

been ■„r„i„^ all fertile petalumH incubator. 

non-shrinking- redwood, lieaters of c 
itiUting. self-'eeuUtinjT. Devices the mostsensitivcand depe. Jal le. Supplies moisture 
dry climates. U^ed all over U. S. with great e-Kp.rt demand. IVtulumu Ifrooderi. 
'C no superiors. Fair prices and freight paid all over U. S. Write for latent free catalogue. 

PETALUMA INCUBATOR CO., Box 46, Petaluma, Cal., or Box 46. Indiaaapolts.lad. 


Thonsands of these Incubators are in successful 
operation in the United States, Canada, South 
Africa, New Zealand , Sweeden, England, Hollan d, 
and Germany. These'machines operate to perfec- 
tion and always bring off a large brood of strong, 
healthy chicks. Catalogue with full particulars 
sking The Standard F. C. Incubator Co., Dept. 6, Rochester, N. Y., U. S. A. 


TO Where an established reputation warrants continued confidence. Th« name oi $ 

^ LUMSDEN on anything in the JEWELRY or SILVERWARE line is a standard of at 




% SIX SOLID STERLING SILVER TEA SPOONS, $3.40. Write for our catAlosue, it J 

A contains many articles on which we can saye you money. a» 

I C. LUMSDEN t SON, Established 1835, 731 E. Main St., Richmond, Va. | 
a6«€€e€ €C<aocccac6c « c cecc'e€€€€€€ c a o <i qcc « ac«o«ctt» i» ai>9ai» e 

Wlien corresponding with Advertisers, alTvays mention 
The Soutliem Planter. 




civilized world. Mr. Gamewell received 
a me-lal both from the French and Rus- 
Bian Governmeat for this invention. 
He took up his residence in New York 
citv, was made Superintendent of the 
Fire Department, and acquired a large 
fortune from his patents. 

Another Southerner who has achieved 
prosperitv bv his inventions, ia Mr. 
Jam«s Albert Bonsack, of Virginia, who 
invented the cigarette machine, which 
has redounded so largely to the wealth 
both of the State and of himself. 


In the Southern States there are two 
hundred and twelve counties in which 
one-fifth or more of the native white 
males of voting age (twenty one years 
old and over) are illiterate; in all other 
States of the Union only five. In two 
States — North Carolina and Louisiana— 
nearly half the counties are in this cla.=s. 
In fifty-one of the SDUthern counties the 
illiteracv in this class is thirty per cent. 
or more! Of these, three are in Virginia, 
three in North Carolina, nine in Ken- 
tuckv, eighteen in Louisiana and eighteen 
in Texas. In any of these counties the 
balance of power is in the hands of the 
illiterate voters, and illiteracy is king. 
Under such conditions Democratic gov- 
ernment must be in great danger Its 
form mav remain, but its substance can 
hardly exist longer. If it does continue 
to exist, it can only be to illustrate the 
truth of the fact that it is woe unto any 
country when the ignorant man and the 
evil bear rale in it. 

Prunes are exceedingly wholesome and 
should be used often as dessert. Many 
whose digestion forbids the eating of 
other fruit can eat stewed prunes and 
be benefited by them. Prunes have a 
curative property. They are very suita- 
ble for the diet "of convalescents. They 
are nutritious, laxative, and healing to j 
the membranes of the stomach. Do not ] 
taie medicine, but eat liberally of stew- 
ed prunes. They have been known to 
cure inflammation of the stomach. There 
are several difierent varieties of as many 
different qualities, sour and sweet, but 
the large French prunes are the best that 
can be had. 

Stewed prunes are the best for general 
use. Wash thoroughly and soak them 
an hour in cold water, then stew slowly 
in a porcelean-lined stewpan until soft. 
Sugar to taste before sending to the table, 
or they can be sweetened wnile stewing. 

The heavy charges on small parcels 
come pretty near being outrageous. The 
robbery is all the worse where a package 
has to travel between two small towns 
and over the routes of two express com- 
panies. There should be a universal par 
eels post. This reform should precede 
any reduction of letter postage. Now 
that rural free delivery will soon be 
made universal, the next great reform to 
be insisted upon ia the parcels post. 
Then, for a few cents, farmers can supply 
customers in the cities directly with nice 
fresh fruits, vegetables, etc., just as is 
done in England. 

Uncle Sam says it's 
all right 

Uncle Sam. In the person of ten of his government otBcials, is always In chares of every 
department of our distillery. During the entire process of distillation, after the whiskey 
Is stored in barrels in our warehouses, during the seven years it remains there, from the 
very grain we buy to the whiskey you get. Uncle Sam is constantly on the watch. We dare 
not take a gallon of our own whiskey from our own warehouse unless he says it's all right. 
And when he does say so. that whiskey goes direct to you. with*all its orig inal strength, rich- 
ness and flavor, carrying a UNITED ST.^TES REGISTERED DISTTLLER'S GUARAN- 
TEE of PURITY and AGE, and saving the dealers' enormous profits. That's why 
HAYNER WHISKEY is the best for medicinal purposes. That's why it is preferred for 
other uses. That's why we have over a quarter of a million satisfied customers. That's 
why Y'OU should try it. Y'our money back if you're not satisfied. 

Direct from our distillery to YOU 

Saves Dealers' Protits I Prevents Adulteration I ^^"" 




■YEAR-OLD RYE for $3.20. and we will pay the express charges. Try it and 
if you don't find it all right and as good as you ever used or can buy from 
anybody else at any price, send itback at our expense, and your J3.20 will be 
returned to you by next mail. Just think that ofler over. How could it be 
fairer? If you are not perfectly satisfied, you are not out a cent. Better let 
us send you a trial order. If you don't want four quarts yourself, get a 
frieud to join you. We ship in a plain sealed case, no marks to show what's 

Orders for Ariz., CaL. Col., Idaho, Mont., Nev., NMex.. Ore. , Utan. 'Wash, 
or Wyo. must be on the basis of 4 ({aarts for S4.00 by Express 
Prepaid or HO ^,uATts tor S16.00 by Freisht Prepaid. 

■Write our nearest office and do it NOW. 



153 DiSTnXEKT, Tbot, O. Estabushkd 1866 


Merchants National Bank 


Designated Depository of the United States, City of 
Rlchmona and Commonwealth of Virginia. 
Being the Largest Depository for Banks between Baltlmor* 
and New Orleans, this Bank offers snperior facilitlec fbr 
direct and quick oolleotlons. 





Capital Stock, $200,000,00 

Sarplns and Proflta, 5600,000,00 



DiBioroBS.— John3'.;Brancli, B. B. Mnnford, Chaa. B. StrlnglUIow, Tbos. B. Soott, B. W 
Branch, Fred. W. Soott, Jas. H. Dooley, Jno. K. Branch, A. 8. Bnfbrd, B. C. Morton. AnOnw 
Plxalnl. Jr.. J. P. Qeorge, Alex. Hamilton, Sam'l. T. Morgan. 




If You Want 



I mean buy your supplies right. You should lay aside a few Gold Pieces 
yourself, you might ask how it can be done— easy, dead easy— stop paying 
high, country prices. The mail comes to your home six times a week, I can 
get a letter from you every day. 



The railroads almost pass your house. Uncle Sam spends millions yearly 
to give you mail and railroad accomodations. You need not come to town, 
let Uncle Sam do your shopping. He can knock the spots out of you in 
buying— just try him. No matter how small your order I will be glad to have 
it and ship promptly. Here is what your groceries will cost you 


Arbuckle'e Green Coffee 9^ 

Granulated Sugar i\ 

Beat Family Flour 4 25 

Byrd leland — have no other. 

10,000 lbs. Nice Family Pork 9 

7 Boxes Axle Grease 25 

800 BblB. White Oil 12 

1,000 Bushels Seed Rye 68 

500 Tons Fine Timothy Hay, hun- 
dred 75 

300 Tons Choice Clover Hay, hun- 
dred 70 

10 Large Cakes Fancy Soap 25 

C r y B ta 1 Washing Soda, Light, 
S m o ot h, and Durable, makes 

Washing Easy 30 

Washing Powders, 8 for 25 

Fine Gun Powder Tea 40 

Ben Mocha and Java Coffee Roasted 18 
Large Fat Mackerel in Nice Buck- 

ete or Kits, about 15 Iba 1 25 

New River Herrings, 750 fish in the' 

barrel. Large and Fat 5 50 

New Cut Herrings, barrel 5 50 

Finest Cream Cheese. 15 

Baker's Chocolate— 2 Cakes 25 

New Table Raisins— 6 Lbs 60 

Fine French Candy 8 

Pure Lard 9J 

•10 Tone Pure aty Made Shipstuff, 

hundred 1 00 

Cotton-Seed Meal, Nothing Finer. 

510 Tons Cotton-Seed Hulls — an ex- 
cellent Winter Food, Cheap and 

Nutritious, per hundred 50 

This is as good as Coarse Meal for 

60,000 lbs! Rock Salt for Stock— try 
a bag, keep it in the Trough, im- 
proves Stock very much, $1.00 for 
100 lbs. 

Chalmer's Gelatine, 3 for 25 

Seedless Raisins in Packages 9 

Cleaned Currants, per lb 8 

New Citron for Fruit Cake 12 

Home Made Mince Meat 8 

100,000 lbs. New Mixed Nuts 11 

Virginia Hams, Choicest of Meat. I 
have a Nice Lot of Hams Made 

inSmithfield, Va 14 

Fine Sweet Cider, per gallon 20 

Home-Made Black Berry Brandy, 5 
years old and nice. 

Family Tonic, quart 20 

Northampton Anple Brandy, 6 years 
old — pure — Apple Juice — nothing 

finer made— gallon 2 00 

Clemmer'a Fine Old Mountain Rye 
Whiskey, double distilled, sweet 

and wholesome, quart 40 

Juniper Gin, sure cure for bladder 
and kidney troubles ; relieves the 
cutting, stinging ache in your back, 
quart 45 

Gibson's Fine Old Rye Whiskey ; fit 
for a king, get a quart 75 

O'Grady's Pure Malt. Try a bottle 
of Malt for that hacking cough. It 
is a sure cure. It is gewd for dys- 
pepsia. Indigestion it cures at 
signt. Warms the inner man ; 
makes new rich blood, and stimu- 
lates the whole system. It has 
saved many and many a man and 
hie family. 75 a quart. The price 
is insignificant compared to the 
benefit it will do you. 

Country Cured Bacon Sides ISJ 

100,000 bushels finest Oats 40; 

60,000 bushels fine Com 66 

Water-ground Com Meal, made of 
the finest White Corn, and ground 
by one of the finest mills m Vir- 
gmia. Bushel 72 

I have everything that is required 
by a farmer from a 1,000 acre farm 
to a mouse trap. Write for my 
price list that will give you more 
information~than a gossiping 

Clover Seed, prime Crimson Clover 
Seed 2 80 

Choice Crimson New-Ciop Clover 
Seed _ 4 26 

Fine Winter Turf Oats (seed) 78 

Prime Winter Seed Oats 60 

I have an immese stock of NEW YEARS' GOODS, CAKES, CANDIES. 
ERUITS of all kinds, and I will ship any quantity required. 

D. O'SULUVAN, Eighteenth and Main Sts., Richmond, Va. 




Tlia following list of papers and perlo<Uoala 
•!• the moA popnlar ones in tliU section. 
We can SAVE YOD MONEY on whatever 
Jonmal yon wish. 



Tlmes-Dlspatoh. Richmond, Va 1 5 00 1 5 o" 

The Post, Washlngrton, D. C S 00 6 00 

News-Leader, Richmond, Va „.. S 00 3 00 


The World (thrloe-a-week), N. Y 1 00 1 26 


Harper's Weekly „ 4 UO 4 00 

" Bazaar_ «.,..,_„. 1 00 J 40 

Hontcomery Advertiser.. 1 00 1 00 

Nashville American _ SO 76 

The Baltimore San 1 Ot 1 8t 

Breeder's Gazette _ 2 00 I 75 

Hoard's Dairyman _ ..... I 00 1 SS 

Ooontry Gentleman^ _ 1 60 1 75 

Tlmee-Dlspatch, Richmond, Va.-... 1 00 1 25 

BellglonB Herald, Richmond, Va.... 2 00 2 26 

Central Presbyterian, " "... 2 00 2 50 

Christian Advocate, " " ... 1 60 1 75 

Turf, Field and Farm 4 00 4 00 

Spirit of the Times 4 00 4 00 

Horseman S 00 S 00 


Wool Markets and Sheep 60 75 

Dairy and Creamery 6t 76 

Commercial Poultry 50 76 

Allthree _ 1 50 1 15 


North American Review 5 00 

The Oentnry Magazine 4 00 

4 25 

St. Nicholas " _ g 00 8 26 

Iilpplnoott's •■ 2 SO 2 50 

Harper's '• 4 00 4 00 

Fomm " ~. 8 00 3 26 

Borlbnei's " $00 S 25 

Frank LesUee " 1 00 1 »5 

Cosmopolitan " ...._ 1 00 1 SS 

Kverybody's " ....„ 1 00 1 36 

Mnnsey " __ I 00 1 36 

Strand " — » 1 25 1 (o 

McClnre's ** -... 1 00 1 i6 

Puritan " 1 00 1 85 

Bevlew of Revlewa.....„....._....„„. 2 50 2 75 

Lelsnre Honrs 1 00 1 25 

Blooded Stock. 60 60 

Where yon desire to subscribe to two or more 
of the pnbllcatlona named, yon can arrive at 
the net subscription price by deducting 60 
cents from "our price with thePlarUer." If 
yon desire to subscribe to any other pnbllca 
tlons not listed here, write ,ns and we will 
eheerfUlly qnots clubbing or net subscription 

Subscribers whose time does not expire 
vntll later can take advantage of our club 
rates, and have their subscription advanced 
one year from date of expiration of their 
mbssrlptlon to either the Ptanler or any of 
the other publications mentioned. 

Don't hesitate to write ns for any Informa- 
tion desired ; we will cheerfully answer any 

We famish n» tampu eopia4ot othar pen- 

Seed Jlouse of the South. 




"Whatsoever One Soweth, That Shall He Reap." 

We seU strictly reliable FI£LD AUTD GARDEN SEEDS •! 

every Tarlety at liowest Market rates, Incladed in wUcta 



Out Own Brands of Fertilizers^ 

For Tobacco, Corn. Wheat. Potatoes, &c. 

Pare Raw-Bone Meal, Nova Scotia and Tlrcinla Plaster and 

Fertillzlns: Materials generally. 

Partiee wishing to pnrcliase will find it to their intereet to price onz (oodi. 
Samples sent by mail when deeired. 

Wm. A. Miller & Son, ^ 

1016 Main street 

Heodquorters for 
Nursery Stock. 

We make a specialty of handling dealers' orders. 


Pecans, Ornamental and 

Chestnuts, Shade Trees, 

Walnuts, Evergreens, 

Small Fruits, Roses, Etc, 




■ ccoc e «i eeee «i e <iccccc<« < €cc < i<i — c «< e < i «i e« cww c < «»<<( 














rOr CO I I ON when used on laud with a fair amount of vegetation or with COMPOST (which is better the ^ 
crops are as good as from any Fertilizer. It prevents RUST and SHEDDING and keeps the plants green much ^ 
longer in dry weather. ^k 

PEANUTS With the same conditions as above, it is a COMPLETE FERTILIZER for this CROP. Our % 
customers say it is equal to the BEST FERTILIZERS ON THE MARKET. C 

D/\Rll HE/A V Y I OD/\Cv-0 Haul out your farm pen scrapings, plow under and broadcast 500 to 600 ^ 
lbs. per acre (the earlier the better), and you will get a heavy crop of Tobacco and a fine crop of Wheat and ^ 
Clover or other grass, and by proper rotation will have a rich lot for any crop. ^ 

DRIuH I I UDACCO Our customers say that 200 lbs. per acre in the drill with other Fertilizer will prevent f 

the Tobacco from FIRING and giving it a GOOD BODY and increase its value $20 per acre. For Wheat, Oats, ^ 

Clover and other grass it is exceptionally good. ^ 

It prevents RUST, SCAB and SMUT in WHEAT and and all say it is the best thing for clover they ever used. Fruit ^ 

Growers will find a WONDERFUL IMPROVEMENT by it use on their Orchards and Vineyards. > 


Has been tested for six years and has proved equal to and in some cases superior to the high-grade ammoniated 
goods on the market. We put in no useless filler and ihe farmer gets the 2000 lbs. to the ton of valuable fertilizer 
for the crops and THE LAND. Hence they say their succeeding crops are much better than from other fertilizers 

Our SPECIAX. CORN FERTILIZER For land where there is not an abundance of vegetation is equal to any. 

^•-General agents for BliACK DEATH BUG KIIiI.£R for destroying Potato Bugs, Tobacco Worms, 
and all insects injurious to vegetation ; and Sifters and Insecticide distributors for applying it. 


Constantly on hand at lowest prices. 



In car lots at lowest market price from kilns. 

Im'EL'E a. sow, R^icHxaoi'D. va. 






All of Virginia. 

These vehicles are guaranteed to be as good as can be bought elsewhere ; material and workman- 
ship unsurpassed ; all sizes and styles, prices low. We can save you time, money and freight by 
purchasing our vehicles. Send for our illustrated catalogues. Drop in our warehouse, and inspect our 
stock. Inquiries cheerfully answered. 


J. T. DUNN, Manaeer. 




Established by GEO. WA.Tr, 1840. 

MANTBED CALL, Genera! Manager. 



Crown, Crescent and Watt Plows, 



No. 13 S. Fifteenth Street, Between Main and Gary Streets, ■ RICHMOND, VA. 

ItEFA.IB8 for all the plows in general use. 

COBir PLANTEBS with and without Fertilixer Attach- 

OULTIVATOBS— Iron Age pattern, Disc, Biding and 

Walking Shovel Cultivators. 
HABBOWS— Iron Age, All-Steel Lever, Solid and Cut- 

Out Disc. 
FIELD BOLLEBS— Steel or Wood, Two and Three 







Implements, Machinery and Vehicles for all Purposes. 



Not. 8, 10 and 12 Tenth St., RICHMOND, VA. 

Building Carriages to order is our special buslne». 
Repairing and Repainting done, and best material used. 
A full line of all the latest styles. Orders for ail 
classes of Vehicles solicited. 



Bay horse, foaled 1898 ; 16 hands high. This horse 
has great natural action, and is capable of getting 
the highest class harness horses. 
FEE, $10.00 the Season or $15 00 to Insure. 

Address C. F. ft J. BUTTON, Walker's Ford, ¥a. 

I903. IN THE STUD 1003. 

WEALTH, 29579. 

RACE RECORD, 2:17i, Pacing. 

Timed separately in 2:08 in a race at Indiana 
State Fair, 1902. 

Bay horse, foaled 1897 ; 16 hands high, weight, 1,200 
lbs. Sired by Gambetta Wilkes, 2:19^, dam Mag- 
nolia, by Norfolk, 3670, Wealth is grand 
individually and in appearance. 

FEE, $20 the SBisoniwith rituri privilege, or $25 to lisuri. 
Address S. F. CHAPMAN, GordonsvllU, Va. 


RACE RECORD, 2:20, Trotting. 

Stallions at SpringGarden 

The Property of Mr. ROBERT TAIT. 

Burlingame, 26235, record 2:18}. trotting bav horse, by Guy 
Wilkes, 2:16i, dam the famous brood mare Sable, by The Moor. 
This horse is richly bred, a prize winner, at the New York 
Horse Show, and sires grand looking colts. Fee. $'io toe sea- 
son. Ed. Kearney, chestnut horse, bv Tom Ochiltree, dam 
Medusa, by Sensation. A grand looking specimen of the 
thoroughbred, and will sire not only race horses, but hunters 
and jumpers of the highest class. Fee, |10 the season. 

Addren SPRING GARDEN FARM, Coelwell P. 0., Va. | W. H. NELSON, 

Bay horse, by Billy Thornhill, 2:24, dam Sweetstakes, 

by Sweep Stakes, 298. Great Stakes has sired 

Captain, 2:i6i; Foxhall, 2:19!, and four 

others in the list. He is handsome, 

well-formed and sires speed 


FEE, $25.00 for the Season of 1903. 


1417 E. Franklin St, Riohmond,Va. 





Oom Planter. 


for Com, Peaa and Sorghum. 

The HOOSIER, both single and double row, with 
and without fertilizer Attachment. The SPANGLER 

Olll Till ITnDQ PLANET Jr. and 
WULIIff AlUlfOi IRON AGE Culti- 

vators and Horse Hoes. CONTINENTAL Disc 
Com Planter. Cultivators and Harrows, the best in the world. 

Spring tooth attachments for Cultivator. RODERICK LEAN steel lever harrows for 
one, two and three three horses. 



Wood or Steel beam ; all sizes. Guaranteed equal to any made. 



Single n Double Disc. 








The FISH, The WEBER and The CHAMPION Wagons 


General agency for the Columbus Buggy, Co., Col- 
umbus, Ohio, A. Wrenn & Sons, Norfolk, Va., and 
other celebrated makers of vehicles. All grades in 

Harness, Bobes and Whips, Pittsburg Per- 
fect Wire Fencing, welded by electricity. Circular 
for the asking. Correspondence solicited. 

THE WATT PLOW CO., ;*S^ I '„''£T^^^^j^, Richmond, Va. 





Why is the pare-bred fowl better than 
the mongrel T The reasona are many. 
For one, you can alwayi depend on the 
pure-bred for uniform ^owth. Take a 
mongrel hen, and her chickens will vary. 
They never grow fiiet, and one or two in 
the Dnnch will be ready for market two 
months before the others. Not only that ; 
the pure-bred are uniform in looks after 
dressing, and sell higher on this account 
for breeding and hatching purposes. 
Their eggs and themselves always sell 
higher than the market price for either. 
Persons raising the pure-breds exclusive- 
ly in this country must keeo all their 
eggs from early spring until the hatching 
season is over to supply the demand for 
the eggs ; and now, since incubators are 
so useful and common, those who want 
eggs often order many wseks ahead to 
get all they need. Another reason is that 
the mongrel hen averages at the best 
about forty eggs per year. The pure-bred 
laying breeds with worst care given will 
lay over a hundred eggs, and with mod- 
erate attention I have known them to 
lay very close to two hundred eggs per 
year.— Chae. Amge Coy, Georgia. 


A most delicious dressing for green 
salads is made by putting one tablespoon- 
ful of lime juice in a bowl, adding a tea- 
spoonfol of celery salt, a saltapoonful of 
white pepper, and a dash of cayenne. 
Mix in, a little at a time, alternately, 
three tableepoonfuls of oil and two of 
lime juice. Stir all the time, or the in- 
gredients will separate. Add a table- 
spoonful of finely cut chives, or an equal 
amount of chervil or fi-eah tarragon 

Nodd— I shall have to postpone that 
dinner for a week. 

Todd — Certainly. Nothing wrong, I 

Nodd — Oh, no ; but when I asked you, 
I was under the impression that it was 
the cook's night in. 

Mother — Have you any waterproof 
boots for a boy? 

Salesman — We have waterproof boots, 
ma'am ; but they are not for ooys. 

Mother— Why don't you have some for 

Salesman — When somebody has in- 
vented a boot that has no opening for 
the foot to get into it, we may hope for 
boys' waterproof boots, not before. 

"Pretty tiresome, isn't it?" remarked 
the first man at a reception. 

"It is so," replied the other. 

"I'd sneak out, if I could, but my wife 
would get mad. She's a friend of the 

"I'd sneak out, too, but my wife would 
be furious. She's the hostess." 

Mistress— Jane, I hear the bell. I 
think there must be somebody at the 

Maid— I think likely, marm ; but it 
don't be for me; my company always 
call at the;kitcben door, you know. 



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Every farmer should have these books on his library table. 
They are invaluable. 

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Seeds! Seeds! Seeds! 

We sell the BEST Seeds for this section. Our long expe- 
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Have you seen our NEW SEED BOOK for 1903.? If not, 
send for a copy to-day. It is well worth your while to do so. 

T. W. WOOD <& SONS, 





The Chesapeake & Ohio Railway 


THE BIG FOUE SYSTEM, from Chicago, St. Louis, Peoria, IIldiaIlapoU^ 
Sandusky and Cleveland ; 

THE OHIO CENTRAL LINES, from Toledo and Columbus j 

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And Frinoipal Virginia Points. 

H. W. FULLER, Gen. Pass. Agt. C. & O. Ry., Washington, D. 0. 



SOUTHERN PLANTER, - Richmond, Virginia. 


An English poultry keeper, who has 
been working on this subject for several 
years, thinks that he has at last discov- 
ered a way to insure a large proportion of 
either pullets or cockerels, as may be de- 
sired. He has given up all idea of being 
able to determine the sex by the shape 
of the egg, size of air-cell, time of day it 
was laid, or any external charact«ristic8. 
He now thinks the sex of the egg is de- 
termined at the time of sexual contact, 
and that there are two elements or forces 
which unite, a positive from the male and 
a negative from the female. 

Where the predominating force is posi- 
tive, a male will result, and vice versa. 
To test this, he mated in April a very 
vigorous cockerel, with two hens which 
had ;iaid all winter, with the object of 
getting cockerels. The hens had worked 
hard for some months, and the conclu- 
sion was that they must be more or less 
weakened bj; it. Thus was obtained a 
condition which pointed to a preponder- 
ance of the positive element, and the re- 
sult was about 80 per cent, cockerels. 

To fiirther test this matter, six pullets, 
in the pink of condition, were put in a 
pen by themselves, and every afternoon a 
two-year-old cock, which all the rest of 
the day was running with 40 hens, was 
placed with them. This mating resulted 
in 80 per cent, of the chicks coming pul- 
lets. Similar matings have been prac- 
ticed by American breeders for some 
years, and they have been able to obtain 
a large per cent, of pullets or of cockerels, 
but not always as high as 80 per cent., as 
here mentioned. 




7^-*^ •* 


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Harrows tf all styles kept in stock at low- 
est net prices. 



A\] the merchants 
' In town who claim 
to sell Oliver Plows and Repairs only sell the 
Imitation, Bogus, Cheap Goods. The only 
place In Richmond, Va., to buy Genuine Oli- 
ver Plows and Repairs is at 1436 and 1438 East 
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The Southern Planter. 



Agriculture Is the nursing mother of the Arts.— XENOPHON. 
Tillage and pasturage are the two breasts of the State."SULLY. 

64th Year. 

Richmond, March, 1903. 

No. 3. 

Farm Management. 


Since writing oar article on "Work for the Month" 
for the February issae, weather conditions have been 
Buch almost throughout the whole South as to prevent 
the carry in g out of the programme of work therein 
laid out for February. The frequent rains have kept 
the land too wet for plowing, and those who failed to 
make good use of the time in the fall and early winter 
months to push on the work of breaking land to be 
cropped this year will now find themselves likely to 
be behind hand when seeding time is at hand, and will 
perforce be compelled to try to put four months' work 
f into two. The result will be incomplete preparation 
j of the soil and diminished yields of crops. Year after 
year we keep on urj ing the full utilization of the fall 
and early winter months in the breaking of land in 
order not only to lessen the pressure of work in the 
spring, but also that advantage may be had of the 
ameliorating influence of the winter's frosts on the 
soil, but with comparatively small results. The far 
mer Is usually a procrastinating individual — very 
much like the Spaniard who always, when urged to 
make an immediate effort, replies, 'Manyana," "to 
morrow," a to morrow which often never comes. So 
with the majority of farmers — they put off the plow 
ing of land in the fall and winter months, confident 
that in the spring there will be ample time to plow 
and fit the land for the crop. And yet re flection would 
assure him that probably in a majority of years in the 
South there is always at least one month, and often 

two, when the winter weather and the spring rains 
are so persistent as to practically compel him to lose 
at least one month of the time he had confidently reck- 
oned on within which to complete his preparation of 
the land for the crop. This practice of neglecting the 
golden opportunity of the fall and early winter months 
also results even when the spring is fairly genial in 
largely limiting the amount of work which he can find 
time to put on the preparation of the soil, and this, as 
we pointed out in our last issue, is, in our opinion, 
largely the cause of the small yields which crops make 
in the South. Where land was broken in the fall and 
winter, it is now well filled with moisture, not merely 
on the surface, but in the subsoil, and this, if con- 
served as it ought to be, will serve to meet all the 
needs of the crop, even though we should have a dry 
summer, whilst land yet to plow, though now wet on 
the surlace, is likely to be dry in the subsoil, and will 
require very careful management to make a crop 
should the summer be dry. Very much of the rain 
which falls on unplowed land during the winter is lost 
to the soil, as it largely runs off the soil into the creeks 
and ditches, and it is rarely the case in the South that 
we can afford to waste water in this way if we are to 
make a full yield from the land. 

As soon as the land is dry enough, let the plows be 
set to work first in breaking the land intended to be 
seeded with oats, and then upon the land intended for 
corn and forage crops. Do not, however, be tempted 



I March 

to plow until the land 13 dry enough to work freely 
and leave the plow in a crumbly condition. Land 
plowed wet can never be made into a good seed bed, 
however uuch labor may be spent on it, whilst the 
injury done to the productive capacity of the land by 
the trampiug of the horses, especially in the bottom 
of the furrows, is great, not only affecting the first 
crop, but many subsequent ones, unless remedied by 
8ul)soiling. Plowing, to be effective, should not mere 
ly turn the soil over, but should do a great part of 
the work of breaking that soil into fine particles and 
leave it in such condition as that the harrow and cul 
tivator can thoroughly and completely disintegrate it 
and reduce it to a fine loose condition, at least to the 
depth of 6 inches, and much better if to the depth of 
9 inches. We would once again nrge the importance 
of a more perfect preparation of the soil before plant 
ing any crop than is customary in the South, or indeed 
any pi.rt of this coantry. Instead of placing reliance 
upon the application of commercial or other fertilizer 
for the making of crops, let the first reliance be upon 
the perfect preparation of the soil. There is an Im 
mense reserve of plant fool placed by nature in al 
most every kind of soil, as analysis proves, much more 
than suflBcient to meet the needs of crops for yearti if 
only available. This availability can only be secured 
by the breaking up of the soil into the smallest parti 
cles and subjecting these to the action of water, a!r 
and sunlight, and later to the action of the acids de 
veloped in the roots of almost all kinds of plants du 
ring the process of growth, and which acids have a 
powerful solvent effect on inert plant food. Only 
when the soil is thus finely broken can the soil mi 
crobes bring to bear upon it the wonderful fertilizing 
qualities which recent investigation has demonstrated 
them to possess. Mr. Geo. M. Clark, of Higganum, 
Onn., probably the mosi successful hay grower in the 
country, and who has made over 200,000 lbs. of hay 
in one year on 16 acres of land, and over 20,000 lbs. 
of hay on one acre of land, says the secret of his sue 
ce'S is perfect preparation of the land and not the fer 
tilizer which houses. He 1 hus describes his method 
of fitting his land for a grain and gra'^s crop. He 
begins on July Ist with the Double Action Cutaway 
Harrow going over the field twice the first week in 
half lap, the second time at right angles to the first. 
The second and every subsequent week till August 
Ist he goes over once in half lap each time at 
right angles to the preceding. He thus harrows 
five times in July, and in August follows in 
half-lap with an 8 toot smoothing harrow with level 
ling board until the surface is true. He then plows 
the field with a 24 inch Torrent Cutaway plow to a 
depth of six or seven inches, then trues the sur 
face with the smoothing harrow again, and finally 

harrows the field with the Double Acting harrow once 
a week until September first (say three times), when 
the field will be in condition for sowing wheat or rye, 
if desired, or to lie until spring for oata. In this way 
the land is stirred 43 times before sowing a seed. In 
the secot d season, before sowing the grass seeds and 
after cutting the wheat or oat crop, the field is stirred 
32 times, at regular intervals, from July Itjt to Sep- 
tember 1st, with the same implements as before, thus 
making a complete stirring of the soil 75 times before 
the sowing of the grass, which makes so great a yield 
of hay. Mr. Clark has for demonstrated that 
fnch thorough woiking of land j ields a heavy profit. 
With hay selling at $12 per ton he has made a net 
profit of $42 per acre on his crop. Whilst it U not 
possible for a farmer having a large area to put into 
crops of various kinds to give so much work to each 
acre, yet there is a great difference between one plow- 
ing, one harrowing, and three cultivations, which is 
about the average of that given to a crop of corn in 
the South and the foregoing method of Mr. Clark. 
It would certainly pay to give land here three or four 
times the preparation usually given to It. Try the 

Oats for grain, forage or hay should be seeded du- 
ring this month. It is too late to sow Virginia 
grey winter Oits after the 15th of the month with 
the expectation of their making a heavy crop. Up to 
that time they may be sown, but they will not usually 
make anything like so great a yield as when sown in 
the fall or in January or February. The rustproof 
oat is about the best variety to sow after the middle of 
March in the South. None of the Northern spring 
oats are suitable for Southern cliiaatic conditions, as 
the weather becomes too warm for them before they 
have had time to makesnfiacient root growth to with- 
stand the heat. Land for the oat crop should be deeply 
plowed and finely broken, and the seed should be well 
covered, so that the roots may be protected from the 
heat. The oat is a cold climate crop. Most Southern 
farmers seed oats on their poorest; land, and without 
any fertilizer. This is a mistake. " If oats are worth 
growing at all they are worth better care than this. 
P;obably in the South their greatest value is as a 
forage or hay crop, as the grain is not so plump and 
heavy as Northern grown oats, and therefore not so 
good feed nor so valuable on the market. If given 
good land to grow on, or they are helped with 250 to 
500 pounds of acid phosphate to the acre, they will 
make a hay or forage crop of value for stock-feeding, 
especially for cattle, and can be followed with a cow- 
pea crop, to be sown in June or July. Sow from a 
bushel and a half to three bushels to the acre, accor- 
ding to the fertility of the land. Put the heaviest 




seeding on the poorest land and decresise the quantity 
of seed as the land is more fertile. Whilst phosphoric 
acid has been proved to be the dominant fertilizer re 
■quired in the production of the oat crop, y* t experi 
ence has also proved that a nitrogenous fertilizer will 
materially help a weak growing;crop. An application 
of from 76 to 100 pounds of nitrate of soda to the acre, 
made just when the crop has fairly started to grow, 
■will generally largely increase the yield, and especially 
so of the straw, a matter of great importance wheie the 
crop is to be used for forage or hay. 

Grass and clover seed should be sown this month 
•where not already seeded in the fall, which in the 
South is undoubtedly the best and most proper time 
for the crop. In our last issuei we wrote fully on this 
question, and to that issue refer our readers. We 
want again to emphasize the importance of not seed- 
ing glass with a grain crop at any time if the best 
stand of grass is desired, but certainly with spring 
seeding nothing but grass and clover should be sown. 
In the earlier part of this article we have made a quo- 
tation from Mr. G. M. Clark as to the way in which 
he prepares his land for seeding with grass, and there- 
by secures enormous crops of hay. We refer our 
readers to this and ask them to follow the directions, 
certainly to as great an extent as time will allow. 
Fine and perfect preparation of the land before seed- 
ing is absolutely essential to successful grass growing. 
As a fertilizer for the crop Mr. Clark, after long ex 
perimenting, finds that he succeeds best by using all 
his coirse farm -yard manure for the production of 
corn and other cultivated crops where the weeds can 
be killed as they sprout. When seeding with grass 
lie uses only commercial fertilizers made from bone, 
muriate of potash and nitrate of soda. He applies 
these ingredients to each crop of grass — that is to say, 
twice in each year, as he makes two crops of hay each 
year. In the fall he applies 1000 lbs. of bone meal, 
800 lbs. of potash, and 200 lbs. of nitrate of soda per 
acre. In the spring he applies one third of each of 
these ingredients. This app]ies:to fall seeding of grass. 
If seeded in the spring we would give the heavy dress- 
ing before sowing the grass seeds, and harrow in, and 
then in fall, after the hay has been cut, apply the 
lighter dressing as a top-dressing. Mr. Clark sows 
only timothy and red top (herds grass) 16 quarts of 
each per acre. On his very finely prepared land he 
finds this quantity of seed sufficient, but on less care 
fully prepared land we would sow twice this quantity. 
The poorer the preparation of the land and the less 
fertile the soil the more seed should be used, up to 
three bushels to the acre. The sowing of timothy and 
red top alone presupposes that the Held seeded is only 
to be used for mowing for hay. If it is desired also 

to secure a pasture after mowing, say two or three 
years, then it will be well to sow also Orchard grass, 
Meadow Fescue, Perennial Rye and Virginia Blue 
grass. Under grazing, the timothy will die out, whilst 
the other grasses will tndure. Be very careful to sow 
the seeds with regularity. It is well to sow half one 
way of the field a id the other half across. Harrow in 
the seed with a smoothing harrow, running the harrow 
both lengthwise aud across, and then roll. If after 
the grass has commenced to grow it looks yellow, or a 
light green, apply 75 lbs. to 100 lbs. to the acre of 
nitr^tte of soda as a top dressing. The quantities of 
fertilizer used will seem large to Southern farmers, but 
it should be borne in mind that they are intended to 
produce a heavy yield of hay. Mr. Clark has made 
over 23,000 lbs. of cured hay to the acre in two crops 
in one year. Our own experience has convinced us 
that it pays to be liberal in the use of bone meal before 
seeding grass, and we would never apply less than 500 
lbs. of this to the acre. We believe that much less 
potash (probably less than onethlrd) than Mr. Clark 
uses will be found sufficient in Virginia, and that 
probably 150 lbs. of nitrate of soda to the acre in two 
dressings will suffice. 

In the cotton section land should be broken and be 
got into fine condition for planting as soon as it is suf- 
ficiently dry to work. The same remarks as to the 
importance of perfect preparation of the land before 
seeding apply to cotton growing as to other crops. 
The yield of cotton per acre is, on the average, less 
than half a bale; whilst there is no reason whatever 
why at least a bale to the acre should not be pro- 
duced, and on much of the land, properly adapted to 
cotton, li bales can easily be made. Where land wiU 
not, under proper cultivation, and with leasonably 
heavy fertilization, make a bale to the acre, it should 
not be planted in cotton until sufficiently improved to 
make that quantity. There is not a living profit in 
making half a bale to the acre even at present prices. 
The cause of the failure to make more than half a bale 
to the acre is mainly two fold— lack of fertility in the 
land and lack of preparation of the soil before plant- 
ing. The lack of fertility is mainly a lack not so much 
of the mineral fertilizers as of humus (vegetable mat- 
ter) in the soil. No application of, commercial fertili- 
zers alone, however heavy, will correct this. Vegeta- 
ble matter must be grown, and be put into the soil, 
and then even a moderate application of fertilizer will 
produce a paying crop if only that soil, when thus re- 
inforced with life giving matter, is properly prepared 
before the crop is planted. We would strongly urge 
that only such land as is not altogether devoid of hu- 
mus should be planted in cotton, and that other land 
should be planted in peas to prepaie it for cotton next 




year. Only by following this practice of growing ha 
mns making crops aid turning them into t e land in 
the late fall, or feeding part of the crop to stock, and 
applying the resulting manure to the land and turn- 
ing down a heavy stubble, can the increased yield be 
secured. Do not bed up the land intended to be 
planted unless it is wet land or liable to be flooded. 
Cotton, like corn, succeeds best with level culture. 
Plow an inch or two deeper than was plowed last year, 
and plow all the land, not merely just where the row 
Is to be. After plowing, use a good heavy drag har 
row or cultivator, and work the land both length 
wise and across until reduced to a fine seed bed. 
The fertilizer intended to be given to the crop should 
be applied during the harrowing and working of the 
land, and will thus become thoroughly mixed with the 
soil, and will be much more effective than if applied 
just previous to planting the seed. If less than 500 
lbs. to the acre be applied it may be put in the row, 
and should be thoroughly mixtd with the soil by run 
ning a cultivator through it, but we are on principle 
sljongly in favor of broadcast fertilizing. Before 
planting the seed freshen up the soil by running a cul 
tivator down the row. As to the fertilizer to be used. 
A series of experiments made in South Carolina dem 
onstrated very positively that it is an easy matter to 
supply more plant food than the crop can utilize with 
profit. The maximum quantity of fertilizer that can 
generally be used to advantage on average land Is such 
an amount as will furnish 50 lbs. of phosphoric acid, 
15 lbs. of potash, and 20 lbs. of nitrogen to the acre. 
A fertilizer made of 1,200 lbs. of acid phospJate, 600 
lbs. of cotton seed meal, and 200 lbs. of kainit will 
supply this need if applied at the rate of 800 lbs. to the 
acre. If peas have been previously grown on the land 
as a preparation for the crop and acid phosphate was 
applied to them both the acid phosphate and the cot- 
ton seed meal in the moisture may be redaced or a 
less quantity be applied per acre. 

In laying out tie land for crops see that provision 
is made for growing an abundance of forage crops, 
such as cow peas, Soy beans, sorghum, millet (so called 
Pencillaria, which has been much advertised and re- 
commended, is nothing more than the old cat tail mil 
let), and in Southern Virginia and the States South 
Teocinte. Do not let the live stock have to depend 
for their long feed next winter on the blade and corn 
fodder made in the production of the corn crop. 
Southern lands will never be improved until more 
stock feeding crops are produced and either fed or 
turned ander. 

Mention the Flcmter to your friends. 


Editor Southern Planter : 

Improved stock must have improved forage — pala- 
table, wholesome, nutritious forage, and plenty of it. 

Until better and cheaper winter forage plants ar» 
found than are now in common use in Alabama, and 
until better summer pastures are provided than suclt 
as our old fields afford, we cannot sell beef, butter and 
pork in our own markets in competition with Illinois 
and Kansas. 

Our usual sources of winter forage, consisting o^ 
cotton seed, blade fodder and corn, are well enough a» 
far as they go, but the trouble is they do not go far 
enough. In truth, they furnish an altogether inade- 
quate supply, and are far too costly. 

There is no denying that a man newly arrived from 
a stock country, and viewing Alabama from Norch ta 
South through the windows of a railroad car, would 
not be favorably impressed by it as a stock farming: 
country. He would naturally ask. What is there to- 
feed stock on » and say, I see no green pastures — noth- 
ing but broomsedge and coaise weeds. Neither do I 
see any meadows of timothy and clover; nor, indeed, 
anything to take their places in supplying winter for- 
age. Very likely some one would tell him that "her© 
in the sunny South cattle do not need to be fei, or, at 
least, but very little." And maybe a diminutive fod- 
der stack would be pointed out as the only provision 
necessary to carry a dozen head of stock through thfr 
balmy and beautiful winter of our Southland. 

Is it not time that such nonsense was ended t Im- 
proved stock are only improved machines for turninpf 
forage into meat and butter. For "all flesh isgrass,"^ 
and instead of giving stock only enough to keep them 
alive, or "enough to do 'em," as the saying is, they 
ought to be fed to the full from the time they are born 
until they are ready for slaughtering. 

It will not do for us to blindly copy the practices of 
stock farmers in other countries. Our conditions dif 
fer widely from theirs ; and let me say right here that 
I fully believe our conditions, though difi'erent, are 
fully as favorable as those of the farmers of Illinois or 
Kansas. Our Alabama has just as grand possibilities 
as the very best of them. She has wonderful capaci- 
ties in the etock food line. Bat like the iron and the 
coal in these mountains and valleys, they lie hidden, 
and it will take ingenuity and industry to develop 

We must provide a bill of fare for onr stock for each 
and every season here. No single grass, for instance, 
will afford pastuie from spr ng to fall, as the "June 
grass," or Kentucky blue grass of the North does. 
I find Bed top and Orchard grass the best for spring 
and fall pasture. I say "spring and fall," because 
our winter is too cold to keep them in active growth^ 

1903. 1 



«nd they carl up to take a summer siesta during our 
hot season. Bermuda has no equal as a hot weather 
grass. It is a vegetable salamander, and I am sure it 
in a mystery to me that here in its own home it is not 
more highly appreciated. It is time we honored our 
own prophet ; for no other grass known to botanists 
presages so much to the stockman of the South. It is 
my humble opinion that even the "June grass" of 
the North cannot compare as stock pasture with our 
Bermuda. It used to be said in Old Virginia that 
two months on a wire grass field, as Bermuda was 
called there, would fatten any run down mule or steer. 
Dairymen in the North have to supplement their pas 
tares in the heat and drought of even their short surii 
mers by soiling with cut up corn or sorghum. But 
we of the South can do well in our long semi tropical 
summers if provided with plenty of Bermuda. 

For the winter part of oar bill of fare in stock food, 
after experimenting for several years, I have settled 
on Soy bean hay as a staple general ration for cattle, 
horses and hogs. As I find it, the Soy bejn is the 
most reliable, the most productive, the most palatable 
and, above all, the most nutritious of all hay plants. 
Neither is it very difficult to cure. It Is much less so 
than field peas, and is in every way a fine superior 

In choosing forage plants, preference ought to be 
given to legumes, because they are not only rich in 
protein, but yield well on land poor In nitrogen, pro 
vided sach land can stock them with the necessary 
parasitic microbe, as is now well known. In other 
^oids, the millets, sorghums, and fodder corn, must 
have nitrogen to produce a heavy yield, and that be 
ing the costliest, as well as the most generally lacking 
element in our Southern soils, the advantage of le- 
gumes will be the more apparent. 

I have experimented with sand vetch and am great 
ly pleased with It. I am gradually extending the area 
of it on my farm. This takes time, as unless the soil 
be Inoculated naturally or artificially. It Is not worth 
while to sow it on common land expecting to obtain 
either hay, pasture or seed. Notwithstanding the 
drought of last summer, it grew waist high for me, 
and I threshed out several bushels of seed far superior 
in vitality to such as I could buy. As my soil Is heavy 
and moist, a winter pasture Is not of much value, but 
in dryer and warmer soils than mine, sand vetch can 
be of great service in helping out the winter ration. 
Doubtless It may be a substitute for orchard grass and 
red top In soils and situations too dry and warm for 
them, and thus provide stock food in the Interval be 
tween hot and cold weather, as those grasses do for 
me. For such a purpose, I know no plant to compare 
"with sand vetch. But our old friend rye must not be 
forgotten. The stockman will always find it a valua 

ble assistant In time of need. It does not gather ni- 
trogen from the atmosphere, but it gathers It from the 
soil, where it otherwise would be leached out by the 
winter's rain (which Is often of just as much Impor- 
tance), and then turns it over to us just when we most 
need it In the shape of green succulent cattle food in 
the early spring. 

I have tried Essex rape ; it has done well ; but to 
my mind It has no advantage over rye. I have also 
tried Crimson clover. On damp, but not wet land it 
does fairly well. But it is far less reliable than sand 
vetch, which, while It stands cold as well as rye, also 
stands heat as well as corn. Seed of sand vetch 
plowed under (where It had shattered) in early July 
never came up until the following September. Then 
every grain sprouted, seemlrgly. Better still, where 
there was any moisture It sprouted, and withstood the 
terrible drought of last July and August unharmed, 
and now carpets the ground all over. With such a 
plant as that, together with Soy beans and Bermuda, 
there need be no excuse for hungry stock In Alabama. 
All the work In making and saving them can be done 
by machinery, while blade fodder, corn and cotton 
seed are gathered by costly and slow hand labor. 

Moseley, Ala. Joshua Feanklin. 

The advice given In the above article Is equally as 
adapted to Virginia and North and South Carolina 
as to Alabama. — Ed. 


Editor Southern Planter : 

There must be something radically wrong in the 
present system of fertilization for corn; or possibly the 
"wrong" may be In the composition of the fertilizer 
itself, as usually compounded for this crop. I think 
it is both. Why so ! Because it is so common for 
one to read in experiment station bulletins and in the 
writings of some editors of farm papers, that "chem- 
ical or commercial fertilizers are not profitable when 
applied to this crop; that the increase obtained by 
their use will not repay the actual cost of fertilizer 

I suppose this is somewhat dependent upon the 
value (market price) of the crop when gathered. 
Throughout the entire South, it would not be going 
too far were I to say that there is never a single sea 
son passes when corn falls to sell as high as 50 cents 
per bashel, and oftener at 75 cents and $1 per bushel. 

I have oftentimes stated the fact, and now reiterate 
It, that chemical fertilizers get in their best work 
(that is, do the most good, give best results, and prove 
most profitable) in correatinj; known deficiencies in 
the soil. Used Intelligently, and with this specific 




object in view, their liberal use cannot fail to be both 
beneficial and profitable. If the so called " com 
plete" fertilizers fail to give a profit, why use a com- 
plete fertili7er at allt It is entirely nnneceeeary for 
us to purchase the more costly nitrogen when we can 
raise our own needed supply in the field, right wheie 
we want it, and without the trouble and expense of 
hauling or distributing it, by means of the cow pea, 
clover or vetch. This is essential t j good farming, 
to intensive and profitable farming, let the main reli- 
ance as a cash or money crop be what it may. 

Corn needs an abundance of both nitrogen and pot 
ash, and where these are lacking, or deficient, a large 
or remunerative yield of corn cannot be obtained. 
With a clover sod or cow pea stubble, or indeed any 
other good sod to turn under, for the purpose of fur 
Dishing humus, retaining moisture, and also of fur 
nishing the netded supply of nitrogen, but little if 
any more nitrogen will be needed than these will fur 
nish, but where said humus is deficient, stable or lot 
manure becomes an actual necessity in order that best 
results may be attained. For l)e8t results, said stable 
manure should be reinforce 1 by both phosphoric a;id 
and potash. It is to be supposed that both clover and 
cow peas were fertilized with these substances previ 
ous to planting, as no really luxuriant growth of either 
can be obtained where these are deficient, and amount 
of nitrogen abstracted from the atmosphere is of course 
entirely dependent on paucity or luxuriance of growth 
of the manurial crop. 

In the absence of a clover sod or cow pea stubble, 
instead of depending upon a paltry 200 pounds of a 
low grade (8-2-2) fertilizer, from 800 to 1 000 pounds 
of a fertilizer containing 2 per cent, nitrogen, 7 per 
cent, potash, and 6 per cent, available phosphoric acid 
should be applied per acre. This should be applied 
broadcast previous to breaking ; the ground immedi 
ately broken deeply with two horse plow ; then 
broQght in?o fine tilth by a free use of the harrow. 

I have found the ordinary high grade "vegetable 
grower," ready mixed goods, applied at rate of 500 to 
600 pounds per acre on our rich bottom lands, to be 
pre-eminently fatisfactory, obtaining a yield of 120 
bushels per acre thereby. 

The brat ch, creek or river bottoms are undoubted 
edly the best corn lands we bave in the South. As 
they ara more or less subject to overflow, they should 
not be broken until spring. I have found May the 
month for breaking these lands, and also the month 
for planting on thete lands for maximum crop. There 
is quite a large amount of native fertility in our allu 
vials that deep preparation and intensive culture will 
brirgtut ; but wLeie nraximum jields aredesired, not 
only mmt the culture be intensive enough to make the 
largest possible quantity of this native fertility avail 

able; not only should chemical fertilizers be used to 
the extent of correcting any excess, or making good 
known deficiencies in the soil, but when all this ha» 
been done, and not before, then the use of these same 
chemical fertilizers may be satisfactorily and profita- 
bly used ia feeding the crop. Maximum crop yield» 
actually demands the presence in the soil of an ac- 
tual excess of pUnt food, in an easily available form^ 
over and a'love any and all demands that the growing 
crop can possibly make upon it. Do not be afraid 
that if, from any cause beyond your control, yon fail 
to get the full benefit of the manures applied the same 
season in which the application has been made, that 
they are irretrievably lost, lor they are not, but will 
give evidence of their presence in the way of increased 
crops for at least the next five years to come. 

Above objection might hold good with a renter or 
share worker, bat not with a land owner. Take the 
crop yield (255 bushels of corn per acre) of Zechariah 
Drake, for instance : J50 worth of stable manure and 
$69 worth of commercial fertilizers were applied to 
the single acre. Four years afterwards, in a personal 
interview with Mr. Drake, I was assured by that gen- 
tleman that "the jield of oats the succeeding season 
on that acre was 150 bushels ; and that it had not 
jielded less than two bales of cotton any jear since ^ 
and that without the addition of fertilizing agents of 
any kind. 

Mr. Alfred Ro9e, of Penn Tan, N. Y., succeeded In 
obtaining a yield of 213 bushels per acre with but 800 
pounds of a high grade corn fertilizer, and costing but 
$17,50, but the land of Mr. Eose was extra good, while 
that of Mr. Drake had previously been so desperately 
poor as to yield but five bushels of corn per acre, and 
had enjoyed the rather undesirable cognomen of ' 'star- 
vation's empire." 

After Mr. Drake's experience, it would seem that it 
is needless to get out of heart with any ground simply 
on account of its poverty. I have myself seen and 
walked over this premium acre, and have no hesita 
tion in saying that I have never been in a single State 
in this Union, nor even a single county of any of the 
States, but that I there found land that was naturally 
superior to this prize acre. Truly: "There is more 
in the man than there is in the land." 

Burgess, Miss. G. H. TUENEB. 

Wood Ashes and Fertilizer. 

Is it proper to mix wood ashes and commercial fer- 
tilizer together! SUBSCEIBEE. 

Dinw'tddie Co., Ya. 

It is better always to apply the ashes alone first and 
work in, and then the fertilizer later. Ashei have & 
tendency to set free the ammonia in the fertilizer. — 





Editor Southern Planter : 

If corn be planted in drills 7 feet apart as early in 
the season as a good stand can be procured (for this 
climate about the first of April) and from six weeks 
to two months thereafter cow peas be drilled midwaj 
between the corn rows and both well cultivated until 
the peas become too large to work, a fall crop of corn 
and very nearly a full crop of peas can be grown. 

The following is an extract from Bulletin No. 70, is 
sued in 1901 by the Arkansas Agricultural irxperi 
ment Station : " The value of two successive crops of 
corn without cow peas sown in them was $21.10, while 
the value of tte two successive crops of corn, plus the 
value of a crop of cow peas sown in the first crop, was 

Here is an increase on the aggregate value of both 
corn crops of (54 per cent., to say nothing of the im 
provement of the land that resulted from growing the 
peas, and if peas had been grown in connection witi 
the second crop of corn, the percentage of gain would 
don >t less have been mueh greater. 

The question here arises, " Is it better to plant the 
corn in ordinary drills — say 4 to 5 feet apart — and sow 
the peas broadcast at the last workin^.^ of the corn, or 
plant the corn and peas in alternate drills, as afore 
said r ' 

Prof. Massey expresses himself in The Southern Planter 
of June, 1901, relative to drills as follows : 

" I am putting all my peas in rows this year and am 
rapidly coming to the conclusion that this is the best 
plan as a rule." He sajs nothing here nor do I find 
an expression from him anywhere else, relative to 
growing corn and cow peas in connection. 

When peas are planted alone, the drills, for forage 
or improvement purposes, may be 3 to 3* feet apart. 
For bearing purposes they may be 3 to 6 feet apart, 
according to the kind of pea grown. In either case 
they should be well cultivated until the vines become 
too lirge. 

Drills, in connection with corn, are preferable for 
several reasons : First. A saviug of at least three 
fourths of the seed necessary for broadcastiag can be 
effected. An actual test has shown that 12 pounds of 
seed per acre in drills will produce a larger quanlity 
of forage or shelled peas than a larger qu-»ntity, say 
18 pounds, will, and it is believed will also produce a 
larger quantity than one bushel broadcasted. Second, 
Fertilizer applied to peas in drills, in connection with 
proper cultivation, will act far better than it will with 
peas that are broadcasted without cultivation. 

When corn i'S planted, especially in the Southern 
States, where the season is long, provision should in- 

variably be made for cow peas by adopting the wide 
row sjstem. 

A deep, loose bed of proper width should be pro- 
vided for the corn by running a suitable narrow plow 
several times in the drills. A good dressing of stable 
manure may then be applied in the drills to which 
may be added 30 pounds of muriate of potash and 50 
pounds of acid phosphate for each ton of stable ma- 
nure, which will correct the excels of nitrogen in the 
manure ; then mix well with the soil before planting. 
A sufiaciency of corn should be used to procure a stand 
at one planting. When thinned, single stalks may be 
left in the drills 10 to 12 inches apart. This close dis- 
tance, however, implies proper fertilizing and thor- 
ough cultivation. 

Last summer I had corn in 7 feet drills 8J inches 
apart, with rows of peas between, tliat eared well. 
With 12 inches distance, 100 ears to the bushel, an 
acre should produ e 62 bushels of corn, and with 10 
inches distance 74 bushels. 

The corn should receive one or more deep cultiva- 
tions, provided that the roots are not materially 
broken. A belt of proper width midway between the 
corn rows may be plowed deep with some suitable nar- 
row plow up to the time the peas are planted. 

Fektilizee foe Peas. 

Mix 1600 pounds of acid phosphate with 400 pounds 
of muriate of potash to make a ton. This mixture will 
contain lO per cent, each of p( tash an 1 phosphoric 
acid. Apply 600 pounds per acre on a belt about a 
foor broad midway between the corn rows and mix 
with the soil, preferably a few weeks before seeding. 
* From 30 to 40 pounds of nitrate of soda per acre 
may be added ; it will give the young plants a good 
send off. 

Id order to utilize the wide spaces, it will be neces- 
sary to plant a rank grower. The Red Ripper, Won- 
derful and Clay peas, in the order named, appear to 
be among the rankest growers. The past setison I 
grew the Wonderful with excellent results. With 
single stalks, 3 feet apart in the drill, they covered 
the ground to a sufficient extent to completely smother 
the crab grass, and also climbed the corn stalks to a 
iocsiderable extent. They appeared to yield better 
th»n those in adjicent rows of half the distancp, and 
if 4 feet distance had been given, I believe that they 
would have yielded still better ; they were well fer- 
tilized. These peas for bearing purposes are usually 
left much too thick. Six to eight quarts per acre in 
7 feet drills will be ample for forage or improvement 
purposes, while for bearing a far less quantity will be 
needed. Pant about the 15th of May. From 
20,000 to 35,000 pounds of green pea vines can easily 
be grown per acre. The smaller quantity, 20,000 




poands, will draw from the air and store in the vines 
about $15 00 worth of nitrogen. When the vines are 
turned down, after maturity, eaid nitrogen will be 
utilized by the next crop. 

Cow pea hay is far too rich in protein to be eco 
nomically fed alone. Cooeequently it should be mixed 
with timothy or some similar hay in equal parts, or 
the timothy may be mixed with the pea vines in the 
proportion of 7 to 6. 

Shredded corn fodder (the entire plant, less the ears 
of corn,) may be used in lieu of the timothy. 

Carthage, N. C. Beyan Tyson. 


Editor Southern Planter : 

The interest manifested by Southern farmers in 
questions relating to grasses and live stock farming is 
indeed very gratifying. There i3 no question that live 
stock farming, when properly conducted, is profita 
able, and will enable the farmer to improve the fertil- 
ity of his soil. I have recently had occasion to study 
the amount of commercial fertilizers used in the vari 
ous States of the Union, and find thit in the great 
live stock growing sections of the country the soil is 
richer now than it was twenty years a^o, while com 
mercial fertilizers are prac ically unknown to the gen 
eral farmer. On the other hand, in those parts of the 
country where live stock are not an important feature 
of farming, the soil is for the most part in a sadly de 
pleted condition and the commercial fertilizer bill 
amounts to 5 to 10 per cent, of the total value of 'h6 
crops produced. The correspondence of this oflBce in 
dicates that the farmers of the South are thoroughly 
interested in live stock farming, but, like all conserv 
ative men, they wish to learn all they can about the 
subject before making any radical changes in their 
system of farmirg. For many years past the writer 
has taken every opportunity to visit successful farm- 
ers wherever they might be found and to learn as 
much as possible concerning their methods, and he is 
convinced that more valuable information can be ac 
quired in this manner than in any other. It is a cus 
tom in this ofBce, when we learn of a successful farmer 
whom we cannot visit, to secure as much information 
from him as possible by correspondence and to use 
this information for the benefit of other farmers. 

Fiom what we have learned in this way concerning 
results that have been achieved in the Southern States, 
there seems no question that, on the better class of 
soils, Bermuda is the best pasture grass so far availa 
ble. It also seems that in many places burr clover and 
hairy vetch may be established on Bermuda sod, both 
of which furnish valuable green feed during the win 

ter. Occasionally we meet a farmer who is afraid of 
Bermuda because it is somewhat difiBcult to eradiaate. 
Personally, the writer believes that this fear is not 
fully justified. It is true that Bermuda Is tenacious 
of life, and this is one reason why it is so valuable; 
but it is not difiBcult to eradicate if one will take the 
trouble to perform the necessary labor. In many 
places it can easily be eradicated by growing a crop of 
wicter grain, preferably oata, sown very thick, cutting 
this for hay and following with a thickly sown crop of 
peas. Two season's cropping of thi^ kind has com- 
pletely eradicated Bermuda in several cases with 
which the writer is familiar. Fortunately, this 
method of treatment is not expensive, and yields two 
good crops a year. 

Occasionally the assertion is made that stock do not 
do well on Bermuda pasture in the summer. I have be 
fore me a letter from Mr. J. D. Herring, of West Car- 
roll Parish, Louisiana, an extensive cattle grower, in 
which there is some valuable information on this 
point. He says : 

"I had enclosed a pasture containing 140 acres, 
about 100 acies were set to Bermuda and 40 acres 
woodland; upon this I put 100 head of two year old 
cattle about; the first of April. These cattle had been 
used to a large range. Up to the 1st to 15th of July 
they did well. After that date they began to fall off 
and look bad. About September Ist I took them off 
the pasture and put them in the cane brakes for the 
winter. I think they were much stunted in their 
growth by keeping them on the pasture the last two 
months. The Bermuda becomes hard and woody in 
the late summer, and I don't like it for pasture after 
July 15th unkss there is much rain to keep it ,• row 
ing. I had uome 10 to 12 milk cows on a i asture last 
summer that contained 15 acres Bermuda and 40 
acres woodland, and they did very well all summer. 
I advise all farmers to have a Bermuda pasture. It 
makes good hay, and cattle will do well on Bermuda 
hay all winter; besides, it is a good hog pasture. I 
think it feasible to pasture cattle on Bermuda during 
the spring and summer and winter them on alfalfa, 
cow pea or Bermuda hay, and finish them for the mar 
ket on cotton seed meal and hulls. I think the bad 
effect of Bermuda in late summer c^uld be overcome 
by mowing the pasture before the Bermuda goes to 

I wish particularly to call attention to the recom- 
mendation made by Mr. Herring that in order to pre 
vent Bermuda from becoming hard and wiry, it should 
be mowed so that slock may have the benefit of the 
fresh growth that follows the mowing. Where it is 
practicable to do so, it is probable that there would 
be an advantage in dividing the pasture Into three or 
four fields, so that stock might .• raze one of them 
close and then be turned into another. If the grass 
got too wiry before the stock had gotten over all of 
the pasture, the part not yet grazed might be cut for 
hay. In this way it ought to be possible, at least In 




aeasons of sufficient rainfall, to provide stock with 
fresh Bermada pasture daring most of the summer. 
W. J. Bpillman, Agrostologist. 
TJ. 8. Department of Agriculture. 


Editor Southern Planter : 

The following is the result of a recent test with 
■corn : 

Plot 1— No fertiliser. 

Plot 2 — An unbalanced fertilizer applied in the 
drill at the rate of 450 lbs. per acre and well mixed 
with the soil. 

Plot 3 — The same quantity (450 lbs.) of the unbal- 
anced fertilizer after suitable materials had been added 
to properly balance it. 

The fertilizer for plot 2 contained, as per analysis, 
ammonia 2 per cent, (equivalent to one and eleven 
seventeenths per cent, of nitrogen), phosphoric acid 
S per cent., and potash 1 per cent. 

The fertilizer for plot 3 was properly balanced for 
corn by adding to eafh sack of 200 lbs. of the unbal 
anced fertilizer, or, at that rate, nitrate of soda 6 lbs. 
and muriate of potash 30 lbs. (120 Iba of kainit in 
lieu of the muriate of potash could have been used). 
Said additions changed the 2 per cent, of ammonia to 
2 per cent, of nitrogen, and the 1 per cent, of potash 
to 7 per cent, of potash. The new fertilizer then con- 
taioed nitrogen 2 per cent., phosphoric acid 8 per 
cent., and potash 7 per cent., which is a faiily well 
balanced fertiliser for corn. There was still an excess 
of from 1 to 2 per cent, of phosphoric acid, but it did 
not hurt anything. It would, however, be better to 
avoid all this trouble by compounding properly at the 

The three plots received the same treatment, being 
fairly good. 

Plot 1 made little growth, the soil being poor. 

Plot 2 largely exceeded the growth of plot 1. 

Plot 3 largely exceeded plot 2, producing more than 
double the corn. 

The fertilizer used on plot 2 was manufactured at 
Wilmington, N. C, and is largely used in this State 
for corn, cotton and other crops. 

The six Southern States east of the Mississippi, 
commencing with Alabama, use annually about one 
million fi^^e hundred thousand tons of commercial ff r 
tllizers, which, at $20 per ton, amounts to $30,000,000. 

It is now safe to say that by reason of a large pro- 
portion of said fertilizers not being properly balanced 
for the crops to which they are applied the farmers 
frequently sustain a loss of at least one half of the 
money invested. 

Cotton requires a fertilizer containing nitrogen 3 
percent., phosphoric acid 8 percent., and potash 3 
per cent. (4 per cent, on lighter soil). If a fertilizer 
is properly compounded far corn, it is not suitable for 
cotton, nor is a fertilizer that is suitable for cotton 
suitable for corn. Hence, the necessity for farmers to 
procure the necessary fertilizer materials and do their 
own mixing. A saving of 25 and more per cent, can 
frequently be effected and a better fertilizer produced 
than the ready mixed goods. 

There is not a known crop grown that does not re- 
quire in the fertilizer more than 1 per cent, of potash, 
yet manj fertilizer brands are on the market having 1 
per cent, and even less. 

I would, however, emphasize the fact that good re- 
sults cannot be procured for a series of years, say five 
to ten, by the application of commercial fertilizers 
alone, no humus in the meantime being pioduced. In 
this case, the soil may even become poorer, however 
abundant the applications of a well balanced fertilizer 
maj have been. Therefore, the rotation should be 
such that an occasional legume crop, such as clover or 
cow peas, will be grown and turned down at maturi- 
ty. Said plants will draw the needed nitrogen from 
the air, and the rotted vegetable matter will properly 
increase the supply of humus. 

The ranker the growth the larger will be the sup- 
ply of available nitrogen and humus, hence it usually 
pays well to fertilize liberally. 

If the soil is deficient in the mineral elements of 
fertilit7 (phosphoric acid and potash), they should be 
applied direct ; they cannot be drawn from the air. 
For cow peas, the following materials for an acre may 
be mixed, applied in 3i feet drills and well mixed 
with the soil, preferably a few weeks before seeding. 
Acid phosphate, 285 lbs. and muriate of potash 75 
lbs.; 300 lbs. of kainit may be used in lieu of the mu- 
riate of potash. 

For clover, add 10 lbs. of muriate of potash or 40 
lbs. of kainit to the above. 

The above dose can be advantageously doubled. I 
have used for cow peas in drills 1,200 lbs. per acre of 
a fertilizer, substintially the same as the above, with 
the best of results. In this case the fertilizer was ap- 
plied in a furrow on either side of the young plants 
soon after they came up. When planted in drills and 
cultivated, one peck of seed per acre will be ample 
for forage or improvement purposes, thus affecting a 
saving of three fourths of the seed usually required 
for broadcasting. 

If from 30 to 50 lbs. of nitrate of soda be added to 
the fertilizer, it wi!l give the young plants a good 
send off. 

Moore Co., N. C. Beyan Tyson. 

Whilst the mentioned proportions of the different 




ingredients of the fertilizer used fairly represent the 
needed requirements of the crops, yet experience has 
shown that more or les»s of these ingredients may be 
needed to secure the best resnUs, from the fact that 
lands vary so much in their different content of fer 
tilising material present naturally, and also in the 
availability of that present. E^pecially is this the 
ca^e with the potash in this State. Even in Eastern 
Virginia, the light sandy lands, usually largely dtfi 
cleat in potash, have been found not to respond prof 
itably to large applications of that mineral. In the 
Western and Central parU of the State, potash is usu- 
ally present naturally in sufficient supply for all crops 
except tobacco. Nothing but actual tests with the 
land can determine exactly what is the proper qaan 
tity to supply. The great need of all lands In the South 
is vegetable matter. If this be supplied, then the 
needs in other respects can be easily ascertained. 
This vegetable matter will largely make available the 
natural supplies of mineral plant food in the soil, and 
thus render unnecessary heavy applications of mine 
ral food. — Ed. 



Having read a good deal in The Southern Plantar and 
other agricultural journals about the value and health 
fulness of artichokes for hogs, I concluded to make a 
trial of them, hoping to raise pork at a minimum cost. 
I bought seed and planted at least an acre, got a good 
stand, and cultivated well, and they made a heavy 
yield. I turned the hogs into them about the 20th of 
October, expecting to see them go for the tubers with 
Toracious appetites, but to my surprise and disgust 
they would not rooc for them nor eat them when pull 
ed out of the ground I did not feed them anything 
else for several days, but they all seemed to have made 
up their minds to starve rather than eat artichokes. 
I then fed on coj n till 1st of November. 

I then put them In a floored pen, feeding them only 
new corn for ten or twelve days. Thinking they would 
then enjoy a change of diet, I again gave the artichokes 
to them. They rooted them around and turned up their 
noses and seemed to be as much disgusted as myself 
80 I am done with the artichoke. 

Mecklenburg Co., Va. W. EueSELL 

This is the first time in our long experience that we 
have ever had a c jmplaint that hogs would not eat ar 
tichokes. These hogs must have been very fastidious 
animals. We think we c^uld have got them to eating 
them. If a few of the tubers had been sliced up and 
put in a trough or on a floor an i a handful of meal 
spread over them we believe the hogs would at once 
have taken to them. We know many people whoited 
them every year and make cheap and good pork on 
them. Try them again friend, and just tempt the hogs 
to taste them. They will find them good eating and 
will not fail to take to them. These fastidious appe- 
tites require to be brought down. — Ed. 

Editor Southern Planter : 

This is said to have been the firs! grass cultivat«d 
sep-irately f< r agricultural purposes. It is fii-st men- 
,i ned in a book published In England in 1611, and 
seems to have been about the only grass cultivated for 
a hundred years afterwards. To those who are not 
familiar with it, the following description will be bet- 
ter understood than the technical terms of the botanist: 
The culms (stalks) grow from two to three fe»t high, 
and are very fall of leaves. I he p^nnlcle (head) is 
six inches or more In length, contains from seven to 
eleven seeds, and bear.=i a striking resemblance to those 
of couch, or quack grass. 

A well informed writer says: "It occupies the same 
place in England that timothy roes with us, and Is 
there esteemed on the whole, higher than any other 
species of grass " Its name, Italian rye grass, Is de 
rived from the fact that iti native habitat, or home, is 
on the plains of Lombardy, where broad and exten- 
sive areas of pasture land are frequently inundated by 
mountain streams that intersect them. In irrigated 
meadows, it is undoubtedly superior to any other 
grass. It thrives well in the moist climate of Great 
Britain without irrigation, and no doubt would flour 
ish along the rivers in the United States where the 
land is subject to yearly oveifl)w. 

Prof Phares, of Mis^i8i>ippi, some years since, said: 
"This year Italian rye grass stands drouth well, and 
erows most luxudantly in the Southern States. If nob 
kept well grazed or moTs-ed, however, the leaves 
cover the ground so deeply and densely tha*^^ an excess 
of rain in very hot weather In the extreme South 
(ianses it to rot suddenly, destrojlng even the roots." 

If It will flourish well in the South, farmers could 
afford to take the risk of having it rot on the ground 
occasionally, as the benefit to the land by shading and 
rotting like surface manuring wouM more than com 
oensate for the cost of the seed and labor of seeding. 
It may be, however, that Prof. Phares was too san 
guine about its value in the South. 

Prof T. M. Tracy, of the Mississippi Experiment 
Sfation, sajs. In the Report of the Depart m- nt of 
Agrlcult re for the year 1890: ' From five sowings in 
the field of Italian, English and perennial varieties, 
we have nothing left ex ept an occasional plant. None 
of them seem able to stand our summer, and cannot 
be lecomnaended for the Southern States." 

As long' ago as ISGO, the Rev. 0. W. Howard, in a 

letter printed In the Patent OfiBce Report, said: "The 

Italian seed was sown last spring; they came np and 

■grew vigorously, but almost entirely perished daring 

the severe drouth of the paar summer." 

At the Wjoming Expeiimeni Station, out of twenty 
dififsrent kinds of gra«s seed selected for trial, Piof. 
D.V ce Ml Liren gives Italian rje grass the second place 
in the otder of excellence. 

The Report of the Department of Agriculture for 
1870, places it among the best grasses as regards re- 
sistance to drouihs and power of endurance when 
subject to the scorching sun and parched soil. 

"The grasses," saj s the Library of Universal Knowl- 
edge, "are distributed over all parts of the world. 
Some are characteristic of the warmest tropical re- 
gions and some of the vicinity of perpetual snow; but 

15K>3 J 



they abound most of all, and particularly in their 
social character, clothing the ground with verdure 
and forming the chief vegetation of meadows and 
pastures in the northern 'emperate zone. There is no 
kind of soil that is not suitable to sonic or other of the 
grssses, and while some are peculiar to dry and sterile 
soils, others are only found on rich soils with abund 
ant moisture; some grow in marshes, stagnant waters 
or slow streams; some only on the sea coast. Some 
grasses are annual and some perennial. The most im 
portant fodder grass in Britain is the rye grass." 

The Encyclopaedia Biitannira says: "Italian rye 
grass and red clover are now frequently sown in mix 
ture for soiling, and succeed admirably." 

A Kentucky farmer gives the following mixture of 
grass seeds to be sown for pasturage: Blue grass, 8 lbs. ; 
orchard grass, 4 lbs ; timothy, 4 lbs ; re clover. 6 lbs. 
And to this. Dr. George Vasey says add Italian rye 
grass 4 lbs , which, altogether, will make heavy seeding, 
bat heavy seeding is what is needed to make a good 
pasture. For pasturage, he recommends a variety of 
grasses, as stock like a variety, and thrive better 
on it. 

There is no question about the excellence of Italian 
grass in Italy and England, but the testimony con 
cerning its value in this country is conflicting, and 
"when doctors disagree" there is no way but for farm 
ers to experiment for themselves. 

J. W. IxaHAM. 

Italian rye grass has been very successfully grown 
on the James River low grounds and also on some 
other of the river bottom lands of the State. On 
these lands it makes a crop which can be cut two or 
three times unless the summer is ve'-y dry. We have 
grown it largely in England on similar lands, and 
always with great success. Ic is one of the best grasses 
for growing under irrigation, and will yield four or 
five cuttings in the year. It is largely grown on the 
sewage farms which have been established in England 
for the disposal of sewage from the large cities where 
Bewage is not allowed to be turned into the rivers nn 
less first purified by some means. The filtration of 
this sewaj e, by using it for irrigation purposes on 
sewage farms, has been found to be one of the best and 
cheapf st methods of complying with the law. — Ed. 


Editor Southern Planter : 

I think it is almost impossible for anybody not per 
fectly familiar with Mr. Reynolds' soil to give the de- 
sired information. Mr. Reynolds informs us that his 
soil is deep and black, and that timothy grows to per- 
fection. This generally indicates that the soil is rich 
In humus, and it is therefore questionable if blue 
grass, which makes other demands on the soil than 
timothy, will make a good sod there. 

It is quite true that timothy alone, or even as the 
prevailing grass in a pasture, is not as desirable for 
cattle as other grasses are. Timothy is tender when 

quite young, but soon gets hard and they hay is en 
tirely too hud for cattle, besides that it does net pos- 
sess the feeding value of some other grasses. 
Whether it is advisable to plow the sod up depends 
upon the denseness of the sod, its being free from ob- 
noxious weeds and its lasting qualities. If the sod 
is weedy, it should be plowed up, and the best plan 
will probably be to fallow the soil. In a climate like 
ours, fallow is generally not given a regular place in 
the rotation, but if I want to clean a soil quickly and 
thoroughly and be sure of the success, I prefer it to 
any other method.' It should, however, be taken into, 
consideration that on some soils it is a very difBcult 
matter to get the' new sod as dense and last ng as the 
old sod. If the soil is not weedy, some other method 
of improving the sod without plowing it up may be 
resorted to. 

Another way>f improving the god is to top dress it 
with manare or .fertilizers and sprinkle smaU quanti 
ties of suitable clover and grasses over it. Horse ma- 
nure deserves for cattle pastures the preference, but 
as it can seldom' be obtained in sufficient quantities, 
other manure or commercial fertilizers will have to be 
substituted. Next to manure stands hard wood ash. 
These bring out;. the leguminous crops in a remarka 
bly short time. The phosphates and potash salts will 
have to be applied early in fall, as it has often been 
noticed that grass top dressed with th< se fertilizers is 
objectionable to cattle. Without manure or fertilizer, 
I think, it will hardly be possible to bring about a 
change in the pasturage. The fine growth of the timo 
thy, which at the present time occupies the soil, is pre- 
eminently due to theicause that the soil supplies the 
food which the timothy demands, in liberal quantities. 
If other grasses with difi'erent demands on the plant 
food of the soil shall take the place of the timothy, or 
at least to a certain [extent, it will be neces8ar,\ to 
change the plant food, by 'applying liberal quantities 
of the food demanded^y those plants. Without this 
change, I think, it will hardly be possible to obtain 
the desired effect. 

If it will be profitable to'make this change on a per- 
manent pasture, only experience can tell. Generally 
it is not. It not only requires considerable manure or 
fertilizer to maintain'an artificial pasturage, but the 
other land, set aside for the growing of crops, being 
continuously cropped, will also require more manure. 
On most soils which do not produce a natural good 
sod, it is decidedly more' profitable to have crops and 
pasture in rotation. One piepares the soil for the 
other. If the crops are well fertilized, there is suffi- 
cient available plant food left in the soil to produce a 
good pasture. If the soil is seeded with a variety of 
clover and grasses, these pastures will be for three or 
four years all that can be desired. The grass is also 




■of a finer texture, sweeter and better than that of a 
fertilized permanent pasture, and is also better liked 
by the stock. 

Bat as I have sa'd before, it is a difficult matter to 
suggest anything without having s en the soil and the 
sod. There are so many products which have to be 
taken into consideration in the management of a farm 
that they often outweigh the profit from a desired 
change in one of the branches. 

District of Columbia. H. Wink ELM AN. 


Editor Southern Planter : 

As the time is close at hand when the tobacco raiser 
•will have to prepare his plant bed, with your permis 
aion, I will give my experience with nitrate of soda 
as a plant grower. Last spring I prepared and seeded 
my beds as usual and put about 75 lbs. of regular to 
bacco fertilizer to the hundred square yards, which is 
considered a liberal application Both beds were on 
a good southern exposure, bat the situation was rather 
dry for the light rains of the latter part of April and 
the first of May. and my plants came up very scatter 
ing, and these few were growing vfry slowly, and 
my prospect for a crop of tobacco looked very blue. 
I had to do something, and that very quick, or miss a 
crop. I sent to Richmonl for a sack of nitrate of soda 
(200 lbs.), for which I was charged at the rate of $50 
per ton cash. I top dressed my beds with this at the 
rate of about 10 pounds to the hundred yards, and then 
put on a light sprinkle of straw to hold the moisture. 
"We had a light rain that night, which dissolved the 
nitrate, and in a week the plants that came up first 
and were the size of a quarter when I dressed them 
•with the nitrate, were six inches high, and the darkest 
green I ever saw. In the meantime the others had 
come up, and were large enough to plant in half the 
time it usually takes a plant to grow in, and all 
of them were of that healthy, robust character that 
take root and grow off -o nicely, as the tobacco raiser 
likes to see. 

Well, I would not have known whether it was the 
nitrate of soda, the straw or the rain, had I not left out 
a strip through the middle of each bed with no nitrate 
of soda on it, but this told the tale. The plants on 
this strip were not large enough to plant by the first 
of July, and they were then little yellow, tough things 
compared to the others growing within a foot of them. 
In the meantime I had finished planting my crop of 
60,000 hills by June 15th, and a week later I think I 
could have planted as many more out of the same 
beds, whilst another bed close by, that had a good ap 
plication of guano and hogpen manure, had dried up 

after the first drawing. I think that the plants where 
the nitrate of soda was applied, after leaving the 
ground, without exaggeration, grew at least an inch a 
day, and this vigorous growth continued in the beds 
until August, dry or wet. 

I thiak the best time to apply nitrate of soda to 
plants is about the time they come up, as it acta at 
once ; it is not needed earlier than this. A heavy 
dew is sufficient to dissolve it. Care should be ob- 
served in top dressing with it not to put it on when 
there is any water on the plants, as it will certainly 
harm them. I never expect to try to raise plants in 
the future without it, as it acts more like magic than 
anything in the way of fertilizer that I have ever 
tried. I think plants can be produced at least two 
weeks earlier by the use of it. 

Cumberland Co., Va. H. P. Baker. 


Editor Southern Planter : 

How shall we teach our farmers the necessity for a 
constant accumulation of humus in the soil f One of 
the greatest evils we labor under is the constant wast 
ing of humus out of our lands. They are farmed year 
in and out without any regard to gaining humus. We 
will have to change our plans entirely or our lands 
will get 80 poor they will not pay for the plowing. 
Lard is put in c.rn year after year, or corn and then 
oats, and nothing added to help it. E^ery farm should 
have so many acres (say ten or twenty) every year 
sewed in rye early in fall to fallow in the spring for 
corn and a like area to be sowed in peas in spring to 
fallow in fall for wheat, oats or grass. If this plan 
was followed every year, and some good fertilizer used 
with every crop, our lands would soon begin to pay a 
profit for working. Fertilizers on lands devoid of 
humus are almost useless. Land with plenty of humna 
in it will stand dry spells so much better, be easier 
improved and work much easier All persons renting 
out lands should stipulate in their contracts that all 
grain crops grown should be preceded or followed by 
a humus makine; crop. Then, if every few years a 
good dressing of lime could be added on top of a good 
fallow of vegetable matter, our farms would soon take 
on new life and the country would look far better than 
it does now. Some may say peas are too high to sow 
and fallow. Try corn ; I am told by some that it does 
nearly or quite as well as peas. Many of you have 
noticed wherever a shock of corn stood late in the 
field that the next crop grown on the land will show 
where those shocks stood. Even where your plows 
come out on the end to turn around the land shows a 
better growth of vegetable matter. 

Henrico Co., Va. Country. 

It is not the corn that improves the land, but the 
shading of the soil by the shock which promotes nitri- 
fication in the soil. Corn will not improve the land 
like a leguminous crop does. It takes nitrogen from 
the soil instead of adding it. — Ed. 





Enquiries should be sent to the office of The Southern Planter 
Kichmond, Va., not later than the 15th of the month, for re- 
plies to appear in the next month's issue of the Planter. 

Fertilizer for Peanuts and Corn. 

1. From what scarce is it best to obtain nitrogen for 
Spanish peanuts and for corn ? 

2. From what source is it best to obtain phosphoric 
acid for each of the above crops ? 

3. From what source is it best to obtain potash for 
each of the above crops t 

4. Do you think a field on which Spanish peanuts 
were grown last year, on which barn yard manure and 
guano was used, would be benefited and the yield of 
corn increased this year by application of lime? If so, 
what quantity to the acre should be used ! 

Please furnish me formulas for the above crops, and 
what quantity of mixture to the acre should be used. 
Sussex Co., Va. Geo. D. Geizzaed. 

1. Cotton seed meal or dried blood are good sources 
from which to obtain nitrogen for the peanut. It, how 
ever, does not call for the application of much nitrogen, 
as being a legume it can obtain its supply from the at 
mosphere after it once gets a start, It is, of course, 
necessary for it to do this that the land should have 
in it the microbe peculiar to the peanut plant. This, 
however, is always found more or less abundantly 
wherever peanuts have been grown in the past few 
years. We deal with the fertilizer for a co:n crop in 
our reply to No. 4. 

2. The phosphoric acid is cheapest and best supplied 
from acid phosphate. 

3. Potash can be had from either kainit or muriate 
of potash, but we should prefer the muriate, as we do 
not think the salt in kainit is of any value to the plant. 

4. We think it very doubtful if lime applied now 
would be of any service to the corn crop of thi« year. 
If applied in December or January it might have 
helped it. The action of lime is largely mechanical 
and takes time to become effective. Directly, it is of 
little value as plant food, but indiractly it helps much 
in correcting acidity in the soil and in liberating pot- 
ash and phosphoric acid. For these effects it must 
have time, as it acts slowly. We have no confidence 
in advising the use of any commercial fertilizer on the 
corn crop. A critical examination of many experi 
ments conducted in many corn States justifies us in say 
ing that rarely has the application of commercial fer 
tilizer been profitable on the corn crop. It often re- 
sults in increasing the yield, but rarely sufficiently so 
to pay for the fertilizer. If used we would apply only 
add phosphate — say 300 lbs. to the acre. The land 
you refer to will, no doubt, have sufficient nitrogen 
stored in it by the peanut crop to mtet the needs of a 
corn crop. Potash has rarely been found necessary in 

this S'ate for corn, or, indeed, for any crop except to- 
bacco and Irish potatoes. For the peanuts mix : 

80 lbs. acid phosphate, 
300 lbs. cotton seed meal, 
50 lbs. muriate of potash, 

and apply this quantity per acre. You, of course, 
know that the peanut requires lime for ita successful 
growth and the pei fection of the nuts. About 25 bush- 
els of lime per acre should be applied every three 
years. — Ed. 

Improving Land with Peas and Crimson Clover. 

I am a subscriber to your valuable journal, and have 
read with great interest therein, as well as in other 
agricultural journals, what has been said and encour- 
aged along the line of "green manuring" aLd the cul- 
tivation of nitrogen producing plants, with a view to 
rai-iing, with the least possible cost, impoveiished soils 
to the highest state of cultivation. 

I have a plot of from six to eight acres of land — 
light grey soil, fairly red subsoil, land level, no gauls, 
but thin — veiy responsive to fertilization. I desire to 
prepare this piece of land for corn for the year 1904, 
and it has occurred to me that the proper course to 
pursue will be to sow it to peas this coming spring and 
either mow the vines or turn them under and follow 
with Crimson clover, to be turned under during the 
spring of 1904, and then plant to corn. 

1. Will this be practical ? If so, 

2. Will it be proper to mow the peas and feed te 
stock, or plow them under t 

3. Should the peis be sown broadcast, or should 
they be drilled? 

4. Should it be proper to drill peas, should the fer- 
tilizer be drilled or should it be broadcasted t 

5. If broadcasted, what number of pounds of fertile 
izer should I sow to the acre, and kind t 

6. If broadcasted, what number of bushels of peas 
should be sown t 

7. Should it be proper to follow the peas with clover, 
how should the seed be applied, and what number of 
pounds to the acre T 

8. What kind, and what number pounds of fertil- 
izer should there be used in connection with the sow- 
ing of clover t 

Nottoway Co., Va. W. M. White. 

1. Yes ; entirely so, and most proper. 

2. As to whether the peas should be cut and fed to 
stock depends on the condition of the land. If 
almost completely devoid of humus or vegetable mat- 
ter, we would say let the vines bee jme nearly ripe and 
then plow the whole crop down ; but if the land Is not 
so poor as to call for all this vegetable matter, then cut 
the crop, leaving a tall stubble, and plow this down. 

3. On such a piece of land as you describe we would 
sow broadcast. If the land was in better condition 
we would drill them. 

4. Sow the fertilizer broadcast. 

5. Apply 300 or 400 lbs. of acid phosphate and 50 
lbs. of muriate of potash per acre. 

6. A bushel or a bushel and a half of peas will be 




sufiScieDt broadcast. If drilled, two pecks or less will 

7. Yes ; follow the peas with Crimson cloTer. After 
plowing the peas or stubble down harrow the land, 
then BOW 12 lbs. of the clover seed per acre and cover 
with a BtLOOthing harrow or a bosh harrow. 

S. We would give the clover 250 lbs. per acre of acid 
phosphate, sown broadcast, after the land waa plowed 
aid before harrowing. — Ed 

Hogs Pasturing In Corn Field. 

Can you, or any subscriber, give espprieoce with 
regard to turning hoijs on corn, as described on page 
89 of Planter for February. I intend growing some 
acrfs of Eoja beans fo this purpose. Would half corn 
and half beans make a bftter pasture? I fancy hog3 
would eat corn first and likely waste considerable. 

Amherst Co , Va. Thomas Howell. 

We have had no personal experience in hogging 
down a crop of corn in the way suggested. Shall be 
glad to hear from those who have. We have a sub 
scriber who grows corn and Soy beans together, and 
turns his hogs into the field after the beans have pod 
ded and begin to ripen. Before doing so, he feeds the 
hogs Soy beans pulled from the field for a week or ten 
days. After they hav acquired a liking for them, he 
says they may be safely turned into the field and will 
not trouble the corn until the beans are eaten. Corn 
and beans grown together make an excellent hog pas 
tnre. The two crops make a balanced ration. The 
one is rich in protein, the other in carbohydrates. — Ed. 

Renewing Pasture. 

We have a blue grass meadow, which we have re 
cently obtained, and which has been pastured exces 
sively. The blue grass is very thin over a good por 
tion of it. and weeds have sprung up in such places. 
Would it be better to plow it and sow to cow peas, cut 
them for hay, then turt under the stubble, and seed 
with a mixture of grass seed suitable for a permanent 
pasture 1 If so. what seeds had best be sown or would 
It be better to disk it out and sow to grass this springt 

Loudoun Co.yVa. W. M. M. 

We would advise that the field be plowed up and 
deeply and thoroughly worked, and then be planted 
in cow peas. We would help these peas to make a 
heavy crop in order to smother all weeds by giving 
them 200 . r 300 lbs. of acid phosphate per acre. We 
would cut the crop for hay and then plow down the 
stubble, say in September. Work the soil very fine, 
and fertilize with bone meal, potash and nitrogen and 
seed. In our article, "Work for the Month," in this 
and the last issue, will be found full information as to 
the varieties of grass to sow. A meadow which has 
been run so long as this one, and which is badly in 
fested with weeds, can never be made a satisfactory 
sod except by starting completely afresh. — Ed. 

Stump Pullers— Sweet Potato Slips — Tomato Fer- 

1. I see advertised in the Planter four different kinds 
of stump pullers. I would like to know if they do 
the work all right, and the one which is the best. I 
have about 15 acres to c'.ear of pine, about 12 or 15 
inches across the stump. Would they be the right 
thing ?o use in clearing itt 

2. I would like to know if there is a machine to 
transplant sweet potato sprouts — run the row, distrib- 
ute the fertilizer, list the land and set the plant all at 
one time; if there is, where can it be bought) and what 
is the price t 

3. I would like to know how to mix the chemicals 
to make the proper fertilizer for taniatoes. I have 
not been growing tomatoes, and don't know what to 

Accortiac Co.,Va. T. D. Maetin. 

1. We have excellent testimonials as to the effec- 
tiveness of the different stump pullers advertised in 
our columns, and we know many who are using them. 
One man prefers one make, and another the others. 
Send for information to the advertisers. 

2. The MeSherry Manufacturing Company, of Mid- 
dleton, Ohio, advertised a machine for this purpose 
in our columns last year and will do so, we believe, 
again this year, probably next month. 

3. The following ingredients will make a good to- 
mato fertilizer : 

200 lbs. nitrate of soda. 

700 Ibj. cotton seed meal. 

840 lbs. acid phosphate (13 per cent.). 

260 lbs. muriate of potash. 

2000 lbs. 

Apply from 300 to 500 lbs. to the acre. 


Peas for Hogs. 

Will T on kindly tell me what is the best pea to sow 
to raise peas to turn hogs on in the fall to fatten themf 
How many hogs could I run to the acret Will it in- 
jure or improve a piece of land to put it iu peas year 
after year, and eat them off with hogsT Would I raise 
a pretty fair crop of peas without fertilizer on clay 
land that will produce about two or three barrels of 
corn to the acret 

Albemarle Co., Va. J. L. Deyden. 

Either Black Clay or Whippoorwill peas make the 
best hog pasture for your section. You would not 
find that the peas would continue to produce a good 
crop grown year after year unless helped every year 
with acid phosphate and potash. Peas get their ni- 
trogen from the atmosphere, but are large consumers 
of phosphoric acid and potash, which, if not present 
in available form In the land in abundance, must be 
snpplitd or the land will soon be impoverished. 

You will not be likely to make much of a crop of 
peas on such land as you describe without the appli- 
cation of 200 or 800 lbs. of acid phosphate.— Ed. 




Cow-Peas and Corn as a Fodder Crop — Crimson 
Clover — Sulphur for Stock. 

Last Jane I sowed five acres of cow peas and corn 
with drill for hay. When the fodder was ma 
tnred I cut the crop wi h a wheat harvester, making 
small, loose bundles. I shocked it in the same way as 
wheat, patting four to six bundles to the shock. It 
cured out nicely and was ready to put in bulk in timt- 
for seeding the land to wheat. Ic made an excellent 
balanced ration, and was easily and cheaply handled. 
The forn stalks did not attain sufficient size to make 
shredding necessary for feeding in the barn. 

Should any of your readers try this they might find 
it necessary in case of warm, wet weather during cur 
ing to cut the bands on the bundles to prevent mould 
Ing inside. In this event I would suggest rebinding 
in larger bundles for convenience in handling. 1 
had no trouble about this 

1. So well pleased was I with the experiment that I 
shall increase my acieage next season if you will help 
me over an obstacle. The fodder on very fertile soil 
will grow too high to cut with harvester unle-s sown 
very thick, in which case it will crowd out the peas. 
Do you know of any plant of good feeding value that 
will overcome this difiiculty ! 

2. What do you know of the feeding value of Grim 
son clover hay ! Is there any danger in feeding it to 
stock 1 Will the crop produce second growth like 
red clover when first growth is cut 1 

3. Is there any danger in feeding flowers of sulphur 
to stoc? carrying their young ? 

Oulppper Co., Va. A G. Pake. 

1. Many of our snbacribers use sorghum with the 
peas instead of corn, and find that it makes a finer 
and shorter stalk and nicer feed. Possibly one of the 
millets, either German or Cat Tail (Pencillaria) would 
make even still finer and shorter stalks, and they both 
make good feed, and would, we think, mature along 
with the peas. We would like a report on this if 

2. Crimson clover makes excellent green feed cut 
when in bloom. It also makes a nice hay if cut when 
in bloom or just when coming into bloom. If not cut 
until the seed forms ic is dangerous to feed to horses, 
as the hulls of the seed mat in- o balls in the stomach 
anb cause stoppage of the bowels. We have had balls 
as large as an orange taken from the bowels of horses 
which they killed. We have, however, never heard 
of the hay injaring cattle in this way. It will not 
make a second growth. 

3. We have never heard of any Injury from sul 
phur. It should not be fed in cold weather when ani- 
mals are exposed to the weather, as its action is large 
ly on the skin and makes the animals sensitive to 
changes of temperature. — Ed. 

Cow-Peas and Corn. 

Can you, or any of your correspondents, give me 
any information as to the efficicy of Kafl&r corn or 
sorghum in serving to hold up cow pea vines when 
mixed with the peas when sowing with drill t If so. 

Then which is best, Kaffir corn or sorghum, and the 
proper quantity of either to sow with the peas ner 
acre in order that the growth of the corn or sorghum 
may not grow so high as to prevent their harvesting 
vith binder, ^ 

ran,e Co., N. C. j. p. Tayloe. 

In our October, 1902, issue we replied to a very 
similar enquiry to this one supplementing what we 
said in our July issue on the same subject. We have 
many subscribers who have for years adopted the prac- 
tise of growing peas and corn and peas and sorghum 
or Kaffir corn together, and are well pleased with the 
results, especially when used for fi,ling the silo. Per- 
.sonally, we prefer to mix cow peas and sorghum, as 
making a better and richer feed than peas and corn, 
though probably the corn would make the heavier 
crop, and if intended to be made into ensilage would 
be quite as cleanly eaten up, Kaffir corn would do 
equally as well as so ghnm or corn as a supporting 
crop for the peas, but does not make as rich feed. The 
edvantage it possesses over sorghum and corn is that 
it withstands drouth better. Experiments made at 
the Delaware Station seemed to demonstrate that the 
mixicg of the peas with corn did not result in increas- 
ing the yield so much, but that it resulted in making 
a better balanced ration for stock without materially 
increasing the cost, the only increase in cost being 
the cost of the pea seed, say 50 cents to $1 per acre. 
We refer the enquirer to our July and October 1902 
issues for fuller information. — Ed. 

State Orange— Marl— Hulching Potatoes. 

L3t me express to yon briefly my hearty apprecia- 
tion of the Southern Planter. It is exceedingly helpful 
to me. Also permit me to propound these queries : 

1. Is there a State Grange in Virginia! 

2. How is marl best used, and for what crops? 

3. Is it well ordinarily to mulch Irish potatoes, and 
if so, how would saw dust do for a mulch r I have 
near my place— within a mile— quantities of saw dust 
which can be had for the hauling. ' 

James City Co., Va. Chas. H. Geosvenoe. 

1. There was a State Grange in Virginia, but we 
believe it is now moribund. We have heard nothing 
of it for several years. The Grange never made head- 
way in the South. 

2. Marl may be applied in heavy dressing to light 
or loam land with great advantage. The percentage 
of lime and phosphoric acid is, however, so low in 
comparison to the weight.of the whole that it will not 
pay to haul It far. 

3. The mulching of Irish potatoes is not usually of 
material advantage, as the vines themselves serve aa 
a good mulch. Saw dost is of no value except as a 
means for lightening heavy land, and it is even for 
that purpose of doubtlul utility. — Ed. 



I March 

Renewing a Pasture— Preparing Land for Peas 

Kindly give me the following information : 

How can permanent pastures be renewed without 
plowing, etc.t What would be the result of ruaning 
over a pasture, early in the sprlug, with a disc har 
row, sowing grass seed, and harrowing or rolling it 
int I have top dressed a pasture that needs renova 
tion with manuie, but the grass has run oat, and I 
wish to know the most practical way of getting seeds 
into the ground without plowing the land. 

Can light land be successfully prepared for cowpeas 
by using a disc harrow instead of plowing! 

Fauquier Co ,Va. H C. G. 

In this issue will be found a reply to a similar ques 
tion from a subscriber in Loudoun county, Va. Where 
a pasture or a meadow is only failing in places, it may 
ofcen be successfully improved by harrowing in the 
spring and sowing grass seeds and top dressing with 
manure. But where the grass has run out and weeds 
have taken possession, nothing but plowing up and 
finely preparing and reseedlng will secure a good 

Yesjlwe have known many good crops of peas made 
without plowing by the use of the disc— Ed. 

Crimson Clover — Rape. 

Will Crimson clover make a good hog pasture f 
AUo, will rape make a good hog pasture for the sum- 
mer! Will rape do well on low land! 

Dinmddie Go. , Va. SuBecEiBER. 

Crimson clover will make a good pasture up to the 
end of May, when it begins to ripen and gets hard 
and dry. Rape makes a splendid hog pasture in the 
fall and in spring, but cannot stand the hot weather 
of summer. If sown now, it will make a pasture up 
to June, and should then be plowed up and sown with 
cow peas, or cow peas and sorghum, to make hay or 
pasture. Sow rape again in August or September for 
fall and winter grazing. Cow peas or Soy beans make 
the best summer pasture for hogs. —Ed. 

Diseased Hogs. 

Win yon be kind enough to tell me through the 
Planter what is the matter with my hogs and give me 
a remedy. They will eat ouly enough to keep them 
alive, sometimes only a mouthful, and sometimes an 
ear of corn. They eat very heartily of dirt. I keep 
them in a close pen until they get restless, then turn 
them in a large lot without any change for the better. 
They have a cough. I have 20 head, and this is their 
condition. I feed on hard corn, soaked corn, ground 
peas and collards. 

Pamlico Co., N. G. E. A. Hough. 

Your hogs are no doubt badly infested with worms. 
Stop off the corn feed, and let them fast a day, then give 
them some slop made of mill feed and bran half and 
half. In this give one tablespoonful of turpentine for 
each hog. After this, give in the next feed a half a 
pint of raw linseed oil for each hog. After this has 
purged them, then give mill feed, bran and corn meal 
In a slop. If they still do not appear to be Improving, 
repeat the turpentine in a week or ten days. Give a 
handful of bone meal for each hog once a week. Feed 
all the green food possible, and let them have a range. 

Plants Destroyed by Moles or /lice. 

We have hundreds of j uccas in this place that are 
being destroyed by moles (!) or fi-ld mice (!) — eaten 
at the roots. With dogs and chickens around, I am 
nnwilling to use poison. Can you suggest any remedy 
in your valuable paper! 

Charlottesville, Va. E. W. H. 

Traps might lessen the trouble, bat poison would 
be much more effective. — Ed. 


Will you please tell me of the standing of the Com- 
mercial Qinseng Co., Crozet, Va.! How do you grow^ 
ginseng! R. H. Noreis. 

Lancaster Co., Va. 

We believe the Commercial Ginseng Co., Crozet, Va., 
to be perfectly reliable. We know nothing of ginseng 
growing except from what we have read about it. We 
are not at all favorably impressed with the crop. We 
doubt much whether it will be found generally a profit- 
able one. In any event, it takes five years to realize 
the profit, if there be one. The Pennsj Ivania Exper- 
iment Station has just issued a bulletin on the subject, 
giving results of experiments made there. Write Di- 
rector of Experiment Station, State College, Penn.^ 
for copy of this. — Ed. 

Silo — Storing Cut Fodder. 

I wish to feed ensilage the coming winter. Can I 
make one silo do, or shall I have to have more than 

I wish the most convenient plan for storing cut fod 

Louisa Co., V*. 

One silo will be all yon will need for ten cows. Later 
in the year we shall write fully on the question, giving 
full information as to construction and capacity of silos. 
If you will refer to our issue for July, 1902, you will 
find an article on the subject which will probably give 
you all the information you need. 

Cut fodder should be stored In a bay of the bam or 
under a shed boarded up in front. — Ed. 

Kaffir Corn. 

Will you please say what you think of Kaffir com 
as a forage crop and for seed ! 

Dimciddie Go. . Va. R. Dewsburt. 

We have frequently advised the growing of Kaffir 
corn in the South. Whilst not quite so good feed as 
sorghum, It will do better than either corn or sorghum 
in a drouth. — Ed. 




Stump Killer— Disease in Hog — Breeds of Hogs. 

1. Please tell me some simple and cheap way to kill 
stumps that will not die, such as gum and poplar. 

2. I had a litter of pigs farrowed April 26th last 
year, and when they were about six weeks old one of 
them became affected very peculiarly. He could not 
walk or run in a straight line, but would go around 
in a circle, and had fiequent spells when it could not 
walk at all, especially when it became excited. It made 
a very peculiar load and coarse noise in squealing or 
gruQting, which it did almost continually. Its head 
was twisted a little to the right, and In running around 
a circle it would always go to the left. After about a 
month it began to get becter and became very thrifty, 
but its head did not get straight, and it continued to 
make the same peculiar noise until I killed it a month 
ago. I thought it must have got ten a lick on its head 
which affected its brain, but when I killed it I exam 
ined it carefully and could find nothing wrong with 
the brain. 

Upon examination of the lungs I found the bron 
cbial tubes full of little worms not larger than spool 
cotton and about an inch long. Will you or some 
of your readers tell me whether these worms caused 
the trouble, and if not, what did cause it, and give 
me a remedy. 

3. If it wDl not take too much of your space will 
you please give briefly the merits and demerits of 
Berkshire and Poland China and O. I. G. hogs? 

Campbell Co., Va. L. C. A. 

1. This query seems on first reading it to be an ex- 
cellent example of an Irish bull, but we realize what 
our friend means. He has stumps which will persist 
in sending up sprouts. We know no means of killing 
th« se stumps except either pulling them out or blow 
ing them to pieces with dynamite. There have been 
a number of methods recommended for killing such 
stumps, such as boring holes in them and filling with 
kerosene or saltpeter at d other things, but we have 
no faith in them. A &Iend of ours who has cleared a 
large piece of land of such stumps says dynamite is 
the best and cheapest thing to use. 

2. The worms, we believe, caused the trouble. Tou 
should give the hogs a dose of turpentine now and 
again to kill these parasites. 

3. All these breeds are good. One man has a fancy 
for one and another a fancy for the other. We think 
In a corn country like the West the Poland China Is 
the hog to keep. He never tires of this diet, and con 
sumes an enormous quantity. Where corn is cheap 
and far from market this is the animal wanted. The 
Berkshire is more a grazing hog and better adapted 
for the South, where corn Is high in price and other 
feeds, like peas, are plentiful, or should be. The O. I. C. 
is a good hog, but of too large a type for Southern mar 
kets. Its color iklso (white) is against him for the 
South. A black hog is the best for a hot climate. 
White hogs must have plenty c f shade or the skin will 
burn and blister In the hot sun. — Ed. 

Tobacco-Q row i n g, 

I never see any method of plowing and preparing 
the land for tobacco in your columns to destroy the 
great "pest." we have— viz., the "cut" worm and 
" wire" worm. We so often fail in making a good 
crop on account of not gett ng a stand on stubble 
land. Some say plow early in the fall, re-plow in the 
winter, while others gay wait uniil just before plant- 
ing time, and plow while everything is green. I 
would ask for advice as to the best and cheapest 
way to raise the greatest number of pounds per acre, 
regardless of color. I grow 10 acres of tobacco, and 
the average weight is 6,000 to 7,500 lbs. I want 10,000 
on a ten acre lot. 

I'ittsylvania Co..Va. J. w. Giles. 

We usually give each yeer In the spring our 
views on the best way to make a tobacco crop, and we 
will do so in next month's issue. Winter plowing and 
replowing is of great service in getting rid of cut and 
wire worms, as it brings them to the surface, where the 
cold kills them and birds eat them. Where a piece 
of land is infested with these pests it should never be 
planted in a crop until an effort has been made to de- 
stroy them. The land should be plowed and harrowed 
and all green pknts buried. Then buches of green 
clover or cabbage leaves dipped in a solution of Paris 
green should be dropped at short intervals over the 
field. The worms will come out and eat these and be 
poisoned ; or balls made up of bran and mill feed, 
mixed with Paris Green, should be dropped over the 
field. Thfse will poison the worms, as they are fond 
of the feed. With persistence in this woik, before 
planting the crop a stand can be secured. 

We will try to help you to make 10,000 pounds to 
the 10 acres, but cannot say that you can certainly do 
so. The first requisite is better preparation of the 
land before planting. Begin at once this work. See 
our last issue for remarks on preparation, and also 
this one. The next requisite Is more abundant fer- 
tilization. In Pennsylvania and New England to- 
bacco growers often apply 1,000 pounds of high grade 
fertilizer to the acre — Ed. 

China Tree — Corn Breeding. 

Please tell me whether or not the "China tree" will 
last if used for fence posts. 

I have two varieties of twin corn — one very tall and 
large, the other very low and small ; and I wish to 
breed a corn that will twin and be of good size, and 
yet not so tall. Please state how it should be done. 

Mecklenburg Co., Va. C. L. Eussell, 

We do not know the "China tree" by that name, 
and therefore cannot advise you. Can you give ua 
the botanical name 1 If so, we can help you. 

If the two varieties of corn you have are planted 
near to each other they will cross polinate, and then 
by selection of seed from stalks of the type you want 
you may In a few years establish a corn meeting your 
requirements and of fixed type. — Ed. 




Butter Will Not Come— Grass for Pasture- 

I have a cow from wh >se milk we have not been 
able to get any batter for some tia:e. The miik seemi 
to be all light ; it eonre all right, bat as so n as yon 
begin to chnrD it begins to foam ; the more you churn 
it the worse It gets. The application of warm or cold 
water has no effect whatever. Is it bef^uee of a cer 
tain stage of pregnancy of the cow t Pleast give the 
cause and a remedy. 

What is the best grass to sow for a permanent 
pastnre, and what the beet tin e to sow, and how to 
sow itt 

Do J on consider sorghum a profitable crop for the 
average farmer to raise 1 

Scoitsville, Va. 8. E. Beale. 

Why butter cannot be got from the milk is not al 
wajs easy to account for. Sometimes it arises from 
the temperature at which it is churned. It may be 
too hot or it may be too cold, but in your case this 
does not seem to be the cause, as jou say neither 
warming nor cooling affects it. Sometimes it arises 
from the manner of feeding the cow, but more fre 
quently it arises from a condition of health, brought 
about by pregnancy or from the cow having been 
very long calven. We would try varying the tem 
perature at which the milk is churned. If the cow is 
advanced in pregnancy let her go dry, and when she 
calves again her milk will probably be all right again. 
We know of no positive remedy for the trouble. 

See our last issue as to grasses for a permanent pas- 

We think highly of sorghum as a forage crop, and 
every farmer should grow it. — Ed. 


I would like instructions as to the best mode of 
growing watermelons. The land I propose putting in 
melons was in peas last year, and the vines were left 
on the land. How should I proceed t The land lle« 
gently to the south. 

Botetourt Co., Va. J. W. Smilet. 

We wiU give full instructions on this subject in a 
later issue. Meanwhile plow the pea-vines down and 
g«t the land into good condition for planting. — Ed. 

Wood Ashes for Irish Potatoes, 

In your next issue, will you tell how to use wood 
ashes on Irish potatoes. 

Alexandria Co., Va. C. R. HoFF. 

Either sow broadcast on the land if you have suffi- 
cient to cover the field, or, if in lees quantity, sow in 
the rows and mix with the soil by running a cultiva 
tor through before planting the sets. They only pro- 
vide potash for the crop. Phosphoric acid and nitro- 
gen should be supplied also. See our article on Work 
for the Month in Garden Department for a complete 
I>otato fertilizer. — Ed. 


I have three acres of good rerf land on which I wish 
to sow alfalfa this spring. P.ease inform me what 
time to BOW it; anddoesit suit this climate bfst to sow 
it in the spring or f Jl t 

H. R. May. 

Sow the alfalfa in the fall— say Augnst or Septem- 
ber. Spend this spring anri summer in preparing the 
land for the crop. It requires the land to be deeply 
broken, finely cultivated and made rich. When the 
land is in fine condition — eay in Jane — apply 300 or 
400 lbs of acid phosphate and 50 lbs. of muriate of 
potash to the acre. Then seed witli cow peas a bushel 
or a bushel and a half to the acre. This should make 
a heavy crop and smother all weeds. Cut for hay in 
August, and then prepare the surface soil finely with 
a disc harrow, and work in 500 lbs. of bone meal to 
the acre. Sow I'l to 20 lbs. of alfalfa seed to the acre 
and cover with smoothing harrow, and roll. — Ed. 

Crimson Clover in Cow- Peas and Kaffir Corn. 

Will you be so kind as to tell me in the Planter how 
it would do to seed Crimson clover with aw peas and 
kaffir corn, as I expect to mow the peas or feed and 
not turn under T X. Y. Z. 

Lynchburg, Va. 

We have known Crimson clover to be successfully 
sown in cowpeas and corn. Much, depends, how- 
ever, on the thickness of the cow-pea crop. If very 
h«avy, the Crimson clover is apt to be smothered out 
Sow the clover about July or August. —Ed. 

Beans for Name. 

Enclosed find beans. Please give me name of them, 
and what they are good for. H. T. Nuckols. 

Buckingham Co.,Va. 

We cannot identify the beans. They look like a 
large variety of Pole or beans, but may be the 
seed of some other legume, or possib-y of soma 
wild plant. If we had seen them in England, we 
should bave said that they were White Broad beans, 
but this bean does not grow here. — Ed. 

Cow-Pea and Sorghum Ensilag^e. 

Will you kindly advise me in the next issue of your 
journal whether or not cow peas and sorghum, growTi 
together and put in silo together, will make an ensi- 
bge that will keep as well as corn ensilage? 

Princess Anne Co., Va. BuBTB C. Hanibs. 

Yes.— Ed. 

Lump Jaw. 
I have a nice Jersey heifer about three years old 
which has Inii p jaw. Will you please tell me what is 
the beet treatment T Subsceiber. 

In this issue you will find a remedy for this disease 
advertised by a well known reliable firm. The address 
of the maker is Fleming Bros., 22 Union Stock Yards, 
Chicago.— Ed. 




Trucking, Garden and Orchard. 


The month of February has been 80 unfavorable for 
•work in the £;arden and truck field that little of the 
work snggested for that month can possibly have been 
done. This means that two months' work will have to 
be crowded into one, and the planting of many crops 
will have to be delayed. As soon a^ the land is dry 
«nough to haul on, get out manure and have it spread 
and plowed in and set the harrow to work fitting the 
land for the crops. Both manure and commercial fer 
tUizer are better applied some time before the plant 
ing of the crops. They become better fitted to supply 
the needs of the crops, and by frequent working of 
the soil become better assimilated with it and their 
plant food more available. In supplying manure and 
fertilizers, do not economize on the quantity or qual 
Ity. To succeed in growing fine vegetables, there 
must be a very abundant supply of available food, so 
ae to force the growth. Unless vegetables are grown 
quickly they are not tender and succulent, and hence 
will not command the best price or be acceptable on 
the table. 

Baglish peas do not require the soil to be overrich, 
or they will run too much to vine. A piece of land 
manuied for potatoes last year makes an excellent 
place for peas. If the land is not rich enough, use 
acid phosphate at the rate of 300 lbs. and 50 lbs. of 
muriate of potash to the acre, and after the peas have 
commenced to grow freely, give a light top dressing of 
nitrate of soda, say 50 lbs. to the acre, when the plants 
are dry. Sow in broad rows three feet apart. 

Kale, spinach and salad crops, like lettuce and rad- 
ishes, may be sown in the latter part of the month. 

Irish potatoes and English peas should be planted 
as soon as the land can be got into good order. 

Irish potatoes require plenty of available plant 
food, and this is best supplied by commercial ferti 
liters, as farm yard manure is very apt to induce scab. 
In planting the crop, be careful not to plant on land 
where scabby potatoes were grown last year, as the 
spores of the disease will have infected the land and 
the crop will be sure to become infested with the dis 
ease. Also be careful to see that seed is free from 
scab, or the same trouble will arise. If there is any 
indication of scab on the sets, they should be soaked 
in corrosive sublimate solution (2 ounces of sublimate 
to 16 ounces of water) for an hour before being 
planted. A good fertilizer for Irish potatofs can be 
made up of 300 1 bs. of nitrate of soda, 600 lbs. cotton 
seed meal or fish scrap, 800 lbs. of acid phosphate, 
and 300 lbs. of muriate of potash ; or one of the special 
potato fertilizers put up by manufacturers can be used. 
Apply at the rate of 500 to 1,500 lbs. to the acre. II 
not more than 500 lbs. is used, this may be put in the 
row and be well mixed with the soil before planting 
the sets. If more than 500 lbs. is used, apply broad 
cast aadiharrow in. Cat the sets so as to have two 
eyes at least on each piece, and i,lant as soon as cut. 
Plant 15 inches apart in the row and the rows two feet 
six inches apart. Cover with six inches of soil to be 
raked down to four inches before the plants come 

Fall planted cabbage should be encouraged to grow 
by cultivating the land as soon as dry enough, and 
after they have started a top dressing of nitrate of 
soda will greatly help them. A test of the use of 
nitrate of soda on cabbage made in North Carolina 
gave the following results : "When no nitrate of soda 
was used there was a yield of but 910 prime heads of 
cabbage per acre, showing that the ground itself was 
'poor.' When 300 lbs. of the nitrate was applied per 
acre on the same sort of land in two equal dressings, 
the number of prime heads obtained was 3,260. When 
the same amount was applied in three equal dressings, 
the yield of prime heads per acre was 6,390. On the 
plat which had received 400 lbs. of nitrate of soda per 
acre in two equal dressings, the yield was 4,160 prime 
heads per acre, and when the same amount was ap- 
plied in three equal dressings, 7,580 prime heads were 
obtained per acre." Harden off cabbage plants raif ed 
in frames during the winter and set out as soon as the 
weather is mild and the ground fit. 

In this issue will be found instructions for making 
a hot bed and raising plants therein. This should 
have attention at once. 

Strawberries should be cultivated as soon as the 
ground is dry enough to encourage growth, and if not 
looking vigorous and healthy in a week after cultiva- 
ting, give a top dressing made up of 100 lbs. of nitrate 
of soda, 50 lbs. of muriate of potash, and 260 lbs. of 
acid phosphate per acre, and work in with the culti- 
vator. Apply the dressing when the plants are dry. 

The pruning of all fruit trees and vines should be 
completed as soon as possible before the sap begins to 
be active. 

When correaponding with advertiBen, kindly k«b- 
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[Excerpt from Bdllbtin 130.] 
[Continued from February number, 1903.] 
Editor Southern Planter : 

Albemarle Pippin — While this name is not recog 
nized in the standard lists, as a variety, it seems to us 
quite clear that the type of tree, and in certain char- 
acteristics the fruit, have departed suflBciently from 
the old Newtown Pippin as grown in the North, to at 
least warrant position as a subvariety. The trees, cer 
tainly, show considerable differentiation, and there is 
some slight diflference in regard to fruiting habit and 
in size and shape of the fruits, as grown upon the Ex 
periment Station grounds here. 

It is a vigorous grower, forming a strong, upright, 
moderately spreading head, thus far, making long 
wood growth, very much branched. Trunk 26 inches 
in circumference at base, and also averaging same at 
head. Thus far, this variety has not blighted here to 
notice, and maintains a very healthy appearance. 

The trees bloomed in 1895, six years after planting, 
and have set a few fruits annually, since 1895, bur 
there has not been enough at any time to mention as 
a crop. The general character of the fruit is so well 
known that it does not need particular description, 
but it is interesting to note that on this soil, which is 
distinctly not suited to Pippins, the variety becomes 
rather more elongate than ordinarily, and shows the 
ridges around the eye, characteristic of Oregon Pip 
pins, but the fruits are not so large. The fruit shows 
a strong tendency to scab, and is also attacked by 
bitter rot. In 1901, eight well grown trees yielded 
133 bushels of fruit, of which 6J bushels might have 
been reckoned as approaching near to first class fruit. 

Experimenta are under way to determine whether 
we can make this variety jl^ld good commercial fruit 
on heavy clay soil. In a previous Bulletin, No. 98, of 
the Station series, I have discussed the soils to which 
this variety is adapted. It is so well knosvn that this 
tree is a shy bearer until it reaches a good age, that 
further notes in regard to it are hardly necessary. 

Lawver (Delaware Red Winter).— A fairly well 
known variety of Missouri origin. Tree only fairly 
vigorous, forms a round, spreading top of good form. 
Trunk measures in circumference at base, 26 inches, 
and at head, 22 inches. The tree is fairly healthy 
and free from blight here ; but the fruit has been 
more or less subject to bitter rot at this place. 

The first bloom was noted in 189-t, a few fruits were 
produced in 1895. and in 1897 the tiee bore very well, 
furnishing fine specimen?, free from diseasp; in 1899 
the trees bore a fair crop, and also in 190 L This 
variety cannot be co-nmended eepeeiaily for it« be 
havior here, but in soil adapted to Pippins and Wine 
saps, I have known it to do remarkably well, and it 
is worthy of trial in a small way in such situations. 

Winenap —One of the very best known varieties of 
red apples grown in America ; of New Jersey origin, 
and generally disseminated over the Eastern United 
States. The tree, on proper soil, is a vieorous grower, 
but unless pruned carefully to a central stem, the 
head becomes very procumbent, giving it an ugly 

form. It is quite free from blight, and the foli-ige 
not particularly subject to fungous diseases. At this 
time the tree measures here, 25 inches in circumfer- 
ence at base and 2.3 at head. 

The first bloom was noted In 1893, and the first fruit 
in 1895; in 1897, a light crop was borne, and in 1899j 
a crop averaging three bushels per tree ; in 1901, the 
crop averaged six bushels per tree; but on this soil the 
fiuit is very small, poorly colored and badly attacked 
by the common apple scab; bitter rot has not been 
noted on the fruit, chougb it stands adjacent to Ben 
Davis, which is badly attacked. The character and 
quality of fruit are too well known to need descrip- 
tion. As a red apple of market grade, it has no- 
superior on those soils which produce fine, clean fruifc 
of good size. It, however, is illy adapted to th* 
heavy clay soils or moist situations 

Arkansas (Mammoth Black Twig). — This variety 
has but recently become generally disseminated, and 
is not yet known as a commercial sort in the markets 
to any extent. It is said to have originated in Ar- 
kansas, and few aoples been more discussed re- 
cently th»n it. The tree is a strong, vigorous grower, 
entirely healthy, free from blight and fungous disease; 
trunk measures 28 inches in circumference at base, 
25 at head. This tree is said to be a seedling of Wine- 
sap, and in some respects reminds one of the Winesap^ 
in appearance of wood, yet its growth habit is dis- 
tinctly different and be'ter than the Winesap. 

This variety showed the first bloom in 1894, five 
years after planting, and bore a few fruits in 1895, 
also in 1897, but showed up better in 1899; in 1901, it 
bore a very heavy crop, twelve bushels of very fair 
fruit bf ing picked from one tree, of which 90 per cent, 
graded drst claPS. The size and color, however, were 
not up to the standard of this variety in better fiuIt 
soils than ours. The fruit is roundish, oblate, regu- 
lar, much larger than Winesap, and of a dull reddish 
color, nothing like so precty as Winesap. The quality 
is also below Winesap, but distinctly better than York 
Impel ial. It promises to be a good keeper in thi» 
latitude. The fruit has been thus far entirely frte 
from scab and bit er rot, except on one occasion it 
showed some slight attack of the latter. This variety 
is mentioned as a promising cosmopolitan apple on all 
of our good fruit soils, and it will probably be far lesa 
attacked by blight than York Imperial. 

Gano.—A supposed seedling of Ben Davis, dissem- 
inated from Tennessee, and by many thoaght to to» 
clo&ely resemble Ben Davis to warrant separate variety 
position. The true Gano is, however, dls'inct from 
Ben Davis in character of tree, and also to a less ex- 
tent in character of fruit, and has distinct claims as a 
variety. At this place it is a strong grower, forming 
an upright, slightly spreading head, with well devel- 
oped wood. Tae trunk is 31 inches in circumference 
at base and 28 inches at head. 

This variety bloomed first in 1893, and produced a 
fair crop for the size of the trees in 1895 and a heavy 
crop in 1897; in 1899, the crop was injured by bitter 
rot. and only about three or four bushels picked per 
tree ; in 1901, a crop of 8} bushels per tree wa» 
picked, which was quite free from disease except 
slight attack of scab. The fruit is round, ovate, 
larger than Ben Davis, more distinctly washed with 
red and quite blighter in appearance. The quality 
is almost or quite identical with Ben Davis ; some- 




times one thinks there is a slight difference in favor 
of Gano, bat it is very slight indeed. This variety as 
a filler for an early bearer is, in our es imation, quite 
superior to Ben Davis, but it is quite true that in 
many cases Ben Davis is sold for Gino, and the oppo 
site may also be true. 

Via. — A. little known variety of origin. 

Though it appears to be an old variety, it has gained 
very little notice, and is rarely found in cultivation; 
here it has shown some remarkable qualities. The 
tree is a fairly good grower, not large, forming a well 
rounded spreading head. The trunk measures 23 
inches in circumference at base and 21 a*} head. It is 
quite free from blight and fungnns diseases. 

First bloom wa^ noted in 1893 and the trees bore 
heavily in 1895, six years after planting. Pull crop? 
were borne in 1897 and 1899, the latter jear three 
bushels per tree. In 1901, ttie trees bore six bushels 
each, which for their size is a very heavy crop 
About 90 per cent, of this crop was fiists. In the off 
years, there is ordinarily a light crop produced. The 
fruit is roundish, oblate, a dull red in color, of fine 
appearance. The quality is medium to good, and the 
season is early winter. This fiuit ought to cold store 
well, and thus become a very profitable sort because 
of its great productiveness. The size of the tree and 
its early bearirg habit, renders it valuable as a filler; 
and this, coupled with irs freedom from disease both 
in fruit and tree, leads us to commend it for this pur 
pose. In the warmer parts of Virginia, it will prove 
a fall apple, and prompt cold storage will be necessary 
to carry it into winter. 

Wm. B Alwood, 

Dec. 20, 1902. Horticulturist. 

[to be continued.] 


Editor Southern Planter : 

The farmer should have a hot bed to start early 
garden plants in. Commence making OLe now. Se 
lect a location wich good drainage and sloping towards 
the south. If the location have some protection from 
the cold north winds, it is much more desirable. 

A bed nine feet long and six feet wide will usnall 
be ample for ordinary purposes. la such a bed 
enough tomato seed can be germinated for two a^res. 
But to carry this many plants through, a cold frame 
is also necessary, into which the young plants may be 
transplanted when aboat one and a half inches high. 

For the hot bed, excavate the ground to a depth of 
about three feet, and throw the dirt on the north side 
of the bed for protection against cold north winds. 
Plank up the sides of the bed and make the north side 
at least six irches higher than the south side, so that 
water will run off the glass readily. 

Place cross pieces of 2 x 4 inch material at intervals 
of three feet to make the bed more substantial, and 
also for the sash to meet over. Good stobs of 2 x 4 
inch material should be driven into the ground even 
with the side walls of the bed, and to which the plank 

should be nailed. If all wooden parts are given a good 
coat of paint before they are put in place, they wiU 
last much longer. 

The bed is now ready for the heating material. This 
should be good, fresh stable manure. Fill the bed up 
to eighteen inches with it. Now, to st rt ferm«nta 
tion evenly, tramp the material down and make it 
moist, but not too wet. Fork it over once or twice 
at intervals anid retramp. 

When the temperature CDmes down to about 95 de- 
grees, fill in with six inches of very rich loam soil. 
Rotted sods mixed with about one half good wood's 
earth make a good hot bed soil. The soil should be 
run through a coarse sieve before putting it in place. 
The sash should now be put on for several days to give 
Che weed seed time to germinate, and also to keep out 
water from drenching rains. Hot bed sash can usually 
be purchased for about $2 50 apiece. The bed is now 
ready to sow. Take a stick as long as the width of 
the bed and press it into the soil, sow the seeds in the 
depression and cover them lightly. Sprinkle some 
fine sand over the rows to keep the soil from baking 
above the seeds. 

The surface of the soil should be kept moist, but 
not too wet. Take one part sulphur and ten parte 
slaked lime, mix well, then make the soil appear 
nearly white with it to prevent fungus diseases from in- 
juring the young plants. Give the bed good ventilation 
during fair weather. It is a good rule to give enough 
ventilation during the day to keep moisture from set- 
tlii g on the under side of the glass. However, if the 
weather is very cold, great care must be exercised in 
ventilating. The most critical time is when the young 
tender plants are coming through. How to manage a 
hot bed correctly must be learned from experience. 

The joung plants must be lept thinned out and 
given one or more transplantings to keep ihem from 
spindling up too much. This senteuce does not ap- 
ply to sweet potato beds, since ve want such plants to 
be about six inches high. 

The tubers for sweet potato plants should be selected 
with the greatest care. No disease of any kind should 
appear on them, since disease producing spores will 
get onto the plants and may seriously afifect the crop. 
I have frequently been successful in preventing all 
diseases, except soft rot, from injuring m> sweet po- 
tato crops by selecting clean tabers for the hot bed. 
Spores of soft rot fungus appear in the atmosphere, 
and frequently do seiious damage to the crop when 
carelessly harvested. 

I may treat this subject more exhaustively at the 
time of harvest. Plant a gooii crop of this most ex 
cellent vegetable. Those who may desire an ex- 
haustive treatise upon nearly all phases of sweet po- 
tato growin? and storing, are referred to my book 
upon the subject, as space will not permit a full dis- 
cussion here. R H. Peice. 

Montgomery Co. Va. 





Editor Southern Planter : 

The great planting season is now at hand at the 
South, trending northward as the ground thaws. For 
fully three -fourths of the planting of berry plants in 
this country is done in late winter and early spring 
For many reasons it should be disposed of as early as 
practicable. Done now it competes little with the 
pressing work to come later. It can be done better 
whUe there is no rush, then in a climate that admits of 
It the winter is the safest season to transplant all fruit 
trees and berry plants. They are then in a dormant 
state and it is as hard not to get a stand as to get one 
later on when the sun gets hot and parches the 
ground hard. 

For field culture of strawberries set plants in rows 
three feet apart. The distance apart in the row de 
pends on whether the stool system or the matted row 
systeTi is to be followed. For nearly all varieties the 
Btool or hill system is the simplest, most profitable and 
in the long run the cheapest. For hills we set 
plants fifteen to eighteen inches apart in the row, 
according as the vaiiety is a rank grower or not. For 
thin matted rows, the only matted row at all ad visa 
ble, plant two feet apart. 

The quantity of manure allowable will also depend 
entirely on how it is applied. If broadcastei^i and thor- 
oughly mingled with the soil an almost unlimited 
quantity can be used. If to be applied in the drill, 
judgment must be used not to overdo the thing and 
bring too much manure in immediate contact with 
the plant roots. 

We have often broadcasted one hundred loads of 
stable manure an acre, or in lieu of this applied in the 
same way two tons of cotton-seed meal. Both of these 
manures being highly nitrogenous and tending to 
greatly stimulate plant growth at the expense of fruit. 
It is always best to apply the following fall as a top 
dressing a liberal quantity of potash and phosphoric 
acid ; the first in the form of sulphate of potash and 
the latter in the form of acid phosphate or dissolved 

Where manuring is to be confined to the drill, 500 to 
700 pounds cotton seed meal to the acre, evenly sown 
and mlxf»d with the soil by running a cultivator, har 
row or plow lightly down the furrow is beat. Lacking 
the cotton-seed meal, any fertilizer rich in ammonia 
will answer. What is desired is to promote a steady, 
vigorous plant growth. The fruit producing proper 
ties of manure, potash and phosphoric acid, should be 
applied the following fall, winter or early spring, as a 
top dressing. 

More depends on the proper setting of a strawberry 
plant, or any kind of plant or tree than most people 

can be led to believe. If the roots of the strawberry 
plant are very long, it is best, though not essential, to 
trim them back to about four inches. The holes should 
be opened broad and deep enough to admit of the 
roots being spread fan shaped, and the earth should 
be pressed firmly around them. The pioper depth to 
set a plant or tree of any kind is the depth that na- 
ture set them. Observe and discover this when you 
dig them up. 

In a garden bed strawberry plants can be set in 
rows fifteen inches apart with the plants fifteen Inches 
apart in the row. Bat between each series of three 
rows there must be left an alley or walk two feet 
wide. All runners must, of course, be kept closely 
clipped from plants set this way, and, indeed, from 
all plants grown in the stool or hill system. 

Dewberry plants should be set six feet apart. A 
good plan is to run the rows six feet apart and then 
cross them at right angles with jows the same dis- 
tance apart. Eight in the check, where the cross 
comes, the plant can be set, spreading out the roots 
well. Easpberries, blackberries, and grapevines can 
all be set this way. Plants or vines set this way can 
be plowed both ways, and hoe work almost entirely 
dispensed with in cultivating the crop. 

A good way to apply manure or fercilizer to plants 
set this way is to drill it in the open furrow on the 
four sides of the plant and cover with earth. About 
the same manure can be used on the dewberries, black- 
berries and grapfs as on the straw oeiries. 

KUtrell, N. G. O. W. Blacknai-l. 


In this issue will be found a Spray Calendar giving 
instructions for the treatment of trees and vegetables 
infested with disease or insect pests, and also for the 
preparation of the fungicides and insecticides re- 
quired. In our advertising columrs will be found the 
advertisements of numerous makers of spray pumps. 


The Virginia Experiment Station (Blaeksburg, Va.) 
has prepared and is now issuing a bulletin on the best 
treatment for destroying this pernicious and deadly 
enemy of apple pear, plum and peach trees. If yon 
have not received a copy, write for one at once, as in- 
fested trees should receive the first treatment before 
the buds begin to push. 


Mr. Pendleton, who wrote on this subject in our 
January issue, asks us to say that he has neither trees 
nor nuts for sale. He has received many enquiries 
for same. 




Live Stock and Dairy. 


Prince Rupert. 

Prince Rupert, No. 79539, sire Beau Donald, 
58996, by Beau Brnmmel, 51817, out of Donna, 
33735, dam Sallie Morton, No. 44785, sire Roscoe, 
16509, dam Loyala 3d, 17683, first attracted attention 
when a yearling by winning first premiums over all 
beef breeds at several Missouri fairs. In 1901 as an 
aged bull, he won first premium at the big Lexington 
{Ky.) Fair, and the same year won sweepstakes over 
all aged bulls at the Royal Show of America at Kan 
sas City. In 1902, he start d again at Lexingt n, win 
ning second in his class and first at the head of his 
herd, at L iwrenceburg, Ky. He won over all beef 
breeds first in class and first at the head of his herd 
At the Ohio State Fair, he won first in class first at 
head of herd, also at the head of his herd he won 
sweepstakes over all beef breeds. At the West Vir 
ginia State Fair he won first in class and first at the 
head of his herd, and at the same place, wifh the as 
sistance of hie family, the Bean and Belle Donalds, 
won the get of a siie which was the largest cash Here 
ford premium paid in America in 1902. We congrat 
ulate Mr. E. G. Butler on having secured so fine a 
specimen of the Hereford breed to head his herd. 

Wood Ashes for Qrass Land. 

Will yon tell me in yonr next issue the best way to 
apply ashes to grass as a t op dressing 1 

Alexandria Co. , Va. C. R. HoOFF. 

Sow broadcast by hand. — Ed. 


Editor Southern Planter : 

I am glad to say that my present lot of calves and 
yearlings are the best I ever had, and in the best con- 
dition. It is worth a visit to Castalia to see them, and 
no buj er can afiford to overlook this opportunity to 
buy cattle at home which are as good as can be found 
anywhere at a distance, and at prices which are ex- 
tremely low for value received. 

I have shipped Hereford bulls from the Castalia 
herd to over a dozen States, but Virginia leads them 
all in the number purchased; and I look for a still 
better demand here, as farmers begin to realize the 
real value of good cattle to make the farm pay, and 
especially Hereford cattle, which are the best adapted 
of all breeds for the South. 

My recent visit to Herefordshire, England, con- 
firmed the opinion formed before I decided on Here- 
fords, that the climate and soil conditions of Hereford- 
shire are more like those of Virginia than any other 
part of England; and thus it is only natural that the 
Hereford should thrive well on Virginia pastures when 
transferred from his native heath. 

So it is that Imported Salisbury 76059 (19083), the 
chief stock sire at Castalia, found in the salubrious 
climate of Albemarle a home so much like that of his 
birthplace, that he had a rare opportunity to thrive 
steadily, and his calves all show remarkable develop- 
ment and hardy, thrifty condition. 

My visit to Mr. John Price, of Court House, Pem- 
bridge, Herefordshire, was worth the journey across 
the se». Mr. Price will be remembered as the breeder 
of Salisbury, and a more geiial, hospitable and culti- 
vated host it would be difficult to find. Mr. Price is 
one of the few great breeders of to day, and the cattle 
from his herd of the choicest "White Faces" have 
been sought after by the best breeders of America. 
To give a history of Mr. Price's fifty years' experience 
in breeding Herefords, would be to largely give the 
history of Hereford cattle in England for that period. 

Words are inadequate to picture the beauty of 
Herefordshire with Its park like farms, its winding 
and picturesque River Wye, its rich pastures and roll- 
ing meadow lands, and, above all, the herds of fin 
Hereford cattle grazing in nearly every field. 

We have much to learn from the Old Country — 
much of intensive and less of extensive farming. The 
fields there are so clean that one can ride for days 
without seeing "a stick or a stone;" and the neatness 
of the hedges and fence rows and barn yards, and the 
smooth stone roads in every direction, show a high 




Btate of cultivation and activity which makee Vir 
ginia — acd, indeed, all of this New World — eeem new 
in fact; but gi?e us time. Give us the same time that 
It has taken to produce that state of systematic devel 
opment and culture, and this fair Vii ginia will bios 
Bom like a garden, and surely we shall not be far be 
hind. In fact, Mr. Price said that we have as good 
cattle in the United States as they have in England. 
We onght to have. Have we not been buying the 
best Herefords in England for the past half centurj? 
Salisbnrj is one of them; "and there are others." 

There is another point I wish to impress, and that is 
the regard for trees manifested in Eoglacd. Nearly 
every field has a doren fine old trees dotted aronid in 
such a manner as to aflford good shade for the cattle at 
all times of day, and also to form an artistic landscape 
feature. The trees are not Mowed to grow along the 
fences, which are always clean — the grass growing to 
the very edge of the hedges or continuing under the 
fences. The efifect of such care over a large ai ea* of 
country is very beautiful, and an example which we 
may well profit by. 

The new barn at Caafalia is almost completed, and 
will be a great improvement in the facility of feedicg 
and handling the cattle. It is 58 by 110 feet and 43 
feet to the ridge, well lighted, and buiit in the modern 
Btjle of two inch plank frame — not a heavy piece of 
timber being in the barn. The passages behind the 
cattle are 10 feet wide for a manure spreader to go 
through every morning, thus keeping the barn clean 
and putting the manure where it will do the most 
good with the least waste; also forming a wide lane 
for the calves to exercise in in stormy weather. There 
are many other features in this barn which are worth 
studying, and visitors will find a good opportunity to 
see the cattle comfortable in all kinds of weather. 

I am glad to see more and more adyertisements of 
Hereford cattle in the columns of the Planter. Keep 
up the good work. The West, always eager to take 
hold of a good thing, was not slow to recognise the 
merits of the Hereford for feeding purposes, and 
"the peerless grazing breed" have found their way 
into every section where good cattle are raised. The 
field of opportunity in Virginia, where pure bred 
bulls of the right type and breeding are so much 
needed, is very great, and with such bulls already 
here, there is no excuse for cattlemen to breed or feed 
"scrubs." There is alwajs a demand for good beef. 

Albemarle Co., Va. Muebay BoococK. 

Heart is a hope place, and home is a heart place, 
and she sadly mistaketh who would exchange the 
happiness of home for anything less than Heaven. 


Editor Southern Planter : 

I am well aware that some exceedingly able, well- 
educated dairymen have for several years practiced 
keeping their cows closely and continuously confined 
in their stables four or five months during the winter 
season. They assert that the animals have done well;, 
that no injurious coneequences have been observable, 
and recommend the practice to others. They claim 
that it is much less trouble, and that the cows give 
more milk under this arrangement. 

This would seem to settle the matter and leave no 
ground for argument, but nature's laws ca mot be In- 
fringed without sooner or later incurring the penalty. 
Some diseases aie very insidious in their approach — 
stealthily, silently and secretly creeping upon the an- 
imal's system, making no sign until their deadly fanga 
are fastened firmly upon the victim's vitals. When 
tuberculosis or consumption shows itself, It is gener- 
ally too firmly seated to be removed !iy medical skill, 
and the only cure is slaughter and the fertilizer man- 

Tuberculosis and pleuro pneumonia are contagious 
diseases, but there can be no doubt whatever that they 
break out spontaneously, without previous contact 
with infected animals, under conditions favorable for 
their germination. If this were not so, where did the 
first case come fromt Did the Lord create one in- 
fected animal to inoculate others and keep the icourge 
In the world! Pleuropneumonia broke out in the 
herd of N. C. Elsbree, of Bradford county, Pa , and 
the cattle had not been In contact with any other cat- 
tle for years. 

Animals which were created for an active life, as 
well as human beings, must have regular exercise, or 
their health will fail, if not break down altogether. 
This fact in regard to the human family is established 
beyond all controversy. Nobody, that I am aware of, 
ever disputed it. A.11 the doctors, from the earliest 
ages down to the present time, have agreed that regu 
lar exercise of i-he body wa^> necessary to the preserva- 
tion of good health. Piof. F. D. Chaumont says : "A 
man of sedentary occupation ought to take exercise 
of a physical kind, varied from 50 to 100 foot tons per 
diem."' Prof Charles S. Rjyse says: "We may give 
the digestive apparatus the Oest material for the for- 
mation of blood ; we may furnish the lungs with the 
purest air for vitalizing the blood ; we may secure the 
proper amount of sleep under the most favorable cir- 
cumBtances ; we may so clothe the body as to afford it 
the best possible protection ; but if we fail to take the 
proper amount of exercise, there cannot be a harmo 
nious development of the phjslcal man." 




The Library of Universal Knowledge says: 'Exercise 
l9 an important element of hygiene. To preserve all 
the functions of the body in healthy action, it is neces 
sary to secure their due and regular action or exer 
else." Dr. Dunn says: "Everything that tends to 
lower the health and vigor of the system, increases 
the susceptibility to disease." Inaction will certainly 
lower the health and vigor of the system. There can 
be no question that human beings must take regular 
exercise to preserve good health; and reasoning from 
analogy, cows must also. The analogy is perfect so 
far as regards the means of locomotion. Cows have 
good legs, and can run as fast and travel as far in a 
day as the average man. In their «*ild state they take 
a great deal of exercise, and are travelling half the 
time. No valid reason can be given why cows should 
not have exercise as well as mankind. Even clams 
and oysters, not provided with legi, manage to crawl 
about and exercise their bodies in the mud. They tell 
US that cows get exercise enough in lying down and 
getting up, and stepping back and forth in their stalls 
They might, with equal propriety, say that a man 
could get sufficient exercise in turning over in bed. 

The convicts in the Eastern penitentiary of Penn- 
•ylvania are taken out Into the yard every day (about 
twenty at a time), and made to run around in a circle 
like circus horses. The convicts love it as well as 
children love to play, and they know the exercise is 
for the benefit of their health. 

To retain our present itrength and increase it, we 
must regularly use what we have. Man, horse or ox 
will lose much strength if they do not work or take 
exercise for four or five months. Oarsmen and pugi 
lists go into training for weeks before their contests 
come off in order to develop the strength of their 
bodies and the staying power of their Inrgs. Of equal 
Importance to exercise for the preservation of health, 
Is pure fresh air. Dr. Gunn says : "Pure air may be 
considered the prime necessity of life." In New Eng 
land, sfatietics show that agriculturists who pass most 
of their days out of doors, live to an average of sixty 
four J ears, while the average attained by persons who 
have indoor employment does not exceed forty one. 
Pure air is perhaps of equal importance to wholesome 
food. Does it appear reasonable that the air in a 
stable where fiom ten to forty cows are confined con- 
stantly day and night, can possibly be kept as pure as 
the air of out of doors 1 No building on earth can be 
ventilated so ^ell as the free winds of heaven venti 
late the barn yard and the fields. Every person 
knows that on entering the stable in the morning, 
after the wind has changed to the south and it is rain 
ing, that he encounters a vitiated atmosphere. 

Human ingenuity has never yet been able to devise 
a means of ventilation whereby the air in congress 

ional halls, parliament houses, churches and theatres 
can be kept as pure and wholesome as that on the out- 
side. To talk about stables being perfectly ventilated 
with the dung and th« urine, the breath of numer- 
ous animals, and the (ffluviumof their bodies present, 
is perfectly preposterous. 

Fifty years ago, when farmer's cows were wintered 
in the barn yard, we heard nothing about tuberculosis 
and pleuro pneumonia, and even now it is mostly 
found in rich men's stables, where they keep their 
high priced cows, and have stopped every crack and 
crevice where fresh air could enter, except the tubes 
they call ventilators. 

Sunlight, for the promotion of full health, is almost 
as necessary as pure air. In many hospitals, rooms 
are provided where patients can take a sun bath. 
That is the best that can be done until the patient is 
able to walk out of doors. It is not the sunshine that 
is reflected, refracted and intercepted by a few win 
dows in the stable that invigorates the cows, but the 
bright, piercing rays that dart down unobstructed 
from the luminous surface of the King of Day, full of 
healthful magnetism. J. W. Ingham. 

Bradford Co., Pa. 


Bditor Southern Planter : 

A gentleman who is a recognised national authori- 
ty, in a published statistical estimate of the meat sup 
ply of the world, has the following among his conclu- 
sions : 

"The world's population is getting far and away 
ahead of the available meat supply. The hnman race 
has eaten the live stock of the world to a standstill. 
In the progress of man and of animal life, the multi 
plication of the former has so outstripped the latter 
that the decennial ratio of ihe two has increased to 
an alarming extent in the last fifty years. We have 
enteied upon a period of permanently high meat price* 
in this country." 

This condition of affairs shonM put our Southern 
farmers to thinking. There is opportunity presented 
here that, if improved, will bring many thousands of 
doUar-i into the pockets of our people. It is true that 
in many sections of the South our farmers cannot com 
pete with the natural gra-.s producing regions in the 
production of beef. But there is no section of the 
world that is better alapted to the production of the 
highest class of pork or the finest quality of bacon. 
This is proven by the fact that Virginia hams have, 
for a hundred years, commanded the highest market 

To produce the highest quality of meat, the hog 
needs a variety of food. An exclusive corn diet tends 
to produce lardy meat, which cannot be converted 



[Mai ch 

into that quality of bacon that is demanded by the 
class of consumera who are willing to pay the highest 
prices. An exclusive corn diet also tends to sterility, 
and this has done much to destroy the vitality and 
breeding qualities of the best known breeds of this 

There is no country on earth where such a variety 
of the best hog feed can be grown as right here in Vir 
ginia, and in our Southern States. Field peas, Soja 
beans, oats, corn, rape, sorghum, Kaffir corn and pea 
nuts, all grow to perfection here, and afford a bill of 
fare that is unsurpassed for the production of the 
highest type of the bacon hog. Besides the btst fa- 
cilities for growing the greatest variety of forage and 
feeds, we have a very decided advantage over the 
North and West in our milder climate, which is an- 
other important factor in the economical production 
of pork, as no domestic animal suffers more from cold 
than the hog. 

There is also as much in the breed as in the feed. 
A bacon hog must possess the characteristic, or qual 
ity, of pioduciDg bacon, instead of lard, as much so 
as the dairy cow must have the tendency to produce 
milk or butter fat. Instead of beef, or vice versa. If 
we wish to produce the highest quality of family ba 
•con, that will command the highest market prices, 
we must grow a type of hog that will produce It. 

In our travels, in rece::t years, through portions of 
the Dominion of Canada, in search of St. Lambert 
Jerseys, our attention has been called . o the improved 
large Yorkshires, as possessing more of the qualities 
of the Ideal "bacon breed" than any other with which 
we are acquainted, and, though we have been great 
admirers of the Poland China and Berkshires for a 
quarter of a century, we have abandoned them in fa 
vor of the large Yorkshiies. 

This breed is not so well known in the South as 
other breeds, and, for the benefit of your readers, we 
append a few extracts, giving the opinion of well 
known authorities on their merits as a profitable bacon 

Prof. John A. Craig, Professor of Animal Husban- 
dry at the Iowa Experiment Station, made a test of 
various breeds lately. Writing In reference to this, 
he remarks : 

"We took all of our experiment hogs into Chicago, 
and I followed them right through the slaughter tests 
there. In onr results, I fiad that the Yorkshire has 
given the greatest gains on the leivst feed." 

Hon. Eichard Gibson, an Influential breeder of Can- 
ada, in the Breeders^ Gazette, writing about "The Im 
proved Yorkshires," says : 

"To them we Canadians owe onr present standing 
in the Boglish markets, where we have ousted the 
Dinish and Irish bacon from the second place, and 
sent them down to third and fourth rank. Some peo 

pie will tell you, ' Oh, it is Canada peas ;' others say, 
'Oh, It is dairy slop.' " Agair it is claimed, "They 
feed no corn in Canada," but none are right. We feed 
corn in Canada, and lots of it. I have the reputation 
of sending the best hogs to our buyer. He never asks 
to see them, because he knows exactly what he will 
get, but, nevertheless, I feed lots of corn, because I 
can grow it. Here is the rub. One may shove all the 
peas he chooses Into a Poland China or Cheshire, and 
he will have fat meat. Just the same, I can feed corn 
to Yorkshires and get lots of lean. It is all in the 
breed. Can one by feeding a Holstein Increase butter 
fat up to that yielded by a Jersey? It is the breed. 
Neither by high feeding can a Jersey be made to pro- 
duce the yield of milk of the Holstein, or put on flesh 
like a Shorthorn, bud she can make richer butter than 
either. Again, It is the breed. It is the same with 
8«Fine. When yon want good bacon, you must get a 
bacon breed. Your folks want bacon now, and as the 
trade develops all intelligent farmers will want bacon 
breeds and the Improved Yorkshire, which has done 
so much for us, will be popular with you." 

Roanoke Co., Va. A. M. Bowman. 


Editor Southern Planter: 

I enclose with this priced catalogue of onr Third 
Annual Brood Sow Sale of Berkshires just held which 
I feel will be to your interest to devote a little more 
than the usual space to on account of the unparalled 
average secured ($221 90) at the sale on account of the 
high quality of the offering and the large number of 
prominent breeders attending, as you will see, from 
nearly every State. 

Although the Farms held mail bids, probably ave - 
aging nearly $100.00, only five of these secured ani- 
mals, and of these three were unlimited. The other 
56 head were sold to breeders right In the ring, and 
who made these bids as the resnlt of the quality of the 
animals before their eyes. 

Col. Bailey, the auctioneer, knouked down the whole 
61 head at an average of 2} minutes to the animal. 

Probably the sensation of the sale was the boar, 
Manor Faithful, who, notwithstanding the fact that he 
was sold first of all at a time when the bidding sel- 
dom commences at an auction, went for $615 to the 
Filston Farms, the contending bidder being Mr. J. M. 
Overton, of Nashville, Tenn. There was not another 
boar found in England combining so much quality and 
size without any serious defect, with probably one ex- 
ception, and he could not be guaranteed a breeder. 
The sow. Manor Corydon Duchess, was most unfortu- 
nately lame, owing to a felon, but In epite of this she 
sold for $505, Filston Farms again being the fortunate 
buyer, and many present thought she would have 
reached $1,000 had It not been for this temporary lame- 

One of the most gratifying features of this sale was 




that these high prices were made by contending breed 
ers of such high reputation and so widely scattered 
that it is impossible to impute any intention of forcing 
prices up so as to boom the breed. They simply rep 
resent the demand now before the breeders for an extra 
good individual that will, in addition, form a desirable 
ontcross for the home bred animals 

There were over 65 buyers present, but of this uum 
ber only 19 secured animals. 

The gavel with which Col. Bailey knocked down the 
sale was presented to him by the Faims, and he has 
promised to use it until this record is broken, which 
the Farms think will be a long time ahead. 

Very low special rates were secured at the Kenil 
worth Inn, probably one of the most sumptuous win 
ter resort hotels in the South, and where transactions 
between the breeders were very active after dinner 
during the days preceding and after the sale. The 
whole herd of Berkshires was insptcted with much 
Interest both before and after the sale, and some of 
the offers were so tempting that several sales were 
made at what would have been considered a long price 
a few months ago. 

The sow. Her Majesty, did not bring what was ex 
pected by the Management, especially considering the 
very fine litter that she has raised since her importa- 

At the completion of the sale a sealed e velope con- 
taining an offer of the Biltmore Farms of six animals 
of $50 each in cash, if the buyer would leave them 
and call their bid off, was opened by the auctioneer, 
but in each instance was promptly refused. Three of 
these animals, one of which Manor Faithful, went to 
Filston Farms and the other three were purchased 
by Mr. Guy C. Barton, of Nebraska, whose represet ta 
tive also refused the offer. 

Such prominent breeders were present, as Mr. N. H. 
Gentry, Sedalia, Mo.; F. E. McEldowney, Portland, 
Ore., and H. C. Taylor, Orfordville, Wis., repesent 
ing the Ladd Estate ; J. E. Dodge, from Hood Farm, 
Lowell, Mass.; W. J. Lovejoy, Eoscoe, 111.; W. R. 
Harvey, Sibley, 111.; J. G. Yeager, Shelbjville, Ky.; 
W. F. Lillard, Lawrenceburg, Ky. ; J. M. Overton, 
Nashville, Tenn.; G. A. Swartwout, Piston Farms, 
Glencoe, Md. ; J. K. Honeywell, Lincoln, Neb. ; Lor 
ing Brown, of Belmont Farms, Smyrna, Ga. ; James 
Gibson, Jr., New York City ; W. H. Carpenter, New 
Middieton, Tenn.; J. W. Akin, Cartersville, Ga ; W. 
B. GrifBn, Paris, K. ; W. J. Milner, Cartersville, Ga. ; 
William Edwards, Jr., Plymouth, Fla.; T. H. Bait 
zell, of Indiana ; H. W. Fugate, of Fngate's Hill, Va. ; 
M. K. Munson, of Eidge Farm, Vinemont, Ala. ; Brent 
Van Swearicgen, Simeon, Va.; J. L. Ellis, Baldock, S. 
C; M. O. Dowd, Lowell, N. C; W. B. Beaty and 
brother, Mt. Holly, N. C. ; A. P. Walker, Rushville, 

Ind. ; Jas. T. Anderson, Marietta, Ga ; Geo. T. Mont- 
gomery, Marietta, Ga. ; H. Roquemore, Mansfield, Ga.- 
G. M. Middieton, Shelbyville, Ky.; L. Letterle, Har^ 
rod's Creek, Ky.; T. B. Carney, Murfreesboro, Tenn.;. 
A. H. Tipton, Greenville, Tenn. ; Dorr Clark, Freder-*^ 
icksburg, Va.; W. I. Johns, Baldock, S. C; H. T. Pan- 
coast, of the Forest Home Farm, Pnrcellville, Va. • W. 
H. Hicklin, Greenville, 8. C; T. J. White, of South 
Carolina ; B. Hirris, Pendleton, S. C. ; F. T. Meacham 
Morganton, N. C. ; 8. L. Trogdon, Greensboro, N. 0.,. 
and others. 

Biltmore, N. G. Geo. F. Weston. 

It is very gratifying to us to see that at last South- 
ern hog breeders are realizing the truth of what we 
have been so long telling them, that the secret of suc- 
cess in hog breeding, as in all live stock breeding, is 
good foundation stock, and that It will always pay to 
buy the best, even though the price be a long one. 
We congratulate Biltmore Farms on the record made* 
— Ed. 


Editor Southern Planter : 

As my article on the hog in the November Planter 
is causing a little comment, I will explain my plan of 
handling the sow and litter. 

I will say, in the first place, I have no special breed, 
but a good cross of Berkshire and Poland China. 

I raise three litters one year and two the next from 
my sows. I arrange the pen so that the little pigs can 
creep through the fence, and I teach them to eat while 
on the mother. I begin taking them ofi two and three 
per week until I have all off by the time they are four 
weeks old, taking off the largest first. 

I withhold all slop food a day or two before I begin 
taking off the last pigs, so that when all are off the 
sow's milk will have ceased, and she will always come 
in use within a week if in good condition, but never 
have her fat. If fat, stop all milk foods a week be- 
fore weaning, feeding the pigs plentifully away from 
the sow. This method gives the pigs a good start, 
without check, when separated from the mother. 

With good feed, I sell them from five to seven months 
old with big interest on my money invested. 

Goochland Co.,Va. N. S. Watkiits. 

Hog Pasture, 

I want to go into the hog raising business. Will al- 
falfa, German clover or sapling clover make a good 
hog posture t 

Dinwiddle Co., Va. Subbcbibee. 

Either German (Crimson) clover or sapling clover 
will make a good hog pasture. Alfalfa ought not to 
be pastured. It will not stand grazing. Cow peas or 
cow peas and sorghum or Soy beans will make you the 
best hog pasture for summer. Rape for the fall, arti- 
chokes for winter, and clover for the spring. — Ed. 




The Poultry Yard. 


These competitions are very popular in England, 
but have been little followed in this country. The 
last winter one was conducted in New South Wales, 
and the results are published in detail in the Agricul 
tural Gazette. The competition arose out of a coDtro 
versy between two breeders regarding the merit of 
Silver Wjandots and Buff Orpingtons. The minister 
of agriculture became interesced, and it was finally 
decided to open the contest to all bieeders who should 
contribute six pullets each of any one breed. The gov 
ercment put up yards 57 x 17 feet and pens 6x5} feet 
for each flock of six birds. The fowls were in charge 
of the poultry expert at the Hawkesbury Agricultural 

Prizes were given for the greatest total number of 
eggs laid by each pen and for the greatest aggregate 
weight of eggs. A record was kept of the mark^t 
value of the eggs, total quantities of food consumed, 
and the average cost per hen. The first prize of |50 
for total number of eggs, and of $15 for greatest ag 
gregate weiglit, was awarded to a pen of Black Orp- 

Ttiere were 41 pens entered, which makes it the 
largest competition of Its kind ever conducted. All 
but one pen paid for its food. The average value of 
the eggs was $1 54 per hen, and cost of food 66 cents, 
leaving a profit of 88 cents each. The first pen of 
Black Orpingtons gave a profit of $2 18. The follow- 
ing table shows the average resulis of the various 
breeds, also the record in detail of those pens which 
laid a total of 400 eggs or more during the six winter 
months, April to September being winter in New South 
Wales : 


No. and T<ilal 

Breed. Eggt. 

6 Imperials 426 

24 Silver Wyandots 1681 

48 Black Orpingtons 3 127 

30 Buff Orpingtons 1,949 

18 Buff Wyandots 1.145 

30 White Leghorns 1,746 

12 Anconas 672 

6 Golden Wyandots 317 

« "Birrilees" 317 

18 White Wyandots 8t8 

6 White Orpingtons 273 

12 Buff Leghorns 493 

12 Andalusians 464 

18 Minorcas .-•• 589 

246 Hens 14,047 




$71 00 

70 04 



64 96 

63 61 

58 50 

56 00 

















Now is the time to plan for the coming season ; eggs 
and poultry of all kinds have been in good demand ; 
this is sure to continue, and all should profit by these 

No one kind of poultry has been so scarce and high 
in price as turkeys. The stock in storage has been so 
reduced as to insure good prices another season. 

Prepare for this in time, and guard against the great- 
est of all danger in growing turkeys — inbreeding. 

Make full preparation for growing early pullets. 
Begin now to plan for this. Get the incubators and 
brooders in shape for spring work. Try them ahead 
of time and see if they work right. You may save a 
lot of eggs by so doing Be sure they are in good 
working order before putting in the eggs. 

When brooders are properly made and run, they 
will do good work; but each is as important as the 
other. After the maker has done his part, you must 
do yours. It is quite as important for the brooder to 
be run right as it is absolutely necessary that the in- 
cubator be properly managed ; look out for this. 

Strong, vigorous stock is the proper kind to use for 
breeding ; this holds good in fowls as in all kinds of 
slock. The same rule holds good throughout nature. 
If we ho>e for the best results, we must make use of 
the best means to gain the desired end, whether after 
better crops — fruit, vegetables or live stock — the prin- 
ciple of production is the same. Good quality is not 
to be gained through the use of inferiority. 


One of the most successful broiler raisers in this 
country markets his chicks at 11 to 2 pounds weight, 
at an average cost to raise of 25 cents each. He is able 
to market a broiler chick for every two eggs put in 
his incubators (including infertiles) and his carefully 
kept entimate of cost, extending over several years, is 
as follows : 

Two eggs 5 cents. 

Labor 7 " 

Feed 8 " 

Picking 5 " 

Total 25 

At the price he paid the farmers for eggs his aver- 
age cost is not quite two cents an egg, as the price 
paid for picking is one to two cents above the market 
price for picking broilers, his estimate of the total 
cost is a liberal one. He said : " I would rather pay 
that price and have the chicks carefully picked, each 
man picking 50 or 60 a day, than have a picker earn the 
same amount of money by hurriedly picking 100 a 
day. It is quite easy for a picker to 'skimp' his work, 
and the broilers would be a cheaper looking lot in con 
sequence, shrinking the price perhaps four or five 
cents a pound." In other words, quality pays in broil- 
ers as well as in other things, and the fact that this 
man's broilers frequently bring him five cents a pound 
above the highest market quotations, approves the 
policy of paying the picker a good enough price to 
insure having the chicks carefully picked. 

Broilers bring the hightst prices in April. At this 
season of the year they bring 40 to 50 cents a pound, 
which price gradually scales down to 20 cents or a I'*- 
tie less in August. Later in the j ear the price again 
advances, the advance being most rapid in February 
and March. 

1903 .J 



The Horse. 


Prominent among the stallions in the stud of the 
Hon. William C. Whitney at La Belle Farm, Lexing 
ingion Ky., is Ballyhoo Bey, winner of the Fatnrify 
in 1890. Ballyhoo Bey is a brown horse, foaled 1698 
by Kingston, dam Ballyhoo, Dake of Magenta; sec 
ond dam Biiby, by imported Strachlno; third dam 
Elliptic, by imported Eclipse; fourth dam the eyer 
famous roare Nina, by Boston. Baby and Ecliptic, 
the second and tbird damso' Ballyhoo Bey, were bred 
in the former noted Bnllfitld Stud, Hanover couiitj , 
Va., while Nina passed most of her life there. A 
great fountain head of speed and race horse quality 
was this great daughter of Boston. Another of Nina's 
descendants now prominently before the public is 
The Commoner, who heads the famous Belle Meade 
Stud, Nashville, Tenn. He was sired by Hanover, 
dam Margerine, by Algerine. Algerine was got by 
Abd El Kader, formerly a member of the Bluefield 
Stud, out of Nina He was foaled 1873, and his full 
slater, Algeria, came in 1875, while the dam was bar 
ren in 1874 and 1876, and September 19, 1879, th« 
great daughter of Boston succumbed to the weight of 
years at the age of 31, and was interred on the hill 
■ide overlooking the training track. 

Mr. W. E. McComb, of the Union Stock Yards, 
this city, haa sold to Trainer George E. Eichmond, 
who has charge of the Deep Eun Hunt Club stables 
and track, the bay filly, one year old, by Orphan 
wood, dam Vida B. Wilkes, by Brignoli Wilkes, sec 
ond dam Vida B., by Almont M., and third dam Mary 
Bell, the dam of Urbana Belle, 2:20i, and Eex, 2:22h 
Both the sire and dam of this filly — who, by the way, 
is quite promising — are the property of Mr. McComb, 
who also owns Joyful Maiden, 2:L9}; Medinawood, 
both by King Nutwood, and others as well bred and 
speedy, too. Orphanwood, who is large, handsome 
of King Nutwood and Young Mollie, by Baron Luff, 
2:27, will be kept in the stud this season at the Mc 
Comb Farm, Fiehersville, Va., and the bay stallion 
will doubtless be well patronized by breeders in that 

In Burlingame, 2:18}^, trotting, the splendid son of 
Guy Wilkes, and Ed. Kearney, thoroughbred son of 
Tom Ochiltree, Mr. Eobert Tait, of Spring Garden 
Farm, near Cool Well P. O., in Amherst county, Va., 
offers the services ot a grand pair of stallions, and 
breedeis in that section can make no mistake in 
patronizing such horses, especially those who own 
good mares. Burlingame is of fine size, bred in the 
richest lines, and his get take after him, which shows 
his potency as a sire. Ed. Kearney is one of the 
finest looking thoroughbred stallions to be f een, while 
he is grandly bred, and will sire not only race horses 
from thoroughbred mares, but grand hunters, jump 
ers and cross country horses from general purpose 
mares. The fees of both Burlingame and Ed. Kear 
ney are moderate, and intending breeders should 
write for extended pedigreeei and other desirable In 
formation concerning them. 

The International Stock Food Company of Min- 
neiipolis, Minn., whose advertisement appears in the 
Southern Planter, offers an article of prime merit and 
one that hai borne the test in their stock food, which 
is sold at a price that enables three feeds to be had 
for one cent. It has the largest sale of any similar 
preparation in the world. Mr. M. W. Savage, the 
head of the concern, is also proprietor of rhe Inter- 
national Stock Food F^rm, home of the famous pacer, 
Dan Patch, 1:59}; the great trotter and sire, Directum, 
2:ii5}, and E )y Wilkes, 2:06J. also famous as a sire. 
List season Dan Patch was timed in l:59Jat Eead- 
ville, Mass , and during the coming one is more than 
likely to pace a faster mile than has ever been seen 
done by any harness horse. Not only are the stal- 
lions at this establishment great, but the brood mare 
band is one of the choicest in the country as well. 

The stockholders of the Peninsular Fair Associa- 
tion, Tasley, Va., met recently and elected the follow- 
ing ofiScers: Judge John W. G. Blackstone, president; 
N. W. Nock, vice president; Thomas S. Hopkins, sec- 
retary and treasurer. The executive committee la 
made up of W. H. Parker, G. W. Kilman, T. H. 
Melson, J. H. Ay ers, W. T. Wright, H. O. Finney, 
John W. G. Blackstone, John E. Hickman, and G. F. 
Parker. The Sixth Annual Fair of the Association 
will begin August 4th and continue four days. The 
Tasley Fair marks the beginning of the Maryland 
and Virginia circuit of fai^s and race meetings, which 
will be followed by that at Pocomoke City, Md. , thir- 
ty five miles distant on the N. Y. P. and N. E. E. 
Four stakes of $500, two each for trotters and pacers, 
will be included in the speed programme of each asao- 

Wealth, 2:17i, the fine, big son of Gambetta Wilkes 
and Magnolia, by Norfolk, who heads the Chapman 
Stud at Gordonsville, Va., I* just six years old, and 
has probably never eerved more than half a dozen all 
told in his life; yet from one of these, served when he 
was three yeais old, there is a two-year old owned by 
M. E. Doyle, of Lynchburg, Va., who is described as 
a great prospect for speed and is entered in something 
like 150.000 worth of stakes. The dam of Mr. Doyle's 
precocious youngster was sired a son of Belmont. 
Wealth will make a short season in the stud and then 
be placed in training, when good judges predict a 
record of better than 2:10 for the handsome brown 
son of Gambetta Wilkes before snow flies this fall. 
Col. W. H. Chapman, the owner of Wealth, is in a 
position to accord him good advantages, hence the 
horse will be sent to Joe Eea, of Danville, Ky., in 
whose masterly hands Wealth will be trained and 
raced this season. 

Eecent winners at New Orleans include Cogswell, 
black horse, 7, by Jim Gray, dam Leola, by Eolua, 
second dam Vigiline, by Vigil. Cogswell was bred 
in the Ellerslie Stud of A. D. Payne, Charlottesville, 
Va. Bkoad Bock. 

Mention the Southern Pkmter to your frienda. 






A Practical and Conservative Measure. 

A representative of the press called upon Hon. W. 
P. Brownlow, member of (Dongress from Tenneseee, 
and asked him whether his bill, recently introduced 
In Congress, and providing for national aid to road 
Improvement, conld not properly be condemned as a 
paternalistic and impracticable scheme, pleasing to 
visionaries, bnt regarded by conservative men as de- 
Bigned to loot the treasury and to complicate the fnnc 
tions of the national government. 

"The answer to that question," said Col. Brownlow, 
"may be found in the bill itself, and in the editorials 
and articles appearing in the leading newspapers, ag- 
ricultural and scientific journals of the country." 

"I am afraid," he continued pleasantly, " that like 
some others, you are talking about my bill before you 
have read it, for it is not proposed to build roads at 
government expense alone. The general policy, as 
stated in the bill, shall be to bring about, so far as 
may be, a uniform system of taxation for road pur 
poses, and a uniform method of construction, repair 
and maintenance throughout the United States, and 
to CO operate with any State, or civil division thereof, 
in the actual construction of permanent highways." 

If you see anything paternalistic and impracticable 
in that, you differ from the best editors of the moet 
conservative journals in the country. It has been 
said that a just cause will raise up friends to fight its 
own battles. This is certainly the case with my bill, 
for even the editor of the Washi7igton Post, who claims 
to be against it, says : 

" The Post is surprised at the amount of favor, or 
rather lack of disfavor, with which it has been received 
by the press. Even the Democratic papers, some 
of them prominent, and in all leepects reputable, have 
discussed it without a word of condemnation." 

In dealing with the question of paternalism; the 
editor of the Manufacturers' Record, which journal 
represents important industrial, railroad and financial 
Interests, sa j s : 

"Many objections will be made to this bill of Mr. 
Brownlow's. Some of these objections will come from 
honest men — men who were taught a different theory 
of government from that which exists to day. The 
greatest objections, however, will come from two 
classes — first, those who afftrct to regard it as pater- 
nalism in the government, and those who belong to a 
class of politicians who, to be consistent, must be nn 
progressive; who sit in darkness on the dry branches 
of a dead era and brood over the past, and hoot at 
those who prefer to live among the green branches of 
prosperity and influence. Such politicians as these 
consider prejudices as an evidence of wisdom and 
patriotism. They vent their indignation against all 
v(ho do not sing the lugubrious song of their infinite 

The objection raided becanse of the so called pater 
nalism in this bill is puerile, inconsistent and irra 
tional. It is pure demagogy. The regulation of 
public affairs by the government is not paternalism. 
The building of postoffices, the carrying of the mails, 

the collection of the revenues, the regulation of com 
merce and the building of highways, are all objects 
in which every class is interet-ted. These things do 
not enter into the private life of a citizen. Should 
the General Government prescribe " what we shall 
eat, or what we shall drink, or wherewithal we shall 
be clothed," it would be paternalistic in character. 
It would indeed be an enervating paternalism, de- 
stroying individuality and repressing energy. The 
government, in aiding to build roads, would stimu- 
late industrial activity, while it would, at the same 
time, arouse the highest ambition in the citizen, com 
mand his lojalty and insure an ardent patriotism. 

To illustrate that my bill is regarded as piacticable 
by conservative men, I quote the following from Col- 
man's Rural World, which represents the farmer of the 
great Middle West, and which is edited by Hon. 
Norman J. Colman, the first Secretary of the U. S. 
Department of Agriculture : 

"The feeling is growing that some sort of systemlzed 
effort is necessary involving a broader scope than ha» 
heretofore been generally accorded. That the effective 
solution of the good roads problem is too great a task 
for merely local effort, is shown by the futile results. 
The business for constructing highways is a job the 
average farmer should not be expected to tackle. He 
has his hands full managing one business already that 
rf quires all of his thought and most of his time. It 
has been suggested that co operation of National, 
State and local interests Is logical, practicable and 
essential. The logic of State co operation is shown 
by the fact that the benefits accruing from the estab- 
lishment of public highways extend far beyond their 
locality. Whatever the unit of organization, whether 
8tat«, county, township or road district, there is no 
doubt that concerted action is necessary, and that all 
who share in the benefits should divide the costs. 

"The invoking of National aid In building roads is 
so expansive a topic that it would fill all the pages of 
the Rural World and then run over. We have but to 
say at this time that the most rational thing we have 
seen in this connection is the bill Introduced in the 
present Congress by Hon. Walter P. Brownlow, of 
Tennessee. The fundamental principles of the bill 
are sound and equitable It provides for the estab- 
lishment of a bureau of public roads in the Depart 
ment of Agriculture. This we have long advocated 
as being the first step in the preliminary educational 
w^rk which must precede actual business of organiza- 
tion and construction. 

"The Brow(jlow bill provides that the director of 
this bureau may co operate with any State or county, 
and that one half of the expense of road construction 
shall be paid by the United States Government only 
when the work actually progresses through local effort 
and only when the road districts have raised the other 
half required. 

The constitutional provision is ample justification, 
and the rural free delivery system demands National 
aid. The tremendous growth of rural routes, and the 
unanimity of opinion on their value in bringing about 
the revolution in country life, encourage the belief 
that the government will give this matter the serious 
consideration that It deserves." 





Southern Planter 







Eilitor and General Manager. 


BTTSINESa Managbb. 

Rate card furnished on application. 

7lBe SontberB Planter is mailed to snb- 
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60 ••. per annam ; all foreign countries and the 
O ty of Richmond, 75c. 

Kemlttauces should be made direct to this 
ounce, either by Reg^lstered Letter or Money 
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Wa Invite Farmers to write us on any 
•Krlouiturai topic. We are always pleased to 
receive practical articles. Criticism of Arti- 
cles, Suggestions How to Improve Thb 
Flantbk, Descriptions of New Grains, Roots, 
or Vegetables not generally known, Partlcu- 
ism of Experiments Tried, or Improved 
Methods of Cultivation are each and all wel- 
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Mared In our columns. Rejected matter wm 
•• returned on receipt of postage. 



Detail Index to Enquirer's 

Fertilizer for Peanuts and Corn 165 

Improving Land with Peas and Crim- 
son Clover 165 

Hogs Pasturing in Corn Field 166 

Renewing Pasture 166 

Stubap Pullers^Sweet Potato Slips — 

■Tomato Fertilizer 166 

Peas for Hogs 166 

Cow-Peas and Corn as a Fodder 
Crop — Crimson Clover — Sulphur 

for Stock 167 

Cow-Peas and Corn 167 

State Grange — Marl —Mulching Po- 
tatoes 167 

Renewing a Pasture — Preparing Land 

for Peas 168 

Diseased Hogs 168 

Plants Destroyed by Moles or Mice... 168 

Crimson Clover— Rape 168 

Ginseng 168 

Silo— S'oring Cut Fodder 168 

Kaffir Corn 168 

Stump Killer — Disease in Hog — 

Breeds of Hogs 169 

Tobacco Growing 169 

China Tree — Corn Breeding 169 

Butter will not Come — Grass for Pas- 
ture — Sorghum 170 

Watermelons 170 

Wood Ashes for Irish Potatoes 170 

Alfalfa 170 

Crimson Clover in Cow-Peas and 

Kaffir Corn 170 

Beans for Name 170 

Cow-Pea and Sorghum Ensilage 170 

Lump Jaw 170 

Patronize Our Advertisers. 

In this issue of the Planier will 
be found advertieements from all 
the old reliable houses with which 
farmers in the South have been do 
ing business in the past, and also 
offers of goods from scores of others 
who have never previously patron 
ized our columns. We are most 
anxious to make this advertising 
pay our patrons, and therefore ap 
peal to every reader of the Planter 
to read the advertisements as well 
as the body of the journal. To do 
this will be a liberal education in 
itself, and it will bring home to 
every farmer wh*t an enormous 
business is done with farmers. 
When you require anything on the 
farm just turn to the advertising 
columns of the Planter and it is ten 
to one that you will there find it 
offered. Patronize these men. They 
are reliable men or their adver 
tisements would not be found in 
the Planter. We will see that no 
one who deals with our advertisers 
is fleeced or faked. When you 
write to any advertiser always say 
you saw the advertisement in the 
Planter This helps us to make the 
journal more helpful to each farm- 
er, as it ersures us the patronage 
of the advertisers. We could not 
afford to issue The Planter for 50 
cents per year without a liberal 
support from advertisers. 


Dr. Cecil French wants all kinds of live 
wild birds and animals. He has an ad. 
elsewhere in this issue. 

Messrs. Heatwole & Suter are offering 
some nice Scotch topped Shorthorn cat 
tie. Look up their ad. 

Dr. R. K. Gregory, a well-known phy- 
sician, has something very compliment- 
ary to say in another column regarding 
the Keeley Institute at Greensboro, N. C. 

The Rife Engine Co. of New York re- 
sumes its advertising with this number. 
The Rife Hydraulic Ram is well known 
to numbers of our readers, and to those 
who have not investigated its merits, we 
beg to suggest that they get a catalogue 
at once. 

The Call- Watt Co. is advertising Agri- 
cultural Implements and Machinery in 
this number. 


Farm Seeds 

are the best that can be obtained 
—free from weed seeds and impur- 
ities and of St ong germinat ng 
qualities, it is very important if 
you desire to -secure good f- lands 
and good crops to purchase the 
hiahest grade seeds obtainable. 
This you can always do bv pur- 
chasing "Wood's Trade Mark 
Brand " of Farm Feeds. 

Wood's New Seed Book for 1903 

mailed on request tells all about 

Vegetable and Flower Seeds, 
urass and Clover Seeds, 

Seed Potatoes, Seed Oats, 
Tobacco, Seed Corn, 
Cow Peas, Soja, Velvet and 
Navy Beans, Sorghums, 
Broom Corn, Kaffir Corn, 
Peanuts, Millet Seed, etc. 
Write for Seed Book and prices 
of any Farm Seeds required, 


Seedsmen, Richmond, Va. 

Sows OF Drills 

! Stevens 
i Sower 

ills 200 tn 

All Com- 

Broad Tired Wheels Make V-.^hi Draft 

BelcKer Q Tayloj- A. T. Co., 
es Chicooee Falls, Mas: 

Don't Mnnkey with ^'DCCDI CCO II 
anything but the rCSlllLCOO) 

If it is clean, unbroken 
peas you want. The 
•'PEERLESS "is easy to 
operate.light to handle, 
strongand durable, ele- 
gantly finished. It will 
clean peas to perfec- 
tion, also millet, sor- 
ghnni seed and velvet 
beans. J. E. Sanders's 
latest improved, fully 
guaranteed. We pay 
freights. Write to-day 
for prices, address, 





A new advertiser in this issue is the 
S. Freeman & Sons Mfg. Co. They have 
a splendid windinill, in which our sub- 
scribers sliouUi become interested. 

The -Etna Life Insurance Co. publishes 
its annual statement in another column. 
If our readers will take the trouble to 
compare this statement with the one 
published last March, they will find that 
this well known old company is getting 
its share of life insurance. 

Currie Bros., of Milwaukee, are adver- 
tising clover seed, which it is claimed 
will make 42 tons to the acre. In this 
section, if we can make as many tons as 
are represented by the first figure above, 
we think we are doing well. This, how- 
ever is Egyptian clover, which it is 
claimed yields 42 tons to three cuttings. 
It might be well to investigate this new 

The Belcher & Taylor Agricultural 
Tool Co. has two ads. in this number. 
We invite the attention of our readers to 
both of them. 

Mr. Henry Blosser is advertising Short- 
horns again with us this season. 

Mr A. M. D. Holloway, Philadelphia, 
has an ad. of the Hardie Spray Pumps in 
this number. He is the Eastern repre- 
sentative of this concern, as well as the 
Lansing Tubular Silo, which will also be 
found advertised in this issue. 

We have a new advertiser of fencing 
in this issue in the person of the Inter- 
national Fence and Fireproofing Co. Look 
np the card among the fence ads. 

The Meadowvale Farm of Lutherville, 
Md., is also a new comer in this issue. 
There are two ads. of this firm— one 
ofl'ering live stock and the other poultry. 
It is worth while to look up these ads. 

Some nice Line-bred Plymouth Rocks 
are olfered by E. F. Somers. 

The American Stock Food Co. ofifers to 
send a trial package of its food under 
conditions mentioned in its ad. 

The B. B. Fence Co. of Racine, Wis., is 
after the trade of the farmers of this 

A public sale of Thoroughbred Stock 
at Hagerstown, Md., is booked for March 
12th. Mr. H. L. Strite, manager of the 

City op Toledo, \ ^^ 
Li'CAS County, / 

Frank J. Cheney makes oath that he 
is the senior partner of the firm of F. J. 
Cheney & Co., doing business in the city 
of Toledo, county and Stiite aforesaid, 
and that said firm will pay the sum of 
and every case of Catauuh that cannot 
be cured bv the use of Hall's Catarrh 
Curb. frank J. CHENEY. 

Sworn to before me and subscribed in 
mv presence this 6th day of December, 
,>iL_, A.D. 1886. 
/ 8KAL. \ A. W. GLEASON, 

I ■_ . ' > Notary Public. 

Hall's Catarrh Cure is taken internally, 
and acts directly on the blood and mu- 
cous surfaces of the system. Send for 
testimonials, free. „ „ , , ^ 

F. J. CHENEY & CO., Toledo, 0. 
Ii^Sold by druggists, 75c. 
Hall'B Family Pills are the best. 
























cRi BRQSi^C? 



-»» illW M fc «><St»fc, 








sale, haB a half-page ad. elsewhere in this, 
number. Our intormation is that some 
splendid stock in the shape of Shorthorns 
and Berkshires is going to be offered. We 
feel satisfied that any of our readers who 
can attend the sale will tind it profitable 
to do 80. For further particulars, look 
up the ad. and address Mr. Strite 

Some nicely-bred Red Polled cattle are 
oflered by W. S. Foster, Blackeburg, Va. 
Look up his ad. for further particulars. 

Yager's Liniment, for nan and beast, 
is advertised as usual in this number. 
Nearly all the drug and country stores 
hare it in stock. 

Notice the change in the ad. of the 
Forest Home Farm in this issue. 

The International Stock Food Co. has 
a full-page ad. elsewhere in this issue. 
They are offering a large cash sum for an 
article, for which any farmer or student 
of an agricultural college can compete. 
Look up the ad. and enter the oompe- 

The well-known house of the A. B. 
Farquhar Co. has a couple of ads. in this 
issue, to which we invite the attention of 
our readers. 

The Castalia Herefords are in nice 
shape this spring, as evidenced by a let- 
ter from Mr. Boocock and a half page ad. 
of them in this number. 

The Electric Wheel Co. of Quincy, 111., 
has two ads. in this number, to which we 
ask the attention of our readers. 

" How to Grow Melons " is the title of 
a pamphlet, which B. W. Stone & Co., 
Tfaomasville, Ga., will mail free. 

Yager's Sarsaparilla with Celery is 
offered in third of a page space in this 
issue. The makers furnish splendid tes- 
timonials as to its value. 

Fleming Bros., Chemists, 22 Union 
Yards, Chicago, are advertising their 
well-known remedies with us. Look up 
the ad. and send for interesting free cata- 
logue treating the various diseases of 
horses and cattle. 

The Bowmont Farms advise us that 
they are having numerous inquiries for 
large Yorkshire hogs. 

The Pasteur Vacine Co. is advertising 
its well-known Black Legine in another 

Look up the ad. of the Ames Plow Co. 
They are offering a lot of useful and val- 
uable tools for market gardeners. 

Herefords and Do. sets are offered by 
H. Armstrong. 

Spravers are advertised by the F. B. 
Smith 'iMfg. Co., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Farm Bells, Spraying outfits and Farm 
Machinery are offered by Eclipse Hard- 
ware and Mfg. Co., Shiloh, Va. 

Hurraw & Son have a Sprayer about 
which they would like to tell our readers. 

R. W. Haw, Jr. , of Centralia, Va., is 
offering some nice Brown Leghorns. 
Get his prices. 

J. M. Hughes sends us a good recom- 
mendation as to fair dealing with his 
customers. He has two ads. elsewhere 
in this issue. 

The splendid Hackney stallion " Cis- 
mont '" is making the season at Keswick. 




Paris, 1900. Pan-American, 1901. 


For over a hundred years have been^universally recognized 
as the standard of excellence. They received the GOLD 
MEDALS (the highest award) both at the Paris Exposition 
of 1900 and at the Pan-American, 1901. 

QUP — the I02d successive annual edition — -con- 

y^_|.^|_ _.-_ tains a more complete assortment and fuller 
^*"Q'"y*J'^ cultural directions than any other seed annual 
published. It is beautifully illustrated, not with highly colored 
exaggerations, but with the finest half-tones from life photo- 
graphs. It contains 128 large size pages, and in addition 16 
full page half-tone plates, and is in every respect and with- 
out exception the most complete, most reliable, and most 
beautiful of American Garden Annuals. We will mail it free 
on receipt of 10 cents in stamps, which amount may be 
deducted from your first seed order. .... 

MOPkCt ^"^^ invited to send for our special price-list 

l^^^t^Hi^-n^ns °^ high-class vegetable seeds for truckers and 
vlQI vIv-llCl ^ large market growers. It contains all sorts 
of approved merit. 


36 Cortlandt Street NEW YORK. 

The TomdLto 

never has been produced that can equal in 
flavor and fine form our 


Bred and trained for years, this tomato is extra large 
and heavy, hardy, early, free from blight, and will not 
crack nor scald. Pronounced by growers remarkably 

solid, full fleshed and free from seed. The right size and color to bring the 
price on the market, it pleases the eve and brings most money. Ships and 
keepsunusually well. 800 bus. per acre is the record for this tomato and the 
seed is all controlled by us. Write to-day forour new illustrated catalogue. 
showing our New Leader Cabbage, Dark Fortune Cucumber. Ruby King, Rocky Ford Cantaloupe, Alaska Peas, Valentine Beans. Gradus 
» and all of our big line of garden and field seeds. It is free. Write r 
J. BOLGIANO (S. SON. Dept. P 7. Ba^ltii 

When corresponding -wltli Advertisers, al'ways mention 
Tlie Southern Planter* 




The No. 8 
"PlaLnet Jr." 

Horse Hoe and 

is without doubt the best, best known 
and most larsely used one horse cultivator 
in ihe world. is not a civilized 
country en the Blobe in which it is not 
known and used. This could not be so 
if it did not possess true merit and worth. 
It has a laree number of atl.ichnients 
which make it readily adaptable to all 
u^es and nearly all crops. Note the two 
standing upritht is for 




width of the _ 

The other lever operates the~wheci"an"d 
depth recul.itor simultaneously to a ni- 
of the very best materi- 

al througho 


ill last indefinitely, 
ite with potato erowers. truck fanners 
and {general farmers. It is but one of our 
fifty seeding and cultivating implements, 
including plain and combined Seed Sow- 
f,"'„ .^^I'cel Hoes. Hand Cultivators, 
W alkme Cultivators and One and Two- 
horse Kiding cultivators. Special Sugar 
Beet Tools, etc. Our new 1W3 catalogue 
"■''."%■ „M '^' "!"'"S over 100 illustrations 
wu.i full (lesciiptinns and prices. It costs 
you nothing and will niake you money. 
\\ iile lor It at once. 
S.L. AT.T.KNft CO., 
Box ilof-X 


Don't buy a poor wind mill. Dont 
pay a double price. Send dirtrt lo 
cur factory for catalogue of the 

Steel Wind Mills 

and four post ancle steel towerc. A 
cuiM! letc line of pumping ar.^ power 
mills of the hichest crade at exlreme- 
1> low prices. We can save you 
money on a^oo<f article. 
S. Freeman ® Sons Nf^. Co.. 
110 Hamilton St.. Elacine. Wis. 

Wagon World Awheel. 

Half a million of thvsse steel 
wheels have been sent out on 
our ow n wagons and to fit other 
wagons. It is the wheel that 
determines the life of any 
wagon, and this is the longest 
} lived wheel madr. Do yoti want 
I a low down Handy Wagon to 
iiseaboulthe place? Wewillflt 
out your old wagon with Elec- 
tric Wheels of any size and 
any shnpe tire, ftraiL'ht or fitaK- 
eere<l spokes. No rra'kt li tnibs. no 
■nlien Iel|..e?, no resetting-. Writu for 
„.^ ..,„ 'iinie. Ills tree. 

Electric Wheel Co., Box 146 Quincy, Ills. 


Fee, $10, with the usual return privilege 
or $15 to insure. There is a half-page ad. 
(jf Mr. Lindenkohl, the owner, elsewhere 
in this numher. 

The F. S Peck Co. have an interesting 
offer for poultrymen in another column. 


The frontispiece of the March Century, 
a half-tone reproduction of the William 
M. Chase portrait l)y John S. Sargent, 
posses-sea unusual interest. This picture 
of a noted American artist, the work of a 
fellow-painter equally distinguished, 
holds high rank among the best exam 
pies of American portraiture, and, it is 
hoped, will find permanent place in the 
.Metropolitan Museum of Art in New 
York City, a testimonial to Mr. Chase, 
"on account of his unceasing devotion 
to American students and American 
art." Other illustrations of more than 
ordinary interest in the March Century 
are Ernest Blumenscheiu's eighteen 
ctrawings of typical characters and scenes 
vivifying Ray ^tannard Baker's "The 
Great Northwest," G. W Peters' strong 
sketches for Jacob A. Riis' " In the Gate 
way of Nations,'' VV. L. Jacobs' sympa- 
thetic picturing of " The Passmg of El- 
kanah Ritter" and Fanny Y. Cory's 
dainty coi.ceptions for jNIadieon Cawein's 
" There are Fairies." 

Ray Stannard Baker's series of articles 
on "The Great Southwest," published 
last year in the Century, won favor that 
means a welcome for the new series on 
"The Great Northwest," whose begin- 
ning is the leading article in the March 
Century. To many readers the story of 
the Northwest's march of events, which 
in the last eight years have moved "with 
a rapidity which must always remain a 
world's wonder," will have the charm, 
aside from its picturesque telling, of land 
and life as novel and unfamiliar as if 
from another world. The illustrations, 
froai drawings by Ernest Blumenschein, 
add much to the interest and value of 
the narrative. Jacob A. Riis' " In the 
Gateway of Nations," contains authori- 
tative information touching phases of life 
little known to mott Americans, and 
leaves the reader with a kindly feeling 
for these humble pilgrims from the Old 
World to the New. Allied in interest is 
the article immediately following, Gus- 
tave Michaud's "What Shall We Be?" a 
discussion of the coming race in Ameri- 
ca, illustrated from photographs furnish- 
ed by the author. Our native stock, Mr. 
Michaud says, is becoming a small mi- 
nority, and the nature, exteat and prob- 
able influence of the human current 
flowing from the Old World to the New 
are matters of vital importance. Mr. 
Michaud's figures and inferences are fol- 
lowed by comments thereon by Franklin 
H. Giddings, Professor of Sociology at 
Columbia University. George Buchanan 
Fife'. "The So Called Tobacco Trust," 
another of the Century's notable series 
on the great business combinations of the 
day, is very readable. 

St. Nicholas this month not only temnts 
its young friends to read, but sets them 
to thinking about their books and gives 
them some helpful hints on how to read 
for the best results. The editor of the 

Ohamberlui Mfg. Co., Olean, N. T., D. 8. A. 



All Sizes and Prices. Catalogue Free. 



Clears an acre •f heavy tlmberland each day. 
Clears all stumps in a circle of 150 ft. without 
inoTiDg or changing machine. Strongest, 
most rapid working and best made. 
Hercules Mfg. Co.. 413 17thSt..Centr«vllle, lowi 

bostboh's improved parm livel 

Pafd IS02. „„„ ^„o WITHOUT TELtSCOPE 

Is no MAKESHIFT, but the 

Ditching and Driinage. Price 
$S .and Jio, including Tripod 
and Rod. Send for descriptive 
circulars and Treatise on Ter- 

Bostrotn, Brady Hfg. Co., 

W. Alabama St., Atlanta, Ga. 

•PROVED — =^fe» Cuaranteetl 


Aak Tour hardw.ire dc.ilcr for them or WTlU 
■• B. BBOWN MFG. CO., • • DEOATVlitlU* 



orn Planting 

aca tertiiizing go nana in band, w-k 

You can plant in hills, drills or 

^ ^_ checks and put in thegrround all com- 

^CseC mercial or home made fertilizers in 

any condition, as wet, lumpy, etc. with 


Corn Planter and 

Fertiiezer Distributer, 

With Improved Row Marker. 

Adaptedas well to Peas, Beans, Beets, etc. 
Hills 6 to 45 inches apart. Distributes 50 to 
■150 lbs. fertilizer per acre. Wide and easy 
adjustment. Light draft, weight 150 lbs. 
Ei^-y to handle, a model for accuracy and 
durability. Investigate our Eclipse Two 
Row Two Horse Planter. Agents wanted in 
new territory. Write for circulars and terms. 

Box 25 ,Chlcopee Falls, Mass. 


'22 l> 33 1'irhes ar^rt. 8 extr% feed wheela for fertilizer a< 
tachment drills 20 to6'J"> Ibsferiilizer per acre. Groand whpcl i: 
front CI 1 be nisedorlowerpd f"r deep or shallow plantini 
CitrarinjscaabesupTilipd for dropping: ordrilliD?peu5,) 


^^ All al...iu llii-in 


aery. A. H. REID, Philadelphii 

Book8 and Reariing department invites 
the girls and boys to send in lists of the 
book friends they have made since 1903 
began, to tell whether they like or dis- 
like "Water Babies," Lamb's "Tales from 
.Shakespeare," and "Alice in Wonder- 
land," with reasons for their judgment, 
and to write, illustrating if they wish, 
accounts of their favorite place for read- 
ing, prizes being promised for the best 
work. The clasBitioation of books as 
"spectacles," "kaleidoscope" and "micro- 
scope" books, and the suggestions on how 
to read and t^st worth-while books should 
be of great help to thoughtful girls and 

The March Lippincott's Magazine con- 
tains a new novel bv the author of "Fruit 
Out of Sea'^on " This, Mary Moss' lates:t 
story, is called "Julian Meldohia,' and 
Lippincott's is again so fortunate as to 
secure it. It is a story of society, yet 
having a curious element not met with in 
tlifi usual society novel. It is handled 
wiih the characteristic breeziness and re 
freshing vigor that was a strong feature 
in Mii-8 Moss' eailier work, and critics 
pre lict for her a future of no ordinary 

There are niue short stories in the 
March Lippincott's of plea ing variety 
and bv many names well known in mag- 
azinedom: Cy Warman's animal stories 
ate as popular as are those of the "rail 
road." This, entitled "The Fidelity of a 
Dog " is strictlv good "Told After Din- 
ner," by EUa'Middleton Tybout, may 
'come home" to some Senator or Mem- 
ber of Congress at Washington. Phrebe 
Lvde calls her story "Tiberius the Tru- 
ant," after a pet lamb, "Tiberius" A 
neculiarly powerlul tale bv Clara Eliza- 
beth Ward is callfd "The Regeneration 
of Mary Mather." It ilirealens a tragedy 
but ends happily. "The Other ^ide of 
Boss," by Jerome Case Bull, is a spirited 
story of a Western logging camp "Pis 
cator and the I'eri," a young 6sherman's 
love storv, is by Henry Wysham Lanier, 
who is. bv the way, a son of the gifted 
poet, Sidney Lanier. He possesses the 
family talent in a marked degree. The 
stock exchange is the scene of a remark 
ably g)id storv called "The Bull in 
Lamb-Skin," bv Edward Childs Carpen 
ter. A story "of the mines of Clinton 
Dangerfield, called "The Wheel of For- 
tune," is a happy illustration of the best 
man winning with a woman's timely aid. 
The March n mber closes with an en 
tr'acte entitled "Ten Minutes," by A. H. 

In a paper by Mrs. Sara Yoke Steven- 
son in ihe March Lippincott's Masiazine 
some present day abni^es are lishtly 
pointed out, interspersed with anecdotes. 
The title is "Intellectual Communism" 
Ebeii E. Rexfoid gives sound advice to 
cities as well as villases in h s artii-le en- 
titled "Rural and Village Improvement 

The increased number of in(|uiries we 
are receiving of late in regard to tlie best 
and most economical means, evidences 
the fact th t the question of Fencing is 
one of the most important matter.^ in the 
minds of the farmers to day, and that 

Handy Farm Wagons 

for both the l 
Tiie tires being wide they do notcuti 
the laborofioadins is reduced niani 
of the short lift. They are equipped with our fam- 
ous Electric Steel Wheel", eitheretraiprhtorstag- 
per spokes. Wheels any height from 24 to 60 inches. 
White hickory axles, steel hounds. Guaranteed to 
carry 40110 lbs. Why not get started riphtby putting 
in one of these wagons. We make our ateel wheels 
to fit any wagon. Write for the catalog. It is free. 


3 your neighbors. We beat 

rite at once for catalogue 
;pticy plan. Acracker- 
c^c Top lEoesy QAQ 

J Economy Bukk} Co., 
iBor J Cincinnati, Oh loy< 


Best, simplest, strong- 
est and most il u r a b I e 
DI^c Harrow made. All 
steel. Double levers. 
Low hilcb. Center 
draft. All stzes 
With or with- 
out seeding 
Write for cir- 
culars and 

Toledo, Ohio 

Roderick Lean 



Made hy experience it5" 
workmenof special ma 
terial. Acknowledged li\ 
farmers superior to all 

Sold OH Xlieir ^lerit-?. 
Spike Tooth II inows Bprin„' Tn< th 
- Harrows. Dl^c Han. 
Land Rollers. Hand V: 

rite for catalogae. 




Mansfield, Ohio. 

Com Piantihg 

done, as the fu- 
For all purposes, 
in any smi, on all kinds of 
ground uothiug equals the 



u\^ \;^»Tf^iYn- crop. ^Yon 

\v itliM: \vithout n-rtilizor 

I'tti' l:i U'lUsSpanglorLow- 
^n'd fVr'il.ljiT Drill. W i le fur c ,ial.« auj ore 

SPa WGLEB IHaMUFACTIimilB CO., 50IQ en St., York, fa- 
ult DtV eiC A WCCV And expenses to men 
lit rfll ito fl ntCK ^-itb rigs to introduce 

Poultry Compound. 

INTERNATIONAL M'F'G. CO., Parsons, Kan. 



i March 





the Best evt-r de- 
vistd, we would 
not buy expen- 
sive space to tell 
you about them. 
WRITE TO-DAY and we will send 
you a Book showing the benefits derived 
by the use of our Mixtures and Spray- 
ing Outfits. 

Lenoi Sprayer & Chemical Co., Inc. 


Gei the Best 



poo.i pump. Asp 
1 fruit growers 

u^ing the com- 
sprayers -" ""- 


orchards— (ound 
their defects and then iuvented 
The Eclipse. Its. success 
practifally forced us into man- 
ufacturine on a lar^e scale. 
You take no chances. We have 
done all the experimenting. 

Large fully illustratfd 

Catnln^ir and Treatise 
on Spraying— FREE. 

MO K BILL A- MOBLEY. Benton Harbo 

, Mich. 


FREE- 3 tH^stal card will irin;^ it. 

«. M. HOLLOWAT Eastern Agent 
:^^^r^ Builden Eichange, Philidelphia 


■9 Save Mokky IB 

^^ BY Brvi>G One of Ours. ^^ 
Tbey will do as macb work, being all brass 
are lighter to bandle and are more durable, 
will generate ft higher pressure thereby mak- 
ing them the esiHlesl pumps to operate on ihe 
market. Write forcatj^log and get treatise on 
spraying free, .^senl* wanieil. Mention Ibis 
p«per. J. F. Gatlord Siiccesttr to P. C. Lewli 
Manufacturing Cempan). Catsklll. N. C. 

Hrausers' Liquid 
Extract of Smoke 

^ntui^r^ Iin-ftt I^Tfvrlly In a 

, .Made f rum hickory wood. 

iirliiiousllavor. Cleaner, cheafer. So 

Btiiokebouse nwnled. !^eud for firvular. 

E. >KK Jl IIBU., MIIIoo, Pa. 

more thoaght is being given to it each 
year. There ie nothing a fanner can so 
foolishly waste money on, or that oflEers 
a greater field of econbtny, than the item 
of Fencing. A cheap fence in quality, as 
well as in price, is not economy, but a 
good and strictly up-to-date fence in every 
particular at a reasonably low price is 
true economy. In thfa day and age of im- 
provement tiieoriinary fence is not good 
enough for the the progressive farmer. 
It takes something more than the ordi- 
nary, and the fencing made by the Coiled 
Spring Fence Company, Winchester, Ind.. 
it is claimed, fills all these requirements. 
All of the line wires are of high-carbon 
coileii spring wire, making it self-regula- 
ting in every particular. It is sold to the 
farmer at wholesale price, and is within 
reach of all. It is. as adTertised, bull- 
strong and chicken-tight, and sold at a 
price below many of the styles of fence 
now on the market. The Coiled Spring 
Fence Company, Winchester, Ind., whose 
advertisement you will find elsewhere in 
this isau«, will take pleasure ia sending 
any one (»talogue and full particulars 
regarding this Fencing for the asking. 


In his address before the Apple Grow- 
ers Congress, at its first meeting in St- 
Louis in November last. Prof. Blair made 
these sensible statements in regard to 
spraying outfits : 

" I would say we must be careful about 
the apparatus we use in spraying. Just 
any old pump and any kind of nozzle 
will not do. We must have the best ap- 
paratus obtainable, and must use a pump 
of great power, to produce the mist-like 
spray which is so necessary. As commer- 
cial growers, we must consider the ad- 
visability of using more power.'ul pumps 
than many of us have been using. And, 
too, we must pay more attention to get- 
ting the mixture properly made. Thase 
are the details of spraying to which I 
would ca'il especial attention." 

The Field Force Pump Company, of 
Elmira, N. Y., claim for their sprayers 
magnificent power, which, with their ex- 
cellent nozzles, make the finest, most 
mist-like spray, covering all sides and 
every part of leaf, fruit and flower. Their 
automatic agitators keep the mixture 
thoroughly stirre i, preventing spoiling 
foliage with too much poison The au- 
tJmatic brushes used on their agitators 
prevents the clogging of the pump or 

IN 1845 AND NOW. 

The inside front cover of the Deering 
''Golden Era" catalogue for 1903 contains 
a story without words. .\ section of the 
Ch cago River as it was in 1S45 is pic- 
tured. It shows an Indian wigwam, In- 
dians in canoes and upon the banks of 
the river ; there are no signs of civiliza- 

On the same page is shown the river at 
the same point, as it is to-day, ftill of ships 
and lined with docks. The banks con- 
tain the great Peering works, S5 acres of 
buildings and a veritable hive of indus- 
try. A marvelous change and one that 
has taken place in less than fifty years. 

T IS beyond qjcsiion the most perfect and effective 
vrnied. and supplies a universal want In vanety of 
Tvice. stmplictly of constructron and ease of opera- 
yn. It has no equal Ask for catalo^e and price, 
hich costs you nothing AGENTS WANTED^ 



A Kant-Klog 


We want to send into every town ^^I^^T^T 
and county a sample of our now ^F M%M^^^ 
sell-operating Kant-Klog Sprayer. 
No farmer, fruit or vej^iable grower can afford to 
be without one. They mcrea.«e crops both in quan- 
tity and qualirv. and double vour vearly profit, 

TO AGENTS: ff^i^^.tr^ l:.".';,"." 

sold and delivered 660 machines ao.i has 100 more sold for 
later deliTenr. With the complete detailed io*inicti©BS»e send 

Foi'farther'informatioa *.infess, 

RoctiesterSprayPumpCO.. 21 East Av. Rochester. N v 


Save your fruit and make 
money. The Daisy is 15 yrs. old 
and 200,000 in use. Has every im- 
provement—rubber hose, perfect 
nozzles and valves. >'o l.tln tl..50; 
!, iron.?'-: No. 5, brass, $4. We pay ex- 
press. Agents wanted. Catalogue free. 

HL'RRAW & SON, Box 2, Wilmot, Ohio. 


From ansieiy over 
wash dav, are all who 
WA HER We guaran- 
tee it to be the best. A 
trial machine sent at 
factory price. Agents 
wanted for exclusive 
territory. Write for 

cataiogue with full description. We will 

surei>' pleai-e you. 

Mention th? So^Mhrm Planter when 
writing advaiisera. 







Builders' Exchange, Phila., Pa., D. 

Write for Catalogue and price. 

S. A. 


About the B B. Stays. They make a cheap 
strong fence with barber coil wire. Easily 
bandied as nails, self locking, can't slip, 
and no machine necessary. Tbey are made 
of heavy, hard wire, and won't wlit down. 
Try a basketful to stiffen the old fencing 
(barb or woven wire), and you will use 
nothing else to build new fence. We sell 
coll wire too. The B. B. FENCE CO., 

14th and Clark Sis , Racine. Wis. 

WIRE fence; 

Heavy lateral wires, heavy hard steel st«yB, 
oolled iprlns wire, Sure Grip lock. In strength, 
•ppearanoc, and durability, the Hard StMI 
onset be excelled. Write for cataloene and 

Cuyahaga Falls, Ohio 

■^ - f ■ f Genuine spiral Spring wire 

denier does not have our 

;k \'ou can buv direct 

jf.icturers" Price. Write 

logue and secure agency. 

Columbus, Ohio. 

Caives Fenced 

■with Page Fence never pjrow in'.o bre.vcby cattle. 
fA(iElH)VK.\ IVIUKKKXCKCO., .4llltlA>,JlICH. 

Two generations ago our grandfathers 
harvested their wheat and oat crops.with 
the McCormick Reaper; and little did 
they dream that the crude naachine they 
used then would be the forerunner of 
such marvellous advancement in the 
methods of harvesting grain as has been 
developed in recent yeare. To-day more 
than two and one-half million agricultu- 
rists harvest their crops with McCormiek 
machines. Since 1831, the year in which 
the first successful reaper was construct- 
ed in a blacksmith shop at Steele's Tav- 
ern, Va., the McCormick has been one of 
the chief constructive forces in develop- 
ing the agricultural resources of the 
world. For more than three-score years, 
the McCormick has represented the 
highest attainment in the manufacture of 
harvesting machines, and this name has 
become a household word throughout 
the world. ''A Model Machine " is the 
title of a new book which has just come 
from the press. It is an interesting pub- 
lication, and should be in the hands of 
every one who needs or operates a har- 
vesting machine. When writing, please 
mention the Southern Planter, 9.nd ask for 
a 1903 McCormick Calendar, if you have 
not received one, which will be sent, to- 
gether with the book, without charge. 
Address the nearest McCormick agent. 


The .(Etna Life Insurance Company of 
Hartford, Co'-in., publishes in another col 
umn its fifty-third annual statement. 
This shows that the business done in 
1902 was one of noteworthy growth in 
every direction, and the resulting big 
figures put the ^Ema Life as the leader 
among the great life insurance companies 
of New England. 

The total premium income for the year 
was the large sum of $10,224,260, and the 
total pavments to policy holders was the 
sum of $6,368,099. 

The detailed statement of the company 
shows that the investments of the iEtna 
are conservatively and wiseh' made, and 
the abundant strength of the company is 
recognized by all familiar with financial 
matters. Its president, in fact, as well as 
in name, is Ex-(;tovernor Morgan G. 
Bulkeley, who has given its afl'airs his 
closest attention. When he became its 
head twenty vears ago its assets were 
about $25,000,000. To-day they are about 
$63,500,000. Under his management the 
iEtna has developed into its present great 
proportions, and it stands a proof of his 
and his associates' large business and ex- 
ecutive ability. 


Mr. Daane H. Nash, of Millington, N. 
J., the maker of this well known harrow, 
desires us to call attention to the unusu- 
ally favorable conditions under which 
this harrow is sold. It is sent to any 
farmer who will order it, and he will be 
allowed ample time to try it on any kind 
of ground under any conditions. 

As Mr. Nash has distributing points 
throughout the country, there will be no 
delay in getting a harrow promptly. 
Look up his advertisement in this issue. 


Wehaveobtaineilthe Court's decree apainst two 
additional niuuuiiiciurers who have been infring- 
ing our patent. Tlie rule of law is : ''The maker, 
seller or user of an infringlne device are all liable 
in damage3 to the owner of the patent infringed.'* 
The Janesville JIachine Co. and the Keystone 
Farm Machine Co. are the only lirms licensed to 
use Ajlat tooth covered by our patent, and we 
ilnally warn sellers and usersof all otber makes. So 
admirably ha vethe 6(J,ouu"Hallock" Weedersdone 
the work for whirh they were designedLthat one 
maker after another sought to copy it. Hoi\-ever, 
by the various Courts' decisions, these makers are 
compelled to abandon the manufacture of a 
Weeder liaviner flat teeth, and they are now ex- 
perimenting with other shapes: but it is the flat 
tooth that made the "Hallock" Weeder famous, 
and in view of the manner in which our patent lias 
been sustained, itis dangerous to use an infrintring 
tooth. Write for descriptive circulars and pnces. 
Box 839 York, Pa. 

^i^^^^^L^^ LAWN FENCE 

Many deeigms. Cheap L 
wood. 32 iiago Cataloem* 
free. Specl.lPrltestoCeme- 
UrleBOiidChDrchei. Addreaa 
Box y, WUielieiter, I»t 


MADE, Boo- 

Btponff. Chiekea- 
tight. Sold to the Farmer at Wholrsato 
FrifM. FdHt Warranted. Catalog Fre«. 

Box 69 Vlncfaester, Indiask, C. S, !• 


^d send 4 UosEf »ki'i-l«. Sle«l Tir« o., - »T.2» 
J With Eubb.r Tire., glo.OO. I mtg. wh<!.l. ?i lo 4 i>. 
J tr..d. Top Buggle.. $28.75; H.m..s, »3.60. Wme fol 

.talonue. L.trn h.w lo huj i-€hiole. Md direct. 

•.6on CmDrella FBEK. W. V. BOOB, ClaetoMU, O. 




tooAatjgiSj^ FARM "><<*». li-l's- 



1, 000,0S0 Customers 

in.l V.-l V ■ ,1 ■ ■ .. _■ : 1 : ■ - :■: WO 

l-'»:r'.>, Iv .1 V 1 ■. - . ■•! IIP-. I- ;iiia Ijciico 

$1 aOO for lOc. 

1 Wcv, 111 mail 1 

of ir 

awnke farmer ci- 
'"r Willi many fan.i 
^L .' . nt !, Ueanlless r. ■ r 

1^ Sl.M-i I ) i-t a M:.iI V ah, ^ 
I'na of IfutliM:. 

!•■.•'.■ .I^IT. 


For Every Climate. 

That Is our business. We crow an.l sell you what 
has been developed anrl is Rdnpf.'il to your par- 
ticular section. Norib.Sout!i,i;ttStan.l West. 



drt not depen i tn oictiMive n 

plump, fi-e 
•ry a eomp! 
Dairy Kupplie 

ih, 1; 


-V doi:or 
.ipe. W, 
iiHi-y aiu 

free. Hondso 







1711 E. Franklin St., 

Send fo Catalogue. 


I have beoD planting: this corn for 4 
or ^ years, and never expect ti> plnnt 
any other kind. On onlnary land It 
maHeR from is to 30 bushels per acre. 
On i;^ "cres la»t year I gathered over 
70 bUHhels. It Is a firm, while corn, 
and keeps well; ears under meditiiu 
slz". Averages about three ears to the 
stalk, Koiiie stalks havjnir as many as 
flveand six ears. Kvery fanner ought 
to plant It. .Senl 15 cents in stamps 
for a -tart— enought to make >ou two 
or three hu'heU. Will send one peck 
by express, collect, for 75 cents. 


Sylvania, Ga. 


Weotler for sale a llmiied quantity of fresh 
seed, which we gnarantee to be Urst niialltv, 
110 per 1.000 A(ldre»p. 


Just think what that lueans. Thirty- 
six lon^ yeas in business, each year 
more euccesefiil tlian the previous one, 
with never a backward movement, always 
growing larger, ever increasing in popu 
iar favor. How many that were doing 
business thirty six years ago are even in 
existence todav? Very, very few. In 
this age of development and fierce com- 
petition, a concern must do business 
right, treat its customers right and sell 
what is right, to even hold its own much 
less advance. To do otherwise means 
that the concern of to- day is likely to be 
out of the running to-morrow. The grave- 
yard of business failures is full to over- 
flowing. But thirty-six years of contin- 
uous success and still growing. Think 
of it! How has it been accon plished? 
In just one way. By seiing absolutely 
pure whifkey, direct from our own dis- 
tillery to the consumer, saving him the 
enormous profits of the dealers, and car- 
rying out to the letter every statement or 
offer we make, thereny creating a confi- 
dence with our over a quarter of a mil- 
lion satisfied customers that cannot be 
broken. Read our offer elsewhere in 
this journal. The Hayner Distilling Co. 

This is the headline with which our 
friends the Elkhart Carriage and Harness 
Manufacturing Co. of Elkhart, Ind., an- 
nounces their readiness for this season's 
campaign. To have been continuously 
in businef s for so long a time and all that 
time to have been selling direct to the 
consumer, is in itself noteworthy and 
speaks louder than anything else of the 
high quality of their goods and their 
honorable and liberal methods in deal- 
ing with t leir customers. The Elkhart 
people make every vehicle and harness 
they sell, and sell only to the consumer. 
Tlieir catalogue is illustrated with large 
photographic views of the latest styles 
and will be sent free to any reader of this 
journal. Write today and address as 


The artistic hanging calendar of the 
Champion Harvesters begins with the 
spring month and carries one clenr 
through to the next spring. It shows a 
handsome farm team refreshing them 
selves at the watTins; trough, and is ir 
brilliant colors and handsome enough to 
please every one. This art calendar is 
offered fr.-e fo all of our readers who will 
send their name on a po-tal to Champion 
Division, International Harve.»ter Co of 
America. Ctiicago, and make request for 
same. We know this is an opportunity 
of which many will take advantage. 

1,000,000 CUSTOMERS. 

The J. A. Salzer Seed Company, of La 
Crii.~se, Wis., claim to have Ibis vast 
number of patrons. When you vOme to 
think of it, there must lie a "why." An 
inspection of their new catalogue migtit 
throw some light on the sul ject. Send 
for it, and refer to their advertisements 
and see what tempting offers they make. 


To the Acre. 


^V Mb F.>jui>i;an Cl-nrr—nirecAfrum the 

" ""^ .\,tc y,:ii,->,. 

Impui ted by us into tli- Unuid Slates for t he 
liisctuiie. Readytocut48 daysaftersow 
ins. First cuttiM,' II t n-i. sei.-uud <nittini,' 1.5 
tiins, thi il. 1:1 c.r Qvcen l..r.i;re per a.-re, 
all in one soas.m. The Dept. of Agriculture 
at NN'ashinKton publishes a special bulletin 
cndorsmg it. The supply nf seed isliniited. 
Write at once if interested. Price per lb. 
;;■'<-■; 1111 us, i'J.Ki; l'il)ll,s, S3(i.(W. 


describing; this wonderful Clover and a thou- 
sand (tiicr things of gnat value to the 
Farmer or Gar..!, uer. mailed free. Write now. 

CURRIE EJ83S,^,5?uV.'u"KE\rwTi: 


« ^.^ « « 

The Bonavlsla Nurseries will have soma 
•xceptionall.v One apple trees for orchard thl» 
year. Wine Saps. Paragon (M. B. Twig), 
York Imperial (J. F. Winter), Albemarl& 
Pippin, etc. 

We did not have a complaint last season. 
Every tree Is perfec and guaranteed, taken 
from the nursery block the day it Is shipped, 
carefullv packed. 

Our prices are the lowest. 

CHAS. F. HACKETT, Manager, 

Qreenwood, Va. 

Georgia Melon Seed. 


B. W. STONE & CO., Thomasville, Qa. 

Mention THE Southern Planter. 

Strawberry Plants 

We grow them on virgin soil, conse- 
quently they are fr-^e from disease and 
true to name. Lea ing varieties, 81.65 
per 1,000 and up. Every one says we 
nayethetinest plant- bed they ever saw. 
25 acres in plants. Circular free. 
JOHN UGHTFOOT. - Sherman Heights, Tenn. 


If you get Good Pjl.\nts. One of my cus- 
lomeiblhe past season sold JtiOO.OOworth of 
St raw berries from one acre. I sold him the 
plants for 120. You can do the san.e If you 
buy the best — and that's the kind I have. 
Catalrg ! H. LIGHTFOOT, Ch ttamoga. Tenn. 

— FOR SALE. — 

1002 was another good year for the 

A late variet.v. has been crown here for 10 
yrs. or more, and never failed to make a crop 
when planted July first yields from 15 • to a» 
bUB. 10 the acre. See description in last May 
issue of thi.s paper. Price, $3.60 per bbl., f. o. b. 
here, as long as stock last. 

J M. HUGHES, riaremont Surry Coun>y. Va. 

Mention the SoiUhern Planter when cor 
responding with advertisers. 

1»03 J 





100,000 2-yr.-old Asparagus roots, 
5 varieties A special rate of $3-50 
per 1000 for 2 mos. for BARB'S, 


A large general assortment, in- 
cluding WINESAP8 and YORK 

Splendid Assortment of 

Ornamental, Shade 

and Pruit Trees. 


from B. P. Rrckg, Light 
Brahmas, Brown Leg- 
horns at $1 OU per 13. 




I have for sa'e several blocks of the 
finest two-year old Winesaps .\pple treee 
ever grown in the State The trees are 
well branched and measure from five to 
eight feet in height Trees are dug from 
the nursery the day they are shipped. 

8c. each for the finest in lots under 100. 

7c. " " " '• •' over 100. 

6 to 7c. wholesale. 

CHAS. P. HACKETT, Manager. 

Bouavista Nurseries, 
Albemarle County, Greenwood, Vs. 


We are large growers of Ouion Seed, 

and cau quote attractive prices. 
Write us wliea you are ready to buy. 
Established 1876. 
SCHILOER BROS., - Chillicothe, O. 

Improved Golden Dent. Ears measur 

Ing from 10 to 14 inches in length. 

Price, Jl.OO per bushel, 

J. F DURRETTE. Birdwood. Alemarle Co.,Va. 

SK^o czoFinr. 

300 bushels of Albemarle Prolifle Corn, 

.?1.0O per Dus. at d»-pot. 

L. B. JOHNSON. - Red HiM. Albemarle Co., Va. 


Use the 


Made by F. H. Jackson & Co., Winchester. 
Ky. Write to tnem for free samples. 

The fact that "Iron Age" Farm and 
Garden Implements are built of good 
materials, on sound mechanical princi- 
ples, and that they contain all the la'est 
improvements, is" what has made them 
famous from one end of the country to 
the otlier. So great has been the de- 
mand for these products, that the manu- 
facturers found the greatest difficulty the 
past season in supplying it. And fore- 
seeing, for the season just opening, an 
even greater call upon their resources 
these have been greatly enlarged, both 
plant, machinery and stock of raw mate- 
rials, an.i they are now able to meet any 
demands that may be made upon them. 

No. 6 Iron Age Combined Double and Single 
Wheel Hoe Hill and Drill Seeder. 

The manufacturers of the Iron Age 
tools have just issued an enlarged cata- 
logue, showing more comp'etely than 
any previous one, their full line. Old 
friends among farm and garden imple 
ments are there found, but to the num- 
ber are added many new and interesting 
members of the family, which must still 
further extend the fame an 1 sale of the 
"Iron .Age" tools. 

Any one interested should obtain a 
copy of this Iron Age Book for 1903 by 
writing to the Bateman Mfg. Co., Box 
167, Grenloch, N. J. 


" Old Salt" was interested in the first 
railroad that was built in the State— a 
very crude line, forty miles in length. 

After it had been operated for years 
the companv was sued for damages. Old 
Salt was called as a witness for the de 
fence. Counsel asked a question during 
his examination of Salt which seemed to 
the judge to make it proper for p aintiflf's 
counsel to go into the general reputation 
of the roa i. He asked if it were not true 
that numerous accidents had happened 
on the line. 

" N-n-never knew but wu-wu wu-one," 
was the answer. 

"And what was that. Mr. Williams? 
Explain the character of it in full, please." 

"A mi-mi-mimiddle aged gi-gi-gi girl 
eoton thet-t-t-train at P-p-p Pontiac, and 
d d-d-died of old age before she got to 
De-de de Detroit." — Henry M. WiLTSE.m 
Lippincolt's Magazine for March. 

Poet— That fool editor said I would 
never write well until I had a great sor- 
row, but I showed him. 

Wife— Showed him what? 

Poet — Our wedding certificate. 

'0 make cows pay. niie Sharpies Cream Separators' 
Book "Business Dairying" 4 Cat. 305 free. W 
Chester, Fa. 

Glootl's Caustic Pofamh WtaaH* 
Oil Soap, TXo. 3. 

It also prevents Curl Leaf. Endorsed bj ma- 
Lomologists. This soap is a fertilizer as wrL- 
as Insecticide. 50 lb. kegs, $2.50; 100 lb. keg» 
M.50. Half barrels, 270 lbs., at S^c. per lb 
barrels, 425 lbs., at SMc. Large quantltlM., 
tpeclal rates. Bend for circular. 


939-41 N. Front St., ^hilaoelpmi*. rx. 

, Axle Grease tife^woSd. 

> Its wearing qualities are unsurpassed, ao- \ 
< tnally outlasting 3 bxs. any other brand, , 
' Not affected by heat. a9~Get the Genuin 



Send for Circulars and Price-Llst, 



Bodley, Augusta County, Va. 


4 and 6 Governor Street, 


and Commercial Pnnters. 




Life and Accident Insumnce. 


/Etna Life 

Insurance Company, 



Assets, Jan. 1, 1903. 

Prerainm receipts in 11102, 

Interest receipts in 1902, 

Tolal receipts In 1902, - 

Payment to Policy Holders 
In 1902, 

Legal Reserve, on Policies, 
and all claims, - 

Special Keser\e in addition 
to Reserve above given, - 

Guarantee Fund in ex- 
cess of Requirements 
b Company's Stand- 
ard, - - - - . 

Guarantee Fund in ex- 
cess of Legal Require- 
ni«nts, - - . . 

Life Insurance issued and 
revived in 1902, - 

Life Insurance in force 
Jan 1, 1903, . 

Accident Insuran 
force Jan. 1.1903, - -199,650,204.00 

Paid Policy holders since organization, 
$132.383.973 96. 


■ 10,224,260.93 


12,816,800 09 








Herald Building, Baltimore, Md 

General Agent for Eastern and Cen- 
tral Virginia, 
No. 7 N. Tenth St , Richmond, Va. 

J. B. MOOBE & CO., 
Gen. Agents, Accident Department 

W-flLWrXJED \ 

Practical poultryman deslrescorespondence 
with men liavlns; <rapital with a view of es- 
tebllshing a Fkki.v Dcck RANcu-ralsing 
ducklings forthc- early marhcLs. .Many having 
the means and water facllllles do not realize 
that there Is -uch a large profit on the capital 
Invested in this business. Best of references 
as to ability and chiracter. Adi) 

Law and Collection issociation, 

Established 1884. Claims collected 
in all parfja of the United States. 
No collection — no charge. 

P. 0. Box 503. 905 Ji East Main Street, 

A NEAT BINDER for vour back 
numbers can be had for 25 cents. Ad- 
dress the Business Office. 


Grbe.n-sbobo, N. C, Jan. 1, 1903. 

Col. W. H. Osborn, President 

The Kreley Inslilute, Greensboro, N. C. : 

Dear Colonel, — I send you this letter to 
congratulate yon on the success of your 
work with Tlie Keeley Institute. 

Like all other good and grand discove- 
ries and inventions in the healin; art, 
Tlie Keeley Trenlmtnt, now so well known 
and successfully used, met with bitter op- 
position, but it has lived and flourished, 
proving that " Truth is mighty and will 

Eleven years ago, October, 1S91, The 
Keeley Institute was opened in Greens- 
boro, N. C, under your management. 
Being a jiracticing physician of the city, 
and having the pleasure of the acquaint- 
ance of the gentlemanly officers of the 
Institute, and feeling the greatest interest 
in the practical testing of the discovery 
of Dr. Keeley, I watched with cl Dse care 
the results ; and I unhesitatingly say, that 
from my personal knowledge and personal 
observation of the Keeley Treatment, in 
cases in which it is indicated, that it is 
the best and most suc>;es9ful plan of cure 
now known. Facts prove the truth and 
value of it. 

Year after year the good work and suc- 
cess have rewarded vour eflferts. Business 
has steadily incieased. The year just 
ended shows a registration of 20f patients 
with a total of 3,500 sin:e the Institute 
was opened. Over 100 men from Greens- 
boro and Guilford county have been cured 
and returned to their families and homes, 
and patients have been received from 
nearly every State in the Union. It 
would be a great pleasure if I could tell 
of the joyful and glad hearts this Insti- 
tute has made, but I know that words 
cannot express the gratitude t-at the 
manj' wives, mothers, children, and 
friends have felt at the restoration of 
their loved ones. In my own heart I re- 
joice with you and ask G'^d's blessings on 
The Keeley Institute and its officers. 

In the management of the Institute 
every auxiliary is used. The officers 
know that the patient is diseased from 
drink or drugs, or both, and the co opera- 
tion of the patient must be had in his 
treatment. He is a sick man. and must 
be treated as such under the direction and 
guidance of that skilled resident physi- 
cian — Dr. B. B. Williams. 

The Institute is an ideal home, the 
splendid residence of Gov. Morehead.with 
all to make it attractive and every com- 
fort and convenience which modern in- 
vention has brought out. In connection 
with the Institute and f)r its use is a 
magnificent farm with its fine Jersey cat- 
tle, poultry, etc., to supply the Institute 
with the ne.'essariesand luxuries to build 
up the broken-down man. 

It is 3 wise and essential requirement 
that the patient must reside in the Insti- 
tute while undergoing treatment, where 
all necessary influences lan be brought 
to bear upon him and under the kind and 
watchful care of its officers. 

Now, in conclusion, I congratulate you 
again, and assure that I feel the deepest 
interest in the Institute and its continued 
success and prosperity, and will always 




From morning till night. Hot 1 Itch- 
ing ! Sore ! Ashamed to be seen 1 Face 
covered with pimples. Hair falling outl 
Who isn't sorry for the auflferer from 

And it is so unnecessary! There's a 
cure for eczema as sure as to-morrow will 
follow today. YAGER'S SARSAPA- 
RILLA WiTH CELERY gets right 
down to the source of the disease — the 
blood. It draws out the impurities, 
which otherwise would come through 
the skin. It puts functional activity in 
such perfect order that each part of the 
system does it work and does it well. 

A. A. Wilson, of Portsmouth, Va., 
was affiicted with eczema and itching 
sores. He writes : " Permit me to thank 
you for the great benefit I have derived 
from the_taking of YAGER'S SARSA- 
was broken out all over with pimples 
and sores; and my flesh constantly 
itched. I heard of YAGER'S SARS.i- 
wonderfol cure it has made for others, 
and concluded to give it a trial Toe re- 
sults are most satisfactory. My face is 
becoming as smooth as an infant's." 

If you are troubled in any way with 
any disease resulting from impure blood, 
you can absolutely relv on YAGER'S 
SARSAPARILLA to effect a cure. Try 
it. You can get it at anv drug store, 60 
cents a bottle. Made by Gilbert Bros., 
Baltimore, Md. 


" The quickest remedy for a cough I 
ever saw,'* is the way one Maryland 
maiden expresses her appreciation of 
HONEY-TOLU. It stops the cough al- 
most instantly. It cures the cold 
quickly. It benefits the health perraa^ 
nently. Sold by all druggists. 2oc. a bot. 


(ilLBKKT BROS. & CO., 


WHAT /igtmiT _— ^ 








Tobacco Profit 

Seventy-one dollars a 
cents per acre was 
crease in value of the 
CO grown at the Kentucky 
Agricultural Expe 
Station, by feedinj 
growing crop with 
hundred and six 
pounds of 


costing less than 
four dollars. 
Every tobacco farmer 

ing how i 

will bring 
telling abo 

Boom la John Street, NEW TOKK. 

A Package of the Famous 

American Stock Food 


Send us the names of ten of the best 
farmers and stock raisers in your vi- 
cinity, and we will mail you. post-paid, 
a sample package of American Stock 


Every package guaranteed. 

Every fu 1-tized package baa on it 
picture of Uncle Sam. None genuine 


Fistula and 
Poll Evil. . . 

You can 
treat these 
yo urseif 
and cure them in 15 to 30 days. B'lcm- 
ing's Fistula and Poll Evil Cure is easy 
to apply, perfectly safe to use, and 
your money is promptly refunded if it 
should ever fail to cure." 

Interesting Booklets Free. 

We have two booklets to send you. 
Oue tells about Fistula, Poll Evil, 
Spavin, Ringbone, Curb, Splint, Knee- 
Sprung, Lump Jaw, etc., with instruc- 
tions how to cure them. 

The other proves that you can cure 
them. Write to-day. 

FLEMINQ BROS., Chemists, 
22 Union Stock Yards. - Chicago, III. 

'Feeds »"^ Feeding' 

Prof. Henry's Great Book for 
Farmers and Stockmen. 

Delivered anywhere for - - 82.00 
With the SOUTHERN PLANTER, 2-25 

take pleasure in doing anything in my 
power to direct in the future, aa I have 
done in the past, the poor unfortunates to 
The Keeley Institute, Greemhoro, N. C. 

With my highest regards and best 
wishes for your continued success in the 
future. I am verv truly yours, ■■^'^ 

R K. Gregory, M. D., Greensboro, N. C. 


Uncle Ned returned from his 'possum- 
hunt about midnight, bringing with him 
a line, fat 'possum! He built a glowing 
fire, dressed the 'possum, pared and split 
the swMt potatoes, and pretty soon he 
had the " 'possum an' 'taters" in the 
oven. While the meal was cooking Uncle 
Ned amused himself with his favorite 
old banjo. When the 'possum had been 
brown and crisp, he took it out of the 
oven and sat it on the hearth to give it 
time to cool. Mentally congratulating 
himself upon the glorious repast he 
thought soon to enjoy, he sat silently for 
awhile in the old arm-chair, but presently 
was snugly wrapped in the arms of "tired 
nature's sweet restorer — balmy sleep." 

It happened that two youn» fellows 
who were pretty well acquainted with 
Uncle Ned's habits had been stealthily 
watcliiug about the house, waiting this 
particular chance. As sood as they were 
^•invinced that the old man was safe in 
the arms of Morpheus, they crept into the 
house and hurriedly helped themselves 
to Uncle Ned's supper, including even 
thecoffeeand bread. When they finished 
the hasty meal, by way of attempting to 
cover up their tracks they smeared Uncle 
Ned's hands and mouth with the 'possum 
gravy and then heat a retreat. 

After a time Uncle Ned aroused from 
his peaceful slumber. It is needless to 
say that he had dreamed about his sup- 
per. At once he dived down to inspect 
the viands, when, li and behold, the 
hearth was empty ! Uncle Ned steadied 
himself and studied awhile. 

"VVel!,' said he finally, ' I must 'a' et 
dat 'possum ; I must 'a' et dat 'possum in 
my sleep!" 

He looked at his hands. They were 
greasy. He smelt his hands. As he did 
so he said : 

"Dat smells lak 'possum grease ! I sho 
must 'a' et dat 'possum." 

He discovered grease on his lips. Oat 
went his tongue. 

"Dat tas'es lak 'possum grease," he said. 
He got up. He looted about the room. 
There was no sign of intruders. He 
rubbed his stomach. He resumed his 
seat, and, giving up all for lost, he said : 

"Well, ef I did eat Hat 'possum, it sets 
lightah on my appertite dan any 'possum 
I eveh et befo'." — Silas Xavier Floyd, 
in the March Lippincott's. 

One day the mate of atrading'schooner, 
overhauling the log, found that the cap- 
tain had written in ii, "Mate drunk to- 
day " The mate expostulated with the 
captain, saying, "W'.at is the use of put- 
ting that down ?" The captain said : "It 
happened. Why shouldn't I writs it 
down?" The next da_v the mate wrote 
the log, in which afterward the captain 
found the record, "Captain sober to-day." 

Mention the Southern Planter when cor- 
responding with advertisers. 


to give satisfaction. 



A safe, speedy 
positive cure 


Curb, Splint, Sweeny, Capped Hock, 
Strained Tendons, Founder, "Wind Puffs, 
and all lameness from Spavin, Ringbone 
and other bony tumors. Cures all skin 
diseases or Parasites, Thrush, Diphtheria. 
Removes all Bunches from Horses or 

As 1 

_ „ Balsam sold is 

Warranted to pive satisfaction. Price 9Sl<SO 
per bottle. Sold by dnippistSj or sent by t 














Appeljle. lo. 

Bowel T.o»blt R 
Mores U:i Appelit 




i Ri'rk 

els in°e"lves 

Cough. Sc 

m. M.satlQ 

■ f„ 


Zi °L^ 

.enu Col.tky .tla. 



'""'■"'"8 " 

' I 


or mill, ..a 








S Pkgs. SI 


12 Pkzs. S2.00. 

u). Pampblet No 3 



i Teteriaary apo-itav; for wiaA, 


For the treatment of THE LIQUOR, OPIUM, MORPHINE an* 
other Drug Addictions. The Tobbacco Habit, Nerve Exhaustion 





Mo place in the United States tan a man 
do 80 well at farming, for the money in- 
Tested, as in Virginia. Lands are cheap ; 
climate good, and the best of markets 
close at hand. It is the Stale of all 
others, for a comfortable all the yeai 
round home. The James River Valley 
Colonization and Improvement Company 
offer superior advantages to land pur 
chasers. For free 3G page laud pamphlet 

W. A. PARSONS, Vinlta, Va. 



Is the iltle of a new pamphlet Issued by the 
Norfolk and Western RullwayCoaipany. We 
will gladly mail you a copy. 


G P. A . Lands .>nd Immigration, 
Roanoke, Va 



Ten, Fifty and One Hundred A 

ch, with 

good buildings, close to steain and trolley 

lines, easy access to the city. Also 


From 100 to 1.000 acres at low prices, all the 

way from »o to $.50 per acre. Write for 



J. K. HocKADAY, Manager. 


A floe farm oi UTOacies, in Mecklenburg Co 
one and one half mile from station on .So. Ry 
five mlle.'^ east of Boydton. Has new 8 roo"in 
dwelling, large new .table, (i barns, large pack 
house, cabin, crib, shops, etc., all In jood re- 
pair—as place has been cleared up In past 7 
yrs. Pl»ce paid nearly Sl.OOO rem last year. 
Any one wauling a flrsl class place at a low 
price ADDKii.s.s 

S. J. TURPIN & CO ., - Antlers, Va. 




Communicate wttli us. Write for free 
" Virginia Real I-Mate Journal. • con- 
taining many bplemlld bargalus. 
R B. CNAFFIN & CO., Inc , 

No. 1 N. lOth St., Richmond, Va 

I WANT TO RENT (Money Rent) 

A small dairy, poultry and truck farm (with 
or without siocic and Implements), with a vu-w 
ol biivlnginthefall. If a ready well-quipped, 
would take It nn a reasonable protlt-sharlnir 
principle. Close to R R. „r good city, or both, 
prefene Would want possession .\prll 1. 
Address FARMER, c-ire Southern Pltnter. 

"PIEDMONT ftiVpllcs"?' 

Good land, climate, markets, ^hipping la- 
cllltles, churches, schools, good lit-allli, inode- 
rate prices, easy terms. 

MACON & CO., - Orange, Va. 

/ CanJ^el/ Your Farm 

Mv iii^iicr wi.cre It is. ^end descriptiun, stale nrlce KaJ 
I^.I,ow tsl.>. Hlehcslre(cr.„.o. Oll.ces l^u cl«S 

W. M. Oftrander, I885N. A. Bide., Philadelphia 


Incidents of the Lighter Side of Life 
IN THE Senate. 

John C. CalhouD, when Vice President, 
did not believe that, as the presiding 
officer of the Senate, lie had any right to 
call Senators to order for words spok;n 
in debate. John Randolph of Roanoke 
abused this license by opening a speech 
with the words: ''^Ir. Speaker— I mean 
Mr. President of the Senate, and would- 
be President of the United States— 
which God, in his inlinite mercy, avert," 
and then launching into one of hie char- 
acteristic tirades. 

Calhoun's name recalls nullification. 
When this heresy was at ite most ram 
pant stage, the Notthern Senators de- 
pended largely upon John Holmes, of 
Maine, as champion of their side of the 
chamber, on account of his ready wit 
John Tyler tried to badger him one day 
by asking wh^at had become of that po- 
litical firm once mentioned by Randolph 
as "James Madison, Felix Grundy, John 
Holmes and the devil." 

"The partnership," answered Mr. 
Holmes, promptly, "has been legally 
dissolved. The senior member is dead ; 
the second has gone into- retirement: the 
third now addresses you; and the last 
has gone over to the nullifiers, and is 
electioneering among the hon .rable Sen- 
ator's constituents." 

Clay and \\'ebster were not habitual 
humorists, but both had the gift of enter 
taining as well as enthralling their audi- 
ences. Clay ran most to illustra ive an- 
ecdote. V/bile he was in the House, a 
proottinent politician deserted the Whig 
party in the hope of sta'ting a general 
revolt. To his dismay, he found himself 
quite alone, and then bent all his ener- 
gies to glutting back into good standing. 
The incident reminded Clay of a story. 
Said he : 

"-4. stage-coach took aboard a passen- 
ger ..ho insisted upon riding with the 
driver, and who diliuently drew upon the 
contents of a bottle carried in his great- 
coat pocket. When his potations at last 
overcame him, he fell oS. The coa'^h 
stopped long enough for some charitable 
travelers to alight and pull the poor fel- 
low out of the mud. 

"'Ha!' he exclaimed, as he looked 
down at his tattered garments, 'we had 
quite a [hie] turnover, didn't we? ' " 

'■ ' 0*1, no,' answered one of his rescn- 
er,o, ' there was no turnover. You only 
fell oir'" 

"'I Fay,' he persisted, 'there was a 
[hie] turnover, and I leave it to the com- 

■' Every one joined in assuring him that 
the coach had not u iset. 

" ' Well,' he remarked ruefully, as he 
tried to climb baik to his former perch, 
'if I'd known that [hie] I wouldn't have 
got o(i'.' " 

On a certain aflernoon, the Senate 
clock got a fit of striking in the midst of 
one of Webster's most effective speeches. 
After it had struck fourteen or fifteen, 
Webster held up one finger. " Mr. Pres- 
ident," said he, "the clock isout of order. 
I have the Aoor.— Leupp'aHttmcrrsof Con- 
great, m March Century, 

Virginia Farms 

All prices and sizes. Free list on application. 
WM. B. PiZZmi CO., Rlchmend, Va. 

SO soDig. 

For full particulars 

write A. JEFPERS, 

Norfolk. Va. 


Easy Pavmcnts. CATALOCut Frcc. 

>*i;(». E. CR.AWKORD & CO.. Richmond. V». 

Established 1870. 

ClUr riDMQ in the great fruit grain and 
linL rnnrnu stock section of VIKGINIA. 
Best climate and water In the U. S. Near 
great markets, with best educational advan- 
tages. For further Information, address 

Sam'l B. Woods, Pres. Charlottesville, Va. 

— FARMS — 

In the best fruit and agricultural 
sectioDM of Virginia. 
Virginia Booklet and infurnjaiion free. 

J. W. APPERSOX & BRU., Yancey Mills. Va, 



Large house, plenty of out buildines In good 
order, SOJ-^acresof highlj Improved land, with 
stock, crops and all equipmenis. 6 miles from 
Richmond. A bartiam can be secured in this 
property. Address 

" DAIRY,'' care Southern Planter. 

'Crop Growing 
i Crop Feeding" 

383 Pp. Cloth, $1.00; Paper, 60c. 

We offer this splendid work in conneo- 

tlon with the Southern Planter 

at the foil lowing prices: 


and POTOMAC R. R. 

Form the Link connecting the 

Atlantic Cost Line R. R., 

Baltimore and Ohio R. R. , 

Chesapeake and Ohio R'y, 

Pennsylvania R. R., 

Seaboard Air Line R'y 

and Southern R'y. 

Between all points, via Richmond, Va. 

Fast Mall. Passcnge-ard Express Route be- 
tween Kiciimond, Fredericksburg, .Xlexan- 
drla, VVashiuKlon, Baltimore Philadel|.hla, 
New York. Boston, Pitlsbnri;, Buffalo and All 
PointK North, East and West. 

W P TAYLOR. Traffic Manager. Richmond. Va 




How To MakeMoney 

With Poultry and Incubators. ~ 



the lieM uf suctisiLl -.kiiU 
illustTatiot^sshinv punltry pl.ii 
Cyi>hersestli(sively In theU.S / ai 
England, Germany,<l, New 

is free) fi.>r hook X 


Biiiral.., N. Y., Cliicaco, III . 
BoetoD, Mass., .\ew y(irk,N. T. 


The Suro Hatch Incubator is a 
hitxh ffrade maciune through. 
can operate them, and whea 
it is considered that wo pay 
the freight and that the ma- 
chines are all larger than 
rated capacity and are st 
on 30 days trial, the egrg cap; 
ity is the cheapest ol a 
Our Free 1903 Catalogue was made to order for the 
poultry raisers— poultry and egc record tables, etc, 
Abigboob full of goodthings. Address nearest office. 

SURE h)iTCH incubator COMPANY. 
Columbus, Ohio. Clay Center, Nebr. Eugono, Ore. 

Build Your Own Incubator, 

Complete lllaatrated Plans and liietnicLions 

for building Incubators and Brooders by 

iwhicii a 300-EgB Hot Water *0 

llncabator can be builtforabout tPU 

I We sellthe Tanks, Lamps, RcKulators, 

OHANNJttW.giyOW' aVo.. nei't. laS Qiilncy. ill. 



»ards Fine Poultry 

- Rcllnhio Inch, and BroorlcrCn., 
r'-";!!-!! qnincv. III. 


tiveij as represented. Wepny freight. 
Circular free; catalogue (ic. 
C«o. Ertel Co.. gutacy. 111. 


By Mary Washington. 

No. 2. 

Amongst the most useful and famous 
inventor.^ of the last 25 years is Mr. 
George Westinghouse, known chietiy for 
his great invention of the air brake which 
ia used in every country where railroad 
travel is practiced. This invention has 
been of the greatest utility in saving life 
and property. As a result of it, a loco- 
motive engine can, in a minute, apply the 
brake to a train of as many as 60 cars, 
and should a car break away, the brakes 
set themselves automatically. 

Mr. Westinghouse followed the inven- 
tion of tlie air brake by that of the West- 
inghouse engine, which has also passed 
into wide use He carries on many large 
electrical and machine works both in this 
country and Europe, bringing out both 
his own inventions and those of others, 
for he is ready to give prompt and remu- 
nerate recognition to any inventor, either 
in this country or Europe, whose work is 
valuable in tlie field that interests Mr. 

Gifted with inventive faculty and great 
mechanical ability, his technical educa- 
tion and service in the engineering branch 
of the United States Navy have given 
tiim both theoretical and practical knowl- 
edge which have immensely forwarded 
Mr. Westinghouse in his career. Amongst 
the benefits he has conferred on the 
world, I may mention the utilization of 
natural gas. Conveying the gas by pipes 
from its natural wella to wide areas of 
use is due almost entirely to his personal 
and unremitting efforts. His inventions 
{and especially that of the air brake) have 
brought him a large and well merited 
fortune, and it is said that his various 
factories in this country and in England, 
France, and Russia represent a substan 
tial, productive investment of probably 
one hundred million dollars. 

The inventor of the type writer was 
W. M. Jenrie, of Ilvin, N. Y., who was 
a mechanic working by the day when he 
started on his invention. He is now a 
wealthy man — is superintendent of a 
type wi iter manufactory. C. L. Sholes 
is also entitled to part of the credit of the 
development of the writing machines of 
the present day. He began as a mechanic, 
but died rich, and a universally known 
type-writer of the day was, to a great ex- 
tent, his creation. It is remarkoble how 
many patents have been granted, of late 
years, to mechanics and other persons 
working for day wag s. For inst.Huce, 
Mergenthaler, who invented the linotype 
machine, and received millions for it, 
was an expert mechanic, engaged in mak- 
ing telescopes and other scientific appa- 
ratus. His contrivance is now in use, all 
over the civilized world, the mechanical 
compositor having taken the place of the 
human type setter in nearly every great 
printing establishment. 

Frank A. Johnson was a mechanic in 
Minneapolis when he invented a type- 
setting machine which has made him a 
wealthy man. 

Alexander P. Morrow was a mechanic 
employed by a bicycle company when he 

The PRAiniE STATES \ 342 

KEEP AT THE HEAd\ ^^"^f 
More made-icore sold- ^ PEU2ES 

-e prizes won than 
ALL OTHERS combined. 
Send for catalogue-just out-fin- 
ever issued. Mention this pape 


Purebred B. P. Rock, Black Miwokca 
S. C. B. Leghokn. Fine stock, excellent 
layer.s. I guarantee eggs to be true to 
name, fresh, ano to Hrrive in good condi- 
tion. 75 ets. per 15, $2 per 45, jj per 100. 
Miss S. M. HITER, E!lisvi;le. Louisa Co.. Va. 


White Wyanrtottes, Barred Plymouth 
Roclts, S. C. Whit.- Legliorns and Pekin 
Duclid. Prize winners at New Yorlj, Bos- 
ton, Ptjiiadelphia. Cieveiand, Hagerstown 
Pan-American and Charleston. Some ex- 
tra fine stocis for sale. For prices and de- 
scription, address 

LEWIS E. BENEDICT, Proprieior 
Meadcwv le Farm, . Lutherville Md. 


From White Holland Turkeys, White 

Plymouth Rock and Rose Comb 

White Leghorns. 

White Plymauth Roclis are the best ail pur- 
pose fowls. My .^toclc is of the strains. 
R. C. W. Leghorns are the champion layers 
Neat Rose Combs ilo not freeze. Bend for 
''"•'^""^'•- Mrs LIZZIE OYER, Versailles. Tenn. 


Best B. P. Roclis in Virginia. 

Hawliins, Thompson and Bradley strains 

S1.25 per sitting Ilo). 

M. B. Turkey Eggs, 50c. each. S4 per dozen 

M. P. Duck Eggs. fJ.OO for 11. Even the best 
is never too good, you'd better buy of me. 

P. and S. FARM. Midlothian. V«. 


That will hatch out Dollars. Not real 
dollars, but Turkeys and Chickens of the best 
strains in this country, which will net the 
owner more real dollars of profit than anv 
others I handle "Nothing but the Best" in 
my line. My prices are higher than some 
others, but the quality more than makes the 
ditTi'rence. National strain. Mammoth Bronze 
Turkeys, sitting 13 1(2. National strain Barred 
Plymouth Chickens, sitting 1.5, i(;1.50. 


MIssE. Caliie Giles. Prop., Whittle's Depot! Va. 


M. B. Turkey, t3 per doz.; Pekin Duck 81 
perdoz.; White Wyandotte, {1 forts- b'p 
Rock. 81 for 13; S. C. B. Lfghoru, .$1 for 15. ' 

IWIss Clara L. Smith, Croxto-i, Caroline Co. Va. 

-FRO M— 


J2.25for9; .»;1.00 for IS. 


«1.25for 13; $2.25for30. 

Packed and f. o. b. Express Office. 


Barred P. Rocks S. G. B. and W. Leghorns. 

15 eggs, Jl ; 30. 81,75. Pekin Duck.s-U 

eggs, Jl; 22. 81.7.5. 8a isfaction 


Rev. J. W. HECKIMAN, - Spottsjivania, Va. 




Moorewood Poultry Farm, 

Chesterfield Co., ■ Wlsevllle, Va. 


Hlghe8^GIade Barred Plymouth Rocki 
White Wyandotte, lilack Minorca and 
Partridge Cochin Fowls. We won 19 prizes 
at late Richmond Show. Breeding stock 
and eggs forsaleatall times. If you mean 
business, write for Handsome and Valu- 
able Illustrated Catalogue and Poultry 
Guide. Write to-day. 


-* FOWLS ^ 


We have the winning pen of Madison 
Square Garden Show. GJobbler weighs 45 
lbs.; bens, 26 lbs. 


Prize-winning drake at Philadelphia and 
New York Madison Square Garden. Young 
ducks weigh 14 lbs. p«r pair. 

PLVMOUTH ROCKS, Barred and White. 

A limited number fowlsand Eggs for Sale. 
Also Dure bred POL.\ND CHINAS. SHET- 
CATTLE, the milk, butter and beef breed. 

Sam'l B. Woods, Prop. Charlottesville, V». 


^ Fine Laying Strains ^ 

Silver liGEDWYiNDOmS 

My best j»n of silvers will be headed this 
season with a flne cock direc t from Mr. J. T. 
Orr, out of his famous laylui; i- train of Silver- 
Laced Wyandottcs. E(iiiS at 81 00 per setting 
of 15 at Express Office, .Salisbury, N. C. 


R. F. D. No. 3, Salisbury, N. C. j 

White Leghorns. 

Eggs, 12 per 15 ; 8,5 per 00. 

Write for circular to-day. 
C. Q. M. FINK, 1409 W.Leigh St., Richmond, Va. 

invented the coaster brake which bears 
his name, and which has made him a 
wealthy man. 

Hugh Cook of Dayton, Ohio, was a 
worker for wages when he made the in- 
vention on which the mopt efficient cash 
register in the market is based, from the 
proceeds of which he receives about 
$25,000 annually. 

F. A. Flanagan had a little jewelry 
store in Washington City, when his for- 
tune took a rise by his deviling a method 
of cleaning oil wells by dropping an elec- 
tric stove down into them. Prior to this 
invention, when oil wells became choked 
with paratin, they were cleaned by ex 
ploding nitroglycerine cartridges, which 
were both costly and dangerous. The 
electric stove process is safe and cheap, 
and has made the inventor rich. 

I have heard that the inventor of the 
safety-pin made a fortune by this inven- 
tion, but I do not know "what's his 
naoae or where's his home," or any au- 
thentic details about him. 

The Americans have shown more in- 
vention than any other nation in regard 
to the daily wants and conveniences of 
life. Edison alone has taken out 750 
patents, numbers of them applications 
of electricity to common daily needs. 
But we must not forget nor fail to ac- 
knowledge our debt to the great inven- 
tors of other nations, notably the Scotch, 
English, German, French and Italian. 
To Scotland is due (in the person of 
James Watt) the invention of the mod- 
em condensed steam engine, with the 
incalculably great results that followed 
in this invention. It was Hargraves, an 
English carpenter, who, in 1767, invented I 
the spinning jenny which gave means of 
spinning twenty or thirty threads with 
no more labor than had been employed 
on a single one. This was followed by 
Arkwright's still more important inven- 
tion of the spinning frame which it is 
interesting to connect with the subse- 
quent invention of the cotton gin in 
America. The two gave an enormous 
impetus to the cultivation and manufac- 
ture of cotton, and like the two wings of 
a bird, ctiused commerce to soar aloft, 
where formerly it had crept. 

To Germany, in the person of Guten- 
burg, we owe the invention of printing. 



From Thorouglibred Poultry. 

In OLr poultry yards we have the following 
thoroughbred poultry, all flrst-class stock, 
originally started from the best stock in this 
country, and carefully cross-mated so as to 
give strong and vigorous stock and the best 
laying strains of the different breeds that It 18 
possiijle to obtain : 

BARRED P. ROCK. $i.oo per sitting. 
BLACK UkN&SHAN. ti.oo per sitting. 
BUFF PLYMOUTH ROCK. $1.50 sitting. 
LIGHT BRAHMAS. fi.soCper sitting. 

$1.50 per sitting. 
WHITE WVANOTTE. $1.50 p3r sitting. 
In addition to careful breeding, we pay 
special attention to the handling and packlDg 
of our Eggs, so as to ensure good fertility and 
a good hatch. 

We have also for sale a few flrst-class young 

cockerels of BUFF PLYMOUTH ■» ROCKS, 



Price, 81..50 and $2 each, crated for shipment. 


P. 0. Box 330. Hollybrook Farm. RICHMOND, VA. 


an obligation so vast, BO overwhelming j cS^^Blll^'^n^^'^l^e'Ullf^^SL^''^^ 

that all words fail in making an ade- 
quate acknowledgment of it. 

To Italy is due, in the person of Galileo, 
the invention of the telescope, with all 
its valuable offshoots, as for instance, 
spectacles for the use of old persons, or 
others suffering from weak or imperfect 
vision. No.' did the great inventors of 
Italy become extinct with Galileo, for it 
is an Italian of the present day, Marconi, 
who has successfully established the sys- 
tem of wireless telegraphy. But it was 
primarily Morse's invention of the tele- 
graph which has paved the way to Mar- 
coni's invention, and all others along 
that line. -^■^^^-^— ^— ^— ^-^-^_i_^.^__ 

To France, in the person of Daguerre, ni \/MrM ITU r»ri/~K' l=/^/~e 
is due the invention which paved the rl^l nUU I M KULii CUUd 
way to modern photography with all its 

Roosters. Best layers known. Prize- winning 
stock. Price, {1.00 to 81.50each. Eggs in season 
at $1.00 for 16 ; $5 00 per 100. Satisfaction guar- 
anteed. Address 

A. T. MATTHEWS, Box 36, Parksley, Va. 


(Single Comb.) 

Eggs from prize winners and good layers J1.50 
per sitting. Reduction on larger lots. 

R. W. HAW, Jr., - Centralia, Va. 

wonders and beauties. I remember the 
pale, shadowy pictures called "Daguer- 
leotyes " in my childhood, and after- 
wards succeeded by a better style of pic- 


The undersigned can furnish them In 
limited quantities at fj.50 for 100. 
F. O. B. at Claremont, Va. 
M. HUCHES, Claremont, Surry Co.. Va. 






It Is the cheapest food ou earth. It 
pays others, aud will pay you. It makes 
the poultry business interesting, Be- 
CACSK It produces lesults — We Si:g- 
GEST a trial order. Our Booklet and 
Egg-Record— F. ek. 

21 1 W. Mitchell SI , - Petoskey, Mich. 




7 1 8 Twjilth St. N. W., Washington. D. C. 

Barred, Buff and White P. Rocks, Light 
Brahmas, White Wyandottes, Buff Coch- 
ins, Partridge Cochins, Black Langshan, 
Black Minorca, S. C. Brown Leghorns and 
S. C. White Leghornt. Stock for tale cheap. 
Prize winner eggs, tl far 1.5. A hatch of %, 
or order duplicated at half price. 

Bo:^5. C. J. Warriner, Minager. 

32 Varieties j"p|-s 
Best Poultry !r3;: 

m^^^m^^^m^m^^^^^^J All poultry 
keepers should have It. J NO. E. HEATWOLE, 
Harrisonburg, Virginia. 


These fowlsare noted for their prolific 
laying and non-setting qualities, and 
are Tery highly bred. 

Eggs, 81.50 per setting of thirteen. 


2024 Floyd Avenue, Rfchmond, Va. 

Black Langshans. 

Fine stock and free range. Only breed 

kept. Splendid winter layers. A 

few birds for sale. 

Cocks, S2..50; Hens,jl..50; Eggs. $1.50, per 15. 

Satisfaction guaranteed. 


Parksley, Va. 


hite and Barred Rock 

Single bird, ?1.00: trio, 12.50. Eggs for hatch- 
ing, 75 cts. for setting of 15. JERSEY BULL, 
No. 54171. J.B.JOHNSON, 

Clover HIU Farm. Manassas, Va. 



Cockerels, 81.00 each. 

Buff eggs, 81.50 per elttlDg ; Barred, 81.00. 

FRED NUSSEY, - Summit, Spotsylvania Co., Va