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^grintttttw, fortiattwr*, art tfte Ptotofl, gtatatnit and 
QmstMA girts. 

Agriculture is the nursing mother of the Arts.— Xenophon. 
Tillage and Pasturage are the two breasts of the State.— Sully. 

Oh. B Williams, Ed & Pro'r. 
Frank G. Ruffin, Co-Editor. 

Jno. M. Allan, Hort'l Editor. 
Wm. L Hill, GI-en'l Agent. 

New Series. 

RICHMOND, VA.,0CT0B3[l 1859. 

Vol. III. — No. 19. 

Agricultural Department : 

Field Experimen's on Clover Seeds and Permanent Pasture 

Agricultural Education in Germany 

The Michigan Agricultural Society— Industrial Education"."!!!'.*.'.!!!'. 


The most Economical Fertilizers" !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!" 

Rot«tton of Crops 

Agricultural Resources of the Cape "Fear '"section of n! c! 

Great Truths in Agriculture 598. Attention to Cattle "" ! 

Improvement in Agriculture Demanded 600. Peat Fuel... . 

Tying Horses 601. Ureas** Your Wheels 

Hoe out your Row 602. Indian Corn and its Uses 

Harvesting Potato, s 603. Sow Timothy 

Auplica ion of Manures 605. Stone on Land 

Agriculture in Austria 606. When to Uather Bean's!!!". 

Insects and Their Extermination 607. Rust on Wneat 

Ui dei draining Land 610. How much Manure do we Use" on" an" Acre? "" 

Sheep Raising 

Horticultural Department: 

Editorial Conespondence 

A mer ican Pomologies 1 Soci et y 613. Pen n syi vania"H'ortic'ui't'u^'ai"s'o'ci'e'ty '!! 

Napoleon III. Strawberty 616. Poison Oak 

Potato Bug 617. The Kiitatinny Blackberry 617. Ocst of Gh«pe Tr&'ii 

Sugar Beet 619. Flowers at Marriage Feasts 619. Tomato Sugar 

Laws of Sex in Plants, by Thos.SMeehan 

Harvesting Navy Beans . 

How sfta 1 Uardening be made Profiiabie?..'.!'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 

Hollyhock !.!!.!!!!!! 

Lining Department : 

Coal— Iron Interest of Virginia, by E- T. Tayloe. 

The Worlu's Minerals „ 

Mechanic Arts: 

Murfee's Subsoil Plough 

Naval Clock— Straw Paper. 
Editorial Department: 





Routt's Hay Rake and Seed Sower. 

Va S ateAgl. Society— Supplemental Premiums 630. Rail Road Arrange- 

Ayriculiure our Hope..!!..'.."!.'.'.'.'!!.' 

Historical Sketch of the Iron Interest " of Va" 
Editorial Notices 

-eirors corrected. 

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Y f because it contains so much prac- 
tical, original matter in such a small 
space."— John J. Thomas. 

"The directions for growing Strawber- 
ries and Raspberries are the best I have 
ever seen."— Henry Ward Beecher. 

We could give hundreds of just such tf s- 
timonials, snowing the value of tbis little 
work. It should be in the bands of every 
person, whether the owner of a rod square 
of ground or a hundred acres. Tree agents 
should have a copy. It contains 40 pages. 
Price 10 cents. Fall price list, wholesale 
and retail, and also terms to agents and 
those desiring to get up a clnb for plants 
sent free to all applicants. Parties at 
the South should order plants in the Fall 
Address PURDY & JOHNSTON, Palmyra, 
N. Y., or PURDY & HANCE, South Bend, 
Ind. aug— 3m 

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T^vo Dollars per IDety"- 

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New Series, vol. 3, May-Dec. 1869 
Missing: no. 6, June and no. 9, September 




Agriculture, Horticulture and the Mining, Mechanic and Household Arts. 

Agriculture is the nursing mother of the Arts.— Xenophon. 
Tillage and Pasturage are the two breasts of the State.— Sully. 

CH: B. WILLIAMS, . Editor and Proprietor. 

FRANK G. RUFFIN, Co-Editor. 

New Series. 


Vol. Ill— No. 10. 

Field Experiments on Clover Seeds and Permanent Pasture, 
In the part of the Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society of 
England recently issued, Dr. Voelcker gives a report of experi- 
ments on clover seeds and permanent pasture. Subjoined are the 
experiments : 


The field upon which the following experiments were made grew 
barley in the preceding year. The usual mixture of clovers and 
Italian ryegrass was sown with the barley. The seeds came up 
well, and the plant was tolerably good and uniform on the piece se- 
lected for the experiments. Apparently the selected piece of land 
was uniform in depth and in its general character. It was divided 
into eleven equal and adjoining plot3 of l-20th of an acre each. 
The eleven plots were treated as follows, as regards manure: 

Name of Manure. 

or Manure 
per plot. 

Nil sate of soda 

Sulphate of Am-uonia : 

Mineral superphosphate 

Common salt 

No manure 

Muriate of potash 

Sulphate of potash 

Sulphate of lim^. 

Mineral superphosphate and nitrate of .soda 

Mineral superphosphate and muriate of potash. 
No manure 

225* lbs. 
22% los. 
1 cwt. 
22U lbs. 
22y 2 lbs. 

Rate per acre. 




2234 lbs. 
22 % lbs. 



22U lbs. 


22^ lbs. 






vol. in — 37 




The artificial manures were so? 7 n by hand on the 11th of April; 
the clover was cut on the 12th of June for the first time, and a sec- 
ond cutting was obtained August 21th. 1867. The produce of each 
plot was carefully weighed on the same day, and as soon as cut, 
when the results incorporated in the following table were obtained : 

Table showing the produce of Artificial Grasses (mixed Clover and Ryegrass,) on Ex- 
perimental Plots of l-20th of an Acre each, made at Escrick Park Hume Farm, 
York, i i 1 867. 

Manure used. 

Weight of Clover. 


First cutting. 

Second cutting. 



Nitrate of soda 










lh S . 





cwt. qrs. lbs. 
2 7 
2 1 17 
2 2 9 
2 2 7 

2 3 4 

3 1 14 
2 2 7 
2 2 3 


4 3 2 
2 3 2 












Sulphate of anmonia 







No manure 


Muria'e of potash 



Su'phate of potash 





Mineral superphosphate and 
nitrate of soda 



Mineral superj hospbate and 
muriate of potash 



No manure 


Mr. Hull kindly furnished me wich the following notes, which he 
took on the field during the progress of the experiments : 

The manures were sown on the 11th of April, and no perceptible 
change was produced by any one of them until the 23d of April, 
when the clover seeds on plot 1 and plot 9 could readily be distin- 
guished from those on all the other plots by their darker green 
color and more vigorous growth. 


Plot 1 was dressed with nitrate of soda alone, and plot 9 with a 
mixture of nitrate of soda and superphosphate. Both plots had a 
darker green color than the rest throughout the experiment. 

The nitrate of soda on plot 1 encouraged the growth of the rye- 
grass to such an extent that it quite smothered the growth of the 
clover plant. 

Plot. 2. Sulphate of Ammonia. — The ryegrass grew vigorously, 
but was not so long and coarse as the ryegrass on the plot dressed 
with nitrate of soda, while it was superior in quality in comparison 
with the latter. The clover on plot grew fairly, but was weak. 

Plot 3. Mineral Superphosphate. — Ryegrass good, but clover 
thin, very weak, and much blighted. 

Plot 4. Common Salt. — Ryegrass and clover fair, but short. 


Plot 5. No Manure. — Appearance of plant much like that on 
the preceding plot. 

Plot 0. Muriate of Potash. — The clover on this plot was very 
good both as regards color and vigor of growth, and the ryegrass 
also was strong and of good quality. 

Plot 7. Sulphate of Potash. — Clover good, but ryegrass weak. ' 

Plot 8. Sulphate of Lime. — Ryegrass very thin and unhealthy 
in appearance; the worst piece of the eleven experimental plots. 

Plot 1). Nitrate cf Soda and Superphosphate. — Clover plant 
quite smothered by ryegrass, which grew very long and coarse, and 
of quality little better than good oat straw. 

Plot 10. Superphosphate and Muriate of Potash. — Decidedly 
the best plot ; clover remarkably strong, with a good broad leaf of 
a dark green color. Ryegrass also very vigorous and of excellent 

Plot 11. No Manure. — About the same as plots 3, 4 and 5. 


Plot 1. There wa3 scarcely any clover in the second cutting, and 
ryegrass also was very thin and weak. 

Plot 2. Clover very weak ; ryegrass much better than on the pre- 
ceding plot, though short. 

Plot 3. Much the same plot as 2 ; ryegrass not quite so strong* 

Plot 4. Ryegrass and clover short and weak. 

Plot 5. Clover fair; ryegrass short. 

Plot C. Ryegrass good ; clover leaves broad, and of a good colon 

Plot 7. Clover good, but ryegrass weak and thin. 

Plot 8. The produce on plot 8 small and weak. 

Plot 9. Merely a few plants of clover were left on plot 9 after 
the first cutting, and the ryegrass was very thin and weak ; the soil 
appearing to have been quite exhausted by the first cutting. 

Plot 10. Clover very good, with a good broad and dark-colored 
leaf; the ryegrass also strong and healthy. By far the best plot. 

Plot 11. Much the same as 4 and 5. 

We owe to Messrs. Lawes and Gilbert a series of most valuable 
and instructive field experiments on the influence of different ferti- 
lizing matters on the quantity and quality of the product of perma^ 
nent pastures. The changes which several of the fertilizers em- 
ployed by Messrs. Lawes and Gilbert produced in the character of 
the herbage of several of their experimental plots are so instruc- 
tive that for some years past I have made it a point to pay a visit 
to Rothamsted Park at the time when the grass crop is in the height 

580 THE SOUTHERN [October 

of perfection. Having frequently se.en with my own eyes in what 
a remarkable degree the growth of true grasses, especially the 
coarser kinds, is encouraged by nitrogenous fertilizers, and having 
also noticed the changes which a mixture of salts of potash and 
superphosphate produces on permanent pasture in the relative pro- 
portions of leguminous plants and true grasses, I was quite pre- 
pared for similar changes in the produce of the Escrick experi- 
ments. But the difference in the quality of the produce of some of 
the experimental plots at Escrick Park was more striking than that 
which I had previously witnessed at Rothamsted Park, or anywhere 

The Italian ryegrass on plot 9 I found at harvest-time, as Mr. 
Hull truly observes, so exceedingly coarse, that it appeared scarcely 
better than good oat straw, and very few clover plants could be 
seen. Again, the effect which muriate of potash, and in a still 
higher degree a mixture of muriate of potash and superphosphate 
produced on the clover plant was truly magical. 

I never before witnessed anything so striking and instructive as 
these experiments on artificial grasses. There must, of course, be 
a good reason why in this instance the quality, as well as the quan- 
tity, of the grass crop were so much more powerfully affected by 
the different manures than I found to be the case in other experi- 
mental trials. We know that the character of the soil materially 
affects the quality and the weight of the crops we raise upon differ- 
ent classes of soil. It is, therefore, natural to connect the remark- 
able results obtained in the Escrick Park experiments with the pe- 
culiar character of the soil on the experimental field. I have, 
therefore, taken care to obtain a fair average sample from the field 
on which the grass experiments were tried, and after drying the 
sample at 212 Fahr., I submitted it to a careful analysis, according 
to which the composition of the soil may be represented as follows: 


Organic matter and loss on heating, ... 4.28 

Oxide of iron, - - - - - - .-61 

Alumina, ------- 2.16 

Carbonate of lime, ----- .39 

Sulphate of lime, - - - - - - .25 

Carbonate of magnesia, ... - .23 

Potash, .------ .14 

Soda, - - - - - - .05 

Phosphoric acid, .---»- .08 

Insoluble siliceous matter (sand), - - . 91.81 



Even a superficial inspection will show at once that this is an ex- 
tremely poor and very light sandy soil. Mr. Coleman, moreover, 
informs me that the field from which this soil had been taken, had 
been badly farmed, and that it was, in consequence, in a poor agri- 
cultural condition. 

It will be noticed that this soil is remarkably poor in available 
potash, and I may add, in almost all the more valuable fertilizing 
constituents found in good soils. The total amount of oxide of iron 
and alumina was not quite 3 per cent., and of lime there was not a 
half per cent. On the other hand, it abounds in silica, for on ex- 
amination I found the 92 per cent, of siliceous matter which enter 
into the composition of this soil to consist almost entirely of pure 
fine grained quartz sand. 

I need hardly say that a -soil containing 92 per cent, of sand and 
very little clay, and a still smaller* proportion of the more valuable 
soil-constituents, has to be regarded as extremely poor. Such soils 
are readily exhausted by cropping, and though they will yield fair 
crops when liberally supplied with manure, they are naturally very 
unproductive. i 

The extreme poverty of this soil in available potash at once in- 
telligibly explains the benefits which both the cloverseeds and the 
Italian ryegrass derived from the application of muriate of potash ; 
and presents us with a good illustration of the utility of chemical 
analysis and the aid of the chemist, of which the practical farmer 
may occasionally avail himself with advantage.* The analysis 
clearly points out a deficiency of potash and also of phosphoric 
acid; and hence the employment of potash manures on land of that 
description may be recommended with confidence. The composi- 
tion of land like that of the soil of the experimental field, more- 
over, shows that lime or clay marl may be applied to it with advan- 
tage, and that it is impossible to grow any good roots, or barley, or 
wheat, or clover, on land of that character, without giving it a lib- 
eral dressing of phosphoric manures. Moreover, the loose and po- 
rous nature of the soil, and the want of a fair proportion of clay 
in it, clearly indicates the necessity of manuring it but very mode- 
rately with ammoniacal or nitrogenous manures ; for as the propor- 
tion of available mineral constituents which enter into the composi- 
tion of the ashes of our usual farm crops is but small, and the 
solubility of these matters in water is greatly facilitated by ammo- 

* Our readers will find that the formalas we furnished for experiments in our Sep- 
tember number will give them a cheap, and for all practical purposes, a correct analy- 
sis of their soils.— Ens. S. P. & F. 



niacal salts, such poor soils are all the more rapidly exhausted when' 
the crops grown upon them are too liberally manured with fertiliz- 
ers rich in nitrogenous matters, or in salts of ammonia. 

For the sake of better comparison, I have calculated the yield of 
each experimental plot for an acre, and placed the results in the 
subjoined table : 

Table showing the Green Produce per acre of 11 plots of Artificial Grass (Cloverseed 
and Ryegrass,) grown at Escrick Park Home Farm, 2 867. 

Manures used. 

P. oduce per 


• so 

First cutting. 

Second cutting 



Nitrate of soda 





• 10 










































Sulphate of ammonia 

Mineral superphosphate 



Common salt 



No manure 



Muriate of potash 



Sulphate of potash 



Sulphate of lime 



Mineral superph'^phate and 
nitrate or soda 



Mineral superphosphate and 
muriate of potash 



No manure 


An attentive perusal of the preceding figures will bring to light 
Several particulars, on which a few observations may not be out of 
place : 

1. In the first place, it will be noticed that two plots were left 
unmanured. In all experimental trials, at least two, or, if possible, 
three plots, should be left unmanured. Although the crop in a 
field may appear quite even, and the soil uniform as regards depth, 
texture, and general character, the weight of the produce of such a 
field invariably differs to some extent in different parts. Natural 
variation in the productive powers of different portions of the same 
experimental field must be expected to occur in all cases; but these 
variations must not surpass a certain limit, or else no fair and legit- 
imate deduction with respect to the efficacy of the manuring mat- 
ters employed can be made from the results of the experiments. 
Many of the anomalies which so much perplex the experimenting 
farmer, I am inclined to think, are often solely due to inequalities 
in the soil, or to differences in the agricultural condition of the sev- 
eral experimental plots. For this reason, it is absolutely necessary, 
in field trials, to determine whether the natural variations in the 
productive powers of different parts of the experimental field are 
not so great as to spoil the experiments altogether. In the case 


before us, it will be seen that one of the unmanured plots yielded, 
when calculated per acre, 8 tons, 5 cvvts., and 40 lbs. % and the sec- 
ond plot, 8 tons, 18 cwts., and 44 lbs.; the variations in the produce 
of the two plots thus amounted to 13 cwts. and 4 lbs., showing no 
greater difference than can be expected under favorable circum- 

2. Neither common salt nor sulphate of potash appears to have 
had any effect upon the produce, for it will be seen that the weight 
of the clover seeds on plots 4 and 7, dressed respectively with salt 
and sulphate of potash, was somewhat less than that of the unma- 
nured plots. I attach no value to the apparent diminution of the 
produce on plots 4 and 7, for the increase is not sufficiently large to 
entitle us to infer from the result that the same matters used on 
these two crops had an injurious effect upon the crop. 
.3. On plot 8 sulphate of lime was used at the rate of 1 ton per 
acre. This is a very large dose. Although sulphate of lime or 
gypsum is but sparingly soluble in water, and for that reason may 
be used with perfect safety in much larger quantities than in this 
experiment, provided it is well mixed with the soil, a large dose of 
finely-powdered gypsum, when applied as a top-dressing to young 
clover seeds, appears to injure the plants and to retard their 

4. It is worthy of notice that whilst common salt had no effect 
upon the produce, muriate of potash materially increased it. Wo 
have here another direct proof that soda is incapable of taking the 
place of potash in the nutrition of plants. 

5. On plot 3 mineral superphosphate alone had no effect what- 
ever on the crop. This is an interesting result, for it seems to in- 
dicate that the great deficiency of potash, which is characteristic of 
the soil of the experimental field, entirely prevented the display of 
the useful functions which we know perfectly well that superphos- 
phate of lime does discharge on land of a better character. On 
poor, light sandy soils, we may learn from this that a purely mine- 
ral superphosphate cannot be used with advantage for clover seeds. 
I may observe in passing, that on such soils mineral superphosphate 
has even little effect upon root crops, for which phosphoric manures 
are so largely used with the best effect. 

6. It is remarkable that whilst plot 3, manured with mineral 
superphosphate, gave no increase whatever ; and plot 6, manured 
with muriate of potash, gave an increase of 1 ton, 4 cwt., and 42 
lbs. over the average produce of the two unmanured plots (average 
produce 8 tons, 11 cwt. and 98 lbs..) the mixture of both manures 

584 THE SOUTHERN [October 

on plot 10 gave the largest weight of cloverseed and ryegrass per 
acre of any of the eleven experimental plots. 

In the first cutting, plot 10 produced 9 tons, and in the second 
nearly 5 tons of green clover seeds, or both cuttings yielded in ex- 
act -weight 13 tons, 15 cwt., and 40 lbs., which is an increase of 5 
tons, 3 cwt., and 61 lbs. per acre over the average yield of the two 
unmatured plots. 

Plot 10 gave not only the largest increase per acre, but the 
quality of both the clover and ryegrass was much superior to that 
of the produce of any other of the various experimental plots. 

7. There i3 another circumstance connected with the result ob- 
tained on plot 10, which deserves the best attention of the practical 
agriculturist. It will be seen that, although the first cutting pro- 
duced a heavy crop of clover seeds of by far the best quality of 
any of the experimental plots, the land was left in a better agricul- 
tural condition after the first cutting than where no manure at all 
was applied, 'and a much smaller weight of green clover seeds was 
reaped at first; for on plot 10, the second cutting yielded nearly 5 
tons of green produce, in addition to the first, whereas the two un- 
manured plots 5 and 11 yielded only 2 tons, 15 cwt. of additional 
produce in the second cutting. The liberal supply of available pot- 
ash and soluble phosphates thus had the eifect of greatly increasing 
the weight of the crop, improving its quality, and leaving the soil 
in a better agricultural condition for the next crop. 

8. Again, it will be noticed that on plot 6, on which muriate of 
potash alone was employed, the second cutting weighed more than 
the second cuttings of the other plots, except that of plot 10, where 
superphosphate was added to the potash-salt. It therefore appears 
that the beneficial effects of potash on soils so poor in this element 
as the land on which these experiments were tried, has a more per- 
manently beneficial effect than some of the fertilizing matters which 
were used on other plots. 

9. On the other hand, nitrate of soda unmistakably had a ten. 
dency to exhaust the land ; for it will be noticed that on both the 
plots 1 and 9, on which nitrate of soda was used, the second cut- 
tings weighed less than those of the unraanured plots. 

As already mentioned, the nitrate of soda on plots 1 and 9 en- 
couraged the growth of very coarse and inferior ryegrass, which 
completely smothered the clover plant. 

When I saw the experimental field late in the autumn of 1867, 
after harvest, the contrast in the appearance of the various experi- 
mental plots was most striking. Whilst the land on plots 1 and 9 


appeared quite burned up and exhausted, and scarcely any clover 
was visible, the potash plots could be readily distinguished by a 
dark green color and healthy look of the remaining herbage in 
which clover predominated. 

We may thus learn from these experiments, that nitrate of soda 
alone, or even in conjunction with superphosphate, should not be 
used as a top-dressing for artificial grasses on very poor sandy soils, 
like the soil of the experimental field, inasmuch as nitrate hastens 
the exhaustion of the potash naturally present in such soils in very 
small proportions. Indeed, nitrate of soda, a'nd, in a minor degree, 
ammoniacal salts, are the worst artificial manures that can be used 
under such circumstances. It may further be observed, that no 
just estimate can be formed of the real value of a special manure if 
no account be taken of the condition in which the land is left after 
the crop has* been removed from it. This is not the first time that 
I have noticed this tendency of nitrate of soda to produce rapid 
exhaustion of naturally poor soils, and I would therefore strongly 
recommend farmers to abstain from the employment of it as top- 
dressing for grass or corn crops which are intended to be grown on 
naturally poor sandy soils. — Journal of the New York State Agri- 
cultural Society. 

Agricultural Education in Germany. 


Germany is the land of great scholars and great schools. No 
where else in Europe can one find such numbers of highly educated 
men, and so many gigantic institutions of learning. And Germany 
has taken the lead in industrial education. It was among her phi- 
lanthropists and educators that the idea first took substantial shape 
to adapt schools to the practical affairs of life ; and now the most 
successful of these schools are to be found among the German 

The first industrial schools were charitable institutions to prepare 
poor and orphan children to earn their own living. But the idea 
soon took a higher form, and the Agricultural and Polytechnic 
schools began to be established, to teach science in its applications 
to the useful arts. For nearly three-fourths of a century have the 
German States been working at this great problem, and the history 
of its successive stages of evolution is interesting and instructive.. 
Blunders were committed, but by patient perseverance their conse- 

580 THE SOUTHERN [October 

quences were surmounted, arid the splendid success which is to day 
crowning these school;:, is the best proof of their present value, as 
it is of their prospective growth. The governments, convinced of 
the immense public value of technologic schools, are vying with 
each other in their more liberal endowment, and they bid fair to 
become at no distant day the great schools of Europe. Immense 
buildings are being erected for their accommodation, apparatus of 
the most costly character is being provided to render more effective 
and practical their instructions, and hosts of students are crowding 
to them from both Continents. 

At first they were regarded with little favor by the Universities, 
but their success has so fully demonstrated their utility, that now 
the University men are their foremost advocates and friends. A 
few of their special champions profess to believe that they will ere 
long supersede the Universities ; but the great majority, both of 
University and Polytechnic educators, see in the Polytechnic but 
the natural outgrowth and necessary advance of human learning, 
and in the union of the two forms, they find forshadowed the new 
future of education. 

The question of the union of the Polytechnic schools with the Univer- 
sities has been debated long and earnestly by German scholars and 
statesman. Theargumenton both sidesha sbecn exhausted. The suf- 
frages are fin illy setting down with a surprising unanimity in favor of 
the union. Among the Professors of both, of the Polytechnic 
schools and the Universities with whom I talked, there were but 
two who favored the separation of the two classes of education, and 
they on grounds merely local or incidental. And this decision in 
favor of a union embraces Agricultural, as well as other technical 
instruction. The celebrated Paron Liebig, the father cf Agricultu- 
ral Chemistry, is among the most ardent advocates of the union of 
Agricultural schools with the Universities. "You know I am op- 
oposed to isolated schools," said the old Baron to me as I sat with 
him in his library. It was under his influence that the Agricultural 
Department was added to the bid University at Halle. The new 
Polytechnical school at Munich, where Baron Liebig resides, is not 
only connected with the University so far that many students 
attend lectures in both, but it is also itself a University, bearing the 
title of the "Polytechnic University," and requiring for admission 
the same preparation that is required by the other Universities, 
excepting the Greek language. This Munich Polytechnic is one of 
the largest and newest of this class of institutions. Its buildings of 

1869.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 58 f 

magnificent extent and splendid architecture, will cost when com- 
pleted about $750,000 and would cost in Chicago, over a million 
dollars. The apparatus for the illustrations of only a single physi- 
cal science co.-^t about $12,000, and the chemical laboratory is of 
groat size and beauty. An entire separate laboratory is being pro- 
vided for Agricultural Chemistry and a distinct professor employed 
for this department. I asked the directors if they did not fear 
the high standard of qualifications required for admission would bar 
out students? He replied, "make your school good — see to it that 
that you have good teachers, good apparatus, libraries &c, and the 
students will be sure to come." There is sound sense in this 

The Polytechnic men all say that the aims of the first Polytech- 
nic schools were two low and limited. They sought only to give 
practical knowledge as it is sometimes.called, — or knowledge of the 
arts themselves, — without regard to the stage of preparation, or the 
general culture of their students. They were unable to carry the 
education far enough to reach the best results. Now everywhere 
they are raising the standard for admission and adding more of 
general aa'd libaral study to their courses of instruction. 


The history of Agricultural education in Germany is only one of 
the chapters of the history of Polytechnic education. At the outset 
the Agricultural schools were for poor peasant children. But with 
*the progress of thought and experiment, this branch of education 
enlarged and elevated its aims, till it has become finally to be an 
honored and useful department of University instruction. 

There now exists in Germany, three some-what distinct classes of 
Agricultural schools. The first are schools for the education of 
practical farmers or farm laborers. These schools provide a Winter 
course of theoretical instruction, and, in most cases, send the stu- 
dents home to work on the farm during the Summer season. 

These schools are of different grades, the instruction in some 
being somewhat thorough and complete, while in others it is quite 
meagre and merely elementary. They have doubtless accomplished 
much good, but they are said to be giving away before the multipli- 
cation of a higher order of schools. 

The second class embraces what, in America, would be called 
Agricultural Colleges, but which the Germans style Agricultural 
Academies. They were all as far as I could learn, of somewhat 
early origin, having been established before the question of union 

588 THE SOUTHERN [October 

with the Universities were started. They are isolated schools aim- 
ing at a high and thorough course in all sciences pertaining to agri- 
culture and at such practical instruction as their modern farms afford. 
The opinion was frequently expressed tome that these schools would 
at an early day be united to the nearest Universities. The third clas3 
of Agricultural schools consists of the Agricultural Departments of 
the Universities. These are all of somewha.t recent origin, having 
been established in conformity with the conviction that Agricultu- 
ral education of the best form ought to be provided for by the 

I shall give your readers the best idea of the character of these 
several classes of schools by describing one of each class as they 
fell under my own observation. But as this description will pro" 
bably fill a letter of itself, I may use the space remaining in this, to 
present some general views of Agricultural education in the German 

And foremost among the questions which will be asked me i3 
this: Has Agricultural education in Germany, on the whole, been 
successful? I put this question one morning to Baron Liebig in 
his library, intimating to him that doubts on this point existed in 
America. The splendid old man stretched himself up, and with 
flashing eye exclaimed: " The success has been immense'" and 
then in proof of the truth of his statement he added : "In Hesse, 
for example, the value of the land has increased three hundred per 
cent, unde.- the improved method of culture introduced by the dif- 
fusion of Agricultural science. And this increase has not come, as 
your lands increase in value in America, by increase of population, 
but by the actual inprovement in the fertility of the soil. The im- 
mense quantities of the artificial fertilizers, the phosphates and sul- 
phates now used in Germany, are evidences of the progress of 
Agricultural science. Lands, which were worn out and nearly use- 
less, have been renovated and rendered abundantly productive by 
the improved methods and manures." 

Mr. Bancroft, the American Minister to the Prussian Court, told 
me that when he first visited Berlin, fifty years ago, that city was 
in the midst of barren sands. Now it is surrounded with fruitful 
fields and waving forests. Agriculture, science-taught, has trans- 
formed the sands to fertile soil. And all this the Germans claim as the 
fruits of their Agricultural schools. If another proof were wanting 
of the acknowledged utility of these schools, it could be easily found 
in the fact that they are being rapidly multiplied throughout the 
German State3. Men do not multiply useless institutions; but 


the Agricultural schools are multiplying in great numbers- And 
these institutions are increasing in influence as rapidly as in num- 
bers. The scope of their course of instruction and the value of 
their educational influence are constantly increasing, and as a con- 
sequence, their place in public esteem grows more and more prom- 

The German Agricultural schools have introduced two measures 
which have helped greatly to increase both their influence and use- 
fulness. First they have organized an extensive and thorough sys- 
tem of agricultural experiments for the discovery of new truth 
and the solution of the great questions of agricultural science. 
There are now, chiefly in Germany, thirty-three agricultural exper- 
iment stations, fitted up with the necessary laboratories, stables or 
farms, for carrying forward careful sets of observations and experi- 
ments both in soil, culture and animal husbandry. These stations 
are under the direction of thoroughly trained chemists, who know 
how to adjust all the conditions of each experiment and to test with 
the utmost nicety the results. These experimenters meet annually 
to discuss the experiments and compare observations, as well as to 
suggest new problems for solution. The reports of these experi- 
ments carefully written out, are published in a periodical devoted 
to this interest and thus are offered constantly to the agriculturists 
of the country. I had the pleasure of visiting several of these sta- 
tions and of noticing the ingenuity and scientific precision with 
which the experiments are conducted. Agriculture must gai 1 
greatly in certainty and power when the workers at these stations 
shall have had time to ripen their observations and systematize their 

The second measure of which I spoke, is the establishment of a 
system of itinerating lectures for the diffusion of agricultural knowl- 
edge among the farmers. I did not learn how widely the practice 
yet prevailed, but in Baden the Professors of the agricultural school 
at Weisbaden go out through the villages and from school house to 
school house, giving instruction to the practical farmers, in plain 
familiar lectures, and it is said with the happiest results. A double 
advantage results from this work; agricultural science is diffused 
among the people, and the agricultural schools secure a higher place 
in the public esteem. 

The circumstances of Germany favor the success of agricultural 
schools. The general prevalence of education gives a large number of 
young men prepared to enter upon the study of the sciences, and the 
number of well educated men affords the requisite supply of qualified 

590 THE SOUTHERN [October 

teachers. In these two respects no country so well compares with Ger- 
many as the United States. In another important point we have a great 
advantage even, of Germany. There the minute subdivisions of the 
lands often consigns the farmer to a hopeless poverty and utterly 
forbids the free introduction of new methods of culture. Agricul- 
ture in the German States is not the chief employment of the peo- 
ple. But the extent of our farms and the prominent place which 
agriculture occupies among the industries, gives to the American 
Agricultural College a field such as no European country affords. 

The Germans, in many respects, more nearly resemble the Amer- 
ican people than any other nation on the European continent. 
Even England is less like the American republic. In the care of 
the government for the education of the people, in the absence of 
the spirit of caste, in the prevalence of free thought, in the general 
spirit of earnest investigation, the German States resemble the 
American ; and the success of the German Agricultural Colleges 
affords no slight ground of hope for the success of similar institu- 
tions in our own country. It 13 true there are notable differences 
between the t,vo countries, and especially in their agriculture; but 
the general principles which have been proved true for the one will be 
found true for the other, and thus the German schools may afford 
us many useful hints for the conduct of our own. — Western Rural. 

Paris, August, lb 69. 

The Michigan Agricultural Society. 


The Junior Exhibition, which was held August 25, made no 
little stir with us. The audience was large, and very appreciative. 
Upon the rostrum sat the entire Board of Agriculture, Gov. 
Baldwin, included. Twelve Juniors took part on this occasion, 
and have received from several representatives of the Press, who 
"were present, generous praise f >r fchs felicitous expression of the 
many apt and practical thoughts contained in their orations and 

Hon. George Wilward, of the Battle Creek Journal, gave an 
admirable lecture in the evening, on l< Labor and its Influence upon 
the progress of the World's enlightenment." He showed that the 
mental and moral status of a people held intimate relations with 
their productive industry. It was a most happy vindication of In- 
dustrial education, and I am glad to say, it is to be published entire. 

I860.] . PLANTER AND FARMER. , £91 

Our grounds and green house are very beautiful, and that this 
attractiveness is appreciated is evinced by the many visitors, none 
of whom seem to go awny unfriendly. • - 

Our Sophomore class has been very fortunate in having Prof. 
Prentis during the Cornell vacation. His lectures on Economic and 
Agricultural Botany, are inimitable. # 

Our new boarding hall is being pushed with commendable energy, 
and gives great promise of being a fine structure. 

We hope and expect to be able next year to take all who come, and 
to have a room sufficient to. make them comfortable. We rejoice that 
the system of putting four students in one room is to be forever 
abandoned. — A. J. Cook, in Western Rural. 


Messrs. Editors, — As we reside in a county adjoining Per- 
son, N. C, and may therefore be presumed to feel some of the Ag- 
ricultural gloom which "Person" depicts as overshadowing that 
county, we trust it will be a sufficient apology for this claim upon 
your columns. 

The impoverished condition of our land, due to the exhausting 
influence of African* slavery, that has sucked its life blood for so 
many years, and the loss entailed by the disastrous results of the 
late war, have left us in this portion of Virginia, and the adjacent 
portions of N. C, in a prostrated condition truly alarming. But 
as the intelligent farmer casts about for something to resuscitate his 
impoverished farm, and empty purse, he can, in our judgment, 
find nothing at present so likely to furnish the means of recupera- 
tion as the judicious cultivation of tobacco, more especially that 
quality which is peculiar to this portion of Virginia and North Car- 
olina. This for the present, at least, furnishes the only rainbow of 
hope to us, and there is no subject of agriculture that, in our opinion, 
should claim a greater share of our most earnest efforts, than the 
proper cultivation and proper management of this great staple. 
We are aware that there is a great disposition on the part of many 
eminent farmers to discourage the production of tobacco, but we 
attribute the idea, rather to that almost universal feeling of the 
necessity of a "change of system," than to any rational deduc- 
tions as to how we shall best meet our wants in another direction. 
It is akin to that other notion that we cannot afford to raise our own 

If we are to give up such things as we have been in the habit of 

592 THE SOUTHERN [October 

raising on our farms, from the mistaken notion that we cannot 
compete with the great West, where shall we stop, and upon what 
shall we rely to purchase these cheap, though essential products of 
the West ? We do not doubt that the West can surpass us in the 
production of shipping tobacco, yet we are convinced, when we con- 
sider the preference oft the part of some shippers for our tobacco 
over the Western staple, with the difference in the cost of labor 
and the facilities of our shipping market, that we can make ship- 
ping tobacco even more remunerative than the Western States. 

The fact that our farmers have failed to find the cultivation of 
tobacco as remunerative as they might have hoped, has been due, in 
a great measure, to that very common cause of failure, imperfect 
manuring, and the hopes of realizing a large crop merely from the 
fact that a large surface was put in cultivation, and a failure to ap- 
preciate the fact that the profits have been consumed by a fruitless 
outlay for labor without a proportionate yield in crop. There is 
evidently too great a disposition on the part of our people to de- 
ceive themselves by expecting results commensurate with, and en- 
tirely dependent upon, the extent of their operations. Oar youth 
have been overcharged with the false philosophy of "strike high, 
though you miss the moon;" "strive at everything, though you ac- 
complish nothing ;" till, like a short gun with too much powder, 
they always shoot too wide for the game. Is it not concentrated 
force — concentrated capital and concentrated thought — that accom- 
plishes big results ? Why should " the pastor " spin o\it his sermon 
to the length of "only an hour," and about as thick as a knife 
blade, yet affect not to be able to see how his brethren can recon- 
cile their consciences to a nap in church? Our youthful neighbor 
cultivated a hundred thousand hills in tobacco, "with twelve good 
Lands," and he cannot see how he only made nine thousand pounds 
of tobacco, and "got nothing for that." Our old farmers, not con- 
tent with their five hundred acres, have sold the soil of that to ex- 
tend their domain to thousands, which now grin barren defiance to 
their demands for tax money. Indeed, we begin to fear that 
the period of slavery with us was more propitious to the devel- 
opment of African muscle than Anglo-Saxon brains ; at least, 
it seems to have rendered our minds so diffusive, that the humblest 
owner of even a single family of slaves began to have serious ap- 
prehensions of being ultimately cramped in his operations, unless 
the territories were thrown open to his future muscular develop- 
ments. But. as your columns very properly eschew political ques- 


tions, we leave this expansive subject to be developed by the histo- 
rian, as to how much this erratic idea contributed to the occasion 
of the late war. 

" Woe to the land to numerous ills a prey, 

Where wealth accumulates and "—minds— " decay." 

But for fear your readers will begin to imagine that we are un- 
able to bring our thoughts to a focus, we return to our subject — 
tobacco. As it is a crop which requires a great deal of labor and 
handling, it is absolutely necessary that the land in cultivation 
should be rich, that the tobacco may be large and heavy ; other- 
wise it is the most unprofitable crop the farmer can engage in. For 
shipping tobacco, the plants should be set out from the 1st to the 
10th of June; for the fine manufacturing grades, the plants should 
be set out as soon as they can be gotten sufficiently grown, for the 
sooner the crop can be brought to maturity, the finer will be its 
texture, and it is more easily cured during the early fall ; while, on 
the contrary, the shipping grades are made much thicker and hea- 
vier by being allowed to take the rains and dews of the latter fall. 
The process of curing the yellow varieties consists in drying out 
the sap by a constant, well regulated heat, which can only be done 
by charcoal, as it contains no watery element, and produces a very 
dry heat. The work should be carried on in a barn with very close 
walls, though it is the opinion of the writer that the process would 
be very much facilitated by having the roof very open, or even by 
having the barn entirely open at top, if there could be some means 
of securing the tobacco in the event of rain, by having a covering 
at hand which could be put on and taken off at pleasure. We do 
not know whether such a thing is practicable, but if it were, we do 
not doubt but the process would be rendered much more certain of 
success. We are disposed to think, that by this arrangement, the 
tobacco might be hung much closer in the barn, without being so 
liable to scalding from contact with the humid atmosphere of a close 
barn. The process of yellow curing, though we have had but little 
experience in it, seems evidently to be, to get rid of the watery ele- 
ment of the plant by a dry heat, so regulated as not to produce a 
too rapid flow (which would run over the leaf and scald it red), and 
yet not allow the temperature to be so reduced as to fail to produce 
the evaporation necessary*to release the leaf from the perspiration, 
as it were, which is going on from the plant. And it is quite ob- 
vious that a tall barn, with close walls, (except just at the bottom,) 
and open roof, would much facilitate the process by the establish- 
ment of a current of fresh dry air from bottom to top. 
VOL in — 38 

594 THE SOUTHERN [October 

We have been led to these thoughts from a sincere desire to do 
what we can in suggesting to our people the most available means 
of meeting their present wants. We by no means advise the culti- 
vation of tobacco as a specialty ; on the contrary, we agree with 
" Person," that a mixed husbandry is absolutely necessary to suc- 
cessful farming, especially in sections remote from market ; and as 
we cannot safely give up " the weed," we urge the reduction of its 
surface in cultivation to the paying point. J. V. B. 

Halifax, Va., Aug. 28, 1869. 

Inquiries and Answer Respecting the Most Economical Fertilizer. 

David Stuart, Esq. — Dear Sir, — I have noticed your commu- 
nications in the American Farmer in regard to Navassa guano as a 
fertilizer. I acted upon your hints, as I thought or understood 
them, last fall, in seeding my wheat crop. I had concluded that a 
mixture of manures was best, and thought Peruvian guano for the 
immediate crop the most efficient of all manures, but for the benefit 
of the soil and above crop, desired to use with it some phosphatic 
material, and selected the Navassa guano, mixing them in equal 
quantities, 150 lbs. each to the acre, and drilled in with the wheat. 
The crop compared well with those of my neighbors who used the 
various superphosphates, but I am not sure that I made the best use 
of the Navassa by using it in its natural state, and now I am at a 
loss because Peruvian guano is not to be had, and I am fearful, from 
my observations among my neighbors' crops that have used the 
manufactured manures, that they will not pay on wheat. I tried 
the Navassa on clover by itself, 250 lbs. to the acre, but saw very 
little benefit from it, and I conclude it would not pay on wheat. 
Can you tell me in what manner I may treat it to make it more 
available than in its natural state ? Would it do to mix and drill in 
with it unleached ashes, or the salt and lime mixture, or would it be 
best to take Professor Higgins' plan, as detailed in the March num- 
ber of the American Farmer, using salt and sulphuric acid ? He 
states that this guano may be bought for $20 per ton, but the ad- 
vertising price is $30, and this is the price that I paid for it. 
Nearly all the Baltimore superphosphates- and manipulated manures 
have been tried here on corn and wheat; none of them have any- 
thing like the effect upon wheat that Peruvian guano has, and I don't 
know one of them that pays on this crop. What do you think of 
Messrs. Phillips' superphosphate ? I have heard a glowing account 


of it from Ex-Governor Ross, of your State, as an application to 
clover in the spring. 

Please excuse this liberty in a stranger. Although we are 
strangers to you, your name is very familiar among us, and your 
opinions very frequently quoted. 

Very respectfully, John Rust. 

Oak Grove, Northumberland co. } Va. f Sept. 14, 1869. 


To Mr. J. i2., of Oak G-rove, Northumberland co., Va. : 

I have by the last mail received your letter enquiring as to the 
most economical fertilizer under certain circumstances, indicated by 
your previous experience in the use of such means. I admit that the 
Navassa is comparatively worthless unless rendered soluble ; it is 
then one of the richest and cheapest supplies of phosphoric acid at 
the lowest price mentioned (and at which I think it can be. had). 
There are three modes by which its solubility may be increased — 
the one you quote was claimed by Liebig, and I object to it, as it 
forms (necessarily and inevitably,) a poisonous chloride of iron and 
alumina so caustic and poisonous to all vegetation that it may neu- 
tralize the valuable solution of phosphoric acid it liberates, and 
other manures — but I do not wish to condemn this in advance of 
actual experience. When I am more at leisure I will give you the 
other two processes, by which any farm hand can render Navassa 
soluble, and produce a fertilizer for Spring crops that will not cost 
$10 per ton, and excel any superphosphate now sold at $50 ; but it 
will not be found as well adapted to wheat. 

For your particular cultivation, I think that the following com- 
pound is cheaper, provided you get the elements of known value 
from a perfectly reliable source, and mix them in your barn, being 
received in powder, as I will direct. Drill them with the seed at 
the rate of 200 lbs. per acre (at least), and as much more as you 
can afford. Will pay better interest on the investment than any 
other stock. 

If possible, repeat the experiment that I published in the August 
number of Southern Planter and Farmer, to test the value of my 
new mode of cultivating wheat so as to use fertilizers with in- 

Two barrels .of sulphate of ammonia; one barrel of sulphate of 
potash ; 5 barrels of powder of sulphated South Carolina coprolite 
(or phosphoric deposit). 

596 THE SOUTHERN [October 

If possible, substitute, in whole or in part, Peruvian guano in 
powder for the above sulphate of ammonia, using about five barrels 
of Peruvian for the above. Get these articles wherever you can 
find them cheaper, but they can be had pure and reliable, in pow- 
der, ready for use, of Higgins & Reybold, at Delaware City, on 
the Chesapeake and Delaware canal, as I have and will analyze all 
their stock as received, except Peruvian guano, which it happens I 
have not analyzed for them thus far. 

Yours faithfully, David Stewart, M. D. 

Port Penn, Delaware, Sept. 19, 1869. 

N. B. — The sulphated coprolite referred to must contain 25 per 
cent, of oil of vitriol. D. S. 

Rotation of Crops. 

On every farm there is usually raised at least some of the gocd 
old-fashioned cereals, corn, wheat, oats, and also potatoes ; and per- 
haps sufficient of these should always be grown for family and farm 
consumption, and to avoid buying. They are not, however, always 
necessarily the staple crops from which the chief profits of the farm 
are derived ; and it will be found that in every section and neighbor- 
hood almost, there are certain specialties particularly adapted to its 
cultivation, by reason of soil, distance from market, or other cir- 
cumstances, which make the heavy end of the annual profits. 

In the immediate vicinity of Philadelphia, for at least thirty to 
forty miles round, convenient to railroads, the dairy business (milk 
and butter,) should undoubtedly be the main object — the raising of 
grain being merely incidental to it. 

In many parts of New Jersey the staple crops are certainly 
small fruits and vegetables. In other places there would appear to 
be peculiar advantages for rearing improved breeds of live stock. 
We know of soils where wheat grows well, producing heavy crops 
with an alternation of clover, year after year. In some places, on 
a smooth road, hauling hay to. a market like Philadelphia, and 
bringing a return load of manure, would appear to be profitable and 
a self-sustaining system. In other sections, packing or baling hay 
for transportation yields more money than any other crop. 

It is very important for every farmer rightly to select his main 
staple crop. Whichever of these several plans is adopted, it should 
be borne in mind that generally only one, or at least two, can be 
well managed on a single farm. They cannot all succeed ; and to 
try them all is sure to result in failure. It would be a kind of 

1869.] PLANTER A^D FARMER. 597 

"Jack of all trades and master of none." Military men would call 
it covering too much ground, and exposing too much front. Weak- 
ness or want of driving force would result — labor being divided 
when it ought to be concentrated. 

We will suppose a dairy farm where the object is to keep, Sum- 
mer and Winter, the largest number of cows. Even if grain is pur- 
chased, it will be obviously inexpedient to buy grass or hay. The 
grass crop, therefore, should be the chief point of attention ; and 
such a system is best for a dairy farm • as will bring about a luxu- 
riant growth of nutritious grasses, and retain them longest without 
the necessity of ploughing up. Without grain, straw and corn fod- 
der, stock could not be kept, and without these there could be ho 
manure. So that some ploughing and some cropping are indispen- 

We would suggest the following rotation in place of the present 
one : 1st, corn, to which all the manure should be applied, except 
what is wanted for potatoes ; 2d year, seed with oats and barley 
mixed, and clover. Oats now is a very uncertain crop, and experi- 
ments the present season on the Experimental Farm in Chester 
county and elsewhere, seem to- show these ripen well together (say 
two-thirds barley and one-third oats), and are not so apt to fall 
down. As feed for cows, the two grains mixed have been found 
more valuable than either alone. 3d year, clover to be ploughed 
down the next Fall for wheat, which should be sown with grass seed 
in the usual way. This makes a four years' rotation. The advan- 
tages are, first, there would undoubtedly be on an average a much 
heavier corn crop ; second, there would be a far more valuable crop 
for milch cows than an oat crop alone usually is ; 3d, the value of 
the clover crop, which could partially be pastured. It is a great 
meliorator, improver and subsoiler, and, o if there is any one way to 
ensure a crop of wheat, it is to precede it with a crop of clover. 
All experience, everywhere, proves this. This rotation, besides 
being a practical one, is also based on sound theory. Corn is a 
gross feeder — and we have never heard of any land too rich for it. 
Barn-yard manure, in its only partially decomposed state in the 
Spring, is exactly what it requires, to warm the soil and drive the 
corn ahead. While the ground might be left too rich for oats the 
next season, it would not be for barley, or barley and oats combined. 
The third year, (unless the "laws of nature" are similar to what 
they are around Salem, New Jersey, where rootu only run down 
five inches and then^stop,) it would be found that clover would do 
what farmers hesitate about — it would subsoil, or extend its tap 

598 THE SOlfTHREN [October 

roots down, opening the lower strata to the air, bringing up mineral 
plant food, and evolving chemical combinations there, besides mak- 
ing a mass of vegetable matter, to be turned down, exactly suitable 
to the growth of wheat. We present this rotation for the consid- 
eration of our farmers, and should be glad to have their views of 
it. — The Practical Farmer. 

Agricultural Resources of the Cape Fear Section of North 


In a letter written to Dr. S. S. Satchwell, Professor Kerr, State 
Geologist of North Carolina, after an exploration of the Cape Fear 
region, speaks in glowing terms of the hidden wealth of that sec- 
tion. He says : 

" I confess my surprise, after all that has been said and written 
on the subject, at the discovery of both the abundance and wide 
distribution of marls in your section. But it is a matter of stiU 
greater surprise that such mines of wealth should be so little known 
and appreciated, and used by farmers. We must change all this. I 
count on your Farmers' Clubs and Agricultural Societies, aided by 
an enlightened and comprehensive railroad policy, to do much in 
that direction. 

" I have collected largely and over a considerable area, both of 
soils and marls, of which the samples are undergoing analysis as 
fast as possible in the State Laboratory. The results will be given 
to the public at the earliest practicable moment." 

" Great Truths " in Agriculture. — The farmer who stints 
his fields, is as unwise and improvident as he who starves his work- 
ing cattle — in both cases he is diminishing the ability of a faithful 
servant to be useful to him. 

The farmer who obtains from a field not properly fertilized ten 
bushels of grain, when by manuring he might have obtained twenty, 
is selling his labor at half its value. 

He who does not give back to his fields as much as he takes from 
them, sells their fertility in his crops — and the fertility of the soil 
is the farmer's capital. 

The farmer who will keep these truths in view, and act in accord- 
ance with the rules they suggest, will find his compensation in the 
increasing products of his farm, in the augmentation, of his wealth, 
and in the promotion of general prosperity. — Maine Farmer. 


Attention to Cattle. 

Very few will dispute that if it pays to keep live stock, the pro- 
fits will be in proportion to the management of it ; therefore any 
one would suppose, on first .thinking of the subject, surely every 
stock-raiser will have the very best attention paid that can possibly 
be contrived. Is it so ? Alas ! no. In every herd, in every flock, 
there are animals of the same age which differ in a great degree in 
their aptitude to carry flesh and in milking properties; also in the 
flock, the difference in the weight and quality of the fleece, as well 
as the contrast in mutton qualities, will be very great, and all these 
characteristics require a watchful and intelligent mind to note the 
cause of every peculiarity, so that weeding out or judicious coun- 
teraction may be resorted to. 

A man who excels in the management of cattle, has studied the 
disposition and habits of animals, and understands what kind of 
food suits them best at every stage of their existence, and how to 
treat them at all seasons of the year and under every circumstance, 
so that he has no sickness, excepting of such a kind as no human 
foresight could have prevented. Attention to cattle will pay, at all 
events, and if owner and attendant are both skilled in the science 
of breeding, so as to produce superiority in shape and constitution 
in the descendants, by the judicious mating of the parents, as well 
as in bringing every generation nearer perfection by forcing every 
good trait, success will follow to a greater extent. — Cultivator and 
Country Gentleman. 

The Philadelphia Eagle says a good story is told of an amateur 
agriculturist living not a thousand miles from Berkshire county, 
who was advised by one of his neighbors to plant sun-flowers with 
his beans, in order to obviate the task of poling. He followed the 
advice; in due course of time beans and sun-flowers came up and 
waxed strong, the beans coiling around the sun-flower stalks beau- 
tifully ; and he congratulated himself on the fact that he had dis- 
covered an effectual method of raising beans without being driven 
to the disagreeable necessity of toting bean-poles from the forest. 
But alas for human expectations, his beans were raised out of the 
soil, roots and all, by the aid of the new-fashioned bean-poles, and 
there they hung withering between heaven and earth — a melancholy 
testimonial to the uncertain tenure of all earthly things. — Metro- 
politan Record. 

600 THE SOUTHERN [October 

Unceasing Effort to Improve our Agriculture Demanded: 

We are indebted to the Lynchburg Virginian for the following extract from 
an address delivered by Edward Everett in 1861, before the Union Agricul- 
tural Society of Jefferson county, New York. That man of varied and wonder, 
ful intelligence, said: 

" The effort to improve our agriculture must never be lost sight 
of. This is the great object, gentlemen, for which your Society, in 
common with others of the same character, was instituted, and to- 
wards which the thoughts of the intelligent husbandman should be 
steadily turned. It has, I think, generally been the reproach of our 
farmers, that they are too much inclined to persevere in the old routine, 
and through jealousy of what is called book-farming, neglect to 
avail themselves of the light which science and skilful experiment 
have thrown upon the operations of husbandry. I am disposed, 
however, to think that this reproach, though not without foundation, 
has been carried too far. First experiments in all departments of 
industry generally fail. The mass of our farmers have no capital 
nor surplus labor to spare for double experiments, and it is in the 
nature of things that important changes, in that which has existed 
from time immemorial, should be gradually and cautiously made, 
and somewhat timidly admitted, by those who cannot afford to put 
much at risk. In the meantime by the agency of agricultural news- 
papers and larger journals through the reports of boards of agricul- 
ture and other official publications, and by the aid of meetings like 
the present, much practical information has been and constantly is 
disseminating in our farming community. I appeal to you, gentle- 
men, whose recollections cover a period of twenty or thirty years, 
that within your observation a corresponding improvement has taken 
place in almost every branch of husbandry, the artificial enrich- 
ment of the soil, the introduction of choicer varieties of the domes- 
tic animals ; — horses, cows, sheep, and swine ; — in many of the im- 
plements for tilling and reaping the soil, and in several agricultural 
operations, such as subsoil ploughing and draining. In these, and 
several other particulars, there is no doubt that Swift's proverbial 
and often quoted test of a public benefactor, that of making two 
blades of grass of grow where only one grew before, has been much 
more than realized in many departments of our modern agriculture." 

Peat Fuel. 

A trial to test the comparative calorfic power of peat fuel was 
made in the engine-room of the Tribune establishment on the night 
of the 11th inst. The two boilers were precisely alike and in the 


trial used the same draft. Fires were started at 9 p. M., and the 
work continued steadily until 4 A. M.. Under one boiler ordinary 
fuel — Lehigh anthracite, chesnut size — was burned, and under 
the other the fuel prepared by a peat company — each being 
carefully weighed. 900 pounds of each were consumed, with the 
same residing duty in both. This peat fuel is very compact, and in 
this instance was the non-resinous variety, yielding 10-8 per cent, 
of ash. The engineer expresses the opinion that, for making steam 
it is equal ton for ton to the coal commonly used for that pur- 
pose. — Dutchess County Farmer, 

Novel Mode of Tying Horses. — Icelanders have a curious 
custom, and a most effectual one, of preventing horses from stray- 
ing. Two gentlemen, for instance, are riding together without at- 
tendants, and, wishing to alight for the purpose of visiting some ob- 
jects at a distance from the road, they tie the tail of one horse to 
the head of the other, and the head of this to the tail of the former. 
In this state, it is utterly impossible that they can move either 
backwards or forwards, one pulling one way and the other the re- 
verse ; and therefore, if disposed to move at all, it will be only in 
a circle, and even then there must be an agreement to have their 
heads in the same direction. — Metropolitan Record. 

Grease Your Wheels. — " Some persons may not be aware," 
says Hieover, in his work, Bipeds and Quadrupeds, " that the tri- 
fling neglect of a pair of wheels being comparatively dry or well 
greased, will cause twenty miles to take far more work out of a 
horse than forty would in the latter case ; yet wheels absolutely 
screaming from dryness are often seen and heard attached to carts 
and wagons ; and thus would the brute in human form let them 
scream till he had finished his journey's end or his day's work, 
though his horses were drawing, from such cause, at least one ton 
in four of resistance more than they would if the defect were at- 
tended to." — Forney's Press. 

"An Indian named Joseph Shaw-we-nos-se-qua lately carried half 
a bushel of potatoes twenty miles to pay in his subscription to a 
paper in Ludington, Minnesota. He can neither read nor write, 
but gets some of his better informed neighbors to read the paper 
for him." Let him that readeth understand ! 

602 THE SOUTHERN [October 

Hoe Out Your Row. 

One day a farmer's lazy boy 

Was hoeing out the corn, 
And moodily had listened long 

To hear the dinner horn. 
That welcome blast was heard at last, 

And down he dropped his hoe ; 
But the old man shouted in his ear — 
" My boy, hoe out your row V 

Although a " hard one" was the row, 

To use a ploughman's phrase, 
The lad, as sailors have it, 

Beginning well to " haze," 
"I can," said he, and manfully 

He seized again his hoe, 
And the old man smiled to see 

The boy hoe out his row, 

The lad this text remembered, 

And proved the moral well, 
That perseverance to the end 

At last will nobly tell. 
Take courage, then ! resolve you can, 

And strike a vigorous blow ; 
In life's great field of varied toil 

Always hoe out your row. 

Indian Corn and its Uses. 

A bushel of Indian corn contains more nutriment than a bushel 
of wheat ; but corn meal should not be ground fine, or it will not 
keep sweet. There is no grain that can be put to so many different 
ways, as corn and corn meal. 

First, we have the green corn, roasting ears and soup in the 
early, and the dried corn soup and hominy the balance of the year. 
These dishes every good housekeeper knows how to prepare, being 
among the most simple in the culinary art. 

And then by grinding it into meal, what visions of delicious eat- 
ing float before our eyes. First, we have the corn cake made of 
meal and water, and a little salt, if you are too poor to use eggs 
and milk, mixed into a dough or batter and baked on a griddle. 
The corn bread or pone, which can only be made properly by about 
one housekeeper in ten. Then mush and milk and fried mush. We 
have never seen the individual that did not like one or the other. 
Many fail in making good mush by not boiling it enough. When it 


is merely scalded it has a raw taste. Then there is a very good 
corn meal pudding, made by stirring the meal into scalded skim 
milk till it is thick as gruel, and, when cool, add ginger, cinnamon, 
nutmeg, salt and sweetening to suit the taste, and a little fine cut 
suet and some raisins or dried peaches, and a fine cut apple. It 
should bake an hour or more, according to size. This is a good 
pudding. And then see into how many dishes corn becomes a pal- 
ateable and favorite mixture. It is the cheapest and most whole- 
some food that man can live on, and should be on the table of both 
rich and poor more frequently than it now is, in some one of its 
many forms. — Lawrence Journal. 

Harvesting Potatoes. 

Perhaps the greatest want of the farmer in the line of agricultu- 
ral implements which inventors and manufacturers as yet have failed 
to supply, is an efficient horse-power potato digger. True, there 
are some machines in the field that promise well, and we have great 
hopes of them ; but none have yet proved themselves complete and 
reliable, though, doubtless, the coming potato harvest will give us 
more information, and we hope and expect more confidence, also, in 
their ultimate success. What we want is a machine that, drawn by 
two horses, will throw out four or six acres per day, in as good a 
shape and as clean as can be accomplished by laborers with hooks. 
Large vines should be no serious impediment to the working of the 
machine. Farmers would be satisfied with such, and it would bring 
a fortune to those who controlled the sale and manufacture. 

In the meantime, although one of the most profitable crops which 
the farmer grows, and yearly increasing in importance, the potato 
is also one that requires great labor, which comes chiefly in harvest- 
ing. In other respects no more is required than to grow the corn 
crop — if as much. Every farmer must be guided partly by cir- 
cumstances as to the means he can best employ to lighten and facil- 
itate this work ; the most we can do in this article is to oifer a few 
hints which may be improved by some. 

It is of considerable advantage to run a five-tooth cultivator 
along the rows before digging. The two rear teeth should be of 
the mould board form, and placed so as to haul away the dirt from 
the hills. This operation, which takes but little time, smooths the 
ground between the hills, levels the weeds and grass, and removes 
some of the soil from the tubers. In large fields, where many 
hands are employed, the labor should be systematized. On fine 

604 THE SOUTHERN [October 

days the potatoes need little airing — just enough to loosen the dirt 
on them — they are better if gathered without feeling much sun. 
The feebler hands and even children could pick them into baskets, 
which should be emptied and replaced by men. Some find it eco- 
nomical to provide a large number of baskets, which, when filled, 
are loaded on a wagon fitted with a suitable rack, and drawn to the 
market or cellar; this course saves handling, and the potatoes look 
better, and are, perhaps, less liable to decay. Before being closely 
stored for the winter, the crop should be under light cover until the 
sweating stage is passed. This may take place in lightly covered 
pits provided with ventilators, on the barn floor, or in some out- 
building. After this process is completed, they may be placed 
safely in dry, cool cellars, or covered with an air-tight layer of 
earth to a suitable depth ; light should be excluded from them. It 
is also better to store potatoes low in a cellar than near the ceiling; 

In digging potatoes, the best hand implement for universal use is 
the hook, made of the best steel. Round tines draw through the 
earth easier than flat ones with their broadest sides at right angles 
to the handle. In all cases avoid injuring the tubers with the im- 

From appearances, we judge the price of the present crop of po- 
tatoes will rule high. In the large portion of the country which has 
been seriously affected by dry weather, the crop will probably fall 
below the usual average. In other extensive potato growing dis- 
tricts disease prevails. The Northwestern States are great sufferers 
from the ravages of the Colorado bug. Taken altogether, circum- 
stances indicate high prices for this important staple. — Moore s Ru- 
ral New Yorker. 

Sow Timothy Grass Seed. 

The best time of the year to sow timothy or herdsgrass seed to 
be certain of a good catch, is the autumn. So if you wish to lay 
your field of winter grain down to grass or meadow, without run- 
ning any chance of failure, sow the seed liberally as soon as possi- 
ble. The cool, moist autumn weather will enable it to make root 
enough to endure the winter well, and the same kind of weather in 
the spring will place it far enough ahead to bid defiance to any 
summer drouth. Sow thickly, and repeat the operation with clover 
seed next spring. One cannot grow too much clover on a farm, 
and the great trouble with most farmers is to grow enough. 

In sowing timothy seed with winter wheat we prefer waiting until 


the grain has started some before scattering the grass seed ; the 
latter will grow enough before winter, and will not get so rank the 
next season as to injure the wheat. Timothy seed sown early in 
the fall alone on ground well prepared, at the rate of half a bushel 
per acre, will furnish a very good crop of hay or good pasture the 
following season. Much is lost by not sowing timothy seed in the 
fall ; sow it by all means now, unless you intend to harrow your 
field in the spring, and at the proper time put on the clover seed 
without heeding that you have sown timothy. — Moore 's Rural New 

Application of Manures. 

There has been a great dispute at the South whether farm-yard 
dung should be applied for wheat directly in the autumn, or whe- 
ther it should be applied upon grasses. Many advocate the putting 
of it on the clover at mid-summer ; and in almost all cases where it 
has been so tried it has produced a good effect. Instead of apply- 
ing it for wheat, in ordinary cases, when the wheat is about to be 
sown, or on the clover in mid-summer, I apply it in the autumn or 
spring before, upon the clover. The result of pursuing that course 
is this : You give the clovers a thoroughly good dressing, so as to 
enable them to grow with much greater rapidity, and to a much 
greater volume ; you also have a far greater amount of roots pro- 
duced in the soil ; and the wheat derives a greater benefit from 
those roots, in the shape of manure, than if you applied the ma- 
nure at mid-summer, or when you plough up the land in the au- 
tumn. Wherever this plan has been tried — and it has been tried in 
many places — it has been found efficacious. Experiments have been 
made, distinctly showing that it is better to apply farm-yard dung 
to green than to corn crops. — Prof. Nesbit, in Rural American. 

Stone on Land. 

The New England Farmer, of recent date, had an article on the 
stone found on many sections of farming lands. The point consid- 
ered was whether the small stone, dotting a field, were injurious to 
cropping or the reverse. This is a question we have often pondered 
with the general result arrived at by the N. E. F., to wit: that 
these small stone aided the fertility of the soil, and hence increased 
the quantity of its products. They are "living stones" — that is, 
they prevent the ground from parching while keeping it in a lively 
state, whereby food is supplied more readily and in greater profu- 

606 THE SOUTHERN [October 

sion to the plants seeking nourishment from the soil. Land that is 
to be used for meadow and the small grains, harvested by ma- 
chinery, will require to be disburdened of its stone, but, in all such 
cases, a fertilizing power, of which the soil readily avails itself 
when under cultivation, departs with the stone removed. The stone, 
to the mower and reaper, are a nuisance, to be removed, but to the 
soil a friend whose retention in it would be a blessing. — Moore % 
Rural New Yorker, 

Agriculture in Austria. 

The plains of Austria, about Vienna, resemble our small western 
prairies. As far as the eye can reach the land appears to be a con- 
tinuous crop of wheat and Indian corn — it being the only country 
I have yet seen where corn is cultivated as a staple crop. The 
cultivation, however, of all the land is done in strips or patches, 
which forms one of the most singular features of European land- 
scapes. The subdivision of farm lands has been going on for so 
many generations that now the hard working peasant may possess 
a small farm twenty rods wide and half a mile long. Here, as in 
many other parts of Europe — only it seems to me a little more so 
- — the women do nearly all the labor of the field. I have counted 
thirty engaged at one time in reaping down a field of wheat. I 
have seen no kind of agricultural machinery at work, except a rude 
kind of two-wheeled plough, which is no more than the Egyptians 
did three thousand years ago. The old fashioned grain cradle is 
sometimes used, but the sickle in the hands of women, like in the 
days of Moab and Ruth — though I suppose Moab worked — seems 
yet to stand its ground against all the ingenuity of McCormick, 
Hussy, Wood, and others. However, labor is so cheap here, and 
farms, as a general thing, are so small, that it would scarcely pay 
to employ expensive machinery, such as is necessary to the proper 
cultivation of the large farms in our country. — Ed. Cor. Scientific 

The Ohio Farmer says beans should be gathered as soon as the 
pods have turned yeUow. It advises drawing them to a spot near 
the barn and spreading them on a platform made of blocks and rails 
or poles. In such a place they dry rapidly, getting the full benefit 
of the sun and air. A rain does but little damage, as the water 
runs off readily. It thinks the vines, if stored, make excellent 
sheep feed in winter. 


Insects and Their Exterminators — Letter From Dr. Loring. 

To the Editor of the Tribune, 

Sir, — I notice in Harper s Weekly of March 20 an article upon 
some suggestions made by myself, in my opening address before the 
New-England Agricultural Society, in February last, with regard 
to the destruction of insects. The subject is one of so much inter- 
est and importance to the agricultural community that I desire to 
present my views more elaborately than I did in the address, and 
with the hope that your readers may see what a fine field for sci- 
entific inquiry is opening before us, and how much scientific men 
are doing to render practical aid to the business of farming. 

It is well known that the destruction caused by insects injurious 
to vegetation, constitutes one of the greatest difficulties to which the 
farmer is exposed in the cultivation of every crop known to man. 
The army worm, the weevil, the midge, the canker worm, the ceter- 
pillar, the maggot, all attack the vegetation to which they are at- 
tracted, and are the terror of every man who would get his living 
by cultivating fruit, or grain, or root crops, or any other crop 
upon which the profits of the farm depend. These pests have 
been fought with almost every weapon which the skill of man could 
devise. The caterpillar has been assailed with the hand, the brush 
and gunpowder. The cankerworm has found his way barricaded by 
tar and printer's ink, and tree protectors. The maggott has not 
yet been defeated on the onion crop. The aid of birds has been 
invoked in vain. The war between man and these destroyers has 
been an unequal one. And in spite of all our efforts thus far our 
forests, our fruit, and our crops have been swept away by the 
myriads of insects which we could neither check nor destroy. 

Of these evils I have had my share. The extensive orchards on 
my farm have been seriously injured by insects, and in my neigh- 
borhood they have reduced the fruit crop to such an extent as to 
render the question of profit from it one of great doubt. I had 
used all the ordinary methods of destroying the invaders on my own 
trees, with the usual success, and the usual discouragements. In 
1865, however, another power took the matter in hand, so far as 
caterpillars were concerned at least, and they were entirely exter- 
minated by some parasite which did its work so unobtrusively that 
I have not yet discovered what it was. I have had no caterpilars 
since. This and some facts in the history of the wheat-midge led 
me to the conclusion that man might arm himself with parasites in 
his war against destructive insects, and make it a war of exter- 

608 THE SOUTHERN [October 

urination. I think so still, and I doubt not that science will one 
day teach us that all our ordinary means of warfare are poor and 
feeble, when compared with those more effective weapons which na- 
ture provides for us. 

I said in my address that I had called the attention of entomolo- 
gists to this question : and in order that you may see what their 
views are, I beg leave to quote the following extract from a letter 
addressed to me by Prof. A. S. Packard of the Peabody Academy 
of Sciences, Salem, Mass., one of our ablest entomologists, with the 
hope that it may enlighten the explorer, and comfort the sufferer. 
He says : 

" Your suggestions that injurious insects may be successfully 
combatted by rearing their insect parasites in greater numbers than 
naturally exists, has occurred to entomologists, but has never been 
practically carried out. In Europe, gardeners have for years 
placed 'lady-bugs;' and the 'Aphis licus,' on trees infested by plant- 
lice, which have very effectively stripped the plants of these pests ; 
but I believe as you suggest, that more could be done in rearing the 
parasite species, i. e., the ichneumon flies, &c, which especially prey 
upon the injurious insects. 

u Our most destructive insects are the wheat-midge and Hessian 
fly. Dr. Fitch, in his report on the injurious insects of New-York, 
1865, states that in Europe these insects are comparatively innocu- 
ous, because they are nearly exterminated each year by their inter- 
nal parasites, minute ichneumon flies, which are vastly in excess of 
their hosts. In this country, however, the aid rendered the far- 
mer by these minute parasites is almost none at all. He therefore 
recommends the importation from Europe of these parasites, and 
shows how easily it could be affected by an expert in practical 

" I believe that an immense saving in our crops would be made 
if a commission of entomological experts should act in concert in the 
different States, and pay attention to the rearing of these insect par- 
asites ; which is the surest way of combating these formidable pests, 
which annually eat millions of dollars in the United States alone. 
Why should not each State have one or more insect commissioners, 
as well as &fis7i commissioner, whose chief duty should be the prop- 
agation of parasite insects ? 

" To show the importance of this subject, I would cite an interes- 
ting fact, learned from the eminent entomologist, Dr. N. Hagen, of 
the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Cambridge, since receiving 
your letter. He writes : 'It is an interesting fact, (stated by Dr. 


Ratzburg, well-known as a writer on economical entomology) that 
in the German forests since 1867, the ichneumon parasites (before 
regularly 10 per cent, of their hosts) have suddenly become no per 
cent. ; and the number of injurious insects upon which these para- 
sites lived has increased correspondingly from 40 to 50 per cent. 
Perhaps to this dearth of parasites is the enormous calamity among 
forest trees of the last 15 years at,tributatble." 

" With comparatively little effort, entomologists will be able suc- 
cessfully to breed these parasites and thus restore the balance in na- 
ture ever existing between these parasite insects and their hosts. It 
would seem as if the injurious insects were multiplying more rapidly 
of late years than ever before. The opening up to cultivation of 
thousands of square miles of virgin soil, in the West, has afforded 
the greatest facilities for the propagation of vegetable feeding in- 
sects, which have increased most unnaturally. And the only speedy 
means of arresting the evil is to propagate, in equal numbers, 
their natural enemies." 

I have made this long, and to me, interesting quotation from 
Prof. Packard's letter, in hopes that it may suggest some careful 
investigation, and some experiments which will be useful to those 
of us who are engaged in practical agriculture, and who believe in 
the progress which this great industry is to make under the light of 
modern science. 

Geo. B. Loring. 

Salem, Mass., April 14, 1869. 

Remedy for Rust in Wheat. — The following, from a distin- 
tinguished German Agriculturist, is taken from a Breman paper. 
For thirty years I have found this method successful in preventing 
rust in wheat : Some hours, at the longest six or eight before sow- 
ing, prepare a steep of three measures of powdered quicklime, and 
ten measures of cattle urine. Pour two quarts of this upon a peck 
of wheat, stir with a spade until every kernel is covered white with 
it. By using wheat so prepared, rust of every kind will be avoided. 
I have often noticed, while in the neighboring fields, a great part 
of the crop is affected by rust, in mine, lying closely by it, not a 
siDgle ear so affected could be found. 

The same writer says he takes the sheaves and beats off the 
ripest kernels, with a stick, and uses the grain thus obtained for 
seed. — Exchange. 

vol. in — 39 

610 THE SOUTHERN [October 

Underdraining Land — Its Effects. — Experiments in under- 
draining land were made in Scotland, for the purpose of determining 
the effect on the temperature of the soil, compared with that in the same 
vicinity which was not drained. The result was that the draining 
raised the temperature 1 to 5 degrees, equal to a removal of the land 
from one hundred to one hundred and fifty miles south. This is an 
important consideration connected with compact, heavy soils, whose 
retentiveness of water renders them cold, and comparatively inert 
with respect to vegetation. Draining land involves considerable 
expense, but its increased productiveness soon repays this, besides 
assuring increased profits for the future. — Watchman and Reflector. 

How much Manure do we use on an Acre ? — An acre of land 
contains 43,560 square feet, 4,840 square yards, or 160 square rods. 
By those who have used guano, it is said 300 pounds are sufficient 
to manure an acre ; 302J lbs. would give 1 J ounces avoirdupois to 
the square yard. One cubic yard would give a trifle over one cubic 
inch to the square foot. A cubic yard of highly concentrated 
manure, like night soil, would if evenly and properly spread manure 
an acre very well. A cubic yard of long manure weighs about 
1,400 lbs. ; a cubic foot not far from fifty lbs. A cord contains 128 
cubic feet ; 1 \ cord would give about a cubic foot to the square rod. 
If liquid manure be used it would take 180 bbls. to give one gill to a 
square foot upon an acre, which would be equal to about 50 pipes 
or large hogsheads. It would be quite useful if farmers would be a 
little more specific as to the manure applied. — Rochester American 

Sheep Raising. — Lieut. Gov. Stanton, of Ohio, says in regard 
to sheep raising in England : "One thing that struck me very for- 
cibly was, that all our farmers testified that sheep raising was abso- 
lutely indispensable to successful farming ; that their manure was 
necessary to preserve the fertility of the soil ; and that without them 
the whole kingdom would, in a few years, be reduced to barrenness 
and sterility. It is in this view that I regard sheep raising in this 
country as more important to the ultimate and permanent pros- 
perity of the country, than on account of their profits. Whatever 
else may happen, we cannot permit the virgin soil and these beauti- 
ful fields of ours to be reduced to barrenness by the time they pass 
into the hands of our children and grandchildren. Their fertility 
must be preserved at all hazzards, even at the expense of present 
profit." — Maine Farmer." 


Jortiraltiiral Jtprfmtnt. 

JOHN M. ALLAN, Editor. 

Editorial Correspondence. 

From Richmond to West Point by rail, thence via York River 
and Chesapeake Bay to Baltimore, thence by rail to Philadelphia, 
is the old tale which every traveler knows ; but how much that is 
new, beautiful and instructive does one see, every time the route, 
old and familiar as it may be, is traveled. The counties along the 
sides of this magnificent river are admirably adapted to the pro- 
duction of fruit and vegetables, and with the rapidly increasing fa- 
cilities for transportation, are preparing to enter earnestly into 
competition with those lying at the mouth of the James. Peaches, 
pears, apples, grapes, melons, will soon claim their place, besides 
oysters and crabs, as staples of the lower peninsula. But as there 
was no delay en route, we will make none now ; please consider us 
in Philadelphia, enrolled as delegates to the twelfth session of the 
American Pomological Society. The attendance of fruit growers, 
both amateur and professional, was large, including the leading po- 
mologists of all sections of the United States. Col. M. P. Wilder, 
although over seventy years of age, presided with an efficiency 
which would put to the blush many younger and more active men, 
and it is needless to say that all which courtesy and kindness could 
dictate, marked his entire action. His opening address was elo- 
quent and instructive. Not least among the cheering features of 
the Convention was the large attendance of Southern delegates, 
and the marked care on the part of the officers and members to 
avoid even the slightest allusion to politics, bespoke the dawn of a 
brighter era of peace and good will. The discussions of the merits 
of the varieties of fruit, both new and old, were in the main well con- 
ducted, most of the remarks being short, practical and pointed. 
Little change was made in the list of fruit for Virginia. The Pilot 

612 THE SOUTHERN [October 

and Mason Pippin apples, originating in this State, were added to 
the list of prime winter varieties. The revised catalogue will be 
published shortly, from which you can gather the result of the de- 
liberations better than I can give them. After an earnest debate 
of an. hour, the Society determined to hold its next biennial session 
in the city of Richmond. This honor was hotly contested by sev- 
eral cities, but thanks to the effective speech of Mr. Wm. L. Hill, 
the tide set in too strongly for Richmond to be resisted. The Con- 
vention were the guests of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, 
who did everything in their power to insure their visitors a pleasant 
time. Their annual exhibition was truly magnificent ; to describe 
it seems an overwhelming undertaking. Think of a handsome hall 
decorated with the rarest and most beautiful foliage plants, long ta- 
bles of cut flowers and designs of the same, ranging from two to 
sixteen feet in height, with tables running the entire length of the 
hall, on which were arranged three thousand two hundred and five 
plates of the finest fruit, and you have some idea of the grandeur 
of the display. California and Kansas were largely represented, 
the latter State taking the gold medal awarded for the best general 
collection of fruit. Virginia, though not equalling her sister States 
in quantity, was not wanting in quality. The first premium for 
pears was awarded to Mr. Leighton, of Norfolk, and well did he de- 
serve it ; the Duchess and Louise Bonne pears exhibited -by him 
were the finest I have ever seen, and what is most remarkable, were 
the product of trees planted only two years since. A special pre- 
mium was awarded for specimens of the Joe Johnson watermelon, 
exhibited by Henry A. Dreer, Esq. for Messrs. Allan & Johnson, 
Richmond. On the evening of the 17th this Society gave a banquet 
in honor of the American Pomological Society, which was like 
everything else in connection with the exhibition, a grand success. 
The toasts were well conceived and drew forth happy responses, while 
the creature comforts embraced the entire list of luxuries. The 
wines were all American, and of such quality as to leave no room 
for regret that foreign brands had been interdicted. Time nor 
space will permit more. The Exhibition and Convention were both 
successes, and we can but hope that the same may be said two 
years hence, when the Society shall have convened in Richmond. 

Premium Pear. — A premium of $60 offered by the Massachu- 
setts Horticultural Society for the best seedling pear, has been 
awarded to the variety known as Clapp's Favorite, after a trial of 
five years. 


American Pomological Society. 

The twelfth biennial session of this Society was held in the Foyse 
of the Hall of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, on Wednes- 
day, September 15th. The attendance was large and the discus- 
sions interesting. We give such extracts from the proceedings as 
our space will permit. 

The following officers were chosen for the ensuing term of two 
years : 

President — Hon. Marshall P. Wilder, of Massachusetts. 
Vice Presidents — Col. R. R. Hanley, Alabama ; John H. Carle- 
ton, Arkansas ; Simpson Thompson, California ; Charles Pauls, 
Colorado; F. Trowbridge, Connecticut; Edward Tatnall, Delaware; 
Wm. Saunders, District of Columbia ; Lucius J. Horace, Florida ; 
C. J. Berckmans, Georgia ; Arthur Bryant, Sr., Illinois ; J. D. G. 
Nelson, Indiana ; James Smith, Iowa ; J. S. Downer, Kentucky ; 
H. A. Swasey, Louisiana; C. M. Hovey, Massachusetts ; W. D. 
Breckinridge, Maryland ; Nicholas Waugh, Montana ; Hugh Allen, 
Canada East;. Silas Moore, Rhode Island; Warren Foote, Arizona; 
W. M. Bort, Michigan ; D. A. Robertson, Minnesota ; Geo. W. W. 
Branden, Mississippi; B. F. Edwards, Missouri; Fred. Smith, New 
Hampshire ; Dr. Wm. N. Howsley, Kansas ; Chas. Downing, New 
York ; Wm. Parry, New Jersey ; R. W. Furman, Nebraska ; Dr. 
Ruyther, New Mexico ; Wm. L. Steele, North Carolina ; Dr. J. A. 
Warder, Ohio; Chas. Arnold, Ontario; Lucien Francis, Oregon; 
Robert Buist, Pennsylvania ; Dr. J. P. Wylie, South Carolina ; M. 
S. Frierson, Tennessee ; W. Talbot, Texas ; J. E. Johnson, Utah ; 
L. Jacobs, West Virginia ; J. C. Plumb, Wisconsin ; Rich'd Brad- 
ley, Vermont ; G. F. B. Leighton, Virginia. 

Treasurer — Thos. P. James, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Secretary— F. R. Elliott, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Executive Committee — President and Vice Presidents ex officio ; 
M. B. Bakeman, Painesville, Ohio ; Geo. Thurber, New York ; J. 
E. Mitchell, Philadelphia; W. C. Flagg, Alton, 111.; J. F. C. Hyde, 
Boston, Mass. 

Several invitations to visit the Academy of Natural Sciences, 
Fairmount Park, Vineland, N. J., and other places of interest, were 
read and accepted. The question as to where the next meeting 
should be held then came up. Boston, Mass., Norfolk and Rich- 
mond, Va., Newport, Geneva, N. Y., Tennessee, California, Kan- 
sas, and Rochester, N. Y., were named as suitable places. 

The discussion of the merits of these various places was ani- 

614 THE SOUTHERN [October 

mated. Messrs. Tower, Hill and Allan pressed the claims of Rich- 
mond, while Messrs. Leighton and Robinson strongly urged those 
of Norfolk. It was at last decided to take a vote upon each place, 
which resulted as follows : 

For Boston, Mass., 17 votes: 

For Richmond, Va., 61 votes. 

For Geneva, N. Y., 32 votes. 

For Cincinnati, Ohio, 18 votes. 

For Nashville, Tenn., 6 votes. 

For California, 24 votes. 

For Kansas, 9 votes. 

For Rochester, N. Y., 34 votes. 

For Newport, R. I., 23 votes. 

It was then unanimously decided that the next meeting (in Sep- 
tember, 1871,) will be held in Richmond, Va. 

Mr. Allan, of Richmond, then returned his thanks to the Con- 
vention for the conclusion at which they had arrived. 

The various fruits were taken up for discussion in the following 
order : apples, pears, grapes, peaches, plums, cherries, strawberries, 
raspberries, blackberries, currents, gooseberries. 

Mr. Meehan, of Philadelphia, at the President's request, referring 
to the "Mexican Everbearing Strawberry," said that it had been 
deemed of no account, but of late the botanists had taken hold of 
it, believing it to be a new species. He had seen it, and though it 
differed from all the other species of the Alpine strawberry, he yet 
believed it to belong to that family. It differed in this, that the 
first fruits are larger and of equal diameter from the stem to the 
end, and differed further in having a more grassy taste. He be- 
lieved that it could be cultivated with profit. Its flavor is delicious, 
though rather pasty, which all of this species possess. In his opin- 
ion it is superior to all the other species. 

Mr. Wier, of Illinois, doubted whether it could be cultivated with 
profit in ordinary seasons, reminding Mr. Meehan of the peculiarly 
favorable condition of the past season for the "Alpine" berry. 

The Secretary said this berry was very productive, and the 
ground was literally covered with the fruit when he saw it. It is 
possible that a dry season would make a change, but not in the 

Mr. Fuller, of New Jersey, said he examined it very minutely 
with the others, but could see no difference. I have some on the 
ground over an inch in length. The roots do not enter the ground 
readily, and I have five runners on some plants, all in bloom. 


Mr. Meehan said the only way in which he could account for the 
difference of opinion was that Mr. Fuller could not have got the 
right variety. 

Mr. Chapman, of Boston, said : I saw this berry last week in 
Detroit, and think it is of great flavor. I saw them by the bushel, 
and never saw any variety in such quantity or of such quality. I 
think it is of great value, if only to cross with. 

After the adjournment of the Convention the members were en- 
tertained by the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, at a banquet 
given in their hall. Among the regular toasts of the evening was 
the following to Virginia : 

" Virginia— She has taken our first prize for superior mammoth 
pears. We consider her a Pomological prize worth having in our 

Responded to by Mr. John M. Allan, President of the Virginia 
Horticultural and Pomological Society. 

Col. J. J. Werth proposed the following, which was received with 
applause : 

The three F's of Pennsylvania — Fruits, Flowers, and the Fair. 
The last shall be first. 

Pennsylvania Horticultural Society. 

Among the premiums awarded at the annual exhibition of this 
Society, was one to Mr. Gr. F. B. Leighton, President Norfolk 
Horticultural Society, for best specimen of pears, and one to Henry 
A. Dreer, of Philadelphia, for Joe Johnson watermelons, exhibited 
for Messrs. Allan & Johnson, of this city. 

The following is the total of dishes of fruit exhibited : Apples, 
1,254 ; pears, 1,594 ; grapes (native), 220 ; grapes (exotic), 41 ; 
plums, 51 ; peaches, -38 ; quinces, 3 ; nectarines, 2 ; figs, 2. Total, 

The President of the Horticultural and Pomological Society ac- 
knowledges the receipt of a box of seedling apples from Mr. Fitz, 
accompanied by the following description of them : 

Keswick Depot, Albemarle county, Va. 
John M. Allan, Esq. : 

Dear Sir — Herewith you will please receive a box containing — 

No. 1 — Depratto apple — round, small, yellow, rather acid. 

No. 2 — Depratto apple — round, medium, yellow, mealy, and well 


No. 3 — Grandma's apple — medium to large, subacid, tender, 
crisp, white meat. 

All seedlings grown on slaty land on my place. The present 
great drought has injured them very much, especially as to size. 
The first two arrive at maturity by middle of August. The 
Grandma apple, No. 3, is the finest cooking apple I ever saw, ma- 
tures all through August, flowers large and very beautiful, tree 
large, free grower. The Depratto apples (so called,) are good eat- 
ing apples, and suitable for all culinary purposes. I can send you 
scions to propagate from, if you judge these or any one of them 
worth your attention, and you can give them names. 

With great respect, James Fitz. 

August 31, 1869. 

Napoleon III. Strawberry. 

The Editor of the Horticulturist says : 

" Among the new varieties of strawberries we are especially 
pleased with the Napoleon III. Its fruit is of a firm texture, just 
right for market, green color, delicious taste, stands up well from 
the ground, a good grower, quite productive, and uniformly large. 
Its season, however, is quite late, but this is a quality of much 
greater value than is usually supposed. Late strawberries are now 
paying better for market than early ones ; because the rush is over, 
the demand is steady, with little or no change, and usually at very 
remunerative prices. If this variety will adapt itself to different 
soils, we cannot do better than indorse it as one of the very best 
varieties now before the public. Last year it ' promised well ;' this 
year it is fulfilling its promises much beyond what was anticipated 
of it." 

At the late meeting of the American Pomological Society, it was 
pronounced a worthless old variety. When doctors disagree, &c, 
&c. Our experience of this berry is favorable, and we think it will 
prove to be a valuable late fruit. We are sure it is a new variety. 

Poison Oak. — Professor G. Dowell, in the Galveston Medical 
Journal, recommends in cases of poisoning by Rhus Taxicodendron, 
and other poisonous species of the Rhus, to bathe the parts with a 
solution of caustic potash, sufficiently strong to render the skin 
soapy. This " has never failed to cure immediately," although he 
has used it in hundreds of cases, including himself. The potash is 
used in the proportion of ten grains to the ounce of water, but may 
be increased in strength as needed. 


Recipe for Potato Bug. — I here enclose you a recipe for the 
destruction of the potato bug. For an acre take 21bs. of Paris 
Green ; mix 16 quarts of wood ashes. Spread this on finely while 
the dew is on the plants. I obtained a situation here where every 
body ridiculed the idea of growing potatoes, on account of the great 
number of bugs that infested the fields. But my potatoes are as 
healthy and free from insects now as any of my neighbors, although 
they were almost covered with bugs when they first came up. I 
applied it to them twice. It costs 4 cents a pound, and can be had 
at any paint shop or drug store. — L. A. Lee y in Gardener s 

The Kittatinny Blackberry at Cincinnati. — At a recent 
meeting of the Cincinnati Horticultural Society Mr. McGregor said 
that the Kittatinny ripened about the same time as the Lawton, but 
the berry was sweeter. The Early Wilson ripened eight days ear- 
lier than the Lawton, and the berry was double its size, 
and though it requires more sugar, he considers its quality prefer- 
able to that of the Lawton. 

Cost of Grape Trellis. 

T. S. Hubbard, of Fredonia, N. Y., contributes to the Rural 
New-Yorker the following items of expenses of a grape trellis per 

An acre of grapes, with rows eight feet apart and fifteen rods 
long, will contain twenty-two rows, or three hundred and thirty rods 
of trellis and one thousand rods of wire, using three wires to a row. 
The following is the estimated cost per acre, at present prices, for a 
trellis complete. 

44 braces, hemlock at 7c $3 08 

44 short stakes for foot of braces, at 3c 1 32 

132 small pins for end posts 30 

44 end posts, 5 inches chestnut, at 20c 8 80 

200 smaller posts, say 3| inch, at 10c 20 00 

8 lbs. staples, at 12£c 1 00 

Driving posts, three days 4 50 

Putting up wire, braces, etc, four days 6 00 

Total $15 00 

Size of No. feet Cost No. lbs. Cost of Wire Total cost 

wire, per 100 lbs. per 100 lbs per acre. per acre. per acre 

No. 9 1634 . $7 78 1010 $78 58 $123 58 

No. 10 2000 8 50 825 70 12 115 12 

No. 11 2519 8 50 655 55 67 100 67 

No. 12 3333 8 86 495 43 86 88 86 

618 THE SOUTHERN [October 

We use No. 12 first quality annealed wire, and consider it nearly 
or quite as good as a larger size. The cost of post and expenses of 
putting up trellis will vary in different places. 

Expense of bringing an Acre of Grrapes into bearing. 

The same writer furnishes a few items from his own experience on 

this point. 

Average oost of land per acre $100 CO 

Average cost of plants " 40 00 

Repairing ground, subsoiling etc 10 00 

St tting plants, and work, first year 25 00 

Interest , 10 00 

Cost at the end of first year $183 03 

Work, second year ■ 20 00 

Interest 13 00 

Cost at the end of second year $218 00 

Trellis, third year 90 00 

Work, third year 50 00 

Interest 22 00 

$380 00 
Deduct one ton grapes, at 8c. net 160 00 

Cost at the end of third year $220 00 

Oost after third Year, per Acre, each Year. 

Tying up, seven days $10 50 

Cultivating, man and horse, three days 9 00 

Hoeing, six days 9 00 

Pinching,, thinning, rubbing out, etc, five days 7 50 

Picking, two tons, eight days 12 00 

Pruning, five days 10 00 

Twine, and willow, for tying 1 00 

Interest on $300 21 00 

Repairs , ~ 5 00 

Total expense per year $85 00 

Two tons marketable grapes, at 8c. net 320 00 

Net profit per acre $235 00 

Many varieties will average much more than the above, but we 
consider eight cents net as a fair average, and as much as it is safe 
to calculate upon, with a mixed vineyard of common varieties. 
Expense of preparing land and cultivating in some sections will 
exceed our estimate. Many poor grapes will undoubtedly be sold 
at low rates ; but with good care, clean culture, and a moderate 


crop, so as to leave the vigor of the vine unimpaired, we think it 
safe to estimate the price at eight cents for several years to come. 
[We clip the above from an exchange as containing useful infor- 
mation, and think his estimates in the main correct. Two tons of 
marketable grapes is above the average yield and to be safe that 
estimate should be reduced to 3000 lbs.] 

Sugar-Beet in New Jersey. — Experiments are now to be 
commenced in New Jersey, in the culture of the sugar-beet. A 
large farm of one hundred acres, at Atsion, N. J., has been pur- 
chased by Col. Wm. E. Patterson, and a complete set of Fowler's 
steam ploughs has been received to put the tract quickly under cul- 
tivation. The results of the experiments are being closely watched, 
especially by the Department of Agriculture at Washington. We 
believe that an enterprise of the same character started in Illinois, 
two years since, has proved the culture of the sugar-beet both feas- 
ible and profitable for manufacturing purposes, although we have 
heard very little of the Illinois manufactory lately. — Horticulturist, 

Flowers at Marriage Feasts. — Describing a New York wed- 
ding, a daily paper says: "A person standing on the lowest floor 
could see to the very roof of the house, when, to use an expression 
of one of the guests, you were reminded of a tropical mountain in 
full bloom. Of course, all these flowers were not raised in or near 
New York. The greenhouses of Boston, Philadelphia and Balti- 
more were ransacked for the occasion. One may get an idea of the 
exhibition when we say that it brought into use 10,000 camellias, 
100,000 primroses, 25,000 white azalias, and 2,000 heads of 
daphnes. The collection, altogether, was probably the finest gath- 
ering of exotics brought together in one house. Forty men and 
boys were occupied some days in preparing the frame-work, and 
they were all engaged during the whole of Tuesday night in arrang- 
ing the flowers." — Gardener s Monthly. 

Tomato Sugar. — A correspondent asks for further information 
about this article, which we noticed some time ago in the "Monthly." 
We only gave the paragraph as a matter of information, that this 
use was being made of them. We do not know how it is done, aa 
the inventor has patented it. The plan we understand is to make 
alcohol out of the tomato rather than sugar. — Gardener 8 

620 THE SOUTHERN [October 

On the Laws of Sex in Plants. 

By Thomas Meehan, Germantown, Perm., Agricultural Editor of Forney's 
1 Weekly Press. 

[Read before the American Association for the Advancement of Science, 
which commenced its sessions in Salem, Mass , on the 19th of August.] 

In my paper on- Actuation in Conifer se, read last year, I believe 
I established the fact that the stronger and more vigorous the axial 
or stem growth, the greater was the cohesion of the leaves with the 
stem. By following the same line of observation I have discovered 
some facts which seem to me to afford strong probability that simi- 
lar laws of vigor or vitality govern the production of the sexes in 

If we examine Norway spruces when they are in blossom in the 
spring, we find the male flowers are only borne on the weakest 
shoots. The female flowers, which ultimately become cones, only 
appear on the most vigorous branches. As the tree grows, these 
strong shoots become weaker, by the growth of others above them 
making it shadier, or by the diversion of food to other channels, 
and thus as these shoots become weaker we find them losing the 
power of producing female flowers ; and the law in this instance 
seems very clear that .with a weakened vitality comes an increased 
power to bear male flowers, and that only in the best conditions of 
vegetative vigor are female flowers produced. 

The arborvitas, the juniper, the pine — in fact, all the different 
genfera of conierse that I have been able to examine — exhibit the 
same phenomena ; but the larch will afford a particularly interest- 
ing illustration. When the shoots of the larch have a vigorous 
elongating power, the leaves cohere with the stem. Only foliaceous 
awns give the appearance of leaves. When they lack vigor, lose 
the power of axial elongation, true leaves, without awns, appear in 
verticils, at the base of what might have been a shoot. Every one 
is familiar with these clusters of true leaves on the larch. In the 
matter of sex, an examination of the tree will show the following 
grades of vigor : First, a very vigorous growth on towards matu- 
rity, or the age necessary to commence the reproductive processes. 
The reproductive age is less vigorous. Taking a branch about to 
bear flowers, we find somewhat vigorous side branches, with the 
usual foliaceous awns. The next year some of the buds along these 
side branches, but the evidently weaker buds, make only spurs with 
leaf verticile. As these processes go on year after year, the verti- 
cils become, of course, shaded by the new growth, and get weaker 
in consequence, and thus, in the third year, some of these verticils 


commence to bear female flowers, or a few of the very weakest may 
bear male ones. But only in the fourth or fifth year, when vitality 
in the spurs is nearly exhausted, do male flowers appear in very 
great abundance. Indeed, the production of male flowers is the ex- 
piring effort of life in these larch spurs. They bear male flowers 
and die. 

What is true of coniferse seems also to exist in all monoecious 
plants. In the amentacese the male flower appears at the first ex- 
pansion of the leaf-buds in spring, as if they were partly formed 
during the last flickerings of vegetative force the fall before, but a 
vigorous growth is necessary before the female flower appears. In 
corylus, carpinus, quercus carya, juglans, alnus, and, I believe, all 
the common forms of this tribe we find the female flowers only at 
or near the apex, first great wave of spring growth, as if it were 
the culmination of vigor which produced them, instead of the de- 
cline, as in the male. Some of these plants make several waves 
of growth a year, each successively declining in vigor, and thus 
the fruit cones do not appear on the apex of the new shoot, 
but on the apex of the first and strongest wave. This beautiful il- 
lustration of the connection of vigor with the sexes can be seen par- 
ticularly in Pinus pungens, P. inops, P. mitis, P. rigida, and 
perhaps some others. 

In the larch and white spruce, for instance, a second wave will 
often start after the cone has commenced forming, and the singular 
appearance is presented of a shoot growing out of the apex of the 
cone. These varying waves can be also seen in cyperaeede, some- 
times placing the male and sometimes the female at the apex of the 
culm, but always the female in the greatest line of vigor. I do not 
know of any case where the sexes are separate on the same plant, 
that extra vigor does not always accompany the production of the 
female, and an evidently weakened vitality of the male parts. 

Mere vigor, however, will not always indicate the degree of vital- 
ity. The pinus rnugho seldom extends ten feet high, and its shoots 
are not near as vigorous as its near relative, pinus sylvestris ; and 
yet it commences its bearing age by a free and vigorous production 
of female flowers. But power of endurance is a high test of vitality, 
and an Alpine form should possess this in a high degree. In its 
relation to sex this form of vital force will also have an interest. 
The vitality of a tree is always more or less injured by trans- 
planting. Sometimes it is so injured that it never pushes into leaf 
again. It always pushes out later than if it had not been moved, 
and in proportion to the injury to the vitality is the lateness of 

622 THE SOUTHERN [October 

pushing. Clearly, then, earliness of pushing forth leaves is a test 
of vigorous vitality. Now, some Norway spruces push forth earlier 
than others. There is as much as two weeks difference between 
them, and it is remarkable that those which push out the earliest — 
may we not say those which have the highest powers of vitality ? — ■ 
are most productive of female blossoms. Arboriculturists may make 
good use of this fact. Norway spruces, which have a drooping 
habit, are the heavy cone-bearing forms. No way has before been 
discovered to detect them until they get to a bearing age. Now it 
will be seen, the earliest to push forth in the spring will be cone- 
bearing or weeping trees. 

It is not so easy to see the influence of vigor or other forms of 
vitality, as affecting the sexes, in hermaphrodite plants as in monoe- 
cious ones, yet here are some remarkable facts of a similar charac- 
ter. In some flowers the forces which govern the male and female 
portions respectively seem nearly equally balanced. Then we have 
a perfect hermaphrodite — one with the stamens and pistils perfect, 
and one communicating its influence to the other — a self- fertilizing 
flower. In many" species, however, we notice a tendency to break 
this balance. It becomes either a pistillate or a staminate, either 
by the suppression of one force or the other. If the force is in 
the female direction it begins by requiring the pollen from some 
other flower to fertilize itself. If in the male direction by increas- 
ing the number of stamens, or converting the stamens into petals. 
The interest for us in this sexual question is to note that just in 
proportion as the sexes diverge in this manner, in just the same 
ratio do vigor and strong vitality follow the female in the one case, 
and weakness the male in the other. 

In the male direction, for instance, when the flower becomes dou- 
ble by the conversion of stamens into petals, or the number of either 
increased, growth is never so strong, and life is more endangered. 
Double camelias, roses, peaches, and other things have to be graft- 
ed on single ones, in order to get more vigorous growing plants, 
and every florist knows how much more difficult it is to get 
roots from a double flowered cutting than from a single one. Some- 
times the male principle, which loves to exhibit itself in the gay 
coloring of the petals, seems to influence the leaves also ; and they 
also become colored or variegated ; and here we see also a weaken- 
ed vitality follows. Variegated box, variegated euonymus, or any 
of similar character, never grow so freely, or endure the winter's 
cold or the extremes of climate like the green-leaved forms. 

On the other hand, when the balance goes over in the female 


interest, we see it characterized by greater vigor than before. It 
has long been noted that pistillate varieties of strawberries are more 
prolific of fruit, but this rule is not always good, as sometimes the 
runners, which are parts of the feminine system — a form of vivipa- 
rous flower shoots, in fact — regulate the amount of fruit. But it is 
a fact universal, I believe, in its application, that the production of 
runners and fruit combined is always accompanied by a vigorous 

So in viola where we have female influence variously expressed, 
from the underground stolon or creeping runner, which re-produces 
"without impregnation, to the apetelous flowers, which mature abun- 
dant seeds on the smallest quantity of pollen, up to the perfectly 
favored hermaphrodite flowers of spring — all regular grades of one 
identical female principle, in contrast with those species which 
maintain throughout a closer connection with the male principle, by 
maintaining pure hermaphrodite flowers through their whole stages, 
we find those possessed of the highest types of vitality which are 
evidently the most under the laws of female influence. 

In a brief paper like this, it is not my purpose to introduce more 
of the facts I have observed than will sustain the theory I have ad- 
vanced. I do not want to urge it for adoption ; my object is to ex- 
cite investigation on the part of other observers, who will, I think, find 
everywhere about them that, whenever the reproductive forces are 
at all in operation, it is the highest types of vitality only which take 
on the female form. 

I have confined myself to sex in plants, botany being my special 
study. Do the same laws prevail in the animal world ? I think 
they do. But this being out of my favorite province, I dare not 
discuss it, but content myself with the bare suggestion. 

Harvesting Navy Beans Again. 

In answering the enquiry as to "harvesting the navy bean," it 
was my intention to have given a short, plain and distinct practical 
plan. I know it to be right. I have always been obliged to pay 
not less than 15 cents per bushel for picking green peas, and 20 
cents per bushel for picking bush beans (green) for market. To 
pick or gather a patch of five acres according to the recommenda- 
tion of "B.," Exchange, Nansemond, would cost what? It would 
require, to ensure an excellent clean bean, not less than three pick- 
ings over the entire patch ; the cost of picking — without the never- 
ending job — would amount to not less than (four bushels pods to 

624 THE SOUTHERN [October 

one shelled,) 80 cents ; and where are the parties to pick? If you 
have the help convenient, whenever you want them, they cant be 
had — they have something else to do. I supposed that with others 
it was as with me — that is, never to ask for information unless it 
was wanted ; and never to give except that such was sure to be 
correct. Wm. H. S. 

Philadelphia, September 23, 1569. 

How shall Gardening be Made Profitable ? 

What shall be grown to pay the best? is a live question for your 
State. Norfolk and the lands adjacentjwill be the garden spot of the 
United States. It has the advantage of all others, and will keep 
it. But to make Gardening or growing produce pay is a question 
of vital import, a question to be answered only by men of real prac- 
tical experience and education. It is an easy matter to take the 
pen and write, "do this, do that, plant this, plant that, plough thus 
and so," use only such "manures," &c, but have parties who give 
advice thought of the real injury and loss sustained by those who 
follow their advice, where such advice is given without having prac- 
tical experience, that is of planting, gathering, selling and receiving 
and retaining a profit? In my opinion a series of communications f/om 
the real living, working growers, would at this time produce more cer- 
tain, lasting and enduring benefits than at any other time. In such 
communications give true names of seeds planted, manner of culti- 
vating, quantity of manure to the acre, manner of gathering, pack- 
ing, to whom consigned, returns from such consignments, with 
remarks generally on conditon of shipment, when received, &c. 

For one I will volunteer to give some of my experience as a 
grower for the New York Market for 27 years. I will write for 
next month's number. Wm. H. S. 

Hollyhocks. — P. B. G-., Baltimore, Md. — " I have a beautiful 
double crimson Hollyhock, which I am very anxious to save, but 
am told they will not reproduce themselves truly from seed. How 
shall I manage it ?" 

[They rill come generally true from seed, and we think this is 
your best way to raise them. Sow the seed as soon as ripe, and 
shade the ground a little from the hot sun until the plants get 
strong. Or the seed may be saved until spring and sown, but they 
will not then flower that year. In Europe Hollyhocks are propa- 
gated by cutting up the flower stem into eyes, before the flower 
opens, but in America seeds only are employed in propagation.] — 
Gardener s Monthly. 


Aitiing §t$ixvtmmt 


Is there any authentic history of the discovery and early use of 
the bituminous coal so long known to exist in this region of Virgi- 
nia ? Did the aborigines understand its nature and apply it to use- 
ful purposes ? 

A few months before the close of the late war, the writer of this 
purchased from a drug store in Richmond a package of medicine 
wrapped in coarse white paper torn from a letter book dated 1752. 
It proved to be a copy of a letter from a mercantile firm in Man- 
chester to their correspondents in Philadelphia, advising them of a 
shipment of coal at a cost of ten cents per bushel, sent as a venture, 
to be offered in that market. The letter concluded by stating that 
the mineral existed in great abundance in Chesterfield county, and 
would be furnished readily at that price if there was any demand 
for it. The old book was searched in vain for further information, 
and the inference is fair that the coal ceased for many years to be 
an article of commerce. 

In West Virginia, where nature has lavished her mineral riches, 
it is certain that the aborigines were either ignorant of the nature* 
of coal, or indifferent to its uses. The numerous seams cleft by the 
abrasion of flowing waters must have exposed the same stratifica- 
tion so plainly visible at this day, and as the immense forests that 
covered the country were subject to conflagration, the combustion 
of the coal upon the surface could not escape observation. Fuel 
was only valued for domestic purposes, and it was only when timber 
became scarce that the indolent Indian, and scarcely less indolent 
squatter, directed his attention to coal. 

It has been stated that the early salt makers on the Big Kana- 
wha were accustomed to haul wood to their furnaces, built over coal 
beds, and this habit was common until the steam engine became a 
familiar thing. It was not merely as a consumer of fuel that the 
steam engine became so important; its agency in mining operations 
settled all difficulties in removing the mineral from the bowels of 
the earth, as well as in the transportation of such ponderous mate- 
rials. And now that everybody reads, and everybody travels, the 
uses of coal are known to all. Why are such acknowledged treas- 
ures unsought in their immediate locality ? The coal measures are 
VOL.III — 10 

626 THE SOUTHERN [October 

sufficiently developed in the Chesterfield basin to establish the fact 
that the coal is there in quantities sufficient to supply any demand 
that may exist for ages, and that the quality is unsurpassed in many 
respects by any bituminous coal of the country. As it is not pro- 
posed to discuss the details of this question, it may suffice to remark 
that the same reasons which retarded the use of coal in early times 
still apply here. Fuel for ordinary purposes is still obtained from 
the woods, and the outlay attending mining operations is yet a bar- 
rier to the full development of our coal fields. It is not so in the 
West. There the collier has no unforeseen difficulties to meet, and 
no exercise of skill beyond opening his drifts in rectilineal figures. 
There the stratification is regular, and the seams frequently above 
water level. There are few unseen dangers — few " troubles " or 
" faults," " downthrows " or " upthrows V — -little disturbance in the 
deposits, and rarely " black damp " or " fire damp." There, too, 
the expenditure is easily calculated in advance, for it is a mere 
question of excavation and transportation. Here it would seem al- 
most the reverse. The whole basin, so far as known, is full of dis- 
locations and uncertainties. The deposits, sometimes prodigious, 
and again " cutting out " to a mere leader. Here the heart of the 
basin has never been reached, and along its margin are shafts sev- 
eral hundred feet deep ; nevertheless, the day will come when the 
deposits will be won, and ere many years, capital and enterprise will 
pursue the treasures now hidden in the Chesterfield basin. 

Iron Interest in Virginia. 

In connection with the history of the iron interest in Virginia, I 
undertake to offer a few mites, by way of soliciting intelligence, 
rather than contributing it. 

At the line of separation of the counties of King George and 
Westmoreland, on the Rappahannock river, there is a spot — a very 
sequestered and interesting one — inclosed by high bluffs, between 
which a little stream passes to the river — wild as the colonists found 
it — so abrupt and rugged as not to permit transit through the ra- 
vine — to which the only access is the river, or banks so steep as to 
seem perilous to the passenger on foot, and certainly very weari- 
some to ascend. This spot is known as the Bristol Mines. The 
neighboring hills are full of bog iron ore, which seems to have been 
obtained here. I do not know whether there was a furnace to re- 
duce it, or whether the ore was shipped, as it was very convenient 
to do, to some other place. Tradition says, that my grandfather, 


John Tayloe, of Mount Airy, (who died at an advanced age in 
1779), was the agent of a company supposed to be of Bristol, in 
England, which worked these mines. He was himself the owner of 
iron works at Neabsco, in Prince William county, at the head of 
Neabsco creek, which enters the Potomac river just above Freestone 
Point. Besides the ore obtained for these Neabsco works on the 
contiguous hills, it was brought in vessels from the Patapsco, from 
the ore banks which the old travelers remember to have seen strewn 
over the once wild region between the present junction and the city 
of Baltimore These have all been filled up and levelled, and com- 
pose the beautiful, highly improved farm of Mr. Winans. The 
Rappahannock ore was carried, probably, in like manner, to Ne- 
absco. Possibly some may have been carried to Col. Spotswood's 
furnace, or to England's, up the river, near Fredericksburg. Is 
this the furnace known of late years as Wellford's, near the Chan- 
cellorsville battle ground ? Col. Byrd's Westover manuscripts 
being mislaid or stolen, I cannot refer to them. Where in King 
George was Mr. Washington's blast furnace ? In those days, this 
county extended to Deep Run, I believe. This is now the eastern 
boundary of Fauquier. 

My father owned and worked a valuable furnace at Cloverdale, 
in Botetourt county. After exhausting all the wood which could 
be obtained at remunerative prices, this furnace was discontinued 
near forty years ago. The ore is thought to be the finest in Virgi- 
nia for producing tough iron, and was bought for the construction 
of guns for the United States Government, by Col. Clarke, who 
cast them on the lower James, some miles above Richmond. This 
ore has been used in later years by the Messrs. Anderson, and re- 
duced at a furnace near Buchanan. 

I hope that these memoranda may induce more valuable remi- 
niscences. Ed. T. Tayloe. 

September 24, 1869. 

The World's Minerals. — The Scientific American says that 
there are produced annually throughout the world 3,214,000,000 
cwt. of coal, 191,800,000 of iron, 1,581,000 of copper, 4,926,300 
of lead, 2,350,000 of zinc, besides 459,883 pounds of gold, and 
2,863,000 pounds of silver. 

628 THE SOUTHREN [October 

aftaluraie %tt#. 

New Inventions. 

Murfee's Subsoil Plough. — This implement is exceedingly 
simple in its construction, and of extraordinary power and effective- 
ness in breaking the subsoil thoroughly to the depth of nine inches 
and width of six to nine inches on each side of the stroke, accord- 
ing to the size used, whether a one or two horse plough. But, val- 
uable as it is for this special purpose, it is equally effective for stir- 
ring and pulverizing the surface in cultivating most of the crops of 
the vegetable garden, and such field crops as cotton, corn, tobacco, 
&c, and is, moreover, of very light draft. The patentee has made 
arrangements with Messrs. Palmer & Turpin, of this city, for the 
manufacture and sale of this plough, who will, no doubt, offer it for 
examination and premium at the State Agricultural Society's Fair 
in November next. Meanwhile, by way of attracting attention to 
this new invention, which, from the unanimous testimony in its 
favor, is worthy of special notice for the benefit of the public, we 
give the certificate of the gentlemen who witnessed its operation 
near the city a short while ago, as follows : 

" The undersigned having this day witnessed the trial of the pul- 
verizing and deep tillage implement lately patented by Jas. W. Mur- 
fee, of Havana, Alabama, make the following statement : Two of 
these implements were exhibited, one for two horses, the other for 
one. They were worked on a field of very hard, flat, clay land, 
which a four horse plough was laboriously breaking up to the depth 
of seven or eight inches. The two horse implement broke the soil 
to the depth of about nine inches, and cracked it thoroughly for 
about nine inches on each side of the stroke. The one horse imple- 
ment broke the land to the same depth, and cracked it thoroughly 
six inches on each side. The work resembled coultering, and was 
better done, both in style and extent of cracking the soil, than we 
ever saw it done by any other implement of its class. 

The single horse instrument was then taken to a well ploughed 
cabbage patch and worked one foot deep, and one foot wide, and 
with ease to the horse and great excellence of execution. 

Where subsoiling is desired, we think this the best and easiest 
working implement of that sort we have ever tested. 


From this statement of what was accomplished, every one can 
judge for himself to what uses he would apply such an implement. 
For all work that it ought to do, we think it a valuable implement. 

James B. Jones, 
J. A. Connor, Ga., 
R. A. Willis, 
John W. Jones, 
W. R. Ruffin, 
S. Bassett French, 
Frank G. Ruffin. 

Chesterfield, September \st." 

Routt's Horse Hay Rake and Seed Sower is another new 
(Virginia) invention patented as late as the seventeenth of August, 
1869 — the birthday of the inventor — long life to him. This novel 
implement is represented to be v very simple in construction and very 
effective in its operation. The seed box is put in front of the axle, 
and is bolted to the shafts underneath, and so arranged that it can 
be thrown in and out of gear, at the pleasure of the operator. It 
is not at all in the way while out of gear, when the instrument is 
employed in raking hay or wheat. The seed attachment can be 
applied to any horse rake in use. It will be submitted to the judges 
on agricultural machinery, &c, at our November Fair, as a com- 
petitor for the premium. 

Thirty Eighth Industrial Exhibition of the American Institute. — 
A novelty in clocks is presented by the U. S. Clock Co., 18 Cortlandt street, 
New York city. Upon one side there is a large dial showing New York time, 
and opposite to it on the other side is a similar dial showing Greenwich time. 
Surrounding each of these dials are eleven smaller ones, showing the time in 
Washington, Sc. Louis, Salt Lake City, Chicago, New Orleans, San Francisco, 
Cape Horn, Rio Janeiro, Lima, Honolulu, Montreal, Paris, Vienna, Constanti- 
nople, Sr. Petersburg, Calcutta, Pekin, Yeddo, Sydney, Cape Town, Rome, and 
Stockholm. A collection of town clocks of various sizes is exhibited by A. S. 
Hotchkiss, of No. 3 Cortlandt street, New York. The workmanship is good. 

Straw paper, a substitute for wood, exhibited by Mallory & Butterfield. No. 
92 William street, New York, is intended to be used for all inside work of 
dwellings, railroad cars, steamboats, ships, or in anyplace where wood is used, 
being far superior to it for its lightness and strength, it not having knots, 
grain, or sap; consequently, does not expand or contract, but remains as put 
up, unchangeably, it can be moulded into any form by pressure, thereby sav- 
ing the great expense of working out elaborate patterns. It is made tire and 
water proof by asbestos, and, in case of a smash-up in railroad cars, no person 
will be injured by splinters or fire. For ornamentation, it can be made to rep- 
resent the most expensive woods, marbles, frescoes, bronzes, etc, etc., at a 
small expense, and can be taken down and put up in other places if desired. — 
American Artisan. 



Subscription One Year, $2.00 


1 square, 10 lines or less, one insertion, § 1 00 y 2 page, six months, „ 35 00 

1 square of 10 lines for six months, 6 00 % page, one year, „ 60 00 

1 square of 10 lines for one year, 10 00 1 page, single insertion,.- 15 00 

% page, six months, „ 20 00 1 page six months,- 60 00 

% page, one year, % 35 00 1 page, one year „ 100 0© 

Subscriptions— in advance. Advertising— annual— quarterly in advance. All others in advance 

(Moral §qjartmnti 

The Virginia State Agricultural Society. 

It affords us unalloyed pleasure to be able to assure our readers that, beyond 
controversy, we are destined to have at the State Fair in November a grand 
display of the material resources of Virginia — agricultural, horticultural, min- 
eral, mechanical, manufacturing and domestic— and that, from present indica- 
tions, we shall witness, as of old, a vast assemblage of her incomparable sons 
and daughters, who will unitedly reflect her glory, and illustrate the elevated 
type of her civilization, by their high-toned moral sentiments, refined and ele- 
gant social characteristics, and enlarged and varied intellectual accomplish- 
ments. Virginia — long-suffering, persecuted, reviled, down-trodden Virginia, 
is about to emerge from the fiery furnace of affliction and sorrow, but without 
the smell of fire on her garments, or a stain upon her honor, and to take a new 
departure in a career of prosperity, wealth, and power, such as has never been 
witnessed in this hemisphere ; while her malignant and despicable enemies 
will utterly perish, by their own hands, through the avenging recoil of their 
infamous machinations against her, upon their own heads. 

But to return to the subject of the Fair. The Executive Committee have 
found it necessary to issue a supplement to the schedule of premiums published 
in August, by a considerable enlargement of the thirteenth class, and by the 
introduction of another class, with special reference to the fine arts. In 
this department we expect to see a highly creditable display of the works of 
our native artists. The reader, to understand the connection of this supple- 
ment with the August schedule, will strike out class XIII as it there stands, 
and insert classes XIII, XIV and XV, in the order in which they appear in 
the following specifications : 

In addition to the list already published in pamphlet form, the Executive 
Committee have offered the following premiums in Mineralogy and the Fine 
Arts, to be awarded at the Virginia State Agricultural Fair, to be held in 
Richmond, commencing 2d November, viz : 

CLASS XIII. — Mineral Department. 

Colonel J. J. Werth, Superintendent. Professor O. J. Heinrich, Assistant. 

1869. ] PLANTER AND FARMER. 631 

Section I. 
514 Best essay upon the Natural History, Geology, Botany, and Natural Products 
of Virginia, Dipbma. 

Section II 

515. Best description of useful Minerals found in Virginia, Certificate. 

Section III. 

516. Best collection of t-pecimens illustrating the Mineralogy of Virginia, $75.00 

Section IV. 

517. Best collection of specimens of Marl, Green Sand, Gypsum, Hydraulic Lime- 
stone, Marble, Calcareous Tufa, found in Virginia, 50 00 

Section V. 

518. Best collection of specimens of Gold, Copper, and other associated Minerals', 

found in Virginia, 50.00 

Section VI. 

519. Best specimens of such Minerals as are useful in pigments, 25.00 

Section VII. 

520. Best specimens of Pig Iron, converted from Virginia ore, 10.00 

Section VIII. 

521. Best specimen of Pig Iron converted from Virginia ore, with coke from 
Virginia coal as a fuel, 10 00 

Section IX. 

522. Best specimen of Bituminous Coal found in Virginia, 100 lbs. or m:re, 10.00 

Section X. 

523. Best specimen of natural Coke, 

Section XI. 

524. Best specimen of Anthracite Coal found in Virginia, 100 lbs. or more, 

Section XII. 

525. Best specimen of Granite found in Virginia, 

Section XIII. 

526. Best specimen of Slate, 

Section XIV. 

527. Best specimen of Sandstone found in Virginia, 

Section XV. 

528. Best specimen of Manganese found in Virginia, 

529. Best specimen of Barytes found iu Virginia, 

530. Best specimen of Kaolin fouud in Virginia, 

531. Best specimen of Plumbago found in Virginia, 

532. Best specimen of Soapstone found in Virginia, 

533. Best specimen of Mica found in Virginia, 

Professor Mallet, University of Virginia. 
Colonel William Gilham, Richmond. 
Professor J. L. Campbell, Lexington. 
Professor R. M. Smith, Randolph Macon. 
Professor B. Puryear, Richmond College. 
A. D. Townes, Esq., and J. C. Deaton, Richmond, Va. 

CLA.SS XIV — Fine Arts Department. 
Colonel W. H. Caskie. 
This department will embrace Statuary, in marble, bronze and plaster, including 
alto relievos, basso relievos, and busts. 

Oil and Water color Pictures, Drawings, Engravings, Photographs, Wax and 
Flower Work, Frames. Artists' Materials and Musical Instruments, including 
Pianos, Organs, etc., etc., etc. 





10 00 


5 00 





632 THE SOUTHERN [October 

Section I — Statuary, $c 

534. Best original full length, life-size, Alto Relievo in marble, bronze or plaster, 
designed in Virginia, 50.00 

535. Best original Alto Relief in marble, bronze or plaster, or other material, de- 
signed in Virginia, 15.00 

536. Best original Basso Relievo in marble, bronze or plaster, designed in Virgi- 
nia, 15.00 

537. Best Statuette (original), designed in Virginia, 10.00 

538. Best original Bust, designed in Virginia, 10.00 

539. Best specimen Ornamental De«igo, in plaster or other material, made in 
Virginia, 5.00 

Section II — Oil Paintings. 

540. Best original Figure Picture in oil, designed in Virginia, 50.00 

541. Best Animal Picture, original, designed in Virginia, 25 00 

542. Best Head, life size, designed in Virginia, 10.00 

543. Best Head, cabinet size, designed in Virginia, 5 00 

544. Best Landscape, including marine and waterscape, original, designed in Vir- 
ginia, 15.00 

545. Best Still Life, designed in Virginia, 5.00 
Works by foreign artists, or by native artists, but not originals, of sufficient 

merit, will receive honorable mention. 

Section III — Water Colors. 
Water Colors "will be placed on same footing with Oil Paintings. Numbered from 
546 to 551, inclusive. 

Section IV — Drawings, Engravings, $c. 

552. Best original Drawing in sepia, india ink, pen or pencil, designed in Virgi- 
nia, 20.00 

553. Second best original Drawing in sepia, India ink, pen or pencil, designed in 
Virginia, 15.00 

554. Best Engraving designed in Virginia, Certificate. 

555. Best Lithograph, Certificate. 

556. Best Photograph, by a resident of Virginia, Certificate. 

Section V — Picture Frames, Artists' Materials, §c. 

557. Best Picture Frames, made in Virginia, Certificate. 

558. Second best Picture Frames, made in Virginia, Certificate. 

559. Best collection of Artists' Materials, made in Virginia, Certificate. 

560. Second best collection of Artists' Material, made in Virginia, Certificate. 

Section VI. 

561. Organs. 662. Pianos. 563. Violins. 564. Melodeons. 565. Harps. 566. 
Guitars. 567. Band Instruments. Best of each, Certificate. 


Mr. W. H. Haxall, Thos. H. Wynne, Capt. Chas. Dimmock, 

Thos. R. Price, Jr., Charles Wallace. 

CLASS XV — Miscellaneous Department. 
Captain C. C. McPhail. 
To this department are referred all articles and animals recommended for Dis- 
cretionary Premiums. 


Hon James A. Seddon, Goochland county, Va. 

Chas. B. Williams, Richmond. 

Wood Bouldin, Charlotte county, Va. 

Er Philip F. Southall, Amelia. 

Dr. Wm. D. Hawkins, Mecklenburg. 

Colonel Albert Ordway, Richmond. 


Liberal Arrangements of the Railroads Respecting the State 
Agricultural Fair. 

At a meeting of the Superintendents of the railroads terminating at Rich- 
mond, held on the 16th day of September, 1869, for the purpose of considering 
the application of the officers of the State Agricultural Society, in regard to 
freights and fares on the roads under their charge, the following regulations 
were adopted : 

1. Persons traveling over either of the railroads in charge of the under- 
signed, after the 28th day of October, 1869, for the purpose of attending the 
State Fair of the Agricultural Society, can, upon application to the agent or 
conductors of the railroads to which they pay their full fare, obtain a ceitificate 
showing that they did so — and upon presenting the same, stamped by the Sec- 
retary of the Agricultural Society, as evidence of their having attended the Fair, 
to the conductor of the train on which they return from Richmond, on or be- 
fore the 12th day of November following, they will be returned to the station 
whence they came free of charge. 

2 Persons exhibiting, with these certificates, the proper evidence of their 
being life members of that Society, upon application at the office of the railroad 
in Richmond over which they came to Richmond, before their return, will be 
entitled to have the fare paid on this road by them going to the Fair refunded 
to them. 

3. Articles sent at the usual tolls over the railroads for exhibition at the 
Fair will be returned free of charge to the same station on the railroad whence 
they were sent, provided they shall be still the property of the same owner ; 
and if the person having charge of the same shall exhibit to the agent at Rich- 
mond, before shipping them, a certificate from the Agricultural Society that 
they were exhibited, and return the receipt for freight paid on them coming to 
Richmond, the toll on them in coming will be refunded by the freight agents 
of the same railroad at Richmond, Va. 

4. Persons having charge of stallions and other animals requiring attend- 
ance, will be included io the conditions of the third section subject to the dis- 
cretion of the railroad agents. 

5. That copies of these regulations be sent to all railroad companies con- 
nected with the roads here represented, with a request that they adopt similar 
liberal arrangements, and have the same published. 

[Signed,] Thomas Dodamead, 

General Superintendent R. and D., and P., and Y. R. R. 

Samuel Ruth, 
Superintendent R. F. and P. R. R. 
H. D. Whitcomb, 
General Superintendent C. and 0. R. R. 
Thos. H. Wynne, 

Superintendent R. and P. R. R. 

Richmond, Va., September 16, 1869. 

I am authorized by General William Mahone, President of the line of rail- 
roads from Norfolk to Bristol, and Mr. John S. Barbour, President of the 
Orange and Alexandria railroad, to state that they will afford the same accom- 
modation and arrangements for persons and articles attending the State Fair 
as are embraced in the foregoing regulations. 

634 THE SOUTHERN [October 

I have no doubt all the other lines of railroads in the State will adopt them 
as soon as applied to. 

The Virginia State Agricultural Society desire and expect a very large at- 
tendance of Northern men, especially at their Fair and Exhibition, and hope 
that the Northern and Western railroads will extend such inducements as our 
own have offered to all persons visiting R chmond on this occasion, it is ex- 
pected to be a complete exposition of the resources of Virgiuia. 

Arrangements are in contemplation, whereby the hotel facilities of the city 
will be supplemented by the owners of private houses. A cheap excursion 
train running daily between this city and Petersburg will add the accommoda- 
tions of that city to those of Richmond. 

The Secretary of the Society will be in attendance daily at the Fair Grounds, 
to stamp certificates furnished by the railroad companies. 

William T. Sutherlin, 
President Virginia State Agricultural Society. 

Minerals fop Exhibition at the State Fair. 

The following letter from General J. D. Imboden will apprise the reader that 
he will undertake to receive and arrange the specimens of Virginia minerals 
which may be addressed to his care : 


The State Agricultural Society has very wisely determined to enrich its ex- 
hibition at the Annual Fair in November with specimens of the minerals of 

I have agreed, in connection with Captain C. C. McPhail, to solicit contribu- 
tions to this department of the exhibition so far as to collect and arrange the 

There will, doubtless, be a great many strangers here at that time to look 
into our natural resources. It is, therefore, of great importance that we 
should be able to show them every mineral of value that we possess in the 
State. Let the owners of mines and deposits, therefore, select good, fair speci- 
mens, put them up securely, and address the packages to me, " for the State 
Fair." Write a letter at the same time describing the property, its location, 
&c From these letters will be compiled a catalogue of all the minerals shown. 

It is especially desirable to obtain good specimens from every locality con- 
taining iron, copper, lead, zinc, gold, and silver ores, of every variety ; barytes, 
manganese, plumbago, nickle, gypsum, marl, silica, marble, granite, slate, 
soapstone, brownstone, mica, kaolin, fire clay, hydraulic lime, asbestos, ochre, 
rock salt, coal, peat, and the purest qualities of carbonate of lime. 

A full collection of these minerals, with honest, reliable information about 
them, may lead to the most important results. If owners will take the little 
trouble of sending the specimens, we will do whatever else is necessary to 
bring them prominently before the thousands who will be here. 

J. D. Imboden, Richmond, Va. 

[The following glowing and hopeful delineation of the glorious future of the 
Old Dominion — " the blessed mother of us all " — is from the gifted pen of the 
editor of " The Richmond Enquirer and Examiner." It breathes the true 


spirit of loyalty and filial love, such as becomes a son nurtured on her bosom, 
and is heartily commended to all those who are like-minded, and who are 
ready to " sink or swim " with old Virginia: 


It is delightful to observe the many evidences that Virginia has emerged 
from the region of dreams and speculation, to expand her grand and majestic 
form in the field of practical improvement. Convinced of the importance of a 
truth, as embodied in the word* of a departed sage, that "in every community 
the first creditor is the Plough; whose original and indefeasible claim should 
supersede all other demands, " she has given up Politics as her Mu-e, and is 
bending all her glorious powers to the thorough awakening and advancement 
of her Agriculture. 

Especially to be commended are the District Fairs, which have become regu- 
lar and fixed institutions. The grand State Fair, as a matter of course, must 
enlist the sympathies and activities of the whole people, but as tributary to 
this, and as the surest guaranty of its complete success, each great department 
of the State has wisely determined to go through a rehearsal, as it were, so that 
after a judicious culling and selection in October, the best specimens may be 
sent to the State Fair in November, in order (as Orator Phillips would say,) 
that Richmond, as the capital of the State, may be able to exhibit, in one glow 
of associated beauty, the pride of every section, and the perfection of every de- 
partment. It is but the reproduction in miniature, nay, rather let us say it is 
the solid basis of those World Fairs which form an epoch, and have ushered in 
a new era in the conditions and prospects of nations and of mankind. If 
Prince Albert be entitled (as his august and adoring relict claims,) to the honor 
of originating this magnificent scheme, she need not have wasted her time and 
feelings on that grand, yet gloomy, Mausoleum at Frogmore to his memory. It 
will be a higher honor, a more glorious fame, to be remembered as the origi- 
nator of a vast plan, whereby each State, having studied its peculiar strength, 
having gathered together the richest fruits of its industry, its art, and its natu- 
ral wealth, should come in joyous rivalry to some appropriate centre like New 
York, or Paris, or London, as on a huge dial plate to register the wealth of the 
world, to demonstrate the inter dependency of all its parts, the speed, the 
power, and the progress of its improvement. 

Thus the world is all astir. Nation after nation and State after State takes 
the noble contagion, and in the peace, prosperity and power which will surely 
ensue, will be found the best safeguard or the speediest corrective of the follies 
and crimes of neglectful or inimical governments. The great English historian 
tells us that "the misgovernment of Charles and James, gross as it had been, 
did not prevent the common business of life from going steadily and prosper- 
ously on. While the honor and independence of the State were sold to a for- 
eign power, while chartered rights were invaded, while fundamental laws were 
violated, hundreds of thousands of quiet, honest, and industrious families la- 
bored and traded, ate their meals, and lay down to rest, in comfort and secu- 
rity. Whether Whigs or Tories, Protestants or Jesuits were uppermost, the 
grazier drove his bullocks to market; the grocer weighed out his currants; the 
draper measured out his broadcloth ; the hum of buyers and sellers was as 
loud as ever in the towns; the harvest home was celebrated as joyously as 
ever in the hamlets ; the cream overflowed the pails of Cheshire ; the apple- 

636 THE SOUTHERN [October 

juice foamed in the presses of Herefordshire ; the piles of crockery glowed in 
the furnaces of Trent; and the barrows of coal rolled fast along the timber 
railways of the Tyne." As we look at this changeful and cheering picture, we 
feel that it would be criminal not to believe, that if we be but true to our- 
selves, the parallel will be completed in our case. The conflicts, the turmoils, 
the agonies of England, were as great as ours — as Macaulay says that the time 
was (in the period to which we have referred,) when her liberty and her inde- 
pendence seemed to be no more — to the dangers of war were added the dan- 
gers of a terrible financial and commercial crisis — but at length the danger 
was over. 

May we not then go to work " treading the fields of earth with gratitude 
and hope?" — trusting that ere long the country will be delivered of its 
phrenzy — and that p >licy, if no higher principle, will demonstrate the neces- 
sity of considering, reconciling, and uniting all the interests of our country; 
that the follies and their authors will " go to their place," whilst the ancient 
constitution, relieved of the incubus of stupidity and hate which now oppresses 
it, will adapt itself by a natural, a gradual, a peaceful development to the new 
order of things, that public credit will be re-established, that an unsuspecting 
confidence, like some powerful amalgam, will bind together the different por. 
tions of cur country ; that a sense of relief will be shed abroad in the land, 
and in all our hearts ; that diversified labor will develop all our powers and all 
our wealth ; and that the time is not far distant when Virginia, too, shall need 
no " oracle to tell the nations she is beautiful," and, pointing to her fertile 
fields, her countless mines, her waving harvests, her mighty herds and listen- 
ing to the mingled hum of manifold industry which shall rise from thrifcy vil- 
lages, prosperous towns, and stately cities shall declare with authority and 
truth the commencement of a happier and a better age. Those of her children 
who now come to her assistance when she sits friendless and forlorn, will have 
rich recompense when, under a kind Providence, they have caused her once 
more to smile with prosperity and to laugh with abundance ; never doubting 
that amid it all she will sustain her self-respect, and that the increase of her 
material wealth will be but the index of her moral power. 

The following arrangements have been adopted respecting the times and 
places for holding the Fairs by the District and County Societies of Virginia 
named below: 

The Augusta County Fair, on the 12th, 13th and 14th of October. 

The Wytheville Society, on the 20th, 21st and 22 1 of October. 

The Lynchburg Society, on the 26th, 27th, 28th and 29th of October. 

The Loudoun Society, on the 26th, 27th and 28th of October. 

The Border Society at Danville, on the 14th, 15th and 16th of October. 

The Central Agricultural Society of Granville, Warren and Franklin will 
hold a Fair at Henderson, N. C, on the 12th, 13th, 14th and 15th of October. 

Pears, Peaches and Grapes. — We have received from Mr. Henry J. Smith 
a basket of luRcious pears of five several varieties, some very fine grapes, and 
also a few good peaches. Mr. S. has long been distinguished for his fine fruits 
and vegetables. 


Historical Sketch of the Iron Interest of Virginia. 


Editors of the Southern Planter and Farmer : 

Sir, — Your printer has made a few changes in my communication of August 
28th ult., on the history of iron production in Virginia, which do not improve 

I would suggest that wherever in that article the words " Western manu- 
scripts" appear in the print, I wrote " Westover." 

In line 20, page 558, the printer says ''ores;" I think that I wrote " for- 
ests." In line 22 the printer says " formidable ;" I wrote, or intended to write, 
" favorable." In line 30 of same page, the printer says " ores ;" I wrote 
" forests." 

In your kindly editorial remarks, you state that " there is authority for a 
much earlier period which dates the establishment of the first furnace in Vir- 
ginia." In reference to this, I would suggest the ioquiry as to whether the 
" iron work" established by Colonel Cary was a blast furnac ■ or a bloomery? 
We know that bloomeries for the production of " wrought" iron directly from 
the ore were established in America long anterior to 1715 — not only in Virgi- 
nia, but also in Pennsylvania and New England. 

My statement was that the first " blast furnace " established in America was 

that of Colonel Spottswood ; and I think that investigation will make it clear. 

Very respectfully yours, 

Chas. P. Stone. 
Dover Mines, Goochland co., Va., Sept. 20, 1869. 

"Faithful' are the Wounds of a Fr.end." 

We publish below the kind and friendly strictures of the " Evening News," 
in relation to several important typographic errors which escaped detection in 
the September number of this journal. 

The letter of Gen. Stone, which precedes this note, obviates the necessity of 
a tabulated statement of " errata;" but it is necessary to correct the misprint 
in regard to the edition of Beverley which was quoted in our editorial, to which 
reference is made; it was written, and should have been printed, " 1722." We 
hope that similar annoyances to ourselves and friends may never occur again. 

We invite particular attention to the suggestions of the " News," and would 
feel ourselves under special obligations to the two gentlemen referred to by 
name, if they would favor us with sketches of what they know respecting the 
iron interest of Virginia, especially in the "mountain counties." We also 
tender our thanks to the two gentlemen whose valuable communications occupy 
the space allotted to the "mining department" of the present number of the 
" Planter and Farmer," and extend a cordial invitation to all other gentlemen 
throughout the State " who possess the opportunities to obtain the details of 
these operations," to aid us in gathering up and embodying in our pages, a 
ma s of interesting matter illustrative of the History of this very important ele- 
ment of our material wealth : 

" The ' Southern Planter and Farmer ' for September has been on our table 
for some time, but a notice of it has been crowded out by other matter. The 

638 THE SOUTHERN [October 

whole table of contents presents an interesting array, but we are particularly 
interested in the ' Historical Sketch of the Iron Interests of Virginia, by Gen. 
C. P. Stone.' All who know this gentleman and how much he is interested in 
this branch of industry, will not wonder at his writing about it. He gives all 
that he has learned on the subject, and invites others to give their history of 
the manufacture of iron in the different counties in the State. If this is done, 
and we see no reason why it should not be, we would have a valuable addition 
to the uncertain history of our State. General Stone quotes from Colonel Byrd 
for the history of it in Spottsylvania, Beverly tells of it in Chesterfield n 1705, 
Mr. Jefferson mentions in 1782, ' the mines of iron worked ' three on south side 
of James river, one in Albemarle, one in Augusta and one in Frederick, * a 
forge at Mr. Hunter's, at Fredericksburg,' and adds, ' the toughness of the cast 
iron of Ross' and Zanes' furnaces is very remarkable. Pots and other utensils, 
cast thinner than usual of this iron, may be safely thrown into or out of the 
wagons, in which they are transported.' Surely, if those who possess the op- 
portunities to obtain the details of these operations would take the trouble to 
do so, and communicate them to the " Planter and Farmer," it would furnish 
a very important and interesting history of this subject. We hope the example 
set by Gen. Stone will be followed, and the subject thoroughly written up. If 
such gentlemen as Mr. S. C. Robinson and Dr. Graham, of Rockbridge county, 
could be induced to put on paper their knowledge of its history in the moun- 
tain counties, they would make valuable additions to what little is now known. 
We cannot refrain from regretting that a paper published in this city by gen- 
tlemen either to the ' manner' or ' manor' born, should have allowed the well 
known ' Westover' MSS. to be called in two places the ' Western,' and that the 
editor, in noticing the contribution of Gen. Stone, should have quoted from an 
edition of Beverly of ' 1772.' Besides these and a few other inexcusable typo 
graphical blunders, the articles are well gotten up, and we most heartily re- 
commend the paper to the farming and mechanical portions of our population." 

Book Notices, &c, 

Pear Culture for Profit, by P. T. Quinn, practical Horticulturist; pp. 
136 — a valuable manual issued by the Tribune Association. New York: 1869. 

A Philosophy [so called] of Heaven, Earth, and the Millenium, by a mem- 
ber of the Missouri bar. W. J. Gilbert, publisher ; pp. 310. 1869. 

We have received the following Catalogues and Pamphlets : 

Ellwanger & Burry's No. 1 Fruits, No. 2 Ornamental Trees, Roses and Flow- 
ering Plants, and No. 3 Wholesale Catalogue of Mount Hope Nurseries, Ro* 
Chester, New York. 

H. K. Bliss & Sons' Autumn Catalogue and Floral Guide, embellished with 
a variety of beautiful illustrations ; price 10 cents. We in this section give 
such things away. 

Norwood School Catalogue for session of 1868-69. Wm. D. Cabell, Princi- 
pal, with an able corps of assistants. This is a first class seminary, and num- 
bered 72 scholars in the classes of the last session. 

The Rural Carolinian. — We welcome with kindly salutations and good 
wishes the above new Agricultural journal, and take pleasure in adding it to 
our list of (less than ten thousand) exchanges. 

It is gotten up in excellent style, handsomely illustrated, and well filled with 


selected and original matter in the various departments of agriculture, horti- 
culture, stock and natural history, labor and immigration, mining and me- 
chanic arts, &c, &c. Born to the inheritance of a circulation of " ten thou- 
sand," with every prospect of large and continuous additions to that number, 
no other periodical affords equal opportunities for thoroughly advertising all 
things of interest to an agricultural people. Let all the world and the rent of 
mankind take note of and remember this! ! Price $2 a year, payable in ad- 
vance. 64 pages large octavo. Walker, Evans & Cogswell, Charleston, S. C. 

The Prospectus of the Arkansas Agricultural and Mechanical Journal, to be 
issued at Little Rock, Arkansas, during this month, has been received. The 
price will be $2 50 a year. 

Descriptive Catalogue of Fruit Trees, Vines and Plants cultivated at the 
Richmond Nurseries, by Franklin Davis & Co. 

Catalogue of Fruit and Ornamental Trees, Plants, &c, grown and for sale by 
the Virginia Nursery and Wine Company ; Allan & Johnson, General Agents. 

Both of these Catalogues are gotten up very tastefully, are handsomely illus- 
trated, and contain practical and useful instruction on planting, cultivation, 
&c. Both of these very reliable establishments offer an unusually large collec- 
tion of well grown stock, and will furnish their catalogues gratuitously when 
applied for. 

Messrs. Allison & Addison have favored us with a copy of their Guano Cir- 
cular—Fall, 1869. 

They are dealers in Soluble Pacific Guano, Flour of Raw Bone, and other 
Fertilizers; also, Seeds and Agricultural Implements. Nos. 1318 and 1320 
Cary street, Richmond, Va. We have frequently had occasion to recommend 
them to the confidence of the public. 

Haw's Pecker Saw Mill. 

The venerable John Haw, so long and favorably known in this community 
for his integrity and uprightness as a man and mechanic, has survived the 
wreck and ruin of the late war, and is now prepared to resume his business of 
manufacturing his portable Pecker Saw Mill, which was held in high estima- 
tion, and was extensively used by our farmers before our civil commotions com- 
menced. See his advertisement. 

Wheat Drill. 

We offer the following suggestions from " The Roanoke Valley " to the con- 
sideration of our farmers who have not yet decided upon their mode of seed- 
ing wheat this Fall: 

Use a Drill in Sowing Wheat. — It is the universal testimony of all farmers 
who have tried it, that the use of a drill saves time, labor, seed, and money, 
does the work better, makes the grain less apt to fall, more apt to ripen regu- 
larly, heavier, and produce more to the acre. We have no doubt that if one 
was introduced here it would be extensively patronized. We learn that Col. 
Dechart, in Halifax county, has two wheat drills which he hires out, and they 
are engaged for the whole season. Money is scarce, but if ten or twelve or 

640 THE SOUTHERN [October 

fifteen of our farmers would club funds and purchase one, each man would get 
the value of his investment back in one year. We will give any information 
on the subject, or you can send to H. M. Smith & Co , Richmond, Va., and get 
their catalogue free, which will tell you all about them. 

Baltimore and the Virginia State Agricultural Society. 

A week spent in Baltimore in behalf of our old war-worn State Agricultural 
Society yielded but little fruit. We did not approach the good people of Bal- 
timore as suppliants, but desired that, by becoming life members of the So- 
ciety, they should give expression of their interest in us, and their appreciation 
of our efforts in behalf of them, as well as the non-producers of our own State. 

We had the pleasure of enrolling the following well known names among 
our membership, and take pleasure in honoring those who have honored us: 

Life Members. — Wm. Devries, E*q , President Maryland State Agricultural 
Society ; Colonel James R. Herbert, of the firm of Herbert & Hair^tone ; 0. F. 
Bresee, Esq., of the Mutual Life Insurance Company; Wm. Knabe, E-q., of 
the frm of Knabe & Co.; Wm. L. Buckingham, E-^q., Agent of the Bickford & 
Huffman Drill; Gustavus Ober, E<q., manufacturer of Fertilizers; annual 
member John Merryman, Esq., one of the most extensive stock breeders in 

We hope this list may yet be materially increased, as we cannot but think 
fe that there are many public spirited Baltimoreans who will add their names to 
* those already enrolled. 

We are gratified to learn that the contributions from citizens of Baltimore to 
the Lynchburg Fair reach $1700. This is in striking contrast with six life 
and one annual membership to the Virginia State Agricultural Society. 

During a recent visit to Philadelphia as an attendant upon the session of the 
American Pomological Society, we were struck with the spirit of urbanity and 
kindness towards Southerners that was everywhere displayed. In every de- 
partment of business there seemed to be signs of approacMng activity — mer- 
chants were opening stocks, and the retailers were all busy displaying their 
most be&utiful styles to the throng of strangers in the city. We were most favor- 
ably impressed with the establishment of Mr. John Wanamaker, 818 and 820 
Chesnut street, one of the largest clothing houses in the country. Although ours 
was more a visit of pleasure (for we love to look at good clothes,) and curiosity 
than business, we were not only treated with politeness, but kindness, and 
were shown over the entire establishment, which was filled with every article 
that could be desired in this line. Our friends who visit Philadelphia should 
call and see Wanamaker. 

A Request. — I hope the preachers and all others who feel an interest in the 
publication of " Memorials of Methodism in Virginia," will give their aid in 
securing subscribers to the work. If the enterprise were brought to the no- 
tice of our congregations, a large number of subscribers might be secured. As 
some inducement to canvass for the book, I offer a copy gratis to any one who 
will send a list of fifteen responsible names. It is very desirable to secure a 
list sufficiently large to justify me in putting the work to press at an early day. 

W. W. Bennett.