>ription REDUCED to TWO DOLLARS Per Annum in Advance
.dS&.j^, IE— *- ^— 3l r* pel
Ill® i@Wf ®®M
PLANTER AND FARM
;agrmiltw«, Qwttlmttm, nU tut pitting, pertaw »U
Agriculture is the nursing mother of the Arts.— Xenofhon.
Tillage and Pasturage are the two breasts of the State.— Sully.
Oh. B. Williams, Ed. & Pro'r. I Jno M. Allan, Hort'l Editor.
Frank G. Ruffin, Co-Editor.
Wm. L Hill, Gen'l Agent.
RICHMOND, VA„ DECEMBER 1869.
Vol. Hi-No. 13.
AGRICULTURAL DEPARTMENT: PAGE
Ninth Annual Fair of the Virginia State Agricultural Fair— Address of Wel-
come by the President— Report of the Executive Committee— General Meet-
ings, and Official Report of Premiums awarded 705
Address of Prof. J. W. Mallet, delivered at the Augusta County Fair, contin-
ued from page 697 725
Letter to Col. Ruffin, and Memorial to the Legislature of Virginia on the Tax-
ing of Dogs to preserve our Sheepfolds 736
The Culture of Tobacco in Western North Carolina, by S. C. Shelton 740
Treatment of the Horse 741
Fair of the Virginia Horticultural Society at its Third Annual Meeting— An-
nual Report of the Executive Committee— Address of the Rev. Leonidas
Rosser, D. D.— Election of Officers, and the List of Premiums awarded 742
Seed Peanuts 757
Editorial Department :
The Southern Planter and Farmer 758
Fairs of 1869 760
New Eclectic 760
Editorial Notice of Dixon Fertilizer 760
FEBOUSSOX & BADT, Printers, 1328 Main Street.
NOAH WALKER & CO.
WHOLESALE AND RETAIL
1211 Main Street,
Chief House — Washington Building, 165^0* 167, Baltimore St., Baltimore, Md.
Branch Houses — Petersburg, Va., Norfolk, Va., Washington, D. C. feb — \y
" \¥7HAT MAKES IT VALUABLS IS
T V because it contains so much prac-
tical, original matter in such a small
space."— John J. Thomas.
"The directions for growing Strawber-
ries and Raspberries are the best I have
ever seen."— Henry Ward Beecber.
We could give hundreds of just such tes-
timonials, snowing the value of tbis little
work. It should be in the bands of every
person, whether the owner of a rod square
of ground or a hundred acres. Tree agents
should have a copy. It contains 40 pages.
Price 10 cent-=. Fall price list, wholesale
and retail, and also terms to agents *md
those desiring to get up a club for plants
sent free to all applicants. Parties at
the South shou'd order plants in the Fall
Address PURDY & JOHNSTON, Palmyra,
N. Y., or PURDY & HANCE, South Bend,
Ind. aug— 3tn
J. HALL MOORE, M, D
The Purest, Best and Cheapest
Corner Franklin and Fifth Streets,
Special attention paid to preserving
the Natural Organs.
Artificial Teeth inserted upon GOLD,
SILVER or VULCANITE.
8&- TEETH EXTRACTED WITH-
OUT PAIN, by a new and safe process,
RICHARDSON & CO.
113 MAIIST STREET,
SOLD BY ALL CJROCERS. sep _ 6t
ST. CHARLES HOTEL,
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GHAS. P. BIGGER, Proprietor.
T-wo Dollars per X>£ty.
sep — 3t
PLANTER & FARMER,
Agriculture, Horticulture and the Mining, Mechanic and Household Arts.
Agrioalture is the nursing mother of the Arts.— Xenophon.
Tillage and Pasturage are the two breasts of the State.— Sully.
CH: B. WILLIAMS, Editor and Proprietor.
FRANK G. RUFFIN, Co-Editor.
New Series. RICHMOND, VA., DECEMBER 1869. Vol. Ill-No. 12.
Virginia State Agricultural Society.
The Ninth Annual cattle show and fair of this Society, after a
suspension of nine years, was duly and solemnly inaugurated with
prayer, by the Rev. J. L. M. Curry, D. D., on Tuesday morning
the 2d of November, 1869.
The President then offered in touching tones of good feeling and
kindness the following
ADDRESS OF WELCOME.
" Fellozv-citizens,— Allow me to congratulate you on the evidences
of the vitality and spirit of our people as witnessed on this most
highly interesting occasion.
" The extent and variety of improved breeds of stock, the large
collection of useful machinery and agricultural implements, together
with the attractive exhibition of household and domestic manufac-
tures, and the immense number of specimens of valuable minerals
and agricultural productions, cannot fail to command the admira-
tion of visitors from other sections, and to impress them most favor-
ably with the vast resources of our State, and also to inspire all the
eons of Virginia, whether native or adopted, with fresh hopes for
the future growth and prosperity of this glorious old Common-
706 THE SOUTHERN December
" I commend to your careful examination every article here on
exhibition in, the hope that you may be able to find much that will
lessen your labor and increase your profits.
" It is now nine years since the Virginia State Agricultural
Society held a Fair and Cattle Show, and may we not reasonably
hope that the revival of this time-honored Society, with its benefi-
cial means may be the instrument of giving a new impulse to the
agricultural interest of our State and develop the way by which
many a rich storehouse of minerals will be open to increase our
wealth and population ? This is to me a most interesting subject,
but it is not my purpose now to do more than to express my grat-
ification at the successful efforts of the Executive Committee as pre-
sented in the exhibition before you, and to give you a cordial greeting.
"It gives me pleasure to extend to each and all of this immense
multitude a most hearty welcome ; and to those of our fellow-citi-
zens, who come from other States, I would extend a thrice hearty
welcome. We need more population and more capital to convert into
profit and usefulness the vast resources of our State, and I hope
that one of the results of this exhibition will be to attract here large
accessions of both.
" To you, ladies, I would not only extend a most cordial welcome,
but I would most heartily thank you for gracing this occasion with
your presence, as nothing can prosper that does not command the
approving smiles of woman.
At the close of the President's address the fair was open to the
examination of the multitude found in attendance, whose surprise
and admiration were raised to the highest pitch at the number and
variety of useful and elegant articles on exhibition, and whose socirl
enjoyments were heightened by the constantly recurring re-unions
of old and long separated friends, some of them accompanied with
ebullitions of feeling so touching and tender, as to cause many a
manly heart "to turn aside, to hide the flood that in his 'een was
The Secretary's office in this city will be opened from 9 o'clock
this morning for the sale of annual and life memberships, and the
office at the Fair Grounds will be open during the day for exhibitors.
Mr. James Chamberlayne will also be at the office at the Fair
Grounds during the day for the purpose of issuing certificates to
the members of the State Central Agricultural Society.
1869.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 707
PROGRAMME FOR THE DAY.
The members of the Executive Committee were requested to report
themselves at 9 A. M. at the Secretary's office, on the Fair Grounds to
review the books for the judges, to fill vacancies in the judges from the
by-standers or others, as required by the resolutions of the 21st
September, 1869. The following members were assigned to these
duties — viz :
Class I. Essays— F. G. Ruffin.
Class II. Cattle— S. W. Ficklin.
Class III. Horses, &c. — R. B. Haxall.
Class IV. Sheep, &c— J. Cloyd.
Class V. Swine— J. Cloyd.
Class VI. Poultry— J. M. McCue.
Class VII. Farm Products — R. E. Haskins.
Class VIII. Domestic Departments — W. T Walker.
Class IX. Household Manufactures — F. N. Watkins.
Class X. Ladies' Fancy and Ornamental Work — F. N. Watkins.
Class XI. Agricultural Department — W. C. Knight.
Class XII. Farm Dwellings— E. Ruffin.
Class XIII. Minerals— R. W. N. Noland.
Class XIV. Fine Arts — J. Lyons.
Class XV. Miscellaneous — L. E. Harvie.
Judges are urged to attend to the their duties promptly at 9 A.
M. of each day.
EXHIBITION OF HORSES.
The public exhibition of horses takes place at 1 o'clock in
front of the yublic stand on the mile track.
The ploughing match for the best ploughman, &c, has been
arranged to come off on the farm of William Shepperson, on the
Broad-Street road above the Baptist College, on the left hand, this
Bide of the Fair Grounds, from 12 to 3 o'clock, and competitors
under section 12 were notified to be promptly on the ground, or they
would be ruled out.
The general meeting of the Society took place at the Hall of the
House of Delegates at 8 o'clock in the evening.
The following annual report of the Society was submitted and
At this, the largest meeting of the Virginia State Agricultural Soci-
708 THE SOUTHERN [December
ety since the war, it is proper briefly to inform the members what has
been done since the last show and fair, which was held in 1860.
During the war, of course, there could be no show or exhibition.
All that could be done was to protect the interests of the Society.
This was done by the (then) President, Mr. John R. Edmunds, of
Halifax, who, elected in 1859, held over during the war, and, by
special request of the Executive Committee, until Mr. Willoughby
Newton, his successor under the Constitution, could take his place ;
and by Mr. Charles B. Williams, then and until recently Secretary
of the Society. And it is gratifying to repeat, what has been
already stated, that the joint efforts of the President, Secretary,
and Executive Committee, succeeded in preserving intact the
property which the Society had entrusted to their keeping.
In January, 1869, an attempt was made to have a general meet-
ing of the Society for several important purposes ; and among them
to take into consideration the propriety of purchasing a lot of
ground on which to hold the future exhibitions of the Society.
The property at present held by the Society, and which has been
viewed by the members to-day, was offered for sale, and the Execu-
tive Committee wished to be instructed by the Society as to the
purchase. A quorum did not attend ; but the sense of the informal
meeting confirmed the Executive Committee in the action to which
they were predisposed, and they took the responsibility of making
the purchase on the terms and with the means already announced.
The bargain was completed in the spring of 1868.
In the month of January, 186y, a meeting of the Society was
held, and the action of the committee was then fully sanctioned.
At that meeting it was determined to hold a Fair and Exhibition
this fall, and the following officers were elected :
President : William T. Sutherlin, Danville.
Vice- Presidents : 1st, James Lyons, Richmond ; 2d, W. T.
Scott, Charlotte; 3d, Frank G. Ruffin, Chesterfield; 4th, R. Bar-
ton Haxall, Richmond ; 5th, S. W. Ficklin, Albemarle ; 6th, Ed-
mund Ruffin, Jr., Hanover ; 7th, Lewis E. Harvie, Amelia 8th, J.
Marshall McCue, Augusta.
Secretary and Treasurer : Charles B. Williams.
[The President and Vice-Presidents are ex officio members of the
Executive Committee : Richard Irby, Richmond ; William C.
Knight, Richmond* R. H. Dulany, Loundon ; R. W.N. Noland,
Albemarle ; F. N. Watkins, Prince Edward ; A. H. Drewry, Charles
1869.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 709
Citv ; William Martin, Henry ; Richard E. Haskins, Brunswick ;
Franklin Stearns, Richmond ; Dr. W. T. Walker, Goochland.
Subsequently, upon the resignation of Mr.' Ruffin, Mr. Joseph
Cloyd, of Pulaski, was elected in his place as one of the Vice-Pres-
idents of the Society ; and afterwards, upon the resignation of Mr.
Scott, of Charlotte, Mr. F. G. Ruffin was re-elected to a place in
the Executive Committee on the 18th of February. Mr. Charles
B. Williams, under the pressure of declining health, resigned the
office of secretary and treasurer, which he had filled acceptably to
the Society for many years ; and the Executive Committee, reluct-
antly accepting his resignation, appointed in his place Mr. Egbert
The general action of the Executive Committee appears before
you in the results of this exhibition ; and the details of their labors
have been published, as they occurred, in the papers of the city of
Beyond that, it is only necessary to state that a trial of reapers
and mowers (single and combined), and other cognate implements,
was held at Westover, the plantation of Major A. H. Drewry, in
Charles City county, on the 9th and 10th of June last, under the
auspices of the Society, with results which will be announced in the
publication of the awards at the present meeting.
The scarcity of money and the late very severe drought have
operated a very serious impediment to the efforts of the committee.
But the loss therefrom has been generously supplied by the Common
Council of the city of Richmond and by the citizens generally, who
have proved themselves, as heretofore, equal to the demand upon
their enlightened public spirit and their hospitality.
The life-members of the late Central Agricultural Society were
admitted by a vote of the Virginia Agricultural Society, at their meet-
ing in February, 1869, to an honorary participation in their affairs.
It affords the committee great pleasure to be able to congratulate
the societies of various parts of the State on the successful agricul-
tural fairs and exhibitions that have been held ; and* the hope is
cherished more confidently than ever that the county and district
societies can be so arranged as to affiliate with this Society as the
parts of one whole. The details of such a union would be out of
place in this report ; but it is thought that its establishment will be
productive of signal benefit to all the interests of the State.
The accounts of the treasurer are fully made out and balanced
to the 80th ultimo; but the usual transcript is not presented here-
with because of the recent illness of the treasurer and the pressure
710 THE SOUTHERN [December
of official business on him since his recovery. But the books are
ready for inspection, if it is deemed desirable by the Society to
have a statement from them.
After this, Governor Smith addressed the meeting upon the sub-
ject of agriculture. He was followed by Mr. Lyons, Major Noland,
The meeting then adjourned until 8 o'clock to-morrow evening.
GENERAL MEETING IN THE HALL OF HOUSE OF DELEGATES, NOV. 8D,
The use of the Hall was, during the earlier portion of this eve-
ning, devoted to the transaction of the business of the third annual
meeting of the Virginia Horticultural and Pomological Society.
The proceedings of this meeting will be found published in their
place in this number of the Southern Planter and Farmer.
The meeting then resolved itself into a joint meeting of the two
Societies, Major Sutherlin in the Chair. Hon. Horace Capron,
Commissioner of Agriculture, Washington, D. C, expressed his
thanks for the honor conferred upon him, but declined to speak.
Mr. Hill Carter, of Charles City, being called for, came to the
stand, and said that his first advice to young men was to select
good lands, and then to cultivate them well ; but the main point
was to know how to get good lands. In his experience the good
lands had to support the poor. The James River lands are the
best in the whole country. Success in agriculture depends on in-
dustry and economy. Chocolate lands with a sufficient ferriginous
element in them are the best.
Mr. Saunders, experimental gardener at Washington, being called
on, stated that his business here at present was to make a collection
of Virginia fruits, and to make inquiries as to the capacity of the
State as a fruit growing country. Many inquiries had been made
in regard to it. He had recently remarked at a pomological society,
that Virginia was a better apple-growing State than New York.
He had been trying for a long time to convince the people of
this country that the grape required just such a climate as is found
on the eastern slope of the Blue Ridge, in Virginia — a long, warm,
genial summer. The wine grapes are in greater perfection here
than anywhere else in the country.
Fungoid growth had been a great drawback in the raising of
these vines, and the lands on which the leaves do not mildew will
be found near the first belt in your mountains.
General J. D. Imboden stated that there was a club in New
1869.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 711
York — the "New York Fruit-Growers' Club r ' — one of whom (Col.
Williams) was in the room ; and being called for, gave a very inter-
esting sketch of the Society.
His remarks were interesting and well received.
Major Noland introduced Dr. Oliver, of England, who also made
a very interesting address.
Dr. Antisell, of the Agricultural Bureau, was called on, and re-
plied in a practical and interesting address.
Other gentlemen spoke, and — the Society adjourned.
GENERAL MEETING AT THE BROAD STREET METHODIST CHURCH,
NOV. 4TH, 1869.
The primary object of this meeting was to hear the Annual
Address by Colonel John S. Preston, of Columbia, S. C, and
accordingly the members of the Society, together with a very large
and select audience, assembled to hear him. The orator, who is a
gentleman of very commanding appearance, was listened to with
great attention, and delivered an address full of classic eloquence,
and which was made doubly interesting by the earnest and beautiful
delivery of the speaker.
He reviewed in the liveliest manner the noble efforts of our an-
cestors in the establishment of the right of self-government and
the suppression of tyranny, and pointed to the duty of the present
generation in the accomplishment of the glorious future promised
to Virginia. He spoke for about an hour and a half, and kept his
audience very much interested.
At the conclusion of the address, on motion of Hon. James Lyons,
Resolved, That the thanks of the meeting be tendered General
John S. Preston, of S. C, the selected orator on the occasion, for
the able and eloquent address delivered by him before the Annual
meeting of the Society to-night, and that he be requested to furnish
a copy for publication — which resolution was unanimously adopted.
PRESENTATION OF PLATE.
Next in order came the very interesting ceremony of the presen-
tation of a testimonial to Major A. H. Drewry by the guests at the
field trial of reapers and mowers at Westover. The presentation
speech was made by Major James Bruster, of Baltimore, who
expressed the thanks of the company to Major Drewry for the
generous hospitality he had extended to them during their stay at
Westover, and the commendable interest he had shown in the agri-
cultural welfare of Virginia. After other appropriate remarks,
the speaker handed him a handsome silver salver, which was one of
712 THE SOUTHERN [December
the most tastefully executed things of the kind we have ever seen.
Upon it was inscribed —
" Testimonial to Major A. H. Drewry by the exhibitors and
guests at the great field trial of mowers and reapers at Westover,
June 9th, 10th, and 11th, 1869.
James Bruster, ^
John R. Chapin, V Committee.
M. B. Riggs, J
Tendered in compliment to the cordial welcome and generous
hospitality received at his hands."
Major Drewry responded in a most appropriate manner, and with
sentiments worthy of a son of Virginia so active in the endeavor to
secure her practical restoration and prosperity.
At the conclusion of the presentation speeches the Society pro-
ceeded with the remaining business.
The report of the committee on the propriety of amending the
Constitution was called for. Mr. Lyons, from the committee, stated
that the report had been mislaid, yet he could recite the amendments
they proposed, and proceeded to do so, as follows: Section 2. Strike
out " at such time and place as may be designated, " &c, and insert
" at their Fair Grounds, near Richmond."
Section 3, article 3, "amended by declaring members of the State
Central Society life members of this Society."
Objection was made to considering the matter without the report ;
and furthermore, to considering amendments that might conflict with
the charter, a copy of which was not in the archives of the Society,
and the subject was postponed till the next annual meeting.
The election of officers being next in order, a committee was
appointed, on motion of Mr. Ravenscroft Jones, to make nomina-
tions, which soon brought in a report that was unanimously adopted.
This report nominated for re-election all the old officers save Wm.
Martin, of Henry, as members of the Executive Committee, instead
of whom they nominated Dr. W. C. Staples, of Patrick. Mr.
Richard Irby, of Richmond, at his own request, was excused from
serving, and General Joseph R. Anderson was put in his place. So
the officers thus. elected are as follows:
President, — William T. Sutherlin.
Vice Presidents, — James Lyons, Joseph Cloyd, F. G. Ruffin, R.
B. Haxall, S. W. Ficklin, Edmund Ruffin, Jr., Lewis E. Harvie,
and J. Marshall McCue.
Executive Committee, — Joseph R. Anderson, W. C. Knight, R.
H. Dulany, R. W. N. Noland, F. N. Watkins, A. H. Drewry,
1869.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 713
Dr. W. C. T. Staples, R. E. Haskins, Franklin Stearns, and Dr.
William T. Walker.
Secretary and Treasurer, — E. G. Leigh.
The election was by acclamation and unanimous.
Major Sutherlin thanked the Society for re-electing him. The
honor was one he had until lately intended to have declined. It
would be accepted at great inconvenience and a serious sacrifice to
himself; but his objections had yielded to the solicitations and argu-
ments of friends, and he determined that if the Society desired his
services to acquiesce, and labor with it another year. Major S.
went on to say that the programme for the next Fair must be vigor-
ously carried out, and he urged farmers generally to give every aid
in their power to the cause.
He meant to call upon them, and he expected that all who con-
sented to serve in any capacity, especially on a committee, would
do so with energy and good faith. They should decline to serve if
they did not mean to do this. The Society wanted no " yea nay "
men. He meant to hold all responsible, and he hoped in turn that
they would hold him responsible.
On motion of Mr. F. G. Ruffin, the thanks of the Society were
voted to the citizens of Richmond for the liberality with which they
had contributed out of their scant means to defray the expenses of
the Fair ; also, for the hospitable manner in which they had enter-
tained so many visitors to the Fair ; to the manufacturers inside
and out of the city for the contributions they had made to the exhi-
bition ; to those citizens who had contributed mineral specimens,
which showed the various resources of the State ; and to the rail-
roads and steamboats for the liberal regulations they had carried
out with reference to passengers to the Fair, and to articles intended
The Society, by unanimous vote, thanked the President for the
able, sagacious, and energetic manner in which he presided over its
By unanimous vote the Society thanked the Chief Marshal, Col.
C. Q. Tompkins, and his aids, for the efficient and considerate man-
ner in which they had enforced the regulations of the Society and
preserved the order and decorum of the exhibition and proceedings
on the grounds.
Resolved, That the thanks of the Society are hereby tendered to
Messrs. John H. Tyler & Son for the beautiful flag they presented
to the Society.
714 THE SOUTHERN [December
Mr. Thomas Branch, of Richmond, was accorded a few minutes
to express his objection to the trials of speed of quick draught horses
on the Fair Grounds. This he did in very good temper ; after
which, the Society adjourned sine die.
Schedule Premiums Awarded at the Ninth Annual Exhibition of the
VIRGINIA STATE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY,
HELD AT THE FAIR GROUNDS,
WEAR RICHMOND VIRGINIA,
November 2, 3, 4, and 5, 1869.
CLASS II— Section 1.
Short Horns of Native Stock.
13. Best bull 3 years old or upwards, S. W. Ficklin, " Melodion," $30
16. Best bull 2 years old and under three, John Trimble, " Sweepstakes," 25
19. Best bull 1 year old and under, A. Lovel, " R. E. Lee," 10
20. Second best do., J. B. Newman, " Burlington," 5
21. Third best do., Frank Robertson, "J. E. Stewart," certificate, (worthy of
22. Best cow 3 years old or upwards, A. Lovel, " Pearl," 30
23. Second best do., S. W. Ficklin, " Red Rose," 15
24. Third best do., " " Certificate.
25. Best cow or heifer 2 years old and under 3, S. W. Ficklin, " Aubit " 2d 20
26. Second best do., do. " Red Rose " 3d 10
27. Third best do., (certificate) do. "White Rose" 3d
CLA.SS II— Section 2.
Devons of Native Stock.
56. Best bull 2 years old and under three, Dr. Geo. B. Dillard,
57. Second best do., do.
69. Best bull 1 year old and under, do.
60. Second best do., do.
62. Best cow 3 years old or upwards, do.
63. Second best do., do.
Ayr shires of Native Stock.
73. Best bull 3 years old or upwards, J. S. Hardaway, Amelia county, $30
82. Best cow 3 years old or upwards, F. T. Isbell, Richmond, 30
Alderneys of Native Stock.
93. Best bull 3 years old or upwards, R. Hill Carter, Albemarle county, $30
94. Second best do., E. D. Eacho, Henrico county, 16
1869.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 715
96. Best bull 2 years old and under three, Albert Aiken, Henrico county, 25
97. Second best, James Lyons, Heurico county, 10
102. Best cow three years old or upwards, E. D. Eacho, Henrico county, 25
108. Best heifer under 2 years old, " " " " 10
113. For best cow of any breed, Dr. George B. Dillard, " Norma," $30
114. Second best do., H„ Vernon, (Durham and Alderney,) 20
115. Third best do., H. Massie, (red cow, 6 years,) 10
For best Milch cow, H. Massie, Charlottesville, $15
For second best do., H. Vernon, Wytheville, 10
For best bull, J. R. Woods, Albemarle, 15
For second best do., Frank S. Robertson, 10
i The committee recommend Discretionary Premium to Mr. H. Massie, of Char-
lottesville, for his Grade Durham cow; and Discretionary Premium to S. S. Bradford
for his Grade cow. Also, Discretionary Premium to J. G. Jefferson, for Short Horn.
118. Best fat bullock over 5 years old, Joseph Cloyd, $30
119. Second best fat bullock over 5 years old, M. White, Certificate.
120. Best fat bullock under 5 years old, W. A. Ruff, 30
121. Second best fat bullock under 5 years old, W. A. Ruff, Certificate.
122. Best fat cow or heifer, " " 30
123. Second best fat cow or heifer, " " Certificate.
124. Best pen of fat sheep, 3 or more, Dr. John R. Woods, 10
125. Second best, do., C. R. Boulware, Certificate.
126. Best slaughtered muttou, J. B. Townley, 5
127. Best pen fat hogs, 3 or more, L. S. Macon, (4 hogs.) 10
128. Second best, do., " " " 5
CLASS III— Section 1.
HORSES, ASSES, AND MULES.
129. Best stallion 4 years old or upwards, Thos. W. Doswell, Richmond,
130. Second best, Col. James Cockran, Culpeper, "Engineer," 20
131. Best entire colt, 3 years old and under four, Thos. W. Doswell, Richmond,
11 Edenton," 25
133. Best entire colt, 2 years old and under three, A. Seddon Jones, Orange
county, " Oma," 15
134. Second best, S. W. Ficklin, Albemarle, "Florist," 5
135. Best entire colt, 1 year old and under two, Chastain White, Hanover Co.,
137. Best brood mare 4 years old or upwards, Thomas W. Doswell, " Nina," 20
138. Second best, Chastain White, " Deucalia," 10
139. Best filly 3 years old and under 4, J. L. Carrington, "Ada Washington," 15
716 THE SOUTHERN [December
141. Best filly 2 years old and under three, J. L. Carrington, " Chestnut Filly," 15
143. Best filly 1 year old and under two, Thos. W. Doswell, " Wine Sap," 10
144. Second best, " " "Virginia Dare," 5
Special certificate of merit awarded to "Red Eye, Jr.," entered by W. T. John-
son ; " Granite," by S. W. Ficklin ; " Sultan," by W. T. Sutherlin ; " Gipsey Chief,"
by T. A. Brander ; " John Letcher," by J. L. Carrington, and " Daisey," by S. W.
Ficklin. In addition, the chairman most respectfully submits that " Sweet Briar"
and " Rose," two mares, the first aged 13 years, and the other 4 years, were on the
ground, but were not regularly entered by their owner, Maj. W. T. Sutherland, and.
in consequence were not exhibited to our committee; but they have since been ex-
amined by the undersigned, and he takes the liberty of making honorable mention
of them for their high forms, blood, and beauty, and he recommends that medals be
awarded to each of them.
(Signed,) E. A. RAWLINGS, Chairman.
Roadsters — Adapted to Quick Light Draught.
145. Best stallion 4 years old or upwards, Thomas Brown, "Mohawk," $50
146. Second best, S. W. Ficklin, "Abdalla," 20
147. Best entire colt, 3 years old and under four, S. W. Ficklin, "Albanian," 25
149. Best entire colt, 2 years old and under three, C. W. Beale, "Exchequer," 20
153. Best brood mare 4 years old or over, Alexander Kerr, "Lady Harvey," 20
154. Second best, R. B. Haxhall, "Olympia," 10
155. Best filly 3 years old and under four, B. H. Warthen, "Florance Bell," 15
157. Best filly 2 years old and under three, R. B. Haxall, "Treasure," 10
159. Best filly 1 year old and under two, Alex. Kerr, "Bell of the South," 10
Roadsters — Adapted to Quick Coach Draught.
162. Second best stallion 4 years old or upwards, Dr.W. C. Archer, "Randolph," $20
171. Best Filly 3 years old and under four, R. H. Warthen, "Florance Bell," 15
Saddle — Adapted to the Breeding of Improved Riding Horses.
177. Best stallion 4 years old or over, S. W. Ficklin, "Granite," $50
178. Second best, W. B. Buck, "Tom Telegraph," (superb,) 20
185. Best brood mare 4 years old or over, W. T. Johnson, "Lady Lightfoot," 20
186. Second best, Dr. C. Hancock, "Fashion," 10
187. Best filly 3 years old and under four, J. J. Parkins, "Rosa Alba," 15
188. Second best, G. H. Dillard, "Albine," 5
190. Second best filly 2 years old and under three, R. B. Haxall, "Treasure," 5
193. Best stallion 4 years old or over, Clinebell & Carson, "Jim Cobhain," $50
194. Second best, S. W. Ficklin, "The Colonel," 20
204. Best filly 2 years old and under three, R. B. Haxhall, "Giantess," 10
206. Best filly 1 year old and under two, A. J. Byue, "Fanny," 10
Matched Horses in Harness, accustomed to be used together as such in pairs, for Quick
207. Best pair mares or geldings, 20
[The committee was equally divided in opinion between the comparative merits
1869.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 71 7,
of E. M. Cardozo's chesnut pair and J. B. Davis' bay pair, and do therefore recom.
mend a division of the premium between these two gentlemen, as provided for by
the rules of the Society.
Matched Horses in Harness, accustomed to be used as such in pairs, for Quick Coach
208. Best pair mares or geldings, J. L. Carrington, "Gray and Brown," $20
Saddle Horses under the Saddle.
209. Best mares or geldings, Taylor & Foster, Charlottesville, "Gray Gelding," $20
210. Second best, Isaac J. Parkins, Augusta, "Humbug," (form and action to be
Ponies and Horsemanship.
211. Best pony ridden by a lad of 15 yeais of age, the horsemanship also to be
considered, Wm. M. Ledley, "Brown Pony," Fancy Riding Bridle*
212. Second best, C. S. Smith, "Indian Pony," (ridden by Willie Glenn,)
Mules and Jacks.
213. Best jack, C. T. Smith, "Brigham Young," (8 years,) $40
215. Best jennet, W. B. Williams, "Jenny Brown," (3 years,) 20
219. Best mule colt 1 year old, (foaled in Virginia,) M. J. Gale, "Kit," 10
Trials of Speed.
221. First day— Premium $200 — mile heats to harness. Open to horses, mares, and
geldings. Time not to exceed 2:55.
First premium awarded to D. T. Harvey's "Flyaway," $110
Second " " J. E. Paxon's "Twist," 60
No entry for third premium.
222. Same day -For pacers — Premium $100 — mile heats to harness.
First premium awarded to J. T. Carrier's mare "Fanny Baker," $60
Second " " Wm. Wall's horse "Red Bird," 25
No third entry.
223. Second day — Premium $600 — mile heats, best three in five to harness. Open
to all trotters. Time not to exceed 2:40. If three or more start, the second
horse to receive $103 of the premium.
Awarded to Mr. Doble's horse "Hotspur," $600
Only two horses starting.
224. Same day — Second premium, $75 — mile heats. For colts and fillies 3 years
old and under five years.
Awarded to Mr. Bradshaw's "Stonewall," $ 75
225. Third day — First premium $100 — mile heats for double teams.
Awarded to J. E. Faxon's "Twist" and mate, 100
226. Same day — Second premium $150 — mile heats, best three in five to harness
for horses mares, or geldings over four and under nine years old. Time not to
Awarded to Mr. Bradshaw's "Virginia Girl," $150
227. Fourth day — First premium $200 — mile heats, for trotters with running mates,
First premium to D. T. Harvey's "Flyaway" and mate, $120
Second premium to J. E. Paxon's "Twist" and mate, 80
228. Same day — Second premium $75 — mile heats to harness, for colts or fillies
3 years old and under five years. Time not to exceed 3:35.
Awarded to Edmund Bossieux's "Lizzie Lee," $75
718 THE SOUTHERN [-December
CLASS IV— Section I.
Fine Wools of native stock, including pure bred Spanish, Sazon, French and Silesian
229. Best ram, S. S. Bradford, Culpepper. $15
230. Second best " » 8
231. Best pen of ewes, 3 in number, " " 20
232. Second best do., " « 10
233. Best pen of lambs (ram) 3 in number, " " 10
235. Best pen of ewe lambs, 3 in number, " " 10
236. Second best do., " " 5
239. Best fleece of fine wool grown in Va., " " 10
Fine wool grades, including crosses of above.
240. Best pen of ewes, 3 in number, S. S. Bradford, Culpepper $15
241. Second best do., •« " 10
242. Best pen of ewe lambs, 3 in number, " " 10
Middle Wool of Pure Native stock including South Downs, Oxford Downs, and other
pure breeds of Middle Wool.
243. Best ram, J. R. Woods, Albemarle. $16
245. Best pen of ewes, 3 in number, " " 20
246. Second best, do., " " 10
247. Best pen of lambs (ram), 3 iu number, " " 10
249. Best pen of ewe lambs, three in number, " " 10
250. Second best do., " " 6
251. Best imported ram, " «« 20
Long Wools of Native Stock, including Bakewell or Leicester, Cotswold, or New
Oxfordshire and Lincoln.
254. Best ram, Edward Hicks, West Chester Pa., ''Cotswold." $15
255. Second best, J. M. Pratt, West Chester, Pa,, "Cotswold." 8
256. Best pen of ewes, 3 in number, W. F. & M. Painter, West Chester,
Pennsylvania, "Cotswold," 20
257. Second best do., W. F. & M. Painter, West Chester Pa M "Cotswold." 10
558. Best pen of lambs, (ram), 3 in number, J. Newman, Orange, "Cotswold." 10
260. Best pen of ewe lambs, 3 in number, " " " 10
262. Best imported ram, Edward Hicks, West Chester, Pa. 20
263. Best imported ewe, J. M. Pratt, " " 20
CLASS V— Section 1.
Large breeeds, including Chester^ Russia, Bedford, Waburn, Grazier, By field, and all
265. Best boar 2 years old and over, James C. Sprigg $15
267. Best boar under 2 years old, E. R. Ashbride, Pa., "Jim Burns." 01
268 Second best do, L. S. Irvine, "Goggio," 5
269. Best breeding sow over 2 years old, L. S. Irvine, " Royall" 15
270. Second best do^A. P. Rowe, "Queen." 10
271. Best breeding sow under two years old, W. S. &. M. Painter, Pa. 10
273. Best sow and pigs, A. P. Rowe, "Beauty." 15
1869.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 719
Small breeds, including Neapolitan, Suffolk, Sussex, Essex, Berkshire, Chinese, improved
Hampshire and their crosses.
275. Best boar 2 years old and over, A. P. Rowe, "Suffolk." $15
277. Best boar under 2 years old, Dr. F. J. Wooldridge, "Essex." 10
278. Second best do, A. P. Rowe, "Rad," " 5
281. Best breeding sow under 2 years old, L. S. Irvine, "Lady Bly." 15
CLASS VI— Section 1.
285. Best Bramab Pootras, cock and two hens, G. T. Rowe Fredericksburg $5
290. Best White-faced Black Spanish, cock and two hens, Dr. Cullen,
Hanover \ 5
297. Best Bantam, white, cock and two hens, W. S Chandler, 5
297. Best Bantam, black, cock and two hens, S. C. Sheppard. 6
299. Best Bantam, game, cock and two hens, W. S. Chandler. 5
300. Best Dominique, cock and two bens, J. S. Baird. 5
304. Best Leghorns (white) cock and two hens, G. T. Rowe, 5
305. Game, cock and two hens, W. S. Chandler. 5
306. Best variety exhibited by one party, W. S. Chandler. 5
Ducks, Geese; Turkeys, Pea Fowls, Guinea Fowls, and Pigeons.
308. Best pair Rouen Ducks (male and female), D. S. Irvine. 5
310. Best pair Muscovy Ducks (male and female), J. F. Antony. 6
811. Best pair Bremen Geese (male and female), L. S. Irvine. 5
312. Best pair Hong Kong or African Geese (male and female), W. S. Chandler. 5
314. Best pair White or Colored Swan Geese (male anl female), John Woodworth 6
315. Best pair Turkeys, common or crossed, L. S Irvine. 5
316. Best pair Turkeys, wild, crested, or any improved breed, S. W. Ficklin. 5
317. Best pair Pea Fowls (male and female). L. S. Irvine. 5
318. Best pair Guinea Fowls (male and female), " 5
820. Best display of Poultry of all sorts, " 10
CLASS VIII— Section 2.
323. Best fancy wrapper leaf, growth of '68, J. R. Vernon, Pittsylvania Co. 20
324 Best, specimen of manufactured tobacco for general homa consumption,
Certificate of Merit, T. C. Williams & Co., Richmond, Va.
325. Best specimen smoking tobacco, Certificate of Merit, John W. Car-
roll, Lynchburg. For "Lone Jack."
Best Va. made Cigars, Complimentary Certificate, C. C. Werteubaker,
323. Best barrel flour, H. L. Dabney, King William. $10
829. Best bushel white corn, in ear or on stalk, P. T. Atkinson 10
332. Be3t bushel oats, H. L. Opie, Augusta. 6
833. Best bushel Bailey, W. S- Edmund, Henrico. 5
834. Bale cut Hay, T. A. Brander, Richmond Certificate,
841. Best bale of cured sumac Premiums divided between M. Myers & Co.,
W. H. McCormick, Rd., and J. G. Hercamp, Fredericksburg. 10
720 THE SOUTHERN [December
846. Best bib of broom con, T. W. Hoeninger, Henrico. 5
342. Best bu hel of Grouad Pea?, P. T. Atkinson. 10
CLASS VIII— Section 1.
847. Be3t specimen fresh butter coc le. s than 10 lbs., Mr3. W. T. Walker,
Gcoehland, Va. $ 5
848. Second best do. do., Cer ifbate, Mrs. T. J. Anderson, Montgomery, Va.
351. Best cheese not le3s than 20 lbs., Virginia make, J. J. Parkins, Augusta. 15
352. Second be-t do., Certificate, D. P. Snapp, Glade Spring.
353. Best peck dried apples, Mrs. Stringfellow, Hanover. 5
354. Best peck dried Peaches " «' 5
855. Best peak dried small fruit?, Mrs. R. M. Courtney, Henrico 5
357. Best bacon ham cured by exhibitor, with written statement of process
of curing and cooking, Mrs. A M. Morris?, Hanover. 10
358. Best specimea of honey, taken without killing the bees, and hive described,
A. S. Maddox, Chesterfi Id. 5
859. Be3t specimen of appla cider, Mrs. S. W. Ficklin, Charlottesville 5
CLASS IX.— Section 1.
' HOUSEHOLD MANUFACTURES.
361. Best bed quilt, Mrs. C. D. Taylor. $5
362. Second best do., Mrs. J. T. Ph.llips. 3
363. Best counterpane, Mrs. J. R. Keer. 6
864. Second best do., Mrs. J. R. Alexandria. 3
365. Bett pair home-made b'anke's, Mrs. J. M. Vest. 5
867. Best home-aade rug, Miss L. Nelson. 3
368. Best fine long jam hose (pair), Mrs. A. M. William-on. 5
369. Best fine long cotton hose, Mrs. J. R. Harding. 5
370. Best half hose, cotton, Miss. Betsy Hill. 5
871. Best knitted worsted or yarn shawl, from yarn prepared at home, Miss A. N.
372. Best knitted worsted or yarn hood, from yarn prepired at home,
Mrs. J. T. Rodgers. 2
373. Best home male shirt, Miss M. Vannerson, 3
379. Best home made family breal.Mrs. L. C. McDowell. 5
880. Best home male pound or sponge cake, Miss Carrie Eiaford. 4
883. Best anl largest variety home-made preserves, Mrs. R. A. Mayo. 6
384. Best and largest vaiiety home made fruit jelly, Mrs. R. B. Snead. 3
385. Best and largest variety home-made pickles, Mrs. J. R. Branch, 8
886. Best catsup, either tomato, v alrjut or mushroom, Mrs. A.E. Kirtfoot. 5
887. Best five pounds homemade family scap, the process to be described in
writing by exhibitor. 5
888. Best specimen cf white or scarlet flannel, from wool grown and made at
home, L. A. CuDuingiam. 8
CLASS X— Section 1.
LADIES' FANCY AND ORNAMENTAL WORK.
889. Best specimen of embroidery, Mrs. E. Sparkawk, $8
890. Second best, Mrs. S. E. Crump, 6
891. Best specimen of worsted work, Miss Alexina Pecor, 8
392. Second best, Mrs. Ballard, 6
393. Best pecimen of crochet work, Mrs. Tunstall, 8
1869.] PLANTER AND FARMER.
Second be*-t, P. A. Welford,
Rest specimen of shell work, Mrs. Walter Coles,
Second best, Miss Ella F. Smith,
Best specimen of leather work, Mrs. M. Rosenbaum,
Best specimen of needle work, Mrs. James M Vest,
Most extensive variety of useful, ornamental and fancy work, not
excluding articles which may have hid premiums awarded them under
the above specifications, Mrs. Cuas. Harrison, a premium of
CLASS Xl-Section 1.
Trial of Reapers, Mowers, §c.
For the best combined reaper and mower, " Wood's Combined Reaper and
For the best reaping machine, " New Yorker,"
For the best mowing machine, "Climax,"
For the best hay tedder, Bullard Hay Tedder,
For the best hay rake, " " Bake,
For the best wheat gleaner " " Gleaner,
For the best grain cradle, Palmer & Turpiu,
addition to the above premiums, diplomas or medals may be awarded,
at the discretion of the committee.
Medal to " Wood's Buckeye & Cayuga Chief" Rake.
" '• Kirby Buckeye Reaper & Mower.
" " Johnson & Excelsior.
Drills, Broad Casters $c.
For the best drilling - machine for grain and grass seed, "Bickford & Huff-
man's Drill," by R. F. Harriss.
For the best machine for broadcasting grain and grass seed, Bean,^
Kolp & Co.,
For the best corn planter, (no name),
For the best attachment to drill for distributing guano and other fertil-
izers, Watt & Knight,
For the best machine for sowing and covering corn at or immedi;itftly
following the last tillage, either with or without guano, Bean, Kolp
Threshing Machine, fyc.
For the best horse power, J. W. Cardwell & Co., Richmond, ,
For the best machine combined for threshing, separating ■end cleaning,
divided between Westenham, N. Y., and Cardwell & Co.,
For the best thresher and straw carrier, H. M. Smith & Co., Richmond, ':•
For the best fan mill, divided between Montgomery & Co., and the
" Tripple Screen, Dixie,"
For the best machine for drilling and cleaning clover seed, James Bruster,
For best p'an+ation platform scales, H. \\. Smith & Co., Rlchm ud,
VOL. Ill — 16
722 THE SOUTHREN [December
Hay Press, $c.
440. For the best hay press, exhibited on the ground, with specimen of work,
H. M. Smith & Co., Richmond, $20
441. For the best hay hoisting apparatus, with specimen of work exhibited on
the ground, A. I. Nellis, Petersburg, 20
442. For the best sorghum mill, H. M. Smith <fe Co., Richmond, 20
448. For the best clod crusher machine, H. M. Smith & Co., Richmond, Certifi-
Straw Cutter, $c.
450. For the best hay or straw cutter for horse power, E. Whitman, Baltimore,
451. For the best hay or straw cutter for hand power, " " 10
452. For the best corn stalk or fodder cutters, Sinclair & Co., " 10
453. For the best corn Bheller for power, N. W. Slade, " 10
454. For the best corn shelter for hand, C. Harris, Charlottesville, 5
457. For the best hominy mill, J. D. West, New York, 5
458. For the best cider mill and wine press, H. M. Smith & Co., Richmond, 5
Wagons, Carts, $c.
459. For the best harvest and hay cart for one or more horses, F. G. Ruffin, $10
460. For the best wagon for farm use, J. S. Van Pelt, 10
462. For the best tumbril cart (iron axle), J. Fanear, 8
464. For the best wagon body for hauling grain in Bheaf, hay or straw, J.
465. For the best set of wagon harness, S. S. Cotrell, 6
466. For the best cart harness, Dickinson & Bro., . 3
468. For the best horse collar, Wright & Hudnall, 4
469. For the best wheelbarrow for general use, H. M. Smith & Co., 2
470. For the best wheelbarrow for dirt, " " " 2
472. For the best riding saddle and bridle, S. S. Cottrell k Co., 6
Agricultural Steam Engine.
0^* No awards should be made in this class except for machines of practical
utility in the agriculture of Virginia.
473. For the best steam engine, applicable to agricultural purposes generally,
Talbot & Bro., Richmond, $100
474. For the best saw mill suitable for farm purposes, John Haw, New Kent, 25
476. For the best pump adapted to deep wells, J. D. West k Co,, $10
483. For the best sowing machine, award equally divided between Wheeler k
Wilson, and Wilcox k Gibbs, 6
Also certificate to John E. Boissieux for mechanical skill displayed in Combina-
tion Sewing machine, and certificate to Button Hole attachment.
1869.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 723
484. For the best washing machine, Bain & Patterson, "Economy," 5
487. For the best sausage cutter H. M. Smith & Co., 1
489. For the best churn, Division to H. M. Smith & Co., and S. P. Lucas'
" Dasher," 1
493. For the best cooking stove, Snyder & Irby, " Hot Blast," $10
497. For the best fire-place stove for heating two or more rooms, J. E. Mount-
castle, "Sunnyside," 10
601. For the best set wooden ware, Virginia growth and manufacture, Allen
504. For the best set brooms, Virginia growth and manufacture, Cook Bros., 2
505. For the best ploughman, white, Virginia born, not over 25 years old,
with four horses, W. Roane Ruffin, $50
506. For the best do. with three horses, F. J. Simpson and Kufliti Adams, 50
607. For the best do. with two horses, Morris Carter, 25
508. For the best white ploughman of any age, wherever born, Win. Shep-
610. A special premium for the best ploughman, a native white Virginian,
offered by Watt & Knight, Wo. Shepperson, to be paid in their ploughs
to the value of 50
511. For the best team of horses or mules, not less than four, combining con-
dition and training and equipments, W. Roane RufSn, paid in their
612. For the best team of two borses, same conditions, Wm. Shepperson, to be
paid in same, 15
CLASS XII— Section 1.
FARM DWELLING, AC.
513. Best design of farm dwelling, out-houses, gate ways and grounds, C. H.
Demmock, Jr., $80
CLASS XIII— MINERAL DEPARTMENT.
516. Best collection of specimens illustrating the Mineralogy of Virginia,
Albert Ordway & Co., $76
617. Best collection of specimens of Marl, Green Sand, Gypsum, Hydraulic
Limestone, Marble, Calcareous Tufa, found in Virginia, Gen. J. 1).
518. Best collection of specimens of Gold, Copper, and other associated Min-
erals, found in Virginia, Division to Gen. Imboden and Albert Ordway
& Co., 60
619. Best specimens of such Minerals as are useful in pigments, Albert Ord-
way & Co., 26
620. Best specimens of Pig Iron, converted from Virginia ore, Gen. J. D»
724 THE SOUTHERN [December
521. Best specimen of Pig Iron converted from Virginia ore, with coke from
Virginia coal as fuel, Dover Co., Westham Furnace, 30
522. Best specimen of Bituminous Coal found in Virginia, 100 lbs. or more,
Dover Co., Goochland County, 10
523. Best specimen of natural Coke, Job Atkins, Burfort mines, 10
524. Best specimen of Anthracite Coal found in Virginia, 100 lbs. or more,
525. Best specimen of Granite found in Virginia, Col. F. G. Ruffin, 10
526. Best specimen of Slate, divided, Buckingham Slate Co , Welsh Slate
Mining Co., 10
.527. Best specimen of Sandstone found in Virginia, Dover Company, 10
528. Best specimen of Maganese found in Virginia, Albert Ordway & Co., 5
529. Best specimen of Barytes found in Virginia, divided, Albert Ordway &
Co., and Gen. J. D. Imboden, 5
5 50. Best specimen of Kaolin found in Virginia, Gen. J. D. Imboden, 5
531. Best specimen of Piumbago found in Virginia, " " 5
532. Best specimen of Soapstone found in Virginia, Hon. Mention, John B.
533. Best specimen of Mica found in Virginia, divided, Gen. J. D. Imboden,
and Dr. Bejarnette, 5
515. Best specimen of marl, Gen. J. D. Imboden, 5
FINE ARTS DEPARTMENT.
535. Best original Alto Relief in marble, bronze or plaster, or other material,
designed in Virginia, E. V. Valentine, of Richmond, for "Penitent
537. Best Statuette (original), designed in Virginia, E. V. Valentine, of Rich-
mond, for "Judas Iscariot," 10
•538. Best original Bust, designed in Virginia, for Busts of "Mosby," "Maury,"
and "Humboldt," E V. Valentine, 10
540. Best original Picture, designed in Virginia, for "Bushwhackers," W. L.
642. Best Head, life size, designed in Virginia, for "G. W. Munford," John
A. Elder, 10
543, Best Head, cabinet size, designed in Virginia, W. B. Myers, "Chas.
1889.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 725
544. Best Landscape, including marine and waterscape, original, designed in
Virginia, Mr. Coleman, of Staunton, Va., "Views on James and North
Drawings, Engravings, fyc.
552. Best original Drawing in sepia, india ink, pen or pencil, designed in Vir-
ginia, Mrs. M. M. Hubard, for pencil drawing, by the late W. J.
Hubard, for '"Night and Morning," 20
554. Best Engraving designed in Virginia, J. M. Nicol, Richmond, Certificate.
555. Best Lithograph, L. Ludwig, Certificate.
556. Best Photograph by a resident of Virginia, Anderson, Certificate,
Picture Frames, Artists Materials $c.
557. Best Picture Frames made in Virginia, Franck & Lundin, Certificate.
561. Organs, T. H. Pollock, for Burdet's Combined Organ, Certificate.
562. Piauos, G. L. Bidgood, Knabe's Grand Piano. Certificate.
This contains all the Schedule premiums awarded, except Class II, Section 2,
Ploughs &c. f upon which an appeal has been taken, and referred to the Executive
Committee for action. The discretionary premiums have yet to be acted upon by
the Executive Committee, and will be reported in due time.
ADDRESS OF PROF. J. W. MALLET,
DELIVERED AT THE AUGUSTA COUNTY FAIR, WEDNESDAY,
OCTOBER 13, 1869.
( Continued from page 697- )
[It will be remembered by our readers that Professor Mallet, in discussing
the "four principal steps in the process by which man learns to subdue the
resources of the world about him to his service and enjoyment," namely : 1st,
Observation of the facts in nature ; 2d, Experiment for the discovery of other
facts ; 3d, Logical deduction of principles from the facts determined ; and 4th,
The application of facts and principles, when determined, to the practical wants
of our daily life. We concluded the section of the address which we published
in our November number with the paragraph which we quote below, in order
that our readers may be the more readily put in possession of the progress
of the discussion, and also more easily comprehend the connection of what
remains to be published with that which has been published. We call the
particular attention of our readers to the discussion of the economical element
so fully illustrated in the following pages. In truth, economy is often the con-
trolling test of value with reference to experiments of many kinds, but especially
the various kinds of manures, machinery, &c. But to the quotation :
" But even if our experience has been extensive enough to fully satisfy us of
the dependence of a certain effect upon a certain cause, we may be wrong in
assuming that that cause acts in a particular way."]
It is far from uncommon to find cause and effect connected in
nature in an indirect and secondary manner, whereas most people
are inclined to take for granted some very simple and direct form of
relation between the two.
726 THE SOUTHERN [December
It appears easy to understand how many of the most important
constituents of our mineral manures produce their beneficial effects
upon crops when we find that these same substances, such as phos-
phoric acid, potash, &c, uniform!}' form a large part of the mineral
matter of the growing plant itself, and are to be met with in the ash
which the plant yields on burning off the vegetable portion. Now
it is well ascertained that common salt used in moderate quantity
exerts a very generally beneficial effect upon the fields to which it is
applied, and improves the crops raised thereon.
Common salt itself consists solely of the two chemical substances
chlorine and sodium.
With these facts alone before us, most people would be ready to
say that chlorine and sodium are certainly, like the other materials
just referred to, forms of mineral food for plants, and must be found
as constituents of their ashes. Yet there is much reason for believ-
ing that this is not so — the quantity of chlorine and of sodium found
in the ashes of most cultivated plants is so variable, and generally
so small, that these can hardly be reckoned amongst the essential
elements entering into the composition of the plants. While we are
inclined, therefore, to reject this explanation of the benefit derived
from manuring with common salt, careful experiments, to which
attention has been drawn by Professor Liebig, seem to point out
another and a true solution of the question. This eminent chemist
has strongly insisted upon the fact that phosphate of lime — bone-
earth— -the direct utility of which you are all aware of, and which is
practically insoluble in pure water, is dissolved in very perceptible
amount by water containing a little common salt. I do not mean
to assert this is the only way in which common salt may exert a
useful action in the soil — it is enough for my present purpose to
show that it is at least one way, and that an indirect one, by which
it becomes the cause of increased fertility, but some persons may
perhaps say — why trouble ourselves about the manner in which a
particular effect is brought about ? Why not content ourselves with
establishing the fact of such an effect being produced, and reaping
the benefit derived from such knowledge ? — is it not enough to know
that common salt may be usefully employed as a manure, without
any necessity for cudgeling our brains as to the precise way in which
it acts ? If, however, we contrast the two conceivable modes of
action, to which reference has just been made, it will at once be
seen that it is by no means unimportant for us to be aware
which of these really occurs in nature. If common salt were
capable of acting as direct food for plant, then its value, when
applied as manure, would depend upon the previous presence or
1869.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 727
absence of the same substance in the soil on which such application
is to be made — but, if its action consists in rendering soluble the
earth phosphates, then the questions arise as to any soil upon which
its use is proposed, not only whether such soil already contains com-
mon salt, or enough of it, but further, whether there be also present
the phosphates themselves upon which the solvent action is to be
exerted — if these be not present, or not in adequate quantity, then
they too should be made to enter into the composition of the manure
to be employed.
Assuming that our observations and experiments are carefully
and judiciously made, that the facts which they have established
are clearly and accurately recorded, and the conclusions which they
fairly lead to are fully and soundly thought out in the shape of gen-
eral principles, there still remains the application of these facts and
principles to useful practical purposes.
Here the element of economy is at once introduced, economy of time,
economy of labor, economy of money. It is not sufficient to show that a
particular result can be accomplished in a particular way, but it must
be further examined whether this be the only way in which it can be
achieved, and, if not, which of the several methods it is possible to
adopt is the cheapest, the easiest, the quickest, and in general the
most profitable. Thus, for example, it is not enough to have found
out that by applying a certain quantity of certain substances to a
poor piece of land it can be made to yield fine crops, and then to
say contentedly, " I have tried this manure, and know it will suc-
ceed. I am going to stick to it." It should be tried whether by
using other materials, other proportions, or other quantities, still
better products might not be obtained, whether at least as good re-
sults might not be secured by the use of cheaper materials, whether
the land itself, and therefore its value is permanently improved or
injured after the first crops have been removed, and in general
whether not only a good, but the best possible money return has
been secured from the means at our command.
When such questions as these come to be discussed, as labor, time,
and all the other elements which, beside money itself, affect the cost
or profit of an operation and admit of being expressed in the form
of money, we have constantly to make our calculations on the basis
of dollars and cents. And in these calculations, as in the more
general reasoning of which we have been speaking, it is quite possi-
ble, and indeed not uncommon, for intelligent men in various ways
to deceive themselves. Thus, much confusion as to the money re-
sults of farming operations is very often introduced by a failure to
728 THE SOUTHERN [December
keep clearly distinct the expenditure which is properly involved in
the working of the land itself which goes to make the crop, or to
keep the farm up to its original standard of condition, from that
which properly falls under the head of personal or family support
and the improvement of the plantation.
Again, the extent of absolute original outlay upon any proposed
operation is often dwelt upon, and such outlay declared to be ex-
travagant and ruinous, without the comparison between this outlay
and the profit which it is capable of yielding having ever been fairly
examined. To say that a horse and plough cost more than a spade
is true, but does not prove that it is cheaper to break up a large
piece of land with the latter rather than the former. Yet men who
admit the absurdity of such a statement as this will be found to
argue in a very similar manner against the use of more modern and
highly improved implements for agricultural operations, simply
objecting to them that they are costly,, when the real question to
be considered is whether, notwithstanding their cost, the work done
by them is on the whole done so much more cheaply than by older
tools as to leave a balance of profit. The period of such outcry
against the great cost of deep tillage and subterranean tile drainage
will, no doubt, in time pass by in this country, as it has already
done in several of the older countries of Europe, and the real
economic importance of such practice be recognized here as there.
All these financial calculations to be reliable must be preceded by a
correct knowledge of the natural facts and principles involved. If
we go on to our reckoning of money results without this knowledge
we are very apt to find ourselves involved in blunders and failure,
but, on the other hand, if we neglect to duly weigh the money rela-
tions of the questions before us, we are equally likely to end with
heavy loss and disappointment.
If a field were copiously manured with phosphate of ammonia,
nitrate of potash, sulphate of magnesia and sulphate of lime, all
purchased in a cheminally pure state from a drug store, fine crops
could undoubtedly be made upon it, but the prices at which such
pure materials are necessarily sold would utterly preclude the chance
of any money profit or of even repaying the outlay. On the other
hand, one may buy a fertilizer strongly recommended by its apparent
cheapness, its low price, and find out that it is extravagantly dear,
that the money spent upon it has been thrown away — if its compo-
sition be not such as to really benefit the land to which it is supplied,
at any rate to an extent bearing a sensible proportion to the outlay.
This is just the point at which to recur to what was remarked at
1869.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 729
the outset, that in the efforts heretofore made for the advancement
of agriculture there has been an unfortunate want of concert
between men of science working in the laboratory and farmers work-
ing in the field. There has been a tendency on the part of the
scientific investigator to look upon the farmer as a man obstinately
resolved to carry out blindly the mere routine he has always been
accustomed to, refusing to adopt any improvement suggested to him
on the ground of general principle, and careless about knowing the
reason of anything that he does or neglects to do. The farmer, in
turn, is very generally disposed to regard the man of scientific re-
search as an unpractical visionary, who in his enthusiasm for his
experiments cares nothing as to whether he himself, or any of his
friends, foolish enough to be guided by him, are ruined or not, and
who, though one may harmlessly indulge him by listening to his
fanciful notions, is the very last man in the world to take counsel
with on any question of sober business life, upon the decision of
which the support of one's family may depend.
There is doubtless some foundation of truth for both these views,-
but there is no natural necessity that either of them should be correct.
There are none of the results of scientific research bearing upon
agriculture which cannot be perfectly understood, and practical use
made of them, by any man of average intelligence, if only he be
willing to devote a very moderate amount of time and attention to
their study and begin that study at the right end.
Men of ordinary intelligence do master these subjects as matters
of general interest.
There is nothing in a farmer's occupation to render him less
capable than other people of being so, and certainly he has stronger
motives than others to lead his attention in this direction. And
there is also no reason that a man shall be totally incapable of con-
sidering questions involving money prudence because he devotes his
attention mainly to science for its own sake, that he shall be so
wrapped up in abstract research over crucibles and test-tubes as to
have no ears for the experience of others working upon the large
scale with the plough and the sickle. It is extremely unfortunate
for the progress of any branch of industry that scientific research in
connection with it and the actual practice of the art itself should be
altogether in different hands. What would be the success in the
business of a dyer, what would be his chance of keeping up with the
progress of his art, and especially what prospect would he have of
himself making any improvement, if he were totally ignorant of the
real nature of the material employed by him, or of the changes they
730 THE SOUTHERN [December
undergo in passing through his hands ? And of what value to such
a manufacturer would be the scientific knowledge or advice of a man
well acquainted with these materials and processes, but ignorant of
their cost and of the kind of results demanded by the trade ?
But there is scarcely any pursuit so injuriously affected as agri*
culture by such a separation of the knowledge acquired by scientific
research and by routine practice of the art.
The greatest difficulty in the way of determining questions relat-
ing to agriculture consists in the very great number of conditions
which are involved in every experiment. The mere fact that a field
has been treated in a particular way and that a good or a bad har-
vest follows, are by no means proof that the treatment adopted has
been the cause of the result observed. The latter might have turned
out exactly the same if there had been no peculiarity of practice, or
at any rate the effect produced may have been greatly modified by
the nature of the soil, the choice of a high or low-lying piece of
ground, the character of the season, the kind of seed used, the time
and weather for harvesting, the treatment of the land in former
years, and a hundred other causes. In a word, we see only the
general result of all the concurring influences that have borne upon
the cultivated plant in all its stages, and cannot at once separate
from all the rest, the one condition whose effect we wish to examine.
As observed before, it is only by multiplying and re-multiplying
experiments of this kind, and by extending the scale upon which
they are made that it becomes possible gradually to arrive at posi-
tive conclusions, upon what future practice may be safely based.
Such experiments, well devised and carefully carried out upon the
large scale by hundreds of sound practical farmers scattered all over
the country, working in successive and different seasons, and all
imaginable variety of conditions as regards soil and weather, yet
with a general understanding and agreement as to what the precise
points are to be examined, and how they are to be examined, will
serve to throw more light upon agricultural theory and practice than
any amount of mere verbal discussion, or even than similar experi-
ments made upon the small scale within the means of men of merely
scientific research. There are some questions which can be fully
answered in the laboratory, such as the composition of a manure
and its purity or impurity.
There are others which can be answered by experiments with
growing plants in a flower-pot, or upon quite a small patch of ground.
There are others of great importance which are beyond the means
of any but the practical farmers of the country.
1869.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 731
There are still others, most important of all, which demand the
united labors of the chemist and the farmer, or rather of many
chemists and many farmers, working together with a clear mutual
understanding of what they want to find out, how they mean to go
about examining the question, and how the results are to be discussed
It is true that every year sees an immense number of experiments
made by farmers, and many of them made with a good deal of pains
and labor — the agricultural journals are full of reports of the re-
sults — but unfortunately a great deal of the trouble thus taken is
wasted as far as any positive increase of our knowledge is con-
Too many experiments are undertaken without a clear under-
standing of what is to be determined, without proper information as
to what others have already done in the same direction, and what
remains to be found out ; without proper judgment as to the course
to be pursued to get at the facts in the simplest and most certain
manner ; without such accuracy as to weights, measures, &c, as alone
makes results reliable, and, above all, without the adoption of such a
form of experiment as admits of comparison of the results with those
which others have obtained. In proof that this is true I appeal to
your own experience ; what an amazing difference and variety of
opinion do you find in any gathering of ten or twenty intelligent
farmers, who meet to talk over the results of their respective expe-
rience of any new agricultural material or method ; how difficult it
is to sum up all that they have learned by their experience in the
form of a distinct general statement. Yet this ought not to be so ;
the laws of nature are in themselves fixed and invariable ; the truth
exists, if we can only find it out ; and every experiment, and still
more the united experience of many persons, devoting themselves to
the same pursuit, ought to teach us something, to make some addi-
tion to the stores of knowledge of those who have gone before us.
Having trespassed upon your kind attention at such length by
thus urging in general terms the importance of united eifort for the
progress of scientific agriculture, I will but sum up the two or three
practical suggestions which seem most readily to grow out of the
subject as it has been discussed.
In the first place, it appears clearly desirable that farmers and
those who are to become such, should recognize as a part of the
training which is to render them fit not only for successfully prac-
tising the art they have chosen as their pursuit for life, but also
contributing to the improvement of that art, the study, up to a
732 THE SOUTHERN [December
certain point at least, of the facts and laws of nature, which alone
are capable of throwing intelligent light upon their pursuit.
It is hard to understand why the young man who is to devote
himself to agriculture shall form the exception to the general rule
that some training in the broad principles upon any profession or
avocation depends should precede the actual practice of such avoca-
tion itself. If a man proposes to make his son a lawyer, he does
not turn him loose in the court-room to attempt at once the pleading
of cases, there must first be much hard study of treatises upon the
general theory of law.
If a lad is to become a physician he must go to work upon his
anstomy and physiology, and aim at acquiring a general knowledge
of the structure and laws of the human frame, it would be almost
as unfortunate for himself as for his patients, if, without any prep-
aration, he were to be brought to the bedside of the sick and allowed
to treat disease by mere blind experience. Even if he should see
the practice of others better educated than himself, he would be
incapable of really understanding it, or of imitating it when any
novel complication of symptoms presented themselves.
In like manner, if a man is to be an engineer, an architect, a
miner, or a successful manufacturer, he must study the work before
him ere he begins practically to engage in it.
But it is too commonly the case that a young man "goes upon the
farm" with no special education whatever tending to fit him for the
intelligent practice of agriculture — he kno»vs nothing clearly of
the composition of the air, the water, the soil and the manure
which are the materials out of which he is to make his crops ;
he knows scarcely anything of the manner in which those crops
grow, or of the wonderful and beautiful laws of vegetable develop-
ment — he is equally ignorant of the principles that govern the life
of the animals he is to raise and to use. All that he can do is to
notice the practice of others, and to imitate it as closely as possible
not knowing the true reasons for what he thus learns as a matter of
routine, nor knowing any good reason for trying one thing rather
than another, if he wish to make any effort at improvement. Such a
man is not only incapable of originating of any improved methods him-
self or of meeting any novel difficulties that come in his way, but he is
even incapaple of usefully receiving from others the assistance which
is yielded by the progress of scientific research.
It is useless to try to explain any particular question to one who
is ignorant of the whole subject in its scientific aspect — to whom
carbonic acid, ammonia, phosphoric acid, &c, are simply hard
1859.] PLANTER AND FARMER 733
words with no distinct idea attached to them instead^of standing for
real things that he has seen and smelled and tasted and examined,
and which he knows exists all around him, silently building up be-
fore his eyes the wheat and corn and cotton and tobacco, the pro-
duction of which is his business in life.
Please observe carefully that I am not at all advocating the idea
that scientific study alone will ever make a successful farmer, or
that such study should even form a very large part of his training.
Earming is an art, and, as is in the case of every other art, there is no
way to acquire it but by a regular practical apprenticeship in the field.
If the homely old saying be true,
" He that by the plough would thrive,
Himself must either hold or drive,"
It is especially true in the beginning. The young farmer must
undoubtedly learn how with his own hands both to hold and drive
the plough, and how all other practical details of the art are to be
carried on. But the acquirement of this practical knowledge will
not in the least be interfered with by his having previously learned
something of the principles upon which he is to work.
Sir Humphrey Davy put this point very clearly in the following
passage from the first of his lectures in England on agricultural
chemistry, now more than fifty years ago : "It has been said, and
undoubtedly with great truth, that a philosophical chemist would
probably make a very unprofitable business of farming ; and this
would certainly be the case if he were a mere philosophical chemist, and
unless he had served his apprenticeship to the practice of the art as
well as to the theory. Bat there is reason to believe that he would
be a more successful agriculturist than a person equally uninitiated
in farming, but ignorant of chemistry altogether; his science, as
far as it went, would be useful to kirn." In other words, the question
is not whether a man who has studied solely in a laboratory or one
wbo has derived all his knowledge from simple work in fields is
lively to be the better farmer, but whether he will not far excel
them both who has added to a careful study of the broad and simple
principles of natural science an equally thorough mastery
in detail of the methods by which these are applied to farming
Surely the man who is to spend his life in the cultivation of the
soil may well bestow a few months in learning what when he has
become a farmer, will often prove to him a steady light, helping
him to surmount present difficulties, and pointing out to him the
734 THE SOUTHERN [December
direction for future improvements. But, as on the one hand it
would be well if farmers should more generally aim at acquiring for
themselves seme insight into scientific truths, soon the other it
is greatly to be desired that the number of chemists and other sci-
entific laborers, devoting their attention to agriculture should be
For reasons to which I have alluded, the solution of agricultural
questions demands the combined efforts of a very large number of
persons both in the field and in the laboratory — the amount of work
required is beyond the powers of any one or any few of those devo-
ting themselves to such research.
In Europe, especially in Germany and France, government means
are liberally applied to the maintenance of laboratories for agricul-
tural research, and a large number of thoroughly trained chemists
are constantly at work.
As an evidence that here at home we are not altogether without
movement in the same direction, it gives me much pleasure to be
permitted to mention one step lately resolved upon by the
Board of Visitors of the University of Virginia.
In arranging for the extension of instruction rendered possible
by the gift of the late Mr. Samuel Miller, of Lynchburg, for the
support of a department of agricultural science, it has been decided
to establish two scholarships, each of five hundred dollars a year, and
tenable for two years, one to be competed for annually at a special
examination of candidates voluntarily presenting themselves
as such candidates to have previously completed the regular
course of instruction in the school of agricultural and industrial
chemistry — those who are successful to engage in further study and
in the prosecution of useful scientific research under the direction
of the Professor of this school for the period of the scholarship.
These are the main features of the plan, though the details may be
modified. By this plan it is hoped that the University may become
the means of supplying to the State a number of thoroughly-trained
practical chemists, who during the proposed period of advanced
study, will have had an adequate and assured support, as well as
great advantages for the prosecution of their labors, and will have
accomplished much useful public work in the shape of analyses and
investigations of matters connected with agriculture. Lastly, I
would suggest that just such societies as that I have the honor of
addressing, and just such occasions as the present might be made
additionally useful by the proposal of district agricultural questions
for thorough examination by the combined efforts of farmers and
1869.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 735
scientific men — not too many questions being taken up at one time,
but these to be, if possible, worked out to definite conclusions.
Thus at each annual meeting a joint committee might be raised, con-
sisting partly of practical farmers and partly of agricultural chemists,
such committee to carefully prepare for the meeting of the following
year a report in which should be set forth one or two questions, clearly
stated, and of practical interest and importance, as for example, what
proportion ought the ammoniacal compotents (Peruvian guano, &c.)
in a mixed fertilizer to bear to the phosphatic for the culture of
wheat on the more important soils of the Valley of Virginia ? Is
there any advantage in using potash in the form of sulphate rather
than muriate upon tobacco, or the reverse ? Up to what limit as to
quantity may plaster be used upon clover land with profit ? And so
Each question proposed should be accompanied with a statement
of the method proposed for examining it — a programme to be car-
ried out by all those willing to assist in the experiment giving
the exact mode of experimenting in detail and the heads under
which returns of the facts obtained are wanted. Here are some
printed programmes of this kind, referring to experiments on to-
bacco manures which some gentlemen have been kind enough to un-
dertake for me during the present year—unfortunately a most un-
favorable one for the purpose, owing to the drought — these may
serve to illustrate such forms as might be used.
Then there should be an understanding as to the names and ad-
dresses of those farmers who are willing to promise their active co-
operation in carrying out the field-work of such experiments as
might be determined on, and in like manner of those chemists who
agree to make any analysis necessary to fully work out the ques-
tion or questions. Such services ought to be, and doubtless would
be rendered freely and without cost, but in cases involving expense
for materials, fertilizers, seeds, &c, some assistance in meeting such
expenses would seem to be no unsuitable or useless mode of employ-
ing the funds of the society.
Finally, a report to the society at a subsequent meeting upon any
question thus carefully examined, giving the conclusion arrived at
and the experimental facts upon which these conclusions had been
based would reflect credit upon the intelligent activity of the Soci-
ety, and would constitute a real addition to our stores of knowledge
in relation to scientific agriculture.
Whether in this way or in the many other directions of effort
which present themselves, let us trust that the substantial usefulness
736 THE SOUTHERN [December
of Societies like that to-day assembled may constantly increase— that
their growing energy may ever tend to throw fresh light upon the
interesting scientific questions which connect themselves with farm-
ing ; may serve more and more to improve the practice of the old-
est and noblest of the arts ; may exert a marked influence for good
upon the material prosperity of the country, and may continue year
after year to bring together on these genial anniversaries large and
larger gatherings of men from this side and from the other side
of the mountains united by the ties of a common occupation, com-
mon interests, and hearts bound up together in common regard for
the future destiny of this grand old State.
Exchange, October 20, 1869.
Col. F. G. Ruffin :
Dear Sir, — As you have done more to arouse our people to the
importance of sheep husbandry in our State, both by your writings
on the subject and efforts personally to raise and distribute improved
breeds at moderate prices, than any one with whom I am acquainted,
I have thought proper to address to you this short communication.
Your extensive acquaintance with this branch of industry will enable
you to correct any errors and omissions which my ignorance of
statistics, as to the number of sheep now in the State, the losses
sustained during the past year, and inefficiency of existing statutes
to subserve the purpose designed, which have not here been intro-
duced. Should the views here expressed meet your approval, or
any better method occur to you than here suggested, so that many
of us can engage in sheep raising with some assurance of a safe in-
vestment of capital, not at the mercy of hungry curs, we shall be
grateful indeed. No one, perhaps, more than myself appreciates
the value of our house dogs as vigilant guards of our property dur-
ing the dark hours of the night; and it is exceedingly rare that our
well-fed favorites engage in sheep stealing. The plan proposed
aims at abating a nuisance and encouraging a profitable source of
industry, and although it may bear the appearance of partial legis-
lation in favor of the few, yet, viewed from every standpoint, the
result is in the end beneficial to all — more mutton, more wool, im-
proved lands producing grains, food for animals, the counties and
State grow wealthier, and the poor laborer, black or white, reaps
That dog power can be utalized, as in the cheese and butter fac-
tories at the North, as guards for sheep and aids to the shepherd,
1869.] PLANTER AND FARMER 737
both in our own and other countries is constantly seen. In several
of the German cities, Prague and Dresden, I have seen them draw-
ing small milk wagons from door to door, apparently as well ac-
quainted with the doors of their customers as the milk women who
accompanied them. Such might recieve special exemption by the
purchase of collars of honor ; but taxation to the death, which would
assuredly be the result, to all useless, half-starved, ugly canines who,
finding no subsistence at home, roam our fields and woods for rab-
bits and other game, startling our cowardly flocks of sheep quietly
grazing in our pastures — off go the sheep, and after them the dogs —
in a few hours property valued at several hundred dollars the day
preceding, is mostly destroyed.
Your position near the city, and your well known interest in the
subject, have caused me to direct this communication to you.
Very respectfully, yours,
G. W. Brtggs.
P. S. — Received a letter from J. T. Henly, one of your subscri-
bers, asking more information about peanuts, to which I would have
replied through your columns, but the reply would not reach him in
time to be of any value for this season. Observe the last number
contains a rejoinder of W. H. S., New York. He knows he is right,
possibly, for New York labor one to two dollars per day. The ques-
tion mooted was one of expediency as to cost of labor — facts and
figures 'tis said, rarely tell false tales, and I have been ever careful
never to write what I am not prepared to prove true. He can write
on trucking. We shall see. Norfolk truckers say that many North-
ern plans will not do for them. Peter Henderson has given us the
best work extant on the subject.
To the Members of tho Virginia Legislature.
Allow me, gentlemen, to call your attention, when devising meth-
ods for increasing the revenues of our noble old State, by taxation,
to revise the existing statutes in regard to " Depredations of Dogs."
By reference to the Reports of Agriculture for 1866 you will find
some "astounding facts." Returns have been received in this depart-
ment from 539 counties, in every State in the Union, except those
upon the Pacific coast, showing an aggregate estimate of 130,000
sheep killed by dogs in about one-fourth of the whole number of
counties. On this basis, the total number killed would be more than
half a million yearly. Then the proportion injured, assuming as a
basis the proportion reported from actual count in a series of years
vol. Ill— 47
738 THE SOUTHERN [December
in Ohio, would be more than three hundred thousand ; more than
eight hundred, thousand killed or mutilated yearly, and a two per
cent, tax levied on the total investment in sheep — a loss equal to
one-third of the gross income from six per cent, stocks.
The writer then gives a table, " K," showing the number of sheep
killed during the year 1866, in a number of States, and in seventeen
counties from our own State of Virginia. The reports show 47,272,
which, at the low average price of $3 each — and many of them were,
perhaps, improved breeds of a higher commercial value — making
the snug sum of $1,272,600, a total loss. I am satisfied this
report does not embrace more than one-fourth the actual damage
So great has become the uncertainty of sheep raising in many
parts of the State, and particularly in sections where the freedmen
are permitted to keep as many curs as they or their neighbors can
provide for, that many farmers, after sundry trials and losses since
the war, have abandoned sheep raising entirely. It is, I believe, a
well known fact, at least it is the current impression with most old
farmers in this section, that the destruction of a fourth or fifth of a
flock of fifty sheep by dogs, destroys in a great part the value of
the whole. Instinct, which teaches these feeble creatures, innocent
and devoid of means of self-defense, to herd and flock together on
the principle of unity — strength. The dogs appear to destroy their
morale, as it were ; they are scattered and lost ; and on three sev-
eral occasions flocks from thirty to seventy head on this farm, after
an onslaught of the dogs, killing in one instance five, another seven —
and in the larger flock before the war ten outright, and several
others badly injured — the residue were either totally lost or a few
collected and sent to market. The experience of a number of other
farmers in this section is the same ; and by reference to the report
from which extracts have been made, we have from other States,
" Sheep raising in Beaufort, N. C, would be profitable were it not
for the dogs," and I may truly add the same for Southeastern and
tide-water Virginia, where the price obtained in the market for the
early lambs alone, would pay for the cost of keeping, since in our
mild climate sheep provided with shelters do well in the fields all
winter, with proper attention to salting and a daily supply of forage
and grain during snow.
It has occurred to me as a question for consideration with your
honorable body, to whom alone the farmers of Virgiuia must look
for the passage of laws to protect their interest, whether it would
not be a move in the right direction, to relieve the sheep from any
1869.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 739
tax, and place on his " dog ship" an assessment of half a dollar, and
double the amount on the lady dogs ; for the writer has a lively
remembrance of a hunt he had a year since after an insignificant
lady fice with her train of lovers ; this gay party destroyed seven
sheep and six fat hogs, in a pasture, in one night and morning. The
dogs were all killed, and only a single one belonged to a white
The strongest argument which occurs to the writer in favor of
this, is the promotion and protection of one of the most profitable
branches of industry in our State, " sheep husbandry," both directly
from the sales of wool and mutton, and indirectly in improving our
worn out soils ; recent experiment having proved them, with the aid
of man, better manufacturers of manures of a cheaper, more reliable
and permanent kind, than any of the high-priced, uncertain mixtures
oifered in the market.
The tax on dogs has it precedent in every city, designed there to
keep the breed within bounds, and was, I believe, originated by the
fear of the mania, hydrophobia, attacking the canine family in the
dog days of August.
With us it has become a question of importance, and unless some
action is taken in this direction by those in authority to protect our
sheep, our money, care, and attention must be turned elsewhere.
The report above states — " The South is acknowledged to be
especially adapted to profitable wool production, and business would
rapidly increase there but for the interference of the dogs."
In a single county of Mississippi (Pontotoc) the annual loss from
dogs is placed at 900 sheep.
In 1887 Virginia contained 700,666 sheep, valued then at $2 56
each, making $1,798,705; and although there were thousands
destroyed by the late war, yet, from the rapid increase of this stock,
and the interest and impulse which has been given to sheep hus-
bandry since the war, the number has increased within the past two
years more rapidly than from 1865 to February, 1867, the year
when the report was made. Hence, if the report be correct, admit-
ting the consumption annually of a large number for mutton, deduct-
ing also the dogs' share there must be over one million sheep
in our State bleating at many a farmer's barn this winter for care,
food, and protection from the cold, and dependent on the action of
your honorable body for protection of their lives from attacks of
merciless, worthless curs.
Respectfully, yours, B.
Exchange, Nansemond, October 16, 1869.
740 THE SOUTHERN [December
The Culture of Tobacco in Western North Carolina.
The steady demand for fine manufacturing tobacco and high pri-
ces which it always bears, first induced me to make the experiment
of introducing its culture in this section.
The forests of my native state, in that part of it adapted to the
culture of fine tobacco, have nearly disappeared and many difficul-
ties present themselves, in her maintaining the leadership in this
article which she has always had. It is the work of a philanthro-
pist to bring forth in a new country any source of wealth which has
hitherto remained unknown, when he sees that every natural advan-
tage is present to its development.
It is known by all who have paid any attention to the climate of
this beautiful region that it presents more variety than any other
part of the United States.
Situated about two degrees south of the parallel of Lynchburg
which if taken due south would throw us nearly into the
sand hills and would present very little attraction to the ama-
teur tobacco grower, but when we consider that the alti-
tude of this section, when put to account, gives just the climate of
Albemarle as a general thing, and when we look at the great variety
of degree that may be attained by ascending or descending the
mountain side the idea presents itself why may not fine tobacco be
grown here ?
As to the soil, it is as much varied as the climate. From the
rich alluvian on the banks of the beautiful French Broad to the
barren peaks of Black mountain and Pisgah, with every intermediate
grade of soil we find in this section.
Here is presented the rich mountain cove with its Beach and
Walnut gradually loosing itself in the yellow leaf hickory and giant
white oak, sprinkled here and there with dog wood and chinquepin
which in its turn looses itself as it ascends in the shrubby mountain
pine which fringes the bleak rocks on the mountain peaks. (Don't
be alarmed for myself dear reader.)
I now come down flatly to facts, I reached the cove in which I
now live on February last, and the first thing I did was to burn an
old Virginia plant bed, a thing just as new in this country as a
forty-pound cake of Elk Mountain cheese would be in Amelia, the
production of its own industry.
Nevertheless, in due time the plants appeared and did not seem to
realize that that they were in a strange land, but grew off rapidly
as if they had been at home. About the first of June I had planted
about fifteen thousand plants in a little cove near the foot of the
1869.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 741
mountain that rears its crest above my home; and strange to say,
they went to growing and looked as finely as could be imagined. The
same care was bestowed on them as I would have given in Virginia and
no more. By the 10th of September I commenced cutting as
pretty a piece of tobacco as I ever saw, taking the drought into con-
I never saw tobacco yellow more handsomely and cure prettier in
my life, and I now can show as fine a lot of flue cured tobacco as I
ever saw in Virginia everything considered now for the advantages
of this section.
1st. It presents no competition and the intelligent and experi-
enced planter may reap a rich harvest.
2d. There are thousands of acres of original forest that can be
3d. There never was a healthier country.
4th. The people for the most part are refined, intelligent and
Nor is this all ; The market is right at our door and as soon
as a surplus is produced, we have the whole south and southwest
Now, dear Planter, don't think I have lost a particle of my aifec-
tion for "my own my native land," nor any of my enthusiasm in
risking my first crop among these mountains. No : but by the
blessing of Providence I intend to raise the standard right here.
Nor shall my reputation suffer from the experiment, but at the next
fair at Richmond, I hope to present a sample of fine yellow wrap-
pers that will do good work for the premium.
Most respectfully, dear Planter,
Your devoted friend,
Samuel C. Shelton.
Ashville, JV. 0', Nov. 22, 1869.
Horse Treatment. — There are a very few common sense rules
which, if followed, will commend themselves to the horse, as well
as to the trainer, viz :
1st. Always feel kindly toward a horse no matter what he does
to you, and consequently never show "temper." Remember the
horse knows instinctively how you feel.
2d. Never go near a horse if you are afraid of him ; the horse
will know it and take advantage of it before you acknowledge it
742 THE SOUTHERN [December
JOHN M. ALLAN, Editor.
The Fair of the Virginia Horticultural and Pomological Society.
The third annual exhibition of the Virginia Horticultural and
Pomological Society was held in conjunction with that of the State
Agricultural Society, at their grounds on the 2d, 3d, 4th and 5th
of November, and was, notwithstanding the lateness of the date,
an unprecedented success. It was of course too late for a good
display of flowers and indeed of any fruit save apples, but of these
there was no lack. Over four hundred specimens of magnificent
apples were displayed, while the pears though not numerous were very
good. Some specimens of Duchess D'Angouleme exhibited by Col.
J. D. Williamson of New York, attracted universal attention, while
our friend, Mr. W. G. Taylor, carried off the palm for size, with a
couplet from his garden in Manchester. Handsome designs of cut
Flowers from the Garden of Mr. Jno. Morton, and Messrs. Allan
k Johnston, together with a fine collection of flowering plants from
the latter firm, added greatly to the beauty of the room.
The vegetable department though not so full as it might have been,
was well represented and the collections of vegetables exhibited by
Messrs J. R. Rennie and Garland Hanes, together with specimens
of potatoes, cabbages, &c, by various amateur and professional
growers, was remarkably fine, considering the severe drought of
the past season.
The apples, however, were the leading attraction. Messrs.
Franklin Davis & Co., of this city exhibited over seventy varieties.
Capt. H. B. Jones of Rockbridge over eighty. Mr. Jno. Dollins of
Albemarle nearly as many. Mr. Hurt, of Bedford, over thirty.
Mr. Thomas Allan, of Winchester, as many, besides numerous other
smaller lots. We noticed that the Fallawater seemed the favorite
with our valley friends, the Albemarle Pippin for the Piedmont
section, and the Wine Sap, was the stand by of our tide water
growers. Several new native varieties were exhibited, the most
1869.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 743
prominent being the Mason and the Pilot, both of which are truly
first class apples.
It was too late for an exhibition of Grapes, but we noticed some
fine specimens of Muscat and other foreign varieties exhibited by
Mr. Coles of Albemarle. The specimens of wine were very numer-
ous, but the quality was not so good as we had hoped it would be.
Our people have much to learn concerning the manufacture of
Wine. We can produce the grapes without trouble, but if we would
make them profitable, more care must be given to the manipulation
of the Wine.
We publish elsewhere the list of premiums awarded, as also a
condensed report of the annual meeting of the Society. The officers
and members have cause for congratulation upon the success which
attended this exhibition and ought to be greatly encouraged by it.
Gentlemen of the Virginia Horticultural and Pomological Society.
In submitting the third annual report of your Executive Commit-
tee, it is gratifying to have so much cause for congratulation.
Commencing as you did, a little over three years ago, wjth a
membership of fifteen, you to day count them by hundreds, while
the general interest in the object of ycur Society has deepened and
diffused itself to an extent truly encouraging. Letting the past,
however, speak for itself, permit me after a hasty sketch of the
years operations to call your attention to some of the work lying
before us. At the opening of the exhibition the President submitted
trie following :
Appreciating the unsettled and impoverished condition of our
people which would have rendered it difficult to have secured a gen-
eral attendance upon two State Fairs, your Executive Committee,
after mature deliberation, decided to accept the offer made by the
State Agricultural Society for a union of the annual exhibitions of
the two Societies. This of course, while offering many advantages,
was not free from serious objections, for while on the one hand the
number of exhibitors and visitors from distant parts of the State,
has doubtless been largely increased by the combination of the
Fairs, on the other, the variety and quality of Fruits, Vegetables
and Flowers has been necessarily very much reduced by the late-
ness of the season at which the exhibition occurs, and while it may
always be desirable and pleasant to exhibit jointly with the Agri-
cultural Society, still it is to be hoped that in the future, circum-
stances will permit the holding of our Annual Fair earlier in the
season, at a time when a fuller Horticultural and Pomological ex-
hibition can be made.
744 THE SOUTHERN [December
The same reasons which influenced the Executive Committee in
postponing the Annual Fair to this date, viz., the scarcity of money
and unsettled condition of the State, coupled with the extreme
drought of the past summer preventing them from having more than
one intermediate exhibition. This was held during the Strawberry
season on the 27th of June, at St. Alban's Hall in this city, and
was eminently successful, the display of Strawberries and Flow-
ers being very fine and the attendance unexpectedly large. A grat-
ifying feature of this exhibition was that it was self sustaining ; in-
deed, as you will see from the Treasurer's report, left a small bal-
ance in his hands.
The twelfth session of the American Pomological Society
was held in the city of Philadelphia on September 15th, at which
your Society was fully represented, and upon the invitation of your
delegates, that Society determined to hold its next session in this
It is encouraging, as I have said, to note the greatly increased
interest manifested in the Society and its operations by members
and the community at large, and while the success that has atten-
ded us in the past is gratifying, it should only stimulate us to re-
newed exertions for the future.
Never perhaps had any Society a larger field opened for occupa-
tion. With a State possessing every advantage]of climate and soil,
so situated as to defy competition in the early Northern Markets,
producing fruits that are eagerly sought in the European
cities, the conditions of her labor, so changed as to point many
of her citizens to these branches of industry for a competence
as well as a source of wealth, the Virginia Horticultural
and Pomological Society, has before it a work of the greatest
magnitude properly to aid and guide the development of these great
and rapidly increasing interests. A glance at what is needed will
assist us in determining how to accomplish it.
In 1865 there were not over one hundred acres in vineyards in
the entire State ; at this date there are over thirty times that area
devoted to grape culture. During the same period not less than
ten thousand acres have been planted in fruit trees. Previous to
1860 the exports of fruits and vegetables from the State rarely
reached one hundred thousand dollars annually, now more than one
million dollars worth are shipped from Norfolk alone. It is essen-
1869.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 745
tial to the successful prosecution of trucking and fruit growing that
we should have detailed statistics of yield per acre, cost of produc-
tion and marketing, net profits, &c, of the various fruits and vege-
tables, to guide us to proper conclusions as to usefulness and general
profit. These can best be collected by a central society, with the
aid and co-operation of county and district associations, of which
latter there are already two in active operation in the State, viz :
the Norfolk Horticultural Society, and the Potomac Fruit Growers'
Association. In furtherance of this object, a standing committee
on statistics has been appointed, who will publish from time to
time such information as may be acquired and deemed useful.
CATALOGUE OF FRUITS.
Not less important is the preparation of a catalogue of fruits
adapted to our climate, and the collection and dissemination of such
new native varieties as may prove worthy of general culture. The
Virginia fruit grower has no greater difficulty with which to contend
than the selection of varieties of fruits, especially of apples — so many
of the standard varieties of the North and West being totally unsuited
to our section, while many others, which in Northern catalogues are
classed as first rate, are at best but of second or third quality here,
whereby much disappointment and loss occur as the result of taking
these catalogues as guides.
With a view to an early preparation of such a list, a standing
committee on fruits has been appointed, and it is earnestly desired
that all interested in Pomology will forward to this committee such
information as they may possess concerning either new or old varie-
ties. Some of our finest apples, such as Rawle's, Janet, Mason,
Pilot, are natives of this State, and Virginia boasts the parentage
of that greatest of all American wine grapes, the Norton ; but there
are scattered over her hills and valleys, unnoticed, and unknown
beyond the plantations which produce them, varieties destined to
out rank any yet known to the Pomologist.
The fostering of the wine interest also appertains in an eminent
degree to the purposes of this association, and the large number of
samples now upon exhibition foreshadow the important dimensions
the production of wine will shortly assume. Perhaps no other State
is capable of producing so many kinds of good wine as Virginia.
The Norton, generally admitted to hold the first place among native
red wines, flourishes here in the highest perfection. Along the
746 THE SOUTHERN [December
slopes of the Alleghany and Blue Ridge mountains the Catawba
succeeds well, and the Delaware has found a congenial home in the
Piedmont region. The Scuppernong belongs to our Southside
friends, while the Ives, Concord, Hartford Prolific, and Clinton
yield everywhere a good return in quantity, if not in quality. Your
standing committee on wine will find abundant employment among
these, and are to be envied the frequent opportunities likely to be
afforded them of touching, tasting, and handling.
The production of vegetables for both home and foreign markets
has already assumed large proportions, and each year but adds to
the demand. Wonderful has been the progress made in this branch
of horticulture during the past four years ; but what has been
attained is only a promise of what is in reserve for the enterprise of
our market gardeners. Where the exports of vegetables have
amounted to thousands they will soon reach millions of dollars, and
the day cannot, certainly ought not to be far distant when Virginia
will cease to import such vegetables as the Irish potato. Under the
auspices of the practical and skilled gentlemen who compose your
committee on this subject, most favorable results may be anticipated.
Another direction for the labors of this Society is to be found in
the collection and distribution of Essays upon the nature and culture
of fruits, vegetables, and flowers, together with dissertations upon
the diseases and insects to which plants are liable. It is thus that
the experience and information of those already familiar with these
subjects can be made most available to others. Books do not sup-
ply this want. Authors seldom care to tell us of their failures, and
the consequence is that we only see the fair side, and that highly
colored ; but a system of premiums for essays, properly conducted,
can be made to bring out the causes of failure and disappointment,
which it is vastly more important for beginners to know. It is easy
to sail in an open Bea ; the pilot is needed to avoid rocks and shoals.
A horticultural literature of great usefulness will doubtless be the
result of the labors of your committee upon this subject.
Improved horticultural implements and machinery also demand
your attention. Rapid has been the progress of the past few years
in this direction, and much of the profit and success of gardening in
1869.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 747
the future will depend upon the improvements which may be made
in implements adapted to the saving of labor and facilitating the
culture of the various crops.
But while it is the duty of your Society to foster all these more
material interests, let it not be forgotten that the beautiful and
ornamental also pertain to you, nor let it be said that flowers, and
shrubs, and shade trees are unprofitable ; or that we have no time
in this intensely practical age to bestow upon the beauty and
comfort of our homes. True, the orchard, vineyard, and kitchen
garden are necessities ; but are not the lawn and flower garden
equally so ? Take away these, and you rob home of its attractive-
ness, for who does not feel that even the simple pot of mignonette,
or the single tea rose in the window gives evidence of contentment
and happiness within. Ask your wives and daughters whether
these are luxuries to be dispensed with until more prosperous times,
and hear how they will plead for their flowers, at the expense of
nearly all that you style necessaries. A kind Providence has blessed
us with a heritage which flows with milk and honey, and teems, from
seashore to mountain-top, with a flora hardly surpassed by that of
any section on the globe. The magnolia, grandiflora of our eastern
lawns, majestic in its beauty, the lovely rhododendrons of our moun-
tain sides, and the humble violets of our shady groves, with hun-
dreds of intermediate genera, and thousands of species, make our
fair State redolent with their fragrance, and glorious with their
beauty. To arrange, classify, improve, these are surely worthy
occupations for all who, recognizing the sources of happiness thus
abundantly bestowed by a beneficent Providence, are ready with
thankful hearts to receive and delight in them.
If, gentlemen, even we, with our colder, harder, more material
natures can appreciate a handsome evergreen, a pretty flower, or
enjoy the shade of the drooping elm, need we be surprised that the
purer, the holier emotions of the female heart go out with enthu-
siasm after them ? To them you owe to-day largely of the success
which has attended your Society. From its inception to the present
hour thev have been its firm friends and supporters. Most heartily
do we acknowledge our obligations for the past, and bespeak their
continued favor and co-operation in the future.
The establishment of an experimental garden is a matter of great
general interest and utility, which it behooves us to take steps to
initiate. The benefits resulting from such gardens are very numer-
748 THE SOUTHREN [[December
ous. Here new varieties can be tested, the worthless rejected, while
the good will receive an imprimatur from such a source entitling it
to general credit. Here also rare plants may be gathered and dis-
seminated, and synonyms ascertained and defined ; to say nothing
of the pleasure afforded by such establishments as places of resort
and recreation. Time will only permit me to suggest these points,
and leave them for your consideration and action.
Stated meetings of the Society for discussions are also extremely
useful, and it is to be hoped that these will be regularly and eagerly
attended. These monthly reunions and conversations are beneficial
to the public, as well as highly instructive to the members them-
selves ; they also tend greatly to excite and keep up the general
interest in these subjects.
Landscape gardening and the adornment of grounds have, in
almost all countries, advanced pari passu with civilization and re-
finement ; yet in the Southern States, especially in Virginia, where
nature has done so much towards evoking a taste for these human-
izing and elevating cultures, the ruthless hand of improvement, with
remorseless energy, has swept away the grand old "monarchsof
the woods," to give place for ill-contrived and worse located dwell-
ings, upon whose white and glaring walls the sun falls with scorch-
ing rays, compelling a subsequent planting to cover a deficiency
which should never have arisen. How often, in traveling over our
country roads, do we meet the rude gate giving most musical
entrance to the visitor, whose eye, when raised, passes to the farm-
house along an uncared-for road, as straight as a pistol shot, between
rows of ragged trees, the chance growth from the neglected corners
of a rail fence ; and in advancing, falls successively upon cow-house,
pig-pen, stable, &c, thrown forward, apparently, as skirmishers,
defending the approach to the dwelling, with odors more unsavory
than "villainous gunpowder/'
Among our mountain resorts, where health and pleasure seekers
leave, year after year, the means for educated and tasteful adorn-
ments, the grounds are either wholly neglected, or treated so at
variance with surrounding nature as to induce one to deplore the
ingenuity that contrived an axe or fashioned a spade.
We live through the eye for happiness and the kindling of emo-
tions which bring us nearer heaven, where all is beautiful — should
we not, then, surround ourselves with the attractions which nature
1869.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 749
so bountifully gives, in such harmony as to become a music to the eye ?
Our rural population will awaken — and we hope to assist them — to
an acknowledgement of the value and the employment of the aid of
the architect and landscape gardener ; but not before the thousand
scars have been made which centuries of care will be required to
efface — inroads upon nature's beauties that startle the cultivated
foreigner, who returns to his home with the idea of vandalism closely
associated with our notions of improvement.
And now, gentlemen, we come to a subject that is necessarily and
intimately connected with every enterprise — while that the love of
money is the root of all evil, is beyond a peradventure true, it is
equally true that nothing can be accomplished in this world without
it. The finances of your Society require your prompt action.
Heretofore we have depended to a large extent upon the annuities
of members, and the entrance fees, for means with which to pay the
premium lists, and meet the running expenses of the Society. When
these proved inadequate for these purposes they were supplemented
by subscriptions on the part of the friends of the Society. Such
receipts are more or lep.SgUncertain, and I would respectfully recom-
mend that such steps be taken as your wisdom may devise, for the
establishment of a permanent fund, the interest of which shall alone
be applied to the uses of the Society. An active agent could, doubt-
less, be procured to canvass the State for life members, receiving as
remuneration for his services a commission upon his subscriptions.
The funds thus procured and invested under direction of your execu-
tive committee in permanent securities, would give a certain annual
income, which, with annuities, would doubtless prove sufficient for
all the purposes of the Society. In furtherance of this, and neces-
sary to it, will be the securingjof an act of incorporation. I respect-
fully recommend the appointment of a committee for this purpose.
Before dismissing the question of finances, I may be pardoned an
appeal to those who are professionally engaged in horticulture and
pomology throughout the State to respond liberally to the call for
life-members. It devolves upon this class especially to give the
operations of this Society an impetus at the outset. They are most
immediately benefitted by it, and just in proportion as they throw
their labors and influence in its behalf will the public rally to its
support ; and an earnest effort on their part at this time, will assure the
rapid progress and full success of this to them important movement*
In conclusion, gentlemen, permit me again to congratulate you
750 THE SOUTHERN [December
on what has been attained, and with word3 of good cheer, bid you
go forward in your work — a work most noble, elevating and refining
in its influences, and enlisting the sympathies and encouragement
of those without whose smiles and approval this world offers nothing
worthy of our exertions.
After the report was read :
Col. John C. Shields offered a series of resolutions, recommend-
ing the adoption of the report, and appointing a committee to con-
sider that portion of it which looks to the greater usefulness of the
Society. Also, to take into consideration the propriety of reducing
the price of life membership in the Society. Also, that the execu-
tive committee be empowered with full authority to change the Con-
stitution and By-Laws of the Society in any particular which they
may deem necessary to the permanent advantage of the Society, and
the promotion of the objects for which it was instituted. The reso-
lutions were taken up seriatim and adopted.
Rev. Leonidas Rosser, D. D., was then called to the stand to
deliver the annual address.
He commenced his address by alluding to the influence which the
subject of horticulture has recently exerted on the public mind. Man
was, from the early days of Adam, bound to the earth, and the love
of nature and her products is inherent in him. Horticulture lives
at the base of man's development. Nature is fruitful in her resources
In the departments of horticulture and agriculture, we have re-
productiveness in endless variety.
If nature hath her instincts on the one hand and ^productive-
ness on the other, what is man's work ? First, he would say drain-
age — drainage below the soil ; secondly, deep ploughing ; thirdly,
heavy fertilizing. There is not a garden in Virginia which has been
brought up to its maximum of production. We must no longer be
afraid of the expense of fertilizers. Nature's fertilizers have been
used up. The cereal crops have drained it off. He used on his
strawberry field a fertilizer of three bushels salt, fifty bushels lime,
and fifteen bushels ashes ; and for ten years he had used no other —
not a bushel of barn-yard manure. Another rule was, death to grass
and weeds. Be sure to keep the grass out.
Again. Rigid system, and lastly, courageous perseverance. Fail-
ures we all have, and must have ; but courage, experience, and
science, will give us triumph in the end.
1869.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 751
THE FUTURE OF VIRGINIA.
In the first place, the war aroused in an unparalleled manner
deep interest in horticulture. Before that time no one here raised
strawberries, for instance, and so with all other small fruits ; and
now it is astonishing and gratifying to see the result of that interest.
Our climate is temperate, and, in the opinion of all, the best upon
earth ; that, with the soil, gives us opportunities which we have
never yet developed. One million quarts of strawberries have
already been engaged by one house in New York.
We need here a packing-house, and it should be located in this
city; then hundreds of acres of berries and small fruits would be
planted where one is now raised.
There is more in the men than in the land.
The young men of our State with soft hands and ring-fingered
are useless ; they should turn their attention to the cultivation of
the soil — and so with the ladies. Alas ! her only emblem now is
the greenhouse plant. Let them turn their attention to horticul-
ture, and her days of usefulness will begin.
Here the learned orator paid a glowing compliment to what, under
these circumstances, she would become. If we had all of Virginia's
men and women engaged in these pursuits, we would again vie with
the noble ancestry from which we came.
ELECTION OF OFFICERS.
The election of officers was next held, and the old officers were
re-elected, as follows:
President, — John M. Allan.
Vice President — William H. Haxall.
Secretary — H. K. Ellyson.
Treasurer — I. S. Tower.
Executive Committee — Col. Wm. Gilham, Charles B. Williams^
Joseph R. Rennie, Franklin Davis, Colonel J. C. Shields, Matthew
Blair, Dr. S. P. Moore, Gen. J. D. Imboden, Dr. Jas. T. Johnson,
Captain Charles H. Dimmock.
The President then appointed the following committee under the
resolutions of Colonel Shields:
Colonel J. C. Shields, Captain Charles H. Dimmock, and Mr. I.
The Society then adjourned.
The mee.ing then resolved itself into a joint meeting of the two
Societies, Major Sutherlin in the chair.
At the joint meeting there were several addresses delivered, which
are noticed in the proceedings of the State Society, to which we
752 THE SOUTHERN [December
refer our readers ; but especially do we call the attention of the
members of this Society to that of Mr. Saunders, Experimental
Gardener at Washington, as having more particular relation to the
interest of this Society.
The President of the New York fruit growers club being present,
on being called for, responded very happily. He spoke most en-
couragingly of the prospects of Virginia, and the advantages she
offered to emigrants, and assured the Society that numbers of fami-
lies in New York, and other Northern States were preparing to
come to Virginia to locate. We regret that our space will not
permit a full report of his remarks.
LIST OF PREMIUMS
AWARDED AT THE
ANNUAL EXHIBITION OF THE
HORTICULTURAL AND POMOLOGICAL SOCIETY,
HELD AT THE FAIR GROUNDS,
NEAR BICHIOID VIRGINIA,
November 2,-3, 4, and 5, 1869.
Messrs. Allan & Johnson, best assortment of Nursery Stock, $ 30
The Committee recommend a premium of equal value to Messrs.
Franklin Davis & Co., for their large and greatly extended variety
of Fruit Trees, Vines, &c, being the largest variety on exhibition.
Messrs. Allan k Johnson, best assortment of two year old
Apple Trees suited to Virginia. $ 10
To same for best assortment of one year old peach trees suit-
ed to Virginia. $10
To same for best assortment two year old pear trees, (stan-
dard or dwarf.) $ 10
Capt. H. B. Jones of Rockbridge, Va., for the largest and best
collection of Apples, (87 varieties) raised by the exhibitor $ 10
W. O. Hurt of Bedford, Va., for second best. 5
These apples of Mr. Hurt's (35 varieties) making quite an "aris-
tocratic show," deserve high commendation as vindicating the adap-
tability of the soil, climate, and exposure of Virginia to fruit cul-
ture to the raising of fruit of a high order of merit.
S. E. Dove, for best collection of Pears, (7 varieties) raised
by exhibitor. $ 10
1869.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 753
Allan k Johnson for 2d best collection, (6 varieties) raised by
exhibitor, $ 5
Dr. C. R. Cullen of Hanover, for best collection of Cran-
berries raised in Va. $ 5
R. H. Dibrell, for best collection of grapes, no competition. Certificate
To same for best native grapes, Norton's Virginia. $ 5
The Committee beg leave to express their gratification at the
marked increase of interest in regard to fruit native to the State, and
especially the Apple. Their attention was particularly arrested
by "the Pilot," originating in Nelson Co., Va. and exhibited by
John Dollins of Albemarle, the "Mason," and the "Gully," origina-
ting with Dr. Geo. Mason of Brunswick Co. Between these varie-
ties, the Committee did not make a decision and express the opin-
ion that the premium be divided between the "Pilot" and the
"Mason," both being highly commended by high authority as pos-
sessing remarkable keeping qualities.
The exhibitors of Apples ail merit commendation, and had they
all occupied the same ground, so as to claim that they had raised
the apples they exhibited, it would have been difficult for the Com-
mittee to have decided between them.
The Committee felt bound to make it a condition that the fruit con-
tending for a premium, should be in the name of the individual that
The committee recommend that the Society establish this as a
J. A. Foster, best specimen of Dried Peaches, very fine,
(though less than a bushel,) $ 5
W. A. Gillespie, for best specimen of Dried Apples, 1 bus. 5
J. A. Foster, for 1 peck do. very fine, Certificate
Jos. Rennie, for best and largest collection of Vegetables. $ 25
Garland Hanes, for 2d best and largest collection do $ 10
J. E. L. Masurier, for best J- dozen cauliflowers. 5
Jos. Rennie, for best dozen carrots. 2
J. E. L. Masurier for best doz. celery, 5
F. Biershenk, for 2d best do, Certificate
Jos. Rennie, for best dozen Parsnips, 2
S. G. B. Faulkner, for best doz. Pumpkins, 2
Jos. Rennie, for best doz. Salsify, 2
Garland Hanes, Jr., for 2d best salsify, Certificate
Dr. J. G. Lumpkin for best bus. Sweet Potatoes, 5
vol. in — 48
754 THE SOUTHERN [December
P. T. Atkinson, for second best do, Certificate
Garland Hanes, for best bushel Irish Potatoes, 5
Jas. Newman, 2d best do, Certificate
Jos. Rennie, best Turnips, 2
Garland Hanes, 2d best do, Certificate
Same, best doz. Endives, 2
Jos. Rennie, best peck Tomatoes, 2
R. Y. Slater, 2d best do, Certificate
Your committee recommend a discretionary premium to W. L.
Cowardin for the "Joe Johnson," Watermelon.
Allan k Johnson, for best collection of Plants, $15
" " of flowering Shrubs, 10
" " Fluschias, 5
" " Chrysanthemums, 5
" " Geraniums, 10
" " Eoliage Plants, 8
John Morton, largest and best collection of cut flowers, 10
Allan & Johnson, 2d best do, 6
John Morton, for handsomest design, 6
" "crops, 5
" " buquet, 2
There was a large and very fine Citronella exhibited by Miss
Augusta H. West, and an India Rubber Tree exhibited by Dr. W.
B. Pleasants, of Richmond. No premiums being offered for these
plants, the committee would recommend certificates for each.
The Committee on Wines report that there were a large number
of Wines on exhibition, and it was difficult to decide between many
They make the following awards, viz :
Messrs. Burbank & Gallagher, for the best American wine
(scuppernong,) $ 15
Marcus Buck, for best Catawba wine, 5
Col. W. Gilham, for best Concord wine, 5
Messrs. Burbank & Gallaher, for best Scuppernong wine 5
C. Sauer, for best Norton wine, 5
Mrs. Theo. Martin, for best Currant wine, 5
Miss M. A. Pattington, for best Blackberry wine, 5
1869.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 755
The committee recommend a premium to Mr. J. E. Lipscomb, for
" Bumgardner " whiskey exhibited by him.
Messrs. H. M. Smith & Co., for best Cider and Wine mill,
(Hovey's patent,) $ 10
Same, for second best do., (Hutcheson's patent,) 5
Same, for best collection of Horticultural Implements, 10
Same, for best Garden and Seed Drill, 10
Same, for best Garden Cultivator, (horse power,) 10
Same, for best Garden Roller, (horse power,) 5
Your committee recommend a Certificate of Merit to G. C. Cor-
mick, for exhibition Basket and Flower stands.
Dr. L. R. Dickinson, for best Essay on Fertilizers, $ 20
H. Jones, for best Essay on Grape Culture, 20
"Author," for best Essay on some "Insects injurious to Vege-
The special committee appointed to examine a number of articles
which were entered too late for examination by the regular corn-
mi ctees, report as follows :
They have examined the various articles submitted to them, and
enumerate below those they deem worthy of special mention on
account of superior quality :
1. A very fine collection of Virginia-grown potatoes, from the
Riverside Small Fruit farm of S. C. & R. Denise, Norfolk, Va., com-
prising specimens of Early Rose, Early Mohawk, Dyesight, and
King of the Earlies.
2. Some fine specimens of Early Rose potatoes, from J. B. Lip-
3. Some remarkably fine Peach Blow potatoes, from Robert
Douthat, Esq., Charles City county, Va. Also, some from Col. J.
B. McClung, Hot Springs, Va.
4. A superior lot of Flat Dutch cabbage, by Col. J. B. McClung,
from the Hot Springs, Virginia, grown from seed raised by Allan &
Johnson, of Richmond. This is the finest cabbage on exhibition.
Col. McClung also has on exhibition a lot of superior parsnips.
5. Schmidt & Miller, European grocers, of Richmond, Va., ex-
756 THE SOUTHERN [December
hibit an excellent assortment of the finest foreign groceries, embrac-
ing Lentil's German Peas, Pearl Barley, Holland Herrings, Russian
Sardines, Arrack, Rhine Wine, &c.
6. Marcus B. Buck, Esq , of Belmont Vineyards, Front Royal,
Warren county, Va., exhibits superior specimens of the " Hicks "
white apple, (a native of Rappahannock county, Va.) We regard
this as one of the finest eating apples we know, and one of the best
products of Virginia horticulture.
7. John S. Coles, Esq., Albemarle county, Va., exhibits superb
specimens of hothouse grapes, embracing the Black Hamburg, Dra-
con's Superb, Cannon Muscat, and White Muscat, of Alexandria.
8. Mr. J. D. Williamson, of New York Fruit Growers' Club, ex-
hibits very fine specimens of the Duchess D'Angouleme Pear.
9. M. P. King, Esq., of North Carolina, exhibits good samples of
the highly commended wine grape, the "Mist."
10. Mr. Morrisett, of Norfolk, Va., exhibits a barrel of splendid
Lynn Haven oysters. These are shown as productions of Virginia
soil, and do credit to the Old Dominion.
11. Mr. Maurice Evans, of Richmond, exhibits some handsome
The special committee on articles in the Pomological Hall that
had not been examined by other committees, first, would call special
attention to the Catawba Brandies of Mr. M. B. Buck, of the Bel-
mont vineyards, Warren county, Virginia.
These brandies are distilled from fine pure wine of the vintage of
1865, and not from the grape, as is usual, and consequently they
are of a superior quality for medicinal and all other purposes.
Second. The Catawba grapes from the same vineyards as the
above, are worthy of mention for their rich, dark color, their
abundance of saccharine matter and fine flavor.
Third. The grape roots and cuttings (numerous varieties) one year
old, grown in the open air, from the above vineyards, are of the
The special committee appointed to examine the " Planet Hand
Drill," exhibited by S. L. Allen, of Burlington, N. J., regret that
it was not in place when the regular committee were examining
horticultural implements, as they regard it as being decidedly the
best Seed Drill and Fertilizer Distributor on exhibition.
We recommend that a first class premium be awarded Mr. Allen
1869.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 757
The large amount of inferior peanuts going now into market, and
the diseased condition of the germs of the nuts, with an apparently
fair, bright hull, renders a word of caution here particularly apropos
to those who have slight experience in planting and growing the
crop. On splitting open the peas you will find on the little leaflets
of the germ at the pointed end of the kernel a brownish tinge, and
often grajish spots on the thin, pale pink skin ; later in the season
you will find all spotted, mildewed, or inferior peas, become deep
red, or pink ; all such should be rejected for seed. There is no
crop on which success depends so much in the character of the seed
as this capricious one of Pindars. The drouth caused the first nuts
formed in many soils to decay, and induced disease in others, and
this has been particularly observable on lands admirably adapted to
growing the crop, and is most often found on lands where the ferti-
lizers, Guano, lime, and the phosphates were used. Such lands
have produced large crops of vines ; pops and saps, water to convey
food was wanting for development, heat induced disease, death, and
decay in the nuts first formed, and unhealthy products, so far as the
germs are concerned, is general in the crop formed subsequent to
the last rains. The query in the peanut growing district is universal,
where shall we procure good seed ?
Good seed should be of pale pink, uniform in color, bright lobes
on opening the kernels, germ and leaflets without tinge of brown ,
and should be kept in sacks suspended in airy barn lofts, dry and
cool, all winter. The writer of this has "no axe to grind," and will
probably be a seed buyer, although several hundred bushels were
grown on his lands the present season. B.
Mr. John C. Glenn selected his grounds for his plum trees near
his barn, planted them altogether, surrounded them with a tall
picket fence, and made his henhouse in the inclosure. He keeps
from twenty to fifty hens. He also puts into this same inclosure two
pigs ; the hens are fond of insects, and gather and swallow eagerly
all, or nearly all, the curculio; and should they escape the hens and
sting the fruit, the fruit falls, and the pigs, being fond of plums, eat
them at once, and thus fine crops of plums have been made from
year to year.
THE SOUTHERN PLANTER AND FARMER.
RICHMOND, VIRGINIA, DECEMBER, 1869.
TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION AND ADVERTISING.
Subscription One Year, $2.00
square, 10 lines or less, one insertion, $ 100 }.< page, six months 35 00
1 square of 10 lines for six months, 6 00 3a page, one year, fiO 00
1 square of 10 lines for one year, 10 00 1 page, single insertion, 15 00
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The Southern Planter and Farmer.
The third volume of the new series of this Journal closes contemporaneously
with the year 18G9. We have labored in sunshine and cloud in sickness and in
health — often under embarrassment and disappointment — for the promotion (f
the welfare of Virginia and the South, within the sphere which circumscribes
our labors. We submit the result to the judgment of our subscribers and
readers, the award of which will be indicated in the greater or less support
which may be accorded to us in the coming year. None, we think, can deny
that we have faithfully fulfilled our contract with our subscribers, and that the
correlative duty remains to be performed on their part, of promptly paying up
arrears of subscription. There are a number excepted from this class who
have paid up to January next, and some of our subscribers who have kindly
and generously extended their payments up to 1871 and 1872. On the review
of the past history of our Journal— like Paul on his long, painful/and perilous
journey to Rome, shipwreck included, when he met with sympathy and cour-
teous treatment by the way, and at length arrived at Appii Forum, was me^
and comforted by the brethren, was enabled to thank God and take courage —
we, following his example, shall enter upon the new year under the inspiration
of hope, the animating, and faith, the actuating principle of human action, and
commending our labors to II m alone, in whose favor we may meekly and con-
fidently trust, we shall await the developments of the (to us) unknown future
for such measure of success in our labors as He may graciously please to
Fairs of 1869,
The State and District Fairs throughout the South have proved successful.
That of our Virginia State Agricultural Society eminently so. We cannot give
our readers a better impression of this than by submitting to them, as we have
done, in this number, the awards of premiums by the Society, and by the Vir-
ginia Horticultural and Pomological Society which united with the State Sjciety
1869.] PLANTER AND FARMER. 759
in one general exhibition. There is one thing we cannot omit, as it tends to
corroborate the grand success claimed for our Society, namely : That a larger
percentage of the premiums offered were actually awarded than we have ever
known within the scope of our past experience.
The Committee on "Short Horn Cattle" omitted to report the following
premiums awarded to S. W. Ficklin, Esq :
28. Best Heifer under 2 years old, $10
29. Second best Heifer under 2 years old, 5
The chairman of the committee, James Newman, Esq , has since corrected
the report by adding the above premiums, which, when reviewed and approved*
as doubtless will be done, by the Executive Committee, Mr. Ficklin will be
entitled to draw the premiums. The report on the section of the premium list
relating to ploughs is for the present withheld, by reason of an appeal taken
on some part of the subject matter of it, which also awaits the decision of the
The citizens of the State, and especially of Richmond, have largely partici.
pated in the honors of the season, as will be seen by the following paragraphs
extracted from the Richmond Whig and from the Enquirer and Examiner :
Dixie Plough in the Far West. — It was a striking truth which Colonel
Williamson, of New York, referred to in his remarks before the Horticultural
Society during the Fair week, when he seated that the Virginia-made ploughs
were better and cheaper than those of Northern manufacture, and that here"
after the demand from the North would be much enlarged.
We have before us a correspondence relating to occurrences at Jerseyville*
Illinois, at a Fair held at that place in October. In the competition for the
best plough were many entries. No little attention had been given to the skill
and taste with which the mechanical service was performed in producing bright
steel mouldboards, varnished framework, &c, and it was considered somewhat
presumptuous that the plain and substantial specimen of Starke's Dixie, brought
from the South, should be thought of in connection with the honors of the occa.
sion. Consequently it was left for the last, and then the ploughman enquired
with an indifferent air if he must try it. He was requested to do so, and, before
the round was made, he was exultant in his praises of the implement. The
crowd was astonished at the work executed by the " Dixie ;" the ploughman
never held before in his hands such a plough, and the judges awarded to it
with entire unanimity the premium. Well done for Virginia, Richmond, and
the weil-known Starke plough of renown 1
The Wilmington Fair — Premiums to Virginians. — At the first annual
Fair of the Cape Fear Agricultural Society held at Wilmington last week, the
following premiums were awarded to Virginia exhibitors :
Best whiskey (Bumgardner), J. W. Riaon, Richmond ; second best, " Sunny
South," A. Myers, Norfolk.
Best subsoil plough, Palmer & Turpin, Richmond.
Best single and double plough, garden plough, corn planter, Prescott, Liberty
Mills, Va., diploma.
Best gang plough, H. M. Smith, Richmond, Va., diploma.
Best patent well fixtures, H. M. Smith & Co., diploma.
The committee award a diploma to N. A. Young, of Richmond, Va., for a
vise and drill combination, an extension screw-driver, and a patent mucilage
cup, of all of which they speak in the highest terms.
760 THE SOUTHERN [December
Also, a diploma to E. A. Dayton, of Richmond, Va., for a lot of twisted drills,
screw-wrenches, self adjusting saw mandrils, all of which are most excellent.
The committee are favorably impressed with Harding's Fire and Thief De-
tector, Bagby & Jeffers, agents, Richmond, Va., and recommended a diploma.
Best assortment of drugs and medicines, J. W. Rison, Richmond, Va., $5.
Steam atomizer and fancy articles, J. W. Rison, Richmond, Va., diploma.
The committee return thanks for many curious articles from China, contrib-
uted by Miss H. A. Suddoth, of Manchester, Va. They attracted much
The New Eclectic
Comes before us with a most attractive prospectus for 1870. This journal,
having absorbed The Land We Love, stands now in the fore-front as the leader
and organ of Southern literature ; and it is for our people to decide whether
they will sustain the energy and brains grown and developed on their own
soil, and in their own genial clime, or whether they will starve literature, and
by their continued apathy render the life of any such enterprise a simple im-
possibility. The talent, home and foreign, that is pledged to Tee Eclectic is
an ample guarantee that, as it has been in the past, so it will be in the future,
well worthy of a generous support ; and it is not demanding too much when we
ask that at least every neighborhood in the South shall take and read one or
more copies. Money thus spent will bring to any family a rich return, in
enlarging the views, elevating, and in many instances creating and refining,
the tastes of our children, and leading them to seek the sources from whence
the streams of knowledge derived from The Eclectic are obtained.
Poverty is a poor plea, when the amount necessary to obtain such a journal
as this is so small. Better by far economize in some other quarter. People of
the South, do not save by starving the minds of your children.
Having said this much we most cordially commend " The New Eclectic " to
our readers, with the hope that we may have been instrumental in securing for
its deserving publishers many subscribers. The subscription is $4 per annum.
Address Turnbull & Murdoch, 54 Lexington street, Baltimore.
The Dickson Fertilizer Company.
In passing through Augusta, Georgia, a short time since, we called on Mr.
James T. Gardiner, the courteous and thorough business manager of the
above-named company, and found him alive to the interests of his own
people, and zealously engaged in sending "the Dickson Compound" through-
out Georgia and the South. He made many enquiries in regard to Virginia
and North Carolina, and, with a view of developing new trade, determined to
advertise with us.
This compound is highly spoken of wherever it has been used ; and Mr.
Gardiner can, we doubt not, supply many of our readers in Eastern and West-
ern North Carolina, and, indeed, in many parts of Virginia, at as low rates —
freight included— as other companies. The energy, and, we may say, com-
mendable enterprise displayed by this company deserves especial mention, and
we hope they may meet with such patronage as shall insure abundant success.