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Agriculture is the nursing mother of the Arts.— Xenophon. 
Tillage and Pasturage are the two breasts of the State.— Sully. 

Oh. B Williams, Ed & Pro'r. I Jno M. Allan, Hort'l Editor 
Frank G Ruffin, Co-Editor. | Wm. L Hill, Gten'l Agent. 

New Series. 


Vol. III.— No. 8. 



Cisterns— How to construct them 449 

When to cut Ur^s for making Hav 452 

Notes of Southern Travel. " New Yt>rk Tribune," 456 

The Akili Earth of the R>cky Mountains as a Fertilizer 457 

Clipping Horses, by J. R. Free man, V. S 459 

True System of Farming 459 

Mating a Poor Farm Rich 461 

Le^pedeza Striat ♦. in the South 463 

The Crow s Va'ue to the Farmer 464 

Is Fanning Profitable in Person County, N. C? 465 

Norway Oats, by W. B. Woo'ten 468 

S >il Diagnosis, by Dwid S ewart, M.D 470 

Straight Ditches, by J. V. B 473 

Kxneiiment, with Ranch's Raw Rone Phosphate, by C. M. Reynolds 474 

Value of Super-Phosphate of Lime for Fertilizing Purposes 475 

Schedule of Premiums of Virginia Agricultural Society 476 

Horticultural department: 

Fall vs. Spring Planting 491 

Melons , 492 

Letter from Frederick County, Maryland, by J 492 

Five Acres too much, reviewed 493 

The American Pomological Society '. 494 

How Cattle Kill Trees 495 

Mushroom Culture 496 

Horticultural Patents : 497 

Grape Gr .wer's Maxims 4i>7 

Schedule of Premiums of the Va. Horticultural and Pomological Society 498 

Household Department: 

Rural Taste . 500 

Southern Women and Children 501 

Domestic Recipes 504 

Editorial Department: 

To our Subscribe! s 505 

Chief Marshal for State Fair , 505 

A new Bone Mill in Richmond 506 

Committee of the Virginia State Agricultural Society— Address" to People 

of Virginia " 506 

Seed Wheat— Time to Select it 508 

Norway Oats 512 

F£R«USSON «fe RADT, Printers, 1328 Main Street. 

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Cor. Franklin na>i Fifteenth Streets, 
TIT O TTTsO. 1ST 33 . 
Special attention paid to preserving 
the Natural Organs. 

Artificial Teoth inserted upon GOLD, 

OUT PAIN, by a new and safe process, 
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VV because it con tains so much prac- 
tical, original matter in such a small 
spnce."— John J. Thomas. 

"The directions for growing Strawber- 
ries and Raspberries are the best I have 
ever seen."— Henry Ward Beech er. 

We could give hundreds of just, such tes- 
timonials, snowing the value of this little 
work. It should be in the hands of every 
person, whether the owner of a rod square 
of ground or a hundred acres. Tree agents 
should have a copy. It contains 40 pages. 
Pi ice 10 cent*. Fall price list, wholesale 
and retail, and also terms to agenis *nd 
those desiring to get up a club lor plants 
sent free to all applicants. Parties *»t 
the South should order plants in the Fall 
Address PURDY & JOHNSTON, Palmyra, 
N Y., or PURDY & HANCE, Soui h Bend, 
Ind. aug — 3m 










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Agriculture, Horticulture and the Mining, Mechanic and Household Arts. 

Agriculture is the nursing mother of the Arts.— Xenophon. 
Tillage and Pasturage are the two breasts of the State.— Sully. 

CH: B. WILLIAMS Editor and Proprietor. 

FRANK G. RUFFIN, Co-Editor. 

New Series. RICHMOND, VA., AUGUST 1869. Vol. Ill— No. 8. 


As a number of our subscribers wish to have our well tried plan 
for building cisterns, we have determined to devote our column this 
week to it, though it be at the expense of some valuable agricultural 
matter. Our calculations have been revised by the well known and 
experienced architect, Mr. A. L. West, of Richmond. But it must 
be remembered that the expense of building them in a city is three 
or four times as great as it is in the country. Without giving all 
the reasons for this great difference in the cost, we will instance one 
or .two, to give those persons some idea of it who have no experience 
in the matter. 

For instance, it would cost forty cents per square yard in the 
city to dig and cart off the dirt, whereas the cost to a farmer would 
be scarcely anything at some seasons of the year. We had it done 
before the war for twelve and a half cents per yard. 

Again, the top of the cistern, in Richmond, must be made of 
stone ; but in the country, if yellow locust or cedar are on the farm, 
the top will not cost a moiety of what the stone does. 

This difference in the cost will be found in everything which is 
required to construct the cistern. 

Mark off a circle ten feet in diameter ; then take a rod of round 
iron about twelve feet long, pointed at one end, and drill or drive it 
down in the ground ten feet, within the circle, in four or five places, 
to ascertain if there is any solid rock in the way. If there is, move 
the circle, if it can be done, as the solid rock conflicts with a uni- 
form settling of the wall and floor of the cistern. When the 

450 THE SOUTHERN [August 

earth is excavated ten feet deep, put in the wall, which should be 
made of bricks, nine inches thick. The bricks should be laid in 
cement, and well pointed with the same, which will supersede the 
necessity of plastering the wall with hydraulic cement. In this 
wall, on the side nearest the house, where the filter should be placed 
(if one is desired,) a hole should be left, in which to insert a 
square tube, which can be made of four pieces of plank two inches 
wide, for the water to pass from the filter to the cistern, five feet 
from the bottom of the cistern. Another hole like this should be 
left in the wall, two or three inches from the top, in which the 
same sort of tube (except it should be a little larger) must be placed 
as a waste pipe, to prevent the water from reaching the top, which 
it would do if there was much roofing during a long rainy season. 
The next thing done should be to put on the top, which should be 
made of yellow locust or cedar. — Hew the pieces on three sides. 
With the unhewed side up, lay them as close together as possible, 
and strip the cracks with plastering lathes on the inside, so that 
not a particle of dirt can pass through. In the top should be left 
an opening on the side for a chain pump, which is preferable to any 
other kind of pumps for cisterns. By this opening another should 
be left large enough for a man to pass down through on a ladder, 
which should be kept for the purpose. This opening should be 
closed with a trap-door, which should have a lock upon it. A box- 
like frame should be placed around these openings about fourteen 
inches high, which will be about the depth of the earth which should 
be, at this point of the construction, thrown over the whole top — 
when it should be sodded or grass seed sown upon it. The next 
thing to do is to crack sand stone, if it can can be had, (if not any 
other kind will do,) about the size of a hickory nut, and spread it 
on the floor six inches deep. It should be raked over and made 
perfectly level. Then get a wide flat stone, and place it on the 
cracked stone immediately under the opening for the pump to rest 
upon. If this is not done, the chain will when it stretches cut a 
hole through the floor. After this floor settles a day or two, grout 
it with cement, as much as it will take, about the consistency of 
very thin mush or thick gruel. Of course a lamp or candle must be 
used all the time, when work is being done on the inside. The man 
who does the inside work must take off his leather boots and work 
in his socks or gum shoes. When the grouting is done, and has 
dried off, put on the floor a coat of plaster of hydrauli cementc. 

Here I will remark that a substitute for the filter can be had by 
inserting a pump log in the opening left for the chain pump, which 


log should rest on the broad stone provided for the chain 
pump. This log should be hollow and closed tight at the lower 
end. The hollow should be large enough to hold as much as pos- 
sible. Insert an inch pipe of some sort in this hollow log, to which 
attach a common iron pump. About an inch from the bottom, put 
three holes with an inch auger — in each of which put a piece of 
sponge, and over which tack a piece of gauze wire. The sponge 
and gauze wire filter and strain the water as it passes into the log. 
But if a filter is preferred, it must be built exactly like the cistern — 
except half the depth and diameter — and four or five stones, the 
the size of the first, must be placed over and around the hole or 
end of the square tube referred to above. Put a piece of coarse 
bagging over the stone, and on that put about one-half bushel of 
sand stone and charcoal, which should be cracked in pieces the size 
of small gravel. Leave a trap door as in case of cistern — as it will 
be necessary to go at least once a year to clean out the filter and 
renew the filtrating material. 

The reason for making the cistern ronnd and not square, is that the 
exterior pressure strengthens the former, and will certainly bulge the 
latter. The reason for avoiding solid rock is, that the floor and wall will 
unsettle equally, and much mending and trouble is the consequence. 
The reason for complteing the top at the point named, is that all 
jarring and settling takes place before the wall is pointed and 
floor made, which would be injured by doing it afterwards. 

The advantage of the chain pump is, that it does not freeze, and 
any child can lift the water from that depth ; besides it is very cheap. 
We purchased one before the war, with chain tube, wheel and or- 
namental cast-iron top, for nine dollars. The advantage of brick 
instead of stone, is that the wall settles more regularly, and it 
requires considerably less cement. The brick from an old chimney 
is usually the best, as they are often very hard. The yellow locust 
for the top is preferred, because no man will live long enough to 
see it rot — indeed, we know a piece similarly situated to 
that in the top of the cistern, which is in a perfect state of pres- 
ervation which has been thus situated certainly more than a hun^ 
dred years. 

We were about to make a siatement of the cost of materials for a-; 
ten foot cistern, but those things vary so much, according to cir- 
cumstances, it is useless. Besides the two instances given above*, 
we will name one more. 

Hydraulic cement costs in Richmond three dollars per barrel;: 

452 THE SOUTHERN [August 

but if a farmer is within a day's drive of a cement mill, or if he is 
on a railroad or canal which passes one, he can send his bags 
for the cement, which will then cost him twenty-five or thirty cents 
per bushel, or about one dollar per barrel. Some cements take 
about one fourth sand, and some considerably more. The proper 
quantity should be ascertained by trying. The most important 
thing to be considered when using the cement, after learning how 
much sand should mix with it, is the rapidity with which it sets. 
Therefore, very little should be mixed at a time. 

This cistern will hold 5,870 gallons, or about a hundred and 
fifty barrels of water. A small house say 40 by 20 feet, will pro- 
duce about 27,600 gallons, or 690 barrels annually, of water, which 
is about two barrels a day through the year — more than a family 
of size suited to t that house could possibly need. Put in the cis- 
tern three or four small fish — they keep it perfectly pure. Some 
persons think they are the best substitute for a filter. Use in this 
case a strainer to keep out coarse dirt which may be washed from the 
houses, and never feed the fish except when the water is perfectly 
transparent. Any opacity in the water shows the presence of ani- 
mal life, which the fish live upon ; and when they increase to an 
unnecessary number, catch them with hook and line, when a nice fry 

J may be had. 

A cistern one foot larger than this cost us before the late war, a 
fraction less than seventy dollars. If persons knew the comfort 
they afford, no man who is able to build one would be without it. — 
Religious Herald. 

When to Cut Grass for Making Hay. 

At the meeting of the American Institute Farmers Club, held on the 29 ^h of 
June, the. following interesting discussion arose, as reported by the 
New York Semi-Weekly Times. Although it appears in this Journal too late to 
be available to our readers the present year, it is eminently worthy of preserva- 
tion for their future use : — 


As many farmers are now beginning to mow, the subject of 
making hay was introduced by S. E. Todd, who opened the discus- 
sion by saying that : 

" There are certain gross errors cherished by many farmers in 
regard to the best period in the growth of grass for making hay. 
And some most absurd notions have been promulgated in years past 
in regard to the manner of curing hay in certain periodicals claim 


ing to be correct and reliable agricultural authority; and these 
errors continue to be propagated from year to year, by men who 
never made a ton of hay, and who are utterly ignorant of the fun- 
damental principles of this branch of agriculture. As new begin- 
ners come into possession of meadows every season they natu- 
rally aim to be guided by the most reliable authorities on 
haymaking. Therefore as the blind have continued to lead the 
blind, the result has been, and will continue to be so, long as such 
errors are promulgated, the dumb animals are required to subsist on 
mouldy, musty, and unpalatable food, when, with no more labor, 
their daily allowance might be a liberal supply of sweet smelling 

At what period in the stage of the growth of grass do animals 
eat it with the greatest avidity ? Of course, when the leaves and 
stems are fresh and green. Now, then, if it were better for the 
animals that the fresh grass should be covered w T ith a sprinkling of 
mould and have a musty smell, rather than the delicious taste and 
grateful fragrance, that green grass possesses, why did the great 
agriculturist of the universe make such an egregious mistake to fur- 
nish the beast of the field with such food when it might have been differ- 
ent ? Hay is dried grass. And the nearer the hay resembles fresh 
grass the more excellent the quality will always be. Here then, we 
have a reliable starting point to enable us to decide as to the most 
correct period of the growth of grass to cut for hay. Hay made of 
grass, cut before the blossoms have appeared will be better and more 
fragrant than if the grass had been allowed to stand until the flow- 
ers are in full bloom. Yet if this period was chosen for cutting 
grass the hay would be excellent ; but a great loss would be sus- 
tained as to the quantity. Therefore, by allowing the grass to grow 
until the blossoms have nearly all appeared, we have the double 
advantage of that stage of growth which will make sweet-smelling 
hay in the largest quantity *that it is possible for a given meadow 
to yield. As the period for cutting grass is chosen either before 
the blossoms have appeared or after they have fallen, the mate- 
rial that would have made the best of nourishment for domestic 
animals changes rapidly into unpalatable woody fibre, which will 
furnish animals no more nourishment than corn cobs and saw dust. 
Great weight and bulk of fair-looking hay may be obtained by allow- 
ing grass to stand until the blossoms have disappeared. But the 
quality is quite inferior. 

When druggists and botanical physicians gather plants and herbs 
for medicinal purposes, at what period in the stage of the growth 

454 THE SOUTHERN [August 

do they cut them ? Always when they are in full bloom, if it is 
practicable. And why at that particular period of developement. 
Because they know when herbs are gathered at the period of full 
bloom, the stems and leaves will yield a larger percentage of aroma 
and medicinal qualities than if cut at an earlier or a latter period. 
The same fact holds equally good of all kinds of green fodder, in- 
cluding the grasses, clovers and maize. Grass that is cut when in 
full bloom and properly cured, without bleaching, or too much 
scorching in the sun, or sweating or heating in the mow, will make 
hay resemble grass so nearly that the hay will furnish almost as 
much real nourishment to those animals that eat it as it would yield 
in a green condition. If grass be allowed to stand until the seed 
have matured and the leaves and stems have become dry, the hay 
made of it will ®go much farther than if the grass had been cut 
when in full bloom, on the same principle that flour made of unsound 
wheat will go much further than an equal number of pounds of 
choice flour, when made into bread. Stock will very often eat 
very indifferent hay with an apparently good relish. Hunger shar- 
pens the appetite ; and they must eat such food as has been prepar- 
ed or do worse. But it is by no means a satisfactory argument that 
because stock eat poor hay with avidity, all grass should be allow- 
ed to stand until it will yield the largest quantity of inferior fodder. 
The correct point, then, is to cut crass for hay, when the blossoms 
are fully developed. 

Dr. I. P. Trimble. — Mr. Chairman, are we to understand that 
timothy grass (Phelum pretense) is not to be allowed to stand until 
the blossoms have fallen ? J would ask Mr. Todd if he intended to 
teach that timothy grass should be cut when in full bloom ? 

Mr. Todd — I do hold that the correct period in the stage of the 
growth of any grass — not excepting the Phelum pretense — is when 
the blossoms are fully developed. If cut then and properly cured, it 
will make prime hay in the largest quantity. 

Dr. Trimble — that is a very great error. Timothy grass should 
always be allowed to stand until the blossoms have entirely disap- 
peared. It is a mistake to cut hay when in blossom. It makes the 
hay dusty on account of the great quantity of pollen thus collected. 
But if the grass is allowed to stand until the pollen has fallen, the 
hay will be free from dust. 

Mr. Todd — If I am promulgating error, Doctor, it is your duty 
to expose it. 

J. A. Whitney — There is a scientific principle involved in this 


matter, which goes to show that Dr. Trimble is mistaken and Mr. 
Todd is right. In succulent plants the sugar and starch increase 
until the flowering culminates ; but when the seed begins to form, 
the sugar and starchy matter are cemented into indigestible, woody 
substance. The dust of timothy blossoms cannot be a tithe of 
the quantity mixed with hay by the use of the horse rake. 

W. S. Carpenter — There can be no doubt that it is much the 
best to cut grass when in blossom. It not only makes better hay 
but it exhausts the soil much less. And I believe it is safe to cut 
the grass before the blossoms have appeared. I am satisfied, that 
if cut at this early stage of the growth, the hay will be of a supe- 
rior quality if properly cured. More than this, we should aim to 
protect our meadows by early mowing. Grass that is allowed to 
mature the seeds before it is cut, will exhaust the soil and also the 
vitality of the grass roots far more than if the crop were cut just 
before the blossoms are fully developed, as has already been stated. 

Jas. A. Whitney — There is a little chemistry involved in this 
subject, which will show that the facts stated and the theory coin- 
cide. When any plants, not excepting the cereal grains and grasses, 
ses, are allowed to mature their seeds, the growth of seeds takes 
much more phosphoric acid from the soil than herbage does. Cut 
grass when in bloom and you will have the best quality of hay 
without taking the manurial substance from the soil that will be 
needed for the next grain or seed crop. 

A. B. Crandell — In a certain black-letter volume, dust-covered 
and worm-eaten now, printed some hundreds of years before the era 
of modern collegiate agriculture, I can find one of the old teachers — 
Mr. Cono by name — laying the down the law on this subject in this 
wise: " The grasse being cut, you are to consider of what nature grasse 
is, whether very coarse and full of strong weedes, thicke leaves 
and great store of peony-grasse, or else exceeding fine and void of 
anything which asketh much wethering. If it be of the first kind, 
then after the mowing you shall first ted it, then raise it into little 
grasse cockes as bigge as small molehills, )?)after turne them and 
make them up again, then spread them ; and after full drying put 
them into wind rowes, so into greater ccckes, then break those open, 
and after they have received the strength of the sunne, then put 
three or four cookes into one, and lastily leade them into, the barns." 

Two young farmers near Mineapolis, Minessota, put eleven acres 
of land in hops. 

456 THE SOUTHERN [August 

Notes of Southern Travels. 

An English gentleman, Mr. Bower Wood of Long Island City, 
has just returned from a journey to the South, and reports as fol- 
lows : We found throughout North Carolina and Virginia every 
disposition to welcome immigration, to put aside polities, and an 
earnest wish to embrace every Northern suggestion and improve- 
ment. The negroes are disappointed because they do not each get 
a forty acre farm and a mule, but as a rule they are never trouble- 
some or dangerous. In truth they require the incentive of the 
master's eye, or else a faithfully-fulfilled contract, by the piece or 
acre, just as white laborers do. Their wages vary from $7 to $10 
per month, and rations, which do not cost altogether more than $10 
per month more The females make excellent in-door ser- 
vants, and can be hired at nearly half the above. W r e found all 
portions of the State above-named healthy, and with the advantage 
overfthe Western section of nearness to market, plenty of splendid 
timber, and good water. We felt the heat no more than in New 
York, and farmers assured us that they could do that hardest of all 
work — the hoeing of cotton — all day in the hottest sun. The qual- 
ity of the land is various, but equal to any section North, that we 
know of, and wherever proper cultivation, rotation of crops, and 
manures are applied, the results are an excess of Northern pro- 
ducts on the same area. Japan clover, white and red clover, and the 
grasses can generally be grown, white cotton at the present price, 
and the vineyard, which is being rapidly inaugurated, render a far- 
mers success speedy and certain. The prices of lands vary from 
$3 to $30 per acre. In the cities and towns large-sized lots can be 
got from $50 to $500. (?) Houses and grounds which cost five times 
their present price, can be readily obtained. Even in the mineral 
regions land is still very cheap. We saw a large fruit farm, only four 
miles from Raleigh, rich in gold and plumbago, with good house 
and 180 acres, that could now be bought for $1,500. The owner 
was the former postmaster, and a much respected man. One-fourth 
cash, and three to five years' credit, are the general terms ; while 
\ many properties can be hired, with an option of purchase, at a 

stated price agreed upon beforehand. Even mere laborers are 
readily welcomed, for their energy is much needed, and they form 
a check upon the negro, who, as the Rev. J. B. Smith of Raleigh 
remarked to us, has at present no proper standard by which to 
measure a day's work. Mechanics and artizans would find nice 


openings and be free from much of that wear and tear which char- 
acterizes the struggle for life in more inclement latitudes. 

By taking a trip to Norfolk, Portsmouth, Richmond, Lynchburg* 
Weldon, Raleigh and Asheville, the intending emigrant may rea- 
dily satisfy himself as to which is tbe best spot on which to settle 
according to his capacity and capital. Cheap return tickets are 
issued by the Virginia State Land Company, whilst tbe famous 
North Carolina Land Company, of which our genial New-Yorker, 
A. J. Bleecker, is a director, have issued tickets for the round trip 
from Boston or New York for $24 This is a most respectable and 
bona fide association. W. S. Kingsland of New York is a resident 
director at Raleigh, and very acceptable to Southern settlers, while 
the Hon. R. W. Best, Secretary of State, is Grand Master of the 
Masonic Lodge Jin North Carolina, and by his urbanity and fair- 
ness will be found equally deserving of confidence. We heartily 
wish all such societies full success. We are assured that the pre- 
sent farms are too large for the means of present holders. They will 
cheerfully part with a portion to enchance the value of the remain- 
der and to secure a good neighborhood. That this season will be a 
happy one for the South we do fully believe. Some immigration 
and capital have already taken place ; the full stream will soon fol- 
low. The present wheat crop is all safe, and the best known for 
many years. Oats and vegetables are more than an average crop, 
tobacco is fair, and though the season is backward, cotton is gene- 
rally in blossom and the yield at the present prices promises to be 
the most enriching of any that has occurred of late years. The 
South will soon be fully recuperated. Norfolk will soon be a busy 
entrepot worthy of its magnificent harbor, and Wilmington must 
have her share of direct intercourse. It ought to be the earnest 
and daily prayer and work of all good Americans to do all that in 
them lies to help forward this intermixing and prosperous knitting 
together of all parts of our country. — N. Y. Tribune. 

The Alkali Earth of the Rocky Mountains as a Fertilizer. 

Judge J. G. Knapp. Madison, Wis.— During a residence of many 
months in the central regions of this great continent, I took note of 
the available mineral and agricultural resources of these Territories. 
Perhaps it is not generally known that much of the material com- 
monly known by travelers as alkali, spread in vast deposits on our 
western plains, and which the Mexicans call salitra, is a compound 

458 THE SOUTHERN [August 

salt, of which nitrate of soda is a large constituent, the other ingre- 
dients consisting of carbonate and chlorate of soda, with salts of 
potash. Some difference in composition' exists in different localities* 
Besides the useful arts to which it may be applied, salitra supplies 
the place of salt to the cattle and sheep ; and though poisonous 
to vegetation where it exists in excess, yet in smaller quantities, 
but sufficient to be plainly visible by its inflorescence, yet it is a val- 
uable manure, especially for wheat, beets, and onions, and causes 
New Mexico to produce such fine grapes, peaches, and quinces as 
can be found in no country where the salt does not exist. The 
apple-tree and cotton-wood, and some other forrest trees are bene- 
fitted by its presence. There are places particularly in New Mexico, 
where it might be gathered in almost inexhaustible quantities. 
Would it not make a valuable dressing for vines, quinces, peaches, 
and other crops, and thus pay for collection and transportation ? 
Where I have seen it there are no "large accumulations of decaying 
organic matter" to furnish the nitrogen for the formation of salt, 
therefore I am of opinion that the nitrogen is derived either from 
the atmosphere, during the hot, dry seasons, or from the ground 
through some, to me, unknown volcanic action, as all the hot 
springs yield some of the combinations of this alkaline earth. 

[Note. — The Club has long thought that the deposits on 
the alkali flats of the wide central plateau of this continent, though 
now condemning those surfaces to sterrility, might prove a valuable 
manure on lands where potash and soda are not abundant. They 
would suggest to some readers of these reports, who live near those 
regions to forward a barrel of alkaline earth to the American Insti- 
tute of New York City to be used experimentally as a manure.] 

N. Y. Tribune. 

Clipping Horses. 

Messrs. ^Editors, — I have repeatedly been asked my opinion rela- 
tive to the merits and demerits of clipping horses. As people are 
generally slow to receive an innovation, whatever may be its value, 
I will (through the medium of your valuable paper) give my views 
in as explicit and concise a form as possible. Clipping has a real 
and magical effect upon the horse. The undipped horse is dis- 
tressed by little exertion ; he puffs and blows and perspires if driven 
or ridden at only a moderate pace; he becomes soon exhausted; 
can scarcely get along, stumbling frequently, and is in fact sadly 
under the mark. But clip him, lo and behold ! he can go double 


the distance and do double the work without fatigue. He is quick 
in his paces, light-hearted, and elastic as a fawn. A marvellous 
change takes place. What is it? Echo answers what. Have we 
imparted to his system, suddenly, an increased amount of muscle, 
more blood, or more nerve? No, nothing of the kind. Then what 
have we done? Here is a fine field for earnest scientific contem- 
plation. I believe its beneficial influence is attributable to the 
altered arrangement of the electric force, developing increased 
vitality. That the great supporter of vital power is an immaterial 
substance, closely resembling, if not identical, with that which has 
been termed electricity, will not be disputed; and when the horse 
is shorn of his thick heavy coat, the body is not insulated as it was 
before, and there is now established a pure current or circuit of 
electrical fluid in and out of every part of it, creating an exhila- 
rating excitement and an increased tone of the whole organic sys- 
tem. We find the surface of the skin is warmer in a clipped horse 
than it was before ; it is quite manifest to the hand. That this 
augmentation or increased supply of caloric is derived from the 
increased combustion of carbon is more than probable; also, more 
oxygen is consumed, and it therefore necessarily follows that the 
removal of this outer barrier to the passage of electricity into the 
body, which, in accordance with the inherent powers it possesses, is 
like a metallic chain extending from the conductor of an electric 
machine to the great reservoir of the electric fluid, the earth, and 
therefore is, when excited, robbing the body of its greatest source 
of electricity. I would earnestly recommend that the integument 
be stripped of this non-conductor — this thick heavy covering — and 
depend upon it the horse would be more healthy, less subject to fati- 
gue, consume less food, &c, &c, perform his work with more celerity 
and buoyant spirit, and with far greater pleasure to the rider and 

I am, Mr. Editor, 

Yours very respectfully, 

J. R. Freeman, VS. 
Veterinary Infirmary, cor. 14th and Moss sts., Richmond, Va. 

The True System of Farming. 

Trying to do too much is a common error into which the farmer 
often falls. His great eagerness in striving to be rich is doubtless 
the cause of his error. He is ambitious and energetic, and forms 
his plans on a large scale, too often, perhaps, without counting the 

460 THE SOUTHERN [August 

cost. He buys a large farm and wants to be called a ** large 
farmer," without understanding or considering the true elements 
that constitute a real farmer. He fancies the greatness of that 
profession, as is too often the common estimate, to be in proportion 
to the number of acres, not to say cultivated, embraced within the 
boundaries of his domain. The fact is now being spread abroad, 
that a large farm does not make a man either rich, contented or 
happy, but on the contrary, the reverse of all these, unless well 
tilled, when his labor is rewarded by ample crops and fair success 
in the various departments in which he is engaged. No farmer can 
realize the full benefits of his profession without adopting a tho- 
rough system of culture. His success, commensurate to his wishes, 
always depends upon the manner in which he prepares his grounds, 
plants his seed, and rears his stock. Neither of these departments, 
which may be considered the cardinal ones of his profession, will 
take care of themselves. The soil may be rich, but it needs cul- 
ture. His seed may be sown, but it should be in due time, and 
always on soil well prepared and of a suitable quality for the pro- 
duction of the crop desired. His stock must be constantly cared 
for — it derives its thrift from the soil, and sends again to that soil 
the sustenance it requires ; but this is not done in a loose or hap- 
hazard way. The farmer's care is required, and all his better judg- 
ment must be exercised in keeping up this system of reciprocal 
benefits that may be realized by every intelligent and industrious 

Thorough cultivation and systematic attention to all parts of his 
business is indispensable to a good degree of success. The very 
corner stone to this whole system of farming, is to do what you do 
thoroughly — nature will not be cheated, and never gives full re- 
turns to the half way work that is practiced by vastly too many 
calling themselves farmers. If the land has been worn, the extent 
of that exhaustion and the food required must be first considered. 
When ascertained, the full measure of these requirements must be 
given, to bring out full returns. If the farmer has but a small 
stock, and consequently but a small amount of manure to replenish 
his land, it is obvious that but a small farm can be supplied with it; 
and good judgment at once dictates that to cultivate properly a 
large farm, artificial fertilizer must be used if good crops are ob- 
tained. And so with the labor, two men cannot suitably till one 
hundred acres of land, when the labor of two men, and perhaps 
four, might be profitably employed on seventy-five acres. 

This is the great error in farming. Two men strive to do what 


four can hardly do, and thus thousands of acres are run over, half 
tilled, and producing half crops. The land is run over till worn 
out, sustaining year after year the unnatural tax, till its energies 
are entirely exhausted, and it fails to yield even a feeble crop, be- 
cause its life is worn out. Much of the soil in Virginia and other 
Southern States is a type of this. Thousands of acres are entirely 
useless and exhausted, and will ever remain so, till the first elements 
of its power are returned to it. This process is going on in many 
of the Western States. The soil is treated like an inexhaustible 
mine; the tillers crying give, give, give! till in a few years it will 
have nothing to give. The boast of the West is, large farms and 
large fields of grain ; plough, sow and reap, is the business of West- 
ern farmers, drawing out the very life of the soil, sending away in 
the heavy exports that are constantly going onward, without return- 
ing to the soil the food it requires to make it productive. 

The light that is being spread abroad on this subject is beginning 
to correct this practice to some extent, but in most instances very 
little is returned to the soil to keep it alive, till after several years 
of continual cropping, it manifests signs of exhaustion and ultimate 
barrenness. When tillers of the soil understand their true inter- 
ests, they will cultivate no more land than they can do well. Fifty 
acres of land for tillage, brought to a high state of cultivation, 
pays better than one hundred run over in the way that many do. — 
Jefferson Farmer. 

Making a Poop Farm Rich. 

Some twenty-five or thirty years ago, I bought a farm contain- 
ing about one hundred and twenty acres of land. • It had been 
managed badly for many years preceding the sale of it. Fence 
rows, where hundreds of loads of ston© had been hauled off the ad- 
jacent fields, were from ten to twenty feet wide, and were filled 
with cedars, cherry trees, allers, sassafras, briers, rotten rail-, &c . 
Gutters were washed in various places, exposing a stony barren 
soil, that looked like anything else than desirable farm land. An 
old farmer, on the day of sale, remarked in reference to the gulleys 
in the fields, that it mattered but little if all such land was washed 
away. The buildings were old and dilapidated and needed imme- 
diate repairs, to render them at all comfortable for man or beast. 
This property, however, had two redeeming traits — it was well 
wooded and well watered. 

As was the farm, so was the farmer— poor. To better this state 

462 THE SOUTHERN [August 

of things was the aim of the writer, which could not be accomplished 
without much hard work. This had to be done, and he had to do 
it. Wood had to be cut and hauled to the kiln ; lime to be burned, 
hauled and spread ; fence rows cleaned, fences made, &c. I put 
one thousand bushels of lime on two ten-acre fields, in the fall, 
before possession was given. These fields were ploughed in the 
following spring, and put in with corn, which yielded, when husked 
not over fifty bushels of sound corn altogether. From one of them, 
however, I got one hundred bushels of buckwheat, having sown some 
seed among the sparse and puny-looking stalks of corn about the 
middle of July. 

The next season both fields were put in with oats, averaging 
forty bushels per acre. I sowed clover and timothy on the oats, 
and rolled them all in together. The season was favorable and 
seed took well. I mowed these fields two summers in succession, 
and had a very good crop of hay. I then put five hundred bushels 
on one of the fields ; and in the spring planted it with corn, which 
yielded me four hundred bushels without the offal. No manure 
whatever was used for the crop in addition to the lime, excepting 
that the corn was plastered in the hill. Oats, wheat, (manured -from 
the barn-yard,) and two crops of grass followed. The ground was 
then limed again as before, and I gathered the ensuing season sixty 
bushels of corn per acre. The other fields on the farm have been 
worked as this, with about the same results, excepting the corn which 
I think has not been equaled since. There were but two acres of 
wheat on the place, when I bought it, as all the manure made 
would not cover a greater extent than this, after a sufficiency was 
taken out for a potato patch and garden. Two horses and three 
cows constituted about all the stock. Now there are five horses and 
upwards of twenty head of cattle kept. The manure they make is 
sufficient for twenty acres of ground annually. By increased pro- 
ductions of my farm, I have been enabled to pay debts, erect new 
buildings, and to give my children a good, sound education. 

So much for lime ; without this fertilizer I could not have lived. 
I have never sold more than three or four loads of manure. Seve- 
ral times the wheat crop has yielded thirty bushels per acre. I 
1 paid $31 dollars per acre for my farm and have refused $110. 

I have written thus to show that poor land may be made good 
with lime, and the increased amount of manure obtained as the 
consequence of the liberal application. Two good horses and a yoke 
of oxen were all the working stock used on the farm for several years. 
Young farmers will do well to remember that oxen will do as much 


work as horses, eat less grain, require less expensive harness, can 
be geared in half the time, can be managed more safely by boys, 
and in fine, are preferable - in very many ways. — Germantown 

Lespedeza Striata. 

A correspondent of the Richmond Christian Advocate, whom we personally 
know to be a gentleman of the highest character, who has lately travelled 
extensively in the South, writing from Spartansburg, S. C, under the date of 
the 8th of June, makes the following statement, as the result of close observa- 
tion and diligent inquiry respecting the new variety of clover known as the 
Lespedeza Striata which has so wonderfully spread over large sections of the 
South, since the close of the war : 

There is a vegetable production spreading all over this country 
which may truly be regarded as a providential blessing, I allude to the 
the Lespedeza Striata, usually termed "Japan Clover," frequently 
" Confederate clover." According to the most reliable information 
I can get, it first made its appearance at and near country stores 
about twenty years ago, in South Carolina and Georgia. It is 
supposed the seed was transported in packages of wares from Japan, 
where it is said the plant is found. It is curious as well as valu- 
able. Although it evidently belongs to the trifolium, or three leaved 
family, it can hardly claim to be a clover ; for it is not perennial at 
all, but an annual ; nor has it a head and bloom resembling any of 
the varieties of clover. Its bloom is in shape and color, though very 
diminutive, like the pea. The seed, also, I am informed, while very 
small, has the shape and appearance of the pea. It is the opinion 
of intelligent gentlemen with whom I have conversed, that it should 
rather be regarded as a pea than a clover ; although its appearance 
is very much like young clover. 

The most singular part of its history is the fact that up to the 
time of the war it had not attracted much attention, nor spread to 
any noticeable extent ; but that during the war it spread as if by 
magic all over Northern Georgia, upper South Carolina, and many 
counties of Western North Carolina. Now it pervades every por- 
tion in this extensive region. It is literally rooting out broom straw 
in all the waste lands, vegetates and springs up anywhere, even in 
gulleys, roads, and on red clay banks, in old fields and forests. It 
makes its appearance early in spring, an insignificant little plant, 
and lives through all vicissitudes of weather, wet and dry, till late 
in the fall, affording grazing for stock of all kinds. It is especially 

404 THE SOUTHREN [August 

suited to sheep, and causes them to take on more flesh and fat than 
any other pasturage in this region'. It grows mainly on uncultiva- 
ted land and never interferes with crops. Should it spring 
up on lands that are tilled, it is easily destroyed, and is not at all 
considered a pest. On lands that are rich it is ten or twelve inches 
high, and may when fully matured in growth, be cut for hay. Its 
growth is not very rapid. I have watched its growth from the first 
of April till now. I find it is not generally more than three or four 
inches high unless the land is tolerably rich. It is the opinion of 
persons who know more of its peculiarities than I do, that it will 
root out all noxious grasses — the wire grass included. It is consid- 
ered a fine improver of the soil, and makes beautiful lawns. It is 
perhaps the greatest seed producer that has ever grown upon the 
soils of this country. Once get it on the land, and it remains and 
spings up without any care or concern of the owner. As it seems 
to have spread by magic, or on the wings of the wind, you may 
soon expect to find it on the waste lands of your state." 

The Crow's Value to the Farmer. 

Whatever wrong the crow commits against the cultivators of 
the soil, may by a little pains- taking, be materially lessened or 
wholly prevented. The benefits he confers are both numerous and 
important. During the time he remains with us he destroys, so 
says no less authority than Willson, "myriads of worms, moles, mice, 
grubhs and beetles." Audubon also affims that the crow devours 
myriads of grubs every day in the year — grubs which would lay 
waste the farmers fields — and destroys quadrupeds innumerable, 
every one of which is an enemy to his poultry and his flocks. Dr. 
Harris also, one of the most faithful and accurate observers, in 
speaking of the fearful ravages sometimes wrought in our grass-lands 
and gardens by the grub of the May-beetles, adds his testimony to 
the great services rendered by the crow in keeping these pests in 
check. Yet, here in Massachusetts, regardless of such testimony in 
their favor, we have nearly exterminated the birds, and the de- 
structive grubs, having no longer this active enemy to restrict their 
growth, are year by year increasing with a fearful persistence. We 
have seen large farms within an hour's ride of Boston, in which over 
entire acres the grass was so completely undermined and the 
roots eaten away, that the loosened earth could be rolled up as 
easily as if it had been cut by the turfing-spade. In the same 
neighborhood whole fields of corn, potatoes, and almost every kind 
of garden vegetable, had been eaten at the root and destroyed. 
Our more intelligent farmers, who have carefully studied out the 
cause of this unusual insect growth, have satisfied themselves that it 
is the legitimate result, the natural and inevitable consequence of 
our own acts. Our short-sighted and murderous warfare upon the 
crow has interrupted the harmonies of nature, disturbed her well 
adjusted ballance, and let loose upon agriculture its enemies with no 
adequate means of arresting their general increase. — At. Monthly. 


8s Farming Profitable in Person County, N. C? 

To Mr. M. McGehee, of Person county, JSF. C: 

Dear Sir, — I take the liberty of addressing to you, through the 
pages of the Planter and Farmer, some inquiries and suggestions 
in regard to the special interests of our immediate friends and 
neighbors. I know you to be alive to every question connected 
with the material prosperity of this section of our State. " How is 
this prosperity to be secured ?" is a question which we are all 
prompted every day to ask. But after many and varied experi- 
ments, and after much and anxious conference, we are still com- 
pelled to repeat the question, and echo answers, u How?" 

Limiting our view to our own county, we ask, Are we improving 
in wealth ? This is a far-reaching question. At first blush, it may 
seem to be a sordid one; but we ask it here with no sordid spirit. 
We cannot stop to argue it, but venture to affirm, that there is an 
intimate and a necessary dependence of every other interest upon 
the material welfare of a community. 

" Woe to the land to numerous ills a prey, 
Where wealth accumulates and men decay," 

may be, doubtless is, a true saying ; but it is equally true, that 
prosperity in a community is the basis of all advancement, social, 
intellectual, moral, religious. Unless honest, earnest and well-ap- 
plied labor is rewarded with success, the people will, in the long 
run, either emigrate or sink into stolid apathy, ignorance, and vice. 

With an earnestness and anxiety far above all merely sordid feel- 
ings, we return to the question: Have we and our neighbors hit 
upon any means by which we can meet the claims that are upon us ? 

The question of profit and loss is ordinarily capable of an easy 
solution. The balance sheet, if fairly drawn, will decide. Unfor- 
tunately for us, in this case we have no balance sheet before us. In 
the case of every single person, he has only to offset his debits 
against his credits, to see where he stands. Let us endeavor to ap- 
ply the same test to the county taken as a whole. 

We make this general remark. This county produces no 
single article in sufficient quantities to meet its own wants, except 
bread, vegetables, and forage for its stock, and tobacco. We buy 
— shall I attempt an enumeration ? Begin at the breakfast table. 
The table itself, the chairs, the cloth, the plates, spoons, knives and 
forks, cups and saucers, castors, salt, pepper and condiments, the 
coffee, tea and sugar, and the salt fish which we eat for a relish, are 
vol. in— 30 

466 THE SOUTHERN [August 

all bought. Go out to the fields and stable yard — every implement, 
most of the horses and mules, and all the chains and harness, and 
a large part of the manure, the carriage in which you ride, the sad- 
dle and bridle, etc. etc., are all bought. Stop at the kitchen — the 
stoves, tin-ware, kettles, ovens, pails, buckets, and tubs, etc., are all 
bought. For dinner our people eat bacon, cheese, rice and mo- 
lasses, most of which, in some cases, has been bought. In many of 
our stores Ohio lard is sold to our people. Then add the lists of 
clothing and furniture, almost all of which we buy. On the same 
lists we must put the reading matter, postage, taxes (State and Fed- 
eral), insurance premiums, etc. etc These items give us some idea 
of what we are paying out of the county. They are all indispen- 
sable. Still further, count the whiskey, brandy, and other articles 
of luxury or of vicious indulgence. 

Now take the credit side. We export nothing in any considera- 
ble quantities except tobacco and wheat. I have no statistics which 
will enable me to set the bulk of sales against the aggregate of pur- 
chases, but I have a sad and sorrowful impression that the balance 
of trade is greatly against us. Take the county through, and the 
wheat crop for the last four years — 1865-'6-'7-'8 — has not been 
more than six for one, and this does not pay the cost of its own 
production. It has been a means of depression rather than of ele- 
vation. Can the tobacco interest, with all its accumulated load of 
burdens in taxation and hired labor, sustain our people ? Let one 
fact answer the question. Tobacco, to the producers in this county, 
does not pay more than two cents to each hill planted, in the gross. 
Out of this is to be paid all the cost of making, handling, trans- 
porting and selling, with the manure added. These are glowing 
statements, you say. They are no less truthful, I fear. 
A few deductions from these statements are obvious : 
1st. We are not increasing in wealth, but our poverty is becom- 
ing more and more oppressive. A few men in specially favored cir- 
cumstances may be doing well, but in the mass, we sell nothing 
with which to meet the aggregate of bought supplies. The result 
of all this is increasing indebtedness. If we could look below the 
surface of things, we should find that the credit system is working 
ruinously to many men. Many of our people owe hundreds, and 
some thousands of dollars, for supplies bought since 1864. Be- 
sides, notice the progress of dilapidation in houses, in barns, in 
stables, in inclosures, in wagons, in ditches, all showing that the 
capital — the sinews of agriculture — is wanting. Then consider the 
fact that the people have gone in upon their principal, by consum- 


ing their stock of almost every kind — sheep, hogs, oxen and cattle 
— so that many who seem to have made both ends meet, have in 
fact intrenched upon their capital somewhere. 

2d. It is as true of communities as of individuals, that if they 
spend more than they make ruin is inevitable. The evil day may 
be put off in one way or another, but after all it must come. We 
have nothing with which to meet the debts against us but land, and 
land must be sold at ruinous prices It is a question, then, for our 
leading minds anxiously to consider, What are'we to do ? A vicious 
system must be altered or abandoned. The root of the evil must 
be found out and cut out, or inevitable desolation is before us. 
Churches, schools, and enterprises of every kind will languish, and 
our young men of energy will go off. 

But what are we to do ? 

The object of this paper is rather to call out valuable suggestions 
from yourself and others, than myself to make any that are worthy 
of attention. Still, the tone of it is so gloomy that we do not feel 
willing to close without saying something which may suggest a hope 
of better results. 

1st. For most of us, the cash system is of very great importance. 
At least so far as this — let us only contract debt to secure the 
means of production. It is madness to enjoy luxury of any kind, 
at the expense of toil in coming days. 

2. We must reduce the surface in cultivation to the paying point. 
That is, we must cultivate no land when we know beforehand that 
the crop will not pay for the labor and the feeding and the manure 
and attention. If we cannot reasonably count on this, it would be 
better to go at something else. 

3. Our main resort must be to mixed husbandry as opposed to 
the old scheme of planting. Let every man study to produce every 
thing that he needs for the comfort of his family. Let grass lots 
and orchards supply cheaper food than that gotten by the plough 
and hoe. Let barter in the small products of the garden and or- 
chard and dairy pay the grocer and shoemaker. Let all idlers and 
unproductive consumers be banished from our homes. 

4. Let us slowly, and as we have the means to pay, substitute 
machinery for bone and sinew, eschewing experiments, and being 
guided by the experience of those who have been in more favored 
circumstances. We cannot afford to* be humbugged. 

5. Let us endeavor each to practice self-denial to the full extent 
to which we may be called, and at the same time to encourage and 
build up home interests. A stitch-down shoe made of leather 

468 THE SOUTHERN [August 

tanned by my neighbor, and paid for with half the hide, the shoe- 
maker also paid with a bushel of corn, or a few pounds of flour or 
bacon, suits me and my boy a great deal better than a pair bought 
from a distance. Then the money is kept at home, and home in- 
dustry is developed. 

Two other suggestions I leave to be developed by others — one, 
the relief to be gotten by the introduction of the capital and skill 
of a new population,; the other, the hope which hangs on the sub- 
ject of a railroad outlet. 

Hoping to hear from you, 

I am yours, &c, 


July 6, 1869. 

P. S. — Person county has not been chosen because the writer 
thinks it is worse than all the counties, but as a type of the border 
counties of North Carolina and Virginia — worse off than the rest 
only in this, that it is farther removed from means of transportation. 

Norway Oats, 

Editors Southern Planter and Farmer : 

In your May issue appeared an article taken from the Rural 
New Yorker, in regard to the Norway oat. It purported to be a 
statement from J. B. Garber, giving his and his neighbors' expe- 
rience with this grain — that it weighed only 24 lbs. per bushel, con- 
tained seeds of the Canada thistle, &c. &c. I did not deem it 
proper to make this communication then, as the growing crop of 
this grain I had in cultivation had not. developed itself. I desire 
now to make a plain statement of facts in regard to these oats, be- 
lieving that in so doing I am benefitting the interest of my brother 

In February last I received a circular from 'the originator and 
proprietor of these oats, D. W. Ramsdell, of Chelsea, Vermont, 
and sharing the general prejudice to Northern humbugs, I declined 
buying his seed at $10 per bushel, but wrote to him that if he 
would send me a small quantity, I would sow, reap and thresh them, 
and we would share the crop. He accepted the offer — principally 
to introduce the oats into this State — and sent me fifteen bushels. 
By mischance they did not reach me till very late in April, when 
they were hurriedly and roughly gotten in on a piece of low 
grounds. The appearance of the oat was very fine indeed — a large, 


dark, meaty grain, with very thin husk, and handling almost as 
heavy as wheat. 

Now in regard to their weight. At the depot before they were 
taken out, I got several gentlemen who were present to estimate the 
quantity held by one of the bags, and they unanimously agreed that 
it did not exceed two measured bushels. We then weighed it on 
the depot scales, and it weighed eighty-one pounds — allowing one 
pound for the bag, the oats weighed forty pounds per bushel. After 
bringing them home I measured a half bushel, and they weighed in 
a fraction of the same, nearly nineteen and a half pounds. I am 
satisfied that they weigh generally from thirty-eight to forty pounds 
per bushel, and I have no doubt that it sometimes amounts to forty- 
five pounds per bushel, as Mr. Ramsdell claims. 

The Norway oats are not as forward as my common variety sown 
one month and a half earlier, but I don't think that there is more 
than ten days difference, and I am sure, that sown at the same 
time, they are as early as the common oat. At present they have 
the appearance of being one hundred per cent, better than the com- 
mon kind — larger stalk, branching more, double as many grains to 
the head, much taller, and altogether a healthier, hardier, and bet- 
ter looking grain, and this without any extra culture, as my object 
was simply to test the true merit of the grain. 

On account of the cold and long-continued rains we have had 
this spring, the oat crop is generally a failure in this section, and 
the season has been particularly severe on flat land ; consequently, 
the Norway has not had anything like a fair chance — sown one 
and a half months too late, and drowned with cold rains. It 
has, however, not been affected by the "rust" at all, although the 
common kind sown in the same field has suffered a great deal from 
this disease. The stalk of the Norway oat, as I stated above, is 
much larger, stouter and stronger than the common oat, and from 
this fact I judge that it is less liable to be affected by bad seasons, 
or by the usual diseases that destroy this grain. 

I had almost forgotten a most serious objection of Mr. Garber to 
the Norway oat — the Canada thistle. I must confess that I do not 
know what the Canada " thistle " is ; but if it is anything like our 
thistle, or, in fact, anything uncommon, I have not yet been able 
to find it in my crop, after a most diligent search. I am certain 
that Mr. Garber was imposed upon in the purchase he made, and 
bought a spurious kind. I have been informed that there are seve- 
ral counterfeits of this grain sold in different cities North. I am 
certain of this, from the fact that I recently met a New York gen- 

470 THE SOUTHERN [August 

tleman, who told me that he had cultivated the Norway oat, and 
that it was perfectly white. Now the truth is, that the oat is almost 
black, being of a dark rich brown. 

In conclusion, Messrs. Editors, though a young farmer and an 
unpracticed writer, I make no apology to the public for this com- 
munication. Whatever benefits our agricultural community, benefits 
our State ; and that the discovery of this oat is a grand stride in 
the march of progress and improvement, I have no doubt. I 
am glad to believe that its introduction here will tend to the resus- 
citation of our old mother State. 

Very respectfully, W. B. Wootton. 

Prince Edward county, Va., July 5, 1869. 

Soil Diagnosis. 

The essential elements of all fertile soils, and the characteristic 
elements of all standard fertilizers, are now familiar to every prac- 
tical farmer who reads an agricultural journal, and such may not 
only detect, but remedy the defects of their soils without profes- 
sional aid on the one hand, or the old empirical application of ma- 
nures on the other. An essay on this subject was promised to the 
readers of the Planter on the 337th page of this volume. The re- 
sults of my own experience during the harvest of this month will 
illustrate the idea, and further expose the popular error, that the 
relative value of fertilizers can be exhibited by experiments in the 
field. Their absolute value may be illustrated by repeated experi- 
ments after it is determined in the laboratory, but nothing is more 
mischievous than that reliance on the empirical reputation of ma- 
nures which inevitably feathers the nest of the quack or the gambler 
who practices on the indolence and ignorance of men of enterprise, 
who neither use their own opportunities of observation nor employ 
experts, but accept the most convenient means. 

We may now calculate with some accuracy on the effects of cer- 
tain elements of manure, but field experiments, frequently repeated, 
must be invoked to determine the most economical limits at which 
fertilizers operate when concentrated in order to save freight and 

A number of fertilizers and new r varieties of guano were sent to 
me last Autumn, in order that their value might be thus demon- 
strated by field experiments. The intolerable trouble of cleaning 
and guaging the wheat drill for each, and the extensive area thus 
embraced, compelled a resort to the following device, which insured 


the most accurate results, and avoided all risk as to a change of 
soil, drainage, exposure, &c, &c. 

By the usual mode of " backing up " land with the plough, a strip 
of land was elevated say 15 feet wide and 100 yards long, and by 
repeated ploughing the surface soil was doubled at the width of the 
drill in the centre ; over this elevated plateau one drill row was 
traced in the centre without manure, but with the same guage that 
seeded the wheat on the rest of the field (or one and a half bushels 
per acre) — thus also illustrating the idea recently published in the 
Rural American, in my essay on "a new mode of wheat culture," 
with regard to the enormous waste of seed wheat that now prevails 
almost universally. 

As a further result of this series of experiments, I may at some 
future time publish the weight of the wheat per bushel, and esti- 
mate the product per acre when the grain is separated from the 
straw ; but any one can approximate to this result by multiplying 
the weights annexed with 82,670, dividing the result by 7,000, 
which will reduce it to pounds. 

The almost incredible facts here exhibited and repeated after sev- 
eral years' trial of various localities, should indicate some mode of 
correcting the enormous waste in the usual cultivation of wheat. 
The samples represent in each case the most uniformly filled drill 
row from about thirty different spots in the cultivation above 
described. Unfortunately, I drilled some white Mediterranean 
wheat on this whole bed, where all of the fertilizers were subse- 
quently spread, as described below. This seed was selected in New 
York, as I wished to use wheat from a colder climate. I should 
now prefer the German red, that I drilled on the rest of the field, 
as less liable to rust, although raised in Maryland, which I was 
tempted to secure at a cost of $3.25 per bushel, because of its 
extraordinary weight (64 pounds per bushel). Moreover, it seems 
better adapted to our stiff clay or white oak soil. 

Two pounds of each fertilizer were uniformly distributed on the 
drill row above described, it having been divided into sections trans- 
versely twenty feet each, by the width of the drill, say eight flukes 
or sixty-four inches, each embracing more than one hundred square 
feet ; but the Carribbean guano was applied in double that propor- 
tion, as nearly all the rest cost about $u0 per ton. It is probable 
that one-half the quantity would produce an equal influence on the 
first crop, if drilled with the seed. 

The relative value of the several fertilizers to the soil of this par- 
ticular field is manifested (we suppose) by their apparent influence 




in determining the more perfect development and vitality of all the 
wheat plants, and thus insuring a greater number on the same area, 
in spite of the extraordinary ordeal of last winter, being equally 
protected, as above, by the most perfect drainage and a double por- 
tion of surface soil. Moreover, the increased tendency to " stool," 
as evidenced by the number of heads of wheat on the same area, 
when compared with that of the best cultivations elsewhere. 

The last estimate is based on two feet of a drill row uniformly 
filled with wheat from the best part of the same field, and contigu- 
ous to the experimental plots, where the fertilizer was drilled with 
the seed at the rate of about 300 pounds to the acre, it being com- 
posed of the best super-phosphate mixed with about 20 per cent, of 
Peruvian guano. 

Phosphatic guano alone 

The same with 25 per cent, of Peruvian.... 

The same with equal weight of super-phosphate 

The same super-phosphate alone 

Another super-phosphate 

A third standard super-phosphate 

The same containing Peruvian guano 

Another said to contain blood 

Canibbean guano; 

West India guano 

Normal amount of fertilizer on rest of field drilled with seed... 
















































A— Represents the number of heads on 2 feet. 
B— The total weight of these heads. 
C— The weight of the whole crop. 
B— The average weight of the heads. 

It is clearly demonstrated that the wheat manure for the soil of 
above field is (for the present) the most soluble super-phosphate, or 
Phosphate guano combined with Peruvian guano. A good clover 
ley is no doubt the cheapest substitute for the latter. 

David Stewart, M. D. 

Port Penn, Delaware, July 18, 1869. 

To keep up the fertility of our pastures, it is evident that we 
must do our best to check the growth of such a vegetation as is re- 
jected by stock. But it is not enough to destroy the useless and 
injurious plants ; we must encourage the growth of the valuable 
ones. How shall these objects be completed? 

A faithful following of a well selected plan of general farming 
will always be followed by larger profits, at the close of a long se- 
ries of years, than will the following of that system which attempts 
to change from one specialty to another, as the prices of different 
products vary. 

He is a good farmer who makes good compost heaps ; he is a 
better who manages to have the manure applied as fast as it is 


Straight Ditches. 

Messrs. Editors, — Your correspondent from Prince Edward does 
not seem to have gotten into the merits of the question discussed as 
to the advantage of straight over crooked streams with reference to 
the bottom lands. We do not suppose that any one ever doubted 
that the small streams are governed by the same general laws that 
apply to larger ones. We do not know that either are governed by 
any other laws than to follow, in obedience to the laws of gravita- 
tion, the channels marked out for them by nature ; at least so long 
as the moving column is confined within those channels ; but the 
question at issue, is whether those channels have been so formed as 
to control the forces of the currents during freshets to the best ad- 
vantage of the bottom lands. To say that we cannot improve upon 
nature is saying nothing. Our great duty is to subdue the earth 
and make its forces subserve our purpose. 

That a body, when not acted on by any external force, if in mo- 
tion, will continue to move in a straight line, is the first law of mo- 
tion ; and the body is said to move freely when its path depends on 
the action of the impressed forces only ; while its motion is said to 
be constrained when its path is confined to a given line or surface. 
Now the only question to be decided, in our opinion, (and we do 
not presume to be able to decide it,) is whether that constrained 
path of being made to correspond with the path the body would 
move in when free, applied to our water courses, would not render 
our bottom lands less liable to the ruinous washings during freshets. 
While this rule might not apply to our large water courses, yet we 
cannot but think the condition of our creek bottoms would be much 
improved, if it were in our power to give the streams a straight, 
free course, so that the water during freshets would not be continu- 
ally breaking over their banks, in their effort to comply with the 
first law of nature. And would not this free course to the water 
render the bottom lands less liable to overflow, while the increased 
velocity and the correspondingly increased force or momentum of 
the currents would deepen the channel, and the better clear them of 
the washings and rafts ? 

In conclusion, we would like to hear from some of your corres- 
pondents the probable effect upon the bottom lands along the Mis- 
sissippi, if its channel were entirely straight from source to entrance 
into the gulf. Would the levees be more, or less liable to destruc- 
tion ? Would the channel fill up or wash deeper ? Would the 
overflows be more or less injurious to the bottom lands ? Would the 

474 THE SOUTHERN [August 

velocity of the stream be increased, and if so, would that increased 
velocity extend to the water which spreads over the bottoms during 
the freshets, so as to be more destructive in its nature ? Would not 
the overflows be much less frequent in consequence of the free and 
unobstructed course to the water, together with the probable in- 
creased depth of channel and velocity of motion ? 

Now, Messrs. Editors, as we have no pride of opinion what- 
ever to gratify in the matter, and as all we have written has 
been rather an inquiry on the subject — has been rather an inquiry 
after the views of others — we hope you will not withhold your col- 
umns from these inquiries, however idle they may appear ; espe- 
cially when you remember it "hath been said by one of old" that 
the early press of your city was once very much perplexed on the 
philosophic discussion as to the relative velocity of different por- 
tions of a coach wheel, and no doubt the discussion and decision of 
that question gave the first impetus to that philosophic inquiry, 
which has developed the thrifty village into the manufacturing city. 

J. V. B. 

July 24th, 1869. 

Experiment with Baugh's Raw Bone Phosphate. 

Messrs. Editors, — For several years previous to "the war," I 
was in the habit of using more or less Peruvian guano en my to- 
bacco and wheat crops, and always with satisfactory results. Last 
fall I was induced to try two tons of Baugh's Raw Bone Phosphate 
on my wheat. I sowed three hundred pounds to the acre on part of 
the field, and two hundred pounds to the acre on another part. I 
also used one hundred and fifty pounds of Peruvian guano to the 
acre in the same field. It was also put in with the wheat, by shovel 
ploughs, on land that had previously been turned by Watt's two- 
horse plough, and then harrowed to receive the grain. The result 
was a fair crop where I sowed the Peruvian guano, with strong 
bright straw. Where the Phosphate was used, the straw was weak 
and much broken, and the heads very badly filled. I could observe 
no difference between the portions where three hundred and two 
hundred pounds were used — all alike sorry, and certainly not as 
good as I would have expected from the same land without any fer- 
tilizer. The wheat was sowed in September. I give this as the re- 
sult of my experience with the only " manipulated " fertilizer I 
have ever used, and with the hope that further information may be 
elicited from those who have made more extensive trials not only 


with the " manipulated " Phosphate alluded to, but with its con- 
geners. I look upon the use of the best Peruvian guano at this 
distance from market as a luxury better suited to ante bellum times 
than to the present ; and to persist in the trial of the many " ma- 
nipulated manures" that are now offered to the farmers, and all at 
a high price, as worse than foolishness. We cannot afford to be 
cheated now, and rather than incur the risk, I am determined here- 
after to rely upon home-made manures — clover, lime and plaster. 
Very respectfully, 

C. M. Reynolds. 

Woodbnrn, Botetourt county, Va., July, 1869. 

Value of Super-Phosphate of Lime for Fertilizing Purposes. 

From the Farmers' Club of the American Institute, as reported 
for the American Artisan, we clip the following : 

" The question of the relative value of super-phosphate of lime 
for fertilizing purposes was called up by a letter from a correspon- 
dent, and led, among other things, to a brief statement of the char- 
acteristics of bones as variously prepared for manure. When bones 
are boiled, the gelatine, which is capable by decomposition of gene- 
rating ammonia, and has therefore a high manurial value, is re- 
moved ; hence for bone-dust unboiled bones are best. By dissolving 
the bones in sulphuric acid the phosphoric acid in them is rendered 
more soluble and capable of more easy assimilation by the plant ; 
hence, where a quick-acting phosphatic manure is required the 
super-phosphate should be used ; but where it is desired to distribute 
the effect of the fertilizer over a greater length of time, bone meal 
will be found better ; and, as is generally the case where nitroge- 
neous manurial agents are requisite, the efficacy of the bone-dust, 
for the reason herein-before indicated, will be enhanced if made 
from raw or unground bones." 

A Massachusetts farmer says he can winter his cows on steamed 
feed for one-third less expense than on dry feed, and get one-fourth 
more milk. This is the result of five years experience. 

A small or moderate sized tree at the transplanting will usually 
be a large bearing tree sooner than a larger tree set out at the same 
time, and which is necessarily checked in growth by removal. 

Spiders Beneficial. — All spiders, without exception, prey- 
largely upon insects, and chiefly upon the plant-feeding or injurious 
insects. — American Entomologist. 






firj}ira Jftaty gup[imltttral $ukty, 



On the 2d, 3d, 4th and 5th days of, November, 1869. 

CLASS I— Section I. 


1. For the best essay on the 
practical management of a farm 
of not less than 150 acres, in 
Tide-water Virginia, devoted to 
mixed husbandry. The neces- 
sary farm buildings to be de- 
scribed ; the proper division of 
the farm into fields; the force 
in teams and farm hands neces- 
sary for its cultivation ; the ro- 
tation of crops pursued ; the 
artificial grasses cultivated ; the 
green crops ploughed in for ma- 
nure; the quantity and kinds of 
stock which may be usefully 
and profitably kept upon it ; and 
all matters deemed necessary by 
the writer for its profitable and 
economical management to be 
distinctly stated. Also, the 
proper preparation of the laud 
for the different crops and pro- 
ducts, the best times, in the 
opinion of the writer, for plant- 
ing and sowing these crops, and 
the method pursued in the man- 
agement and disposal of them 
and their offal. Premium, $10 

2. For best essay as above, 
applicable to the Granite section 

of Virginia, similar premium of 40 

3. For best essay as above, 
applicable to Piedmont Virginia, 
similar premium of 40 

4. For best essay as above, 
applicable to the Valley of Vir- 
ginia, similar premium of 40 

5. For best essay on the 
manual labor presently and 
prospectively available to the 
farmers of Virginia, and the 
actual or supposed comparative 
value of the several kinds, and 
the best mode of magaging the 
same, premium of 40 

Note — One essay may embrace 
two or more of the subjects of the 
four first named, at the option of 
the writer ; and in case of superior 
merit, may claim the award over 
competing essays confined to any one 
or more of the above named divis- 
ions, provided, that but one premium 
shall be awarded to any essay. 

N F Cabell, Nelson. 
Dr. Thos. P. Atkinson, Danville. 
J Ravenscroft Jones, Brunswick. 
Wm. H. Harrison, Amelia. 
J. W. Sheffey, Smythe. 
Dr. Wm. B. Cochran, Loudon. 

Section II. 

6. For the best essay on the 
cultivation and management of 
tobacco from the plant bed to 
the warehouse, premium, silver 
medal of the value of $15 

7. For best essay on the cul- 
tivation and management of the 
ground pea, premium, silver 
medal, 15 

8. For best essay on manures, 
including lime, and the mode 
and time of applying them, with 
a statement of the quantity pro- 




per to be applied per acre, for 
each of the several crops em- 
braced in the rotation of the 
principal staple or farm crops, 
premium, 20 

9. For the best essay on 
grasses adapted to Virginia, 
with a statement of the kind of 
land proper to each variety, and 
the best mode of preparing the 
same; also the manner of har- 
vesting each crop, premium, a 
silver bowl, value 25 

10. For best essay on swine, 
premium, 20 

11. For best essay on cattle, 
premium, 20 

12. For best essay on poultry, 
premium, 10 


John R. Edmunds, Halifax. 

W. M. Tate, Augusta. 

E. T. Tayloe, King George. 

Wm. Sayre, Portsmouth. 

B. J. Barbour, Barboursville. 

Wyndham Robertson, Abingdon. 

CLASS II— Section I. 


Short Horns of native stock. 

13. Best bull 3 years old or up- 
wards, $30 

14. Second best do., 15 

15. Third best do., 

Certificate of merit. 

16. Best bull 2 years old and 
under three, 25 

17. Second best, 10 

18. Third best, 

Certificate of merit. 

19. Best bull 1 year old and 
under, 10 

20. Second best do., 5 

21. Third best do., 


22. Best cow 3 years old or 
upwards, 30 

23 Second best do., 15 

24. Third best do., 


25. Best cow or heifer 2 
years old and under 3, 20 

26. Second best do. 


27. Third best do , 


28. Best heifer under 2 years 
old, 10 

29. Second best do., 5 

30. Best calf, Certificate. 

31. Best imported bull, 50 

32. Best imported cow or 



Herefords of native stoclc. 

33« Best bull 3 years old or 
upwards, $30 

34. Second best do., 15 

35. Third best do., 

Certificate of Merit. 

36. Best bull 2 years old and 
under 3, 25 

37. Second best, 10 

38. Third best, 

Certificate of Merit. 

39. Best bull 1 year old and 
under, 10 

40. Second best do., 5 

41. Third best do., 

42 Best cow 3 years old or 
upwards, 30 

43. Second best do., 15 

44. Third best do., 


45. Best cow or heifer 2 
years old and under 3, 20 

46 Second best do., 10 

47. Third best do., 


48. Best heifer under 2 
years old, 10 

49. Second best do., 5 

50. Best calf, Certificate. 

51. Best imported bull, 50 

52. Best imported cow or 
heifer, 50 


James Newman, Orange. 

A. T. Caperton, Monroe. 
J. F. Kent, Wytheville. 

E. Rosenberger, Shenandoah. 

B. F. Grayson, Smythe. 
S. F. McGehee, Charlotte. 




Section II. 

Devons of native stock. 

53. Best bull 3 years old or 

54. Second best do., 15 

55. Third best do., 

Certificate of merit. 

56. Best bull 2 years old and 
under 3, 25 

57. Second best, 10 

58. Third best, 

Certificate of merit. 

59. Best bull 1 year old and 
under, 10 

60. Second best do., 5 

61. Third best do., 


62. Best cow 3 years old or 
upwards, 30 

63. Second best do., 15 

64. Third best do.. 


65. Best cow or heifer 2 
years old and under 3, 20 

66. Second best do., 10 

67. Third best do., 


68. Best heifer under 2 
years old, 10 

69. Second best do., 5 

70. Best calf, Certificate. 

71. Best imported bull, 50 

72. Best imported cow or 
heifer, 50 

W. B. Stanard, Goochland. 
S. T. Stuart, Fairfax. 
James Taylor, Hayfield Caroline. 
W. W. Walker, Westmoreland. 
S. M. B>ars, Glade Spring. 
Thos. A. Hardy, Norfolk. 

Section III. 
Ayr shires of native stock. 

73. Best bull 3 years old or 
upwards, $30 

74. Second best do., 15 

75. Third best do., 

Certificate of merit. 

76. Best bull 2 years old and 
under 3, 25 

77. Second best, 10 

78. Third best, 

Certificate of merit. 

79. Best bull 1 year pld and 
under, 10 

80. Second best do., 5 

81. Third best do., 

82 Best cow 3 years old or 
upwards, 30 

83. Second best do., 15 

84. Third best do., 


85. Best cow or heifer 2 
years old and under 3, 20 

86. Second best do., 10 

87. Third best do., 


88. Best heifer under 2 years 
old, 10 

89. Second best do., 5 

90. Best calf, Certificate. 

91. Best imported bull, 50 

92. Best imported cow or 
heifer, 50 

Alderneys of native stock. 

93. Best bull 3 years old or 
upwards, $30 

94. Second best do., 15 

95. Third best do., 

Certificate of merit. 

96. Best bull 2 years old and 
under 3, 25 

97. Second best, 10 

98. Third best, 

Certificate of merit. 

99. Best bull 1 year old and 
under, 10 

100. Second best do., 5 

101. Third best do., 


102. Best cow 3 years old or 
upwards, 30 

103. Second best do., 15 

104. Third best do., 


105. Best cow or heifer 2 
years old and under 3, 20 

106 Second best do., 10 

107. Third best do., 


108. Best heifer uuder 2 years 
old, 10 

109. Second best do., 5 




110. Best calf, Certificate. 

111. Best imported bull, 50 

112. Best imported cow or 
heifer, 50 

J. B. Crenshaw, Henrico. 
Geo. Watt, Richmond. 
Rev. T. W. Sydnor, Nottoway. 
D. H. Hatton, Norfolk. 
Wm. Bentley, Pulaski. 

Section IV. 

113. For best cow of any 
breed, $30 

114. Second best do., 20 

115. Third best do., 10 

Raleigh Colston, Albemarle. 
Wm. N. Radford, Bedford. 
Lewis Bailey, Fairfax. 
J. S. Stansberry, Spotsylvania. 
Wm. L Harrison, Henrico. 

Section V. 
Work Oxen. 

116. Best yoke oxen, $20 

117. Second best do., 10 

P. B. Jones, Orange. 
Dr. J. W. Blanton, Cumberland. 
S. S. Gresham, Norfolk. 
Norman Smith, Henrico. 
Wm. W. Giliner, Albemarle. 

Section VI. 
Fat Stock. 

118. Best fat bullock over 5 
years old, $30 

119. Second best fat bullock 
over 5 years, Certificate. 

120. Best fat bullock under 5 
years old, 30 

121. Second best fat bullock 
under 5 years, Certificate. 

122. Best fat cow or heifer, 30 

123. Second best fat cow or 
heifer, Certificate. 

124. Best pen of fat sheep, 3 

or more, 10 

125. Second best do., 


126. Best slaughtered mut- 
ton, 5 

127. Best pen fat hogs, 3 or 
more, 10 

128. Second best do., 5 

R. J. Glendy, Augusta. 
W. J. Glendy, Pulaski. 
Samuel Bell, Augusta. 
Jno G Moffit, Richmond. 
S. McGavock, Wythe. 

CLASS III— Section I. 


Thorough Breds. 

129. Best stallion 4 years old 
or upwards, $50 

130 Second best, 20 

131. Best entire colt, 3 years 

old and under 4, 25 

132. Second best, 10 

133. Best entire colt 2 years 

old and under 3, 15 

134. Second best, 5 

135. Best entire colt 1 year 

old and under 2, 10 

136. Second best, 5 

137. Best brood mare 4 years 

old or upwards, 20 

138. Second best, 10 

139. Best filly 3 years old and 
under 4, 15 

140. Second best, 5 

141. Best filly 2 years old 

and under 3, 15 

142. Second best, 5 

143. Best filly 1 year old and 
under 2, 10 

144. Second best, 5 
No premium to be awarded to an 

unsound animal in the above class. 

E. A. Rawlins, Mecklenburg. 
Wm. T. Johnson, Cumberland. 
Wm. Berkeley, Loudon. 
J. L. Carrington, Richmond. 
Dr. R. F. Taylor, Amelia. 




Section II. 

Roadsters — adapted to quick light 

145. Best stallion 4 years old 

or upwards, $50 

146. Second best, 20 

147. Best entire colt 3 years 

old and under 4, 25 

148. Second best, 10 

149. Best entire colt 2 years 

old aud under 3, 20 

150. Second best, 10 

151. Best entire colt 1 year 

old and under 2, 10 

152. Second best, 5 

153. Best brood mare 4 years 

old or over, 20 

154. Second best, 10 

155. Best filly 3 years old 
and under 4, 15 

156. Second best, 5 

157. Best filly 2 years old 
and under 3, 10 

158. Second best, 5 

159. Best filly 1 year old and 
under 2, 10 

160. Second best, 5 
Form and action to be considered 

as well as speed. No premium to be 
awarded to an unsound animal in the 
above class. 

Roadsters — Adapted to quick coach 

161. Best stallion 4 years old 

or upwards, $50 

162. Second best, 20 

163. Best entire colt 3 years 

old and under 4, 30 

164. Second best, 10 

165. Best entire colt 2 years 

old and under 3, 20 

166. Second best, 10 

167. Best entire colt 1 year 

old and under 2, 10 

168. Second best, 5 

169. Best brood mare 4 years 

old or over, 20 

170. Second best, 10 

171. Best filly 3 years old 
and under 4, 15 

172. Second best, 5 

173. Best filly 2 years old 
and under 3, 10 

174. Second best, 5 

175. Best filly 1 year old and 
under 2, 10 

176. Second best, 5 
Form and action to be considered 

more than speed. No premium to 
be awarded to an unsound animal in 
this class. 


Robert Edmond, Richmond. 

Wm. P. Farish, Albemarle. 

Trotter, Staunton. 

John P. Ballard, Richmond. 

Jas. Barbour Newman, Orange. 

Col. Edmund Berkeley, Prince 

Section III. 

Saddle — Adapted to the b eeding of 

improved riding horses. 

177. Best stallion 4 years 

old or over, $50 

178. Second best, 20 

179. Best entire colt 3 years 

old and under 4, 25 

180. Second best, 10 

181. Best entire colt 2 years 

old and under 3, 20 

182. Second best, 5 

183. Best entire colt 1 year 

old and under 2, 10 

184. Second best, 5 

185. Best brood mare 4 years 

old or over, 20 

186. Second best, 10 

187. Best filly 3 years old 

and under 4, 15 

188. Second best, 5 

189. Best filly 2 years old 
and under 3, 10 

190. Second best, 5 

191. Best filly 1 year old and 
under 2, 10 

192. Second best, 5 

Wm. H. Southall, Albemarle. 
J. Seddon Jones, Orange.. 
L. B. Northrop, Albemarle. 
W. W. Michaux, Powhatan. 
R. O. Morris, Louisa. 
Gen. W. H. F. Lee, New Kent. 
Thos. R. Foster, Salem, Fauquier. 




Section IV. 
Heavy Draught. 

193. Best stallion 4 years old 

or over, $50 

194. Second best, 20 

195. Best entire colt 3 years 

old and under 4, 30 

196. Second best, 10 

197. Best entire colt 2 years 

old and under 3, 20 

198. Second best, 10 

199. Best entire colt 1 year 

old and under 2, 10 

200. Best brood mare 4 years 

old or over, 20 

201. Second best, 10 

202. Best filly 3 years old 
and under 4, 15 

203. Second best, 5 

204. Best filly 2 years old 
and under 3, 10 

205. Second best, 5 
20(5. Best filly 1 year old and 

UDder 2, 10 

No premium to be awarded in this 
class to an unsound animal. 

John F. Lewis, Rockingham. 
Gen. Gilbert S. Meem, Shenan- 

Warner Woods, Albemarle. 
Josiah W. Ware, Clarke. 
D. J. A. Reid, Madison. 
N. M. Lee, Richmond. 
Wm. Gibboney, Wytheville. 

Section V. 

Matched Horses in Harness, accus- 
tomed, to be used together as such 
in pairs, for quick light draught. 

207. Best pair mares or geld- 
ings, 20 

Matched Horses in Harness, accus- 
tomed to be used together as such 
in pairs, for quick coach draught. 

208. Best pair mares or geld- 
ings, $20 

Saddle Horses under the saddle. 

209. Best mares or geldings, $20 

VOL. Ill— 31 

210. Second best, 10 
Form and action to be considered. 

Ponies and Horsemanship. 

211. Best pony ridden by a 
lad under 15 years of age, the 
horsemanship also to be consid- 
ered, Fancy Riding Bridle. 

212. Second best, 

Fancy Whip. 
flapt. John Tayloe, Stafford. 
Gen. John E. Mulford, Richmond. 
Dr. J. P. Harrison, Henrico. 
Gen. Wms. C. Wickham, Hano- 

Randolph Harrison, Goochland. 
Philip Haxall, Richmond. 

Section VI. 
Mules and Jaclcs. 

213. Best jack, $40 

214. Second best, 15 

215. Best jennet, 20 

216. Second best, 10 
The premiums to be awarded to 

none but the finest quality of jacks 
and jennets, as above classified. 

217. Best mule colt 3 years 
old, foaled in Virginia, $25 

218. Best mule colt 2 years 
old, foaled in Virginia, 15 

219. Best mule colt 1 year 
old, foaled in Virginia, 10 

220. Best mule colt, a suck- 
ling, foaled in Virginia, 5 


James Hunter, Caroline. 
Edmund Winston, Hanover. 
John B. Davis, Henrico. 
Robert Douthat, Charles City. 
Wm. H. Clarke, Halifax. 
Gray Boulware, Caroline. 

Section VII. 
Trials of Speed. 

221. First day— Premium $200— 
mile heats to harness. Open to 
horses, mares and geldings. Time 
not to exceed 2:55. 

222. Same day — For pacers — 




Premium $100 — miles heats to har- 

223. Second day— Premium $600 
— mile heats, best three in five to 
harness. Open to all trotters. Time 
not to exceed 2:40. If' three or more 
start, the second horse to receive 
$100 of the premium. 

224. Same day — Second Premium, 
$75 — mile heats. For colts and fil- 
lies three years old and under five 

225. Third day— First Premium 
$100— mile heats, for double teams. 

226. Same day — Second Premium 
$150 — mile heats, best three in five 
to harness, for horses, mares or geld- 
ings over four and under nine years 
old. Time not to exceed 3:05. 

227. Fourth day — First Premium 
$100 — mile heats, for trotters with 
running mates. 

228. Same day — Second Premium 
$75 — mile heats to harness, for colts 
or fillies three years old and under 
five years. Time not to exceed 3:35. 

All the above trials will be gov- 
erned by the regular rules of trot- 
ting ; and no premium will be given 
unless two or more start. 

All entries must be made to the 
Secretary of the Society, on or before 
12 o'clock M. the day before the 
race; and each entry must be ac- 
companied by 10 per cent, of the 
premium entered for. 

The Society reserves the privilege 
to change the above programme so 
far as to substitute one day's trials of 
speed for another, so as to meet cas- 
ualties of weather, &c. 


Thos. W. Doswell, Richmond. 

W. P. Balch, Boston. 

Avistides Welsh, Chesnut Hill, 

Chambers, Long Island. 

Col. F. G. Skinner, New York. 

T. S. Lang, North Vasselboro', 

Chas. H. Linthecum, Baltimore. 

CLASS IV— Section I. 


Fine Wools of native stock, includ- 
ing pure bred Spanish, Saxon, 
French and Silesian Merinos. 

229. Best ram, $15 

230. Second best, 8 

231. Best pen of ewes, 3 in 
number, 20 

232. Second best do., 10 

233. Best pen of lambs (ram), 

3 in number, 10 

234. Second best do., 5 

235. Best pen of ewe lambs 

3 in number, 10 

236. Second best do., 5 

237. Best imported ram, 20 

238. Best imported ewe, 20 

239. Best fleece of fine wool 
grown in Virginia, 10 

Fine Wool grades, including crosses 
of above. 

240. Best pen of ewes, 3 in 
number, $15 

241. Second best do., 10 

242. Best pen of ewe lambs, 

3 in number, 10 

John Page, Clarke. 
David J. Miller, Frederick. 
R. H. Crockett, Wythe. 
John H. Draper, Pulaski. 
Wm. L. Wight, Goochland. 

Section II. 

Middle Wools of pure native sfook, 
including Soutli Downs, Oxford 
Downs, and other pure breeds of 
middle wool. 

243. Best ram, $15 

244. Second best, 8 

245. Best pen of ewes, 3 in 
number, 20 

246. Second best do., 10 

247. Best pen of lambs (ram), 

3 in number, 10 

248. Second best do., 5 

249. Best pen of ewe lambs, 

3 in number, 10 

250. Second best do., 5 




251. Best imported ram, 20 

252. Best imported ewe, 20 

253. Best fleece of middle 
wool grown in Virginia, 10 

Win. N. Berkeley, Loudon. 
James B. Newman, Orange. 
A. D. Dickinson, Prince Edward. 
R. H. Cunningham, Culpeper. 
Wm. G. 0. White, Washington. 

Section III. 
Long Wools of native stock, includ- 
ing Bahewell or Leicester, Cots- 
wold, or New Oxfordshire and 

254. Best ram, $15 
255 Second best, 8 

256. Best pen of ewes, 3 in 
number, 20 

257. Second best do., 10 

258. Best pen of lambs 
(ram), 3 in number, 10 

259. Second best do., 5 
,260. Best pen of ewe lambs, 

3 in number, 10 

261. Second best do., 5 

262. Best imported ram, 20 

263. Best imported ewe, 20 

264. Best fleece of long wool 
grown in Virginia, 10 

Jacob Fuller, Rockbridga. 
George E. Page, Clarke. 
J. Woods Garth, Albemarle. 
R. H. Crockett, Wythe. 
Cary Breckenridge, Botetourt. 

CLASS V— Section I. 


Large breeds, including Chester, 
Russia, Bedford, Woburn, Gra- 
zier, Byfield, and all crosses 

265. Best boar 2 years old 
and over, $15 

266. Second best do., 10 

267. Best boar under 2 years 
old, 10 

268. Second best do., 5 

269. Best breeding sow over 

2 years old, 15 

270. Second best do., 10 

271. Best breeding sow under 

2 years old, 10 

272. Second best do., 5 

273. Best sow and pigs, 15 

274. Second best do., 10 

Small breeds, including Neapolitan, 
Suffolk, Sussex, Essex, Berkshire, 
Chinese , improved Hampshire, 
and their crosses 

275. Best boar 2 years old 
and over, $15 

276. Second best do., 10 

277. Best boar under 2 years 
old, 10 

278. Second best do., 5 

279. Best breeding sow over 

2 years old, 15 

■ 280. Second best do., 10 

281. Best breeding sow under 

2 years old, 10 

282. Second best do., 5 

283. Best sow and pigs, 15 

284. Second best do., 10 


R. T. Preston, Montgomery. 
Jacob Shuey, Augusta. 
J. M. McNutt, Prince Edward. 
John Roller, Rockingham. 
James C. Baker, Frederick. 

CLASS VI— Section I. 



285. Best Bramah Pootras, 
cock and two hens, $5 

286. Best Dorkings (white), 
cock and two hens, 5 

287. Best Dorkings (gray), 
cock and two hens, 5 

288. Best Cochin China, 
cock and two hens, 5 

289. Best White Buff, cock 
and two hens, 5 

290. Best White-faced Black 
Spanish, cock and two hens, 5 

291. Best Hamburg Spanish, 
cock and two hens, 5 

292. Best Poland, black and 
white crests, cock and two hens, 5 




293. Best Poland, golden, 
cock and two hens, 5 

294. Best Poland, silver, 
cock and two hens, 5 

295. Best Bantam, gold laced, 
sock and two hens, 5 

296. Best Bantam, silver, 
cock and two hens, 5 

297. Best Bantam, white, 
cock and two hens, 5 

298. Best Bantam, black, 
cock and two hens, 5 

299. Best Bantam, game, 
cock and two hens, 5 

300. Best Dominique, cock 
and two hens, 5 

301. Best Creve Cceur, cock 
and two hens, 5 

302. Best Houdans, cock and 
two hens, 5 

303. Best Le Fleche, cock 
and two hens, 5 

304. Best Leghorns (white), 
cock and two hens, 5 

305. Game, cock and two 
hens, 5 

306. Best variety exhibited 

by one party, 


Duchs, Geesej Turkeys, Pea Fowls, 
Guinea Fowls, and Pigeons. 

307. Best pair Aylesbury 
Ducks (male and female), $5 

308. Best pair Rouen Ducks 
(male and female), 5 

309. Best pair Poland Ducks 
(male and female), 5 

310. Best pair Muscovy Ducks 
(male and female), 5 

311. Best pair Bremen Geese 
(male and female), 5 

312. Best pair Hong Kong 
or African Geese (male and fe- 
male), 5 

313. Best pair Toulouse 
Geese (male and female), 5 

314. Best pair White or Col- 
ored Swan Geese (male and fe- 
male), 5 

315. Best pair Turkeys, com- 
mon or crossed, 5 

316. Best pair Turkeys, wild, 
crested, or any improved breed, 5 

317. Best pair Pea Fowls 
(male and female), 5 

318. Best pair Guinea Fowls 
(male and female), 5 

319. Best collection of Pi- 
geons, 5 

320. Best display of Poultry 

of ail sorts, 10 


Wm. M. Bagley, Lunenburg. 

Dr. James M. Smith, Pittsylva- 

Richard Powell, Goochland. 

Robert R. Jones, Brunswick. 

Edward W. Morriss, Hanover. 

CLASS VII— Section I. 


For the largest product per acre, 
of corn, wheat, oats and hay, pro- 
vided that not less than 10 adjoining 
acres be cultivated in any of the said 
crops; and provided, also, that the 
corn crop shall not be less than 60 
bushels (shelled,) the wheat 30 bush- 
els, the oats 50 bushels, and the hay 
2£ tons — premium, 

Society's Diploma. 

321. Best shipping leaf tobacco, 
growth of '68, $20 

ti^g* To be represented by samples 
of the crop in whole and prized in 

Robert H. Jones, Petersburg. 
Edward R. Johnson, Amelia. 
Hilary Harris, Powhatan. 
Thomas G. Peyton, Richmond. 
Richard S. Epes, Nottoway. 

Section IT. 

322. Best manufacturing leaf 
tobacco, growth of '68, $20 

323. Best fancy wrapper leaf, 
growth of '68, 20 

James Thomas, Richmond. 
John R. McDaniel, Lynchburg. 
Wm. R. Johnson, Petersburg. 
Thomas D. Neal, Richmond. 
N. W. Harris, Louisa. 




Section III. 

324. Best specimen of manufac- 
tured tobacco for general home con- 

Certificate of Merit. 

325. Best specimen smoking tobac- 
co, Certificate of Merit. 

Samuel B. Jennings, Danville. 
T C. S. Ferguson, Lynchburg. 
C. C. Read, Farmville. 
Lewis H. Frayzer, Richmond. 
James H. Grant, Richmond. 
B. F. Gravely, Henry. 

Section IV. 

326. Best barrel flour, $10 

327. Best bushel white wheat, 10 

328. Best bushel red wheat, 10 

329. Best bushel white corn, 

in ear or on stalk, 10 

330. Best bushel yellow corn, 

in ear or on stalk, 10 

331. Best bushel rye, 5 

332. Best bushel oats, 5 

333. Best bushel barley, 5 

334. Best bushel clover seed, 5 

335. Best bushel timothy seed, 5 

336. Best bushel herds' grass 
seed, 5 

337. Best bushel Kentucky 
blue grass seed, 5 

338. Best bushel Highland 
meadow oat seed, 5 

Exhibitors in this class must 
state in writing where the grain or 
grass or tobacco grew, kind of soil 
on which it was cultivated, time of 
sowing and planting or of ripening, 
with any peculiarity in mode of cul- 
ture. The samples exhibited to be- 
come the property of the Society. 

Wm. T. Scott, Charlotte. 

Jacob Harris, Pulaski. 

A. B. Rucker, Lynchburg. 

John Rowlett, Petersburg. 

R. B. Somerville, Richmond. 

Dr. Wm. J. Cheatham, Amelia. 

Section V. 
339. Best barrel sorghum su- 
gar, $40 

340. Best barrel sorghum 
molasses, 15 

341. Best bale of cured su- 
mac, 10 

342. Best bushel of ground 
peas, 10 

343. Best bag of cotton 
grown in Virginia, 40 

344. Best collection of seeds 
grown in Virginia, 20 

345. Best bale of corn shucks, 6 

346. Best bale of broom corn, 5 


Wm. H. Burt, Surry. 
John Emmerson, Portsmouth. 
Major Jas Sloan, North Carolina. 
George P. Tayloe, Roanoke. 
Nathaniel Matthews, Lunenburg. 

CLASS VIII— Section I. 
domestic department. 

347. Best specimen fresh but- 
ter not less than 10 lbs., $5 

348. Second best do. do., 


349. Best tub of firkin butter 
not less than 6 months old, 40 
lbs. or more, with written state- 
ment of process of packing, 20 

350. Best specimen of butter 
(10 lbs.), potted in July or Au- 
gust, with written statement of 
process, 15 

351. Best cheese not less 
than 20 lbs , Virginia make, 15 

352. Second best do , 


353. Best peck dried apples, 5 

354. Best peck dried peaches, 5 

355. Best peck dried small 
fruits, 5 

356. Best collection of can 
fruit, Virginia make, with pro- 
cess and cost of canning, 20 

357. Best bacon ham cured 
by exhibitor, with written state- 
ment of process of curing and 
cooking, 10 

358. Best specimen of honey, 
taken without killing the bees, 

and hive described, 5 

359. Best specimen of apple 
cider, 5 




360. Best barrel cider vine- 
gar, 10 


J. C Spotts, Richmond. 
Ed. Cunningham, Powhatan. 
Jed. Hotchkiss, Augusta, 
George Anderson, Montgomery. 
William Eggleston, Giles. 
R. S. Paulett, Farmville. 

CLASS IX-Section I. 


361. Best bed quilt, $5 

362. Second best do., 3 

363. Best counterpane, 5 

364. Second best do., 3 

365. Best pair home-made 
blankets, 5 

366. Best home-made carpet- 
ing, 5 

367. Best home-made rug, 3 

368. Best fine long yarn 
hose (pair), 5 

369. Best fine long cotton 
hose, 5 

370. Best half hose, cotton, 2 

371. Best knitted worsted or 
yarn shawl, from yarn prepared 

at home, 3 

372. Best knitted worsted or 
yarn hood, from yarn prepared 

at home, 2 

373. Best home-made shirt, 3 

374 Second best do. do., 
adapted for working purposes, 2 

375 Best white yarn under 
shirt, 3 

376. Best white yarn drawers, 3 

377. Best grey mixed Ken- 
tucky jeans (7 yards), 3 

378. Best five pounds white 

or grey yarn for knitting, 3 

379. Best homemade family 
bread, 5 

380. Best home-made pound 

or sponge cake, 3 

381. Best five pounds maple 
sugar, 5 

382. Best five pounds sor- 
ghum sugar, 10 

383. Best and largest variety 
home-made preserves, 5 

384. Best and largest variety 
home-made fruit jelly, 3 

385. Best and largest variety 
home-made pickles, 3 

386. Best catsup, either to- 
mato, walnut or mushroom, 5 

387. Best five pounds home- 
made family soap, the process 
of making to be described in 
writing by exhibitor, 5 

388. Best specimen of white 
or scarlet flannel, from wool 
grown and made at home, 3 

Mrs. John Stuart, Henrico. 
Mrs. James Vest, Louisa. 
Mrs. ChafEn, Henrico. 
Mrs. T. E. DeWitt, Richmond. 
Mrs. Philip Rahm, " 

CLASS X— Section I. 
ladies' fancy and ornamental 


389. Best specimen of em- 
broidery, $8 

390. Second best, 6 

391. Best specimen of worst- 
ed work, 8 

392. Second best, 6 

393. Best specimen of crochet 
work, 8 

394. Second best, 6 

395. Best specimen of shell 
work, 8 

396. Second best, 6 

397. Best specimen of leath- 
er work, 8 

398. Best specimen of needle 
work, 8 

399. Most extensive variety 
of useful, ornamental and fancy 
work, not excluding articles 
which may have had premiums 
awarded them under the above 
specifications, a premium of 10 

A Committee of Ladies to be an- 
nounced at the Fair. 

CLASS XI— Section I. 
agricultural implements. 
Trial of Reapers, Mowers, &c. 

400. For the best combined 
reaper and mower, $50 




401. For the best reaping 
machine, 50 

402. For the best mowing 
machine, 30 

403. For the best hay tedder, 25 

404. For the best hay rake, 10 

405. For the best wheat 
gleaner, 10 

406. For the best grain cra- 
dle, 3 

In addition to above premiums, 
diplomas or medals may be awarded, 
at the discretion of the committee. 


Hill Carter, Shirley, CbarlesCity. 

James B. Jones, Chesterfield. 

Col. J. M. Wilcox, Charles City. 

James F. Kent, Wytheville. 

E. A. Rawlins, Mecklenburg. 

William Benton, Loudoun. 

Dr. George Newman, Orange. 

Jf^i* The above trial was held at 
Westover June 9th and 10th, and 
the premiums will be awarded at the 
regular Fair and Exhibition. 

Section II. 

Ploughs t &c. 

These premiums are offered for 
ploughs according to work actually 
performed, and tested by the Judges 
on the field. 

407. For the best four horse 
plough, right or left, $10 

408. For the best three horse 
plough, right or left, 10 

409. For the best two horse 
plough, right or left, 10 

410. For the best one horse 
plough, 5 

411. For the bost subsoil 
plough, 5 

412. For the best hill-side 
plough, 5 

413. For the best cultivating 
plough, 5 

414. For the best scraper for 
tobacco, cotton and vegetables, 3 

415. For the best hard 
ground plough, 5 

416. For the best plough for 
digging ground peas, 5 

417. For the best plough for 
digging potatoes, 5 

418. For the best cultivator 

for corn and tobacco, 5 

419. For the best two horse 
cultivator for corn and tobacco, 5 

420. For the best harrow, 5 

421. For the best drain 
plough, 10 

James B. Junes, Chesterfield. 
Charles Friend, Prince George. 
Col. H. P. Jones, Hanover. 
R. V. Gaines, Charlotte. 
James S. Cobbs, Halifax. 

Section III. 
Drills, Broad Casters, &c. 

422. For the best drilling 
machine for grain and grass 
seed, $25 

423. For the best machine 
for broadcasting grain and grass 
seed, 20 

424. For the best corn plant- 
er, 10 

425. For the best attachment 
to drill for distributing guano 
and other fertilizers, 10 

426. For the best lime 
spreader, adapted to broadcast- 
ing lime and other fertilizers, 20 

427. For the best machine 
for sowing and covering corn at 
or immediately following the last 
tillage, either with or without 
guano, 10 


Thos. J. Randolph, Jr., Albe- 
Jacob Baylor, Augusta. 
Gen. Win. H. F. Lee. New Kent. 
Robert Polk, Henrico. 
Waller Coles, Pittsylvania. 

Section IV. 
Threshing Machine, &c. 

428. For the best horse pow- 
er, $25 

429. For the best railway 


430. For the best machine 





combined for threshing, sepa- 
rating and cleaning, 50 

431. For the best thresher 
and straw carrier, 20 

432. For the best fan mill, 10 

433. For the best grain and 
hay pitch forks, 2 

434. For the best grain 
shovel, 2 

435. For the best hand rake, 2 

436. For the best machine 
for drilling and cleaning clover 
seed, 30 

437. For best cockle machine, 10 

438. For best plantation plat- 
form scales, 10 

439. For best mower and 
reaper grinder, 5 


Dr. George B. Newman, Orange. 
Willoughby Newton, Westmore- 

Dr. John B. Harris, Powhatan. 
Thomas F. Perkins, Buckingham. 
Thomas E. Barksdale, Halifax. 

Section V. 
Hay Press, &c. 

440. For the best hay press, 
exhibited on the ground, with 
specimen of work, $20 

441. For the best hay hoist- 
ing apparatus, with specimen of 
work exhibited on the ground, 20 

442. For the best sorghum 
mill, 20 

443. For the best sorghum 
boiler, 10 

444. For the best stump ma- 
chine and rock elevator, 10 

445. For the best ditching 
machine and rock elevator, 30 

446. For the best rotary dig- 
ger and rock elevator, 3.0 

447. For the best corn shuck- 
ing machine, 25 

448. For the best clod crush- 
er machine, 20 

449. For the best field roller 
machine, 10 


E. C. Jordan, Frederick. 
Dr. P. H. Purcell, Amelia. 

C. C. Cocke, Fluvanna. 

W. Roane Ruffin, Chesterfield. 

Dr. Win. C. Staples, Patrick. 

Section VI. 
Straw Cutter, &c. 

450. For the best hay or 
straw cutter for horse power, $15 

451. For the best hay or 
straw cutter for hand power, 10 

452. For the best corn stalk 

or fodder cutters, 10 

453. For the best corn sheller 

for power, 10 

454. For the best corn sheller 

for hand, 5 

455. For the best root cutter, 3 

456. For the best boiler for 
cooking food for stock, 10 

457. For the best hominy 
mill, 5 

458. For the best cider mill 
and wine press, 5 

Dr. Wm. F. Gains, Hanover. 
Dr J. J. Dupuy, Hanover. 
Dr. Gage, Wythe. 
Atcheson Pollock, Stafford. 
Geo. E. Harrison, Prince George. 
Edward Irvine, Campbell. 

Section VII. 
Wagons, Carts, &c. 

459. For the best harvest 
and hay cart for one or more 
horses, $10 

460. For the best wagon for 
farm use, 10 

461. For the best dumping 
wagon for farm use, 10 

462. For the best tumbril 
cart (iron axle), 8 

463. For the best ox cart, 10 

464. For the best wagon body 
for hauling grain in sheaf, hay 

or straw, 5 

465. For the best sett of 
wagon harness, 5 

466. For the best cart har- 
ness, 3 

467. For the best ox yoke, 2 

468. For the best horse col- 
lar, 4 




469. For the best wheelbar- 
row for general use, 2 

470. For the best wheelbar- 
row for dirt, 2 

471. For the best wagon 
saddle, 3 

472 For the best riding sad- 
dle and bridle, 5 
Charles Old, Powhatan. 
C R Mason, Augusta. 
John R. Bryaot, Fluvanna. 
Win. D. Cabell, Nelson. 
Thos. G-. Shannon, Giles. 
W. A. Perkins, Cumberland. 

Section VIII. 
Agricultural Steam Engine. 

No awards should be made in 
this class except for machines of 
practical utility in the agriculture of 

473. For the best steam en- 
gine, applicable to agricultural 
purposes generally, $100 

474. For the best saw mill, 
suitable for farm purposes, 25 

475. For the best steam 
plough adapted for farm tillage, 300 

Gen. C P. Stone, Goochland. 
Wm B. Wooldridge, Chesterfield. 
Dr. R H. Stuart, King George. 
J. H. Dejarnette, Caroline. 
R. D Minor, Richmond. 
Wm. Allen, Henrico. 

Section IX. 
Miscellaneous Articles. 

476. For the best pump 
adapted to deep wells, $10 

477. For the best water ram 

in operation, 10 

478. For the best scoop or 
scraper, 10 

479. For the best levelling 
instrument suitable for draining 
operations, 10 

480. For the best tide gate 
(model), 10 

481. For the best farm gate, 5 

482. For the best machine 
for shearing sheep, 5 

Edward Turner, Fauquier. 
Asa Snyder, Richmond. 
Dr. R. Epes, Prince George. 
John G. Lane, Rappahannock. 
P. P. Nalle, Culpeper. 

Section X. 
Domestic Machines. 
483 For the best sowing 



484. For the best washing 
machine, 5 

485. For the best clothes 
wringer, 2 

486. For the best clothes 
boiler, 2 

487. For the best sausage 
cutter, 1 

488. For' the best sausage 
stuffer, 1 

489. For the best churn, 1 

490. For the best butter 
press, for pressing out milk and 
water, 2 

491. For the best fruit peeler, 1 

492. For the best fruit drier, 5 


Mrs. Wm. C. Knight, Richmond. 
Mrs. Thos. Branch, Richmond. 
Mrs. F Stearns, Richmond. 
Mrs F. B. Watkins, Richmond. 
Mrs. F. G. Ruffin, Chesterfield. 
Mrs. R. W. Burke, Staunton. 

Section XI. 
Domestic Implements. 

493. For the best cooking 
stove, $10 

494. For the best heating 
stove for coal, 5 

495. For the best heating 
stove for wood, 5 

496. For the best heating 
stove for chambers, 5 

497. For the best fire-place 
stove for heating two or more 
rooms, 10 

498. For the best dough 
kneader, 2 




499. For the best coffee 
roaster, 1 

500. For the best coffee 
pot, 1 

501. For the best sett wood- 
en ware, Virginia growth and 
manufacture, 5 

502. For the best sett willow 
ware, Virginia growth and man- 
ufacture, 5 

503. For the best half dozen 
ladies' work baskets, of Virgi- 
nia growth and manufacture, 5 

504. For the best sett brooms, 
Virginia growth and manufac- 
ture, 2 


Mrs. S S. Weisiger, Amelia. 

Mrs. J. Ravenscroft Jones, Bruns- 

Mrs. Chas. S. Carrington, Rich- 

Mrs. B. H. Smith, Richmond. 

Mrs. J. B. Baldwin, Augusta. 

Section XII. 
Ploughing Match. 

505. For the best ploughman, 
white, Virginia born, not over 

25 years old, with four horses, $50 

506. For the best do. with 
three horses, 50 

507. For the best do. with two 
horses, 25 

508. For the best white 
ploughman, of any age, where 
ever born, 25 

509. For the best ploughman 
with oxen, 10 


510. A special premium for 
the best ploughman, a native 
white Virginian, offered by 
Watt & Knight, to be paid in 
their ploughs to the value of . $50 

511. For the best team of 
horses or mules, not less than 
four, combining condition and 
training and equipments, paid 

in their ploughs, 30 

512. For the best team of 

two horses, same conditions, to 
be paid in same, 15 


J. Wayt Bell, Augusta. 
Wm. H Ruff, Rockbridge. 
Wm. Benton, Loudon. 
Wilson Wiufree, Powhatan. 
Wm. Shepperson, Henrico. 
R. Adams, Goochland. 

CLASS XII— Section I. 


513. Best design of farm 
dwelling, outhouses, gate ways 
and grounds, $80 


Dr. John R. Garnett, Henrico. 

Thos. T. Giles, Richmond. 

Wm. A. Pratt, Augusta. 

H. D. Bird, Petersburg. 

Wellington Gordon, Louisa. 

CLASS XIH— Section I. 


514 Best specimen of lime- 
stone, including marble and cal- 
careous tufa, $5 

515. Best specimen of marl, 5 

516. Best specimen of green 
sand, 5 

517. Best specimen gypsum, 5 


Prof. Mallet, University of Virgi- 

Col. Wm. Gilham, Richmond. 

Prof J. L Campbell, Lexington. 

Prof. R. M. Smith, Randolph Ma- 
con College. 

Prof. B. Puryear, Richmond Col- 

Section II. 

James A. Seddon, Goochland. 
Chas. B. Williams, Richmond. 
Wood Bouldin, Charlotte. 
Dr. Philip F. Southall, Amelia. 
Dr. Wm. B. Haskins, Mecklen- 


iortkutaml geprfmtnl 

JOHN M.ALLAN, Editor. 

Fall vs. Spring Planting, 

A correspondent calls our attention to an address on strawber- 
ries, read by Mr. Edwin Satterthwaite, before the Pennsylvania 
Horticultural Society, in which Fall planting of strawberries is con- 
demned, and inquiries made why we so persistently advocate it. 

Without raising any questions as to the correctness of Mr. S.'s 
views, which are doubtless suitable to the latitude in which he re- 
sides, we content ourselves with giving the reasons which render 
Fall planting preferable in Eastern Virginia and North Carolina. 
Our Autumns are late, our Winters short and mild, so that the 
roots of vines, planted in October and November, take hold of the 
ground and grow frequently during the greater part of the Winter. 
Then again, we are subject to long droughts in Summer, and these 
often occur so early in the season as to destroy vines planted in the 
Spring, before they get sufficiently well started to enable them to 
resist the dry weather. Experience is the safest guide. Ours is, 
that trees, shrubs, vines, roots, &c, but more especially the small 
fruits, succeed much better when planted in the Fall. We have 
never lost five per cent, of Fall planting, while frequently fifty per 
cent, of Spring planting has failed, because of early droughts. 

We often see August recommended in Northern journals as a 
good time to plant strawberries. This will not do here. Our Sep- 
tembers are too hot and dry, October is generally too dry, so that 
November and December are by far the best months for transplant- 
ing all kinds of nursery stock. We even plant our seedling stocks 
for budding in these months. 

In this connection another correspondent says : "I am advised to 
plant all kinds of fruit trees, except peach, in the Fall. The last, 
I am told, succeed best when planted in the Spring. Is this true ?" 

492 THE SOUTHERN [August 

Our experience does not sustain it, and we can see no reason why 
it should be so. On the contrary, peaches do as well, if not better, 
than other trees, when planted in November. 


Too little attention has been paid to the improvement and devel- 
opment of the varieties of this fruit in the South. Here in Virgi- 
nia we have been growing the Jackson and Mountain Sweet water- 
melons for years, without any attempt to produce varieties which 
will supply the defects of these, in many respects, admirable varie- 
ties. The Jackson, though highly flavored, will not bear transpor- 
tation, while the Mountain Sweet has neither size nor productiveness 
to make it all that is desired. Last season the Joe Johnson was 
introduced, and it at once took the first place. If it succeeds as 
well this year, its reputation will be firmly established. But the 
very fact that a variety, so far exceeding the others, has been pro- 
duced, should only stimulate us to further improvement in these, as 
well as in their kindred fruit, the muskmelons. Among the latter, 
the Hunter, a variety brought to notice last year, gave fine promise, 
and we await in it also the developments of this Summer to decide 
its future standing. 

We hope the Horticultural and Pomological Society will arrange 
for a melon exhibition, so that the interests of this very popular, 
and, in this section, very profitable fruit, may be fostered and 

Letter from Frederick County, Maryland. 

Dear Sirs, — Your valuable journal and home have so filled my 
thoughts during a brief absence, that I am constrained to inflict 
upon you a short letter. 

The hurry of the trip has prevented that close observation which 
might have discovered something of interest to your readers, but 
some things which are quite noticeable may be mentioned. 

First, that the Summer crops, especially corn, are much farther 
advanced here than in the city of Richmond, which is two hundred 
miles farther South. Their average time of planting corn is from 
April 25th to May 10th. Can it be that under-draining, which is 
generally and thoroughly done, makes this crop so much earlier ? 

It is also observed that the early fruits are, this season, very lit- 
tle, if any later, than with us. Early harvest apples and Hale's 


early peaches, grown here, have ripened almost simultaneously with 
the same varieties around Richmond. An extensive and intelligent 
fruit grower has suggested that this is owing to the exceptional 
mildness of the past Winter, which was not followed, as with us, by 
a cold, tardy Spring. 

In all garden products, however, they cannot compare with us — 
neither in quantity, quality, nor earliness. Indeed, the vegetables 
found in the Richmond markets are not surpassed anywhere. The 
highest degree of cultivation and fertilization which they bestow 
upon their gardens here does not enable them to compete success- 
fully with our natural advantages of soil and climate. The only 
thing we have lacked hitherto has been enterprise, and this is now 
being compelled by circumstances. As our land is so much better 
adapted to the growth of vegetables of nearly all kinds, and their 
production is, consequently, so much cheaper, it was a matter of 
surprise to find that a large canning establishment had been 
established at Frederick City. One would have supposed that 
Norfolk or Richmond would have presented superior advan- 
tages for such an undertaking. But as the proprietor has al- 
ready amassed a large fortune in the same business elsewhere, we 
must suppose that he knows what he is about. The vegetables are 
furnished by contract — certain farmers agreeing to plant so many 
acres in any required crop ; to cultivate, harvest and deliver at a 
stipulated rate per acre. For corn and tomatoes, the price agreed 
on this year is $45 per acre. 

Richmond badly needs something of this kind, and it is to be 
hoped that, if one man cannot be found with sufficient capital to 
undertake it, there may be several of the same mind. At the Fall 
exhibitions of the Agricultural and Horticultural Societies, a fine 
opportunity will be offered for making an effort in this direction. 

Yours truly, J; 

. Frederick county, Md., July 16, 1869. 

"Five Acres too Much." By Robert B. Roosevelt. Harper 
& Bros. New York. A. H. Christian & Co., Richmond. 

Messrs. A. H. C. & Co. have placed on our table this sprightly 
satire upon the " Ten Acres Enough " style of horticultural litera- 
ture with which the country is being now overrun. 

We commend the book to the earnest perusal of many who are 
entering so rapidly, if not prudently, upon the practice of horticul- 
ture. It is agreeably written, (with the exception of one or two 

494 THE SOUTHERN [August 

paragraphs in •which the gross want of refinement, indeed, exceed- 
ing coarseness, destroys the attempted wit,) and will suggest to its 
readers many ways and means by which the anticipated fortune 
may fail to be realized from the garden and fruit farm. 

That it is a burlesque, and, of course, highly exaggerated, can- 
not be denied ; but it nevertheless contains a great deal that may 
well be pondered by those who for the first time are turning their 
attention to horticultural pursuits. 

Far be it from us to throw even a straw in the way of any who 
wish to aid in developing this great branch of industry. But we 
know of no surer way of raising mountains of disappointment and 
disaster, than the constant publication of marvelous and exagge- 
rated statements of profits from an acre of this vegetable or that 

The experience of many Virginians around Richmond, during 
the present season, has doubtless convinced them that in future 
they will be more benefitted in learning from others how and why 
they failed, rather than what under exceedingly favorable circum- 
stances they have accomplished. 

Horticulture is an experience, as well as a science — the latter 
can only ascertain objects ; the former is necessary to bring about 

If writers wish to accomplish good, let them honestly detail their 
failures, as well as (or rather than) their successes, and the public 
will be vastly more benefitted. 

The American Pomological Society. 

The twelfth session of the American Pomological Society will be 
held in Horticultural Hall, Philadelphia, Pa., on the fifteenth day 
of September, 1869, commencing at 11 o'clock, A. M., and con- 
tinuing for three days. 

All Horticultural, Pomological, Agricultural, and other kindred 
institutions in the United States and the British Provinces are in- 
vited to send delegations as large as they may deem expedient ; 
and all other persons interested in the cultivation of fruits are in- 
vited to be present and take seats in the Convention. From all 
parts of the country assurances are given of cordial co-operation 
and aid. Delegates have already been appointed from several 
States, among which we may name Kansas, whose Legislature has 
nobly appropriated five hundred dollars to defray the expenses of 
her representatives. 


Among the prominent subjects which will come before the So- 
ciety at this session, will be that of the further revision of the So- 
ciety's catalogue of fruits. 

Members and delegates are requested to contribute specimens of 
the fruits of their respective districts, and to communicate in regard 
to them whatever may aid in promoting the objects of the Society 
and the science of American Pomology. 

Each contributor is requested to come prepared with a complete 
list of his collection, and to present the same with his fruits, that a 
report of all the varieties entered may be submitted to the meeting 
as soon as practicable. 

All persons desirous of becoming members can remit the admis- 
sion fee to Thomas P. James, Esq., Treasurer, Philadelphia, who 
will furnish them with Transactions of the Society, Life Member- 
ship, Ten Dollars ; Biennial, Two Dollars. 

Packages of fruits, with the name of the contributor, may be ad- 
dressed as follows : " American Pomological Society, care of Thos. 
A. Andrews, Horticultural Hall, Philadelphia, Pa." 

Arrangements have been made with several Hotels in Philadel- 
phia for a reduction in price of board. Similar negotiations with 
the various Railroad Corporations are also in progress, and of which 
due notice will be given. 

Let our State Horticultural and Pomological Society send dele- 
gates, and take steps to have the fruits of the State represented. 

How Cattle Kill Trees. 

It is a noticeable fact, that a tree ever so thrifty, and of what- 
ever kind, to which cattle gain access, and under which they be- 
come habituated to stand, will very soon die. In the case of a soli- 
tary shade tree in a pasture or by the roadside, this is of common 
occurrence. The query may have been suggested, To what is this 
owing ? In the first place, rubbing a tree by the necks of cattle is 
highly pernicious, and if persisted in, it will commonly destroy it 
sooner or later ; but if the body of the tree be cased so that their 
necks cannot touch it, death will ensue just as certainly as they are 
allowed to tramp the earth about it. But why should tramping the 
earth destroy the tree ? The reason is one of wide and important 
application to the laws of vegetable growth. The roots of plants 
need air, if not as much, yet just as truly as the leaves and 
branches. Their case is analogous to that of fishes, which, though 
they must have water, must have air also, namely, just about as 

496 THE SOUTHREN [August 

much as permeates the water. If it be all shut off, so that none 
which is fresh can get to them, they will exhaust the supply on 
hand, and then die for want of more. So the roots of trees and 
vegetables want air. When the earth is in a normal or natural 
condition, it is full of interstices and channels, by which air gets to 
them. But if the cattle are allowed to tramp down the earth, and 
the sun aids their work by baking it at the same time, a crust like 
a brick is formed, wholly impervious to the atmosphere, and the 
tree yields to its fate. So a tree cannot live if its roots are covered 
with a close pavement. They will struggle for life by creeping to 
the surface, and hoisting out a brick here and a stone there, or find 
a crack where their noses can snuff a little breath ; but if fought 
down and covered over, will finally give it up. So if a tree be 
thrust into a close clay, or its roots are kept under water, it refuses 
either to be an aquatic, or to put up with its aluminous prison. It 
will grow as little as possible, and die the first opportunity. — 
Prairie Farmer. 

Mushroom Culture. 

The first thing to be done in their cultivation is to secure ample 
supplies of suitable manure ; the best is that from the donkey sta- 
bles, the next that from mules, and the third in value is horse ma- 
nure ; and the last is in more general use because of the scarcity of 
the former. It should be thrown into heaps, and fermentation in- 
duced by frequent watering. In a short time it acquires the neces- 
sary qualities, when it becomes short, unctuous, and dark in color, 
and is fit for use. Cellars and caves are, on account of the equa- 
ble temperature, the best places in which to form your mushroom 
beds, particularly when it is designed to grow them each month in 
the year ; but almost any building will do where a temperature be- 
tween 55 and 60 can be maintained. The beds should be four feet 
wide, and of any desired length. Ordinary earth is first laid on to 
a depth of six inches ; this is packed firm with the back of the 
spade, and is then covered with six inches or more of the manure, 
and this also is packed close with the spade ; then the bed is ready 
to receive the spawn. This can be bought packed, fit for use, in 
the shape of bricks. These bricks of spawn are broken into small 
bits, and these bits are stuck an inch deep into every three inches 
space of the surface of the manure ; the whole surface is then cov- 
ered, two inches deep, with fine sifted earth, and this, too, is well 
packed down with the spade. Then a good sprinkling is given of 


water heated to 80 or 90 degrees, and within a few days the mush- 
rooms will commence to spring up, and will continue to do so for 
some months. — Turf, Field and Farm. 

Horticultural Patents. 

We are glad at last to see the patent business for horticultural 
subjects has received a quietus — on full consultation with the differ- 
ent departments and committees at Washington, it has been decided 
as not advisable, nor even possible, to adopt a satisfactory method 
for the protection of this class of home productions. 

We believe with others, that a man who originates a new vine, 
fruit, or plant, should have not only due honor, but profit for his 
long experiments ; but, really how is it to be done ? 

Horace Greeley says, if he buys a new vine from a nurseryman, 
that is his particular property, and no one else's. Now, the wood 
that the vine makes that same year is his too, and if he chooses to 
sell it, it is no one's business to hinder him — he has a perfect right 
to his own. 

We believe there is too much humbug in the revamping of old 
varieties under new names, and, as Mr. Fuller suggests, a good of- 
fice of registration, with the power of a national authority, would 
be very desirable for reference and criticism at all times ; but we 
cannot see how patents can be given, nor of what use they practi- 
cally are after being given. Virtually they are a dead letter. A 
mowing machine or a garden cultivator cannot reproduce itself; but 
vines, trees, and plants do, and their produce belongs to their 
owner, and no one else. Hence we say, that we hope the patent 
business in horticulture has at last been laid permanently on the 
shelf as a useless project. — Horticulturist. 

Grape Growers' Maxims. 


1. Prepare the ground in the fall, plant in spring. 

2. Give the vine plenty of manure, old and well decomposed ; 
for fresh manure excites growth, but it does not mature it. 

3. Luxuriant growth does not always ensure fruit. 

4. Dig deep, but plant shallow. 

5. Young vines produce beautiful fruit, but old vines produce the 

6. Prune in autumn to ensure growth, but in the spring to pro- 
mote fruitfulness. 

7. Plant your vines before you put up trellises. 

8. Vines, like soldiers, should have good arms. 

vol. in.— 32 






fa. gqikultuijal and fjomotopal jtorietg, 




On the 2d, 3d, 4th and 5th days of November, 1869, in connection 
and co-operation with the Virginia State Agricultural Society. 


For the best assortment of nursery 

stock, $30 
For best assortment of two-year ap- 
ple trees suited to Virginia, 10 
For best assortment of one-year 

peach trees suited to Virginia, 10 
For best assortment of two year pear 

trees, (dwarf and standard,) 10 
For largest and best collection of 

fruits, 30 
Second best, 15 
For larg si and best collection of ap- 
ples, 10 
Second best, 5 
For best collection of pears, 10 
Second best, 5 
For best collection of peaches, 10 
Second best, 5 
For best collection of plums, 5 
For best collection of quinces, 5 
For best collection of grapes, 10 
Second best, 5 
For best native apple, 10 
For best native grape, 5 
For best bushel of dried apples, 5 
For best bushel of dried peaches, 5 

Gep. W. H. Richardson, Richmond. 
T. J Finnie, Wytheville. 
E. R. Trumbull, Brunswick. 
Capt. B. F. Nalle, Gulpeper. 
B. F. Wilson, Surry. 
John W. Minor, Gloucester. 
Rev. W. H. Ruffner, Lexington. \ 


For best cultivated five acres in gar- 
den crops, $50 
For best acre of Irish potatoes, 20 
For best acre of winter cabbage, 20 
For best and largest collection of 
vegetables, 25 

Second best, 10 

For best dozen long blood beets, 2 

For best dozen cabbages, 5 

Second best, Certificate. 

For best half dozen cauliflowers, 5 

Second best, 


For best dozen carrots, 


Second best, 


For best dozen celery, 


Second best, 


For be*t dozen cucumbers, 


Second best, 


For best half-dozen egg plants, 2 

Second best, 


For best dozen kohl rabbi, 


Second best, 


For best dozen lettuce, 


Second best, 


F r best dozen parsnips, 


Second best, 


For best half dozen pumpkins, 2 

Second best, 


For best dozen radishes, 


Second best, 


For best dozen salsify, 


Second best, 


For btst dozen squashes, 


Second best, 


For best peck onions, 


Second best, 


For best bushel of sweet po< 

atoes, 5 

Second best, 


For best bushel of Irish potatoes, 5 

Second best, 


For best peck of peppers, 


Second best, 


For best bushel of turnips, 


Second best, 


For best dozen endives, 


Second best, 


For best dozen broccoli, 


Second best, 


For best peck of tomatoes, 


Second best, 


In competing for the premium for the 

ii, i uiuiii/mji mil) 

Fall List for 1869 will be Keady in September. 

We have given considerable attention to the preparation of small stock for dis- 
tant transportation. We send thousand of trees annually hundreds of miles. Well 
packt-d and with good roots very few die in comparison with larger trees, even 
when obtained from one's own vicinity, and »he freight (but a few cents per 100) 
adds very little to the cost. F*rmeis and Planters all over the country set out our 
trees in rows in their girdens, and the next year remove them to their final places. 
Our nurseries are well siimted for cheap transport u ion, as water freights are very 
low, and there is boat communication betweeu Philadelphia and all points South, 
and railroads inland. 

Among the hundreds of items we offer in our list will be found particularly fine 
Cherrie.-j Pears and Apples one yoar old, at from five to fifteen, cents apiece when taken 
i'i large quantity ; Apple, Quince and other stocks, and Shade Tree Seedlings. We 
give particular attention to HEDGE PLANTS, and have transplanted Norway and 
Hemlock Spruce, and American Arbor Vitce, at from three to fifteen cents each by the 
hundred or thousand. Of Osage Orange we have the first stock in the East, and 
can make it the interest of any one to buy largely of us, either for their own plant- 
ing or to sell again. 

K#"' Directions for planting, with the Catalogue, gratis. 


Germantown, Philadelphia. 


fcTOCK, and have GELDINGS of the latter for sale. 

My CATTLE are pure-bred Short Horns, and have them of all ages for sale. 

Also, ALBEMARLE IMPROVED HOGS, (a cross of Chester Whites and Ken- 
tucky Woburn,) better suited to rough fare, and the pure Chester Whites, the best, 
when well cared for. 


apl — tf Near Charlottesville, Va. 


Have on hand an assortment of SPRING CASSIMERES and SATINETS, manu- 
factured expressly for the Virginia trade. 

Farmers and Merchants furnbhed with samples by mail, and a liberal support 
solicited for a home enterprise. 

Highest Cash prices paid for Wool. 

B. C. FLANNAGAN, President. W. W. FLANNAGAN, Sec. and Treas. 

H. CLAY MARCHANT, Superintendent, 
apl — ly Charlottesville) Va» 



pian o m s 

Ware Rooms— Xo. 350 West Baltimore Street, 


(Successor to Bidgood & Riley,) 


9 A «*>• 

Constantly for sale, at Wholesale and Retail, a large and well selected stock of 
STANDARD WORKS, in every Department of Literature. Also, 

School Books, Blank Books, Paper & Stationery 

Of all kinds ; to which the attention of Country Merchants, Committees of Libra 
ries, Teachers, and Purchasers generally is invited. 

FORTES, and Agent for Wade's Printing Ink. 

Jj@p*A11 orders promptly attended to. feb ly