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Full text of "A southern record The history of the Third regiment Louisiana infantry"

A SOUTHERN RECORD. 



THE HISTORY 



THE THIRD REGIMENT 



LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 



BY W. H. TUNKAED. 



CONTAINING A 



COMPLETE RECORD OF THE CAMPAIGNS IN ARKANSAS AND MISSOURI ; THE BATTLES 

OF OAK HILLS, ELK HORN, IUKA, CORINTH ; THE SECOND SIEGE OF VICKSBCRG, 

ANECDOTES, CAMPS, SCENERY, AND DESCRIPTION OF THE COUNTRY 

THROUGH WHICH THE REGIMENT MARCHED, ETC., ETC. 



Let us then be up and doing, 
With a heart for every fate; 
Still achieving, still pursuing, 
Learn to labor and to wait." 

LONTFEI.IOW. 



BATON ROUGE, LA. : 

IP K, I IT T E ID IF 1 O :R, THE .A. TJ T H O It - 
18GG. 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1366, 
BY WILLIAM H. TUNXAED, 

In the Clerk s Office of the District Court of the- United States for the Eastern 
District of Louisiana. 




BRIG. GEN. BEN. M? CULLOCH 



DEDICATI0N. 



TO THE 

CHEEI8HED MEMORY OF THE SEVERED DEAD, AND THE UNDAUNTED 
GALLANTRY OP THE HEROIC LIVING, 



(Dflkers stiir 



THIRD REGIMENT LOUISIANA INFANTRY 



I RESPECTFULLY DEDICATE 



THIS VOLUME. 



MJL98604 



"And while adversity s chill blast 
Sweeps like a besom o er our land, 
And round her bleeding form are cast 
The hated tyrant s chains at last, 
We still possess the glorious Past 
The victories of our patriot band, 
The memories of the fields of glory, 
Which aye shall live in song and story, 
To cheer the brave and shame the coward 
By that blue heaven bending o er us, 
By that green earth spread out before us, 
By that dear fame of those who bore us, 
We are not whipped, but overpowered." 

CRIMSON. 



PEBFACE. 



THAT " truth is stranger than fiction" is an axiom as correct as it 
is trite. Thus I claim for these pages of history a strict adherence 
to truthfulness in recording actual occurrences, facts garnered 
from the great and bloody drama of the late war, around 
which lingers the halo of imperishable glory, possessing all 
the fascination and interest of romance. This record has been 
dotted down on the long and weary march, in the quiet camp, 
within breastworks and besieged strongholds, before and after the 
fierce conflict of deadly strife a correct record of events as they 
actually occurred, they are presented to the public. I have indulged 
in few fancies of the imagination, nor do I claim for this work any 
peculiar literary excellence. Simple in construction of sentences, 
unpretending in style of composition, it is given to the public for 
perusal as one of the many bloody chapters in the history of the late 
Revolution, when Southerners endeavored, by force of arms, to 
establish their independence and preserve untarnished the princi 
ples of constitutional liberty bequeathed to them by their ancestors, 
and baptized and consecrated with their best blood, from the des 
potic domination of Radicalism. The attempt has most signally 
failed ; and while the Southern people accept the issue of the strug 
gle as the unalterable decree of a mysterious Providence, such 
records of the past, as contained in this volume, will be regarded 
as priceless mementoes of heroic deeds, an imperishable epitome of 
gallant achievements, fierce conflicts, determined valor and patient 
and long-enduring suffering of those brave men who sacrificed their 
lives, devoted their energies and efforts toward the establishment 
of long-cherished principles and institutions. 

Mere history can furnish only a tithe of the vivid reality of war 
like scenes. Perusing its pages, the reader gleans only the record 
of gallant achievements, lives in the midst of scenes befitting a 
romance, and not stern realities. Thus there is a strange fascination 
in such compilations. 

War has existed almost since the creation of the universe, and its 



X PREFACE. 

records, from ancient days down to modern times, when Napoleon 
electrified the world with his brilliant victories, possess peculiar 
attractions, deep interest. Yet the reader gathers not from the 
pages of history, with its glowing descriptions and all the attendant 
pomp and glory of the struggle, its attendant horrors, the deadly 
conflict, the untold agony, the accumulated trials, the unspeakable 
suffering, unbearable anguish which accompany the dark side of 
the brilliant, fascinating picture. 

"Pis well that it should be so. There are few, however, especially 
in this suffering, ruined Southern land, who do not understand, ay, 
know from experience dearly purchased, what war means in the 
fullest signification of the term. 

This book is a chapter from its bloodiest record. It has been 
compiled amid business pursuits, and the bustle and turmoil of a 
great commercial city, in the still hours of the night and the gray 
dawn of morn ; from published letters written during the war, 
private notes, and such official documents as have been preserved 
from the ruin of defeat. The author has labored under peculiar 
disadvantages, being deprived of official records and documents, 
and has been compelled to rely on his present experience and infor 
mation, and such notes and papers as could be obtained from the 
surviving members of the Regiment. 

If he has failed in presenting as complete and interesting a work 
as the subject demands, it is a fault not of the head or heart, but 
simply as stated, because his sources for obtaining necessary infor 
mation have been not only limited, but very meagre. 

Few organizations during the late war gained a more enviable 
reputation than the Third Regiment Louisiana Infantry. 

An isolated Regiment, among other troops, its gallant men bore 
their banner triumphantly through the sulphureous canopy and 
thunder-voices of deadly conflicts, making, by their heroic deeds 
and undaunted bravery, an imperishable record on the scroll of 
time ; a name that " shall live in song and story," and of which 
Louisiana may well be proud. Its honored dead slumber neath the 
soil of many States ; its gallant survivors, with a spirit worthy their 
self-sacrificing devotion, have accepted the finale of the fierce con 
test, and are now found both in positions of honor and trust as well 
as the humbler stations of life, striving to regain and repair their 
shattered fortunes. I know of no more satisfactory labor, no 
pleasanter mental task, than this self-imposed work of commemorat 
ing the sacrifices of the former, and the unconquerable valor of the 
latter, rendered still more distinguished by the spirit with which 



PREFACE. xi 

they have received and accepted their defeat. Our revered dead 
shall live ever fresh and green in our memories, while the living are 
united in those indissoluble bonds which bind brave spirits to each 
other, cemented by common dangers and sufferings, and a stern 
defence of cherished principles. 

Imperfect as this record may be, it is given to the public not for 
criticism, but as a compilation of facts, exhibiting some of the innu 
merable thrilling scenes through which Southerners bore their ban 
ner, now furled forever scenes in which they participated as votive 
actors. 

I regret exceedingly that this record is so meagre, my sources of 
information so limited, but believe and know that I have written 
nothing save actual occurrences, which, I trust, may meet the ap 
proval and commendation of my friends and former comrades. 

W. H. TUNNARD. 
BATON ROUGE, LA., August, 1866. 



PERS ONAL. 

I DEEM it but an act of justice to myself to state, that I have 
been compelled to mention my own name, in connection with the 
several occurrences in this History, not that I desire to arrogate to 
myself any undue share of the fame gained by the Regiment, nor do 
I wish to be considered egotistical. To others is given the privilege 
of praising or condemning my actions. I was an active participator 
in the battles of Oak Hill and Elk Horn ; but. at the reorganization 
of the Regiment, May 8, 1862, was detailed in the Commissary 
Department, and followed the fortunes of the Regiment as a non- 
combatant. I do not desire my motives to be misunderstood, nor 
my record to become the subject of uncalled-for criticism. Hence 
this explanation. 

THE AUTHOR. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 

History Secession Commencement of the War The Provisional Gov 
ernmentThe Author s Connection with the Army Call for Troops . 
The Pelican Rifles, of Baton Rouge Scenes of Farewell Arrival in New 
Orleans Camp Walker Its Scenes, Duties, and Discipline, ... 21 

CHAPTER II. 

The Organization of the Regiment Colonel Louis Hebert Lieutenant-Col 
onel S. M. Hyams, Sr. Major W. F. Tunnard The First Review, May 
17th, 1861 The Departure Bound for Fort Smith The Reception at 
Baton Rouge, La. The First Funeral A Rich Joke about Guard Mount 
ing, 27 

CHAPTER III. 

Camp at Little Rock The Arsenal Gounds Arkansas Volunteers Flag 
Presentation Miss Faulkner s Address Love, 35 



CHAPTER IV. 

Camp Poteau, Arkansas Arrival of Col. Hebert The First Regimental 
Court-Martial Missouri Marching Orders First Detachment Second 
Detachment July 4th, 1S61 The March Baston Mountain " Them 
Gammons " Springs The Country Neosho Captured Arrival at Camp 
Jackson The Return of General B. McCulloch His Stratagem and Suc 
cess, . . , . 37 

CHAPTER V. 

Camp Jackson, Arkansas, July 10th, 1861 Marching Orders Bentonville, 
Arkansas Camp Stephens, Arkansas The Storm The Skirmish and 
First Prisoner Ladies Music Death Trouble The March into Mis 
souriArrival at Keatsville, Missouri The Heroic Lady, . 42 

CHAPTER VI. 

Cassville The Advance Arrival at Crane Creek Excitement The Am 
buscadeThe Position Picketing Consultation The Midnight Ad- 



XIV CONTENTS. 

vance Surprise the Yankee Picket Greer s Texas Regiment An Excit 
ing Pursuit Wilson s Creek Camp Again, 45 

CHAPTER VII. 

" Oak Hills" Marching Orders Detained August 10th, 1861 Surprised 
Going into Battle The First Struggle Success Zouave Tactics 
Led by General McCulloch His Coolness Corporal H. H. Gentles s Fatal 
Aim Siegel s Battery Captured Flanking Totten s Battery His Escape 
Death of General Lyon Victory Greer s Regiment Burying the 
Dead Regimental Official Reports General S. Price s Congratulatory 
Order Reports of Casualties Dr. W. G. Kendall Hon. W. Robson 
Anecdotes and Incidents Reports of General Price and Ben McCulloch, 50 

CHAPTER VIII. 

Leaving the Battle-Ground Wilson s Springs General Order No. 27 
The Missourians Depart Trouble with the Missouri State Guard De 
parture of Arkansians Suffering and Sickness The Yankee Camp 
The Battle-Field, August 24th, 1861 Return to Arkansas Greetings on 
the March Hospital at Mount Vernon, Missouri Visitors and a Catas 
trophe Scenery on the March Sarcoxie, Missouri Curiosity of Ladies 
A Rich Joke on the Major Floral Decorations Gran by and its Lead 
Mines Miss Kate Wilson Arrival at Camp Jackson, . . . .77 

CHAPTER IX. 

Explanation of the Return Trouble Good News Summary of the Cam 
paign " Mon Blanket" 83 

CHAPTER X. 

Camp Jackson Suffering and Disease Major Tunnard Among the Chero- 
kees Mrs. Cunningham s Kindness Major Leaves on Furlough The 
Appeal for Troops Death Monotony The Exploding Caisson Pun 
ishment for Theft General Price s Success Terrible Condition of the 
Third Louisiana Regiment The Storm, 85 

CHAPTER XI. 

Amusements Foot-Ball Clothing for Company K from Home The Reg 
iment Uniformed by Louisiana A Tribute to the Campaign Sewing 
Society of Baton Rouge, 90 

CHAPTER XII. 

The Fall Campaign Marching Orders Pay Governor Jackson of Mis 
souri and the Regiment A Fearful Tragedy Neosho Advance Re 
treat Missourians A Distinguished Conclave Excitement Halt at 
Camp McCulloch Missourians Return "Bear" "Retrograding" Cap- 



CONTENTS. XV 

tain Brusle Appointed to Muster in the Indians Departure The Coun 
try and Farms Fare Water Mr. Jones Prairies Tom Starr, Moses 
Riddle, Mr. Rubbs The Smith Family at North Fork R. Ross Weath 
er Creek Agency The Spirit of War Muster Return, . . . .94= 



CHAPTER XIII. 

Camp McCulloch Autumn Scenery Tennessee s Gift to General Price 
Visiting Returning the Call A Dilemna The Major s Return The 
Situation Consultation Preparations to Meet the Foe" Shot at by a 
Corn-shock " Voting for President The Enemy Retreat Winter The 
Cavalry Cleaning out Blockaded Roads Review and Muster General 
McCulloch s Personnel The Fall Races Seizure and Confiscation of 
Contraband " Goods " Robbery Breaking up Camp McCulloch The 
" King s English " in Arkansas, 103 



CHAPTER XIV. 

Camp Benjamin At Cross Hollows, Arkansas Winter-Quarters Jovial 
ity and Comfort Captain T. L. Maxwell, A. C. S. Punishment Rid 
ing on a Rail" Regimental Court-Martial Winter Scenes and Sports 
Christmas The Flag-PoleSocial Gatherings and Frolics Sickness 
The Hospital Orders to Prepare for Action Fire The 16th Day of 
February, 1861 The Ladies " Good-Bye "Departure, . . . .110 



CHAPTER XV. 

The Author Leaves for Fayetteville, Arkansas Companies A and K 
" Civilization Again Songs and Serenades Another Gift from Tennes 
see for the Missourians The Missouri Confederates Winter Scenery 
Christmas Toasts and Jokes Siegel s Gun Colonel J. Mclntosh s Vic 
tory over Opothleyhola Generals Sterling Price and Ben McCulloch 
The General Court-Martial, January 8th, 1862 Startling Intelligence 
General McCulloch in Richmond Colonel Hebert in Command Orders 
to March A Brilliant Winter Picture from Nature" Ducking " Rare 
Sport Re-enlistment, .......... 115 



CHAPTER XVI. 

The Early Spring Campaign Price s Retreat The Regiment on the Road 
The Enthusiasm of the Pelican Rifles and Iberville Greys Scenes of 
Terror Confidence in the Louisianians Gallantry The Skirmish Re 
treat A Night at Cross Hollows Suffering General McCulloch Ar 
rives His Reception Destruction of Camp Benjamin Fayetteville 
Terrible Pictures of War The Conflagration The Third Louisiana 
Infantry the Rear-Guard Their Spirit Punishing Cowardice Febru 
ary 22d, 1863 Endurance, 123 



XVI CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER XVII. 

Baston Mountain The Cavalry Raid Plenty and Rest Prisoners Major- 
General Earl Van Dorn The Advance Captures Rapid Marching 
Siegel Almost Surprised A Sharp Skirmish Siegel Escapes The Eve 
of Battle General B. McCulloch . 128 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

Elk Horn Tavern A Brilliant Cavalry Charge The Indians "No More 
Boom" Going Into Battle Desperate Fighting Battery Captured 
Surrounded The Enemy s Cavalry Punished Generals McCulloch and 
Mclntosh Killed Grief of the Louisianians Colonel Hebert, Major Tun- 
nard, and other Officers Prisoners Our Losses Join General Price 
His Success Sergeant W. Kinney s Account of the Battle Captain 
Gilmore s Report" Who was Captain Gilmore s Body Servant," . . 132 



CHAPTER XIX. 

The Retreat Not Whipped Starvation Horrors of the Retreat Captain 
Goode Our Officers Exchanged Their Reception at Camp Poteau 
General E. Van Dorn s Official Report A Sketch of General McCulloch 
Attack on His Operations by J. W. Tucker McCul loch s Reply in the 
Richmond WhigHLia Popularity, 144 



CHAPTER XX. 

The March Eastward Death of Lieutenant T. R. Brunat Abandonment of 
Arkansas Sickness A Mournful Burial Departure from Little Rock 
Arrival at Memphis, Tennessee The Departure Ovation Arrival at 
Corinth, Mississippi, 161 

CHAPTER XXI. 

Events at Corinth Excitement Picketing Reorganization Dissatisfac 
tion Fight at Farmington Field-Officers : Colonel Frank C. Armstrong, 
Lieutenant-Colonel J. B. Gilmore, Major Sam. D. Russell Skirmish 
ing The Rifled Battery A Stampede " Who Ran ?" Betrayed A 
Prisoner Maneuvering Retreat from Corinth Rain Mud, . . 165 

CHAPTER XXII. 

Tupelo, Mississippi General L. Hebert Furloughs Well-Digging Road- 
Building Reviews Our Flag Enthusiasm Over Victories Colonel F. 
C. Armstrong s Farewell Bathing Colonel Gilmore s Sorrel Pony 
Changing Camp Hebert s Brigade Scarcity of Provisions Trouble 
Camp Sattillo Guard-Mounting Preaching The " Owls " in Camp 
The "Peach Cobbler " The Colonel s " Owl" The Colonel s Ar 
tillery, . 173 



CONTENTS. XV11 

CHAPTER XXIII. 

The Advance Eastward Arrival at Baldwin, Mississippi Skirmishing- 
Building Railroad Proximity of the Yankees Advance on luka Its 
Capture Immense Quantity of Stores The "Rebels" Enjoy Them 
selvesFeast and Fun Picketing Enemies Hebert s Brigade The 
Battle of luka Terrific and Deadly Fighting The Third Regiment 
Almost Annihilated Captain W. Kinney s Report Doctor L. P. Black 
burn s Report The Retreat Getting the Trains in Motion General 
Price Profane The Loss of the Flag, 180 

CHAPTER XXIV. 

The Retreat to Baldwin, Mississippi Kindness of the Ladies Mrs. Belch 
er March Westward Junction with General Van Dorn s Forces The 
Battle of Corinth Success Defeat Desperate Contest Heroism 
Almost Surrounded A Narrow Escape Arrival at Holley Springs, Mis 
sissippi Terrible Condition of the Army Major Tunnard Arrives 
Major-Generals Van Dorn and Price s Reports, . 190 

CHAPTER XXV. 

Camp Rogers, Mississippi Third Brigade, Maury s Division Winter and 
Want The Mississippians Division Review Chivalry and Beauty 
Marching Orders Sufferings The Texans Remount The Ruse for 
Shelter Colonel Witherspoon s Message Defiance and Excitement The 
Retreat Camp near Abbeville, Mississippi, 210 

CHAPTER XXVI. 

The Tallahatchie Breastworks The Planter s Swine Return of Lieutenant 
Washburn A Visit from Major Tunnard Saluting the Bugle The 
Enemy Once More Retreat Warlike Scenes Oxford, Grenada Flank 
Attack Oakland Yankees Punished The Ambuscade President 
Davis and General Joe Johnston The Review, 214 

CHAPTER XXVII. 

The March to Yazoo City Down the Yazoo Snyder Bluff Defences 
The Country In the Breastworks Operations Around the Hill City 
Thunder of Artillery Review Election Captain C. A. Brusle on Gen 
eral Hebert s Staff Excitement The Gun-Boat Volunteers to Capture 
it Execution of a Deserter Fort Pemberton New Uniforms March 
ing Orders Deer Creek Expedition General Stephen D. Lee The Dew- 
Drop A Storm Hilarity A Novel Expedition In the Swamp Trans 
porting Provisions General flebert Inquisitive The Enemy Retreat 
Return to Snyder Bluff Gun-Boats Scouting Disaster to the Raft 
Grand Levee Cut General D. H. Maury s Departure Scenes at Vicks- 
burg Our Quarters The Attack Skillful Artillery Shooting Punishing 
Yankee Incendiaries A Lively Skirmish Lieutenant Cottingham 



XV111 CONTENTS. 

Wounded A Daring Feat Mortar Shells Preparations to Evacuate 
The Enemy s Victories Incidents Supplied " Themere Melitea" 
Caught in the Act Prize Fighting, 217 

CHAPTER XXVIII. 

Abandonment of Snyder s Bluff Ruin and Destruction May 17th, 1863 
May 18th The Position of the Third Louisiana Infantry General He- 
bert s Address The Response The Siege of Vicksburg Begun The 
Surrender Charge and Repulse Caves Women and Children 
" Shanghai s " Visit Mining Captain Gallagher and the Yankee Offi 
cer Flag of Truce Gun-Boat Sunk Enfield Rifles Yankees Curse Eng 
land Rations Reduced Suffering Fire The Spirit of the Third Regi 
mentStarvation The Movable Breastwork A Novel Destructive Mis 
sile It Succeeds Excitement Rain The Mortar, .... 235 



CHAPTER XXIX. 

The Twenty-eighth Day Close Shooting The Charge Defeat Proxim 
ity of the Lines The Vicksburg Whig The Rations A Terrific Cannon 
ade A Panoramic View A Death Scene Amide Hebert The Texans 
Gallantry The 100-Pounder Parrott Horrors of War The Explosion 
of June 25th The Third Lousiana Regiment Blown Up Their Gallantry 
A Fierce Hand-to-hand Struggle Hand Grenades The Sixth Mis 
souri Infantry " to the Rescue " Death of Colonel Irwin, Grandson of 
Henry Clay Scenes in the City The Soldier s Reverie Firing on the 
Catholics on Sunday Eating Mule Flesh Rats for Breakfast Delicious 
Fare Undermining Again The Shadow of DefeatThe Hospitals The 
Soldier s Burial, July 1st, 1863 The Second Explosion Horrible De 
struction of Life The Missourians again Sustain the Undismayed Louisi- 
anians Scenes at the Hospitals A Gloomy Picture Famine, . . 252 



CHAPTER XXX. 

The Surrender Indignation July 4th, 1863 Yankee Sympathy Specula 
tion Heroic Women Hospitals " Contrabands" General J. C. Pem- 
berton After the Surrender Paroles A Strange Spectacle " Home" 
Departure Demoralization Free Incidents The Cob-Wagon and 
Mortar Shell The Rules of Civilized Warfare The Wounded Shirt The 
Last Meal" I Want Ter Go Home"" Simon says, Wiggle Waggle" 
How a Commissary was done for The Midnight Raid Cabbaging Cab 
bageRunning the Gauntlet, 270 

CHAPTER XXXI. 

Songs : " Our Flag " " A Life on the Vicksburg Hills " " Do They Miss 
Me in the Trench ?" " The Rainbow of Hope " General F C. Arm 
strong s Letter-Doctor W. A. Moss Doctor P. F. Whitehead, . . 293 



CONTENTS. XIX 

CHAPTER XXXII. 

EAST OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

The Returned Veteran Freedom Home Rest, ...... 299 

CHAPTER XXXIII. 

Furloughs Expired Camp near Demopolis, Alabama Idleness The Expe 
dition Lost on the Tombigbee River The Flag from General D. H. 
Maury Enterprise, Mississippi The Camp " Paw like a Goat" Obey 
ing Orders The Conflagration Departure for Trans-Mississippi Depart 
mentExchange Consolidation The Twenty-Second Louisiana Infan 
try, Company " H " Mobile, Alabama An Incident, .... 300 

CHAPTER XXXIV. 

WEST OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

The Blockade Runners Success A Weary March Patriotism at Harri- 
sonburg, Louisiana Alexandria, Louisiana Hospitality of Rev. W. E. M. 
Linfeld, 308 

CHAPTER XXXV. 

The Parole Camp Transportation The Deserted Plantation Sugar-Cane 
Scouting A Rough Ride to Natchitoches Grand Ecore A Home at 
Mrs. L. L. McLauren s The Hostess Pleasant and Halcyon Days Doc 
tor W. B. Butler The Birthday Dinner The Dying Year-Governor H. 
W. Allen The Holidays The " Home Circle " on Tiger Island, . .310 

CHAPTER XXXVI. 

Camp at Grand Ecore The Farewell Kiss The Third Regiment Louisiana 
Infantry Assemble Dress Parade The Orders The Country Frolic- 
Interruption " All Right" Pay Furloughs Indignation Oblivion, . 315 

CHAPTER XXXVII. 

Camp near Pineville, Louisiana The Louisiana Brigade ItsMorale Quie 
tude Exchange Organization of the Third Louisiana Infantry Activ 
ity Military Executions The Ladies of New Orleans and the Confeder 
ate Prisoners General Polignac s Troops A Visit from Captains Gal 
lagher and Charles A. Brusle ... ... . 318 

CHAPTER XXXVIII. 

Ho! For Shreveport The " Lelia "Arrival at Grand Ecore A Warm 
Welcome Generosity of Prudhomme Hyams Arrival at "Lac des 
Meures" Plantation Colonel S. M. Hyams s Generosity and Hospitality 
Captain Isaacson a Prisoner The Barbecue "Farewell" Up the 
River 323 



XX CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER XXXIX. 

Camp "Boggs " Shreveport Provost Guard Details Conscripts Frost 
Concert Governor H.W. Allen s Generosity to the Regiment Recon 
struction Dissatisfaction Desertions Sufferings at Soldiers Homes, . 326 

CHAPTER XL. 

The Holidays Christmas Dinner in Camp Festivities in Shreveport 
Clothing at Last Forney s Review The Third Regiment Louisiana In 
fantry Honored The Sham Battle Reception of the Third Regiment 
General Forney Introduces them to his Division Speeches Good Cheer 
The Flag of the Regiment Robberies in Shreveport Arrival of Yan 
kee Commissioners Aspect of Camp The Regiment Protects Shreveport 
from Destruction, May 17th, 1865 The Missourians Indignation Dis 
banding Farewell of the Veterans Scenes of Destruction The Last of 
the Regiment Darkness and Gloom, ..*.... 331 

CHAPTER XLI. 

Scenes from Camp Life at Camp Boggs Music Preaching The Storm 
" Here s Your Honey " Our Quarters Our Southern Women Un 
marked Graves The Personnel of the Regiment How They Accept the 
Situation, ... - 339 



Rolls of the Companies, 351 

Appendix, 395 



A SOUTHERN RECORD. 



CHAPTER I. 

TRUTHFULNESS is the gem which gives to History its greatest 
charm ; the golden light which adorns it with mellow rays for all 
coming time. Hence in making History by our own deeds, or 
writing them for present and future ages, we should adhere strictly 
to the promulgation of facts alone. It is a lamentable circumstance 
that deep-seated, ineradicable prejudices have been ingrafted into 
every published record which has been given to the public concern 
ing the late struggle. Men must be governed by fixed principles, 
must adhere to cherished thoughts and feelings, and hence act, speak 
and write in conformity with these controlling influences. Thus the 
Northern mind thinks of the war as a gigantic rebellion to destroy 
the American Government, while the South conceived it to be a 
struggle for the preservation of constitutional freedom and their 
peculiar institutions. No one at the present time can properly deter 
mine the truth. Justice, with her nicely-balanced scales, must wait 
for historians of the next century to properly weigh facts, in order 
to discriminate between the North and South, and give to the world 
a correct record of events connected with this gigantic internecine 
strife. Fanaticism, that foul demon of discord and strife, first reared 
its hydra-head among the mountains and hills of New England. 
From an insignificant birth, it grew in strength and power until its 
influence extended over the whole North. The first aim and object 
of this foul spirit was the eradication of slavery on this continent, 
an interference with the peculiar institutions of one section by the 
powerful arm of the opposing section. In opposition to fanaticism 
grew up an equally malignant spirit in the South. As years passed 
by, feelings of hatred and enmity first engendered, grew in intensity 
and bitterness until all compromise was rejected and the sword was 
unsheathed to settle the differences which existed. Of the opening 
acts of the war it is needless to write. They are known by every 
man, woman and child in the land, and are engraven in characters 



22 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

of living light upon millions of throbbing hearts. After the election 
of Abraham Lincoln by a sectional minority, the Southern States, 
commencing with South Carolina, one by one severed the chains 
which had bound them in loving ties to the General Government. 
Banished was the starry flag which had floated so proudly over a 
great and powerful nation, forgotten were the wise teachings of a 
Washington, when fanatical hate, marshaling its hosts, was con 
fronted by a spirit of stern and uncompromising resistance. Human 
thought fails to express, in its conception of material objects, and 
their concomitant surroundings, the magnitude of this struggle. 
Neither can human mind place the blame where it justly belongs, 
without introducing amid its conceptions prejudices which, ex 
pressed, would destroy its reliability. Hence we infinitely prefer 
that others discuss this question pro and con, rather than make 
it a subject of conjecture and speculation in the pages of this 
volume. 

In December, 1860, the General Assembly of Louisiana met in ex 
traordinary session in obedience to the call of the Governor, Thomas 
O. Moore. After a short session acts were passed for the organiza 
tion of the militia, in view of the threatening aspect of affairs be 
tween the General Government and the Southern States, and also for 
a convention of representatives from the people, to assemble January 
23, 1861, to determine the future course and policy of Louisiana. 
At this time there was a state of feverish excitement all over the 
land. South Carolina had already taken the initiative, and severed 
her connection with the Federal Union, and State conventions had 
been called in Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Texas, and Georgia. 
Previous to the assembling of the Louisiana Convention, on January 
12, 1861, the United States Arsenal and Barracks at Baton Eouge 
were taken formal possession of by the State authorities, being sur 
rendered to Gov. Moore by the officer then in command, Maj. Haskin, 
of the U. S. Army. This important event was achieved without 
bloodshed, although accomplished amid intense excitement. This 
victory, so important, was gained through the instrumentality of a 
battalion from New Orleans under command of J. B. Walton, com 
posed of the Crescent City Rifles, Chasseurs-a-Pied, Louisiana Guards, 
Washington Artillery, Orleans Cadets, Sarsfield Rifles, and Louisiana 
Grays, with a Grosse Tete Company, Delta Rifles, Pelican Rifles, 
National Guards, and Creole Guards of Baton Rouge. By this 
prompt action of seizure, an immense quantity of arms, artillery, 
and munitions of war of every description, fell into the possession 
of the State. On the 23d of January, 1861, the Convention as- 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 28 

sembled, and after four days deliberation passed the ordinance of 
secession, with nearly a unanimous vote. As elsewhere, the action 
of this body was received with the wildest enthusiasm, and the 
State flag everywhere floated in the breeze. The whole State and 
land were turned from peaceful pursuits into preparations for the ex 
pected fierce, bloody, and deadly struggle. 

The arms captured at the arsenal were rapidly distributed to the 
volunteer organizations, and forwarded to the forts and troops else 
where. At Pensacola, Fla., and Charleston, S. C., the opposing forces 
confronted each other, both parties preparing for the coming strife, 
February 9th, 1861. At Montgomery, Ala., was formed the Pro 
visional Government of the Confederate States, by South Carolina, 
Florida, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia and Louisiana, a constellation 
around which clustered in radiant beauty nearly all the remainder 
of the Southern States. Jefferson Davis, of Mississippi, was chosen 
President, and Alexander H. Stephens, of Georgia, Vice-President. 
After the organization of the Confederate Government, scenes 
(familiar now as household words) full of excitement followed each 
other in rapid succession. All attempts to settle the sectional diffi 
culties and differences on some peaceable basis were rejected by the 
Federal Government, until they at last culminated, on April 12th, 
1861, into an open rupture. The U. S. Government then attempted 
to convey reinforcements and supplies into Foil Sumter, off Charles 
ton, S. C. The attempt was frustrated by the batteries under General 
Beauregard opening fire on the approaching vessel, and preventing 
her entrance. A fierce conflict took place between Fort Sumter 
and the Confederate States batteries. Thus the gun that bellowed 
out its hoarse thunder across the waters of Charleston harbor, pro 
claimed the momentous fact that war had actually begun. Peaceful 
arbitration was a failure, now that the sword must determine the 
issue. 

In obedience to instructions from Governor Moore, the Pelican 
Rifles* of Baton Rouge (organized November 25th, 1859, and of 
which the author was a member) entered upon garrison duty in the 
barracks, having already offered their services to the State. At this 

* This company was organized during the excitement occasioned by the raid 
of John Brown into Virginia, and in anticipation of a general insurrection 
throughout the Southern States. Their banner was manufactured out of rich 
blue silk and the most costly trimmings. On one side was painted the seal of 
the State, and on the reverse side the motto "Southern Rights Inviolate," 
surrounded with a golden wreath, thus proclaiming it the first Southern rights 
flag unfurled in Louisiana. 



24 A SOUTHERN EECOED. 

time nearly every steamer going down the Mississippi River was 
loaded with volunteer companies hastening to New Orleans prepara 
tory to being organized into regiments for muster into the Confeder 
ate service. Impatiently already organized companies waited for 
the call which would permit them to hasten to the seat of war. It 
came at last, in the following proclamation of the Governor : 

"HEADQUARTERS LOUISIANA MILITIA, ) 

Adjutant- GeneraVs Office, N. 0., April 21, 1861. j" 
" The President of the Confederate States having made a requisi 
tion upon the Governor of Louisiana for five thousand infantry to 
serve for twelve months, unless sooner discharged, (this force being in 
addition to the three thousand already called for,) I, Thomas O. 
Moore, Governor of the State of Louisiana, do hereby proclaim that 
volunteers will be received in accordance with the requisition of the 
President of the Confederate States, each company to be composed 
of not less than sixty-four privates, four sergeants, four corporals, 
one captain, one first lieutenant and one second lieutenant. Volun 
teers will be received by companies, battalions or regiments. Those 
offering will address Adjutant-General M. Grivot, at New Orleans, 
stating the force of their command, will remain in the parish in 
which they form, perfect themselves in drill, etc., and hold them 
selves in readiness at a moment s notice, subject to the orders of the 
Governor. The Governor appeals to the patriotic citizens of this 
State to respond to this proclamation for the protection of the rights 
of the State. By order of 

" THOMAS O. MOORE, 
" Governor and Commander-in- Chief . 
U M. GRIVOT, Adjutant and Inspector- General, La." 

The above order was promptly and eagerly responded to, and the 
question was not who shall go, but rather who will remain at home. 
Creole and American, Celt and Gaul, old and young, rich and poor, 
all were ready for the fray. Southern blood had already been shed, 
and Southern hearts grew strong in defence of their homes and fire 
sides, which sheltered the dear ones. Among the first companies 
who responded to the proclamation of the Governor was the Pelican 
Rifles of Baton Rouge. Its departure was marked by one of those 
indescribable scenes which were just at this period so numerous in 
the land, and which each survivor of our early volunteers remem 
bers as if emblazoned in the heavens in characters of living light. 
What one among the thousands who then went forth to peril life and 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 25 

limbs in defence of cherished principles, does not remember the last 
farewell of loved ones, the clasp of soft arms around manly forms, 
the unspeakable eloquence of tearful eyes, the hopeless despair of 
whose glance followed him through long and weary campaigns, and 
came back to memory amid the din, uproar, and carnage of battle ? 
Yet there was no flinching in those loving hearts, no appeals to 
remain, and Omnipotence alone could note the wild agony of the 
loved ones, as, with warm kisses and cheerful words, they bade sons, 
husbands, brothers and fathers go forth to the defence of their own 
sunny land. Such scenes may well become a part of history, for they 
exhibit the deep patriotism which actuates the human heart in the 
hour of peril to the land we love. 

On the broad stream of the turbid Mississippi away from homes, 
from friends parted, "it may be for years, it may be forever;" 
mingling with like brave spirits actuated by the same feelings of 
patriotic devotion to country and principle. In New Orleans at last ; 
the great throbbing commercial emporium of the State and the 
South, swelling the list of companies already present. All is bustle 
and activity. Ladies in countless numbers throng the galleries, and 
strong-hearted men crowd the banquets to greet with smile and cheer 
each organization as it marches with steady tread over the paved 
streets. 

The spot selected as a place of encampment for the rapidly arriving 
volunteers is known as the Metairie Course, then called Camp Walker. 
Some of the companies which were to form part of the Third 
Regiment Louisiana Infantry had already arrived, and others on 
the way when we reached the camp. What a scene for one unaccus 
tomed to witness a regular encampment ! In the early part of May 
upward of 8,000 troops were present, and still rapidly arriving. It 
was a somewhat different affair from holiday soldiering at home. 
The enforcement of strict and rigid military discipline, the daily 
compulsory drill, guard mounting and duty, caused many a high- 
toned and independent spirit to rebel against restrictions upon per 
sonal liberty. Yet the duties imposed were bravely, and at last 
cheerfully, discharged. It was a spectacle both strange and new to 
see young men, reared amid the luxuries and comforts at home, whose 
ffiir faces and white hands had never been soiled by contact with 
work, doing soldier duty, bending over the camp-fire, preparing 
meals or boiling coffee, tears streaming from their eyes, caused by vil 
lainous smoke from these same camp-fires, carrying wood and water, 
and when the clay s duties were completed, lying down upon a board 
or the bare ground with knapsack or billet of wood for a pillow, 
2 



26 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

and a single blanket for a covering. Without doubt visions of soft 
beds and downy pillows haunted the young soldier s first dreams in 
camp. The companies present were immediately organized into 
regiments, preparatory to being mustered into the Confederate States 
service and proceeding to the seat of war. 



CHAPTER II. 

IN May, 1861, the Third Regiment, Louisiana Infantry, was organ 
ized by the selection of the following officers : Colonel, Louis 
Hebert; Lieutenant-Colonel, S. M. Hyams, Sr., of Natchitoches ; 
Major, W. F. Tunnard, of Baton Eouge. 

FIELD AND STAFF. Quartermaster, Theodore Johnson, Iberville ; 

Commissary, T. L. Maxwell ; Surgeon, Bridelove ; Chaplain, 

Rev. P. F. Dicharry ; Adjutant-Lieutenant, J. Harvey Brighani. 

The regiment was composed of the following companies : 

Company "A," Iberville Greys : Captain, Charles A. Brusle ; First 
Lieutenant, T. C. Brown ; Second Lieutenant, T. G. Stringer ; Second 
Lieutenant, Jr., T. R. Verbois ; Non-Commissioned Officers and Pri 
vates, 87 strong. 

Company " B," Morehouse Guards : Captain, R. M. Hinson ; First 
Lieutenant, W. S. Hall ; Second Lieutenant, D. C. Morgan ; Second 
Lieutenant, Jr., J. H. Brighani ; Non-Commissioned Officers and 
Privates, 124 strong. 

Company u C," Winn Rifles : Captain, David Pierson ; First 
Lieutenant, Asa Emanuel ; Second Lieutenant, William Strother ; 
Second Lieutenant, Jr., W. C. Lurry ; Non-Commissioned Officers 
and Privates, 89 strong. 

Company " D," Pelican Rangers, No. 2 : Captain, J. D. Blair ; 
First Lieutenant, S. D. Russell ; Second Lieutenant, "VV. E. Russell ; 
Second Lieutenant, Jr., S. M. Hyams, Jr. ; Non-Commissioned Officers 
and Privates, 77 strong. 

Company " E," Morehouse Fencibles : Captain, J. F. Harris ; First 
Leiutenant, P. C. Brigham ; Second Lieutenant, P. Brooks ; Second 
Lieutenant, Jr., W. D. Brigham; Non-Commissioned Officers and 
Privates, 78 strong. 

Company " F," Shreveport Rangers : Captain, J. B. Gilmore ; First 
Lieutenant, W. A. Lacey ; Second Lieutenant, O. J. Wells ; Second 



28 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

Lieutenant, Jr., A. Jewell ; Non-Commissioned Officers and Privates, 
115 strong. 

Company " G," Pelican Rangers, No. 1 : Captain, "W. W. Brezeale ; 
First Lieutenant, "W. O. Brezeale ; Second Lieutenant, G. W. Hal- 
loway ; Second Lieutenant, Jr., L. Caspari ; Kon-Cornmissioned Offi 
cers and Privates, 157 strong. 

Company " H," Monticello Rifles : Captain, J. S. Richards ; First 
Lieutenant, W. D. Hardiman ; Second Lieutenant, W. H. Corbin ; 
Second Lieutenant, Jr., Cy. A. Hedrick ; Non-Commission ed Officers 
and Privates, 107 strong. 

Company u I," Caldwell Guards : Captain, W. S. Gunnell ; First 
Lieutenant, J. C. Evans ; Second Lieutenant, L. B. Fluitt ; Second 
Lieutenant, Jr., T. J. Humble ; Non-Commissioned Officers and 
Privates, 116 strong. 

Company " K," Pelican Rifles : Captain, John P. Viglini ; First 
Lieutenant, John B. Irvin ; Second Lieutenant, F. D. Tunnard ; 
Second Lieutenant, Jr., F. R. Brunot ; Non-Commissioned Officers 
and Privates, 87 strong. 

Total strength of the Regiment : Field Officers, 8 ; Line Officers, 
40 ; Non-Commissioned Officers, 92 ; Privates, 945. Grand to 
tal, 1085. 

The various companies were mustered into the State service in 
April and May, and the Regiment was formally received into the 
Confederate service on the 17th day of May, 1861. 

This body of stalwart men were from the country parishes, repre 
sented as follows : Company "A," Plaquemine ; Companies " B" and 
"E," Morehouse; Company "C," Winn; Companies " D" and 
" G," Natchitoches ; Company " F," Cadclo ; Company " H," Car 
roll; Company "I," Caldwell; and Company " K," East Baton 
Rouge. 

This Regiment, numbering 1085 men, were the bone and sinew, 
some of the choicest spirits from the parishes which they represented, 
mostly young men, with the glow of health upon their features and 
the fire of a patriotic devotion and enthusiasm sparkling in their 
clear eyes ; men who went forth actuated by a firm conviction of 
right, earnest adherents to principle ; whose brave spirits met the 
issue squarely, and would not quail or flinch when the day of danger 
and trial arrived. Strange as it may seem, this organization of 
robust young men were commanded by field officers whose heads 
were streaked with gray men of age and experience. 

General Louis Hebert was born in the parish of Iberville, La., 
March 13, 1820. He graduated at Jefferson College, St. James Parish, 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 29 

La., December 10, 1840 ; entered West Point as a cadet in June, 
1841, and graduated third in his class, in all his studies, on June 19, 
1845. He was appointed Brevet Second Lieutenant in the Corps of 
Engineers, U. S. A., and served as such until February, 1846, when, 
on account of sickness in his family, he resigned from the army to 
superintend his father s affairs. 

In 1853 General Hebert was elected State Senator, from the sena 
torial district then composed of the parishes of West Baton Rouge 
and Iberville, for a term of four years, but only served in the ses 
sion of 1854 and 1855. During the session of 1855 he was appointed 
and confirmed State Engineer, which office he accepted, and resigned 
his Senatorship. He continued State Engineer (being repeatedly 
re-appointed) until the office was abolished in 1859. In 1860 he 
was elected a member of the Board of Public Works of the State ; 
but the Board was abolished by the Legislature in 1861. From 
1856 to 1861, General Hebert held the commission of Colonel of 
Militia of East Baton Rouge. Such is the brief outline of the his 
tory of the first colonel of the Third Louisiana Infantry. After the 
fall of Vicksburg, General Hebert was stationed at Wilmington, 
N. C., where he constructed fortifications which exhibited his splen 
did talents for engineering, an occupation in which he was skilled, 
and for which he was pre-eminently fitted by education. 

As an officer, he was a strict disciplinarian, punctilious in enforc 
ing a rigid adherence to all orders ; as a man, he was genial and 
kind in manner and conversation. The old members of the Third 
Regiment may remember now how exacting the Colonel was in 
demanding a ready and close adherance to his orders, and how .they 
writhed under the rule of his iron hand. Yet, after ail, the Colonel 
became a great favorite with the Regiment, which manifested its 
feelings on every favorable opportunity. As the leader of a regi 
ment or the commander of a brigade, General Hebert was cool, and 
exhibited his military training and education. 

Lieutenant-Colonel S. M. Hyams, of Natchitoches, was born in 
Charleston, S. C., September 1C, 1813, and was a student at Charles 
ton College under President Adams. He came to New Orleans in 
1830, and was a student at Centenary College, Jackson, up to 1834. 
Went to Natchitoches in 1834 and returned to New Orleans the suc 
ceeding year. He held the office successively as U. S. Deputy 
Surveyor and Clerk of the District Court, Natchitoches. In 1846, 
on the call of Governor Johnson for six mouths men to serve in 
Mexico, he raised a company, and was Captain in the Fifth Regi 
ment, Louisiana Volunteers, but was mustered out the same year 



30 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

T-* 

with his regiment and returned home. He was then elected Sheriff, 
which office he filled for six years, and was afterward U. S. Marshal, 
Western District of Louisiana, and Register of the Land Office. 

He brought to New Orleans a company of fine men, showing con 
clusively the confidence reposed in his ability as a tactician and 
soldier. His military experience needed no better recommendation 
than the fact that he was chosen as captain of Company " Gr." 

As a man, Colonel Hyanis is hospitable to a fault. Both lawyer 
and planter, his name is known far and near for his generosity and 
affability. Often have we known the Colonel to forget his position 
and rank in his feelings as a man. His men were always pleasantly 
welcomed to his quarters. Though almost a confirmed cripple from 
the rheumatism, the Colonel exhibited his devotion to his country 
by thus braving the hardships of a soldier s life while subject to an 
almost incurable disease. We never think of Lieutenant-Colonel 
Hyams but what the heart grows warm with eloquent feelings. 

Major W. F. Tunnard, a native of New York, born in N. Y. City 
on June 17, 1809, came to the South many years ago, and was iden 
tified with it in heart, feeling and principle. A mechanic by trade, 
he built up a fortune and reputation by close application to business, 
gaining an enviable reputation for fairness and truthfulness in all 
his business relations. Of untiring energy, activity and persever 
ance, firm and resolute in his views and plans, unbending in his 
prejudices and determination, of iron nerve and great activity, he 
linked his fortunes to the young Confederacy, and went forth to 
battle in defence of his home and the land of his choice. He gath 
ered about him the flower of Baton Rouge, the choice spirits of 
the city, mostly young men just entering the threshold of manhood. 
Devotedly attached to military pursuits, with years of experience as 
a tactician, he was eminently fitted to command. His voice was 
trumpet-toned, clear and distinct. As a soldier and commander, 
Major Tunnard was beloved by the whole Regiment, among the 
survivors of which are now some of his warmest friends. He was 
a strict disciplinarian, but when released from his position as com 
mander, mingled freely with the men, often joining in their sports 
and games. Like Colonel Hyams, he left family and business be 
hind him, and, with his sons, joined the early volunteers. Colonel 
Hyams had three sons in the Regiment and Major Tunnard two. 

Under men of years and experience such as these, was the Third 
Regiment organized for active service. 

On the 7th of May there was a grand review of all the troops in 
Camp Walker by Governor Moore and staff. The affair was grand 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 31 

and imposing at this early date, and attracted an immense concourse 
of people, the majority of whom were our fair Southern ladies, 
always present with their bright smiles and cheering words to 
encourage the young volunteers. Among the participants in this 
were the following companies, afterward belonging to the Third 
Kegiment : A, C, D, F, G, I and K. The men at this period were 
becoming initiated into the mysteries of camp life, and accustomed 
to its daily routine, which were by no means light. At early dawn 
the reveille roused them from slumber. Roll being called, the com 
panies were dismissed to put their quarters in order. Breakfast at 6 
o clock A. M. In the mean time ten men from each company were 
detailed to serve in the main guard, to enforce discipline and guard 
the camp. A police guard was also appointed, who cleaned up all 
dirt and filth about the tents, brought water for the company, wood 
for the cooks, and, in fact, kept everything in order and cleanliness. 
During the afternoon, squad drills. Who does not remember those 
squad drills, and the double-quick around the race-track ? The boys 
became equal to racers. Living on a race-course made the disease 
for running contagious. At sundown, company muster for roll-call 
and supper. Tattoo at 9 o clock p. M., when the men retired to 
their respective tents ; fifteen minutes later, three taps of the drum 
compelled every light to be extinguished, and the camp was in dark 
ness and quietude. These duties were conducted with regularity 
and precision, and performed with a promptitude and cheerfulness 
surprising in men who had never known restraint, and were fresh from 
the luxuries and pleasures of home. Everything necessary for the 
comfort and convenience of the troops was furnished, and laugh, 
jest and song attested the general satisfaction and good feeling of 
the men. 

On the 17th of May, 1861, the Third Regiment was mustered into 
the Confederate service by Lieutenant PfifFer, and shortly afterward 
receiving marching orders, prepared to leave for a field of active 
service. All was bustle and confusion, and the men were in high 
spirits, full of enthusiasm and joviality at the prospect of the change. 
To them anything seemed preferable to a longer stay in the low, 
marshy grounds of Camp "Walker, with its myriads of mosquitoes 
and other inconveniences. At 4 P. M., May 20th, the regiment 
formed and took up the line of march for the river. There is some 
thing solemn yet soul-stirring in the solid tramp of a large body of 
armed men, as they depart for some scene of deadly strife, with 
ensigns fluttering in the breeze, and the strains of martial music or 
the roll of the stirring drum. From Camp Walker the march of the 



32 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

regiment was one grand ovation, the balconies of the houses, ban 
quets and streets being crowded with countless thousands of men, 
women and children, bidding the brave boys farewell. Many knew 
that it was a last farewell to the enthusiastic and noble soldiers of 
this command, and they duly appreciated the heartfelt expressions 
of sympathy showered upon them, and the emotion manifested upon 
many fair and lovely faces. As the regiment passed down Canal 
Street, a gentleman remarked : " There goes a body of men who 
will make their mark on the battle-field." Let history prove the 
correctness of this spontaneous sentiment. On the arrival of the 
regiment at the river, they were marched on board the steamers 
Arkansas, Arkansaw, Indian No. 2 and Countess, their destination 
being announced as Fort Smith, to aid in checking a threatened 
invasion of our Western border. This announcement was a sad blow 
to the expectations of a large mass of the regiment, as they antici 
pated being ordered to Virginia. " Man proposes, but God disposes." 
At 9 P. M. the regiment cheered its last adieu to New Orleans. The 
next evening the boats arrived at Baton Rouge. It having been 
telegraphed from New Orleans that the regiment would reach Baton 
Rouge early on the 21st, the population turned out en masse to give 
them a reception and take a last farewell of Company K, Pelican 
Rifles. The Arkansas having on board the Monticello and Pelican 
Rifles and Iberville Greys alone, touched at the landing, and a half 
hour was given the members of Company K to bid a final adieu to 
friends and relatives. The landing was packed to its utmost capa 
city with citizens of both sexes ; the scene that ensued beggars all 
description. Language grows weak and impotent in the attempt to 
portray these early parting scenes of the war. The warm embrace, 
the streaming eyes, agonizing expressions of sorrow, loving words 
of cheer and advice, the whispered prayers for the loved ones safety, 
the tokens of love and remembrance are memories as ineffaceable as the 
footprints of time. Regardless in the abandonment of the excite 
ment and deep feelings of the moment, the members of the different 
companies were seized by the ladies, kissed and embraced indiscrim 
inately. Those soft, encircling arms, and the warm pressure of loving 
lips, lingers with the soldier to his dying hour, and often comes back 
with irrepressible influence to the hearts of those who survive the 
dread carnage of battling hosts. Many a sly joke and rich story did 
the members of Companies A and H have to relate concerning their 
reception at Baton Rouge. Fair countrywomen ! twas but the 
expression of your woman s sympathy, deep affection and abiding 
hope, in the cause which your loved ones had espoused. Tuesday, 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 33 

May 21st, will long be remembered by those who participated in 
those parting scenes. Many of those warmly throbbing hearts now 
mouldering lie neath the green sod of distant States in the soldier s 
humble grave, but the survivors cherish the memory of those by-gone 
scenes with deep reverence and holy affection. At the expiration of 
the given time the men promptly returned to the boat and cheered 
their adieu. As the steamers passed up the river, an innumerable 
number and variety of fire-works were discharged, presenting a 
beautiful and exciting spectacle, the farewell offering of a large num 
ber of patriotic ladies who had collected for this purpose. Scenes 
similar to this occurred at Plaquemine Lake. Providence, where- 
ever the regiment had friends and relatives, while the river banks at 
every plantation, hamlet, city and village poured forth their inhabi 
tants to wave an adieu to the men. Such enthusiasm, unanimity of 
sentiment and feeling, was never before known and exhibited. On 
the 23d the boats landed opposite Vicksburg to await the arrival of 
Colonel Hebert, who had been detained in New Orleans. The next 
day left this city and proceeded up the river. Again a halt was 
made at Napoleon, in expectation of the arrival of the Colonel. Up 
to this period little had occurred to mar the hilarious spirits and 
reckless joviality of the men. Several men had died on the trip, 
the joint effects of a change of diet and manner of living. Here 
occurred the first funeral of the regiment, being the burial of one of 
the members of Company F, private Thomas D. Smith. As the sad 
and silent procession followed a comrade in arms to his final resting- 
place, gloomy thoughts arose in many a manly bosom. How mourn 
ful thus to die among rough but sympathizing comrades, with no 
soft hand to wipe the death-damp from the clammy brow, no loved 
voice to whisper words of hope and consolation to the departing 
spirit ! Yet such was " the beginning of the end " to many a sorrow 
ful scene through which the soldier is destined to pass. Now scenes 
of suffering and death have not blunted the feelings or familiarized 
the inind with human agony, and the heart must needs go out in 
tender sympathy toward the far-distant relatives of the buried 
volunteer. 

" WAS IT THE SEKGEANT OR CAPTAIN ?" 

When the regiment left New Orleans, on board the steamer 
Countess were Companies F, G and D, commanded by Lieutenant 
Colonel S. M. Hyams, Lieutenant A. W, Jewell, appointed Adjutant, 
and Sergeant Kinney, Sergeant-Major of the detachment. "This 
was our first starting out in search of war," says the narrator, " and 
2* 



34 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

to illustrate how much we knew of military matters, I will relate the 
following circumstance. The boat on which we were, the Countess, 
as stated, had on board three companies. We had our regular guard, 
officer of the day, officer of the guard, and guard mounting every 
morning. One evening, not long after leaving New Orleans, Captain 
Gilmore (afterward Colonel) made the following remarks to his 
Orderly Sergeant : 

" Sergeant, you have put all the company on guard now, and I 
think it is about time you were going on guard yourself." 

" Very well, Sir," replied the Orderly, who went and seized a gun, 
relieved the man on duty, and stood guard there all night, no one 
coming to relieve him. In the morning the Lieutenant of the Guard 
asked the Sergeant if he was Orderly of Company F ? The Sergeant 
replied, " Yes, Sir." 

" How comes it, then," inquired the Lieut.. " that you are on guard ?" 

" Why," replied the Sergeant, " the Captain ordered me to stand 
guard." 

" But the Captain has no right to order you on guard," and with 
this remark the Lieutenant turned on his heel and left, laughing 
heartily. The Orderly goes up stairs, went into the cabin, rushes up 
to his Captain, who was reading a paper, and very quietly remarked : 
" Captain, you have no right to put me on guard." 

" I have, Sir," said the Captain, jumping up from his chair, u and 
I wish you to distinctly understand that I am Captain of this com 
pany, and when I order a man to go on guard or do anything else, 
he shall do it." 

" I ll go and see Colonel Hyams, then," replied the Sergeant. 

" Yery well, Sir," spoke the Captain, and sat down. 

The Sergeant went to Colonel H., who was reading in the ladies 
cabin, and asked him if the Captain could put him (the Sergeant) 
on guard. 

" No, Sir," replied the Colonel, u you are the man to make the 
guard detail in your company." 

This information tickled the Sergeant, who straightway went to 
his Captain and said : 

" Captain, I am the man who puts every man on guard in the 
company, and I ll put you on next." 

The Captain dropped his paper, jumped up and went to the 
Colonel. What the conversation was between them I have not the 
means of knowing, as the Captain would never speak on that subject. 
Anyway, the Captain and the Sergeant never ordered each other on 
guard afterward. 



CHAPTER III. 

LITTLE ROCK. 

ON the 27th of May the regiment reached Little Hock, Ark. The 
journey toward Fort Smith was brought to a sudden termination 
by a request from the authorities that the regiment should quarter 
here, as rumors were prevalent that Jim Lane, of Kansas notoriety, 
was about to assail this post. The next day the command was dis 
embarked, under the leadership of Col. Hyams, and marched to the 
former U. S. Arsenal grounds, already occupied by a large body of 
State troops, composed of cavalry and artillery, and a large force of 
militia, armed with the formidable long-barreled rifle, which ren 
dered the backwoodsmen of Kentucky so famed in the first revolu 
tionary struggle. The same spirit which throbbed and pulsated in 
every Southern heart animated the volunteers of Arkansas, who 
hastened to the common defence, armed and equipped with every 
conceivable weapon. The camp here was very comfortable. The 
grounds beautifully laid out, and shaded by large and handsome 
oaks. The Arsenal buildings at Little Rock are fine and of durable 
construction. Here a number of the regiment were detailed to con 
struct cartridges for the command, which was soon amply supplied 
and prepared to meet the foe. While camped here they participated 
in one of those thrilling and affecting scenes which were then so 
frequent, but yet always full of deep interest, being the occasion of 
a flag presentation to a company of Churchill s cavalry regiment, by 
one of Little Rock s fairest daughters, Miss Faulkner. TJie address 
of the lady orator was one of peculiar force and unsurpassed elo 
quence. Her clear, ringing voice was heard by all, and her manner 
and words sent a thrill of enthusiasm to every manly bosom, attested 
by frequent, loud and prolonged bursts of applause. As the regi 
ment marched from the grounds each company, in passing the splen 
did banner, greeted it with hearty cheers, which were lustily returned 
by the cavalry troop, in loud huzzas for the Louisiana regiment. 

The ladies of Little Rock daily visited the encampment, and 



36 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

seemed to be particularly fond of certain members of the Regiment. 
Unsurpassed for beauty of person, refinement, and elegance of man 
ners, it was not surprising that they became the objects of devoted 
admiration. Could the green turf or the rustling trees o erhead 
have spoken, many would be the tales they would unfold of the soft 
pressure of loving hands, and whispered words of affectionate de 
votion. Alas ! for the forgotten charms of those fair ones, so recently 
left in sorrow and tears 1 



CHAPTER IV. 

CAMP POTEAU. 

ON the 5th of June the Regiment embarked for Fort Smith. The 
river having risen suddenly, rendered unnecessary a march to Fort 
Smith, much to the relief of the men. They reached Fort Smith on 
the 7th, and became a portion of the Western army under the com 
mand of Gen. Ben McCulloch, the famed Texan Ranger. The camp 
selected was an open field, one and a half miles south of Fort Smith, 
near a stream called Poteau, on the neutral ground that separates 
Arkansas from the Indian Territory. The Poteau is a deep, sluggish 
stream, with rocky banks, and empties into the Arkansas River above 
Fort Smith. This stream afforded a fine bathing-place for the men, 
and its precipitous rocky banks, crowned with huge trees, furnished 
abundant shade for those disposed to lounge beneath their protect 
ing shelter. The men suffered severely from the heat, day succeed 
ing day, clear and sultry, with scarcely a breath of air to stir the 
leaves of the trees or cool the suffocating atmosphere. Early in June, 
General McCulloch returned to Fort Smith from the Indian Nation, 
where he had been, endeavoring to form an alliance with the differ 
ent tribes and obtain their assistance in achieving Southern inde 
pendence. His mission had proved unsuccessful, and another con 
ference had been appointed to take place on the 20th of June. The 
success of his mission was anxiously watched, as the tribes on the 
Western frontier would prove powerful and desirable auxiliaries at 
this period. General McCulloch at this time did not visit the Regi 
ment, although the men were eager to see their future leader, already 
so famed as a Ranger on the Texan frontier. Rumors were prevalent 
that Lane, of Kansas notoriety, was about advancing on Fort Smith. 
His approach was anticipated, and his coming would have received 
a warm welcome. The force encamped near Fort Smith at this period 
consisted of two infantry and one cavalry regiment, and a company 
of artillery. 

Col. Hebert reached the Regiment in company with Surgeon Breed- 
love on the 16th. He inaugurated immediately a strict observance 



38 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

of military rules and regulations. The regiment imagined Col. 
Hyams had been rigid enough as a commander, but he was surpassed 
by Col. Hebert. Drills and parades, a close adherence to issued or 
ders were required and enforced, until the regiment b.ecaine equal 
to regulars in the discharge of their various duties. Of course num 
bers complained at the rigid discipline to which they were subjected, 
having scarcely gained the important knowledge as yet that the first 
duty of a soldier was obedience to orders, and next, that troops were 
the most efficient when most thoroughly trained. On the 19th of 
June the first Regimental Court-Martial was convened, consisting of 
Col. Louis Hebert, President ; Maj. Tunnard, Lieuts. Evans, Lacy, 
Russell, and Hyams ; Capt. C. A. Brusle, Judge Advocate ; Lieut. F. 
Brunot, Recorder. The measles became epidemic in camp, and sev 
eral of the regiment died and found soldiers graves. All through 
the hot and sultry days of June did the regiment remain at Camp 
Poteau, watching anxiously the incipient stages of the war breaking 
out in various portions of the land, destined at last to sweep with 
simoom blast over the whole country. During this time Missouri 
awakened from her lethargy like a giant aroused from deep slumber, 
and her hardy sons began to prepare for the coming struggle. Bound 
in the strong chains of military power with foes within and without 
her borders, yet did she not quail, cower or shrink from the issue. 
With the uprising of the Missourians, the troops of the Confederate 
States began hastening to the rescue. The Third Regiment received 
marching orders on the 28th of June, and began active preparations 
for their first march. Generals Lyon and Lane were both reported 
approaching Fort Wayne, our probable destination. Gen. McCul- 
loch s little army was rapidly increasing in strength. His activity, 
energy and determination infused life into all the command. The 
men grew hilarious over the anticipation of an active campaign, and 
rejoiced at the prospect of a change from an idle camp life to scenes 
more worthy the spirit which had led them thus far from home. On 
the first of July the First Division, comprising companies A, B, G, D, 
and F, left Camp Poteau under command of Col. S. M. Hyams, en 
route for some point northward, and camped opposite Yan Buren. 

2nd. Crossed the river and marched four miles. 3rd. Marched 
eighteen miles and camped at Natural Dam. 4th. Marched twenty 
miles, crossed Bastoii Mountain, and camped at Evansville. To-day 
Col. Hyams made a neat, appropriate and patriotic speech, of which 
no record was preserved. 5th. Marched twenty-two and one-half 
miles, and camped at Cincinnati. 6th. Marched twenty miles to 
" Double Springs." 7th. Marched fourteen miles to Maysville. Dr. 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 39 

Kendall was sent to Gen. McCulloch with a special dispatch, an 
nouncing the arrival of the detachment, and the desire to push for 
ward and join him, if needed. He returned the next day, having 
ridden 114 miles in 23 hours. 

THE MARCH TO CAMP JACKSON. 

The Second Division, comprising Companies C, E, H, I and K, 
under command of Major W. F. Tunnard, left Camp Poteau on the 
morning of the 4th. This was to be no holiday parade amid peace 
ful pursuits as in days gone by. At 2 o clock A. M. the reveille 
aroused the men from their slumbers. Knapsacks for the first time 
were strapped on shoulders all unused to the burden. The shelters 
which had so long protected the men from the scorching summer s 
heat were given to the flames, and amid the wildest enthusiasm the 
men commenced the march. What a day of severe experience it 
was, all who participated therein will remember. Shoulders grew 
sore under the burden of supporting knapsacks ; limbs wearied from 
the painful march, and feet grew swollen and blistered as the troops 
marched along the dusty road. Knapsacks were recklessly thrown 
by the roadside or relieved of a large portion of their contents, 
under the intolerable agony of that first march of only nine miles. 
Each morning the detachment was aroused at 1 A. M., and taking a 
hasty meal, consisting of crackers and a cup of coffee, resumed the 
march. The country was rocky, and the road hard and precipitous. 
The men, however, soon became accustomed to marching, and bore 
its hardships with fortitude and courage, keeping up their spirits with 
songs and jokes as they tramped steadily forward. The myriad of 
stars looked down on a strange scene indeed as this band of reckless 
soldiers proceeded on their journey. On the 6th crossed Bastoii 
Mountain. The ascent was gradual, yet in places precipitous, the 
road being a mass of solid rock, full of boulders and loose stones, 
extending upward for a distance of over a mile. The Major dis 
mounted and led the men on foot, and while they threw themselves 
in perfect exhaustion on the ground to recover breath after the severe 
climb, exhibited his activity by a run and jump over some of the 
prostrate forms. The descent was very precipitous, and the boys 
made it at a double-quick, being unable to halt after getting under 
full speed. Few are there who do not remember that rocky ascent, 
and if you wished to make one of the Louisianians swear for weeks 
afterward, say " Baston Mountain." It was quite sufficient to make 
expletives innumerable. The detachment usually arrived in camp 
between 10 A. M. and 12, thus making their marches mostly before 



40 A SOUTHERN RE COED. 

the heat of the day. When the day s journey was ended, the men 
generally threw themselves upon the ground and slept long and 
soundly ere thinking of preparing anything to eat. Just beyond 
Baston Mountain is the village of Cincinnati, near which the detach 
ment encamped. They were enthusiastically greeted by the inhabi 
tants, and here, as elsewhere along the route, the people exhibited 
their generosity by furnishing the men with milk and eatables, such 
as they possessed. These acts of kindness were appreciated and 
properly acknowledged. While in camp, near Cincinnati, a great, 
awkward specimen of the young Arkansas backwoodsman came into 
camp. He strolled among the men with mouth and eyes wide open, 
with a mingled expression of amazement, astonishment and curiosity 
on his features, much to the amusement of the men. His wonder 
increased the longer he looked about him, until, approaching a piece 
of artillery, his thoughts found expression. Addressing a Captain 
standing near by, he remarked : 

" I say, meister, what is this yere thing ?" 

" A cannon," remarked the Captain, as the muscles of his mouth 
began to twitch and his eyes to sparkle. 

" A cannon, hey ! What in thunder is that fur, I should like to 
know ?" 

The Captain explained. 

His eyes grew yet more distended. 

" Well," drawing a long breath, " that s the darndest gun ever I 
seed." 

Coming close to the Captain with an inquiring glance and whis 
pered words, he asked : 

" I say, meister, how much might that ere cannon cost ?" 

" Oh. about two dimes like these," said the officer, pulling them 
from his pocket. 

" Is them ere dimes ? well I declare ;" and, turning away, he 
walked off muttering indistinctly the words " cannons " and " dimes." 
Of course the conversation was frequently interrupted by explosions 
of laughter from the circle who had gathered around this green 
specimen of genus homo. 

One redeeming feature of this rocky, mountainous country was the 
number of cold springs. Ah ! it was a delicious luxury after the 
day s weary march to bathe the swollen, feverish and blistered feet 
in these streams of clear, sparkling water ; a luxury scarcely to be ex 
changed for a place in Mahomet s paradise. 

While on the march information reached us that a fight had taken 
place at Neosho, Mo. General McCulloch had surprised the enemy 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 41 

there, and Captain Mclntosli, Adjutant-General of the Brigade, 
reported the capture of eighty Federals, one hundred rifles, and 
seven wagons loaded with provisions. Two of these wagons were 
loaded with delicacies and provisions sent by the ladies as a Fourth 
of July dinner for the Republicans. Unfortunately both the intended 
recipients and their luxuries fell into the hands of the Southerners, 
and the Union dinner well suited rebel appetites. 

The country, as you approach Maysville, becomes more level, until 
finally it merges into a fine open rolling prairie land, interspersed 
with belts of timber. The detachment reached Camp Jackson at 10 
A. M. on the morning of the 9th, in fine spirits and health, having 
performed their first march from Fort Smith, a distance of over 100 
miles, over a rough road and in the midst of the hottest season of 
the year, in five days and two hours. The first detachment were in 
camp awaiting our arrival. Quite a number of troops, comprising 
artillery, infantry and cavalry, had already assembled here from 
Missouri and Arkansas. McCulloch arrived at the same time from his 
trip to Neosho, bringing with him abundant evidence of his success. 
It was here the Third Regiment had their first good look at their 
leader. He was enthusiastically welcomed, and complimented the 
regiment highly upon their fine military appearance and bearing. A 
good story was told of General McCulloch s strategy in learning the 
enemy s force and plans. Disguised as a drover he went boldly into 
the Federal camp to sell his cattle, of which he had a number. He 
succeeded admirably without his rank or intentions being discovered, 
and having gained all necessary information, made the attack which 
proved so successful. Of undaunted courage, iron nerve and-will, 
never for a moment losing his self-control under the most trying 
circumstances, he delighted in such perilous adventures. The Fed 
erals at this time were in force near Springfield, and the General 
went energetically to work organizing his little army preparatory to 
an early move on the foe. 



CHAPTER V. 

CAMP JACKSON. 

CAMP JACKSON, so named in honor of the Governor of Missouri, 
was located about three miles east of Maysville, in a belt of woods 
skirting the eastern limits of a broad expanse of prairie stretching 
its bosom far away south, north and west. The prairie in front of 
the encampment furnished a fine and ample parade-ground, and the 
grass was not left to grow undisturbed by the evolutions of armed 
men. 

On the 12th the troops were once more under marching orders, 
and at 8 A. M. next morning left Camp Jackson for Bentonville, 
distant 28 miles. There were about three thousand men on the 
road, which was terribly dusty, and the weather, as usual, clear and 
sultry. Ammunition was distributed to the troops, and everything 
pointed to an early engagement. Marched fifteen and a half miles. 
On the 14th passed through Bentonville, a small but pleasant village, 
situated in Benton County, on the outskirts of an extended prairie. 
This was the Sabbath, yet to the soldier all days seemed alike. How 
different this dusty, long march, from the quiet Sabbaths at home, 
where matin-bells summon a Christian people to the houses of wor 
ship ! War is a hard task-master, and heeds not the calls of con 
science. As usual, springs of cool, clear water were abundant along 
the route. Marched 12 miles. On the 15th we encamped amid the 
hills of Arkansas at a spot known as Camp McCulloch, being a small 
field on the level surface of one of the numerous rocky promontories 
of the country. The rain poured down in torrents, and we began 
to experience some of the inconveniences of a soldier s varied 
existence. The men made beds of the rails from a worm-fence close 
at hand, to keep their bodies from the damp ground, covering their 
rough edges witii straw and shucks, which they deemed an especial 
luxury, and upon which they laid down to pleasant dreams. Receiv 
ing marching orders early the next day, the troops moved forward a 
short distance and encamped on Sugar Creek, a small mountain 
stream winding its tortuous way amid the surrounding hills. This 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 43 

was known as Camp Stephens, in honor of our Vice-President, being 
seven miles east of Bentonville. Here Gratiot s Arkansas regiment 
joined us. The weather was unusually fine, our encampment pleasant, 
yet many of the extra duty men will remember the severe labor of 
clearing a parade-ground where they obtained their first experience 
in digging up stumps and grubbing out roots. While remaining 
here a tremendous storm occurred at night, flooding the camp with 
water, which flowed in a miniature river through its centre, sweeping 
away pans, basins, tables, etc. Amid the lightning s vivid flash and 
the deep roll of the thunder could be heard the shouts of the men, 
exclamations and expletives, as they were literally drowned out of 
their beds. " Knee-deep," one would shout. "Quarter less twain," 
came from another direction. " Quack ! quack ! quack !" answered 
a third, thus displaying an indifference to their inconveniences, and 
a commendable endeavor to make sport out of each other s mishaps. 
The morning after the storm exhibited scenes which, under other 
circumstances, would have been considered lamentable, but which 
the boys called ludicrous. On impromptu elevations the men were 
lying in the mud and water, oblivious to all their mishaps, curled up 
like snakes, and one of them actually making a bed of the drum 
head. On Sunday, 22d, one of Churchill s scouting parties had a 
brisk skirmish with a like party of the enemy, whom they succeeded 
in driving back, although largely superior in numbers. A few of 
the Southerners were wounded, none killed, while the foe suffered 
severely. A prisoner was brought into camp, and the men rushed 
to obtain a view of him, as if he was some great curiosity and not a 
mortal similar to themselves. 

Camp Stephens was daily visited by numbers of ladies from the 
surrounding country, who always had pleasant smiles and cheerful 
words for the soldiers. A brass band attached to one of the Ar 
kansas regiments discoursed most excellent music, and was a great 
feature of our camp life and a source of great gratification to our 
men. Soldiers, as a class, are passionately fond of music. Well do 
we remember with what deep emotions we have listened to the 
harmonious strains as they floated out on the air some still moon 
light night, returning in murmuring echoes from the surrounding 
hills. Truthfully has the great English bard written : 

" He who hath not music in himself, and whose soul is not moved by a sweet 
concourse of sounds, is fit for treason, stratagem and spoils." 

An unfortunate accident occurred on the 23d, resulting in the in 
stantaneous death of James Howard, a member of Company u F," 



44 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

by the discharge of a gun through the carelessness of NagL\ 

of Company " Gl." Nagle became frightened, and immediately de 
serted. This event was the cause of great excitement, resulting in 
a quarrel between the Colonel and several of the officers, who, being 
reported to General McCulloch, were placed under arrest. Differ 
ences were, however, finally adjusted, and the regiment and other 
troops under marching orders once more on the 26th. From this 
time we were in the midst of continued scenes of excitement. On 
the 28th crossed the line and entered Missouri. While on the 
march, received intelligence of the secession of Missouri. Reached 
Keatsville in the middle of the day, the roads being very dusty and 
the heat almost intolerbale. It being reported that there was fight 
ing ahead, the regiment closed up and pushed rapidly forward with 
loud cheers. The exhausted stragglers in the rear came up at a full 
run, forgetting their fatigue in the excitement of an anticipated 
fight. Churchill s regiment had already pushed forward, and 
already had a brisk encounter with the foe. On the 29th reached 
Cassville, where the regiment was greeted with the wildest enthu 
siasm by the Missourians. Amid vociferous cheers, the thunder of 
artillery and waving of banners, the regiment marched past the 
camp of the State troops, eliciting numerous remarks of praise and 
admiration by their steady and regular tread and their deportment 
as a disciplined body of troops. An isolated regiment amid Ar 
kansas and Missouri troops, each member felt as if in his individual 
person was concentrated the honor and fair name of Louisiana a 
feeling which undoubtedly contributed largely to their subsequent 
deeds of valor and unconquerable determination never to yield to 
the foe. From the first organization of the army the Louisianians 
became the favorites of the other troops, between whom and them 
selves grew up a strong feeling of friendship, which neither time 
nor any other circumstance could destroy. 

On the 29th a lady came into camp from beyond Springfield with 
important dispatches sewed up in her clothing. Her husband had 
been engaged to take these dispatches, but became very ill. She 
volunteered to supply his place; and leaving home and the sick 
husband s bedside, successfully accomplished her mission, having 
passed through the whole Federal army. Such heroism was the 
theme of every tongue, and showed what Southern women would 
do for their country. It is to be regretted that her name was not 
dotted down to adorn the pages of this history. Yet is she not 
forgotten. 



CHAPTER VI. 

THE ADVANCE. 

AT Cassville the army was thoroughly organized for an advance 
on Springfield, and separated into three divisions as follows : First 
Division, under command of Colonel L. Hebert, 4,000 strong, to 
march on the 30th ; the other Divisions, of about equal strength, 
the two following days. On the 1st of August our army encamped 
on Crane Creek, distant twenty-seven miles from Springfield, Mo., 
where we soon received intelligence that the enemy were rapidly 
advancing on our position with a strong force, supposing that 
McCulloch s army was weak in numbers and could be easily de 
feated. In fact, it was stated that General Lyons boasted that he 
would drive us bade into Mexico and drown us in the Gulf. He little 
dreamed what brave and indomitable spirits he must conquer. 

August 2d the camp was thrown into a state of feverish excite 
ment by orders to arm, as the enemy was advancing. It seems, how 
ever, that our advanced guard, composed chiefly of Missourians 
(mounted), had suddenly come upon the enemy, nine miles distant, 
who had fired upon them, when they precipitately fled without 
returning the fire or attempting to show fight. Some few Arkansas 
troops, however, who were with them, engaged the enemy, and a 
brisk skirmish fight ensued, our loss being only one man killed. 
Captain Stanley, a brave and dashing officer of the United States 
Regular Army, was killed in the fight by a negro attached to the 
Missouri troops. On the 3d Churchill s Regiment of mounted in 
fantrya gallant, daring and dashing body of men were sent for 
ward with instructions to decoy the enemy into our camp, where a 
well-planned ambuscade had been prepared for their reception. 
General Lyons, it seems, had discovered the strength of our forces 
and the plan to welcome his arrival from a deserter out of our camp. 
His men pursued only within three miles of our position. 

In order that the situation of the army may be fully comprehended, 
we give the following explanation : The road ran from the valley of 
Crane Creek through a ravine flanked by steep hills, where it would 



46 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

be impossible for one arrny to attack another without suffering ter 
ribly from an ambuscade or masked batteries. The hill-sides, 
extending close down to the road, were covered with a dense, almost 
impenetrable growth of black jacks and hazel-bushes. The Louis- 
ianians were placed in position on the extreme right of the whole 
army, and where a fight seemed inevitable, went to work with their 
knives and sabre-bayonets, lopping off the branches of the trees and 
bushes which obstructed a good view of the road, in order to render 
their aim and fire more effective. The retreat of Churchill s Regi 
ment was a helter-skelter flight, in accordance with previous instruc 
tions ; and as they rushed by our position amid clouds of dust, the 
rapid flight of horsemen, artillery, and wagons sounded like the 
roar of many waters. The men waited and watched for the foe, 
compressed lips and blanched faces betokening the inward excite 
ment, while not a man moved from his allotted place. The night of 
the 3d, Companies A and K, under command of Captain Viglini, 
were placed in position as sharp-shooters on the rocky hill-side, com 
manding a full view of the road, with instructions to support the 
advance picket and keep back the enemy in case of an attack. 
Directly in front of their position the road ascended a steep hill, in 
a direct line, at whose base, right and left, two more roads branched 
off along the adjacent valleys. The main road, directly in front of 
our line, composed of white pulverized stone, stood out a bold, 
clearly-defined line in the darkness, along which no living object 
could travel without being instantly discovered. No moon, with its 
silvery rays, lighted up the hill-tops, only myriad stars shone from 
the clear heavens above, while the cold dews chilled the forms of 
the watchful soldiers. The hill on which we were stationed was 
composed of small, angular, flinty rocks, on which the men reposed, 
after various and sundry contortions of body to find a " soft part" 
and remove their cutting acquaintance. Every other man along the 
line of skirmishers slept at stated intervals, while the remainder 
kept a close watch on the roads. The foe came not ; and late in the 
afternoon of the succeeding day the detachment of sharp-shooters 
were relieved from duty and permitted to return to camp. Companies 
E and I taking their places. During this time the Third Regi 
ment was still kept in position, the remainder of the army being on 
their camping- grounds. The boys did not fully appreciate the 
honor bestowed or confidence placed in them as efficient and brave 
soldiers. 

The next day was the Sabbath, bright, beautiful and golden. All 
remained quiet until nearly noon, when a balloon was discovered 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 47 

hovering over our camp, which sailed eastward in the direction of 
the enemy. All was bustle and activity, as the troops rapidly as 
sembled in their respective quarters. A report soon prevailed that 
the enemy had penetrated the left of our position, and the balloon 
was a preconcerted signal for an advance on our front and flank. 
It proved a false rumor, and the army reposed in security and 
quietude. 

During this time the generals had assembled for consultation as to 
the future movements of the army, as it was found impossible to 
remain longer in its present position, the water being actually offen 
sive from filth, and provisions for the army very scarce. We must 
either retreat or advance. Desperate as was the alternative, it was 
determined to advance. The order was issued to prepare to march 
Sunday night, the 4th inst, at 11 o clock p. M. All realized the 
desperation of such a move, yet not a man quailed or was found 
missing from his place in the regiment. Last messages were de 
livered to those derailed to remain with the wagons, packages for 
the loved ones at home made up, and the men laid down to what 
many deemed their final living sleep, ere the march commenced. 
When the hour for departure arrived, the regiment was ready and 
equipped, the gallant boys on the right of the whole army, led by 
Company K. Not a man free from detailed duty was absent from 
his place. At Hi o clock the whole army was in motion. In sec 
tions, six abreast, and close order, the men took up the line of march 
in anticipation of meeting almost certain death, but with undaunted, 
unquailing spirits. In breathless silence, with the bright and glit 
tering stars looking down upon them through dark and deep defiles 
and beneath frowning hill-sides, marched the dense array of men, 
moving steadily forward ; not a whisper was heard, no sound of 
clanking sabre, or rattle of canteen and cup. 

Tramp ! tramp ! tramp ! firm and undaunted, the army proceeded 
on its perilous journey like a band of dark spirits, over the hard 
and rocky road, accompanied by the dull rumbling of the artillery 
carriages over hills, along a road skirted by dense underbrush and 
tall trees, and through those narrow defiles the army proceeded. 
That was a night that tried men s souls. Although moving forward 
in momentary expectation of being attacked, nothing special oc 
curred. As the first roseate hues of morn tinged the eastern hori 
zon, our advance came upon the picket of the enemy, who were so 
completely taken by surprise that they precipitately fled, leaving 
behind them coats, provisions and utensils. Greer s Texas regiment 
of cavalry joined us at this time. They were a splendid body of 



48 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

daring, dashing Texan Hangers, magnificently armed and mounted. 
The army moved steadily forward, with cavalry on both flanks, 
scouting the surrounding hills and woods. About 10 o clock in the 
morning, while halting near a well for the purpose of resting and 
procuring water, the men were watching the general as he sat perched 
on the top of a corn -crib. The head of the column had been halted 
just within the limits of a woodland, ere the road emerged into an 
open, rolling prairie-land as far as the eye could reach. Soon the 
General was observed to look long and anxiously through his field- 
glass. A wave of his hand summoned an aid-de-camp to his side, 
who soon brought orders for the regiment to take position on the 
right, in a dense growth of hazel skirting the road. Every man 
was ordered to conceal himself, a section of artillery run to the front, 
rapidly unlimbered, loaded and pointed so as to sweep the road. 
What could it mean ? Shortly, far away over the prairie, a cloud 
of dust was seen to mount upward. Nearer and nearer it approached, 
until a body of the enemy s cavalry was discovered in hot pursuit 
of one of General McCulloch s scouts. They rode boldly to within 
point blank of the concealed line of battle ere they discovered their 
mistake, when, wheeling suddenly, they fled rapidly, not a shot 
being fired at them. Through the excessive heat and over dusty 
roads the march was continued, the enemy retreating as we advanced. 
The men suffered terribly from thirst, there being little or no water 
on the route. Their sufferings became so intolerable that finally the 
General marched them one and a half miles away from the road to 
procure water, in order to allay their burning thirst. The army then 
pushed rapidly forward in pursuit of the retreating foe, who were 
reported but a short distance in advance at a spring. It was soon dis 
covered, however, that they were still retreating. As soon as this was 
known, the Missouri horsemen came rushing up from the rear, riding 
heedlessly through the ranks of hot, tired, thirsty and dusty men, 
almost suffocating them. The regiment, in order to protect them 
selves, halted, fixed bayonets, and determinedly compelled them to 
quit the road. Arriving at Big Spring, the men and animals made 
tin indiscriminate rush for the water, which was fortunately abund 
ant and fine. The enemy had been gone but about three hours, 
having left many things behind them in their precipitate retreat. 
That night our army laid down in an open field without shelter. 
The regiment had thus lain out all night previous to the march, 
traveled all the succeeding night in great suspense and anxiety, pur 
sued a retreating enemy all day over dusty roads and in extremely 
sultry weather, and the night of August 5th slept in the open air 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 49 

without blankets or food, the next morning proceeded abou two milo3 
and encamped near Wilson s Creek, nine miles from Springfield- 
The position was as follows : we were on a hill-side, at whose west 
ern base flowed a stream, the hill sloping away north and east, along 
which ran the main road to Springfield. Opposite our encampment, 
west and northwest rose in a gradual slope a succession of hills 
extending as far as the eye could reach. The hillside northwest was 
about three-quarters of a mile distant, the intervening space being 
covered by corn-fields in the valley formed by Wilson s Creek. On 
the north was a slight rise beyond the ravine, covered as usual with 
a dense undergrowth of black jack and hazel, skirting a large and 
open corn and hay-field.. 



CHAPTER VII. 

OAK HILLS. 

ON Friday, the 9th inst., the order was to prepare to march at 8 
p. M. on the position of the enemy, in order to surprise them. The 
post of honor and danger as usual being assigned to the Third Regi 
ment, the van guard of the center division on the main road leading 
to Springfield, Providence prevented the consummation of these 
proposed plans. Early in the morning the sky became overcast with 
dark, dense and lowering clouds, accompanied by thunder and light 
ning, and in the afternoon of the same day a light rain began to fall. 
Many of the Arkansas and Missouri troops were armed with the old 
fashioned flint-lock guns, carrying their ammunition in a buckskin 
pouch, as is customary v/ith the backwoods hunters. It would not 
do to expose the ammunition to the elements, and thus render unser 
viceable the assistance of a large force of our army. At 9 o clock 
the order for an advance was countermanded, but the troops required 
to hold themselves in readiness to march at a moment s notice. The 
picket guards had been recalled so as to be ready to march with their 
respective commands, and in expectation of momentarily receiving 
marching orders, the different regimental commanders objected to 
sending them out again. It was a serious blunder, yet who was 
responsible for the mistake or oversight we cannot truthfully deter 
mine. Thus all unguarded the army sank to repose, the men to 
dream of home and coming exciting scenes, after bitterly expressing 
their disappointment at the delay. All eager for a battle, they little 
dreamed of the fearful scenes of slaughter and bloodshed. The 
morning of August 10th had scarcely tinged the Eastern horizon 
with the grayish dawn, and ere many of the men were out of their 
tents, when the battle opened. Looking to the hill northwest of 
our camp, could be seen the wagons, ambulances, and many horse 
men of the advance encampment fleeing from the coming battJe 
storm. The couriers and aids-de-camp, with furious speed, were 
delivering orders. The Third Regiment promptly formed on the 
hill, many of them minus coats in their eager haste. Scarcely had 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 51 

they formed line ere McCullocli dashed tip, furious with excitement 
and rage, and shouted, " Colonel, why in hell don t you lead your 
men out ?"" The question was not repeated. Company K had been 
transferred from the left to the right, which, with Company A, was 
under the leadership of Captain J. P. Viglini. Captain Woodruff 
of Little Rock was in position with his guns commanding the valley 
and adjacent hill sides. As the regiment began to move into posi 
tion, a puff of smoke arose from a clump of trees northwest of our 
position, followed by another accompanied by thp ugly scream of 
shot and their sudden, dull thug into the ground. The men shouted 
at each iron messenger as it approached, many indulging in jokes and 
witticisms, such as exclaiming, u this ball music is fine for dancing." 
" Here conies another iron pill." "Dodge, boys, but don t tumble." 
But the majority were calm, pale with excitement, compressed lips, 
and blazing eyes betokening the spirit of their determination. We 
quickly entered the ravine north of our encampment, marching in 
close columns of companies, and approached the corn field already 
described. During this time the battle had opened on all sides, and 
Woodruff and Totten were fighting a lively artillery duel. As the 
regiment advanced through the dense undergrowth towards the open 
field, a terrible and scathing fire was opened on them by nearly 
double their numbers of U. S. Regulars, the flower of General Lyons 
army. The regiment rapidly wheeled into line of battle, each com 
pany taking its position with prompt celerity. Numbers of the men 
had already fallen. 

The enemy were securely posted behind the fence, while our po 
sition among the bushes rendered it almost an utter impossibility to 
obtain a good view of them, even by our coolest and clearest sighted 
marksmen. Seeking every possible protection and shelter, the fight 
was maintained with a stubborn and determined valor. Not a 
stone s throw from each other these lines of men, composed of old 
regulars and a virgin volunteer regiment of Louisianians, were com 
bating each other with dogged obstinacy. The fight lasted upwards 
of an hour, and those who listened to the musketry declared it to 
have been terrific in its volume of sound. Men were dropping all 
along the line ; it was becoming uncomfortably hot, when Captain 
Mclntosh dashed along the line, shouting " Get up, Louisianians, and 
charge them ! Do you all wish to be killed ?" With a tremendous 
cheer, so fearful, coming from men under fierce excitement, they 
rushed on the foe with fixed bayonets, led by the field and line offi 
cers and Capt. Mclntosh. The regulars fled from the deadly charge, 
with but few exceptions, and as the regiment reached the fence, they 



52 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

poured a heavy, rapid fire into their ranks, killing and wounding 
large numbers, punishing them thoroughly for the damage already 
inflicted upon us. Over the fence, across the field, after the foe, did 
the boys charge with loud cheers, until they once more approached 
the enemy s battery within point-blank range. Beneath its protect 
ing fire the beaten foe had taken shelter. The battery immediately 
concentrated its fire upon the regiment as it began to form a new 
line of battle. Canister shot and shell were rained upon them until 
it became too uncomfortable to be withstood. The order was given 
to retire behind the protection of a hill immediately in the rear of 
the field. It was obeyed with zealous alacrity, and the men de 
camped instanter, watching the flash of the enemy s guns as they 
retreated, and falling prostrate on the ground permitted the iron 
hail to pass over them, and then rise only to run and repeat the same 
manoeuvre. It was taking very practical lessons in the manual a la 
Zouave. Not half a dozen men were injured in this retreat. None 
killed. The oificers immediately began to form the regiment, which 
had become much scattered in their precipitate retreat, when Gen. 
McCulloch rode up to the right of the line and, after making some 
inquiries and remarks, said, " Come, my brave lads, I have a battery 
for you to charge, and the day is ours !" The regiment at this time 
were only partially organized, mostly from the right companies, with 
some scattering men from the others. The men, however, followed 
the leadership of their brave General with steady, regular tread along 
the valley, crossing around the base of the hill, over the creek, where 
the road took an abrupt turn westward, and ascended a precipitous 
rocky hill, to the left of which was posted Siegel s battery. At the 
creek numbers momentarily halted to gulp down a few mouthfulls 
of water to quench their burning thirst. It mattered little to them 
that it was filthy and loathsome, that it was red with blood, and 
blackened men lined its banks and bathed their burning limbs and 
torturing ghastly wounds in its waters. After crossing the creek, the 
General halted at intervals, while in point blank range of the battery, 
and taking a survey through his field-glass, would coolly turn in his 
saddle, waive his hand, and simply utter the monosyllables, " Come 
on !" His actions and features were a study for the closest scrutinizer 
of physiognomy. Not a quiver on his face, not the movement of a 
muscle to betray anxiety or emotion. Only his grey eyes flashed 
forth from beneath his shaggy eyebrows a glittering, scrutinizing 
and penetrating glance. As the men reached the protection of the 
hill on which the battery was stationed, and ere an order had been 
given, a man stepped from behind the shelter of a huge oak on its. 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 53 

summit. The general abruptly halted and inquired in a calm, clear 
voice : " Whose forces are those ?" The reply came back, in distinct 
tones :" Siegel s." u Whose did you say ?" "Union. Siegel." At 
the same time raising his rifle with deliberate aim to fire. Ere his 
purpose was accomplished, the sharp crack of a Mississippi rifle 
proclaimed the flight of a death messenger on its fearful errand. 
That shot was fired by Corporal Henry Gentles, of Company K. The 
aim was quick and accurate, and as the man dropped heavily to the 
ground without a groan, the General turned to the corporal remark 
ing simply, " That was a good shot. 1 The remark was characteristic 
of his coolness under the most perilous and trying circumstances. 
The General turned to Captain Viglini, standing close to him, and 
said : " Captain, take your men up and give them hell." The men 
scaled the rocky hill-side and came abruptly upon the enemy s guns. 
With loud huzzas they rushed upon the battery, sweeping it at the 
point of the bayonet, ere the amazed foe could recover from their 
astonishment. They fled into a corn-field and along the road in the 
rear of their lost battery, with the victors in close pursuit. In the 
field upwards of 200 were killed and wounded, so close and deadly 
was the fire poured into their retreating columns. This gallant 
charge resulted in the capture of three 12-pounder howitzers, and 
two 6-pounder field guns. Here fell Capt. Hinson, of Company B, 
and his brother-in-law, Mr. Whitstonc, killed by an unfortunate shot 
from one of our own batteries under charge of Capt. Reed, which, 
unknown to the regiment, had been pouring a heavy and destructive 
fire upon these guns. The loss of these gallant men was deeply de 
plored, under such circumstances. The guns were rolled down the 
hill-side, and the regiment, including the remainder who had arrived 
under Major Tunnard, formed once more and marched about a mile 
northward to attempt the capture of Totten s battery, which had 
given them such a hot reception early in the day. After flanking 
their position, owing to an unfortunate delay, they managed to 
escape. Around these guns the fight had been deadly and furious. 
The hill-sides were literally covered with the dead and wounded of 
friend and foe. Here Gen. Lyon met his fate, a just reward for his 
murder of innocent women and children in the streets of St. Louis. 
The enemy, completely discomforted, began a precipitous flight at 
about 2 o clock p. M. The battle was over ; the foe repulsed at every 
point ; Gen. Lyon killed ; the colors in our possession, and Siegel s 
battery captured. The different regiments were marched to their 
respective camps. The loss of the Third Regiment was 9 killed, 47 
wounded, and 3 missing ; that of the army 2G5 killed and about 700 



54 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

wounded. The men eagerly scouted the battle-field and brought in 
the killed and wounded. Our dead, dressed in their best clothes, 
and. with a blanket for a winding sheet, were sadly committed to 
soldiers graves by their friends. The Texans under Col. Greer won 
an enviable reputation by their dashing and reckless bravery. They 
pursued the foe into Springfield, killing and capturing numbers on 
the road, and taking Siegel s remaining gun and stand of colors, and 
planting the first secession flag in Springfield. 

The loss of the enemy in this fight was estimated at about 800 
killed, 1,200 wounded, and 350 prisoners, while a large number of 
the most approved small arms fell into the possession of our vic 
torious army. So hasty was the flight, that the foe threw away small 
arms, blankets, coats, and knapsacks, which were strewn along the 
road for miles. Their dead were deserted, and their wounded filling 
every available dwelling and building in Springfield, left to the care 
of the Confederates. An officer, with a flag of truce, came for Lyon s 
body, which was taken to Springfield, but even it was deserted in 
their hurried retreat, and was buried by Mrs. Phillips, the wife of 
the U. S. Congressman from that district. This second general battle 
of the war, fought under such disadvantageous circumstances by the 
Southerners against fully equal numbers, better armed and disciplined, 
was a complete, thorough victory. Yet the Northern press and 
Northern historical records of the war have falsified its correct de 
tails in almost every particular. 

The following are the official reports of the field-officers of the 
regiment : 

u HEADQUARTERS TIIIP.D REGIMENT LOUISIANA INFANTRY, ) 
Camp at Wilson s Creek, Mo., August 12, 1861. f 

" To Brigadier Ben. McCullocJi, commanding Confederate States Army : 

" SIR, I have the honor to report the part that my regiment 
took in the battle of Oak Hills on Saturday the 10th. Aroused by 
yourself early in the morning, I formed my regiment, and following 
the direction of Captain James Mclntosh, Brigadier- Adjutant- 
General, followed the Springfield road for a short distance to a 
narrow by-road, flanked on both sides by the thickest kind of under 
brush, and on one side by a rail fence. This road led to a corn-field. 
At the moment of deploying into line of battle, and when only two 
companies had reached their position, the enemy opened their lire 
on our front within five paces. Deploying the other companies, an 
advance was ordered, led gallantly and bravely by Captain Mcln 
tosh, to whom I owe all thanks for assistance. 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 55 

" The enemy posted behind a fence in the corn-field. The com 
panies moved up bravely, broke the enemy, pursued them gallantly 
into the corn-field and routed them completely. On emerging from 
the corn-field, the regiment found themselves on a naked oat-field, 
where a battery on the left opened upon us a severe fire. The order 
was given to fall back to a wooded ground higher up to the right. 
The order was obeyed, but by some misunderstanding the right of 
the regiment and some of the left were separated from the left and 
found themselves under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Hyams, 
who there received your order to march to attack Siegel s battery, 
and command on the left of the field of battle. His report is here 
with transmitted, giving an account of the operations of his bat 
talion up to the time of my joining him. I remained myself near 
the above-named corn-field, rallying and reforming the left into a 
detachment of some one hundred men. I advanced towards Totten s 
(enemy s) battery. I advanced to a position some five hundred 
yards from the battery, where I remained before the line of the 
enemy some twenty-five or thirty minutes, when, falling back, I 
again rallied some stray portions of the regiment, and marched, by 
orders, to join the right wing on the left of the field. This I did ; 
and having reformed the regiment, I received orders to move, so as 
to place myself in the rear of the enemy s battery (Totten s) then 
closely engaged in front. Although moving as expeditiously as 
possible, I did not reach the proper position until Totten s battery 
had been drawn back in retreat. Some of the enemy still remained 
on the hill and in a ravine. I, however, hesitated to attack, having 
discovered a force immediately in my rear, whom I did not ascertain 
to be friends for some twenty minutes. I then ordered the advance, 
attacked the enemy and put them to flight. In this the regiment 
was very gallantly assisted by a detachment of Missourians and 
others, whom I then supposed to be under the immediate command 
of Captain Johnson. This fight ended the engagement of my regi 
ment for the day. The Regiment was formed on the hill previously 
occupied by the enemy, and, by orders, was marched back to their 
camp. The first of the engagement of the regiment commenced at 
6 o clock A.M. and ended at 1 J o clock P.M., when the enemy made 
their final retreat. I transmit a list of the killed, wounded and 
missing, recapitulating as follows : Killed, 1 commissioned officer, 
1 non-commissioned officer and 7 privates ; total killed, 9. Wounded, 
8 commissioned officers, 6 non-commissioned officers and 39 privates ; 
total, 48. Missing, 3 privates. 

" Proud of the manner in which my regiment behaved in their 



56 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

first fight against the enemy of our Confederate States (a fight in 
which officers and men displayed endurance, bravery and determina 
tion), it is difficult for me to particularize the service of officers and 
men. I will, however, bring to the notice of the Commanding 
General some cases. The whole of my staif acted with great cool 
ness and bravery ; the Lieutenant-Colonel leading a battalion, in my 
absence, against Siegel s battery, and the Major assisting constantly 
in the rear wing. Captain Theodore Johnston, Quartermaster, was 
of invaluable service in transmitting orders, rallying the men and 
encouraging them to stand by their colors, often exposing himself 
to the fire of the enemy. Adjutant S. M. Hyams, Jr., left his horse 
and fought bravely on foot. Captain Thomas L. Maxwell, Commis 
sary, followed the regiment in battle, and assisted much in rallying 
the men. The lamented Captain, R. M. Hinson, fell while gallantly 
leading his company against Siegel s battery. A nobler gentleman 
and a braver soldier could not have been found. Sergeant-Major J. 
O. Renwick was shot down in my presence in the first fight 
whilst bravely fronting and fighting the enemy. He was the first 
killed of the regiment. Dr. George "W. Kendall, a volunteer sur 
geon on the field, was active and untiring in his exertions to relieve 
the wounded. In the reports of Company Commanders, many acts 
of bravery and gallantry by non-commissioned officers and privates 
are mentioned. 

" With the consent of the General, I shall seek hereafter occasions 
to show that their conduct has been noticed. I cannot conclude 
without saying that the conduct of Captain James Mclntosh, in 
throwing himself with my regiment in our first fight, and in the 
attack on Siegel s battery, greatly contributed to the success of our 
arms, and deserves unlimited praise. 

" I must not forget also to return to the Commanding General 
himself the thanks of the Regiment and my own for his presence at 
the head of the right wing at the charge on Siegel s battery. 

" With high respect, I remain, your obedient servant. 

"Louis HEBERT, Colonel Commanding. 

-Report of Lieutenant- Colonel Hyams to Colonel Hebert, of Third Louis 
iana Regiment : 

" SIR, In the morning of the 10th of August, 1881, after forming 
with the regiment and inarching to the thicket and corn-field, and 
your command on the order of a charge in the thicket, I dismounted 
and was on foot with the command in the charge. The Sergeant- 
Major Renwick was killed, as was Private Placide Bossier, of Peli- 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 57 

can Rangers, No. 1. After crossing the fencing and running the 
enemy through the corn-field, where the enemy s artillery were 
showering grape and shell, with Minie muskets, I was met by 
General McCuiloch, who ordered the regiment to face to the right 
and march by flank movement towards the creek, and cent an aid 
to communicate the order to you further on the right of the regi 
ment. 

" In this first encounter in the bushes, where all behaved well, it 
was impossible to designate any particular individual. Here I first 
noticed the fearlessness and undaunted bravery and activity of 
Captain Theodore Johnson, Quartermaster, in communicating orders 
from headquarters. 

" Learning from him that you was separated from the command, 
he attached himself to that portion of the regiment under me, 
composed of the Pelican Rifles, Captain Viglini ; Iberville Grays, 
Lieutenant Yerbois ; Morehouse Guards, Captain Hinson ; Pelican 
Rangers, No. 2, Captain Blair ; Winn Rifles, Captain Pierson ; 
Morehouse Fencibles, Captain Harris ; Shreveport Rangers, Captain 
Gilmore ; Pelican Rangers, No. 1, Captain Brazeale ; and a few of 
the Mouticello Rifles under Sergeant Walcott, and seventy of the 
Missouri troops (who had attached themselves to rny command) 
under Captain Johnson. We were conducted by the gallant Captain 
Mclntosh across the ford to Siegel s battery where, having deployed 
in line, the charge was ordered. On my giving the order and arriv 
ing on the brow of the hill, Lieutenant Lacy, of the Shreveport 
Rangers, sprang on a log, waved his sword and called, " Come on, 
Caddo." The whole command pushed forward, carried the guard, 
rushed to the fence and drove the enemy off. Here the gallant 
Captain Hinson, in cheering his men, was killed by a shot from our 
own battery taking us in flank. Private Whitstone, of the More- 
house Guards (brother-in-law of Captain Hinson), was killed at his 
side by the same shot. I cannot speak in too high commendation 
of both officers and men for their coolness and bravery. They had 
charged and taken five guns out of six of the battery, and passed 
beyond them without knowing we had them, except those com 
panies immediately in front of the guns. 

u The standard-bearer of the regiment, Felix dialer, of Pelican 
Rangers, No. 1, behaved with great coolness and courage, advanc 
ing and bearing them to the front in every charge. Corporal Hicock, 
of the Shreveport Rangers, Private J. P. Hyarns, of Pelican Rangers, 
No. 1, and Corporal Gentles, of Pelican Rifles, rushed forward and 
captured one cannon that was just in rear of the first guns cap- 



58 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

tured (about one hundred yards), where they killed the only man 
who remained with his gun, the rest of the cannoniers having 
abandoned the gun at their approach. 

" Orderly Sergeant Alphonse Prudhomme is reported to have 
cheered and acted with coolness. The Color Company stuck to the 
colors, as did the Shreveport Rangers, and all rallied to the flag. 
I cannot speak too highly of the courage and activity of all our 
gallant officers and men in this charge. It is impossible to say which 
company was in advance, where all obeyed orders and went so gal 
lantly into action. But for the unfortunate casualty created by our 
own battery firing into our flank and raking us, killing several and 
wounding many, we would have had but few regrets. 

u Poor Hicock, having advanced in front of the regiment in driv 
ing the enemy from the corn-field round the large white house, was 
shot in the breast. Here I beg to call attention to the gallantry of 
Captain Mclntosh, who conducted us to the front of the attack. 
Quartermaster Theodore Johnson, of our regiment, was of great 
assistance, and behaved with distinguished bravery. We rolled 
their captured guns down the hill, and one cannon was conducted 
with its horses to our artillery. We then marched back to the 
valley below the hill, and were in line when you joined us with the 
rest of the regiment. Drum-Major Patterson, of the Pelican Rifles, 
left his drum, shot the first man of the enemy, after calling them 
selves friends, thereby stopping our fire and their treacherously firing 
upon us. 

" I am, respectfully, your obedient servant, 

"S. M. HYAMS, Lieut.- Col Third Regt. La. Vols." 

Colonel Hyams report contains some inaccuracies, as will be 
easily discovered from the author s version of the battle. The first 
detachment was led by General McCulloch in person, and not by 
Captain Mclntosh, who was, however, present at the charge. 

REPORT OF MAJOR W. F. TUNNARD. 

" Colonel L. Ilebert, commanding Third Regiment La. Volunteers : 

" SIR, In accordance with your request I have the honor to make 
the following report of events that occurred under my immediate 
notice in the battle of Oak Hills : 

" When the regiment was ordered to form at 6 A.M., I assisted in 
getting the companies in line, and marched out of camp with the 
left wing, the enemy s batteries having opened on our forces before 
we left camp. We marched out to the right, and by order of 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 59 

Adjutant-General Mclntosh, I assisted in deploying tlie regiment in 
a thick oak under-brush to the left of the road, and before we were 
in the field ten minutes we were fired on by the enemy, 1,800 strong, 
who were ambushed in a corn-field behind a fence. After exchang 
ing several shots with them, and a number of our men being killed 
and wounded, an order to charge was given by Colonel Mclutosh, 
which was immediately responded to by our men with a cheer and 
shout. On rushing to the fence, the enemy immediately turned and 
fled in disorder, our regiment pursuing and shooting them as they 
ran. In this pursuit I was with the left wing, cheering them on 
until we reached an open field, where we found the enemy protected 
by Totten s battery, which at once opened on us as we attempted 
to form. I immediately ordered the regiment to scatter and move 
to the right, where, under cover of a hill, with the assistance of 
Captain Maxwell, the line was formed. While I was engaged in 
getting our scattered forces together in line General McCulloch rode 
up and led off the right to attack Siegel s battery, and I found the 
left companies, with a large number of the right wing, had become 
separated from the right in passing through the bushes. We 
marched on to join the right of the Regiment. In crossing the ford 
in the valley, we received a discharge of grape and canister from 
Siegel s battery, which wounded several of the men and shot my 
horse. I then led the detachment on foot, the battery having been 
taken and the enemy again repulsed by the right wing and in full 
retreat before we joined the regiment. The regiment being formed, 
marched out under your command to attack Totten s battery. On 
arriving at the point of attack, we found the battery removed and 
the enemy in full retreat, except a reserve, which fired several shots 
at us, which were promptly returned. This ended the battle for 
the day. An accidental discharge of a musket by one of our men 
wounded three of our number, one very severely. 

" In each engagement our men behaved gallantly, and under the 
severe fire of the batteries, that poured a continual shower of grape, 
shot and shell, they never faltered. 

" I have the honor to be, yours respectfully, etc., 

W. F. TUNNARD, Major, Third Regiment La. Vols. 

The following ofEcial dispatch speaks for itself : 

" HEADQUARTERS MISSOURI STATE GUARDS, ) 
Springfield, August 15, 1861. f 

" COLONEL, General Price instructs me to say that the discipline 
and bravery which your regiment displayed in the late battle were 



60 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

so marked, and your services and theirs so efficient in winning that 
important victory, that he would fail in his duty were he not to 
express to you and to them his own high appreciation of the dis 
tinguished services of the Louisiana Eegiment on that occasion, 
and the gratitude with which the officers and men of this army and 
the people of Missouri will always remember you, your officers and 
men. 

" I have the honor to be, witli the greatest respect, 

" Your obedient servant, 

" THOMAS L. SMEAD, Acting Adjutant- General. 
" To Colonel L. Jlebert, Louisiana Regiment." 
[A true copy of the original.] 

Louis HEBEBT, Colonel Third Eegiment, La. Vols. 

War viewed from the standpoint of the peaceful home circle, witli 
its surroundings of happy and loved faces, and the comforts and 
conveniences of life, exhibits none of that hideous deformity which 
environs its dread reality. The battle of Oak Hills enlightened 
many ignorant minds as to the seriousness and fearful certainty of 
the contest. It did not, however, unnerve a single arm to strike a 
fresh blow, or dampen the ardor of a single heart. It proved 
thoroughly the dashing bravery of the Southern soldier, contending 
under every disadvantage against almost inevitable defeat, and taught 
the enemy also a severe lesson of what the future contained. So 
sudden and unexpected the attack, so close, terrible and obstinate 
the contest, that numbers thought the day irretrievably lost and gave 
up in hopeless despair. Not so with the Louisianians, who never for 
an instant felt that they were whipped. Through the thickest and 
hottest of the fight, where shot and shell fell fastest, and the rifles 
poured their storm of leaden hail, the regiment forced its way, 
charging the foe with loud cheers, and always driving them from 
their positions. For more than six hours the desperate conflict con 
tinued, beneath the cloudless sky and in the sultry atmosphere of an 
August clay. 

When the enemy were finally repulsed and driven in dismay from 
the field, an opportunity was aiforded to view the result and obtain 
p.ome definite information of the slaughter. 

Soon after the battle ended the enemy, under a flag of truce, com 
menced attending to their dead, dying and wounded. All the re 
mainder of the 10th, after the conclusion of the battle, and during 
the whole night, seven of their six-mule teams were busily engaged 
carrying off their clead and wounded. Early Sunday morning, Sergt. 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. Gl 

W. H. Tunnard, of Co. K, was detailed as sergeant of a large force 
to finish the burial of the enemy s dead. Armed with shovel, pick 
axe and spade, the detail proceeded to the principal point of tho 
battle-field to complete this mournful task, which the enemy, unable 
to accomplish, had abandoned in despair. The ground was still 
thickly strewn with the ghastly and mangled forms. Fifty-three 
bodies were placed in a single grave, all gathered within the compass 
of one hundred yards. These were hastily covered with brush and 
stones, when the detail precipitately departed. The effluvia from 
the swollen, festering, blackened forms, already covered with worms 
was too horrible for human endurance. Hundreds unburied were 
left food for the worms, fowls and beast of the earth. No concep 
tion of the imagination, no power of human language could do 
justice to such a horrible scene. 

OFFICIAL REPORTS OF KILLED AND WOUNDED AT OAK HILLS. 

The force under Gen. Price engaged numbered 5,300 ; killed 156 ; 
wounded 517. Among the casualties were the names of a number 
of gallant officers, as the following list shows : 

KILLED. Colonels II. II. Weitman and Ben. Brown ; Lieutenant- 
Colonels Austin and G. W. Allen ; Major Charles Rogers ; Captains 
Blackwell, Enghart, Farris, Halleck, and Coleman; Lieutenants 
Hughes, and Haskins ; Adjutant C. II. Bennet. 

WOUNDED. Brig.-Gens. Slack and Clark; Colonels Benbridge, 
Foster Kelly and Crawford ; Captains Nichols, Dougherty, and Ann- 
strong. 

Col. Mclntosh, Adjutant Gen. McCulloch s Brigade, reported losses 
as follows : 

Third Louisiana Regiment : 9 killed, 48 wounded, 3 missing ; Lt.- 
Col. McRae s Battalion : 2 killed, 6 wounded ; Col. Mclntosh s Regi 
ment : 11 killed, 55 wounded; Capt. Woodruff s Battery: 2 killed, 
2 wounded, 1 missing; Capt. Reid s Battery: 1 wounded; Col. 
Churchill s Regiment : 42 killed, 153 wounded ; Greer s Regiment, 
Texas Cavalry, loss not known. 

Clmrchiirs Regiment were the greatest sufferers, the first attack 
being made on this regiment, the enemy capturing their camp and 
wagons, and baggage, which they destroyed. The standard-bearer 
of one company was changed four times, three being shot while car 
rying the colors. 

Amid the early scenes and incidents of the war it was not an un 
usual occurrence to find men of high position in society, leaving 



62 THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 

home, profession, and the pursuits of daily life, to unite their for 
tunes with the humblest and most unobtrusive citizens of the land. 

The history of the Third Regiment and the account of its first 
initiation into the scenes of the bloody drama of the war, would be 
incomplete without the mention of two persons, who participated in 
the hard fought field of Oak Hills. We refer to Dr. W. G. Kendall, 
and the Hon. Wm. Robson. These gentlemen were from Shreveport, 
joined the regiment at Van Buren as amateur soldiers, continued 
with the regiment until after the battle of Oak Hills, on which oc 
casion they rendered most efficient service. 

Dr. Kendall, a gentleman of refined manners, cultivated intellect^ 
and high position in his profession, made innumerable friends in the 
regiment by his kind and affable manner, and genial good nature. 
At Oak Hills he was in the hottest of the fight, exhibiting a cool 
courage worthy of one who had voluntarily attached himself to the 
fortunes of one of Louisiana s most gallant organizations. Col. 
Hyaras wrote under date of August 13, 1861 : u Dr. Kendall was in 
the fight, assisted the wounded, and occasionally took a pass at the 
enemy. He rendered great service as aid to the surgeons after the 
battle." 

The Hon. Wm. Robson, at the commencement of hostilities, was a 
member of the Legislature, but this did not deter him from uniting 
his fortunes to those of the Third Infantry, and often could he be 
found with a musket, doing duty as a private, in the ranks. He is 
a man of undoubted bravery, calm, cool, self-possessed under the 
most trying circumstances. " W. Robson," Col. Hyams said, " acted 
as aid to Col. Hebert, and was in the thickest of the fight, rallying 
stragglers, and conveying orders. He showed great coolness and 
bravery." 

Dr. Kendall tells the following anecdote of Robson. " The Union 
men fought as guerrillas, to some extent picking off stragglers on the 
field. One of these parties got near Robson and took a clear " clat 
ter " at him at about 120 yards, one of the shots killing a negro boy s 
horse alongside of R. He thought that was no place for him, bent 
down to the saddle bow and gallopped over a hill at " double-quick." 
They took the negro boy to Springfield, thinking he belonged to R., 
and said they had killed his master, and now he belonged to them. 
A man by the name of Phelps, a son of the U. S. Congressman, was 
the leader, and claimed the honor of killing Robson. The boy 
escaped, and was rejoiced to find R. alive. He had on his person 
his master s watch and $300 in gold, which he brought back with 
him." 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 63 

" Robson rallied the stragglers, and at one time brought up forty- 
five men to where the regiment was engaged. Some were rather 
inclined to remain behind, but finally, seeing that R. was not afraid 
to ride through the fire, concluded to follow him. He and his sorrel 
pony were conspicuous characters. He was known in the regiment 
as Capt. Robson." 

ADDITIONAL INTERESTING PARTICULARS. 

On Tuesday after the battle the Federal prisoners were in the pub 
lic square at Springfield under guard, and outside was a crowd of 
Missourians, Arkansians, and camp followers generally. Directly a 
party commenced singing " Dixie," a new version for the occasion. 
One of the prisoners after they got through said, " Ah, well ! I only 
wish you had stayed in Dixie." At one time, just after the capture 
of Biegel s battery, the rumor prevailed that Col. Hebert was down. 
Dr. Hebert anxiously inquired for him, and at that moment, far above 
the crashing of the small-arms, could be heard the stern, clear tones 
of the gallant colonel urging on the Louisiana regiment : " Steady, 
my men steady !" Just then Gen. Price was rallying the stragglers 
of the Missouri line, urging them on to a final attack, u for in tAventy 
minutes the Louisiana regiment will charge again, and if we rally to 
the front this battery will be taken." 

Gen. Price behaved with great gallantry, exposing his own person 
freely and not hesitating to send his men into danger. He was 
slightly wounded. Col. Weightman, of Atchison, Mo., was in com 
mand of a Missouri brigade (infantry), with a battery which was so 
badly provided with ammunition that they took iron bars one and 
one-half inch square and cut them up into chunks, using them as 
grape. These pieces made most horrible wounds, but were soon 
exhausted. His brigade fought like heroes both here and at Carthage, 
but the colonel fell early in the action, mortally wounded, and died 
before the battle was over. He was formerly in the U. S. Army, and 
was a veiy highly accomplished and able officer ; his death was an 
almost irreparable loss to Missouri, and cast a gloom over the whole 
army. 

Col. Hebert was actively employed throughout the day, and added 
another chaplet to his already high reputation as an officer. At no 
time were the enemy able to force any of the regiments back, and 
the men would get in so close to their lines that the shot-guns loaded 
with buckshot told with fearful effect, and the much valued Mini 6 
guns of the foe overshot the Southerners. 

Capt. Theodore Johnson (Quartermaster of the regiment) acted 



64 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

as aid to Col. Hebert, and was actively engaged in carrying orders, 
and showed great coolness and courage. 

Lieut. J. O. Wells, of Co. F, had been on the sick-list, reduced by 
flux from 159 pounds to 124, but staggered to his place and stood at 
his post, bravely doing his duty throughout the whole fight. 

Of the activity, courage, and valuable assistance rendered by Dr. 
G. W. Kendall and Win. Robson too much cannot be said. The 
former, a citizen of Shreveport, a gentleman of polished manners, 
refined education, and standing high in his profession, with Wm. 
Robson, Esq., then a member of the Louisiana Legislature, joined 
the regiment at Van Bureu as independent volunteers. Dr. Kendall 
was in the fight, cool and courageous, often joining in the fray ; as 
sisted the wounded, and rendered valuable and great assistance as 
aid to the surgeons after the battle. He had a horse killed under 
him during the fight. 

Gen. Lyon was killed about half-past one o clock, while bravely 
leading his men. His uniform coat was cut up into small pieces and 
carried away as relics. His horse, a magnificent gray stallion, im 
ported from England by Mr. January, of St. Louis, was also killed, 
and the boys cut all the hair from his mane and tail, and dis 
tributed it. 

Maj. Tunnard, of the Louisiana regiment, had Ms horse shot under 
him. 

Col. Mclntosh was seriously bruised by a grape-shot in the side. 
Churchill s First Arkansas Regiment fought desperately, as did Mc- 
Intosh s and Gratiot s Third Arkansas, and were under a tremendous 
fire for a long time from a superior force, but kept up such a furious 
fire with shot-guns, flint-lock muskets, etc., that the enemy could not 
be brought to charge them. McRae s Battalion won its share of 
laurels. When he heard of Weightman s death, with a wild shout 
for vengeance, he led his men into the fray where most needed. 
When marching from Crane Creek, Lieut.-Col. Hyams was on the 
sick-list, suffering intensely from rheumatism and a kick from a sore- 
backed Indian pony ; but, at the rumored approach of the enemy, 
mounted his horse, reported himself at headquarters ready for duty, 
and was with the regiment on the march, in their ambuscades, and 
through the battle, coolly and calmly directing the men. 

HOW THEY FLED. 

After the arrival of the troops at Wilson s Creek, eight of Wood 
ruff s artillerymen, guided by a tall Missourian, left camp to obtain 
some forage for their horses. The Missourian stopped at a creek, 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. G5 

the artillerymen went on. The Mssourian started after them, but 
had not proceeded far when he met four men on horseback, with 
white bands around their hats. He inquired of them, u Have you 
seen any artillerymen ahead ?" They replied, " Oh ! yes, some of the 
U. S. artillerymen are in a field a little way ahead." The Missourian 
replied, "You are mistaken, those men belong to Uncle Jell 1 ." 

They waited to hear no more ; wheeled their horses " right about," 
and fled to the woods. 

INCIDENTS PREVIOUS TO AND CONNECTED WITH THE BATTLE OF 
OAK HILLS. 

When the army reached Crane Creek, August 1, a rumor came 
that the enemy was approaching. Captain Mclntosh, with that 
reckless daring and dashing bravery so characteristic of the man, 
dashed up the road with a detachment to see what was the matter. 
About 4 o clock a few horsemen came down the road past the camp, 
and following on. in hot haste, came the main body of the advance- 
guard, mixed up with the wagons, and all coming as hard as whip 
and spur could urge the horses. They went sweeping by, giving 
the alarming intelligence that the enemy had advanced in great 
force and cut them off and killed Mclntosh. Still no message came 
to McCulloch. The Sergeant-Major of the regiment, without orders, 
had the " long roll" beaten, and the men " fell in" in double-quick 
time. General McCulloch dashed up the road fairly foaming with 
rage, exhausting his whole vocabulary of vituperation (no meagre 
one) in denunciations of Rains Missouri Cavalry, who had thus 
most disgracefully stampeded without any apparent cause. Every 
man was eagerly questioned about Colonel Mclntosh, and finally one 
old fellow had seen a man, answering his description, as he came 
by. " Well ! what was he doing ?" " Cussin the Missourians," 
was the prompt reply. A roar of laughter, followed by a cheer, 
arose, for the identification was certain and satisfactory, and all 
knew that Mclntosh was safe. 

THE LOUISIANIANS SPIRIT. 

A rumor prevailed that General Lyon had issued from Springfield 
and was about to surround us. One of the boys suggested that " it 
didn t make much difference to the Louisiana boys which side he 
attacked them on, as they were so far from home that all points of 
the compass seemed alike to them, and if Lyon wanted to attack 
us in the rear, and he were McCulloch, he would give him a pass 
through his camp and tJtcn lick him like hell. 1 1 



66 A SOUTHERN EECORD. 



THE MIDNIGHT MARCH. 

As the men, in breathless expectation, cautiously moved forward, 
not the sound of a voice, the rattle of a canteen or sabre to be 
heard, the midnight silence alone was disturbed by the heavy mon 
otonous tramp, tramp of the men, and the dull rumbling of the 
artillery carriages. As the army denied through gorge after gorge, 
the anxiety became painfully intense. At one time, while the 
column had halted, the colonel s orderly (Prud. Hyains) struck a 
match for the purpose of lighting a segar, and as the light flashed 
out in the darkness, a murmur ran through the line : " There it 
comes at last ;" u Now we have got it ;" and many expected to 
hear the roar of a gun. The stern command of an officer to " put 
out that match," was the only result, and the orderly missed his 
smoke that time. 

TREACHERY OF THE ENEMY. 

So close and desperate was the first engagement of the regiment 
in their fight with the enemy that every command and word spoken 
could be distinctly heard even amid the uproar of the fight. When 
the head of the regiment approached close to the fence of the corn 
field, Drum-Major Patterson was in the immediate front of the 
column. A United States regular got up on the fence, in plain view, 
and seeing our advance, cried out, " We are friends." His answer 
was the report of Patterson s rifle, who simply remarked, as he fired, 
u No you don t, I have seen you before." R. Patterson originally 
belonged to this regiment, which he early left, to unite his fortunes 
with those of the South. It was the first shot and death of the 
battle. 

A sergeant of one of the companies was standing in a small by 
road intersecting the fence, a short distance to the left, when two 
of the enemy climbed upon it in full view. Raising his rifle to fire, 
one of them waved his hand and quietly said, " Don t shoot, we are 
friends." At that moment Lieutenant Irvin, of Company K, stepped 
into the road. Some one ordered the sergeant out of the road, in 
the words : " Get out of that you damned fool, you ll be killed." 
As he did so, one of the enemy fired at Lieutenant Irvin, seriously 
wounding him in the throat, remarking, as he saw the Lieutenant 
double up under the pain, ; I got that son of a " 

The heroism of many of the wounded was astonishing, who 
cheered the men on as they laid on the ground, shouting for Jeff 
Davis, regardless of their agony. 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 67 

WAITMAN S TWO GUN BATTERY. 

This battery was as famed as it was singular and grotesque in its 
appointments. One gun was a small iron piece, mounted on wagon- 
wheels and a roughly-constructed carriage ; the other was a huge 
long twelve-pound howitzer, known as " Sacramento," a Mexican 
gun, composed of brass and silver, the ringing boom of whose voice 
was peculiar, and heard above all other sounds. This battery had 
taken a position within point-blank range of Siegel s guns, with the 
disadvantage of being in the valley. As the Louisiana Regiment 
passed this battery to charge the enemy s guns, only a single man 
stood near it, his head bandaged with a red handkerchief, his face 
and person blackened with powder and smeared with blood. One 
gun was upset, the ammunition-wagon scattered in pieces around, 
the horses lying around dead, horribly mangled, the ground trodden 
down in many places, and, in others, torn up by the plunging shot, 
actually crimson with gore. As the regiment passed the spot, the 
man exclaimed, " Give it to them boys. They have ruined our 
battery, killed our men and our ammunition is all gone." He looked 
the impersonification of one of war s grim demons. That scene will 
not soon be forgotten by those who witnessed it. 

A DEATH NOT REPORTED IN OFFICIAL REPORTS. 

When the army first left Camp Jackson on the march, a large 
dark-and-tan-colored dog attached himself to the regiment, and 
soon became a universal pet. When on the march he invariably 
trotted along the road a few paces in advance of the van, and hence 
earned the sobriquet of " Sergeant." He seldom left his position 
in front of the moving column, when the regiment was ordered 
out of camp. On the morning of the battle of Oak Hills, " Ser 
geant" was on hand to participate in the events of the day. Amid 
the storm of leaden bullets and the fierce rattle of musketry in the 
first close, deadly and obstinate engagement with the enemy, " Ser 
geant" charged through the bushes, leaping over logs and obstacles, 
barking furiously all the time. He seemed to enjoy the fight ex 
ceedingly. As he passed down the line his sharp voice attracted 
the attention of some of the men, one of whom shouted to him, 

" Get out of that Sergeant, you d d fool, you ll be killed." 

The words were scarcely uttered ere a fatal ball struck him, 
and, with a long piteous whine, he rolled on the ground never to 
rise. The intelligent animal fell among the prostrate forms of many 
who had fed and caressed him, the victim of his own fearless 
temerity. 



68 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

GENERAL PRICE S REPORT. 

HEADQUARTERS MISSOURI STATE GUARD,) 
Springfield, August 12, 1861. \ 

" To Ms Excellency CLAIBORNE F. JACKSON, Governor of the State 

of Missouri : 

I have the honor to submit to your Excellency the following report 
of the operations of the army under my command, at and imme 
diately preceding the battle of Springfield. 

I began to move my command from its encampment on Cowskin 
Prairie, in McDonald County, on the 25th of July, towards Cassville, 
in Barry County, at which place it had been agreed between Generals 
McCulloch, Pearce and myself, that our respective forces, together 
with those of Brigadier-General McBride should be concentrated 
preparatory to a forward movement. We reached Cassville on Sun 
day, the 28th of July, and on the next day effected a junction with 
the armies of Generals McCulloch and Pearce. 

The combined armies were then put under marching orders, and 
the First Division, General McCulloch commanding, left Cassville on 
the 1st of July, upon the road to this city. The Second Division, 
under General Pearce of Arkansas, left on the 1st day of August ; 
and the Third Division, Brigadier-General Steen of this State com 
manding, left on the 2d day of August. I went forward with the 
Second Division, which embraced the greater portion of my infantry, 
and encamped with it some twelve miles northwest of Cassville. 
The next morning a messenger from General McCulloch informed me 
that he had reason to believe that the enemy were in force on the 
road to Springfield, and that he should remain at his then encamp 
ment on Crane Creek until the Second and Third Divisions of the 
army had come up. The Second Division consequently moved for 
ward to Crane Creek, and I ordered the Third Division to a position 
within three miles of the same place. 

The advance guard of the army, consisting of six companies of 
mounted Missourians, under command of Brigadier-General Rains 
as at that time, (Friday, August 3d,) encamped on the Springfield 
road about five miles beyond Crane Creek. About 9 o clock A. M., 
of that day, General Rains pickets reported to him that they had 
been driven in by the enemy s advance-guard, and that officer imme 
diately led forward his whole force, amounting to nearly 400 men, 
until he found the enemy in position, some three miles on the road. 
He sent back at once to General McCulloch for reinforcements, and 
Colonel Mclntosh, C. S. A., was sent forward with 150 men ; but 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 69 

a reconnoissance of the ground having satisfied the latter that the 
enemy did not have more than 150 men on the ground, he withdrew 
his men and returned to Crane Creek. General Rains soon discovered, 
however, that he was in presence of the main body of the enemy, 
numbering, according to his estimate, more than 5,000 men, with 
eight pieces of artillery, and supported by a considerable body of 
cavalry. A severe skirmish ensued, which lasted several hours, until 
the enemy opened their batteries and compelled our troops to retire. 
In this engagement the greater portion of General Rains command, 
and especially that part which acted as infantry, behaved with great 
gallantry, as the result demonstrates ; for our loss was only one 
killed (Lieutenant Northcut) and five wounded, while five of the 
enemy s dead were buried on the field, and a large number are known 
to have been wounded. 

Our whole forces were concentrated the next day near Crane Creek, 
and during the same night the Texan Regiment, under Colonel Greer, 
came up within a few miles of the same place. 

Reasons which will be hereafter assigned, induced me, on Sunday, 
the 4th inst., to put the Missouri forces, under the direction, for the 
time being, of General McCulloch, who accordingly assumed the 
command- in-chief of the combined armies. A little after midnight 
we took up the line of march, leaving our baggage trains, and 
expecting to find the enemy near the scene of the late skirmish, but 
we found, as we advanced, that they were retreating rapidly towards 
Springfield. We followed them hastily about seventeen miles, to a 
place known as Moody s Spring, where we were compelled to halt 
our forces, who were already nearly exhausted by the intense heat of 
the weather, and the dustiness of the roads. 

Early the next morning we moved forward to Wilson s Creek, ten 
miles southwest of Springfield, where we encamped. Our forces 
were here put in readiness to meet the enemy, who were posted at 
Springfield to the number of about 10,000. It was finally decided 
to march against them ; and on Friday afternoon orders were issued 
to march in four separate columns, at 9 o clock that night, so as to 
surround the city and begin a simultaneous attack at daybreak. The 
darkness of the night and a threatened storm caused General McCul 
loch, just as the army was about to march, to countermand this order, 
and to direct that the troops should hold themselves in readiness to 
move whenever ordered. Our men were consequently kept under 
arms till towards daybreak, expecting momentarily an order to march. 
The morning of Saturday, August 10, found them still encamped at 
Wilson s Creek, fatigued by a night s watching and loss of rest. 



70 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

About 6 o clock I received a messenger from General Rains that 
the enemy were advancing in great force from the direction of 
Springfield, and were already within 200 or 300 yards of the position, 
where he was encamped with the Second Brigade of his Division, 
consisting of about 1,200 mounted men under Colonel Cawthorn. A 
second messenger came immediately afterwards from General Rains 
to announce that the main body of the enemy was upon him, but 
that he would endeavor to hold them in check until he could receive 
reinforcements. General McCulloch was with me when these mes 
sengers came, and left at once for his own headquarters to make the 
necessary disposition of our forces. 

I rode forward instantly towards General Rains position, at the 
same time ordering Generals Slack, McBride, Clark and Parsons to 
move their infantry and artillery rapidly forward. I had ridden but 
a few hundred yards when I came suddenly upon the main body of 
the enemy, commanded by General Lyon in person. The infantry 
and artillery which I had ordered to follow me came up immediately 
to the number of 2,036 men, and engaged the enemy. A severe and 
bloody conflict ensued, my officers and men behaving with the 
greatest bravery, and, with the- assistance of a portion of the Con 
federate forces, successfully holding the enemy in check. Meanwhile, 
and almost simultaneously with the opening of the enemy s batteries 
in this quarter, a heavy cannonading was opened upon the rear of 
our position, where a large body of the enemy under Colonel Siegel 
had taken position in close proximity to Colonel Churchill s Regi 
ment, Colonel Greer s Texan Rangers and 679 mounted Missourians, 
under command of Colonel Brown and Lieutenant-Colonel Major. 

The action now became general, and was conducted with the 
greatest gallantry and vigor on both sides for more than five hours, 
when the enemy retreated in great confusion, leaving their Com- 
mander-in-Chief, General Lyon, dead upon the battle field, over 500 
killed, and a great number wounded. 

The forces under my command have possession of three twelve- 
pounder howitzers, two brass six-pounders, and a great quantity of 
small arms and ammunition, taken from the enemy ; also, the stand 
ard of Siegel s Regiment, captured by Captain Staples. They have 
also a large number of prisoners. 

The brilliant victory thus achieved upon this hard fought field 
was won only by the most determined bravery and distinguished 
gallantry of the combined armies, which fought nobly side by side 
in defence of their common rights and liberties, with as much 
courage and constancy as were ever exhibited upon any battle field. 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 71 

Where all behaved so well, it is invidious to make any distinction, 
but I cannot refrain from expressing my sense of the splendid services 
rendered,- under my own eyes, by the Arkansas Infantry, under 
General Pearce, the Louisiana Regiment of Colonel Hebert and 
Colonel Churchill s Regiment of Mounted Riflemen. These gallant 
officers and their brave soldiers won upon that day the lasting grati 
tude of every true Missouri an. 

This great victory was dearly bought by the blood of many a 
skillful officer and brave man. Others will report the losses sustained 
by the Confederate forces ; I shall willingly confine myself to the 
losses within my own army. 

Among those who fell mortally wounded upon the battle field, 
none deserves a dearer place in the memory of Missourians than 
Richard Hanson Weightman, Colonel com man ding the First Brigade 
of the Second Division of the army. Taking up arms at the very- 
beginning of this unhappy contest, he had already done distinguished 
services at the battle of Rock Creek, where he commanded the State 
forces after the death of the lamented Holloway ; and at Carthage, 
where he won unfading laurels by the display of extraordinary cool 
ness, courage and skill. He fell at the head of his brigade, wounded 
in three places, and died just as the victorious shouts of our army 
began to rise upon the air. 

Here, too, died, in the discharge of his duty, Colonel Benjamin 
Brown of Ray County, President of the Senate, a good man and true. 

Brigadier-General Slack s Division suffered severely. He himself 
fell, dangerously wounded, at the head of his column. Of his regi 
ment of infantry, under Colonel John T. Hughes, consisting of about 
650 men, thirty-six were killed, seventy-six wounded, many of them 
mortally, and thirty are missing. Among the killed were C. H. Bennet 
Adjutant of the regiment, Captain Blackwell and Lieutenant Hughes. 
Colonel Rives squadron of cavalry, (dismounted) numbering some 
234 men, lost four killed and eight wounded. Among the former 
were Lieutenant-Colonel Austin and Captain Engart. 

Brigadier-General Clark was also wounded. His infantry (290 
men) lost, in killed seventeen, and wounded 71. Colonel Burbridge 
was severely wounded. Captains Farris and Halleck and Lieutenant 
Haskins were killed. General Clark s cavalry, together with the 
Windsor Guards, were under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel 
Major, who did good service. They lost six killed and five wounded. 

Brigadier-General McBride s Division (605 men) lost twenty-two 

killed, sixty-seven severely wounded, and fifty-seven slightly wound- 

i ed. Colonel Foster and Captains Nichols, Dougherty, Armstrong 



72 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

and Mings were wounded while gallantly leading their respective 
commands. 

General Parsons Brigade, 256 infantry and artillery, under com 
mand respectively of Colonel Kelly and Captain Guibor, and 406 
cavalry, Colonel Brown, lost, the artillery, three killed and seven 
wounded ; the infantry, nine killed and thirty-eight wounded ; the cav 
alry, three killed and two wounded. Colonel Kelly was wounded in the 
hand. Captain Coleman was mortally wounded, and has since died. 

General Rains Division was composed of two brigades the first, 
under Colonel Weightman, embracing infantry and artillery, 1,806 
strong, lost, not only their commander, but thirty-four others killed 
and 111 wounded. The Second Brigade, mounted men, Colonel 
Cawthorn commanding, about 1,200 men, lost twenty-one killed 
and seventy-five wounded. Colonel Cawthorn was himself wounded. 
Major Charles Rogers, of St. Louis, Adjutant of the brigade, was 
mortally wounded, and died the day after the battle. He was a 
gallant officer, at all times vigilant and attentive to his duties, and 
fearless upon the field of battle. 

Your Excellency will perceive that our State forces consisted of 
only 5,221 officers and men ; that of these no less than 158 died upon 
the field, while 517 were wounded. These facts attest more power 
fully than any words can, the severity of the conflict, and the daunt 
less courage of our brave soldiers. 

It is also my painful duty to announce the death of one of my 
aids, Lieutenant-Colonel George W. Allen, of Saline County. He 
was shot down while communicating an order, and we left him 
buried on the field. I have appointed to the position thus sadly 
vacated, Captain James T. Cearnal, in recognition of his gallant con 
duct and valuable services throughout the battle, as a Volunteer Aid. 
Another of my staff, Colonel Horace H. Brand, was made prisoner 
by the enemy, but has since been released. 

My thanks are due to three of your staff, Colonel William M. 
Cooke, Colonel Richard Gaines, and Colonel Thomas L. Snead, for 
services which they rendered me as Volunteer Aids, and also to my 
Aid-de-Camp, Colonel A. W. Jones. 

In conclusion, I beg leave to say to your Excellency, that the army 
under my command, both officers and men, did their duty nobly as 
became men fighting in defence of their homes and their honor, and 
that they deserve well of the State. 

I have the honor to be, with the greatest respect, 

Your Excellency s obedient servant, STERLING PRICE. 

M. cijor- General, Commanding Missouri State Guard. 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 73 

BEN M CUI,LOCII S REPORT. 

" HEADQUARTERS McCuLLocn s BRIGADE, ) 
" Camp Weiglitman, near Springfield^ J/o., Aug. 12, 1861. \ 

"Brig.- Gen. J. Cooper, Atljt-Gen,, C. 8. A. 

GENERAL I have the honor to make the following official report 
of the battle of Oak Hills on the 10th inst. Having taken position 
about ten miles from Springfield, I endeavored to gain the necessary 
information of the strength and position of the enemy stationed in 
and about the town. The information was very conflicting and un 
satisfactory. I, however, made up my mind to attack the enemy in 
their position, and issued orders on the 9th inst. to my force to start 
at 9 o clock at night, to attack at four different points at daylight. 
A few days before, Gen. Price, in command of the Missouri forces, 
turned over his command to me, and I assumed command of the en 
tire force, comprising my own brigade, the brigade of Arkansas State 
forces under Gen. Pearce, and Gen. Price s command of Missouri ans. 
My effective force was 5,300 infantry, fifteen pieces of artillery, and 
6,000 horsemen armed with flint-lock muskets, rifles, and shot-guns. 
There were other horsemen with the army who were entirely unarmed, 
and instead of being a help, were continually in the way. When 
the time arrived for the night march, it began to rain slightly, and 
fearing, from the want of cartridge-boxes, that my ammunition would 
be ruined, I ordered the movement to be stopped, hoping to move 
the next morning. My men had but twenty-five rounds of cartridges 
apiece, and there was no more to be had. While still hesitating in 
the morning, the enemy was reported advancing, and I made arrange 
ments to meet him. The attack was made simultaneously at half- 
past 5 A. M. on our right and left flanks, and the enemy had gained 
the positions they desired. 

Gen. Lyon attacked us on our left, and Gen. Siegel on our right and 
rear. From these points batteries opened on us. My command was 
soon ready. The Missourians, under Gens. Slack, Clark, McBride, 
Parsons, and Rains, were nearest to the position taken by Gen. Lyon 
with his main force ; they were instantly turned to the left, and 
opened the battle with an incessant fire of small-arsis. Woodruff 
opposed his battery to the battery of the enemy under Capt. Totten, 
and a constant cannonading was kept up between these batteries 
during the engagement. Hebert s regiment of Louisiana Volunteers 
and Mclntosh s regiment of Arkansas Mounted Riflemen were or 
dered to the front, and after passing the battery (Totten s), turned 
to the left and soon engaged the enemy with the regiments deployed. 
4 



74 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

Col. Mclntosh dismounted his regiment, and the two marched up 
abreast to a fence around a large corn-field, where they met the left 
of the enemy already posted. A terrible conflict of small-arms took 
place here. The opposing force was a body of regular United States 
Infantry, commanded by Capts. Plummer and Gilbert. 

Notwithstanding the galling fire poured on these two regiments, 
they leaped over the fence, and gallantly led by their colonels, drove 
the enemy before them back upon the main body. During this time 
the Missourians under Gen. Price were nobly attempting to sustain 
themselves in the centre, and were hotly engaged on the sides of the 
heights upon which the enemy were posted. Far on the right Siegel 
had opened his battery upon Churchill s and Greer s regiments, and 
had gradually made his way to the Springfield road, upon each side 
of which the army was encamped, and in a prominent position he 
established his battery. I at once took two companies of the Louis 
iana regiment who were nearest me and marched them rapidly from 
the front and right to the rear, with order to Col. Mclntosh to bring 
up the rest. When we arrived near the enemy s battery, we found 
that Reid s battery had opened upon it, and it was already in con 
fusion. Advantage was taken of it, and soon the Louisianians were 
gallantly charging among the guns and swept the cannoneers away. 
Five guns were here taken,and Siegel s command, completely routed, 
were in rapid retreat with a single gun, followed by some companies 
of the Texan regiment and a portion of Col. Major s Missouri cavalry. 
In the pursuit many of the enemy were killed and taken prisoners, 
and their last gun captured. 

Having cleared our right and rear, it was necessary to turn all our 
attention to the centre, under Gen. Lyon, who was pressing upon the 
Missourians, having driven them back. To this point Mclntosh s 
regiment, under Lieut.-Col. Embry, and Churchill s regiment on foot, 
and Gratiot s regiment, and McRae s battalion, were sent to their 
aid. 

The terrible fire of musketry was now kept up along the whole 
side and top of the hill upon which the enemy was posted. Masses 
of infantry fell back and again rushed forward. The summit of the 
hill was covered with the dead and wounded both sides were fight 
ing with desperation for the day. Carroll s and Greer s regiments, 
led gallantly by Capt. Bradfute, charged the battery, but the whole 
strength of the enemy was immediately in the rear, and a deadly fire 
was opened upon them. At this critical period, when the fortune of 
the day seemed to be at the turning-point, two regiments of General 
Pearce s brigade were ordered to march from their position (as re- 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 75 

serves) to support the centre. The order was obeyed with alacrity, 
and Gen. Pearce gallantly rushed with his brigade to the rescue. 
Reid s battery was also ordered to move forward, and the Louisiana 
regiment was again called into action on the left of it. The battle 
then became general, and probably no two opposing forces ever fought 
with greater desperation ; inch by inch the enemy gave way and 
were driven from their position. Totten s battery fell back; Mis- 
sourians, Arkansians, Louisianians, and Texans pushed forward. The 
incessant roll of musketry was deafening, and the balls fell as thick 
as hail-stones ; but still our gallant Southerners pushed onward and 
with one wild yell broke upon the enemy, pushing them back and 
strewing the ground with their dead. Nothing could withstand the 
impetuosity of our final charge ; the enemy fled, and could not be 
rallied again, and they were last seen at 12 M., retreating among the 
hills in the distance. Thus ended the battle. It lasted six hours 
and a half. 

The force of the enemy, between nine and ten thousand, was com 
posed of well-disciplined troops, well armed, and a large part of 
them belonging to the old urmy of the United States. 

With every advantage on their side, they have met with a signal 
repulse. The loss of the enemy is at least 800 killed, 1,000 wounded 
and 300 prisoners. We captured six pieces of artillery, and several 
hundred stand of small-arms, and several of their standards. 

Maj.-Gen. Lyon, chief in command, was killed. Many of the offi 
cers high in rank were wounded. Our loss was also severe, and we 
mourn the death of many a gallant officer and soldier. Our killed 
amount to 265 ; 800 wounded, and 30 missing. Col. Weightman 
fell at the head of his brigade of Missourians, while gallantly charg 
ing upon the enemy. His place cannot be easily filled. Generals 
Slack and Clark, of Missouri, were severely wounded, Gen. Price 
slightly. Capt. Hinson, of the Louisiana regiment, Capt. McAlex- 
ander, of Churchill s regiment, Capts. Bell and Brown, of Pearce s 
brigade, Lieuts. Walton and Weaver all fell while nobly and gal 
lantly doing their duty. Col. Mclntosh was slightly wounded by a 
grape-shot, while charging with the Louisiana regiment ; Lieut -Col. 
Neal, Maj. H. Ward, Capts. King, Pearsons, Gibbs, Ramsaur, Porter, 
Lieuts. Dawson, Chambers, Johnson, King, Adams, Hardista, Mclvor, 
and Saddler were wounded while at the head of their companies. 

Where all were doing their duty so gallantly it is almost unfair to 
discriminate. I must, however, bring to your notice the gallant con 
duct of the Missouri Generals McBride, Parsons, Clark, Black and their 
officers. To Gen. -Price I am under many obligations for assistance on 



76 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

the battle-field. He was at the head of his force leading them on, 
and sustaining them by his gallant bearing. Gen. Pearce, with his Ar 
kansas brigade (Gratiot s, Walker s, and Dockery s regiments of in 
fantry), came gallantly to the rescue when sent for ; leading his men 
into the thickest of the fight, he contributed much to the success of 
the day. The commanders of regiments of my own brigade, Cols. 
Churchill, Greer, Embry, Mclntosh, Hebert, and McEae, led their 
different regiments into action with great coolness and bravery, and 
were always in front of their men, cheering them on. Woodruff and 
Reid managed their batteries with great ability, and did much exe 
cution. For those officers and men who were particularly conspicu 
ous, I will refer the Department to the reports of the different com 
manders. 

To rny personal staff I am much indebted for the coolness and ra 
pidity with which they carried orders about the field, and would 
call particular attention to my volunteer aids, Capt. Bledsoe, Messrs. 
F. C. Armstrong, Ben Johnson (whose horse was killed under him), 
Hamilton Pike, and Major King. To Maj. Montgomery, Quarter 
master, I am also indebted for much service as an aid during the 
battle ; he was of much use to me. To Col. Mclutosh, at one time 
at the head of his regiment, and at other times in his capacity as 
Adjutant- General, I cannot give too much praise. Wherever the 
balls flew he was gallantly leading different regiments into action, 
and his presence gave confidence everywhere. 

I have the honor to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

BEN McCuLLocii, 
Brig,- Gen. Comman ding. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

THE day after the battle the troops marched three miles nearer 
Springfield, ia order to escape from the terrible effluvia occasioned 
by the festering bodies lying unburied on the battle-field, camping 
near Wilson s Springs, whose clear, cool water escaped in abundant 
profusion from a large chasm in the rocks. This encampment was 
near an open, rolling prairie, and six miles from Springfield. The 
Missourians proceeded to Springfield, taking possession of the place. 
The night of the llth a severe thunder-storm arose, and the next 
day it cleared off cool. Here General McCulloch issued the follow 
ing congratulatory order : 

" HEADQUARTERS, CAMP NEAR SPRINGFIELD, Mo. ) 
General Orders, No. 27, August 12, 1861. \ 

" The General commanding takes great pleasure in announcing to 
the army under his command the signal victory it has just gained. 

" Soldiers of Louisiana, of Arkansas, of Missouri and of Texas, 
nobly have you sustained yourselves. Shoulder to shoulder you 
have met the enemy. Your first battle has been glorious, and your 
General is proud of you. The opposing force, composed mostly of 
the old regular army of the North, have thrown themselves upon 
you, but, by great gallantly and determined courage, you have 
entirely routed it with great slaughter. Several pieces of artillery 
and many prisoners are now in your hands. The commander-in- 
chief of the enemy is slain and many of the general officers 
wounded. The flag of the Confederacy now floats over Spring 
field, the stronghold of the enemy. The friends of our cause who 
have been imprisoned there are released. While announcing to the 
army the great victory, the General hopes that the laurels you have 
gained will not be tarnished by a single outrage. The private prop 
erty of citizens of either party must be respected. Soldiers who 
fought as you did day before yesterday cannot rob or plunder. 

" By order. GENERAL MCCULLOCH. 

" JAMES MC!NTOSII, Captain and Adjutant- General." 



78 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

In their departure from McCulloch, the Missourians carried with 
them the battery taken by the Louisiana troops, by what authority 
was not discovered. They claimed the honor of capturing the guns, 
causing much exasperation among the men of the regiment. This 
soon became a subject of serious dissension between the State 
Guards and the Confederate troops, being the foundation of the 
differences, heart-burnings and jealousies which existed afterwards 
and followed McCulloch to his death. The guns, however, were 
finally returned stripped of almost everything movable about them. 
Orders were issued to move on the morning of the IGth at 6 A. M. 
The troops moved in obedience to orders, marching about seven 
.miles, and encamped in a pleasant spot near some fine springs. The 
weather kept clear and pleasant. The Arkansas State troops here 
left the brigade, having enlisted for only three months, and being 
unwilling to enter the Confederate service. Thus the fruit of our 
golden victory was being thrown away at the very moment when, 
if properly seized, it would have resulted gloriously for the Southern 
cause. The enemy were in full retreat toward St. Louis, and if a 
unanimity of action had actuated all who participated in the late 
battle, and the enemy been rapidly followed into Missouri, her down 
trodden people would have risen en masse and thrown aside the 
chains which bound them hand and foot. General McCulloch in 
vain appealed to their patriotism and bravery. Home ! was the 
only response. Thus the ruinous policy of organizing State troops 
crippled the Confederate cause and environed our gallant commander 
with difficulties, completely annulling the advantage which he had 
gained, making him a victor over a foe, a leader without an army. 
McCulloch returned from his fruitless mission to the Arkansas 
troops furious with anger at his failure. While in this camp much 
dissatisfaction existed in the regiment. They were living in the 
open air without blankets, tents, or scarcely provisions enough to 
keep them alive, subject to all the inclemencies* of the weather. 
Frequent thunder storms arose to add to and increase their accumu 
lated miseries. The sick-list began to grow alarmingly large. 
Wagons were sent out to gather green corn to distribute as food 
to the men, oftentimes three ears being the day s rations. When 
these wagons arrived in camp, the boys invariably indulged freely 
in the propensity for fun, so proverbial among soldiers in their hour 
of sorest need and most trying situation. A general outburst would 
commence; "Here s your corn;" "Come up and draw your oats;" 
" I say, Colonel, any fodder to-day with this corn," were a few of 
the numerous expressions. While encamped here we visited the 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 79 

deserted camp-grounds of the Federal troops. It was situated 
in a broad, rolling prairie, near a strip of woods, tlirough which ran 
a small stream. Their bake-ovens (quite models in their way), built 
of stone and mud and brush-shelters, were scattered in all directions. 
In a prominent position a large smooth stone was planted firmly in 
the ground. On its face were traced, in quite artistic style, a pick 
axe, spade and axe crossed, interspersed with the words, " Pioneer 
Company A, Missouri Volunteers, July 19, 1861." Near by, on a 
large tree, was the inscription : " Headquarters First Iowa Regiment, 
Company A, Captain Cummins, Lyon commanding." This was 
the regiment so terribly used up in the fight. This regiment was 
mustered out shortly after the battle, and the remnant, doubtless, 
carried home with them ample testimony to the desperate valor and 
daring of the " Secesh," as the Dutch called the Southerners. 

On the 24th August, Captain Gilmore, Sergeant Kenney and Private 
Cole, of Company F, visited the battle-ground. The dead of the 
enemy were strewn all over the field unburied. They found 
150 of them. Dead horses, old clothes, broken wagons, canteens, 
haversacks, were strewn over the field. They noticed particularly 
the hill that Woodruff s battery had been playing on (Bloody Hill). 
Oak trees a foot in diameter were cut into by the canon-balls. More 
dead men were scattered here than at any other point of the field. 
Here fell General Lyon. Here the last of the battle was fought. 
Some of the wounded had crawled into the shade of the trees and 
died there, while others died in the ranks where they fell. The 
whole scene was a mournful picture of war s desolation. 

In obedience to orders, the camp in Missouri was broken up, 
August 25, and McCulloch s little army turned their faces south 
ward. All day long the men marched in a cold, drenching rain, 
reaching camp only to lie upon the wet ground, racked with pains, 
and many with burning fever. The country was beautiful, being 
an open, rolling prairie land, extending, as fur as the eye could reach, 
in gentle undulations. The men had little heart, however, for the 
beauties of nature. Some conception may be formed of the increas 
ing powers of endurance exhibited by the men when it is stated that, 
notwithstanding the inclemency of the weather and heavy roads, 
they marched fourteen rniles in four hours, halting but once. All 
along the line of march the people turned out to see the Louisianians, 
their name already having spread far and wide for their undaunted 
courage and intrepid valor. Many a smile on fair faces, and loving 
glances from. bright eyes greeted them; aye, and cheering words 
also, conclusively showing how beauty appreciates valor, and that 



80 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

the fair thought the brave eminently deserving of their smiles. At 
Mount Vernon, Mo., one of our camping-places, the regiment was 
enthusiastically greeted and honored, especially by the ladies. Ah ! 
the numerous kindnesses shown by the heroic women of the land 
have encouraged them beyond the power of expression. The regi 
ment remained several days at Mount Vernon, which was principally 
noted for its handsome ladies, making it quite an attraction for the 
boys. A hospital was here established, in which the numerous 
sick men were placed. Little attention was bestowed upon them 
save by personal friends, and no proper food provided for them. 
Placed in rows upon hard beds on the floor of a church, these brave 
men slowly wasted away from that fell disease of the soldier, 
typhoid fever, finding peace at last in death, to be buried by sympa 
thizing comrades, in a distant State, away, far away, from the dear 
ones whose loving care might have snatched them from the grave. 
Oh, the crying evils of these wayside hospitals ! The wanton ne 
glect and indifference shown, the wrongs practiced upon sick soldiers 
all over the land, will some day meet with a fearful reckoning. 

One fair afternoon some ladies made a call upon a prominent 
officer of the regiment, entering his tent in all the amplitude of 
crinoline. One thought to seat herself and have a cosy chat, but 
hoops (oh ! hoops) upset the chair, and the fair visitant suddenly 
found herself (mirabile dictii) on the ground. The officer who had 
been playing the host most polite from a front face, was incapaciated 
from rendering any assistance, a portion of his apparel giving unmis- 
takeablc evidence that he belonged to the u Ragged Brigade." Here 
was a predicament. A gallant Captain, however, relieved both the 
distressed lady and embarrassed host by offering immediate assist 
ance. 

On the 30th of August the march was once more resumed, much 
to the delight and satisfaction of the men. Soldiers are proverbial 
for their restlessness, and, strange as it may seem, infinitely prefer 
the tedious and toilsome march to the quietude of camp life for any 
length of time. The road lay through a country of alternate wood 
land and prairie. Some of the landscape views were exquisite in 
their groupings of wood and prairie land, with their contrasts of 
dark lines and smooth, emerald surfaces. Marched twenty-two miles, 
and encamped at a small place known as Sarcoxie. The march was 
over a dnsty road, and through a country almost devoid of water. 
The tired men were glad when the halt was ordered. The camp was 
soon thronged with ladies from the surrounding country, eager to 
get a look at the Louisianians. Questions innumerable were pro- 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 81 

pounded, many of which caused audible smiles on the part of the 
men. The cannon and shells attracted particular attention, many 
never having seen such curiosities before, or heard the roar of such 
huge guns. All asked to have one fired off a request much easier 
made than granted. Much to the chagrin of the men, the request 
was refused. Miss Kate Wilson, a truly handsome lassie, attracted 
marked attention. How many, we wonder, now remember her fair 
face and handsome form, tastefully arrayed in a dark riding habit, 
as, seated on her beautiful pony, she distributed her sweet smiles and 
kind words to the crowd of admirers who surrounded her. We 
wonder, too, whether she ever dreamed that her kind and genial 
manner to the soiled, travel-stained, yet noble-hearted soldiers, would 
place her name in history. 

Sunday morning, September 1, 1861, was a bright, beautiful one, 
a lovely harbinger of one of those dreamy days when the soul drinks 
in with intoxicating pleasure every scene of beauty. At daylight, 
the men were in line ready to proceed, Colonel Hebert in command 
of the brigade, General McCulloch having left him in charge of the 
army and proceeded to Bentonville. We crossed in our march a 
broad, open prairie, extending as far as vision could reach, an emer 
ald sea of tall, waving grass, thickly interspersed with nature s wild- 
flowers in rich profusion of variegated colors. Guns and hats were 
ornamented with these floral beauties, which gave to the troops quite 
a holiday attire, notwithstanding their soiled and tattered uniforms 
and rough, bronzed features. Camped, after a march of fourteen 
miles, on Black or Shoal Creek, two miles from Granby. This was a 
deep stream of cold water, in whose limpid depths the men eagerly 
bathed their sore and wearied limbs. The Lieutenant-Colonel, S. 
M. Hyams, here played a rich joke on Major Tunnard, by spreading 
the report that he was General McCulloch. While the Major was 
washing and dressing himself, a dense throng of men gathered about 
his tent, much to his discomfiture and astonishment, all eager to 
catch a glimpse of the supposed famed Texan Ranger. It was some 
time before they were undeceived. Colonel Hyarns loved a good 
joke, indicative of the genial spirit of the man, and enjoyed the fun 
hugely. 

Resuming the march, the command passed through Granby. This 
place is situated seven miles from Neosho, the county seat of Newton 
County, with a population of 2,500, nine-tenths of whom live in log 
cabins and shanties, being employed mostly in mining. It is on a 
range of bare, desolate, bleak-looking hills. The miners are what 
are termed " floaters," and comprised of every variety and class of 
4* 



82 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

people Irish, German. English, Scotch and u Yankees." There were 
two smelting establishments in this town, which did an extensive 
business. We were informed that in 1860 there was procured from 
these mines something like 7,000,000 pounds of ore, out of which 
had been manufactured 50,000 pigs of lead. The mines are the 
richest in the known world, the Galena producing nine-tenths of 
pure metal. Of course the possession of these mines was of the 
utmost importance to the Confederates, furnishing as they did all 
the " blue pills " used by the army. The inhabitants enthusiastically 
greeted the troops as they passed through the town, Confederate 
flags being unfurled everywhere. The troops encamped at Neosho, 
the place of McCulloch s first exploit with the enemy. It is a place 
of considerable size, situated in a valley surrounded by hills. The 
march from this town was in the midst of constant rain, and the 
men of the regiment were in a terrible condition. Large numbers 
were shoeless, and the uniforms hung in sbreds and tatters about 
their forms after their arduous campaign. On the 5th the regiment 
once more reached Camp Jackson. As the regiment crossed the 
Missouri line, and when in sight of Camp Jackson, they cheered 
long and vociferously. It seemed like reaching home once more, 
after having traveled over 500 miles, fought a desperate battle, and 
endured untold hardships and sufferings. 



CHAPTER IX. 

DOUBTLESS many will inquire why General McCulloch left Missouri. 
The reasons are obvious and forcible. First, the disbanding of the 
Arkansas troops ; second, the departure of the Missouri forces under 
Generals Rains and Price. Thus, with reduced forces, insufficient 
supplies and clothing, it was deemed advisable, nay, was absolutely 
necessary, to move to some point where the army could be reorgan 
ized, strengthened and rendered efficient for the fall campaign. The 
new troops must be disciplined and drilled, and properly prepared 
fcr a soldier s life. 

Camp Jackson was the best location for these purposes. Another 
cause for the movement was the treatment received at the hands of the 
Missourians, and the disposition of many of their generals to arrogate 
to themselves the honor of the victory gained at Oak Hills. Even the 
genial, warm-hearted Sterling Price, the leader of the Missourians, 
allowed his judgment to be warped by the general prejudice. In his 
official report he said: "I have gained a great victory with the 
assistance of a few Confederate troops." We do not believe that 
General Price intended any disparagement to the Louisiana or other 
troops, for the Third Regiment, as has already been shown, received an 
appropriate acknowledgment from him for their distinguished services. 
Yet such statements as above, in official reports, raised a storm of 
indignation among both officers and men against the Missourians for 
a usurpation of all the glory of August 10th. The Third Louisiana 
Regiment performed deeds that day which gave them a name for 
daring and bravery imperishable as history itself, endearing them to 
the people of Missouri and Arkansas in ties cemented in blood. The 
gallant Missourians w r ho entered the Confederate service feel and 
know this, for they stood side by side and shoulder to shoulder like 
brothers, in many battles and campaigns afterwards. But on this 
topic more anon. Early in September came information of the 
declaration of the Indians in favor of the South. This nerved anew 



84 A SOUTHERN RECOED. 

the unflagging spirit;* and unfaltering energies of our troops. Four 
months in the Confederate service ! Four months had we been away 
from home, making long and wearisome marches over rough and 
rocky roads, through valleys, over hill-tops, in rain and sunshine, 
dust and mud, heat and cold. Leaving tents behind to facilitate 
our movements, we had encamped without shelter, making the damp, 
chilly ground our couch, and the azure sky our only covering. Add 
to this the tortures of hunger, want of sufficient apparel, and up to 
tills period not a cent of pay, all endured with comparatively little 
murmuring or complaining, and it shows a spirit which nothing 
could break or conquer. 

" We re the sons of Bires that baffled 

Crowned and martyred tyranny ; 
They defied the field and scaffold 

For their birthrights so have we." 

"MON BLONKET." 

Who does not remember Johnny Crasson, of Co. K ? He was a 
Frenchman of undoubted descent, imperfectly versed in the English 
language, yet very ambitious to learn its intricate meaning. Dimin 
utive in person, when first in the army unusually credulous, good- 
natured, and yet loving fun, Johnny was the subject of many prac 
tical jokes. Eventually he became thoroughly initiated into the 
mysteries of soldier life. His first lessons in English were obtained 
from one more versed in profane than polite idioms of the language. 
Thus Johnny could be heard at all hours practicing his lessons. We 
remember his coming into camp after a fatiguing day s march, and 
relieving his overburdened soul, under trials inflicted by some Con 
federate mules, in this wise : " Sacre tonnere ! by gar ! mes amis, one 
tarn miyule, he com ee to ze wagoon and eat ee mon blonket off my 
knopsock ! Ze tarn tevil 1 Sacre by gar ! he no satisfy to eat ze 
wagoon into what you call ze scalloop, but he eat ee zc only blonket 
of one poor soldat, tarn my soul !" Johnny never heard the last of 
his "blonket" and his "knopsock." 



CHAPTER X. 

DURING our return march and after the arrival at Camp Jackson, 
the men indulged their appetites freely in the fruit everywhere so 
abundant, the apples being large and mellow, the peaches luscious 
and juicy. Yet many a poor fellow paid dearly by extra camp and 
guard duty for eating " forbidden fruit." On the 6th of September 
commenced drilling and all the regular minutia3 of camp life. Mc- 
Culloch informed the men that as soon as he was prepared he would 
march on the enemy wherever he could find them. At this time 
provisions were poor and scanty, tents very scarce, and the men in 
large numbers actually naked and barefooted. They expressed the 
very sensible opinion that they must have more shelter, clothing, 
food and pay if their "idolized Ben" expected them to render 
efficient service be ready for action. Major Tunnard was taken 
sick on the 6th, and becoming rapidly worse, was finally carried to 
the residence of Mrs. Cunningham, a half-breed Cherokee in the In 
dian Territory. At one time his life was despaired of, and but for 
necessary medicines furnished from Gen. McCulloch s headquarters, 
the prompt medical assistance of Dr. Cross, Brigade Surgeon, and 
the unwearying kindness and tender care of Mrs. Cunningham, would 
undoubtedly have died September 13th. His son takes an especial 
pleasure in thus noticing the services of these kind fiiends in the 
hour of sore need. Under Mrs. Cunningham s careful nursing he 
soon fully recovered, to resume his duties as a soldier. On the 9th a 
large supply of provisions and funds arrived to gladden the hearts 
of the men. It was a day of general rejoicing in camp. The next 
day McCulloch, having received the proper authority from the Sec 
retary of War, published the following proclamation : 

"HEADQUARTERS CAMP JACKSON, ARK.,) 
September 10th, 1861. 

Citizens of ArJcansas, Texas, and Louisiana: 

Every exertion is now being made on the part of our enemies of 
the North to retrieve their late disastrous defeats on the plains of 



86 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

Manassas, and the late battle-field of Oak Hills. It now becomes 
necessary, in order to maintain the glorious achievements of our 
arms, that a large force should be thrown into the field on this 
frontier ; and having received instructions from the War Department 
at Richmond to increase the force under my command, I will receive 
and muster into the service of the Confederate States five regiments 
of infantry from each of the above-named States, by companies, 
battalions and regiments, for three years or during the war. Those 
from Arkansas will rendezvous at Fort Smith and Carnp Jackson. 
I have in my possession arms sufficient to equip two regiments of 
Arkansas troops ; the remaining three are required to equip them 
selves with the best they can procure. The forces from Texas will 
rendezvous at Sherman. Those from Louisiana will rendezvous at 
Little Rock. Both of the above are expected to equip themselves 
with the best arms they can procure. An officer will be detailed to 
muster into service the forces from each State at their respective 
places of rendezvous. The commanding officers of companies, bat 
talions and regiments, as soon as they have been mustered into ser 
vice, will procure the necessary transportation for their several com 
mands, and march them at once to Camp Jackson, unless otherwise 
ordered. Each man will be provided with two suits of winter 
clothing and two blankets, also tents, if they can be procured. It 
is desirable that the forces of the several States should be in the field 
at as early a date as possible. 

I call upon you, therefore, to rally to the defence of your sister 
State, Missouri. Her cause is your cause, and the cause of justice 
and independence. Then rally, my countrymen, and assist your 
friends in Missouri to drive back the Republican myrmidons that 
still pollute her soil and threaten to invade your own country, con 
fiscate your property, liberate your slaves, and put to the sword every 
true Southern man who dares to take up arms in defence of his 
rights. 

The principles inaugurated in this war by the proclamation of 
Maj.-Gen. Fremont should warn the South of the ultimate intentions 
of the North, and show them the necessity of rallying to the stand 
ard of their country (for the time specified above), prepared to fight 
in defence of their homes, their altars, and their firesides, until our 
independence shall be recognized and its Blessings secured to our 
posterity. 

BEN McCuLLOCH, Brigadier- General Commanding. 

At the time of this proclamation several companies of Texans ar 
rived in camp. One, Goode s Artillery, was a splendidly equipped 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 87 

company, well drilled and disciplined, and a fine-looking body of 
men. They became devotedly attached to the Louisiana regiment. 

Mixed amid the sweets of life are the bitter dregs. Almost daily 
news reached camp of the death of members of the regiment at the 
hospitals in Mt. Vernon and other places, from disease and wounds. 
After the departure of the regiment the ladies of Mt. Vernon were 
unceasing in their attention and untiring in their kindness to those 
left in their midst. Yet notwithstanding all that these kind and 
gentle hearts could do to stay the ebbing tide of life, the soldier 
sank to his final rest, and sleeps quietly in the burial-ground of Mt. 
Vernon, where the battle s fierce din can never reach him, until the 
last reveille shall have summoned the countless dead from their nar 
row tombs. 

The men of the regiment were united in the strong bonds of more 
than brotherly affection, and when death s keen arrow found its 
victim among their number, there was heartfelt sorrow. Ah ! those 
early graves of our first dead ! What memories come back at the 
thought of them ! 

As softly as starlight melts into day, 
On pinions of angels their souls passed away. 
Strong men are bowed in anguish they weep, 
O er the dead still so dear in death s quiet sleep. 
But ah ! far away o er mountain and glen, 
Lie the homes, that they ne er shall enter again, 
Where loving ones wait to welcome in joy 
Back to their sunlight their own soldier boy. 
But above them now sweeps the blue azure dome, 
Ne er shall parents or friends welcome them home ; 
Dear comrades, farewell, your battles are o er, 
Together in conflict we ll rally no more. 
Farewell ! life is o er, earth fades from your sight, 
Around you has closed death s long dreamless night. 

Day after day passed away at Camp Jackson during the month of 
September with little that proved of much interest. There were 
morning company drills and evening parades, the latter being largely 
attended by ladies from the surrounding country, to witness the 
evolutions of the regiment. The fine manly appearance of the men, 
their soldierly bearing, discipline, splendid evolutions, and marching 
elicited the admiration of the spectators and the wonder of the 
new troops. The weather, most of the time, was beautiful, the at 
mosphere genial and pleasant. The sun looked lovingly down on 



A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

the broad expanse of prairie lying stretched out before the camp, 
while the gently stirring air through the trees which sheltered the 
camp, inclined the men to gather in groups and quietly talk of home 
or discuss the latest sensational item of the war. 

On the 20th, Major Tunnard received a commission to proceed to 
Little Kock to muster in troops, obtain recruits for the regiment, and 
use his influence to strengthen McCulloch s forces. He departed on 
the 21st, accompanied by the best wishes of the regiment, who were 
much attached to him. 

On the evening of the 25th, while the different regiments were 
drilling on the open prairie, Captain Goode s Battery was also out 
practicing. By some unaccountable means one of the caissons blew 
up, fortunately injuring no one. The horses attached ran away with 
the remains, while the Arkansas troops stampeded in utter confusion 
amid the shouts and cheers of the Louisianians, who stood their 
ground without a man leaving the ranks. They had already seen 
" the elephant " in all his huge proportions, and could not run from 
an exploding caisson. The incident furnished food for many a 
hearty laugh at the expense of the Arkansians. The men were now 
suffering intensely from the want of proper clothing, as the weather 
began to change, the nights growing cold and frosty. However, 
they were consoled somewhat amid their sufferings with the intelli 
gence that the State had forwarded a fine supply of everything 
necessary for their comfort. Hon. A. Talbot, of Iberville, was ap 
pointed by Gov. Moore to have these supplies safely and speedily 
transported to the regiment. 

On the last day of the month occurred the first scene of punish 
ment witnessed in the brigade, one of the Arkansians having been 
condemned to be drummed out of camp with his head shaved for 
stealing. In the afternoon the whole brigade assembled to witness 
the execution. They were formed in two lines, facing each other, 
with a space sufficient to permit the criminal to march between the 
ranks. At the appointed hour he was brought forth, marched down 
the extended lines to the tune of the " Rogue s March," followed 
by a file of men with fixed bayonets, his head shaved bare, and a 
large placard attached to his back marked " THIEF." This punish 
ment was a novelty, and was witnessed by the brigade with serious 
faces and in silence. It became a frequent occurrence, however, in 
the soldier s experience. The prisoner was conducted a mile from 
camp, released and ordered to leave, under penalty, if caught, of 
being shot. The spectacle, most assuredly, was not a very agree 
able one. 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 89 

During this period General Price had been achieving some im 
portant successes in Missouri, having captured Lexington, with 
the Federal forces there, arms, ammunition, etc. His forces had 
rapidly augmented in numbers. The people of Missouri, under the 
spur of Fremont s proclamation, to kill every Secessionist caught 
in arms against the United States, were everywhere organizing for a 
desperate armed resistance to the invading foe. Everything pointed 
to the early resumption of active operations. 

Captain Theodore Johnson had been appointed Brigade Quarter 
master, and Lieutenant W. D. Hardirnan, of Company H, filled his 
post in the regiment. On the 1st October, Captain T. L. Maxwell, 
Regimental Commissary, left the regiment on furlough, and Felix 
K. Brunot, of Company K, was appointed in his place during his ab 
sence. Many of the men, disabled from wounds and constitutional 
infirmities, were discharged. One-half the regiment were on the 
sick-list, and the rest, if anything, worse off. Such was the state of 
affairs in the beginning of October. 

On the night of the 4th, the camp was visited by one of thoso 
terrific stonns so prevalent during this season of the year, and 
which the open nature of the country rendered all the more furious 
in its force and grandeur. Late in the afternoon huge masses of 
clouds, inky in their darkness, gathered in the north-west. In fan 
tastic forms, they were piled up like a succession of jagged mountain- 
peaks, their rough edges tinged with a pale-yellowish light. Anon 
a vivid flash of lightning would dart its forked tongue athwart the 
blackness, followed by the rumbling thunder s roll. The storm 
drove down with furious speed upon our encampment. The men 
hurried hither and thither, driving down tent-pegs and tightening 
the cords. From experience, dearly bought, they knew what to 
expect. It burst at last upon the camp with ten-fold fury. The 
lightning s blinding flash was followed by the thunder s peal, crash 
upon crash, in rapid succession. The trees groaned and shivered 
with the wind-king s mighty power. Then came down the rain, 
first in large pattering drops, succeeded finally by a deluge of water 
as if all the flood-gates of heaven had been loosed. Cries, shouts 
and laughter were heard on all sides, according to the nature of the 
men s mishaps ; tents tumbled upon their occupants, from beneath 
which the men would emerge like drowned rats, much to the amuse 
ment of their more fortunate comrades. Such scenes as these were 
no rare occurrence, and formed a part of the soldier s experience at 
Camp Jackson. 



CHAPTER XI. 



AMUSEMENTS. 

THE boys whiled away the idle hours of camp life with games 
and amusements of every description. Racing, athletic sports, 
wrestling, trials of skill and strength, pitching quoits, gymnastic 
performances, and last, but not least, foot-ball. Kind reader, did you 
ever witness the game ? If not, we will enlighten your understand 
ing. It is a favorite amusement with college-boys, where, if played 
with roughness, yet is the game conducted according to systematic 
rule. A foot-ball is usually about the size of a man s head, or a 
thirty-six pound cannon-ball. It is manufactured out of four oval 
pieces of leather, so shaped as to be as round as possible. An open 
ing is left in this cover, with a tongue to cover the opening, on 
both sides of which are holes, at regular intervals, so that it could 
be tightly laced up. Through this opening was inserted a fresh 
beef bladder, which was then blown up to the utmost capacity of 
the cover. The mouth of the bladder was then securely tied, the 
end thrust inside the cover, which was tightly laced up, and the 
ball is ready for the game a light, bounding thing, to be rudely 
kicked, cuffed and scrambled over. The ground being chosen, free 
from all obstructions, two stakes are driven down securely, about 
fifteen or twenty yards apart, at a distance of fifty or seventy-five 
yards, or further if deemed necessary. Sides are then chosen, equal 
in numbers, whose object is to drive the ball through each other s 
base, or " home," with the foot alone. Behold, then, these weather- 
beaten men, strong, active, athletic, inured to hardship, thus arrayed. 
There is to be no schoolboys work here, but a trial of muscular 
strength, united with skill and fleetness on foot. The scene is so 
grotesque and peculiar that it would astonish and amuse our friends 
at home. The players are dressed in every variety of fanciful cos 
tumes. Shirts of gaudy hues, colored handkerchiefs tightly tied 
around their bodies, pants stuffed into socks, turbans, fanciful, in- 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 91 

deed, formed of woolen tippets, red, blue, green and yellow, all 
showing that the u boys" appreciate the " phunny" scenes of more 
peaceful times. At a distance the men look like a collection of 
revelers on Mardi-gras day. 

A single player, with ball in hand, steps midway between the two 
opposing forces, and, with a tremendous kick, " camps 1 it. Both 
parties make a rush at the rolling, bounding plaything, in their 
desperate efforts to force it through each other s base. They scramble, 
fight, wrestle over it, all in good-humor. Shins suffer tremendously 
in the struggle, often receiving the blow intended for the ball. At 
times two opposing players make a rush at it, and with fearful force 
strike it at the same time, and, performing a flying leap through the 
air, measure their full length in opposite directions on the green 
sward. 

Captains and lieutenants and privates, officers and men, joined in 
the sport, affording the privates a rare chance to repay some personal 
pique or fancied wrong. Woe betide the unpopular officer who 
joined in this game, for he was certain to come from it sore and bruised. 
Such is an imperfect outline of this " rough-and-tumble" sport, which 
was the favorite amusement at Camp Jackson. 

We turn from these sports to a scene more interesting as well as 
exciting. On the 5th of October several boxes arrived in camp for 
Company K, containing donations of clothing, etc., from their friends 
and relatives at home. Notwithstanding the day was dark, gloomy 
and stormy, the air chill and damp, all turned out and gathered in 
anxious expectation and excitement around the boxes. Bundle after 
bundle found its way to the proper owner, amid cheers, cries and 
shouts. Surely could the ladies of the " Baton Rouge Campaign 
Sewing Society" have witnessed the scenes around those boxes, 
heard the expressions of gratitude, and viewed the demonstrations 
f jy on all sides, they would have felt that their labors were prop 
erly appreciated. Members from the other companies, and from 
McNair s and McRae s Arkansas Regiments, gathered around to 
witness the delivery of the clothing, until there was a dense mass of 
jostling, crowding, noisy men, of which the boxes formed the nucleus 
and centre of attraction. Each uniform contained either letters, 
pictures of dear ones at home, souvenirs from sweethearts, gloves 
or tippets, pockets and arms being stuffed with these mementoes^ 
Accompanying this supply of clothing was a mysterious-looking 
box, the gift of a friend and citizen to the company. On being 
opened it was found to contain liquors of all kinds, " rara avis " in 
camp ; yea ! much " forbidden fruit," such as brandy, whisky, cor- 



92 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

dials, etc., with ink, lemons, looking-glasses, combs, brushes, tobacco, 
pipes, pickles ; in fact, a perfect assortment of " knick-knacks " and 
groceries. The donor was enthusiastically toasted for his munificence, 
and the name of " Tony " Montau became a synonym for joviality 
and fun. It was but a short time before the whole regiment received 
their supply of clothing, the munificent gift of Louisiana to her brave 
sons. This clothing was manufactured at the State Penitentiary, 
and was of substantial material, known as jeans, being of a grayish- 
blue color, with the exception of Company K, which was of a dark 
brown. The outfit of the regiment exceeded their most sanguine 
expectations, and infused a new feeling and spirit among the men, 
and they felt that now were they fully prepared for active operations, 
regardless of winter s approaching rigorous weather. 

We consider the annexed tribute to the ladies of the Campaign 
Sevang Society no innovation to the pages of this volume, an expres 
sion of sentiments equally applicable to other companies of the regi 
ment, and which but few soldiers of the South did not experience at 
some period of their lives in the army, for the patriotic devotion, 
unceasing labors, patient toil, and heroic fortitude and self-sacrificing 
spirit of our fair Southern women, in aiding and strengthening the 
cause which their sons, fathers, husbands, brothers and lovers had 
espoused. 

HEADQUARTERS Co. K, THIRD REGT. LA. VOLS., ) 

Camp Jackson, Ark., Oct. 8ih, 1861. } 

To the President and Members of the Ladies Campaign Sewing Society : 
KIND FRIENDS, When the heart is fullest, the lips fail in giving 
expression to the strength and depth of the inward emotions. Yet 
such is the case as I now attempt to pen these lines. False indeed 
would I be to my own feelings, did I not express to you in some man 
ner my heartfelt thanks for the untiring zeal and energy which you 
have displayed in the equipment of the Pelican Rifles for their winter 
campaign. 

Mere words, mere language, will not convey a tithe of the emotions 
stirred within me, or the gratitude felt for your munificence. Surely 
our arms will be nerved anew to strike fresh blows, and our hearts 
strengthened by this exhibition of your interest in us and the cause 
of Southern Independence. 

Though there may not be among you any Molly Pitchers to avenge, 
at the cannon s mouth, amid the din aod strife of the battle-field, a 
loved one s death, or thus exhibit your interest in our country s 
cause, yours is none the less a work of patriotism more a work of 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 93 

love. Loved ones liave departed from your midst, and many are the 
vacant places at the quiet fireside and in the home circles of those 
who have gone forth to aid in driving the invader and despoiler 
from Southern soil. They are enduring the privations and sufferings 
of a soldier s life, living in tents and the open air, braving the 
dangers of the battle-field, the rigors of a severe climate. Yet, while 
husbands, fathers, sons and friends are thus evincing their devotion 
to the common cause, your interesting perseverance and energy, your 
noble, self-sacrificing spirit and unceasing labors of love aid as 
materially the success and onward march of our independence, our 
freedom of thought, speech and action. 

Dark clouds of battle in gloom o er us lower ; 

Armed legions have gathered to join in the fight ; 
A despot has called his hordes to o erpower 

A people all free, now battling for right. 

From workshop and counter, from lowly cottage and lordly man 
sion, freemen have hastened and now stand shoulder to shoulder, 
regardless of former place or position, to make a despot s minions 
feel the strength of freemen s arms, of freemen s daring and bravery. 

You, mothers and daughters at home, are aiding the cause of " Ee- 
bellion," and so long as your patriotism lasts, evinced in such works 
of love and remembrance as we have lately been the recipients of, so 
long is there reason to hope for the eventual triumph of Southern 
freemen. Woman s love, woman s patriotism and devotion will 
achieve more than armed legions, and do now accomplish more than 
aught else in aiding to turn back the tide of Northern hate and 
fanaticism. 

Kind friends, what more can I say ? How evince to you the 
thanks, the gratitude of a soldier s heart ? Let deeds of future 
daring and bravery convince you that soldiers are not unmindful of 
the interest exhibited towards and felt in them by loved and fair 
ones at home. "With a prayer for blessings on your labors and the 
final success of our cause, 

I subscribe myself your friend, 

W. H. TUNNAKD, Acting Orderly Sergeant. 
In behalf of Company K. 



CHAPTER XII. 

THE FALL CAMPAIGN. 

OCTOBEE 7th, 1861, was a beautiful, clear day, such as we often 
experience in the Fall. Orders were issued to prepare to break up 
camp and move on the following morning at 10 o clock A. M. All 
was bustle and confusion, the men hurrying, scampering to and fro, 
packing knapsacks, etc. The order, however, was rescinded, as it was 
found impossible to complete the necessary preparations to march. 
Rumors began to prevail that General Price was retreating, closely 
followed by Fremont with an army of 30,000 men. On the llth, 
under orders, we left Camp Jackson, and ere night had once more 
crossed the line into Missouri, our destination being reported as 
Carthage, camping in an open field, surrounded by dense woods. 
On the 12th an election was held for officers to fill vacancies in the 
various companies, Company A choosing E. Gourrier as Second 
Junior Lieutenant ; Company K, H. H. Gentles. 

On this day also the regiment received their first pay from the Con 
federate States for May and June in scrip, a species of money not 
very available to the soldier. The country abounded in wild fruit 
and nuts, such as pawpaws, grapes, hawes, hazel-nuts, and apples 
also in profusion, of which the men gathered eagerly and devoured. 
13th. Camped at Scott s Mills, on Elk River. The next day, while on 
the march, the regiment met the family and eifects of Governor 
Jackson, of Missouri, en route for Arkansas. The meeting between 
the Governor and the regiment, there, in the lonely woods of 
Missouri, was a scene such as few can ever forget. The day was 
bright and beautiful ; the sunbeams glancing smilingly down through 
the o ershadowing branches of the forest trees. As the Governor 
approached, the regiment formed in line along the roadside and 
welcomed him with three hearty cheers, at the same time presenting 
arms, as he moved along the line, with head uncovered. Reaching 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 95 

the extreme left of the line, Governor Jackson faced the men, and, 
in tones trembling from the depth of his agitation and emotion, thus 
addressed them: "I am glad to meet you. I welcome you to 
Missouri. You will find many warm-hearted brothers here who will 
warmly, nobly greet you. I feel that Missouri is free, and hope to 
announce on ray return that she is legally a member of the Southern 
Confederacy, even as she now is virtually. There are troops enough, 
I hope, to drive every foe from her soil. We have plenty to feed 
them, and if we are blessed with pleasant weather, one of our old- 
fashioned autumns, not an enemy will remain in the State. I hope 
and expect that you will winter in the heart of Missouri, if not in 
St. Louis. I have heard of you before at the battle of Oak Hills, 
and for your deeds there I thank you. Once again I welcome you 
to Missouri." This simple-worded address of the Governor, deliv 
ered with impressive force and eloquence of manner, elicited another 
burst of applause from the warm-hearted Louisianians. Lieutenant- 
Colonel Hyams replied in the following expressive language : " In 
behalf of the Louisiana Regiment I would simply answer let their 
past deeds speak for tlieir future" 

Such is the outline of the most pleasant incident of our campaign. 
The march was resumed. Camped at night on the right of an open 
field, in woods, near the roadside, the spot being known as Camp 
Pike. Goode s Texas Battery joined us to-day. In this camp oc 
curred a fearful tragedy, always a matter of deep regret and sorrow, 
but especially among those who should be united in the strong bonds 
of unity of feeling, interest, and purpose. Two members of the 
Morehouse Fencibles, Co. E, were engaged in a game of cards, when 
a dispute arose, ending in blows. The result was that Mayo shot 
Hays in the abdomen, inflicting a mortal wound; Hays drew a 
Bowie-knife, after being shot, stabbing and instantly killing Mayo. 
Hays died the next day in Neosho. Thus two valuable lives were 
sacrificed needlessly, and the regiment lost two efficient members. 
On the 17th the march was resumed, the regiment passing through 
Neosho, and camped eighteen miles from Carthage, on Shoal Creek. 
Rumors of the enemy s approach began to be very prevalent, it being 
supposed that they would attempt to gain possession of Neosho be 
fore the 23d, the day appointed for the convening of the Legislature 
of Missouri for the purpose of passing the secession ordinance. The 
regiment still continued to advance, arriving on the 18th at Centre 
Creek. The 20th they began their retreat, Price s army, computed 
at 18,000 men, arriving at Neosho and filling the whole valley in 
which it was situated with the uproar, confusion and bustle incident 



96 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

to the camping of a large force, especially one in rapid letreat from 
a pursuing foe. This morning the air was chill and cold, the ground 
covered with a heavy hoar-frost. Yet the day turned out clear, serene 
and beautiful. It always seemed as if these quiet Sabbath-days 
must mark some important event and stirring scenes I McCulloch s 
Division was in the neighborhood, wild rumors prevalent, added to 
which was the arrival of General McCulloch and staff, Gov. Jackson, 
Generals Rains, Harris, and Price, making a scene of excitement 
seldom witnessed, beyond portrayal by human language. The next 
morning the Louisiana regiment, after marching nearly all night, 
passed through Neosho, en route for Arkansas, followed by the mount 
ed forces. As regiment after regiment poured through the place, the 
excitement became intense, and affairs began to assume a serious 
aspect. The Missourians complained loudly against Arkansas for 
not re-enforcing McCulloch. It did, indeed, seem strange, that the 
people of Arkansas should have remained idle spectators of these 
events, when their own State was threatened with invasion, and no 
barrier to oppose it save General McCulloch s brave little army, and 
the gallant Missourians, struggling so nobly and desperately to free 
their State fr.om the presence of the foe. This sudden retreat, how 
ever, seemed to awaken the dormant energies of the Arkansians, and 
they began to organize and hasten to the rescue. Stone s Texas Regi 
ment passed the regiment while on the retreat, uttering loud, shrill 
Indian war-whoops as they dashed by at the top of their horses 
speed. They were a splendidly mounted body of men. The retro 
grade movement of McCulloch s forces continued through Pineville, 
until the regiment once more struck camp at Cavendish Springs, 
called " Camp McCulloch," two miles above Camp Stephens, in Ar 
kansas, but a short distance from the Missouri line. Thus the men, 
after an absence of fifteen days, once more found rest, much to their 
relief. The weather was becoming very cold, still nothing was said 
or thought about winter-quarters. In the mean time, General Price 
was once more on the advance. He seemed indefatigable in his 
efforts, undaunted in his determination to keep within the borders 
of Missouri. 

General McCulloch s mounted forces had gone to the front to feel 
the enemy s position, and, if possible, ascertain his strength. 

Numerous laughable incidents occurred on the retreat, but we give 
place only to the following good joke, told on Colonel Hebert. It 
seems that at one of the camps, between Carthage and Neosho, sev 
eral of the regiment found a pen full of very fine fat hogs, or, as the 
boys termed them, "bear," for whose flesh they had a "lamentable" 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 97 

love. It was the work of but a few moments to kill several of the 
largest and finest. A dispute arose as to whether they should scald 
them or skin them, the usual modus operandi in such cases. The 
Colonel, unnoticed, had approached the group, and after listening 
to the dispute, quietly remarked : u Skin them, my men, skin them ; 
no time for scalding now." The boys were completely astonished, 
both at the interruption and such a relaxation from the enforcement 
of strict military discipline by the Colonel. However, they followed 
his advice, and told the joke much to the amusement of the whole 
regiment. 

RETROGRADING. 

Just after leaving the vicinity of Carthage, and while crossing an 
open prairie, a bright light became visible, and several of the men 
in their feverish excitement declared that they saw horsemen gallop 
ing by. Adjutant Hyams and several others were sent to reconnoitre 
but discovered nothing. The men then began to question Colonel 
Hebert eagerly as to where they were going, inquiring anxiously if 
they were retreating. " Retreating ?" said the Colonel : " Oh no, my 
men only retrograding." The regiment learned thoroughly the 
meaning of the word ere they finally rested from the wearisome 
march. 

In the account of the battle of Oak Hills it is mentioned that 
Companies A and K, Third Louisiana, were united under the com 
mand of Captain J. P. Viglini (Co. K). The following orders ex 
plain the absence of Captain Brusle on that memorable occasion : 

HEADQUARTERS MCCULLOCH S BRIGADE,) 
Camp Stephens, Ark., July 21, 1861. \ 

CAPT. You will proceed without delay to the Creek Agency in 
the Indian Territory, and there muster in a regiment of Creek Indians. 
It appears from treaty stipulations made by Captain Pike, Commis 
sioner, that this regiment is. to be composed of eight companies of 
Creeks and two of Seminoles. 

It will be proper for you, as soon as you reach the Indian Territory, 
to make Captain Pike, the Commissioner, aware of your mission, 
who will, no doubt, give you valuable information in regard to this 
regiment. As soon as the regiment is organized and mustered into 
service, an election will be held for a colonel and other field officers, 
whom you will also muster into service. 

Major Clark, Quartermaster at Fort Smith, will be directed to send 
to you an agent of the Quartermaster and Commissary Departments, 
to furnish the necessary supplies. Beef and flour can be furnished 
5 



98 A SOUTHERN EECORD. 

in the country, or certainly from Texas. It will therefore only be 
necessary to furnish the regiment with coffee, sugar, and salt from 
Fort Smith, and directions will be given to that eifect. A quantity 
of powder and lead will also be sent from Fort Smith to the regi 
ment. 

I have the honor to be, Captain, 

Your obedient servant, 
JAMES MC!NTOSH, Capt. C. S. A. and Adjt.-Gen. 

HEADQUARTERS McCuLLOcn s BRIGADE,} 

Special Orders, ) Camp Stephens, Ark., July 22, 1861. ( 

No. 16. \ 

I. Captain C. A. Brusle, of the Louisiana Regiment of Volunteers, 
will proceed without delay to the Creek Agency, and muster in a 
regiment of Creek and Seminole Indians, which is being organized 
there. 

II. Major Clark, Brigade Quartermaster at Fort Smith, will send 
with Captain Brusle an agent of the Quartermaster and Subsistence 
Departments, to furnish the necessary supplies to the different com 
panies of the regiment as they are mustered into service. 

By order General McCulloch. 

JAMES MC!NTOSH, Capt. C. 8. A. and Ad jt.- Gen. of Brigade. 

Perhaps no more interesting subject could be presented than a few 
items concerning the Indians, their countiy, method of living, and 
connection with the late struggle. The part which they took in the 
war seems to have been totally ignored. Availing ourself of the 
privilege given by the notes of Captain Brusle, we give a chapter on 
this subject. 

In obedience to the above order, Captain Brusle immediately pro 
ceeded to Fort Smith to carry out the object of his instructions. He 
left Fort Smith July 30th, at 12 M., and reached Scully ville at 6 p. M., 
fourteen miles from Fort Smith. The . country up to within five 
miles of the place resembles the wild lands of Lower Louisiana in 
appearance. The soil is very fertile, and produces large crops of 
corn, oats and wheat. There were few farms along the road, yet 
these compare favorably in every respect with the best farms in 
Northwestern Arkansas. 

Although the land between Fort Smith and Scullyville cannot be 
excelled in fertility, yet, at this period, there were but three farms to 
be seen. The country beyond Sculiyville is a rolling prairie, mostly 
sterile. The houses on the farms are built of logs, and are not very 
comfortable in appearance. 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 99 

On the 31st, Captain B. gives the following bill of fare for dinner: 
Corn-bread, milk and hominy, with rancid bacon ; not very pala 
table," says the Captain, " but I take a little to prevent from starv 
ing. Now add to this most detestable water, and a man s misery is 
complete." The scarcity and impurity of water on this route is a 
noticeable fact. Traveled eighteen miles without water; found 
some impossible to drink, as it smells too strong of carrion. Traveled 
eight miles more and succeeded in getting some of an Indian farmer, 
which I managed to drink, although smelling badly and having an 
oily surface. After traveling two miles more, Captain B. stopped 
at Mr. Jones farm. He drew some water from the well, and found 
it filled with those "bugs" which infest all well-traveled roads. 
This caused a sudden weakness about the Captain s stomach, which 
shocked his whole system. The very Avorthy Captain attempts to 
become stoical and determined as an Indian, yet he breaks out : " I 
begin to think that McCulloch ought to have sent some one else on 
this mission." 

Mr. and Mrs. Jones (of the Jones family) are Choctaws ; live like 
the other farmers ; had a family three boys and as many girls. No 
fruit of any kind is to be found. A neglected peach-tree in some 
corner of a yard is occasionally seen, but few water-melons even ; 
yet the soil is good, and capable of producing such fruit in abund 
ance. 

On the 1st August Captain B. was stopping at Mr. J. Brebb s, a 
half-breed Choctaw. " His wife is a very large squaw, weighing over 
two hundred pounds. Still she appears active. Their house, al 
though of logs, was about as comfortable as any seen in the Western 
country. It is as neatly and as comfortably furnished as log- 
houses can well be. They own a family of negroes, who work a 
goodly-sized farm for them." 

" The prairies cannot be surpassed in beauty. For a distance of 
ten or fifteen miles all around, you behold a rolling prairie, covered 
with excellent, luxuriant grass, whose emerald surface rolls away in 
long waves neath the autumnal breeze. Even the hills are covered 
with this growth of nature s covering. The whole country has the 
appearance of being hemmed in by a tall, blue, vapory wall, which 
are the mountains, raising their tall summits, at a great distance, 
north, south, east and west. The sight is grand, imposing and 
picturesque, filling the soul of the beholder with unexpressible emo 
tions." 

August 22d. Saw the famous Tom Star, a Cherokee Indian, 
who was rendered notorious by the perils which he encountered a 



100 A SOUTHERN EECOED. 

few years since while upon terms of deadly hatred against the whole 
Cherokee Nation. He was not alone, however, in his opposition, for 
he had fourteen brothers who all espoused his cause. For a period 
of upwards of four years the Cherokee Nation was the theatre of the 
most revolting scenes. Murder followed murder in rapid succession. 
The Cherokees finally succeeded in killing all the Stars but Toin 
and one of his brothers (both living now), who still annoyed them 
to such an extent that they sued for peace. Old Tom, who had 
often fled for his life and made many hair-breadth and miraculous 
escapes, was now handsomely paid to cease hostilities. The old 
man is very intelligent, and is very familiar with all portions of the 
Indian Territory, as well as parts of Texas, Missouri and Arkansas, 
These States he paid a hurried visit to while fleeing from the pursuit 
of the Cherokees. He is said, at present, to be one of the most 
peaceful men in the Nation. I acquired much valuable information 
from him during his short stay at Mr. Rubbs . He promised to join 
Us at Springfield, where he can see a " big fight." Here I met an 
other character in the person of a straggling Indian. His name is 
Moses Riddle ; is very poor ; lives wherever he has an opportunity, 
and is very stupid, the effects of whisky, doubtless, as he has the 
appearance of a confirmed drunkard. He seems to be very anxious 
to join the army, and promises to unite with the Creeks, if he can 
only find his pony, w r ho, like the chief characteristic of his owner, 
is much given to straying or straggling. This man Riddle said he 
had two brothers in the army ; one of them, he seemed to think, was 
a very gallant fellow. He went on to say, " One of my brothers is 
a murderer," in that exalted tone in which a white man would have 
acquainted you with the fact that his brother was colonel of a regi 
ment or general of an army. It appears that his brother had a dis 
pute with a Cherokee about a horse, which was the cause of his 
shooting the Cherokee. His second feat was performed on the per 
son of the Sheriff of the county, who attempted, in obedience to 
the law of the Nation, to seize some whisky he carried with him. 

This picture is too revolting for more particulars. " Last night," 
continues Captain B., " I had the pleasure of sleeping in the same 
room with this apologist of the crime of murder." 

Mr. Rubbs is a half-breed, stands about six feet two or three 
inches in his socks. His frame is well formed both for strength and 
activity ; seems to be very resolute, and, at the same time, kind- 
hearted. His children are unusually badly spoiled. Indian babies 
are generally the most noisy in the world except negroes. 

Arrived at North Fork at 2 r. M., August 3. This place contains 






THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 101 

about eight stores and several indifferent residences, together with a 
boarding-house, kept by a half-breed Creek named Smith, who is 
absent with Captain Pike, making treaties with the wild Western 
Indian tribes. Mrs. Smith is nearly white, dresses quite neatly, and 
is " much of a lady." Here I was visited by a number of celebrities, 
among whom were Captain W. F. Mclntosh, Captain Napoleon, 
Moore and Walker. These gentlemen show the very smallest evi 
dence of Indian blood, are very affable, courteous and polite in man 
ners. One would imagine he was among the most refined of the 
American race, did he not know them to be half-breeds. They are 
similar in dress to the Americans, and intensely Southern in feeling 
and sentiments. They despise a Yankee as they would, a rattle 
snake, with all that deadly hatred so characteristic of the race, sur 
passing a Spaniard in intensity, with that tenacity of feeling which 
nothing can eradicate. They were delighted at the idea of being 
mustered into the service, and were proud to see Captain B., to 
whom they paid every attention. 

The country in this region is well settled, the crops abundant, and 
the people are exultant over the defeat of the Federals at Manassas. 
They say they will never rest satisfied until they invade Kansas and 
pay the villains there back ^.n their own coin. The inhabitants are well- 
behaved, orderly and moral in their habits. I have, as yet, seen no 
full-blood Indians. To-morrow will leave for the Creek Agency to 
meet the soldiers. Have been awaiting the arrival of the Colonel 
of the regiment. 

The heat here is suffocating ; the thermometer stands 110, and the 
prairie breezes are as refreshing as steam from an escape-pipe. 

I left Mr. Smith s at 5 o clock A. M., August 4, and arrived at R. 
Ross place at 11,} A. M., after taking advantage of many of the shade- 
trees about the creeks I crossed. The distance traveled is twenty- 
three miles. This may look like slow traveling, but it is accom 
plishing a great deal when there is taken into consideration the 
effect of the sun in these large prairies, the heat being terrible. The 
nights are somewhat pleasant, but the days perfectly awful with 
their suffocating atmosphere. 

If you wish to imagine yourself in this country, just get into a 
hot oven, and if there be any difference, it will be in favor of the 
oven. Had I not brought an umbrella and a pair of goggles, I feel 
confident I never would have reached my destination. Saw a few 
full-bloods along the road. They are exceedingly lazy and slovenly, 
a thousand times more so than the negroes. The women perform 
all the labor, and are more active and energetic than the men. The 



J02 JS SOUTHERN RECORD. 

majority of them speak no English, and exhibit no disposition to be 
on friendly terms with the whites. They are the most independent 
people in the world. 

August 5. Arrived at the Creek Agency, where I met a handsome 
reception from the Indians. There was a rush during the entire 
day for the hotel where I stopped. Had an interview with D. K 
Mclntosh, son of General Mclntosh, of Red-Stick war fame. This 
gentleman, with Mr. Stcdham, were appointed Commissioners to 
treat with the Confederate States. They are both refined and edu 
cated gentlemen, half-breeds. 

It is surprising to find the number of old Indians who are anxious 
to enlist for the war. Their enthusiasm is worthy the emulation of 
our own people. 

In the large crowd who soon congregated around me, I was 
peculiarly impressed with one very old full-blood, who had seen 
at least seventy summers. I indulged my curiosity by asking him, 
through the interpreter, if he too was willing to fight for his country. 
The reply was as laconic as it was characteristic of the race. He 
replied : " / am a man." 

The full-bloods dread nothing so much as to meet death in their 
homes. They say it is a disgrace for a man to die at home like a 
woman. Hence they are rejoiced at the opportunity to distinguish 
themselves on the battle-field, or of meeting an honorable death. 

Among the companies eventually mustered into service were 
"William F. Macintosh s, hideously painted with all the insignia about 
them, to proclaim that the hatchet had been dug up ; D. N. Mclntosh s, 
James McIIenry s, Samuel Miller s, Thlar Keta s, William Mclntosh s, 
Herrod s, Sam Chicotah s, Uchee and Cusetah. 

Having accomplished his mission, Captain Brusle returned to 
Camp Jackson late in August, when he was furnished with a leave 
of absence for sixty days, at the expiration of which period he re 
ported to the regiment at Camp McCulloch. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

CAMP M CULLOCH. 

CAMP McCuLLOCH was situated on a rough rocky hill, almost sur 
rounded by valleys. On the east was a deserted field, well adapted 
to the exercise of drilling. Of course camps were always selected 
in Tiew of such very agreeable contingencies. The first order issued 
for the enforcement of the rules and regulations of camp was on the 
28th October, which the men considered as equivalent to being in 
formed that, for some time, at least, there would be no more march 
ing. Thus once more commenced the regular routine of camp-life. 
Twas the season of the " sere and yellow leaf." The forest, for 
some time, had been clothed in crimson and gold ; all those varied 
and gorgeous hues of nature s painting, which have made the 
Autumns of the North so famed in the poet s song. During the 
march from Missouri, through the deep valleys shut up by high 
hills, some of the most beautiful landscape views that the eye of 
man ever gazed upon, greeted the vision. The golden sunlight 
glancing along the hill-sides, lighting up the tree-tops ornamented 
with a multiplicity of various-colored leaves, while the valley be 
neath slumbered in shadows, formed pictures of such rare and 
exquisite coloring that few of the way-worn and weary soldiers failed 
to appreciate by expressions of enthusiastic admiration. The 
weather duirng this period was delightful. The days bright and 
beautiful, the atmosphere mild and pleasant, but at night cold and 
frosty. 

Thanks, however, to the labor and love of fair ones " far awa , 
we were abundantly supplied with warm and comfortable clothing, 
and prepared to bid defiance to the approach of white-bearded 
winter. On the 31st there was a grand review of the regiment, 
muster, and general policing the parade-ground. The regiment also 
saw the munificent gift of Tennessee to General Price pass the en 
campment. This present from the " Volunteer State " consisted of 
fourteen wagons loaded with camp equipage and munitions of war, 



104 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

and twelve pieces of artillery, six and twelve-pounder guns. Every 
thing about them perfectly new and in the most complete order- 
The horses were superb-looking animals. These guns were the finest 
that had yet come to the Western army ; each one has point and 
breech sights. We thought, as we gazed at them, that Tennessee 
would soon hear something pointed from these messengers of war, 
whose arrival was most opportune, and would be greeted with wild 
demonstrations of joy by the gallant, noble, and patriotic men under 
General Price. 

Novemler 1st dawned clear and pleasant. Being All-Saints day, 
the usual drills, etc., were omitted, and many of the men went to the 
houses of the surrounding farmers to visit fair acquaintances. It 
was wonderful with what rapidity the men ingratiated themselves 
into the favor of these same sturdy fanners and the good graces of 
their fair daughters. Yet so it was, and they were frequent visitors 
to the camp, enjoying the scenes of a soldier s life, as well as their 
lively sallies of wit and small talk. Many amusing incidents arose 
from this intercourse, one of which we here chronicle as too good to 
be lost. We have already stated that the men visited the farmers 
dwellings, whose chief charms concentrated in some fair, bright-eyed 
lassie, thus exhibiting that fondness for feminine society and com 
panionship which characterized them when at home. A worthy 
corporal of one of the companies, with his " chums," comprising an 
entire mess, had been frequent visitors at a lowly cot near the en 
campment, where two really handsome young ladies resided. Rising 
one day from an agreeable tete-a-tete over the dinner-table, two or 
three of the men considered it nothing more than an act of polite 
ness to invite the farmer and his family to take dinner with them 
the following day. "I shall certainly do so with pleasure," was the 
reply. Nothing more was thought of the invitation until the next 
morning near the dinner hour, when who should make their appear 
ance in camp but the farmer, wife, daughters, and small members of 
the family (as he had promised), to dine with the "boys." There 
was nothing prepared, and, worse than all, no provisions on hand 
with which to prepare a suitable dinner. The joke was soon known 
all over camp. The men strolled negligently about the unfortunate 
victims in groups to enjoy and add to their discomfiture, and sly 
jokes, witticisms, and suppressed laughter greeted them on all sides 
as they escorted their visitors through the encampment. They de 
termined not to be made the subject of fun for the whole regiment. 
So, "nil desperandum," with commendable zeal a portion of the mess 
made preparations for dinner, while the remainder "played the 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 105 

agreeable." By dint of borrowing and begging a really nice meal 
was served up. The mess, for once in the history of the company to 
which they belonged, were excused from drill that day, and a fashion 
able meal eaten in the encampment. 

One of the most agreeable features of Camp McCulloch was the 
immense flocks of wild pigeons that roosted near this spot. The 
boys killed large numbers of them, and feasted " right royally " on 
their flesh, to them a great delicacy after living for months on fresh 
beef and salt pork. They were broiled, stewed, roasted, baked in 
pies, in fact, prepared in every conceivable variety of style which 
the ingenuity of the men could devise, and let the reader be informed 
that a soldier s ingenuity in the culinary line was by no means to be 
made sport of. 

The Major rejoined the regiment here on the 2nd, and was most 
cordially, enthusiastically, and warmly greeted by the men. He 
brought with him funds in specie to pay off Company K for services 
rendered in the State previous to entering the Confederate service. 
Of course to this company his arrival was a source of great rejoicing, 
aside from their love for him as their first commander. At this pe 
riod General Price s army was at Cassville, while McCulloch s Division 
were scattered between Camp McCulloch and Springfield, awaiting 
the movements of the enemy. Here the General issued another 
stirring appeal, calling the Arkansians "to arms," in view of the 
threatened invasion. On the 6th, Generals McCulloch and Price and 
Governor Jackson held a consultation at Keatsville to determine the 
future movements to be made. All was excitement and anxious ex 
pectation in view of approaching hostilities. Colonel Mclntosh s 
command, from this date, were actively engaged in devastating the 
country between our position and the enemy. Everything that 
would or could aid them was destroyed corn, fodder, oats, hay and 
wheat-stacks while the roads were thoroughly and completely 
blockaded by felling timber across them. It showed how imminent 
the danger was considered. A good joke was told on a sergeant 
who was very active in this work of destruction. Entering one day 
a large corn-field near a dwelling, he exhibited his usual zeal in ap 
plying the torch to the grain. As he was setting fire to a corn-shock 
the owner exclaimed, " Look out, there s a gun in there !" The words 
were scarcely spoken, when the gun exploded in the stack just be 
hind him, the ball whizzing by in dangerous proximity to his head. 
Dropping his torch, he turned to Col. Melntosh near by, exclaiming, 
" Look here, Colonel, I don t mind being killed by a Dutchman, but 
I ll be hanged if I want to be shot at by an infernal corn-shock." 
5* 



106 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

The enemy were constantly annoyed and harassed by the cavalry, 
their trains captured, their pickets driven in, and their army kept in 
constant commotion, in anticipation of an attack from the Confeder 
ates. 

On the 6th the regiment cast 518 votes for the President and Vice- 
President of the Confederate States ; proper returns were made out 
and forwarded to Louisiana. Orders were also read out for all lights 
to be extinguished at 8 o clock, and the men prepared to fall in, no 
noise in camp, the "long roll " to be beaten in case of firing. The 
excitement caused by these orders was too intense to allow any rest 
that night. Stone s, Greer s, and two Indian regiments left for Kan 
sas. The Indians were half naked in all the hideousness of their 
war paint, and armed with long rifles, tomahawks, and scalping- 
knives, apparently as savage arid untamed as when, in years long 
passed, they alone inhabited the American continent. 

The enemy precipitately left Springfield about the middle of No 
vember. This sudden and unexpected move disappointed the ex 
pectations of the troops, as it was hoped to have led them among 
the hills of Arkansas, and, turning upon them, utterly to have routed 
them. 

The regiment was in splendid health and spirits, more so than at 
any time during its formation. The men passed their idle hours in 
foot-racing, wrestling, jumping, singing, and dancing. They entered 
with keen relish into all kinds of mischief. One would scarcely 
have supposed that they had just been facirfg a powerful foe, antici 
pating a fearful and deadly combat. To all intents and purposes our 
fall campaign was finished, although little was said about winter- 
quarters. The night of November 16th there was a light fall of 
sleet ;, General McCulloch left to-day for Springfield with 4,000 cav 
alry ; the 17th was a dark, cloudy, gloomy day, but not cold. We 
anticipated now the opening of winter weather ; cold, rain, sleet, 
and snow. How rejoiced would the men then have been could they 
have been transferred to some field of active service, instead of re 
maining inactive and confined to winter-quarters during the coming 
months ! Inured to hardship, brave and daring, the raen of the Third 
Regiment would have infinitely preferred an active campaign to a 
winter of idleness. But as the fates willed so must its destiny be 
accomplished. They had u learned to labor," but not to wait while 
there was work to do, or a blow to be struck for the independence 
of their country. On the 18th, Major W. F. Tunnard, at the head 
of 150 men, departed at 12 o clock at night, with three days rations, 
to clear out the blockaded roads leading to Springfield. Making a 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 107 

march of ten miles, they halted, and commenced the task assigned 
them. The men worked with the same alacrity and perseverance 
which always characterized them. Whether work, play or fight, they 
entered into it with a zeal and energy truly commendable. Having 
accomplished the duty assigned them, they returned to camp on the 
afternoon of the 20th. The weather at this time was very wintry ; 
tremendous storms arose, followed by bitter cold weather. Every 
thing became frozen solid and hard. The men suffered from the 
weather, tents being very insufficient protection against the pene 
trating air, and now began to look forward to more comfortable 
quarters. Advices from General McCulloch reached the command, 
giving information that Siegel was at Holla with a portion of the 
Federal forces, and Hunter at Sidalia with the remainder. General 
Price was marching, with his army largely reinforced, upon the 
latter, while General McCulloch, using Springfield as a base of opera 
tions, was making a demonstration on Holla, to prevent Siegel from 
reinforcing Hunter. Such was the condition of affairs at this date. 
On the 24th, Major Theodore Johnson and Captain Brusle reached 
the regiment. The weather continued too cold to permit the men 
to engage in their customary drills, and they passed the time prin 
cipally by indulging in their favorite amusement, foot-ball. The 
weather was fine for the violent exercise of this rough game. No 
vember 25th was a marked day in the army. On this day the In 
fantry Division was reviewed by Colonel L. Hebert. Although there 
were present no "knights of the quill" to write about the manly 
appearance and military -bearing of the men ; no fair ones to wave 
cambric handkerchiefs and lend the charm of their beauty and 
presence to the scene, yet was the display none the less creditable to 
all concerned. The soiled and worn uniforms of the men, with their 
determined features, unshaven beard and unshorn locks, spoke of 
war in all its grim reality, and proclaimed the review no light 
pageantry or holiday festival. On this same day a musical club was 
organized in the regiment, for the purpose of enlivening the coming 
winter evenings with " strains of harmonious melody." The instru 
ments were two flutes, a piccolo, violin and guitar. The artillery 
and cavalry passed camp, en route for their winter- quarters. On the 
27th, General McCulloch arrived in our camp, en route to Richmond, 
Va. The personnel of this remarkable character was striking. His 
face was nearly concealed with brown beard and moustache. Keen 
gray eyes looked with piercing glance from beneath the overshadow 
ing eyebrows ; a brown felt hat placed firmly on his head ; black 
and white checked overcoat, pants of blue army cloth, the inside 



108 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

half of the legs being lined with buckskin, and hands incased in 
soiled buckskin gauntlets, with not a mark or ornament visible to 
betoken his rank or attract attention. An observer would little have 
supposed him to be the famed and dreaded Ben McCulloch. 

Though late in the season, the fall races took place on this clay, an 
event of much excitement and fun among the men. The race-track 
was a lane about a quarter of a mile long, near the camp, level and 
smooth. Bets were freely offered and taken, the first entry being 
Dr. Hebert and Captain Richards, two noted racers, in a single 
dash of a quarter. Behold, then, the scene. The chosen judges at 
the stand ; the fences lined with excited, eager men ; the riders 
stripped, and handkerchiefs tied about their heads. The start was 
made, and Richards, amid shouts and cheers, won the race by four 
feet exact measurement. The next race was between Adjutant 
Hyams filly and Richards, a dead heat. The race being repeated, 
Hyams filly won by six inches. The fourth and last race was 
between two ponies, Brigham and Hedrick, the latter being success 
ful. Such was one of the scenes of November 27th. We chronicle 
another. A mysterious-looking wagon drove up to the encampment, 
which seemed to immediately attract great attention, the men 
thronging around it in numbers. The Argus-eyed officers were on 
the alert, and soon made a descent upon the contents of the wagon, 
when, : oh, lud!" it was discovered to contain a keg of whisky. 
How could the boys discover such stuff, we wonder ? Passing 
strange, indeed. The contents were immediately seized and confis 
cated by Lieutenant-Colonel S. M. Hyams, as contraband of war. 
The Lieutenant-Colonel did not, then and there, spill the whisky. 
Not he. He had too keen an appreciation of what was good for a 
soldier on a cold day, if not taken in too large doses. The men were 
forthwith summoned to his quarters, and every one given a drink of 
the forbidden nectar. He was vociferously cheered for his kind 
remembrance of the soldiers wants. 

On the evening of the 28th a daring robbery was committed in 
camp. While Quartermaster Hardiman was eating his supper, some 
person or persons unknown succeeded in abstracting from his 
quarters his trunk containing all the funds belonging to the regiment, 
and papers. It contained about $5,000. The theft was quickly 
discovered, and details immediately made to scour the surrounding 
country, and an eager, energetic search instituted for the capture of 
the thief and recovery of the money. The trunk was soon discov 
ered by a squad from Company K, in the woods, back of the Quarter- 
piaster s tent, broken open ; but so hot and close had been the 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 109 

pursuit, that the robber only succeeded in partially rifling the trunk 
of its contents. He obtained about $2,100, which was in an envelope, 
leaving behind a package of Confederate bills, and some silver, 
amounting to nearly $3,000 more. The perpetrator of the deed was 
never discovered. It was evidently committed by some person who 
knew the Quartermaster s habits and the place where he kept his 
funds for paying the teamsters, as this fund alone was taken. 

Orders were issued at this time for the men to go into winter- 
quarters. The morning of November 29th was cold, the sky over 
cast, as the regiment bade adieu to Camp McCulloch. They marched 
off in fine spirits, and soon accomplished the journey of sixteen 
miles, stepping it off at a lively pace. On arriving at Cross Hollows 
the quarters were found unprepared for their reception, and so they 
were once more encamped in the open air, exposed to the inclemency 
of the weather. Cross Hollows was a deep valley, running east and 
west, shut in by high acclivities. The country here is a succession 
of high, rocky hills, and deep, dark and narrow defiles. Surrounded 
on all sides by these frowning hills, the camp was protected from 
the cold, piercing wintry winds, yet it also seemed like imprisoning 
the men to winter them here, far distant from any society or regular 
communication with friends at home. The country abounded in 
wild game of all kinds, such as bear, deer, quails, pigeons, ducks, 
turkey, while White River, distant about two miles, furnished a fins- 
place for fishing and skating. Thus, to those so inclined, amuse 
ments could be found to while away the wintry days. The people 
in the neighborhood were rough specimens of the backwoods Arkan- 
sians, and spoke a language peculiarly their own a language that 
would puzzle one deeply versed in all the idioms of the King s Eng 
lish ; as for instance : " We ens is going to-morrow ; is you eiia all 
going ?" Quartermaster H. asked an old farmer if he had any forage. 
" No," he replied, " I hev spore all I kin spare." 



CHAPTER XIV. 

CAMP BENJAMIN. 

THE quarters of the Louisiana Regiment were situated in one of 
the valleys of Cross Hollows, protected from the chilly, wintry winds 
by high, rocky hills, covered w T ith a heavy growth of timber. They 
were substantial wooden buildings, constructed of tongued and 
grooved planks placed upright, with roofing of the same material. 
The flooring was the very best, and would have been a credit to the 
handsomest of private residences. Each building was 38 by 20 feet, 
divided into two rooms by a partition meeting in the centre at the 
chimney, constructed of brick, with a fire-place in each room, with 
a smooth brick hearth. The privates quarters were in two parallel 
rows facing each other, while the officers ran perpendicular to them, 
forming a square at one end. The men were not too much crowded, 
and slept in berths placed one above the other, similar to those in a 
state-room of a river steamer. The utmost contentment and good 
feeling prevailed among the men, and all seemed determined to en 
joy the days of the winter months. With abundant material for the 
purpose, they soon manufactured chairs, tables, shelves, and mantle- 
pieces over the fire-places. Most agreeably were they disappointed 
at their situation and surroundings. They soon gathered about 
them all those little comfort s and conveniences which so materially 
contributed to the happiness of a soldier s precarious existence. 
The buildings were soon named according to the inclination of the 
occupants, and a stroll through the quarters exhibited . tov the view 
grotesque lettering, telling of all kinds of " Dens," " Retreats," and 
" Quarters," while you could easily discover " Bull Run," " Leesburg," 
" Belmont," and other streets. " Manassas Gap " opening into " Cap 
ital Square," the officers quarters. Companies A and K were ordered 
to Fayetteville as provost-guard for that place during the winter 
months, and left Camp Benjamin December 4th. 






THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. Ill 

Behold now these war-worn, yet jovial soldiers, preparing to pass 
the winter months ! On the llth of December the scene in Camp 
Benjamin was one of peculiar activity and bustle, for the announce 
ment had been made that the buildings were ready for occupation. 
They were apportioned to the companies, and the men eagerly and 
zealously proceeded to fit them up for permanent residences. The 
day was a fine one, the atmosphere cool and bracing. Halloo, song, 
and laughter echoed along the valley, and over the hill-tops, while 
from a grist-mill near by came the monotonous splash of its huge 
water-wheel, mingled with the clank of machinery and the peculiar 
whirr and rumble of its mill-stones. The frowning hill-sides there 
never looked down upon such a scene of bustle, activity, and 
hilarity. 

Thus the regiment became established in their winter-quarters, 
surrounded with nearly every comfort a soldier s heart could desire. 
There was a sad deficiency, however, in the Medical Department, 
and numbers of the men on the sick-list with diseases so dangerous 
to those unaccustomed to such a rigorous climate. These sons of 
a sunnier clime felt most acutely the piercing wintry air, and from 
exposure and negligence in providing against the constant atmos 
pheric changes, made themselves victims to the approach of insid 
ious diseases. 

Captain T. L. Maxwell, A. C. S., arrived in camp on the 12th. He 
was most cordially greeted by the men. There was not a single 
member of the regiment who did not love Captain Maxwell. His 
constant geniality of disposition, general kindness and affability, 
won every heart. He had a smile for all, was fond of a good joke, 
loved the bright and sunny side of existence. In time of need and 
danger he was always found at his post, a true soldier, a brave man. 
No wonder he found firm friends in the regiment, and was highly 
respected deep in the hearts of the noble men whose wants he supplied. 
To-day Captain M. is the same affable, polite, courteous, smiling, 
warm-hearted man, and loves nothing better than to meet some of 
his old comrades and chat over the days of " auld lang syne." On 
this same day overcoats, sent to the regiment by Governor Thomas 
O. Moore, arrived, and were distributed. Louisiana seemed never 
to weary in supplying the necessities of her gallant sons. 

At this period the regiment was commanded by Major "W. F. Tun- 
nard, Colonel Hebert being in command of the brigade, with head 
quarters at Fayetteville, and Lieutenant-Colonel Hyams absent on 
furlough. The Major instituted a system of the strictest discipline. 
Of unbending determination and strong will, as already stated, he 



112 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

never flinched, from the prompt execution of every order which he 
promulgated. lie meant what he said. 

On the 14th Private L. Devlin, of Company E, was drummed out 
of the regiment for stealing. He had disobeyed orders. It was the 
first punishment in the regiment. The next day a man from Fayette- 
ville was detected in selling liquor to the men, and swindling them 
out of their money by some gambling device. He was turned over 
to the tender mercies of the boys. Eeady for every species of mis 
chief, they did full justice to the subject thus furnished. They so 
worked on the man s fears that he imagined he was about to be hung, 
drawn and quartered. Most piteously did he beg to be released. 
His tormentors were obdurate, and every appeal was answered with 
threats and scowls. 

A sharp rail was procured, upon which he was mounted, with feet 
tied together. As they dangled beneath, two stalwart men raised 
it on their shoulders, while one man, on each side of the victim, with 
fixed bayonet pointed at him, prevented the possibility of the victim 
losing his balance, and away they all went. The bearers were 
rough trotters ; very, indeed ; and amid shouts, laughter and jeers, 
mingled with the groans of the victim, he was rode through the 
whole encampment. Such " a ridin on a rail" no mortal ever got. 
It is needless to state " that man never visited the Louisianians 
again." 

On the 21st a court-martial was organized for the trial of petty 
offences. President Captain O. E. Hull ; Members Lieutenant S. 
D. Russell and Lieutenant Brigham ; Judge-Advocate Captain J. 
S. Richards. 

The next day there was a heavy fall of snow. A scene of up 
roarious mirth ensued. There was a general " ducking" of all, irre 
spective of rank, and fierce battles with snow-balls. It was hazardous 
for any one to venture in sight, as he would be most unmercifully 
pelted with snow. 

On the 24th Lieutenant J. H. Brigham was appointed A. A. Q. M., 
in place of Captain Hardiman, absent on furlough. At this period 
Lieutenant W. M. Washburn, Company B, was the Acting Adjutant, 
S. M. Hyams, Jr., having received the appointment of Adjutant- 
General of the brigade. 

Christmas Eve, the holiday festivities, and foaming bowls of egg- 
nog, with raw liquor, seemed as plentiful as the spring water near 
by. Uproarious hilarity prevailed, the absent were toasted in many 
a cup, and songs sung with eventually discordant chorus. The 
next day was Christmas. Soldiers loved to dispense hospitality, 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 113 

consequently there were numerous gatherings of convivial spirits, 
and egg-nog was drank with all the eclat and formality of a draw 
ing-room assembly, or hilariously tossed off with a jovial toast and 
upraised cups. 

The 1st of January witnessed a new spectacle in camp-life. A 
tall pole was formally raised in front of Major Tunnard s quarters, 
and the regimental flag flung to the breeze. The Major made a 
terse, neat, appropriate and stirring speech to the men on this in 
teresting occasion, which was enthusiastically and vociferously 
cheered. 

At this time the boys were having gay times, going to parties 
given every night in the neighbors houses. Doubtless to this day 
the buxom Arkansas lasses in that vicinity remember the Louis- 
ianians, with their manly bearing, good looks, polished ease and 
elegance of manner and graceful movements. The majority of these 
men were gentlemen, once moving in refined society at home, and 
nothing more delighted them than to exhibit their accomplishments 
before the astonished gaze of these same plain, honest, country 
people. 

On the llth of January the regiment was paid off. 

On the 24th the mumps broke out in camp. The Major had 
instituted a regimental hospital, which he daily visited, and used 
every exertion to have the sick properly cared for. This wise meas 
ure was highly appreciated by the men, and such kindness for their 
welfare and comfort implanted in their strong hearts imperishable 
feelings of gratitude and respect. Dr. Lowther here officiated as 
physician: He was an efficient physician, and, as a man, was un 
surpassed for his kindliness and affability. 

On the 25th orders were received from headquarters for the regi^- 
mental commanders to have their respective commands thoroughly 
prepared and organized for marching immediately. The last day 
of January found the ground covered with a heavy fall of snow, 
and the anticipation of an early campaign subsided. 

February 7. Orders read at dress parade for company drills, four 
hours each day. There was a very alarming increase of the sick. 
Drill ! What ! and give up all other schemes ? Verily, no ! The 
life of ease and pleasure which had made the hours pass so smil 
ingly away, had, undoubtedly, incapacitated the men from doing 
soldier s duty. Was it really so ? Let us see how the sequel 
proves. 

February 11. General McCulloch forbids the granting of furloughs 
or leaves of absence under any circumstances. 



114 *C SOUTHERN RECORD. 

On the 12th an order was received to have all the mules shod and 
the wagons repaired with the quickest possible dispatch, and for 
the troops to hold themselves in readiness to move immediately. 

14th, about 12 o clock at night, the camp was alarmed by the cry 
of fire. A fearful scene of excitement ensued, and the men indis 
criminately rushed en deshabille into the open air, regardless of the 
biting wintry weather. The sentry-box in the rear of the hospital 
had, by some means, caught fire, and was burned up. No other 
damage done. We leave imagination to picture that night-scene, as 
mere word-painting could not do the subject full justice. 

The 16th of February was a memorable day at Camp Benjamin. 
That day, at 1 o clock, an order was received to cook six days 
rations, and to be ready to move in one hour. 

A large number of ladies assembled to witness the departure, and 
as the regiment moved away, " Good-bye," " God bless you," was on 
the lips of all. Marched up the telegraph road and reached Price s 
Camp, at Trat s store, at 9 o clock p. M. The enemy s camp-fires 
were visible four miles distant. 

Few of the men took either blankets or clothing with them, little 
dreaming of the events which were about to occur. As they lay 
around their camp-fires, they thought of the happy days at Camp 
Benjamin; how halcyon hours, all brimming with pleasure, had 
winged their swift flight ; of festivities within and without their camp ; 
of hunts, rambles into the country ; of the abundance and plenty 
which surrounded them there. Ah ! those scenes of the past, sur 
rounded with the frame-work of winter sports, had fled forever, and 
now a reality, to contain horrors never before experienced or dreamed 
of, hovered over them with its restless, sable pinions. Camp Ben 
jamin, a long, a last farewell bade we to thee ! 



CHAPTER XV. 

WINTER AT FAYETTEYILLE. 

AWAY once more on the tramp, with a single companion as com 
pany. That night we laid under a hay-stack and slept till morn 
ing. The next day the detachment reached Fayetteville early in the 
morning, and were given the college building for quarters. This 
was a fine edifice the main building extending east and west, with 
two wings on the north and south sides. The grounds around it 
were beautfully laid out, and interspersed with fine oak-trees. 

Here, then, we must rest for a time. The boys seemed to find 
Fayetteville a pleasant little town, and becoming acquainted with 
the lassies of the place, entered with keen relish and peculiar zest 
into all the amusements of the season. Balls and parties were no 
rarity, while the young men exhibited, by their attention to the 
ladies, the fact that a soldier s rough experiences had in nowise 
blunted their refinement of feelings or polish of gentlemanly de 
portment, or that the charms of women were not as powerful to 
attract as in " days of yore." The days succeeded each other 
in rapid succession, with little to vary their monotony save such 
excitement as the boys manufactured themselves. There was the 
usual guard-mounting for the day s duties, roll-calls and evening 
parades. At night the men usually gathered in their quarters to 
laugh, talk and joke over occurring events, often ending with 
an uproarious " stag-dance." The members of Company A had among 
them a fine glee-club, and often would they serenade the young ladies 
of the place, or, gathering in front of the quarters during the pleasant 
evenings, fill the quiet air with their harmonious voices, the pleasant 
songs floating away in the quietude in soft echoing refrains. It was 
not an, unusual occurrence to have their vocal music returned by the 
appreciative young ladies of Fayetteville, who would come to the 
fence surrounding the quarters and charm the soldiers senses with 
exquisite songs, warbled in the clear bell-like tones of woman s rich 

(115) 



116 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

voice. The fair singers were never rudely interrupted or disturbed 
in their efforts to show their appreciation of the compliments paid 
them ; but when the song was finished the men could not refrain 
always from expressing their admiration and gratification by a burst 
of applause. 

During this month another battery of. six guns, and seventy-two 
wagons loaded with supplies, passed through the place, en route for 
Price s army. Two of these guns were long, rifled cannon, very 
old, and said to have played a prominent part in the buttle of York- 
town a very doubtful supposition. Siegel, in his return towards 
Springfield, attempted to capture these supplies, but General Price 
learning his intentions, by forced marches, reached Springfield 
twenty-four hours in advance of him, and thus frustrated his de 
signs. General Price having received a commission as a general in 
the Confederate service, soon organized out of the State Guard a 
large force men who, like all the first volunteers, went into the 
army actuated by principle, in the firm belief that the cause 
they espoused was right and just. This was the nucleus of that 
splendid body of men who became so famed ; who seemed to 
be strangers to fear, and with reckless daring and undaunted 
bravery fought all through the war, never quailing in the hour 
of most imminent peril. Between these troops and the Louis- 
iauian Regiment grew up an attachment cemented in bonds of 
blood, and which no dissensions, trials or danger could ever sunder. 
The Louisianians will ever keep green in their memory their associa 
tion with the first Missouri Volunteers, and admire their heroic 
deeds as brave men should. 

On the 21st December we were visited by a cold, freezing rain 
storm, which at night changed into snow, and the next morning we 
arose to find the ground hidden neath winter s white mantle, while 
the light feathery flakes were rapidly descending from the dark 
clouds o erhead. The sun rose the next day on a wintry scene of 
dazzling beauty, such as the eye seldom gazes on. The air was 
sharp and biting, the ground beautiful in its smooth whiteness, 
while the limbs, twigs and boughs of the trees glittered and glis 
tened as the sun shone upon their crystal covering of ice as if in 
cased in diamonds. It was one of winter s most magnificent pic 
tures, calling forth unbounded expressions of admiration from those 
who had never witnessed such a spectacle. It was, indeed, 
something new to those who had been accustomed only to the 
softly-smiling skies and balmy atmosphere of a land filled with 
orange groves and budding blossoms. Thus gathering around him 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 117 

gorgeous wintry scenes of nature s unrivaled paintings, the old 
year was rapidly passing away. Christmas was generally observed 
and celebrated by the detachment. Early in the morning the bell 
over our quarters commenced a rapid tintinnabulation not customary 
to it, accompanied by the dread cry of "Fire! "Fire!" There 
was rolling, tumbling and jumping out of one, two and three-story 
berths ; a general scramble for clothing, intermingled with all kinds 
of cries and exclamations. " Where are my shoes ?" " Who has 
my pants ?" " Where in the devil is my coat ?" etc., etc. We went 
out of the only door, from which a flight of steep steps led to 
the ground, at the imminent risk of broken necks and limbs, some 
clothed, others in deshabille, hatless and shoeless a motley crowd, 
indeed only to find a pleasant moonlit morn and nothing astir. 
We had been incontinently " sold" by some soldier who remembered 
it was Christmas morning and loved a practical joke. Many en 
joyed the fun, while others commenced the day by using the king s 
English in a manner not taught in the Bible. 

The men were consoled, however, by an early invitation to Captain 
Viglini s quarters, where they drowned the remembrance of their 
early disturbance in a " smile" of delicious, fragrant, all hot, piping 
hot egg-nog, " nidding and nodding" at each other over the favorite 
beverage of the holidays. 

Of the many toasts drank, we give the following : " Our first 
Christinas in the Southern Confederacy. When bright-winged peace 
shall have dispelled the dark gloom of war, may we each sit down 
neath the shadow of his own vine and fig-tree to relate the inci 
dents of the Western Campaign, remembering this as one of the 
most pleasant." An admirer of himself abroad and the ladies 
at home, gave " Company K first in peace at home, first in war 
abroad, and first in the hearts of the ladies." The conceited raga 
muffin ! 

Permission having been obtained, during the morning one of 
SiegeFs captured six-pounder pieces was dragged from the arsenal 
and made to thunder forth its deep-toned voice in honor of the 
occasion. When last we heard its tone it spoke only to proclaim 
the corning storm of death and ruin which it was sending amid 
battling hosts. Now it caused the hills and villages to re-echo in 
honor of the glad tidings borne from heaven to earth by angels pro 
claiming " Peace on earth, good-will to men. 1 Then its thunder 
proclaimed war ; now it spoke of peace. How strange the contrast ! 
The soldiers on duty were not forgotten, for some kind lady friends 
sent them a repast of all manner of dainties and substantial, and 



118 A SOUTHERN EECOED. 

once again they feasted most sumptuously and royally. The festiv 
ities of the day ended in a large ball at the court-house, where 
assembled the beauty of Fayetteville the gay laddie and fair 
lassie w ] 10 " tripped it on the light fantastic toe" until the " wee 
sma " hours of the succeeding morn. The boys enjoyed their Christ 
mas, although not greeted by the smiling faces and cheerful voices 
of " loved ones at home." 

The weather was usually very cold, but the year went out in mild 
ness and serenity. The gray-haired 61 was laid in the grave of the 
Past, and from its ashes, Phoenix like, sprang into existence the new- 
bom 62. The past year had been freighted with momentous events 
the ruin of the greatest of republican governments being the chief- 
est. The mind in vain attempted to grasp futurity as we stood upon 
the threshold of the new year ; in vain endeavored to penetrate its 
hidden folds and gather there the record of our future destiny. No 
light came from its obscurity, and weak man must go blindly for 
ward, and with his pcmy arm and impotent strength carve out the 
inevitable decrees- of fate. The new year opened bright and prom 
ising for the success and hopes of the Young Republic, born under 
such a fierce baptism of blood. Yet the war was only in its incipi- 
ency, only the beginning of the tremendous proportions which it 
afterwards assumed. Missouri was in a deplorable condition, filled 
with scenes of violence and dark crime, and her people at this period 
were pouring through Arkansas in a continuous stream, moving with 
their household goods, negroes and stock to Texas, where they ex 
pected to find homes, security and peace. 

Col. Mclntosh commenced the new year by gaining a decisive vic 
tory over some disaffected. Indians, under the leadership of a chief 
known as Opothleyhola. This decisive victory was gained by the 
combined cavalry forces of McCulloch s Brigade, comprising Texans, 
Arkansians, and Indians. A general court-martial was also in session 
nearly all the winter, disposing of the numerous cases brought for 
trial for various offences against military regulations and discipline. 
This court-martial was convened in accordance with the following 
order : 

HEADQUARTERS SECOND BRIGADE J 
Special Order, ) December 13^, 1861. ( 

No. 7. C 

A general court-martial is hereby appointed to meet at Fayetteville, 
Ark., on the 26th day of December, 1861, or as soon thereafter as 
practicable, for the trial of such persons as may be brought before it. 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 119 

DETAIL OF THE COURT. 

Colonel McRae, of McRae s Regiment : Major Matheson, of Colonel 
Rector s Regiment; Captain J. S. Richards, of Third Regiment 
Louisiana Infantry ; Captain W. T. Hall, do. ; Captain J. B. Gilmore, 
do.; Captain McCulloch, of Colonel McNair s Regiment; Captain 
Provence, of Provence s Battery ; Captain Hawkins, of Whitfield s 
Battalion; Captain W. R. Bradfute, Chief of Artillery; Captain 
Griffith, of Colonel Rector s Regiment; Captain Swaggerty, of Colo 
nel Hill s Regiment ; Lieutenant Davis, of Goode s Battery. 

Captain Charles A. Brusle, of the Third Regiment Louisiana In 
fantry, is hereby appointed Judge-Advocate of the Court. No other 
officers than those named can be assembled, without manifest injury 
to the service. 

By order COLONEL Louis HEBERT, 

S. M. HYAMS, Junr., Commanding Second Brigade. 

Adjutant Second Brigade. 

The author was the provost marshal of this court, and made many 
long rides to Bentonville, Camp Benjamin, and Fort Reagan, in carry 
ing out the bequests of the court. 

The 8th of January was celebrated by the detachment firing a 
national salute. The day is enshrined in every Louisianian s heart, 
and we could not pass it by in silence. 

The Major having received money on the 9th to pay the troops 
for four months, and being appointed paymaster, visited our quarters 
both to see the men and instruct the officers to prepare pay-rolls. 
The intelligence was most joyfully received, for the men were all 
sadly in need of funds. At this time there existed a great deal of 
ill-feeling regarding the future leadership of the army. General 
Price s claims were advocated by a portable paper which went with 
the Missouri forces and was edited by J. "W. Tucker, a bitter, un 
compromising opponent of General McCulloch. This called into 
existence a paper named the u War Bulletin," edited by J. H. Brown, 
Esq., a talented gentleman, well known in Texas, and an enthusiastic, 
devoted Mend of General McCulloch. It was a matter to be re 
gretted that these differences arose, or that the Southern press should 
impugn the motives of General McCulloch, attacking his character 
as a man and a General. We do not intend or desire in this History 
to enter upon the merits or demerits of this controversy. Yet we 
cannot refrain from stating in behalf of McCulloch (who now fills 
a soldier s honored grave), that he was generally beloved, nay, idol 
ised, by the Louisianians and Texans, and the volunteers under him 



120 A" SOUTHERN RECORD. 

"had tmdiminished confidence in his heroism, skill and ability, 
having been with him and witnessed his indefatigable perseverance 
and labors in the face of a thousand difficulties." Let this contro 
versy end as it would, the men then felt that it was a matter of small 
moment who commanded, so that the brave and chivalrous sons of 
the South, be they Texans, Louisianiaus, Arkansians or Missourians, 
were united heart and soul, determined to drive the Northern in 
vaders out of Missouri. General Price was doing a noble work in 
Missouri, enlisting her sons in the Confederate service, thus forming 
a permanently organized army, which, becoming drilled and disci 
plined, would be better prepared to meet the foe. McCulloch s Di 
vision in the latter part of January was composed of fourteen regi 
ments, three battalions, one independent company, and four light ar 
tillery companies, all in excellent health and splendid spirits. Such 
was the condition of affairs when rumors began to circulate pointing 
to an early, active Spring campaign, and the men became feverish 
with excitement. General Price was reported to have received the 
appointment of Brigadier-General. General McCulloch was to return 
to the command of his old brigade, and all differences merged in the 
leadership of Major-General Earl VanDorn. On the 23d of January 
General Price sent a messenger to Fayetteville, that the enemy were 
advancing upon him in large force ; that he was unable to hold his 
position. The Federals had been concentrating their forces for some 
time previous to this date, but it was scarcely anticipated that they 
would open the campaign so early, ere the winter had begun to break 
up. His dispatch, therefore, was astounding, yet not altogether un 
expected. The intelligence was immediately telegraphed to General 
Mclntosh, and orders issued by Colonel Hebert to the troops to pre 
pare to move at an early date. The news was received by the men 
with much enthusiasm at this prospect of once again meeting the 
foe, though it required them to leave their comfortable winter-quar 
ters, and make a long, tedious march in the inclement weather. 
While in expectation of receiving marching orders, Providence most 
opportunely interposed its mysterious hand to stay the fierce tide of 
war. It was a fortunate circumstance both for the comfort as well 
as safety and health of the troops. For several days previous to the 
28th it had been dark, damp, and cloudy weather ; on this day it 
commenced raining briskly, and continued all day until night, when 
it suddenly turned cold ; the rain froze on the ground as it fell, then 
turned into sleet, and eventually into a heavy blinding snow- storm. 
The next morning the white flakes still descended, until the ground 
was covered to the depth of fifteen inches. It was winter indeed 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 121 

now, and all hopes of an expedition into Missouri ended, as the 
roads were rendered impassable for many days to come. Perhaps a 
more grand, gloomy as well as beautiful picture of winter scenery 
was never witnessed than after this storm. The sky had been ob 
scured by heavy gray clouds in bold outline, against which were de 
fined the delicate tracery of limbs and twigs of the trees, covered 
with an incrustation of ice, and filled with long, pendant icicles, 
while the black trunks stood out in fine contrast with the white 
mantle of snow covering the earth beneath. The sun shone out 
brightly, making the scene a picturesque one truly. The trees glit 
tered with their crystallization, reflecting the rays with innumerable 
sparkles and prismatic coloring, while the undulating hills presented 
the appearance of burnished silver. Of course the Louisianians had 
an immense amount of sport out of this snow-storm, to many of them 
an entirely new spectacle. They snow-balled each other with des 
perate energy, and finally gathering into a strong band, commenced 
an indiscriminate " ducking " of every one with whom they came in 
contact. This process consisted in seizing the victims and rolling 
them in the snow, completely covering them with the light substance. 
Perhaps such a scene of winter sport was never witnessed in Fayette- 
ville, as then occurred. Colonels, majors, captains, lieutenants, mer 
chants, lawyers, doctors, and citizens, all alike shared the same fate. 
It was something rare and amusing to see a squad of privates in full 
chase after a colonel with shouts and laughter, or dragging a major 
from some hiding-place, only to give them a good rolling in the snow. 
It was a useless undertaking to attempt to escape. The men re 
spected neither persons nor places in their uproarious sport. Gray 
hairs alone saved the victim. They even made a descent upon 
Colonel (now acting General) Hebert s headquarters. They found 
the house closed, but they were not to be cheated out of a single 
victim. The Colonel s dignity and position could not protect him 
now. He held a parley with the leaders, and finally compromised 
the matter by inviting the whole party into his fine quarters and 
giving them some " refreshments," very acceptable, indeed, to the 
boys, after their violent exercise, and wet as they were from the snow. 
Every one joined in the sport with perfect good-humor. General 
McCulloch s whole staff shared the fate of every one else. Doubtless 
many years will roll away ere the good people of Fayetteville will 
forget this winter-day frolic of the Louisianians. 

There was no certainty now of an early campaign. The enemy 
had returned to Holla, having suffered intensely from the cold 
weather. The roads were impassable, and would be so for many 
6 



122 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

days to come. Below they were almost completely blockaded with 
trees, broken down by the weight of ice which had accumulated on 
them. A strong appeal was made to the Third Begiment to re-enlist 
at the expiration of their approaching term of service ; but the men 
expressed the determination of returning home rather than serve in 
a campaign in this section. There was a general desire and dispo 
sition to serve the country, but they wished a different field of opera 
tions. The regiment already had a reputation that extended from 
the Missouri River to the most distant boundaries of the Confederacy, 
and the brave spirits who composed the organization felt no desire 
to remain idly at home while their country needed their strong arms 
and stout and willing hearts. Their campaigns had already been 
severe, and they felt as if they needed rest and the companionship 
of friends and relatives from whom they had so long been sepa 
rated. The course of events, however, determined their destiny, 
without any action of themselves, as the sequel will show. 



CHAPTER XYI. 

THE SPRING CAMPAIGN, 1862. 

EARLY in February rumors were in circulation that General 
Price was in full retreat from Springfield, closely pursued by a 
large and powerful foe under command of General Hunter. 

On Saturday, the 15th of February, these rumors were confirmed, 
as courier after courier arrived asking for assistance. 

General Price was really in the State of Arkansas, daily fighting 
the enemy s advance-guard like a tiger at bay. On Saturday 
afternoon the detachment left Fayetteville to join Price s army, 
marching all night, and joining the regiment early the next morn 
ing. They crossed Cross Hollows at a double-quick, lustily cheer 
ing as they hastened towards the foe. Everything was in confu 
sion at winter-quarters, the troops having left behind every 
thing clothing, etc. in their sudden departure and eager haste. 
Along the road leading to Fayetteville was a scene that beggared 
description. Long trains of wagons, loaded with army stores, pro 
visions, arms, tents, utensils, etc. ; carriages and buggies filled with 
women and children, whose blanched faces betokened their fears ; 
horsemen, footmen, little children and delicate young women hasten 
ing away from the simoom blast of war s desolation. The scene 
was heightened as we encountered Price s army. McCulloch s in 
fantry on hand at this trying juncture consisted of the Louisiana 
Regiment, McRae s and McNair s Arkansas regiments, who joined the 
retreating army only to be turned back by the retrograding column. 
All day Monday we fell back slowly, but in good order. In the 
afternoon the advance- guard of the enemy made a rush on our rear, 
and for nearly an hour a desperate fight ensued, in which artillery 
was freely used on both sides. A line of battle was formed, in anti 
cipation of a general engagement. The Confederates succeeded in 
repulsing the enemy, our loss being three killed and seventeen 
wounded ; enemy s about forty. The dash of the Federal cavalry 
was so impetuous that they became intermingled with our troops, 



124 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

and there was a free use of sabres and small-arms. They could not 
stand, however, the deadly, fire of the Missouri an shot-guns. Mon 
day our forces reached their winter-quarters, to spend the night, 
while Price s army occupied Cross Hollows, distant two and a half 
miles. Young s Texas Regiment arrived, and camped with the 
regiment. The next day we marched to Cross Hollows and camped 
in an open field in the valley, shut in by the high hills. This day 
Rector s and Mitchell s Arkansas Regiments joined the army. The 
latter regiment had marched forty-five miles in twenty-four hours 
without halting. General McCulloch also arrived, and was met 
with such a storm of enthusiasm as seldom greets any man. Such 
a deafening cheer as the v Louisianians gave him attested their satis 
faction. They were wild with joy, throwing up their hats and 
elevating them on the points of their bayonets in their enthusiasm. 
General McCulloch bared his head, and while his eagle eye lighted 
up with an unw onted fire, remarked, " Men, I am glad to see you ;" 
a greeting which was responded to with, a heartfelt burst of ap 
plause. The men, on account of the suddenness of the demand for 
their services and hasty departure from their .quarters, were without 
tents, blankets and provisions. That night they laid down on the 
frozen ground, around huge fires, to snatch, if possible, a short 
sleep while expecting the enemy. To add to the hardships which 
they had encountered, it commenced a cold, freezing rain, which 
continued nearly all night. Some few, fortunate in the possession 
of blankets, slept through it all, their covering becoming a mass of 
ice, from which they had to be released by the assistance of their 
friends; but the majority of the troops gathered, in shivering 
groups, around their camp-fires. A line of battle, under General 
McCulloch s energetic supervision, was formed, and soon every hill 
side glistened with bayonets, and batteries frowned upon every 
avenue of approach. While thus awaiting the enemy s approach, 
they suddenly appeared in Bentonville, on our extreme left flank, 
taking possession of the quarters of Rector s regiment. Two of 
their scouts were also captured on White River, on our extreme 
right, indicating a design to flank our position. Of course they 
destroyed the greater portion of the clothing, etc., of Rector s men, 
besides killing some of the citizens and committing other outrages. 
On Tuesday morning, very early, our army began to retreat, in the 
midst of a bitter cold storm of sleet and snow. The road was a 
mass of solid ice, slippery and as hard as rock. Yet the Louisianian 
Regiment began the march with buoyant spirits, joking, laughing 
and singing as they tramped over the slippery road. All day long 



THIED LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 125 

the weary march continued, while the beards of the men became 
white with their frozen breath, even the water in the canteens turn 
ing into ice. Weary, foot-sore, hungry and cold, they arrived at 
Fayetteville on the night of the 19th, only to find nearly every house 
. deserted by the women and children, while every man had shouldered 
his rifle for the deadly strife. The Northern heavens, lighted up 
with a reddening glow, telling the men that their winter-quarters 
had been given to the flames, to prevent their occupation by the 
enemy, proclaiming also the destruction of their clothing, utensils 
and equipage. The scene was by no means a consoling one, under 
such reflections. Thus, as these fine and comfortable quarters 
melted away into ashes, it entailed on the regiment the loss of 
nearly everything they had, besides a large quantity of quartermaster 
and commissary stores and forage. The regiment remained at 
Fayetteville on the 20th, tlie detachment compdsed of Companies A 
and K occupying their old quarters, while Price s trains, artillery, in 
fantry and cavalry poured through the place in a continuous stream. 

The scene in Fayetteville beggared all description. Stores broken 
open and rifled of their contents, private residences left unoccupied, 
invaded and pillaged, while commissary stores were scattered in 
wanton profusion in every direction. Upwards of 500,000 pounds 
of pork bacon, shoulders and hams were distributed among the 
retreating and half-starved troops. Every man and horse had a 
share of the burden, while it was scattered in every direction over 
the streets and on the side-walks. The men even made fires of it to 
warm their chilled and freezing bodies. But why dwell on this 
gloomy picture of war ? The destruction entailed on individual and 
Government property was occasioned by a want of transportation. 

General Price had conducted a masterly retreat, protecting, as he 
did, a train of 3,500 wagons, and moving over 50 pieces of artillery 
without loss. Through icy streams, over rough roads, in the midst 
of winter, and pursued closely by a powerful and victorious, foe, had 
he fallen back, step by step, over the plains of Missouri, among the 
hills of Arkansas, with complete success. When the Louisiana 
Kegiment reached the retreating column they were greeted on all 
sides with enthusiastic acclamations by the Missourians. " Here s 
the Louisiana Kegiment; "It s all right now;" " Give em h 11, 
boys,* etc., were some of the expressions used, while the fatigued 
troops seemed to gather new strength and energy from their arrival. 
It spoke volumes for the confidence reposed in the regiment, the 
reputation they had gained for untiring energy, unfaltering nerves 
and distinguished bravery. 



126 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

The enemy had one of the largest, best disciplined, and equipped 
armies yet sent into the field, and the object of our retreat was to draw 
them as far from their base of supplies as possible among the hills 
of Arkansas, and give them battle in a position of our own choosing. 
The immense number of horses in the army, and the scarcity of 
forage, rendered it necessary that the Southern army should fall back 
so as to obtain access to supplies more conveniently, and to gain a 
position where the enemy could not penetrate to the rear. Bastou 
Mountain was looked upon as the stand-point, the proper position, 
w T here the undisciplined troops of the command would be more than 
a match for the superiority of the foe. The weather grew milder, 
and the frozen roads became a mass of sloppy mire over ankle deep, 
ere the army resumed its march. On the 20th we were once again 
in motion. The sky was overcast with lowering, grayish clouds, in 
dicating rain, while the roads were almost impassable on account of 
the mire and mud. Soon after departing from Fayetteville, a glance 
backward revealed one of those spectacles attendant on war, which 
arouse indescribable emotions of sorrow and indignation. Lurid 
flames, with their forked tongues, began to appear in several places, 
until a sea of fire, leaping heavenward, accompanied 1 with a dark 
volume of smoke, rolled over the town, proclaiming the destruction 
and ruin left behind us. As the cloud rolled away northward, it 
must have spoken volumes to the foe of the sullen determination 
which animated the Southerners. The men tightened their grasp on 
their rifles, while the muttered curse, contracted brows, and blazing- 
eyes plainly betokened the spirit aroused in them by this scene of 
ruin and destruction. The Commissary and Quartermaster buildings, 
containing stores, arsenal, mills, together with several residences, in 
cluding a large quantity of provisions, ammunition, and some arms, 
were destroyed. Nothing was left behind that could in any manner 
contribute to the comfort or support of the enemy. However much 
this wholesale destruction was to be deprecated, as a military neces 
sity no one could question its wisdom and justice who at all com 
prehended the situation of affairs. It was no time, in the face of a 
powerful and pursuing foe, to query into the motives and policy of 
a course of procedure, prompted by dire necessity, the salvation of 
the army, and the ultimate good of the country. All day long the 
retreat was continued, and a camp selected at night, only that the 
men might lie down on the saturated ground, in a cold and drench 
ing rain, as usual short of provisions, and with little or no shelter. 
The Third Regiment, as usual, was the rear-guard of the whole army. 

Perhaps nothing could more forcibly demonstrate the spirit that 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 127 

animated the Louisianians than an incident that occurred on their 
arrival at Fayetteville. One of the regiment, who showed the white 
feather at Oak Hills, and had been taken violently ill every time there 
was a prospect of a fight, was found in hospital here. " The boys " 
called on him, sympathized with him, regretted exceedingly that he 
was so unfortunate, but they had determined that no member of the 
Third Louisiana should be taken alive by the Yankees, and producing 
a rope with a running noose, threw it over his head, around his neck, 
and apparently were about to apply the " Hemp Practice. - His re 
covery was instantaneous, and his protestations that the cure was a 
permanent one were very emphatic. 

Saturday, February 22d, 1862, was a day which those who com 
posed the Army of the West will not readily forget. Amid a terrific 
storm of rain and hail the men once more journeyed on, sinking 
ankle deep in mud. Yet cold and drenched as they were, the Louis 
ianians marched cheerfully forward, shouting forth with stentorian 
voices the chorus of the " Bonny Blue Flag," and other patriotic 
songs. It seemed as if they were determined their spirits should not 
succumb to their accumulated sufferings, hardships, and trials. It 
appears almost incredible that men could exhibit such reckless in 
difference, such strength of will and determination, after such a week 
of bitter experiences as these men were taught. The war, however, 
developed and decided some strange theories as to the amount of 
physical powers which the human frame contained powers of en 
during fatigue, hunger, thirst, heat and cold, which would scarcely 
have been believed before, if asserted. The troops arrived at their 
destination on Baston Mountain late at night, the 22d inst., with 
provisions so scarce that bread was hoarded as a miser hoards his 
gold, and dealt out in veiy limited quantities. Provisions, however, 
soon arrived, the weather changed to bright, clear, and pleasant 
days, tents sufficient to shelter, and blankets to make the men com 
fortable, soon being supplied. Few of those at home who celebrated 
the 22d of February amid scenes of festivity and rejoicing, from 
mere description and word-painting, can ever realize how the West 
ern Army of the South spent this natal day of our loved Washington, 
the first inauguration-day of the young Confederacy. 



CHAPTER XVII. 

BASTON MOUNTAIN. 

GENERAL McOuLLOcn s Division camped on the main or telegraph 
road leading to Van Buren, while General Price s army occupied a 
position on Cane Hill road, some three miles further west, defending 
the road over Baston Mountain. The strength of the position, to 
gether with much-needed rest and a good supply of provisions, soon 
placed the army in splendid fighting trim, and the enemy s approach 
was quietly awaited. 

Our cavalry were out between our position and the enemy watch 
ing their movements. On the 23d a picket guard was scattered 
about Fayetteville, when they were surrounded by a large cavalry 
force of the Federals, who surprised them. Several were killed, 
wounded and taken prisoners, in their attempt to escape. A scout 
killed a Federal at Mud Town, a place between Baston Mountain 
and Fayetteville. He was out foraging on his own responsibility ; 
he was ordered to surrender, which he refused to do, when the Texan 
killed him, as he drew his revolver to fire. 

The days passed away without materially changing the relative 
positions of the two armies. A large force of cavalry were sent out 
to penetrate to the enemy s rear, cut off their supplies, and destroy 
their trains. The expedition proved eminently successful. The 
Federals reported that their trains had been destroyed and mules 
killed by Missouri Jayliawkers. The army knew who u struck Billy 
Patterson," as the Texans returned on the 24th, bringing with them 
ten prisoners. They destroyed a sutler s train, attacked 300 of the 
enemy, killing 27 without having a man injured, penetrating as far 
as Keatsville, Mo. One of the prisoners brought in, an officer, stated 
that he had seen considerable scouting in the bushes, but the Texans 
beat the Devil for reckless riding in the woods. His uniform was 
in rags, almost torn from his person, by contact with the bushes. 
The raiders never struck a road in their expedition, but kept to the 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 129 

woods, nearly altogether. The Federals soon retreated from Fayette- 
ville, and took up a position at Cross Hollows, announcing their de 
termination not to attack the Confederate forces among the hills of 
Arkansas. Colonel Churchill s regiment dismounted on the 25th, 
consenting to this step only on condition that they should have a 
position next to the Louisiana boys. The regiment was now sup 
ported by McRae s and Churchill s regiments, all animated by a 
spirit of emulation as to which would most distinguish themselves 
in the coming battle for deeds of daring and bravery. February 
closed with clear and pleasant weather. There was a general muster, 
review, and inspection on the last day. The troops were in excellent 
health and spirits. The discipline was very rigid at this time, and 
orders very strict. The closest guard was kept around the camps, 
and on the roads, so that it was an utter impossibility for either sol 
dier or citizen to travel without a correct permit. In a practical 
degree, martial law prevailed. On the evening of March 2d, Major- 
General Earl Van Dorn arrived, and was welcomed by salutes from 
nearly all the Missouri artillery. He at once assumed command, and 
immediately issued orders to prepare to march on the enemy. Im 
petuous, at times rash and reckless, brave and daring to a fault, with 
his usual spirit, he was about to hurl his army on the foe. The men 
felt that there was to be no more retreating, no more waiting. The 
two forces having at length been united, ho hesitated not a day as 
to his course. All extra clothing, baggage, tents, etc., were ordered 
to be left behind. Provisions (such as were on hand) were prepared, 
and all was once again bustle and excitement. The army took up 
the lice of march on the 4th, left in front, as follows : Price s army, 
with strong flankers, on the left. Next came McCulloch s Division, 
as follows: Rector s, Hill s, Mitchell s, MoNair s, Mclntosh s (dis 
mounted), Whitfield s Battalion (dismounted Texans), McRae s Ar 
kansas Regiment, Province s Battery, Churchill s Regiment (dis 
mounted), Hart s Battery, and Third Louisiana Regiment, with 
Goode s Battery in front. Then the trains of the various regiments. 
On the night of the 4th, the College buildings in Fayetteville, occu 
pied by Companies A and K as winter-quarters, were fired by some 
incendiary, supposed to be a signal to the enemy of our occupation 
of the place. 

The army arrived at Elm Springs, fifteen miles north of Fayette 
ville, on the evening of the 5th, to find the enemy gone. Here two 
spies sent out by Siegel were captured. A more ragged, forlorn, 
dirty, miserable-looking couple could not possibly have been found. 
They were splendidly rigged for the occasion, and did credit to the 
6* 



130 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

inventive genius of the Deutsche General Siegel. The cavalry also 
captured seven forage wagons, and thirty-eight Federals, out hunting 
forage. The next morning ten more were added to the number. 
They evidently had not been informed of our advance, and were sur 
prised most completely. During this time the weather was very 
cold, and we were visited with several snow-storms, and making 
forced marches every day. It seemed as if General Van Dorn imag 
ined the men were made of cast-steel, with the strength and powers 
of endurance of a horse, whose mettle he was testing to its utmost 
capacity and tension. Scarcely time was given the men to prepare 
food and snatch a little rest. On the 6th we started very early, and 
arrived at Bentonville soon after noon. The army looked spendidly 
as the long line marched across the open prairie with their flags 
fluttering in the breeze. We reached Bentonville just in time to see 
Siegel s Division, who had been west of this place, disappear with 
his column en route for the main body of the enemy. An hour sooner 
and he would have been cut off. On what slight events do the fate 
of armies depend ! General Mclntosh made a dashing charge upon 
the rear of the retreating column, plunging into the midst of a large 
force of infantry and in face of a battery, with Greer s Texas Regi 
ment, ere he was aware of the peril of his position. There was a 
fierce rattle of musketry, mingled with the roar of artillery, for a 
few moments, proclaiming how sharp was the skirmish. Although 
obliged to retire, he killed a number of the foe, captured forty pris 
oners, and one piece of artillery, knocked into pi by a well-directed 
shot from one of Price s rifled pieces. Our loss two killed and eight 
wounded. That night we laid down once more in Camp Stephens, 
only to resume the march after a two hours rest. We wore being 
rushed upon the foe like a thunderbolt. But they were prepared for 
our coming. Ere morning our army was slumbering within three 
miles of the enemy, while General Price had penetrated to their 
front, cutting off their retreat towards Missouri. He had succeeded 
in cutting out a blockaded cross-road, leading to the main road in 
front of the enemy, without being discovered or molested. When 
we halted on the night of the 6th fires were built with rails from an 
adjoining fence. General McCulloch came among the men of the 
Louisiana Regiment, and sitting down on a rail near one of the fires, 
commenced chatting with the officers and men, who gathered thickly 
around him. He was dressed in a complete suit of beautiful dark 
and heavy velvet. One of the men approached the fire, and, not 
observing who the General was, tapped him on the shoulder with a 
bundle of sticks which he had in his hand, remarking, "I wish you 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 131 

would put these in that fire and give me a light." The General, 
without moving his position, quietly took the splinters and thrust 
them into the fire. As soon as they were lighted he took them out, 
and turning to the private, quietly said : Here my good fellow, is 
your fire." The man was dumfounded, confused, when he saw who 
it was that he had treated so familiarly, and, muttering an apology, 
hastened from the spot. His astonishment and confusion created 
much laughter among the men who witnessed the incident. After 
chatting quietly and calmly for some moments as to the issue of the 
approaching battle, he energetically exclaimed : " I tell you, men, the 
army that is defeated in this fight will get a h 1 of a whipping !" 
Was it prophecy ? Did the unseen Angel of Death, which threw the 
shadow of its dark wings over his brave spirit, whisper to his soul 
his approaching doom ? We know not, yet that night the men all 
remarked how different he seemed from his nsual manner. He was 
unusually reticent, and spoke in a quiet, subdued voice, so unlike 
his customary energetic, determined actions and speech. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

THE BATTLE OF ELK HORN. 

WEAKIED, hungry, and broken as the men were from their rapid 
march, the loss of rest and want of food, early on the morning of 
March 7, 1862, they were marched on the position known as Pea 
Ridge, near Elk Horn Tavern and ravine, about thirty miles north 
of Fayetteville. The road towards Missouri led through a deep 
and narrow defile, darkened with the shadows of the overhanging 
hills. The division started to join Price, but were soon turned back 
as the enemy were making a demonstration in our rear. The morn 
ing was bright and beautiful, the air fresh, pleasant and bracing. 
Soon the deep boom of a single gun echoed over the hills and along the 
valleys, followed by another and another, until the sound became a 
continuous roar. General Price had opened the fight. While march 
ing towards the enemy s position, Hart s Battery in front, supported 
by the Louisianians, along the east end of an open corn-field ex 
tending far down the valley, the enemy opened a battery of rifled 
guns on the moving column from a cluster of trees near the centre 
of the field. Our cavalry, under the leadership of the intrepid and 
dashing Mclntosh, were in this field, close to the right of the in 
fantry. The ground sloped very gently towards the position taken 
by the Federal battery. As soon as the guns opened, the cavalry 
commenced manoeuvring until they formed a half circle, extending 
the whole width of the field. The shells began to pass in dangerous 
proximity with their shrill scream, when suddenly a hundred bugles 
pealed forth the charge, their clarion notes rising clear and distinct 
above the din of battle. With shrill whoops, and yelling like de 
mons, upwards of 5,000 painted Indians and Texan Rangers, 
under the lead of the gallant Mclntosh, swept down like a whirl 
wind on the doomed battery. So impetuous, so sudden was the 
charge, that no time was given the foe to meet the rushing host of 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 133 

horsemen. In less than five minutes the battery was captured, the 
infantry force supporting it shot down, ridden over and scattered 
like chaff before a whirlwind. It was a gallant charge a brave 
feat seldom occurring, and, once witnessed, never to be forgotten. 
Napoleon s Life Guards never swept upon a foe with more impetu 
osity and gallantry than did our cavalry in this charge. The uproar 
died away in spattering shots, and then ceased altogether. 

These guns were given in charge of the Indians, to whom such 
huge guns seemed not only a mystery, but endowed with super 
natural powers. Their use was a new feature in warfare, to which 
they were totally unaccustomed. They immediately took to the 
bushes ; then, suddenly darting out, shot down the horses, at the 
same time uttering a guttural " Boom !" They next piled rails on 
the carriages and put fire to them. When it was reduced to ashes, 
and the guns lay useless on the ground, they expressed their satisfac 
tion by saying, " No more boom" " Good !" They shot at every one 
having on a blue coat, whether friend or foe, using their scalping- 
knives in the same manner some of the Confederate dead having been 
found subjected to this barbarous custom of these untutored savages. 
The half-breeds were better trained, and practiced no such barbarities. 
After the capture of this battery, the infantry was inarched to the 
top of a high cone-shaped hill, overlooking the valley extending 
westward. They were soon discovered and opened on by another 
battery. Here they laid down, the shot passing harmlessly over 
them with their shrill, ugly scream. The surrounding country was 
covered with dense underbrush and heavy timber, interspersed with 
open corn-fields, surrounded by high, rocky hills. In company with 
Mitchell s, McRae s and McNair s Arkansas regiment, the Louisi- 
anians were led to meet the foe. As the line of battle cautiously 
felt its way through the dense undergrowth, the whole line was 
opened on with a fire so close and deadly that they wavered and 
staggered before the storm in some places, being thrown into great 
confusion. Quickly rallying, under the lead of Colonel Hebert, 
commanding the brigade, and Major Tunnard at the head of the 
regiment, with loud cheers we rushed on the foe, driving them back 
in confusion. Five times they rallied, and five times were they 
charged and routed. It seemed as if nothing could withstand the 
reckless, furious courage which animated the men. The foe retreated 
within cover of a masked battery which was planted in a thicket 
skirting a corn-field. So close and hot was our pursuit that no op 
portunity was given to use the guns. As the men caught sight of 
these guns, they rushed upon them with deafening cheers across the 



134 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

open corn-field, driving back the foe with irresistible fury. Around 
these guns the contest raged fearfully ; the musketry was close, 
heavy and deadly. But the men held their position, and once more 
defeated the foe, fighting a largely superior force. The line was in 
great confusion at this time. Captain Gunnels, of Company I, as 
sisted by other officers, made an attempt to form a new line, in 
which he partially succeeded, as the men were so wild with excite 
ment as to be almost uncontrollable. This new line was immediately 
in front of the captured guns in the open field, just outside the 
skirting woods. Another battery suddenly opened on our right, 
far down the field, while a regiment of cavalry made a dashing 
charge through a gap in the fence upon our left and rear. With 
our forces in confusion, tired and worn down with their long marches, 
hard fighting and eager pursuit of the enemy, without our leaders 
(Major Tunnard, Colonel Hebert and many officers having disap 
peared), the men turned upon the cavalry like tigers at bay. So 
close and deadly was the concentrated fire of the line upon the head 
of the charging squadron, that scarcely a man who entered the field 
in the charge escaped. Men and horses rolled in death upon that 
blood-stained field. The remainder of the cavalry wheeled away in 
rapid flight. Thus surrounded, not reinforced or aided by cavalry 
or infantiy, the order was given to fall back, which was accomplished 
in good order under a heavy fire from the enemy s artillery. The 
battery captured and then abandoned belonged to Siegel s division 
of the army. With sorrow and dismay was it then learned that 
Generals McCulloch and Mclntoshhad both fallen early in the day 
the former killed while reconnoitering the enemy s position ; the 
latter while leading a charge at the head of his old regiment. 
Hence the inactivity of our cavalry and reserved infantry forces, 
who impatiently awaited, where they were stationed, orders from 
the generals to enter the arena of strife. The Louisiana Regiment 
fought with brave, reckless desperation, and suffered very severely. 

The growth of underbrush on the battle-field was so dense that 
the field officers were compelled to dismount. Thus the Major, with 
a sword in one hand and a flag in the other, rallied and cheered on 
the men until he sank upon the ground completely exhausted. He 
attempted to find his horse, but failed to do so, on account of his 
helpless condition. We extract from his private diary the follow 
ing particulars of his capture : " I remained lying on the ground 
more than an hour, not knowing ^here our forces were, or whether 
we were victorious or defeated, when I was startled by the approach 
of a regiment. On discovering me, one company fired a volley at 



TRIED LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 135 

me, the balls striking all around me, but fortunately none hitting 
my person. I at once waved my handkerchief in token of my help 
less condition. Lieutenant Gale, of the Forty-forth Illinois Regi 
ment, rode up to me and demanded my arms, which I handed him. 
On discovering my complete physical exhaustion, he sent for a horse, 
which I mounted, and was escorted to their camp." 

During the fight, McRae s and Mitchell s Regiments being thrown 
into confusion, fell in the rear of the Third Regiment. Major Tun- 
narcl, assisted by Lieutenant Humble, of Company I, and Lieutenant 
Johnson, besides other officers, made the most strenuous exertions 
to form them into line, but without effect. They dropped behind, 
firing upon the Louisianians from the rear, doing a great deal of mis 
chief. This was caused by undisciplined u Minute-men," who had 
joined the different regiments for the battle. Private Caton, of 
Company E, and one of Company C, were thus shot from the rear. 
Colonel Hebert fought bravely throughout the battle, leading the 
men gallantly in every charge. While attempting to lead a portion 
of the troops, including some sixty of the regiment, from the field 
of battle, they were surrounded and taken prisoners. Besides 
Colonel Hebert, the enemy captured Captain Viglini, Company K, 
Lieutenant Washburn, Company B, and Lieutenant Emanuel, Com 
pany C. The death of Generals Mclntosh and McCulloch undoubt 
edly lost the battle. The enemy were completely beaten at every 
point, and had our reserve forces been ordered up at the proper 
moment, the victory would have been most signal. 

When the Louisianians learned the certainty of their idolized 
chieftain s death, many of these lion-hearted men threw themselves 
in wild grief upon the ground, weeping scalding tears in their bit 
ter sorrow. It is a fearful spectacle to see a strong-hearted man 
thus give way to his feelings. It demonstrated the devotion felt 
for General McCulloch, and showed how deeply he was enshrined 
in these brave souls. The sun went down amid the roar of artillery 
and the rattle of musketry. We slept on the field of battle, bur 
rowing amid heaps of dry forest-leaves, to, in some measure, pro 
tect our weary frames from the chilling mountain air. A deep 
gloom settled over the spirits of the men, and they were nearly 
disheartened. 

At 1 o clock A. M. we were aroused fronTour weary, restless slum 
bers, and ordered to join Price s command. This brave general had 
also driven the enemy from eveiy position, capturing seven pieces 
of artillery, a large number of prisoners, the enemy s camps, etc. 
Early on the morning of the 8th the battle recommenced with re- 



136 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

doubled fury. The cannonading was terrific the thunder of the 
guns reverberating among the hills in a continuous roar. As Mc- 
Culloch s Division approached the line of battle, the men stripped 
for the fight, throwing aside their few remaining blankets and over 
coats, and evincing their eagerness by hastening forward at a double- 
quick. A line of battle was formed immediately in the rear of the 
engaged forces, near an open field, and the men were once more 
within range of the enemy s shot and shell, which passed harmlessly 
over them. While the struggle went on, several of our batteries 
were ordered to a point of one of the hills. It was in point-blank 
range of a concentrated fire of the enemy s batteries, and our guns 
were successively silenced, with fearful loss. Here Captain Clark, 
the gallant commander of onu of Price s most effective and distin 
guished batteries, lost his life. A gun of one battery was brought 
out by a single cannoneer, all his comrades having fallen, the last 
one being killed as he was hooking the sponge to the carriage. 

The subjoined official report of Captain Gilniore, commanding 
Company F, and a letter written by Sergeant W. Kinney, Company 
F, furnish some interesting particulars of the battle, and portray 
not only the desperate valor of the members of Company F, but 
also of the remainder of the regiment who fought with them : 

SERGEANT KINNKY s ACCOUNT OF THE BATTLE. 

VAN BUREN, March 16th, 1862. 

A few words of the great battle may be interesting. We left 
Baston Mountain on Tuesday, March 4th, and camped near Fayette- 
ville ; General Price s command in advance. Wednesday morning 
we passed through Fayetteville, our train being left behind ; we 
camped for the night at Elm Springs, twelve miles from Fayetteville. 
It snowed heavily all day, making the roads almost impassable. We 
learned next morning that the enemy was at Bentonville, about 
13,000 strong, and we took up the line of march for that place. The 
weather was piercing cold. Our advance-guard engaged the enemy, 
who were in full retreat, one mile north of Bentonville, and fought 
them all the way to Camp Stephens, a distance of seven miles. I 
have not learned the loss of the enemy ; ours was three wounded. 

We saw two of the enemy dead and one wounded on the roadside. 
The woods all along the road were strewn with dead horses. We 
arrived at Camp Stephens about dark, almost frozen and starved, 
having only one biscuit for breakfast that morning, and no prospect 
of supper. We built fires, and sat around them waiting for the 
wagons to arrive. Just as they came up we were ordered to march. 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 137 

We left camp at ten o clock that night without supper, or blankets 
to keep off the damp night air. We marched about seven miles, 
when we were ordered to rest, which we needed very much, having 
marched twenty-six miles that day and night. We made fires of 
fence-rails, and laid around them until morning. 

It was impossible to sleep, for the night was bitter cold ; no one 
will ever know how much we suffered from cold and hunger ; no 
tongue or pen can paint it. Friday morning, March 7th, came at 
last, and with it the order, " Fall in !" 

The Rangers " fell in " to a man, but such a worn-out set of men I 
never saw. They had not one single mouthful of food to eat. We 
marched about five miles and countermarched three miles ; General 
Price had opened the battle on the Telegraph road, near the Elk 
Horn Tavern, at 10 A. M. The enemy had possession of the hills 
between the Telegraph and the road we were on. All the infantry 
and cavalry of McCulloch s Division were drawn up in line ; Third 
Louisiana was sent forward to open the engagement on our side. 
While we were marching through a lane, with some Texas and Indian 
cavalry on our right, we were suddenly fired on by a masked battery 
about 300 yards distant ; not expecting an attacK so soon, we were 
thrown into considerable confusion, from which, however, we soon 
recovered, to witness one of the most brilliant charges of the cam 
paign by Young s and other Texas cavalry. As soon as the battery 
opened on us the cavalry bugles sounded the charge. Like a flash 
of lightning the columns of cavalry dashed out, completely sur 
rounding the battery, and capturing it in less time than it takes to 
write it. 

The enemy s infantry and cavalry who were supporting the battery 
fired one round and ran. 

We now marched in a south-easterly direction. Major W. F. Tun- 
narcl, commanding ; Captain Hart s Battery in advance. 

We had marched about one mile, when we were fired on by a 
mountain howitzer, stationed on a high hill on our right. The 
enemy made some very close shots ; fortunately not one of our boys 
was injured by them. 

Colonel Hebert came riding down, and was requested by the men 
not to leave them. This was the highest compliment our regiment 
could bestow. His response was, " I will not leave you, my men, 
this day." 

We then countermarched and passed under the foot of the hill on 
which the howitzer was planted, with McRea s and McNair s Regi 
ments and Greer s Texas on the hillside. Rested a few minutes until 



138 A SOUTHERN KECOED. 

heavy firing of small-arms was heard in front, and order came for us 
to march in the direction of the firing. 

We had not proceeded far when we were fired upon by the enemy s 
infantry, who were posted in a thicket on our left. We instantly 
charged them, and drove them back, when we were fired on by a 
battery about two hundred yards distant on our right. 

We charged the battery with McRae s and MclSTair s Regiments, 
gallantly led by Colonel Hebert, taking it and driving them from 
their guns. In this charge the three regiments became mixed. 
About this time Colonel Hebert and Major Tunnard were cut off and 
taken prisoners. 

The enemy on our left opened a heavy fire on us. We charged 
and drove them off with a heavy loss to them. We then discovered 
the enemy s cavalry were flanking us on the right. Captain Gunnell, 
the senior officer in command, ordered us to take the fence, as a 
heavy body of the enemy s cavalry were flanking us on the right. 
We had scarcely taken the position when the cavalry made a bold 
and daring charge, and were repulsed with a heavy loss. At this 
time it was discovered that a large body of infantry were flanking 
us on the left. Captain Gilmore was immediately ordered to the left 
to meet the enemy in the thicket. Here a desperate fight ensued, the 
enemy having been thrown there in a large body. The Louisiana 
and Arkansas troops fought like bull-dogs, and drove them back 
with great slaughter. 

This portion of the command then became separated from the 
balance. The men requested Captain Gilmore to take command, 
which he did. As he was forming the men in line, we were again 
flanked on the left. We charged, and drove the enemy back with 
heavy loss. Captain Gilmore then secured a flag, placed it front, and 
with the assistance of Lieutenants Gentles, Pelican Rifles, Morse, 
Pelicans No. 1, and Hobbs, of McRea s Regiment, succeeded in form 
ing them in line. These young oflicers showed great bravery and 
coolness. 

This command was from 300 to 500 strong, and was the left of 
McCulloch s Division. They secured a guide, and made for the point 
from which they first started, determined to cut their way out, but 
had but one slight skirmish with the enemy on their way out, and 
were the last to leave the field. This command picked up all the 
stragglers on the way out, and came out with 800 or 1,000 men. 
Generals McCulloch and Mclntosh fell early in the action, and Colo 
nel Hebert was taken prisoner, and Major Tunnard. 

The regiments engaged withdrew to the opposite side of a large 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 139 

corn-field, and laid on their arms for the night. A number of regi 
ments were not engaged, but were held in reserve. McCulloch s Di 
vision was ordered to General Price at 3 A. M. I will here mention 
the cool gallantly of Captain Gunnell in rallying the men through 
the whole engagement. 

Arrived at General Price s camp near daylight. Soon after, our 
artillery and the enemy s commenced a heavy duel. Churchill s Ar 
kansas Regiment and Whitfield s Texas engaged their infantiy on 
the right. Our regiment, McRea s, McNair s, Hill s, and Mitchell s 
regiments were on a hill on the left of the Telegraph road, within 
250 yards of our batteries. The cannonading was said to be one of 
the grandest sights ever witnessed, and lasted for four hours, when 
General Van Dorn ordered the troops to be withdrawn, on account 
of a want of food and sleep. The Rangers fought bravely through 
the fight of the 7th, both officers and men. A great many of the 
regiments were completely exhausted for want of food and sleep, 
and wandered off on the night of the 7th in search of food, and were 
unable to rejoin their companies on the morning of the 8th. Our 
train was on the Elm Spring road to the Baston Mountain, and the 
army on the Frog Bayou road, falling back to this place. It would 
be impossible to picture the suffering of our army on this retreat. 

When the army arrived at White River, our gallant little Captain 
J. B. Gilmore gave out ; he was placed in a wagon, and soon after 
fainted, having eaten nothing for four days. The men were eating 
new corn ; some would shoot a hog and eat the raw meat without 
salt. 

The enemy lost in killed six to our one, and a greater number in 
proportion wounded. We turned two of their batteries, and came 
out of the fight with four guns more than we had when we went in. 
We have between 500 and 600 prisoners ; having more than they 
have of ours. Have saved all our trains. The enemy burnt a large 
number of their wagons to prevent their falling into our hands. The 
army is now encamped seven miles from here, on the Frog Bayou 
road. The Louisiana Regiment stationed here for the present. 

Casualties in Shreveport Rangers : Private John Craig supposed to 
be killed ; Frank Cane wounded, not dangerously ; M. F. Miller, L. J. 
Singer, J. F. Jus, D. S. Duval, and C. Wols, prisoners ; J. Kimball, 
missing. All the rest are here, rather badly used up. If the Rangers 
have not seen hard service now, they never will. An exchange of 
prisoners will be made in a day or two. 

Hoping, etc., etc., W. KINNEY. 



14:0 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

CAPTAIN GILMORE S REPORT. 

HEADQUARTERS SIIREVEPQRT RANGERS,) 
THIRD LOUISIANA VOLUNTEERS. \ 

Captain Gunnell, commanding Third Louisiana Volunteers: 

SIR, On the morning of tlie 4th of March, I left carnp on Baston 
Mountain with my company, numbering sixty-three rank and file, 
and camped that night within three miles of Fayetteville. 

Resumed the line of march with the regiment in the morning, 
camping that night at Elm Spring. The men very much fatigued, 
and many of them with their feet badly blistered. Resumed the 
line of inarch on the morning of the 6th, halting at Sugar Creek 
for a short time late that evening. Resumed the line of march that 
night, arriving three miles north of Camp McCulloch at about 2 
o clock on the morning of the 7th, remaining there until 7 A. M. 
The men were very much worn out, having had but little to eat since 
leaving Baston Mountain. The weather being very cold, and the 
men without blankets, they had but little sleep, and were, in con 
sequence, in a poor condition to resume the march that morning. 
When the call was made to fall in, the Rangers fell in promptly. 
We marched within a short distance of the Telegraph Road, when 
we were countermarched three miles. We turned off to the left, and 
while marching through a lane, we were fired on by a masked bat 
tery, about three hundred yards distance on our right. The com 
pany was thrown into a little confusion, not expecting an attack 
from that quarter, but from which they soon recovered. 

We were then marched a short distance up the lane, when we 
were fired on by a mountain howitzer stationed on a hill on our 
right. We then filed to the right, and marched upon the side of a 
hill, where we halted. 

Soon heavy firing of small-arms was heard in front. The regi 
ment was then moved forward, the company in its place, in line. 

We had not proceeded far when we were fired on by a body of 
the enemy s infantry from a thicket on our left. We moved in the 
direction of the enemy, when heavy firing ensued on both sides. 
Owing to the thick undergrowth, we could not advance in regular 
line of battle, and became somewhat mixed up by other troops rush 
ing through our ranks. After the enemy had been driven back we 
were fired on by a battery on the right. 

We were then ordered and led by Colonel Hebert to charge the 
battery. Here the Rangers became mixed up with the other com 
panies of the regiment and some Arkansas troops, and I was unable 
to get the entire company together again during the day. 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 141 

After the battery was taken, we were fired on from the woods to 
the left of the battery. Here considerable confusion ensued in 
every company, caused by members of other companies and some Ar 
kansas troops getting mixed up with them ; but showed great 
bravery in driving the enemy buck to the thicket. 

I here made an effort to re-form the company, but had only partly 
succeeded, when it was discovered that a large body of the 
enemy s cavalry was flanking us on the right. 

We moved in that direction to a fence. The cavalry made a 
charge on us at this point, but were repulsed with considerable loss. 
I was here ordered by Captain Gunnell, the senior officer in com 
mand, to go to his left into the thicket, to meet a large body of the 
enemy s infantry who were advancing upon us from that direction. 
I had not advanced far when a heavy fire of small-arms was opened 
upon us. Here a desperate fight ensued ; but we succeeded in driv 
ing them back with great loss. Here the men showed the greatest 
bravery the coolest and most determined fighting I ever wit 
nessed. 

At the flash of the enemy s guns the men would rush madly on 
them, routing them from behind logs, stumps and trees, shooting 
them at almost every step. In this fight were about 250 Louisiana 
and Arkansas troops engaged, and in the fight had become separ 
ated from the rest of the command. 

I being the senior officer present, the men requested me to take 
command, which I did ; and at once commenced to form a line, 
with the assistance of Lieutenants Gentles, Pelican Rifles, Morse, 
Pelican Rangers, No. 1, Hubbs, of McRea s Regiment, but had 
gotten but few of them in line when we were flanked by a body 
of infantiy on the left. We instantly charged them, driving them 
back with considerable loss on their side and but little on ours the 
above-named officers acting- with great bravery and coolness. I par 
ticularly noticed the conduct of Lieutenant Henry Gentles. At 
times I saw him in the front ranks, using his gun with deadly effect 
upon the enemy, and at other times rallying the men and cheering 
them on. I then got a flag, and secured a guide we having become 
lost in the thicket and placing the flag in front, formed the men 
in line and started for the field we had left in the morning. 

On our way out we had one slight skirmish with the enemy, pick 
ing up all our men who had become broken down in the fight. 

When we reached the field, we numbered 500 or 700 men, com 
posed of various regiments engaged in the fight that day. 

Here I sent the men to their respective commands, taking the 



142 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

Louisiamans who were with me. I joined the remainder of the 
regiment at the hospital on the road. My men at this time were 
badly used up some were unable to go along with the regiment ; 
others went in search of food, and could not get back to the com 
pany in the morning. 

I never saw men so completely worn out from hunger and fatigue. 
We slept on our arms that night until 3 o clock A. M., when we 
marched to General Price s headquarters on the Telegraph Road. 

We were ordered on a hill to the left of the road, and remained 
there during a heavy cannonade between our batteries and the 
enemy s. 

We were then ordered to inarch off the field, which we did in 
good order. 

TLe missing of my company are as follows : Wounded Frank 
Cane, severely (not dangerously) ; missing M. F. Miller, James 
Kimball, Julos F. Jus, Charles Wols, John Craig, L. J. Singer and 
Daniel S. Duval. 

I have the honor, Captain, to be your obedient servant, 

Q. B. GILMORE, 
Captain commanding Shreveport Rangers, Third La. Vols. 

WHO WAS CAPTAIN GILMORE S BODY SERVANT ? 

" Old Jeff" was a great favorite in the regiment. When his young 
master joined the company to go off to the war, Old Jeff was nearly 
" beside " himself, especially when he was informed he could go. 
He was an old campaigner, and it was amusing to listen to his tales, 
when he and " Ole Massa" fought the Indians down in Florida. Of 
course he knew more about war, and how it should be conducted, 
than any darkey in the regiment. He was a splendid forager, and 
his mess never suffered for the need of " good things." 

We had just eaten breakfast on the morning of the battle of Oak 
Hills ; Jeff was putting away his dishes when the enemy opened fire 
on our camp. Of course everything was in commotion ; the regi 
ment was forming to take its position on that bloody field. The 
care of the company s (F) baggage devolved on Jeff, and most faith 
fully did he guard his charge, until the shells came crashing and ex 
ploding over the camp. He could not stand that, nor did he under 
stand it. " They did not throw such things in the Indian fights." 
He forgot his charge, and hastened to discover some place of con 
cealment ; he ran and ran until he was completely exhausted ; he 
knew not where to go. He laid down behind a log a shell exploded 
near the spot that was no safe place. He espied Reid s Battery 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 143 

busy at work handling their guns, and thought that would be a good 
place for protection. After reaching the spot he discovered that it 
was all but safe. In hunting about he found a place to hide in 
glory ! Alas ! he found one of his fellow-servants stove into the 
hollow log so firmly, that he was unable to extricate himself. Poor 
Jeff ! for six long weary hours he was running from place to place. 
Nowhere could he find a spot free from those awful bombs that fol 
lowed him with such pertinacity. Everything must have an end 
the battle closed Old Jeff found himself safe and sound, and ren 
dered a great deal of assistance to the wounded. He often after 
wards remarked, u that if there were any more battles he would stay 
out of the way of the bombs." 

Months rolled away; the army was once again on the eve of 
another battle, camped on the road near Elk Horn Tavern. On the 
morning of the battle of that name, while the army was manoeuvring, 
Old Jeff, who had camped about six miles distant, rode up on a 
spirited horse with breakfast for his mess. He had two chickens 
nicely fried, about a dozen biscuits, some coffee, and a large coffee 
pot strapped to his saddle. He rode into a large open field where 
the Texas cavalry were drawn up in line, and made inquiry where 
his command could be found. Scarcely had he spoken, when he 
was answered by the enemy (who had a masked battery about 300 
yards distant) with a salute of four guns. Old Jeff, of course, was 
terribly frightened. Before the thunder of the guns had died away, 
General Mclntosh ordered the cavalry to charge the bugles sounded 
the charge away they went as only Texans can ride. Where was 
Old Jeff? He tried his best to charge in the opposite direction ; his 
horse, however, did not relish it, and took it into his head to follow 
his companions. 

It was, indeed, a " grand spectacle " to see Old Jeff gallantly 
charging a four-gun battery, with an old coffee-pot and two chickens 
dangling from his saddle. It was nobly done Old Jeff brought up 
between two guns the batteiy was captured. His blood was up ; 
as soon as he got control of his horse he wheeled him about, put 
him in full gallop, and never pulled up until he arrived at the place 
where he camped the night before. He brags to this day of the 
gallant charge that he made. His mess, however, did not relish such 
gallantry, for they went through that long and tiresome day without 
eating, and had already been fasting three days previously. 



CHAPTER XIX. 

THE RETREAT. 

AT 9 o clock, while the battle was still raging in all its fierceness, 
the order was given to retreat, when thousands of our men, eager to 
meet the foe, had not fired a shot. The troops w T ere astounded. 
They left the field of battle, giving vent to their burning thoughts 
in bitter words and deep curses. The infantry had not been whipped. 
Wherefore the retreat ? It is a mystery which has never been satis 
factorily explained. Our dead and wounded were left behind, to 
the care of the enemy. The retreat was an acknowledgment on the 
part of our leaders of their inability to successfully cope with the 
foe, and to all intents and purposes we were whipped. During the 
whole battle General Van Dorn remained with General Price s wing 
of the army. His presence at the head of McCulloch s Division, to 
lead and direct the movements of these troops, would have enabled 
them to regain all the ground which they had lost. The loss of the 
Louisiana Regiment was 16 killed, 37 wounded, and 60 taken pris 
oners. The loss of the enemy in this desperately contested battle 
was computed at upwards of 3,000800 more than covered the 
number of killed and wounded of the Confederate forces. The 
enemy precipitately left Arkansas the day after the battle, not at 
tempting to pursue the Confederates, who were likewise rapidly 
retreating southward. 

A review of the battle shows, perhaps, that more desperate fight 
ing was never done during the whole campaign, than that of Hebert s 
Brigade. They charged and routed successively three brigades of 
the enemy ; fought three and a half hours, unsupported, against a 
largely superior force, driving them back over a mile, and only de 
sisted because completely exhausted and worn out. The battery 
charged and held so long belonged to Siegel s brigade, whose men 
were all armed with Colt s revolving rifles, every man having an 
extra cylinder loaded and prepared to replace the discharged one. 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 145 

We killed outright forty-seven of the enemy s cavalry, who charged 
into the open field, not wounding a man. The Ninth Iowa Regiment 
lost forty-seven men killed, and two hundred and thirty-seven 
wounded. Among the killed were four captains. One of the pris 
oners informed us that, when we first fired on their forces, out of a 
company sent forward as skirmishers, ten were killed and forty 
wounded. Such are a few of many facts demonstrating the desper 
ate character of the fighting, and the unerring precision and deadly 
skill with which the Louisianians used their arms. This regiment 
emerged from the fight covered with new laurels. The foe could 
not be convinced that it was the only Louisiana regiment in the 
army, and frankly acknowledged the desperate valor with which 
they fought. 

From the 8th of March the Confederates, scattered and disorgan 
ized, steadily retreated towards Van Buren. Every by-way and high 
way, cottage, mansion, and cabin was filled with men seeking some 
thing to appease their starving and famished condition. They ate 
everything that they could obtain raw corn, potatoes, turnips, etc. 
If one was fortunate enough to obtain a few morsels of ham or bacon, 
it was generously divided with his comrades, and ravenously de 
voured raw. The army reached Van Winkle s mills (where the 
lumber for winter-quarters was procured) to find the place deserted, 
and everything left behind. Every living biped and quadruped was 
immediately killed and eaten. At the door of the house stood a 
slop-barrel, nearly full of refuse provisions. It was upset, and the 
men scrambled for the decayed contents like a drove of hogs. From 
this statement some conception may be formed of the starving con 
dition of the troops. The corn-bins along the road were seized by 
General Rains cavalry to feed the stock, sentinels being placed 
around them to prevent their seizure by other forces. Such was the 
case at Van Winkle s. One of the captains of the Louisiana Regi 
ment observing this, went among the men and said : " Boys, I am 

going to have something to eat, if I have to fight the whole d d 

army. Who will go with me ?" A number volunteering were or 
dered to get their guns and follow him. He marched the squad to 
the corn-bin, when the following colloquy took place : " Whose corn 
is this?" "General Rains , replied the sentry. "What are you 
going to do with it ? " Feed the stock. ! " Well, by G d," re 
plied the captain, " I have had nothing to eat for four days, and I 
intend to have some of this corn. Stand aside, and let me pass." 
The sentry must have seen the ravenous hunger shining from the 
captain s glittering eyes, as well as known the desperation evinced 
7 



146 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

by his manner and tone of voice. He permitted the captain to help 
himself, which he did, turning to the men and saying, " Here, boys, 
help yourselves. I have got my rations." The men did so, and 
quietly returned to their camping-place. One evening, Hart s Bat 
tery, with several of the Louisianians, halted on the roadside near a 
house and encamped. They were wild with hunger. Foraging 
parties went out to see what could be found that was eatable. They 
brought back a quarter of a yearling, some turnips and cabbage, 
piece of bacon, a turkey and a goose. Their success was the source 
of great rejoicing. The difficulty occurred to them, How could 
they cook these provisions without utensils ? " Nil desperandum," 
they immediately instituted a search, resulting in the discovery of 
one of those large iron kettles so common in the country, used to 
boil clothes in on washing-days. Without troubling themselves with 
cleaning it, they carried it to camp, set it on stones, and built a huge 
fire under it, first nearly filling it with water. Into this was put 
beef, turkey, goose, bacon, turnips, and cabbage, all cut into small 
pieces. The men then each made a wooden spoon. The pot boiled, 
bubbled, and sputtered with its heterogeneous mass of meat and 
vegetables, while the men stood around it with eager gaze, watching 
the process of cooking. It was permitted to become thoroughly 
done, and when the signal was given, the scalding food was " bolted" 
down as only starving men can eat. Giving the experience of one 
of that party, we can bear testimony that it was considered one of 
the most delicious repasts ever eaten sweeter, far, than the divine 
ambrosial of the immortal gods ! 

When the battle was lost, the train, left near the vicinity of Camp 
McCullocli, immediately returned by the same route which we ad 
vanced on. Hence the lack of provisions. It was well guarded by 
our cavalry, who repulsed several attempts of the enemy to capture 
it. To add to the horrors of the retreating army, tremendous rain 
storms occurred, making Frog Bayou, along which the road ran and 
frequently crossed, a deep stream, which the men swam and waded 
innumerable times, many losing their guns in it, and sometimes al 
most their lives. The regiment arrived at Van Buren in straggling 
squads, tired, hatless, barefooted, hungry, dirty, and ragged. They 
had been in rain-storms, climbed steep mountains along narrow and 
rugged foot-paths, waded deep and cold mountain streams, starved, 
slept without tents or blankets on the wet and frosty ground ; in fact, 
endured untold hardships and horrors. The retreat was more dis 
astrous than a dozen battles. The Louisiana Regiment had only two 
hundred and seventy men in a body on the retreat ; other regiments 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 147 

in the same proportion. Our physicians, wounded, and nurses were 
taken prisoners, and the ambulances sent for the wounded seized. 
The army readied Van Buren terribly demoralized, bringing with 
them five hundred Federals and eight pieces of artillery captured. 
When the army began its retreat Captain Goocle, of the First Texas 
Battery, was not apprised of the movement, being in charge of a 
large number of guns. When he discovered the fact it was too late 
to follow the army. He immediately started for Missouri, with the 
long train of guns following him. 

After traveling some distance, Jie left the main road, turning 
eastward towards White River. Down this stream he proceeded, 
following rough by-roads, reaching Van Buren in safety. Had the 
enemy been apprised of his retreat, unprotected as he was, they 
would have captured all these guns. As it was, Captain Goode s 
persevering energy and success in saving them immortalized his 
name in the army. On the 14th of March a flag of truce was sent 
to the enemy with two lieutenant-colonels, to be exchanged for 
Colonel Hebert and Major Tunnard. On the evening of March 24 
these officers, accompanied by Captain Viglini, arrived at Fort 
Smith, where the army was encamped. Their return was greeted 
with heartfelt demonstrations of joy by all the regiment, indicative 
alike of the feelings of the officers and men, as well as the high 
estimation in which they were held. They all looked sadly debili 
tated and worn out, having been much exposed, as well as scantily 
fed during their stay among the enemy, who, like the Confederates, 
were short of provisions. 

BATTLE OF ELK HORN. 

Official Report of General Van Dorn. 

HEADQUARTERS TRANS-MISS. DISTRICT, ) 
JACKSONPORT, ARK., March 27, 1862. f 

COLONEL, I have the honor to report that, while at Pocahontas, 
I received dispatches on the 22d February informing me that 
General Price had rapidly fallen back from Springfield before a 
superior force of the enemy, and was endeavoring to form a junction 
with the division of General McCulloch in Baston Mountain. 

For reasons which seemed to me imperative, I resolved to go in 
person and take command of the combined forces of Price and 
McCulloch. I reached their headquarters on the 3d of March, and 
being satisfied that the enemy, who had halted on Sugar Creek, 
was only waiting large reinforcements before he would advance, T 



148 A SOUTHERN EECORD. 

resolved to attack him at once. Accordingly I sent for General 
Pike to join me with the forces under his command, and on the 
morning of the 4th of March moved with the divisions of Price and 
McCulloch by way of Fayetteville and Bentonville to attack the 
enemy s main camp on Sugar Creek. 

On the 6th we left Elm Spring for Bentonviile, and from prisoners 
captured by our scouting parties on the 5th, I became convinced 
that, up to that time, no suspicions were entertained of our advance, 
and that there were strong hopes of our effecting a complete sur 
prise and attacking the enemy before the large detachments en 
camped at the various points in the surrounding country could 
rejoin the main body. I therefore endeavored to reach Benton 
ville, eleven miles distant, by a rapid march ; but the troops moved 
so very slowly that it was 11 A.M. before the head of the leading- 
division (Price s) reached the village, and we had the mortification 
of seeing Siegel s Division, 7,000 strong, leaving it as we entered. 
Had we been one hour sooner we should have cut him off with his 
whole force, and certainly have beaten the enemy the next day. 

We followed him, our advance skirmishing with his rear-guard, 
which was admirably handled, until we had gained a point on Sugar 
Creek, about seven miles beyond Bentonville, and within one or 
two miles of the strongly- intrenched camp of the enemy. 

In conference with Generals McCulloch and Mclntosh, who had 
accurate knowledge of this locality, I had ascertained that, by 
making a detour of eight miles, I could reach the Telegraph Head, 
leading from Springfield to Fayetteville, and be immediately in rear 
of the enemy and his intrenchments. 

I had resolved to adopt this route, and therefore halted the head 
of the column near the point where the road by which I had pro 
posed to move diverges, threw out my pickets, and bivouacked as 
if for the night. But soon after dark I marched again, with Price s 
Division in advance, and taking the road by which I hoped, before 
daylight, to gain the rear of the enemy. Some obstructions which 
he had hastily thrown in our way so impeded our march that we did 
not gain the Telegraph Road until nearly 10 A. M. of the 7th. From 
prisoners with forage-wagons, whom our cavalry pickets brought in, 
we were assured that we were not expected in that quarter, and that 
the promise was fair for a complete surprise. 

I at once made dispositions for attack, and directing General 
Price to move forward cautiously, soon drew the fire of a few 
skirmishers, who were rapidly reinforced, so that before 11 o clock 
we were fairly engaged, the enemy holding very good positions, and 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 149 

maintaining a heavy fire of artillery and small-arms upon the con 
stantly advancing columns which were being pressed upon him. 

I had directed General McCulloch to attack with his forces the 
enemy s left, and before 10 o clock it was evident that, if his divis 
ion could advance or even maintain its ground, I could at once 
throw forward Price s left, advance his whole line and end the battle. 
I sent him a dispatch to this effect, but it was never received by 
him. Before it was penned his brave spirit had winged its flight, 
and one of the most gallant leaders of the Confederacy had fought 
his last battle. 

About 3 p. M. I received by aids-de-camp the information that 
Generals McCulloch and Mclntosh and Colonel Hebert (incorrect) 
were killed, and that the division was without any head. I never 
theless pressed forward with the attack, and at sunset the enemy 
was flying before our victorious troops at every point in our front, 
and when night fell we had driven him entirely from the field of 
battle. Our troops slept upon their arms nearly a mile beyond the 
point where he made his last stand, and my headquarters for the 
night were at the Elk Horn Tavern. We had taken during the day 
seven cannon and about two hundred prisoners. 

In the course of the night I ascertained that the ammunition was 
almost exhausted, and that the officer in charge of the ordnance 
supplies could noi find his wagons, which, with the subsistence train, 
had been sent to Bentonville. Most of the troops had been with 
out any food since the morning of the 6th, and the artillery horses 
were beaten out. It was therefore with no little anxiety that I 
awaited the dawn of day. When it came, it revealed the enemy in 
a new and strong position, offering battle. 

I made my dispositions at once to accept the gage, and by 7 
o clock the cannonading was as heavy as that of the previous day. 
On the side of the enemy the fire was much better sustained ; for 
being freed from the attack of my right wing, he could now concen 
trate his whole artillery. Finding that my right wing was much dis 
organized, and that the batteries, one after another, were retiring 
from the field, with every shot expended, I resolved to withdraw the 
army, and at once placed the ambulances, with all of the wounded they 
could bear, upon the Hunts ville road, and a portion of McCulloch s 
division which had joined me during the night, in position to fol 
low while I so disposed of my remaining forces as best to deceive 
the enemy as to my intention, and to hold him in check while execut 
ing it. 

About 10 o clock I gave the order for the column to march, and 



150 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

soon afterwards for the troops engaged to fall back and cover 
the rear of the army. This was done very steadily ; no attempt was 
made by the enemy to follow us, and. we encamped, about 3 o clock 
p. M., about ten miles from the field of battle. Some demonstrations 
were made by his cavalry upon my baggage trains and the batteries 
of artillery, which returned by different routes from that taken by 
the army ; but they were instsatly checked, and, thanks to the skill 
and courage of Colonel Stone and Major Wade, all the baggage and 
artillery joined the army in safety. 

So far as I can ascertain, our losses amounted to six hundred 
killed and wounded and two hundred prisoners and one cannon, 
which, having become disabled, I ordered to be thrown into a 
ravine. 

The best information I can procure of the enemy s loss places his 
killed at more than 700, with at least an equal number wounded. 
We captured about 300 prisoners, so that his total loss is nearly 
2,000. We brought away four cannon and ten baggage-wagons, 
and we burnt upon the field three canon taken by Mclntosh in his 
brilliant charge. The horses having been killed, these guns could 
not be brought away. 

The force with which I went into action was less than 14,000 men ; 
that of the enemy variously estimated at from 17,000 to 24,000. 

During the whole of this engagement I was with the Missouri 
Division under Price, and I have never seen better fighters than 
those Missouri troops, or more gallant leaders than General Price and 
his officers. From the first to the last shot they continually pushed 
on, and never yielded an inch they had won ; and when at last they 
received the order to fall back, they retired steadily and with cheers. 
General Price received a severe w T ound early in the action ; but 
would neither retire from the field nor cease to expose himself to 
danger. No successes can repair the loss of the gallant dead who 
fell upon this well-fought field. McCulloch was the first to fall. I 
had found him, in the frequent conferences I had with him, a saga 
cious, prudent counselor, and a bolder soldier never died for his 
country. 

Mclntosh had been very distinguished all through the operations 
which had taken place in this region ; and during my advance from 
Baston Mountain I placed him in command of the cavalry brigade 
and in charge of the pickets. He was alert, daring, and devoted 
to his duty. His kindness of disposition, with his reckless braveiy, 
had attached the troops strongly to him ; so that, after McCulloch 
fell, had he remained to lead them, all would have been well with 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 151 

my right wing ; but after leading a brilliant charge of cavalry and 
carrying the enemy s battery, he rushed into the thick of the fight 
again at the head of his old regiment and was shot through the 
heart. The value of these two officers was but proven by the effect 
of their fall upon the troops. So long as brave deeds are admired 
by our country, the names of McCulloch and Mclntosh will be re 
membered and loved. 

General Slack, after gallantly maintaining a continued and suc 
cessful attack, was shot through the body ; but I hope his distin 
guished services will be restored to his country. A noble boy, 
Churchill Clark, commanding a battery of artillery, and during the 
fierce actions of the 7th and 8th, was conspicuous for the daring and 
skill which he exhibited. He fell at the very close of the action. 
Colonel Rivers fell mortally wounded about the same time, and was 
a great loss to us. On a field where were many gallant gentlemen, 
I remember him as one of the most energetic and devoted of 
them all. 

To Colonel Henry Little my especial thanks are due for the cool 
ness, skill and devotion with which for two days he and his gallant 
brigade bore the brunt of the battle. Colonel Burbridge, Colonel 
Rosser, Colonel Gates, Major Lawther, Major Wade, Captain McDon 
ald, and Captain Shauinberg, are some of those who attracted my 
special attention by their distinguished conduct. 

In McCulloch s Division, the Louisiana Regiment, under Colonel 
Louis Hebert, and the Arkansas Regiment, under Colonel McRae, are 
especially mentioned for their good conduct. Major Montgomery, 
Captain Bradfute, Lieutenants Lomax, Kimmel, Dillon, and Frank 
Armstrong, A. A. G., were ever active and soldierly. After their 
services were no longer required with their own division, they joined 
my staff, and I am much indebted to them for the efficient aid they 
gave me during the engagement of the 8th. They are meritorious 
officers, whose value is lost to the service by their not receiving rank 
more accordant with their merit and experience than that they now 
hold. Being without my proper staff, I was much gratified by the 
offer of Colonel Shands and Captain Barret, of the Missouri Army, 
of their services as aids. They were of very great assistance to me 
by the courage and intelligence with which they bore my orders ; 
also Colonel Lewis, of Missouri. 

None of the gentlemen of my personal staff, with the exception 
of Colonel Maury, A. A. G., and Lieutenant C. Sullivan, my aid-de 
camp, accompanied me from Jacksonport, the others having left on 
special duty. Colonel Maury was of invaluable service to me, both 



152 A SOUTHEEN RECORD. 

in preparing for and during the battle. There, as on other battle 
fields where I have served with him, he proved to be a zealous pa 
triot and true soldier. Cool and calm under all circumstances, he 
was always ready either with his sword or his pen. His services and 
Lieutenant Sullivan s are distinguished; the latter had his horse 
killed under him while leading a charge, the order for which he had 
just delivered. 

You will perceive, Colonel, from this report, that although I did 
not capture, as I hoped, or destroy the enemy s army in Western 
Arkansas, I have inflicted upon it a heavy blow and compelled him 
to fall back into Missouri ; this he did about the 16th inst. For 
further details concerning the action, and for more particular notices 
of the troops engaged, I refer you to the reports of the subordinate 
officers which accompany this report. 

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant, 

EARL VAN DORN, Major- General. 
Col. W. W. MACKALL, A. A. G. 

BRIGADIER-GENERAL BEN M CULLOCH. 

General Ben McCulloch arrived in Texas from his native State, 
Tennessee, just in time to command a portion of the artillery on the 
plains of San Jacinto, April 21st, 1836, over thirty years ago. He 
was then barely twenty-one years of age, but won general admiration 
from that band of heroes. That was the opening of his military 
career. For the ten succeeding years he resided upon the exposed 
Indian frontier of the infant republic, and so fully was his time given 
to the Indian wars that he followed - no other business. His time 
passed in a succession of hardships and dangers such as few men 
have seen, in which he displayed undaunted courage, indomitable 
will, and the highest characteristics of the scout, the captain, the 
strategist, and iron-nerved fighter. He was never outwitted or de 
feated by the wily savage, which is saying a great deal. When the 
Mexican war broke out, McCulloch, refusing the command of a regi 
ment, took the field as captain of General Taylor s spy company. In 
that capacity his services were of the most dangerous and important 
character ; and we have General Taylor s authority for saying he 
performed every act well and thoroughly. He succeeded in every 
enterprise, and at Monterey gained unfading laurels, especially in 
storming the Bishop s Palace, where his friend Gillespic fell. He 
continued in the same arduous service until the close of the war, 
always enjoying the highest confidence of the veteran General, who 
intrusted enterprises to him that he would commit to no one else. 



TRIED LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 153 

McCulloch was the first to notify Taylor of the approach of Santa 
Anna with five times his number, and to advise him to fall back 
from Encarnacion to the stronger position at Buena Vista, in all of 
which none can deny he saved our army from surprise and con 
sequent destruction. On that bloody field he received the public 
and official thanks of General Taylor for his heroic conduct and 
valuable services. 

General McCulloch served in the Texan Congress of 1839, and the 
Legislature of 1845, the only political positions that he ever held. 
In 1846, when war was upon us, and he in Mexico, he was unani 
mously elected Major-General of all Western Texas. In 1849 he 
went to California, and was at once elected Sheriff of Sacramento. 
For the last eight years prior to secession he was United States 
Marshal for Texas, and in that time was sent as Commissioner to 
Utah, and next to Arizona. He was twice offered the governorship 
of territories, and was appointed Major of U. S. Cavalry, all of which 
he declined. 

The moment Lincoln s election became known, McCulloch identi 
fied himself with Texas as an unconditional secessionist, and repaired 
to Texas to take part in any movement that might grow out of the 
presence of over 3,000 U. S. troops in that State. He was unani 
mously selected by the Committee of Public Safety to raise the men 
necessary to compel the surrender of San Antonio, with its arsenal 
and the neighboring forts, four or five in number. 

Within four days he had traveled one hundred and fifty miles, 
and stood before San Antonio with eight hundred armed men, his 
old comrades and neighbors. His mission succeeded. Texas looked 
to him with confidence as one of her strong pillars in case of war. 
She sent him abroad to procure arms ; but before he had fully suc 
ceeded the President appointed him Brigadier-General and assigned 
him to the command of the Indian Territory, without men, money, 
arms, or munitions. 

He reached Fort Smith late in May, his only companions being 
Major Montgomery and Colonel Mclntosh. He immediately pro 
ceeded with his customary energy to organize an army, and, above 
all, secure the co-operation of the Indian tribes. Thus in June, 1861, 
he was on a mission among the Indians, resulting in laying the 
foundation of their final adherence to the Confederate cause. He 
next turns up as the hero of the brilliant exploit at Neosho, Mo. 
Next we find him organizing that gallant little brigade composed of 
Arkansians, who so gallantly distinguished themselves at the battle 
of Oak Hills. 
7* 



154 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

Disrobed of the Arkansas troops after this battle, and left with 
three or four reduced regiments, he took position at Camp Jackson, 
in order to recruit and drill an army, collect supplies and munitions, 
and endeavor to prepare for effective operations against the enemy. 
It was at this period that letter-writers, and great minds, who never 
saw an army, attacked his character as a General, knowing more 
about his resources and strength when, where, and how he ought 
to move all about his duties and responsibilities, than himself. 
Still he heeded not the clamor raised against him. Sickness ravaged 
his band to an astonishing degree (the Third Louisiana was a fair 
specimen of the condition of the men at that period) ; recruits, for 
two months, did not come at all ; the Arkansas River was very low ; 
the Indians, in part, were surly and doubtful ; the Jayhawkers of 
Kansas were tampering with them and menacing Northwestern Ar 
kansas, and finally the splendid regiments that served to give him a 
goodly army arrived too late for a fall campaign. 

The army started on an expedition against Kansas, but was turned 
back by the advance of the Federals under Fremont pursuing the 
forces under General Price. His plans were changed to meet this 
emergency, and his forces co-operated with those of General Price 
to check Fremont s advance. How assiduously General McCulloch 
labored to annoy the enemy it is needless to state. The blockaded 
roads, the expeditions of the cavalry, led by himself, attest his 
ceaseless activity, untiring energy, and sleepless vigilance. After Fre 
mont s retreat, General McCulloch went to Eichniond on a mission 
connected with his department. 

While absent on this trip, an address, written by J. W. Tucker, 
in behalf of the Missourians, " To the people of the Confederate 
States," dated Springfield, Mo., December 24, 1861, was published 
in the Arkansian, a Fayetteville (Ark.) paper. In that address oc 
curred the following passage : " With the exception of the battle of 
Springfield, not a sword has been drawn for the release of Missouri 
save by her own sons. At that memorable battle (Oak Hills) the 
Confederate commander was asked for the assistance of three regi 
ments to pursue a defeated and disorganized foe, where 7,000 men 
and $1,000,000 worth of property were within our reach ; but General 
Price asked in vain. So his requests were responded to when 
he went to fight the battles of Dry Wood and Lexington. Not 
aided, not supplied with a single precussion-cap, for the want of 
which latter article he was compelled to fall back two hundred 
miles with an army of 20,000 men. During this trying period, within 
which the State could have been disenthralled, our Confederate allies 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 155 

have maintained tbeir camp on our Southern border in inglorious 
inactivity, not even protecting Missouri from Kansas Jayhawkers. 
We know these allied troops are as brave men as ever went to battle, 
and that they chafed like a caged lion to join the Missourians in 
their well-sustained resistance ; but these troops had no orders to 
move. Can this be explained ? There was no enemy to fight in 
Arkansas, and the army of Missouri was in every action and 
movement guarding the gates of Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas." 

To this attack on his motives, plans and movements, General Mc- 
Culloch published the following reply in the Richmond Whig : 

GENERAL M CULLOCH s REPLY. 

To the Editor of the Richmond Whig: 

In your issue of yesterday there is a communication signed " J. 
W. Tucker," in answer to which I think proper to make the follow 
ing reply, which you will please give a place in your paper : 

Your correspondent says : " With the exception of the battle of 
Springfield not a sword has been drawn for the release of Missouri 
except by her own sons." On the 4th of July General Pearce, of 
Arkansas, and myself, with all the forces we could command, 
marched to aid the Governor of the State in cutting his way through 
his enemies, capturing over 100 of the enemy at Neosho, a point 
where we expected to attack Siegel with his whole command. 

So much for his first assertion. He further says, speaking of the 
battle of Oak Hills : " The Confederate Commander was asked for the 
assistance of three regiments to pursue a defeated and disorganized 
foe, when 7,000 men and over $,100,000 worth of property were 
within our reach ; but General Price asked in vain." 

Immediately after the battle was over, and, in truth, before all my 
forces had returned from the pursuit of the enemy, orders were 
issued for the wounded to be brought from the battle-field, the 
dead to be buried, and the army to be ready to march after the 
enemy that night We did not march for the want of ammunition. 
Several of my officers informed me (when they heard the order) 
that some of their men had fired their last cartridge at the enemy, as 
we had only twenty-five rounds to the man before the battle began, 
and no more within hundreds of miles. After a conference with 
General Price, it was thought best to " let well enough alone." As 
to being asked for three regiments, I have no recollection of any 
such request. 

So much for his second assertion. 

Now for his third assertion, in which he wishes to convey the 



156 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

idea that I had not, nor would not aid Missouri with a man, a gun, 
or a percussion-cap, and that I would not even protect Missouri 
against the Arkansas Jayhawkers. At the time General Pearce, of 
Arkansas, and myself first entered Missouri on the 4th of July, we 
loaned General Price some six hundred and fifteen muskets. When 
our forces formed a junction at Cassville, Colonel Hebert, of Louis 
iana, at my request, loaned a Missouri officer about one hundred 
muskets. I have several times since given the Missourians the last 
cap I could spare from my own command. Let those officers say 
how many of their muskets were returned. General Pearce, I learned, 
recovered ten, while Colonel Hebert was only able to get a portion 
of those he loaned. Besides, it is a well-known fact that the arms 
of our dead and wounded were taken from the battle-field ; nor did 
we get any of the small-arms left by the enemy. 

As to the Kansas Jayhawkers and our inglorious idleness ! My 
mounted men gave protection to the whole country on the borders 
of Missouri for one hundred miles north of the Arkansas line from 
immediately after the battle of Oak Hills until in October, when 
General Price retreated from Lexington to that section of the State. 

So much for these charges. 

It will be remembered that I was assigned to the command of the 
Indian Territory, with orders to defend it from invasion from any 
quarter ; consequently, my participation in the battle at Oak Hills 
was upon my own responsibility, with a reliance of being sustained 
by my own Government. 

As to my men chafing like a caged lion to join the Missourians, 
I must say this is new to me. It might be supposed that the Louis 
iana Keginient was exceedingly anxious to march, exposed to the 
sun and rain, with men covered with ninety-five tents taken from 
themselves by order of a Missouri general. These tents had the 
extra clothing of the men rolled in them, and were stored with a 
merchant in Cassville at the time we marched upon Springfield, 
and were taken out of his possession by order of Brigadier-General 
Parsons, conveyed on the same road with that regiment, and not a 
word of them or their contents mentioned to me afterwards by any 
Missourian. 

If this was not enough to make the gallant Louisiana Regiment 
chafe like a caged lion to go with General Price, they only had to 
refer to his official report of the battle of Ouk Hills to see how com 
pletely they had been deprived of the glory of taking Colonel Sie- 
gel s battery, which they did at the point of the bayonet. 

As to the troops from Arkansas, they were likely to " chafe like a 



TRIED LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 157 

caged lion " because they were not permitted to go with their coun 
try rifles and shot guns, and see how they handled the muskets they 
borrowed and would not return. 

Then there are the Texans ! They " chafed like a caged lion " be 
cause they could not have the opportunity to capture another flag 
and piece of artillery to be appropriated by the Missourians, whilst 
they (the Texans) were continuing to pursue the enemy. 

Perhaps all these gallant men were likely to chafe like a caged 
lion because they could not march with men who took possession of 
every mill and every blacksmith-shop in the surrounding country, 
and at the same time placed a guard over every store in Springfield, 
taking what they contained and applying it to their own use ; thus 
depriving these men of the chance of obtaining a change of linen, a 
pound of breadstuffs, or a horse shod until after their wants were 
supplied. 

I greatly fear the effort of J. "W. Tucker to disparage the gallant 
soldiers of Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas, and to deprive them of 
their just share of the glory of the battle of Oak Hills, will add 
little to the good feeling which every true patriot should desire to 
see prevail among the soldiers of the different States at this time. 

I have not thought proper, heretofore, to notice any of the mis 
representations going the rounds of the newspapers. First, because 
they had no responsible endorser, and secondly, because I hoped, for 
the sake of a common cause, that there should be no war of words 
among ourselves, when the enemy were to be met with the sword. 

This hope has failed, and I am compelled to notice this publica 
tion lest my silence be construed as an admission of the truth of Mr. 
Tucker s statements it being well known that I was in Richmond 
at the time his communication was published. 

In conclusion, permit me to warn my countrymen, and to beg of 
them, not to put too much reliance in sensation articles written and 
published for effect. Up to the present time the country knows 
nothing of what has been done in Missouri. 

I have the honor to be your obedient servant, 

Richmond, January 17A, 1862. BEN McCuLLocn. 

" General McCulloch, 5 says a correspondent, writing from Camp 
Jackson, Arkansas, September 30th, 1861, "has been at his post all 
the time. He is as vigilant as a tiger. Every day at some time a 
man, dressed in dark clothes, wearing a brown hat, with thin flow 
ing locks, may be seen galloping across the prairie. One evening 
last week, as we were out on regimental (Third Louisiana) drill, just 



158 A SOUTHERN EECOED. 

before sun-down, a vast multitude of spectators belonging to the 
various companies, battalions, etc., having come out, a horseman was 
seen approaching at a fast gallop. Every person knew him. It was 
General McCullocli. He rode up to the left wing and spoke kindly 
and familiarly to Captain Viglini, and then said Good evening, 
politely and cheerfully, to all. Lieutenant-Colonel Hyams being 
busy making some remarks, the General rode up to the Adjutant, and 
remarked, Why are you not on duty, are you sick ? Yes, was 
the reply. After conversing a few moments he said, I must go and 
see the Colonel. The Colonel by this time had the line at a shoul 
der arms. As the General passed, present arms! was the com 
mand. The General of course acknowledged it in his own unique 
and immortal style. Perhaps the character of none of our public 
men is so much misunderstood as that of General McCulloch. He is 
a Tennesseean by birth and a Texan by adoption. He is a border 
man, an Indian fighter, and a ranger. Is this all ? I had fancied 
him a perfect devil, a backwoodsman, a ruffian, an unpolished des 
perado. 

u General McCulloch is a medium-sized man ; perhaps he might 
be called a small man, with brown hair and whiskers. He doubtless 
has been handsome, and is still good-looking for a man of his age. 

"A nice boot, well fitted to his foot ; close, trim-made clothes, and, 
as before mentioned, a brown hat, neither high nor low, but of the 
planter style, with very clean, nice vest, short, sleek boots, gloves, 
and spurs, are the characteristics of his dress. His person is very 
neat and pleasant, slim, thin, and a small roundness of shoulders. 
He is as fine a horseman as ever sat in saddle. Age has left its mark 
on his countenance. His face is weather-beaten and brown from 
exposure ; numerous crow-feet creep out from his somewhat sunken 
eyes. I think he would weigh about one hundred and forty pounds, 
and I would take him to be fifty years old, judging from his looks ; 
and he is all that he has ever been represented a bold, graceful 
rider, a desperate fighter, a reckless charger, a border man, and an 
Indian fighter of the highest type. Had he lived in the days of 
chivalry, he would have been a knight of the most superior class. 
More than this, General Ben McCulloch is a great man. Mentally 
he is of the sanguine-bilious temperament a perfectly positive man. 
There is no half-way ground about him, no medium decision, no 
compromise, no guessing. It is, or it is not. with him. It can, or it 
cannot be ; and if the world should decide against him, or all the 
officers in his Division, I believe his own conscientiousness would 
prompt him to say, as would Jackson, I ll take the responsibility ! 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 159 

One of the strongest features in his mind is its precision, its clear 
ness. Individuality is strongly marked. He is not a talkative man, 
and consequently not a very sociable one. He seems to be separate, 
self-existant, independent, original. I do not think any one ever 
knows his plans. He is an indefatigable student and thinker, and 
never loses any time. Of whatever subject his mind is directed to, 
he has very exalted ideas. He seems desirous of bringing his troops 
to the very highest point of discipline and military power. He de 
tests stragglers and loafers. He loves order and decency. The first 
time the command was ever called out in line of battle at Crane 
Creek, about August 1st, as we were formed, the " long roll " beating 
vigorously, and our backs being toward a ravine, down which the 
enemy s cannon balls were expected, this command passed down the 
line, viz. : Steady, men, General McCulloch is loading the cannon 
himself. On the next day General Rains attacked the enemy, and 
as we were formed on a hillside to protect our battery, vast numbers 
of stragglers came in, thundering past us. Finally, Captain Mcln- 
tosh, with one hundred and fifty scouts, came in, endeavoring to 
draw the enemy after them and to us on the hillside. It seemed as 
if the enemy would arrive immediately, but General McCulloch came 
in finally with two companies, the very last man. As he passed us 
he said, * The enemy have stopped to take dinner, come on, boys, we 
will go and take dinner too. He has a very fine rifle which he 
always carries. This is his only weapon or soldierly insignia. On 
the morning we left Crane Creek General McCulloch exhibited the 
greatest coolness. In person he would go three miles over the prairie 
with his staff in search of the enemy." 

Such is a most perfect pen sketch by a Missourian (J. H. Robert 
son), of McCulloch as Confederate leader of the Western Army in 
1861. It was his individuality, reliance on his own personal obser 
vations, regardless of extraneous assistance, which led him to need 
lessly expose himself at Elk Horn. Forbidding his staff to follow 
him, he departed to make personal observations and reconnoitre the 
enemy s position, ere ordering the mass of his troops into battle. 
Already the Louisianians were desperately engaged, and their fierce 
volleys and wild cheers told that they were accomplishing the work 
cut out for them. But McCulloch came not back. He was shot 
through the heart by a concealed marksman of the enemy, finally a 
victim to his fearless temerity. As a leader, McCulloch was idolized 
by his troops, and almost worshipped by the Louisianians, and his 
death was bitterly lamented as only lion-hearted, brave men can 
lament over the fall of an idolized chieftain. General McCulloch s 



160 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

body was conveyed to Little Rock and there interred, surrounded by 
a vast concourse of citizens and soldiers. Undoubtedly his death, 
so quickly followed by that of General Mclntosh, occasioned the loss 
of the battle, as no more of his division were ordered to the support 
of those few regiments who fought so desperately and successfully 
on that blood-stained field. 

Multiplied words can add nothing to his fame. It is as eternal 
as the granite hills. His body moulders in a soldier s grave. The 
Emerald sward, and doubtless sweet flowers, planted there by loving 
hands, cover his honored remains. Of all the martyr graves that 
dot Southern hill-sides and valleys, none contain the remains of a 
nobler soul, a more fearless and chivalric spirit, a more efficient com 
mander, a more idolized chieftain, than that which holds the mortal 
portion of Brigadier-General Ben McCulloch. 

BKIGADIEB-GENEKAL M lNTOSH. 

General James Mclntosh was a native of Virginia. He graduated 
at West Point, and was Colonel in the United States service at the 
commencement of the war, commanding a regiment of cavalry 
on the Western frontier, at Fort Smith, when hostilities first began. 
With the secession of Virginia, and that chivalrous spirit worthy of 
his native State, he linked his fortunes to those of the Confeder 
acy. He soon raised a fine regiment of cavalry in Arkansas, and 
joined McCulloch s little army ; was appointed Adjutant- General 
of McCnlloch s Brigade, and eventually received a commission as 
Brigadier-General of Cavalry a short period previous to the battle 
of Elk Horn. At the battle of Oak Hills he first met his old regi 
ment. So much had he become endeared to this body of regulars 
that nearly a whole company deserted and linked their fortunes to 
the Confederate cause, becoming General McCulloch s body-guard 
a company of stalwart, efficient and brave men. General Mclntosh 
was a fearless rider, a reckless fighter, a dashing horseman. He was 
beloved by the whole army. In his death the Confederates lost one 
of their most gallant officers. The records written of him in this 
work are true criterions wherewith to judge his character and effi 
ciency. His gallant charge at the head of his brigade at Elk Horn 
was one of the most brilliant incidents of the war. General Mc 
lntosh was a medium-sized man, with keen, black eyes, raven hair 
and whiskers. Without doubt, he was descended from Indian stock. 
Many claimed that he was a Cherokee by birth an erroneous sup 
position. In his death the Confederate States lost an officer who 
would have made a brilliant record. 



CHAPTER XX. 

THE MARCH EASTWARD. 

AFTER a short stay at Van Buren, when the different commands 
had become reorganized and recuperated somewhat from their ex 
haustion, the regiment left for Fort Smith. From this point they 
departed eastward in the latter part of March, their destination 
being Little Rock. On the march, Lieutenant F. R. Brunot, of 
Company K, died, and received a soldier s burial amid the wilds of 
Arkansas. Frank, generous to a fault, a lively companion and brave 
soldier, his loss was severely felt, especially by the members of the 
company to which he belonged. A lawyer by profession, he pos 
sessed talents of no ordinary character. Lieutenant O. J. Wells 
appointed A. C. S. of Regiment, March 21, 1862. The whole army 
was now on the move, concentrating toward the Mississippi Valley. 
Fort Smith and our Western border was being abandoned. To 
many this seemed an uncalled-for movement, and complaints loud 
and bitter were uttered. The movement was easily and satisfactorily 
explained. There was, then, no danger to be apprehended from an 
invading army. Why ? Simply because Southwestern Missouri 
and Northwestern Arkansas were a desolate waste, having been 
stripped of nearly everything calculated to supply an army. Even 
with a friendly country in the rear, it was found impossible to 
supply the Confederate army with the necessary means of subsist 
ence. Hence, it was argued, it would be impossible for the enemy 
to subsist an army so far removed from their base of operations as 
they would be by invading Arkansas, among a people too hostile to 
them, with destruction constantly threatening, not only their sup 
ply-trains, but also their pickets and foraging parties. The enemy 
were well aware of these facts, and hence moved rapidly northward 
after the battle of Elk Horn. They were nearly starved out while 
in the State, both before and after the battle. 

Everything at this time indicated a terrible and desperate contest 



162 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

for the possession of the Mississippi Valley, and troops from both 
sides were rapidly concentrating for the fearful struggle. The 
regiment was now attached to the Second Brigade of General 
Priced army, under command of Colonel Hebert, who was reported 
as having received a commission as brigadier-general. Assuredly 
no officer was more worthy of such distinction than the brave and 
skillful Colonel of the Third Regiment. 

The sick-list of the regiment was very large the result of late 
hardships. They had, however, comfortable hospitals both for the 
sick and wounded at Little Rock, whose patriotic ladies were un 
tiring in their endeavors to ameliorate the sufferings of the brave 
soldiers thus brought to their beautiful little city. 

It is a mournful spectacle to see so many once strong and robust 
men wasting away neath the ravages of disease, far from home and 
friends, uncared for save by a few rough comrades. No soft hand 
soothes the fevered brow; no loving face bends over the atten 
uated features as the angel of death sets his seal there. The soldier 
can gaze unmoved on the fearful scenes of a battle-field ; tread un- 
caringly over the dead and dying ; remain untouched by the spec 
tacle of mangled limbs and ghastly wounds ; but the sight of a 
soldier dying from disease, with an accompanying thought of home 
and the loved ones there, will unnerve the stoutest heart. There 
will ever remain the remembrance of a scene witnessed on the Ar 
kansas River. 

A steamer on a bar fast aground, the ruddy glare of a pine-torch 
glittering, glistening, and dancing on the eddying stream, united 
with the hoarse whisper of the steam-engine mingling with the 
voices of men and the rattle of the capstan as the huge spar was 
made to perform its work. Silently two coffins were lowered into 
a yawl, followed by three or four soldiers. We watched it recede 
into the darkness. Soon a lantern s feeble rays, like the fire-fly s 
transient light, appeared on shore, then vanished in the gloom and 
darkness of night. 

Not long was it ere two rough boxes were lowered into new- 
made graves and fresh mounds of earth marked the spot where, on 
on the banks of the lonely river, reposed two of the sons of liberty. 
These humble graves of patriots, buried in an unmarked spot, are 
still remembered. 

" By fairy hands their knell is rung ; 
By forms unseen their dirge is sung ; 
Their honor comes a pilgrim gray 
To bless the turf that wraps their clay. 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 163 

And Freedom shall awhile repair 
To dwell, a weeping, hermit there." 

The regiment left Camp Poteau, Ark., on the 28th of April. A long, 
weary march was before them, notwithstading their recent terrible 
sufferings and exhaustion. Day by day they toiled through the 
swamps. Oftentimes the wagons would not arrive. Heavy storms 
constantly arose ; there were no tents or shelter ; the mud was knee- 
deep ; the streams swollen often waded. Roads were repaired and 
bridges built ; then they were water-bound. It seemed as if all the 
tortures and sufferings of years were being poured out in one huge 
vial of wrath upon these heroic spirits. 

On the 13th most of the First Brigade arrived near the forks of 
Citron Creek, some distance above Little Rock. Here McDonald s 
celebrated Missouri battery was attached to the Third Louisiana. 
The regiment reached Little Rock on the 16th and were warmly 
welcomed. With five days 1 rations cooked, the regiment left Little 
Rock for Beaureguard s army at Corinth, on board the steamers 
Louisville and Kentucky. The ladies of Little Rock gathered on 
the banks of the river, and there was the flutter of innumerable 
handkerchiefs as the boats steamed away down the stream. The 
men were in high spirits over the change in their mode of traveling. 

Major Tunnard, on account of bodily infirmities resulting from 
the horrors and hardships encountered in Arkansas, obtained a fur 
lough at Little Rock. Thus the regiment was left in command of 
a senior captain. Down the river out once more upon the broad 
Mississippi how the heart went out in warm throbs towards the 
loved ones ; how the spirit yearned for a journey clown the stream. 
But no ! Up the river the boats proceeded, and the regiment was 
disembarked at Memphis on the 27th, and proceeded to encamp in 
the upper portion of the city, immediately on the river bank. 

Reported to General Van Doran. 

The discipline enforced among the men here was very rigid. 
Dress parade twice daily, and roll-call five times, much to the annoy 
ance of the troops. Memphis was alive with forces hastening to 
wards Corinth, Miss., the threatened point of attack. Against Fort 
Pillow above, and Forts Jackson and St. Philip below, powerful 
fleets were in operation, and the dark gloom of disaster hung like a 
funeral-pall over the land. 

On the 30th of April the regiment once more was on the move. 
They were in splendid spirits, and marched through the streets of 
Memphis with firm and regular tread. They attracted universal 



164: A SOUTHEEN RECORD. 

attention, and received a perfect ovation the streets being crowded 
with men and fair ladies, who greeted them most enthusiastically. 
On their way to the depot of the Mississippi and Ohio Railroad 
they passed a seminary where a bevy of handsome young ladies had 
congregated a rare bouquet of nature s most beautiful flowers. 
There was the fluttering of innumerable handkerchiefs, and each 
company returned the greeting in loud cheers as they passed this 
galaxy of beauty. Several of the ladies gave the men their delicate 
little cambric handkerchiefs as souveniers. 

Left Memphis in company with five other trains, all loaded with 
troops, and reached Corinth on the first day of May. The country 
around this place was low and marshy, the water impure and un 
healthy. 



CHAPTER XXI. 

EVENTS AT CORINTH. 

THE regiment now belonged to General G. T. Beauregard s Army 
of the West. A tremendous army was congregated here. Entrench 
ments thrown up on all sides, protected by heavy abattis of felled 
timber, and frowning with artillery of every description and calibre. 
Skirmishing with the enemy was a daily occurrence ; but the Con 
federates felt hopeful and confident of success when the issue should 
be made. 

On the 3d our pickets were driven in, and on the morning of 
Sunday, the 4th, the regiment left camp very early and proceeded to 
the intrenchments, where they remained until the afternoon, in a 
heavy rain, drenching all to the skin. The whole army was in mo 
tion this day, but nothing important transpired. The men were 
kept in a state of feverish excitement and anxious expectation, con 
fronting, as they were, a powerful force of the foe, with whom we 
were daily skirmishing, and being under orders to move at a mo 
ment s notice. 

On the 6th, news reached the army of the fall of New Orleans. It 
was astounding intelligence to the army, and caused intense excite 
ment. Orders were issued for a reorganization of the regiment, by 
the election of field and company officers, as our term of service was 
about expiring. For many days the men had been discussing the 
question of their discharge, looking joyfully forward to a reunion 
with the loved ones at home, and forming plans for the future. But 
they were in the power of strong military authority, and could not 
leave the army without being immediately seized and forced to re 
turn under the late Conscript Act of Congress. The excitement and 
dissatisfaction was intense. General Price issued an order promis 
ing furloughs to the regiment if victorious in the approaching 
battle, and closing his order with a fine tribute to the gallantry 
of the regiment. Outside of the question of their discharge, the 



166 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

men were in high spirits. Orders were read to move early in the 
morning. The men were under arms at 3 A. M. on the morning of 
the 7th, and at 8 o clock in motion. They marched about six 
miles, and formed line of battle in a strip of woods immediately in 
the rear of an open field, on the right of the whole army. The 
country was rolling ground. The road ran parallel to the position, 
and then abruptly turned off at a right angle leading between two 
large open fields skirted by a belt of timber. Beyond these fields 
were the enemy s pickets. Thus the outposts of the two huge 
armies confronted and watched each other s motions. The enemy 
were reported as only two miles distant. This might be the day 
before the great battle. The sun looked lovingly down upon this 
scene of spring beauty. The breeze sighed in murmuring, softened 
whispers amid the emerald foliage of the trees, while the subdued 
sound of voices and suppressed laughter of the men died away on 
the morning air. O er the soul swept memories of boyhood s years ; 
the picture of a cottage home embowered in trees ; the vision of a 
mother s and sister s loved forms. It was a day for reveries and 
dreamings, even amid all the surroundings of grim-visaged war. 
The next day the election for officers was ordered. The old excite 
ment revived, and a large number of the men positively refused to 
have anything to do with the reorganization. In many instances 
officers were elected by a minority vote of the members of the com 
panies. In the choice of officers there was almost an entire revolu 
tion in the regiment. The old officers were thrown aside and privates 
chosen to command the different companies men who had shown 
themselves worthy of the confidence thus reposed in them. After 
the election of company officers, those chosen assembled to vote for 
field officers. While the voting was in progress, orders were re 
ceived to move immediately, and soon the whole army was in mo 
tion. We marched about three miles and laid down on the ground 
without blankets or shelter, the roar of artillery being the music 
that lulled the men to sleep. 

On Friday the 9th, Price s army was aroused early, and soon on 
the march. Under the direction of General Van Dorn the division 
pushed forward in a south-east direction from Corinth ; and after 
crossing swamps, marching in line of battle through dense under 
brush, over hill-tops, and across deep valleys, we halted to rest. At 
12 M. four guns lired in rapid succession gave the signal to push for 
ward. The object was to penetrate, in an easterly direction, to the 
north of Farmington, where the enemy were in force, and cut off 
their retreat towards Eastport on the Tennessee River, while the main 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 167 

body of the army attacked them in front. Company K was thrown 
out as skirmishers in front of the regiment. After a long and 
wearisome advance, we suddenly came upon the flank of the enemy, 
whom our forces had engaged in front, when they precipitately re 
treated to prevent being surrounded and captured. We took Farni- 
ington, the bridge they had constructed across the swamp, a large 
supply of clothing, etc. The bridge was destroyed, also a large 
gin containing cotton. Farmington is situated in the centre of a 
succession of large, open fields. The fight lasted four hours, result 
ing in few casualties on our side. The regiment obtained a large 
number of letters, which furnished some information and a great 
deal of amusement to the boys. Some of these letters were rich 
specimens of orthography and penmanship, and not very flattering 
to the morals in certain portions of the North. This sharp engage 
ment caused much enthusiasm among the troops, and the Third 
Regiment regained their old spirit and determination under the 
prospect of an early fight with the foe. 

On the 10th the balloting for field officers was resumed, resulting 
finally in the selection of the following officers: 

Roll of officers elected on the reorganization of the Regiment, 
May 8, 1862 : Colonel, F. C. Armstrong ; Lieutenant-Colonel, J. B. 
Gilmore ; Major, S. D. Russell ; Surgeon, P. F. Whitehead ; Quarter 
master, John Hanna ; Commissary, F. Gallagher ; Chaplain, A. 
Dicharry ; Adjutant, J. H. Brigham. 

Co. A. J. Kinney, Captain ; W. Babiu, 1st Lieutenant ; J. Ra- 
mouin, 2d Lieutenant ; J. S. Randolph, 2d Junior Lieutenant. 

Co. B. D. C. Morgan, Captain ; J. Davenport, 1st Lieutenant ; 
W. P. Renwick, 2d Lieutenant ; T. L. Beauchamp, 2d Lieut., Jr. 

Co. C. N. M. Middlebrook, Captain ; A. Emanuel, 1st Lieuten 
ant ; A. W. McCain, 2d Lieutenant ; W. T. Fagan, 2d Lieutenant, Jr. 

Co. D. W. E. Russell, Captain ; S. M. Hyams, Jr., 1st Lieuten 
ant ; B. O. Morse, 2d Lieutenant ; G-. L. Frichel, 2d Lieutenant Jr. 

Co. E. O. Brashear, Captain ; R. C. Holt, 1st Lieutenant ; J. C. 
Turpin, 2d Lieutenant ; - . 2d Jr. Lieutenant. 

Co. F. W. Kinney, Captain ; L. M. Dunclon, 1st Lieutenant ; J. 
O. Clark, J. Horn, 2d Lieutenants. 

Co. G. W. B. Butler, Captain ; F. Gainirie, 1st Lieutenant ; P. 
L. Prudhomme, J. Paul Bassier, 2d Lieutenants. 

Co. H. J. S. Richards, Captain; C. Hedrick, 1st Lieutenant; 
A. W. Carroll, J. M. Stuart, 2d Lieutenants. 

Co. I. J. E. Johnson, Captain ; J. E. Hanna, 1st Lieutenant ; T. 
Me B. Meredith, 2d Lieutenant ; J. R. Cottingham, 2d Jr. Lieut. 



163 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

Co. K. H. H. Gentlis, Captain ; J. B. Irwin, 1st Lieutenant ; J. 
D. Williams, 2d Lieutenant ; A. B. Payne, 2d Jr. Lieutenant. 

Who does not remember the handsome, gay and dashing Frank 
Armstrong ? The same gallant officer who afterwards, under General 
Forrest as Major-Gen eral of cavalry, gained an enviable name for 
bravery and efficiency in this arm of the service. Colonel Armstrong 
was an old army officer, hence a strict disciplinarian. Of fine per 
sonal appearance and commanding bearing, he looked what he really 
was, every inch a soldier. When the men were on duty he required 
and expected a strict observance of every military regulation and 
order. There must be no laxity in any particular. Yet when the 
men were free from duty they could approach Colonel Armstrong 
with the assurance that they would be treated as gentlemen and 
equals. He was always affable, kind, and courteous in his intercourse 
with the men. Colonel Armstrong appreciated the position of the 
early volunteers. He knew that a majority of them were men of 
refinement and education, of high social position previous to their 
becoming soldiers, hence in his intercourse with them there was no 
assumption of unapproachable superiority. Some idea may be 
formed of the estimation in which he was held when it is stated 
that the men, when speaking of him to each other, invariably called 
him Frank Armstrong. It was a rarity for any of them to prefix his 
title to his name. Such was the officer chosen to lead the regiment. 
One whom the men learned to honor for his soldierly qualities, and 
love with an idolatry second only to their devotion to the lamented 
McCulloch. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Gil more was born in Jefferson County, Ken 
tucky, in 1827, and came to Shreveport in 1849. He was one of the 
first captains of the regiment ; is a man of nervous excitability, with 
a temperament that flashed up like gunpowder when fire is applied 
to it. He was with all his excitability a fearless officer, always at 
his post in the hour of danger. The Major, S. D. Russell, a spare 
made man, with hair and whiskers slightly tinged with gray, was 
almost the opposite of Colonel Gilmore, being slow in motion, sel 
dom losing command of his temper, or becoming unduly excited. 
He was calm and dignified in his bearing, firm, steady, and courage* 
ous in battle. 

On Sunday, May llth, Company K was sent out on picket, and 
afterwards relieved by Company A. Skirmishing was a daily occur 
rence, and the roar of artillery was such a common sound as to at 
tract little attention. The camp of the Third Regiment at this time 
was in an open woods, rolling ground, outside of Corinth. While 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 169 

here they received a supply of tents. What shelters ! They looked, 
when stretched, as if an army of rag-pickers had encamped there; 
and these tents were put up as signs of their occupation. In ap 
pearance, however, the men were little supciior to their shelters. 
Almost constantly under arms or on duty, little time or opportunity 
was given them to attend to their apparel or cleanliness of their 
persons. Hence they were ragged and filthy. Their fare at this 
time was crackers and salt meat, not very wholesome diet assuredly. 
On the 12th our Adjutant, S. M. Hyams, Jr., left the regiment, having 
been appointed to the command of the Fifth Arkansas Regiment. 
On the 13th the regiment was still on picket in the position pre 
viously described. The morning was clear, the sun shining with 
pencilled rays through the overhanging branches of the trees, decked 
in their tender Spring foliage, Birds carolled their matin songs, 
while in the direction of Corinth arose the sound of the morning 
drum and the clarion voice of the bugle. A dash on the lines was 
momentarily expected, and the men were watchful and quiet. The 
drums and brass bands of the enemy could be distinctly heard from 
our position. Truly it was a strange spectacle. Two armies within 
sound of each other, the line of pickets on opposite sides of the 
same field, the men standing looking over the fence with eager, 
searching gaze, or leaning listlessly on their loaded pieces, watching 
for the foe, determined to take human life if an opportunity offered. 
Thus affairs remained until late in the afternoon, when an unexpected 
visitor in the form of a six-pound rifle shell dropped among the men. 
The scream and explosion of this missile were heard ere the report 
of the piece from which it was discharged echoed over the field. 
This missile was followed by others in rapid succession. Several men 
were wounded and bruised both by the shells and the falling limbs 
cut off from the trees overhead. The regiment was ordered to fall 
back into a ravine in -the rear of their position. The order was mis 
understood. Now occurred one of those scenes which cannot be 
accounted for, and which frequently happens among the bravest 
troops. There was a hurried rush by the whole regiment to the 
rear, resulting almost to a panic, many of the men running at the top 
of their speed across the adjacent hills. The pickets, however, stood 
their ground, owing to the determination of the captain, H. H. 
Gentles, commanding them. Through the strenuous exertions of the 
officers, the regiment was soon rallied and advanced to their original 
position. It was laughable then to hear the men blame each other, 
and saying they didn t run. Oh, no ! Distinguished for gallantry 
and bravery they felt ashamed and mollified at their conduct, which 
8 



170 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

after all was only the result of a misunderstanding of orders. Pre 
vious to the opening of the battery an old negro man attempted to 
pass the lines and was arrested and sent back to headquarters and 
released. He returned with a pass and was allowed to proceed 
towards the enemy s lines. In a very few moments he came back, 
and on being asked if he had seen any soldiers replied, " Lots of men 
coming on foot and on horses. They wasn t Yankees. Oh ! no, but 
friends." The black scoundrel, it was afterwards believed, had be 
trayed our position, as the battery had fired with a precision of 
range conclusively showing that they were not shooting at random. 
Could the men have caught the dark hued rascal, there would have 
been a case of lynch-law, as their exasperation was very great. A 
large body of cavalry and infantry had approached our position, 
driving in the Confederate cavalry, who precipitately fled through 
the line, leaving the regiment alone to picket between the two huge 
armies. A portion of their cavalry made a dash on the line, but 
were driven back. One, however, was taken prisoner. He belonged 
to the First U. S. Regular cavalry, whom he abused as cowards in 
no very complimentary language. He refused to dismount when or 
dered, saying he " never had walked in his life, and he d be d d 

if he was going to now, for all the rebels in Christendom." He was 
speedily taught a lesson of obedience to orders by the men, not pre 
scribed in Hardee s Tactics. 

The regiment was relieved from picket on the 14th, and marched 
to a new camp in an open field, south-east of Corinth, near a spring 
of fine, cool, clear water. Tents sufficient to protect the men were 
famished. There was a general cleansing of clothes and persons, 
and all felt better and refreshed after their continued duties, hard 
ships and excitement. Here they once more received pay. Lieuten 
ant J. Harvey Brigham, of Company B, was appointed Adjutant,* 

*After Lieutenant Wnshburn was captured at Elk Horn, Lieutenant J. Har 
vey Brigham was made Adjutant of the regiment, and continued to act as such 
until the re-organization, and was then regularly appointed as such and com 
missioned under Act of Congress, allowing the appointment of others than of 
line officers. At the beginning of the war this office was filled by some lieu 
tenant appointed from the line officers. Lieutenant Brigham was second lieu 
tenant of Company B. Adjutant Brigham lost the use of his right hand from 
a wound received at the battle of luka (September 19th) after which period 
Lieutenant A. W, Currie, Company II, was made Acting Adjutant, while Lieu 
tenant Brigham was on detached service on general court-martial in Richmond, 
Va., but still holding his commission as Adjutant until he resigned (September 
21st, 1864) in consequence of disability. After this no one was adjutant by 
commission, but only by appointment. 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 171 

Lieutenant J. Hanna, Company I, Regimental Quartermaster, and 
F. Gallagher, Commissary. One day succeeded another full of ex 
citement and expectation of the great battle. On the 18th, nearly 
the whole army were outside of the fortifications around Corinth 
lying in line of battle in a huge semi-circle. The regiment was on 
the right of nearly the whole army. Far to the left was heard the 
sharp rattle of small-arms and the sullen roar of artillery, betokening 
heavy skirmishing, perhaps the prelude to a general engagement. 
The enemy were again repulsed with considerable loss. The next 
day was a repetition of the same scenes of desultory fighting by the 
skirmishers and out-posts. Yet amid the sound of spattering rifle 
shots and an occasional roar of a field-piece, the regiment presented 
a strange appearance, characteristic of the reckless indifference of 
men accustomed to danger. There were groups playing poker, 
swearing and laughing over their cards, others were engaged in the 
interesting game of "mumble the peg." Some eating "hard-tack" 
and " salt junk." Others reading newspapers, engaged in discus 
sions, telling jokes and yams amid uproarious laughter, or lying in 
lazy attitudes neath the shade of the trees. There was suddenly 
the quick, imperative command to " fall in," a rush and scramble for 
arms and equipments amid great excitement, showing the tension to 
which the nerves of the men were strung beneath all their apparent 
indifference. They were only ordered to return to camp. 

The weather now became stormy, rain falling almost incessantly, 
yet orders were issued to cook three days rations and be prepared 
to move. On the 21st the army was once more on the march, accom 
panied by trains of commissary stores. Proceeding cautiously east 
ward we halted about seven miles from Corinth on the Memphis and 
Charleston railroad. Here the regiment was passed by Hardee s Di 
vision, composed almost entirely of Arkansas volunteers, a hardy, 
rough-looking body of men, full of fun and life. We were feeling 
the enemy s position, with the evident design of giving battle. Tho 
expedition was fruitless, as they could not be found. The anny 
commenced moving back on the 22d. That night many of the 
troops, batteries, and trains remained in the swamps, the roads 
through them being impassable in the black darkness of a cloudy 
night. The situation was by no means an agreeable one. Major 
Tunnard reached the regiment on the 25th, and was once more 
warmly welcomed. Having procured a discharge from the service, 
he bade a final adieu to the regiment on the 26th of May, followed 
by the good wishes of the men who had served so efficiently under 
him. 



172 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

On the 28th the trains of the whole army were in motion south 
ward. The army made a feint on the enemy s position. There was 
some heavy skirmishing and artillery fighting. The Third Regiment 
was not engaged, and was among the last to leave Corinth. The 
army slowly fell back along high ridges covered with pine, then 
through swamps, boggy with mire and almost impassable. The men 
felt gloomy, sad, and dispirited at this abandonment of their strong 
hold. Not understanding or appreciating the consummate skill and 
strategy of General Beauregard in thus safely retreating in face of a 
powerful foe without losing arms, ammunition, guns or stores. They 
did not then know that great victories could be gained without 
fighting tremendous battles. On the 31st the regiment reached 
Baldwin, Miss., and encamped on a ridge among the pines, west of 
the N. O., J. and G. N. railroad. Here the troops remained until 
the 6th, when the retrograde movement was continued. The rail 
road bridges and culverts were destroyed in the rear. The enemy s 
cavalry were very active in making raids on the road, attempting to 
destroy the track in front of our trains. But the splendid cavalry 
of Price s Division were equally energetic in foiling their attempts. 
Over hills and through gloomy swamps the regiment marched, some 
times knee deep in mud. 



CHAPTER XXII. 



TUPELO. 

ON Sunday, the 8th of June, a clear, beautiful Sabbath day, the 
regiment reached Tupelo and were marched about two miles east of 
this place and an eligible camp selected on a hill and near a small 
spring. The country here was rolling land covered with open woods. 
Here they remained encamped without incident worthy of note until 
the 16th, when the members of the regiment taken prisoners at Elk 
Horn arrived. They were greeted and welcomed as brothers meet 
after a long separation. They were surrounded by their comrades, 
all eager to learn something of life in Northern prisons, and the 
treatment of prisoners, overwhelming them with questions. Their 
statements were anything but flattering to our foes, and in some par 
ticulars horrible in their details. 

General Hebert also arrived and established his headquarters on 
the ridge adjacent to the one occupied by the regiment. When the 
re-organization of the command was perfected at Corinth, the men 
were promised furloughs for sixty days. After their arrival at 
Tupelo, an application was made for the fulfilment of this promise. 
It was refused, and when the fact was announced to the regiment on 
the 16th of June, 1862, there was much excitement and dissatisfac 
tion in camp. After long months of severe service, enduring untold 
hardships and trials, fighting several battles with a courage and 
bravery which had made their name everywhere distinguished, the 
only boon asked, the only favor which could have been conferred 
on them as a recompense for their deeds, was refused. Now they 
could look forward only to a life in the army until the termination 
of the struggle. The disappointment was most bitterly felt, and it 
is not surprising that it found expression in still more bitter words. 
The scarcity of water rendered it necessary to dig wells, and the men 
went to work with their customary energy at this new occupation 



174 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

They soon had deep wells dug, neatly planked up to prevent their 
caving in, and water was found in abundance and very good. At 
this period camp discipline was very strict and daily drills very 
severe. Beside these duties there were heavy details for the purpose 
of cutting out and building roads through the swamps, labor which 
even to those accustomed to it is not considered light. Heavy tim 
ber was first cut, then carried by sheer physical strength to its proper 
place, as a foundation over swampy ground ; this was filled in with 
brush and dirt. Such work was performed in rnud and water knee 
deep mentioned here only to show some of the duties of a vol 
unteer. 

On the 20th orders were read assigning General Van Dorn to the 
command of Eastern Louisiana and Southern Mississippi, and the 
Division was now under the supreme command of General Price. 

On the 20th there was a review and general inspection, the occa 
sion of unfurling a beautiful battle-flag presented to the regiment by 
Governor Jackson, of Missouri. This flag was made of the very 
finest material. It was red silk, with a strip of yellow silk around 
the edges. In the upper left hand corner was a crescent with " Third 
Louisiana " worked in it, surrounded by thirteen silvered stars. In 
the centre of the red ground was a scroll in blue, with the words 
" Oak Hills," and "Elk Horn," inscribed thereon, indicating that 
the regiment had distinguished themselves on those battle fields. 
This banner was one of the handsomest in the army, and, coming 
from such a distinguished source, was greatly admired by the men. 
They appreciated highly the compliment thus paid to their gallantry 
and heroism. On the 26th of June an order was read appointing 
the regiment as sharp-shooters for the brigade, a position which 
would place them in front in every battle, another tribute to their 
efficiency. They acknowledged the compliment, but did not much 
relish the situation. 

The latter part of June was clear and hot. The camp was un 
usually quiet until the arrival of the news from Virginia, which was 
received with enthusiastic cheers by the troops amid much excite 
ment. The official confirmation of the success of General Lee in 
defeating McClellanV army, was the occasion of firing salutes in every 
brigade of General Beauregard s army. As the guns pealed forth 
the tidings over the slumbering hills, the army grew wild with ex 
citement and joy. Everywhere success seemed crowning our efforts. 
At Vicksburg the enemy in vain attempted to open the blockade of 
the Mississippi. The opposing forces were confronting each other 
at Chattanooga, and the news from Northern Mississippi and Ar- 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 175 

kansas encouraging. It seemed as if the day of success was once 
more breaking, after the gloom of a long night of disaster. 

Colonel F. C. Armstrong received an appointment as Brigadier- 
General of Cavalry on the 6th of July. His loss to the regiment 
was a subject of general regret, although the men were glad to see 
their favorite commander thus elevated to a position for which he 
was eminently fitted and in which he would perform efficient service. 
In taking leave of the regiment he issued the following order : 



HEADQUARTERS THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY , J 
General Orders ) Camp near Priceville, Miss., July 6th, 1862. C 
No. 7. f 

Having been promoted and assigned to the command of a brigade 
of cavalry, the undesigned, with feelings of regret, relinquishes the 
command of the Third Louisiana Infantry. Well tried Veterans ! 
distinguished not only for their daring gallantry on the battle-field, 
but for their soldierly and military bearing on all occasions, and the 
alacrity and willingness with which they have always borne the 
many privations and hardships they have had to undergo. Fare 
well ! fellow soldiers ! and remember that I will ever feel proud that 
I was chosen to command the Veterans of Oak Hills and Elk Horn 1 
the pride of the Army of the West, the gallant Third Louisiana. 
F. C. ARMSTRONG, Brigadier- General. 

On the 15th of July about sixty privates left the regiment, being 
released from military service under the provisions of the first Con 
script Law of the Confederate Congress. This was another serious 
blow to the regiment, as they were deprived of the services of a 
number of their most steady, efficient and gallant men. About this 
period there was a general review of the division by General Price. 
The old veteran looked as fine and pleasant as ever, the geniality of 
his character shining forth in every lineament of his pleasant feat 
ures. He saluted the regiment in a marked manner as they inarched 
by him with firm and solid tread. A large number of ladies were 
present at this review, much to the astonishment, as well as pleasure, 
of our men. They had not seen any ladies for many weeks, and had 
begun to imagine that their existence was some strange phantasy of 
the brain, or, perhaps, connected with some strange dream ; or, as 
one remarked, connected with their existence " when they were on 
earth before." 

Reviews in July seemed the order of the day. A general one took 



176 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

place on the 24th, at which were present Generals Bragg, Hardee, 
Price, Lyttle, Hebert, Green, Maury, Phiffer, J. Perkins, jr., and 
other distinguished personages. 

Troops were continually departing for different points, until only 
the Army of the West were left near Tupelo, under command of 
General Price, who had charge of the department, comprising 
North Alabama, West Tennessee and Northern Mississippi. There 
was a fine bathing-place near our camp, which furnished the men 
with a great amount of amusement. One member of the regiment 
was drummed out for cowardice the execution of the sentence 
being witnessed by the men without regret, as they considered the 
punishment deserved. 

There was very little to occasion sport while in this camp, and 
hence they seized upon every little incident to indulge their wit 
ticisms and good humor. 

After the departure of Colonel Armstrong J. B. Gilmore became 
Colonel by promotion, S. D. Russell, Lieutenant-Colonel, and J. S. 
Richards, of Company II, Major. Colonel Gilmore was indefatig 
ableuntiring in drilling the regiment. He usually rode on these 
occasions a small sorrel poney, which was very lazy. He would give 
an order for some manoeuvre, and then " cluck" very energetically 
to his pony, using hands and heels in his endeavor to get him to 
the proper position as the men performed their evolutions. Hence, 
after these drills, you could hear all over camp many men shouting 
some order, followed by a sharp cluck ! cluck ! cluck ! as they imi 
tated the energetic manner of Colonel Gilmore. This pastime never 
failed to elicit shouts of laughter. 

On the 29th the camp near Priceville was abandoned, the troops 
moving four miles above Tupelo to a position occupied previously 
by a portion of General Bragg s troops. From this camp the regi 
ment moved in detachments to Saltillo, Miss., on the railroad, in 
close proximity to a spring, where General Andrew Jackson once 
camped with his troops during the second American war. As usual, 
the regiment was camped in an open field, skirted, and, in places, 
shaded with trees. This was a pleasant camp-ground, and water 
abundant, and fine for all purposes 

On the 4th of August orders were issued to be ready, at any mo 
ment, to move, in anticipation of the enemy s advance. 

The brigade, commanded by General Hebert, was composed en 
tirely of dismounted Texans, comprising the Third and Sixth 
Cavalry, and Whitfield s Legion, and the Third Louisiana. These 
Texans, gallant, brave, daring and dashing men, were devotedly 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 177 

attached to the Third Regiment in those ties which always bind 
brave men together. 

At Saltillo the rations were very scant and the men in a starving 
condition, not because there were no supplies to be had, but be 
cause they had failed to reach the Commissary-General. The Texans 
refused to do further duty unless properly fed, and there was great 
dissatisfaction in the Louisianian Regiment. Feed and clothe a 
soldier and he is always ready for anything. These things so neces 
sary to his health and comfort make up the sum of his existence. 
Deprive him of them and he is discontented, dissatisfied and pre 
pared to commit any kind of insubordination. The days were 
unusually hot and clear, flies, mosquitos and gnats in myriads, which, 
added to hunger, made the life at Saltillo anything but agreeable. 
However, provisions soon arrived, removing the chief cause of dis 
satisfaction. 

On the 9th General Armstrong visited the camp and was most 
enthusiastically welcomed. It seemed to rejoice the men exceed 
ingly to once more see his familiar features and learn something con 
cerning his numerous adventures as a cavalry officer. 

Here a system was instituted of excusing from guard-duty two 
men of the detail who had the cleanest guns. The arms were thus 
kept in splendid order burnished like a new silver dollar with 
out dirt enough about them to soil a clean cambric handkerchief. 
The arms of the guard every morning thus presented a splendid 
appearance. 

The weather during the whole month of August was clear and 
intensely hot, much to the discomfiture of the troops. It was too 
warm for any kind of sport or fun. A revival occurred here among 
the Missouri troops, and preaching was a nightly occurrence. The 
scene at one of these gatherings was very impressive. A huge 
shelter protected the assembly from the night dews. Rough seats 
made of logs, covered the space beneath this shelter. Stands, on 
which were built fires from pine-knots, shed u lurid light over the 
vast concourse. The hymns sung would rise in rich cadences, float 
ing away on the evening air in solemn, harmonious strains, followed 
by an earnest prayer and an impassioned, eloquent discourse. It was 
a strange spectacle to witness. These rough, bronzed soldiers, in 
ured to danger and hardships, making bloodshed the chief aim of 
their lives, exposed to the evil influences of a soldier s dissipated 
and reckless existence, thus striving to seek a " home not made with 
hands, eternal in the heavens." 

At Saltillo the " Owls" were very destructive, especially among 
8* 



178 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

the Arkansians, whose camps were but a short distance from the 
Louisianians. The usual morning greeting was " Hillo ! Arkansas, 
did the Owls catch any of yotfens last night. We ens is all here." 
The reply generally showed that some one had disappeared. Every 
soldier knows what being caught by the " Owls" means ; but for 
the information of the ignorant reader we state that this was a term 

applied to desertion 

Peaches were very abundant here, and the men enjoyed the treat 
exceedingly, becoming perfect gourmands in their appetites for this 
fine fruit. One day a mess, composed of four men, determined to 
have what soldiers termed a square meal." They purchased a 
bushel of peaches, which were duly prepared for cooking. After a 
diligent search, they procured a huge oven. Having flour and lard 
they next made a crisp crust, with which the pot was lined. Into 
this was put all the peaches, overlaid with another crust of dough, 
and properly baked. In due course of time a fragrant, really deli 
cious peach-cobler was ready to be devoured. Behold, then, these 
four men at their noon-day meal, with meat, bread and a bushel- 
cobler. It was devoured at a single sitting ; but the gourmands 
were unfit for duty the remainder of the day. Verily, soldiers have 
delicate appetites. 

THAT OWL. 

On the ever-memorable retreat from Corinth in 1862, we camped 
close by a mill not far from Baldwin, after a long and tedious day s 
march. Night set in, and with it a slight drizzling rain. The camp 
was gloomy indeed. Our poor fellows were tired after the day s 
toil, and, of course, wished a dry spot to lay their weary heads on. 
The Colonel had his tent stretched on the banks of the creek, and 
those who had no tents to shelter them from the inclemency of the 
night crowded into the Colonel s until it was u filled up." It was 
not many hours ere the whole camp was as still as death, save the 
solitary tramp of the sentinel as he marched back and forth on his 
beaten path, or changed the tiresome musket from shoulder to 
shoulder. About the " wee sma " hours of the morning one of those 
hoary-headed owls settled himself on a tree opposite the Colonel s 
tent, across the creek, and poured forth one of his most melodious 
midnight hymns. Any kind of noise was, of course, prohibited in 
camp after tattoo. 

The music of the big-eyed warbler disturbed the Colonel in his 
dreams, and, about half wake, he shouted : " Stop that noise, sir." 

The owl, not understanding such a peremptory order, sung forth 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 179 

one of his sweetest refrains. Before the last note had died away, 
the Colonel, in a stentorian voice that aroused everybody from his 
slumbers, shouted, " Stop that noise instantly, sir." 

Not being afraid of military law at midnight, the owl put forth 
his protest against the order of the Colonel in a higher key. By 
this time the Colonel was excited, and, in his loudest tones, called 
for the guard. The guard came rushing toward the tent. He was 
sitting straight up in bed. The guard rushed in almost out of 
breath " What s the matter, Colonel." " Arrest that man imme 
diately who is making that noise." The guard looked astounded. 
One of the boys who was sleeping in the tent with the Colonel 
understood the whole matter and quietly said : " Colonel, it is no 
thing but an owl." 

The Colonel dismissed the guard, laid down and went to sleep. 
From that day to this he never said " owl/ If any one is spoiling 
for a fight, let him go to Shreveport ; go to the Colonel s store and 
say owl just once. 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

THE ADVANCE. 

ON the last day of August there was a general review and muster 
of the troops. Before it was finished, orders were received to pre 
pare to march on the enemy. Six tent flies and one wagon allotted 
to every hundred men. There was the usual bustle and confusion 
attendant on breaking up camp. Soon the army was in motion 
northward once more, and reached Baldwin, Miss., that night. 
This place, which we had left only a few days previously, had been 
visited by the enemy ; the simoon-blast of war had swept over it 
and left only ruins behind. 

THE COLONEL S ARTILLERY. 

About two weeks previous to the battle of luka we encamped 
near Baldwin. Our regiment, with a section of artillery, was ordered 
on picket duty, about ten miles north of Baldwin, on the railroad. 
The regiment was under the command of Colonel Gilmore. The 
Colonel, on our arrival, ordered the regiment to camp in an old corn 
field, and also stationed the section of artillery in the same corn 
field. A little log-cabin across the road stood directly in range of 
these two guns. This little cabin was occupied by a widow lady 
and her three children. The widow was a beauty, and many of 
the regiment were lovers of the beautiful, and, of course, would 
hover around the cabin. Among those admirers was the Colonel. 
The fact was, the Colonel would rather have his right arm torn off 
at the shoulder than that any lady should suffer the least injury from 
any order of his. To prove this, the Colonel (the second or third 
morning after we arrived) went over to the cabin, when he explained 
the object of his mission in this wise : " Good morning, madam." 
Good morning, sir." " Madam, I came over this morning to state 
to you that I am here with my regiment on picket duty ; and also, 
madam, that my artillery is bearing directly on your front, and, if 
the enemy should come, I shall certainly bombard it." "Law me, 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 181 

Colonel, is there so much danger ?" " There is, madam. My bom 
bardments are terrible." " Sakes alive ! I will leave right away." 
It is needless to state that the Colonel left. 

Our advance-guard had a sharp skirmish with the enemy the day 
of our arrival at Baldwin, compelling them to fall back. 

The next morning the regiment moved three miles up the road, 
and encamped with one section of King s battery. The object of 
this move was to protect workmen engaged in repairing the de 
stroyed portions of the railroad previous to a general advance by 
the whole army. The men labored zealously at the new task as 
signed them. It seemed as if they were to learn every rough branch 
of industry while in the army. Dirt, roads, graves and welldig- 
ging, and now railroad building. At such labor they did not ap 
preciate the old aphorism, " Variety is the spice of life/ 

On the 6th of September the regiment moved three miles farther 
up, camping in an open field near the railroad, five miles from 
Boonville. The enemy were but a short distance in front. The 
First Brigade arrived to strengthen our position. The enemy were 
within three-quarters of a mile, but the men were cool and camp 
very quiet. The weather still continued very warm, the roads 
ankle-deep with dust. The nights were beautiful, the soft moon 
light bathing the earth with its flood of silvery rays. Yet the men 
failed to appreciate its loveliness, or feel the tender influences of its 
witching spell. 

On the 10th, the regiment broke up camp and moved back to 
Baldwin, carrying once more their knapsacks. The the next day 
the camp was rife with rumors of an active move against the enemy. 
The regiment took up the line of march very early, leading Hebert s 
brigade, which was in front of the army. After a hot, dusty march 
of fifteen miles, encamped in a valley watered by a babbling stream 
of clear, cool water. The army at this time were marching in an 
north-easterly direction from Baldwin. On the 12th, the army reached 
Bay Spring Mills ; General Armstrong was in advance with his dash 
ing brigade of cavalry, and in close pursuit of the retreating enemy. 
On the 13th, the regiment was in line at 3 A. M., and soon pushing 
rapidly forward, marching steadily until 5 p. M. The trains did not 
roach the regiment until very late at night. The tired and hungry 
soldiers had awaited their coming ere thinking of sleep. Having 
partaken of their meal of beef and corn-bread, they thought to rest- 
Vain delusion! Scarcely had they thrown themselves upon the 
ground, when, at 10 J- o clock at night, the drum beat the call to 
" fall in." Knapsacks were left behind, and another night-march 



182 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

commenced, with the expectation of soon- meeting the foe. The men 
were in good spirits, notwithstanding tired limbs and hunger, 

Amid the darkness of the night and the sombre shadows of the 
forest trees, the army moved forward in the direction of luka, where 
it was known the enemy were in force. When within one and a half 
miles of town, the anny was formed in column of brigades, and the 
Louisiana regiment sent forward. General Hebert rode up to Colonel 
Gilmore and said : " Great things are expected of you to-day." 

About sunrise, as the army approached this place, the news came 
that the foe had evacuated the town without a struggle, and General 
Armstrong was in possession. The men marched eagerly and rapidly 
onward, reaching luka about noon. The army captured about 
$200,000 worth of stores, consisting of arms, ammunition, and com 
missary supplies of every description, including such luxuries as 
coifee, tea, sugar, condensed milk, cheese, mackerel, canned fruit and 
preserves, brandy, lager beer, whisky, Claret and Catawba wines, 
etc. The ragged and half-starved soldiers feasted on " good things " 
for once, and had more than a " square meal." Among other things, 
the regiment found some hand-cars, which the men would push up 
the road, an up-hill grade, and, getting on them, come down at 
break-neck speed. luka is situated in a valley, on the Memphis 
and Charleston Railroad, and is quite a pretty place. It is noted for 
its fine mineral springs, and was a fashionable resort previous to the 
war. The people received the Southern troops with every demon 
stration of joy ; the ladies especially, of which there were large 
numbers residing here, and handsome ones at that. 

The soldiers feasted, frolicked and were in high glee and spirits 
at the sudden change in their condition. On the 15th they were on 
picket on the Byrneville road north of luka. On the next day the 
brigade was in line of battle on the Baldwin road south of luka, 
the first brigade occupying the position of the previous day. Ru 
mors prevailed that the enemy had received re-enforcements and were 
advancing to give battle. The regiment continued in line of battle 
until the 19th, when they returned to camp, to remain only a short 
time, being ordered out on the Bymeville road once more. While 
on this road, Sept. 19th, news arrived that the enemy, under com 
mand of General Rosecrans, was advancing on the Baldwin road. 
General Hebert received orders to proceed with his brigade at a 
double-quick to meet them. The command, at almost a full run for 
nearly three miles, hastened forward. Over the railroad, through 
luka, and out on the Baldwin or Bay Springs road ; when about a 
mile from luka, the brigade was formed into line of battle. Imme- 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 183 

diately in their front was a valley ; in fact, the whole country was a 
succession of valleys and hills of irregular formation, covered by a 
dense undergrowth. In a few moments the battle opened. Although 
greatly outnumbered, this brigade steadily drove back the enemy s 
line, and, gaining sight of a nine-gun battery from Cincinnati, O., 
charged it with desperate fury, notwithstanding it poured into their 
ranks a most destructive fire, the guns being heavily loaded with 
buck-shot. The fighting was of the most desperate character on 
both sides, the Confederates being opposed by the flower of Rose- 
crans s army, the early volunteers from the West, men accustomed to 
the use of arms, and of undoubted courage. For the third time 
during the war the Louisianians met the Fifth Iowa regiment, a stal 
wart body of men heavy infantry. They were nearly cut to pieces 
in this battle. At times both lines would stand and pour destruc 
tive volleys into each other s ranks ; then the Confederates would 
rush forward, with tremendous yells, invariably driving back the foe 
in their impetuous charge. The fight was mostly with small-arms. 
The battle continued until after dark, an incessant, prolonged roar 
of musketry. The captured guns were seized and run to the rear. 
The battle commenced a little after 4 o clock r. M., and the stubborn 
ness with which the Third Louisiana fought, is proven by the fact 
that, in less than three hours, out of two hundred and thirty-eight 
men who went into the fight, one hundred and fifteen were killed 
and wounded. Darkness put an end to the battle, and the men laid 
down on their arms in the full expectation of renewing it early in 
the morning. As the sable mantle of night fell upon the field of 
strife, thickly strewn with the dead, dying, and wounded of friend 
and foe, the First brigade arrived, with loud cheers. The loss in 
officers by the regiment was fearful. General Lyttle was killed, 
Colonel Whitfield wounded. Among the killed and wounded of 
the regiment were Colonel Gilmore, Adjutant Brigham, Captains 
Gentles, Kinney and Pierson, Lieutenants Irwin, Johnson, Trichel, 
Renwick, Hedrick and Ramora ; prisoners, Lieutenants Babin and 
Washburne. The principal part of the fighting was done by the 
Second brigade of Lyttle s division of Price s army, and General 
Hebert received merited praise for the masterly skill and gallant 
manner in which he led his brigade into action. It is unnecessary 
to state that the Louisiana regiment fully sustained its blood-earned 
reputation ; and this was by far the hardest-fought battle they had 
yet participated in, and the number of killed and wounded fully 
attest the truth of the statement, and the part they took in the affair. 
The astonishment of the men was indescribable when, early the 



184 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

morning after the battle, orders were received to evacuate the place. 
Soon the long line of infantry was filing through the streets of luka, 
leaving the dead and wounded in the hands of the enemy. We 
carried off all our trains and artillery, including the greater portion 
of the captured stores of luka. The trains had all been prepared 
to leave previous to the battle. The night after the- desperate 
struggle, the cars were heard all night bringing up re-enforcements, 
and probably General Price learned that the enemy were too strong 
to be successfully encountered. 

The following interesting and additional account of the battle is 
from the pen of a member of the regiment : 

" After General Herbert made disposition of his brigade for battle, 
the Third Louisiana being on the extreme left of the line, Colonel 
Gilmore ordered forward as skirmishers the left wing of his regiment. 
Company F, being on the right, came in contact with the enemy, 
and fired the first gun at luka. This little skirmish lasted about 
fifteen minutes, the enemy losing four or five men killed. I must 
state a circumstance that occurred during the affair. Two of the 
enemy took shelter behind a large tree directly in front of Company 
F. The tree, however, was not large enough to protect the two, one 
of whom was instantly killed by private Hudson ; the other begged 
for his life most piteously, which would undoubtedly have been 
granted him had he relied on the word of a rebel. He was ordered 
several times to come to the company and his life should be spared, 
but he was afraid to expose his person. During the conversation 
between him and the captain, private J. Jus, it seems, became rather 
restless, left his position in the line, and slipped around until he came 
in view of the Yankee, then raised his gun and shot him through 
the head, at the same time remarking, " Damned if I don t fetch 
him." The Federal proved to be a lieutenant. The skirmishers 
were soon after recalled, and had scarcely taken their position in the 
regiment when we heard the enemy s order to advance, in loud tones, 
"Forward guide centre, march!" Hardly had these words died 
away, when the same command, loud and clear, came ringing on our 
ears from our commanding officer. Colonel Gilmore immediately or 
dered forward Company K, Captain Gentles, as skirmishers. This 
company rapidly threw themselves in front of the regiment, and ad 
vanced double-quick up the hill, followed closely by the regiment. 
Directly in our front was one of those long, sloping hills peculiar to 
the country around luka. This hill-side was covered with large 
trees, with very little underbrush. The enemy s line soon appeared, 
and were immediately warmly received by the skirmishers, who 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 185 

nobly held their ground until the regiment came to their assistance. 
The fire immediately opened from both lines like a sudden clap of 
thunder, and continued without abatement for over two hours. At 
the commencement of the firing our boys dropped down on their 
knees, the best thing they could have done, as the greatest portion 
of the enemy s fire flew harmlessly over their heads, while their fire 
had telling effect on the enemy. The firing was fearful the smoke 
enveloped both lines, so that they became invisible to each other. 
The lines could be distinguished only by the flash of the guns. The 
evening was one of those damp, dull, cloudy ones, which caused the 
smoke to settle down about as high as a man s head. This terrible 
fire continued about half an hour, when the enemy were ordered to 
charge down the hill, but were so warmly received that they stag 
gered. Instantly our boys received the order to charge, and, with 
their old battle-yell, they rushed upon the foe and drove them from 
the hill. On the hill the regiment suffered. A new line of the enemy 
opened fire on them. One of our regiments in our rear, by some 
mistake, threw their missiles of death in among us ; this, indeed, 
was a terrible moment. 

Major Russell rode to this regiment and stated that they were 
firing on their friends. About this time the Colonel s horse was shot 
under him, and he was wounded in the shoulder. The Colonel, now 
on foot, ordered a charge down the hill, and led it in person. Here 
the fighting was desperate ; a number of our men were wounded, 
and a large number killed. 

Night quickly set in, the flashes of the opposing guns almost met, 
prisoners were taken and retaken, no one could distinguish friend 
from foe, the leaden hail flew in every direction. Still our boys 
pressed on. Our Colonel was wounded; also Adjutant J. Harvey 
Brigham, and his horse killed. Major Russell came near losing his 
life by giving orders to a company of the enemy, mistaking them for 
one of our own. Sergeant White captured the enemy s flag ; scarcely 
had he done so, when he was captured, was again re-captured, and 
finally captured. Our regiment was finally relieved by a Missouri 
brigade. We then marched back to where the battle first began, 
and slept on that bloody field that night. The Louisiana regiment 
never fought better, was well and easily handled, and were justly 
proud of the work so heroically performed in one of the hardest- 
fought battles of the war. 

Dr. Luke P. Blackburn, aid to General Price, who was with him 
at luka, made the following statement : 

" General Price was thrice ordered by General Bragg to move his 



186 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

army across the Tennessee Eiver at Eastport or luka. On Thursday 
morning, the llth, he moved his army of less than 14,000 men from 
Guntown toward luka. By rapid and forced marches he arrived 
within three miles of luka at daylight on Sunday morning. There 
he was informed by a courier from General Armstrong s command, 
whose cavalry had attacked the enemy on Saturday, that re-enforce 
ments were being sent from Burnsville. The men, being very much 
fatigued, were ordered to rest and sleep in line thirty minutes. Gen 
eral Price knowing that Captain Saunders, with his company of one 
hundred and twenty men, had possession of the road between luka 
and Burnsville, and having implicit confidence in that officer, he 
had no fear of re-enforcements from Corinth until he should have 
captured the forces at Burnsville and luka. The column was put in 
motion ; on reaching the edge of the town he was astonished to 
learn that the enemy, 2,000 strong, with 2,000 negroes, and a large 
train, had fled at 1 o clock the night previous. He took possession 
of the place. The enemy came up again on Monday in small force, 
but soon retreated. 

" Colonel Wirt Adams and Hieman s cavalry captured and burned 
a train of cars five miles from luka. There was no farther demon 
stration until Friday, when Colonel Ord sent a flag demanding the 
unconditional surrender of General Price s army, stating that the 
army of General Lee had been destroyed in Virginia, Longstreet and 
Hill, with their entire divisions, captured, that the war was now 
virtually closed, and, as he wished to prevent the useless shedding 
of blood, he demanded an unconditional surrender. That he (Gen 
eral Price) was completely surrounded by an overwhelming force, 
and could not escape. 

" General Price replied that whenever the independence of the 
Southern Confederacy was acknowledged, her rights respected, and 
the Vandal hordes of the North were driven from her soil, that then, 
and then only, would he and his army be willing to lay down their 
arms. 

" General Price, in obedience to orders from General Van Dorn, 
and being almost destitute of forage, unable to cross the Tennessee 
River, prevented from passing down toward Corinth by the unfav 
orable condition of the country, the enemy having possession of 
Yellow Creek, determined to fall back to Baldwin and there unite 
with General Van Dorn. 

" The order to fall back was issued Friday morning, at 9 o clock, 
when no one dreamed of an attack. On Friday evening, at 2 o clock, 
the enemy, in line of battle, approached our outpost. Heavy skir- 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 187 

mishing ensued. At 3 o clock General Price ordered up the Fourth 
Brigade. When they reached their position, they found the enemy 
in line of battle, holding a good position on a hill. The order was 
given to charge them, which charge drove the enemy back two hun 
dred yards, into a ditch formed by the road from Fulton to Eastport, 
and directly under their cannon, which were masked. General Price 
had now reached the field. The firing had almost ceased. General 
Hebert and Colonel Martin, commanding brigade, with Whitfield s 
Legion, being all the force in line. General Price ordered up Gregg s 
and Green s Brigades, to form on the left, charge the enemy, and 
press them down on General Maury s Division, he being on the right. 
Before the arrival of their brigades, General Price ascertained that 
the enemy were lying in the road sheltered from our artillery. They 
were firing but one gun, and that on our right. The gallant and la 
mented General Lyttle suggested that, as they seemed to have but one 
gun in position, if the line would move forward the battle would 
soon be won. The order was given ; our men emerged from the un 
derbrush in line. They were then met by as terrific a fire from 
masked batteries and concealed musketry as was ever encountered. 
But the invincible Third Louisiana, Third Tennessee, and Thirty- 
seventh Alabama stood like statuary. When the order to charge 
was given, they rushed headlong through this sheet of fire and lead, 
and drove the enemy from their guns, Whitfield s Legion pressing 
on the right ; the enemy would resist and fall back, until they were 
driven half a mile, losing nine guns. 

" It was now dark. Generals Green and Gregg arrived, but too 
late to enter the fight. One hour of daylight, and the entire Yankee 
Division would have been captured. We held the field all night, 
brought in the wounded, and evacuated the place in accordance with 
the order issued in the morning. Our loss in killed, wounded, and 
missing, 482. That of the enemy, over 800. General Price brought 
off his entire train and captured stores. General Maury covered the 
retreat. General Lyttle fell while conversing with General Price." 

INCIDENTS. GETTING THE TRAINS IN MOTION. 

As the enemy held the Baldwin road, the retreat was conducted on 
a road east of it, known as the Fulton road. There was some con 
fusion in starting. General Price came riding up among the team 
sters furious with anger. He was dressed in a many-colored shirt, 
well known by every soldier in the army as the dress he assumed 
when there was work to be done. A slouched hat covered his head, 
and a sabre was buckled around his portly person. We never re- 



188 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

member to have heard General Price swear, only on this occasion, 
and he was not choice in his language at this time. He ordered the 
teamsters to drive on, adding, "If one of you stops, I ll hang you, by 
G el." The trains went out of luka at a full run, the teams being 
urged to their utmost speed. When the loads became too heavy, 
clothing, tents, blankets, and bundles were thrown out on the road 
side. If a wagon broke down, the mules were unhitched and a torch 
applied to the useless vehicle. There was no time to stop or think 
of saving the contents of these elisabled wagons. 

GENERAL S. PRICE. 

This incident of General Price was no true index to his character. 
An incident that occurred at Elk Horn was more indicative of his 
real disposition. When the retreat commenced, the Author, being 
sick, obtained a seat on the caisson of a battery. Immediately in 
the rear of this battery was General Price and staif, with a portion 
of General McCulloch s staff. As the retreating column passed 
along the road, it overtook a soldier badly wounded in the leg, who 
was limping along, regardless of his excruciating agony, in his en 
deavors to escape the foe. He was observed by General Price, who 
halted the battery, and thus addressed the man: "What is the 
matter, my good fellow ?" " I am shot in the leg, General," was the 
reply. " Here, my man, get up on one of these guns. I ll lose every 
piece of artillery in the army but what I save my men." It was a 
noble action, showing General Price s true character, his love for the 
men of his army, and attention to their wants and comfort. His 
fatherly kindness and almost womanly tenderness of heart, evinced 
in just such incidents, were the foundation of the love which his 
soldiers felt for him. 

THE PROXIMITY OF THE FORCES. 

So close were the lines to each other at the termination of the 
battle, that the opposing forces unknowingly walked into each 
other s lines and were forcibly seized and taken prisoners, in many 
instances resulting in hair-breadth escape, with the loss only of arms. 

THE LOSS OF THE FLAG. 

In the battle of luka, Drum-major Patterson carried the colors of 
the regiment. During the progress of the battle he advanced in 
front of the regiment too far, discovering which, he began to fall 
back to his position in the line. The movement was observed by 
Lieutenant U. Babin, of Company A, who imagined R. Patterson 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 189 

was retreating with the colors. Rushing forward, the Lieutenant 
seized the colors, shouting, " Follow me, boys !* and ran rashly into 
the midst of the enemy s line. He was captured, with the colors, by 
the foe. It was one of those deeds of reckless bravery and rash 
daring which men often commit in the excitement of battle. No 
one ever questioned the drum-major s bravery, for he had exhibited 
already a strength of nerve beyond questioning. Lieutenant Babin 
exhibited a reckless disregard to danger, worthy a better fate than 
that which befell him. A story was told about this flag worthy of 
note. After its capture, an officer of the Federals gave it to an or 
derly, with instructions to convey it to General Rosecrans s headquar 
ters. While attempting to execute this mission he was killed; and 
the next morning these beautiful colors were found on the field of 
battle, amid the dead and wounded, beside the cold and silent form 
of the Federal soldier. The regiment felt bitterly the loss of their 
flag, as only brave men can feel such a misfortune. 



CHATTER XXIV. 

THE RETREAT. 

ON the 20th of September, the army retreated twenty-seven miles, 
closely pursued by the Federals. In the early part of the day our 
forces in the rear were much harassed by the enemy s cavalry, but a 
well planned and executed ambush at the end of a lane, resulting 
in fearful slaughter, deterred them from pressing the pursuit, and 
by night it had ceased altogether. Early the next morning the army 
was back at Bay Springs. The bridge across the stream gave way 
as the last of the train was crossing it, causing the loss of one wagon, 
which was precipitated on the rocks below. The damage, however, 
was soon repaired. The retreat continued on the 21st and 22d, and 
on the 23d the regiment reached its old camping ground at Bald 
win. Too much praise cannot be bestowed on Mrs. Belcher, an 
estimable lady of Baldwin, and other patriotic and kind country 
women, for their attention to the wounded of the command. Colo 
nel Whitfield, of the Texas Legion, Adjutant J. H. Brigham, and 
others, were received into her dwelling and nursed as if they were 
brothers and not strangers. It was but the manifestation of the pa 
triotic devotion of our fair ladies for the cause which their friends 
and relatives had espoused. A devotion universal, as well as un 
paralleled in the annals of history. The Louisiana Regiment reached 
Baldwin with two hundred and seventy-five men, all told. 

The troops rested but two days, when orders were issued to cook 
two days rations and prepare to march. 

On the 26th, a pleasant but cloudy morning, the army was once 
more in motion, this time proceeding westward. Owing to the 
roughness and hilly nature of the road, but eight miles were marched 
on the first day. 

On the 27th the army marched fifteen miles, and encamped five 
miles from Ripley, Miss. The army was visited here by heavy rains, 
much to the discomfiture of the men. 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 191 

On the 29th the regiment marched into Ripley and encamped. 
This is a small place-, situated in a level plat of ground, and dis 
tinguished for no particular beauty, either of location or buildings. 

On the 30th the march was resumed, the army proceeding thirteen 
miles, the weather being very warm, and encamped near a spring of 
fine water, which had been veiy scarce on the road. Passing 
through a small place called Ruttsville, a large number of ladies 
collected on the road-side to see the troops. A great many sharp 
witticisms passed between this fair assembly and the tired troops. 
Apples, grapes and peaches were abundant along the line of inarch 
delicacies which the men made the most of, and greatly enjoyed. 

On the 1st of October the regiment proceeded fifteen miles, and 
encamped within one mile of Pocahontas, forming a junction with 
the .forces under Major-General Earl Van Dora. The regiment 
encamped in an old corn-field, without shelter or protection of any 
kind. 

The next day the army was once more in motion, leaving their 
trains behind, to camp between the Tuscumbia and Hatchie roads, 
prepared to move on either as circumstances might determine. A 
demonstration was made towards Bolivar, where the enemy were 
intrenched. They burned the bridge over the Hatchie, in front of 
our advancing troops. It was speedly rebuilt, and the army pushed 
rapidly forward toward Corinth, their true destination and point 
of attack. The men remembered the fortifications around this in 
trenched position, strengthened under the energetic labors of the 
enemy, and protected by heavy abattis of felled timber, and their 
hearts misgave then as to the final result when it was known where 
they were going into battle. 

On the 3d of October, as the reveille sounded, the roar of artillery 
echoed over the land, disturbing the silence of the morning air, in 
dicating that the advance-guard had commenced the attack on 
Corinth. It was not long before General Hebert s brigade, led by 
the remnant of the Third Regiment, were in motion, making a 
forced march, reaching Corinth about 4 p. M. On every side were 
beheld evidences of the fierce conflict, in which the Southern troops 
had thus far been victorious. General Hebert s Brigade was held 
as a reserve. At night the men laid down on their arms, and soon 
the quietude and silence of the gloom brooded over the armed hosts 
of the two armies. 

The troops had achieved wonders, charging the enemy s breast 
works over the fallen timber with desperate valor, driving them 
from their intrenchments, and capturing several pieces of artillery. 



192 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

The success achieved was dearly bought, by the loss of many valu 
able officers and hundreds of brave men. 

At daylight, on the morning of the 4th, the regiment was aroused 
from its slumber. The brigade was first marched to the right of 
the railroad, Company K, of Third Louisiana, being sent forward 
as skirmishers. After the lapse of an hour the brigade was marched 
back, and formed in line of battle to the left of Corinth. A charge 
was made over a succession of small hills, defended with artillery, 
supported by infantry. The men gallantly rushed on the first line 
with loud cheers, under a scathing fire, and drove it back. By 
this time so many had fallen, that no further progress could be made 
against the overwhelming forces of the enemy. It would have been 
madness to have made the attempt, and the brigade was compelled 
to retreat. The regiment lost about thirty killed and wounded, 
being about one-third of the number in the fight. The right of the 
army succeeded in penetrating into Corinth, and even planted the 
Confederate flag on the Tishimingo Hotel. The depletion in the 
ranks of the different regiments was Jamentable. The forced 
marches, the terrible hot weather, want of food, and need of rest, so 
completely exhausted the troops that large numbers of them did not 
enter the fight, having failed to reach their commands. As the 
regiment hastened from the field of battle, the remnant was formed 
into companies, and the retreat commenced, marching ten miles 
ere halting. Among the wounded were Colonel Russell, Lieutenant 
Williams, Company K, and Lieutenant B. Morse, Company D. 

The army had fought with a desperation and valor unequaled 
unprecedented in the annals of warfare only to leave hundreds of 
brave men stiffening corpses on the field of battle, sleeping their 
long, last sleep beneath the frowning muzzles of the enemy s bat 
teries. 

The annexed official reports of Generals Van Dora and Price furnish 
full accounts of the fearful struggle around and in this stronghold. 

We saw, on the 4th, an instance of heroism seldom witnessed, 
even in the army. A lieutenant of the Thirty-seventh Alabama had 
his arm broken badly in the first day s fight, yet gallantly led his 
company all day with it in that condition. At night it was ampu 
tated. The next day, after marching twenty miles, he passed the 
spot where the trains were encamped, whistling * Dixie," and look 
ing as calm and undisturbed as if nothing had occurred to ruffle his 
mind or cause bodily pain. The empty sleeve, hanging loosely by 
his side, united with his quiet exterior, spoke volumes for his forti 
tude in enduring the agony of excrutiating physical torture. 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 193 

Sunday, October 5th, the army was once more on the retreat. It 
was a bright and beautiful Sabbath-day, but its holy loveliness was 
marred by the bloody features of grim-yisaged war. Guns were 
bellowing forth their hoarse thunder in front and rear in front, 
where the enemy disputed the passage across the Halchie ; in the 
rear, where General Lovell s Division heroically held at bay the pur 
suing foe, gallantly covering and protecting the retreating army. 
A very sharp fight took place at Hatchie Bridge, demonstrating the 
fact that it would be impossible to retreat by the same route on 
which the army had advanced. The only avenue of escape lay in 
the direction of Bone Yard road. The sun sank beneath the horizon 
on the night of the 5th amid the thunder of guns on flank and 
rear. All night long, in the darkness and gloom, both of nature 
and spirit, the retreat continued, the army succeeding in crossing 
the Hatchie over a temporary bridge hastily constructed on an old 
dam at Crumb s Mills. The troops halted not until within five miles 
of Ripley, when they began to feel and realize that they had really 
escaped from a perilous position. They had marched twenty con 
secutive hours without halting, and were nearly famished with 
hunger. 

On this retreat, lost thirteen wagons, which, overturning and 
breaking clown, were destroyed. On the 6th and 7th the retreat still 
continued, the enemy continually pressing and harassing the rear. 
Large numbers of the men had straggled off in small squads, making 
their way toward Holly Springs, the destination of the army. They 
were worn out with fatigue, sadly depressed, almost demoralized. 
On the 8th, passed through Roxbury, marching rapidly on the Oxford 
road. A halt was made for a short time at a place called Hickory 
Flats, and then pushed on, camping late at night, and up long before 
daylight, only to resume the retreat. On the 9th, passed through 
Connersville, and across the Tallahatchie. Thus, day after day, the 
retreat continued, in sunshine and storm, heat and cold, until Holly 
Springs was reached on the llth, where the scattered forces rapidly 
concentrated and were reorganized. The Third Regiment was in a 
terrible condition. Worn out with fatigue, sick, ragged, filthy, and 
covered with vermin, it was not strange that even their brave spirits 
should give way under the accumulated disasters, sufferings and 
hardships which had so radidly befallen them. Human endurance 
is not composed of cast-steel, and they felt, as well they might, de 
pressed in spirits, disheartened in mind, prostrated in body. 

Hebert s Brigade was detached from Price s army at Holly Springs. 
The regiment was encamped in an open field east of the town, 
9 



194 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

skirted by woods. The country is billy, an alternate succession of 
ridges and valleys, near this place. Previous to the war, Holly 
Springs, Miss., must have been a beautiful city, but now sadly marred 
by the desolating scourge of war. Troops rapidly concentrated at 
this point for a last and final struggle. 

Major Tunnard once more visited the regiment on the 12th. When 
he saw the deplorable, pitiable condition of the remnant of that 
gallant band of men whom he had left but a few months previously 
in high spirits and health, and strong in numbers, unbidden tears 
dimmed his eyes, and strong emotion filled his soul and choked his 
voice, as he returned the warm greeting of his old comrades. 

REPORT OF MAJOR-GENERAL EARL VAN DORN. 

HEADQUARTERS ARMY OF WEST TENNESSEE,/ 
Holly Springs, Miss., Oct. 20, 1862. \ 

GENERAL, I have the honor to make the following report of the 
battle of Corinth : 

Having established batteries at Port Hudson, secured the mouth 
of the Red River and navigation of the Mississippi River to Vicks- 
burg, I turned my especial attention to affairs on the Northern por 
tion of my district. 

On the 30th day of August, I received a dispatch from General 
Bragg, informing me that he was about to march into Kentucky, 
and would leave to General Price and myself West Tennessee. 

On the 4th day of September, I received a communication from 
General Price, in which was inclosed a copy of the dispatch from 
General Bragg, above named, making an offer to co-operate with me. 
At this time General Breckenridge was operating on the Mississippi 
River, between Baton Rouge and Port Hudson, with all the avail 
able force I had for the field, therefore I could not accept General 
Price s proposition. Upon the return, however, of General Brecken 
ridge, I immediately addressed General Price, giving my views in 
full in regard to the campaign in West Tennessee, and stating that I 
was then ready to join him with all my troops. 

In the meantime, orders were received by him from General Bragg 
to follow Rosecrans across the Tennessee River, into Middle Ten 
nessee, whither it was then supposed he had gone. Upon the receipt 
of this intelligence, I felt at once that all my hopes of accomplishing 
anything in West Tennessee with my small force was marred. I 
nevertheless moved up to Davis s Mills, a few miles from Grand Junc 
tion, Tenn., with the intention of defending my district to the best 
of my ability, and to make a demonstration in favor of General 



A SOUTHERN RECORD. 195 

Price, to which latter end, also, I marched my whole command, on 
the 20th day of September, to within seven miles of Bolivar, driving 
three brigades of the enemy back to that place, and forcing the 
return from Corinth of one division (Ross s) which had been sent 
there to strengthen Grant s army. 

General Price, in obedience to his orders, marched in the direction 
of luka, to cross the Tennessee, but was not long in discovering that 
Rosecrans had not crossed that stream. This officer, in connection 
with Grant, attacked him on the 19th day of September, and com 
pelled him to fall back to Baldwin, on the Mobile and Ohio Railroad. 
On the 25th day of the same month, I received a dispatch by courier, 
from General Price, stating that he was at Baldwin, and was then 
ready to join me with his forces in an attack on Corinth, as had 
been previously suggested by me. We met at Ripley on the 28th 
of September, according to agreement, and marched the next morn 
ing toward Pocahontas, which place we reached on the 1st of October. 
From all the information which I could obtain, the following was the 
" situation " of the Federal army at that time : Sherman at Mem 
phis, with about 6,000 men ; Hurlburt, afterward Ord, at Bolivar, 
with 8,000 ; Grant (headquarters at Jackson), with about 3,000 ; 
Rosecrans at Corinth, with about 15,000 ; together with the following 
outposts, viz. : Rienzi, 2,500 ; Burnsville, Jacinto and luka, about 
6,000. At important bridges, and on garrison duty, about two or 
three thousand, making in the aggregate about 42,000 men in West 
Tennessee. Memphis, Jackson, Bolivar and Corinth are in the arc 
of a circle, the chord of which, from Memphis to Corinth, makes 
an angle with a due east line about fifteen degrees south. Bolivar is 
about equi distant from Memphis, and Corinth somewhat nearer the 
.latter, and is at the intersection of the Hatchie River, and the Missis 
sippi Central and Ohio Railroad. Corinth is the strongest, but most 
salient point. 

Surveying the whole field of operations before me calmly and dis. 
passionately, the conclusion forced itself irresistibly upon my mind, 
that the taking of Corinth was a condition precedental to the accom 
plishment of anything in West Tennessee. To take Memphis would 
be to destroy an immense amount of property, without any adequate 
military advantage, even admitting that it could be held, without 
heavy guns, against the enemy s guns and mortar-boats. The line 
of fortifications around Bolivar is intersected by the Hatchie River, 
rendering it impossible to take the place by quick assault, and re-en 
forcements could be thrown in from Jackson by railroad ; and, situated 
as it is, in the angle of the three fortified places, an advance upon it 



196 A SOUTHERN EECORD. 

would expose both my flanks and rear to an attack from Memphis 
and Corinth. 

It was clear to my mind that if a successful attack could be made 
upon Corinth from the west and north-west, the forces there driven 
back on the Tennessee and cut off, Bolivar and Jackson would easily 
fall, and then, upon the arrival of exchanged prisoners of war, West 
Tennessee would soon be in our possession, and communication with 
Bragg effected through Middle Tennessee. The attack on Corinth 
was a military necessity requiring prompt and vigorous action. 

It was being strengthened daily under that astute soldier, General 
Rosecrans; convalescents were returning to fill his ranks ; new levies 
were arriving to increase his brigades, and fortifications were being 
constructed at new points ; and it was very evident that, unless a sud 
den and vigorous blow could be struck there at once, no hope could 
be entertained of driving the enemy from a base of operations so 
convenient ; that in the event of misfortune to Bragg in Kentucky, 
the whole valley of the Mississippi would be lost to us before winter. 
To have awaited for the arrival, arming, clothing and organization 
of the exchanged prisoners, would have been to wait for the enemy 
to strengthen themselves more than we could possibly do. With 
these reflections, and after mature deliberation, I determined to 
attempt Corinth. I had a reasonable hope of success. Field returns 
at Ripley showed my strength to be about 22,000 men. Rosecrans, 
at Corinth, had about 15,000, with about 8,000 additional at outposts 
from twelve to fifteen miles distant. I might surprise him, and carry 
the place before these troops could be brought in. I therefore 
marched toward Pocahontas, threatening Bolivar, then turned sud 
denly across the Hatchie and Tuscumbia, and attacked Corinth with 
out hesitation, and did surprise that place before the outpost garri 
sons were called in. It was necessary that this blow should be 
sudden and decisive, and, if unsuccessful, that I should withdraw 
rapidly from the position between the armies of Ord and Rosecrans. 
The troops were in fine spirits, and the whole army of West Tennes 
see seemed eager to emulate the armies of the Potomac and of 
Kentucky. No army ever marched to battle with prouder steps, 
hopeful countenances, or with more courage, than marched the army 
of Tennessee out of Ripley, on the morning of the 29th of September, 
on its way to Corinth. 

Fully alive to the responsibility of my position as commander of 
the army, and after mature and deliberate reflection, the march was 
ordered. The ground was well-known to me, and required no study 
to determine where to make the attack. The bridge over the Hatchie 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 197 

was soon reconstructed, and the army crossed at 4 o clock A. M. on 
the 3d of October. Adams s brigade of cavalry was left to guard 
this approach to our rear, and to protect the train which was parked 
between the Hatchie and Tuscumbia. Colonel Hawkins s regiment 
of infantry, and Captain Dawson s battery of artillery, were also left 
in the Bone Yard road, in easy supporting distance of the bridge. 
The army bivouacked at Chewalla, after the driving in of some 
pickets from that vicinity by Armstrong s and Jackson s cavalry. 
This point is about ten miles from Corinth. 

At daybreak on the 3d the march was resumed, the precaution 
having been taken to cut the railroad between Corinth and Jackson 
by a squadron of Armstrong s cavalry. Lovell s division, in front, 
kept the south side of the Memphis and Charleston Railroad. Price, 
after marching on the same road about five miles, turned to the left 
and formed line of battle in front of the outer line of intrenchments, 
and about three miles from Corinth. Lovell formed line of battle, 
after some heavy skirmishing (having to construct a passage across 
the dry bed of Indian Creek for his artillery, under fire), on the right 
and in front of the same line of intrenchments. 

The following was the first order of battle : The three brigades 
of Lovell s Division, Yillepegue s, Bowen s and Rust s in line, with 
reserve in rear of each ; Jackson s cavalry brigade on the right, in 
echelon. The left flank of the division on the Charleston Railroad ; 
Price s Corps on the left, with the right flank resting on the same 
road ; Maury s Division on the right, with Moore s and Phifler s Bri 
gades in line ; Heberfs Division on the left, with Gates s and Martin s 
Brigades in line ; Colbert s in reserve ; Armstrong s Cavalry Brigades 
on the extreme left, somewhat detached and out of view. Hebert s 
left was masked behind a timbered ridge, with orders not to bring it 
into action until the last moment. This was done in hopes of 
inducing the enemy to weaken his right by re-enforcing his centre 
and left, where the attack was first to be niade^ that his right might 
be forced. 

At 10 o clock all skirmishers were driven into the intrenchments, 
and the two armies were in line of battle confronting each other in 
force. A belt of fallen timber, or abattis, about four hundred yards 
in width, extended along the whole line of intrenchments. This 
was to be crossed. The attack commenced on the right, by Lovell s 
Division, and extended gradually to the left; and by half-past 10 
o clock the whole line of outer works was earned, several pieces of 
artillery being taken. The enemy made several ineffectual efforts to 
hold their ground, forming line of battle at advantageous points, 



198 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

and resisting obstinately our advance to the second line of detached 
works. I had been in hopes that one day s operations would end the 
contest, and decide who should be the victors on this bloody field ; 
but a ten miles march over a parched country, on dusty roads, with 
out water, getting into line of battle in forests with undergrowth, 
and the more than usual activity and determined courage displayed 
by the enemy, commanded by one of the ablest generals of the 
United States army, who threw all possible obstacles in our way that 
an active mind could suggest, prolonged the battle, until I saw, with 
regret, the sun sink behind the horizon as the last shot of our sharp 
shooters followed the retreating foe into their innermost lines. One 
hour more of daylight, and victory would have soothed our grief 
for the loss of the gallant dead who sleep on that lost but not dis 
honored field. The army slept on their arms, within six hundred 
yards of Corinth, victorious so far. During the night, three batteries 
were ordered to take position on the ridge overlooking the town 
from the West, just where the hills dip into the flat extending into 
the railroad depot, with instructions to open on the town at 4 o clock 
A. M. Hebert, on the left, was ordered to mass a portion of his divi 
sion on his left ; to put Cabell s Brigade in echelon on the left ; also 
(Cabell s Brigade being detached from Maury s Division for this pur 
pose), to move Armstrong s Cavalry Brigade across the Mobile and 
Ohio Railroad, and, if possible, to get some of his artillery in position 
across the road. In this order of battle he was directed to attack 
at daybreak with his whole force, swinging his left flank in toward 
Corinth, and advance down the Purdy Ridge. Lovell, on the extreme 
right, with two of his brigades in line of battle and one in reserve, 
with Jackson s Cavalry on the extreme right on College Hill, his left 
resting on the Memphis and Charleston Railroad, was ordered to 
await in this order, or to feel his way along slowly with his sharp 
shooters, until Hebert was heavily engaged with the enemy on the 
left. He was then to move rapidly to the assault, and force his right 
inward across the low grounds south-west of the town. The centre, 
under Maury, was to move quickly at the same time to the front, and 
directly at Corinth. Jackson was directed to burn the railroad 
bridge over the Tuscumbia during the night. Daylight came, and 
there was no attack on the left. A staff officer was sent to Hebert 
to inquire the cause. That officer could not be found. Another 
messenger was sent, and a third, and, about 7 o clock, Hebert came 
to my headquarters and reported sick. General Price then put 
General Green in command of the left wing, and it was 8 o clock 
before the proper dispositions for the attack at this point were made. 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 199 

In the meantime the troops of Maury s left became engaged with 
the enemy s sharpshooters, and the battle was brought on and ex 
tended along the whole centre and left wing ; and I regretted to 
observe that my whole plan of attack was, by this unfortunate delay, 
disarranged. One brigade after another went gallantly into action, 
and, pushing forward through direct and cross-fire, over every obstacle, 
reached Corinth and planted their colors on the last stronghold of 
the enemy. A hand-to-hand contest was being enacted in the very 
yard of General Rosecrans s headquarters, and in the streets of tbe 
town. The heavy guns were silenced, and all seemed about to be 
ended, when a heavy fire from fresh troops from luka, Burnsville 
and Rienzi, that had succeeded in reaching Corinth in time, poured 
into our thinned ranks. Exhausted from loss of sleep, wearied from 
hard marching and fighting, companies in regiments without officers, 
our troops (let no one censure them) gave way. The day was lost ! 
Lovell s Division was at this time advancing, pursuant to orders, and 
was on the point of assaulting the works, when he received my 
orders to throw one of his brigades, Yillepigue s, rapidly to the 
centre, to cover the broken ranks thrown back from Corinth, and to 
prevent a sortie. 

He then moved his whole division to the left, and was soon after 
wards ordered to move slowly back and take position on Indian 
Creek, and prevent the enemy from turning our flank. The centre 
and left were withdrawn on the same road on which they approached, 
and being somewhat in confusion on account of loss of officers, 
fatigue, thirst, want of sleep, thinned ranks, and the nature of the 
ground, Villepigue s Brigade was brought in opportunely, and cover 
ed the road to Chewalla. 

Lovell came in the rear of the whole army, and all bivouacked 
again at Chewalla. No enemy disturbed the sleep of the weary- 
troops. During the night I had a bridge constructed over the Tus- 
cumbia, and sent Armstrong s and Jackson s cavalry, with a battery 
of artillery, to seize and hold Rienzi until the army came up, intend 
ing to march to and hold that point ; but after consultation with 
General Price, who represented his troops to be somewhat disor 
ganized, it was deemed advisable to return by the same road that 
we came, and fall back toward Ripley and Oxford. Anticipating 
that the Bolivar force would move out and dispute my passage across 
the Hatchie bridge, I pushed rapidly on to that point, in hopes of 
reaching and securing the bridge before their arrival ; but I soon 
learned, by couriers from Wirt Adams, that I would be too late. I 
nevertheless pushed on, with the intention of engaging the enemy 



200 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

until I could get my train and reserved artillery imparked and on 
the Bone Yard road to the crossing at Crumb s Mills. (This road 
branches off south from tho State-line road, about two and a half 
miles west of the Tuscumbia bridge, running south, or up the Hatchie.) 
No contest of long duration could be made here, as it was evident 
that the army of Corinth would soon make its appearance on our 
right flank and rear. The trains and reserve artillery were therefore 
immediately ordered on the Bone Yard road, and orders were sent 
to Armstrong and Jackson to change their direction, and cover the 
front and flank of the trains until they crossed the Hatchie, and then 
to cover them in front until they were on the Ripley road. The 
enemy were then engaged beyond the Hatchie bridge by small frag 
ments of Maury s Division as they could be hastened up, and were 
kept in check sufficiently long to get everything off. General Ord 
commanded the forces of the enemy, and succeeded in getting into 
position before any number of our travel-worn troops could get into 
line of battle. It is not surprising, therefore, that they were driven 
back across the bridge ; but they maintained their position on the 
hills overlooking it, under their gallant leader, General Price, until 
orders were sent to fall back, and take up their line of inarch on the 
Bone Yard road, in rear of the whole train. At one time, fearing 
that the enemy, superior in numbers to the whole force I had in ad 
vance of the train, would drive us back, I ordered General Lovell to 
leave one brigade to guard the reserve to Tuscumbia bridge, and to 
push forward with the other two to the front. This order was 
quickly executed, and very soon the splendid brigades of Rust and 
Villepique made their appearance close at hand. 

The army corps of General Price was withdrawn, and Villepigue 
filed in and took position as rear-guard to the army against Ord s 
forces. Rust was ordered forward to report to General Price, who 
was directed to cross the Hatchie at Crumb s Mills and take position 
to cover the crossing of the teams and artillery. Bowen was left at 
Tuscumbia bridge, as rear-guard against the advance of Rosecrans 
from Corinth, with orders to defend that bridge until the trains 
were embarked and on the road ; then to cross the bridge and burn 
it, and to join Villepigue at the junction of the roads. In the exe 
cution of this order, and while in position near the bridge, the head 
of the Corinth army made its appearance and engaged him, but was 
repulsed with heavy loss, and in a manner that reflected great credit 
on General Bowen and his brigade. The army was not again 
molested on its retreat to Ripley, nor on its march to this place. The 
following was found to be our loss in the several conflicts with the 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 201 

enemy, and on the march to and from Corinth, viz. : killed, 594 ; 
wounded, 2,162 ; prisoners and missing, 2,102. One piece of artillery 
was driven in the night by a mistake into the enemy s lines and cap 
tured. Four pieces wore taken at the Hatchie bridge, the horses 
being shot. Nine wagons were upset and abandoned by the team 
sters on the night s march to Crumb s Mills. Some baggage was 
thrown out of the wagons, not amounting to any serious loss. 

Two pieces of artillery were captured from the enemy at Corinth 
by Lovell s Division, one of which was brought off. Five pieces 
were also taken by General Price s Corps, two of which were brought 
off. Thus making a loss to us of only two pieces. The enemy s 
loss in killed and wounded, by their own accounts, was over 3,000. 
We took over three hundred prisoners ; most of the prisoners taken 
from us were the stragglers from the army on the retreat. 

The retreat from Corinth was not a rout, as it has been industri 
ously represented by the enemy, and by the cowardly deserters from 
the army. The Division of General Lovell formed line of battle, 
facing the rear, on several occasions, when it was reported the enemy 
was near ; but not a gun was fired after the army retired from the 
Hatchie and Tuscumbia bridges. Nor did the enemy follow, except 
at a respectful distance. Although many officers and soldiers, who 
distinguished themselves in the battle of Corinth and in the affair 
of Hatchie bridge, came under my personal observation, I will not 
mention them to the exclusion of others who may have been equally 
deserving, but who did not fall under my own eye ; I have deemed it 
best to call on the different commanders to furnish me with a special 
report, and a list of the names of the officers and soldiers of their 
respective commands who deserve special mention. These lists and 
special reports I will take pleasure in forwarding, together with one 
of my own, when completed-; and I respectfully request that they 
be appended as part of my report. I cannot refrain, however, from 
mentioning here the conspicuous gallantry of a noble Texan, whose 
deeds at Corinth are the constant theme of both friends and foes. 
As long as courage, manliness, fortitude, patriotism, and honor exist, 
the name of Rogers will be revered and honored among men. He 
fell in the front of the battle and died beneath the colors of his 
regiment, in the very centre of the enemy s stronghold. He sleeps, 
and glory is his sentence ! 

The attempt at Corinth has failed, and, in consequence, I am con 
demned, and have been superseded in my command. In my zeal for 
my country I have ventured too far with inadequate means, and I 
bow to the opinion of the people whom I serve. Yet I feel, if the 
9* 



202 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

spirits of the gallant dead who now lie beneath the batteries of 
Corinth could see and judge the motives of men, they do not rebuke 
me, for there is no sting in my conscience. Nor does retrospection 
admonish me of error, or of a disregard of their valued lives. 
Very respectfully, sir, I am 

Your obedient servant, 

EAEL VAN DORN, Major- General. 

REPORT OP MAJOR-GENERAL PRICE OF THE BATTLES OF CORINTH 
AND DAVIS S BRIDGE. 

HEAD-QUARTERS, ARMY OF THE WEST,) 
Holly Springs, October 20^, 1862. f 

MAJOR : I have the honor to submit the following report of the 
operations of this army connected with the several engagements at 
Corinth and Davis s bridge, of the 3d, 4th, and 5th instants. Having 
arranged with Major-General Van Dorn to unite my forces with his 
for active operations, I joined him at Ripley, on the 27th ult. My 
force at this time consisted of effective infantry, 10,498 ; effective 
cavalry, 2,437 ; effective artillery, 928 men, and forty-four guns, in 
cluding two 24-pounder howitzers, and four rifled pieces of three 
and five-eighths calibre. The infantry was divided into two Di 
visions, commanded by Brigadier-Generals Maury and Hebert. 
Maury s Division consisted of three brigades, commanded by Brig 
adier-General Green and Colonels Martin Gates and Colbert. The 
cavalry, except such companies as were on detached service, was 
under command of Acting Brigadier-General Armstrong. The ar 
tillery was appointed as follows : with Maury s Division, Hoxton s 
Battery, Lieutenant Tobin, commanding ; Bledsoe s Battery ; McNal- 
ly s Battery, Lieutenant Moore, commanding ; Lucas s Battery, and 
Songstack s Battery. Hoxton s and Brown s Batteries, and Song- 
stack s Battery were held as reserves, under command of Lieutenant 
Burnett, Acting Chief of Artillery of the Division. With Hebert s 
Division were Wade s, Landis s, Guibo s, Dawson s and King s. The 
cavalry force under General Armstrong reported to the Major-Gen 
eral commanding the combined forces, and afterward acted under 
direct orders from him. 

On the morning of the 30th ultimo, we took up the line of march 
in the direction of Pocahontas, which place we reached on the 1st 
instant, and from which we moved on the enemy at Corinth, bivou 
acking on the night of the 2d instant at a point nearly opposite to 
Chewalla, having left one regiment of infantry and a section of artil 
lery with the wagon-train as a guard. 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 203 

At 4 o clock, on the morning of the 3d instant, we resumed the 
march, my command moving on the main Pocahontas and Corinth 
road, in rear of General Lovell s. At a point about a mile and a 
half from the enemy s outer line of fortifications, my command made 
a detour to the left, with instructions to occupy the ground between 
the Memphis and Charleston and Mobile and Ohio Railroads. This 
done, my line Maury occupying the right and Hebert the left, with 
Coball s and Colbert s Brigades in reserve fronted the enemy s 
work in a south-easterly direction, the right resting upon the 
Memphis and Charleston Railroad. While these dispositions were 
making, General Lovell engaged the enemy upon our right. All 
being now ready for the attack, my line was ordered forward at 
about 10 o clock A. M. Almost simultaneously with the movement, 
the opposed armies became engaged in desperate conflict along the 
whole extent of my line. My command had scarcely cleared the 
position of its first formation, when, entering an abattis of more 
than three hundred yards, it became unmasked before a position 
naturally exceedingly formidable, and rendered trebly so by the ex 
tent of felled timber through which it must be approached, and 
the most approved and scientifically-constructed intrenchment, bristl 
ing with artillery of large calibre, and supported by heavy lines of 
infantry. My troops charged the enemy s position with the most 
determined courage, exposed to a murderous fire of musketry and 
artillery. Without faltering, they pressed forward over every ob 
stacle, and, with shouts and cheers, carried, in less than twenty 
minutes, the entire line of works the enemy having fled, leaving 
in our hands many prisoners and two pieces of artillery one a 4-inch 
Parrott gun, the other a 24-pounder howitzer. Our loss in this 
attack was comparatively small. This is attributable to the impetu 
osity with which the charge was made and the works carried. It 
becomes my painful duty, in this connection, to revert to the dis 
tinguished services of two gallant officers who fell in this engage 
ment Colonel John D. Martin, commanding a brigade of Missis- 
sippians, and Lieutenant Samuel Farrington, of Wade s Battery. 
Colonel Martin fell mortally wounded while leading the charge 
against an angle in the enemy s works, exposed to the fire of enfilad 
ing batteries. The gallant bearing of this officer on more than one 
bloody field had won for him a place in the heart of every Missis- 
sippian, and the admiration and confidence of his superior officers. 
Lieutenant Farrington was struck and instantly killed by a shot 
from a rifled gun, while bringing one of the guns of his battery into 
position. This gallant soldier, and courteous and chivalric gentle- 



20i A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

man, forgetful of personal interest, and mindful of the necessities 
of the service, resigned a lieutenant-colonelcy in the service of his 
State for a lieutenancy in the Confederate service, and gave up his 
life, a glorious sacrifice upon the altar of his country s honor, in the 
seventh of the battles in which he has been conspicuous for cool, 
determined, and eifective bravery. Though young, his country 
mourns no more valiant defender, his command no abler commander, 
his friends no worthier recipient of their affections. The outer 
works being in our possession, my line moved forward in pursuit of 
the retreating enemy until within one mile of Corinth, where the 
enemy was encountered in position and in force. The necessary dis 
positions being made, my whole line again moved forward to the 
attack about 3 o clock p. M. Here the fighting was of unparalleled 
fierceness along the whole extent of my line. The position of the 
enemy along the whole extent of his lines was covered by fencing, 
heavy timber, or underbrush, while portions of my troops advanced 
through open fields exposed to a deadly fire of batteries operating 
over the enemy s line of infantry. Here, as in the assault upon the 
outer works, we had little artillery in action, it being impossible to 
procure such positions for my batteries as would enable them to co 
operate effectively with the infantry. After continuous and most 
desperate fighting along the whole extent of my line, of nearly two 
hours duration, the enemy, notwithstanding his lines had been 
trebled by reinforcements, was driven from his position, and forced 
to take refuge in his innermost works in and around the town. 

The troops of my command, having nearly exhausted their am 
munition in their heavy fighting through the day, were withheld 
from immediate pursuit, and the delay in procuring the necessary 
supply of ammunition forced me to close the fight for the day. My 
troops were withdrawn for cover, and laid on their arms during the 
night in the position from which the enemy had been driven. 

About 4 o clock on the morning of the 4th, three batteries of my 
command were placed in position, and opened fire upon the town, 
under the immediate orders of the Major-General commanding. 
About daylight, orders were received to advance my whole line. In 
the execution of the order, a delay was occasioned by the illness of 
Brigadier-General Hebert, commanding a division. He was neces 
sarily relieved from duty. The command devolved upon Brigadier- 
General Green, who moved forward as soon as he could make the 
necessary disposition of his troops. It was after 9 o clock when 
my line became generally and furiously engaged with the enemy in 
his innermost and most formidable works, from which his infantry 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 205 

and artillery could jointly operate against my troops. Here, as in 
the previous actions, my artillery could not be brought effectively 
into action, and but few of the guns were engaged. The fighting, 
by my command, was almost entirely confined to the infantry. My 
men pressed forward upon the enemy, and, with heavy loss, suc 
ceeded in getting into the works, having driven him from them, 
capturing more than forty pieces of artillery, and forcing him to 
take refuge in the houses of the town, and in every place that could 
afford protection from our galling fire. He was followed, and driven 
from house to house, with great slaughter. In the town were bat 
teries in mask, supported by heavy reserves, behind which the re 
treating enemy took shelter, and which opened on our troops a 
most destructive fire at short range. My men held their positions 
most gallantly returning the fire of the enemy with great spirit, 
until a portion of them exhausted their ammunition and were com 
pelled to retire. This necessitated the withdrawal of the whole line, 
which was done under a withering fire. The attack was not re 
sumed, and we fell back to our supply-train, the men being almost 
exhausted from exertion and the want of food and water. General 
Villepigue s Brigade moved over to our assistance, but did not 
become engaged, as the enemy was too badly cut up to follow us. 
We fell back, in order to obtain water, some six miles from Corinth, 
where we bivouacked for the night, bringing off all our artillery 
and arms, save one rifle-piece, which had been inadvertently driven 
into the enemy s line while going into battle before daylight in the 
morning, and had been left. We brought off, also, the two guns 
captured at the outer line of fortifications on the 3d. It is impos 
sible for me to do justice to the courage of my troops in these 
engagements, nor can I discriminate between officers and commands 
where all behaved so nobly. This is the less necessary, as the opera 
tions of my command were under the immediate observation of the 
Major-General commanding. For the minute details of the actions, 
especially of the artillery, of the 3d and 4th instants, I beg leave to 
refer the Major-General commanding to the reports of the command 
ing officers, herewith inclosed. 

On the morning of the 5th instant we resumed the march in the 
direction of Pocahontas, my command moving by division, Maury s 
in front, each in rear of its ordnance and supply train, except 
Moore s Brigade, which constituted the advance-guard. After cross 
ing the Tuscumbia, Moore s Brigade was hurried forward to protect 
Davis s bridge across the Hatchie, which was threatened by an 
advance of the enemy. 



206 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

It being found that the enemy were in force, the remainder of 
Maury s Division was ordered forward, and finally I was ordered to 
move up my whole command. Moore s Brigade, with a section of 
the St. Louis Battery, and Songstack s Battery, were thrown across 
the Hatchie, but the enemy having possession of the heights com 
manding the crossing, as well as the position in which these troops 
were placed, and it being found that he was in very heavy force, it 
was deemed advisable to cross the Hatchie by another road, and these 
troops were withdrawn, after serious loss, to the east side of the 
Hatchie, where, being joined by Cabell s and Phiffer s Brigades, and 
assisted by the batteries of McNally, Hogg, Landis, and Tobin, they 
effectually checked the advance of the enemy. Green s Division, 
which had been delayed in passing the wagon train that had been 
unparked near the Tuscumbia, arriving on the ground, was formed 
in line of battle ; but the enemy making no further effort to advance, 
the whole of my command was moved off by another route, General 
Lovell s command being in our rear. 

This was our last engagement with the enemy. In this last en 
gagement we lost four guns by the killing of horses. Our whole 
train came off without molestation or loss, except of a few wagons, 
that were broken down and had to be abandoned. 

The history of the war contains no bloodier page, perhaps, than 
that which will record this fiercely-contested battle. The strongest 
expressions fall short of my admiration of the gallant conduct of the 
officers and men of my command. Words cannot add lustre to the 
fame they have acquired through deeds of noble daring, which, living 
through future time, will shed about every man, officer, and soldier, 
who stood to his arms through this struggle, a halo of glory as im 
perishable as it is brilliant. 

They have won to their sisters and daughters the distinguished 
honor set before them by a General, of their love and admiration 
upon the event of an impending battle, upon the same fields, of the 
proud exclamation, " My brother, father, was at the great battle of 
Corinth !" The bloodiest record of this battle is yet to come. The 
long list of the gallant dead upon this field will carry sorrow to the 
hearth-stones of many a noble champion of our cause, as it does to 
the hearths of those who arc to avenge them. A nation mourns 
their loss, while it cherishes the story of their glorious death, point 
ing out to their associate officers in this mighty struggle for liberty 
the pathway to victory and honor. They will live ever in the hearts 
of the admiring people of the government, for the establishment of 
which they have given their lives. Of the field officers killed were 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 207 

Colonels Rogers, Second Texas Infantry, who fell in the heart of the 
town, of eleven wounds ; Johnson, of Twentieth Arkansas, and 
Daly, of Eighteenth Arkansas. Lieutenant-Colonels Maupin, First 
Missouri Cavalry, dismounted, and Leigh, Forty-third Mississippi. 
Majors Yaughan, Sixth Missouri Infantry, Doudell, Twenty-first Ar 
kansas, and McDonald, Fortieth Mississippi. Many of my ablest 
and most gallant field-officers are wounded, several mortally. Of 
this number are Colonels Erwin, Sixth Missouri Infantry, Moore, 
Forty-third Mississippi, and McLean, Thirty-seventh Mississippi; 
Lieutenant-Colonels Pixler, Sixteenth Arkansas, Hedgespeth, Sixth 
Missouri Infantry, Serrell, Seventh Mississippi Battalion, Lanier, 
Forty-second Alabama, Hobson, Third Arkansas Cavalry, Mathews, 
Twenty-first Arkansas, Cambell, Fortieth Mississippi, and Boone; 
and Majors Senteny, Second Missouri Infantry, Keevir, Thirty-eighth 
Mississippi, Staton, Thirty-seventh Alabama, Timmins, Second Texas, 
Jones, Twenty-first Arkansas, Russell, Third Louisiana, and Yates 
and McQuiddy, Third Missouri Cavalry. For other casualties in 
officers and men, I beg leave to refer to lists inclosed. I cannot close 
this report without recognizing the eminent services and valuable 
assistance of Brigadier-Generals Maury, Hebert (whose services I re 
gret to have lost on the morning of the 4th by reason of his illness), 
and Green, commanding divisions. I bear willing testimony to the 
admirable coolness, undaunted courage, and military skill of" these 
officers, in disposing their respective commands, and in executing 
their orders. Through them I transmit to Brigadier-General Moore, 
and acting Brigadier-Generals Cabell, Phiffer, Gates, and Colbert my 
high appreciation of their efficient services on the field. 

Their skill in maneuvering their troops, and promptness and gal 
lantry in leading them through the most desperate conflicts, elicit 
my highest admiration. And of my troops, as a body, I can say no 
juster or more complimentary words than that they have sustained, 
and deepened, and widened their reputation for exalted patriotism 
and determined valor. To my personal staff I return my thanks for 
their promptness in the delivery of my orders, and their gallant 
bearing on the field. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

STERLING PRICE, Major- General. 

MAJOR M. M. KIMMALL, 

Assistant Adjutant- General, Army of West Tennessee. 



208 A SOUTHEEN EECOED. 



THE PRESENT APPEARANCE OF THE BATTLE-FIELD. 

A recent explorer of this bloody battle-field thus speaks of its 
present appearance : 

" Not the least memorable of the pitched battles of the late war 
was that which was fought in front of this grand intrenched camp 
that we call Corinth, on the 3d and 4th days of October, 1862. 

" During the past two days, a portion of my sojourn here has been 
spent as a partial exploration of that part of the battle-field which 
lies in the north-western angle formed by the crossing of the Mem 
phis and Charleston, and Mobile and Ohio Railroads. The sights 
that I saw of vast numbers of Confederate bones whole skeletons 
and parts of skeletons lying exposed, and bleaching on the field, 
in the bushes, and on the hill-sides, under logs, and on stumps ; of 
the neatly-inclosed and well-marked graves of the Federal soldiers, 
all buried at the proper depth ; and of the forest trees in all direc 
tions rent and torn by shot and shell, and all the storm of the furious 
war, and of many separate and distinct desperate conflicts, hand to 
hand and muzzle all the sights, I say, are well worthy a brief 
record. Besides, I have another object in calling attention to the 
battle-field of Corinth apart from the gratification of public curiosity, 
and that is, to urge upon our people the propriety of collecting the 
bones of their dead brethren at some suitable spot near the place, 
and giving them a decent interment. It is estimated by an intelli 
gent citizen of Corinth that, upon the two fields of Shiloh and 
* Corinth, in the vicinity, there are not less than 12,000 4 Confederate 
dead, whose bones, for the most part, are bleaching above the 
ground. 

" Of all the Confederate dead on this field, Colonel Rogers is, I am 
told, the only one who was properly buried deep enough to prevent 
the rains from washing the dirt away and exposing the bones. He, 
it is said, was buried under the immediate supervision of General 
Rosecrans. 

" In the north-western angle, formed by the crossing of the rail 
roads, from Corinth out to and beyond the outer works, three and a 
half miles distant, the whole of this great battle-ground is dotted 
here and there in some places thick as meadow mole-hills with 
the graves of Federal and the exposed remains of Confederate dead. 
The Federal dead were all neatly interred in the usual way, with 
head and foot boards in every instance, and in most cases, I believe, 
were inclosed with wooden palings. The Confederate dead, it 
clearly appears, were merely covered on the ground where they fell. 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 209 

I saw but one Confederate tumulus where the bones generally the 
skulls were not more or less exposed, and scattered in all directions. 
At the outer line of intrenchments, where a portion of Maury s Di 
vision made the assault, I saw two human bones, one pelvis and 
two jaw-bones, lying on a stump, with no trace of a grave or tumulus 
nearer than fifty or a hundred yards. In front of the outer breast 
works, not far from the same spot, were two tumuli, where six or 
eight Confederate dead had been covered up on the side of a hill. 
Here several skulls, and the feet of the most of the bodies, had been 
uncovered by the action of the elements, and were lying scattered on 
the ground, already bleached perfectly white, and, of course, rapidly 
crumbling to decay. The condition of these tumuli is a fair speci 
men of all the rest. In one place, the bodies of two or three Con 
federates were placed by the side of a log (to save labor) and a little 
dirt thrown upon them ; the dirt had all washed away, and there 
the skeletons lie wholly exposed and uncared for, like the beasts 
that perish. " 

Little dreamed the gallant Price, when he wrote that the silent 
dead " would live ever in the hearts of the admiring people of the 
government for the establishment of which these heroic men gave 
their lives," that ere four years had elapsed from the date of that 
fearful struggle, such a record would be published as the above. 
Among those bleaching bones lie all that remains of those heroic 
spirits who, undaunted, battled against a powerful foe, who once 
stood in all the pride and glory of their fearless manhood among 
the gallant men of the Third Louisiana Infantry, as they stormed 
the enemy s batteries and intrenchments. By their side lie the sons 
from the far-off plains of Missouri, and the hills of Arkansas ; from 
Mississippi, and the " Lone Star " State, martyrs in the same cause, 
animated by the same spirit in serving the country for which they 
sacrificed their lives. 



CHAPTER XXV. 

CAMP ROGERS. 

WHILE encamped at Holly Springs, the days of October passed 
quietly away without incident worthy of note. It was weeks before 
the men fully recovered their old elasticity of spirits, and the regi 
ment finally settled down into the old routine of a soldier s existence. 
On the 22d of October, orders were once more received to move, and 
early on the morning of the 23d the regiment was traveling south 
ward. They were not overburdened with packs, as both clothing 
and blankets were scant. After proceeding a few miles from Holly 
Springs, the regiment was encamped at a spot known as Camp Rog 
ers. Here a line of hills dip into the valley extending southward 
from Holly Springs. The camp was a pleasant one, on the hills, 
amid the shadows of large oak-trees. In front of it were wide ex 
tended fields, formerly cultivated in cotton, now covered with corn 
stubble. In the rear, westward, was a cotton-gin, and another un 
cultivated field, on the surface of the range of hills here quite level, 
and used as a drill ground. At this camp the regiment was assigned 
to the Third Brigade, Second Division, of General Maury s troops. 
The first night of their arrival was inaugurated by a heavy white 
frost, followed by bitter cold weather, and snow on the afternoon of 
the 25th. The men suffered very much, being scantily supplied with 
clothing, and insufficiently sheltered, their chief protection consisting 
of tent flies. Fortunately their propensity for foraging, together 
with large quantities of sweet potatoes brought into camp, in ad 
dition to their regular rations, kept them well supplied with pro 
visions, an offset to their other wants. Hence they gathered in 
groups around their camp fires, roasted potatoes in the ashes, and 
amused themselves by indulging in soldiers rough witticisms with 
the Thirty-sixth Mississippi, encamped on their left. This regiment 
was commanded by Colonel Witherspoon, whom the boys quickly 
nick-named " Pewterspoon," for reasons best known to themselves. 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 211 

There was the usual discipline here, drills, police, etc., varied by an 
occasional scout after " Bear," and chickens, resulting usually in 
complete success, or songs at night while gathered around the camp 
fires. 

On the 1st day of November there was a division review, and the 
men were in high spirits once more. This was followed by a general 
review on the 3d, at which were present large numbers of ladies 
from Holly Springs and the surrounding country ; also, Generals 
Van Dorn, Price, Maury, Bowen, Green and others. The day was 
clear and cold. The imposing array of men, with their guns glitter 
ing in the cold November sunlight, the assembly of fair ladies, the 
galaxy of dashing and distinguished officers, formed a brilliant and 
imposing spectacle. It was a combination of the beauty and chivalry 
of the country. Far away stretched the valley, hemmed in on one 
side by the undulating hills, and on the other by a dark line of 
forest, whose Autumn foliage had assumed the dark-brown hue of 
Winter s coloring. The occasion, display and scenery combined, 
made up a scene of warlike aspect, such as was seldom witnessed 
even in those days of bloodshed and strife. 

On the 5th, the sun was obscured by heavy clouds ; the atmos 
phere was hazy and cool. Orders were issued to cook three days 
rations and be prepared to move. The men packed and shouldered 
their knapsacks, and loaded the wagons in anticipation of an early 
move. They were in uproarious good humor, pelting each other 
and the Mississippians with sweet potatoes, of which they had large 
quantities. The regiment was moved a short distance from the 
camp and halted. The valley was filled with long trains of wagons 
moving rapidly southward, and the whole army was in motion amid 
great excitement. The enemy were evidently on the advance, in too 
powerful force to be successfully resisted. 

The Texan s attached to our brigade had been promised the return 
of their horses, which were only a few miles distant ; and, when 
there seemed a probability of moving without them, they positively 
and most determinedly refused to march. They were addressed by 
General Maury and Colonel Whitfield, in stirring speeches, all in 
vain. Have their rights they would, in spite of the whole army and 
all its commanders. The consequence was their horses were speedily 
hurried up and delivered to their owners. The scene that ensued 
beggared description. Mounting, they dashed off at full speed, in 
squads and singly, over ditches, fences and every obstacle, into the 
valley, yelling like demons released from the bottomless pit. In the 
saddle once more, these dashing Texans felt at home, and exhibited 



212 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

tlieir joy in all manner of extravagant performances. Their ardor 
soon cooled down, and they formed and left for the rear to watch 
the foe. The Louisiana Regiment were sorry to lose these gallant 
comrades, who had fought with them through some of the bloodiest 
battles, exhibiting a dashing bravery as infantry worthy the laurels 
which they had gained in the cavalry service. Ere the day passed 
away, the wind rose almost to a gale, filling the air with dust and 
smoke, completely blinding and almost suffocating the troops. Heavy, 
dark and lowering clouds, like a funeral-pall, hung over the earth, 
which made the scene a gloomy and wintry one. That night the 
men slept in Camp Rogers, around the fires, and in pens built of 
brush and rails, on cotton procured from the gin near by. They suf 
fered intensely, however, from the cold, being without blankets, 
which had been packed in the wagons and sent away. 

The Mississippians had taken possession of the cotton-gin, and 
numbers of them were snugly ensconsed in these comfortable quarters 
amid the cotton. Some of the Third Regiment learned the fact, 
and a guard was formed, properly officered, apparently, who pro 
ceeded to the gin and authoritatively ordered the Mississippians out 
of the building, saying they had been sent there by the General to 
protect the cotton and place. The orders were obeyed. It is need 
less to say that a large number of the Louisianians enjoyed an ex 
cellent sleep that night, the guard being the suggestion of some 
sharp-witted privates, and a ruse to oust the Mississippians. So 
much for the experience of veterans. 

The next day, November 6, the regiment were out on the parade- 
ground, fully armed and equipped, with their knapsacks on their 
backs, actually going through the evolutions of drill. Artillery and 
infantry were passing, and soon the slumbering echoes of the valley 
were awakened by the dull, heavy roar of artillery, far away toward 
Holly Springs. Still the drill went on as if no enemy was pressing 
the rear-guard of the army now in rapid retreat. It was, indeed, a 
strange spectacle. They were finally marched back to camp for in 
spection. Guns were cleaned out, and there was quite a fusillade as 
the men tested their cleanliness. This excited the ire of Colonel 
Witherspoon, who sent orders for it to be stopped. The Louisianians 
paid no attention to the order. They expected to fight soon, and 
were determined to be thoroughly and properly prepared. Soon 
an aid-de-camp arrived at regimental headquarters with the order 
that, if the firing was not stopped, Colonel Witherspoon would bring 
his regiment to the spot and fire into the men. This message spread 
like wild-fire through camp, the men tightened their belts, brought 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 213 

their cartouche and capboxes to their proper places for service, 
threw off their knapsacks, at the same time shouting all kinds of 
messages to the aid, such as " Tell Colonel Pewterspoon to send his 
regiment down here and we will give them a turn. Hav n t got many 
cartridges, and just as leave expend them, in fighting Mississippians 
as the Yankees." The men were actually exasperated, in the fullest 
signification of the word. They had been touched on their tenderest 
point their honor. Whether Colonel Witherspoon actually sent this 
order was never clearly ascertained ; but that one of his aids did, un 
thinkingly, deliver this message to Major Richards, then in command 
of the regiment, is an incontrovertible fact. This was an unfortu 
nate circumstance, as it created an ill-feeling between the regiment 
and the remainder of the brigade which could never be eradicated. 
Colonel Witherspoon showed himself to be a chivalrous gentleman, 
an efficient and brave officer on numerous occasions. 

On the retreat to Abbeville, General Hebert came into the camp, 
and was immediately surrounded by the men, who complained bit 
terly that they were put in a conscript brigade. The General re 
plied : " Never mind, my men ; never mind. You will soon make 
good soldiers of them all." The compliment thus delicately paid 
to the efficiency of the regiment did not soothe their irritated and 
discontented feeelings. 

The brigade, at this time, was composed of the Thirty-sixth, 
Thirty-seventh, Thirty-eighth, Fortieth and Forty-third Mississippi 
regiments organized under the Conscript Act. The Third Louis- 
ianians did not take into consideration that, although volunteers 
and disciplined veterans, they had reorganized under the same act 
of the Confederate States. 

These items are not pleasant records, yet adherence to truthfulness 
compels their insertion, as a portion of the actual occurrences con 
nected with the regiment. 

The army retreated steadily southward until it reached Abbeville, 
a short distance south of the Tallahatchie, on the Mississippi Central 
Railroad. Here the regiment encamped on a level plat of ground 
east of the railroad, between the Tallahatchie and Abbeville. The 
camp was beautifully shaded by oak-trees. 



CHAPTER XXVI. 

ON the 14th of November, the regiment was suddenly ordered to 
the breastworks. These fortifications were solidly-constructed earth 
works, on the north side of the Tallahatchie, near where the railroad 
crossed the stream, also, spanned by a rough bridge. They com 
manded a good view of the country ; stretching away in front of 
them, a level plain of uncultivated cotton-fields. Confined in these 
works, the men passed the time as best they could. They were full 
of life and mischief. Their provisions were daily cooked in camp, 
and carried to them by details made for this purpose. 

On the 16th a countryman came to the bridge with a drove of fine, 
fat hogs, which seemed adverse to crossing. The 7cind and obliging 
Louisianians eagerly volunteered to aid him. By some unaccountable 
means numbers of the swine were driven into the water, and, swim 
ming down stream, never were found. Perhaps the boys did not 
relish a good supper of u bear" meat that night ! 

On the 17th, the regiment returned to camp, the weather being 
cold and stormy, continuing for two days, and then cleared off, with 
a biting wind from the north-west. The men frolicked, danced, 
sang and gambled at night, drilled during the day, and performed 
the duties of a regular camp-life while waiting for the appearance 
of the enemy. Lieutenant Washburn, taken prisoner at luka, re 
turned again to the regiment at this place, and resumed his duties 
as Adjutant. 

Major Tunnard once more visited the regiment at Abbeville on 
the 25th, and was joyfully welcomed. On this day there was a 
review of General Maury s Division, making a very creditable dis 
play. The days continued clear and cold, infusing an unusual 
quantity of activity and life into the men, who never grew weary 
in attempting some kind of mischief. The morning bugle was 
greeted with hoots, yells, and cries of every description, at last be 
coming so furious that a whole regiment was ordered on drill at day 
light for indulging in this noisy pastime. The example had a sal 
utary effect on the rest of the troops. 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 215 

On the night of the 28th, at 10 o clock p. M., the regiment was 
again suddenly ordered out to the breastworks. 

The next day three days rations were cooked, all extra baggage 
ordered to be sent off, and the trains prepared to move. The roar 
of artillery proclaimed the approach of the enemy and heavy 
skirmishing in the vicinity of Waterford. In this skirmish several 
men were wounded, a piece of artillery dismounted, but not lost, as 
the brave troops tied a rope around it, and, hitching in a team of 
horses, triumphantly dragged it from the field in safety. The army 
was compelled to abandon the intrenchments, and the first day of 
the winter months found them again retreating along the line of 
railroad, in a cold and drenching storm, and over roads knee-deep 
in mud and mire. The enemy pursued closely and persistently, 
making frequent dashes upon the rear-guard. 

In Oxford, the scene almost beggared description. Long columns 
of troops, tired, wet and soiled, poured through the town, accom 
panied by carriages, buggies, and even carts, filled with terror- 
stricken, delicate ladies whole families carrying with them their 
household goods and negroes. The scene was one of indescribable 
confusion and excitement one of those gloomy pictures of war so 
distressing in all its circumstances. 

The retreat was continued in the midst of a furious rain-storm, 
the roads being in a terrible condition, on through Water Yalley, 
Spring Yalley, Coffeeville, and to Grenada. 

On the 3d, as the trains were pushing rapidly forward, the thun 
der of artillery was heard directly west of the retreating army It 
seems that the enemy were attempting to reach Grenada in advance 
of the Confederate army, by the way of the Mississippi and Ten 
nessee Railroad, which forms a junction with the Mississippi Central at 
Grenada, in order to destroy the trains, and cut the railroad in the 
front of the retreating army. They were met, however, at Oakland 
by the fearless and gallant Texans, several regiments of whom dis 
mounted and acted as infantry, much to the astonishment of the 
foe. This skirmish was a severe one, resulting in the enemy finally 
withdrawing their troops, with the loss of many men and two 
pieces of artillery. On the same day there was a brisk skirmish at 
Oxford, and a precipitate retreat from that place, many of the men 
having very narrow escapes from capture by the Yankees, who made 
a gallant dash into the town on the very heels of our army. Thus 
the retreating columns retrograded, day after day, in the drenching 
rain, amid the roar of artillery and unprecedented sufferings. 

On the 5th, Rust s Brigade, formed and executed a well-planned 



216 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

ambuscade, by which the Federals were severely punished for their 
temerity in pushing too closely the retreating columns. 

On the night of December 5, the regiment encamped at Grenada. 
The weather suddenly became intensely cold, and, the morning of 
the 6th, frost and ice were plentiful. Numbers of the men, ex 
hausted and worn out with their constant marching, exposed to such 
inclement weather, were sick some of them dangerously so, from 
typhoid fever and pneumonia. This retreat planted the seeds 
of disease in many a noble form, resulting in their sinking into 
early graves. 

On the 7th, the regiment was encamped some distance west of 
Grenada, endeavoring to recuperate from their physical prostration. 

On the 17th, moved camp once more to the vicinity of Grenada. 

On the 23d, President Davis and General Johnston arrived at 
Grenada, creating many surmises and speculations as to the object 
of their visit at this time. Grenada was well fortified along the 
Tuscahoma and Yallabusha rivers, and a warm reception prepared 
for the foe. 

On the 25th, there was a grand and imposing review at Grenada, 
at which were present President Davis, General Johnston, and other 
celebrities. News reached the army, also, of General Van Dorn s 
successful attack on Holly Springs, capturing 1,600 Federals, and 
$1,500,000 worth of stores of every description. 

On the 28th, the regiment broke up camp, and left for Vicksburg. 
This had now become the great theatre of action, and desperate at 
tempts were being made to capture this stronghold, in order to open 
the navigation of the Mississippi River. In December, the enemy 
made a landing, and stormed the breastworks commanding the 
Yazoo valley north of Vicksburg. They were terribly defeated by 
the Twenty-eighth Louisiana Regiment. Here Major Humble, for 
merly a lieutenant of Company I, Third Louisiana, lost his life. He 
was a fearless and gallant officer. 



CHAPTER XXVII. 

SNYDER S MILLS. 

THE regiment proceeded across the country to Yazoo City. Their 
reception at this place was very enthusiastic, especially by the ladies, 
who seemed untiring in their endeavors to supply the wants of the 
men. Here they embarked on boats, and proceeded to Snyder s Mills, 
on the Yazoo River. During this period the men were without their 
baggage, and very few had blankets, having left their knapsacks, 
tents, and bundles at Varden, thus enduring the weary march ex 
posed, without shelter, to the sudden changes of the variable wintry 
weather. 

After their first failure in the attempt to capture Vicksburg, the 
Federals had suddenly decamped, only to return once more in the 
latter part of January to renew the attack. From Vicksburg to 
Snyder s Mills is a line of abrupt hills, commanding the Yazoo valley, 
which had been fortified along the whole distance, some twelve 
miles. At Snyder s Mills the Yazoo strikes the bluff, and then turns 
almost abruptly westward for some distance, ere flowing southward. 
On this bluif were batteries of heavy guns -in close proximity to the 
river, manned by the Twenty-second Louisiana. Just above these 
formidable and frowning batteries was a solidly-constructed raft of 
huge logs, completely blockading the stream. Thus this position, 
naturally formidable, was rendered doubly strong by the labor and 
ingenuity of man. The country back of this line of bluffs is a series 
of high hills, intersected by deep and narrow ravines, all covered 
with a dense undergrowth of cane, and heavily timbered, from whose 
huge branches drooped the pendent moss, and whose trunks were 
covered with clinging vines, all forming the luxuriant growth of 
nature peculiar only to a tropical clime. Almost immediately in the 
rear of the batteries commanding the Yazoo River, was the encamp 
ment of the regiment. In the absence of tents, the men excavated 
houses on the abrupt hill-sides, forming the roofs of rough shingles, 
10 



218 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

firmly supported by posts erecting, in fact, those rude shelters with 
a celerity truly astonishing, and for which soldiers are proverbially 
famed. The regiment had scarcely reached Snyder s Bluff, ere they 
were ordered into the intrenchments, in anticipation of an expected 
attack. Defending, as they were, the most distant northern point 
of the fortification that protected Vicksburg, they were nerved to a 
determination which they had never before experienced, and, not 
withstanding the need of many conveniences to make their position 
comfortable, were full of life and fun. The stake now being played 
for was a tremendous one, being the possession of the Mississippi 
River, involving the destiny of its whole valley, and the vital life 
and safety of the country. This occurred as another New Year be 
gan its cycle, the regiment reaching Snyder s Bluff on the 2d day of 
January, 1863. 

The month of January passed away with little to attract atttJi/rion 
or create any serious apprehension of an early attack from the foe, 
who seemed to have concentrated all their energy and ingenuity in 
an attempt to cut a canal across the elbow of land directly in front 
of Vicksburg, at which point the river makes an abrupt turn, flow 
ing almost north-east until it strikes the bluff upon which Vicksburg 
is situated, and then turns abruptly south, inclining a little west 
ward. The object of the enemy was to make the canal across the 
neck of land, formed by the peculiar course of the stream, large 
enough to float their steamers through, thus completely isolating 
Vicksburg, and obviating the necessity of running the gauntlet of 
the heavy batteries crowning the hill-sides and lining the banks. 

On the 28th of January, the enemy s boats came into the Yazoo, 
but without approaching our point of defense. At this time, the 
heavy roar of guns in the direction of Vicksburg was a daily occur 
rence, the batteries either shelling the workmen on the canal, or en 
gaging in a lively artillery duel with some formidable iron-clad, 
when venturing within range of the guns on a reconnoitering expe 
dition. The regiment was almost constantly kept under orders, and 
thoroughly prepared to meet the foe at any moment. 

On the llth, there was a general review of the troops by Major- 
General Maury, and the regiment occupied a position in the line of 
intrenchments. General Maury had become a great favorite with 
the men, who had every confidence in his ability and power to suc 
cessfully defend the point committed to his charge. 

On the 13th, there was an election in the various companies to fill 
vacancies, occasioned by the resignations and deaths of several offi 
cers, resulting in the choice of the following 3d Junior Lieutenants : 



THIED LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 219 

Thomas Gourrier, Company A ; W. Middlebrook, Company C ; - 
Thomas, Company E. 

On the 13th, Captain Charles A. Brusle once more visited the regi 
ment. He was appointed on General Hebert s staff, by the following 
general order : 

General Orders, ) HEAD-QUARTERS, SNYDEK S MILLS, J 

No. 18. \ February 24.th, 1863. f 

" Extract." 

II. Charles A. Brusle, late a captain of the Third Regiment Louis 
iana Infantry, has been appointed Aid-de-camp, with the rank of 
first lieutenant, to date from February 7th, 1863. He will be obeyed 
and respected accordingly. 

By order of Brigadier-General Hebert. 

W. D. HARDEMAN, A. A. G. 

Thus, after having resigned from the Confederate service on ac 
count of physical inability to stand the severities of a soldier s ex 
istence, Captain Brusle once more returned to the army, and the 
vicinity of his old company and regiment. 

On the 18th, there was quite an excitement in the regiment, created 
by the report that a Yankee gun-boat had succeeded in reaching the 
Yazoo above, by coming through what is known as the "Pass." 
Volunteers were called for to go on a boat, protected with cotton, 
and capture the audacious visitor by boarding. Nearly the whole 
regiment volunteered, but only sixty were chosen, under the com 
mand of Captain H. H. Gentles, and Lieutenant Cy. Hedrick. Of 
this number only fourteen were finally selected for the expedition, in 
order to give other regiments a chance to share in the anticipated 
fight. The report proved false, and the whole expedition returned 
without having found the enemy. At this time the batteries were 
continually bellowing forth their hoarse thunder at Vicksburg, and 
events of thrilling interest and excitement were occurring. 

On the 22d, a national salute was fired by the batteries in honor 
of the natal day of George Washington. The weather was very 
disagreeable, raining almost continually, and the rations were very 
poor ; the men scantily clothed, after their numerous retreats and 
shortening baggage on the road. 

On the 25th, the regiment was ordered out on picket, in the midst 
of a heavy rain. 

March, generally so stormy, opened with a bright and smiling sky, 
and an invigorating, refreshing atmosphere. The men were full of 



220 A SOUTHERN RECOED. 

life, and passed their evenings in dancing, interspersed with music, 
both vocal and instrumental. Their new situation seemed to agree 
with them most wonderfully. On the 6th, the whole brigade attend 
ed the execution of a deserter from the First Louisiana Heavy Artil 
lery, who had been captured in Federal uniform. His bearing was 
firm, and he met his death most courageously. 

Some time in the middle of March, the enemy attempted to reach 
Yazoo City from above, but were most signally repulsed at Fort 
Pemberton. On the 20th, heavy and rapid firing above our position 
drew numbers of the men to their eyeries on the hill-tops command 
ing a view of the Yazoo valley. The cannonading, rapid and heavy, 
was in a north-westerly direction, and a cloud of white smoke could 
be distinctly seen to rise into the clear morning air, from the dark 
bosom of the trees. The enemy were attempting to force a passage 
into the Yazoo through the Sunflower, but were gallantly met and 
most signally repulsed by Featherstoue s Brigade. 

The regiment received a new uniform, which they were ordered to 
take, much against their expressed wishes. The material was very 
coarse, white jeans, " Nolens volens." The uniforms were dis 
tributed to the men, few of whom would wear them, unless under 
compulsion, by some special order. On the 22d, orders were issued 
to cook three days rations, and be prepared to move ere daylight the 
succeeding morning. The weather was gloomy and rainy, the roads 
in a terrible condition. Some of the men suggested the propriety 
of wearing the new white uniforms on the approaching expedition, 
which, it was known, would be among the swamps of the Yazoo 
valley. The suggestion was almost universally adopted, affording a 
rare opportunity to give the new clothes a thorough initiation into 
the mysteries of a soldier s life. Thus the regiment assembled the 
next morning arrayed as if for a summer s day festival. The rain 
was falling steadily, and the roads were deep with mud, as they 
began the march towards Hayne s Bluff, a short distance above 
Snyder s Mills, and the points where the steamboats landed. This 
place was also fortified, and the river protected above by batteries 
of heavy siege-guns, commanded by Captain John Lumon. The 
men were in high spirits. The expedition was commanded by 
Brigadier-General S. D. Lee. On the night of the 23d, the regiment 
slept on board the steamer Peytona, and the next morning were 
transferred to a very small, side- wheel boat, called the Dew Drop, 
not a misnomer by any means. On arriving at the mouth of Deer 
Creek, the expedition was visited by a tremendous storm of wind 
and rain, compelling our little craft to seek shelter amid the over- 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 221 

hanging branches of the trees which drooped over the stream. The 
storm, with its accompanying hurricane, soon passed away, and the 
expedition proceeded on its way. The water was very high, and 
the flood covered the whole expanse of the country, with only here 
and there a patch of land visible, like some oasis in the great, sandy 
desert. What an expedition this was, comprising a perfect fleet of 
flats, flat-boats, skiffs, canoes, and every conceivable small floating 
craft. The men were wild with excitement and fun, and made the 
swamps re-echo with their shouts and laughter. They preceded the 
little steamer in their flotilla of small craft, cutting down trees, whose 
interpolated branches obstructed the passage. Arrived at Mr. Wil 
son s, on Deer Creek, at 12 o clock p. M., on March 25th, where the 
regiment disembarked and sought rest on the low, marshy ground, 
in the fence corners, and on some old timbers of a defunct flat-boat. 

The men were immediately detailed en masse to construct earth 
works and obstruct the river. They labored with a hearty good 
will and energy truly commendable, in the water and mud. General 
Lee was present in person to superintend the construction of the 
works, and was not afraid to share the severe toil. His actions and 
manner, so pleasant and affable, soon won for him the deep admira 
tion and heartfelt esteem of the whole regiment. If he had orders 
to give, he delivered them in person. No neatly-dressed aids-de 
camp, with their foppish airs and tones of authority, were deemed 
necessary to carry instructions. We distinctly remember the appear 
ance of General Lee, as he stood conversing with Colonel Russell, on 
the deck of the Dew Drop, as the boat steamed slowly along Deer 
Creek. A huge, rough overcoat enveloped his form, below the knees, 
pants thrust carelessly into his high, military boot-tops, while his 
fine, manly features lighted up with smiles beneath his slouched 
hat as he watched the hilarity and mischief among the men in the 
boats, remarking as he did so, " Colonel, your men seem to be full 
of life." General Lee was always sincerely respected by all who 
served under him, as he was thoroughly practical in all he did, and 
never required what he would be unwilling to perform himself. The 
Twenty-second and Twenty-eighth Louisiana Infantry joined the 
Third Regiment in their labors and hardships. Details were daily 
made from the regiment, who proceeded to Snyder s Mills in skiffs, 
and transported all the provisions thence to the scene of operations. 
It was both a dangerous and laborious undertaking. 

The boats of the detail generally proceeded across the country, 
through lanes and along roads, which considerably shortened the 
distance to camp. Often they were compelled to get out of the 



222 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

boats and push them by main strength along the rapid streams and 
over shallow places. On the 27th, one of these expeditions was 
proceeding up the Yazoo, with their boats loaded nearly to the gun 
nels with provisions. The wind was very high, almost a gale, and 
the river was very rough. In attempting to cross it, the boats ship 
ped large quantities of water, threatening destruction to their loads 
and a thorough ducking to the crews. It was something amusing 
to witness the rapidity with which the men stripped off their cloth 
ing for a swim, although the situation was so perilous. The journey, 
fortunately, was made in safety. On one occasion the Commissary 
Sergeant was proceeding to the landing with a wagon load of pro 
visions. General Hebert was standing, bareheaded, looking over 
the gate in front of his quarters, close to the roadside, when he 
observed the wagon. Calling the sergeant, the following colloquy 
occurred : 

" What have you in that wagon ?" 

" Provisions, General, for the regiment." 

" How many day s rations ?" 

" Two, sir." 

" How are you going to get them there ?" 

" I have two skiffs at the landing." 

" You cannot carry them in those. You ll sink the boats." 

"Oh, no, General ; I have made the trip before ; besides " 

" Never mind ; go along, my man ; go along," and the sergeant 
was dismissed with a dignified wave of the hand, as the General 
pointed up the road, and resumed his journey, wondering what 
object the General had in view in his scrutinizing questioning. Suf 
fice it to say that the sergeant s understanding was never enlightened. 

The enemy abandoned their attempt to penetrate to the Yazoo by 
the way of Sunflower and Deer Creeks, doubtless considering it a 
perilous undertaking, in view of the stern and desperate resistance 
which they would meet in every foot of their advance. 

On the 28th, the regiment was ordered to return to camp ; so, 
boarding their numerous crafts, they once more moved down the 
creek, varying the monotony of the journey with numerous races, 
resulting in much amusement and excitement. As they passed 
General Robert s quarters, at Snyder s Mills, each company saluted 
the General with loud and prolonged cheers, evincing their good 
feeling for their old commander. The compliment was pleasantly 
and gracefully acknowledged. 

The regiment reached camp sadly soiled in their external appear 
ance, only to find that some persons unknown had " out-IIeroded 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 223 

Herod" himself, and their tents had taken legs and walked off dur 
ing their absence. Verily there was much profane language used 
when the " situation" was fully comprehended. 

Captain Butler, of Company G, Lieutenant Payne, of Company K, 
and several other officers, were furloughed to obtain recruits for the 
regiment, whose depleted ranks proclaimed most forcibly the fearful 
desperation with which, up to this period, the command had served 
their country. 

March went out, amid frost and very cold weather, without inci 
dent worthy of note. J. G. Perry, of Company K, and George 
Elmer of Company F, were sent out to reconnoitre the country along 
Deer Creek, and discover whether the enemy had abandoned all in 
tentions of reaching the Yazoo valley through this route. They 
departed on their hazardous enterprise in a small canoe, taking their 
arms with them. 

The advent of the second Spring month was heralded by a genial 
atmosphere, and deep-blue skies overhead. These bounteous gifts 
of nature blessings much enjoyed were gratefully received by 
men who had lived through the recent stormy wintry months, 
scantily supplied with shelter, almost constantly in motion, and 
lately watching and waiting for an active and vigilant foe in their 
anticipated attack upon the long line of defenses which protected 
the city of hills heroic Vicksburg. 

The 1st day of April was marked with much excitement, breaking 
up the usual monotony of camp life, by the intelligence that the 
enemy were approaching. The troops were speedily under arms, 
and soon the deep roar of a signal-gun proclaimed the truth of the 
report, while the troops eagerly responded to its summons, and 
hastened to the line of defenses. Repairing to the brow of the 
hill commanding a view of the valley, many anxiously watched 
the manoeuvres of the approaching foe. A cloud of black 
smoke, rolling above the tree-tops, marked the advance of the 
enemy s boats. Soon a transport, accompanied by three gun-boats, 
landed at Blake s plantation, a short distance below the bluff. The 
transport almost immediately returned down the river, while the 
iron-clads moved slowly up, and, sheltered by a strip of woods im 
mediately in front of our position, commenced shelling the breast 
works and hills. The missiles were badly aimed, and passed harm 
lessly over the men, exploding in the air, without injuring a single 
man. One boat, becoming emboldened by the silence of our frown 
ing batteries, and the apparent stillness of the whole place, steamed 
up toward our guns, in full view from the bluffs, but carefully 



224 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

screening herself behind the adjacent bend, was wise enough to keep 
out of sight of our huge guns. 

After a short reconnoissance the gun -boats departed, having thrown 
about twenty shells without eliciting any reply. No clue could be ob 
tained as to the purport of this sudden visit, terminating without 
any material design. 

The enemy seemed very restless over their prolonged operations 
against Vicksburg, evidenced by innumerable expeditions into all 
the adjacent bayous, lagoons, creeks, and the expenditure of ammu 
nition in shelling the silent woods and deserted, barren fields. At 
this period, they seemed to have abandoned all hopes of reaching 
the Yazoo via Deer Creek, as our scouts returned, after penetrating 
nearly to the Mississippi River, reporting not having seen or heard 
of a single enemy in the valley. 

On the 3d, a large number of recruits arrived for Company G, and 
also Lieuteant-Colonel Russell. 

On the 6th of April, the Yazoo began to rise very rapidly, being 
the eflects of cutting the Grand Levee of the Mississippi by the 
Federals, for the purpose of flooding the Tallahatchie valley and 
driving our forces from the vicinity of Greenwood, to prevent their 
operating against the gun-boats and transports of the Yankees, as 
well as afford them better facilities for expeditions by water. This 
rise extended to the adjacent creeks and bayous, completely in- 
nundating the whole valley. With these apparent advantages, the 
increased flood actually placed a more efficient barrier to any land 
attack on the defenses protecting Vicksburg. 

This new idea of the foe, together with a concentration of all 
their valuable means of attack, indicated an early, simultaneous and 
vigorous attack on some point of the line of defenses. Our troops 
were hastening up the Yazoo, to prevent the enemy s approach from 
the north. 

On the 10th, Fort Pemberton was evacuated, after a most heroic 
defense. Several days passed away most quietly at Snyder s Mills, 
with little to relieve their monotony. Not a ripple of the waves of 
war, that thundered with such angiy fury against the fortified hills 
of Vicksburg, disturbed the quietude of the lines. Several boats 
had succeeded in getting below Vicksburg in safety, notwithstanding 
the storm of iron hail poured upon them. It was the beginning of 
their final success. This occurred on the night of April 17. The 
terrific cannonading aroused the whole camp, and the flashes of the 
explosions could be distinctly seen. 

After a pretended desertion of the siege, the enemy returned, only 



A. SOUTHERN RECORD. 225 

to increase their exertions for the capture of our stronghold. They 
imagined, perhaps, that their pretended abandonment of the siege 
would cause our troops to be withdrawn, and thus weaken our position, 
when, -by a sudden return and an unexpected assault, he could gain 
possession of the place. This ruse de guerre failed most signally, 
and they returned only to find us still prepared, and his designs 
understood. 

The days thus passed away, the roar of artillery at Vicksburg 
reverberating in sullen echoes over the adjacent valleys, and usually 
attracting little notice. 

On the 16th of April, the raft which, blockaded the Yazoo at 
Snyder s Mills gave way under the tremendous pressure of the accu 
mulated flood of waters. This event was considered, at the time, a 
great misfortune. General Smith and other military celebrities soon 
assembled at the point of disaster, and held repeated consultations 
as to the best method of repairing the evil. The anxiety was in 
tense. An unsuccessful attempt was made to recover the portions of 
the raft which had floated away, by sending the steamer Acadia 
below after them. The immense flood of water, and the rapid cur 
rent, rendered the attempt of rebuilding the raft a fruitless one. 
Heavy siege-guns were immediately forwarded to this point, and 
placed in position as speedily as possible. Whatever human in 
genuity and skill could invent to strengthen the position, was im 
mediately put in practice. Thus the hill-sides commanding the 
river soon were thickly dotted with frowning batteries of heavy 
siege-guns. 

On the 19th, Major-General Maury left the division for a new post 
in Tennessee. His departure was the subject of general regret. In 
his farewell address to the officers and soldiers of his division, he 
said that to their cUfralry and valor did he owe much of the praise 
and honor bestowed upon him. Each officer and soldier of his com 
mand felt that, to the efficiency, discipline, and gallantry of their 
leader, they owed, in a great measure, all that had contributed to 
win them a name for bravery and daring. To his new field of ope 
rations, General Maury carried with him unanimous and heartfelt 
wishes for increased success, as well as those deep, undying feelings 
of friendship and admiration which united the soldiers of Napoleon 
to their idolized Emperor, and made them invincible in battle. Ko 
soldier was there in General Maury s command too humble for his 
notice, as well as the highest officer in his division. Understanding 
and appreciating the position and feelings of the Southern volun 
teers, his intercourse with them was such as to gain their unbounded 
10* 



226 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

admiration, and entwine round each soldier s heart those tendrils of 
affection and devotion which death only could sever. Oftentimes 
have we seen General Maury dashing along the road, followed by 
his staff, when, meeting some soiled and uncouth-looking private, 
wearily marching along the dusty road, he would bend forward 
gracefully in his saddle, and, lifting his hat from his brow, salute the 
soldier with all the polished ease and elegance of manner so indica 
tive of the high-toned gentleman, and with a soldierly politeness, 
worthy a superior, and not as if the object of his deference and 
marked attention was the private soldier of his division. No won 
der the men loved him and disliked to part with him. 

We had seen him on the fierce field of battle 

Firm as the granite, while the musket s sharp rattle, 

The cannon s deep roar, the charge of the foes, 

Told where thickest the fight, where fiercest the blows. 

We had seen him on march, long, toilsome, and dreary, 

Encourage the men, travel-worn, weak, and weary ; 

Amid the quiet of camp, 011 the showy review, 

Always affable, kind, brave, courteous and true. 

Ever cherished, remembered, wherever thou mayst go, 

Brave Dabney H. Maury we bade thee adieu. 

On the 21st, the whole regiment was armed with Confederate 
Mississippi rifles, having sabre bayonets, making a fine appearance. 
These rifles were, however, almost worthless, as the sequel of their 
fate will show. 

On the 23d, five transports and one gun-boat succeeded in getting 
safely past the batteries at Vicksburg, thus considerably augmenting 
the strength of the fleet below the city, and causing some anxiety 
to be felt as to the success of the designs of the enemy, which began 
to develop themselves. This success of the Federals in running the 
gauntlet of the heavy batteries caused considerable comment, and 
the press published some strange accounts of neglect and inattention 
on the part of the officers in charge at Vicksburg. Whether correct 
or not, certain was it, that the enemy had accomplished their object, 
despite the heavy fire poured into their steamers from the batteries. 
Their escape from destruction was assuredly miraculous. Thus, 
while these stirring scenes were daily transpiring at Vicksburg, the 
Third Louisiana Regiment was quietly encamped on the Yazoo, 
surrounding themselves with soldiers comforts, and enjoying them 
selves in varied amusements. Summer-houses, built of cane closely 
entwined together, and covered with shingle roofs, occupied much 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 227 

attention, and gave the camp quite a picturesque appearance. These 
airy structures were very pleasant during the warm days, and afford 
ed ample protection and shelter in stormy weather. The days of 
April, however, were usually clear and pleasant. The valley in front 
of the hills was mostly open fields, and where timber once stood 
was a heavy abattis of felled trees, intersected with lagoons and 
ditches. These were swarming with cray-fish, and the men not only 
found amusement in catching them, but also a very palatable article 
of food. They were caught in immense quantities, all the tackle 
necessary for their capture being confined to pieces of meat tied to 
strings. They could be drawn out of the water almost as rapidly as 
three or four of these simple lines could be pulled up, sometimes five 
and six cray-fish clinging to a single bit of meat. It required but a 
very few moments to fill a bushel bag with these ravenous shell-fish. 
Cray-fish soup was no rarity in camp. The Mississippians looked 
with great amazement and much disgust at the keen relish with 
which " them ere Cre-owl Louisianians " devoured this species of 
food. They could not appreciate such a peculiar taste. 

On the 29th day of April, the long-anticipated attack on our po 
sition was commenced. The thundering echoes of war, which had 
so long disturbed the quiet of the Mississippi valley, at last found 
an answering echo from the emerald hills and peaceful valley of the 
Yazoo. Early on the morning of this day a huge cloud of smoke, 
rolling its dark volume over the valley below, admonished us that 
the foe were approaching in considerable force. Making Chickasaw 
Bayou (the scene of their first repulse in an attempt to reach Vicks- 
burg by land from above) a rendezvous, they remained quietly in 
that vicinity all night. Our camps were filled with rumors that 
they were attempting to effect a second landing at this point. These 
rumors proved incorrect. About 9 o clock A. M., April 30th, the fleet 
ascended the river and approached our position. The troops were 
promptly in their places in the intrenchments. While the transports, 
some eight in number, kept at a safe distance, three gun-boats ran up 
within range of our batteries, and opened the fight. A terrific can 
nonading immediately followed. The iron-clad Choctaw ran up 
within easy range of our upper guns and opened fire on them. They 
responded at once, and with a skill and accuracy in handling the 
guns worthy of old cannoniers. The Choctaw was struck fifty-three 
times during the engagement, which lasted nearly five hours. Her 
flag-staff was shot away, and, as much hammering was heard on 
board of her after the firing had ceased, it was thought that she was 
seriously crippled. The casualties at our batteries were two men 



228 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

badly wounded, and the cracking of a band of one of the 32-pounder 
rifle guns. While the Choctaw was engaging the upper batteries, 
the other gun-boats ran up within easy range of the whole line of 
trenches, and opposite the lower batteries, and shelled the lines most 
furiously. Although the bombardment was fierce and protracted 
(their shells exploding in every direction), yet, strange as it may 
appear, no casualties occurred save the killing of a horse in one of 
the light batteries. The bombardment ceased for this day at 3 P. M. 
Late in the afternoon, the fleet was augmented by the arrival of more 
boats, so that it numbered fifteen transports, three mortar-boats, and 
six gun-boats. During the progress of the first day s fight, the Third 
Louisiana Infantry occupied a position near Blake s upper quarters, 
in the valley, near the Yazoo, and later in the day in the marshy 
ground, directly in front of the fortifications at this point. Taking 
advantage of the sheltering protection of the levee on the river bank, 
they obtained a position in close proximity to the Choctaw, and fired 
into her port-holes whenever opened. 

During the progress of the fight the enemy perpetrated one of 
those acts of Vandalism, so common in war, by setting fire to Mr. 
Blake s deserted quarters. They supposed that the valley was free 
from Confederates, as they had seen them apparently leaving this 
place. Retributive justice was summarily visited on the perpetra 
tors of this incendiarism. The left of the regiment was close at hand ; 
and, as the flames issued from the buildings, the sharp reports of their 
unerring rifles caused several of the enemy to bite the dust, while 
the remainder incontinently " skedaddled " to their boats. One offi 
cer was shot while standing on the deck of the iron-clad making 
observations. In the skirmish with the squad from the gun-boats, 
who succeeded in effecting a landing without the knowledge of the 
picket, Lieutenant J. R Cottingham, of Company I, was thrice 
wounded, and taken prisoner by the enemy. The whole picket nar 
rowly escaped capture, some of the men actually screening themselves 
from observation by jumping into the river, and concealing them 
selves under the banks. There were no other casualties in the regi 
ment. The scream of shells, the deep roar of heavy artillery, made 
Snyder s Mills a lively spot on the last day of April, and gave birth 
to numerous ridiculous incidents, notwithstanding the seriousness of 
the cause. During the night the trenches were occupied, and a line 
of pickets thrown out to watch the enemy s movements. 

The morning of May 1st, 1863, the day usually devoted to scenes 
of festivity in honor of the Goddess of Flowers, dawned clear, 
bright, and beautiful, showing the Federal fleet lying opposite Blake s 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 229 

lower quarters, beyond the range of our batteries. In front of our 
lower battery was a large field under cultivation. Near its centre, 
between the line of fortifications and the Yazoo, is a depression in 
the surface of the lands extending down the valley, then covered 
with water. 

Before the war, a large levee shut out the overflow arising from 
the freshets in the Yazoo. The enemy placed a picket on this levee, 
in full view and within easy range of our field-pieces. "With perfect 
sangfroid they paced to and fro along their elevated beat, regardless 
of the close proximity of our artillery. Operations commenced by 
a battery opening on this picket, resulting in no harm beyond driving 
them from the top, behind the sheltering protection of the embank 
ment. Early in the day, a party of some forty or fifty, following 
the banks of the river, and sheltering themselves behind the levee 
and woods, suddenly appeared in close proximity to our upper bat 
teries, where the river strikes the bluff, evidently bent on reconnoi- 
tering the raft. The heavy guns immediately opened on them with 
an unerring precision of aim, that compelled them to beat a precipi 
tate retreat, with a loss of several of the party. Their next manoeuvre 
was on the opposite side of the river, some distance below, in con 
siderable force. As they were observed dodging among the trees 
and running across an old field, the gallant boys of the Twenty- 
second Louisiana gave them another lesson of their skill in managing 
siege-guns, and quickly drove them back once more. During these 
operations, the gun-boats remained quietly anchored in the stream. 
About half-past three o clock p. M., they took position directly in 
front of our lower battery on Grave Yard Hill, and directed a con 
centrated fire on it from three of their boats, while two others shelled 
our headquarters ; the mortar-boats sending their huge missiles into 
the valleys directly in rear of the intrench ments. The cannonading 
was terrific on both sides ; the guns being handled with great skill. 
The ground in the vicinity of our lower battery was actually ploughed 
up by the heavy, plunging shot. The parapet was repeatedly struck, 
the shells often exploding within the works. The firing continued 
incessantly for over four hours ; yet, strange as it may appear, there 
was not a single casualty among our troops. 

After the cessation of the fight, considerable hammering was heard 
in the direction of the enemy s boats, which, taken in connection 
with their refusal to engage our upper batteries, proves conclusively 
that they must have sustained considerable damage. During the 
night of the first, the Yankee fleet quietly departed, and the next 
morning not a boat was to be seen. 



230 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 



A DARING FEAT. 

About 4 o clock p. M. on the first, while the gun-boats were firing 
on the lower batteries, a daring and successful feat of desertion 
occurred. The deserter belonged to an Illinois regiment, but was a 
Kentuckian, representing himself as General Sherman s orderly, and 
giving his name as William Hammond. He had been sent to the 
outposts with dispatches. Reaching these, he swam his horse around 
the cuts in the levee, and successfully passed the Federal pickets, 
emerging, in full view of both armies, from the bushes in the swamp 
land into the cultivated field. As his intentions became apparent, 
he was fired on, but spurring his horse into a headlong gallop, he 
turned towards the picket, fired his pistol in derision, and arrived 
safely in our lines, amid the loud cheers of the men. The boys were 
wild with excitement, jumping from the ditches upon the top of the 
breastworks, and along the hill-sides, regardless of the danger, in 
their eagerness to witness the race. As the deserter reached the lines, 
he threw his pistol from him, at the same time exclaiming, " Hurrah 
for old Ken tuck." 

He gave the information that the enemy were not strong enough 
to assault our works, and that the movement was a mere feint to 
keep our forces occupied, and to prevent their reinforcing the army 
at Grand Gulf, where a formidable demonstration was being made 
by General Grant to land his troops. The information was not 
credited at the time, although its correctness was clearly demonstrated 
by subsequent events. 

FIRST VISIT FROM MORTAR SHELLS. 

Up to this period, amid all their experience in warlike missiles, 
the members of the regiment had never been under a visitation from 
mortar shells. Several of these huge visitors descended into the 
camp of the regiment, spoiling the appearance of the ground, and 
making pi generally of everything within their vicinity. The camp 
guard and details thought to find protection within the shelter of 
their houses in the hill-sides, but a view of the tremendous force and 
powers of destruction of the huge iron balls, soon drove them into 
the open air, as by far a greater shelter than caves, with the proba 
bility of a burial alive. The reserve artillery and infantry sought 
shelter from the flying shells, beneath the protection of an almost per 
pendicular hill. Imagine their surprise, when one of these shells, 
exploding over them, sent its fragments directly into their midst, 
considerably startling them from their dreams of security, doing, 



THIED LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 231 

however, no damage beyond killing a horse attached to one of the 
batteries. 

PREPARATIONS TO LEAVE SNYDER s MILLS. 

On the 3d of May the regiment received orders to keep three days 
rations cooked, and be ready to march at a moment s notice. 

Stirring news began to reach us from below. During the attack 
on our position, the enemy had succeeded in effecting a landing at 
Grand Gulf. In consequence of the overwhelming numbers of the 
Federals, this place was evacuated after spiking the guns. The gal 
lant Missourians of Bowen s Brigade fought most desperately, but 
were compelled to give way before the overwhelming numbers 
opposed to them. Our little army retreated to Port Gibson, where, 
being reinforced by Tracy s and Green s Brigades, another desperate 
conflict occurred, but again being outnumbered, were compelled to 
give way. Among the killed at Grand Gulf was Colonel Wade, of 
the Missouri Brigade, a man universally esteemed for his gallantry as 
a soldier, and his unvarying kindness toward all with whom he 
came in contact. At Port Gibson another able commander fell. 
Brigadier-General Tracy was one of the. most efficient brigade com 
manders in the army, and his loss was irreparable. Disasters fol 
lowed each other in rapid succession, the enemy successfully driving 
back our forces by their overwhelming numbers, unsuccessful attempts 
being made at Raymond and Big Black to check their steady advance. 
The threatening aspect of affairs east of Yicksburg filled our camp 
with innumerable conflicting rumors, and the men were full of ex 
citement and enthusiasm. On the 16th, reports reached us of the 
capture of Jackson. On the 17th, the success of the enemy was 
confirmed by the sound of heavy guns east of our position, indicating 
severe fighting in the vicinity of Big Black. Kelton, formerly 
a private of Company E, Third Louisiana Infantry, but then attached 
to a battery, arrived in camp during the day, covered with dust and 
blackened with powder. He reported all the guns of his battery 
lost, except one. A portion of our troops precipitately retreated on 
the appearance of the enemy, without firing a gun, abandoning the 
artillery in their haste to place Big Black between themselves and 
the victorious foe. It is needless to record the fact that the gallant 
Missourians fought like tigers at bay, successfully withstanding the 
assaults of the Yankees, and escaping capture only by the most de 
termined bravery, when the other troops gave way. They added 
new lustre to the laurel wreath which already adorned their names 
and fame, for distinguished valor and undaunted bravery. Thus the 



232 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

fierce storm of war, which had so long thundered in impotent fury 
against our young Gibraltar, was descending with fearful force upon 
our stronghold and its devoted defenders. 

INCIDENTS OF LIFE AT SNYDER S MILLS. 

The Third Regiment had never been more pleasantly situated than 
at Snyder s Mills, constantly subjected, as they were, to active ser 
vice. With a skill, perseverance, and ingenuity truly commendable, 
they had erected comfortable quarters, and gathered about them all 
those little conveniences which become actual luxuries to the soldier. 
Within easy communication with all parts of the country, daily 
papers reached them, furnishing full particulars of the progress of 
the war throughout the land, while Vicksburg was sufficiently near 
to enable them to procure such necessaries as they needed, or were 
able to purchase. 

SUPPLIES. 

Immense quantities of supplies of every description were trans 
ported down the Yazoo on steamers, and discharged at the landing 
above our camp. Thence they were carried in wagons to a depot 
commissary near at hand, or to Vicksburg. Thus a large amount of 
stores for subsistence accumulated at this point. Of course, the 
veterans of the regiment could not restrain their propensity for 
foraging, especially when the beef issued them was not only very 
poor, but actually, at times, offensive, the cattle often dying in the 
butcher-pens ere they could be slaughtered. The boys eagerly vol 
unteered to load the supplies, and it was not an unusual occurrence 
for wagons to reach their destinations much lighter than when they 
started. It was unaccountable how fine hams would fall out of the 
wagons, along the road-side, and still more strange how squads fol 
lowing the train would find these hams, and carry them, not whence 
they were lost, but into camp. Eggs and chickens were plentiful, 
and a breakfast of broiled ham, fried eggs, and chickens, was no 
rarity. Yet about the quarters there was no appearance of a super 
abundance of supplies ; but, when the encampment was broken up, 
the mystery was explained, as every mess in the regiment uncovered 
underground store and smokehouses, most ingeniously constructed, 
with an eye both to concealment and the preservation of their con 
tents. Verily, soldiers are queer bipeds. Major T. W. Scott, Brigade 
Commissary, and his clerks, Niolin and W. Johnson, could some 
wondrous tales unfold of the mysterious disappearance of their 
supplies, even when thoroughly guarded and watched by argus-eyed 
sentinels. 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 233 



"THEM ERE MELITIA." 

Near the regiment was an encampment of Mississippi militia, coin- 
posed of men of good intentions, but most wofully ignorant of 
tactics and discipline. Their attempts at drilling and maneuvering 
gave rise to some rich, racy, and laughable scenes. Of course this 
afforded a never-ending source of amusement to the disciplined vet 
erans of the regiment, and an opportunity for indulging their pro 
pensity for fun. Thus the drill of the militia was always the occasion 
for outbursts such as the following : " Now, men, mind you stand 
up straight, and form line like a ram s horn." "Now mind, I m 
going to fling you into fours." " Into fours git." " Into twos 
git." " Now I ll swing you like a gate." " Swing like a gate git." 
This new style of issuing orders was always received with uproarious 
mirth, and so confused the amateur soldiers as to completely in 
capacitate them for performing any evolutions. They were actually 
compelled to change their quarters to escape the sport made of them 
by " them ere cussed Cre-owl Louisianians." 

A COMPROMISE WITH A COLONEL. 

Colonel Witherspoon, of the Thirty-sixth Mississippi, was often 
in command of the brigade, and whenever he passed the camp was 
almost certain to be made the subject of some rude joke, as the men 
had never forgotten the incident at Camp Rogers. On one occasion 
he detected two of the regiment in the very act of flaying a hog, 
which they had killed, a flagrant breach of military orders, and sub 
jecting them to severe punishment. Here was an opportunity for 
the Colonel to repay some of the sport constantly made of him. 
Approaching the culprits, the following colloquy ensued: "Well, 
men, I have caught you in the very act of transgressing positive or 
ders. There is no denying this fact." 

u Yes, Colonel, we plead guilty, and have no excuses to make." 

" I hardly know what to do with you. However, I will com 
promise with you. If you will agree to cease calling me Pewter- 
spoon, I ll promise to say nothing about this matter." 

The boys eagerly made the agreement, shouldered their " game," 
and arrived safely in camp, and related their adventure. The story 
soon went the rounds, and the men showed their appreciation of the 
forbearance and general good-humor of the Colonel to their com 
rades by refraining from making him the subject of their fun. A 
simple act of kindness won immediately their esteem and good will. 
Whether true or not, there are few of the regiment who do not re- 



234: A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

member this story as here related, and the cessation of all hostilities 
thereafter, toward Colonel Witherspoon. 

PRIZE-FIGHTING. 

When the regiment first entered the service, there was, as is usual 
among a large number of men, numerous personal encounters. On 
such occasions the officers used their authority, and immediately 
prevented any serious collisions. The consequence was, that quar 
reling became almost a daily occurrence, the men seeming to feel 
satisfied that no serious consequences would result from it. At Suy- 
der s Bluff a new order of proceeding was established, and by a tacit 
agreement whenever two men felt disposed to have a sparring-match 
they were permitted to do so, provided they went out of camp. On 
one occasion two fine-looking, stalwart members of Company A 
quarreled. The officer in command ordered them to cease wrangling, 
and go fight it out if they desired to. He was taken at his word, 
and the two men went up one of the narrow defiles, unattended by 
seconds or friends. None offered to follow them. In a few moments 
they returned to the company together, one having a badly- bruised 
face, and the other minus some of his front teeth. No explanations 
were vouchsafed, and the antagonists were friends, after having 
fought it out on their own line. This method of settling disputes 
made the men live harmoniously together, and almost entirely 
checked the propensity for indulging in personal encounters. 

These are but a few of the numerous incidents of camp life at 
Snyder s Mills. 



CHAPTER XXVIII. 

VICKSBURG. 

THE 17th of May dawned clear and warm. The bright, smiling 
skies seemed not as if they canopied events which would decide the 
destiny of a great nation. Yet beneath their azure clearness the 
fierce passions of man were at work, making fearful records for the 
historian s pen, and writing in letters of blood the instability of all 
earthly plans. The serene atmosphere way early disturbed by the 
dull, heavy reports of distant artillery. Orders were soon received 
to prepare to march toward the theatre of strife. Amid the most 
intense excitement, preparations to leave were begun. There was no 
transportation for clothing, stores, cooking-utensils, or camp-equip 
age. Provisions, accumulated for months, were brought from their 
hiding-places, and each man selected what he could conveniently 
carry. Knapsacks were filled to their utmost capacity with all the 
soldier s most valuable and treasured articles. Extra blankets, robes, 
clothing of all descriptions, tents, utensils, etc., were indiscriminately 
heaped together in the quarters and abandoned. The heavy siege- 
guns were either spiked, or loaded so as to burst them, a detail 
being left to accomplish this design, after the army had departed ; 
also to blow up the magazines, and destroy the depot-commissary, 
containing an immense supply of provisions. The troops left Sny- 
cler s Bluffs for aye late at night, and proceeded toward Vicksburg, 
an intermingled line of wagons, artillery, and infantry. The night 
was very dark, yet the men pushed forward as rapidly as possible 
along the valley, wading streams and sloughs on the route. Not 
withstanding the gloom which overshadowed their future, and the 
losses which they had sustained by their sudden abandonment of 
their recent position, as well as the proximity of the foe in such 
overwhelming force, they were in most excellent spirits, and very 
enthusiastic. They considered Vicksburg an impregnable strong 
hold, and experienced a peculiar pride in the prospect of defending 
it during the approaching struggle. 

On the morning of May 18th, 1863, the regiment reached the Hill 



236 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

City, and were immediately placed in tlie intrenchments. These 
intrenchments were constructed on the crests of a line of hills, ex 
tending in a semicircle completely around the city, and about a mile 
in its rear. The whole country was a succession of abrupt hills, 
intersected by deep, narrow defiles. The regiment was placed near 
the centre of the line, on the left of the s^ckson road, as it emerges 
from a deep cut through a hill. On tiie > si:t of the road were the 
Twenty-first and Twenty-second Louisiana Regiments, consolidated, 
and on their left the Mississippi Regiments, comprising the remainder 
of Hebert s Brigade. General Hebert informed the men that they 
held the key to the city, on the most exposed portion of the line. 
The regiment responded that they would sustain their blood-earned 
reputation, justify the confidence reposed in their bravery, and per 
ish to a man ere they would relinquish their position to a million 
foes. Perhaps no body of men were actuated by feelings of more 
determined courage, and a spirit of resistance even unto annihila 
tion. 

In the position which they occupied, the left of the regiment was 
very much exposed, no intrenchments being constructed on that 
portion of the line. Self-preservation, the first law of nature, 
admonished the men of their peril. Procuring spades and pickaxes, 
they went to work with a desperate energy, which rapidly constructed 
works on the gap in the line. Rumors and particulars of the disasters 
which had befallen our troops, poured in on our men as they took 
their respective positions along the lines. Numbers had fallen into 
the enemy s hands, and many pieces of artillery had been lost. Yet 
our brigades, fresh from camp, felt no despondency, and the shadow 
of defeat darkened not their brave spirits as they quietly waited for 
the foe. On the afternoon of the 18th the skirmishing began some 
distance outside of the line of works. Our forces were steadily 
driven back, until they reached the protection of our guns. The 
enemy hesitated as they reached the line of woods skirting the 
cleared ground in front of the breastworks. It was only momentary, 
however, and the spattering reports of the small-arms approached 
nearer and nearer. The next day was clear and warm. The enemy 
succeeded in establishing their position, and the siege commenced 
in earnest. About 1 o clock p. M. the cannonading became terrific, 
the musketry deadly and heavy. The enemy charged the intrench 
ments on a portion of the lines, and were driven back with fearful 
slaughter, our own loss being very light. The Third Louisiana 
began to suffer from the enemy s sharpshooters at the very inception 
of the siege. Regardless of the unerring precision with which the 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 237 

enemy s sharpshooters used their splendid, long-range guns fearless 
to a fault, they suffered severely for their temerity in their reckless 
exposure of their persons. Among the killed and wounded of May 
19th, were N. Schlade and L. D. Blanchard, of Company A. Noble 
soldiers of one of our best companies. 

May 20th, at 1 A. M., the silence of the starlit night was broken 
by the roar of heavy guns. A huge iron-clad approached from below, 
and commenced a furious bombardment of the city, which was 
rapidly responded to by our heavy batteries. Below lay the fleet of 
the enemy, and above, the river was dotted with a huge fleet of 
transports and war vessels. On the peninsular the white tents of 
the enemy s encampment were plainly visible. Such was the pano 
ramic view in front of Yicksburg on the third morning of the siege. 
At early dawn the mortar fleet of Commodore Porter opened fire on 
the beleaguered city, adding to the tremendous din their hoarse bel 
lowing, accompanied with the fearful screams and tremendous con 
cussions of their huge, exploding missiles. The place was a perfect 
pandemonium from early dawn. The hoarse bellowing of the mor 
tars, the sharp report of rifled artillery, the scream and explosion of 
every variety of deadly missiles, intermingled with the incessant, 
sharp reports of small-arms, made up a combination of sounds not 
such as described by the poet as being a " sweet concord. 1 A trip 
through Vicksburg exhibited some strange spectacles. 

Huge caves were excavated out of the precipitous hill-sides, where 
families of women and children sheltered themselves from the hurt 
ling shot and the descending fragments of exploding missiles. Fair 
ladies, in all the vigor and loveliness of youth, hurried with light 
tread along the torn up pavements, fearless of the storm of iron 
and lead, penetrating every portion of the city, as they attended to 
the necessities of their brave, wounded and dying protectors. The 
annals of history can furnish no more brilliant record than did the 
heroic women of Vicksburg during this fearful siege. Regardless 
of personal danger, they flitted about the hospitals or threaded the 
streets on their missions of love, utterly forgetful of self in their 
heroic efforts to relieve the sufferings of those who so gallantly de 
fended their hearth-stones. Many, very many heroic spirits, bade 
farewell to earth amid the thunder and din of the siege, feeling the 
soothing pressure of soft hands upon their clammy brows, and the 
glance of tender, pitying eyes gazing into the failing light of their 
glazing orbs, as these ministering angels hovered about the lowly 
cots of the dying soldiers. No pen can describe in sufficiently glow 
ing colors ; no human language find words brilliant, forcible enough 



238 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

to do justice to the unwearying attentions, tender compassion, soul- 
felt sympathy, unvarying kindness, and unceasing labors of love, of 
the tender-hearted, heroic and fearless ladies of Vicksburg, toward 
their suffering countrymen. The Third Regiment suffered severely 
this day, losing nine men killed and wounded ; yet, not for an 
instant failing in their spirits and enthusiasm. 

May 21st. The firing continued rapid and heavy all day, the mor 
tar-shells tearing the houses into fragments, and injuring several 
citizens, including one lady. The enemy, in front of the Third 
Regiment, were slowly but surely contracting their lines, and the 
fire of their sharpshooters was particularly accurate and deadly. 
Their batteries concentrated their fire on every one of our guns that 
opened on their lines, and speedily dismounted them. A splendid 
piece of ordnance, protected by cotton bales, was thus dismounted 
by the skillful fire from the enemy s rifled pieces, their balls striking 
the bales, upsetting them on the gun carriage, setting fire to them 
at the same time, and thus burning them to the ground. It was a 
fool-hardy piece of business to expose the least portion of the person 
above the breastworks, as a hundred rifles immediately directed their 
missiles upon the man thus showing himself. No less than five can- 
noniers were thus shot, in an attempt to apply a lighted fuse to the 
vent of a loaded gun. 

The members of the Third Regiment suffered severely in their 
reckless exposure of their persons to the fire of the enemy s sharp 
shooters, and the list of casualties rapidly increased. 

In conversation with the enemy (then a common occurrence, from 
the proximity of the lines), a member of Company E, by the name 
of Masterton, a Missourian, of huge dimension, and familiarly known 
in the regiment as " Shanghai," found some acquaintances, and was 
invited into the enemy s lines, with the assurance that he would be 
allowed to return. The invitation was immediately accepted, and 
he trusted himself to the honor of the foe. He was cordially wel 
comed, and all the delicacies and substantiate, which the Federals 
possessed in such profusion, were furnished him. After a feast, ac 
companied with a sociable chat and several drinks, he was permitted 
to return, very favorably impressed with the generosity of the 
Yankees. The evening chats, after the day s deadly sharpshooting, 
revealed the fact that there were members of both armies who were 
personally acquainted, and, in one instance, two members of the 
Third Regiment found a brother in the regiment opposed to them. 
Such instances, not uncommon during the war, were not calculated 
to make persons of the same family and blood feel over comfortable. 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 239 

22d. The bombardment continued unabated from all sides of the 
beleaguered city, and was more rapid and furious than heretofore. 
Nearly all the artillery along the lines was dismounted. The report 
of a single gun within the breastworks was the signal for a con 
centrated fire of the enemy s batteries, which poured a perfect 
storm of solid shot and shell upon the fated point, resulting, usually, 
in the destruction of the battery, and killing and wounding num 
bers of the artillerymen. 

To the list of our killed and wounded were added the names of 
Leonard, St. Amant, Guidici, Ellis, Chastant, Druett, Company A ; 
Finley, Company B ; Murray and Arnaud, Company G ; Duffy and 
Brandenstein, Company K. The fire was terrific, and the fearful list 
of casualties in the regiment much depressed the spirits of the men. 
The enemy made an assault on the right of the line, but were re 
pulsed with terrible slaughter, and two hundred of them taken 
prisoners. This creditable affair was due to the unflinching bravery 
of the Second Texas Infantry a gallant and noble regiment. About 
10 o clock A. M., four gun-boats steamed up the river from below, and 
engaged our batteries. They were soon compelled to retire, badly 
damaged, with but few casualties among our skillful artillerists. 

23d. The morning dawned cloudy and lowering ; a light rain 
fell during the night, and summer showers during the day. The 
shadows of night, falling over the beleaguered city, brought with it 
no repose to the weary soldiers. Heavy details were made to re 
build and repair those portions of the works ploughed up and torn 
down by the heavy firing of the enemy s batteries during the day. 
It was no light task, after fighting all day beneath the rays of the 
summer s sun, thus, amid the shadows of night, to use pick-axe, 
spade, and shovel, carry heavy sand-bags, strengthen the torn-down 
breastworks with heavy timbers and cotton-bales, in order to be 
protected during the approaching day s combat. Rations, at this 
period, were plentiful, and were distributed to the men, already pre 
pared, by details made for this purpose. General Grant sent in a 
flag of truce, asking permission to bury his dead, which were lying 
unburied in thick profusion outside of the intrench ments, where the 
enemy had assaulted the lines. General Pemberton refused to grant 
the request, replying that the battle was not yet decided. The 
Federal trains and troops were observed moving away from the 
camps, while rumors prevailed that Johnson was fighting their rear 
at Big Black. Yet no definite news of succor reached the besieged 
army. 

Among the casualties in the regiment this day were : Lieutenant 



24:0 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

J. S. Randolph, S. Kohn, Company A ; Corporal Scanlan, Com. 
pany F ; Aleck Garza, Lieutenant P. Bassier, Company G- ; J. 
McCowen, L. P. Simps, Lieutenant J. Stewart, Company II ; J. 
Dunn, Corporal P. Lawson, W. A. McQuatters, M. V. Ray, Company 
I ; S. P. Russ, Company K. 

24th. Sunday dawned clear and beautiful, yet its holy quiet was 
disturbed by the fierce storm of war, which swept over the city of 
hills, and thundered in angry surges around its whole circumference. 
The houses of worship were deserted, and women and children 
sought shelter from the exploding shells in their underground habi 
tations. The enemy had succeeded in establishing themselves directly 
beneath one of our parapets, above which stood the undaunted and 
heroic men of the Third Regiment. They immediately commenced 
undermining this portion of the line, with the intention of blowing 
it up. As the sound of their voices could be distinctly heard, our 
brave boys began to annoy them, by hurling upon them every species 
of deadly missle which human ingenuity could invent. 12-pounder 
shells were dropped over the breastworks among them, and kegs, 
filled with powder, shells, nails, and scraps of iron. A more deadly, 
vindictive, and determined species of warfare was never waged. 
The chief aim of both combatants seemed to be concentrated in the 
invention of apparatus for taking human life. 

25th. Another clear and hot day, and a continuation of the usual 
music along the lines. In the afternoon, a flag of truce was sent 
into the lines, requesting a cessation of hostilities for the purpose of 
burying the dead. The effluvia from the putrefying bodies had be 
come almost unbearable to friend and foe, and the request was 
granted, to continue for three hours. 

Now commenced a strange spectacle in this thrilling drama of 
war. Flags were displayed along both lines, and the troops thronged 
the breastworks, gaily chatting with each other, discussing the issues 
of the war, disputing over differences of opinion, losses in the 
fight, etc. Numbers of the Confederates accepted invitations to 
visit the enemy s lines, where they were hospitably entertained and 
warmly welcomed. They were abundantly supplied with provi 
sions, supplies of various kinds, and liquors. Of course, there were 
numerous laughable and interesting incidents resulting from these 
visits. The foe were exultant, confident of success, and in high 
spirits ; the Confederates defiant, undaunted in soul, and equally 
well assured of a successful defense. The members of the Third 
Regiment found numerous acquaintances and relatives among the 
Ohio, Illinois, and Missouri regiments, and there were mutual regrets 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 241 

that the issues of the war had made them antagonistic in a deadly 
struggle. As a general rule, however, the Southerners were the 
least regretful, and relied, with firm confidence, on the justice of their 
cause. 

Among the numerous incidents that occurred, none seemed to 
afford more amusement than the one related of Captain F. Gal 
lagher, the worthy commissary of the regiment. The Captain had 
been enjoying the hospitalities of a Yankee officer, imbibing his fine 
liquors, and partaking of his choice viands. As they shook hands, 
previous to separating, the Federal remarked : " Good day, Captain; 
I trust we shall meet soon again in the Union of old." Captain G., 
with a peculiar expression on his pleasant face, and an extra side 
poise of his head, quickly replied : " I cannot return your sentiment. 
The only union which you and I will enjoy, I hope, will be in king 
dom come. Good-bye, sir." 

At the expiration of the appointed time, the men were all back in 
their places. The stillness which had superseded the fierce uproar 
of battle seemed strange and unnatural. The hours of peace had 
scarcely expired ere those who had so lately intermingled in friendly 
intercourse were once again engaged in the deadly struggle. Heavy 
mortars, artillery of every calibre, and small-arms, once more with 
thunder tones awakened the slumbering echoes of the hills surround 
ing the heroic city of Yicksburg. The casualties in the regiment 
were: Wounded, A. J. Powell, Company E, Sergeant E. Jolly, Com 
pany K. 

26th. Clear and warm. The fight opened very early and kept 
up very steadily all day. In the city several ladies were killed and 
wounded by mortar shells. Sergeant W. W. Gandy mortally 
wounded. 

27th. Clear and very warm. The firing was very brisk. About 11 
o clock A. M., the gun-boats approached our batteries, both from 
above and below, while all around the lines a tremendous, rapid 
cannonading began. The roar of artillery was terrific in its volume 
of sound. The Cincinnati, one of the finest iron-clads in the enemy s 
fleet, boldly approached our upper batteries, but was repeatedly 
struck, and compelled to return. As she turned in the stream a ball 
penetrated her hull, and she was only able to reach a sand bar in the 
bend, when she went down. This combat was witnessed by hun 
dreds of ladies, who ascended on the summits of the most prominent 
hills in Vicksburg. There were loud cheers, the waving of handker 
chiefs, amid general exultation, as the vessel went down. Notwith 
standing, positive orders prohibiting the fair ladies from needlessly 
11 



A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

exposing themselves to the Hying missiles, they fearlessly sought 
some prominent position to witness combats whenever an opportu 
nity presented itself. Many despondent soldiers gained renewed 
courage from the example thus given them by the heroic women of 
the Hill City. 

This disastrous termination of the gun-boat fight seemed to satisfy 
the enemy in front, and they were quiet during the remainder of the 
day. The intention of this attack was for the gun-boats to engage 
and silence our upper batteries, while General Sherman assaulted the 
works on the extreme left of the line, from the direction of Snyder s 
Bluff. The whole plan failed most signally. A large number of 
articles from the sunken boat w T ere picked up in the river, including 
hay, clothing, whisky, a medical chest, letters, photographs, etc. 
We often wonder if the surgeon of the Cincinnati, who so comfort 
ably penned a letter to his affectionate wife as the boat neared our 
batteries, escaped unhurt. His missive never reached its intended 
destination, but fell into rebel hands to be perused and passed 
around. It was both well written and interesting. W. Smith, 
Company C, wounded to-day. 

28th. Still clear and warm. A courier succeeded in reaching the 
city with 18,000 caps which were much needed. Heretofore, the 
Third Louisiana were armed with the Confederate Mississippi rifles 
furnished them at Snyder s Mills. These arms were almost worth 
less, often exploding, and so inefficient that the enemy boldly exposed 
themselves, and taunted the men for their unskillful shooting. On 
this day, however, the regiment was supplied with Enfield rifles, 
English manufacture, and Ely s cartridges, containing a peculiarly- 
shaped elongated ball, of the finest English rifle powder. These 
guns had evaded the blockade at Charleston, and had never been 
unboxed. Beside the rifles, every man was furnished with a musket 
loaded with buckshot, to be used in case of an assault and in close 
quarters. The men were so elated at the change in their weapons 
that they began a brisk fire in their eagerness to test their quality. 
The foe soon discovered the change, and there was a hasty retreat to 
the shelter of their rifle-pits, and the protection of their earth 
works. 

They wished to know where in the devil the men procured these 
guns, and were by no means choice in the language which they used 
against England and English manufacturers. Not a single casualty 
occurred in the regiment. As night approached there was the usual 
cessation of hostilities, and interchange of witticisms and general 
conversation between the belligerents. The mortars seldom ceased 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 243 

their work all day, and through the still hours of the night ; spoke 
their thunder voices ; and the concussions of their explosions shook 
the buildings to their very foundations. There was a strange fasci 
nation in watching these huge missiles at night, as they described 
their graceful curves through the darkness, exploding with a sudden 
glare, followed by the strange sounds of their descending fragments. 
The spectacle to the eyesight was quite agreeable, but to the other 
senses anything but pleasant. Casualties, wounded, T. D. Downey, 
Company E ; P. L. Pennery, Company F. The day closed with a 
spring shower. 

29th. Clear and warm. The cannonading was again very heavy and 
continuous. A gun-boat engaged the lower batteries without any 
material results. There were no casualties in the regiment. 

30th. The day was clear and unusually warm. The constant daily 
fighting, night work, and disturbed rest began to exhibit their effects 
on the men. They were physically worn out and much reduced in 
iiesh. Rations began to be shortened, and for the first time a mixture 
of ground peas and meal was issued. This food was very unhealthy, 
as it was almost impossible to thoroughly bake the mixture so that 
both pea fiour and meal would be fit for consumption. Yet these de- 
ficiences were heroicly endured, and the men succeeded by an ingen 
ious application of the culinary art in rendering this unwholesome 
food palatable, calling the dish " Cush-cush." Another messenger 
arrived with despatches and a suppl y of percussion-caps. While 
the news from without seemed cheering, not an item of intended 
succor reached the undaunted soldiers who so heroically defended 
Vicksburg against the overwhelming forces of the enemy. J. N. 
Hewitt, killed, Company B. Wounded, R. Quiun, Company E. 

31st. The last day of May, the month of smiling skies and budding 
flowers. There was a clear blue sky overhead, the usual struggle 
around the works. Sunday brought with it no cessation of hostili 
ties. Fourteen long days and wearisome nights had passed away 
and still no prospects of relief to the defiant troops. The mortar 
fleet concentrated their fire on the court-house, near the central por 
tion of the city. The building was occupied by a company of Mis 
sissippi militia. One of the huge bombshells finally penetrated into 
the building, and exploded with tremendous force, killing two men 
and wounding several others. The militia incontinently " skedaddled" 
from such hot quarters to a more secure position. 

The wreck of the Cincinnati was boarded by a daring party of 
Confederates, who set fire to the exposed portion of the boat. This 
gallant exploit was accomplished without any loss. Wounded, S. 



244 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

Allain, Company A ; D. Shoemaker, Company B. Up to this date 
the killed and wounded of the regiment numbered fifty. 

June 1st was a clear and unusually warm day. The men sought 
shelter from the sun s scorching rays beneath the shade of out 
stretched blankets, and in small excavations and huts in the hill, 
sides. It seemed wonderful that their powers of physical endurance 
did not succumb to the accumulated horrors and hardships to which 
they were exposed. But they faltered not, either in spirit or deter 
mination. A deadly shell exploded in the midst of Company F, 
killing Sergeant J. Roberts, and wounding L. J. Singer, P. Sheridan, 
J. Charlton, and F. A. Davis. 

2d. Dawned clear and warm. Last night a large fire occurred in 
the city, the result of incendiarism, destroying several buildings. 
The sky was overcast with dull, leaden clouds, the glare of the con 
flagration, the bombs meteoric course through the air, the heavy 
concussions of the mortars, the sharp reports of rifled-guns, and the 
shrill scream of the shells, made up a grand and gloomy scene of 
warfare, during a siege such as is seldom witnessed. Captain J. 
Beggs, appointed Chief of the Fire Brigade, was promptly on hand 
directing the operations which soon stayed the progress of the 
flames. There was the usual heavy cannonading at early dawn, and 
dusk. During the hottest portion of the day the enemy seemed 
content to seek shelter from the sun s scorching rays, but in the 
morning they exercised their skill by pouring a rapid and heavy fire 
into the breastworks. 

Killed : A. Carro, F. Escobeda, Company G ; wounded : J. O. 
McCormick, Company I. 

3d. The day opened with the usual music of sharpshooting and 
cannonading. Seventeen days and nights the fierce conflict had 
continued, and still no definite news of succor reached the undaunted 
troops who held at bay the powerful forces of the foe. True reports 
reached the besieged, that General J. Johnston was concentrating 
troops at Clinton, with a view of succoring the heroic garrison of 
Vicksburg, yet it seemed a slender thread of hope. The Third 
Regiment was becoming sadly decimated in numbers, yet the sur 
vivors fought with the same determined, unconquerable, valorous 
spirit that had always distinguished them. They had promised to 
hold that portion of the lines intrusted to them, and accumulating 
disasters unnerved not a single bravo spirit or filled a single soul 
with despair. The tremendous storm of iron and lead continually 
poured upon them, was received with an indifference to danger 
worthy the heroic self-sacrificing devotion that distinguished the 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 245 

Spartans at Thermopolse. Though their thinned ranks required an 
increased amount of exertion and labor, and consequently augment 
ed the burden of their accumulated hardships, there were no com 
plaints, a reckless disregard to peril, and a spirit of heroism mani 
festing itself by the men composing and singing, with harmonious 
voices and enthusiastic chorus, songs regarding their situation. 
What a strange spectacle ! These unsheltered, half-fed men, amid 
the din and uproar of a furious siege, thus manifesting a spirit of 
reckless disregard for their perilous surroundings. The sweetest 
strains of the poet s song, the most brilliant record of the historian s 
pen, the most forcible and elegant language ever coined from the 
English vocabulary could in no wise do justice to the spirit that 
animated the souls of this gallant body of Louisianians. From the 
plains of Missouri to the dashing waves of the Gulf, from the 
mountain ranges of Virginia to the broad prairies of Texas, their 
fame had gone over the land, and they were determined that no 
stain should now mar the fair escutcneon of their bravery. The day 
was cloudy, and the sun sank below the western horizon behind a 
bank of clouds. 

Wounded : J. W. Blankenship, Company B. 

4th. Heavy firing, as customary. Day clear, and very warm. The 
ration furnished each man was : peas, one-third of a pound ; meal, 
two-thirds of five-sixths of a pound ; beef, one-half of a pound, in 
cluding in the weight bones and shanks ; sugar, lard, soup, and salt 
in like proportions. On this day all surplus provisions in the city 
were seized, and rations issued to citizens and soldiers alike. To 
the perils of the siege began now to be added the prospect of famine. 
The gaunt skeleton of starvation commenced to appear among the 
ranks of the brave defenders. 

It seemed wonderful that human endurance could withstand the 
accumulated horrors of the situation. Living on this slender allow 
ance, fighting all clay in the hot summer sun, and at night, with 
pick-axe and spade, repairing the destroyed portions of the line, it 
passed all comprehension how the men endured the trying ordeal. 

Wounded : A. Wrinkles, Company G. 

5th. Warm and clear. The day passed as usual. A citizen and a 
little girl killed in the city by a Parrott shell from the breastworks. 
The gun-boats above and below remained quietly anchored in the 
stream, evidently indisposed to make any demonstrations after the 
warm receptions which they had already received. Not a rumor 
was afloat, for a wonder. 

Wounded : C. Castex, Company G. 



246 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

6th. The morning dawned quite clear. A few summer clouds 
floated lazily across the azure sky, and the day eventually became 
one of the hottest yet experienced. The city was rife with rumors, 
among which was the report of Johnston approaching with succor. 
The story almost gained full credence by the report of cannon being 
heard toward Big Black. The welcome sounds were received with 
shouts along the whole line. Long, anxiously, eagerly had the men 
been listening for the welcome signal, and now felt as if relief had 
assuredly come. Ah ! on what a slender thread does an expectant 
soul hang its feeble hopes. There was much stir among the enemy s 
troops, and large numbers began to move toward their rear, plainly 
indicating that danger menaced them at some point. The Federals 
appeared in numbers on the opposite side of the river, firing into 
the city with long-range rifles, and also with several Parrott guns 
planted behind the levee. This addition to the means of annoyance 
by the enemy, made it a very dangerous undertaking for the pedes 
trian to travel along the streets. Our river batteries immediately 
opened on the foe, shelling in turn the woods and embankment on 
the opposite side, everywhere in range of the guns. The Yankees 
were thus compelled to become very wary in exposing themselves. 
The artillerymen armed themselves with Enfield rifles, and, repairing 
to the river bank, kept up a sharp fight with them across the turbid 
waters of the stream. There were no casualties resulting from this 
harmless long-range amusement. 

The casualties in the regiment up to this date numbered sixty-five. 

Wounded : M. Bossac, Company A ; T. N. Dill, Company F ; J. 
Connor, Company A. 

7th. Very hot, and clear. The mortars, after several hours silence, 
opened fire again, very lively. This Sabbath-day finished the third 
week of the siege, and still no hopes of relief. The men did not 
lose heart, but still kept in fine spirits. The members of the regi 
ment fought to-day with renewed vigor, and a reckless exposure of 
their persons, killing and wounding a large number of the enemy. 
Heavy firing was heard west of the Mississippi, afterward ascertained 
to have been an attack on the Yankee forces at Milliken s Bend by 
the troops of the Trans-Mississippi Department. 

Wounded : N. Mora, Company G. 

8th. Clear and warm. The struggle raged with unabated fury. 
The enemy s lines were slowly but surely approaching nearer to our 
own breastworks, and the struggle was daily becoming more fierce 
and deadly. The Federals procured a car-frame, which they placed 
on wheels, loading it with cotton-bales. They pushed this along the 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 247 

Jackson road in front of the breastworks held by the Third Regi 
ment. Protected by this novel, movable shelter, they constructed 
their works with impunity, and with almost the certainty of eventu 
ally reaching our intrenchments. Rifles had no effect on the cotton- 
bales, and there was not a single piece of artillery to batter them down. 
They were not a hundred yards from the regiment, and the men 
could only quietly watch their operations, and anxiously await the 
approaching hand-to-hand struggle. There was no shrinking or 
^nailing. Danger had long since ceased to cause any fear, and fight 
ing was a recreation and pastime with the majority of the men. 
Exploding shells and whistling bullets attracted but little notice. 
Even death had become so familiar, that the fall- of a comrade was 
looked upon with almost stoical indifference ; eliciting, perhaps, a 
monosyllabic expression of pity, and most generally the remark, " I 
wonder who will be the next one." Men are not naturally indiffer 
ent to danger, nor do their hearts usually exhibit such stoical indif 
ference to human agony and suffering ; yet the occurrence of daily 
scenes of horror and bloodshed, through which they passed, the 
shadow of the angel of death constantly hovering over them, made 
them undisturbed spectators of every occurrence ; making the most ot 
to-day, heedless of the morrow. Though constantly threatened with 
death, they pursued with eagerness limited occasions for amusement. 
The song and jest went around, fun actually being coined from the 
danger which some comrade escaped, or attempted to nimbly dodge. 

Wounded seriously, J. M. Burke, Company B. 

9th. Clear and pleasant. All night long the fight was kept up. 
The movable breastwork in front of the intrenchments of the Third 
Louisiana, became a perfect annoyance to the regiment, and various 
plans were proposed for its destruction, only to be declared unavail 
able. Some of the men actually proposed to make a raid on it, and 
set it on fire, a plan which would have been the height of madness. 

Finally, a happy invention suggested itself to the mind of Lieu 
tenant W. M. Washburn, of Company B. He thought that if he 
could fill the cavity in the butt of the Enfield rifle balls with some 
inflammable material which would ignite by being fired from the 
rifle, the great desideratum would be obtained. Thus, procuring 
turpentine and cotton, he filled the ball with the latter, thoroughly 
saturated with the former. A rifle was loaded, and, amid the utmost 
curiosity and interest, fired at the hated object. The sharp report 
was followed by the glittering ball, as it sped from the breastworks 
straight to the dark mass of cotton-bales, like the rapid flight of a 
fire-fly. Another and another blazing missile was sent on the mission 



248 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

of destruction, with apparently no satisfactory results, and the 
attempt was abandoned amid a general disappointment. The men, 
save those on guard, sought repose, and all the line became com 
paratively quiet. Suddenly some one exclaimed, " I ll be d d if 

that thing isn t on fire P The whole regiment was soon stirring 
about, like a hive of disturbed bees. Sure enough, smoke was seen 
issuing from the dark mass. The inventive genius of Lieutenant 
"Washbum had proved a complete success, and the fire, which had 
smouldered in the dense mass of cotton, was about bursting forth. 
The men seized their rifles, and five companies were immediately 
detailed to keep up a constant and rapid fire over the top and at 
each end of the blazing mass, to prevent the enemy from extinguish 
ing the flames. They discovered the destruction which threatened 
their shelter, and made impotent attempts to extinguish the fire with 
dirt and water. But as the light increased, the least exposure of 
their persons made the unwary foe the target for a dozen rifles, hand 
led by skillful marksmen. 

The regiment were in darkness, while the blazing pile brought 
into bold outline every man of the enemy who thoughtlessly exposed 
himself within the radius of the light. 

The rifles of the regiment sang a merry tune, as the brave boys 
poured a constant shower of bullets above and around the great 
point of attraction, which was soon reduced to ashes and a mass of 
smouldering embers. How the men cheered and taunted the foe, 
can better be imagined than described. The achievement was a 
source of general satisfaction and rejoicing. The Yankees could not 
understand how their movable breastwork was thus given to des 
truction, under their very eyes. 

Edmonson, Company D ; T. McFee, Company B, and E. J. Benton, 
Company K, were killed during the day. The night was unusually 
warm and cloudy. 

10th. Ere the gray dawn it began to rain, and soon poured down in 
torrents. There was no cessation of the rapid and heavy firing 
around the lines. Sunshine and storm were alike impotent to stay 
the progress of the fight, or prevent the hail of deadly missiles from 
being poured upon the heroic defenders of the besieged city. All 
day long the rain fell, filling the trenches with water, and thoroughly 
wetting the exposed, unsheltered troops. The scenes at the breast 
works beggared description. In the mud and water the men fought 
on, as if Heaven did not add to their sufferings the inconvenience 
and horrors of their situation. As usual, they made sport of each 
other s sufferings. At night the storm culminated into a terrific and 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 249 

concentrated fury. The long weeks of heat, and the constant and 
heavy cannonading, had impregnated the whole atmosphere with 
electricity, which now burst forth with tenfold fury. Lightning, 
with its jagged edges and forked tongues, darted from the dark 
masses of clouds upon the city, followed by the deep, sullen and 
heavy roll of Heaven s sublime artillery, mingling its volume of 
sound with the scarcely less voluminous and heavy thunder which 
rolled its incessant waves around the fortifications. A scene of such 
sublime and soul-stirring grandeur, linking together man s fierce pas 
sions and Heaven s dark frowns, could scarcely be imagined, much 
less described. The Yankees added to the many rumors afloat, by 
shouting to our men the following information, " You had to get 
England to assist you after all. The mouth of the Mississippi is 
blockaded, and Price is in possession of Helena, Ark. We have 
enough men at Milliken s Bend to keep Kirby Smith in check, and 
after we capture Vicksburg, we will soon drive Price out of his com 
fortable quarters." The men only hoped the half of the information 
was correct, while they defiantly scoffed at the idea of Vicksburg 
ever surrendering, as thus proclaimed so confidently by the enemy. 
A number of the regiment visited Vicksburg and the camps, to 
obtain stove-pipes and tin-gutters to sharpshoot through, by planting 
them in the intrenchments. 

Wounded P. Grillet, slightly ; Company D. 

llth. Morning dawned cloudy. The day cleared off cool and 
pleasant. Below the city two gun-boats floated lazily at anchor, 
while above not a vessel was in sight. In front of the Third Louisi 
ana the enemy planted two ten-inch Columbiads, scarcely a hundred 
yards distant from the lines. These terrible missiles, with their 
heavy scream and tremendous explosion, somewhat startled the boys, 
being a new and unexpected feature in the siege, and necessarily in 
creasing the already accumulated dangers of their situation. After 
knocking the breastworks to pieces, and exhibiting their force and 
power, the enemy commenced a systematic method of practice, so as 
to make the shells deadly missiles of destruction. 

So skillful and expert did they soon become in handling these 
huge siege-pieces, that they loaded them with powder, producing 
force sufficient to only propel the shells over the breastworks, and 
they rolled among the men, producing a general scramble to escape 
the force and danger of their explosion. Frequently they rolled 
some distance down the hill-side ere exploding. One of these shells 
entered one of the shelters excavated in the hill side, where a group 
was assembled, composed of Colonel Russell, Lieutenants Daven- 
11* 



250 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

port and Washburn, and several members of Company B. Ere the 
party could escape, the terrible missile exploded. Strange as it 
may appear, but one of the party was killed outright, while all the 
remainder were wounded and bruised, with but one single exception. 
Several were severely burned by the large grains of powder with 
which the shell was loaded, making torturing but not dangerous 
wounds. The mere idea of forcing powder into a fresh burn will 
afford some conception of the agonizing, excruciating pain of this 
species of wounds. 

Among the casualties this day were Killed : Sergeant B. Brice, 
Sergeant T. Howell, Company B. Wounded : Lieutenant-Colonel 
S. D. Russell, Lieutenants J. Davenport, W. M. Washburn, J. M. 

Sharp, Company B ; A. Girod, Company I ; Cole, Company F. 

Seventy-five killed and wounded to this date. 

12th. Clear and pleasant. The siege-guns were particularly de 
structive, especially among the right companies of the regiment. 
To-day, our troops succeeded in getting a mortar in position, in a 
ravine in the rear of the line of fortifications, but did not use it then. 
No prospects of assistance, and provisions were becoming very 
scarce. Fresh beef had long since been used up, and, also, a large 
number of sheep, and the troops were now living on rations of 
bacon. The labor of keeping the works repaired was increased by 
the tremendous power and destructive force of the shot from the 
siege-guns. Yet the brave men did not despair, or give way in 
spirit, under these trying circumstances. 

Wounded : Captain N. M. Middlebrook, Lieutenant Fagan, Com 
pany C ; Hubbard and C. Quinelty, Company G. 

13th. Clear and pleasant. We give the following synopsis of 
rumors daily circulated, as a fair specimen of the means used to 
buoy up the spirits of those inclined to despair in the midst of the 
gloom, horrors, and hardships of the siege : Generals Forrest and 
Featherstone destroy nine transports in the river loaded with pro 
visions ; General Price captures two gun- boats above, three trans 
ports, and had crossed the Mississippi River ; General Johnson was 
at Clinton, Miss., with 25,000 troops, and positively asserted that he 
was approaching to succor the garrison. Such were the reports 
constantly circulated, and usually received, with a large margin of 
allowance for their falsity. Our mortar opened on the Yankees late 
in the evening. As the shell marked its graceful curve in the air, and 
suddenly fell into the enemy s lines, the troops cheered most vocif 
erously. They enjoyed, to the fullest extent, the astonishment and 
consternation of the Yankees. But a few shells, however, were fired 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 251 

ere the enemy concentrated upon the point whence came the dan 
gerous missiles, the fire of every gun within easy range pouring such 
a storm of shell upon the offending mortar as caused its speedy 
abandonment. It was almost certain death to remain in its vicinity. 
This mortar was used only a short time, and then the attempt to 
render it effective given up. A heavy siege-gun, planted near the 
extreme point of the peninsula, above the mortarfleet, opened fire 
on Yicksburg, but with inaccurate range, rendering its missiles 
harmless visitors. Nine transports came down the river loaded with 
troops. 

No casualties in the regiment. 



CHAPTER XXIX. 

SIEGE CONTINUED. 

JUNE 14th. Clear and warm. The cannonading and musketry 
continued unabated. Another courier reached the city with a large 
supply of percussion-caps. The enemy were daily reinforcing their 
already tremendous army, thus increasing their available strength, 
while every man disabled inside of the lines added to the weakness 
of the defenders. General Grant s facilities for prosecuting the siege 
to a successful termination were thus increased to an almost cer 
tainty, and he could afford to prolong the contest, and accomplish, 
by starvation and a lengthened attack, what he could not obtain by 
either stratagem, skill, or brute force. A successful general he cer 
tainly was ; yet the accomplishment of his plans was purely the 
result of having at his command all the available means and strength 
of the most powerful nation on the face of the globe. Not a cir 
cumstance transpired within our lines that the foe did not know, 
and they were informed of the true condition of affairs, knowing 
full well, and confidently expecting, that the gaunt skeleton of 
famine, then seizing the besieged forces, would ultimately prove the 
conqueror. They needed but to wait, while they kept up, with un 
abated fury, their daily and nightly attack on the place. All around 
the city the firing was very lively and continuous, even from the 
sharpshooters on the opposite side of the river. Thus closed the 
twenth-eighth day of the siege, adding to our list of wounded and 
killed the names of William Me Guinness, Company A ; S.W. Sanders, 
Company B ; and W. Burns, Company H. 

Our upper river batteries exhibited some excellent skill in firing 
on the wreck of the Cincinnati, to prevent the enemy from work 
ing on it and moving the guns, which they were attempting to 
accomplish. 

W. McGuinness, mentioned among the wounded to-day, was shot 
through the right eye as he was looking through one of the pipes 
planted in the earth-works to observe the effects of his shooting. He 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 253 

was seen by one of the enemy, who fired at him with deadly aim. 
This incident is given to show how close the combatants were to 
each other, and with what certainty each party used their rifles upon 
the smallest-sized object exposed to their aim. McGuinness recov 
ered, but lost his eyesight and a piece of the bone from the side of 
his face. The escape from death was miraculous. 

15th. Day cloudy and threatened rain. The firing was very 
rapid, and shot and shells flew into and over the place in every direc 
tion. The enemy seemed to feel in a particularly lively humor. 
They made a charge on the breastworks held by the Twenty-seventh 
Louisiana Infantry, on the left of the position occupied by the Third 
Louisianians, in a mass, four columns deep. They were repulsed, 
and terribly slaughtered. A small rifle-gun, planted on the side hill, 
immediately in the rear of the Third Regiment, enfiladed their ad 
vancing columns, making great gaps in the ranks as the balls liter 
ally ploughed a passage through their dense array of men. This 
episode, in the usual monotony of the siege, infused new life and 
spirit into the Confederates. They felt in the humor for a despe 
rate hand-to-hand conflict, knowing that they would have an oppor 
tunity of effectively returning some of the blows dealt them. But 
the daily loss of friends and comrades, whose fall they were power 
less to avenge, rendered their feelings and situation anything but 
agreeable. 

Heavy cannonading was heard toward Snyder s Mills and out 
side of the lines, thus once more arousing a general hope of speedy 
relief. 

Killed : Silas Crane, Company E ; Edward Douglas, Company I. 

The close of the day threatened rain, which was not a desirable 
visitor to the men. 

June 16th. Dawned pleasant, light summer clouds floating gently 
across the empyrean. The firing had continued all night, and there 
was no diminution in its rapidity and volume. The place, as usual, 
was full of rumors of succor. The rations furnished the men were 
still good ; sufficient to keep away actual starvation, but not to satisfy 
the voracious appetites of the troops. How the other troops felt, we 
know not, but the boys of the Third Regiment were always hungry. 
They had always possessed somewhat fastidious tastes, and were 
quite epicurean in their appetites, which they had heretofore in 
dulged to their fullest extent. Imagine, then, the deprivation which 
they suffered, the great self-denial practiced by them in thus receiv 
ing the scant rations daily dealt out to them, without murmuring 
over their condition. True, there was yearning after the forbidden 



254 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

flesh-pots of " Egypt," but no possibility or probability of their 
desire after forbidden meats being satisfied. 

17th. Morning cloudy, but did not indicate rain. Cannonading 
brisk and very rapid, in fact, terriiic in the afternoon. The day was 
unusually sultry. Another columbiad opened on the regiment at 
close range, and the enemy s lines were now so near, that scraps of 
paper could be thrown by the combatants into each other s ranks. 
Thus, a Yankee threw a " hard-tack " biscuit among the men of the 
regiment, having written on it " starvation." The visitor was imme 
diately returned, indorsed as follows, u Forty days rations, and no 
thanks to you." 

Despair held no rule in the brave spirits who defended this portion 
of the work, and the tremendous mass of iron poured upon them 
no terrors for their unflinching souls. Another building was des 
troyed by lire, caused by the explosion of a shell. 

Killed : Tom Cobb, Company D. 

Wounded : L. Flores, Company G. 

18th. Cloudy and very warm. The " Vicksburg Whig " published 
an extra, containing a few items concerning the siege of Port Hudson. 
This paper, published at intervals, was printed on one side of wall 
paper, taken from the sides of rooms. It was very small, and a 
great curiosity in the way of a relic. It was decidedly an " illus 
trated" sheet, not exactly after the style of "Frank Leslie" and 
" Harper " pictorials. The river began to rise, and the boats below 
had disappeared. At this time the enemy became imbued with the 
mania for setting fire to the city, and, as the shells exploded, a stream 
of liquid fire descended from them. At night they presented a beau 
tiful spectacle, notwithstanding their destructive mission. No seri 
ous consequences resulted from this new species of warfare. 

Wounded : J. Brenning, Company F ; J. Gueton, Company G. 

19th. Clear and warm. The tiring was comparatively light. The 
rations issued at this time were : flour, one-quarter of a pound ; 
rice flour, one-quarter of a pound ; peas one-quarter of a pound ; 
rice, sugar and salt, in equally small proportions. Tobacco and 
bacon, one-quarter of a pound. It was a small allowance for men to 
sustain life with, exposed to the horrors of the siege, and almost con 
stantly occupied. Yet the troops were unusually healthy. The 
Parrot guns kept up an annoying fire on the city, from the opposite 
Bide of the river. Our batteries opened on them with little effect, as 
they were concealed and well-protected by the levee. One of these 
guns produced no smoke nor report, and the only intimation of 
danger would be the shrill scream of an ugly shell. It was generally 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 255 

believed to have been fired with gun-cotton. No serious injury re 
sulted from this annoyance, save to brick walls and frame build 
ings, few of which escaped the missiles so constantly showered upon 
the place. 

20th. Clear and warm. At early dawn every gun along the line 
suddenly opened, keeping up a rapid and continuous fire. All con 
curred in the opinion that such a tremendous cannonading had never 
been equaled in their experience, and the volume of sound surpassed 
anything yet heard. It seemed as if heaven and earth were meeting 
in a fearful shock, and the earth trembled under the heavy concus 
sions. The gun-boats approached from below, but ere reaching the 
range of our batteries, retired with their flags at half-mast, causing 
much speculation as to the meaning of this manoeuvre. The can 
nonading was kept up steadily all day. The men were in unusually 
fine humor. They seemed to care little that a powerful enemy was 
within arms-length of them, and that their flag was flaunting its 
folds in their very faces. 

A glance over the breastworks would exhibit a panoramic view of 
a large portion of the adjacent works, the puffs of smoke curling 
upward from the guns, used with such dexterous skill, or the light, 
vapory cloud arising from the discharged rifles of the sharpshooters. 
Such a glance must be taken very hastily, as the whiz of a Minie- 
ball, or the shrill scream of a shell, admonished the spectator that he 
was seen and already made a target of. The view, under such cir 
cumstances, was perhaps more pleasant to the eye than comfortable 
to the other senses. 

During the day, one of the enemy climbed up to the parapet of 
the Third Louisiana works, and boldly looked over, no doubt with 
the very laudable intention of having a good view of affairs within 
the forbidden ground. He paid a fearful forfeit for his temerity, 
being shot and instantly killed by one of the regiment standing near 
the spot where he exposed himself. The attempt was considered an 
unusually bold and fool-hardy one. The combatants watched for 
each other with the keen-sightedness of an eagle, and the ferocity 
and vigilance of a tiger seeking prey. Consequently, the least expo 
sure was instantly discovered, and as quickly brought a bullet to the 
spot. Perhaps volumes could be filled with the incidents of this 
siege ; its grotesque and mournful scenes. On this day J. Lee, of 
Company B, received his death wound, being shot through the head 
with a Minie-ball. He was carried down the hill-side, and laid 
upon the ground, near the spring where the men came for water. 
Comrades were passing to and from the lines, laughing, talking 



256 A SOUTHERN EECORD. 

and joking with each other, all unmindful of the dying soldier. 
Bullets whistled by, and huge shells screamed his requiem, cr 
thundered his dirge in their fearful explosions, as his spirit departed 
amid the din of the fierce conflict. Yet, such a scene was a common 
occurrence, and men whose souls once thrilled with all the finer sen 
sibilities of the human nature, looked on with stolid, stocial indif 
ference. With a blanket for a winding-sheet, and in his soiled and 
battle-stained garments, the brave soldier was placed in the hastily- 
dug grave, and left to rest in peace. 

No useless coffin inclosed his breast ; 

Nor in sheet nor in shroud we hound him ; 
But he lay like a warrior taking his rest, 

With his tattered blanket around him. 

Killed: J. Lee, F. M. Howell, Company B ; J. W. Naif, Com 
pany G. 

21st. Cloudy and warm. The day s observations resulted in dis 
covering little apparent change in the situation. On the right hand 
bank, up the river, the enemy s trains were seen on a sand-bar. At 
a distance they looked like a hive of busy bees, and were doubtless 
engaged in conveying stores to their troops. 

The Parrott guns still annoyed the city, and were heavily fired on 
by our batteries. The wreck of the Cincinnati was again shelled, 
the enemy being discovered at work on it, but were speedily driven 
away by our skillful gunners. Lieutenant Holt, of Company E, 
lying in a tent sick in the commissary camp, was shot in the leg, and 
badly wounded by a ball shot from a Belgian rifle, nearly a mile dis 
tant. A courier arrived with dispatches and caps. He had floated 
down the Yazoo, through the fleet, on a plank, and was taken out 
of the water completely exhausted. His name, unfortunately un 
known, assuredly deserves a place in the history of these daily events 
for his daring and determination in reaching the beleaguered city. 
The day passed without any unusual occurrence, and no light, as yet, 
glimmered through the dark cloud which hung like a funeral pall 
over the heroic defenders of the Hill City. 

Killed: L. Stewart, Company I; Corporal Martin, Company II ; 
wounded : Lieutenant U. Babin, Company A ; Lieutenant R. C. Holt, 
Company E ; Sergeant George Miller, Company E. 

22d. Clear and warm. The sharpshooting very lively. Artillery 
comparatively quiet. No special change in the aspect of affairs. 
Two regiments on the right, Texans, we believe, charged upon the 
enemy outside the lines, capturing a colonel, a lieutenant-colonel, a 



A SOUTHERN RECORD. 257 

captain, and eight privates, one hundred and fifty stand of arms, 
spades, shovels, etc. ; killed and wounded forty, losing only eight 
men. This little episode of the siege caused much excitement and 
enthusiasm along the whole line. The day closed clear and cool. 

Killed : Charles Dupuy, Company A. 

23d. Cool, clear, and pleasant. The activity of the enemy in 
creased. They opened fire on the city from a 100-pounder Parrott 
gun, planted on the peninsula, upward of three miles distant. 
Between this gun and our lower batteries a fierce duel occurred, ex 
hibiting some splendid skill- in handling heavy artillery. 

A feverish excitement and expectation prevailed of hearing some 
thing definite from General Johnston, and, as day after day passed 
without any reliable information of succor, the anxiety became in 
tense. The constantly decreasing rations admonished the mcu that 
the siege must terminate disastrously if succor did not soon reach 
them. 

Wounded : S. Kohn, Company A ; Alexander Garza, Company G. 

24th. Commenced raining in the night. A dark and lowering 
morning. About 12 M. at night a heavy skirmish commenced on 
the right. The mortars bellowed forth their hoarse thunder, and 
four rifled batteries kept up a continual fire on the city from the 
front. On the lower river batteries a heavy concentrated attack was 
made, resulting harmlessly. The enemy across the river were very 
busily engaged at their usual sport. The balls from their long-range 
rifles penetrated to Washington Street, killing one, and wounding 
two men. The evening was beautiful, and the moon shed its soft 
effulgence over the embattlements of the beleaguered city. The 
wearied mind of the soldier, with all the surroundings of grim- 
visaged war, could not but yield to the witching influence of the 
spell, and dream of home and the loved ones, and speculate on the 
probable destiny that awaited him. Of the inward soul-struggle of 
these heroic soldiers the world will never know. The hours of dark 
despair, succeeded by the presence of bright-winged hope, the 
treasured thoughts and pleasant dreams of the future, the bitter 
agony of perishing expectations, all the inward struggles of light 
and darkness, are as a sealed book to the probing gaze of the world. 
But one mission was theirs ; to defend to the last extremity the city 
wherein centred all their pride. Whether they did so, let History 
record, and the world determine. 

25th. Warm and hazy. The heavy Parrott gun on the peninsula 
kept up a destructive fire on the lower portion of the city, doing 
terrible execution on the buildings. Along the lines it was com- 



258 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

paratively quiet early in the day. Poor Amide Hebert, of Company 
A, was brought to the hospital early in the morning, terribly mangled 
by a rifled 24-pounder shell. He was conversing with some friends 
in the Twenty-second Louisiana Regiment, when the ball struck him. 
It took off one leg at the hip joint, and stripped the bone of the 
other of all flesh to the knee, where it was torn away. Horribly 
mangled as he was, he conversed in cheerful tones with his friends. 
As he was carried into the hospital, he said to Dr. Whitchead, the 
regimental physician, " Wouldn t it surprise you, Doctor, if I should 
recover ?" Brave fellow, the terrible shock to his nervous system 
rendered him oblivious to all pain. He lived for more than an hour, 
and then fell asleep, from which there is no waking, adding one more 
to the list of noble comrades who had sacrificed their lives in defense 
of cherished principles. A more shocking spectacle of war s butch 
ery was never witnessed than the mangled living body of Amide 
Hebert presented. 

Just after noon the enemy sprung the mine beneath the Third 
Regiment, which they had been so long preparing. Six Mississippi- 
aus, working in the counter-mine, were buried alive in the earth. 
This counter-mine counteracted the force of the explosion. The 
enemy immediately charged in heavy columns the gap made in the 
works, when a fierce hand-to-hand struggle ensued. The heroic and 
brave men of the regiment, sadly depleted in numbers as they were, 
undauntedly faced the foe, using their muskets and rifles with deadly 
effect upon the close columns of the Yankees. 

While desperately fighting the fearful odds opposed to them, suc 
cor arrived. The Sixth Missouri Regiment, of Bo wen s Brigade, 
led by Colonel Erwin, suddenly reinforced the regiment. Well the 
Louisianians knew their old comrades. Shoulder to shoulder had 
they stood together on many hard-fought fields, unmoved, uncon 
querable. These heroic spirits from Louisiana and Missouri loved 
each other as brothers, for they were united in bonds cemented by a 
fierce baptism of blood. They rushed into the desperate melee un 
falteringly, and after a short struggle succeeded in repulsing the 
enemy with terrible loss. Colonel Erwin needlessly and rashly ex 
posed himself by jumping on the top of the intrenchments, and 
calling to his men, " Come on, my brave boys, don t let the Third 
Regiment get ahead of you !" They were his last words, for he was 
killed almost instantly by the deadly aim of the enemy s sharp 
shooters. Colonel Erwin was a grandson of Henry Clay, and a more 
noble, gallant, or braver man never led a regiment. He was univers 
ally beloved, especially by the heroic troops whom he commanded, 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 259 

and his death was bitterly mourned. Hand-grenades were freely 
used in this fierce struggle. These missiles weigh about a pound, 
are an oval-shaped iron shell, a little larger than a hen egg, and filled 
with powder. In one end is a small cylinder, at the bottom of which 
is a gun tube, on which is placed a common percussion cap. Into 
this cylinder is inserted a small rod, having a flat piece of circular 
iron on the end, about tlfe size of a half dollar. This rod is drawn 
out to its full length, and held in its place by a light spring pressing 
on it. The reverse end of the shell has a wooden rod inserted in it, 
about six inches long, and feathered. This guides the shell. When 
thrown, the grenade usually falls on the bottom attached to the rod, 
which is forced on the cap, exploding the missile. These shells were 
thrown in immense quantities, and with considerable eifect. Many 
were caught or picked up when not exploding, and hurled back 
upon the foe. Numbers struck the men, exploding, and making 
frightful wounds. This struggle was a severe test upon the courage 
of the Third Regiment, but they met the Federals with their usual 
determined valor, aided by the gallant Missourians, whom they loved 
and honored as fit compeers to stand by their side in the deadly 
breach. The loss of the regiment in this brief struggle summed up 
thirty men, of which the following is an imperfect list : 

Wounded : Major D. Pierson. 

Killed : B. Berry, Co. A ; J. Breaux, Co. A ; Sergeant J. T. Sharp, 
Co. B ; J. C. May, Co. B ; - - Masterton, Co. E ; F. Ray, Co. I ; 
Corporal A. Kelly, J. L. Vaughan, Co. I. 

Wounded : P. C. Wills, Co. A ; Lieutenant W. P. Renwick, J. M. 
Smith, G. Vaughn, Co. B; G. C. Spillman, R. Cole, Co. C; J. 
Merritt, R. C. Hammett, Co. D ; J. Myers, Co. E ; George Effner, W. 
Hudson, Co. F ; E. Escobeda, Lieutenant Paul Bossier, Co. G ; Cor 
poral J. C. Rice, Corporal G. P. Mouran, H. C. Hough, J. Haines, G. 
T. McFarland, M. P. Cartwright, M. Sandridge, Co. I. 

A large number of the wounded were injured by the hand-gren 
ades. While this encounter was raging, the enemy s batteries in 
front and rear kept up a fierce cannonading. The day was very 
warm, and the sun sank below the horizon looking like a great ball 
of fire through the bluish haze as if ashamed to shine bright and 
clear upon such a scene of butchery and bloodshed. 

26th. Clear and warm. The firing was kept up very lively, as usual. 
During the night the members of the regiment repaired the damage 
to Fort Beauregard, and were ready for the foe once more, with 
spirits as determined and undaunted as ever. The enemy succeeded 
in enfilading the ditches, and compelled the men to leave a portion 



260 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

of the works, while they fired into them. The Fifth and Sixth 
Missouri Infantry were close at hand, held as a reserve in case of 
another attack. The Louisianians needed no better assistants. In 
front, the Parrot guns were used with some effect, killing and wound 
ing several gentlemen and ladies in the city. 

Wounded : Captain W. E. Russell and W. Badt, Company D. 

27th. Cloudy and very warm, and the place full of rumors. At 
this period, the fortieth day of the siege, Vicksburg presented a fear 
ful spectacle, having the appearance of being visited with a terrible 
scourge. Signs wrenched from their fastenings ; houses dilapidated 
and in ruins, rent and torn by shot and shell ; the streets barricaded 
with earth-works, and defended by artillery, over which lonely sen 
tinels kept guard. The avenues were almost deserted, save by 
hunger-pinched, starving and wounded soldiers, or guards lying on 
the banquettes, indifferent to the screaming and exploding shells. The 
stores, the few that were open, looked like the ghost of more pros 
perous times, with their empty shelves and scant stock of goods, 
held at ruinous prices. " Ginger beer," " sweet cider," " beer for 
sale," glared out in huge letters upon placards or the ends of bar 
rels, seeming the only relief to the general starvation. It would 
have puzzled a scientific druggist to have determined what were 
the ingredients of this decoction called " beer." Palatial residences 
were crumbling into ruins, the walks torn up by mortar-shells, the 
flower-beds, once blooming in all the regal beauty of spring loveli 
ness, trodden down, the shrubbery neglected. No fair hands were 
there to trim their wanton growth ; no light footsteps to wander 
amid nature s blooming exotics, or lovely forms seen leaning con 
fidingly on some manly arm, while rosy lips breathed soft words of 
affection and trust. Ah ! no ; such scenes were the hallowed memories 
of halcyon days gone by. Fences were torn down, and houses pulled 
to pieces for fire-wood. Even the enclosures around the remains of the 
revered dead, were destroyed, while wagons were parked around the 
grave-yard, horses tramping down the graves, and men using the 
tombstones as convenient tables for their scanty meals, or a couch for 
an uncertain slumber. Dogs howled through the streets at night ; 
cats screamed forth their hideous cries ; an army of rats, seeking 
food, would scamper around your very feet, and across the streets, 
and over the pavements. Lice and filth covered the bodies of the 
soldiers. Delicate women, and little children, with pale, care-worn 
and hunger-pinched features, peered at the passer-by with wistful 
eyes, from the caves in the hill-sides. Add to all these horrors, so 
faintly portrayed, the deep-toned thunder of mortars and heavy guns, 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 261 

the shrill whistle of rifle-shot, or the duller sound of flying mor 
tar-shells : the crash of buildings torn into fragments ; the fearful 
detonation of the explosions shaking heaven and earth ; the hurtling 
masses of iron continually descending, and you may form some 
conception of the condition of the city. Human language is impo 
tent to portray the true situation of affairs. Yet such in reality 
were some of the scenes of the siege. At the breastworks were the 
tried heroes. Without flinching or faltering, our brave troops con 
fronted the foe, swearing, with unquailing spirit, never to surrender, 
and rather to die among the ruins of the devoted city than give up 
the place. Such a spirit, defiant from first to last, was worthier a 
better fate than that which eventually befell the heroic garrison. 

The brave men, growing daily weaker under their increasing labors 
and starvation, began to complain at the long delayed succor, so fre 
quently announced as near at hand. They would not stop to reason 
on the subject. Their courageous souls could perceive no brilliant sun 
of hope breaking through the dark clouds of disaster which canopied 
them. They dreamed not of the difficulties which environed the 
young Confederacy, and that an all-powerful enemy was contracting 
the cordon of its strength around it on all sides, threatening it with 
speedy annihilation. Even with such a leader as General Joe John 
ston, it required time ; long weeks of constant, unwearying labor to 
organize an army sufficiently powerful to successfully attack the 
enemy, securely posted within strong intrenchments. Already, six 
weeks of unceasing battle had passed away six weeks of such fight 
ing as the world had seldom witnessed ; yet the enemy, with all 
their material and appliances for conducting the siege to a speedy 
and successful termination, had most signally failed in every attempt. 
The Spartan band of Southern heroes held their position, utterly 
regardless of the furious storm of grape, canister, shell and shot 
poured upon them by the overwhelming forces of the Federals. 
With the demon of famine gnawing at their heart-strings, they still 
daily shouted their defiance to the assailants, and their rifles were as 
actively handled, as skillfully aimed, as if nearly half their number 
were not disabled, and many sleeping peacefully beneath the green 
turf, above which rose the scream of shell, all the horrid din and 
saturnalia of the fierce conflict. The undaunted soul would ask, 
Ought we not to succeed ? Are all these horrors, sufferings and 
fearful sacrifices to bring forth no fruit, no strength and hope for 
coming days ? Ah ! a mysterious fate had issued its decree, and 
mortal vision could not see the result of its decision. 
Wounded : F. Hargrove, Company H. 



262 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

28th. Another Sabbath morn. The golden sunlight mellowed 
with it3 brilliant light the hill-tops and the dark-green foliage of 
the trees. Birds caroled their matin songs, as if war was not hold 
ing its high carnival within and around the besieged city. The 
mind would forget the unceasing din of battle, and soar away into 
the realms of fancy. The hill-sides have a soft carpeting of emerald 
sward, upon which the soldier casts his wearied body. He has for 
gotten his surroundings, is oblivious to the screaming shells and 
singing bullets. A smile flits across his bronzed features, as memory 
exhibits one of the beautiful pictures of the past. The light of 
lustrous blue eyes is beaming upon him with a soft tenderness beyond 
portrayal. Look, weary soldier, into the liquid depths; gaze once 
more upon the exquisite loveliness of the fair face so beautifully 
shaded by a profusion of glossy, dark curls. See again those coral 
lips breaking into a loving smile, rippling in laughing wavelets over 
the whole face ; recall again their soft pressure upon your own lips ; 
drink in with deep inspiration all the beauty of the picture which 
imagination now paints from the realities of the past. Dream on, 
oh heroic spirit, for ere the sun shall have reached the Western hori 
zon, thou shalt fill a hero s honored grave ; while her you have been 
dreaming about shall weep with uncontrollable anguish over thy 
fate, or, perchance, in days hereafter, come with flowers and strew 
them orer thy humble tomb, or plant them there to flourish as a 
token of her remembrance and constancy, their rich fragrance filling 
the air with sweetness, above the lowly mound where reposes thy 
earthly remains ! 

The brilliant morn soon settled into a noon of unusual warmth. 
One of the lower batteries in front succeeded in silencing a Parrott 
gun across the river, and a lively shelling in the woods compelled 
the sharp-shooters to beat a hasty retreat. 

The Catholics of the city held services in their Cathedral, not 
withstanding the danger of such a proceeding. As the congrega 
tion was emerging from the building, the Argus-eyed enemy across 
the river discovered the unusual number of people in the streets, 
and instantly opened on them with a Parrott gun. As the shells 
came screaming wickedly through the streets, exploding or entering 
the building, men, women and children hastily sought shelter to 
escape the danger. Several persons were struck by fragments of 
shells, but, fortunately, no one killed. Such an unheard-of, ruthless 
and barbarous method of warfare as training a battery of rifled 
cannon upon an assembly of unarmed men and worshiping women, 
is unparalleled in the annals of history. 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 263 

Meat at this period be3ame exhausted, and orders were issued to 
select the finest and fattest mules within the lines, and slaughter 
them, for the purpose of issuing their flesh as food to the troops ; 
a half pound per man was the ration of this new species of flesh. 
Several Spaniards belonging to the Texas regiments were also busily 
occupied in jerking this meat for future consumption. 

This meat was also supplied to the citizens from the market, and 
sold for fifty cents a pound. The first meal which we remember to 
have eaten of mule-flesh was at the house of Mrs. Robert Hender 
son, whose husband commanded one of the heavy batteries on the 
river. We assure the ignorant reader that the food was consumed 
with a keen relish worthy the appetite of a gourmand, or an epicure 
over the most dainty repast. Mule-flesh, if the animal is in good 
condition, is coarse-grained and darker than beef, but really deli 
cious, sweet and juicy ; at least such has experience in testing its 
quality proven it to be. Besides this meat, traps were set for rats, 
which wore consumed in such numbers that, ere the termination of 
the siege, they actually became a scarcity. Hunger will demoralize 
the most fastidious tastes, and quantity, not quality of food, becomes 
the great desideratum. 

Mortally wounded : L. J. Benton, Co. K. Severely wounded : 
Sergeant J. A. Derboune, Co. G. 

29th. Very warm ; floating clouds overhead. The author made a 
hearty breakfast on fried rats, whose flesh he found very good, and 
fully equal to that of squirrels. The thought of such food may be 
actually nauseating to many of the readers of this record, yet, let 
starvation with its skeleton form visit them, and all qualms would 
speedily vanish, and any food, to satisfy hunger, be voraciously 
devoured, and considered as sweet manna. It is a difficult matter 
for persons surrounded with abundance to realize the feeling pro 
duced by extreme hunger ; no pen-picture, no grouping of words in 
all their forcibleness and power, can convey to those who have not 
experienced the sensation produced by this gaunt visitor. It must 
be felt to be realized ; and if once felt, the ide-a of eating dogs, cats, 
rats, or even human flesh, would contain nothing repulsive or repug 
nant to the feelings. 

The firing on the lines was not so brisk as usual. The enemy 
were once more undermining the works held by the Third Louisiana 
Infantry, and the men went spiritedly at work digging a counter 
mine. The laborers were so near each other that the strokes of the 
pickaxes could be distinctly heard, as well as the sound of the voices. 
Thus the deadly struggle went on, the brave boys never once dream- 



264 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

ing of despairing or giving up, although fighting over a volcano 
which at any moment might burst forth and ingulf them in a general 
ruin. The men of the regiment knew not what fear meant, and 
would not relinquish their position or falter in their defence of this 
place intrusted to them, though the whole earth beneath was a huge 
powder-magazine, requiring only a spark of fire to hurl them into 
eternity. Theirs was a spirit of unfaltering bravery, which no ter 
rors could for an instant make quail. Dauntless, their spirits soared 
towering above the accidents, the uncertainties of their existence. 
What more could be required of mere men, subject to all the chances 
and changes of mortality, calmly slumbering on the verge of a fearful 
precipice of destruction ? 

A large number of skiffs were constructed and conveyed to the 
lower portion of the town. Speculation became rife as to the mean 
ing of this new movement. What could it possibly mean ? The 
conviction seemed finally to settle on every mind that a desperate 
attempt would soon be made to cross the river with the army, and 
escape into the Trans-Mississippi Department. Whatever may have 
been the intention in building these boats, it was never divulged, 
and the accomplishment of such a design never carried into effect, or 
even attempted. It would have been an insane enterprise in the 
presence of the enemy s gun-boats and troops. 

The Federal sharp-shooters very impudently wished to know how 
we liked mule-meat, proving conclusively that they were constantly 
informed of every event which occurred within the lines. Their 
question, however, was responded to in not very flattering or com 
plimentary language. Thus affairs daily grew darker, and the men 
actually raved at the idea of surrendering, after their long, gallant, 
and heroic defence. Their spirits were unconquered unconquer 
able. The nights were brilliantly beautiful, with their flood of moon 
light silvering the embattlements and hill-sidessuch nights as the 
poetr> make immortal, and kindred spirits meet to whisper fond 
words of love. Yet here how different ! The silvery radiance only 
rendered more fatal the rifle s deadly aim, or darkened the flitting 
light of the huge bombs, as they described their graceful curves 
through the air on the mission of death and destruction. 

Mortally wounded : D. Echols, Company K. Slightly wounded : 
H. Finlay, Company K. 

30th. The last day of June. The sUn shone brightly, while groups 
of summer-clouds floated gently across the heavens. The sharp- 
shooting was slow but constant unceasing all day. The gun-boats 
approached the terminus of the lines below, and poured a concen- 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 265 

trated fire of shells into the rntrenchments, doing little damage or 
injury. Across the river, the peninsula looked lonely and deserted. 
The general apathy in fighting appeared ominous, and a dull, leaden 
weight unaccountably oppressed the mind, and gave a gloomy hue 
to every object. The hospitals were sad scenes of agony, suffering, 
and death, with their numerous occupants. Ah! how the heart 
grew mournful with heavy feelings ; how the soul filled with tears 
as the spectator wandered slowly through the rows of rough cots, 
and gazed upon the suffering, dying occupants ! Misery, such as one 
cares seldom to witness, was seen on all sides these heroic men, 
slowly wasting away under disease, the agony of torturing wounds, 
augmented by the need of proper nourishment and medicines. In 
a tent, on the outskirts of the hospital grounds, lay a dying soldier. 
His brother had passed away to the unseen shores of eternity but a 
few days previously. An unconsolable grief filled the heart of the 
survivor, and the fatal shell which struck him knelled his own death- 
doom. Sympathizing friends gathered around him, and with soft 
words soothed his dying hours, as he incessantly talked of the brother 
gone before him. Ah ! those touching scenes in the hospitals ! 
What pen shall fitly portray them ? Who shall give life by words 
to the groups of sorrowing faces, gathered near some dying soldier, 
as they conversed about the agony of the gray-haired father and 
mother far away, or the wild grief of some doting sister ? Then 
the humble burial ! A rough pine coffin, made of boards, torn from 
some old building or fence, wherein the remains are placed. Some 
comrade gently severs a lock of hair from the tangled mass, saying, 
as he places it in the bosom of his soiled, gray jacket, " I will carry 
this home to the loved ones there ; it will be a treasured relic for 
the grieving relatives." After long months that relic reaches its 
destination a memento of a comrade s faithfulness to his feelings 
when he stood over the silent form of his fellow-soldier. 

The humble grave is dug ; the coffin reverently placed therein by 
comrades, with uncovered heads ; then filled up, the hurtling shot, 
screaming shells, and booming guns being the only service for the 
dead. A plain board, roughly lettered, is placed at the end of the 
freshly-made mound, to mark the spot where, " after life s fitful 
fever," sleeps one of the heroes of Vicksburg. Ah ! how many such 
scenes have we witnessed 1 How vividly do they return in all their 
moumfulness and distinctness, with the accompanying dirge of war s 
fearful requiem ! 

July 1st. The month made famous in the annals of American his 
tory. In the present century, rendered still more noted by some of 
12 



266 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

the most glorious, as well as most mournful, events connected with 
the late desperate struggle. Could the framers of the Constitution 
of the Western Republic have gazed upon the scenes transpiring in 
the land, their hearts would have despaired of the final success of 
their patriotic endeavors. But the end is not yet. This dawning 
of a new month still found the billows of angry strife thundering 
in foaming crests around the heroic city. A clear sky was overhead, 
and the sun poured down a golden flood of intense, suffocating heat 
upon the combatants. Again the gun-boats below opened a lively 
cannonading upon the intrenchments. Elsewhere around the lines 
everything was comparatively quiet. At 2 r. M. the enemy exploded 
the mine beneath the works occupied by the Third Louisiana In 
fantry. A huge mass of earth suddenly, and with tremendous force 
and a terrible explosion, flew upwards, and descended with mighty 
power upon the gallant defenders, burying numbers beneath its falling 
fragments, bruising and mangling them most horribly. It seemed as if 
all hell had suddenly yawned upon the devoted band, and vomited 
forth its sulphurous fire and smoke upon them. The regiment, at 
this time, was supported by the First, Fifth, and Sixth Missouri 
Infantry, and upwards of a hundred were killed and wounded. 
Numbers were shocked and bruised, but not sufficiently to more than 
paralyze them for a few moments. The scene that followed beggared 
description. At first there was a general rush to escape the huge 
mass of descending earth. Then the survivors, without halting to 
inquire who had fallen, hastened to the immense gap in the works to 
repel the anticipated assault. The enemy, taught by a dearly- 
bought experience, made no attempt to enter the opening, not 
daring to assault the intrepid defenders. An immense number of 
12-pounder shells, thrown from wooden mortars, descended among 
the troops, doing fearful execution. The fire was tremendous, rapid, 
and concentrated, yet there was no flinching among those brave 
Southerners. The undaunted Missourians stood shoulder to shoulder 
with the intrepid Louisianians. These heroes of Oak Hills, Elk 
Horn, and Corinth could not flinch under the most scathing fire. 
They had already been tried in the refining crucible of danger, and 
found composed of the purest metal of bravery. Steel hearts and 
avenging arms knew no fear. 

The wounded and dying were speedily conveyed to the hospitals 
for attendance. The spectacle was horrible in the extreme. Stretched 
out on the green-sward, with no shelter save the overshadowing trees, 
with the bright sunlight peering in tremulous rays through the in 
tervening foliage, lay these men, suffering from every conceivable 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 267 

wound known in war. Some writhing in the agonies of death, 
others bruised, torn, mangled, and lacerated by shell and shot, while 
others were blackened and burned from the effects of the explosion. 
Gazing upon this scene of human agony and suffering, the emerald 
trees, green-sward, smiling skies, and golden sunlight seemed a fear 
ful mockery. Surgeons, with sleeves rolled up to their elbows, hands, 
arms, and shirts red with human gore, hastened hither and thither, 
or were using their keen-edged instruments in amputating some 
shattered limb, extracting balls and fragments of shells from the 
lacerated bodies, or probing some ghastly wound of the sufferers. 
Men, fearfully mangled in body and limbs, groaning with agony, 
some clutching the green-sward in their death-struggles, others with 
crushed, bruised bodies lingering in speechless torment ! Such were 
the scenes of war on this hot July afternoon. It seemed as if some 
avenging Nemesis must descend and curse the land where such 
scenes were enacted, saving an heroic people from the relentless pur 
suit of the avenging hand of fate. Yet the end was not yet. What 
a record for the opening of a new month ! The sun sank in the 
west in a cloudless sky, and quiet reigned over the besieged city. 
The moon rose majestically in the eastern horizon, tinging the turbid 
waters of the Mississippi with its bright, silvery sheen, while the 
taunts of the foe echoed across its eddying surface, as Night once 
again spread her dark mantle over the earth. 

Killed : Robert Hammett, Co. D ; B. F. Hickman, Co. K ; John 
Reese, Joe Bird, Co. H ; L. Flores, Co. G. 

Wounded: Captain J. Kinney, M. O Brien, Co. A; H.Kelly, J. H. 
Johnson, J. Totle, F. M. Worley, M. Higginbotham, A. Williams, Co. 
B ; J. M. McBride, W. J. Carson, W. Evans, J. Tedley, N. Moody, 
Co. C ; H. Duke, J. McDaniel, J. Fonteneau, Co. D ; - Movin, 
Co. G ; Captain Joe Johnson, P. Smith, D. Bliss, Co. I. 

3d. The morning dawned clear amid the roar of guns, the ex 
plosion of shells, and the angry scream of solid shot. The enemy 
opened very briskly from mortars, columbiads, andParrott guns, and 
kept up a hot fire on the city and lines. Provisions were very scarce, 
and murmurs of discontent began to be heard, but only among a 
few, whose patriotism and devotion gave way under the accumulat 
ing horrors and the gnawings of hunger. The majority of the 
troops were as eager, undaunted, and unconquered as when the enemy 
first appeared, expressing a willingness and determination to hold 
the place as long as a mouthful of anything eatable remained to sus 
tain life. It was the hour that tried the souls of men. The dark 
cloud of disaster hovered over the devoted garrison, and fanned 



268 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

their courageous souls with the shadow of its sable, restless pinions. 
Would it envelop them in its gloomy folds, and surrender become 
a reality, became a painful question. A few fleeting days must de 
termine for succor and freedom, or defeat and capture. Provisions 
were becoming a rarity, and mule-flesh was freely issued, and raven 
ously devoured. The approaching national anniversary was looked 
forward to as a day of fearful strife. The boys laughingly inquired, 
"We wonder who will be best satisfied with the grand celebra 
tion?" 

The guns on the peninsula poured a rapid fire on the city ; the 
100-pounder Parrotts doing terrible execution on the buildings, 
about sunset. Our batteries were very quiet. The question was 
frequently propounded, in view of an expected surrender, " Why not 
expend our large supply of ammunition in firing upon the eneniy^ 
rather than permit it to pass into their hands, to swell the list of 
their captures ?" Echo questioned " Why ?" 

The sun dipped beneath the western horizon amid the thunder 
of guns. Storm-clouds hung low in the heavens, athwart whose 
darkness the forked lightning played in fitful gleams. A fierce 
southeast wind swept shrieking by ; not a star or gleam of blue sky 
was visible through the leaden canopy of clouds. The scene was 
gloomy in the extreme. It seemed as if the spirits of those who 
had fallen along the lines were visiting the doomed garrison, warn 
ing them, amid gloom and darkness, of their coming doom. We 
laid down to sleep, while the mortars still fired rapidly upon the 
city, and soon forgot all care in the land of dreams, regardless of 
the exploding bombs, red glare, and the hum of their descending 
fragments. Thus passed another day. 

Killed : Lieutenant J. Horn, Co. F ; F. J. Brosi, Co. F, wounded. 

3d. The morning was clear. The cannonading was terrific, and 
a storm of iron hail was poured upon the city, and the hospitals 
seemed a special mark for the enemy s shot and shell. In the after 
noon a heavy storm-cloud gathered in the north and northeast, 
hanging like a funeral pall over the city. A flag of truce went out 
to the enemy s lines, and rumors began to prevail that the place was 
about to be surrendered. The brave garrison indignantly denied 
such a contingency, yet scarcely knew what to believe. Aflfairs 
looked very gloomy. The night was clear and quiet, and the spirit 
of disaster once more fanned the air with its sable pinions ere a final 
descent upon the city. Out on the realms of mind soared swift- 
winged thought, reviewing the events of the past forty-eight days 
days of such suffering, horror, and carnage as the soul shuddered to 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 269 

contemplate. Then the soul would be filled with sad memories of 
the spirits gone, the mouldering bodies, sleeping in peaceful quiet 
beneath the newly-made mounds of earth. Yet amid all the zephyr- 
ous-winged thoughts the glittering stars looked smilingly down 
upon the quiet city and its slumbering hosts. 



CHAPTER XXX. 

THE SURRENDER. 

JULY 4th, a day memorable in the annals of American history, 
was destined once again to be made memorable as a day both of re 
joicing and humiliation to those who had besieged and defended 
Vicksburg. Early in the day it became known that negotiations 
were pending for the surrender of the Southern stronghold. A per 
fect storm of indignation burst forth among the troops. What, 
surrender, and that, too, on the 4th of July, above all other days ? 
Impossible ! Alas, it became too true ! The following order was 
early promulgated : 

HEADQUARTERS, FORNEY S DIVISION,) 
July 4^, 1863. f 

I am directed by the Lieutenant-General commanding to inform 
you, that the terms for the capitulation of Vicksburg and garrison 
have been completed, and are as follows : 

The officers and men will be paroled at once, retaining their pri 
vate baggage ; commissioned officers their side-arms, and mounted 
officers one horse each. 

At 10 o clock, A. M., to-day, each brigade will be marched out in 
front of its respective position, stacking arms ; it will then return, 
and bivouac in rear of the trenches until the necessary rolls can be 
completed. 

You will please state to your troops that these terms are concurred 
in by the general officers, and you will caution your men not to avoid 
being paroled, as it is to their advantage to have their papers prop 
erly made out. 

So soon as the order is received you will cause white flags to be 
displayed along your lines. 

I am, General, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 
Official: J. H. FORNEY, Major-General Commanding. 

W. D. HARDIMAN, A. A. G. 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 271 

The receipt of this order was the. signal for a fearful outburst of 
anger and indignation, seldom witnessed. The members of the Third 
Louisiana Infantry expressed their feelings in curses loud and deep. 
Many broke their trusty rifles against the trees, scattered the ammu 
nition over the ground where they had so long stood battling bravely 
and unflinchingly against overwhelming odcls. In many instances, 
the battle-worn flags were torn into shreds, and distributed among 
the men as a precious and sacred memento, that they were no party 
to the surrender. 

When the appointed hour, 10 A. M., arrived, the surrender was 
effected in conformity with the published order. The troops were 
marched outside the trenches, along whose line fluttered white pen 
nants, arms were stacked, and, in sullen silence, they returned within 
the lines, and sought convenient camps in the rear of the intrench- 
ments, where they might give free expression to their pent-up feel 
ings. Soon along the entire line Federal soldiers paced where so 
recently arose the sulphurous smoke and deafening din of fierce 
battle. 

The siege of Vicksburg was at last ended. Thus, forty-eight long 
days and nights, twenty thousand Southerners, decreased finally to 
a mere handful, had successfully resisted the combined assault of 
120,000 Federals.* Such a siege was unparalleled in the annals of 
American history for duration, and not surpassed in any land for 
violent assault, and the number of missiles hurled at the assailed. 
The Federals who marched into the place had more the appearance 
of being vanquished than the unarmed Confederates, who gazed 
upon them with folded arms, and in stern silence, a fierce defiance 
on their bronzed features, and the old battle fire gleaming in their 
glittering eyes. This was when the Federals first appeared. During 
all the events of the surrender, not one had been seen, and afterward 
no word of exultation was uttered to irritate the feelings of the 
prisoners. On the contrary, every sentinel who came upon post 
brought haversacks filled with provisions, which he would give to 
some famished Southerner, with the remark, u Here, reb, I know you 
are starved nearly to death." They knew that nothing but this 
gaunt skeleton had compelled their opponents to capitulate, and 
even then the honors of war claimed had been granted them. More 
over, the terms of capitulation were as favorable as could have been 
expected. The officers expressed great astonishment at the place 
being held so long behind such feeble, illy-constructed works as 

* A fact stated by General Herron, U. S. A., to Lieutenant Fowler, of Gen 
eral Forney s staff. 



272 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

those around Vicksburg works that were a sad commentary on the 
skill of any engineer calling himself such. 

At noon on the day of surrender the fleet approached the city, 
decked with innumerable flags, and the thunder of artillery pro 
claimed the exultation of the conquerors. It was a sad spectacle for 
the ragged, emaciated, yet heroic Confederates, who had so stub 
bornly endeavored to retain possession of this stronghold. 

SCENES AFTER THE SURRENDER. 

During the siege of Vicksburg, there was a class of non-combat 
ants who distinguished themselves in a marked manner. These were 
the speculators, embracing nearly every merchant within the limits 
of the city, without distinction of nationality. These bloodsuck 
ers had the audacity to hold their goods at such prices that it was an 
an utter impossibility to obtain anything from them. Four hundred 
dollars was the price of a barrel of flour ; coffee was ten dollars per 
pound, and everything else in like proportion Some of these, 
worse than villains, refused to sell to the soldiers at any price, and, 
consequently, were not objects of special love by the brave men. 

When the Federal soldiers entered the city they mingled freely 
with the Confederates, and expressed their sympathy with their de 
plorable situation by every possible means in their power. They 
were now no longer deadly combatants, but mortals of similar feel 
ings. A retributive justice speedily descended upon the speculators, 
as the Federals broke open their stores, completely plundering them. 
The Southerners looked on this work of destruction with feelings 
akin to satisfaction, and felt as if a portion of their wrongs were 
avenged. Wines, for which the sick had pined in vain, were 
brought to light ; luxuries of various kinds were found in profusion. 
The Federals brought them into the streets, and throwing them 
down, would shout, u Here, rebs, help yourselves, you are naked and 
starving and need them." What a strange spectacle of war between 
those who were so recently deadly foes ! Such generosity was no 
rarity, and softened down much of the deadly animosity and bitter 
feeling experienced by the vanquished for their foes. Many found 
friends and relatives, and the Third Regiment had more than its 
share among the Federal troops. They met with cordial greetings ; 
yet each adhered most tenaciously to their political sentiments and 
discussions ; furious and warm were the special order of the day. 

Aside from the speculators was a class of citizens in Vicksburg, 
who did their duty nobly. Let it be known, everywhere written in 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 273 

ineffaceable characters upon the pages of history ; traced with golden 
letters upon the scroll of Time ; stamped with an indelible impression 
upon every manly Southern heart, that the LADIES of VICKSBURG 
were as true as steel, charitable to a fault upon every occasion, when 
their services were needed. Flittering like ministering angels about 
the hospitals, giving aid and comfort to the sick and wounded ; ho 
vering with tearful eyes over the dying soldier ; threading their way 
along the torn-up streets amid the scream of shot and shell, and the 
storm of descending iron on missions of love and mercy, they exhib 
ited a heroism and devotion beyond portrayal by human language. 

The rememberance of her deeds there come back to us now with 
a force which mere words can give no expression to. Devoted wo 
men of Vicksburg ! to-day, when the storm of war has passed away 
and bright- winged peace once again smilingly sits on the thres 
holds of our homes, the heroes of thy city still remember thee with 
an imperishable love, eternal, undying as the soul itself. 

Could human language furnish expressions sufficiently strong and 
beautiful, then would thought soar amidst its intricacies, and pluck 
therefrom its choicest words and transcribe them on these pages, 
that they might shine with radiant splendor here, a feeble tribute to 
thy kindness, love, and patriotism. 

THE HOSPITALS. 

To the diary of Captain Charles A. Brusle, an officer on General 
Hebert s staff, we are indebted for the substance of the following rec 
ords : 

" There were two classes of hospitals in Vicksburg : those for the 
sick, and those for the wounded. A week after the siege, Washing 
ton Hospital contained three hundred sick ; the average deaths daily 
being from five to eight. During the siege the number of patients 
reached nearly eight hundred, and the deaths were proportionately 
greater, footing up eighteen or twenty daily. In this hospital very 
few wounded were admitted, so that, although much suffering was 
depicted upon the countenances of the poor inmates, yet were the 
scenes not so heart-rending as those exhibited by a visit to the hos 
pitals containing the wounded. In the latter could be seen men 
with both legs off; some with an eye out, others without arms, and 
again, some who could once boast of manly beauty and personal 
attractions, rendered hideous by the loss of the nose or a portion of 
the face, so as to be unrecognizable by their nearest and dearest kin 
dred. If one wishes to view the havoc of war next to the battle-field, 



274 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

this is the place to witness it. So fearful, so horrible are the scenes, 
that, long after you have left the place, perhaps haunting you to the 
verge of life, the screams of the wounded, the groans of the dying, 
or some form cold and stiff in death s icy embrace will ring in your 
ears and be present to your mental vision. One more picture and the 
tableau is complete the burial of the dead. During the siege, 
trenches fifty feet long and three feet wide were dug, to receive 
the bodies of the brave men and officers. They usually contained 
about eight bodies. It was seldom a coffin could be procured, and 
the brave defender of his country had to be wrapped in his blanket 
and lowered into the cold earth which was hastily heaped above his 
mortal remains." 

THE "CONTRABANDS." 

Of course, large numbers of the officers had their negro servants 
with them, and the disposition to be made of them became a matter 
of great anxiety. 

The following order from Major-Gen eral James B. McPherson, to 
Lieutenant-General John C. Pemberton, relative to negroes belonging 
to officers, was first received : 

HEADQUARTERS, PAROLED PRISONERS, ) 
VICKSBURG, July 6. 1863. > 

Circular : The following is published for the information of all 
concerned : 

HEADQUARTERS 17TH ARMY CORPS, ) 
VICKSBURG, July 6, 1863. J 

Lt.- General Pemberton, Commanding C. S. A. Forces, Vicksburg, 

GENERAL : In relation to the question of servants, I am author 
ized to say that each commissioned officer can send in the boy 
whom he wishes to take with him with a pass, stating the fact to 
my Provost Marshal, Lieutenant-Colonel Wilson, who will question 
him as to his willingness to go, at the same time stating to the boy 
that he is free to do as he likes. If the boy or servant says he 
wishes to go, a pass will then be issued to him. 

General officers will not be permitted to take with them mounted 
men for couriers. Major-General Grant furthermore directs me to 
say that he cannot permit you to send a courier with dispatches to 
your Government to-day, but will do so as soon as the public interest 
will permit. 

Two teams will be allowed for your headquarters ; one team for 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 275 

Division Headquarters ; one four mule-team for Brigade Headquar 
ters; one four-mule team for each regiment; one team for Major 
Orme, Chief Quartermaster. Very respectfully your obedient ser 
vant, JAMES B. MCPHERSON, Major General. 

By order Lieutenant- General PEMBERTON. 

R. W. MEMMINGER, A. A. G. 
Official: S. CROM, A. A. G., to Brigadier- General HEBERT, Com 
manding Brigade. 

In conformity with the above order, large numbers of negroes im 
mediately sought Lieutenant-Colonel Wilson s quarters, and seemed 
so eager to leave Vicksburg with their former masters and employers, 
that Major-General McPherson thought best to send the following 
letter to General Pemberton : 

GENERAL : I am constrained, in consequence of the abuse of the 
privilege which was granted to officers to take out one private ser 
vant each (colored), to withdraw it altogether, except in cases of 
families, and sick and disabled officers. 

The abuses which I speak of are,jtfrs, officers coming with their 
servants here, and intimidating them instead of sending them by 
themselves to be questioned ; second, citizens have been seen and 
heard in the streets urging negroes, who are evidently not servants, 
to go with the officers ; third, negroes have also been brought here 
who have been at work on the fortifications. 

Very respectfully your obedient servant, 

J. B. MCPHERSON, Major- General. 

These letters need no comment at the present time. They are 
inserted here as connected with events transpiring at Vicksburg, and 
as forming an important portion of the history of the late unnatural 
war. 

Numbers of the negroes attached to the Third Louisiana Infantry 
stayed with it, and attempted to leave with their former employers, 
but were detained. The parting between them at the lines often ex 
hibited very affecting scenes. 

COMMENTS ON THE FALL OF VICKSBURG. 

When the city fell, and was surrendered on the 4th of July, the 
men broke forth in bitter denunciation of Lieutenant-General Pem 
berton, boldly proclaiming that they had been sold to the enemy. 
Surrender on the 4th of July ! Why should that day, of all others, 



276 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

be chosen for their humiliation ? They preferred dying a thou 
sand times more preferable than making the National Anniversary 
a thrice memorable natal day, and giye to the United States a new 
impulse for prosecuting the war. Would it not be received as a 
good omen, and infuse a new spirit into the efforts of the foe for 
their subjugation? Such were some of the fierce denunciations 
used, whether justly or not the world has never discovered. Yet it 
seems scarcely probable or possible that General Pemberton could 
have been actuated by such perfidious motives. 

That General Pemberton was not altogether blameless, is a fact 
known to the public generally ; yet that he should be made to bear 
the whole of that disaster is wrong. We resume, in connection with 
this subject, extracts from the diary already mentioned. Lieutenant- 
General Pemberton was guilty of gross neglect of duty in two ways : 

1. In not fortifying Vicksburg so as to resist an attack from the 
rear with the least possible loss of life. 

2. In not procuring supplies for the garrison sufficient to make a 
protracted defence in case of a siege. 

This is the great and chief cause of complaint. Not withstand 
ing public or private opinion regarding this subject, starvation was 
the actual cause of the surrender, as the records of these pages 
plainly demonstrate. Communications were received from the Yazoo 
Valley giving information that immense supplies could be obtained 
form this source. Yet no efforts were made to obtain these supplies or 
transport them to Vicksburg, although it was known that General 
Grant was making strenuous exertions to cross the river and attack 
Vicksburg from the rear, and might succeed at any moment. Again, 
the large quantity of supplies which accumulated at Snyder s Mills 
were allowed to remain there, and were eventually destroyed for the 
want of transportation, which should have been furnished at all 
hazards, regardless of the loss of camp equipage and clothing. 

These are indisputable facts, and are placed on record as neces 
sary to the completeness of the history concerning the siege and 
fall of Vicksburg, and not with a view of casting undue reflections 
upon the course pursued by Lieutenant-General Pemberton, who 
afterwards nobly served the Confederacy as a colonel of artillery. 

AFTER THE SURRENDER. 

July 5th. Kations for five clays were issued to the Confederates 
from the Commissariat of the Federals. These rations consisted of 
bacon, hominy, peas, coffee, sugar, soap, salt, candles and bread. 
How the famished troops enjoyed such bounteous supplies it is 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 277 

needless to state. For once the brave boys were the objects of their 
enemy s charity. They grew jovial and hilarious over the change in 
their condition. The Yankees came freely among them, and were 
unusually kind. They asked innumerable questions, and were hor 
rified at the fact of the men eating mules and rats, and openly ex 
pressed their admiration for the unfaltering bravery of the Confed 
erates. The men of the Third discussed the events of the siege, and 
the probability of soon being paroled. Visions of home and the 
loved ones there rose in rainbow tints before their imaginations, 
and many plans were formed for the period of their freedom from 
military service until their exchange. Rained very hard during the 
afternoon. 

7th. Clear, and very warm. Vicksburg presented a strange yet 
animated scene. Immense numbers of steamers crowded the land 
ings. The streets were thronged with crowds of citizens and 
soldiers, the Yankees eager to inspect the effects of tbe siege the 
Confederates equally as curious to view the gun-boats, steamers 
whatever was new and strange to them. On this day the work of 
paroling was commenced. 

The men were paroled separately, and subscribed to the follow 
ing oath : 

VICKSEUIIG, Miss., July 7, 1863. 

To all wliom it may concern : 

Know ye, that I, , a private, Company , Regiment Vol 
unteers, C. S. A., being a prisoner of war in the hands of the United 
States forces, in virtue of the capitulation of the City of Vicksburg 
and its garrison by Lieutenant-G-eneral John C. Pemberton, C. S. A., 
commanding on the 4th day of July, 1863, do, in pursuance of the 
terms of said capitulation, give this my solemn parole, under oath : 

That I will not take up arms again against the United States, 
nor serve in any military police or constabulary force in any fort, 
garrison or field-work held by the Confederate States of America, 
against the United States of America, nor a guard of prisons, depots 
or stores, nor discharge any duties usually performed by officers or 
soldiers, against the United States of America, until duly exchanged 
by the proper authorities. 

Sworn to and subscribed before me, at Vicksburg, Miss., this 7th 
day of July, 1863. JOHN O. DUER, 

Captain 4Qth Illinois Regiment, and Paroling Officer. 

A new spectacle to the brave boys of the Third Louisiana was to- 



278 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

day witnessed in Vicksburg, which was the free intermingling be 
tween the Yankees and negroes on terms of equality. The author 
saw a United States officer walking through the streets with a negro 
woman leaning on his arm. He carried an umbrella, doubtless to 
shelter his lady from the sun, and prevent the bright light from 
tanning lier ebony complexion. How such a scene affected a Southerner 
then can better be imagined than described. Now, it would scarce 
elicit a passing glance. 

Thus affairs progressed from day to day, with little change. The 
Confederates crossed the river in numbers, being permitted to do so 
by the Federals, who well knew that it was a most effectual method 
of demoralizing and destroying the efficiency of the army. 

On the llth the army was formed in proximity to the road leading 
to Jackson, preparatory to having their baggage examined, and bid 
ding a final adieu to the scene of their heroic valor. The Third 
Regiment were alone honored with a row of sentries completely 
encircling them. None were allowed to enter or pass beyond this 
line, unless by special permission. Whether the Yankees still feared 
some outbreak from the brave Louisianians,who had fought them with 
such desperation and courage, or whether it was a precaution adopted 
by the officers to keep the men together, was not discovered. At 
this time it was well known that the attempt was about to be made 
to march the entire army to some point in the Confederacy, and keep 
them in camp until finally exchanged. They were determined to see 
their homes and relatives. Expostulations, threats and commands 
were words wasted, and a child might as well have endeavored to 
move a mountain with its puny arm, as for any officer to change 
their fixed purpose. 

At 1U o clock A. M., July llth, the army bade a final adieu to 
Vicksburg. They marched out of their stronghold with a proud 
step, and a stern defiance on their faces. The roadsides and embank 
ments were crowded with Federals, to take a farewell glance at the 
troops who had fought them so stubbornly and desperately. Not a 
word of exultation or an outburst of any feeling was manifested by 
the foe. Honoring the heroic garrison for their bravery, they would 
not add to the humiliation of their surrender, by a single taunt. 
As the Third Regiment passed out of the works which they had de 
fended with such obstinate bravery, they saw a large detail actively 
engaged in filling up the approaches which they had dug to the 
intrenchments occupied by the regiment. The old spirit of defiance 
broke forth in words, as they witnessed the scene. 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 279 

" Oh ! yes," said one, " shovel dirt, d n you. It is all you are 

good for. You can do that better than fighting." 

" Dry up," retorted a Federal ; u you rebels have grown wonderful 
sassy on Uncle Sam s grub." 

It was a home-thrust, and the boys journeyed by in silence. 

The day was a scorching hot one, and the men yet weak and all 
unaccustomed to marching. Yet, under these disadvantages, they 
tramped steadily forward, making fourteen miles, and encamping 
on the east side of Big Black. Their whole line of march was 
through the United States forces, who gathered in large numbers 
along the road to see the captured army. The Confederates, during 
this first clay s march, began to exhibit a terrible state of demorali 
zation. There was no regular organization of either companies, 
regiments or brigades, and large numbers of the men were constantly 
leaving for home. The Third Regiment had only a handful of men 
left, comprised mostly of those whose homes were within the enemy s 
lines. On the 12th we reached Raymond, marching a distance of 
twenty-one miles. At this place the ladies stood on the streets with 
refreshments for the wearied, weak troops, whom they welcomed 
with every demonstration of joy, and many kind, encouraging words. 

The next day, at 12 M., the troops arrived at Pearl River, where 
they met the outposts of the Confederate army. An attempt was 
made at this stream to prevent the men from crossing, except in 
organized bodies. It most signally failed, as they constructed rafts, 
above and below the regular crossing, and ferried each other over. 
The troops proceeded about twelve miles east" of Pearl River, ere 
they halted. General Pemberton rode in advance, and endeavored 
in vain to halt those who had left the main body. They either paid 
no attention to his commands, or left the highway for some less pub 
lic road. That night a large number of the Third Regiment en 
camped near a corn-field, some distance from the main road. They 
had but a single frying-pan, as cooking utensil for the whole body. 
It was used in succession by squads of three and four, and then 
passed on. Corn was prepared and devoured on this occasion in its 
simplest form, yet with keen relish and in quantities sufficiently 
large to have killed men with the usual digestive organs. A Geor 
gian did actually die from eating too much of this new food, finish 
ing nearly two dozen ears. He was buried near the road-side, and a 
large placard pasted on a tree, giving his name and regiment, and 
setting forth the fact that he died from " the effects of eating too 
much green corn." No one, however, heeded the warning contained 
in this singular obituary notice. 



280 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

How strange the contrast between their present situation and that 
of a few days previously ! Then they were living amid the uproar 
and excitement of a fierce and deadly conflict ; now they were un 
armed wanderers over the land. Regular sentinels watched, while 
the remainder of the party slept soundly, most sweetly, with no 
screaming shells or thundering explosions to rudely disturb their 
slumbers. 

The night was dark and cloudy, and the sentinel on guard must 
be his own time-keeper, for no stars shone in the sky to guide his 
judgment. All around was the silent woods, dark and gloomy, dis 
turbed save by the chirrup of insects and the katydid s not unmu 
sical voice. How strange seemed the situation ! 

The next morning, the 14th, at 3 A. M., started once more on the 
journey, reaching Brandon at 12 M., a travel of twenty miles in a 
half day. There were fifty of the Third Regiment left as a nucleus. 
They were hungry, tired and sore, and, although praised as being the 
brave defenders of Vicksburg, could not then appreciate the compli 
ment, as it did not satisfy their wants. The roar of artillery was 
heard all day, indicating fighting between the forces of General 
Johnston and the Federals at Jackson. 

Succeeded in drawing some rations on the 15th. At this point 
General Pemberton ordered Adjutant Curry to make a detail from 
the regiment, to guard some commissary stores on the railroad. 
Captain Gentles, of Company K, was detailed, with several men, who 
all most positively refused to do such duty, as being in violation of 
the provisions of their paroles. Captain Gentles was ordered under 
arrest, and here the matter remained for the time being. This episode 
created great excitement, and resulted in some queer discussions as 
to the full meaning and extent of the parole. At this period the 
men, however, exhibited a disposition to interpret it in its literal and 
closest signification. 

On the 16th, the party started on the road leading back to Pearl 
River, to endeavor to find the regimental wagon. After proceeding 
nearly three miles, they were halted and turned back, now marching 
on the road to Enterprise. Meeting a few of the regiment, they re 
ported this organization as having melted into a myth, the wagons 
in the woods almost deserted. A very few of the regiment reached 
Enterprise, and were immediately furnished with the following fur 
loughs, for thirty days : 

Special Orders, ) HEADQUARTERS THIRD LA. INFANTRY, ) 

No. - \ Enterprise, Miss., July 21, 1863. J 

In compliance with Division Circular Order of this date, to me 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 281 

directed, I hereby furlough for (30) thirty days, to take effect 
from the 23d July. Members of companies raised on the east bank 
of the Mississippi River will rendezvous at Demopolis, Ala., or such 
other places as may be hereafter designated by the War Department. 
Members of those companies raised on the west bank of the Missis 
sippi will rendevuous at Alexandria, La., to march to Demopolis, 
Ala., or to such other point as may be hereafter designated by the 
Secretary of War. 

Transportation will be furnished to , to and from his home, to 

the place of rendezvous. 

SAMUEL D. RUSSELL, 
Lieutenant- Colonel Commanding Third Louisiana Infantry. 

Previous to this period the mass of the regiment had already left 
the army, and, crossing the Mississippi River wherever this object 
could be successfully accomplished, had made their way homeward 
in small squads. The greater portion of the command resided in 
parishes west of the Mississippi River. The receipt of furloughs 
by the few who reached Enterprise was the signal for a general 
scattering of the men over the different States, wherever they had 
friends and relatives. The conduct of the Third Regiment in thus 
voluntarily disbanding was not the exception, but the general rule 
in the army. The men who had fought so long and bravely, and 
who had suffered so severely, felt, after their capture and paroling, 
as if they were not only exempt from all military duty, but privi 
leged to go where they pleased, and do as they pleased, until ex 
changed. They sadly needed rest and recreation, and sought their 
homes, as being the most favorable places to obtain these most de 
sirable objects. Thus melted away the gallant army of Vicksburg, 
and the Confederacy lost the . services of some of her bravest, most 
heroic, and truest defenders. General Grant could not have em 
ployed a more efficient method of disbanding and disorganizing an 
army than the very course he pursued. It was as effective as if a 
scourge had swept them from his path. How joyfully the bronzed 
and weather-beaten veterans of the Third Regiment were welcomed 
home by friends and relatives after years of absence amid peril, we 
leave the reader to imagine. Yet in many homes there were aching, 
sorrowful hearts, and tearful eyes for the loved one who came not 
back, whose voice was hushed forever, whose mouldering body 
quietly rested beneath the hill-side sod of the fallen city, leaving 
behind a name for heroic devotion and undaunted bravery, which 
would be inscribed on the scroll of time, and live in song and story. 



282 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 



INCIDENTS. TJIE COB-WAGON AND THE MORTAR-SHELL. 

In the early pail of the siege, all the negroes belonging to the 
regiment were used as cooks to prepare food for the men in the 
trenches, under the superintendence of the Commissary Sergeant and 
proper details. They had a perfect horror of shot and shell, and 
the proximity of one of these missiles would stampede the whole 
band from the vicinity of the fires and utensils, to seek some shelter 
beneath the hills. The first cooking camp was in the rear of Vicks- 
burg, almost in direct range of the shells from Commodore Porter s 
mortar fleet. The place eventually became so warm that it was an 
utter impossibility to keep the cooks about the fires. Hence a move 
was rendered necessary. A spot was chosen south of Yicksbnrg, in 
a deep valley. There was not a sign of any unwelcome visitors 
having reached the sequestered vale. Fires were speedily built, and 
the negroes were hilarious over their work, feeling secure in their 
new position. A small one-horse wagon was sent to the grist-mill 
near at hand to procure a load of cobs to facilitate the process of 
baking. It was driven up near the fires. Rude jokes and uproarious 
laughter arose on all sides as the ebony-hued cooks indulged in their 
coarse witticisms. One of the detail was unhitching the horse, while 
a young fellow by the name of Stephens, a member of Company I, 
had just taken out the hind gate of the wagon, and was standing 
about three feet from the end of the vehicle. The sullen roar of a 
mortar had been heard but a moment before. No notice was taken 
of the accustomed miniature thunder. Suddenly the ominous scream 
of the huge missile was heard as it cleft a swift passage through the 
air. Every one intuitively ceased laughing and talking, and intently 
listened to the increasing voice of its approach. Nearer, yet nearer ! 
the mad rush of the iron mass. Shriller, more hideous its fearful 
scream. The negroes stood with trembling limbs, and dilated, dis 
tended eyes, as if fascinated, spell-bound. "Look out, boys," 
shouted one accustomed to the sound, " it s coming among us." The 
voice roused some few, who started off at full speed. u What s the 
use of running ?" said a young fellow standing near Stephens ; " you 
will probably only rush into danger." It took but a few seconds for 
all this to occur, while the shell was still descending. With a scream 
like the concentrated shout of a thousand demons, down, down it 
came, into the very centre of the camp, just missing the end of the 
wagon, and descending with tremendous force into the earth. 
Stephens was seen to fly backward through the air, performing a 
feat of gymnastics not usually a part of any programme. " Hurt 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 283 

any, Stephens?" shouted one of the boys. Stephens sprang nimbly 

to his feet, replying, " Not much ; bruised some ; but I ll be , boys, 

if that wasn t what I call a narrow escape." A loud burst of 
laughter greeted the response. Six inches variation in the descent 
of the missile would have caused his instantaneous death. The 
shell, fortunately for all, failed to explode, but made a hole in the 
ground fully fifteen feet deep, and sufficiently large for a man to 
crawl into. It was used for many days afterward as a receptacle for 
trash, although the boys jocularly remarked, that they preferred 
digging holes themselves, as being far preferable to Porter s very 
striking and forcible method. The tremendous power and force of a 
mortar-shell must be seen to be appreciated. It is almost incredible 
how far one of these missiles will penetrate into the solid earth. 

THE RULES OF CIVILIZED WARFARE. 

All History teaches us that during modern times, no matter how 
fierce and deadly the struggle between nations appealing to arms for 
a settlement of differences and difficulties, the hospitals for the sick 
and wounded were considered as sacred spots. Where fluttered the 
yellow ensign, insignia of the purpose for which a building was 
used, it was regarded as an emblem of safety, and unapproached by 
the storm of war. Yet in this nineteenth century, and to the Amer 
ican race, was reserved the spectacle of disregarding every law 
which should govern a people engaged in a deadly struggle. The 
siege of Vicksburg furnished no more terrible commentary upon the 
inhuman warfare waged during the recent strife, than the fact that 
the Confederate hospitals were selected as the special targets for the 
Federal guns. There the flag furnished no protection to the mangled 
and helpless inmates. The city hospital was a large building, stand 
ing in a prominent position, and visible for miles. Yet day after 
day the fire of Commodore Porter s mortars was directed upon the 
spot. The building itself was crowded with wounded, while the 
grounds around it were filled with tents, containing the maimed 
soldiers. To the physical agony of their wounds was added the 
constant mental dread of the missiles which fell among and around 
them, or, bursting in the air overhead with thundering detonations, 
descended in hoarsely screaming fragments among them. What 
mattered it that there were congregated there hundreds of maimed, 
suffering men ! What mattered it that they were helpless bodies, 
animated by heroic spirits ! Was not the avenger abroad, and a 
malignant spirit of warfare which gave no heed to their fears or 
complainings ? Oh ! the terrible picture of that hospital, with its 



284 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

brave sufferers, and the exploding shells above the spot. It is 
painted ineffaceably upon the tablets of memory as then often seen, 
and the horrors of the picture mar now, as then, all the serene 
beauty of the Summer sky. Several shells penetrated the building, 
injuring many of the occupants, already crippled and wounded. 
One huge shell descended through the roof in an oblique direction, 
to the ground floor, exploding almost within the surgeons room. 
The hoarded and scanty supply of medicines were almost totally 
destroyed, and the chief surgeon lost a leg. In the centre of the 
city the Washington Hotel was used for hospital purposes. Yet the 
enemy s Parrott guns were directed, by what malignant spirit God 
knows, upon the spot, although the hospital flag floated above it. 
In the southern portion of the city was another large building used 
for a similar purpose. This place became the particular target for 
the columbiads planted on the peninsula opposite the city. These 
are not imaginary statements, but stern facts, unimpeachable, and 
able to be substantiated by reliable, valid authority. Whether the 
wrongs thus perpetrated were intentional, cannot be known, but the 
fact of their existence is sufficient, and properly belong to a truthful 
record of events, that transpired during that memorable siege. 
Comment is considered unnecessary. 

WOUNDED, BADLY. 

A member of Company F was severely wounded, being shot 
through the body. After recovering somewhat from the first shock 
of the wound, he broke forth in bitter invectives against the Yan 
kees, completely exhausting the whole English vocabulary of vitu 
peration in his denunciations. 

" What in all creation is the matter, George ?" asked a friend. 

" Don t you see, I have just put on a clean, new shirt, the last one 

I have, and that d d Yankee has shot it full of holes ? My skin 

will get well, but the apertures in this garment never will heal up." 

This comical idea of the wounded veteran caused a general laugh. 
The very thought of so much solicitation about a shirt, regardless 
of the wounded body, was something ridiculous beyond what had 
yet occurred. 

u I WANT TO GO HOME." 

One day, toward the close of the siege, a Mississippian, a tall, 
awkward specimen of the country regions of that State, suddenly 
broke forth in loud lamentations, the tears actually streaming down 
his face as he incoherently sobbed, " Boo-hoo ! boo-hoo ! I wish they 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 285 

* 

would boo-hoo ! stop fighting, or surrender, or something else, I 

want ter go home and see my ma ! boo-hoo !" " Stop your d d 

blubbering, you ninny-hammer," said one of the Third. Then " I 
want ter go home " was shouted down the line amid uproarious 
mirth. It became a bye-word for the remainder of the siege. 

" SIMEON, WIGGLE WAGGLE." 

Just on the slope of the hill-side, behind the intrenchrnents, one 
afternoon, sat one of the men on a stump. A natural wit, he was 
amusing his comrades lying around him, by a perfect fusilade of 
" small talk " and sharp witticisms. The right hand lay negligently 
across his lap, the other grasped the stump. Phiz ! zip ! " Boys, 

some d d Yankee is making a target of me. But let him go 

ahead, if he thinks there is no hereafter." The words were scarcely 
uttered, ere a Minie* ball struck him, carrying away the thumb of 
the right hand, and entering the fleshy part of the thigh. Groaning 
with pain, he was helped away, and sent to the hospital. A friend 
soon called to see him : " Well, Dave, how do you feel ? I am sorry 
to see you here. Not seriously wounded, are you ?" 

" No ; I guess not. Only a flesh-wound." 

He was calm and seemingly unconcerned now. Suddenly he re 
marked : 

u Look here, Will, there is one thing that troubles me terribly. I 
don t know what to do," looking troubled. 

u Well, what is it ? Anything I can do for you ?" 

" You see that thumb ?" holding up the hand minus such a por 
tion. " No you don t, for it is gone as clean as a whistle, Well, I 
have been thinking for some time of a very serious matter." 

" What is it ?" 

" How shall I play Simeon, wiggle waggle ? Simeon says up, 
Simeon says down. Can t come it with this hand. Ha I ha ! ha !" 

His love of fun overcame his physical agony, and he indulged the 
propensity at the expense of his own sufferings. He never recovered, 
but now fills a soldier s grave on the hills of Yicksburg ; the last 
man of the regiment buried there ere the troops left the place. Rest 
in peace, friend Echols, till the last reveille summon you forth from 
the tomb. 

THE LAST MEAL. 

The provisions had all been distributed. The meagre meal of 
bread and meat was voraciously consumed at once by some, while 
others ate but sparingly, carefully laying away the remainder for some 



286 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

other time. A soldier sat amid his comrades, who were laughing 
and chatting over their food in high spirits. Jovial, light-hearted, 
fond of a good joke and sport in any form, he was always creating 
mirth. Moroseness and ill-humor could not linger where he was. 
Consequently, he was a great favorite among his comrades. On this 
occasion it was noticed that he did not eat his food. Looking at 
the scanty store with a comical expression on his manly face, he re 
marked : 

" I say, boys, isn t this some for a hearty, strong man ? General 

John C is training us like thorough-bred racers, knowing that 

too much food is not good for the wholesome. I am nearly reduced 
to the proper fighting weight, and think I can toe the mark about 
right. What do you think of it, boys ? Let s put up a sign, l Prize 
King ! Training done in the most thorough and scientific manner. 
But I am devilish hungry. But I believe I ll save my food until 
morning. 1 Hesitating a moment, he resumed, " No ; I ll be hanged 
if I do. Suppose I get shot, then I ll lose all the pleasure of eating 
my meal. So here goes." The food disappeared, when the soldier 
jumped to his feet and seized his rifle, remarking : " I ll have a little 
sport sharp-shooting." In less than five minutes he was a corpse, a 
bullet having penetrated his brain. Poor Ed. Benton, we wonder if 
some spirit did whisper his doom to him, as he resolved to eat that 
last meal ! "We know not, yet this is an authentic record. 

HOW A COMMISSARY WAS "DONE FOR." 

One gloomy evening, several forms could have been seen stealing 
away from the intrenchments occupied by the Third Regiment, as if 
bent on some mysterious mission. Not far distant, a commissary of 
one of the other regiments had snugly ensconced himself in a secure 
position near some deserted cabins. Some of the Argus-eyed boys 
discovered that his quarters contained more provisions than the 
"regulations" allowed. It required only a few moments for the 
discoverer of this fact to gather a few choice friends from the groups 
of hungry men, to make a raid on the hoarded treasure. Like a 
spirit, we follow their footsteps as they approached the victim of 
their wiles. They soon surrounded his quarters, and watched his 
movements. He was preparing his supper. Savory bacon, and, 
actually, " slap-jacks " made of flour, with molasses to give them an 
additional flavor. Had he peered into the darkness, while thus cook 
ing his fine meal, he would have seen eyes, glittering in the darkness 
like a fierce tiger s, glaring at him eyes brilliant with the fires of 
starvation and hunger. All unconsciously, he completed his cooking, 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 287 

ate a portion of his food, then carefully placed the remainder safely 
away for his morning meal. Alas ! for the uncertainty of human 
expectations. After arranging everything to his entire satisfaction, 
the occupant of the tent laid down on his humble couch, to seek 
repose. Without no one was astir, and only an occasional shot 
along the lines broke the silence. Hark ! was that distant thunder ? 
No ; for bright constellations of stars glittered in the clear sky over 
head, with no storm-cloud to mar their clear brilliancy. Again that 
sound swells upon the air. What does it mean ? Watchers near 
recognized in it the deep voice from the land of slumber. The 
sleeper was snoring ! Dark forms, like spirits of evil, arose from the 
earth where they had so long lain motionless, and with noiseless 
footsteps glided toward the tent, entering its opening front. Soon 
they emerged, laden with the spoils, which were found quite abund 
ant and of great variety. Assembling in a dark group, one at last 
broke the silence, saying, " By George, boys, what a breakfast we 
will have ! But I am devilish hungry ; let s go back and finish the 
Captain s supper." A general assent was given, and they returned, 
and, seating themselves coolly, ate the remaining cakes and fried 
meat, without rousing the unconscious sleeper from his slumbers. 
The last sweetened morsel disappeared within the hungry jaws of 
one of the party, who, wiping the molasses from his lips with the 
sleeve of his gray jacket, remarked, " There ll be h 1 to play in 
the morning about this aifair ; but mum s the word, boys. Let s be 
going." 

Imagine the surprise of some of the Mississippians the next morn 
ing, when they beheld the Louisianians bountifully supplied with 
delicious biscuits and bacon. Their astonishment found vent in bit 
ter words of complaint, that " them ere Louisianians had plenty to 
eat, while they were nearly starved to death." The boys of the 
Third Eegiment had not become veterans in the service to be starved 
as long as anything eatable could be obtained, and had learned some 
accomplishments, which their less experienced comrades of the Mis 
sissippi regiments never dreamed of. 

HOW THEY DID IT. 

The teachings of moral philosophy have no potency over the 
human mind under certain contingencies. If a man is actually suf 
fering for the need of some particular object, yet is assured in his 
own mind that the perpetration of a wrong will supply his neces 
sity, he seldom lingers to moralize over the nice points raised by his 



288 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

own conscience. Hunger, gaunt famine, "with its pallid, sunken 
eyeballs, is, perhaps, the very worst demon with which the human 
will can contend. Innumerable facts, with all their horrid and 
thrilling details, attest the truth of this assertion. A starving soldier 
is the very worst of all moralists, and it is as useless to expect the 
habitual robber to desist from plundering, when gold is placed in his 
way, as to anticipate that a hungry soldier will not steal food when 
other resources fail him. 

At Vicksburg, every one knew that the depot contained a large 
supply of breadstuifs, meal, rice, flour, etc., put up in bags. These 
supplies were guarded day and night by faithful sentinels, whom 
neither persuasion, threats nor gain could make false to their duty. 
The southern end of the building was securely barred by heavy oak 
timbers, nailed over the windows and doorway. In this end of the 
building was a room used as a stable, probably for some quarter 
master s or commissary s horse. A single doorway led out of this 
room into that portion of the building used as a store-room for the 
supplies. This doorway was blockaded with a sugar-hogshead. 
Such were the means used to prevent access to the treasure from the 
rear, while in front stood the Argus-eyed sentinels, with loaded guns 
and fixed bayonets, ready to give any intruder a warm reception. 
One stormy night, five members of the regiment quietly came into 
the camp where the food was cooked, and aroused two slumberers 
from their repose. A hurried, low-toned explanation was given in 
answer to the inquiries as to what was wanted, and the whole party 
moved out of the camp toward the river. Up the adjacent hill 
side, past the hospital, where the maimed and dying soldiers lay, 
through a deep cut in the road, until they reached the railroad, like 
flitting shadows passed the hurrying forms. Boldly proceeding 
down the road, they soon reached the depot. Without hesitation 
with a skill and rapidity which would have shamed a scientific 
burglar, the heavy timbers were removed from one of the windows, 
until a sufficiently large aperture for the purpose was made. Into 
this clambered a portion of the party, using a comrade s shoulder as 
a stepping-stone. Where was the guard, did you say ? Innocent 
questioner ! What little noise that was made was lost amid the 
storm and the roar of guns. Those who entered the room as noise 
lessly and successfully, removed the only obstacle that intervened 
between them and the coveted prize. It required extreme cau 
tion to remove the heavy bags ; yet it was accomplished. A form 
appeared at the opening and lifted out a huge, white bundle. It was 
instantly seized and shouldered by one of the party, who staggered 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 289 

away with his burden. A second, third and fourth performed the 
same task, until only a single man remained. He likewise obtained 
his load, but stirred not. The mystery was soon explained. Re 
ceiving two more bags, he aided his comrades within to descend, 
when they all hurried from the scene of their exploit. Meeting at 
an agreed rendezvous, the party, with great demonstrations of joy, 
exulted over their success. A portion of the precious burdens was 
deposited in a secure place, while the remainder was conveyed to 
the intrenchments a distance of over two miles. It seemed incred 
ible that weakened, starving men could thus carry a lead averaging 
from one hundred to one hundred and fifty pounds. Yet so it was. 
The very desperation of their hunger gave them an unnatural 
strength, just as a physically weak man becomes endowed with 
supernatural muscular powers under circumstances of imminent 
peril. A successful " foraging" party was always welcomed with 
great demonstrations of joy, for supplies thus procured were gener 
ously distributed among their comrades. Liberality toward each 
other was one of the features that marked the conduct of the Louis- 
ianians, and a mean, niggardly man among them was as heartily de 
spised and as rare as a cowardly one. 

Such incidents are, perhaps, not very flattering to the morality 
of the regiment, but they are none the less matters of fact, and will 
serve to explain how the * boys," at times, had an abundance, while 
their less venturesome and wondering comrades of the Mississippi 
regiments suffered the pangs of extreme hunger. 

STEALING VEGETABLES. 

One Sunday evening two of the non-commissioned staif of the 
regiment were returning to camp from the intrenchments when the 
following colloquy occurred : 

" Sergeant, says one to the other, " wouldn t you like some vege 
tables, especially some good cabbage ?" 

" Major," was the reply. " as a Yankee would say, I rayther reckon 
as how I would. Vegetables ! what a luxury ! Where can they be 
found, and what do you mean ?" 

" Aisy, now, as the Irishman would say. I have been reconnoiter- 
ing lately, and have found a large garden of cabbages ; but the 
owner of the place is very watchful, and swears that he will shoot 
the first soldier he catches in his garden. I have discovered a picket 
loose at the bottom. It is on our route, and suppose we make a 
raid and " cabbage a mess of something green." 

u Agreed, with all my heart. But, Major, what shall be the modus 

operandi . ? " 

13 



290 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

u Well, you watch at the opening in the fence, and I will go in 
side. If anything suspicious should happen, whistle and I will 
know what it means." 

The two plotters were soon arrived at the scene of operations. 
It was a large garden, extending eastward down a gentle slope to a 
small rivulet, or rather ditch, running north and south. The open 
ing was soon found. Major instantly entered, and proceeded in a 
course directly westward, and then his form disappeared in the 
murky gloom of the night. Sergeant sat down by the fence, and, 
thrusting his head into the opening made by shoving aside the bot 
tom of the picket, became all ears and eyes in his watchfulness. 
Out toward the breastworks came the sound of the sharp-shooters 
rifle-shots, with the occasional roar of a piece of artillery. Lights 
glimmered in some of the houses. Mortar-shells, with blazing fuses, 
described graceful curves through the air in their flight into the be 
sieged city. The atmosphere was cairn, the stars looking out from 
the clear sky overhead as if angel eyes gazing upon the din, up 
roar and carnage of battle below. What wonder thut the soldier 
fell into a reverie, and lived once more amid scenes far away. What 

wonder that . Phiz ! Zip ! What was it ? Only a stray Minie- 

ball, that made a close passage to his scalp, cutting the hair from 
his head. A rude awakening from his pleasant thoughts ; yet still 
he changed not his position. He was on guard, and could, not de 
sert his post. The minutes seemed ages. What could Major be 
doing ? Assuredly not going to carry off the whole cabbage-bed ! 
Yet he was gone sufficiently long to accomplish such an undertak 
ing. He d be hanged if . The shrill scream of an approach 
ing shell from a rifled gun this time cut short his new train of 
thought. Knowing, from the peculiar sound, that he was nearly in 
range, he looked in vain for some sheltering protection. The 
ground was smooth and level, not a single indenture to protect the 
smallest object. Action must be instantaneous, and he threw him 
self close alongside of the bottom board of the fence. With an 
exultant scream the shell tipped the pickets above his prostrate 
form, and descended into the garden in the exact direction taken by 
Major. The sergeant jumped to his feet, and a shrill whistle broke 
upon the air. Breathlessly, intently he listened. No answering 
signal penetrated the darkness and disturbed the reigning silence. 
Again and again the signal was given. Still no response. Running 
rapidly along the fence a few yards, he was about to climb over 
when Major came hastily to the spot, a mountain of perambulating 
cabbage. 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 291 

The tension to which the nerves of the sergeant had been strung 
relaxed in invectives. 

" Why in the devil, Major, didn t you answer my signal ? I 
thought that shell had killed you, and one of the Third Regiment 
would be found dead in a citizen s garden, slain in the very act 
of stealing. What a disgrace for a veteran to be caught stealing ! 
People would have proclaimed retributive justice, and served 
him right. " 

* v By the way what were you doing when that last customer so 
unceremoniously and uninvited visited us ?" 

" Well, you see, sergeant, the ground is very hard, and the cabbage 
strong-rooted, and I was stooping down, with a good hold on the 
stalk with both hands. You can imagine the position : about to 
give it a * strong pull, a long pull, and a pull altogether, when I 

heard that shell coming, and immediately threw myself upon 

the ground." 

" How close did it strike, Major ?" 

" It went into the ground, about a foot from my head, and nearly 
buried me alive." 

" I should judge so, from your personal appearance, covered as you 
are with dirt, from your head to your heels. Why, you look like an 
Irish grave-digger. Let s leave this place, as the Lord has warned 
us both that thou shalt not steal, more forcibly than pleasantly/ 

The two men traveled off at a " double-quick," carrying their 
" greens " with them. Arriving in camp, they soon forgot their 
narrow escape, as they laughed and talked over a huge dish of boiled 
cabbage, which was consumed with a voraciousness and keen relish 
commensurate with the danger braved in procuring it. 

RUNNING THE GAUNTLET. 

The history of the manners and customs of the aborigines of 
America furnishes some thrilling narratives of the practice of treat 
ing prisoners in accordance with the heading of this article. It was 
reserved to a later and more civilized people to furnish an ordeal 
more trying to the nerves than the one instituted among the savages. 
Every evening the provision detail went from the camp south of 
Vicksburg to the intrenchments, a distance of over two miles. The 
provisions prepared during the day were placed in a four-mule 
wagon, and proceeded to the regiment every evening about sun 
down, accompanied, usually, by a man from each company, the com 
missary-sergeant and several negroes. The road through Vicksburg 
was comparatively safe, but on arriving at the upper portion of the 



292 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

city, where it branched off in a north-easterly direction, the party 
were in direct range of the mortar-shells. As soon as the danger 
became imminent, they would halt, listen for the dull roar of the 
mortars, and wait for the passage of the terrible missiles. Their 
descent or explosion was the signal for a hot race, ere the next mes 
senger of death was launched upon the city. Men, mules and wagon 
stampeded in a hot race along the road, for life and death was prob 
ably the issue of their speed. There were no spare moments for 
shouting or laughter then. Arriving about half way to the trenches, 
the party would take a good breathing spell, ere again proceeding to 
confront a new danger, from which there could be no escape. Yet there 
was no shrinking, as they faced the flying bullets and rifle-shells 
from beyond the line of works. The rifle-balls would cut up the 
dirt in the road, or shrilly whistle through the air, in their rapid 
flight. Accustomed as men may become in braving danger during 
moments of intense excitement, it required a steadiness of nerve and 
firm resolution to quietly proceed along a road, into which bullets 
were constantly dipping, or over which they were flying from an 
enfilading fire. Such, however, was the case with the provision de 
tail of the Third Louisiana Infantry. There were innumerable hair 
breadth escapes and laughable occurrences attending their daily 
journey to and from the intrenchments ; yet, during the whole siege, 
not a man among them received the slightest injury. The long races 
from flying shells and descending bombs in those hot June days are 
indelibly impressed upon the memories of all of that band. They 
braved the dangers of the siege without any of the excitement that 
buoyed up the dashing bravery of those who occupied the intrench 
ments. Though often with flying feet spurring the dust of the road 
to escape threatening death, no one would question their courage. 
Theirs was a cool, dispassionate courage, worthy the fame and hero 
ism which made the regiment notorious. As non-combatants it was 
somewhat laughable to observe with what earnestness and care they 
selected the safest route to escape the line of fire. Boys, do you re 
member it all now without the aid of this notice ? We do, distinctly 
and most emphatically. 



CHAPTER XXXI. 

SONGS. 

THE men often indulged their propensity for song- writing, and if 
their productions did not exhibit splendid poetical talent, the senti 
ments of these songs manifested the spirit which animated them, 
their reckless disregard to danger, and their propensity to make 
mirth out of their sufferings. It was no unusual occurrence to hear, 
amid the battle s fierce din, the choruses of these songs shouted forth 
with stentorian voices, or their strains at night softly floating away 
over the intrenchments on the quiet air. 

OUR FLAG. 

BY W. M. WASHBURN, CO. B. 
Air : " Her bright smile haunts me still." 

I. 
There is freedom on each fold, 

And each star is freedom s throne, 
And the free, the brave, the bold, 
Guard thine honor as their own. 
Every clanger hast thou known, 

That the battle s storm can fill ; 
Thy glory hath not flown ; 
We proudly wave thee still. 

ii. 

Floating in the morning light, 

Freedom s star will shine afar 
Floating in the murky night, 
All shall see thee, freedom s star. 
For " sic semper " thy refrain ; 
And thy motto e er shall be, 
Let tyrants wear the chain ; 
I am, I will be free. 



294: A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

in. 
O er the land and o er tlie seas, 

Where the howling waves are torn ; 
In the calm, the storm, the breeze, 
Be thy standard proudly borne. 

For there s freedom on each fold, 

And each star is freedom s throne ; 
The free, the brave, the bold ; 
Thy glory is their own. 



A LIFE ON THE VICKSBURG HILLS. 

BY A. DALSHEIMER, CO. K. 
Air ; " Life on the Ocean Wave." 
A life on the Vicksburg hills, 

A home in the trenches deep, 
A dodge from the Yankee shells, 
And the old pea-bread won t keep. 

The bread the bread 
And the old pea-bread won t keep. 

Like a rebel caged, I pine, 

And I dodge when the cannons roar ; 
But give me corn-dodger and swine, 

And I ll stay for evermore. 

Once more in the trench I stand, 
With my own far-ranging gun ; 

Should the fray come hand to hand, 
I ll wager my rations I run. 

The trench is no longer in view ; 

The shells have begun to fall ; 
Tis a sound I hate don t you ? 

Into my rat-hole I ll crawl. 

The bullets may whistle by, 

The terrible bombs come down ; 
But give me full rations, and I 

Will stay in my hole in the ground. 
Oh ! a life on the Vicksburg hills, 

A home in the trenches deep, 
A dodge from the Yankee shells, 
And the old pea-bread won t keep. 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 295 

DO THEY MISS ME IN THE TRENCH. 

BY J. W. NAFF.* 
Air : " Do they miss me at home." 
Do they miss me in the trench, do they miss me ? 

When the shells fly so thickly around ? 
Do they know that I ve run down the hill-side 

To look for my hole in the ground ? 
But the shells exploded so near me, 

It seemed best for me to run ; 
And though some laughed as I cray-fished, 

I could not discover the fun. 

I often get up in the trenches, 

When some Yankee is near out of sight, 
And fire a round or two at him, 

To make the boys think that I ll fight. 
But when the Yanks commence shelling, 

I run to my home down the hill, 
I swear my legs never will stay there, 

Though all may stay there who will. 

I ll save myself through the dread struggle, 

And when the great battle is oe r 
I ll claim my full rations of laurels, 

As always I ve done heretofore. 
I ll say that I ve fought them as bravely 

As the best of my comrades who fell, 
And swear most roundly to all others 

That I never had fears of a shell. 



THE RAINBOW OF HOPE. 

BY W. M. WASHBUEJST, CO. B. 

Air : " Life on the Wave." 
There s the rainbow of Hope in the moonlit sky, 

Man the works fling trembling away, my boys, 
The breeze is soft, our God is on high, 

He will shield us, if we are still true, my boys. 
We have slept in the calm, we have laughed in the storm, 

We will sing by the bomb s red glare, my boys ; 
Should the foe come on, with a strong heart and arm, 

And a keen blade, we ll send him away, my boys. 
* Killed the day after writing this song. 



296 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

And the rainbow of Hope, while it lingers still, 

We will strike for the dear ones of home, my boys. 
"We will trust to our blades, and to God s good will, 

And fling ever fear to the winds, my boys. 
We will bear every hardship, or peril, or pain, 

For our loved ones are trusting to us, niy boys, 
And we ll proudly return to greet them again, 

Or as proudly fill a soldier s grave, my boys. 

Light hearts we bring to rescue our land, 

Though a shadow has hung o er her of late, my boys. 
We will strike for our homes with a steady hand, 

And a smile for whate er be our fate, my boys. 
Though some may sleep neath the hill-side sod, 

Though none go back to their homes, my boys, 
Yet the hearts that are true to their country and God, 

Will all meet at the last reveille, my boys. 



The following letter needs no comment : 

HEADQUARTERS, ARMSTRONG S BRIGADE,) 
Athens, East Tennessee, July 22d, 1863. f 

SIR General Armstrong desires to know the casualties in the 
Third Louisiana Infantry in the campaign from Grand Gulf to the 
capitulation of Vicksburg, and the part taken by that regiment in 
heroic defence of that place. He feels confident that they have sus 
tained their former blood-earned reputation, and, as a source of 
gratification, he desires to know its conduct and its losses. 

He offers his sincere congratulations upon its prospect of soon re 
suming the field, and, notwithstanding its depleted numbers, hopes 
the war-cry of the " Bloody Third " will be heard loudest in the 
battle-din soon again. 

He tenders his respects to his many friends in the regiment. 
I have the honor to be, very respectfully, 

Your obedient servant, 

A. BURWELL, A. A. G. 
Officer commanding Third Louisiana Infantry. 

P. S. Let the memory of Ben McCulloch nerve them to even 
more heroic deeds in future. F. C. ARMSTRONG. 

OUR SURGEONS. 

Dr. Moss, who was appointed surgeon of the regiment, was a pri 
vate in the ranks of Company I. He was born in Wilkinson County, 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 297 

Miss., March 19, 1837. He graduated in the Medical Department of 
the University of Louisiana in March, 1861, with great credit to 
himself and his class. He was among the first to answer his 
country s call. The absence of all official documents and dates 
makes it impossible to give the exact period of his appointment as 
assistant surgeon, and finally as surgeon of the regiment. He en 
deared himself to every member of the regiment by his unvarying 
kindness and attention to the sick and general aifability. His was 
a heart as tender as a woman s He was surgeon of the regiment 
at its final dissolution in Shreveport in 1865. Returning home, full 
of bright hope and youthful vigor, skilled in all the branches of 
his profession, he found an early grave. He died August 3, 1865, 
aged 28 years and 4 months. He needs no eulogy from the author s 
pen, as he lives fresh and green in the heart of every brave soldier of 
the Third Louisianians. 

Dr. P. F. Whitehead is a native of Kentucky, and had been a 
resident of the State of Missouri a year previous to the war. He 
was appointed surgeon of the First Regiment, Missouri State Guard, 
that was organized. 

Continuing with Price s army, he was eventually appointed sur 
geon of the Third Louisiana Infantry shortly after its reorganiza 
tion. 

He remained with the regiment all through its long, wearisome 
marches and desperate battles, until it was eventually confined 
within the intrenchments of Vicksburg. 

Dr. Whitehead was most thoroughly skilled in every branch of 
his profession. He soon endeared himself to the men by his untir 
ing efforts to relieve their sufferings, and his unvarying politeness of 
manner and genial affability. Of fine personal appearance, refined 
and polished in manners, it is not surprising that the men learned 
both to admire and respect him. No higher compliment can be 
paid to his skill as a surgeon no statement attest the confidence 
placed in that skill than the mention of the fact that, at Vicks 
burg, every member of the regiment requiring the amputation of a 
limb, or some delicate surgical operation, would allow no other 
physician to operate on them except Dr. P. F. Whitehead. Innu 
merable scientific and skillful operations have we witnessed per 
formed by him. All through tho eventful siege he was untiring, 
unceasingly occupied. 

After the fall of that place he became Senior Surgeon of Scott s 
Louisiana Brigade, which position he retained until the commence 
ment of General Johnston s famous Georgia campaign, when he 
13* 



298 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

was assigned to duty as chief surgeon of Loring s Division. He 
occupied this situation until the close of the war, and was sur 
rendered with the army at Greensboro, N. C., April 26, 1865. Dr. 
P. F. Whitehead is now practicing his profession in Vicksburg the 
scene of some of his most arduous labors during the war. 



CHAPTER XXXII. 

EAST OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

WHO of the war-worn veterans of the Third Regiment, Louisiana 
Infantry, does not remember the first return home from the army, 
since the inception of the war, after that memorable siege of Vicks- 
burg ? How the heart throbbed quick and strong, as the soldier 
approached the well-known homestead ! His footsteps, though 
spurning the earth in quick strides beneath his hastening feet, kept 
not pace with his eager spirit. Very often he unexpectedly reached 
his hearth-stone. What a welcome does he receive ! The clasp of 
loving arms around his form, and the imprint of warm lips, again 
and again upon his own browned and bearded face. Then there 
were innumerable questions showered upon him, and the thrilling 
recital of the siege rehearsed, with all its horrors and heroism. 
Then he must needs have his long hair shorn, and his face subjected 
to the tonsorial art ; change his faded and soiled gray uniform for 
the garments of a quiet citizen at home; and behold the rough 
veteran metamorphosed into the good-looking, respectable gentle 
man at home. Who would ever dream that this pleasant, sociable 
man was, but a few days previously, the reckless soldier, standing 
where bullets filled the air like drops of summer rain, ready for 
any species of danger or rascality ? Truly the changes of life are 
wonderfully strange ! How unnatural did it seem to be free once 
more ; free in the full meaning and acceptation of the word ; no 
more prompt obedience to military orders ; no more following the 
beck and nod of some officer ! Is it a dream ? Free ! to go and 
come as he pleases ! It is incomprehensible. Wake up 1 shake 
yourself, man, for it is a reality. Those halcyon days at home! 
They were the golden sunbeams that shed a flood of soft radiance 
over the whole soul of the paroled soldier. Now commenced a 
life of enjoyment, while the days of probation existed, for it was 
uncertain when they would again be summoned to take up arms. 
Social gatherings , balls, parties, fishing and hunting were freely in 
dulged in, as the inclination or situation of the soldier made neces 
sary. They were scattered over the State in city, town, hamlet and 
country, and made the best possible use of their freedom. 



CHAPTER XXXIII. 

DEMOPOLIS, ALA. 

THE halcyon days of the furlough have expired, and the men 
once more begin to congregate at this point, in obedience to pub 
lished orders. 

In the latter part of August, 1863, a few members of the Third 
Regiment were assembled in camp. These were men whose homes 
generally were within the enemy s lines, and who were too true in 
their devotion to the Southern cause, too uncompromising in their 
spirit of hostility to seek their homes, thus situated, only, perhaps, 
to subject themselves to restrictions on their freedom of word and 
action. 

The camp at Demopolis was in an old, uncultivated field, beneath 
the shelter of some huge oak-trees. The Confederates were with 
out tents or cooking utensils. They constructed some rude bunks 
and shelters beneath the overshadowing branches of the trees, and 
accepted the " situation" with a truly commendable spirit. The 
whole command did not number twenty-five men. Near the spot 
selected were the quarters of General Hebert. Of course, he was 
always to be found near the Third Louisiana Infantry, whom he had 
so often led in battle, and who respected and honored him for his 
soldierly qualities. Without the shadow of a doubt, the men and 
the General mutually admired and respected each other, although 
the one would frequently complain, in no. very choice language, of 
the strict discipline enforced by the other, or his seeming spirit of op 
position to their wishes and denial of their frequent requests. The 
men had nothing to do at Demopolis save eat, drink, sleep, read 
and make merry over their haps and mishaps. " Idleness," we are 
told, " is the devil s workshop," a saying often verified by these 
veterans. They wandered over the country around Demopolis on all 
kinds of expeditions. Not a house, or highway or by-way but was 
explored and well known. The Tombigbee River, close at hand, 
was very convenient for bathing and expeditions in boats, both of 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 301 

which were frequent occurrences. The evening was usually the 
signal for a general gathering at the camp, and an indulgence in 
scenes of uproarious mirth and frolics dancing and singing being 
the chief amusements. No one interfered with their hilarity, and 
they were allowed to make as much noise as they wished. No one 
was near to be disturbed by it. 

One day four members of the regiment started out on an explor 
ing expedition, and to visit a distillery some miles from camp. They 
traveled nearly all day without accomplishing their object, and 
finally became lost in the swamp. Here was a predicament. Spread 
ing out, at short distances, like a line of skirmishers, they pushed 
forward in expectation of discovering some road. They were 
eventually successful, and finally reached the Tombigbee, many long 
miles above camp. There was a crossing at the place, where they 
struck the river ; but the boats were on the opposite side. What 
was to be done ? After a short consultation two of the party 
stripped, plunged into the broad stream and boldly swam across. 
It required but a few moments to unmoor a boat, obtain the re 
mainder of the party, and row rapidly down the stream. They 
were now in high spirits, and awoke the slumbering echoes along 
the shores with shouts and songs. As they descended, they stopped 
at several landings and purchased water-melons, until they had a 
full cargo on board. The party arrived in camp during the " wee 
sm.V " hours of the night, completely worn out with fatigue. The 
melons were sold the next day, netting a profit of seventeen dollars 
in Confederate money. 

On the 30th of August a flag reached camp, being the gift of 
General Maury, our old division commander. This token of esteem 
and remembrance on the part of a general whom the men had 
learned to love and respect was highly appreciated. The flag was 
a Beauregard battle-flag, having inscribed on it Oak Hills, Elk 
Horn, luka, Corinth and Vicksburg. It was soon gayly floating on 
the breeze, above the quarters of the regiment. 

On the 2d September camp was transferred from Dernopolis, Ala., 
to Enterprise, Miss. The detachment had a lively trip to- the latter 
place. The encampment selected at Enterprise was in the pine 
woods, about a mile from the town. Some system was observed 
here, and each regiment had its own quarters in regular succession. 
About twenty-five of the Third Regiment and four hundred of the 
brigade were in camp on the 14th of September. 

On the 15th it was reported that 15,000 of the Vicksburg prisoners 
were exchanged, and that the Louisiana regiments were to report 



302 A SOUTHEKN RECORD. 

to General II. W. Allen, at Shreveport. Of course, such a statement 
created great excitement, especially among the band of the Third 
Louisiana Infantry represented at Enterprise. Many of them were 
eager to unite their fates with the fortunes of the regiment, while 
others talked of joining the cavalry. Yet no permissions were 
granted for the men east of the Mississippi to join their comrades 
in the Trans-Mississippi Department. It was an idle, lazy life 
which the paroled troops led in camp, with no duties to perform, 
or anything to occupy their time and attention. Of course, they 
must have some excitement. 

One night very late several of the regiment came into camp very 
noisy, from having imbibed, what they termed, too much " torch 
light procession." The occupants of the various bunks were un 
ceremoniously roused from their slumbers and pulled out of bed. 
A tall, droll member of Company K (J. Barrat), who looked much 
like an Indian, concluded he would have a menagerie performance 
out of a certain member of Company H. Every one remembers J. 
R. Nash. He was a strong, stout-built man, hailed from the 
mountain regions of Tennessee, and was as good-natured as he was 
powerful. The Company K man went to Nash s bunk, rudely shook 
him, and shouted : 

" Get up Nash, and paw like a goat, and I ll give you a drink." 
Nash obeyed ; a ring was formed ; he pawed up the ground with 
one foot, spit and spluttered like a goat, ending the performance 
with a " Baa-a-aa " that would have shamed the veritable king of 
the tribe. It is needless to state that the ridiculous performance was 
received with loud shouts and laughter by the crowd of witnesses, 
and the promised reward instantly handed to him. The next morn 
ing an order was received from General Hebert, whose headquarters 
were near by, that there must be less noise in camp. Was it obeyed ? 
Nearly all the pines in and around camp were blazed, and the resin 
ous substance which oozed from the wood would burn readily and 
fiercely. That night, suddenly, every pine-tree broke into a brilliant 
blaze, while all the sheds and shelters as unaccountably caught fire. 
" Fire ! fire 1" was shouted, with the full power of stentorian lungs, 
when a voice would shout, " Stop that noise. It s against orders. 
No noise in camp. General Hebert will arrest you all." It is quite 
needless to state that no notice was taken of this strict obedience to 
orders, while General Hebert is reported to have remarked, " It is 
useless to notice the boys ; they will have their fun, despite military 
rules and regulations." 

On the 22d General Allen arrived at Enterprise, and was eagerly 



THIED LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 303 

sought by many of the members of the regiment, who wished to 
cross the river. He gave them no definite encouragement, but said 
that he would like to have them with him, and thought that no 
harm would result from their joining their commands, provided they 
could get through the lines. Ah, there was the rub ! Major H. F. 
Springer, formerly a member of Company G, was running the block 
ade of the Mississippi with Government dispatches and ammunition. 
He needed teamsters, and wished to obtain them from the regiment. 
His request was refused. However, several volunteered to go at 7 
p. M. On the night of the 26th, five men left camp with their knap 
sacks on their backs, bidding their comrades good-bye, who jocu 
larly remarked, " We expect to see you back, in charge of the cav 
alry, in three or four days." The next morning, at 8 A. M., this same 
party reached Shubuta, after marching all night, and making thirty- 
five miles. They were soon in charge of Major Springer s teams and 
wagons, bound for the Trans-Mississippi. Captains Richards and 
Middlebrooks succeeded in obtaining permits to join their companies, 
and had left some days previously. Captain Gentles, held under 
arrest by General Pemberton s orders, had tendered his resignation 
to the War Department, but it was not then accepted. He eventu 
ally became the leader of a party of mounted scouts. The regiment 
could not boast of a braver, more daring or efficient officer than H. 
H. Gentles. The officers eventually remaining in camp were Captain 
Brashear and Lieutenant Thomas, Company E ; Lieutenant A. B. 
Payne, Company K ; W. T. Fagan, Company E. 

Some time in December, 1863, the paroled prisoners were declared 
exchanged, and were armed and equipped, the detachment of the 
Third Regiment doing some duty in Enterprise. After General 
Polk superseded General Hardee in command of the paroled troops, 
he issued an order for the consolidation into one regiment the men 
of the Third, Seventeenth, Twenty-first, Twenty-second, Twenty- 
sixth, Twenty-seventh, Twenty-eighth and Thirty-first Louisiana In 
fantry, who were on the east side of tire river. They were divided 
into companies, the men being allowed the privilege of selecting 
their company officers from any of the officers of these regiments, 
not absent without leave. The Third Regiment formed one com 
pany, designated as Company H, with the following officers : Cap 
tain, C. H. Brashear ; First Lieutenant, J. P. Parsons, (Seventeenth 
Louisiana) ; Second Lieutenant, W. T. Fagan ; Second Jr. Lieuten 
ant, A. J. Thomas. First Sergeant, C. Hurley ; Second do., A. B. 
Booth ; Third do., J. Roddy; Fourth do., T. Williams. First Cor 
poral, W. E. Walker ; Second do., J. F. Chambers ; Third do., W. 



304 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

B. Sheffield; Fourth do., "R. J. Galloway. The members of the 
Twenty-seventh, Twenty-eighth, and Thirty-first selected Lieutenant 
A. B. Payne as Second Sr. Lieutenant of their Company F. The 
officers retained the same rank in the Twenty-second Louisiana In 
fantry as in their old regiments. The company officers selected the 
following field officers : Colonel, J. W. Patton ; Lieutenant-Colonel, 

Landry; Major, Washington Marks. Early in January, 1864, 

this organization, known as the Twenty-second Louisiana Heavy 
Artillery (the greatest number of men being from that regiment), 
was ordered to Mobile, and stationed in the redoubts and forts around 
the city. u The little squad comprising Company H," says an officer, 
" was recognized as the Third Louisiana Infantry, from the Secretary 
of War down to the particular friend of the regiment, General Louis 
Hebert." " The remainder of the regiment were always reported as 
absent without leave." Until the consolidation, orders were always 

addressed to Captain or Lieutenant , Commanding Third 

Louisiana. A few officers and men remained on the east side, because 
it was in exact conformity to orders, and because they believed that 
their services were more needed there than in the Trans-Mississippi 
Department. Many, perhaps a majority, were influenced by mixed 
motives, their homes and friends being on the east side of the Mis 
sissippi. There " was always a deep longing for a reunion with their 
old comrades, with whom they had shared so many dangers and 
privations." It was this same magnet of homes and friends that 
led the mass of the regiment across the Mississippi River, afterwards 
followed by those who wished to link their fate with the final for 
tunes of the regiment. Of the organization of the regiment and its 
final destiny, this work will give full particulars. 

In the spring of 1864, nearly all the troops at Mobile were sent to 
reinforce General Johnston s army. The Twenty-second Regiment 
was sent across the bay to Pollard, a station on the railroad, from a 
point opposite Mobile to Montgomery. The summer passed away 
very quietly. Only on one occasion were the enthusiasm and hopes 
of the men excited ; by the regiment being sent across the line into 
Florida, to repel a raid of the enemy from Pensacola. The object 
of the expedition was accomplished without fighting, save by the 
cavalry. When Farragut attacked the forts below Mobile, the regi 
ment was ordered to Fort Gaines. The steamboat which was first 
sent broke some of her machinery. Another was sent, and the com 
mand arrived in the lower bay, just in time to witness the close of 
the naval engagement. An hour earlier, and the regiment would 
have been in the fort, thus narrowly escaping capture by making a 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 305 

hasty retreat to Mobile. Soon after, Company H was ordered to 
Battery Tracy, in the bay ; Companies A, D and F, to Spanish Fort. 
Here, during the fall and winter, all the men were sick with chills 
and fever, Lieutenant Thomas being the only exception to the general 
rule. 

In February, 1865, Canby, with 70,000 men, attacked Spanish 
Fort and Blakely. At Tracy and other batteries in the bay, there 
were from one to three companies of heavy artillery, of the First 
and Second Louisiana, etc., in all about 5,000 men. A stubborn 
fight ensued, continuing for two weeks. The soldiers, who so des 
perately fought the foe behind the intrenchments of Vicksburg, did 
not quail or tremble under the heavy fire poured upon them. Twas 
only a rehearsal of an already familiar drama. 

On the 7th of April the fort fell, most of the garrison escaping to 
Tracy and Blakely. The next day this place also fell, and Tracy 
was evacuated a few days afterwards. The evacuation and surrender 
of Mobile quickly followed the fall of the forts. When the boat, on 
board of which was Company H, backed out from the landing, the 
Federals were seen in the streets of the city. M. C. Aldrich, Frank 
Goodwin (a member of Company D, shot in the ankle) and Lieu 
tenant A. B. Payne, were the only members of the old Third Regi 
ment in Spanish Fort, the remainder being at Tracy. During the 
most of the fight, they were under a severe fire from the enemy s 
guns, firing over Spanish Fort, and also from the vessels in the har 
bor. How did these bronzed, yet youthful heroes of Vicksburg and 
other hard-fought engagements, stand the trying ordeal ? As only 
brave men will, with an unflinching bravery, a heroic devotion and 
patient endurance, such as only noble, unconquerable spirits can 
exhibit in times of danger. The roll of this company, annexed, con 
tains the names of some of the best and truest soldiers of the Third 
Regiment. After the evacuation of Mobile, the regiment proceeded 
to Meridian, and remained at that point and its vicinity until the 
final surrender of the troops under General Taylor to General Canby. 
Like their comrades in the Trans-Mississippi, they were among the 
very last to leave the waning star of the Confederacy, sinking into 
the gloom of a long night. 

AN INCIDENT. 

On Monday, May 25, during the flag of truce, following the general 
charge upon our lines, while the troops of each army were out on 
neutral ground, W. B. McGinness, of the Iberville Grays, met an 
old Dutch friend from Missouri who belonged to a Missouri (Federal) 



306 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

regiment. After exchanging compliments, etc., the Federal politely 
invited McGinness to his camp to take supper, get some papers, anc 
last, but not least, to join him in a social drink. McGinuess wa? 
too modest to refuse the kind and liberal invitation of his Dutch 
friend, and not selfish enough to partake of the luxuries which 
arose before his mental vision (a rarity to a rebel appetite) by him 
self; so he kindly extends the invitation to several of his friends. 
Octave Bevin, of Iberville Grays, Company A ; Sergeant C. Hurley, 
of the Pelican Rifles, Company K ; and Louis Eddons, of Monti- 
cello Rifles, Company H, who willingly acceded to McGinness s re 
quest to accompany him, went to the Dutch friend s camp, were 
kindly received by the Yankees who belonged to regiments that had 
fought ours (Third Louisiana) at Oak Hills. Met John Nagle, who 
had deserted from the regiment at Camp Creek and joined the 
Northern Army. The party imbibed several drinks, and then sat 
down to supper, which was unceremoniously interrupted by the ap 
pearance of a lieutenant and guard, with orders to arrest the party 
for being within the Yankee lines. They were marched to General 
Quimby s headquarters. The General was perplexed what to do 
with them, whether to retain them as prisoners of war or to send 
them back ; to their command. While here, McGinness entered into 
conversation with Captain Barton, of New York, A. D. C. to the 
General, and soon discovered that he (McGinness) knew a number of 
the Captain s friends in California. The Captain became interested 
and sympathetic proposed to the General to permit him to take 
the " rebels" to Major-General McPherson s headquarters and let 
him dispose of them. The Generel consented. Captain Barton 
relieved the guard and took the men to McPherson s headquarters. 
He informed the General of the circumstances of the party coming 
into their lines. The General onsideratetly consented to send them 
back. He ordered Captain Barton and the lieutenant to escort 
them to their lines. 

These boys of the Third Louisiana were particularly indebt 
ed to Captain Barton for their release. He informed them 
that, if they were detained as prisoners, he would write to their 
command, stating that they were prisoners and had not deserted, 
and he would have the letter endorsed by the General and sent over 
by flag of truce. 

After their release, the Captain gave the men coffee, all the late 
papers, and a canteen of whisky each. The captain and the lieu 
tenant then accompanied them to the lines, which they reached 
about 8 o clock at night, some two hours after the flag of truce had 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 307 

people then residing at that place. They finally obtained lodging 
expired. Before parting, they emptied the canteens of the captain 
and lieutenant, by drinking each other s health. The consequence 
was, all were somewhat " elevated." They parted the best of friends, 
to endeavor to kill each other, if possible, the next day. 

Morning carne. Hurley was considerably demoralized ; Eddons 
very sick ; Bevin and McGinness feeling as if they had pillowed 
their heads upon a ten-inch Coluinbiad when it was fired. 

Such are the outlines of an incident which was a frequent occur 
rence during the war. The " rebels" never met their foes thus that 
they were not the recipients of great kindness and many polite at 
tentions. Yet, after this interchange of courtesies, they would fight 
each other as fiercely and stubbornly as if they had never met. The 
haps and mishaps of war are often very strange, exciting and in 
teresting. 



CHAPTER XXXIV. 

WEST OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

ON the morning of October 21, a small party of men appeared on 
the banks of the Mississippi River, about equidistant from Water 
loo, La., and Rodney, Miss. The party had two wagons, heavily 
loaded, and a skiff. The evening previous they had bivouacked 
in the grounds around Oakland College. This party consisted 
of Captains B. W. Clark and Fontleroy, Majors Springer and 
Lasalle, and the following members of the Third Louisiana Infantry : 
J. Webb, Company C ; J. R. Nash, Company H ; A. J. Perry, Com 
pany I ; F. D. Tunnard and W. H. Tunnard, Company K. A heavy 
fog hung, like a cloud, over the stream, completely shutting out a 
view of the river. The boat was launched with a celerity and dis 
patch perfectly marvelous, baggage and dispatches hastily loaded 
into it, and swiftly rowed across the river. An ambulance, mules 
and horses were soon ferried across, and hastily left the dangerous 
vicinity. The blockade was successfully evaded. Major Springer 
drove rapidly away from the river, leaving behind him the squad 
of Louisianians, with their heavy knapsacks. Behold them on this 
October day, wearily traveling along an unknown road, in close 
proximity to posts of the enemy, and hiding behind the embank 
ment, to prevent being discovered by the enemy s gun-boats patrol- 
ing the river. They were already travel-worn and completely ex 
hausted for want of rest ; yet many long miles must be footed ere 
they reached their destination (Alexandria). Two of the party 
were quite sick. 

The next day they passed through Tensas Swamp, along Choctaw 
Bayou ; crossed the Tensas and Bayou Louie ; also, the Ouachita 
River. They were cordially welcomed and hospitably entertained 
by the residents on Sicily Island. That night they reached Harri- 
sonburg, after marching twenty-six miles, and were actually -refused 
permission to sleep on the galleries of the houses by the very patriotic 



THIED LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 309 

in the cabin of a very poor man, about three miles from Harrison- 
burg. This hospitable man was named Daly. The cabin was a 
very rough structure, with only a single room ; yet here slept the 
man and his wife, another woman, a young girl, three children, and 
the five Louisianians. 

The next morning they bade their warm-hearted host adieu, after 
tendering compensation for their accommodations, which was re 
fused. A cold, drizzling rain was falling, yet the road through the 
dreary pine-forest was good, and the party traveled twenty miles. 
That night they stopped at Mr. Baker s, and were kindly treated. 

The next morning was very cold, yet the party traveled merrily 
along through the silent and gloomy pine-woods, entertaining each 
other with jokes and all manner of witty fusilades. Crossed Little 
River, and stopped at a lady s house by the road-side, having 
traveled twenty-four miles. Learned to-day that the Third Louisiana 
Infantry were ordered to assemble at Grand Ecore, November 10. 

The next day (25th) reached Alexandria, and obtained transpor 
tation to Natchitoches ; but, ere continuing on their journey, they 
met Colonel Crow, of the Twenty-sixth Louisiana Infantry, who in 
formed them- that he was authorized to establish a parole-camp 
near Alexandria, and had already selected a deserted plantation, a 
short distance above the town, for this purpose. During their short 
stay in the place they were hospitably entertained by the Rev. W. 
E. M. Linfield and lady. Mr. Linfield was, at that time, the Metho 
dist minister at Alexandria. He kindly allowed the party of 
wandering and homeless Louisianians the use of his unfinished 
study between the church and parsonage. 

It is needless to relate how the rough boys enjoyed their comfort 
able quarters. To Mrs. Linfield s kind-heartedness were they in 
debted for many little luxuries, to which they had long been stran 
gers. Everything in and around Alexandria was in a state of confusion. 
Families gathered up their household goods, and rapidly departed, 
in anticipation of an early advance of the enemy. 



CHAPTER XXXV. 

ON the 30th, the nucleus for the future Third Louisiana procured 
requisitions for cooking utensils, provisions and transportation. After 
innumerable difficulties, they finally succeeded in procuring two skil 
lets, one without handle or lid. They next turned their attention to 
the transportation. Proceeding to the Government stables, they 
found a number of " frames," once, doubtless, properly called mules. 
The harness was in pieces, but was soon tied together with innumer 
able pieces of string. Asking for the wagon, they were pointed to 
one of those veritable plantation cane-carts, which made its own 
music when driven. Three mules were speedily selected and hitched 
to this original vehicle. The men mounted into the cart, two seized 
the lines, and the rest plied the moving skeletons of animals with 
blows from heavy rods. Away they went, in high glee, through the 
centre of Alexandria, bound for Camp Crow, two and a half miles 
above the town. Arriving at the plantation, they selected the most 
comfortable building in the long rows of negro cabins, and prepared 
to live as best they could. The mules were put in a stable near by, 
benches and bunks soon constructed, and camp formally established. 
Such was Camp Crow, on the first day of November. 

South of these quarters was a large field of waving cane, standing 
untouched, on the broad and cultivated acres, a sad commentary on 
the desolation and destruction produced by war. It was almost a 
daily task for the party to go into this field with their cart and fill 
it with cane, and driving it back to their quarters, unload it into one 
of the rooms. For the remainder of the day they contentedly sat 
upon the gallery and ate sugar-cane. It was a somewhat strange 
spectacle, to see these Louisianians out in the cane-field, a small, 
solitary band of reckless, indifferent soldiers, cutting cane only to 
gratify their own fondness for the nutritious juice. Not in days gone 
by were such laborers wont to work on those broad acres. Theirs 
was a more sable hue of complexion, and their hearts were light and 
gladsome, breaking forth upon the evening air in strains of that 
rude yet exquisite melody peculiar to negro voices and songs, and 
which the Southern planter loved to hear. It was a lazy and lonely 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 311 

life which the men led on this place, as no more troops reported at 
Camp Crow. Their rations were very indifferent, their utensils con 
sisting of two skillets, one broken, one tin cup, two tin plates, no 
knives or forks. Their situation became unbearable, and a scout 
was projected in order to better their condition. One dark night 
two of the party left the quarters, and returned about 12 M., bringing 
with them a skillet, broom, bucket, musket and ammunition. They 
grew hilarious over their success, as usual. To add to their priva 
tions and annoyances, rats were innumerable, and flies and mosqui 
toes troublesome beyond description. 

On the 3d of November, General H. W. Allen s orderly was about 
to leave for Natchitoches, with the General s ambulance horses. He 
asked one of the Louisianians to accompany him, and ride the spare 
horse. It was readily agreed to. Neither saddle nor bridle could be 
procured. The soldier was not to be deterred from the journey by 
such disadvantages, so boldly mounting, bare-back, he started on his 
travels. Ere he had completed the journey to Natchitoches, a dis 
tance of some eighty miles, he was most thoroughly impressed with 
the fact that a ride of fifty miles a day, on a horse without saddle or 
stirrups, was a much more trying ordeal than fighting a battle. The 
remainder of the party reached Grand Ecore some time near the 
middle of November, and found very comfortable and pleasant 
quarters. The residence of Colonel Russell was in this place, and 
the men were the recipients of innumerable kindnesses from the 
Colonel and his estimable lady. 

On the 17th there was an informal meeting of the regiment at 
Grand Ecore. Quite a number reported, of whom a list was taken, 
and the men were permitted to return home, with instructions to 
report every two weeks. 

The squad who had been in camp at Alexandria still formed a nucleus 
for the regiment, being without any homes or friends. Soon, however, 
two of the party, F. D. Tunnard and brother, discovered friends, and 
eventually found a home, Mrs. L. L. McLauren s. This lady s residence 
was on the banks of Red River, four miles east of Natchitoches, on an 
island known as Tiger Island ; Red River, during its high stages of 
water, completely surrounding it, flowing through what was formerly 
the channel of the river, and known as Old River. L. L. McLauren 
was Colonel of the Twenty-seventh Louisiana Infantry, and fell at the 
memorable siege of Vicksburg. A man of undaunted bravery, and 
a gallant officer, he was idolized by his men, a fit leader for that 
noble and heroic organization. Mrs. McLauren s residence was a 
general rendezvous for numbers of the paroled soldiers. They always 



312 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

found a cordial welcome. She was generous to a fault, a lady of 
unswerving devotion to the Southern cause, unusually fond of having 
young people about her, and making them feel perfectly at home 
and enjoy themselves to the full bent of their inclinations. Conse 
quently, her house was constantly thronged with gay soldier lads 
and beautiful, lively, entertaining lassies, the fairest flowers among 
Louisiana s lovely exotics. A short residence in this mansion entirely 
obliterated all formality, and Mrs. McL. was known by no other 
name than " Auntie." " Auntie " became endeared to many a manly 
heart by those associations which are an indestructible part of the 
human soul, and lives yet fresh and green in numbers of strong 
hearts and brave spirits. Every expedient known to social gather 
ings was here resorted to in order to make the time pass pleasantly, 
and such scenes of hilarity as here occurred, crowded one upon 
the other in rapid succession, are seldom witnessed and experienced. 
Hunting, fishing expeditions into the woods, quilting parties, cards, 
practical jokes of every description, music and romps were some of 
the amusements indulged in. Such was Tiger Island during the 
fall and winter of 1863, and such the home the wandering Louisi- 
anians found. Truly their "lines had fallen in pleasant places." 
Those were halcyon days, whose memory is ineradicable. Freed 
from the conventionalities which clog society in social circles, the 
time sped away, bringing on its golden pinions joy, fun and life in 
its brightest colors. 

On the first of December there was another gathering of the Third 
Regiment at Grand Ecore, about twenty-five being present, mostly 
members of Companies D and G, and another adjournment for a 
week. Many pleasant days were spent at Dr. Butler s, the father of 
Captain W. B. Butler, of Company G. The people on Red River 
never flagged in their eiforts to make the paroled prisoners happy 
and contented. There was quite a party of the Third at Dr. Butler s 
on the occasion of Captain Butler s birth-day, December 6th, among 
whom were Lieutenant-Colonel Pierson, Lieutenant Emanuel, Com 
pany C ; Captain Haley, Twenty-seventh Louisiana, and several unob 
trusive privates. That was more than a square meal. "Turkey, 
fresh pork, sausage, turnips, lettuce, salad, chicken salad, peas, hom 
iny, roast eggs, sauces, bread, butter, milk, pies, preserves, pound 
cake, egg-nog, claret, champagne cider, etc., formed a regal feast 
for those terrible war times." 

Thus day by day slipped away into the irrevocable past days 
epent in the quiet social circle ; trips into the country in pursuit of 
pleasure, or to the camp at Grand Ecore ; days of cold and sleet, 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 313 

then mild and balmy, alternate succession of clouds and sunshine. 
December llth was such an one. Early the rain fell rapidly, then 
there was a lull in the storm. The sun shone bright and golden 
through the rifted clouds, whose dark and jagged edges looked 
threatening and strong. How emblematical of a soldier s varied 
existence ! Life with him then was but a storm-cloud, through 
whose gathered gloom, occasionally shone the sun of hope and hap 
piness. To some it was almost a nonentity, creatures of circum 
stances ; at times it was a quiet calm full of remembrances of the 
Past, uninfluenced by the Present, looking not for aught from the 
Future. Again it was a storm, upon whose surging billows he tossed 
amid a sea of excitement. Then the glimmer of some uncertain 
hope would shine mellow and golden upon his heart, making, with 
its uncertain light, dancing pictures of future joy and happiness. 

On the 15th, General H. W. Allen addressed the people of Natchi- 
toches in one of those noble, stirring appeals, so characteristic of 
the man. The building was crowded to its utmost capacity to lis 
ten to the idolized and revered chieftain and statesman. Perhaps, 
no man has ever been so deeply enshrined in the hearts of Louisiani- 
ans as is Governor Allen ; the true and tried soldier, the uncompro 
mising patriot ; the kind and affable Governor ; the soldier s and 
widow s friend. His memory will be kept bright and green in 
thousands of warm and loving hearts long after the war and its inci 
dents have been forgotten, or only recalled as some strange dream of 
the past. 

On the 16th of December an order was issued for the regiment to 
assemble permanently in camp at Grand Ecore on the 5th of Janu 
ary, 1864. 

The holidays passed away without incident worthy of note. In 
camp, the boys had a merry time quaffing rich and royal egg-nog, 
and partaking of a regal repast, the munificent gift of Mrs. ^Colonel 
S. D. Russell. On Tiger Island were assembled a large party of 
lively spirits at the hospitable mansion of Mrs. McLauren. The as 
sembly consisted of Widows E. Sleade and Cole, Misses Frank Penny, 
Allie Tucker, M. J. Barlow, Captain F. Avery, aid-de-camp to Gen 
eral Hays, Sergeant-Major O. Penny, J. Macey, Lieutenant Dunker- 
mann, 27th Louisiana, and the two members of the Third Louisiana. 
There were card parties, mock marriages, attended with a regular 
chevarri from all the children on the plantation, both white and 
black. The scenes were rich and racy indeed, and attended with 
uproarious mirth. 

The year of 63 went out amid a blustering storm. The wind 
14 



314 A. SOUTHERN EECOED. 

blew almost a hurricane, shrieking forth a wrathful requiem over the 
dying year, while snow-flakes, descending thick and fast, filled all 
the wintry, biting air. The gloom was indicative of the dark storm- 
cloud of war, that hung like a funeral-pall over the land, bringing 
sorrow and woe to thousands of once happy households. The mind 
involuntarily winged a thought towards the coming year, and sadly 
questioned, "Will 1864 still find the land the scene of bloodshed 
and fierce strife ? " It trusted not, and looked forward to the day- 
spring of a brighter hope. The Confederate soldiers, the patriot 
sons of the South, were thought of amid their terrible sufferings in 
Tennessee and Virginia, as they nobly endeavored to roll back the 
swift tide of invasion. 



CHAPTEK XXXVI. 

THE new year opened bitter cold, the mercury in the thermometer 
indicating six degrees above zero at six o clock A. M. It froze all 
day. 

On the 5th of January, the two Louisianians, after a warm parting 
with their hospitable friends, were once more on the road with their 
knapsacks strapped to their shoulders, en route for Grand Ecore and 
the rough experiences of camp life. As they jonrneycd on, they 
were overtaken by a carriage containing two ladies and acquaint 
ances, who insisted on their riding. Of course no objection was 
made to such a proposition. Arriving at the landing opposite Grand 
Ecore, the soldiers parted from their kind-hearted Mends, after 
pressing warm kisses upon their soft, rosy lips. As one of the men 
turned his back upon the carriage, a sweet-toned voice called to him, 
u Will, come back, I want to tell you something." Approaching the 
carriage, a lovely face bent close down to the lowered window of 
the door, a pair of fascinating blue eyes gazed into his own as he in 
quired, " Well, what is it ? " He was under a mystic spell, as that 
same musical voice uttered in low tones, " Oh ! nothing, only I want 
to kiss you again." There was a long, lingering pressure of lips upon 

each other, and then the carriage disappeared around abend in 

the road ; and the soldier trod light-hearted over the sands on the 
river s shore. 

About thirty men assembled on the 5th, and proceeded at once to 
establish themselves in the comfortable quarters. The weather was 
very cold, and the men poorly supplied with blankets, yet they were 
in high spirits. It seemed as if no change of circumstances could 
ever break the brave spirits of the members of the regiment, who 
easily and quietly adapted themselves to every phase of a soldier s 
life. On the Gth, Company C arrived. W. H. Tunnard was appointed 
and acted as Commissary and Quartermaster. "Wagons and rations 
were procured in Natchi todies, and Grand Ecore became a regularly 



316 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

established camp. The days slipped away with little worthy of 
note. The weather was usually stormy, and the road to Natchi- 
toches terribly muddy, almost impassable ; making the dally trip of 
five miles and back anything but agreeable. 

On the 19th of January there was a dress parade of the regi 
ment ; about seventy-five men present. Orders were issued strictly 
prohibiting the men from leaving camp more than half a mile, 
without a written permit. The days of January passed away pleas 
antly with mild, balmy spring weather. The men enjoyed them 
selves as best they could, and were continually engaged in mis 
chief of some kind. On the 6th of February, a large party properly 
mounted, went to Winn Parish, a distance of fifteen miles, to a frolic. 
It consisted of Adjutant Currie, Lieutenants Clark, Company F, and 
Meredith, Company I, Sergeants Derbonne and J. Norris, Company 
G, the Commissary Sergeant and J. Sompeyrac, 27th Louisiana. 
Arriving at the appointed place, they found a large number of beau 
tiful girls present. The dancing commenced as the sun was dipping 
neath the western horizon, continuing without intermission until 
six A. M. the next morning, when the last sett left the floor. Dur 
ing the night the house was surrounded by cavalry, who stationed 
armed men at every outlet. The Captain came to the doorway and 
demanded the papers from the men. Kot one among the party had 
any. Lieutenants Clark and Currie said they could vouch for the 
men, who belonged to the Third Louisiana Infantry, and had only 
left camp for the purpose of enjoying the frolic. He was not satis 
fied. Some warm words ensued, when the Captain was informed 

that the boys "would see him and his buttermilk cavalry d d 

before they would have their fun interrupted." Arms were drawn ; 
the old fighting spirit of the Third Regiment was aroused, and af 
fairs began to look serious. The ladies screamed, or sat in pale 
groups around the room. After some cool reasoning the matter was 
finally adjusted by the men being formed in line and duly in 
spected by the Captain, who remarked, as he finished his task, " I 
have been looking for a deserter, and expected to find him here ; I 
do not wish to interfere with your amusement. Good-evening, gen 
tlemen ;" bowing himself out of the room. For once in his life, he 
had found men who were neither afraid of leveled rifles, nor to be 
intimidated by a game of " bluff." 

On the 8th, Major Lasalle, Department Paymaster, visited Grand 
Ecore, and paid oif all men to whom the Government was indebted, 
up to September, 1863. Now ensued the usual scenes of gambling, 
to which the soldiers were so much addicted. On the 14th, all the 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 317 

men in camp were furloughed for fifteen days, to be renewed every 
two weeks until they were exchanged. The boys were in high 
spirits over this good luck, while the officers were furious with anger, 
declaring that the whole proceeding was a scheme, concocted to de 
stroy the organization of the regiment. 

On the 15th of February, Grand Ecore was lonely and deserted, 
and parole camp a myth, the soldiers having eagerly and rapidly 
left for their homes. Thus, with the furloughing of the men, the 
bright star of reorganization that had risen and shone so brilliantly 
upon the gathering members of the regiment, went out once again 
in the gloom of the uncertain future. Growing restless under their 
protracted inactivity, numbers joined scouting parties in the Missis 
sippi Valley, others formed bands and hovered within and around 
General Banks army. Many remained quietly at home enjoying the 
society of friends, while still others, who were homeless wanderers, 
aided the planters in saving their stock, household goods and negroes 
from the approaching desolation of war. Thus, for a period of five 
months, the curtain of oblivion conceals the regiment. 



CHAPTER XXXVII. 

CAMP NEAK PINEVrLLE. 

JULY 4th, 1864, the curtain rises upon a new scene in the drama of 
war. A year has elapsed since the fall of Vicksburg. The fierce 
and protracted struggle around the stronghold, ending at last in 
disaster, had spread a gloom over the whole South. The brave and 
patriotic Confederates who had struggled so tenaciously, so fiercely 
for its preservation, who endured the tortures of hunger, the con 
stant fatigue, unrelieved in the trenches, the burning summer sun 
during the day, the heavy, penetrating dews at night, the drenching 
storms, standing undismayed, unbroken in spirit amid the storm of 
bullets, hurtling shot and hissing shells, exhibited a spirit similar to 
that which animated the Spartans at ThermopylaB. Going forth on 
parole after the fall of their stronghold, they had scattered to their 
homes and friends, over the length and breadth of the Confederacy. 
At this period, numbers had already been exchanged and were once 
again confronting the foe, exhibiting their devotion to their country 
by deeds of heroic valor amid the thunder roar of battle. The 
majority of the Louisianians captured at Vicksburg were still, how 
ever, up to this period, unexchanged. They comprised the following 
regiments : Third Detachment of Twelfth, Seventeenth, Twenty-sixth, 
Twenty-seventh, Twenty-eighth, Thirty-first, and a portion of Miles s 
Legion, forming a brigade, under the command of Brigadier-Gen 
eral Allen Thomas, formerly Colonel of the Twenty-eighth Regiment. 
Under the pressure of stringent orders then promulgated, the men 
rapidly assembled in camp near Pineville, preparatory to being ex 
changed, thoroughly organized, equipped, and put once more into 
active service. The morale of the troops of this brigade was such 
that it was anticipated on future battle-fields they would obtain a 
glory blight and untarnished, a fame wide-spread and imperishable, 
adding new laurel-wreaths of patriotism, devotion, and valor to the 
chaplets already encircling the brow of Louisiana. 

The summer days, hot, hotter, hottest, fleeted rapidly away, while 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 319 

the men employed the time as best they could, lying neath the 
shadows of the pines, indulging in speculative fancies, yet interested 
spectators of the fierce struggle for supremacy between the contend 
ing hosts. Notwithstanding their bitter experiences, they desired to 
plunge once again into the whirling vortex of strife, and aid their 
patriot brethren in their struggles for homes, country and freedom. 
Not an event of interest occurred to vary the monotony of their idle 
existence. Exchange was the theme of speculation, the chief topic 
of conversation, yet, like a " Jack-o -lantern," was an unapproachable, 
uncertain reality, a doubtful question of the still more doubtful 
future. Thus unchanged, the days passed away, while the solemn 
pines, in whispering voices like the far-off murmuring of the ocean 
waves on a sanded shore, hymned the requiem of their passing 
hopes and lost opportunities. It was not always thus, however. The 
gentle summer air would swell into thunder-toned voices, borne from 
the mountains and valleys from Virginia and Georgia, mingled with 
triumphant shouts of victory. Aye, victory, radiant, triumphant, 
would poise like the* incarnation of beauty upon the Southern ban 
ner, a point to the obscurity which shrouded the future as if it con 
tained the germs of white-winged peace and final success. The 
rainbow of Hope, with every tint of its exquisite coloring, would 
stand out in bold relief against the dark war-cloud that hung over 
the land, and was fast sinking into the horizon of the past ; its dark 
setting rendering all the more beautiful the soft hues. It seemed 
then as if the sun of peace was tinging with its parting beams, the 
jagged edges of the storm-cloud as with a silver lining. Thus it 
seemed as if the Southern hosts were striding forward to\vards the 
goal of their hopes, the prize for which they contended so stubborn 
ly, and gave so freely the priceless treasure of their rich, red blood. 

Thus, while the men indulged in their speculations, they were 
actually suffering both for want of provisions and shelter. The 
rations consisted chiefly of corn-meal and beef, and not in large 
quantities. They were without tents, and usually slept on rough 
beds built in the open air, protected from the night-dews only by 
shelters of brush. They generally congregated around some rough 
log-cabins in the woods, whose shelter they sought in rainy weather, 
but found the flees more intolerable than a good drenching. 

On the 23d of July the following order was read to the troops : 

General Orders ) HEADQUARTERS TRANS-MTSS. DEFT. ) 

No. 56. i 8hreveport, La., July 21, 1864. J 

All officers and men captured at Vicksburg, who have reported at 



320 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

Enterprise, Demopolis, Vienna, Natchitoches, Shreveport and Alex 
andria, at any time prior to April 1st, 1864, have been declared ex 
changed by the Commission er of Exchange. 

All those in this Department who arc embraced in this list will 
immediately rejoin their commands in the field. 

By command of 

GEN. E. KIEBY SMITH. 
S. S. ANDERSON, A. A. G. 

Such was the order which finally proclaimed the exchange of the 
Vicksburg prisoners. This notice of exchange was read to the 
troops on the 23d day of July. Once more they belonged to the 
Confederate army, to become active participators in its future fields 
of operations. This notice of exchange created much excitement in 
camp. The reality of the situation was, however, acknowledged 
and realized by the men being once more put into active service. 
The Third Regiment was rapidly approaching a complete organiza 
tion. Its existence as a regiment was acknowledged by the War 
Department, commissioning Lieutenant-Colonel Russell as Colonel, 
Major Pierson as Lieutenant-Colonel, and Captain J. S. Richards, of 
Company H, as Major. 

Thus, notwithstanding Company H, of the 22d, claimed to be the 
only true representatives of this organization, reporting the majority 
of the members thereof as absent without leave, it here exhibited a 
wonderful vitality, and stood in the brigade of gallant Louisianians 
as one of its most gallant regiments. At this time, Companies B, 
C, D, E, F, G, H, I and K, had representatives in the camp. The 
period had now arrived when absentees must report to their several 
commands. Stringent orders and measures were promulgated 
and adopted to compel their attendance. As patriot sons of Louisi 
ana, as true soldiers desiring once more to confront the foe side by 
side with the comrades with whom they had fought upon many 
hard-contested and bloody battle-fields the majority of the absentees 
came willingly and voluntarily into the camp near Pineville. 

More than a year of inactivity ! a year surrounded by the comforts 
and blessings of home in the companionship of its dear and loved 
ones ! The memory of this year nerved anew each strong arm and 
stout heart, especially when such marks of wars desolation as Red 
River Valley, Alexandria, Compte, Grand Ecore, and other places ex 
hibited, proclaimed the vindictive barbarity and fiendish malig 
nity of a foe, rivaling in cruelty the ancient Goths and Vandals of 
Europe. 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 321 

Unusual activity and energy, displayed in every department, pro 
claimed a determination to organize, arm and equip the brigade as 
speedily as possible. The name and fame of these Louisianians, as be 
ing among the most heroic defenders of Vicksburg, gave great hopes 
that they would soon win more brilliant and imperishable laurels 
upon future battle-fields. 

About this period two members of the 27th Louisiana were shot 
for desertion. This necessity for taking human life to compel obe 
dience to orders was sadly deplored by all. Yet such a necessity 
often existed during the war. The first duty of every soldier is 
obedience to orders. If right, it is just ; if wrong, the blame rests 
where it properly belongs with those promulgating them. This in 
stance is mentioned to exhibit the determination of those in author 
ity to compel obedience to orders, which was but right, if calmly 
and dispassionately considered. 

On Sunday, the 24th instant, 1,100 troops belonging to the depart 
ment arrived from New Orleans, in exchange for Federal prisoners 
recently sent below. They arrived filled with admiration and en 
thusiasm, for the ladies of the Crescent City, unconquerable in spirit, 
enthusiastic worshipers at the shrine of the Confederate cause, un 
dismayed by the presence of implacable foes these fair patriots, with 
untiring zeal and energy, ministered to the wants and necessities of 
every Confederate soldier who reached New Orleans during the war. 
Fame can wreath no brighter chaplet ; history contains no fairer 
page ; memory retain no more beautiful impression than was furnish 
ed by the devotion and patriotism of Southern women during the 
recent fierce, internecine struggle. To them should be reared a 
monument more durable than brass, more pure and polished than 
the finest Parian marble. They will live ever unforgotten in the 
hearts of the South s brave sons. 

On the last day of July General Polignac s Division arrived and 
encamped a short distance from the regiment, but the next morn 
ing were gone. These troops were like the shadow of some fleecy 
summer cloud, lingering but an instant, to flit by and then disappear. 
At this period there was an unprecedented lull in the storm of war. 
The paroled, or rather exchanged prisoners, arrived rapidly in camp, 
and the brigade was growing in numbers. At this time, many of 
the men were nearly entirely destitute of clothing, going in rags, and 
barefooted. There were some such cases in the Third Regiment. 
This state of affairs was unavoidable. Many men in the regiment 
were long miles from their homes, perhaps in the hands of the ene 
my, and were dependent on the charities 4>f friends both for clothing 
14* 



322 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

and food. The ladies, however, were ever foremost in supplying the 
wants of the destitute and suffering, and many a noble soldier treas 
ured, and still retains in his patriot heart, memories ineffaceable of 
the daughters of the Sunny South. Words were but feeble instru 
ments to express all the debt of gratitude, manly affection and ad 
miration felt by the Southern soldier for the fair ladies. In history 
is now transcribed, inscribed on every page in bright and glowing 
characters, their deeds of devotion, patriotism, suffering, heroic en 
durance and daring. 

On the 8th of August, Captains Gallagher and Brusle arrived in 
camp, and were most cordially greeted by the men. Captain Gal 
lagher had always been a favorite with the regiment, being considered 
the best Commissary who had ever catered to the ravenous appetites 
of soldiers. Most assuredly, Captain Gallagher took advantage of 
every favorable opportunity for supplying the men with, not only 
everything eatable which the Commissary Department furnished, 
but also many articles not properly belonging to a soldier s rations. 
He never took advantage of his position to appropriate any luxuries 
or delicacies that happened to fall into his hands, but divided them 
with an honesty and exactness among the men, which was known 
and highly appreciated by the recipients of his favors. The same 
statement could not be made concerning the majority of the Commis 
saries in the anny. The peculiar side-poise of Captain Gallagher s 
head on his shoulders, and the twinkle of his eyes, his abrupt man 
ner, and, when excited, stammering method of speech, gave rise to 
innumerable jokes and witticisms at his expense. Brave, fearless, 
always present during times of danger, Captain Gallagher discharged 
his duties most faithfully, and was universally esteemed by the or 
ganization with which he was connected. 



CHAPTER XXXVIII. 

HO ! FOR SHREVEPORT. 

ON Tuesday evening, the 9th instant, orders were received in camp, 
near Alexandria, for a portion of the Third Louisiana Infantry to be 
prepared to move early the next morning for Shreveport, to relievo 
the Crescent Regiment, then doing post duty at that place. After 
numerous delays incident to the leisurely embarkation of troops, at 
noon on the 10th instant the first detachment of the regiment, num 
bering 110 officers and men, exclusive of 18 Yankee prisoners, were 
snugly packed on board the small steamer "Lelia," bound for anew 
destination. Reader, have you ever traveled up Red River on board 
one of these " kick-up-behind " crafts in low water ? If not, you 
have missed one of the pleasures of navigation. Just imagine one 
of these small boats, indiscriminately crowded with horses, mules, 
negroes, soldiers, officers, white men, gentlemen at large, baggage 
and wagons, and you may form some conception of the freight on 
board the " Lclia." 

During the passage storms daily arose; and if the boat had been 
built of sieves, it could not have leaked worse. However, a duck 
ing is one of the least of soldiers mishaps. On the 12th instant the 
boat arrived at Grand Ecore, amid lowering clouds and driving rain. 
Yet here numbers of ladies from Natchitoches and the surrounding 
country, assembled to welcome the regiment. Mysterious bundles, 
containing clothes and comforts for the outer and inner man, found 
their way aboard the boat. Vociferous cheers attested the heartfelt 
farewell of the boys as the steamer departed, while amid general 
hilarity and good-humor, the " good things" were opened and freely 
partaken of. What mattered it that the boat ran " kerchug" against 
a sand-bank ! It only brought forth a full chorus of cheers. 

A member of the regiment was sitting on a barrel-head, with a 
sympathizing companion by his side, conversing in low tones. They 
were hundreds of miles from friends and relatives, and the scenes 
which they witnessed at Grand Ecore and on the boat, after its de- 



324 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

parture, made them feel lonely and homesick. They bewailed the 
fate which separated them from homes far away, as they glanced at 
the happy groups scattered about the deck discussing the contents 
of numerous freshly received packages. Suddenly a voice broke in 
upon the conversation, exclaiming, " Come, boys, and eat some cakes." 
Forgotten was home; finished all reverie, and conversation laid 
aside memory of friends. Shades of corn-meal, defend us ! Calces ! 
Simon-pure flour calces ! ! They quickly descended from the eleva 
tion of their observatory, and were soon discussing the excellences 
of some fair lady s culinary skill. Thanks to the generous kindness 
of Prue Hyams, the homeless were not forgotten. 

Nothing occurred of special interest on the way up, until arriving 
at Colonel S. M. Hyams s plantation, Lac des Mures. Here the boat 
stopped to land a passenger. Imagine the general surprise when 
Captain Isaacson, the kind, obliging and gentlemanly commander 
of the boat, was invited on shore, and no sooner arrived at the Col 
onel s residence than he was forcibly seized and detained by the 
Colonel in the following manner : The Colonel appealed to the men, 
his old command, to sustain his authority, while he proclaimed a 
feast in preparation for the whole regiment. Of course, he was up 
held in his summary proceeding. The Captain was indiscriminately 
stuffed with a bushel of peaches, washed down with some excellent 
u fire-water" from a Confederate distillery ; then followed a cart 
load of melons, grapes ad infinitum, rnilk, fine gumbo, barbecued 
pork, beef, mutton, etc. the men being likewise provided for. 
They bowed most gracefully to the exacting demands of the Colonel, 
and a scene of hilarity, joy and freedom from restraint ensued 
such as was seldom witnessed during the late warlike times. 

Lieutenant-Colonel S. M. Hyams was formerly an officer of the 
Third Louisiana Infantry, disabled by disease from following and 
participating in the fortunes of his old command. Yet he remem 
bered his former companions-in-arms with not less warmth and 
generous hospitality than they cherished for one of their first field- 
officers, and appreciated this token of his kindness and remem 
brance. His welcome to them was as the oasis in the desert to the 
fainting traveler a golden sunbeam descending from a rift in dark 
storm-clouds. Veteran troops of the Confederacy, the regiment 
never experienced a more genial welcome, a more hospitable recep 
tion, than that given them by Lieutenant-Colonel S. M. Hyams, his 
estimable lady, fair daughter, and near relatives, on the 13th day of 
August, 1864. Sufferer from the inroads of a Vandal foe, he appre 
ciated the protecting power of the troops, and out of the abund- 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 325 

ance of his generous impulses welcomed them, and bade them God 
speed on their way, feeling thrice blessed by his kindness. With 
many regrets, the men bade adieu to their kind-hearted host and 
hostess, making the shores and woods re-echo to their vociferous 
cheers, as the boat proceeded up the river. Nightly the men dis 
embarked. With bundles of blankets thrown over their shoulders, 
they would frantically rush from the boat, over a single plank, as if 
spirits loosed from Pandemonium, and seeking the contiguity of 
some sheltering bush, tree, or shade, build fires, and soon, amid 
oblivious slumber, forget all life s cares, harrowing thoughts, etc., 
red bugs, ticks and mosquitoes permitting. Thus, with an occasional 
thug into the bank, stoppage on a sand-bar or some hidden snag, 
the detachment arrived in Shreveport, without serious accident, at 
9 o clock A. M., August 16, after a trip of six days. 



CHAPTER XXXIX. 

CAMP BOGGS. 

ON the arrival of the regiment at Shreveport, they immediately 
disembarked, and proceeded to the camping-ground previously 
occupied by the Crescent Regiment, about one and a half miles south 
of Shreveport. This camp was situated in an open field, regularly 
laid off in avenues and cross-streets, along which the tents were 
ranged in lines, or rows, parallel with each other. The ground 
slopes gradually away on every side, being a knoll or rolling ground. 
On the west and north was a small stream, half encircling the camp, 
where springs furnished an abundant and refreshing supply of cool 
water. To the south and east were woodlands, a growth of huge 
pines, red and white oaks, and an undergrowth of every variety. 
Almost an -unobstructed view northward was furnished by the 
cleared space outside the line of fortifications which circumvented 
Shreveport to the hills which overlook the valley, formed by the 
junction of Red River and Twelve-Mile Bayou, where nestles the 
city, with its daily life and activity ; the throbbing heart, that sent 
its pulsations, its life-giving power through every artery of tbe 
Trans-Mississippi Department. Fortifications ! How the sight of 
earth works recalled Vicksburg, with its scenes of horrors, suffer 
ing and starvation, making even the veteran soldier shrink from 
their contiguity ! 

One unacquainted with Shreveport at this period, as the great 
central point, the nucleus of all military operations, could scarcely 
imagine the activity which prevailed there ; the influx and egress 
of all grades of military officials ; the arrival and departure of 
steamers and trains, shipment and receipt of stores, etc. Yet out 
side of military circles there was nothing enticing or attractive 
about the place, and the mere drone of society would soon tire of 
its monotony seek in vain for some amusement to while away the 
listless hours. 

Thus, through all the days of August, time sped on in its noise 
less flight, while the nations of earth were working out their ap- 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 327 

pointed destinies nations as varied in their forms of government, 
as there are differences in human language, color and races. To the 
careful peruser of history, it would be a difficult task to determine 
which is the best adapted form of government conduces most to 
the happiness, prosperity and security of the governed. Not an 
example adorns the record of the past and present of a nation which 
has not seen revolution, crime and bloodshed ; many, indeed, hav 
ing disappeared in the gloom of an Egyptian night, never again to 
gain a position among the nations of the earth. At this period, it 
seemed as if the republican form of government was a failure. The 
history of Rome, Sparta, Athens, Switzerland and Poland, all down 
the vista of years, proclaimed this system a failure- The American 
Republic, the last and latest of the earth, seemed about to disappear 
amid such convulsions as the world had never witnessed. Yet this 
disproved not the perfection of a free government its claims to 
pre-eminence among civilized nations. Fanaticism, with its deadly 
poison, pervaded every branch of the National Capitol, and ignor 
ing the provisions and safeguards of the Constitution, upon which 
rested the whole strength of the American Government the sov 
ereignty of States; freedom of thought, speech, and action had 
plunged the land into the vortex of civil strife. After nearly four 
years of a fearful struggle, every valley and hill-side were dotted 
with .the graves of its victims Northmen and Southmen slept to 
gether in calm repose. Yet the struggle continued undiminished, 
while the patriot sons of the South still heroically battled for the 
preservation of their rights and independence. Alas ! how fallen 
seemed this once proud and powerful nation ! 

Shortly after the arrival of the Third Regiment at Shreveport, 
the men were furnished with good shoes, hats, a few blankets, 
and were promised, ere long, a substantial uniform. 

Strange as it seemed, up to this period this veteran regiment had 
been furnished with but little clothing in two years, and not a single 
substantial uniform by the Confederate Government. The State fur 
nished a handsome uniform while the regiment was at Camp Jack 
son, Ark., under Brigadier-General Ben McCulloch, during the first 
year of the war. Now, however, the men seemed hopeful of better 
treatment. 

As a matter of some interest, the following list of the prices of 
vegetables and fruit are given for reference : Butter, $5 per pound ; 
eggs, $5 per dozen ; beans, $2 50 per quart ; apples, 25 to 50 cents 
each ; melons, $1 to $5 each. It was a great mystery how poor 
people managed to live. 



328 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

On the last day of August the regiment in camp numbered 150 
men. On this day a provost guard was also sent to town, and heavy 
details made for the different departments, Government workshops, 
arsenals, etc. thus reducing the number of men in camp, and making 
duty very onerous. Besides the several guard details in town, a heavy 
guard was employed at the Yankee prison, near camp. This prison 
was an inclosure, formed by heavy oaken timbers, firmly nailed to 
gether, and set some distance in the ground. This inclosure was 
square in form, and covered an acre or two of ground. Here 
both Southern delinquents and Northern prisoners were alike con 
fined. 

On the 3d of September the second detachment arrived in camp, 
increasing the available strength of the regiment to about 300 
men. This detachment was composed chiefly of members of the 
Eighth Battalion Louisiana Heavy Artillery and Twelfth Louisiana 
Infantry. Besides these men, the regiment was rapidly being filled 
with recruits, making it stronger in numbers than in efficiency. The 
arrival of a squad of conscripts in camp was the signal for a general 
assemblage of the veterans, who were not at all choice or backward 
in pouring forth a perfect fusilade of jokes. " Give me the little 
man with the big, two-story hat." "I want the man with the 
wooden leg." " Get out ; he s my choice." " I wonder if they have 
any marks about their legs," etc., were some of the expressions used. 

Thus, through all the hot days of September, the regiment re 
mained at Camp Boggs, regularly and monotonously performing 
their duties of guard-mounting, morning drill, policing camp, and 
evening parade. Such were the days. A roseate hue would tinge 
all the western horizon, or light clouds flit lazily across the sky 
overhead, and camp-fires glittered among the long rows of snow- 
white tents ; shouts, laughter, the hum of voices, mingled with songs, 
sentimental and religious, would float away on the still evening air. 
Such were some of the employments and duties of this veteran regi 
ment at this period. 

Thus the days slipped away into the irrevocable past. The fierce 
storm-cloud swept in its fury over Virginia, Georgia and Missouri. 
The result of the elections in several Northern States proclaimed 
the probability of no change in the political status of the land. 

On the night of the 8th of October the first frost visited the 
country, while the flight of migratory birds southward, proclaimed 
the approaching advent of cold weather. The men were, however, 
in high spirits, having a good supply of tents and neatly constructed 
log-houses, with good fireplaces and chimneys. Thus prepared to 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 329 

meet the coming winter months, they laughed in derision at approach 
ing cold. 

On Saturday night, the 15th, a grand vocal and instrumental concert 
was given by the Shreveport Glee Club, at the request of Governor II. 
W. Allen, for the benefit of the Missourians serving in the Trans-Missis 
sippi Department. This club had but recently been organized, and 
was composed of gentlemen residing in Shreveport, officers belong 
ing to the army, several members of the regiment, in all seventeen 
persons, possessing more than the ordinary musical talent of ama 
teurs. The concert was complete, both as to its success and the 
entertainment. The music was excellent, and the large theatre hall 
crowded. The proceeds resulted in the handsome amount of $5,000. 

After the performance, the audience was addressed by a Missouri 
officer present, who paid a glowing tribute to the sympathy of 
Louisianians for their sister State, in which the Third Louisiana In 
fantry was warmly eulogized for past services in the State of Missouri. 
Governor Allen, in behalf of the performers, made a few appropriate 
remarks in reply. This incident is worth recording, as furnishing a 
pleasant episode to warlike scenes, and exhibiting the feeling which 
animated Louisianians, always ready to extend the hand of fellow 
ship to her suffering sister States. The latter part of October went 
out amid storm, frost and ice. The forests changed their emerald 
hue for the manifold coloring of autumn. Icy winter, with his chill 
ing breath and hoary locks, was upon us. The majority of South 
ern soldiers were at this time still in the field doing their duty nobly, 
unflinchingly, notwithstanding the wintry season added greatly to 
their hardships and suffering. They needed warm clothing, espe 
cially socks and gloves. It seemed as if the old days of Valley 
Forge, with its horrors, would be re-enacted. The Third Louisiana 
Infantry, but recently returned from firesides and homes, were per 
haps better supplied than most regiments, yet were actually in noed 
of warm clothing. The Government, up to this period, had furnished 
nothing save a few blankets and shoes. Fortunately, they had 
plenty of shelter both tents and cabins. Louisiana s noble and 
warm-hearted Governor, H. W. Allen, one who knew a soldier s 
wants from personal experience, furnished the men of the regiment, 
with a number of suits of clothes, comprising pants and shirts, 
homespun, and entirely cotton. Inadequate though it might be to 
keep out the chilling, wintry air, heartfelt expressions of gratitude 
were bestowed on him, for his remembrance of one of Louisiana s 
veteran volunteer regiments. Strange as it seemed, this old regi 
ment, with its scarred veterans and depleted ranks, its wide-spread 



330 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

reputation, had never been properly clothed since its organization, 
save by the State. The mother is always most solicitous for the 
welfare and safety of her children. 

Nearly the whole month of November was cold, stormy and 
gloomy, and consequently the men suffered in proportion. The 
Northern election gave rise to fierce political discussion among the 
Confederates, who seemed to anticipate some species of relief from 
the election of McClellan. Lincoln s return to office by a large and 
increased vote put an end to the discussion which agitated the 
Southern mind. Reconstruction, and General McClellan s peace 
measures .founded thereon, all disappeared. The general sentiment 
among the soldiers was satisfaction at the result of the Presidential 
contest. Lincoln s plans and purposes were known, and the only 
hope of defeating them seemed in a persistent and determined armed 
resistance. Yet there were numbers greatly dissatisfied, and openly 
proclaimed their sentiments. It mattered little to them that the 
South had resolved to succeed or perish amid the ruins of the mag 
nificent temple she was endeavoring to rear amid a baptism of the 
richest blood of the people. They were disappointed and suffering. 
Forbearance against existing abuses and patriotism were ceasing to 
be virtues ; hence constant and frequent cases of desertion occurred. 
Thus dissatisfaction and demoralization pervaded the army, while 
among the people at home speculation and extortion ruled affairs. 
Letters from the army said : " It is no wonder men desert, for 
scarcely a letter comes from their homes that does not tell of grim 
want and pinching hunger standing at their thresholds. Those at 
home, whose duty it should be to protect and provide for poor 
families of men who are in the army, are deaf to the calls of duty." 
The Third Regiment was not exempt from the prevailing contagion, 
and numerous desertions occurred, principally among the recruits. 

It was a hard matter for a man to know that his w T ife and little 
ones were suffering at home, and he not permitted to relieve their 
wants. Every fierce blast of the wintry wind that shrieked around 
his tent or log-hut brought vividly before him his own home circle, 
a picture of squalidness, suffering and want. The voice of nature 
would be heard as it tugged at his heart-strings. Around that home, 
centred and clustered all the bright hopes and aims of his life. What 
wonder, then, that duties were forgotten, and only the warm and 
loving impulse of his own nature followed ! 



CHAPTER XL. 

THE monotony of camp was seldom disturbed during the winter 
months, save by some practical joke or foray at the expense of the poor 
conscript. The weather was unusually rainy and stormy, yet happy, 
very many happy hours were spent in those rough log-huts, despite 
storms without. Christmas Day, 1864, was a cloudy, raw, disagreea 
ble one, yet the boys were early astir, and seemed disposed to enjoy 
the occasion to the full bent of their inclinations and means. Egg- 
nog seemed a prevailing beverage, while towards the dinner hour, 
various and sundry savory and unusual dishes were to be found in 
course of preparation. 

At one tent, a party consisting of Major Richards, Lieutenants 
Emanuel, Company u C," and Washburn, Company " B," Sergeant 
F. D. Tunnard, Company " K," Sergeant R. Brennan, Company t: F," 
Sergeant W. H. Tunnard, A. C. S. Department and Corporal J. R. 
Nash, Company " H," sat down most cozily to dinner, consisting of a 
fine roast turkey, light bread and butter, potatoes, pies, cake and 
coffee. They enjoyed the repast most royally, laughing and chatting 
over their dinner, eaten from tinware, as if it had been a regal feast, 
daintily prepared and partaken of from dishes of the most costly 
and exquisite porcelain. It was undoubtedly enjoyed as if such had 
really been the case. 

The new year dawned clear and pleasant, with the thunder of war 
echoing over the land. The year 1865 witnessed one of the most 
fierce desperate and bloody struggles that the world ever saw. The 
holidays passed away with little of interest transpiring. Of course 
Shreveport was the theatre of many gay and festive scenes among 
the post officers. To the private soldier they differed little fi om 
other days. He had the same round of duties to perform, with 
out relaxation or relief. Ah! how he missed the joyous scenes 
and festivities of more peaceful times, when he mingled in gay 
throngs, or participated in the pleasant reunions around the home 
altar ! Such memories were of the past, while the present was full 



332 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

of clouded realities, and the future seemed to contain no olive-branch 
of peace for the land. 

On the 8th of January the regiment received a complete outfit of 
clothing, consisting of hats, shirts, drawers, shoes, socks, blankets, 
and a fine suit of Confederate gray cloth. Of course the excitement 
and rejoicing were great over such good fortune, and Captain 
Hanna s Acting Quartermaster s tent was encircled by a perfect dense 
wall of living, jostling, boisterous and rude men. It was an un 
usually pleasant and agreeable scene. During the past week there 
had been an unusual advent of military celebrities in Shreveport, 
consisting of Generals Price, Buckner, Forney and Polignac. Men 
began to speculate as to whether it did not portend early active 
operations. On the llth troops were moving through Shreveport, 
going below. 

January was very rainy, and contained little of interest beyond 
the agitation of the question of peace. Constant and accumulated 
disasters falling upon Southern arms, made the hearts of the people 
as sad and gloomy as the dark stormy days. 

On the 15th of February, notices were published, tendering an 
ovation to General Forney s Division by the citizens of Bossier and 
Caddo Parishes. General Forney remembered the gallant regiment 
which once served so heroically under him, and sent an invitation 
to the veterans of the Third Louisiana Infantry, proposing to pay 
them marked and special honors. Upon this distinguished occasion 
the invitation was most cordially accepted. Now began active 
preparations for this important event. All the veterans of the 
regiment were daily drilled, arms, equipments, and clothing duly 
inspected. The number of old members present was 150. It 
seemed something like former times to witness the evolutions, firm, 
even tread, erect carriage of this battalion of stalwart, bronzed 
veterans. 

In accordance with previously published notice, the grand festival 
and barbecue occurred on Saturday, February 18th, 1865. The day 
was one of peculiar loveliness a bright blue sky, golden sunlight, and 
a fresh, balmy spring atmosphere. It seemed as if Providence was 
smiling with lavish bounty upon the scene. At 9 o clock A. M., the 
detachment of the Third, preceded by General Forney s Division 
band, proceeded to the place for the review. At 10 o clock the 
division was drawn up in line of battle in a large open old field, 
west of Colonel Watson s residence, facing and parallel with the 
Marshall road, about two miles from Shreveport. They were first 
inspected by Lieutcnant-General E. Kirby Smith, attended by Major- 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 

Generals Magruder and Forney, followed by their respective staff- 
officers. 

At an early hour an immense concourse of fair ladies from far and 
near, together with citizens, soldiers and negroes, had assembled 
upon the ground, giving to the scene an appearance of great festiv 
ity. After the inspection, the regiments wheeled into columns by 
companies, and marched in review before the general officers, posted 
in front and centre of the line. As far as the eye could reach was 
this moving mass of men, their arms glittering like burnished silver 
in the morning sunbeams, while in front, along the whole line, was 
the assembly of Louisiana s fair daughters and gray-haired men, 
gracing with their presence the warlike scene. The review being 
finished, the lines were formed, advancing in columns of attack, pre 
ceded by a line of skirmishers, and then retreating in double-quick, 
the regiments formed into columns of companies, making two oppos 
ing lines of battle after breaking to the rear. They then changed 
front to the rear on the left of the first line, advancing to the attack. 
First was heard the scattering fire of the skirmishers, seen the small 
puffs of white smoke of the rifles extending from left to right far 
into the woods skirting the field. This was soon followed by the 
roar of a piece of artillery, then another and another, mingled with 
volleys of musketry as the line advanced. 

A battery in front belched forth its thunder, and clouds of sul 
phurous smoke mounted into the air, and rolled away on the morn 
ing breeze. This was answered by a fierce volley of musketry and a 
charge by the line, who with fierce yells rushed on the guns, gallant 
ly led by the color-bearers. The whole scene was a fine representa 
tion of one of those bloody dramas which had so frequently deluged 
Southern soil with a crimson stain, and sent a thrill of joy or woe 
from the centre to circumference of a struggling people. Yet this 
was devoid of the horrors attending an actual battle. Still, so ex 
citing and impressive was the scene, that some fair ladies feinted, 
others screamed, while down the blanched yet handsome features of 
others coursed the tears caused by some sad memory thus vividly 
brought to light of similar scenes of stern reality, where, far away 
on bloody battle-fields, fell the loved ones. 

The division now formed in columns of regiments near the reviewing 
officers, for the purpose of being presented to that gallant band ; the 
veterans of the Third Louisiana Infantry, who were present by special 
invitation, and as the honored guests of the occasion. This organi 
zation, preceded by a strong field-band, was now marched on the 
ground, making a fine appearance in their new uniforms, burnished 



33-1 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

rifles, and a beautiful banner floating above them. They were in 
spected by General Forney, who then rode to their front and saluted 
them, which was responded to by three hearty cheers from the men. 
Marching close to the division, General Forney then introduced 
them as follows : 

" I have the honor of introducing to you that gallant band, the 
veterans of the Third Louisiana. They are birds of the same feather 
as yourselves. I do not speak unadvisedly when I tell you they are 
true and tried soldiers. For forty-eight consecutive days did this 
gallant band stand amid shot and shell as thick as hail. Though 
thinned in ranks and few, yet, like yourselves, does each one feel as 
if he was a host in himself. I propose three cheers for the veterans 
of the Third Louisiana Infantry." 

The cheers were given with a wild enthusiasm, exhibiting the 
high appreciation in which the " veterans " were held by their fel 
low-soldiers. The division presented arms, banners were waved 
amid strains of music from the band. This compliment was returned 
by the regiment. The arms were then stacked, and, mingling to 
gether, the troops attended the speaking. This was the first ovation 
to this Veteran Louisiana Regiment, and as such, to-day forms the 
brightest chapter in their history, and is remembered with feelings 
of deep gratitude, and added yet greater incentive to the high re 
spect entertained by them for their old commander, Major-Gen eral 
Forney. Addresses, concise, pointed and stirring, were now deliver 
ed to the vast concourse of people by Colonel Louis Bush, Colonel 
George Flournoy, and Colonel R. R. Hubbard. Governor H. "W. 
Allen, though absent, sent a letter of welcome to the hospitalities of 
Louisiana to this war-worn division of Texans. After the addresses 
were finished, all repaired to the tables, where a bountiful and sub 
stantial repast sufficient for all was spread. Here, the Louisianians 
were again specially honored by having tables exclusively set apart 
for them. The utmost harmony, cordiality and good feeling pre 
vailed, and not an incident occurred to mar the festivities. The reg 
iment made a fine appearance. The banner, it was stated, was a 
new one, very beautiful. It attracted great attention, and was con 
stantly surrounded by crowds of admirers. 

It was a red field bordered with yellow, with a deep, heavy gold 
fringe. In its centre are two blue scrolls, almost in the form of an 
X, having embroidered on them, with yellow floss silk, the mottoes : 
" Oak Hills," " Elk Horn," " luka," and " Corinth." In the upper 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 335 

right-hand corner is a cross of white silk, with twelve stars set thereon 
of yellow gold thread, bordered with black velvet cord. The flag is 
of fine silk the trimmings being of the finest and costliest materials. 
It was manufactured by Mrs. T. L. Maxwell in South Carolina, pre 
vious to the fall of Vicksburg. It was presented to the regiment by 
Captain T. L. Maxwell, formerly regimental A. C. S., at that time 
post A. C. S. at Jackson, Mississippi. It escaped the misfortune of 
ever entering Vicksburg by mere accident, and reached the regi 
ment when they began to assemble in Parole Camp at Enterprise. 
Tliis flag was successfully carried across the river by Captain M. 
Middlebrook, Company C, and was exhibited for the first and last 
time on this occasion of distinguished honor paid the Veteran Louis 
iana Regiment. The 18th of February will not soon be forgotten 
by the immense concourse assembled near Shreveport. Upwards of 
15,000 people were present on this occasion. 

This incident seemed to be the ending of any excitement, until to 
wards the first of April, when depredations and robberies began to 
be so prevalent in and around Shreveport, that a special patrol un 
der commissioned officers, mostly picked men, guarded the city. It 
became dangerous for even General Smith or any staff officers to be 
caught in the streets at night. Consequently, some ridiculous 
scenes occurred between the veteran patrols and the post officers. 
One night the guard was inspected and drilled in the streets by an 
officer duly belted with sabre and sash. Another night an old Cap 
tain was arrested for not allowing a staff officer to interfere with his 
instructions, which he assumed he knew better than the Captain. 
These episodes caused much sport as well as indignation among the 
men. At this period much excitement existed over the constant re 
verses befalling the Confederate armies. Sherman s successful march 
through Georgia and the Carolinas the final surrender of General 
Lee, caused a culmination in the excitement. Commissioners from 
General Canby to General E. Kirby Smith, reached Shreveport early 
in May. Confusion, worse confounded reigned everywhere among 
troops and citizens. On the 10th of May Camp Boggs presented a 
strange spectacle. The men were gathered in groups everywhere, 
discussing the approaching surrender. Curses deep and bitter fell 
from lips not accustomed to use such language, while numbers, both 
officers and men, swore fearful oaths never to surrender. It was 
such a scene as one seldom cares to witness. The depth of feeling ex 
hibited by compressed lips, pale faces, and blazing eyes, told a fear 
ful story of how bitter was this hopeless surrender of the cause for 
which they had fought, toiled, suffered for long years. The huniili- 



336 A SOUTHERN EECORD. 

ation was unbearable. Paper money became worthless ; rations were 
issued in large quantities ; such as coffee, and other delicacies. The 
weather kept clear and pleasant, as if in mockery to the general 
gloom and despondency. Sunday the 13th, Shreveport was quiet. 
Troops began to leave for home, openly and unmolested ; yet the 
Third remained. The 15th was cloudy and rainy. Shreveport was 
crowded with citizens. Ammunition was loaded into wagons and 
sent away. 

On the 16th, rumors were in circulation in camp that Shreveport 
would be set on fire that night and plundered. This report impli 
cated members of the Third Regiment, but to their honor it was 
subsequently discovered that this report was false. That night some 
one stole the drum and beat it in camp. No one could be found who 
knew anything of the matter. Doubtless it was a practical joke 
played by some fun-loving member of the regiment on the strength 
of the general excitement. Be this as it may, the whole camp was 
aroused and orders issued for the regiment to promptly fall in. The 
order was quickly obeyed. Colonel Pierson, in command, made a 
few stirring remarks, telling the men " that Shreveport was about to 
be plundered and destroyed ;" that he expected every man to do his 
duty as a soldier, and the people of the town were looking to them 
for protection. They must not, should not be disappointed. He 
hoped the men would uphold their former honor and reputation, 
and be as firm and true as steel." Ammunition was issued to the 
regiment, then came the commands, u Right face, forward by file left 
march," delivered in clear, deep-ringing tones ; and the regiment 
was off for Shreveport. That night they bivouacked in the Court- 
House yard ; and the city remained quiet and undisturbed, save by 
the patrols firm footsteps in their rounds. 

The next day was the 17th of May. For four long years had the 
Third Louisiana Infantry battled for the South, homes and freedom ; 
four long years of horrors, suffering, toil and bloodshed. They had 
trod the soil of Arkansas. Missouri, Tennessee, Mississippi, and left 
their heroic dead upon the hills and plains of those States ; and, now 
once more in their native State, were to witness the final overthrow 
of the Confederacy. They must relinquish arms and see their 
proud banner trailed in the dust, never more to be raised by mortal 
hands. What a torturing reality for their brave and noble spirits ! 
This day camp was formally established in the Court-IIouse yard. 
A division of Missourians arrived also. 

On the 18th they were informed that the Missourians had come to 
relieve them. They became indignant and furious, and threatened 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 337 

to leave en masse. A delegation of prominent citizens besought 
them to remain. Governor Allen addressed them most feelingly. 
All in vain. That day a Missouri Colonel addressed his regiment, 
and informed the men that they had been sent there to guard the 
Louisiana Regiment. Such, at least, was reported to them. That 
afternoon they were relieved, and sentinels placed around them, who 
officiously told the men they were stationed there to guard them. In 
jured in feeling, wounded in pride and spirit, the brave boys carried 
out their threat. 

. The morning of the 19th found the majority of the regiment gone, 
or preparing to leave. They were allowed to take Government horses, 
mules and wagons, and leave the place. Clothes, linen, cotton, 
thread, buttons, leather, etc., from the Quartermaster s Department, 
were issued to them in such quantities that they were unable to carry 
them away or dispose of them. The condition of affairs was ter 
rible, awful, heart-rending. 

On the 20th the men were all furloughed by the Confederate 
authorities, or, more properly speaking, formally discharged from 
the Confederate army. Numbers left, declaring they would take 
neither furlough, discharge nor parole. Many went down the river 
in pontoons. The officers staid with the men until the finale. Major 
Richards left on the 20th, and Lieutenant-Colonel Pierson on the 
21st. The parting among the veterans was most affecting. Many 
put their arms around each other and sobbed like children ; others 
gave the strong grasp of the hand, and silently went away with 
hearts too full for utterance, while still others would mutter a huskily 
spoken " good-bye " or deep oath. Such were some of the farewell 
scenes. Together in battle or camp, in sunshine and storm, in suffer 
ing and pleasure, in sorrow and joy, on the weary and toilsome march ! 
No wonder that their hearts were linked together in bands of steel, 
with ties unspeakable, inexpressible. No wonder the parting, per 
haps for years, perhaps forever, wrung their souls with torturing 
agony. 

Sunday, the 21st, was hot. The streets were thronged with people. 
All the Government stores were thrown open. Then began a scene 
which beggared description. Government stores, of every imagin 
able description, were seized, the streets filled with goods, official 
papers, etc., scattered everywhere. It was awful, terrible beyond 
portrayal. Large quantities of these goods were eagerly bought for 
silver by rapacious speculators. To the honor of the Missouriuns 
be it recorded, that they soon restored order, seized the goods from 
the speculators, and stored them in the Court-House. 
15 



338 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

At this period Confederate officers disappeared very suddenly ; 
the stars and bars mysteriously departed, but citizens in fine apparel 
became quite numerous. Passing strange ! 

This same evening, as the sun sank below the western horizon, 
tinging the waters of Red River with a roseate hue, two pontoons 
left the wharf at Shreveport, and went down the river. Those pon 
toons contained the last departing members of the regiment. In one 
were Captain K M. Middlebrook, Company C ; Captain W. B. But 
ler, Company G ; Captain Curry, Company H ; Sergeant F. D. Tun- 
nard, Company K ; Sergeant W. H. Tunnard ; Trichel, Com 
pany D, and one private of Company C. The other pontoon con 
tained Captain T. Gourrier, Company A, and six privates of the 
same company. 

Such was the finale of the regiment, whose members had done 
their duty nobly from their first organization to the period of their 
dissolution. Their name for deeds of daring and heroic sacrifices 
was proverbial, and was known from the hills of Virginia to the 
plains of Texas. For patient endurance, silent suffering and sacri 
fice, unconquerable bravery and stubborn, desperate fighting, they 
had no superior among the many gallant regiments of the Confed 
eracy. Let the veil of obscurity fall over the deeds of those who 
often were misled during moments of excitement, or blindly followed 
their own wishes in preference to military orders. The curtain falls 
upon the bloody drama of war ; the foot-lights have been extin 
guished ; the actors have all departed ; the audience of the world s 
wondering nations turned to other scenes. The pen which has clot 
ted these reminiscences through long and weary months is laid aside, 
as white- winged Peace, all radiant with joy, settles down once more 
upon the land of Columbia. 



CHATTER XLI. 

SCENES FROM CAMP LIFE AT CAMP BOGGS. 
THAT MUSIC. 

" Oh, were you ne er a school-boy ! 
And did you never train ?" 

THESE lines were forcibly brought to mind by an unusual sound 
being heard in our camp this Sunday evening, October 2, A. D. 1864 ; 
being no less than the music of a full band, bass and tenor drums 
and fife. So unusual an occurrence soon brought together a large 
circle of admiring spectators, who interspersed the performance with 
remarks both polite and profane. What mattered it that novices, 
yea ! verily, the greenest of amateurs, essayed their first efforts ! 
Was it not music ? Did not the heart expand under its revivifying 
influence ? The forms of some drew up to their full height, as with 
martial tread they inarched off with firm military step. . The great 
spirit of Shakspeare haunted not the hearts of the musicians, pro 
claiming from his mouldering dust these forcible words : 

" He that hath not music in himself, and whose soul is not moved 
by sweet concord of sounds, is fit for treason, stratagem and spoils/ 

Soldiers naturally love music, yet have we heard them curse, u long, 
loud and deep," at the roll of a tenor drum, calling them from morn 
ing sleep or to daily drill. The introduction of so much musical 
material into the Third Louisiana Regiment, however, is a novelty, 
even to the veterans, and well worth recording. 

PREACHING IN CAMP. 

Preaching to soldiers in these times of war and bloodshed is 
oftener the exception than the general rule ; especially had such 
been the case during our experience of nearly four years campaign 
ing. Perhaps other commands have been more blessed in this respect 
than the one to which I am attached ; true is it, however, that the 
rank growth of vice and sin has been permitted to spring up and 
flourish unchecked in our midst, under the demoralizing influence of 



340 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

war s fierce blast. An occasional warning voice has been beard in 
our midst, yet Christianity has few supporters, and very seldom is 
the heartfelt hymn or prayer heard. Yet the expounder of truth 
always finds a respectable and attentive audience in the regiment. 

But a few days since a preacher came into our midst and exercised 
the peculiar privilege of his vocation. Twas night. The pale cres 
cent moon wrapped the earth in an uncertain light. The stars looked 
down from the far - off realms of space like the sleepless eye of 
Omnipotence. Gathered in one of the avenues of the camp were a 
number of the men, quietly, attentively listening to words which fell 
from the lips of a speaker standing in their midst ; a dim candle 
lighted the scene ; its feeble flame flickering in the evening air and 
making dancing shadows around the group. It was the picture for 
the pencil of a Rembrandt, or the pen of a Goethe. The speaker, 
with his gray locks and wrinkled brow, showing the footprints of 
time, standing in the midst of that group of eager listeners men just 
entering the threshold of life, yet whose vocations placed their feet 
upon the verge of the grave the rows of tents, the black groupings 
of adjacent shelters, all made an impressive scene. Occasionally, 
mingling with the speaker s words, came laughter from some group 
assembled around a camp-fire near by, or a shout of some unthink 
ing, free-hearted stroller about camp. Words, rich with eloquent 
meaning, rolled from that aged speaker s lips, like rippling waves 
of ocean, successively, rapidly breaking upon a sanded shore ; the 
light of a hidden power burned in his eyes, as he pleaded, warned 
and urged his hearers of the life to come, and the consequences of an 
unprepared condition for its hidden realities. The exhortation fin 
ished, a closing hymn was sung, rolling its waves of pure melody 
out upon the night s still air, over the adjacent hills and valleys, the 
benediction pronounced and the audience dispersed to discuss, some 
in serious, others in jocular vein, the subject-matter of the dis 
course. 

Such is one of the occasional, more impressive scenes from our 
camp life. 

THE STORM. 

On the morning of November 1st clouds gathered in heavy masses, 
shutting out the light of the sun s golden rays, obscuring all the 
heavens. Northward they sped, with their fleecy vapors, flitting by 
with arrowy speed, towards the distant north. Anon they discharged 
their gathered moisture, with steady fall upon the dying earth. 
The drops fell with regular rapidity upon the canvas roofs of our 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 341 

sheltering tents like the pattering footsteps of many feet. Snugly 
ensconced beneath their several tents, the soldiers whiled away the 
tedious hours of their confinement with song, story and anecdote. 

There came a lull in the storm, a stray gleam of sunlight fell across 
the earth from a rift in the clouds o erhead. Twas but a moment 
ary delusive lull. Soon in the north and west gathered a long line 
of inky blackness athwart, which gleamed with vivid light the 
lightning s brilliant Hash, followed by the deep and muttered roll of 
the jarring thunder. Gleam followed gleam in rapid succession, 
accompanied by deeper, louder roar of the crashing roll of heaven s 
artillery. Nearer, yet nearer, came the black shadow of the storm- 
king ; Boreas, in all the fierceness of wrathful power preceded his 
approach. In all its fury it burst upon our exposed encampment. 
Fiercely descended the wind in powerful, fitful gusts, accompanied 
by a deluge of descending rain. What a scene was there a hurrying 
to and fro ! Loud shouts and laughter of the imprisoned men rising 
high above the storm s deep-toned roar. Tents, released from their 
fastenings fell in ruins upon their occupants. Flies flew upward like 
a huge white-winged bird, their ropes and tackle streaming out from 
their sides. Luckless victims to the storm-king s sport emerged like 
drowned rats from the shrouds of their tents amid the shouts and 
laughter of their more fortunate comrades. No respecter of persons 
is the storm in its wrath, and officers suffered equally with privates. 
Tent after tent, shelters and sheds bowed before the inexorable mon 
arch, until the camp presented a woeful picture of desolation and dis 
aster. The sergeant-major assisted by the adjutant, each convulsively 
clutched the poles of their local habitation, and tenaciously clung to 
them with the desperation of despair, yet convulsed with laughter as 
the storm swayed them to and fro like the steps of a drunken man. Our 
surgeon, in fiery haste arrived from Shreveport to escape the threat 
ened storm, and hurriedly darted beneath the shelter of his tent, and 
inwardly congratulated himself on his fortunate escape from a duck 
ing. Alas ! for the imaginary security of frail mortality. The first 
blast of the storm brought his tent around his ears, completely bury 
ing him beneath its ample folds, from which, after various struggles 
and contortions, he emerged, a veritable water-fowl. The commissary 
sergeant fared little better ; with naked feet and bared shoulders, and 
long hair streaming in the air, he emerged from his reeling tent, like 
a veritable spirit of the storm. The fly blew loose, the tent-pins 
pulled up. Ably assisted by aid within, he convulsively clutched a 
corner rope of the fly, braced his feet in the sandy soil, and held on 
with the energy of despair. Finally releasing his hold, with axe in 



34:2 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

hand, he flitted around the tent here, there, everywhere, driving 
down pins, tightening the loosened cords, etc. He saved his tent, 
but received a complete baptizing from the cold, chilling northern 
storm. Such are some of the incidents of this stormy November 
day. Cries and shouts of all kinds helped to fill up the measure of 
the confusion worse confounded. Hoop 1 hoop ! hurrah I" " Bring 
on your whisky." " Here s your mule I" " Quarter less twain." 
" Knee deep no bottom ! " " Farewell, my sheltering snow-bird ; fare 
ye well forever." " Hoorah ! Doc., got plenty of diluted medicines 
for the ailing of humanity ?" a Just a-going, a-going ; how much for 
a tent, gentlemen ? Just a-going gone, by Jupiter !" Language, how 
ever, fails to do justice to such a scene. On all sides there is fun and 
laughter at the haps and mishaps, and scarcely a single word of com 
plaint, such is the stoical indifference with which such casualties are 
met by the soldier. The more fortunate, dry and comfortably shel 
tered, find an inexhaustible fund of merriment in the mishaps of their 
comrades, and enjoy their unenviable condition in many sly jokes 
and witticisms which are received as given with great humor. 

" HEBE S YOUR HONEY." 

Twas one of those beautiful autumnal days when a quiet hush 
seems to pervade all nature ; the sun looked down bright and 
golden from the deep azure sky ; the air, balmy and pleasant, dis 
turbed not a whispering leaf on the autumnal-clothed trees ; even 
camp, so usually the scene of constant activity and bustle, was 
almost death-like in its quietude. The sun was sinking to its repose 
in the west, casting long shadows athwart the earth, when a strange 
life and activity arose in camp. The men emerged from their tents 
like a nest of hornets aroused by some invader of their domains, 
all attracted towards a central point, which seemed a seething 
volcano of cries, rude jokes, a laughter high above all, where there 
arose the cry of " Here s your honey." "We followed the bent of a 
natural curiosity, and soon discovered the cause of the uproar to 
be a u little old man," with a cap on his head and stick in hand, 
under the escort of one of the valiant captains of the regiment, 
earnestly and eagerly searching the camp for some stolen honey. As 
he proceeded from tent to tent, ransacking old boxes, pulling nicely- 
arranged beds into heaps of disorder, the uproar and crowd increased. 
Unmercifully they made the intruder the subject of witticisms and 
sly jokes, making honey the theme of it all, until he could stand 
the assault no longer. Turning upon his persecutors with a lu 
gubrious expression of features, laughable to behold, and raising 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 343 

his stick aloft, lie exclaimed : u Gentlemen, some one took a basket 
containing three bottles of honey from my place. I care not for the 
honey, only give me back my basket ! Men, that basket belonged 
to my brother. He s in the army, and I hate to lose it. Give me 
my basket." " No you don t, old fel," said a voice ; " you want 
some one to bring back the basket and then take him up for steal 
ing your honey. No yer don t. Lasses is sweet, but honey am 
sweeter." 

Stooping to enter a tent, he was assaulted by a full dose of flour 
from the mischievous occupant. As he suddenly emerged, sputter 
ing and blowing the white powder from mouth and nostrils, a serio 
comic spectacle, a new uproar greeted him. " Take him out," said 
one ; u hunting honey is a pretence ; he is trying to steal some one s 
flour." Thus this seeker after lost sweetness was assailed on all 
sides with a thousand absurd suggestions how to find his honey, 
until, almost crazed, he fled from the camp, followed, as long as 
visible, by the loud vociferations of the men, " Here s your honey." 

OUR QUARTERS. 

We have read descriptions of palaces, with their marble colonnades, 
tesselated floors, ceilings frescoed and embellished with carved and 
curious figures, adorned, ornamented and furnished with all the 
richness and elegance which art and genius could devise, or the skill 
of man produce ; yet no such picture intrudes its glare and glitter 
upon us this cold, wintry day. The heart, wearied with long years 
of suffering, danger and hardship, amid the stirring and eventful 
scenes of our struggle for national independence, naturally turns to 
an humbler scene, with its fond associations. " Home, sweet home," 
is a theme which melts the heart of the sternest of our scarred veter 
ans. Many times have we seen the tears steal down the bronzed 
cheeks of those who have passed unmoved amid the horrors of the 
battle-field, as the strains of this cherished refrain came from some 
saddened heart, gushing its melody from a sweet-toned voice or in 
strument. We remember the cottage home embowered in trees, 
with the rose and honeysuckle clambering over the trellis at the 
ends of the porch, and the jessamine, with its sweet-scented flowers, 
perfuming all the summer air. We remember, too, with intense 
yearning, the social family gathering in the evening, the fondly- 
loved sister and brothers, the adored mother and revered father, 
now exiled from that cottage home, or battling in the ranks of our 
country s patriots. Ah ! how these memories throng to the mind 
and bring forth long-dormant reminiscences of the past ! But what 



34:4 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

have these thoughts to do with " Our Quarters 2" Nothing, dear 
reader, save as a reverie of camp-life. 

The winter wind is whispering a sighing requiem through the 
pine-boughs which form a shelter near my present home. Its breath 
is sharp and biting. What matters ? Does not a tent, with its 
canvas roof, and its sides closely pinned and sodded down, keep 
old Boreas at bay ? Moreover, there is a comfortable fireplace at one 
end, with its mud chimney outside, where the fire crackles and the 
ruddy flame leaps joyfully upward, as if defying all old Winter s 
fierce attacks. We sit (my companions and self, I mean,) around 
this cozy fire, and laugh and chat aw r ay the laggard hours as if stern 
war was not a bitter reality, and life had no aim save the enjoyment 
of its flitting hours. Soldiers are proverbial for their light-hearted- 
ness and reckless joviality under the most trying circumstances. 
The tent-poles at either end are ornamented with knapsacks, the 
relics of many campaigns and long marches, while from a pole, 
which is swinging overhead, hangs our scanty wardrobe of soiled, 
tattered, and threadbare garments. On one side of the tent is a 
broad bed, tastefully made up, with, perhaps, knapsacks or some 
bundles for pillows. At its head is a shelf, upon which is ranged 
our tinware and cutlery, a small box of sugar and ajar of molasses; 
at its foot is a table, on which is a portfolio containing the treasures 
and wnting materials of " Beta Omega," an inkstand, brushes, 
combs, rules, box of tacks, books in the shape of a history of the 
French Revolution, Hardee s Tactics and a Bible, an old tin cup full 
of corn-meal, with a piece of candle rising from its midst, and a simple 
camp candlestick ; on the opposite side is a single bedstead, minus 
an occupant, a barrel of meal, saddle and bridle. Under each bed 
can be found mess-boxes containing our daily sustenance, old boots 
and shoes, a bag of potatoes, skillets and pots for cooking, tin pans, 
etc. The floor is covered with boards, making it appear neat and 
comfortable, almost home-like ; several stools are scattered about in 
negligent disorder, while, to finish the picture, a small black and 
somewhat savage and decidedly ugly terrier is playing about the 
floor, or lazily sleeping before the fire. 

Such is the picture of our quarters this windy winter s day, where 
we pass our idle hours, regardless of sunshine or storm, contentedly 
smoking our pipes, or discussing the latest news items. A soldier s 
tent is parlor, kitchen and bedroom, and contains within its small 
and circumscribed limits all the conveniences of his existence. How 
seldom do we imagine what man can endure and still continue hope 
ful, healthy and joyous ! Such is a soldier s life. 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 345 

OUR NOBLE WOMEN. 

No published record or portion of the history of the war could 
possibly be complete without some tribute to the fair ladies of our 
land. The gallant men of the Third Regiment have cause to re 
member them on innumerable occasions. 

President Davis, in one of his appeals to the people of the Con 
federate States, closes with these sentiments : u I conjure my country 
women the wives, mothers, sisters and daughters of the Confeder 
acy to use their all-powerful influence in aid of this call ; to add 
one crowning sacrifice to those which their patriotism has so freely 
and constantly offered on their country s altar ; and take care no one 
who owes service in the field be sheltered at home from the disgrace 
of having deserted their duty to their families, to their country, and 
to their God." 

In these days of civilization and Christian enlightenment, woman s 
influence is not only acknowledged, but properly appreciated, by 
man not only in the quiet home-circle, but as also bearing upon 
the d"estinies of nations. The above appeal from the model states 
man, the chief executive of the infant Confederacy, is a most glorious* 
tribute to the influence of our fair women. What a record for the 
pages of its history ! President Davis acknowledged it as control 
ling the destiny of a convulsed people, even as it moulds, forms 
man s individual character and aspirations. Truly woman s influ 
ence over the destiny of a nation was never more earnestly pro 
claimed, or sincerely acknowledged and felt, than during the late 
struggle. 

As the thirsty and tired wayfarer gains renewed strength and 
freshness at the fountain where the cool and glistening waters, 
with their diamond spray, form rainbow hues in the sparkling sun 
light, so man draws new hope, inspiration and vigor from woman s 
encouraging smile, and gentle, loving words. From time immemo 
rial when Mary watched before the tomb of a Divine Saviour ; 
through the stormy scenes of the ancient republics ; in the midst 
of the exciting events of the Crusade ; through every great era in 
the world s changing history, down to the late eventful struggle 
women have occupied prominent positions where works of love, 
kindness and tenderness were to be performed, or sacrifices made 
for the weal of mankind. Steadfast has she ever proven herself in 
hours of danger and toil, ever ready to meet, with heroic fortitude 
and cheerful hope, the rough storms of life, and, with cheering words 
of encouragement, rouse the desponding spirit of man s stronger, 
15* 



346 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

yet frequently less hopeful, nature. Hers has been a proud station 
in the midst of the late revolution sending forth the loved and dear 
ones of her household to meet the ruthless invader ; laying these 
precious jewels on the altar of her country ; hiding the torn and 
bleeding tendrils of her affections by unwearying labors for the 
welfare and comfort of the absent one; enduring privations at 
home little dreamed of; with words of hope and encouragement 
for the desponding, sometimes despairing soldiers ; waiting and 
watching by the wayside and public thoroughfares with comforts 
for the sick and wounded as they were sent from the scene of active 
strife ; visiting hospitals ; giving aid and necessaries to captive 
friends amid insolent foes ; facing the horrors of the battle-field ; 
ever on her mission of love and mercy within the walls of besieged 
cities ; at home, abroad, everywhere exhibiting a devotion and un 
wavering constancy for the country s good, which should have 
caused a blush of shame to mantle the cheeks of many who called 
themselves men men, forsooth, who, with aslien lips and trembling 
knees, prated of the dangers they dared not encounter. 

Oh ! glorious the record of the noble women of the Sunny South ! 
Not a Southern soldier but has cause to remember tliee. The recol 
lection of thy deeds of love, thy gentle words of hope, strengthened 
anew their brave hearts and strong arms to strike new blows in thy 
defence. 

The image of some bright face, the music-tones of some voice in a 
far-distant home, implanted in the Southron s heart a new aspiration 
for deeds of daring and valor, with an influence beyond the power 
of expression. Southern chivalry is gathering up the broken frag 
ments of the temple of their perished hope, and will yet erect a mau 
soleum glorious and beautiful, with its colonnades, dome and arch. 
It will be the Mecca which they will come to worship. Inscribed on 
its highest pinnacle, in letters of living light, shall be thy names, 
oh ! daughters of the South ! proclaiming to the world thy sacrifices 
buried neath this glorious edifice, the shadow of that more beauti 
ful temple, for which thy sons, fathers, husbands and brothers so 
fearfully toiled, so lavishly and freely sacrificed and poured out their 
lives, treasure and blood. 

Amid the overshadowing gloom of the country s peril, thy all- 
powerful aid was invoked to illume, with its bright influence, its 
dark hours ; to strengthen its weakness, and bring success out of 
disaster. Nobly was it answered, but all in vain. What a glorious 
mission was thine ! Gentle woman ! the bulwark of a nation s success, 
a nation s freedom ! Worthy art thou of our smiling skies, the 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 34:7 

South s broad and fertile valleys, its beautiful mountain scenery and 
great streams ! Heroic women, worthy daughters of a land of flow 
ers, sunshine and brave men. How her sons worship at the shrine 
of thy beauty and worth, and proudly proclaim thy heroic deeds of 
self-sacrificing devotion, when no light gleamed through the jagged 
clouds of war, as the storm swept over the land like a besom of de 
struction 1 

All-glorious, all-radiant are these records ; worthy the poet s sweet 
est strain, the painter s most beautiful conception, the musician s 
most glorious symphony, the orator s loftiest nights of eloquence, 
the historian s most brilliant records, every Southerner s deepest 
homage and love. 

UNMARKED GRAVES. 

DEDICATED TO THE WOMEN OF THE SOUTH. 
I. 

Bring flowers, sweet flowers, from the South s sunny plain ; 
Plant their rich beauty o er the graves of the slain 
Let their fragrance so pure, like incense of old, 
Perfume the soft air, as some censer of gold, 
Swung to and fro in cathedral dim and lofty, 
Where strains of rich music floating out softly, 
Fill the soul with emotions so calm and so deep, 
Where worshipers kneel in adoration so sweet. 

ii. 

Let Beauty s soft tears, like the dews of the night, 
Or the diamond s bright rays, reflecting the light, 
Fall on these lonely graves ; love s tokens so pure. 
Which memory green keeps, while Time shall endure. 
While Fame shall proclaim, with his deep, brazen voice, 
Names of heroes, who, in the land of their choice, 
Fell in the strife on the field of their glory 
Their lives an oifering to song and to story. 

in. 

In hearts true and tender, monuments shall stand, 
More polished in beauty than aught in the land ; 
Than e er Greek Demetrius, with his skill wondrous, 
Chiseled from marble so rough and so pond rous. 



348 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

Monuments pure and rare, deep watered with tears, 
Time cannot destroy with the long lapse of years ; 
Or memory true from its tablets efface 
A glory and beauty in patriot blood traced. 

IV. 

Laid neath the droop of the lone weeping willows, 
Laid where the surge of the ocean s dark billows 
Thunder their requiem on the bright sanded shore, 
Nature s fit anthem of mystical power. 
Unmarked graves, in shadowy vale and dense wood, 
Where, fiercely fighting, patriot soldiers once stood, 
Ling ring falls the light on each emerald mound, 
With a halo of Beauty, golden, profound. 
NatcMtoches, Louisiana, January 24/i, 1865. 

THE" PERSONNEL " OF THE REGIMENT AND HOW THEY ACCEPT THE 
" SITUATION." 

In events of unusually startling nature, the mind naturally inves 
tigates causes, reasoning from these to the effect produced. Thus 
in reading the history of this gallant organization, the peruser in 
quires, " Who and what were these men ? " Let us answer. The 
members of the Third Louisiana Infantry were principally men of 
high social standing at home ; intelligent, refined, young, the fires of 
youth glowing in their stalwart forms. Voluntarily offering their 
services to their country, they were actuated by a firm conviction of 
the justice of their cause. From workshop and counter, fromc ottage 
and mansion, from the lordly plantation and the crowded city, they 
came, standing side by side in defence of a common cause. Look at 
them; the fire of a fixed determination glowing in their clear, 
bright eyes, the strength of a settled purpose evinced in their firm 
tread and upright carriage. 

No wonder that they distinguished themselves on the battle-field, 
covering themselves with an imperishable glory. There is not to 
day a man living who ever doubted the courage and gallantry of the 
whole regiment. Thus they fought through the stirring scenes of 
the whole war, and when the inevitable decrees of fate decided 
against them, they accepted the issue as brave men only could. 

If they were gallant soldiers, now are they good citizens, and can 
be implicitly trusted in their fealty to the Government. They feel 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 349 

that they have been overpowered, and accept the situation as brave 
and honorable men. Such men as the Gourriers C. D. Craighead, F. 
Roth and brother, Landry and brother, William Johnson, Pierre 
Richard, Alexander Hebert, C. Nicholls, H. Le Blanc and brother, 
J. Richard, A. Jolly, N. Gayard, H. Guidici, P. Slaven, M. Coughlan, 
K Richard, and many others of Iberville ; Major W. F. Tunnard, 
F. D. Tunnard, Bentons, Waddell, Gentles, Bells, Jolly, Booth, Alex 
ander, Aldrich, Hardy, Heroman, Knox, Hackett, etc., of Baton 
Rouge; Brighams, Washburn, Davenport, Evans, Hinson, Whit- 
stone, Holt, Brashear, Harris, Carters, Quipin, etc., of Morehouse ; 
Hyams, Breazeales, Blair, Russells, Walmsleys, Airey, Morse, Espy, 
Levasson. Trichels, Butler, Prudhommes, Derbonne, Bossiers, Charle- 
villis, Cloutiers, Hallers, Murphy, Norris, etc., of Natchitoches ; 
Lacy, Wells, Kinney, Gilmore, Kendall, Robson, Clark, Cole, Effner, 
etc., of Shreveport ; Pierson, Emanuel, Middlebrook, etc., of Winn ; 
Hedricks, Richards, Guy, Young, Tompkins, Currie, Page, Bradley, 
Eddins, etc., of Carroll; Gunnells, Evans, Humbles, Broadway, 
Smith, Moffits, Fluetts, Dunns, Hannas, Cottinghams, Grays, John 
sons, Killeys, Masons, McFarlands, Merediths, Moss, Sandridge, etc., 
of Caldwell, are considered the most trustworthy of citizens. Yet 
were they the first to answer to the bugle-call. These are all true men. 
In financial and commercial circles, in workshops, at the bench and 
counter and in the fields, are they striving to rebuild their fallen for 
tunes, striving to regain the loss inflicted by war. They are neither 
despondent nor despairing, but work with alacrity and cheerfulness 
to repair the many ravages of the conflict. Such are the positions 
of men who gave fortunes, staked their liveson the issue of war. 
The heroism displayed in accepting their defeat is not less praise 
worthy than their undaunted bearing in the deadly battle-field. 



0f 




THE following rolls of the Companies composing the 3d Regiment 
La. Infantry are necessarily incomplete, being compiled from notes, 
without the aid of any official documents. All the records of the 
Regiment were destroyed ; first, when Vicksburg was surrendered, 
and again when the army was finally disbanded. This statement is 
considered necessary, in order that no complaints may be made for 
any errors which may occur in these lists : 

ROLL OF COMPANY A, IBEEVILLE GREYS. 

Captain Charles A. Brusle. Wounded, Vicksburgh, May, 1863. 
Pritchard, J. A., 1st Lieutenant. Resigned, May 3d, 1861. 
Brown, T. C., 2d Lieutenant. Promoted May 3rd. Resigned, June, 

1861. 
Verbois, T. R., 3d Junior Lieutenant. Promoted 3d Lieutenant, 

June, 1861. Wounded at Oak Hills, August 10, 1861. 
Goodwin, F. W., 1st Sergeant. 
Ramoin, J. B., 2d Sergeant. Elected 2d Lieutenant, May 8, 1862. 

Killed at luka, September, 19, 1862. 
Babin, U., 3rd Sergeant. Elected 1st Lieutenant, May 8, 1862. 

Wounded at Vicksburg. 

Chastant, J. M., 4th Sergeant. Killed at Vicksburg, June 22, 1863. 
Terrel 0., 1st Corporal. 
Bevin, O., 2nd Corporal. 

Browne, II. S., 3rd Corporal. Discharged, N". O., May 3, 1861. 
Arceheaux, E. A., 4th Corporal. Discharged, N. 0., May 3, 1861. 
Arceneau, M., Private. 

Allain, S., Private. Wounded at Vicksburg, May 31, 1863. 
Amoin, T., Private. 

Allsbach, J., Private. Discharged, Sept., 1861. 
Aucoin, S., Private. Discharged, June 28th, 1861. 
Brawn, C. H., Private. 
Breand, S., Private. Discharged, 1861. 
Breaux, J. H., Private. Died of wounds, Vicksburg, June 25, 1863. 



354 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

Bridges, D. F., Private. Killed at luka, Sept. 19, 1862. 
Boissac, E. M., Private. Wounded at Vicksburg, June 6, 1863. 
Broussard, M., Private. Wounded at luka, and died at Jackson, 

Miss., Sept., 1862 
Blanchard, K, Private. 

Blanchard, L. D., Private. Wounded at Vicksburg, May 19, 1863. 
Babin, A., Private. Discharged, N. 0., May 3, 1861. 
Bellfield, E. C., Private. 
Barlow, E. D., Private. 

Beard, N. Private. Wounded at Oak Hills, August 10, 1861. 
Bell, J., Private. 

Berry B., Private. Died of wounds, Vicksburg, June 26, 1863. 
Breaux, E. L., Private. Wounded at luka, Sept. 19, 1862. 
Crowell, James, Private. 
Croughlan, M., Private. Discharged, 1861. Wounded at Oak Hills, 

August 10, 1861. 

Connor, James, Private. Wounded at Vicksburg, June 6, 1863. 
Craighead, C. D., Private. 

Davis, S. D., Private. Killed at luka, Sept. 19, 1862. 
Dupuy, C., Private. Killed at Vicksburg, June 22, 1863. 
Dennis, J., Private. 
Ellis, J. A., Private. 
Guidici, H. E., Private. Appointed Sergeant, February, 1862. 

Wounded at Vicksburg, May 29, 1863. 
Gayard, N., Private. Wounded at luka, Sept. 19, 1862. 
Gourrier, E. Private. Elected 2d Junior Lieutenant, Ft. Smith, 

June, 1861. 
Gourrier, E., Private. Elected 2d Junior Lieutenant, May 8, 1862, 

at Corinth. Wounded at luka. 
Gourrier S., Private. Killed at luka, Sept. 19, 1862. 
Gleason, P., Private. Died at Jackson, Miss. 
Hebert, J. L., Private. 

Ilebert, V. A., Private. Appointed Orderly to General L. Hebert. 
Hebert, Alexander O., Private. 

Ilebert Amidi, Private. Killed at Vicksburg, June 25, 1863. 
Ilebert, G. S., Private. Appointed Assistant-Surgeon. 
Hersch, B., Private. Killed at luka, Sept. 19, 1862. 
Hall, W., Private. 
Johnson, W., Private. 
Johns, A. J., Private. 
Johns, W. H., Private. 
Joly, A. J., Private. Wounded at luka, Sept. 19, 1862. 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 355 

Kahn, S., Private. Wounded at Vicksburg, June 23, 1863. 
Kenney, John, Private. Elected Captain, May 8, 1862. Wounded 

at luka, Sept. 19, 1862. Killed at Vicksburg, July 1, 1863. 
Le Blanc, E., Private. Wounded at Oak Hills. Killed accidentally, 

Aug., 1861. 
Le Blanc, H., Private. 

Leonard., F., Private. Killed at Yicksburg, May 19, 1863. 
Landry, M., Private. Wounded at luka. 
Landry, J A., Private. Appointed Brigade Quartermaster, 2 M. 

at Tupelo, Miss., 1862. 
Le Blanc, M., Private. 
Lanoux, F., Private. Discharged, 1861. 

McManus, J., Private. Wounded at Oak Hills, Aug. 16, 1861. 
McGueri, Private. 
Macready, J., Private. . 

McGinnis, W. B., Private. Wounded at Vicksburgh, June 14, 1863. 
Mintor, N., Private. 
Nichols, C., Private. 
Norton, C., Private. 
O Brien, M., Private. Wounded at Vicksburgh. 

Nicholas , Private 

Pruett, C., Private. Wounded at Vicksburg, May 22, 1863. 

Poison, W. H., Private. 

Richard, B., Private. Appointed Sergeant, Feb., 1862. 

Richard, N., Private. Discharged, 1861. 

Richard, J., Private. Taken prisoner at luka Sept. 19, 1862. 

Richard, E., Private. 

Roth, F., Private. 

Randolph, S. A., Private. Elected 2d Lieutenant, May, 1862. 

Killed at Vicksburg, May 23, 1863. 

Schade, N., Private. Killed at Vicksburgh, May 19, 1863. 
Sanders, W., Private. Wounded at luka, Miss., and Corinth, Miss. 
St. Amant, B. T., Private. Wounded at Vicksburg, May 22, 1863. 
Slaven, P., Private. 
Scheirer, J., Private. 

Springer, , Private. Elected 2 d Lieutenant, May 7th, 1861. 

Terrell, G., Private. Discharged, Sept. 1861. 

Terrell, O., Private. 

Verbois, O., Private. Discharged, 1861. 

Willis, P. C., Private. Wounded at Vicksburg, June 23, 1863. 

White, P., Private. 

Willhardt W., Private. 



356 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

ROLL OP COMPANY B, THIRD LOUISIANA. 

R M. S. Hinson, Captain. Killed August 10th, 1861, at Oak 

Hills, Mo. 
W. T. Hall, 1st Lieutenant. Resigned May 1, 1862, Memphis, Tenn. 

D. C. Morgan, 2d Lieutenant. 

J. H. Brigham, 2 Junior Lieutenant. Appointed Adjutant of the 
Regiment, May 8, 1862, Corinth, Miss. 

W. L. McMurtry, 1st Sergeant. Discharged April 23, 1862, Little 
Rock. 

C. Adamson, 2d Sergeant. Discharged August, 1861, Maysville, 
Arkansas. 

W. P. Douglas, 3d Sergeant. Discharged October 6, 1861. 

J. W. Petitt*, 4th Sergeant. Died, September 9, 1861, at Spring 
field, Mo. 

J. C. Williams, 5th Sergeant. Transferred July 1, 1861, Fort 
Smith, Ark. 

E. J. Wright, 1st Corporal. Discharged December 8, 1864, Winter- 
quarters, Ark. 

W. J. Buford, 2d Corporal. Transferred January 15, 1865, Shreve- 

port, La. 

Shelton, D., 3d Corporal. 

Traylor, W. P., 4th Corporal. Died September 19, 1861, at Spring 
field, Mo. 
Alford, Thomas R., Private. Killed May 19, 1863, at Vicksburg, 

Miss. 

Armstrong, P. D., Private. 
Aldridge, F. J., Private. Discharged April 17, 1862, Little Rock, 

Arkansas. 

Brown, T. J*, Private. Died October 2, 1862, at luka, Miss. 
Briscoe, James M., Private. Died June 3, 1864, at Morcliouse 

Parish, La. 

Boyer , Private. Died June, 1861, at Vicksburg, Miss. 

Brice, John W., Private. Died April 12, 1862, at Dardanelle, Ark. 
Beauchamp, T. L., Private. Died May 17, 1862, at Corinth, Miss. 
Blank enship, John,* Private. Died July, 17, 1863, at Morehouse 

Par., La. 
Blankenship, William, Private. Remained east of Missouri River 

after fall of Vicksburg. 
Brigham, D, L., Private. Discharged November, 1861, Benton 

County, Ark. 

* Died of wounds. 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 357 

Bass, E. A., Private. Drowned September 6, in Red River. 

Bussey, A. L., Private. 

Buckmaster, D., Private. 

Boatner, E. J., Private. 

Benk, James, Private. Disabled at Vicksburg. 

Collier, Thomas, Private. Discharged June 6, 1861, Little Rock, 
Arkansas. 

Cole, L. J., Private. 

Cooher, J. H., Private. 

Cooper, W. T., Private. 

Cravens, T., Private. Disabled at luka. 

Darwin, J., Private. Discharged October 7, 1861, Maysville, Ark. 

Davis, William, Private. Discharged December 8, 1861, Winter- 
quarters, Ark. 

Davenport, Joe, Private. 

Evans, E. M., Private. Discharged August 9, 1861, Wilson s Creek, 
Missouri. 

Evans, D. M., Private. 

Frazier, C., Private. Died April 3, 1862, at Van Buren, Ark. 

Fenley, W. F., Private. Killed May 22, 1863, at Vicksburg, Miss. 

Felton, J. G., Private. 

Fogerty, James, Private. Discharged July 16, 1862, Tupelo, Miss. 

Hughes, P., Private. Died May, 1861, at New Orleans, La. 

Hewitt, M., Private. Died September 13, 1861, at Springfield, Mo. 

Hewitt, J. K, Private. Killed May 30, 1863, at Vicksburg, Miss. 

Higginbotham, T. C., Private. 

Higginbotham, J. N., Private. Died August 28, 1861, at Spring 
field, Mo. 

Higginbotham, C. W., Private, Discharged June 30, 1861, Fort 
Smith, Ark. 

Howell, W. H., Private. Killed June 11, 1863, at Vicksburg, Miss. 

Howell, J. M., Private. 

Hubbard, F., Private. Transferred February, 1863, Snyder s Bluff, 
Miss. 

Harrison, B., Private. Discharged July 16th, 1802, Tupelo, Miss. 

Henderson, R., Private. Captured at " Elk Horn," Ark., March 8, 
1862. Refused exchange. 

Handy, H. F., Private. 

Hall, B., Private. 

Jones, John, Private. Transferred June 6, 1861, Little Rock, Ark. 

Jones, G. W., Private. Discharged July 16, 1862, Tupelo, Miss. 
Gelks, J. F., Private. 



358 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

Kellej, William, Private. Died August 30, 1861, at Springfield, 
Missouri. 

Lee, John W., Private. Killed June 20, 1861, at Vicksburg, Miss. 

Land, Thomas, Private. Discharged May 30, 1861, K Orleans, La. 

Lawhead, William, Private. 

Meaders, H., Private. Died October, 1862, Oakalona, Miss. 

McCluskey, Thomas, Private. Discharged October 4, 1862, Little 
Rock, Ark, 

McCallaghan, William, Private. 

May, James C., Private. Killed June 26, 1863, at Vicksburg, Miss. 

Mclntosh, W. B., Private. Discharged April 18, 1862, Little Rock, 
Arkansas. 

McFee, A. L., Private. Transferred March, 1863, Snyder s Bluff 
Miss. 

McFee, Eugene, Private. 

McGrane, John, Private. Discharged July 16, 1862, Tupelo, Miss. 

Newton, J. B., Private. Died September 11, 1861, at Springfield, 
Missouri. 

Norton, B., Private. 

O Brien, Jerry, Private. Discharged April 18, 1862, Little Rock, 
Ark. 

Pickett, D., Private. 

Potts, T. J., Private. Discharged September 24, 1861, Bentonville, 
Ark. 

Quinn, G. B., Private. 

Ren wick, J. P., Private. Killed August 10th, 1861, Oak Hills, Mo. 

Renwick, W. P., Private. 

Risor, William, Private. Discharged July 16, 1862, Tupelo, Miss. 

Roland, , Private. Transferred July 20, 1861, Bentonville, Ark. 

Raidt, F., Private. Discharged August 10, 1862, Baldwin, Miss. 

Robard, G. W., Private. Discharged October, 1861. 

Smith, S. D., Private. Killed May 20, 1863, at Vicksburg, Miss. 

Steward, James, Private. Killed September 19, 1862, at luka, 
Miss. 

Small, John, Private. Discharged September 8, 1861, Winter- 
quarters, Ark. 

Sullivan, Con, Private. Discharged September 8, 1861, Winter- 
quarters, Ark. 

Sharp, J. T., Private. Killed June 25, 1863, at Vicksburg, Miss. 

Silbernagel, B., Private. 

Saunders, J. N., Private. 

Sparks, T. H., Private. 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 859 

Sharp, James M., Private. 

Taylor, Joseph, Private. Killed August 10, 1861, at Oak Hill, Mo. 

Tubberville, A. H., Private. Discharged September 10, 1861, Mays- 

ville, Ark. 

Turner, Jospeh, Private. Discharged July 16, 1862, Tupelo, Miss. 
Vaughan, G. B., Private. 

Whitley, J. B., Private. Died June, 1861, at Vicksburg, Miss. 
Whittaker, B. W*, Private. Died September 21, 1862, at luka, Miss. 
Whetstone, E. A., Private. Killed August 10, 1861, at Oak Hills, 

Missouri. 
Williams, Alexander*, Private. Died July 7, 1863, at Vicksburg, 

Miss. 

Webb, J. D., Private. Discharged June 30, 1861, Fort Smith, Ark. 
Webb, T., Private. Discharged June 30, 1861, Fort Smith, Ark. 
Wright, T. J., Private. Discharged April 18, 1862, Little Rock, 

Arkansas. 

Wilkinson, Joe, Private. Discharged July 10, 1862, Tupelo, Miss. 
Williams, G. B., Private. Discharged July 16, 1862, Tupelo, Miss. 
Wadkins, James, Private. Discharged July 16, 1862, Tupelo, Miss. 
Washburn, W. M., Private. 

Yon, Joseph, Private. Died August, 1861. Maysville, Ark. 
Zimmerle, R., Private. Discharged July 10, 1862, Tupelo, Miss. 
Caldwell, W. R., Private Remained eastf of Mississippi River, after 

fall of Vicksburg. 
Edmonson, J. N., Private. Remained east of Mississippi River after 

fall of Vicksburg. 
Edmonson, M. Private. Removed east of Mississippi River after fall 

of Vicksburg. 
Finn, Terrence, Private. Remained east of Mississippi River after 

fall of Vicksburg. 
Harrison A, C., Private. Remained east of Mississippi River after 

fall of Vicksbnrg. 
Kelley, Henry, Private. Remained east of Mississippi River after 

fall of Vicksburg. 
Meyer, A., Private. Remained east of Mississippi River after fall 

of Vicksburg. 
Sheffield, W. B., Private. Remained east of Mississippi River after 

fall of Vicksburg. 

* Died of wounds. 

t These men, having homes or relatives east of the Missouri River, after the 
capitulation of Vicksburg remained in that department, and were attached to 
the 21st or 22d La. Infantry. 



360 A. SOUTHERN EECORD. 

Sullivan, M. B., Private. Remained east of Mississippi River after 

fall of Yicksburg. 
Stirces, S. H., Private. Remained east of Mississippi River after 

fall of Vickaburg. 
Shumaker, W. V., Private. Remained east of Mississippi River 

after fall of Vicksburg. 
Smith, James M., Private. Remained east of the Mississippi River 

after fall of Yicksburg. 
Thompson, J. A., Private. Remained east of Mississippi River after 

fall of Vicksburg. 
Wilcox, J, J., Private. Remained east of Mississippi River after 

fall of Vicksburg. 
Worley, S. K, Private. Remained east of Mississippi River after 

fall of Vicksburg. 
Walker, N. E., Private. Remained east of Mississippi River after 

fall of Vicksburg. 

All the of above were enlisted into the State Service at New 
Orleans, La., May 5th, 1861, and transferred to the Confederate 
States Service at New Orleans, May 17th, 1861. 

RECRUITS. 

Alford, G. W. Enlisted February 10, 1863. Died at Ft. Delaware, 

December, 1863. 
Brice, W. H. Enlisted July 30, 1861. Killed, Vicksburgh, June 19, 

1863. 

Bosworth, G. P. Enlisted December 5, 1864. 
Biddle, H. " October 15, 1864. 

Bearden, B. C. " " u " 

Elton, E. W. " . August 15, 1863. 

Emswiler, G. E. " March 17, 1862. 
Evans, G. R. " May 5, 1862. Discharged, Corinth, Oct. 

17, 1862. 

Fryor, H. C. " February, 1863. Lost a leg at Vicksburg 

Fluelen, J. G. " September 21, 1864. 

Gray, T. T. " March 17th, 1862. 

Graves, P. S. " November 26, 1864. 

Grant, P. April 10, 1863. 

Howell,F. M. " July 30, 1861. Killed at Vicksburg, June 

24, 1863. 

Higginbotham, D. F. Enlisted March 17, 1862. 
Hammonde, E. IT. " October, 1864. 

Johnson, T. H. " February 10, 1863. 






THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 361 

Mason, J. M. Enlisted March 25, 1863 Accidentally killed Sep 
tember 24, 1863, at Home. 

McFee, S. O. Enlisted July 30, 1861. Killed at Vicksburg, June 
16, 1863. 

Maxwell, J. D. " June 6, 1861. 

Maxwell, J. N. " October 6, 1861. 

McGuire, J. F. " January 5, 1865. 

Kaff, J. B. k < February 10, 1863. Killed at Vicksburg 

June 25, 1663. 

Rlsor, John. Elected May 5, 1862. Died at Grenada, December 

24. 1862. 

Sharp, A. F. " 5, 1864. 

Saunders, S. K " February 10, 1663. 

Button, Jos. " October 7, 1864. 

Smith, J. W. " December 19, 1864. 

Totle Jacob. " February 10, 1863. 

Wright, W. W. " " " " 

White, G. B. " " " " Died at Snyder s Bluff, June 

26. 1863. 

W. N. Washburn was elected Second Junior Lieutenant some time 
in October, 1861, while on the March for Carthage, Miss. This 
election was ordered to fill the vacancy occasioned by promotion^ 
after the death of Captain Henson. At the time of the reorganiza 
tion he was a prisoner, haying been captured at the battle of Elk 
Horn, and consequently was not re-elected. After the death of 
Lieut. Beauchamp, Lieut. Ren wick filled the vacancy, and Wash- 
burn was elected Second Junior Lieutenant. 

ROLL OF COMPANY C, WINN RIFLES. 

4 

Pierson, D., Captain. Wounded at luka, Sept, 19, 1862; wounded 

at Vicksburg. Promoted to Lieutenant-Colonel. 
Emanuel, Asa, 1st Lieutenant. Re-elected May 8th, 1862. 
Lurry, W. C., 2d Lieutenant. 
Strather, W., 2d Lieutenant, Wounded August 10, 1861, at Oak 

Hills. 
Middlebrook, K M., 1st Sergeant. Wounded at Oak Hills, August 

10, 1861; wounded at . Vicksburg. Elected Captain May 8th, 

1862. 
McCain, A. W., 2d Sergeant. Elected 2d Lieutenant May 8, 1802. 

Killed at luka, September 19, 1862. 

Alford, W. H., 3d Sergeant. Killed at Elk Horn, March 7, 1862. 
Copeland, J., 4th Sergeant. 
16 



362 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

McCain, J. M., 1st Corporal. Wounded at Oak Hills, August 10, 

1861. 
W. T. Fagan, 3d Corporal. Elected 2d Lieutenant, May 8, 1862 

Wounded at Vicksburg. 
C. F. M. Befer, 3d Corporal. 
J. Sbolurs. Died August 3, 1861. 
Benson, H., Private. 
Brock, J., Private. 
Bird, L. G., Private. 

Bulger, W., Private. Died July, 1861, at Camp McCulloch, Ark. 
Barnes, J. Gr., Private. 
Bonnet, J. R., Private. 
Bonnet, H., Private. Died August, 1861. 
Brantley, B. 0., Private. 
Brantley, G. D., Private. 
Belden, H. C., Private. 
Black, B. F., Private. 
Black, H., Private. 
Benson, F., Private. 
Collens, H., Private. 

Collum, W., Private. Died June, 1861, at Fort Smith. 
Carson, W. J., Private. Wounded at Vicksburg. 
Curry, G., Piivate. 

Cole, R. E., Private. Wounded at Vicksburg. 
Cole, H., Private. 

Carter, G. B., Private. Wounded at Vicksburg. 
Canady, O. F., Private. 
Carter, J., Private. 

Crew, H. M., Private. Killed at luka, Sept. 19, 1862. 
Crew, J., Private. Died August 1861. 

Coekerham, H., Private. Killed at Oak Hills, August 10, 1861. 
Campbell, R., Private. 
Coekerham, W., Private. 

Coekerham, B., Private. Died June 1861, at Fort Smith, Ark. 
Calhoun, I. G., Private. 
Cunningham, H. H., Private. 

Davison, W. F., Private. Died May 1862, at Corinth, Miss. 
Dun, Geo. F., Private. Died June, 1861, at Fort Smith, Ark. 
Evans. J. M., Private. 

Evans, W., Private. Wounded at Vicksburg. 
Furgerson, W. J., Private. 
Iluthnance, II., Private. Wounded at Corinth, October 3, 1862. 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 363 

Houston, R. K., Private. Wounded at Vicksburg. 

Ilardee, B., Private. 

Hoduett, G. W., Private. 

Hallamon, AV. A., Private. Killed at Vicksburg. 

Hicks, I. N., Private. Appointed 4th Corporal, September 30th, 

1861. 
Howell, W. F., Private. 

Harlen, , Private. 

Holland, J. T., Private. 

Halston, M. R, Private. 

Inabinett, A. J., Private. 

Jones, Jas. W., Private. Wounded at Vicksburg. 

Kelly, D., Private. 

Lockheart, A., Private, 

Livingston, R. L., Private. 

Leopard, F. M., Private. 

Lovett, AV., Private. 

Little, G. B. N., Private. 

Muirhead, H. C., Private. 

Muirhead, Win., Private. Wounded at luka, September 19, 1862. 

Martin, E. P., Private. 

McBride, J. M., Private. Wounded at Oak Hills, August 10, 1861 ; 

wounded at Vicksburg. 
McDonald, G. K, Private. 
Mooney, E. W., Private. 
McCormick, J. N., Private. 
Moody, N., Private. Wounded at Vicksburg. 
Means, B. H., Private. 

Mathis, John, Private. Wounded at Vicksburg. 
Middlebrook, Wm., Private. Elected 2d Junior Lieutenant at Sny- 

der s Mills, Miss., 1863. 
Mckolson, J., Private, 

Newman, A. H., Private. Taken prisoner at Corinth, October 3, 1862. 
Nox, Geo., Private. 
Oglesby, J., Private. 
Oglesby, M., Private. 

Phillpot, B. F., Private. Killed at luka, September 19, 1862. 
Phillpot, G. W., Private. Died at Mt. Vernon, Mo. 
Pierson, John H., Private. 
Pierson, Jas., Private. 
Pearre, A. J., Private. Wounded at luka, September 19, 1862 ; 

wounded at Corinth, Miss., October 4, 1862. 



364 A SOUTHERN EECOED. 

Powers, H. C., Private. 

Eitch, Win., Private. Wounded at Vicksburg. 

Rudd, J. D., Private. Wounded at Vicksburg. 

Smith, W. R., Private. Killed at Vicksburg, Miss. 

Smith, Jas., Private. 

Spillman, G. C., Private. Wounded at Vicksburg. 

Thompson, V. B., Private. 

Teagle, John, Private. Died July, 1861, at Fort Smith, Ark. 

Teddlie, T. J., Private. Killed at Vicksburg, Miss. 

Teddlie, W. J., Private. Wounded at Vicksburg. 

Tannyhill, D. M., Private. 

Tannyhill, W., Private. 

Williams, Thos., Private. Wounded at Vicksburg. 

Webb, J. D., Private. 

Webb, J. C., Private. 

Winner, M., Private. 

Wilson, J., Private. 

Warner, J. D., Private. Wounded at Oak Hills, August 10, 1861. 

ROLL OF Co. " D," PELICAN RANGERS, No. 1. 

Blair, J. D., Captain. Resigned, 1861. 

Russell, S. D., 1st Lieutenant. Elected Major, May 8, 1862. Pro 
moted to Colonel. Wounded at Corinth and Vicksburg. 

Russell, W. E., 2d Lieutenant. Elected Captain, May 8, 1862. 
Wounded at Vicksburg. 

Hyams, S. M., Jr., 3d Lieutenant. Elected Lieutenant-Colonel of 
Cavalry Regiment. 

Morse, B. P., First Sergeant. Elected 2d Lieutenant, May 8, 1862. 
Wounded at Corinth. 

Walmsley, H. B., 2d Sergeant. 

Airey, F. W., 3d Sergeant. Appointed Sergeant -Major. Elected 
Captain of Louisiana Regiment. Afterwards A. A. GK, Hay s 
Staff. 

Peters, J. H., 4th Sergeant. 

Charleville, J., 1st Corporal. Wounded at luka, September 19, 1862. 

Grove D., 2d Corporal. Wounded at Elk Horn, March 7, 1862. 

De Russey, W. A., 3d Corporal. 

Peters, J. H., 4th Corporal. 

Blackstone, M. P., Private. 

Bowling, W. T., " 

Barksdale, A. H., " 

Badt, W., " Wounded at Vicksburg. 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 



365 



Bastick, W. R., Private. 
Bassett, M. C., " 

Carrell, J. K, " 

Chambers, J., " 

Cohn, M., " 

Collins, W. M., " 

Cobb, T., " 

Creigbton, W. B., 
Caradine, I. 
Duke, II. J., 
Dodson, "W. W. 
Davenport, J. A., 
Davis, W. P., 
Davis, B., 
Daly, T., 
Evans, D. N., 
Ely, V, 

Edmonson, H. V. C., 
Fonteneau, G., 
Fox, G. W., 
Grillett, S., 
Goodwin, J., 
Gandy, W. W., 
Gallion, E., 
Ililburn, W. H., 
Hammet, R. C., 
Ivy, W. W. 
Jackson, C. H., 
Kimball, A. J., 
Ilutchinski, "W., 
Levasseur, E. B., 
Leplant, O., 
Leplant, A., 
Masley, J. M., 
Masson, E., 
Mattingly, G., 
McCaskey, T. H., 
McDowell, L. B., 
Matthews, T. J., 
McCarty, J., 
McDaniel, J. A., 
McDaniel, H., 



Killed at Vicksburg. 

Wounded at Elk Horn, March 7, 1862. 



Wounded at Oak Hills Aug. 10, 1861. 
" " luka, Sept. 19, 1862. 



Killed at Yicksburg. 
Wounded at Vicksburg. 

Wounded at Vicksburg. 
Killed at Vicksburg. 



Killed at Vicksburg. 
Wounded at luka. 



Died of wounds at luka, Sept. 19, 1862. 



Wounded at luka, Sept. 19, 1862. 



Wounded at Vicksburg. 



366 



A. SOUTHERN RECORD. 



McKerley, J., 
McMahon, J., 
Moore, P. S., 
Merritt, J., 

O Brien, M., 
Oliver, W., 
Powell, C., 
Read, J. L., 
Eachal, A., 
Ragon, P. H., 
Spragg, W., 
Shiff, J., 
Springer, F. H., 
Trichel, G. L., 

Trichel, E., 
Thomasie, O., 
Williamson, J., 



Private. 



Wheitfield, G. W., " 

Wolf, J., " 

Waddell, H. J., " 

Yost, J. B., " 



Wounded at Corinth, Miss., Oct. 3,1862 
and at Vicksburg, Miss. 



Wounded at Elk Horn, March 7, 1862. 

Elected 1st Lieutenant, May 8, 1863. 

Wounded at luka, Sept. 19, 1862. 



Died from wounds, Oak Hills, Aug. 10, 
1861. 



ROLL OF Co. "E," MOKEHOUSE FENOIBLES. 

James F. Harris, Captain. 
C. P. Brigham, 1st Lieutenant. 
2d Lieutenant. 
3d Lieutenant. 

Dannals, G. W., 1st Sergeant. 
2d Sergeant. 

Brashear, C. H., 3d Sergeant. Elected Captain May 8, 1862. 
Tucker, J. M., 4th Sergeant, 
McGuire, G. W , 5th Sergeant. 

Myers, J. P., 1st Corporal. Wounded September 19, 1862, luka and 
Vicksburg. 

2d Corporal. 
Tomlinson, M. A., 3d Corporal. 

4th Corporal. 
Anderson, H. D. B. 



, THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 267 

Ballard, D. C. Prisoner, September 19, 1862, luka. 

Barton, J. R. Killed, luka, September 19, 1862. 

Bradley, John. 

Brice, W. T. Killed at Oak Hills, Aug. 10, 1861. 

Bastic, A. G. 

Brigham, T. Prisoner, September 19, 1862, luka. 

Carter, J. J. 

Carter, C. J. 

Causey, W. S. 

Crane, S. Killed at Vicksburg. 

Culpepper, L. B. 

Dawson, H. D. 

Downey, T. D. Wounded at Vicksburg. 

Dudley, G. W. 

Esom, . Wounded at Vicksburg. 

Gwinn, D. A. Killed at Vicksburg. 
Faulkenburg, W. W. U. 
Grubbs, John. 

Henderson, Wm. Prisoner, September 19, 1862, luka. 
Haldeness, James. 
Hughes, H. S. 

Halt, R. C. Wounded, luka, Sept. 19, 1862, and Vicksbnrg. Elect 
ed 2d Lieutenant, May 8, 1862. 
Kurd. 

Faw, W. H. Wounded, Aug. 10, 1861, Oak Hills. 
Floyd, S. J. 
Floyd, A. J. 

Halt, H. H. Wounded at Oak Hills. 
Jones, John. 
Eaton, T. 
Kirkwood, J. H. 
Lanier, R. H. 
Mclntire, J. A. 
McDonough, J. 
McGowen, A. 
Murphy, C. C. 
Miller, G. O. 

Miller, D. L. Killed Aug. 10, 1861, Oak Hills. 
Masscy, M. H. 

Masterton, . Wounded Sept. 19, 1862. Killed at Vicksburg. 

Norwood, B. Killed September 19, 1862, luka. 
Miller, G. Wounded at Vicksburg. 



368 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

Pierson, P. Wounded September 19, 1862, luka. 

Powell. J. S. 

Powell, A. J. Wounded at Vicksburg. 

Powers, J. W. 

Quinn, R. L. Wounded at Yicksburg. 

Riley, J. 

Reardon, D. 

Smith, E. W. 

Stembridge, J. E. 

Sullivan, T. 

Thomas, A. J. Elected 2d Lieutenant March, 1863, Snyder Mills. 

Tomlinson, J. E. 

Tucker, W. 0. 

Turpin, J. G. Elected 2d Lieutenant May 8, 1862. 

Wallace, T. II. 

Woodbury, J. W. Killed August 10, 1861, Oak Hills. 

Zeagler, W. B. 

ROLL OF Co. " F," SiraEVEroRT RANGERS. 

J. B. Gilmore, Captain. Elected Lieutenant-Colonel May 8, 1862. 
Promoted Colonel. Wounded September 19, 1862, luka. Re 
signed. 

W. A. Lacy, 1st Lieutenant. Resigned October 8, 1861. Dis 
ability. 

O. J. Wells, 2d Lieutenant. Promoted 1st Lieutenant, October 8, 
1861. 

A. W. Jewell, 2d Junior Lieutenant. Promoted 2d Lieutenant, 
October 8, 1861. 

Kinney, Wm., 1st Sergeant. Elected Captain May 8, 1861. 

Davis, B. 2d Sergeant. Wounded August 10, 1861, Oak Hills, and 
Discharged October 6, 1861. Disability. 

Hughes, W. W., 3d Sergeant. Transferred to McCullough s Body 
Guard. 

Dandon, L. M., 1st Corporal. Elected 2d Junior Lieutenant Octo 
ber 12, 1SG1. 1st Lieutenant May 8, 1861. 

Jus, J. F., 2d Corporal. Wounded September 19, 1862, luka, and 
twice at Vicksburg. 

Home, J., 3d Corporal. Elected 2d Junior Lieutenant May 8, 1862. 
Died of wounds, Vicksburg. 

Hicox, H., 4th Corporal. Died August 18, 1861, of wounds, Oak 
Hills August 10, 1861. 

Anderson, J. H., Private. Discharged October 9, 1861. Disability. 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 369 

Attaway, E. M., Private. Mortally wounded Oak Hills August 10, 

1861. 

Attaway, J. B., Private. Died June 10, 1861. Fort Smith, Ark. 
Allen, J., Private. Killed August 10, 1861. Oak Hill, Mo. 
Allen, S., Private. Discharged January 15, 1862. Camp Benjamin, 

Ark. 

Brosi, J., Private. Wounded, Yicksburg. 
Basser, J. H., Private. Wounded Oak Hills, August 10, 1861. 
Brownwell, J. S., Private. Killed August 10, 1861. Oak Hills. 
Breening, R., Private. Wounded at Vicksburg. 
Bird, E., Private. Discharged. 

Brown, J. S., Private. Killed August 10, 1861, at Oak Hills. 
Bickham, T. C., Private. Wounded August 10, 1861, Oak Hills. 

Discharged. 
Bell, W. C., Private. Discharged July 25, 1861, at Camp Jackson. 

Disability. 

Charlton, J., Private. 

Clark, M. O., Killed September 19, 1862, at luka. 
Clark, J. O., Private. Elected 3d Senior Lieutenant May 8, 1861. 

Wounded at Vicksburg. 

Cole, R. F., Private. Wounded at Vicksburg. 
Collins. J., Private. 

Cartwright, D., Private. Discharged July 19, 1862, Conscript Act. 
Coon, J., Private. Died August 15, 1861, from wounds at Oak 

Hills. 

Craig, J., Private. Taken prisoner, never heard from. 
Carroll, E. R., .Private. 
Chastein, W. J., Private. Died September 3, 1861. Mount Ver- 

non, Mo. 

Chastein, J., Private. Discharged. 

Duvall, D. S., Private. Discharged July 19, 1862, Conscript Act. 
Dill, T. K, Private. Wounded at Vicksburg. 
Dodez, D. G., Private. 
Davis, F. A., Private. Wounded August 10, 1861, at Oak Hills and 

Vicksburg. 

Donahoe, J., Private. Died August 16, 1861, wounds at Oak Hills. 
Dick R., Private. Captured at Chickamauga and kept in prison. 
Dwire, P., Private. Discharged July 19, 1862, Conscript Act. 
Dougherty, J. P., Private. Died August 18, 1861, at Springfield. 

Mo. 

Efner, G. M., Private. Wounded at Vicksburg. 
Gray, A. Me., Private. Discharged July 19, 1862, Conscript Act. 
16* 



370 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

Gallagher T., Private. Discharged July 19, 1862, Conscript Act. 

Hudson, W. T., Private. Wounded at Vicksburg. 

Howard, J., Private. Killed August 5, 1861, at Camp Stephens, 

Arkansas. 

Hicox, J. W., Private. Wounded August 10, 1861, at Oak Hills. 
Hudson, T. S., Private. Wounded September 19, 1862, at luka. 
Jinks, J. D., Private. 

Jones, J. TV., Private. Died of wounds, Corinth, October 3, 1862. 
Jefferson, J. F., Private. 

Kidd, J., Private. Discharged July 19, 1862, Conscript Act. 
Kelly, D., Private. Discharged July 19, 1872, Conscript Act. 
Kimball, J., Private. 

Larmier, J., Private. Discharged, disability. 
Lynch, M., Private. Discharged July 19, 1862, Conscript Act. 
Lawson, M.. Private. Discharged July 19, 1862, Conscript Act. 
Lawson, Wm., Private. Discharged October 6, 1861, Conscript Act. 
Liles, H. T., Private. 
McGintry, J., Private. 
Miller, J. J., Private 
Miller, M. F., Private. 
McGray, A., Private. 
Marr, T., Private. 
Mayes, J. W., Private. 

Manning, S. J., Private. Wounded August 10, 1861, at Oak Hills. 
Manning, G. W., Private. 

Newland, C. W., Private. Wounded September 19, 1862, at luka. 
Nicholas, A., Private. 
Percell, W. H., Private. 

Pennery, P. L., Private. Wounded at Vicksburg. 
Patterson, J. P., Private. 
Peisker, F., Private. 

Pierce, F., Private. Discharged July 19, 1862, Conscript Act. 
Poland, T., Private. Discharged January 8, 1862. Disability. 
Parker, R., Private. Discharged July 19, 1862, Conscript Act. 
Rosser, J. H., Private. Transferred. 
Roberts, T. M., Private. Killed at Vicksburg. 
Ruif, G. V., Private. Discharged October 6, 1861. Disability. 
Reasoner, TV. B., Private. 
Singer, L. J., Private. Killed at Vicksburg. 
Simpson, B. L., Private. Died August 15, 1861, from wounds at 

Oak Hills. 
Shelton, W. A., Private. Captured at Oak Hills. 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 371 

Smith, T. D., Private. Died on steamer May 25, 1861. Buried at 
Napoleon, Ark. 

Smith, J., Private. 

Scanlan, J. S., Corporal. Wounded at Vicksburg. 

Sheridan , W., Private Discharged July 19, 1861, Conscript Act. 

Sheridan, P., Private. Wounded at Vicksburg. 

Sheffield, G. F., Private. Died. 

Shows, J. M., Private. Discharged September 25, 1861. 

Sewell, J. H., Private. 

Scruggs, E., Private. Discharged July 25, 1861. Disability. 

Thompson, J. Q., Private. Discharged July 19, 1862. Conscript Act. 

Thomas, W. II. C., Private. Discharged. 

Ward, R. A., Private. 

Weaver, W., Private. Discharged July 19, 1862, Conscript Act. 

Wilson, J., Private. Discharged July 19, 1862, Conscript Act, re 
joined. 

Walls, C., Private. Discharged July 19, 1862, Conscript Act. 

White, T. J., Private. Discharged July 19, 1862, Conscript Act. 

White, J. A., Private. Discharged July 19, 1862, Conscript Act. 

Young, J., Private. Discharged. 



ROLL OP COMPANY "G" PELICAN RANGERS, No. 1. 

W. W. Breazeale, Captain. Resigned September 24, 1861. 

W. O. Breazele, 1st Lieutenant. Resigned September 24, 1861. 

G. W. Halloway, 2d Lieutenant. Resigned October 13, 1861. 

L. Caspari, 2d Junior Lieutenant. Promoted 1st Lieutenant Octo 
ber 12, 1861 ; Captain February 18, 1862. 

W. B. Butler, 1st Sergeant. Elected Captain, May 8, 1862. 

P. L. Prudhomme, 2d Sergeant. Elected 2d Lieutenant, May 8, 1862. 

J. C. Trichel, 3d Sergeant. Promoted 2d Sergeant, May 15, 1862. 

J. A. Derbonne, 4th Sergeant. Promoted 1st Sergeant May 15, 1862. 

F. F. Chalcr, 5th Sergeant. Died at Maysville, Ark., September 14, 
1861. 

R. W. McConel, 1st Corporal. Discharged, July 16, 1862. 

H. L. Tauzin, 2d Corporal. Discharged September 6, 1861. 

T. W. Abbington, 3d Corporal. Appointed Color Guard, September 
20, 1861. 

F. W. Sanchez, 4th Corporal. Promoted 3d Corporal November 1, 
1861 ; 2d Corporal May 15, 1862. 

Aleman, R., Private. 



372 A SOUTHERN EECOED. 

Bassier, P., Private. Elected 3d Lieutenant May 8, 1862. 

Sassier, Placide, Private. Killed at Oak Hill, August 10, 1861. 

Bassier, P. E., Private. Discharged July 25, 1862. 

Breazeale, B. B., Private. Appointed 5th Sergeant, May 15, 1862. 

Barmes, M., Private. Discharged July 15, 1862. 

Bordinave, V., Private. Died at Castillian Springs, October 3, 1862. 

Behrman, Private. Joined March 3, 1862 ; captured at luka. 

Bernes, F., Private. Taken prisoner at Elk Horn. 

Charleville, J., Private. Appointed 3d Sergeant May 15, 1862. 

Charleville, W. A. Private. 

Oastey, 0. D. Private. 

Craft, S, E., Private. Discharged July 16, 1862, 

Cannon, D., Private. Prisoner at Elk Horn, March 7, 1862. 

Cloutier, F., Private. 

Charles, L., Private. Discharged December 9, 1861. 

Despallier, B. P., Private. 

Dell, J. S., Private. Discharged December 3, 1864. 

Dew, L., Private. Taken prisoner at Elk Horn, July 16, 1862. 

Dickens, A., Private. Joined March 3, 1862 ; captured at luka. 

DeBaillion, B., Private. Discharged October 10, 1861. 

Dozier, C. H., " " " 10, " 

Eshworth, J. L., " " " 10, " 

Escabeda, M., Private. 

Espy, K., Private. Appointed Assistant Surgeon, May 11, 1861. 

Flores, L., Private. 

Garcia, A., Private. 

Gainnie, F., Private. Elected 3d Lieutenant October 12, 1861 ; 1st 

Lieutenant, May 8, 1862. 

Guiincharnp, J., Private. Joined March 3, 1862. 
Guiin champ, E., " " " 3, " Captured at luka. 

Guiton, J., " " " 3, u 

Hyams, J. P., " 

Haller,.P., " 

Haller, T., " 

Hynes, S., Private. Discharged October 6, 1861. 
Hughes, H., Private. " " 10, " 

Hernandez, S., Private. 

Ilitzman, J., Private. Taken prisoner at Elk Horn, March 7, 1862. 
Hoffman, J. C., Private. Discharged October 6, 1861. 
Hertzel, Samuel, Private. Joined March 3, 1861. 
Hartman, M. S., Private. " " 3, < 

Jones, A., Private. Discharged July 16, 1862. 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 373 

Johnson. J., Private. Discharged June 13, 1861. 

Keyser, J. C. O., Private. Appointed 1st Corporal August 10, 1801. 

Kyle, Jas., Private. Elected 3d Lieutenant December 28, 1861. 

Discharged May 24, 1862. 

Lemoine, T., Private. Appointed 4th Corporal May 15, 1862. 
Lowe, A., Private. 
Lyons, H. L., Private. 
Moss, Jas. W., Private. Elected 3d Lieutenant October 12, 1861. 

Promoted 1st Lieutenant December 28, 1861. 
McKenna, H., Private. 
McDaniel, F., Private. 
Miller, H., Private. 

Murphy, C. V., Private. Appointed 3d Corporal May 15, 1862. 
Matthews, J. H., Private. Discharged July 16, 1862. 
Nagle, J., Private. Captured at luka. 

Norris, J, C., Private. Appointed 1st Corporal May 15, 1862. 
Nores, J., Private. Appointed 4th Sergeant October 1, 1862. 
Ourdin, F., Private. Joined March 3, 1862. 
Prudhomme, J. A., Private. Wounded at Elk Horn, March 7, 1862. 

Discharged April 17, 1862. 

Phillips, Ed., Private. Taken prisoner at Elk Horn, March 7, 1862. 
Prue, F., Private. 
Pine, F., Private. 

Rachal, P., Private. Discharged July 16, 1862. 
Rachal, J. B. D., Priv.ate. 

Rachal, T., Private. Discharged Novembers, 1861. 
Rowo, A. H., Private. Wounded at Elk Horn, March 7, 1862, 

Wounded April 17, 1862. 
Rivera, M., Private. 

Richeson, R. A., Private. Discharged July 16, 1862. 
Sasser, J. L., Private. 

Shea, J., Private. Discharged July 16, 1862. 
Schroeder, C. F. H., Private. Killed at Elk Horn, March 7, 1862. 
Shaw, M. J., Private. Wounded at Elk Horn, March 7, 1862. 
Sing, A. J., Private. Discharged January 13, 1862. 
Smith, Thos., Private. Wounded at Elk Horn, March 7, 1862. 
Tool, M., Private. Discharged November 28, 1861. 
Tauzin, John M., Private. Killed September 19, 1862, at luka. 
Wilson, P., Private. Discharged July 16, 18G2. 
Wrinkle, A. D., Private. 

Warner, B. F., Private. Killed at Elk Horn, March 7, 1862. 
Wright, John, Private. 



374 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 



ROLL OF Co. " H," MOJSTICELLO KIFLES. 

J. S. Ricliards, Captain. Re-elected May 8, 1862. Promoted 

Major. 
W. D. Hardeman, 1st Lieutenant. Promoted Captain and A. Q. M., 

A. A. G., General Hebert s Staff. 

A. A. Hedrick, 2d Lieutenant. Promoted 1st Lieutenant, May 8, 
1862. 

W. H. Corbin, 2d Lieutenant. Discharged. 

H. Maynadier, 1st Sergeant. Discharged. 

A. W. Currie, 2d Sergeant. Promoted Captain. Elected 2d Lieu 
tenant, May 8, 1862. 

J. W. Alexander, 3d Sergeant. Killed at Floyd, La., by Federals. 

Dr. J. Chambless, 4th Sergeant. Appointed Surgeon, 1861. 

T. G. Walcott, 1st Corporal. Discharged. 

Dr. J. S. Herring, 2d Corporal. Discharged. 

W. A. Page, 8d Corporal. Discharged. Rejoined. 

C. E. Guy, 4th Corporal. 

Anthony, S. L. 

Atkins, J. M. Discharged, 1861. 

Beard, W. A., 1st Sergeant. Killed, March 7, 1862, Elk Horn. 

Beverly, J. J. Discharged, 1862, Fayetteville, Ark. 

Bickman, J. D. Killed, September 19, 1862, luka. 

Bonner, "VV. F. Discharged. 

Bowles, J. E. Died, 1861, Fort Smith, Ark. 

Bradley, W. C. 

Briggs, H. D. Appointed 1st Sergeant, 1862. 

Bruton, B. Discharged. Killed at Floyd, La. 

Bullard, T. Discharged. 

Byrd, H. 

Byrd, J. Killed, Vicksburg. 

Burns, W., Corporal. Killed, Vicksburg. 

Cathron, J. 

Crawford, F. A. 

Canady, W. J. 

Collins, G. Discharged. Killed by Federals. 

Collinsky, P. Discharged. 

Corbin, W. P. Killed, March 7, 1862, Elk Horn, Ark. 

Corbin, J. J. Discharged. Afterward Lieutenant 

Davis, J. 

Dawson, M. H. 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 375 

De France, A. 

Dempsey, . Died. 

Dorsey, W. Died at Hospital, Quitman, Ala. 

Drake, J. B. Discharged. 

Eddins, L. S. 

Ewing, A. G-. Captain and A. C. S., 3d Louisiana Cavalry. 

Fitch, "W. P. Discharged. 

Fitch, N. F. Discharged. 

Green, W. 

Gardner, T. B. 

Guy, C. E. 

Hedrick, J. E. C. Discharged. 

Hedrick, P. P. 

Hedrick, W. A. 

Hargrove, W. J. 

Hargrove, J. F. Wounded, Vicksburg. 

Hash, B. F. Died. 

Holbrook, . Discharged. 

Holden, J. J. Discharged. 

Horton, W. C. Killed. 

Horton, H. T. 

Holland, J. B. 

Howard, J. Discharged, July 19, 1862, Conscript Act. 

Humphreys, J. H. 

Insley, T. 

IT win, E. 

Irwin, J. J. 

James, S. Died, June, 1861, Fort Smith, Ark. 

Jeeter, C. S. Killed accidentally, 1863, Snyder s Bluff. 

Jones, M. A. J. Discharged. 

Keegan, Geo. 

Kelly, J. Discharged, wounded. 

Keeff, M. Discharged, 1862. 

Knight, B. Died, 1862, Tupelo, Miss. 

Landfair, J. L. 

Leggett, E. H. 

Maugum, W. S. Discharged. 

Martin, J. A. Killed, Vicksburg. 

Martin, T. D. 

Murphy, M. 

McCarty, F. B. 

McCowen, J. Wounded, Vicksburg. 



376 A. SOUTHERN RECORD. 

McDonald, J. Killed, September 19, 1862, luka. 

McDonald, E. 

McGrew, S. J. Killed at Floyd, La., by Federals. 

McNicl, J. Elected 1st Lieutenant. 

McFadden, E. 

Morrison, J. 

Morehead, N. 

Nash, J. K. Appointed 3d Sergeant. 

Nolan, W. P. Discharged. 

Only, J. T. Killed, March 7, 1862, Elk Horn. 

Perry, J. E. " " " 

Perry, J. R. 

Pope, W. P. Discharged. 

Richardson, W. W. Discharged. 

Richardson, L., Dr. Discharged. 

Ravan, J. Discharged. 

Ray, J. E. Discharged. 

Reese, J. C. Killed, Vicksburg. 

Reese, S. L. 

Rollins, J. Discharged. 

Rollins, R. Discharged. 

Roland, J. F. 

Scott, R. C. Transferred to McCulloch s escort, 1861. 

Scott, H. L. 

Sharplin, W. P. Killed, March 7, 1862, Elk Horn. 

Smith, J. M. 

Sherdan, B. F. Discharged. 

Sherdan, J. M. Discharged. 

Singleton, S. S. Killed, March 7, 1862, Elk Horn. 

Sims, L. P. 

Smithe, J. M. Killed, March 7, 1862, Elk Horn. 

Smithe, K B. Discharged. 

Spurlock, J. L. Discharged. 

Stuart, J. M. Elected 2d Lieutenant, May 8, 1862. Wounded at 

Vicksburg. 

Tomlin, M. H. Killed on " Big Black, 1 Miss. 
Tompkins, J. B. 
Wade, S. 

Weatherly, W. W. Died. 
"Whatley, J. W. 
Wilson, D. Discharged. 
Veale, J. Killed, Vicksburg. 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 377 

Young, S. Discharged. 

Young, James. Died, 1861, Fort Smith, Ark. 

Young, John. 

ROLL OF Co. " I," CALDWELL GUARDS. 

W. L. Gunnels, Captain. 

Evans, T. J., 1st Lieutenant. 

Fluilt, S. B., 2d Lieutenant. 

Humble, T. C., 2d Jr. Lieutenant. Wounded at Oak Hills. Elected 

Major 31st Louisiana, and killed at first siege of Vicksburg. 
Stringer, J. J., 1st Sergeant. 
Brinton, J. A., 2d Sergeant. 
Guffy, H. M., 3d Sergeant. 
Stutson, W. S,, 4th Sergeant. 
Broadway, T. J., 5th Sergeant. Taken prisoner at Elk Horn, March 

7, 1862. 

Ely the, T. J., 1st Corporal. 
Bridger, J. C., 2d Corporal. 
McClary, W. D., 3d Corporal. 
"VVeatherford, 4th Corporal. 
Brian, B. F., Private. 
Breard, C. A. 
Brooks, J. 
Beale, "W. H. Taken prisoneer at Elk Horn. Died of wounds at 

luka, September 19, 18G2. 
Bliss, D. W. Taken prisoner at Elk Horn. 
Banks, A. J. Wounded at Elk Horn, March 7, 1862. 
Barnett, W. T. 

Chandler, W. S. Discharged. 
Crane, P. II. Discharged. 
Cottingham, "W. E. 
Cottingham, J. R. Elected 2d Lieutenant, May 8, 1862. Wounded 

and taken prisoner at Snyder s Bluff, April, 1863. 
Cartwright, M. P. Wounded at Vicksburg. 
Cantelere, F. E. Taken prisoner at Elk Horn. Wounded at luka, 

September 19, 1862. 
Caiu, W. L. 

Cain, L. L. Wounded at luka, September 19, 1862. 
Cain, F. F. Taken prisoner at Elk Horn, March 7, 1862. Wounded 

at luka, September 19, 1862. 
Craddock, J. D. 



378 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

Dunn, D. F. 

Dunn, T. J. Taken prisoner at Elk Horn. Killed at Vicksburg. 

Downes, J. E. 

Dowd, W. Taken prisoner at luka, September 19, 1862. 

Douglas, E. M. Wounded at Corinth. Killed at Vicksburg. 

Fluett, J. P. 

Fluett, J. S. Discharged. 

Faulks, W. C. 

Fogle, W. 

Fegart, E. W. 

Freeman, D. Wounded at Elk Horn, March 7, 1862. 

Ferrand, C. A. Taken prisoner at Elk Horn. 

Flowers, J. M. Taken prisoner at luka, September 19, 1862. 

Guffey, W. J. 

Gregory, W. J. Taken prisoner at Elk Horn. 

Girod, E. Taken prisoner at Elk Horn, and wounded at Corinth, 

October 3, 1862. Wounded at Vicksburg. 
Gray, J. R. Wounded at luka, September 19, 1862, and Vicksburg. 

Gray, . 

Girod, F. Wounded at Vicksburg. 

Greene, R. J. 

Hines, J. Wounded at Vicksburg, and at luka. 

Hough, H. C. Wounded at Vicksburg. 

Howell, S. J. Killed at luka, September 19, 1862. 

Hamilton, F. M. 

Hargrove, W. P. 

Heigdon, D. 

Hough, T. J. 

Haley, J. E. 

Hanna, J. E. 

Humble, G. W. Wounded at Vicksburg. 

Hass, H. 

Johnson, J. E. Elected Captain, May 8, 1862. Wounded at luka, 

September 19, 1862. and Vicksburg, July 7, 1863. Died from 

wounds. 

Johnson, J. B. Wounded at luka, September 19, 1862. 
Johnson, H. L. 

Jenkins, W. Killed at Elk Horn, March 7, 1862. 
Jones, J. 
Killcrease, II. 

Kelly, A. Killed at Vicksburg. 
Kelly, J. F. Prisoner at Elk Horn. 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 379 

Levy, L. Wounded at Oak Hills, August 10, 1861. 

Landerneau, J. 

Lilly, W. E. 

Lawson, W. P. Wounded at Elk Horn, March 7, 1862. Killed at 
Vicksburg. 

Landerneau, A. 

Mason, S. W. 

Mason, W. H. Died, July 30, 1861. 

Mason, D. F. Taken prisoner at Elk Horn. 

McCormack, J. O. Wounded at luka, September 19, 1862. Wound 
ed at Vicksburg. 

McFarland, W. L. 

McFarland, G. T. Wounded at Vicksburg. 

McFadden, J. M. 

Moss, W. A. 

March, D. Taken prisoner at Corinth, October 3, 1862. 

Mayfield, J. W. 

Michell, J. R. 

Miller, H. J. Died July 17, 1861. 

Moffit, S. J., Private. Wounded at Corinth, October 3, 1862. 

Moffltt, J. W., Private. 

Mourain, G. P., Private. 

Madden, V. V. 

May, W. B. 

McQuarters, W. A. Wounded at Vicksburg. 

Meredith, T. McB. Wounded at Oak Hills. Elected 1st Lieuten 
ant, May 8, 18G2. Promoted Captain. 

Meredith, R. B. Wounded at Vicksburg. Prisoner at Elk Horn. 

Meredith, B. 

Noble, T. J. Discharged. 

Noble, W. C. Wounded at luka, September 19, 1862. 

Perry, A. J. 

Pace, J. C. Wounded at Vicksburg. 

Bundle, G. K. Taken prisoner at luka, September 19, 1862. 

Rice, M. T. 

Ray, M. V. Wounded at Vicksburg. 

Ray, B. Wounded at Vicksburg. Prisoner at Elk Horn. 

Ray, F. Wounded at Vicksburg. 

Sapp, W. 

Swain, G. B. 

Sanclridge, J. M. Wounded at Vicksburg. 

Sweeny, W. 



380 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

Stuart, L. P. Killed at Vicksburg. 

Stephens, F. M. 

Smith, P. R. Taken prisoner at Elk Horn. Wounded at Vicks 
burg. 

Tegart, E. W. 

Vaughn, J. L. Wounded at Elk Horn, March 7, 1862. Killed at 
Vic.ksburg. 

Whittington, A. 

Watson, J. G. 

Walker, O. 

White, M. Taken prisoner at luka, September 19, 1862. 

Whittington, W. W. 

Wooten, W. L. 

Williams, J. R. 

Weatherford, R. 

Whitehurst, A. 

Watsson, G. W. Died July 21, 1861. 

ROLL OF COMPANY "K," PELICAN RIFLES. 

Tunnard, W. F., Captain. Elected Major May, 1861 ; taken prisoner 

at Elk Horn. 

J. P. Viglini, 1st Lieutenant. *Elected Captain May, 1861. 
J. B. Irvvin, 2d Lieutenant. Elected 1st Lieutenant May, 1862. 

Killed at luka, Sept. 19, 1862. 
Watson, W., 1st Sergeant. Discharged, Conscript Act, July 19, 

1862. 

Waddcll, G. D., 2d Sergeant. Appointed Hospital Steward. 
Tunnard, W. II., 3d Sergeant. Appointed A. C. S. Sergeant, May, 

18G2. 

Hurley, C., 4th Sergeant. Elected 1st Sergeant, May, 1862. 
Bogcl, J. C., 1st Corporal. 
Gentles, II. II., 2d Corporal. Elected Junior 2d Lieutenant, October 

12th, 1861 ; Captain, May 8th, 1862 ; wounded and taken prisoner 

at luka, Sept. 19th, 1862. 
Brunat, F. R., 3d Corporal. Elected Junior 2d Lieutenant, May, 

1861. Died, March, 1862. 

Lewis, D., 4th Corporal. 3d Sergeant, May, 1862. 
Patterson, R., Musician. Drum-major, by appointment, May 15, 

18G2. 
Ilersch, II., Musician. Transferred from Co. A., July 1st, 1862. 

Killed at luka. 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 381 

Cambell, D., Musician. Discharged October, 1861, Camp Jackso^ 
Ark., disability. 

Aldricli, M. C., Private. A. C. S. Department, detached. 

Allen, J. B., Private. Died July 15, 1861, Fort Smith, Ark. 

Alexander, S., Private. 

Alexander, A., Private. Discharged October, 1861, disability. 

Addison, J. A., Private. " " 25th, 1862, disability. 

Bovard, J. A., Private. 

Bovard, W. T., Private. 

Booth, A. B., Private. 

Benton, L. J., Private. Killed June 9, 1863, Vicksburg. 

Benton, E. J., Private. Wounded and died June 30, 1863, Vicks 
burg. 

Burrows, P., Private. 

Brandenstein, M., Private. 2d Corporal ; killed May 22, 1863. 

Boullion, J. R, Private. Died February 9, 1862, Fayetteville, Ark. 

Boullion, J. J., Private. Discharged August 26, 1862, disability. 

Barratt, J. E., Private. 

Bell, A. J., Private. Discharged July 19, 1862, Conscript Act. 

Burrows, A. P. Private. 

Bills, J. T., Private. Discharged October, 1861, disability. 

Bills, II., Private. Elected 4th Sergeant May, 1861. 

Bellow, E. J., Private. Discharged January 1862, disability. Re 
joined. 

Caffreay, J., Private. Wounded and taken prisoner at luka, Sept. 
19, 1862. 

Crasson, J. P., Private. Discharged, disability. 

Contini, F., Private. 

Chambers, J. F., Private. Wounded at Vicksburg. 

Cain, W. P., Private. Killed, Elk Horn, March 7, 1862. 

Chambers, H. H., Private. Discharged July 19, 1862, Conscript 
Act. 

Cameron, A. F., Private. Discharged September, 1861, Camp Jack 
son, Ark., disability. 

Cameron, A. W., Private. 

Curran, M., Private. Wounded at Oak Hills, August 10, 1861, and 
discharged September, 1861, Camp Jackson, Ark. 

Crane, Jas., Private. Discharged September, 1861, Camp Jackson, 
Ark., disability. 

Duffy, A. V., Private. Killed May 22, 1863, Vicksburg. 

Dalsheimer, A., Private. Taken prisoner, Corinth, May 4, 1862. 
Duggan, T., Private. 



382 A SOUTHERN EECORD. 

Denham, R. T., Private. Killed September 19, 1862, luka, Miss. 

Elter, A., Private. Taken prisoner May 17, 1863, Snyder s Bluff. 

Edmonston, W. L., Private. Taken prisoner and wounded October 
4, 1862, Corinth. Wounded at Yicksburg, 1863. 

Echols, D., Private. 4th Corporal. Taken prisoner March 7, 1862. 
Elk Horn, and May 19, 1862, luka. Wounded and died July 7th, 
1863, Vicksburg. 

Erwin, W., Private. Wounded March 7, 1862, Elk Horn, and dis 
charged April 27,1862. 

Funke, F., Private. Discharged July 19, 1862, Conscript Act. 

Fraenkel, F., Private, Discharged May, 1861, disability. 

Finlay, H., Private. Went to England after siege of Vicksburg. 

Gay, D. B., Private. Transferred to Point Coupee, October, 1862. 

Hueston, J., Private. Discharged July 19, 1862, Conscript Act. 

Hickman, B. F., Private. Wounded October 4, 1862, Corinth and 
Vicksburg. Died July 3, 1863. 

Hughes, J. C., Private. Discharged April 27, 1862. 

Heroman, F. M., Private. Discharged July 19, 1862, Conscript Act. 

Hock, J., Private. Taken prisoner September 19, 1862, luka. 
Went to Germany. 

Hall, C., Private. Wounded August 10, 1861, Oak Hills. Dis 
charged September, 1861, Camp Jackson. 

Hernandez, H., Private. Died September 5, 1861, Mount Vernon, Mo. 

Hernandez, L., Private. Discharged May, 1861, N. Orleans. 

Hardy, J. H., Private. Discharged August 20, 1861, Camp Jackson, 
Ark., disability. 

Hackett, A., Private. 

Henderson, R. L., Private. Discharged April 7, 1862, Fayetteville, 
Ark. Captain 8th La., Batn. H. Artillery. 

Hyatt, J., Private. Left Company December, 1862. 

Jolly, E., Private. 2d Sergeant. 

Jones, Chas., Private. Discharged, May, 1861, N". Orleans. 

Knox, N. L., Private. Wounded August 10, 1861, Oak Hills, and 
died September 15, 1861, Mt. Vernon, Mo. 

Loyd, E. A., Private. 

McGuinness, W., Private. 

McFarland, W., Private. 

McCabe, R. J., Private. 

Monget, W., Private. Wounded, Oak Hills, August 10, 1861. Dis 
charged, September, 1861. 

Nelson, J. M., Private. Detached September 16, 1862, A. Q. M. De 
partment. 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 

Perry, J. Gr., Private. 

Pino, A., Private. 

Payne, A. B., Private. Elected 2d Junior Lieutenant, May 8, 1862. 

Powers, J., Private. Discharged January 1, 1863, disability. 

Roysdon, A. W-, Private. Transferred to 25th La. Inf., 1865. 

Robinson, G. L., Private. 

Russ, S. P., Private. 1st Corporal. Wounded at Oak Hills and 

Vicksburg. 
Robertson, J. H., Private. Wounded at Corinth October 4, 1863, 

and taken prisoner. 
Roddy, J., Private. 3d Corporal. Wounded and taken prisoner 

September 19, 1862, luka. 
Reams, D. B., Private. 

Russ, V. C., Private. Discharged, July 19, 1862, Conscript Act. 
Smith, Jed., Private. Discharged, January, 1862, Fayetteville, Ark. 
Sparks, J. H., Private. Discharged, October, 1862, disability. 
Stephens, J. Gr., Private. 
Sanchez, J., Private. Discharged, September, 1861, Camp Jackson, 

Ark., disability. 

Tunnard, F. D., Private. 1st Sergeant. Elected 2d Junior Lieuten 
ant, May, 1861, N. Orleans. Resigned and returned to Regiment 

1862. Wounded at luka. 
Thomas, H., Private. 
Taqueno, F., Private. Wounded and taken prisoner, October 4th, 

1862, Corinth. 
Walters, T. R., Private. Wounded August 10, 1861, Oak Hills. 

Discharged, September, 1861. 
Williams, J. D., Private. Elected 2d Lieutenant, May 8th, 1862. 

Wounded October 4th, 1862, Corinth. 
Watson, W. W., Private. Discharged, January, 1862, Fayetteville, 

Ark., disability. 
Williams, J., Private. Wounded August 10, 1861, Oak Hills, and 

discharged, September, 1861, Camp Jackson. 

ROLL OF Co. U H," 22d LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 

Comprising members of the 3d Louisiana Infantry remaining East 
of the Mississippi River. 

Captain, C. H. Brash ear. 
1st Lieutenant, J. P. Parsons. 
2d Lieutenant, W. T. Fagan. 
2d Lieutenant, Jr., A. J. Thomas. 



384 



A SOUTHERN RECORD. 



1st Sergeant, C. Hurley. 
2d " A. B. Booth. 
3d " J. Roddy. 
4th T. Williams. 



1. Aldrich, M. C. 

2. Bellow, E. J. 

3. Bills, J. H. 

4. Blankenship, W. 

5. Barrett, J. E. 

6. Boyard, L. C. 

7. Oaldwell, W. R. 

8. Cooper, T. E. 

9. Crawford, J. F. 

10. Downey, P. V. 

11. Farrell, M. 

12. Finn, T. 

13. Foster, T. E. 

14. Grubbs, J. T. 

15. Gould, J. T. 

16. Hackett, A. 

17. Hubbard, J. 

18. Holland, A. 

19. Hurd, W. 

20. Hall, J. B. 

21. Hudson, W. T. 

22. Johnston, J. 

23. Johnston, W. 

24. Jones, M. D. 

25. Reilly, H. 



1st Corporal, W. E. "Walker. 
2d " J. F. Chambers. 

3d " W. B. Sheffield. 

4th " R. J. Galloway. 

PRIVATES. 

26. Lcaundry, F. T. 

27. Little, G. B. K 

28. McCaskey, T. H. 

29. Minter, N. 

30. Meyer, A. 

31. Manning, S. J. 

32. Miller, H. 

33. Moore, J. F. 

34. Norton, C. 

35. Oman, C. J. 

36. Orman, M. A. 

37. Phillips, E. B. 

38. Pugh, . 

39. Paff, C. W. 

40. Patterson, J. P. 

41. Pierson, P. 

42. Robbins, M. C. 

43. Rogers, . 

44. Swain, L. B. 

45. Saunders, W. 

46. Shumaker, M. V. 

47. Thompson, J. A. 

48. Taquino, F. 

49. Walker, R. 

50. White, R. R. 



LIST OF CASUALTIES OF THE SD REGIMENT LOUISIANA INFANTRI 
AT THE BATTLE OF OAK HILLS (WILSON S CREEK), Mo., Aue 
10, 1861. 

T. R. Verbois, 2d Lieutenant, Co. A. Slightly wounded 

John McManus, Private, Co. A. Wounded slightly. 

M. Coughlan, " " " 

1ST. Beard, " " " seriously. 

E. Le Blanc, " " " 

R. H. Hinson, Captain, Co. B. Killed. 

J. P. Renwick, Sergeant-major, Co. B. Killed. 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 385 

E. A, Whetstone, Private, Co. B. Killed. 

0. E. Adamson, Sergeant, Co. B. Wounded. 

J. W. Pettit, Sergeant, Co. B. Wounded. 

J. W. Hewitt, Private, Co. B. Wounded seriously. 

T. J. Potts, Private, Co. B. Wounded seriously. 

B. Norton, Private, Co. B. Wounded slightly. 

J. Sullivan, Private, Co. B. Missing. 

II. Cockerham, Private, Co. C. Killed. 

N. M. Middlebrooks, 1st Sergeant, Co. C. Wounded seriously. 

M. McBride, Private, Co. C. Wounded slightly. 

J. D. Warner, Private, Co. C. Wounded slightly. 

Williamson, J Private, Co. D. Died from wounds. 

T>. Davis, Private, Co. D. Wounded slightly. 

J). L. Miller, Private, Co. E. Killed. 

W. F. Brice, Private, Co. E. Killed. 

J. W. Woodburn, Private, Co. E. Killed. 

II. H. Halt, Private, Co. E. Wounded slightly. 

AV. II. Faw, Private, Co. E. Missing. 

Janies Allen, Private, Co. F. Killed. 

John S. Brown, Private, Co. F. Killed. 

Thomas W. Hecox, Corporal, Co. F. AVounded seriously. 

Ben. Davis, Sergeant, Co. F. AVounded slightly. 

B. L. Simpson, Private, Co. F. AVounded seriously. 

J. Donohue, Private, Co. F. AA r ounded seriously. 

E. M. Altaway, Private, Co. F. AVounded seriously. 
S. J. Manning, Private, Co. F. Wounded slightly. 
J. Coon, Private, Co. F. AVounded slightly. 

T. C. Bickham, Private, Co. F. Wounded slightly. 

F. Davis, Private, Co. F. AVounded slightly. 

J. H. Basse: , Private, Co. F. AVounded slightly. 
M. A. Sheldon, Private. Co. F. Missing. 
Placicle Bossier, Private, Co. G-. Killed. 
S. Eishworth, Private, Co. G. AVounded seriously. 
L. Charles, Private, Co. G. AVounded slightly. 
II. Hughes, Jr., Private, Co. G. AVounded slightly. 
J. Hoffman, Private, Co. G. AVounded slightly. 
Samuel Ilynes, Private, Co. G. AVounded slightly. 
A. J. Sing, Private, Co. G. Wounded slightly. 
M. Toal, Private, Co. G. AVounded slightly. 
T. C. Humble, 2d Lieutenant, Co. I. AVounded seriously. 
L. Levy, Private, Co. I. AVounded slightly. 
James Hines, Private, Co. I. AVounded slightly. 
17 



386 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

T. McB. Meredith, Private, Co. I. Wounded slightly. 
J. B. Trvin, 2d Lieutenant, Co. K. Wounded slightly. 
Charles Hall, Corporal, Co. K. Wounded seriously. 
W. Monget, Private, Co. K. Wounded seriously. 
J. C. Williams, Private, Co. K. Wounded seriously. 
W. T. Board, Private, Co. K. Wounded slightly. 
A. J. Bel], Private, Co. K. Wounded slightly. 
M. Gurran, Private, Co. K. Wounded slightly. 
X. L. Knox, Private, Co. K. Wounded slightly. 
E. A. Floyd, Private, Co. K. Wounded slightly. 
J. M. Nelson, Private, Co. K. Wounded slightly. 
T. R. Wallers, Private, Co. K. Wounded slightly. 
Silas Russ, Private, Co. K. Wounded slightly. 

RECAPITULATION. 

Killed 

Wounded 48 

Missing 3 

Total GO 

LIST OF CASUALTIES, 3D REGIMENT LOUISIANA INFANTRY, McCuL- 
Locn s BRIGADE, AT THE BATTLE OF ELK HOEN (PEA RIDGE), 
AFJL, MARCH 7, 1862. 

L. Hebert, Colonel. Prisoner. 
W. F. Tunnard, Major. Prisoner. 
Henderson, R., Private, Co. B. Prisoner. 
Alford, W. II., Sergeant, Co. C. Killed. 
Grove, D. E., Sergeant, Co. D. Wounded. 
Caradine, J., Private, Co. D. Wounded. 
Springer, H., Private, Co. D. Wounded. 
Craig, J., Co. F. Killed. 
Cain, F., Co. F. Wounded. " 
Miller, M. T., Co. F. Prisoner. 
Singer, L. J., Co. F. Prisoner. 
Jus, J. F., Co. F. Prisoner. 
Duval, D. S., Co. F. Prisoner. 
Wols, C., Co. F. Prisoner. 
Kimball, J., Co. F. Prisoner. 
Bernes, F., Private, Co. G. Prisoner. 
Cannon, D., Private, Co. G. Prisoner. 
Dew, L., Private, Co. G. Prisoner. 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 387 

Hitzman, J. Private, Co. G. Prisoner. 
Prudhomme, J. A., Private, Co. G. Wounded. 
Phillips, E., Private, Co. G, Prisoner. 
Howe, A. H., Private, Co. G. "Wounded. 
Schroder, C. F., Private, Co. G. Killed. 
Warner, B. F., Private, Co. G. Killed. 
Beard, W. A., Sergeant, Co. II. Killed. 
Corbin, W. P., Private, Co. II. Killed. 
Only, J. T., Private, Co. II. Killed. 
Perry, J. E., Private, Co. II. Killed. 
Sharplin, W. P., Private, Co. H. Killed. 
Singleton, S. S., Private, Co. II. Killed. 
Srnythe, N. B., Private, Co. II. Killed. 
Broadway, J. T., Sergeant, Co. I. Prisoner. 
Beale, W. H., Private, Co. I. Prisoner. 
Banks. A. J., Private, Co. I. Wounded. 
Cantelope, F. E., Private, Co. I. Prisoner. 
Cain, F. T., Private, Co. I. Prisoner. 
Dunn, T. J., Private, Co. I. Prisoner. 
Freeman, D., Private, Co. I. Wounded. 
Ferrand, C. A., Private, Co. I. Prisoner. 
Gregory, W. A., Private, Co. I. Prisoner, 
Jenkins, W., Private, Co. I. Killed. 
Kelly, J. F., Private, Co. I. Prisoner. 
Lawson, W. P., Private, Co. I. Wounded. 
Mason, D. F., Private, Co. I. Prisoner. 
Meredith, R. B., Private, Co. I. Prisoner. 
Kay, B., Private, Co. I. Prisoner. 
Smith, P. R., Private, Co. I. Prisoner. 
Vaughn, J. L., Private, Co. I. Wounded. 
Viglini, J. P., Captain, Co. K. Prisoner. 
Cain, W. P., Private, Co. K. Killed. 
Echols, D., Private, Co. K. Prisoner. * 

LIST OF CASUALTIES 3D REGIMENT LA. INFANTRY, HEBERT S BRI 
GADE, PRICE S ARMY, AT THE BATTLE OF IUKA, Miss., SEPT. 19, 
1862. 

J. B. Gilmore, Lieutenant-Colonel. Wounded. 
J. II. Brigham, Adjutant. " 

J. Kinney, Captain, Go. A. 
U. Babin, Lieutenant, Co. A. Missing. 



388 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

J. Ramouin, Lieutenant, Co. A. Killed. 
Joly, Sergeant, Co. A. Wounded. 

D. Bridges, Corporal, Co. A. Killed. 
J. Richard, Corporal, Co. A. Missing. 
A. Gourrier, Private, Co. A. Killed. 

J. H. Breaux, Private, Co. A. Wounded. 

E. L. Breaux, Private, Co. A. " 
K Gayarre, Private, Co. A. " 
T. Gourrier, Private, Co. A. 

W. Sanders, Private, Co. A. " 

M. Landry, Private, Co. A. 

M. Brassard, Private, Co. A. Missing. 

Renwick, Lieutenant, Co. B. Wounded. 

Brown, Sergeant, Co. B. " 

Whittaker, Corporal, Co. B. " 

Buckmaster, Private, Co. B. 

Bass, Private, Co. B. " 

J. Blankenship, Private, Co. B. " 

W. Cooper, Private, Co. B. " 

T. Cravens, Private, Co. B. " 

D. M. Evans, Private, Co. B. " 

W. S. Finley, Private, Co. B. " 

T. Finn, Private, Co. B. " 

A. C. Harrison, Private, Co. B. " 

W. M. Wasliburu, Lieutenant, Co. B. Missing. 

Stewart, Sergeant, Co. B. Missing. 
S. W. Whorley, Private, Co. B. Missing. 

A. W. McKain, Lieutenant, Co. 0. Killed. 

B. F. Thelpal, Private, Co. C. Killed. 
D. Pierson, Captain, Co. C. Wounded. 
II. M. Crew, Private, Co. C. " 

W. Morehead, Private, Co. C. " 

A. J. Perry, Private, Co. C. " 

G. L. Trichel, Lieutenant, Co. D. Wounded. 

B. Davis, Sergeant, Co. D. " 
T. H. McCaskey, Private, Co. D. " 

A. Leplant, Private, Co. D. " 
W. W. Joy, Private, Co. D. " 
J. Charleville, Private, Co. D. " 

B. Norwood, Sergeant, Co. E. Killed. 
R. Barton, Private, Co. E. Killed. 

R. C. Holt, Lieutenant, Co. E. Wounded. 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 389 



P. Pierson, Private, Co. E. "Wounded. 
J. Myers, Private, Co. E. 
Masterton, Private, Co. E. " 

T. Brigham, Private, Co. E. Missing. 
W. Henderson, Private, Co. E. Missing. 
D. C. Ballard, Private, Co. E. Missing. 
M. O. Clark, Sergeant, Co. F. Killed. 
J. Horn, Lieutenant, Co. F. Wounded. 
W. T. Hudson, Sergeant, Co. F. " 

D. W". Manning, Private, Co. F. " 
Jules Jus, Private, Co. F. " 

J. A. White, Sergeant, Co. F. Prisoner. 
R. Dick, Corporal, Co. F. Prisoner. 
L. J. Singer, Private, Co. F. Prisoner. 
R. L. Perry, Private, Co. F. Prisoner. 
J. M. Tauzin, Sergeant, Co. G. Killed. 
M. S. Hailman, Private, Co. G. Killed. 

F. N. Sanchez, Corporal, Co. G. Wounded. 
C. V. Murphy, Corporal, Co. G. " 

R. Alleman, Private, Co. G. " 

W. A. Charleville, Private, Co. G. 
A. Dickens, Private, Co. G. " 

M. Escobeda, Private, Co. G. " 

J. Ginchan, Private, Co. G. " 

J. Guiton, Private, Co. G. " 

J. P. Hyams, Private, Co. G. " 

J. G. Norris, Private, Co. G. Missing. 
M. S. Hartman, Private, Co. G. Missing, 
W. S. Behrnian, Private, Co. G. Missing. 

E. Genehan, Private, Co. G. Missing. 
J. D. Beckman, Private, Co. H. Killed. 
J. McDonald, Private, Co. H. Killed. 
S. Singleton, Private, Co. H. Killed. 

H. T. Horten, Sergeant, Co. H. Wounded. 
W. F. Bonner, Private, Co. H. u 

S. B. McCarty, Private, Co. H. " 

G. Higgius, Private, Co. H. " 
C. Hedrick, Lieutenant, Co. II. " 
N. Murfie, Private, Co. H. Prisoner. 
J. Reese, Private, Co. H. Prisoner. 

S. J. Howell, Sergeant, Co. I. Killed. 
W. H. Beale, Private, Co. I. Killed. 



390 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

J. E. Johnson, Captain, Co. I. Wounded. 
J. O. McCormick, Private, Co. I. " 
J. B. Johnson, Private, Co. I. " 

F. E. Cantelope, Private, Co. I. " 
L. L. Cain, Private, Co. I. " 

F. F. Cain, Private, Co. I. " 

W. C. Noble, Private, Co. I. " 

J. Hayne, Private, Co. I. " 

J. M. Flowers, Private, Co. I. Missing. 
Geo. K. Runnels, Private, Co. I. Missing. 
W. Dowd, Sergeant, Co. I. Prisoner. 
M. White, Corporal, Co, I. Prisoner. 
J. B. Irvin, 1st Lieutenant, Co. K. Killed. 
II. Heasch, Musician, Co. K. Killed. 
R. Denham, Private, Co. K. Killed. 
H. H. Gentles, Captain, Co. K. Wounded. 

E. Jolly, Sergeant, Co. K. " 
J. II. Bells, Sergeant, Co. K. " 
J. Roddy, Corporal, Co. K. " 
M. Brandenstein, Corporal, Co. K. " 
J. Caffrey, Private, Co. K. " 

F. D. Tunnard, Private, Co. K. 

A. Roysden, Private, Co. K. " 

B. F. Hickman, Private, Co. K. " 
A. F. Cameron, Private, Co. K. " 
J. Hock, Private, Co. K. Prisoner. 

D. Echols, Private, Co. K. Prisoner. 
Field and Staff Wounded . . 



RECAPITULATION. 

Killed 18 

Wounded 71 

Missing 14 

Prisoners 10 

Total 113 

LIST OF CASUALTIES 3o REGIMENT LA. INFANTRY, HEBERT S BRI 
GADE, AT THE BATTLE OF CORINTH, OCTOBER 3 AND 4, 1862. 

S. D. Davis, Sergeant, Co. A. Missing. 
W. Sanders, Private, Co. A. Wounded. 
J. I). Maxwell, Private, Co. B. Missing. 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 391 

D. Norton, Private, Co. B. Missing. 

T. C. Higginbothem, Private, Co. B. Missing. 

G. B. Quinn, Private, Co. B. Missing. 

A. Neuman, Private, Co. C. Missing. 

B. P. Morse, Lieutenant, Co. D. Wounded. 
J. Merritt, Private, Co. D. Wounded. 

D. Dodez, Private, Co. F. Wounded. 
Jones, Private, Co. F. Wounded. 
Marr, Private, Co. F. Missing. 
Lowe, Corporal, Co. G. Wounded. 
Keiser, Corporal, Co. G. Wounded. 

C. S. Jeter, Private, Co. H. Wounded. 
S. L. Reese, Private, Co. H. Missing. 

E, M. Douglass, Private, Co. I. Wounded. 

E. Girod, Private, Co. I. Wounded. 

S. J. Moffit, Private, Co. I. Wounded. 

D. March, Private, Co. I. Missing. 

J. D. Williams, Lieutenant, Co. K. Wounded seriously. 
D. Lewis, Sergeant, Co. K. Wounded seriously. 
J. II. Robertson, Private, Co. K. Wounded seriously. 
B. F. Ilickman, Private, Co. K. Wounded slightly. 

F. Taquino, Private, Co. K. Wounded slightly. 

W. L. Edmondson, Private, Co. K. Wounded slightly, 
A. Dalsheimer, Private, Co. K. Prisoner. 
A. F. Cameron, Private, Co. K. Prisoner. 

FIELD AND STAFF. 

Major S. D. Russell, wounded. 
Sergeant-Major McFee, killed. 

RECAPITULATION. 

Killed, Field and Staff 1 

Wounded 1 

Wounded 17 

Missing and Prisoners 11 

Total 30 

LIST OF CASUALTIES 3D REGIMENT LOUISIANA INFANTRY, HE- 
BKBT S BRIGADE, FORNEY S DIVISION, DURING THE SIEGE OF 
VICKSBURG, MAY 18 TO JULY 4, 186 3. 

Field and Staff. Lieutenant-Colonel S. D. Russel, seriously ; 
Major D. Pierson, Slightly ; General Hebert s Staff, Captain C. A. 
Brusle, seriously. 



392 A SOUTHERN RECORD. 

COMPANY "A," IBEUVILLE GREYS. Killed Captain J. Kenney, 
Lieutenant J. Randolph. Private* N. Schade, F. Leonard, J. P. 
Chastant, Amide Hebert, B. Berry, C. Dupuy, J. Breaux. Wounded 
Seriously Sergeant M. Bassac, L. D. Blanchard, C. Pruett, S. Allain, 
J. Connor, W. McGuinness, S. Kohn, M. O Brien. Wounded Slightly 
Sergeant H. Guidice, Lieutenant U. Babin, P. T. St. Amant, P. 
C. Wellis. 

COMPANY " B," MOREHOUSE GUARDS. Killed Sergeant J. T. 
Sharp, Sergeant W. II. Howell, Sergeant B. Brice, Corporal S. 
Smith, Corporal T. McFee. Privates W. Finley, J. N. Hewett, J. 
Lee, F. M. Howell, J. W. Naif, J. C. May. Wounded Seriously 
Lieutenant W. P. Renwick. Private* II. C. Fryer, H. Kelly, J. M. 
Burke, A. Williams, T. H. Johnson. Wounded Slightly Lieutenant 
W. M. Washburn, Lieutenant Joe Davenport, Sergeant J. M. Sharp. 
Privates D. Buckmaster, W. McCallaghan, D. Shoemaker, J. W. 
Blankenship, S. W. Sanders, J. M. Smith, B. Q. Vaughn, - Tatle, 
F. M. Worley, T. N. Higgenbothem. 

COMPANY " C," WINX RIFLES. Killed Corporal W. A. Hallow- 
man, T. J. Teddlie. Wounded Seriously Privates G. C. Spillman, 
N. Moody, J. K McBride, W. J. Carson, W. Evans, W. J. Tedley. 
Wounded Slightly Captain K M. Middlebrooks, Lieutenant W. T. 
Fagan, T. Williams, W. Smith, R. Cole. 

COMPANY " D," PELICAN RANGERS, No. 2. Killed Sergeant W. 
W. Gandy. Privates H. V. Edmonson, T. Cobb, B. Duke, R. C. 
Hammett. Wounded Seriously P. Gillett, W. Badt, J. McDaniel, 
J. Fonteneau, J. Merritt. Wounded Slightly Captain W. E. 
Russell. 

COMPANY " E," MOREHOUSE FENCIBLES. Killed D. A. Gwinn, 
Silas Crane, Masterton, Wounded Seriously Sergeant G. Mil 
ler, R. Quinn. Wounded Slightly Lieutenant R. C. Halt. Privates 
T. D. Downey, A. J. Powell, J. Myers, Esom. 

COMPANY " F," SHREVEPORT RANGERS. Killed Sergeant T. M. 
Roberts, Lieutenant J. Horn. Wounded Seriously Lieutenant J. O. 
Clark, P. L. Permery, L. J. Singer, J. Charlton, George Efner, Cor 
poral Scanlan, J. Brosi, J. Jus. Wounded Slightly F. A. Davis, P. 
Sheridan, T. N. Dill, R. T. Cole, W. Hudson, R. Brenning. 

COMPANY " G," PELICAN RANGERS, No. 1. Killed D. Cannon, 
F. Escobeda, E. Carro, L. Floris, M. Escobeda, J. R. Howell. 



THIRD LOUISIANA INFANTRY. 393 

Wounded Seriously 1ST. Morn, J. Quinclty, J. Guiton, A. Garza. 
Escobeda, Sergeant J. A. Derbonne, J. Morin, C. D. Castex, 

Wounded Slightly Lieutenant P. Bassier, Murray, A. Wrinkle, 

L. Ilubbard, L. Floris, C. Castex, R. Aleinand. 

COMPANY "H," MONTTCELLO RIFLES. Killed Corporal J. A. 
Martin, J. Veal, W. Burns, J. C. Reese. Wounded Seriously J. 
McCowan, L. P. Simps, J. F. Hargrove, J. Byrd. Wounded Slightly 
Lieutenant J. Stuart. 

COMPANY " I," CALDWELL GUARDS. Killed Captain J. E. John 
son, Corporal P. Lawson, Corporal A. Kelly, T. J. Dunn, L. Stewart, 
J. L. Vaughan, E. Douglas, F. Ray. Wounded Seriously Sergeant 
J. R. Gray, Sergeant J. Sandridge, E. Girod, G. W. Humble, W. A. 
McQuatters, J. A. McCormick. Wounded Slightly Corporal J. C. 
Rice, Corporal G. P. Mouraiu, M. V. Ray, A. Girod, H. C. Hough, J. 
Hines, G. T. McFurland, P. Smith, M. P. Cartw-right, M. Sandridge. 

COMPANY "If," PELICAN RIFLES. Killed Corporal M. Branden- 
stein, A. V. Duffy, E. J. Benton, L. J. Benton, B. F. Hickman, Cor 
poral D. Echols. Wounded Seriously Sergeant E. Jolly, J. F. Cham 
bers, W. L. Edmonson. Wounded Slightly Corporal S. P. Russ, 
H. Finlay. 

This list is very imperfect, being compiled from private notes, 
without the aid of any official documents. The total loss in the 
regiment reached nearly, if not more than 200, out of a total of not 
quite 400 men. 



17* 



APPENDIX. 



I cannot close this volume without a special acknowledgment of 
my indebtedness to my friends for their interest in my labors, and 
for furnishing valuable documents and papers. I am under special 
obligations to Hon. Charles A. Brusle, Iberville ; Major J. M. Taylor, 
IT. V. Babin, and F. D. Tunnard, Baton Rouge ; J. Harvey Brig- 
ham, J. Davenport Bustrop, J. Leonard, Plaquemine ; W. Kcnney, 
Dr. G. W. Kendall, Colonel J. B. Gilniore, Shreveport ; L. Dupleix, 
Esq., J. C. Trichel, Miss Jennie Barlow, ISTatchitoches ; Colonel D. 
Pierson, Colonel S. M. Hyams, Colonel J. D. Blair, New Orleans ; 
Major J. S. Richards Floyd, Captain W. B. Butler, Natchitoches 
Parish ; G. W. Humble, T. McB. Meredith, Columbia, La. ; A. B. 
Payne , and A. Booth, Baton Rogue. 

To these friends, who have encouraged me in the prosecution of 
my labor in compiling this History do I feel deedly grateful, and thus 
make acknowledgment of my gratitude by the mention of their 
names. Many of the interesting records of this volume arc duo to 
their prompt assistance and kind remembrance. I sincerely trust 
that they may feel repaid by a perusal of its pages. 

W. H. TUNNARD. 



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