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Full text of "The fourfold sovereignty of God"

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THE 


, 


FOURFOLD SOVEREIGNTY 
OF GOD. 


TIY 


HENRY EDvVARD, 


AUCIIUlSJlOP OF Wr:ST;\Il:"STER. 



 /

 

r p7
. 


BOSTO
 : 
PATRICK DONAHOE. 
1872. 



1- 
, MAR 2"7 - 1954 


. 


-:.
 ... \ 


., 
.I- 



'-" ' 


" 
. 



THESE four Lectures are intended to 
con1plete the outline of the subject 
of those on the Four Great Evils of 
the Day. In speaking of the latter, 
I was constantly aware that the posi- 
tive truths ought to have been first 
stated, and that the Sovereignty of 
God nlust be understood before the 
Revolt of Man can be measured. 
These Lectures, like the last, are 
printed as they \vere taken down at 
the time. I let then1 go \vith all their 
faults, believing the truths and prin- 
ciples contained in them to be of vital 
rnonlent in these days; and hoping 
that some one \vith more ability and 
greater leisure will fill up the outline 
I have tried to dra\v. 


3 




CONTENTS. 


LECTURE I. 


PAGK 
THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD OYER THE INTELLECT 
OF 
IAN. . . . . . . . .. . . . .. 1 


LECTURE II. 


THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD OVER TIlE WILL OF 
1\-IA
.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 


LECTURE III. 


TIlE SOYEREIGNTY OF GOD OVER SOCIETY.. . . 95 


LECTURE IV. 


TUE SOYEREIGXTY OF TIlE DIVIXE HEAD OF TIIE 
CHURCII. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13!> 


LECTURE V. 


THE SOVEREIGNTY OF TIlE CUURCII DEIUVED FRO)! 
ITS DIVINE HEAD.. . . . . . . . . . . . 17! 


LECTunE VI. 


TIIE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD OVER TIlE COURSE OF 
TilE 'V ORLD. . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 
(5) 




LECTURE I. 


THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD OVER THE IN- 
TELLECT OF 
IAN. 


".And God indeed, having winked at tIle times 
of this ignorance, now declareth unto 'Jnen, 
that all should everywhere do penance. Be- 
cause He llath appointed a day wherein I-Ie 
will judge the world in equ,ity, by the Man 
Wh017
 He hatl" appointed, giving faith to all, 
by raising Him fron
 the dead.'" Acts xvii. 
30, 31. 


THESE \vere the words of St. Paul to 
the Athenians, when their philosophers 
caned hin1 a "word-so\ver" and a " pub- 
lisher ofne\v gods," because he preached 
to them Jesus and the resurrection from 
the dead. This was his meaning: God, 
7 



8 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD 


in times past, shut His eyes to the idol- 
atries and polytheism of men. Those 
times are past no\v, for God has mani- 
fested Hin1self to the \vorld. He has 
nlade Hilnself kno\vn, and has therefore 
comn1anded all men everywhere to do 
pènance, - that is, to believe in I-IÎIn 
and to repent of their sins, - under 
pain of eternal judgment; for He has 
appointed a day in ,vhich He \vill judge 
the \vorld by that l\lan, \vhom lIe hath 
appointed to be the Judge of the living 
and the dead; and for this end He has 
given faith - that is, the illumination 
to believe IIis ,vord by the resurrection 
of Jesus Christ from the dead. In this 
,yay, the Apostle distinctly declares the 
sovereignty of God as the Creator, and 
as the Judge of aU things; I-lis sover- 
eignty over man both in body and 
ouI, 
over the intellect in all its faculties, 



OVER THE I
TELLECT OF :MAN. 9 


over the ,vill in all its po,yers. As 1\Ia- 
ker and Lord, God has don1inion and 
sovereignty over man, "\vhom He rnade 
to His o\vn image and likeness; and 
n1an being of a rational, a moral nature, 
is therefore a responsible being. 
Last year, the Council of the Vatican 
made a decree in these ,yords: "Foras- 
n1uch as God is the Creator, and the 
Lord of all thingR, therefore man alto- 
gether depends upon IIim; and every 
created intellect is subject to the Un- 
created Truth, and o\ves to it a perfect 
obedience both of reason and of \vill.":i: 
Attached to that Decree are these two 
canons: "If any man shall say, that 
the reason of man is so independent of 
God that God cannot command faith, 
let him be anathema." And again: "If 
any man shaH say, that the act of faith 


· First Constitution on Catho1ic Faith, chap. iii. 



10 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD 


in man is not free, let hÎ1n be anathe- 
nla ;" and this enunciates the subject 
of ,vhich I purpose to speak. The sov- 
ereignty of God over the intellect is the 
right of God over the rational crea- 
tures He has made. He requires of 
them a perfect obedience of their ra- 
tional and III oral nature, and holds 
them responsible to render that obedi- 
ence. The ,vay in which God requires 
the obedience of the rational nature of 
man is by faÌ tho 
Faith is belief in truth: but not of 
all kinds of truth, for of tru th there are 
t,vo kinds. There is one kind ,vhich is 
necessary, and therefore compels the 
assent of the intellect. For instance, 
that things \vhich are equal to the 
same, are equal to one another; that 
two parallel lines can never intersect; 
that the whole is greater than the part; 



OVER THE INTELLECT OF l\iAN. 11 


that the three angles of a triangle are 
eq ual to t\VO rig}1t angles, and the like: 
- these are necessary truths, \vhich 
the intellect of lnan is constrained by 
an intrinsic law of its nature to assent 
to. In these truths, therefore, there 
is kno,,,ledge, but not faith. There 
is about them no obscurity, and no 
intervention of the Divine authority. 
But all lTIoral truths, that is, all those 
truths ,vhich relate to the \vorld un- 
. 
seen, to the nature of God, to the mor- 
al duty of ll1an: to .his future destiny- 
all these are truths which are not in- 
trinsically necessary. They depend up- 
on the ,viII of God, and upon the con- 
stitution and order of I-lis revelation. 
They are therefore believed upon the 
authority of God, ,vho has revealed 
them. The authority of God inter- 
venes to require of us the subrnission 



12 THE SOVEREIGYTY OF GOD 


of 011r intellect and of our ,viII to the 
revelation lIe has made. 
It is thus, then, that God exereises 
His sovereignty in requiring fiÚth. He 
cOlTImands faith under the penalty of 
eternal death. The words of our Di- 
vine Lord expressly declare this la,v:- 
"fIe that believeth, and is baptized, 
shall be saved: but he that believeth 
not, shall be condemned." * That is, 
the voluntary act of faith is taken as 
the test of obedience; and according to 
the obedience or disobedience of the 
rational nature "vill the judgment be 
hereafter. 
'Ve are confidently told in these 
days that faith is a ,veakness and a 
blindness; that it is unworthy of Inan; 
that it is servility and degradation, and 
I kno,v not 'v hat besides. I \viII affirnl, 


· St. 
Iark xvi. 16. 




 OVER TBE INTELLECT OF MAN. 13 


then, that faith is the most perfect act 
of the human reason; that the most 
reasonable act of man is to believe in 
the Uncreated Reason of God; that 
the highest act of an intellectual na- 
ture, next only to the eternal contem- 
plation of the Uncreated Truth here- 
after, is to believe that U ncreated Truth 
no,v; and this is what I shall endeavor 
to dra'v out. 
1. First, God exercises His sover- 
eignty over the human intellect, even 
by the lights of nature. There is in 
the natural \vorld a Inanifestation of 
God ,vhich lays all men under the obli- 
gation of kno"\ving Him. They \vho, 
\vith the lights of nature before them, 
remain in ignorance of God, are not 
only intellectual1y in error, they are 
also morally in error, and t,bey are re- 
sponsible for that moral error. Not to 



14 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD 


kno,v God is sin. The Apostle says to 
the Romans, "The invisible things of 
Him" - that is, of God -" from the 
creation of the \vorld, are clearly seen, 
being understood by the things that 
are made, His eternal power also and 
divinity; so that they are inexcusable. 
Because that, \vhen they had kno,vn 
God, they have not glorified Him as 
God, nor gave thanks; but becanle 
vain in their thoughts, and their foolish 
heart was darkened. For professing 
themselves to be ,vise, they became 
fools. And they changed the glory of 
the incorruptible God into the likeness 
of the image of a corruptible man.":;: 
Here, then, is an express declaration, 
that the lights of nature are sufficient 
to prove to us the existence of God, 
His po,ver,'I-lis Divinity, and, therefore, 


· Rom.. i. 20-23. 



OVER THE INTELLECT OF MAN. 15 


his perfections; so that they are inex- 
cusable \vho do not kno,v God, and, 
therefore, do not believe and n1ake an 
act of faith in Him, and of sublllission 
to His sovereignty, as their 1vlaker and 
Lord. 
Again, the Apostle says: "When the 
Gentiles, \vho have not the la\v, do by 
nature those things that are of the la,v, 
these, having not the la,v, are a la,v to 
themselves: who show the \vork of the 
law \vritten in their hearts, their con- 
science þearing \vitness to them, and 
their thoughts ,vithin themselves accus- 
ing them, or else defending theIn." * 
That is, there is in every man a moral 
sense, or instinct, or judgment, or testi- 
mony to fight and \vrong, which re- 
bukes hin1 when he does wrong, which 
sustains him when he does right. There 


· Rom. ii. 14, 15. 



16 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD 


is therefore an in,vard light, ,vhereby 
the human reason n1ay perceive the 
moral law of God; and if so, then 
every In an has within him a testirnony 
to kno,v that be has an intellectual 
and moral nature; and if he bas an 
intellectual and moral nature, he has a 
soul- that is, the image of God- 
\vithin him, and that inlage is an im- 
mortality. They, then, who, alnidst 
the ligbts of nature, do not kno,v God, 
ôr the distinctions of right and 
rong, 
or that they have a soul \vhi
h is im- 
mortal and responsible, are guilty for 
that ignorance. To be ignorant of 
these things is sin, because such igno- 
rance is vincible. The lights of nature 
are sufficient to prove these things, and 
they ,,,ho are ignorant of theln are 
willingly ignorant of them; that is, 
ignorant through their own ,viII, and 



OVER THE INTELLECT OF 
IA...
. 17 


therefore culpable before God; and for 
that culpable ignorance \vill have to 
give account at the last day. 
2. But, secondly, there is another 
\vorld by \v hich God has revealed I-lim- 
self: The lights of the natural creation 
on all sides testify to the truths of 
\vhich I have already spoken; but 
there is a supernatural \vorld at this 
monlent round about us, against which 
the disputers of this \vorId rail, as the- 
philosophers at Athens. They \vho 
preach of this supernatural \vorld are 
"\vord-so,vers," babblers, "publishers of 
ne,v gods." Nevertheless, there exists 
in the midst of mankind a kingdom, 
present, visible, and audible, manifest- 
ing itself ,vith sufficient evidence, 
through \vhich God demands the sub- 
mission of faith, through ,vhich He 
Inanifests His sovereignty over the in- 
2 



18 THE SOYEREIG
TY OF GOD 


tcllect of Inan. That Kingdon1 has 
about it certain marks, properties, and 
prerogatives, ,vhich no hnn1an institu- 
tion, kingdom, or empire ever pos- 
sessed. 
For iIJstance, its indefectible exist- 
ence. The history of 111ankind is the 
history of successive dynasties. Like 
shado\vs, they have COlne and passed 
a,vay; they have each one contained 
the principle of its o\vn dissolution. 
Not one of them ,vas intrinsically 
changeless and incorruptible. rrhe 
Church of Jesus Christ, from its foun- 
dation to this hour, continues incorrup- 
tible in itself: The ,vorldly accidents 
around it are hunlan, and cleave to it 
like the dust to our feet. As the light 
of heaven is changeless, incorruptible, 
unsoiled in its purity, though it looks 
upon all the corruption of the ,vorId, 



OVER THE L
TELLECT OF J\IAN. 19 


so is the Church of God in the ,vorld; 
and as the Presence of our Divine Lord 
in the Blessed Sacran1ent abides in its 
imn1utable sanctity in the Inidst of the 
sins of TIlen, so the Church of Jesus 
Christ abides incorruptibly the saIne, 
the sins and corruptions of those \vho 
visibly belong to it not,vithstanding. 
It also has an indissoluble unity, and 
an immutability in the la,vof 1110rals 
and in the doctrines of the faith, which 
it has taught from the .beginning, and 
now at this time teaches in every 
place. 
If I affirm that the faith has never 
changed, lTIen Inay say: "If you speak 
of past tÎ1ne, how can you prove it?" 
I affirnl therefore that the faith is the 
same no\y in all the ,vorld. This is a 
fact of the present, and l11ay be easily 
tested. N O\V this changeless identity 



20 THE SOYEREIGNTY OF GOD 


of one truth in all places at this time 
is the cQuntersign of the immutable 
perpetuity of the same truth in all 
times. Things ,vhich spring froln one 
la,v have one type. Corruption is 
change, and breeds diversity. Identity 
points to a changeless principle which 
is above the order of nature. 
N o,v these are phenolnena manifest- 
ing a supernatural kingdorn in this 
natural world. The reason of luan, if 
it be consistent, can ascribe the exist- 
ence of that fhct to none but the Di- 
vine Creator. If Juan had made it, 
Inan migh t rid himself of it. If n1an 
had founded it, he lnight destroy it. If 
man had set it up, he might sweep it 
off the face of the earth; but Ulan has 
striven to s,veep it a\vay, and cannot, 
any more than he can s,veep away the 
rnountains \vhich God has rooted in the 



OVER THE INTELLECT OF MAN. 21 


earth. God perpetually defies luan by 
the existence of IIis Church. He rnan- 
ifests His sovereignty over the reason 
of Inan by this ,vitness, 'v hich man can 
neither deny .,nor explain a,vay. lIe 
can in no way account for its existence 
and changeless identity. If he win not 
account for it by the only solution 
which is true, God sho\vs IIis sover- 
eignty by baffling the reason and ,viII 
of DIen, \vhich cannot rid the ,vorld of 
the presence of God, manifested in the 
supernatural order of His po,ver. 
The lnere lights of nature then, - for 
I alll thus fhr treating the question as a 
matter of human reason, of human his- 
tory, - these testify, both in the natu- 
ral and in what I ,viII can the Christian 
"
orld, to the existence of God's sov- 
reignty. But this is not all. The 
Christian world ,vhich testifies to the 



22 THE SOYEREIG
TY OF GOD 


sovereignty of God, testifies to the 
coming of the Son of God in the flesh 
- that is, to the Incarnation. It testi- 
fies to the perpetual presence of God 
the Holy Ghost. As a L1-Ct of history, 
it is certain that it has spoken and still 
speaks to nlankind ,vith a voice ,yhich 
never ceases, and the world tells us 
that its pretensions never change; that 
is to say, it teaches al\vays the saIne 
things, and clain1s for that 'v hich it 
teaches a Divine authority. It calls on 
men to submit their intellect to its 
Divine voice. It claÏ1ns, in virtue of 
God's authority over His creatures, that 
,ve should render to Hinl that worship 
of the reason, that" reasonable service," 
'v hich the A postle declares to be the 
true sacrifice of lnan to God.* \Vhen 
St. Paul preached to the Athenians, so 


* Rom. xii. 1. 



OVER THE INTELLECT OF 
IAN. 23 


long as they believed him only to be a 
disputer like thelnselves, and that his 
teaching ,vas based only on human phi- 
losophy, they called hin1 a" ,vord-sow- 
er ;" but in the day 'v hen they kne,v 
that he ,vas a teacher sent frOl1l God, 
that he had Divine assistance in what 
he taught, that the message he uttered 
\vas a Divine Inessage, that the authority 
by ,vhich he spoke ,vas the authority of 
God, frOin that moment they receivëd 
aU he said as cODling frolll a fountain 
of Divine certainty. They believed; 
that is, they offered the obedience of 
faith to ,vhat he said. rrhey kne,v that, 
in hearing him, they heard the ,vord of 
God 
 that what he delivered, he de- 
livered liot from himself, but frorIl the 
J\Iaster that sent him. 
So it is no,v ,vith the Church in the 
world. The sovereignty ,vhich God 



24 THE SOVEREIG
TY OF GOD 


claÏIns over our intellect is the obedi- 
ence of fititb rendered to the Divine 
voice of His Church. 
\Ve can stand in relation to God and 
IIis truth only in one of t,vo ways. 
'V c are either the critics ,vho exanline, 
test, and choose, who accept or reject 
for ourselves by our o\vn lights and our 
o\yn judgment; or ,ve are the disciples 
,vho sit at the feet of a Divine teacher, 
receiving by f:'lith, ,vith the siln p
e ad- 
hesion of our \vhole nature, intellectual 
and nloral, that ,vhich He teaches. \Ve 
owe Him the submission of our intel- 
lect, because \ve kno,v that all revealed 
truth conles froln the un created intelli- 
gence of God. The highest act of the 
reason of man is to subnlit itself and 
to be conforlned to the intelligence of 
God. vVe o\ve to hirn the subnlission 
of our reason, because the lTncreated 



OVER THE INTELLECT OF :MAN. 25 


Truth is the original of our intelligence, 
and ,viII be the la,v of our judgment 
hereafter. "\Ve o"\\Te Hirn also the love 
of our hearts, because that manifesta- 
tion of the truth of God is the manifes- 
ta iion also of His grace and His Jove. 
'Vhat has been said may, I think, 
suffice to sho,v that the obedience of 
faith is not servile, nor degrading, nor 
irrational, nor un,vorthy of an intellec.. 
tual being. Nay, I shall sho\v hereafter 
that the argument turns the other ,vay; 
as may readily be seen by a Inon1en t's 
consideration of the effects of this sub.. 
mission of faith to a Divine teacher. 
3. The first and imn1ediate effect is 
the illumination of the reason. The 
reason is pervaded by a light 'v hich, 
\tvithout faith, it could not possess. And 
the intellect is dignified by that iIlun1Ï.. 
nation. How, then, can it be degraded? 



26 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD 


vVhat is the illumination ,vhich ,ve re- 
ceive by faith? The Apostle says: 
"Every best gift, and every perfect gift, 
is from above, coming down fron1 tbe 
Father of lights, ,vith \VhOll1 there is no 
change, nor shado,v of vicissitude," * 
forasll1uch as he is the immutable truth. 
It i8, therefore, a participation of the 
light of God. Again:" That ,vas the 
true Light, ""vhich enlighteneth every 
Ulan that con1eth into the ,vorlù." t 
The. light of God is the dignity of the 
intellect of TIlan. In \vhat, then, does 
it consist? It Ulay be said to consist 
it) three things. 
First, in the most pure and perfcct 
kno,vledge mankind has ever had of 
God: of His nature, personality and per- 
fections; of I-lis ,visdom, sanctity, purity, 
love, mercy, po\ver; and also of Ilis 


· St. James i. 17. 


t St John i. 9. 



OYER THE INTELLECT OF l\IAN. 27 


relations to us, as our Father, our Re- 
deelner, our Sanctifier. Secondly, in 
the Inost perfect kno\v ledge of the na- 
ture of luan; because God ,vas mani- 
fested in our manhood. The original 
and the irnage.,vere united in One Per- 
son; and in the Person of Jesus Christ 
the most perfect manifestation of the 
ilnage of God in our 111anhood, glorified 
by the presence of the Divine Original, 
and enveloped in the splendor of the 
Eternal Son of God, \vas revealed to 
the ,vorld. In the vision of the 'TV ord 
made flesh, ""ve see not only the human- 
ityof the first Adam, but the eleva
ion, 
perfection, and glory of our manhood 
in the second Adam, from \v hOl11 ,ve 
derive life and in1IDortality. Thirdly, 
in the lnost perfect morality, the most 
pure and lllost elevated; as, for exalll- 
pIe, the Sermon on the l\fount. Does 



28 TIlE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD 


there exist in the ,vhole history of ll1an- 
kind, in all the philosophies of Inan, 
anything to cornpare for Inoral perfec- 
tion ,vith the Sernlon on the 1\Iount? 
'Vhere ,viII you find in all the teaching 
of Ulan this one sirnple precept: "All 
things, \vbatsoever ye ,vould that 111en 
should do to you, do you also to them." * 
'Vhere did you ever find the precept: 
"Love Jour enemies: bless thelll that 
curse you," - ,vhere, except only in 
the mouth of Jesus Christ ? 'Vas it 
ever heard: "Be ye therefore perfect, 
as also your Father, ,vhich is in heaven, 
is perfect," ",vho maketh His snn to 
rise upon the good and bad, and raineth 
upon the just and unjust"? t lJere is 
a perfect morality, to \vhich nothing 
that ever caIne from the unaided intel. 
lect or ,vill of man bears any compari- 


II< 81. :Matt. vii. 12. 


t Ibiù. v. 45, 48. 



OYER THE INTELLECT OF l\lAN. 29 


SOll. \Vhere in the lTIorals of mankind 
can be found anything to compare \vith 
the t\VO precepts of loving God \vith all 
our heart and our neighbor as our- 
selves? Where can be found anything 
to com pare in generosity, in tenderness 
of love, in Racri:fice of self; ,vith the 
Oblation of our I.Jord upon the Cross? 
There is, then, an illumination given to 
us by the light of faith, \vhich no cre- 
ated in tellect can possess frorn any other 
source. But once n10re : 
4. This ill urnination elevates the rea- 
son of man. It raises it to a state and 
order of dignity other,vise unattainable; 
and in so doing, it confirms even its 
natural perfection. 
First, The truths of the natural order 
are confirmed and made clear, and a 
Divine certainty is added to them by 
the light of revelatioll. The existence 



30 THE SOVEREIG
TY OF GOD 


of God, the la\v of right and wrong, 
the soul and its immortality - these 
truths of the natural order are con- 
firnled both in clearness and certainty 
by the light of faith. 
Secondly, there are superadded to the 
truths of the natural order the truths 
of the supernatural order: for instance, 
the kno\vledge of God through the In- 
carnation; the kno\vledge of onr rela- 
tions to Him through the adoption of 
grace; of our brotherhood and consan- 
guinity \vith Jesus Christ, the Incarnate 
Son of God; of the ind\vclling of God 
the Holy Ghost in the intellect and \vill 
of lnan, making 111an His ternple; be- 
sides this, the presence of God, not 
only in nature, but in grace, and that 
pervading the \v hole \vorld and present 
in ourselves. St. Augustine, describing 
his condition before he believed, said, 



OVER THE INTELLECT OF MAN. 31 


"I sought Thee every,vhere and found 
Thee not; for Thou ,vast ,vithin me, 
and I was out of n1yself: I sought 
Thee everywhere but in that place 
\vhere Thou ,vast to be found - in n1Y 
o,vn soul." 'Ve kno,v by L.'lith that the 
presence of God inhabits each one of 
ns; that ,ve are united to the unseen 
\vorId and to the cOffilllunion of the 
spirits of just men made perfect; and 
that the vision of God hereafter is our 
inheritance. 
These are supernat.ural truths added 
to the lights of the natural order. 
Surely the reason possessing them is 
eleva ted above both nature and itself. 
St. John says, "Behold what manner 
of charity the Father h
th besto\ved 
upon ns, that ,ve should be named, and 
should be the sons of God. Therefore, 
the ,varld hath not kno\vn us, because 



32 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD 


it hath not kno\vn HÌ111. 'Ve are now 
the sons of God: and it hath not yet 
appeared \vhat \ve shall be. 'Ve kno,v, 
that 'v hen He shall appear, \ve shall be 
1ike to IIi In: because lve shall see I-lin1 
as He is.":';: Is it possible to conceive 
of any elevation greater than the con- 
sciousness that \ve are sons of God? 
But it is this that faith gives to the 
reason of Inan. 
5. Lastly, faith makes the reason 
perfect. The reason itsel
 as a faculty 
or an intellectual po,ver, is perfected by 
the action of faith upon it. J lIst as the 
hand b
y experience is strengthened 
and acquires skill, and is able to exe- 
cute the most powerful or the finest 
operations; and as the ear may be at- 
tuned and cultivated to harnlony, and 
the eye to an exquisite perfection of 
sio'ht; so is it with the action of faith 
c , 


* 1 St. John iii. 1, 2. 



OYER THE INTELLECT OF 
IAN. 33 


upon the intellectual faculties of the 
soul. Take, for example, the whole 
history of the Old Testament, and com- 
pare the intellectual condition of Israel 
,;vith the intellectual condition of the 
Gentile ,vorld. No man has ever yet 
ventured to say that, as compared ,vith 
the intellectual state of the chief phi- 
losophers of the Gentile \vorld, the He- 
bre,v patriarchs, prophets, and saints 
\vere not, in intellectual stature, a head 
and shoulders above them. No man 
can fhil to see that the very intellect 
of the Jewish race ,vas elevated by the 
illumination of faith, and that personal 
character, domestic life, and the public 
commonwealth of Israel, all bore the 
Inarks of an elevation derived from 
faith. Submission to the sovereignty 
of God ,vas the cause of this elevation, 
and therefore of the dignity of Israel. 
3 



34 THE SOVEREIGXTY OF GOD 


An10ng the Gentile ,vorld, it is true 
that intellects such as those of Plato 
and Aristotle, to mention no others- 
the one the great exan1ple of natural 
theology or knowledge of Divine things, 
the other the most perfect exalnple of 
ethical or n10ral philosophy - exhibit 
a logical cultivation not to be found 
in the splendor and dignity of Isaias 
or Ezechiel; but if "\ve cOlnpare with 
them the n1ajesty and sublÜnity of the 
prophets, ,vho ,viU hesitate in saying 
that the moral dignity and grandeur 
of Isaias and Ezechiel .far transcend 
them in moral elevation? But this I 
,vill further affirm, that ,vheresoever 
the belief in God ,vas. low, intellect \vas 
lo,v; and that just in proportion as 
elevation and cultivation of intellect 
,vas attained by those Greeks, in that 
proportion they approached a purer 



OVER THE INTELLECT OF :MAN. 35 


kno,v ledge of God and of morals. Plato 
stands at the head of all the intel1ects 
of the ancient ,vorld for culture and 
lofty speculation. In him, I may say, 
the speculative intellect of the order of 
nature culminated; and in hiln, above 
all, we see a Theism \vhich for purity 
and truth approaches nearest to the 
theology of Israel. In like manner 
Aristotle, for subtlety and dialectical 
precision, stands alone among the intel- 
lects of antiquity; and in hÎIn \ve find 
the purest and truest morality the \vorld 
without revelation has ever known. 
The ethics of Aristotle remain to this 
day as the basis on which the D10ral 
theology of Christendom reposes. It is 
a pure and accurate delineation of the 
morals of mankind kno,vn by the light 
of nature; and St. Thomas builds upon 
it as a sure foundation. The ,vorId 



36 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD 


therefore bears testirnony to this, that 
in proportion as the intellect of man 
approaches the knowledge of God and 
of selt; it is dignified, and its mental 
and 1110ral faculties are strengthened 
and expanded to,va.rds their perfection. 
The same truth is still more Jnanifest 
in the Christian world. The in tellec- 
tual history of the modern \vorld is to 
be found \vritten in the history of Chris- 
tianity. The intellectual powers of 
nlankind are to be found in their high- 
est perfection in Christendom. It is 
no objection whatsoever for men of 
the present day, \vho believe nothing, 
and \vho profess to have rejected even 
the existence of God, to say, "Look at 
our nlen of science - are they in in- 
tellectual dignity or l)o,ver inferior" to 
those \v hOln you call your doctors?" 
The answer is this: Their intellectual 



OVER THE INTELLECT OF 
IAN. 37 


dignity is derived from the culture of 
the Christian ,vorld. They ,vonId never 
be ,vhat they are, if they had not been 
nurtured and ripened upon that same 
n1ystical vine from ,vhich they have 
fallen. They retain after their fall the 
savor and the quality of the tree from 
,vhich they fell. But can they repro- 
duce it? let them, and ho,v lùng ,viII 
they transmit it? Those who have 
fallen from the kno\vledge of God and 
of His revelation have fallen froln the 
tradition of intellectual culture. "If 
anyone abide not in l\Ie, he shan be 
cast forth as a branch, and shall \vith- 
er." * This is true, both spiritually and 
intellectually. The intellectual stan- 
dard of sceptics and infidels has no 
perpetuity. They die out as individu- 
als, and their fe,v 
isciples are scat- 
tered. 


* St. John xv. 6. 



38 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD 


On the other hand I ,vould ask, is 
there in the history of mankind any- 
thing, for intellectual po,ver, precision, 
amplitude, fertility, to be con1pared \vith 
Saint Thomas Aquinas or Suarez, to 
ll1ention two only out of a multitude? 
The profound and pretentious ignorance 
of this da v \vill no doubt think that 
.., 
these t,vo examples belong to the mid- 
dle ages, or that the latter \vas only 
elnerging from those times of obscurity; 
but the man \vho so speaks cannot kno,v 
the books on which he passes judgment. 
The intellectual system of the ,vorld, 
in its refinement and culture, will be 
found passing through the unbroken 
tradi tion of such minds; and the philo- 
sophers and men of science of this day, 
'v ho tell us that ,ve can kno,v nothing 
with certainty but that which is within 
the reach of sense, have not dignified 


. 



OVER THE IXTELLECT OF 
IAN. 39 


the human intellect, but have degraded 
it. They reject the intellectual system 
of the whole world, and all the truths 
which it proclaÏIns. 
The obedience of faith, therefore, 
which is due to the sovereignty of God, 
is the most reasonable act of an intel- 
lectual being, the most perfect act of 
which the hlunan intellect in this state 
of mortality is capable; there remains 
after it nothing but the vision of the 
Uncreated Truth without a veil. " At: 
ter the Sll
1una of St. Thomas there re- 
Inains nothing but the light of glory," 
is not an academical exaggeration, but 
a very truth. 
Faith, then, is the illumination, th-e 
elevation, and the perfection, even, of 
the faculty of reason itself: Faith gives 
po,ver to the human reason, by giving 
to it principles of certainty from \vhich 



40 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD 


to start. As in science the axiorns and 
delnonstrations of science give fir In- 
ness, strength, solidity, and oll,vard 
progress to the scientific intellect, so in 
the kno,vledge of Goel, and of man, 
and of morals, the revelation of God 
gives the first axion1s and prÏ1nary prin- 
ciples of Divine certainty, ,vhich unfold, 
elevate, and strengthen even the rea- 
son itself: 
I said before that this argument turns 
the other ,yay. If fhith be the eleva- 
tion, unbelief is the degradation of the 
human intellect: and that for t\VO rea- 
sons. First, because it deprives it of 
the illlunination of truth; anù, sec- 
ondly, because it paralyzes the intellec- 
tual faculties. 
It deprives it of the illumination of 
truth; it robs it at once of all the truths 
of revelation ,'All ih
" ights of the 8U- 
.) 
"t" 
CD lJ "'''' . 
. 1.1,. t I I 



OVER THE INTELLECT OF MAN. 41 


.... 


pernatural order are alike extinguished: 
God and His kingdom, the comrDunion 
of saints, and our relations to it; faith, 
hope, and charity; the Church of God 

n the ,vorld; the mysteries of grace, - 
everything resting on the supernatural 
order is darkened. Just as, if light ,vere 
withdra,vn from the world, sight ,vonld 
cease to be, for the eye in midnight can 
see nothing; so the deprivation of the 
human reason by unbelief leaves it in 
ll1idnight. But it is not only the lights 
of the supernatural order that at once 
are clouded - the lights even of the 
natural order become dim. The intel- 
lect loses certainty and firmness of be- 
lief; even in those principles of the nat- 
ural order to which the lights of nature 
testify. It is certain that Deists lose 
much of the light of the kno\vleclge of 
God \vhen they reject revelation, be- 



42 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD 


cause even nature ceases to testify as 
lurninously, and to speak as articulately, 
of the existence of God, II is eternal 
po,ver and Divinity, to those in whom 
the sceptical spirit is at ,york. Again, 
if they do not lose the knowledge of 
theÍ1'1 o\vn soul, and of its immortality, 
they begin to doubt about it. 
Day after day, we hear the confident 
talk of men who tell us that \ve have 
no evidence to believe in anything but 
the material mechanisIll, 'v hich we can 
trace by physiology, chemistry, or com- 
parative anatomy; that beyond this we 
have no po,ver to ascertain anything 
about the existence of the soul, or ,viII, 
or life. There are Inen at this day, who 
consider then1selves intellectual, openly 
denying the existence of the soul; and 
,vho, having denied the existence of the 
soul, deny the existence of right and 



OYER THE INTELLECT OF :MAN. 43 


wrong. They tell us that right and 
\vrong, and the instincts, dictates, and 
rebukes of our conscience, are arbitrary 
associations of pleasure and pain con- 
nected with certain actions, by the con- 
ventional traditions in ,vhich we are 
brought up. If so, then there is no 
such thing as la\v, either human or Di- 
vine: and if no such thing as law, then 
no such thing as sin or crime, and there- 
fore no such thing as justice; and if 
there be no such thing as justice, there 
is no such thing as injustice; and if 

 there be no such thing as intrinsic right, 
there is no such thing as in trinsic \vrong; 
and if not, then we are in a world which 
has no more right, order, s\veetness, or 
beauty, but \ve are turned ba
k again 
into the inorganic state of creation, 
"void and en1pty," and darkness rests 
upon the face of the deep. 



44 THE SOYEREIGNTY OF GOD 


But there is something more degrad- 
ing than this. If I have not a soul, 
then am I like the cattle. Nay, more; 
if I have not a soul, I have" no immor- 
tality: then, so far, I am as the beasts 
that perish. 
This gospel is preached to us by ,yay 
of manifesting the dignity of the hu- 
man reason. Choose for yourselves, 
,vhether this be dignity or debasement. 
But unbelief is not only a privation 
. of tbe lights of truth, it is a paralysis 
of the reason itself: 
For I \vould ask: What is scepticislll 
or doubt? It is a partial denial of the 
truth or existence of things. A denial 
is a bold assertion that the thing is not 
true, or Çloes not exist. A doubt is half 
way to a denial. And on \vhat is it 
founded? It is founded on the sup- 
posed uncertainty of evidence; but this 



OVER THE INTELLECT OF 
IAN. 45 


again is founded on the assertion that 
the senses are faIlible, so that we cannot 
depend on them; and thåt the faculties 
of the reason may also go astray, and 
that their interpretation of the senses 
cannot be trusted. i\.nd this philoso- 
phy is preached to us as the dignity of 
the human reason. To me it appears 
to be intellectual paralysis, tending to 
inteIIectual idiocy. To teIl me my 
senses do not report to me truly the 
existence and facts of the external 
,vorld in a way that I can depend on, 
and to tell me that my reason cannot 
interpret them; and that I cannot know 
,vith a perfect certainty the internal 
facts of my o,vn consciousness, is to 
shake my 'v hole being, and to reduce 
me first to a state of paralysis, and a:f.. 
terwards to a state of idiocy. And yet 
this is the result of sceptical unbelief: 



46 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD 


In the face of this "\ve are told that faith 
is degradation to the human intellect, 
and that unbelief is its dignity. 
I Iuust now go no farther; and ,viII 
add but one only word more. 
Last year, the Council of the Vatican 
made the Decree ,vhich I have already 
recited. The Council of the Vatican 
has been a sign, against "\v hich the con.. 
tradiction of the 'v hole world has been 
directed. Th e reason is evident. In 
past tÍllles, every Council of the Church 
had to deal with some one particular 
heresy, by which some one specific doc.. 
trine of the faith has been denied. The 
Council of the Vatican has had to deal 
,vith the \vhole principle of unbelief: 
It is not one doctrine only of Christian.. 
ity that is at stake now, but the whole 
of Christianity - the \vhole revelation 
of God, the whole principle of faith. 



OVER TIlE INTELLECT OF l\IAN. 47 


The axe is laid to the root of the tree. 
The Council of the Vatican, kno,ving 
this full ,veIl, made and promulgated, 
before the tumults of the ,vorld ren- 
dered necessary the suspension of its 
labors, t,vo Constitutions, ,vhich, if it 
never add another \vord, will be in- 
scribed in the history of the Church- 
ay, and upon the intellect of the ,vorld 
too - as a luminous record of Divine 
truth that can never be effilced. 
The First Constitution of Catholic 
faith may be called the philosophy of 
faith in the lights of nature and the 
order of nature, the grounds and the 
prealnbles upon \vhich Divine faith 
rests, as the most perfect and most rea.. 
sonable act of man. 
The Second Constitution is the dec- 
laration of the Rule of faith, or the 
Authority llpon ,vhich faith reposes. 



48 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD 


This doctrinal authority ,vas defined to 
be the infhllibility of the ROlnan Pon- 
tiff The infalIibility of the Church has 
been at all tin1es, and by all Catholics, 
believed as a doctrine of Divine rev- 
elation. Till controversy had clouded 
truth, no one doubted that the infillli- 
bility of the Church contains also the 
infallibility of the Head, as the reason- 
ableness of man resides eminently in 
the head ,vhich governs the body. It 
had become evident, that they who at- 
teIl1pted to deny the infallibility of the 
Head of the Church were covertly- 
and I believe many unconsciously- 
denying the Divine guidance of the 
'v hole Church. The Council of the Vat- 
ican, then, with the fearless liberty of 
truth ,vbich belongs to the kingdom of 
God, and conles from God alone, pro- 
mulgated these most opportune and 



OVER THE INTELLECT OF l\IAN. 49 


necessary Constitutions of Faith. It 
has declared, in the ll1idst of an unbe- 
lieving age, that faith is due to God 
because he is Sovereign, and because 
as Sovereign He commands it; and that 
to kno,v \vhat we are to believe, He has 
instituted upon earth a \vitness, which 
is itself a sufficient evidence of its O\VU 
Divine commission, that is, IIis visible 
Church; a ,vitness that may be seen as 
the representative of His Incarnation; 
a \vitness that may be heard, because 
the voice of that Church speaks to the 
\vorId, and is His voice. The Council 
of the Vatican, therefore, calls to us all, 
as St. Paul called to the Corinthians: 
"And I, brethren, \v hen I carne to you, 
came not in loftiness of speech or of 
\visdom, declaring unto you the testi- 
mony of J eSl1S Christ. For I judged 
not nlJself to kno\v anything among 
4 



50 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD 


you, but Jesus Christ, and Him cruci- 
fied. And Iny teaching \vas not in the 
persuasive ,vords of 1nan's ,visdom, but 
in delnonstration of the spirit and of 
the po,ver of God. That your faith 
nlight not stand on the \visdom of man, 
but on the po,ver of God." And to 
obtain that Divine certainty, there is 
one simple condition: to believe in the 
Divine Teacher ,vhom He has sent. 



OVER THE WILL OF :MAN. 51 


.. 


LECTURE II. 


THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD OV,ER THE 
",VILL OF MA"N. 


" Behold, I come: in the head of the book it is 
written of JJIe, that I s/tould dQ Thy will, 0 
God." Hebrews x. 7. 


THESE words, taken by the Apostle 
from the Book of Psalms, are the \vords 
of the Son of God, speaking in proph- 
ecy, of His advent and His mission 
in the ,vorld: "Behold, I come: in the 
head of the book" 
 that is, in the 
outset of prophecy -" it is ,vritten of 
Me." It ,vas of this that God spoke in 
the beginning, when He foretold that 



52 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD 


the seed of the \VOlnan should crush 
the serpent's -head. The coming of 
Jesus Christ into the \vorId \vas for the 
fulfilment of the ,viti of God. Throngh- 
out the Gospels \ve read frOIH His O\Vl1 
lips that His ,york on earth was to do 
His Father's will. "I can1e down from 
heaven not to do IVfy o\vn \vill, but the 
,vill of Him that sent 1\Ie." 

 " My food 
is to do the \vill of Him that sent :!\tIe." t 
The obedience of Jesus Christ to the 
,vill of God \vas the recognition of the 
sovereignty of God over the \vill of man. 
Obedience to the Divine \vill is the first 
law of the soul of nIan, and in this is 
his perfection"; which is our next sub- 
j ect. 
Our last subject \vas the sovereignty 
of God over the intellect; and the sov- 
ereignty of God over the intellect IS 


* St. John vi.. 38. 


t Ibiù. iv. 34. 



OVER THE WILL OF MAN. 53 


the means and condition to the sover- 
eignty of God over the \vil1; for Gûd, 
being Perfect Intelligence, requires of 
no man an irrational obedience. He 
requires of all n1en an obedience ac- 
cording to the la,ys and perfections of 
the human reason, and to the la,vs and 
perfections of truth. It is a hnv of our 
nature, that ,ve can ,,,ill nothing that 
we have not first kno,vn. Our intellect 
111Ust first kno,v the object npon ,vhich 
,ve ,vonId set our ,viI1, or the \viII can 
make no act either of desire or aver- 
sion. The intellect, therefore, is the 
channel through ,vhich the sovereignty 
of God reaches the ,viII of man. In 
proportion as ,ve kno,v God Inor
 per- 
fectly, our ,viII ought to he n10re per- 
fectly conformed to the ,viII of Goel. 
The ,viII in man is defined to be a 
rational desire, and it is made up of 



54 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD 


t\VO things. There is in it the desire 
after good, and there is the reason 
guiding that desire: sO that it is - as 
philosophers call it - a rational appe- 
tite; but \vith this peculiar office and 
po\ver - it can control the appetite; it 
has the po\ver of originating our ac- 
tions, and of controlling itself: Now 
the inteIlect of nUU1 has analogy to the 
eye. The eye, 'v hich is the organ of 
sight, is under the control of the ,viII. 
"\tVe may fix the eye on anp given ob- 
ject, or \ve may turn the eye away from 
it, or \ve may either look intently or 
languidly at it. All the day long we 
see a 11lultitude of things \vithout look- 
ing at them. The eye is filled \vith the 
light of day, and \vith the objects round 
aböut it; but the eye can be fixed for 
the time only upon one, al
d that one 
is the ouly object upon ,vbich we can 



OYER THE 'VILL OF 
IAN. 55 


be said to look. We see a nlultitude 
of objects, which perhaps ,ve do not 
recognize at the tinle, nor remember a 
lllornent after. So it is ,vith the intel- 
lect. It is controlled by the ,vill, ,vhich 
can determine on \vhat object it shall 
be fixed; and \vhether it shall look fix- 
. 
edly and steac1Htstly at truth, or \vheth- 
er it shall turn the intellect away froln 
truth, or nlake it look at truth so cur- 
sorily and languidly as not to recognize 
it. . No,v this constitutes our responsi- 
bility in regard to the truth. As I 
have said before, the \vords of our Di- 
vine Lord, "He that believeth and is 
baptized shall be saved, and he that be- 
lieveth not shall be condemned," ex- 
press the voluntariness of the act of 
fitith. Faith is a virtue and a grace of 
the Holy Spirit; but it is also an act of 
obcdience on the part of man; and \ve 



56 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD 


are responsible for our unbelief; and 
shall be judged for it, because God has 
given a sufficient light and evidence, 
both for the truths of the natural and 
supernatural order. He \vill not re- 
quire of any luan to kno\v any truth 
'v hich is physically beyong. his po,ver 
to kno,v; He ,viII only require of man 
to ans,ver for the truth \vhich he knew, 
and that ,vhich he might have kno\vn. 
He ,viII not require that ,vhich is 
m- 
possible; for God never cOlllmands in1- 
possible things. fIe is a -God of justice, 
and I-lis justice is perfect equity. " lIe 
\veigheth the spirits," and lIe kno\vs 
\vith Divine precision \vhat is possible 
and 'v hat is not possible to each one of 
us. fIe may require, indeed, that \vhich 
is Inorally difficult, because that ,vhich 
is only difficult is not impossible. 'Ve 
are responsible to kno,v all truth ,vhich 



OVER THE WILL OF MAN. 57 


is sufficiently proposed to us, and aU 
,vhich by diligent search ,ve may find; 
and therefore ,ve shall be inexcusable 
at the last day if -,ve do not see the 
lights of nature, ,vhich are so abundant, 
inundating the world, and if \ve have 
not knovvn the truths to 'v hich they 
testify - that is to say, the existence 
of God, His eternal po,ver and Divinity, 
His perfections, the distinction of right 
and \vrong, the la,v of conscience, our 
o,vn free \vill, the soul and its inlD10r- 
tality - and therefore our responsibility 
to our Creator. These are truths of 
the natural order, apart from and an- 
terior to revelation. They are ,vithin 
our reach to kno,v. All men, even 
those ,vho are not only out of the 
Catholic Church, but U10St relTIote frOln 
it, are bound to kno,v these truths. To 
those who are ,vithin the unity of the 
. 



Û /"" 8 
THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD 


Catholic Church, there is not a doctrine 
of revelation \vhich is not ,yithin their 
reach. God has given sufficient light 
and evidence for aU ,vho are \vithin the 
unity of the Catholic Church to kno,v 
aU the truths of revelation. To those 
,vho are out of the unity of the Church, 
their probation depends on this - 
\vhether their separation from that 
unity and the light contained therein 
be a conscious and voluntary act of 
their O'Vl1. If so, then they are respon- 
sible. But if it be an inherited state 
of privation, as I have said before, like 
the condition of people robbed, by the 
sin of forefathers, of their inheritance 
of perfect light, such as our O'Vl1 coun- 
try, then n1Ïl1iol1s are not responsible. 
They \vill not be called to ans,ver for 
light they have never kno\vn, and 
never could have kno,vn. By them 



OVER THE WILL OF :l\lAN. 59 


. 
the visible Church has never been seen, 
the voice of the Church has never been 
heard: and things that do not appeal' 
are as things that do not exist. They 
have never stood face to face \vith it as 
we do; the light of Catholic faith has 
never fallen upon them. They have 
been brought up repeating the baptis- 
n1al creed, " I believe in the Holy Ghost, 
the holy Catholic Church;" but bet\veen 
that article of creed anù their conscience 
has intervened a colored nledium. and 
/ 
a false òbject. They have believed 
thenlselves to be in the Catholic Church, 
because they have n1istaken in reality 
a systelTI of b un1an creation for the 
Ch urch of Jesus Christ. 
The la,v of God, then, is this; that 
in proportion as "'"e possess sufficient 
evidence to kno\v the truth, He ,vill 
req uire of us to give an account of that 



60 THE SOYEREIGNTY OF GOD 


truth at the last day. 'Ve must give 
an account of what ,ve have kl1o\vn, and 
,vhat ,ve have not kno\vn, and the rea- 
sons \vhy \ve have not kno\vn that which 
\ve 111ight have kno\vn. In this, there- 
fore, consists the sovereignty of God 
over the ,vill; and I wish you to bear 
in Inind, that when I speak of faith as 
of the highest act of the human reason, 
and the most rational exercise of the 
human inteIlect, such :fi1Îth is not a 
blind and obscure act of the supersti- 
tious and the credulous, 'v ho hide their 
heads in t\vilight. Faith is an act of 
the human reason, expanding itself to- 
\vards God its l\Iaker, and receiving the 
noontide light of revelation \vith the 
fullest developlnent of its intellectual 
po\vcrs. And in proportion as it re- 
ceives the truth, and snbrnits its created 
intelligence to the uncreated wisclo111 



OVER THE WILL OF MAN. 61 


of God, it is elevated and made per- 
fect. 
We ,vill no\v go on to our next sub- 
ject, nalnely, the sovereignty of God 
over the ,viII. 'fo make it as clear as I 
can, let us consider the relations in which 
the human will has hitherto stood, and 
,vill stand, to the sovereignty of God. 
1. The first relation ,vas ,vhen God 
made n1an "to His o,vn ilnage and like- 
ness ;" that is, lIe inJ.parted to him a 
spiritual nature. lIe gave him an intelli- 
gence and a 'v ill like His own. Man ,vas 
the image or reflection of his J\Iaker. 
The win, as I have said, consists in this: 
it has the po\ver of originating our o\vn 
actions. The lo\ver anin1als have a 
po\ver of spontaneity in follo\ving their 
natural desires, such as for food and 
rest; but they have no \vill. Every- 
thing voluntary is spontaneous, but 



62 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD 


everything ,vhich is spontaneous is not 
yolul1tary. The lo\ver anilnals, though 
they have this spontaneous po,ver, have 
no \vill, because the 'v ill, as I said in 
the beginning, _is a rational desire or 
appetite guided and elevated by the rea- 
son; and as the lower anirnals, though 
they have instincts, are irrational- 
that is, have no reason - they have no 
,viII. The will, then, is the po,ver of 
originating rational actions, and those 
rational actions are the actions of a \vill 
in conformity \vith the reason, and of 
the reason in conformity ,vith the in- 
telligence of God. But ,ve are wont 
also to speak of the freedom of the ,vill. 
N o ,v, everything that is free is volun- 
tary, but not everything ,vhich is vol- 
untary is free, because the blessed in 
heaven voluntarily love God, and vol- 
untarily worship Him; but - they are 



OVER THE 'VILL' OF 
IAN. 63 


not free not to love Hiln or not to 
\vorship Hiln. '"rhe very perfection of 
their nature necessitates their love and 
,vorshi p; and yet the ,vill in its vol- 
untary action is perfect. It is the n10st 
perfect and entire spontaneousness, ele- 
vated and guided by reason, by the 
illumination of the ,vhole soul of the 
blessed. There is, therefore, a kind of 
freedom or liberty \v hich does not be- 
long to the perfection of the will. But 
,vben God made man in the beginning, 
He gave him a perfect liberty. He \vas 
not constrained by any external au- 
thority which deprived him of his free- 
dom; he ,vas not necessitated, as the 
blessed are, by a final perfection. lIe 
had therefore these three kinds of lib- 
erty; first, he had the po\ver either to 
do or not to do, to act or to refrain fronl 
acting; secondly, he had a po,ver, ,vith- 



64 TIlE SOYEllEIGNTY OF GOD 


in the limits of good and justice, to do 
this or that act - he ,vas not cornpellec1 
to any specific acts of goôdness or of 
justice; lastly, he had a po,ver ,vhich 
the blessed in heaven have 110t- of 
doing good and evil. But this po,ver 
of doing good and evil is indeed a part 
of our liberty in our present state of 
probation and of in1perfection; but it 
is not a part of the perfect liberty of 
the ,"v ill. The use of the ,viII is to do 
good; but the abuse of the ,viII is to 
do evi1. It is an abuse of the po,ver 
of originating our actions if ,ve act 
contrary to reason, contrary to justice, 
contrary to the ,vil1 of God. In the 
beginning, God created nlan \vith this 
threefold liberty, to put him upon trial 
or probation; and yet there ,vas no 
cause or need or excuse ,vhy he should 
offend and fall, for God constitnted hiln 



OYER THE WILL OF l\IAN. 65 


in original justice. There never was a 
n10Inent \vhen the created ,viII of the 
first man ,vas not sanctified and sus- 
tained by the Holy Ghost, ,vhen he had 
not the presence of abundant grace 
wi thin him to sustain him in the full 
equilibriuln of his liberty. There \vas, 
then, no necessity - nay, no reason 
\V hatsoever e
cept the abuse of his free- 
dOlll - ,vhy he should do evil. His 
,vbole soul \vas under the dOIllinion of 
the Divine kno,vledge and love, and his 
heart ,vas the- throne of God reigning 
supreme within it. This, then, \vas the 
first relation of the ,vill to t'he sover- 
eignty of God. 
2. The second relation was intro- 
duced by the Fall of lnan; and see 
ho,v it caIne about. The entrance of 
sin into the ,vorld ,vas by the abuse of 
the ,vine Sin canle through the intel- 
5 



66 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD 


lect. The telnptation ,vas addressed 
to the in tellect, ,y hich, being perverted, 
perverted the ,vill; but the ,vill "Tas 
free to listen or not. The temptation 
\vas addressed "Tith an exquisite sub- 
tlety of lnalice. It began by a question, 
and that question began by the ,vord 
" 'Vhy," -,vhich \vas then spoken for the 
first time. The telnpter came and said, 
"Why hath God commanded?" This 
was a temptation to criticise the ,vays 
and to question the justice of God. 
"Why hath God cOlnmanded you, that 
you shall not eat of every tree of Para- 
dise ? " This a ,vakcned it questioning, 
perhaps a murmuring, spirit. The next 
step of the temptation ,vas a contra- 
dictioñ. " Ye shall not die the death." 
In this ,vas insinuated a contradiction 
of the kno\vn truth. Thirdly, there 
,vas an insinuation of injustice against 



OVER THE WILL OF :MAN. 67 


\. 


Goù. "For God doth kno\v that in 
,vhat day soever you shaH eat thereof; 
your eyes shall be opened, and you 
shall be as gods;" as if to say, God is 
jealous lest a creature of His hands 
should be equal to HÎ1nself: No\v, the 
first temptation came through the in- 
telJect, and as it passed through the 
thoughts it wrought upon the soul, it 
underlninded the steadfastness of the 
,viII, it infialned the passions, it made 
them impatient of restraint, and thereby 
it inclined the \vill to abuse its liberty 
and power. The abuse of its liberty 
and po,ver was this: to do evil, to break 
the kno\vn la,v, to violate the command- 
ment of God. In doing so, it acted 
irrationally; the ,viII, in doing evil, then 
lost its rational character. It was an 
abuse and debasernent of its nature; 
and the \vill being debased by this ir- 



68 THE SOYEREIGNTY OF GOD 


rational action, deprived of its super- 
natural perfection, forfeited the grace 
of the Spirit of God. It biassed its own 
,vorking, it ,varped its o,vn nature. As 
a perfect machine, if it be rudely jarred, 
loses its perfect action, and all its ope- 
rations are cast out of gear, so \vith the 
soul of man, ,vhen by a wilful abuse of 
his rational power he acted irrationally. 
In the mOD1ent when he rebelled against 
the sovereign \vill of God, his passions 
and affections - ,vhich before were in 
subjection, and in perfect harmony and 
conforn1ity to his ,viII, obeying its do- 
n1inion and governrrlent - rose up and 
rebelled against him. The passions were 
both disordered and inflamed ; they 
,vere no longer \vithin the range and 
control of reason. The affections, losing 
their reasonable character, became in- 
ternal ternptations, so that the \vords 



OVER THE 'VILL OF MAN. 69 


of the prophet ,vere verified in the first 
man: "The wicked are like the raging 
sea, ,vhich cannot rest, and the ,vaves 
thereof cast up dirt and mire." * The 
tumultuous passions and affections of 
the heart cast up desires and cravings 
,vhich are irrational, and destructive of 
the soul of man. Just as one poisonous 
root \vill propagate and spread over a 
fertile garden, and one spark of fire TtVill 
kindle a boundless conflagration, so one 
perverse will, beginning in irrational dig.. 
obedience, has nlultiplied itself through- 
out mankind, and the \vhole \vorld is set 
on fire by its perversity. The human 
,vil1, becoming carnal and irrational in 
I the Fall of our first parents, has been 
I reproduced in all their children. " That 
\v hich is born of the flesh is flesh." t 'Ve 
inherit that nature as children of wrath. 


* Isaias lvii. 20. 


. t St. John iii. 6. 



70 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD 


This, then, is the second relation of the 
,vill to the sovereignty of God by the 
irrational abuse of its o\vn freedoln. 
3. Then, thirdly, as man fell by ir- 
rational disobedience, he is redeemed 
by an obedience \vhich is in perfect 
conforn1ity to the intelIigence and \vill 
of Gael. St. Irenæus says, " The obedi- 
ence of l\lary broke the chains forged 
by the disobedience of Eve. "'\Vhat Eve 
had bound by unbelief; Mary has un- 
bound by faith." :;: That is to say: the 
,,,ill feU by the unbelief of Eve, the first 
virgin, and was restored through the 
faith of 1\lary, the second virgin. The 
first Eve listened to the tempter, and 
fell; the second Eve listened to the 
angel, and believed. 'Vhen the angel 
saluted- her ,vith, "Hail, full of grace, 
the Lord is \vi th thee!" and revealed 


* St. Iren. Adv. Hær. iii. 34. 



OVER THE WILL OF :MAN. 71 


to her the mystery of the Incarnation, 
her intelligence, overcome for a moment 
by the splendor of supernatural light, 
asked, "How shall this be done? ":
 But 
at once she made an act of perfect sub- 
n1ission and of perfect fhj th: "Behold 
the handmaid of the Lord, be it done 
to Ine according to thy ,vord." He.re 
was a perfectly obedient ,vill restored to 
mankind, a will reconstituted in that 
state of perfect subtnission to the sover- 
eigntyof God in \vhich man ,vas in the 
beginning. Of her ,vas born One more 
perfect because He is the Incarnate Son 
of God, in Wholn the \vords of proph- 
ecy were fulfilled: "Behold, I come, to 
do Thy ,viII, 0 God." 
The fulfilment of the ,vill of God 'vas 
the \vhole ,vork of redemption. Obe- 
dience unto death \vas the restoration 


* St. Luke i. 34. 



72 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD 


of nlankind. 'Vhen the Son of God 
took onr humanity, He took a hlunan 
sonl, and in that soul a hUlIUH1 intelli- 
gence and a hlunan ,vil1, in all things 
like our o\vn. B 11 t bet\veen the Sacred 
Humanity and ours was this difference: 
the human ,viII of Jesus had in it no 
rebellions. It had \vhat ,ve distinguish 
as a superior and an inferior ,vill; that 
is, He had a reason and conscience 
like our o\vn, but both ,vere perfect. 
He had also affections and infirlnities, 
and, as the theology of the Catholic 
Church says, not passions - for the 
word by tradition has an evil meaning 
- hut "pro-passions;" that is, those 
affections of our humanity which are 
passions in us, in him are perfections. 
Nevertheless, the superior and the infe- 
rior win of the Son of God in the Gar- 
den of Gethsemani, ,vere seen, not in 



OVER THE WILL OF 
IAN. 73 


conflict, but each exerting its proper 
and natural perfections. The sensitive 
or inferior ,viII shrank from the vision 
of sin, from the foresight of the death 
of the ,vorld, from the anticipation of 
the Passion, fronI the agony which lIe 
then already suffered, from the Divine 
foreknowledge of anguish of that night, 
anù of the desolation on Calvary. Hu- 
man nature in Him shrank frolll pain 
and death, just as ,ve do; but the su- 
perior ,vill stood steadfitst. Kno\ving 
that it ,vas for the glory of God, and 
the redemption of the world, that He 
should accept and drink the chalice of 
His Pa.ssion, lIe said: "0 My Father, 
if it is possible, let this chalice pass from 
Me; nevertheless, not as I win, but as 
Thou wilt." * There ,vas no wavering 
of in1perfection in that agony çf our 


* St. Matt. xxvi. 39. 



74 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD 


Divine Lord. He being God, the ,vill 
that \vas in Him ,vas deified. It \vas 
united to the perfections of the Son of 
God; it was sanctified by the presence 
of the Holy Ghost; it \vas constituted 
in the Divine IJerfections of freedom 
and obedience; it could be used ,vith 
the utmost liberty of human perfection; 
it could never be abused, because of His 
perfection both as God and as man. 
That ,vhich constituted the lllerit of our 
Lord's Passion ,vas this: though it was 
necessary, from His t\vofold perfection, 
human and Divine, that He should love 
God, and obey Hilll, and fulfil IIis ,viII 
,vith perfection, it \vas not necessary 
that He should suffer the agony in 
the Ga.rden, nor the Crucifixion upon 
Calvary. These things \vere freely 
chosen by Him, out of love to n1ankind. 
"Greater love than this no man hath, 



OVER THE .WILL OF MAN. 75 


that a man lay do\vn his life for his 
friends." * I t was an act of the love of 
the Son of God to give Himself for 
three-and-thirty years to mental sorro,v, 
and to His agony on the Cross for our 
redemption. He freely chose that ,yay 
of redelnption - the way of blood- 
shedding, passion, humiliation - be- 
cause it ,vas a Inore profuse revelation 
of perfect loye. This way of redemption 
was not required by any necessity, but 
freely ordained in the \visdom of God. 
4. Fourthly, there is still another re- 
lation of the ,viII to the sovereignty of 
God, and it is that in \vhich \ve all stand 
no\v to IIim. 'Ve are not like the first 
Adam, in a state of original justice. 
'Ve are not like Adam after the FaIl, 
in a state deprived of grace. Weare 
not like the second Adam in His Divine 


* St. John xv. 1.3. 



76 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD 


perfections; but we are regenerate 
members of the second Adaln, and there 
is a perfection ,vhich comes by the Holy 
Ghost to all those who are united as 
Inelnbers of the Body of Christ. The 
\vill of their Divine Head pervades the 
. will of those that are born again. Y 011, 
in your baptism, passed from the state 
of nature to the state of grace. "That 
\vhich is born of the flesh is flesh, but 
that ,vhich is born of the Spirit is spir- 
it." * You have been born of ,vater and 
of the Holy. Ghost, and" Christ Jesus 
is in you, unless perhaps you be repro- 
bates." -r Your ,vill is a regenerate ,vine 
I t is the \vill of the Son of God. 'Vhat 
Jesus had by nature, because he is the 
Son of God, consubstantial ,vith the 
Father, yon have by grace, because by 
adoption you are lnaùe the sons of God. 


* St. John iii. G. 


t 2 Cor. xiii. 5. 



OYER THE 'VILL OF 
IAN. 77 


St. John ,vrites: "As lnany as received 
Him, to thenl lIe gave po,ver to be 
Inade the 'sons of God." * The power 
has been given to you all; not to be- 
COine equal and co-eternal ,vith the In- 
carnate Son of Goù, but to be sons of 
God by adoption. Again, St. Paul says: 
"You have not received the spirit of 
bondage again in fear; but you have 
received the spirit of adoption of sons, 
,vhereby ,ve cry: Abba (Father)." 
"For ,vhosoever are led by the Spirit 
. of God, they are the sons of God." t 
And as nlauy as are led by the Spirit 
of God, they have a regenerate ,viII, 
elevated by L'1ith, hope, and charity, 
raised by the sanctifying grace of God, 
to a union ,vith God Himself: The 
Apostle says: " lIe \vho adheres to the 
Lord is one spirit; " t and they who are 


* St. John i. 12. t Rom. viii. 14, 15. 
t 1 Cor. vi. 17. 



78 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD 


united, by the Spirit of God dwel1ing 
in thenl to our Divine Lord and Saviour, 
the Head of the mystical Body, partake 
of the sanctity and strength of His ,vilt 
His will is transcribed into them; they 
beconle partakers of the loves and the 
hatreds of Jesus Christ. Together with 
Him they love God and their neighbor, 
they hate sin and falsehood in all its 
forms. The ,vin, according to the prom- 
ise of God, þeconles a la,v to itself: 
"This is the testament \vhich I ,viII 
make unto theln after those days, saith. 
the Lord; giving IVly la,vs in their 
hearts, and in their minds I \vill write 
theIn." * And the Apostle says," The 
la,v is not 11lade for the just Inan, but 
for the unjust and disobedient." t As 
the seven notes of the octave are not 
to be perpetually learned by the skilful 


* Heb x. 16. 


t 1 Tim. i. 9. 



OYER THE WILL OF MAN. 79 


musician, and the twenty-four letters of 
the alphabet are left behind by the cul- 
tivated intellect, so the la\v of COffi- 
Inandments is no longer necessary to 
those who have the la\v of God \vritten 
by the Holy Ghost upon their hearts. 
They fulfil, indeed, the letter of the 
comnUtndlnents, because that is the 
least thing they can do; but that 
'v hich is required of them is more than 
this. St. John says: "Everyone that 
is born of God, doth not C0111nlÎt sin, 
for His seed remaineth in him, and he 
cannot sin, because he is born of 
God;" :i: that is, there grows up a 
moral impossibility to commit wilful 
SIn. The love of God and our neigh- 
bor makes it morally impossible that 
,ve should abuse our freedolll of \vill by 
disobedience to God, and inj ustice to 


* 1 St. John iii. 9 



80 THE SOYEREIGNTY OF GOD 


our neighbor. The hatred of sin, false- 
hood, impurity, jealousy, malice, and 
the like, Inakes it moraI1y impossible 
for the soul, rene\ved by the ind\velling 
of the Spirit of God, to violate its o""u 
renewed nature by ,villingly - doing 
these things. Therefore, the will be- 
comes a Ia\v to itself, and it is so 
strengthened in the state of regenera- 
tion that the ....
postle could say: "I 
can do all things in I-lim who strength- 
eneth me." * ''''''hen buffeted by the 
messenger of Sata.n, he thrice prayed 
to be delivered frorn temptation; but 
the ans\ver of God to him was, "J.\;ly 
grace is sufficient for thee: for po\ver 
is Inade perfect in infirn1ity;" and he 
adds: "Gladly, therefore, ,viU I glory 
in my infirn1ities, that the power of 
Christ l11ay dwell in me." t And again, 


* Phil. iv. 13. 


t 2 Cor. xii. 9. 



OVER THE WILL OF lVIA
. 81 


" Work your salvation with fear and 
trernbling; " and for ,vhat reason? 
"For it is God 'v ho ,vorketh in you 
both to \vill and to accomplish, accord- 
ing to His good will." 
ï: The sllprenlacy 
of the good ,viII of God, holy, pure, 
just and n1ighty, fio,vs into the soul, 
and pervades the ,vill of t
ose, ,vho, 
being born again, are subject to the 
sovel"eignty of God by the free action 
and use of their o\vn deliberate ,viII. 
5. Lastly, there is, as I have said be- 
fore, a final relation of the ,viII to God; 
and that is the state of the blessed, 
'v hen there ,vin be no nlore tenlptation 
\vithout, no more conflict \vithin. "\tVe 
shall then have passed frol11 a state of 
,varfare, and frOlll the condition of ,vay- 
farers, into the eternal rest and peace, 
in tbe vision of God. The intellect, il- 


* Phil. ii. 12, 13. 


6 



82 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD 


luminateù by the Light of God, which 
is the IIoly Ghost Himself; shall see 
Him. The will, united with the eternal 
love of God by the Holy Ghost, \vho is 
the Charity of God, wiU be eternally 
and indissolubly united to Him in obe- 
dience and adoration of His perfect 
sovereign.ty, when God shall be all in 
all. This is the last and eternal perfen- 
tion of the will. 
To draw from this one practical con- 
clusion, let us remember what is our 
probation now. It is to subject our 
will to the will of God. And how does 
God illuminate us to kno\v what that 
sovereignty is? I have already said, 
by faith. I have said that our submis- 
sion to Hiln is the most rational and 
perfect act of our reason. Take, for 
example, the lights of nature, the exist- 
ence of God, the distinctions of moral- 



OVER THE 'VILL OF l\IAN. 83 


ity, the immortaJity of the soul. You 
,,"ould all hold, that any man who 
should refuse to submit his will to the 
sovereignty of God, revealing these 
things to us by the light of nature, 
\vould be guilty before Him of pride 
and infidelity. And why, but because 
the evidence for them is sufficient? 
Let us go one. step farther. Is there 
not sufficient evidence in the world, by 
the lights of Uhristendolll and by the 
effulgence of the Universal Church, 
which is "like the lightning \vhich 
cometh out of the east, and shineth al- 
so to the west 
 " Is not the testimony 
of the Universal Church throughout 
the ,vorld a sufficient light, or nlotive 
of credibility, to convince the intellect 
of Iuan that that Church is the Church 
of God, and, therefore, that" He found- 
ed it? Is not t.he testimony of the' 



84 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD 


Church itself sufficieJ].t. to 'convince 
any reasonable intellect, that He ,vho 
founded 'it ,vas the Son of "God Incar- 
nate; and that, according to the proln- 
ise of the Son of God, the IIoIy Ghost 
descended upon that C
urch, "and Inade 
it His d\vellil1g-place and the organ of 
His voice, in \v hich to preseive the 
original revelation of God; and -through 
\vhich, as the organ òf His 'voice, He 
makes that revelation kno\vn to the 
world? And if there be a sufficient 
light to kno,v these things, is not the 
intellect bound to submit itself to the 
uncreated reason of God, by \vholl1 
these things are revealed? And if so, 
is -not the will, through the intellect, 
bound to submit itself to that light and 
sovereignty, which is thus made kno\vn ? 
And if so, the voice of the Ch urch is 
the voice of God IIimself: "lie that 



OVER THE WILL OF 
IAN. 85 


heareth you, heareth l\fe;" and the 
authority of that voice is Divine, and 
the unity of truth is Divine, and the 
duty of submitting to it is Divine. This 
light of fiÚth comes to us through the 
most rational action of the hnrrlan in- 
tellect, and that act of fi-tith is an act 
reasonable and free in all its parts. 
Faith is not a credulity, nor a supersti- 
tion; but they ,vho ,vill not believe are 
truly irrational and superstitious. They 
Dill from perfect light into the t,vilight, 
,y here half-truths are seen, as "n1en 
like trees ,valking ; "* and believing in 
them, the intellect is warped and nar- 
ro,ved. They \vho reject Divine faith 
believe in hurnan opinions, ,vhich are 
both credulous and superstitious. What, 
then, is the ,vhole of our life on earth 
but an education? Is not the sover- 


'" St. Mark viii. 24. 



86 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD 


eignty of God round about us? Are 
,ve not under its guidance, training, and 
discipline? Is it not training us up to 
d,vell in our Father's house? Are not 
aU the visitations and chastisenlents of 
our lot so many teachings of His Divine 
hand? In joy and sorrow, prosperity 
and poverty, sickness or strength,- 
are not all these distinctly Divine agen- 
cies around us and upon us ? Are they 
not the n1anifestations of the Divine 
sovereign ty over the course of our life? 
And they ,vho recognize, by the light 
of fhith, the sovereignty of God in all 
things, \viH recognize the sovereignty 
of God in the daily and hourly details 
of their o,vn personal life, and in the 
changes of their lot. They will not 
chafe against Ilis \vill when He chas- 
tises them, nor \vear themselves out, 
nor break their hearts by contending 



OVER THE 'VILL OF MAN. 87 


with impossibilities; but, conforming 
their ,vill to the sovereign \vill of God, 
and submitting gladly to it, they ,viII 
be sustained and sanctified in their 
fai tho 
And, further, there are t\VO other 
ways in which the sovereignty of God 
"
orks in us. The one is by the silent, 
secret, and s,veet inspirations of His 
.grace, by the lights that fall upon our 
intellect \vithout our asking for them, 
and the love that is poured out in the 
Divine superabundance' of ] ris gener- 
osity and tenderness. As he makes the 
sun to rise upon the evil and the good, 
so He sends do,vn the lights of truth 
on the intellects of those who have not 
sought for Him; and He pours out over 
their hearts the drops of s,veetness, of 
which the Psalrnist speaks when he 
says, "Thou hast prevented him ,vith 



88 THE SOVERillGNTY OF GOD 


blessings of s,veetness." * This is sorne- 
thing which, in experience, you all will 
know., You:,vill understand me, though 
I cannot" put it in \vords. There have 
been in your life times and seasons- 
sOInetimes in joy; sometimes in SOITO\V, 
sOlnetimes in prayer, sometÏInes in soli- 
tude, sometimes in the midst of the 
""orld' - '\vhen ther"e has corne do\vn 
almost a s'ensible s,veetness to your 
taste, alm-ost à IJeréeptible fragrance in 
your thoughts. "And ,vhat is th
s s\veet- 
ness and' fragrance? . It is the Divine 
. I " 
Presence. scattering abroad" the r bène- 
dictions of 8weetnêss.": -That 'fragrance 
COlnes froln the gólden censer 'v hicl
 is 
in the hand of the angel before the) 
throne. And why are these things- sen
 
to us? To ,vin and to persnade "our: 
\vills freely to submit ourselves to IIis 


... Ps. xx. 4. 



 



OVER THE 'VILL OF J\IAN. 89 


sovereignty. And the ,vay of I-lis sov- 
ereignty is the Blessed Sacran1ent upon 
the altar. The Sacred Heart of Jesus 
Christ our Lord and King is there al- 
,vays reigning, by the po,ver of IIis 
love, attracting the hun1an ,vill in all 
its freedo111 to Himself. Out of the nn- 
\villing, He creates the willing; not by 
constraint, but by the s,veetness of His 
Presence, which n1akes then1 volunta- - 
rily cast off their unbelief and disobedi- 
ence, and of their o,vn free \vill subn1it 
themselves to Him. 
Lastly, when hereafter lve sho.11 stand 
befof(t Him as our King and Judge, the 
j\.postle St. James declares that ,ve shåll 
be "judged by the law of liberty." * 
He Lids us, therefore, to use it 'ViSB]y : 
" So speak ye and so do, as being to be I 
judged by the law of liberty." In that 


. 


St. James Ïi. 12. 



90 THE SOYEREIGNTY OF GOD 


day \ve shall not be judged for any.. 
thing ,ve could not do or leave un- 
done, nor for anything ,ve could not 
kno,v. "\Ve shall be judged for that 
,vhich \ve nlight have known, and 
might have done or refrained fronl 
doing. 'Ve shall be tried by tha t 
which \ve have known and done; 
and we shall be compelled to lay 
our hand upon our mouth, and to con.. 
fess that, in all our life, \ve never did 
evil in thought, word, or deed, but we 
might have refrained from doing it, 
and might have done good if ,ve had 
had the ,viII; that every act of evil ,vas 
a free act, and an irrational and imn1or- . 
al abuse of our ,viII. 
Tiule forbids me now to draw out 
examples of this evident truth. Take 
any habit in which at this lllonlent you 
may be entangleò, - such as ambition, 



OVER THE 'V ILL OF ?\IAN. 91 


pride, sloth, self..indulgence, jealousy, 
insincerity, be it ,vhat it may, 
 tell 
me "\v hether the first acts of it \vere 
not perfectly voluntary, and the second 
and the third - ay, and the first, sec- 
ond, and third years of its continuance? 
If no\v it has become ingrained in your 
character, - if no\v you have become, 
and are at this till1e, proud, ambitious, 
slothful, jealous, insincere, so that you 
cry in secret: "I am so fast bound in 
these chains of iron, that I can never 
break .these bonds," - kno\v that you 
have forged them for yourselves, and 
at the last day will have to give 
an account of every several and vol- 
untary act, whereby you have "\yill- 
ingly forged those links. Yon laid 
them upon the anvil, and have de- 
liberately welded them with your 
o,vn hand, until with your own hand 



92 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD 



rou have bound yourselves in those 
chains. 
Lastly, we shall have to give an ac- 
coun t of all the good \ve have left un- 
done; and it is certain that ,ve neglect 
all day long opportunities of doing 
good, of IDaking acts of love of God 
and our neighbor. In that day our 
Lord ,vill say to each one of us: "I ,vas 
hungry, and JOu gave l\Ie not to eat; 
I lras thirsty, and you gave l\Ie no"t to 
drink; I ,vas a stranger, and 'you took 
l\Ie not in; naked, and you clothed 
Ie 
not; sick, and in prison, and you did 
not visit Me." ::: All the day long, our 
life and lot are full of these opportuni- 
ties, and \ve allo\v then1 to pass a\vay. 
They are golden opportunities, like the 
seed-tilne and the harvest, \vhich, ,vÎth 
all their treasures, pass ,vith the year 


· St. Matt. xxx. 42, 43. 



OVER TIlE WILL OF MAN. 93 


and return no more. We shall have to 
give an account in that day of the (ree 
use \ve have nlade of all our lnanifold 
ste\vardship; of the gifts of nature; of 
the faculties of the soul; of the graces 
of the Holy Ghost; of the providences 
of God over our life; of the opportuni- 
ties which have been so countless and 
so fertile, surpassing even our recogni- 
tion; and of all the loving visitations 
of God, "Thereby He \vould have 
brought us to IIimself: 
Remelnber the words you have said 
this nlorning, and before you lie down 
'viII say to-night. Remelnber \vhat I 
have said, \vhen on your knees you 
say the prayer \vhich our Lord has 
taught us: "Thy kingdolll COlne"- 
let thy sovereignty reign over nlY 
will. "Thy will be done on earth, fiS 
it is in heaven," -let thy 1I10st holy, 



1>4 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD 


most sweet, most perfect ,viII b
 done 
in me, and by me, and about me, in 
all things, and al \vays, now and for 
ever. 



OVER SOCIETY. 


95 


"- 


LECTURE III. 


THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD OVER SOCIETY. 


"Bell-old, a .King shall reign in justice, and 
princes shall reign in judgment." Isaias 
xxxii. 1. 


- 
'VHATSOEVER may be the first and 
typical fulfilment of this prophecy, no 
one can fail to see its true and ultimate 
fulfilment in the kingdom of Jesus 
Christ. It is a vision of that which is 
singular upon earth - a just king; that 
is, a king who, holding supreme po,ver, 
reflects not only the authority of the 
King of kings, but also His character. 
Such a one is a king after God's o\vn 



VB THE SOYEREIGXTY OF GOD 


heart. Justice is the sum of the per- 
f
ctions of God, the bond of all the 
Divine attributes of \visdom, po\ver, 
ll1ercy, and sanctity. A just king, 
therefore, is one ,vho, having suprelne 
authority, uses it in \visdon1, mercy, 
and equity. David's highest title of 
glory ,vas, that he ,vas a lnan after 
God's o\vn heart. His heart \vas con- 
fOl'lned. to the King of kings, and in 
the exercise of his power, in lnaking 
and in executing his Ia \VB, he IIlallifest- 
cd that heart of justice to his people. 
Such a kingdom is a kingdom of order, 
peace, liberty, and equality; because, 
,vhatcver be their social and acciùental 
inequalities, all subjects are, by the su- 
preme authority, treated equally before 
the la\v. 
Such, then, is the vision of the proph- 
ecy; and it is more than a prophecy 



OYER SOCIETY. 


97 


- it is a promise. It not only foretells 
that such a kingdom of justice shall be, 
but it promises that that kingdom shall 
exist on earth. 
Now, I have already spoken to you 
of the sovereignty of God over the in- 
tellect and over the \vill of individual 
men. Our submission to this sover- 
eignty is, I explained, by the act of 
faith, in response to the command of 
God that \ve should believe; and an 
act of obedience to His Divine will, as 
it is revealed to us, in response to the 
con1mandment that we should obey. 
"\Vhat I have no,v to do is to extend 
this subject; and these two prin1ary 
truths lie at the base of what I am 
about to add - I mean the sovereignty 
of God over society. 
Society is a collection of individuals, 
not told by number, but united, ordered 
7 



98 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD 


and organized by an intrinsic Ia\v of 
their nature. For when God made lnan, 
He lnade society. Society was a part 
of the first creation; society springs 
out of the creation of man, because 
fro111 man comes the family, and from 
the family comes the people, and from 
the people comes the State. The whole 
civil order of the ,vorld is nothing but 
the growth of that society which lay 
in the first man, as the tree lies in the 
seed. Therefore in our very nature 
there is the society of mankind; and, 
as I said before, sòciety does not mean 
merely men told by the head. Num- 
bers do not constitute a people. That 
\vhich constitutes a people is the princi- 
ple of order, authority, and la\v, social 
relations, social rights, social duty. 
Where those things are not, or are 
trampled do,vn, there ma.y be a multi- 



OVER SOCIETY. 


99 


tude, but there cannot be a people. 
The gospel of the present day is not 
the gospel of the society 'v hich God 
created, but the gospel of anarchy. It 
declares that the multitude of men, told 
by nuruber and voting by plebiscites, 
constitutes society. Therefore when I 
say that God has a sovereignty over- 
society, I mean that he has a sover- 
eignty over those ordered relations of 
man to man, constituted by HÎInself in 
the creation of mankind. The first 
principle, then, of society is authority; 
the second is obedience; and the third 
is mutual justice, whatsoever be the 
varied, accidental, and providential ine- 
qualities between man and man. 
I affirm, then, that there is in this 
world, in the order of nature, such a 
society as I have described. And as the 
Son of God Incarnate redeemed man- 



100 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD 


kind by His precious Blood, so he has 
purchased for I-limself; not only man 
,vith his individual intellect and ,viII, 
but also the collective society of man 
as God created it. What \ve call Chris- 
tianity is, in fact, the sovereignty of J e- 
sus Christ over mankind. In so L1,r as 
Inen are Christian, they are subj ects 
of Jesus Christ; and in so far as they 
revolt from Him, they are but rebels, 
because lIe is the I(ing of that society 
de jure, that is, by right, and de facto, 
that is, in fact. lIe is de jure" by right, 
King over every baptized soul; and fIe 
is not only de .lure, but de facto, King 
over all those that are faithful to IIis 
Jaws. Those who, being baptized, rebel 
against His laws, are no longer subject 
to Hiu1 de facto; but they are subject de 
J.ure, that is, by right, because they have 
been redeemed by Hiln, and regener- 



OVER SOCIETY. 


101 


ated in baptism. What, then, I pur- 
pose to show is, that there exists in the 
\vorld a kingdom of ,vhich Jesus Christ 
is the King, and that He has a sover- 
eignty, and exercises that sovereignty 
over it. The confusions \ve see in the 
,vorld are 110 contradiction to \vbat I 
have said - that He is, both by right 
and by fact, King and Sovereign over 
those ,vho are faithful to His la\vs. He 
is sovereign still by right - though, 
through their rebellion, not sovereign 
by n1ct - over those 'v 110 break those 
Ia ,vs. 
Bear in mind, I am speaking of this 
kingdom as God has made it, and not 
as man has marred it. That kingdom, 
as God made it, I ,viII now go on to 
describe; that kingdoln, as man has 
marred it, \vill bc our subject hereafter. 
1. First, then, ,vhen the Son of God 



102 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD 


becalne incarnate, He carne into the 
world, and gathered His disciples about 
Him. In that act He founded His king- 
dom. The preaching of John ,vas: 
"The kingdom of heaven is at hand." * 
The kingdom of heaven came \vhen 
God was manifested in the flesh, by His 
death redeemed the \vorld, by His res- 
urrection vindicated His sovereignty, 
and by his ascension took possession 
of His throne. By His Incarnation lIe 
had deified the nature of man, and not 
only restored, but elevated, man above 
his previous state in creation. He ele- 
vated not only man, but the society of 
man, which, as I said, lies in man's very 
nature. The first Aqam ,vas mere man, 
united \vith God, indeed; but through 
his disobedience he ,vrecked himself; 
and in himself all the society of nlan.. 


· St. Matt. iii. 2. 



OVER SOCIETY. 103 


kind. The second Adam is the Son of 
God Incarnate, in ,,
hon1 man is not only 
redeemed and elevated, but the ,vhole 
society of mankind also; and neither 
man nor the society of man can again 
be wrecked, in so far as it is obedient 
and faithful to the Incarnate Son of 
God. 
I will say, then, for clearness' sake, 
that the society H
 founded is His mys- 
tical Body, or the Church, as we shall 
hereafter see. Our Divine Lord restored 
n1an and society in His person \vhen He 
deified our manhood, our intelligence, 
heart, will, our whole nature, soul and 
body. 'Vhen lIe gathered His disciples 
about Hinl, He elevated them also. He 
illluninated them ,vith the knowledge 
of God and His kingdom; He infused 
into them the grace of His Holy Spirit; 
He shed abroad in their heart the law 



104 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD 


of Jove to God and man; He inspired 
their ,viII ,vith the la\v of obedience: 
He elevated them above the natural 
state in which they were born. " Tha,t 
which is born of the flesh is flesh," and 
such they \vere at their first birth. 
"That which is born of the Spirit is 
spirit," and such they were by contact 
with the Son of God in the regenera- 
tion. And being el
vated to a higher 
state of faith, light, love, and obedience, 
He assimilated thelD to Hin1self; He 
changed them into His own likeness. 
The first Adam ,vas defaced and disfig- 
ured, the image and likeness of God 
in him were shattered; but the likeness 
and ilnage of God 'vere manifested 
again, in their perfection, in the face 
of Jesus Christ. As St. Paul says: "God, 
\vho con1manded the 1ight to shine out 
of darkness, hath shined in our hearts 



OVER SOCIETY. 


105 


to give the light of the kno,v ledge 
of the glory of God, in the filce of J e- 
sus Christ." * Again he says: "'V e alI, 
beholding the glory of the Lord ,vith 
face uncovered, are transformed into the 
satne image fro
 glory to glory, as by 
the Spirit of the Lord." t And St. John 
writes: " We saw His glory, the glory 
as of the Only-begotten of the Father, 
full of grace and truth. . . . And of His 
fulness \ve all have received, and grace 
for grace;" 
 that is to say, the fello,v- 
ship of the disciples \vith their Lord, 
His daily conversation \vith them, the 
assimilating power of His life and of 
His example, changed them. Their 
heart, mind, and will \vere gradn- 
alIy transfigured into IIis o,vn like- 
ness; and as he changed them into IIis 


... 2 Cor. iv. G. t 2 Cor. Hi. 18. 

 St. John i. 14, 16. 



106 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD 


own likeness, so He united them to- 
gether. They became of one mind, 
one heart, one will; they had one faith, 
one vision of God, one Guide, one 
Teacher, one law. There \vas ,vrought 
in them an intrinsic change, which per- 
fectly united them one \vith another; 
so that their thoughts, affections, voli- 
tions, being subject by fhith to the sov- 
ereignty of their Divine 
Iaster, were 
assin1Ïlated to each other. There grew 
up an intrinsic unity in the hearts of 
the disciples; and therefore the exter- 
nal unity with \vhich they adhered to 
Him and to one another, ,vas the result 
anù consequence of this internal unity 
of mind and ,viII. He thus organized 
them together. He made one of theln 
to be the first, and all the rest to be 
equal. lIe gave to that one an' author- 
ity, and He gave to theln all a partici- 



OVER SOCIETY. 107 


pation, not of that sole primacy, but of 
all other po\vers which He gave to 
Peter, and so knit them into one per- 
fect society, of which He Himself was 
the visible Head whilst on earth, and 
His Vicar when He ascended into 
heaven. This is what we call His 
Ch urch, or 
I ystical Bod y. 
When He ascended into heaven and 
sent the Holy Ghost, His disciples and 
all who believed in Him \vere united 
to Him by the indwelling of the Spirit 
of God. He thereby became their Head. 
They became His members, and were 
members one with another in one or- 
ganized body, so compacted and fitted 
together, that as the body of a man, 
quickened and animated by one life, 
gro\vs to its perfection, so with the Mys- 
tical Body of Christ. He bestowed on 
it a participation of His O"\vn preroga- 


. 



108 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD 


tives: it became imperishable, because 
He has imIllortal life; it becan1e indis- 
solubly one, because He is the only Son 
of God; it became infallible, because 
He is the Divine Truth, and He cannot 
err, and the Spirit of Truth inhabits it; 
it became sovereign in the ,vorId, be- 
cause it is the representative of Himsel
 
and exercises His sovereignty among 
the nations of the earth. 
Such, then, \vas the first founding of 
His kingdom. In its expansion after- 
,vards, \vhen he said to His discil)les, 
"All po\ver in heaven and 
arth is given 
unto l\le; go ye, therefore, and teach 
all nations," lIe clain1ed sovereignty in 
the most ample and explicit terms. lIe 
who has all authority, lacks nothing. 
There is no power supreille over Him 
\vho has all authority. And having all 
power, He therefore said to them: "I 



OYER SOCIETY. 


109 


dispose unto you a kingdom, as l\Iy 
Father hath disposed unto Me." More 
explicit language could not be found to 
declare that the po\ver which He gave 
to IIis Apostles \vas a royal power; that 
it ,vas a participation of His own sov- 
ereignty, and given in virtue of the 
right of delegation '\vhich lIe received 
from His Father. When He said: " My 
kingdon1 is not of this \vorld," lIe did 
not intend-as some blindly and almost 
incomprehensibly lnisunderstand Him 
\ - that lIe denied His kingdom to be 
in this world. He affirmed it to be in 
this \vorld, but not of it; that is, that 
the source. of its authority, the fountain 
of its jurisdiction, the sanctions of its 
laws, the po\vers of its executive, are 
from IIis Eternal Father. It therefore 
does not derive its authority, sover- 
eignty, jurisdiction, po,vers, rights, from 



110 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD 


this world. AU these are not of men, 
but of God. They are not the grants 
or concessions of kings, princes, legis- 
latures; nor do they come fr01TI the 
nlultitude by universal suffrage. They 
are of God, delegations of the Eternal 
King to His Incarnate Son. They are 
supernatural, Divine, intangible by hu.. 
man control, imperishable, sovereign 
over all. 
2. When, therefore, He sent out His 
Apostles, it was to execute the same 
comlnission He had received Himself. 
What He ,vas among the Apostles, they 
were to be among the nations of the 
world. They began by elevating men 
and families wheresoever they went. 
They communicated the same light, 
faith, grace, and laws, which they had' 
first received. The iUumination offaith, 
the gift of regeneration, the grace of 



OVER SOCIETY. 


111 


the Holy Sacraments, the la,,"s of the 
kingdom of God, the Ten Command- 
ments interpreted not in the letter only 
but in the spirit, the T\vo Precepts of 
Charity, the Eight Beatitudes; these 
,vere the la,vs of the heavenly kingdom, 
and these the Apostles gave to the na- 
tions of the world The nations of the 
world, so far as they received those 
laws, ,vere elevated to a higher order, 
and were assimilated to the Master from 
\vhom those laws were derived. As 
faith and the laws of Christianity, they 
took possession of men, of households, 
and of people; they \vere assimilated 
to the same pattern and the same per- 
fection. When ihe Apostle said: "Be 
ye also follo,vers of me, as I also am of 
Christ;' * he nleant to say, "In me you 


II< 1 Cor. xi.!. 



112 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD 


see the dimmed and imperfect reflection. 
of that perfect image and pattern which 
I am bid to represent; follow me, as I 
follo,v Christ. I am indeed among you 
fiS an example; so far as I truly repre- 
sent IIim to whom all men, illuminated 
by faith, are to be conformed - the 
Second Adam, the Son of God, \vho 
is no,v at the right hand of IIis Father." 
As they were assilnilated tö that type, 
they were united together by the in- 
fused grace of charity, and by the super- 
natural union, "rhich drew the world 
to believe in the Unity of God. That 
supernatural and miraculous union of 
I the first Christians was the testimony 
and proof of the Unity of God, from 
\vhom they received their Ia,v. As our 
Divine Lord prayed to His Father: 
"rrhat they also may be one in Us, that 
the ,vorld may believe that Thou hast 



OVER SOCIETY. 


113 


sen t l\le." ::: And the world beheld in 
wonder, if it did not yet believe. The 
world ackno\vledged this supernatural 
unity, saying: "See how tbese Chris- 
tians love one another." It was a phe- 
nomenon never seen before, a fruit that 
never gre\v on any other tree, since sin 
cursed the earth. As they \vere united, 
so they were organized together; and 
there grew up in the world the true 
Vine and the branches,-the one world.. 
\vide organization, tbe one life-giving 
society of men - united by baptism, 
faith, and \vorship; by submission to one 
authority; by" the recognition of one 
visible Head - the sole fountain of su- 
pernatural kno\vleðge and supernatural 
po\ver. There ,vas one hand which 
held the two keys of jurisdiction and 
of science - that is, of supreme po\ver 


· St. John xvii. 21. 


8 



114 THE SOYEREIGNTY OF GOD 


and of the perfect kno\vledge of fitit.h: 
and that one band ,vas the hand of him 
,vho bears the representative character 
of the Vicar of his Divine Master. In 
this organization - "\vhich, being visible, 
speaks to the eye, and having a living 
voice speaks audibly to the ear - there 
,vas a ,york of God's grace, even more 
supernatural, 1110re perfect, and n10re 
nlarvellous. The Church has a visible 
body; so had the old ROlnan Empire; 
so has now the En1pire of Britian: but 
the Church has what they had not - it 
has a soul, and that soul consists in a 
spiritual unity, \vhich elnanates from 
God the Holy Ghost, ,vho dwells in it, 
and animates it by faith, hope, and 
charity - by the seven gifts of the Holy 
Ghost, by the Eight Beatitudes in their 
ripeness and perfection, by the Ia\v of 
charity to God and man - thereby pro- 



OVER SOCIETY. 


115 


ihlcing a. perfect internal unity of mind, 
intelIect, conscience and ,vilJ, \vhich 
God alone can create. This unity of 
the Church, both external and internal, 
,vhich the world is always endeavoring 
to destroy, yet can neither destroy nor 
deny, stands perpetuaIly in the world 
as the Visible Witness of the sover- 
eignty of Jesus Christ. But ,ve have 
not yet reached to the full meaning of 
these words. 
3. I have, thus fitr, described the 
Ch urch in its root, as our Lord plan ted 
it; and in its extension, as the Apostles 
spread it abroad. Thenceforward it 
has gro,vn as a tree, rising in stature 
and strength, overshado,ving the ,vhole 
,vorld. But the action of the Church 
filllong the nations has been to create 
the Christian \vorld. By the Christian 
,yorld, I mean that the Church has per- 



116 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD 


vaded, penetrated, and out\vardly gov- 
erned raees and nations of men, who 
are not all internally obedient by L'1ith 
and charity to the Ia\vs of grace. l\Iore 
than this, it has controlled the material 
power, the physical or brute force of 
mankind. There are but two kinds of 
force in the \vorld - material and mor- 
al; and the force of the sovereignty of 
Jesus Christ is the n10ral force of la \V 
and right. The force of Ulan is the 
force of his arm, of his wil1, of com bi- 
nation, coercion, crilninal codes, capital 
punishment, \varfare, conflicts between 
nation and nation until one beats the 
other down and tram pIes in its Llood. 
This is the sovereign power of nlan- 
kind, unrestrained by the sovereignty 
of Jesus Christ. Such it \vas before 
that sovereignty ,vas revealed from 
heaven; such it would be again, if that 



OYER SOCIETY. 


117 


sovereignty could ever cease; such it 
is al,vays and every,vhere, in propor- 
tion as that sovereignty grows weak in 
its control over the hearts of men. 
This moral power of la,v and right, 
first acting upon individuals, then upon 
households, then upon cities, then upon 
races, began to create the new Chris- 
tian civilization. The Church pos- 
sessed, in the tilne of St. Gregory the 
Great, three-and-t\venty provinces. The 
possessions over lV hich th e Vicar of 
Jesus Christ ruled, until sacrilege 
robbed him the other day, ,vere caned 
the Patrinlony of the Church; and 
some twenty-three like to it ,vere pos- 
sessed by St Gregory the Great. They 
extended over the greater part of Italy, 
the south of France, along the shores 
of the Adriatic, the north of Africa., 
Sicily, the islands of the l\Iediterra- 



118 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD 


nean. Divine providence so ordered 
that these patrÜnonies, being commit- 
ted to the patriarchal care and govern- 
Inent of the Vicar of Jesus Christ 
should become the first portions of hu- 
man society 'v hich \vere reduced to 
obedience to the Christian la\v. In 
these patrimonies the germs of Chris- 
tian civilization \vere planted. They 
first received the Christian law of mar- 
riage, the abolition of slavery, Christian 
education of children, just arbitration 
of Christian judges, mutual respect, fair 
dealing bet\veen man and man. They 
became the first provinces of that Chris- 
tian world \v h
ch has no\v gro\vn up in- 
to the ll1aturity of Christendoln. There 
is not to be found in history anything 
nlore beautiful, more patriarchal, or re- 
flecting n10re brightly the peaceful and 
Inajestic justice of our Divine Lord in 



OVER SOCIETY. 


119 


the l\ionn tain, legislating in the Eigh t 
Beatitudes, than the paternal s\vay of 
St. Gregory the Great, the Apostle of 
]:ngland. Those twenty-three patri- 
monies of the Church, as I have said 
else\vhere,* \vrougbt as the leaven in 
the rneaI; and the Christian civilization 
ripened in then1, becarne the germ of 
the Christian civilization which after- 
\vards formed th.e nations of Christian 
Europe. 'Vhere, then, \\
ere Spain, 
France, Gerlnany, and England? They 
\vere races, divided in conflict. SOlne 
"\vere wild in their ferocity; others had 
sunk again into paganislll; some had 
not yet elnerged from it. There ,vas 
then no Christian Enfope, such as \ve 
now kno\v it. St. Gregory the Great 
ruled over those pa tritnonies, and 
ripened the first spring of the Chris- 


· Four Evils of the Day, pp. 85, 86. 



120 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD 


tian world. He sowed broadcast III 
the furrows of Europe those seeùs of 
Christian progress and order of 'v hich 
men at this day are so proud, though 
they are trampling them do,vn. Then 
the nations began to spring - Lom- 
bardy, Spain, France, Gernlany, and 
England. It ,vas the action of the 
Vicar of Jesus Christ \v hich l11ade them 
'v hat they are. Spain ,vas torn by 
heresy, invaded by Saracens, infected 
by Judaism, divided into conflicting 
kingdon1s, 'v hen the Councils of Toledo, 
legislating by the precepts of the Chris- 
tian law, knit together the many races 
of the peninsula in to one great l)eople. 
So it ,vas in England. The IIeptarchy 
was in perpetual conflict, seven king- 
doms \varring against each other, until 
Christianity, entering and subduing 
them to one faith, one la\v, one su- 



OVER SOCIETY. 


121 


preme Pastor, blended them into one; 
and the Christian monarchy of England 
arose, and endures to this day. So ,vas 
it with other nations of our Christian 
,vorld. And after this \vas done, an- 
other \vork began: they ,vere then 
united together, and Christendolll arose. 
What the Church had done in Spain 
and England, it did throughout the 
whole of Europe. It knit the nations 
together jnto a federation of Christian 
kingdoms and people, and created the 
unity and order of Christendom, \vhich 
is the manifestation of the sovereign ty 
of Jesus Christ over the civil po\vers 
of the ,vorld. But this subject is too 
large: I can but sum it up in these 
few ,vords. 
'Vhat has the ,vorld, then, gained by 
the soverèignty of Jesus Christ? The 
extinction of slavery, - and let any 



122 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD 


man ,veigh ,,,hat those \vords lnean, re- 
melnbering ,vhat slavery \vas in the 
anéient ,vorld. Secondly, the sanctifi- 
cation of Christian households, by the 
la,vs of domestic purity and the la\vs 
of marriage. Thirdly, the Christian 
education of children. Fourthly, the 
redenlption of woman; the raising her 
from the degradation in which she \vas 
before her regeneration in Christ, to be 
the handmaid of the Immaculate l\loth- 
er of God, and to be respected by men, 
as being the image of the Mother of 
their Redeemer. Once n1ore, the re- 
straining of warfare, ,vhich before was 
the lawless and brute violence of men 
and nations, lvithout recognition of 
lTIercy and j ustice. 'Val" itself \vas 
telnpered \vith nlercy under the legis- 
lation of the Church and the suprelne 
arbitrament of the Vicar of Jesus 



OYER SOCIETY. 


123 


Christ. Again, the civil code of every 
country, ,vhich still retained, even in 
its Christianity, the severity and san- 
guinary rigor of its past, was gradual1y 
Initigated from age to age, until tbe 
severities of the old world ,vere in 
great measure eft'tced. In passing, let 
me protest against a cornmon and mon- 
strous inversion of the truth. The 
Church is accused of sanctioning and 
encouraging severities in the criminal 
code, \vhich the milder legislation of 
princes has mitigated. The Church al- 
,vays retained the severities of la\v to 
the utmost of its power, from age to 
age; but the hands of men in iron 
llutil were too strong to be stayed by 
the light pastoral staff of the Church. 
The Church \vould have extinguished 
long ago the cruelties of - the penal 
code, if it had obtained the pOlrer. 



124 THE SOY:ER:EIG
TY OF GOD 


There ,vas also introduced among the 
society of n1en a quality never kno,vn 
before - the charity of the Sacred 
Heart of Jesus. The lllanifold charity 
of the Good Shepherd and of the Good 
Physician, - tenderness to the sick, to 
the sorro,ving, to the orphan, to the 
\vido,v, to the prisoner, to the outcast, 
to the poor, - these are the ripe fruits 
of the Sermon on the l\Iount, and can1e 
fronl no other tree. Again, lllutual re- 
spect a1110ng all classes and ranks of 
Inen. 'Vhen I say 'ì'csjJect, I do not 
luean only or chiefly the respect of 
the lo,ver for those above then1, but I 
l11ean etnphatically the respect of those 
in authority for those ,vho are beneath 
theI11, because they see in thel11 the 
Í1uage of God, anù the purchase of the 
Precious Blood of Jesus Christ. 
These, then, are SOlne of the fruits 



OVER SOCIETY. 


125 


of the Christian civilization, ,vhich the 
\yorld had never kno,vn before. The 
sovereignty of Jesus Christ consists 
therefore in this: that \vhereas, in the 
order of nature, there ,vas a human 
society such as I first described, and 
,vhereas in the order \vhich is super- 
natural there is a society created by 
our Divine Lord Himself; - \vhich is 
His Church, - the sovereignty of Jesus 
Christ consists in the Union of those 
t,vo creations of God; in their perféct 
amity, intimate concorù, mutual co-ope- 
ration, united recognition of One l\Ias- 
tel", One Lord, One Soverèign; or, in 
other \yords, that what is called the 
Church and State forTI1 one sovereig
ty, 
under one Supreme Heaù. 'V oe to the 
Juan, \voe to the people, that preach 
their separation! \V oe to the ,vorId, 
,vhen they shall be separated! The 



126 THE SOVEREIGKTY OF GOD 


prophet Isaias, foretelling the sover- 
eignty of this J nst King, describes it 
thus: "The land that \vas desolate and 
irnpassable shall be glad; and the \vil- 
derness shall rejoice, and shall flourish 
like the lily. It shall bud forth and 
blosson1, and shall rejoice with joy and 
praise. The glory of Libanus is given 
to it; the beauty of Carmel and Saron ; 
they shall see the glory of the Lord, 
and the beauty of our God." * And 
again he says, speaking of the man of 
faith: "I-lis eyes shaIl see the king in 
his beauty." t Who is the king but 
Jesus Christ? what is the beauty but 
the mani
estation of his kingdoln? Per- 
haps some ,vill say: " Yes, in heaven." 
I ans\ver: " Yes; but also upon earth; 
or \vhat do you mean day by day in 
praying, 'Thy kingdom come; Thy will 


· Isaias xxxv. 1, 2. 


t Ibid. xxxiii. 11. 



OVER SOCIETY. 


127 


be done on earth as it is in heaven'?" 
To be blind to God's kingdon1 in the 
nlÏdst of us is Judaism. vVl1en th e 
Messias came, the men of Jerusalem 
,vere looking Îor a king of glory. When 
He came in humiliation, they did not 
kno\v Him. As the Apostle says: " For 
if they had kno,vn it, they \vould never 
have crucified the Lord of glory." * 
Men are now going the same \vay; 
they are postponing the lnanifestation 
of IIis kingdon1 to the future, - shut... 
ting it up in the nnseen ,vorld, that it 
may not trouble our peace ,vith its jus- 
tice or disturb our politics \vith its au- 
thority. 
There are t\VO consequences to be 
dra\vn from \vhat I have said. The one 
is this: that though His kingdom - as 
our Lord Hin1self said - is not of this 


· 1 Cor. ii. 8. 



128 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD 


\vorld, it is nevertheless here as the 
sphere of its manifestation. The king- 
dom of Jesus Christ, then, the Church 
and the Christian ,vorld, are here and 
visible; and they are not only here and 
visible, but they are local. Under the 
Old La,v, Jerusalem was the head of 
Israel, the centre from ,vhich the Lrt\v 
\vent forth; there was the sanctuary 
and the priesthood; there too ,vas the 
Telnple, in \vhich the high-priest minis- 
tered; and all this was typical. " For 
the la\v having a shado\v of good 
things to come, not the very Í1llage of 
the things," ::: the substance can1e under 
the 
ew Law
 What, then, corresponds 
no\v to Jerusalem under the Old La\v? 
It is the cant of controversy, it is the 
affectation of scepticisln, for any lnan to 
shut bis eyes and pretend that Chris- 


* Heb. x. 1. 



OVER SOCIETY. 129 


tendom, which he admits to have a cir- 
cumference, has no centre. It is the 
audacity of unbelief to say, that the 
centre has been any other than Rome. 
No man, with the page of history be- 
fore him, can find any other solution 
of the things I have been saying, ex- 
cept in the history of the Pontiffs, the 
Vicars of Jesus Christ. Rome is visibly 
and self-.evidently the" head and centre 
of the Christian order. Rome is as 
surely the seat of the sovereignty of 
God in the Church of the Gentiles as 
Jerusalem \vas in tbat of the J e\vs. 
The Vicar of the Incarnate VV ord d\vells 
tQere by the dispensa.tion of Divine 
Providence. The world has striven to 
cast him out for eighteen centuries, and 
has never been able to displace him. 
Five-and-forty times it has striven to 
drive bim out, or to keep him out, or to 
9 



130 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD 


overturn the throne of the Vicar of 
Jesus Christ; but in vain. If he disap- 
pear for a 111oment, in a little ,vhile he 
is to be found once Inore reigning at the 
Tomb of the Apostles. If he be absent 
for balf a century, his return is only 
the more supernatural. Such is the 
mere lllatter of fact. But I \vill go on 
to sOInething that lllen \vill not deny. 
Rome has been the .l\Iother of Church- 
es. It tuay not, indeed, have been the 
l\'Iother of all the Churches, because the 
Apostles \vent out from J erusalenl, and 
the disciples 'v ere first called Christians 
at Antioch. But if Rome has not been 
the l\'lother of all the Churches of ale 
East, assuredly it is the Mother of the 
Churches of the West. It is the l\Iother 
of the Christianity of Ireland, of Eng- 
land, of Gerlnany; and so I Inight go 
on. It has been the l\lother of the 



OVER SOCIETY. 131 


Churches of the West, and the Foster- 
n10ther of the Churches of the \vorld. 
It has ever been and ever Inust be the 
Teacher and Guide of Churches, the 
. Chief Witness of the Incarnation, the 
Chief Apostle of \vhat our Lord taught, 
of what our Lord conlmanded; the 
Chief Judge of all controversies, the 
Chief Interpreter of the faith, the Chief 
Doctor and Pastor of the Universal 
Church. So tbe Council of Florence 
declares, and so the Council of the Vat- 
ican the other day expounded, \vith a 
voice which is infallible, in virtue of 
that same special promise of Divine 
assistance made by the Son of God to 
Peter, and in him to all \vho sit in his 
seat forever. 
Not only so, but, as I have already 
very briefly traced, ROlne is the D10ther 
of nations. If it be Christianity which 



132 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD 


has civilized the \vorId, it is ROlne lvhich 
has sustained Christianity. The patrimo- 
nies of the Church were the seed-plot 
of Europe. And for all these causes 
and reasons, ROlne is the capital of 
Christendom. It was never the capital 
, of Italy. vVhen Italy and ROine \vere 
one, Italy \yas united to Rome, and not 
Rome to Italy. Rome had a world-wide 
elnpire, of which Italy was a part. The 
clairn of that part to appropriate the 
whole is a stupendous usurpation. It 
is a usurpation upon your rights, and 
upon mine, and upon the rights of 
every Christian nation and every Chris- 
tian man under heaven. 
From east to west the whole of Chris- 
tendom claims Rome as its head and as 
its home; and every nation throughout 
the ,vorld goes up to Rome, as the tribes 
of Israel went up to Jerusalern. God 



OVER SOCIETY. 


133 


has so ordered it. There are t\VO spe- 
cial reasons \v h y ,ve hold it so to be, 
both a nlatter of faith and a matter of 
principle. 
First, God has so ordered the organi- 
, 
zation, constitution, and authority of 
His visible Church on earth. He has 
made Rome the seat of the Vicar of 
His Incarnate Son; and from that seat 
or throne goes forth the supreme au- 
thority, both of jurisdiction and of doc- 
trine, \vhereby the purity and the lib- 
erty of the Church throughout the world 
are perpetually preserved. Satan is 
wise enough to kno\v that, if he can 
strike a blo\v on the head, he is inflict- 
ing a deadly wound upon the whole 
body; and for that reason the warfare 
from the beginning has been against 
Ronle. This is one reason. 
The other is: that Rome is the bond 



134 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD 


or link bet\veen the t\VO societies, natu- 
ral and supernatural, of \vhich I hav
 
been speaking. In the one person \vho 
is both Pontiff and King, the two soci- 
eties and the t\VO authorities in the 
\vorld, -spiritual aud temporal, are uni- 
ted. As we have seen that the union 
of these is the \vill and purpose of our 
Divine Redeenler, \ve therefore insist 
upon it as a matter of principle. Every 
po\ver, \vhatsoeyer it be, that attenlpts 
to dissolve the union \vhich God has 
created, is fighting against God. "\Ve 
contend for this, not so much for the 
sake of the Church, which is imperish- 
able, and \vill live to the end of the 
\vorld in all the plenitude of its majes- 
ty, but for the sake of the civil society 
of mankind, 'v hich, as we shall see 
,. hereafter, when separated from Chris- 
tianity, ,viII go to dissolution. 



OVER SOCIETY. 


135 


What, then, is it that men caIl the 
temporal power of the Pope? I am 
\vearyof the words. It simply means 
this, - the union, in one person, of the 
supren1e authority ,vhich links together 
the t\VO societies God has created for 
the sanctification of n1ankind. You 
kno\v full well there never was any 
period of Christianity in \vhich the 
spiritual authority of ROlne first, and 
next its telnporal power, has not been 
the special object of assault. Yon know 
the" events at this mOlnent. Do not be 
afraid. Fear nothing. As long as the 
Christian world exists, the Christian 
world \vill recognize Jesus Christ to be 
the Son of God, and the Pontiff to be 
His Vicar. It \vill obey the lu.\v of jus- 
tice which consecrates the providential 
order \vhereby he is a sovereign among 
kings. Though this may be overcloud- 



136 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD 


ed for a moment, as it has been forty 
times before, and may be a forty-first, 
it \vill not be destroyed. If it ,vere, the 
Christian \vorld ,yould have comn1itted 
suicide; but I have better hopes. -Do 
not fear, then. The Scottish nation, 
when, by an unhappy vehemence, they 
cast off their obedience to the Vicar of 
Jesus Christ, and also the authority of 
the bishops \vho \vere set over them, 
had the faith and the wisdom to retain 
t\VO things, ,vhich they hold fhst to this 
day - the absolute independence of 
Inan and of conscience, in all things 
spiritual, of all civil po\vers; and also 
\vhat they call, in true and expressive 
Janguage, "the crown-rights of Jesus 
Christ;" that is to say, the sovereignty 
pf our Divine Lord, and of His king- 
dOln, over all rulers and civil la,vs. 
Seeing a great nation retain these t\VO 
principles, I have hopes for it. 



OVER SOCIETY. 


137 


You, as children of the Catholic 
Church, have not only retained those 
things, but you bave :etained them 
with the pastoral care of the Apostles, 
and ,vith the supreme authority of the 
Vicar of Jesus Christ. You owe him, 
therefore, fidelity, obedience of heart, 
of mind, and \viII, submission of intel- 
lect and of all your po,vers to the re- 
vel led law of God. You owe him a 
generous obedience. That which vve" 
call the spirit of a good Catholic means 
a generous love and generons fidelity, 
as to the Delegate of a Divine l\Iaster 
and a Divine King, ,vho is our King by 
right and by fact. IIonor him, then; 
love him, and obey him. The
esolate 
and impassable land, which once blos- 
somed as the lily, is gro,ving desolate 
and in1passable once more. 'Vars choke 
up its high,vays, aI'lned men are upon 



138 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD. 


aU its paths, desolation and barrenness 
are where the smiling fields and ,vaving 
harvests \vere a year ago; and this is a 
type of the Christian world as it is be.. 
fore God. The glory of Libanus, and 
the beauty of Saron and of CarIne], are 
tranlpled do,vn; but be not afraid. 
The \vords of the prophet are the 
,vords of God: "I beheld in the visions 
of the night, and 10, one like the '1on 
of Man came in the clouds of heaven, 
and lIe caIne even to the Ancient of 
Days; and they presented Him before 
Him. And lIe gave Hirn power, and 
glory, and a kingdom; and all peo.. 
pIes, tribes, and tongues shall serve 
IIim: IIis power is an everlasting 
po\ver, that shall not be taken a\vay; 
and I-lis kingdom that shaH not be 
destroyed." :;: 


* Daniel vii. 13, 14. 



DIVINE HEAD OF THE CHURCH. 139 


LECTURE IV. 


THE SOVEREIGNTY OF THE DIVINE HEAD 
OF THE CHURCH. 


" I an
 the ReSUrl"ection and the Life: he that 
b
lieveth in 1Jfe, although He be dead, shall 
live: and everyone that liveth, and believ- 
eth in "1JIe, shall not die for ever." John xi. 
25, 26. 


IN the end of the Sabbath, and in 
the dawn of the n1orning, l\Iary Mag- 
dalene and the other l\Iary came to the 
sepulchre. And there ,vas a great 
earthquake. The angel of the Lord 
descended fronl heaven, and rolled 
a,vay the stone from the door of the 
sepulchre, and sat upon it. His face 



140 THE SOYEREIGNTY OF THE 


was as the lightning, and his raiment 
white as sno\v; and for fear of him, the 
soldiers who kept the sepulchre trem- 
bled, and were as dead Inen. And he 
said to the women: Fear not you, for 
ye seek Jesus who was crucified. lIe 
is not here. He is risen. Come, see 
the place \vhere the Lord was laid. 
In this ,vas fulfilled the declaration 
of Jesus by the tomb of Lazarus: "I 
am the Resurrection and the Life." lie 
did not say: "I will give life, I \vill 
raise from the dead." He said: "I am 
the Life, I am the Resurrection; the 
Life and the Resurrection are 
Iyself:" 
That is: "I anl 'Vho am, the Self:exist- 
ent, the Life and the Life-giver." The 
Life is God, and God is the Life of all 
things. He is the Fountain of life; 
and He ,vho is the Fountain of life is 
alone the Resurrection. He \v ho can 



DIVINE HEAD OF THE CHURCH. 141 


give life is alone lIe who can restore 
life. To do this is a Divine and sover- 
eign act, and is the prerogative of God 
only. Therefore, by the Resurrection, 
our Divine Lord is manifested in His 
Godhead, in the sovereignty of His 
po\ver, in His victory over sin and 
death, and in His royalty over the cre- 
ation of God. This is also the mean- 
ing of His ,vords \v hen fIe said: "I am 
the Good Shepherd. The Good Shep- 
herd giveth His life for His sheep. . . . 
Therefore doth l\Iy Father love Me, be- 
cause I lay do\vn l\Iy life, that I may 
take it again. No Inan taketh it away 
frdm Me; I lay it down of mysel
 and 
I have power to lay it down, and I have 
power to take it up again." * His Incar- 
nation, Ilis Death, IIis Resurrection, 
were all alike sovereign acts of Divine 
will and of Divine po\ver. 
* St. John x. 11-18. 



142 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF THE 


1. In His Incarnation, by an act of 
His o\vn Divine will, lIe took our hu- 
lnanity, assuming the intelligence of a 
human soul, and uniting it with the 
Uncreated Intelligence, which is the Son 
of God; and in assul11Îng a human soul 
like ours - a soul perfect in reason, 
heart, and will- He_beatified it; that 
is, it was admitted to the Beatific Vision 
and to the Beatific Union. IIis man- 
hood was elevated above the order of 
nature. It \vas deified, but it was hu- 
man still. In assulning a human soul, 
lie like\vise. assumed a human body, 
and in all things a body like our o\vn- 
\vith the saIne flesh, and bones, ånd 
nerves, and blood; with the sanle sus- 
ceptibility of suffering, the same capaci- 
ty of pain, of hunger, thirst, sorro\v, 
weariness, passion, and death. And be- 
cause lIe took to IIimself a hun1an 



DIYINE HEAD OF THE CHURCH. 143 


nature ,vhole and perfect, there were 
t,vo natures alike \vhole and perfect- 
Godhead and rnanhood united in One 
Person. No human person ,vas there, 
but One only Person, and that Divine- 
God Ilimself Incarnate. Over the Di- 
vine countenance He drew the veil of 
His h lunanity, so that the splendor 
and glory of I-lis Person ,vere hidden 
froln the eyes of men. On Mount Ta- 
bor, for a rnoment, the light of His 
rnajesty was seen; but in the Jears of 
IIis humiliation, His hU111anity alone 
\vas manifest to sense. The veil \vas 
upon the face of His Godhead. 
2. As, then, the assumption of our 
hUlllanity ,vas an act of His free and 
sovereign ,viII, so also lras the laying 
c1o,vn of His life. lIe gave IIimself to 
suffer. lIe gave His Body to the 
scourge, and to the thorns, and to the 



144 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF THE 


nails. He was furrowed, pierced, and 
\vounded by the instruments of passion. 
His Precious Blood streamed from Hirn, 
His vital spirit was drained away. He 
gave IIis Soul to three and thirty years 
of mental sorrows, and to IIis derelic- 
tion in the Garden, and to the darkness 
 
of His agony. "\Vhen the hour \vas 
come, by His own free sovereign \vill 
lIe untied the knot of Almighty pow- 
er, \vhercby body and soul, in Inan, are 
joined together. The" sil ver cord" 
\vas broken, and He bo\ved I-lis head, 
and by a sovereign act gave up the 
ghost. The Passion ,vas indeed a suf:- 
ficient cause of death to any human 
nature: nevertheless, His dying \vas 
voluntary; for He had po\ver to sustain 
His human life; but, by His o\vn free, 
sovereign, and Divine \vil1, He \vithheld 
that sustaining po\ver, and by a volun- 
tary act gave up the ghost. 



DIVINE HEAD OF THE CHURCH. 145 


3. And as He laid do\vn IIis life by a 
free act of IIis o\vn ,viII, so lIe resumed 
it again. In the moment \vhen the 
Divine Soul of Jesus parted froln the 
Body, it passed forever from the desola- 
tioJ1 of His agony into the light of the 
Vision of God. Throughout His earthly 
life of sorro\v He \vas at all tilnes in 
the Vision of God. In the hour of His 
desolation, He \villingly hid it from 
Him; but ,vhen that passing cloud upon 
the light of IIis soul was over, lIe en- 
tered again and forever into the light 
of bliss. The deified human soul of 
J eSBS in that IllOlnent entered, in our 
behal
 in to the final possession and the 
eternal fruition of the glory of God. 
The light of the Sun of Justice then 
arose upon the ,vorld unseen. The 
realms beyond the grave - ,vhere the 
patriarchs, prophets, saints, martyrs, 
10 



146 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF THE 


penitents of the Old La,v, ,\\yaited for 
the Redeemer - \vere illuminated by 
His coming; the invisible ,vorld, \vhich 
in our Creed we call IIell; the realm 
of the departed, in ,vhich \vere ,vaiting 
together - though parted and distinct 
in companies - the saints of the king- 
dom of God, though the kingdoln of 
God \vas not yet opened; those also 
who ,vere purifying and expiating for 
the Vision of God, to be revealed here- 
after; and tho
e who ,vere lost eter- 
naIl y. 
To an lIe \vas Inade kno,vn: to the 
saints as their Redeemer, fulfilling the 
promise made to the faithful who had 
looked for IIim from the beginning of 
the \vorld; to the penitent ,vho had 
turned in hope to the promise of a 
Redeemer; and to the lost, who ,vould 
not believe the 'V ord of God. To them 



DIVINE HEAD OF THE CHURCH. 147 


was revealed the light of the truth and 
of the majesty of God against \vhorn 
they had sinned. They had in their 
day received light enough to kno\v IIim, 
and grace enough in all hours, and in 
all telnptations, to have turned from sin 
to God, and to have attained salvation, 
had they only \villed to be saved. 
'Vhilc this Divine ,york ,vas accom- 
plishing, the Body \vas taken frOln the 
Cross; but never for one moment ,vas 
either the body or the soul of His hu- 
manity separated from the Godhead of 
the Eternal Son. The body and soul 
\vere parted indeed from each other in 
natural death, but the body and soul 
\vere alike united indissolubly by the 
IIypostatic Union- that is, by the per- 
sonal assumption of our manhood into 
God - to the Person of the Eternal 
Son. From the moment of the Incar- 



148 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF THE 


nation to a11 eternity, Jesus remains the 
saIne indissolubly, t\VO natures in one 
Person. As the soul of Jesus in the 
\vorld unseen ,vas a manifestation of 
God, so the Body \vhich hung lifeless 
on the Cross - the lifeless form \v hich, 
when the nails ,vere drawn from the 
hands and feet, was lo\vered into the 
bosom of His Immaculate l\fother- 
\vas the Body of the Incarnate Son of 
God. 'Vith loving care it was s\vathed 
in the grave clothes, it ,vas anointed 
with the ointments, it ,vas enlbah11ed 
,vith the spices, it was borne lovingly 
to tbe tomb, and laid in the sepulchre 
upon the mouth of \vhich the stone ,vas 
rolled. But it \vas not oinbnents or 
spices that elubalmed that Sacrcd Boùy: 
there \vas no need of them to stay cor- 
ruption; over that Body corruption had 
no po\ver, because union \vith the God.. 



DIVINE HEAD OF TIlE CHURCH. 149 


head sustained its incorruption. The 
true elnbalrning of that Sacred Flesh 
,vas its union ,,"ith the Godhead; and 
that Sacred Flesh ,vas incorruptible be- 
cause the Son of God, by His sovereign 
,v ill, stayed the progress of the dis- 
honors of the grave. 
Then came the re-assumption, by the 
same free act of His sovereign po,ver. 
All through that night, \vhile the 
,vatches \vere set, and the guards kept 
the sepulchre, and the seals remained 
unbroken upon the stone, there ,vas 
light, and ,vorship, and \vatching, and 
energy,vithin the tomb. 'Vithin that 
closed sepulchre there was a Divine 
po,ver, the presence of the Son of God, 
\",ho, having laid do,yn IIis life, was 
preparing to take it up again. The 
Divine creating power ,vhich had fash- 
ioned IIis o,vn humanit.y, restored it 



150 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF THE 


again from the lvounds and dishonors of 
His Passion. The Divine ,vill smoothed 
out the furrows of the scourge, healed 
the piercing of the thorns, closed the 
wounds of the nails, and effil.ced from 
His Sacred Flesh all tokens of h u- 
miliation, save only the five Sacred 
Wounds in hands, and feet, and side, 
'v hich still remain, and in eternity ,viII 
renlain for ever, as the tokens of our 
redemption and the pledges of His ev- 
erlasting love. 'Vhen that Sacred Flesh 
was once more restored to its perfection 
and glory, the Divine soul of Jesus 
clothed itself therewith as \vith a gar.. 
mente 
As in the moment of the Incarnation 
He arrayed Himself in our hurnanity, 
so once more, in the tomb, fIe took up 
again that Sacred Body, reanimated it, 
quickened it again in evcry pulse, and 



DIVINE HEAD OF THE CHURCH. 151 


in every vibration of h urnan life. He 
raised it to a state of immortality; He 
elevated it above the conditions of na- 
ture. He passed out of that tomb be- 
fore the stone ,vas rolled fron1 its mouth, 
hefore the seals were broken. By His 
Divine Omnipotence He passed forth, 
because that ,vhich was mortal had be- 
come Ïlnmortal; that ,vhich had been 
passible ,vas no,v impassible; that ,vhich 
,vas before as our nature in the state of 
death, had become glorious, subtle, and 
Divine. He endowed His Body ,vith 
the four gifts of glory ,vhich He has 
promised to us all.. That which shall 
be the inheritance of all His members, 
He first assumed to Himself: 
Such, then, was the resurrection of 
Jesus Christ. He had laid down His 
life, and lIe took it up again, fulfilling 
IIis promise, " I am the Resurrection, I 



152 THE SOVEREIGNTY 'OF THE 


am the Life." In Hilll all men shall rise. 
"As in Adam all die, even so in Christ 
shaH all be made alive. The first nlan 
is of the earth, earthly; the second 
man from heaven, heavenly. As is the 
earthly, so are the earthly; as is the 
heavenly, so are the heavenly." 
In His Resurrection \ve aU partake. 
" Christ is risen from the dead, the first 
fruits of them that sleep.":
 All ,yho live 
by Him, and by vital union are united 
with Hinl, rise together \vith Hilll; and 
therefore the Apostle says: "If you be 
risen with Christ, seek the things that 
are above; \vhere Christ is sitting at the 
right hand of God. Mind the things 
that are above, not the things that are 
on the earth; for you are dead, and 
your life is hidden \vith Christ in God."-r 
And again he says, that God has raised 
I-IÏ1n up, " and hath raised us up togeth- 


* 1 Cor. xv. 20. 


t Co!. iii. 1-
. 



DIYI
E IIEAD OF THE CHURCH. 153 


er, and hath made us sit together in 
the heavenly places." * 
The po,ver of the resurrection of 
Jesus is upon every member of His 
Body: it is upon everyone of yon. In 
your baptism you ,vere grafted into 
Christ; and if you be living 111en1bers 
of His Body, the life of the Resurrec- 
tion flo\ved into you: "!(no\v you not 
that" you are the telnple of God, and 
that the Spirit of God d\velleth in 
you? " t If any man have not the 
Spirit of Christ in him, he is none of 
IIis; but if He be in you, then being 
buried by baptism to death, you ,viII 
also rise up ,vith Him, by the po,ver of 
IIÏIn 'v ho raised Jesus frolll the dead. 
The plain consequence of this teach- 
ing is full of joy and of consolation. 
First, it pledges to everyone of us a 


11& Ephes. iÏ. 6. 


t 1 Cor. iii. 16. 



154 THE SOYEREIGNTY OF THE 


resurrection hereafter to perfection and 
glory, the same as that of Jesus IIimsel:4 
identical in all its circurnstances. 'Ve 
are conquerors in Hhn, by Him, \vith 
Him, and through Him, over sin and 
death. If sin have no power over our 
\vill, death will have no po,ver over our 
body or our soul, for \ve are made par- 
takers of the first resurrection; and 
"Blessed and holy is be that hath part 
in the first resurrection; in these the 
.second death hath no po,ver." * That 
is, if the resurrection of your baptism, 
and the indwelling of the Iloly Ghost, 
an d the risen life of Jesus Christ in 
your mortal body, be the la,v, and the 
rule, and the po,ver which sustains yon, 
then the death of the body is but a 
resting, a momentary passing sleep. 
Jesus has plucked out the sting of 


lie Apoc. xx. 6. 



. 
DIVINE HEAD OF THE CHURCH. 155 


death; for the sting of death is sin, and 
He has thereby turned death into sluln- 
ber. Therefore Christians call their 
burial-places "cemeteries," - sleeping- 
places, places of rest, of s\veet, kindly, 
refreshing repose, after the toil of life 
is done. Therefore the living memo- 
ries of those whom the world calls dead, 
and the Church kno\vs to be alive, are 
ever fresh and vivid in the hearts of 
Christians. Therefore also the Com- 
munion of Saints - which the dull- 
hearted, cold-hearted \vorld, \vith its 
clogged understanding, cannot compre- 
hend - is to those \vho live by faith a 
falniJy, a household, an eternal hOllie, 
on the very threshold of \vhich our feet 
no\v stand. There is a resurrection 
pledged to us all, and \vith that resur- 
rection the 
erfect personal identity 
"\v hich \ve bear in this life. We shall 



. 
156 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF THE 


be the S
lIne men, having the saIne 
minds, hearts, \vills, - only with this 
change, that ,vhereas here \ve are im- 
perfect, there \ve shall be in perfection; 
\v hereas here, if the Ï1nage of God be 
impressed upon us - as indeed it is- 
it is dim and faint, there \ve shaH be as 
he has promised: "The just shall shine 
as the sun, in the. kingdoll1 of their 
Father." * But ,ve shall be the same 
men stin. The very srune that have 
suffered, sorro\ved, struggled, labored, 
11 ungered, and thirsted in this life, the 
saIne \ve shall be in the kingdom of the 
resurrection. And therefore there shall 
be a perfect and universal recognition 
one of another, and of all those bonds 
,vhereby we are united here. Jesus 
and 
fary, the l\iother and the Son, \vill 
be l\lother and son to all eternity: 


iii St. 
latt. xiii. 43. 



DIVINE HEAD OF THE CHURCH. 157 


n1aternal and filial love \vill be glorified 
in the kingdon1 of heaven. l\lary and 
Lazarus \vill be like\vise brother and 
sister; Andrew and Peter, and James 
and John, in like lllanner will be bound 
together in eternal kindred: fraternal 
love and friendship shall then be glori- 
fied. So shall it be \vith all of you in 
the kingdom of God, in perfect personal 
identity, and perfect mutual recognition 
in that eternal hOl11e, in the everlasting 
bliss of Ollr Father's house. 
Such, then, is the personal sover- 
eign ty of Jesus Christ, manifested in 
IIimselt; and in His victory over death 
and the grave; and this sovereignty of 
life and in1Hlortality pervades IIis \vhole 
mystical Body no\v, and quicken
 every 
nlember of it. This is the meaning of 
St. J oInl's \vords: "Grace be unto you 
and peace frorn Him, who is, and \vho 



158 TIIE SOVEREIGNTY OF TIlE 


,vas, and \vho is to come; and froDI 
the seven spirits which are before His 
throne: and from Jesus Christ, who is 
the Faithful Witness, the First Begot- 
ten. of the dead and the Prince of the 
kings of the earth; \vho hath loved us, 
an d ,vashed us frOln 0 ur sins in His 
own blood, and hath made us a king- 
dom, and priests to God and His Fath- 
er: and to Him be glory and empire 
for ever and ever, Arnen."* The Church 
on earth is the kingdom of the resur- 
rection, and the sovereignty of its Di- 
vine Head is exercised through it, as 
the instrument of His power, and the 
manifestation of His governnlent over 
the nations. This po\ver He delegated 
in chief to IIis Vicar upon earth: the 
witness of the Divine Head of the 
mystical Body. 


* Apoc. i. 4-6. 



DIVINE HEAD OF THE CHl-rnCH. 159 


We have already traced this sover- 
eignty over the intellect and the \vill 
of man. We have traced it also over 
the civil society of the world, through 
that which is both the type and bond 
of all societies - His Church. For this 
end, He has provided His Church \vith 
a supreme authority residing in its visi- 
ble head, and \vith supernatural endow- 
ments, derived from Hilllself: On these 
t\VO points it may be well a little longer 
to delay; but at this time we can only 
touch the former. The presence of a 
supreme authority, delegated b
 Jesus 
Christ to His Vicar, has been ever ac- 
kno\vledged by the world by a twofold 
recognition. It recognizes it both by 
submission and by antagonism. 
And here I ,vould fain make an end, 
but for other thoughts that are forced 
upon me. Yesterday I read a notable 



160 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF THE 


exarnple of this hOlnage of antagonisn1 
- a scornful, petulant attack upon those 
deyoted sons of the Catholic Church in 
England, \vho during this I-Ioly Week 
have knelt at the feet of the Vicar of 
Jesus Christ, testifying, in the narne of 
us all, our fidelity and love to hin1 and 
to the 1\1aster \vholn he represents. 
The ,vriter of the article stated he did 
not ,yonder - and perhaps those ,vho 
receive the teaching of such a \"Titer 
may, like him, not ,yonder - if in the 
heart of some devout Catholics there 
may rise å doubt ,vhether the ternporal 
po\ver of the Pope ,viII ever again be 
restored, and if not restored, \vhether 
the spiritual po,ver of the Pope ,viII 
long survive. In the name of the Cath- 
olics of England, in ,,,hose nan1e I have 
a right to speak, and in the name of 
Ireland, for WhOlll I have no right but 



DIVINE HEAD OF THE CHURCH. 161 


that Ireland gives it n1e, and \vill not 
refuse my ,vords, I protest against the 
folly and falsehood of this senseless in- 
sinuation. There is no living Catholic 
in Great Britain or Ireland who for 
one moment doubts that the po\ver in 
worldly things, ,vith ,vhich our Divine 
Master has invested His v....icar on earth, 
,viII continue undiminished until the 
hour in ,vhich it shall have fulfilled its 
luission; and then, in the \vreck of 
kingdoms and the desolation of the 
,yorId, it ,vill be rendered back to Him 
who gave it. 
In the name, then, of every Catholic 
in these islands, I bear ,vitl1ess that he 
who thinks any Catholic child to im- 
agine that the temporal po,ver over 
ternporal things is the basis of strength 
of the spiritual prerogatives of the 
Vicar of Jesus Christ, or that those 
11 



162 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF THE 


things are other than dust under his 
feet, that man, if he be not senseless, 
must be Inaliciolls. It is either the in- 
capacity of the mind to understand, or 
the insincerity of the will that refuses 
to understand. 
It may seem as if I have introduced 
a note of discord, and struck upon this 
day a sound out of harn10ny ,vith the 
resurrection of Jesus Christ. Not so. 
He \vho rose from the dead, and said: 
"I am alive, and ,vas dead; and behold, 
I am living for ever and ever, and have 
the keys of death and of hell," * is the 
same \vho said: "Thou art Peter, and 
l1pon this rock I ,vill build lVly Church, 
and the gates of. hell" - the keys of 
which I hold - '
shall not prevail 
against" it." It is the power of the 
resurrection of Jesus Christ \v hich 


II< Apoc. i. 18. 



DIVINE HEAD OF THE CHURCH. 163 


quickens the Church of God. As the 
Head is Divine, and as the Head is the 
"Resurrection and the Life," so is the 
Body imperishable, and its authority 
indefectible and infallible. The univer- 
sality, sanctity, structure, and unity of 
that one Body of Christ is indissoluble 
and imperishable. It cannot die; and 
that because its Head is the" Resurrec- 
tion and the Life." N o.t only so, but it 
can never be bound. Jesus ,vas bound 
with grave-clothes and laid in the grave, 
the stone upon the mouth of it ,vas 
sealed, and guards set to \vatch it. The 
,vorld ,vould have hindered Him from 


rIsIng. 
Turn no,v to the history of the Church. 
vVhen has king, or prince, or people, or 
revolution, ever prevailed to bind the 
living Church of God? At this mo- 
nlent, the Church of God is more wide- 



164 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF THE 


spread, is more rooted in the hearts of 
mankind, is nlore abundantly multiplied 
beyond all example in its Apostolic 
power. Its Episcopate reaches beyond 
all bounds and limits of its forlner ex- 
tent: its authority is so universally ac- 
knowledged by the loving hearts of its 
pastors and people, that greater unity 
and power has never yet been seen in 
the history of Christendom. Princes 
and legislatures, penal Jaws, la\vs of 
prohibition, Ï1nperial despotislTIs, royal 
corruption, sanguinary revolutions, have 
done their ,vorst to bind the liberty of 
the Church of God; but the bonds 
have been broken, as the threads and 
the \vithes ,vere broken by the hands 
of the" Deliverer of Israel." So it has 
been, and so it shall be. Let no rna.n 
believe, then, that if tho temporal cir- 
cumstances of the Church be for a roo.. 



DIVINE HEAD OF THE CHURCH. 165 


ment snatched from it, the Apostle ,vill 
not go on\vard ,vithout ,vallet or sta
 
scrip or shoeR, if need be. His work 
\viII be done: for it is God's work, and 
none can hinder it. 
But there is another lesson these 
censors bring to mind, and for your 
sakes I n1us
 speak of it. In the same 
senseless and clamorous artiele I read 
these words: "The government of the 
Pope must go, because it is opposed to 
progress and nlodern civilization." 
For the present, it is enough to say 
that "progress" and "modern civiliza- 
tion" mean this: the \vorId going its 
o\vn ,yay \vithout God and without 
Christ; excluding Christianity from 
legislation; excluding reIigion from the 
education of children; dissolving the 
bonds of marriage; repealing the ta- 
bles of sanctity and purity, whereby 



166 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF THE 


the marriage la,v has been protected; 
proclaiming that the pub1ic life of na- 
tions has no religion. This is "prog- 
ress," this is "nlodern civilization," I 
acknowledge. Nations may grow culti- 
vated and rich, scientific and prosper- 
ous; they may devote all their ener- 
gies to this world; but they cannot 
serve God and rnammon; and for that 
reason they serve lliaIIlmon mightily, 
and they serve God never. Verily 
they have their re,vard: they prosper 
in this life, and that prosperity is aU 
the recompense before the In. Such, 
indeed, is "n1odern civilization" and 
" progress." And then they invite the 
Vicar of J esns Christ, the representa- 
tive of the Good Shepherd, the ,vitness 
of truth upon earth, the teacher of the 
doctrines of Redemption, the expositor 
of the law of God, the guardian of the 



DIVINE HEAD OF THE CHURCH.
 167 


Seven Sacrarnents, the supreme judge 
of the la \v of domestic life, the chief 
father and pastor of the little ones of 
the flock,- they invite him to conform 
hinlself to "progress" and "modern 
civilization," under the pain of losing 
his t.emporal po\ver. Be it destroyed 
seventy times seven, before a compro- 
Inise of truth be made ! No Pontiff 
,,,ho has ever reigned in the chair of 
Peter, no head of the Catholic Church 
who represents the Incarnate Son of 
God, ever did, or can, or ever ,viII C0111- 
promise, for all the world contains, jot 
or tittle of the faith or la\v of Christ. 
Here I ,vould fain conclude; but 
I must press this "progress" and 
"lnodern civilization" a little farther. 
Let me trace it to its fountain; and 
that I may not detain you too long, I 
,viII only go a century back to show 



168 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF THE 


what it has produced. In the last cen- 
tury, a ne\v code of legislation \JnlS pro- 
mulgated to the civilized and Christian 
,vorld, called" The Principles of 1780." 
Those principles \vere laid do\vn as the 
basis of the civil order of France: and 
not only so; they \vere intended to 
nlake France the apostle of civilization 
and progress throughout the Christian 
world. The example of perfection, and 
the c
ital of the lllodern ,vorld in its 
civilization and progress, was to be 
Paris. I need hardly say more. In 
eighty-t\vO years there have been five 
revolutions in that city, all of them 
\vith bloodshed. No doubt you have 
all.read of the blood \vhich flo\ved dur- 
ing the First Revol11 tion, as the first 
libation of those principles. I am old 
enough to ren1ember the blood shed in 
Paris in the years 1830, 1848, and 



DIVINE HEAD OF THE CHURCH. 169 


1852. And ho\v do you think Pahn 
Sunday ,vas kept this year in the cen- 
tre of "modern civilization"? By the 
inauguration of a civil \var. Ho,v has 
this Holy 'Veek been sanctified? By 
daily battles of brother against brother. 
And Good Friday? By a fiercer en- 
counter, by the seizure- of the Arch- 
bi
hop and pastors of the flock, by the 
closing of the churches, by the spoiling 
of sanctuaries, by the prohibition of 
religion. The last tidings ,ve heard 
'v ere, that it \vas expected a decisive 
. as.sault would be Inade last night, that 
is on Easter-eve. Verily, this is the 
Easter of progress! To-day is Easter- 
day; and ,vha kno\vs but that, the mo- 
ment I speak, blood may not be run- 
ning in the paths of that city? If this 
be "progress," and if this be " modern 
civilization," may God in His infinite 



170 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF THE 


Inercy keep it for ever from the shores 
of this country! 
The first great French Revolution 
\vas the inauguration of the reign of 
Antichrist, of the denial of Christian 
faith, of the ruin of the Christian order, 
of the subversion of the authority of 
the Church of God, both in public and 
private life; and froill that day to this, 
the principles of turbulence and apos- 
tasy have scourged and torn1ented 
kingdoms. At that time they all but 
entered England; at this tinle they 
may strive to enter again. Be firm, 
and fear not the clamorous talk of those 
who ,,?rite to pander to the public opin- 
ion of the day. We kno\v that He in 
'v horn we believe is the "Resurrection 
and the Life," the Head of His Church 
on earth, the sovereignty of which shan 
never fail. Whether the Church be 



DIVINE HEAD OF THE CHURCH. 171 


clothed ,vith temporal po,ver or not, so 
long as the '\vorld is Christian, the \yorld 
win believe in Jesus Christ and in IIis 
Vicar. So long as it believes He has a 
Vicar upon earth, no king, prince, or 
sovereign ,vhatsoever win venture to 
claim him as a subject. Even at this 
moment, the unjust and sacrilegious 
revolution of Italy has not dared to 
call him subject, but has, '\vith pretences 
and guarantees, which are mere illu- 
sion, attempted to thro,v dust in the 
eyes of the Christian world, and de- 
ceive those '\vho cannot be deceived. 
So long as the world is Christian, the 
Chief Pastor of the Christian \vorld 
,viII ren1ain as he is - subject to no hu- 
Jnan authority. For '\vhat is temporal 
po,ver? It is not the possession of a, 
bit of land or of a city; it is the inde- 
pendence of all po'\ver on earth; being 



172 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF THE 


the delegation of Him ,vho said: "All 
po\ver on earth is given to me; go ye, 
therefore, and teach all nations." 
There may, indeed, be another alter- 
native; and I acknowledge, looking to 
the stream of events, the time lnay 
come when the nations, governlnents, 
and legislatures may cease to believe 
that Jesus Christ has a Church upon 
earth; and in the day 'v hen they cease 
so to believe (anù I aln bound to say, 
their acts lead us to think they are not 
far off from that state of unbelief), then 
the ,vorld will not be Christian, and 
then I ackno\v ledge that the Vicar of 
Jesus Christ ""ill have no temporal 
power over the ,vorld that has rejected 
his Master. Though I am no prophet, 
and no expositor of prophecy, and 
kno\v nothing of \vhat is to COIne, save 
only as the Catholic Church and faith 



DIVI
E HEAD OF THE CHURCH. 173 


guide me, of this I am sure, from the 
]ips of Jesus Christ; that in those days 
,vhich ,ve call the latter tin1es, " king- 
dom shall rise against kingdom, and 
nation against nation, and brother be- 
tray brother to death;" and the world 
shaH be in n1isery it n ever knew before. 
'Vhen these things shall come to pass, 
the tyranny of the ".orld ,viII be ,veIl 
nigh over, and the despotisln of n1en 
,vill no more s\vay the Church of God; 
revolutions ,vill no more persecute, be- 
cause there is One at the door ,vho 
Inust reign until He puts all enemies 
under IIis feet; and '\v hen that time 
shall come, '\vill come also the "resur- 
rection of the just." 



174 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF THE CHURCH 


LECTURE V. 


THE SOVEREIGNTY OF THE CHURCH DE- 
RIVED FROJ\! ITS DIVINE HEAD. 


"Because thou l
ast seen lJIe, Th orn as, tll01t 
hast believed: blessed are they that have not 
seen, and have believed." St.John xx. 29. 


ON the night of the first day of the 
,veek, \vhen onr Lord rose from the 
dead, He came, the doors being shut, 
al1
 appeared suddenly in the midst 
of his disciples. Thomas ,vas not ,vith 
them; either through fear or from 
doubt, or from hUlnan infirmity, he had 
parted from the Apostles. He lost, 
therefore, the manifestation of our Di- 



DERIVED FRO:\1 ITS DIVINE HEAD. 175 


vine Master, when He can1e to assure 
I-lis Apostles of His resurrection from 
the dead. He lost, also, the communi- 
cation of the royalties of the kingdom 
of God, ,vhich Jesus conveyed to I-lis 
disciples in the words, "As 
Iy Father 
hath sent Me, even so send I you." 
He lost, also, his share in the po\ver of 
the keys, and in the gift of the I-Ioly 
Ghost, ,vhich was conferred ,,,hen our 
Lord breathed upon His Apostles, and 
said, "Receive ye the Holy Ghost; and 
,vhosesoever sins ye shall retain, they 
are retained." Such ,vas the loss in- 
curJ;ed by Thomas through his transient 
unbelie:f. 
He also exposed himself to t,vo great 
dangers: to the blindness of incredulity, 
and to the sin of obstinacy. For 'v hen 
the disciples told him: " We have seen 
the Lord," he ans,vered: " Unless I put 



17G THE SOVEREIGNTY OF THE CHURCH 


TI1Y finger into the print of the nails, 
and thrust rny hands into His side, I 
,viII not believe." He had the preslunp- 
tion to prescribe the kind and degree 
of evidence upon ,vhich alone he ,,"onld 
believe. Nevertheless, such is the ten- 
derness and condescension of our Divine 
Lord, that, on the first day of the fol- 
lo\ving ,veek, and again at night, 'v hen 
the Apostles ,vere gathered together, 
and ThonHts ,vith them, lIe came once 
III ore. The air seelned to give up His 
bodily presence. At once, by Divine 
intuition; and before a ,vord ,vas spoken, 
fixing IIis eyes on Tholl1as, He said: 
"Put forth thou thy finger: put it into 
the print of the nails, and thrust thy 
hand into My side; and be not incred- 
ulous, but faithful." And Thomas an- 
s\vered: "My Lord and My God." And 
Jesus ansv
"ered hin1: "Because thou 



DERIVED FROl\1 ITS DIVINE HEAD. 177 


bast seen l\Ie, Thomas, thou hast be- 
lieved: blessed are they that have not 
seen, and have believed;" - a benedic- 
tion shall be on thee; but a greater 
benediction shall be un them ,vho, ,vith 
docility and generosity of faith, shall 
hereafter, ,vithout seeing; believe in 
"Me. 
This benediction has descended upon 
us, and upon all who to the end shall 
believe in the resurrection of our Lord 
Jesus Christ. I have already spoken 
of the mystery and of the effects of the 
resurrection of our Divine Saviour, of 
the reassull1ption of His deified human- 
ity, which is the pledge and productive 
principle - that is, the cause - of our 
rising again to immortality of life. Thus 
far I have spoken of the rising of His 
natural body, ,vhich is no\v at the right 
hand of God, in the proper stature and 
12 



178 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF THE CHURCH 


dimensions of His person. I \vill no,v 
take up again another part of the sub- 
j ect, on 'v hich I then touched only in 
passing - I .mean, the po,ver of the 
resurrection of Jesus Christ now, in 
this world, and in this mortal state, in 
His mystical Body, ,vhich is the Church. 
My' object will be to sho,v that the 
power of the resurrection, " The po,vers 
of the world to come," as St. Paul ,vrites 
to the Hebre\vs,* are at this moment 
present and in action in the mystical 
Body of Christ; that is, in the visible 
Ch urch on earth. 
Saint Augustine, ans\vering the cavils 
and pretensions of the Donatists in 
Africa, \vho, separating thernselves from 
the unity of the Universal Church, 
clailned to be the Catholic Church, 
argued as follo\vs: " The Body of Christ 


* Hebrews vi. 5. 



DERIVED FROßl ITS DIVINE HEAD. 179 


is spread throughout all nations: you 
are shut up and confined in Africa. 
The true Body of Christ is universal; 
\ve see the Body, and \ve believe in the 
Head. The Body and the Head are 
one, united in one mystical Person. 
The Apostles saw the Head; but they 
did not see the Body, which was after- 
,vards to be revealed. Seeing the Head, 
they believed in the future, that is, 
in the universality of the Body, \vhich 
should one day be spread throughout_ 
the ,vorld. They then sa,v the Divine 
Head, they believed in the universality 
of the Church ,vhich should be. We 
no,v see the universality of the Church, 
and believe in the Divine Head en- 
throned in heaven." 
As the IIead and the Body Inake up 
one mystical Person, so the prerogatives 
and properties of that Head are com- 



180 THE SOVEREIG
TY OF THE CHURCH 


municated to the Body. As in the one 
person of Jesus Christ the prerogatives 
and perfections of the Godhead were 
communicated to the manhood, and as 
the sufferings and the passion of the 
manhood were attributed also to the 
Godhead, by an interchange of their 
properties bet,veen the t\VO natures, so 
is it with the Head and \vith the Body 
of the Church. 
1. Our Divine Lord declared that lIe 
is the Resurrection; and because He is 
the Resurrection, His Body upon earth 
has in it the principle of inlmortality. 
Though temporal death, that is, the 
separation of body and soul, must pass 
upon all the menlbers of the Church, 
theré is in the mystical Body of Christ 
the principle of the resurrection and 
of immortality. The sentence of death 
includes not only the separation of the 



DERIVED FR01\I ITS DIVINE HEAD. 181 


soul frorn the body, but also the eternal 
separation of the body and the soul from 
God. But this can never take place in 
the Body of Christ. All the individual 
menlbers of the mystical Body of Christ 
npon earth ,viII pay the penalty of 
temporal death; they ,viII die, and be 
buried in the earth. l\Iultitudes of these 
members will die also spiritually, and 
,viII never see eternal life, because they 
,viII have been separated frorn God in 
this ,,,"arId by apostasy or by mortal sin. 
They ,vho have been in the unity of 
the Church, but have apostatized from 
it, are cut off from God; they ,vho, 
\vhether they be in the Church or not, 
commit mortal sin, are thereby sepa- 
rated from God, and, if they so die, ,viII 
bc separated eternally. Nevertheless, 
there al\vays has been, and always will 
be, in the one Church of God, which is 



182 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF THE CHURCH 


the Body of Christ, a line, a chai
, a 
fello\vship of those 'v ho believe and are 
united vitally and by the Holy Ghost 
to their Divine Head in heaven. In 
them, therefore, life and imlTIOrtality and 
the pledge of the resurrection al\vays 
abide. This is what is called the inde- 
fectibility of the Church, or in the ,vords 
of the promise of our Divine Lord, "The 
gates of hell shall not prevail against 
it;" it shall l1ever succulnb to the pow- 
ers of sin and death. As the Apostle 
Paul "\vrites: "There is 110\V 110 condem- 
nation to them ,vho are in Christ Jesus, 
'v ho ,valk not according to the flesh. 
For the law of the Spirit of life, in 
Christ Jesus, hath delivered me froIn the 
la\vof sin and of death." * Therefore 
the Church of God is indefectible. It 
partakes of the property of its IIcad ; 


· Rom. viii. 1, 2. 



DERIVED FR01\1 ITS DIVINE HEAD. 183 


it has an imperishable life, and the 
pledge oÎ ilnmortality. 
2. Secondly, because the Head of 
the Church is Holy, the Body is holy. 
No\v, the Head of the Church is the 
Son of God, and therefore He has the 
l1ncreated sanctity of God. In His In- 
carnation He ,vas anointed with the 
I-Ioly Ghost, that is, with the fulness of 
sanctifying grace; and he is the IIead 
or Fountain from ,vhom sanctity de- 
scends upon all His n1enlbers. As the 
unction on the head of the high-priest 
descended to the heln of his garment, 
so does the sanctity of the Son of God 
descend through all the members of 
His Body; that is to say, we are made 
the Inembers of His Body by regener- 
ation, through the Sacrament of Bap- 
tism, by ,vater and the Holy Ghost; 
we are sanctified in living union ,vith 



184 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF THE CHURCH 


I-lim by the holy Sacr
unents and the 
indwelling of the Spirit of Grace. 
There is, then, a ,sanctity pervading 
the ,vhole Church; and yet ho\v much 
of sin attaches to it; ho\v many sin- 
ners are "\vithin its unity. Our Lord has 
told us to expect both good fish and bad 
in the one net, and both tares and ,vheat 
in the one field. Such is the n1ixture 
of good and evil in the visible Church. 
Some are scandalized at it, not kno\ving 
the Scriptures, nor believing the Word 
of "Goù. They think to form to thelTI- 
selves a Church ,vhich shall be pure 
before the last day, and no\v in this 
lTIortal state cleansed from every stain; a 
thing contrary to the word of prophecy 
and the parables of our Divine Lord. 
The mixture of good and evil is per- 
mitted in the turbulent sea of this world; 
but they shall be separated on the 



DERIVED FROl\I ITS DIVINE HEAD. 185 


eternal shore. But though there be an 
evil lnixture in the visible Church of 
Christ - bad Christians, bad Catholics, 
men ,vhose lives are a scandal and a 
shame - nevertheless, the sanctity of 
the Church is never tainted. 
The Body of Christ is the dwel1ing
 
place of the Holy Ghost, the Sanctifier. 
It is the Body of a Divine Head; and 
in that Body are the Sacraments, or 
channels of sanctity, immutable and un- 
defiled. In that Body are the ,yorks of 
the Holy Ghost, the fruits of sanctity; 
and they are, first, innocent souls who 
have preserved their baptismal grace, 
and have grown up fro In' the ,vaters of 
baptism as the willo\vs by the ,vater- 
courses, straight and vigorous; or pen- 
itent souls, once broken like the bruised 
reed, raised np again by penance, and 
restored to the life of God. These are 



186 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF THE CHURCH 


the t,vofold operations of the I-Ioly 
Ghost 
Torking through the Church. St. 
John is the type of the one, St. 1\1ary 
Magdalen of the other; and this super- 
natural grace is verified throughout aU 
ages in the unity of the Church; and 
the sanctity of the Church nlanifests 
itself perpetually in the innocent and 
the penitent, ,vho are the fruits of sanc- 
ti tv. 
.; 
3. And further: ,vhen Pilate asked 
our Divine Lord, "'Vhat is truth?" 
He answered not a ,vord; but \vhen 
He taught His disciples, lIe said, "I am 
the Truth;" that is, "The Truth - it 
is 1" For God is Truth, and Jesus is 
God. The truth is revealed in Jesus 
Christ; and to know Hiln, His mind, 
and His \vil1, is to know the truth of 
God. The revelation of Christianity is 
the kno,v ledge of God in Jesus Christ. 



DERIVED FROM ITS DIVINE HEAD. 187 


To know the mind of Jesus Christ is 
to kno\v the doctrines of the faith To 
kno\v the ,viII of Jesus Christ is to kno\v 
His la\vs and His Church. Dogma is 
the clear, definite, mental perception, 
and the precise, logical, scientific ex- 
pression in \vords, of those eternal, inl- 
111utable, and Divine truths which are 
revealed to us. For people to say, "I 
believe in truth, but I do not believe in 
dogma.," is like saying, "I believe in 
substances, but only when they are with- 
out shadows." Every substance casts 
its shadow, and every truth leaves its 
definite iinpression upon the reason of 
man; and the enunciation of that defi- 
nite impression is dogma. 
If the men of the nineteenth century 
would be a little In ore consecutive - 
or, if that is asking too much, a little 
lllore patient - they would not be 



188 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF THE CHURCH 


scared by the ,vord "dogma." The 
Church of Jesus Christ possesses the 
truth; it possesses His mind, it knows 
it always, it enunciates it clearly, and 
can never err in its enunciation. It is 
in possession of IIis revelation; and it 
applies that revelation, as the test of 
truth, to the opinions, the teachings, and 
the errors of men. As the leprosy dis- 
appeared from the body of Naaman, 
and as the scales fell from the eyes of 
the blind, so, ,vhen the truth of the rev- 
elation is brought in contact with error, 
straight\vay error is detected, and is 
healed. 
In the Church no error has ever 
established itself: In these eighteen 
hundred years, during which the rest- 
less activity of the human intellect has 
been perpetuaI1y devising for itself ne\v 
modes of conception and of expression 



DERIVED FROl\1 ITS DIVINE HEAD. 189 


- thereby perpetually either going 
beyond the truth or falling short of it, 
thus producing heresies - never yet in 
the Catholic Church has a heresy been 
able to establish itself or to effect a 
lodgment. Al\vays and invariably has 
it been expelled. As a morbid humor 
of the body is expelled by the vigor 
of life, so everything contrary to the 
perfect life of the body and the perfect 
purity of truth has been sooner or later 
cast out - so completely eliminated, 
that not a taint remains behind. The 
Church is in all ages ,vhat it ,vas in the 
beginning - the ,vitness, judge, and 
teacher of the whole revelation of God. 
It bears witness to the truth it has 
received. It is the judge, applying that 
revelation as a test to the teachings of 
men, condemning the errors, and accep
 
iug ,y hat is true. It is the teacher, not 



190 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF THE CHURCH 


as scribes and Pharisees, by quotations 
and criticislns and contradictions among 
themselves; but by the voice of author- 
ity - as one having power. As it is 
,vritten of our Divine Master, " the peo- 
ple heard Hirn gladly;" and for this 
reason, that "He taught as one having 
po\ver - that is, authority - and not 
as the scribes." And ,vhat is this but 
that ,vhich men rail at, the infallibility 
of the Church? That is, the Church 
does not err. Individuals n1ay err, as 
individuals may die; but the Church 
cannot err, as the Church cannot die. 
'Vhy does not the Church err? Be- 
cause it is the Body of a Divine Head; 
and that Divine Head is Truth. It is 
the d\velling-place of the Spirit of Truth, 
,vho, inhabiting the Body, al\vays sus.. 
tains it in the kno\vledge and enuncia.. 
tion of truth. 



DERIYED FROl\I ITS nIVL\fE HEAD. 101 


4. Again - for I do not purpose to 
enter into this argument in detail; I 
. am rnerely touching on points of it for 
a purpose that will hereafter appear- 
there is another property of our Divine 
Lord, \vhich is also cOlnlnunicated to 
His Body. Christ is One. The God- 
head and the lnanhood are united in 
the Unity of the One Person of the 
Eternal Son, and the Godhead and the 
manhood are indissolubly united for all 
eternity. Christ cannot be divided; 
and as the Head is indivisible, so is the 
Body; and the Unity of the Body ex- 
cludes the possibility of division. Frag- 
mentary portions may be broken off 
from it, as fraglnents and boulders n1ay 
roll from a mountain side, but the moun- 
tain remains inlnlovable and indivisible 
in its perfect identity. So is it ,vith the 
Universal Church. Its unity both \vith- 
in and without cannot be dissolved. 



192 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF THE CHURCH 


Of the external unity of the Church, 
SOUle people speak as if they thought 
it ,vere a constitution, or the result of . 
legislation. The outward and visible 
unity of the Church is the result of its 
in,vard unity, ,vhich is invisible; and 
no external unity could exist, - or, if 
it, for a tilne, could be put together, 
would endure, - unless it spring from 
an internal unity, \vhich in itself is im- 
perishable. For ,vhat is the cause of 
the visible and outward unity of the 
Catholic Church? The unity of faith, 
the unity of doctrine, the unity of in- 
tellect, the fusion, I may say, of the 
lights of the supernatural illulnination, 
as the sun's rays mingle altogether in 
the splendor of the noonday light. So 
nIl the intelligences of the Church, 
throughout its whole expanse, and 
throughout all its eighteen hundred 



DERIVED FROl\I ITS DIVINE HEAD. 193 


years of duration, are all united and 
concentrated in the belief of one truth, 
and of one faith, \v hich comes from a 
Divine voice. And because the intel- 
lects of Inen are thus indissolubly one, 
therefore their hearts are one: having 
one truth, they have one charity; and 
their hearts being one, they have one 
,viII; and therefore in the unity of the 
Church of God, there is an internal 
unity so vital and creative, that it im- 
presses itself upon its external struc- 
ture. Thus the visible unity is the 
out\vfird expression of that internal 
unity fronl \vhich it springs. But from 
. \v hat source is this unity derived? It 
comes from the Person of its IIead. 
He is the one and only sourc
 of 
all truth; the one and only source of 
all jurisdiction and of authority; and 
that jurisdiction and authority spread
 
13 



194 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF THE CHURCH 


itself throughout the \vhole circle of 
His Universal Church, from the sunrise 
to the sunset. ]'ron1 this it folIo\ys as 
a direct consequence, that as Christ is 
not divided, so neither is His Church 
divided. There can be divisions from 
it, but divisions in the Church of Christ 
or in any part of it are impossible. He 
Himself has said: "Every kingdom di
 
vided against itself shall be made deso- 
late: and every city or house divided 
against itself shall not stand;" * and 
this affirms that its unity is indivisible; 
as St. Bede says, ,vith a terse simplici- 
ty: "The kingdom of God is not di- 
"Vided, because the kingdom of God caI1 
never fall." 
5. There is one more point, to ,vhich 
all I have said direct} y leads. lIe has 
delegated to IIis Church a share of His 


* St. Matt. xü. 25. 



DERIVED FROM ITS DIVINE HEAD. 195 


sovereignty; and the supernatural prop- 
erties ,vhich He has conununicated to 
His Body constitute that sovereignty. 
He said to IIis Apostles: "Y ou ,vho 
have follo\ved Me, in the regeneration, 
,vhen the Son of J\1Ian shall sit on the 
seat of His majesty, you also shall sit 
on t\velve seats, judging the t,velve 
tribes of Israel." * 
This does not mean only in the heav- 
enly state hereafter. The regeneration 
is no,v in the world. I t has been frorn 
the tin1e our Lord said: "Go, and bap- 
tize all nations." Then was begun the 
regeneration of mankind. The Son of 
God no,v sits on the throne of His 
glory, and the Apostles sit upon their 
thrones on earth. Peter still sits up- 
on the chief throne of the Universal 
Church. This prophecy and promIse 


* St. Matt. xix. 28. 


. 



. 


196 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF THE CHURCH 


are fulfilled at this day upon earth, in 
the midst of us. 'Ve are a part of its 
fulfilment; for the t\vel ve tribes of Is. 
rael are the IDystical tribes of the faith- 
ful throughout the ,vholc ,vor1d, the 
true seed promised to Abraham. 
Again, our Lord said: "I appoint to 
you, as l\fy Father hath appointed to 
l\ie, a kingdoll1;"::: and in the Å poca.. 
lypse: "The kingdom of this ,vorld is 
become our Lord's and His Christ's."-r 
That is to say, there is a delegated sov- 
ereignty upon earth, derived frOlll the 
Son of God, representing His person, 
and invested ,vith His prerogatives of 
immortality, sanctity, infallibility, unity, 
and, therefore, of Divine authority. 
Sovereignty is the sUpren1t1cy of these 
supernatural endo\vments over the 
,vhole natural course and order of this 


* St. Luke xxii. 29. 


t Apoc. xi. 15. 



DERIVED FRO
I ITS DIVI
E HEAD. 197 


,vorld. And the sphere of this sover- 
eignty is the Church, by ,vhich Christ 
reIgns arnong men. 
'l'he sovereignty, then, of our Lord 
Jesus Christ, sitting at the right band 
of God, to \vhom "all po\ver in heaven 
and on earth" is given, consists not 
only in His sovereignty over individual 
souls. He has, indeed, a sovereignty 
over the intellect by faith, and over 
the heart by love, and over the ,vill by 
obedience; but it is a sovereignty \vhich 
extends itself to families and to house- 
holds: it guides the authority of par- 
ents, it directs the obedience of chil- 
dren, it unites the charity of brethren. 
Christian households have onr Divine 
Lord as their head; and not only house- 
holds, but peoples: for ,vhat are they 
but the aggregate of families? they 
lnake states, they therefore constitute 



198 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF THE CHURCH 


governments. Governments make laws, 
and they execute laws. And lvho is 
the Head and Fountain of their po,ver? 
Froln whom is derived the authority 
and direction for the civil governlnent 
over mankind? Fronl HilTI who is the 
Lord and Redeemer of men, ,vho is also 
the Head even of the natural order, or, 
as ,ve call it, of political society. He is 
the supreme ruler and chief; and by 
Him kings reign, and princes decree 
judgment. 
The Son of God is the Head of all 
po,ver in heaven and in earth, both of 
the spiritual and of the political or 
civil order of the ,vorld; and when the 
sovereignty or kingship of Jesus Christ 
began to work throughout the nations 
of the ,vorld, ,vhat were its effects? 
First of all, as I have said before,* sla- 


* See Leet. iii. p. 95. 



DERIVED FROl\I ITS DIVINE HEAD. 199 


very ,vas steadily extinguished. The 
greatest tyranny of n1an over man, the 
claim of man to hold man as a chattel, 
and to have possession in the flesh and 
blood of a fello,v-creature, this greatest 
debaseluent of man by man, ,vas ex- 
tinguished by" the freedom \v here\vith 
Christ hath made us free." * Next: ,vo- . 
Juan ,vas raised again to her true dig- 
nity. W OlIlan, ,vho had been the toy, 
the too], and the prey of man, ,vas ele- 
vated and lllade to be, conjointly ,vith 
n1an, the head over the families and 
households of Christendom. Thirdly, 
'val'S, ,,, hich before had been sanguinary 
and brutal beyond all conception or 
human imagination, ,vere restrained by 
la,vs of mercy and by arbitrations of 
justice. Once more, - the crilninal 
code, ,vhereby the life of man ,vas 


* Gal. iv. 31. 



200 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF THE CHURCH 


taken, for the protection of 80ciet};.., 
,vas cruel and unrelenting, until, under 
the action of the sovereignty of J esu
 
Christ, and the legislation of the Church, 
,vas mitigated and tempered froln age 
to age. Again, a" quality, unkno,vn be- 
fore Christianity caIne on earth, save 
only in Israel, and that only in part- 
unkno,vn altogether in the heathen 
,vorld - ,vas infused into the hearts of 
men; that is charity - a tenderness, 
and a hunlan syn1pathy of man for 
man. It is a fact too well kno\vn to 
dwell upon, that.in the "Thole ,vorld not 
a hospital ,vas to be found. Even in 
its most advanced civilization, before 
Christianity the sick died ,vithout n1er- 
cy. Another effect of Christianity in 
the civil order of the world is mutual 
respect, - the respect of inferiors for 
the superior, of the subject for au- 



DERIVED FROM ITS DIVINE HEAD. 201 


thority, the respect of authority for the 
subject, of the higher for the lo\ver, of 
equal for equal, and of all TIlen for 
those around and even belo,v thelll; 
because an alike bear the image of 
Jesus Christ; because an alike ,vere re- 
deenled in the Blood of the same Sa- 
viour; because all alike "rere the tem- 
ples of the Holy Ghost; because they 
all alike received the same Precious 
Body and Blood of Jesus Christ at the 
Altar. The poor servant that did the 
bidding of a Christian n1aster, it lllay 
be that nlorning had been to the Alt.ar, 
and had been made a tabe}"nacle of the 
Son of God. And this participation by 
all alike of the saIne Precious Body 
and Blood of Jesus Christ infused 
throughout society a mutual respect, 
which is the foundation of a11 justice 
and equity, charity and mercy. And 



202 THE SOYEREIGNTY OF THE CHURCH. 


from aU these sprang up the common- 
,vealth of Christian Inen, not only of 
individuals, of households, but of na- 
tions, states, and empires, ,vhich ,ve can 
Christendoln. From this Divine root 
was produced the civilization and prog- 
ress of mankind; ,vhich to be su.ch 
ll1ust be Christian, and can be accon1- 
plished only by the Son of God, by His 
sovereignty alone. I can but touch, 
and that briefly, on a subject of which 
I spoke before, and broke off then as I 
needs must no,v. I can do nothing no\v 
but sketch the mere outline of certain 
great truths
 which nevertheless ,vill, I 
hope, be of use in putting you on your 
guard against the silver sounds 'v hich 
are chin1ed and chanted in our ears 
every morning about civilization, prog- 
ress, advancement, dignity, and I kno,v 
not what; as if the "Golden Age" 



DERIVED FROl\I ITS DIVINE HEAD. 203 


\vere before us, into \vhich \ve are all 
advancing, because - as I will show 
hereafter - the ,vorld is rejecting the 
sovereign ty of Jesus Christ. 
l\Iy purpose, then, in pointing out 
that the Church on earth partakes of 
the properties and prerogatives of its 
Divine I-Iead, and, therefore, of His 
sovereignty, IS to draw two plain con- 
clusions. 
The first is this: That civilization can 
be perfect only ,vhen it is Christian; 
that civilization, or the culture and 
ripening of the civil and political soci- 
ety of man, is never perf
ct, and can 
never be perfect, unless elevated by 
unIon with the laws of Christianity 
nnder the sovereignty of the Son of 
God. 
The civil and domestic society of man 
in the order of nature existed before 



204 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF TIlE CHURCH 


Christianity came on earth. This also 
is God's ,york, and in this order there 
may be a natural civilization. Let any- 
body, \vho desires to kno,v ,vhat the 
civilization of lllan became before Chris- 
tianity, read any,vork on the literature 
and the morals of Rome and Athens. 
And if you desire the name or title of 
a book on this subject, I ,vill say read 
a book on The Fornzation of Ohristianity, 
lately published among us; or, if you 
\vish something more detailed and ex- 
tensive, read a work called The Gentile 
and the Jew, by a ,vell-kno,vn professor 
of history in Germany. A rankness of 
abomination, intellectual and nloral, is 
to be found in the pages of the latter 
book \vhich no Christian heart could 
conceive. Such ,vas civilization \vith- 
out Christianity. 
When the supernatural society of 



DERIVED FRO
1 ITS DIVINE HEAD. 205 


the Church descended upon the natural 
society of the ,vorld, the order of nature 
was elevated by regeneration, by bap- 
tism, by grace, by faith, by light, and 
by guidance. Then there was a union 
between those t\VO societies, natural and 
supernatural; or, as men commonly say, 
"Church and State." 
hat is to say, 
they mutually recognized each other as 
creations of God in different spheres, 
mutually recognized each other's office, 
mutually recognized each other's func- 
tions, and, being united together, they 
co-operated for the welfare of man under 
one and the saIne IIead, one and the 
same Sovereign. vVhen the civil order 
of the world acknowledged Jesus Christ 
as its true Head and Sovereign, then 
civilization was Christian, and then t.here 
was progress. Progress signifies an ad- 
vance in the order of perfection, both 



206 THE SOYEREIGNTY OF THE CHURCH 


internal in states, and external with 
their neighbors. This includes intellec- 
tual cultivation, kno,vledge, both scien- 
tific and spiritual; justice - that is, just 
la,vs, and just administration of la,vs; 
and lastly, the arts and the fruits of 
peace in ind.ustries of every kind of hu- 
man skill and toil. This progress, I 
assert, was steadily advancing, so long 
as the \vorld was Christian. This is 
our first concl usion. 
And the second is self-.evident: That 
,vhat is called modern civilization, is 
civilization \vithout Christianity. I be- 
lieve, indeed, that the men, at least 
lnany of them, \vho use the \vords do 
not know ,vhat they imply, and would 
reject it if they saw it. But civilization 
,vithout the sovereignty of Jesus Christ, 
is the rejection of the Christian order 
under \v hich the progress of the \vorld 
has hitherto steadily advanced. 



DERIVED FRO1\! ITS DIVINE HEAD. 207 


In order to make this as clear as I 
can, and in as few \vords, let me remind 
you that there are three causes which 
11
 ve broken up the Christian civiliza- 
tion of Europe and of the world. 
In the fifteenth century, the study 
and cultivation of classical literature 
excited in the lllinds of the leading men 
of the European. countries a sort of 
admiration, \yhich I rnay call ,vorship. 
The models of pagan antiquity, of its 
phi10sophy and its policy, of its patri- 
ots, of its public morality - that \vhich 
is styled the Renaz.ssance, or the ne\v 
birth of the Christian ,vorld- profound- 
ly infected the men of that day. This 
anti-Christian reaction has spread do\vn 
to the present time. People were de- 
ceived i.!!"to thinking that the Renais- 
sance must be classical and refined, 
cultivated and civilized. This was the 



208 THE BOVEREIG
TY OF THE CHURCH 


first step, as I will sho\v, to the rejection 
of Christian civilization. 
I t in trod uced paganism in to books, 
into literature, into art, into education. 
On the testimony of n1ultitudes of Iuen, 
in ,vhich I bear Iny o,vn part, the equ- 
cation of Christian nations has been 
based and formed upon \vhat is called 
classical literature. The exanlples, lnax- 
ims, principles, the deeds, the crirnes, 
personal, private, and public, even to 
the assassination of princes and revolt 
of peoples, glorified in classical litera- 
ture, have been taken in unconsciously 
by boys in their early education for 
these three hundred years. In Italy 
and France this is already bearing its 
fruit. 
Next came a period, of ,,,hich I have 
no \vish to speak controversially to- 
night, but I must speak. clearly; calling 



DERIVED FRO
I ITS DIVINE HEAD. 209 


. 


itself the Reformation. This \vas the 
second step towards the rejection of 
Christian civilization. 
The first \vork of this Reformation 
,vas to shatter the unity of fitith: to 
render impossible the unity of '\vorship, 
to excite individuals to \vithdraw their 
obedience frOln the one Church of Jesus 
Christ, to n1ake families and house- 
holds withdraw their obedience from 
the truth; then states, peoples, and 
governments. Finally, governrnents set 
up, in the place of the one and undi- 
vided religion, I know not ho\v many 
forms of Christianty established hy la,v. 
In to this I will not farther enter. The 
,vork of disintegration ,vas begun; the 
unity of faith and \vorship among the 
nations was shattered. Then national 
religions and their sub-divisions ren- 
dered unity ÏInpossible. So far as the 
14 



. 
210 THE SOYEREIGNTY OF THE CHURCH 


. 


Reformation extended itself; it carried 
religious division throughout the Chris- 
tian society of Inen. 
Thirdly. I have already spoken of 
,vhat are called the principles_of 1789. 
I will not say more of them no,,,,, than 
to add that they are the legitimate 
application of the principles of the Ref.. 
ormation to states. They are Luther- 
anisru in politics, and they have done 
for the civil order that which the Ref.. 
ormation did for the ecclesiastical. The 
Reformation broke up the religious 
unity, and the principles of 1789 broke 
up the political unity, of Christian Eu.. 
rope. From that day a perpetual disso.. 
lution, crumbling, and decay in the 
foundations of society has undermined 
every country where these principles 
have taken root. 
One main cause of it is thi8, that those 



DERIVED FRO
l ITS DIVINE HEAD. 211 


principles were not a developluent or 
a progressive expansion of the exist- 
ing traditional institutions of Europe. 
They began with destruction, by cutting 
through the roots, by pulling down the 
tree. It \vas a work of ruin, and in 
place of Christian civilization \vere sub- 
stituted principles that \vere directly 
subversive of it. 
T,vo plain conclusions follow from 
what has just been said. 
First. That the differentia of modern 
civilization is the exclusion from the 
political order of religious unity in faith, 
worship, and education; the separation 
of Church from State, and State from 
Church. It is the separation of the 
civil and political order of the world 
from Christianity, and from the sov- 
ereignty of its Divine Head. 
The second conclusion is this; that 



212 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF THE CHURCH 


,vhat is called progress, in this kind of 
civilization, is not progress, but regress; 
it is not going on,vard, but backward. 
As the Renæt"ssance of ,vhich I spoke 
,vas the return to the political state of 
the world before Christ, and because 
óefore Christ, necessarily without Christ, 
so the civilization which springs fronl it 
is a civilization ,vhich goes its o,vn ,yay 
,vithout regard to the faith or the la,vs 
of Jesus Christ: that is to say, it is a 
return into the state of the world be- 
fore Christ. I deny to this the nalne 
of Progress. It is a going back\vard, 
not on\vard. It is a relapse into the 
civilization of JPa.ganism. 
Let us take an example of the day. 
We are hearing all day long of that which 
is called the Religious Difficulty: the 
poor children of our streets cannot be 
educated together-and \vhy? Because 



DERIVED FROl\I ITS DIVINE HEAD. 213 


of the religious difficulty. And legis- 
lators meet, night after night, to debate 
the religious difficulty, and know not 
what to do for the education of the 
poor, because of the religious difficulty. 
What is the religious difficulty? 'Vhere 
was the religious difficulty before the 
unity of the Faith was shattered? What 
has caused the religious difficulty? The 
shattering of the Faith, and the shatter- 
ing of the Unity of the Church. But 
,vho did these things? and what has re- 
duced us to secular education \vithout 
Christianity? The religious difficulty, 
and they who made it. Tell 1ne, is this 
. 
progress? I should as soon call the 
turning off from the straight sea-line 
homeward, into an ocean full of rocks 
and shoals, a home\vard voyage. It is 
not progress, it is regress; it is error, 
deviation, ,vandering: and the further 



214 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF THE CHURCH 


and faster men go in this direction, the 
further and faster they are leaving the 
sovereignty of Jesus Christ. 
We are told what great things mod- 
ern civilization has done. It has abol- 
ished penal laws. But who made them? 
I thank no man for abolishing penal 
la,vs against the Catholic Faith. I ac- 
cuse those who enacted theIn, and set 
up the tyranny and persecution under 
which the Faith has suffered. I accuse 
the forefathers of those ,vho, happily 
for thell1selves, by the. working of a 
higher and nobler spirit, have undone 
the deeds of their forefitthers. I am 
not grateful, except for the kindly feel- 
ing of those who may be llloved in sYln- 
pathy to do it. But I recognize nothing 
noble in this. I recognize nothing in 
the man ,vho has done me a ,vrong, and 
then retracts the wrong, but that he 



DERIVED FRO}! ITS DIVINE HEAD. 215 


has at last done that which was right. 
To be just is silnple duty. To thank 
men for doing a duty implies a doubt 
of their integrity. 
I an1 told also, I know not \vhat, of 
the advantages of progress, of electric 
telegraphs, railways, and the prohibition 
of intramural burial. Do Inen desire 
to make so grave a subject as this to be 
contemptible? 
This, then, is the truth: The world 
under the constant action of Christian- 
ityand the sovereignty of Divine la\v 
was advancing in civilization and l11ak- 
ing true progress, until a blight fell 
upon it. The disorders and anarchies 
of three hundred years ago came to 
check and to overthrow the course of 
its advance. Christianity ,vonId havè 
abolished all social evils with greater 
speed and certainty, if its onward course 



216 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF THE CHURCH 


had not been stayed. As for the ab- 
olition of old tyrannies, it ,vas this 
very departure from Christianity which 
caused them. There never could have 
been State Churches to be disestab- 
lished, if dominan t heresies and schislns 
had not first established them. 
'Ve have not yet seen to ,,,hat mod- 
ern civilization is on its way. It is 
111aking progress, it is true; but what 
will it progress to? To the utter and 
entire rejection of Christianity; to the 
abolition of the "religious difficulty" 
from legislation - froln education, and 
from domestic life - to the relegating 
and banishing of religion from all pub- 
lic life to the individual conscience and 
private life of Iuan. _Civilization before 
Christianity ,vas bad enough: but civ- 
ilization ,vhich is apostate from Chris- 
tianity, is worse than all. Before it 



DERIVED FRO
I ITS DIVINE HEAD. 217 


became Christian, civilization persecuted 
Christianity with the blind brute force 
of the heathen; but apostate civiliza- 
tion will know ho\v to persecute with 
refined and cunning procedure, ,vhich 
nothing but a knowledge of Christian- 
ity could have given. 
Look into the words and deeds - I 
will not say of the first French Revo- 
lution - that hideous masquerade of 
Feasts of the Supreme Being and ,vor- 
ship of reason, with the abominable 
personifications of that worship - I \vill 
not go so far back: \vhat did we read 
yesterday? A man at the head of the 
movement in Paris - and yet a moder- 
ate - \vho has separated himself from 
the leaders of the extreme Revolution, 
wrote such \vords as these: "Why' 
should not the churches be robbed? 
'Vhy should not the treasures of Notre 



218 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF THE CHURCH 


Dalne be taken? How were they ob.. 
tained ? By teaching people to believe 
in heaven and hell. It is money ob- 
tained under false pretences; there is 
no heaven and hell; Frenclunen have 
ceased to believe in it." That is not 
yet the last word of civilization without 
Christianity; but to that, and more, it 
has already come. 
There is as yet a time of stillness and 
indifference. Liberalism is a t\vilight 
state in which all errors are softened: 
in \vhich no persecution for religion will 
be countenanced. It is the stillness 
before the storm. There is a time com- 
ing when nothing \viII be persecuted 
but truth: and if you possess the truth, 
you will share it. 
We were told yesterday, again: "As 
for the temporal power of the Pope" 
- the temporal po\ver is the public 



DERIVED FRO
I ITS DIVINE HEAD. 219 


recognition of the sovereignty of Jesus 
Christ over both orders, civil and spirit- 
ual, the union of pontiff and king in 
one person, as pontiff and king are 
united in the Divine Head WhOlll he rep- 
resents - we were told," This strange 
anomaly has gone do\vn in the tide of 
advancing civilization and progress." 
There is, indeed, a tide rising on every 
side; and a wiser than the \vriter of 
those words has said: "As in the days 
before the flood, they were eating and 
drinking, and marrying and giving in 
marriage, and they knew not till the 
flood came and took them all a\vay." 
So assuredly this rising tide of civiliza- 
tion and progress will carry R\Vay the 
blind apostles \vho are now preach- 
in g it. 
There remains in England, and I 
thank God to know it, much of the 



220 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF THE CHURCH 


Christian and Catholic tradition of our 
civil order still unbroken. The founda- 
tions of our civil state \vere laid in 
times before regenerations and reforma- 
tions and the adoration of pagan life 
and its examples had turned the heads 
of men. The foundations of our civil 
order date back a thousand years. Our 
Inonarchy, popular freedom, open tribu- 
nals, maxims of just judgment, and the 
broad base upon \vhich the public order 
of England reposes, \vere solidly and 
peacefully con1 pacted, before mod ern 
civilization and modern progress had its 
TIaTIle or being. There is in England a 
belief in Christianity as a Divine reve- 
lation, and in the ,vritten VV ord of God 
as part of it, and a recognition of the 
duty of public ,vorship, and respect for 
that first day of the ,veek, sacred to our 
Lord's Resurrection; and above all, 



DERIVED FROJ\1 ITS DIVINE HEAD. 221 


there is that which Englishn1en love, 
and \vhich even the poor and the "\vork- 
ing Inen last year publicly testified to 
be their desire - Christian education 
for their children. Thev desire that 
0/ 
they be educated, indeed, but as Chris- 
tians. The voice of the people of Eng- 
land has been decisively heard on this, 
and I bless God for it. I speak not 
only to you who are of Iny flock, but 
to all who hear me, though they be not 
of my flock - I would to God they 
were. Hold fast to those Catholic tra- 
ditions of our land; they are more pre- 
cious than life itself. Hold fast to them, 
and hand them on as the true and only 
inheritance of Christian civilization, and 
of progress. 
I "\vill believe in modern civilization, 
\vhen I see its apostles lift up their 
hands and say to the Redeelner of the 



222 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD 


world ,vith ThoI11as: "My Lord and 
my God;" then I will believe. Mean... 
while with Thomas I will say, "]{on 
credanz," I ,vill not believe. 



OVER THE COURSE OF THE WORLD. 223 


LECTURE VI. 


THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD OVER THE 
COURSE OF THE WORLD. 


"And a voice came out from the throne, say- 
ing: Give praise to our God, all ye IIis 
servants j and you that fear HÙn, little and 
great. And I heard as it were a voice 
of a great multitude, and as the voice of 
many wate'rs, and as the voice of great 
thunders, saying, Alleluia: for the Lord 
our God, the Almighty, hath reigned." 
Apoc. xix. 


AFTER all that the world can do, God 
is still upon His throne: and after aU 
the rebellions of man, He sits above the 



224 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF. GOD 


,vater-floods, and abides a King for 
ever. The last subject which rem'ains 
for us is the sovereignty of God over 
the course of the ,vorId. 
This vision \vhich St. John describes, 
is the summing-up of the ,vhoIe history 
of the ,vorId, and of the conflict be- 
t,veen the sovereignty of God and the 
re bellious ,viII of man. This conflict 
began in Paradise, and will never cease 
until the Son of God shall come to 
judge the living and the dead. 
In these days any man who quotes 
the statutes of an earthly kingdom is 
listened to; for an immediate, prolnpt, 
and inexorable po\ver executes, at once, 
its sentence upon nIl gainsayers; but 
any Dlan ,vho quotes the la\vs of Holy 
Scripture is derided, because the Divine 
judgment tarries, and the sovereignty 
of God bides its tin1e: because judg- 



OVER THE COURSE OF THE 'VORLD. 225 


n1ent is not speedily executed upon 
earth, the heart of n1an is set to do 
evil. But '\ve are not ashamed to quote 
the \vords of Holy 'V rit; for Holy 'V rit 
is the \vord of God, and" Heaven and 
earth shall pass a\vay," but His \vord 
shall not pass a\vay. 
The history written in Holy Scrip- 
ture is God's history of His own sover- 
eignty. From first to last, it is the 
history of the reign of God over the 
\vorld: from the Creation, to the mani- 
festation of His kingdom in Jesus Christ, 
the \vhole narrative of sacred history is 
the revelation of the sovereignty of 
.God over men and nations. It is, there- 
fore, the history of the \vorld \vritten 
by a supernatural light; and an inter- 
pretation of the l1Ïstory of the \vorld 
as it is read Ly the principalities and 
powers in heavenly places, to \vhom is 
15 



226 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD 


nlade kno,vn by the Church the manI- 
fold ,visdolll of God. I take, therefore, 
the page of Holy Scripture as the ,vit- 
ness of the sovereignty of God over 
the course of this world. To illustrate 
my subject,- because I can do no more 
than give its outline, - it is enough to 
remind you that, from Adanl to Noe, 
God had His servants on earth, who 
did His \vill in the n1Ïdst of those ,vho 
rebelled a.gainst Him. He ,vas sover- 
eign over both: in grace over the faith- 
ful, in justice over the rebellious. rrhe 
Flood, ,vhich purged the earth, ,vas an 
act of God's judicial sovereignty upon 
the sins of man. Froln Noe to Abra- 
ham, from Abrahanl to l\'Ioses, from 
l\Ioses to the l\Iessias, - that is, to the 
coming of God in our manhood, - the 
sovereignty of God ,vas nlore and more 
visibly displayed _ among luen, until it 



OVER THE COURSE OF THE 'VORLD. 227 


was incorporated in the priesthood and 
tbe kingdoIn of Israel. But the the- 
ocracy of Israel ,vas only a shado,v: a 
type and prophecy of a more manifest 
revelation, and a sovereignty yet to 
come. The law ,vas the shado,v, the 
gospel is the substance: that \vhich was 
typified in the theocracy of Israel was 
fulfilled in the 111anifestation of God in 
Jesus Christ. The conlÎng of our Di.. 
vine Lord into the world ,vas the foun- 
dation of His kingdoln, and the revela- 
tion of His sovereign power, \vhich, by 
"Íhe line of His Vicars upon earth, He 
exercises at this clay. 
Let us here take up again our last 
subject. "\Ve have seen that God has 
created t,vo societies for the sanctifica- 
tion of man, - the natural society, or 
the hUlnan and political or civil order: 
the supernatural society, or the order 



228 TIlE SOVEREIGKTY OF GOD 


of grace, which is His Church; and 
that His \vill and predestination \vas, 
that those t\VO societies should be uni- 
ted together; so that as the body and 
soul in Ulan constitute one perfect hu- 
manity, so the natural 'and the super- 
natural societies should be united to- 
gether in their full integrity and perfect 
amity under one head, Jesus Christ, 
each retaining its due IJfoportions of 
po,ver, and both n1utua1Jy co-operating 
for the \ve1fitre and sanctification of 
mankind. This was our last conclusion. 
And I then pointed out that the civ- 
ilization of mankind, to be true, In ust be 
Christian; that no civilization is true 
but that which is Christian; that civili- 

ation, if it loses its Christianity, re- 
turns again to the order of nature, and 
becoInes lnerely hll1nan, and incurs all 
the penalties of its relapse; that all 



OVER THE COURSE OF THE 'VORLD. 229 


progress in the \vorld, intelIectual, mor- 
al, social, civil, and political, depends, 
as upon its chief condition, on the di- 
rection of the la \VS ')f Christianity; and 
that \vhen civilization departs froIn 
Christianity, instead of progressing, it 
goes back\vard, and falls from the order 
\vhich God has instituted for its perfec.. 
tiol1: it relapses into the state of man 
before the Son of God came into this 
world, and the kingdom of God \vas 
revealed. When, therefore, 've hear 
the Catholic Church, and, above an, the 
head of the Catholic Church, denounced 
as an obstacle to civilization and to 
progress, it is the whispering of that 
same telnpting voice ,vhich, in the gar- 
den, said, "'Vhy hath God cOlnmanded 
YOll?" and "For God doth know." * 
Civilization, as the \vorld preaches it, is 


.,. Gen. iii. 1-5. 



230 THE SOYEREIGNTY OF GOD 


the ,vill and the intellect clairning inde- 
pendence of the la,vs of God; and 
progress is, man going ,vhere he ,vilIs, 
and doing as he lists. From the con- 
clusion of our last subject, this follo,vs 
as a corollary, - that civilization with- 
out Christianity is degradation, and 
tbat social progress out of the line 
of that civilization is a going back- 
ward. 
There is no doubt that the Christian 
civilization of the ,vorId is, in part, bro- 
ken up, and, in part, threatened, and 
- . 
that throughout the whole of Christen- 
dom; and I am met, therefore, at the 
outset, wi
h the objection, "Where, 
then, is this sovereignty? The nations 
of the \vorld are casting it off People 
that ,vere Christian' are Christian no,v 
no longer. Those ,vho \vere highly 
Catholic have rejected, if not the Cath- 



OVER THE COURSE OF THE 'VORLD. 231 


olic Church, the temporal power of thn 
Vicar of Jesus Christ. You are too 
late in the day to talk of the sover- 
eignty of God. In the Iniddle ages it 
may have been superstitiously believed, 
but the illlunination of these latter 
ages has cast it off" To this I reply: 
it is most true, as a fact, that these 
two societies, natural and supernatural, 
which ought to be united for the \vel- 
fare of mankind, are at this rnoment 
almost every\v here disunited. This sep- 
aration began \vhen the Oriental, or 
Eastern Church, severed itself from the 
unity of the Catholic Church, and fell 
under the suprernacy of the Imperial 
power. From that tÎIne the civil po\ver 
of the empire fostered, encouraged, and 
abetted the spread of schism for its o\vn 
purposes. Religion, under the direction 
of the civil po\ver, becomes a powerful 



232 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD 


instrument of political government. It 
becon1es a department of the State, and 
a vast field for patronage. Such the 
separated Eastern Church becan1e in 
the hands of the Byzantine Emperors. 
:From that time it became intensely 
Erastian - that is to say, the sllprelne 
fountain of its jurisdiction, and the su- 
prelne guide of all its legislation, and 
of its executive po\ver, ,vas in the civil 
authority. Flo\ving froIn this came 
uninluginabte corruptions, ,vhich exist 
to this day. Perhaps there is no part 
of ChristendoIn \vhich exhibits a steril- 
ity so utter, or a fixeùne
s so rigid and 
death-like, as the Oriental Church sep- 
arated fronl the IIoly See. 
Next, the salue usurpation by the 
civil po\vers Inanifested itsplf in the 
north and in the \vest of Europe. It 
would be against my '\vill to go into 



OVER THE COURSE OF THE WORLD. 233 


any detail of n1atters nearer horne ; but 
for clearness it Inust be said that, for 
the last three hundred years, in Ger- 
many, and in these countries, the rela- 
tion of the t\VO societies, civil and 
spiritual, and the order \vhich God had 
instituted, have been inverted. Religion 
has been made a part of legislation and 
of government. Religion and State 
Churches have been, as it is called, " es- 
tablished." But this is the inversion 
of the ,vhole Divine order. It is the 
State that needs to be established by 
the Church, not the Church by the 
State; the inferior cannot sustain the 
superior. It is not the order of nature 
that upholds the order of grace; it is 
the order of grace that upholds and 
perfects the order of nature. All hu- 
man po,ver, human authority, hUlllan 
legislation, human society, depends, as 



234 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD 


I have sho\vn, for its perfection, its per- 
petuity, its progress, its \velfare, its 
peace, upon the sovereignty of God, by 
and through His Church. rrhe Church 
may hold and use tenlporal po,ver, but 
it \vill not be established by it. In 
other countries, \vhich profess to remain 
within the unity of the Catholic Church, 
has appeared a pernicious illusion, ,vhich 
has blinded and seduced nlany better 
Ininds. It is called the" Free Church 
in the Free State." This imagination 
rests on the assumption that the t,vo 
societies are perfectly free and inde- 
pendent one of another, \vhich is abso- 
lutely true of the Church, but abso- 
lutely false of the State; that they are 
t\VO societies upon a perfect equality. 
This again is absolutely false, because 
the supernatural or Divine order is 
higher than the natural and human. 



OYER THE COURSE OF THE WORLD. 235 


Lastly, it assumes that they Inay go 
each their way ,vithout reciprocal du- 
ties and Inutual co-operation; which is 
contrary to the la,vof God, both in na- 
ture and in grace. We have seen that 
the supernatural society elevates and 
perfects the natural, even in the order 
of civilization. The separation of these 
two works of God is the loss and fall 
of the civil and political society of the 
,vorld. But in the east, the north, the 
,vest, and no\v in the south of Christen- 
dom, there are not only theories and 
principles, but actual policies and sys- 
tems of legislation, the ultilnate object 
of \vhich is to divorce and to separate 
the t\VO societies which God has created 
to be united together. You are a,vare 
that, in the Syllabus, the Holy See has 
condemned the follo,ving proposition: 
" That the Church ought to be separated 



236 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD 


from the State, and the State from the 
Church." * 
Such are the historical facts. Let us 
no\v see wbat is the cause, ,vhat has 
brought about this separation of' the 
t\VO societies \vhich ought to be united. 
In one \vord, it is the rejection of the 
sovereignty of God: first, by individuals 
rejecting, one by one, the prerogative of 
God over the intellect and over the ,vill ; 
then, as they grew in number and in 
activity, forming a public opinion, ,vhich 
at last directs the course of legislation 
and rejects the sovereignty of God over 
society. And every Christian nation, 
England included, has reached an ad- 
vanced point in this departure froln 
God. Yon win ask, "Ho\v could this 
have ever come to pass? How \vas it 
that the \vork of God's providence, \\' hich 


· Syllab. P. ix. Prop. 



OVER THE COURSE OF THE 'WORLD. 237 


,vas rising like sap in a vigorous and 
living tree, should have sunk do,vn 
again to the root, and that the tree, 
once so green and \videspread, should 
have begun to \vither?" The truth 
must be told without fear. It ,vas be- 
cause in Christendom the salt had begun 
to lose its savor. The blood of Chris- 
tian nations ,vas tainted. Do not con- 
found Christian nations ,vith the Church 
of Jesus Christ. The Church is im- 
perishable, immutable in its sanctity. 
Every heresy and schisln, every pesti- 
lence, moral, intellectual, and spiritual, 
the Church expels from its living sys- 
tem, as the living and healthful action 
of the human body expels the morbid 
humors which threaten its life; but in 
every nation individuals may corrupt 
and accumulate in number, and may at 
]ast do all manner of evil against the 



238 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD 


Church. For example; in the period 
before the Council of Constance, the 
na tions of Europe ,vere beginning, fronl 
national pride and mutual jealousy, to 
rise against the spiritual authority of 
the Church, and to separate themselves 
and their laws from the la\vs of the 
Church, into what by a strange irony 
was called "obediences." This spirit 
of schismatical nationality caused \vhat 
is called the great western schism: out 
of the great western schislll came, ulti- 
nlately, \vhat is called the Reformation, 
or the final separation of many nations 
from the unity of the Catholic Church. 
But you lIlay again ask, " "\Vhat \vas the 
cause of this schismatical nationalism?" 
Then I ,viII frankly say, at once, "The 
salt had lost its savor." Kings and 
princes, pastors and people, had for- 
saken their first charity. They ,vere 



OVER THE COURSE OF THE WORLD. 239 


led by the spirit of the \vorld rather 
than by the Spirit of God. Zeal, self: 
denial, mortification, devotion, fidelity, 
piety, generosity, compassion for the 
poor, love of souls, ,vere faint and Io\v. 
Christian men lived lives that were not 
Christian; society ,vas corrupted; and 
the course of kingdoms and of legisla- 
tion s\verved out of the track of faith. 
'Ibis is not to be denied. And what 
came next? Heresies and schisn1s. 
There is not a heresy, so far as I can 
reluember, in the history of the Church, 
,vhich has not begun in some bishop 
or priest. Some man ordained to be a 
witness of truth, and a preacher of jus- 
tice, has fallen from the Church ,:v.hich 
is divinely guided to teach the faithful, 
like as Satan fell like lightning from 
Heaven. They who should have been 
as a Hght to guide the intellect of men 



240 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD 


became a \vildfire to blast and ,vither 
the soul. And \vhence can1e these here- 
sies? From intellectual pride; that is, 
from the revolt of the intellect against 
the sovereignty of faith, springing from 
a perverse will and confirming its per- 
version. Froln heresies came schisms 
like that \vhich has separated England 
these three hundred years from the 
unity of the Church. Since that evil 
day, the spiritual life of England has 
,vithered. 'Ve are told by public au- 
thority, that one half of the people of 
England never set their foot in a place 
of \yorsbip. vVhether that calculation 
be true or not, I leave to those who 
made it to detern1Îne; but we are told, 
and I repeat what I have heard, that in 
this city of London, one half-that is, 
a million and a half of men - on this 
very day, and at this very hour at \vhich 



OVER THE COURSE OF THE 'VORLD. 241 


I aln speaking, neither have been, nor 
in the course of this day \viII be, in any 
place of Christian ,vorship. lVlay I not 
,veIl say, then, the salt has lost its sa- 
vor? And what is the result upon the 
public life and la,vs of England? To 
legislate for a people divided in religion 
is impossible, unless we exclude religion 
froln legislation. Christianity must be 
shut out of the sphere of legislation 
before you can make laws applicable 
to those vvho are divided in religion. 
What is the effect of such legislation? 
Truth and error are put upon the san1e 
footing. Toleration becomes a duty, 
and under cover of toleration it has 
come to pass that the civil society of 
the ,vorld has ceased to distinguish 
truth from error. Christianity is left 
to the individual conscience; it is 110 
longer a 11latter of public la,v. Again, 
16 



242 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD 


in the education of children, religio
 
must be excluded from the school; or, 
in other ,vords, the baptized child can- 
not be educated in the faith of his bap- 
tism: that is to say, he lllust be robbed 
of his inheritance. And why? Because 
men \vill ,vrangle about religion, and 
therefore their poor children are to grow 
up \vithout the kno\vledge of God and 
their Redeemer. lVlen have broken the 
bonds of fh,ith, and the penalty fans 
upon their children's children. 
The civil sooiety of the ,vorId, then, 
has been departing, in its legislation, in 
its public Ia\vs, in the education of the 
young, from the sovereignty of God 
through His Church. No,v the con- 
sequences of this are t,,"ofold. First of 
all, as to the Church. The Church has 
t,vo offices: the one is to convert and 
to save individuals, and the other is to 



OVER THE COURSE OF THE WORLD. 243 


sanctify and to uphold the civil order of 
n1ankind. But ,vhen the civil society 
of lnan refuses any longer to be guided 
und upheld by the sanctifying grace 
and the sovereignty of God, the Church 
shakes off the dust frOIn its feet, and 
goes back to its apostolic work of saving 
men one by one. It is at thi
 time 
doing that ,york, and will do it; and in 
doing it the Church becomes more free, 
Illore independent, more separate from 
aU contacts and embarrassments of this 
,vorld. It may indeed be persecuted, 
perhaps it may become fewer in nunl- 
ber, because nations and races go out 
from it. But it becolnes once more, 
,vhat it \vas in the beginning, a society 
of individuals, vigorous, pure, living, 
and life-giving. So much for the con- 
sequences to the Ohurch. For the 
Church, then, we have no fear. But 



244 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD 


what is its consequence on the State 
or political society of men? I may sun1 
it up in these three ,vords: it is priva- 
tion, degradation, and dissol utÌon. 
First, as man, when be separates him- 
self from God, is deprived of super- 
natural grace, ,vhich sustains his \"hole 
moral and spiritual life, even so the civil 
society of a nation, \vhen it separates 
from the Church, in like manner is 
deprived of its supernatural perfection. 
It no longer has the support and guid- 
ance, the light and sanctification, \vhich 
the Kingdom of God bestowed upon it. 
Just as men are born, through the sin 
of Adam, into a state of privation, so 
the kingdom or people, \vhich has sepa- 
rated itself from the Church, is there- 
fore dcprived of the truth and grace of 
Christianity. Generation after genera- 
tion are born into that state of public 



OYER THE COURSE OF THE WORLD. 245 


privation of the light and grace of 
fai tho 
Secondly, if Christianity be the ele- 
vation of a people, to fà1l from it is a 
degradation; because, as I said in the 
beginning, it is a retrograde movement, 
a going back\vard fron1 the state of 
Christian civilization into the state of 
nature before Christianity entered into 
the civil life of Inen. 
And, thirdly, it is dissolution; be- 
cause the bonds of civil society are 
loosened. As man, \v ho carne out of 
the d nst, \v hen bis living spirit departs, 
returns to dust again, so, most assur- 
edly, every state or kingdom \vhich re- 
jects the sovereignty of God, in due 
tilne will dissolve and turn again. into 
its original confusion. Ho,v this Inay 
happen \ve need not seek to kno,v; 
whether by revolutions, or internal dis- 



246 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD. 


orders, or loss of coherence, or the im- 
possibility of nlaintaining its social 
state, or by foreign aggression, by ,var- 
fare, by conquest, by whatsoever means 
I kno,v not; but the ,yord of God 
stands plain, and sooner or later shall 
be fulfilled: "The nation and the king- 
dom that will not serve Thee, shall per- 
ish;" * and that, not only by a judicial 
sentence, but by an intrinsic la,v of its 
o\vn being, \vhich \vorks out its o\vn 
dissolution. 
And if such be the effect of this re- 
volt upon the civil society of the ,vorld, 
what is its effect upon men one by 
one? "\Vhen families and households 
have lost the dOlnestic Christianity, 
which- illuminated and sanctified par- 
ents and children, brothers and sisters, 
the result can be easily foreseen. If; 


· Isaias Ix. 12. 



OVER THE COURSE OF THE 'VORLD. 247 


as has been said before, submission to 
the sovereignty of God by faith be the 
perfection and the dignity of the intel- 
lect, then, lllost assuredly, the loss of that 
submission is its abasement. If sublnis- 
sion of the will to the sovereignty of 
God, to the Ia\vs of :h'1ith and of charity, 
be the perfection of the human heart, 
then, certainly, any man or ,voman ,vho 
refuses to sublnit to that sovereignty is 
degraded. If to be a disciple of Jesus 
Christ be the highest and most perfect 
state to \vhich we can attain, they who 
fall from that state of discipleship faU 
from their dignity and \vel:h'1re. And 
,vhen that is the condition of house.. 
holds, God help such a people, for 
there is no help left in themselves. 
Such, then, being the first conse.. 
q uences upon states, families, and n1en, 
,rhat must be the future of the world, 



248 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD 


in the course upon \y hich nations and 
people have no,v entered? First of al1, 
the llloral po,vers of the civil society 
of the ,vorld \vill become \veaker and 
\ve
ker. The moral authority, the 
moral sanctions, the nloral influence, 
the po,ver of prevailing over subjects 
to live in civil obedience, become less 
and less potent and persuasive in pro- 
portion as the State departs from its 
public profession and practice of Chris- 
tianity. As the government becornes 
\veak, its po,ver of coercing is paralyzed, 
its po,ver of conciliating is lost. The 
same befalls the authority of parents 
over their children; the moral self.con- 
trol in ,vhich Dlen ought to be trained 
up becolnes impossible. Philosophers 
describe a n1an \v ho has lost self-control 
- that is, tIle governlnent over hinIself 
- as an intemperate man. And ,vhen 



OVER THE COURSE OF THE WORLD. 249 


men have IOE=,t the government over 
their passions, lusts, anger, avarice, and 
the like, ,vhat \vill be the state of society, 
of the cOIDInon,vealth? Next., ,vhile 
he 
moral po,ver dilninishes, the n1ate1'ial 
power must be perpetually increased 
- laws of coercion, penal ties, police, 
standing armies. 'Vhen men can no 
longer be governed by the free assent 
of the reason convinced of duty, and 
by the spontaneous obedience of the 
,viII submitted to the la,v, ,vhat relnains 
to governluent but brute force? At 
this mOlllent, five or six Inillions of men 
are under arn1S in the heart of this 
Christian Europe of ours, and are look- 
ing in each other's face, \vatching to 
see \vho shall 11lake the first spring. 
St. Paul, describing the state of Inen in 
the last tinH:
s, says that they shall b
 
" faithless;" the word in the original 



250 THE SOYEREIGNTY OF GOD 


means men l\"ith \vhom 'yOU can make 
no treaties; àanovð'ot,* '1l1en in \v hose fi- 
delity JOu cannot trust; \vith whonl you 
can Inake neither cOflvention nor truce, 
,vhoril no international la\v, no respect 
of mutual rights can bind. And are 
not these last days no\v upon us? 
What treaty, Qr la,v, or obligation 
binding nations to respect the rights of 
weaker neighbors is respected now? 
Treaties bind no one, if interest inter- 
vene. Cornpacts and conventions per- 
ish, ,vhere there is hope to extend a 
frontier, or to annex a province, or 
sacrilegiously to usurp a city. Then it 
is sufficient to put the s\vord through 
all treaties and all conventions. The 
fruit of this is manifest - perpetual 
danger of external ,var, and the lllost 
horrible conflicts which this ,vorld has 


· 2 Tim. üi. 3. 



OVER THE COURSE OF THE WORLD. 251 


ever seen. And the conflicts \vhich 
\vere external becolne internal, too. A 
spiri t of strife is poured out upon Inen ; 
class is set against class, interest against 
interest, household against household, 
man against man, men against their 
rulers, against la,v, against authority. 
In the shock and disorder of conten- 
tions, society is dissolved. '\Vhen the 
masses learn to kno\v their po\ver, the 
day is come to use it. From all this 
results. one of tlVO things: either the 
tyranny of a multitude, blind to every- 
thing but the freaks and gusts of its 
o\vn ,viII, or the iron despotisnl of a 
lnilitary dictator. 'V oe to the \vorld 
"\vhen the Legislator, ,vho, on the moun- 
tain, prolnulgated the eight beatitudes, 
is no longer ackno,vledged as the La\".. 
gi vel" and Sovereign of n1ankind! There 
remains nothing for the nations but the 



252 THE SOYEREIGNTY OF GOD 


raging sea of popular la,vlessness, or 
the iron rule of despots. 
If such be the effect upon the \vorld, 
\v hat ,vill be the effect upon the Church? 
Let us sum up \vhat is the state of the 
Church at this moment. There never 
\vas a tilDe, froIn the beginning of Chris- 
tianity, ,vhell the Catholic Church \vas 
so \videspread as it is 110\V; ,vhen it 
had so nearly attained to that univer- 
sality which is its Divine prerogative. 
Though the l1unlber of nations and of 
lllen that are external to Christianity 
still be vast, yet the \videspread mis- 
sions of the Church, extending beyond 
its visible pale, are at this nlOIDent pen- 
etrating into aU races and peoples upon 
earth. The circle of its unity, the 
spread and s\vay of its Episcopate, the 
apostolic thrones of the Church, at this 
moment not only reach throughout the 



OVER THE COURSE OF THE 'VORLD. 253 


Old 'V orld, but overshadow the Ne,v. 
I t has taken possession not only of the 
four continents kno,vn to our ancestors, 
but it holds also a fifth, '\vith the islands 
of the Southern Seas. The sovereign- 
ty \vhich began in the guest chamber 
, at Jerusalem, and after\vards spread 
through the dispersion of Israel, and 
then extended to the fuIness of the 
Gentiles, and then formed Christian 
Europe, has taken possession of Amer- 
ica in the North and in the South, and 
has penetrated in to Asia; is surround- 
ing Africa, has obtained for its posses- 
sion the great continent of Australia., 
and has made its home in the islands 
of the Pacific. There is no part of the 
,vorId in which the one Church, Cath- 
olic and Rornan, united to its one visi- 
ble Head, is not at this mOl11ent to be 
found. Be sure of it, whatsoever may 



2 h 4 
u THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD 


beulII the civil society of the "\yor1d, 
nothing can ,vither the mystical vine. 
There never ,vas a IT10ment ,vhen that 
\vorld-\vide Church ,vas so perfectly 
united - its pastors to its people, and 
both to their visible Head. 
The union of the pastors ,vith their 
people is never so intense as when the 
,vorld rejects theIne Take Ireland, for 
example. The pastors of Ireland have 
been not only the spiritual shepherds 
of that inviolate Catholic people, but 
they have been the friends, the coun.. 
sellors - I may sày the guardians and 
rulers of Ireland, through three hun- 
dred years of suffering. And that 
'v hich has taken place in Ireland is 
taking place at this mOlnent all over 
the Christian ,vorld. In France, in 
Gerlnany, in Italy, in Spain, ,vhereso- 
ever the civil society of the ,vorld turns 



OVER THE COURSE OF THE WORLD. 255 


against the fhith and against the Holy 
See, there at once the people rally 
round their pastors with an intensity 
of union and fidelity which has never 
been sUI]?Rssed. When the ,vinds rave 
and the sun is covered, then the flock 
and their pastors draw together. And 
there is the same unity among the pas- 
tors one \vith another. The bishops of 
the Church were never n10re of one 
mind and of one heart than they are 
now. We hear every day, in papers 
that profess to know the inmost mind 
of the Catholic Church, and yet kno\v 
nothing, because they are either misled 
or they \villingly go astray from truth 
- and ,vhich it may be, I am not the 
judge to say - \ve hear every day that, 
among the bishops of the Catholic 
Church who met last year in the CEcu- 
menical Council, there \vere opposi- 



256 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD 


tions, debates, diyisions. True it is, 
that in matters of prudence and legis- 
lation ,ve had our divergences of judg- 
ment; but in matters of doctrine and 
faith none existed. The result is proof: 
The \vorld has endeavored to find 
among the bishops of the Church 
some patron or abettor of its rebellion 
against the IIoly See. But not one can 
be found. Ahnost everyone ,,,ho, in 
the liberty \vhich ,ve all enjoyed, judged 
and spoke \vith freedolll on nlatters 
outside the faith, have explicitly and 
publicly declared their perfect and en.. 
tire submission to the Divine authority 
of the Council. The unity of the pas- 
tors of the Teaching Ch
rch ,vas never 
so solid and compact. I say it ,vithout 
hesitation, and I repeat it again - the 
Episcopate never ,vas so unaniu10us as 
at this hour. After the Councils of 



OVER THE COURSE OF THE 'VORLD. 257 


Nice, Chalcedon, Constance, and Trent, 
there were bishops of the Church \vho 
forsook its unity, \vho fell, as I said be- 
fore, like lightning from heaven. 
Now, at this moment, the unity of 
the bishops of the Church throughout 
the \v hole \vorld is such, that I kno,v 
not of one that has \vithdrawn his obe.. 
dience fro 111 its Divine authority. I 
kno\v not, I say, of one, and until I see 
the fact, I shall believe there will be 
none. But, n10re than this: the unity 
of faith at this moment throughout the 
Catholic Church is such that there does 
not exist (what is rife elsewhere) an 
open question touching the matter of 
faith. There was a question, not open 
indeed, but not defined until the other 
da.y, and that q uestiol} \vas this: "Did 
our Divine Saviour prornise to St. Peter 
that he and his successors, by the Divine 
17 



258 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD 


assistance, should continue to the end 
of time to be the supreme and unerring 
teachers of the faith \vhich lIe deliv- 
ered ?" There \vere a fe\v \vho thought 
that the promise \vas made to the suc- 
cessors of St. Peter, to be enjoyed by 
hiln only when united with the bishops 
throughout the \vor1d; there ,vere oth- 
ers \v ho believed that the promise ,vas 
made pot only to the successors of Pe- 
ter \vith the bishops united, but to the 
successors of Peter as such; and that, 
as the Pontiff holds the supreme au- 
thority and jurisdiction attached to the 
Primacy, so he has al
o a Divine assist- 
ance perpetnaUy guiding hiln, in order 
that, in the exercise of his supreme au- 
thority, upon \vhich the ,v hole Church 
of God depends, the successor of St. 
Peter and the Vicar of the Good Shep- 
herd shall never go astray. There ,vas, 



OVER TIlE COURSE OF THE 'VORLD. 259 


indeed, a divergence so fitr, and \vithin 
that narrow limit: a divergence no\v 
closed forever by the Divine authority 
of the Church, and sealed \vith the sig- 
net of the Spirit of Truth. I say, then, 
there never was a time when, in faith, 
the Church throughout the world \vas 
so uniteù; and united not only in what 
it believes, but in the principle upon 
which it believes; because it holds \vith 
one heart the infallibility- of the su- 
preme and Divine authority from \vhich 
all teaching flo\vs. 
And, further, the Church is at this 
rnOlnent lIlore self-evident in the eyes 
of lnen than in any previous age of the 
\vorld. There never \vas a time when 
the ,vords of our Lord were 1110re eln.. 
phatically, I may say, more articulately 
fulfilled, " A city that is set on a moun.. 
tain cannot be hid;" * and Inost assur- 
III St. Matt. v. 14. 



260 THE SO\TEREIGNTY OF GOD 


edIy the Catholic and ROlnan Church 
at this mOlnent stands out \vith a defi- 
nite universality, with a visible unity, 
,vith an effulgence of light never seen 
before. I do not think that anyhody 
who professes to believe in a Church at 
all can stand for a m01l1el1t in doubt 
,vhether the Church of Jesus Christ be 
the Greek Church, or the Anglican 
Ch urch, or the Church Catholic and 
ROlnan, \y hich spreads frODI sunrise to 
sunset. Our Lord said to His Apostles, 
" You are the light of the world," and 
never has that light shone out of dark- 
ness with so luminous a splendor, giving 
evidence of itselÇ and tcstifying so 
clearly to its o,vn existence and to its 
o,vn authority, as at this hour. The 
sovereignty, therefore, of God, mani- 
fested through IIis Church, is at this 
moment more than ever revealed to the 



OVER THE COURSE OF THE WORLD. 261 


in tellect a.nd to the heart of men. 
"\Vhether they win believe or ,vhether 
they ,vill not believe, there is a systeln 
spreading from east to ,vest not only 
clairning eighteen hundred Jears of 
traditionary history, but exercising its 
prerogatives at this day, and lnanifestly 
seen to exercise them: kno\vn also 
never to bave abdicated thelll for an 
hour; inflexible in its fidelity to the 
Divine revelation, requiring of an Inen 
- from its highest pastor, the suprenle 
Pontifl
 \vho sits on the throne as Vicar 
of Jesus Christ, down to the little Cath- 
olic child in the school - the saIne act 
of faith, the same submission of the in- 
tellect and of the ,viII to the sovereign ty 
of God. No one is exempt from that 
changeless la\v of faith and of subn1Ìs- 
sian. It is one and the same for all. 
N O\V, a systern like this is so unJike 



262 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD 


anything human, it has llpon its notes 
tokens, ll1arks so altogether supernat- 
ural, that men no,,' ackl1o,vIedge it to 
he either Christ or Anti-Christ. There 
is nothing bet,vcen these extremes. 
l\iost true is this alternative. The 
Catholic Church is either the rnaster- 
piece of Satan or the kingdom of the 
Son of God. 
No,v I ,vill conclude by drawing t,vo 
very plain consequences: first, that aU 
things are fulfìlling the ,viII of God. 
All things are for the sake of His elect, 
and He is accolnplishing in the ,vorld 
I-lis sovereignty in a ,yay so unerring 
and so luminous, that they ,vho believe 
can see it, and they ,vho ,vill not be- 
lieve, in their blindness seem to be rc- 
d uced to railing instead of reasoning 
against it. I have pointed out that 
there has been a line of the faithful 



OVER THE COURSE OF THE WORLD. 2G3 


servants of God, in all ages, from the 
beginning, - an unbroken chain, link 
,vithin lin}\:; from just Abel do\vn to 
the present day. This line of faithful 
becalne a people, cho:sen and preserved, 
by the grace of God, before and after 
the Incarnation; organ
zed and knit 
together into one kingdom of faith. 
The typical Church of Israel ,vas a 
shado\v; the substance of the shadQVI 
is the Church of Jesus Christ. This 
family of grace is the sp
cial object, for 
the 
alvation of ,vhich all the order of 
God's sovereignty has been and is di- 
rected. The empires of the ancient 
,,"arId ,vere elnployed to chastise, or to 
liberate, or to restore, or to scatter it. 
11he kingdoms and revolutions of the 
Christian ,vorld, in like manner, fulfil 
His purpose to\vards His elect. 
God \villed all men to he saved, and 



264 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD 


to come to the kno\vledge of the Truth. 
lIe willed also that all men should be 
called to the unity of the Church. I-lis 
Apostles were sent to make disciples of 
all nations. Whoso ,viII believe, he may 
freely enter into it; \vhoso will not be- 
lieve, he closes the door against himself. 
The gates of tbe heavenly city stand 
open day and night; God never shuts 
theIne They \vho have never heard of 
the kingdom of God \vill not have to 
give an account of it. They ,viII be 
judged by the little they kne\v, and 
not by that \vhich they could not have 
}{no\vn. . Those \vho might have kno,vn 
it, \vill be judged according to tbe \vay 
in \vhich they received or rejected the 
light that "\\Tas offered to them. All 
things are ordered for this work of sal- 
vation. God kno\vs frotH all eternity 
,vho \vill be saved, and ho\v lnany they 



OVER THE COURSE OF TIlE WORLD. 265 


,vill be. He does not din}inish the num- 
ber by refusing salvation to the ,villing, 
and He will not n1ultiply the nUInber 
by forcing the free\vill of those 'v ho 
,vill not believe. It is a mystery of 
sovereign grace and of human freedoln. 
All things are \vorking for the aCCOlTI- 
plishment of the n1ystery of salvation: 
"aU things \vork together for good to 
those \v ho love God." * Even the sins 
and the \vickedness, and the persecu- 
tions of this world, all tend to the sal- 
vation of those \vho believe. This ,vorld 
is the wine-press, in \vhich the grapes 
are trodden; it is the threshing-floor, 
on \vhich the ,vheat is beaten and ,vin- 
no\ved from the chaff. The \vine and 
the ,vheat are being made ready for 
the supper of the Larnb in the kingdoln 
of God. These are the elect of God, 


* Rom. viii. 28. 



C") f) ' (j 
4" 'lBL 
OVLI{EIGSTY OF GOD 


,vho 'Ire faitlJfuJ, and p 
rsevere in fitith 
unto the end. rfhe \vorù
, therefore, uf 
.J olJTJ the I
flptir;t are true at this hour. 
()ur Divine Lord i'i in the rniùst uf Ili:i 
(1ft urch, and "IIi,; fan is in Ilis hauù, 
and 1 Ie \vil] thoroughly clean
e Ili
 
Hoor, tind gather IIi:i wheat into the 
harll; but the; -haiT lIe ,viII burn ,vith 
1lJH!IlPIH.hahle fire."? If thiH be not 

ov 1fcignty, ill '" hat docs it cunsiRt? 
And it j
 of this tlJe Apostle Hpoke \vhcn 
he R(tid, in Ilis o\vn l1:tIn 
 and in the 
nalne of IJi" successors," 'Ve are unto 
(j()d HJe good odor of Christ, in thern 
,vho ar 
 sav(.ù and in thclfl \vho pl'ri:..:ll : 
10 Horne, indcpd, the oùor of death unto 
death; but to the other:.;, the odor uf 
life nn to life." -r That \vork of 8epara- 
tion i
 gain:! on no\v. J t is not HtuyCcJ, 
}Jut ac(.olnp]jl:5hcd IJY the apostasy of 
thp civil order of }ucn. l\len 11lay go 


St. '1att. jjj. 12. 


t 2 Cor. ii. Iti, 1G. 



OYER THE COURSE OF THE WORLD. 267 


their \yay in the civilization they have 
chosen, and in the progress of \v hieh 
they boast, but they \vill not dirninish 
by one jot or tittle the sovereignty of 
God over the \vorld. No; nor \viH they 
llin1ini
h the D1anifestation of that sov- 
ereignty in the confusions and torrnents 
of the ,vorld, to ,vhich it is hastening in 
speed. Its disorders, its revolution
, the 
rising of people against people and king- 
dOin against kingdoln, the dissen
ions 
anlong brethren, the treason against 
la,ys, the conspiracies ,,,hich undermine 
t.he social order of the ,vorId, the visi- 
ble changing into death and into dust 
,yhich is upon the ,vhole political order 
of lnen ,vho have renounced Christian- 
ity, - all this manifests, by an nllcon- 
scions ackno,vledgmel1t, the sovereignty 
of God. The Church, by its unity, its 
universality, its luminous action upon 
the intellect of men, \vhether they ,vill 



268 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD 


believe or not; the Holy See, ilIlperish- 
able in the n1idst of eig
teell hundred 
years of conflict, imperial over the in- 
tellect and will of n1en, reigning in the 
supernatural order over nations, races, 
and people; - all these things nlanifest 
the sovereignty of God. 'Vhen St. Paul 
,vas shipwrecked upon the coast of 
.l\Ialta, a viper came out of the fire and 
fastened on his hand. The people at 
first said, "This is a lTIurderer, ,,,,hOlll 
the vengeance of God ,viII not suffer 
to live." But ,vhen they sa,v that he 
neither s\velled nor fell do,vn dead, 
,vhen he shook the deadly beast into 
the fire, they changed their minds, and 
they said that he ,vas a god. Surely 
the reason of man, seeing that the end- 
less, Inanifold, ,yorld-,vide, unrelenting 
enrnity of the serpent has never pre- 
vailed over the Catholic and ROlnan 
Church; that all the po,ver and 1ualice 



OVER THE COURSE OF THE WORLD. 269 


of the ,vorld have never been able to 
overthro,v the sovereignty of the Holy 
See, even though revolutions may sac- 
rilegiouRly occupy the city of ROIne, 
which the providence of God has given 
to be the throne - of IIis 'Vicar - though 
at first 111en may think 'the Church of 
Jesus Christ to be Antichrist, they must, 
011 calUler, "riser thoughts, conclude that 
there is in it a life which is not of man, 
and a po\ver, \vhich is not for evil, but 
for good; and if so, it must be the life 
and po,ver of God. 
I have COlne no,v to the end of ,vhat 
I have endeavored to say. You ,vill 
recollect that we have seen, first, that 
the sovereignty of God over the intel- 
lect by faith illuminates, elevates, and 
perfects the reason of man, and that to 
reject faith is to degrade the reason. 
Secondly, that the sovereignty of God 
over the ,viII by the la \v and grace of 



270 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD 


charity, perfects the -image of God in 
Ulan. Thirdly, that the sovereign ty 
of God over the whole civil order and- 
collective commonwealth of 11len, is the 
principle from \"hich the welfare and 
\vell-being, the civilization, the progress 
of hun1an society depends. And no\v 
I have traced out, slightly and faintly, 
and only in outline, as I \vell kno\v, the 
sovereignty of God over the \y hole 
\vorld,- enough, at least, to sho\v that 
the apostasy of the ,vorld does in no 
\vay diluinish that sovereignty, but that 
in its rebellion it is accornplishing and 
perfecting the \vork to \vhich that sover... 
eignty is direc
ed; and further, that at 
this time there are tokens ,vhich, I 
lnight ahnost say, are like' the voices 
and thunderiugs in heaven, and the 
,yritings of a Ulan's haud upon the \vall, 
\varning the \vor1d of those things \\' hich 
are coming upon the earth. 1'here are 



O\ER THE COURSE OF THE WORLD. 271 


voices as the voices of a great lllulti- 
tude, not only in heaven, but on earth. 
These earthly voices are discordant, 
harsh, and terrific. They are the cries 
of Anti-christian and anti-social revo- 
lutions, visible on the L1ce -of nations, 
of dark and sanguinary conspiracies, 
hiding themselves under the surface of 
the earth - rnore perilous, because not 
seen. The tin1e is come ,vhen the only 
safety for nations and for men is in the 
recognition of the sovereignty of God. 
There is nothing else that can save the 
Christian society of the ,vorld - noth- 
ing else that can save the soul in the 
day of the great account. 
"There ,vere great voices in heaven, 
saying: The kingdom of this ,vorId is 
becolne our Lords's and IIis Christ's, 
and lIe shall reIgn for ever and ever. 
Arncn. 



272 THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD. 


" We give Thee thanks, 0 Lord God 
Almighty, who art, and ,vho ,vast, and 
\vho art to come; because Thou hast 
taken to Thee Thy great power, and 
Thou hast reigned. 
"And the nations were angry, and 
Thy \vrath is COIne, and the time of the 
dead, that they should be judged, and 
that Thou shouldst render re,vard to 
Thy servants, the prophets, and the 
saints, and to then1 that fear Thy Nan1e, 
little and great; and shoulùst destroy 
them who have corrupted the earth." * 
" Great and \vonderful are Thy works, 
o Lord God Almighty; just and true 
are Thy ways, 0 I(ing of Ages. 
"'Vho shall not fear Thee, 0 Lord, 
and magnify Thy Name? For Thou 
only art holy: for all nations shaH come 
and shall adore in Thy sight, because 
Thy judglnents are manifest." t 


* Apoc. xi. 15) 17, 18. 


t Ibid. xv. 3, 4. 







'\. 


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