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Full text of "Soviet men of science; academicians and corresponding members of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR"

SOVIET MEN 1 





/ o / 



SOVIET MEN OF SCIENCE 

Academicians and Corresponding Members 
of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR 



hy 
JOHN TURKEVICH 

Eugene Higgins Professor of Chemistry 
Princeton University 



WITH EDITORIAL ASSISTANCE OF 
J. Blanshei A. Kramer 

D. Lake S. Strayer 




D. VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY, INC. 

PRINCETON, NEW JERSEY 



TORONTO 



LONDON 



NEW YORK 



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Copyright © 1963, by 
D. VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY, Inc. 



Published simultaneously in Canada by 
D. Van Nostrand Company (Canada), Ltd. 



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Supported by National Science Foundation Grant G-17474 



PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



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PREFACE 



The purpose of this volume is to present to the Western world 
the biographies of leading Soviet scientists. This is done in an 
attempt to bring a better understanding on the part of the West 
of the outstanding achievements of the scientists of the East. It 
is further hoped that this volume will facilitate a scientist to 
scientist contact and thereby lead to fruitful individual collabor- 
ation. 

The material presented has been obtained from sources scat- 
tered throughout Soviet literature. A copy of the manuscript was 
sent to the President of the Soviet Academy of Sciences three 
months before presenting it to the publisher. Individual biogra- 
phies were sent to the Soviet scientists for approval or for cor- 
rection. Unfortunately, the Academy was not able to check on 
the manuscript. On the other hand, many Soviet scientists have 
graciously corrected their biographies. For this we are thank- 
ful. 

This work was facilitated in its early stages by Professor 
George Krugovoy, William Causey, Valentina Kaye, Olga Plos- 
chek, Boris Sovetov. 

The financial support of the National Science Foundation and 
the help of the members of the division of Foreign Science Infor- 
mation of the National Science Foundation, Dr. Arthur Shanahan 
and Miss Rita Lupina, are gratefully acknowledged. 



o u f^ O 



AFANAS^YEV, GEORGII DMITRIYEVICH (Geologist) 

G. D. Afanas'yev was born March 4, 1906. Upon graduating 
from the Leningrad Institute in 1930, he worked at the Institute 
of Petrography, and later at the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences 
Institute of Geological Sciences. From 1948 to 1953, he was 
scientific secretary at the Department of Geological and Geo- 
graphic Sciences of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He has 
been a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union 
since 1948, and was elected to the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences 
as a Corresponding Member in 1953. He was assistant to the 
chief editor of Proceedings of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, 
Geological Series, from 1954, and chief editor of a review 
journal, Geology, from 1956. 

Afanas'yev' s main works deal with the study of magmetic 
rocks of the Caucasus and to questions on petrogenesis. 

As of 1961, Afanas'yev was Deputy Chief Scientific Secretary 
of Academy of Sciences U.S.S.R. 

Bibliography: 

Lake Syevan bottom sedimentation. 

Lake Syevan Basin (Gokcha), 3^, #2, Leningrad, 1933. 
Granitoids of Ancient Intrusive Complexes of North Western 
Caucasus.' Moscow: 1950. 

The importance of granitization as a process leading to the 
formation of granitoid masses. Congres Geologique Inter- 
national. Comptes rendus de la XIX session. Alger, 1952, 
Fasc. XV, Alger, 1954, 397-413. 

Main results of a study of magmetic geology in the North 
Caucasus folding territory. Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.R., Geol. 
Ser., 1956, #3. 

Office: Institute of Geology of USSR Academy of Sciences 

Pyzhevskii 7, Moscow, USSR 

Residence: Kotel'nicheskoye nab. 1/15 
Moscow, USSR 

Telephone: B7 48 82 

AGEEV, NIKOLAI VLADIMIRQVICH (Metallurgist) 

N. V. Ageev was born June 17, 1903. Upon completing the 
Leningrad Polytechnical Institute in 1926, he started working 
there. From 1938 to 1940, and again from 1942 to 1951, he 
worked at the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Institute of General 
and Inorganic Chemistry. In 1951 he was at the U.S.S.R. Acade- 
my of Sciences Institute of Metallurgy. In 1952 he was made 



AGOSHKOV 2 

Corresponding Secretary for the journal "Problems of Con- 
temporary Metallurgy," and in 1956 was made Chief Editor of 
the journal "Metallurgy Abstracts." Since 1944 he has been a 
member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. He was 
elected to the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences as a Corresponding 
Member in 1946. 

Ageev's principal works deal with research in metallic al- 
loys. He has specialized in treating problems of physical- 
chemical analysis of metallic alloys with the aid of x-rays and 
has studied chemical bonding in metallic alloys by the electron 
density method. 
Bibliography: 

Roentgenography of Metals and Alloys. Leningrad: 1932. 

Thermal Analysis of Metals and Alloys. Leningrad: 1936. 

The Chemistry of Metallic Alloys. Moscow -Leningrad: 

1941. 

The Nature of Chemical Bonding in Metallic Alloys. Moscow- 
Leningrad: 1947. 

and L. P. Grankova, P. K. Novik. Aluminum's effect on the 

stability of beta-phase in alloys of Ti-Mo-Fe. Diklady Akad. 

Nauk S.S.S.R. 146, #2, 351-54 (1962). 
Office: A. A. Baykov Institute of Metallurgy 

USSR Academy of Sciences 
Leninskii Prospekt, 49 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Leninskii Prospekt, 13, Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: B2 09 26 

AGOSHKOV, Mikhail Ivanovich (Mining Expert) 

M. I. Agoshkov was born October 30, 1905. He graduated 
from the Far East Polytechnic Institute in Vladivostok in 1931. 
From 1933 to 1941 he worked at the North Caucasus Mining 
Metallurgical Institute, and at the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences 
Institute of Mining in 1941, where he became deputy Director 
in 1952. 

Agoshkov' s works are devoted to exploitation of ore deposits. 
He has been awarded two orders and also medals. He was head 
of the foreign section of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences until 
1960. 

As of 1961, Agoshkov was a Deputy Chief Scientific Secretary 
of Academy of Sciences U.S.S.R. 

In December 1962 it was announced that Agoshkov was ap- 
pointed acting Chief Scientific Secretary of the Presidium of 
the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 



3 ALEKSANDROV 

Bibliography: 

Exploitation of Ore Deposits, 3rd ed. Moscow: 1954 (trans- 
lated into Rumanian, Bulgarian, Hungarian, and Chinese). 
On the Determination of the Productivity of a Mine. Moscow: 
1948 (translated into Czech and Polish). 
Office: Institute of Mining of USSR Academy of Sciences 

Stantsiya Panki 
Moscow Oblast', USSR 
Residence: nab. Gor'kogo, 32 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: VI 76 99 

ALEKIN, OLEG ALEKSANDROVICH (Hydrochemist) 

O. A. Alekin was born August 23, 1908. In 1938, he gradu- 
ated from Leningrad University. From 1929-1951, he worked 
at the Hydrological Institute in Leningrad. In 1951 he became 
Director of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Hydrochemical 
Institute where he remained until 1961 when he was reassigned 
to the Laboratory of Limnology. He was rector of Rostov Uni- 
versity in 1954. Since 1942, he has been a member of the 
Communist Party of the Soviet Union. In 1953, Alekin was 
elected to the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences as a Corresponding 
Member. He received a Stalin Prize in 1951. He has also been 
awarded three orders and medals. 

Alekin' s major work is in the chemistry of natural waters, 
the study of hydrological conditions of rivers and lakes, the 
development of procedures of chemical analysis of waters (de- 
termination of the content of dissolved oxygen, gold, and of pH). 
Bibliography : 

General Hydrochemistry. Leningrad: 1948. 
Hydrochemistry of the Rivers of U.S.S.R., Part 2-3. Lenin- 
grad: 1948-49 (Works of the Hydrological Institute, #10, 
15). 

Basis of Hydrochemistry. Leningrad: 1953. 
Chemical Analysis of Inland Waters. Leningrad: 1954. 
Office: Laboratory of Limnology 

Naberezhnaya Makharova, 2 
Leningrad, USSR 

ALEICSANDROV, ANATOLH PETROVICH (Nuclear Physicist) 

A. P. Aleksandrov was born February 13, 1903. After 
graduating from Kiev University in 1930, he joined the staff of 
the Physico-Technical Institute of the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences. From 1946 to 1955, he was Director of the Institute 



ALEKSANDROV 4 

of Physical Problems of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 
Aleksandrov was a participant at the two Geneva Conferences 
of the United Nations on Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy in 
1955 and 1958. In 1959 he visited the United States with the 
Soviet delegation of atomic energy experts. After I. V. Kurcha- 
tov's death (nuclear physicist, 1902-1960), Aleksandrov was 
named his successor as Director of the Kurchatov Institute. 
Aleksandrov became a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences in 1943 and in 1953 an Academician. He 
is the recipient of a Stalin Prize. 

Aleksandrov' s scientific work deals with the physical nature 
of insulators and investigations of mechanical and electrical 
properties of high-polymers. He studied the properties of 
polymerized styrene, developed methods of its polymerization 
and constructed condensates from polystyrene. Aleksandrov 
also investigated the mechanical properties of other polymers 
and amorphous substances; he proposed a static theory of sta- 
bility of solids. He developed a relaxation theory of elasticity, 
studied the solidification of polymers and the nature of phase 
transitions. He was also active in the development of nuclear 
reactors in the post World War II period. 

As of 1961, Aleksandrov was a Member of the Presidium of 
the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He was elected as a dele- 
gate from R.S.F.S.R. to the Supreme Soviet on March 18, 1962. 
Bibliography: 

and Ya. I. Khanin, E. G. Yashin. Observations of spontane- 
ous coherent radiation of ferrite in a resonator. Zhur. 
Exptl. i Teor. Fiz. 38, #4, 1334-37 (1960). 
and N. S. Khlopkin, B. Ya. Gnesin, A. I. Gladkov . The 
Atomic -Ice-Breaker "Lenin". Atomnaya Energiya 5, #3, 
257-276 (1958). 
Biography: 

Aleksandrov, A. P., Vestnik Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1953, #12, 
62. 
Office: I. V. Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy 

USSR Academy of Sciences 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Khoroshevskii Serebryannii Bor 
2-aya Lin. 39 
Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: D2 10 00 Ext. 50 



5 ALEKSEEV 

ALEKSANDRQV, BORIS KAPITONOVICH (Hydraulic Engineer) 
B. K. Aleksandrov was born August 6, 1889. He graduated 
from the Petrograd Polytechnical Institute in 1917. He helped 
design the "Moscow" canal and plan the building of the Rybinsk 
and Uglich Hydroelectric Plants. In 1939 he was head and chief 
engineer of the "Greater Volga" Directorate of the State Trust 
for the Planning of Hydroelectric Power Plants and Centers. 
In 1918 he taught at a number of secondary and advanced 
schools. In 1946 he began teaching at the Moscow Institute of 
Energetics, where he became a professor in 1948. In 1953 he 
became a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences. 

The works of Aleksandrov deal with utilizing the energy of 
large plain rivers of the European part of the U.S.S.R. (Volga, 
Oka), the transfer of the flow of Northern rivers of Pechora 
and Onega into the Volga and ICama, and also with construction 
of buildings for hydroelectric buildings and navigable locks. He 
is the author of the project of the Kama Hydroelectric Power 
Station and dam and of the Kama multi- chambered navigable 
lock with utilization of an electric locomotive. 
Office: Moscow Institute of Energetics 

Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Chistoprudn. bul. 11 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: B3 10 51 

ALEKSEEV, ALEKSANDR EMELYANOVICH (Electronic 
Engineer) 

A. E. Alekseev was born November 27, 1891. In 1925, he 
graduated from the Leningrad Electrotechnical Institute. From 
1908 to 1919, he was employed at an electric plant in Peters- 
burg (Leningrad). Since 1936, he has been professor at the 
Leningrad Institute of Railroad Engineers. In 1953, he began 
working at the U.S.S.R. Academy. of Sciences Institute of 
Electromechanics. He has been awarded a medal, the Order of 
Lenin and the Order of the Red Banner of Labor. In 1953 he 
became a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences. 

Alekseev has worked in the field of electric machines. He 
worked out the theory and methods of ventilation and heat calcu- 
lation of electric machines. Under his direction the first Soviet 
electric traction machines, turbo and hydro -generators were 
built. He is concerned with electric traction on direct and 



ALEKSEEVSKn 6 

alternating currents. He participated in designing a rail- 
welding machine (Stalin Prize 1949). 
Bibliography: 

Electric Traction Motors, 2nd ed. Moscow: 1951. 
Construction of Electric Machines. Leningrad-Moscow: 
1949 (Lenin Prize 1951). 

and M. P. Kostenko . Turbogenerators. Leningrad-Moscow: 
1939. 
Office: Institute of Electromechanics of USSR Academy 

of Sciences 
Dvortsovaya Naberezhnaya, 18 
Leningrad, USSR 

ALEKSEEVSKII, NIKOLAI EVGEN'EVICH (Physicist) 

N. E. Alekseevskii was born in 1912. He completed the 
Leningrad Polytechnical Institute in 1936. From 1936-41, he 
was at the Ukraine Phy si co- Technical Institute in Khar'kov. 
From 1941-42 he worked as an x-ray technician at an evacu- 
ation hospital and then as an assistant in the physics department 
of the Medical Institute in Stalingrad. From 1942 he was at the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Institute of Physical Problems 
in Moscow. In 1947-60 he was on the staff of the Department 
of Physics of Low Temperature of the Physics Faculty of 
Moscow State University, where he became a professor in 1950. 
In 1960 he became chairman of the department of experimental 
physics at the Moscow Physico-Technological Institute. In 
1960 he was elected a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences. 

Alekseevskii' s works deal with the physics of low tempera- 
ture. 
Bibliography: 

and Yu. P. Gaidukov . Anisotropy of the electrical existence 
of a gold monocrystal in a magnetic field at 4.2° K. Zh. 
eksper. teor. fiz. 35, #2(8), 554-5 (1958). In Russian 
Physics-JETP (New York) 35(8), #2383-4 (1959) English 
translation. Phys. Sci. Abstr. 62, 13334 (1959). 
and Yu. P. Gaidu kov. Measurement of the electrical con- 
ductivity of metals in a magnetic field as a method for in- 
vestigation of the Fermi surface. Zh. eksper. teor. fiz. 36, 
#2, 447-50 (1959). Phys. Sci. Abstr. 62, 13335 (1959). 
and N. B. Brandt, T. I. Kostina. On the anomalous galvano- 
magnetic properties of metals at low temperatures. Zh. 
eksper. teor. fiz. 34, #5, 1339-41 (1958). Phys. Sci. Abstr. 
62, 9668 (1959). 



7 ALEXANDROFF 

and Yu. Gaidukov . The influence of plastic deformation on 
the anomalous behaviour of the resistance of gold at low 
temperatures. Zh. eksper. teor. fiz. 35, #3(9), 804-6 (1958). 
Soviet Physics-JETP (New York) 35^(8), #3, 558-9 (1959). 
English translation. Phys. Sci. Abstr. 63, 2847 (1960). 
and Yu. Gaidukov . The anisotropy of magnetoresistance and 
the topology of the Fermi surfaces of metals. Zh. eksper. 
teor. fiz. 37, #3(9), 672-7 (1959). Soviet Physics-JETP 
(New York) 37 (10), #3, 481-4 (1960). English translation. 
Phys. Sci. Abstr. 63, 9939 (1960). 

and V. V. Bondar', Yu. M. Polykarov . Superconductivity of 
electrodeposited copper-bismuth alloys. Zh. eksper. teor. 
fiz. 38, #1, 294-5 (1960). Phys. Sci. Abstr. 63, 10849 (1960). 
and M. N. Mikheeva . The critical currents in superconduct- 
ing films of tin. Zh. eksper. teor. fiz. 38, #1, 292-3 (1960). 
Phys. Sci. Abstr. 63, 12562 (1960). 

and A. V. Dubrovin, G. E. Karstens . The application of 
mass spectrometers with inhomogenous magnetic fields for 
gas analysis. Zhur. Fiz. Khim. 34, 1275-9 (1960). Nuclear 
Sci. Abstr. 14, 23096 (1960). 

and Fam Zui-Khien, V. G. Shapiro, V. S. Shpinel' . Aniso- 
tropy of the Mossbauer Effect in a j3 -Sn monocrystal. Zhur. 
Expt'l. i Teoret. Fiz. 43, #3, 790-93 (1962). 
and Yu. P. Gaidukov . Fermi surface of silver. Zhur. 
Expt'l. i Teoret. Fiz. 42, #1, 69-74 (1962). 

Office: Experimental Physics Department 

Moscow Physico-Technological Institute 
Moscow, USSR 

Residence: Vorob'evskoye shosse, 2 
Moscow, USSR 

Telephone: B2 13 14 

ALEXANDROFF (ALEKSANDROV), PAVEL SERGEIEVICH 
( Mathemati cian) 
P. S. Alexandroff was born May 7, 1896. In 1917 he gradu- 
ated from Moscow University. He became a lecturer in 1921 
and in 1929 was made professor. In 1921 he was elected a 
member of the Moscow Mathematical Society, in 1932 Presi- 
dent, and in 1946 an Honorary Member. He has been a Corre- 
sponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences since 
1929 and since 1953 an Academician. Alexandroff is a member 
of the Berlin Academy of Sciences (Associate Member since 
1950), the American Philosophical Society in Philadelphia, the 
National Academy of Sciences in Washington (since 1947), the 



ALEXANDROFF 8 

Gottingen Academy of Sciences (1929-38, and from 1945), the 
Polish Academy of Sciences and other societies. In 1943 he 
was awarded a Stalin Prize. 

Alexandroff investigated the theory of point sets and the 
theory of the function of the real variable, obtaining such im- 
portant results as the proof of the theorem on the power of 
Borel sets. In collaboration with P. S. Urysohn he developed in 
the Soviet Union the field of topology, becoming the head of the 
U.S.S.R. School of Topology. Among his former students are: 
L. Pontryagin, A. Tychonoff, A. Kurosh, Yu. Smirnov, G. 
Chogoshvili, K. Sitnikov and others. Alexandroff originated one 
of the main theories of topological spaces—the theory of bi- 
compact spaces. He also contributed in an essential way to the 
modern theory of dimensionality (in particular he founded the 
theory of the homogical dimension); he was the founder of 
methods based on combinatory algebraic investigation of sets 
and spaces of a general nature; he proved a series of basic 
"laws of duality" (combining topological properties of the geo- 
metrical figure with topological properties of space comple- 
mentary to it). 
Bibliography: 

Sur la puissance des ensembles mesurables B. Comptes 
Rendus Acad. Sci. Paris, 1916, 162, p. 323. 
and P. Urysohn . Une condition necessaire et suffisante pour 
qu'une classe (L) soit une classe (D). Compt. Rend. Acad. 
Paris, 1923, 177, p. 1274. 

Ueber die Aequivalenz des Perronschen und des Denjoyschen 
Integralbegriffes, Math. Zeitschrift 1924, 20, p. 213. 
Les ensembles de premiere classe et les espaces abstraits. 
Compt. Rend. Acad. Paris, 1924, 178, p. 185. 
and P. Urysohn . Memoire sur les espaces topologiques 
compacts. Verhandelingen Kon. Acad. Amsterdam, 1929, 
14:1, p. 1. 

Untersuchungen iiber Gestalt und Lage abgeschlossener 
Mengen beliebiger Dimension. Annals of Math., 1929, 30, 
p. 101. 

Dimensions theorie. Ein Beitrag zur Geometrie der abge- 
schlossener Mengen. Mathematische Annalen, 1932, 106 , 
p. 161. 

On local properties of closed sets. Annals of Math., 1935, 
36, p. 1. 

On bicompact extensions of topological spaces. Matemati- 
ceski Sbornik, 1939, 5, p. 403. 



9 ALEXANDROV 

Homological situation properties of complexes and closed 
sets. Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. Mat., 1942, 6 (Stalin 
Prize 1943). (English trans, in Transact. Amer. Math. Soc. 
1943, 54^ p. 286. 

Duality theorems for non-closed sets in the n-dimensional 
space. Mathematiceski Sbornik, 1947, 21., p. 161. 
On the notion of space in topology. Uspekhi Mat. Nauk, 1947, 
2, p. 5. 

On the dimension of normal spaces. Proceed. Roy. Soc, 
London, 1947, 189, p. 1. 

On combinatorial topology of non- closed sets. Matematiceski 
Sbornik, 1953, 33, p. 241. 

On the homeomorphism of point sets. Trudy Moskovskogo 
Matemat. Obshch., 1955, 4, p. 405. 

and W. Ponomarev . On certain classes of n-dimensional 
spaces. Sibirskij Matematiceskiy Jurnal, 1960, 1^, p. 3. 
Metrization of topological spaces. Bull. Polish Acad., Sect, 
of Math., Phys. and Astronomy, 1960, 8:3, p. 135. 
and W. Ponomarev . On dyadic bicompacta. Fundamenta 
Mathematicae, 1962, 50, p. 419. 
Office: Mechanics-Mathematics Faculty 

Moscow University 

Moscow V-234, USSR 
Residence: Leninskiye gory, sektor "L" 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: V9 30 91 

ALEXANDROV, ALEKSANDR DANILOVICH (Mathematician) 

A. D. Alexandrov was born August 4, 1912. He is Rector of 
Leningrad University. In 1946 he was elected a Corresponding 
Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He has been a 
member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union since 1951. 
In 1942 he was awarded a State Prize. 

Alexandrov is the founder of the Soviet school of geometry 
in the large. He set up an intrinsic geometry of general sur- 
faces. 

In April 1959, Alexandrov visited the University of California 
at Berkeley. 
Bibliography: 

Inner Geometry of Convex Surfaces. Moscow-Leningrad: 

1948. 

Convex Polyhedra. Moscow-Leningrad: 1950. 



ALIKHANOV 10 

Office: Leningrad State University 

Universitetskaya nab. 7/9 
Leningrad V-164, USSR 

ALIKHANOV, ABRAM ISAAKQVICH (Nuclear Physicist) 

A. L Alikhanov was born March 4, 1904. In 1931 he gradu- 
ated from Leningrad Polytechnical Institute. He had been on 
the staff of the Physico-Technical Institute of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences since 1927 and became the Director of its 
Power Engineering Laboratories. In 1939 Alikhanov was elect- 
ed a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences 
and in 1943 an Academician. He has also been a member of the 
Armenian S.S.R. Academy of Sciences since 1943. In 1941 and 
1948 he was a recipient of Stalin Prizes. 

The first scientific investigations of Alikhanov were in the 
field of x-rays. In 1934 in collaboration with his brother, 
Artemii Isaakovich Alikhan'yan, he began research in radio- 
activity, and in the same year, jointly with M. S. Kozodaev and 
Alikhan'yan, discovered the pair emission by excited nuclei. 
In 1935, together with Alikhan'yan, he formulated the relation- 
ship between j3- spectra and the atomic number of the element. 
In 1936, with Alikhan'yan and L. A. Artsimovich, Alikhanov 
proved experimentally the conservation of momentum during 
pair annihilation. Investigations of cosmic rays (1939) led 
Alikhanov, together with A. I. Alikhan'yan and S. Ya. Nikitin, to 
the discovery of unstable mesons. In 1949, he built the first 
reactor in the U.S.S.R., using heavy water as a moderator. At 
present Alikhanov is working on the development of nuclear 
reactors. 

As of 1961, Alikhanov was Director of the Institute of Theo- 
retical and Experimental Physics and is Chairman of the Com- 
mission on Cosmic Rays. 

Bibliography : 

and A. I. Alikhan'yan. Investigations in artificial radioactivi- 
ty. Zhur. Eksptl. i Teoret. Fiz., 1936, 6, #7. 
Cosmic rays, recent problems in science and technology. 
Lectures, Moscow, 1949. 

and A. I. Alikhan'yan, M. S. Kozodaev . Measurements of 
e/m for /3 particles. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1938, 20, 
#6. 

and A. I. Alikhan'yan. New data on the nature of cosmic 
rays. Uspekhi Fiz. Nauk, 1945, 27, #1. 
and A. I. Babaev, M. Ya. Balats, V. S. Kaftanov, L. G . 
Landsberg, V. A. Lyubimov, Yu. V. Obukov . Further studies 



11 ALIKHAN'YAN 

of /Li-^-e + y disintegration. Zhur. Expt'l. i Teoret. Fiz. 42, 
#2, 630-31 (1962). 
Biography: 

Academician A. I. Alikhanov (on his 50th birthday). Zhur. 
Eksptl. i Teoret. Fiz., 1954, 27, #1. 
Office: Institute of Theoretical & Experimental Physics of 

USSR Academy of Sciences 
3 Pyzhevskii Pereulok 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Dorogmilovskaya, 31 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: G3 50 22, Ext. 31 

ALIKHAN'YAN, ARTEMII ISAAKQVICH (Physicist) 

A. I. Alikhan'yan was born July 24, 1908. He graduated from 
Leningrad University in 1931 and began, with A. I. Alikhanov, 
work in nuclear physics and cosmic rays. Since 1943 he has 
been an Academician of the Armenian SSR Academy of Sciences 
and since 1946 a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Acade- 
my of Sciences. In 1941 and 1948 he was awarded Stalin Prizes. 

From 1934, Alikhan'yan, with A. I. Alikhanov and M. S. 
Kozodaev, discovered pair emission by excited nuclei. In 1935, 
Alikhan'yan, with Alikhanov, established the law of the de- 
pendence of beta-spectra on the atomic number of the element. 
The main work of Alikhan'yan is devoted to the study of cosmic 
rays. In association with Asatiani, he discovered showers with 
few particles in cosmic rays (the so-called narrow showers). 
Alikhan'yan also showed that in the composition of primary 
components of cosmic radiation there are particles present 
with energies up to LQI'^ electron-volts. In 1945 Alikhan'yan 
helped establish a cosmic ray station on Mountain Aragats, 
where he, with associates, conducted a magnetic analysis on 
the mass of cosmic ray particles. 

In 1951-52 Alikhan'yan and his associates were successful 
in separating particles with a mass ~ 200me in cosmic rays 
and also in obtaining some indication of the existence of parti- 
cles with masses of approximately 600me and 950me. 

As of 1961, Alikhan'yan was Director of the Armenian 
Academy of Sciences Institute of Physics. 
Bibliography: 

and A. Dadayan . Investigation of narrow showers at an alti- 
tude of 3250 meters above sea level. Zhur. Eksptl. i. 
Teoret. Fiz., 1949, #1. 



ALIMARIN 12 

and S. Ya- Nikitin. Investigation of the end of spectrum P^E 
with the aid of a double magnetic spectrometer. Izvest. 
Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. Fiz., 1940, 4^ #2. 
and A. I. Alikhanov and S. Nikitin. Low and high energy 
components of cosmic rays, and spin of meson. Izvest. 
Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. Fiz., 1940, 6, #1-2. 
and T. L. Asatiani, E. M. Matevosyan, R. O. Sharichatunyan. 
Investigation of the polarization of cosmic rays /i "'"-mesons. 
Zhur. Expt'l. i Teoret. Fiz. 42, #1, 127-29 (1962). 
Office: Institute of Physics of Academy of Sciences 

Armenian SSR 
Yerevan, Armenian SSR 

ALIMARIN, IV^AN PAVLOVICH (Chemist) 

I. P. Alimarin was born September 11, 1903. From 1923 to 
1953, he worked at the AU-Union Scientific Research Institute 
of Mineral Raw Materials, and in 1949, at the U.S.S.R. Academy 
of Sciences Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry. 
From 1929 to 1953, he also taught at the Moscow Institute of 
Fine Chemical Technology and became a professor there in 
1950. In 1953 he was made a professor at Moscow University. 
He was elected to the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences as a 
Corresponding Member in 1953. He was awarded the Lenin 
Order, the Order of the Red Banner of Labor, and a medal. 

Alimarin has concerned himself with analysis of minerals 
and ores, analytical chemistry of rare elements, microchemis- 
try and radiochemical analysis. 
Bibliography: 

and R. L. Podval'naya. Colorimetric determination of small 
quantities of niobium in the form of a rhodon complex. Zhur. 
Anal. Khim., 1946, 1, #1, 30-46. 

and B. N. Ivanov-Emin and O. A. Alexeeva . Quantitative 
Chemical Determination of Germanium in the Ash of Fossil 
Coal. Moscow-Leningrad: 1946. 

Utilization of radioactive isotopes in chemical analysis. 
Utilization of Isotopes in Engineering, Biology and Agri- 
culture. Moscow: 1955 (Reports of the Soviet Delegation at 
the International Conference for Peaceful Utilization of 
Atomic Energy, Geneva, 1955). 

and V. N. Arkhangel'skaya . Qualitative Semi Microanalysis, 
2nd ed. Moscow-Leningrad: 1952. 
Office: Chemistry Department 

Moscow University 
Moscow, USSR 



13 AMBARTSUMIAN 

Residence: Leninskiye gory, korp. "I" 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: B9 18 80 

AMBARTSUMIAN, VIKTOR AMAZASPQV^ICH (Astrophysicist) 

V. A. Ambartsumian was born September 18, 1908 in Tbilisi 
in the family of the distinguished Armenian philologist, writer 
and teacher, A. A. Ambartsumian. Ambartsumian received his 
secondary education at Tbilisi. He graduated in 1928 from 
Leningrad University, having published, as a student, more 
than ten papers on theoretical astrophysics and mathematics. 
He pursued graduate studies at Pulkovo Observatory under the 
Russian astrophysicist, A. A. Belopolskii (1854-1934). As a 
graduate student, he published papers dealing with solar phy- 
sics, the physics of the stellar atmospheres and gaseous nebu- 
lae, and theoretical physics. He completed his graduate work 
in 1931, served as docent at Leningrad University, and in 1934 
became a professor. Ambartsumian established the chair of 
Astrophysics at Leningrad University in 1934, and occupied it 
until 1946. He became Director of the Leningrad University 
Astronomical Observatory in 1938. He has been a pro-rector 
of science at the Leningrad University. From 1943 to 1947 he 
was Vice-President of the newly organized Academy of Sciences 
of the Armenian S.S.R. He was head of the research branch of 
the Leningrad University which was moved to Yelabuga during 
World War II. Since 1944 he has served as the Director of 
Yerevan Observatory. On his own initiative, he began and 
supervised the planning and construction of Byurakan Observa- 
tory in 1946, and became the Director. He has held the Chair 
of Astrophysics at Yerevan State University since 1947. He 
became a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union 
in 1940. In 1947, he was elected President of the Academy of 
Sciences of the Armenian S.S.R. From 1948 to 1955, he was 
Vice President of the International Astronomical Union. He 
was elected Academician of the Academy of Sciences of the 
U. S.S.R. in 1953, having been a Corresponding Member since 
1939. He is a Deputy of the Supreme Soviet, since 1950, a 
member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of 
Armenia, and President of the Armenian Society for the Propa- 
gation of Scientific and Political Knowledge. He has frequently 
participated in the work of international congresses, confer- 
ences, and meetings, and is an honorary member of corre- 
sponding member of academies of science and scientific socie- 
ties of Austria, Britain, Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, 



AMBARTSUMIAN 14 

and the United States. Ambartsumian has twice received a 
State Prize, in 1946 and in 1950. He has also received two 
Orders of Lenin and two Orders of the Red Banner of Labor. 
In 1961 in Berkeley (USA) V. A. Ambartsumian was elected the 
President of the International Astronomical Union. 

The early works of Ambartsumian dealt with the study of 
stellar physics and gaseous nebulae. He has gi'^^en a mathemati- 
cal interpretation of the complex physical processes involved 
i-n the luminescence of gaseous nebulae; he has demonstrated 
the important role of 'L<^' radiation pressure in the nebulae, 
has developed a solution to the problem of atom accumulation 
in metastable states, and has elaborated a method for determin- 
ing the electron temperature of the nebulae. The method he 
worked out for subdividing the 'Lc' and 'LqI fields of radiation 
has enabled him to devise a theory of radiation equilibrium of 
planetary nebulae. This theory has been the foundation for all 
subsequent studies in this direction, the most valuable of which 
is the research conducted by his student, V. V. Sobolev. Am- 
bartsumian has also devised methods of determining the masses 
of the nebulae and the gaseous envelopes surrounding the stars. 
These studies have stimulated further research on stellar 
physics and nebulae both in the Soviet Union and abroad. He 
was the first in the Soviet Union to have organized a course in 
Leningrad State University on theoretical astrophysics and is 
the leader of the Soviet school of theoretical astrophysics. 

More recently Ambartsumian' s interests extended to include 
stellar astronomy and cosmogony. A large number of his 
studies deal with the problem of the evolution of stellar sys- 
tems. The idea underlying these studies is that of the existence 
of irregular forces in addition to regular forces in stellar 
systems. In the case of the double stars and star clusters, 
these irregular forces often play a decisive role in the process 
of their development. In order to solve this problem, he elabo- 
rated new methods of statistical mechanics of stellar systems 
and successfully applied them to dual stars and star clusters. 
The results of these investigations were incorporated by him 
into lectures during the 1930' s at Leningrad University. These 
investigations and other results have affected previously exist- 
ing theories of the age of the Galaxy and of the evolution of its 
component systems. Ambartsumian refuted the "Long Time 
Scale,'' according to which the age of the Galaxy was taken to 
be roughly lO^^ years, while, according to him, the age of the 
Galaxy is in the order of 10^0 years. During 1941-43, he 
personally conducted extensive research on the theory of light 



15 AMBARTSUMIAN 

diffusion in a turbid medium, which is of great importance in 
many questions of geophysics, physics, and astrophysics, and 
for which he received the State Prize in 1946. This traditionally 
well-known problem in science has generally been reduced to 
an integral equation for which the solution was found in a very 
cumbersome fashion by means of consecutive approximations. 
Ambartsumian applied an entirely new method to the solution of 
this problem: reducing it to simple functional equations, he ob- 
tained an exact solution to it. These equations have become 
known as "Ambartsumian' s Functional Equations." Also in the 
forties, he completed a cycle of studies dealing with the problem 
of the structure of the Galaxy which had been partially carried 
out during his stay in Leningrad. The structure of the Galaxy 
(the basic problem of modern Astronomy) became a more com- 
plex question in the 1930' s with the discovery of dark, light- 
absorbing matter in the interstellar space. In studying (along 
with Sh. G. Gordeladze) the distribution of hot stars and of dif- 
fuse nebulae, Ambartsumian revealed the patchy structure of 
the dark matter, and drew the conclusion that interstellar ab- 
sorption is conditioned by the total mass of dark clouds, in the 
form of separate, obscure nebulae, not a continuous medium, 
as had been previously believed. On the basis of the patchy 
structure of the dark matter, he elaborated a mathematical 
theory of the fluctuations in the distribution of the stars, of the 
brightness of the Milky Way, and of the extragalactic nebulae 
which was subsequently developed in the work of Ambartsumi- 
an' s pupils and by a number of foreign scientists (such as 
Chandrasekar, Munch). His work also dealt with the relation- 
ship between the luminosity of interstellar matter in space and 
the neighboring stars, a method to calculate the mass ejected 
by Nova (the order of magnitude of only one part in a thousand 
of the mass of the sun), a theory on radiation equilibrium in 
planetary nebulae, and a theory for determining the space ve- 
locity distribution of stars from their radial velocities. 

A new development of Ambartsumian is concerned with the 
origins and development of celestial bodies. An analysis and 
synthesis of observation material accumulated enabled him in 
1947 to discover the existence in the Galaxy of a new type of 
stellar systems which he designated as stellar associations. 
These he found to be subject to break-up through the dropping 
out of individual stars, and to be of comparatively recent origin 
(State Prize, 1950). He established the continuous process of 
star formation at the present stage in the development of the 
Galaxy. This was a refutation of the concept held of the 



AMBARTSUMIAN 16 

simultaneous origin on the stars in the Galaxy. This work pro- 
vided a foundation for research in astronomy into the evolution 
of stars and stellar systems by observation of their develop- 
ment. The theoretical prediction (in 1947-49) by Ambartsumian 
concerning the dynamic instability of stellar associations and 
their expansion was confirmed as a result of the analysis of 
movements of stars carried out in Leyden and Byurakan. 

Ambartsumian' s finding of the group character of the 
emergence of stars has permitted clearer study of the physical 
nature and cosmogonic role of double and multiple stars, star 
chains and clusters, and gaseous nebulae. It has also resulted 
in work by Ambartsumian on continuous emission, another as- 
pect of the physical nature of the members of stellar associ- 
ations. Continuous emission is the excess radiation in a total 
spectrum observed in stars of the T Tauri and UV Ceti type and 
also in comet-like nebulae. By synthesis and analysis of unco- 
ordinated data, Ambartsumian established the non-thermal 
character of continuous emission. This aroused great interest 
in the origin of this entirely new phenomenon. At the present 
time, extensive study of continuous emission is under way both 
at the Byurakan Observatory and at a number of foreign ob- 
servatories (Lick, Tonantzintla). 

In recent years, Ambartsumian began research on the 
galaxies and on the systems constituted by them. One result of 
his work is the conclusion (based on the group character of the 
formation of galaxies) that galaxies form as multiple systems 
and clusters having in many cases positive energy, that is, 
constituting systems under disintegration. He interprets radio- 
galaxies as the result of a process of division—the formation of 
galaxies counterbalancing the hypothesis of collision of galaxies. 
The blue galaxies detected by him, a particular kind of dwarf 
galaxies, enrich our conceptions of the nature of galaxies and 
may furnish much valuable material for studying the evolution 
of galaxies. The very important role of nuclei of galaxies in 
their evolution was shown. In particular it was concluded that 
the nuclei of galaxies display a number of forms of cosmogonic 
activity. 

In 1960 the composition of degenerate gas with nuclear densi- 
ty and greater was studied. It was shown that with increasing 
density, different hyperons successively appear and their 
number in the gas increases. They should be stable due to the 
Pauli principle. 

Then it is proved that in the case of the degenerate super- 
dense gas the configuration of gravitational equilibrium of 



17 AMBARTSUMIAN 

cosmic mass should consist of a hyperon nucleus, neutron layer 
and outer envelope of usual composition (electrons, protons, 
and composite nuclei). 

The internal structure of equilibrium configurations of stel- 
lar masses, with densities of the order of the atomic nucleus 
and higher, was studied. It was shown that the space metrics 
inside the configuration essentially deviates from the Euclidian 
type. 

As of 1961, Ambartsumian was a member of the Presidium 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, and Chairman of the Commission 
on Astrophysics of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 
Bibliography: 

Uber eine frage der eigenwerttheorie. Z. f. Phys., 1929, 
#53. 

The radiative equilibrium of a planetary nebula. MN, 1932, 
93, #1. 

On the radiative equilibrium of a planetary nebula. Lenin- 
grad, 1933 (Bulletin of the Main Astronomical Observatory 
in Pulkovo, 13, #114. 

The Excitation of the Metastable States in the Gaseous Nebu- 
lae. Circular of Pulkovo Observatory, 1933, #6. 
Die Flachenhelligkeiten der Monochromatischen Bilder 
einiger Gasnebel. Z. f. Ap., 1933, #6. 

and N. A. Kosyrev . Uber die Massen der von neuen Sternen 
ausgestossenen Gashiillen. Z. f. Ap., 1933, #7. 
On the derivation of the frequency function of space veloci- 
ties of the stars from the observed radial velocities. MN, 
1935, 96, #3. 

and G. A. Shain. On the faint white stars in low galactic 
latitudes. Astron. Zhur., 1936, 13, #1. 

Double stars and the cosmogonic time-scale. Nature, 1936, 
137, #3465. 

To statistics of double stars. Astron. Zhur., 1937, 14, #3. 
On the question of dynamics of open clusters. Scientific 
Transactions of Leningrad State University, Math. Series 
(Astronomy), 1938, #22. 

Problem of diffuse nebulae and cosmic absorption. Bulletin 
of the Abastunmani Astrophysical Observatory, 1938, #2. 
Diffusion and absorption of light in planetary atmospheres. 
Scientific Transactions of Leningrad State University, Math. 
Series (Astronomy), #82, 1941, #11. 

On diffusion of light by atmospheres of planets. Astron. 
Zhur., 1942, #3. 



AMIRASLANOV 18 

New method of computing the diffusion of light in a turbid 

medium. Izvest. Aliad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. Geogr. i Fiz., 

1942, #3. 

On the problem of the diffuse reflection of light. J. Phys. of 

S.S.S.R., 1944, 8, #2. 

On the theory of fluctuations of the brightness in milky way. 

Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1944, #6. 

Stellar Evolution and Astrophysics. Armenian Academy of 

Sciences, Yerevan, 1947. 

Stellar associations. Astron. Zhur., 1949, 26, #1. 

The Phenomenon of Continuous Emission and Sources of 

Stellar Energy. Communications of Byurakan Observatory, 

1954, #13. 

Multiple Systems of Trapezium Type. Communications of 

Byurakan Observatory, 1954, #15. 

Stars of T. Tauri and UV Ceti types and Phenomenon of 

Continuous Emission. International Astronomical Union 

Symposium, Non-Stable Stars, 1957, #3. 

Stellar Systems of Positive Total Energy. Observatory, 

1955, 75, #885. 

On the multiple galaxies. Izvest. Akad. Nauk of Armenian 
S.S.R., Fiz-Mat. Nauki, 1956, 9, #1. 

On the evolution of galaxies. Report presented to the Solvay 
Conference of 1958, Bruxelles, 1959. 
and G. S. Saakian . On the degenerate superdense gas of 
elementary particles. Astron. Zhur., 1960, 37, #2. 
and G. S. Saakian. The internal structure of hyperon con- 
figurations of stellar masses. Astron. Zhur., 1961, 38, #6. 
Scientific Works in Two Volumes. Armenian Academy of 
Sciences, Yerevan: 1960. 
Biography: 

V. A. Ambartsumian. Yerevan, 1954 (Academy of Sciences 
of the Armenian S.S.R., Bibliographical Data of U.S.S.R. 
Scientists). Second edition, Yerevan: 1958. 
Office: Academy of Sciences Armenian SSR 

Barekmutyan, 24 

Yerevan, Armenian SSR 

AMIRASLANOV, ALI AGAMALY OGLY (Deceased, October 16 , 
■ 1962. ) 

A. A. Amiraslanov was born December 1900. Upon graduat- 
ing from the Moscow Mining Academy in 1930, he worked at the 
All -Union Institute of Mineral Raw Materials and Scientific 
Geological Gold Survey Institute. In 1939-1947 he was a chief 
engineer, in 1948-1953 he was Director, and in 1954 he became 



19 ANDREEV 

chief geologist of the U.S.S.R. Main Geological Survey Directo- 
rate of the Ministry of Non- Ferrous Metals. He taught at the 
Moscow Geological Survey Institute from 1931 to 1955, and in 
1950 became a professor at that institute. He was awarded two 
orders as well as medals. 

Amiraslanov's major works deal with non-ferrous and rare 
metals deposits (chiefly copper, lead and zinc). 
Bibliography: 

Levikhin group of pyritic deposits in the Urals. Works of 
the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, 4^. Leningrad: 1934. 
Karpushikhinsk Deposit in the Urals and its Prospects. 
Moscow-Leningrad: 1936 (Works of the AU-Union Scientific 
Research Institute of Mineral Raw Materials, #99). 
Mineralogical Characteristics of Pyritic Deposits in the 
Urals and Secondary Processes in Them. Moscow -Leningrad: 
1937. 
Office: USSR Main Geological Survey 

Directorate of Ministry of Non- Ferrous Metals 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: ul. Chkalova, 18/22 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: K7 88 77 

ANDREEV, NIKOLAI NIKQLAEVICH (Acoustical Physicist) 

N. N. Andreev was born June 28, 1881. In 1909 he graduated 
from the University of Basel. From 1917 to 1940 he taught and 
directed research in a number of universities and research 
institutions. He worked at the Physics Institute of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences from 1940 to 1954. Beginning in 1945, 
Andreev has worked at the Acoustics Institute of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences. He was elected Corresponding Member 
of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences in 1933, and in 1953 Acade- 
mician. 

Andreev' s numerous scientific contributions are mainly in 
the field of physical and technical acoustics and in the theory of 
vibrations. They are concerned with dispersion problems of 
acoustic waves. Andreev established the theory of the diffusion 
of sound in moving media; he investigated noise caused by 
airplane motors and propellers, problems of architectural 
acoustics, and wave acoustics of finite amplitude. Other im- 
portant contributions of Andreev are in piezo-electricity, in the 
theory of the telephone, and in musical acoustics. He is the 
author and editor of many popularized scientific articles and 



ANDRIANOV 20 

books. He is the founder of the School of Soviet Acoustical 
Engineers. 

As of 1961, Andreev was Chairman of the Commission on 
Acoustics of the USSR Academy of Sciences. 
Bibliography: 

Lattice, prism and resonator. Zhur. Russkogo, Fiz.-Khim. 

Obshchestva, Otdel Fiz., 1918, 47, section 2, #5. 

Electric Oscillations and their Spectra. A Theoretical In- 
vestigation. Moscow: 1917. 

Equilibrium and oscillations of the piezo-electrical crystal 

(a review). Zhur. Priklad. Fiz., 1928, 5, #3-4. 

and I. G. Rusakov . Acoustics of the Moving Medium. 

Leningrad-Moscow: 1934. 
Biography: 

Andreev, N. N. Vestnik Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1954, #1. 

Academician N. N. Andreev (on his 75th birthday). Zhur. 

Eksptl. i Teoret. Fiz., 1955, 29, #2. 

N. N. Andreev (on his 75th birthday). Akust. Zhur., 1955, 1, 

#3. 
Office: Institute of Acoustics of USSR Academy of Sciences 

Ulitsa Televideniya, 4 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Leninskii Prospekt, 13 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: V2 41 96 

ANDRIANOV, KUZ'MA ANDRIANQVICH (Chemist) 

K. A. Andrianov was born December 28, 1904. After gradu- 
ating in 1930 from Moscow University, he worked at the AU- 
Union Electrotechnical Institute. In 1930-41, he taught at the 
Moscow Chemico-Technological Institute. Then, in 1941, he 
went to teach at the Moscow Institute of Energetics and in 1946 
was made professor there. In 1954 he began work at the Insti- 
tute of Elemental Organic Compounds. Andrianov has been a 
member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union since 1949. 
In 1953, he was elected a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences. In 1943, 1946, 1950, he received Stalin 
Prizes. 

The main works of Andrianov are devoted to synthesis and 
technology of high molecular compounds, particularly of silicon- 
organic polymers. In 1937 he synthesized "polyorganosilox- 
anes," and in 1947 he worked out the method of obtaining new 
polymers--" polyorganometallosiloxanes." Under his leadership 



21 ANITSCHKOW 

work was carried out on the synthesis of heat-resistant, 

electro -insulating silicon-organic polymers. 

In September 1959, Andrianov visited the United States to 

attend the American Chemical Society meetings, Atlantic City, 

New Jersey. 

Bibliography: 

Silicon-Organic Compounds. Moscow: 1955. 
and D. A. Kardashev . Practical investigation on artificial 
polymers and plastics, 2nd ed. Moscow -Leningrad: 1946. 
and M. V. Sobolevskii. High Molecular Silicon-Organic 
Compounds. Moscow: 1949. 

and S. A. Yamanov . Organic Dielectrics and Their Utiliz- 
ation in the Communication Industry. Moscow -Leningrad: 
1949. 

Heat Resistant Silicon-Organic Dielectrics. Moscow- 
Leningrad: 1957. 

and N. A. Kurasheva, I. K. Kuznetsova, E. I. Gerkhardt . 
Synthesis of regular structural polymers of the polymethyl- 
siloxane series. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1961, 140 , 
#3, 365-67. 

Ways of synthesizing regular organic polymers with a 
spacial structure. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1961, 140 , 
#6, 1310-1313. 

and V. I. Savushikina, S. A. Golubtsov, B. A. Charskaya. 
Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1961, U^, #1, 95-99. 
and A. A. Zhdanov . Polycondensation as a method for obtain- 
ing polydialkylsiloxane and polyalumo dialkylsiloxane elasto- 
mers. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1961, 138, #3, 361-364. 
and V. V. Severnii . Reaction of organocyclosiloxane telo- 
merization and dimethyl dichlorsilane. Doklady Akad. Nauk 
S.S.S.R. 146, #3, 601-603 (1962). 

Office: Institute of Organo- Elemental Compounds of USSR 

Academy of Sciences 
Leninskii Prospekt, 31 
Moscow, USSR 

ANITSCHKOW (ANICHKOV), NIKOLAI NIKOLAEVICH (Patho - 
morphologist ) 
N. N. Anitschkow was born November 3, 1885. In 1909 he 
graduated from the Military Medical Academy, where from 1920 
to 1946 he was a professor. Also in 1920 he began working at 
the Institute of Experimental Medicine at the U.S.S.R. Academy 
of Medical Sciences. From 1946 to 1953 he was President of 
the U.S.S.R. Academy of Medical Sciences. He has been an 



ARBUZOV 22 

Academician of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences since 1939, 
and since 1944 an active member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Medical Sciences. Anitschkow was a Deputy to the Supreme 
Soviet of the U.S.S.R. second convocation. In 1942 he received 
a State Prize and in 1952 the I. I. Mechnikov medal from the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

Anitschkow is the author of a large number of publications 
on various problems of experimental pathology and patho- 
morphology, particularly on the pathology of blood vessels. He 
was first to offer a well organized study of atherosclerosis. 
Closely related to this field are his investigations on lipid ex- 
change. He has also been concerned with the morphology and 
functions of the reticulo-endothelial system and its part in 
deposition of different particles from blood and lymph. In the 
works concerning the pathology of contagious diseases Anitsch- 
kow threw light on the autoinfection in the development of con- 
tagious diseases. 
Bibliography: 

Inflammatory Changes of Myocardium (Study of Experi- 
mental Myocarditis). Dissertation. St. Petersburg: 1912. 
Study of the Reticulo-endothelial System. Moscow - 
Leningrad: 1930. 

Experimental arteriosclerosis in animals. Reprinted from 
Arteriosclerosis. A Survey of the Problem. New York: 
Macmillan, 1933. 

Manual of Pathological Physiology, 4th ed. Leningrad: 1938. 
Pathology of the Blood Vessels. Moscow-Leningrad: 1940. 
and others . Morphology of Wound Healing. Moscow: 1951. 
Modern status of the problems of experimental arterio- 
sclerosis. Vestnik Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1956, #2. 
Office: Institute of Experimental Medicine of USSR Acade- 

my of Medical Sciences 
Kirovskii Prospekt 69/71, #24 
Leningrad, P-22, USSR 

ARBUZOV, ALEKSANDR ERMININGEL'DOVICH (Organic 
Chemist) 
A. E. Arbuzov was born August 30, 1877. He graduated from 
the Kazan University in 1900 and from 1911 to 1930 was a pro- 
fessor there. He had been a student of A. M. Zaitsev (1841- 
1910, an outstanding organic chemist and Corresponding Mem- 
ber of the Petersburg Academy of Sciences). In 1930 he be- 
came a professor at the Kazan Chemical-Technological 
Institute. Arbuzov was elected a Corresponding Member of 



23 ARBUZOV 

the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences in 1932 and an Academician 
in 1942 and was made President, in 1945, of the Kazan' Branch 
of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He was a delegate from 
R.S. F.S.R. to the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. for the second 
through fifth meetings and again as of March 18, 1962. In 1957 
he was a Hero of Socialist Labor. Twice, 1943 and 1947, he 
has won Stalin Prizes. 

Arbuzov's studies are concerned with phosphorous-organic 
compounds. In his master's degree thesis "Structure of 
Phosphorous Acid and its Derivatives" (1905), Arbuzov de- 
termined the structure of phosphorous acid and its esters. He 
found a catalytic rearrangement reaction for intermediate 
esters of this acid, which is called the Arbuzov Rearrangement. 
This isomerization is the widely used method for synthesizing 
alkylphosphenic acids and similar compounds. In his doctor's 
degree thesis "Catalysis in Conversion of Some Phosphorous 
Compounds" (1914), he extended his theory to cover phenyl- 
phosphenic and other esters. He identified the forces which 
accelerate the catalytic isomerization processes, with the 
forces which affect the rates of conventional chemical reactions. 
Together with his pupil A. A. Dunin, Arbuzov synthesized 
phosphonacetic ester and its homologs. The sodium and po- 
tassium derivatives of these esters can be used in syntheses 
similar to the acetoacetic and malonic ester. This synthesis 
and investigation is related to Arbuzov' s work on tautomerism 
of dialkyl esters of phosphorous acid and on the reactions of 
their metal derivatives. During the investigation of these com- 
pounds Arbuzov, in collaboration with B. A. Arbuzov, found a 
new method of obtaining free radicals of the triarylmethyl 
series. Arbuzov has also studied the tapping and flow of soft 
gums from conifers. He found a high pressure (2 to 3 atmos- 
pheres) in the gum ducts of these plants and developed a tech- 
nique for collecting gums without any loss of volatile substanc- 
es. This technique aided the rapid growth of the resin industry 
of the U.S.S.R. Arbuzov wrote a book on the history of chemis- 
try which showed the contributions of N. N. Zenin, A. M. 
Butlerov, the Kazan' school as a whole, M. V. Lomonosov, 
D. I. Mendeleev, S. V. Lebedev and others. He also studied 
extensively the history of free radicals, phosphorous -organic 
compounds, and catalysis. 

As of 1961 he was Chairman of the Commission on the 
History of Chemistry, and Member of the Presidium of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 



ARBUZOV 24 

In 1960 Arbuzov was appointed Director of the Arbuzov Insti- 
tute of Chemistry of the Kazan' Branch of the U.S.S.R. Academy 
of Sciences. 
Bibliography: 

Free radicals. Uspekhi Khim., 1932, 1, #2 & 3. 

Selected Works. (This contains a bibliography of Arbuzov' s 

works.) Moscow: 1952. 
Biography: 

A. F. Bogoyavlenskii and N. N. Aksenov . Aleksandr Ermin- 
ingel' do vich Arbuzov. Kazan': 1946. (This contains a 
bibliography of Arbuzov' s works.) 

G. Kh. Kamai. A. E. Arbuzov' s School and its place in 
Soviet chemical science. Vestnik Vysshei Shkoly, 1948, #2. 
Office: Presidium Kazan' Branch USSR Academy of 

Sciences , 

Kazan', Tatar ASSR 

ARBUZOV, BORIS ALEKSANDROVICH (Organic Chemist) 

B. A. Arbuzov was born October 22, 1903. He is the son and 
pupil of A. E. Arbuzov (an outstanding organic chemist and 
Academician). In 1926 he graduated from Kazan' Institute of 
Agriculture and Forestry. He worked at the Kazan' Chemico- 
Technological Institute from 1930 to 1938 and was made a pro- 
fessor there in 1935. In 1938 he became a professor at the 
Kazan' University. Beginning in 1945, he has also worked at 
the Kazan' Branch of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He 
was elected in 1943 a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences and in 1953 an Academician. The U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences awarded Arbuzov the D. I. Mendeleev 
Prize in 1949, and in 1951, he won a Stalin Prize. 

Arbuzov' s research has been in the field of terpenes, diene 
compounds and application of physical methods for the study of 
the composition of organic compounds. Arbuzov discovered the 
isomerization of a-pinene to allocymene and of a-oxypinene to 
compholene aldehyde. By the method of diene synthesis he ob- 
tained a number of diene products. 

As of 1961, B. A. Arbuzov was Director of the Institute of 
Organic Chemistry of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Kazan' 
Branch. 
Bibliography: 

Research in the Field of Isomeric Conversions of Bicyclic 

Terpenes and Their Oxides. Kazan': 1936. 

and A. N. Pudovik. Silicon-phosphorous organic derivatives. 

Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1948, 59, #8. 



25 ARTOBOLEVSKII 

and A. N. Pudovik. AUylic rearrangements. IX. Effect of 
sodium salts of diakyl phosphorous acids and esters of 
phosphorous acid on isomeric methoxychloropentanes. 
Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Otdel. Khim. Nauk, 1949, #5, 
522-38. 

and Z. G. Isaeva . Effect of alcohols on a -oxides of bicycylic 
terpenes. Zhur. Obshchei Khim., 1949, #5, 884-905. 
Arbusov B. A., Sur la rotation de groupes irreguliers dans 
les molecules. Journal de chemie physique, 1953, t. 50 , 
647-51. 

Office: Institute of Organic Chemistry, Kazan' Branch 

USSR Academy of Sciences 
Kazan', Tatar ASSR 

ARTOBOLEVSKII, IVAN IVANQVICH (Mechanical Engineer) 

I. I. Artobolevskii was born September 26, 1905. In 1926 he 
graduated from the Faculty of Agricultural Engineering of K. A» 
Timiryazev's Agricultural Academy. He received the degree 
of Doctor of Technical Sciences in 1936. In 1927 to 1929 he 
taught in the Moscow Electromechanical Institute; and in 1929 
to 1932 he taught in the Moscow Chemico-Technological Insti- 
tute where, in 1932, he was made a professor. In 1932 he be- 
came a professor in the Moscow Institute of Chemical Engineer- 
ing of the N. E. Zhukovskii Air Force Academy and in Moscow 
University. He was appointed professor at the Moscow Aviation 
Institute in 1941. Beginning in 1937, he directed the Laboratory 
of Dynamic Machines of the Institute of Machine Control of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. From 1942 to 1954, Artobolev- 
skii was Acting Secretary of the Department of Technical 
Sciences of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He was Chair- 
man, 1945-1954, of the Department of Mechanical Engineers. 
In 1939 he was elected a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences, and in 1946 an Academician. Artobolev- 
skii was an Honored Scientist of the R.S.F.S.R. in 1945. In 
1946, the Academy of Sciences awarded him, jointly with V. V. 
Dobrovolskii and Z. Sh. Blokh, the P. L. Chebyshev Prize for 
the treatises, A Synthesis of Mechanisms (1944) and The Scien- 
tific Legacy of Chebyshev (1945 with N. I. Levitskii). He is 
also active in public affairs and in 1947 was made Acting Chair- 
man of the All-Union Department for Dissemination of Political 
and Scientific Knowledge. 

Artobolevskii' s field of activity is the theory of machines 
and mechanisms. He worked out a classification of three 



ARTSIMOVICH 26 

dimensional mechanisms and developed new methods for their 
kinematic analysis. He wrote the first Russian monograph on 
spatial mechanisms (The Theory of Spatial Mechanisms, 1937). 
He developed new methods for kinematic analysis of complicat- 
ed multi -element mechanisms (1939). With a group of Soviet 
scientists, he originated methods for the study of modern auto- 
matic machines, especially in the food, printing, and machine- 
tool industries. He has been working on the theoretical and 
experimental methods for studying the dynamics of working 
machines. 
Bibliography: 

Theory of Three Dimensional Mechanisms. Moscow- 
Leningrad: 1937. 

Methods of Balancing Inertial Forces in Working Machines 
with Complicated Kinematic Designs. Moscow-Leningrad: 
1938. 

The Kinematic and Kinetostatic Structure of Multi -Element 
Plane Mechanisms. Moscow -Leningrad: 1939. 
Synthesis of Two Dimensional Mechanisms, I-H. Moscow- 
Leningrad: 1939-42. 

and others . Methods for Analysis of Complicated Machines. 
Moscow -Leningrad: 1944. 

Mechanisms, 1-4. Moscow-Leningrad: 1947-51. 
Theory of Mechanisms and Machines, 3rd ed. Moscow: 
1953. 

Theory of mechanisms for the generation of curves which 
are hyperbolisms of conic sections. Izvest. Akad. Nauk 
S.S.S.R., OtdeL Tekh. Nauk, 1955, #11. 
Theory of mechanisms for the generation of cissoidal 
curves. Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Otdel Tekh. Nauk, 1955, 
#12. 
Biography: 

Academy Anniversary of L L Artobolevskii. Vestnik Akad. 
Nauk, S.S.S.R., 1955, #12. 
Office: Dept. of Technical Sciences of USSR Academy of 

Sciences 
Malyy Khariton'yevskii Pereulok 4 
Moscow, USSR 

ARTSIMOVICH, LE V ANDREEVICH (Nuclear Physicist) 

L. A. Artsimovich, son of a Moscow professor of statistics, 
was born February 25, 1909. He graduated at an early age from 
the Belorussian State University; and at the age of 21, he began 
to woik in the Leningrad Phy si co- Technical Institute where he 



27 ARTSIMOVICH 

was a student of A. F. loffe (1880-1960, internationally known 
physicist), the Director. He also taught at the Leningrad Poly- 
technical Institute and at Leningrad University. In the postwar 
years, he gave courses on atomic and nuclear physics, first at 
the Moscow Engineering and Physics Institute, then more 
recently at the Moscow University. In 1946 Artsimovich was 
elected a Corresponding Member and in 1954 an Academician 
of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He was awarded a Stalin 
Prize in 1953, and in 1958 a Lenin Prize. He has also received 
a number of orders of the Soviet Union from the government. 

Artsimovich' s first researches were in x-ray optics, par- 
ticularly on the problem of complete x-ray reflection. This 
investigation was carried out together with A. I. Alikhanov. In 
1934-1935 Artsimovich, together with I. V. Kurchatov and 
others, studied the properties of the neutron and in particular 
the proton capture by a neutron. This study showed that the 
capture cross section of slow neutrons by protons is very great. 
In 1936, Artsimovich, with A. I. Alikhanov and A. I. Alikhanyan, 
examined the conclusions of the American physicist Shenkland 
on the possibility of the violation of the laws of conservation 
in the Compton Effect. An original experiment was set up which 
confirmed the validity of the laws of conservation in the electron 
and positron annihilation and refuted the ideas of Shenkland. 

The main subject of his research at the Leningrad Physico- 
Technical Institute has been the study of the processes of the 
interaction of fast electrons with matter. In the mid thirties 
experimental data on bremsstrahlung and the angular distri- 
bution of electrons diverged from accepted theory by two orders 
of magnitude. Artsimovich did extensive experiments on the 
dependence of the bremsstrahlung intensity and the total energy 
losses on the energy of incident electrons. A careful analysis 
of the results showed that the quantum -mechanical theory of 
the passage of fast electrons through matter agrees with ex- 
perimental data within the accuracy of the experiment. 

During the war years (1943-46) Artsimovich was concerned 
with electron optics and the theory of chromatic aberrations of 
the electron optical system; he carried out theoretical and ex- 
perimental research in the field of electron optical converters. 
In 1945, Artsimovich and I. Ya. Pomeranchuk did theoretical 
research on the role of radiation losses in the betatron. This 
work permitted the establishment of the maximum energy 
achieved by this type of electron acceleration. Artsimovich was 
one of a group who developed an electromagnetic method of 
isotope separation. From currents then available in the 



ARTSIMOVICH 28 

mass spectrometer laboratory (of the order of 10-10 amperes), 
it was necessary to use currents of the order of an ampere. In 
reaching a solution to this problem, Artsimovich carried out a 
careful analysis of the problems of the aberrationless focussing 
of ion beams in axially -symmetric magnetic fields. He de- 
signed the optics of the ion source. As a result of this work, 
the Soviet physicists developed a successful production of sepa- 
rated isotopes. In the beginning of the fifties, Artsimovich be- 
gan his work on a controlled thermonuclear reaction. The 
group of physicists under Artsimovich began the study of high 
current pulse discharge in evacuated deuterium. In the course 
of these experiments, the group succeeded in obtaining for a 
short time a highly ionized plasma of a million degrees. In 
1952, this group of scientific workers discovered that a power- 
ful pulse discharge in deuterium at low pressure is a source of 
neutrons and x-ray radiation of short wave length. Further 
studies showed that the gas-discharge plasma, compressed in 
the presence of the longitudinal magnetic pole possessed para- 
magnetic properties. It was also shown that neutrons originate, 
not as a result of the thermonuclear reaction, but as a result of 
a specific acceleration process. The work of studying the 
means of obtaining a controlled thermonuclear reaction is now 
being conducted extensively under Artsimovich' s direction. 
The report of L. A. Artsimovich at the Second World Confer- 
ence on the Peaceful Use of Atomic Energy in Geneva in 
September, 1958, is a survey of the studies of Soviet physicists 
in this field. 

Artsimovich has participated in the Pugwash Conferences. 
As of 1961, he was Secretary of the Physical Mathematical 
Sciences Department of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 
Bibliography: 

and A. I. Alikhanov . The complete internal reflections of 
x-rays from thin films. Zhur. Eksptl. i Teoret. Fiz., #3, 
1933. 

and A. I. Alikhanov, A. I. Alikhanyan. The law of conser- 
vation of momentum in the annihilation of positrons. Doklady 
Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., #7, 1936. 

and V. A. Khramov . Energy losses for fast electrons. 
Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. Fiz., #757, 1938. 
Delayed emission for high energy electrons. Zhur. Eksptl. i 
Teoret. Fiz., 1938, _8, #8-9. 

and V. A. Khramov . Bremsstrahlung for high energy 
electrons. Zhur. Eksptl. i Teoret. Fiz., #8, 1938. 



29 ARTSIMOVICH 

and I. I. Perrimond. Angular distribution of fast electrons 
scattered by aluminum atoms. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 
#52, 303, 1946. 

Electron optical properties of emitters. Izvest. Akad. Nauk 
S.S.S.R., #8, 313, 1944. 

and I. Ya. Pomeranchuk. The radiation of fast electrons in 
a magnetic field. Zhur. Eksptl. i Teoret. Fiz., #16, 379, 
1946. 

and G. Ya. Shchepkin, V. V. Zhukov, B. N. Makov, S. P. 
Maksimov, A. F. Malov, A. A. Nikulichev. B. V. Panin, 
B. G. Brezhnev. An electromagnetic installation with high 
resolution for the separation of isotopes of light elements. 
Atomic Energy III (12), #493, 1957. 

and A. M. Andrianov, O. A. Basilevskaya, Yu. G. Prokhorov , 
N. V". Fillipov . Study of pulse discharges with great electric 
current. Atomic Energy I (3), #76, 1956. 
and A. M. Andrianov, Ye. I. Dobrokhotov, S. Yu. Lukyanov , 
1. M. Podgornii, V. I. Sinitsin, N. V. Filipov . Hard radiation 
of impulse discharges. Atomic Energy I (3), #84, 1956. 
On the origin of great currents through a plasma with a 
longitudinal magnetic pole. Plasma Physics and the Prob- 
lems of Controlled Thermonuclear Reactions, Handbook, H, 
1958, 81. 

Magnetic flow in a compressed cylinder. Plasma Physics 
and the Problems of Controlled Thermonuclear Reactions, 
Handbook, H, 1958, 87. 

Analysis of the compression equation of a hole with an ex- 
ternal magnetic field. Plasma Physics and the Problems of 
Controlled Thermonuclear Reactions, Handbook, 11, 1958, 
101. 

Studies on controlled thermonuclear reactions in the U.S.S.R. 
Second International Conference of the UN on the Application 
of Atomic Energy for Peaceful Purposes, #2298,15 pp., 1958. 
and K. T. Kartashev . The effect of a transverse magnetic 
field on a toroidal discharge. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 
146, #6, 1305-08 (1962). 

Biography: 

A. I. Alikhanov. Uspekhi Fiz. Nauk, #2, 367-697, Feb. 1959. 

Office: Secretary of Physico-Mathematical Sciences 

Pyzhevskii Pereulok, 3 
Moscow, USSR 



ASRATYAN 30 

ASRATYAN, EZRAS ACRATOVICH (Physiologist) 

E. A. Asratyan was born May 31, 1903. A pupil of I. P. 
Pavlov, he graduated from the Agricultural Institute in 1926 
and from the University of Yerevan Medical School in 1930 
From 1930 to 1938, he worked in the Physiological Institute, 
Academy of Sciences. From 1935 to 1941, he worked at the 
Bekhterov Cerebral Institute and from 1936 to 1941, at the 
Leningrad Institute of Pedagogy where he became a professor 
in 1938. From 1950-52, he was Director of the Institute of 
Higher Neuroactivity. In 1944 he was appointed Chief of the 
Academy of Sciences Physiological Laboratory, and later be- 
came Director of the Institute. He has been professor at the 
Second Medical Institute since 1950. He has been an Acade- 
mician of the Armenian Academy of Sciences since 1947, a 
member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union since 1929, 
and was elected to the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences as a 
Corresponding Member in 1939. As of 1961, he was Director 
of the Institute of Neurophysiology of the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences. In 1962 he was awarded the Pavlov Gold Medal for 
studies in Pavlovian physiology. 

Using Pavlov's teachings of the evolutionary theory of the 
adaptability of the nervous system, Asratyan explained the re- 
generating aspects in a damaged organism. He and his collabo- 
rators proved that in the regeneration of lost and broken 
functions of the damaged organism, a deciding role is played 
by the cortex of the large hemispheres of the cephalic brain. 
He also demonstrated the pathological condition of the organism, 
produced by organic trauma (traumatic shock, paralysis, in- 
cisions) and offered a new soporific method for treatment of 
these conditions. An anti- shock liquid developed by Asratyan 
was used in the front lines of the second World War. He, with 
collaborators, has been working on the problems of cortical 
presentation of unconditioned reflexes, the transfer into con- 
ditioned reflex activity, and the relationship of conditional ties 
to various functional properties. 
Bibliography: 

The influence of extirpation of the cortex of the large hemi- 
spheres of the brain in the vegetative and somatic functions 
of the organism. Reports on the 20th International Con- 
gress of Physiologists, Brussels, 1956. Moscow: 1956. 
Outline on Etiology, Pathology and the Therapy of Traumatic 
Shock. Moscow: 1945. 

On the Adaptive Aspects in a Damaged Organism. Moscow: 
1948. 



31 ASTAUROV 

Physiology of the Central Nervous System. Moscow: 1953. 
Office: Institute of Neurophysiology of USSR Academy of 

Sciences 
Leninskii Prospekt, 33 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Leninskii Prospekt, 13 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: V2 08 65 

ASTAUROV, BORIS LVQVICH (Biologist) 

B. L. Astaurov was born October 27, 1904. He graduated 
from the University of Moscow in 1927. He worked in the 
Moscow Branch of the Academy of Sciences Commission for the 
Study of Natural Productive Powers from 1926 to 1930. From 
1930 to 1935, he was at the Middle East Institute of Sericulture 
in Tashkent. Since 1935, he has been an associate at the Insti- 
tute of Experimental Biology (now the A. N. Severtsov Institute 
of Animal Morphology). In 1955, he was laboratory Chief of 
Experimental Embryology. He became a Corresponding Mem- 
ber of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences in 1958. 

Astaurov' s basic works deal with the theory and practice in 
the heredity of the mulberry silkworm. He has worked out 
methods of thermal artificial parthenoses and found a way of 
obtaining complete experimental androgens. 
Bibliography: 

Problems of Selection and Genetics of the Mulberry Silk- 
worm. Tashkent: 1934. 

Works of the Near East Scientific Research of the Institute 
of Sericulture, 5th ed. 

Tests of the experimental androgens and gynogens in the 
mulberry silkworm. Biological Journal, 1937, 6, #1. 
Artificial parthogeneses in the mulberry silkworm (experi- 
mental succession 1940). 

Thermoactivation as an effect a^id the means of removing the 
embryonic dispause. Journal of Natural Biology, 1943, 4, 
#6. 

Direct proof of the vigorous nature of the biological effect of 
X-rays, regardless of the final results of roentgenization 
from the primary changes in the cytoplasm. Journal of 
General Biology, 1947, 8, #6. 

The significance of experiments on merogony and androgene- 
sis to the theory of development and heredity. Accomplish- 
ments of Modern Biology, 1948, 25, #1. 



AVAKYAN 32 

and others . Deriving complete heterospermic androgenesis 
in interspecific hybrids of the silkworm (experimental 
analysis of the relationship between the nucleus and the 
cytoplasm in development and heredity). News of the Acade- 
my of Sciences Biological Series, 1957, #2. 
Office: A. N. Severtsov Institute of Animal Morphology 

Leninskii Prospekt, 33 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: 1-aya Cheremushkinskaya, 3 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: VI 43 30 

AVAKYAN, ARTAVAZD ARSHAKQVICH (Biolo^st) 

A. A. Avakyan was born July 21, 1907. In 1946 he became 
a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, 
and in 1948 a member of the Lenin All-Union Academy of 
Agriculture. He was awarded a Stalin Prize in 1941. 

The studies of Avakyan deal with problems of developing 
vegetation. He was very active in the study of hereditary 
changes in plants, vegetative hybridization, fertilization, vege- 
tative and sexual reproduction of plants. He has conducted 
investigations in the biology and culture of branchy -eared 
wheat. 
Bibliography: 

and A. Kh. Tagi-Zade. On the so-called ^ Vernalization" of 

plants by light. Vernalization, 1935, #1. 

The biology of tomato development. Vernalization, 1936, 

#2-3. 

Vernalization of rice. Vernalization, 1936, #1. 

and T. D. Lysenko . Chopping Cotton, 2nd ed. Moscow: 

1949. 

Controlling the development of vegetation organisms. 

Vernalization, 1938, #6. 

Vegetative hybridization of potatoes. Vernalization, 1938, 

#3. 

and M. G. Yastreb . Hybridization by grafting. Vernalization, 

1941, #1. 

and N. I. Feiginson . Step processes and the so-called bloom- 
ing hormones. Agro-Biology, 1948, #1. 

Some questions on the individual development of plants. 

Agro-Biology, 1948, #2. 

Properties hereditarily acquired by organisms. Agro- 
Biology, 1948, #6. 



33 BAKULEV 

Breeding strains of corn for new cultivated areas. Agro- 
Biology, 1956, #1. 

The biological nature of the so-called bi-arms. Izvest. 
Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Biol, ser., 1956, #2. 
Office: AU-Union Academy of Agriculture 

Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Leningradskii Prospekt 7 5 -a 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: D7 29 71 

AVSYUK, GRIGQRII ALEKSANDRQVICH (Glaciologist) 

G. A. Avsyuk was born in 1906. In 1930 he graduated from 
the Moscow Geodesic Institute. From 1928-37 he worked at 
the cartographic publishing house of the Ministry of Internal 
Affairs (NKVD), and later at the Main Northern Sea Route Ad- 
ministration. In 1937, he began work at the U.S.S.R. Academy 
of Sciences Institute of Geography. In 1957, he became deputy 
academician-secretary of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences 
division of geolo-geographic sciences. Since 1947 he has been 
a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. He was 
elected, in 1960, a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences. 

Avsyuk visited the United States in February 1958 to attend 
the International Arctic Sea Ice Conference in Easton, Maryland. 
Bibliography: 

Les investigations glaciologiques en I'URSS. Assoc. Int. 
Hydrol. Sci. Assemblee Gen., Toronto 1957, T. 4 (Pub. #46) 
535-552 (incl. English summary), 1958. Bibliog. & Index of 
Geol. Exclusive of North America. Vol. 23, 1958, p. 23. 
Office: Institute of Geography of USSR Academy of Sciences 

Staromonetnii Pereulok, 29 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Leninskii Prospekt, 25 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: V4 00 27, Ext. 50 

BAKULEV, ALEKSANDR NIKOLAEVICH (Surgeon) 

A. N. Bakulev was born December 7, 1890. He graduated 
from the Medical Faculty of Saratov University in 1915 after 
which he served for three years as a regimental physician. 
From 1919 to 1926 Bakulev was at the hospital surgical clinic 
of Saratov University, first as a hospital surgeon and later as a 
clinical assistant. He worked, in 1926 to 1943, at the Surgical 
Clinical Faculty of the Second Moscow Medical Institute where 



BAKULEV 34 

he became a professor in 1935. In 1943 he was head of the 
Surgical Clinical Faculty of the Pediatric Faculty at the Second 
Moscow Medical Institute, and as of 1962 has been Chairman of 
the Surgical Clinical Faculty of the Therapeutic Faculty. 

During World War II he was a front-line surgeon and subse- 
quently chief surgeon of the Moscow Evacuation Hospital and 
chief of the surgical division of the Kremlin Therapeutico- 
Sanitation Administration Hospital. Bakulev was elected 
Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Medical 
Sciences in 1947, and in 1948 Active Member. In 1958 he was 
made Academician of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. In 
1954 and in 1957, he was elected President of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Medical Sciences. He was a Deputy to the Supreme 
Soviet of the U.S.S.R., third to fifth convocations. Bakulev was 
an Honored Scientist of the R.S-F.S.R. in 1947. He was award- 
ed a State Prize in 1949, and in 1957, and two other times Lenin 
Prizes. In 1960 he was made a Hero of Socialist Labor. 

Bakulev conducted detailed studies on kidney function during 
ureter transplantation and worked in the field of bone surgery, 
tumors of the posterior mediastinum, and lungs. At the 
Moscow Clinic, he studied encephalography and ventriculography 
and was one of the first to introduce these methods in clinical 
research in the U.S.S.R. He has also proposed the treatment 
of brain abscesses by puncture (his doctoral dissertation). 

During the second World War he studied the treatment of 
firearms wounds, including spinal cord wounds and cranium 
damage with exposed tissue where he proposed a closed suture 
method. 

After the war Bakulev turned to thoracic surgery problems 
in lung and heart operations, and in 1948 performed the first 
operation in the U.S.S.R. on a congenital defective heart. 

In 1956 Bakulev initiated the organization of the Institute of 
Thoracic Surgery in Moscow, which in 1960 was reorganized 
into the U.S.S.R. Academy of Medical Sciences Institute of 
Cardiovascular Surgery. He organized scientific research in 
acquired and congenital diseases of the heart and main vessels, 
developed surgical methods for their treatment, and incorpo- 
rated these methods into medical practice (Stalin Prize 1957). 

Other activities of Bakulev include Chairmanship of the 
Scientific Coordination Council, Academy of Medical Sciences 
U.S.S.R. and Membership in the Institute of Chest Surgery, 
Moscow, Academy of Medical Sciences U.S.S.R. 



35 BALANDIN 

Bibliography: 

Surgical treatment of spinal cord tumors. Vestnik Khirurgii 
im. Grekova, 1939, 58, #3. 

Closed suture in retarded treatment of brain wounds. 
Khirurgiya, 1942, #11-12. 

Diagnosis and treatment of cohesive pericarditis. Khirur- 
giya, 1948, #10. 

and A. V. Gerasimova. Pneumonectomy and Lobectomy 
(surgical methods). Moscow: 1949. 

and E. N. Meshalkin. Experimental application of angio- 
cardiography in chest surgery. Vestnik Khirurgii im. Grek- 
ova, 1951, 71, #5. 

Surgical Treatment of Cardiac and Main Vessel Disorders 
(recognition, experience and perspectives). Moscow: 1952. 
Surgery of acquired diseases of heart and aorta. Khirurgiya, 
1954, #1. 

and E. N. Meshalkin . Congenital Cardiac Deficiencies. 
Moscow: 1955. 

Conservation Treatment of Marrow Abscesses (by Puncture). 
Moscow-Leningrad: 1940. 
Office: Institute of Cardio-vascular Surgery 

USSR Academy of Medical Sciences 

Leninskii Prospekt, 8 

Moscow, V-49, USSR 
Telephone: Bl 13 61 
Residence: PL Vosstaniya, 1 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: D5 47 63 

BALANDIN, ALEKSEI ALEKSANDROVICH (Organic Chemist) 

A. A. Balandin was born December 8, 1898. In 1923 he 
graduated from Moscow University and worked there from 1927, 
becoming a professor in 1934. He organized the first labora- 
tory course in the Department of Organic Catalysis at Moscow 
State University and in 1959 became Director of the Department. 
Balandin is the Chief of the Laboratory of the Kinetics of Cata- 
lytic Organic Reactions and the N. D. Zelinskii Laboratory of 
the Institute of Organic Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences 
of the U.S.S.R. He is a student of N. D. Zelinskii (1861-1953, 
an outstanding organic chemist specializing in catalysis and 
stereoisomerism.) Balandin has been active in scientific 
organizations; he is the Chairman of the Council for the Prob- 
lem "Scientific Bases of Selecting Catalysts" in the Chemical 
Sciences Section of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. This 



BALANDIN 36 

Council coordinates all work on catalysts in the U.S.S.R. In 
1949 Balandin became a member of the Communist Party of the 
Soviet Union. He was elected Corresponding Member of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences in 1943 and Academician in 1946. 
He has received the Order of Lenin, two Orders of the Red 
Banner of Labor, and a Stalin Prize. For his research in 
synthetic rubber he was awarded the Mendeleev and Lebedev 
Prizes. 

Balandin formulated the so-called multiplet theory of cataly- 
sis, attempting to establish a relationship between the geometry 
of the atomic groups, which change directly in catalysis during 
a reaction, and the geometry of active centers on the surface 
of the catalyst. On the basis of his theory and classification, 
Balandin studied the dehydrogenation of paraffins, olefins, 
alkylbenzenes, and those products of dehydrogenation which are 
important for the industrial synthesis of monomers, for obtain- 
ing synthetic rubber and other high-polymers. 

Balandin is a Soviet pioneer in the study of the kinetics of 
organic catalytic reactions. He deduced the general kinetic 
equation for monomolecular reactions in a flow system. Balan- 
din and his associates carried out extensive research on the 
kinetics of the dehydrogenation of hydrocarbons, the dehydro- 
genation and dehydration of alcohols, and the dehydrogenation of 
amines. Using the method of tagged atoms, the kinetics and 
mechanism of the dehydration of ethyl alcohol on aluminum 
oxide and the kinetics of the dehydrogenation of butane and 
butylene were studied. The reactions of catalytic production of 
styrene and its homologs were investigated in detail. This 
study is of great importance for synthetic rubber and plastics. 
Balandin formulated the theory of the hydrogenation of unsatu- 
rated compounds. The multiplet theory proved useful in the 
studies of Balandin and his co-workers on the hydrogenation of 
polysaccharides to obtain polyatomic alcohols. It received con- 
siderable development with the discovery of the laws for the 
selection of catalysts. The following are members of his 
scientific school: Ye. A. Agronomov, O. K. Bogdanova, A. Kh. 
Bork, I. I. Brusov, V. E. Vasserberg, N. A. Vasiunina, P. G. 
Ivanov, G. V. Isagulyants, Ye. I. Klabunovskii, S. L. Kiperman, 
A. I. Kukina, G. M. Marukyan, V. V. Patrikeev, S. Ye. Payk, 
A. P. Rudenko, T. A. Slovokhotova, N. P. Sokolova, A. A. 
Tolstopyatova, L. Kh. Freidlin, A. P. Shcheglova, and others. 
Bibliography: 

Modern problems of catalysis and the theory of multiplets. 

Uspekhi Khim., 1935, 4, #7. 



37 BARANSKII 

Catalytic dehydrogenation of hydrocarbons and its appli- 
cations in synthesis of rubber from gases. Izvest. Akad. 
Nauk S.S.S.R., Otdel. Khim. Nauk, 1942, #1. 
Theory of organic catalysis from Jubilee Symposium Dedi- 
cated to 30 Years Since the October Revolution, Part 1, 637- 
58. Mo scow -Leningrad: 1947. 

Theory of selective catalysis. Uchenie zapiski MGU, 1956, 
#175, 97-122. 

Concerning the kinetics of alcohol dehydrogenation. Zhur. 
Fiz. IChim., 1957, 31, #1. 

and Q. K. Bogdanov, I. P. Belomestrykh . The effect of 
alkylaromatic hydrocarbon structure on the kinetics of their 
dehydrogenation. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 146 , #6, 
1327-30 (1962). 

and V. I. Spitsyn, E. I. Mikhailenko, N. P. Dobrosel'skaya. 
Dehydration of isopropyl alcohol on radioactive tricalcium 
phosphate catalyst. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 146 , #6, 
1128-31 (1962). 
Office: N. D. Zelinskii Institute of Organic Chemistry 

Leninskii Prospekt, 31 

Moscow, USSR 
Residence: ul. Vesnina, 11 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: Gl 56 76 

BARANSKII, NIKOLAI NIKOLAEVICH (Geographer) 

N. N. Baranskii was born July 26, 1881. In 1901, he was 
expelled from Tomsk University for participating in a student 
political strike. Since that time, he became a professional 
revolutionary. In the fall of 1905, he was chosen as a delegate 
of the Siberian Bolsheviks to the Irkutsk Conference of the 
Siberian Social Democratic Union. He graduated from the 
Moscow Commercial Institute in 1914. In 1915, he was a board 
member of the People's Commissars of Worker -Peasant In- 
spection. In 1918, he began to study economic geography which 
arose in opposition to the then predominant statistical branch 
method. He has been awarded the title Honored Scientist of the 
R.S.F.S.R. in 1943. In 1939 he was elected to the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences as a Corresponding Member. He is a 
member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. 

Baranskii considers the main object of investigations in 
economic geography to be not the branches of economics but 
economic regions. In economic-geographic studies of various 
countries he stresses the internal space difference; he placed 



BARANSKII 38 

stress on the economic division into districts and the charac- 
teristics of these districts. In this connection, he placed great 
importance on economic maps and field economic-geographic 
investigation of territories. Baranskii compiled a series of 
textbooks on economic geography of the U.S.S.R. (among them, 
a standard textbook for the eighth grade which until 1955 had 
16 editions). He established a series of university courses. He 
is the author of questions of methodology of economic geography 
and cartography. 

In March 1962, Baranskii was awarded the Hero of Socialist 
Labor. 
Bibliography: 

Physical Geography of the U.S.S.R. Textbooks for Junior 
High School and High School, 7th ed. Moscow: 1943. 
Economic Geography of the U.S.S.R. Textbooks for eighth 
grade of High School, 16th ed. Moscow: 1955. 
Economic Geography of the United States, Part 1. Moscow: 
1946 (Institute of International Relations). 
Economic cartography, #1, 3. Moscow, 1939-40 (mimeo- 
graphed). 

On the methods of teaching a regional course of economic 
geography of the U.S.S.R. Bulletin of the AU-Union Scientific 
Society, 1941, #1. 

Economic -geographic study of cities. Questions of Geogra- 
phy, 1946, #2. 

Generalization in cartography and in the writing of geo- 
graphic textbooks. Scientific Papers of the Moscow State 
University of M. V. Lomonosov, 1946, #119, Book 2. 
Economic Geography — Economic Cartography. Moscow: 
1956. 

Economic Geography in a Secondary School— Economic 
Geography in an Advanced School. Moscow: 1957 (contains 
list of works of Baranskii). 
Biography: 

Geography in the University of Moscow for 200 Years, 1755- 
1955, Moscow, 1955. 

75th Anniversary of Nikolai Nikolaevich Baranskii. Geogra- 
phy in School, 1956, #4. 
Office: USSR Academy of Sciences 

Leninskii Prospekt, 14 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Leninskiye gory, korp. "L" 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: V9 32 78 



39 BASHKIROV 

BARMIN, VLADIMIR PAVLOVICH (Mechanical Engineer) 

V. P. Barmin was born March 17, 1909. After graduating 
from Moscow Technological College in 1930, he worked at the 
plant "Compressor" where in 1940-1946 he was chief designer. 
Beginning in 1931, he also taught at Moscow Technological 
College. He has been a member of the Communist Party of the 
Soviet Union since 1944. In 1958 Barmin was elected a Corre- 
sponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. In 1943 
he received a Stalin Prize. 

Barmin has been interested in mechanics, in particular con- 
struction of compressors. 
Bibliography: 

and others . Cooling Machines and Apparatus. Moscow: 

1946. 
Office: Moscow Technological College 

Moscow, USSR 

BASHKIROV, ANDREI NIKOLAEVICH (Chemist) 

A. N. Bashkirov was born December 22, 1903. In 1929 he 
graduated from the Moscow Chemico -Technological Institute. 
From 1934 to 1938, he worked at the All-Union Scientific Re- 
search Institute of Gas and Artificial Liquid Fuel and at its 
Siberian branch (Novosibirsk). He was at the U.S.S.R. Academy 
of Sciences Institute of Mineral Fuels from 1939 until 1947 
when he began work at the Institute of Petroleum of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences. In 1943, Bashkirov became Chairman of 
a Department at the Moscow Institute of Fine Chemical Tech- 
nology. He has been since 1958 a Corresponding Member of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

Bashkirov worked on desulfurization of gases and petroleum 
products and on thermal processing of coal. His main works 
are devoted to catalytic synthesis of hydrocarbons, alcohols, 
and amines from oxides of carbon and hydrogen; he investigated 
the direct oxidation of hydrocarbons, and he worked out an 
industrial process for higher aliphatic alcohols by direct oxi- 
dation of hydrocarbons. 
Bibliography: 

Synthesis of higher alcohols of the aliphatic series by the 
method of direct oxidation of paraffin hydrocarbons. Chemi- 
cal Science and Industry, 1956, 1, #3. 

and Yu. B. Kagan, L. I. Zvezdkina . Synthesis of higher ali- 
phatic alcohols from CO and H2. Doklady Akad. Nauk 
S.S.S.R., 1956, 109, #3. 



BASOV 40 

and Yu. B. Kagan, G- A. Kliger . New synthesis of aliphatic 
amines. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1956, 109 , #4. 
On some ways of developing synthesis based on oxides of 
carbon and hydrogen and on methods of processing synthetic 
hydrocarbons. Chemical Processing of Fuel. Works of the 
2nd All-Union Congress on Artificial Liquid Fuel and Tech- 
nological Gases. Moscow: 1957. 

and V. V. Kamzolkin . Synthesis of ethanol from carbon di- 
oxide and hydrogen. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 
1958, 118, #2. 
Office: Institute of Petroleum of USSR Academy of Sciences 

Leninskii Prospekt, 31 

Moscow, USSR 

BASOV, NIKOLAI GENNADIEVICH (Radio Physicist) 

N. G. Basov was born in 1922. He graduated from Moscow 
Engineering and Physics Institute in 1950, and in 1957 he 
earned the degree of Doctor of Physico-Mathematical Sciences. 
In 1948 he began work at the Lebedev Institute of Physics, and 
he has been Deputy Scientific Director of this Institute. As of 
1962, he was still a member of the Lebedev Institute of Physics. 
Basov has been a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet 
Union since 1958. In 1962 he was elected a Corresponding 
Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He visited the 
United States in September 1959 to attend the International 
Conference on Quantum Electronics-Resonance Phenomena, 
Bloomingburg, New York. In March 1962 he attended the annual 
meeting of the Optical Society of America in Washington, D. C 

Basov is conducting research in quantum radio physics. 
With Corresponding Member A. M. Prokhorov he has developed 
quantum optical generators. 
Bibliography: 

and O. N. Krokhin, L. M. Lisitsyn, E. P. Markin, B. D. 

Osipov . Negative conductivity during inducted transfer. 

Zhur. Ekspt'l. i Teoret. Fiz. 41, #3, 988-89 (1961). 

and A. N. Oraevskii. Investigation of molecules in a mixed 

energetic state. Zhur. Ekspt'l. i Teoret. Fiz. 42, #6, 1529- 

35 (1962). 

and E. P. Markin, D. I. Mash. Certain characteristics of a 

generator on a neon and helium mixture. Zhur. Ekspt'l. i 

Teoret. Fiz. 43, #3, 1116-1117 (1962). 



41 BELOUSOV^ 

Office: Lebedev Institute of Physics of USSR Academy of 

Sciences 
Leninskii Prospekt, 53 
Moscow, USSR 

BELQUSQV, VLADIMIR VLADIMIROVICH (Geologist) 

V. V. Belousov was born October 30, 1907. In 1943 he be- 
came Chief of the Laboratory on Theoretical Geotectonics and 
on Geodynamics of the USSR Academy of Sciences Institute of 
Terrestrial Geophysics. Since 1953, he has been a professor at 
Moscow University. In 1953, he was elected to the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences as a Corresponding Member. In 1960 he 
was elected President of the International Union of Geodesy and 
Geophysics for the term 1960-1963. As of 1961, Belousov was 
Chairman of the Soviet Geophysical Committee. 

Belousov has worked in tectonics and tectono-physics. He 
developed new methods of studying history of oscillatory motion 
of the earth's crust and elucidated the history of geological de- 
velopment in the Greater Caucasus and the Russian platform. 
In 1942 he advanced, and in 1951 and 1960 he developed the 
hypothesis that a prolonged process of differentiation of the 
earth's mass with a gradual division according to its density 
took place as a main internal process influencing the tectonic 
development of the earth's crust. 

Belousov visited the United States to attend the American 
Geological Society meetings in St. Louis, Missouri, in November 
1958, and the Electric Power Delegation at Westinghouse Fermi 
Plant in October 1959. 
Bibliography: 

Outline of the Geochemistry of Natural Gases. Leningrad: 
1937. 

Greater Caucasus, Part 1-3. Leningrad-Moscow: 1938-40. 
Migration of radioelements and development of the structure 
of the earth. Izvest. Akad. Nauk. S.S.S.R., Geogr. and Geofiz. 
Ser., 1942, #6; 1943, #3. 

Facies and magnitudes of sedimentary thicknesses of Euro- 
pean U.S.S.R. Works of the Institute of Geological Sciences 
of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, 1944, #76. 
General Geotectonics. Moscow-Leningrad: 1948. 
Basic Problems in Geotectonics. Moscow: 1954. 2nd ed. 
1962. 

Development of the earth and tectogenesis. Journ. Geophys. 
Res. 65, #12, 1960. 



BELOV 42 

The origin of folding in the earth's crust. Journ. Geophys. 
Res. 66, #7, 1961. 
Office: Soviet Geophysical Committee 

USSR Academy of Sciences 
Molodezhnaya, 3 
Moscow, B-296, USSR 
Residence: ul. Frunze, 7 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: B8 26 33 

BELOV, NIKOLAI VASIL'EVICH (Crystallographer) 

N. V. Belov was born December 14, 1891. He graduated 
from the Petrograd Polytechnical Institute in 1921. In 1938 he 
joined the staff of the Crystallography Institute of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences. He was made professor in 1946 at 
Gorkii University and in 1953 at Moscow University. Belov 
became in 1954 a member of the Executive Committee and in 
1957 vice-president of the International Crystallographic As- 
sociation. He helped to organize the Leningrad and the Moscow 
Crystallographic Museums. In 1946 Belov was elected a Corre- 
sponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences and in 
1953 an Academician. He received a Stalin Prize in 1952. 

Belov' s scientific work is in geometrical crystallography, 
x-ray structure work, the practical application of symmetry 
groups and Fourier's analysis to crystals. He developed a 
theory of close packing of atoms in a crystal. As a result of 
this theory a number of structures were established such as 
epidote, woUastonite. Belov has trained many Soviet workers 
in x-ray crystallography. 

Belov visited the United States in January 1960 to attend a 
Crystallography Conference at Brooklyn Polytechnical Institute. 
Bibliography: 

Crystal structure of tourmaline. Doklady Akad. Nauk 

S.S.S.R., 1949, 69, #2. 

Crystal structure of milarite. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 

69, #3. 

Crystal structure of ramsite. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 

69, #6. 

Achievements in structural mineralogy. Izvest. Akad. Nauk 

S.S.S.R., Ser. Geol., 1949, #6. 

Structural Crystallography. Moscow: 1951. 

and others . 1651 Shubnikov group, from Trudy Instituta 

Kristallografii, #11. Moscow: 1955. 



43 BELOZERSKII 

Outlines of structural mineralogy, from Mineralogicheskii 

Sbornik. L'voy-Khar'kov: 1950-56, #4 to 10. 

The Structure of Ionic Crystals and Metallic Phases. 

Moscow: 1947. 

and E. A. Pobedimskaya . The structure of epididymite 

NaBeSi307(OH). A new kind of infinite silicilic acid chain 

(strip) [SieOisJ- Zhur. StruKt. Khim., 1:#1, 51-63 (1960). 

NSA 15, 11354 (1961). 

and V. V. Bakakin . Crystal structure of hurlbutite. Doklady 

Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 135, #3, 587-90 (1960). 

and L. P. Solov'ev . Crystalline structure of Bertrandite — 

Be4Si207(OH)2. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 140, #3, 685- 

88 (1961). 

and V. V. Ilyukhin. Crystalline structure of Rubedium di- 

(meta)fluoroberyllate RbBe2F5. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 

140 , #5, 1066-69 (1961). 

Crystalline structure of evdidimite NaBeSi3070H. Doklady 

Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 136, #6, 1448-50 (1961). 

and Kh. S. Mamedov, Yu. A. Akhundov . Crystalline structure 

of brandisite. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 137, #1, 167-70 

(1961). 

and K. K. Abrashev . Crystalline structure of Barylite 

BaBe2Si207. Doklady Akad. Nauk 144, #3, 636-38 (1962). 

Elastic scattering of high energy pions and nucleons. Zhur. 

Ekspt 1. i Teoret. Fiz. 42, 880-81 (1962). 
Biography: 

Belov, N. V. Vestnik Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1954, #1. 
Office: Department of Physics 

Moscow University 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Leninskaya slob, 7 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: ZH 5 20 19 

BELOZERSKII, ANDREI NIKOLAEV^ICH (Plant Biochemistry) 
A. N. Belozerskii was born August 29, 1905. He graduated 
in 1927 from the Central Asiatic University. In 1930 he worked 
at Moscow University and in 1946 was made professor. He was 
also working in 1946 at the Institute of Biochemistry of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. In 1958 he became a Corre- 
sponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, and in 
June 1962, an Academician. 

Belozerskii' s investigations are devoted to the chemistry 
and biochemistry of albumen and chiefly of nucleic acids. He 



BELYAYEV 44 

established the presence of desoxyribonucleic acid in higher 
and lower plants and noted the relationship of the change of 
nucleic acids in ontogenesis of plants. He showed a specific 
characteristic of desoxyribonucleic acid in bacteria. 
Bibliography: 

Semi -nucleic acids and their connection with the evolution of 
nucleus apparatus of the vegetable cell. IJspekhi Sovremen- 
noi Biol., 1944, #18. 

and N. I. Proskuryakov. Practical Handbook on the Bio- 
chemistry of Plants. Moscow: 1951. 
On the metaphosphate-nucleic complexes of yeast and the 
chemical nature of volutine. Report at the HI International 
Biochemical Congress. Brussels. August 1-6, 1955. 
Moscow: 1955. 

The specific characteristic of nucleic acids in bacteria. 
Origin of Life on the Earth. Collection of Reports from an 
International Conference, August 1957, Moscow. Moscow: 
1957. 
Office: A. N. Bakh Institute of Biochemistry 

Leninskii Prospekt, 33 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Leninskiye gory, sektor "K", 10th floor 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: V9 17 76 

BELYAYEV, ANATOLH IVANOVaCH (Metallurgist) 

A. I. Belyayev was born in 1906. In 1931 he graduated from 
the Kalinin Moscow Institute of Non- Ferrous Metals and Gold. 
In 1931-34, he was a plant engineer at Zadorozh'e, and chief 
engineer of the Main Aluminum Plant in Moscow. He was, 
1934-37, scientific Director of the Moscow branch of the AU- 
Union Aluminum Institute. In 1941 he began work at the Insti- 
tute of Non- Ferrous Metals and Gold. He was elected, in 1960, 
to the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences as a Corresponding 
Member. 

Belyayev' s main works deal with the electrochemistry of 
alloy salts and the electrometallurgy of light metals. 
Bibliography: 

and A. D. Gerasimov . Surface activity of the boundary of 
metal and melt, and crystal lattice energy. Izvest. Vysshikh 
Ucheb. Zavedenii, Tsvetnaya Met. 2, #5, 45-9 (1959). C A. 
54, 21975c (1960). 



45 BERG 

and N. I. Grafas . Effect of molten flux on smelting and re- 
fining aluminum. Izvest. Vysshikh Ucheb. Zavedenii, 
Tsvetnaya Met. 2, #4, 72-82 (1959). C A. 54, 9561f (I960). 
and K. G. Marin . Aluminum oxide behavior in the electro- 
lyte of an aluminum bath. Sbornik Nauch. Trudov. Moskov. 
Inst. Tsvetnoi Met. i Zolota 1957, #27, 178-92. C A. 54, 
9556b (1960). 

and L. A. Firsanova. Melting Al-Si alloys from the sludge 
of the secondary aluminum treatment. Sbornik Nauch. 
Trudov, Moskov. Inst. Tsvetn. Metal, i Zolota i Vsesoyuz 
Nauch. Inzhener.-Tekh. Obshchestvo Tsvetnoi Met. 1957, 
#26, 162-71. C. A. 54, 10768a (1960). 

and M. A. Kolenkova. Leaching bauxite at high pressures. 
Sbornik Nauch. Trudov, Moskov. Inst. Tsvetn. Metal, i 
Zolota im. M. I. Kalinina, 1957, #26, 120-31. C A. 54, 
20717g(1960). 

and E. A. Zhemchuzhina . Leaching Northern Ural bauxites 
at 100 atmospheres pressure. Sbornik Nauch. Trudov, 
Moskov. Inst. Tsevtn. Metal, i Zolota 1958, #31, 80-90. 
C. A. 54, 18240d (1960). 

and E. A. Zhemchuzhina . Effect of graphite and salt ad- 
ditions on the quality of carbon anode paste. Izvest. Vys- 
shikh Ucheb. Zavedenii, Tsvetnaya Met. 3, #1, 97-100 (I960). 
C. A. 54> 24015c (1960). 

Office: Institute of Non- Ferrous Metals and Gold 

Moscow, USSR 

Residence: B. Serpukhovskaya, 17/44 
Moscow, USSR 

Telephone: VI 19 54 

BERG, AKSEL IVANOVICH (Radioengineer) 

A. I. Berg was born November 10, 1893. He was a submarine 
mate during World War I and a submarine Commander in 
the Civil War. After graduating from the Naval Academy and 
the Naval Engineering School of Leningrad in 1925, he taught 
and worked at military and naval institutions. In 1926 he joined 
the staff of the Electro -Technical Institute. He also planned and 
organized research when he was Chairman of the All-Union 
Advisory Committee on Radiophysics and Radioengineering of 
the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. Berg was Chairman of the 
Board of Directors of the Popov All-Union Technological Society 
of Radio Technology and Related Sciences. He has been a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union since 1944. In 
1943 he was elected Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. 



BERITASHVILI 46 

Academy of Sciences and in 1946 Academician. He was a re- 
cipient in 1951 of the A. S. Popov gold medal. 

Berg's scientific work deals with: designing and developing 
of tube oscillators; stabilizing frequency; studying amplification 
and frequency control of tube oscillators. He formulated and 
worked out a number of important problems (grid detection; the 
computation of an oscillator with a distorted pulse form of the 
anode current) which contributed to the development of radio 
engineering. Berg is the author of many textbooks in the field 
of radioengineering. 

As of 1961, Berg was chairman of the Cybernetics Council 
of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 
Bibliography: 

General Theory of Radio Technique, 1925. 

The Theory of Vacuum Oscillators of the AC Current, 1925. 

Principles of Calculation in Radioengineering. Part I, 1928; 

2nd ed. 1930. 

Theory and Computation of Tube Oscillators, 1932; 2nd ed. 

1935. 
Biography: 

General Assembly of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, 

Nov. 29 - Dec. 4, 1946. Moscow-Leningrad: 1947. 

Academicians elected by the General Assembly of the 

U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences on November 30, 1946. Vest- 

nik Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1947, #1. 

Academician A. I. Berg. Radiotekhnika, 1953, 8, #6, 71-74. 

I. S. Dzhigit. Academician A. I. Berg (on his 60th birthday). 

Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Otdel. Tekh. Nauk, 1953, #12, 

1870-74. 
Office: All- Union Scientific Council on Radiophysics & 

Radio Engineers 
Mokhovaya Ulitsa, 2 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: 1-aya Cheremushkinskaya, 3 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: V7 09 02 

BERITASHVILI (BERITOFF), IVAN S. (Physiologist) 

I. S. Beritashvili was born December 29, 1884. In 1910 he 
graduated from Petersburg University. He became a professor 
in 1919 at Tbilisi University. In 1935 he was appointed head of 
the Institute of Physiology at the University. This Institute be- 
came a part of the Georgian S.S.R. Academy of Sciences in 1941, 
and Beritashvili was the Director until 1952. Until recently he 



47 BERITASHVILI 

has been Chief of scientific work there. He was elected Acade- 
mician of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences in 1939 and in 1941 
of the Georgian S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. Since 1944 he has 
been a member of the Academy of Medical Sciences. In 1938 
Beritashvili was awarded the Prize of I. P. Pavlov and in 1941 
a Stalin Prize. In 1959 Beritashvili was elected an honorary 
member of the New York Academy of Sciences. 

The main work of Beritashvili is devoted to muscle physiolo- 
gy and the physiology of the nervous systems, particularly the 
central nervous system. He conducted investigations on the 
following: the contracting power of various muscles, the re- 
lationship of processes of excitation and contraction, functional 
differences of nervous and non-nervous sections of the muscle, 
plastic and elastic properties of various muscles, functional 
properties of peripheral nerves, velocity of distribution of 
excitation in the central nervous system, its coordinating action, 
the variability of innate reflex actions, the phenomenon of gener- 
al inhibition of the central nervous system, the higher forms of 
behavior in vertebrates, the neuro-psychic processes and their 
behavioural role, the conditions of formation of temporary con- 
nections, the role of receptors in spatial orientation in verte- 
brates and in man, the structural basis of the neuro-psychic 
activity, the interaction between the imaginal neuro-psychic ac- 
tivity and reflex action in animals, the interaction between the 
conscious and reflex action of man and others. He was one of 
the first to widely utilize the newest methods of investigating 
electric processes in the central nervous system. He is the 
author of a treatise "General Physiology of the Muscle and 
Nervous System" (1937, Stalin Prize 1941). 
Bibliography: 

Study on the Basic Elements of Central Coordination of Skele- 
tal Muscles. Petrograd: 1916. 

Individually Acquired Activity of the Central Nervous System. 

Tbilisi: 1932. 

On the Basic Forms of Nervous and Psychonervous Activity. 

Moscow-Leningrad: 1947. 

Nervous Mechanisms of Spatial Orientation of Mammals. 

Tbilisi: 1959. 

Nervous Mechanisms of Behavior in Higher Vertebrates. 

Moscow: 1961. 
Office: I. S. Beritashvili Institute of Physiology of the 

Academy of Sciences Georgian SSR 
Voyenno-Gruzinskaya Doroga 22 
Tbilisi, Georgian SSR 



BERNSHTEYN 48 

BERNSHTEYN, SERGEI NATANQVICH (Mathematician) 

S. N. Bernshteyn was born March 6, 1880 in Odessa. He did 
graduate work in the Sorbonne in 1899 and also at the Paris 
Higher Electrical Engineering School in 1901. In 1904 he re- 
ceived the Doctor of Mathematical Science in Paris and in 1914 
the Doctor of Pure Mathematics at POiarkov. From 1907 to 
1908 Bernshteyn was professor at the Petersburg Women's 
Poly technical School and from 1908 to 1918, professor at the 
Higher School for Women at Kharkov. He taught at Kharkov 
University from 1907 to 1933 and in 1920 became a professor 
there. He was a professor at the Leningrad Polytechnical Insti- 
tute during 1933-1941 and about the same time, 1934-1941, at 
Leningrad University. In 1935 he joined the staff of the Mathe- 
matics Institute of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. Bern- 
shteyn was elected a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences in 1924, and in 1929 an Academician. 
Since 1925 he has been a member of the Ukrainian Academy of 
Sciences. He was made an Honorary Member of the Moscow 
Mathematical Society in 1940. In 1955 he became a Foreign 
Member of the Paris Academy of Sciences. He was awarded in 
1941 a Stalin Prize. 

Bernshteyn' s scientific work deals chiefly with the theory of 
differential equations, and the theory of approximations by poly- 
nomials of functions. Early investigations (1903) of second 
order equations of the elliptical type led him to the conclusion 
that under certain general conditions their solutions become 
analytical functions which can be represented as a power series. 
Bernshteyn developed a new method of solving elliptical differ- 
ential equations. He also studied the functional approximation of 
polynomials, further developing the theory proposed by P. L. 
Chebishev and continued by the scientists of the Petersburg 
School. This work establishes the accuracy with which a 
function can be approximated by polynomials of different powers 
and by differential functional properties (as for instance 
through derivatives of a definite order). Bernshteyn, with his 
students, created a new branch in the theory of functions, which 
he called "the constructive theory of functions." His contri- 
butions in the field of probability are: the establishment of an 
axiomatic structure of the theory of relativity (1917); investi- 
gations of finite theorems (continuation and completion of the 
work of A. A. Markov, Sr. and A. M. Lyapunov); study of sto- 
chastic differential equations and the practical application of 
the theory of probability to solutions of problems in physics 
and statistics. 



49 BERNSHTEYN 

Bibliography: 

Collection of Papers, 1, 2. Moscow: 1952-54 (Vol. 1 con- 
tains a bibliography of his work). 

Analytical Approach to Differential Elliptical Equations. 
Kharkov: 1956. 

Sur la nature analytique des equations aux derivees parci- 
elles de second ordre. Mathematische Annalen, Berlin- 
Leipzie, 1904, 59, 20-76. 

Investigation and integration of differential equations with 
partial elliptical derivatives of the second order. Reports of 
the Kharkov Mathematical Society, Second Series, 1908-09, 

li- 

The optimum approximation to continuous functions by poly- 
nomials of a given power. Reports of the Kharkov Mathe- 
matical Society, Second Series, 1912, 13, #2-3. 
An experiment in the theory of probability on axiomatic 
grounds. Reports of the Kharkov Mathematical Society, 
Second Series, 1917, 15. 

Specific Properties of Polynomials and the Most Suitable 
Approximation to Continuous Functions of One Compound 
Variable, Pt. 1. Leningrad-Moscow: 1937. 
Theory of Probability, 4th ed. Moscow -Leningrad: 1946. 
and L G. Petrovskii. The first marginal problem (of Dirich- 
let)to solve elliptical equations and the properties of functions 
explained by these equations. Uspekhi Mat. Nauk, 1940, #8. 

Biography: 

On the 70th birthday of S. N. Bernshteyn. Izvest. Akad. Nauk 
S.S.S.R., Ser. Mat., 1950, 14, #3 (list of publications from 
1941). 

R. O. Kuzmin. Mathematical contributions of S. N. Bern- 
shteyn. Uspekhi Mat. Nauk, 1940, #8. 

N. L Akhiezer . Academician S. N. Bernshteyn and His Works 
on the Constructive Theory of Functions. Kharkov: 1955 
(also contains a list of Bernshteyn' s publications). 

Office: V. A. Steklov Mathematics Institute of USSR Acade- 

my of Sciences 
1-y Akademicheskii Proyezd, 28 
Moscow, USSR 

Residence: Leninskii Prospekt, 13 
Moscow, USSR 

Telephone: B2 11 12 



BEY-BIENKO 50 

BEY-BIENKQ (BEI-BIENKQ), GRIGQRII YAKQVLEVICH 

(Entomologist) 
G. Ya. Bey-Bienko was born February 7, 1903. In 1925 he 
graduated from the Siberian Agricultural Academy in Omsk. 
From 1929 to 1938, he worked at the AU-Union Research Insti- 
tute of Plant Protection in Leningrad. In 1938, he became a 
professor at the Leningrad Agricultural Institute and laboratory 
chief at the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Institute of Zoology 
in 1947. From 1946 to 1948, he worked at the Institute of Ap- 
plied Zoology and Phytopathology. He was awarded the N. A. 
Kholodkovskii Prize in 1951, and a State Prize in 1952. In 1953 
he was elected to the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences as a Corre- 
sponding Member. He was, in 1954 and 1960, a Vice-President 
of the AU-Union Entomological Society. 

Numerous scientific investigations of Bey-Bienko deal with 
theoretical and applied entomology and ecology. He is the 
author of monographs on the series: "Fauna of the U.S.S.R.," 
"Dermapterous Insects" (1936), "Orthoptera. Subfamily of 
Foliar long-horned Grasshoppers (Phaneropterinae)" (1954), 
"Cockroaches'* (1950). 
Bibliography: 

and L. L. Mishchenko . Fauna of the U.S.S.R. and of Neigh- 
boring Countries. Part 1-2. Moscow-Leningrad: 1951. 
and others . Agricultural Entomology, 3rd ed. (V. N. Shche- 
golev, ed.) Moscow-Leningrad: 1955. 

On the general classification of insects. Rev. Entom. Acri- 
doid USSR, XLI, 1, 1962. 
Office: Zoological Institute, Academy of Sciences USSR 

Universitetskaya Naberezhnaya 1 
Leningrad, B-164, USSR 

BITSADZE, ANDREI VASILEVICH (Mathematician) 

A. V. Bitsadze was born May 22, 1916 in Chiaturskii Rayon, 
in the Georgian S.S.R. He graduated from the Tbilisi University 
in 1940 and in 1951 received his Doctor of Physical- 
Mathematical Science degree. In 1941 he began working at the 
Institute of Mathematics of the Georgian S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences. From 1942 to 1947 he also taught at Tbilisi Uni- 
versity. In 1948 he went to work at the Mathematics Institute 
of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. Bitsadze has been a 
member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union since 1947. 
In 1958 he was elected a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences. 



51 BLAGONRAVOV 

Bitsadze's main work is on the theory of differential 
equations with partial derivatives (systems of elliptical 
equations, compound equations) and singular integral equations. 
Bibliography: 

On the Problem of Compound Type Equations. Moscow: 

1953. 

Terminal problems for systems of linear differential 

equations of the elliptical type. Reports of the Georgian 

S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, 1944, ^, #8. 

On the general compound type problem. Doklady Akad. Nauk 

S.S.S.R., 1951, 78, #4. 

On elliptical systems of differential equations with partial 

derivatives of secondary order. Doklady Akad. Nauk 

S.S.S.R., 1957, 112, #6. 

Three dimensional mixed-type equations. Doklady Akad. 

Nauk S.S.S.R. 143, #5, 1017-19 (1962). 
Office: V. A. Steklov Mathematics Institute of USSR Acade- 

my of Sciences 
1-y Akademicheskii Proyezd, 28 
Moscow, USSR 

BLAGONRAVOV, ANATOLII ARKADIEVICH (Mechanical 
Engineer) 

A. A. Blagonravov was born June 1, 1894. He is a graduate • 
of the following institutions: the Mikhailovskoe School of Ar- 
tillery (1916), Artillery College (1924), and the Military Techni- 
cal Academy (1929). From 1929 to 1946 he was on the staff of 
the Moscow Academy of Artillery and in 1938 was made a pro- 
fessor there. He was President, in 1946-1950, of the Academy 
of Artillery Science. Blagonravov was made Director of the 
Machine Science Section of the U. S.S.R. Academy of Sciences in 
1953. In 1957 he became Academic Secretary of the Technical 
Science Division of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He has 
been a member of the Communist Party since 1937. In 1940 he 
was given the permanent rank of lieutenant general in the ar- 
tillery. Since 1943 he has been an Academician of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences. 

Blagonravov' s scientific contributions are in the field of 
machinery and mechanics of armaments. His main work, Basic 
Principals of Automatic Weapons (1931), is a valuable source 
of fundamental calculations in the construction of weapons. 

In April 1962, Blagonravov was appointed Editor in Chief of 
Izvestiya Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Otdel. Tekh. Nauk. He has 
attended the Pugwash Conferences. 



BLINOVA 52 

Bibliography: 

Material Part of a Shooting Weapon, i_& 11. Moscow: 1945- 
46. 
Office: Academic Secretary, Department of Technical 

Sciences 
Malyy Khariton'yevskii Pereulok, 4 
Moscow, USSR 

BLINOVA, EKATERINA NIKITICHNA (Dynamic Meteorologist) 

E. N. Blinova was born December 7, 1906. She graduated 
from North Caucasus University (Rostov -on-the -Don). In 1935 
to 1945, she was senior scientific research associate at the 
Main Geophysical Observatory. In 1943 she began working at 
the Central Institute of Weather Forecasting in Moscow. Since 
1953 she has been a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences. 

Continuing the work of N. E. Kochin (1901-1944, mathema- 
tician), Blinova investigated in detail the conditions of atmos- 
pheric front stability (1936). Later, from 1938, she studied the 
general circulation of the atmosphere and developed a theory of 
radiative equilibrium in the atmosphere. She was successful in 
making a quantitative explanation of the existence of the so- 
called centers of atmospheric action. For this, she studied 
wave disturbances occurring in the general east-west atmos- 
pheric flow. She utilized the same wave method for a quanti- 
tative analysis of such atmospheric macroprocesses as the 
origin and development of cyclines and anti-cyclones. Blinova 
indicated in her works methods of long-term weather forecast- 
ing by means of integration of the so-called vortex equations 
proposed by A. A. Fridman (1888-1925, physicist), which are 
widely utilized at the present time for weather forecasting with 
the aid of electronic computers and for solving other problems 
in atmospheric dynamics. 
Bibliography: 

Sloping surface of discontinuity of an occlusion. Works of 
the Main Geophysical Observatory, 1935, #4. 
Zonal oscillations of the surface of Margules discontinuity. 
Works of the Main Geophysical Observatory, 1936, #10. 
Theory of cyclone formation. Works of the Main Geophysi- 
cal Observatory, 1938, #23. 

Determination of the speed of troughs from the non-linear 
equation for a vortex. Priklad. Mat. i Mekh., 1946, 10 , 
#5-6. 



53 BLOKHINTSEV 

Hydrodynamic theory of pressure waves, temperature waves 
and centers of atmospheric action. Doklady Akad. Nauk 
S.S.S.R., 1943, 39, #7. 

Problem of the average annual distribution of temperature 
in the earth's atmosphere with consideration of continents 
and oceans. Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. Geogr. i. 
Geofiz., 1947, 2, #1. 

Problem of determining pressure at sea level. Doklady 
Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., New Series, 1953, 92, #3. 
Method of solving a non-linear problem of atmospheric 
movements of a planetary scale. Doklady Akad. Nauk 
S.S.S.R., New Series, 1956, UO, #6. 

Biography: 

Ekaterina Nikitichna Blinova. Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 
Ser. Geofiz., 1954, #1. 

Office: Central Institute of Weather Forecasting 

Moscow, USSR 

BLOKHINTSEV, DMITRII IVANQVICH (Physicist) 

D. I. Blokhintsev was born January 11, 1908. After graduat- 
ing from Moscow University in 1930, he taught there and in 1936 
was made professor. In 1935-1956 he worked at the Physics 
Institute and at the Atomic Power Plant of the U.S.S.R. Academy 
of Sciences. He became Director of the Joint Institute of Nucle- 
ar Research in 1956. Since 1943, Blokhintsev has been a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. In 1939 he 
was elected a Corresponding Member of the Ukrainian S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences and in 1958 a Corresponding Member of 
the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He was awarded a Stalin 
Prize in 1952 and in 1957 a Lenin Prize. 

Blokhintsev' s interests are in the theory of solid bodies, 
optics, acoustics, field theory, quantum mechanics, philosophy 
of natural science, atomic physics and technology. He present- 
ed (1934) a quantum theory of the phosphorescence of solid 
bodies, and a theory of spectra of absorption and of fluorescence 
of complex molecules. A series of investigations by Blokhint- 
sev are devoted to phenomena in semi-conductors; particu- 
larly, in the theory of solid rectifiers. Blokhintsev also in- 
vestigated the distribution of sound in an inhomogeneous moving 
medium. He directed the construction of the Soviet atomic 
power plant (1954). Blokhintsev is the author of a text on 
quantum mechanics for universities. 



BOCHVAR 54 

Bibliography: 

On the theory of phosphorescence. Doklady Akad. Nauk 

S.S.S.R., 1934, 2, #2. 

On the theory of solid dry rectifiers. Doklady Akad. Nauk 

S.S.S.R., 1938,^, #1-2. 

Fluorescence and absorption spectra of complex molecules. 

Zhur. Eksptl. i Teoret. Fiz., 1939, 9, #4. 

Basis of Quantum Mechanics. 2nd ed., Moscow-Leningrad: 

1949. 

Acoustics of an Inhomogeneous Moving Medium. Moscow- 
Leningrad: 1946. 

Elementary particles in a field. Uspekhi Fiz. Nauk, 1950, 

42, #1. 

On non-local and non-linear field theories. Uspekhi Fiz. 

Nauk, 1957, 61, #2. 

and N. A. Dollezhal, A. K. Krasin. Atomic energy reactor. 

Atomic Energy, 1956, #1. 
Office: Joint Institute of Nuclear Research 

Moscow, USSR 

BOCHVAR, ANDREI ANATOLEVICH (Metallographer) 

A. A. Bochvar was born July 26, 1902, son of A. M. Bochvar 
(1870-1947, founder of the school of metallurgists). In 1923 he 
graduated from the Moscow Higher Technical School and then 
taught there. He began teaching at the Moscow Institute of Non- 
Ferrous Metals and Gold in 1930, and in 1934 he became a pro- 
fessor. In 1939 Bochvar was elected Corresponding Member 
of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences and in 1946 Academician. 
He is a Hero of Socialist Labor and a recipient of a Stalin 
Prize. 

Bochvar' s basic studies are concerned with the kinetics of 
eutectic crystallization (doctoral dissertation, 1935), the re- 
crystallization of metals and alloys, the deformation of alloys 
at high temperatures, the crystallization of alloys under pres- 
sure and the relation of the casting properties of alloys to their 
phase diagrams. Having carried out experimental research in 
the mechanism of eutectic crystallization, Bochvar constructed 
a theory for structural peculiarities and anomalies of alloys. 
He established the temperature patterns of the crystallization 
of metals and alloys (the so-called "Bochvar Rule"), and formu- 
lated the principles of a structural theory of heat-resistance. 
Studies on the crystallization of alloys under pressure permit- 
ted him, jointly with A. G. Spasski, to develop new industrial 
methods of shaping castings by crystallization under pressure. 



55 BOGOLYUBOV 

thus eliminating porosity of aluminum alloys, and to work out 
new principles of casting, ensuring significant metal reduction. 
Bochvar wrote a series of textbooks on metallography and the 
thermal treatment of metallic alloys. 
Bibliography: 

A Study of the Mechanism and Kinetics of Crystallization of 

Eutectic Alloys. Moscow -Leningrad: 1935. 

Basic Treatment of Alloys, 5th ed. Moscow-Leningrad: 

1940. 

Metallography, 5th ed. Moscow: 1956. 

On various mechanisms of plasticity in metallic alloys. 

Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Otdel. Tekh. Nauk, 1948, #5. 
Office: Moscow Institute of Non- Ferrous Metals and Gold 

Moscow, USSR 

BOGOLYUBOV, NIKOLAI NIKQLAEVICH (Mathematician) 

N. N. Bogolyubov was born in 1900 in Nizhnii Novgorod (now 
Gorkii) and in 1922, he moved with his mother to Kiev, where he 
attracted the attention of mathematicians D. A. Grave and N. M. 
Krilov. In 1923 he began work in a seminar sponsored by the 
department of mathematical physics of the Academy of Sciences 
of the Ukrainian S.S.R. under the direction of N. M. Krilov. In 
1924, he wrote his first scientific paper. In 1925, by special 
permission, he was admitted with no diploma from a higher 
educational institution as an associate of the department of 
mathematical physics of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukraini- 
an S.S.R. In 1928, he defended his candidate's dissertation on 
the subject "The Use of Direct Methods in the Calculus of Vari- 
ations for Investigation of Irregular Cases of the Problem of 
the Extreme." In 1930, the Presidium of the Academy of 
Sciences of the Ukrainian S.S.R. awarded him the degree Doctor 
of Mathematics honoris causa. 

Starting in 1928, Bogolyubov was employed by the Academy 
of Sciences of the Ukrainian S.S.R. In 1936, he became chair- 
man of a department, first at Kiev University, and in 1959 at 
Moscow University. From 1946 to 1949, he was Dean of the 
Mechanics and Mathematics Division of Kiev University; he 
was chairman of a number of departments of the Academy of 
Sciences U. S.S.R. (Department of Nonlinear Mechanics of the 
Institute of Structural Mechanics, Department of Mathematical 
Physics of the Institute of Mathematics). Since 1956, he has 
been in charge of the Department of Theoretical Physics of the 
Mathematics Institute imeni V. A. Steklov of the Academy of 
Sciences U. S.S.R., as well as of the Laboratory of Theoretical 



BOGOLYUBOV 56 

Physics of the Joint Institute of Nuclear Research in Dubno. 
He established the School of Nonlinear Mechanics in Kiev and 
the School of Theoretical Physics in Moscow. These schools 
have made a great contribution both to the development of theo- 
retical science and to the solution of numerous practical prob- 
lems of modern physics and engineering. Bogolyubov has been 
invited many times to deliver lectures on his research at 
foreign universities and scientific research institutes, as well 
as at international congresses and conferences. A number of 
his monographs have been translated into foreign languages. 

In 1939, Bogolyubov was elected Corresponding Member of 
the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian S.S.R., in 1947 Corre- 
sponding Member of the Academy of Sciences U.S.S.R., and in 
1948 an Academician of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukraini- 
an S.S.R. In 1953, he was elected Academician by the Academy 
of Sciences U. S.S.R. He received an honorary doctorate from 
the University of Hyderabad. For his research in the field of 
nonlinear mechanics and statistical physics, set forth in the 
monographs, "On Some Statistical Methods in Mathematical 
Physics," and "Problems of Dynamic Theory in Statistical 
Physics," Bogolyubov received in 1947 a Stalin Prize, First 
Class. For his investigation in superconductivity, he was 
awarded the Lomonosov Prize in 1957. In 1958, he was award- 
ed the Lenin Prize for working out the new methods in quantum 
field theory and in statistical physics which had led, in particu- 
lar, to substantiation of the theory of superfluidity and the 
theory of superconductivity. Other awards he has received in- 
clude another Stalin Prize and seven orders, among them three 
Orders of Lenin and the Order of the Red Banner of Labor. 

The scientific activity of Bogolyubov, which has extended 
over more than 30 years, covers varied fields of analysis, 
function theory, differential equations, theory of vibrations, 
theory of stability, and quantum field theory. During the period 
of his productive scientific inquiry, he published over 170 scien- 
tific papers, including a series of fundamental monographs. 
The following is a brief outline of the principal lines of his 
work. 

His earliest research was in the field of the calculus of vari- 
ations. This research was devoted to the development of direct 
methods for the solution of extreme problems which do not re- 
quire regularity or quasi -regularity of the corresponding oper- 
ations. At an international congress devoted to problems of the 
calculus of variations, his paper entitled "New Methods in the 
Calculus of Variations," was awarded the A. Mertani Prize of 



57 BOGOLYUBOV 

the Bologna Academy of Sciences. A number of the investi- 
gations by Bogolyubov have dealt with the theory of quasi - 
periodic functions. He showed that the basic theorems of quasi- 
periodic functions (for instance, the theorem of the uniform 
approximation of a continuous quasi -periodic function by trigo- 
nometric sums) result from one general theorem in the field of 
an arbitrary limited function. According to this theorem, 
certain linear combinations from an arbitrary limited function 
are capable of being approximated by trigonometric sums. The 
proof of the approximation theorem for the quasi -periodic 
functions of Bohr, presented by Bogolyubov, does not rely upon 
the Parseval equality; in general, it relies upon virtually none 
of the properties of functions quasi-periodic in the sense of 
Bohr. In the proof of this theorem, the underlying principle is 
an original purely mathematical conception of the properties of 
quasi -periods. In this Bogolyubov has presented a virtually new 
synthesis of Bohr's theory of quasi -periodic functions. 

Bogolyubov has carried out a series of investigations dealing 
with the theory of differential equations with limiting con- 
ditions, directly linked to the application of the differentiation 
method to the calculus of variations. The basis of these in- 
vestigations is the estimation of error in the approximate de- 
termination of proper values and characteristic functions of the 
boundary. The approximation method developed here by 
Bogolyubov is applicable not only to the solution of boundary 
problems, but also to the solution of partial differential 
equations. Starting in 1932, he began work with N. M. Krilov 
on the development of a completely new branch of mathematical 
physics—the theory of nonlinear oscillations which they called 
nonlinear mechanics. It should be noted that, in the twenties, 
the rapid development of radio and electrical engineering re- 
quired a study of nonlinear oscillations. The use, for this pur- 
pose, of methods developed by A. Poincare and A. M. Lyapunov 
was completely inadequate. It was necessary to develop new, 
more flexible methods of investigation of all the complex phe- 
nomena originating in nonlinear oscillatory systems. The re- 
search of Bogolyubov developed in two principal directions: that 
of the development of methods for the asymptotic integration of 
nonlinear equations describing oscillatory processes, and that 
of the mathematical substantiation of these methods, and this 
was equivalent to the development of a general theory of dy- 
namic systems. 

In the first of these directions, having to do with the study 
of differential equations with a "small" or "large" parameter. 



BOGOLYUBOV 58 

Bogolyubov was successful in extending the methods of the 
turbulence theory to general nonconservative systems and in 
developing new asymptotic methods in the theory of nonlinear 
oscillations. These asymptotic methods, grounded in mathe- 
matics, not only permitted a solution in the first approximation" 
(as, for instance, does the Van der Pohl method) but also in 
higher degrees of approximation and could be applied to the 
study of both periodic and quasi-periodic oscillatory processes. 
These methods were simple for practical use embodying a high- 
ly effective principle of equivalent linearization, the symbolic 
method, etc. 

A number of investigations by Bogolyubov in nonlinear me- 
chanics deal with the rigorous foundation of asymptotic methods, 
the estimation of error over a finite interval, the determination 
of correspondence of some properties of precise and approxi- 
mate solutions over an infinite interval, and the proof of some 
existence and stability theorems of quasi -periodic solutions. 
Interesting and elegant theorems were proven in the investi- 
gation of stationary oscillatory processes. Making use of the 
Poincare-Lyapunov theory, as well as of the Poincare-Danzhua 
theory of trajectories on a tore, he was successful in investi- 
gating the nature of a precise stationary solution in the vicinity 
of an approximate solution. In the theoretical field of nonlinear 
mechanics he also investigated the abstract theory of dynamic 
systems. He made a full investigation of the structure of the 
invariant dimensions of a compact dynamic system. A study 
was made of the existence and the basic properties of ergodic 
numbers emerging in the phase space of a dynamic system, 
corresponding physically to a stationary oscillation science. 

In his first works in theoretical physics, which were related 
to asymptotic methods, Bogolyubov examined problems dealing 
with the influence of a random force on a harmonic oscillator, 
and the establishment of statistical balance in a system con- 
nected to a thermostat. 

A number of his investigations deal with questions in sta- 
tistical mechanics of classical systems. Here, he has de- 
veloped a method of distribution functions, the essence of which 
lies in the development of analytical calculation methods which 
give probability distribution function of the particle complexes 
in the examined system. On the basis of Gibbs' distribution, he 
arrived at a method for constructing a system of equations for 
these functions, and indicated methods of their solution for 
various cases. Extending the technique of distribution functions 
to the case of unbalanced processes, Bogolyubov approaches 



59 BOGOLYUBOV 

from a single point of view the theory of and the calculation of 
kinetic equations for systems of interacting particles, and pro- 
vided a general procedure for synthesizing them based on the 
fundamental theorems of statistical mechanics. 

He obtained results of no lesser importance in quantum sta- 
tistics. Generalizing for the case of quantum systems the 
method of kinetic distribution functions, he provided a general 
method of constructing kinetic equations for quantum systems. 
Interesting results were also obtained by him in questions con- 
nected with the behavior of electrons in metal. Here he de- 
veloped a method of approximate second quantization based on 
the fact that, under certain assumptions, it is possible to repre- 
sent the energy spectrum of a Fermi system in the form of an 
aggregate of elementary excitations that are subject to Boze 
statistics. 

Highly important accomplishments of Bogolyubov are set 
forth in investigations dealing with superfluidity and super- 
conductivity. It is well known that quantum systems consisting 
of a large number of identical particles manifest, at low tem- 
peratures, the highly unique phenomenon of degeneration. This 
phenomenon had been studied only for ideal gases. The first 
results in the theory of the degeneration of non-ideal gases 
were obtained by him as early as 1947, it being shown that a 
weakly non-ideal Boze gas can occur in a degenerate state and 
will then possess the property of superfluidity. In this manner, 
the first step was made toward the development of the micro- 
scope theory of the superfluidity of Helium II. 

Development of the ideas and methods which he expressed in 
his works of 1947 and 1948 made it possible for him to evolve 
in 1958 a systematic microscopic theory of superconductivity. 
An important part in understanding the essence of superconduc- 
tivity was played by Froelich's idea of the decisive role of the 
interaction of electrons with lattice oscillations, and the pre- 
diction on that basis of the isotopic .effect. It was, however, 
impossible to solve the problem on the Hamiltonian basis pro- 
posed by Froelich on account of the many difficulties of a pure- 
ly mathematical nature. Bogolyubov was successful in solving 
this problem and, as a result, not only developed a systematic 
theory of superfluidity, but also established the fundamental 
fact that superconductivity may be regarded as the superfluidity 
of an electron gas, or more generally, as the superfluidity of 
Fermi systems. Recently these results have found application 
in nuclear theory. 



BOGOLYUBOV 60 

In the field of quantum field theory Bogolyubov made an at- 
tempt at a completely new synthesis rejecting the Hamiltonian 
formalism and replacing it by physical conditions, notably that 
of causality. A systematic exposition of quantum field theory is 
given by him in the monograph, "Introduction to the Theory of 
Quantum Fields." Bogolyubov also gave a rigorous proof of the 
so-called dispersional relations, introducing a new method in 
quantum field theory. He uncovered the underlying premises 
of quantum field theory necessary for the derivation of dis- 
persion relationships, and provided rigorous proof for the 
validity of these relations. He proved a series of theorems ly- 
ing on the borderline of the theory of multiple complex variables 
and the theory of generalized functions. 

Bogolyubov has attended the Pugwash Conferences. 
As of 1961, Bogolyubov was a Member of the Presidium of 
the Siberian Branch U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 
Bibliography: 

Problems of Dynamic Theory in Statistical Physics. 
Moscow-Leningrad: 1946. 

New Methods in Variable Calculation. Kharkov-Kiev: 1932. 
Statistical Methods in Mathematical Physics. Kiev: 1945. 
and N. M. Krylov. Introduction to Non-Linear Mechanics 
(Approach and asymptotic methods of non-linear mechanics). 
Kiev: 1937. 

and Yu. A. Mitropolskii . Asymptotic Methods in the Theory 
of Non-Linear Oscillations. Moscow: 1955. (See trans- 
lation below) 

Introduction to the Quantum Field Theory. Moscow: 1957. 
and Yu. A. Mitropolskii. Asymptotic Methods in the Theory 
of Non-Linear Oscillations. (Translated from Russian). 
Delhi Hindustan Pub. Corp., 1961; (New York, Gordon & 
Breach) 537 p. (International monographs on advanced 
mathematics). 

Equation with variational derivatives in problems of statisti- 
cal physics and of quantum theory. Introductory article in 
The Methods of Functionals in Quantum Theory of Fields, 
I. V. Novozhilov and A. V. Tulub. New York: Gordon and 
Breach, 1961. 79 p. (Russian tracts on advanced math, and 
phys. ^.) 
Office: Department of Theoretical Physics 

A. V. Steklov Mathematics Institute of USSR 
1-y Akademicheskii Proyezd, 28 
Moscow, USSR 



6 1 BOGORO V 

Residence: Leninskiye gory, Korp. "L" 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: B9 26 07 

BQGQRQV, VYENIAMIN GRIGQR'YEVICH (Qceanographer) 

V. G. Bogorov was born December 24, 1904. He graduated 
from Moscow University in 1926. From 1930 to 1941 he was 
employed at the All-Union Institute of Fisheries and Oceanogra- 
phy. Since 1941 he has been working at the U.S.S.R. Academy 
of Sciences Institute of Oceanography (known as the Laboratory 
on Oceanography until 1946). In 1958 he was elected to the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences as a Corresponding Member. He 
was awarded, in 1951, a Stalin Prize. 

Bogorov' s main investigations are the typology of seas, the 
geographic zoning of oceans, the productivity of seas, the 
twenty -four hour migration of plankton, and biological seasons. 
He advanced new methods and instruments for quantitative in- 
vestigation of plankton, and for undertaking marine expedition- 
ary work. 
Bibliography: 

Twenty -four hour vertical distribution of plankton in polar 
environments (South East part of the Barents Sea). Works 
of the Polar Scientific Research Institute of Marine Fish 
Industry and Oceanography of N. M. Klinovich, 1938, #2. 
Peculiarities of seasonal occurrence in plankton of polar 
seas and their meaning for ice prognosis. Zoolog. Zhur., 
1939, 18, #5. 

Role of Biological Indicators for Knowledge of the Hydro - 
logical Regime of the Sea. Moscow-Leningrad: 1945. 
Vertical distribution of zooplankton and vertical separation 
of ocean waters. Works of the Institute of Oceanology 
(U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences), 1948, 2^. 
Production of plankton and characteristics of biogeographic 
territories of the ocean. Doklady. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1958, 
118 , #5. 

Sea Life. Moscow: 1954. 
Office: Institute of Oceanography of USSR Academy of 

Sciences 
Ulitsa Bakhrushina, 8 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Leninskii Prospekt, 25 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: V4 00 27, Ext. 49 



BOKII 62 

BOKII, GEQRGII BQRISOVICH (Crystallographer Chemist) 

G. B. Bokii was born September 26, 1909. He graduated in 
1930 from the Leningrad Mining Institute and began working at 
the Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences. In 1939 he joined the teaching staff of 
Moscow University and in 1944 was made professor. Bokii has 
been a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union 
since 1944. In 1958 he was elected a Corresponding Member of 
the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He was awarded two Orders 
of the Badge of Honor and also medals. 

Bokii has used crystallographic methods for study of com- 
plex compounds. Together with S. S. Batsanov he developed a 
crystallo- optic method of determining the structure of complex 
compounds. For this work he was awarded (in 1954) the Prize 
of the Presidium of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. Bokii 
proposed a method of quantitatively determining the values of 
trans -influence in measuring interatomic distances in crystals 
of complex compounds. This was reported at the International 
Congress on Crystallography in 1957 in Canada. He worked out 
an atomic structure theory of daltonides and berthoUides (1956). 
Bibliography: 

and E. E. Burova. Crystallographic study of the solid phases 
in the system K2O-P2O5-H2O. Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 
Ser. Khim., 1938, #1. 

On the theory of daltonides and berthoUides. Zhur. Neorg. 
Khim., 1956, I, #7. 

and I. I. Shafranovskii . Russian crystallographers. Works 
of the Institute of History of Natural Science and Engineer- 
ing, 1947. 

Crystal chemistry of complex compounds. Proceedings of 
the Department of Platinum of the Institute of General and 
Inorganic Chemistry of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, 
1948, #21. 

and S. S. Batsanov . A new method of determining the struc- 
ture of complex compounds, 1. Vestnik of the Moscow State 
University, 1952, #2. 
Office: Chemistry Department 

Moscow University 
Moscow, USSR 

BOL' SHAKO V, KIRILL ANDREEVICH (Chemist) 

K. A. Bol'shakov was born December 24, 1906. He graduated 
from the University of Kazan' in 1930 and from then until 1948 



63 BORESKOV 

worked at the Institute of Rare Minor Metals in Moscow. He 
began teaching at the Moscow Institute of Fine Chemical Tech- 
nology in 1933 and in 1948 was made professor. In 1958 
Bol'shakovwas elected a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences. He received a Stalin Prize in 1941. 

Bol'shakov's main investigations deal with the physical- 
chem.ical basis of technological processes in obtaining rare 
elements. 
Bibliography: 

and M. N. Sobolev. Extracting vanadium from titanomagne- 
tite ores. Rare Metals, 1933, #6. 

and V. A. Yazykov . Obtaining ferrovanadium from vanadate 
of calcium by a silico -thermal method. Quality Steel, 1934, 
#6. 

and P. I. Fedorov and G. D. Agashkina . Diagrams of fusi- 
bility of double systems: sodium chloride-cobaltous chloride 
and sodium chloride -nickel chloride. Zhur. Neorg. Khim., 
1957,1, #5. 
Office: Moscow Institute of Fine Chemical Technology 

Moscow, USSR 
Residence: 2ii Shuminskii pr. 2 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: D4 09 98 

BORESKOV, GEORGH KQNSTANTINQVICH (Physical Chemist) 
G. K. Boreskov was born April 20, 1907. He graduated from 
Odessa Institute in 1928, and from 1928 to 1937 he worked at 
the Ukrainian Chemical -Radiology Institute (Odessa; now the 
Ukrainian branch of the Institute of Rare Metals). He also 
taught at the University of Odessa in 1934-37 and in 1930-37 at 
the Odessa Chemical-Technological Institute. From 1937 to 
1949 he was Chief of the Laboratory of Catalysis for the Scien- 
tific Research Institute of Fertilizers and Insectofungicides. In 
1946 he began working at the Karpov^ Physico-Chemical Institute 
and in 1949 became professor at the Moscow Chemico- 
Technological Institute of D. I. Mendeleev. Boreskov has been 
a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences 
since 1958. He was awarded a Stalin Prize in 1942, and two 
orders and medals. 

The investigations of Boreskov deal with the study of cata- 
lytic processes, the development of a scientific basis for se- 
lecting and preparing catalysis and designing catalytic reactors. 
He proposed a vanadium catalyst for producing sulphuric acid, 



BRAUNSTEIN 64 

which is utilized in contact sulphuric acid plants. He investi- 
gated the influence of processes of heat and matter transfer on 
the speed of contact reactions and selectivity of catalyst action. 
As of 1961, Boreskov was Director of the Institute of Cataly- 
sis, Siberian Branch of U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 
Bibliography: 

Catalysis in Sulphuric Acid Production. Moscow -Leningrad: 
1954. 

and K. M. Malin and others . Technology of Sulphuric Acid. 
Moscow-Leningrad: 1950. 

Action mechanism of solid catalysis. Heterogeneous Cataly- 
sis in the Chemical Industry. Moscow: 1955. 
Biography: 

M. G. Slin'ko . Georgii Konstantinovich Boreskov (On the 
50th Anniversary since the date of birth). Zhur. Fiz. Khim., 
1957, 3i, #4. 
Office: D. I. Mendeleev Chemico -Technological Institute 

Moscow, USSR 

BRAUNSTEIN, ALEKSANDR EVSEEVICH (Biochemist) 

A. E. Braunstein was born May 26, 1902. He graduated in 
1925 from the Kharkov Medical Institute. In 1930-1936 he 
worked as senior scientific worker at the Bakh Biochemical 
Institute of the People's Commissariat of Public Health of the 
U.S.S.R. He began working at the All -Union Institute of Experi- 
mental Medicine in 1936 as Chief of the Section on Metabolism 
and subsequently, at the Institute of Biological Medical Chemis- 
try of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Medical Sciences. In 1959, 
Braunstein became a laboratory Chief at the U.S.S.R. Academy 
of Sciences Institute of Radiation and Physico-Chemical Biology. 
He became a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy 
of Medical Sciences in 1945, and in 1960 a Corresponding Mem- 
ber of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. In 1941 he received a 
Stalin Prize. 

Braunstein' s investigations deal with nitrogen exchange of 
amino acids and proteins and with enzymology. He discovered 
the process of enzymatic reamination of amino acids (1937), 
investigated its biological role, and presented a new view of the 
assimilation and dissimilation of nitrogen in living and other 
organisms (1939-1957). He studied other enzymatic transfor- 
mations of amino acids (1948-1952). He discovered a series of 
functions of Bg in the transformations of tryptophane oxy -amino 
acids, and sulphur -containing amino acids (1949-1956). 



65 BREKHOVSKIKH 

Bibliography: 

and M. G. Kritsman . Formation of amino acids by way of 
intermolecular transfer of the amino group. Biokhimiya, 
1937,^, #2. 

Biochemistry of Amino Acid Exchange. Moscow: 1949. 
and M. M. Shemyakin. Theory on processes of amino acid 
exchange, catalyzed by pyridoxine enzymes. Biokhimiya, 
1953, 18, #4. 

Vitamins of the B Group in processes of amino acid exchange 
(report). Ukrainian Biochemical Journal, 1955, ^, #4. 
Office: Institute of Biological Medical Chemistry of the 

USSR Academy of Sciences 
Solyanka, 14 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Novoslobodskaya, 57/65 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: Dl 55 56 

^REKHOVSKIKH, LEONID MAKSIMQVICH (Physicist) 

L. M. Brekhovskikh was born May 6, 1917. He graduated in 
1939 from the University of Perm. In 1953 he was appointed 
professor at Moscow University, and in 1954 he was made Di- 
rector of the Acoustical Institute, U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 
Since 1953 he has been a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences and in 1951 he was the recipient of a 
Stalin Prize. 

Brekhovskikh' s early investigations are on scattering of 
x-rays in crystals and liquids. From 1942 his main scientific 
interest has been in acoustics and wave propagation. He investi- 
gated the propagation of sound and electromagnetic waves in 
heterogeneous media and developed the theory of wave fields and 
point sources in layer -heterogeneous media. In particular, he 
presented a theory on the so-called side and head waves, which 
play an important role in seismographic surveys. A number of 
Brekhovskikh' s investigations are in the scattering of sound 
electromagnetic waves on uneven surfaces. Together with 
others, he discovered (1946) the super -distance propagation of 
sound in the sea. 
Bibliography: 

Reflection of spheric waves from a plane boundary of a 
section of two media. Zhur. Tekh. Fiz., 1948, 18, #4. 
Wave diffraction on an uneven surface. 1-2, Zhur. Eksptl. 
i Teoret. Fiz., 1952, 23, #3 (9), 275-304. 



BRODSKY 66 

On the field of a point radiator in layer -heterogeneous 
media. I-III. Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. Fiz., 1949, 
13, #5, 505-545. 

Waves in Layer Media. Moscow: 1957. 
Office: Institute of Acoustics of USSR Academy of Sciences 

Ulitsa Televideniya, 4 
Moscow, USSR 

BRODSKY (BRQDSKII), ALEKSANDR IL^ICH (Physical 
Chemist) 
A. I. Brodsky was born June 19, 1895. He graduated from 
Moscow University. Since 1938 he has been Director of the 
Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Ukrainian S.S.R. Academy 
of Sciences. Brodsky has been an Academician of the Ukrainian 
S.S.R. Academy of Sciences since 1939 and since 1943 a Corre- 
sponding Member of the U. S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. In 1946 
he was awarded a State Prize. He was elected, in 1962, Honor- 
able Member of the Polish Chemical Society. 

Brodsky investigated the influence of solvents on chemical 
equilibrium, on electrode potentials, and on optical properties 
of solutions. He pioneered and organized (from 1934) investi- 
gations on chemical reactions using isotopes. He studied iso- 
tope exchange reactions, and the isotope composition of natural 
waters and rocks. Since 1939 he has investigated the mecha- 
nisms of organic and exchange reactions. 
Bibliography: 

Investigations in Thermodynamic and Electrochemistry of 
Solutions. Kharkov -Dnepropetrovsk: 1931. 
Contemporary Theory of Electrolytes. Leningrad: 1934. 
Physical Chemistry, 1-2 , 6th ed. Moscow-Leningrad: 1948. 
Translations: Ukrainian (Khiarkov 2nd ed., 1937); Georgian 
(Tbilisi, 1938); Latvian (Riga, 1950); Bulgarian (Sophia, 
1952); Polish (Warsaw, 2nd ed., 1954). 

Calculation of Thermodynamic Functions. Moscow: 1948. 
Chemistry of Isotopes, 2nd ed. Moscow: 1957. Trans- 
lations: Polish (Warsaw, 1957); Chinese (Peking, 1956); 
German (Berlin, 1961). 

and L. L. Gordienko. Nitrogen isotope exchange in amides 
of acids. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 134, 595-98 (1960). 
Isotopic investigations of mechanisms of reactions, produc- 
ing hydrogen peroxide and peroxy acids. Kernenergie ^, 
822-27 (1960). 

Isotopic investigations on mechanisms of some oxidation- 
reduction reactions. Kernenergie^, 827-33 (1960). 



67 BRUEV^ICH 

and V. A. Lunenok-Burmakina, A. P. Potemskaja. Investi- 
gation of the mechanism of anodic ozone formation in sulfate 
solutions. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 137, 1402-04 (1961). 
and I. F. Franchuk. Isotopic investigation of oxides and 
peroxides of uranium. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 138 , 
1345-48 (1961). 

and M. M. Aleksankin, I. P. Gragherov . Mechanism of the 
oxidation of pyruvic acid with hydrogen peroxide. Zhur. 
Obshchei Khim. 32, 829-32 (1962). 
Biography: 

Aleksandr H'ich Brodsky, Specialist in the Area of Physical 
Chemistry. (On the 60th Anniversary Since the Date of 
Birth). Ukr. Zhur. Khim., 1955,^1, #4. 
Office: (L. V. Pisarzhevskiy) Institute of Physical Chemis- 

try 

Ukrainian SSR Academy of Sciences 

Bolshaja Kitajevskaya Str. 97 

Kiev 28, Ukrainian SSR 

BRUEVICH, NIKOLAI GRIGQREVICH (Mechanical Engineer) 

N. G. Bruevich was born November 12, 1896 in Moscow. He 
graduated from Moscow University in 1922 and from Moscow 
Aviation Institute in 1930. In 1937 he received the degree of 
Doctor of Technical Sciences and became professor. He joined 
the teaching staff in 1929 of the Zhukovskii Academy of Military 
and Air Engineering. In 1951 he began teaching at the Machine 
Institute of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. During World 
War II (1941-1945), he was in charge of evaluating and resolving 
problems pertaining to aviation. He is a lieutenant general of 
engineers. Since 1921 Bruevich has been a member of the 
Communist Party of the Soviet Union. In 1939 he was elected a 
Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, 
and in 1942 an Academician. 

In the 1930' s Bruevich developed, general methods of kine- 
matic and kinetostatic analyses for plane and space mecha- 
nisms. While working on computing machines and precision 
movements of mechanisms, he established a theory of precision 
in machinery. The application of this theory provides a rational 
approach for planning and manufacturing mechanical devices 
and precision instruments. He also instituted a course dealing 
with working principles of computing machines. 



BRUK 68 

Bibliography: 

Kinematics of the simplest space mechanisms with fifth 
grade couples. Works of the Zhukovskii Air Force Academy 
RKKA, 1937, #18. 

Kinetostatics of space mechanisms. Works of the Zhukovskii 
Air Force Academy RKKA, 1937, #22. 

Precision of Mechanisms. Moscow-Leningrad: 1946 (also 
Bruevich's bibliography). 

and B. G. Dostupov . Installation of Computing Instruments. 
Moscow-Leningrad: 1954. 
Office: Institute of Machine Studies of USSR Academy of 

Sciences 
Malyy Kharitonyevskii Pereulok, 4 
Moscow, USSR 

BRUK, ISAAK SEMYONOVICH (Electrical Engineer) 

I. S. Bruk was born November 9, 1902. He graduated from 
the Moscow Technical College in 1925, and has been working at 
the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Institute of Energetics since 
1935. In 1956, he became Chief of the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences Laboratory on Directing Machines and Systems, and 
later was made Director of the Institute. He was elected, in 
1939, to the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences as a Corresponding 
Member. 

Bruk has worked on power electric and mathematical ma- 
chines. In 1936-38, the first U.S.S.R. machines for integrating 
ordinary differential equations were built according to the de- 
sign of Bruk. A computing device, "computing table of alternat- 
ing current" for investigating electrical systems was built in 
1945-1947 under his leadership. From 1948 he has conducted 
work on high speed electronic computers. The M-1, M-2, M-3 
machines were built in 1950-55. 
Bibliography : 

Machine for Integrating Differential Equations. Moscow - 

Leningrad: 1941. 

The stability of electric systems. Electricity, 1945, #9. 

Electric minimizer. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1948, 62, 

#4. 

High speed electronic computer M-2. Electricity, 1956, #9. 
Office: Institute of Electronic Controlling Machines 

Leninskii Prospekt, 16 
Moscow, USSR 



69 BUDNIKOV 

Residence: ul. Chkalova, 21 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: K7 48 37 

BUDKER, GERSH ITSKQVICH (Physicist) 

G. I. Budker was born May 1, 1918. He graduated in 1941 
from Moscow University. In 1946 he began work at the Institute 
of Atomic Energy of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He also 
became a professor, in 1956, at the Moscow Engineering Phy- 
sics Institute. In 1957 Budker was made Director of an Insti- 
tute of the Siberian branch of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 
Since 1958 he has been a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences. 

Budker has investigated the theory of heterogeneous uranium- 
graphite reactors, the theory on kinetics and control of atomic 
reactors, and the theory and calculation of a circular -orbit 
accelerator of charged particles. From 1951 he has worked on 
plasma physics, the design of new types of accelerators and the 
realization of controlled thermonuclear reactions. He has in- 
vestigated the theory of a stabilized electron beam, and a kine- 
tic equation for relativistic plasma. 

As of 1961, Budker was a Member of the Siberian Branch 
Presidium and the Director of the Institute of Nuclear Physics 
of the Siberian Branch U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 
Bibliography: 

Relativistic stabilized electron beam. Atomic Energy, 1956, 

#5. 

and S. T. Belyaev . Relativistic kinetic equation. Doklady 

Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1956, 107, #6. 
Office: Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Siberian De- 

partment of USSR Academy of Sciences 
Novosibirsk, Siberia 

BUDNIKOV, PYOTR PETRQVICH {Inorganic and Industrial 
Chemist) 
P. P. Budnikov was born October 21, 1885. He graduated in 
1911 from the Riga Polytechnical Institute. From 1919 to 1926 
he was professor at the Ivanova-Voznesensk Institute and from 
1926 to 1941 at the Khar'kov Chemico-Technological Institute. 
In 1943 he became professor at the Moscow Chemico- 
Technological Institute. Since 1939 he has been a Correspond- 
ing Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences and Acade- 
mician of the Ukrainian S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. Budnikov 



BUDNIKOV 70 

was an Honored Scientist of the Ukrainian S.S.R. in 1943. In 
1942, 1950, and 1952, he was awarded Stalin Prizes. 

The chief emphasis of the works of Budnikov is given to a 
complex study of the mineral wealth of the U. S.S.R. and es- 
tablishing a method for its utilization. The long study of 
Budnikov on the investigation of gypsum broadened the latter' s 
use in the building and chemical industries. He invented an 
anhydridic cement. As a result of his study of the chemical 
processes during hydration and solidification of blast furnace 
slag, Budnikov discovered new types of hydraulic cement— sul- 
fated non-clinker and low-clinker slag cements, high quality, 
quick hardening and expanding cement —which were widely util- 
ized. Work was carried out by Budnikov in the field of hydro - 
thermal processing of building materials, and refractory ma- 
terial for the coke, chemical and metallurgical industries. A 
series of his works is devoted to the thermo-chemistry of bind- 
ing agents, the chemical and thermal stability of refractory ma- 
terial, and corrosion of cements and concrete. He studied re- 
actions in solid phases in silicate systems and developed new 
methods of investigating silicates. 
Bibliography: 

Gypsum, Its Study and Utilization, 3rd ed. Moscow- 
Leningrad: 1943. 

and A. S. Bereznoi . Reactions in Solid Phases. Moscow: 
1949. 

and others. Technology of Ceramics and Refractory Materi- 
al, 2nd ed. Moscow: 1954. 

Technology of Ceramic Products, ed. Moscow -Leningrad: 
1946. 
Biography: 

D. S. Belyankin, ed. Collection of Works Devoted to the 60th 
Anniversary Since the Date of Birth of P. P. Budnikov. 
Moscow: 1946. 

G. V. Kukolev. Pyotr Petrovich Budnikov. Zhur. Priklad. 
Khim., 1956, _29, #1. 

Collection of Scientific Work in Chemistry and Technology 
of Silicates Devoted to the 70th Anniversary Since the Date 
of Birth of P. P. Budnikov. Moscow: 1956. 
Office: Moscow Chemico-Technical Institute 

Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Troilinskii p. 3 
Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: Gl 40 58 



71 BYKHOVSKII 

BUSHUYEV, KQNSTANTIN DAVYDQVICH (Physicist) 

K. D. Bushuyev was born in 1914. In 1941 he graduated from 
the Moscow Aviation Institute. Since 1941 he has been a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. In 1960 he was 
elected to the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences as a Corresponding 
Member. 

Bushuyev' s works deal with theoretical and applied me- 
chanics. 
Office: USSR Academy of Sciences 

Leninskii Prospekt, 14 

Moscow, USSR 

BYKHOVSKII, BORIS EVSEEVICH (Parasitologist) 

B. E. Bykhovskii was born in 1908. In 1930 he graduated 
from the biological department of the Leningrad State University 
Institute of Physico-Mathematics. From 1929 to 1939, he was 
a laboratory worker, scientific worker, senior scientific worker 
of the Fishing Industry Institute in Leningrad. He was, in 1939- 
40, senior scientific worker of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences 
Zoological Institute. From 1940-44 he was deputy chairman of 
the Presidium of the Tadzhik branch of the U.S.S.R. Academy 
of Sciences. He was deputy Director of the U.S.S.R. Academy 
of Sciences Zoological Institute and chief of the Laboratory on 
Helminth Parasitology at this Institute from 1942 to 1959, when 
he was reappointed deputy Director of the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences Zoological Institute. In September 1962 he was made 
Acting Director of this Institute. 

Since 1941 he has been a member of the Communist Party of 
the Soviet Union. In 1960 he was elected to the U.S.S.R. Acade- 
my of Sciences as a Corresponding Member. 

Bykhovskii' s main works deal with the study of parasitic 
lower helminths. 
Bibliography: 

and A. V. Gusev. Contributions to knowledge about mono- 
genetic trematodes with a primitive fastening armature. 
Trudy Zool. Inst. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 1955 (21): 110-118, 
1955; Referat. Zhur. BioL, 1956, #82221. Biol. Abstr. 33, 
21376 (1958). 

Information on monogenetic trematodes in the fishes in 
Tadzhikstan. Izv. Vses. N. I. Inst. Oz. i Rechn. Rybn. Kh- 
va 42: 109-123, 1957. Biol. Abstr. 35, 30659 (1960). 
and L. F. Nagibina. The monogenetic trematoda of the sheat- 
fish, silarus glanis. Parazitol. Sb. 1957 (17). Biol. Abstr. 
35, 5131 (1960). 



CHELOMEI 72 

and Yu. L Polianskii. Results and perspectives of work of 
Soviet parasitologists in the field of the study of parasites of 
fish in the seas of the U.S.S.R. Trudy Soveshchanii Ikhtiol. 
Komiss. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 9. 177-183. 1959. Referat 
Zhur., Biol., 1960, #105717. Biol. Abstr. 36, 46537 (1961). 
and G. K. Petrashevskii, Yu. I. Polianskii. V. A. Dogel' and 
his role in the investigation of parasites and diseases of fish 
in the U.S.S.R. Trudy Soveshchanii Ikhtiol. Komiss. Akad. 
Nauk S.S.S.R. 9. 7-12. 1959. Referat Zhur., Biol., 1960, 
#115052 (Trans.) 

CHELOMEI, VLADIMIR NIKOLAEV^ICH (Mechanical Engineer) 

V. N. Chelomei was born June 30, 1914. Upon graduating 
from the Kiev Aviation Institute in 1938, he taught there. From 
1941 to 1944, he worked at the Central Institution of Aircraft 
Engines, and subsequently in a number of scientific research 
organizations. He has been a professor at Moscow Technical 
College since 1952. Since 1941 he has been a member of the 
Communist Party of the Soviet Union. In 1958 he was elected a 
Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, 
and in June 1962, an Academician. 

Chelomei' s main work deals with mechanics, dynamics of 
machinery, theory of pneumatic and hydraulic servomecha- 
nisms. 
Bibliography: 

Elastic oscillations of bending. Works of the Kiev Aviation 

Institute, 1936, #6. 

One problem of quasi -harmonic oscillations. Works of the 

Kiev Aviation Institute, 1936, #6. 

Oscillations subjected to the action of periodically changing 

longitudinal forces. Works of the Kiev Aviation Institute, 

1937, #8. 

Theory of springs. Works of the Kiev Aviation Institute, 

1938, #8. 

Stability of rods, subjected to the action of longitudinal, 

periodically changing forces distributed longitudinally. 

Works of the Kiev Aviation Institute, 1938, #10. 

Stability of plates in special cases. Doklady Akad. Nauk Ukr. 

S.S.R., 1938, #1. 

Dynamic Stability of Elements in Aviation Construction. 

Moscow: 1939. 

Pneumatic servomechanisms. Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 

Otdel. Tekh. Nauk, 1954, #5. 



73 CHERNIGOVSKII 

Possibilities of raising the stability of elastic systems with 
the aid of vibration. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1956, 110, 
#3. 

Investigation of pneumatic and hydraulic servomechanisms. 
Automatic Control and Computing Techniques, Moscow, 1958, 
#1. 
Office: Moscow Technical College 

Moscow, USSR 

CHEPIKOV, KQNSTANTIN ROMANQV^ICH (Geologist) 

K. R. Chepikov was born January 6, 1901. He graduated 
from the Moscow Mining Academy in 1929. He conducted geo- 
logical surveys for locating oil on the Kerch Peninsula, North- 
ern Caucasus, Siberia, and particularly in the Ural-Povolzh'e 
region. In 1947 he became Chief of the Laboratory on Oil Ge- 
ology at the Institute of Geological Sciences, and in 1954 was 
made deputy Director of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Oil 
Institute. He was awarded a Stalin Prize in 1946, has been a 
member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union since 1919, 
and was elected to the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences as a 
Corresponding Member in 1953. 
Bibliography: 

and A. D. Arkhangel'skii and others . Brief outline of geo- 
logical structure and oil deposits of the Kerch Peninsula. 
Works of the Main Directorate of Geological Surveys of the 
U.S.S.R. National Economic Council. #13. Moscow- 
Leningrad: 1930. 

Question of separation of the Upper Permian red beds by the 
fauna tetrapoda. Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Geol. Ser., 
1946, #4. 

Age of Ufimskii deposits. Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 
Geol. Ser., 1948, #4. 
Office: Oil Institute of USSR Academy of Sciences 

Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Leninskii Prospekt, 25 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: V4 00 27, Ext. 44 

CHERNIGOVSKH, VLADIMIR NIKOLAEV^ICH (Physiologist) 

V. N. Chernigovskii was born March 1, 1907. He graduated 
from Perm University Medical College in 1930; in 1930 to 1932 
he was assistant at the Orenburg Veterinary Institute and in 
1932 to 1937 at the Sverdlovsk Medical Institute. From 1937 to 
1941 he was senior research associate and in 1944 professor in 



CHERNYAEV 74 

the Department of General Physiology at the All- Union Institute 
of Experimental Medicine (Leningrad). Chernigovskii also 
worked in the Naval Academy, Leningrad, from 1941 to 1953 
and at the same time at the Institute of Physiology (reorganized 
into the Institute of Normal and Pathological Physiology of the 
Academy of Medical Sciences). In 1953, he was made Director 
of this Institute. He was elected a Corresponding Member of 
the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences in 1953 and in 1960 an Acade- 
mician. Chernigovskii has been a Corresponding Member of 
the Academy of Medical Sciences since 1948, and an Acade- 
mician since 1950. From 1953 to 1957 he was Vice-President 
of the Academy of Medical Sciences. In 1944 the Academy of 
Sciences awarded him the I. P. Pavlov Prize for his "Afferent 
System of Internal Organs." As of 1961 he was Director of the 
I. P. Pavlov Institute of Physiology. In March 1962 he was 
elected to the Supreme Soviet as a delegate from R.S.F.S.R. 

The basic works of Chernigovskii are devoted to the research 
on interoceptive reflexes and functional interrelations between 
the cortex of the cephalic brain and internal organs. He studied 
interoceptive reflexes and their mechanisms in detail. New 
reflexes were described and characteristics given of the intero- 
ceptive analyzer. Extensive investigations were made of re- 
flex control in the blood system and the role of the nervous 
system in the pathogeneses of a number of diseases. 
Bibliography: 

Afferent System of Internal Organs. Kirov: 1943. 

and Yaroshevsky . The Problem of Nerve Control in the 

Blood System, 1953. 

and S. M. Zarayskaya. Presentation of the vagus nerve in 

the central cortex and radial lobe of feline brain. Doklady 

Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 147, #3 (1962). 
Office: I. P. Pavlov Institute of Physiology 

Tuchkova Naberezhnaya, 2 -a 
Leningrad, USSR 

CHERNYAEV, IL^YA IL'ICH (Inorganic Chemist) 

I. I. Chernyaev was born January 20, 1893. In 1915 he gradu- 
ated from Leningrad University and taught there becoming a 
professor in 1932. He was a student of L. A. Chugaev (1873- 
1922, professor of Inorganic Chemistry at Leningrad University 
and founder and director of the Institute for the Study of Plati- 
num of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences). Beginning in 1918, 
he also worked at the Institute on the Study of Platinum of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. From 1934 Chernyaev worked 



75 CHERNYAEV 

at the Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences and in 1941 became its Director. 
In addition, he was professor of Moscow Petroleum Institute 
from 1935 to 1941. And in 1945 he was made professor at 
Moscow University. Chernyaev was elected Corresponding 
Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences in 1933 and in 
1943 Academician. In 1946 and 1952 he won Stalin Prizes. 

Chernyaev has investigated the chemistry of complex com- 
pounds. In 1915 Chernyaev completed an investigation of 
hydroxylamine compounds of divalent platinum. In 1926 Chern- 
yaev published his work on the study of nitro compounds of 
divalent platinum. Using these compounds he discovered trans- 
influence. It is constituted by the fact that the dependence of 
the reaction ability of any substitute in the internal sphere of a 
complex compound depends upon the nature of the substitute 
which is in contraposition to it. This phenomenon, associated 
with his name, was found to be applicable to a series of com- 
pounds of tetravalent platinum, palladium, rhodium, iridium and 
cobalt. Using transinfluence, Chernyaev and his students synthe- 
sized many complex compounds. Chernyaev discovered the 
change in the sign of the rotation of a plane of polarization by 
optically active amino compounds of tetravalent platinum during 
their transformation into amido- (or imido-) compounds. He 
studied the oxidation reaction of complex compounds of platinurti, 
reduction of iridium, proved that the binding of the nitro group 
with platinum takes place through nitrogen, and studied the heat 
of reactions of complex compounds. A considerable number of 
Chernyaev' s investigations are devoted to refining of platinum 
metals. As a result he obtained platinum, palladium, gold and 
rhodium in a spectrally pure state. 

As of 1961, Chernyaev was Chairman of the Commission for 
Considering Works Submitted in Competition for the N. S. 
Kurnakov Award. 

As of September 1962, Chernyaev, at his own request, was 
relieved of the directorship of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences 
Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry and resumed his 
former position as Chief of the Section on Simple and Complex 
Inorganic Compounds of this Institute. 
Bibliography: 

Questions on chemistry of complex compounds. Uspekhi 
Khim., 1936,1, ^9, 1169-1215. 

On the geometric isomerization of compounds of tetra- 
valent platinum. Uspekhi Khim., 1947, 16, #4, 385-402. 



CHERNYI 76 

Aqua -carbonate complex compounds of uranyl. Zhur. Neorg. 

Khim., 1956, #12. 

with G. S. Muraveiskaya. On the reactions of dinitro- 

dimethyl amine compounds of tetravalent platinum. Zhur. 

Neorg. Khim., 1957, 2, #3. 
Biography: 

V. V. Lebedinskii and A. M. Rubinshtein . Academician 11' ya 

Il'ich Chernyaev (on 60th Anniversary since date of birth). 

Uspekhi Khim., 1953, 22, #3, 241-252. 

A. V. Babaeva . Leading Soviet Scientist I. I. Chernyaev (on 

the 60th Anniversary since the date of birth). Zhur. 

Obshchei Khim., 1953, 23, #5. 
Office: N. S. Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic 

Chemistry 
Leninskii Prospekt, 31 
Moscow, USSR 

CHERNYI, GQRIMIR GORIMOV^ICH (Mechanics Specialist) 

In 1960 G. G. Chernyi was at the Moscow State University 
im. M. V. Lomonosov. He visited the United States in January 
1960 to attend the International Symposium on Magneto -Fluid 
Dynamics in Washington, D. C In June 1962 he was elected a 
Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

CHIBISQV, KONSTANTIN VLADIMIROVICH (Scientific 
Photographer) 

K. V. Chibisov was born March 1, 1897. He graduated from 
Moscow University in 1922. From 1918 to 1930 he worked at 
the Air Force Scientific Testing Institute of Scientific Aero- 
photography and during the same period taught at a number of 
colleges. In 1950 he became a professor at Moscow University. 
Chibisov began working, in 1930, at the AU-Union Scientific Re- 
search Cinema-Photo Institute and was one of its founders. In 
1948 he became Chairman of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences 
Commission on Scientific Photography and Cinematography. In 
1945 he was awarded the title Honored Scientist of the 
R.S. F.S.R., and in 1950 a Stalin Prize. He has been a Corre- 
sponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences since 
1946. 

The main work of Chibisov is devoted to photographic sensi- 
tometry, synthesis of photographic emulsions and the nature of 
photographic sensitivity. Of particular importance are the 
works of Chibisov on determining the chemical composition and 



77 CHINAKAL 

the role of centers of light sensitivity, which form in micro- 
crystals of silver halides in photographic emulsions as a result 
of interaction with active components of gelatin. Chibisov also 
investigated the light sensitivity of photographic emulsions. 
Bibliography : 

Theory on Photographic Processes, L Moscow: 1935. 
Theory of synthesis of photographic emulsions. P. V. 
Kozlov's Technology of Photo-Cinema Film, 2. Moscow- 
Leningrad: 1937. 

The nature of centers of light sensitivity of photographic 
emulsions. Uspekhi Khim., 1953, 22, #10. Works of the 
Scientific Research Cinema-Photo Institute, #8. 
and others. The Nature of Photographic Sensitivity. 
Moscow: 1948. 

Investigating the nature of photographic sensitivity. Suc- 
cesses of Scientific Photography, ^, Moscow, 1957. 
Biography: 

V. I. Sheberstov. K. V. Chibisov. Journal of Scientific and 
Applied Photography and Cinematography, 1957,^, #1. 
Office: Moscow University 

Moscow, USSR 

CHINAKAL, NIKOLAI ANDREEVICH (Mining Engineer) 

N. A. Chinakal was born November 19, 1888. Upon his 
graduation from the Simferpol Gymnasium, he studied from 
1907 to 1912 at the Dnepropetrovsk Mining Engineers Institute, 
and after his graduation worked at the Donbas Mines. 

Chinakal' s work on improving the working conditions of 
miners promoted him to the rank of progressive specialist, and 
in 1920, he was appointed assistant to the authorized repre- 
sentative of the Central Administration of the Coal Industry in 
the Makeevskii Region; later in 1921, he was elected member 
of the Central Committee of the All-Russian Union of Miners 
(VSG) and served as Chief of the Economic Section of the VSG 
Central Committee. At the end of 1921, Chinakal was appointed 
a member of the governmental commission of the Council of 
Labor and Defense, and developed a plan for restoring the 
Donbas. Upon completion of this assignment, he was trans- 
ferred to the Donugol Combine, where from 1923 to 1928, he 
headed the Mechanization Section and concurrently served on 
the editorial board of Gornii Tekhnik. In 1924-1925, Chinakal 
was a member of a Soviet delegation of mining engineers who 
went to the U. S., Britain and Germany to study coal mining 
processes. From 1940 to 1944 he taught at the Kirov 



CHINAKAL 78 

Polytechnical Institute at Tomsk as a professor and Director of 
the Chair of Advanced Mining Construction. Since 1957, he 
has been Director of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Siberian 
Branch Institute of Mining. Chinakal was awarded the degree 
of Doctor of Technical Sciences without presenting a disser- 
tation, and in February 1958, was elected to the U.S.S.R. Acade- 
my of Sciences as a Corresponding Member. He received a 
Stalin Prize for his shield system in 1942. Other awards in- 
clude the Order of Lenin, the Order of the Red Banner of Labor, 
and a medal for "Valorous Work in the Great Patriotic War" 
(WWII). He has been a member of the Communist Party of the 
Soviet Union since 1944. 

In the Kuzbas, Chinakal commenced work in 1930 on project 
administration, first as a deputy, and later as chief engineer 
of the planning administration of Kuzbassugol. In 1935, he 
formulated a scheme of shield reinforcement for the exploi- 
tation of the thick strata of precipitous slopes. The shield 
system of exploitation, suggested and introduced by Chinakal 
in close collaboration with the collective of coal mines and the 
Kuzbassugol Combine, was a contribution in the exploitation of 
thick precipitous coal strata. In 1943, as a member of the 
Government Commission, he took an active part in the organi- 
zation of the West Siberian branch of the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences, and from 1944 was a permanent Director of the Min- 
ing and Geological Institute of the West Siberian affiliate of the 
Academy of Sciences. Chinakal has contributed 106 scientific 
works. His major works are devoted to questions on develop- 
ment and improvement of systems of utilization and mechaniz- 
ation of coal deposits. 
Bibliography: 

System of Exploitation with Shield Reinforcement. Moscow - 
Leningrad: 1943. 

Light, non-sectional shield. Coal, 1954, #2. 
Shield method of exploitation. Progressive Method Using 
Systems of Exploitation in the Kuzbas. Moscow: 1957. 
and N. V. Marevich. Shield method of exploitation with 
gravity filling of worked-out space. Progressive Method 
Using Systems of Exploitation in the Kuzbas. Moscow: 1957. 
Office: Institute of Mining of the Siberian Department of 

USSR Academy of Sciences 
Irkutsk, Siberia 



79 CHMUTOV 

CHIZHIKQV, DAV^ID MIKHAILQVICH (Metallurgist) 

D. M. Chizhikov was born November 17, 1895. In 1924 he 
graduated from the Moscow Mining Academy and subsequently 
worked at the copper electrolytic plant in Moscow and at a 
lead-zinc works in Vladikavkaz. From 1928 to 1930, he was 
chief engineer of the planning and construction of the Konstan- 
tinovskii Zinc Works in the Donbas. In 1930, he participated in 
the organization of the Scientific Research Institute of Non- 
Ferrous Metallurgy and was its first Director. From 1933 to 
1941, he was a professor at the Moscow Institute of Non- 
Ferrous Metals and Gold. In 1939, he began working at the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Institute of Metallurgy. He has 
been a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union 
since 1921. In 1939 he was elected a member of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences. He was awarded Stalin Prizes in 1942 
and 1950. 
Bibliography: 

Metallurgy of Heavy Non- Ferrous Metals. Moscow- 
Leningrad: 1948. 

Metallurgy of Zinc. Moscow-Leningrad: 1938. 
Metallurgy of Lead. Moscow: 1944. 

Chlorine Method and Processing of Polymetallic Ores and 
Concentrates. Moscow-Leningrad: 1936. 
and G. S. Frents . Chlorine Method of Processing Tin Ores ' 
and Concentrates. Moscow-Leningrad: 1941. 
Office: A. A. Baykov Institute of Metallurgy 

Leninskii Prospekt, 29 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Kotel'nicheskaya nab. 1/15 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: B7 42 54 

CHMUTOV, KONSTANTIN VASIL^EVICH (Physical Chemist) 
K. V. Chmutov was born March 21, 1902. He graduated in 
1928 from the Moscow Technological College. In 1930-51 he 
taught there and in other colleges. He began working in 1950, 
at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the U.S.S.R. Academy 
of Sciences. In 1953 Chmutov was elected a Corresponding 
Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He has been a 
member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union since 1947. 

The major work of Chmutov is the study of surface phe- 
nomena and of sorption processes. 

As of 1961, Chmutov was Chairman of the Commission on 
Chromatography. 



CHUFAROV 80 

Bibliography: 

and M. Dubinin. Physico-Chemical Basis of Gas Protection. 
Moscow: 1939. 

Technics of Physico-Chemical Investigations. 3rd edition. 
Moscow: 1954. 
Office: Institute of Physical Chemistry of USSR Academy of 

Sciences 
Leninskii Prospekt, 31 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: 1-aya Cheremuskhinskaya, 3 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: B7 44 25 

CHUFAROV, GRIGQRII IVANOVICH (Physical Chemist) 

G. I. Chufarov was born November 14, 1900. He graduated 
in 1928 from the Ural Polytechnic Institute. In 1931-36 he 
worked at the Ural Physico-Chemical Institute and in 1936-39 
at the Ural Physico -Technical Institute. He was Director, in 
1939-46, of the Institute of Chemistry of the Ural Branch of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. In 1946-56, he was Rector of 
the Ural University. As of 1962, he has been working at the 
Ural Branch of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He has been 
a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union since 
1939. In 1953 he was elected a Corresponding Member of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He was a Deputy to the U.S.S.R. 
Supreme Soviet, fourth convocation. 

The works of Chufarov are devoted to physico-chemical 
problems of metallurgical and related processes. He studied 
corrosion of metals in acids and the action of inhibitors and hot 
tinning, zincing, and decarbonization of ferrosilicon steel. 
Chufarov investigated the mechanism and kinetics of dissoci- 
ation and reduction of metal oxides. 
Bibliography: 

Production of cast iron, iron, and steel by way of reducing 
carburized ores. Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Otdel. Tekh. 
Nauk, 1946, #6. 

and E. P. Tatievskaya. Absorption- catalytic theory of re- 
ducing oxides of metals. Problems of Metallurgy. Moscow: 
1953. 

and E. P. Tatievskaya . Mechanism and kinetics of reducing 
oxides of metals. Physico-Chemical Basis of the Blast 
Furnace Process and Contemporary Practice in Production 
of Cast Iron. Sverdlovsk: 1956. 



81 CHUKHANOV 

Office: Ural Branch of USSR Academy of Sciences 

Severnaya Kovalevskaya Ulitsa, 13 
Sverdlovsk 49, USSR 

CHUKHANOV, ZINQVII FEDQRQVICH (Heat Engineer) 

Z. F. Chukhanov was born October 21, 1912. He graduated 
in 1932 from Moscow Chemical-Technological Institute. In 
1931-1934 he worked in the All-Union Power Engineering Insti- 
tute and in 1932-1937 in the State Institute of Nitrogen. He be- 
gan working in 1938 at the Power Institute of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences. In 1939 he was elected a Corresponding 
Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He has been a 
member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union since 1944. 

Chukhanov studied the theory of burning and vaporization of 
solid fuels and worked out new complex methods in the utiliz- 
ation of fuels. He has also studied heat exchange and diffusion. 
Bibliography: 

and M. K. Grodzovskii. Process of vaporization of fuel. 
Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., New Series, 1934, 3, #5. 
Thermal conditions for burning and vaporization of a layer 
of solid fuel. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., New Series, 
1944, 44, #7. 

The theory of burning of coke carbon and methods of de- 
veloping techniques in burning and vaporization of solid 
fuels. Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Otdel. Tekh. Nauk, 1953, 
#4. 

Succession of individual stages in the burning process of 
solid fuel. Process of Coal Burning (A. S. Predvoditelev, 
editor). Moscow-Leningrad: 1938. 

and S. E. Khaikina . Oxidation. Process of Coal Burning. 
Moscow-Leningrad: 1938. 

Question of underground vaporization of sub-Moscow coal 
and schist. Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Otdel. Tekh. Nauk, 
1939, #8. 

Energo-Technological Utilization of Fuel. Moscow: 1956. 
Office: G. M. Krzhizhanovskii Power Engineering Institute 

Leninskii Prospekt, 19 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Leninskii Prospekt, 13 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: B2 41 56 



CHUKHROV 82 

CHUKHRQV, FYODQR V^ASIL'YEVICH (Geochemist) 

F. V. Chukhrov was born July 15, 1908. He graduated from 
the Moscow Geological Survey Institute in 1932. Since 1936, he 
has been working at the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Institute 
of Geological Sciences where he became deputy Director in 
1950. In 1955, he became Director of the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences Institute of Geology of Ore Deposits, Petrography, 
Mineralogy and Geochemistry. He has been a member of the 
Communist Party of the Soviet Union since 1953. In that year 
he was also elected to the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences as a 
Corresponding Member. 

Chukhrov has made mineralogical and geochemical investi- 
gation of ore deposits of Kazakhstan, studied colloids of the 
earth's crust, and the mineralogy of oxidized ozone. 

In 1950 he was the recipient of a Stalin Prize. 
Bibliography: 

Colloids in the Earth's Crust, 2nd ed. Moscow: 1955. 
Ore Deposits of Dzhyezkazgan-Ulutavsk Region of Kazakh- 
stan. Moscow-Leningrad: 1940. 

The significance of leaching of molybdenum for appraisal of 
molybdenum deposits in Central Kazakhstan. Soviet Geology, 
1947, #14-15. 

East Konuradsk deposit as a representative of quartz - 
molybdenum formation in Central Kazakhstan. Soviet Geolo- 
gy, 1948, #31. 

Oxidized Zone of Sulphide Deposits of the Kazakhstan Steppe 
Region. Moscow: 1950. 
Office: Institute of Geology of Mineral Deposits, Petrogra- 

phy, Mineralogy and Geochemistry 
Staromonetnyy Pereulok, 35 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: ul. Chkalova 21/2 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: K7 68 26 

DANILOV, STEPAN NIKOLAEVICH (Organic Chemist) 

S. N. Danilov was born January 6, 1889. He was a student of 
A. E. Favorskii (1860-1945, organic chemist). In 1914 he 
graduated from Petersburg University, where from 1915 he 
taught and subsequently became a professor. He was made pro- 
fessor at the Leningrad Technological Institute in 1930. In 1949 
he became Chief of the Laboratory at the Institute of High 
Molecular Compounds of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 
Since 1943, Danilov has been a Corresponding Member of the 



83 DELONE 

U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He became editor, in 1946, of 
the Journal of General Chemistry (Zhur. Obshchei Khim.). 

Danilov discovered that aldehydes of the chain and cyclical 
construction with secondary and tertiary radicals can be iso- 
merized into ketones. He established that oxy -aldehydes under 
the influence of catalysts are isomerized into oxy -ketones and 
into monocarboxylic acids. These investigations elucidated 
some biochemical processes such as the transformation of 
sugars. Danilov worked out new methods of obtaining ethyl 
cellulose. He conducted investigations in the area of analysis, 
stabilization, and transformation of viscose. 
Bibliography: 

Dehydration of secondary - tertiary alpha glycols, deriva- 
tives of hydro -benzoin. Journal of Russian Physico- 
Technical Society, Chem. sec, 1917, 49, #3-4. 
Dehydration of cyclohexylhydrobenzoin in connection with 
isomerization of aldehydes into ketones. Journal of Russian 
Physico-Technical Society, Chem. Sect., 1926, 58, #1-2. 
and A. M. Gakhokidze. Isomerization of oxyaldehydes. VI~ 
Saccharinic rearrangement of mannose. Zhur. Obschei 
Khim., 1936, 6, #5. 
Biography: 

V. V. Razumovskii. Corresponding member of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences S. N. Danilov (On the 60th Anniversary 
Since the Date of Birth). Priroda, 1949, #4. 
Office: Institute of High Molecular Compounds 

Birzhevoy Prospekt, 6 
Leningrad, USSR 

DELONE, BORIS NIKOLAEVICH (Mathematician) 

B. N. Delone was born in Leningrad March 15, 1890. He 
graduated from Kiev University in 1913 where he was a pupil 
of V. P. Ermakov (1845-1922, mathematician), and D. A. Grave 
(1863-1939, mathematician). In 1934, he was awarded the de- 
gree of Doctor of Physical-Mathematical Sciences. He became 
a professor in 1926. He was employed at Kiev University from 
1913 to 1916, and at Kiev Polytechnic Institute from 1916 to 
1922. He has been a professor at Moscow University since 
1935, and since 1932, has been employed at the U.S.S.R. Acade- 
my of Sciences Institute of Mathematics. In 1929 he became a 
Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

On number theory Delone obtained a solution in whole 
numbers of indefinite equations of the third power, with two 
unknowns. His geometric works are concerned with a theory of 



DERYAGIN 84 

G. F. Voroni, the correct breaking up of a space, the geometry 
of numbers, and mathematical crystallography. Delone present- 
ed an important method in structural analysis of crystals. He 
has been concerned with geometrizing the theories of Galois. 
Bibliography: 

and D. K. Faddeev . Theory on Irrationality of the Third 
Power. Moscow -Leningrad: 1940. 

and A. D. Aleksandrov. Mathematical Basis in Structural 
Analysis of Crystals and Determination of the Basic Repeat- 
ing Parallelepiped with the Use of X-rays. Moscow- 
Leningrad: 1934. 

Petersburg School of Number Theory. Moscow -Leningrad: 
1947. 
Biography: 

On the 60th Anniversary of Boris Nikolaevich Delone. Izvest. 
Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Mat. Ser., 1950, 14, #4. (contains 
bibliography of the works of Delone). 
Office: V. A. Steklov Mathematics Institute of USSR 

Academy of Sciences 
1-y Akademicheskii Proyezd, 28 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Pyatnitskaya, 12 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: Bl 16 57 

DERYAGIN, BORIS VLADIMIROVICH (Physical Chemist) 

B. V. Deryagin was born August 4, 1902. In 1922 he gradu- 
ated from Moscow University. He was appointed, in 1935, Chief 
of the Laboratory of Surface Forces at the Institute of Physical 
Chemistry of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

Deryagin studied properties of thin layers of liquids. He 
discovered (together with M. M. Kusakov) the "unwedging 
action" of these layers. He proposed a theory of coagulation of 
dispersed systems by electrolytes (1935-41) and the theory of 
agglomeration of solid particles. He investigated the mecha- 
nism of lubrication by thin layers and boundaries. He worked 
out the molecular theory of external friction of solid bodies 
(1933-34) and (together with N. A. Krotova) the electric theory 
of adhesion. 

Deryagin became a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences in 1946. 



85 DEVYATKOV 

Bibliography: 

and N. A. Krotova . Adhesion. Investigations of adhesion and 
gluing action. New ideas in the study of aerosols. Moscow- 
Leningrad: 1949. 

and others. On the radius of action of molecular surface 
forces and polymolecular solvate layers. Doklady Akad. 
Nauk S.S.S.R., 1939, 23, #7. 

and others . Boundary phases as a particular state of aggre- 
gation of liquids. Collection Devoted to the Memory of 
Academician P. P. Lazarev. Moscow: 1956. 
On the question of determining the concept and the degree of 
unwedging pressure and its role in statics and kinetics of 
thin layers of liquid. KoUoid Zhur., 1955, 17, #3. 
and I. I. Abrikosova . Direct measurement of molecular at- 
traction of solid bodies. Part 1-2. Zhur. Eksptl. i Teoret. 
Fiz., 1956, 30, #6, 31, #1 (7). 

What is Friction? Outlines on the Nature of Friction. 
Moscow: 1952. 

and Ya. P. Toporov. Application of two-membered law of 
cracking to friction properties of polymers. Doklady Akad. 
Nauk S.S.S.R. 146, #6, 1356-59 (1962). 
Office: Laboratory of Surface Forces 

Institute of Physical Chemistry 

Leninskii Prospekt, 31 

Moscow, USSR 

DEVYATKOV, NIKOLAI DMITRIEVICH (Electronic Engineer) 

N. D. Devyatkov was born April 11, 1907. He graduated 
from the Leningrad Polytechnical Institute in 1931. In 1925 he 
worked at the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Physico -Technical 
Institute and subsequently in a number of other scientific re- 
search institutes. In 1954, he became head of a scientific re- 
search institute and also the Department of Ultra -High Frequen- 
cy Electronics at the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Institute of 
Radio Engineering and Electronics. Since 1944 he has been 
teaching at the Moscow Institute of Energy. He became a 
Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences in 
1953. 

Devyatkov has studied the gaseous discharge, the con- 
struction of gaseous discharge devices for protecting lines of 
communication from over voltage and acoustic shock, and also 
gaseous discharge devices for modulated radiation in the infra- 
red part of a spectrum. He has worked out ultra high frequency 
devices for detecting, generating and converting frequencies of 



DIKUSHIN 86 

electromagnetic oscillations in range from decimetric to mili- 

metric wave lengths. 

Bibliography: 

Dischargers for protecting weak current lines. Electricity, 

1931, #22. 

On radiation of a helium gas -discharge tube with a hot 

cathode. Zhur. Tekh. Fiz., 1934, 4, #10. 

Gaseous acoustic shock absorbers for protection against 

acoustic shock. Works of the All-Union Electro-Technical 

Association, 1935, _5. 

Three -electrode metallic tube of a decimetric range. 

Zhur. Tekh. Fiz., U, #8. 
Office: Dept. of Ultra -High Frequency Electronics 

Institute of F^dio Engineering and Electronics 
Mokhovaya Ulitsa 11, K-9 
Moscow, USSR 

DIKUSHIN, VLADIMIR IVANOVICH (Machine-tool Engineer) 

V. I. Dikushin was born July 26, 1902. In 1928 he graduated 
from the Moscow Higher Technical School and in 1932 began 
working at the Experimental Scientific Institute of Metal Cut- 
ting Machines. He became a Corresponding Member of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences in 1943, and in 1953 Academician. 
In 1941 and again in 1951 he received a Stalin Prize. 

Dikushin' s scientific works are devoted to basic problems 
of machine tool design, in particular to working out scientific 
bases of metal cutting machine design. Under Dikushin' s di- 
rection, systems were worked out for the assembly line work 
of machine tools and of standard machines for handling ro- 
tating bodies in automatic lines. Dikushin is the head of the 
first engineering project in the U.S.S.R. for automatic pro- 
duction. 
Bibliography: 

Machine -Building. Encyclopedic Reference-Book, 9. 
Moscow: 1949 (Chapter 12). 
Biography: 

Dikushin Vladimir Ivanovich. Vestnik Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 
1954, #4. 

I. I. Petrov . Vladimir Ivanovich Dikushin (On his 50th birth- 
day and his 25th year of scientific activity). Telemekhanika 
i Avtomat, 1953, 14, #3. 
Office: Experimental Scientific Institute of Metal Cutting 

Machines 
Moscow, USSR 



87 DOLGOPLOSK 

Residence: Kotel'iiicheskaya nab. 1/15 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: B7 44 89 

DOLGOPLOSK, BORIS ALEKSANDROVICH (Organic Chemist) 

B. A. Dolgoplosk was born November 12, 1905. He graduated 
in 1931 from Moscow University. In 1932-46 he worked at syn- 
thetic rubber plants. He taught at the Yaroslavl' Technological 
Institute in 1944-46 and in 1945 became professor there. In 
1946 he began work in the AU-Union Scientific Research Insti- 
tute of Synthetic Rubber and also, in 1948, at the Institute of 
High Molecular Compounds of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 
Dolgoplosk has been a member of the Communist Party of the 
Soviet Union since 1945. He was elected in 1958 a Correspond- 
ing Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. In 1941 and 
1949 he received Stalin Prizes and in 1947 the S. V. Lebedev 
Prize. 

Dolgoplosk has studied the polymerization processes and 
their practical application. He investigated the initiation of 
radical processes under the influence of oxidizing-reducing 
reactions. He also studied reactions of free radicals in so- 
lutions, the determination of the connection between the struc- 
ture of the radicals and their relative reaction ability, and the 
determination of the mechanism of initiating and inhibiting 
radical processes. In catalytic polymerization, Dolgoplosk 
ascertained the role of complex formation during polymerization 
under the influence of lithium - organic compounds. Dolgoplosk 
conducted a series of investigations on the connection between 
the structure and the properties of rubber and developed 
methods of obtaining new types of rubber. He completed work 
on the synthesis of carboxylic rubber, obtaining from it proper- 
ties close to those of natural rubber. 
Bibliography: 

and B. L. Erusalimskii, R. A. Krol', L. M. Romanov. Rea c - 
tivity of free radicals and the role of their polar factor. 
Questions of chemical kinetics, catalysis and reaction abili- 
ty. Moscow: 1955. 

and E. I. Tinyakova . Main types of oxidizing-reducing sys- 
tems for initiating radical processes in water and hydro- 
carbon media and the mechanism of their action. Chemical 
Science and Industry, 1957, _2, #3. 

and B. L. Erusalimskii, E. I. Tinyakova . Generation of free 
radicals in solutions and their reactions in model systems. 



DOLLEZHAL 88 

Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Otdel. Khim. Nauk, 1958, #4, 
469-481. 

and E. I. Tinyakova . Mechanism of complex catalysts in 
polymerization. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 146 , #2, 856- 
59 (1962). 

and E. I. Tinyakova . Mechanism of diene polymerization 
and structure of polymer chains. Doklady Akad. Nauk 
S.S.S.R. 146, #2, 362-65 (1962). 
Office: Institute of High Molecular Compounds 

Birzhevoy Prospekt, 6 
Leningrad, USSR. 

DOLLEZHAL, NIKOLAI ANTONQVICH (Power Engineer) 

N. A. Dollezhal was born October 15, 1899. Upon graduating 
from Moscow Higher Technical School (MVTU), he became en- 
gaged in designing thermopower installations. From 1932 to 
1934, he was Technical Director of the Institute of Nitrogen 
Machine Building. In 1935-1938, he was Chief Engineer of the 
"Bolshevik" Plant in Kiev. He was Director of the Scientific 
Institute of Chemical Machine Building in Moscow from 1942 to 
1953. In 1923, he taught at the Institute of the National Economy 
in Moscow as well as at the Moscow Higher Technical School. 
He was awarded a Stalin Prize in 1952, and a Lenin Prize in 
1957. In 1953, he was elected to the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences as a Corresponding Member, and in June 1962, an 
Academician. 

Dollezhal has planned steam power plants and designed com- 
pressing machines for the chemical industry. He worked out 
the theory of self-acting valves of reciprocating compressors. 
He is working in nuclear energy in the above-mentioned cities, 
and was the chief designer of the reactor installed in the first 
atomic electric power station in the U.S.S.R. 

Dollezhal visited the United States on a Nuclear Scientists 
Exchange program in New York City November 1959. 
Bibliography: 

Foundations of Planning Steam Power Installations. Moscow- 
Leningrad: 1933. 

Toward a theory of self-acting laminated valves of piston 
compressors. Chemical Machine-Building, 1939, #7. 
Higher pressure compressors. Chemical Machine-Building, 

1940, #4-5. 

Calculation of the basic parameters of self-acting laminated 
valves of a piston compressor. General Machine-Building, 

1941, #9. 



89 DORODNITSYN 

Applied theory of an intake valve of a piston compressor. 
General Machine -Building, 1941, #1. 

and others . The atomic reactor of the electric power station 
of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. Atomic Energy, 1956, 
#1. 
Office: Scientific Institute of Chemical Machine Building 

Moscow, USSR 

DORODNITSYN, ANATOLII ALEKSEEVICH (Hydrodynamicist) 

A. A. Dorodnitsyn was born December 2, 1910. In 1931 he 
graduated from the Groznenskii Petroleum Institute. Since 
1936 he has been teaching and carrying out work in higher edu- 
cational and scientific institutions of Moscow and Leningrad. 
He started working in 1941 at the Central Aerodynamic Insti- 
tute. From 1944 to 1955 he worked at the Mathematical Insti- 
tute of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, and in 1955, he was 
appointed Director of the Computer Center of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences now the Institute of Cybernetics. Dorod- 
nitsyn was made professor in 1947 at the Moscow Physico- 
Technical Institute. He has been an Academician of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences since 1953. In 1946, in 1947, and in 1951, 
he was awarded Stalin Prizes. 

The investigations of Dorodnitsyn deal with problems of dy- 
namic meteorology, aerodynamics, and applied mathematics. 
His study of the influence of uneven land surfaces on air 
streams is very important. He explained theoretically the for- 
mation of descending currents over mountain ridges. He is 
concerned with a study of boundary strata in compressible gas 
and supersonic flows of compressible gas; he also studied 
asymptotic behavior of derivatives of several classes of non- 
linear differential equations. 

As of 1961, Dorodnitsyn was Chairman of the Commission 
on Computing Techniques of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

In June 1958, Dorodnitsyn visited the United States to attend 
a Conference on Digital Computers at Michigan University. 
Bibliography: 

Border strata in compressible gas. Priklad. Mat. i Mekh., 

1942, 6, #6. 

Asymptotic laws of the distribution of discrete values for 

several special kinds of differential equations of the second 

order. Uspekhi Mat. Nauk, 1952, 7, #6. 

Asymptotic derivations of the Van Der Pohl equations. 

Priklad. Mat. i Mekh., 1947, 11, #3. 



DUBININ 90 

Office: Director, Computer Center 

1-y Akademicheskii Proyezd, 28 
Moscow, USSR 

DUBININ, MIKHAIL MIKHAILQVICH (Physical Chemist) 

M. M. Dubinin was born December 20, 1900. In 1921 he 
graduated from a technical institute in Moscow and began teach- 
ing there. He was a pupil of N. A. Shilov (1872-1930, outstand- 
ing physical chemist in catalysis and surface adsorption). 
Dubinin taught at the Military Academy of Chemical Defense in 
1932 and became a professor there in 1933. From 1946 to 1950 
he was President of the All-Union D. I. Mendeleev Chemical 
Society. He was made Chief of the Sorption Processes Labora- 
tory at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences in 1946. Since 1943 he has been an Acade- 
mician of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. And from 1948 to 
1957 he was Secretary -Academician of the Division of Chemical 
Sciences at the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. In 1942 and in 
1950 he was awarded Stalin Prizes. In 1961, he was awarded 
the Red Banner of Labor. 

Since 1925 Dubinin has studied phenomena of absorption of 
gases, vapors and dissolved substances by porous solids. He 
proposed new methods of preparation of pure activated char- 
coal. These samples helped him study adsorption and for- 
mation of surface oxides of the acid type. They also helped him 
to develop the basis for charcoal porosity characteristics. 
Dubinin determined the mechanism of vapor absorption as a 
function of the porosity factor of the absorbent structure. From 
1932 to 1935 he investigated gas and vapor absorption from an 
air stream which passes through a bed of granular absorbent. 
He also developed basic concepts of vapor mixture absorption 
and devised methods and designed equipment for vapor mixture 
separation. In 1936 and 1937 he studied the effect of absorbent 
ultraporosity on vapor absorption of substances with different 
molecule sizes. Since 1940 Dubinin has worked on scientific 
and practical problems of chemical defense. Since 1946 Dubinin 
and his co-workers have been successfully investigating the de- 
pendence of sorption qualities of activated charcoals on their 
structure and of vapor absorptivity on its physical properties. 
Dubinin and his associates classified structural types of ab- 
sorbents. 

As of 1961, Dubinin was a Member of the Presidium of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

Dubinin has attended the Pugwash Conferences. 



91 DUBININ 

Bibliography: 

Physical-Chemical Principles of Sorption Techniques, 2nd 
ed. Moscow-Leningrad: 1935. 

and K. V. Chmutov . Physical-Chemical Principles of Gas 
Defence. Moscow: 1939. 

and E. D. Zverina . Sorption and structure of activated 
carbons. Zhur. Fiz. Khim., 1947, 21, #11-12; 1949, 23, #1, 
4, 9, 10; 1950, 24, #4, 10. 
Office: Sorption Processes Laboratory 

Institute of Physical Chemistry of USSR Academy of 

Sciences 
Leninskii Prospekt, 31 
Moscow, USSR 

DUBININ, NIKOLAI PETROVICH (Biologist) 

N. P. Dubinin was born January 1907. He has worked at the 
Moscow Zootechnical Institute where he became a professor in 
1935. From 1932 to 1948, he worked at the U.S.S.R. Academy 
of Sciences Institute of Cytology, Histology and Embryology, 
and at the Forestry Institute from 1949-1955. He has been 
working at the Institute of Biophysics since 1955. He was elect- 
ed, in 1946, a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy 
of Sciences. 

Dubinin's basic work is in genetics, cytogenetics, genetic 
principles of selectivity, and the theory of evolution. 
Bibliography: 

Problems of physical and chemical organs of heredity. 

Biofizika, 1956, J,, #8. 

Questions and problems of radioactive genetics. Vestnik 

Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1956, #8. 

Forest birds in the lower valley of the Ural. I. Works of 

the Institute of Forestry, Academy of Sciences, 1953, 18. 

and T. A. Terapanov. Birds of the Ural Valley. II-III. 

Works of the Institute of Fore&try, Academy of Sciences, 

1956, 32. 

and N. N. Sokolov . Chromosomic mutations and the system 

of species. Zhur. Obshchei Biol., 1940, j,, #4. 

and B. N. Sedorov . The dependence of a gene's activity on its 

position in a system. Biol. Zhur., 1934, _3, #2. 
Office: Institute of Biophysics 

Leninskii Prospekt, 33 
Moscow, USSR 



WOODS 



DUKHOV 92 

Residence: 2-aya Meshchanskaya, 87 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: II 39 31 

DUKHOV, NIKOLAI LEONroOVICH (Mechanical Engineer) 

N. L. Dukhov was born October 13, 1904. Upon graduating 
from the Leningrad Polytechnical Institute in 1932, he worked 
as a designer at the Leningrad Plant, and in 1941 at the Chelya- 
binsk Plant. He was awarded the title Hero of Socialist Labor, 
and became a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet 
Union in 1941. In 1953, he was elected to the U.S.S.R. Academy 
of Sciences as a Corresponding Member. 

The basic works of Dukhov deal with the development of new 
designs. 

Office: USSR Academy of Sciences 

Leninskii Prospekt, 14 
Moscow, USSR 

DUMANSKII, ANTON VLADIMIROVICH (Colloidal Chemist) 

A. V. Dumanskii was born April 20, 1880. He is one of the 
founders of colloidal chemistry in Russia. He graduated in 
1903 from ICiev Polytechnical Institute where, until 1913, he 
conducted his investigations. In 1913 he organized in Voronezh 
a Laboratory of Colloidal Chemistry which was reorganized in 
1932 into the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Colloidal 
Chemistry. Until 1942 he was Director of this Institute. In 
1946 he became Director of the Institute of General and Inor- 
ganic Chemistry, Ukrainian S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. Du- 
manskii has been a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences since 1933, and since 1945 an Academician 
of the Ukrainian S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He is the founder 
and editor, since 1935, of the Colloidal Journal. 

While studying dispersed, chiefly colloidal systems, Du- 
manskii introduced physical methods for research in colloidal 
chemistry. He observed an increase in the concentration of 
salts with the introduction of gelatin to their solution, which was 
helpful subsequently in explaining the role of water, bound to 
colloidal particles. Instead of using animal membranes for in- 
vestigating the properties of a medium surrounding colloidal 
particles (a dispersed medium), Dumanskii introduced, in 1908, 
the use of collodion membranes, later widely utilized in chemis- 
try and biology. He introduced the use of a powerful centrifuge 
for measuring the size of colloidal particles. Dumanskii' s 
widespread investigations in the utilization of physico-chemical 



93 DZHELEPOV 

diagrams (allowing to clearly outline the conditions of sedimen- 
tation and formation of colloidal solutions) in colloidal systems 
had considerable practical significance. The works of Du- 
manskii, and his students on the solvation of colloidal systems 
lead to considerable changes in the theory under question and 
in the technology of a number of fields in practical colloidal 
chemistry (agronomy, sugar, fermentation, starch-molasses, 
bread baking and other industries). 
Bibliography: 

Methods of determining dispersion of sols, emulsions and 
suspensions. Papers of the Voronezh Agricultural Institute, 
1928, 11. 

Liophilicity of Dispersed Systems. Voronezh: 1940. 
Study of Colloids. 3rd edition. Mo scow -Leningrad: 1948. 
Utilizing colloidal-chemical approaches in the study of tech- 
nological processes. Uspekhi Khim, 1935, 4, #2o 
and I. A. Dumanskii. Bibliographical Outline of the Develop- 
ment of Domestic Colloidal Chemistry. #1, 2nd edition. 
Kiev: 1951. 
Biography: 

Z. Vashchenko. Anton Vladimirovich Dumanskii. Intro- 
ductory Article by P. A. Rebinder. Kiev: 1955. 
B. A. Dogadkin. Anton Vladimirovich Dumanskii. KoUoid. 
Khim., 1950, #5. 

B. A. Dogadkin, S. M. Lipatov, P. A. Rebinder . On the 70th 
Anniversary Since the Date of Birth of Anton Vladimirovich 
Dumanskii. Kolloid. Khim., 1955, _17, #3. 
S. M. Lipatov, A. V. Dumanskii. On the 70th Anniversary 
Since the Date of Birth. Uspekhi Khim., 1950 #6. 
E. M. Natanson. Anton Vladimirovich Dumanskii, On the 
75th Anniversary Since the Date of Birth. Ukr. S.S.R. Zhur. 
Khim., 1955, _21, #3. 
Office: Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry of 

Ukrainian SSR Academy of Sciences 
Ulitsa Leontovicha 9 
Kiev, Ukrainian SSR 

DZHELEPOV, BORIS SERGEEVICH (Physicist) 

B. S. Dzhelepov was born December 12, 1910. He graduated 
from Leningrad University in 1931, and from then until 1943, 
he worked at the Physico-Technical Institute of the U. S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences. In 1935-1941 and again in 1944, he taught 
at Leningrad University. He worked in 1939-1941 and also in 
1946 at the All Union Scientific Research Institute of Metrology. 



DZHELEPOV 94 

Beginning in 1945, Dzhelepov has worked at the Radium Institute 
of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He was elected, in 1953, 
a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 
Dzhelepov' s field is nuclear physics. In 1932-41 he studied 
the energy spectra of electrons emitted by artificially created 
radioactive elements. In 1938 he designed a gamma spectrome- 
ter, based on pair formation. In 1948, together with Orbeli, he 
developed a gamma spectrometer, based on the measurement 
of recoil electron energy knocked out by gamma rays in the 
direction of its initial movement. In 1954 this method was im- 
proved and a new device was built. Dzhelepov and associates 
studied beta and gamma spectra and spectra of conversion elec- 
trons of more than thirty radioactive isotopes. Together with 
N. A. Vlasov, he studied the angular distribution of quanta 
formed during positron annihilation, which permitted the evalu- 
ation of the velocities of positrons at which they are annihilated 
in solid bodies. Dzhelepov analysed data on beta disintegration, 
on mirror nuclei, and on isotopic spin. 
Bibliography: 

and L. N. Syryanova . Influence of the Electric Field of an 
Atom on Beta Disintegration. Moscow -Leningrad: 1956. 
and Q. E. Kraft. Positrons in inner conversion of radio- 
active isotopes Sb 124. Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. Fiz., 
1956, 20, #3. 

and S. A. Shestopalova . Magnetic gamma spectrometer with 
improved focussing-electron. Izvest. Akad. Nauk, Ser. Fiz., 
1956, _20, #3. 

and I. A. Yaritsyna . The study of hard gamma rays with low 
intensity with the aid of the photoneutron effect. Izvest. 
Akad. Nauk, Ser. Fiz., 1956, 20, #3. 

and others. Spectrum of gamma rays S\^^'^^. Izvest. Akad. 
Nauk, Ser. Fiz., 1956, 20, #8. 

and S. A. Shestopalova. About — *- transformation into 
RaC. Izvest. Akad. Nauk, Ser. Fiz., 1956, 20, #8. 
and others . A new method of improving the focusing proper- 
ties of a lens spectrometer. Izvest. Akad. Nauk, Ser. Fiz., 
1956, 20, #8. 

and L. K. Peker. On equally solved beta -transformations. 
Doklady Akad. Nauk, 1956, 106, #4. 

and I. M. Vokhanskii, A. I. Medvedev, I. F. Uchevatkin. The 
nature of Erl67 at a level of 531.8 kev. Doklady Akad. Nauk 
S.S.S.R. 146, #2, 789-92 (1962). 



C 



95 ELYUTIN 

Office: V. G. Khlopin Radium Institute of USSR Academy of 

Sciences 
Ulitsa Roentgena, 1 
Leningrad, USSR 

ELISEEV (YELISSEEV), NIKOLAI ALEKSANDROVICH (Geolo- 
gist & Petrographer ) 
N. A. Eliseev was born December 19, 1897. He graduated 
in 1924 from Leningrad University. In 1938-47 he was pro- 
fessor at Leningrad Mining Institute and in 1947 became pro- 
fessor at Leningrad University. He has also been working, 
beginning in 1949, in the Laboratory of Precambrian Geology of 
the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. Since 1953 he has been a 
Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

Eliseev' s field of work is the petrography of ore on the 
Altai, Kol'skii Peninsulas, Krivoi Rog, and also the methodology 
of petrographic investigations. 
Bibliography: 

Petrography of Ore Altai and Kalba. Petrography of the 
U.S.S.R. Series 1, Regional Petrography, #6. Moscow- 
Leningrad: 1938. 

and A. A. Polkanov. Petrology of Pluton of Gremyakha- 
Vyrmes, Kol'skii Peninsula. Leningrad: 1941. 
Structural Petrology. Leningrad: 1953. 
Methods of Petrographic Investigation. Leningrad: 1956. 
Metamorphism. Leningrad, Publ. Leningrad University, 
1959, 415 pp., 224 figs. 

and G. I. Gorbunov, E. N. Eliseev, W. A. Maslenikov, K. N. 
Utkin . Ultrabasic and basic intrusions of Pechenga. Acade- 
my of Sciences, Moscow and Leningrad, 1961. 357 pp. 175 
figs. 

and A. P. Nikolskii, V. G. Kushev . The metasomatites of 
the Krivoi Rog ore belt. Academy of Sciences, Moscow and 
Leningrad, 1961. 204 pp. 85 figs. 
Office: Laboratory of Precambrian Geology of USSR 

Academy of Sciences 
Leningrad, USSR 

ELYUTIN, VYACHESLAV PETROVICH (Metallurgist) 

V. P. Elyutin was born 1907. In 1930 he graduated from the 
Moscow Institute of Steel. He has been working at the Moscow 
Institute of Steel, and from 1945 to 1951 he was Director of this 
Institute. He holds the degree of Doctor of Technical Sciences, 
and in 1947 he became a professor. He has been a member of 



ELYUTIN 96 

the Communist Party of the Soviet Union since 1929. From 
1951 to 1954 he was Deputy Minister and from 1954 to 1959 
U.S.S.R. Minister of Higher Education. In 1959 he became 
Minister of Higher and Middle Special Education. Elyutin was 
a delegate to the Supreme Soviet of R.S. F.S.R. Fourth Convo- 
cation in 1958. He had been a Member Candidate of the Central 
Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union since 
1956, and in 1961 he became a Member. Elyutin is Deputy 
Chairman of the Committee for Lenin Prizes for Science and 
Technology and of the Soviet Chinese Friendship Society. He 
was awarded a Stalin Prize in 1952, Order of Lenin in 1957, 
Red Banner of Labor, and two Badges of Honor. In 1959 Elyutin 
accompanied Nikita Khrushchev to the United States. He was 
elected a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences in 1962. i 

Bibliography: 

Ferrous Alloys Production (Textbook). Moscow: 1951, 2nd 
edition 1957. 

and V. F. Funke . The equilibrium diagram of the chromium- 
niobium system. Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Otdel. Tekh. 
Nauk 1956, #3, 68-76. C. A. 51, 830c (1957). 
and V. F. Funke. Method for the determination of the melt- 
ing point of refractory metals and alloys. Zavodskaya Lab. 
22, 1444-8 (1956). C. A. 51, 1769e (1957). 
and Yu. A. Pavlov, P. F. Merkulova . Determination of the 
temperature of beginning of reduction of oxides with carbon. 
Primenenie Radioaktiv. Izotopov i Met. (Moscow: Metallur- 
gizdat) Sbornik34, 48-52 (1955; Referat. Zhur., Met. 1956, 
#5131. C. A. 51, 145011 (1957). 

and G. A. Grigor'ev, M. A. Maurakh. The viscosity of fused 
titanium. Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Otdel. Tekh. Nauk 
1957, #8, 95-101. C. A. 52, 3444i (1958). 

and M. A. Maurakh, Yu. A. Pavlov . Interaction of molten ti- 
tanium with graphite. Primenenie Radioaktiv. Izotopov i 
Met., Moskov. Inst. Stall im. L V. Stalina, Sbornik 1955, #34, 
115-21. C. A. 53, 1040b (1959). 

and others. Proizvodstvo ferrosplavov. Elektromettallur- 
giya (Production of Ferroalloys. Electrometallurgy). 
Moscow: Gosudarst. Nauch. Tekh. Izdatel. Lit. po Chernoi i 
Tsvetnoi Met. 1957. 436 pp. C. A. 53, 925i (1959). 
and P. F. Merkulova, Yu. A. Pavlov . The temperature of the 
beginning of metal oxides reduction by solid carbon. Proiz- 
vodstvo i Obrabotka Stall i Splavov, Moskov. Inst. Stall im. 
L V. Stalina, Sbornik 38, 79-87 (1958). C A. 53, 7894g (1959), 



97 EMANUEL' 

and E. I. Mozzhukhin, V. L Shulepov . Proizvodstvo i Obra- 
botka Stall i Splavov, Moskov. Inst. Stall im. I. V. Stalina, 
Sbornlk 38, 427-32 (1958). C A. 53, 7936c (1959). 
and Yu. A. Pavlov, B- V. Glukhovtsev . Castablllty and densi- 
ty of nickel -vanadium alloys. Nauch. Doklady Vysshel 
Shkoly, Met. 1958, #4, 12-16. C A. _53, 9972d (1959). 
and I. I. Kitaigorodskil, E. I. Mozzhukhin, V". B. Rabkin. The 
composition of microlite and metallic compound NlAl. Zhur. 
Prlklad. Khlm. 33, 559-63 (1960). C. A. 54, 17183b (1960). 
and R. F. Merkulova, Yu. A. Pavlov . Reduction of metal 
oxides with carbon. Nauch. Doklady Vysshel Shkoly, Met. 
1958, #3, 10-14. C. A. 54, 15159f (1960). 
and Yu. A. Pavlov, B. S. Lysov. Free energy of formation 
of vanadium -oxygen solutions. Izvest. Vysshikh Ucheb. 
Zavedenil, Chernaya Met. 1960, #1, 5-11. C. A. 54, 14885f 
(1960). 

and E. I. Mozzhukhin, Ya. S. Umanskil . Strength of carbide - 
base alloy bond with NlAl or CoAl compounds. Izvest. 
Vysshikh Ucheb. Zavedenil, Chernaya Met. 1960, #3, 131-5. 
C. A. 54, 24269a (1960). 
Office: Ministerstvo Vysshego Srednogo Spetsia'lnogo 

Obrazovanlya 

ul. Zhdanova, 11 

Moscow, USSR 

EMANUEL', NIKOLAI MARKQVICH (Physical Chemist) 

N. M. Emanuel' was born October 1, 1915. After graduating 
from the Leningrad Polytechnical Institute in 1938, he worked 
at the Institute of Chemical Physics of the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences. In 1944 he began teaching at Moscow University and 
in 1950 became a professor there. Emanuel' has been a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union since 1948. In 
1958 he was elected a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences. He was awarded the A. N. Bakh Prize in 
1948, and in 1958 the Lenin Prize for Investigating the proper- 
ties and peculiarities of chain reactions. 

The main works of Emanuel' are in the field of chemical 
kinetics. He discovered the formation of intermediate products 
of a free radical type in slow chain reactions of oxidation, and 
developed a kinetic method of investigating these products, thus 
confirming a number of Important rules of the chain theory. 
He also worked on intramolecular hydrogen bondia-- He dis- 
covered a new mechanism of homogeneous catalysis in hydro- 
carbon oxidation reactions, the peculiarities of negative 



EMEL'YANOV 98 

catalysts when introduced during various stages of chain re- 
actions. Emanuel' proposed methods for controlling complex 
chain reactions by changing the conditions during the process, 
fie developed a number of methods for stimulating slow, branch- 
ing chain reactions, utilizing the capability of these processes 
for self-support and self-acceleration. The investigations of 
Emanuel' are of significance for improving and creating new 
processes in Soviet chemical technology. Recently Emanuel' 
has used concepts of chemical kinetics for the study of pathologi- 
cal processes such as the development and inhibition of malig- 
nant tumor. 
Bibliography: 

Intermediate Products of Complex Gaseous Reactions. 
Moscow-Leningrad: 1946. 

Macroscopic stages, particular role of the initial period and 
the mechanisms of the action of inhibitors and positive cata- 
lysts in chain reactions. Questions of Chemical Kinetics, 
Catalysis and Reaction Ability. Moscow: 1955, 117-136. 
New problems in the area of chain reactions. Doklady Akad. 
Nauk S.S.S.R., Otdel. Khim. Nauk, 1957, #11. 
Office: Chemistry Department 

Moscow University 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Vorob'evskoye shosse, 2 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: B2 46 63 

EMEL^YANOV, VASILII SEMENQVICH (Metallurgist) 

V. S. Emel'yanov was born February 12, 1901. Upon gradu- 
ating from the Moscow Mining Academy in 1928, he worked 
there until 1931. In 1935 he started working on various im- 
portant projects in industry and personnel. From 1940 to 1946, 
he worked as a Deputy Chairman and Chairman of the U.S.S.R. 
Council of People's Commissars Council on Standards. In 
1957-60, he was Chief of the Main Administration on the Use of 
Atomic Energy under the USSR Council of Ministers. He be- 
came, June 1960, Chairman of the State Committee of the USSR 
Council of Ministers on the Use of Atomic Energy, and in 1962 
he was made Deputy Chairman of that Committee. He has been 
the representative of the Soviet Union at UN discussions on 
Atomic Energy, and the chief delegate of the U.S.S.R. at the Inter- 
national Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna. He was a recipient of 
a Stalin Prize in 1942 and in 1950, and in 1954 Hero of Socialist 
Labor. Since 1919 he has been a member of the Communist 



99 ENGEL'GARDT 

Party of the Soviet Union. He was elected, in 1953, a Corre- 
sponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He has 
participated in the Pugwash Conferences. 

Emel'yanov's main scientific work deals with developing new 
grades of steel, technology of producing armor, study of the 
role of nitrogen and other gases in special steel and ferroalloys. 
Under the direction of Emel'yanov, new electric furnaces for 
smelting of steel and ferroalloys were developed, the tech- 
nology was worked out and high grade ferroalloys were intro- 
duced in industry. 
Bibliography: 

and K. P. Grigorovich. Experiment in the smelting of ferro- 

manganese in electric furnaces. Journal of the Metal 

Industry, 1929, #12. 

Influence of nitrogen on properties of steel. Quality Steel, 

1935, #5. 

Production of manganese steel. Quality Steel, 1934, #3. 

and Yevstyukhin, eds. Metallurgy and Metallorgraphy of 

Pure Metals. Trans, from the Russian. English ed. Rev. 

and edited by Bruce Chalmers. New York, Gordon and 

Breach, 1962. 340 p. 
Office: Council of Ministers of USSR 

Moscow, USSR 

ENGEL'GARDT, VLADIMIR ALEKSANDROV^ICH (Biochemist) 
A. V. Engel'gardt was born December 3, 1894. In 1919 he 
graduated from Moscow University. From 1929 to 1933 he was 
professor at the University of Kazan' and the Kazan' Medical 
Institute and from 1934 to 1940 professor at Leningrad Uni- 
versity. He was made professor at Moscow University in 1936. 
Beginning in 1933, he worked in departments of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences: in 1935, Chief of the Laboratory of Bio- 
chemistry of the Animal Cell at the Institute of Biochemistry, 
1944-50 at the Institute of Physiology. He was Chairman of the 
Department of Biochemistry of the Institute of Experimental 
Medicine at the U.S.S.R. Academy of Medical Sciences from 
1945 to 1952. From 1955 to 1960 he was Academician- 
Secretary of the Department of Biological Sciences of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. Engel'gardt was elected Corre- 
sponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences in 1946 
and Academician in 1953. Since 1944 he has also been a mem- 
ber of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Medical Sciences. He was made 
chief editor of the journal Biochemistry in 1944. He is a mem- 
ber of many domestic and foreign scientific societies. For 



ENGEL'GARDT 100 

investigations of muscle activity, he (with M. N. Lyabimova) 
was awarded in 1943 a Stalin Prize. 

Engel'gardt's main investigations are devoted to the study of 
the regularities in the transformation of organic phosphorous 
compounds in processes of cellular metabolism, their role in 
the exchange of energy and in the physiological functioning of 
the cell, the study of the interrelation of energy processes and 
the mechanical reaction of muscle protein. His investigations 
aided the establishment of definite ties between chemical phe- 
nomena in the muscle fiber and its function. Engel'gardt dis- 
covered the process of aerobic resynthesis of adenosine tri- 
phosphoric acid. He established that the contracting protein of 
the muscle, myosin, has the properties of an adenylpyrophos- 
phatase enzyme and by splitting the adenosine triphosphoric 
acid, obtains energy for its functioning. Engel'gardt also in- 
vestigated vitamins, and studied the technology for vitamin 
production and their quantitative determination. 

As of 1961, Engel'gardt was Chairman of the U.S.S.R. Acade- 
my of Sciences Presidium Commission on Radiobiology, and 
Director of the Institute of Radiation and Physico- Chemical 
Biology of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

In September 1958, he visited the United States to attend the 
8th General Assembly of Scientific Union in Washington, D. C, 
and January 1959, he visited the University of California at 
Berkeley. 
Bibliography: 

Anerobic disintegration and aerobic resynthesis of pyro- 
phosphate in red blood cells of birds. Kazan' Med. Zhur., 
1931, 27, #4-5. 

Reversible and conjugated reactions in the energy ex- 
change of cells. Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. Biol., 
1936, #4. 

and A. P. Barkhash . Oxidizing disintegration of phospha- 
glucovanillic acid. Biokhimiya, 1938, 3, #4. 
and M. N. Lyubimova . Adenylpyrophosphatase and myosin 
of the muscle. Biokhimiya, 1939, Aj #6. 
Phosphoric acid and functions of the cell. Izvest. Akad. 
Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. Biol., 1945, #2. 

with I. M. Seits . Phosphorylization during respiration and 
the Pasteur effect. Biokhimiya, 1949, 14, #6. 
and M. N. Lyubimova. On the mechano- chemistry of the 
muscle. Biokhimiya, 1942, _7, #5-6. 



101 EYKHFEL'D 

Biography: 

Academician V. A. Engel'gardt. On the 60th Anniversary 

since the date of birth. Uspelihi Sovremennoi Biol., 1954, 

38, ^3 (6). 

On the 60th Anniversary since the date of birth and the 35th 

Anniversary of scientific activity of Academician Vladimir 

Aleksandrovich Engel'gardt. Voprosy Med. Khim., 1955, 1^, 

#1. 

A. E. Oparin, N. M. Sisakyan et al. Vladimir Aleksandrovich 

Engel'gardt (On the 60th Anniversary since the date of birth). 

Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1954, #6. 

Office: Institute of Radiation and Physico-Chemical Biology 

Moscow, USSR 

EYKHFEL'D, lOGAN GANSOVICH (Botanist) 

I. G. Eykhfel'd was born January 25, 1893. Upon graduation 
from the Petrograd Agricultural Institute, he became Director 
of the Polar Division (Murmansk Territory) of the All- Union 
Institute of Plant Growing from 1923 to 1940 (until 1930, known 
as the All-Union Institute of Applied Botany and New Cultures). 
From 1940-1951, he was Director of the Institute at Leningrad. 
In 1950 he became President of the Estonian S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences. In 1953 he was awarded the title Honored Scientist of 
the Estonian S.S.R., and has been a member of the Lenin All- 
Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences since 1935. He became 
an Academician of the Estonian S.S.R. Academy of Sciences in 
1946 and was elected to the U. S.S.R. Academy of Sciences as a 
Corresponding Member in 1953. In 1942, he was awarded a 
Stalin Prize. He was a deputy to the third and fifth convocations 
of U.S.S.R. Supreme Soviet, and was elected again March 1962. 

Eykhfel'd is a specialist in the field of Polar plant cultivation 
and agriculture. He aided a study on moving agricultural cul- 
tures into the Northern regions of the country and proved the 
possibility of creating a vegetable and feed base in severe 
climatic environments of the Kola Peninsula and the Northern 
part of the Karelian A. S.S.R. He conducted work on the study 
and selection of a special set of early ripening cultures for 
the far North, and of utilizing Khibin rocks as mineral fertilizer, 
and presented an outline of field cultures of Scandinavia. 
Bibliography: 

Selection at the Polar Circle. Works of Applied Botany and 

Breeding, 1925, 14, #5. 



FEDOROV 102 

Cultured Pastures and Method of Selection of Pasture Grass- 
es in Scandinavia. Leningrad: 1929 (Proceedings of Experi- 
mental Agriculture in the Leningrad Territory, #10). 
Problems of agriculture in the far North. Soviet North, 1931, 
#5. 

Struggle for the Far North. . . Leningrad: 1933. 
Problems of agricultural science in the Estonian S.S.R. in 
farming. Resume, in Pollumajanduslik Sessioon. 16-18 
jaanuarini, 1947; Agricultural Session, January 16-18, 1947, 
Tartu, 1947, 212-214. 

Establishment of a summer feeding base for dairy cattle. 
Proceedings of the Latvian S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, 1955, 
#2 (91). 

Experiment in establishing pastures for many years in 
Estonia. Journal of Agricultural Science, 1956, #2. 
Office: Academy of Sciences Estonian SSR 

Kokhtu Ulitsa, 6 
Tallin, Estonian SSR 

FEDOROV, SERGEI FILIPPQVICH (Geologist) 

S. F. Fedorov was born July 13, 1896. He graduated from 
the Moscow Mining Academy in 1924. From 1934 to 1954, he 
was a professor at the Moscow Oil Institute. Since 1934, he 
has been working at the U. S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. Since 
1920 he has been a member of the Communist Party of the 
Soviet Union. He became a Corresponding Member of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences in 1939. In 1950 and 1952 he re- 
ceived Stalin Prizes. In 1952 the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences 
awarded him the I. M. Gubkin Prize. 

Fedorov studied mud volcanism and the genetic connection of 
mud volcanos to oil deposits. 
Bibliography: 

and I. M. Gubkin . Mud volcanoes of the Soviet Union and 

their oil content. International Geological Congress. Works 

of the XVIIth Session. U.S.S.R. 1937, 4, Moscow, 1940. 

Oil Deposits of the Soviet Union, 2nd ed. Moscow - 

Leningrad: 1939. 

Methodology of compiling maps for oil prognosis. Vestnik 

Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1940, #3. 

and others . Geological Structure of the Southern Part of the 

Siberian Platform. Moscow: 1953. 

New data on the genesis of oil deposits. Doklady Akad. Nauk 

S.S.S.R., New series, 1953, 88, #1. 



103 FEDEROV 

Office: Dept. of Geological and Geographical Sciences of 

USSR Academy of Sciences 

Leninskii Prospekt, 14 

Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Leninskii prospekt, 13 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: V2 44 49 

FEDEROV, YEVGENII KQNSTANTINOV^ICH (Geophysicist) 

Ye. K. Federov was born April 10, 1910. In 1932 he gradu- 
ated from Leningrad University. He worked as a magnetologist 
in Polar stations on the Land of Franz and Joseph in 1932-33 
and on the Cape of Chelyuskin in 1934-35. As a geophysicist- 
astronomer in 1937-38, he participated in the operations of the 
first Soviet drifting scientific station, "North Pole-1." From 
1939 to 1947 he was in charge of the Hydrometeorological 
Service of the U.S.S.R. Council of Ministers. Fedorov worked 
from 1947 to 1955 at the Institute of Applied Geophysics of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences and in 1955 became Director of 
that Institute. He became a member of the Communist Party of 
the Soviet Union in 1938. In 1939 he was elected a Correspond- 
ing Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences and in 1960 an 
Academician. Also in 1960 he became Chief Scientific Secretary 
of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Presidium; however, in 
December 1962 it was announced that Federov was relieved of 
his position of Chief Scientific Secretary of the Presidium of 
the Academy of Sciences and reassigned as Chief of the U.S.S.R. 
Council of Ministers Main Administration of Hydrometeorologi- 
cal Services. He has been Chairman of the Soviet delegation of 
Experts on Control of Atomic Tests. In 1938 he was made a 
Hero of the Soviet Union. 

His main investigations are concerned with magnetology, 
meteorology and practical astronomy. 
Bibliography: 

Astronomical definitions. Works of a Drifting Station "North 

Pole," 1, 209-334. Leningrad: 1940. 

Meteorological instruments and observations. Works of a 

Drifting Station "North Pole," 2, 5-30. Leningrad-Moscow: 

1941-45. 

Main problems of hydrometeorological services, General 

Session of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, July 1-4, 1946. 

Moscow-Leningrad: 1947, 93-110. 

The influence of atomic explosions on meteorological 

processes. Atomic Energy, 1956, #5. 



FEDOROV 104 

Office: Institute of Applied Geophysics 

Glebovskaya Ulitsa, 20-b 
Moscow, USSR 

FEDOROV, YEVGRAF YEVGRAFQVICH (Climatologist) 

Ye. Ye. Fedorov was born Nov. 8, 1880. He graduated from 
the University of Petersburg in 1910. From 1911 to 1934, he 
worked at the Magneto -Meteorological Observatory in Pavlovsk, 
and from 1934 to 1951, at the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences 
Institute of Geography. He became a Corresponding Member 
of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences in 1946. 

Fedorov' s main works are concerned with the study of cloud 
and solar radiation. He also developed methods for studying 
climate by means of simultaneous observation of temperature, 
humidity, etc. 
Bibliography: 

Climate as an aggregate of weather. Journal of Meteorology, 

#7 (1925). 

Distribution and type of precipitation in the plains of the 

European part of the USSR in the summer. Works of the 

U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Institute of Geography, #28 

(1938). 

and A. I. Baranov . Climate and Weather of the European 

Part of the USSR. Moscow -Leningrad: 1949. 
Biography: 

Ya. I. Fel'dman. Yevgraf Yevgrafovich Fedorov (On the 

occasion of the 75th year since the date of birth). Izvest. 

Akad Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. Geogr., #1 (1956). 
Office: Dept. of Geological and Geographical Sciences of 

USSR Academy of Sciences 
Leninskii Prospekt, 14 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Prospekt Mira 70 -a 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: II 45 78 

FERDMAN, DAVID LAZAREVICH (Biochemist) 

D. L. Ferdman was born January 7, 1903. He graduated in 
1925 from Khar'kov University. He began working in 1928 at 
the Institute of Biochemistry of the Ukrainian S.S.R. Academy 
of Sciences. In 1944, he became professor at Kiev University. 
He was elected a Corresponding Member of the Ukrainian S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences in 1939, and in 1946 a Corresponding 
Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 



105 FESENKOV 

Investigations of Ferdman and his associates are devoted to 
the study of muscle chemistry, especially phosphorous com- 
pound metabolism and the formation and elimination of am- 
monia, and to the biochemistry of diseased muscles. They 
ascertained the presence of glutamine in the tissues of animals 
and studied its role. 
Bibliography: 

Biochemistry of Phosphorous Compounds. Kiev: 1935. 

Exchange of Phosphorous Compounds. Moscow -Leningrad: 

1940. 

Biochemistry of Muscle Disease. Kiev: 1953. 

On processes of formation and elimination of ammonia in the 

animal organism. Uspekhi Biokhim., 1950, 1, 216-242. 

Biokhimia (Biochemistry). Textbook. Moscow: Sovetskaya 

Nauka. 1959. 600 pp. 1st edition. Moscow: Vysshaya 

Shkola. 1962. 625 pp. 2nd edition. 

Contributions to functional biochemistry of muscles. Izvest. 

Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. Biol. 3, 346-354 (1960). 
Office: Kiev University 

Kiev, Ukrainian SSR 
Residence: Ulitsa Leontovicha 9, Apt. 3 
Kiev, Ukrainian SSR 



FESENKOV, VASILII GRIGOR'EVICH (Astrophysicist) 

V. G. Fesenkov was born January 13, 1889. In 1911 he 
graduated from PQiar'kov University. He is a member of many 
committees of the International Astronomical Union. In 1927 
he became a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences and in 1935 an Academician. Since 1946 he has been 
a member of the Kazakh S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, and a 
Member of the Presidium of Kazakh Academy of Sciences as 
of 1961. 

Fesenkov' s research deals with the physical properties of 
planets, meteors, physics of the sun and stars, evolution of 
stars, and the structure of gas and dust nebulae. He studied the 
structure of galaxies, cosmogony, celestial mechanics, and 
optics of the atmosphere. Fesenkov pioneered in the photo- 
metric investigation of the zodiac light and formulated a dy- 
namic theory of zodiac light. He also investigated twilight of 
our atmosphere, the structure of the atmosphere, the brightness 



FLEROV 106 

of the sky during the day, and the luminescence of the sky during 
the night. He introduced a hypothesis of corpuscular photogene- 
sis of stars and developed a criterion of the influx stability of 
celestial bodies, thus explaining the peculiar structure of the 
solar system and the formation and evolution of galactic nebu- 
lae. Fesenkov also advanced the hypothesis of star formation 
from the interstellar gas and dust medium. He is the author of 
numerous popular publications in the field of cosmogony. 

As of 1961, Fesenkov was Chairman of the U.S.S.R. Academy 
of Sciences Committee on Meteorites and Director of the Astro- 
physical Institute of Kazakh S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 
Bibliography: 

La lumiere Zodiacale. These de doctorat. Petersburg: 

1914. 

Cosmogony problems in modern astronomy. Astron. Zhur., 

1949, 26, #2. 

The atmospheric shadow of the earth. Astron. Zhur., 1949, 

26, #4. 

Corpuscular radiation, a factor in the evolution of the sun 

and the stars (Paper presented at the VIII International 

Congress of the Astronomical Association in Rome, Sept. 

1952). Moscow: 1952. 

and D. A. Rozhkovskii . Star formation from the filaments of 

gaseous and dust nebulae. Astron. Zhur., 1952, 29, #4. 
Office: Astrophysics Institute of Academy of Sciences 

Kazakh SSR 
Shevchenko Ulitsa, 28 
Alma-Ata, Kazakh SSR 

FLEROV, GEQRGII NIKQLAEVICH (Physicist) 

G. N. Flerov was born March 2, 1913. After graduating from 
the Leningrad Industrial Institute, he worked at the Leningrad 
Physico-Technical Institute. From 1944 he worked in several 
departments of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, and is work- 
ing at the Joint Institute of Nuclear Research. In 1953 Flerov 
was elected a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy 
of Sciences. He has been a member of the Communist Party of 
the Soviet Union since 1955. In 1946 he was awarded a Stalin 
Prize. 

Flerov works in nuclear physics and cosmic rays. He in- 
vestigated the energy dependence of cross section radiative- 
capture of slow neutrons. In 1940, with L. I. Rusinov, Flerov 
showed that during nuclear fission there is emission of second- 
ary neutrons. In the same year, together with K. A. Petrzhak, 



107 FLORENSOV 

he discovered the phenomena of spontaneous fission of heavy 
nuclei. He discovered nuclear fission under influence of a 
neutral component of cosmic rays. 
Bibliography: 

Absorption of slow neutrons by cadmium and mercury. 

Zhur. Eksptl. i Teoret. Fiz., 1939, 9, #2. 

and K. A. Petrzhak. Spontaneous fission of uranium. Zhur. 

Eksptl. i Teoret. Fiz., 1940, 10, #9-10. 

and L. I. Rusinov . Experiments in uranium fission. Izvest. 

Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. Fiz., 1940, 4, #2. 

and I. S. Panasyuk. Spontaneous fission of thorium. Doklady 

Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1941, 30, #8. 

and F. A. Alekseev . The Utilization of Radioactive Radiation 

in Prospecting and Exploitation of Oil Deposits in the U.S.S.R. 

Moscow: 1955. 

and others . Spontaneous fission of thorium. (Letter to the 

editorial board) Zhur. Eksptl. i Teoret. Fiz., 1955, 28, #4. 

and V. V. Volkov, L. Pomorskii, Ya. Tys . Observation of a 

three neutron capture reaction and a rupture reaction of 

three protons in the interaction of N^^ and Ne^O ions with 

C, Al, Cu, and Ta nuclei. Zhur. Ekspt'l. i Teoret. Fiz. 1962, 

42, #2, 635-37. 
Office: Department of Physico-Mathematical Sciences of 

USSR Academy of Sciences 
Pyzhevskii Pereulok, 3 
Moscow, USSR 

FLORENSOV, NIKOLAI ALEKSANDROVICH (Geologist) 

N. A. Florensov was born in 1909. In 1936, he graduated 
from the Irkutsk State University, where he was an assistant 
from 1937-38, senior instructor 1938-40, a docent and de- 
partmental chairman 1940-56, and from 1956 to 1959, a pro- 
fessor and departmental chairman. From 1945 to 1947, he was 
also the Chief Geologist of the Irkutsk Geological Adminis- 
tration. In 1949 he also began work at the Eastern-Siberian 
branch of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, and in 1959 be- 
came the director of the division on regional geology of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences East-Siberian Geological Insti- 
tute. Florensov was awarded the title of Honored Scientist and 
Technologist by the Buryat A.S.S.R. in 1959, and in 1960 was 
made a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences. 

Florensov' s work has been in the field of East-Siberian 
tectonics and neotectonics. 



FOCK 108 

Bibliography: 

and M. M. Odintsov, P. M. Khrenov . Nekotorye geologi- 
cheskie zakonomernosti razmeshcheniya poleznykh isko- 
paemykh na yuge vostochnoi Sibiri (Some geological consider- 
ations in deposits of useful minerals in South-Eastern 
Siberia). Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. Vostoch. Filial, Izv. #2, 29- 
42. Bibliog. & Index of Geology Exclusive of North America. 
Vol. 2^, 1958. p. 417. 

Nekotorye strukturnye osobennosti ugknoshykh tolshch Pri- 
baikalya (Certain structural peculiarities of coral basins of 
Lake Baikal region). Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Lab. Geol. Uglya, 
Tr. Vyp. 6, p. 558-567, 1956. Bibliog. & Index of Geology 
Exclusive of North America. Vol. 22, p. 163. 

Office: East Siberian Geological Institute 

Ulitsa Krasnoyzvezdy 18 
Irkutsk, East Siberia 

FOCK, VLADIMIR ALEXANDRQVITCH (Theoretical Physicist) 
V. A. Fock was born December 22, 1898. In 1922 he gradu- 
ated from Petrograd University and remained there for further 
study, becoming a professor in 1932. He worked at the follow- 
ing institutions: the State Institute of Optics (1919-23, 1928-41), 
the Leningrad Institute of Physics and Technology (1924-36), 
and the Institute of Physics of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences 
(1934-41, 1944-53). In 1954 he was appointed to the staff of the 
Institute of Physical Problems of the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences. Fock became a Corresponding Member of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences in 1932 and in 1939, an Acade- 
mician. He was awarded, in 1946, a Stalin Prize, and a Lenin 
Prize in 1960. As of 1960, he was still teaching at Leningrad 
University. In April 1959, he visited the United States to attend 
Harvard University as a Leningrad exchange scientist. In 1958 
he was elected a Foreign Member of the Norwegian Royal So- 
ciety in Trondheim. 

The basic research of Fock deals with quantum mechanics, 
quantum electro -dynamics, the theory of electromagnetic dif- 
fraction and radio-wave propagation, the general theory of rela- 
tivity, mathematics, and mathematical physics. His early work 
is devoted to mechanics of elastic bodies and to theoretical 
optics. In 1924 he established basic concepts of the theory of 
the illumination vector in the optical field. Fock's most im- 
portant contribution to mechanics is the solution of two- 
dimensional static problems in the theory of elasticity. This 
he carried out using the integral equation of Fredholm. In 1926 



109 FOCK 

Fock worked out a theoretical approach to the wave equation of 
quantum mechanics for a charged particle in a magnetic field, 
proving for the first time its "gauge -invariant" properties. As 
a consequence of the above investigation Fock arrived at the 
scalar relativistic wave equation for a particle with no spin in 
an electromagnetic field, independently of similar work by 
the Swedish physicist O. Klein. This equation is often referred 
to as the Klein- Fock equation. In 1930 Fock derived from a 
variational principle the equations of the self- consistent field 
in the quantum theory of the atom, taking due account of the 
symmetry properties of the wave function; he developed an ap- 
proximation method for determining the energy states and 
transition probabilities of polyelectronic atoms. The method is 
also used in the theory of molecular structure and in the theory 
of solids. Fock's most important contributions to the field 
theory are investigations in second quantization and quantum 
electrodynamics. In 1932 and 1934 Fock developed a method 
permitting a quantum description of systems with a variable 
number of Bose particles (e.g. photons); he uses a functional, 
dependent on an infinite set of wave functions in spaces of in- 
creasing number of dimensions (Fock space) and on an auxiliary 
function (the field variable). In 1939 Fock solved Einstein's 
gravitational equations for an "insular" distribution of masses 
(like the Solar system), proving that gravitation equations also ■ 
include equations of motion. In his monograph "The theory of 
space, time and gravitation" (1955) Fock interprets Einstein's 
gravitation theory from his own point of view, drawing a sharp 
distinction between the physical principle of relativity and the 
mere co-variance of differential equations; he also insists on 
the importance of the idea of unity between metric and gravi- 
tation, as opposed to the idea of relativity of motion, which is of 
limited application only (according to Fock, a general principle 
of relativity does not exist). Fock's other scientific achieve- 
ments are in the integral equation_s, the various applications of 
conformal representation, the theory of the puncture of di- 
electrics, the methods based on electricity to detect mineral 
resources, the theory of core sampling by electrical means, 
and the theory of diffraction of radio-waves. He also published 
a number of papers on the interpretation of quantum mechanics. 
Bibliography: 

The problem of many electrons in quantum mechanics and 
atomic structure. The 30th Anniversary of the October 
Revolution, Part I. Mo scow -Leningrad: 1947. 



FOTIADI 110 

The motion of finite masses in the theory of relativity. Zhur. 
Ekspt'l. i Teoret. Fiz., 1939, 9, #4, p. 375. 
and A. P. Kotel'nikov . Some Applications of Lobachevsky's 
ideas in Mechanics and Physics. Moscow- Leningrad: 1950. 
Zur Quantelektrodynamik. Physikalische Zeitschrift der 
Sowjetunion (Charkow), 1934, 6, #5, p. 425. 
Investigations in the Quantum Field Theory. Leningrad: 
1957. 

Theory of Space, Time and Gravitation. Moscow, 1955 and 
1961. London, 1959 and 1963. 

Criticism of an attempt to disprove the uncertainty relation- 
ship between time and energy. Zhur. Ekspt'l. i Teoret. Fiz. 
42, #4, 1135-39 (1962). 
Office: Physical Institute 

University of Leningrad 

Leningrad 164, USSR 
Residence: Vassili Ostrov, 12th line 37, apt. 6 

Leningrad 178, USSR 



FOTIADI, EPAMINQND EPAMINQNDQVICH (Geophysicist) 
E. E. Fotiadi was born January 23, 1907. He graduated 
from Leningrad University in 1933. From 1927 to 1939, he 
worked in the Emba Oil Trust, and in 1946 at the Scientific Re- 
search Institute of Geophysics. In 1951 he worked at the AU- 
Union Scientific Institute of Geophysical Methods for Prospect- 
ing. Since 1958, he has been working at the U.S.S.R. Academy 
of Sciences Institute of Geology and Geophysics of the Siberian 
Branch where he is Deputy Director. He has been a member 
of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union since 1945. In 1958 
he was elected to the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences as a Corre- 
sponding Member. 

Fotiadi has worked on geophysical methods of prospecting 
for oil deposits, and the geological explanation of gravity and 
magnetic anomalies. He is the author of manuals and in- 
structions for gravimetric and topogeodesic work. He has com- 
piled summaries on geophysical data on the Southern part of 
Emba territory, and has studied the structure of crystalline 
base and associated sedimentary cover of the Russian platform. 
Bibliography: 

and others. Course of Gravitational Prospecting. Moscow- 
Leningrad: 1941. 



Ill FRANK 

Problem of geological interpretation of the anomalies of 
gravity on the Russian platform. Applied Geophysics, #12, 
Moscow, 1955. 

Results of geophysical research. Volga-Ural Oil Bearing 
Territory. Tectonics. Leningrad: 1956 (Works of the All- 
Union Scientific Research Institute of the Oil Industry, #100). 
Appraisal of gravitational influence of large facial-lithological 
complexes of the sedimentary cover of various regions of 
the Russian platform and of the South European part of the 
U.S.S.R. Applied Geophysics, #17, Leningrad, 1957. 
Structure of the crystalline base of the Russian platform. 
Outlines on Geology of the U.S.S.R., 2. Leningrad: 1957 
(Works of the AU-Union Scientific Research Geological 
Survey Institute for Oil, #101). 
Office: Institute of Geology and Geophysics of Siberian 

Branch of USSR Academy of Sciences 
Novosibirsk, Siberia 

FRANK, GLEV MIKHAILOVICH (Biophysicist) 

G. M. Frank was born May 24, 1904. He graduated from 
Crimean University in 1925. In 1929 he worked at the Physico- 
Technical Institute in Leningrad and subsequently at the All- 
Union Institute of Experimental Medicine and at the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Medical Sciences. He began working at the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences in 1943. From 1946 to 1948 he was Chief 
of the Radiation Laboratory of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sci- 
ences. In 1948 he was on the staff of the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Medical Sciences Biophysics Institute where he became labora- 
tory Chief in 1953 to 1958, acting Director, then Director, in 
1958. Frank became a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Medical Sciences in 1945, and in 1960 a Correspond- 
ing Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He has been 
a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union since 
1947. In 1949 and 1951 he was awarded a Stalin Prize. 

Frank investigated the effect of ultra-violet and ionizing 
radiation on living organisms and the biophysical basis of 
nervous excitation and muscle contraction. He was one of the 
first in the U.S.S.R. to use radioactive isotopes in biological 
investigations. 
Bibliography: 

On Early Reactions of the Organism from Irradiation De- 
pending Upon the Localization of Influence. Reports. . . 
Moscow: 1955. 



FRANK 112 

and others. Investigating the physico-chemical processes 
of nervous activity. Biochemistry of the Nervous System. 
Kiev: 1954. 
Office: Institute of Biophysics 

Leninskii Prospekt, 33 

Moscow, USSR 

FRANK, IL'YA MIKHAILOVICH (Physicist) 

I. M. Frank was born October 23, 1908. After graduating in 
1930 from Moscow University, he worked in the State Optical 
Institute. In 1934 he went to work at the Physics Institute of 
the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He became a professor in 
1944 at Moscow University. Since 1946 he has been a Corre- 
sponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He was 
awarded a Stalin Prize in 1946, and in 1958 the Nobel Prize. 

Frank's major work is in physical optics and nuclear phy- 
sics. Together with the Soviet scientist, I. E. Tamm, he gave 
the theory of the Cherenkov effect. In cooperation with L. V. 
Groshev, he studied pair formation. Frank, and his associates, 
studied the physics of neutrons. 
Bibliography: 

Function of excitation and curve of absorption in optical 
disassociation of thallium iodide. Works of the State Optical 
Institute, 1933, 9, #87. 

and I. E. Tamm. Coherent radiation of fast electrons in a 
medium. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., New Series, 1937, 14, 
#3. 

and L. V. Groshev. Formation of pairs in krypton under the 
action of gamma rays. Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Otdel. 
Mat. i Estest. Nauk, Ser. Fiz., 1938, #1-2, 57-65. 
and L. V. Groshev, E. L. Feinberg . Multiplication in 
uranium-graphite systems. Session of the Academy of Sci- 
ences on the Peaceful Utilization of Atomic Energy, July 1-5, 
1955, Moscow, 1955. 

The Doppler effect in a refractive medium. Izvest. Akad. 
Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. Fiz., 1942, 6, #1-2, 3-31. 
Office: Physics Department 

Moscow University 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Nab. Gor'kogo 32/34 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: Bl 36 17 



113 ^ FREIDLINA 

FREIDLINA, RAKHIL' KHATSKELEVNA (Organic Chemist) 

R. K. Freidlina was born September 20, 1906. She graduated 
from Moscow University in 1930 and worked from then until 
1934 at the Scientific Research Institute of Insectofungicides. 
In 1935-39 and in 1941-54, she was at the Institute of Organic 
Chemistry of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. Freidlina also 
taught at the Moscow Institute of Fine Chemical Technology in 
1938-41. In 1945 she became Chief of the Laboratory of the 
Institute of Organo- Elemental Compounds of the U.S.S.R. Acade- 
my of Sciences. Since 1958 she has been a Corresponding 
Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. In 1954 she be- 
came a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. 

Freidlina has synthesized and investigated the structure and 
properties of organic compounds of mercury, arsenic, tin, 
antimony, lead, titanium, silicon, zirconium, boron, fluorine 
and chlorine. Of theoretical interest are her discoveries of 
homolytic isomerization of organic compounds in solutions, in- 
vestigation of adduct of metallic salts to olefin and acetylenes, 
which led to the establishment of the concept of quasi -complex 
compounds. Freidlina' s investigations of reactions of telo- 
merization of olefins and chemical transformations of telomers 
made possible the development of an industrial method of synthe- 
sizing intermediate products for production of Soviet synthetic 
fibers— enanth and pelargon. 
Bibliography: 

Synthetic Methods in the Field of Organo-Metallic Com- 
pounds of Arsenic. Moscow-Leningrad: 1945. 
and A. N. Nesmeyanov and A. E. Borisov . Chemistry of 
quasi complex organo-metallic compounds and phenomenon 
of tautomerism. Anniversary Collection of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences, Devoted to the 30th Anniversary of 
the Great October Socialist Revolution, I. Moscow- 
Leningrad: 1947. 

and A. N. Nesmeyanov and L. I.^Zakharkin. Study of chemi- 
cal transformations of polychlorocarbons and related com- 
pounds. Uspekhi Khim., 1956, 2^, #6. 

Reaction of telomerization and chemical transformations of 
telomers. Izvest. Akad. Nauk, S.S.S.R., Otdel. Khim. Nauk, 
1957 #11. 
Office: Institute of Organo- Elemental Compounds 

Leninskii Prospekt, 31 
Moscow, USSR 



FRISH 114 

Residence: 1-aya Cheremushkinskaya, 3 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: B7 48 54 

FRISH, SERGEI EDUARDOVICH (Physicist) 

S. E. Frish was born June 19, 1899. He graduated in 1921 
from Petrograd University. From 1919 to 1939, he worked at 
the State Optical Institute. In 1933 he became a professor at 
Leningrad University where he had taught since 1924. Since 
1946 he has been a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences. 

Frish studied atomic spectra of the Zeeman effect, the hyper- 
fine structure of spectra lines, nuclear moments, spectroscopy 
of gaseous discharge, and gas spectral analysis. From 1953 he 
has been studying elementary processes in atomic excitation by 
electronic impact. 
Bibliography: 

Analysis of complex spectra (Ne II and Na II). Works of the 

State Optical Institute, Leningrad, 1932, ^ #81. 

Atomic Spectra, 1933. 

Techniques of Spectroscopy, 1936. 

and Yu. M. Kagan . Spectroscopy of gaseous discharge. 

Vestnik of the Leningrad University, 1948, #1. 

Spectroscopic study of the movement of ions in plasma, I-II. 

Zhur. Eksptl. i Teoret. Fiz., 1947, #6, 577-84; 1948, #6, 

519-24. 

Spectroscopic Determination of Nuclear Moments, 1948. 

and A. V. Timoreva . Course of General Physics. 1-2 , 6th 

ed., 1955-56, 3, 4th ed., 1957. 

Role of effective cross -section during excitation of spectra. 

Uspekhi Fiz. Nauk, 1957, 61, #4. 
Office: Department of Physics 

Leningrad University 
Leningrad, USSR 

FRUMKIN, ALEKSANDR NAUMOVICH (Physical Chemist) 

A. N. Frumkin was born October 24, 1895. In 1915 he gradu- 
ated from Odessa University. He was professor at the Institute 
of Odessa University from 1920 to 1922, and from 1922 to 1946, 
he was on the staff of the L. Karpov Physico- Chemical Institute 
in Moscow. Frumkin spent 1928-29 at the University of Wis- 
consin, U.S.A., as a lecturer in colloidal chemistry. In 1930, 
he was elected to the chair of electrochemistry at the Moscow 
University. He was appointed, in 1939, to the staff of the 



115 FRUMKIN 

Institute of Physical Chemistry of the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences, and from 1939 to 1949 was the Director. Since 1932 
he has been an Academician of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sci- 
ences. He received a Lenin Prize in 1931, and in 1941 a Stalin 
Prize. 

Frumkin's research is primarily in surface phenomena and 
in the theory of electrochemical processes. He applied the 
Gibbs equation to adsorption and derived the equation for ab- 
sorbed molecules on a surface. He developed the concept of the 
structure of the electrical double layer at the solid-liquid inter- 
face. In his experiments, he established the quantitative theory 
of the influence of the electric field on molecular adsorption. 
By means of measurements of potential jumps on the liquid-gas 
interface, he studied the nature of chemical bonds in molecules. 
In 1929, Frumkin developed the theory of kinetics in electro- 
chemical reactions based on the composition of the solution and 
the structure of the double layer. He also recognized the im- 
portance of the zero potentials at the metallic electrodes. With 
V. G. Levich, Frumkin developed a theory of diffusion process- 
es which take place in solutions while under the influence of an 
electrical field. He explained the mechanism of a number of 
electrochemical reactions, such as the reduction of oxygen and 
other anions. He has many pupils among the Soviet electro- 
chemists. His scientific work found application in the gener- 
ation of electrical energy by chemical sources, the wetting of 
metals by electrolytes, flotation, polarography, heterogeneous 
catalysis, and colloidal chemistry. 

In 1958 Frumkin was appointed Director of the Institute of 
Electro -Chemistry of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

Frumkin visited the United States in May 1960 to attend the 
Electrochemical Society meetings in Chicago. 
Bibliography: 

Electrocapillary Effects and Electrode Potentials. Odessa: 
1919. 

Adsorption and oxidation reactions. Uspekhi Khim., 1949, 
18, #1. 

with others . Kinetics of Electrochemical Processes. Mos- 
cow: 1952. 

Kinetics of electrochemical processes and phenomena on the 
interface of a metal -solution, from the book: Electrochemi- 
cal Conference of Dec. 19-25, 1950. Moscow: 1953, pp. 21-46. 
Adsorption and electrochemical kinetics. Uspekhi Khim., 
1955, 24, #8, pp. 933-50. 



GALIN 116 

Office: Institute of Electrochemistry 

Leninskii Prospekt, 31 
Moscow, USSR 

GALIN, LEV ALEKSANDROVICH (Mechanical Engineer) 

L. A. Galin was born September 28, 1912. Upon graduation 
from the Moscow Technological Institute of Light Industry, he 
worked at the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Institute of Me- 
chanics. In 1956 he became a professor at Moscow University. 
He has been a member of the Communist Party since 1951, and 
was elected to the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences as a Corre- 
sponding Member in 1953. 

The main work of Galin is in the theory of elasticity. He has 
investigated the elastic -plastic problems in unsettled filtration 
of liquids. 
Bibliography: 

Contact Problems of the Theory of Elasticity. Moscow: 

1953. 

Plane elastic-plastic problem. Priklad. Mat. i Mekh., 1946, 

10, #3. 
Office: Moscow University 

Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Sr. Pervomaiskaya, 21 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: E5 50 38 

GEL^FAND, IZRAIL MOISEEVICH (Mathematician) 

I. M. Gel'fand was born August 20, 1913 in Krasnie Okni, 
Odessa Oblast. He was a postgraduate student at Moscow Uni- 
versity in 1935, where in 1940, he was granted the degree of 
Doctor of Physical-Mathematical Sciences. He was made a 
professor in 1943. In 1932 he began his employment with Mos- 
cow University, and since 1939 has been working at the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences Institute of Mathematics. He is also 
working at the Institute of Biophysics. In 1951 he was awarded 
a Stalin Prize for his work in the theory of representation of 
groups. He was elected to the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences as 
a Corresponding Member in 1953. 

In his thesis for the candidate's degree, Gel'fand developed 
the theory of integration of functions. His thesis for the 
Doctor's degree was devoted to the theory of normalized rings. 
This theory served as a basis for functional analysis in the 
most varied areas of mathematics: theory of trigonometric 
series, group theory, theory of differential equations. Since 



117 GELFOND 

1943, he has been working on the theory of unitary infinitely 
measureable representations of continuous groups. At the same 
time, he has been occupied with the theory of generalized func- 
tions and their application in differential equations, and also in 
quantum mechanics. 
Bibliography: 

Normierte ringe. Mathematical Collection, 1941, % 3-24. 
and A. M. Yaglom . General relativistic invariant equations 
and infinitely measurable representations of the group of 
Lorentz. Zhur. Ekspt. i Teoret. Fiz., 1948, 18, #8. 
Lectures on Linear Algebra. Moscow-Leningrad: 1948. 
and M. A. Neimark. Unitary Representation of Classic 
Groups. Moscow-Leningrad: 1950. 

and D. A. Raikov. Non-reducible unitary representation of 
locally bi-compact groups. Mat. Sbornik, 1943, 13, #2-3. 
and G. E. Shilov . Fourier's transformation of quickly rising 
functions and questions on the sole method for solving the 
problem of Cauchy. Uspekhi Mat. Nauk, 1953, ^, #6. 
Lectures on Linear Algebra. Translated from the rev. 2nd 
Russian ed. by A. Shenitzev. New York Interscience Pub- 
lishers, 1961. 185 p. (Interscience tracts in pure and ap- 
plied mathematics, #9). 

and M. I. Graev . Constructions of irreducible concepts of 
simple algebraic groups over a finite field. Doklady Akad. 
Nauk S.S.S.R. J47, #3, 529-32 (1962). 
and M. I. Graev . Categories of group concepts and the 
problem of classifying irreducible concepts. Doklady Akad. 
Nauk S.S.S.R. 146, #4, 757-60 (1962). 
Biography: 

Thirty Years of Mathematics in the U.S.S.R., 1917-1947. 
Moscow-Leningrad: 1948 (Collection of articles edited by 
A. G. Kurosh and others). 

A. N. Kolmogorov . Works of L M. Gel'fand on algebraic 
questions of functional analysis. _ Uspekhi Mat. Nauk, 1951, 
6, #4. 
Office: V. A. Steklov Mathematics Institute of USSR Acade- 

my of Sciences 
1-y Akademicheskii Proyezd, 28 
Moscow, USSR 

GELFOND, ALEKSANDR OSIPOVICH (Mathematician) 

A. O. Gelfond was born October 24, 1906, in Leningrad. He 
graduated from Moscow University in 1927, and received the 
degree of Doctor of Physical -Mathematical Sciences in 1935. 



GERASIMOV 118 

He became a professor in 1931. In 1930 he began to work at the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Mathematics Institute. Since 
1940 he has been a member of the Communist Party of the 
Soviet Union. He was elected to the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sci- 
ences as a Corresponding Member in 1939. 

Gelfond has worked in number theory and the theory of 
functions of a complex variable. He established new methods 
of analyzing transcendence of numbers. In his works (1929 and 
1934) Gelfond solved the problem of Euler-Hilbert, proving the 
transcendence of logarithms of algebraic numbers with alge- 
braic bases. 
Bibliography: 

Transcendent and Algebraic Numbers. Moscow: 1952. 

Calculation of Terminal Differences. Moscow -Leningrad: 

1952. 
Biography: 

Yu. V. Linnik and A. I. Markushevich. Aleksandr Osipovich 

Gelfond (50th Anniversary since the date of birth). Uspekhi 

Mat. Nauk, 1956, U, #5, 239-45 (contains a bibliography of 

the published works of Gelfond). 
Office: V. A. Steklov Mathematics Institute of USSR 

Academy of Sciences 
1-y Akademicheskii Proyezd, 28 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Chkalova 1 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: K7 38 33 

GERASIMOV, INNOKENTH PETROVICH (Physical and Soil 
Geographer) 

I. P. Gerasimov was born December 9, 1905. After gradu- 
ation from the Leningrad University in 1929, he worked in vari- 
ous departments of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences; first at 
the Soil Institute and later at the Institute of Geography. Gerasi- 
mov has been a member of the Communist Party since 1944. 
In 1946 he was elected a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences and in 1953 an Academician. He was made 
an Honored Scientist of Kazakh S.S.R. in 1944. 

Gerasimov' s field of investigation is paleogeography, geo- 
morphology, geology of Quaternary deposits and geography of 
soils of Central Asia, Kazakhstan, Russian Plain, Western 
Siberia, Southern and Central Ural, and also some foreign 
territories. Gerasimov is working on the development of natur- 
al physico -geographical zones, the history of the development 



119 ' GERASIMOV 

of topography of the U.S.S.R., the principles of geomorphologi- 
cal zoning, general question of geography, cartography and 
the classification of soils. 

As of 1961, Gerasimov was Chairman of the Permanent 
Commission for the Complex Utilization of Experimental 
Stations and Bases Operated under Academic Management. He 
also has been Chairman of the State Committee of Soviet Ge- 
ographers, U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, and a member of 
Moscow State University. 
Bibliography: 

Basic Outlines of the Development of Contemporary Surface 

of Turan. Moscow-Leningrad: 1937 (Works of the Institute 

of Geography, #25). 

and K. K. Markov. Glacial Period on the Territory of the 

U.S.S.R. Moscow-Leningrad: 1939 (Works of the Institute 

of Geography, #33). 

State soil map of the U.S.S.R. and contemporary problems of 

the Soviet cartography of soils. Pochvovedenie, 1950, #4. 

Origin of the nature of contemporary geographical zones of 

the territory of the U.S.S.R. Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 

Ser. Georg., 1951, #2. 

Contemporary Problems of Geomorphology of Kazakhstan, 

Lessons. . . Alma-Ata, 1943. 

World soil map and general law of soils. Pochvovedenie, 

1945, #3-4. 

Scientific basis of systematization of soils. Pochvovedenie, 

1952, #11. 

Brown Soils of the Mediterranean Territories. Report on 

the Fifth International Congress of Pedologists. Moscow: 

1954. 
Biography: 

E. M. Murzaev. On the 50th Anniversary of Academician 

Gerasimov. Proceedings of the All-Union Geographical 

Society, 1956, 88, #2. 

Gerasimov, Innokentii Petrovich. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1953, 

#12, 69. 
Office: Institute of Geography 

Staromonetnyy Pereulok, 29 
Moscow, USSR 
B,esidence: Leninskii Prospekt, 13 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: V2 41 36 



GERASIMOV 120 

GERASIMOV, YAKOV IVANOVICH (Physical Chemist) 

Ya. I. Gerasimov was born September 23, 1903. In 1925, 
upon graduation from Moscow University, he joined the faculty 
and became a professor in 1942. He became a member of the 
Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1952. In 1953, he was 
elected to the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences as a Corresponding 
Member. He has been awarded the Order of Lenin and other 
medals. 

Gerasimov' s main works deal with the study of thermo- 
dynamic properties of non-ferrous metals. 
Bibliography: 

and A. N. Krestovnikov. Chemical Thermodynamics of Non- 
Ferrous Metallurgy, #1-3. Moscow-Leningrad, Sverdlovsk, 
1933-34. 

Thermodynamic properties of tungstates of bivalent metals. 
Reports at XIII International Congress of Theoretical and 
Applied Chemistry, Stockholm, 1953, Moscow, 1953. 
and A. V. Nikol'skaya . Investigation of thermodynamic 
properties of double-metallic systems using EMF. System 
of Cadmium- Bismuth. Zhur. Fiz. Khim., 1954, 28, #4, 713- 
728. 
Office: Chemistry Department 

Moscow University 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Lomonosovskii pr. 14 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: B9 21 83 

GINZBURG, VITALII LAZAREVICH (Physicist) 

V. L. Ginzburg was born October 4, 1916. He graduated in 
1938 from Moscow University. In 1940 he began working at the 
Physics Institute of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He was 
made professor in 1945 at Gorkii University. Since 1944 Ginz- 
burg has been a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet 
Union. In 1953 he was elected a Corresponding Member of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. At the present time he is con- 
tinuing his work at the Physics Institute and teaching at Gorkii 
State University. 

Ginzburg' s investigations are in the theory of radio propa- 
gation in the ionosphere, radio astronomy, the origin of cosmic 
rays, ferroelectric phenomena, the theory of super conductivity, 
the theory of elementary particles, and some questions of 
optics. 



121 GINZBURG 

In 1962, Ginzburg was awarded the M. V. Lomonsov Prize for 
work in the illumination theory and surface light movement. 
Bibliography: 

Origin of cosmic rays. Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. 
Fiz. 20, #1, 5-16 (1956). 

The Origin of cosmic rays. Uspekhi Fiz. Nauk 62, 37-98 
(1957). 

and B. N. Geshman. The effect of a magnetic field on con- 
vective instability in stellar atmospheres and in a terrestrial 
ionosphere. Trudy Radiofiz. Fak. Gor'kogo Gos. Univ. 30, 
3-29 (1956). 

and V. M. Fain. The problem of quantum effects during high 
frequency field interaction in resonators. Radiotekh. i 
Electronika 2, #6, 780-789 (1957). 

Relativistic wave equations with a mass spectrum. Trudy 
Gor'kogo Gos. Univ. 35, 51-63 (1957). 

and G. G. Getmantsev, I. S. Shklovskii . Radio astronomical 
research with the aid of artificial earth satellites. Uspekhi 
Fiz. Nauk 66, #2, 157-161 (1958). 

Mechanisms of sporadic solar radio emission. Izvest. 
Vuzov, Radiofizika, j., #5-6, 9-16 (1958). 
and V. V. Zheleznyakov. Possible mechanisms of sporadic 
solar radio emission (emission in isotropic plasma). Astron. 
Zhur. 35, #5, 694-712 (1958). 

and V. V. Zheleznyakov . The absorption and emission of 
electromagnetic waves by magnetically active plasma. 
Izvest. Vuzov, Radiofizika, 1, #2, 59-65 (1958). 
and B. N. Gershman, N. G. Denisov. The distribution of 
electromagnetic waves in plasma (ionosphere). Uspekh. Fiz. 
Nauk 61, #4, 561-612 (1957). 

and V. V. Zheleznyakov . The distribution of electromagnetic 
waves in the solar corona while estimating the effect of a 
magnetic field. Astron. Zhur. 36, #2, 233-246 (1959). 
Radio astronomy and the origin of cosmic rays. Izvest. 
Vuzov, Radiofizika, J., #5-6, 3-8 (1959). 

and V. Ya. Eidman. The force of an emission reaction dur- 
ing the movement of a charge in a medium. Zhur. Ekspt'l. i 
Teoret. Fiz. 36, #6, 1823-1833 (1959). 
and V. Ya. Eidman. Certain features of electromagnetic 
wave emission by particles moving at the speed of light. 
Izvest. Vuzov, Radiofizika, 2, #3, 331-343 (1959). 
and B. N. Gershman. On the formation of ionospheric hetero- 
geneities. Izvest. Vuzov, Radiofizika,^ #1, 8-13 (1959). 



GLUSHKO 122 

The possible determination of a magnetic field's current in 
the external solar corona during its illumination by polarized 
radio emission of discreet sources. Izvest. Vuzov, Radio- 
fizika,_3, #2, 341-342 (1960). 

and V. M. Fain. The theory of ferro- and antiferromagnet- 
ism. Zhur. Ekspt'l. i Teoret. Fiz. 39, #5, 1323-1338 (1960). 
The Distribution of Electromagnetic Waves in Plasma. 
Moscow: 1960. 

The law of conservation and an expression for energy density 
in the electrodynamics of absorptive dispersing media. 
Radiofizika 4, #1, 74-89 (1961). 

and V. V. Zheleznyakov. Noncoherent mechanisms of spo- 
radic solar radio emission in the case of a magnetically 
active coronal plasma. Astron. Zhur. 38, #1, 3-20 (1961). 
and E. A. Benediktov, G. G. Getmantsev . Radio astronomi- 
cal research with the aid of artificial earth satellites. 
Artificial Earth Satellites, #7, 3-22 (1961). 
Light scattering near phase transfer points in a solid state. 
Uspekh. Fiz. Nauk 77, #4 (1962). 

The law of conservation of energy in the electrodynamics of 
media with spatial dispersion. Izvest. Vuzov, Radiofizika, 
5, #6 (1962). 

and V. M. Agranovich. Crystallo-optics with consideration 
of spatial dispersion and the theory of excitons. Parts I and 
II. Uspekh. Fiz. Nauk 76, #4 (1962), and 77, #4 (1962). 
Office: Scientific Research Radiophysical Institute of 

Gor'kii State University 

ul. Lyadova 25/14 

Gor'kii, USSR 

GLUSHKO, VALENTIN PETRQVICH (Power Engineer) 

V. P. Glushko was born August 20, 1908. In 1956 he became 
a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. He was 
elected a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences in 1953, and in 1958 an Academician. 

Glushko' s basic works are concerned with various divisions 
of power engineering. 

Office: Dept. of Technical Sciences of USSR Academy of 

Sciences 
Malyy Khariton'yevsky Pereulok, 4 
Moscow, USSR J 

Residence: Leninskiye gory, sektor **M" 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: V9 21 63 



123 GOLDANSKII 

GQLDANSKII, VITALLI lOSIFQVICH (Physical Chemist) 
V. I. Goldanskii is a member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of 

Sciences Institute of Chemical Physics as of 1962. In June 

1958 he visited the United States to attend the Gordon Research 

Conference on Nuclear Chemistry at Meriden, New Hampshire. 

He was elected in June 1962 a Corresponding Member of the 

U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

Bibliography: 

Direct neutron exchange reactions of complex nuclei. Zhur. 
Eksptl. i Teoret. Fiz. 36, 526-8 (1959). C. A. 53, 15792g 
(1959). 

Direct neutron exchange interaction of complex nuclei in- 
volving a possible large change of the nuclear spins. Nucle- 
ar Phys. 9, 551-7 (1959). C A. 53, 13805b (1959). 
and P. S. Baranov, V. S. Roganov. Yield and angular distri- 
bution of fast photoneutrons from deuterium and carbon. 
Phys. Rev. 109, 1801-6 (1958). C. A. 53, 14762d (1959). 
and A. S. Belousov, B. B. Govorkov . Generalized form of 
the relation for the cross section of 7r-meson photogener- 
ation on complex nuclei to the number of nucleons. Zhur. 
Eksptl. i Teoret. Fiz. 36, 244-8 (1959). C. A. 53, 12865g 
(1959). 

(y, p) reactions leading to nuclei in the ground state. Acta 
Phys. Acad. Sci. Hung. ^, 177-84 (1958) (in Russian). C A. 
53, 11035a (1959). 

and E. Leikin . Prevrashcheniya atomnykh yader (Transfor- 
mations of Atomic Nuclei). Moscow: Izdatel. Akad. Nauk 
S.S.S.R. 1958. 426 pp. C A. 53, 59081 (1959). 
and M. I. Podgoretskii. Method for the identification of new 
transuranium elements. Zhur. Eksptl. i Teoret. Fiz. 37, 
315-17 (1959). C. A. 54, 8341a (1960). 

and Ya. A. Smorodinskii. Peculiarities in the S-matrix and 
the p° meson. Zhur. Eksptl. i Teoret. Fiz. 36, 1950-1 
(1959). C. A. 54, 8345g (1960). . 

and R. G. VasiTkov, B. B. Govorkov . Photogeneration of 
neutral ix mesons on hydrogen for y -quanta energies from 
the threshold energies to 240 m.e.v. Zhur. Eksptl. i Teoret. 
Fiz. 37, 11-22 (1959). C A. 54, 8344d (1960). 
and A. V. Kutsenke, M. I. Podgoretskii. Statistika otschetov 
pri registratsii yadernykh chastits (Counting Statistics in 
the Registration of Nuclear Particles.) Moscow: Gosudarst. 
Fiz.-Mat. Izdatel. 1959. 411 pp. C. A. 54, 171031 (1960). 



GOLDANSKII 124 

Superheavy isotopes of hydrogen and helium. Zhur. Eksptl. 
i Teoret. Fiz. 38, 1637-9 (1960). C A. 54, 18096g (1960). 
and M. V. Kazarnovskii . Intrashell-interaction levels and 
their excitation by multi-charged ions. Nuclear Phys. 13, 
117-24 (1959). C. A. 54, 20527d (1960). ~ 

and B. B. Govorkov, R. G. Vasirkov . Photoproduction of 
neutral pions on hydrogen near the threshold. Nuclear Phys. 
12, 327-32 (1959). C A. 54, 73671 (1960). 
The tenth trans-uranium element. U. S. At. Energy Comm. 
UCRL-Trans-492, 17 pp. (1959). C. A. 54, 22080c (1960). 
Temperature dependence of the rate of reversible processes 
of spontaneous predissociation. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 
127, 1242-4 (1959). C A. 54, 21954a (1960). 
and A. M. Balkin, I. L. Rozental. Kinematika yadernykh 
reaktsii (Kinematics of Nuclear Reactions). Moscow: 
Gosudarst. Fiz. -Mat. Izdatel. 1959. 296 pp. 
C. A. 54, 20567d (1960). 

Stability limits of proton and two-proton radioactivity of 
neutron-deficient isotopes of light nuclei. Zhur. Eksptl. i 
Teoret. Fiz. 39, 497-501 (1960). C A. 55, 139g (1961). 
and I. M. Barkalov, B. G. Dzantiev. Joining Polymeric Ma- 
terials. U.S.S.R. Patent No. 129,015, June 1, 1960. C A. 
55, 1091a (1961). 

and A. A. Berlin, B. G. Dzantiev . Radiation polymerization 
of phenylacetylene. Vysokomolekulyarnye Soednineniya _2^ 
1103-7 (1960). C. A. 55, 8919h (1961). 

Role of the tunnel effect in the kinetics of low -temperature 
chemical reactions. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 124, 1261- 
4 (1959). C. A. 55, 7996g (1961). 

and O. A. Karpukhin, G. G. Petrov . Positronium reactions 
in aqueous solutions. Zhur. Ekspt'l. i Teoret. Fiz. 39, 1477- 
8 (1960). C. A. 55, 9013h (1961). 

and I. M. Barkalov, B. G. Dzantiev, E. V. Egorov . Welding 
of Teflon and other polymeric materials by the localized 
action of neutron irradiation. Vysokomolekulyarnye Soedi- 
neniya 2^, 1801-4 (1960). C. A. 55, 26511d (1961). 
and Yu. M. Kagan. Thermochemical action of ionizing radi- 
ation. Intern. J. Appl. Radiation Isotopes H, 1-9 (1961). 
C. A. 55, 255321 (1961). 

and O. A. Karpukhin, V. V. Pavlovskaya . Determination of 
energy characteristics of the efficiency of registration of 
high-energy y -quanta. Pribory i Tekh. Eksperimenta 1960, 
#3, 23-6. C. A. 55, 41781 (1961). 



125 GOLUBTSOV 

and R. G. Vasirkov, B. B. Govorkov . Photoformation of 7r° 
mesons on carbon near the threshold. Zhur. Ekspt'l. i 
Teoret. Fiz. 37, 1149-51 (1959). C A. 55, 5182d (1961). 
and A. I. Baz, Ya. B. Zel'dovich. Isotopes of light nuclei. 
Uspekhi Fiz. Nauk 72, 211-34 (1960). C A. 55, 6173a (1961). 
Neutron-deficient isotopes of light nuclei and the phenomena 
of proton and 2 -proton radioactivity. Nuclear Phys. 1_9, 482- 
95 (1960). C. A. 55, 11114e (1961). 

Tunnel transitions between systems described by the Morse 
potential curves. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 127, 1037-40 
(1959). C. A. 55, 20578c (1961). 

and L. K. Peker . The isomerism of atomic nuclei. Uspekhi 
Fiz. Nauk 73, 631-53 (1961). C. A. 55, 20663d (1961). 
and O. A. Karpukhin, A. V. Kutsenko, V. V. Pavlovskaya. 
Elastic y - P scattering at 40 to 70 m.e.v., and polarizability 
of the proton. Nuclear Phys. 18, 473-91 (1960). C A. 55, 
13102h (1961). 

and V. A. Bryukhonov, N. N. Delyagin, E. F. Makorov, V. S. 
Shpiner . Observation of Mossbauer effect in a stannous - 
containing polymer. Zhur. Eksptl. i Teoret. Fiz. 42, #2, 
637-39 (1961). 
Office: Institute of Chemical Physics of USSR Academy of 

Sciences 
Vorob'evskoye Shosse, 2 
Moscow, USSR 

GOLUBTSOV, yr^ACHESLAV ALEKSEEV^ICH (Power Engineer) 
V. A. Golubtsov was born April 10, 1894. After he graduated 
in 1925 from the Leningrad Electro-Technical Institute, he 
worked in the building and operation of a series of electric 
power stations. In 1934-1936 he was Chief Engineer at Kash- 
mira and subsequently at Chelyabinsk state electric power 
plant. He was also chief engineer in the building of the 
Dneprodzerzhinsk state electric power plant in 1936-1937. In 

1944 he began teaching at the Moscow Power Institute and in 

1945 was made a professor. He became Chief of the laboratory 
on complex methods of utilizing fuel in power stations of the 
Energy Institute of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences in 1955. 
Since 1931 Golubtsov has been a member of the Communist 
Party of the Soviet Union. In 1953 he was elected a Correspond- 
ing Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He has been 
awarded two orders as well as medals, and in 1950 he received 
a Stalin Prize. 



GORBACHEV 126 

The scientific works of Golubtsov are devoted to questions 
on water preparation, air preheating, deaeration, dust prepa- 
ration, utilization of ash, particularly the use of ash of the coal 
fields of Moscow in order to obtain alumina. He participated in 
developing new methods for softening water for industrial 
boilers. 
Bibliography: 

and I. Ya. Zalkind. Refractory Material and Cinders in 
Power Engineering. Moscow-Leningrad: 1953. 
and P. P. Elizarov . Operation of Boiler Plants of Power 
Stations. Moscow-Leningrad: 1950. 

and T. Kh. Margulova . Salt water for current control of 
purity in high pressure saturated steam. Power Stations, 
1953, #10. 

and M. M. Sendik. Question of selecting rational schemes 
for preparing water for thermal networks. Thermal Ener- 
getics, 1954, #4. 

Some questions of rational use of fuel. Works of the Moscow 
Energy Institute of V. M. Molotov, #25, Moscow - 
Leningrad: 1955. 

Complex power-technological utilization of fuel. Vestnik 
Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1956, #1. 

Some questions on rational utilization of fuel. Works of the 
Moscow Energy Institute, 1955, #25. 
Office: Energy Institute of USSR Academy of Sciences 

Moscow, USSR 
Residence: ul. Osipenko, 31 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: Bl 72 15 

GORBACHEV, TIMOFEI FEDOROVICH (Mining Engineer) 

T. F. Gorbachev was born June 23, 1900. In 1928, he gradu- 
ated from the Tomsk Polytechnical Institute, and subsequently 
worked in the coal industry. From 1946 to 1950, he was chief 
engineer of a group of enterprises known as Kuzbas Coal. 
From 1950 to 1954, he was Director of the Kemerovo Mining 
Institute. In 1954, he was Chairman of the Presidium of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences West Siberian branch (dissolved 
January 1959). In 1949 he was awarded a Stalin Prize. He has 
also received the Order of Lenin, two other orders, and medals. 
He was made a Hero of Socialist Labor in 1948. Since 1942 he 
has been a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. 
He was elected, in 1958, a Corresponding Member of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 



127 GORINOV 

Gorbachev has worked in the exploitation of systems of thick, 
steeply dipping beds and movable shoring. He developed a self- 
propelled machine "Kuzbas" which utilizes water. 

As of 1961, Gorbachev was a Vice-President of the Siberian 
Branch U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 
Bibliography: 

Ways of Improving Systems of Exploitation of Thick, Steeply 
Dipping Beds of South Kuzbas. Moscow: 1949. 
Preliminary Results of Observing the Undermining of Coal 
Beds, Mine Working, Constructions and Sources of Water in 
the Kuzbas. Moscow: 1951. 

Experience in Exploitation of Thick Beds in the U.S.S.R. and 
Abroad. Moscow: 1957. 

Combined system of exploitation with whields. . . Improve- 
ment of the Shield Method of Exploitation. Moscow: 1954. 
Office: Siberian Branch of USSR Academy of Sciences 

Novosibirsk, Siberia 

GORINOV, ALEKSANDR VASIL'EVICH (Railway Engineer) 

A. V. Gorinov was born August 4, 1902. After graduating 
from the Moscow Institute of Communication Engineers, he 
worked in a series of expeditions for surveying new railroads 
(Chardzhou-Kungrad, Ulan-Ude-Naushki, Ural'sk-Iletsk). He 
was chief- construction engineer for the Mo scow -Donbass Rail- 
road. He taught at Leningrad Institute of Railroad Engineers in 
1931-1946, and in 1937 became professor. He taught also at 
the Military-Transport Academy of the Soviet Army from 1932 
to 1938. In 1941 he became professor at Moscow Institute of 
Railroad Engineers. He also worked in a number of scientific 
research organizations. Gorinov has been a member of the 
Communist Party of the Soviet Union since 1920. In 1939 he 
was elected a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy 
of Sciences. 

The main work of Gorinov is in the complex design of rail- 
roads, the theory of inertia calculations and the reserve utiliz- 
ation of a train's kinetic energy, the improvement of transpor- 
tation with gradually increasing railroad power, and the 
scientific basis for classifying railroads. 
Bibliography: 

Large reserves for increasing the weight of trains over com- 
plete routes. Railroad Transport, 1954, #8. 
Classification of the railroads of the U.S.S.R. Izvest. Akad. 
Nauk S.S.S.R., Otdel Tekh. Nauk, 1946, #5. 



GORSKI 128 

Scientific basis for the classification of railroads. Con- 
struction of Railroads and Track Equipment. Moscow: 1948. 
Designing of Railways, 3rd ed., 1-3. Moscow: 1948. 
Office: Moscow Institute of Railroad Engineers 

Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Arbat, 20 

Moscow, USSR 
Teleplione: Gl 41 11 

GORSKI, IVAN IVANQVICH (Paleontologist) 

I. I. Gorski was born September 12, 1893, In 1935, he be- 
came a professor at the Leningrad Mining Institute. From 1943 
to 1947, he was Director of the All-Union Scientific Research 
Institute of Geology. He was Chairman of the Karelo- Finnish 
Branch of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences from 1947 to 1952. 
In 1950, he became Director of the Laboratory on Coal Geology 
of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, and in 1954 he was elected 
Chairman of the All-Union Paleontological Society. Since 1943, 
he has been a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy 
of Sciences. 

Gorski is a specialist in the geology of the Urals, particular- 
ly of the Ural coal deposits. He investigated coral fauna of 
upper Paleozoic U.S.S.R. He has studied the geology of coal 
bearing regions of the Urals, Kazakhstan and Central Asia; 
stratigraphy and tectonics of the Urals, Kazakhstan and other 
parts of U.S.S.R.; coral and other fauna of the Carboniferous 
Urals, Kazakhstan, Central Asia and the Arctic. He took part, 
as a Chief Editor, in compiling geological maps of the Urals 
(scale of 1/500,000-1939), of the European section of the 
U.S.S.R., of the Urals and Caucasus (scale of 1/1,500,000-1948), 
a map for the survey of coal regions in the U.S.S.R. (scale of 
1/5,000,000-1956), etc. Total amount of works is over 200 
titles. 
Bibliography: 

Detailed Geological Survey of the Kamensk Works Region. 

Moscow -Leningrad: 1931. 

Coral from Lower Carboniferous Deposits of the Kirkhiz 

Steppes. Moscow-Leningrad: 1932. 

Geological outline of the Kizelovskii region. Coal Bearing 

Deposits of the Western Slope of the Urals. Leningrad- 
Moscow: 1932. 

Carboniferous corals of Novaya Zemlya, Leningrad, 1938. 

(Works of the All-Union Arctic Institute, 93). 



129 GRASHCHENKOV 

Geotectonic conditions in the formation of coal deposits of 
the Urals, and peculiarities of the geological structure of de- 
posits associated with them. Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 
Geol Ser., 1943, #4-5. 

Belts and groups of coal accumulation in light of contempo- 
rary data. Works of the Laboratory of Coal Geology of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, 1956, #5. 
History of Coal Accumulation on the Territory of the 
U.S.S.R. Leningrad: 1956. 
Office: Department of Geology and Geography 

Presidium, USSR Academy of Sciences 

Lenin Prospekt, 14 

Moscow, USSR 

GRASHCHENKOV, NIKOLAI IVANOVICH (Neurologist) 

N. I. Grashchenkov was born March 26, 1901. He graduated 
in 1926 from the University of Moscow and until 1933 was a 
member of the Medical Faculty of the University (which later 
was reorganized into the first Medical Institute of Moscow). He 
also worked at the Institute of Experimental Medicine, and in 
1939-1944 was Director of this Institute. In 1937-1939 Grash- 
chenkov was First Deputy Public Commissar for Health and 
Welfare. During World War II, 1941-45, he was consultant on 
problems of neuro -pathology and neuro-surgery in the army. 
He conducted epidemiological work in the prophylaxis and 
treatment of tick-borne diseases and Japanese encephalitis. 
From 1944 to 1948, he was Director of the Neurological Insti- 
tute of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR. In 1951 
he became professor at the Central Institute of the Advancement 
of Physicians in Moscow. Grashchenkov has been a member of 
the Communist Party of the Soviet Union since 1918. In 1939 
he was elected a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Acade- 
my of Sciences, in 1944 an Active Member of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Medical Sciences, and in 1947 a member of the 
Belorussian Academy of Sciences. From 1948 to 1951 he was 
President of the Academy of Sciences of the Belorussian S.S.R. 
From 1959 to 1961 he was Assistant Director General of W.H.O. 
in Geneva. 

Grashchenkov' s basic work deals with the physiology and 
pathology of the sense organs, electro-physiology of the central 
nervous system, traumatic shock and infectious diseases of the 
nervous system. 

In September 1962, Grashchenkov visited the United States 
to attend the 5th World Congress of Sociology in Washington. 



GRIGOLYUK 130 

Grashchenkov's other activities in his field include being 
Director of the Laboratory of Clinical Neurophysiology, Mos- 
cow, Academy of Sciences U.S.S.R.; member, the Moscow City 
Clinical Hospital, Moscow City Health Department, Ministry of 
Health R.S.F.S.R.; member of the First Moscow Medical Insti- 
tute im. I. M. Sechenov, Moscow Ministry of Health R.S. F.S.R., 
member of Ministry of Health. 
Bibliography: 

Anaerobic Infection of the Brain. Moscow: 1944. 

Firearm Wounds of the Spine and Spinal Cord and Methods 

for their Treatment. Moscow: 1946. 

Craniocerebral Wounds and Method for Treatment. Moscow: 

1947. 

Mosquito (Japanese) Encephalitis and Methods for Treat- 
ment. Moscow: 1947. 

Interneural Synapses and their Role in Physiology and Path- 
ology. Minsk: 1948. 

Outline of Virus Effects on the Central Nervous System. 

Minsk: 1951. 
Biography: 

Nikolai Ivanovich Grashchenkov. On his 60th birthday. I. M. 

Sechenov Physiological Journal of the USSR, 4, 1961. 

(English version). 
Office: Academy of Medical Sciences USSR 

Solyanka 14, Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Kotel'nicheskaya nab. 1/15 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: B7 45 25 

GRIGOLYUK, EDUARD IVANOVICH (Mechanical Engineer) 

E. I. Grigolyuk was born December 13, 1923. After graduat- 
ing from Moscow Aviation Institute in 1934, he taught there. In 
1946-1950 he taught at the Moscow Technological College. He 
began work at the Experimental Construction Bureau in 1948, 
and in 1953 at the Institute of Mechanics of the U.S.S.R. Acade- 
my of Sciences. In 1952 he was made editor of an abstract 
journal "Mechanics." He was elected, in 1958, a Corresponding 
Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

Grigolyuk' s main works are concerned with the theory of 
shells. He is also concerned with the theory of elasticity and 
the theory of plasticity. 
Bibliography: 

Thin bimetallic shells and plates. Engineering Collection, 

1953,17. 



131 GRIGOREV 

Equation of axiosymmetric bimetallic elastic shells. Engi- 
neering Collection, 1954, 18. 

Non-linear oscillations and stability of sloping rods and 

shells. Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Otdel. Tekh. Nauk, 1955, 

#3. 

On the bulging of thin shells beyond the limits of elasticity. 

Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Otdel. Tekh. Nauk, 1957, #10. 

Terminal deflection of three layer shells with a stiff filler. 

Izvest Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Otdel. Tekh. Nauk, 1958, #1. 

Stability of elastic plastic heterogeneous shells. Doklady 

Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1958, 119, #4. 
Office: Institute of Mechanics of USSR Academy of Sciences 

Leningradskii Prospekt, 7 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Pushkinskaya 7/5 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: B9 25 98 

GRIGOREV, ANDREI ALEKSANDROVICH (Geographer) 

A. A. Grigorev was born November 1, 1883. In 1907 he 
graduated from Petrograd University. He organized in 1918 the 
Geographic Institute in Petrograd where he was a professor and 
dean until 1925. From 1925 to 1936 he was a professor at 
Leningrad University. In 1918 Grigorev organized in the Acade- 
my of Sciences an industrial geography department of the com- 
mission which studied the natural productive forces of Russia. 
This department became in 1931 the Geographic Institute of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, and until 1951, Grigorev was the 
Director. He has been an Academician of the U.S.S.R. Academy 
of Sciences since 1939. In 1946 he became a member of the 
Communist Party of Soviet Russia. He was awarded a Stalin 
Prize in 1947. He is a member of a number of scientific socie- 
ties including the Geographic Society of the U.S.S.R. Grigorev 
is on the main editorial board of the Bol'shaya Sovetskaya 
Entsykl. (Great Soviet Encyclopedia). He has been active in 
the Society for the Dissemination of Political and Scientific 
Knowledge. Also he is interested in the history of Russian 
geography. 

In 1904, and again in 1921, Grigorev completed an expedition 
to the Bolshezemelskaya tundra. At various times, he investi- 
gated little -known regions of the South Urals (1923), Yakutsk, 
ASSR (1925-26), the Kolskii Peninsula (1928-29 and 1931), and 
Kazakhstan, carefully studying the elements of the geographical 
environment. His results have been useful to soil scientists, 



GRINBERG 132 

paleographers, geo mo rpho legists, and geobotanists. Grigorev 
has published more than 300 articles. His monograph. The 
Subartic, sums up the material on the tundra belt, and was the 
first geography treatise to be awarded a Stalin Prize. In his 
articles from 1928-1930, he introduced a new direction in ge- 
ography, subsequently named "dynamic geography," in which 
great stress is paid to natural processes. He has attempted to 
convert geography from a descriptive science to one which es- 
tablishes general laws of physico-geographical processes, 
based on studies of the paleography of the Quaternary Period, 
on discoveries of fresh-water diatomites, and on the evolution 
of phy si CO -geographic processes on the earth's surface since 
the Devonian Period. 
Bibliography: 

Soviet geography up to the XVHIth Congress of the Commu- 
nist Party of the Soviet Union (Bolsheviks). Vestnik Akad. 
Nauk S.S.S.R., 1939, #2-3. 

Soviet geography during the Second Five Year Plan. Izvest. 
Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. Georg-GeoFiz., 1939, #2. 
An Attempt at an Analytical Characterization of the Com- 
ponents and Structure of the Phy sico -Geographic Sphere of 
the Earth. Leningrad -Mo scow: 1937. 
Subartic. Experiment to Characterize the Main Types of 
Physico-Geographic Environment. Moscow-Leningrad: 
1946. 

On some questions of physical geography. Voprosi Filosofii, 
1951, #1. 
Biography: 

G. D. Rikhter . On the 60th Anniversary of Academician 
A. A. Grigorev. Priroda, 1944, #2. 
Office: Institute of Geography 

Staromonetnyy Pereulok, 29 
Moscow, USSR 

GRINBERG, ALEKSANDR ABRAMOVICH (Chemist) 

A. A. Grinberg was born April 20, 1898. In 1924 he graduat- 
ed from Leningrad University. He became, in 1936, professor 
at Lensovet Leningrad Technological Institute. From 1943 until 
1958 he was a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy 
of Sciences, and in 1958 he was elected Academician. In 1946 
he was awarded a Stalin Prize. 

Grinberg investigated the structure of platinum salts and 
isomerism of platinum and palladium divalent derivatives. 
Also he has studied acid-base and redox properties of complex 



133 GRINBERG 

compounds, equilibria of their aqueous solutions, and use of 

tracers in chemistry of complex compounds. 

Bibliography: 

Introduction to Chemistry of Complex Compounds, 2nd ed. 
Leningrad-Moscow: 1951. (Trans, by J. R. Leach. Ed. by 
D. H. Busch & R. F. Trimble, Jr. Oxford, London. Perga- 
mon Press, 1962, 363 p.) 

New data on the kinetics of substitution reactions and on the 
mutual influence of coordinated groups. Zhur. Neorg. Khim. 
4, 1517-32 (1959). C A. 54, 9454a (1960). 
and M. I. Gel' f man. Stability of complex compounds of bi- 
valent platinum. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 133 , 1081-3 
(1960). C. A. 54, 23632c (1960). 

and V. E. Mironov . Ligand exchange in HgX^". Radiokhimi- 
ya 2, 249-54 (1960). C. A. 54, 17140d (1960). 
and A. M. Trofimov, L. N. Stepanova . Determination of the 
charge magnitude of polynuclear complex ruthenium ions by 
the ion-exchange method. Radiokhimiya 2^, 78-82 (1960). 
C. A. 54, 18033c (1960). 

and D. N. Bykhovskii . Coprecipitation of trivalent cerium 
with uranium oxalate. Radiokhimiya 2, 164-74 (1960). C. A. 
54, 16975h (1960). 

and L. V. Vrublevskaya, Kh. L Gil'dengershel, A. I. Stet- 
senko . New data on the acid-base properties of complex 
compounds. Zhur. Neorg. Khim. 4, 1018-27 (1959). C. A. 
54, 9588c (1960). 

Office: Lensovet Technological Institute 

Zagorodnyi Prospekt 49 
Leningrad, USSR 

GRINBERG, GEQRGII ABRAMQVICH (Physicist) 

G. A. Grinberg was born June 16, 1900. He is the brother of 
Academician A. A. Grinberg (chemist). He graduated in 1923 
from Petrograd Polytechnic Institute and in 1935 received a 
Doctor of Physical-Mathematical Sciences degree. From 1919 
to 1930 Grinberg worked in the State Roentgenological and 
Radiological Institute and in the Physico-Technical Institute in 
Leningrad. In 1924-1955 he taught at Leningrad Polytechnic 
Institute where in 1930 he became professor. He also worked 
during 1929-1941 at the plant "Svetlana" in Leningrad. In 1941 
he began working at the Physico-Technical Institute of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. Grinberg has been a Corre- 
sponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences since 
1946. In 1949 he was awarded a Stalin Prize. 



GROSS 134 

Grinberg's major work is in theoretical electronics, the 
theory of electromagnetic wave propagation, and in the theory 
of elasticity. He formulated a general theory for the focusing 
effect of electric and magnetic fields. He proposed the theory 
of coastal refraction. He studied the problem of radio propa- 
gation in heterogeneous spheres. Grinberg originated a unique 
method of integrating equations of mathematical physics. He is 
the author of the work, "Selected Questions on the Mathemati- 
cal Theory of Electrical and Magnetic Phenomena" (1948) 
(Stalin Prize, 1949). 
Bibliography: 

Theory on the coastal refraction of electromagnetic waves. 
Zhur. Fiz., 1942, 6, #5. 

Basis of the general theory on the focusing effect of electro- 
static and magnetic fields. I-III. Doklady Akad. Nauk 
S.S.S.R., 1942, 37, #5-6, 9; 38, #2-3. 

A new method of solving some peripheral problems in the 
equation of mathematical physics which allow division of 
variables. Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. Fiz., 1946, lOj 
#2. 

Theory of established processes in electronic devices or in 
circuits which contain such devices. Zhur. Tekh. Fiz., 1955, 
25, #12. 

and B. E. Vonshtedt. The basis of an exact theory on the 
wave field of transmission lines. Zhur. Tekh. Fiz., 1954, 
24, #1. 

Methods proposed by P. F. Papkovich for solving plane 
problems of the theory of elasticity for a rectangular area 
and for problems of bending a thin rectangular slab with two 
fixed edges, and some generalizations from these. Priklad. 
Mat. i Mekh., 1953, 17, #2, 211-28. 
Office: Physico-Technical Institute of the USSR Academy 

of Sciences 
Sosnova 2 
Lesnoy, Leningrad, USSR 

GROSS, EVGENII FYODOROVICH (Physicist) 

E. F. Gross was born October 20, 1897. He graduated from 
Leningrad University in 1924, and in 1938 became a professor 
at this University. Beginning in 1944, he has been working 
also at the Physico-Technical Institute of the U.S.S.R. Academy 
of Sciences. In 1946 he was elected a Corresponding Member 
of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences and that same year a 
recipient of a Stalin Prize. 



135 GROSS 

In 1940 Gross proposed a spectroscopic method for determin- 
ing orientational relaxation times of molecules from aniso- 
tropic scattering. In 1951, he discovered an optic spectrum of 
excitons which transmit energy of excited states in crystals. 
In 1954-55, he discovered in excitons the Zeeman and Stark ef- 
fect and the disassociation of excitons under the influence of an 
external electrical field. In 1956, he discovered the radiation 
spectrum of excitons, their large diamagnetism, and their role 
in inner photo -effect. 
Bibliography: 

Light scattering. XV Anniversary of the State Optical Insti- 
tute (Collection of articles under the general editorship of 
Academician S. I. Vavilov). Leningrad-Moscow: 1934, 34- 
107. 

Transverse thermal Debye waves and the scattering of light 
in crystals. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1940, 26, #8. 
Fluctuation of entropy in a liquid and the Rayleigh line. 
Zhur. Eksptl. i Teoret. Fiz., 1946, 16, #2. 
Light scattering and relaxational phenomena in liquids. 
Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1940, 28, #9. 
and S. M. Fuks. Sur le nouveau type de spectre de diffusion 
des cristaux et la structure des liquides. Le Journal de 
Physique et le Radium, 1936, _7, #3. 

Optical spectrum of excitons in the crystal lattice. Nuovo 
Cimento, Supplemento, Ser. 10, 1956, #3. 
and others. Exciton structure of spectrum curves of inner 
photoelectric effect in crystals. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 
1956, no, #5. 

and B. P. Zakharechnaya . Linear and quadratic Zeeman ef- 
fects and exciton diamagnetism of cuprous oxide. Doklady 
Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1956, lU, #3. 

and Czhan Guan-in, L. E. Soloviev. Absorption spectra in 
the azure and blue regions of the spectrum and deformation 
effects in refined samples of cQpper oxide. Doklady Akad. 
Nauk S.S.S.R. 146, #2, 577-80 (1962). 

and D. S. Nadzvetskii . Resonance and non-resonance irradi- 
ation of centers in crystalline GaP and their interaction with 
lattice phonons. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 146, #3, 1047- 
50 (1962). 
Office: Physico -Technical Institute of USSR Academy of 

Sciences 
Sosnova 2 
Lesnoy, Leningrad, USSR 



GRUSHIN 136 

GRUSHIN, PETR DMITRIEVICH (Mechanics Specialist) 

In June 1962, P. D. Grushin was elected Corresponding 
Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

GUTYRYA, VIKTOR STEPANQVICH (Chemist) 

V. S. Gutyrya was born September 11, 1910. After graduating 
from the Azerbaijan Industrial Institute in 1932, he worked at 
the Azerbaijan Oil Research Institute (now the Azerbaijan 
Scientific Research Institute of Oil-Refining Industry). In 1937- 
54 and again in 1955 he was made Director of the Institute. He 
has been an Academician of the Azerbaijan S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences since 1949, and since 1953 a Corresponding Member 
of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. In 1942 he received a 
Stalin Prize. 

Gutyrya has studied chemistry of oil and technology of 
petrochemical synthesis. 
Bibliography: 

and others. Oil of Azerbaijan. Baku: 1945. 

Catalytic Refining of Distillates of Thermal Reforming. 

Baku: 1946. 

Ya. Masumyan, S. M. Lisovskaya. Distillation Curves of 

Baku Oil. Baku: 1947. 
Office: Academy of Sciences Azerbaijan SSR 

Kommunisticheskaya Ulitsa 10 
Baku 1, Azerbaijhan SSR 

lERUSALIMSKII, NIKOLAI DMITRIEVICH (Microbiologist) 

N. D. lerusalimskii was born in 1901. He graduated from 
Moscow State University in 1931. From 1930-35, he was a 
microbiologist at the Chemico-Pharmaceutical Institute in 
Moscow. In 1935 he began to work at the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences Institute of Microbiology, where he became in 1950 
deputy director. From 1935-38 he was also deputy section 
chief of the Scientific-Research Laboratory on Industrial 
Fermentation, and in 1954, became a professor at Moscow State 
University. Since 1946 he has been a member of the Communist 
Party of the Soviet Union. He was elected, in 1960, to the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences as a Corresponding Member. 

lerusalimskii' s work is primarily concerned with the study 
of microorganism development in connection with nutritive 
conditions. 

Office: Moscow State University 

Moscow, USSR 



137 IL'YUSHIN 

Residence: 1-aya Cheremushkinskaya 4/34 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: B7 51 77 

IL^YUSHIN, ALEKSEI ANTQNOVICH (Mechanical Eng:ineer) 

A. A. H'yushin was born January 20, 1911. In 1934 he gradu- 
ated from Moscow University and became a professor there in 
1938. In 1943, he became Chief of the Department of Strength 
of Materials of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Institute of 
Mechanics of which he became Director in 1953. He has been 
a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union since 
1940. He was elected, in 1943, a Corresponding Member of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. In 1948 he was awarded a Stalin 
Prize. 

Il'yushin has worked in the theory of elasticity and plasticity. 
In 1936-38 he obtained important results in the area of viscous- 
plastic flow and its stability for metals. In 1937 he designed a 
pile-driver for testing materials and construction models at 
high speeds of deformation. In 1942-48 he formulated a theory 
on small, elastic -plastic deformations which appear as the 
basis for calculating structures which work beyond the limits 
of elasticity. He also proposed a method for solving these 
problems. He developed a theory on the stability of plates, and 
shells beyond the limits of elasticity. In 1951-52 he formulated 
a theory of modeling in the processes of preparing metals by 
pressure. In 1953-54 he established a postulate on isothropy in 
general theory on plasticity. Il'yushin also solved a number of 
problems in gaseous dynamics. 
Bibliography: 

Deformation of a viscous-plastic body. Scientific Research 
Papers of Moscow University. Mechanics, 1940, #39. 
Several questions on the theory of plastic deformations. 
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, 1943, 7^, #4. 
Elastic -plastic stability of plates. Applied Mathematics and 
Mechanics, 1946, 10, #5-6. 

Plasticity, Part I— Elastic-Plastic Deformation. Moscow- 
Leningrad: 1948. 

Modeling of hot and high speed processes of preparing 
metals by pressure. Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, 
1952, 16, #4. 

Connection between tension and small deformations in me- 
chanics of solid media. Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, 
1954, 18, #6. 



IMSHENETSKII 138 

Questions on the theory of flows of plastic substances on 
surfaces. Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, 1954, 18, #3. 
Law of plane sections in aerodynamics of high supersonic 
speeds. Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, 1956, 20, #6. 
Biography: 

V. S. Lenskii. Elasticity and Plasticity. On the works of 
Stalin Prize Laureate, A. A. Il'yushin, Moscow-Leningrad, 
1950. 
Office: Institute of Mechanics of USSR Academy of Sciences 

Leningradskii Prospekt, 7 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Chistoprudnyii Bul'v. 9 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: B3 71 52 

IMSHENETSKII, ALEXANDRE ALEKSANDRQVICH (Micro- 
biologist) 

A. A. Imshenetskii was born January 8, 1905. He graduated 
from the University of Voronezh in 1926. In 1930 he worked at 
the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Institute of Microbiology, 
where he became Director in 1949. He was elected to the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences in 1946 as a Corresponding Mem- 
ber, and in June 1962, an Academician. 

Imshenetskii' s researches are in the structure, biology, indi- 
vidual growth, variation and physiology of micro-organismso 
In studying the construction of bacteria, he proved that the ma- 
jority of them retain a significant amount of vital substance but 
lack an individual morphological nucleus and that the latter is 
found only in complex bacteria. He explored changes in the 
structure of bacteria in the process of ontogeneses under the 
influence of various external factors which enabled him to dis- 
cover the metaphysical essence, the so-called theory of cyclo- 
genics. His other work is the study of the biology of bacteria 
which attack cellulose. His work includes a study on the influ- 
ence of increased temperatures on the course of microbiologi- 
cal processes (a comparable study of the nature of mesophilic 
and thermophilic bacteria was made). He has explored groups 
of cellulose, amylolytic, proteolytic and thermophilic bacteria, 
which are of practical value. He showed ways of replacing the 
mesophilic bacteria with the thermophylic which hastens the 
course of microbiological processes (for example— fermen- 
tation). A series of his research deals with the biology and 
physiology of nitrifying bacteria; the variability and selectivity 
of yeast, mold fungus and bacteria. 



139 ISHLINSKII 

In April 1960, Imshenetskii visited the United States on an 
exchange program at the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Re- 
search in New York City. 

Imshenetskii was in the United States again in April 1961 to 
attend the Third International Space Science Symposium 
(COSPAR), Washington; the Brain Research Institute of Uni- 
versity of California, Los Angeles Medical Center; a conference 
of the New York State Medical Society, New York City; and the 
Space Medicine Program of the New York Medical College. 
Bibliography: 

Structure of Bacteria. Moscow-Leningrad: 1940. 
Microbiological Processes at High Temperatures. Moscow- 
Leningrad: 1944. 

Variability in the selectivity of micro-organisms. Works on 
the Conference on the Directed Changeability and Selection 
of Micro-organisms. Moscow: 1951; Moscow: 1952, 11-37. 
Cellulose Microbiology. Moscow: 1953. 
Office: Institute of Microbiology 

Leninskii Prospekt, 33 
Moscow, USSR 

ISAKOV, IVAN STEPANOVICH (Naval Officer) 

I. S. Isakov was born August 22, 1894. In 1929 he graduated 
from the Naval Academy. From 1933 to 1938, he was Chief of • 
Staff and subsequently Commander of the Baltic Fleet, and at 
the same time head of the Naval Academy. During World War II, 
he was Chief of Staff of the Naval Forces. In 1947, he was 
deputy to the Commander-in-Chief of the Naval Forces. He 
has been a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union 
since 1939, and was a delegate to the first convocation of the 
Supreme Soviet. In 1958, he was elected to the U.S.S.R. Acade- 
my of Sciences as a Corresponding Member. 

In 1947-55, Isakov was the main editor of the Naval Atlas, 
for the publication of which he rec_.eived the Stalin Prize (1951). 
In 1950-54, he was a member of the editorial board of the Atlas 
of the World. Isakov is a consultant for a number of scientific 
institutions. He is the author of works on military geography. 
Office: USSR Academy of Sciences 

Leninskii Prospekt, 14 
Moscow, USSR 

ISHLINSKII, ALEKSANDR YUL'EVICH (Mechanics Scientist) 

A. Yu. Ishlinskii was born August 6, 1913. After graduating 
from Moscow University in 1935, he taught there and in 1945 



IVANOV 140 

became a professor. From 1948 to 1955 he was Director of the 
Institute of Mathematics of the Ukrainian S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences and also a professor at Kiev University. In 1955 he 
was appointed director of a scientific research institute. He 
has been a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union 
since 1940. He was elected Academician of the Ukrainian 
S.S.R. Academy of Sciences in 1948, and in 1960 Academician of 
the U. S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

Ishlinskii's main investigations are in general mechanics, 
elasticity, and oscillations. He presented a theory of gyro- 
scopic devices, investigated the behavior of complex gyroscopic 
systems on a movable base, and gave the theoretical basis for 
a space gyroscope. 
Bibliography: 

Mechanics of Special Gyroscopic Systems. Kiev: 1952. 

Dynamical forms of stability loss of elastic systems. Dok- 

lady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1949, 64, #6. 

On the dynamics of soil masses. Doklady Akad. Nauk 

S.S.S.R., 1954,15, #4. 

General theory of plasticity with a linear strengthening. 

Ukr. Mat. Zhur., 1954, #3. 

Sketches in History of Technology. Kiev: 1955. 

On the theory of a horizon-compass. Priklad. Mat. i Mekh., 

1956, #4. 

The theory of a gyroscopic pendulum. Priklad. Mat. i Mekh., 

1957, #1. 

Theory of a bigyroscopic gyrovertical. Priklad. Mat. i 
Mekh., 1957, #2. 
Office: Academy of Sciences Ukrainian SSR 

Vladimirskaya Ulitsa 5 
Kiev, Ukrainian SSR 

IVANOV, LEONID ALEKSANDROVICH (Deceased, April 12, 
1962). 
L. A. Ivanov was born February 24, 1871. He graduated 
from Moscow University in 1895. From 1904 to 1941, he was 
professor at the Institute of Forestry (now the S. M. Korov 
Forest-Technical Academy). From 1938 to 1947, he headed the 
photosynthesis laboratory of the Institute of Plant Physiology of 
the U. S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. Since 1944, he has been the 
chief of the Laboratory on the Physiology and Ecology of Wood 
Strains of the U. S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Institute of Forests. 
He became a Corresponding Member of the U. S.S.R. Academy 
of Sciences in 1922. 



141 KABACHNIK 

Ivanov studied the influence of light and moisture on wood 
and established the relationships in the distribution and ab- 
sorption of physiologic radiation in forests under variable con- 
ditions. He established an original method of investigating 
photosynthesis, designed new devices— phytoactinometer for 
studying photosynthesis, phytoatmometer for studying evapo- 
ration, and others. Ivanov developed the theoretical basis of 
tapping confiers, which he presented in the work Biological 
Basis of Utilizing Confiers of U.S.S.R. in the Turpentine Indus- 
try (1934). He has also carried out researches on the anatomy 
of wood strains, the systematics of simple plants, investigation 
of the processes of fermentation and respiration, and the 
transformation of phosporus in plants. 
Bibliography: 

Light and Moisture in the Life of Our Wood Strains. Moscow - 

Leningrad: 1946. 

Physiology of Plants, 2nd ed. Leningrad: 1936. 

General Course on the Systematics of Plants. Moscow- 
Leningrad: 1937. 

Anatomy of Plants, 3rd ed. Leningrad: 1939. 
Biography: 

N. A. Maximov. Physiology of Plants. Outline on the History 

of Russian Botany. Moscow: 1947. 

N. L. Kossovich. Half a Century of Uninterrupted Creative 

Activity of Professor L. A. Ivanov in the Forest-Technical 

Academy of S. M. Kirov. Works of the Forest-Technical 

Academy of S. M. Kirov, 1948, #64. 
Office: Laboratory of Forest Studies 

Moscow, USSR 
Residence: nab. Gor'kogo 40/42 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: V3 29 97 

KABACHNIK, MARTIN IZRAILOVICH (Organic Chemist) 

M. I. Kabachnik was born August 27, 1908. In 1931 he gradu- 
ated from the Chemical Technological Institute in Moscow and 
began to work for the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He was a 
member of the Institute of Organic Chemistry from 1939 until 
1954, when he became a member of the Institute of Elementary 
Organic Compounds. In 1953 he was elected a Corresponding 
Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences and in 1958 an 
Academician. He won a Stalin Prize in 1946. 



KADOMTSEV 142 

The principal research of Kabachnik deals with the study of 
tautomerism of organic compounds and with synthesis of or- 
ganic phosphorous insecticides. 
Bibliography: 

and T. A. Mastryukova . Theory of tautomeric equilibrium, 
Communication #3. Problem of pseudomerism. Izvest. 
Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Otdel. Khim. Nauk, 1903, #1. 
and A. N. Nesmeyanov . Dual reaction properties and tauto- 
merism. Zhur. Obshchei Khim., 1955, 25, #1. 
Concerning some problems of tautomerism. Uspekhi Khim., 
1956, 25, #2. 

New ways for the practical application of basic organic com- 
pounds. Vestnik Adak. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1956, #1. 
Office: Institute of Organo- Elemental Compounds 

Leninskii Prospekt, 31 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: ul. Chkalova 21/2 

Moscow, USSR 
Teleplione: K7 36 25 

KADOMTSEV, BORIS BORISQVICH (Physicist) 

B. B. Kadomtsev was elected a Corresponding Member of 
the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences in June 1962. 
Bibliography: 

Convective instability of a plasma column (stream). Zhur. 

Ekspt'l. i Teoret. Fiz. 37, #4, 1096-1101 (1959). NSA 14: 

5958, 1960. 

Plasma equilibrium in helical symmetry. Zhur. Ekspt'l. i 

Teoret. Fiz. 37, #5, 1352-54 (1959). NSA 14:7058, 1960. 

Stabilization of plasma with the aid of heterogenous magnetic 

fields. Nuclear Physics, Moscow 1959, 175-183. 

Low pressure plasma stability. Zhur. Ekspt'l. i Teoret. 

Fiz. 37, #6, 1646-51 (1959). NSA 14:12311, 1960. 

Instability of an electron cloud in a magnetron. Zhur. Tekh. 

Fiz. 29, #7, 833-44 (1959). NSA 14:388, 1960. 

Magnetic stability of plasma in a magnetic dipolar field. 

Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 133, #1, 68-70 (1960). NSA 14: 

26345, 1960. 

and A. V. Timofeev . Drift of unstable heterogenous plasma 

in a magnetic field. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 146, #2, 

581-84 (1962). 
Office: USSR Academy of Sciences 

Leninskii Prospekt, 14 
Moscow, USSR 



143 KANTOROV^ICH 

KALESNIK, STANISLAV VIKENT'EVICH (Geographer) 

S. V. Kalesnik was born January 23, 1901. He graduated 
from Leningrad University in 1929, where he became a pro- 
fessor in 1938. In 1940-1959 he was scientific secretary, and 
in 1952 he became vice president of the All-Union Geographical 
Society. In 1953, he was elected a Corresponding Member of 
the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

Kalesnik' s main research is concerned with glaciology, 
geomorphology and geology of Central Tien Shan, Dzhungarskii 
Alatau, and also with general glaciology and physical geogra- 
phy. He studied signs of regressive phases in the evolution of 
glaciers, and introduced new ideas and terminology (chiono- 
sphere, energy of glaciation) into glaciology. 

Kalesnik has been Director of the Laboratory on Limnology 
since 1955. 
Bibliography: 

Mountainous and Glacial Regions of the U.S.S.R. Leningrad- 
Moscow: 1937. 

General Glaciology. Leningrad: 1939. 
Basis of General Geography, 2nd ed. Leningrad: 1955. 
Short Course in General Geography. Moscow: 1957. 
Office: 1) Laboratory of Limnology 

Naberezhnaya Makarova 2 
Leningrad, USSR 
2) Department of Geography 
Leningrad University 
Krasnaia ulitsa, 60 
Leningrad, USSR 
Residence: ul. prof. Popova 4, Apt. 3 
Leningrad, USSR 

KANTORQVICH, LEONID VITALEVICH (Mathematician) 

L. V. Kantorovich was born January 19, 1912. He graduated 
from Leningrad University in 1930, and received the degree of 
Doctor of Physical -Mathematical Science in 1935. From 1930- 
1939, he taught at the Leningrad Institute of Industrial Con- 
struction Engineers. He began teaching at Leningrad University 
in 1932, and became a professor there in 1934. He has been 
working at the Leningrad Branch of the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences Institute of Mathematics since 1940. In 1958, he was 
made a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences. He was the recipient of a Stalin Prize in 1949, for 
work on functional analysis. 



KAPELYUSHNIKOV 144 

The main work of Kantorovich is in theory of functions of a 
real variable, and to approximate methods of analysis, function- 
al analysis, semi-ordered spaces, the theory of methods of 
approximation, utilization of computers, particularly automation 
of programming, and application of mathematics in planned 
economic analysis. 
Bibliography: 

Mathematical Methods of Organizing and Planning Industry. 

Leningrad: 1939. 

and V. I. Krylov . Methods of Approximation of Advanced 

Analysis, 4th ed. Moscow: 1952. 

and others . Functional Analysis of Semi -Ordered Spaces. 

Moscow-Leningrad: 1950. 

Functional analysis and applied mathematics. Uspekhi Mat. 

Nauk, 1948, 3, #6. 

and L. L Gor'kov . Some functional equations arising in the 

analysis of a one-product economic model. Doklady Akad. 

Nauk S.S.S.R. 129, #4, 732-35 (1959). 
Office: Institute of Mathematics, Leningrad Branch 

USSR Academy of Sciences 
Leningrad, USSR 

KAPELYUSHNIKOV, MATVEI ALKUNO\^ICH (Petroleum 
Engineer) 

M. A. Kapelyushnikov was born September 13, 1886. He 
graduated from the Tomsk Technological Institute in 1914, after 
which he worked at a scientific research institute in Baku until 
1937 as the Director of the Office of Turbodrilling and Crack- 
ing. He was awarded the title Honored Scientist of the 
R.S.F.S.R. in 1947, and was elected to the U.S.S.R. Academy 
of Sciences as a Corresponding Member in 1939. 

In 1912 he proposed turbodrilling of oil wells. The first 
turbodrills had a single-stage turbine and a reducer for di- 
minishing the speed of the working shaft connected to a drill. 
Later, a group of engineers under the leadership of P. P. 
Shumilov developed a multi-stage reducerless turbodrill, which 
was widely utilized. In 1924-31 Kapelyushnikov, together with 
V. G. Shukhov, designed and built the first Soviet cracking plant. 
In 1933, together with S. D. Zalkin, Kapelyushnikov developed 
pneumatic control of a drilling rig. In 1952, he established 
the fact that dissolving oil in gas under considerable pressure 
makes it possible to explain the conditions in the migration of 
oil and formation of deposits. 



145 KAPITSA 

Bibliography: 

The mechanization and automation of drilling. Oil Economy, 

1945, #7. 

Physical conditions of oil, gas and water in conditions of oil 

bedding. Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Otdel. Tekh. Nauk, 

1952, #11. 

The question of migration and accumulation of dispersed oil 

in sedimentary rock. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1954, 99, 

#6. 
Office: Academy of Sciences USSR 

Leninskii Prospekt, 14 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Leninskii Prospekt, 13 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: V2 50 76 

KAPITSA, PYQTR LEQNIDOVICH (Physicist) 

P. L. Kapitsa was born July 8, 1894. In 1918 he graduated 
from the Polytechnic Institute in Petrograd (Leningrad) and 
began scientific work under A. F. loffe (1880-1959, solid state 
physicist). He was sent in 1921 on a scientific trip to England 
where he worked until 1930 under E. Rutherford in the Caven- 
dish Laboratory at Cambridge University. From 1930 to 1934 
he was Director of the Monde Laboratory at Cambridge Uni- 
versity. In 1935 Kapitsa was persuaded to remain in the Soviet 
Union. From 1935 to 1946 and again in 1955 he was Director of 
the Institute of Physics Problems of the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences. He was elected a Corresponding Member of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences in 1929 and an Academician in 
1939. In 1941 and in 1943 he received Stalin Prizes. He was 
made a Hero of Socialist Labor in 1945. Kapitsa is editor of 
the Soviet Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics. 
He was a member of and honored by many foreign organizations 
including: London Royal Society (1929), Danish Academy of 
Sciences (1946), National Academy of Sciences of the U. S. A. 
(1946), English Institute of Metals (1943), Franklin Institute in 
the U. S. A. (1944), Paris University, University of Oslo, Uni- 
versity of Algiers. 

The first investigations of Kapitsa are devoted to the study 
of the inertia of electrons and properties of radiation. In 1920, 
in the article, "The Possibility of Determining the Magnetic 
Moment of the Atom," Kapitsa, together with N. N. Semenov, 
proposed an experiment on the determination of magnetic 
moments of atoms in atomic beams. Kapitsa constructed an 



KAPITSA 146 

installation for creating very powerful magnetic fields. He ob- 
served the splitting of spectral lines in fields up to 320 kilo- 
gauss, discovered linear increase of electrical resistance of 
metals with the field, and studied magnetostriction of diamag- 
netic bodies in these fields. Kapitsa developed a large capacity 
hydrogen liquifier of helium by using the adiabatic principle. He 
proposed a new method of liquifying air in a low pressure cycle 
and for using a turbine engine driven by compressed gas. Using 
a turbine engine driven by compressed gas to liquify air, Ka- 
pitsa built an installation (1939) for obtaining large quantities of 
liquid oxygen by way of fractionation. He is the author of the 
treatise on ''Turbine Engine Driven by Compressed Gas for Ob- 
taining Low Temperatures and Its Application in Liquification 
of Air" (1939; Stalin Prize 1941). He conducted investigations 
on the properties of liquid helium H and discovered (1938) the 
phenomenon of super fluidity. The results of these investi- 
gations are in "Heat Transfer and Super Fluidity of Helium 11" 
(1941) and "Investigating the Mechanism of Heat Transfer in 
Helium II" (1941; Stalin Prize 1943). In connection with the 
study on the operation of a fractionating column, Kapitsa con- 
ducted investigations on the wave heat processes in moving thin 
layers of liquid. Later development of this work led to the es- 
tablishment of a quantitative theory on interaction of marine 
waves with the wind. Kapitsa developed a hydro -dynamic theory 
of lubricating bearings. In 1951 he published studies on the 
movement of a pendulum with a vibrating suspension device 
and proposed a hypothesis on the nature of ball lightning (1955). 
In 1960 Kapitsa was awarded the Lomonosov Gold Medal for 
his work in low temperature physics. 

As of 1961, Kapitsa was a Member of the Presidium of the 
USSR Academy of Sciences. 

In June 1958, he visited the United States to attend the 
Gordon Research Conference on Polymer Research at New 
London, New Hampshire. He has also attended the Pugwash 
Conferences. 
Biography: 

Academician Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa. Vestnik Akad. 
Nauk S.S.S.R., 1939, #2-3, 193. 

Academician Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa (On the 60th Anni- 
versary since the date of birth). Zhur. Eksptl. i Teoret. 
Fiz., 1954, 27, #3. 

E. V. Shpol'skii . Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa (On the 60th 
Anniversary since the date of birth). Uspekhi Fiz. Nauk, 
1954, 54, #4. 



147 KARAVAEV 

Office: S. I. Vavilov Institute of Physics Problems 

Vorob'evskoye Shosse, 2 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: B2 32 30 

KARANDEEV, KQNSTANTIN BORISQVICH (Electrical Engineer) 

K. B. Karandeev was born July 18, 1907. He graduated in 
1930 from Leningrad Polytechnic Institute. In 1929-1935 he 
worked in the Electro-Physical Institute in Leningrad. He was 
professor at the Leningrad Institute of Signal Engineering in 
1937-42 and also deputy director of the AU-Union Scientific 
Research Institute of Metrology. In 1944 he became professor 
at L'vov Polytechnic Institute. Beginning in 1952, he worked in 
the Institute of Machine Studies and Automation of the Ukrainian 
S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. Karandeev was made Director of 
the Institute of Automation and Electrometry of the Siberian 
branch of the U. S.S.R. Academy of Sciences in 1957. He was 
elected a Corresponding Member of the Ukrainian S.S.R. Acade- 
my of Sciences in 1957 and in 1958 a Corresponding Member of 
the U. S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. In 1954 he was made an 
Honored Scientist of the Ukrainian S.S.R. 

Karandeev' s main works deal with developing exact methods 
of electrical measurement, methods of measuring low and high 
currents, low electromotive forces, and the theory of bridge 
methods. He has been concerned with semiconductor rectifiers, 
telemetry, use of computors in measuring schemes and devices, 
and with geophysical apparatus. 
Bibliography: 

Methods of Electrical Measurement (Differential, Bridge, 

and Compensation). Moscow-Leningrad: 1952. 

Bridge Methods of Measurement. Kiev: 1953. 

Semiconductor Rectifiers in Measuring Techniques. Kiev: 

1954. 

Direct Current Galvanometers (Theory and Practice). 

L'vov: 1957. 
Office: Institute of Automation and Electrometry, Siberian 

Branch of USSR Academy of Sciences 
Novosibirsk, Siberia 

KARAVAEV, NIKOLAI MIKHAILQVICH (Fuel Chemist) 

N. M. Karavaev was born June 7, 1890. After graduating 
from the Moscow Technological College in 1920, he taught there 
until 1930. From 1925 to 1932 he was at the Moscow Chemico- 
Technological Institute, and from 1924 to 1932 he also worked 



KARGIN 148 

at the AU-Union Heat Engineering Institute. In 1939-41 Kara- 
vaev was at the Institute of Fuel Minerals of the U.S.S.R. Acade- 
my of Sciences. He became a professor in 1949 at the Moscow 
Institute of Chemical Machine Building where he had worked 
since 1946. In 1946 he was elected a Corresponding Member 
of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

Karavaev has studied the origin, chemistry^ and technology 
of solid fuels and products obtained from them. Since 1926 he 
has been investigating the coal of the Kuznets, Irkutsk, and other 
basins. In 1929 he proposed industrial marking of coal of the 
Kuznets basin. In 1933-36, Karavaev directed the work on 
hydrogenation of solid fuels and tars and also on hydrocarbon 
synthesis from water gas. He has been engaged in the study of 
semicoking of Siberian coal in industrial conditions. Together 
with associates, Karavaev proposed a new scheme of process- 
ing raw benzene from chemical -coke plants. He worked out a 
new scheme of periodic rectification. He also worked in the 
pyrolysis of fuels. 
Bibliography: 

Coal of the Kuznets basin. Proceedings of the Heat Engi- 
neering Institute, 1929, #8 (51). 

Question of marking coal of the Kuznets basin. Proceedings 
of the Heat Engineering Institute, 1929, #7 (50). 
Properties and quality of coal in the U.S.S.R. Works of the 
XVIIth Session of the International Geological Congress of the 
U.S.S.R., 1937, 1, Moscow, 1939. 

and others . Machines and Devices of the Chemical-Coke 
Industry. J., Moscow: 1955. 

Investigating the Phase Equilibrium of the System Naphtha- 
lene -Beta- Methylnaphthalene. Ukr. Khim. Zhur., 1955, 21, 
#2. Method of Determining the Ratio of Heat Emission in a 
Layer of Granular Material. Izvest. Akad. Nauk, S.S.S.R., 
Otdel. Tekh. Nauk, 1956, #6. 

Lignites. Chemistry and Technology of Fuels and Oils, 
1957, #1. 
Office: Moscow Institute of Chemical Machine Building 

Moscow, USSR 

KARGIN, VALENTIN ALEKSEEVICH (Chemist) 

V. A. Kargin was born January 23, 1907. After graduating 
from Moscow University in 1930, he worked at the L. Karpov 
Physico-chemical Institute in Moscow. He became a Corre- 
sponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences in 1946 
and in 1953, Academician. 



149 KARGIN 

Kargin's fields of scientific work are colloidal chemistry 
and chemistry of high-molecular compounds. He has developed 
methods of purification of substances, investigated the for- 
mation and properties of alumino- silicates, and worked on the 
coagulation and stabilization of hydrophobic colloids. He studied 
the formation of colloidal particles in solutions. He applied 
these results to the study of the ion exchange in soils, working 
out a method of strengthening water soaked sand. In his 
thermodynamic studies Kargin and his associates showed that 
polymer solutions are true solutions, and determined the sorb- 
tive properties of polymers. He has investigated the nature of 
the phase condition of polymers and their mechanical and rheo- 
logical properties. The results of these investigations are 
widely applied in the synthetic fiber, plastics, rubber and 
paper industries. 

In June 1958, Kargin visited the United States to attend the 
Gordon Research Conference on Polymer Research at New 
London, New Hampshire. He has also attended the Pugwash 
Conferences. 
Bibliography: 

and A. I. Rabinovich. On activity of compensating ions in 
colloidal systems. Zhur. Fiz. Khim., 1935, 6; #9. 
and A. I. Rabinovich. On the changes in colloidal systems 
during their interaction with electrolytes. Zhur. Fiz. Khim.,. 
1935, 6, #9. 

and N. V. Mikhailov, V. M. Bukhman. Roentgenographic 
study of the orientation of synthetic fiber. I-II. Zhur. Fiz. 
Khim., 1940, 14, #2. 

and T. I. Sogolova. On the question of three physical con- 
ditions of amorphously -liquid linear polymers. Zhur. Fiz. 
Khim., 1949, 23, #5. 

Adsorption of electrolytes on silica gel, sesquioxides, and 
their mixed gels. Uspekhi Khim., 1939, 8^, #7. 
and G. D. Slonimskii. On the crystalline condition of poly- 
mers. Uspekhi Khim., 1955, 24, #7. 

and Z. Ya. Berestneva . On the mechanisms of formation of 
colloidal particles. Uspekhi Khim., 1955, 24, #3. 
and T. A. Matveeva . High voltage, many -chambered electro- 
dialysis. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1955, 105, #2. 
and V. G. Zhuravlova, Z. Ya. Berestneva . Electromicro- 
scopic investigation of the structure of isotactic polybuty- 
lene. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 146, #2, 366-67 (1962). 



KAZANSKII 150 

and G. P. Andrianova. Supramolecular structures in films 
of isotactic polypropylene. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 
146 , #6, 1337-40 (1962). 

Biography: 

Kargin, Valentin Alekseevich. Vestnik Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 
1954, #3. 

V. L. Karpov . On the 20th anniversary of the scientific ac- 
tivity of the Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy 
of Sciences, V. A. Kargin. Kolloid. Zhur., 1949, 11, #4. 
Z. Ya. Berestneva, G. D. Slonimskii. On the 50th~anniversary 
since the date of birth of Valentin Alekseevich Kargin. Kol- 
loid. Zhur., 1957, 19, #2. 

Office: L. Karpov Physico- Chemical Institute 

Moscow, USSR 

Residence: p. Arkadiya Gaidara, 5/7 
Moscow, USSR 

Telephone: K7 62 78 

KAZANSKII, BORIS ALEKSANDROVICH (Organic Chemist) 

B. A. Kazanskii was born April 13, 1891. In 1918 he gradu- 
ated from Moscow University where he was a pupil of N. D. 
Zelinskii, the leader of Russian organic chemistry in the first 
part of this century. He was made professor in 1935 at Moscow 
University. And in 1936 he was in charge of and organized the 
catalytic synthesis laboratory at the Institute of Organic Chem- 
istry at the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. In 1954 he became 
Director of the Zelinskii Institute of Organic Chemistry. Since 
1946 he has been an Academician. He was awarded, in 1949, a 
Stalin Prize. 

Kazanskii has specialized in the conversion of hydrocarbons. 
In particular, he has investigated hydrogen cleavage of five- 
membered hydrocarbons in the presence of platinum catalyst. 
This reaction points the way for conversion of these hydro- 
carbons into branched paraffins. In 1936 Kazanskii studied the 
aromatization of paraffins in the presence of platinized carbon 
at 300° to 310°. Later he determined that an intermediate of 
this reaction is cyclohexane. In 1954 he showed that in the 
presence of platinum, paraffins can also convert to hydro- 
carbons of the cyclopentane series. This cyclization goes to 
the greatest extent for branched paraffins (isooctane). He also 
studied aromatization in the presence of different oxides as 
catalysts. He investigated selective hydrogenation of compounds 
with several double bonds in the presence of platinum, palladi- 
um, and nickel. Recently he has investigated the conjugation of 



151 KAZARNOVSKII 

trimembered cyclic hydrocarbons with a double bond in the side 
chain (vinylcyclopropane) or in the aromatic nucleus (phenyl- 
cyclopropane). With G. S. Landsberg, he developed a method 
for detailed study of petroleum, using Raman spectra. 

In 1961 Kazanskii was awarded the Order of Lenin and two 
orders of the Red Banner of Labor. He was also a member of 
the steering Committee of International Union on Pure and 
Applied Chemistry. 
Bibliography: 

with A. F. Plate. Aromatization of some cyclopentane and 

paraffin homologues in the presence of platinized carbon. 

Zhur. Obshchei Khim., 1937, 7, #2. 

with G. T. Tatevosyan. Catalytic hydrogen addition to com- 
pounds with several double bonds. Zhur. Obshchei Khim., 

1938, 8, #14-51. 

Catalytic hydrogenation of cyclopentanes with ring cleavage. 

Uspekhi Khim., 1948, 17, #6. 

with others . Catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons. PQiim. 

Nauka i Promyshlennost', 1957, 2, #2. 
Biography: 

A. M. Rubinshtein . Academician Boris Aleksandrovich 

Kazanskii (for 60th birthday). Vestnik Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 

1951, #5. 

A. F. Plate . Academician Boris Aleksandrovich Kazanskii. 

Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Otdel. Khim, Nauk, 1951, #3. 
Office: N. D. Zelinskii Institute of Organic Chemistry 

Leninskii Prospekt 31 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Leninskii Prospekt 13 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: B2 21 89 

KAZARNOVSKII, ISAAK ABRAMOVICH (Chemist) 

I. A. Kazarnovskii was born September 29, 1890. He gradu- 
ated in 1914 from Zurich University. In 1922 he began working 
at the Karpov Physico- Chemical Institute in Moscow. He has 
been a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences since 1939. In 1941 he was awarded a Stalin Prize. 
Kazarnovskii' s main work deals with problems in the for- 
mation of metal chlorides and peroxides. He discovered new, 
higher oxides such as the peroxide of sodium Na02, 1936, and 
the ozonides of alkali metals such as ozonide of potassium KO3 
and elucidated their structure; he worked out methods of pro- 
ducing sodium peroxide, anhydrous aluminum chloride from 



KELDYSH 152 

clays, and a new method of regenerating air (which was used on 

an industrial scale). 

Bibliography: 

Structure of inorganic peroxides. Zhur. Fiz. Khim., 1940, 

14, #3. 

and S. I. Raikhchtein. Higher oxides of potassium (Inorganic 

Peroxides. 11). Zhur. Fiz. Khim., 1947, 21, #3. 

and G. P. Nikol'skii, T. A. Abletsova. New oxide of potassi- 



um. Doklady Akad. Nauk., New Series, 1949, 64, #1. 
and others . Kinetics of spontaneous decay of the ozonide of 
potassium. Doklady Akad. Nauk, 1956, 108 , #4. 
and others. Isotope exchange of oxygen between a free hy- 
droxyl radical and water. Zhur. Fiz. Khim. 1956, 30, #6. 
Office: L. Karpov Physico-Chemical Institute 

Moscow, USSR 

KELDYSH, MSTISLAV VSEVOLDQVICH (Mathematician and 
Specialist in Mechanics ) 

M. V. Keldysh was born February 10, 1911 in Riga (now in 
Latvian S.S.R.). He is the son of Vsevolod Mikhaylovich Keldysh 
(1878, a specialist on ferro-concrete construction and a pro- 
fessor). In 1931 he graduated from Moscow University. Join- 
ing the N. Ye. Zhukovskii Central Aero-Hydrodynamics Institute 
(TsAGI), Keldysh worked during 1934-35 in its Department of 
Flutter Engineering and in 1943 and in 1945 was a department 
chief in the Institute. In 1939 he became associated with the 
V. A. Steklov Mathematics Institute of the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences and in 1954 was made Director of that institute's De- 
partment of Applied Mathematics. 

He has been a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet 
Union since 1949. In 1943 he was elected a Corresponding 
Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences and in 1946 an 
Academician. He was named academician- secretary of the 
Academy's Department of Physico- Mathematical Sciences in 
1953, has served on the Academy's Presidium since 1953, and 
in 1960 was elected one of the vice presidents. In 1961 Keldysh 
replaced A. N. Nesmeyanov as President of the U.S.S.R. Acade- 
my of Sciences. 

In 1957 Keldysh was named to membership on the Presidium 
of the newly formed U.S.S.R. National Committee on Theoreti- 
cal and Applied Mechanics, U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. The 
following year he was cited as a member of the organization 
committee of the All- Union Conference on Theoretical and Ap- 
plied Mechanics, and when that conference convened in Moscow 



153 KELDYSH 

during January 27- February 3, 1960, he served as chairman of 
the Section on General and Applied Mechanics. Since 1956 he 
has been a member of the editorial boards of the journals 
Matematicheskii Sbornik, Novaya Seriya, and Prikladnaya 
Matematika i Mekhanika. 

Among the honors and awards that have been conferred upon 
Keldysh are the Order of Labor Red Banner (in 1943, 1945 and 
1953) and the Order of Lenin (in 1945, 1954 and 1960). He re- 
ceived a Stalin Prize in 1941 for scientific works in predicting 
the breakdown of airplanes. In 1960 he was made a member of 
the Presidium of the Committee for Awarding Lenin Prizes in 
the Field of Science and Engineering of the Council of Ministers 
U.S.S.R. 

Keldysh' s interests in mechanics and mathematics are theo- 
ry of oscillations, aerodynamics, theory of waves on the sur- 
face of a heavy liquid, impact against water, investigation of an 
approximate integration of differential equations, potential 
theory, conformal representation mapping, theory of eigen- 
functions and eigenvalues of parameters for non self -conjugate 
differential equations. In hydromechanics, he worked on the 
theory of non-stabilized motion of a wing. He proved, for gas, 
the theorem of Zhukovskii. He presented a theory on the solva- 
bility of the Dirichlet problem in its dependence on boundary 
conditions. He solved the basic problems of the stability of 
solutions of the Dirichlet problem. Keldysh developed a theory 
of approximation of functions of a complex variable by a series 
of polynomials. Of considerable importance is the work of 
Keldysh on the theory, calculation and working out of methods 
for avoiding various types of vibration in an airplane. Since 
1953 his papers have discussed such topics as thermal exci- 
tation of sounds, speed of approximation of functions by poly- 
nomials on arbitrary continua, point character of the spectrum 
of a certain class of matrices in an analytical space and series 
of rational fractions. He has been, directing work on the theory 
of rocket propulsion and on the development of a ballistic theory 
of space flight. During September 1957, at a meeting celebrat- 
ing the 100th anniversary of the birth of K. E. Tsiolkovskii, 
Keldysh spoke on the use of artificial earth satellites in scien- 
tific research. 

In June 1961, Keldysh received the Hammer and Sickle Gold 
Medal, and in March 1962, he was elected a delegate from 
R.S. F.S.R. to the Supreme Soviet. 



KELL' 154 

Bibliography: 

On the solvability and stability of the problem of Dirichlet. 
Uspekhi Mat. Nauk, 1940, #8. 

Shimmy of the front wheel of a three-wheeled chassis, 1945. 
On the presentation of functions of a complex variable by 
series of polynomials in closed domains. Mat. Sbornik, 
1945, 16, #3. 

On the proper meanings and proper functions of some class- 
es of non- self -conjugate equations. Doklady Akad. Nauk 
S.S.S.R., 1951, 77, #1. 

Vibrations in the air flow of a braced wing. Works of the 
Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute, #357. Moscow: 1938. 

Office: President, USSR Academy of Sciences 

Leninskii Prospekt, 14 
Moscow, USSR 

KELL', NIKOLAI GEORGIEVICH (Geodesy and Photogrammetry 
Scientist) 
N. G. Keir was born January 20, 1883. In 1915 he graduated 
from Petrograd (Leningrad) Mining Institute, and in 1923 he 
became a professor at this Institute. He worked as a topograph- 
er in 1908-1911 on the Kamchatka expedition of the Russian 
Geographical Society, and in 1922 he was made a member of 
this society. In 1921 he was made Head of the Chair of Geodesy 
at the Leningrad Mining Institute. In 1917-1922, Kell' worked 
at the Ural Mining Institute in Sverdlovsk and in 1919-1920 was 
the Director. In 1947 he became Chief of the Laboratory on 
Aeromethods, and in 1958 he was chairman of the Joint Com- 
mittee on Aerial Survey. Since 1946, he has been a Correspond- 
ing Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

Kell's researches are in geodesy, photogrammetry, develop- 
ment of aerial photogrammetric methods and their application 
in geographic and geological mapping. 

As of 1961, Keir was Chairman of the Interdepartmental 
Commission for Aerial Surveys. 
Bibliography: 

Map of Kamchatka Volcanos. Leningrad: 1928. 
Advanced Geodesy and Geodesic Works, Part 1-2. Lenin- 
grad: 1932-33. 

Photography and Photogrammetry. Leningrad-Moscow: 
1937. 

Graphic Method in Work with Errors, and Laws (Distri- 
bution). Moscow-Leningrad: 1948. 



155 KHARITON 

Utilization of Results from Topographico-geodesic Work for 
Engineering Purposes. Leningrad -Mo scow: 1950. 
Indications for Using Geometrical and Geodesical Proper- 
ties of Aerial Photo -materials for Geological Mapping. 
Leningrad-Moscow: 1950. 

Measurement Deciphering of Aerial Photos in Field Con- 
ditions. Moscow -Leningrad: 1959. 

and V. G. Zdanovich, K. A. Zvonarev, A. N. Belolikov, N. A. 
Gusev . Higher Geodesy. Moscow: 1961. 

Biography: 

L. S. Khrenov . Nikolai Georgievich Kell'. Proceedings of 
the All-Union Geographic Society, 1953, 85, #3. 

Office: Laboratory of Aeromethods 

USSR Ministry of Geology and Mineral Conservation 
Birzhevoi Proyezd, 6 
Leningrad, V-164, USSR 

Telephone: A2 45 64 

KHARITON, YULII BORISOVICH (Nuclear Physicist) 

Yu. B. Khariton was born February 27, 1904. In 1925 he 
graduated from Leningrad Polytechnic Institute. While still a 
student, in 1921, he began scientific work at the Laboratory of 
N. N. Semenov of the Leningrad Physico -Technical Institute. 
In 1927-28 Khariton was sent to England where he studied the 
scintillation of alpha-particles under E. Rutherford. In 1931 he 
began working at the Institute of Chemical Physics of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He was elected a Correspond- 
ing Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences in 1943 and 
an Academician in 1953. He was also a Deputy to the U.S.S.R. 
Supreme Soviet, and was elected again in March 1962. 

The first investigation of Khariton was the study of conden- 
sation of metallic vapor molecular beams in a vacuum on cooled 
surfaces. The result was the basis for the theory on conden- 
sation, later developed by Khariton and other Soviet scientists. 
In 1925 Khariton, while studying the phenomena of chemi- 
luminescence of vapors of phosphorus at low oxygen pressures, 
discovered the phenomenon of the lower limit of cold ignition 
of phosphorous vapors. He showed that below a certain pres- 
sure of oxygen, the reaction of oxidation does not take place, 
and above a certain pressure, moves with noticeable speed. 
Together with Ya. B. Zel'dovich, Khariton made calculations 
for a chain reaction of uranium fission. Khariton, and associ- 
ates, worked on the theory of excitation and spreading of ex- 
plosion detonations; in particular he established the principle 



KHARKEVICH 156 

which links the explosive ability of substances with the speed of 

the chemical reaction in the explosive wave front. 

Bibliography: 

On the question of detonation due to impact. Collection of 
Articles on the Theory of Explosives. Moscow: 1940. 
and Ya. B. Zel'dovich. On the question of chain decay of the 
main isotope of uranium. Zhur. Eksptl. i Teoret. Fiz., 1939, 
1, 9, #12. 

and Ya. B. Zel'dovich. On the chain decay of uranium under 
influence of slow neutrons. Zhur. Eksptl. i Teoret. Fiz., 
1940, 10, #1. 

Office: Institute of Chemical Physics 

Vorob'evskoye Shosse 2 
Moscow, USSR 

KHARKEVICH, ALEKSANDR ALEKSANDROVICH (Radio 
technologist) 

A. A. Kharkevich was born in 1904. In 1930 he graduated 
from the Leningrad Electro- Technical Institute. He worked, 
1932-41, at various teaching institutions of Leningrad, and from 
1941-44 he was at the Phy si co- Technical Institute of Leningrad, 
Kazan', and Moscow. From 1944-48, he was professor and de- 
partmental head of the L'vov Polytechnical Institute, and from 
1948-52, he was the departmental Director of the (Ukraine) 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Institute of Physics in Kiev. In 
1952-54, Kharkevich was professor and departmental chairman 
of the Electro-Technical Institute of Communications in Mos- 
cow. In 1954 he started to work in the Laboratory on the Treat- 
ment of Scientific Communication Problems (now the Laboratory 
on Systems of Information Transmission), where he became 
Chief in 1957. He was elected in 1960 a Corresponding Member 
of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. In 1962, Kharkevich was 
appointed acting Director of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences 
Institute of Problems of Information Transmission. 

Kharkevich' s works deal with the theory, design and con- 
struction of electro-acoustical apparatus. 
Bihliography: 

and E. L. Blokh. Geometric theory of the threshold of trans- 

missibility of communications systems. Radiotekhnika 10, 

#7, 3-7 (1955). Elec. Engr. Sci. Abstr. 59, 811 (1956). 

On the calculation of the spectra of random processes. 

Radiotekhnika 12, #5, 5-11 (1957). Elec. Engr. Sci. Abstr. 

60, 6323 (1957). 



157 KHEL'KV^IST 

and E. L. Blokh. On the question of a geometric proof of 
Shannon's theorem. Radiotekhnika 1_1, #11, 5-16 (1956). 
Elec. Engr. Sci. Abstr. 60, 3026 (1957). 
Kotel'nikov's theorem. Radiotekhnika 13, #8, 3-10 (1958). 
Elec. Engr. Sci. Abstr. 62, 1719 (1959). 
Pattern recognition. Radiotekhnika 14, #5, 12-22 (1959). 
Elec. Engr. Sci. Abstr. 62, 6673 (1959). 
Principles of construction for reading machines. Radio- 
tekhnika 15, #3, 3-9 (1960). 
Office: Laboratory on Systems of Information Trans- 

mission 

Shosse Entuziastov 156 

Moscow, USSR 

KHEL'KVIST, GERMAN AVGUSTQVICH (Oil Geologist) 

G. A. Kehl'kvist was born October 5, 1894. He graduated 
from Tomsk Technological Institute in 1923 and in 1924 worked 
in the oil industry. From 1950 he worked in scientific research 
institutions. In 1956-58 he was professor at Moscow Oil Insti- 
tute. He was made Director of the Sakhalin Complex Scientific 
Research Institute of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences in 1957. 
Khel'kvist has been a member of the Communist Party of the 
Soviet Union since 1946. In 1958 he was elected a Correspond- 
ing Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He received ' 
in 1958 a Stalin Prize. 

Khel'kvist took part in studying and prospecting for oil de- 
posits of the Azerbaijan S.S.R., Northern Caucasus, the Ukraine, 
and the territory along the Volga and Sakhalin. His scientific 
research is devoted to the study of oil and gas deposits, the re- 
lationships of oil beds, and methodology of prospecting. Khel'- 
kvist introduced the concept of zoned oil beds. 
Bibliography: 

Zoned Oil Deposits and the Methodology of Prospecting. 
Moscow-Leningrad: 1944. 

Geological Structure of Zoned Oil Deposits. Moscow- 
Leningrad: 1946. 

and others. General and Oil Geology. Moscow-Leningrad: 
1951. 

and A. V. Ul'yanov . Geology of Oil and Gas Deposits. Mos- 
cow: 1955. 
and others. Basis of Geology of Oil and Gas. Moscow: 1957. 



KHITRIN 158 

Office: Sakhalin Complex Scientific Research Institute of 

USSR Academy of Sciences 
Yuzhno - Sakhalinsk 
Sakhalin, USSR 

KHITRIN, LEV NIKQLAEVICH (Heat Engineer) 

L. N. Khitrin was born February 20, 1907. He graduated in 
1930 from Moscow University. From 1931 to 1941 he worked 
at the AU-Union Heat Engineering Institute. He taught at Mos- 
cow University in 1936 and in 1953 became professor. In 1945 
he began working at the Institute of Energetics of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences. Since 1953 he has been a Corresponding 
Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He received in 
1950 a Stalin Prize. 

His main works deal with the physics of burning processes. 
He worked on the theory of heterogeneous burning, new in- 
tensive methods of burning, and on complex electro- 
technological methods of utilizing fuels. He studied carbon 
burning processes; his results, together with those of A. S. 
Predvoditelev and others, appeared in 1949 in the treatise, 
''Burning of Carbon". He has been engaged in developing new, 
highly intensive furnaces. 
Bibliography: 

Experimental study of the influence of pressure on the nor- 
mal speed of flame distribution. Zhur. Tekh. Fiz., 1937, 

7, #1, 30-42. 

Lighting gas flow mixtures by incandescent bodies. Doklady 

Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1955, 103, #2. 

Main characteristics of the process of burning of carbon. 

Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Otdel. Tekh. Nauk, 1953, #4, 

543-568. 

and others. Complex energo-technological utilization of 

fuel. Vestnik Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1956, 26, #1. 

and Z. F. Chukhanov . Energo-Technological Utilization of 

Fuel. Methods of Effective Utilization of Fuel. Moscow: 

1956. 

Physics of Burning and Explosion. Moscow: 1957. 
Office: Moscow University 

Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Novopeschanaya, 17 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: D7 24 38 



159 KHRENOV 

KHOMENTQVSKII, ALEKSANDR STEPHANQV^ICH (Geologist) 

A. S. Khomentovskii was born in 1908. In 1930 he graduated 
from the Siberian Technological Institute in Tomsk. From 
1930-37 he directed geological research parties. He taught, 
1938-41, at the Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical Institute. He 
served in the Soviet Army from 1941-43. He worked, 1943- 
1954, at the ''Yuzhuraluglerazvedka'' (South Urals Coal Prospect- 
ing) trust in Orensburg. From 1955-57 he was chairman of the 
department on Geology and Useful Minerals at the Saratov State 
University; and from 1957 to 1960, of the Perm Mining Insti- 
tute. In 1960 he became chairman of the Presidium of the Far- 
Eastern branch of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. Since 
1941 he has been a member of the Communist Party of the 
Soviet Union. In 1950 Khomentovskii was awarded a Stalin 
Prize. He was elected in 1960 a Corresponding Member of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

Khomentovskii' s main works deal with the classification, 
tectonics, formation and distribution of coal deposits in Siberia 
and the Urals. 

Office: USSR Academy of Sciences 

Leninskii Prospekt, 14 
Moscow, USSR s^ODS 




KHRENQV, KONSTANTIN KONSTANTINQVICH (Electric 
Welding Engineer) 
K. K. Khrenov was born February 25, 1894. He graduated 
in 1918 from Petrograd Electrotechnical Institute and in 1921- 
25 taught there. From 1928 to 1947 he taught at the Moscow 
Electromechanical Institute of Railroad Transport Engineers, 
where in 1933, he was made profe-ssor. In 1931 he also began 
teaching in the Moscow Higher Technical School. He worked in 
the Institute of Electric Welding of the Ukrainian Academy of 
Sciences in 1945-1948; and in 1952 he began working in the 
Institute of Electrotechnics of the Ukrainian Academy of Sci- 
ences. In 1947 he was made professor at Kiev Polytechnic 
Institute. Khrenov has been an Academician of the Ukrainian 
S.S.R. Academy of Sciences since 1945 and since 1953 a mem- 
ber of its presidium. In 1953 he was elected a Corresponding 
Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. Since 1955, he 
has been a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. 



KHRISTIANOVICH 160 

He is an Honored Scientist of the Ukrainian S.S.R. and in 1946 

was the recipient of a Stalin Prize. 

The basic works of Khrenov are concerned with electric 

welding of metals. He originated methods of electric welding 

and cutting of metals under water. These methods are being 

broadly applied in the restoration of bridges and the repair of 

ships. 

As of 1961, Khrenov was Academician Secretary of the 

Technical Science Department of SSR Ukrainian Academy of 

Sciences. 

Bibliography: 

and V. I. Yarko. The Technology of Arc Electric Welding. 
Moscow -Leningrad: 1940. 

Underwater Electric Welding and Cutting of Metals. Mos- 
cow: 1946. 

The electric Welding Arc. Kiev-Moscow: 1949. 
and S. T. Nazarov. Automatic Arc Electric Welding. Mos- 
cow: 1949. 

New Developments in Informational Technology. Kiev: 1949. 
Welding, Cutting and Soldering of Metals. Kiev -Moscow: 
1952. (Translated into Bulgarian, Chinese, German, Ru- 
manian). 

and D. M. Kushnerev. Ceramic Fluxes for Automatic Arc 
Welding. Kiev: 1954. 
and D. M. Kushnerev. Ceramic Fusing Agents. Kiev: 1961. 

Office: Academy of Sciences Ukrainian SSR 

Vladimirskaya Ulitsa, 54 
Kiev, Ukrainian SSR 

KHRISTIANOVICH, SERGEI ALEKSEEVICH (Mechanical 
Engineer) 
S. A. Khristianovich was born October 27, 1908. In 1930 he 
graduated from the Leningrad Institute and then worked in the 
State Hydrological Institute in Leningrad. From 1937 to 1953, 
he was at the Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute. He was a 
Member of the Presidium of the U. S.S.R. Academy of Sciences 
in 1946 to 1956. In 1956 he started working in the Institute of 
Chemical Physics of the U. S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 
Khristianovich has been a member of the Communist Party of 
the Soviet Union since 1949. He was elected a Corresponding 
Member of the U. S.S.R. Academy of Sciences in 1939, and in 
1943 an Academician. In 1942, 1946, and 1952 he was awarded 
Stalin Prizes. 



161 KHRUSHCHOV 

Khristianovich's field of work is mechanics of liquids and 
gases. In his monograph, "Irregular Movement in Canals and 
Rivers" (1938) he solved the problem of spreading and re- 
flection of waves and applied these results to hydrotechnical 
structures. In plasticity, he solved the surface problem of the 
determination of the tension arising in a plastic medium in 
terms of the forces set in a closed contour. On the theory of 
filtration, Khristianovich wrote in 1940 "The Movement of Sub- 
soil Waters, Not Following the Darcy Law" and in 1941 "On the 
Movement of Aerated Liquids in Porous Rocks." In aero- 
dynamics, he studied the flow of gas at high subsonic speeds 
around a profile in the presence of lifting force, and worked out 
a method of calculating the effect of compressibility on the 
characteristics of wing profiles. He carried out important 
studies on the flow of gas at supersonic speed, and also in 
aviation technology. 

As of 1961, Khristianovich was a Vice President of the Si- 
berian Department of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, Di- 
rector of the Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics 
(Novosibirsk), and a Member of the Presidium of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences. 
Bibliography: 

The surface problem of the mathematical theory of plasticity 
under external forces set in a closed contour. Mat. Sbornik, 
New Series, 1936,1(43), #4. 

Flow of Gas Around Bodies at High Subsonic Speeds. Mos- 
cow: 1940 (Works of the N. E. Zhukovskii Central Aero- 
Hydrodynamic Institute, #481). 

On Supersonic Flow of Gas. Moscow: 1941 (Works of the 
N. E. Zhukovskii Central Aero-Hydrodynamic Institute, 
#543). 

and I. M. Yurevii. Flow around a wing profile at subcritical 
speeds. Priklad. Mat. i Mekh., 1947, U, #1. 
Approximate integration of equations of the supersonic flow 
of gas. Priklad. Mat. i Mekh., 1947, 11, #2. 
Office: Siberian Branch of USSR Academy of Sciences 

Novosibirsk, Siberia 

KHRUSHCHOV, GRIGORH K, (Deceased, December 22, 1962. ) 

G. K. Khrushchov was born March 3, 1897. He graduated in 
1919 from Moscow University and until 1930 continued to work 
there. From 1933 to 1945 he was professor at the Moscow 
Animal- Veterinary Institute. In 1939-1949 he was Director of 
the Institute of Cytology, Histology and Embryology. Krushchov 



KIBEL' 162 

became a professor in 1945 at the second Moscow Medical 
Institute. In 1949 he was made Director of the Severtsov Insti- 
tute of Morphology of Animals of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sci- 
ences. He has been a member of the Communist Party of the 
Soviet Union since 1940. He was elected, in 1953, a Corre- 
sponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. In 1947 
he was an Honored Scientist of the R.S.F.S.R. The U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences awarded him, in 1949, the I. I. Mechnikov 
Prize. 

Krushchov has worked in comparative and experimental hist- 
ology and cytology. He has been working on the stimulating 
role of leucocytes of blood in restoration processes. 
Bibliography: 

Physical Properties of the Living Cell and Methods of Their 
Investigation. Moscow-Leningrad: 1930. 
Role of Leucocytes in Restoration Processes in Tissue, 
1945. 

Leucocytic systems of mammals and their evolution. Works 
of the Fifth AU-Union Congress of Anatomists, Histologists, 
and Embryologists in Leningrad, July 5-11, 1949. Lenin- 
grad: 1951. 
Office: A. N. Severtsov Institute of Morphology of Animals 

USSR Academy of Sciences 
Leninskii Prospekt, 33 
Moscow, USSR 

KIBEL', IL^YA AFANAS'EVICH (Meteorologist) 

I. A. Kibel' was born October 19, 1904. He graduated from 
the University of Saratov in 1925. From 1925 to 1943, he 
worked at the Main Geophysical Observatory. In 1943, he start- 
ed to work at the Central Institute of Weather Forecasting in 
Moscow, where he was made a professor in 1949. In 1941, he 
was awarded a Stalin Prize, and in 1943, he was elected to the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences as a Corresponding Member. 

Kibel' compiled a closed simplified system of equations in dy- 
namic meteorology in order to obtain some specific solutions in 
this system. In 1940 he obtained the first approximate solution 
to the problem of precalculating a field of pressure and tem- 
perature for a time interval of approximately twenty -four hours, 
basing the proximity of actual wind to geostrophic wind. 
Bibliography: 

Theoretical Hydromechanics, Part I, 4th ed., Part II, 3rd 

ed. Moscow-Leningrad: 1948. 



163 KIKOIN 

Utilization of the method of long waves in a compressible 
liquid. Prikl. Mat. i Mekh., 1944, X #5. 

Distribution of temperature in the earth's atmosphere. Dok- 
lady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1943, 39, #1. 

Conditions for a dynamic possibility of movement of a com- 
pressible liquid at an assigned inflow of energy. Geophysical 
Collection, 1932, 5, #3. 

Application to meteorology of mechanics of baroclinic 
liquid. Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Georg. i Geofiz. Ser., 
1940, #5. 

On the adjustment of air movement to the geostrophic. 
Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1955, 104, #1. 
Introduction to Hydrodynamic Methods of Short-Range 
Weather Forecasting. Moscow: 1957. 
Office: Central Institute of Weather Forecasting 

Moscow, USSR 

KIKOIN, ISAAK KONSTANTINQVICH (Physicist) 

I. A. Kikoin was born March 28, 1908. In 1932 he graduated 
from Leningrad Polytechnic Institute. He then taught and did 
research in Leningrad and Sverdlovsk until 1944 when he be- 
came professor at the Moscow Engineering and Physics Insti- 
tute. In 1943 he was elected Corresponding Member of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences and in 1953 Academician. He 
was awarded in 1942 a Stalin Prize. 

Most of Kikoin' s work has been on electric and magnetic 
properties of metals and semiconductors, particularly liquid 
metals. He measured the gyromagnetic coefficient for super- 
conductors and proved that the Hall effect in ferromagnetic 
substances is affected by magnetizing the material. He dis- 
covered a photomagnetic effect; the production of an electro- 
motive force when a conductor, placed in a magnetic field, is 
exposed to light. He showed experimentally that the absolute 
charge of a positron is equal to that of an electron. Kikoin also 
developed methods for measuring electric quantities in high 
current direct current systems and then found application in 
electrolysis (Stalin Prize, 1942). 
Bibliography: 

and Ya. G. Dorfman. Physics of Metals, Moscow-Leningrad: 

1934. 
Biography: 

Kikoin, L K. Vestnik Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1954, #1. 
Office: Moscow Engineering and Physics Institute 

Moscow, USSR 



KIRILLIN 164 

KIRILLIN, VLADIMIR ALEKSEEVICH (Thermal Physicist) 

V. A. Kirillin was born January 20, 1913. He graduated in 
1936 from Moscow Energetics Institute. He taught at this Insti- 
tute in 1938-1941 and again in 1943, and in 1952 became pro- 
fessor. In 1954-1955 he was Deputy Minister of Higher Edu- 
cation in the U.S.S.R. In 1954-1956 he was Deputy Chairman of 
the State Committee on New Technology. He became, in 1955, 
Chairman of the Department of Science of Universities, Techni- 
cal Schools, and Colleges of the Central Committee of the 
Communist Party. He has been Chief of the Laboratory on High 
Temperatures at the Moscow Institute of Energetics. At the 
XXth Congress of the Communist Party he was chosen a mem- 
ber of the Inspection Commission of the Central Committee of 
the Communist Party. Since 1937 he has been a member of the 
Communist Party. In 1953 he was elected a Corresponding 
Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences and in June 1962 
an Academician. In March 1962, Kirillin was elected to the 
Council of Nationalities. From 1956 to 1961 he was a member 
of the Central Committee on Revisions of the Communist Party. 
He was elected, in 1961, a Candidate Member of the Central 
Committee of the Communist Party and a Deputy to the 6th 
session of the Supreme Soviet. He received, in 1951, a Stalin 
Prize, and in 1959, a Lenin Prize. 

Kirillin has studied thermal and physical properties of heat 
carriers in power plants, in wide intervals of temperature and 
pressure. Kirillin has also carried out experimental and theo- 
retical research of the thermal properties of water and steam. 
He and his associates developed new standard data on water and 
steam, necessary for modern designing in super-pressure 
steam electric power stations. 
Bibliography: 

and A. E. Sheindlin. Collection of Problems on Technical 
Thermodynamics. Moscow- Leningrad: 1949. 
and A. E. Sheindlin. Basis of Experimental Thermo- 
dynamics. Moscow-Leningrad: 1950. 

and others . Thermodynamic Properties of Gases. Moscow: 
1953. 

and A. E. Sheindlin . Cycles of Internal Turbine Combustion. 
Moscow: 1949. 

and A. E. Sheindlin, V. Ya. Chekhov skii. Experimental de- 
termination of molybdenum enthalpy at temperatures of 700- 
2337°. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 139, #3, 645-47 (1961). 



165 KISHKIN 

and A. E. Sheindlin, V. Ya. Chekhovskii. Enthalpy and the 
specific heat of tungsten in the temperature range of 0- 
2400°C. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 142, #6, 1323-26 
(1962). 
Office: Moscow Energetics Institute 

Moscow, USSR 
Residence: ul. Kazakova, 29 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: El 65 24 

KISHKIN, SERGEI TIMOFEEVICH (Metallurgist) 

S. T. Kishkin was born in 1906. In 1931 he graduated from 
the Bauman Moscow Higher Technical Institute. He has been a 
member of the Communist Party since 1939. He was elected, 
in 1960, to the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences as a Correspond- 
ing Member. 

Kishkin' s work is in the field of metallurgy and metal sci- 
ences. 
Bibliography: 

and S. Z. Bokshtein, L. M. Moroz. Autoradiography of 
chromium self-diffusion and diffusion in some metals. 
Zavodskaya Lab. 23, 316-18 (1957). C. A. 52, 207c (1958). 
and A. A. Klypin, A. M. Sulima . The influence of plastic 
deformation on the heat resistance of alloy EI 437. Metal- 
loved, i Obrabotka Metal. #6, 18-21 (1958). C A. 53, 6022c 
(1959). 

and S. Z. Bokstein, L. M. Moroz. Effect of metal compo- 
sition and structure on grain boundary diffusion. Radio- 
isotopes Sci. Research, Proc. Intern. Conf., Paris, 1957, I, 
232-48 (Pub. 1958). C A. 53, 13934d (1959). 
and S. Z. Bokshtein, A. A. Zhukhovitskii, E. R. Mal'tsev . 
The effect of phase changes on self-diffusion rate. Nauch. 
Doklady Vysshei Shkoly, Met. #4, 158-61 (1958). C. A. 53, 
16882a (1959). 

Effect of Radiation on the Structure and Properties of 
Structural Metals. Moscow: Gosudarst. Izdatel. Oboronnoi 
Prom. 1958, 39 pp. C A. 54, 4334b (1960). 
and S. Z. Bokshtein, L. M. Moroz. Study of Metal Structure 
by the Method of Radioactive Isotopes. Moscow: Gosudarst. 
Izdatel. Oboronnoi Prom. 1959, 218 pp. C A. 54, 11948g 
(1960). 

and S. Z. Bokshtein, V. B. Osvenskii. The effect of poly- 
morphic transformation on diffusion in titanium. Metalloved. 



KISUN'KO 166 

i Termichesk, Obrabotka Metal. #6, 21-6 (1960). C A. 54, 
18265f (1960). 
Office: USSR Academy of Sciences 

Leninskii Prospekt, 14 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: M. Pionerskii p. 5 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: Dl 65 92 

KISUN'KO, GRIGORII VASILEVICH (Radio Technologist) 

G. V. Kisun'ko was born in 1918. In 1938 he graduated from 
the Voroshilovgradskii University. From 1938-41, he was an 
instructor at the Leningrad Pedagogical Institute. He has been 
a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union since 
1944. He was elected, in 1958, a Corresponding Member of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 
Office: USSR Academy of Sciences 

Leninskii Prospekt, 14 

Moscow, USSR 

KNUNYANTS, IVAN LYUDVIGQVICH (Organic Chemist) 

I. L. Knunyants was born June 4, 1906. In 19^8 he graduated 
from Moscow Technological College and continued work there. 
He began, in 1931, working at the Institute of Organic Chemistry 
of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. In 1941, he became a 
Member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. From 
1946 he was a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy 
of Sciences until 1953 when he was made an Academician. 
Three times, 1943, 1948, 1950, he won a Stalin Prize. 

Knunyants synthesized pyridine analogs of triphenylmethane 
and carbocyanine dyes and studied the relation of their color 
and structure. He produced a series of new transformations of 
aliphatic oxides, which led to the synthesis of gamma- 
acetopropyl alcohol; this synthesis is used in production of 
vitamin Bi and in anti-malaria substance. Also he studied 
methods of introducing fluorine into organic compounds, such 
as the reaction of aliphatic oxides with hydrogen fluoride. At 
present he is concerned with reactions of fluoroolefins. Many 
of his inventions, such as photosensitizers and caprone, are 
used in Soviet industry. 
Bibliography: 

and O. V. Kild'sheva . Methods of introducing fluorine in 
organic compounds. Uspekhi Khim., 1946, 15, #6. 



167 KOBZAREV 

On interrelation of aliphatic oxides with hydrogen fluoride. 
Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1947, 55, #3. 
and R. N. Sterlin. On reactions of organic oxides with hydro- 
gen fluoride. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1947, 56, #1. 
Some theoretical problems of contemporary organic chemis- 
try. Vestnik Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1953, #4, 15-29. 
and N. P. Gambaryan. Reaction of hydrodimerization. 
Uspekhi Khim., 1954, 23, #7, 781-820. 

and E. Ya. Perova. Successes in establishing the structure 
and synthesis of proteins. Uspekhi Khim., 1955, 24, #6, 
641-72. 

and others. On the facility and distribution of four -term 
cycle formation. Uspekhi Khim., 1955, 25, #7, 785-844. 
and others . Transformation of mercaptoamino acids. Re- 
port I-V in Proc. Acad. Sci. U.S.S.R., Sect. Chem., 1955, 
#1-4. 

and N. P. Gambaryan. A new method for obtaining beta- 
lactams. Proc. Acad. Sci. U.S.S.R., Sect. Chem., 1955, #6. 
and others. Nitrating of perfluorineolefin with nitrogen di- 
oxide. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1956, 111 , #5. 
and A. V. Fokin. On nitroperfluorinealkylnitrite. Doklady 
Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1957, 112, #1. 

and A. V. Fokin, V. S. Blagoveshchenskii, Yu. M. Kosyrev. 
New formations of nitroso compounds. Doklady Akad. Nauk ' 
S.S.S.R. 146, #5, 1088-91 (1962). 

Biography: 

Knunyants, Ivan Lyudvigovich. Vestnik Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 
1954, #3. 

Office: N. D. Zelinskii Institute of Organic Chemistry of 

USSR Academy of Sciences 
Leninskii Prospekt, 31 
Moscow, USSR 

Residence: Kotel'nicheskaya nab., 1/15 
Moscow, USSR 

Telephone: B7 46 47 

KOBZAREV, YURII BORISOVICH (Radio Engineer) 

Yu. B. Kobzarev was born December 8, 1905. After he 
graduated from Khar'kov University in 1926, he worked until 
1943 at the Physico-Technical Institute of the U.S.S.R. Academy 
of Sciences in Leningrad. From 1944 to 1955 he was professor 
at Moscow Institute of Energetics. In 1955 he began working at 
the Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He has been a Corresponding 



KOCHESHKOV 168 

Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences since 1953. In 
1941 he was awarded a Stalin Prize. 

In 1926-31 Kobzarev developed frequency stabilization by 
means of quartz crystals in tube generators. He worked on the 
theory of oscillation of oscillator plates. Kobzarev studied the 
phenomena in non-linear systems and indicated the high ef- 
ficiency of "quasi -linear^' method of treating these phenomena 
based on the concept of complex amplitudes and resistance. He 
played an active role in the development of radar. 
Bibliography: 

Parameters of piezoelectric crystal resonators. Zhur. 

Priklad. Fiz. 1929, 6, #2. 

Peculiarities of crystal resonators. Zhur. Priklad. Fiz., 6; 

#6. 

Representation of a tube characteristic by a power series. 

Zhur. Tekh. Fiz., 1933, 3, #6. 

and A. Ageev . Transient processes in resonance amplifiers. 

Zhur. Tekh. Fiz., 1935, ^, #8. 

The theory of a tube generator with two degrees of freedom. 

Radiotechnics, 1950, #2. 
Office: Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics of 

USSR Academy of Sciences 
Mokhovaya Ulitsa 11, K-9 
Moscow, USSR 

KOCHESHKOV, KSENQFONT ALEKSANDRQVICH (Chemist) 

K. A. Kocheshkov was born December 12, 1894. He graduat- 
ed from Moscow University in 1922 and in 1935 became a pro- 
fessor there. In 1946 he was elected a Corresponding Member 
of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He was awarded a Stalin 
Prize in 1948. 

The investigations of Kocheshkov deal with the chemistry of 
metallo -organic compounds. He discovered new methods of 
synthesis of compounds of lead, tin, silicon, alkali metals, zinc, 
thallium, antimony, bismuth. He also developed syntheses for 
amines and mercaptans using metallo -organic compounds. 
Kocheshkov is one of the editors for "Synthetic Method in the 
Area of Metallo -Organic Compounds." 
Bibliography: 

and N. I. Sheverdina . Interaction of a -benzyl -hydroxy lamine 
with magnesium- and lithium organic compounds as a method 
of synthesis of primary amines. Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 
Otdel. Khim. Nauk, 1941, #1. 



169 KOCHETKOV 

and A. N. Nesmeyanov . Synthetic Methods in the Area of 
Metallo Organic Compounds. #4. Moscow -Leningrad: 1945. 
and A. P. Skoldinov. Synthetic Methods in the Area of 
Metallo Organic Compounds. #5. Moscow- Leningrad: 1947. 
and A. P. Skoldinov . Synthetic Methods in the Area of 
Metallo Organic Compounds. #8. Moscow -Leningrad: 1947. 
and T. V. Talalaeva . Synthetic Methods in the Area of 
Metallo Organic Compounds. #1. Moscow-Leningrad: 1949. 
Office: Department of Chemistry 

Moscow University 

Moscow, USSR 

KOCHETKOV, NIKOLAI KONSTANTINOVICH (Organic 
Chemist) 

N. K. Kochetkov was born in 1915. In 1939 he graduated 
from the M. V. Lomonosov Moscow Institute of Fine Chemical 
Technology. He served in the Soviet Army from 1939 to 1945. 
In 1945-1959, he was an assistant, docent, and then professor, 
in 1956, at the Moscow State University. In 1959 he became 
deputy Director and Chief of the Laboratory on Hydrocarbons 
and Nucleotides at the U.S.S.R. Academy of Medical Sciences 
Institute of Natural Compound Chemistry. He was also, from 
1954 to 1960, Director of the chemical section at the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Medical Sciences Institute of Pharmacology and 
Chemotherapy. He has been a Corresponding Member of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Medical Sciences since 1957, and was 
elected in 1960 to the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences as a Corre- 
sponding Member. 

Kochetkov' s work is concerned with organic synthesis, in- 
vestigation and synthesis of new medicinal preparations, and 
studies of carbon and carbon containing compounds and nucleo- 
tides. 
Bibliography: 

and N. N. Semenov, M. M. Shemyakin. Academician Alek- 

sandr Nikolaevich Nesmeyanov. Zhur. Obshchei Khim. 29, 

2811-16 (1959). 

and E. E. Nifant'ev, N. V. Molodtsov, L. L Kudryashov. 

Ethylene acetals of a-(bromoaryl) acetaldehydes and their 

transformations. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 130, 94-7 

(1960). 

and A. M. Likhosherstov, A. M. Kritsyn. Pyrrolizidine 

alkaloids. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 141, #3, 361-63 

(1961). 



KOCHINA 170 

and I. G. Zhukova, I. S. Glukhoded. Thin-layer chromatogra- 
phy of cerebrosldes. Doklady Akad.Nauk S.S.S.R. 139 , #3, 
608-11 (1961). 

and Acad. A. N. Nesmeyanov, R. B. Materikova. Acetyl 
derivatives of pentaethonodifenocene. Doklady Akad. Nauk 
S.S.S.R. 136, #5, 1096-98 (1961). 

and E. Ye. Nifant'ev. Chemistry of /3-ketoacetaIs. Uspekhi 
Khim. #1, 31-47 (1961). 
Office: Institute of Natural Compound Chemistry 

Academy of Medical Sciences USSR 

Solyanka, 14 

Moscow, USSR 

KOCHINA, PELAGEYA YAKQVLEVNA (Hydrodynamicist) 
' P. Ya. Kochina was born May 1, 1899. In 1921 she graduated 
from Petrograd University. From 1919 she worked in the main 
geophysical observatory. She taught at the Ways of Communi- 
cation Institute, at the Institute of Civil Fleets, and at Lenin- 
grad University where she was made professor in 1934. Begin- 
ning in 1935 she worked in the Mathematics Institute and 
subsequently in the Institute of Mechanics of the U.S.S.R. Acade- 
my of Sciences. She was elected a Corresponding Member of 
the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences in 1946 and in 1958 an Acade- 
mician. In 1945 she was awarded a Stalin Prize. 

Kochina' s major interest is the theory of filtration. She has 
solved many important problems, which are associated with the 
movement of ground waters and oil in porous media. In 1952, 
she wrote a monograph on the ** Theory of Ground Water Move- 
ment," summarizing the Soviet work in the field of filtration. 
She has also worked in dynamic meteorology, stability of plates, 
and theory of tides in basins. Kochina was the editor of the 
first collection of the works of Kovalevskaya, the Russian 
mathematician, and published articles of Kovalevskaya' s life 
and work. 
Bibliography: 

Some Problems of Flat Moving Ground Waters. Moscow- 
Leningrad: 1942. 

Life and Works of S. V. Kovalevskaya, 1850-1891 (Centennial 
since the date of birth). Moscow-Leningrad: 1950. 
Biography: 

To the 50th Anniversary since the date of birth of P. Ya. 
Polubarinova-Kochina. Priklad. Mat. i Mekh., 1949, #3. 



171 KOLMOGOROV^ 

Office: Institute of Mechanics of USSR Academy of Sciences 

Leningradskii Prospekt, 7 

Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Leninskii Prospekt, 13 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: V2 46 79 

KOLMQGORQV, ANDREI NIKOLAEVICH (Mathematician) 
A. N. Kolmogorov was born April 25, 1903. In 1925 he 
graduated from Moscow University where he was a student of 
N. N. Luzin (1883-1950), Professor at the University. Kolmo- 
gorov became a professor there in 1931. In 1939 he was elect- 
ed an Academician of the U-S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He 
was awarded in 1941 a Stalin Prize. 

Kolmogorov' s scientific works began in the field of the theory 
of a real variable, where he worked on the convergence of 
trigonometric series, the theory of measure, generalization of 
the concept of the integral and general theories of operation on 
sets. Returning in 1956 to the theory of functions, Kolmogorov 
obtained important results on the representability of functions 
of a number of variables by superposition of functions with a 
smaller number of variables. Kolmogorov made contributions 
to constructive logic; in topology he created the theory of the 
so-called "upper" or V-homologies. Kolmogorov also worked • 
on the theory of the approximation of functions and functional 
analysis. His more outstanding works are concerned with the 
theory of probability, where he, together with A. Ya. Khinchin, 
began from 1925 to apply the methods of the theory of functions 
of a real variable. This permitted the solution of some difficult 
problems and construction of a system of axiomatic foundation 
to the theory of probability (1933). From the beginning of the 
1930' s, analytical methods which were found essential for con- 
structing the theory of the Markov processes with continuous 
time predominate in the works of Kolmogorov. Later he de- 
veloped the theory of stationary, accidental processes, which 
led to results used in automatic control, and to the establish- 
ment (together with a group of students) of a theory of ^^ branch- 
ing," accidental processes. Kolmogorov worked together with 
A. M. Obukhov on the statistical theory of turbulence; he also 
investigated the theory of fire, statistical methods of control- 
ling mass production, the theory of conveying information along 
communication channels. He is interested in the teaching of 
mathematics in secondary schools. Among his students are: 



KOLOSOV 172 

A. I. Mal'tsev, S. M. Nikol'skii, I. M. Gel'fond, B. V. Gnedenko, 

A. M. Obukhov, M. A. Millionshchikov, E. B. Dynkin, Yu. V. 

Prokhorov. 

Bibliography: 

Main Concepts on the Theory of Probability. Moscow- 
Leningrad: 1936. 

and P. S. Aleksandrov . Introduction to the Theory of 
Functions of a Real Variable, 3rd ed. Moscow-Leningrad: 
1938. 

and P. S. Aleksandrov . Algebra, Part 1. Moscow: 1939. 
and B. V. Gnedenko . Assymptotic Distribution for Sums of 
Independent Accidental Quantities. Moscow -Leningrad: 
1949. 

and S. V. Fomin. Elements of the Theory of Functions and 
Functional Analysis. V. II, Measure. The Lebesque Integral. 
Hilbert Space. Trans, from 1st (1960) Russian ed. by Hyman 
Kamel & Horace Komm. Rochester, N. Y.: Gray lock Press, 
1961. 

and M. Arato, Ya. G. Sinai. Evaluating parameters of a 
complex stationary Gauss-Markow process. Doklady Akad. 
Nauk S.S.S.R. 146, #4, 747-50 (1962). 

Biography: 

P. A. Aleksandrov and A. Ya. Khinchin. Andrei Nikolaevich 
Kolmogorov (On the 50th Anniversary since the date of 
birth). Uspekhi Mat. Nauk, 1953, 8, #3 (contains bibliography 
of the works of Kolmogorov). 

On the 50th Anniversary of Andrei Nikolaevich Kolmogorov. 
Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. Mat., 1953, 17,#3 (contains 
bibliography of the works of Kolmogorov). 

Office: Department of Mathematics 

Moscow University 
Moscow, USSR 

Residence: Leninskiye gory, sekt. "L" 
Moscow, USSR 

Telephone: B9 30 82 

KOLOSOV, NIKOLAI GRIGOR'EVICH (Histologist) 

N. G. Kolosov was born April 29, 1897. In 1924 he graduated 
from and continued to work at Kazan' University. He was made 
professor at Stalingrad Institute in 1940, and in 1945-1950 at 
Saratov Medical Institute. In 1950 he began work at the Insti- 
tute of Physiology of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He be- 
came a professor, in 1953, at the Leningrad University. In 
1945 he was elected a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. 



173 KONDRAT'EV 

Academy of Medical Sciences and in 1953 Corresponding Mem- 
ber of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

Kolosov is a specialist in the area of neurohistology. He 
has been studying the structure of the autonomic nervous sys- 
tem and its interactions with the central nervous system; he 
has been an advocate of the neuron structure theory of the ner- 
vous system. He studied in detail the double innervation of the 
alimentary canal and pelvic organs. Kolosov has also worked on 
the afferent innervation of the human alimentary canal. 

In recent years he has studied afferent innervation of vege- 
tative ganglia and vegetative neurons. 
Bibliography: 

Materials on the autonomic innervation of the alimentary 

canal of some vertebrates. Works of the Tatar Institute of 

Theoretical and Clinical Medicine, 1935, #2. 

Some Chapters on the Morphology of the Autonomic Nervous 

System. Saratov: 1948. 

Innervation of Internal Organs and the Cardiac Vascular 

System. Moscow-Leningrad: 1954. 

Afferent Innervation of the Human Alimentary Canal. 

Moscow-Leningrad: 1962. 
Office: Leningrad University 

Leningrad, USSR 



KONDRAT'EV, VIKTOR NIKOLAEVICH (Physical Chemist) 

V. N. Kondrat'ev was born February 1, 1902. He graduated 
from the Leningrad Polytechnical Institute in 1924 and then 
worked at the Physico-Technical Institute of the U.S.S.R. Acade- 
my of Sciences. In 1931, he began working at the Institute of 
Chemical Physics of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. Also 
he has been professor at the Moscow Engineering Physics Insti- 
tute. In 1948 he became a member of the Communist Party of 
the Soviet Union. From 1943 to 1953 he was a Corresponding 
Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, and in 1953 he 
became an Academician. In 1944 he received a Stalin Prize. 

Kondrat'ev has worked in chemical kinetics, molecular 
spectroscopy and structure, and photochemistry. He studied 
the elementary processes during chemical transformation. Also 
he developed methods of determining concentrations and re- 
action velocity of free atoms and radicals, which are intermedi- 
ate in photochemical reactions and combustion processes. 
Kondrat'ev showed that the velocity of an over-all reaction is 



KONDRAT'EV 174 

determined by the speed of reactions of free radicals whose 
concentration is considerably greater than at equilibrium. In 
the field of molecular structure, Kondrat'ev with aid of the 
spectroscopic method, determined the heats of disassociation 
and established a geometric structure of a series of molecules. 
He also worked out an optical method for studying unstable con- 
ditions of molecules and photo- chemical dissociation of mole- 
cules. 

In 1961, Kondrat'ev was elected to the bureau, the executive 
committee and editorial board of the International Union of 
Pure and Applied Chemistry. 
Bibliography: 

N. N. Semenov, Yu. B. Khariton. Electronic Chemistry. 
Moscow-Leningrad: 1927. 
Photochemistry. Moscow-Leningrad: 1933. 
and M. El'yashevich. Elementary Processes of the Exchange 
of Energy in Gases. Moscow-Leningrad: 1933. 
Free Hydroxyl. Moscow: 1939. 

Spectroscopic Study of Chemical Gas Reactions. Moscow- 
Leningrad: 1944. 

Structure of Atoms and Molecules. Moscovz-Leningrad: 
1946. 

Energy levels of atomic nuclei. Uspekhi Fiz. Nauk, 1949, 38, 
#2. 

Utilization of Tagged Atoms in the Study of the Mechanism of 
Chemical Reactions, Moscow, 1955. (Reports presented by 
the U.S.S.R. at the International Conference on Peaceful 
Uses of Atomic Energy, Geneva, August 8-20, 1955). Mos- 
cow: 1956. 

History of the Development of Kinetics of Chemical Re- 
actions. Questions of History of Natural Science and Tech- 
niques, 2nd ed. Moscow: 1956. 

Ways of Development of the Theory of a Chemical Process 
(Homogeneous Reactions). Vestnik Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 
1956, #5. 

and N. M. Emanuel. Chain reactions and processes of burn- 
ing and explosions. Uspekhi Khim., 1956, 25^ #4. 
Elementary Chemical Processes. Leningrad: 1936. 
Biography: 

N. Ya. Buben, V. V. Voevodskii, N. D. Sokolov . Scientific 
Activity of V. N. Kondrat'ev. Uspekhi Khim., 1952, #8. 
Kondrat'ev, Viktor Nikolaevich. Vestnik Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 
1953, #12. 



175 KONOBEEVSKII 

Office: Institute of Chemical Physics of USSR Academy of 

Sciences 

Vorob'evskoye Shosse, 2 

Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Leninskii Prospekt, 30 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: B2 21 14 

KONOBEEVSKII, SERGEI TIKHONOVICH (Physicist) 

S. T. Konobeevskii was born April 26, 1890. In 1913 he 
finished at Moscow University. From 1919-23, he taught at the 
University of National Economy in Moscow. He worked, in 
1923-1929, at the All-Union Technical Institute, and in 1929- 
1941, at the State Institute of Dyed Metals. In 1926 he began 
teaching at Moscow University where, in 1935, he became a 
professor. In 1948 he started work at various institutions of 
the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. Since 1946 he has been a 
Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 
In 1948 he became a member of the Communist Party of the 
Soviet Union. 

Konobeevskii' s main work deals with X-ray -structural in- 
vestigation of metals and alloys and their structural change dur- 
ing plastic deformation, tempering, and phase transformations. 
He developed a theory of aging of alloys, the decomposition of ■ 
solid solutions, and the effect of radiation on materials. 
Bibliography: 

Crystallization of metals during their conversion in a solid 
state. Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. Khim., 1937, #5, 
1909-1944. 

The theory of phase conversions, 1-3. Zhur. Exptl. i Teor. 
Fiz. 1943, 13, #6, 11-12. 

Solid phases of a variable composition and basic consider- 
ations of their structure. Bulletin of Physico-Chemical 
Analysis, 1948, 16, #4. 

Effect of radiation on the structure and properties of sepa- 
rating materials. Research in Geology, Chemistry and 
Metallurgy. Moscow: 1955 (Report of the Soviet delegation 
at the International Conference on the Peaceful Use of 
Atomic Energy, Geneva, 1955). 

The nature of radiative disturbances in separating materials. 
Atomic Energy, 1956, #2. 
Office: Department of Physics 

Moscow University 
Moscow, USSR 



KONSTANTINOV 176 

KQNSTANTINOV, BORIS PAVLOVICH (Physicist) 

B. P. Konstantinov was born July 6, 1910. He graduated in 
1929 from the Mechanical-Mathematical Faculty of the Lenin- 
grad Polytechnic Institute. Beginning in 1930 he worked at the 
Leningrad Electro-Physical Institute as well as at some other 
scientific research institutes. As of 1961, he has been Director 
of the Leningrad Physico-Technical Institute of the U.S.S.R. Aca- 
demy of Sciences where he has worked since 1940. In 1947 he 
became a professor at Leningrad Polytechnic Institute. He was 
elected Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences in 1953 and in 1960 Academician. 

Konstantinov' s main investigations are theoretical and ap- 
plied acoustics and physical chemistry. In 1934 he developed a 
quantitative theory of the sound of a propeller. He investigated 
in 1936 the equation of non-linear acoustics. In 1935-43 he 
studied auto-oscillary phenomena and the process of sound for- 
mation in musical instruments and in sound signaling devices, 
non-planar waves in wind instruments, and resonant absorption. 
He also studied the influence of viscosity and thermal conduc- 
tivity on the propagation and absorption of sound in an organic 
medium. Konstantinov obtained results important for measure- 
ment in acoustics. 
Bibliography: 

On several applications of the continuity equation of energy 

in acoustics. Zhur. Eksptl. i Teoret. Fiz., 1936, 6, #9. 

On the auto -oscillation and sound formation of the tongue of 

an accordion. Zhur. Tekh. Fiz., 1939, 9, #20. 

On absorption of sound waves during reflection from a solid. 

Zhur. Tekh. Fiz., 1939, 9, #3. 

On the attenuation of sound in a room with hard walls and on 

the diffusion coefficient of sound absorption. Zhur. Tekh. 

Fiz., 1939, 9, #5. 

and L. V. Rotova . Role of longitudinal mixing in exchange 

columns for separation of isotopes. Doklady Akad. Nauk 

135 , #4, 896-98 (1960). 
Office: Leningrad Physico-Technical Institute 

Sosnovka, 2 
Lesnoy, Leningrad, USSR 

KOROLEV, SERGEI PAVLOVICH (Mechanics Specialist) 

S. P. Korolev was born December 30, 1906. In 1930 he 
graduated from the Moscow Higher Technical School. He has 
been a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union 



177 KORSHAK 

since 1953. In 1953 he was elected a Corresponding Member of 
the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, and in 1958 an Academician. 

The basic works of Korolev are in mechanics. 
Office: USSR Academy of Sciences 

Leninskii Prospekt, 14 

Moscow, USSR 

KQROTKOV, ALEKSEI ANDREEVICH (Organic Chemist) 

A. A. Korotov was born February 25, 1910. He graduated in 
1938 from the Leningrad Chemico-Technological Institute. 
From 1931-45 he worked in synthetic rubber plants. In 1945 he 
began working at the All- Union Scientific Research Institute of 
Synthetic Rubber and in 1953 at the Institute of High Molecular 
Compounds of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. Korotov has 
been a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union 
since 1942. In 1958 he became a Corresponding Member of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

Korotkov is concerned with reprocessing by-products from 
production of synthetic rubber, synthesis based on ethylene 
oxide, the study of production of isoprene, and the catalytic 
polymerization of vinyl compounds and bi -ethylene hydro- 
carbons. He worked out a method for obtaining a polyisoprene 
synthetic rubber, with properties similar to those of natural 
rubber. 
Bibliography: 

and L. B- Trukhmanova. Question of the nature of action of 
complex catalysts. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1957, 117, 
#4. 

and M. P. Burova . Determining the structure of rubber by 
the method of infra-red spectroscopy. Izvest Akad. Nauk 
S.S.S.R., Otdel Khim. Nauk, 14, #4, 1950. 
and K. B. Piotrovskii, D. P. Feringer . Influence of the 
microstructure of isoprene on its properties. Doklady Akad. 
Nauk S.S.S.R., 1956, 110, #1. . 
Office: Institute of High Molecular Compounds of USSR 

Academy of Sciences 
Birzhevoy Prospekt, 6 
Leningrad, USSR 

KORSHAK, VASILH VLADIMIROVICH (Organic Chemist) 

V. V. Korshak was born January 9, 1909. He was a student 
of P. P. Shorygin (1881-1939, organic chemist). He graduated 
in 1931 from the Moscow Chemico-Technological Institute and 
in 1942 became a professor at this Institute. In 1935 he also 



KORZHINSKII 178 

started working at the Institute of Organic Chemistry of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. In 1954 he began work at the 
Institute of Organo -Elemental Compounds of the U.S.S.R. Acade- 
my of Sciences. Korshak has been a member of the Communist 
Party of the Soviet Union since 1940. In 1953 he was elected a 
Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 
He was awarded Stalin Prizes in 1949 and in 1951. 

Korshak' s main works deal with the chemistry of high mo- 
lecular compounds. He investigated the process of polyconden- 
sation of dicarboxylic acids with diamines and glycols, and also 
dihalide derivatives with aromatic hydrocarbons. He worked 
out a theory of linear poly condensation. He proposed a classifi- 
cation and nomenclature for high molecular compounds. A part 
of Korshak' s work deals with the mechanism of the Friedel- 
Crafts-reaction and with methods for synthesis of various or- 
ganic substances. 

In August 1956, Korshak visited the United States to attend 
the Sixth International Conference on Coordination Compounds, 
New York. 
Bibliography: 

and G. S. Kolesnikov . Tetraethyl Lead. Preface by A. N. 
Nesmeyanov. Moscow -Leningrad: 1946. 
and S. R. Rafikov . Synthesis and Investigation of High Mo- 
lecular Compounds. Moscow -Leningrad: 1949. 
Chemistry of High Molecular Compounds. Moscow- 
Leningrad: 1950. 

General Methods of Synthesis of High Molecular Compounds. 
Methods of High Molecular Organic Chemistry, 1. Moscow: 
1953. 

and D. Ya. Tsvankin, S. P. Krukovskii. Investigation of poly- 
ethelene terepthalate ("lavsan") coating with grafted poly- 
styrene. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 146, #6, 1347-48 
(1962). 
Office: Institute of Organo- Elemental Compounds of USSR 

Academy of Sciences 
Leninskii Prospekt, 31 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Novopeschanaya, 25 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: D7 19 30 

KORZHINSKII, DMITRH SERGEIVICH (Geographer and 
Petrographer ) 
D. S. Korzhinskii, son of S. L Korzhinskii (1861-1900, 



179 KORZHINSKII 

Russian botanist) was born September 13, 1899. After graduat- 
ing from the Leningrad Mining Institute in 1926, he worked on 
the Geological Committee. Then, until 1937, he was with the 
Central Scientific Research Geological Survey Institute. In 1937 
he began working in the Institute of Geology at the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences, and in 1956 in the Institute of Geology for 
Ore Deposits, Petrography, Mineralogy and Geochemistry of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Scientists. Also during these years, 1929 
to 1940, he taught at the Leningrad Mining Institute. Korzhinskii 
became a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences in 1943, and in 1953 an Academician. He was awarded 
in 1946, a Stalin Prize, in 1949, the A. P. Karpinskii Prize by 
the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, and in 1958, a Lenin Prize. 

Korzhinskii studied pre- Cambrian crystalline rock for- 
mations and associated mineral resources of Yakutiya and 
Eastern Siberia, Skarn ore beds of the Urals, and Central Asia. 
His main works are devoted to physico-chemical analysis of the 
process of mineral formation (mainly the metamorphic and 
metasomatic processes). He has studied the thermodynamics of 
natural systems and methods of analyzing mineral paragenesis. 

As of November 1962, he has been made chief editor of the 
journal. Geology of Ore Deposits. 
Bibliography: 

Factors of Mineral Balance and Mineralogical Facies of the 

Depths. Moscow: 1940 (Works of the Mining Institute of the 

U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, #12.) 

Bimetasomatic, Phlogopite and Lazurite Deposits of the 

Archean Baikal Territory. Moscow: 1940 (Works of the 

Mining Institute of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, #29.) 

The Petrology of Tur'inski Skarn Copper Beds. Moscow: 

1948 (Works of the Mining Institute of the U.S.S.R. Academy 

of Sciences, #68.) 

Sketch of metasomatic processes. Main Problems in the 

Study of Magmatogene Ore Beds, 1955. 

Physico-Chemical Basis in Analyzing Mineral Paragenesis. 

Moscow: 1957. 
Biography: 

Korzhinskii, Dmitrii Sergeivich. Vestnik Akad. Nauk 

S.S.S.R., 1954, #2. 
Office: Institute of Geology of Mineral Deposits, Petrogra- 

phy, Mineralogy and Geochemistry 
Staromonetnyy Pereulok, 35 
Moscow, USSR 



KOSTENKO 180 

Residence: Leninskii Prospekt, 13 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: V2 42 55 

KOSTENKO, MIKHAIL POLIEVKTOVICH (Electrical Engineer) 

M. P. Kostenko was born December 16, 1889. Before gradu- 
ating in 1918 from the Electrical Engineering Institute of the 
Petersburg Polytechnic Institute, Kostenko had been banished 
for a period to a remote corner of the Urals by the Tsarist 
Government for having participated in student revolutionary 
demonstrations. After graduating with distinction, he remained 
at the Institute to prepare for teaching activities. In 1930, he 
was appointed to the Chair of Electrical Machines in the M. I. 
Kalinin Polytechnic Institute. More than 400 electrical engi- 
neers (specialists in constructing electrical machines) have 
graduated from there under his direction. Kostenko was Chief 
Electrician of the Kharkov Electromechanical Plant, and, in 
1942-44, professor in the Central Asiatic Industrial Institute 
(Tashkent). He is Director of the Institute of Electromechanics 
of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He has consulted and 
taught in Rumania, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Poland. He was a 
delegate to the Paris Conference on Large-Scale Electrical 
High-Tension Systems. In 1939 he was elected a Corresponding 
Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences and in 1953 an 
Academician. He is an Honored Scientist of the Uzbek S.S.R. 
He was a Deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R., fifth 
convocation. In 1949 and 1951, Kostenko was awarded Stalin 
Prizes and in 1958 a Lenin Prize. 

Under the Lenin Plan, GOELRO (State Plan for Electrifi- 
cation of Soviet Russia), Kostenko was one of the originators 
(and is chief) of the office for new designs at the "Electrosila" 
Plant, where he worked from 1929-30, and where he has been 
consultant since 1932. In this connection, the office designed 
four of the eight generators for the then new Volkhov hydro- 
electric power plant. Their success assured the beginning of 
Soviet manufacture of heavy power machinery construction. 
Similarly, Kostenko has participated in the development of all 
the basic electrical machines produced in Russia: generators 
for plants such as the Dneprovskaya, Ribinskaya, Uglichskaya, 
and the Volga Cascade. He was consulted in the manufacture of 
motors for the atomic ice-breaker "Lenin," and for generators 
of the Kuibishev and Stalingrad power stations. He is a member 
of the technical council of Electrosila. 



181 KOSTENKO 

At the Institute of Electromechanics of the Academy of Sci- 
ences of the U.S.S.R., located in laboratories in a private resi- 
dence on the Palace Embankment of the Neva [Leningrad], 
Kostenko works on the combined operation of AC and DC trans- 
mission lines and the automatic regulation of superpower gener- 
ators. The laboratories contain models of the Stalingrad 
power stations and of the future Volga, Krasnoyar, Bukhtarin, 
and Bratskaya plants. Stalingrad will transmit AC and DC 
simultaneously; AC to Moscow and DC to the Don Basin. 
The modelling methods are used there to work out the electrifi- 
cation of the main Russian railroad lines under the Seven Year 
Plan. Kostenko is working on problems of the utilization of 
alternating current electric traction for this purpose. 

Kostenko' s basic works are concerned with the theory of 
electrical machines and methods for their experimental study 
and planning. He gave a theory of transformers, polyphase 
asynchronous and commutating machines; worked out an origi- 
nal scheme of commutative generators for alternating current. 
He has been concerned with electric traction using alternating 
current, electrodynamic modelling of energy systems in con- 
nection with the stability and reliability of the operation of 
distant electric transmission, and with the rectification of alter- 
nating current. He has written a monograph on the universal 
transformer. In all, he has written over 100 scientific works, 
which have become indispensable manuals for Soviet engineers, 
especially his Commutators, printed a quarter of a century ago. 
As of 1961, Kostenko was a Member of the Presidium of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 
Bibliography: 

Alternating Current Commutator Machines, Part 1. Lenin- 
grad: 1933. 

Electric Machines (part 1-2). Moscow-Leningrad: 1944-49. 
and others. Electromagnetic Processes in Systems with 
Powerful Rectifiers. Moscow-Leningrad: 1946. 
and E. D. Treivish . Transformer and Electric Machine De- 
signing in Experimental Research in Stabilizing Parallel 
Work of Electric Plants. Trudy Lenin, politekh. inst., 1946, 
#1. 

Electrodynamic model for research in stability. Electricity, 
1950, #9. 

Designing electrical equipment in irradiation of parallel sta- 
bility of energy systems for long-distance transmission. 
Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Otdel. Tekh. Nauk, 1953, #12. 



KOSYGIN 182 

and A. E. Alekseev . Turbogenerators. Leningrad-Moscow: 
1933. 
Biography: 

Kostenko Mikhail Polievktovich. Vestnik Akad. Nauk 
S.S.S.R., 1954, #3, 52. 

Electric machine-building. Trudy Lenin, politekh. inst., 
1953, #3. (This issue is dedicated to Prof. M. P. Kostenko 
in connection with his 30th year of scientific activity). 
Office: Institute of Electromechanics of USSR Academy of 

Sciences 
Dvortsovaya Naberezhnaya, 18 
Leningrad, USSR 

KHOSTENKQ, MIKHAIL VLADIMIROVICH (Power Specialist) 
In June 1962, M. V. Khostenko was elected Corresponding 
Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

KOSYGIN, YURII ALEKSANDRQVICH (Geologist) 

Yu. A. Kosygin was born January 22, 1911. After graduating 
from Moscow Oil Institute in 1931, he worked in the oil industry. 
From 1935 to 1941, he worked in the Institute of Fuel Minerals 
of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences and at the Moscow Oil 
Institute. He began working, in 1945, at the Geological Institute 
of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. Since 1958 he has been a 
Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

Kosygin has studied the tectonics of platforms and foredeeps, 
mainly in oil-bearing regions. His works on salt tectonics 
facilitated recognition of regularities in arrangement of oil de- 
posits on salt domes. He has also studied oil-bearing deposits 
and the presence of gas in various regions of the U.S.S.R. He 
took part in compiling tectonic maps of the U.S.S.R. 

In May 1960, Kosygin visited the U. S. to participate in geo- 
logical studies at the U. S. Geological Survey, Denver, Colo- 
rado. 
Bibliography: 

Oil Deposits of Turkmen S.S.R. Moscow -Leningrad-Novo- 

Sibirsk: 1933. 

Salt Tectonics of Platform Territories. Moscow-Leningrad: 

1956. 

Basis of Tectonics of Oil-Bearing Territories. Moscow- 
Leningrad: 1952. 

Tectonics of Oil-Bearing Territories, _L. Moscow: 1958. 



183 KOTEL'NIKOV 

Office: Institute of Geology of USSR Academy of Sciences 

Pyzhevskii Pereulok, 7 
Moscow, USSR 

KOTEL'NIKOV, VLADIMIR ALEKSANDRQVICH (Radio 

Engineer ) 
V. A. Kotel'nikov was born August 24, 1908. After graduating 
from Moscow Institute of Energetics, he worked at the Radio- 
engineering and Electronics Institute of the U.S.S.R. Academy 
of Sciences and became the Director in 1954. Since 1948 he 
has been a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. 
In 1953 Kotel'nikov was elected an Academician of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences. He received Stalin Prizes in 1943 and in 
1946. 

Kotel'nikov has been concerned with errors in radio re- 
ception and with the development of radio communication appa- 
ratus. He introduced (1946) the concept of potential error sta- 
bility as characteristic of given method of transmission. The 
method of analysis suggested by him has had wide application 
and great significance for the development of new methods of 
radio communication. Under his direction, a multi-channel 
telephon -telegraphic line of radiocommunication on a single 
frequency side band was worked out. 
Bibliography: 

and A. M. Nikolaev . Foundations of Radio -Engineering. I, 
Moscow: 1950; II, Moscow: 1954. 

On the traffic capacity of the ether and wire in communi- 
cation. Materials for the First All-Union Congress on 
Questions of the Technical Reconstruction of Communi- 
cations and of the Improvement of Weak Industry. Mos- 
cow: 1933. 

Problems of error free radio communication, Radio- 
Engineering Collection. Moscow- Leningrad: 1947. 
The Theory of Potential Freedom from Error (dissertation). 
Moscow -Leningrad: 1956. 

and V. M. Dubrovich, M. D. Kislick, E. B. Korenberg, V. P. 
Minashin, V. A. Morozov, N. L Nikitin, G. M. Petrov, O. N. 
Rzhiga, A. M. Shakhovskii. Radar observation of Venus. 
Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 145, #5, 1035-39 (1962). 
Biography: 

Kotel'nikov Vladimir Aleksandrovich. Vestnik Akad. Nauk, 
1954, #4. 



KOTON 184 

Office: Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, 

USSR Academy of Sciences 

Mokhovaya Ulitsa 11, K-9 

Moscow, USSR 
Residence: 1-aya Cheremushkinskaya, 3 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: B7 25 11 

KOTON, MIKHAIL MIKHAILOVICH (Chemist) 

M. M. Koton was born in 1908. In 1935 he graduated from 
the Leningrad State University. In 1934-36, he worked at the 
Leningrad Institute of High Pressures. He was, from 1936-39, 
at the Leningrad Pediatric Medical Institute, where in 1946, he 
became a professor, and then chairman of the Department of 
General and Analytical Chemistry. In 1937-52, he worked at 
the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Leningrad Physico-Technical 
Institute. In 1952, he became Laboratory Chief at the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences Leningrad Institute of High Molecular 
Weight Compounds, where he was made deputy Director in 
1959, and Director in 1960. From 1952-60, he was a professor 
at the Leningrad Polytechnical Institute. In 1960 he was elected 
a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

Koton' s main works are concerned with the chemistry of 
organic, metallo organic, and high molecular weight compounds. 
Bibliography: 

and N. A. Glukhov, A. N. Baburina, L. M. Shcherbakova . 

Synthesis and polymerization of ^-oxides. I. Synthesis and 

polymerization of 3, 3 -bis (chloromethyl) oxyacyclobutane. 

Zhur. Priklad. Khim. 33, 182-5 (1960). C. A. 54, 10988b 

(1960). 

and T. M. Kiseleva . Synthesis of polyorganostannoxanes. 

Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 130, 86-7 (1960). C. A. 54, 

10839c (1960). 

and T. M. Kiseleva . Synthesis of polymerizable unsaturated 

organomercury compounds. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 

131, 1072-3 (1960). C. A. 54, 20936h (1960). 

and T. M. Kiseleva, F. S. Florinskii. Mercurated styrenes. 

Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Otdel. Khim. Nauk, 948 (1959). 

C. A._54, 1378f (1960). 

and T. M. Kiseleva, N. P. Zapevalova . Reactivity of unsatu- 
rated compounds of tin and lead. Zhur. Obshchei Khim. 30, 

186-90 (1960). C. A. 54, 22436e (1960). 



185 KOTON 

and K. A. Sivograkova, Z. D. Tolstikova, E. N. Eremina. 
Preparation of large-surface scintillators from polymeric 
materials. Platicheskie Massy, #2, 48-52 (1960). C. A. 54, 
25965e (1960). 

and N. A. Adrova, V. N. Andreev, Yu. N. Panov, N. S. Musa - 
lev . Optical and scintillation characteristics of some oxadia- 
"zoles. Optika i Spektroskopiya 7, #1, 128-9 (1959). C A. 54, 
23816g (1960). 

and N. A. Adrova. Synthesis and polymerization of 3-vinyl- 
2, 5-diphenylfuran. Vysokomolekulyarnye Soedineniya 2, 
408-10 (1960). C. A. 54, 24629b (1960). 
and S. E. Bresler, A. T. Qs'minskaya, A. G. Popov, N. N. 
Savitskaya . The increase of thermostability of polymers by 
cyclization in macromolecular chains by partial decompo- 
sition. Vysokomolekulyarnye Soedineniya 1, #7, 1070-3 
(1959). C. A. 54, 15998c (1960). 

and A. F. Dokukina . Synthesis of chloro- substituted di- 
methylstyrenes. Zhur. Obshchei Khim. 29, 2201-4 (1959). 
C. A. 54, 109041 (1960). 

and A. F. Dokukina . Relation between structure and poly- 
merizability of substituted styrenes. II. Polymerization of 
tri- and tetra- substituted halomethylstyrenes. Vysokomole- 
kulyarnye Soedineniya 1, 1129-32 (1959). C A. 54, 19014h 
(1960). 

and P. A. El'tsova, O. I. Mineeva, Q. L. Surnina . Polymeri- 
zation of vinyl derivatives of biphenyl, diphenyl oxide, and 
diphenyl sulfide. Vsyokomolekulyarnye Soedineniya 1, 1369- 
73 (1959). C. A. 54, 17954c (1960). 

and Yu. N. Panov, N. A. Adrova . Optical characteristics of 
compounds of the oxazole, oxadiazole, and furan series. 
Optika i Spektroskopiya 2, ^1, 29-34 (1959). C. A. 54^ 23814i 
(1960). 

and N. P. Zapelvalova . Synthesis and polymerization of nu- 
clear methoxy substituted styrenes. III. Synthesis and poly- 
merization of trimethoxystyrenes. Zhur. Obshchei Khim. 29, 
2900-5 (1959). C A. 54. 12036c (1960). 
and I. V. Andreeva, D. F. Andreev, E. M. Rogozina. Po ly - 
acrolene complexes with salts of heavy metals. Doklady 
Akad. Naul S.S.S.R. 139, #6, 1372-74 (1961). 
and I. V. Andreeva, P. F. Andreev, L. G. Danilov, E. M. 
Rogozina . Reaction between an aqueous solution of poly- 
acrolein and inorganic salts. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 
146, #3, 608-610 (1962). 



KOVALENKOV 186 

and F. S. Florinskii. Synthesis of polymerizing thallium- 
organic compounds. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 146, #4, 
820-21 (1962). 
Office: Institute of High Molecular Weight Compounds of 

USSR Academy of Sciences 
Birzhevoy Prospekt, 6 
Leningrad, USSR 

KOVALENKOV, VALENTIN IVANOVICH (Electrical Engineer) 

V. I. Kovalenkov was born March 25, 1884. He graduated 
from Petersburg Electro-Technical Institute in 1909, and from 
Petersburg University in 1911. From 1940 to 1948 he worked 
at the Institute of Automation and Remote Control of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. In 1946 to 1956, he was Di- 
rector of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Laboratory in Solv- 
ing Problems in Wire Communications. He was awarded a 
Stalin Prize in 1941, and was awarded the title Honored Scien- 
tist of the R.S.F.S.R. in 1935. He holds the rank of Major 
General in the Technical Engineering Service, and has been a 
member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union since 1945. 
He was elected, in 1939, to the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences as 
a Corresponding Member. 

The main works of Kovalenkov are concerned with the theory 
of wire transmission of communication, to analysis of pro- 
cesses in them and to analyzing of magnetic chains. In ad- 
dition, Kovalenkov worked on the origination of telephone trans- 
lation (from 1909; first Soviet translation of the system of 
Kovalenkov was established in 1922 on the telephone line of 
Moscow -Petrograd). He has a series of inventions in the area 
of electrotechnics and sound movies. 
Bibliography: 

Theory of Transmission in Electro-communication Lines, 
I-n. Moscow: 1937-38. 

Basis of Theory on Magnetic Chains, and Its Use in Analysis 
of Relay Schemes. Moscow-Leningrad: 1940. 
Electro-magnetic Processes Established Along Wire Lines. 
Moscow-Leningrad: 1945. 
Biography: 

V. S. Kulebakin . V. I. Kovalenkov. Journal of Communi- 
cation, 1954, #4. 

Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, 
V. I. Kovalenkov. Avtomat. i Telemekh., 1954, l^ #3. 



187 KOVAL'SKn 

Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, 
V. I. Kovalenkov (On the 70th Anniversary since the date of 
birth). Electricity, 1954, #4. 
Office: Laboratory in Solving Problems in Wire Communi- 

cations, USSR Academy of Sciences 
Moscow, USSR 

KOVALEV, NIKOLAI NIKQLAEVICH (Hydroturbine Specialist) 

N. N. Kovalev was born February 22, 1908. After graduating 
from Leningrad Technological Institute in 1933, he worked at 
the Leningrad Metal Plant until 1959. From 1945 to 1959 he 
was the Chief Constructor of hydroturbines at this plant. He 
also taught at the Leningrad Polytechnic Institute. In 1959 he 
supervised the hydroturbine section in the Central Scientific 
Research Steam Turbine Institute. Kovalev has been a member 
of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union since 1942. In 
1953, he was elected a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences. He received, in 1946 and 1951, State 
Prizes; in 1957, Hero of Socialist Labor award; in 1959, a 
Lenin Prize; and three medals. 

The major works of Kovalev are devoted to designing hydro- 
turbines. Under his leadership, swing-blade hydroturbines 
were built for hydroelectric power plants, among them the 
Volga and Dnieper. After World War II, he supervised the con- 
struction of hydroturbines for Mingechaur, Tsimlyanskaya and 
Kuibishev hydroelectric power stations. 
Bibliography: 

and others. Exploitation of Hydroturbines. Leningrad - 
Moscow: 1941. 

Contemporary condition and main questions of the future de- 
velopment of hydroturbines. Boiler -Turbine Construction, 
1950, #4. 

Hydroturbines. Moscow: 1961. 
Office: Polzunov Technical Institute 

Konstantinogradskaya, 16 
Leningrad S-167, USSR 

KOVAL'SKII, ALEKSANDR ALEKSEEVaCH (Physical Chemist) 

A. A. Koval'skii was born September 10, 1906. He graduated 
in 1930 from the Leningrad Polytechnic Institute. He had been 
working since 1929 at the Institute of Chemical Physics of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences and in 1947 was made professor 
there; in 1957 he became Director of the Institute of Chemical 
Kinetics and combustion of the Siberian branch of the U.S.S.R. 



KOVDA 188 

Academy of Sciences. Koval'skii has been a member of the 
Communist Party of the Soviet Union since 1949. In 1958 he 
was elected a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy 
of Sciences. 

Koval'skii' s major works are in the field of kinetics and 
chemical reaction and nuclear physics. His investigations on 
the study of upper and lower limits of ignition constituted an 
important experimental base for establishing the theory of 
branching chain reactions. He studied the mechanism of a 
number of heterogeneous catalytic reactions. In the field of 
nuclear physics he conducted investigations on high energy 
particles. 
Bibliography: 

and M. L. Bogoyavlenskaya. Initiation of homogeneous re- 
action in gas by solid catalysts. Zhur. Fiz. Khim., 1946, 20, 
#11. 

and V. I. Gol'danskii and others. Cross sections of non- 
elastic interaction of neutrons with energy of 120 and 380 
million electron-volts with nuclei. Doklady Akad. Nauk 
S.S.S.R., 1956,^06, #2. 
Office: Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion 

Novosibirsk, Siberia 

KOVDA, VIKTOR ABRAMOVICH (Soil Scientist) 

V. A. Kovda was born December 29, 1904. He graduated in 
1927 from Kuban Agricultural Institute in Krasnodar. In 1931 
he became a scientific worker at the Soil Institute of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He was professor at Moscow 
University in 1939-1941 and again in 1953. He was Director of 
the Institute of Botany and Pedology of the Uzbek branch of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences in 1941-1942, and in 1943-1948 
he taught at Moscow Hydromeliorative Institute. Kovda has 
been a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union 
since 1927. In 1953 he was elected a Corresponding Member of 
the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He was an Honored Scientist 
of the Uzbek S.S.R. in 1943, and in 1951 he received a Stalin 
Prize. 

Kovda' s main research interest is the study of soils of the 
Southern regions of the U.S.S.R., the solonetz, solonchak, and 
the soils of irrigated regions. His work elucidated the origin 
of solonetz and solonchak soils and suggested methods of their 
melioration. Kovda' s investigations are important in recla- 
mation of new lands, in the construction of irrigation systems. 



189 KRASIL'NIKOV 

and in melioration of solonetz soil and saline lands of the 

U.S.S.R. 

Bibliography: 

Solonchak and Solonetz Soil. Moscow -Leningrad: 1937. 

Origin and Regime of Saline Soils. Vol. 1-2. Moscow- 
Leningrad: 1946-47. 

Lowland Soils Near the Caspian Sea (North- West part). 

Moscow -Leningrad: 1950. 

The Geochemistry of U.S.S.R. Deserts. Moscow: 1954 (this 

edition contains a bibliography). 

Mineral Composition of Flora, and Pedogenesis in Pochvove- 

denie. 1956, #1. 
Office: Moscow University 

Moscow, USSR 
Residence: M. Yakimanka, 3 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: Bl 05 99 

KRASIL'NIKQV, NIKOLAI ALE KSANDRQ VIC H (Microbiologist) 
N. A. Krasil'nikov was born December 18, 1896. He gradu- 
ated in 1926 from Leningrad University and in 1929 began work- 
ing at the Institute of Microbiology of the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences. For a number of years he participated in expeditions 
for the study of soil microorganisms in various parts of the 
country. Since 1946 he has been a Corresponding Member of 
the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He is also a member of 
Moscow State University. In 1951 he was awarded a Stalin 
Prize. 

The scientific work of Krasil'nikov is the field of biology of 
microorganism, mainly the study of actinomycetes and bacteria. 
Krasil'nikov studied their structure, development, variability, 
physiological properties; he worked out a new principle of 
classification of actinomycetes and bacteria, and compiled tables 
for determining their series and species. He investigated the 
interrelation of microorganisms and higher plants and proposed 
a series of practical measures for increasing crop yields. He 
investigated antagonism between microorganisms and worked 
out the method for protecting plants against phytopathogenic 
bacteria and fungi. He also carried out investigations in anti- 
biotics and described antibiotics of actinomycetic origin. 

Bibliography: 

Actinomycetes and Related Organisms, Actinomycetales. 
Moscow -Leningrad: 1938. 



KRASNOVSKII 190 

Guide of Actinomycetes. Actinomycetales. Moscow - 
Leningrad: 1941. 

Microbiological Bases of Bacterial Fertilizers. Moscow- 
Leningrad: 1945. 

Guide of Actinomycetes and Bacteria. Moscow-Leningrad: 
1949. 

Actinomycetes-Antagonists and Antibiotic Substances. 
Moscow-Leningrad: 1950. 

Soil Microorganisms and Higher Plants. Moscow, Academy 
of Sciences of the U.S.S.R., 1958. [i.e. Jerusalem, Israel 
Program for Scientific Translations; available from the 
Office of Technical Services, Washington] 474 p. 
Office: Institute of Microbiology of USSR Academy of 

Sciences 

Leninskii Prospekt, 33 

Moscow, USSR 

KRASNOVSKII, ALEKSANDR ABRAMOVICH (Biochemist) 
A. A. Krasnovskii was born in Odessa in 1913. He studied 

at the Mendeleev Chemical and Technological Institute, Moscow. 

In 1948 he earned his Doctor of Biological Science degree. He 

became, in 1951, a deputy Laboratory Chief in the U.S.S.R. 

Academy of Sciences Institute of Biochemistry. Krasnovskii 

was elected a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy 

of Sciences in 1962. In 1950 he was awarded the A. N. Bakh 

Prize. 

Krasnovskii' s main work is in chlorophyll chemistry and 

photosynthesis. 

Bibliography: 

Reversible formation of absorption bands in red and near- 
infrared regions of spectrum in photoreduction of chloro- 
phyll, proto chlorophyll, and their analogs. Doklady Akad. 
Nauk S.S.S.R. 112, 911-14 (1957). C. A. 51, 12239a (1957). 
Proc. Acad. Sci. U.S.S.R., Sect. Biochem. 112, 49-53 (English 
translation). C A. _52, 5561g (1958). 

and L. J. Vorob'eva, E. V. Pakshina. Investigation of the 
photochemically active form of chlorophyll in plants of 
different systematic groups. Fiziol. Rastenii 4^ #2, 124-33 
(1957). C. A. _51, 16744h (1957). 

Development of mode of action of photocatalytic system in 
organisms. Repts. Intern. Symposium, Moscow, 1957 (Pub- 
lishing House of Academy of Sciences of USSR, Moscow), 
391 pp. (351-62.-41 ref.) C. A. 52, 1332c (1958). 



191 KRASNOVSKII 

and G. P. Brin. Chlorophyll- and pheophytin- sensitized 
photooxidation. Biokhimiya 22, 776-88 (1957). Biochemistry 
(U.S.S.R.) 22, 728-38 (1957) (English translation). C. A. 52^ 
13828h (1958). 

and F. F. Litvin. Intermediate stages of formation of chloro- 
phyll in etiolated leaves as studied by fluorescence spectra. 
Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 117, 106-9 (1957). C. A. 52, 
55551 (1958). Proc. Acad. Sci. U.S.S.R., Sect. Biochem. 116- 
17, 251-5 (1957) (English translation). C A. 52, 17422b 
(1958). 

and F. F. Litvin. Investigation of the process of chlorophyll 
formation and of its state in plant leaves by means of fluor- 
escence spectra. Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. Fiz. 23, 
82-5 (1959). C. A. 53, 13291d (1959). 

and E. S. Mikhailova, G. P. Brin, N. M. Sisakyan. Light re- 
activation of cytochrome oxidase activity of plants containing 
and not containing chlorophyll. Biokhimiya 24, 3-8 (1959). 
C. A. 53, 11534b (1959). 

and A. V. Umrikhina. Utilization of compounds of bivalent 
iron and ascorbic acid as donors of electrons in photochemi- 
cal reactions of porphyrins and chlorophyll in aqueous media. 
Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 122, 1061-4 (1958). C. A. 53, 
1929f (1959). 

and L. M. Vorob'eva . Reversible photor eduction of chloro- 
phyll and sensitized reactions in sugar beet leaf homoge- 
nates. Biokhimiya 23, 760-70 (1958). C A. 53, 2375c (1959). 
and A. V. Umrikhina. Formation of free radicals during 
photoreduction of chlorophyll or its derivatives by the 
method of initiation of chain polymerization. Biofizika 3, 
547-57 (1958). C A. 53, 23821 (1959). 
Participation of chlorophyll in photochemical hydrogen 
(electron) transfer. Proc. Intern. Symposium Enzyme 
Chem., Tokyo and Kyoto 1, 355-8 (1957) (Pub. 1958) (in 
English). C. A. 53; 10389a (1959). 

Reversible photochemical reduction and its analogs and the 
mechanism of photosensitization. J. chim. phys. 55, 968-79 
(1958). C. A. 54, 11657h (1960). 

and E. M. Belavtseva, L. M. Vorob'eva . Structure of aggre- 
gated chlorophyll. Biofizika 4, 521-32 (1959). C A. 54, 
11164b (1960). 

and E. V. Pakshina . Photochemical and spectroscopic 
properties of bacterioviridin of green sulfur bacteria. 
Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 127, 913-16 (1959). C A. 54» 
2487c (1960). 



KRASNOVSKII 192 

and F. F. Litvin, G. T. Rikhireva. Formation and transfor- 
mation of protochlorophyll in green plant leaves. Doklady 
Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. m, 699-701 (1959). C A. 54, 2506g 
(1960). 

and M. I. Bystrova . Chlorophyll formation in the homoge- 
nates of etiolated leaves by the method of fluorescent 
spectrophotometry. Biokhimiya 25 , 168-79 (1960). C A. 54, 
21356d (1960). 

and G. P. Brin. Chlorophyll-photosensitized oxidation- 
reduction transformations of pyridine nucleotides in chloro- 
phyll solutions and in leaf homogenates. Biokhimiya 24, 
1085-93 (1959). C A. 54, 132831 (1960). 
and E. V. Pakshina . Reversible photoreduction of bacterio- 
chlorophyll and its participation in photochemical electron 
transfer. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 135, 1258-61 (1960). 
C. A. 55, 11542d (1961). 

and F. F. Litvin, G. T. Rikhireva . Luminescence of various 
forms of chlorophyll in plant leaves. Doklady Akad. Nauk 
S.S.S.R. 135, 1528-31 (1960). C. A. 55, 11558a (1961). 
Primary processes of photosynthesis in plants. Ann. Rev. 
Plant Physiol. 11, 363-410 (1960). C A. 55, 13571a (1961). 
and Yu. E. Erokhin, I. B. Fedorovich. Fluorescence of green 
photosynthesizing bacteria and the state of bacterioviridin. 
Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 134, 1232-5 (1960). C A. 55, 
9560g (1961). 

and N. G. Doman, A. K. Romano va, L. M. Vorob^eva, E. V. 
Pakshina, Z. A. Terent'eva. Synthesis of chlorophyll and 
fixation of CO2 in etiolated barley seedlings under illumi- 
nation. Fiziol. Rastenii, Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 8^, #1, 3-12 
(1961). C. A. 55, 21267e (1961). 

Photobiochemical paths of participation of pigments in photo- 
synthesis reactions. Storage of light energy in the reaction 
of reversible photochemical reduction of chlorophyll. Prob- 
lemy Fotosinteza, Doklady 2-oi [VtoroiJ Konf., Moscow 1957, 
30-43 (Pub. 1959). C. A. 55, 26141b (1961). 
and M. I. Bystrova, A. D. Sorokina. Fractionation of various 
pigments in homogenates of etiolated and illuminated leaves. 
Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 136, 1227-30 (1961). C. A. 55, 
166971 (1961). 

and N. N. Drozdova, E. V. Pakshina. Effect of carotene on 
the photochemical properties of chlorophyll. Biokhimiya 25, 
282-4(1960). C. A. 55, 3737g (1961). 
and Yu. E. Erokhin, Khun-Yui Tsyun. Fluorescence of 
aggregated forms of bacterio-chlorophyll, bacterioviridin 



193 KREPS 

and chlorophyll in relation to pigmentation in photosynthesiz- 
ing organisms. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 143, #2, 456- 
59 (1962). 
Office: A. N. Bakh Institute of Biochemistry 

Leninskii Prospekt, 33 

Moscow, USSR 

KREPS, EVGENII MIKHAILQVICH (Physiologist) 

E. M. Kreps was born April 30, 1899. He graduated in 1923 
from the Military Medical Academy and in 1924-1931 taught 
there. From 1923 to 1934 he was Chief of the Physiology Labo- 
ratory of the Murmansk Biological Station. During 1931-1951 
he worked in the Emergency Rescuing Commission of the Naval 
Fleet. In 1934-1937 he was professor at Leningrad University. 
Beginning in 1935, he has worked at the Sechenov Institute of 
Evolutionary Physiology of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, 
and in 1960 he became the Director. In 1946 he was elected 
Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, 
and is also a member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Medical 
Sciences. 

Kreps' works are concerned with the comparative physiology 
and biochemistry of the nervous system and with functions of 
blood in breathing. He established the regulation of enzyme ac- 
tivity by the central nervous system. Kreps also studied the 
physiology of divers and marine chemistry. He designed oxy- 
hemometers and utilized them in medical practice. 
Bibliography: 

The reaction of astsidii on external irritations. Archives of 

Biological Sciences, 1925, 25, #4-5. 

Change in the activity of enzymes as a method of regulating 

the functions of a living organism. Izvest. Akad. Nauk 

S.S.S.R. Ser. Biol., 1945, #2. 

and others . Biochemical evolution of the brain in ontogeny 

and nervous activity. Zhur. Vysshei Nervnoi Deyatel'. im 

L P. Pavlova, 1952, #1. 

Comparative biochemistry of muscle activity. Physiological 

Journal of the U.S.S.R., 1933, 16, #4. 

Breathing Enzyme- Carbon anhydrosis and its meaning in 

physiology and pathology. Uspekhi Sovremennoi Biol., 1944, 

17, #2. 

Phospholipids of the nervous system. Uspekhi Sovremennoi 

Biol., 1956, 41, #3. 



KRETOVICH 194 

Office: I. M. Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology, 

USSR Academy of Sciences 
Prospekt Maklina, 32 
Leningrad, USSR 

KRETOVICH, VATSLAV LEQNOVICH (Biochemist) 

V. L. Kretovich is a Doctor of Biological Sciences. He has 

worked at the Technological Institute of Food Industry, Moscow, 

and as of 1962, also at the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences A. N. 

Bakh Institute of Biochemistry. In June 1962 he was elected a 

Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

He received the A. N. Bakh Prize in 1958 for his "Principles 

of the Biochemistry of Plants." 

Bibliography: 

Osnovy biokhimii rastenii (Principles of the Biochemistry 
of Plants. 2nd ed. Moscow: Sovet. Nauka. 1956. 497 pp. 
C. A. 53, 1480a (1959). 

The biosynthesis of dicarboxylic amino acids and enzymatic 
transformations of amides in plants. Advances in Enzymol. 
20, 319-40 (1958). C. A. 53, 3331d (1959). 
and T. G. Florenskaya . Effect of heating on proteins and 
enzymes of wheat grain. Biokhim. Zerna, Sbornik 1958, #4, 
56-85. C. A. 53, 595e (1959). 

and T. I. Smirnova, M. K. Veinova. Electrochemical proper- 
ties of soybean and hemp seed proteins. Biokhim. Zerna, 
Sbornik 1958, #4, 5-21. C A. 53, 478a (1959). 
and A. P. Prokhorova . Enzymatic processes in stored dry 
vegetable materials. Biokhim. Zerna, Sbornik 1958, #4, 132- 
7. C. A. 53, 602f (1959). 

and R. R. Tokareva . Improvement of breadmaking quality of 
four by the use of fungal enzyme preparations. Biokhim. 
Zerna, Sbornik 1958, #4, 241-61. C A. 53, 596a (1959). 
and E. Galyas. Synthesis of amino acids from oxalecetic 
acid in sprout extracts. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 124, 
217-19 (1959). C. A. 53, 8318g (1959). 
and I. S. Petrova, R. R. Tokareva, K. I. Chizhova . Semi- 
micromethod of determining volatile organic acid in the 
control of bakery production. Trudy Vsesoyuz. Nauch. - 
Issledovatel. Inst., Khlebopekar. Prom. 1958, #7, 98-102. 
C. A. 53, 8464d (1959). 

and Zh. V. Uspenskaya. Synthesis of phenylalanine and 
transformation of phenylpyruvic acid in the ripening wheat 
spike. Biokhimiya 24, 116-22 (1959). C. A. 53, 9380f (1959). 



195 KRETOVICH 

and V. I. Yakovleva . Biosynthesis of glutamic acid and 
glutamine in pea and wheat seedlings. Fiziol. Rastenii, 
Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 6, 165-70 (1959). C. A. 53, 19054c 
(1959). 

and Q. L. Polyanovskii. Biosynthesis of tryptophan in ear 
wheat. Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. Biol. 1959, #3, 
428-30. C. A. 53, 19058f (1959). 

Biokhimiya zerna i khleba (Biochemistry of Grain and 
Bread). Moscow: Izdatel. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. Nauch. - 
Populyar. Ser. 1958, 176 pp. C. A. 53, 18332b (1959). 
and Z. G. Evstigneeva, K. B. Aseeva, I. G. Savkina. Nitro- 
gen substances in drawing pumpkin sap. Fiziol. Rastenii, 
Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 6, 13-19 (1959). C A. 53, 13288d (1959). 
Enzymatic synthesis of glutamic acid and phenylalanine in 
plants. Proc. Intern. Symposium Enzyme Chem. Tokyo and 
Kyoto _2, 468-70 (1957) (Pub. 1958) (in English). C A. 53, 
15235a (1959). 

and A. A. Bundel, M. R. Frasheri, N. V. Borovikova. Par - 
ticipation of hydroxylamine in the synthesis of amino acids in 
plants. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 122, 1065-7 (1958). 
C. A. _53, 2373h (1959). 

and A. A. Bundel, M. R. Frasheri, N. V. Borovikova. Com- 
petitive inhibition of transamination in plants by hydroxyl- 
amine. Zhur. Obshchei Biol. 19, 414-16 (1958). C. A. 53, 
2380c (1959). 

and M. P. Popov, D. A. Cheleev. Interaction of lipases and 
lipoxidases in the oxidation process of fats. Izvest. Vys- 
shikh Ucheb. Zavedenii, Pishchevaya Tekhnol. 1958, #5, 
23-7. C. A. 53, 11697f (1959). 

Origin of dicarboxylic and aromatic amino acids in vege- 
tables. Qualitas Plant, et Materiae Vegetables 3-4 , 79-90 
(1958) (in French). C A. 53, 5414f (1959). 
and V. 1. Yakovleva. Biosynthesis of glutamic acid and 
glutamine in ripening wheat ear. Doklady Akad. Nauk 
S.S.S.R. 125, 210-12 (1959). C. A. 53, 203011 (1959). 
Osnovy biokhimii rastenii (Principles of Plant Biochemis- 
try), 2nd ed. Kiev: Gosudust. Izdatel. sel'sk. -Khoz. Lit. 
U.S.S.R. 1959. 479 pp. C A. 54, 16731 (1960). 
and T. 1. Smirnova, B. F. Poglazov . Amperometric titration 
of sulfhydryl groups of glycinin. Biokhimiya 24, 758-60 
(1959). C. A. 54. 35511 (1960). 

and Z. S. Kagan. The biosynthesis of valine and of isoleucine 
in the ripening wheat spike. Biokhimiya 24, 717-21 (1959). 
C. A. 54, 3610d (1960). 



KRETOVICH 196 

and O. L. Polyanovskii. Tryptophan synthesis from indolyl- 
pyruvic acid in plants. Biokhimiya 24, 995-1001 (1959). 
C. A. 54, 14374g (1960). 

and A. N. Ponomareva. Quantitative determination of free 
amino acids in grain and flour. Izvest. Vysshikh Ucheb. 
Zavedenii, Pishchevaya Tekhnol. 1960, #1, 132-4. C A. 54, 
15742d (1960). 

and V. I. Yakovleva . Biosynthesis of glutamic acid in ho- 
mogenates of wheat and pea sprouts. Biokhimiya 24, 842-8 
(1959). C. A. 54, 15546d (1960). 

and E. A. Morgunova, A. I. Starodubtseva. Effect of heating 
on physiological and biochemical properties of sunflower 
seeds. Masloboino-Zhirovaya Prom. 26^ #2, 8-11 (1960). 
C. A. 54, 25080h (1960). 

and E. Galyas. Synthesis of amino acids from oxalacetic 
and pyruvic acids in barley sprouts. Doklady Akad. Nauk 
S.S.S.R. 130, 1144-7 (1960). C A. 54, 17573f (1960). 
and Z. S. Kagan. Biosynthesis of valine and ammonium ion 
utilization in wheat sprouts. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 
131, 673-5 (1960). C A. 54, 17573h (1960). 
and K. I. Klechkovskii. Ornithine cycle of amino acid trans- 
amination in pea and wheat seedlings. Biokhimiya 25^, 164-7 
(1960). C. A. 54; 213441 (1960). 

and A. I. Starodubtseva, E. A. Vetkina. The dependence of 
the respiratory intensity of sunflower seeds on their oil 
content. Biokhim. Zerna, Sbornik _5, 256-62 (1960). C. A. 
54, 21795f (1960). 

and Zh. V. Uspenskaya. Biosynthesis of phenylalanine in 
Gramineae and Leguminosae. Biokhim. Zerna, Sbornik 5, 
5-46 (1960). C. A. 55, 1811h (1961). 

and Z. G. Evstigneeva, K. B. Aseeva . Assimilation by the 
root system of labeled ammonium [compounds] in the soil. 
Biokhimiya 25, 476-81 (1960). C. A. 55, 3737g (1961). 
and Z. G. Evstigneeva, K. B. Aseeva. Incorporation of soil 
ammonia nitrogen into seed protein reserve. Biokhimiya 25, 
878-83 (1960). C A. 55, 3738b (1961). 

and R. R. Tokareva. Method for determining aromatic sub- 
stances in bread. Khlebopekar. i Konditer. Prom. 5, #6, 
11-13 (1961). C. A. 55, 21405c (1961). 
and R. R. Tokareva . Utilization of concentrated enzyme 
preparations from molds in bread baking. Biokhim. Zerna i 
Khlekopecheniya, #6, 241-8 (1960). C. A. 55, 214051 (1961). 



197 KRUZHILIN 

Modern concepts in the nature and mechanism of enzyme 
action. Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. Biol. 26, #3, 
425-40 (1961). C. A. 55, 18819e (1961). 
and E. Krauze . Biosynthesis of amino acids from pyruvic 
acid and ammonia in yeast. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 
136 , 1474-7 (1961). C. A. 55, 16668b (1961). 
and A. N. Ponomareva . Amino acid participation in melano- 
idin formation in bread making. Biokhimiya 26, 237-42 
(1961). C. A. 55, 16843f (1961). 

and T. I. Smirnova. Glycinin— a reversibly dissociating 
system. Biokhim. Zerna i Khlebopecheniya, #6, 66-74 
(1960). C. A. 55, 27467e (1961). 

and A. A. Bundel, M. R. Frasheri, N. V. Borovikova. Effect 
of hydroxylamine on growth of wheat. Fiziol. Rastenii, Akad. 
Nauk S.S.S.R. 7, 261-8 (1960). C A. 55^ 4862h (1961). 
and A. P. Prokhorova. Biochemical characteristics of 
grains possessing different odors. Izvest. Akad. Nauk 
S.S.S.R., Ser. Biol. 1960, 446-50. C A. 55, 67141 (1961). 
and K. M. Stepanovich. Serine synthesis from pyruvic acid 
in plants. Doklady Akad. Nauk 139, #2, 488-90 (1961). 
and Z. S. Kagan. Biosynthesis of valine from its keto analog 
in sunflower sprouts. Doklady Akad. Nauk 143, #3, 727-79 
(1962). 
Office: A. N. Bakh Institute of Biochemistry 

Leninskii Prospekt, 33 

Moscow, USSR 

KRUZHILIN, GEORGII NIKITICH (Heat Engineer) 

G. N. Kruzhilin was born June 6, 1911. He graduated in 1934 
from Leningrad Physico-Mechanical Institute. He worked at 
the Central Boiler -Turbine Institute in Leningrad in 1933-1946, 
and in 1936-1938 at its branch in the Urals. Since 1946 
he has worked in various departments of the U.S.S.R. Academy 
of Sciences, and in 1955 at the Krizhanovskii Institute of Ener- 
getics. In 1960 he was made Director. Kruzhilin has been a 
member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union since 1944. 
In 1953 he became a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences. 

The main works of Kruzhilin are devoted to experimentally 
establishing the distribution of the ratio of heat emission along 
the surface of a body, the calculation of a terminal heat layer, 
the theory of heat emission on condensation of steam and a 
boiling liquid, and the investigation of removal of moisture by 
steam from boilers. 



KRYLOV 198 

Bibliography: 

and V. A. Shvab. New method of calculating the range of the 
ratio of heat emission on a surface of a body washed by a 
liquid flow. Zhur. Tekh. Fiz., 1935, 5^ #3. 
and V. A. Shvab- Investigation of the alpha field on the sur- 
face of a round cylinder washed by a cross air blast. Zhur. 
Tekh. Fiz., 1935, 5, #4. 

Investigation of the terminal heat layer. Zhur. Tekh. Fiz., 
1936, 6, #3. 

Theory of heat emission of a round cylinder in a cross 
liquid stream. Zhur. Tekh. Fiz., 1936, 6^, #5. 
Exacting Nussel' ton's theory on heat exchange under 
condensation. Zhur. Tekh. Fiz., 1937,1, #20-21. 
Heat emission from the heating surface to a boiling single - 
component liquid under free convection. Izvest. Akad. Nauk 
S.S.S.R., Otdel. Tekh. Nauk, 1948, #7. 

Summary of experimental data on heat emission during the 
boiling of liquids in conditions of free convection. Izvest. 
Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Otdel. Tekh. Nauk, 1949, #5. 
Theory of removing and separating moisture in steam 
boilers. Soviet Boiler -Turbine Construction, 1945, #1, 4. 
Reactor for physical and technical research. Moscow: 1955. 
(Reports presented by the U.S.S.R. at the International Con- 
ference for Peaceful Utilization of Atomic Energy). 
Office: Krzhizhanovskii Power Engineering Institute of 

USSR Academy of Sciences 

Leninskii Prospekt, 19 

Moscow, USSR 

KRYLOV, ALEKSANDR PETRQVICH (Petroleum Engineer) 
A. P. Krylov was born August 14, 1904. He graduated in 
1926 from Leningrad Mining Institute. He began teaching at the 
Moscow Petroleum Institute in 1933 and in 1949 he became pro- 
fessor. In 1953 he was made deputy Director of the All Union 
Scientific Research Petroleum Institute and Chief of a labora- 
tory at the Institute of Petroleum at the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences. Since 1953 he has been a Corresponding Member of 
the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He was awarded a Stalin 
Prize in 1949. 

Krylov' s main works deal with rational methods in exploiting 
oil deposits. 
Bibliography: 

and I. M. Murav'yov . Textbook in Exploitation of Oil De- 
posits, Part II. Moscow-Leningrad: 1940. 



199 KULEBAKIN 

and others. Scientific Basis for the Exploitation of Oil De- 
posits. (Stalin Prize). Moscow -Leningrad: 1948. 
and I. M. Murav'yov . Exploitation of Oil Deposits. Moscow- 
Leningrad: 1949. 

Main principles of exploiting oil beds by pumping a working 
agent into the bed. Works of the Moscow Oil Institute of 
L M. Gubkin, 1953, #12. 

and G. I. Barenblatt. The Elastic Plastic Regime of an Oil 
Bed. Moscow: 1955. 

Office: Moscow Petroleum Institute of USSR Academy of 

Sciences 
Moscow, USSR 

Residence: Dorogomilovskaya nab. 1/2 
Moscow, USSR 

Telephone: G3 50 14, Ext. 199 

KULEBAKIN, VIKTOR SERGEEVICH (Electrical Engineer) 
V. S. Kulebakin was born October 18, 1891. In 1914 he 
graduated from the Moscow Higher Technical School where in 
1917 he began teaching. He also taught in other higher edu- 
cational institutions and in 1921 became a professor. In 1923 
he was appointed professor at the Air Force Engineering Acade- 
my. Kulebakin organized the All- Union Electrotechnical Insti- 
tute, the Moscow Energy Institute, and the Institute of Auto- 
matics and Telemechanics of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 
He had been a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy 
of Sciences since 1933, and in 1939 he was elected Academician. 
He is a Major General in the Engineer-Technical Service. In 
1950 he was awarded a Stalin Prize. 

Kulebakin has worked on electronic computers, automatic 
regulation and design of regulators. He has studied the electri- 
cal ignition of aircraft engines. Investigations of Kulebakin on 
the reflection of light from the earth's surface and from rotating 
propellers, and on illumination of oj)en spaces for making night 
flying practical. Kulebakin has also worked on the automation 
of electrical drive. His accomplishment in the electrification 
of airplanes was the basis of electrical engineering in Soviet 
aviation. He participated in the development of electric loco- 
motion in mines (Stalin Prize, 1950). 
Bibliography: 

Testing Electric Machines and Transformers, 2nd ed. 

Moscow-Leningrad: 1935. 

Electric Apparatus. I. Moscow-Leningrad: 1932. 



KUPREVICH 200 

and A. M. Senkevich. Electrical Equipment of Airplanes, 
Pt. 1. Moscow: 1945. 

and L. M. Snideev, V. D. Nagorskii. Electrification of Air- 
planes. 1952. 

Biography: 

Academician V. S. Kulebakin. To his 60th Birthday. Elec- 
tricity, 1951, #12. 

Office: Air Force Engineering Academy 

Moscow, USSR 

Residence: B. Khariton'evskii p. 12/1 
Moscow, USSR 

Telephone: B3 64 75 

KUPREVICH, VASILII FEOFILOVICH (Botanist) 

V. F. Kuprevich was born January 24, 1897. From 1934 to 
1938, he worked in the Biological Institute of the Byelorussian 
S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. In 1938, he was made chief of a 
laboratory of the Botannical Institute of the U. S.S.R. Academy 
of Sciences, and from 1949 to 1952, he was Director of this 
Institute. In 1952 V. F. Kuprevich was elected an Academician 
of the Byelorussian S.S.R. Academy and President of the Acade- 
my of Sciences of Byelorussian S.S.R. Since 1953 he has been 
a Corresponding Member of the U. S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 
In 1945 V. F. Kuprevich became a member of the Communist 
Party of the Soviet Union. He is presently a Deputy of the 
U. S.S.R. Supreme Soviet. 

Kuprevich has studied the physiology and biochemistry of 
diseased plants and the classification of mushrooms. He has 
investigated the physiology of diseased plants. He was the first 
to discover the presence of extracellular enzymes in obligate 
parasites and proposed progressive curtailment and specializ- 
ation of extracellular enzymatic apparatus in parasitic mush- 
rooms in the process of their evolution. The basis of the 
pathological process is the action of extracellular enzymes of 
a parasite on the protoplast of the host and responsive reactions 
of the latter which led to necrosis, or the suppression of the 
activity of the parasitic enzymes. Kuprevich showed that leaves 
can assimilate carbon dioxide transmitted along with water 
from other parts of the plant. These investigations led to the 
discovery of the feeding process of plants by carbon dioxide 
from the soil. Kuprevich discovered extracellular enzymes 
which are secreted by the thinnest roots of higher plants. He 
proved the possibility of heterotrophenous feeding of higher 
plants in natural environments and eliminated the principal 



201 KURDYUMOV 

difference in the method of feeding of autotrophic and hetero- 
trophic plants. 
Bibliography: 

Physiology of a Diseased Plant in Connection with General 
Questions on Parasitism. Moscow -Leningrad: 1947. 
Problem of Species in Heterotrophic and Autotrophic Plants. 
Moscow -Leningrad: 1949. 

Influence of higher plants on the substratum with the aid of 
enzymes secreted by roots. Questions of Botany, 2, Moscow- 
Leningrad: 1954, 91-99. 

and V. H. Tranzschel. Flora plantarum cryptogamarum 
U.R.S.S., V. IV, Fungi (I). Uredinales fasc. I, familia 
Melampsoraceae, p. 420, 1957, Moscow-Leningrad. 
Biography: 

President of the Byelorussian S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, 
V. P. Kuprevich. Vestnik Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1952, #1. 
V. P. Ssavitch. V. F. Kuprevitch~the President of the 
Academy of Sciences of the Byelorussian Republic. Botani- 
cal Journal, 1957, 2, p. 325. 
Office: President Academy of Sciences Byelorussian S.S.R. 

Leninskii pr. 66 
Minsk, Byelorussian S.S.R. 
Telephone: 3-21-03 

KURDYUMOV, GEQRGII VYACHESLAVQVICH (Metallurgist) 
G. V. Kurdyumov was born February 1, 1902. In 1926 he 
graduated from the Leningrad Polytechnic Institute. He had 
been working since 1925 at the Physico-Technical Institute of 
the U. S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. In 1932 he began working at 
the Dnepropetrovsk Physico-Technical Institute, and from 1932 
to 1941 he taught at Dnepropetrovsk University. Kurdyumov 
was appointed Director of the Institute of Metalworking and the 
Physics of Metals of the Central Scientific Institute of Ferrous 
Metallurgy (Moscow) in 1944. In 1939 he was elected Acade- 
mician of the Ukrainian S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He has 
been a Corresponding Member of the U. S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences since 1946 and since 1953 an Academician. He was 
awarded, in 1949, a Stalin Prize. 

Kurdyumov has studied the processes arising in the harden- 
ing and tempering of steel and the phenomena of phase transfor- 
mations, hardening, and diffusion in metals and alloys. To- 
gether with N. Y. Gudtsov and N. Ya. Selyakov, he defined 
(1926) the crystalline structure of martensite. The existence 
of the regular orientation of the crystalline lattice of martensite 



KURDYUMOV 202 

in relation to austenite was revealed by Kurdyumov together 
with A. A. Ivens and G. Zaks (1929-30). He further established 
that the normal mutual orientation of crystal lattices of the 
initial and resulting phases occurs according to a general pat- 
tern of phase transformations in solids. In 1932-39, Kurdyumov 
made studies of metastable states and phase transformations in 
copper alloys. The theory of these transformations permitted 
Kurdyumov to discover in 1948 the isothermic transformation 
of martensite at low temperatures and the thermoelastic 
equilibrium in martensite transformation. 

In February 1962, Kurdyumov visited the United States to 
attend the Aluminum Symposium and annual meeting of the 
American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum 
Engineers. (University of Illinois at Urbana and AIME, New 
York). 
Bibliography: 

Thermal treatment of steel in light of X-ray study. Journal 
of the Metal Industry, 1932, #9. 

Common patterns of phase transformations in eutectoid al- 
loys. Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Otdel. Mat. i Estest. 
Nauk, Ser. Khim., 1936, #2. 

Toward a theory of hardening and tempering steel. Col- 
lection of Scientific Papers of the Section of Metal-Working 
and Thermal Treatment of the VNITO Metallurgists. Mos- 
cow: 1940. 

Application of methods of X-ray structural analysis for 
study of tempering of hardened steel. Questions of the 
Physics of Metals and Metalworking, Collection of Scientific 
Papers of the Section of Metalworking. . ., #2. Kiev: 1950. 
Non-diffused (martensitic) transformations in alloys. Zhur. 
Tekh. Fiz., 1948, 18, #8. 

On the nature of hardened steel. Zhur. Tekh. Fiz., 1954, 24, 
#7. 

Application of radioactive isotopes for study of diffusion and 
interatomic interactions in alloys. Application of Isotopes 
in Technology of Biology and Agriculture. Moscow: 1955 
(Reports of the Soviet Delegation to the International Confer- 
ence on Peaceful Use of Atomic Energy, Geneva, 1955). 
IJber den Mechanismus der Phasenumwandlungen in den 
Eutectoidlegierungen. Physikalische Zeitschrift der Sowjet- 
union, 1933, 4, #3. 
Biography: 

Kurdyumov Georgii Vyacheslav. Vestnik Akad. Nauk 
S.S.S.R., 1954, #3, 48. 



203 KURSANOV 

On the Fiftieth Birthday of G. V. Kurdyumov. Problems of 
Metalworking and the Physics of Metals (Collection 3). 
Moscow: 1952. 
Office: Academy of Sciences Ukrainian SSR 

Vladimirskaya Ulitsa, 54 

Kiev, Ukrainian SSR 

KURSANOV, ANDREI L'VQVICH (Biochemist) 

A. L. Kursanov, son of L. I. Kursanov, was born November 8, 
1902. He graduated in 1926 from Moscow University. First he 
worked at the Scientific Research Institute. From 1929 to 1938 
he taught at the Moscow K. A. Timiryazev Agricultural Acade- 
my. Beginning in 1935 he was also at the A. N. Bakh Institute 
of Biochemistry. He started teaching at Moscow University in 
1944. In 1952 Kursanov was made Director of the Timiryazev 
Institute of Plant Physiology of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sci- 
ences. He was elected in 1946, a Corresponding Member of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences and in 1953, an Academician. 

Kursanov' s investigations are in plant metabolism. He 
ascertained the dependence between assimilation of carbon di- 
oxide and emission of high polymer substances from leaves, 
studied the action of enzymes in a living plant, and investigated 
the process of assimilation of carbon dioxide by soils through 
a root system. From 1940 Kursanov conducted investigation of 
tanning substances of the tea leaf, important in control of tea 
production. 

Kursanov is currently Chairman of the Scientific Council of 
Exhibitions. 

As of 1961, Kursanov was a Member of the Presidium of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 
Bibliography: 

Reversible Action of Enzymes in the Living Plant Cell. 

Moscow-Leningrad: 1940. 

Synthesis and Transformation of Tanning Substances in 

Tea Leaves. (Bakh Studies #7) Moscow: 1952. 

Movement of organic substances in the plant. Botan. Zhur., 

1952, #5. 

Biological synthesis of disaccharides in Successes of Bio- 
logical Chemistry, _2. Moscow: 1954. 

with others. On the possibility of Carbonates. Doklady 

Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1951, 79, #4. 

with B. B. Vartapetyan . Participation of oxygen of water 

and the oxygen of the atmosphere in the respiration of plants. 

Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1955, 104, #2. 



KURSANOV 204 

Carbohydrate— phosphorous exchange and synthesis of amino 
acids in the roots of a pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo). Fiziol. 
Rastenni, 1954, #1. 
Office: L. A. Timiryazev Institute of Plant Physiology of 

USSR Academy of Sciences 
Leninskii Prospekt, 33 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: M. Yakimanka, 3 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: Bl 30 30 

KURSANOV, DMITRII NIKQLAEVICH (Organic Chemist) 

D. N. Kursanov was born April 3, 1899. He graduated in 
1924 from Moscow University. From 1930 to 1947 he worked 
at the Moscow Textile Institute and in 1936 was made professor. 
Beginning in 1943, he has worked at the Institute of Organic 
Chemistry and in 1953 at the Institute of Scientific Information 
of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. In 1953 he was elected a 
Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

The main emphasis of Kursanov' s work lies in studying re- 
action mechanisms of organic substances, and in particular, 
alcohol-dehydration, the reactions catalyzed by aluminum 
chloride, and the splitting and exchange of quaternary ammoni- 
um compounds. He discovered a number of new reactions of 
practical importance, in the formation of hydrophobic deriva- 
tives of cellulose and reactions in chemical dyeing of cellulose. 
Kursanov has also investigated with isotopes the intramolecular 
mutual influence of atoms in organic compounds. 
Bibliography: 

and S. S. Namyotkin. Experiment in utilizing the xanthogene 

method for dehydrating benzyl alcohol. Journal of the 

Russian Physico-Chemical Society, 1926, 57, #6-9 

Benzylidene-Cyclohexane. Zhur. Obshchei Khim., 1931, 1, 

#7. 

and R. R. Zel'vin. New type of condensation reaction under 

the influence of aluminum chloride. Doklady Akad. Nauk 

S.S.S.R., 1942, 36, #1. 

and others. Reactions of exchange and splitting in the group 

of quaternary ammonium salts. Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 

Otdel. Khim. Nauk, 1948, #2. 

and V". V. Voevodskii. New data on reactions of hydrogen 

exchange of free organic radicals and ions. Uspekhi Khim., 

1954, 23, #6. 



205 KUZIN 

and Z. I. Parnes. Reaction of cyclopentadiene hydrogen ex- 
change. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1956, 109, #2. 
Hydrogen exchange of ions of carbonium with acids and 
hydrogen exchange of carbonyl compounds with deuterium 
oxide in an alkaline medium. Ukr. S.S.R. Zhur. Khim., 1956, 
22, #1. 

Office: Moscow Textile Institute 

Moscow, USSR 

Residence: Kotel'nicheskaya nab. 1/15 
Moscow, USSR 

Telephone: B7 44 01 

KUZIN, ALEKSANDR MIKHAILOVICH (Radiobiologist) 

A. M. Kuzin was born in 1906. In 1929 he graduated from 
the first Moscow State University. From 1930-1938, he was at 
the first Moscow Medical Institute, and from 1938-42, at the 
third. He was professor, 1942-43, at the Izhevsk Medical 
Institute. From 1943 to 1950, he was Chief of the biochemical 
section of the Moscow Control Institute. He worked, 1945-1951, 
at the Moscow Medical Institute of the R.S.F.S.R. Ministry of 
Health and as a consultant to the U. S.S.R. Academy of Medical 
Sciences Laboratory on Cancer Biotherapy. From 1950 to 1952, 
he was Chief of the U. S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Laboratory 
on Isotopes and Irradiation. In 1952-1957, he was Director and . 
Chief of the Radiobiology Laboratory of the U. S.S.R. Academy 
of Sciences Institute of Biophysics. In 1954 he became chief 
editor of the journal *' Biophysics," and in 1961 chief editor of 
the journal * Radiobiology." He has been a member of the 
Communist Party of the Soviet Union since 1946. In 1960 he 
was elected a Corresponding Member of the U. S.S.R. Academy 
of Sciences. 

Kuzin visited the United States in January 1958 to partici- 
pate in the UN session on Atomic Radiation in New York City. 
He has also attended Pugwash Conferences. 
Bibliography: 

Biochemical fundamentals of the biological action of ionizing 
radiations. U. S. At. Energy Comm. AEC-tr-3353, 4-11 
(1958). C. A. 53, 4373h (1959). 

Initial mechanisms of the biological effect of ionizing radi- 
ation. Trudy Vsesoyuz. Nauch. -Tekh. Konf. Primenen. 
Radioaktiv. i Stabil. Izotopov i Izluchenii v Narod. Khoz. i 
Nauke, Radiobio., Moscow, 1957, 3-13 (Pub. 1958). 



KUZNETSOV 206 

and N. I. Krusanova, A. I. Krasovskaya. Changes in struc- 
tural viscosity of desoxyribonucleoproteins of sarcoma 45 of 
rats. Voprosy Onkol. ^ 276-9 (1958). C A. 53, 6442b 
(1959). 

Radiobiologiya, biologicheskoe destvie ioniziryushchikh 
izluchenii (Radiobiology, Biological Effect of Ionizing Radi- 
ation). Moscow: Izdatel. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 1957. 434 pp. 
C. A. 53, 9328b (1959). 

and V. I. Tokarskaya. Complete labeling of organic plant 
substances with radioactive carbon in the study of disturbed 
metabolism. Biokhimiya 24, 80-6 (1959). C. A. 53, 9380b 
(1959). 

and V. A. Struchkov, N. B. Strazhevskaya. Character of the 
change of polymer spectrum of desoxy ribonucleic acid (DNA) 
after 7 -irradiation of its solutions. Doklady Akad. Nauk 
S.S.S.R. 130, 895-7 (1960). C. A. 54, 20295c (1960). 
and V. I. Tokarskaya -Merenova. Destruction of pyrimidine 
metabolism in radiation injury. Biofizika 4, 446-53 (1959). 
C. A. 54, 2464h (1960). 

and V. I. Tokarskaya, N. G. Doman, S. E. Demina. Assimi- 
lation of organic phosphorous compounds (sugar phosphates) 
by higher plants. Mechenye Atomy v Issledovan. Pitaniya 
Rastenii i Primenen. Udobrenii, Trudy Soveshchaniya Akad. 
Nauk S.S.S.R. 1955, 58-60. C A. 54, 5842h (1960). 
and I. I. Kolomiitseva, L. P. Kayushin . Free radicals in rat 
tissue before and after irradiation by 7 -rays of Co^O. Dok- 
lady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. HO, #1, 230-31 (1961). 
and L. M. Kryukova. Mutation effect of metabolites, formed 
in irradiated vegetation. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 137 , 
#4, 970-71 (1961). 

Nuclear Explosions, a World-Wide Hazard. Trans, by G. 
Yankovsky. Moscow, Foreign Languages Pub. House, 1959, 
138 p. 
Office: Institute of Biophysics of USSR Academy of Sciences 

Leninskii Prospekt, 33 

Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Novopeschanaya, korp. 55 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: D7 51 60 

KUZNETSOV, SERGEI IVANQVICH (Microbiologist) 

S. I. Kuznetsov was born in 1900. He graduated from Mos- 
cow State University in 1923. He worked, 1920-25, as a 
chemist-bacteriologist at a hydrobiological station. In 



207 KUZNETSOV 

1925-1931, he was a postgraduate student and assistant at Mos- 
cow State University. He was chief of the Microbiological 
Laboratory of a limno logical station from 1931 to 1941. In 
1941-46, he was a senior scientific worker at the Lublin plant 
for the decontamination of sewer water. In 1942 he worked at 
the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Institute of Microbiology 
where in 1946 he became section chief. He was elected, in 
1960, a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences. 

Kuznetsov's works are concerned with the geological activity 
and physiology of microbes. 

Kuznetsov has also been a member of the Institute of Biology 
of Reservoirs, Verkhnye-Nikolskoye, Academy of Sciences as 
well as a member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Institute 
of Microbiology. 
Bibliography: 

The question of the possibility of "radiosynthesis." Mikro- 
biologiya 25(2): 195-199 (1956). Referat. Zhur., Biol., 1957, 
#475 (Translation). Biol. Abstr. 32, 31081 (1958). 
and V. A. Kuznetsova, K. B. Ashirov, V. A. Gromovich, 
I. V. Qvchinnikova. An experiment on suppressing the de- 
velopment of sulfate-reducing bacteria in the oil strata of 
the Kabriva field. Mikrobiologiya (trans.) 26(3): 334-341 
(1957). Biol. Abstr. 33, 002663 (1959). 
Principal results in the investigation of the microflora of 
oil deposits. Mikrobiologiya (trans.) 26(6): 630-636 (1957). 
Biol. Abstr. 33, 20219 (1959). 

The geological activity of microorganisms. Izvest. Akad. 
Nauk S.S.S.R., #2, 30-33 (1959). 

and V. I. Zhadin, N. V. Timofeevresovsky. The role of 
radioactive isotopes in solving the problems of hydrobiology. 
Proc. Ind. Internatl. Conf. Peaceful Uses Atomic Energy 27: 
200-207 (1958). Biol. Abstr. 35, 40271 (1960). 
and Ye. N. Kabanova, N. M. Pishchurina. Fluorescent anti- 
bodies and their use in cytology and microbiology. Izvest. 
Akad. Nauk Ser. Biol. 1957(6): 718-732 (1957). Biol. Abstr. 
35, 67448 (1960). 

and G. A. Sokolova . Contributions to the physiology of thio- 
bacillus thioparus. Mikrobiologiya (trans.) 29(2): 131-134 
(1960). Translated from Microbiologia 29(2): 170-176. 
Biol. Abstr. 36, 17782 (1961). 

Dynamics of the quantity of bacteria in Rybinskoye Reservoir 
in 1958. Bull. Inst. Biol. Vodokhranilishch Akad. Nauk 



KUZNETSOV 208 

S.S.S.R. 5, 3-6. Referat. Zhur., Biol., 1961, #6B155. Biol. 
Abstr. 36, 69444 (1961). 

and E. S. Pantskhava . Effect of methane -forming bacteria 
on increasing the electrochemical erosion of metals. Dok- 
lady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 139, #2, 478-80 (1961). 
Office: Institute of Microbiology of USSR Academy of 

Sciences 
Leninskii Prospekt, 33 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: M. Kolkhoznaya pi. 1/3 

Moscow, USSR 
TelephDue: K5 81 99 

KUZNETSOV, VALERII ALEKSEEVICH (Geologist) 

V. A. Kuznetsov was born April 12, 1906. After graduating 
from the Tomsk Geological Survey Institute in 1932, he worked 
in geological establishments of Siberia. Since 1945, he 
has worked at the Mining and Geological Institute of the Siberian 
branch of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. Since 1958 he has 
been a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sci- 
ences. The Presidium of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, in 
1946 and in 1953, awarded Kuznetsov several prizes including 
the V. A. Obruchev Prize. 

Kuznetsov' s main works deal with mercury deposits, metallo- 
genesis of mercury, and also the distribution of mercury in 
West Siberia. He is also concerned with teotectonics and mag- 
matism of the Altai Mountains, Tuva, and Altai -Sayansk folded 
territory in general. 
Bibliography: 

Main questions on stratigraphy and tectonics of central and 

western Tuva. Materials on Geology and Minerals of the 

Tuva Autonomous Region., #2, Moscow: 1953. 

G. V. Pinus and I. M. Volokhov. Hyperbassets of Tuva. 

Moscow: 1955 (U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. The study of 

productive forces. West Siberian branch. Works of the 

Tuva Complex Expedition, #2. 

Main Stages of Geotectonic Development of Southern Altai - 

Sayansk Mountain Region. Works of the Mining and Geological 

Institute (U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. West Siberian 

Branch), 1952, #12. 

Geotectonic division into districts of the Altai -Sayansk folded 

region. Questions on Geology of Asia, J^, Moscow: 1954. 



209 KUZNETSOV 

Office: Mining and Geological Institute of Siberian Branch, 

USSR Academy of Sciences 
Novosibirsk, Siberia 

KUZNETSOV, V^LADIMIR DMITRIEVICH (Physicist) 

V. D. Kuznetsov was born April 30, 1887. In 1910 he gradu- 
ated from Petersburg University and in 1911 began working in 
higher educational institutions of Tomsk. He became a pro- 
fessor at Tomsk University where he had been since 1917. Be- 
ginning in 1929, he has directed the Siberian Physico-Technical 
Institute organized by him. Since 1945 Kuznetsov has been a 
member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Having 
been a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sci- 
ences since 1946, he became an Academician in 1958. He was 
made an Honored Scientist of RSFSR in 1945 and Hero of Social- 
ist Labor in 1957, and in 1942 he was awarded a Stalin Prize. 

The basic direction of Kuznetsov' s work is comprehensive 
investigation of the properties of solids and the phenomena oc- 
curring in solids during their technological treatment. Kuznet- 
sov studied surface energy, hardness, and other properties of 
crystals; internal friction of solids; plasticity and strength of 
metallic single crystals and poly-crystals; the mechanism of 
crystallization and recrystallization; external friction and wear 
of metals and alloys; and the cutting of metals. He wrote a 
multi -volume monograph. The Physics of Solids. Kuznetsov 
worked out a basic physical theory of cutting which showed both 
theoretically and experimentally the possibility of rapid cutting 
of metals. This was later confirmed in practice. 

As of 1961, Kuznetsov was a Member of the Presidium of the 
Siberian Branch USB.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 
Bibliography: 

and others. The Physics of Solids, 1^. Tomsk: 1937-1949. 

Crystals and Crystallization. Moscow: 1953. 

Surface Energy of Solids. Moscow: 1954. 

Excrescences in Cutting and Wearing. Moscow: 1956. 
Biography: 

Studies in the Physics of Solids, Collection of Articles. 

Dedicated to the 70th Birthday of Corresponding Member 

V. D. Kuznetsov of the Academy of Sciences U.S.S.R. 

Moscow, 1957. 
Office: Presidium of the Siberian Department of USSR 

Academy of Sciences 
Novosibirsk, Siberia 



KUZNETSOV 210 

KUZNETSQV, V. I. (Mechanical Engineer) 

V. I. Kuznetsov was born April 27, 1913. After graduating 
in 1938 from Leningrad Polytechnic Institute, he worked in 
scientific research and construction organizations. Since 1942 
he has been a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet 
Union. He was elected, in 1958, a Corresponding Member of 
the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. In 1923 and in 1946 he re- 
ceived Stalin Prizes. 

His main works are devoted to various questions of applied 
mechanics. 
Office: USSR Academy of Sciences 

Leninskii Prospekt, 14 

Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Leninskii Prospekt, 2 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: VI 97 49 

KUZNETSQV, YURH ALEKSEEVICH (Geologist) 

Yu. A. Kuznetsov was born April 19, 1903. He graduated in 
1924 from Tomsk University. In 1930 he began working at the 
Tomsk Polytechnic Institute (in 1930-1933 this Institute was the 
Geological Survey Institute, and in 1933-1938, the Industrial 
Institute). He was made professor in 1938 at the Tomsk Poly- 
technic Institute. He has also participated in the work of geo- 
logical survey organizations of Siberia. Since 1958 he has been 
a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

Kuznetsov' s works deal with stratigraphy, tectonics, petrolo- 
gy and metallogenesis of the Altai, Kuznets-Alatau, Upper 
Sayan and the Yenisei ridge. He paid particular attention to 
elucidating conditions in the formation of intrusions and their 
role in ore mineralization. He studied deposits of iron ore, 
rare and non-ferrous metals, gold, and refractory clay. He 
studied magmatic rock facies and also magmatic formations. 
He systematized and elucidated the characteristics of 
tectonic structures. 
Bibliography: 

Pre-Cambrian petrology of the south Yenisei Ridge. Ma- 
terials on the Geology of West Siberia, #15. Moscow: 1941. 
Origin of magmatic rocks. Magmatism and Minerals As- 
sociated with it. Moscow: 1955. 

Facies of magmatic rocks. Questions on the Geology of 
Asia, 2. Moscow: 1955 



211 LANDAU 

Office: Tomsk Polytechnic Institute of USSR Academy of 

Sciences 
Tomsk, USSR 

LANDAU, LEV^ DAVIDOVICH (Physicist) 

L. D. Landau was born January 22, 1908 in Baku. In 1927 he 
graduated from Leningrad State University. He began working 
in 1937 at the Institute of Physical Problems of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences. In 1943 he became a professor at Mos- 
cow State University. He has been an Academician since 1946. 
He was awarded a State Prize in 1946, Lenin Prize in 1962, 
and two Orders of Lenin. In November 1962 Landau was 
awarded the Nobel Prize in physics. He is a member of numer- 
ous foreign scientific organizations including: the National 
Academy of Sciences of the United States, the English Physical 
Society, the English Royal Society, the Danish Royal Academy 
of Sciences, the Dutch Academy of Sciences, and the French 
Physical Society. 

Landau's investigations are in solid state theory and physics 
of low temperatures. He has worked out a thermodynamic theo- 
ry of the phase transitions of a secondary kind in solids bodies, 
and elucidated their profound connection with the qualitative 
change of a body's symmetry during transition. In 1940-41 
Landau developed the macroscopic theory of liquid helium 
superfluidity which takes place in this fluid at temperatures 
close to absolute zero. Landau predicted the possibility of dif- 
fusing sound waves with two unequal speeds (phenomenon of 
secondary sound) in liquid helium. In his works on supercon- 
ductivity, Landau presented a theory on the intermediate con- 
dition of superconductors. In conjunction with A. Abrikosov, 
I. Pomeranchuk and I. Khalatnikov, Landau found a solution to 
the main equations of the quantum field theory, without the use 
of the perturbation theory, and he proved that the concept of 
point interaction is groundless because it leads to the absence 
of any interaction. Recently, in connection with the discovery of 
the nonconservation of parity in weak interactions. Landau pro- 
posed the theory of combined inversion and the theory of a '^two 
component neutrino." A considerable number of his investi- 
gations are in nuclear physics and cosmic rays. 
Bibliography: 

Continuum Mechanics, Hydrodynamics and the Theory of 
Elasticity. Moscow-Leningrad: 1944. 
and E. M. Lifshits . Field Theory, 2nd ed. Moscow- 
Leningrad: 1948. 



LARIONOV 212 

and E- M. Lifshits . Quantum Mechanics, Part I. Moscow - 
Leningrad: 1948. 

and E. M. Lifshits. Statistical Physics (Classic and Quan- 
tum). Moscow-Leningrad: 1951. 

On the theory of phase transition. Zhur. Eksptl. i Teoret. 
Fiz., 1937, #1,5. 

Theory of helium superfluidity. Zhur. Eksptl. i Teoret. 
Fiz., 1941, #6. 

On the theory of intermediate condition of superconductors. 
Zhur. Eksptl. i Teoret. Fiz., 1943, #11-12. 
and A. Abrikosov, I. Khalatnikov . On the quantum theory of 
fields. Nuovo cimento, supplement, 1956, 3^, #1, 80. 
On the laws of conservation at weak interactions. One possi- 
bility for polarized properties of neutrons. Zhur. Eksptl. i 
Teoret. Fiz., 1957, #2. 

and L. Pyatigorskii. Mechanics. Moscow-Leningrad: 1940. 
and E. M. Lifshits. Mechanics of Continuous Media. 
Moscow -Leningrad: 1944. 

Biography: 

V. B. Berestetskii. Lev Davidovich Landau (To the 50th 
Anniversary since the date of birth). Uspekhi Fiz. Nauk, 64, 
#3 (1958). 

Office: S. L Vavilov Institute of Physics Problems of USSR 

Academy of Sciences 
Vorob'evskoye Shosse, 2 
Moscow, USSR 

Telephone: B2 18 86 

LARIONOV, ANDREI NIKOLAEVICH (Electrical Engineer) 
A. N. Larionov was born July 16, 1889. He graduated in 
1919 from Moscow Technical College and until 1930 taught 
there. From 1921 to 1941 he also worked at the All Union 
Electro-Technical Institute. In 1930 he assisted in the organi- 
zation of the Moscow Institute of Energetics and in 1933 was 
made a professor there. He began working in 1953 at the Insti- 
tute of Automation and Telemechanics of the U.S.S.R. Academy 
of Sciences. Since 1953 he has been a Corresponding Member 
of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

The major works of Larionov deal with the theory, calcu- 
lation, and construction of special electric machines and 
electric drive. Under the leadership and participation of Lario- 
nov there were developed a series of electric machines which 
are distinguished by their light weight and small size (high volt- 
age, direct current machines, high voltage direct-current 



213 LAVRENKO 

converters, machines with excitation by permanent magnets, 
alternating current generators, special machines). In 1924 he 
proposed a three-phase bridge scheme of current rectification. 
He took part in the planning of electrical equipment in the air- 
plane "Maxim Gorki", in the solution of technical problems 
associated with the starting of turbo and hydro generators in 
power plants, and in the solution of the electrification of oil 
fields. 
Bibliography: 

Utilization of Electricity in Aviation and Motor Transport. 
Moscow-Leningrad: 1954. 

and others. Basis of Electrical Equipment in Aircraft and 
Automobiles. Moscow -Leningrad: 1955. 
and others. Hysteresis of Electric Motors. Works of the 
Moscow Institute of Energetics of V. M. Molotov. #16, 
Moscow-Leningrad: 1956. 

Selection of single optimum frequencies for autonomous 
systems of alternating current with special elements and 
electric machines of automation. Session of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences on Scientific Problems of Automation 
in Industry, October 15-20, 1956. Moscow: 1957. (Works 
of a Session of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, 5. 
Biography: 

Professor A. N. Larionov (On the 60th Anniversary since the 
date of birth and 30th Anniversary of his scientific- 
pedagogical activity. Electricity, 1950, #1. 
Office: Institute of Automation and Remote Control of USSR 

Academy of Sciences 
Kalanchevskaya Ulitsa 15 -a 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Krasnokazarmennaya, 12 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: ZH 4 38 00 

LAVRENKO, EVGENII MIKHAILOVICH (Geobotanist) 

E. M. Lavrenko was born February 24, 1900. In 1921-1928, 
he worked at the Botanical Gardens in Khar'kov. He was as- 
sistant professor in 1929, and in 1931-1934 professor at Khar'- 
kov Agricultural Institute. In 1934 he started working at the 
Botanical Institute of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. Since 
1946 he has been a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences. 

Lavrenko developed a new classification for steppe vege- 
tation of the U.S.S.R. and proposed the zonal and provincial 



LAVRENTEV 214 

division of vegetation of European-Asiatic Steppe Regions. He 
investigated zoning and compiled vegetation maps. His work on 
the history of flora and vegetation threw light on the origin of 
vegetative cover of the U.S.S.R. He introduced the concept of 
phytogeosphere as a part of the biosphere. 
Bibliography: 

History of flora and vegetation of U.S.S.R. according to the 
data of the contemporary distribution of plants. Vegetation 
of the U.S.S.R. (Collection of Articles), L Moscow- 
Leningrad: 1938, 235-296. 

Steppes of the U.S.S.R. Vegetation of the U.S.S.R. (Col- 
lection of Articles), 2_. Moscow-Leningrad: 1940,1-265. 
On the phytogeosphere. Questions of Geography, Moscow, 
1949, #15, 53-66. 

Age of botanical regions in non-tropical Eurasia. Izvest. 
Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. Geog., Moscow, 1951, #2, 17-28. 
and V. B. Sochava, eds. Steppes and agricultural lands in 
the steppe regions. Vegetative Cover of the U.S.S.R. 
Explanatory text to *'Geobotanical Map" of the U.S.S.R., 
Scale 1:4,000,000. Moscow-Leningrad: 1956, 595-730. 
Office: V. L. Komarov Institute of Botany of USSR Academy 

of Sciences 
Ulitsa Popova, 2 
Leningrad, P-22, USSR 

LAVRENTEV, MIKHAIL ALEKSEEVICH (Mathematician) 

M. A. Lavrentev was born November 19, 1900 in Kazan. In 
1922 he graduated from Moscow University. He received the 
Doctor of Physical-Mathematical Sciences degree in 1933 and 
the Doctor of Technical Sciences degree in 1932. From 1931 to 
1941, he was professor at Moscow University. He was made 
Chairman in 1934 of the Department on Theory of Functions at 
the Mathematical Institute of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 
From 1939 to 1948 he was Director of the Institute of Mathe- 
matics and Mechanics of the Ukrainian S.S.R. Academy of Sci- 
ences, and from 1945 to 1948 he was Vice President of this 
Academy. Lavrentev was Director of the Institute of Exact 
Mechanics and Computing Techniques of the U.S.S.R. Academy 
of Sciences from 1950 to 1953. He was, in 1951-53 and in 1955- 
57, Academician Secretary of the Department of Physico- 
Mathematical Sciences of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 
In 1957 he became Vice President of the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences and Chairman of the Siberian branch of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences. He was elected Academician of the 



215 LAVRENTEV 

Ukrainian S.S.R. Academy of Sciences in 1939, and in 1946 
Academician of the U. S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. Lavrentev 
has been a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union 
since 1952. In 1957 he became a member of the Czechoslovaki- 
an Academy of Sciences. He was a deputy to the U. S.S.R. Su- 
preme Soviet (5th Convocation). Lavrentev was elected again a 
deputy from RSFSR to the Supreme Soviet in March 1962. In 
1946 and 1949, he was awarded Stalin Prizes, and in 1960 re- 
ceived the Order of Lenin. 

Lavrentev has been interested in the theory of the function 
of a complex variable, the metric study of the conformity of the 
boundaries at conformal mapping, and the properties of 
functions that can be represented by converging series of poly- 
nomials. He worked out the theory of quasi -conformal map- 
ping, which is the basis of geometric methods of solving a wide 
range of problems in mathematics and mathematical physics. 
Lavrentev did a great deal of work on problems of the me- 
chanics of a continuous medium and on hydrodynamics such as 
the theory of flows and a new theory of non-linear waves. 

As of 1961, Lavrentev was Director of the Institute of Hydro- 
dynamics of the Siberian Branch U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences 
and, in the same year, he was elected to the Central Committee 
of the Communist Party. 
Bibliography: 

On the theory of conformal mapping. Works of the Physico- 
Mathematical Institute of V. A. Steklov, 1934, 5^. 
Some properties of single leaf functions with application to 
the theory of flows. Mat. Sbornik, 1938, 4, #3. 
General problem of the theory of quasi-conformal mapping 
of plane regions. Mat. Sbornik, New Series, 1947, 21, #2. 
Main theorem of the theory of quasi-conformal mapping of 
plane regions. Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. Mat., 1948, 
12, #6. 
Biography: 

M. V. Keldysh . On the 50th birthday of M. A. Lavrentev. 
Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. Mat, 1951, 15, 1. 
Mathematics in the U.S.S.R. during the last 30 Years. Col- 
lection of Articles. Moscow -Leningrad: 1948. 
Office: President, Siberian Department of USSR Academy 

of Sciences 
Novosibirsk, Siberia 



LAV^ROVSKII 216 

LAVROVSKII, KONSTANTIN PETROVICH (Organic Chemist) 

K. P. Lavrovskii was born December 31, 1898. He graduat- 
ed in 1926 from Moscow University. In 1930-34 he worked at 
the State Scientific Research Oil Institute and in 1933 became a 
professor there. He also worked for a number of years in the 
oil industry. Beginning in 1942 he was at the U.S.S.R. Academy 
of Sciences, first at the Institute of Mineral Fields, then at the 
Institute of Oil. Since 1953 he has been a Corresponding Mem- 
ber of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He has been a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1920. He 
was awarded M. V. Frunze and N. D. Zelinskii Prizes. 

Lavrovskii' s investigations are concerned with the field of 
chemistry and technology of oil refining and organic catalysis. 
His work on the synthesis of tetraethyl lead was the basis for 
the Soviet production of this antiknock agent. He developed the 
commercial production of aviation gasoline from sulfur crude 
of "Second Baku." His studies of catalytic hydrocarbon trans- 
formations was a theoretical basis for the production of unsatu- 
rated gases and high octane fuels. 
Bibliography: 

and A. M. Brodskii . Physico-chemical investigation of high 
velocity cracking. Reports at the IVth International Oil 
Congress in Rome. Moscow: 1955. 

and A. M. Brodskii. Processing of gaseous paraffins under 
conditions of high velocity cracking. Works of the Institute 
of Oil of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, 1954, 4, 176-198. 
and Yu. L. Fish, N. N. Naimushin. Catalytic cracking of 
cyclical hydrocarbons under pressure. Works of the Insti- 
tute of Oil of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, 1952, 2. 
and A. L. Rozenthal' and A. Kh. Eglit . Interaction of iron 
ores with methane in conditions of a 'boiling' layer. Doklady 
Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1957, IJ^, #4. 
Office: USSR Academy of Sciences Institute of Petrochemi- 

cal Synthesis 
Leninskii Prospekt, 29 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: 1st Donskoi pr. 15 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: B2 51 90 

LEBEDEV, ALEKSANDR ALEKSEEVICH (Physicist) 

A. A. Lebedev was born November 26, 1893. In 1916 he 
graduated from Petersburg University and remained there to 
prepare for a professorship. Except for a few years, he has 



217 LEBEDEV 

been working at Leningrad University until the present time. 
He was a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences from 1939 to 1943 when he was elected an Academici- 
an. Lebedev was twice a Deputy to the U.S.S.R. Supreme Soviet. 
He received a Stalin Prize in 1947 and again in 1949. In 1957 
he was made a Hero of Socialist Labor. 

In 1919, at the State Optical Institute, Lebedev began a varied 
study of the processes of annealing optical glass. He formu- 
lated a theory of temperature conditions for annealing various 
types of glass. Lebedev investigated the use of interference 
for measuring wave lengths and indices of refraction. In 1931 
he designed a polarized interferrometer which was based on 
light passing through a birefringent lens. He is a prominent 
Soviet specialist in the area of electronic optics. In 1931, while 
studying the diffraction of fast electrons, Lebedev used the 
focusing action of a magnetic lens in an electron diffraction 
camera. Together with associates, Lebedev designed a Soviet 
electronic microscope (Stalin Prize 1947). He has also studied 
photoelectric phenomena, and he directed the construction of a 
Soviet photographic camera (Stalin Prize 1949). 

In 1958 Lebedev was appointed Chief of the U.S.S.R. Acade- 
my of Sciences Commission Staff on Radiobiology. As of 1961, 
he was Chairman of the Permanent Commission for Electron 
Microscopy. 
Bibliography: 

On structural transformations in glass, in Structure of 

Glass. Collection of Articles. Mo scow -Leningrad: 1953. 
Biography: 

Academician A. A. Lebedev, in General Conference of the 

U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, September 25-30, 1943. 

Moscow -Leningrad: 1944. 

Academician Aleksandr Alekseevich Lebedev (On the 60th 

Anniversary since the date of birth). Zhur. Eksptl. i Teoret. 

Fiz., 1953, 25, #6(12). 
Office: Department of Physics 

Leningrad University 
Leningrad, USSR 

LEBEDEV, SERGEI ALEKSEEVICH (Radio Engineer ) 

S. A. Lebedev was born November 2, 1902. After graduating 
in 1928 from Moscow Technological College, he worked until 
1945 in the All-Union Electrotechnical Institute. In 1946 to 
1951 he was Director of the Institute of Electroengineering at 
the Ukrainian S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. Lebedev became 



LEONTOVICH 218 

Director, in 1953, of the Institute of Exact Mechanics and Com- 
puting Technicians of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. Also 
in 1953 he was made professor at the Moscow Physico- 
Technical Institute. He has been a member of the Communist 
Party of the Soviet Union since 1946. In 1945 he was elected 
Academician of the Ukrainian S.S.R. Academy of Sciences and 
in 1953 an Academician of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 
He was awarded a Stalin Prize in 1950 and in 1956 he was a 
Hero of Socialist Labor. 

Lebedev was one of the first in the U.S.S.R. to work on the 
stability of power systems. He is the author of a theory on the 
stability of synchronous machines, and a specialist in auto- 
mation of power systems. He has been working on computer 
techniques and the design and construction of computer devices. 
He directed the construction of high speed computers. 

In December 1958 and April 1959, Lebedev visited the United 
States to attend the Joint Computer Conference in Philadelphia. 
In November 1962 Lebedev was awarded the Order of Lenin. 
Bibliography: 

and P. S. Zhdanov . Stability of Parallel Action of Electrical 
Systems, 2nd ed. Moscow-Leningrad: 1934. 
Artificial stability of synchronous machines (speech at 12th 
session of International Conference on Large Electric Net- 
works, Paris, June 24-July 3, 1948, published in Moscow, 
1948). 
Biography: 

Lebedev, Sergei Alekseevich. Vestnik Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 
1954, #1, 42. 

A. D. Nesterenko and I. T. Shvets. Sergei Alekseevich 
Lebedev. Questions of Electro -automation and Radio Tech- 
nics. Kiev: 1954. 
Office: Institute of Precision Mechanics and Computation 

Techniques 
USSR Academy of Sciences 
Leninskii Prospekt, 51 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Novopeschanaya, 17 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: D7 53 75 

LEONTOVICH, MIKHAIL ALEKSANDRQV^ICH (Physicist) 

M. A. Leontovich was born March 9, 1903, son of A. V. 
Leontovich (1869-1943, physiologist). In 1923 he graduated 
from Moscow University. He worked on the Commission for 



219 LEONTOVICH 

Investigation of the Kursk Magnetic Anomoly. Beginning in 
1929, he was a scientific worker at the Physics Institute of 
Moscow University. He was a professor from 1934 to 1935 and 
again in 1955 at Moscow University. From 1934 to 1941 and 
1946 to 1952, he worked at the Physics Institute of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences. Leontovich began working at the Institute 
of Atomic Energy, U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences in 1951. In 
1939 he was elected Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences and in 1946 Academician. He received 
the Gold Medal of A. S. Popov in 1952, and in 1958 a Lenin 
Prize. 

Leontovich' s investigations are in electrodynamics, optics, 
statistical physics, radiophysics. Important investigations by 
Leontovich are on the theory of molecular dispersion of light 
(until 1935), in ultra-acoustics [absorption of sound in gases 
(1936), in liquids (1936 and 1939)J, on the theory of fluctuations 
and statistical physics [on the basis of thermodynamic statistics 
(1932), on gas-kinetic equations derived from the theory on sto- 
chastic processes (1935)], and in various aspects of radiophysics 
[thermal fluctuations of the electromagnetic field in solids (to- 
gether with S. M. Rytov)]. Leontovich also studied the theory of 
radiowave propagation and the theory of antennae. He determined 
the approximate ratios between the components of the electro- 
magnetic field on the surface of a conducting medium, thus con- ' 
siderably simplifying mathematical treatment of the problem of 
radiowave propagation along the earth's surface and allowing 
solution of many special problems. A theory of fine wire an- 
tennae was completed by Leontovich jointly with his student, 
M. L. Levin, and published as *0n the Theory of Excitation of 
Oscillations in Antennae Vibrators" (1944). Leontovich partici- 
pated in solving practical problems in radioengineering. For 
his work in radiophysics and radioengineering Leontovich was 
awarded the Gold Medal of A. S. Popov (1952). Recently he has 
been investigating powerful pulse discharges in gas in an effort 
to obtain high -temperature plasma (Lenin Prize 1958). 
Bibliography: 

Statistical Physics. Moscow-Leningrad: 1944. 
Introduction to Thermodynamics, 2nd ed. Moscow- 
Leningrad: 1952. 
Biography: 

Mikhail Aleksandrovich Leontovich. On the 50th Anniversary 
since the date of birth. Zhur. Eksptl. i Teoret. Fiz., 1953, 
24, #1(7). 



LEVICH 220 

S. Khaikin. Laureate of the Gold Medal of Popov. Radio, 
1952, #6. 
Office: I. V. Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy of USSR 

Academy of Sciences 
Moscow, USSR 

LEVICH, VENIAMIN GRIGOR'EVICH (Physical Chemist and 
Theoretical Physicist) 

V. G. Levich was born March 30, 1917. He graduated in 
1937 from Kharkov University. In 1940-1958 he worked at the 
Institute of Physical Chemistry at the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences. He taught in 1940-1949 at Moscow State Pedagogical 
Institute. He was made Departmental Chairman of the Moscow 
Engineering- Physical Institute in 1950, and in 1951 professor. 
In 1958, Levich became Chairman of the Theoretical Depart- 
ment of the Institute of Electrochemistry of the U.S.S.R. Acade- 
my of Sciences. Since 1958 he has been a Corresponding Mem- 
ber of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

The works of Levich deal with the investigation of physico- 
chemical processes and are mainly concerned with problems of 
physico-chemical hydrodynamics. He formulated a theory of 
mass transfer to the phase contacting area, a theory of concen- 
trated polarization with the passing of a current through so- 
lutions, a theory of the influence of surface -active substances 
on the movement of a liquid, a theory of a non-equilibrium 
double layer, coagulation of aerosols and colloids in turbulent 
flows, and other questions on the theory of mutual influence of 
physico-chemical processes and the movement of a medium. 
Bibliography: 

Physico-Chemical Hydrodynamics. Moscow: 1952. 

Statistical Physics. Moscow: 1950. 

and B. M. Grafov. Effect of rectification on an ideally 

polarized electrode. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 146 , #6, 

1372-73 (1962). 
Office: Theoretical Department 

Institute of Electrochemistry of USSR Academy of 

Sciences 
Leninskii Prospekt, 31 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Zhitnaya, 10 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: B3 02 68 



221 LIFSHITS 

LIFSHITS, IL'YA MIKHAILOVICH (Physicist) 

I. M. Lif shits was born in 1917. In 1936 he graduated from 
the Khar'kov State University, and in 1938 from the Khar'kov 
Mechanico- Machine -Building Institute. He started, in 1937, as 
a scientific worker, and in 1941, became a section chief at the 
Ukraine S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Physico-Technical Insti- 
tute in Khar'kov. Also in 1941 he received his Doctor of Sci- 
ence Degree. In 1944 he became Chairman of the Theoretical 
Physics Department of Khar'kov State University. He is a 
Corresponding Member of the Ukrainian SSR Academy of Sci- 
ences and was elected, in 1960, a Corresponding Member of the 
U. S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. In 1952 Lif shits was awarded 
the Mandelshtam Memorial Prize of the U. S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences for work on dynamic theory of nonideal crystals. For 
his research on electronic structure of metals, he received, in 
1961, the Simon Memorial Prize of the Physical Society of 
London. 

Lifshits' works deal with the theory of solid state physics 
and low temperature physics. 
Bibliography: 

On the theory of X-rays scattering by crystals with variable 

structure. Sow. Phys. 12, (1937). 

Optical behavior of non-ideal crystal lattices in infra-red. 

Zhur. Eksper. i Teor. Fiz. 12, 117 (1942). (English trans. 

Jour, of Phys. _7, 215, 1943). Zhur. Eksper. i Teor. Fiz. 12, 

137 (1942). (English trans. Jour, of Phys. 7, 86, 1943). 

Zhur. Eksper. i Teor. Fiz. 12, 156 (1942). (English trans. 

Jour, of Phys. 8, 82, 1944). 

On the theory of degenerate regular perturbation. I, 11. 

Zhur. Eksper. i Teor. Fiz. 17, 1017 (1947). Zhur. Eksper. i 

Teor. Fiz. 17, 1076 (1947). 

and I. V. Obreimov . On the theory of crystal twinning. 

Jour, of Phys. 11, 121 (1947). 

Short elastic waves scattering in a crystal lattice. Zhur. 

Eksper. i Teor. Fiz. 18, 293 (1948). 

and L. N. Rosentzveig. Dynamics of crystals lattice filling 

a semi-space. Zhur. Eksper. i Teor. Fiz. 18, 1012 (1948). 

On kinetics of superconductivity destruction in magnetic 

field. Zhur. Eksper. i Teor. Fiz. 20, 834 (1950). 

On a problem of perturbation theory, connected with quantum 

statistics. Uspekhi Mat. Nauk 7, 171 (1952). 

On thermal properties of chain and layer structure at low 

temperature. Zhur. Eksper. i Teor. Fiz. 22, 475 (1952). 



LIFSHITS 222 

On determination of energy spectrum of Bose- system from 
its thermal heat capacity. Zhur. Eksper. i Teor. Fiz. 26, 5 
(1952). 

and A. M. Kosevich. On the theory of the De-Haas-van- 
Alphen effect for the particles with arbitrary dispersion low. 
Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 96, 5 (1954). 
and A. V. Pogorelov. On determination of Fermi -surface 
and velocities in metals from magnetic susceptibility oscil- 
lations. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 96, 6 (1954). 
On the theory of magnetic susceptibility in metals at low 
temperatures. Zhur. Eksper. i Teor. Fiz. 29, 6 (1955). 
Some problems of dynamic theory of non-ideal crystal lat- 
tices. Supplemento del Nuovo-cimento 3^, 4 (1956). 
and M. Ja. Azbel', M. I. Kaganov . The theory of galvano- 
magnetic phenomena in metals. Zhur. Eksper. i Teor. Fiz. 
31, 22 (1956). 

and G. I. Stepanova. On the oscillation spectrum of the dis- 
ordered crystal lattices. Zhur. Eksper. i Teor. Fiz. 30, 5 
(1956). 

and M. Ja. Azber, V. I. Gerasimenko . Paramagnetic reso- 
nance and polarization of nuclei in metals. Jour, of Phys. 
and Chem. of Solids (1957). 

and G. I. Stepanova . The correlation in solid solutions. 
Zhur. Eksper. i Teor. Fiz. 33, v2(8), 485 (1957). 
Quantum theory of galvanomagnetic effects in metals. Jour, 
of Phys. and Chem. of Solids 4^ 11 (1958). 
and A. M. Kosevich. Theory of Shubnikov-De-Haas effect. 
Jour, of Phys. and Chem. of Solids, 4, 1 (1958). 
and V. V. Slesov . On the kinetics of diffusional decay of 
supersaturated solid solutions. Zhur. Eksper. i Teor. Fiz. 
35, v2(8) (1958). Jour, of Phys. and Chem. of Solids 19, 
#112, p. 35 (1961). 

and M. Ja. Azbel '. The electronic resonances in metals. 
Progress in Low Temperature Physics v. Ill, 1961. 
The theory of quantum cyclotronic resonance in metals. 
Zhur. Eksper. i Teor. Fiz. 40, #4 (1961). 

and V. G. Pestcharsky . The galvanomagnetic characteristics 
of metals with open Fermi-surfaces. Zhur. Eksper. i Teor. 
Fiz. 35, #5(11), 1958. 

and M. I. Kaganov, L. V. Tanatarov . On the theory of the 
radiation effects in metals. Atomnaya Energia 6^, #4 (1959). 
and M. I. Kaganov. Some problems of electron theory of 
metals. I. Uspekhi Fiz. Nauk 69, #3 (1959).^ II. Uspekhi 
Fiz. Nauk 78, #3 (1962). 



223 LINNIK 

High-pressure anomalies of electron properties of metals. 
Zhur. Eksper. I Teor. Fiz. 38, #5 (1960). 
The kinetics of ordering at phase transition of second order. 
Zhur. Eksper. i Teor. Fiz. 42^ #5 (1962). 
and V. V. Slezov . Dynamic equilibrium of a fog cloud over 
a liquid surface. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 146, #2, 799- 
802 (1962). 
Office: Ukrainian SSR Academy of Sciences Physico- 

Technical Institute of USSR Academy of Sciences 

Yumovskii Tupik, 2 

Khar'kov 24, Ukrainian SSR 

LINNIK, VLADIMIR PAVLQVICH (Physicist) 

V. P. Linnik was born July 6, 1889. In 1914 he graduated 
from Kiev University. He began working at the State Optical 
Institute in 1926. Until 1941 he was a professor at Leningrad 
University. Since 1939 he has been an Academician of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. Twice, in 1946 and in 1950, he 
was awarded Stalin Prizes. 

Linnik' s research is in optics and its application in the 
instrument-making industry. He constructed the following opti- 
cal devices: a double microscope (1929), microinterferometer 
(1933) for controlling the exactness of the processing of sur- 
faces, a microscope for studying the surface of red-hot bodies, 
interferometers for measuring double stars and the angular 
diameter of the sun. He has developed methods of laboratory 
investigation and testing of optical devices such as the aber- 
ration of optical systems, the centering of optical systems, and 
the assembling of microscope lenses. He designed control 
devices for optical-mechanical industry. Linnik also worked 
on the physics of X-rays and, in particular, on the investigation 
of crystals with X-rays. 
Bibliography: 

Device for interference investigation of the reflecting objects 
under the microscope (** Microinterferometer"). Doklady 
Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1933, #1. 

Device for interference investigation of the microprofile of a 
surface ("Microprofilometer"). Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 
1945, 47, #9. 

Interferometer for controlling large machine details. Dok- 
lady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1942, 35, #1. 

Interference passage instrument. Doklady Akad. Nauk, 1946, 
53, #3. 



LINNIK 224 

On the fundamental possibility of lessening the influence of 

the atmosphere on the image of a star. Optika i Spektro- 

scopy, 1957, _3^, #4. 

Statistically similar zones of a linear type. Doklady Akad. 

Nauk S.S.S.R. 144, #5, 974-76 (1962). 

Theory of statistical similar zones. Doklady Akad. Nauk 

S.S.S.R. 146, #2, 300-03 (1962). 

and V. F. Skubenko. Asymptote of whole number third order 

matrices. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 146, #5, 1007-08 

(1962). 
Biography: 

V. P. Linnik. Uspekhi Fiz. Nauk, 1939, 21, #2. 

Academician Vladimir Pavlovich Linnik. Vestnik Akad. 

Nauk S.S.S.R., 1939, #2-3. 
Office: Department of Physics 

Leningrad University 
Leningrad, USSR 

LINNIK, YURII VLADIMIROVICH (Mathematician) 

Yu. V. Linnik was born January 8, 1915. He graduated from 
Leningrad University in 1938 and did postgraduate work there 
in 1940, in which year he was granted the Doctor of Physical - 
Mathematical Sciences degree. Since 1940, he has been em- 
ployed at the Leningrad branch of the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences Mathematics Institute, and has been a professor at 
Leningrad University since 1944. In 1947 he was awarded a 
Stalin Prize. He was elected, in 1953, a Corresponding Member 
of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

In the theory of numbers, Linnik was occupied with the 
presentation of numbers in quadratic form and gave an esti- 
mation of the smallest prime number in an arithmetical pro- 
gression with a large difference. He also worked in the calcu- 
lus of probability, on heterogeneous Markov chains and on 
mathematical statistics. 
Bibliography: 

Asymptotic distribution of whole points on a sphere. Dok- 
lady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1954, 96, #5. 
Asymptotic distribution of reduced binary forms in con- 
nection with the geometry of Lobachevskii. I-III. Vestnik of 
Leningrad University, 1955, #2, 3-23; #5, 3-32; #8, 15-28. 
Office: Leningrad Section 

Mathematical Institute of USSR Academy of Sciences 
Nab. Fontanki, 25 
Leningrad D-11, USSR 



225 LURIE 

LIVANQV, MIKHAIL NIKQLAEQVICH (Human and Animal 
Physiologist) 
As of 1962, M. N. Livanov has been working at the Institute 
of Biophysics, Moscow, Academy of Medical Sciences and at the 
Institute of Higher Nervous Activity, Moscow, Academy of Sci- 
ences U.S.S.R. He was elected a Corresponding Member of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, June 1962. 

LURIE (LUR'YE), ANATOLH ISAKOVICH (Mechanics Specialist) 

A. I. Lurie was born in 1901. Upon graduating from the 
Leningrad Polytechnical Institute (Faculty of Physics and Me- 
chanics) in 1925, he began working there. In 1935, he became 
a professor, and chairman of the Department of Theoretical 
Mechanics and later (1944) of Machine Strength and Dynamics. 
He was elected, in 1960, a Corresponding Member of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

Lurie' s basic work deals with the theory of tensile strength, 
stability of automatic control systems and analytical mechanics. 
Bibliography: 

and L. G. Loitsianskii. Theoretical Mechanics, v. 1, 2, 3. 
Six editions Gostekhizdat 1932-1955, translated into Bulgari- 
an (1958) and Chinese (1954). 

Operational Calculus with Application to Mechanical Prob- 
lems. Gos. Izd. Tekh. Teor. Lit: 1st ed. 1938, 2nd ed. 1950. 
Statics of thin-walled elastic shells. (U. S. Atomic Energy 
Commission, Translation series AEC Tr-3798) Washington, 
D. C, Office of Technical Services, Dept. of Commerce, 
1959, 210 pp. Translated into Chinese, 1957. Goz. Izdat. 
Tekh. -Teor. Lit: Moscow, 1947, 252 pp. Applied Mechanics 
Rev. 13, 3324 (1960). 

Some nonlinear problems of the theory of automatic control. 
Translated from the Russian (Gostekhizdat, 1951): Akademie 
Verlag Berlin 1957; Ministry of Supply, Her Majesty's 
Stationary Office, London, 1957. Applied Mechanics Rev. 13^, 
3259 (1960). 

Three-dimensional problems of the theory of elasticity. 
Moscow, Gostekhizdat, 1955, 494 pp. Ref. Zh. Mekh. #4, 
1957, Rev. 4562. Applied Mechanics Rev. 12^, 45 (1959). 
Analytical Mechanics. Gos. Izd. Phys. Math. Lit.: 1961, 
824 pp. 

Bibliography of journal publications can be found in: Prik. 
Mat. i Mekh. 25^, #4, 1961. Journal of Applied Mathematics 
and Mechanics, Pergamon Press Inc., N. Y., 25, #4, 1961. 



LYSENKO 226 

Office: Department of Machine Strength and Dynamics 

Leningrad Polytechnical Institute 

Leningrad, USSR 
Residence: Polytechnical Road 3; app. 90 

Leningrad K-64, USSR 

LYSENKO, TRQFIM DENISOV^ICH (Biologist and Agriculturist) 
T. D. Lysenko was born September 17, 1898. He graduated 
from Uman School of Horticulture in 1921 and in 1925 from 
Kiev Institute of Agriculture. He worked on an experimental 
selection station in Gandzha (now Kirovobad), Azerbaidzhan 
S.S.R. then at the All- Union Genetic Institute in Odessa. From 
1938 to 1956 he was President of the Lenin All-Union Academy 
of Agricultural Sciences, and was elected a Member of the 
Presidium in 1960. In 1940 Lysenko was made Director of the 
Genetics Institute of the U. S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He has 
been an Academician of the Ukrainian S.S.R. Academy of Sci- 
ences since 1934 and of the U. S.S.R. Academy of Sciences since 
1939. In 1935 he became an Active Member of the Lenin All- 
Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences. Lysenko was Deputy 
to the Supreme Soviet of the U. S.S.R., first through fifth convo- 
cations. In March 1962, he was again elected deputy from the 
Ukrainian SSR to the Supreme Soviet. In 1941, 1943, and 1949 
he was awarded Stalin Prizes and in 1945 he was a Hero of 
Socialist Labor. 

Lysenko works are in the following fields: heredity and its 
variability, individual development of organisms, intra- and 
inter -species relationships, plant nutrition. Lysenko enunciated 
a theory on stagewise development of plants. He proposed a 
method of seed treatment (vernalization) before sowing and of 
cotton stamping. He developed a number of new grains (vernal- 
ized wheat "lyutestsens 1173," "odesskaya 13," barley ^'odes- 
skii 14," cotton "odesskii 1." Based on a hypothesis of the con- 
nection between an organism and the surrounding medium he 
attempted to develop methods of direct changes of organic 
nature in agricultural plants. He attempted to convert vernal- 
ized non-wintering farm crops into cold-resistant winter crops. 
He proposed a method of soil fertilization by organic -mineral 
mixtures. While working on questions of vegetative and sexual 
hybridization Lysenko formed a number of theories on heredity 
and its variability. In addition to finding rules for individual 
development of plants, Lysenko also studied the laws of species' 
formation and intra- and interspecies relationships. After 
studying relationships among individual organisms within a 



227 LYUL'KA 

species, Lysenko proposed a theory that in nature there is no 
overpopulation within the species and the struggle for survival 
is absent. He also postulated that the existing biological species 
can directly produce other species under the influence of the 
surrounding medium changes. These ideas are not shared by 
many Soviet scientists. 
Bibliography: 

Report on the position in biological science, in the book: 
Position in Biological Science. Stenographic report of the 
session of V. I. Lenin All-Union Academy of Agricultural 
Sciences, July 31-August 7, 1948. Moscow: 1948. 
Agricultural Biology. Works on Genetics, Selection and 
Seed Cultivation, 6th ed. Moscow: 1952. 
Successive Development of Plants. Works on the Theory of 
Successive Development and Vernalization of Agricultural 
Plants. Moscow: 1952. 
Selected Works. Moscow: 1953. 
Biography: 

B. A. Keller. Plant Nature Reformers. K. I. Timiryazev, 
I. V. Michurin, T. D. Lysenko. Moscow: 1944. 
A. Molodchikov . Reformers of Nature (I. V. Michurin, 
T. D. Lysenko, L. Burbank). Moscow: 1948. 
M. S. Voinov . Academician T. D. Lysenko. Moscow: 1950. 
Office: Institute of Genetics of USSR Academy of Sciences 

Leninskii Prospekt, 33 
Moscow, USSR 

LYUL'KA, ARKHIP MIKHAILQVICH (Aeronautical Engineer) 
A. M. Lyul'ka was born March 24, 1908. After graduating 
in 1931 from the Kiev Polytechnic Institute, he worked at the 
Kharkov Turbo -Generator Plant. In 1933-1939 he worked at 
the Kharkov Aviation Institute. Lyul'ka worked at the Central 
Boiler-Turbine Institute in Leningrad in 1939-1941, and subse- 
quently in other scientific research and designers' organiz- 
ations. In 1958 he received his Doctor of Technical Sciences 
degree. He is a professor. Since 1947 he has been a member 
of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. In 1948 and 1951, 
he was awarded Stalin Prizes and in 1957 Hero of Socialist 
Labor. He was elected, in 1960, a Corresponding Member of 
the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

While at the Kharkov Aviation Institute, Lyul'ka began work- 
ing on the problem of utilizing a gas turbine as an aviation 
engine. In this period he worked out a theory and method of 
constructing high altitude and high-performance characteristics 



LYUSTERNIK 228 

for a turbo-compression air fed engine and the expediency of 
using this engine as a power plant for a high-performance jet 
plane. In 1937-39 Lyul'ka designed the first Soviet experi- 
mental turbo- compression jet aviation engine. In postwar 
years, powerful, contemporary turbojet engines AL-3, AL-5 
were built under the leadership of Lyul'ka. He has been work- 
ing on a series of basic engineering problems such as the ana- 
lytic dependence of the degeneration of a turbojet engine on the 
speed of flight as in its transfer into a ramjet. 
Office: USSR Academy of Sciences 

Leninskii Prospekt, 14 

Moscow, USSR 

LYUSTERNIK, LAZAR ARQNOVICH (Mathematician) 

L. A. Lyusternik was born December 31, 1899 in Zdunska 
Wola, Poland. He graduated from Moscow University in 1922 
and received the degree of Doctor of Physical-Mathematics in 
1935. In 1931, he became a professor at Moscow University. 
He was awarded a Stalin Prize in 1946, and was made a Corre- 
sponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences in 1946. 
LyusterrJk utilized topological methods for calculus of vari- 
ations "in the whole." In i924, he applied the method of finite 
differences to the solution on the problem of Dirichlet. He 
proved, together with L. G. Shnirelman, the theorem of three 
geodesies. He also works in the area of functional analysis, 
differential equations, and computing mathematics. 
Bibliography: 

Problem of Dirichlet. Uspekhi Mat. Nauk, 1940, #8. 
Topology of functional spaces and calculus of variations in the 
whole. Works of the Mathematical Institute of V. A. Steklov, 
1947, 19. 
Biography: 

Thirty Years of Mathematics in the U.S.S.R. 1917-1947. 
Moscow-Leningrad: 1948 (Collection of articles under 
editorship of A. G. Kurosh et al .) 

A. N. Kolmogorov. Lazar Aronovich Lyusternik (50th Anni- 
versary since the date of birth). Uspekhi Mat. Nauk, 1950, 
5, #1. 
Office: Mathematics Department 

Moscow University 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: ul. Chkalova 14/16 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: K7 50 75 



229 MAKSUTOV 

MAKAREVSKII, ALEKSANDR IVANQVICH (Aeronautical 
Engineer) 
A. I. Makarevskii was born April 6, 1904. He graduated in 
1929 from Moscow Technical School. In 1927 he began working 
at the Central Aero-Hydrodynamic Institute and in 1950 became 
Director of this Institute. In 1952 he was made professor at 
the Moscow Physico-Technical Institute. He has been a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union since 1943. In 
1953 he was elected a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences. He was the recipient in 1943 of a Stalin 
Prize. 

Makarevskii has investigated the external loads acting upon 
aircraft in flight. He presented an analysis of possible over- 
loads in the aircraft in connection with characteristics of the 
stability and maneuverability of the aircraft. In his paper, 
"Questions on Durability of an Aircraft at High Speeds" (1947) 
he examined the influence of the compressibility of air on the 
magnitude of aerodynamic loads. The most important result of 
the works of Makarevskii was the establishment of domestic 
standards on durability, including that of high speed aircraft. 
He took part in compiling a work * Manual for Constructors" 
(1940-42). 
Bibliography: 

Permissible General Deformation in Construction of Air- 
craft. Techniques of the Air Force, 1936, #8-9 and 12. 
Load of the Wind and Empennage of Fighters in Flight. 
Works of the Central Aero-Hydrodynamic Institute, 1940, 
#41. 
Office: Moscow Physico-Technical Institute 

Moscow, USSR 

MAKSUTOV, DMITRH DMITRIEVICH (Astronomical Equipment 
Designer) 

D. D. Maksutov was born April 23, 1896. He graduated from 
the Military Engineering School in 1914. In 1930 he organized 
and directed the Laboratory of Astronomical Optics at the State 
Optical Institute in Leningrad. In 1941 he became a doctor and 
in 1944, a professor. He began working in 1952 at the Main 
Astronomical Observatory of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences 
(Pulkova). In 1946 he was elected a Corresponding Member of 
the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He received State Prizes in 
1941 and 1946. 

Maksutov investigated the improvement of shadowing and 
other optical methods, the technology of producing large, exact 



MAL'TSEV 230 

optical devices, and the theory and practice of producing 
aspherical surfaces. He invented the catadioptric (meniscus) 
systems for optical devices, which bear his name. These sys- 
tems received wide use in a number of fields in science and 
technology. Maksutov also created optical systems for a num- 
ber of large unique instruments. 
Bibliography: 

Anaberration reflecting surfaces and systems and new 

methods of testing them. Works of the State Optical Insti- 
tute, 1932, 8, #86. 

Shadow Methods of Investigating Optical Systems. 

Leningrad-Moscow: 1934. 

New catadioptric meniscus systems. Works of the State 

Optical Institute, 1944, 16, #124. 

Astronomical Optics. Moscow-Leningrad: 1946. 

Production and Investigation of Astronomical Optics. 

Leningrad-Moscow: 1948. 
Office: Main Astronomical Observatory of USSR Academy 

of Sciences 
Leningrad M-140, Pulkovo, USSR 

MAL'TSEV, ANATOLII IVANOVICH (Mathematician) 

A. I. Mal'tsev was born November 14, 1909. In 1931 he 
graduated from Moscow University. He was on the staff of the 
Pedagogical Institute Imeni Ivanovo from 1932 and in 1943 be- 
came professor. In 1942 he started working at the Mathematics 
Institute of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. Mal'tsev was 
elected a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences in 1953, and in 1958 an Academician. He was a Deputy 
of the Supreme Soviet U.S.S.R. (fourth and fifth convocations). 
In 1946 he received a Stalin Prize, and in 1956 he was an 
Honored Scientist of the R.S. F.S.R. 

Mal'tsev is a specialist in algebra, related questions of 
mathematics logic, and theories of continuous groups. He has 
published results in the theory of abstract groups, rings, and 
general algebraic systems. 
Bibliography: 

Untersuchungen aus dem Gebiete der mathematischen Logik. 

Mat. Sbornik, New Series, 1936, 1, (43), #3, 323-36. 

On the inclusion of associative systems in groups. Mat. 

Sbornik, 1939, 6 (48), #2, 331-36; 1948, 8^ (50), #2, 251-53. 

On one general method of derivation of local theorems of 

group theory. Scientific Research Papers of the Ivanovo 



231 MAN'KOVSKII 

Pedagogical Institute, Phy si co- Mathematical Faculty, 1941, 

1, #1, 3-9. 

On semi-simple sub groups of lie groups. Izvest. Akad. 

Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. Mat., 1944, 8, #4, 143-74. 

On one class of homogeneous spaces. Izvest. Akad. Nauk 

S.S.S.R., Ser. Mat, 13, #1, 9-32. 

On the general theory of algebraic systems. Mat. Sbornik, 

1954, 35 (77), #1, 3-20. 

Basis of Linear Algebra, 2nd ed. Moscow-Leningrad: 1956. 

Insolubility of the elementary theory of finite groups. Dok- 

lady Akad. Nauk 138, #4, 771-4 (1961). 

Elementary theories of locally free universal algebrae. 

Doklady Akad. Nauk 138, #5, 1009-12 (1961). 

Effective inseparability of a set of identically true formulae 

from a set of finitely refutable ones in some elementary 

theories. Doklady Akad. Nauk 139, #4, 802-05 (1961). 

Strictly related models and recursively perfect algebrae. 

Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 145^ #2, 276-79 (1962). 

Recursive Abel groups. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 146, 

#5, 1009-1010 (1962). 
Biography: 

Mathematics in the U.S.S.R. During 30 Years, 1917-1947. 

Collection of Articles, Moscow -Leningrad: 1948 (contains 

bibliography of the works of Mal'tsev). 
Office: V. A. Steklov Mathematics Institute 

1-y Akademicheskii Proyezd 28 
Moscow, USSR 

MAN'KOVSKII, GRIGORII IL'ICH (Mining Engineer) 

G. I. Man'kovskii was born in 1897. Upon completion of his 
studies at the Leningrad Mining Institute in 1924, he worked 
until 1932 as chief of mine construction in the Donets and Lower 
Moscow basins. During 1932-39, he participated in the building 
of the Moscow subway. From 1939 to 1954, he again worked in 
mine construction for the coal industry. In 1954 he took a po- 
sition at the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Skochinskii Mining 
Institute. He received a Stalin Prize in 1946, and in 1948 was 
awarded the title of Honored Scientist and Technologist of the 
R.S. F.S.R. In 1944 he became a Doctor of Technical Sciences 
and in 1957, a professor. He was elected, in 1960, a Corre- 
sponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 
Bibliography: 

Means of technical development for special methods of min- 
ing. Ugol,32, #7, 1957, 1-4. Engineering Index, 1959, p. 1113. 



MARCHUK 232 

Theoretical investigations into rock freezing process. Inst, 
of Min. Engrs. - Proc. of Symposium July 1959, 439-55 
(discussion) 455-6. Engineering Index, 1960, p. 1331. 
Office: Skochinskii Mining Institute of USSR Academy of 

Sciences 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Dorogomilovskaya nab., 9 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: G3 53 27 

MARCHUK, GURU IVANOVICH (Atomic Energy Specialist) 

G. I. Marchuk has been a member of the U.S.S.R. Council of 
Ministers' Main Administration for the Use of Atomic Energy 
as of 1961. In June 1962 he was elected a Corresponding Mem- 
ber of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 
Bibliography: 

Multigroup method of calculations used in the design of the 
reactor for an atomic electric power station. Soviet J. 
Atomic Energy #2, 149-61 (1956). NSA 11:677, 1957. 
On finite -differential diffusion equations. Fizika i Teplo- 
tekhnika Reaktorov, pp. 22-44. Moscow: Publishing House 
on Atomic Power. 1958. 213 p. NSA 12:15718, 1958. 
On the multigroup calculation method for nuclear reactors. 
Fizika i Teplotekhnika Reaktorov, pp. 7-21. Moscow: 
Publishing House on Atomic Power. 1958. 213 p. NSA 12: 
15895, 1958. 

and F. F. Mikhailus. Resonant neutron capture in an infinite 
uniform medium. Atomnaya Energ. 4, 520-30 (1958). NSA 
12:16783, 1958. 

and V. Ya. Pupko, E. I. Pogudalina, V. V. Smelov, I. P. 
Tyuterev, S. T. Platonova, G. I. Druzhinina. Certain prob- 
lems in the physics of nuclear reactors and methods for 
their solution. Nuclear Reactors and Nuclear Energy. 
Moscow: 1959, 588-612. 

Numerical methods of designing nuclear reactors "Chislen- 
nye Metody Rascheta Yadernykh Reaktorov," pp. 279-317, 
Chap. XII. Trans, from a publication of the Publishing 
House of Atomic Energy. Moscow: 1958. 43 p. NP-tr-482. 
NSA 15, 1013, 1961. 

and G. A. Ilyasova, V. E. Kolesov, V. P. Kochergin, L. I. 
Kuznetsova, E. I. Pogudalina . Critical masses of uranium - 
graphite reactors. English trans. 1960. 18 p. NSA 16, 
2404, 1962. 



233 MARKOV 

Review of nuclear reactor calculating methods. Atomnaya 
Energ. U, 356-69 (1961). NSA 16, 3897 (1962). 
Office: U.S.S.R. Council of Ministers' Main Administration 

for the Use of Atomic Energy 
Moscow, USSR 

MARKOV, ANDREI ANDREEVICH (Mathematician) 

A. A. Markov was born September 22, 1903. He is the son 
of A. A. Markov (1856-1922, the Russian mathematician usually 
referred to as A. A. Markov Sr.). He has been a professor at 
Leningrad University since 1935. In 1953, he was elected to 
the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences as a Corresponding Member. 
Markov has worked in topology, topological algebra, theory 
of algorithms, and theory of dynamic systems. He proved by 
methods of mathematical logic the impossibility of algorithmic 
solution of some problems in the theory of associative systems 
and problems which are concerned with whole number matrices. 
Biography: 

Yu. V. Linnik and N. A. Shanin. Andrei Andreevich Markov 
(50th Anniversary since the date of birth). Uspeki Mat. 
Nauk, 1954, _9, #1. 

Thirty Years of Mathematics in the U.S.S.R. 1917-1947. 
Moscow-Leningrad: 1948 (Collection of articles under the 
editorship of A. G. Kurosh et al. ) (contains bibliography of 
the works of Markov) 

Theory of Algorithms. Moscow, USSR Academy of Sciences, 
1954 [i.e. Jerusalem, Israel Program for Scientific Trans- 
lations, 1961; available Office Tech. Services, U. S. Dept. 
Commerce, Washington] 444 p. 

Calculated invariants. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 146, #5, 
1017-1020 (1962). 
Office: Mathematics Department 

Leningrad University 
Leningrad, USSR 

MARKOV, MOISEI ALEKSANDROVICH (Theoretical Physicist) 
M. A. Markov was born May 13, 1908. He graduated in 1930 
from Moscow University. In 1934 he went to work at the Phy- 
sics Institute of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. Since 1953 
he has been a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy 
of Sciences. Markov has also been a member of the Joint 
Institute of Nuclear Research, Dubna. 

The major work of Markov is concerned with the relativity 
theory of elementary particles and quantum electrodynamics. 



MATULIS 234 

He proposed the theory of the so-called non-local fields and es- 
tablished the necessary conditions which had to be satisfied by 
the theory of extended particles. Other investigations of Markov 
deal with the study of particles and antiparticles, interaction of 
hard gamma-quanta with matter, and the systematics of ele- 
mentary particles. 
Bibliography: 

'Tetra-dimensionally extended' electron in a relativistic 
quantum area. Zhur. Eksptl. i Teoret. Fiz., 1940, 10, #12. 
One criterion of relativistic invariance. Zhur. Eksptl. i 
Teoret. Fiz., 1946, 16, #9. 

Mon-local fields and complex nature of 'elementary' parti- 
cles (dynamically deformable formfactor). Uspekhi Fiz. 
Nauk, 1953, 51, #3. 

Hyperons and K-Mesons. Moscow: 1958. 
Office: P. N. Lebedev Physics Institute of USSR Academy 

of sciences 
Leninskii Prospekt, 53 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: 3ii Akademicheskii pr., 35 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: B7 53 07 

MATULIS, YUOZAZ YOUZASOVICH (Chemist) 

Yu. Yu. Matulis was born March 31, 1899. He has been an 
Academician of the Lithuanian S.S.R. Academy of Sciences 
since 1941 and in 1946 became President. In 1946 he was elect- 
ed Corresponding Member of the U. S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 
He became a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet 
Union in 1950. In 1945 Matulis was an Honored Scientist of the 
Lithuanian S-S.R. He has been a Deputy to the U. S.S.R. Supreme 
Soviet, third through fifth convocations and Chairman of the 
Lithuanian S.S.R. Society for the Propagation of Political and 
Scientific Knowledge. 

The main investigations of Matulis are concerned with the 
photochemistry, electrochemistry, and kinetics of reaction in 
solutions. He is the author of a textbook on colloidal chemis- 
try, and handbook on physical chemistry, and also the author of 
a number of articles on questions of the influence of surface- 
active substances on the electrodeposition of metals. 
Bibliography: 

Text of Practical Physical Chemistry. Kaunas: 1948. 

Colloid Chemistry. Kaunas: 1947. 



235 MEDV^EDEV 

Office: Academy of Sciences Lithuanian SSR 

K. Pizhelos Ulitsa 28 
Vilnyus, Lithuanian SSR 

MEDVEDEV, SERGEI SERGEEVICH (Chemist) 

S. S. Medvedev was born May 17, 1891. In 1919 he graduated 
from Moscow University. He began working at the L. Karpov 
Physico-Chemical Institute in 1922 and at the same time taught 
at the Moscow Institute of Fine Chemical Technology. In 1943 
he was made an Honored Scientist of the RSFSR. He was elect- 
ed a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sci- 
ences in 1943 and in 1958, an Academician. In 1946 he won a 
Stalin Prize. 

Medvedev has been concerned with polymerization process- 
es, which are the bases of many important chemical industries- 
synthetic rubber and plastics. He has studied the mechanism 
of many radical chain reactions and emulsion polymerization. 
He synthesized new elastic materials with increased heat re- 
sistance. In the area of radiation chemistry, Medvedev investi- 
gated the influence of nuclear radiation on the processes of 
polymerization. Recently he has done research on the theory 
of slow oxidation of hydrocarbons. 

In 1961 he received the Order of Lenin and two orders of the 
Red Banner of Labor. 
Bibliography: 

and Yu. A. Aleksandrova, Y. L. Huan, A. N. Pravednikov. 
Reactions of oxygen- containing radicals of type RO. Dok- 
lady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 123, 1029-32 (1958). C A. 53, 
7736a (1959). 

and A. R. Gantmakher, E. B. Lyudvig. Mechanism of initi- 
ation of cationic polymerization in the presence of metal 
halides. Doklady Akad. Nauk S. S. S. R. 127, 100-3 (1959). 
C. A. 53, 21099e (1959). 

and V. M. Yur'ev, A. N. Pravednikov . Effect of side chains 
on rate of oxidation of carbon chain polymers. Doklady 
Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 124, 335-7 (1959). C A. 53, 8781b 
(1959). 

and G. D. Berezhnoi, P. M. Khomikovskii. Kinetics of the 
emulsion polymerization of styrene. Vsyolomolekulyarnye 
Soedineniya_2, 141-52 (1960). C. A. 54, 19015a (1960). 
and A. N. Pr a vednikov, Yin-Shen Kan. Crossing polymer 
chains with T-radiation. Proc. U. N. Intern. Conf. Peaceful 
Uses At. Energy, 2nd, Geneva, 1958, 29, 192-5 (1959). 
C. A. 54, 20431e (1960). 



MEISEL' 236 

and Yu. L. Spirin, A. R. Gantmakher . Electron absorption 
spectra of carbanions in polymerization of styrene in the 
presence of metal -organic compounds. Vysokomolekuly- 
arnye Soedineniya 2, 310-12 (1960). C A. 54, 20474a (1960). 
Office: L. A. Karpov Phy si co- Chemical Institute 

Obukha Street, 10 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Khoroshevskoye Shosse 1/2 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: D3 00 80, Ext. 128 

MEISEL', MAKSIN NIKQLAEVICH (Microbiologist) 

N. N. Meisel' was born in 1901. He graduated from the first 
Leningrad Medical Institute in 1926, where he completed his 
postgraduate studies in histology in 1929. In 1932 he completed 
additional postgraduate work in microbiology and cytology at 
the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. In the same year he worked 
as one of the organizers of the Far-Eastern branch of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, where from 1932 to 1934, he 
was a member of the Presidium and Academic-Secretary. In 
1934 he began work at the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Insti- 
tute of Microbiology, and in 1959 became Laboratory Chief of 
the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Institute of Radiation and 
Physico-Chemical Biology. He undertook a teaching position at 
the Moscow State University in 1946, and in 1947 received the 
degree of Doctor of Biological Sciences at that institution. In 
1960 he was elected to the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences as a 
Corresponding Member. 

Meisel' has worked in microbiology and nucleic acids. 
In August 1958, Meisel' visited the United States to attend 
the International Radiation Research Congress at Buckington, 
Vermont. 

Meisel' is a member of the Institute of Biological Physics 
of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, Moscow. 
Bibliography: 

Luminescent microscopy. Vestnik Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., #10, 

3-10 (1953). 

Ionizing radiations and cellular metabolism. AU-Union 

Conference on the Application of Isotopes and Piadiation, 

1957. Mikrobiologiya [trans. J 26(4): 502-505. Biol. Abstr. 

33, 020295 (1959). 

and Ye. N. Sokurova . Combined effect on ultraviolet and 

x-rays on bacillus anthracoides spores. Biofizika 2(4): 

483-486. 1957. Biol. Abstr. 35, 35178 (1960). 



237 MELENT'EV 

and T. S. Sokolova . Inherited cytoplasmic variations in 
yeast caused by berberine and acriflavin. Doklady Akad. 
Nauk S.S.S.R. 131, #2, 436-39 (1961). 
and L. S. Agroskin, N. V. Korolev, L S. Kulaev, N. A. 
Porno shchnikova" Ultraviolet fluorescence of nucleic acids 
and polyphosphates. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 131 , #6, 
1440-43 (1961). 
Office: Institute of Radiation and Physico-Chemical Biology 

of USSR Academy of Sciences 
Moscow, USSR 

MELENT'EV, LEV ALEKSANDRQVICH (Energetics Specialist) 

L. A. Melent'ev was born in 1908. In 1930 he graduated 
from the Leningrad Polytechnical Institute. From 1929-33, he 
worked at the Leningrad Energetics Institute. He was, 1933- 
35, bureau chief of the Leningrad Commission on Energetics. 
From 1936 to 1942, he was a senior instructor, docent, and then 
professor of the Leningrad Engineering-Economics Institute. 
In 1942-60, he was a senior scientific worker at the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences Institute of Energetics, and from 1945-60, 
he was also Chairman of the Thermo -Energetics Department, 
and professor at the Leningrad Engineering Economics Insti- 
tute. In 1960 he became Director of the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences Siberian Branch Institute of Energetics. Since 1947 
he has been a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet 
Union. He was elected to the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences as 
a Corresponding Member in 1960. 

Melent'ev has concerned himself with power plants in the 
Soviet Union. 

As of 1962, he has been Chairman of the Presidium of the 
East Siberian Branch of Siberian Department. In March 1962, 
he was elected delegate from R.S.F.S.R. to the Supreme Soviet. 
Bibliography: 

40 years of Soviet power engineering. District heating de- 
velopment in USSR. Teploenergetika 4, #11, 1957, 35-40. 
Engineering Index, 1958, p. 972. 

and G. B. Levental. Correlation between the thermodynamic 
and power indices of heat-power plant efficiency. Engineer- 
ing Index, 1958, p. 1180. Also in Applied Mechanics Review, 
#2022, 1959. 
Office: Institute of Energetics 

Siberian Branch USSR Academy of Sciences 
Irkutsk, Siberia 



MEL'NIKOV 238 

MEL'NIKOV, NIKOLAI VASIL'EVICH (Mining Engineer) 

N. V. Mel'mkov was born February 28, 1909. He graduated 
in 1933 from Sverdlovsk Mining Institute and has the degree of 
Doctor of Technical Sciences. From 1950 to 1956 he was pro- 
fessor at the Academy of Coal Industry. In 1955 he became 
Deputy Director of the Institute of Mining at the U.S.S.R. Acade- 
my of Sciences. Mel'nikov has been a member of the Commu- 
nist Party of the Soviet Union since 1944. In 1953 he was elect- 
ed a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences and in June 1962 an Academician. From 1949 to 1954 
he was a member of the Council of Ministers Bureau on Fuel 
and Metallurgical Industries. In 1961 he was Minister of the 
U.S.S.R. He was elected Deputy to the Supreme Soviet, sixth 
session. As of 1961, Mel'nikov was Director of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences Institute of Mining. In March 1962, he 
was elected to the Council of Nationalities. As of 1962 he is 
Chairman of the U.S.S.R. Council of Ministers State Committee 
on Fuel Industries. He was awarded, in 1946, a Stalin Prize. 

Mel'nikov's main works deal with the investigation of new 
systems of open pit mineral deposits and of rational methods in 
utilizing techniques of open pit mining. 
Bibliography: 

Mineral Output by the Open Pit Method. Moscow -Leningrad: 

1948. 

Drilling of Wells and Holes in Open Pit Mining. Moscow: 

1953. 

Mechanization of Dumping Operations in Open Pit Mining. 

Moscow: 1954. 

Development of Mining Science in the Area of Open Pit 

Mining of Deposits in the U.S.S.R. Moscow: 1957. 
Office: Institute of Mining of the USSR Academy of Sciences 

Stantsiya Panki 
Moscow Oblast', USSR 
Residence: ul. Vorovskogo 33/35 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: D5 02 27 

MEL'NIKOV, OLEG ALEKSANDROVICH (Astronomer) 

O. A. Mel'nikov was born in 1912. Upon his graduation in 
1933 from Khar'kov State University, he began working at the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Main Astronomical Observatory 
(Pulkovo). In 1946 he also became a professor at Leningrad 
State University (Department of Astrophysics). In December 
1961, he became Assistant Director of the U.S.S.R. Academy of 



239 MEL'NIKOV 

Sciences Astronomical Observatory (Pulkovo). In the same 
year, he was elected to the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences as a 
Corresponding Member. He was awarded the degree of Doctor 
of Physico-Math Sciences in 1945. 

Mel'nikov's principal works are concerned with stellar and 
solar physics, interstellar matter, construction of astronomi- 
cal apparatus, and the history of astrophysics and astronomical 
equipment building. 
Bibliography: 

On the reddening of early c- stars and the law of cosmic ab- 
sorption. Circ. Pulkovo obs. ^, 1937, pp. 3-14. 
and V. P. Vyasanitsyn. Modern solar spectrographs. Vistas 
in Astr. U.S.S.R. Acad. Sci., 13, 1947, pp. 3-85. 
On some characteristics of interstellar gases. Astron. 
Journal U.S.S.R., 24, 1947, pp. 73-81. 

A new determination of the solar reversing layer excitation 
temperature. Bull. Pulkovo Obs. 142, 1949, pp. 36-39. 
Spectrophotometry of 6 Cephei, 77 Aqulae and the K-effect 
for Cepheids. Publ. Pulkovo obs. 64, 1949, pp. 3-144. 
and B. K. loannisiany . A new telescope with slitless spectro- 
graph for the ultraviolet. Its testing in high mountain con- 
ditions. Bull. Pulkovo obs. 147, 1951, pp. 55-63. 
and S. S. Zhuravlev. Spectrophotometry of faculae in active 
solar regions in 1955. Vestnik of the Leningrad Univ. 13, 
1956, pp. 124-133. 

On the history of development of astrospectroscopy in 
Russia and U.S.S.R. -Astro-historical investigation. Ed. by 
P. G. Kulikovsky and I. E. Rahlin, 3_, 1957, Moscow, U.S.S.R., 
pp. 9-258. 

Soviet astronomical apparatus construction. Izvest. Acad, 
of Sci. U.S.S.R., 1, 1958, pp. 54-59. 

The calibration of the gradient (spectrophotometric) stellar 
temperature scale by reference to the sun. Astron. Zh. 35, 
#2, 218-21 (1958). Soviet Astron. -AJ (New York) _2, #2, 195- 
8 (1958). Phys. Sci. Abstr. 62, 9166 (1959). 
Investigation of the ultraviolet spectrum of the sun. Pri- 
roda, #6, 1959, pp. 75-78. 

Astronomical seeing, ed. (253 p., Illustr.), 1959, Leningrad, 
U.S.S.R., pp. 63-115. 

History of the Telescope. Leningrad; USSR: 1960, pp. 1-51. 
On the new law of selective absorption in the galaxy. Bull. 
Pulkovo obs. 163, 1960, pp. 119-132. 

On the relation between general and selective light absorption 
in the galaxy. Bull. Pulkovo obs. 167, 1961, pp. 129-138. 



MENSHOV 240 

Office: Astronomical Observatory of USSR Academy of 

Sciences 
Pulkovo, USSR 

MENSHOV, DMITRII EVGENEVICH (Mathematician) 

D. E. Menshov was born in Moscow April 18, 1892. He 
graduated from Moscow University in 1916 and in 1935 he re- 
ceived the Doctor of Physical-Mathematical Sciences degree. 
He was made professor in 1928 at Moscow University where he 
had taught since 1922. In 1953 he was elected a Corresponding 
Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He was awarded 
a Stalin Prize in 1951. 

Menshov' s main work is in orthogonal functions and trigono- 
metric series. He obtained a basic result in the uniqueness of 
representing functions by trigonometric series (1916), and gave 
a complete solution to the problem of representation of 
functions by trigonometric series (1940). Menshov is also the 
author of an important work on the theory of analytical functions. 
Bibliography: 
Biography: 

N. K. Bari and L. A. Lusternik. Dmitrii Evgenevich 
Menshov (60th Anniversary since the date of birth). Uspekhi 
Mat. Nauk, 1952, 7, #3. 
Office: Mathematics Department 

Moscow University 
Moscow, USSR 

MERGELYAN, SERGEI NIKITOVICH (Mathematician) 

S. N. Mergelyan was born May 19, 1928 in Simferopol. He 
graduated from Yerevan University in 1947, and received the 
degree of Doctor of Physical-Mathematical Sciences in 1949. 
From 1949 to 1956, he was employed at Yerevan University, 
and since 1945, at the Mathematics Institute of the Armenian 
Academy of Sciences. In 1953, he became a professor at Mos- 
cow University. He was made an Academician of the Armenian 
S.S.R. Academy of Sciences in 1956, and was elected to the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences as a Corresponding Member in 
1953. He received a Stalin Prize in 1952. 

Mergelyan worked on the theory of the best approximation of 
functions of a complex variable by polynomials. 

As of 1961, Mergelyan was Director of the Scientific Re- 
search Institute of Mathematical Computers and a member of 
the Presidium of the Armenian S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 
Sciences. 



• 



241 MESHCHERYAKOV 

Bibliography: 

Some Questions on the Constructive Theory of Functions. 

Moscow: 1951. 

Even approximations of functions of a complex variable. 

Uspekhi Mat. Nauk, 1952, 7, #2. 

The completeness of systems of analytical functions. Uspekhi 

Mat. Nauk, 1953, 8, #4. 
Office: Scientific Research Institute of Mathematical 

Computers 
Yerevan, Armenian SSR 

MESHCHERYAKOV, MIKHAIL GRIGOR'EVICH (Physicist) 

M. G. Meshcheryakov was born September 17, 1910. He 
graduated from Leningrad University in 1936. In 1937-1947, he 
worked at the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Radium Institute. 
He became a professor at Moscow University in 1954, and has 
been working at the Joint Institute of Nuclear Research since 
1956. He has been a member of the Communist Party of the 
Soviet Union since 1940. In 1953 he was elected to the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences as a Corresponding Member. 

Meshcheryakov has worked on the physics of high energy 
particles. He and his associates experimentally showed the 
change in the interaction of nucleons with nucleons at 460-660 
million electron volts. 
Bibliography: 

On the absorption of fast neutrons by heavy nuclei. Doklady 
Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1945, 48^ #8. 

and I. I. Gurevich. On the absorption of slow neutrons in 
dysprosium and cadmium. Physikalische Zeitschrift der 
Sowejetunion, 1938, 13, #2. 

Investigation of nuclear processes at high energies in ac- 
celerators. Session of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences on 
the Peaceful Utilization of Atomic Energy, July 1-5, 1955, 
Plenum Session, Moscow, 1955. ^ 

and others . Investigation of interaction of protons with pro- 
tons at high energies. Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. Fiz., 
1955, 19, #5. 

and others . Energy spectra of 7r'*'-mesons in reaction pp — *- 
np7r+ at 556 and 657MEV. Journal of Experimental and 
Theoretical Physics, 1956, 31, #1(7), 45-54. 
and others. Polarization of protons with energy of 660MEV 
in nuclear scattering. Journal of Experimental and Theo- 
retical Physics, 1956, 31, #3, 361-70. 



MIGDAL 242 

and others . Six- meter synchrocyclotron of the Institute of 
Nuclear Problems of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 
Atomic Energy, 1956, #4. 

and L. G. Azhgirei, Yu. P. Kumekin, S. B. Narashev, G. D. 
Stoletov, Chuan De-Tsyanl C^^ nuclei excitation by protons 
with an energy of 660 MeV. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 
145, #6, 1249-54 (1962). 
Office: Joint Institute of Nuclear Research 

Dubno, Moscow, USSR 

MIGDAL, ARKADII BEISUNOVICH (Physicist) 

A. B. Migdal was born March 11, 1911. He graduated from 
Leningrad University in 1936. In 1944 he became a professor 
at Moscow Engineering Physical Institute. He has been working 
at the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences since 1945. In 1953, he 
was elected to the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences as a Corre- 
sponding Member. 

Migdal has been concerned with nuclear theory and quantum 
mechanics. He developed a theory on dipole radiation of atomic 
nuclei and a theory on ionization of atoms during nuclear re- 
actions. He has also worked in cosmic rays and on the use of 
the quantum field theory in the many body problems. 
Bihliography: 

Ionization of atoms during alpha and beta disintegration. 

Zhur. Eksper. i Teoret. Fiz., 1941, 11, #2-3. 

Quadrupole and dipole gamma radiation of nuclei. Zhur. 

Eksper. i Teoret. Fiz., 1945, 1^, #3. 

and Ya. A. Smorodinskii . Artificial TT-mesons. Uspekhi 

Fiz. Nauk, 1950, 41, #2. 

Theory of nuclear reactions with formation of slow particles. 

Zhur. Eksper. i Teoret. Fiz., 1955, 28, #1. 

Quantum kinetic equation for multiple scattering. Doklady 

Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1955, 105, #1. 

Bremsstrahlung and pair production in condensed media at 

high energies. The Physical Review, 1956, 103, 2 series, 

#6, Sept. 15, 1811-20. 
Office: Physics Department 

Moscow Engineering Physical Institute 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: ul. Chkalova, 52 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: K7 42 41 



243 MIKHAILOV 

MIKHAILOV, ALEKSANDR ALEKSANDRQVICH (Astronomer) 

A. A. Mikhailov was born April 26, 1888. He graduated from 
Moscow University in 1911, and from 1918 to 1948 he was a 
professor at the University. In 1939 he became Chairman of 
the Astronomical Council of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences 
and in 1947 Director of the Main Astronomical Observatory of 
the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences in Pulkovo. In 1949 Mikhailov 
was made a member of the main editorial board of the Great 
Soviet Encyclopedia. He was elected a Corresponding Member 
of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences in 1943. Since 1956 he has 
been a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. In 
1934-1959 he was Chairman of the Central Council of the All 
Union Astronomic-Geodesic Society. He was, from 1946 to 
1948, vice president of the International Astronomical Union. 

Mikhailov is a specialist in the prediction of solar eclipses. 
He presented a theory of solar and lunar eclipses, the occup- 
ations of planets by the moon, the transits of planets across the 
solar disk, and compiled a table for precalculating eclipses. 
He headed five expeditions for observations of total solar 
eclipses. In 1936 he investigated the deflection of light rays in 
the field of solar gravity for which he constructed a special 
unit. He was one of the initiators of a general gravimetric sur- 
vey in the U.S.S.R. (1932). He developed a method of determin- 
ing the shape of the earth from determinations of gravity. He 
edited several stellar atlases. 
Bibliography: 

Course on Gravimetry and the Theory on the Shape of the 
Earth. 2nd ed. Moscow: 1939. 

Theory of Eclipses. 2nd ed. Moscow-Leningrad: 1954. 
On the observation of the effect of Einstein. Astron. Zhur., 
1956, 38, #6. 

Stellar Atlas of Stars up to 8.25 Magnitude. 2nd ed. Mos- 
cow: 1959. 
Biography: 

Molodenskii, M. A. Work of A. A. Mikhailov in the Area of 
Gravimetry and the Theory on the Shape of the Earth. 
Collection of Scientific-Technical and Industrial Articles 
for Geodesy, Cartography, Topography, Aero-Photography 
and Gravimetry, 1948, #17. 
Office: Main Astronomical Observatory of USSR Academy 

of Sciences 
Leningrad M-140, Pulkovo, USSR 



MIKHEEV 244 

MIKHEEV, MIKHAIL ALEKSANDRQVICH (Physical Power 
Engineer) 

M. A. Mikheev was born May 25, 1902. In 1927 he graduated 
from the Leningrad Polytechnic Institute. From 1925 to 1934 
he worked in the Physico -Technical Institute of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences. Beginning in 1936, he has also worked 
at the Moscow Energy Institute. Mikheev was elected a Corre- 
sponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences in 1946 
and in 1953 an Academician. In 1941 and in 1951 he was award- 
ed Stalin Prizes. 

The scientific work of Mikheev is in the field of heat trans- 
fer. He studied the processes of heat transfer of various heat 
carriers under free and forced convection. 
Bibliography: 

and M. V. Kirpichev. Modelling Heat Equipment (1936, 

Stalin Prize 1941). 

and M. V. Kirpichev. Bases of Heat Transfer, 2nd ed. (1949, 

Stalin Prize 1951). 

Heat production in turbulent motion of liquids in turbines. 

Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Otdel. Tekh. Nauk, 1952, #10. 
Biography: 

Mikheev, Mikhail Aleksandrovich. Vestnik Akad. Nauk 

S.S.S.R., 1953, #12. 
Office: Moscow Energy Institute 

Moscow, USSR 
Residence: 1-aya Cheremushkinskaya, 3 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: B7 28 77 

MIKQYAN, ARTYOM IVANQVICH (Aeronautical Engineer) 

A. I. Mikoyan was born August 5, 1905. He graduated in 
1936 from the N. E. Zhukovskii Military Air Academy. He is a 
Major General in the Engineering-Technical Service. Since 
1925 he has been a member of the Communist Party of the 
Soviet Union. In 1953, Mikoyan was elected Corresponding 
Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He was Deputy 
to the U.S.S.R. Supreme Soviet, third through fifth convocations. 
He has been awarded a Stalin Prize. 

In 1939-40 Mikoyan, together with.M. I. Gurevich, designed 
the fighter plane, MIG-1, for aerial combat at high altitudes. 
In the same year, 1940, the plane was modified and under the 
name, MIG-3, found wide front line use during World War II 
(1941-45). Mikoyan is one of the pioneers of jet aviation in the 



245 MIKULIN 

U.S.S.R. In 1946, at the Tushinskii Air Field, the first turbo- 
jet plane designed by Mikoyan was demonstrated. 

In March 1962, Mikoyan was elected to the Council of Nation- 
alities. 
Bibliography: 
Biography: 

A. Minaev . Planes of A. E. Mikoyan Design. Vestnik of the 

Air Force, 1951, No. 7. 
Office: USSR Academy of Sciences 

Leninskii Prospekt, 14 
Moscow, USSR 

MIKULIN, ALEKSANDR ALEKSANDRQVICH (Aeronautical 
Engineer) 

A. A. Mikulin was born February 2, 1895. He is a Major 
General in Engineer-Technical Service. In 1934 he was elected 
an Academician of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He was 
a Hero of Socialist Labor in 1940. Since 1952 he has been a 
member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. 

In 1923 Mikulin began to work as a designer in the Scientific 
Automotor Institute. In 1929, he worked out a plan for AM-34 
engines, which in 1931 successfully underwent tests. This 
engine was installed in aircraft in which, in 1937, V. P. Chkalov 
and M. M. Gromov carried out distant non-stop flights across 
the North Pole to the U.S.A., and in airplanes which, in 1937, 
flew from Moscow to the North Pole. Constructed under Miku- 
lin' s direction, an AM-35 engine was installed in a MIG air- 
craft. At the time of the World War II, 1941-45, he directed 
the design of powerful aircraft engines, AM-38f (which were 
installed in the Sturmovik IL-2) and other designs for aircraft 
engines. Mikulin introduced the use of rotating blades for the 
regulation of superchargers and high pressure feed and cooling 
of intake air. He worked out the first Soviet turbocompressor 
and variable pitch propeller. After. 1945, a group directed by 
Mikulin developed jet engines. 
Biography: 

A. A. Mikulin, Hero of Socialist Labor, Major General of the 

IAS. Technics of the Air Fleet, 1945, #2. 
Office: USSR Academy of Sciences 

Leninskii Prospekt, 14 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Pugoshvinikov p. 15 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: G6 03 38 



MILLIONSHCHIKOV 246 

MILLIONSHCHIKOV, MIKHAIL DMITRIE V^ICH (Mechanical 
Engineer and Physicist) 

M. D. Millionshchikov was born January 16, 1913. He gradu- 
ated from Groznyi Oil Institute in 1932 and taught there. In 
1934-1943 he taught at the Moscow Aviation Institute and sub- 
sequently at the Moscow Engineering-Physics Institute where 
he became professor in 1949. From 1944 to 1949 he worked at 
the Institute of Mechanics of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 
Millionshchikov has been a member of the Communist Party of 
the Soviet Union since 1947. In 1953 he was elected a Corre- 
sponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, and in 
June 1962, an Academician. He is the recipient of a Stalin 
Prize. 

Millionshchikov' s main work is in theory of turbulence, the 
theory of filtration, and applied gas dynamics. He investigated 
isotropic turbulence in the terminal stages of its degeneration. 
In the theory of filtration, he developed methods for exploiting 
oil wells. In applied gas dynamics, he studied gas ejectors and 
their use. 

As of 1961, Millionshchikov was a Vice President of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 
Bibliography: 

and S. A. Khristianovich and others. Applied Gas Dynamics. 

Moscow: 1948. 

Degeneration of homogeneous isotropic turbulence in a vis- 
cous non-compressible liquid. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 

New Series, 1939, 22, #5. 

Theory of homogeneous isotropic turbulence. Doklady Akad. 

Nauk S.S.S.R., 1941, 32, #9. 
Office: Moscow Engineering Physics Institute of USSR 

Academy of Sciences 
Moscow, USSR 

MINTS, ALEKSANDR LVOVICH (Engineer) 

A. L. Mints was born December 27, 1895. In 1918 he gradu- 
ated from the Don University and in 1932 from Moscow Institute 
of Communication Engineers. From 1920 to 1928, he served in 
radio-technical units and in scientific establishments of the 
Red Army. He worked in laboratories of the radio industry 
and in construction of radio stations from 1928 to 1934 and 
during some of that time, 1929 to 1930, he was also teaching in 
the Leningrad Institute of Communications. He became Di- 
rector, in 1946, of the Radio-Engineering Institute of the 



247 MIRCHINK 

Academy of Sciences U.S.S.R. In 1946 Mints was elected a 
Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, 
and in 1958 an Academician. He was a recipient of Stalin 
Prizes in 1946 and in 1951. In 1950 he was awarded Popov 
Gold Medal by the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences for his work 
in the construction of radio stations and in radio-engineering. 
The basic work of Mints is concerned with radiotelephone 
modulation, design of high power radio broadcasting stations, 
directional antennae for long and short wave radio stations, de- 
mountable transmitting tubes, new methods of radio- 
measurement, and with radio-engineering and electronics of 
elementary particle accelerators. Mints directed the planning 
and construction of powerful radio stations (i.e., VTsSPS, 1929; 
Comintern, 1933; RV-96, 1938; Kuibishevskii, 1943), and also 
participated in the design of accelerators of the Joint Institute 
of Nuclear Studies, 680 MEV Phasotron (1949, 1953) and the 10 
BEV Synchrotron (1957). 
Bibliography: 

and I. G. Klyashkin. Foundations for Calculation of Modu- 
lation on the Anode. Moscow-Leningrad: 1926. 
and I. G. Klyashkin. Foundations for Calculation of Modu- 
lation on the Grid. Moscow: 1928. 
500 Kwt Radio Stations. Moscow: 1934. 

Improvement of the technology of radio broadcasting instal- 
lations (in the book) 50 Years of Radio. Scientific -Technical 
Collection. Moscow: 1945. 

Problems of radio-engineering and electronics of powerful 
cyclical accelerators of heavy charged particles. Radiotekh. 
i Elektron., 1956, #5. 
Biography: 

Laureate of the Popov Gold Medal. Radio, 1950, #6. 
Distinguished Soviet radio specialist. Vest. Svyazi. Tekhnika 
Svyazi, 1950, #6. 

Laureate of the Popov Gold Medal. Radiotekh., 1950, #4. 
A. L. Mints. To his 60th Birthday. Radiotekh., 1955, 10, #2. 
Office: Radio Engineering Institute of USSR Academy of 

Sciences 
Moscow, USSR 

MIRCHINK, MIKHAIL FEDORQVICH (Oil Geologist) 

M. F. Mirchink was born June 15, 1901. He graduated in 
1930 from Moscow Mining Academy. In 1943 he became pro- 
fessor at Moscow Mining Institute. Since 1941 he has been a 
member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. In 1953 



MISHIN 248 

Mirchink was elected a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences. In 1949 and 1950 he received Stalin 
Prizes. 

The works of Mirchink deal with regional geology of oil- 
bearing territories of the Caucasus and the Russian Platform, 
and also with the exploitation of oil deposits. He established in 
1932 a course on oil field geology at the Azerbaijan Industrial 
Institute. He combined scientific work with large-scale practi- 
cal activity; he has participated in the discovery of oil. He, 
together with others, published the work, ^Scientific Basis for 
Development of Oil Deposits" (1948). 

As of 1961, Mirchink was Director of the Institute of Geology 
and Processing of Mineral Fuels. 
Bibliography: 

Stratigraphic Deposits of Oil. Baku: 1943. 

Oil Field Geology. Moscow-Leningrad: 1946. 
Office: Moscow Mining Institute 

Moscow, USSR 

MISHIN, VASILII PAVLOVICH (Mechanical Engineer) 

V. P. Mishin was born January 18, 1917. After graduating 
in 1941 from the Moscow Aviation Institute, he worked in vari- 
ous designing and scientific research organizations. Since 1943 
he has been a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet 
Union. In 1958 he was elected a Corresponding Member of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

Mishin' s main works are devoted to various problems of 
applied mechanics. 

Office: USSR Academy of Sciences 

Leninskii Prospekt, 14 
Moscow, USSR 

MISHUSTIN, EVGENH NIKOLAEVICH (Microbiologist) 

E. N. Mishustin was born February 22, 1901. He graduated 
in 1924 from Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy. In 
1939 he began working at the Institute of Microbiology of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. Since 1953 he has been a 
Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 
In 1951 he was awarded a Stalin Prize. 

Mishustin' s main works deal with agricultural microbiology. 
He is the author of the work "Thermophilic Microorganisms in 
Nature and Practice" (1950). 



249 MOLODENSKH 

Bibliography: 

Scientific Basis of Processing Feed in Silos. 2nd ed. 
Mo scow -Leningrad: 1933. 

Course on Agricultural Microbiology. Moscow-Leningrad: 
1934. 

Ecologic -Geographic Change of Soil Bacteria. Moscow - 
Leningrad: 1947. 

Thermophilic Microorganisms in Nature and Practice. 1950. 
and M. L Pertsovskaya . Microorganisms and Self- 
purification of Soil. Moscow: 1954. 

Microorganisms and the Fertility of Soil. Moscow: 1956. 
Office: Institute of Microbiology of the USSR Academy of 

Sciences 
Leninskii Prospekt, 33 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Leninskii Prospekt, 13 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: V2 58 78 

MOLODENSKH, MIKHAIL SERGEEVICH (Geophysicist) 

M. S. Molodenskii was born June 16, 1909. Upon graduating 
from Moscow University in 1932, he worked at the Central 
Scientific Research Institute of Geodesy, Aero Photography and 
Cartography. In 1946 he worked at the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences Geophysical Institute, and in 1956, at the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences Institute of Terrestrial Physics. He was 
awarded a Stalin Prize in 1946 and 1951. In 1946 he became a 
Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

Molodenskii worked out a theory on utilization of measure- 
ments of the gravitational field of the earth for geodesic pur- 
poses. He proposed a method of astronomic -gravimetric level- 
ling, a new method of determining the shape of the earth. He 
designed the first spring gravimeter in the U.S.S.R. He in- 
vestigated the elastic properties of the earth and the earth's 
core. 
Bibliography: 

Main questions on geodesic gravimetrics. Works of the 
Central Scientific Research Institute of Geodesy, Aero 
Photography and Cartography, 1945, #42. 
Methods of simultaneous treatment of gravimetric and geo- 
desic materials in studying the gravitational field of the 
earth and its shape. Works of the Central Scientific Re- 
search Institute of Geodesy, Aero Photography and Cartogra- 
phy, 1951, #86. 



MOSHKIN 250 

Elastic movement, free mutation, and some questions on the 
structure of the earth. Trudy Geofiz. Inst. Akad. Nauk 
S.S.S.R., 1953, #19. 
Office: O. Yu. Shmidt Institute of Terrestrial Physics of 

USSR Academy of Sciences 
Bol'shaya Gruzinskaya Ulitsa 10 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Kotel'nicheskaya nab. 1/15 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: B7 45 73 

MOSHKIN, PANTELEIMON AFANAS'EVICH (Chemical 
Technologist) 
P. A. Moshkin was born February 13, 1891. He graduated 
in 1918 from the Moscow Technological College where he 
taught until 1930. From 1928 to 1931 he was professor at the 
Moscow Chemical- Technological Institute. In 1943 he became 
Chief of the Laboratory of the Scientific -Research Institute of 
Plastics. Since 1953, Moshkin has been a Corresponding Mem- 
ber of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. In 1948 he was 
awarded a Stalin Prize. 

Moshkin' s main investigations are devoted to the develop- 
ment of industrial methods for chemical synthesis. His works 
on the synthesis of aliphatic acids by oxidation of paraffins aid- 
ed in the organization of producing valuable raw materials 
for the soap and the chemical industries. He developed methods 
of separating and characterizing phenols in primary tar of 
humus coal. He proposed industrial methods for the synthesis of 
intermediate products and plasticizers for plastics. 
Bibliography: 

and others. Paraffin of sulfur oil as a raw material for pro- 
ducing synthetic aliphatic acids. Chemistry and Technology 
of Fuel and Oil, 1957, #6. 

and N. I. Velizar'eva. Obtaining synthetic aliphatic acids by 
means of paraffin oxidation. Chemistry and Technology of 
Fuel and Oil, 1957, #8. 

Phenols of humus coal primary tar. Works of the All- Union 
Scientific-Research Institute of Artificial Liquid Fuel and 
Gas (AU-Union Scientific-Research Institute of Gas), #1. 
Moscow-Leningrad: 1948. 

and S. A. Chyornaya. Determining the simultaneous pres- 
ence of two phenyl groups. Chemistry and Technology of 
Artificial Liquid Fuel and Gas. Moscow -Leningrad: 1952. 



251 MUSKHELISHVILI 

and Q. B. Kol'tsevaya. Separating 3.5-dimethylphenol by 
alkylation. Chemistry and Technology of Fuel and Oil, 
1957, #2. 
Office: Scientific-Research Institute of Plastics 

Moscow, USSR 

MURATQV, MIKHAIL VLADIMIRQVICH (Geologist) 

M. V. Muratov has been working at the U.S.S.R. Academy of 

Sciences Institute of Geology. In June 1962 he was elected a 

Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

Bibliography: 

and P. V. Fedorov, A. R. Geptner. Time appearance of 
Mediterranean elements in the fauna of the Black Sea. 
Doklady Akad. Nauk 138, #1, 181-83 (1961). 

Office: Institute of Geology of USSR Academy of Sciences 

Pyzhevskii Pereulok, 7 
Moscow, USSR 

MUSKHELISHVILI, NIKOLAI IVANOVICH (Mathematician and 
Mechanics Expert) 

N. I. Muskhelishvili was born February 16, 1891. In 1914 
he graduated from Petersburg University. He became a pro- 
fessor at Tbilisi State University in 1922 and also at the Poly- 
technic Institute in Tbilisi. On his initiative, the Tbilisi Mathe- 
matics Institute was established in 1935. Muskhelishvili was 
elected a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences in 1933 and in 1939 an Academician. In 1941 he be- 
came the President of the Georgian S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 
He has been a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet 
Union since 1940 and a Deputy to the U.S.S.R. Supreme Soviet 
during all the six convocations. In 1945 he was a Hero of 
Socialist Labor and in 1941 and 1947, a recipient of Stalin 
Prizes. 

Muskhelishvili' s main investigations are in the theory of 
elasticity, integral equations, and boundary -value problems in 
the theory of functions. He utilized the theory of functions of a 
complex variable in problems of the theory of elasticity. With 
the aid of complex representation of displacements and ten- 
sions, the main problems of a two dimensional theory of elas- 
ticity in a static case are reduced. The work of Muskhelishvili 
and his students solved the major problems of the two- 
dimensional theory of elasticity in a static case. Investigations 
were also carried out by Muskhelishvili and his students in the 
theory of linear boundary -value problems of analytical functions 



MUSTEL' 252 

and in the theory of one -dimensional integral equations with 
specific nuclei. 

As of 1961 Muskhelishvili was Chairman of the National 
Committee of the U.S.S.R. for Theoretical and Applied Me- 
chanics. In 1962 he was elected to the Council of Nationalities. 

Muskhelishvili was a Member of the Presidium of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences as of 1961, and was Director of 
the A. M. Razmadze Institute of Mathematics of the S.S.R. 
Georgian Academy of Sciences. 
Bibliography: 

Course in Analytical Geometry, 3rd ed. Moscow -Leningrad: 
1947. 

Some Basic Problems of the Mathematical Theory of Elas- 
ticity, 4th ed. Moscow -Leningrad: 1954. 
Singular Integral Equations. Moscow-Leningrad: 1962, 
2nd ed. 
Biography: 

M. V. Keldysh and S. L. Sobolev. Nikolai Ivanovich Musk- 
helishvili (On the 60th Anniversary since the date of birth). 
Uspekhi Mat. Nauk, 1951, 6^ #2 (42). 

Editorship of A. G. Kurosh and others. Thirty Years of 
Mathematics in the U.S.S.R. 1917-1947. Collection of Arti- 
cles. Moscow-Leningrad: 1948. 

Thirty Years of Mechanics in the U.S.S.R. 1917-1947. Col- 
lection of Articles. Moscow-Leningrad: 1950 (contains 
bibliography of the works of Muskhelishvili). 
Problems of Continuum Mechanics. (Contributions in honor 
of the seventieth birthday of Academician N. I. Muskhelish- 
vili, February 16, 1961.) Philadelphia, Pa., 1961. 
Office: Academy of Sciences Georgian SSR 

Ulitsa Dzerzhinskogo, 8 
Tbilisi 2, Georgian SSR 
Telephone: 3-54-64 

MUSTEL', EVAL'D RUDQL'FOVICH (Astrophysicist) 

E. R. Muster was born June 3, 1911. He graduated from 
Moscow University in 1935 and in 1939 returned there to work. 
From 1944-1951 he was a professor at Moscow University. In 
1946 he went to work at the Astrophysical Observatory of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences and in 1957 at the Astronomical 
Council of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He has been a 
Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences 
since 1953. In 1952 he was awarded a Stalin Prize. 



253 / NALIVKIN 

Muster developed a theory of radiant equilibrium of stellar 
atmospheres for the absorption coefficient dependent upon 
frequency. Mustel' offered a physical picture of the processes 
occurring during new star's formation. He investigated cor- 
puscular radiation from the sun and the physical phenomena in 
the active areas of the sun. 
Bibliography: 

Theory of Radiant Equilibrium of Stellar Atmospheres for 
the Absorption Coefficient dependent Upon Frequency. 
Works of The State Astronomical Institute of P. K. Stern- 
berg, 1940, 13, #2. 

Investigation of the Question of Ejection of Matter by New 
Stars After Maximal Brilliance. Proceedings of the Crimean 
Astro-Physical Observatory, 1948, 1_, 2, 91-171. 
and others . Theoretical Astrophysics. Moscow: 1952. 
Physical Nature of Calcium Floccules. Proceedings of the 
Crimean Astro-Physical Observatory, 1952,^ 25-40. 
Magnetic fields of new stars. Astron. Zhur., 1956, ^, #2, 
182-204. 

Physical nature of differences between geomagnetic disturb- 
ances with a sudden and a gradual beginning. Astron. Zhur., 
1957, 34, #1. 
Office: USSR Academy of Sciences Council for Astronomy 

Pyzhevskii Pereulok, 3 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Sokol'nicheskaya slob. 14/18 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: El 40 76 

NALIVKIN, DMITRII VASIL^EVICH (Geologist and Paleontolo- 
gist) 
D. V. Nalivkin was born August 25, 1889. He graduated from 
the Petrograd Mining Institute in 1915, and in 1920 became a 
professor at this Institute. From 1917 to 1949, he worked on 
the Geological Committee (AU-Union Scientific Research Geo- 
logic Institute). He was chairman from 1946 to 1951 of the 
Presidium of the Turkmen branch of the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences. From 1946 to 1953 he was the Director of the Labo- 
ratory on Limnology of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 
Nalivkin was elected a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences in 1933 and in 1946 an Academician. 
Since 1951 he has been a Honorary member of the Turkmen 
S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. In 1937 he became the chief editor 
of a geological survey map of the Soviet Union. He was the 



NALIVKIN 254 

recipient of a Stalin Prize in 1946. In 1949 Nalivkin was award- 
ed the Gold Medal of A. P. Parpinskii by the U.S.S.R. Academy 
of Sciences. He was given a Lenin Prize in 1957 for scientific 
leadership in compiling a geological map of the U.S.S.R. (in 
scale of 1/2,500,000, published 1956). 

Nalivkin' s major work is devoted to stratigraphy and paleo- 
geography of the Paleozoic Era of the Urals, of the territory 
close to the Urals, of Central Asia, and of the Russian plateau. 
Nalivkin is an authority on the Devonian deposits of the U.S.S.R. 
Detailed study of Devonian fauna, brachiopods, has allowed him 
to work out the details of the stratigraphy of mid-Devonian and 
upper Devonian deposits in sections of the Timan Mountain 
ridge and the Russian plateau. His research in the Urals made 
the stratigraphy and paleogeography of this territory more pre- 
cise, has permitted separation of middle and upper Devonian 
and lower Carboniferous deposits by layers and showed con- 
siderable spreading of Silurian and earlier deposits. Studies 
made by Nalivkin resulted in greater knowledge of the geology 
and minerals of Central Asia, and also aided in the determi- 
nation of stratigraphic positions of Ural bauxite deposits and oil 
deposits in the territories close to the Urals. 

Nalivkin was Chairman of the National Committee for 
U.S.S.R. Geologists as of 1961. 
Bibliography: 

Outline of Turkistan Geology. Tashkent- Moscow: 1926. 
Brachiopods of Upper and Middle Devonian in Turkistan. 
Moscow-Leningrad: 1930. 

Semilukski and Voronezh layers. Proceedings of the Main 
Directorate of Geologic Surveying, 1930, 49, #1. 
Past Don and Elets Layers. Moscow-Leningrad- 
Novosibirsk: 1934. 

Brachiopods of Upper and Middle Devonian and Lower 
Carboniferous of North East Kazakhstan. Leningrad- 
Moscow: 1937. 

Brachiopods of the main Devonian field. Fauna of the Main 
Devonian Field, 1. Moscow-Leningrad: 1941. 
Devonian deposits of the U.S.S.R. Atlas of the Leading 
Forms of Fossile Fauna of the U.S.S.R., ^. Moscow - 
Leningrad: 1947. 

Study of Facies. Geographic Conditions for Deposition, 1-2. 
Moscow-Leningrad: 1955-56. 

Short Outline of the Geology of the U.S.S.R. Moscow: 1957. 
Biography: 

Dmitrii Vasil'evich Nalivkin. Moscow-Leningrad: 1950. 



255 NAMETKIN 

Office: National Committee for Geologists USSR 

USSR Academy of Sciences 
Leninskii Prospekt, 14 
Moscow, USSR 

NAMETKIN, NIKOLAI SERGEEVICH (Organic Chemist) 

N. S. Nametkin has been working at the Institute of Petro- 
chemical Synthesis of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He 
visited the United States in 1959 to attend the Chemical Society 
meetings at Atlantic City, New Jersey. In June 1962 he was 
elected a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences. 
Bibliography: 

and A. V. Topchiev, L. S. P ovarov, G. V. Garnishevskaya. 

Synthesis of compounds with silazine links. Doklady Akad. 

Nauk S.S.S.R. 109, 787-90 (1956). C. A. 51, 4936e (1957). 

Proc. Acad. Sci. U.S.S.R., Sect. Chem. 109, 477-80 (1956) 

(Eng. trans.). C. A. 52, 5284d (1958). 

and A. V. Topchiev, T. I. Chernysheva, S. G. Durgar^yan. 

Some derivatives of disilanopropane. Doklady Akad. Nauk 

S.S.S.R. no, 97-100 (1956). C. A. 51, 4979g (1957). Proc, 

Acad. Sci. U.S.S.R., Sect. Chem. 110, 545-8 (1956) (Eng. 

trans.) C A. 52, 5284b (1958). 

and A. V. Topchiev, L. S. Povarov. Bis(tetraalkyldisilano- 

methane) cyclodioxides. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 109 , 

332-5 (1956). C. A. ^ 1826g (1957). Proc. Acad. Sci. 

U.S.S.R., Sect. Chem. 109, 405-8 (1956) (Eng. trans.). C A. 

52, 5414d (1958). 

and A. V. Topchiev, T. I. Chernysheva . Synthesis of some 

compounds of silicon with cycloalkyl radicals. Doklady 

Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. lU, 1260-3 (1956). C A. 51, 9477e 

(1957). Proc. Acad. Sci. U.S.S.R., Sect. Chem. Ill, 767-70 

(1956) (Eng. trans.). C A. 52, 6160i (1958). 

and A. V. Topchiev, F. F. Machus. Some silicohydrocarbons 

of the series of disilanomethane and disilanoethane. Doklady 

Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. J16, 248-50 (1957). C A. 52, 6162f 

(1958). 

and A. V. Topchiev, Chan-Li Gu, N. A. Leonova. Synthesis 

and properties of mono-, di- and tri-p-tolylalkylsilanes. 

Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 115, 107-9 (1957). C. A. 52^ 

5323a (1958). 

and A. V. Topchiev, T. I. Chernysheva. Synthesis of some 

alkylhalosilanes and silicohydrocarbons. Doklady Akad. 

Nauk. S.S.S.R. 115, 326-9 (1957). C A. 52, 4473f (1958). 



NAMETKIN 256 

and A. V. Topchiev, T. I. Chernysheva . Addition of dialkyl- 
(phenyl) silanes to ethylene hydrocarbons. Doklady Akad. 
Nauk S.S.S.R. 118, 517-19 (1958). C. A. 52, 10922d (1958). 
and A. V. Topchiev, Chan-Li Gu, N. A. Leonova . Synthesis 
and properties of phenyl-, 3,4-xylyl-, and 4-(isopropylphenyl) 
alkylsilanes. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. US, 731-4 (1958). 
C. A. 52_, 11769i (1958). 

and A. A. Gundyrev, A. V. Topchiev. Dipole moments of 
hexa alkyl derivatives of disiloxane. Doklady Akad. Nauk 
S.S.S.R. 121, 1031-3 (1958). C A. 52, 19307d (1958). 
and A. V. Topchiev, L. S. Povarov . Preparation of com- 
pounds with silathiacarbon links. Doklady Akad. Nauk 
S.S.S.R. 117, 245-8 (1957). C A. 52, 8943g (1958). Proc. 
Acad. Sci. U.S.S.R., Sect. Chem. 117, 1011-14 (1957). C. A. 
53, 5107b (1959). 

and A. V. Topchiev, T. I. Chernysheva, S. G. Durgar'yan. 
Synthesis and properties of disilylpropanes. Trudy Moskov. 
Neft. Inst. im. I. M. Gubkina 1958, #23, 22-30. C. A. 53, 
18894b (1959). 

and Z. A. Aleksandrova, A. A. Gundyrev, G. M. Panchenkov, 
A. V. Topchiev . Relation between the surface tension of 
certain types of organosilicon compounds and their struc- 
ture. Khim. i Prakt. Primenenie Kremneorg. Soedinenii, 
Trudy Konf., Leningrad, 1958, #3, 96-103. C A. 53, 16040a 
(1959). 

and Chan- Li Gu, N. A. Leonova, A. V. Topchiev, V". V. 
Bazilevich . Synthesis of silicon hydrocarbons with alkyl- 
benzyl substituents and the study of the possibility of the 
chloromethylation of organosilicon compounds. Khim. i 
Prakt. Primenenie Kremneorg. Soedinenii, Trudy Konf., 
Leningrad 1958, #1, 249-55. C A. 53, 17026f (1959). 
and A. V. Topchiev, L. I. Kartasheva . Reaction of ethyl 
bromide with silicon. Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Otdel. 
Khim. Nauk 1958, 949-53. C. A. 53, 1117b (1959). 
and A. V. Topchiev, S. G. Durgar'yan, S. S. Dyankov . Poly- 
merization of dialkyldiallylsilanes with a complex catalyst: 
triethylaluminum -titanium tetrachloride. Khim. i Prakt. 
Primenenie Kremneorg. Soedinenii, Trudy Konf., Leningrad, 
1958, #2, 118-24. C A. 53, 86861 (1959). 
and V. V. Bazilevich, A. A. Gundyrev, G. M. Panchenkov , 
A. V. Topchiev. Raman spectra of certain silicon hydro- 
carbons and hexaalkyldisiloxanes. Khim. i Prakt. Primen- 
enie Kremneorg. Soedinenii, Trudy Konf., Leningrad, 1958, 
#3, 103-8. C. A. 53, 12833d (1959). 



257 NAMETKIN 

and A. V. Topchlev, T. I. Chernysheva. Addition of tri- 
benzylsilane to olefins. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 126, 
1001-3 (1959). C. A. 53, 21746c (1959). 

and A. V. Topchiev, S. G. Durgar'yan . Addition of trichloro- 
silane to dialkyl (phenyl, chloro) diallylsilanes in the pres- 
ence of H2PtCl6 . 6 H2O. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 130, 
105-8 (1960). C. A. 54, 10833f (1960). 

and A. V. Topchiev, Chan-Li Gu, N. A. Pritula. Preparation 
of some organosilicon compounds with alkylbenzyl radicals 
from chloromethylated alkylbenzenes. Zhur. Obshchei Khim. 
29, 2820-6 (1959). C A. 54, 12031c (1960). 
and A. V. Topchiev, T. I. Chernysheva, L. I. Kartasheva. 
Addition reaction of trialkoxysilanes to olefins. Doklady 
Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 126, 794-7 (1959). C. A. 54, 262b 
(1960). 

and A. V. Topchiev, S. G. Durgar'yan, I. M. Tolchinskii . 
Copolymerization of dimethyl- and methylphenyldiallylsilane 
with propylene on the composite EtsAl + TiCl4 catalyst. 
Vysokomolekulyarnye Soedineniya J^, #11, 1739-44 (1959). 
C. A. 54, 14767a (1960). 

and A. V. Topchiev, T. I. Chernysheva, S. G. Durgar'yan. 
Addition of silicon hydrides to unsaturated compounds. J. 
prakt. Chem. [4j_9, 82-5 (1959). C A. _54, 4359h (1960). 
and A. V. Topchiev, S. G. Durgar'yan. Synthesis of organo- 
silicon polymers on a complex catalyst, EtsAl + TiCl4- 
Mezhdunarod. Simpozium po Makromol. Khim., Doklady, 
Moscow 1960, Sektsiya^., 152-5. C. A. 55, 7329e (1961). 
and S. G. Durgar'yan, Yu. P. Egorov, A. V. Topchiev . 
Structure determination of organosilicon compounds (pre- 
pared by addition of trichlorosilane to mono- and diallyl 
derivates of silicon) by infrared spectroscopy. Zhur. 
Obshchei Khim. 30, 2600-8 (1960). C A. 55, 14341d (1961). 
and A. V. Topchiev, S. G. Durgar'yan, N. A. Kuz'mina. Ad- 
dition of trichlorosilane to trialkyl (phenyl or chloro) - 
diallysilanes. Some silicohydrocarbons prepared from the 
addition products. Zhur. Obshchei Khim. 3£, 2594-600 
(1960). C. A. 55, 14345g (1961). 

and A. V. Topchiev, S. G. Durgar'yan. Addition of trichloro- 
silane to trialkyl (phenyl or chloro) -allylsilanes. Some 
silicohydrocarbons of disilanepropane series. Zhur. Ob- 
shchei Khim. 30, 927-32 (1960). C A. 55, 430b (1961). 
and A. A. Gundyrev, G. M. Panchenkov, A. V. Topchiev . 
Dielectric permeability and the dipole moments of some 



NEKRASOV 258 

silicon organic compounds. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 
129 , 1325-7 (1959). C. A. 55, 26503b (1961). 
and I. N. Lyashenko, L. S. Polak, A. V. Topchiev, A. S. 
Fel'dman, T. I. Chernysheva. Catalytic and radiation poly- 
merization and copolymerization of allylhydrosilanes. 
Vysokomolekulyarnye Soedineniya ^, 833-40 (1961). C. A. 
55, 26504d (1961). 

and A. V. Topchiev, Chang-Li Ku, N. A. Pritula. Chloro- 
methylation of trialkylbenzylsilanes and some transfor- 
mations of chloromethylbenzyltrialkylsilanes. Zhur. Obsh- 
chei Khim. 3^, 1303-9 (1961). C. A. 55, 23402g (1961). 
and A. V. Topchiev, T. I. Chernysheva, I. N. Lyashenko. 
Hydrisilane addition to allylamine. Doklady Akad. Nauk 140, 
#2, 384-86 (1961). 
Office: Institute of Petrochemical Synthesis 

Leninskii Prospekt, 29 

Moscow, USSR 

NEKRASOV, BORIS VLADIMIRQVICH (Chemist) 

B. V. Nekrasov was born September 18, 1899. In 1924 he 
graduated from the Institute of the National Economy of Plek- 
hanov and continued to work there. Subsequently, he worked 
at the Moscow Textile Institute. In 1939 he became Chairman 
of the Department of the Kalinin Moscow Institute of Non- 
Ferrous Metals and Gold. He was elected in 1946 a Corre- 
sponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

Nekrasov works on coorelation of structure and properties 
of chemical compounds. He proposed in 1955 an explanation of 
the trans influence in complex compounds, in 1948 a theory of 
the structure of boranes, in 1946 an equation for the polarity of 
bonds and effective charges of atoms in molecules of the AB^n 
type. He is the author of a text book, "Course on General 
Chemistry" which has had 12 editions (2 vols., 1935, 12th edi- 
tion, 1955) which has been translated into many languages. 
Bibliography: 

Properties of Ions. Part 1-5. Bulletin de la Societe chimi- 

que de France, Paris, 1936, Febr. 5 Serie, V. 3 (Part 1-2); 

Zhur. Obshchei Khim., 1937, #7 (Part 3), 1940, #13 (Part 4); 

1940, #15 (Part 5). 

Theory of the structure of boranes. Zhur. Obshchei Khim., 

1940, #11. 

Electro affinity of chemical elements. Zhur. Obshchei 

Khim., 1946, #11. 



259 NESMEYANOV 

Unusual Valency of Some Metals. Report. . . Izvest. Akad. 
Nauk S.S.S.R. Otdel. Khim. Naul, 1956, #2., 137-144. 
Office: Chemistry Department 

Kalinin Moscow Institute of Non- Ferrous Metals 

and Gold 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Zubovskii bulv. 16/20 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: G6 07 93 

NENADKEVICH, KQNSTANTIN AVTONQMQVICH (Chemist- 
Mineralogist) 

K. A. Nenadkevich was born June 2, 1880. In 1902 he gradu- 
ated from Moscow University. Since 1906 he has been working 
in various geological departments of the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences (Geological and Mineralogical Museum, Geological Insti- 
tute, Institute of Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Ptare Metals). 
He was elected in 1946 a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences. In 1948 he received a Stalin Prize. 

Nenadkevich studied new types of mineral raw materials 
and developed methods for obtaining rare metals from ores. 
In 1916-20 Nenadkevich worked out the technology of producing 
metallic bismuth from domestic raw materials and conducted 
its first experimental smelting. In 1926 he chemically ascer- 
tained the age of one of the most ancient minerals— uraninite. 
Bibliography: 

Question of the U.S.S.R. soda industry (Doroninskoe soda 

lake). Zhur. Priklad. Khim., 1924, J., #3-4. 

Electrolytic methods of separating nickel and cobalt. Dok- 

lady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1945, 49, #1. 
Office: Institute of Mineralogy, Geochemistry and Crystal- 

lography of Rare Elements 
Ulitsa Kubysheva, 8 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: M. Yakimanka, 3 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: VI 94 84 

NESMEYANOV, ALEKSANDR NIKQLAEVICH (Organic Chemist ) 

A. N. Nesmeyanov was born September 9, 1899. He gradu- 
ated from Moscow University in 1922 and began his work there. 
In 1930 he was instrumental in establishing a Laboratory of 
Organic Chemistry at the Institute of Fertilizers and Insecto- 
fungicides and was its Chief until 1934. He helped the 



NESMEYANOV 260 

University of Moscow organize a Laboratory of Metallo- 
Organic Compounds in 1934. In 1935 he was made professor 
at the University. At the same time, beginning in 1934, he 
worked at the Institute of Organic Chemistry of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences where in 1935 he organized a Laboratory 
of Metallo -Organic Compounds. He became Director of the 
Institute in 1939. From 1948 to 1951 he was President of Mos- 
cow University and was active in acquiring a new building. In 
1953, Nesmeyanov helped found the Institute of Scientific Infor- 
mation of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. Through his initia- 
tive, in 1954, an Institute of Organo- Elemental Compounds of 
the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences was set up and he was made 
the Director. Nesmeyanov has been active in social and politi- 
cal work. He became a member of the Communist Party of the 
Soviet Union in 1944 and was Deputy to the U.S.S.R. Supreme 
Soviet. Also he was a member of the All-World Council for 
Peace and the Soviet Committee in Defense of Peace. In 1939 
Nesmeyanov was made a Corresponding Member, and in 1943 
an Academician of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He was 
elected President of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences in 1951. 
Nesmeyanov is the leader of the Soviet school of metallo- 
organic specialists. In 1943 he was a winner of a Stalin Prize. 

Nesmeyanov' s main scientific work is in chemistry of 
metallo-organic compounds: lithium, boron, nitrogen, sodium, 
magnesium, aluminum, silicon, phosphorus, sulfur, selenium, 
titanium, chromium, iron, copper, zinc, germanium, arsenic, 
zirconium, molybdenum, cadmium, tin, antimony, tungsten, 
mercury, thallium, lead, bismuth. In 1929 Nesmeyanov pro- 
posed a diazo method of synthesis of mercury -organic com- 
pounds, which he and his associates later used for synthesis of 
metallo-organic compounds of thallium, tin, lead, germanium, 
arsenic, antimony and bismuth. He also studied mutual trans- 
formations of metallo-organic compounds, utilizing these re- 
actions for synthesis of previously unknown types of metallo- 
organic compounds of zinc, cadmium, aluminum, thallium, tin 
and others from mercury -organic compounds. He proved that 
products of addition of salts of non-transition metals to unsatu- 
rated compounds are metallo-organic and not complex com- 
pounds, discovered new classes of these compounds, and studied 
their chemistry. Nesmeyanov also investigated unsaturated 
metallo-organic compounds. He made a detailed study of the 
steriochemistry of their mutual transformations. Through his 
study of metallic derivatives of oxo-enol systems and alpha- 
mercurated oxo- compounds, he showed the relation between the 



1 



261 NESMEYANOV 

structure and the reactivity of metallic derivatives of tauto- 
meric systems and later of the tautomeric systems themselves. 
Nesmeyanov, and his associates, ascertained the mechanism of 
electrophilic replacement in saturated carbon atoms. He ob- 
tained diphenylchloronium, diphenylbromium, triphenyloxonium 
salts and studied the mechanism of decomposition of these 
-onium salts and of various diazonium and iodonium compounds. 
Nesmayanov and associates made a thorough study of the re- 
actions of the new metallo -organic, "sandwich" compounds, the 
ferrocene, and ascertained their aromatic character. He also 
carried out a series of syntheses based on olefin telomeriz- 
ation. He and K. A. Kocheshkov edited a series of monographs 
"Synthetic Methods in the Field of Metallo -Organic Com- 
pounds." Based on his experiment, Nesmeyanov advanced a 
series of theoretical ideas on the future development of the 
theory of chemical structure. 

Nesmeyanov was Chairman of the Council for Coordinating 
Scientific Work of the Academies of Sciences of Union Re- 
publics. He was Chairman of the Editorial Publishing Council 
of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

In 1962, Nesmeyanov was awarded the M. V. Lomonosov 
Gold Medal. 
Bibliography: 

A new synthesis method for aromatic mercury-organic 
salts. Zhur. Russ. Fiz.-Khim. Obshchestva (Khim. chast'), 
1929, 61, #8. 

and E. I. Kan. Fluorine formyl. Zhur. Obshchei Khim., 
1934, 4_, #9. 

and I. F. Lutsenko. On reactions of metallic derivatives of 
0X0 -compounds and the phenomenon of tautomerism. Dok- 
lady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1948, 59, #4. 
and A. E. Borisov. On saving the steriochemical configu- 
ration during reactions of electrophylic and radical substi- 
tution in the olefin carbon atom. , Doklady Akad. Nauk 
S.S.S.R., 1948, 60, #1. 

and V. A. Sazonova. On the quasi -complex compounds, 
hyperconjugation and tautomerism. Proc. Acad. Sci. 
U.S.S.R., Sect. Chem., 1949, #4. 

and L. G. Makarova . Synthesis of aromatic compounds of 
thallium through diazo -compounds. Doklady Akad. Nauk 
S.S.S.R., 1952, 87, #3. 

and L. G. Markova . Synthesis of aromatic compounds of tin 
with the aid of aryldiazoniumboric fluoride. Doklady Akad. 
Nauk S.S.S.R., 1952, 87, #3. 



NEUMANN 262 

and N. A. Kochetkov, M. I. Rybinskaya. Synthesis of benzoni- 
trile and flavilic salts on the base of betavinyl chloride of 
ketones. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1953, 93, #1. 
and 0. A. Reutov, 0, A. Ptitsina. On new possibilities of 
synthesis of antimonous-organic compounds through didia- 
zone salts of trichloride antimony. Doklady Akad. Nauk 
S.S.S.R., 1953, 91, #6. 

and E. G. Perevalova, R. V. Golovnya, O. A. Nesmeyanova. 
Reaction of substitution of hydrogen of ferrocene. Doklady 
Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1954, 97, #3. 

and T. P. Tolstaya . Diphenyl chloronium salts. Doklady 
Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1955, 105, #1. 

and M. I. Kabachnik. Dual reaction ability of tautomerism. 
Zhur. Obshchei Khim., 1955, 25, #1. 

and T. P. Tolstaya, L. S. Isaeva . Diphenyl bromonium salts. 
Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1955, 104, #6. 
and N. A. Kochetkova. Alkylation of ferrocene. Doklady 
Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1956, 109, #3. 

and R. Kh. Freidlina, L. I. Zakharkin. Study of chemical 
transformation of polyhydrocarbon chlorides and relative 
compounds. Uspekhi Khim., 1956,^, #6. 
and V. A. Sazonova, A. V. Gerasimenko. a. Pyridil ferro- 
cene and l,l'-di (a -pyridil) -ferrocene. Doklady Akad. Nauk 
S.S.S.R. 147, #3, 634-35 (1962). 

Office: Institute of Organo- Elemental Compounds of USSR 

Academy of Sciences 
Leninskii Prospekt, 31 
Moscow, USSR 

Residence: Lomonosovskii Prospekt, 14 
Moscow, USSR 

Telephone: B9 13 47 

NEUMANN (NEYMAN), LEONID ROBERTOVICH (Electrical 
Engineer) 
L. R. Neumann was born April 6, 1902. He graduated from 
the L.eningrad Polytechnical Institute in 1930, and in 1940 began 
teaching there as a professor. From 1931 to 1935 he was Di- 
rector of a group of high voltage centers of the Leningrad 
Electro-Physical Institute. He worked at the U.S.S.R. Academy 
of Sciences Institute of Energetics from 1946 to 1960 and since 
then has been working at the Leningrad Institute of Electro- 
mechanics. In 1953, he was elected to the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences as a Corresponding Member. 



263 NIKITIN 

Neumann's main works deal with investigating phenomena in 
non-linear electric circuits, the study of the skin-effect in 
ferromagnetic bodies, the electromagnetic processes in electric 
systems with powerful ion converting units, and with direct 
current transmissions. He has participated in the work of the 
International Electrotechnical Commission in the fields of 
scientific terminology and of systems of electric and magnetic 
units. 
Bibliography: 

and P. L. Kalantarov. Theoretical Basis of Electrical Engi- 
neering, 5th ed. Leningrad-Moscow: 1959. 

and M. P. Kostenko, G. N. Blavdzevich. Electromagnetic 

Processes in Systems with Powerful Rectifying Units. 

Moscow -Leningrad: 1946. 

Skin-Effect in Ferromagnetic Bodies. Leningrad-Moscow: 

1949. 

and S. R. Glinternick, A. V. Emelyanov, V. G. Novitski. 

Direct Current Power Transmission as a Part of Power 

Systems. Moscow-Leningrad: 1962. 
Biography: 

Professor L. R. Neumann. On the 50th Anniversary Since 

the Date of Birth. Electricity, 1952, #8. 

L. R. Neumann. On the 60th Anniversary Since the Date of 

Birth and 35th Anniversary of the Scientific and Pedagogical 

Activity. Electricity, 1962, #6. 
Office: Electromechanical Institute 

Dvorzovaja naberezhnaja, 18 
Leningrad, USSR 

NIKITIN, NIKOLAI IGNAT'EVICH (Chemist) 

N. L Nikitin was born March 12, 1890. He graduated in 1913 
from the Institute of Forestry in Petersburg. In 1929 he be- 
came professor at the S. M. Kirov Leningrad Forest-Technical 
Academy. He has been a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences since 1939 and of the Finnish Chemical 
Society since 1959. 

Nikitin has worked in cellulose and wood chemistry. He ob- 
tained new solutions of cellulose derivatives in alkali by weak 
esterification and freezing, obtained the fibers from the so- 
lutions of low -substituted xanthogenates and obtained the films 
of alkali -soluble low -substituted nitrocellulose and carboxy- 
methylcellulose. He investigated the role of packing of cellu- 
lose molecules on the lyophilic properties of fibers and their 
relation to the quantity of nonfreezing water in the fibers. He 



NIKOLAYEV 264 

also studied the reactivation of cellulose by means of freezing 
and inclusion and slight esterification of the fibers. He investi- 
gated the chemical composition of many wood species of the 
U.S.S.R. and developed methods for obtaining sulfate and sulfite 
cellulose from wood of larch (Larix daurica and L. sibirica) 
with the utilization of its gum. He also developed a new synthe- 
sizing reaction of acetylene and alkali on lignin and described 
the action of ethylene-oxide on lignin. Nikitin was one of the 
pioneers in the development of wood and cellulose chemistry 
in the U.S.S.R. and he wrote several monographs on this sub- 
ject. 
Bibliography: 

Colloidal Solutions and Esters of Cellulose, 2nd ed. Lenin- 
grad: 1933. 

Chemistry of Wood. Moscow-Leningrad: 1951. 
and N. I. Klenkova. Quantity of non-freezing water in cellu- 
lose fibers after swelling. Zhur. Priklad. Khim., 1954, 27, 
#2, 171-180. 

and G. A. Petropavloskii . The production and the properties 
of slightly substituted methyl- and carboxylmethyl cellulose. 
1-2. Zhur. Priklad. Khim., 1956, 29, #10-11. 
Methods of a Scientific Chemical Worker (Outlines from the 
Past). Moscow-Leningrad: 1955. 

Die Chemie des Holzes. Akademie-Verlag: Berlin, 1955 
(Germ, trans.) 

Chemistry of Wood and Cellulose. Moscow -Leningrad: 
1962. 
Biography: 

F. P. Komarov and S. D. Antonovskii . Nikolai Ignat'evich 
Nikitin. Zhur. Obshchei Khim., 1950, #4, 557-562. 
N. You. Solechnie. Nikolai Ignat'evich Nikitin. J. Appl. 
Chem. U.S.S.R. 33, 521-528 (1960). (English trans.) 
Office: Institute of Highmolecular Compounds of USSR 

Academy of Sciences 
Birzhevoi proezd 6 
Leningrad, B-164, USSR 

NIKOLAYEV, ANATOLH VASIL^EVICH (Chemist) 

A. V. Nikolayev was born November 27, 1902. He graduated 
in 1924 from Leningrad University. In 1927-31 he was a leader 
of the Pavlodar Salt Expedition of the Commission on the Study 
of Natural Productive Forces of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sci- 
ences and in 1931-35, of the Complex Kulundinsk Expedition of 
the Soviet on the Study of the Productive Forces of the U.S.S.R. 



265 NIKOLAYEV 

Academy of Sciences. He started working in 1934 at the Insti- 
tute of General and Inorganic Chemistry of the U.S.S.R. Acade- 
my of Sciences. In 1936-41 he taught at the Moscow Poly- 
graphic Institute and in 1945-57 at the Moscow Institute of 
Non- Ferrous Metals and Gold, where he was made professor 
in 1946. In 1957 Nikolaev became Director of the Institute of 
Inorganic Chemistry of the Siberian branch of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences. He was elected in 1958 a Corresponding 
Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. In 1947 he was 
awarded the V. I. Vernadskii Prize for his research summa- 
rized in the monograph *' Phy si co- Chemical Study of the Natural 
Borates." 

Nikolayev's main work deals with physico-chemical analysis 
of salt systems for the purpose of elucidating the formation of 
natural salt and its industrial processing, thermal analysis, 
radiochemistry. He developed thermal analysis of complex 
compounds of platinum, investigated the chemistry and sepa- 
ration of rare-earth elements, and studied the extraction of 
inorganic substances by organic solvents. 

As of 1961, Nikolayev was a Member of the Presidium of the 
Siberian Branch U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 
Bibliography: 

Pre-Irtysh Salt Region. Part I. Leningrad: 1931. 
Kolundinsk Salt Lakes and Methods of Processing. Novosi- 
birsk: 1935. 

and others . Thermography. Curves of Heating and Cooling. 
Moscow-Leningrad: 1944. 

Protective films on salts and their utilization. Akad. Nauk 
S.S.S.R., 1944, #4-5, 57-65. 

Physico-Chemical Study of the Natural Borates. Moscow: 
1947. 

Characteristics of heterogeneous equilibria in the ex- 
traction of inorganic substances. Izvest. Sibir. Otdel. Akad. 
Nauk S.S.S.R., #4, 51-63 (1960). C. A. 54, 22128d (1960). 
and A. G. Kurnakova . Extraction of boric acid. Bor. Trudy 
Konf. Khim. Bora i Ego Soedinenii, 157-61 (1955). (Pub. 
1956). C. A. 54, 25615d (1960). 

and A. G. Kurnakova, Z. G. Rumyantseva. The chemistry 
of protactinium. Zhur. Neorg. Khim. 4, 1682-6 (1959). 
C. A. 54, 8394b (1960). 

and S. M. Shubina . Isotope exchange of tributyl phosphate 
with tagged phosphoric acid. Zhur. Neorg. Khim. _4^ 956-8 
(1959). C. A. 54, 8397h (1960). 



NIKOLAEV 266 

and N. M. Sinitsyn. Distillation of ruthenium from highly 
diluted nitrate solutions. Zhur. Neorg. Khim. 4, 1935-6 
(1959). C. A. 54, 11790c (1960). ~ 

Office: Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Siberian Branch 

of USSR Academy of Sciences 
Novosibirsk, Siberia 

NIKOLAEV, IVAN IVANOVICH (Railroad Engineer) 

I. I. Nikolaev was born April 11, 1893. Upon graduating 
from the Moscow Institute of Communication and Line Engi- 
neers in 1921, he taught there until 1957, having become a pro- 
fessor in 1935. From 1921 to 1938, he taught at the Moscow 
Technical College. From 1947 to 1951 he was professor at the 
Academy of Railroad Transport. In 1955 he began work at the 
Institute of Complex Transport Problems of the U.S.S.R. Acade- 
my of Sciences. He became a member of the Communist Party 
of the Soviet Union in 1942. In 1947 he was awarded the title 
Honored Scientist of R.S. F.S.R. He was elected, in 1953, a 
Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 
The works of Nikolaev deal with questions of dynamics and 
steam distribution of locomotives. 
Bibliography: 

Dynamics and Steam Distribution of a Locomotive, 2nd ed. 
Moscow: 1953. 

and E. G. Kestner . Experimental Investigation of a Loco- 
motive. Moscow-Leningrad: 1933. 

Designing locomotives. Complex Modernization and Con- 
temporary Methods of Designing Locomotives. Moscow: 
1945. 

Theory and Construction of Locomotives. Moscow: 1939. 
and others . Rolling Stock and Traction of Trains, 2nd ed. 
Moscow: 1955. 

and others. General Course on F^ilroads. Moscow: 1956. 
Biography: 

60th Anniversary of Professor I. I. Nikolaev. Railroad 
Transport, 1953, #5. 
Office: Institute of Complex Transport Problems of USSR 

Academy of Sciences 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Durasovskii p. 7 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: K7 35 36 



267 NOVIKOV 

NIKOL'SKII, BORIS PETROVICH (Physical Chemist) 

B. P. Nikol'skii was born October 14, 1900. After graduat- 
ing from Leningrad University in 1924, he worked there and in 
1939 became professor. In 1953 he was elected Corresponding 
Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

Nikol'skii investigated processes of ion exchange between 
aqueous solutions and various solid systems — soils, ionites, 
and others. He developed a theory on these processes, which is 
used in ion-exchange chromatography. He also proposed an 
ion-exchange theory for a glass electrode. 

As of 1961, Nikol'skii was Director of the Institute of Me- 
chanics of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 
Bibliography: 

Laws of ion-exchange between the solid phase and solutions. 

Uspekhi Khim., 1939, 8^ #10. 

Theory of a glass electrode. Zhur. Fiz. Khim., 1953, 27 , 

#5-6. 
Office: Chemistry Department 

Leningrad University 
Leningrad, USSR 

NOVIKOV, IVAN IVANOVICH (Physicist) 

I. I. Novikov was born January 29, 1916. In 1930 he gradu- 
ated from Moscow University, and worked for scientific organi- 
zations of the Soviet Navy from 1940 to 1948. In 1950 he be- 
came a professor at the Moscow Institute of Physical Engineer- 
ing of which he was made Director in 1956. From 1954 to 1957, 
he was assistant to the Chief Academic Secretary of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Presidium. He was Editor-in- 
Chief of the journal "Atomic Energy" in 1956, and since 1957 
has been the Director of the Institute of Thermal Physics of the 
Siberian branch of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. In 1958, 
he was elected a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Acade- 
my of Sciences. He has been awarded a Stalin Prize. 

Novikov has studied thermodynamics of gases, gas dynamics, 
heat transfer, use of the theory of similarity in the study of 
thermophysical properties of substances, investigation of the 
thermodynamic properties of heat carriers and atomic energy. 
Bibliography: 

and M. P. Vukolovich. Equations of the State of Real Gases. 

Moscow -Leningrad: 1948. 

Index of the adiabatic curve of saturated and moist steam. 

Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1948, 59, #8. 



NOVIKOV 268 

Existence of Impact Waves of Disturbance. Doklady Akad. 
Nauk S.S.S.R., 1948, 59, #9. 

and M. P. Vukolovich . Technical Thermodynamics, 2nd ed. 
Moscow-Leningrad: 1955. 

and others. Heat emission and thermophysical properties of 
molten alkali metals. Atomic Energy, 1956, #4. 
and others . Liquid-metal Heat Carriers. Moscow: 1958. 
Office: Institute of Thermophysics, Siberian Branch of 

USSR Academy of Sciences 
Novosibirsk, Siberia 

NOVIKOV, PYQTR SERGEEVICH (Mathematician) 

P. S. Novikov was born August 28, 1901. He graduated in 
1927 from Moscow University. In 1934 he started working at 
the Mathematical Institute of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 
He was elected a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Acade- 
my of Sciences in 1953 and in 1960 an Academician. In 1957 he 
was awarded a Lenin Prize, and again in 1961. 

Novikov' s main works are concerned with set theory and 
mathematical logics. 
Bibliography: 

Fonctions implicites mesurables. Fundamenta Mathemati- 
cae, Warszava, 1931, Bd. 17, 8-25. 

Sur la separabilite des ensembles projectifs du seconde 
classe. Fundamenta Mathematicae, Warszava, 1935, Bd. 25, 
459-466. 

On the non-contradiction of some positions of descriptive 
set theory. Works of the V. A. Steklov Institute of Mathe- 
matics, 1951, 38, 279-316. 

On the algorithmical insolubility of the problem of identity 
of words in group theory. Moscow: 1955. 
Office: V. A. Steklov Mathematics Institute of USSR 

Academy of Sciences 
1-y Akademicheskii Proyezd, 28 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: ul. Chkalova, 21/2 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: B7 06 85 

NOVOSELOVA, ALEKSANDRA VASIL'EVNA (Chemist) 

A. V. Novoselova was born March 24, 1900. She graduated 
from Moscow University in 1924 and had worked there since 
1920. In 1946 she was made professor at the University. She 



269 NOV^OZHILOV 

was elected in 1953 a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. 

Academy of Sciences. In 1948 she was awarded a Stalin Prize. 
Novoselova developed analytical methods for beryllium, and 

for complexes in system M0O3-H2O. 

Bibliography: 

and M. E. Levina . Thermal analysis of the system NaF- 
BeF2. Zhur. Obshchei Khim., 1944, 14^ #6. 
and D. F. Kirkina, Yu. P. Simanov . Polymorphism of beryl- 
lium fluoride. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1956, 107 , #6. 
and Yu. P. Simanov . Structure and transformation of fluorine 
compounds of beryllium. Scientific Papers of Moscow State 
University, #174, 1955, 7-16. 

and Yu. P. Simanov, N. N. Semenenko, N. N. Krasovskaya . 
Compounds of hydroxyacetate of beryllium with pyridine di- 
oxane. Zhur. Neorg. Khim., 1956, J^ #4. 
and K. N. Semenenko . Interaction of hydroxy -acetate of 
beryllium with hydroxymonochloracetate of beryllium. Zhur. 
Neorg. Khim., 1956, l, #10. 

Office: Chemistry Department 

Moscow University 
Moscow, USSR 

Residence: Lomonosovskii pr. 14 
Moscow, USSR 

Telephone: B9 15 80 

NQVQZHILOV, VALENTIN VALENTINQVICH (Mechanics 
Specialist) 
V. V. Novozhilov was born May 18, 1910. After graduating 
from Leningrad Physico-Technical Institute, he worked in a 
series of scientific research establishments. He started teach- 
ing at the Leningrad University in 1946 and in 1949 became a 
professor. Since 1958 he has been a Corresponding Member of 
the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

Novozhilov' s major works deal .with the theory of elasticity, 
theory on plasticity, theory of shells, and also their application 
to problems in ship building. 
Bibliography: 

Theory of Thin Shells. 2nd ed. Leningrad: 1951. 
Basis of Non-Linear Theory of Elasticity. Leningrad- 
Moscow: 1948. 
Office: Leningrad University 

Leningrad, USSR 



NUZHDIN 270 

NUZHDIN, NIKOLAI IVANOVICH (Biologist) 

N. I. Nuzhdin was born April 17, 1904. He graduated in 1929 
from Teachers Institute in Yaroslavl. In 1935 he began work- 
ing in the Institute of Genetics at U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 
He has been a member of the Communist Party since 1927. In 
1953 he was elected a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences. 

Nuzhdin' s works are in the field of genetics, radiobiology, 
and evolution. 
Bibliography: 

Hereditary changes in ontogenesis. Zhur. Obshchei Biol., 
1945, #6. 

Criticism of the idealogical theories of genes. Versus Re- 
actionary Mendelism-Morganism. Moscow -Leningrad: 
1950. 

Darwin and Mitchurian biology. Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 
Ser. Biol., 1952, #3. 

The role of hybridization in variability. Zhur. Obshchei 
Biol., 1946, 7, #2. 

Interdependence between the condition of the chromosome 
cellular nucleotide, speed of growth and development. Dok- 
lady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., New Series, 1948, 60, #3. 
Office: Institute of Genetics of USSR Academy of Sciences 

Leninskii Prospekt, 33 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: 1-aya Cheremushkinskaya, 3 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: VI 52 78 

OBREIMOV, IVAN VASIL'EVICH (Physicist) 

I. V. Obreimov was born March 8, 1894. In 1915 he gradu- 
ated from Petrograd University. He worked at the State Opti- 
cal Institute from 1919 until 1924 when he began work at the 
Leningrad Physico-Technical Institute. Subsequently he worked 
at the Physico-Technical Institute and from 1929 to 1937 was 
the Director. In 1933 Obreimov was elected a Corresponding 
Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences and in 1958 an 
Academician. He was awarded a Stalin Prize in 1946. 

Obreimov conducted scientific investigations on the physics 
of crystals and molecular spectroscopy. He studied plastic 
deformation and optical properties of single crystals and 
spectroscopy of crystals at low temperatures. In his mono- 
graph, On the application of Fresnel diffraction for physical 
and Technical measurements (1945), (Stalin Prize 1946), 



271 OBRUCHEV 

Obreimov proposed and developed a method for determining 
dispersion which can be applied to a study of crystals under- 
going chemical reactions and to control of fractionation of mix- 
tures. 

In 1960 Obreimov was awarded the S. I. Vavilov Gold Medal. 
Bibliography: 

and T. N. Shkurina. Identification of hydrocarbons by a dis- 
persion curve. Proc. Acad. Sci. U.S.S.R., Sect. Chem., 

1955, #5. 

Formation of ultramicroscopic heterogeneities during plas- 
tic deformation of rock salt. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 

1956, 108, #3. 

Office: Leningrad Physico-Technical Institute of USSR 

Academy of Sciences 
Sosnovka 2 
Lesnoy, Leningrad, USSR 

OBRUCHEV, SERGEI VLADIMIROVICH (Geologist) 

S. V. Obruchev was born February 3, 1891. He is the son of 
the Russian geologist V. A. Obruchev, 1863-1956. S. V. Obru- 
chev graduated from Moscow University in 1915. While con- 
ducting geological studies of the Yenisei basin from 1917 to 
1924, he delineated and described the Tungusskii coal basin. 
He was awarded a Stalin Prize in 1946, and became a Corre- 
sponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences in 1953. 
In 1926-35 Obruchev studied the practically unknown regions 
of Northeastern U.S.S.R., the river basins of Indigirka and 
Kolyma, Chukotskii region. He developed schemes of ore de- 
scription, geomorphology and geological structure of Northeast- 
ern Asia. He proposed uniting the mountain structures of the 
middle of Indigirka River and Kolyma under the name of Cher- 
skii Ridge. In 1937-54 he studied the ridge of Eastern Sayan, 
Khamar-Daban and Eastern Tuva. He also did research on the 
geology and geomorphology of other regions of the U.S.S.R. He 
is the author of a series of scientific -popular books (Unknown 
Mountains of Yakutiya, 1928; On the Persei Through Polar 
Seas, 1929; Kolyma Land, 1933; A Plane in Eastern Arctic, 
1934; Into Unexplored Territories, 1954.) He compiled a Hand- 
book of a Traveler and Student of Local Lore (2 volumes, 1949- 
1950). 
Bibliography: 

Tungusskii basin (South and Western part), I -II, Works of 
the All- Union Geological Prospecting Society of the People's 



OBUKHOV 272 

Commissariat of Heavy Industry of the U.S.S.R., #164, 178. 
Moscow-Leningrad: 1932-1933. 

New orographic scheme of North Eastern Asia. Research 
Papers of the Leningrad State University. Series on Geo- 
graphic Sciences, 1940, 56, #3. 

Outline of the tectonics of North Eastern Asia. To Acade- 
mician V. A. Obruchev, on the 50th Anniversary of Scientific 
and Pedagogical Activity, J^. Moscow-Leningrad: 1938. 
Main characteristics of the tectonics and stratigraphy of 
Eastern Sayan. Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Geol. Ser., 
1942, #5-6. 

Orography and Geomorphology of the Eastern Half of Eastern 
Sayan. Proceedings of the All- Union Geographic Society of 
the U.S.S.R., 1946, #7-8. 

New data on orography of North Eastern Tuva. Questions on 
the Geology of Asia,^. Moscow: 1955. 
Office: USSR Academy of Sciences 

Leninskii Prospekt, 14 

Moscow, USSR 

OBUKHOV, ALEKSANDR MIKHAILOVICH (Geophysicist) 

A. M. Obukhov was born May 5, 1918. After having gradu- 
ated from Moscow University in 1940, he worked at the Geo- 
physical Institute of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He holds 
a doctorate in physical-mathematical sciences. In 1956, he 
became director of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Institute 
of Atmospheric Physics. In 1953, he became a Corresponding 
Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

Obukhov has been concerned with the statistical theory of 
turbulence and its application in meteorology. Together with 
A. N. Kolmogorov, he developed a theory of the local structure 
of turbulence. He also experimentally investigated atmospheric 
turbulence and worked in dynamic meteorology and the theory 
of probability. 

As of 1961, Obukhov was Chairman of the Commission on 
Physics of Atmosphere. 
Bibliography: 

Distribution of Energy in the Spectrum of a Turbulent Flow. 

Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. Geogr. i Geofiz., 1941, 

#4-5. 

Structure of the Temperature Field in a Turbulent Flow. 

Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. Geogr. i Geofiz., 1949, 13, 

#1. 



273 ODING 

Question of Geostrophic Wind. Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 
Ser. Geogr. i Geofiz., 13^, 1949, #4. 

Dynamics of stratified fluids. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 
145 , #6, 1239-42 (1962). 
Biography: 

Aleksandr Mikhailovich Obukhov (Meteorologist). Izvest. 
Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. Geofiz., 1954, #1. 
Office: Institute of Physics of the Atmosphere of USSR 

Academy of Sciences 
Bol'shaya Gruzinskaya Ulitsa, 10 
Moscow, USSR 

OPING, IVAN AVGUSTQVICH (Metallurgist) 

I. A. Oding was born July 6, 1896. He graduated in 1921 
from the Technological Institute of Petrograd. From 1930 to 
1942 he was professor at the Leningrad Polytechnic Institute. 
In 1942-1947 he was the Director of the Central Scientific Re- 
search Institute of Technology and Machine Building; in 1947- 
1953 he worked at the Institute of Machine Studies of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. Beginning in 1953, he has car- 
ried out research at the Institute of Metallurgy of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences. He has been a member of the Communist 
Party of the Soviet Union since 1942. In 1946 he was elected a 
Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 
He received a Stalin Prize in 1946, and in 1956 was an Honored 
Scientist of the R.S.F.S.R. 

Oding' s main works are concerned with problems in the 
strength of metals. He worked on the establishment of new 
methods for testing mechanical properties of metals, such as 
cyclical viscosity and relaxation. 
Bibliography: 

Strength of metals. Study of Metals, 3rd ed. Moscow- 
Leningrad: 1937. 

Permissible Stresses in Machine Building and Cyclical 
Strength of Metals. 3rd ed. Moscow-Leningrad: 1947. 
Basis of Strength of Metals of Boilers, Turbines and Turbo- 
generators. Moscow-Leningrad: 1949. 

Contemporary Methods of Testing Metals. 4th ed. Moscow- 
Leningrad: 1944. 
Biography: 

Ivan Avgustovich Oding (On the 60th Anniversary Since the 
Date of Birth) in Factory Laboratory. 1956, #8. 



OKHOTSIMSKII 274 

On the 60th Anniversary of the Corresponding Member of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences I. A. Oding. Study of Metals 
and Metal Processing, 1956, #9. 
Office: A. A. Baykov Institute of Metallurgy of USSR Acade- 

my of Sciences 
Leninskii Prospekt, 49 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: B. Ordynka 34/38 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: Bl 72 80 

OKHOTSIMSKII, DMITRII YEVGEN'EVICH (Mechanics 
Specialist) 
D. Ye. Okhotsimskii was born in 1921. In 1946 he graduated 
from the mechanical-mathematics faculty of Moscow State Uni- 
versity. In that year he also initiated postgraduate studies, 
later became a junior, and then senior scientific worker, and 
in 1953 departmental Chief of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences 
Mathematics Institute. He became, in 1959, a professor of the 
theoretical mechanics department of Moscow State University. 
He was awarded a Lenin Prize in 1957, and has been a member 
of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union since 1951. In 1960 
he became a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences. 

Okhotsimskii has worked on earth satellites. 
Bibliography: 

Theory of the motion of a body with cavities partially filled 
with a liquid. Prikl. Mat. Mekh. 20, 1, 3-20 (1956). Applied 
Mechanics Reviews jJ, 760 (1958). 

and T. M. Eneev . Some variation problems connected with 
the launching of artificial satellites of the earth. J. Brit. 
Interplanetary Soc. 16, 5, 263-294 (1958). Uspekhi Phys. 
Nauk 63, suppl. la, 5-32 (1957). Proc. 8th International 
Astronautical Congr., Barcelona, 1957. Applied Mechanics 
Reviews 12, 1055 (1959). 

and I. L. Kondrasheva, Z. P. Vlasova, R. K. Kazakova. 
Calculations for a precision explosion, taking into account 
the counter resistance. Trudy Matem. In-ta Akad. Nauk 
S.S.R. #50, 66 pp. & others 1957, Ref. Zh. Mekh. #3, 1958, 
Rev. 2659. Applied Mechanics Reviews ^2, 5798 (1959). 
and T. M. Eneev, G. P. Taratyrova. The determination of 
the period of existence of an earth satellite and an investi- 
gation of the secular perturbations of its orbit. Uspekhi Fiz. 



275 OPARIN 

Nauk 63, la, 33-50 (1957). Ref. Zh. Mekh. #8, 1958. Rev. 
8371. Applied Mechanics Reviews 13^, 6634 (1960). 
Office: Theoretical Mechanics Department 

Moscow State University 

Moscow, USSR 

OPARIN, ALEKSANDR IVANOVICH (Organic Chemist) 

A. I. Oparin was born March 3, 1894. In 1917 he graduated 
from Moscow University, and in 1929 he became a professor 
there. He helped organize the Institute of Biochemistry of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, began working there in 1935, 
and became the Director in 1946. He was elected Correspond- 
ing Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences in 1939 and in 
1946 an Academician. From 1949 to 1956 he was Academician- 
Secretary of the Department of Biological Sciences of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. Oparin has been a prominent 
national figure in the Soviet Union. In 1950 he was appointed a 
member of the Soviet Committee in Defense of Peace and a 
member of the International Council for Peace. He became, in 
1952, Vice-President of the International Federation of Scien- 
tists and was elected again in September 1962. In 1950 he was 
awarded the A. N. Bakh and I. I. Mechnikov Prizes. 

Oparin' s work is devoted to the biochemical basis of pro- 
cessing of vegetative raw materials, to the action of enzymes 
in a living vegetative organism, and to the origin of life on the 
earth. His work laid the basis for technical biochemistry in 
the U.S.S.R. The study by Oparin and his students gave a 
rational biochemical basis for the production of sugar, bread, 
tea, wine, and tobacco. Oparin advanced a hypothesis on the 
origin of life on earth based on investigations in the field of 
astronomy, chemistry, geology and biology. 
Bibliography: 

Origin of Life on Earth, 3rd ed. Moscow: 1957. 
Changes of the Action of Enzymes in the Living Cell under 
Influence of External Action. Moscow: 1952. 
Life: Its Nature, Origin, and Development. Edinburgh: 
Oliver and Boyd Co., 1961. 224 p. (English trans.) 
Biography: 

Aleksandr Ivanovich Oparin. On 60th Anniversary since date 
of birth. Biokhimya, 1954, 19, #2. 
Office: A. N. Bakh Institute of Biochemistry of USSR 

Academy of Sciences 
Leninskii Prospekt, 33 
Moscow, USSR 



ORLOV 276 

Residence: Cheremushkinskaya, 3 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: B7 25 22 

ORLOV, YURII ALEKSANDROVICH (Paleontologist and 
Histologist) 
Yu. A. Orlov was born June 12, 1893. In 1917 he graduated 
from the Petrograd (Leningrad) University. He taught in Perm' 
University until 1924, and from 1924 to 1935 at the Military 
Medical Academy in Leningrad. Orlov was a professor at the 
Leningrad University 1933-1941 and in 1943 at the Moscow Uni- 
versity. In 1929 he began working in the Paleontological Insti- 
tute of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences and in 1945 he became 
Director of this Institute. He was elected Corresponding Mem- 
ber of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences in 1953 and in 1960 an 
Academician. In 1946 he was awarded the title of Honored 
Scientist of the R.S.F.S.R. 

Orlov is the author of comparative -morphological investi- 
gations of the nervous system of invertebrates and on paleon- 
tology of invertebrates and vertebrates. 
Bibliography: 

Perunilnae, new subfamily of marten is from Neogene Eur- 
asia. Moscow -Leningrad: 1947 (Works of the Paleontologi- 
cal Institute of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, 10, #3). 
Office: Institute of Paleontology of USSR Academy of 

Sciences 
Leninskii Prospekt, 33 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Leninskii Prospekt, 13 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: V2 05 38 

PALLADIN, ALEKSANDER VLADIMIROVICH (Biochemist) 

A. V. Palladin was born September 10, 1885. He graduated 
in 1908 from the University of Petersburg. In 1916 he was 
made professor at the Institute of Agriculture and Forestry in 
Kharkov and in 1921 professor at the Kharkov Medical Institute. 
He helped found the Ukrainian Biochemical Institute (since 
1931, the Institute of Biochemistry of the Ukrainian S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences) and in 1925 became the Director. Begin- 
ning in 1934, he was also a professor at the University of Kiev. 
He became a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet 
Union in 1932. Since 1929 he has been a Member of the Acade- 
my of Sciences of the Ukrainian S.S.R. From 1946 to 1962 he 



277 PALLADIN 

was the President of this Academy of Sciences. In 1942 he be- 
came a Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. Palladin 
was named, in 1935, an Honored Scientist of the Ukrainian 
S.S.R. He has been a member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Medi- 
cal Sciences since 1944. In 1950 he was an Honored Member 
of the Belorussian S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. Also he is an 
Honorary Member of the Academies of Sciences of Bulgaria, 
Hungary, and Rumania and a foreign Member of the Polish 
Academy of Sciences. He has been a Deputy to the U.S.S.R. 
Supreme Soviet. The Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. awarded 
him in 1955 the title of "Hero of Socialist Labor." 

Palladin' s work is in animal biochemistry. He was the first 
in the U.S.S.R. to study experimentally the biochemistry of 
vitamins and the intermediate chemical transformations in 
metabolism (intracellular carbohydrate and phosphorous ex- 
change). In the study of vitamins, he investigated the processes 
of their transformation in the tissues of animals, and the dis- 
order of metabolism during avitaminosis and hypo vitamino sis. 
He produced a synthetic vitamin preparation *vikasol,* which 
is utilized in medicine. His earlier work was devoted to the 
study of creatin. In the area of biochemistry of the muscle he 
investigated the role of creatin in the muscle and the questions 
of muscular activity and muscle training. In the area of bio- 
chemistry of the nervous system, Palladin and associates 
showed the biochemical difference of separate, functionally - 
dissimilar parts of the central nervous system; conducted com- 
parative biochemical investigations on tissues of the nervous 
system in different types of animals; and studied the chemical 
composition of tissues of the nervous system in the process of 
embryonic development of animals. Palladin studied the bio- 
chemistry of the brain under various functional conditions, such 
as inhibition and excitation, and investigated proteins and en- 
zymes of the nervous system. 

Palladin is the author of TextbojDk on Biological Chemistry 
(1924, 12th ed., 1946). In 1926, he was instrumental in es- 
tablishing the first Soviet biochemical journal, "Scientific 
Notes of the Biochemical Institute," later renamed (1934) the 
"Ukrainian Biochemical Journal." He is its editor at the pres- 
ent time. 

As of 1961 Palladin was a Member of the Presidium of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 
Bibliography: 

Investigations on the Formation and Secretion of Creatin in 

Animals. Kharkov: 1916. 



PALLADIN 278 

Basis of Nutrition, 3rd ed. Moscow: 1927. 
Investigations on the Biochemistry of Muscles and the Ner- 
vous System Under Various Conditions. The Anniversary 
Collection devoted to the 30th Anniversary of the Great 
Socialist October Revolution, Part 2. Moscow -Leningrad: 
1947. 

Chemical Nature of Vitamins, 3rd ed. Kiev: 1941. 
Metabolism in the brain under various functional conditions. 
Vestnik Akad. Nauk, 1952, #10. 

Der Stoffwechsel im Gehirn bei verschiedenen functionellen 
Zustanden. WienKlini Wochensch. 66; 473, 1954. 
Metabolism of Nucleic Acids in the Brain during its De- 
velopment. "Biochemistry of the developing nervous sys- 
tem," New York, 1955. 

La biochimie du cerveau. Conferences et Rapports du III 
Congres International du Biochimie. Bruxelles. Liege, 
1956. p. 375. 

Proteins of the Nervous System under Various Conditions. 
"Metabolism of the nervous system." Ed. by Richter. 
London: Pergamon Press, 1957. 

Zur Kenntnis der Proteine des Nervensystems. IV Intern. 
Congress of Biochemistry. Symposium III, Biochem. of the 
Nervous System. 1959, p. 185. 

Protein metabolism of the Nervous System. Ill Symposium 
of Biochemistry of Nervous System. Erevan (USSR): 1962. 
Metabolism in the brain by excitation and inhibition. Ukrain- 
skii Biochem. Journ. 34, 621 (1962). 

Biography: 

D. L. Ferdman. Scientific, pedagogical and social activity 
of the Member of the Academy of Sciences A. V. Palladin. 
Uspekhi Sovremennoi Biol. 1955, 40, #1. 

M. F. Gulii. On the 70th Anniversary since the date of birth 
and the 50th Anniversary of scientific of hero of Socialist 
labor. Member of the Academy of Sciences A. V. Palladin. 
Vestnik Akad. Nauk Ukrain. S.S.R., 1955, #9. 
A. M. Uterski . A. V. Palladin. 2nd ed., Kiev, 1961. Acade- 
my of Sciences of Ukrainian S.S.R. 

Office: Institute of Biochemistry of the Academy of Sciences 

Ukrainian S.S.R. 
Ulitsa Leontovicha 9 
Kiev, Ukrainian SSR 

Telephone: 5-80-67 



279 PAVLOV 

PA TON, BORIS EVGEN'EVICH (Metallurgist) 

B. E. Paton was born November 27, 1918. He graduated in 
1941 from Kiev Polytechnical Institute. In 1942 he began work 
at the Ukrainian S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Institute of 
Electro-Welding and in 1953 was made Director. He has been 
a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union since 
1952. He became a Corresponding Member of the Ukrainian 
S.S.R. Academy of Sciences in 1952 and in 1958 an Academician. 
In February 1962, he was elected President of the Ukrainian 
S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. As of June 1962 he is an Acade- 
mician of the U. S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. In 1950 he re- 
ceived a State Prize and in 1957, a Lenin Prize. 

Paton' s work has been concerned with electro-technical 
problems of contact, arc, and gas-electric welding of metals. 
From 1942-1945, he investigated the basic methods of closed 
arc welding. In 1945-1951 he developed a theory for control- 
ling automatic electric arc welding and methods for pipe weld- 
ing (State Prize 1950). He also participated in developing new 
methods of electric -slag welding of massive pieces of metal 
(Lenin Prize 1957). 

He was a deputy to the fifth session of the Ukrainian Supreme 
Soviet and the sixth session of the Supreme Soviet of the 
U. S.S.R. In 1961 he was elected to the Central Committee of 
the Communist Party. 
Bibliography: 

and A. M. Makar . Experimental Research in Automatic 

Welding Under a Flux Layer. Kiev: 1944. 

Investigating Conditions and Control of Stable Combustion of 

a Welding Arc. Kiev: 1951. 

and E. L. Lebedev. Estimating the Chain and Apparatus of 

an Alternate Current for Arc Welding. Kiev: 1953. 

and others . Programmatic and Cybernetic Control of Weld- 
ing Processes. Kiev: 1960. 

Electro-slag Rewelding of Metals. Moscow: 1961. 

Production of Two-Layer Sheets for Electro-slag Welding. 

Moscow: 1962. 
Office: Institute of Electrowelding im. E. O. Paton 

ul. Gor'kogo, 69 
Kiev, Ukrainian SSR 
Telephone: 7-90-01 

PAVLOV, IGOR' MIKHAILOVICH (Metallurgist) 

L M. Pavlov, son of M. A. Pavlov (1863-1950, a Russian 
metallurgist) was born June 23, 1900. After graduating from 



PAVLOVSKY 280 

Petrograd Polytechnic Institute in 1923, he worked in Metallur- 
gical plants. In 1928 he began teaching at and in 1934 was made 
professor at the Leningrad Polytechnic Institute. He became a 
professor in 1943 at the Moscow Institute of Steel. In 1953 he 
went to work at the Institute of Metallurgy of the U.S.S.R. Aca- 
demy of Sciences. Since 1946 he has been a Corresponding 
Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

Pavlov's main works deal with the theory of the rolling and 
with pressure processing of metals and also with the general 
problems of metallurgy and metals. 
Bibliography: 

Theory of Rolling. 3rd ed., Moscow: 1950. 

Composition of a Furnace Charge for Non- Ferrous Casting. 

2nd ed., Moscow -Leningrad: 1932. 

Rolling of Non- Ferrous Metals and Alloys. Leningrad- 
Moscow: 1932. 

and Ya. S. Gallai. Forward Flow During Rolling. Moscow - 

Leningrad: 1936. 

and others. Processing of Metals by Pressure. Moscow: 

1955. 

Grundlagen der Metallverformung durch Druck. Bd 1-2, B., 

1954. 
Office: A. A. Baykov Institute of Metallurgy of USSR 

Academy of Sciences 
Leninskii Prospekt, 49 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: ul. Gor'kogo, 8 
Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: B9 44 96 

PAVLOVSKY (PAVLOVSKII), EVGENII NIKANORQVICH 

( Zoologist and Parasitologist ) 
E. N. Pavlovsky was born March 5, 1884. In 1909 he gradu- 
ated from the Medical Military Academy and in 1921 became a 
professor there. From 1933 to 1944 he worked at the AU- 
Union Institute of Experimental Medicine (Leningrad) and at the 
same time (until 1951) in the Tadzhik branch of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences. He was made Director in 1942 of the 
Zoological Institute of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences and 
Chairman, in 1946, of the Department of Parasitology and 
Medical Zoology at the Institute of Epidemiology and Micro- 
biology of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Medical Sciences. Pavlovsky 
has been a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union 
since 1940. He is a lieutenant-general in the medical service. 



281 / PAVLOVSKY 

In 1939 he became an Academician of the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences, in 1944 a member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Medi- 
cal Sciences, and in 1951 an honorary member of the Tadzhik 
S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. The U.S.S.R. Geographic Society 
elected him President in 1952. Pavlovsky has been made an 
honorary member of many Russian and other scientific socie- 
ties including: the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and 
Hygiene, Societe Pathologie exotique, Societe France de Zoo- 
logie, Parasitological Society of USA, the Iranian Academy 
(Teheran), Leopoldina Academy, the Academy of Zoology. He 
has received honorary doctorate degrees from the Sorbonne 
University (Paris) and the University in Delhi (India). He is a 
Deputy of the U.S.S.R. Supreme Soviet, second through fourth 
convocations. In 1935 he was an Honored Scientist of the 
R.S. F.S.R. Pavlovsky received a Stalin Prize in 1941 and again 
in 1950. The U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences awarded him the 
gold medal of I. I. Mechnikov in 1949, and in 1954 the U.S.S.R. 
Geographic Society awarded him a gold medal. 

As of 1961, Pavlovsky was Chairman of the Commission on 
Icthyology of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He is also 
President of the AU-Union Entomological Society, Academy of 
Sciences U.S.S.R. In 1962, Pavlovsky asked to be relieved of 
the directorship of the Zoological Institute of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences and was appointed the Senior Scientific 
Consultant of this Institute. 

Pavlovsky' s main work is in parasitology. He organized and 
conducted many complex expeditions to Middle Asia, to Zakav- 
kaz'ye, to the Crimea, the Far East and other regions of the 
country in order to study endemic parasitic and communicable 
diseases (tick fever, tick encephalitis, mosquito fever, leush- 
maniosis). Pavlovsky, his students, and associates collected 
voluminous materials on the fauna, biology and ecology of para- 
sites and carriers of sickness. They studied natural reser- 
voirs of pathogenic organisms and the routes of their circu- 
lation in nature and in the organisms of humans and domestic 
animals. He investigated natural breeding grounds for communi- 
cable diseases of man and helped to organize prophylactic mea- 
sures. He investigated intestinal protozoan and worm infesta- 
tion, flying, bloodsucking insects (gnus) and protective measures 
against these insects (protective nets of Pavlovsky), and eradi- 
cation of bloodsuckers in their breeding ground and habitats. 
Pavlovsky also studied poisonous animals and the properties 
of their poison ("Poisonous Animals and their Meaning for 
Man," 1923, and "Poisonous Animals and their Venoms," 1927). 



PETROV 282 

He is the author of a series of textbooks and manuals on para- 
sitology and of studies on the natural sources of diseases. 
Bibliography: 

Course on the Parasitology of Man (Works on Carriers of 
Infection and Invasion), 2nd ed. Leningrad: Moscow: 1934. 
Short Textbook on the Biology of Man's Parasites. Moscow- 
Leningrad: 1941. 

Manual on Man's Parasites Including Work on the Carriers 
of Communicable Diseases, 1-2, 5th ed. Moscow-Leningrad: 
1946-48. 

Papatachi Fever and its Carriers. Leningrad: 1947. 
Gnus (Bloodsucking, two-winged). Its Meaning and Methods 
of Extermination. Leningrad: 1951. 

Textbook on Man's Parasites with Works on the Carriers of 
Communicable Diseases, 6th ed. Leningrad: 1951. 
Biography: 

Evgenii Nikanorovich Pavlovsky, 2nd ed. Moscow: 1956. 
To the Seventieth Anniversary Since the Date of Birth of 
E. N. Pavlovsky. Medical Parasitology and Parasitic Di- 
seases, 1954, #2. J. N. Pawlowski, Leben und Werk. Berlin, 
1959. 
Office: Institute of Zoology of USSR Academy of Sciences 

Universitetskaya Naberezhnaya, 1 
Leningrad, B-164, USSR 
Residence: Prosp. K. Marksa 3, Apt. 5 

Leningrad, USSR 
Telephone: G-216-52 

PETROV, ALEKSANDR DMITRIEVICH (Organic Chemist) 

A. D. Petrov was born August 28, 1895. He graduated in 
1922 from Petrograd University. In 1943 he became a pro- 
fessor at the Moscow Chemico-Technological Institute. Since 
1946 he has been a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences. In 1947 he was awarded a Stalin Prize. 

Petrov' s work is in organic synthesis. He conducted synthe- 
ses of pure hydrocarbons in motor fuel and established the 
manner in which the composition and structure of these hydro- 
carbons are related to their properties. He conducted syntheses 
and investigated properties of silicon hydrocarbons. 
Bibliography: 

Means of developing organic synthesis. Industry of Organic 
Synthesis of the Aliphatic Series Compounds. Moscow- 
Leningrad: 1943. 
Chemistry of Motor Fuels. Moscow: 1953. 



283 PETROV 

Office: Chemistry Department 

Moscow Chemico-Technological Institute 
Moscow, USSR 

PETROV, ALEKSANDR PETRQVICH (Railroad Transportation 
Engineer) 

A. P. Petrov was born September 1, 1910. He graduated in 
1934 from the Moscow Institute of Transportation Engineers. 
From 1935 to 1940 he worked at the Scientific Research Insti- 
tute of Railroad Transportation. In 1936 he formed the teach- 
ing staff of the Moscow Institute of Transportation Engineers. 
He worked in the Ministry of Transportation in 1941-1946 and 
in 1949 began working at the Ail Union Scientific Research 
Institute of Railroad Transportation. He has been a member of 
the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1945. In 1953 
he was elected a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Acade- 
my of Sciences. 

The work of Petrov is in national use of railroads, particu- 
larly the organization of the car turnover. He worked out a 
method of calculating plans for formation of trains. He formu- 
lated a theory of schedules, and traffic carrying capacity of 
railroads. 
Bibliography: 

Plan on Formation of Trains. Experiment, Theory, Method- 
ology of Calculation. Moscow: 1950. 

Investigation of a Two -Track Schedule in Connection with the 
Scheduling of Passenger Trains. Moscow: 1941. 
Organization of Traffic in Railroad Transport. Moscow: 
1952. 
Office: All Union Scientific Research Institute of Railroad 

Transportation 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Leningradskii Prospekt, 28 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: D3 60 00, Ext. 420 

PETROV, BORIS NIKOLAEVICH (Automation Specialist) 

B. N. Petrov was born March 11, 1913. In 1939 he graduated 
from Moscow Institute of Energetics and began working at the 
Institute of Automation and Remote Control of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences. He has taught at Moscow Aviation Insti- 
tute, starting in 1944, and in 1948 became a professor. He was 
elected a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences in 1953, and in 1960 an Academician. 



PETROV 284 

Petrov's investigations are in automation and in approximate 

integration of differential equations. 

Bibliography: 

and others. Automatic Control of Linear Dimensions of Ob- 
jects. Moscow: 1947. 

On construction and transformation of structural schemes. 
Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Otdel. Tekh. Nauk, 1945, #12. 

Office: Moscow Aviation Institute 

Moscow, USSR 

PETR O V, GE ORGII IVAN OVICH (Engineer in Hydro- 
Aeromechanics and Gas Dynamics) 
G. I. Petrov was born May 31, 1912. After graduation from 
Moscow University in 1935 he worked in scientific research 
institutes. In 1953 he became a professor at Moscow Universi- 
ty. He was elected a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences in 1953, and in 1958 an Academician. In 
1949 he received a Stalin Prize. 

The earlier works of Petrov were concerned with the ques- 
tion of stability of vortex layers, the propagation of oscillations 
in a viscous liquid, elucidation of physical conditions in the 
destruction of laminar flow. He proved the convergence of 
Galerkin's method for seeking the characteristic value in a 
wide class of equations, including non-conservative systems 
(particularly equations of oscillations in a viscous liquid). 
Bibliography: 

On the Propagation of Oscillations in a Viscous Liquid and 
the Appearance of Turbulence. Moscow: 1938. 
Utilization of Galerkin's method in the problem of the sta- 
bility of flow of a viscous liquid. Priklad. Mat. i Mekh., 
1940, 4, #3. 
Office: Moscow University 

Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Prospekt Mira, 73 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: II 93 31 

PETROV, NIKOLAI NIKOLAEVICH (Surgeon-oncologist) 

N. N. Petrov was born December 14, 1876. He graduated in 
1899 from the Military Medical Academy in Petersburg (Lenin- 
grad). In 1913 he became professor at the Institute of Advanced 
Training of Doctors in Petersburg. He founded the Oncology 
Institute in Leningrad in 1926 and was a scientific leader in 
this Institute. He was elected a Corresponding Member of the 



285 PETROVSKII 

U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences in 1939 and in 1944 a Member of 
the U.S.S.R. Academy of Medical Sciences. In 1935 Petrov was 
an Honored Scientist of the R.S.F.S.R., and in 1942 recipient of 
Stalin Prize. The Academy of Sciences of the U.S.S.R. awarded 
him the I. I. Mechnilcov Prize in 1953 for his work on the ex- 
perimental rendering of malignant tumors in monkeys. In 1957 
he was a Hero of Socialist Labor. 

Petrov' s works are on questions of origin, prophylaxis and 
treatment of malignant tumors, and surgery of stomach and 
duodenal ulcers. 

Petrov is a Member of the Institute of Experimental Path- 
ology and Therapy, Sukhumi, U.S.S.R. Academy of Medical 
Sciences. 
Bibliography: 

Editorship of Petrov and others. Stomach Duodenum Ulcers 

and Surgical Treatment. 1941. 

Editorship of Petrov and others. Malignant Tumors. 2 vols. 

1932-34. 

Editorship of Petrov and others. Malignant Tumors. 3 vols. 

1947-52. 

Editorship of Petrov and others. Treatment of War Injuries. 

1939, 7th edition, 1945. 
Biography: 

A. I. Serebrov, S. A. Kholdin, A. S. Chechulin. Nikolai 

Nikolaevich Petrov (On the 50th Anniversary of Scientific, 

Pedagogical Medical and Social Activity). Questions on 

Oncology, #3, Moscow, 1951 (contains bibliography of the 

scientific works of Petrov). 
Office: Academy of Medical Sciences of USSR Academy of 

Sciences 
Solyanka, 14 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: 5-aya Cheremushkinskaya, 3 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: V^ 14 61 

PETROV^SKH, IVAN GEORGIEV^ICH (Mathematician) 

I. G. Petrovskii was born January 18, 1901. In 1927 he 
graduated from Moscow University. He became a professor 
there in 1933, and in 1951 he was appointed Rector of the Uni- 
versity. In 1943, Petrovskii was elected a Corresponding 
Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences and, in 1946, an 
Academician. He was awarded, in 1946 and in 1952, Stalin 



PETROVSKII 286 

Prizes. He is a member of the Soviet Committee on Defense 
of Peace. 

The work of Petrovskii is concerned with the theory of 
partial differential equations, algebraic geometry, qualitative 
theory of differential equations, and theory of probability. He 
studied the various classes of elliptical systems (1937), studied 
problems with initial conditions for parabolic and hyperbolic 
systems of equations (1936); investigated the dependence of so- 
lutions on initial conditions; indicated for hyperbolic equations 
with constant coefficients the necessary and adequate conditions 
of existence of lacunae, that is, those regions in the base of the 
characteristic cone, the initial conditions of which do not influ- 
ence the significance of the solution at the cone vortex (1944). 
For his studies on the theory of partial differential equations 
Petrovskii was awarded, in 1946, a Stalin Prize. Petrovskii 
has also solved the first boundary -value problem for the 
equation of heat conductivity using the most general assumptions 
concerning the boundary of the domain (1935), gave the solution 
of the Dirichlet problem for the Laplace equation by the method 
of finite differences in an n-measured domain (1941), studied 
the behavior of integral curves for the system of ordinary 
differential equations in the vicinity of a singular point (1934), 
and obtained a series of results in the theory of probability. In 
the area of algebraic geometry, Petrovskii studied the distri- 
bution of ovals of the algebraic curve of the sixth order (1935). 
The method allowed solution of a more general problem which 
gives the distribution of ovals of an algebraic curve of any 
order, and establishes the topological properties of algebraic 
surfaces and algebraic manifolds of any number of dimensions 
(1949). Petrovskii, together with E. M. Landis, obtained (1955- 
57) evaluations of the number of limiting cycles in the ordinary 
differential equations, the right part of which is a ratio of two 
polynomials of the nth power; in the case where n = 2, their 
evaluation is exact. He is the author of textbooks, Lectures on 
the Theory of Ordinary Differential Equations (1939), Lectures 
on the Theory of Integral Equations (1948), Lectures on 
Equations with Partial Derivatives (1950), which were pub- 
lished many times in the U.S.S.R. and translated to foreign 
languages (Stalin Prize 1952). 

In 1961 PetrovsKii was awarded the Order of Lenin. In 
March 1962, he was elected delegate from R.S. F.S.R. to the 
Supreme Soviet. 

As of 1961, Petrovskii was a Member of the Presidium of 
the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 



287 PETRYANOV-SOKOLOV 

Bibliography: 

Uber das Cauchysche Problem fur Systeme von partiellen 

Differentialgleichungen. Mathematical Collection. New 

Series, 1937,^(44), #5. 

On the topology of real plane algebraic curves in Annales of 

Mathematics. Princeton-New York: 1938, 39, #1, 197-209. 

Sur I'analyticite des solutions des systems d' equations 

differentielles. Mathematical Collection. New Series, 1939, 

^(47), #1. 

On the diffusion of waves and the lacunas for hyperbolic 

equations. Mathematical Collection, New Series, 1945, 17 

(59), #3. 

and E. M. Landis . On the number of limiting cycles of the 

equation -r- = ^ / {* where P and Q are polynomials of the 
dx Q(x, y) 

second power. Mathematical Collection, 1955, _37, #2, 209- 

250. 

and E. M. Landis. On the number of limiting cycles of 

equation 'T~ - r>) (> where P and Q are polynomials. Dok- 

lady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1957, 113, #4. 
Biography: 

S. D. Sobolev . On the 50th Anniversary of Ivan Georgievich 

Petrovskii. Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. Mat., 1951, 

15, #3. 

A. N. Kolmogorov . Ivan Georgievich Petrovskii. On the 

50th Anniversary since the date of birth. Uspekhi Mat. 

Nauk, 1951, #3 (43) (contains bibliography of the works of 

Petrovskii). 
Office: Moscow University 

Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Leninskii Prospekt, 13 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: V2 14 47 

PETRYANOV-SOKOLOV, IGOR' VASIL'EVICH (Physical 
Chemist) 
I. V. Petryanov-Sokolov was born June 18, 1907. After 
graduating from Moscow University in 1930, he worked at the 
Karpov Physico-Chemical Institute. In 1947 he became pro- 
fessor at the Moscow Chemico-Technological Institute. He has 
been a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences since 1953. In 1941 he received a Stalin Prize. 



PEYVE 288 

The main works of Petryanov-Sokolov deal with the study of 
aerosols with a liquid dispersed phase, i.e., fog. He developed 
new methods of investigating them and studied the appearance 
of charges in them and the influence of charges on their sta- 
bility. 
Bibliography: 

and N. Fuks. Determining the size and charge of particles 
in fog. Zhur. Fiz. Khim., 1933, 4, #5. 

and N. M. Tunitskii. Formation of Aerosols During Conden- 
sation of Supersaturated Vapors. Zhur. Fiz. Khim., 1939, 
13, #8. 

and N. Rozenbyum. Edge angles of small drops. Doklady 
Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1948, 61, #4. 
Office: Moscow Chemico -Technological Institute 

Moscow, USSR 

PEYVE, ALEKSANDR VOL'DEMARQVICH (Geologist) 

A. V. Peyve was born February 9, 1909. After graduating 
from Moscow Geological Survey Institute in 1930, he worked in 
the Scientific Institute on Fertilizers. In 1934-1935, he took 
part in the Tadzhik-Pamir Expedition of the U.S.S.R. Academy 
of Sciences. He began working at the Geological Institute of 
the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences in 1935 and in 1952 became 
deputy Director. In 1961 Peyve was named director. He has 
been a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union 
since 1953. In 1958 he was elected a Corresponding Member 
of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He was awarded a Stalin 
Prize in 1946. 

Peyve' s main work is in regional tectonics, and also stra- 
tigraphy of magmas and metalogenesis. He has conducted in- 
vestigations of various types of faults in the earth's crust, par- 
ticularly deep faults. He is the author of works on the asymme- 
try of abyssal structures and on the conditions for the formation 
and development of geosynclines. The name of Peyve is associ- 
ated with the discovery of a series of deposits of bauxite, phos- 
phorite, and potassium salts. He took part in the compilation of 
a tectonic map of the U.S.S.R. on the sale of 1/5,000,000 (1956). 
Bibliography: 

Scheme of Tectonics of Western Tien Shan. Izvest. Akad. 

Nauk S.S.S.R., Otdel Mat. i Estest. Nauk, 1938, #5-6. 

Main types of abyssal faults. Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 

Otdel Mat. i Estest. Nauk, 1956, #1 and 3. 

Tectonics of the North Urals Bauxite Belt. Moscow: 1947. 



289 PEYVE 

Office: Institute of Geology of USSR Academy of Sciences 

Pyzherskii Pereulok, 7 

Moscow, USSR 
Residence: 1-aya Cheremushkinskaya, 3 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: V7 43 26 

PEYVE, YAN VQL'DEMAROVICH (Agricultural Chemist) 

Y. V. Peyve was born August 3, 1906. He graduated in 1929 
from the Moscow Agricultural Academy of K. A. Timiryazev. 
In 1930-1944, he worked in the All-Union Scientific Research 
Institute of Flax; in 1944-1950 he was President of the Latvian 
Agricultural Academy. Peyve has been a doctor of sciences 
and a professor of agrochemistry since 1940. He has been an 
Academician of the Latvian S.S.R. Academy of Sciences from 
1946 and in 1951 was made President. In 1953 he was elected 
Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 
Peyve has been a Deputy to the U.S.S.R. Supreme Soviet, fourth, 
fifth, and sixth convocations. In 1949 he became a member of 
the Soviet Committee in Defense of Peace, and in 1951 Chair- 
man of the Latvian Republican Committee on the Defense of 
Peace. He was elected in 1958, Chairman of the Council of the 
Nationalities of the U.S.S.R. Supreme Soviet. 

Peyve' s main work is in agrochemistry, biochemistry, soil 
science, and increasing harvest of industrial crops such as flax 
and sugar beets. He established methods of determining mobile 
forms of potassium, aluminum, humous acids, and microele- 
ments in soils of the Podzol zone and invented apparatus for 
making these analyses under production laboratory conditions 
on collective farms. He worked out principles of differential 
use of fertilizer for flax and other agricultural crops in relation 
to soil conditions. Peyve also studied use of microelements 
such as boron, molybdenum, zinc, and copper and plant nu- 
trition and cobalt, copper, zinc, molybdenum and boron in the 
soils of the Latvian S.S.R. and U.S.S.R. 

In 1961 Y. V. Peyve published a monograph "Biochemistry of 
the Soils" in which he presents experimental works dealing with 
biochemistry of soil humus, biochemistry of microelements and 
other elements of plant nutrition as well as biochemistry of 
enzymes. 

In 1961 he was a Candidate Member of the Central Committee 
of the Communist Party. 



PILYUGIN 290 

Bibliography: 

Soil conditions and effect of applying microfertilizers. 
Trace elements in plant nutrition. Transactions of the Labo- 
ratory of Biochemistry of Soils and Trace Elements. Riga: 
1958. 

Microelements and enzymes. Izdanie, Academy of Sciences 
of Latvian S.S.R. Riga: 1960. 

Boron and Molybdenum in Latvian Soils. Riga: 1960. 
Trace elements in agriculture. Primenenie Mikroelementov 
V Sel'sk. Khoz. i Med., Trudy Vsesoyuz. Soveshchaniya, 
Baku (Ya. V. Peyve, ed.). 1958, 5-15 (Pub. 1959). C. A. 54, 
25455g (1960). 

and N. N. Ivanova, L. V. Karelina . Boron in the soils of 
Latvian S.S.R. Latvijas PSR Zinatnu AKad. Vestis 1959, I, 
35-47 (in Russian). C A. 54, 4987g (1960). 
Biochemical role of molybdenum and its application in agri- 
culture. Trace elements and yields. Transactions of the 
Laboratory of Biochemistry of Soils and Trace Elements. 
Riga: 1961. 

Biochemistry of the Soils. Moscow: 1961. 
and G. Zhiznevskaya . Effect of molybdenum and copper on 
nitratreductase activity in plants. Riga: 1961. 

Office: Academy of Sciences Latvian SSR 

Riga, Latvian SSR 

PILYUGIN, NIKOLAI ALEKSEEV^ICH (Automation Specialist) 
N. A. Pilyugin was born in 1908. In 1935 he graduated from 

the Moscow Higher Technical School, and subsequently worked 

in various scientific-research organizations. He has been a 

member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union since 1940. 

In 1960 he was elected to the U. S.S.R. Academy of Sciences as 

a Corresponding Member. 

Pilyugin' s principal works deal with problems of automatic 

controls. 

Office: USSR Academy of Sciences 

Leninskii Prospekt, 14 
Moscow, USSR 

PISTOL' KQRS, ALEKSANDR ALEKSANDROVICH (Radio 

Engineer) 
A. A. Pistol'kors was born October 10, 1896. He became 
acquainted with radio engineering in World War I in the Officers 
Electrochemical School in Petersburg and on the Caucasus front 
while working at a radio station. He entered the Moscow 



291 PISTOL' KORS 

Technical College in 1923 and in 1927 graduated. In 1926-1928 
he worked in the Nizhnii- Novgorod Radio Laboratory, and in 
1929-1942 at the Central Radio Laboratory in Leningrad. In 
1931 to 1945 Pistol'kors also taught at the Leningrad Electro- 
Technical Institute and at the Leningrad Institute of Engineers 
of Communication. He was professor from 1945 to 1950 at the 
Moscow Institute of Communication Engineers. Since 1946 
he has been a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy 
of Sciences. In 1956 for his work in radio technics, he was 
awarded the A. S. Popov Gold Medal. 

The scientific work of Pistol'kors is in the theory of anten- 
nae and feeder lines, the calculation of resistence of radiation 
in complex antennae, the theory of two-wire non- symmetrical 
lines, the calculation of antennae according to a given direction- 
al diagram, and the theory of slot antennae. He proposed a 
number of new type antennae, including a bent vibrator which is 
utilized in television reception antennae. 
Bibliography: 

Antennae. Moscow: 1947. 

Problems of non-contact electric attraction. Electricity, 
1938, #10. 

Calculating the resistance of radiation for directed short- 
wave antennae. Wireless Telegraphy and Telephony, 1928, 
9^, #3. 

Theory of non-symmetrical two-wire line. Scientific- 
Technical Collection on Electric Communication, #16. 
Leningrad-Moscow: 1937. (Electro-Technical Institute of 
Communication in Leningrad). 

General theory of diffraction antennae. Zhur. Tekh. Fiz., 
1944, 14, #12. 

Application of the functions of Mathieu for calculating the 
distribution of the field in the antenna according to a given 
directional diagram. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1953, 89 , 
#5. 
Biography: 

Laureate of the Gold Medal of A. S. Popov. P^diotechnics, 
1956, 11, #6. 

I. Dzhigit. Laureate of the Gold Medal of A. S. Popov. 
Radio, 1956, #7. 
Office: USSR Academy of Sciences 

Leninskii Prospekt, 14 
Moscow, USSR 



PIYP 292 

Residence: ul. Gor'kogo, 43 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: D3 74 35 

PIYP, BORIS IVANQVICH ( Volcano loglst) 

B. I. Piyp was born November 6, 1906. After graduating 
from the Leningrad Mining Institute in 1931, he conducted field 
studies on the Kamchatka peninsula and the Urals. He began 
working in the Laboratory of Volcanology of the U.S.S.R. Academy 
of Sciences in 1940, and in 1940-46 and 1950-54 was Chief of the 
Kamchatka Volcanological Station. Since 1945 Piyp has been a 
member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. In 1958 
he was elected a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Acade- 
my of Sciences. For his monograph on the volcanoes of the 
Klyuchevskaya group in 1956, he was awarded the Prize of the 
Presidium of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He has also 
received the Order of the Red Star and medals. 

Piyp studied the volcanoes, hot springs and geologic struc- 
ture of Kamchatka. He investigated in detail a number of 
eruptions of volcanoes of various types. 

As of 1961, Piyp was a Member of the Presidium of the Si- 
berian Branch U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, and Director of 
the Kamchatka Joint Expedition. 

In 1962 he was appointed Director of the Siberian Branch 
Institute of Volcanology. 
Bibliography: 

Hot Springs of Kamchatka. Moscow- Leningrad: 1937. 
(U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. Council for the Study of 
Productive Forces. Kamchatka Series, #2) 
Materials on the Geology and Petrography of the Regions of 
Avachi, Rassoshina, Gavanka, and Nalacheva Rivers on the 
Kamchatka. Moscow-Leningrad: 1941 (U.S.S.R. Academy 
of Sciences, Council for the Study of Productive Forces. 
Works of the Kamchatka Complex Expedition, 1936-37, #2). 
Klyuchevsk Volcano and Its Eruption in 1944-45 and in the 
Past. Moscow: 1956. (Works of the Laboratory of Volcan- 
ology of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, #2) 
Office: Laboratory of Volcanology 

Staromonetnyy Pereulok, 35 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Leninskii Prospekt, 25 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: V4 00 27, Ext. 60 



293 PLAKSIN 

PLAKSIN, IGOR' NIKOLAEVICH (Metallurgist and Mining 
Engineer) 
L N. Plaksin was born October 8, 1900. He graduated in 
1926 from the Far East University. In 1930 he became a pro- 
fessor at the Moscow Institute of Nonferrous Metals and Gold. 
He began working, in 1944, also at the Mining Institute of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He has been a member of the 
Communist Party of Soviet Union since 1945. In 1946 he was 
elected a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences. He was awarded Stalin Prizes in 1951 and in 1952. 
Plaksin has worked in hydrometallurgy and on the concen- 
tration of commercial minerals. He studied the influence of 
forms in which minerals are found in ores on their concen- 
tration and has used microradiography and radiometry. 
Bibliography: 

Interaction of Alloys and Natural Gold with Mercury and 
with Cyanide Solutions. Moscow-Leningrad: 1937. 
Metallurgy of Noble Metals. Moscow: 1943. 
and D. M. Yukhtanov . Hydrometallurgy. Moscow: 1949. 
On Testing and Testing Analysis. Moscow: 1947. 
Influence of gases and reagents on minerals in flotation 
processes. Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. Otdel. Tekh. Nauk, 
1950, #12. 

Results and Perspectives of Investigation on Interaction of 
Reagents with Minerals in Flotation. Izvest. Akad. Nauk 
S.S.S.R. Otdel. Tekh. Nauk, 1955, #1. 

and G. A. Myasnikova and A. M. Okolovich. Flotation Con- 
centration of Arsenic-Pyrite Ores. Moscow: 1955. 
Using microantoradiography for the study of interaction re- 
agents with minerals in flotation. Reprinted from the Pro- 
ceedings of the Second Internation Congress of Surface Ac- 
tivity, 2. Leningrad: 1957. 

and S. V. Bessonov . Role of gases in flotation reactions. 
Reprinted from the Proceedings of the Second Internation 
Congress of Surface Activity, 2. Leningrad: 1957. 
Resultats generaux de travaux sur la flotation des charbons 
et perspectives scientifiques et techniques de son expansion. 
Revue de I'industrie minerale, 1955, 36, #626. 
Office: Mining Institute of USSR Academy of Sciences 

Stantsiya Panki 
Moscow Oblast', USSR 
Residence: Staromonetry pr. 3 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: Bl 53 30 



PLAUDE 294 

PLAUDE, KARL KARLQVICH (Thermal Engineer) 

K. K. Plaude was born March 26, 1897. Upon graduating 
from the Leningrad Institute of Civil Engineering in 1926, he 
worked at the "Gidravlika" plant until 1936. From 1928-34, he 
lectured at the Leningrad Institute of Civil Engineering, and 
from 1932 to 1938, at the Leningrad Institute of Industrial Con- 
struction Engineers. From 1937 to 1941, he worked at "Len- 
gosproektstroi" and during 1942-44 was chief of the Con- 
struction Directorate in Moscow. From 1941 to 1953, he was 
lecturer at the University of Latvia, and in 1950 was Director 
of the Latvian S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Institute of Ener- 
getics and Electrotechnics. He is a holder of the title Honored 
Scientist of the Latvian S.S.R., awarded in 1955. Since 1946 he 
has been a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. 
He became Academician of the Latvian S.S.R. Academy of Sci- 
ences in 1951. From 1958 to 1960 he was Vice-President, and 
since 1960 has been President of the Latvian S.S.R. Academy 
of Sciences. In 1960 he was elected Corresponding Member of 
the U. S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He is a Deputy of the Su- 
preme Soviet of the U. S.S.R. In March, 1962, he was elected to 
the Council of Nationalities. 

Professor Plaude' s main work lies in the field of heat sup- 
ply. He has studied heat exchange for heat plants using a high 
temperature heat carrier. Plaude developed a two-step system 
of heat supply, electricity systems, and automatic thermo- 
regulators for local regulation of radiators. He has elaborated 
principles of automation of heat supply. He is the author of 
many scientific works in the field of the thermal engineering. 
Bibliography: 

Scheme of a step system of distant heat supplying. Izvest. 

Akad. Nauk Lat. S.S.R., 1950, #12. 

System of heat supply according to a two-step scheme. 

Questions of Energetics, #2, Riga, 1953. 

Characteristics of the heating of radiators in central water 

heating at increased temperatures of the heat-carrier. 

Questions of Energetics, #4, 1956. 

Automatic thermo-regulator for radiators of a central water 

heating system. Questions of Energetics, #4, 1956. 

Calculated temperature of water in radiators of a central 

heating system. Izvest. Akad. Nauk Lat. S.S.R., 1957, #1. 

Padomju savienibas energetikas attistiba. Riga: 1957. 

Automatic regulation of a central water heating system. 

Riga: 1960. 



295 POGORELOV 

Automation of subscriber centres in district heated build- 
ings. Riga: 1960. 

Application of water at high temperatures in heating sys- 
tems. Riga: 1962. 

Latvijas energetikas attistiba PSRA energosistema. Riga: 
1961. 
Office: President, Latvian S.S.R. Academy of Sciences 

ul. Turgeneva, 19 

Riga, Latvian SSR 

POGORELOV, ALEKSEI VASIL'EVICH (Mathematician) 

A. V. Pogorelov was born in 1919. In 1945 he completed his 
studies at the Zhukovskii Air Force Academy. From 1947 to 
1959, he was chief of the geometry section and Chairman of the 
Geometry Department of the Khar'kov State University. In 1959 
he became head of the geometry section of the Ukrainian S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences Institute of Mathematics, and the Ukraini- 
an S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Institute of Physico-Technology. 
He is a Corresponding Member of the Ukrainian S.S.R. Acade- 
my of Sciences, and in 1960, was elected a Corresponding Mem- 
ber of the U. S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. In 1950 he was 
awarded a Stalin Prize. 

Pogorelov' s works are primarily concerned with problems 
of solid geometry. 
Bibliography: 

Geometric imbedding in the large of a two-dimensional Rie- 
mannian manifold into a tri -dimensional one. Vestnik Lenin- 
grad Univ. Ser. Mat. Mek. Astr. 12 (1957) #7, 156-163. 
Mathematical Reviews 20^, 4302 (1959). 
Some questions in geometry in the large in a Riemannian 
space. Izdat. Harvosh University, Kharkov, 1957, 90 p. 
Mathematical Reviews 20, 4304 (1959). 

On a transformation of isometric surfaces. Doklady Akad. 
Nauk S.S.S.R. 122, 20-21 (1958).^ Mathematical Reviews 20, 

5507 (1959). 

On the regularity of convex surfaces with a regular metric 
in spaces of constant curvature. Doklady Akad. Nauk 
S.S.S.R. 122, 186-187 (1958). Mathematical Reviews 20, 

5508 (1959). 

The rigidity of general convex surfaces. Doklady Akad. Nauk 
S.S.S.R. 128, 475-477 (1959). Mathematical Reviews 21^ 
7542 (1960). 



POMERANCHUK 296 

The rigidity of closed surfaces non-homeomorphic to Rie- 
mannean space. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 138^(1961), #1, 
51-52. 

Transcritical deformations of cylindrical shells under ex- 
ternal pressure. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 138 (1961), 
#6, 1325-27. 

Transcritical deformations of cylindrical shells in torsion. 
Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 142 (1962), #2, 302-03. 
Office: Ukrainian Physico-Technical Institute 

Yumovskii Tupik, 2 
Khar'kov, Ukrainian SSR 

POMERANCHUK, ISAAK YAKQVLEVICH (Physicist) 

I. Ya. Pomeranchuk was born May 20, 1913. He graduated 
from the Leningrad Polytechnic Institute in 1936 and then 
worked in departments of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 
In 1946 he became professor at Moscow Physical Engineering- 
Physical Institute. Since 1953 he has been a Corresponding 
Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He is a recipient 
of a Stalin Prize. 

The works of Pomeranchuk deal with theoretical physics of 
low temperatures, theory of radiation, nuclear physics, and 
cosmic rays. He obtained important results in the theory of 
heat conductivity of dielectrics and the theory of neutron scat- 
tering in crystals. Pomeranchuk in 1939 showed that the radi- 
ation of electrons in the earth's magnetic field limited the 
possible energy of the electrons of cosmic rays reaching the 
atmosphere. He also worked on the theory of collisions and 
radiation at high energies. 
Bibliography: 

and A. A. Akhizer. Some Questions on Nuclear Theory. 
2nd ed. Moscow -Leningrad: 1950. 
Equality to zero of a renormalized charge in quantum 
electrodynamics. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1955, 103, 
#6. 

On renormalization of a meson charge in pseudo- scalar 
theory with pseudo -scalar coupling. Doklady Akad. Nauk 
S.S.S.R., 1955, 104, #1. 

On transforming into zero of a renormalized meson charge 
in pseudo-scalar theory with pseudo-scalar coupling. Dok- 
lady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 105, #3. 

Solution of equations of pseudo- scalar meson theory with 
pseudo-scalar coupling. Zhur. Eksptl. i Teoret. Fiz., 1955, 
#6. 



297 PONTEKORVO 

and L. Landau. Limits of utilization of the theory of Brems- 
strahlung of electrons and pair production at high energies. 
Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1953, 92, #3. 
On the theory of liquid He3. Zhur. Eksptl. i Teoret. Fiz., 
1950, #10. 

Maximal energy which can be possessed on the surface of 
the earth by primary electrons of cosmic rays because of 
radiation in the earth's magnetic field. Zhur. Eksptl. i Teo- 
ret. Fiz., 1939, #8. 

Office: Moscow Physical Engineering-Physical Institute 

Moscow, USSR 

Residence: Nab. Gor'kogo 4/22 
Moscow, USSR 

Telephone: Bl 75 76 

PONTEKORVO, BRUNO MAKSIMQVICH (Physicist) 

B. M. Pontekorvo was born August 22, 1913. After graduat- 
ing in 1933 from the University of Rome, he taught there. In 
1936-1940 he worked in scientific organizations in France, 
1940-1948 in the United States, and in 1948-50 at the Harwell 
Laboratories in England. Since 1950 he has been working in 
the U.S.S.R. In 1955 he became a member of the Communist 
Party of the Soviet Union. He was elected in 1958 a Correspond- 
ing Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

Pontekorvo showed, in 1936-39 while studying nuclear iso- 
merism, that isomeric transitions have a large internal con- 
version ratio. He obtained a beta-stable isomer by neutron 
irradiation of cadmium. Exciting nuclei by X-ray radiation, he 
discovered the phenomena of "nuclear phosphorescence". He 
proposed in 1943 neutron logging. In 1948, while measuring the 
beta spectrum of tritium, Pontekorvo showed that the mass of 
neutrino does not exceed 1/500 electron mass. He was the first 
to observe L-capture. While studying decay of u -mesons, he 
ascertained that during this process there was no emission of 
gamma rays, but the product of the decay was the electron. 
Pontekorvo pointed out the analogy between the processes of 
the capture of the u -meson with a K- shell and the usual K- 
capture of the electron. After 1950 Pontekorvo investigated the 
production of 7r° -mesons by neutrons. He predicted in 1951 
production of heavy mesons with hyperons. From 1955 he 
studied the interaction of 7r-mesons with nucleons. 



PONTRYAGIN 298 

Bibliography: 

and others . Artificial radioactivity produced by neutron 
bombardment. II. Proceedings of the Royal Society of 
London, 1935, Ser. A, 149, #868. 

and A. Lazard. Isomerie nucleaire produit par les rajons x 
du Spectre Continu. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des 
Seances de I'Academie des Sciences, Paris, 1939, 208 , #2. 
On the processes of formation of heavy mesons and parti- 
cles. Zhur. Eksptl. i Teoret. Fiz., 1955, 29, #2 (8). 
and A. I. Mukhin, E. B. Qzerov. Scattering of jr^-mesons on 
hydrogen. I. Zhur. Eksptl. i Teoret. Fiz., 1956, 31^, #3. 
and Mukhin. Scattering of 7r"'"-mesons on Hydrogen. II. 
Zhur. Eksptl. i Teoret. Fiz., 1956, 3]_, #4. 

Office: USSR Academy of Sciences 

Leninskii Prospekt, 14 
Moscow, USSR 

PONTRYAGIN, LEV SEMYONOVICH (Mathematician) 

L. S. Pontryagin was born September 3, 1908 in Moscow. 
At the age of 14 he lost his sight in an accident. In 1929 he 
graduated from Moscow University and in 1935 became a pro- 
fessor. He was elected a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences in 1939 and in 1958 an Academician. In 
1941 he was awarded a Stalin Prize. 

Pontryagin' s main works are concerned with topology and 
the theory of continuous groups. In 1932 he formulated the 
general theory of duality, which fully solved the problem of de- 
termination of the Betty groups of an arbitrarily open set of 
Euclidian space through the Betty groups of an additional closed 
set. In connection with the proof of the theorem of duality, 
Pontryagin set up a general theory of the character of commu- 
tative groups. This theory, and the theorems on the structure 
of rather wide types of topological groups completely recon- 
structed so-called topological algebra. The results obtained by 
Pontryagin on the theory of topological groups are set forth in 
the monograph "Continuous Groups" (1938), (Stalin Prize 1941). 
Pontryagin also has worked in algebra, theory of the Lei 
groups, and differential geometry. 
Bibliography: 

Continuous Groups, 2nd ed. Moscow: 1954. 

Basis of Combinational Topology. Moscow-Leningrad: 1947. 

Characteristic cycles of differentiating sets. Mat. Sbornik, 

New Series, 1947, 21, #2, 233-284. 



299 POPKOV 

Vector topological theorem of duality for closed sets. An- 
nals of Mathematics, II Series. Princeton-New York, 1934, 
35, 904-14. 

Vector fields on sets. Mat. Sbornik, 1949, 24, #2, 129-162. 
Office: Mathematics Department 

Moscow University 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Leninskii Prospekt, 13 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: B2 53 76 

POPKOV, VALERII IVANQVICH (Electrical Engineer) 

V. I. Popkov was born February 3, 1908. He graduated in 
1930 from the Moscow Institute of Energetics. In 1932-36, he 
worked at the All-Union Electro-Technical Institute. He began 
working in 1943 at the Institute of Energetics of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences. Popkov has been a member of the Com- 
munist Party of the Soviet Union since 1951. In 1953 he was 
elected a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences. 

Popkov' s main work is in high-voltage technology and elec- 
tric discharge in gases at high voltage, physical processes in 
electric filters, and long-distance electric transmission. 
Bibliography: 

Theory of a bi -polar corona on conductors. Doklady Akad. 

Nauk S.S.S.R., 1947, 58, #5. 

Theory of a bi -polar corona on conductors. Izvest. Akad. 

Nauk S.S.S.R., Otdel. Tekh. Nauk, 1948, #4. 

The coefficient of recombination of ions in conditions of a 

corona discharge in the atmospheric air. Doklady Akad. 

Nauk S.S.S.R., 1948, 59, #1. 

Theory of a unipolar corona of direct current. Electricity, 

1949, #1. 

and S. I. Ryabaya. Theory of a corona under constant volt- 

age. Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Otdel. Tekh. Nauk, 1950, 

#12. 

and N. B. Bogdanova. Determining parameters in the 

scheme of replacing the corona lines. Izvest. Akad. Nauk 

S.S.S.R., Otdel Tekh. Nauk, 1951, #3. 

and S. I. Ryabaya. Theory of a corona under constant volt- 

age. Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Otdel. Akad. Nauk, 1951, 

#1. 

Electric field under a transitional unipolar corona. Izvest. 

Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Otdel. Akad. Nauk, 1954, #7. 



POPOV 300 

and others. Experimental study of the movement of the volu- 
metric charge in the field of a corona of alternating cur- 
rent. Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Otdel. Tekh. Nauk, 1957, 
#1. 

and V. I. Levitov. Reactive effects of a corona of alternat- 
ing current. Electricity, 1956, #7. 

and N. B. Bogdanova. Methods of evaluating yearly losses 
of energy on the corona. Electricity, 1957, #1. 

Biography: 

Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, 
V. I. Popkov. On the 50th Anniversary since the date of 
birth and the 25th Anniversary of scientific activity. Elec- 
tricity, 1958, #4, 94. 

Office: Institute of Energetics of USSR Academy of 

Sciences 
Moscow, USSR 

Residence: Novopeschanaya, 21 
Moscow, USSR 

Telephone: D7 24 18 

POPOV, YEVGENII PAVLOVICH (Automation Specialist) 

Ye. P. Popov was born in 1914. In 1939, upon completion of 
the Bauman Moscow Advanced Technical School, he served in 
the Soviet Army until 1943 when he began to work at the A. F. 
Mozhaiskii Air Force Engineering Academy in Leningrad 
where, in 1949, he became chairman of the Department of Auto- 
mation and Remote Control. At the same time he was working 
as a senior scientific worker at the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sci- 
ences Institute of Electromechanics. He was awarded the de- 
gree of Doctor of Technical Sciences in 1947 and the rank of 
professor in 1948. Since 1942 he has been a member of the 
Communist Party of the Soviet Union. He was elected, in 1960, 
a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 
In 1949 he was awarded a Stalin Prize. 

Popov's works are primarily concerned with the theory of 
automatic controls. 
Bibliography: 

On the approximate study of self and forced oscillations on 
nonlinear systems. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 95, 5, 943- 
946 (1954). Applied Mechanics Reviews 9, 654 (1956). 
Approximate calculation of self-excited and forced vibrations 
in nonlinear systems of higher order on the basis of the 
harmonic linearization of nonlinearity. Izvest. Akad. Nauk 



301 PREDVODITELEV 

S.S.S.R., Otdel. Tekh. Nauk, #5, 3-38 (1954). Applied Me- 
chanics Reviews^, 54 (1956). 

Approximate determination of auto -oscillations and forced 
oscillations in systems of automatic control. Vol. 1 Moscow- 
Leningrad, Izd-vo Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1955, 219-248. Re- 
ferat. Zh. Mekh. #5, 1957. Rev. 5180. Applied Mechanics 
Reviews 12, 1959. 

A generalization of the asymptotic method of N. N. Bogoliu- 
boff in the theory of nonlinear oscillations. Doklady Akad. 
Nauk S.S.S.R. (N.S.) Ill, 308-11 (1956). 
Use of harmonic linearization method in automatic control 
theory. NACA-Tech. Memo, #1406, Jan. 1957, 6 p. (Eng. 
trans.) Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 106, #2, 211-14 (1956). 
Engineering Index, 1958, p. 87. 

Isolation of regions of stability of nonlinear automatic sys- 
tems based on harmonic lineation. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 
Izvest. Otdel. Tekh. Nauk, Energetika i Automatika, #1, 53- 
64 (1959). Engineering Index, 1959, p. 104. 
The effect of vibrational interference on the stability and 
dynamic quality of nonlinear automatic systems. Akad. Nauk 
S.S.S.R., Izvest. Otdel. Tekh. Nauk, Energetika i Automatika, 
#4, 97-105 (1959). Engineering Index, 1959, p. 107. 
Approximate Methods of Study of Non-linear Automatic Sys- 
tems. Fizmatgiz, Moscow: 1960 (includes bibliography of 
previous works and articles). 

Automatic Regulation and Control. Fizmatgiz, Moscow: 
1962 (Fizmatgiz, Moscow B-71, Leninskii Prospect, 15). 
On the study of auto-oscillation systems with logic devices. 
Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Otdel. Tekh. Nauk, Energetika i 
Automatika, #4, 1962. 

On non-linear laws of control in automatics. Izvest. Akad. 
Nauk S.S.S.R., Otdel. Tekh. Nauk, Energetika i Automatika, 
#5, 1962. 
Office: Institute of Electromechanics of USSR Academy of 

Sciences 

Dvortsovaya Naberezhnaya, 18 

Leningrad, USSR 

PREDVODITELEV, A. S. (Physicist) 

A. S. Predvoditelev was born August 30, 1891. He graduated 
from Moscow University in 1915 and has been a professor 
there since 1930. In 1938 he became Laboratory Chief at the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Institute of Energetics. He was 



PROKHOROV 302 

elected to the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences as a Corresponding 
Member in 1939. In 1950 he was awarded a State Prize. 

Predvoditelev's principal works have been in the field of 
molecular physics, hydrodynamics and thermal physics dealing 
with investigations in combustion processes, wave distribution 
in liquid and gas media, and with problems of gas dynamics of 
reactant media and physical properties of liquid. He developed 
a theory of heterogenous combustions which establishes a re- 
lationship between the chemical and physical processes facili- 
tating carbon combustion. 
Bibliography: 

Carbon combustion, 1949 (monograph). 
Molecular kinetics basis for hydrodynamic equilibria. Iz- 
vest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Otdel. Tekh. Nauk, 1948, #4. 
The relationship between heat conductivity, heat capacity, 
and viscosity in viscous bodies. Zhur. Exptl. i Teoret. Fiz., 
1934, 4. 

Fluctuations in statistical systems. Journal of Moscow Uni- 
versity, 1948, #4. 

Physical Gas Dynamics. Editor in Chief. Akad. Nauk 
S.S.S.R. Energet. Inst. Translated by R. C. Murray and 
D. R. H. Phillips. New York: Pergamon Press, 1961. 
183 p. 

Physics of Heat Exchange and Gas Dynamics (Translation). 
New York: Consultants Bureau, 1962, 95 p. 
and others. Charts for thermodynamic functions of air, for 
temperatures of 1000 to 12,000 K and pressures of 0.001 to 
1000 atm. Glen Ridge, N. J. Translated and published by 
Associated Technical Services, 1962. 53 p. 
Residence: Leninskiye gory, sekt. "K" 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: B9 19 54 

PROKHOROV, ALEKSANDR MIKHAILOVICH (Radio Physicist) 

A. M. Prokhorov was born in 1916. He graduated from 
Leningrad State University in 1939. In 1959, he became a pro- 
fessor. In 1941-1944, he served in the Soviet Army. From 
1946 to 1954 he was the Senior Scientific Worker at the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences Lebedev Institute of Physics, and in 1954 
he was made Chief of the Oscillation Laboratory of this insti- 
tute. He received a Lenin Prize in 1959. Prokhorov has been 
a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union since 
1960. He was elected, in 1960, a Corresponding Member of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 



303 PROKHOROV 

In September 1959, Prokhorov visited the United States to 
attend the International Conference on Quantum Electronics 
Phenomena in Bloomingberg, New York, and in 1962, the annual 
meeting of the Optical Society of America in Washington. 

Prokhorov designed a molecular generator and amplifier. 
Bibliography: 

and A. M. Manenkov. A determination of the nuclear mo- 
ments of Gd^^^ and Gdl^'^ from the hyperfine structure of 
paramagnetic resonance. Zhur. Eksptl'. i Teoret. Fiz. 33_, 
#5(11), 1116-18 (1957). SA(A) 61, 6214 (1958). 
and L. S. Kornienko . A paramagnetic amplifier and gener- 
ator using Fe3+ ions in corundum. Zhur. Eksptl'. i Teoret. 
Fiz. 36^ #3, 919-20 (1959). SA(A) 62, 12476 (1959). 
and T. M. Murina, E. A. Chayanova. The measurement of 
the absolute intensities of absorption lines. Radiotekhnika i 
Elektronika_3, #11, 1402-4 (1958). SA(A) 62, 7951 (1959). 
and P. P. Pahinin. Measurements of the spin-lattice re- 
laxation times of Cr^"*" in corundum. Zhur. Eksptl'. i Teo- 
ret. Fiz. 34, #3, 777 (1958). Soviet Physics-JETP (New 
York), 34(7), #3, 535 (1958)(English trans.)- SA(A) 62, 9811 
(1959). 

and G. M. Zverev. Electron paramagnetic resonance of Co++ 
in corundum. Zhur. Eksptl'. i Teoret. Fiz. 36^, #2, 647-8 
(1959). SA(A) 62, 12475 (1959). 

and L. S. Kornienko, A. A. Manenkov, G. M. Zverev. A 
paramagnetic amplifier and generator using chromium 
corundum. Zhur. Eksptl'. i Teoret. Fiz. 34, #6, 1660-1 
(1958). SA(A) 62, 2536 (1959). 

and G. M. Zverev . The fine and hyperfine structure of the 
spectrum of paramagnetic resonance of Cr3+ in corundum. 
Zhur. Eksptl'. i Teoret. Fiz. 34, #2, 513-14 (1958). PB 
141052T-1, Office of Tech. Services, U. S. Dept. Commerce, 
Washington, D. C (English summary). SA(A) 62, 4828 
(1959). 

and S. D. Kaitmazov. Paramagnetic resonance of the free 
radicals obtained by freezing a plasma of H2S. Zhur. 
Eksptl'. i Teoret. Fiz. 35, #2(8), 551 (1958). Soviet Physics- 
JETP (New York), 35(8), #2, (1959). SA(A) 63, 502 (1960). 
and G. M. Zverev . Investigation of the electron paramag- 
netic resonance spectrum of V*^"^ in corundum. Zhur. 
Eksptl'. i Teoret. Fiz. 38, #2, 449-54 (1960). SA(A) 63, 8086 
(1960). 



PROKHOROV 304 

and A. A. Manenkov . Spin-lattice relaxation in chromium 
corundum. Zhur. Eksptl'. i Teoret. Fiz. 38, #3, 729-3 
(1960). SA(A) 63, 11940 (1960). 

and V. V. Antonov- Romanov skii, V. G. Dubinin, Z. A. 
Trapezhikova, M. V. Fok. Detection of the ionization of Eu"*""*" 
in the phosphor SrS:Eu, Sm by the method of paramagnetic 
absorption. Zhur. Eksptl'. i Teoret. Fiz. 07, #5(11), 1466-7 
(1959). SA(A) 63, 13713 (1960). 

and S. D. Kaitmazov . Electronic paramagnetic resonance 
spectra of frozen OH radicals. Zhur. Eksptl'. i Teoret. 
Fiz. 36, #4, 1331-2 (1959). Soviet Physics-JETP (New 
York), 36(9), #4, 944 (1959). SA(A) 63, 13868 (1960). 
and L. S. Kornienko. Electron paramagnetic resonance of 
the Ti3+ ion in corundum. Zhur. Eksptl'. i Teoret. Fiz. 38^, 
#5, 1651-2 (1960). SA(A) 63. 13873 (1960). 
and G. M. Zverev . Electron paramagnetic resonances and 
spin-lattice relaxation of the Co^^ ion in corundum. Zhur. 
Eksptr. i Teoret. Fiz. 39, #1(7), 57-63 (1960). SA(A) 63; 
21074 (1960). 

and G. M. Zverev . Electron paramagnetic resonance of 
vanadium in rutile. Zhur. Eksptl'. i Teoret. Fiz. 39, #1(7), 
222-3 (1960). SA(A) 64, 1264 (1961). 

and G. M. Zverev . Cross spin relaxation in the hyperfine 
structure of the electron spin resonance of Co2+ in corun- 
dum. Zhur. Eksptl'. i Teoret. Fiz. 39, (9), 545-7 (1960). 
SA(A) 64, 3940 (1961). 

and P. P. Pashinin. Measurement of the spin-lattice re- 
laxation time in compounds with strong covalent bonding. 
Zhur. Eksptl'. i Teoret. Fiz. 40, #1, 49-51 (1961). Soviet 
Physics-JETP (USA), 13, #1, 33-4 (1961). SA(A) 64, 14810 
(1961). 

Quantum counters. Zhur. Eksptl'. i Teoret. Fiz. 40, #5, 
1384-6 (1961). Soviet Physics-JETP (USA) (English trans.). 
SA(A) 64, 19066 (1961). 

and G. M. Zverev . Electronic paramagnetic resonance in 
the v3+ ion in corundum. Zhur. Eksptl'. i Teoret. Fiz. 40, 
#4, 1016-18 (1961). Soviet Physics-JETP (USA), 13, #4, 714- 
15 (1961). SA(A) 64, 2038 (1961). 

and L. S. Kornienko, P. P. Pashinin. Spin-lattice relaxation 
time of ionic Ti3+ in corundum. Zhur. Eksptl'. i Teoret. 
Fiz. 42, #1, 65-6 (1962). 

and A. A. Malenkov . Spin-lattice relaxation and cross- 
relaxation interactions in chromium corundum. Zhur. 
Eksptr. i Teoret. Fiz. 42, #1, 75-83 (1962). 



305 PTITSYN 

and A. A. Malenko. Temperature relationship to spin- 
lattice relaxation time. Zhur. Eksptl'. i Teoret. Fiz. 42, 
#5, 1371-73 (1962). ~ 

Office: A. N. Lebedev Physics Institute of USSR Academy 

of Sciences 
Leninskii Prospekt, 53 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Leninskii pr. 11 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: B2 40 89 

PTITSYN, BORIS VLADIMROVICH (Inorganic Chemist) 

B. V. Ptitsyn was born in 1903. In 1929 he graduated from 
Leningrad State University. He worked as an assistant, docent, 
and from 1940 to 1956 he was Chairman of the Chemistry De- 
partment at the Naval Medical Academy in Leningrad. He was 
awarded a Doctor of Chemical Sciences degree in 1945. In 
1956-1959, he was Chairman of the Department of General and 
Analytical Chemistry at the Leningrad Technological Institute 
of Food Industries. In 1959, he became Chairman of the De- 
partment of Complex Compounds at the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences Siberian Branch Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, and 
Chairman of the Department of General Chemistry at the Novo- 
sibirsk State University. He was elected to the U.S.S.R. Acade- 
my of Sciences as a Corresponding Member in 1960. 
Bibliography: 

and V. F. Petrov . Oxidation potential of dichromate. J. Gen. 
Chem. USSR 26, 3601-7 (1956) (Eng. trans.) C. A. 52, 15206c 
(1958). 

and E. N. Tekster, L. I. Vinogradova, M. D. Morachevskaya. 
Use of an oxalate -silver electrone to determine the insta- 
bility constants of complex oxalates. Zhur. Neorg. Khim. 2j 
2025-30 (1957). C. A. 52, 13382g (1958). 
and A. A. Grinberg, L. E. Nikolskaya, G. I. Petrzhak, F. M. 
Filinov. Slightly soluble compounds of quadrivalent uranium 
obtained with the aid of rongalite. J. Anal. Chem. USSR 12_, 
89-91 (1957) (Eng. trans.) C. A. 52, 72901 (1958). 
and M. D. Morachevskaya, V. S. Zlobin. Strontium ad- 
sorption by hydroxylapatite crystals. Biokhimiya 23, 564-7 
(1958). C. A. 52, 206461 (1958). 

and A. A. Grinberg, G. I. Petrzhak, L. E. Nikolskaya, F. M. 
Filinov . A new method of obtaining quadrivalent uranium. 
Trudy Radievogo Inst. im. V^. G. Khlopina 8, 166-9 (1958). 

C. A. 53, 8907c (1959). 



PUSTOVALOV 306 

and L. N. Sheronov . The zirconium citrate complex. Zhur. 
Neorg. Khim. 4, 367-71 (1959). C. A. 53, 16790g (1959). 
and E. N. Tekster. Determination of the instability constants 
for the uranyl oxalate complexes by the equilibrium dis- 
placement method. Zhur. Neorg. Khim. 4, 2248-54 (1959). 
C. A. 54, 14884g (1960). 

and M. Morachevskaya. Determination of iodides in pres- 
ence of bromides and chlorides with the aid of radioactive 
iodine. Zavodskaya Lab. 26, 269-71 (1960). C A. 54, 
13952d (1960). 

and E. N. Tekster, L. I. Vinogradova. Determination of the 
instability constants of the complex oxalates of magnesium 
and uranyl with an oxalate silver electrode. Zhur. Neorg. 
Khim. 4, 764-8 (1959). C A. 54, 8232f (1960). 
Office: Department of General Chemistry 

Novosibirsk State University 
Novosibirsk, Siberia 

PUSTOVALOV, LEONID VASIL^EVICH (Petrographer) 

L. V. Pustovalov was born August 8, 1902. He graduated 
from Moscow University in 1925. In 1934, he was professor at 
the Moscow Oil Institute and from 1943-1955 he was chairman 
of the Department of Petrography of Sedimentary Rock of the 
Institute of Geological Sciences at the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences. He was also chairman of the Council on the Study of 
Productive Forces of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences in 
1953. He was elected, in 1953, to the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences as a Corresponding Member. Since 1944, he has been 
a member of the Communist Party. He was awarded Stalin 
Prizes in 1940 and 1941, and in July 1962 the Order of the Red 
Banner of Labor. 

Pustovalov' s main works deal with petrography and geo- 
chemistry of sedimentary rock. In 1933 he studied the problem 
of the geochemical species in sedimentary rock, having par- 
ticular significance in understanding sedimentation processes. 
In particular, he demonstrated the differentiation in substances 
from a sedimentation zone, the periodicity in the formation of 
sedimentary rock and commercial minerals of sedimentary 
derivation. While studying conditions in the formation of oil 
producing rock masses of Azerbaijan, Pustovalov established a 
link between the mechanical, the mineralogical and the chemi- 
cal composition of sedimentary rock (1946). In later years he 
has been occupied with the study of secondary changes of 
ancient sediments. 



307 RABINOVICH 

Bibliography: 

and others. Genesis of Lipetsk and Tula Iron Ore in View of 
the Geochemical History of the Southern Wing of Pre- 
Moscow Basin. Moscow-Leningrad: 1933. 
Geochemical facies and their meaning in general and applied 
geology. Problems of Soviet Geology, 1933, J^, #1. 
Ratofkite of Upper Volga Territories. Moscow -Leningrad: 
1937. 

Petrography of Sedimentary Rock, Part I-II. Moscow- 
Leningrad: 1940. 

Secondary changes of sedimentary rock and their geological 
meaning. Works of the Geological Institute of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences, #5, Moscow, 1956. 

Office: Institute of Geology of USSR Academy of Sciences 

Pyzhevskii Pereulok, 7 
Moscow, USSR 

Residence: ul. Chaplygina 1-a 
Moscow, USSR 

Telephone: B8 40 61 

RABINOVICH, ISAAK MOISEEVICH (Structural Engineer) 

I. M. Rabinovich was born January 23, 1886. He graduated 
from the Moscow Technical College in 1918. From 1918 to 

1932, he worked at the Institute of Engineering Research for 
the Scientific Technical Committee of the People's Commissari- 
at in Roads and Communication. He also taught in a number of 
universities and technical colleges of Moscow. In 1932 he be- 
came a professor at the Military Engineering Academy, and in 

1933, at the Engineer Construction Institute. In 1944 he was 
awarded the title Honored Scientist of the R.S. F.S.R. He has 
held the rank of Major General in the Technical Engineering 
Service, and was elected to the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences 
as a Corresponding Member in 1946. He is a Corresponding 
Member of the Academy of Construction and Architecture, 
U.S.S.R. 

Rabinovich worked out a kinetic method in structural me- 
chanics, originated effective methods for calculating complex, 
and investigated statically indeterminate systems, theory of 
guy trusses, and the dynamics of constructions. He led the 
first systematic experimental investigations in the U.S.S.R. of 
the dynamic action of different loads on the span of bridges and 
on other engineering constructions. The results of multiple 
investigations of Rabinovich are generalized in his Course in 
Structural Mechanics of Rod Systems (two parts, 1938-40). 



RABOTNOV 308 

Bibliography: 

Utilization of the Theory of Finite Differences in the Investi- 
gation of Continuous Beams. Moscow: 1921. 
Investigation of Continuous Beams. Moscow: 1921. 
Kinematic Method in Structural Mechanics in Connection 
with Graphic Kinematic and Static Plane Chains. Moscow: 
1928. 

On the Theory of Statically Indeterminate Trusses. Moscow: 
1933. 

Achievements of Structural Mechanics of Rod Systems in the 
U.S.S.R. Moscow: 1949. 

On the theory of guy trusses. Techniques and Economics of 
Lines of Communication, 1924, 1, #1-4. 
Method of Calculating Frames, Part I-III. Moscow- 
Leningrad: 1934-37. 

The Basis of Dynamic Calculation of Structures on the Ef- 
fects of Short-Term and Instantaneous Forces, Part I. 
Moscow: 1952. 

Course in Structural Mechanics of Rod Systems, Part I-II, 
2nd ed. Moscow-Leningrad: 1950-54. 

Office: USSR Academy of Sciences 

Leninskii Prospekt, 14 
Moscow, USSR 

Residence: Brusorskii pr. 7 
Moscow, USSR 

Telephone: B9 44 55 

RABOTNOV, YURII NIKQLAEVICH (Mechanics Physicist) 

Yu. N. Rabotnov was born February 24, 1914. In 1935 he 
graduated from Moscow University. He taught at the Moscow 
Institute of Energetics from 1935 to 1946. In 1946 he was made 
Chief of the Laboratory of Strength of Materials of the Institute 
of Mechanics of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. Rabotnov 
became professor at Moscow University in 1947. Since 1951 
he has been a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet 
Union. In 1953 he was elected Corresponding Member of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences and in 1958, Academician. 

Rabotnov' s investigations are in the theory of envelopes, the 
theory of creep, and the theory of plasticity. 

In April 1958, Rabotnov visited the United States to attend 
the Mechanics Organization. 
Bibliography: 

Main equations of the theory of envelopes. Doklady Akad. 

Nauk S.S.S.R., 1945, 47, #2. 



309 RASPLETIN 

Local stability of envelopes. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 

1946, 52, #2. 

Balance of elastic medium and its consequences. Priklad. 

Mat. i Mekh., 1948, 12_. 

Approximate technical theory of elastic -plastic envelopes. 

Priklad. Mat. i Mekh., 1951, 15, #2. 

Some solutions to the zero -moment theory of envelopes. 

Priklad. Mat. i Mekh., 1946, 10, #5-6. 

Some questions on the theory of creep. Vestnik of the Mos- 
cow State University, 1948, #10. 

Resistance of Materials, 1950. 

On some possibilities of describing unsettled creep with 

application to study of the creep of rotors. Izvest. Akad. 

Nauk S.S.S.R., Otdel. Tekh. Nauk, 1957, #5. 
Office: Moscow University 

Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Lomonosovskii prospekt, 14 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: B9 11 48 

RAKITIN, YURII V^LADIMIRQVICH (Plant Physiologist) 
As of 1959 Yu. V. Rakitin has been working at the K. A. 

Timiryazev Institute of Plant Physiology. In June 1962 he was 

elected a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of 

Sciences. 

Bibliography: 

and A. D. Potapova. Effect of 2,4-d and chlorine -IPC on 
transpiration and some colloidal properties of protoplasm. 
Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 126, #3, 688-691 (1959). 
and A. D. Potapova. Effect of herbicides on respiration and 
photosynthesis of oats and sunflowers. Doklady Akad. Nauk 
S.S.S.R. 126, #6, 1371-74 (1959). 

Office: K. A. Timiryazev Institute of Plant Physiology 

Leninskii Prospekt, 33 
Moscow, USSR 

RASPLETIN, ALEKSANDR ANDREEVICH (Radio Engineer) 

A. A. Raspletin was born in 1908. He graduated from the 
Leningrad Electrotechnical Institute in 1936, and has worked in 
a number of scientific research organizations. He received a 
Stalin Prize in 1951, has been a member of the Communist 
Party of the Soviet Union since 1954, and was elected to the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences as a Corresponding Member in 
1958. 



RAZUVAEV 310 

Office: USSR Academy of Sciences 

Leninskii Prospekt, 14 
Moscow, USSR 

RAZUVAEV, GRIGQRII ALEKSEEVICH (Organic Chemist) 

G. A. Razuvaev was born August 24, 1895. In 1925 he gradu- 
ated from Leningrad University. He worked at the Laboratory 
of High Pressures of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences in 1924- 
29, and in 1929-34 was the Chief of the Laboratory. He also 
taught, in 1925-27, at the Military Technical Academy of the 
Workers' and Peasants' Red Army. Razuvaev began teaching 
at Gorkii University in 1946; in 1956 he became the Director of 
the Scientific Research Institute of Chemistry at this University. 
In 1958 he was elected a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences. For his works in the chemistry of free 
radicals in solutions, in 1958 he was awarded a Lenin Prize. 

Razuvaev studied free radicals of the phenarsazine series, 
the displacement of mercury, tin, lead, arsenic, antimony from 
metallo -organic compounds by hydrogen under high pressure. 
He also studied chain reactions of free radicals in a liquid medi- 
um. He investigated photoreactions of series of mercury- 
organic compounds and discovered the chain reactions in so- 
lutions of mercuric salts of organic acids which are initiated 
by free radicals. He worked out a method of identifying radi- 
cals according to products of their interaction with a solvent. 
Razuvaev also investigated the mechanism of decomposition of 
organic peroxides in solutions. Candidate dissertation (1946): 
"Meriquinoid phenarsazine derivatives." Doctor dissertation 
(1946): "Free radicals in reactions of metallo -organic com- 
pounds." 

In February 1960, F^zuvaev visited the United States to at- 
tend Amexco Group meetings in Washington, D. C 
Bibliography: 

Radicals in reactions of organic chemistry. Scientific 

Papers of the Gorkii State University, 1947, 90, 13. 

Free radicals in organic reactions. Scientific Papers of the 

Gorkii State University, 1949, 81, 15_. 

and A. V. Savitskii . Reaction of symmetric organomercury 

compounds with iodine. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 85, 

575(1952). C. A. 47, 9911h (1953). 

and Yu. A. Ol'dekop, L. N. Grobov . New method of synthesis 

of organomercury compounds. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 

88, 77 (1953). C. A. 48, 142f (1954). 



311 REBINDER 

Reactions of free radicals in a liquid phase. Reaction ability 
of acyloxy -radicals and polychloromethyl and ethyl radicals. 
Questions of Chemical Kinetics, Catalysis and Reaction 
Ability. Moscow: 1955, 790-797. 

and E. V". Mitrofanova, N. S. Vyazankin. Reactions of acyl 
peroxides with diethylmercury. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 
144, 132 (1962). 

and Yu. I. Dergunov, N. S. Vyazankin. Homolytic reactions 
of tinorganic compounds with alkyl halides induced by per- 
oxides. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 145, 347 (1962). 
and V. S. Etlis. Interaction of 3-aminopropene-l,2-thio- 
carbonate with ammonia and amines. Doklady Akad. Nauk 
S.S.S.R. 143, 633 (1962). 

and v. S. Etlis, V. R. Likhterov . The synthetic method of 
asymmetrical acyl sulfoorganic peroxides. U.S.S.R. Patent 
145230, 15.01.1962. 

and G. G. Petukhov, S. F. Zhil'tsov, L. F. Kudryavtsev. 
Thermal decomposition and oxidation of dicyclohexylmercury 
in benzene. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 144^ 810 (1962). 
and K. S. Minsker, R. P. Chernovskaya. The effect of or- 
ganic compounds with a closed TT-conjugated system of bonds 
on stereospecific polymerization of propylene. Doklady 
Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 147, #3, 636-38 (1962). 
Office: Scientific Research Institute of Chemistry 

Gorkii University 

Gorkii, USSR 
Residence: Arzamasskoye Shosse 15a, Apt. 7 

Gorkii 22, USSR 

REBINDER, PYOTR ALIKSANDRQVICH (Physical Chemist) 

P. A. Rebinder was born October 2, 1898. In 1924 he gradu- 
ated from Moscow University. He became, in 1923, a scientific 
worker at the Institute of Physics and Biophysics of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences. In 1929 he wks made professor at the 
K. Liebknecht Pedagogical Institute in Moscow. He was ap- 
pointed, in 1934, Chief of the Department of Dispersed Systems 
at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the U.S.S.R. Academy 
of Sciences. In 1942 he became professor at Moscow Universi- 
ty. Rebinder was elected Corresponding Member in 1933 and 
in 1946 Academician of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. In 
1942 he won a Stalin Prize. 

Rebinder' s investigations deal with surface adsorption layers 
on solid-liquid boundaries and their influence on the properties 
of dispersed systems. This work has had considerable 



REBINDER 312 

significance for the development of the theory of flotation of 
minerals. He has also studied the processes of dispersion and 
formation of a new crystalline phase and applied these to thix- 
otropy, and to setting and hardening of cements, to the stabili- 
zation of foams, emulsions and suspensions, and to phase 
changes in emulsions. He investigated the mechanical proper- 
ties of rheological systems and established the effect of small 
additions of adsorbing substances. Rebinder has indicated 
deformations can be eased and the mechanical stability of 
solids (in particular metals) can be lowered by adsorbing sub- 
stances. This phenomenon is of particular significance for 
creep and fatigue breakdown of solids. This work of Rebinder 
has found application in a number of technological processes 
such as boring in solid rocks, grinding of the hard materials, 
and pressure processing and cutting of metals. 
Bibliography: 

with ot hers . Physical Chemistry of Flotation Processes. 
Moscow -Leningrad: 1933. 

with others . Physical Chemistry of Washing. Leningrad- 
Moscow: 1935. 

and L. A. Shreiner and K. F. Zhigach. Depressors of Hard- 
ness in Drilling. Moscow-Leningrad: 1944. 
as editor . Molecular surface phenomena in oil paints and 
varnishes. Physico-Chemical Basis of the Processes of 
Printing and Investigating Printing Inks. In works of the 
Publishing House of the Scientific Research Institute, #5, 
part 1, Moscow 1937. 

as editor . On the physico-chemistry of flotation processes. 
New Studies in the Area of the Theory of Flotation. Moscow- 
Leningrad: 1937. 

and others, editors. Investigations in the Area of Applied 
Physico-Chemistry of Surface Phenomena. Moscow- 
Leningrad: 1936 (contains a series of articles by Rebinder 
with co/authors). 

Physico-chemical investigations of the processes of defor- 
mation of solid bodies. Anniversary Collection, devoted to 
the 30th Anniversary of the Great October Revolution, part 1, 
Moscow-Leningrad: 1947. 

Some results of the development of the physico-chemical 
mechanics. Proc. Acad. Sci. U.S.S.R., Sect. Chem., 1957, 
#11. 



313 RENGARTEN 

Biography: 

A. B. Taubman . Laureate of the Stalin Prize Corresponding 
Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences P. A. Rebinder. 
Uspekhi Khim., 1943, 12, #1. 

M. P. Volarovich and B. Ya. Yampol'skii . On the 50th Anni- 
versary since date of birth and 25th Anniversary of scientific 
activity of Academician P. A. Rebinder. Kolloid. Zhur., 
1949, jj., #2. 
Office: Institute of Physical Chemistry of USSR Academy 

of Sciences 
Leninskii Prospekt, 31 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Leninskii Prospekt, 13 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: B2 52 36 

RENGARTEN, VLADIMIR PAVLQVICH (Geologist) 

V. P. Rengarten was born July 24, 1882. Upon graduation 
from the Mining Institute of Petersburg in 1908, he began to 
work for the Geological Committee (later known as the AU- 
Union Scientific Research Geologic Institute). He has been 
working in the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences since 1941. He 
received a Stalin Prize in 1948 for his work on the geology of 
the Caucasus. In 1946, he was elected to the U.S.S.R. Academy 
of Sciences as a Corresponding Member. 

The works of Rengarten deal with the regional geology of the 
Caucasus, the Eastern slope of the Urals, the Pamir and Amur 
territory. Of particular significance is his work on the tec- 
tonics of the Caucasus and on the stratigraphy of chalk de- 
posits. Rengarten has made paleontological investigations of 
cretaceous cephalopodic pelecypods (particularly rudistids), 
brachiopods, sea urchins. Under the editorship of Rengarten 
the ninth and tenth volumes of Geology of the U.S.S.R. (1941-47) 
were published, devoted to the North Caucasus and to the terri- 
tory beyond the Caucasus. 
Bibliography: 

Geological structure of the Murga-Istyk region of the East- 
ern Pamires. Geology and Paleontology of South Eastern 
Pamires. Leningrad: 1935. 

Rudistidic Facies of cretaceous deposits in territories 
beyond the Caucasus. Works of the Geological Institute of 
the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 1950, #130, Geo- 
logical series, #51. 



REUTOV 314 

Stratigraphy of cretaceous and tertiary deposits of Eastern 
territories near the Urals. Works of the Geological Institute 
of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 1951, #133, 
Geologic series, #54. 

Paleontological substantiation of the stratigraphy of lower 
cretaceous era in the Greater Caucasus. In Memory of 
A. D. Arkhangel'skii. Questions of Lithology and Stratigra- 
phy of the U.S.S.R. Moscow: 1951. 
Office: USSR Academy of Sciences 

Leninskii Prospekt, 14 

Moscow, USSR 

REUTOV, OLEG ALEKSANDROVICH (Organic Chemist) 

O. A. Reutov was born September 5, 1920. He graduated 
from Moscow University in 1941 and from then until 1945 
served in the military service. In 1945 he began teaching at 
Moscow University where in 1954 he was made professor. 
Reutov was elected a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences in 1958. In 1942 he became a member of 
the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Moscow University 
awarded him the first Lomonosov Prize in 1956 for his work in 
synthesis of metallo -organic compounds through diazo com- 
pounds. 

Reutov worked out a large number of new methods for 
synthesizing metallo -organic compounds of mercury, arsenic, 
antimony, bismuth, lead and tin. He proposed new mechanisms 
of synthesis of metallo-organic compounds through diazo com- 
pounds. Reutov also studied the mechanism of carbon substi- 
tution reactions, particularly homolytic and electrophilic 
substitution reactions by the isotope exchange method. He 
organized a study of bactericidal properties of various metallo- 
organic compounds and developed an industrial method for ob- 
taining a highly effective disinfectant called ^Diotsid." 
Bibliography: 

Mechanism of reactions of diazo compounds with metals 
which lead to formation of metallo-organic compounds. 
Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Otdel. Khim. Nauk, 1956, #8. 
Investigation of electrophilic and homolytic substitution re- 
actions of the isotope exchange method. Izvest. Akad. Nauk 
S.S.S.R., Otdel. Khim. Nauk, 1958, #6. 

Theoretical Problems of Organic Chemistry. Moscow: 1956. 
Office: Chemistry Department 

Moscow University 
Moscow, USSR 



315 RIZNICHENKO 

RIZNICHENKO, YURII VLADIMIRQVICH (Geophysicist) 

Yu. V. Riznichenko was born September 28, 1911. He gradu- 
ated in 1935 from the Kiev Mining-Geological Institute. He be- 
came professor in 1947 at the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences 
Geophysical Institute where he had worked since 1938. In 1956 
he began working at the Institute of Terrestrial Physics of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. Since 1950 he has been a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. He was elect- 
ed, in 1958, a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy 
of Sciences. 

Riznichenko has studied the distribution of seismic waves 
and developed seismic methods for surveying. He has worked 
out a general kinematic method of interpreting seismic data- 
method of the fields of time, the principles of which are set 
forth in his work "Geometric Seismics of Layered Media" 
(1946). Under his direction a new method of modeling seismic 
wave processes has been established. 

Riznichenko has attended the Pugwash Conferences. 
Bibliography: 

Theory of a seismic hodograph. Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 

Ser. Georgr. i Geofiz., 1939, #3. 

Seismic properties of a layer of permafrost. Izvest. Akad. 

Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. Geogr. i Geofiz., 1942, #6. 

Seismologic speeds in layered media. Izvest. Akad. Nauk 

S.S.S.R., Ser. Geogr. i Geofiz., 1947, #2. 

and others . Modeling of seismic waves. Izvest. Akad. Nauk 

S.S.S.R., Ser. Geofiz., 1951, #5. 

and others. Correlative Method of Wave Refraction. Mos- 
cow: 1952. 

Impulse seismic method for studying mountain pressure. 

Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1955, 102, #3. 

Development of supersonic methods in seismology. Izvest. 

Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. Geofiz., 1957, #11. 

Method of mass determination of the coordinates of centers 

of close earthquakes and speed of seismic waves in the area 

of the centers. Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. Geofiz., 

1958, #4. 

Study of the seismic regime. Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 

Ser. Geofiz., 1958, #9. 
Office: O. Yu. Shmidt Institute of Terrestrial Physics of 

USSR Academy of Sciences 
Bolshaya Gruzinskaya Ulitsa, 10 
Moscow, USSR 



ROGINSKII 316 

ROGINSKII, SIMON ZALMANOVICH (Physical Chemist) 

S. Z. Roginskii was born March 25, 1900. He graduated in 
1922 from Dnepropetrovsk University. From 1923 to 1928 he 
taught at the Dnepropetrovsk Mining Institute and, beginning in 
1925, was also a scientific worker for the Ukrainian Institute of 
Physical Chemistry. He worked at the Institute of Chemical 
Physics of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences in 1928-41 and at 
the Leningrad Polytechnic Institute. In 1941 he began work at 
the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences. Roginskii was elected in 1939 a Corresponding Mem- 
ber of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

The works of Roginskii are devoted to study of catalysis, 
kinetics of heterogeneous reactions, and chemistry and use of 
isotopes. He showed that the surface of solids is not homogene- 
ous in its adsorption and catalytic properties, and formulated a 
general theory of adsorption and catalysis for heterogeneous 
surfaces. He has used the electron microscope in studying the 
structure of catalysts. Roginskii proposed a microchemical 
theory for active surfaces. He is the author of the first 
Soviet article on isotope exchange and the use of artificial 
radioactive isotopes for studying chemical reactions. He 
worked out a series of isotope methods for studying surfaces 
of solid bodies. Roginskii is the author of a theory on the 
preparation of catalysts ("theory of super saturation''), in ac- 
cordance with which the catalytic activity of a solid body grows 
with the withdrawal of the system from the equilibrium in the 
process of preparing the catalyst. He studied the kinetics of 
reactions in the solid phase. Roginskii formulated a crystal- 
lization theory of topochemical reactions. He studied chemical 
reactions of free atoms hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and the 
kinetics of the decomposition of explosives. 
Bibliography: 

Adsorption and Catalysis on Heterogeneous Surfaces. 

Moscow -Leningrad: 1948. 

and N. E. Brezhneva . Utilization of artificial radioactive 

elements as indicators. Uspekhi Khim., 1938, !_, #10. 

Kinetics of topochemical reactions. Zhur. Fiz. Khim., 1938, 

12, #4. 

Theoretical basis in preparing catalysts. I. Zhur. Priklad. 

Khim., 1944, 17, #1-2. 

Basis of the theory of a catalyst in problems of kinetics and 

catalysis. VI. Heterogeneous Catalysis. Works of the AU- 

Union Conference on Catalysis. Moscow -Leningrad: 1949. 



317 ROZHKOV 

Theoretical Basis of Heterogeneous (Contact) Catalysis. 
Part 1. Moscow: 1935. 

Theoretical Basis in Use of Isotope Methods in the Study of 
Chemical Reactions. Moscow: 1956. 

Semi -Conducting Catalysis. Chemical Science and Industry, 
1957, #2. 

Electromicroscopic Investigations of Catalysts. Report of 
the Meeting of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, January 15- 
19, 1946. Moscow-Leningrad: 1946. 
Office: Institute of Physical Chemistry of USSR Academy 

of Sciences 
Leninskii Prospekt, 31 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Leninskii Prospekt, 13 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: B2 45 55 

ROZHKOV, IVAN SERGEEVICH (Geologist) 

I. S. Rozhkov was born in 1908. In 1933 he graduated from 
the Leningrad Mining Institute. From 1933 to 1957, he worked 
in the gold-platinum industry. In 1957 he became Chairman of 
the Yakutsk branch of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Siberi- 
an Branch, and in 1958, was made Director of the Geology Insti- 
tute of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Yakutsk Branch. 
Rozhkov was awarded Stalin Prizes in 1950 and 1951, and 
served as a delegate and member of the Presidium at the fifth 
convention of the Yakutsk A.S.S.R. Supreme Soviet. In 1952 he 
was granted the degree of Doctor of Geologo-Mineral Sciences, 
and the rank of professor in 1959. Since 1940 he has been a 
member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. He was 
elected, in 1960, a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences. 

Rozhkov' s principal work is concerned with the geology and 
geomorphology of ore deposits, metallurgy of gold and plati- 
num, and also methods for surveying and prospecting for ore 
deposits. 

As of 1961, Rozhkov was a Member of the Presidium of the 
Siberian Branch U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 
Bibliography: 

and V. S. Koptev-Dvornikov and others. Geological cross- 
section of the Urals from Zlatovita to Chelyabinsk. Akad. 
Nauk S.S.S.R. Inst. Geol. Nauk, Moscow-Leningrad 1940. 
Bibliog. & Index of Geol. Exclusive of North America, 
Vol. 22, 1957. p. 461. 



RYAZANSKII 318 

Office: Institute of Geology, Siberian Branch of USSR 

Academy of Sciences 
Yakutsk, Siberia 

RYAZANSKII, MIKHAIL SERGEEVICH (Radio Engineer) 

M. S. Ryazanskii was born in 1909. He graduated from the 
Moscow Power Institute in 1935. A recipient of the Stalin Prize 
in 1943, he became a member of the Communist Party in 1940. 
In 1958, he was elected to the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences as 
a Corresponding Member. 
Office: USSR Academy of Sciences 

Leninskii Prospekt, 14 

Moscow, USSR 

RYKALIN, NIKOLAI NIKOLAEVICH (Metallurgist) 

N. N. Rykalin was born September 27, 1903. He graduated 
from the Far East University in Vladivostok in 1929. From 
1930 to 1937, he taught at the Far East Polytechnical Institute 
and from 1936 to 1953, at the Moscow Technological College 
where he became a professor in 1946. In 1943-1948, he taught 
at the Moscow Institute of Construction Engineers. He was 
elected, in 1953, to the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences as a 
Corresponding Member. 

In 1936-39, Rykalin worked at the Central Scientific Re- 
search Institute of Industrial Construction in Moscow, and in 
1939-53, at the Institute of Machines and in the Section on the 
Scientific Development of Problems of Electric Welding and 
Electrothermics of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. From 
1953 he has been working at the Institute of Metallurgy at the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

The scientific works of Rykalin are devoted to developing of 
theory and methods of calculating thermal processes in weld- 
ing. 

In 1961, Rykalin was Chairman of the National Committee of 
U.S.S.R. for Welding. 
Bibliography: 

Thermal Basis of Welding. Moscow- Leningrad: 1947. 

Calculation of Thermic Processes During Welding. Moscow: 

1951. 

Development of the theory of heat distribution during welding 

in conformity with the distributed sources. Heat Processes 

During Welding, Moscow, 1953, 10-58, 89-111, 140-63. 



319 RZHANOV 

Office: A. A. Baykov Institute of Metallurgy of USSR 

Academy of Sciences 
Leninskii Prospekt, 49 
Moscow, USSR 

RYZHKOV, V^ITALY LEONIDOVICH (Biologist) 

V. L. Ryzhkov was born June 30, 1896. He worked in the 
Artem Communist University in Kharkov from 1922 until 1930 
when he went to Simferopol (now Krimsky) Teachers Institute. 
In 1934 he was at the University of Kharkov. He began to work 
in 1936 in the Institute of Microbiology at the U.S.S.R. Academy 
of Sciences. Since 1946 he has been a Corresponding Member 
of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

Ryzhkov has studied viruses and virus diseases. In 1938 he 
developed a new process of obtaining the virus of tobacco mo- 
zaic in a refined form, conducted a series of investigations into 
the physiology of viruses and established the character in the 
change of metabolism in superior plants produced by viruses. 

Ryzhkov is a Corresponding Member of the Academy of 
Medical Sciences and a member of D. I. Ivanovskiy Institute of 
Virology, Moscow, Academy of Medical Sciences U.S.S.R. 
Bibliography: 

Basic Studies of Virus Diseases in Plants. 1944. 

Mutation and Disease of the Chlorophylic Grain. Moscow: 

1933. 

Virus Disease in Plants. Moscow-Leningrad: 1935. 

Genetics of Sex. Kharkov: 1936. 

Phytopathological Viruses. Moscow-Leningrad: 1946. 

Method of metabolism and anti -metabolism in the study of 

propagation of the virus in the mozaic disease of tobacco 

plants. Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. Biol., 1957, #1. 

On the basic principles of genetics. Botan. Zhur., 1956, 41, 

#2. 
Office: Institute of Microbiology of USSR Academy of 

Sciences 
Leninskii Prospekt, 33 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: ul. Chkalova 21/2 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: K7 62 34 

RZHANOV, ANATOLII VASIL^EVICH (Radio Electronics 
Specialist) 
A. V. Rzhanov has been working at the P. N. Lebedev 



SADOVSKII 320 

Institute of Physics, U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He visited 
the United States in 1960 to attend the 20th Annual Conference 
on Physical Electronics in Cambridge, Massachusetts. In June 
1962 he was elected a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences. 

As of November 1962, he was appointed Director of the new 
Siberian Branch Institute of Solid State Physics and Semi- 
conductor Electronics. 
Bibliography: 

Barium titanate— a new ferro-electric. Uspekhi Fiz. Nauk 
38, 461-64 (1949). 

and Yu. F. Novototskii-Vlasov, I. B. Neizvestnyi . The nature 
of recombination surface centers on Germanium. Fiz. 
tverdogotela J^, #9, 1471-74(1959). 

Using the stationary photoconductivity method for investigat- 
ing the relationship of surface recombination rate to surface 
potential. Fiz. tverdogotela 2^, #10, 2431-38 (1960). 
Surface charge changes in heated Germanium in a vacuum. 
Fiz. tverdogotela 3, #6, 1718-22 (1961). 

and A. F. Plotnikov. Germanium surface levels according to 
infrared region photoconductivity. Fiz. tverdogotela^, #5, 
1557-1560 (1961). 

and N. M. Pavlov, M. A. Selezneva. Temperature relation- 
ship to parameters of recombined surface centers in Ger- 
manium. Fiz. tverdogotela _3, #3, 832-840 (1961). 
Office: P. N. Lebedev Institute of Physics of USSR Academy 

of Sciences 
Leninskii Prospekt, 53 
Moscow, USSR 

SADOVSKII, MIKHAIL ALEKSANDRQVICH (Physicist) 

M. A. Sadovskii was born November 6, 1904. He graduated 
from Leningrad Polytechnic Institute in 1928. From 1930-1931, 
he worked at the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Seismological 
Institute, and from 1941-1946, he was employed on the staff of 
the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Presidium. In 1946 he began 
working at the Institute of Chemical Physics. Since 1941, he 
has been a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. 
He was awarded the title Hero of Socialist Labor in 1949. He 
has also been the recipient of a Stalin Prize. In 1953, he was 
elected to the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences as a Corresponding 
Member. 

The scientific work of Sadovskii is devoted to the physics 
and mechanics of explosions. He studied the destructive action 



321 SAKHAROV 

of a blast, experimentally studied shock waves of explosions in 
heterogeneous media and determined their basic parameters. 
Sadovskii substantiated the law of similarity during an ex- 
plosion. He worked out a number of devices for investigating 
blast effects. 

As of 1961, Sadovskii was Director of the Shmidt Institute of 
Terrestrial Physics of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 
Bibliography : 

Experimental Investigations of the Mechanical Effect of 
Shock Waves from an Explosion. Moscow- Leningrad: 1945 
(Works of the Seismologic Institute of the U.S.S.R. Academy 
of Sciences, #116.) 

Seismic effect of explosions. Works of the AU-Union Con- 
ference on Drill Explosive Works, Moscow-Leningrad, 1940. 
Office: Institute of Chemical Physics of USSR Academy of 

Sciences 
Vorob'evskoye Shosse 2 
Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: V2 22 22 

SAKHAROV, ANDREI DMITRIEVICH (Physicist) 

A. D. Sakharov was born May 21, 1921. He graduated in 
1942 from Moscow University. In 1945 he began working at the 
Institute of Physics of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He 
has been an Academician since 1953. 

Sakharov' s research is in theoretical physics. In 1950, to- 
gether with I. E. Tamm, he proposed application of an electri- 
cal discharge in a plasma, which is placed in a magnetic field, 
for obtaining a controlled thermomolecular reaction. 
Bibliography: 

Generation of a hard component of cosmic rays. Zhur. 

Eksptl. i Teoret. Fiz., 1947, 17, #8. 

Interaction of an electron and positron under origination of 

pairs. Zhur. Eksptl. i Teoret. l^iz., 1948, 18, #7. 

Temperature of excitation in plasma of a gaseous discharge. 

Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. Fiz., 1948, 12, #4. 
Office: A. N. Lebedev Institute of Physics of USSR Academy 

of Sciences 
Leninskii Prospekt, 53 

Moscow, USSR /"^Ti ]nX 

Residence: Luzhnikovskaya 1/7 /\\ W* (J \. 

Moscow, USSR Z'^* */\ 

Telephone: VI 09 00 / 1 

WOODS 
V HOLE, . 



SAKS 322 

SAKS, VLADIMIR NIKOLAEVICH (Geologist) 

V. N. Saks was born April 22, 1911. He graduated from the 
Leningrad Mining Institute in 1933. From 1935 to 1940, and 
from 1944 to 1948, he worked at the All- Union Arctic Institute. 
He was employed, 1940-1944, in the mining geological de- 
partment of the Main Directorate of the Northern Seaway. In 
1948, he worked at the Scientific Research Institute of Arctic 
Geology. Since 1935 he has been a member of the Communist 
Party of the Soviet Union. He was elected, in 1955, a Corre- 
sponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He has 
been awarded the Order of the Red Banner of Labor. 

Saks' investigations are in quaternary geology, paleography, 
stratigraphy, and tectonics of Mesozoic deposits of the Soviet 
Arctic, and in the geology of its formation. He presented a 
general scheme on the separation of quaternary deposits of the 
Arctic, outlined the paleography of the Quaternary Period in 
the Arctic, and worked out the stratigraphy of Mesozoic de- 
posits of oil-bearing territories of Northern Siberia. 
Bibliography: 

Conditions in the Formation of Bottomset Beds in Arctic 
Seas of the U.S.S.R. Moscow -Leningrad: 1952 (Works of 
the Scientific Research Institute of Arctic Geology, 35. ) 
Quaternary Period of the Soviet Arctic. 2nd ed. Moscow- 
Leningrad: 1953 (Works of the Scientific Research Institute 
of Arctic Geology, 77.) 

and Z. Z. Ronkin. Jurassic and Cretaceous Deposits of the 
Ust-Enisei Depression. Moscow: 1957. 
Office: USSR Academy of Sciences 

Leninskii Prospekt, 14 
Moscow, USSR 

SAMARIN, ALEKSANDR MIKHAILQVICH (Metallurgist) 

A. M. Samarin was born August 14, 1902. In 1930 he gradu- 
ated from the Moscow Institute of Steel where he remained as a 
teacher, and professor as of 1938. In 1955, he became deputy 
Director of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Institute of 
Metallurgy. Since 1925 he has been a member of the Commu- 
nist Party of the Soviet Union. In 1946 he was elected a Corre- 
sponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

Samarin' s scientific work is in electrometallurgy of steel 
and ferroalloys; he has also been interested in the history of 
science and technology. 

Samarin is Deputy Chairman of the State Committee for the 
Coordination of Scientific Research. In June 1962, he visited 



323 SAPOZHNIKOV 

the United States to attend the Chipman Conference on Physical 

Chemistry of Steelmaking at Cambridge, Massachusetts. 
Samarin, in July 1962, was awarded the Order of the Red 

Banner of Labor. 

Bibliography: 

The selection of slag with smelting of multi -carbonic ferro- 
chrome. Works of the First All-Union Conference on Ferro- 
alloys. Moscow -Leningrad: 1935. 
Electrometallurgy. Steel Production. Moscow: 1943. 
Influence of element-dioxidizers on the activity of oxygen 
dissolved in liquid iron. Problems of Metallurgy. Moscow: 
1953. 

Structure and Properties of Liquid Metals. Moscow, Acad. 
Sci. USSR, Baikov's Inst, of Metallurgy, 1960. [i.e. Washing- 
ton, U. S. Atomic Energy Commission, 1962J 206 p. 

Office: A. A. Baykov Institute of Metallurgy of USSR 

Academy of Sciences 
Leninskii Prospekt, 49 
Moscow, USSR 

Residence: Leningradskii prospekt, 13 
Moscow, USSR 

Telephone: D3 04 94 

SAPOZHNIKOV, LEONID MIKHAILOVICH (Fuel Technologist) 

L. M. Sapozhnikov was born April 29, 1906. After his gradu- 
ation from the Dnepropetrovsk Mining Institute in 1930, he be- 
gan to work at the Dnepropetrovsk Coal- Chemical Institute. In 
1930 he taught at the Dnepropetrovsk Chemical-Technological 
Institute where he became a professor in 1935. In 1937 he be- 
gan work as laboratory chief at the Institute of Fuel Minerals 
of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He was elected, in 1946, 
a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

The works of Sapozhnikov deal with the study of the coal 
coking process. 
Bibliography: 

and others . Investigating the Process of Coking, Classifying 
Coal and Calculating the Charge on the Basis of a Layer - 
Metric Method. Collection of Articles. Kharkov- 
Dnepropetrovsk: 1935. 

Coal and Metallurgical Coke. Moscow-Leningrad: 1941. 
and G. V. Speranskaya . Investigating Contemporary Princi- 
ples of Coking Coal. Moscow: 1953. 

Developing new methods of coking and concentration of coal. 
Coal and Chemistry, 1955, #1. 



SATPAEV 324 

and A. Z. Yurovskaii. New Technics of Coking and Concen- 
trating Coal. Moscow-Leningrad: 1956. 
Office: Dnepropetrovsk Chemical-Technological Institute 

Dnepropetrovsk, USSR 

SATPAEV, KANYSH IMANTAEVICH (Geologist) 

K. I. Satpaev was born April 11, 1899. He began his edu- 
cation in a two-grade village school. He went on to the Tomsk 
Technological Institute, where he graduated in 1926. He holds 
the degree of Doctor of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences 
and the title of professor. Satpaev has been a member of the 
Communist Party of the Soviet Union since 1944. In 1946 he 
became Academician of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences and 
Academician of the Kazakh S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He 
was elected Chairman of the Presidium of the Kazakh S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences in 1941 and was made Director of the 
Institute of Geological Sciences of the Kazakh Affiliate of the 
Academy of Sciences U.S.S.R. (reorganized in 1946 as the 
Kazakh S.S.R. Academy of Sciences). He has received a State 
Prize and the Order of Lenin three times. In 1951 Tadzhik 
S.S.R. Academy of Sciences made him an Honorary Member. 
In March 1962, Satpaev was elected delegate from Kazakh S.S.R. 
to the Supreme Soviet. As of 1961 he was a member of the Pre- 
sidium of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

Satpaev early developed an interest in the potential mineral 
wealth of his native Kazakhstan. After graduation he worked 
with the Dzhezkazgan Geological Prospecting Group, 1926-1941. 
During this period, Satpaev directed explorations of abandoned 
copper mining areas. Helped by young Kazakhs returning from 
mining courses in Leningrad, this group discovered one of the 
richest ore deposits in the world, that of Great Dzhezkazgan. 
Subsequently, he surveyed the Karsakpay iron ore deposits, 
twin of the Krivoy Rog deposits, and found lignite. From 1926- 
1941 he also supervised a geological study of Tadzhik S.S.R. 
and found important ore deposits. He investigated various de- 
posits of iron, manganese, brown coal, and lignite. During the 
early period of the war, manganese for steel was in very short 
supply, due to the German occupation of Nikopol. Satpaev sug- 
gested finding manganese in Dzhezda and organized its dis- 
covery and mining in record time. During this period, the 
Kazakh Affiliate of the Academy of Sciences of the U.S.S.R. 
conducted 350 expeditions resulting in 160 practical proposals 
to the government. 



325 SAUKOV 

His major work is devoted to the study of the geology and 
mineral species of Central Kazakhstan, particularly the study 
of mineral formations and their use in the national economy. 
Satpaev supervised the discovery of large scale copper for- 
mations and deposits of other minerals in the Ulutau- 
Dzhezkazgansk Region. He compiled large scale maps for the 
prognosis for minerals. 
Bibliography: 

Main features of geology and metallogenesis of the Dzhez- 

kazgansk copper ore region, Greater Dzhezkazgansk. 

Moscow-Leningrad: 1935. 

On the prognostic metallogenic maps of central Kazakhstan. 

Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. Geol., 1953, #6. 

On metallogenic epochs, formations, and belts of central 

Kazakhstan. Izvest. Akad. Nauk Kazakh S.S.R., #124, Ser. 

Geol., 1953, #17. 

On some specific peculiarities of geology of copper-bearing 

sandstone of the Atbasar Tersakkansk Region. Izvest. Akad. 

Nauk Kazakh S.S.R., Ser. Geol., 1953, #18. 

On specificity and main stages of development of metallo- 
genesis of central Kazakhstan. Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 

Ser. Geol., 1957, #3. 
Biography: 

N. G. Kassin and I. I. Bok. Kanysh Imantaevich Satpaev. 

Izvest. Akad. Nauk Kazakh S.S.R., #70, Ser. Geol., 1949, #11. 

Vestnik of the Kazakh S.S.R. Akad. Nauk, 1949, #4 (Number 

devoted to the 50th anniversary of Satpaev.) 
Office: President, Academy of Sciences Kazakh SSR 

Shevchenko Ulitsa, 28 
Alm-Alta, Kazakh SSR 

SAUKOV, ALEKSANDR ALEKSANDROVICH (Geochemist) 

A. A. Saukov was born August 15, 1902. After graduating 
from the Leningrad Polytechnic Institute, he has worked at the 
U. S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. In 1949 he became Chairman of 
the Department of Geochemistry of the Institute of Geological 
Sciences. He was made professor in 1952 at Moscow Universi- 
ty. In 1953 Saukov was elected a Corresponding Member of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He has been a member of the 
Communist Party of the Soviet Union since 1945. For the mono 
graph Geochemistry of Mercury he was awarded a Stalin Prize 
in 1947, and in 1952 he received a Stalin Prize for the second 
edition of Geochemistry. 



SAZHIN 326 

Saukov's investigations are in the geochemistry of rare ele- 
ments and of mercury. On the basis of a method developed by 
him for the determination of small quantities of mercury, he 
studied the distribution of mercury in various rocks and miner- 
als; he studied the genesis of mercury deposits and proposed a 
method of prospecting for them based on a study of the so- 
called "dispersion halo." A number of investigations of Saukov 
deal with general questions of geochemistry, including ener- 
getics of natural processes and natural association of elements, 
problems of their migration, the geochemical methods of pros- 
pecting for deposits of commercial minerals. He is the author 
of a textbook. Geochemistry, which was translated into Bulgari- 
an, German, Chinese, Polish and Czech, Rumanian, Georgian. 
Bibliography: 

Geochemistry of Mercury. Moscow: 1946. 
Geochemistry, 2nd ed. Moscow: 1951. 
and A. I. Perel'man. Geochemical methods of prospecting 
for deposits of commercial minerals. Papers of the All- 
Union Minerallogic Society, 2nd series, 1957, Part 86, #2. 
Office: Moscow University 

Moscow, USSR 
Residence: B. Kommunisticheskaya, 24 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: ZH2 52 33 

SAZHIN, NIKOLAI PETROVICH (Metallurgist) 

N. P. Sazhin was born March 13, 1897. He received Stalin 
Prizes in 1946 and 1952. In 1953 he was elected to the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences as a Corresponding Member. 
Office: USSR Academy of Sciences 

Leninskii Prospekt, 14 

Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Komsomol' skii prosp. 45 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: G5 29 55 

SCHISHKIN, BORIS KONSTANTINOVICH (Botanist) 

B. K. Schishkin was born April 19, 1886. He graduated from 
Tomsk University in 1911, and worked there as an assistant 
from 1914 to 1918, and as a professor from 1925 to 1930. In 
1931 he became an associate of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sci- 
ences Botanical Institute, and served as its Director from 1938 
to 1949. He was awarded a State Prize in 1952. In 1943 he was 



327 SCHMALHAUSEN 

elected to the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences as a Corresponding 
Member. 

Schishkin conducted botanical investigations in Siberia, 
Middle Asia, the Caucasus and the Carpathians; also he made 
trips into Turkey, Algeria, Brazil, and French Guiana. He 
published numerous works, particularly on the flora of the 
U.S.S.R. A series of collective works (the majority of volumes 
devoted to "Flora of the U.S.S.R.", ''Flora of Western Siberia" 
by P. N. Krylov, '^ Flora of the Leningrad Territory") was pub- 
lished under his editorship. 
Bibliography: 

Outlines of the Uryankhaiskii Territory. Tomsk: 1914. 
Materials on the flora of Turkish Armenia. Proceedings of 
the Tomsk State University, 1928, 81, 409-490. 
Botanico -geographic outline of the seaside slope on the 
Pontiiskii Ridge. Past- Caucasus Regional Study Collection. 
Series A, Natural Sciences, I. Tbilisi: 1930. 
Family CXIX umbelliferae moris. Flora of the U.S.S.R., 
chief editor V. L. Komarov, 16-17 . Moscow -Leningrad: 
1950-51. 
Biography: 

I. A. Linchevskii. Boris Konstantinovich Schishkin (On the 
60th Anniversary since the date of birth). Soviet Botany, 
1946, #5 (contains bibliography of the works of Shishkin). 
E. G. Bobrov . Boris Konstantinovich Schishkin (On the 70th 
Anniversary since the date of birth). Bot. Zhur., 1956, #6. 
Office: V. L. Komarov Institute of Botany of USSR Academy 

of Sciences 
Ulitsa Popova 2 
Leningrad, USSR 

SCHMALHAUSEN (SHMAL'GAUZEN), IVAN IVANOVICH 
(Zoologist) 
I. I. Schmalhausen, son of I. F. Schmalhausen (1948-1895, 
Russian botanist and one of the founders of paleobotany in 
Russia), was born April 23, 1884. In 1907 he graduated from 
Kiev University. He was professor at the Voronezh (1918), 
Kiev (1921) and Moscow (1938-48) Universities. From 1930 to 
1941 he was Director of the Institute of Zoology and Biology of 
the Ukrainian S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, and from 1938 to 
1948 he was also Director of the Institute of Evolutionary Mor- 
phology (now the Institute of Animal Morphology) of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences. In 1948 he began working at the Zoologi- 
cal Institute of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. Schmalhausen 



SCHMALHAUSEN 328 

has been an Academician of the Ukrainian S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences since 1922 and since 1935 Academician of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences. In 1935 he was an Honored Scientist of 
the Ukrainian S.S.R., and in 1960, a fellow of the Academy of 
Zoology in Agra (India), and a fellow of the German Academy 
** Leopoldina" in Helle. 

Schmalhausen, specialist in comparative anatomy, has 
worked in evolutionary morphology, on the regularities in the 
growth of animals, on factors and characteristics of the evolution- 
ary processes. He has also been concerned with the history of 
development, and the comparative anatomy of unpaired fins of 
fish, and the origin of extremities of land vertebrates. He pro- 
posed a theory on the growth of animal organisms, based on the 
conception of a reverse ratio between the speed of growth of an 
organism and the speed of its change. He has formulated a 
theory of stabilizing selection as an essential factor in evo- 
lution. Since 1948 he has been studying the origin of land verte- 
brates (Tetrapoda). 
Bibliography: 

Unpaired fins of fish and their phylogenetic development. 
Dissertation, Kiev, 1913. (In German: Z. wiss Zool. Bd 
400, 104, 107, 1912, 1913.) 

Development of the extremities of amphibians and their sig- 
nificance in the question on origin of extremities in land 
vertebrates. Dissertation, Moscow, 1915. 
Basis of Comparative Anatomy of Vertebrate Animals, 4th 
ed. Moscow: 1947. 

The Organism as a Whole in Individual and Historical De- 
velopment, 2nd ed. Moscow -Leningrad: 1942. 
Ways and Regularities of Evolutionary Process. Moscow- 
Leningrad: 1939. 

Factors of Evolution (Theory of Stabilizing Selection). 
Moscow-Leningrad: 1946. (English trans. Philadelphia- 
Toronto, 1949). 

Problems of Darwinism. Moscow: 1946. 
Office: Embryological Laboratory 

Institute of Zoology of USSR Academy of Sciences 
Leninskii Prospekt, 33 
Moscow V-71, USSR 
Residence: Ulitsa Chkalova 14/16 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: K7 47 13 



329 SEDOV 

SEDQV, LEONID IVANQVICH (Mechanics Physicist) 

L. I. Sedov was born November 14, 1907. In 1931 he gradu- 
ated from Moscow University and in 1937 was appointed pro- 
fessor there. He began work in 1931 at the Central Aerohydro- 
dynamic Institute. In 1947 he started working at the Central 
Institute of Aviation Motor Building. Sedov is Chairman of the 
Interdepartmental Commission on Coordination and Control of 
Scientific Theoretical Research in the Area of Organization and 
Realization of Interplanetary Communication. In 1946 he was 
elected a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences and in 1953 an Academician. The U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences awarded Sedov in 1946 the Prize of S. A. Chaplygin. 
In 1952 he received a Stalin Prize. 

Sedov investigated various problems of mechanics. He de- 
termined the aerodynamic forces during a non- stabilized move- 
ment of the wings, in particular during vibrations. Sedov 
generalized the theorem of N. E. Zhukovskii for arbitrary mo- 
tion of the wing; formulated a mathematical method for solving 
problems of stream flow around wing profiles. This method 
was applied by him to the theory of a finite wing, and subse- 
quently widely applied in the theory of waves, in elasticity, and 
in filtration. In his treatise "Plane Problems of Hydrodynamics 
and Aerohydrodynamics," Sedov formulated a theory on gliding 
which was applied in hydroaviation and ship building. Sedov 
studied the impact of bodies against water, ricocheting and 
other problems of heavy liquid hydrodynamics. He developed a 
method for visualizing the stream line flow of gas past a grat- 
ing and worked out a method for investigating possible gas 
flows, widening the approximate method of S. A. Chaplygin. In 
the theory of similarity and dimensionality, Sedov constructed 
a theory of unstabilized gas motion, in particular the theory of 
dispersion of strong shock waves, obtained results on the theory 
of surface waves; established the law of pulsation in an iso- 
tropic turbulence. His work "Propagation of Strong Explosive 
Waves" (1946) is a study of strong shock waves. Sedov has also 
been concerned with problems of astrophysics. 
Bibliography: 

Propagation of strong explosive waves. Priklad. Mat. i 
Mekh., 1946, 10, #2. 

On some unsettled movements of compressible liquid. Prik- 
lad. Mat. i Mekh., 1945, _9, #4. 

Plane Problems of Hydrodynamics and Aerodynamics. 
Moscow-Leningrad: 1950. 



SEMENOV 330 

Methods of Similarity and Dimensionality in Mechanics, 2nd 

ed. Moscow-Leningrad: 1951. 

Theory of construction of mechanical models of a continuous 

media. Vestnik Akad. Nauk, #7, 26-38 (1960). 

and M. E. Eglit. Construction of non-holomorphic models of 

continuous media with allowance for the finite nature of 

deformations and certain physico-chemical effects. DoKlady 

Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 142, #1, 54-57 (1962). 

Biography: 

N. D. Moiseev . General Outline of the Development of Me- 
chanics in Russia and in the U.S.S.R. Mechanics in the 
U.S.S.R. for 30 Years. Moscow-Leningrad: 1950. 
E. A. Krasil'shchikova, G. V. Rudnev . Scientist, mechanic. 
Priroda, 1952, #9. 

Office: Interdepartmental Commission on Interplanetary 

Communication of USSR Academy of Sciences 
Leninskii Prospekt, 14 
Moscow, USSR 

Residence: Leninskii gory, sekt. "I" 
Moscow, USSR 

Telephone: B9 18 74 

SEMENOV, NIKOLAI NIKQLAEVICH (Physical Chemist) 

N. N. Semenov was born April 15, 1896. In 1917 he gradu- 
ated from Petrograd University. During the years 1920-31, he 
worked at the Leningrad Physico-Technical Institute. He be- 
came Chief of the Institute of Chemical Physics of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences in 1931 and subsequently the Director. In 
1928 he was made professor at the Leningrad Polytechnic Insti- 
tute and in 1944 professor at the Moscow University. He was 
a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences 
from 1929 until 1932 when he was elected Academician. In 1947 
he became a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet 
Union. He was awarded a Stalin Prize in 1941, and in 1956 the 
Nobel Prize. 

Semenov' s first scientific work was in molecular physics 
and electron phenomena such as: vapor condensation on solid 
surfaces, the ionization of vapors of salts under the influence 
of an electron bombardment, and electric breakdown of di- 
electrics. And he also developed a thermal theory of the di- 
electric breakdown. The initial assumptions of this theory 
were utilized by Semenov in his theory of thermal explosions of 
gas mixtures. According to this theory, the cause of the ex- 
plosion is the unattainment of the heat equilibrium during 



331 SEMENOV 

chemical reaction, because the heat liberated does not have 
time to leave the reaction zone. Semenov and his students 
studied energy distribution in a flame, detonation, and com- 
bustion of explosives and powders. The investigations of Seme- 
nov on the theory of chain reactions is particularly significant. 
On the basis of the study of critical phenomena, such as limit 
of ignition, observed during oxidation of vapors of phosphorus, 
hydrogen, carbon monoxide and other compounds, he discovered 
branching reactions. In his monograph, * Chain Reactions" 
(1934), he developed the theory of non-branching reactions and 
showed the wide distribution of chain reactions in chemistry. 
He and his associates developed theoretically and checked ex- 
perimentally many ideas of the chain theory: the breaking of 
reaction chains on walls and in the volume of a container, de- 
generate chain branching, positive and negative interaction of 
chains. Also, he established the detailed mechanism in a series 
of complex chain processes, and studied the properties of free 
atoms and radicals with the aid of which the elementary stages 
of these processes were realized. Semenov took active part 
in organizing a physico-mechanical department at the Lenin- 
grad Polytechnic Institute and in starting scientific journals. 
He trained many specialists in physics, chemical kinetics, and 
the combustion theory. 

In March 1962, Semenov was elected a delegate from 
R.S. F.S.R. to the Supreme Soviet. As of 1961, he was Secretary 
of the Department of Chemical Sciences of the U.S.S.R. Acade- 
my of Sciences. 

In 1961 he was elected Candidate Member of the Central 
Committee of the Communis* Party. 
Bibliography: 

Chain Reactions. Leningrad: 1934. 

Thermal theory of burning and explosions. Uspekhi Fiz. 

Nauk, 1940, 23, #3; 24, #4. 

On Some Problems of Chemicai Kinetics and Reaction Abili- 
ty. Moscow: 1954. 
Biography: 

Nikolai Nikolaevich Semyenov, compiled by N. M. Emanuel. 

Moscow-Leningrad: 1946. 

Yu. B. Khariton . Creator of the theory of chain chemical 

reactions. Soviet Science, 1941, #4, p. 1621. 

N. M. Emanuel . Contribution to the world of science. On 

the awarding of the Nobel Prize to Academician N. M. 

Semyonov. Priroda, 1957, #2. 



SEVERIN 332 

Nikolai Nikolaevich Semyenov. On the 60th Anniversary 
since the date of birth. Zhur. Eksptl. i Teoret Fiz., 1956, 
30, #4. 
Office: Institute of Chemical Physics of USSR Academy of 

Sciences 
Vorob'evskoye shosse, 2 
Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: B2 24 00 

SEVERIN, SERGEI EVGEN'EVICH (Biochemist) 

S. E. Severin was born December 21, 1901. He graduated 
from Moscow University in 1924 and worked at the Physiology 
Laboratory of the Institute of Professional Diseases in Moscow. 
In 1932-48 he was professor at the Third Moscow Medical Insti- 
tute and in 1933 at Moscow University. He was the Director of 
the Institute of Nutrition in 1945-47, and in 1948-49, of the 
Institute of Biological and Medical Chemistry of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences. Severin was Academician-Secretary of 
the Department of Medico-Biological Sciences of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Medical Sciences in 1949-57. He has been a mem- 
ber of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Medical Sciences since 1948 
and since 1953 a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Acade- 
my of Sciences. 

Severin' s major investigations deal with muscle tissue bio- 
chemistry. In his investigation of carnosine and anserine in 
the metabolism of the skeletal muscles, together with others, 
he determined the time and the sequence of appearance of these 
compounds in the development of the organism; he synthesized 
phosphorous derivatives of a series of amino acids and peptides 
and studied their properties; he showed the influence of carno- 
side and anserine on raising the effectiveness of phosphory- 
lation in the skeletal muscles which lead to the formation of 
energy rich phosphorous compounds necessary for muscle 
function. The early investigations deal with the biochemistry 
of blood, particularly blood preservation. 
Bibliography: 

Les transformations de la carnosine dans I'organisme ani- 
mal. Acta medica URSS, Moscow,^, #4, 1939. 
Biochemical basis in favorable effect of glucose on the 
conservation of blood. Biokhimiya, 1946, #2, 139-48. 
and N. P. Meshkova . Practicum on the Biochemistry of 
Animals, 1950. 

and P. P. Mitrofanov . TextbooK of Physical and Colloidal 
Chemistry, 1941. 



333 SEV^ERNYI 

Distribution, transformation in the organism and the biologi- 
cal significance of carnosine and anserine. Uspekhi Biokhim., 
2, 1954, 355-377. 

and N. P. Meshkova . Influence of carnosine and anserine on 
the carbohydrate -phosphorus and oxygen metabolism in 
skeletal muscles. Questions on the Biochemistry of 
Muscles. Kiev: 1954, 193-206. 
Office: Academy of Medical Sciences USSR 

Solyanka, 14 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Novoslobodskaya, 57/65 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: Dl 69 87 

SEVERNYI, ANDREI BQRISQVaCH (Astronomer) 

A. B. Severnyi was born May 11, 1913. He graduated from 
Moscow University in 1935. In 1946 he started to work at the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Crimean Astrophysical Observa- 
tory where he became Director in 1952. He was awarded a 
Stalin Prize in 1952 for his studies in solar chromospheric 
flares, and in 1958 was elected to the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sci- 
ences as a Corresponding Member. 

Severnyi has worked in theoretical astrophysics and the 
physics of the sun. 
Bibliography: 

Stability and oscillations of gaseous spheres and stars. 
Publications of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, 
1948, 1, #2. 

and V. L. Khokhlova . Investigations of the movements and 
brightness of solar prominence. Publications of the Cri- 
mean Astrophysical Observatory, 1953, 10, 9-54. 
and E. F. Shaposhnikova . Investigation of the development 
of chromospheric flares on the sun. Publications of the 
Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, 1954, 12, 3-32. 
Investigation of the fine structure of emission of active 
regions and non- stationary processes on the sun. Publi- 
cations of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, 1957, 17, 
129. 

Physics of the Sun. Moscow: 1956. 

Investigation of magnetic fields connected with solar flares. 
Publications of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, 
1960, 22, 12. 



SHA FARE VIC H 334 

The fine structure of magnetic field and depolarization of 
radiation in sunspots. Astron. Journ. USSR, 1959, 36, 208. 
Office: The Crimean Astrophysical Observatory of USSR 

Academy of Sciences 
Moscow, USSR 

SHAFAREVICH, IGOR' ROSTISLAVQVICH (Mathematician) 

I. R. Shafarevich was born June 3, 1923. He graduated in 
1940 from Moscow University. In 1943 he began working at the 
Mathematics Institute of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He 
also taught at Moscow University, beginning in 1944, and in 
1953 was made professor. Since 1958 he has been a Corre- 
sponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

The main works of Shafarevich are concerned with algebra 
and theory of algebraic numbers. 
Bibliography: 

On the normalization of topological fields. Doklady Akad. 
Nauk S.S.S.R., 1943, 40, #4. 

On Galois groups of y-additative fields. Doklady Akad. Nauk 
S.S.S.R., 1946, 53, #1. 

On p-expansions. Mat. Sbornik, 1947, 20 (62), #2. 
General law of duality. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1949, 
64, #1. 

General law of duality. Mat. Sbornik, 1950, 26 (68). 
On the structure of fields with a given Galois group in the 
order of lalpha. izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. Mat., 
1954, 18, #3. 

On the structure of fields of algebraic numbers with a given 
Galois group. Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. Mat., 1954, 
18, #6. 

and A. I. Kostrikin . Group of homologies of nilpotent alge- 
bras. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1957, 115, #6. 
Office: Mathematics Department 

Moscow University 
Moscow, USSR 

SHAKHOV, FELIKS NIKOLAEVICH (Geologist) 

F. N. Shakhov was born October 24, 1894. Upon graduation 
from the Tomsk Technological (now the Polytechnic) Institute 
in 1922, he continued to work there where he became a pro- 
fessor in 1935. In 1944, he began work in the West Siberian 
branch of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, and since 1957 he 
has been at the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Siberian Branch 



335 SHAL'NIKOV 

Institute of Geology and Geophysics (Novosibirsli). He was 
elected a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences in 1958. 

Shakov has worked in the geology of ore deposits, in particu- 
lar the formation of metals in various regions, the genesis of 
various deposits, and methods of prospecting- survey work. 
Lately, he has been conducting investigations in the field of the 
geology of rare and radioactive elements. 
Bibliography: 

Magmatic rocks of the Kuznets Basin. Proceedings of the 

Siberian Technological Institute, 1927, 47, #3. 

Materials on the geology of the Tanalyk-Baimakskii copper 

ore region in the Southern Urals. Proceedings of the Si- 
berian Technological Institute, 1928, 49, #1. 

Theory of Contact Deposits. Novosibirsk: 1947 (S.S.S.R. 

Akad. Nauk, Sibir. Otdel. Trudy Inst. Gor.-GeoL, #1). 

The origin of granitic magmas. Mineral Sbornik, L'vov. 

Geol. Obshchestvo L'vov, Gosudarst. Univ. im. I. Franke 

1956, #10, 39-49. C A. 53, 21487a (1959). 

Morphological Traits of Oxidation Zones. Novosibirsk: 

1960 (S.S.S.R. Akad. Nauk, Sibir. Otdel. Trudy Inst. Geol.- 

Geoph., 155.4). 

Textures of Ores. Moscow: 1961 (S.S.S.R. Akad. Nauk, 

Sibir. Otdel.). 
Office: Institute of Geology and Geophysics 

Siberian Branch USSR Academy of Sciences 
Academgorolsk, Novosibirsk 72 
Siberia 
Residence: Academiya Ul. 55, Apt. 6 
Novosibirsk 72, Siberia 

SHAL'NIKOV, ALEKSANDR lOSIFOVICH (Physicist) 

A. I. Shal'nikov was born May 10, 1905. He graduated in 
1928 from Leningrad Polytechnic Institute. He began working 
in 1935 at the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Institute of Phy- 
sics, which he helped to organize. In 1938 he became professor 
at Moscow University. Since 1946 he has been a Corresponding 
Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He has been 
awarded a Stalin Prize. 

The work of Shal'nikov deals with low temperature experi- 
mental physics: the study of the properties of thin metallic 
film and colloids. He investigated the structure of the inter- 
mediate state of super -conductors. 



SHAPOSHNIKOV 336 

Bibliography: 

The methods of obtaining organosols of alkaline metals. 

Zhur. Fiz. Khim., 1933, 4, #3. 

Structure of super-conductors in the intermediate state. 

Zhur. Eksptl. i Teoret. Fiz., 1946, 16, #9. 

and A. Meshkovskii . Surface effects of super- conductors in 

the intermediate state. Zhur. Eksptl. i Teoret. Fiz., 1947, 

17, #10. 
Office: Vorob'evskoye Shosse 2 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: B2 16 92 

SHAPOSHNIKOV, VLADIMIR NIKOLAEVICH (Microbiologist) 

V. N. Shaposhnikov was born February 24, 1884. He worked 
at Moscow University after graduating from there in 1910, and 
in 1938 became a professor at this University. From 1921 to 
1935 he worked at the State Scientific Research Chemico- 
Pharmaceutical Institute. In 1938 he became Chairman of a 
Department in the Institute of Microbiology of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences. Shaposhnikov has been an Academician 
of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences since 1953. In 1949 he was 
awarded a Stalin Prize. 

Shaposhnikov' s main investigations are in technical micro- 
biology. While studying metabolism in microorganisms, he 
worked out a classification of energy processes which reflect 
processes of evolution of fermenting microorganisms. The in- 
vestigations of Shaposhnikov had considerable significance for 
organization and improvement of a number of industrial pro- 
cesses, which were based on the action of microorganisms. 
His studies of the physiology of lactic bacteria allowed him to 
work out an industrial scheme for producing lactic acid (the so- 
called protein method); investigations of butyric and acetic acid 
bacteria also led to the improvement of corresponding process- 
es. In 1929 Shaposhnikov undertook the study of acetone-butyl 
fermentation, at first in the laboratory and subsequently under 
semi-plant conditions. The process data obtained were used 
in planning and construction of the first U.S.S.R. Acetone -butyl 
plant. His work on the mobility of sap in plants found a practi- 
cal application in a new method of tapping pines. 
Bibliography: 

and others. New Tapping of the Pine Tree. Moscow: 1937. 
On the significance of physiological signs in the systematics 
of microorganisms. Mikrobiologiya, 1942, #1-2, 1-14; 1944, 
#1, 1-22. 



337 SHCHELKIN 

Technical Microbiology. Moscow: 1948. 
Biography: 

Academician Vladimir Nikolaevich Shaposhnikov (On the 70th 

Anniversary since the date of birth). Mikrobiologiya, 1954, 

23, #2. 

Celebration in Honor of Academician V. N. Shaposhnikov. 

Vestnik Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1954, #6. 
Office: Moscow University 

Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Leninskiye gory, sekt. *K" 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: V9 23 91 

SHCHEGLYAEV, ANDREI VLADIMIROVICH (Heat Engineer) 

A. V. Shcheglyaev was born October 20, 1902. After gradu- 
ating from Moscow Technical College in 1926, he taught there. 
In 1924 he began working at the All- Union Heat Engineering 
Scientific Research Institute. He joined the teaching staff of 
Moscow Institute of Energetics in 1930 and in 1948 became pro- 
fessor. Since 1953 he has been a Corresponding Member of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. In 1948 and in 1952 he received 
Stalin Prizes. 

Shcheglyaev studied heat processes of steam turbines and 
their regulation systems in the testing of turbines. He partici- 
pated in developing new systems of regulating turbines. 

In October 1962 Shcheglyaev was awarded the Red Banner of 
Labor. 
Bibliography: 

Steam Turbines, 3rd ed. Mo scow -Leningrad: 1955. 
and N. G. Morozov . Testing of Steam Turbines. Moscow- 
Leningrad: 1937. 

Some Problems of Exploiting Steam Turbines. Moscow - 
Leningrad: 1947. 

Regulating Steam Turbines. Moscow-Leningrad: 1938. 
Office: Moscow Institute of Energetics 

Moscow, USSR 

SHCHELKIN, KIRILL IVANOVICH (Physicist) 

K. I. Shchelkin was born May 17, 1911. He graduated from 
the Pedagogical Institute in Simferopol' in 1932 and began to 
work at the Institute of Chemical Physics of the U.S.S.R. Acade- 
my of Sciences. He has been a member of the Communist Party 
of the Soviet Union since 1940. In 1953 he was elected a Corre- 
sponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 



SHCHERBAKOV 338 

Shchelkin made a considerable contribution to the develop- 
ment of gas dynamics of burning. He experimentally proved the 
presence of a considerable influence of turbulent flow in an 
initial mixture on flame acceleration and developed conditions 
for the transfer of slow burning into detonation. Shchelkin in- 
vestigated burning in a turbulent flow. He studied spin denotation 
and the proposed theory for this phenomenon. 
Bibliography: 

On the theory of the origin of detonation in gas mixtures in 
pipes. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1939, 23, #7. 
On the theory of detonation spin. Doklady Akad. Nauk 
S.S.S.R., 1945, 47, #7. 

and Ya. B. Zel'dovich. Application of the theory of spread- 
ing of an arbitrary explosion in some cases of ignition of 
gases. Zhur. Eksptl. i Teoret. Fiz., 1940, 10, #5. 
Influence of roughness of a pipe on the origin and spreading 
of a detonation in gases. Zhur. Eksptl. i Teoret. Fiz., 1940, 
10, #7. 

On transfer of slow burning into a detonation. Zhur. Eksptl. 
i Teoret. Fiz., 1953, 24, #5. 

Detonation process. Vestnik Akad. Nauk #2, 12-20 (1960). 
Office: Institute of Chemical Physics of USSR Academy of 

Sciences 
Vorob'evskoye Shosse 2 
Moscow, USSR 

SHCHERBAKOV^, DMITRH IVANOV^ICH (Geologist) 

D. I. Shcherbakov was born January 13, 1893. After gradu- 
ating in 1922 from Simferopol' University, he worked in insti- 
tutions of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He was a student 
of V. I. Vernadskii and A. E. Fersman, Russian geochemists. 
He also taught at Leningrad University, beginning in 1922 and 
from 1928 to 1932 at the Leningrad Polytechnic Institute. From 
1939 to 1954, Shcherbakov was at the Institute of Geological Sci- 
ences of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. In 1953 he became 
Academic Secretary of the Department of Geological and Geo- 
graphic Sciences of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He was 
elected a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences in 1946 and in 1953 an Academician. 

Shcherbakov' s main works are devoted to geology and geo- 
chemistry of rare metals and radioactive elements. He par- 
ticipated as a student in radium expeditions of the Academy of 
Sciences (from 1914). Later he participated in the Pamir 
Expedition (1928), in the Tadzhik-Pamir Expedition (until 



339 SHCHUKIN 

1936) and also in expeditions on territories beyond the Baikal, 
Kazakhstan, Crimea, Karelia, Central Urals, Kol'skii Peninsula 
and other regions. In 1927 Shcherbakov became acquainted 
with some deposits of Central Europe and Sicily. In 1956 he 
was the head of a U.S.S.R. delegation at the 20th Session of the 
International Geological Congress in Mexico. Shcherbakov used 
a comprehensive geochemical approach to study the distribution 
of rare element deposits. He also studied the geology of Cen- 
tral Asia. Shcherbakov has also been active in popularizing 
geology. 

As of 1961 Shcherbakov was Chairman of the Antarctic Com- 
mission of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

In January 1961, he visited the United States to participate 
in National Academy of Sciences conferences and meetings at 
Stanford University, California. 
Bibliography: 

The meaning of determination of the age of intrustions for 
practical geology. Works of the 1st Session of the Com- 
mission on Determination of the Absolute Age of Rocks 
(April 12-15, 1952), Moscow, 1954, 203-211. 
On survey maps for magmatogenic ore deposits. Izvest. 
Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. Geol., 1952, #4, 9-15. 
High temperature ore formations of central Caucasus. 
Questions of Mineralogy, Geochemistry and Petrography. 
Moscow-Leningrad: 1946, 219-27. 

Principles and methodology in compiling metallogenic maps. 
Soviet Geology, 1955, #5, 53-64. 

Source of raw materials of U.S.S.R. rare metals. Rare 
Metals, 1938, #1, 14-24. 

Genetic types of tin ore manifestation in Central Asia. 
Scientific Summaries of Works of the Tadzhik- Pamir e Expe- 
dition. Moscow- Leningrad: 1936, 477-507. 
Office: Joint Antarctic Commission of USSR Academy of 

Sciences 
Leninskii Prospekt, 14 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: n. Yakimanka, 3 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: V3 24 52 

SHCHUKIN, ALEKSANDR NIKQLAEVICH (Radioengineer) 

A. N. Shchukin was born July 22, 1900.' In 1927 he graduated 
from the Leningrad Electrotechnical Institute. He taught there 
from 1929 to 1941 and in 1939 was made a professor. At about 



SHEMYAKIN 340 

the same time, 1933 to 1945, he was also teaching at the Lenin- 
grad Military -Naval Academy. He worked in several research 
institutions including the Leningrad Electrophysical Institute 
and the Central F^dio Laboratory of a Trust for Low Voltage 
Plants. Shchukin has been a Major General in the Engineering- 
Technical Service. He became a member of the Communist 
Party of the Soviet Union in 1944. In 1946 he was elected a 
Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences 
and in 1953 an Academician. 

Shchukin' s main work is in the propagation of short waves 
and in short wave communication at great distances in two-way 
radiotelegraph broadcasting without power losses and methods 
of controlling pulse distortions, the study of non- stationary 
processes in resonance and band amplifiers. 
Bibliography: 

Propagation of Radiowaves (textbook), 1940. 

Non- stationary processes in resonance and bank amplifiers. 

Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. Fiz., 1946, 10, #1. 

Method of controlling impulse distortion to radio reception. 

Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. Fiz., 1946, 10, #1. 
Biography: 

A. N. Shchukin. Radio, 1947, #4. 

F. Chestnov . In the World of Radio. Moscow: 1954. 
Office: USSR Academy of Sciences 

Leninskii Prospekt, 14 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Alekseeskogo studgorodka 3ii pr. 31 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: 13 07 74 

SHEMYAKIN, MIKHAIL MIKHAILQVICH (Organic Chemist) 

M. M. Shemyakin was born July 26, 1908. After graduating 
from Moscow University in 1930, he worked at the Scientific 
Research Institute of Organic Intermediates and Dyes until 
1935. From 1930 to 1937 he was also at the Moscow Institute 
of Fine Chemical Technology and from 1935 to 1945 at the All- 
Union Institute of Experimental Medium. Shemyakin was made 
professor, in 1942, at the Moscow Textile Institute where he 
had been working since 1937. In 1945 he began work at the 
Institute of Biological and Medical Chemistry of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences and in 1958 at the Institute of Organic 
Chemistry of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He became a 
member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1951. 



341 SHEV^YAKOV 

In 1953 he was elected a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences and in 1958 an Academician. 

As of 1961 Shemyakin was Director of the Institute of Chem- 
istry of Natural Compounds. 

In May 1960, Shemyakin visited the United States on an ex- 
change program at the California Institute of Technology. 
Bibliography: 

and A. S. Khokhlov . Chemistry of Antibiotic Substances, 2nd 
ed. Moscow-Leningrad: 1953. 

and L. A. Shchukina . Oxidizing-hydrolytic transformations 
of organic compounds. Uspekhi Khim., 1957, 26, #5. 
and others . Chemistry of Antibiotics. 1-2 . Moscow: 1961. 
Office: Institute of Natural Compounds of USSR Academy 

of Sciences 
1-y Akademicheskii Proyezd, 18 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: ul. Semashko, 5 
Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: B8 31 72 

SHEVYAKQV, LEV DMITRIEVICH (Mining Specialist) 

L. D. Shevyakov was born January 15, 1889 in Vetluga in the 
former Kostroma province. He received his secondary edu- 
cation at the Nizhnii- Novgorod gymnasium, and his higher edu- 
cation at the Ekaterinoslav (now Dnepropetrovsk) Mining Insti- 
tute, from which he graduated in 1912 as a mining engineer. 
The mining graduation project on which he worked as a student 
was awarded the Kublin Prize, and his project on metallurgical 
mechanics was given an honorable mention. Following one year 
of work at the Donbas mines, he was enrolled as an assistant 
in the mining faculty of the Ekaterinoslav Institute, and in 1916, 
he was appointed a docent at the same faculty. After defending 
his dissertation in 1919 on the subject "Discovery of Hard Coal 
Deposits," he was awarded the degree of Mining Assistant (ad- 
junct) and, in 1920, he was appointed professor in the mining 
faculty. 

Shevyakov served during his graduate work and after, until 
1928, as professor and director of the mining faculty of the 
Ekaterinoslav Mining Institute. In 1920-1922, he served with 
B. I. Bokii, A. M. Terpigorev, A. A. Skochinskii, and V. A. 
Guskov as a member of a Special Commission charged with the 
restoration of the Donbas hard coal and anthracite industry. 
After being sent on a mission by the VSNKh SSR (Supreme Coun- 
cil of the National Economy of the USSR) to Germany, U. S. A., 



SHEVYAKOV 342 

England, and Scotland in 1925, he published a number of articles 
describing the status and trends of the development of the for- 
eign mining industries. From 1929 to 1932, he served as pro- 
fessor at the Tomsk Technological Institute; from 1932 to 1944, 
as professor on the mining faculty at the Sverdlovsk Mining 
Institute, and from 1944 to 1950, as professor and director of 
the faculty for the mining of blanket deposits at the Stalin Mos- 
cow Mining Institute. 

During these years, he served as permanent consultant and 
mining expert for numerous design establishments, main ad- 
ministrations, and individual mining enterprises, such as Donu- 
gol, Yugostal (Southern Steel Industry Trust), Soletrest, Kuz- 
basugol (State Association of the Hard Coal Industry of the 
Kuznetsk and Minusink Basins), Uralugol, Giproshakht (State 
Institute for the Design of Mine Construction in the Hard Coal 
Industry) and its Siberian affiliate, Gipromedruda (State Insti- 
tute for the Design and Planning of Copper Mining Establish- 
ments). During the restoration of the Donbas, he was in charge 
of a design group in Dnepropetrovsk, which conducted numerous 
designs of mines in the Donets Basin. He was directly con- 
cerned with the development of design projects for high- 
capacity mines in the Kuznetsk Basin, and he acted as consult- 
ant in working out design projects for coal mines in many 
regions of Siberia. 

The Ural affiliate of the Academy, which served the varied 
economy and industry of the Urals, expanded its scientific ac- 
tivities under his direction. During World War II, Shevyakov 
conducted extensive work in the Commission for mobilizing the 
resources of the Ural region. Western Siberia, and Kazakhstan 
to serve defense requirements. In 1942, Shevyakov, with A. A. 
Skochinskii, worked to restore the Donets and Moscow Basins 
destroyed by the Germans. In January 1942, he worked in the 
town of Karpinsk, where he determined the possibility of ex- 
panding coal production from the Bogoslovsk deposits in the 
Urals. In May 1942, he worked at the Ural Aluminum Plant in 
connection with the expansion of Bauxite production in Kamensk 
Region; in June-July 1942, he was in Kazakhstan where he in- 
creased coal production, ore production, and the smelting of 
metals. In September 1942, he worked in Korkino and Kopeysk 
where he served as consultant on a number of technical prob- 
lems concerning the development of coal extraction by the open 
pit method. 

In February -March of 1943, he was a member of the com- 
mission entrusted with the determination of the status of the 



343 SHEVYAKOV 

available ore reserves supplying the Kuznetsk metallurgical 
plants, the determination of the production capacities of mines 
in the Kuznetsk Basin, and the improvement of power facilities 
in industrial centers of Western Siberia. In August-September 
of 1943, he was engaged in similar work in Krarganda. He 
worked in the Commission of the Peoples' Commissariat for 
the Coal Industry, which was charged with the establishment of 
rational systems for the extraction of the rich coal beds located 
at the Prokopyevsk-Kisel region of the Kuznetsk Basin, as well 
as the increased production of coking coal in the Osinovsk 
region. Almost immediately after the Mining Institute moved 
back to Moscow, Shevyakov worked there in establishments 
subordinate to the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

During the past 20 years, he was a member of the Presidi- 
ums of Technical Councils in the Ministry of the Coal Industry, 
the Ministry for the Building of Coal Enterprises, the Ministry 
of Nonferrous Metallurgy, and frequently served as the chair- 
man of expert commissions to study important coal and ore 
mining technical problems. 

In 1943, he was appointed a member, and in 1946, director 
of the Council for Scientific and Technical Consultation under 
the Gosplan (State Planning Commission of the USSR), which 
discussed the most important problems concerning the regional 
distribution and development of industry. From 1947 to 1957, 
he was a member of the Gosplan of the U.S.S.R. He has actively 
participated in All- Union Conferences, and works for close 
contacts between Soviet mining scientists and personnel em- 
ployed in industry and in design and training institutes located 
in outlying districts. He is an active member of the All- Union 
Society for the Dissemination of Political and Scientific Know- 
ledge. From 1947 to 1950, he served as a delegate of the 
Second Moscow City Council of Workers' Deputies; for many 
years, he was elected a member of the Orgbyuro (Organization 
Bureau) of the All- Union Scientific -Technical Mining Society. 
From 1941 to 1944, he served as president of the Orgbyuro of 
this society, and from 1953 to 1955, he acted as director of the 
section for underground mining of coal deposits. 

Shevyakov is a member of the editorial boards of the follow- 
ing scientific-technical journals: Izvestia An SSSR, Otdelenie 
tecknicheskikh nauk (Bulletin of the USSR Academy of Sciences, 
Division of Technical Sciences), Ugol (Coal), Gornii Zhurnal 
(Mining Journal), ByuUeten ITEIN (Bulletin of the Institute of 
Technical and Economic Information); he is also a member of 



SHEVYAKOV 344 

the editorial council of Ugletekhizdat (State Scientific and Tech- 
nical Publishing House of Literature on the Coal Industry). 

He has frequently served as president of juries for AU- 
Union contests involving the best design project of mining sys- 
tems adapted to various conditions of complex mechanized 
equipment used on mine surfaces. He also constantly takes 
part in the examination and evaluation of projects submitted in 
competition for Lenin prizes, acting in the capacity of presi- 
dent of the mining and metallurgical section, and as a member 
of the Committee. 

In 1939, he was elected an Academician of the U.S.S.R. Aca- 
demy of Sciences, appointed Deputy Director of the Ural affili- 
ate of it, and Director of the Mining and Geological Institute of 
the affiliate. In 1941, he was elected a member of the Bureau 
of the Section of Geological and Geographic Sciences, and 
served in this capacity until 1945. In 1942, he was awarded a 
Stalin Prize for participation in a study entitled "On the De- 
velopment of the National Economy of the Urals Under Wartime 
Conditions," and, in 1943, together with workers in the coal 
industry, he was awarded the Order of the Red Banner of Labor 
for fulfilling government assignments calling for increased coal 
production under wartime conditions. He received a badge 
honoring him as an "Outstanding Worker" in socialist compe- 
tition sponsored by the Peoples' Commissariat of the Coal 
Industry. In 1945, Shevyakov was awarded a second order of 
the Red Banner of Labor; in 1948, he was awarded the Order of 
Lenin and medals "For the Restoration of the Donbas" and "In 
Commemoration of Moscow's 800th Anniversary." In June 
1956, he was awarded the title of honorary member of the Min- 
ing Society and in 1957, he received the badge, "Coal Miner's 
Glory," first degree as a reward for his activities aimed at the 
development of mining science and technology. 

Shevyakov was awarded several prizes by the Presidium of 
the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences for his studies entitled, 
"Search for New Highly Productive Methods for Underground 
Mining of Rich Deposits of Hard Ores" (1956), and "Scientific 
Foundations of New Technical Equipment Used to Promote the 
Further Development of the Production of Coal, Ores and Other 
Minerals by the Open Pit Method" (1957). 

The work of Shevyakov is concerned with problems of mine 
production and design, coal and ore mining for high production 
and efficiency, various problems presented by local mining 
situations, such as the Kursk magnetic anomaly. 



345 SHIRKOV 

Bibliography: 

Collected Articles on Mining. 

Analytical and Computation Articles. 

Mining Mineral Deposits. 

Mining Water Drains. 

Fundamentals of the Theory Involving the Planning of Coal 

Mines. 

Mechanization of Mining Operations. 

Bracing of Open Pit Mines. 

Sinking of Open Pit Mines. 

Miner's Library. 

Biography: 

Lev Dmitrievich Shevyakov, Professor and Doctor of Techni- 
cal Sciences. Ugol, 1939, #3. 

A. A. Zvorikin. Academy of Sciences of the U.S.S.R. and the 
Development of Russian Mining Sciences. Ugol, 1945, #7-8. 
Lev Dmitrievich Shevyakov, Academician (To the 60th Anni- 
versary since the date of birth). Ugol, 1949, #1. 

Office: USSR Academy of Sciences 

Leninskii Prospekt 
Moscow, USSR 

SHIRKOV, DMITRII VASIL'EVICH (Theoretical Physicist) 

D. V. Shirkov was born in 1928. In 1949 he graduated from 
Moscow State University. From 1956 to 1960 he worked in the 
Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, and in 1960 took a po- 
sition at the Mathematics Institute of the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences Siberian Branch. Shirkov was awarded the Doctor of 
Physico-Mathematical Sciences degree in 1957. Since 1953 he 
has been a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. 
He was elected, in 1960, a Corresponding Member of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

Shirkov' s principal work is in the field of the theory of 
elementary particles. 
Bibliography: 

Calculation of coulomb effects in the theory of surface con- 
ductivity. Zhur. Exptl. i Teor. Fiz. 37, #1, 179-186 (1959). 
The compensation equation in superconductivity theory. Zh. 
Ekspr. Teor. Fiz. 36, #2, 607-12 (1959). Phys. Sci. Abstr. 
62, 9661 (1959). 

and M. E. Maier . On the two dimensional Thirring model. 
Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 122, #1, 45-7 (1958). Phys. 
Sci. Abstr. 62, 7791 (1959). 



SHOSTAKOVSKII 346 

and N. N. Bogolyubov, A. A. Logunov . The method of dis- 
persion relations and perturbation theory. Zh. Eksper. 
Teor. Fiz. 37, #3(9), 805-15 (1959). Phys. Sci. Abstr. 63, 
9258 (1960). Soviet Physics-JETP (New York), 37 (10), #3, 
574-81 (1960). 

and A. V. Efremov, V. A. Meshcheryakov . Pion-nucleon 
scattering at low energies. I. Zh. Eksper. Teor. Fiz. 39, 
#2(8), 438-49 (1960). Phys. Sci. Abstr. 63, 20202 (1960). 
and N. N. Bogolyubov . Certain problems of the quantum field 
theory. Trudy Tret' ego Vsesouyznogo, Matematicheskogo 
S'ezda, III, 5, 14-21 1956. Nucl. Sci. Abstr. 14, 4871 (1960). 
and N. N. Bogolyubov . Introduction to the Theory of Quan- 
tized Fields. Translation Interscience Publishers, Inc. 
New York: 1959, 734 p. Nucl. Sci. Abstr. 14, 5982 (1960). 
and N. N. Bogolyubov, V. V. Talmachev . A New Method in 
the Theory of Superconductivity Translation. Consultants 
Bureau, Inc., New York: 1959, 124 p. Nucl. Sci. Abstr. 14, 
4870 (1960). 

and I. F. Ginzburg. Asymptotic behavior of higher Green 
functions. Nauch. Doklady Vysshei Shkoly Fiz. Mat. Nauki 
#2, 143-51 (1959). Nucl. Sci. Abstr. 14, 3881 (1960). 
and A. V. Efremov, V. A. Meshcheryakov . Equations for the 
low-energy meson-nucleon scattering. 1960. 18 p. CD-503. 
Nucl. Sci. Abstr. 14, 16174 (1960). 
Office: Mathematics Institute of Siberian Branch of USSR 

Academy of Sciences 
Novosibirsk, Siberia 

SHOSTAKOVSKII, MIKHAIL FEDOROVICH (Organic Chemist) 

M. F. Shostakovskii was born in 1905. In 1929 he graduated 
from Irkutsk State University. From 1935 to 1938 he was a 
senior scientific worker at the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences 
Institute of Organic Chemistry. In 1939 he was appointed Chief 
of the Laboratory on Vinyl Compounds, and in 1957 became Di- 
rector of the Irkutsk Institute of Organic Chemistry of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Siberian Branch. Since 1946 he 
has been a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. 
He was elected, in 1960, a Corresponding Member of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He has been awarded a Stalin 
Prize. 

Shostakovskii developed a therapeutic balsam of polyvinyl 
pyrrolidon which is used as a blood substitute. 



347 SHOSTAKOVSKII 

Bibliography: 

and Ye. P. Gracheva, N. K. Kurbovskaya . Methods for 
synthesizing, and properties of substituted simple vinyl 
esters and substituted vinyl sulfides. Uspekhi Khim., #4, 
493-516 (1961). 

and A. V. Bogdanov, A. N. Volkov. Vinyl compounds in diene 
synthesis. Diene synthesis of simple vinyl esters and thio- 
esters with anthracene. Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. Otdel. 
Khim. Nauk n, 2072-75 (1961). 

and A. M. Khomutov, I. A. Chekulaeva, N. M. Khomutora. 
Synthesis and polymerization of dialkyl tartrates. Izvest. 
Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. Otdel. Khim. Nauk U, 2075 (1961). 
and P. P. Shorygin, E. N. Prilezhaeva, T. N. Shkurina, L. G. 
Stolyarova, A. P. Genich. Structure and spectra of vinyl 
sulfides. Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. Otdel. Khim. Nauk, #9, 
157-77 (1961). 

and D. N. Shigorin, V. I. Smirnova, G. S. Zhuravleva, Ye. P. 
Gracheva. E.P.R. Spectra of T-irradiated acetylene and its 
derivatives. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 140, #2, 419-22 
(1961). 

and N. V. Komarov, Yu. V. Maroshin. Synthesis and certain 
conversions of silanes of the vinyl acetylene series. Dok- 
lady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 139, #4, 913-915 (1961). 
and E. N. Prilezhaeva, L. V. Tsymbal . The comparative 
dienophyl reactability in a vinyl sulfide-vinyl sulfoxide -vinyl 
sulfone series. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 138, #5, 1122- 
25 (1961). 

and A. V. Bogdanova, G. M. Plotnikova. Stereo -directed 
syntheses on a diacetylene lease, and isomeric conversions 
of l,4-bis(arylthio) butadienes- 1,3 and their disulfides. Dok- 
lady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 136, #3, 595-98 (1961). 
and N. V. Komarov, V. B. Pukhnarevich. Synthesis and some 
conversions of secondary T-silicon-containing acetyl alco- 
hols. Doklady Akad. Nauk 136, #4, 846-48 (1961). 
and I. A. Chekulaeva, L. V. Kondrafeva. Reactability of 
nitrogen containing ethyl -vinyl compounds. Doklady Akad. 
Nauk S.S.S.R. 146, #2, 376-79 (1962). 

and E. N. Prilezhaeva, A. V. Sviridova. Polymerization of 
vinyl ethyl sulfane under the effect of free radical initiators. 
Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 146, #4, 837 (1962). 

Office: Institute of Organic Chemistry of Siberian Branch 

of USSR Academy of Sciences 
Irkutsk, Siberia 



SHTERN 348 

SHTERN, LINA SQLOMONQVNA (Physiologist) 

L. S. Shtern was born August 26, 1878 in Libava (Latvian 
S.S.R.)- After graduating in 1903 from the University of Geneva, 
she remained there to work and in 1917 became a professor. 
In 1925 she moved to the U. S.S.R. and from 1925 to 1949 was 
professor at the Second Moscow Medical Institute (until 1930 
the Medical Department of the Second Moscow University). 
About the same time, 1929-1949, she was also Director of the 
Institute of Physiology. In 1954 Shtern started working at the 
Institute of Biological Physics of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sci- 
ences. She has been a member of the Communist Party of the 
Soviet Union since 1938. She is an Academician of the Ukraini- 
an S.S.R. Academy of Sciences and in 1939 was elected Acade- 
mician of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences and in 1944 a mem- 
ber of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Medical Sciences. She was an 
Honored Scientist of the R.S.F.S.R. in 1934, and in 1954 she was 
a recipient of a Stalin Prize. 

Shtern studied the chemical basis of physiological process- 
es. Jointly with the Swiss scientist, F. Batteli, she investigated 
the respiration of isolated tissues and elucidated the role of 
various catalysts (in particular the catalase system) in biologi- 
cal oxidation. Shtern and her associates studied the hemato- 
encephalitic (blood-marrow) barrier which regulates the for- 
mation and the composition of cerebrospinal liquid. 
Bibliography: 

and others . Hematoencephalitic barrier. Collection of 
Works. Moscow-Leningrad: 1935. 

Histohematic barriers. Regulators of the Direct Medium of 
the Organs. Moscow-Leningrad: 1938 (Works of the Insti- 
tute of Physiology, 3). 

Role of metabolites in regulating the functions of an organ- 
ism, Regulators of the Direct Medium of the Organs. 
Moscow-Leningrad: 1938 (Works of the Institute of Physi- 
ology, 3, 238-249). 

Direct nutritive medium of the organs and tissues and its 
regulating factors. Direct Medium of Organs and Tissues. 
Moscow-Leningrad: 1947 (Works of the Institute of Physi- 
ology, 4). 

Active interference in physiological processes, Direct Medi- 
um of Organs and Tissues. Moscow-Leningrad: 1947 (Works 
of the Institute of Physiology, 4, 403-415). 



349 SHUBNIKOV 

Role of metabolites in the regulation of the functions of an 
organism, Direct Medium of Organs and Tissues. Moscow- 
Leningrad: 1947 (Works of the Institute of Physiology, 4, 
238-249). 
Biography: 

L. S. Shtern. Problems of Biology and Medicine. Collection 
Devoted to the 30th Anniversary of the Scientific, Pedagogi- 
cal and Social Activity of Honored Scientist Lina Solomonovna 
Shtern. Moscow-Leningrad: 1935. 
Office: Institute of Biological Physics of USSR Academy of 

Sciences 
Leninskii Prospekt, 33 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Dorogomilovskaya nab. 3 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: G3 44 04 

SHUBNIKOV, ALEKSEI VASIL'EVICH (Crystallographer) 

A. B. Shubnikov was born March 29, 1887. After graduating 
from Moscow University in 1912 he did research and taught at 
the People's University of Shanyanvskii in Moscow as assistant 
to G. V. Vul'f (1863-1925, specialist in crystallography). From 
1920 to 1925 he was visiting professor at the Urals Mining 
Institute in Ekaterinburg (now Sverdlovsk). He has been with 
the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences since 1925. In 1937 he was 
made Chief of the Laboratory of Crystallography and in 1944, 
Director of the Institute of Crystallography which he helped 
found. Also, in 1953 he became a professor at Moscow Uni- 
versity. He was elected a Corresponding Member of the Acade- 
my of Sciences in 1933, and in 1953 Academician. Shubnikov 
was a member of the AU-Union Mineralogical Society (1919), 
honorary member of the British Mineralogical Society (1945), 
and honorary member of the French Mineralogical Society 
(1947). In 1946 and 1950 he was awarded Stalin Prizes, and in 
1962 the Red Banner of Labor. 

Shubnikov' s areas of research are growth of crystals, elec- 
tric and optical properties of crystals, study of symmetry 
(piezo-electric properties of crystals, methodics of cutting, 
processing and polishing crystals). 

In 1962 Shubnikov was relieved of his position as Director of 
the Institute of Crystallography. 
Bibliography: 

How Crystals Grow. Moscow-Leningrad: 1935. 

Quartz and Its Application. Moscow -Leningrad: 1940. 



SHUIKIN 350 

and E. E. Flint, G. B. Bokii. Fundamentals of Crystallogra- 
phy. Moscow-Leningrad: 1940. 
Symmetry. Moscow-Leningrad: 1940. 
Piezo-Electric Textures. Moscow-Leningrad: 1946. 
Optical Crystallography. Moscow- Leningrad: 1950. 
Symmetry and Anti -Symmetry of Finite Figures. Moscow - 
Leningrad: 1951. 

and others . Investigating Piezo-Electric Textures. Moscow- 
Leningrad: 1955. 

Crystals in Science and Technology. Moscow: 1956. 
and N. N. Sheftal', eds. Soveschanie po rostu kristallov. 
2d, Moscow, 1959. Growth of crystals, v. 3; reports of 2d 
Conf. on Crystal Growth, Moscow, Mar. 23 -Apr. 1, 1959. 
Translation from Russian. New York, Consultants Bureau, 
1962. 357 p. 

Office: Institute of Crystallography of USSR Academy of 

Sciences 
Pyzhevskii Pereulok, 3 
Moscow, USSR 

Residence: pi. Vosstaniya, 1 
Moscow, USSR 

Telephone: D5 42 20 

SHUIKIN, NIKOLAI IVANQVICH (Organic Chemist) 

N. I. Shuikin was born March 30, 1898. He was a student of 
N. D. Zelinskii (1861-1953, Russian catalytic chemist). In 1927 
he graduated from Moscow University where he worked from 
1930 and became a professor in 1943. In 1937 he began working 
at the Institute of Organic Chemistry of the U.S.S.R. Academy 
of Sciences. Shuikin has been a member of the Communist 
Party of the Soviet Union since 1942. In 1953 he was elected a 
Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

Shuikin has studied the preparation of catalysts for dehydro- 
genation of six and five membered cyclanes and alkanes. A 
number of these catalysts are used for the production of aro- 
matic hydrocarbons. He studied the hydrogenation and hydro - 
genolysis of the furan nucleus. 
Bibliography: 

Obtaining aromatic hydrocarbons from oil by the contact- 
catalysis. Uspekhi Khim., 1946, 15^ #3. 
and A. A. Balandin. Mechanism and Kinetics of a Hetero- 
geneous Catalysis in Organic Chemistry. Moscow: 1955. 



351 SHULEIKIN 

Transformation of hydrocarbons on oxide metal catalysts at 
raised temperatures and pressures of hydrogen, Moscow, 
1955 (Report at the IV International Oil Congress in Rome). 
and N. F. Belskii. L'hydrogenolyse catalytique dans la serie 
des composes Furanniques. Bulletin de Societe chimique de 
France, 1956, #11-12, 1556-1634. 
Office: N. D. Zelinskii Institute of Organic Chemistry of 

USSR Academy of Sciences 
Leninskii Prospekt, 31 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: 1-aya Cheremushkinskaya, 3 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: B7 43 32 

SHULEIKIN, VASILII VLADIMIROVICH (Geophysicist) 

V. V. Shuleikin was born January 13, 1895. He initiated the 
organization of the Black Sea Hydrophysical Station in the 
Crimea in 1929, a marine hydrophysical laboratory in 1935, a 
Department of Marine Physics at Moscow University in 1945, and 
a sea laboratory of the Moscow Hydrometeorological Institute 
in 1930. Shuleikin became a member of the Communist Party 
of the Soviet Union in 1942. In 1929 he was elected a Corre- 
sponding Member and in 1946 an Academician of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences. The All- Union Geographic Society award- 
ed him a medal of P.P. Semyonov-Tyan-Shanskii. And in 1942 
he received a Stalin Prize. 

Shuleikin' s investigations are devoted to the physics of the 
sea. He presented a theory on the heat balance of the sea, thus 
allowing prediction of the presence of a deep warm current in 
the Karsk Sea. He proposed a theory on heat interaction be- 
tween the ocean, atmosphere, and land, and investigated 
the oscillating phenomena in this system and the increase in 
wind speeds against sharp-edged capes. On the basis of new 
experimental data, he advanced a theory on sea waves. He ex- 
plained the origin of sea and lake coloring. He obtained an 
equation of a spectral curve of the sea and worked on other as- 
pects of sea optics. He invented a series of devices for in- 
vestigating the sea. He participated in several oceanic and sea 
expeditions and was the head of a number of them. 
Bibliography: 

The Physics of the Sea, 3rd ed. Moscow: 1953. 

Outline of the Physics of the Sea. Moscow-Leningrad: 1949. 

Theory on Sea Waves. Moscow: 1956. 



SHVETSOV 352 

Biography: 

Russian Seafarers. Moscow: 1953, 574. 
Office: Moscow University 

Moscow, USSR 
Residence: ul. Vorovskogo 33/35 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: D2 04 05 

SHVETSOV, PYOTR FILIMONOVICH (Geologist) 

p. F. Shvetsov was born January 27, 1910. After graduating 
from Moscow Geological Survey Institute in 1935, he worked in 
the Main Directorate of the Northern Seaway. In 1939 he began 
working at the Institute of Permafrost of the U.S.S.R. Academy 
of Sciences (1941-1945 he served in the Soviet Army). In 1948 
he was made deputy Director and in 1956 Director of this 
Institute. Shvetsov has been a member of the Communist Party 
of the Soviet Union since 1940. In 1953 he was elected a Corre- 
sponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He re- 
ceived in 1952 a Stalin Prize. 

Shvetsov' s main works are devoted to the study of the regu- 
larities in formation of underground water in regions of per- 
petually frozen ground. 
Bibliography: 

Permafrost and Geological Engineering Conditions of the 
Anadyr' Region. Leningrad: 1938. 

and V. P. Sedov. Gigantic Icing and Underground Waters of 
the Ridge of Tas-Khayatakh. Moscow -Leningrad: 1941. 
Introductory Chapters to the Basis of Geocryology. Moscow: 
1955. (Materials for basis in study of frozen zones of the 
earth's crust), #1. 
Office: V. A. Obruchev Institute of Permafrost of USSR 

Academy of Sciences 
Bol'shoy Cherkasskiy Pereulok 2/10 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: ul. Chkalova 39/41 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: B7 19 15 

SIDORENKQ, ALEKSANDR VASIL'EVICH (Geologist) 

A. V. Sidorenko was born October 19, 1917. He graduated 
in 1940 from Veronezh University. In 1943-1950 he worked in 
the Turkman branch of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He 
began working at the Kol'skii branch of the U.S.S.R. Academy 
of Sciences in 1950 and in 1952 was elected Chairman of the 



353 SIFOROV 

Presidium. Sidorenko has been a member of the Communist 
Party of the Soviet Union from 1942. In 1953 he was elected a 
Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

Sidorenko has studied the geomorphology and geology of the 
structure of deserts, processes of mineral formation in con- 
ditions of desert climate, and phenomena of hypergenesis. He 
also investigated phosphorous minerals and mineralogy of 
veined deposits of the Turkman S.S.R. 
Bibliography: 

Main characteristics of mineral formation in deserts. 

Questions of Mineralogy of Sedimentary Formations. Book 

3-4. L'vov: 1956. 

Eolian differentiation of substance in deserts. Izvest. Akad. 

Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. Geogr., 1956, #3. 

Experiment in separating continental rock masses of Kara- 

Kumy on the composition of gravel pebbled particles. 

Questions of the Geology of Asia, _2, Moscow: 1955. 
Office: Presidium of the S. M. Kirov Kol'skii Branch of 

USSR Academy of Sciences 
Kirovsk, Murmansk Oblast', USSR 

SIFOROV, VLADIMIR IVANQVICH (Radio Engineer) 

V. I. Siforov was born May 31, 1904. He graduated in 1929 
from the Leningrad Electro- Technical Institute and taught there 
in 1930-1941 and in 1946-1953; in 1938 he was made professor. 
From 1928-1941 he worked in the Central Radio Laboratory in 
Leningrad. He taught in 1941-1952 at the Leningrad Military 
Air Engineering Academy. In 1953 Siforov began working at 
the Scientific Research Institute of Communication and in 1955 
at the Institute of Radiotechnics and Electronics of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences. He has been a member of the Communist 
Party of the Soviet Union since 1941. In 1953 he was elected a 
Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

Siforov has worked on the theory, calculation, and design of 
radio receiving devices and amplifiers. He is the author of a 
widely known text '^ Receiving Devices" (1939, 5th edition, 1954). 
Bibliography: 

Resonant Amplifiers. Theory and Calculation. Leningrad: 
1932. 

Bandpass Amplifiers. Theory and Calculation. Leningrad- 
Moscow: 1936. 

High- Frequency Amplifiers (Theory and Calculation). 
Moscow-Leningrad: 1939. 



SISAKYAN 354 

Ultra Short-Wave Receivers for Impulse Signals. Moscow: 
1947. 

and others . Theory of Impulse Radio Communication. 
Leningrad: 1951. 
Receiving Devices. 5th Ed., 1954. 

Receivers of Ultra-High Frequencies. 2nd ed. Moscow: 
1957. 
Office: Institute of Radiotechnics and Electronics of USSR 

Academy of Sciences 
Mokhovaya Ulitsa 11, K-9 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Chistoprudniy bulv. 2 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: K5 71 37 

SISAKYAN, NORAIR MARTIRQSQVICH (Biochemist) 

N. M. Sisakyan was born January 25, 1907. He graduated 
from the K. A. Timiryazev Agricultural Academy, Moscow, in 
1932, and in 1939 began working at the Institute of Biochemistry 
of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. Since 1937 he has been a 
member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. He was 
elected Corresponding Member of the Armenian S.S.R. Acade- 
my of Sciences in 1945, Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences in 1953, and in 1960 Academician. He was 
acting Academician Secretary of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sci- 
ences 1958-60 and has been Academy Secretary for the division 
of biological sciences since 1960. Also he has been Chairman 
of the Soviet delegation to UNESCO. In 1949, the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences awarded him the A. N. Bakh Prize and in 
1950 the I. I. Mechnikov Prize. He won a Stalin Prize in 1952. 

The main scientific investigations of Sisakyan are the 
study of the action of enzymes in metabolism. While study- 
ing the biochemical properties and enzyme functions of sub- 
microscopic structures of protoplasm, he showed that the 
plastides are rich not only in nucleoproteins but also in en- 
zymes. He studied the biochemical nature of drought- 
resistance of plants, the biochemistry of wine production and 
others. 

As of 1961 Sisakyan was Chairman of the Commission on 
International Scientific Relations of the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences. 
Bibliography: 

Enzyme Activity of Protoplasm Structures, Bakh Studies #5. 

Moscow, 1951. 



355 SKOBEL'TSYN 

Biochemical Characteristics of Drought-Resistance of Vege- 
tation. Moscow -Leningrad: 1940. 

Biochemistry of plastides in Problems of Botany, 1, pp. 195- 
223. Moscow-Leningrad: 1954. 

Chemical nature and biochemical functions of plastides. 
Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. Biol. 1956, #5, 6. 
and M. K. Veynova. Inclusion of tagged amino -acids and 8 
Cl4 into nucleotidepeptides of baker's yeast Sacch, cerevisal. 
Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 147, #3, 731-34 (1962). 
Office: Academician Secretary of Biological Sciences of 

USSR Academy of Sciences 
Leninskii Prospekt, 14 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Leninskii Prospekt, 13 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: B2 16 87 

SKOBEL'TSYN, DMITRII VLADIMIRQVICH (Physicist) 

D. V. Skobel'tsyn was born November 24, 1892. After gradu- 
ating from Petersburg University in 1915, he worked in the 
Polytechnic and Physico-Technic Institute in Leningrad. Subse- 
quently he was at Moscow University and the Physics Institute 
of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. In 1951 he became Di- 
rector of this Institute. He was a Corresponding Member of 
the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences from 1939 to 1946 when he 
was elected Academician. Skobel'tsyn has been active in public 
affairs also. He was Deputy to the U.S.S.R. Supreme Soviet and 
a member of the Commission on Foreign Affairs of the Soviet 
Union. In March 1962, he was re-elected a delegate from 
Ural SSR to the Supreme Soviet. In 1950 he was made Chair- 
man of the Committee on the International Lenin Prize " For 
Strengthening Peace Between Peoples." He was awarded a 
Stalin Prize in 1951 and in 1952 the gold medal of S. L Vavilov 
by the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

Skobel'tsyn carried out research in nuclear physics and 
cosmic rays. In 1923 he began research on the phenomena of 
interaction of substance with gamma rays from radium. In 
order to clarify the mechanism of these phenomena, Skobel'tsyn 
used the Wilson cloud chamber, with the aid of which he was 
able to view directly and photograph the recoil electrons 
knocked out by collisions of high energy photons (gamma rays) 
with gas atoms which filled the chamber. These studies gave 
direct support to the quantum character of the Compton effect. 
Subsequently Skobel'tsyn utilized these phenomena for studies 



SKRYABIN 356 

in gamma rays spectroscopy. The method proposed by Skobel'- 
tsyn of using the Wilson cloud chamber in a magnetic field has 
been widely used for studying beta and gamma rays spectra and 
for basic investigations of properties of elementary particles. 
In 1927-29 Skobel'tsyn studied cosmic rays. In the postwar 
years, he carried out research on the study of cosmic ray 
showers. 

In November 1962 Skobel'tsyn received the Order of Lenin. 
Bibliography: 

Cosmic Rays. Moscow -Leningrad: 1936. 
Nature of cosmic radiation. Vestnik Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 
1950, #4, 31-45. 

On the trend of a * correlative' curve of auger showers over 
a great distance. Doklady Akad. Nauk, 1949, 67, #2. 
Uber eine neue Art sehr schneller Betta Strahlen, Zeitschrift 
fur Physik, 1929, 54, #9-10. 

Die spektrale Verteilung und die mittiere Wellenlange der ra 
gamma Strahlen. Zeitschrift fur Physik, 1929, 58, #9-10, 
595-612. 

Die Intensitatsverteilung in dem Spektrum der gamma Strah- 
len von RaC. Zeitschrift fiir Physik, 1927, 43, #5-6, 354-78. 
Office: A. N. Lebedev Physics Institute of USSR Academy 

of Sciences 
Leninskii Prospekt, 53 
Moscow, USSR 

SKRYABIN, KONSTANTIN IVANOVICH (Helminthologist) 

K. I. Skryabin was born December 7, 1878. In 1905 he gradu- 
ated from Yur'ev Veterinary Institute and until 1911 worked as 
a veterinarian in Central Asia. He was professor at the Don 
Veterinary Institute in Novocherkassk from 1917 to 1920 when 
he became professor at Moscow Veterinary Institute (now the 
Moscow Veterinary Academy). Also in 1920, he was made 
Chairman of the Helminthological Department of the State Insti- 
tute of Experimental Veterinary Sciences which he originally 
organized and then, in 1931, reorganized into the AU-Union 
Institute of Helminthology. Skryabin has been the Director 
since its founding. He was Chairman in 1921 to 1949 of the 
Helminthological Department of the Tropical Institute (now the 
Institute of Malaria, Medical Parasitology and Helminthology) 
founded by him. In 1942 he became Chief of the Laboratory of 
Helminthology of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. Skryabin 
was elected an Academician of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences 
in 1939 and in 1944 a member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of 



357 SKRYABIN 

Medical Sciences. In 1943 to 1952 he was Chairman of the Pre- 
sidium of the Kirghiz Branch of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sci- 
ences. A member since 1935 of the Lenin All- Union Agricultur- 
al Academy, he was elected President in 1956. Skryabin is well 
known for his public activities also. He has been Deputy of the 
U.S.S.R. Supreme Soviet, second and third convocations. In 
1922 he found and chaired the Commission of the Study of Hel- 
mintho Fauna of the U.S.S.R. and in 1940 reorganized it into the 
All- Union Society of Helminthologists of the U.S.S.R. Academy 
of Sciences of which he is currently President. He participates 
in domestic and international zoological and veterinary con- 
gresses and is a member and honorary member of several 
foreign scientific research organizations and societies. In 1927 
he was an Honored Scientist of the R.S.F.S.R. Twice, 1941 and 
1950, he was awarded Stalin Prizes. The Academy of Sciences 
of the U.S.S.R. awarded Skryabin the Gold Medal of I. I. Mechni- 
kov in 1949. In 1954 he was an Honored Member of the Kirghiz 
S.S.R. and in 1958 a Hero of Socialist Labor. In 1957 he won a 
Lenin Prize. The AU-Union Institute of Helminthology in Mos- 
cow and the Kirghiz Agricultural Institute in Frunze are named 
for him. 

The investigations of Skryabin are in morphology, biology, 
phylogeny and systematics of parasitic worms, epidemiology 
(epizootology) and organization of measures to control helmin- • 
thosis of man and domestic animals. Under the leadership of 
Skryabin there were conducted about 300 helminthologic expe- 
ditions in various regions of the U.S.S.R. He introduced (with 
R. S. Shul'ts) the concept of additional reservoir and transit 
hosts and gave an analysis of the processes of migration of 
various bladder worms in the bodies of a host; he introduced 
the concept of geo- and biohelminthosis, the concept of de- 
helminthization, devestation. The many instruction and refer- 
ence books on control of helminthosis published by Skryabin are 
widely utilized in medical and veterinary practice. He outlined 
about 200 new types of bladder worms. 

As of 1961, Skryabin was a Vice-President of the Lenin AU- 
Union Agricultural Academy. 
Bibliography: 

and R.-Ed. S. Shul'ts. Helminthosis of Horned Cattle and Its 

Young Stock. Moscow: 1937. 

and R.-Ed. S. Shul'ts. Basis of Helminthology. Moscow: 

1940. 

and R.-Ed. S. Shul'ts, N. P. Shikhobalova. Trychostrongy- 

loidea of Man and Animals. Moscow: 1954. 



SMIRNOV 358 

Trematodes of Man and Animals. Basis of Trematodology, 
1-12. Moscow-Leningrad: 1947-1956. 

Devastation in the Struggle with Helminthosis and other Ail- 
ments of Man and Animals. Frunze: 1947. 
and others. Indicator of Parasitic Nematode, 1-4. Moscow- 
Leningrad: 1949-1954. 

Biography: 

D. N. Antipin and N. P. Shikhobalova. Academician Konstan- 

tin Ivanovich Skryabin. Moscow: 1949. 

Works on Helminthology (On the 75th Anniversary of date of 

birth of K. L Skryabin. Collection of articles). Moscow: 

1953. 

Office: Laboratory of Helminthology of USSR Academy of 

Sciences 
Leninskii Prospekt, 33 
Moscow, USSR 

SMIRNOV, NIKOLAI V^ASIL^EVICH (Mathematician) 

N. V. Smirnov was born October 17, 1900. In 1926, he gradu- 
ated from Moscow University. From 1937 to 1941, he was pro- 
fessor at the Lenin Moscow Pedagogical Institute. In 1938, he 
began work at the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Institute of 
Mathematics. He was awarded a Stalin Prize in 1951. He was 
elected a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences in 1960. 

Smirnov' s work is in the theory of probability and especially 
mathematical statistics. The theory of non-parametric methods 
of mathematical statistics was the contribution of Smirnov. 
Bibliography: 

Limited Laws of Distribution for Terms of Variational 
Series. Moscow: 1949. 

and Dunin-Barkovskii. Theory of Probability and Mathe- 
matical Statistics in Technics. Moscow: 1955. 
Mathematical statistics. Vestnik Akad. Nauk, #8, 53-58 
(1961). 
Office: V. A. Steklov Institute of Mathematics of USSR 

Academy of Sciences 
1-y Akademicheski Proyezd, 28 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: 1-aya Cheremushkinskaya 24/1 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: B5 31 93 



359 SMIRNOV 

SMIRNQV, VLADIMIR IVANQV^ICH (Geologist) 

V. I. Smirnov was born January 1910. He graduated from 
the Moscow Geological Survey Institute in 1934 and was an in- 
structor there. From 1946 to 1951 he was U.S.S.R. Deputy 
Minister of Geology. At the same time, he was professor at 
Moscow Geological Survey Institute and at Moscow Institute of 
Non- Ferrous Metals and Gold. In 1951 he became a professor 
at Moscow University. He has been a member of the Commu- 
nist Party of the Soviet Union since 1940. In 1958 he was elect- 
ed Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, 
and in June 1962, Academician. 

Smirnov has worked with problems in the geology of ore de- 
posits, their survey, and evaluation. 

In January 1961, Smirnov visited the United States to attend 
National Academy of Sciences Conferences and meetings at 
Stanford University, California. 
Bibliography: 

An Inventory of Natural Resource Mineral Reserves. Mos- 
cow: 1950. 

The Geological Basis for Surveying and Mining Ore Deposits, 
2nd ed. Moscow: 1957. 
Office: Department of Geology 

Moscow University 
Moscow, USSR 

SMIRNOV, VLADIMIR IVANQVICH (Mathematician) 

V. I. Smirnov was born June 10, 1887 in Leningrad (Petro- 
grad). In 1910 he graduated from Petersburg University, in 
1915 he began teaching there, and in 1926 he was made pro- 
fessor. From 1912 to 1930 Smirnov was professor at Peters- 
burg Institute of Engineers of Means of Communication. He 
received the degree of Doctor in Physical-Mathematical Sciences 
in 1936. He worked from 1929 to 1935 in the Seismological and 
Mathematical Institutes of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 
In 1932 he was elected a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences and in 1943 an Academician. He was 
awarded a Stalin Prize in 1948. 

Smirnov has worked primarily in theory of a function of a 
complex variable such as the uniformization of the many-valued 
analytical functions, the investigation of Fuchsian groups and 
Fuchsian functions in the presence of an infinite number of 
substitutions of corresponding groups, the reversal of a differ- 
ential equation of the Fuchsian type with four singular points. 
In a series of investigations conducted with S. L. Sobolev, 



SMIRNOV 360 

Smirnov worked out a new method of solving some problems on 
the theory of the propagation of waves in elastic media with 
plane boundaries. He investigated the singular solutions of a 
wave equation and the equations for elasticity, and in connection 
with this, put forth a new method for investigating the oscil- 
lations of an elastic circle and sphere for a given external 
influence. For linear equations of elliptical type, with any 
number of variables, Smirnov studied cases when these 
equations allow functionally invariant solutions. This investi- 
gation was based on a concept introduced by Smirnov of conju- 
gated function for Euclidian space or Riemannian space with a 
positive metric. Smirnov is the author of Course in Advanced 
Mathematics (5 volumes), 1924-47. He trained a large number 
of students. 

Bibliography: 

Problems of transformation of a linear differential equation 
of the secondary order with four singular points. Peters- 
burg, 1918 (mimeographed). 

Sur les formules de Cauchy et de Green et quelques prob- 
lems qui s'y rattachent. Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Otdel. 
Mat. i Est. Nauk, 1932, #3. 

Solution of finite problems for a wave equation in the case of 
a circle and a sphere. Doklady Akad. Nauk, 1937, 14^ #1. 
Solution of finite problems in the theory of elasticity in the 
case of a circle and a sphere. Doklady Akad. Nauk, 1937, 
14, #2. 

On association functions. 1-3. Vestnik of the Leningrad 
University, 1953, #8, 11. 

On conjugated functions in a multi -dimensional Euclidian 
space. Vestnik of Leningrad University, 1954, #5. 

Biography: 

A. P. Epifanova . Vladimir Ivanovich Smirnov. Moscow- 
Leningrad: 1949. 

G. A. Ladyzhenskaya and G. M. Fikhtengolts. Vladimir 
Ivanovich Smirnov (On the 70th Anniversary since the date 
of birth). Vestnik of Leningrad University, 1957, #7. 

Office: USSR Academy of Sciences 

Leninskii Prospekt, 14 
Moscow, USSR 

SMIRNOV, VASILH IVANOVICH (Metallurgist) 

V. I. Smirnov was born February 11, 1899. After graduating 
from the Leningrad Mining Institute in 1922, he worked as an 
engineer in the Katalinskii Copper Works (Urals) and supervised 



361 SMIRNOV 

the reconstruction of the Karabashskii Copper Smelting Plant 
from 1925 to 1927. In 1927-30, he was chief metallurgist of the 
Urals Copper Trust (Uralmed) and Deputy Technical Director. 
In 1930, he was appointed lecturer at the Ural Institute of Non- 
Ferrous Metals. He became a professor, in 1933, at the Ural 
Polytechnic Institute. In 1938 he was awarded the degree of 
Doctor of Technical Sciences. He is the recipient of two Orders 
of the Red Banner of Labor and a medal for "Valiant Labor 
during WWII." He was elected to the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sci- 
ences as a Corresponding Member in 1946, and became an 
Academician of the Kazakh S.S.R. Academy of Sciences in 1954. 

Smirnov was sent abroad in 1928 on a scientific mission 
where he became acquainted with the operation of non-ferrous 
metallurgical plants of the United States and Canada. Upon his 
return he published a number of studies devoted to the scien- 
tific research and practical work of several American and 
Canadian copper smelting plants. 

Smirnov' s investigation is in the smelting of copper and 
nickel ores and concentrates. 

Smirnov was an active participant in the Altai Session on the 
Development of the Productive Forces of this region. He is 
scientific consultant of the Institute of Metallurgy and Ore- 
Dressing of the Altai Mining and Metallurgical Institute of the 
Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh S.S.R. 
Bibliography: 

Hydrometallurgy of Copper. Sverdlovsk-Moscow: 1947. 

Metallurgy of Copper and Nickel. Sverdlovsk-Moscow: 

1950. 

Reflection Smelting (Theory and Practice), 3rd ed. 

Sverdlovsk-Moscow: 1952. 

Shaft Smelting in the Metallurgy of Non- Ferrous Metals. 

Sverdlovsk: 1955. 

Pyrometallurgy of Copper. 

The Firing of Copper Ores and Concentrates. 
Office: Ural Polytechnic Institute of Kazakh SSR Academy 

of Sciences 
1-uchebny korpus. Room 225 
Sverdlovsk, USSR 
Telephone: Dl 37 08 

SMIRNOV, VASILII SERGEEVICH (Metallurgist) 

V. S. Smirnov was born in 1915. He graduated from the 
Ural Polytechnical Institute in 1937, and in 1937-38 and again 
in 1941-42, he worked in industry. From 1938 to 1941 he was 



SOBOLEV 362 

an assistant, senior laboratory technician, postgraduate, and 
from 1942 to 1949 was engaged in scientific and pedagogical 
work at the Ural Polytechnical Institute. In 1949 he became 
chairman of the department of Plastic Treatment of Metals at 
the M. I. Kalinin Leningrad Polytechnical Institute, where he 
was from 1954-56 deputy Director, and then became Director of 
this Institute. In 1948, he was granted the degree Doctor of 
Technical Sciences, and the rank of professor in 1950. Since 
1940, he has been a member of the Communist Party of the 
Soviet Union. He was elected, in 1960, a Corresponding Mem- 
ber of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

Smirnov's primary scientific activity deals with pressure 
treatment of metals (transverse spiral metal rolling, longitudi- 
nal periodic rolling, metal punching and pressing). 

In June 1958, Smirnov visited the United States to attend the 
Gordon Research Conferences on Polymer Research at New 
London, New Hampshire. 
Bibliography: 

Transverse Metal Rolling. Moscow: 1948. 

Calibration of Rollers by Coordinative Zones. Moscow: 

1953. 

Transverse Rolling and Machine Building. Moscow: 1957. 

Longitudinal Periodic Rolling. Moscow: 1962. 

Fundamentals in the theory of metal rolling. Chps. 1-3, 

Metal Rolling Industry, Moscow, 1962. 
Office: M. I. Kalin Leningrad Polytechnical Institute 

Polytechnical ul. 3 
Leningrad, K-64, USSR 
Telephone: G2 85 80 

SOBOLEV, SERGEI LVQVICH (Mathematician and Specialist in 
Mechanics) 
S. L. Sobolev was born October 6, 1908 in Leningrad. He 
graduated from Leningrad University in 1929 and also holds the 
degree of Doctor of Physical-Mathematical Sciences from 
there. He then worked in the Seismological Institute of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. In 1932 he began working at the 
Mathematics Institute of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences and 
in 1935 he became professor at Moscow University. Sobolev 
has been a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union 
since 1940. He was elected a Corresponding Member of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences in 1933 and in 1939 an Academici- 
an. In 1941 he was awarded a Stalin Prize. 



363 SOBOLEV 

Sobolev has studied the dynamics of an elastic body. He 
formulated the theory of plane waves in an elastic semi -space 
with a boundary free from tension, and elucidated the general 
concept of a surface wave. Together with V. I. Smirnov, he 
worked out a new method of investigating the propagation and 
reflection of elastic waves from rectilinear boundaries— a 
method which is associated with functionally invariant solutions 
of wave propagation on a plane. Sobolev also worked out a new 
method of integrating linear and non-linear equations with 
partial derivates of the hyperbolic type. He carried out re- 
search on the boundary problem in an n-dimensional space for 
poly-harmonic equation in the presence of a degenerate bounda- 
ry; he established an almost-periodic solution of the boundary 
problems of linear hyperbolic equations, investigated the de- 
pendence of the solutions of hyperbolic equations on disturbing 
forces, initial and final conditions, and solved new boundary 
problems for these equations. In his investigation Sobolev 
formulated a series of new concepts; generalized derivative, 
generalized solution of equations with partial derivatives, 
generalized differential operator. With the aid of these con- 
cepts, he was able to formulate and solve some fundamental 
problems in mathematical physics. Future development of 
these ideas of Sobolev led to the establishment of the theory of 
the so-called generalized functions. Sobolev also studied the 
properties of functional space. 

As of 1961, Sobolev was a Member of the Presidium, Siberi- 
an Branch U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, and Director of the 
Institute of Mathematics and Computation Center, Siberian 
Branch U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 
Bibliography: 

Some Uses of Functional Analysis in Mathematical Physics. 

Leningrad: 1950. 

Equations of Mathematical Physics, 3rd ed. Moscow: 1954. 

Formulae for mechanical curvatures in n-dimensional space. 

Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 137, #3, 527-30 (1961). 

The interpolation of functions of n-variables. Doklady Akad. 

Nauk S.S.S.R. 137, #4, 778-81 (1961). 

Cube formulae on a sphere, invariants in reformed finite 

groups of isolation. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 146, #2, 

310-13 (1962). 

Number of formula branches on a sphere. Doklady Akad. 

Nauk S.S.S.R. 146, #4, 770-73 (1962). 
Office: Moscow University 

Moscow, USSR 



SOBOLEV 364 

SQBOLEV, V^LADIMIR STEPANQVICH (Petrographer and 
Mineralogist) 

V. S. Sobolev was born May 30, 1908 in the city of Lugansk 
and spent his childhood in Vinnitsa. In 1930, he graduated from 
the Leningrad Mining Institute. In 1936, his monograph, * Pet- 
rology of the Traprocks of the Siberian Plateau" was accepted 
as his doctoral dissertation, and he received the title of pro- 
fessor. In 1951, he was elected Corresponding Member of the 
Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, and on March 28, 1958, he was 
elected Academician of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He 
is currently a member of the Council and the Editorial Council 
of the Lvov Geological Society. He received a Stalin Prize in 
1949. 

Sobolev started his research as a student first in 1928 in the 
Geological Committee and then in the Central Scientific Re- 
search Institute of Geological Survey and the All -Union Geo- 
logical Scientific Research Institute. He began his investi- 
gations in the Ukraine in 1936 and continued them in 1945, 
following his transfer to the University of Lvov. He has been 
teaching since 1931. In 1931-41 and 1942-45, he was employed 
by the Leningrad Mining Institute and in 1939 was made pro- 
fessor. He also taught in the University of Irkutsk from 1941- 
45. From 1943 to 1945, he served as Director of the Mineral- 
ogy Department of the Leningrad Mining Institute and as Di- 
rector of the Fedorov Institute. In 1945, he joined the University 
of Lvov as chairman of the Petrography Department. In 1947, 
he began working at the Institute of the Geology of Minerals in 
the Ukrainian S.S.R. in Lvov. 

Sobolev is the author of over 100 scientific papers dealing 
chiefly with three subjects: petrography and mineralogy of 
Siberia, petrography and mineralogy of the Ukraine, and theo- 
retical aspects of mineralogy and petrography. He has devoted 
many years to the study of the traprock of the Siberian Plateau. 
He demonstrated that the formation of various rock minerals is 
associated with the crystallization differentiation whose sensi- 
tive index is the FeO:MgO ratio. His study of the mineralogy 
of Siberia gave the first description of a rare paragenesis of 
the contact calcium silicates — spurrite, merwinite, cuspidine. 
In addition, he has discovered and described the magnetite de- 
posits in the Ilimpeya River. 

In his monograph on traprock, Sobolev furnished a survey of 
the corresponding formations of the earth's crust, stressing the 
similarity of the Siberian plateau geology to that of the Karoo 
plateau (South Africa). This analogy became more conclusive 



365 SOBOLEV 

when in 1937, having analyzed some petrographic samples col- 
lected by N. N. Urvantsev from the Taimir Peninsula, he suc- 
ceeded in finding a unique basic rock resembling the ultrabasic 
type. He concluded that this rock may be an analog of the South 
African basic formations (melitite basalts) which accompany 
the kimberlites. He also advanced the hypothesis concerning 
the diamond-bearing potential of the northern Siberian plateau. 
This hypothesis was confirmed first through the study conduct- 
ed jointly with A. P. Burov of the geology of diamond deposits 
in foreign countries, and by the discovery of extensive areas of 
basic vulcanic rocks in Khatangi District. Rock samples from 
this district were collected by members of the Arctic Institute 
Expedition and tested by G. G. Moor in consultation with Sobo- 
lev, whereupon Moor confirmed the hypothesis on the occurrence 
of diamonds. In his report for 1940 to Gosplan S.S.S.R. (State 
Planning Committee of the U.S.S.R. Council of Ministers) he 
wrote: "The Siberian plateau has the greatest coincidence with 
the kimberlite deposits of South Africa. This coincidence is 
amplified even more by the discovery by the author, on the 
Taymir Peninsula, and by G. G. Moor (in consultation with the 
author) in the Khatangi River area, of basic rocks of the lim- 
burgite, augite, and alnoite type, resembling the South African 
melitite basalts which accompany kimberlites. Each expedition 
operating in the northern Siberian plateau should give serious 
attention to prospecting for diamonds. It is especially im- 
portant to diamond prospecting in the active placers of precious 
metals in the Norilsk area and in Vilyuy." Thus, V. S. Sobolev 
predicted the location of diamond kimberlites not only in the 
northern Siberian plateau generally, but also in the Vilyuy area 
in particular. 

After the discovery .of kimberlites, Sobolev was invited to 
take part in the expedition. He paid visits to diamond deposits 
(1955), advised in petrographic and mineralogical analysis of 
the materials, and jointly with A. ^P. Burov served as the scien- 
tific editor of the first book on diamonds in Siberia. 

Of Vladimir Stepanovich's writings on the petrography of the 
Ukrainian S.S.R.,one must mention first of all the monograph 
on the petrology of the complex Korosten pluton which he feels 
to have a direct connection with the petrology of traprock for- 
mations. In this book the author once again stresses the im- 
portance of the study of femic minerals of magmatic rocks. He 
distinguishes the most important differences between the plateau 
type of granites and those of folded areas, which are the result 
of varying ferruginosity in femic minerals. He was the first to 



SOBOLEV 366 

find basic syenites and new deposits of piezo-electric crystals 
in this region of the Ukraine. 

In post-war years, Sobolev has devoted much of his time to 
the study of young volcanic rocks in the Carpathian Mountains. 
Explorations in this region are being conducted jointly with a 
group of his students. In his writings on the mineralogy and 
petrology of the Ukrainian S.S.R. he described the ultra- 
basic rocks of Transcarpathia and established, within the meta- 
morphic complex of this region, the occurrence of diaphtoresis; 
he has described a new find of pumpellyite from the Carpathian 
Mountains, pointing out the identity of this mineral to lotrite 
and others. 

Sobolev is not only a petrographer but a mineralogist as 
well. He has published since 1944 a series of articles on the 
theoretical mineralogy of silicates, and in 1949 a book entitled 
Introduction to the Mineralogy of Silicates which was awarded a 
Stalin Prize, Second Class. In this treatise he attempted to 
make an interrelationship between the properties and genesis 
of minerals, on the one hand, and silicates and their crystal 
structure on the other. He has established a connection between 
the difference in ionic radii in isomorphic series and the type 
of fusibility curves; substantiated A. E. Fersman's ideas re- 
specting the regularity of isomorphism; determined the re- 
lationship between the change in the coordinate number of alumi- 
num during mineral formation and the physico-chemical 
equilibrium factors; clarified the relationship between the opti- 
cal properties of silicates, including their color, and their 
structure. Moreover, he has generalized the data of paragene- 
sis of igneous rocks in the form of multi -fascicular diagrams. 

Certain structural features of various silicates, which had 
been predicted by V. S. Sobolev on the basis of mechanisms 
which he had evolved, have been verified by X-ray analysis. 
Thus, for example, the investigations conducted by N. V. Belov 
and I. M. Rumanova have corroborated his hypothesis concern- 
ing both the six-fold coordination of aluminum in epidote and 
the presence of a diortho group in the latter. Studies by 
Chinese authors have supported his hypothesis concerning the 
two types of coordination of aluminum in prehnite and others, 
ite and others. 

Maintaining in his studies that hydroxyl in many silicates 
cannot substitute oxygen in oxysilicic tetrahedrons, V. S. Sobo- 
lev proposed in this connection a new way of computing the 
crystallo- chemical formulas of water -containing silicates. In 
1949, he was the first to advance the hypothesis concerning the 



367 SOBOLEV 

substitution of the potassium ion in micas with the oxonium ion. 
Sobolev has written a number of articles on theoretical pet- 
rography: metamorphism, formation of igneous rocks, granit- 
ization, genesis of lamprophyres, mineral formation at oriented 
pressure. He stresses the importance of studying femic miner- 
als of rocks and proposes certain simplified diagrams which 
facilitate the approximate determination of biotite and horn- 
blende (by their optical properties) in granitoids. Of special 
value are the tables of optical orientation of minerals which 
have been published as a supplement to the text Fedorov Method. 
Bibliography: 

Petrology of the Siberian Platform. Leningrad: 1936 (Trudy 

Arktich. Inst., 43). 

Introduction to the Mineralogy of Silicates. Lvov: 1949. 

Geology of Diamond Fields of Africa, Australia, Borneo and 

North America. Moscow: 1951. 

The Fedorov Method. Moscow-Leningrad: 1954. 

and others. Petrography of Non-molten Laval Types of the 

Soviet Carpathian Mountains. Kiev: 1955. 
Office: Institute of Geology of Minerals 

Ulitsa Kopernika 15 
L'vov, Ukrainian SSR 

SOBOLEV, VICTOR VICTQROV^ICH (Astronomer) 

V. V. Sobolev was born September 2, 1915. In 1938 he gradu- 
ated from Leningrad University. From 1941 he worked there, 
becoming a professor in 1948. He was elected, in 1958, a 
Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

Sobolev has worked in theoretical astrophysics. He has been 
concerned with physics of non- stationary stars and the theory 
of radiative transfer. He presented a theory on the luminosity 
of moving media, with the help of which he established the physi- 
cal relationship of giant stars of early and late spectrum class- 
es. He laid the basis for the theory of a non- stationary radi- 
ation field. He put forth a theory of shape of spectrum lines 
with consideration of frequency redistribution. 

Sobolev' s works are also concerned with the physics of 
gaseous mistiness, and investigation of planetary atmospheres. 
Bibliography: 

Moving Envelopes of Stars. Leningrad: 1947. (Harvard 

University Press, 1960). 

and others . Course on Astrophysics and Stellar Astronomy 

(A. A. Mikhailov, ed.) Moscow-Leningrad: 1951. 



SOTCHAVA 368 

and others . Theoretical Astrophysics (A. A. Ambartsumian, 
ed.) Moscow -Leningrad: 1952. (Pergamon Press, 1958) 
Transfer of Radiant Energy in the Atmospheres of Stars and 
Planets. Moscow: 1956. 
Office: Leningrad University 

Leningrad, USSR 

SOTCHAVA, VIKTOR BQRISQVICH (Geobotanist and 
Geographer) 

V. B. Sotchava was born June 20, 1905. In 1924, he graduat- 
ed from the Leningrad Agricultural Institute where he worked 
until 1926. From 1926 to 1936, and since 1943, he has been 
working at the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Botanical Insti- 
tute. He worked, in 1931-1935, at the Institute of Reindeer 
Breeding at the Lenin All-Union Academy of Agricultural Sci- 
ences. From 1935 to 1938, he was Chairman of the Department 
of Reindeer Breeding of the Arctic Institute. He taught at the 
A. I. Gertsen Pedagogical Institute in Leningrad from 1939 to 
1950. Since 1938, he has been teaching at Leningrad University 
where he became a professor in 1944. He has been the recipi- 
ent of several medals and the Order of Lenin. In 1958, he was 
elected to the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences as a Corresponding 
Member. 

Sotchava has studied vegetation, landscapes of various zones 
of the U.S.S.R. Beginning in 1926, he took part in expeditions 
to the Far North, the Far East, Siberia, Urals, Caucasus, 
Carpathians, Moldavia and China, Rumania and Czechoslovakia. 
In a series of botanical-geographical outlines, he presented data 
on the vegetation of previously unexplored territories such as 
basins of the Anadyr, the Penzhin, and North Sikhote-Alin. He 
studied pastures of the Tundra zone, proposed some measures 
for organizing a food base for Soviet reindeer breeding. He 
studied the relationship between the forest and Tundra vege- 
tation. He proposed a scheme of classifying vegetation based 
on ecologo -geographical and genetic factors and developed 
principles of classification of geobotanical and landscape sec- 
tions. He published a summary work on the forest vegetation 
of the U.S.S.R. A series of his works deal with questions of 
paleography and the history of contemporary vegetation of the 
Far East, of polar countries, the Caucasus, of North and 
Central Siberia. He directed the compilation of a series of 
maps, the main among which is the "Geobotanical Map of the 
U.S.S.R." (scale 1/4,000,000) and the explanatory text to it. 



369 SOTCHAVA 

Since 1950 Sotchava has been working out theoretical and 
methodical aspects of vegetation mapping and problems of 
comprehensive mapping of geographical environment. These 
problems were elucidated in several articles and reports read 
in the U.S.S.R. and at international symposiums. In 1960 Sot- 
chava was honored with a silver medal of Pierre Fermat by the 
Academy of Sciences, Inscriptions and Literature in Toulouse 
(Academie des sciences, inscriptions et belles-lettres de Tou- 
louse). 

As of 1960, Sotchava has been Director of the Institute of 
Geography of Siberia and the Far East, Irkutsk, Siberian De- 
partment, U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He is also the Head 
of the Laboratory of the Geography and Cartography of the 
vegetation of the V. L. Komarov Institute of Botany of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, Leningrad. 
Bibliography: 

Das Anadyrgebiet. Botanisch-geographische Beobachtungen 
in aussersten Nordosten Asiens. Zeitschrift der Gesell- 
schaft fur Erdkunde zu Berlin, 1930, 7-8. 
Limits of forest in the mountains of the Lyapinskii Urals. 
Works of the Botanical Museum of the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences, 1930, 22. 

Over the tundras in the basin of Penjin inlet. Proceedings 
of the Geographical Society, 1932, 64, 4-5. 
The vegetation of the Burein mountain range to the north of 
Dulnikan pass. Transaction of the Council of the Study of 
Productivity Factors, the Far East series, 1934, 2. 
On the phylocoenogenetic systematics of vegetation associ- 
ation. Soviet Botany, 1944, I. 

Elements of the vegetation cover of the North Sikhote-Alin 
mountain range and their interrelations. Soviet Botany, 
1945, L 

Floragenesis and phylocoenogenesis of the Manchurian mixed 
forest. Materials on the History of the Flora and Vegetation 
of the U.S.S.R. (chief editor: V. L. Komarov), 2- 
Geographic connections of the vegetation on the territory of 
the U.S.S.R. Scientific Papers of the Leningrad State Peda- 
gogical Institute of A. I. Gertsen, 1948, 73. 
Newest vertical movements of the earth's crust and vege- 
tation. Geography, New Series, 1950, 3. 

Principles of phytogeographical subdivision ("rayonization"). 
Principles of Geography. Collection of Articles. Moscow - 
Leningrad: 1956. 



SOKOLOV 370 

and others. The Vegetational Cover of the U.S.S.R. Moscow- 
Leningrad: 1956, JL 

Vegetations classification, typology of physiographic facies 
and biogeocoenoses. Problems of Vegetation Classification. 
Sverdlovsk, 1961. (Transaction of the Institute of Biology of 
the Ural Branch of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, 27.) 
Mapping problems in geobotany. Principles and Methods of 
Vegetation Mapping. Moscow -Leningrad: 1962. 
Office: Botanical Institute of USSR Academy of Sciences 

ul. Prof. Popova, 2 

Leningrad 22, USSR 

SOKOLOV, BORIS SERGEEVICH (Geologist and Paleontologist) 
B. S. Sokolov was born April 9, 1914. After graduating from 
Leningrad University in 1937, he worked at the University. In 
1943 he began working at the AU-Union Scientific Research Oil 
Institute. Since 1958 he has been a Corresponding Member of 
the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

Geological investigations were conducted by Sokolov in the 
pre-Moscow basin and Tien Shan (until 1940), in middle and 
central Asia (1941-45), in various regions of the European 
section of the U.S.S.R. and on the Urals (1946-53), and in Si- 
beria (from 1956). He has studied the stratigraphy of Paleo- 
zoic and late pre-Cambrian regional and oil geology. In the 
area of paleontology he investigated Paleozoic corals, es- 
tablished the separation of tabulate corals as a particular sub- 
class of higher polyps, formulated their new phylogenetic sys- 
tem, and established their stratigraphic significance. 
Bibliography: 

Systematic s and history of the development of paleozoic 
corals anthozoa tabulata. Questions of Paleontology, I. 
(A. P. Bystrov, ed.) Leningrad: 1950. 
Chaetetida of the carboniferous of North Eastern Ukraine 
and adjacent territories. Leningrad-Moscow: 1950 (Works 
of the AU-Union Scientific Research Oil and Geologic Pros- 
pecting Institute, #27.) 

Tabulate coral of the paleozoic era in the European part of 
the U.S.S.R. Preface and Part I-IV. Leningrad-Moscow: 
1951-1955 (Works of the All-Union Scientific Research 
Geological Prospecting Institute, #48, 52, 58, 62, 85.) 
Age of the ancient sedimentary sheet of the Russian plat- 
form. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1952, #5. 



371 SOTSKOV 

and Yu. K. Dzevanovskii. On the stratigraphic position and 
age of sedimentary rock masses of late Pre -Cambrian. 
Soviet Geology, 1957, #55. 
Office: All- Union Scientific Research Oil Institute 

Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Millionnaya, 13 
Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: E3 52 88 

SOKOLOVSKII, VADIM VASIL'EVICH (Mechanical Engineer) 

V. V. Sokolovskii was born October 17, 1912. In 1933 he 
graduated from the Moscow Institute of Construction Engineers. 
From 1936 to 1939 he worked at the Mathematics Institute, and 
since 1939, at the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Institute of 
Mechanics. He became a professor in 1940. He was awarded, 
in 1943 and in 1952, Stalin Prizes. Since 1956 he has been a 
member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. In 1946 
he was elected a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Acade- 
my of Sciences. 

The main works of Sokolovskii are devoted to the theory of 
shells, statics of a loose medium and to theory of plasticity. 
He obtained solutions to many problems of plane deformed con- 
ditions such as compression of plastic masses, pressing in of 
punches, drawing of plastic strips. He developed the theory of 
a plane plastic tense condition, and proposed new methods for 
solving problems of plasticity in an analytical form. He de- 
veloped a general method which allows solution of the main 
problems of plane terminal equilibrium of loose and cohesive 
media (the supporting power of bases, the form of stable slopes, 
pressure on bulkheads). 
Bibliography: 

Statics of a Loose Medium. Moscow-Leningrad: 1942; 2nd 

ed., Moscow-Leningrad: 1954. 

Theory of Plasticity, 2nd ed. Moscow -Leningrad: 1950. 
Office: Institute of Mechanics of USSR Academy of Sciences 

Leningradskii Prospekt, 7 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: B. Cheremushkinskaya 6/1 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: B3 10 76 

SOTSKOV, BORIS STEPANOVICH (Automation Specialist) 

B. S. Sotskov was born in 1908. In 1931 he graduated from 
the Military Technical Academy. From 1931 to 1938, he was 



SPERANSKII 372 

laboratory Chief, senior instructor, and departmental Chairman 
of the Military Electro-technical Academy in Leningrad. He 
was docent, 1938-42, at the Leningrad Polytechnical Institute. 
From 1942 to 1960, he held positions as senior scientific 
worker, laboratory supervisor and deputy Director respective- 
ly of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Institute of Automation 
and Remote Control where he became Chief ol the Laboratory 
in 1960. In the same year he was elected to the U.S.S.R. Aca- 
demy of Sciences as a Corresponding Member. 

Sotskov's principal work has been in the field of elemental 
and technical media of automation and remote control. 

Sotskov visited the United States in November 1961 to study 
automatic controls. 
Bibliography: 

On the dimensions of electromagnetic elements. Automatika 
i Telemekhanika 19, #9, 849-54 (1958). Automation Express 
Ij 1958-1959, #6, p. 25. 

On the problem of reserve vacuum tubes of filament lamps. 
Automatika i Telemekhanika 19, #12, 1126-28 (1958). Auto- 
mation Express 1, 1958-1959, #6, p. 32. 
The problem of dimension of electromagnetic elements in 
automatics and remote control. Automatika i Telemekhanika 
19, #9, 849-54 (1958). Engineering Index, 1959, p. 752. 
Automation and Remote Control 19, 830-4 (1958) (Eng. 
trans.) 

Reliability characteristics of resistance and condensors in 
automatics and remote control. Automation and Remote Con- 
trol 21, #5, 439-42 (1960) (Eng. trans.) Engineering Index, 
1960, p. 375. 

Temperature stability and probable significance of strength 
and tension on a collector for crystal triodes. Automatika i 
Telemekhanika 20, #11, 1525-27 (1959). 
Office: Institute of Automation and Telemechanics 

Kalanchevskaya Ulitsa 15 -a 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Novopeschanaya, 3 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: D7 20 48 

SPERANSKII, GEORGI NESTOROVICH (Pediatrician) 

G. N. Speranskii was born February 20, 1873. He graduated 
from the University of Moscow in 1898 and worked there until 
1909. In 1934 he was awarded the title Honored Scientist of the 
R.S. F.S.R., and Hero of Socialist Labor in 1957. He was elected 



373 SPITSYN 

to the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences as a Corresponding Mem- 
ber in 1943, and became an active member of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Medical Sciences in 1944. 

Speranskii founded in 1910 the first hospital in Moscow (with 
a clinic, consultation and milk kitchen) for infants. From 1922, 
he carried out his scientific work at the Central Scientific Re- 
search Institute for the care of mothers and infants; directed 
that institute (which later was reorganized into the Institute of 
Pediatrics) from 1925-30. At the same time he was president 
of the Central Institute for the Advancement of Doctors and in 
1934 became professor there. 

Speranskii' s work is devoted to acute and chronic disturb- 
ances, digestion and acute gastric ailments in young children. 
He applied rational diethotherapy for dysentery. He devoted 
much time to the problem of pneumonia, grippe and septic s in 
the newborn. He has also worked on pathology in older child- 
ren, particularly rheumatism. He has organized and partici- 
pated in many conferences on pediatricians, and has published 
numerous articles on this subject. 
Bibliography: 

and A. S. Rosenthal. The study of septic s in children of an 
early age. Problems of Pediatrics. Moscow: 1947 (News 
of Medicine, #6). 

Dysentery in children of pre -school age (clinical, pathogene- 
sis and treatment). Problems of Prophylactics and the 
Treatment of Dysentery. Moscow: 1952. 
and A. S. Rosenthal. Chronic Nutritive Disturbances in 
Young Children (hypothrophy I, II, III). Moscow: 1953. 
Biography: 

G. N. Speranskii. Problems of Pediatrics, 1951. Collection 
of works devoted to 50 years of scientific pedagogy and 
social activity. 
Office: Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR 

Solyanka 14 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: ul. Chaplygina, 22 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: K7 03 64 

SPITSYN, VIKTOR IVANQVICH (Chemist) 

V. I. Spitsyn was born April 25, 1902. He graduated from 
Moscow University and taught there until 1931. In 1932 he was 
made professor at the K. Liebknecht Moscow Pedagogical Insti- 
tute and in 1942 he became professor at Moscow University. 



SPIVAKOVSKII 374 

He was appointed, in 1949, Chief of the Laboratory of Bio- 
chemistry of the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences, and in 1953, Director of this Institute. In 
1941 he became a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet 
Union. He was a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Acade- 
my of Sciences from 1946 until 1958 when he was elected an 
Academician. 

Spitsyn's main investigations are in the chemistry of rare 
elements and in radiochemistry. He showed the reversibility 
of reactions of chlorination of oxides at high temperature and 
determined the cause of "sublimation" of some oxides in the 
atmosphere of chlorine or hydrogen chloride. He investigated 
thermal stability of alkaline salts of some oxyacids such as 
tungstates and sulfate, and their volatility in various gaslike 
media. He investigated the chemistry of heteropoly compounds, 
and utilized "tagged atoms" in this investigation. 

In March 1958, Spitsyn visited the United States to attend the 
International Atomic Exposition in Chicago, Illinois. 
Bibliography: 

On the reduction of tungstates. Zhur. Fiz. Khim., 1926, 58, 

#3-4, 474-490. 

Das Chlorieren von Oxyden und ihren Gemischen mit Kohlen- 

stoff. Leipzig: 1930. 

Establishment of the Soviet Beryllium Industry. Rare 

Metals, 1933, #5. 

Soviet Chemistry Today. Washington, D. C. Academy of 

Sciences. 1961. 

and others . Techniques in the use of Radioactive Indicators. 

Moscow: 1955. 

Use of tagged atoms for study of the structure of some 

aquopoly- and heteropoly compounds. Zhur. Neorg. Khim., 

1956, 1, #3. 
Office: Institute of Physical Chemistry of USSR Academy of 

Sciences 
Leninskii Prospekt, 31 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Leninskii Prospekt, 13 

Moscow, USSR 
TelepJione: B2 43 75 

SPIVAKOVSKII, ALEKSANDR ONISIMQVICH (Transport 
Engineer) 
A. O. Spivakovskii was born January 29, 1888. In 1917 he 
graduated from Petrograd Polytechnical Institute. In 1919 he 



375 SRETENSKII 

taught at the Dnepropetrovsk Polytechnical Institute and from 
1921 to 1923 at the Dnepropetrovsk Mining Institute. In 1933 he 
became a professor at the Moscow Mining Institute. Since 
1949, he has been working at the Moscow Mining Institute of 
the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He became a member of the 
Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1941. He was elected, 
in 1946, a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences. He was awarded a Stalin Prize in 1947. 

Spivakovskii has worked in mining transportation. Together 
with others he participated in improving scraper conveyers 
and methods of transporting coal in long drifts in the mines of 
the Donbas (Stalin Prize 1947). 
Bibliography: 

Conveyer Units (4 parts, 1933-35). 

Conveyers (Transport Machines of Continuous Action). 

Moscow-Leningrad: 1941. 

Mining Transport, 1949. (Translated into Chinese, Czech, 

Bulgarian, Hungarian and Rumanian.) 

and N. F. Rudenko. Lifting and Transport Machines. Gener- 
al Course. Moscow: 1949. 

Cable Conveyers. Moscow: 1951. 
Office: Moscow Mining Institute of USSR Academy of 

Sciences 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Kutuzovskii Prospekt, 27 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: G9 36 72 

SRETENSKII, LEONID NIKOLAEVICH (Mathematician) 

L. N. Sretenskii was born February 27, 1902. In 1923 he 
graduated from Moscow University where he became a pro- 
fessor in 1934. In 1936, he was granted the degree of Doctor of 
Physico -Mathematical Sciences. From 1931 to 1941, he worked 
at the Central Aero-Hydrodynamics Institute. In 1951, he start- 
ed to work at the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Marine Hydro- 
physical Institute. He was elected, in 1939, a Corresponding 
Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

The main works of Sretenskii deal with the theory of liquid 
wave movements, the tidal waves, waves of terminal amplitude, 
ship waves, and oscillation of liquid in containers. He has in- 
vestigated the theory of figures of equilibrium of a rotating 
liquid, streamlining by gas flow, the movement of a heavy solid 
body around a fixed point, specific equations of mathematical 



STARIK 376 

physics, integral equations and differential geometry. Sreten- 
skii's work has been applied in shipbuilding, geophysics and 
applied marine science. 
Bibliography: 

Theory of Wave Movements of a Liquid. Moscow-Leningrad: 

1936. 

Theory of Newton's Potential. Moscow-Leningrad: 1946. 

Theory of tides of long periods. Izvest. Akad. Nauk, Georg. 

i Geofiz. Ser., 1947, 11, #3. 

Movement of a gyroscope of Goryachev-Chapligin. Izvest. 

Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Otdel Tekh. Nauk, 1953, #1, 109-119. 

Space problem of settled waves of terminal amplitude. Mos- 
cow University Vestnik, 1954, #5. (Series of Physico- 

Mathematical and Natural Sciences, #3.) 
Office: Marine Hydrophysics Institute of USSR Academy of 

Sciences 
Sadovaya Ulitsa 1 
Lyublino, Moscow Oblast', USSR 

STARIK, IQSIF EVSEEVICH (Chemist) 

I. E. Starik was born March 23, 1902. He was a student of 
V. L Vernadskii (1863-1945, biogeochemist) and V. G. Khlopin 
(1890-1950, chemist in radioactivity). After graduating from 
Moscow University in 1924, Starik worked at the Institute of 
Radium. In 1946 he became professor at Leningrad University 
and deputy Director of the Radium Institute of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences. Since 1946 he has been a Corresponding 
Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

The studies of Starik deal with the investigation of colloidal 
conditions of radioelements in connection with their absorption 
properties, determination of geological age by radioactive 
methods, the study of conditions for the migration of radio - 
elements and development of radiochemical analysis. 

As of 1961, Starik was Chairman of the Commission on 
Absolute Age of Geological Formations, U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences. 
Bibliography: 

Question of colloidal properties of polonium. Works of the 

State Institute of Radium, 1-2 . Leningrad: 1930-33. 

Radioactive Method of Determining Geologic Time. 

Leningrad-Moscow: 1938. 

radiochemical analysis. Analysis of Mineral F^w Materials. 

Leningrad: 1936. 



377 STECHKIN 

Form of occurrence and conditions of initial migration of 
radioelements in nature. Uspekhi Khim., 1943, 12, #4. 
Colloidal properties of polonium. Report. Izvest. Akad. 
Nauk S.S.S.R., Otdel. Khim, Nauk, 1956, #7. 
Role of secondary processes in determination of the age of 
rocks by radioactive methods. Geokhimiya, 1956, #5, 18-29. 
Condition of microquantities of radioelements in liquid and 
solid phases. Uspekhi Khim., 1957, 26, #4, 389-398. 
and Yu. A. Barbanel' . Investigation of several functions 
characterizing the state of substances in solution. Doklady 
Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 146, #6, 1352-55 (1962). 
Office: Commission on Absolute Age of Geological For- 

mations, USSR Academy of Sciences 

Leninskii Prospekt, 14 

Moscow, USSR 

STECHKIN, BORIS SERGEEVICH (Heat and Aeronautical 
Engineer) 

B. S. Stechkin was born July 24, 1891. In 1918 he graduated 
from Moscow Higher Technical School. He was a student of 
N. E. Zhukovskii, the founder of Russian aviation, and with him 
helped found the Central Aerodynamic Institute. Stechkin is 
one of the organizers of the Aeronautical Engineers' Academy 
in Moscow where he became a professor in 1921. From 1918 
to 1929 he also taught at the Moscow Higher Technical School 
and from 1933 to 1937 at the Moscow Aviation Institute. In 1954 
he was made Director of the Engine Laboratory of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences. He was elected a Corresponding Member 
of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences in 1946, and in 1953 an 
Academician. 

Stechkin calculated the heat balance for aviation engines and 
developed methods for constructing aviation engines with rapid 
and cool characteristics. He derived formulae for the calcu- 
lation of air intake in aircraft engines, and for defining the 
coefficient of air filling and indicator of useful work of aircraft 
engines. In 1929, he published "A Theory of Jet Engines" which 
presented a theory of jet propulsion. In technology, he further 
improved the theory of jet engines and facilitated the develop- 
ment of their characteristics. 
Bibliography: 

Aviation Engines, I. Moscow: 1922. 

On the heat calculus of engines. Air Force Technology, 

1927, #2. 



STRAKHOV 378 

A Conspectus of Lectures on the Theory of Turbo - 
Compressors. Moscow: 1944. 
Biography: 

Akademik B. S. Stechkin. Air Force Journal, 1954, #2. 
Office: Laboratory of Motors of USSR Academy of Sciences 

Krasnoproletarskaya Ulitsa, 32 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Leninskii Prospekt, 13 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: B2 54 96 

STRAKHOV, NIKOLAI MIKHAILOVICH (Geologist) 

N. M. Strakhov was born April 15, 1900. In 1928 he gradu- 
ated from Moscow University. He began working in 1934 at the 
Geological Institute of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. In 1953 
he was made a member of the main editorial staff of the Bol' - 
shaya Sovetskaye Entsykl. (Great Soviet Encyclopedia). He was 
elected a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences in 1946, and in 1953 an Academician. In 1948 he was 
awarded a Stalin Prize. 

Strakhov' s scientific activity is in the field of modern de- 
posits, ancient sedimentary rock— iron ore, lime-dolomitic 
rocks, oil shale, halogen deposition, and of the geochemistry of 
iron, manganese, phosphorus, vanadium, chromium, nickel, and 
a series of other elements. Continuing the work of his teacher, 
A. D. Arkhangel' skii (1879-1940, geologist, professor at Mos- 
cow University, and Academician), Strakhov developed and es- 
tablished a comparative method of analysis in lithology. A 
study of contemporary reservoirs (Black and Caspian Seas, 
Lake Aral, Balkash and others) was made and an exact analysis 
of contemporary sedimentation was presented. He studied the 
role of diagenesis in the formation of sedimentary rock. He 
published monographs on iron ore and lime-dolomitic species 
of modern and ancient reservoirs and discovered new regulari- 
ties in the formation of iron and carbonate rocks. He defined 
the characteristics of sedimentation by the main structural 
units of the earth's crust— platforms, geosynclines and the fore- 
most depressions. He suggested a scheme of irreversible evo- 
lution in sedimentary rock formation during the history of the 
earth, and indicated three important stages: Pre-Cambrian, 
the Proterozoic-lower Paleozoic, and the modern (from the 
Devonian to the present). In addition, he associated the peri- 
odic recurrence of similar rocks with the recurrence of major 
transgressions and regressions of the sea. Recently he 



379 STRELETSKII 

has advanced the idea that four types, ice, humid, arid and sedi- 
mentary, are involved in sedimentary rock formation. 

In 1960 Strakhov was awarded the Red Banner of Labor. 
Bibliography: 

Domanik Facies of Southern Urals. Moscow: 1939. 

Iron Ore Facies and Their Analogies in the Earth's History. 

Moscow: 1947. 

Basis of Historical Geology, 3rd ed., 2 parts, 1948. 

Lime -Dolomi tic Facies of Contemporary and Ancient Basins. 

Moscow: 1951. 

Historico-geological types of sediment deposition. Izvest. 

Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. Geol., 1946, #2. 

On the periodic and irreversible evolution of sedimentation 

in the history of the earth. Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. 

Geol., 1949, #6. 

and others . Sediment Deposition in Contemporary Basins. 

Moscow: 1954. 

Types of sedimentation, and formation of sedimentary rocks. 

Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. Geol., 1956, #5 and #8. 

On theoretical lithology and its problems. Izvest. Akad. 

Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. Geol., 1957, #11. 
Office: Geological Institute of USSR Academy of Sciences 

Pyzhevskii Pereulok, 7 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Novopeschanaya, 3 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: D7 51 78 

STRELETSKH, NIKOLAI STANISLAVOVICH (Structural 
Engineer) 

N. S. Streletskii was born September 14, 1885. In 1911 he 
graduated from the Petersburg Institute of Engineers of Com- 
munication Lines. In 1915 he taught at the Moscow Technologi- 
cal College where he became a professor in 1918. In 1933 he 
was made a professor at the Moscow Institute of Construction 
Engineers. He has been a member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Construction and Architecture since 1956, and was elected to 
the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences as a Corresponding Member 
in 1931. In 1944 he was awarded the title of Honored Scientist 
of the R.S.F.S.R. 

In 1918-30 Streletskii organized and directed experi- 
mental investigations of bridge structures. He is the author of 
a static theory of the construction safety factor, the study of 
processes of destruction of steel structures and other questions 



STRELKOV 380 

of supporting power of structures as a whole. He has developed 
theories of calculating structures and established a scientific 
basis for standardization of transportation and industrial struc- 
tures. 
Bibliography: 

Methods of Calculating Non-Prop Beams with Parallel Belts 

and a Junction Load. St. Petersburg: 1913. 

Laws on Changing of Weight on Metal Bridges. Moscow: 

1926. 

New Ideas and Opportunities in Industrial Metal Con- 
struction. Moscow -Leningrad: 1934. 

Course on Bridges. Metal Bridges, Part 1-2. Moscow: 

1931. 

and others. Course on Metal Construction, Part 1-3. 

Moscow -Leningrad: 1940-44. 

Basic premises in standardizing bridge constructions on the 

U.S.S.R. ways of communication. Questions of Standardizing 

Bridge Constructions, 1. Moscow: 1953. 
Biography: 

Nikolai Stanislavovich Streletskii. Moscow: 1946 (contains 

list of works of Streletskii). 

Nikolai Stanislavovich Streletskii (Anniversary of the scien- 
tist). Prikl. Mekhanika, 1956, 2, #2. 
Office: Academy of Construction and Architecture USSR 

Pushkinshaya Ulitsa, 24 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: M. Levshinskii p. 14 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: G6 60 42 

STRELKOV, PETR GEQRGIEVICH (Physicist) 

P. G. Strelkov was born in 1899. In 1924 he graduated from 
Leningrad Industrial Institute. He was engaged in scientific re- 
search, 1923-26, in Leningrad, and in 1936-56 he was a senior 
scientific worker and then laboratory supervisor at the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences Institute of Physical Problems. From 
1956 to 1959 he was deputy Director and subsequently labora- 
tory supervisor of the AU-Union Institute of Physico -Technical 
and Radiotechnical Measurements of the Commission on Mea- 
surements and Measuring Instruments. In 1959 he became a 
departmental Chairman of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences 
Siberian Branch Institute of Thermal Physics. He was elected, 
in 1960, a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences. In 1943 he was the recipient of a Stalin Prize. 



381 STRUMINSKII 

Strelkov's works are primarily concerned with research in 

thermal and molecular processes. 

Bibliography: 

and S. I. Novikova. Thermal expansion of silicon at low 
temp. Fiz. tverdogo Tela, 1, #12, 1841-3 (1959). Phys. Sci. 
Abstr. 63, 13494 (1960). 

and A. S. Borovik-Romanov, M. P. Qrlova. Magnetic and 
thermal properties of three modifications of solid oxygen. 
Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 99, 699-702 (1954). Nucl. Sci. 
Abstr. 14, 24715 (1960). 

and K. A. Karasharli. Thermodynamic investigations of 1,1- 
dicyclohexyldodecane, 1,1-diphenyldodecane, 1 -phenyl- 1- 
cyclohexyldodecane at low temperatures. Doklady Akad. 
Nauk S.S.S.R. 131, #3, 568-69 (1961). 

and A. S. Borovik-Romanov, M. P. Qrlova. Construction of 
a practical temperature scale in the range of 10-90° K. 
Technology of Measurements, #1, 34-35 (1960). 
and p. N. Astrov, M. P. Qrlov, D. I. Shaversaya. Collation 
of low temperature scales of platinum thermometer re- 
sistance. Technology of Measurements, #8, 29 (1959). 

Office: USSR Academy of Sciences 

Leninskii Prospekt, 14 
Moscow, USSR 

Residence: Vorob'evskoye Shosse, 2 
Moscow, USSR 

Telephone: B2 16 93 

STRUMINSKII, VLADIMIR V^ASIL'EVICH (Mechanical Engineer) 

V. V. Struminskii was born April 29, 1914. He graduated 
from Moscow University in 1938. In 1941 he began working at 
the Central Aero-Hydrodynamics Institute. He was elected, in 
1958, to the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences as a Corresponding 
Member. In 1947 and 1948 he received Stalin Prizes. 

Struminskii' s main works deal with aerodynamics. He 
formulated a theory of a boundary layer on a sliding wing 
(1946), the general theory of a non- stationary boundary layer 
(1948) and the general theory on three-dimensional boundary 
layer for an arbitrary surface (1952). 
Bibliography: 

Sideslip of the wing in a viscous and compressed gas. Dok- 
lady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1946, 54^ #9. 
Sideslip of a wing in a viscous liquid. Doklady Akad. Nauk 
S.S.S.R., 54; #7. 



STYRIKOVICH 382 

Theory of non steady- state boundary layer. Collection of 
Theoretical Works on Aerodynamics. Moscow: 1957. i 

and N. K. Lebed. Method of calculating the distribution of 
circulation along the span of an arrow wing. Collection of 
Theoretical Works on Aerodynamics. Moscow: 1957. 
Theory of a space boundary layer on a sliding wing. Col- 
lection of Theoretical Works on Aerodynamics. Moscow: 
1957. 
Office: Central Aero -Hydrodynamics Institute of USSR 

Academy of Sciences 
Moscow, USSR 

STYRIKOVICH, MIKHAIL ADQL'FQVICH (Heat Engineer) 

M. A. Styrikovich was born November 16, 1902. He gradu- 
ated in 1927 from the Leningrad Technological Institute. From 
1928 to 1945 he worked at the Leningrad Province Scientific 
Research Power Engineering Institute (now the Central Boiler- 
Turbine Institute). He has also worked at the Institute of Ener- 
getics of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences from 1938 and from 
1939 at the Moscow Institute of Energetics. Since 1946 he has 
been a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences. 

Styrikovich worked on diesel generator units and steam 
boiler processes and studied the movement of a steam mixture 
through pipes and the heat transfer to a boiling liquid under 
high pressure. He investigated the separation of steam and the 
solubility of salts in high pressure steam. Styrikovich assisted 
in establishing standards for heat and aerodynamic calculations 
of boiler units. 

In November 1962, Styrikovich was awarded the Order of the 
Red Banner of Labor. 
Bibliography: 

and others. Course on Steam Boilers. Part 1-2. Leningrad- 
Moscow: 1934-39. 

Hydrodynamics and heat exchange in steam boilers and their 
influence on the internal boiler physico-chemical processes. 
Internal Boiler Physico-Chemical Processes. Moscow- 
Leningrad: 1951. 

Internal Boiler Processes. Moscow-Leningrad: 1954. 
and others. Generation of Steam of Super High Parameter. 
Moscow: 1950. 

Working Processes of Continuously Operating Coil Boilers 
of Super High Pressure (Report). Moscow: 1956. 



383 SUBBOTIN 

Biography: 

On the 50th Anniversary of the Corresponding Member of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, M. A. Styrikovich. Boiler- 
Turbine Construction, 1953, #1. 
Office: USSR Academy of Sciences 

Leninskii Prospekt, 14 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Leninskii Prospekt, 13 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: B2 43 99 

SUBBOTIN, MIKHAIL FEDQROVICH (Astronomer) 

M. F. Subbotin was born June 28, 1893. In 1914, he gradu- 
ated from the University of Warsaw. In 1930, he became a 
professor at Leningrad University. From 1922 to 1930, he was 
Director of the Taskhent Observatory. He became, in 1942, the 
Director of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Institute of Theo- 
retical Astronomy. He was elected a Corresponding Member 
of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences in 1946. 

Subbotin has determined the orbits of planets and comets, in- 
vestigated the general properties of motion of n-bodies, and 
improved convergence of basic series used in celestial me- 
chanics. He is the author of a three volume Course on Celestial 
Mechanics (1933-49) in which all basic sections of celestial me- 
chanics were presented for the first time in the Russian lan- 
guage. 
Bibliography: 

Determination of singular points of the analytical function. 
Mathematical Collection, 1916, 30, #3, 402-433. 
New form of the equation of Euler -Lambert and its appli- 
cation in calculating orbits. Russian Astronomical Journal, 
1924, 1, #1. 

Sur le probleme des deux corps de masses variables. As- 
tron. Zhur., 1936, 13, #6. 

A new anomaly which contains as special cases the true and 
tangential anomalies. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1936, 
4, #4. 

The improvement of convergence of basic expansion of the 
theory of disturbed movement. Bulletin of the Institute of 
Theoretical Astronomy, 1947, 4, #1. 
Course on Celestial Mechanics, J^, 2nd ed. Leningrad- 
Moscow: 1941; 2-3 , Leningrad-Moscow: 1937-49. 



SUKACHYEV 384 

Astronomic and geodesic works of Gauss. Karl Friedrich 
Gauss. Collection of articles under the general editorship 
of Academician I. M. Vinogradov, Moscow, 1956 (241-310). 
Office: Institute of Theoretical Astronomy 

Universitetskaya Naberezhnaya, 5 

Leningrad, USSR 

SUKACHYEV, VLADIMIR NIKOLAEVICH (Botanist) 

V. N. Sukachyev was born June 7, 1880. He graduated from 
the Forestry Institute in Petersburg in 1902 and worked as an 
assistant at the University. From 1912 to 1918 he was a junior 
botanist at the Botanical Museum of the Petersburg Academy of 
Sciences. He was a professor at the Institute of Forestry (later 
Forest-Technical Academy) 1919-1941, at the Graphic Institute 
1918-1925, and at Leningrad University 1925-1941. In 1924 to 
1926, Sukachyev was Chairman of the Acclimatization Depart- 
ment of the Department of Geobotany, and in 1931 to 1933 of 
the Main Botanical Garden of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 
He moved to Moscow in 1944 and became Director of the Insti- 
tute of Forestry of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He was 
professor at the Moscow Forest-Technical Institute 1944-1948 
and at Moscow University 1948-1951. Sukachyev was elected a 
Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences in 
1920, and in 1943 an Academician. Since 1937 he has been a 
member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. In 1916 
he was a member -founder and then became President in 1946 
of the All Union Botanical Society. He has been President 
(1955) of the Moscow Society of Naturalists, and Honored Mem- 
ber of the All Union Botanical Society and the Geographic So- 
ciety of the U.S.S.R. The Geographical Society awarded him 
prizes four times, 1912, 1914, 1929, 1947. In 1951 he was 
awarded a Gold Medal of V. V. Dokuchaev by the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences. 

Sukachyev conducted many expeditions for studying the vege- 
tation of various regions of the country. He spent much time 
in studying swamps and worked out the theory of the formation 
of swamps which he presented in a book (Swamps: their For- 
mation, Development and Character, 1914). He also studied the 
vegetative cover, working in phytocoenology. In geography, Suka- 
chyev advocated a wide complex approach to the study of natural 
phenomena and in particular to vegetation. In paleo -botany, 
Sukachyev developed spore-pollen analysis for studying post- 
glacial and mid-glacial deposits of the U.S.S.R. In the study of 
forests, he proposed methods of characterization of types of 



385 SVETOVIDOV 

forests. He also has worked in systematics of wood (larch, 
birch, willow) and obtained a series of valuable sorts of willows. 
Scientific research on protective forest growing has been con- 
ducted under his leadership since 1949. He is the author of 
a series of textbooks and handbooks on dendrology, geobotany, 
the study of vegetation and especially on the study of the types 
of forests, and also work on some questions of Darwinism. 

In 1960 Sukachyev was named an Honored Scientist of the 
R. S. F.S. R. 

As of 1961, Sukachyev has been Chairman for the Study of 
the Quaternary Era, Moscow, Academy of Sciences U.S.S.R. 
Biography: 

V. B. Sochava . Creative path of V. N. Sukachyev and his 
role in the development of geobotany and study of the land- 
scale (on the 75th Anniversary since date of birth, and the 
55th Anniversary of scientific activity). Proceedings of the 
AU-Union Geographic Society, 1955, 87, #5. 
To Academician V. N. Sukachyev on the 75th Anniversary 
since the date of birth. Collection of Works on Geobotany, 
Forestry, Paleogeography and Flora. Moscow -Leningrad: 
1956. 
Office: Laboratory of Forest Studies of USSR Academy of 

Sciences 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Leninskii Prospekt, 13 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: V2 23 52 

SVETOVIDOV, ANATOLI NIKOLAEVICH (Ichthyologist) 

A. N. Svetovidov was born November 3, 1903. He graduated 
in 1925 from the Faculty of Fisheries of the Moscow Agri- 
cultural Academy of K. A. Timiryazev. In 1932 he began work 
at the Institute of Zoology of the Academy of Sciences U.S.S.R., 
Leningrad. He has been a doctor and professor since 1928 and 
a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences 
since 1953. 

Svetovidov' s work is concerned with the classification, 
morphology, geographical distribution, and historical origin 
of fish. 
Bibliography: 

Materials on classification and biology of umber of the Lake 
Baikal. Trudy of the Baikal Limnological Station, 1931, 1. 



SYRKIN 386 

Gadoid Fishes. Moscow -Leningrad: 1948. Fauna of the 

U.S.S.R., Fishes, Vol. IX, #4. 

Clupeoid Fishes. Moscow -Leningrad: 1952. Fauna of the 

U.S.S.R., Fishes, VoL II, #1. 

Materials on the structure of the brain of fishes. Pt. I. 

Codfish brain. Trudy Zoo. Inst. Akad. Nauk, 13, 1950. 

Pt. II. Structure of herring brain. Trudy Zoo. Inst. Akad. 

Nauk, 2J., 1955. 

SYRKIN, YAKOV KOVOVICH (Physical Chemist) 

Ya. K. Syrkin was born December 5, 1894. In 1919 he gradu- 
ated from the Ivanovo -Voznesensk Polytechnical Institute, 
where he taught as a professor beginning in 1925. Since 1931, 
Syrkin has been professor at the Institute of Fine Chemical 
Technology. While at Karpov Physico-Chemical Institute, he 
organized a department on molecular structure. From 1931 to 
1952, he was scientific chairman of this department. In 1943, 
he was elected to the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences as a Corre- 
sponding Member. He was awarded a Stalin Prize in 1943. 

The works of Syrkin are concerned with chemical thermo- 
dynamics, kinetics of reactions in solutions, the mechanism of 
Menshutkin reactions in solutions and in a gas phase, and in 
particular, the study of molecular structure and chemical 
bonds. He applied dipole moments in investigating molecular 
structure and measured dipole moments for 500 substances. 
He investigated mechanisms of chemical reactions with the aid 
of labeled atoms, and intermolecular interaction by dielectric 
polarization. 
Bibliography: 

and M. E. Dyatkina . Chemical Bonds and Structure of Mole- 
cules. Moscow-Leningrad: 1946. 

and I. I. Moiseev. Mechanisms of some reactions with par- 
ticipation of peroxides. Uspekhi Khim. 29, 425-69 (1960). 
C. A. 54, 17233c (1960). 

and G. N. Kartsev. Dipole moments of some organosilicon 
compounds. Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Otdel. Khim. Nauk, 
374-5 (1960). C. A. 54, 18000g (1960). 

and M. E. Dyatkina . Stereochemistry of bimolecular substi- 
tution in complex compounds. Zhur. Neorg. Khim. _4^ 1285- 
90 (1959). C. A. 54, 8183b (1960). 

and M. E. Djatkina. Contemporary state of quantum chemis- 
try. Chem. listy 54, 332-43 (I960) - A review. C. A. 54, 
12694 (1960). 



387 TALMUD 

and M. S. Kintenovo. Kinetics of alkylating 2 -acetyl- 
methylene -3 -ethyl benzthioazoline (as related to the problem 
of seven-membered active complexes). Doklady Akad. Nauk 
S.S.S.R. 146, #1, 100-01 (1962). 
Office: Karpov Physico-Chemical Institute of USSR Acade- 

my of Sciences 
Obukha Street, 10 
Moscow, USSR 

TALMUD, DAVID L'VOVICH (Physical Chemist). 

D. L. Talmud was born October 24, 1900. He graduated in 
1923 from the Odessa Chemical Institute, and until 1925 taught 
at the Odessa University. In 1930 he went to work at the Lenin- 
grad Institute of Chemical Physics. Beginning in 1934, he was 
at the Institute of Biochemistry, U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 
Talmud was elected in 1934 a Corresponding Member of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He has been a member of the 
Communist Party of the Soviet Union since 1940. In 1943 he 
received a Stalin Prize. 

Talmud worked in physical chemistry of surface layers and 
colloidal chemistry. He has also investigated the structure of 
protein. Along with his scientific theoretical investigations, 
Talmud has worked on problems connected with industry. 

Talmud is a member of the I. P. Pavlov Institute of Physi- 
ology, Leningrad, U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, as well as a 
member of the Institute of Biochemistry. 
Bibliography: 

"Morphological" transformations of globular albumins. Suc- 
cesses of Biological Chemistry (annual), 1, Moscow, 1950. 

Structure of Albumin. Moscow-Leningrad: 1940. 

and S. E. Bresler . Surface Phenomena. Moscow -Leningrad: 

1934. 

and S. E. Bresler. On nature of globular albumins. Doklady 

Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1944, 43, #7-8. 
Office: A. N. Bakh Institute of Biochemistry of USSR 

Academy of Sciences 
Leninskii Prospekt, 33 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Leninskii Prospekt, 13 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: B2 54 35 



TAMM 388 

TAMM, IGOR' EVGEN'EVICH (Physicist) 

I. E. Tamm was born July 8, 1895. He graduated from Mos- 
cow University in 1918 and then taught at several universities. 
From 1924 to 1941 and again in 1954, he was at Moscow Uni- 
versity. Beginning in 1934, he has worked at the Physics Insti- 
tute of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. Tamm was a Corre- 
sponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences from 
1933 until 1953 when he was elected an Academician. He was a 
Hero of Socialist Labor. In 1958 he received a Stalin Prize and 
also the Nobel Prize. All of Tamm's students are well known 
physicists and theoreticians. 

Tamm's theoretical investigations are in quantum mechanics 
and its applications, in radiation, in cosmic rays, and inter- 
action of nuclear particles. In 1932 he formulated a quantum 
theory on the scattering of light in solid bodies and developed 
the relativistic quantum mechanics theory of light scattering by 
electrons. In the quantum theory of metals, Tamm and S. P. 
Shubin gave a theory of the photoeffect in metals in 1931. In 
1932 he predicted the existence of special surface states of 
electrons on crystals known as the Tamm levels. In 1934 he 
developed mathematically a quantitative theory of nuclear forces 
based on exchange interaction of electrons and neutrinos. In 
1937 he and I. M. Frank worked out the theory of Cherenkov ef- 
fect, the radiation emitted by a rapidly moving electron. For 
this work he received the Nobel Prize. In 1945 he gave an ap- 
proximate method for calculating the interaction of nuclear 
elementary particles. Tamm, with A. D. Sakharov, proposed in 
1950 the utilization of an electric discharge in plasma, which is 
placed in a magnetic field, for obtaining a controlled thermo- 
nuclear reaction. Tamm is the author of a textbook. Basis of 
the Theory of Electricity (1929, 6th ed., 1956). 

Tamm has attended the Pugwash Conferences. 
Bibliography: 

Uber die Wechselwirkung der freien Elektronen mit der 

Strahlung nach der Diraschen Theorie des Elektrons und 

nach Quantenenlektrodynamik. Zeitschrift fur physik, 1930, 

Bd 62, #7-8. 

Uber eine mogliche Art der Elektronenbindung an Kristal- 

loberflachen. Physikalische Zeitschrift der Sowjetunion, 

1932, _1, #6. 

and S. Al'tshuler . Magnetic moment of the neutron. Doklady 

Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1934, 1, #8. 

Exchange forces between neutrons and protons and Fermi's 

theory. Priroda, 1934, 133, #3374. 



389 TANANAEV 

Radiation emitted by uniformly moving electrons. Journal 
of Physics, Moscow, 1939, 1, #5-6. 

Relativistic interaction of elementary particles. Journal of 
Physics, Moscow, 1945, 9, #6. 
Biography: 

V. L. Ginzburg and E. L. Feinberg. Igor Evgen'evich Tamm 
(On the 60th Anniversary since the date of birth). Uspekhi 
Fiz. Nauk, 1955, 56, #4 (contains list of works of Tamm). 
Academician Igor' Evgen'evich Tamm (On the 60th Anniver- 
sary since the date of birth). Zhur. Eksptl. i Teoret. Fiz., 
1955, 29, #1 (7). 
Office: P. N. Lebedev Physics Institute of USSR Academy 

of Sciences 
Leninskii Prospekt, 53 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Nab. Gor'kogo 4/22 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: B3 20 29 

TANANAEV, IVAN VLADIMIRIVICH (Chemist) 

I. V. Tananaev was born June 4, 1904. In 1925 he graduated 
from Kiev Polytechnical Institute where he continued to work 
until 1934. He was appointed, in 1939, Chief of the Laboratory 
and, in 1949, Chief of the Department in the Institute of General 
and Inorganic Chemistry of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 
From 1948 to 1954 he was Deputy Director of this Institute. In 
1942 he became a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet 
Union. He was a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. from 
1946 to 1958 when he became an Academician. 

Tananev worked primarily in the fields of analytical and in- 
organic chemistry, especially in the study of fluorides, ferro- 
cyanides of various metals, and also compounds or rare ele- 
ments. He applies the physico-chemical methods for solving 
problems of analytical chemistry. 

In May 1960, Tananaev visited the United States and was at 
the National Bureau of Standards on an exchange program. 
Bibliography: 

On the solubility in an ice region in a triple system KF - HF 

- H2O. Proc. Acad. Sci. U.S.S.R., Sect. Phys. & Chem. 

Anal., 1941, 14. 

Physico-chemical Analysis in Analytical Chemistry. Proc. 

Acad. Sci. U.S.S.R., Sect. Phys. & Chem. Anal., 1950, 20. 



TATARINOV 390 

Kurnakov Physico- Chemical Analysis in Analytical Practice. 
Trudy Vsesoyuzn Knof. po Anal. Khim., L Moscow- 
Leningrad: 1939. 

Investigation of the system K2PdCl4-KIH20 according to the 
method of light absorption. Zhur. Anal. Khim., 1948, 3, #5. 
with N. V. Bausova. Study of chemistry of fluorides of galli- 
um and their utilization for separating gallium from other 
metals. Khim. Redkikh EL, #2. Moscow: 1950. 
Biography: 

Ivan Vladimirovich Tananaev (to the 50th Anniversary since 
date of birth). Zhur. Anal. Khim., 1954, 9, #4. 
Office: N. S. Kurnakov Institute of General Chemistry, 

USSR Academy of Sciences 
Leninskii Prospekt, 31 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: 1-aya Cheremushkinskaya 3 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: B7 56 81 

TATARINOV, PAVEL MIKHAILOVICH (Geologist) 

P. M. Tatarinov was born November 6, 1895. He graduated 
in 1925 from the Leningrad Mining Institute. In 1924-49, he 
worked in the Geological Committee (The All- Union Scientific 
Research Geological Institute) and in 1954 he began working 
there again. He went to teach at the Leningrad Mining Institute 
in 1930 and in 1940 was made professor. Since 1953 he has 
been a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences. 

Tatarinov has studied ore deposits and non-metallic indus- 
trial minerals of the U.S.S.R., particularly of the Urals. 
Bibliography: 

Materials for Knowledge of the Deposits of Chrysotile- 
Asbestos of the Bazhenovsk Region of the Urals. Leningrad: 
1928 (Works of the Geological Committee. New series, #185). 
and others. Alapaevsk Intrusion of Ultrabasic Rock of the 
Urals and Chromite Deposits in It. Moscow -Leningrad: 
1940 (Works of the Central Scientific Research Institute of 
Geologic Prospecting, #120). 

and others. Course on Deposits of Commercial Minerals, 
2nd ed. Moscow -Leningrad: 1946. 

Conditions in the Formation of Deposits of Ore and Non- 
Metallic Commercial Minerals. Moscow: 1955. 
and others. Course on Non- Metalliferous Deposits, Part 
1-2. Moscow-Leningrad-Novosibirsk: 1934, 1935. 



391 TERENIN 

Biography: 

A. A. Ivanov. Pavel Mikhailovich Tatarinov. Collection of 
Information of the All- Union Scientific Research Geological 
Institute, 1956, #4. 

Office: Leningrad Mining Institute 

Leningrad, USSR 

TERENIN, ALEKSANDR NIKOLAEVICH (Physical Chemist) 

A. N. Terenin was born May 6, 1896. In 1921 he graduated 
from Petrograd (Leningrad) University, and in 1932 he became 
a professor there. He was a student of D. S. Rozhdestvenskii, 
the leading Russian optics specialist. In 1932 he was elected a 
Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences 
and in 1939 an Academician. He received a Stalin Prize in 1946 
and in 1953 the S. I. Vavilov Prize, awarded by the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences. 

Terenin' s main works are devoted to study of the nature of 
physical and chemical processes which take place in substances 
under the influence of light. For discovering and analyzing 
these processes Terenin worked out optical methods which are 
based on observation of spectra and the intensity of lumines- 
cence of primary products of photoreactions. He showed the 
possibility of selectively exciting emission of atomic spectral 
lines of metal vapors and analyzing the energy level distri- 
bution. Terenin studied the dissociation of salt molecules in a 
vapor state under the influence of light which is accompanied 
by formation of luminescent atoms (1924). In this way he in- 
vestigated many polyatomic molecules of inorganic and organic 
compounds by irradiating them with a short-wave ultraviolet 
radiation (1936). Terenin used fluorescence of aromatic mole- 
cules in a vapor state for establishing the mechanism in the 
intramolecular and intermolecular transformations of energy 
of excitation (1934). In 1943 he explained the phosphorescence 
of molecules of complex organic compounds, and of their photo- 
chemical reactions based on excitation of molecules into a state 
with two unpaired electrons (biradical). He was the first to ob- 
tain infra-red spectra of gases at several thousand atmos- 
pheres (1940). Terenin studied the optical properties of mole- 
cules, adsorbed on the surface of solid bodies and the nature of 
catalyst activity (1934). In 1945 he studied the photochemical 
reactions of chlorophyl and its analogs. In the 1950' s Terenin 
was investigating reactions of organic molecules by using light 
to ionize electrons. Terenin is the leader of the school of 
Soviet photochemists. 



TERENIN 392 

In May 1960, Terenin visited the United States to attend the 

Gordon Conference on Infrared Spectroscopy, Meriden, New 

Hampshire. 

Bibliography: 

Optical excitation of atoms and molecules. Zhur. Fiz. 31, 
26-49 (1925); _37, 98-125 (1926). 

Optical dissociation of salt molecules. Zhur. Fiz. 44, 713- 
36 (1927). 

Introduction to Spectroscopy. Leningrad: 1933. 
Spectral investigation of chemical processes in organic com- 
pounds at low temperatures. Acta Physicochim. U.R.S.S. 
12, 617-36 (1940); 13, 1-30 (1940). 

Photo-luminescence and vibrational energy exchange in 
complex molecules. Discussions Faraday Soc. 35, 39-43 
(1939). 

Photochemical processes in aromatic compounds. Acta 
Physicochim. U.R.S.S. 18, 210-41 (1943) (in English). 
Photochemistry of Dyes and Related Organic Compounds. 
Moscow -Leningrad: 1947. 

Infrared absorption spectra of adsorbed molecules. Doklady 
Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 66, 885-8 (1949). 

Photochemistry of chlorophyl and photosynthesis. Reported 
at the 6th Annual Bach Conference, March 17, 1950. Mos- 
cow, 1951. 

and V. B. Evstigneyev . Photoelectrochemical effect in 
phthalocyanin, chlorophyll and pheophytin. Doklady Akad. 
Nauk S.S.S.R. 81, 223-6 (1951). 

and Yu. A. Klyvev. Effect of pressure on the oscillating 
spectrum of chloroform absorption. Doklady Akad. Nauk 
S.S.S.R. H7, #3, 653-55 (1962). 

Biography: 

V. N. Kondrat'ev. New directions in the development of 

photochemistry (On the 50th Anniversary of Academician 

A. N. Terenin). Zhur. Fiz. Khim., 1946, 20, #6. 

A. T. Vartanyan. Academician A. N. Terenin. Zhur. Fiz. 

Khim., 1956, 30, #5. 

G. G. Neuimin. Aleksandr Nikolaevich Terenin (On the 60th 

Anniversary since the date of birth). Optika i Spektroskopi- 

ya, 1956, l, #4. 

Office: Institute of Physics 

The University 
Leningrad B-164, USSR 



393 TIKHOMIROV 

TERENT'EV, ALEKSANDR PETRQVICH (Organic Chemist) 

A. P. Terent'ev was born January 20, 1891. He graduated 
from Moscow University in 1913 and continued working there. 
In 1934 he became a professor. In 1953 he was elected a Corre- 
sponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He wac 
awarded in 1948 a Stalin Prize. 

Terent'ev worked on methods in organic functional analysis. 
He worked on synthesis of sulfonic compounds. He also investi- 
gated the chemistry of pyrrole, furan, indole and other hetero- 
cyclic compounds, as well as stereochemistry and the nomen- 
clature of organic compounds. 
Bibliography: 

Sulfonation of Acidophobic Compounds. 1947. 
and M. M. Buzlanova, S. I. Qbtemperanskaya. Determination 
of acrylonitrile with the aid of piperidine. Zhur. Anal. 
Khim. 14, 506 (1959). C. A. 54, 9611g (1960). 
and K. I. Litvin, E. G. Rukhadze. Method of nascent re- 
agents. II. Use of dioxane in the determination of calcium 
and strontium as sulfates. Zhur. Anal. Khim. 14, 288-93 
(1959). C. A. 54j 8444a (1960). 

and R. A. Gracheva, V. A. Dorokhov . Preparation of a- 
amino acids from furan derivatives. II. Synthesis of as- 
partic acid. Zhur. Obshchei Khim. 29, 3474-8 (1959). C A. 
54, 15262h (1960). 

and M. N. Preobrazhenskaya, G. M. Sorokina . Introduction 
of substituents in the benzene ring of indole. V. Synthesis 
of ketones of the indole series. Zhur. Obshchei Khim. ^, 
2875-81 (1959). C. A. 54, 12098d (1960). 
Office: Chemistry Department 

Moscow University 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Leninskii gory, sekt, ^V 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: B9 14 65 

TIKHOMIROV, VIKTOR VASIL'EVICH (Radio Engineer) 

V. V. Tikhomirov was born December 23, 1912. In 1940 he 
graduated from the Moscow Institute of Energetics, after which 
he worked in a number of scientific research institutes. He has 
been a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union 
since 1948. In 1953 he was elected to the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences as a Corresponding Member. He has been awarded 
Stalin Prizes. 



TIKHONOV 394 

Office: USSR Academy of Sciences 

Leninskii Prospekt, 14 

Moscow, USSR 
Residence: 1-aya Cheremushkinskaya, 3 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: B7 34 56 

TIKHONOV, ANDREI NIKQLAEVICH (Mathematician and 
Geophysicist) 

A. N. Tikhonov was born October 30, 1906 in Gzhatsk, 
Smolensk Oblast. He graduated in 1927 from Moscow Universi- 
ty. He holds the Doctor of Physical- Mathematical Sciences de- 
gree and in 1936 became a professor at Moscow University. He 
is also at the Institute of Terrestrial Physics. In 1939 he was 
elected a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences. 

The first investigations of Tikhonov were in theoretical 
topology. He introduced the concept of the product of topologi- 
cal spaces ("Tikhonov Product"). He then worked in mathe- 
matical physics and geophysics such as on theorems of unique- 
ness for equations of the parabolic type, distribution of electro- 
magnetic fields, investigation of commercial minerals, and 
electromagnetic sounding of deep layers of the earth's crust 
with the aid of variation of the electromagnetic field of the 
earth. 
Bibliography: 

On determining the electric characteristics of deep layers 

of the earth's crust. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1950, 73, 

#2. 

On the singleness of solving the problems of electrosurvey- 

ing. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1949, 69, #6. 

and A. A. Samarskii. Equations in Mathematical Physics. 

2nd Ed. Moscow: 1953. 
Office: Moscow University 

Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Leninskii Prospekt, 13 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: B2 46 95 

TIMOFEEV, PYOTR VASIL'EVICH (Electrical Engineer) 

P. V. Timofeev was born June 25, 1902. In 1925 he gradu- 
ated from Moscow University. In 1928 he began working at the 
AU-Union Electro-Technical Institute. He has taught at Moscow 
University, the Moscow Institute of Energetics and other 



395 TOROPOV 

colleges and universities. He was awarded Stalin Prizes in 

1946 and 1951, and was made an Honored Scientist of the 

R.S.F.S.R. in 1947. In July 1962, he received the Order of the 

Red Banner of Labor. In 1953 he was elected to the U.S.S.R. 

Academy of Sciences as a Corresponding Member. 

Timofeev studied photoeffect, the secondary emission of 

electrons, discharge in gases, and electronic optics. He has 

designed photocells, electronic multipliers, transmitting tubes. 

Together with others he designed a series of new electronic 

devices. 

Bibliography: 

On the mechanism of secondary emission of electrons from 
complex surfaces. Zhur. Tekh. Fiz., 1940, 1£, #1. 
Photocells with multistage amplification of the photocurrent 
with the aid of secondary emission of electrons. Zhur. Tekh. 
Fiz., 1940, 10, #1. 

and V. V. Sorokina. On the form of the field for electro- 
static lenses. Zhur. Tekh. Fiz., 1948, 18, #4. 
Emission of electrons from complex surfaces. Radiotekh- 
nika i Electronika, 1957,_2, #1. 

Office: USSR Academy of Sciences 

Leninskii Prospekt, 14 
Moscow, USSR 

Residence: Fil'skoe sh. 5. 
Moscow, USSR 

Telephone: G9 00 03, Ext. 180 

TOROPOV, NIKITA ALEKSANDROVICH (Physical Chemist) 

N. A. Toropov was born June 28, 1908. He graduated in 1930 
from Leningrad Polytechnical Institute. From 1930 to 1941 and 
1944 to 1953, he worked at Lensovet Leningrad Technological 
Institute where, in 1940, he became professor. He had worked 
from 1941 to 1944 at the "Giprocement" Institute. In 1953, he 
became Director of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Institute 
of Silicate Chemistry. Toropov has been an Active Member of 
the U.S.S.R. Academy of Construction and Architecture since 
1957. As of June 1962 he was elected Corresponding Member 
of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. In 1952 he received a 
State Prize. 

Toropov' s work deals with mineralogy of silicates and physi- 
cal chemical investigation of silicate systems. He also investi- 
gated problems in physical chemistry of semi-conductors and 
ferrite materials. 



TRAPEZNIKOV 396 

Bibliography: 

and V. F. Zhuravlev. Physical and Colloidal Chemistry of 
Silicates. Mo scow -Leningrad: 1941. 
and K. S. Evstrop'ev. The Chemistry of Silicon and the 
Physical Chemistry of Silicates. 2nd ed. Moscow: 1956. 
and L. N. Bulak. A Course in Mineralogy and Petrography 
with Fundamentals of Geology. Moscow: 1953. 
and A. I. Borisenko. Physical chemical investigations of 
magnetic ceramics. Trudy of the Lensovet Leningrad Tech- 
nological Institute, 1952, #24, pp. 13-59. 
Chemistry of Cements. Moscow: 1956. 

Office: Institute of the Chemistry of Silicates of USSR 

Academy of Sciences 
Makarova, 2 
Leningrad V-164, USSR 

Telephone: A2 71 43 

TRAPEZNIKOV^, VADIM ALEKSANDRQVICH (Scientist in 
Automation and Electric-Machine Building) 

V. A. Trapeznikov was born November 28, 1905. After 
graduating from the Moscow Technological Institute in 1928, he 
worked until 1933 at the All- Union Electro-Technical Institute. 
From 1930 to 1941, he taught at the Moscow Institute of Ener- 
getics and in 1939 became a professor there. In 1941 Trapezni 
kov began working at the Institute of Automation and Teleme- 
chanics of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, and in 1951 was 
made the Director. He has been a member of the Communist 
Party of the Soviet Union since 1951. In 1953 he was elected a 
Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences 
and in 1960 an Academician. He was awarded a Stalin Prize in 
1951. 

Trapeznikov proposed calculating transverse field electric 
machines, methods and techniques of economic analysis, and 
the construction of electrical machines and transformers. In 
the area of automation, he investigated automatic control of 
geometric sizes, construction of high-speed automatic devices 
and the design of aggregate systems of automatic control and 
regulation. Under his leadership methods were worked out for 
modeling systems of automatic control and he designed elec- 
tronic modeling units. 

As of 1961, Trapeznikov was Chairman of the National 
Committee of the Soviet Union for Automatic Control. 



397 TROFIMUK 

Bibliography: 

Basis of Planning Series of Asynchronous Machines. 
Moscow-Leningrad: 1937. 

Generalized conditions of proportionality and optimal geome- 
try of a transformer. Electricity, 1948, #2. 
and others. Automatic Control of Linear Dimensions of 
Products. Moscow: 1947. 

Biography: 

Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, 
V. A. Trapeznikov (On the 50th Anniversary of date of 
birth). Automat, i Telemekh., 1956, 17, #2. 

Office: Institute of Automation and Telemechanics of USSR 

Academy of Sciences 
Kalanchevskaya Ulitsa 15 -a 
Moscow, USSR 

TROFIMUK, ANDREI ALEKSEEVICH (Geologist in the Oil 
Field) 

A. A. Trofimuk was born August 16, 1911. After graduating 
from Kazan' University in 1933, he worked in the oil industry. 
In 1953 he joined the staff of the All-Union Oil-Gas Scientific 
Research Institute and in 1953 to 1955 was deputy Director, 
then in 1955 to 1957 Director. In 1957 he became Director of 
the Institute of Geology and Geophysics of the Siberian Branch 
of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. Trofimuk has been a 
member of the Communist Party since 1941. In 1944 he was a 
Hero of Socialist Labor. He was elected a Corresponding Mem- 
ber of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences in 1953 and in 1958 an 
Academician. In 1946 and in 1950 he was awarded State Prizes 
of the First Degree. 

Trofimuk' s main investigations are in the field of tectonics 
and the Volga -Ural oil bearing territory. Under his leadership, 
large-scale geologic surveys were carried out in this territory. 
As a result of the studies of lithology of oil bearing Ishimbaevo 
limestone, Trofimuk substantiated methods of prospecting for 
new oil deposits of the Ishimbaevo type. In cooperation with 
others, he divided the Volga- Ural territory into tectonic dis- 
tricts. He has worked on increasing the oil output from lime- 
stone collectors and also in particular in developing methods of 
flooding the oil fields. 

As of 1961, Trofimuk was Chairman of the Commission for 
Conservation of Nature of the Siberian Branch U.S.S.R. Academy 
of Sciences. 



TROSHIN 398 

Bibliography: 

and V. I. Nosal' and Yu. A. Pritula. Outline of Tectonics and 
oil bearing of the Volga-Urals territory, 1939, #2. 
Oil Bearing of Paleozoic Bashkir. Mo scow -Leningrad: 
1950. 

Conditions in the Formation of Oil Deposits of the Ural- 
Volga Oil Bearing Territory. Moscow: 1955. 
and M. F. Mirchink, K. R. Chepikov. Specific Features of 
the Geological Structure of Platform Regions in the Soviet 
Union in Relation to Their Oil and Gas Saturation. Works of 
the Fifth World Petroleum Congress, 1959, Sec. I. 
Oil and gas saturation of Siberian platform. Geologia i Geo- 
fizika, 1960, #7. 
Office: Institute of Geology and Geophysics 

Siberian Branch of USSR Academy of Sciences 

Novosibirsk 72, Akademgorodok 

Siberia 

TROSHIN, AFANASII SEMENOVICH (Cytologist) 

A. S. Troshin was born in 1912. In 1936 he graduated from 
Leningrad State University, and completed his postgraduate 
work in 1940 at the Physiological Institute of the University. 
In 1940-41 he worked at the AU-Union Institute of Experimental 
Medicine. He served in the Soviet Army from 1941-46, after 
which he worked as a senior scientific worker at the Institute of 
Experimental Medicine until 1950. From 1950 to 1951 he was 
at the U.S.S.R. Academy of Medical Sciences Institute of Oncol- 
ogy, and from 1951-1957, at the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences 
Institute of Zoology. In 1957 he became supervisor of the La- 
boratory on Cell Physiology of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences 
Institute of Cytology, where in 1958, he became Director. In 
1959 he was named Chief Editor of the journal "Cytology." He 
has been a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union 
since 1944. He was elected, in 1960, to the U.S.S.R. Academy 
of Sciences as a Corresponding Member. 

Troshin' s basic works deal with the study of cell permeabili- 
ty and the nature of bioelectric phenomena. 
Bibliography: 

and V. S. Kirpichnikov, A. N. Svetovidov. Labelling of Cy- 

prinus carpio with radioactive phosphorous and calcium 

isotopes. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. lU, #1, 221-24 

(1956). 

and V. S. Kirpichnikov, A. N. Svetovidov. Absorption and 

output of radioactive calcium by Daphnia, cyclops and 



399 TSELIKOV 

Lebistes reticulates. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 110 , #6, 
1122-25 (1956). 

and N. B. Ilinskala. The marking of flies and insects by 
means of radioactive phosphorus. Zoologicheski Zhur. 
33(4): 841-847, 1954. Biol. Abstr. 30, 6302 (1956). 
Concerning the regulation of water content of protoplasm. 
Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Trudy Zoologicheskovo Instituta 13, 
420-433. 1953. Biol. Abstr. 31, 7210 (1957). 
and A. A. Vareninov, S. A. Krolenko, N. N. Nikorskii. 
History of the physiological science: Dimitrii Nikolaevich 
Nasonov. Fiziol. Zhur. S.S.S.R. (Trans.) 44(11/12): 1124- 
1129. 1958. Biol. Abstr. 35, 25682 (1960). 
Concerning an article by L. M. Chailakhian— Modern con- 
cepts of the nature of the resting potential. Biofizika 
(Trans.) 5(1): 104-111, 1960. Biol. Abstr. 35, 69156 (1960). 
On the question of research in the problem ''the main ques- 
tions of cytology." Tsitologia 2(2): 131-137, 1960, Referat. 
Zhur. Biol., 1961, #1A131 (Trans.) Biol. Abstr. 36, 39488 
(1961). 

Symposium on the theme, "Membrane transport and metabol- 
ism." Vestnik Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 11: 111-112. 1960, 
Referat. Zhur. Biol. 1961. #9A127 (Trans.) Biol. Abstr. 36, 
71235 (1961). 

Das Problem der Zellpermeabilitat. Jena: 1958. 
Office: Institute of Cytology of USSR Academy of Sciences 

Prospekt Maklina, 32 

Leningrad F-121, USSR 

TSELIKOV, ALEKSANDR IVANOVICH (Mechanical Engineer) 

A. I. Tselikov was born April 20, 1904. He graduated from 
the Moscow Technical College in 1928. He worked as a con- 
structor in * Hammer and Sickle" steel plant, the Izhevsk plant 
and others. Since 1935, he has been teaching at colleges and 
universities, and in 1945 began working at the Central Con- 
struction Bureau of Metallurgical and Mechanical Engineering. 
He was awarded Stalin Prizes in 1947, 1948 and 1951. In 1945, 
he became a member of the Communist Party, and in 1953 he 
was elected a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy 
of Sciences. 

Tselikov has constructed rollingmills and studied the theory 
of rolling. He has developed an original method of calculating 
rollingmills. Under his direction new, highly productive mecha- 
nized rollingmills (including blooming continuous sheet, pipe 
and wire mills, mills for rolling the thinnest ribbon, and section 



TSITSIN 400 

of a variable and periodic cross-section— spheres, semi-axis) 

were constructed. 

Bibliography: 

Calculation for Constructing Rolling Machines. Moscow- 
Leningrad: 1938. 
Rollingmills. Moscow: 1946. 
Mechanisms of Rollingmills. Moscow: 1946. 
Influence of external zones on the widening and distribution 
of speeds and tension along the width of a rolled strip. 
Problems of Metallurgy, 1953. 

Progressive processes of processing by pressure on plants 
of mass machine building. Up-to-Date Technology of Ma- 
chine Building. Moscow: 1955. 

Office: Central Construction Bureau of Metallurgical and 

Mechanical Engineering 
Moscow, USSR 

Residence: B. Afanas'evskii, p. 3 
Moscow, USSR 

Telephone: G6 01 11 

TSITSIN, NIKOLAI VASIL^EVICH (Botanist and Plant Breeder) 

N. V. Tsitsin was born December 18, 1898. He graduated 
from the Institute of Agriculture and Melioration in Saratov in 
1927 and worked at the AU-Union Southeastern Scientific Re- 
search Institute of Agriculture. In 1932 he began working at 
Omsk Regional Experimental Station (later the Siberian Scien- 
tific Research Institute of Agriculture) and from 1936 to 1938 
was the Director. In 1938-1949 and 1954-1957 Tsitsin was Di- 
rector of the AU-Union Agricultural Exhibit in Moscow; 1938- 
1948 Chairman of the State Commission on Quality Testing of 
Grain, Oil-bearing Plants and Grasses; in 1940-1949 Director 
of the Scientific Research Institute of the Non-Black Soil Belt 
Grain Economy. He was made Director, in 1945, of the Chief 
Botanical Gardens of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences which 
he had organized. From 1938 to 1948, he was Vice President 
of the Lenin All-Union Agricultural Academy. Tsitsin has been 
a member of the Lenin All-Union Agricultural Academy since 
1932 and an Academician of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences 
since 1939. In 1938 he became a member of the Communist 
Party of the Soviet Union. He was elected an Honorary Member 
of the Rumanian Academy of Sciences in 1946 and, in 1947, of 
the Czech Academy of Agriculture. In 1958 he was made Chair- 
man of the Society of Soviet-Indian Cultural Relations. He has 



401 TSYTOVICH 

been a Deputy to the U.S.S.R. Supreme Soviet, first, third, and 
fourth convocations. In 1943 he was awarded a Stalin Prize. 

Tsitsin's main investigations are in the field of hybridization, 
such as crossing grassy plants with woody plants, and cultured 
plants with wild growing ones. According to Soviet sources, he 
created a new form of perennial wheat. Tsitsin and his associ- 
ates claim that wild rye (sandy and gigantic) can be crossed 
with wheat, barley, and rye; and also rye with quack grass. He 
has also obtained hybrids between ordinary and tree-like to- 
matoes, and produced new forms of stable hybrid variety of 
winter branching wheat. 
Bibliography: 

Distant Hybridization of Plants. Moscow: 1954. 
Problem of Wheat and Perennial Wheat. Moscow: 1935. 
What Will Crossing Wheat with Quack Grass Produce? 
Moscow: 1937. 

Investigating vegetative -sexual hybridization of grassy plants 
with woody plants. Works of the Zonal Institute of Agri- 
culture of the Non-Chernozem Belt of the U.S.S.R., 1946, 
#13. 

Ways of Creating New Cultured Plants. Moscow: 1948. 
Role of Science and Advanced Practices in Raising the Agri- 
cultural Economy. Moscow: 1954. 
Office: Main Botannical Garden of USSR Academy of 

Sciences 
Ostankino, USSR 

TSYTOVICH, NIKOLAI ALEKSANDRQVICH (Geophysicist) 

N. A. Tsytovich was born May 13, 1900. He graduated from 
Leningrad Institute of Civil Engineers in 1927. In 1930 he be- 
gan to teach in a number of institutions of higher learning in 
Leningrad. He became, in 1951, professor of the Moscow Engi- 
neering Structural Institute. From 1947 to 1953, he was Chair- 
man of the Presidium of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences 
Yakut Branch. In 1943 he began work in the Institute of Perma- 
frost of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences where from 1948- 
1953, he was deputy Director. He has been a Corresponding 
Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences since 1943 and an 
Active Member of the Academy of Construction and Architecture 
of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences since 1956. 

Tsytovich' s main works deal with the study of frozen ground 
mechanics. 

In 1950, Tsytovich was the recipient of a Stalin Prize. 



TUDOROVSKII 402 

Bibliography: 

and M. I. Sumgln. Fundamentals in the Mechanics of Frozen 
Grounds. Moscow -Leningrad: 1937. 

Estimation of Foundation Depressions. Moscow -Leningrad: 
1941. 

Ground Mechanics. 3rd ed. Moscow -Leningrad: 1951. 
and M. L Sumgin. Principles of Mechanics of Frozen 
Ground. U. S. Snow, Ice, and Permafrost Research Es- 
tablishment. Trans. 19 Apr. 1959, 288 p. Engineering In- 
dex, 1960, 1359. 

Office: V. A. Obrachev Institute of Permafrost 

Bol'shoy Cherkasskii Pereulok, 2/10 
Moscow, USSR 

TUDOROVSKII, ALEKSANDR ILARIONQVICH (Physicist) 

I. I. Tudorovskii was born August 24, 1875. He graduated in 
1897 from Peter sberg University. In 1902-1919 he taught at 
the Peter sberg Polytechnic Institute, in 1919-1929 at the 
Peter sberg University (Leningrad). Tudorovskii was named, 
in 1916, the head of the first Russian Calculating Bureau on the 
calculation of optical systems. In 1918 he began work at the 
State Optical Institute. He has been a Corresponding Member 
of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences since 1933. He was award- 
ed the Stalin Prizes in 1942 and in 1946, and in 1956 he was an 
Honored Scientist of the R.S.F.S.R. 

The works of Tudorovskii deal with problems of geometrical 
optics and optical techniques and also with electromagnetic 
phenomena. Tudorovskii organized optics calculations in 
U.S.S.R. He used vector methods in calculating mirror and 
prism systems and aberrations of the third order. He com- 
pleted, together with associates, large-scale works on the 
calculation and development of new types of photographic 
lenses. 
Bibliography: 

Electricity and Magnetism. Part 1-2. Leningrad, Moscow: 

1933-35. 

Theory of Optical Devices. 1-2 , 2nd ed. Moscow -Leningrad: 

1948-52. 

Dependence of aberrations of the third order of the optical 

system on the position of planes of the inlet pupil and the 

object. Zhur. Tekh. Fiz., 1942, 12, #8, 496. 

Calculation of the aberrations of the third order by the 

formulas of Lange. Zhur. Tekh. Fiz., 1943, 13, #4-5, 

230-258. 



403 TUMANOV 

On the coefficient of chromatic aberrations of the first 

order. Zhur. Tekh. Fiz., 1945, 15, #9, 585-597. 

Influence of errors in the production of reflection prisms on 

the passing of rays in them. Zhur. Tekh. Fiz., 1934, 4, #4, 

719-747. 

Reflection systems with three mutually perpendicular planes 

in the case of minor deviations of angles from the right 

angle. Works of the State Optical Institute, 1941, 15, #112- 

120, 137-147. 

Biography: 

A. I. Tudorovskii — Honored Scientist of the R.S. F.S.R. Zhur. 
Tekh. Fiz., 1956, 26, #9, 2125. 

Office: USSR Academy of Sciences 

Leninskii Prospekt, 14 
Moscow, USSR 

TUMANOV, IVAN IVANOVICH (Plant Physiologist) 

I. I. Tumanov was born June 30, 1894. He graduated from 
the Kiev Agricultural Institute in 1923. From 1925 to 1942, he 
worked at the All -Union Institute of Horticulture in Leningrad. 
In 1940, he worked at the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Insti- 
tute of Plant Physiology where he became a professor in 1947. 
In 1953, he was elected to the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences as 
a Corresponding Member. 

Tumanov' s work is in winter endurance, drought-resistance, 
water treatment and fruit-yields of agricultural crops. He de- 
veloped methods of laboratory determination of drought- 
resistance and frost-resistance of plants; he studied in detail 
the process of adaption of plants to winter conditions, and 
worked out a laboratory method of determining frost-resistance 
of field cultures. He carried out experimental studies on the 
physiology of rotting, the destruction of plants through excess 
moisture and under an ice crust. He has also worked on the 
physiology of fertility in cultured plants. 
Bibliography: 

Physiological Basis of Frost-Resistance of Cultured Plants. 
Moscow-Leningrad: 1940. 

Main Achievements of Soviet Science in the Study of Frost- 
Resistance of Plants. Moscow: 1951. 
and E. Z. Gareev. Influence of organs of fertility on the 
female plant. Works of the Institute of the Physiology of 
Plants of K. A. Timeryazev, 1951, 7, #2. 



TUPOLEV 404 

Office: K. A. Timiryazev Institute of Plant Physiology of 

USSR Academy of Sciences 

Leninskii Prospekt, 33 

Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Sokol' niche skaya slob. 14/18 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephjone: El 40 13 

TUPOLEV, ANDREI NIKOLAEVICH (Aeronautical Engineer) 

A. N. Tupolev was born October 29, 1888. In 1909 he entered 
Moscow Higher Technical School where he was a pupil of N. E. 
Zhukovskii, founder of Russian Aviation. While still an under- 
graduate, he designed the first wind tunnel. Tupolev also par- 
ticipated in the work of the aeronautical group of the Moscow 
Higher Technical School and designed and built training gliders, 
in one of which he became a pilot. After his graduation from 
the Moscow Higher Technical School, he assisted in the organi- 
zation of the Central Aerodynamic Institute and from 1918 to 
1935 was the Director. Tupolev is a Lieutenant General in the 
Engineer-Technical Service. In 1933 he was elected Corre- 
sponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences and in 
1953 Academician. He was made an Honored Scientist of the 
R.S.F.S.R. in 1933 and a Hero of Socialist Labor in 1945. Tupo- 
lev was awarded a Stalin Prize and, in 1957, a Lenin Prize. He 
has been a Deputy of the Supreme Soviet (third through fifth 
convocations). 

In 1922, a bureau of design, in the Central Aerodynamic 
Institute, under the direction of Tupolev, designed and con- 
structed the single-seat ANT-1, built wholly of wood. In 1923- 
24, Tupolev designed a glider, a hydroplane, and the two -seat 
airplane, ANT-2, made entirely from duraluminum. Under his 
direction, more than 100 various types of airplanes were de- 
signed and constructed. Tupolev also designed and constructed 
medium and heavy bombers: TB-1, ANT-9, TB~3, ANT-25 
(RD), TB-7, SB, TU-2, TU-4, TU-104, and the TU-114. In 
planes designed by Tupolev, a series of Russian flights were 
carried out in Europe and to America (flights of V. P. Chkalov 
and M. M. Gromov across the North Pole in an ANT-25 air- 
plane), landings of polar expeditions on drifting ice floes, the 
rescue of the crew of the steamship "Chelyuskin," and other im- 
portant tasks were accomplished. Tupolev airplanes were used 
for attacking enemy objectives at long distances. 

The TU-104 (1955) is the Soviet jet airplane. Its cruising 
flight speed: 800 kilometers/hr. The cabin of the airplane is 



405 USHAKOV 

hermetically sealed, which permits use of flight altitudes at 
10,000 meters. Through further improvement of this type of 
aircraft, there appeared the more comfortable, multi-seat (170) 
passenger airplane, the TU-114 (1956) with turboprop engines. 
Continuing the work of N. E. Zhukovskii, Tupolev worked on 
aerodynamic calculation for airplanes and on the strength of 
material. Besides the designing of airplanes, Tupolev con- 
structed various types of naval torpedo boats. 

In March 1962, Tupolev was re-elected Deputy from 
R.S.F.S.R. to the Supreme Soviet. He has attended Pugwash 
Conferences. 
Office: USSR Academy of Sciences 

Leninskii Prospekt, 14 

Moscow, USSR 

USHAKOV, SERGEI NIKOLAEVICH (Organic Chemist) 

S. N. Ushakov was born September 16, 1893. In 1921 he 
graduated from the Petrograd Polytechnic Institute. He was 
made professor at the Leningrad Technological Institute in 
1930; at the same time, 1931-41, he worked at the Scientific 
Research Institute of Plastics of which he was Director in 1931- 
38. In 1945-49, he was Director of the Scientific Research 
Institute of Polymerized Plastics. He was also the Director, 
in 1948-53, of the Institute of High Molecular Compounds of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. Ushakov has been a member of 
the Communist Party of the Soviet Union since 1943. He was 
elected, in 1943, a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences. In 1942 and 1950 he received Stalin 
Prizes, and in 1943 was an Honored Scientist of the R.S.F.S.R. 

The investigations of Ushakov are concerned with phenol 
aldehyde condensation, the synthesis of vinyl polymers, cellu- 
lose esters, the polymerization and copolymerization of unsatu- 
rated compounds, the preparation of polyvinyl alcohol and its 
acetals, and the reactions of high molecular compounds. He 
developed the technology of producing synthetic camphor, ethyl 
cellulose, benzyl cellulose, poison of phenolic resins, polyvinyl 
acetate, and polyvinyl alcohol. 
Bibliography: 

Artificial Resins and Their Utilization in the Varnish Indus- 
try. Leningrad: 1929. 

Plastics from Esters of Cellulose. Moscow-Leningrad: 
1932. 

Esters of Cellulose and Plastics on Their Basis. Leningrad- 
Moscow: 1941. 



VAINSHTEIN 406 

Biography: 

I. A. ArbuzQva and E. N. Rostovskii. Laureate of the Stalin 
Prize S. N. Ushakov. Uspekhi Khim., 1943, 12, #1. 
Office: Institute of High Molecular Compounds of USSR 

Academy of Sciences 
Birzhevoy Prospekt, 6 
Leningrad, USSR 

VAINSHTEIN, BORIS KONSTANTINQVICH (Physicist) 

B. K. Vainshtein is a Doctor of Phy si co- Mathematical Sci- 
ences. In April 1962, he was made the Director of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences Institute of Crystallography. He was 
elected a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences in June 1962. In 1958 he received a prize awarded by 
the Academy of Sciences Presidium for his "Structural Electro- 
no graphy." 
Bibliography: 

New equations relating structural factors. Doklady Akad. 
Nauk S.S.S.R. 124, #1, 87-90 (1959). 

Symmetry of chain molecules. Kristallografia 4, #6, 842-48 
(1959). 

A new type of bonds between structural factors. Kristallo- 
grafia 4, #1, 3-12 (1959). 

Antisymmetry in Fourier formations of figures with a 
special point. Kristallografia 5, #3, 341-345 (1960). 
Problem of the atomic structure of biological molecules. 
Vestnik Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., #12, 20-26 (1960). 
and A. N. Lobachev. Electronographic investigation of urea. 
Kristallografia 6, #3, 395-401 (1961). 

Developmental tendencies in contemporary crystallography. 
Vestnik Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 4, 99-104 (1961). 
and L. I. Tatarinova. Electronographic investigation of 
poly -V- methyl L-glutamate. Doklady Akad. Nauk 139, #6, 
1347-50 (1961). 

and N. V. Nikolaeva, R. E. Kruglyakova, N. A. Kiselev , 
N. M. Emanuel' . Reducing the destructive degree of DNA 
molecules during irradiation in the presence of propylgal- 
late. Doklady Akad. Nauk 142, #3, 713-15 (1962). 
Office: Institute of Crystallography of USSR Academy of 

Sciences 
Pyzhevskii Pereulok, 3 
Moscow, USSR 



407 VARENTSOV 

VANICHEV, ALEKSANDR PAVLQVICH (Power Specialist) 

In June 1962, A. P. Vanichev was elected Corresponding 
Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

VARENTSOV, MIKHAIL IVANQVICH (Geologist) 

M. I. Varentsov was born January 20, 1902. In 1929 he 
graduated from Moscow Mining Academy. He was Director of 
the Institute of Geological Sciences in 1949-55; and in 1956 he 
became Chief of the Laboratory in the Institute of Oil of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. In 1953 he was elected a Corre- 
sponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

Varentsov has further developed the studies of his teacher, 
I. M. Gubkin (1871-1939, geologist), on the main problems of 
oil geology. In 1929-49 he studied regional geological investi- 
gations in tectonics, stratigraphy, and oil geology of Sakhalin 
Island, North Caucasus, Tamanskii Peninsula, Turkmeniya, 
Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Volga- Ural oil bearing terri- 
tory, Venskii and Pannonskii Basins. In 1935-49 he was leader 
of expeditions into the territory beyond the Caucasus, Turk- 
men, Volga -Bashkir and Georgia. 
Bibliography: 

and I. M. Gubkin. Geology of Oil and Gas Deposits of the 
Tamanskii Peninsula. Baku-Moscow: 1934. 
Oil deposits in Turkmen. International Geological Con- 
gress. Works of the XVIIth Session of the U.S.S.R., 1937, 4, 
Moscow: 1940. 

Problem of the oil-bearing of Turkmen in view of new 
data. Geology and Commercial Minerals of Middle Asia. 
Moscow-Leningrad: 1940 (U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences). 
Geology and oil-bearing of the Venskii Basin. Collection of 
Geological Works Devoted to the Memory of Academician 
I. M. Gubkin. Moscow -Leningrad: 1948. 
Geological Structure of the Western Part of the Kurinsk De- 
pression. Mo scow -Leningrad: 1950. 

New oil-bearing province of the Pannonskii Basin of South- 
Eastern Europe and its possible analogs. Collection of Geo- 
logical Works Devoted to the Memory of Academician I. M. 
Gubkin. Moscow-Leningrad: 1950. 

and V. T. Mordovskii. Geological Structure of the Northern 
Edge of Gori-Mukhranskaya Depression. Moscow: 1954. 
Office: Institute of Oil, USSR Academy of Sciences 

Moscow, USSR /a , *^" (y . 

Vv DS 

1^ J r^% ! rr 



VDOVENKO 408 

VDQVENKQ, VIKTOR MIHAILQVICH (Chemist) 

V. M. Vdovenko was born January 5, 1907. He graduated 
from the Kiev Chemico-Technological Institute of Food Industry 
in 1930 and worked from then until 1935 at the Institute of 
Chemical Physics of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. In 1935 
he began teaching at Leningrad University and in 1953 was made 
professor. He joined the staff of the Radium Institute of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences and in 1953 became the Director. 
Vdovenko has been a member of the Communist Party of the 
Soviet Union since 1929. In 1953 he was elected a Correspond- 
ing Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

The work of Vdovenko is in radiochemistry, inorganic and 
physical chemistry. He studied the behavior of ions in complex 
systems such as solutions containing gelatin, or solid electro- 
lytes, the action of atomic hydrogen on inorganic compounds, 
chemical protection against war gases, and the adsorption of 
radium on glass as a function of the pH and radium ion concen- 
tration. Vdovenko investigated the distribution of radioactive 
elements between two immiscible solvents, which could make 
possible the utilization of an extraction method for separating 
and purifying these elements. He also investigated the sys- 
tems: radioactive element-water-organic solvent, determined 
the solubility and forms of state of some radioelements in non- 
aqueous solutions, established the connection between the 
structure of organic solvents and their extractability. 
Bibliography: 

and S. A. Shchukarev . Mechanism of the movement of 
chloride and hydrogen ions in the presence of gelatin. Zhur. 
Fiz. Khim., 1934, 5, #4. 

Investigating the action of atomic hydrogen on inorganic 
compounds. Works of the Anniversary Scientific Session. 
Leningrad State University. Section on Chemical Sciences. 
Leningrad: 1946, 112-122. 

Adsorption of ions and the potential discontinuity at the 
border of a solid electrolyte-solution. Scientific Papers of the 
Leningrad University, 1936, #11. Series on Chemical Sci- 
ences, #2, 48-102. 

and B. A. Nikitin. Adsorption of radium on glass. Works 
of the State Radium Institute, 1937, 3., 256-65. 
Extraction methods of separating elements. Zhur. Anal. 
Khim., 1957, 12, #5, 593-599. 

Extraction as a method of separating and studying radio- 
active element. Zhur. Neorg. Khim., 1958, 3, #1, 145-54. 



409 VEKSLER 

and D. N. Suglobov, G. A. Romanov. Structure of UO2- 
(N03)2-N02. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 146, #5, 1078-80 
(1962). 
Office: V. G. Khlopin Radium Institute of USSR Academy of 

Sciences 
Ulitsa Roentgena 1 
Leningrad, USSR 

VEKSHINSKII, SERGEI ARKAD'EVICH (Electronics Physicist) 

S. A. Vekshinskii was born October 15, 1896. He studied at 
Leningrad and Don Polytechnic Institutes. From 1922 to 1928 
he was chief engineer of the Electrovacuum plant in Leningrad. 
He became Chief of the Vacuum Laboratory of "Svetlana" in 
1928. He was chief engineer from 1936 to 1939 and a consultant 
from 1939 to 1941 at this plant. Vekshinskii was made Director 
of the Scientific Research Vacuum Institute in 1947. In 1940 he 
became a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. 
In 1946 he was elected Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences and in 1953 Academician. He received a 
Stalin Prize in 1946, and in 1956 he was a Hero of Socialist 
Labor. In 1962 he was awarded the A. S. Popov Gold Medal. 

Vekshinskii has worked on a new method of obtaining and 
investigating metallic alloys. The results of this work are set 
forth by Vekshinskii in his monograph, *New Method of Metallo- 
graphic Study of Alloys" (1944, Stalin Prize 1946). He designed 
a whole series of new electronic devices which were utilized in 
industry. At the Scientific Research Vacuum Institute, he 
directs the development of vacuum apparatus for various 
branches of industry. 
Bibliography: 

A new method of Metallographic Study of Alloys. 1944. 

and M. I. Menshikov, I. S. Rabinovich. High -vacuum pumps 

and units for accelerators. Vacuum (GB) 9, 201-6 (1959). 

SA(A) 64, 9426 (1961). 
Biography: 

E. V. Gurvich. S. A. Vekshinskii. Radiotekh. i Elektron, 

1956,1, *12. 
Office: USSR Academy of Sciences Scientific Research 

Institute 
Moscow, USSR 

VEKSLER, VLADIMIR lOSIFQVICH (Physicist) 

V. I. Veksler was born March 4, 1907. In 1931 he graduated 
from Moscow Institute of Energetics. He was at the All- Union 



VEKUA 410 

Electrotechnical Institute from 1930 until 1936 when he began 
work at the Institute of Physics of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sci- 
ences. In 1956 he started working at the Joint Institute of 
Nuclear Research. He became a Corresponding Member of 
the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences in 1946 and in 1958 an Acade- 
mician. 

Veksler has worked on development of experimental methods 
used in investigations of x-rays, atomic nucleus, and cosmic 
radiation such as the use and mode of action of Geiger-Muller 
and proportional counters. He also studied electron-nuclear 
showers in cosmic rays. Well known is Veksler's work on 
the theory of particle accelerators. In 1944, he proposed a 
principle of phase stability of particles and used it as a basis 
of new types of accelerators- -synchrotrons and synchro- 
cyclotrons. 

In November 1959, Veksler visited the United States on a 
Nuclear Science Exchange program in New York City. 
Bibliography: 

New method of accelerating of relativistic particles. Dok- 

lady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1944, 43, #8. 

and L. Groshev, B. Isaev. Ionization Methods in Irradiation 

Research. Moscow -Leningrad: 1949. 
Office: Joint Institute of Nuclear Problems 

Dubno, Moscow, USSR 
Residence: ul. Chkalova 21/2 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: K7 39 56 

VEKUA, ILYA NESTQROVICH (Mathematician) 

I. N. Vekua was born May 6, 1907 in Sheshelety, Georgian 
S.S.R. In 1930 he graduated from Tbilisi University and holds 
the degree of Doctor of Physical-Mathematical Science. He 
began working at Moscow University in 1952 and in 1953 at the 
Mathematics Institute of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. In 
1946 he was elected Academician of the Georgian S.S.R. Acade- 
my of Sciences, also a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences, and in 1958 Academician. He was award- 
ed in 1950 a Stalin Prize. 

Vekua has utilized methods of the theory of analytical functions 
of a complex variable for the solution of differential and inte- 
gral equations, which are met in problems of physics and me- 
chanics, particularly the theory of elasticity. He obtained so- 
lutions to equations of steady -state oscillations of an elastic 
cylinder, thin plates and sloping shells, and torsion and bending 



411 VELIKANOV 

of rods of heterogeneous material. The main results of 
Vekua in singular integral equations are included in the mono- 
graph of N. I. Muskhelishvili, "Singular Integral Equations" 
(1946). The work of Vekua in differential and integral equations 
has been utilized in the solution of problems in the theory of 
elasticity. Vekua also studied the general properties of the so- 
lutions of a wide range of elliptical partial differential equations 
and investigated the general boundary problems, which are im- 
portant in the bending of the surfaces and in the theory of elastic 
shells. 

As of 1961, Vekua was a Member of the Presidium of the 
Siberian Branch U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 
Bibliography: 

New Methods of Solving Elliptical Equations. Moscow - 
Leningrad: 1948. 

Systems of differential equations of the first order of the 
elliptical type, and boundary problems with their use in the 
theory of shells. Mat. Sbornik, New Series, 1952, 31, #2. 
Stationary singular points of generalized analytical functions. 
Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 145, #1, 24-27 (1962). 
Biography: 

A. G. Kurosh and others, eds. Thirty Years of Mathematics 
in the U.S.S.R., 1917-1947. Collection of articles. Moscow- 
Leningrad: 1948. 
Office: V. A. Steklov Institute of Mathematics of USSR 

Academy of Sciences 
1-y Akademicheskii Proyezd, 28 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Novopeschanaya, Korp. 25 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: D7 19 60 

VELIKANOV, MIKHAIL ANDREEVICH (Hydrologist and 
Hydrodynamicist ) 
M. A. Velikanov was born January 22, 1879. After graduat- 
ing from the Institute of Engineers of Lines of Communication, 
he worked as an engineer on the Siberian rivers Ob' and Yeni- 
sei, and in 1912-1921 on field studies of the rivers: Sukhona, 
North Dvina, Bug, Berezina, Volga, and Tom'. He taught in 
1922-1929 at the Moscow Technical College, in 1930-1941 at the 
Moscow Hydrometeorological Institute, in 1942-1943 at the 
Central Asiatic University in Tashkent, in 1945-1954 at the 
Moscow University. Since 1939 he has been a Corresponding 



VERESHCHAGIN 412 

Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. In 1948 he was 
made an Honored Scientist of the R.S.F.S.R. 

Velikanov initially engaged in the study of flow stations 
(organized by him) and water balance. In 1932 he transferred 
to an experimental study of problems of river-bed hydrology in 
laboratories established under his direction for the Hydro- 
meteorological Service and the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 
Velikanov studied water balance, large scale turbulence of 
river streams, mechanism of water pumps and the behavior 
of river beds. He took part in many large scale hydraulic 
projects. 
Bibliography: 

Hydrology of Continents; 1925. 

Dynamics of a River-Bed Stream, 1-2. , 3rd ed. Moscow: 

1954-55. 

Kinematic structure of a turbulent river bed stream. Izvest. 

Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. Georgr. i Geofiz., 1946, 10, #4. 

Structural forms of river-bed turbulence. Izvest. Akad. 

Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. Geofiz., 1951, #3. 

Basis of the gravitational theory of the movement of pumps. 

Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. Geofiz., 1954, #4. 

Energo -balance of a deposit-bearing stream. Izvest. Akad. 

Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. Geofiz., 1956, #6. 
Biography: 

G. V. Lopatin. On the 70th Anniversary of Mikhail Andree- 

vich Velikhanov. Proceedings of the All- Union Geographical 

Society, 1949, 81, #5. 

Celebration in honor of Mikhail Andreevich Velikanov. Bulle 

tin of Moscow University, Series on Physico-Mathematical 

and Natural Sciences, 1954,^, #6. 
Office: USSR Academy of Sciences 

Leninskii Prospekt, 14 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Leninskii Prospekt, 13 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: V2 50 96 

VERESHCHAGIN, LEONID FEDOROVICH (Physicist) 

L. F. Vereshchagin was born in 1909. In 1930-32, he was a 
postgraduate student, and 1932-34 he worked as a senior engi- 
neer at a turbogenerator plant. He was an engineer, 1934-39, 
and subsequently chief engineer at the Physico-Technical Insti- 
tute in Khar'kov. From 1939-1954, he was laboratory super- 
visor at the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Institute of Organic 



413 VERESHCHAGIN 

Chemistry, and from 1954-58, he was Chief of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences Laboratory in Ultra-High Pressures in 
Moscow. In 1958 he became Director of the U.S.S.R. Academy 
of Sciences Institute of High Pressure Physics. He attained the 
rank of professor at Moscow University in 1953, and in 1960 
was elected to the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences as a Corre- 
sponding Member. In 1952 he was awarded a Stalin Prize. 

Vereshchagin's basic works are in the field of the physics 
and technology of ultra-high pressures. 

In July 1958, Vereshchagin visited the United States to attend 
the Gordon Research Conference in Meriden, New Hampshire. 
Bibliography: 

and A. I. Likhter . Compressibility of the elements as a 
function of atomic number. Translated into French from 
Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 86, 745-8 (1952). Nucl. Sci. 
Abstr. 14, 9847 (1960). 

X-ray study of linear compression of graphite at pressures 
up to 16000 kg/cm2. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 131, 300-2 
(1960). Nucl. Sci. Abstr. 14, 17015 (1960). 
and Demyashkevich. Indicator for high-pressure gas com- 
pressor. Pribory i Tekh. Ekspt. #1, 118-22 (1960). Nucl. 
Sci. Abstr. H, 19074 (1960). 

and Yu. N. Ryabinin. Peculiarities of rheological behavior 
of metals extruded by a hydraulic press. Translated into 
French from Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. Otdel. Tekh. Nauk, 
#5, 48-55 (1957). Nucl. Sci. Abstr. 14, 5567 (1960). 
and A. A. Semerchan, S. V. Popova . Variation of the electri- 
cal resistance of praseodymium, dysprosium, erbium and 
ytterbium at high pressures up to 250,000 kg/cm2. Doklady 
Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 139, #3, 585-86 (1961). 
and A. A. Semerchan, N. N. Kuzin, S. V. Popova . Variation 
of the electrical resistance of certain metals up to pressures 
of 250,000 kg/cm2. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 138, #1, 
84-85 (1961). 

and A. A. Semerchan, N. N. Kuzin, S. V. Popova . Variation 
of the electrical resistance of certain metals up to pressures 
of 200,000 kg/cm2. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 136, #2, 
320-21 (1961). 

and Yu. N. Ryabinin, A. Ya. Preobrazhenskii, V. A. Stepha- 
nov. Growth of metallic monocrystals at high hydrostatic 
pressures. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 135, #1, 45-47 
(1961). 



VERNOV 414 

and F. F. Voronov, V. A. Goncharov . Effect of hydrostatic 
pressure on the elastic properties of cerium. Doklady Akad. 
Nauk S.S.S.R. 135, #5, 1104-07 (1960). 

and A. A. Semerchan, N. N. Kuzin . Temperature dependence 
of electrical resistance of poly crystalline graphite at pres- 
sures of up to 250,000/Kg.cm2. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 
146 , #2, 803-04 (1962). 
Office: Institute of Physics of High Pressures of USSR 

Academy of Sciences 
Leninskii Prospekt, 31 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Dorogomilovsk. nab. 9 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: G3 59 68 

VERNOV, SERGEI NIKQLAEVICH (Physicist) 

S. N. Vernov was born July 11, 1910. He graduated from 
Leningrad Polytechnic Institute in 1931. From 1930 to 1935 he 
worked in the Institute of Radium of the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences. In 1935 he went to work in the Physics Institute of 
the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, and in 1943 he became a 
professor at Moscow University. He became Director, in 1946, 
of the Scientific Research Institute on Nuclear Physics at Mos- 
cow University. Since 1953 he has been a Corresponding Mem- 
ber of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. In 1949 he was award- 
ed a Stalin Prize. He was awarded a Lenin Prize in 1960 for 
his participation in the discovery of and investigation of the 
earth's external radiation belt and studies of the magnetic earth 
and moon. 

Vernov studied the nature and properties of cosmic rays in 
the upper atmosphere. He investigated cosmic rays with the 
aid of automatic devices, elevated to high altitudes by pilot- 
balloons and transmitting their findings by radio. Vernov and 
his associates discovered considerable effects due to cosmic 
rays in the stratosphere. They showed that the primary parti- 
cles are composed of protons, studied transition effects in the 
stratosphere and ascertained the origin of a soft component. 
Bibliography: 

Latitude effect of cosmic rays in the stratosphere and test- 
ing of the cascade theory. Works of the Physics Institute of 
P. N. Lebedev, 1945, 1, #1. 

Research on cosmic rays. (Collection of articles). Doklady 
Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. New Series, 1948, 61, #5-6, 62, #2-4. 



415 VINOGRADOV 

Study of the interaction of a primary component of cosmic 
rays with a substance in the stratosphere. Zhur. Eksptl. i 
Teoret. Fiz., 1949, 19, #7. 
Biography: 

Grigorov. N. L . Investigation of Cosmic Rays in the Strato- 
sphere. On the Work of the Laureate of the Stalin Prize, 
Professor S. N. Vernov. Successes of Contemporary Sci- 
ences. Moscow -Leningrad: 1950. 
Office: Physics Department 

Moscow University 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Leninskiye gory, sekt. "L" 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: B9 34 17 

VINOGRADOV, ALEKSANDR PAVLOVICH (Geochemist and 
Analytical Chemist) 

A. P. Vinogradov was born August 21, 1895. In 1943 he be- 
came a Corresponding Member of the Academy of Sciences of 
the U.S.S.R., and since 1953 he has been an Academician. He 
was made, in 1949, a hero of Socialist Labor. 

Vinogradov graduated from the Medical Military Academy 
and Leningrad University in 1924. He was a pupil and close 
collaborator of B. I. Vernadskii, the founder of the Russian 
School of Geochemistry. In 1948 he became Director of the 
Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences. Both in 1949 and 1951, he was winner of 
Stalin Prizes. 

His fields of interest are the distribution of chemical ele- 
ments in the upper part of the earth's crust, the investigation of 
primary rock from which the sedimental part of the earth's 
surface was formed, and the role played by vulcanic materials 
in the formation of this upper part. While studying the salts in 
the ocean, he came to the conclusion that cations of the sea 
water are products of the erosion of magmatic rocks and that 
anions are of vulcanic origin. 

Vinogradov has worked predominantly with rare and widely 
dispersed chemical elements. In geochemistry of the individual 
elements (halogen, boron, strontium, etc.), he emphasized the 
importance of knowing, not only absolute amounts of the ele- 
ments but also the ratios of the closely related elements, as 
that of chlorine to bromine or strontium to calcium. He de- 
scribed geochemically more than forty rare and widely dis- 
persed elements for different soil zones and showed their roles 



VINOGRADOV 416 

in various soil-forming processes. He has investigated the 
association of heavy metals such as vanadium and nickel with 
bitumen. He has been active in the use of isotopes (sulfur, 
hydrogen, ox>^gen, carbon, etc.) in geochemistry and has used 
ox>'gen isotope Ol8 as an indicator of geochemical processes. 
In photosynthesis, he found that plants liberate oxygen from 
water and not from carbon dioxide. Also he showed that natural 
hydroxides of iron, manganese, etc. obtain oxygen from water 
rather than from the air. In the biogeochemical field, he in- 
vestigated the changes produced by surroundings in the chemi- 
cal composition of marine organisms. He found that the ma- 
jority of chemical elements exist in all the organisms and that 
elemental chemical composition of a species is its character- 
istic feature. Vinogradov also developed a theory of biogeo- 
chemical regions and by his study of areas with deficient and 
excessive content of chemical elements, he evolved a theoreti- 
cal basis for ordinary fertilizers and those containing micro- 
elements. His investigations in biogeochemical regions also 
explained the effect of the chemical environment on the evo- 
lution of flora and fauna during different geological ages. In 
analytical chemistry, Vinogradov developed many methods of 
separation of numerous stable and unstable chemical elements 
and introduced instrumental methods of analysis such as po- 
larography, spectrometry, radiometry, mass spectrometry, 
x-ray, and luminescence. 

As of 1961, Vinogradov was Director of the Siberian Branch 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Institute of Geochemistry and of 
the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Institute of Geochemistry and 
Analytical Chemistry. 
Bibliography: 

Elementary chemical composition of marine organisms. 
Works of the Biogeochemical Laboratory at the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences, _3, 4, 6, parts 1 to 3. Moscow- 
Leningrad: 1935-44. 

Biogeochemical regions. Works of the Jubilee Session Dedi- 
cated to the Centennial Birthday of V. V. Dokuchaev. 
Moscow-Leningrad: 1949. 

Geochemistry of dispersed elements in the sea water. Us- 
pekhi Khim. 1944, _13, #1. 

Geochemistry of Dispersed Elements in Soils. Moscow: 
1957, 2nd edition. 
Biography: 

Academician Aleksandr Pavlovich Vinogradov (for 60th birth- 
day). Vestnik Akademii Nauk S.S.S.R., 1956, #2, 97-98. 



417 VINOGRADOV 

Vinogradov Aleksandr Pavlovich. Vestnik Akademii 1954, 
#4, 70. 
Office: V. I. Vernadskii Institute of Geochemistry and 

Analytical Chemistry, USSR Academy of Sciences 
Vorob'evskoye Shosse 47 -a 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: 2-aya Filevskaya, 10 

Moscow, USSR 
TelepJione: G9 00 07, Ext. 529 

VINOGRADOV, IVAN MATVEEVICH (Mathematician) 

I. V. Vinogradov was born September 14, 1891. He gradu- 
ated from the Petersburg University in 1914 and remained 
there to prepare for a doctor's degree. From 1918-1920 he 
was a reader and professor at the Perm University, 1920-1934 
a professor at Leningrad Polytechnical Institute, and in 1925 
professor at the Leningrad University. In 1932 Vinogradov be- 
came Director of the Mathematics Institute of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences. He has been an Academician of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences since 1929. In 1945 he was re- 
cipient of a Stalin Prize and also a Hero of Socialist Labor. 

Vinogradov's scientific activity pertains to the area of ana- 
lytical theory of numbers. His first work is devoted to ques- 
tions of determining errors of approximate formulas, which 
express the sums of values of various arithmetical functions. 
In 1937 Vinogradov derived the formula for a number of repre- 
sentations of the odd number in the form of a sum of three 
simple numbers, and used them to obtain a solution of the 
Goldbach problem. 

In 1961 Vinogradov was awarded the Order of Lenin. 
Bibliography: 

Selected Works. Moscow: 1952 (contains bibliography of the 

works of Vinogradov). 

New Method in Analytical Theory of Numbers. Leningrad - 

Moscow: 1937 (Works of the Mathematics Institute of V. A. 

Steklov, 10). 

Basis of Theory of Numbers, 6th ed. Moscow-Leningrad: 

1952. 
Biography: 

editorship of A. G. Kurosh and others . Thirty- years of 

Mathematics in the U.S.S.R., 1917-1947. Collection of 

articles. Moscow-Leningrad: 1948 (contains bibliography 

of works of Vinogradov). 



VLADIMIRSKII 418 

K. K. Mardzhanishvili. Ivan Matveevich Vinogradov (On the 
60th Anniversary since the date of birth). Uspekhi Mat. 
Nauk, 1951, 6, #5. 
Office: V. A. Steklov Mathematics Institute of USSR 

Academy of Sciences 
1-y Akademicheskii Proyezd, 28 . 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: ul. Gor'kogo 22 -a 

Moscow, USSR 
Teleplwne: Bl 45 24 

VLADIMIRSKII, VASILLII VASIL^EVICH (Physicist) 

V. V. Vladimirskii has been working at the U.S.S.R. Academy 

of Sciences Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics. 

In June 1962 he was elected a Corresponding Member of the 

U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

Bibliography: 

Magnetic mirrors, canals and flasks for cold neutrons. 
Zhur. Ekspt'l. i Teoret. Fiz. 39, #4, 1062-1070 (1960). 
and V. N. Andreev . Non-preservation of stability in strong 
interactions, and nuclear fission. Zhur. Ekspt'l. i Teoret. 
Fiz. 41, #2, 663-65 (1961). 

Office: Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics 

of USSR Academy of Sciences 
Moscow, USSR 

VLASOV, KUZMA ALEKSEEVICH (Geochemist and Mineralo - 
gist) 
K. A. Vlasov was born November 14, 1905. He graduated in 

1931 from Timiryazev Moscow Agricultural Academy. From 

1932 to 1952 he worked at the Institute of Geological Sciences 
at the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. In 1953 he became Chief 
of the Laboratory of Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Rare 
Elements, and in 1956 Director of the Institute of Mineralogy, 
Geochemistry, and Crystallography of Rare Elements of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Aciences. Vlasov has been a member of 
the Communist Party of the Soviet Union since 1939. In 1953 he 
was elected a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy 
of Sciences. He has been awarded two orders and also medals. 

Vlasov has studied the genesis and classification of granite 
pegmatites and other deposits of rare elements. 

In November 1958, Vlasov visited the United States to attend 
the American Geological Society meetings in St. Louis, 
Missouri. 



419 VOEVODSKII 

Bibliography: 

Texture -paragenetic classification of granite pegmatites. 
Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. GeoL, 1952, #2. 
Genesis of Rare Metallic Granitic Pegmatites. Moscow: 
1955. 

Factors in the formation of various types of rare metal 
granite pegmatites. Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. GeoL, 
1956, #1. 
Office: Institute of Mineralogy, Geochemistry and Crystal- 

lography of Rare Elements of USSR Academy of 
Sciences 
Ulitsa Kuybysheva, 8 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Lavrushinskii p. 17 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: VI 85 90 

VOEVODSKII, VLADISLAV VLADISLAVQVICH (Physical 
Chemist) 
V. V. Voevodskii was born July 25, 1917. He graduated from 
the Leningrad Polytechnic Institute in 1940 and remained to do 
graduate work. In 1944 he became a senior scientific research 
worker of the Institute of Chemical Physics at the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences. He taught from 1946 to 1952 at Moscow 
University. In 1953 he began work at the Moscow Physico- 
Technical Institute and in 1955 was made professor there. 
Voevodskii was elected a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences in 1958. In 1952 he was awarded the D. I. 
Mendeleev Prize. 

Voevodskii' s work is in chemical kinetics and the chemistry 
of free radicals. He has worked in combustion theory, and 
oxidation of hydrocarbons, heterogeneous and homogeneous 
catalysis, and structure and properties of free radicals. He 
established a number of important details in the mechanism of 
a chain reaction of hydrogen oxidation. Together with N. N. 
Semyonov and F. F. Vol'kenshtein, he demonstrated the possi- 
bility of radical chain mechanisms in heterogeneous -catalytic 
processes. 
Bibliography: 

and Ya. B. Zel'dovich. Thermal Explosion and Velocity of 
Flames in Gases. Moscow: 1947. 

and A. B. Nalbandyan. Mechanism of Oxidation and Com- 
bustion of Hydrogen. Moscow- Leningrad: 1949. 



VOL'FKOVICH 420 

Office: Institute of Chemical Physics of USSR Academy of 

Sciences 
Vorob'evskoye Shosse, 2 
Moscow, USSR 

VOL'FKOVICH, SEMEN ISAAKOVICH (Inorganic Chemist ) 

S. I. Vol'fkovich was born October 11, 1896. He graduated 
from Moscow University of National Economy in 1920. In 1921 
he began working at the Scientific Research Institute for Fertil- 
izers and Insectifungicides and is the scientific director. In 
1929, he was appointed professor at Moscow Military Technical 
School, and in 1932 he was made professor at the Military Aca- 
demy of Chemical Defense. In 1947 he was made professor at 
Moscow University. He has been an Academician since 1946. 

With E. I. Zhukovskii he made a study of electrothermal 
distillation of phosphorus from native phosphates in 1922. On 
the basis of this study, electric furnace plants were built for 
the first time in the U.S.S.R. From 1923 to 1929, he supervised 
the production of superphosphates from native phosphates and 
apatites. He worked also on the acid conversion of phosphates 
to concentrated fertilizers. Then he developed a process for 
obtaining potassium salts from sylvinite. In 1926, Vol'fkovich 
and his co-workers worked out a coordinated treatment of phos- 
phates with nitric acid to obtain phosphorus, nitrogen, and com- 
plex fertilizers, fluorine salts, and rare earths. For this work 
he received a Stalin Prize in 1941. In 1930 and 1931 with A. P. 
Belopol'skii, he studied a physico-chemical treatment of mira- 
bilite to obtain soda and ammonium sulfate. Vol'fkovich initiat- 
ed a number of studies on crystal chemistry of ammonium ni- 
trate. And he also proposed a method of obtaining boric acid 
from native datolites. With co-workers he developed a hydro - 
thermal method of phosphate treatment. From 1945 to 1950, he 
worked out new methods for obtaining fluorine compounds, am- 
monium nitrates and sulfates, phosphides, chlorides, and phos- 
phorus compounds. He also developed procedures for obtaining 
a number of metallo organic compounds. 

In June 1958, Vol'fkovich visited the United States to attend 
the 50th Annual American Institute of Chemical Engineers in 
Philadelphia, Penna. 
Bibliography: 

Production of Potassium Chloride. Leningrad: 1930. 

Treatment of Khibin Apatites for Fertilizers. Leningrad: 

1932. 

Technology of Nitrogen Fertilizers. Moscow: 1935. 



421 VOLOGDIN 

with others . General Chemical Technology, Vol. 1-2. 

Mo scow -Leningrad: 1940-1946. 

with others, editors . Technology of phosphoric acid, double 

phosphate and ammonium phosphates (collection of research 

works). Moscow-Leningrad: 1940. 

Physico-chemical and technological analysis of phosphate 

decomposition with nitric acid and obtaining of fertilizers. 

Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. Khim. 1940, #5. 

Biography: 

Q. E. Zvyagintsev . Semen Isaakovich Vol'fkovich (for 60th 
birthday). Zhur. Priklad. Khim., 1946, 19, #12. 
A. M. Dubovitskii and M. E. Pozin. Semen Isaakovich Vol'f- 
kovich (for 60th birthday). Zhur. Priklad. Khim., 1956, 29, 
#11. 

Office: Chemistry Department 

Moscow University 
Moscow, USSR 

Residence: M. Bronnaya 19/6 
Moscow, USSR 

Telephone: B3 11 37 

VOLOGDIN, ALEKSANDR GRIGOREVICH (Geologist) 

A. G. Vologdin was born March 11, 1896. In 1925 he gradu- 
ated from the Leningrad Mining Institute. He worked, in 1920, 
for the Geological Committee and subsequently in organizations 
developing from it. In 1943 he worked at the Paleontological 
Institute of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He was elected 
to the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences in 1939 as a Corresponding 
Member. 

Vologdin worked in the geology and minerals of Yuzhno- 
Krasnoyarskii Kray, in paleontology (particularly the archaeo- 
cyathus and the most ancient algae), in stratigraphy, in hydro- 
geology, in geologic engineering, and in search for minerals of 
commercial importance. 
Bibliography: 

Archaeocyatals of Siberia, 1-2. Surveys. Moscow-Leningrad: 
1931-32. 

Tubinsko-Sisimskii Region of the Minusinko-Khahaskii Ter- 
ritory. Moscow- Leningrad: 1932. 

Kizir-Kazyrskii Region (with one map). Moscow-Leningrad: 
1931. 

Archaeocyathus and Algae of Cambrian Limestone of 
Mongolia and Tuva. I. Moscow -Leningrad: 1940. 



VOL'SKn 422 

and others . Geology and Commercial Minerals of Northern 
Bukovina and Bessarabiya. Mo scow -Leningrad: 1946. 
Office: Institute of Paleontology of USSR Academy of 

Sciences 
Leninskii Prospekt, 33 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Berezhkovsk. nab. 40 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: G3 37 33 

VOL'SKn, ANTON NIKQLAEVICH (Metallurgist) 

A. N. Vol'skii was born June 24, 1897. In 1924 he graduated 
from the Moscow Institute of National Economy. From 1928 to 
1948 he worked in the State Scientific Research Institute of Non- 
Ferrous Metals. He began teaching in the Moscow Institute of 
Non- Ferrous Metals and Gold in 1929, and in 1934 he was made 
a professor there. From 1953 he was a Corresponding Mem- 
ber of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, and since 1960 an 
Academician. 

Vol'skii has studied chemical equilibriums in melts during 
metallurgical smelting in non-ferrous metallurgy. He complet- 
ed a series of investigations of great practical significance. 
Bibliography: 

Extraction of Zinc and Lead from Waste Products of Metal- 
lurgical Plants. Moscow: 1934. 

Theory of Metallurgical Processes, L Moscow-Leningrad: 
1935. 

The Basis of Theory of Metallurgical Smelting. Moscow: 
1943. 

Interaction between sulfides and oxides during the smelting 
of ores and Bessemerizing of mattes. Anniversary Col- 
lection of Scientific Works 1939-1940, #9. Moscow- 
Leningrad: 1940. 
Office: Moscow Institute of Non- Ferrous Metals and Gold 

Moscow, USSR 

VONSOVSKH, SERGEI VASIL'EVICH (Physicist) 

S. V. Vonsovskii was born September 2, 1910. After gradu- 
ating from Leningrad University in 1932, he worked in the Urals 
Physico-Technical Institute in Sverdlovsk. In 1939 he began 
working in the Institute of Physics of Metals in the Urals branch 
of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, now U.S.S.R. Academy of 



423 VONSOVSKII 

Sciences, and in 1944 he was also a professor at Urals Uni- 
versity. Since 1953 he has been a Corresponding Member of 
the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

In order to explain the electrical and magnetic properties of 
metals and semiconductors, Vonsovskii (with S. Shubin) de- 
veloped the so-called "polar" and (s-d) exchange theories, 
treating the system of electrons in a crystal lattice as a single 
interacting system. Besides the processes of exchange, he also 
took into account transfer processes, which lead to the estab- 
lishment of polar states. On the basis of these models, Vonsov- 
skii and associates constructed a general theory on ferro- 
magnetics close to the Curie point, and explained fractional 
atomic moments, the optic, magnetooptic, electric and other 
phenomena in ferromagnetics, an indirect exchange in ferrites, 
and the general theories of transition metals with magnetic 
atomic orders. 
Bibliography: 

and Ya. S. Shur. Ferromagnetism. Moscow -Leningrad: 
1948. 

Contemporary Theory on Magnetism. Moscow: 1953. 
and S. Schubin. Zur elektronentheorie der Metalle. I-II. 
Physikalische Zeitschrift der Sowjetunion, 1935, 7, #3, 292- 
328; 1936, 10, #3, 348-77. 

On the exchange interaction of valentand internal electrons in 
ferromagnetic (transition) metals. Zhur. Ekspt'l. i Teoret. 
Fiz. 16, #11 (1946). 

and E. A. Turov . On the exchange interaction of valent and 
internal electrons in crystals (s-d) —exchange model of tran- 
sition metals. Zhur. Ekspt'l. i Teoret. Fiz. 24, #4 (1953). 
Theory of interaction of electrons in a crystal lattice. Iz- 
vest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. Fiz. 12, #4 (1948), and Us- 
pekhi Phys. Nauk 48, 289 (1952). 

Some questions on multiple -electron theory of semi- 
conductors. Zhur. Tekh. Fiz^ 25, #12 (1955). 
and Yu. M. Seidov . On indirect exchange interaction. Dok- 
lady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 107, #1 (1956). 
and E. A. Turov. On the phenomenological treatment of 
ferro- and antiferromagnetism. J. Appl. Phys. 29, #9 (1959). 
and Yu. A. Izumov . On the statistical properties of electrons 
in transition metals. Fiz. Metal, Metalloved 10, 321 (1960). 
and Yu. A. Izumov. Electron theory of transition metals. 
Uspekhi Fiz. Nauk 77, 377 (I) (1962); 78, 1 (II). 



VOROZHTSOV 424 

Office: Institute of Physics of Metals USSR Academy of 

Sciences 
S. Kovalevskaya Ul. 13 
Sverdlovsk, USSR 

VOROZHTSOV, NIKOLAI NIKQLAEVICH (Organic Chemist) 

N. N. Vorozhtsov, son of N. N. Vorozhtsov (1881-1941, or- 
ganic chemist), was born June 5, 1907. He graduated from the 
Moscow Technological College in 1928, and from then until 1930 
he worked in the Laboratory of the Commission on the Study of 
the Natural Productive Forces of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sci- 
ences in Moscow. In 1930-38, he was at the State Institute of 
High Pressures in Leningrad; in 1938-43 he taught at the 
Kazakh State University where, in 1939, he was made professor. 
He was Director of the Scientific Research Institute of Organic 
Semiproducts and Dyes from 1943 to 1947, and in 1945 was 
Chairman of the Department of the Moscow Mendeleev Chemico- 
Technological Institute. In 1958 he was elected a Corresponding 
Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He became a 
member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1942. 
He received a Stalin Prize in 1952. 

The investigations of Vorozhtsov are in organic chemistry, 
technology of organic dyes and intermediates. He investigated 
exchange reactions of aryl halides, catalytic isomerization, 
halogen-naphthalenes, halogenation of aromatic and aliphatic 
compounds, sulfonation and the transformation of sulfo acids. 
A part of the work of Vorozhtsov deals with the structure of 
natural products. He supplemented and prepared for publi- 
cation the 3rd and 4th editions of a well-known monograph of 
N. N. Vorozhtsov, Sr., "Basis of Synthesis of Intermediate Pro- 
ducts and Dyes," (3rd ed., 1952). 

As of 1961, Vorozhtsov was the Director of the Institute of 
Organic Chemistry of the Siberian Branch U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences. 
Bibliography: 

Chemistry of Natural Tanning Substances. Moscow- 
Leningrad: 1932. 

and V. A. Kobelev. Kinetics and mechanism of a catalytic 
exchange of chlorine for an amine group. Doklady Akad. 
Nauk S.S.S.R., 1934, _3, #2. 

and V. A. Koptyug. Study of the mechanism of catalytic 
isomerization of monochlornaphthalene by the method of 
tagged atoms. Zhur. Obshchei Khim., 1958, #2. 



425 VUL 

Office: Moscow Mendeleev Chemico-Technological Institute 

Moscow, USSR 

VUL, BENTSIQN MOISEEVICH (Physicist) 

B. M. Vul was born May 22, 1903. He graduated in 1928 
from the Kiev Polytechnic Institute. In 1932 he went to work at 
the Physics Institute of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He 
has been a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union 
since 1922. In 1939 he was elected a Corresponding Member 
of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He was the recipient in 
1946 of a Stalin Prize. 

Vul's works deal with the physics of dielectrics. While 
studying electric strength of dielectrics, he established the 
nature of the end-effect in the breakdown of dielectrics and the 
particularitites of the breakdown of compressed gases in sharp- 
ly heterogeneous fields. He discovered (1944) a new ferro- 
electric-barium titanate (BaTiOs) which has a very high di- 
electric constant. 

In March 1960, Vul visited the United States to attend the 
20th Annual Conference on Physical Electronics in Cambridge, 
Massachusetts. 
Bibliography: 

Consecutive breakdown of solid dielectrics. Zhur. Tekh. 

Fiz., 1932, 2, #3-4. 

and I. M. Gol'dman . Substances with a high and super-high 

dielectric constant. Electricity, 1946, #3. 

and I. M. Gol'dman. Breakdown of compressed gas in a 

heterogeneous electric field. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 

1934, 2, #9. 

The dielectric constant of rutile compositions. Doklady 

Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1944, 43, #7. 

and I. M. Gol'dman. The dielectric constant of titanates of 

metals of the second group. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 

1945, 46, #4. 

On the nature of piezoelectric properties of the titanate of 

barium. In memory of Sergei Ivanovich Vavilov. Moscow: 

1952, 319-323. 

On the dielectric properties of transition layers in semi- 
conductors. Zhur. Tekh. Fiz., 1955, 25, #1, 3-10. 

On the Breakdown of Transition Layers in Semiconductors. 

Zhur. Tekh. Fiz., 1956, 26, #11, 2403-2416. 

and E. I. Zavaritskaya, L. V. Keldysh . Impurity conductivity 

of germanium at low temperatures. Doklady Akad. Nauk 

S.S.S.R. 135, #6, 1361-63 (1960). 



WWEDENSKY 426 

Electric current in gamma-rayed dielectrics. Doklady Akad. 
Nauk S.S.S.R. 139, #6, 1339-41 (1961). 
Office: A. N. Lebedev Physics Institute of USSR Academy 

of Sciences 
Leninskii Prospekt, 53 
Moscow, USSR 

WWEDENSKY (VVEDENSKII), BORIS ALEKSEEVICH 
(Electronics Physicist) 

B. A. Wwedensky was born April 19, 1893. After graduating 
from Moscow University in 1915, he worked in several scien- 
tific research organizations. From 1927 to 1935, he was at the 
All- Union Electrotechnical Institute where he was made pro- 
fessor in 1929. He worked at the Physics Institute of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences from 1941 until 1944. Wweden- 
sky, in 1941-1944, served as a member of the Presidium of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. In 1944-1951 he was Chairman 
of the Section on Development of Problems in Ffadioengineering 
of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences and, in 1946-1951, he was 
Academician Secretary of the Department of Technical Sciences 
of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He became a member, in 
1949, of the main editorial board and the chief editor, in 1951, 
of the Great Soviet Encyclopedia. Since 1959, he has been 
Chairman of the Scientific Council of the Soviet Encyclopedia. 
In 1953 he began working at the Institute of Radioengineering 
and Electronics of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. Wweden- 
sky was elected Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy 
of Sciences in 1934, and in 1943 Academician. In 1954 he be- 
came a Corresponding Member of the German Academy of Sci- 
ences, Berlin. He has received the following awards: in 1949 
the Gold Medal of A. S. Popov; in 1952 the State Prize; in 1945 
and 1953, the Order of Lenin; in 1953 and 1962, the Red Banner 
of Labor. 

Wwedenskii's main work is concerned with the study of the 
propagation of ultra-short waves, and also with investigations 
in magnetism. Under his leadership an ultra-short wave broad- 
casting station (RV-61) was built in 1929. In 1932-1933 he 
organized expeditions for the study of the propagation of meter 
and decimeter waves over the sea surface. The expedition 
proved the possibility of the propagation of ultra short waves 
beyond the horizon (diffraction propagation) and allowed a de- 
termination of the relationship between the propagation of ultra 
short waves and meteorological conditions (phenomenon of re- 
fraction). Wwedensky introduced the "diffraction formula," 



427 WWEDENSKY 

according to which the field of ultra short waves beyond the 
horizon could be calculated (1935-1936). Wwedensky's publi- 
cations on the propagation of ultra short waves are: Basis of 
the Theory of Propagation of Radiowaves (1934); Propagation 
of Ultra Short Waves (1934); Propagation of Ultra Short Waves 
(1938; together with A. G. Arenberg). His investigations in 
magnetism are presented in the monograph, Contemporary 
Study of Magnetism (1929; together with Academician G. S. 
Landsberg). 
Bibliography: 

Uber die Magnetische Viskositat in sehr diinnen Eisendrah- 
ten und ihre Abhangigkeit von der Magnetisierung und der 
Temperatur. Annalen der Physik, 1921, 66, 110-129. 
Uber die Wirbelstrome bei der spontanen Anderung der Mag- 
netisierung. Annalen der Physik, 1921, 64, #67, 609-620. 
and S. M. Rzhevkin . Die Messung von Kapazitaten und gros- 
sen Widerstanden mittels intermittierenden Rohrengener- 
ators. Physikalische Zeitschrift, 1922, 23, 150-153. 
Physical Phenomena in Electron Tubes, 4th ed. Moscow- 
Leningrad: 1932. 

and A. G. Arenberg. Questions on Propagation of Ultra 
Short Waves, Part I. Moscow: 1948. 

On diffraction propagation of radiowaves. Zhur. Tekh. Fiz., 
1936, 6, #1, 163-176; #11, 1837-1847; 1937,1, #16, 1647- 
1657. Technical Physics in the U.S.S.R., 1935, 1, #2, 624; 
1936, _3, #11, 915-925; 1937, 4, #8, 579-591. (English trans.) 
and M. I. Ponomarev. Utilizing method of geometrical optics 
for determining trajectory of ultra short radiowaves in 
heterogeneous atmosphere. Izvest. Akad. Nauk, Otdel. Tech. 
Nauk, 1946, #9, 1201-1210. 

and A. G. Arenberg. Long distance tropospheric propagation 
of ultra short waves. Radiotechnics, 1957, #1-2. 
Physical Phenomena in Cathode Tubes, 4th ed. 1932. 
Biography: 

Academician B. A. Wwedenskii (On the 60th Anniversary 
since date of birth). Radiotekh., 1953, 8, #3. 
Office: Chairman of the Scientific Council "Soviet 

Encyclopedia" 
State Scientific Publishing House 
Pokrovskii Blvd. 8 
Moscow ZH-28, USSR 
Telephone: K7 26 19 



YAKOVLEV 428 

Residence: Leninskii Prospekt, 13 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: B2 11 13 

YAKOVLEV, ALEKSANDR SERGEEVICH (Aircraft Designer) 
A. S. Yakovlev was born April 1, 1906. He was a Colonel- 
General in the Engineering Technical Service. In 1931, he 
graduated from the Military Air Engineering Academy in Mos- 
cow. In 1934 he was Chief, and in 1957, he became General 
Designer of the Experimental-Designing Bureau. From 1940- 
1948 he was deputy of the People's Commissariat and subse- 
quently deputy Minister of the Aviation Industry. He was a 
delegate to the Supreme Soviet at the second and fifth convo- 
cations. Yakovlev has been a member of the Communist Party 
since 1938. He has been awarded the title Hero of Socialist 
Labor, and was the recipient of a Stalin Prize in 1941, 1942, 
1943, 1946, 1947, and 1948. In 1943 he was elected to the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences as a Corresponding Member. 

Yakovlev designed a number of planes for different purpos- 
es—sports, training, passenger, fighters, bombers and heli- 
copters. Among the training and passenger airplanes, these 
are outstanding: training planes UT-1 and UT-2, planes for 
communication YAK- 12, which is utilized in agriculture and as 
a light passenger airplane, the YAK- 18 for beginners' study and 
training. Yakovlev has also designed combat, piston and jet 
airplanes, primarily fighters and fighter-interceptors. In 
the beginning of World War II he designed a fighter, the YAK-1, 
which was widely employed. Also well known is the fighter 
YAK-9 and particularly the YAK-3 which was one of the main 
fighters among those participating in World War II (1941-45) 
and which had high speed and maneuverability. Under the 
leadership of Yakovlev, the first jet fighter, the YAK- 15 was 
designed in 1945, and subsequently the jet fighters YAK-17, 
YAK-23 and later a series of jet supersonic fighters. Yakovlev 
also designed helicopters, including the twin-engine helicopter, 
the "Flying Car"— the YAK-24. He is the author of memoirs 
"Stories of an Aircraft Designer" (1957). 

In March 1962, Yakovlev was elected to the Council of 
Nationalities. 

Office: USSR Academy of Sciences 

Leninskii Prospekt, 14 
Moscow, USSR 



429 YAKOVLEV 

Residence: Metrostroevskaya 1 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: G5 36 21 

YAKOVLEV, N. N. (Geologist-Paleontologist) 

N. N. Yakovlev was born April 27, 1870. He worked on the 
Geological Committee (now the AU-Union Scientific Research 
Geological Institute in Leningrad) in 1895. From 1900-1930, he 
was professor at the Petersburg (Leningrad) Mining Institute. 
In 1923-26, he was Director of the Geological Committee. He 
was awarded the title Honored Scientist of R.S. F.S.R. in 1930. 
In 1948 the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences awarded Yakovlev the 
A. P. Karpinskii Prize for his scientific investigations. He was 
elected, in 1921, to the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences as a 
Corresponding Member. 

Yakovlev conducted geological investigations in various 
regions of the country. In the Donbas, from 1892, he partici- 
pated in a geological survey conducted by the Geological Com- 
mittee and studied the structure of the Bakhmut salt-bearing 
basin. He worked out and paleontologically substantiated the 
stratigraphy of lower Permain sediments. In the Urals, Yakov- 
lev conducted geological investigations on deposits of coal, iron 
and other ores; the Caucasus and territories beyond the Cau- 
casus, he studied various mineral sources. He was the first to. 
make paleoecological investigations of invertebrates in Russia, 
particularly of the three Paleozoic groups of animals— brachio- 
pods, tetracorals and pelma echinoderms. He investigated the 
origin of structural festures of organisms and the change of 
these features under the influence of external factors. 
Bibliography: 

Studies on the Coral Rugosa. Works of the Geological Com- 
mittee, New Series, 1914, #96. 

Fauna of the upper part of the Paleozoic deposits in the 
Donetz Basin, I-III. Works of _^the Geological Committee, 
New Series, 1903-1912, 79, #4-12. 

Attachment of brachiopods as a basis of their species and 
genus. Works of the Geological Committee, New Series, 
1908, #48. 

Extinction of animals and plants and reasons according to 
geologic data. Proceedings of the Geologic Committee, 41, 
#1, Petrograd, 1922. 

Crinoids and Blastoids of Carboniferous and Permian De- 
posits of the U.S.S.R. Moscow: 1956. 



YANSHIN 430 

The organism and the environment. Articles on Paleoecolo- 
gy of Invertebrates, 1913-1956. Moscow -Leningrad: 1956. 

Biography: 

A. Ryabinin . Nikolai Nikolaevich Yakovlev (On the 70th 
Anniversary since the date of birth). Annual of the All- 
Russia Paleontological Society, 12, 1936-1939, Moscow- 
Leningrad, 1945 (contains bibliography of the works of 
Yakovlev.) 

V. V. Menner . Nikolai Nikolaevich Yakovlev. Izvest. Akad. 
Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. Geol., 1951, #3. 

I. L Gorskii. N. N. Yakovlev (On the 70th Anniversary since 
the date of birth). Annual of the Paleontological Society, 14, 
1948-53, Moscow-Leningrad, 1953. 

V. P. Nekhoroshev. On the work of N. N. Yakovlev in the 
field of geology. Annual of the Paleontologic Society, 14, 
1948-53. 

Office: USSR Academy of Sciences 

Leninskii Prospekt, 14 
Moscow, USSR 

Residence: ul. Marksa i Engelsa 16 
Moscow, USSR 

Telephone: K5 12 19 

YANSHIN, ALEKSANDR LEONIDOVICH (Geologist) 

A. L. Yanshin was born March 28, 1911. In 1923 he gradu- 
ated from Moscow Geological Survey Institute and had been 
working since 1929 in the Mining-Geological Department at the 
Scientific Institute for Fertilizers. From 1936 he worked at the 
Geological Institute of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences and in 
1956 was made Chairman of the Department on Regional Tec- 
tonics at this Institute. Yanshin was elected an Academician of 
the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences in 1958. In 1953 he was 
awarded the A. P. Karpinskii Prize for his work on "Geology of 
the North." He was the recipient of three orders and also some 
medals. 

Yanshin' s investigations are in tectonics, stratigraphy, lith- 
ology, and hydrogeology primarily of the Western territory of 
the Kazakh S.S.R., and of the Southern Urals. In the Southern 
Urals, he located a wide development of continental Mesozoic 
sediments and distinguished in them a series of formations. 
He worked out the stratigraphy of Tertiary sedimentation of the 
Aralo-Turgaisk depression, in connection with which he criti- 
cally examined some general questions in paleogenic stratigra- 
phy. In biostratigraphic examinations, he adhered to the idea of 



431 YUNUSOV 

non- simultaneous appearance and disappearance of the same or 
similar species in dissimilar zoophyto- geographic territories. 
In tectonics he studied so-called "young" platforms with a 
Paleozoic folded base. In particular, he suggested new ideas on 
folded structures of the Urals, Tien Shan, and Mangishlak, and 
of the deep geological structure of the plains surrounding the 
Aral Sea. The presence of oil deposits in this territory was 
predicted by Yanshin. He took part, in 1952 and 1956, in the 
compilation of tectonic maps of the U.S.S.R. He studied lig- 
nites, iron ores, bauxite, phosphorite, potassium salt, and 
cement raw materials, and he discovered industrial deposits of 
these minerals. He also found a series of artesian basins. 
Bibliography: 

Methods of studying buried folded structures as an example 
of elucidation of the correlation of the Urals, Tien Shan, and 
Mangishlak. Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. Geol., 1948, 
#5. 

Views of A. D. Arkhangelskii on the tectonic character of 
southeastern surroundings of the Russian platform, and con- 
temporary views on this question. In Memory of Academici- 
an A. D. Arkhangelskii. Questions on Lithography and 
Stratigraphy of the U.S.S.R. Moscow: 1951. 
Geology of Northern Territories Close to the Aral Sea. 
Moscow: 1953. 
Office: Department of Regional Tectonics 

USSR Academy of Sciences Institute of Geology 
Pyzhevskii Pereulok, 7 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Leninskii Prospekt, 25 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: V4 00 27, Ext. 8 

YUNUSOV, SABIR YUNUSHOVICH (Organic Chemist) 

Yunusov was born November 11, 1909, in Tashkent. In 1935 
he graduated from the Chemical Faculty of the Central Asia 
University. Since 1943 he has been Chief of the Laboratory of 
Alkaloid Chemistry of the Uzbek S.S.R. Academy of Sciences 
Institute of Plant Chemistry, and he is Director of this insti- 
tute. In 1948 Yunusov received his Doctor of Chemical Sciences 
degree. He has been a member of the Communist Party of the 
Soviet Union since 1950. In 1952 he was elected Academician 
of the Uzbek Academy of Sciences, and in 1958 a Corresponding 
Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. From 1952 to 



ZABABAKHIN 432 

1962 he was Vice-President of the Uzbek S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences. 

Yunusov's investigations are in alkaloid chemistry. He has 
studied the alkaloid content of over four thousand plant flora of 
Uzbekistan and Central Asia. From twenty -five hundred plant 
types he isolated one hundred and forty alkaloids of which 
ninety-five were new. Yunusov established the structure of 
twenty -eight alkaloids and found a number of them to have me- 
dicinal properties. He has also conducted research on alkaloid 
storage in various parts of plants with respect to their period 
of growth. 
Bibliography: 

Alkaloids of Ungernia severtzovii. Structure of ungerine. 

Zhur. Obshchei Khim. ^9, 1724-8 (1959). C. A. 54, 8871c 

(1960). 

and Kh. A. Abduazimov . Galanthamine hydrobromide. 

U. S.S.R. Patent 128, 111, Apr. 28, 1960. C A. 54, 23206e 

(1960). 

and S. T. Akramov. Alkaloids of Lolium cuneatum. H. 

Zhur. Obshchei Khim._30, 677-82 (1960). C. h. M, 24831c 

(1960). 

and S. T. Akramov. Structure of norloline, loline, and lo- 

linine. Doklady Akad. Nauk Usbek. S.S.R., #4, 28-31 (1959). 

C. A. 54. 11028i (1960). 
Office: Uzbek SSR Academy of Sciences Institute of Plant 

Chemistry 
Ulitsa Kuibysheva, 14 
Tashkent, Uzbek SSR 
Telephone: 34686 and 28465 

ZABABAKHIN, EVGENH IVANQVICH (Physicist) 

E. I. Zababakhin was born in 1917. After graduating from 

the Military Air Engineering Academy in 1944, he taught there. 

He has been a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet 

Union since 1949. In 1958 he was elected a Corresponding 

Member of the U. S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 
Zababakhin' s work was in gas dynamics. 

Bibliography: 

and M. N. Nechaev . Shock waves of fields and their cumu- 
lation. Zhur. Eksptl. i Teoret. Fiz., 1957, 33, #2(8). 

Office: USSR Academy of Sciences 

Leninskii Prospekt, 14 
Moscow, USSR 



433 ZAVOISKII 

ZAVALISHIN, DMITRII ALEKSANDROVICH (Electrotechnolo- 
gist) 

D. A. Zavalishin was born in 1900. In 1925 he graduated 
from Leningrad Polytechnical Institute, where he worked until 
1939. From 1939 to 1941 he was Chairman of the Department 
of Electric Machines of the S. M. Buden Military Electrotechni- 
cal Academy, and from 1941 to 1946 he was professor on the 
faculty of special electrotechnology of the Armed Forces Ad- 
vanced School of Engineering-Technology. He became, in 1946- 
1959, Chairman of the Department of Electrical Machines of the 
Leningrad Institute of Aeronautical Instrument Construction. 

In 1959, he became Chief of the Laboratory on Scientific Funda- 
mentals of Automatized Electrical Apparatus of the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Sciences Institute of Electromechanics. He was 
elected, in 1960, a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Aca- 
demy of Sciences. In 1957 he was awarded the title of Honored 
Scientist and Technologist of the R.S. F.S.R. 

Zavalishin' s principal work is in the field of electrical ma- 
chines, electron-ionic and semiconductor equipment. 
Bibliography: 

and S. V. Zakharevich, V. A. Tikan. A model study of in- 
verter and rectifier performance of an electric locomotive 
thermionic converter. Elektrichestvo, 1959, #6, 1-8. Elec. 
Eng. Sci. Abstr. 62, 5736 (1959). 

and A. I. Vazhnov, E. V. Tolvinskaya, I. A. Gordon, I. A. 
Glebov. Synchronous capacitors for long distance power 
transmission. Elektrichestvo, 1958, #10, 43-7. Elec. Eng. 
Sci. Abstr. 62, 1943 (1959). 
Office: Institute of Electromechanics of USSR Academy of 

Sciences 
Dvortsovaya Naberezhnaya 18 
Leningrad, USSR 

ZAVQISKH, EVGENH KQNSTANTINQVICH (Physicist) 

E. K. Zavoiskii was born September 28, 1907. In 1930 he 
graduated from the University of Kazan' and has taught there 
since 1933, becoming a professor in 1945. He has been working 
at U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences departments since 1947. In 
1957 he was awarded the Lenin Prize. He was elected, in 1953, 
a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

Zavoiskii discovered in 1944 the phenomenon of electronic 
paramagnetic resonance. On the basis of an analysis of experi- 
mental data, together with S. A. Al'tschuller and B. M. Kozyrev, 
he established a series of relationships between the form of 



ZAYMOVSKII 434 

resonant lines. From 1947 he has been developing the use of 
image converters for a scintillation chamber, and for investi- 
gating processes of a comparatively short duration (10 "^ - 
10-14 seconds). 
Bibliography: 

and S. A. Al'tshuUer, B. M. Kozyrev. New method of in- 
vestigating paramagnetic absorption. Zhur. Eksptl. i Teoret. 
Fiz., 1944, #10-11. 

Paramagnetic Absorption in solutions with parallel fields. 
Zhur. Eksptl. i Teoret. Fiz., 1945, #6. 
and S. A. Al'tshuller, B. M. Kozyrev . Paramagnetic re- 
laxation in liquid solutions with perpendicular fields. Zhur. 
Eksptl. i Teoret. Fiz., 1945, #7. 

Paramagnetic abscription in some salts in perpendicular 
magnetic fields. Zhur. Fiz., Moscow, 1946, 10, #2. 
Spin magnetic resonance in the decimeter -wave region. 
Zhur. Fiz., Moscow, 1946, 10, #2. 

and others. Scintillation chamber. Doklady Akad. Nauk 
S.S.S.R., 1955, 100, #2. 
Office: Physics Department 

University of Kazan' 
Kazan', Tatar ASSR 

ZAYMOVSKII, ALEKSANDR SEMYQNQVICH (Metallographer) 

A. S. Zaymovskii was born October 9, 1905. Upon gradu- 
ation from the Moscow Mining Academy in 1928, he taught 
there, and subsequently at the Moscow Institute of Steel, and at 
Moscow University from 1932-1941. From 1928-43, he worked 
at the All-Union Electro-Technical Institute. Since 1945 he has 
been a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. In 
1958, he was elected to the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences as a 
Corresponding Member. He received a Stalin Prize. 

Zaymovskii' s main works are in metallography, the pro- 
duction of new alloys with special physical properties. Zaymov- 
skii aided the production in the U.S.S.R. of new magnetic and 
conducting alloys. He investigated conducting and transforming 
steel, electro-technical iron. Permalloys and powdered mag- 
netic dielectrics. 
Bibliography: 

and others. Metals and Alloys in Electrical Engineering, 

3rd ed., 1-2. Moscow-Leningrad: 1957. 
Office: USSR Academy of Sciences 

Leninskii Prospekt, 14 
Moscow, USSR 



435 ZEL'DOVICH 

ZEL'DOVICH, YAKOV BQRISQVICH (Physicist) 

Y. B. Zel'dovich was born March 18, 1914. He studied at 
Leningrad University. In 1931 he began working at the Institute 
of Chemical Physics of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He 
was elected Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Sciences in 1946 and Academician in 1958. In 1943 he was 
awarded a Stalin Prize. 

Zel'dovich examined the statistics of heterogeneous surfaces 
based on the measurement of the adsorption isotherm. In the 
period 1935-1939 he and associates ascertained the mechanism 
of nitrogen oxidation during an explosion. Together with Yu. B. 
IChariton, Zel'dovich proposed a calculation of the chain re- 
action in uranium fission in 1939-1940. In 1938-1943, he and 
D. A. Frank- Kamenetskii worked out a theory of the flame 
propagation and proposed a mechanism for chemical reaction 
in a shock wave. 
Bibliography: 

and Yu. B. Khariton. The question of chain decay of the 
main isotope of uranium. Zhur. Eksptl. i Teoret. Fiz., 1939, 
1, #12. 

and Yu. B. Khariton. The chain decay of uranium under the 
influence of slow neutrons. Zhur. Eksptl. i Teoret. Fiz., 
1940, 10, #1. 

Theory of Burning and Detonation of Gases. Moscow- 
Leningrad: 1944. 

Theory of Shock Waves and Introduction to Gas Dynamics. 
Moscow -Leningrad: 1946. 

and P. Ya. Sadovnikov, D. A. Frank -Kamenetskii. Oxidation 
of Nitrogen During Combustion. Moscow -Leningrad: 1947. 
and A. S. Kompaneets . Theory of Detonation. Moscow: 
1955. 

Movement of gas under the influence of a shock wave. Akust. 
Zhur., 1956, 2, #1. 

Development of the theory of anti-particles, charging of ele- 
mentary particles and properties of heavy neutral mesons. 
Uspekhi Fiz. Nauk, 1956, 59, #3. 

Experimental investigation of spherical gas detonation. 
Zhur. Tekh. Fiz., 1956, 26, #8. 

Problems of contemporary physics and astronomy. Uspekhi 
Fiz. Nauk 78, #4, 549 (1962). 

and G. I. Barenblatt, R. L. Salganik. Quasi periodic sedi- 
ment fallout in interdependent diffusion of two materials 
(Lisegang ring). Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 140, #6, 
1281-84(1961). 



ZENKEVICH 436 

Office: Institute of Chemical Physics of USSR Academy of 

Sciences 
Vorob'evskoye Shosse 2 
Moscow, USSR 

ZENKEVICH, LEV ALEXANDROVICH (Qceanographer) 

L. A. Zenkevich was born June 17, 1889. He was a graduate 
of the Law Faculty in 1912, and in 1916 of the Moscow Universi- 
ty Department of Phy si co- Mathematical Faculty. Upon his 
graduation, he worked there as a professor since 1930. He 
also worked at the Institute of Oceanography at the Academy of 
Sciences in 1927. He became a Corresponding Member of the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences in 1953. 

Zenkevich took an active part in organizing the Floating 
Scientific Marine Institute (later known as the State Oceano- 
graphic Institute) where he worked from 1921-30. He took part 
in many expeditions for comprehensive study of the northern 
seas, the Caspian, the Far East Seas and the Pacific Ocean 
(1949-52); he directed the expedition on the "Vitiaz." His basic 
work is devoted to the fauna of the Russian seas. He introduced 
a quantitative system for the study of marine benthic fauna. He 
has developed ration methods of feeding of fish. To improve 
the food base of the Caspian, he acclimatized the clamworm. 
He studied the evolution of motive power of invertebrates. 
From 1955 he was a member of the Advisory Committee on 
Marine Science at the UNESCO and vice president of the Special 
Committee on Oceanographic Research at the International 
Council of Scientific Unions. 

In August 1959, Zenkevich visited the United States to attend 
the International Oceanographic Conference in New York City. 
As of 1961 he was Chairman of the Oceanographic Committee 
of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 
Bibliography: 

Fauna and the Productivity of the Seas, 1947, 1-2. 

The Seas of U.S.S.R., their Fauna and Flora, 2nd ed., 1956. 

and others. Animal Geography, 1946. 
Office: Chairman of Oceanographic Committee 

USSR Academy of Sciences 
Leninskii Prospekt, 14 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Lomonosovskii Prospekt, 14 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: B9 25 56 



437 ZHAVORONKOV 

ZERNQV, DMITRII VLADIMIROVICH (Electronics Expert) 

D. V. Zernov was born March 20, 1907. Upon graduation in 
1930 from Moscow University, he worked at the AU-Union 
Electro-Technical Institute until 1934. From 1932 to 1938, he 
taught at the Moscow Institute of Transport Engineers. From 
1936 to 1939, he worked at the Scientific Research Institute of 
Cinematography and Photography. In 1939, he worked at the 
Institute of Automation and Telemechanics of the U.S.S.R. Aca- 
demy of Sciences, and in 1953 at the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sci- 
ences Institute of Radiotechnology and Electronics. He was 
elected, in 1953, a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Aca- 
demy of Sciences. 

In the early 1930' s, Zernov was the first in the Soviet Union 
to construct sodium vapor fluorescent lamps. Under his leader- 
ship a television system with a large multi -grain screen was 
developed, for which he created a multi -contact, electron-beam 
commutator. In later years, Zernov continued work on the im- 
provement and investigation of electron-beam devices of the 
commutator type. He studied electronic emission of thin di- 
electric layers under the influence of a field of a positive sur- 
face charge which is formed by electron bombardment. 
Bibliography: 

Electric discharge in sodium vapors as a source of light. 

Zhur. Tekh. Fiz., 1933, _3, #8. 

Investigation of autoelectronic emission of thin dielectric 

films. Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Otdel. Tekh. Nauk, 1944, 

#3. 

Mechanics of an electric breakdown of solid dielectrics. 

Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1950, #6. 

Utilization of electron-beam tubes for regulating and track 

homing. Elektrichestvo, 1945, #10. 
Office: Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics of 

USSR Academy of Sciences 
Mokhovaya Ulitsa ll,-K-9 
Moscow, USSR 

ZHAVORONKOV, NIKOLAI MIKHAILOVICH (Chemical Tech- 
nologist) 
N. M. Zhavoronkov was born August 7, 1907. Upon gradu- 
ation from the Moscow Chemical- Technological Institute in 
1930, he joined the Institute's faculty, and in 1942 became a 
professor. In 1948 he became Director of the Institute. Begin- 
ning in 1944, he has been working at the L. A. Karpov Physico- 
Chemical Institute. Since 1939, he has been a member of the 



ZHAVORONKOV 438 

Communist Party of the Soviet Union. He was elected, in 1953, 
a Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, 
and in June 1962, an Academician. In June 1958, Zhavronkov 
visited the United States to attend the 50th Anniversary of the 
Institute of Chemical Engineers in Philadelphia, Penna. 

In the beginning of his scientific career, Zhavoronkov studied 
processes for obtaining hydrogen and a nitrogen-hydrogen mix- 
ture and their purification from carbon dioxide and carbon 
monoxide for production of synthetic ammonia. In 1936-50 he 
investigated hydro -aerodynamics of scrubbers and fractional 
columns. For this work in 1950 the Academy of Sciences 
awarded him the D. I. Mendeleev Prize. 

The works of Zhavoronkov in later years dealt with the pro- 
cesses of separating liquid and gas mixtures by absorption, 
rectification, molecular distillation and chemical ion exchange. 
Together with others, he completed a series of works on the 
theory of processes of concentration of stable isotopes and 
worked out methods for isolating isotopes of hydrogen, carbon, 
nitrogen, oxygen, boron and other light elements. 

In September 1962, Zhavoronkov was appointed Director of 
the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Institute of General and In- 
organic Chemistry. 
Bibliography: 

Hydraulic Basis of the Scrubber Process and Heat Transfer 
in Scrubbers. Moscow: 1944. 

and V. A. Malyusov . Molecular distillation. Chemical 
Industry, 1950, #11-12. 

Nitrogen in Nature and in Technology. Moscow: 1951. 
Sources of Technical Combined Nitrogen. Moscow: 1951. 
and V. A. Mamosov, N. A. Malafeev. Mass transfer in the 
process of film absorption. Chemical Industry, 1951, #8, 
1953, #4. 

and A. I. Maier . Separation of mixtures by methods of mole- 
cular distillation. Methods and Processes of Chemical 
Technology. Collection 1. Moscow-Leningrad: 1955. 
and V. A. Mamosov, N. N. Umnik. Separation of mixtures by 
method of high vacuum rectification. Methods and Processes 
of Chemical Technology. 1. Moscow-Leningrad: 1955. 
and 0. V. Uvarov, N. N. Sevryugova. Physico-chemical 
constants of heavy oxygen water. Utilization of Labelled 
Atoms in Analytic Chemistry. Moscow: 1955. 
and S. I. Babkov. Industrial method of obtaining concentrates 
of the heavy isotope of nitrogen. Chemical Industry, 1955, 
#7. 



439 ZHURKOV 

and V. A. Mamosov, N. N. Umnik. Mass of exchange in the 
processes of film rectification. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 
1955, 105, #4-5. 

and V. A. Mamosov, N. N. Umnik. Investigation of the rec- 
tification in columns with a rotating rotor. Doklady Akad. 
Nauk S.S.S.R., 1956, 106, #1. 

and N. N. Sevryugova, Q. V. Uvarov. Determining the coef- 
ficient of the division of the isotopes of boron during equi- 
librium of evaporation of BCI3. Atomic Energy, 1956, #4. 
and Q. V. Sokol'skii. Fractional column for obtaining heavy 
oxygen water. Chemical Industry, 1956, #7. 
Chemical industry and research in the Soviet Union. Canadi- 
an Chemical Processing, 1956, 40, #5. 
K. A. Timiryazev and the problem of nitrogen. Chemical 
Industry, 1956, #6. 

Office: Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry of 

USSR Academy of Sciences 
Leninskii Prospekt, 31 
Moscow, USSR 

Residence: N. Basmannaya 16 
Moscow, USSR 

Telephone: El 79 73 

ZHURKOV, SERAFIM NIKOLAEVICH (Physicist) 

S. N. Zhurkov was born May 16, 1905. He graduated in 1929 
from Voronezh Institute. In 1930 he began working at the 
Leningrad Physico-Technical Institute and in 1947 became pro- 
fessor. He has been a member of the Communist Party of the 
Soviet Union since 1944. In 1958 he was elected a Correspond- 
ing Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. 

Zhurkov' s main works are the physics of solids and poly- 
mers. He has carried out research on the strength of brittle 
materials and polymers, temperature -dependent breakdown, 
and the duration of action of mechanical stress. Zhurkov con- 
ducted investigations on the molecular mechanism of transition 
into a solid state (vitrification) of polymers and amorphous 
substances, relating the temperature dependence of mechanical 
properties of such substances to the nature of intermolecular 
interaction. On the basis of these studies he developed the 
theory of polymer plastification. 
Bibliography: 

Molecular mechanics of the solidification of polymers. 

Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1945, 47, #7. 



ZVEREV 440 

and B. N. Narzullaev . Temporary dependence of the strength 
of solids. Zhur. Tekh. Fiz., 1953, 23, #10. 
and T. P. Sanfirova. Temperature and temporary dependence 
of the strength of pure metals. Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 
1955, 101, #2. 
Office: Leningrad Physico-Technical Institute 

Leningrad, USSR 

ZVEREV, MITROFAN STEPANQVICH (Astronomer) 

M. S. Zverev was born April 16, 1903. In 1929, he graduated 
from the Moscow Conservatory, and in 1931 from Moscow Uni- 
versity. From 1931-1951, he worked at the Shternberg State 
Astronomical Institute in Moscow. He was a member of the 
teaching staff at Moscow University from 1938-1952, and was 
made professor in 1948. In 1951 he was appointed deputy Di- 
rector of U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences Main Astronomical 
Observatory in Pulkovo. He was elected to the U.S.S.R. Acade- 
my of Sciences as a Corresponding Member in 1953. Since 
1947 he has been a member of the Communist Party of the 
Soviet Union. 

For many years Zverev made observations on the meridian 
circle in Moscow and Pulkovo. He compiled a series of cata- 
logs on stars, including a catalog on geodesic stars, a catalog 
on fundamental, faint stars. Zverev developed an idea of a new 
fundamental system of coordinates— a catalog on faint stars. 
He also worked on time service, gravimetry and on variable 
stars. 

In May 1959, Zverev visited the United States to attend the 
Second World Astrometric Conference in Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Bibliography: 

Untersuchungen des Lichtwechsels von helleren verader- 
lichen Sternen (1921-1934). Publications of the Sternberg 
Astronomical Institute; Vol. VIII. Moscow: 1936. 
Investigating results of astronomical observations of the 
time service of the Sternberg State Institute of Astronomy 
in 1941-44. Publications of the Sternberg State Astronomi- 
cal Institute, Vol. XVIII, p. 1, 1949 and p. 2, 1950. 
Catalog of faint stars. Astron. Zhur., 1940, 17, #5. Trans- 
actions LA.U., Vol. VIII, 755, 1952. 

Fundamental astronomy. Uspekhi Astron. Nauk, 1950, 5, 
1954, 6. 
Office: Main Astronomical Observatory of USSR Academy 

of Sciences 
Leningrad M-140, Pulkovo, USSR 



441 ZVONKOV 

Telephone: K8 22 42 
K8 84 14 
K8 84 11 

ZVONKOV, VASILII VASIL'EVICH (Transport Engineer) 

V. V. Zvonkov was born January 6, 1891. He graduated in 
1917 from the Moscow Institute of Lines of Communication 
Engineers. Until 1929 he worked in various transport organi- 
zations and in 1929-1933 at the Moscow Institute of Lines of 
Communication Engineers. From 1935 to 1955 he was pro- 
fessor at the Military Transport Academy. He began working 
in the section on the scientific solution of transportation prob- 
lems at the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences in 1939, and in 1955 
at the Institute of Complex Transportation Problems at the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He has been a Corresponding 
Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences since 1939. In 
1948 he was made an Honored Scientist of the R.S.F.S.R. Since 
1956 he has been a member of the Communist Party of the 
Soviet Union. 

From 1922 Zvonkov has worked on the restoration, planning, 
and development of water transport in the U.S.S.R. 

As of 1961, Zvonkov was Chairman of the Council for Water 
Economy. In 1962 he requested to be relieved of his duties as 
Chairman. 
Bibliography: 

Organization of Navigation. Calculations. Moscow: 1929. 
Commercial Calculation for Ships, with Examples of Practi- 
cal Solutions, 2nd ed. Moscow-Leningrad: 1932. 
Controller's System for Water Transport, 2nd ed. Moscow- 
Leningrad: 1932. 

Complex Typification of Technical Means of International 
Water Transport. Moscow: 1948. 
Biography: 

Vasilii Vasil'evich Zvonkov. Moscow: 1957. 
Office: Institute of Complex Transportation Problems 

USSR Academy of Sciences 
Moscow, USSR 
Residence: Kotel'nicheskaya nab. 1/15 

Moscow, USSR 
Telephone: B7 42 27