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Group II. No. 315 

Price 10 cents 






EdUed by 

Walter Camp 

ini" American Sports Publishing Co."0i 

, "\..,iii"m 21 Warren Street, New YorK ' #''"«i,,.<i.,,i;//ii,ti..-^..'- 


A.G.Spalding & Bros. 








Bownlown— 124-128 Nassau St. 
Vplown-29-33 West 42d St. 


73 Federal Street 


1013 Filbert Street 


208 E. Baltimore Street 


709 14tli Street, N. W. 
(Colorado Building) 


43B Wood Street 


611 Main Street 


University Biocli 


443 St. James Street 


147-149 Wabash Avenue 

710 Pine Street 


27 East FIftli Street 

Fountain Square 

741 Euclid Avenue 

254 Woodward Avenue 

39 Sixtli Street, South 


1111 Walnut Street 

140 Carondelet Street 

1616 Arapahoe Street 

158 Geary Street 


53, 54, 55, Two Stores West End Branch, 

Fetter tane, E. C. 29, Haymaritet, S.W. 

Communications directed to A. G. SPALDING & BROS., at any 
of the above addresses, will receive prompt attention. . 

Spalding's Athletic Library is the leading library 
series of its kind published in the world; in fact, it has 
no imitators, let alone equals. It occupies a field that it 
has created for itself. 

The Library was established in the year 1892, and it 
is conceded by all authorities that Spalding's Athletic 
Library has been an important factor in the advance- 
ment of amateur sport in America. 

The millions that read the Library during the year 
will attest to its value, A glance at its index will dis- 
close the remarkable field that it covers. It is im- 
material what the pastime may be, you will find in 
Spalding's Athletic Library a reference to it, either in 
a book devoted exclusively to that particular game or 
in some of the books that cover many sports. 

It has been the aim of the editors to make the books 
Official, and they are recognized as such, all the im- 
portant governing bodies in America granting to the 
publishers of Spalding's Athletic Library the exclusive 
right to publish their official books and of^cial rules. 

The best authorities in each particular line of sport or 
physical culture, the men best qualified to write intelli- 
gently on their respective subjects, are selected to edit 
the books and, as a result, there is not another series in 
the world that is as authoritative as Spalding's Athletic 

No matter what new game or form of sport be con- 
ceived or advanced, it is invariably the aim of the 
publishers to have a book on that sport. In that way 
Spalding's Athletic Library is in the field at the begin- 
ning of the sport, follows it year in and year out, and 
there can be no doubt whatever that the present pop- 
ularity of athletic sports can attribute the same to the 
"backing" it has received from Spalding's Athletic 

^'^''^''y' JAMES E. SULLIVAN. 



P\ Giving tlie Titles of all Spalding Athletic Library Books now /Q 
v^ V in print, grouped for ready reference / •>/ 



No. t 

No. lA 

No. 2 

No. 2A 

No. 3 

No. 4 

No. 5 

No. 6 

No. 7 

No. 8 

No. 9 

No. 10 

No. 12 



Group I. Base Ball 

No. 1 Spalding's Official Base Ball 

How to Play Base Ball. 
How to Bat. 
How to Run Bases. 
How to Pitch. 
How to Catch. 
How to Play First Base. 
How to Play Second Base. 
How to Play Third Base. 
How to Play Shortstop. 
How to Play the Outfield. 
How to Organize a Base Ball 

Club. [League. 

How to Organize a Base Ball 
How to Manage a Base Ball 

How to Train a Base Ball Team 
How to Captain a Base Ball 
HowtoUmpireaGame. [Team 
Technical Base Ball Terms. 
Ready Reckoner of Base Ball 

No. lA Official Base Ball Record. 

Minor League Base Ball Guide 
Official Book National League 

of Prof. Base Ball Clubs. 
Official Handbook National 

Playground Ball Assn. 

Group II. Foot Ball 

No. 2 Spalding's Official Foot Ball 

No. 315 How to Play Foot Ball. 
No. 2a Spalding's Official Soccer Foot 

Ball Guide. 
No. 286 How to Play Soccer. 

No. 202 
No. 223 
No. 232 
No. 230 
No. 229 
No. 225 
No. 226 
No. 227 
No. 228 
No. 224 


No. 219 

No. 309 
No. 310 

No. 306 

Base Ball Guide 

Base Ball Record 

Foot Bali Guide 

Soccer Foot Ball Guide 

Cricket Guide 

Lawn Tennis Annual 

Golf Guide 

Ice Hockey Guide 

Basket Ball Guide 

Bowling Guide 

Indoor Base Ball Guide 

Roller Polo Guide 

Athletic Almanac 


No. 303 Spalding's Official Canadian 

Foot Ball Guide. 

Group III. crickel 

No. 3 Spalding's Official Cricket Gxiide. 
No. 277 Cricket and How to Play It. 

Group IV. Lawn Tennis 

No. 4 Spalding's Official Lawn Ten- 
nis Annual. 
No. 157 How to Play Lawn Tennis, 
No. 279 Strokes and Science of Lawn 

Group V. ^"""^' Goii 

No. 5 Spalding's Official Golf Guid^ 
No. 276 How to Play Golf . 

Group VI. Hockey 

No. 6 Spalding' s Official Ice Hockey 

No. 304 How to Play Ice Hockey 
No. 154 Field Hockey. 
(Lawn Hockey. 
No. 188 < Parlor Hockey. 

(Garden Hockey. 
No. 180 Ring Hockey. 

No. 256 Official Handbook Ontario 
Hockey Association. 

Group VII. Basket Bail 

No. 7 Spalding's Official Basket 

Ball Gtiide. 
No. 193 How to Play Basket Ball. 
No. 318 Basket Ball Guide for Women. 

No. 312 Official Collegiate Basket Ball 




Group VIII. Bowling 

No. 8 Spalding's Official Boivling 

Group IX. Indoor Base Ball 

No. 9 Spalding's Official Indoor 
Base Ball Ckiide. 

Group X. Polo 

No. 10 Spalding's Official Roller Polo 

No. 129 Water Polo. 
No. 199 Equestrian Polo. 

Group XI. Miscellaneous Games 

No. 201 Lacrosse. 

No. 305 Official Handbook U. S. Inter- 
collegiate Lacrosse League. 



No. 194 < Squash-Racquets, 

(Court Tennis. 
No. 13 Hand Ball. 


Push Ball. 


Lawn Bowls. 

Lawn Games. 

Children's Games. 

Group XII. Athletics 

No, 12 Spalding's Official Athletic 
College Athletics. 
All Around Athletics. 
Athletes' Guide. 
Athletic Primer. 
Olympic GamesatAthens,1906 
How to Sprint. 
How to Run 100 Yards. 
Distance and Cross Country 
Running. [Thrower. 

How to Become a Weight 
Official Sporting Rules, [boys. 
Athletic Training for School- 
No. 311 Amateur Athletic Union Offi- 
cial Handbook. [book. 
Intercollegiate Official Hand- 
Y. M. C. A. Official Handbook. 
Public Schools Athletic 
League Official Handbook. 
No. 314 Public Schools Athletic 
League Official Handbook 
— Girls' Branch. 
No. 298 Intercollegiate Cross Country 

Association Handbook. 
No. 308 Official Handbook New York 
Interscholastic Athletic 

No. 248 
No. 138 
No. 271 

No. 167 
No. 170 
No. 14 
No. 207 
No. 188 
No. 189 

No. 27 
No. 182 
No. 156 
No. 87 
No. 273 
No. 252 
No. 255 
No. 174 

No. 259 
No. 55 
No, 246 

No. 307 
No. 302 
No, 313 

Group XIII. 


No. 177 How to Swim. 

No. 296 Speed Swimming. 

No. 128 How to Row. 

No. 209 How to Become a Skater. 

No. 178 How to Train for Bicycling. 

No. 23 Canoeing. 

No, 282 Roller Skating Guide. 

Group XIV. 

Manly Sports 

No. 18 Fencing. ( By Breck.) 

No. 162 Boxing. 

No. 165 Fencing. ( By Senac) 

No. 140 Wrestling. 

No. 236 How to Wrestle. 

No, 102 Ground Tumbling. 

No. 233 Jiu Jitsu. 

No. 166 How to Swing Indian Clubs. 

No. 200 Dumb Bell Exercises. 

No. 143 Indian Clubs and Dumb Bells. 

No. 262 Medicine Ball Exercises. 

No. 29 Pulley Weight Exercises. 

No. 191 How to Punch the Bag. 

No. 289 Tumbling for Amateurs, 

Group XV. Gymnastics 

No. 104 Grading of Gymnastic Exer- 

No. 214 Graded Cal i sthenics and 
Dumb Bell Drills. 

No, 254 Barnjum Bar Bell Drill, 

No, 158 Indoor and Outdoor Gym- 
nastic Games, 

No. 124 How to Become a Gymnast. 

No. 287 Fancy Dumb Bell and March- 
ing Drills. 

Group XVI. 

Physical culture 

No. 161 

No. 208 

No. 149 

No. 142 
No. 185 
No. 213 
No. 238 
No. 234 

No. 261 
No. 285 

No. 288 

No. 290 

Ten Minutes' Exercise for 
Busy Men. 

Physical Education and Hy- 

Scientific Physical Training 
and Care of the Body. 

Physical Training Simplified. 

Hints on Health. 

285 Health Answers. 

Muscle Building. 

School Tactics and Maze Run- 

Tensing Exercises, 

Health by Muscular Gym- 

Indigestion Treated by Gym- 

Get Well ; Keep Well. 



Group I. Base Ball 

No. 1— Spalding's Official 
Base Ball Guide. 

The leading Base Ball 
annual of the country, and 
the official authority of 
^x^^SMu the game. Contains the 
ZJ^Irf^ official playing rules, with 
an explanatory index of the 
rules compiled by Mr. A. G. 
Spalding: pictures of all 
the teams in the National, 
American and minor leagues ; re- 
views of the season; college Base Ball, 
and a great deal of interesting in- 
formation. Price 10 cents. 

No. 202— HoTT to Plar Ba«e 

Edited by Tim Murnan*. New and 
revised edition. Illustrated with pic- 
tures showing how all the various 
curves and drops are thrown and por- 
traits of leading players. Price 10 cents. 

No. 223— How to Bat. 

There is no better way of becoming 
a proficient batter than by reading this 
book and practising the directions 
given. Numerous illustrations. Price 
10 cents. 

No. 232— How to Run the 

This book gives clear and concise 
directions for excelling as a base run- 
ner: tells when to run and when not to 
do so: how and when to slide; team 
work on the bases; in fact, every point 
of the game is thoroughly explained. 
Illustrated with pictures of leading 
players. Price 10 cents. 

No. 230— How to Pitcli. 

A new, up-to-date book. Its contents 
are the practical teaching of men who 
have reached the top as pitchers, and 
who know how to impart a knowledge 
of their art. All the big leagues' 
pitchers are shown. Price 10 cents. 

No. 229— How to Catch. 

Every boy who has hopes of being a 
clever catcher should read how well- 
known players cover their position. 
Pictures of all the noted catchers in 
the big leagues. Price 10 cents. 

No. 225— How to Play First 

Illustrated with full-page pictures 
of all the prominent first basemen. 
Price 10 cents. 

No. 22G— How to Play Second 

The ideas of the best second basemen 
have been incorporated in this book for 
the especial benefit of boys who want 
to know the fine points of play at this 
point of the diamond. Price 10 cents. 

No. 227— How to Play Third 

Third base is, in some respects, the 
most important of the infield. No 
major league team has ever won a 
pennant without a great third base- 
man. Price 10 cents. 

No. 228- How to Play Short- 

Shortstop is one of the hardest posi- 
tions on the infield to fill, and quick 
thought and quick action are necessary 
for a player who expects to make good 
as a shortstop. Illustrated. Price 10 

No. 224— How to Play th« 

There are just as many tricks to be 
learned, before a player can be a com- 
petent fielder, as there are in any other 
position on a nine, and this book ex- 
plains them all. Price 10 cents. 

No. 231— How to Coach; How 
to Captain a Team; Hott 
to Managre a Team; How 
to Umpire; How^ to Or- 
g'anize a Leagrue; Tech- 
nical Terms of Base Ball. 
A useful guide to all who are inter- 
ested in the above subjects. Price 10 

No 219— Ready Reckoner of 
Base Ball Percentagres. 

To supply a demand for a book which 
would show the percentage of clubs 
without recourse to thearduous work of 
figuring, the publishers had these tables 
compiled by an expert. Price 10 cents. 


base: ball, auxiliaries. 

No. lA — SpaldiiiRT's Official 
Base Ball Record. 

Something new in Base Ball. Con- 
tains records of all kinds from the be- 
ginning of the National League and 
official averages of all professional or- 
ganizations for past season. 10 cents. 

No. 809— Minor Lea^ne Base 
Ball Guide. 

The minors' own guide. Contains 
pictures of leading teams, schedules, 
report of annual meeting National 
Association of Professional Base Ball 
Leagues, special articles and official 
rules. Edited by President T. H. Mur- 
nane, of the New England League. 
Price 10 cents. 

No. 310— Official Handbook 
of the National League 
of Professional Base Ball 

Contains the Constitution, By-Laws. 
Official Rules. Averages, and schedule 
of the National League for the current 
year, together with list of club officers 
and reports of the annual meetings of 
the League. Price 10 cents. 

No. rtOG— Official Handbook 
National Playground Ball 

This game is specially adapted for 
playgrounds, parks, etc., is spreading 
rapidly. The book contains a descrip- 
tion of the game, rules and officers. 
Price 10 cents. 

Group 11. Foot Ball 

No. 2— Spaldins's Official 
Foot Ball Guide. 

Edited by Walter Camp. 

[Contains the new rules, 
with diagram of field; All- 
America teams as selected 
by the leading authorities; 
reviews of the game from 

j various sections of the 
country; scores; pictures. 

I Price 10 cents. 

No. ai.">— How to Play Foot 

Edited by Walter Camp, of Yale. 
Everything that a beginner wants to 
know and many points that an expert 
will be glad to learn. Snapshots of 
leading teams and players in action, 
with comments by Walter Camp. 
Price 10 cents. 

No. 2A— Spalding's Official 
Association Soccer Foot 
Ball Guide. 

A complete and up-to- 
date guide to the ''Soccer" 
game in the United States, 
containing instructions for 
playing the game, official 
rules, and interesting 
news from all parts of the 
country. Illustrated. Price 
10 cents. 

No. 2SG— How to Play Soc- 

How each position should be played, 
written by the best player in England 
in his respective position, and illus- 
trated with full-page photographs of 
players in action. Price 10 cents. 

No. .'{<);?— Spalding's Official 
Canadian Foot Ball 


The official book of the game in Can- 
ada. Price 10 cents. 

Group III. Cricket 

No. :i— Spalding's 
Cricket Guide. 


The most complete year 
book of the game that has 
ever been published in 
America. Reports of 
special matches, official 
rules and pictures of all 
the leading teams. Price 
10 cents. 

No. 277— Cricket; and How 
to Play it. 

By Prince Ranjitsinhji. The game 
described concisely and illustrated with 
full-page pictures posed especially for 
this book. Price 10 cents. 


Group IV. 


]Vo. 4— Spalding's Official 
LaTvn Tennis Annual. 

Contents include reports 
of all important tourna- 
ments; official ranking 
from 1885 to date; laws of 
lawn tennis; instructions 
for handicapping; deci- 
sions on doubtful points; 
management of tourna- 

ments; directory of clubs; 

laying out and keeping a court. Illus- 
trated. Price 10 cents. 

No. 157— HoTF to Play Lawn 

A complete description of lawn ten- 
nis; a lesson for beginners and direc- 
tions telling how to make the most im- 
portant strokes. Illustrated. Price 
10 cents. 

No. 279— Strokes and Science 
of LaTvn Tennis. 

By P. A. Vaile, a leading authority 
on the game in Great Britain. Every 
stroke in the game is accurately illus- 
trated and analyzed by the author. 
Price 10 cents. 



Group V. 

No. 5— Spalding's 
Golf Guide. 

Contains records of all 
Important tournaments, 
articles on the game in 
various sections of the 
country, pictures of prom- 
inent players, official play 
ing rules and genera 
items of interest. Prict 
10 cents. 

No. 27G— How to Play Golf. 

By James Braid and Harry Vardon, 
the world's two greatest players tell 
how they play the game, with numer- 
ous full-page pictures of them taken 
on the links. Price 10 cents. 

Group VI. Hockey 

No. G— Spaldins's Official Ice 
Hockey Guiile. 

The official year book of 
the game. Contains the 
official rules, pictures of 
leading teams and players, 
records, review of the 
season, reports from dif- 
ferent sections of the 
United States and Canada. 
Price 10 cents. 

No. 304— How to Play Ice 

Contains a description of the duties 
of each player. Illustrated. Price 10 

No. 154— Field Hockey. 

Prominent in the sports at Vassar, 
Smith, Wellesley, Bryn Mawr and other 
leading colleges. Price 10 cents. 

No. 188 — Lawn Hockey, 
Parlor Hockey, Garden 

Containing the rules for each game. 
Illustrated. Price 10 cents. 

No. 180— Ring Hockey. 

A new game for the gymnasium. 
Exciting as basket ball. Price 10 cents. 

No. 25«— Official Handbook 
of tlie Ontario Hockey 

Contains the official rules of the 
Association, constitution, rules of com- 
petition, list of officers, and pictures of 
leading players. Price 10 cents. 

Group VII. 


No. 7— Spaldingr's Official 
Basket Ball Guide. 

Edited by George T. 
Hepbron. Contains the 
revised official rules, de- 
cisions on disputed points, 
records of prominent 
teams, reports on the game 
from various parts of the 
country. Illustrated. Price 
10 cents. 


No. 193— How to Play Basket 

By G. T. Hepbron, editor of the 
Official Basket Ball Guide. Illustrated 
with scenes of action. Price 10 cents. 

No. 318— Offli'ial Basket Ball 
Guide for Women. 

Edited by Miss Senda Berenson. of 
Smith Colleg-e. Contains the official 
playing rules and special articles on 
the game by prominent authorities. 
Illustrated. Price 10 cents. 

No. 312— Collegiate Basket 
Ball Hainll'^ook. 

The official publication of the Colle- 
giate Basket Ball Association. Con- 
tains the official rules, records, All- 
America selections, reviews, and pic- 
tures. Edited by H. A. Fisher, of 
Columbia. Price 10 cents. 

Group VIII. Bowling 

No. >s — Siialdiii^i's Ollieial 
Bo^vliiij^' Guide. 

The contents include: 
diagrams of effective de- 
liveries; hints to begin- 
ners; how to score; official 
rules; spares, how they 
are made; rules for cocked 
hat, quintet, cocked hat 
and feather, battle game, 
etc. Price 10 cents. 

,„ Indoor 
Group IX. Base Ball 

No. 9— Spa Id ins'. s OlReial ln-| 
door Base Ball Guide. 

America's national game 
is now vieing with other 
indoor games as a winter 
pastime. This book con- 
tains the playing rules, 
pictures of leading teams, 
and interesting articles on 
the game by leading au- 
thorities on the subject. 
Price 10 cents. 


Group X. 

Xo. lO— Spalding's 
Official Roller 
Polo Guide. 

Edited by J. C. Morse. 
A full description of the] 
game; official rules, re- 
cords; pictures of promi- 
nent players. Price 10 centsi 

Xo. 129— Water Polo. 

The contents of this book treat of 
every detail, the individual work of the 
players, the practice of the team, how 
to throw the ball, with illustrations and 
many valuable hints. Price 10 cents. 

Xo. 199 — Equestrian l*olo. 

Compiled by H. L. Fitzpatrick of the 
New York Sun. Illustrated with por- 
traits of leading players, and contains 
most useful information for polo play- 
ers. Price 10 cents. 

^ ^, Miscellane- 
GroupXI. ous Games 

\o. 2<tl — Lacrosse. 

Every position is thoroughly ex- 
plained in a most simple and concise 
manner, rendering it the best manual 
of the game ever published. Illus- 
trated with numerous snapshots of im- 
portant plays. Price 10 cents. 

No. 30o— Official Hanilbook 
U. S. Inter-Collegiate La- 
crosse Lieague. 

Contains the constitution, by-laws, 
playing rules, list of officers and records 
of the association. Price 10 cents. 

Xo. 271— Spalding's Official 
Rouue Guide. 

The official publication of the Na- 
tional Roque Association of America. 
Contains a description of the courts 
and their construction, diagrams, illus- 
trations, rules and valuable informa- 
tion. Price 10 cents. 

Xo. 13S— Spalding's Official 
Croquet Guide 

Contains directions for playing, dia- 
grams of important strokes, description 
of grounds, instructions for the begin- 
ner, terms used in the game, and the 
official playing rules. Price 10 cents. 


No. 24S— Arciiery. 

A new and up-to-date book on this 
fascinating pastime. The several 
varieties of archery; instructions for 
shootingr; how to select implements; 
how to score; and a great deal of inter- 
esting information. Illustrated. Price 
10 cents. 

No. 194 — Racquets, Squash- 
Racquets aud Court Ten- 

How to play each game is thoroughly 
explained, and all the difficult strokes 
shown by special photographs taken 
especially for this book. Contains the 
official rules for each game. Price 10 

No. 167— Q,uoits. 

Contains a description of the plays 
used by experts and the official rules. 
Illustrated. Price 10 cents. 

No. 170— Push Ball. 

This book contains the official rules 
and a sketch of the game; illustrated. 
Price 10 cents. 

No. 13— How to Play Hand 

By the world's champion, Michael 
Egan. Every play is thoroughly ex- 
plained by text and diagram. Illus- 
trated. Price 10 cents. 

No. 14— Curling. 

A short history of this famous Scot- 
tish pastime, with instructions for 
play, rules of the game, definitions of 
terms and diagrams of different shots. 
Price 10 cents. 

No. 207— Bowlings on the 
Green; or, Lawn BotfIs. 

How to construct a green; how to 
play the game, and the official rules 
of the Scottish Bowling Association. 
Illustrated. Price 10 cents. 

No. 189— Children's Games. 

These games are intended for use at 
recesses, and all but the team games 
have been adapted to large classes. 
Suitable for children from three to 
eight years, and include a great variety. 
Price 10 cents. 

No. ISS— La-wn Games. 

Lawn Hockey, Garden Hockey, Hand 
Tennis, Tether Tennis; also Volley 
Ball, Parlor Hockey, Badminton, Bas- 
ket Goal. Price 10 cents. 

Group XII. Athletics 

i\o. 12— Spalding's Official 
Athletic Almanac* 

Compiled by J. E. Sulli- 
van, President of the Ama- 
teur Athletic Union. The 
only annual publication 
now issued that contains 
a complete list of amateur 
best-on-records; intercol- 
legiate, English, swim- 
ming, interscholastic, Irish, Scotch, 
Swedish, Continental, South African, 
Australasian; numerous photos of in- 
dividual athletes and leading athletic 
teams. Price 10 cents. 

No. 27=-Colleg:e Athletics. 

M. C. Murphy, the well-known ath- 
letic trainer, now with Pennsylvania, 
the author of this book, has written it 
especially for the schoolboy and college 
man, but it is invaluable for Che athlete 
who wishes to excel in any branch of 
athletic sport; profusely illustrated. 
Price 10 cents. 

No. 182— Ail-Around Ath- 

Gives in full the method of scoring 
the AU-Around Championship; how to 
train for the AU-Around Champion- 
ship. Illustrated. Price 10 cents. 

No. 15G— Athlete's Guide. 

Full instructions for the beginner, 
telling how to sprint, hurdle, jump and 
throw weights, general hints on train- 
ing; valuable advice to beginners and 
important A. A. U. rules and their ex- 
planations, while the pictures comprise 
many scenes of champions in action. 
Price 10 cents. 

No. 27.'?— The Olympic Games 
at Athens 

A complete account of the Olympic 
Games of 1906, at Athens, the greatest 
International Athletic Contest ever 
held. Compiled by J. E. Sullivan, 
Special United States Commissioner to 
the Olympic Games. Price 10 cents. 


No. 87— Athletic Primer. 

Edited by J. E. Sullivan. President 
of the Amateur Athletic Union. Tells 
how to organize an athletic club, how 
to conduct an athletic meeting, and 
gives rules for the government of ath- 
letic meetings; contents also include 
directions for laying out athletic 
grounds, and a very instructive article 
on training. Price 10 cents. 

No. 252— How to Sprint. 

Every athlete who aspires to be a 
sprinter can study this book to advan- 
tage. Price 10 cents. 

No. 255— How to Run lOO 

By J. W. Morton, the noted British 
champion. Many of Mr. Morton's 
methods of training are novel to 
American athletes, but his success is 
the best tribute to their worth. Illus- 
trated. Price 10 cents. 

No. 174 — Di.stance and Cross- 
country Running. 

By George Orton, the famous Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania runner. The 
quarter, half, mile, the longer dis- 
tances, and cross-country running and 
steeplechasing, with instructions for 
training; pictures of leading athletes 
in action, with comments by the editor. 
Price 10 cents. 

No. 259— Weight Tlirowingr. 

Probably no other man in the world 
has had the varied and long experience 
of James S. Mitchel, the author, in the 
weight throwing department of ath- 
letics. The book gives valuable infor- 
mation not only for the novice, but for 
the expert as well. Price 10 cents. 

No. 246— Athletic Training 
lor Schoolhoys. 

By Geo. W. Orton. Each event in the 
intercollegiate programme is treated 
of separately. Price 10 cents. 

No. 55— Official Sporting: 

Contains rules not found in other 
publications for the government of 
many sports; rules for wrestling, 
shuffleboard. snowshoeing, profes- 
sional racing, pigeon shooting, dog 
racing, pistol and revolver shooting. 
British water polo rules, Rugby foot 
ball rules. Price 10 cents. 

No. 311— Official Handbook 
of the A.A.U. 

The A. A. U. is the governing body 
of athletes in the United States of 
America, and all games must be held 
under its rules, which are exclusively 
published in this handbook, and a copy 
should be in the hands of every athlete 
and every club officer in America. 
Also includes a very interesting article 
on "The Growth of American Ath- 
letics," and a short history of each 
member of the Board of Governors. 
Price 10 cents. 

No. 307— Official Intercolle- 
giate A.A.A.A. Handbook. 

Contains constitution, by-laws, and 
laws of athletics; records from 1876 to 
date. Price 10 cents. 

No. 308— Official Handbook 
Ne^v York Inter.schol- 
astic Athletic Associa- 

Contains the Association's records, 
constitution and by-laws and other 
information. Price 10 cents. 

No. 302— Official Y.M.C.A. 

Contains the official rules governing 
all sports under the jurisdiction of the 
Y. M. C. A., official Y. M. C. A. scoring 
tables, pentathlon rules, pictures of 
leading Y. M. C. A. athletes. Price 
10 cents. 

No. 313— Official Handbook 
of the Public Schools 
Athletic League. 

Edited by Dr. Luther Halsey Gulick, 
director of physical education in the 
New York public schools. Illustrated. 
Price 10 cents. 

No. 314— Official Handbook 
Girls' Hranch of the 
Public Schools Athletic 

The official publication. Contains: 
constitution and by-laws, list of offi- 
cers, donors, founders, life and annual 
members, reports and illustrations. 
Price 10 cents. 

No. 298— Interc ollegiate 
Cross Country Handbook. 

Contains constitution and by-laws, 
list of officers, and records of the asso- 
ciation. Price 10 cents. 


Group Xffl. Athletic 

No. 177— HoTV to Swim. 

Will interest the expert as well as 
the novice; the illustrations were made 
from photographs especially posed, 
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By E. J. Giannini, of the New York 
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Group XIV. 


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No. 21)0— Get Well; Keep 

By Prof. E. B. Warman, author of a 
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^"S^ g^S"^^ 


Group II No. 315 


A Primer on the Modern College Game 
With Tactics Brought Down to Date 



New Edition — Revised for 1 908 

Published by the 


21 Warren Street. New York 






\ wo CODies Hecei»«ja 

SEP 14 1«08 

fljsa <^ xxc No. 

2-1 6 7 0^ 

COPY a. 

Copyright, 1908 


American Sports Publishing Compamt 
New York 


- 'J 


All-America Foot Ball Team of 1907 

All-America Foot Ball Teams from 1889 to 1907 

Changes in Rules for 1908 . 

Interpreting the Rules 

An Introductory Chapter for Beginners 

How to Play Foot Ball 

The Forward Pass and On-side Kick 

How to Play Quarter-back 

Play of the Backs 

Signals .... 

Training for Foot Ball 

What a Foot Ball Player Needs . 



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All-America Foot Ball Team 





(From Collier's Weekly. Copyright, 1907, by P. F. Collier & Son.) 

First Eleven 
End — Dague, Annapolis 
Tac^ie— Draper, Penn. 
Guard — Zieg-ler, Penn. 
Center — Schulz, Michigan 
Guard — Erwin, West Point 
Tackle— B\«\ow, Yale 
^nd— Alcott, Yale 
Quarter — Jones, Yale 
i7ai/— Wendell. Harvard 
i/a//— Harlan, Princeton 
i^u W—McCormick, Princeton 

In looking: back over 
the teams selected since, 
in 1889, 1 named the first 
All-America eleven, it is 
impossible not to feel a 
sentimental pleasure in 
adding another list to a 
roll that has contained 
names of so many chival- 
rous, skillful, and plucky 

This team of 1907 would 
furnish a first eleven 
equipped to play the 
necessai'ily varied forms 
of attack and. defscse 
essential to victory un- 
der the present rules. 
First, as to attack by, 
and defense to, that 
most important feature, 
the forward pass. Jones 
is par excellence the most 
skillful man in any l)a('k 
field to-day in executiufr 
not one kind of forward 
pass, but both kinds, 
namely, the short one 
and the long- one. He 
can, moreover, throw 
equally well the spiral 
and the "end-over-end" 
that stays so long in the 
air, and, executed from 

Second Eleven 
Exendine, Carlisle 
Horr, Syracuse 
Rich, Dartmouth 
Grant, Harvard 
Thompson, Cornell 
O'Rourke, Cornell 
Scarlett, Pennsylvania 
Dillon, Princeton 
Marks, Dartmouth 
Hollenback, Pennsylvania 
Coy, Yale 

Third Eleven 
Wister, Princeton 
Lang, Dartmouth 
Goebel. Yale 
Phillips, Princeton 
Krider, Swarthmore 
Weeks. West Point 
McDonald, Harvard 
Steffen, Chicago 
Capron, Minnesota 
Hauser, Carlisle 
Douglas, Annapolis 


Alcott (Yale), End 

about forty yards away 
from the goal line, sends 
chills down the backs of 
the defense. In Alcott 
he has the best man to 
take either kind of pass, 
while in Dague he has 
a man who can be abso- 
lutely relied upon to get 
the ball if touched by 
some other man. Jones 
himself would play the 
midway position on de- 
fense from which he not 
only did his remarkable 
running back, but also 
spoiled the forward 
passes of opponents. 

Next as to on -side 
Kick'^g. In this we 
have iLarlan of Prince- 
ton, admittedly the most 
successful performer of 
the year of this kind of 
kick. With it he put his 
opponents in serious 
difficulties and proved 
that it was far more 
valuable to his team 
than any of the longer 
distance kicks of the 
other teams. Thus for 
the two special features 
of the new game we 


have chosen four men, each easily the leader 
of his class in some particular part of the work. 
Next as to ordinary attack and defense. In 
McCormick we have the strongest simple line 
bucker when we consider that such a man must 
not only be able to carry the ball himself, but 
be equally competent to carry another man, 
this other man having the ball. In that way 
line bucking becomes valuable because of the 
deception as to the man in possession of the 
ball, as well as the point where the play strikes. 
In McCormick and Harlan the combination is 
complete, while for the wider runs we have 
Wendell, who made the best record in this re- 
spect and is at the same time good on pushing 
and on defense. With McCormick and Wendell 
backing up a line the power of the secondary 
defense would be ideal. Then for kicking 
Harlan would furnish punts, drops, and on-side 
kicks, with McCormick as an occasional alter- 
nate just enough to deceive opponents. Draper 
gives us the best combination of offense and 
defense as tackle, as he can carry the ball well 
and also make openings (Horr of Syracuse is 
the only man to match him in running with 
the ball), while Biglow adds that greatest of 
essentials to a line to-day, namely, a tackle so 
fast and so tireless as to share the ends' work 
down the field, while 

Ziegier CU. of P.). 

having weight and 
power enough to fully 
complete the tackle's „. , ,x, , , 

duty. In Ziegier and Biglow (1 ale). 

Erwin flanking Schulz Tackle 

we have an ideal centre 

trio, one of them, Erwin, acknowledged by all 
to be the quickest and most active of the 
season's guards, with a record of spoiling many 
an opponent's play, and yet not leaving his 
place uncovered. In Schulz there is the steady 
experience and accurate passing so essential, 
combined with wonderful speed and tremendous 
power. Finally, Ziegier completes the trio with 
strength, steadiness, and ability to last out any 
amount of hammering attack, as instanced in 
tlie Pennsylvania-Cornell game, both in 1906 
and 1907. 

I have endeavored to complete the second 
and third elevens in similar fashion just as I 
would if coach of the team, combining elevens 
that should be fairly complete in themselves 
and at the same time furnish second-string men 
for all my positions— men who could work into 
the general scheme. 

Dague of Annapolis was the best man on the 
gridiron at securing a loose ball, and such 
a quality is exceptionally valuable in the 
chances that are from time to time occurring 
in the new game. He not only kept his 1906 
form but improved under the trying conditions 
which faced all the ends last season. He was 


fast clown the field, tackled well, and was ready 

for einergrencies. 
Alcott of Yale was the man whose work at a 

critical moment won the Harvard game in 1906, 

and whose same handling of foi-ward passes in 

the Princeton' game went far toward a similar 

result last season. He was admittedly the most 

certain catcher last year of any forward pass, 

and for that reason is essential to the team. 

Heavier than Dague, he had some advantages 

in working against a tackle on the offense, a 

point quite effective in Yale's play. A good in- 

terferer, he put his man out of the way without 

the slightest tendency to the use of hands or 

Scarlett of Pennsylvania made himself, or 

rather, thanks to good coaching, was developed 

into a player from what did not seem to be a 

good natural start, and it is all the more credit- 
able. Very fast getting down the field, he tackled 

clean and strong, was good at blocking and in- 
terfering, and watched the ball well. His work 

on the rather greasy field at the time of the 

Cornell game was first-class. 
Exendine of the Indians was fast and clever, 

and in almost all his games was well down under 

the ball in tackling so as to pi-event runs back. 
Dillon of Princeton cut 
loose from him two or 
three times, and, on one 
occasion, seriously. But 
otherwise the Indian end's 
slate was clean. He was 
good at recovering the ball 
and quick to box, and in this- 
off aided greatly the runs around the end. 

]Mcl)(jiial(l of Harvai-d improved toward the end 
with marked rapidity, and in his Yale game was 
as good as any end on the field. Harvard did not 
give him an opportunity to shine as a catcher of 
forward passes, but his defensive work was very 
stroll ir and his tackling good. 

Wister of Princeton, while apparently somewhat 
below his form of 1906, was still a first-class man, 
and, with the exception of a part of the two 
games, when his physical condition seemed not 
of the best, he played a strong all-round game. 

Other men worthy of notice are: H. Jones of 
Yale, Blake of Vanderbilt, Hammond of Michigan, 
Starr of Harvard, Pryor of Brown, Rowlands of 
Swarthmore, Brown of Princeton, Rogers of Wis- 
consin, Maddox of Virginia, Hewitt of Chicago, 
Troutman of Lehigh, Moores of Oregon. 

Draper of Pennsylvania more than answered 
hopes in both of his big games, namely, that 
against Michigan and the one against Cornell. 
He was extremely fast in getting down the field, 
and his tackling was good. Apart from the fact 
that he could also carry the ball on the offense, 
his defensive work and his making openings were 
alone strong enough to rank him. 

Schuiz (Michigan), 

as well as blocking 

Erwin (West Point), 


Bifflow of Yale was the fastest tackle on the 
gridiron last year, and, w^^le playing, as he 
did, next to a green guard he did not cut 10986 
as fully as he would with a veteran next him, 
he put up his usual absolutely reliable and 
certain game. He was frequently down before 
his ends on kicks, and took chances at flymg 
tackles accordingly. His work on the ottense 
was clean and sure. +u„^^v, 

Horr of Syracuse had much play thrown 
upon him; in fact, too much; bixt he again 
demonstrated his remarkable qualities in the 
position. He is one of the most powerful men 
on the gridiron both in attack and defense, 
knows the game thoroughly, and is a glutton 
for work. , , ^ , , , ■ 

O'Rourke of Cornell seemed almost the only- 
man, with the exception of Thompson, on the 
Cornell team who did not go to pieces against 
Pennsylvania. He was roaming around doing 
more than his own work, and doing it well, 
and proved himself a man of quality. 

Weeks of the Army was also a good barrier 
and bulwark at the time of disaster, and m 
the Navy game, when things seemed to be 
crumbling around him, he worked all the 

Lang of Dartmouth 
was a very active and 
powerfu^l player, whose 
work was one of tlic 
features of a strong 
and aggressive line, a 
characteristic of the 
Dartmouth general 

Draper (U. of P.), 

Dague C Annapolis), 


Northcroft of the Navy showed his ability at 
the tackle position in almost as marked form 
as in 1906, and put up a strong game. Foster 
of Yale was one of the best defensive tackles 
of the year. 

Sherill of Vanderbilt, Stone of Sewanee, 
Booth of Princeton, Bankhart of Dartmouth, 
Lubo of the Indians, E. J. Donnelly, captain of 
the Trinity team, Rheinschild of Michigan, 
Hazard of Brown, Case of Minnesota, and Dim- 
mick of Whitman are all good men. 

Ziegler of Pennsylvania is experienced, worked 
harder last year than ever before, and took great 
advantage of his coaching. He has iipon other 
occasions come to the front when necessary, 
but his general form last year, both in offense 
and defense, was cleaner cut, and that, too. in 
a game where the guard's work is even more 
Miiportant than in the old days. 

Krwin of West Point played all through the 
iscason an extremely accurate and aggressive 
game. It is the kind of game that takes some 
backing up from the tackle and the centre, but, 
properly protected, as it would be on this All- 
America team, it is good for the place. 


Thompson of Cornell put up a first-class JS>\ 

game for the majority of the season, but was f^^^^ 

a shade under liis 1906 form, especially in his 

final game. He is big enough and powerful 

enough with his natural advantages to stand 

where he did in 1906— at the top— but in the 

Fenn game he had his hands full. 
Rich of Dartmouth was another man whose 

play, while not showy, was very effective, as 

was exhibited in his games last season, par- 

ticvilarly in the Harvard contest. He was 

quick and cool, kept his wits about him, and 

was ever ready to break through on the de- 
fense and spoil a kick, while on the offense 

he assisted his runner very materially. 
Goeltel of Yale is of a similar type, thougli 

less active in l)lo('king kicks, and both these 

men put up roli:i})h:' games. 
Krider of Swarthmore was a power both on 

attack and defense, and those who faced him 

realized this, as did every man on his own 

Brides of Yale would have been a sure 

choice for an All-America guard last year had 

the game Yale mapped out left him in his 

original place in tlie line. Burr of Harvard 

by his shift to tackle was another man who 
suffered in his rating. 
Van Hook of Hlinois 
also deserves mention 
as a A^ery powerful 
guard, as do also Wright 

and Meyer of the Navy, Jones (Yale). 

Messmer of Wisconsin, Quarter-back 

Beebe of North C'aro- 

lina, Hodgson of Virginia Polytechnic, and Parker 
of Harvard. 

Schulz of Michigan was the best centre of the 
year. Not more active than Grant, nor steadier 
than Phillips, nor a better open-field tackier than 
Congdon, he had all the advantages of all these 
men, together with experience, and he turned 
tluMu all to account. He is well over six feet in 
h<'ight, and yet a fast, powerful man who gets 
well over the field and makes more tackles in a 
i::ime than any other man on his team. In addi- 
tion he is an accurate passer and feeds the ball 
well to his backs either for kicks or runs. 

(irant of Harvard played a plucky game of 
tremendous activity from the time he was put in 
to the very end. His passing was good and his 
eye for the ball keen. He was tireless and im- 
pressed one as a man who felt responsible for 
more than the mere routine duties of tlie position. 
JMiillips of Princeton showed his experience of 
1906 and played one of the steadiest games of the 
-eason. He had some difficult passing to do, too, 
out was not found wanting. His handling of the 
ball to the back-field men was accurate, and his 
Wendell (Harvard), work in this respect in his Indian game, when the 
Half-back ball had become like a lump of sodden leather. 



was as good an exhibition of reliable work as seen 
on any gridiron last season. 

Congdon of Yale was another type ot the active, 
aggressive centre who was particularly strong m 
defensive work and whose passing was reliable. 
He might have had tho place had he been able to 
play in the Harvard game. In finishing out the 
Princeton game on an ankle sprained m the first 
half and still keeping np his speed there was a 
fine showing of quiet pluck quite typical ot the 
man who had worked for four years and through 
all positions to reach his goal on the 'Varsity. 
Dunbar, who took Congdon's place in the Harvard 
game, rose to the occasion and showed a quality 
and steadiness that would have placed him in a 
season's work. Slingluff of the Navy pressed them 
all closely, especially for steadiness and general 
reliability. ^ , , „ ,, 

Dwyer of Pennsylvania, Coble of bwarthmore. 
May of Cornell, and Turner of Western University 
of Pennsylvania were all good men. 

Jones of Yale came to his own as a quarter-back 
last year and not only ran his team well, but 
showed, on occasions when necessary and vital, a 
power of rising to the emergency, and carrying 
his team with him in deliberate but deadly cer- 
tainty of attack, a quality that wins games. This 
was especially true in the use of the forward pass, 

#a most necessary essential 
in the rounding out of last 
year's play. In the Prince- 
ton game it was not only 
his ability to run his team, 
but his individual deeds 
which were of great moment. Particularly was 
that true in his forward pass, and a man who 
can perform this, either a straight, short, quick 
pass or a long end over end, as Jones unques- 
tionably showed in his most important contests 
that he could do, and that under pressure, is an 
asset that brings victory to his side. In these 
latter respects he surpasses any one who came 
up against him in actual contest, 
Dillon of Princeton is one of the cleverest 
quarters that ever handled the ball. Not only 
does he drive his team well, but he uses hi3 
• plays with judgment, and he himself is a won- 

der at catching kicks and running them back. 
He does not himself enter into the interference 
or the push as much as some other quarters, 
and Princeton's plan of play does not give him 
the kind of forward passing to do as mentioned 
above in the case of Jones. He acts as though 
he could perform these duties if they were 
given him, and I look to see him develop along 
this line this season. 

Steffen of Chicago is an able successor to 
Eckersall, although not up to that young man's 
remarkable stand. He is a good man at hand- 
McCormick (Princecun), ling the ball, runs his team well, is a powerful 
Full-back player himself, and can upon occasion, as in- 

Harlan (Princeton), 


stanced in the Indian game, respond to an extra demand by kicking a 
field goal from a difficult position. 

Mt. Pleasant of the Indians is one of. the best quarters of the year, 
but less rugged in physique than the others mentioned. He is brilliant, 
and up to the time of the Princeton game had made more out of the 
team than any of the other quarters, but Dillon proved more successful 
in that game, and he and Jones lasted out the season better. 

Glaze of Dartmouth, Newhall of Harvard, O'Brien of Swarthmore, 
Green, captain of Tufts, Keinath of Pennsylvania, Lange of the Navy, 
Stewart of Georgetown, Honaker of Virginia, are all clever players. 

Harlan of Princeton proved the most successful kicker of the year. 
While not punting as far as some, he placed his kicks well and had 
under excellent control an on-side kick most disagreeable to meet. 
This was particularly effective in the Indian game. Harlan is also a 
first-class drop-kicker, most consistently successful in the games, and, 
added to all this, a good runner with the ball. As a matter of fact, dis- 
tance, except on a windy day, did not prove as valuable an asset in a 
kicker for his team as ability to kick on the run, and this was Harlan's 

Wendell of Harvard showed himself a strong, heady player, with ex- 
cellent ground-gaining qualities, especially in end runs on the offense 
and good diagnosing of plays on the defense and powerful tackling. 
He was a most important factor on the Harvard team in their final 
game and did much to make their showing what it was. 

Hollenback of Pennsylvania is a tall, powerful, offensive and defensive 
player, with excellent kicking abilities, sending one of the meanest 
balls for backs to handle, barring possibly some of Harlan's low kicks 
across the rush line. Hollenback was consistent ever since the middle 
of the season and is a good ground-gainer. He places his kicks ex- 
tremely well and uses his head in all his work. 

Marks of Dartmouth put up a strong game all through the season, 
and is clever at diagnosing plays and follows the ball well. Besides 
this, he is himself a ground-gainer of marked ability. He has great 
power, keeps his feet well, and adds the necessary yards, even when 

Hauser of the Indians, while playing normally the position of full- 
back, could make his runs equally well from the position of half, and 
with the proper pair working with him would be even more effective 
than in his present position. He was probably the most accurate kicker 
of goals from placemtnt on the gridiron last season, and his end runs, 
as demonstrated against such ends as Wister and Brown of Princeton, 
were first-class. He is also able with the forward pass, but was not at 
his best under adverse conditions of ground and ball. 

Capron of Minnesota is a good man and even more remarkable than 
several of the men already mentioned in point of kicking ability. 
Minnesota's scoring has been very largely due to this young man. 

Brides of Yale has already been mentioned as having sacrificed an 
All-America position as guard for the benefit of his team at half-back. 
He is one of the best defensive players, and is also particularly strong 
in assisting his own runner. 

The other men who deserve mention are Bomar, Philbin and Murphy 
of Yale, Mayhew of Brown, Folwell of Pennsylvania, Lament of Wil- 
liams, a first-class kicker, McCaillie of Cornell, McCleary of Penn State, 
Tibbott of Princeton, Chalmers and McCaa of Lafayette, McGoffin of 
Michigan, and Kirk of Iowa. 

McCormick of Princeton, between carrying the ball himself and his 
carrying the man who had the ball, probably did more ground-gaining 
for his team than any back on the field last year. Time and again he 
would come through the middle of the line, and whether he had the 
ball in his possession or his arms around the man with the ball, there 
was no stopping him short of eight or ten yards until the line closed 


up and determined, no matter what else happened, to make sure of 
McCormick, He is well built, powerful, and was far stronger last year 
on offense than in 1906. He is also good at diagnosing plays on the 
defense and quick to reach the danger spot. 

Coy of Yale was one of the brilliant backs of the season, and as soon 
as he gets a little more experience will make one of the most marked 
men on the gridiron. He showed by flashes last year an ability not 
matched by any other player. He runs with tremendous power in the 
open and went through teams for touchdowns almost without effort. 
His running from formation with his own men close to him is not yet 
as well developed as his running in the open, but it will come. He is 
withal one of the longest kickers on the field to-day and is a good man 
in the forward pass. 

Douglas of the Navy, while not in the best physical condition during 
the early part of the season, came splendidly toward the end, and in his 
big game did wonderful work for his team. He is not only a star in 
advancing the ball, but also in defensive work, and in addition to this 
his punts were so well placed as to be a source of constant menace to 
the Army backs. 

Beavers of West Point, Walder of Cornell, De Tray of Chicago, 
Dutcher of Georgetown, and Weller of Nebraska, all deserve mention. 




Cumnock, Harvard. 
Cowan, Princeton. 
Cranston, Harvard. 
George, Princeton. 
Heffelflnger, Yale. 
Gill, Yaie. 
Stagg, Yale. 
Poe, Princeton. 
Lee, Harvard. 
Channing, Princeton. 
Ames, Princeton. 

Ilallowell, Harvard. 
Newell, Harvard. 
Riggs, Princeton. 
Cranston, Harvard. 
Heffeltinger, Yale. 
Rhodes, Yale. 
Warren, Princeton. 
Dean, Harvard. 
Corbett, Harvard. 
McClung, Yale. 
Homaus, Princeton. 

Ilink.y, Yale. 
Winter, Yale. 
Heft'eltinger, Yale. 
Adams, Pennsylvania. 
Riggs, Princeton. 
Newell, Harvard. 
Hartwell, Yale. 
King, Princeton. 
Lake, Harvard. 
McClung, Yale. 
Homans, Princeton. 

Hinkey, Yale. 
Wallis, Yale. 
Waters, Harvard. 
Lewis, Harvard. 
Wheeler, Princeton. 
Newell, Harvard. 
Hallowell, Harvard. 
McCormick, Y'ale. 
Brewer, Harvard. 
King, Princeton. 
Thayer, Pennsylvania. 

Hinkey, Yale. 
Lea, Princeton. 
Wheeler, Princeton. 
Lewis, Harvard. 
Hickok, Yale. 
Newell, Harvard. 
Trenchard, Princeton. 
King, Princeton. 
Brewer, Harvard. 
Morse, Princeton. 
Butterworth, Yale. 

Hinkey, Yale. 
Waters, Harvard. 
Wheeler, Princeton. 
Stillman, Yale. 
Hickok, Yale. 
Lea, Princeton. 
Gelbert, Pennsylvania. 
Adee, Y'ale. 
Knipe, Pennsylvania. 
Brooke, Pennsylvania. 
Butterworth, Yale. 

Cabot, Harvard. 
Lea, Princeton. 
Wharton, Pennsylvania. 
Bull, Pennsylvanfa. 
Riggs, Princeton. 
Murphy, Yale. 
Gelbert, Pennsylvania. 
Wyckoff, Cornell. 
Thorne, Yale. 
Brewer, Harvard. 
Brooke, Pennsylvania. 

Cabot, Harvard. 
Church, Princeton. 
Wharton, Pennsylvania. 
Gailey, Princeton. 
Woodruff, Pennsylvania. 
Murphy, Yale. 
Gelbert, Pennsylvania. 
Fincke, Yale. 
Wrightington, Harvard. 
Kelly, Princeton. 
Baird, Princeton. 

Cochran, Princeton. 
Chamberlain, Yale. 
Hare, Pennsylvania. 
Doucette, Harvard. 
Brown, Yale. 
Outland, Pennsylvania. 
Hall, Yale. 
DeSaulles, Y'^ale. 
Dibblee, Harvard. 
Kelly, Princeton. 
Minds, Pennsylvania. 

Palmer, Princeton. 
Hillebrand, Princeton. 
Hare, Pennsylvania. 
Overfleld, Pennsylvania. 
Brown, Y'ale. 
Chamberlain, Y'ale. 
Hallowell, Harvard. 
Daly, Harvard. 
Outland, Pennsylvania. 
Dibble(\ Harvard. 
Hirschberger, Chicago. 

Campbell, Harvard. 
Hillebrand, Princeton. 
Hare, Pennsylvania. 
Overfleld. Pennsylvania. 
Brown, Yale. 
Stillman, Y'ale. 
Poe, Princeton. 
Daly, Harvard. 
Seneca, Indians. 
McCracken, Pennsylvania. 
McBride, Y'ale. 

Campbell, Harvard. 
Bloomer, Yale. 
Brown, Yale. 
Olcott, Yale. 
Hare, Pennsylvania. 
Stillman, Yale. 
Hallowell, Harvard. 
Fincke, Yale. 
Chadwick, Yale. 
Morley, Columbia. 
Hale. Yale. 



Campbell, Harvard. 
Cutts, Harvard. 
Warner, Cornell. 
Holt, Yale. 
Lee, Harvard. 
Bunker, West Point. 
Davis, Princeton. 
Daly, West Point. 
Kernan, Harvard. 
Weekes, Columbia. 
Graydon, Harvard. 

Shevlin, Yale. 
Hogan, Yale. 
DeWitt, Princeton. 
Holt, Yale. 
Glass, Yale. 
Kinney, Yale. 
Bowditch, Harvard. 
Rockwell, Yale. 
Chadwick, Yale. 
Bunker, West Point. 
Graydon, Harvard. 

Henry, Princeton. 
Hogan, Yale. 
DeWitt, Princeton. 
Hooper, Dartmouth. 
A. Marshall, Harvard. 
Knowlton, Harvard. 
Rafferty, Y'ale. 
Johnson, Carlisle. 
Heston, Michigan. 
Kafer, Princeton. 
Smith, Columbia. 

Shevlin, Yale. 
Cooney, Princeton. 
Piekarski, Pennsylvania. 
Tipton, West Point. 
Kinney, Y'ale. 
Hogan, Y'ale. 
Bckersall, Chicago. 
Stevenson, Pennsylvania. 
Hurley, Harvard. 
Heston, Michigan. 
Smith, Pennsylvania. 

Shevlin, Y'ale. 
Lamson, Pennsylvania. 
Tripp, Yale. 
Torrey, Pennsylvania. 
Burr, Harvard. 
Squires, Harvard. 
Glaze, Dartmouth. 
Eckersall, Chicago. 
Roome, Y^ale. 
Hubbard. Amherst. 
McCormick, Princeton. 

Forbes, Yale. 
Biglow, Yale. 
Burr, Harvard. 
Dunn, Penn State. 
Thompson, Cornell. 
Cooney, Princeton. 
Wister, Princeton. 
Eckersall, ChicagOo 
Mayhew, Brown. 
Knox, Yale. 
Veeder, Y'ale. 

Dague, Annapolis. 
Draper, Pennsylvania. 
Ziegler, Pennsylvania. 
Schulz, Michigan. 
Erwin, West Point. 
Biglow, Y^ale. 
Alcott, Yale. 
Jones, Yale. 
Wendell, Harvard. 
Harlan, Princeton. 
McCormick, Princeton. 


Changes in Rules for 1908 

Both players and officials should make especial note of the 
alterations in the rules governing the playing season of 1908. 

The most important of these in the actual play is the change in 
the rule relating to the forward pass. As in the rules of 1907, 
the penalty upon the first and second downs of an incompleted 
forward pass is fifteen yards loss. But an indiscriminate use of this 
pass, that is, an attempt to bring it ofif without thorough perfec- 
tion of the play, it was hoped, would be made less common by 
changing the rule so that only the player who touched it first of 
the passer's side could recover it. ^The rule has therefore been 
changed to provide that when the pass is legally touched only 
the man of the passer's side who thus first legally touched the 
ball shall be entitled to recover the ball until it has been touched 
by an opponent. Furthermore, if a forward pass is thus legally 
touched, fumbled, and then touched by another player of the 
passer's side before the ball has touched an opponent, the ball 
shall go to the opponents at the spot where it was thus first 
legally touched. 

It was also found necessary to define more clearly the rights of 
the players upon both sides in the case of a forward pass, and 
limit specifically the amount of interference that could be indulged 
in by each. This has been done by providing that when the ball 
is in the air from a forward pass the players of the defensive side, 
that is, the side which did not make the forward pass, may not 
use their hands or arms on opponents except to push them out of 
the way in order to themselves secure the ball. Players of the 
side which made the forward pass and who are eligible to receive 
such pass, may use their hands and arms in the same manner as 
is allowed and provided for in the case of players going down the 
field under a kick. The players of neither side, however, are 
permitted to hold or tackle an opponent who has not the ball. 

And to complete the definiteness of ruling upon these passes, 
in case a forward pass is illegally touched outside of these pro- 
visions, the ball goes to the opponents at the spot whence the 
pass was made. 

Another change in legislation of importance to officials as well 
as to players provides that in all cases a penalty may be declined 
by the offended side. But in case the penalty involves disqualifi- 
cation, the player must leave the field. 

The score of a forfeited game is also provided for by a rule de- 
claring the result i to 0, thus distinguishing such score from any 
other possible one. 

The intermission has also been increased to fifteen minutes 
instead of ten minutes, and the teams must be notified by the 


official three minutes before the expiration of the fifteen minutes. 
Then if five minutes have elapsed since the notification, the team 
that is ready to play places the ball upon their opponent's thirty- 
yard line and puts it in play by a scrimmage at that point. 

In case a ball accidently strikes an official, the play is to be 
made over again. 

A ball from a kick (except try-at-goal) , on forward pass that 
strikes the goal posts or the goal, ball shall be considered as 
having crossed the goal line. 

In order to secure uniformity the penalty under Rules 24 and 
25 for tripping, coaching, or being unlawfully upon the field, has 
been made to read "Fifteen yards, the point to be gained and the 
number of the down to remain unchanged." 

Batting the ball forward is penalized by loss of ball to offended 
side, and is placed under the jurisdiction of the Umpire and Field 
Judge. The Field Judge is also made timekeeper. 


Interpreting the Rules 

On no point is centered greater attention and upon no issue 
hangs the real success of foot ball more decidedly than upon that 
of the interpretation of the Rules, 

There are no sports where rules are not necessary, and the 
keener the interest the more important are the rules. But it is 
also true, as has been discovered even by Englishmen in their 
most staid of sports, the game of golf, that rules are subject to 
misunderstanding and must perforce occasionally require interpre- 
tation. In our constantly changing rules of foot ball, then, such 
interpretation is even more essential, and the efforts along this 
line in the last three years have done very nearly as much through 
conscientious officials to clear up some of the evils that menaced 
the game as have the changes in the rules themselves. 

As stated elsewhere in this little volume, any difficulties that may 
arise when coming from a question of interpretation can usually 
be satisfactorily cleared up by addressing an inquiry to the pub- 
lishers of Spalding's Official Foot Ball Guide, the American 
Sports Publishing Company, 21 Warren Street, New York. 
There are, however, several points that may be collected into a 
chapter of this nature that may serve to save discussion and 

It should be remembered and noted by players and officials that 
the lines marking' the boundaries of the field are all praclically 
outside the playing surface. That is, the goal is " in goal " and 
the side line is "in touch" or out of bounds. Hence, a ball 
placed on the goal line is "in goal," and a ball or a man's foot 
touching the side lines is out of bounds. It is therefore important 
that all these lines should be carefully and accurately marked. 

The rules further say that the official shall not, in measuring 
the distance gained, "rotate the ball." This means that the 
position of the ball when declared dead is that from which the 
measurement shall be taken. But when that measurement has 
been taken and the number of the down and distance to be gained 
declared, the ball must be placed upon the ground for the next 
scrimmage with its long axis parallel to the side lines once more. 
In these cases of measurement the officials should assist each 
other, and as soon as it becomes necessary for a measurement to 
be taken, one official should hold the ball in exactly the position 
it occupied when declared dead, while the others attend to the 
measurement. This is of the greatest importance, as upon such a 
decision often depends the possession of the ball and perhaps even 
the chance of a touchdown. It is w^ell to provide a cord with two 
steel skewers, as this can be very easily used in taking these 
important measurements. And in speaking of officials, it should 
be noted that the Rules Committee strongly advises the entire 


After measurements on the field the next most important point 
Hkely to arise is that connected with fair catches. Officials should 
note that a man must raise his hand very distinctly up above his 
head in making the signal for a fair catch. Just putting the arm 
and hand up a little way will not be— and should not be— regarded 
as a signal. The object is to insure the protection of the man 
making the signal, and hence it should be so unmistakable as to 
leave no room for doubt. A man may make the signal at any 
time before he catches the ball, but if he waits so long as to rush 
his time for extending his arm and getting it back in position 
again in time to make the catch, he should bear in mind that he 
runs a very considerable risk of not getting his arm and hand up 
high enough to have the official regard it as a valid signal. 
Another point to be especially noted is that any man of the side 
receiving the kick who is in such a position that it is possible for 
him unmolested to reach the spot where the ball is falling before 
it strikes the ground, is, by the rules, given the right of way and 
may not be interfered with or balked by any one of the kicker's 
side who is ofif side, even though it may seem unlikely for him to 
make the catch. In other words, it should be considered that the 
catcher's side are the ones who of necessity must have their eyes 
on the ball, and those of the kicker's side, who are running down 
the field, must actually keep out of the way of any man who has 
an opportunity of making the catch. If a man, for instance, 
while not actually running into a man who was coming across or 
up the field to catch a ball, should stop and so stand as to be in 
the pathway of the man who was trying to make the catch and 
should thus check him, he would be guilty of interference with 
the fair catch. 

Touchdowns, and the difference between a touch-back and a 
safety, have at times given rise to discussion, although of late the 
distinction has been made quite clear. If a player with the ball in 
his possession carries it so that it is across the goal line, or he is 
brought down so that any part of the ball touches or is directly 
over the goal line, it is a touchdown. A safety touchdown is 
made in one's own goal by touching the ball down after it has 
been kicked, passed or carried across the goal line by an impetus 
coming from the defending side. Whatever the force that sent it 
across, if that force came from the attacking side, it is a touch- 
back, only no matter whether the ball has been touched by the 
defenders in its progress or not. If, however, a defender stops 
the ball just outside and checks it, and then in fumbling it man- 
ages unfortunately to carry or knock it across his own goal line 
and then touches it down, it would be a safety. 

These are the more important points likely to come up, but 
officials particularly, and players desirably, should study the rules 
carefully in order to perfect themselves and avoid any possibility 
of friction. 


An Introductory Chapter for Beginners 


Those who are taking up the sport for the first time should 
observe certain rules which will enable them to become adept 
players with less mistakes than perhaps would otherwise fall to 
their lot. 

A beginner in foot ball should do two things : He should read 
the rules, and he should, if possible, watch the practice. If the 
latter be impossible, he and his men must, after having read the 
rules, start in and, with eleven on a side, play according to their 
own interpretation of these rules. When differences of opinion 
arise as to the meaning of a-ny rule, a letter addressed to the 
publishers of Spalding's Oi^cial Foot Ball Guide — the American 
Sports Publishing Company, 21 Warren Street, New York — 
will always elicit a ready and satisfactory answer. 

The first thing to be done in starting the practice is to provide 
the accessories of the game, which, in foot ball, are of the simplest 
kind. The field should be marked out with ordinary lime lines, 
enclosing a space of 330 feet long and 160 feet wide. While not 
absolutely necessar}^, it is customary to mark the field also with 
transverse lines every five yards, for the benefit of the referee in 
determining how far the ball is advanced at every down, and also 
with lines running parallel to the side line and five yards apart, in 
order to aid the umpire in determining that a forward pass, if 
made, crosses the line of scrimmage at least five yards out, 
also whether the quarter-back in making a run follows a 
certain rule which provides that he must cross the line of 
scrimmage five yards from the point where the ball was put 
in play. The same end is accomplished by merely making 
short marks at right angles on each line. In the middle of 
the lines forming the ends of the field, the goal posts are 
erected, and should be eighteen feet six inches apart, with cross- 
bar ten feet from the ground. The posts should project several 
feet above the cross bar The ball used is an oval leather cover 
containing a rubber inner, which is inflated by means of a small 
air pump or the lungs. The ball used by the principal teams is 
the Intercollegiate Match, No. J5, adopted by the Intercollegiate 
Association, and made by A. G. Spalding & Bros. 

The costumes of the players form another very important 
feature and should be of a proper and serviceable nature. Canvas 
makes most serviceable jackets for the players, as do also jerseys 
reinforced with leather. These can be purchased at a small 
expense from any athletic outfitter. The canvas jacket should 
fit closely, but not too tightly, and lace up in front, so that it 


may be drawn quite snugly. Some have elastic pieces set in 
at the sides, back of the arms, but these additions are by no 
means necessary. Jerseys, with leather patches on elbows and 
shoulders, are also worn. 

The trousers should be of some stout material, fustian for 
example, and well padded. This padding can be done by any 
seamstress, quilting in soft material over knees and thighs, or 
the regular athletic outfitters furnish trousers provided with the 
padding. Long woolen stockings are worn, and not infrequently 
shin guards by men playing in the forward line. 

The most important feature of the entire uniform is the shoe. 
This may be the ordinary canvas and leather base ball shoe with 
leather cross-pieces nailed across the sole to prevent slipping. 
Such is the most inexpensive form, but the best shoes are made 
entirely of leather, of moderately stout material, fitting the foot 
firmly, yet comfortably, lacing well up on the ankles, and the 
soles provided with a small leather spike, which can be renewed 
when worn down. Inside this shoe, and either attached to the 
bottom of it or not, as preferred, a thin leather anklet laces 
tightly over the foot, and is an almost sure preventive of sprained 

Head gears are made to protect the runner and must not be 
composed of sole leather, papier mache, or any other hard, un- 
yielding substance that might injure another player. (A com- 
plete list of a foot ball player's requirements will be found in a 
subsequent chapter in this book.) 

Underneath the canvas jacket any woolen underwear may be 
put on, most players wearing knit jerseys. As mentioned above, 
there are several players who can, to advantage, go without the 
regulation canvas jacket and wear a jersey in its place. These are 
especially the quarter-back, the center-rush or snap-back. Of 
recent years backs and linemen tend more than ever to the adop- 
tion of the leather-reinforced jersey. 

The team of eleven m.en is usually divided into seven rushers 
or forwards, who stand in a line facing their seven opponents ; a 
quarter-back, who stands just behind this line; two half-backs, 
a few yards behind the quarter-back ; and finally, a full-back or 
goal tend, who stands at kicking distance behind the half-backs. 
This gives the general formation, but is, of course, dependent 
upon the plays to be executed. 

Before commencing practice, a man should be chosen to act as 
referee, umpire and linesman, for in practice games it is hardly 
necessary to have more than one official. The two sides then 
toss up, and the one winning the toss has choice of goal or kick- 
off. If there be a wind, the winner will naturally and wisely take 
the goal from which that wind is blowing and allow his opponent 


to liavo the ball. If there be no advantage in the goals he may 
choose the kick-off, and his opponents in. that case take which- 
ever goal they like. The two teams then line up; the holders of 
the ball placing it upon the exact center of the field, and the 
opponents being obliged to stand back in their own territory at 
least ten 3'ards, until the ball has been touched with the foot. 
Some man of the side having the kick-off must then kick the ball 
at least ten yards into the opponents' territory. Preferably, there- 
fore, he will send it across the goal line or else as far as he can, 
and still have his forwards reach the spot in season to prevent 
too great headway being acquired by the opponents' interference, 
but he will not kick it across the side line. The opponents then 
catch it and return it by a kick,, or they run wnth it. If one of 
them runs w^ith it he may be tackled by the opponents. He may 
not, however, be tackled below the knees, save by the five middle 
men of the forward line. As soon as the ball is fairly held; 
that is, both player and ball brought to a standstill, or the 
runner with the ball touches the ground with any part of his 
person, except his hands or feet, while in the grasp of an op- 
ponent, the referee blows his whistle and the runner has the 
ball "down," and someone upon his side, usually the man called 
the snap-back or center-rush, must place the ball on the ground 
at that spot for a "scrimmage," as it is termed. The ball is then 
put in play again, placing it flat on the ground with its long axis 
parallel to the side line (while the men of each team keep on 
their own side of the ball, under the penalty of a foul for off- 
side pla}^ a line parallel to the goal line and passing through the 
end of the ball nearest the side's own goal line determining the 
position of the players of each side) by the snap-back's kicking 
the ball or snapping it back, either with his foot, or more com- 
monly with his hands, to a player of his own side just behind 
him, who is called the quarter-back. The ball is in play, and 
both sides may press forw^ard as soon as the ball is put in motion 
by the snap-back. Naturally, however, as the quarter-back usually 
passes it still further behind him to a half-back, or back, to kick 
or run with, it is the opposing side which is most anxious to 
push forward, while the side having the ball endeavor by all 
lawful means to retard that advance until their runner or kicker 
has had time to execute his play. It is this antagonism of desire on 
the part of both sides that has given rise to the special legislation 
regarding the use of the hands, body and arms of the contestants 
— and beginners must carefully note the distinction. As soon as 
ihe snap-back has sent the ball behind him, he has really placed 
all the men in his own line off-side ; that is, between the ball 
and the opponents' goal, and they, therefore, can theoretically, 
occupy only the position in which they stand, while the opponents 


have the legal right to run past them as quickly as possible. 
For this reason, and bearing in mind that the men "on side" 
have the best claim to right of w^ay, it has been enacted that the 
side having possession of the ball may not use their hands or 
arms, but only their bodies, when thus off-side, to obstruct or 
interrupt their adversaries, while the side running through in the 
endeavor to stop the runner, or secure possession of the ball, 
may use their hands and arms to make passage for themselves. 
The game thus progresses in a series of downs, followed by 
runs or kicks, as the case may be, the only limitation being that 
of a rule designed to prevent one side continuously keeping 
possession of the ball without any material advance or retreat, 
which would be manifestly unfair to the opponents. This rule 
provides that in three "downs" or attempts to advance the ball, 
a side not having made ten yards toward the opponents' goal 
must surrender possession of the ball. As a matter of fact, it 
is seldom that a team actually surrenders the ball in this way, 
because, after two attempts, if the prospects of completing the 
ten-yards gain appear small, it is so manifestly politic to kick the 
ball as far as possible down the field, that such a method is 
more likely to be adopted than to make a last attempt by a run 
and give the enemy possession almost on the spot. In such an 
exigency, if a kick be made, the rules provide that it must be 
such a kick as to give the opponents fair and equal chance to 
gain possession of the ball and must go beyond the line of 
scrimmage unless stopped by an opponent. A player may also, 
under certain restrictions, carefully stated in the rules, make 
what is known as a forward pass, that is, throw the ball 
forward to another player of his own side. Still again, there 
is an exception to rules of " on-side " in that a ball kicked from 
behind the line of scrimmage when it strikes the ground puts the 
players of the kicker's side "on-side" even though at the time of 
the kick they were ahead of the ball. There is one other element 
entering into this progress of the game, and that is the fair 
catch. This can be made from a kick by the opponents, pro- 
vided the catcher indicates his intention by raising his hand 
in the air, takes the ball on the fly, and no other of his 
own side touches it. This entitles him to a free kick ; that 
is, his opponents cannot come within ten yards of the spot 
where he made the catch, while he (and his side) may re- 
tire such distance toward his own goal as he sees fit, and 
then make a punt or a drop, or give the ball to some one of his 
own side to place the ball for a place kick. Here again, as at 
kick-off, when taking the free kick, he must make an actual kick 
of at least ten yards, unless the ball is stopped by the opponents. 
His own men must be behind the ball when he kicks it, or be 
adjudged off-side. 


Whenever the ball goes across the side boundary line of the 
field, it is said to go "into touch," or out of bounds, and it must 
be at once brought back to the point where it crossed the line, 
and then put in play by some member of the side which carried 
it out, or first secured possession of it after it went out. The 
method of putting it in play is to take it to the spot where it 
crossed the line and then carry it at right angles into the field at 
least five and not more than fifteen yards, and make an ordinary 
scrimmage of it, the same as after a down. The player who 
intends walking with it must, before stepping into the field, 
declare how many paces he will walk in, in order that the 
opponents may know where the ball will be put in play. We 
will suppose {hat the ball by a succession of these plays, runs, 
kicks, forward pass, downs, fair catches, etc., has advanced 
toward one or the other of the goals, until it is within kicking 
distance of the goal posts. The question will now arise in the 
mind of the captain of the attacking side as to whether his best 
plan of operation will be to try a drop-kick at the goal, or to 
contmue the running attempts, in the hope of carrying the ball 
across the goal line, for this latter play will count his side a 
touchdown, and entitle them to a try-at-goal. 

In deciding, therefore, whether to try a drop-kick, or continue 
the running attempts, he should reflect upon the value of the 
scores. The touchdown itself will count 5 points, even if he 
afterward fail to convert it into a goal, by sending the ball over 
the bar and between the posts, while, if he succeed in converting 
it, the touchdown and goal together count 6 points. A drop- 
kick, if successful, counts 4 points, but is, of course, even if 
attempted, by no means sure of resulting successfully. He must, 
therefore, carefully consider all the issues at this point, and it 
is the handling of those problems that shows his quality as a 
captain. If he elects to continue his running attempts, and 
eventually carries the ball across the line, he secures a touch- 
down at the spot where the ball is finally held, after being car- 
ried over, and any player of his side may then bring it out, and 
when he reaches a suitable distance, place the ball for one of 
his side to kick, the opponents, meantime, standing behind their 
goal line. In placing the ball it is held in the hands of the 
placer, close to, but not touching the ground, and then carefully 
aimed until the direction is proper ; the kicker himself may aim 
it, touching it with his hands, provided the ball does not touch 
the ground. Then, at a signal from the kicker that it is right, 
it is placed upon the ground, still steadied by the hand or finger 
of the placer, and instantly kicked by the place kicker._ The 
reason for this keeping it off the ground until the last instant 
is that the opponents can charge forward as soon as the ball 


touches the ground, and hence would surely stop the kick if 
much time intervened. If the ball goes over the goal, it scores 
as above indicated, and the opponents then take it to the middle 
of the held for kick-off again, the same as at the commence- 
ment of the match. The opponents have the privilege either of 
taking the kick-off themselves or of having the side which 
scored kick-off. The ball is also taken to the center of the field 
if the goal be missed after a touchdown, although formerly the 
opponents could then bring it out only to the twenty-five-yard 

There is one other issue to be considered at this point, and 
that is, if the ball be in possession of the defenders of the goal, 
or if it fall into their hands when thus close to their own goal. 
Of course, they will naturally endeavor, by running or kicking, 
to, if possible, free themselves from the unpleasant situation that 
menaces them. Sometimes, however, this becomes impossible, 
and there is a provision in the rules which gives them an oppor- 
tunity of relief, at a sacrifice, it is true, but scoring less against 
them than if their opponents should regain possession of the ball 
and max'e a touchdown or a goal. A player may at any time 
kick, pass or carry the ball across his own goal line, and there 
touch it down for safety. This, while it scores two points for 
his opponents, gives his side the privilege of bringing the ball 
out to the twenty-five-yard line, and then taking a kick-out, per- 
formed like kick-off or any other free kick, but it can be a drop- 
kick, a place-kick or a punt. 

The succession of plays continues for thirty-five minutes in a reg- 
ular match. Then intervenes a fifteen-minute intermission, after 
which the side which did not have the kick-off at the commence- 
ment of the match has possession of the ball for the kick-off 
for a second thirty-five minutes. The result of the match is 
determined by the number of points scored during the two halves, 
a goal from a touchdown yielding 6 points, one from the field — 
that is, without the aid of a touchdown — 4 points ; a touchdown 
from which no goal is kicked giving 5 points, and a safety count- 
ing 2 points for the opponents. In practice it is usual to have 
the two periods of play considerably shorter than thirty-five 
minutes, generally not over twenty or twenty-five. 


How to Play Foot Ball 

I wish to preface the brief remarks which I take occasion to 
make in this chapter regarding special plays in foot ball with 
the statement that they are not intended tO' cover the first prin- 
ciples of the individual positions in the game. In another book 
I have dwelt upon these at length, and have there defined with as 
great accuracy as I could the principal duties assignable to the 
occupant of each position on the team. In addition to this, I 
have there given the main features of team play. It is worth 
while to mention this at the outset, because a team can make 
no greater mistake than by taking up what are known as "trick" 
plays, or, in fact, any of the ordinary team plays in the present 
modern game, before the individuals of that team have become 
thoroughly perfected in the practical rudiments of the game, 
and perform almost by instinct the ordinary duties of their 
positions. This education in fundamentals has grown even 
more important in the last two years, for a team may no 
longer rely upon compactness of formation and the power of weight 
and concentration, because it is impossible by means of such 
plays to gain ten yards in three downs. Hence education in 
individual perfection becomes more of a necessity than ever. 
A team which undertakes to make strategic plays before 
mastering these primary points will always find itself work- 
ing at a tremendous disadvantage, and the waste of power will 
be almost incalculable. Perhaps I could not put it more plainly 
than to say that the tendency is altogether too much toward 
what is known as "git thar" principles in all of our lines of sport 
to-day. A crew endeavors to row in a shell before learning the 
principles of the stroke ; our boxers are apt to go in for the 
swinging, knock-out blow at the sacrifice of the more old-fash- 
ioned, but better form, sparring; but in none of these forms is 
it more evident than in the one under discussion, namely, foot 
ball. It is not at all uncommon to see a team playing intricate 
criss-crosses, double and forward passes and concealed ball plays, 
whose men are still tackling high, and whose half-backs kick a 
punt from low down on the toe. To every reader of this book 
then, I say with the heartiest good will, master the rudiments 
first if you wish to make yourself valuable to any team; master 
them thoroughly if you wish to see 3'our team win when it 
comes to important matches. These special plays which follow 
are plays which captains and coaches can work out to an almost 
infinite number of variations, but it will be the individual players 
on the team who will, in the end, determine whether the use of 
these plays will turn out successfully. 


Under the present rules, whenever a free kick is attempted, it 
must be an actual kick of not less than ten yards into the oppo- 
nent's territory. The introduction of this rule caused all the flying 
wedge opening plays of some years ago, as well as formed wedges 
from fair catches and kick-outs to disappear. The captain now has 
to perform the principal part of his strategic play, outside of the 
kick, from ordinary downs, instead of from what have been 
called "free kicks," but what have been really "free wedges." 
Furthermore, the more recent changes in the rules make one of 
the prime essentials of a good team proficiency in running, for- 
ward passing and quick kicking from regular formations. 

I, therefore, begin with running in the line. By this I mean 
running, from his position in the line, by any one of the seven 
men forming the forward line in the team. Some years ago there 
was a great deal of guard running, and in a good many books 
published recently on the game, the guard is spoken of as by all 
odds the most available man in the line for running with the 
ball. That is true to this extent. The guard occupies a good 
position for short and, perhaps, unexpected runs, but with the 
modern game the guard is such a feature in the defensive work 
that it has become a good deal of a question whether he ought to 
be given much running to do on his own account, and especially 
as he must now, from his position in the line. He can no 
longer be taken back into what is known as the guard-back 
formation. But if the reader will bear this in mind, and so not 
make use of his guard except to such an extent as shall still 
preserve the guard for his ordinary work, one can say that he 
has in these guards two available men in the line. The most 
natural run for the guard or tackle is between the tackle and 
guard on the other side of the line from which he stands. In 
the performance of this run by the tackle, the principal feature 
is to disguise the fact that the tackle is about to start, and his 
getting a quick and free start, not followed, or followed at a 
considerable distance only by his vis-a-vis. In order to do this 
he must form the habit of holding himself in the same position 
when he is not going to make this run that he occupies when he 
is going to undertake it, for any difTerence will indicate to his 
opponent what the play is to be. But, breaking away, he runs 
closely behind the quarter-back, taking the ball on the fly as he 
passes, and making a short and sharp dash in between his own 
guard and tackle, or preferably just about over the tackle's 
position, who, with the assistance of the half and full-back, one 
usually preceding and the other following, break through with 
him, his own quarter-back and end protecting him from behind, 
also closing in upon him as he goes through. A tackle can also 
be run in a similar fashion between the tackle and end, guard 


and center, or even entirely around the end, but this latter play 
is of no great value except with particularly fast tackles, and 
more than that, it uses up the tackle's wind a good deal more 
than when he goes through the line, because the interference is 
likely to stand out pretty well toward the edge of the field, and 
the tackle will run his fu^ll distance and not be able to get through 
the end after all, thus having taken a considerable dash and 
under high speed and with no good result, but merely the loss 
of a down. In defining the tackle's running, I have also defined 
the running of the guard where he goes around behind the 
quarter in a similar fashion. These plays are strong where the 
guard is a big man and a hard runner with good legs. A fat 
man is useless in such a case. The University of Pennsylvania 
performed some very excellent work in dropping guards back as 
interferers, and also in giving the guards themselves the ball 
occasionally. The ends may. be used exactly as the guards or 
tackles in running, or they may be dropped back of the line into 
practically the half-back positions, and transferring positions and 
alternating with the half-back taking the ball. 

One of the most effective plays ever worked was that in 
which the end-rusher was dropped back of the line and sent in 
between the tackle and guard repeatedly, on his own side, the 
ball being passed to him quite a little distance from the quarter ; 
then suddently the same play was made, and the ball was 
passed directly over the head of this end-rusher to the half- 
back, who had crept out beyond, and who thus took the ball in 
a free field and made a free, long run. This was repeated 
again in the same game, showing that the play itself was good 
even to be used more than once. The above plays are also 
assisted by special formation, the players taking positions on 

Other runs which are possible by the line men are, of course, 
criss-cross and double passes. One example of these criss-crosses 
will illustrate sufficiently to enable a captain or coach to carry 
out a great variety of them, using every man in his line if he 

For instance, the tackle and half-back criss-cross. As in the 
instance I described of the ordinary tackle run, the tackle — say 
the left tackle — suddenly shakes himself free from his opponent 
and dashes straight at the quarter, a few feet behind him. of 
course ; the quarter passes him the ball as he reaches him, 
exactly as though the left tackle were then going around be- 
tween the right tackle and the guard. But instead of doing 
this, the left tackle passes to the right half, who runs to the 
left end, the half, full-back and quarter all interfering for him. 
The great point in this play is to see that the opposing right 


tackle does not get the runner as he starts off to get the ball, 
and furthermore, that this right tackle and right end are blocked 
late but long. Such a criss-cross can also be worked with the 
end, and with the guard it can also be tried to turn either in- 
side or outside of the end. So much for the line men running. 
Wing shifts or line shifts, that is, plays wherein one side of the 
line shifts just before the ball is put in play over to the other 
side, are also becoming increasingly common. 

Next we come to the half-backs and full-backs. Every one is 
familiar with the following plays, which we only mention in order 
to call them to the attention of the captain who is studying out in 
the early part of the season what plays he shall make the most of. 
The half-back running on his own side between any of the various 
men in the line; the half-back running between any of the men on 
the side away from his own side; the full-back running on the 
right side or the left side through the same openings and under 
the same circumstances and with practically the same interfer- 
ence, for in the modern game the captain is wise who uses his 
three men behind the line in such a way that any one of them 
may perform any of the various plays devised for the backs, and 
then maintain a similar formation, no matter what the play is to 
be. One cannot too strongly deprecate the exact detailing of certain 
movements in certain plays to get through or block or to take care 
of particular individuals when that move leads to the betrayal of 
the play before it has actually come off. The cardinal points to 
be remembered regarding running by the half-backs and full- 
backs are these : That the interference must depend upon the 
speed of the men engaged, and that no interference should be such 
as to slow up the runner appreciably, unless it be for some trick 
play or double pass where the slowing up of the runner means 
merely his being caught after getting rid of the ball. I have seen 
many a good team spoiled by their attempting to follow out a set 
rule as to the order in which interferers should reach the end. 
For instance, in the days of Heffelfinger, he showed how a guard 
could readily go from his own position out to the opposite end, 
and before the runner, and interfere most nobly for him all the 
way down the field. For this reason every guard was at once 
coached to go out and interfere on the end. Three out of five 
were too big and slow to accomplish this to any advantage, but 
that did not seem to make any difference. Somebody had written 
that the guard should interfere on the end, and the result was that 
everybody had to wait until the guard got out there. Meantime, 
the runner was usually caught from behind. A good guard who 
can pick up his feet lively, and who can get around quickly and 
easily after blocking, can get out before an ordinarily fast runner. 
So, too, can the opposite end. This season it is not unlikely that 


the man who is allowed to play back of the line, provided he is 
outside the position of the man on the end of the line, will be 
used as an interferer. Some teams use the tackle here, but this 
is a mistake, because the tackle should slow up the opposing 
tackle and should also make the play safe from behind. A team 
ought not to have a quarter-back who is too slow to get out to 
the end as an interferer before the back with the ball reaches the 
other point. But for all that there are quarter-backs, and good 
ones, too, who are a little slow in this and hold back the runner. 
These men should either be coached into better speed or taught 
a little different way of getting rid of the ball on the run, per- 
haps, or be sent to perform the tackle's duties, and let the tackle 
get there if the tackle is a remarkably fast man ; otherwise such 
a transfer would only make bad worse. From what I have al- 
ready said the captain can see that he must measure his inter- 
ference by the speed of his interferers, and match them with the 
speed of his runner with the ball in order to satisfactorily solve 
the equation for his own team. It is the captain of brains who 
wins by doing just these things, w^hile the captain without them 
takes the hard and fast rule that has been laid down by some 
one, perhaps of his own team, who has written an article from 
the knowledge of only one or two teams, and thinks that all can 
be brought up to exactly the same point in the same way. 

Regarding going through the line close to the center by backs 
(and by backs I mean the half-backs as well), there are two 
ways of helping a man through the line. One is to batter a hole 
before him and let him slip through, and the other is to put him 
up against the line and then push him so hard that the line has 
to yield and let him through. There are line plays which com- 
bine a variety of these tactics, but there are some principles to be 
remembered in connection with them which will give them some- 
thing more than a careless "hit or miss" move. In the first place, 
a big, heavy man should never be run into the line with one or 
two light interferers preceding him, whereas a light man can be 
run in behind two heavy men with abandon. The reason for this 
is that there are times when the hole will be choked up in spite 
of the attempt of the interferers, and a heavy man getting his 
head down may strike one of the interferers in the back and in- 
capacitate him for future work. It is not so apt to hurt the run- 
ner as it is the man whom he strikes, although there have been 
cases of injury to the runner. When the hole is choked up, and 
heavy men are interfering, they can usually keep the mass mov- 
ing away from the runner, even if they do not open the hole for 
him, and this play is much less hard and far less dangerous. In 
sending two light interferers ahead to spring an opening for the 
runner, it should be borne in mind that an opening made in this 


way is a quick, sharp one, and should not be called upon to rely 
for its efficacy upon steady pushing. An opening, on the other 
hand, made by two heavy men in this fashion can be much smaller 
and rely largely upon the accumulated force even after the run- 
ner strikes the line. The men who go ahead to interfere must 
always remember if they have to go down to fall away from the 
opening and not block it up. The men who run behind the run- 
ner should always remember that it is their duty not only to pro- 
tect him from behind and push and crowd him when he begins to 
slow up, but never, under any circumstances, to interfere with his 
legs. Careless men going behind a runner will oftentimes step on 
his heels and throw him when the runner left to himself could 
have made his distance. The ends are particularly serviceable in 
this pushing work, and there are very few ends at the present 
day who do not understand their half-backs and backs so well 
that they can go up with them into line and give them courage 
and assistance by pushing after they have struck the line. 

To come now to the wedges or mass plays. Owing to the 
prejudice of the public and the feeling that wedge work was 
taking too much of the attention of the players, captains and 
coaches, the rule-makers attempted to eliminate a great deal of 
this work by the passage of a rule against momentum-mass plays 
as well as the passage of a rule insisting upon actual kicks. This 
latter rule I have mentioned earlier in this book. There is no 
question but that this has done away with a great deal of the 
most showy part of the flying wedge, but rules against momen- 
tum-mass playing had not and are not likely to eliminate the 
use of the principle of wedges. They took off the weight which 
it was possible to get into these wedges, and in that way were 
an excellent thing, but it required more severe legislation to 
eliminate all mass plays. This, however, was accomplished quite 
effectively by the ten-yard rule adopted in 1906. 

The development of the position of quarter-back, so far as run- 
ning is concerned, has been toward the old rules, when many 
years ago it was possible for the man receiving the ball from the 
snap back to carry it forward. Some three years since a rule was 
enacted again permitting the quarter-back to run, providing, 
however, he went out at least five yards from the point at which 
the ball was snapped. The first season this permission did not 
offer any very great developments along the line, but for the last 
two years it was tried with far more effect, and like any other 
play of this nature, seems to be developing in the hands of the 
coaches and players until it promises to be a considerable feature 
of the game. The continuation of the quarter-back run with the 
forward pass also offers excellent opportunities for successful play. 
It is interesting, because it admits of greater possibilities, and a 


run of this nature when it is thoroughly successful develops into 
spectacular play which pleases the spectator and demands one 
more qualification in a quarter-back. 

There are several methods of effecting the quarter-back run, and 
although naturally it is difficult to bring it off unless it is performed 
unexpectedly, it does lend itself to the development of interference. 
The usual method is for the interference to circle outside of 
tackle, the quarter-back protected by the interferers making a 
very direct run out toward the end and circling as his interferers 
turn in. 

Another method is to pass the ball back apparently to the 
full-back for a kick, and he acting, as will be seen, as a quarter- 
back, may run with the ball out around the end or anywhere, 
so long as he passes the line of scrimmage at least five yards 
out from the point where the ball was snapped. Forward 
passing by any man back of the line is allowable this year, pro- 
vided the ball crosses the line of scrimmage at least five yards 
out from the point where it was put in play. This was most 
brilliantly developed by one or two teams last season and pro- 
duced some very interesting features. 

To come to the last point of this brief summary of plays, 
namely, kicking. This department under the present rules be- 
comes still more important. The special points about kicking 
are the accurate placing of the ball and the acquirement of 
short and long-distance punting as well as place kicking. Kick- 
ing into touch, where admissible under the rules, should be made 
much more of, and it is becoming absolutely necessary for a team 
to have good punters and quick, sharp kickers in order to take 
advantage of certain modifications in the laws of the game, 
particularly that relating to the on-side kick. To go into 
tiie details of these kicks would be an almost infinite task, but 
the captain can study out the situation from the following 
premises : A kick is absolutely necessary at kick-off, kick-out 
and every fair catch. What kind of a kick then will be most 
advantageous to his team? A short one, high, where his man 
can get under it, or a long-distance one, giving the opponents a 
chance, perhaps, of return, but enabling him, if he has fast ends, 
to hold the ball down at the distance of the kick ? How best 
shall he take advantage of all his possibilities ? 

Kicking has thus come to be an absolute essential in a well- 
rounded team, and the style of that kicking adapted to the 
make-up of the individual components of that team in end 
rushes, tackles and backs. 

The new rule providing that when a kicked ball strikes the 
ground it puts everybody on side, has led to many short punts 
over the rush line, and a general development of kicks similar to 
those formerly known as quarter-back kicks. 


The Forward Pass and On-side Kick 


Left half-back. University of Wisconsin, 1901. 

Director of Athletics, St. Louis University. 

Under the old rules, the first principles of offence had been 
to maintain possession of the ball to the last extremity. This 
was due to the fact that the longer the team possessed the ball, 
the shorter the period of time the opposing team had in which 
to score. Also, that practically the only chance to score was 
during the period of possession. With only five yards to go this 
principle generally governed the coaches' plans for the season. 

Fig. 1. 
End-over-end pass— underhand or round-arm. 

The idea had become so firmly rooted in foot ball tactics as a 
fundamental principle that scarcely any of the former foot ball 
mentors divorced themselves from its influence. 

The rule giving the ball to the opponents on the spot from 
which the ball was passed, if it touched the ground before 
coming in contact with any player, seemed drastic and fatal to a 
reasonable belief in its practicability. Most coaches accordingly 


confined their efforts to sliort passes of the basket ball variety 
and usually essayed to protect the receiver by interference. After 
a year the Rules Committee changed the rules to read: "not loss of 
the ball," but a "fifteen yard penalty," on the first and second 
down for a failure to make a successful pass. The lack of faith 
in the value of the play had another result, and that is, it drove 
most coaches to the development of the on-side kick. Indeed, be- 
fore the new rules were adopted, American Rugb}^ excepting row- 
ing perhaps, was freer of the element of chance than any "of the 

Fig. 2. 
Underhand spiral— fingers on lacing. 

other collegiate or professional sports. Under the new rules, 
chance became an important factor, and this must be continually 
kept in mind hereafter in any conception of the use of the pass 
and the on-side kick. 

In order to fully understand the value of these plays one must 
consider carefully the physical proportions of the ball and the 
manual performance essential in its most perfect execution. This, 
however, is seldom given attention. A base ball pitcher would 
be but a poor artist if he did not take cognizance of the size, 
weight and shape of the ball and its seams. This is even more 


important for the player who contemplates the use of a forward 
pass or on-side kick. 

There are various ways in which the ball can be passed and 
kicked. Each method depends on its value for the play in which 
it figures ; the player who makes it ; the portion of the field iii 
which it takes place; the opponents' defence; the weather condi- 
tions, etc. The basket ball pass was used considerably in the 
East. The player holds the ball above his head with both hands 
in the act of delivery, the same as though he were throwing a 

Fig. 3. 
Correct position of hand on ball for overhand pass, with thumb en lace. 

basket ball. This method does not depend upon the shape of 
the ball, is accurate, and fairly safe, but good only for short 

Fig. I represents the end-over-end pass. The fingers lap 
considerably over the end of the ball in order to secure a firm 
grasp. The longitudinal or longest axis is parallel with the ulna 
and_ radius of the forearm. The ball rests against the arm 
during the act of delivery only and when delivered flies end 
over end in the same position. It can be thrown with a side or 
underhand throw. This style is good for a short or long pass, 



passes of 35 yards or more flight distance being possible. It is 
good in rainy weather, since the ball is not so apt to slip with 
the fingers over the end. For all-around uses it is the safest. 
Moreover, any player can learn to make it for reasonable dis- 

Besides these two methods, we have what I might term a 
broad side pass. The finger tips just overlap the lacing, which 
affords a firm hold. The ball can be thrown many yards, either 
with a side or overhead delivery, as contingencies necessitate. 

' Fig. 4. 

Overhand spiral — thumb on the lace. 

Fig. 2 brings us to the forward pass spiral. The ball is grasped 
with the fingers just over the lacing, with lacings facing the 
ground and one end resting on the wrist. It is an underhand 
throw, similar to the form used in heaving the discus, with this 
difference, that it is not a full turn. It is good for short passes 
and high ones, but is weak, owing to the opponents' ability to 
block it and skill necessary in its execution. It is good for a 
high throw especially, because the fingers, lying between the 
lacings, afford the necessary friction for an upward pass. 

Figs. 3. 4, 5 and 6 represent the overhand spiral. It is the 
acme of forward passing methods. The accomplishment of this 


Style demands many weary hours of drill and a hand large 
enough to encircle the ball at a point, as seen in the pictures 
near the seventh lacing. For distances this style has no equal. 
Nevertheless in rainy weather it is useless. To make this throw 
the ball is firmly grasped at the circumference near the far 
lacing with either the thumb (Figs. 3 and 4) slightly over and 
between the sixth and seventh lacings, or the fingers (Figs. 5 
and 6) (which is just a reverse position of the hand), and the 
fingers or thumb grasping the ball slightly above the seventh 
lacing on the opposite side of the ball. 1 he thumb or fingers. 

Fig. 5. 
Correct position of hand on ball for overhand spiral— fingers on the lace. 

as the case may be, coming in contact with the lacing, causes the 
friction which results in the spiral motion of the ball, which f^ies 
with Its long axis horizontally. With this style the ball can be 
hurled like a projectile from 50 to 60 yards. Of the various 
methods demonstrated, this is the only one which cannot be 
performed by every player. All the' others can be accomplished 
by faithful endeavor. From practical experience and mathe- 
matical investigation I find that scarcely four out of twenty 
players can ever hope to successfully accomplish this pass. In 



some squads no one will be found capable. A player must have 
a girth measurement of nearly nine inches from thumb to second 
finger, measured from the tip of the thumb to the tip of the 
second finger, tape foHowing the contour of the hand. Most 
players have a measurement of from 'jYz to 8^ inches. More- 
over, the fingers and thumb must be powerful. If one would 
measure a bowling ball from thumb to finger hole, or encircle an 
ordinary base ball, he v/ould get a complete idea. A strong 
bowler with necessary girth or a base ball pitcher should make a 
good forward passer. 

Fig. 6. 
Overhand spiral— fingers on lacing. 

The advantages of this method, which like the_ pass itself is 
practically a fair weather play, come from the distance that it 
can be hurled, its speed and accuracy and the overhead throw, 
which prevents blocking or interference. The old style of 
receiving a passed or kicked ball was to form a basket of the 
hands and abdominal region of the body and to draw in the 
abdomen at the moment of contact, breaking the rebound. Under 
the new rules this style had better be dispensed with as much as 
possible and the ball received as one would catch a base ball. 
(Fig. 7.) 


The on-side kick was used oftener in the first year than the for- 
ward pass, owing to the fact that it was supposed to be more accurate 
and practical. Instead of nulHfying the play the moment the 
ball touched the ground, as with the pass, this fact put every 
player on-side. The kick can be made end-over-end, if the 
object is to have it roll forward, or kicked with a spiral motion, 
if the aim is to place it. Some kick the ball so that its middle 
portion fits the instep and the long axis is perpendicular to the 
foot. This is an excellent method to apply for short distances, 
and for placing it is the most accurate of them all. 

Fig. 7. 
Iveceiving a pass. 

The on-side kick is most effective in the opponents' section of 
the field or just beyond the center field. Of course it can be 
used unexpectedly in a team's own territory, but in the oppo- 
nents' field it gives the required distance and the opportunity of 
recovery without loss of distance which a regular punt would 
secure. Instead of keeping the ball in the air it should be 
kicked to the ground as soon as the case will permit, since the 
moment it touches, the whole team is on-side. The longer the 
kicker can delay kicking the further down the field the team can 


get to either recover the ball themselves or form interference for 
the player who is supposed to recover. Should a team have a 
very fast player or players and an accurate punter the ball can 
be kicked in the air to one side, and the fast players, by being 
stationed back of the ball when kicked, can recover before it 
touches the ground. This play can be worked quite often owing 
to the fact that the opponents will be led to believe that the 
ball cannot be recovered until it touches the ground. Another 
good play, and usually effective for a score when properly 

Fig. 8, 
Overhand pass after deliverinfj. 

executed, is the quick, short punt over th-e head of the safety 
man or to one side of him. Sometimes, when within the 
opponents' 25 or 35-yard line, a high punt that goes only ten or 
fifteen 3'ards is worth while. Often the opponents will miss the 
ball, due to the numbers attempting to catch it, and this conse- 
quently leaves a free-for-all play in which any one is apt to 
recover it. A free catch is the only way to prevent this plaj^ 
In order to be successful at the on-side kick it is necessary for 
the kicker to spend many hours practicing the various kicks in 
detail and the players in learning to pick up the ball on the run 
while it is rolling on the ground. 


The new rules have made the game the most symmetrical sport 
of all. It now embraces the best traits of base ball, track, tennis, 
basket ball, etc. For practice a good game is to erect basket 
ball posts at either end of the field and use the foot ball as you 
would a basket ball under basket ball rules. In this way 
proficiency in the use of the forward pass can be easily brought 
about. Another good scheme is to place targets on a convenient 
fence, and practice hitting them. A prize for the most accurate 
shooter is always an incentive to work. 

Should I begin to explain the different plays in which the pass 
and kick could figure, I would invite myself to an endless task. 
However, in closing this article, I would suggest that each coach 
and player diagram all the plays that he knows and try and fit 
them up so that a forward pass or an on-side kick will figure in 
each. Otherwise he will be planning plays especially adapted for 
the pass or kick and because of its singularity of special formation 
will make it easy of detection. Moreover, a pass fitted on a regular 
play will make both trick and straight play out of it and conse- 
quently add strength to both. 


How to Play Quarter-back 

University of Chicago, 

The position of quarter-back is considered by many to be the 
most important one on a foot ball team, but to my mind each 
of the eleven positions is a critical one. At some time during 
every game an opportunity comes to each man to play his position 
as it should be played, and on his ability to grasp that opportunity 
depends the result of many a contest. 

A foot ball team is composed of eleven men, and if, as some- 
times happens, one man is apparently doing all the scoring, you 
may be sure the other ten men are doing their duty in order to 
make such a feat possible, and praise should be given to them 
equally with the fortunate individual performer. 

The quarter-back position may wisely be termed the keystone 
one of a team. Especially is this so, as is usually the case, when 
the quarter-back gives the signals. He is then truly the field 
captain and largely responsible for the outcome of the contest 
through which he directs his men. 

A team should have the utmost confidence in its quarter-back 
in order to play with the speed and precision by which games 
are won. On the other hand, the quarter-back, by steady, consis- 
tent play and ability to deal with emergencies, should merit this 
confidence. Often the very tones in which the signals are given 
can bring order out of chaos, and vice versa. 

There are just as many different ways of playing quarter-back 
as there are coaches and quarter-backs. Of course, a certain 
set of playing rules must be followed, but aside from that, the 
field left for devising original plays is large and on the coach 
largely depends the origin of these plays. If the formations are 
such that a great deal of time is required to carry them out 
successfully the playing of the quarter-back will naturally be 
slower, and, on the other hand, if trick playing, running and 
kicking are resorted to, the speed of the quarter-back is propor- 
tionately increased. 

The material with which a coach has to work often determines 
the style of play to be adopted. If t^e men are heavy, and con- 
sequently slow, the plan of action will have to be along the line 
of their plunging, line-plugging abilities. And, on the other hand, 
if the material is light, a sptedy, crafty campaign must be planned 
to offset the lack of weight. 

Other points which the coach considers carefully in devising 
the plays for his quarter-back are the abilities and handicaps of 
the opposing team. Perhaps one team is noted for a certain 


Style of play, hence plays are planned to cope successfully, if 
possible, with this method. These plans failing, often an entirely 
different mode of procedure is expounded to the players between 
the halves- by the coach, and the quarter-back receives his instruc- 
tions accordingly. 

As each succeeding team naturally puts up a different game the 
coach is obliged to think up new plays constantly and teach them 
to his men. 

So it seems to me the coach does a great deal of hard work 
that the quarter-back is generally given credit for. Still, the 
quarter-back must use his good judgment in the direction of 
these plays in the heat of battle, or the best-laid plans of the 
coach are for naught; so, perhaps, after all the responsibility is 
equally divided. 


As a general rule, with but few exceptions, the quarter-back 
is a small fellow, weighing in the neighborhood of one hundred 
and fifty pounds, small of stature, but very compactly built, a 
good runner, plenty of nerve, good judgment and cool-headed. 

Theoretically, he is the captain of the team, for he directs its 
play from the start of the game to the end. If he is an intelligent 
and experienced player, his judgment will rarely be questioned 
by the captain, and if this be the case the captain should be 
reprimanded for such interference. The quarter-back is depended 
upon for the team's victories and blamed, generally, for its 

This man should have a combination of qualities, which, for- 
tunately, most quarter-backs have. 

First — He must have a good memory. He should be able to 
remember from sixty to seventy different plays and the signals 
for them, and he must know them in such a way that there 
is no hesitancy or delay on his part in giving them. 

Second — He must be able to devise some plan for finding out 
the weaknesses in the opposing team, and then hammer them 
consistently. This is accomplished most readily by using the 
full-back and sending him at every point in the line, thus finding 
some spot which is weaker than any of the others. 

Third — He must not use any man too much, for fear of tiring 
him too quickly, thus weakening the offense and the team as a 

Fourth — He should consult with his own line men in regard to 
the position of their opponents, thus ascertaining, in a measure, 
the chances of sending a play through one of them with a marked 
degree of success. 


Fifth — He should always encourage his team mates, whether 
they are being outplayed or otherwise, for it is too well known 
in foot ball that the players never lie down and a little encourage- 
ment goes a great way. 

Sixth — He must always bear in mind the coach's instructions, 
and also consider them seriously. 

Seventh — Always consider your opponents as gentlemen. 

Eighth — Always treat the officials in a courteous manner, being 
ever mindful of the fact that they are selected as impartial 
overseers of the game, and, too, that any act of discourtesy on 
the part of any player gives the officials the power to send the 
offender from the game. 

Ninth — Be a cheerful loser and give the credit where it 

Tenth — Take your victories modestly and your defeats with 


The quarter-back should stand squareh/ behind the center in a 
crouched position. It is necessary that he hold his hands in a 
fixed position to receive the ball. He should make no move 
whatever, with his hands, or by a dip, from bending of the knees, 
to receive the ball, for if he does he immediately gives a warning 
to the opposing team, thus enabling them in many cases to get 
the charge on his own team mates. In connection with this, it 
may be necessary to add, that it is very helpful to have a starting 
signal. This enables the team to start at the same time and 
does not give the opponents any undue advantage, which might 
come if the quarter were to give a motion with his hands or 
some other outward sign. 

In receiving the ball from the center, the quarter should use 
his hands as much as possible. I have found it very useful by 
having my hands close to my body in such a manner that the 
ball comes in contact with my body and hands at practically the 
same time, causing no delay whatever, in passing the ball to the 
player who was called upon to carry it on that particular play. 

Many coaches advocate a side position, which necessitates, as 
they claim, a surer pass from the center, but it does not allow 
the quarter to start quickly, thus delaying him in getting the 
ball to the runner immediately, which is a very essential point. 

The quarter must familiarize himself as much as possible with 
the ball. He should spend plenty of time working with his 
center, making whatever adjustments and suggestions he deems 
necessary for the further perfection of his play. He must spend 
some time practicing with a wet, heavy ball, for no one can tell 


when the conditions will be such that the ball will become wet, 
heavy and soggy. 


In my estimation, passing is the most important work of the 
quarter-back. As has already been stated, nearly every team has 
its quarter coached differently in the various branches of attack. 

When the full-back is called upon to make a straight plunge 
on the half-back for a straight buck or cross-buck the quarter 
should never fail to place the ball in the stomach of the man 
who is to carry it. This is a cardinal point in the work of the 
quarter and too much emphasis cannot be laid on it. 

If the full-back is to make a straight buck on the right of 
center, the quarter should pivot on his left foot, quarter of the 
way round, and with his left hand place the ball in the pit of 
the stomach of the full-back, and vice versa if he bucks on the 
left side. The same theory holds true in passing to the half- 
backs for straight bucks and cross-bucks, only on the cross-bucks 
he steps to the side and back, and places the ball in the stomach 
as before. Of course, in the wide end runs and trick plays this 
cannoi be carried out, but should be always borne in mind by 
the quciiier-back. 

This point of passing is very essential to good team work, for 
nothmg will slow up a team quicker than poor passing, which is 
of course the fault of the quarter-back. If the players begin to 
lose confidence in the quarter-back they will not put the same 
dash and drive in their work as they would otherwise. Then 
again, the quarter-back is only a cog in the great machine, and 
he should fulfill his part of the work without any hesitation or 


As a general rule the offensive quarter-back plays defensive 
full-back on defence and as such innumerable opportunities 
present themselves for him to test his own tackling ability. 

When playing the above position on defence it is best to play 
from fifteen to twenty yards back of the scrimmage, thus 
enabling the quarter to stop a runner in the open field without 
any considerable gain, and because it is easier to stop him then 
than it would be if he once obtained a good start. 

Too much time cannot be spent in practicing tackling. It is 
a fundamental requisite of his position and should be perfected 
by him, more than by any one else. 

The quarter should never run up on a man, when he once gets 
loose, for it is the easiest thing in the world to dodge a man 


when he is coming up to meet you. The tackier must wait for 
the runner to come to him, and then by some original schemes, 
such as a little jumping sideways, endeavor to hit him about the 
thighs, as the rule forbidding tackling below the knees is being 
enforced. The quarter must be able to tackle with both shoulders 
equally well, and should not favor one shoulder, as is quite 
frequently the case. 

It is generally better to corner the runner, if possible, between 
the side-line and yourself, and when you are absolutely sure you 
have him safe, you should make a running dive at him, thus 
enabling the tackier to break any stiff-arm and prevent the 
runner from dodging. Nothing is more distasteful to the fol- 
lower of foot ball than to see a half-hearted attempt at tackling, 
such as a tackle around the neck or by the arm. From such 
attempts as these injuries are inflicted, occasionally of a serious 

1 he defensive quarter of course is forced by circumstances to 
tackle a runner wherever he can. The player in this position 
should be a man of experience, intelligence and strength. Ho 
should be able to size up situations quickly and direct his team 
mates accordingly. An experienced, defensive quarter is occa- 
sionally able to foresee a certain play by the actions of the backs 
of the opposing team. Not infrequently does an experienced 
half or full-back point with his eyes or feet in the direction of 
a play and naturally more so in the case of the inexperienced 
player. One great point, which he must continually bear in 
mind, is not to go into a play too quickly, for it may happen 
that it is a fake or split interference play, and, naturally, to get 
the defensive quarter drawn in, adds to the value of the play. 
He must always throw himself under a pile and never try to 
resist a mass standing up. 

As a general rule the play on a third down is either a kick 
or a buck through the line and after the game is fifteen minutes 
old the man backing up the line should know what is going to 


The quarter-back is quite an important man in the interference 
and much can be said about his work in this particular branch. 
In straight plunges by the halves or full-back, he should nut 
attempt to get in ahead of the runner, or immediately behind, 
because he thus has a tendency to clog and slow up the play. 
The quicker the play gets up to the line of scrimmage, the more- 
value it has, and the quarter can follow and add his weight and 
strength when the play has met some opposition, but not until 
then. When the quarter plays thus he is practically a free man 


and must be constantly alert for fumbles, which occasionally 
happen and frequently result seriously. In end-running, it is a 
cardinal principle for the quarter to head the interference. 

When the half-backs are called upon for cross-bucks off the 
tackles the quarter should buckle on to them around the hips 
and help them along to the best of his ability, always placing the 
ball in their stomachs. It is a mighty good point to practice the 
whirling form on this play, that is, when the player has struck 
some opposition, twist or whirl him in such a way that he will 
free himself from the tackier. The quarter should practice 
dragging a great deal, because it is a mighty good point, and in 
a crucial game every inch of ground counts. 

In open-field interference the interferer should not hesitate to 
leave his feet to take a man out of the way, especially if the 
opponent is the defensive full-back. Of course, the interferer 
must make sure of his man, and this can best be done by getting 
him between the side-line and himself, then making a lunge for 
him, so that his body will strike the tackier about the knees. 
But the interferer must be certain of his position before the 
lunge is made, as the tackier may side-step the interferer as he 
takes the lunge. This is the surest way there is foi taking a 
man out of the way, and it is a form that can be accomplished 
with practice. Work on the tackling dummy is mighty good 
for this. 


The new rule which allows any player possession of the ball 
after it has been kicked will undoubtedly put a premium on 
quarter-backs who are perfected in this branch of the game. No 
one rule can be laid down telling a player how to catch a foot 
ball, but numerous suggestions can be made upon this point. 

A punted ball has no definite direction, for it may be diverted 
from its course by numerous air currents which come froni 
openings in the grandstands or other sources, thus making it 
very hard to judge the ball accurately. Of course the ball is 
caught against the body, if properly judged, with the aid of the 
arms and hands. It is also a good thing to bring the leg in 
action, by pulling it up in such a manner as not to allow the ball 
to drop downward after being caught. 

The quarter-back should pay no attention whatever to the men 
who are coming down to tackle him. He must make sure of the 
ball and then of the men. 

When he has caught the ball he should carry it in such a way 
that the point is well up under the arm and the other point 
resting in the palm of his hand. When he is tackled he must 
be absolutely sure to hold on to the ball by wrapping both arms 


around it. It is a rather poor policy to attempt to catch a hall 
on the run, as the chances of missing it are greater than the 
chances of catching it. When carrying the ball the runner should 
never run straight into a man, because an injury is easier averted 
by side-stepping and getting the force of the blow on the side. 

Kick-offs are different from punts in that they have a definite 
direction, thus making them easier to catch. It is best to catch 
kick-offs on the run, if possible, because they are much simpler 
to handle and the catcher runs very little risk of dropping them, 
and then, again, he is moving rather fast, covering the ground 
and in a better position to dodge. Always get possession of the 
ball if it goes behind the goal line, for if the opponents get it, 
it is a touchdown for them. 


The quarter-back in giving signals must give them loud and 
clear. The fundamental point in this branch of the quarter's 
work is his utmost familiarity with the signals. He must have 
them continually at his tongue's end and he should help other 
members of the team memorize them. 

If a signal is to be repeated the quarter must rise from a 
crouching to a standing position and give the signal with the 
same clearness and distinctness as before. He must never turn 
to either side and repeat the signal, for he may unconsciously 
give the play away. When a repetition of the signal is called 
for it is best to turn around and face the backs and then turn 
back and give it to the line. Especially is this true on a day 
when there is plenty of noise, and for this reason I favor series 
plays, when two or three plays can be run off from one signal, 
thus giving a team the advantage of fast play. 


It is a rather difficult matter to describe how to kick a foot 
ball accurately. Kicking applies to punting as well as scoring 
from the field, but the two branches of this part of the game are 
absolutely distinct. 

It is hardly necessary, I suppose, to explain that a punt differs 
from a drop-kick in that when the former is made the ball is 
dropped and kicked before it touches the ground. In a drop- 
kick the ball is dropped to the ground and kicked just as it is 
rising on the bound. 

In the last few years, with the development of place-kicking, 
drop-kicking has to a certain extent gone out of use. So far as 
I am concerned I prefer drop-kicking to place-kicking. In the 
latter form of scoring the responsibility is divided between two 


men — the one who holds the ball and the actual kicker. This 
division of responsibility of course doubles the chances of 
failure, for not only must the kicker do his work accurately and 
quickly, but the man who holds the ball also must make no 

Just what is the exact secret of successful kicking is as hard 
for me to explain as for any one else. No two kickers use abso- 
lutely the same method. I know that when I was first learning 
to kick I was frequently told by good coaches that my method 
was all wrong. 

The two most important points about kicking, whether it is 
punting or drop-kicking, are accuracy and speed. No matter 
how good a kicker a man may be — no matter how accurate even — 
if he is not fast in getting the ball away he is practically help- 
less. Therefore, a man learning to kick should endeavor first 
and foremost to attain speed. It must be the right kind of 
speed, too. The kind that is best understood by the phrase 
"make haste slowl}'." A man who loses his sureness in attempt- 
ing to get speed is just as bad as a man who is so slow as to 
have his kick blocked. 

The kicker should always try to make a kick in just the same 
space of time, whether he is merely practicing on a clear field or 
actually kicking from behind the line in a game. He should try 
and feel just as if there were no one trying to break through the 
line and block his kick. He should know he has just about so 
many seconds in which to get the ball away and he must take 
all that time to increase the accuracy of the kick. 

Accuracy, after a certain point in the development of kicking, 
is better than distance. An accurate punter can generally place 
the ball so that a on the opposing team who catches it is 
almost sure to be tackled before he can run back any great 
distance. On the other hand, as one frequently sees in a game, 
some punter gets great distance, but the man who catches the 
ball is able to run it back. 

In punting, the kicker should always have a good idea of just 
where the opposing back-field men are waiting to receive the 
ball. It should be his idea to get the greatest possible distance, 
at the same time trying to put the ball where it is hardest for 
the opponent to get it and where the ends on his own team will 
have the least difficulty in making a tackle. 

All this applies to punting, but although this is the most 
important branch in the kicking end of the game, it is the drop- 
kicking that appeals to the spectator. A large proportion of 
every crowd at a game knows really little about the finer points 
of foot ball. This class of spectators does not realize how 
important punting is. A man is apt to forget that a single punt 


may gain forty or fifty yards in a few seconds, which it has 
taken the opposing team many minutes of hard play to obtain. 

This is not the case with drop-kicking. If the drop-kick is 
successful, it gains four points, and the spectators appreciate it 
more than any other kind of kicking, just as they are apt to 
think more of the effort which gains the last yard for a touch- 
down than of a much longer gain made earlier. 

As I have already said, it is rather hard to explain how to 
make drop-kicks. In making such a kick the kicker should get 
the ball on a high pass, about shoulder high, then turn a little 
to the right before dropoing the ball to the ground. Then just 
as it rises on the bound he is in a position to swing at it with 
his right leg full force. 

Before making a drop-kick it is always well for the man who 
is about to attempt it to look at the ground about him closely, 
so that he may avoid any rough places. The slightest inaccuracy 
in dropping the ball or in kicking affects the accuracy of one's 
aim enormously. Not only must the ball be dropped just right, 
but it must be kicked at just the right second. The toe and 
instep should come in contact with the ball at the same time and 
the square-toed shoe is of very great value in accomplishing 
this end. 

However, when all is said in explanation and when the most 
accurate pictures of drop-kicking have been studied, it remains 
for the beginner, who wants to learn how to do it, to get a foot 
ball and try. That is the only way. No explanation or coaching 
will make up for experience. 


Play of the Backs 

BY W. T. REID, JR., 

Full-back Harvard Foot Ball Team of 1899 and Head Coach Harvard 'Varsity 

Foot Ball Team for 1905. 

Properly speaking, the term "backs" refers to the quarter- 
back, the two half-backs and the full-back. This article, how- 
ever, will deal only with the three latter positions, leaving the very 
technical work of the quarter-back to some other writer. 

The three backs, as we shall term them, are closely associated 
in everything that they do. On the offense they alternate in 
carrying the ball and in pushing each other along, while on the 
defense at least two of them, and sometimes all three, are called 
upon to reinforce the rush line. And they are usually of about 
the same size and weight. 

With all these points of similarity there is much that belongs 
to each separate position that goes to make it unwise for a back 
to attempt to play in more than one position. For instance, if 
the right half attempts to play at left half he must accustom 
himself to the use of the right side of his body in interference 
instead of his left, to starting toward the right side of the line 
for many of his main plays instead of to the left, to receiving the 
ball from the quarter-back from another angle, and in general to 
an almost exactly opposite way of doing things from that to 
which he has been accustomed. From these observations it must 
be clear that while the duties of the various positions are just 
different enough to make it unwise to change players about, they 
are nevertheless so nearly alike fundamentally as to make it pos- 
sible to deal with them as a whole, thereby saving much repetition 
and unnecessary explanation. 


The mental qualifications of a good back are first of all that 
he shall enter into his work with the proper spirit. Unless he 
has this spirit — that is, unless he is willing to subordinate his 
personal wishes to the general welfare of the team, and what 
is more, to do so heartily and enthusiastically — he cannot hope 
ever to be a great player, even though he have marked indi- 
vidual ability along every line of play. Team play is the essence 
of successful foot ball, and he who is looking first of all to his 
own interests will never make a "team" player ; he will not con- 
tribute his share to the esprit dc corps of the backs, and he will 
never "fight" for all he is worth from the beginning of a game 
until the end. 

Besides having the proper spirit he should be heartily co- 
operative; he should be full of aggressiveness both on the ofifense 
and defense; full of sand and grit, and imbued with a reason- 


able amount of judgment. Physically, a back should be com- 
pactly built, strong and quick, never slow nor clumsy, and should 
weigh anywhere from 170 to 190 pounds. Formerly it was not 
necessary to have such heavy backs, owing to the fact that one 
or more linemen could always be used to do the heavy line- 
breaking work. Now, however, when the ball must be carried 
over the greater portion of the field by a limited number of men — 
the necessity for heavy, powerful backs to do this, must be evi- 
dent. In earlier days, before the defensive side of the game 
came to be so well understood, and before special styles of de- 
fense were devised to meet special forms of offense — it was 
generally planned to have at least one of the backs a good end 
runner. This provision is not so important now as it once was, 
owing to the fact that end running is no longer practiced with 
old time success. The defense has mastered the end running 
game, unless indeed it consist of skillfully devised deception. In 
its place has come the demand for heavy line buckers and plung- 
ers. Hence, it is well for teams of to-day to choose for backs, 
those men who can as nearly as possible perform the task of the 
linemen of the past two or three years. If, in meeting these re- 
quirements, an end runner turns up — well and good. The aver- 
age end-running of the present day is quite as likely to lose 
ground as it is to gain it, and this is particulary true when the 
opposing tackles play well out from their guards. Of course 
end runs will always be used strategically, to prevent the op- 
ponents from concentrating their defense on the bucking, but 
very seldom, with the idea of making consistent ground. Finally, 
the back should have the knack of not getting hurt. Some men 
have this to a marked degee, and almost never get hurt, while 
others are equally unfortunate and are constantly being injured. 
As team play is dependent upon "drill," and that in its turn is 
dependent upon the individual, it is easy to see why an "immune" 
back is most desirable. 


Too much emphasis cannot be placed upon the necessity for 
thorough drill in fundamentals. These fundamentals consist of 
falling on the ball, passing it, kicking, catching and carrymg it. 

"Falling on the ball," or, more properly speaking, falling around 
the ball, should be practiced while the ball is at rest, and then, 
while it is in motion, to the right, left, front and rear. In any 
case the player should be very careful not to dive at it in such a 
way as to dive the top of his shoulder into the ground, for a bad 
bruise or injurv is likely to result. , 1, . 

Neither should he ever attempt to fall flat upon the ball in 
order to prevent injury to his wind or his chest; mstead, he 


should fall flat, either so that his weight shall be on his elbows or 
knees, or else so that his body at his waist is doubled up around 
the ball, which he shall hug closely with his arms and hands. 

In diving for the ball the player should dive as closely to the 
ground as possible, thus preventing an opponent from getting 
under him. He should always see to it that his body is between 
the ball and an opponent. These points make for added safety 
and protection. 

Backs should have enough practice in passing balls to feel 
thoroughly at home with them. This is especially true under the 
new rules. They cannot be sure of this unless they handle new 
balls, wet balls, old balls and dry balls, and unless they handle 
them incessantly. 

Unless this is the case a team is likely to find itself with- 
out a kicker, perhaps in the midst of some important game. 
And the ordinary need for a kicker has been increased greatly 
by the changes in the rules, which make it necessary to advance 
the ball over the central portion of the field, with only four 
men behind the line — ^which is, of course, a much slower and 
less powerful way than that practiced year before last. Here 
it is that a superior kicker can be of inestimable service to his 
team — since in no way can big gains be so quickly or easily made 
as through the kicking game. Therefore it is of the greatest 
importance that as many of the backs as possible should be good 
kickers, or at least punters. 

Indeed a good kicking game, if successful, is certain to bring 
with it quicker and more frequent scoring than almost any other 
style of play. This is due, of course, to the enormous distances 
which good kicks cover, together with the consequent saving of 
time and energy. Even more attention should be devoted to 
catching, for almost nothing in foot ball may result so disas- 
trously as a bad fumble in the back field. Unless a back is sure 
at catching, or shows signs of becoming sure, with practice and 
experience, he should never be allowed to attempt catching. 
Bungling work in the back field is the most demoralizing thing 
than can happen to any team. 

Carrying the ball is the main function of the backs, hence the 
need of knowing how to carry it safely. This depends upon the 
way in which the ball is held. For end runs one end of the ball 
should be tucked under the arm — not too far under, so that it can 
be knocked out — while the other end should be firmly grasped 
and covered with the hand. In bucking, the ball should be held 
in the pocket formed by the stomach and legs, as the runner 
crouches, with both hands, though in case a back feels that he 
has the ball secure there is no reason why he should not use 
one hand to ward off opponents. In the case of end runs the 


back should be prepared to ward off runners with either hand, 
changing the ball when necessary from one side to the other. 
And whether bucking or running, a back should never allow 
himself to loosen this hold on the ball, owing to the necessity 
of giving much attention to passing some particular opponent. 
The grip on the ball should be automatic and vise-like. Where 
a back is uncertain of his hold he may get good practice by 
bouncing a ball against a wall and then clapping it at once into 
position on the return. 

It is of course necessary that the backs should tackle and 
interfere well. This means that they should both tackle and 
interfere low — the only difference between the two being that in 
case of a tackle the runner takes hold of his man, while in the 
interference he does all that the tackier does except take hold. 
A high tackier or interferer has no place behind the line, par- 
ticularly in these days. 

Finally, no back can be effective who does not start quickly. 
An offence which is so slow in reaching its object as to allow 
a concentration of opponents at that spot before the play hits is 
of course worthless. The attack must be quick and hard. For 
this reason the backs should constantly practice getting off 
quickly and getting up their maximum speed instantly. There 
are several ways of starting. Some backs stand in a crouching 
position, with one foot a little in the rear of the other, and with 
the knees turned well in. This enables them to start to the 
right or left or to the front without a moment's loss of time and 
with great initial power. Other backs assvmie a sprinting start. 
The sprint start position, with only one hand touching the ground, 
and that only sufficiently to steady the runner, is at the present 
time generally conceded to be the most effective. Both ways are 
good ; in fact, any way is good that will enable a back to get off 
quickly and in any direction. The things to be avoided are a 
momentary straightening of the back at the instant of the start, 
and a short backward step. In case the latter step seems neces- 
sary the back should take his position with one foot back to begin 
with, thus making it unnecessary to take an additional one. 
There should be no backward motion of either foot. 

In general, backs should exercise extreme care to prevent 
unevenness in starting. Starting too soon or too late is only 
productive of fumbles and offside play, to say nothing of the 
upsetting influence which it produces throughout the team. 

Along with his fundamentals, every back should spend con- 
siderable time in learning the rules of the game. This part of 
the work is often entirely neglected, and much to the detriment 
of the individual, for how can a man play a game well or intel- 
ligently when he does not even know the rules governing the 


game? It is an altogether too common sight to see teams let 
opportunities slip through ignorance of the rules ; indeed, such 
ignorance has on more than one occasion actually cost a team 
its game, and such neglect has even existed in some of the larger 
university teams. 

A foot ball player is frequently called upon most unexpectedly, 
to decide instantly upon some question of the game, and just as 
frequently his decision or lack of decision enables him either to 
do the right or the wrong thing and thus either secure an added 
advantage or else precipitate an added disadvantage upon his 

Every back should be absolutely familiar with the distinctions 
between a "safety," a "touchback" and a "touchdown." He 
should know what constitutes a "fair catch" — what a violation 
of it, and so on throughout the rules. 

And after the rules have been mastered, a player should be 
told to make his play always, in case of doubt — and then refer 
to the officials — and under no consideration to stop because he 
hears a whistle blow or because he hears some one yelling for 
him to stop. A player can never make a mistake in carrying out 
this suggestion, and may, on some occasion, save himself a bad 
blunder through a misunderstanding. 


The position of back is one of the most exhaustive ones in all 
foot ball. At no other position is there so little opportunity for 
rest or let-up. It is go, go, all the time, first with the ball, then 
in the interference, then on defense. It is necessary, then, that 
a back should always be in the very best of condition, never over- 
worked, always full of vigor and life. It is better to underwork 
a back than to overwork him. 

Of the two half-backs on a team it is generally planned that 
one shall be a good end runner, the other a good plunger or 
bucker. Such an arrangement gives more all around possibilities 
to an eleven, particularly where there is an opportunity for broken 
field running. 

On the offense the position of the backs will depend upon 
the style of game that is adopted. Sometimes they are played 
a full five yards behind the rush line, on other occasions 
they are played a scant three, while on still other occasions 
they form at even greater or less distance. The possibili- 
ties of formation are never ending, especially under the new 
rules allowing forward passing. When in position, and just 
previous to starting, the backs should take every precaution 
to prevent giving the direction of the play away by uncon- 
scious glances, movements or "leanings." It is also well for 


the back to save himself whenever he can from the nervous 
tension of prolonged waiting. Many backs subject themselves 
to some such strain by getting onto their toes several moments 
before the ball is to be put in play, or by not "letting up" at 
the call of "time." This may be avoided if the back will 
"key himself up" just at the last moment. But above all a 
back should be steady. He should never in all his play slow 
up for his interference, or even allow any other back to be 
slowed up by dilatoriness on his own part. He should start 
instantly and "dig" — never letting up an instant for any- 
thing. He should play with indomitable spirit. If he fails to 
gain the first try he should grit his teeth and make it gain the 

In end running a back should be careful not to run too close 
to his interference wdien in case the interference is upset he is 
likely to fall over his protectors. Instead he should run with 
a little interval between himself and his interference, thus giving 
himself a chance to see where they are going and to take instant 
advantage of any upset. Where possible it is well for a back to 
run low so long as he can see where he is going, for by so doing 
he is likely to cause his opponents a moment's delay in locating 
him. When tackled he should aim to fall forward. To this 
end he should run with his body slanting forward, where it is 
exceedingly difficult for an opponent to overcome the combined 
power of gravity and the player's efforts. After falling, a back 
should never hold the ball out at arm's reach, as there is danger 
that it may be stolen from him. 

In bucking, one of the very important points to be kept in 
mind is that of keeping the eyes open. A back who closes his 
eyes as he makes his plunge is likely to fall flat on his face 
when an opening in the line presents itself suddenly where he 
had expected to find the passage choked. A back should never 
allow himself to hesitate or slow up as he strikes the line, he 
should strike it while at his maximum speed. A back may run 
high or low, according to circumstances, particularly so long as 
he keeps his feet — a most valuable quality. It is also wise for 
the back to take short steps, as in this way he is not so likely 
to find himself too much spread out where the footing is hardly 
firm and where it is almost impossible to get his feet under him 
in case of some sudden shove or push. The legs should accord- 
ingly be bent as the back strikes the line, because in this way 
he is able to exert much lifting power in case of need. The 
arms and hands should also be used to make progress. Many 
backs lose much of their effectiveness because they utilize only a 
portion of their power. The feet should ordinarily be kept on 
the ground, because only when they are there are they of much 


service. When, however, there is an imperative need of making 
a gain of a foot or so the back had best dive at the line — this 
being especially applicable to the full-back. Hurdling is now 
absolutely forbidden. When downed after a buck — or after 
any play, for that matter — a back should instantly straighten 
out so that there are no doubled up joints for succeeding 
players to fall upon. Where a back is attempting to assist 
a fellow player along he should aim to get him low and 
boost him along with his shoulders, rarely with the hands. 
And under no circumstances should he give him a final shove 
in the neighborhood of the shoulders, for this is certain to cause 
the runner to topple forward. In case a back is tackled and seems 
about to fall a fellow player can often be of great service if 
he will grasp the runner by the arm or elbow, and at the same 
time that he holds him up pull him forward. It frequently hap- 
pens in such a case that the runner will shake off the tackier and 
make an additional gain of several feet or even yards before 
being finally downed. 

In attempting line bucking the back should keep his chin 
close in to his neck, so as to prevent having his head twisted 
back over his shoulder, and he should also buck with the 
muscles of the neck held tense. This will tend to prevent bad 
wrenches of the neck and possibly injury to it. When in the 
midst of a line-bucking play which has resolved itself into a 
pushing contest between the two teams, the back should seek an 
outlet at the point of least resistance, usually to be found by 
feeling his way in different directions, and in general, a back 
should not raise his head until he has wholly cleared the sec- 
ondary defense, as in this position it is very difficult for oppo- 
nents to stop him, unless they have a clean chance for a tackle. 

In case a back feels any doubt about the signal for a play, he 
should at once call out, "Signal." Otherwise collisions, fumbles 
and confusion will result. And no matter what a back thinks, he 
should invariably follow out the signal. The fault is not his if 
the play does not gain, but it is absolutely his fault if he does not 
go where he is directed. This rule should be absolute. 

Another rule which should be invariably followed is that of 
never running back. It is a back's function to advance the ball. 
If he is unable to do so he should at least never lose ground. 

If a back fumbles he should fall on the ball at once, never 
attempting to pick it up unless it bounces high. Attempting 
to pick up a fumbled ball is only making a <?ad matter worse. 
A back is responsible for the ball if it comes to him, and he 
should always remember that the possession of it is of the first 

It is the half-back's duty to afford proper protection to his 


kicker. He should afford it. He should also be reliable hi 
getting any particular opponent who may be assigned to him 
to keep out of a given play out of the play. He should put 
his entire strength into every play and should always have 
his "nose on the ball." He should follow it everywhere. Mr. 
Forbes has hit the nail on the head in this respect when he 
says : "A man's value to his team varies as the square of his 
distance from the ball." 

In the midst of play, whether on the ofifense or defense, the 
backs should see to encourage each other by a word, a touch or 
a look. Such simple though efifective aids to thorough sym- 
pathy and harmony between them should never be overlooked. 
A hearty word of confidence spoken immediately after a bad 
fumble or other blunder will always cause the unfortunate 
player to put new life and determination into his work, while 
a bit of cutting sarcasm will drive him to anger or else dis- 
hearten him. When off the field a back should never allow 
himself to make unfavorable comments on any of his fellow 
players, unless indeed it be to the coach or captain. Nothing is 
so likely to spoil relations among players as criticism — offered 
behind the back. Certain annoyances should be borne for the 
sake of the team, even though they may be at times very 
exasperating. When a fellow back or fellow player is injured and 
confined to his bed nothing will so contribute to hearty relation- 
ship as frequent calls and anxious solicitation for recovery. 

On the defense the backs and ends will have much to look 
after. Each has his particular station behind the line, with its 
primary and secondary responsibilities. Just what these positions 
are, whether far from the rush line, near to it or in it, must 
depend upon the style of game that is being played. Suffice it to 
say, however, that all styles are planned to the same end — to stop 
opposing plays. 

As a rule the backs are so distributed as to most broadly 
cover the possible openings at which opponents are likely to 
direct their plays. Consequently as the opponent's ofifense varies, 
so should the defense. Sometimes it seems well to attempt to 
meet opponents behind their own line, at other times to meet 
them at the line, and on other occasions still to meet them 
behind your own line. Again, a back is sometimes held respon- 
sible for a run around the opposite side of the line from that on 
which he is stationed, so that the various combinations of respon- 
sibilities, due to the tactics of any particular opponent, are never 


Ordinarily the backs are looked upon as forming a secondary 
line of defense. In such a case they must exercise great care 
not to get drawn into a play too quickly, and yet they should 
be equally careful not to wait too long before attacking the 
play. A back wdio waits too long is as bad as one who goes 
in too early. A happy medium is what should be aimed at, and 
it can be obtained only by constant practice and vigilant watch- 
fulness. To exercise this vigilance the back must needs stand 
high enough to see where the play is going, and at the same 
time not be so high as to allow of being struck by an opponent 
while in an extended position. The instant a back sizes up a play 
he should get as soon as possible to the point of attack, watching 
carefully for trick plays, short kicks and forward passes all the 
while. A back will seldom be fooled by such plays if he will 
always keep a close eye on straggling players, and remember that 
the ball, not the motion of any mass, indicates the point of attack. 
Once a back has decided to attempt to head off a runner or a 
play, at a certain point, he should get his eye on the man with the 
ball and keep it there, never losing sight of him, always keeping 
his position in the interference in mind and never allowing him- 
self to attempt to see where he is going. That part of it will 
take care of itself. Such precautions as those just outlined will 
prevent most any back from being fooled as to the location of 
the ball — owing to a temporary relaxation of vigilance. And 
vigilance in these days of concealed methods of passing the ball 
is exceedingly necessary. In attempting to stop end runs, and in 
fact in stopping any play, a back should never allow an opponent 
to hit him with his body ; he should keep his opponent awa}^ with 
his arms. A back has no business to allow himself to get hit. 
In meeting heavy mass plays the back should either dive at the 
base of the head of the play, grabbing an arm full of legs, or in 
case he is too slow in getting there and the play is dragging along 
he should, if chance offers, seek to swing the head of the play to 
one side where the direct line of pressure is broken and where a 
momentar}^ delay will give his own players a chance to down the 
runner before the opponents have a chance to reorganize. Many 
times one man can upset a mass play effectually, where had he 
tried to tackle one of the players he would have been thrown off 
or dragged along some distance further. 

The question as to whether a back shall break through and 
attempt to tackle behind an opponent's line is a very difficult one 
to treat. Sometimes, where a back is strong on the defense and 
the opposing line is weak it is advisable. But where the opposing 
rush line is a strong one and particularly where it is stronger 
than your own it is certainly inadvisable. In such a case the 
backs should hold themselves as reserves rather than as of the 


rush line. Otherwise, in case an opponent clears your rush line, 
a long run is likely to follow. 

In everything that they do, whether on ofifense or defense, the 
three backs should combine in every possible way with the 
quarter-back. The center rush, the three backs and the quarter- 
back should practice constantly together so as to get the purely 
mechanical work of their positions well ordered, and in a con- 
test the three backs should keep the quarter-back constantly 
informed of weak places in the opposing defense, that he may 
profit by them when occasion demands. In a nutshell, all four 
backs should strive for mental, moral and physical team play 
both on and off the field. 


In the back field, the main function of the backs is the handling 
of kicks, and it is one of the most trying functions of all foot ball. 
To have to catch a ball while one's opponents are in many cases 
standing within arm's reach like so many wolves ready to take 
advantage of the slightest slip up is bad enough, but when these 
conditions are augmented by the necessity of judging a high kick 
in a gale of wind, and remembering that a kicked ball touching 
the ground puts every one on-side, they become well-nigh unbear- 
able except to the coolest, most skillful and best drilled players. 
Such, however, is the trying position in which backs often find 
themselves on thirty or forty separate occasions in a single game. 
And worst of all they are severely censured where they fail of 
a clean record. A team can never know how much kicking it is 
likely to meet in any game until the game is on, and it can never 
know when the winning or losing of a game may turn upon the 
safe handling- of a single kick. The possibilities of catastrophies 
are greater in the back field than in any other branch of foot ball 
play, and so it is imperative that only the most reliable men 
should represent an eleven there. The backs, then, cannot be 
given too much practice in catching kicks under every possible 
condition. They should practice with ends running down on 
them, with the wind against the kicker as well as with him, with 
a wet and dry ball. Furthermore, they should be given an oppor- 
tunity to handle rolling, bouncing and twisting balls. 

Under ordinary circumstances only one back is kept m the back 
field, although this year it is probable that two will be needed. 
It is his duty to handle all unexpected kicks and to tackle any 
runner that may get by the other ten players. He must be a sure 
catcher and tackier, and something of a kicker. This back may 
find himself on some occasion in the very trying position of 
being the only man between his goal and a fast opponent. When 
this is the case the back must, as a general rule, depend upon his 


own initiative for liis line of action. No one else can lay it out 
for him. There are, however, one or two points which any back 
will do well to keep in mind. It is always a good plan to try to 
force the runner to take that direction that will bring him nearest 
to the side line, wdiere it may be possible either to corner him' or 
to force him out of bounds. There is little sense in undertaking 
to tackle a runner wdio has the whole field to manceuvre in, when 
you can reduce the field by two-thirds. Another point to be kept 
in mind is that of never running at full speed at a runner whom 
it is your intention to tackle, especially when he has an oppor- 
tunity to side-step or dodge you. This side-stepping is the easiest 
thing imaginable where the tackier bears down on his victim at 
full speed. It is frequently illustrated when ends overrun a full- 
back, who by a simple side-step eludes them and makes a good 
run. Instead, the back should run fast toward his opponent until 
he gets within fifteen or twenty yards of him, when he should 
slow up and get ready to respond to dodging, which can only be 
done when the back has full control of his body. And he 
should exercise great care not to be fooled by some false motion 
on the part of the runner. This false motion is usually given 
with the upper part of the body, and can only be detected by 
keeping a close watch on the hips, which will always give away 
the real tendency of the body. 

In case it may at some time seem advisable to utilize the 
defensive ability of the goal tender, as we may call him, on the 
rush line, and consequently to put another man back there in 
his place, a sure catcher should be chosen even if he is unable 
to do much at open field tackling. The reasoning here is that 
where a back is given one opportunity to prevent a touchdown 
by a decisive tackle in the open field — which is frequently missed 
by even the best players, owing to the tremendous speed of the 
runner — he is given twenty chances to catch the ball where any 
one catch, if missed, might mean a touchdown. Under these 
circumstances it is of course better to provide for the common 
play rather than for the emergency. The goal tend should keep 
a sharp lookout for trick plays and where possible keep his 
fellow players posted by calling out advice which his distance 
from the scrimmage may enable him to give. 

The moment the opponents give evidence of an intention to 
kick, one or two of the other backs should at once drop back 
to reinforce the goal tend. Care must of course be taken that 
the evidence is genuine before they go clear back, but once 
they feel sure of this point they should run back at full speed, 
looking over their shoulders about every ten yards to prevent 
the kick from surprising them', or else to be ready for a return 
to the line in case of a fake. Backs frequently loaf back to 


their position. This is all wrong; they should be either on the 
line or way back of it, w^ith as little time as possible wasted in 
getting into either position. The distance of these backs from 
the rush line and their relative positions in the back field will 
depend upon circumstances. If the kicker is a good one and 
has the wind at his back they should of course play further 
back than if he is a poor kicker and has a stiff wind against 
him. The thing to be avoided is the danger of playing too 
far back. This is a very common fault among novices, who 
dread having the ball kicked over their heads and wdio, in order 
to prevent such a catastrophe, play so far back that it is impos- 
sible for them to catch more than three out of five of the 
shorter kicks, owing to the impossibility of getting under the 
ball. It is better policy to take one chance in fifty of having a 
kick go over one's head for the sake of catching the great 
majority of them than it is to prevent a kick over one's head 
at the expense of having to handle them on the bounce, where 
the opportunities for gaining ground after the catch are nil. 
No ball should be allowed to bounce, for it puts the opponents 
all on-side. They should all be caught on the fly, and if balls 
are bouncing it shows that the backs are not covering the ground 
in a thorough manner. 

Once they are the proper distance behind the line the backs 
should spread out in such a way as best to cover the territory in 
which the ball is likely to fall. To this end they should not 
stand too near each other or too near the side line. If they 
stand too near together they will overlap much ground, and if 
they stand too near the side line they will enable themselves to 
catch many balls which go in touch and which there is no need 
of providing for, while at the same time they will be unable to 
cover much important ground within the field. The backs 
should play far enough apart so that they can concentrate at any 
given spot in time to be of assistance to each other either in 
catching or in the interference. In case a strong wind is blowing 
at the kicker's back one of the backs should play a little in rear 
of the others in order to provide for a possible misjudging or for 
fumbles. Under ordinary conditions one of the backs should play 
well in front of the others in order to be ready for short kicks or 
other tricks. In case one of the backs essays a fair catch the 
others should be on the watch for a fumble. The best way to get 
practice on these various points is to put two sets of backs, with 
center, at work kicking and catching. Then a competition may 
be encouraged with the result that all the players become inter- 
ested, and in the endeavor to win the competition give each other 
the best practice possible. 

Whenever possible it is well to have ends run down under the 


kicks, thereby giving the backs every opportunity to catch kicks 
"under fire." Continuous back-field practice is very exhausting, 
so that it is well whenever, much practice of this kind is under- 
taken to have alternate squads of players, thereby saving all 
of them from overwork. Should the backs become tired of the 
practice and allow it to become lackadaisical, it should at once 
be discontinued, as carelessness in back-field practice is worse 
than none at all. 

In preparing to catch kicks the backs should make every 
endeavor to get under the ball in time enough to enable them 
to receive it while they are standing still. To do this they must 
be able to "size up" a ball as soon as it rises in the air. 

In running up on a ball the backs should also be careful not 
to overrun it, remembering that it is much easier to run up on a 
ball than to run back for it in case it is misjudged. Furthermore, 
in case a back who is careful to keep the ball in front of him 
misjudges it and it hits him in the chest, he stands a much 
better chance of recovering the ball as it falls in front of him 
than he would have if he overran the ball and it fell behind him. 

While in the act of catching, a back should concentrate his 
entire attention on the ball, never attempting to divide it with 
the opposing ends. The plea that a back often advances for 
this tendency is that he is afraid of a bad fall just as he is 
completing the catch, or that he wants to see where the ends 
are, that he may dodge them more effectively, etc., etc. These 
excuses should all be denied on the ground that the possession 
of the ball is tJic thing. And in this connection it is just as 
well to say that in case a back fumbles in the back field he 
should fall on the ball at once. This point should be so drilled 
into the players that it will become second nature to them. 

The moment a back has caught the ball he should turn his 
attention to his opponents, seeking how he can dodge them and 
run the kick back. In case he catches the kick in time to 
decide from his own observations in which direction to run, a 
back should experience little difficulty in getting off safely. But 
when the ball and the ends arrive almost simultaneously the 
situation is more difficult. In such a position the other backs 
should assist b}^ a word or two. At first the giving of such 
directions will end in much confusion, but as the backs become 
more and more accustomed to each other this difficulty will 
disappear, to be followed by satisfactory results. Where a back 
is a good dodger he can often fool opponents by making a false 
start in one direction and then following it up with a real start 
in another. This ability is natural, and no coaching can develop 
it except where the player has in him the crude qualities. 

One thing, however, every back can be taught, and that is 


that he shall never run back. Running back in back-field work 
is even more fatal than in ordinary scrimmage play. Another 
thing to be borne in mind is that under no circumstances can a 
back use his "straight-arm^' more effectually than in the broken 
field running that forms such a big part of back-field work. 
Here it is that opponents arc usually few and the time com- 
paratively long for shifting the ball from one hand to the other 
in order to do this warding off. 

With this we may be said to have covered, after a general 
fashion, the topic embraced under the main title, and therefore 
to have completed this article. One thing yet remains to be 
said, however, and that is that no back who wishes to get the 
most out of these suggestions can hope to do so unless he first 
puts into himself theVight spirit, and follows it up with staunch 
obedience to his training rules. 



Quarter and Tackle of Yale Team, 1902. 

The first essential in any system of signals is simplicity. An 
intricate and complicated system always militates against the 
team using it ; the quarter is troubled in framing his signals and 
the speed which should accompany successful play is impossible. 
The confusion and uncertainty of the quarter aflects the other 
members of the team ; they do not jump into the plays with the 
dash and vim which characterize a team confident of its signals 
and receiving inspiration from the knowledge that the whole 
team is working on the same play. It does not follow because 
your system is simple, that your opponents will make it out. 
The chances are very much against their doing so, and while 
they take their attention from the play to watch your signals 
you gain such advantage over them as will enable you to push 
your plays so successfully as to give them something else to 
think of save your signals. Yet in spite of the extreme improb- 
ability of discovering your signals it may happen that your 
team will be discouraged and its play materially afifected by 
believing that your opponents are playing its signals. So, in all 
the systems given in this article, provision is made for a change, 
which should be made immediately in such a case; a change 
which is in keeping with the simplicity of the system and yet 
sufficient to regain the confidence of your team. 

In any system of signaling there are always two considera- 
tions : the quarter, or whoever calls the signals, and the rest of 
the team. The system should be such as will enable the quarter 



to give the plays quickly and accurately. There should be no 
hesitation whatever on the quarter's part. He should practice 
calling off the plays to himself until he has every one in his 
control and can use any of them when he needs it. Not only 
should there be no hesitation on the part of the quarter, but 
the rest of the team also should grasp the play as soon as it is 
called. The play originates with the quarter and so is per- 
fectly evident to him, but it should also be clear to the team 
just as soon as the signal denoting it is given. Very often you 
will see the quarter call the signal and then wait till the rest of 
the team understands it before receiving the ball from the 
centre. There should be no wait. The system should be one 
to enable the whole team to get the play immediately the signal 
is called. On the speed with which the ball is put into play 
depends to a considerable extent the success of the offensive 
work of the team and, therefore, it is most essential that there 
should be no unnecessary delay after the signal is called. All 
the systems taken in this article have those ends in view. They 
have all been tried and found to conform to the demands of any 

For the sake of clearness the different systems are numbered 
as Code I, Code II, etc. In the diagrams the black solid square 
denotes the player taking the ball ; the heavy, continuous line the 
direction which he takes ; the zig-zag line shows how the ball 
reached him and the dotted lines the directions taken by the 
other players, save the one carrying the ball. The dotted squares 
indicate changes in position assumed by the players in such a 
play as a wing-shift, etc. 

To indicate the positions the following abbreviations have 
been adopted: L. E., left end; R. E., right end; L. T. left 


tackle ; R. T., right tackle ; L. G., left guard ; R". G., right guard : 

C, center; Q., quarter-back; L, H., left half-back; R. H., right 
hrjf-back; F. B., full-back. 

For Code I a letter system is taken, having as a base a word, 
or combination of words, containing either ten or eleven letters, 
in which the same letter does not occur twice. It may be 
either ten or eleven, as the center may or may not be denoted 
by a letter. Such words as f-o-r-m-i-d-a-b-l-e, d-a-n-g-e-r- 
o-u-s-1-y, i-m-p-o-r-t-a-n-c-e, or combinations like p-r-i-v-a-t-e- 
b-o-d-y, c-h-a-r-g-e-d-w-o-r-k, c-o-n-v-i-c-t-l-a-m-p — any word or 
combination in which the same letter does not occur twice and 
which has ten or eleven letters. Take the combination H-a-n-o- 
v-e-r — C-i-t-y, and beginning with the left end give each posi- 
tion a letter. 


Q. L.H. F.B. R.H. 

The letters H, A, N, V, E, R, stand for holes thus: 

H — Means end run around your own Left End. 

A. — Means play through Left Tackle, either inside or outside 

his position. 
N — Means play through Left Guard. 
V — Means play through Right Guard. 
E — Means play through Right Tackle, either inside or outside 

his position. 
R — End run around your own Right End. 

















Let the first letter given in the signal indicate the player who 
is to carry the ball and the next letter the hole or direction in 
which the ball goes. For example, let the letters called in the 
signal be: I, A. The play indicated is the Left Half-back 
through Left Tackle. Naturally the quarter would call more 
letters than those merely required to denote the play, so this 
signal might run in such a way as. "I — A — B — C — D." The 
last three letters only helping to prevent the signal from being 
discovered. The following is a diagram of the play: 















Fig. I. 
Your L. T. and L. E. push the opposing R. T. (designated in 
the diagram by a circle) back. Your L. H. follows straight be- 
hind your L. T. with the Q., F. B. and R. H. holding him on his 
feet and pushing him through the hole. The linemen charge 
straight at their opponents with the exception of the R. E., 
who goes in front of his own line and tries to get hold of the 
man with the ball and pull him along. 


Let the signal given be: "Y — E— A — R." The play i» the 
R. H. through R. T. Fig. 2 shows the play. 

D D D 

L.E. LJ L.G. C 




Fig. 2. 
Here your R. T. and R. E. push the opposing L. T. back and 
the L. E. runs in front of his own line, as did the R. E. in 
Fig. I, and pulls the man with the ball. For the duty of the 
other men see the explanation after Fig. i. 


Let the signal given be: *'T — V — I — S — T." The play is 
your F. B. through your R. G. Fig. 3 shows this play. 










\\ f^G. 



Here your R. G. with the assistance of R. T. pushes the 
opposing L. G. back. The F. B. get the ball from Q., who 
must be careful to get out of his way, and follows straight 
behind the R. G. Your R. H. and L. H. should keep him on 
his feet after he has met opposition and the two ends, both of 
whom should have come around in front of their own line, 
ought to pull him through the grasp of opposing tacklers. All 
the linemen should push their opponents back and away from 
the man with the ball. 



Suppose the signal is: "T — N — O — K — B." The play is the 
F. B. through L. G., as shown in Fig. 4. 

A" --^ 
















Fig. 4. 


This play is exactly similar to that shown in Fig. 3 save that 
the L. G. and L. T. are the men who make hole by pushing the 
opposing R. G. out of the way. 


Suppose tlic signal called is: "I — E — D — C — B." The play is 
the L. H. through R. T., a cross-buck. Fig. 5 shows the play. 



In this play your R. T. and R. E. get the opposing tackle out 
of the way ; the R. H. goes straight into the hole, the L. H. car- 
rying the ball next; then the Q. and L. T., who comes around 
into the play from his position in the line; the L. E. is the last 
man to follow the play — he makes it safe, watches for fumbtes* 
the F. B. runs straight out from his position and keeps the 
opposing L. E. from getting the play. , 



Let the sfgnal be: "Y— A— R— D— S." This is your R. H. 
through L. T. The L. T. and L. E. make the hole ; R. T. and R. 
E. follow around into the play. Fig. 6 shows this play, which 
is the same as that in Fig. 5, only on the opposite side of your 

D V n D n n D D 

L.E. V\T,_ L.G. C| R.6. n-iT. R/t. 

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Let the signal be: "Y— H— A— B— K." This is your R. H 
around your L. E., as shown in Fig. 7. 




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In Code I the signal for a kick could be ajiy letter not in the 
combination you adopt as your key. Suppose the letter B de- 
notes a kick. Then the full signal for the F. B. to kick the 
ball would be: "T — B — C — A — O." In Fig. ii is seen the 
formation now commonly adopted for a kick. 



































The two ends get well outside their Tackles and as soon as 
the ball is snapped, go straight down the field. The L. T. jostles 
the opposing Tackle and then goes down. The other linemen 
should hold their opponents long enough to ensure the F. B.'s 
having time to get the kick off in safety. The Q., L. H. and R. 
H., leaning forward on their hands, in the positions shown in 
Fig. II, protect the F. B. from anyone who may succeed in 
breaking through the line. 

The simple plays have now been given In Code I. These arc 


the plays which every team must be absolute master of. They 
may be played in every part of the field and on their success 
depends to a great extent the success of your team. 

The following diagrams illustrate plays intended to puzzle 
your opponents and which they may not be prepared to metet. 
■However, they should not be practiced until your team has 
ma,stered the simple plays. Too often will a team depend for 
success on tricks and fancy maneuvers, neglecting the steady, 
straight foot ball that is the hardest to withstand when played 
properly, only to be doomed to disappointment as a result. 


(using code l) 

The Quarter may call out "Formation A," if the play is to go 
on the left of centre; "Formation B/" if the play is to go on 
the right. (See Fig. 12.) Then, either the regular signal for 
an end run or a signal for a quick drive into line following a 
feint at an end run. (Fig. 13.) 










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The team lines up in regular formation as in Fig. i. The sig- 
nal given, the line sidestep to the right two positions, as in figure; 
the L.T. then becomes centre, Q. and L.H. keep their position 
while the F.B. and R.G. alter position with theline men. Now, we 
have seven men on our right wing, as opposed to four of our 
opponents. The play can be a cross buck, as in Fig. 5, or an end 




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Wing Shift. 


2ND Method. 



run, as in Fig. 8. Whatever the play used it is absciutely essen- 
tial that the play start the instant the shift is made. To perfect 
this play, both tackles should be drilled in passing the ball to the 
quarter. Thus, the shift can be ordered either to the right or 
left, as the case may warrant. There should be daily practice by 
the entire line in this quick change of positions, so that when 
the signal is called the play may be executed like a flash. 



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If the Q. at any time thinks it desirable to change the manner 
of calling the signals, he may readily do so by having the signal 
start with the second, the third or the fourth letter, or by not 
having the signal start till he has called some letter agreed on 
that is not in the key and is not used in the plays. 

A Combination of Letters and Numbers. 

Let the F. be the hole between guard "ind center; H., the hole j 
between tackle and guard; K., the hole just ^-^utside tackle; B., 
end run. 

As each letter taken separately stands for the two holes, i. e., 
F. would mean either the hole between R.G. and C. or L.G. and 
C, so some method must be adopted to signify which hole is 
meant. Now, if the signal starts with an odd number, the hole 
on the left side of center is meant ; if it starts with an even num- 
ber, the hole on the right side is to be the outlet for the play. 
For example, the signal "3 — B," etc., means and end run around 
your own left end; and "6 — B," etc., means an end run around 
number to the training table early in the season, but make it 
your own right end. Therefore "3 — B," etc., will always mean 
an end run around your own left end and the right half-back will 
carry the ball. So the completed signal will be : "3 — B — 4 — M." 
The number 4 and the letter M mean nothing. The complete 
signal for the left half-back to carry the ball around your own 
right end would be: "4 — B — 11 — X." Since the signal starts 
with an even number it shows that the play is to go on the right 
side of center and the letter B signifies that the play is an end 

This code contains but the simple ordinary plays used by every 
team during the first weeks of practice. There are ten plays in 
all, not, however, including the kick, and are as follows : 

L.H. run around R.E 4 — B 

R'.H. run around L.E 3 — B 

L.H. dive through L.G. and L.T 7— H 

R.H. dive through R.G. and R.T 12— H 

L.H. cross-buck just outside R.T , 14 — K 


R.H. cross-buck just outside R.T 7 K 

F.P.. dive through R.G. and C 6— F 

F.B. dive through L.G. and C g — F 

L.T. run just outside R.T 2 — 6 — K 

R.T. run just outside R.T 3— 11 — K 

It will be noticed that the L.H., L.T., R.H. and R.T. carry 
the ball through the same hole (K). Whenever the L.T. is to 
carry it the signal will start with two even numbers and when- 
ever the R.T. carries the ball, with two odd numbers. Thus: 

Signal: 4— 8— K— 5— Y. (See Fig. 10.) 

Signal: 2— K— 9— B. (See Fig. 5.) 

Signal: 3— 7— K — 4— R. (See Fig. 9.) 

Signal: 9— K— 2— M. (See Fig. 6.) 

Signal: 4— B— 11— X. (See Fig. 8.) 

The absence of letters from signal might indicate a kick; thus: 
4 — 6 — 7 — II. (See Fig. II.) 



In this system it will be seen that the even numbers are plays 
on the right of center and the odd numbers are plays on the left, 

4. L.G through R.G. 

5. R.G through L.G. 

6. L.T through R.T. 

7. R.T through L.T. 

8. L.H around R.E. 

9. R.H around L.E. 

10. L.H cross-buck through R.T. 

11. R.H cross-buck through L.T. 

12. R.H straight through R.T. 

13. L.H straight through L.T. 

14. F.B straight through R.C. 

15. F.B straight through L.C. 

16. L.E run around R.E. 

17. R.E run around L.E, 

Kick: any number over 300. 


Now, let the second number given be the key number, the 
number which represents the play. For instance: 

Signal: 6 — 8 — 9—27—4 (See Fig. 8.) 

Signal: 5 — 12 — 21 — 7 (See Fig. 2.) 

Signal: 8 — 13 — 42—9. (See Fig. i.) 

Signal: 5 — 15 — 8 — 2. (See Fig. 4.) 

Signal: 6 — 11— 43— 8. (See Fig. 6.) 

Signal: 357—952. (See Fig. 11.) 

Etc., etc. 

In the last two codes the quarter may readily change the key 
number at any time and so be certain that his signals are un- 
known to his opponents. 


It frequently happens that a team, especially a school team, 
will have one man who has clearly outplayed every opponent he 
has faced and upon Arhom the quarter may depend when there is 
a distance that must be gained. Under such conditions a team 
should have a sequence of plays, i. e., three or more plays pre- 
viously committed to memory, to be executed in quick succession 
without a signal. Assuming that the tackle is the steady and 
reliable man, then, select three or more plays through his position 
and constantly practice them as a series without any intermis- 

A sequence of five plays illustrated : 

In Code III. — The second number the key: 

6 — (12)— 28 — 4. (Fig. 2.) 

5— ( 6)— 21— 9. (Fig. 10.) 

2— (10)— 7— 5. (Fig. 5.) 

7— (10)— 42-8. (Fig. 5.) 

8— (11)— 29— 6. (Fig. 6.) 

If the first four plays are successful the opponents will nat- 
urally shift over, to try and "brace up" the weak spot, and the 
last play is intended to surprise them and is, therefore, sent on 
the opposite (left) side of the line. 



The best time to employ the sequence is in the opponent's terri- 
tory about twenty-five yards from the goal, when quickness and 
speed of plays used is so essential to success. Then, too, it is 
highly probable that the "cheering" makes it hard to hear the 

There are various ways to signal the sequences, but a simple 
and effective way is to have the quarter make some such remaric 
as this : "There's only twenty yards to go, fellows ; stay together 
now!" This would mean that the next signal was the first of the 
sequence and that it would be played without any more direction 
from the quarter-back. 

Too much emphasis cannot be laid on how essential to your 
team's success is a thorough knowledge of the signals. Every 
player should know just what he is to do in each playfthe very 
instant the signal is given, he should recognize the play and de- 
termine to do what is expected of him. The players, apart from 
the general practice, should repeat the signals to themselves and 
get familiar with their individual duties in each play. Confidence 
is almost essential to success in offensive work, and a team can 
have but little confidence in its ability to advance the ball till 
every one has thoroughly mastered the signals. 


Training for Foot Ball 

Director of Athletics University of Pennsylvania. 

The days of the extremes of training, both in foot ball and 
other sports have, at any rate for the time being, gone by. The 
old-fashioned notion that men must be deprived of everything 
they wanted for their comfort and go through a period of actual 
physical suffering has been exploded. Young men, and partic- 
ularly college men, do not need the severe regimen adopted in 
the old days, when training was confined only to a certain class 
and that class one indulging in all sorts of dissipation between 
times. For this reason treatises on training can be far mor§ 
brief than in the times when the exact percentage of food stuffs 
was figured out to a nicety. Moreover, foot ball is one of those 
fortunate sports which comes at a season of the year when the 
weather, except in the very early part of it, is not exceedingly 
hot, but rather bracing, and unless there is something radically 
wrong with the man, as a rule, during the foot ball season, his 
appetite should in the main improve. 

It is really the nervous tension which has come to be great 
and it is to the relief of that nervous tension that many of the 
best friends of the game are looking in hopes that alterations 
in the rules may improve this condition. 

The great majority of the players are not affected by this, but 
the captain, coach and quarter-back usually pass through periods 
where the worry is quite extreme, and while it makes little 
difference to the coach it does affect the captain and quarter- 
back very m.aterially and with these men, the greatest problem 
of the training season is to see that they pay less rather than 
more attention to the sport and get some relaxation at periods. 

The general physical condition of the men is in these days 
looked after both by the trainer and by competent surgeons, sn 
far as injuries are concerned.. 


The problem of how much work a man should do and when 
he should work is one of general consultation between coach, 
trainer and captain— the trainer's opinion being in the main 
accepted as final— and as a rule this trio make satisfactory de- 
cisions. Sometimes a man is found who is able to deceive all 
three as to his condition, but not often, and, moreover, such men 
are usually men whose personal idiosyncrasies are known. 

One of the most difficult points in training a foot ball team is 
to keep them steadily progressing and not have a slump at some 
disastrous period during the season. Men differ so greatly in- 
dividually that the accepted method of working the men now- 
adays is to watch these peculiarities and not try to judge all 
men by the same rule, but to lay off first one and then another 
as occasion demands, giving them all an opportunity for suffi- 
cient practice, but forcing no man to work too long. 

It takes a good deal of time to teach a man modern foot ball 
and he has to go through a certain period of steady work before 
he combines the necessary knowledge with the skill ; hence an 
especial reason for consistency in carrying out training develop- 
ment. Foot ball men all need quickness and the work should be 
devoted to short periods of snappy play rather than long periods 
which get the man into the bad habit of playing slowly because 
he is tired. 

A foot ball player beyond all else needs to have a sort of 
superfluous energy to draw upon at the time of his match and 
to exhaust this is to make a very serious mistake. The men 
should, therefore, be very carefully watched in order to see that 
the work is not at the expense of this energy, which must be 
called upon at a critical time. No man should find himself in 
a game without a feeling that he would at least like to make a 
touchdown whether it is possible or not, and the making of touch- 
downs is practically impossible if the man's physical and mental 
condition is such as to leave him w^ithout desire to do so. 

The first problem in the season that faces captain, coaches and 
trainers is that of making selection from a great mass of mate- 
rial. This material will be scattered over three or four differefw 


fields and in all sorts of physical condition, as some men take 
care of themselves during the summer while others do not. A 
coach may easily be deceived by lack of condition in a man v^ho, 
when in shape, would play a strong game. For this reason 
critical watching and very likely some inquiry as to the past 
performance of the man is very advisable. As soon as the 
material has begun to be sifted it becomes necessary to sort out 
a part of it for the 'Varsity, but it is wise not to take a great 
many men to a training table early but make this rather a reward 
of merit in a way, at the same time taking possibly the absolutely 
sure men who are not likely to have the best of living otherwise. 
All this matter is a question of judgment and a little study 
and reflection on the subject is returned many times over in 
the results later in the season. It is hardly worth while, al- 
though I know it has been adopted by some trainers, to put men 
who are going to play foot ball through special courses of gym- 
nastics, unless it may be for some special weakness of the 
individual. It is certainly a good plan for foot ball men to be 
handled by a track trainer in learning to start quickly. Gym- 
nasium apparatus, however, is not proving very successful for 
general teams. A little setting up work in the early part of the 
season is often a good thing and some running, but after the 
season is once under way the men have plenty to do without 
taking these special exercises, except it may be to reduce the 
weight of a man who is very heavy. Running around the field 
for men who are temporarily laid off, and for the whole squad 
in the early part of the season, is a good thing. 

Another great problem is to keep enough backs and, since 
the introduction of the new rules, bringing in the on-side 
kick and forward pass, ends as well, to last through the 
season. The backs are usually lighter than the forwards and 
being given a good deal more of the running work to do (and 
this is particularly true under the new rules where the men 
behind the line will have to do a good deal of line hammering 
without heavy interference) is rather apt to call for all the 
material that a coach and trainer can keep going. And even 
then at the end of the season the good men are scarce. The 
first part of the season the practice ought to be very short — 


four or five minutes— and the team worked up to longer periods 
as the weather grows cooler and they improve in condition. 
By mid-season they should be able to play two fifteen-minute 
halves with ease, and if possible a fifteen and a twenty-minute 
half. By November they should be able to stand a slightly 
longer period in order that by the time of the big games they 
may be able to go the necessary two thirty-five minute halves. 

As to protectors for the players, it is well worth while to use 
such protectors as are likely to save the players from injury, 
but of late it is feared too much has been done in this way so 
that the players were rendered rather less plucky, and, moreover, 
in some instances were probably made tender. Under the present 
rules the doing away with the heavy head protectors will be a 
great step in advance and will probably save many injuries. Nose 
guards are rather dif^cult to breathe through, but properly ar- 
ranged are not dangerous. Protectors for the thigh and shins 
are good things and if a man receives an injured shoulder some 
kind of protection there is also advisable. 

So far as foot ball is concerned a strict diet is not essential, 
but the men should not be permitted to smoke, nor should they 
be given alcoholic drinks except for medicinal purposes or when 
a man is very tired. The living should be plain and substantial 
and every efifort made to have his training table attractive and 
the food appetizing. 


What a Foot Ball Player Needs 

As the action of the game centers around the ball, it is necessary 
that the latter should be of perfect construction, of finest material 
and well put together ; such is the Spalding Official Rugby Foot Ball 
No. J5 — the only official foot ball. It is used in every important match, 
because the players know that it is absolutely dependable and its 
record of nearly" a quarter of a century of use in all the prominent 
games without the bursting of a single ball is the best evidence of the 
care that is taken in the Spalding factory to see that each ball lives 
up to the guarantee of the Spalding trade mark. 

The price of the Spalding Official Rugby Foot Ball, No. J5, is $5.00, 
an inflater, lacing needle and rawhide lace being packed with each 
ball. It is guaranteed absolutely if the seal on the box in which it 
has been packed has not been broken. The next best ball to the No. 
,75 is the Spalding "Rugby Special," which is made of specially tanned 
imported grain leather and is undoubtedly superior to many of the imi- 
tations of the Official No. J5. Each ball is put up in a sealed box, 
with guaranteed bladder and rawhide lace. The price of the Spalding 
"Rugby Special" No. A, is $:J.50. Six other balls comprise the Spald- 
ing Hne. each the best value for the money that an experience of thii-ty 
years knows how to produce and they range in price from $;5.()(» down 
to $1.00. 


Speed is now the first requisite of a team 
and the old moleskin trousers are being suc- 
ceeded by the lighter canvas style. A pair of 
the latter, made of extra quality brown canvas, 
soft finish, well padded, and with cane strips at 
the thighs, costs $1.75 ; other good qualities cost 
$1.50. $1.00, and 75 cents. For those who pre- 
fer the moleskin, however, Spaldings use a ma- 
terial that is manufactured for foot ball pur- 
poses exclusively and padded with curled hair 
and with cane strips at the thighs. These cost 
$5.00 per pair. 

Jerseys have largely superseded the canvas 
jackets 'for foot ball, but the latter are still 
made for those who prefer to use them. They 
cost 40 cents, 50 cents and 75 cents, according 
to quality, in sleeveless style. The canvas 
jacket is often used in a combination suit — ■ 
known as the Spalding Union 'Varsity Suit — 
the jacket and trousers being connected by a 
)road elastic belt. The suit conforms to each 
movement of the wearer's body, and makes an 
ideal outfit in every way. It costs $5.00. 
.Jacket, trousers and belt may also be bought 
separately, the jacket costing $1.25 or $1.50, 
according to whether reinforced or not ; the 
trousers, $2.50 and the belt $1.50. 

Although the roughness of the game has been 
practically eliminated by the new rules, still 
shin pads and shoulder guards are sometimes 
needed. Shin guards cost $2.00, $1.50, $1.00, 
50 cents and 40 cents per pair, and shoulder 
and elbow guards cost 25 and 50 cents each. An improved style 
costs iRl.OO and a still better one — invented by Glenn S. Warner, of 
Cornell, $2.50 each. Mr. Warner is also responsible for a combined leg, 
knee and shin guard, which costs $5.00 each, according to quality. 


The old style head harnesses that used to be so hard and heavy have 
now been retired in favor of lighter and more pliable models Spalding 
has produced a new one this year that gives complete protection and 
yet is almost as light as a feather on the head. The very best kind 
made costs $5.00, and very good ones may be had for $.3.00, $2.50 $2 00 
and $1.00 each. ' ^ ' 

As before noted, jerseys are superseding the old stvle canvas jackets 
The very best Spalding jersey made costs $4.00. it is fashioned or 
knit to exact shape on a machine and then put together by hand, an 
altogether difCerent process from that usually followed in the manu- 
facture of jerseys, the latter process consisting of cutting them out of 
a piece of material and then sewing them together. Other good Spald- 
ing Jerseys can be obtained for $3.00, $2.50, $2.00, $1.25 and $1.00. 

Spalding sweaters have been long and favorably known in the ath- 
letic world, their No. AA sweater being the heaviest sweater made and 
is controlled exclusively by them. It costs $8.00 each. Other good 
sweaters, in the same grade, but not so heavy, cost $5.00 and $6.00 

Spalding Foot Ball Shoes ; 

are recognized as standard l)y 
foot ball players everywhere. 
They are made by shoemakers 
who' do nothing else but make 
athletic shoes from year end 
to year end, and who become 
thoroughly familiar with the 
various details of what is 
needed by the athlete, who is 
necessarily more particular 
with his requirements for an 
athletic event — on which so 
much depends — than he might 
i)e with his ordinary everyday 
footwear. The very best 
Spalding shoe costs $7.50. and 
is exclusively bench made, 
while excellent and serviceable 

foot ball shoes at a lower . 

price are the Spalding 'Varsity 

at $5.00 per pair ; the Club Special at $5.00 and the Ama- 
teur Special at $3.50. The 'Varsity is equipped with the Spalding 
Foot Ball Ankle Brace, which was designed by the famous Mike Mur- 
phy, the celel)rated trainer of the University of Pennsylvania. It ab- 
solutely prevents turning of the ankle and affords almost absolute 
protection against the spraining of ankles and at the same time does 
not slow up the player. When bought separately they cost 50 cents 
per pair. 

Space does not permit a complete enumeration of all the articles in 
which a foot ball player may be interested, but the complete line, with 
pictures and prices can be found in the Spalding catalogue, which 
will be sent free anywhere upon request by addressing any Spalding 
house — of which there ar(> twenty scattered throughout the United 
States and Canada, a list of which will be found on the inside cover 
of this book. 



The following' list contains the Group and the Number of the book of 

Spalding's Athletic Library in which the rules wanted are contained. See 
front pages of book for complete list of Spalding's Athletic Library, 

Group. No. 

All-Round Athletic Championship 12 182 

A. A. U. Athletic Rules 12 311 

A. A. U. Boxing Rules 12 311 

A. A. U. Gymnastic Rules 12 311 

A. A. U. Water Polo Rules 12 311 

A. A. U. Wrestling Rules 12 311 

Archery 11 248 

Badminton 11 188 

Base Ball 1 1 

Indoor 9 9 

Basket Ball, Official 7 7 

Collegiate 7 312 

Women's 7 260 

Basket Goal 6 188 

Bowling 8 8 

Boxing — A. A. U., Marquis of Queensbury, London Prize Ring 14 162 

Canoeing 13 23 

Children's Games 11 189 

Court Tennis 11 194 

Cricket 3 3 

Croquet 11 138 

Curling 11 14 

Dog Racing 12 55 

Fencing 14 165 

Foot Ball 2 2 

Association (Soccer) 2 2a 

English Rugby 12 55 

Rugby (Ontario R.F.U..QuebecR. F.U., Canadian LC.F. B. U.) 2 303 

Golf 5 5 

Golf-Croquet 6 188 

Hand Ball 11 13 

Hand Polo 10 188 

Hand Tennis 11 194 

Hitch and Kick 12 55 

Hockey 6 304 

Ice 6 6 

Field 6 154 

Garden 6 188 

Lawn 6 188 

Parlor 6 188 

Ring 6 180 

Ontario Hockey Association 6 256 

Indoor Base Ball 9 9 

Intercollegiate A. A. A. A 12 307 

Interscholastic Athletic Association (New York) 12 308 

Lacrosse 11 201 

U. S. Intercollegiate Lacrosse League 11 305 

Lawn Bowls 11 207 

Lawn Games 11 188 

Lawn Tennis 4 4 


Group. No. 
Olympic Game Events— Marathon Race, Stone Throwing with Im- 
petus, Spear Throwing, Hellenic Method of Throwing Discus, 

Discus. Greek Style for Youths 12 55 

Pigeon Flying .'.'.' ' 12 55 

Playground Ball 1 306 

Polo (Equestrian ) 10 199 

Polo, Water (A. A. U.) 12 311 

Potato Racing 12 311 

Professional Racing, Sheffield Rules 12 55 

Public Schools Athletic League Athletic Rules 12 313 

Push Ball 11 170 

Push Ball. Water 12 55 

Quoits 11 167 

Racquets 11 194 

Revolver Shooting 12 55 

Ring Hockey 6 180 

Roller Polo 10 10 

Roller Skating Rink 10 10 

Roque 11 271 

Rowing 13 128 

Sack Racing 12 55 

Shuffleboard 12 55 

Skating 13 209 

Snowshoeing 12 55 

Squash Racquets 11 194 

Swimming 13 177 

Tether Tennis 11 188 

Three-Legged Race 12 55 

Volley Ball 6 188 

Wall Scaling 12 55 

Water Polo (American) 12 311 

Water Polo (English) 12 55 

Wicket Polo 10 188 

Wrestling 14 236 

Y. M. C. A. All-Round Test 12 302 

Y. M, C. A. Athletic Rules 12 802 

Y. M. C. A. Hand Ball Rules. 12 302 

Y. M. C. A. Pentathlon Rules 12 302 

Y. M. C. A. Volley Ball Rules , 12 302 










HIS is the ONLY OFFICIAL RUGBY FOOT BALL, and is used in every 
important match played in this country. Guaranteed absolutely if seal 
of box is unbroken. We pack with leather case and pure Para rubber 
bladder, an infiater, lacing needle and rawhide lace. 
No. J5. Complete, $5.00 

THE SPALDING GUARANTEE means that we stand back of our promise to 
III? deliver a perfect article. We do not guarantee against abuse or ordinary wear, 
I" " 

foot ball, if there is any imperfection in material or workmanship not ap 
nil parent upon first inspection, it will certainly show during the first game or in 

preliminary practice, and, if it does, the ball should be returned to us at once, 
nil • We will ?!ot replace any ball that shows from its appearance tJ 

abused or one that has simply been worn- out. 

appearance that it has been 


New York 


Co-mmunications addressed to 


in any of the following cities will receivi 

I attention, 
.f this book. 

it c< 

Pittsburg I Philadelphia! New Orleans | Cleveland I San Francisco 
Baltimore I Washington I Kansas City I Cincinnati I Minneapolis^ 


St. Louis 

Fricesin effect Julu 6, 1908,. Subject to change without notice. 








The Spalding 


* , . b J /^ 

Made of specially tanned im- 
ported grain leather. Superior 
in style and quality to the 
many balls put on the market 
in imitation of our Official No. 
J5 Ball. Each ball put up in 
a sealed box with guaranteed 
bladder and rawhide lace. 

No. A. 

Rugby "Special" Foot Ball 

Each, $3.50 


No. B. Selected fine grain 
leather case. Each ball 
packed complete in sealed 
box with guaranteed bladder 
and rawhide lace. Regula- 
tion size. Each, $3.00 


No. S. Good (|ualit\ leather 
case, pebbled graining. Each 
ball packed complete with 
guaranteed bladder in sealed 
box. Regulation size. 

Each, S2.00 

No. S 

No. D. Leather case, peb- 
bled graining. Each ball is 
packed complete with guar- 
anteed bladder in sealed 
box. Regulation size. 

Each. SI. 25 

No.F. Grained cowhide case 
of excellent quality. Each 
ball packed complete with 
guaranteed bladder and raw- 
hide lace in sealed box. Reg- 
ulation size. Each, S2.60 

No. C 

No. C. Well made leather 
case, pebbled graining. Each 
ball packed complete with 
guaranteed bladder in sealed 
box. Regulation size., 

Each, «l.60 

No. 25. Leather case. 
Each ball complete with 
guaranteed bladder in sealed 
box. Regulation size. 

Each, 9 1 .OO 

Communicatious addressed to 


in any of the following cities will receive attention. 
For street numbers secinside front cover of this book. 

Pittsburg I Philadelphia New Orleans 
Baltimore I Washington I Kansas City 


San Francisco 


St. Louis 

Prices in effect July 6, 1908. Subject to change without notice. 






The SDaldin? Mead Harness 

^ \t^ W^^^^ ^^**^^^y PATENT APPLIED FOR J 

Our Head Harness really protect, iff They are endorsed by the most prominent trainers in this 
country. rtT All Spalding Head Harness conform exactly to Rules of Intercollegiate Association. 

No. A. Firm tanned 
black leather, molded to 
shape, perforated for 
ventilation, leather sweat 
band and well padded. 
Adjustable chin strap. 
This head harness pre- 
sents a perfectly smooth 
surface, and, while giv- 
ing absolute protection, 
is one of the coolest and 
lightest made. When 
ordering, specify size of 
hat worn. 

Each. $5.00 

No.B. Soft black leather 
top and sides, soft lea- 
ther ear pieces, adjust- 
able chin strap. Top 
padded with felt, leather 
sweat band and well ven- 
tilated. Sides stitched 
and felt padded with 
canvas lining. When 
ordering, specify size of 
hat worn. 

Each, $3.00 

Morrill Nose Mask 

ited Sept, 29, 1891.) 

None genuine which do not 
bear the name of Morrill 
and the date of patent. 
Morrill's Nose Mask is made 
of the finest rubber and no 
wire or metal is used in its 
construction. It has become 

a necessity on every foot ball team, and 

affords^ absolute protection to the nose and teeth. 

No. 1. Regulation style and size. Each, 50c. 

No. IB. Regulation style, youths' size. " 50c. 

No. 0. Full size, with adjustable mouth- 
piece Each, 75c. 

No. OB. Youths' size, with adjustable mouth- 
piece Each, 75c. 

No. M. Soft, good qual- 
ity black leather, un- 
padded. Has adjustable 
ear pieces, gives neces- 
sary protection, and at 
the same time is one of 
the most comfortable 
and satisfactory styles of 
head harness that we 
have ever made. 
Each, S2.50 

No. C. Soft black lea- 
ther top, well ventilated; 
moleskin sides and ear 
pieces, elastic chin strap. 
Nicely padded with felt, 
has leather sweat band 
and is substantially 
made. When ordering, 
specify size of hat worn. 
Each, $2.00 

No. D. Brown canvas, 
nicely padded, but very 
light and cool to wear. 
When ordering, specify 
size of hat worn. 
Each, $ 1 .00 

Spalding Rubber 

This mouthpiece 
is made of best 
quality Para rub- 
ber. Gives per- 
fect protection to the mouth and teeth. 
No. 2. Mouthpiece. . -. . Each, 25c. 
No. A. Adjustable Mouthpiece separate,same as 
supplied with Nos. and OB Nose Mask. 25c. 
In ordering, specify whether required for 
No. or No. OB Nose Mask. 


Communications addressed to 


in any of the following cities -will receive attention. 
For street numbers see inside front cover of tliis book. 


New York 


St. Louis 

Pittsburg Philadelphia | New Orleans 1 Cleveland 1 San Francisco 
Baltimore Washington 1 Kansas Citv 1 Cincinnati 1 Minneapolis 

Frices in effect July 6, 1908, Subject to change without notice, y 






Woin by the players on practically every foot ball team of any pyonnnence in 
th( United States. They are made right, feel comfoi table and u ear like iron^ 

^' Spalding Special 'Varsity Foot Ball 
Jackets — Sleeveless 

We make two styles of jackets, both sleeveless, 

-, in this grade. The illustration will show some 

"X of the features of the VK style, which is made 

■ oiding to the very latest ideas. Arm holes, 

I luularly, are made extra large, and there is a 

-■4*fi'" '^^' reinforcement running all around them 

"^•laiid around neck and back to give additional 

Showing No VK Jacket Note s>trength where it is most needed and to support 

reinforcement and extra lacing at edges. 

large arm holes j^y VK. Jacket, sleevcless. . Each, $ I. so 

sLI _JB|S ^^' ^^' "^^'^'^et, sleeveless, regular style, with- 

out reinforcements. . , Each, $1.25 

Spalding Special 'Varsity Foot Ball 
Trousers— Padded 

The hips and knees are properly padded, accord- 
ing to our improved method, with pure curled 
hair, and the thighs have cane strips. Absolutely 
best grade throughout. 
No. VT. Per pair, $2. 50 

The Spalding 'Varsity Union Suit 

M.ide up of our 'Varsity No. VT Pants and No 
VJ Jacket, connected by a substantial elastic 
belt This suit will give e.xcellent satisfaction 
It conforms to each movement of the body and 

makes an ideal outfit in every way 
No. VTJ. 'Varsity Union Suit. Price, $5. OO 


Sleeveless Foot Ball Jackets 

No. I . Special brown canvas, soft finish, sewed with the best and strongest 

linen; hand made eyelets for lacing Each, 75c. 

No. 2. Good quality brown canvas. Well made throughout. 50c. 

No. 3. Brown canvas, well made. . . . ,, 40c. 

Foot Ball Pants -Moleskin 

No. OOR. Padded. Drab moleskin, manufactured 
expressly for the purpose. Hips and knees are pad- 
ded according to our improved method with curled 
hair, and the thighs have cane strips. Pair, S5.00 

Foot Ball Pants— Canvas 

No. I P. Extra quality brown canvas, soft finish, well I 
padded throughout and cane strips at thighs. S 1 .7 5 
No. 2P. Good quality brown canvas, well padded 
and real cane strips at thighs. Per pair, $ 1 .50 
No. BP. Brown drill, correctly padded. I .OO 

No. XP. Heavy white drill, well padded .76 

Nos. OQR, IP, 2P 

Cana da 



Communications addressed to 



A. G. 

in any of the following cities will receive attention. 
For street numbers see inside front cover of this book. 


Philadelphia j New Orleans 
Washington I Kansas City 


Prices in effect July 6, 1908, Subject to change without notice. 







Spalding Foot Ball Shoes 


Spalding Foot Ball Shoes i 

orn-by the players 
m of any impor- 
bly by the follow- 
e, Princeton, Cor- 
ia, Carlisle. West 

a, Iowa. 

~ No. A3.0. Front View No. A3-0. Side View No. A2-0S. Side View. Showing ArCditBement ol Cleats 

No. A2-0. Recognized as standard by foot ball players everywhere. Finest kangaroo leather vvith cir- 
cular reinforce on sides. Hand welted; a bench made shoe. ... . Per pair, $7,. 50 
No. A2-OS. Sprinting Shoe, extremely light ; same quality as our No. A2-0. -■ -*i .7*50 

No. A2-M. The 'Varsity Shoe. Finest black calfskin ; thoroughly made. Equipped with Spalding 
Foot Ball Ankle Brace. Will give excellent satisfaction Per pair, S5.00 

No. A2-S. The Club Special Shoe. Sprinting Shoe, extremely light ; black calfskin, good quality, very 
A-ell made Per pair, $5.00 

No. A-3. The Amateur Special Shoe. Black calfskin, good quality, machine sewed. A very 
serviceable shoe Per pair, S3. 50 


CommuniGations addressed to 


in any of the following cities -will receive attention. 
For street numbers see inside front cover of this book. 


New York 


St. Louis 

Pittsburg 1 Philadelphia | New Orleans 1 Cleveland 1 San Francisco 
Baltimore 1 Washington 1 Kansas City 1 Cincinnati 1 Minneapolis 

Prices in effect July 6, 1908, Subject to change without notice. 






(Patent Applied For) 

We claim that this shin guard is made according to the only correct principles, in that: 
First— It is built to prevent contact with the sensitive shin bone, rather than to attempt to 
soften a blow by piling on padding. 
|.^ Second- It is thoroughly ventilated, making it the most comfortable to wear of any. 

Third— It is extremely light in weight, simply consisting of elkskin ventilated leg-piece with 
molded "barbette " piece and soft tanned leather fastening straps. 

/ — o No. 30. Per pair, $2.00 r 

Spalding Foot Ball Shin Guards 

No. 60. Covering of black 
leather, backed up with real 
rattan reeds; felt padding. 
Leather straps and binding. 
Pair, SI. 50 

No. 1 2. Made of pebbled 
sheepskin, well padded and 
with black leather straps. 
Pair, SI. 00 

No. 9. Canvas, length 11 in- 
ches, with reeds. Pair, 50c. 
Canvas, length 9 inches, with reed 

Spalding Leather Covered Pads 

These adjustable pads are hand made and consider- 
ably better than any we have ever furnished before. 
The shoulder pads are made extra long so as to give 
full protection. Can be readily attached to any part 
of a jersey, but are especially adapted to the shoulders 
and elbows. Covered with tan leather and tufted 
padding of a new material which has all the softness 
of curled hair and the durability of felt. 

No. I. 
,No. 2. 

No. 3. 
Ho. 4. 

Shoulder Pad. Each, 50c. Pair, SI. OO 
Elbow Pad. BOc. " J.OO 

Same as above, but covered with 
brown canvas instead of leather. 

Shoulder Pad. Each, 25c. Pair, 60c. 

Elbow Pad. 25c. '1 BOc. J 

Spalding Improved Shoulder Pad 

Designed by Glenn S'. Warner of Cornell. This pad 
is made to fit the player's shoulder. It is heavily 
padded both inside and out with wool felt in exact 
accordance with decisions of Rules Committee, and 
meets with the hearty endorsement of every player 
and trainer who has examined it. 

No. B. Edch, $2.BO 

Made with soft black leather covering, padded with 

heavy felt and fitted with adjusting laces and elastic. 

Selvage left for attaching to jersey. 

No. D. Each, S 1 .06 

Spalding Leg, Knee and Shin Guard 

Made after model of 
Glenn S. Warner, Cor- 
nell, and gives perfect 
protection with abso- 
lutef reedom of move- 
ments. Heavily cov- 
ered with wool felt both inside and out. 
No. C. Each, S6,00 

Spalding Foot Ball Ankle Brace 

-ffli^r^hy, Gt^^ The brace is made of two pieces 
celebrated \.|iCJI I of finely tcmpercd steel, jointed. 
It absolutely prevents turning of 
the ankle and has been most 
thoroughly tested in actual play 
by the Yale team. Can be put 
in your shoe by any shoemaker. 
No. 23.. Ankle Brace. Per pair, BOc. 

Cana da 

New York 


Communications addressed to 


in any of the following cities -will receive attention. 
For street nunihtTS s<m' inside front covi-rof this book. 

Tittsburgl Philadelphia rNevv^OrleansTcieve land I San Francisco 
Baltimore I Washington I Kansas City I Cincinnati I Minneapolis^ 


St. Louis 

Prices in effect July 6, 1908. Subject to change without notice. 






Spalding Foot Ball Tachling Machine and Releasing Attachment 

Uprights and cross-beam can be purchased at any saw- 
mill. Prices for all other equipment necessary we list 
below. Will furnish on application blue prints showing 

how apparatus should be set up. 
Tackling Dummy— Heavy 10-oz. brown canvas, without 

joining at waist, reinforced at bottom with heavy 

sole leather. Complete with heavy leather encircling 

strap for special reinforcement Each, S I 5.00 

Releasing Attachment— With pulley block to run on 

cross rod and spliced to connecting rope. « I O.OO 
Steel Cross Rod -Threaded at both ends, complete 

with nuts and washers. Each, $7.50 

At many of the prominent colleges a pair of foot ball 
trousers are put on the dummy and held secure by the 
encircling strap which u-e furnish ivith dummi/. 

Lawson Foot Ball Timer 

A continuous timer, arranged so 
that an entire half may be timed 
accurately, stopped during interrup- 
tions, and started again when play 
is resumed. Can be used also for 
timing other athletic events. Nickel 
case. Each, S2.60 

No. R. Rawhide Foot Ball Lace Each, 5c. 
Foot Ball Lacing Needle 

No N. Made of annealed steel wire. Each, 5c. 

Guaranteed Rugby Foot Ball Bladders 

No. OR. For No. J5 Ball. 90c. 
No P. ForNos.A.Band 
F Balls. . Each, 7 5c. 

No. R. 

II. 1 : 

For Nos. S, C. D 

Balls Each, 50c. 


All rubber bladders 
bearing our Trade- 
Mark are tnade of 
Pure Para rubber 
a)!d are guaranteed 
kmanship. Note special 
ci-planation of guarantee on tag attached to each 

Pi rjcct 

"Club" Foot 



Ball Inflater 

No. 2. Made of polished brass, nickel-plated. E.\- 
treme length closed. 13'^ inches, cylinder 10 inches 
long and diameter !'-• inch. Each, 50c. 

Pocket Foot Ball Inflater 

^ _ _^_ ■^■^^^^"■■^^ ii No. 3. Made of brass, 
'*^*^*'^— ^"^ nickel-plated and pol- 

ished. Cylinder 5:'- inches long, diameter :> mch; 
extreme length closed, 7!* inches. Each, 25c. 

The Spalding "Long Distance" Megaphones 

Are made of a fiber board, scientifically prepared and shaped 
to increase the resonant qualities, and chemically treated to 
retain this feature under all conditions of weather. On the 
water or shore, or in any open country where there are no 
obstructions and no local sounds to interfere, it is notditficult 
to talk and hear to and fro over a distance of a mile with our 
"Long Distance" Megaphones, while a loud call or hail can 
be heard about two miles. Voices and other sounds from a 
distance, which would otherwise be inaudible, can be heard with great distinctness when using the instru- 
ment as a receiver. 

No. I. 

No. I ; 
No. 2. 

No. 2> 

" Long Distance " Prepared Fiber Cones 

15-in. Cone. Each.SI.SO 
22-in. Cone. 2.00 

30-in. Cone. 2.50 

34-in. Cone. 3.00 

No. 5. 
No. 7. 

in. Cone. Each,$3-50 
48-in. Cone. " 7.00 
60-in. Cone, " I O.OO 

Stands only, for Nos. 3, 5 and 7, e.xtra. Each, S3.00 

Waterproof Cones ('°'' ^eu*""') 

No. O. 12-in. Cone. Each, 25c. 
No. OX. 20-in. Cone 50c. 

No. ex. Coxswains' Megaphones, 
complete with head harness.S 1 .50 


Communications addressed to 


in any of the followiut^ cities will receive attention. 
For street number.s see inside front cover of thi.s book. 


New York 


St. Louis 

Pittsburg Philadelphia New Orleans 1 Cleveland 1 San Francisco 
Baltimore Washington Kansas City 1 Cincinnati 1 Minneapolis 

Prices in effect July 6, 1^08, Subject to chanu& without noticCm 






<p Spalding ^^^ ^j;?,, Jerseys ^ 

Following sizes carried in stock regularly in all qualities : 28 to 44 inch chest. 
Other sizes at an advanced price. 

We allow tiro ivchettfor stretch in all our Jerseys, and sizes are marked accord- 
inghj. It is sunfiested, however, that fur very heavy men a size about two 
inches larger titan coat measurement be ordered to insure a comfortable Jit. 

No. I P. Full regular made ; that is, fashioned or knit to 
exact shape on the machine and then put together by 
hand, altogether different from cutting them out of a piece 
of material and sewing them up on a machine as are the 
majority of garments known as Jerseys. Made of special 
quality worsted. Solid colors: Navy Blue, Black, Maroon 
and Gray Each, $4.00 

No. I OP. Solid colors, worsted, fashioned ; same colors 
as No. IP F-ach, S3.00 

No. I2P. Worsted; colors as No. IP 2.60 

No. I 2PB. Boys* Jersey. Worsted same quality as No. 
12P, but in sizes 26 to 36 inches chest measurement only. 
Colors: Black, Navy Blue, Gray or Maroon; no special 
orders. . . . . ' . . Each, S2.00 

No. 6. Cotton, good quality, fashioned, roll collar and full 
length sleeves. Colors : Black, Navy Blue, Gray and 
Maroon only Each, S I .OO 

No. 6X. Cotton, same as No. 6, but with striped sleeves in 
following combinations only: Navy with White or Red 
stripe; Black with Orange or Red stripe; Maroon v/ith 
White stripe Each, SI. C5 

QrkO^ial i\Irt*'ir>tf> ^^''' "'''' fi'i'nish any of the above 
OpCi/iai I'^UUV.C ^^^.^ ^^,^^ Jerseys, except Nos. 6 

)id (iX, irilli one color body and another color (not striped) 
collar and cuffs in stock colors only at no extra charge. 


We weave into our best grade Jerseys, No. IP, Letters, 

Numerals and Designs in special colors as desired. Prices 

quoted on application. Designs submitted. 


New York 


Communications addressed to 


in any of the following cities will receive attention. 
For street numbers see inside front cover of this book. 



New Orleans 
Kansas City 


San Francisco 


Prices in effect July 6, 1908. Subject to chango without notice. 






Folloicing sizes carried in stock refif!<-*A 
laiiij in all qualities: 28 to 44 inch ). " 
chest. Other sizes at an advanced 
price. ^ We allow two incites for stretch 
in all our Jerseys, and sizes are marked 
accordingly. It is suggested, however, 
that for very heavy men a size about two 
inches larger than coat measurement 
be ordered to iyisure a comfortable fit. 
^ Any other combinations of colors 
or different ividth trimming or stripe 
to order only and at advanced price. 
I Quotations on application, i 

Coat Jerseys 



The Spalding Coat Jerseys are made of the same 
worsted yarn from which we manufacture our 
better grade Jerseys, Nos. lOP and 12P, and no 
pains have been spared to turn them out in a 
well made and attractive manner. Colors: Solid 
Gray; Gray trimmed Navy; Gray trimmed Cardi- 
nal ; Gray trimmed Dark Green. Pearl buttons. 
No. I OC. Same grade as our No. lOP. $3.50 
No I 2C. Same grade as our No. 12P. 3.00 
No. I OCP. Pockets, otherwise same as No. IOC, 
Each. g 4.00 

Spalding Striped | 
and V-Neck Jerseys 

Noi I OPW. Good quality worsted, same grade as 
No. lOP. Solid color sleeves, 6-inch stripe around 
body. Colors: Black and Orange; NavyandWhite; 
Black and Red ; Gray and Cardinal ; Gray an 
Royal Blue; Royal Blue and White; Columbia Blue 
and White; Scarlet and White; Black and Royal 
Blue ; Navy and Cardinal ; Maroon and White. 
Second color mentioned is for body stripe. S3. 2 5 

Nos. lOPW and I2PW 

No. I 2PW. Worsted, with solid color 
sleeves and 6-in. stripe around body. 
Colors, same as No. lOP W $2.75 

No. lOPX. Good quality worsted, fash- 
ioned ; solid color body , with alternate 
striped sleeves, usually two inches 
of same color as body, with narrow 
stripe of any desired color. Combina- 
tions of colors as No. lOPW. $3.25 

OPX and I2PX 

No. I2PV 

No. I 2PV. Worsted, solid colors, has 
V-neck instead of full collar as on 
regular Jerseys. Colors . Navy Blue, 
Black, Maroon and Gray. 

Each, $2.75 

No. I 2PX. Worsted, solid color body, 
with alternate striped sleeves. Same 
arrangement and assortment of 
colors as No. lOPW. Each, $2.75 


Communications addressed to 



New York 


in any of the following cities will receive attention. 
For street numbers s<-e inside front cover of this book. 

St. Louis 


Philadelphia 1 New Orleans Cleveland San Francisco 
Washington I Kansas City Cincinnati Minneapolis 

Prices in effect July 6, 1908, Subject to change witliout aotiG6$^ 






[ ' m mam tracmiia»k is placed upoii [very cemuihe spaldihg article. ftciEPT mo substitute. 


^^ Spalding ^^ 
Jacket Sweaters 

Sizes 28 to U inch chest meamrement. We allow four inches 
for stretch in all our sweaters, and sizes are marked accord- 
ingly. It is sugfjcstcd, however, that tor very heavy men a_ 
size about two tn(hcs larger than coat measurement be' 
onknd to msuu a comtortahle fit. 

Button Front 

No. VG. Best quality 
worsted, heavy 
woig-ht, pearl buttons. 
Made in Gray, White 
and Dark Brown Mix- 
ture only. 

Each, S6.00 
No. DJ. Fine wors- 
ted, standard weight, 
pearl buttons, fine 
knit edging. Made in 
Gra;^, White and Sage 
Gray only. 

Each, S5.00 
No. 3J. Standard 
weight wool, shaker 
kiut, pearl buttons. 
In Gray or White only. 

Each, $4. SO 
With Pockets 
Vo. VGP. Bestqual- 
I worsted, heavy 
^--ht, pearl buttons. 
I I lie up in Gray or 
W hite only. Made 
V ith pocket on either 
bide and a particularly 
convenient and popu- 
lar style for golf 



No VG Showing special trimmed I 
ing and cuffs supplied, if desire 
jacket sweaters it no extra cha 


Each, $7.00 

Vest Collar Sv^eaters 

No. BG. Best qiuility worsted, good 
weight. Gray or White only, with ex- 
treme open or low neck. Each, S5.50 

Boys' Jacket Sweater 

No. 3JB. Thi.s Ks an all wool jacket 
sweater, with pearl buttons; furnished 
in Gray only, and sizes from 30 to 36 
inch chest measurement. Each, S3.00 

SPECIAL NOTICB^-We will famish any of the above solid color sweaters with one color body and 

another color (not striped) collar and cuffs In stock colors only at no extra charee. This does not apply 

to the No. 3JB Boys' Sweater 

Cana da 

New York 


Gcunmunications addressed to 


in any of the following cities will receive attention. 
For street numbers see inside front cover of this book 

Pittsburg I Philadelphia 
Baltimore I Washington 

New Orleans 
Kansas City 


San Francisco 


St. Louis 

Prices in effect Julu 6. 1908. Subject to change without TWtice, 







Spalding Highest Quality Sweaters \ Spalding Winter 

Sports Sweater 

Colors: White, Navy Blue, 
Black, Gray, Maroon and 
Cardinal, Other colors to order. 
Prices on application. All made 
with 9-inch collars; sizes, 28 to 
j^ inches. 

We allow four inches for stretch in all 
our sweaters, and sizes are marked 
accordingly. It is suggested, however, 
that for very heavy men a size about 
two incheslarger than coat measurement 
be ordered to iyisure a comfortable fit. 
Yi 'V n of- special quality wool, and 
I' — y~l exceedingly soft and pleas- 
^-^^ ant to wear. They are full 
fashioned to body and arms and put 
together by hand, not simply stitched 
up on a machine as are the majority of 
garments sold as regular made goods. 
The various grades in our "Highest 
Quality" Sweaters are identical in 
quality and finish, the difference in 
price being due entirely to variations 
in weight. Our No. AA. Sweaters are 
considerably heavier than the heaviest 
sweaters ever knitted and cannot be 
furnished by any other maker, as we 
have exclusive control of this special 

No. AA. The proper style for use after heavy exercise, inducing 
copious perspiration for reducing weight or getting into condition for 
athletic contests. Particularly suitable for Foot Ball and Skating. 
Heaviest sweater made. . .Each, $8.00 

No. A. "Intercollegiate," special w'eight. 
No. B. Heavy weight. Each, $6.00 

Spalding Shaker Sweater 

We introduced this wool sweater to fill a 
demand for as heavy a weight as our 
" Highest Quality " grade, but at a lower 
price, and after much experimenting, we 
are in a position to offer it in the fol- 
lowing cotors only: Black, Navy Blue, 
Maroon, Gray or White. Sizes 30 to 44 

No. 3. Standard weight, slightly lighter 
than No. B. Each, $3.60 

Spalding Combined Knitted Muffler 
and Chest Protector 

No. M. M a d e of special weight, 

highest quality worsted in solid colors. 

Gray, Dark Brown Mixture, and Sage 

Gray to match our sweaters. 

Each, SI. OO 

SPECIAL NOTICE— We wUl hiralsli uy ol Ihe above toUd color sweaters with one color body and 
anolher color (ootilriped) collar and calls In sloctt colors only al no extra charge. 

No. WJ. For Skating, Hockey, 
Tobogganing,Snow Shoeing, tramp* 
ing during cold weather; in fact, 
for every purpose where a garment 
is required that will really give pro« 
tection from the cold, and that at 
the same time may be changed to 
the most comfortable and conven* 
lent kind of a button front sweater 
by simply turning down the collar. 
Made in Gray only, in highest quaU 
ity special heavy weight worsted. 
Sizes, 28 to 44 inches. Each,S7.50 


New York 


A. G. 

Communications addressed to 


in any of the following cities will receive attention. 
For street numbers see inside front cover of this book. 



New Orleans 
Kansas City 


San Francisco 


St. Louis 

Prices in effect July 6, 1908. Subject to change without notice. 






Elasiic Supporters 

Ko.2. With elastic pieces 
on side. Each, 50c. 

No. 3. Same as No. 2, but 
open mesh front. 50c. 

Spalding Supporters 

Ko. I . Best Canton flan- 
nel, one in box. 25c. 

No. X. Same as No. 1, but 
cheaper in quality. 

Each, 20c. 

^lo. A. Spalding Swim- 
ming supporter. For 
water polo, bathing and 
swimming. Fastened 
with one button ; no 
elastic. Each, 50c. 


The "Spalding Style 

No.70. Non-elastic 

bands, knitted sack.. 

. Each, 25c. 
No. 7 I . Elastic buttock 

bands, knitted sack. 

. Each, 35c. 
No. 72. Elastic bands, 

knitted sack 50c. 
No. 73V. Elastic bands, 

silk sack. Each, 75c. 
No. 7 6. Silk bands, finest 

silk sack. SI. 25 

"Old Point Comfort" 

No. 2. I 
sack. (^' 

No. 3. 
silk sack, satin trim- 
mings. Each, $1 .25 

No. 4. Silk bands, satm 
trimmings, finest silk 
sack. _ Each, $1 .50 

lov. 30, '87. 

ball, foot 
ball, tennis players, etc. 
All elastic ; no buckles. 
Clean, comfortable and 
porous. Three sizes : 
Small, to fit waist 22 to 
28 in.; Medium, 30 to 38 
in. ; Large, 40 to 48 in. 
Each, 75c. 

Spalding Leather 
Abdomen Protector 

Made heavy sole leather, 
well padded, with quilted 
lining and non- elastic 
bands, with buckles at side 
and elastic at back. The 
most satisfactory and saf- 
est protector for boxing, 
hockey, foot ball, etc. No 
other supporter neces- 
sary with this style. 
No. S. Each, $3.00 

Spalding Wire 
Abdomen Protector 

Made ofi 
and well 

fleece _ 

and chamois. Complete 
with leatherbelt and other 
necessary straps for fast- 
ening. A very strong and 
safe protector. To be used 
with any of our regular 
supporters or suspensories 
No. 4. Each, $2.00 

Spalding Combination 

Foot Ball Glove 
and Wrist Supporter 

Spalding Leather 
Wrist Supporters 

No. 50. Grain leather, 
lined, single strap-and- 
buckle. Jach, 20c. 

No. I OO. Solid belt leath- 
er, tan or black, single 

Each, 26c. 

er, in 
tan or 
a n d- 
buckle. Each, 40c. 

N0.3OO. Solid belt leath 
er, tan or black, laced 
fastening. 25c, 

No. 400. Genuine pig 
in im- 

Designed by H. B. Conibear. 

Back of the hand is protected 

by a piece of sole leather, and 

any strain to wrist is avoided 

by leather strap supporter 

which forms the upper part of 

the glove. The glove does not interfere with the free 

use of hand, and those in use last season were highly 

commended by players. Made for right orrleft hand. 

No*. I. Each, «l.25 


Communications addressed to 



New York 


in any of the following cities will receive attention. 
For street numbers see inside front cover of this book. 

St. Louis 



New Orleans 
Kansas City 

Cleveland | San Francisco 
Cincinnati 1 Minneapolis 

Prices in ejffect July 6, iS08, Subject to change without notice. 






The Spalding Championship Hammer 

%nth Bali Bearing Swivel, originally designed by John 
Flanagan, has been highly endorsed only after 
repeated trials in championship events. The 
benefits of the ball bearing construction will be 
appreciated by all hammer throwers. Guaran- 
teed absolutely correct in 

No. 02. 12-lb., with sole leathercase. S7.50 
No. 02X. 12-lb. , without sole leather case. 5. 50 
,No. 06. 16-lb., with sole leathercase. 7.50 
JNo.OeX. 16-lb., withoutsole leather case. 5. 50 

New Regulation Mammer 

With Wire Handle-Guaranleed Correct in Weight 

12-lb., lead, practice. 
16-lb., lead, regulation. 
8-lb., iron, juvenile. 
12-lb., iron, practice. 
16-lb., iron, regulation. 

Each, S4.50 
2. 50 
3. 50 

Extra Wire Handles— For Above Hammers 

FH. Improved design, large grip, heavv wire. 
Each." 7 5c. 

Spalding t) 

Regulation 56-lb. Weight 

Made after model submitted by 
Champion J. S.Mitchel, and endorsed 
by all weight throwers. Packed in 
bo.x and guaranteed correct in weight 
and in exact accordance with rules 

of A. A. U. 
No. 2. Lead 56-lb. weights. 

Complete, S I 2.00 

Spalding Rubber Covered 
Indoor Shot 

(Patented December 19. 1911 ) 

This shot is made according to scientific 

principles, with a rubber cover that is 

perfectly round ; gives a fine grip, and 

has the proper resiliency when it comes 

in contact with the floor ; will wear 

longer than the ordinary leather 

covered, and in addition there is no possibility that the 

lead dust will sift out, therefore it is always full weight. 

No. P. 16-lb., SI O.OO 1 No. Q. 12-lb., S9. CO 

Spalding Indoor Shot, with our 

^>\\\N^^ improved leather cover. Does not lose 
weight, even when used constantly. 
No. 3. 12-lb., . Each. S7;oO 
No. 4. 16-lb., . '• 7.50 

No. 26. 8-lb., . " 5. CO 

Spalding Regulation Shot, Lead and 

Iron Guaranteed Correct in Weiglit 

No. 19. 16-lb., lead. Each, S3. 50 
No. 21. 12-lb., lead. " 3.00 
No. 23. 16-lb , iron. " I .75 

No. 25. 12-lb., iron. " I.50 

No. 18. 8-lb., iron. 


Officially adopted by the 

Athletic League 

For the use of the more youthful athletes 

Spalding Olympic Discus [[^ — ^] Spalding Youths' Discus 

Sinccthe revival of Discus |l jitfjH^,*^ "' ^^Hl 
the Olympic Games, at Athens, in 1896, ^^^^^..Tn^Trfii 

the Spalding Discus has been recog- |'*"*^^^'Si.i-^^;^**'|| we now make a special Discus smaller 
nized as the Oflicial Discus, and is used ^■^-.^^^^^^^'^ in size and lighter in weight than the 

m all competitions because It conforms L= J j] regulation Discus, but made in accord- 

to the nflicial rules, and is the .same as used at Athens, 1906, and London, ance with official specifications. 
1908. Packed in sealed bo.x, and guaranteed absolutely correct. S5.00 [1, Price, S4. CO 

Foster's Patent Safety Hurdle 

The frame is 2 feet 6 inches high, with a^ wooden hurdle 2 feet high, swinging 
the frame on steel bolts, the swinging joint bein^ 6 inches from one 


side and 18 inches from the other. With the short side up it measures 2 feet 
6 inches from the ground, and with the long side up, 3 feet 6 inches. The hurdle 
can he changed from one height to the other in a few seconds, and is held firmly 
in either position by a thumb-screw. It would be hard to conceive any device 
more simple or more easily handled than this. It has met with the approval 
of the best known physical directors and trainers of the country. 

Single Hurdle. S3.50 Per Set of Forty Hurdles, S I OO.OO 


New York 


GoBimuiiications addressed to 


in any of the following cities will receive attention. 
For street numbers see inside front cover of this book. 

Pittsburg I Philadelphia I New Orleans I Cleveland I San Francisco 
Baltimore I Washington I Kansas City I Cincinnati I Minneapolis 


St. Louis 

Prices in effect July 6, 1908, Subject to change without notice. 


||^ ^ QU ALITY 





Spalding Ranning, Jumping and Hurdling Shoes 

Spalding /_^^^j^ Spaldi 

No. 2-0. This Running Shoe is made of the finest Kan- 
garoo leather; extremely light and glove fitting. Best 
English steel spikes firmly fastened in place. Pair, $6.00 

No. I O. Finest Calfskin Running Shoe; lightweight, hand- 
made, six spikes Per pair,S5.00 

No. I I T. Calfskin Running Shoe, machine made, solid 
leather tap sole holds spike firmly in place. Pair, $4.00 

No. I 1 . Calfskin Running Shoe, machine made. 3.00 

No. I 2. Leather Running Shoe, complete with spikes, fur- 
nished in sizes 1 to 6 only. . . Per pair, $2. SO 

Spaidli ""^ 

Cross Country 
No. 14C 

I 4C. Cross Country Shoe, finest Kangaroo leather; low 
broad heel, flexible shank, hand sewed, six spikes on sole; 
with or without spikes on heel. . Per pair, $6.00 

No. I 4H. Jumping and Hurdling Shoe; fine Kangaroo leather, 
hand-made, specially stiffened sole, and spikes in heel placed 
according to latest ideas to assist the jumper. Pair, S6.00 

No. 1 4J. Calfskin Jumping Shoe, partly machine-made; 
spikes correct'y placed. . . . Per pair, $4.60 

Spalding Indoor Running Shoes Made wiui or withoot spikts 

No. I I I . Fine leather.rubbertipped sole, with spikes. $4.00 
No ; 12. Leather shoe, special corrugated rubber tap sole, no 

spikes Per pair, $3.00 

No. I I 4. Leather shoe.rubber tipped, no spikes. " 2. SO 


No. 2 r o 

Indoor Jumping Shoes Made »iih^r »ithoDt spikes 

Hand-made, best leather, rubber soles. S5.00 

Rubber Soled Gymnasiiui Shoes Listed on Page S6 

Spalding Running Pants 

No. I. White or Black Sateen, 
fly front, lace back. Pair, $1.25 
No. 2. White or Black Sateen, 
fly front, lace back. Pair, $ I .CO 
No. 3, White or Black Silesia, 
fly front, lace back. Pair, 75c. 
White or Black Silesia, fly front, lace 
Per pair, SOc. 
Silk Ribbon Stripes down sides of any of 
these running pants 25c, per pair extra. 
Silk Ribbon Stripe around waist on any of 
these running pants 2Sc,per pair extra. 

Suitable Sleeveless and Quarter Sleeve Shirts Listed on Page ii 

Spalding Athletic Grips 

No. I . Made of selected 
cork and shaped to fit the 
hollow of the hand. . Per pair, 15c. 

Spalding Special Grips -with Hastic 

No. 2. Bestquality cork, with 
elastic bands to hold on hand 
when starting without neces- 
sity for gripping. Pair, 20c. 

L ^^ Spalding Prolec- 

JJ^^ Hon for Running Shoe Spikes 

'miV* No. N. Thick wood, shaped and 

perforated to accommodate spikes of running 
shoes. A convenience for runners. Pair, SOc. 

Spalding Chamois Poshers^ ^ 

No. 5. Fine chamois skin, to be ^ 
used with running, walk- 
ing, jumping and other* 
athletic shoes. . . Per pair, 2Sc. 

Competitors' Numbers 

Printed on heavy Manila paper or strong Linen. 

n,toheJF Jf\ 

4 No. 1. 1 to 50. Set, S .50 $2 

No. 2. 1 to 7.5. " .75 3 

No. 3. 1 to 100. " f.OO 5 

No. 4. 1 to 150. " K50 7 

No. 5. 1 to 200. " 2.00 lO 

No. 6. 1 to 250. " 2. SO 12 

For larger meets we supply Competitors' Nurr 
on Manila paoer only in sets as follows ; 


I 6.1tol200. 
I 7.1 to 1300. 

7. 1 to 300.$3.OO 

8. 1 to 400 

9. 1 to 500 
I O. 1 to 600 
I I . 1 to 700 
I 2. 1 to 80O 
I 3. 1 to 900 
I 4. 1 to 1000. lO.OO 
I 5. 1 to 1100. I I.OO 


I 8.1 to 1400. 

1 9. Uo 1.500. 

2 1.1 to 1700. 
23. Ito 1900. 
24.1 to 2000. 









New York 


Co-mmunications addressed to 


in any of the following cities will receive attention. 
For street numbers see inside front cover of thi s book. 



New Orleans 
Kansas City 


San Francisco 


St. Louis 


Fricea in effect July 6. 19U8. Subject to change without notice. 








OFFICIALLY adopted and standard. The cover is made in four sections, with capless ends 
and of the finest and most carefully selected pebble grain English leather We take the 
entire output of this superior grade of leather from the English tanners, and in the Official Bas- 
ket Ball use the choicest parts'of each hide. The bladder is made specially for this ball of extra 
quality Para rubber Each ball packed complete, in sealed box, and guaranteed perfect in every 
detail. To provide that all official contests may be held under absolutely fair and uniform conditions 
it is stipulated that this ball must be used in all match games of either men's or women's teams. 
No. M. Spalding "Official" Basket Ball. Each, $6,00 


New York 


Commuuicatious addressed to 



in any of the following cities will receive attention. 
For street numbers see inside front cover of this book 

Pittsburg Philadelphia New Orleans | Cleveland 
Baltimore Washington I Kansas City I Cincinnati 



San Francisco St. Louis 
Minneapolis Denver 

Prices in effect July 6, 1908. Subject to change without notice. 






Official National League Ball 

Is the Standard of the World 

It Is the Original Leagrue Ball If is the Official League BftU 

It is the Universally Adopted League Ball 

It is the Best League Ball 


Official Ball of the National League tor over 30 Yeara 

It has also been adopted as the Official Ball for all Championship GameS 
fcy the following Professional Leagues : 

PASTEnfif^ LEAGUE for 20 years 
llEW ENGLAND LEAGUE for 20 yiUra 
NORTHERN LEAGUE for 5 years 

CENTRAL LEAGUE for 5 years 

LEAGUE for 9 mni% 
and by 22 other Professional Leagues that "have adopted the Spalding 
Official National League Ball from 1 to 4 years. 

THE <5parding Official National League Ball was first adopted by the National League in 1878, and^ 
is the only ball that has been used in Championship League Games since that time. In thft 
recent great World's Championship Games in Chicago between the Chicago Nationals and the Detroi«| 
Americans the Spalding Official National League Ball was used, 

WN addition to the different American adoptions, the Spalding Official National League Ball hasleeil 
'M. made the official ball by the governing Base Ball Associations of Mexico, Cuba, Canada, AustraliBij 
South Africa, Great Britain, Philippine Islands. Japan, and, in fact, wherever Base Ball is playedj 
The Spalding Official National League Ball has received this universal adoption because of its well 
established reputation for uniformity and high quality, but the special object of such adoptions, froiTl 
the players' standpoint, is to secure absolute uniformity in aball, that will prevent unfair "jockeying"' 
with an unknown ball, and make National and International Base Ball contests possible, and at thaj 
same time make the records of players of value, and uniform throughout the world, which can onW 
be secured by standardizing one well known ball. 

The Spalding Official National League Ball 

is used by Yale, Harvard, Princeton and all prominent college teams. The soldiers and sailors in thi. 

United States Army and Navy use it exclusively. In fact, the Spalding League 

Ball is in universal use wherever Base Ball is played. 

Once in a' white a minor league will experiment for a short time with some other Taall, "but invariaM^ 

returns to the Spalding Official National League Ball, .which has now become universally recognised 

The Standard of the World 

Comnaunications addressed to 



in any of the following cities will receive attention 


For street numbers see inside front cover of this book. 

New York 
1 Bnffalo 


New Orleans 





Kansas City 

St. LoQls 

San Francisco II 

Prie— in effect January 6, 1908, Subject to ehang§ witbout nettM. 

Durand-Steel Lockers 

WOODEN LOCKERS are objec- 
tionable because they attract 
vermin, absorb odors, can be 
easily broken into, and are dan- 
gerous on account of fire. Lockers made 
from vnre mesh or expanded metal af- 
ford little security, as they can be easily 
entered with wire cutters. Clothes 
placed in them become covered with dust 
and the lockers themselves present a poor 
appearance, resembling animal cages. 

Durand-Steel Lockers are made 
of high-grade steel plates, and are fin- 
ished with gloss-black Furnace baked 
Japan (400°) , comparable to that used on 
hospital ware, which will never flake off 
nor require refinishing, as do paints and 

Durand-Steel Lockers are usual- 
ly built with doors perforated full length 
in panel design, with sides and backs 
i n one 


Six Lockers in 
Double Tier 

coming in contact with wet gar- 
ments in adjoining lockers, while 
plenty of ventilation is secured by 
having the door perforated its 
entire length, but if the pur- 
chaser prefers we perforate the 
backs also. 

The cost of Durand-Steel Lockers 
is no more than that of first-class 
wooden lockers, and they last as 
long as the building, are sanitary, 
secure, and in addition, are fire- 

We are handling lockers as a spe- 
cial contract business, and ship- 
ment will in every case be made 
direct from the factory in Chi- 
cago. If you will let us know the 
number of lockers, size, and ar- 
rangement, we shall be glad to 
\.<v ^ri 1 I c • 1 --r- take up through correspondence/^J 

\J 1 hree Lockers in Single 1 ler the matter of prices. ' ' 


Send for Complete Catalogue of I Stores in all large cities. 

all Athletic Sports. I See inside cover page of this book. 



HE following index from Spalding's latest Catalogues 
give an idea of the great variety of Athletic 


Goods manufactured by A. G. Spalding & Bros. 

Ankle Brace, Skate 
Ash. Bars 
Athletic Library 
Attachments, Chest \V«ight 

Bags, Bathing Suit 
Bags, Caddy 
Bags, Cricket 
Bagi, Uniform 
Balls, Base 
Balls, Basket 
Ball Cleaner, Golf 
Balls, Cricket 
Balls. Golf 
Balls, Playground 
Balls, Squash 
Balls, Tennis 
Bandages, £Iastic 
Bar Bells 
Bar Stalls 
Bars, Parallel 
Bases, Base Ball 
Bases, Indoor 
Basket Ball Wear 
Bathing Suits 
Bats, Base Ball 
Bats, Cricket 
Bats,. Indoor 
Batting Cage, Base Ball 

Bladders. Basket Ball 
Bladders, Foot Ball 
Bladders. Striking Bags 
Blades, Fencing 
Blouses, Umpire 
Boxing Gloves 
Caddy Badges 
Caps, Base Ball 
Caps. University 
Caps, Skull 
Center Forks, Iron 
Center Straps, Canvas 
Chest Weights 
Coats, Base Ball 
Collars, Swimming 
Combination Uniforms 
Corks, Running 
Cricket Goods 
Croquet Goods 
Cross Bars 

Discus. Olympic 
Discs, Marking 
Discs, Rubber Golf 
Disks, Striking Bag 
Dumb Bells 

Equestrian Polo 
Exerciser, Home 
Exhibition Clubs 

Fencing Sticks 
Field Hockey 
Finger Protection 
Flags, College 
Flags, Marking 
Foils. Fencing 
Foot Balls, Association 
Foot Balls. Rugby 
Foot Ball Goal Nets 
Foot Ball Timer 
Foul Flags 

Gloves, Base Ball 

Gloves, Cricket 

Gloves, Fencing 

Gloves, Golf 

Gloves, Handball 

Gloves. Hockey 

Glove Softener 

Goals, Basket Ball 

Goal Cage, Polo 

Goals, Foot Ball 

Goals. Hockey 

Golf Clubs 

Golf Counters 


Grips, Athletic 

Grips. Golf 

Guy Ropes and Pegs 

Gymnasium. Home 

Gymnasium Board, Home 

Hammers, Athletic 


Handle Cover, Rubber 

Hangers for Indian Clubs 

Hats, University 

Head Harness 

Health Pull 

Hob Nails 

Hockey Slicks 

Hole Cutter, Golf 

Hole Rim, Golf 

Horizontal Bars 

Hurdles, Safety 

Indoor Base Ball 

Indian Clubs 

Inllaters, Foot Ball 

InHatcrs. Striking Bag 

Jackets, Fencing 

Jackets, Foot Ball 

Jackets, Swimming 


Knee Protectors 

Knickerbockers, Foot Ball 

Lace, Foot Bill 

Lanes for Sprints 

Lawn Bowls 

Leg Guards, Critket 

Leg Guards, Foot Ball 

Leg Guards, Hockey 

Leg Guards, Polo 

Letters, Embroidered 

Letters. Woven 

Lockers. Durand-Steel 

Mallet, Cricket 

Markers. Tennis 

Masks, Base Ball 

Masks, Fencing 

Masks, Nose 

Masseur, Abdominal 


Medicine Balls 


Mitts, Base Ball 

Mitts. Handball 

Mitts, Striking Bag 


Mouthpiece, Foot Ball 

Needle. Lacing 

Nets, Tennis 

Net, Volley Ball 

Numbers, Competitors 

Pad, Chamois. Fencing 

Pads, Foot Ball 

Paint, Golf 

Pants, Base Ball 

Pants, Basket Ball 

Pants, Boys' Knee 

Pants, Foot BaM 

Pants, Hockey 

Pants, Roller Polo 

Pants, Running 

Pistol. Starter's 

Plastrons. Fencing 

Plates, Base Ball Shoe 

Plates, Home 

Plates, Marking 

Plates, Pitchers' Box 

Plates, Teeing 

Platforms, Striking Bag 

Poles, Ski 

Poles, Vaulting 

Polo, Roller. Goods 

Protector, Abdomen 

Protector, Elbow 

Protector, Polo 

Protection for Running Shoes 

Pucks. Hockey 

Push Ball 

Pushers, Chamois 

Puttees, Golf 

Quantity Prices 

Racket Govers 
Rackets. Lawn Tennis 
Racket Presses 
Rackets Restrung 

^eels for Tennis Posts 
Referees' Horns 
Referees' Whistle 
Rings, Exercising 
Rings, Swinging 
Rowing Machines 

Scabbards llir Skates 

Score Board, Golf 

Score Books, Base Ball 

Score Books, Basket Ball 

Score Books, Cricket 

Score Books, GolL 

Score Books, Tennis 

Scoring Tablets, Base Ball 

Seven-Foot Circle 

Shin Guards, Association 

Shin Guards, Rugby 

Shin Guards, Hockey 

Shin Guards, Pt)lo 

Shirts, Base Ball 

Shirts, Basket Ball 

Shirts, Sleeveless 

Shoes, Base Ball 

Shoes, Basket Ball 

Shoes. Bowling 

Shoes. Cross Country 

Shoes, Cricket 

Shoes, Fencing 

Shoes, Foot Ball, Association 

Shoes, Foot Ball, Rugby 

Shoes, Golf 

Shoes, Gym 

Shoes, Jumping 

Shoes, Running 

Shoes, Skating 
Shoes, Squash 
Shoes, Tennis 
Shot, Indoor 
Shot, Massage 
Skate Bags 
Skates.. Hockey 
Skate Holders 
Skates, Ice 
Skates, Racing 
Skates, Rink, Ice 
Skate Rollers 
Skates, Roller 
Skates, Tubular 
Skate Straps 

Sleeve Bands. College 
Slippers, Bathing 
Snow Shoes 
Squash Goods 
Standards, Vaulting 
Standards, Volley Ball 
Starters' Pistol 
Steel Cable 
Sticks. Polo 
Stop Boards 
Striking Bags 
Studs, Golf 
Stumps and Bails 
Suits, Union, Foot Ball 
Supporters, Ankle 
Supporters, Wrrst 
Swimming Suits 
Swivel Striking Bags 
Swords, Fencing 
Swords, Duelling 
Tackling Machine 
Take off Board 
Tapes, Adhesive 
Tapes, Marking 
Tapes, Measuring 
Tees, Golf 
Tennis Posts 
Tether Tennis 
Toboggan Cushions 
Toboggan Toe C'aps 
Toe Boards 

Trapeze, Adjustable 
Trapeze, Single 
Trousers, -Y. M. C. A. 
Trunks, Bathing 
Trunks, Velvet 
Trunks, Worsted 
Umpire Indicator 
Uniforms, Base Ball 
Varnish for Gut 
Volley Balls 
Water Polo Ball 
Wands, Calisthenic 
Watches, Stpp 
Water Wings 
Weights, 56-lb. 







TheNondescrip^ , 

says to the/V 
Dealer : f <j 

"Why pay 15 to 20 
per cent, more for»^«» 
Spalding Trade Marked V^V 
.Athletic Goods, when I ^k — •"' 
arp prepared to fumish^^^' 
you 'Just as good" articles^^^ 
for so much less, price ' 


The Substitute 
^-Dealer says 
^"^A to the Con- 

^f\ sumer : 

"We are just out 
of the Spalding 
'-— — article asked for, 
v^but Kere is some- 
thing 'Just as good* 
at 25 per cent less 

Spalding Cautions the Consumer 

to make proper allowances for these "Jusr AS GOob'* jn^nufacturers amJ. 
substitute-dealers' statements, but see t* it titat the Spultflng Trade*1fliirK.; 
Is on, or attached, to each Spalding Athletle art(<ile) for without thtlK 
Trade-Mark they are not gennJne Spalding Goods* 

We are prompted to issue this Cautfon ton users of Spalding's Athletic, Goods, 
for the reason that many defective articles Jnade and ■Sold by these 'Just as, 
Good" manufacturers and dealers are returned to as- as defective and un- 
satisfactory, and which the consumer, who has been thU9< deceived, has asked 
us to repair or replace under our broad Guarantee, svhfch reads as follows: 

We Guarantee to each porchaser of an aMlcle bearing the 
Spalding Trade-Mark that such article will give satisfaction and 
a reasonable amount of service, when used for the purpose for which 
It was Intended and under ordinary conditions and fair treatment. 

▼Ve A.gree to repair or replace free of charge any such article 
which proves defective in material or workmanship; PROVIDED 
such defective article la returned to, us, transportation prepaid, 
during the season in which It was purchased, accompanied by the 
name, addi'ess and a letter from the ^user explaining the claim. 

Beware of the "Just as Good ■' mafrufacturer, who makes " appearance»" first 
and "Quaiiiy" secondary, in order to dec^ve the dealer; and beware of the 
substitute-dealer, who completes the fraud by ofifering the consumer the 
"Just as Good' article when Spalding's Gopds are asked for. 









S^^ 14 l»00 

commenced business March 1st, 1876, at 
Chicago, under the firm name of A. G. 
Spaldmg & Brc, with a small capital. 
Two years later their brother-in-law, Wil- 
liajn T. Brown, came into the business, and 
the firm name was then changed to A. G. 
Spalding & Bros. 

The business was founded on the Ath- 
letic reputation of Mr. A. G. Spalding, who 
acquired a national prominence in the realm 
of Sport, as Captain and Pitcher of the 
Forest City's of Rockford, 111. (1865-70), the 
original Boston Base Ball Club (Champions 
of the United States, 1871-75), and the 
Chicago Ball Club (1876-77), first Champi- 
ons of the National League. He was also 
one of the original organizei-s, and for many 
years a director, of the National League of 
America, *tho premier Base Ball organiza- 
tion of the world. Mr. Spalding has taken 
an important part in Base Ball affairs ever 
since it became the National Game of the 
United States at the close of the Civil War 
in 1865. The returning veterans of that 
War, who had played the game as a camp 
diversion, disseminated this new American 
field sport throughout the country, and 
thus gave it its national character. 

Base Ball Goods were the only articles 
of merchandise carried the first year. Gradu- 
ally implements and accessories of Athletic 
Sports were added, until the firm now man- 
ufactures the requisites for all kinds of 
Athletic Sports. Originally the firm con- 
tracted for its supplies from outside manu- 
facturers, but finding it impossible, by this 
method, to keep the standard of quality up 
to its high ideals, it gradually commenced 
the manufacture of its own goods, and 
by the acquisition from time to time of 
various established factories located in dif- 
ferent parts of the country, is now able 

to and does manufacture in its 
own factories everything bearing / 
the Spalding Trade-Mark, which Q 
stands the world over as a guar- 
antee of the highest qualitv. 

There are over tm-ee thousand persons 
employed in various capacities in A. G. 
Spalding & Bros.' factories and stores loca- 
ted in all the leading cities of the United 
States, Canada and England. A capital of 
over $4,000,000 is employed in carrying on 
this business, and the annual sales exceed 
the total combined annual sales of all other 
manufacturers in the world making similar 
lines of goods. 

A. G. Spalding «& Bros, have always 
taken a leading part in the introduction, in 
the encouragement and in the support of 

a\l new Sports and Games, and the prominence 

attained by "Athletic Sports in the United 
States is in a very great measure due to the 
energy, to the enterprise and to the liberal- 
ity of this progressive concern. This firm 
was the pioneer and, in fact, the foundw 
of the Athletic Goods Trade in America, 
and is now universally recognized as the 
undisputed Leader in the Athletic Goods 
line tnroughout the world. 

The Tate Marshall Field of Chicago, 
America's greatest Merchant, speaking of 
the business of A. G. Spalding & Bros., said: 
"I am familiar with its early career, growth 
and development, and when I compare its 
unpromising outlook and the special field 
for its operations that existed at its incep- 
tion in 1876, with its present magnitude, I 
consider it one of the most remarkable 
mercantile successes of the world." 

The millions of Athletes using them 
and the thousands of dealers selling them, 
attest to the High Quality of Spalding's 
Athletic Goods, and they must determme 
the future history of this concern. 



rt^r . tf ,i *^ i » »^ 

^jrti a^^'^i^tt^^^^is^t^nns^^ i$^ <^ y9vrA/^^ 



006 010 

A separate book covers every Athletic Sporif 

and is Official and vStandard 
__^ Price 10 cents each 



ST. LOUIS, 1904 

PARIS, 1900 



A.G.Spalding <I> Bros. 





















Factories ot^ncd and operated by A.G 

Spalding 6, Bros, and where all of Spalding's 

TradcA^arked Athletic Good:: are ma 

dp are located in the followina cities