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Full text of "Spalding's how to play foot ball;"

n Group II, No. 300. 


I GV 951 

1 '^ 
■ 1907 

1 ^^^ 1 


B ATHLETIC 1 


^^^Evft y^^'^'i'tS' j^^fl^^^^^^H 



Price 10 cents 



LIBRARY 



HOW 

TO rn^rn 

PLAY 



H, FOOT B ALL 



ff Edited by" ^%^^^m§^l^^m, 

Walter Camp 

'"l '■ ■• 7 

American Sports Publishing Co..,i 

••;. '•% 21 Warren street. NewYorK ,fmi,u,.%,mi 




/4- iM., 4, 



Grand Prize 
St. Louis, 1904 




Grand Prix 
Paris, 1900 



A. G. Spalding & Bros. 

Maintain their own Wholesale and Retail 
Stores for the Distribution of 

Spalding's Athletic Library 

and a complete line of 

SPALDING ATHLETIC GOODS 

in the following cities: 



NEW YORK 

Downtown— 124-128 Nassau Street 
Uptown— 29-33 Bi^st 42d Street 
PHILADELPHIiOm 

lOKt^ilbert Street 
BOSTON, MASS. 

73 Federal Street 
BALTIMORE, MD. . 

208 EasfBytOTiore Street 
WASHINGTON, D; V. 

709 14th Strdfet, N. W. 

(Colorado Building) 
PITTSBURG, PA. 

439 Wood Street 
BUFFALO, N. Y. 

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SYRACUSE, N. Y. 

University Block 
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140 Carondelet Street 



CHICAGO 

147-149 Wabash Avenue 
ST. LOUIS. MO. 

710 Pine Street 
CINCINNATI, O. 

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1111 Walnut Street 
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DETROIT, MICH. 

254 Woodward Avenue 
DENVER, COL. 

1616 Arapahoe Street 
SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

134 Geary Street 



MONTREAL, CANADA, 443 St. James Street 
LONDON, ENGLAND. {tesfEn'd Slnch^t Haymarket, S. W. 



Communications directed to A. G. Spalding & Bros, at any of the above 
addresses, will receive ^i^ompt attention. 



=Dff: 



* 



SPALDING'S 

ATHLETIC 

LIBRARY 



-ft- 



Spalding's Athletic Library is admitted to be the 
leading library series of its kind published in the world. 
In fact, it has no imitators, let alone equals. It occupies 
a field that it has created for itself. 

The Library was established in the year 1892, and it 
is an admitted fact by all authorities that Spalding's 
Athletic Library has been an important factor in the 
advancement of amateur sport in America. 

The millions that read the Library during the year 
will attest to its value. A glance at its index will dis- 
close the remarkable field that it covers. It is im- 
material what the pastime may be, you will find in 
Spalding's Athletic Library a reference to it, either in 
a book devoted exclusively to that particular game or 
in some of the books that cover many sports. 

It has been the aim of the editors to make the books 
Official, and they are recognized as such, all the im- 
portant governing bodies in America granting tq the 
publishers of Spalding's Athletic Library the right to 
publish their official books and official rules. 

A glance at the names of the authors of the different 
volumes will convince the reader that the best men in 
each particular line, the men best qualified to write 
intelligently on each subject, are selected ; and, as a 
result, there is not another series in the world like 
Spalding's Athletic Library series. 

It is immaterial what new game or form of sport be 
conceived or advanced, it is invariably the aim of the 
publishers to have a book on that sport. In that way 
Spalding's Athletic Library is in the field at the begin- 
ning of the sport, follows it year in and year out, and 
there can be no doubt whatever that the present pop- 
ularity of athletic sports can attribute the same to the 
"backing" it has received from Spalding's Athletic 
Library. JAMES E. SULLIVAN. 



SPALDING ATHLETIC LIBRAeV 

Giving the Titles of all Spalding Athletie Library [? 
Boohs now in print, grouped tor ready reference iL 



SPALDING OFFICIAL ANNUALS 



Spalding's Official Base Ball Guide 
Spalding's Official Foot Ball Guide 
Spalding's Official Association Foot Ball Guide 
Spalding's Official Cricket Guide 
Spalding's Official Lawn Tennis Annual 
Spalding's Official Golf Guide 
Spalding's Official Ice Hockey Guide 
Spalding's Official Basket Ball Guide 
Spalding's Official Bowling Guide 
Spalding's Official Indoor Base Ball Guide 
Spalding's Official Roller Polo Guide 
Spalding's Official Athletic Alma^iac 



Base Ball 

Base Ball 



No. I 
No. 2 
No. 2a 
No. 3 
No. 4 
No. 5 
No. 6 
No. 7 
No. 8 
No. 9 
No. lO 
No. 12 

€roDp I. 

No. 1 Spalding's Official 
Guide. 

No. 202 How to Play Base Ball. 

No. 223 How to Bat. 

No. 232 How to Run Bases. 

No. 230 How to Pitch. 

No. 229 How to Catch. 

No. 225 How to Play First Base. 

No. 226 How to Play Second Base. 

No. 227 How to Play Third Base. 

No. 228 How to Play Shortstop. 

No. 224 How to Play the Outfield. 

How to Organize a Base Ball 

Club. [League. 

How to Organize a Base Ball 

How to Manage a Base Ball 

No. ^ Club. 
231 How to Train a Base Ball Team 
How to Captain a Base Ball 
How to Umpire a Game. [Team 
Technical Base Ball Terms. 

No. 219 Ready Reckoner of Base Ball 
Percentages. 

BASE BALL AUXILIARIES 
No. 291 Minor League Base Ball Guide 
No. 293 Official Book National League 
of Prof 'nal Base Ball Clubs. 



Foor Ball 

Official Foot Ball 



Group II. 

No. 2 



Spalding' 

Guide. 
No. 300 How to Play Foot Ball. 
No. 2a Spalding's Official (Soccer) 

Association Foot Ball Gidde 
No. 286 How to Play Soccer. 



FOOT BALL AUXILIARIES 
No. 283 Spalding's Official Canadian 

Foot Ball Guide. 
No. 294 Official Intercollegiate Asso'n 

Soccer Foot Dall Guide. 

crichet 



Group III. 

No. 3 Spalding's Official Cricket Guide 
No. 277 Cricket and How to Play It. 



Group IV. 

No. 4 



Lawn Tennis 



Spalding's Official Lawn Ten- 
nis Annual. 

No. 157 How to Play Lawn Tennis. 

No. 279 Strokes and Science of Lawn 
Tennis. 

Group V. Goir 

No. 5 Spalding's Official GolfGuidt 
No. 276 How to Play Golf. 

Group VI. Hockey 

No. 6 Spalding's Official Ice Hockey 

Guide. 
No. 154 Field Hockey. 
No. 188. Lawn Hockey. 
No. 180. Ring Hockey. 

HOCKEY AUXILIARY 
No. 256. Official Handbook Ontario 

Hockey Association. 

Group VII. Basket Ball 

No. 7 Spalding's Official Basket 

Ball Guide. 
No. 193 How to play Basket Ball. 
No. 260 Basket Ball Guide for Women. 

BASKET BALL AUXILIARY 
No. 299 Official Collegiate Basket Ball 

Handbook. 



Any of the Above Books Mailed Postpaid Upon 
Receipt of 10 Cents 



- ^SPALDIN G ATHLETIC LIB RARY/ 7^ 



Groap VIII. 



Bowling 



No. 



8 Spaldi7ig's Official Bowling 
Guide. 



Group IX 

No. 



iDdoor Base Ball 



9 Spalding's Official Indoor 
Base Ball Guide. 



Group X 

No 



Polo 



10 Spalding's Official Roller Polo 
Guide. 
No. 129 Water Polo. 
No. 199 Equestrian Polo. 

Group XI. Miscellaneous Games 

No. 201 Lacrosse. 

No. 297 Official Handbook U. S. Inter- 
coUegriate Lacrosse League. 
No. 248 Archery. 
No. 138 Croquet. 
No. 271 Roque. 

[Racquets. 
No. 194 -j Squash-Racquets. 

(Court Tennis. 
No. 13 Hand Ball. 
No. 167 Quoits. 
No. 170 Push Ball. 
No. 14 Curling. 
No. 207 Lawn Bowls. 
No. 188 Lawn Games. 
No. 189 Children's Games. 



Group XII. 



Athletics 



No. 12 Spalding's Official Athletic 
Ahna nar. 
College Athletics. 
All Around Athletics. 
Athletes' Guide. 
Athletic Primer. 
Olympic Gamesat Athens,1906 
How to Sprint. 
How to Run 100 Yards. 
Distance and Cross Country 
Running. 
No. 259 How to Become a Weight 
Thrower. 
Official Sporting Rules. 
Athletic Training for School- 
boys. 

ATHLETIC AUXILIARIES 
No. 295 Amateur Athletic Union Offi- 
cial Handbook. 
No. 292 Intercollegiate Official Hand- 
book. 
Y. M. C. A. Official Handbook. 
Public Schools Athletic 
League Official Handbook. 
No. 274 Intercollegiate Cross Country 
Association Handbook. 



No. 27 
No. 182 
No. 156 
No. 87 
No. 273 
No. 252 
No. 255 
No. 174 



No. 55 
No. 246 



No. 245 
No. 281 



Group XIII. 



Athletic 
Accomplishments 



No. 177 How to Swim. 

No. 296 Speed Swimming. 

No. 128 How to Row. 

No. 209 How to Become a Skater. 

No. 178 How to Train for Bicycling. 

No. 23 Canoeing. 

No. 282 Roller Skating Guide. 



Group XIV. 



Manly Sports 



No. 18 Fencing. (ByEreck). 

No. 162 Boxing. 

No. 165 Fencing. ( By Senac ). 

No. 140 Wrestling. 

No. 236 How to Wrestle. 

No. 102 Ground Tumbling. 

No. 233 Jiu Jitsu. 

No. 166 How to Swing Indian Clubs. 

No. 200 Dumb Bell Exercises. 

No. 143 Indian Clubs and Dumb Bells. 

No. 262 Medicine Ball Exercises. 

No. 29 Pulley Weight Exercises. 

No. 191 How to Punch the Bag. 

No. 289 Tumbling for Amateurs. 

Group XV. Gymnastics 

No. 104 Grading of Gymnastic Exer- 
cises. 

No. 214 Graded Cal isthenics and 
Dumb Bell Drills. 

No. 254 Barnjum Bar Bell Drill. 

No. 158 Indoor and Outdoor Gym- 
nastic Games. 

No. 124 How to Become a Gymnast. 

No. 287 Fancy Dumb Bell and March- 
ing Drills. 



Group 

No. 161 

No. 208 

No. 149 

No. 142 
No. 185 
No. 213 
No. 238 
No. 234 

No. 261 
No. 285 

No. 288 

No. 290 



XVI. 



Physical culture 



Ten Minutes' Exercise for 
Busy Men. 

Physical Education and Hy- 
giene. 

Scientific Physical Training 
and Care of the Body. 

Physical Training Simplified. 

Hints on Health. 

285 Health Answers. 

Muscle Building. 

School Tactics and Maze Run- 
ning. 

Tensing Exercises. 

Health by Muscular Gym- 
nastics. 

Indigestion Treated by Gym- 
np sties. 

Get Well : Keep Well. 



Any of the Above Books Mailed Postpaid Upon 
Receipt of 10 Cents 



g ^ SPALDING ATHLETIC LmRARY/^ 




Group I. Base Ball 

No. 1— Spaldins:'s Official 
Base Ball Guide. 

The leading Base Ball 
annual of the country, 
and the official authority 
of the game. Edited by 
Henry Chadwick, the 
"Father of Base Ball." 
Contains the official play- 
ing rules, with an ex- 
planatory index of the 
rules compiled by Mr. 
A. G. Spalding; pictures of all the 
teams in the National, American and 
minor leagues; official averages; re- 
views of the season in all the pro- 
fessionHl o^rganizations; college Base 
Ball, and a great deal of interesting 
Information. Price 10 cents. 



No. 202— How to Play Base 
Ball. 

Edited by Tim Mur- 
nane. New and revised 
edition. illustrated 
with pictures showing 
how all the various 
curves and drops are 
thrown and portraits of 
leading players. Con- 
tents—art of pitching, 
catching department, infield of a ball 
team, playing the outfield, fine art of 
batting, art of base-running, squeeze 
play, delayed steal, art of throwing, 
use of signals, short talks on a variety 
of base ball topics, Spalding's simpli- 
fied base ball rules, compiled especially 
for boys by A. G. Spalding. Price 10 
cents. 



No. 223— How to Bat. 

The most important 

part of ball playing now 
adays, outside of pitch 
ing, is batting. The team 
that can bat and has 
some good pitchers can 
win base ball games; 
therefore, every boy and 
young man who has, of 
course, already learned to 
catch, should turn his attention to 
this department of the game, and 
there is no better way of becoming 
proficient than by reading this book 
and then constantly practising the 
little tricks explained. Price 10 cts. 






No. 232— How to Run the 
Bases. 

The importance of base 
running as a scientific! 
feature of the national! 
game is becoming morel 
and more recognized each| 
year. Besides being spec- 
tacular, feats of base I 
stealing nearly alwa 
figure in the winning of I 
a game. Many a close' 
contest is decided on the winning of 
that little strip of 90 feet which lies 
between cushions. When hits are 
few and the enemy's pitchers steady, 
it becomec incumbent on the oppos- 
ing team to get around the bases in 
some manner. Effective stealing not 
only increases the effectiveness of 
the team by advancing its runners 
without wasting hits, but it serves 
to materially disconcert the enemy 
and frequently has caused an entire 
opposing club to temporarily lose its 
poise and throw away the game. 
This book gives clear and concise di- 
rections for excelling as a base run- 
ner; tells when to run and when not 
to do so; how and when to slide; 
team work on the bases; in fact, 
every point of the game is thor- 
oughly explained. Illustrated with 
pictures of leading players. Price 10 
cents. 

No. 230— How to Pitcli. 

A new, up-to-date book. 
The object of this book 
is to aid the beginners 
who aspire to become 
clever twirlers, and its 
contents are the practi- 
cal teaching of men who 
have reached the top as 
pitchers, and who know 
how to impart a knowl- 
edge of their art. All the big 
leagues' pitchers are shown. Price 
10 cents. 

No. 229— How to Catch. 

Undoubtedly the best 
book on catching thatf 
has yet been published. 
Every boy who has hopes 
of being a clever catcher] 
should read how well- 
known players cover their I 
position. Among t h e| 
more noted ones who de- 
scribe their methods of 
p^ay in this book are Lou Criger of 
the Boston Americans and Johnnie 
Kling of the Chicago Nationals. The 
numerous pictures comprise all the 
noted catchers In the big leagues. 
Price 10 cents. 





^XXSPALDING ATHLETIC imRARY/^ 




No. 225— How to Play First 

Base. 

No other position in a 
ball team has shown 
such a change for the 
better in recent years as 
first base. Modifications 
in line with the better- 
ment of the sport in 
every department have 
Iteen made at intervals, 
but in no other depart- 
ment have they been so radical. No 
boy who plays the initial sack can 
afford to overlook the points and 
hints contained in this book. En- 
tirely new and up to date. Illus- 
trated with full-page pictures of all 
the prominent first basemen. Price 
10 cents. 



No. 226— How to Play Second 
Base. 

There are so few men 
who can cover second 
base to perfection that 
their names can easily 
be called off by anyone 
who follows the game of 
base ball. Team owners 
who possess such players 
would not part with 
them for thousands of 
dollars. These men have been inter- 
viewed and their ideas incorporated 
in this book for the especial benefit 
of boys who want to know the fine 
points of play at this point of the 
diamond. Illustrated with full-page 
pictures. Price 10 cents. 



No. 227— How to Play Third 
Base. 

Third base is, in some 
respects, the most impor 
tant of the infield. No 
major league team has 
ever won a pennant with 
Dut a great third base 
man. Cnllins of the Bos 
ton Americans and Leach 
uf Pittsburg are two of 
the greatest third base- 
men the game has ever seen, and 
their teams owe much of the credit 
for pennants they have won to 
them. These men in this book de- 
scribe just how they play the posi- 
tion. Everything a player should 
know is clearly set forth and any 
boy will surely increase his chances 
of success by a careful reading of 
this book. Illustrated. Price 10 
cents. 







No. 228— How to Play Short- 

Shortstop is one of the 
hardest positions on the 
iiiti.'ld to fill, and quick 
thought and quick action 
are necessary for a play- 
er who expects to make 
good as a shortstop. The 
views of every well- 
known player who cov- 
ers this position have 

been sought in compiling this book, 

Illustrated. Price 10 cents. 

No. 224— How to Play the 
Outfield. 

Compiled especially for 
the young player who 
would become an expert. 
The best book on play- 
ing the outfield that has 
ever been published. 
There are just as many 
tricks to be learned, be- 
fore a player can be a 
competent fielder, a s 
there are in any other position on a 
nine, and this book explains them 
all. Price 10 cents. 

No. 231— How to Coach; How 
to Captain a Team; How- 
to Manage a Team; How^ 
to Umpire: How to Or- 
sraiiize a League; Tech- 
nical Terms of Base Ball. 

A useful guide to all 

who are interested in the 
above subjects. Jimmy 
Collins writes on coach- 
ing; M. J. Kelly on cap- 
taining; Al Buckenberger 
on managing; Frank 
Dwyer of the American 
League staff on umpir- 
ing; Fred Lake on minor 
leagues, and the editor. T. H. Mur- 
nane. President of the New England 
League, on how to organize a league. 
The chapters on Technical Terms of 
Base Ball have been written by 
Henry Chadwlck, the "Father of 
Base Ball," and define the meaning 
of all the terms peculiar to the Na- 
tional Game. Price 10 cents. 

No. 219— Ready Rechoner of 
Base Ball Percentagres. 

To supply a demand i 
for a book which would 
show the percentage of 
clubs without recourse to | 
the arduous work of fig 
uring, the publishers I 
have had these tables [ 
compiled by an expert. 
Price 10 cents. 





g^ SPALDING ATHLETIC LffiRARYy^ 





BASK BALL. ALXILL\RIES. 

No. 291— Minor Leag^ue Base 
Ball Guide. 

The minors' own guide. 
Contains pictures o f 
leading teams, schedules, 
report of annual meeting 
National Association of 
Professional Base Ball 
Leagues, special articles 
and official rules. Edited 
by President T. H. Mur- 
nane, of the New England League. 
Price 10 cents. 

No. 293— Official Hanclbook 
of the IVational League 
of Professional Base Ball 
Clubs. Contains the Constitu- 
tion, By-Laws, Official 
Rules, Averages, and 
schedule of the Na 
tional League for the 
current year, together 
with list of club offi- 
cers and reports of th.' 
annual meetings of the 
League. Every follower 
of the game should have a copy of 
this book if he wants to keep his 
file of Base Ball books complete. 
Price 10 cents. 



Group 11. Foot Ball 

No. 2— Spalding's Official 
Foot Ball Guide. 

Edited by Walter 
Camp. Contains the new 
rules, with diagram of 
field; All- America teams 
as selected by the lead- 
ing authorities; reviews 
of the game from vari- 
ous sections of the coun- 
try; scores of all the 
leading teams; pictures 
of hundreds of players, 
cents. 

No. 300— How to Play Foot 
Ball. 

Edited by Walter 
I Camp. The contents em- 
brace everything that a 
beginner wants to know 
I and many points that an 
[expert will be glad to 
learn. The pictures are 
made from snapshots of 
leading teams and play- 
ers iu action, with com- 
ments by Walter Camp. Price 10 
cents. 






Price 10 




No. 2A— Spalding's Official 
Association Soccer Foot 
Ball Guide. 



A complete and up-to- 
date guide to the 
"Soccer" game in the 
United States, containing 
instructions for playing 
the game, official rules, 
and interesting news 
from all parts of the 
country. Illustrated. 

Price 10 cents. 



No. 286— How to Play Soc- 
cer. 

Owing to the great 
interest shown in "Soc- 
cer" foot ball in Amer- 
ica, the publishers have 
had a book compiled iu 
England, the home of the 
sport, telling how each 
position should be played, 
written by the best play- 
er in England in his re- 
spective position, and illustrated 
with full-page photographs of play- 
ers in action. As a text-book of 
the game this work is invaluable, 
and no "Soccer" player can afford 
to be without it. Price 10 cents. 



FOOT BALL, AUXILIARIES. 

No. 283- Spalding's Official 
Canadian Foot Ball 

Guide. 



Edited by Frank D. 
Woodworth, Secretary- 
Treasurer Ontario Rugby 
Foot Ball Union. The 
official book of the game 
in Canada. Price 10 
cents. 



No. 294— Official Intercolle- 
giate Association Soccer 
Foot Ball 
Guide. 

Contains the constitu- 
tion and by-laws of the 
Association, pictures of 
the teams, and official 
playing rules. Price 10 
cents. 





<^SPALDING ATHLETIC LffiRARY/T^ 



Group m. Cricket 

No. 3— Simldin&'s Official 
Cricket Guide. 

Edited by Jerome Flau- 
nery. The most com- 
plete year book of the 
pame that has ever been 
iml.lisbed in America 
Kt'ltorts of special 
ui.ittbes, official rule: 
and pictures of all the 
li-ading teams. Price 10 
ceuts. 

No. 277— Cricket; and How 
to Play it. 
By Prince Ranjitslnhji. 

Every department of 

the game is described 

concisely and illustrated 

with full-page pictures 

posed especially for this 

book. The best book 

of instruction on the 

g a m e ever published. 

I'rlce 10 cents. 





Group IV. 



Lawn 
Tennis 




No. 4— Spalclingr's Official 
La^u Tennis Annual. 

Edited by II. P. Bur- 
chell, of the New York 
Times. Contents include 
a report of every impor 
tant tournament played 
in 1906, embracing th 
National Championshii 
sectional and State toui 
naments; invitation and 
open tournaments; inter- 
collegiate and interscholastic cham- 
pionships; women's national cham- 
pionships; foreign championships; in- 
door championships; official ranking 
for each year from 1885 to 1900; 
laws of lawn tennis; instructions for 
handicapping; decisions on doubtful 
points; regulations for the manage- 
ment of tournaments; directory of 
clubs; directions for laying out and 
keeping a court; tournament notes. 
Illustrated with pictures of leading 
players. Price 10 cents. 

No. 157— How to Play La^n 
Tennis. 

A complete description 
of lawn tennis; a lesson 
for beginners and direc- 
tions telling how to 
make the most impor- 
tant strokes. Illustrated. 
Price 10 cents. 




No. 279— Strokes and Science 
of L.aT*n Tennis. 

By P. A. Vaile, a 
leading authority on the 
game in Great Britain. 
Every stroke in the 
game is accurately illus- 
trated and analyzed by 
the author. As a means 
of affording a compari- 
son between the Amer- 
ican and the English 
methods of play, this book is ex- 
tremely useful. Price 10 cents. 




Golf 

Official 




Group V. 

No. 5— Spalding's 
Golf Guide. 

The leading annual of 
the game in the United 
States. Contains rec- 
enis of all important 
tnuinaments, articles on 
tlie game in various sec- 
tions of the countrv, 
pictures of prominent 
players, official playing 
rules and general items 
of interest. I'rice 10 cts. 



No. 276— How to Play Golf. 

By James Braid and 
Harry Vardon. A glance at 
the chapter headings 
will give an idea of the 
vari(>ty and value of the 
(■ o n tents: Beginners' 
wrong ideas; method of 
tuition; choosing the 
clubs; how to grip the 
club; stance and address in driving; 
the upward swing in driving, etc.; 
Numerous full-page pictures of Cham- 
pions Braid and Vardon in action add 
to the book's attractiveness. Price 10 



Group VI. Hockey 

No. «— Spaldingr's Official Ice 
Hockey Guide. 

The official year book 
of the game. Contains 
the official rules, pictures 
of leading teams and 
players, records, review 
of the season, reports 
from different sections of 
the United States and 
Canada, and other valu- 
able information. Prieo 
10 cents. 





g^ SPALDING ATHLETIC LIBRARY //» 





No. 154— Field Hockey, 

To those in need of 
vigorous and healthful 
out-of-doors exer c i s e, 
this game is recom- 
mended highly. Its 
healthful attributes are 
manifold and the inter- 
est of player and spec- 
tator alike is kept ac- 
> through out the 
progress of the game. The game is 
prominent in the sports at Vassar, 
Smith. Wellesley, Bryn Mavri and 
other leading colleges. Price 10 cents. 

No. 188 — Lawn 
Hockey, Garden 
Hockey, Parlor 
Hockey. 

Containing the rules 
for each game. Illus- 
trated. Price 10 cents. 

No. 180— Ring Hockey, 

A new game for the 
gymnasium, invented by 
Dr. J. M. Vorhees of 
Pratt Institute, , Brook 
lyn, that has sprung 
into instant popularity; 

I as exciting as basket 
ball. This book contains 

I official rules. Price 10 
cents. 

HOCKEY AUXILIARY 

No. 25«— Official Handbook 

of the Ontario H ockey 

Association. 

Edited by W. A. Hew- 
itt, of Toronto. Con- 
tains the official rules 
of the Association, con- 
stitution, rules of com- 
petition, list of officers, 
and pictures of leading 
players. Price 10 cents. 







Group VII. 



Basket 
Ball 



No. 7— Spalding's Official 
Basket Ball Guide. 

Edited by George T. 
Hepbron. Contains the 
revised official rules, de- 
cisions on disputed 
points, records of promi- 
nent teams, reports on 
the game from various 
parts of the country, 
and pictures of hundreds 
of players. Price 10 cents. 




No. 193— How to Play Basket 
Ball. 

By G. T. Hepbron, 
editor of the Official 
Basket Ball Guide. Con- 
tains full instructions 
for players, both for the 
expert and the novice, 
duties of officials, and 
specially posed full-page 
pictures showing the cor- 
rect and incorrect meth- 
ods of playing. The demand for a 
book of this character is fully satis- 
fled in this publication, as many 
points are included which could not 
be incorporated in the annual publi- 
cation of the Basket Ball Guide for 
want of room. Price 10 cents. 

No. 260— Official Basket Ball 
Guide for Women. 

Edited by Miss Senda 
Berenson, of Smith Col- 
lege. Contains the of- 
ficial playing rules of 
the game and special ar- 
ticles on the following 
sul)jects: Games for 
women, by E. Hitchcock, 
Director of Physical 
Training, and Dean of 
College, Amherst College; condition 
of women's basket ball in the Mid- 
dle West, by W. P. Bowen, Michigan 
State Normal College; psychological 
effects of basket ball for women, by 
Dr. L. H. Gulick; physiological ef- 
fects of basket ball, by Theodore 
Hough, Ph. D. ; significance of basket 
ball for women, by Senda Berenson; 
relative merit of the Y. M. C. A. 
rules and women's rules, by Augusta 
Lane Patrick; A Plea for Basket 
Ball, by Julie Ellsbee Sullivan, 
Teachers' College, New York; dia- 
gram of field. Illustrated with 
many pictures of basket ball teams. 
Price 10 cents. 

BASKET BALL. AUXILIARY. 

No. 29»— Collesriate Basket 
Ball Handbook. 

The official publication 
of the new Collegiate 
Basket Ball Associa- 
tion. Contains the of- 
ficial rules, collegiate 
and high school records, 
All America selections, 
reviews of the collegiate 
basket ball season of 
1905-6, and pictures of 
all the prominent college teams and 
individual players. Edited by H. A. 
Fisher, of Columbia. Price 10 cts. 




gx\ SPALDING ATHLETIC LffiRARY//^ 



Group VIII. Bowling 

No. 8— Spaldinff's Official 
Bowling: Guide. 

Edited by S. Karpf, 
Secretary of the Amer- 
icaa Bowling Congress. 
The contents include: 
History of the sport; 
diagrams of effective de- 
liveries; how to bowl; a 
few hints to beginners; 
American Bowling Con- 
gress; the national 
championships; how to build an al- 
ley; how to score; spares — how they 
are made. Rules for cocked hat, 
cocked hat and feather, quintet, bat- 
tle game, nine up and nine down, 
head pih and four back, ten pins — 
head pin out, five back, the Newport 
game, ten pin head. Price 10 cents. 




Group IX. 



Indoor 
Base Ball 



No. 9— Spaldingr's Official In- 
door Base Ball Gnide. 

America's nat i o n a 1 | 
game is now vieing with 
other indoor games as a 
winter pastime. This 
book contains the play- 
ing rules, pictures of 
leading teams from all | 
parts of the country, 
and interesting articles I 
on the game by leading 
authorities on the subject, 
cents. 






Price 10 



Group X. 



Polo 




No. lO— Spalding's 
Official Roller 
Polo Guide. 

Edited by J. C. Morse. 
A full description of the 
game; official rules, rec- 
ords. Price 10 cents. 



No. 129— W^ater Polo. 

The contents of this 
book treat of every de- 
tail, the individual work 
of the players, the prac- 
tice of the team, how 
to throw the ball, with 
illustrations and many 
valuable hints. Price 
10 cents. 






199— Elquestrlan Polo. 

Compiled by H. L. 
Fitzpatrick of the New 
York Sun. Illustrated 
v.ith portraits of lead- 
ing players and contains 
most useful information 
for polo players. Price 
10 cents. 

_ „, Miscellane- 
GroupXI. ous Games 

No. 201— Lacrosse. 

By William C. 
Schmeisser. c «, p t a i n | 
Johns Hopkins Univer- 
sity champion intercol- 
legiate lacrosse team of I 
1902; edited by Ronald 
T. Abercrombie, ex-cap- 
tain and coach of Johns | 
Hopkins University la- 
crosse team, 1900-1904. 
Every position is thoroughly ex- 
plained in a most simple and concise 
manner, rendering it the best manual 
of the game ever published. Illus- 
trated with numerous snapshots of 
important plays. Price 10 cents. 

No. 297— Official Handbook 
U. S. Inter-Collegiate La- 
crosse League. 

Contains the constitution, by- 
liiws, plaving rules, list of officers 
and records of the association. 
Price 10 cents. 

No. 271— Spalding»s Official 
Roque Guide. 

The official publication 
of the National Roque 
Association of America. 
Edited by Prof. CharleB 
Jacobus, ex-cham p i o n, 
Contains a description 
nf the cowts and their 
<(inst?ruction, diagrams 

of the field, illustra- 
tions, rules and valuable 

information. Price 10 cents. 

No. 138— Spalding's Official 
Crociuet Guide 

Contains directions for 
playing, diagrams of im- 
portant strokes, descrip- 
tion of grounds, instruc- 
tions for the beginner, 
terms used in the game, 
and the official playing 
rules. Price 10 cents. 





g ^ SPALDING ATHLETIC LffiRARY/^ 




No. 24S— Archery, 

A new and up-to-date 
book on this fascinating 
pastime. Edited by Mr. 
Louis Maxson of Wasli- 
iiigton, D. C, ex-Na- 
tional champion. Con- 
ains a history of arch- 
ery from its 'revival as a 
pastime in the eighteenth 
century to the present 
time, with list of winners and scores 
of the English Grand championships 
from 1844; National Archery Associa- 
tion of the United States winners 
and scores; the several varieties of 
archery; instructions for shooting; 
how to select implements; how to 
score; and a great deal of interest- 
ing Informatioh on the game. Illus- 
trated. Price 10 cents. 

No. 194 — Racquets, Sqna.sli- 
Racriuet.s and Court Ten- 
nis. 

The need of an au- 
thoritative handbooli at 
a popular price on these 
games is filled by this 
booli. How to play each 
game is thoroughly ex- 
plained, and all the dif- 
licult stroliCS shown by 
special photo graphs 
taken especially for this 
book. Contains the official rules for 
each game, with photographs of 
well-known courts. Price 10 cents. 



No. 167— Quoits. 

By M. W. Deshong. 
The need of a book on 
this interesting game 
has been felt by many 
who wished to know the 
fine points and tricks 
used by the experts. 
Mr. Deshong explains 
them, with illustrations, 
so that a novice can 
readily understand. Price 10 cents. 

No. 170— Push Ball. 

Played with an air- 
Inflated ball 6 feet in 
diameter, weighing about 
50 pounds. A side con- 
sists of eleven men. 
This book contains the 
ofiicial rules and a 
sketch of the game; il- 
lustrated. Price 10 
•euts. 








No. 1.-?— How to Play Hand 
Ball. 

By the world's cham- 
pion, Michael Egan, of 
Jerse.v City. This book 
has been rewritten and 
brought up to date in 
every particular. Every 
play is thoroughly ex- 
plained by text and 
diagram. The numerous 
illustrations consist of 
full pages made from photographs of 
Champion Egan, showing him in all 
his characteristic attitudes. Price 
10 cents. 

No. 14— Curling. 



A short history of 
this famous Scottish 
pastime, with instruc- 
ions for play, rules of 
the game, definitions of 
terms and diagrams of 
different shots. Price 
10 cents. 



No. :i07— Bowling on the 
Green; or, Lawn Bowls. 

How to construct a 
green; necessary equip- 
ment; how to play the 
game, and the official 
rules as promulgated by 
the Scottish Bowling 
Association. Edited by 
James W. Greig. Illus- 
trated. Price lO cents. 

No. 188— L,a>vn Games. 



Cftntains the rules for 
Lawn Hockey, Garden 
Ildckey, Hand Tennis, 
Teth.'r Tennis; also Vol- 
ley Ball, Parlor Hockey, 
Badminton, Basket Goal. 
Price 10 cents. 



No. 189— Children's Games. 

Compiled by Jessie H. 
Bancroft, director of 
physical training, depart- 
ment of education, New 
York City. These games 
are intended for use at 
recesses, and all but the 
team games have been 
adapted to large classes. 
Suitable for children 
from three to eight years, and in- 
clude a great variety. Price 10 cts. 






"^SPALDING ATHLETIC LffiRARY/T^ 




Group Xn. Athletics 

No. 12— Spalding's Official 
Athletic Almanac. 

Compilerl bj- J. E. Sul- 
livan, Chief Department 
I'liysical ("ulture, IjOuIs- 
iana I'tireliase Exposi- 
Dircctur Oljinpic 
(Panics, 1'J(j4, Special 
runuuissioner from the 
I iiited States to the 
Olympic Games at Ath- 
ens, 1906, and President 
of the Amateur Athletic Union, The 
only annual publication now issued 
that contains a complete list of ama- 
teur best-on-records; complete inter- 
collegiate records; complete English 
records from 1866; swimming rec- 
ords; interscholastic records; Irish, 
Scotch, Continental, South African 
and Australasian records; important 
athletic events and numerous photos 
of individual athletes and leading 
athletic teams. Price 10 cents. 

No. 27— Collesre Athletics. 

M. C. Murphy, the 
well-known athletic 
trainer, now with Penn- 
sylvania, the author of 
this book, has written it 
especially for the school- 
boy and college man, 
but it is invaluable for 
the athlete who wishes 
to excel in any branch 
of athletic sport. The subjects com- 
prise the following articles: Train- 
ing, starting, sprinting; how to train 
for the quarter, half, mile and longer 
distances; walking; high and bmad 
jumping; hurdling; pole vaulting; 
throwing the hammer. It is profuse- 
ly illustrated with pictures of lead- 
ing athletes. Price 10 cents. 

No. 182— All-Aronnd Ath- 
letics. 

Gives in full the 
method of scoring the 
A 11- Around Cham p i o n- 
ship, giving percentage 
tables showing what 
each man receives for 
e a c h performance in 
each of the ten events. 
It contains as well in- 
structive articles on how 
to train for the Ail-Around Cham- 
pionship. Illustrated with many pic- 
tures of champions in action and 
scores at all-around meets. Price 
10 cents. 




\o. 15(>— Athlete's Guide. 

How to become an 
athlete. It contains full 
instructions for the be- 
ginner, telling how to 
sprint, hurdle, jump and 
throw weights, general 
hints on training; in 
fact, this book is one 
of the most complete on 
the subject that has 
ever appeared. Special chapters con- 
tain valuable advice to beginners and 
important A. A. U. rules and their 
explanations, while the pictures com- 
|)rise many scenes of champions in 
action. Price 10 cents. 




No. 







87 — Athletic Primer. 

Edited by James E. 
Sullivan, President of 
the Amateur Athletic 
Union. Tells how to or- 
ganize an athletic club, 
liuw to conduct an ath- 
letic meeting, and gives 
rules for the govern- 
ment of athletic meet- 
ings; contents also in- 
' directions for building a track 
laying out athletic grounds, and 
ry instructive article on train- 
fully illustrated with pictures of 
ng athletes. Price 10 cents. 



\o. 273— The Olympic Games 
at Athens 

A complete account of 
the Olympic Games of 
1006, at Athens, the 
gieatest Internati o n a 1 
Athletic Contest ever 
leld. Containing a short 
history of the games, 
story of the American 
team's trip and their 
reception at Athens, 
comi)lete list of starters in every 
event; winners, their times and dis- 
tances; the Stadium; list of winners 
in previous Olympic Games at Ath- 
ens, Paris and St. Louis, and a great 
deal of other interesting information. 
Comi)iled by J. E. Sullivan, Special 
Commissioner from the United States 
to the Olympic Games. Price 10 cts. 

No. 252— How to Sprint. 

A complete and de- 
tailed account of how to 
train for the short dis- 
tances. Every athlete 
who aspires to be a 
sininter can study this 
book to advantage and 
gain useful knowledge. 
Price 10 cents. 





g X\ SPALDING ATHLETIC LIBRARY/^ 




No. 255— How to Run 100 
Yards. 

By J. W. Morton, the 
noted British champion. 
Written by Mr. Morton 
during his recent Amer- 
ican trip, in 1905, es- 
pecially for boys. Mr. 
Morton knows how to 
handle his subject, and 
his advice and direc- 
'tions for attaining 
speed, will undoubtedly be of im- 
mense assistance to the great ma- 
jority of boys who have to rely on 
printed instructions. Many of Mr. 
Morton's methods of training are 
novel to American athletes, but his 
success is the best tribute to their 
worth. Illustrated with photographs 
of Mr. Morton in action, taken es- 
pecially for this book in New York 
City. Price 10 cents. 



No. 174— Distance and Cross- 
country Rnnningr. 

By George Orton, the 
famous University of 
Pennsylvania runner. 
Tells how to become 
proficient at the quar- 
ter, half, mile, the 
longer distances, and 
c r o s s-country running 
and steeplechasing, with 
instructions for training 
and schedules to be observed when 
preparing for a contest. Illustrated 
with numerous pictures of leading 
athletes in action, with comments by 
the editor on the good and bad 
points shown. Price 10 cents. 



No. 259— Weight Tlirowing. 

By James S. Mitchel, 
Champion American 
weight thrower, and 
holder of American, 
Irish, British and Cana- 
dian champio n s h i p s. 
Probably no other man 
in the world has had 
the varied and long ex- 
perience of James S. 
Mitchel in the weight throwing de- 
partment of athletics. The book is 
written in an instructive way, and 
gives valuable information not only 
for the novice, but for the expert as 
well. Illustrated. Price 10 cents. 





No. 246— Athletic Training 
for Schoolboys. 

This book is the most 
complete work of its 
kind yet attempted. The 
compiler is Geo. W. Or- 
ton, of the University 
of Pennsylvania, a fa- 
mous athlete himself 
and who is well quali- 
tied to give instructions 
to the beginner. Each 
event in the Intercollegiate pro- 
gramme is treated of separately, 
both as regards method of training 
and form. By following the direc- 
tions given, the young athlete will 
be sure to benefit himself without the 
danger of overworking as many have 
done through Ignorance, rendering 
themselves unfitted for their task 
when the day of competition arrived. 
Price 10 cents. 



for Sc] 



IVo. 55— Official 
Rules. 



Sporting 




Contains rules not 
found in other publica- 
tions for the government 
of many sports; rules 
for wrestling, shuffle- 
board, snowshoeing, pro- 
fessional racing, pigeon 
flying, dog racing, pistol 
and revolver shooting, 
British water polo rules, 
Rugby foot baU rules. Price 10 et». 



ATHLETIC AUXILIARIES. 

No. 295— Official Handbook 
of the A.A.U. 

The A.A.U. is the 
governing body of ath- 
letes in the United 
States of America, and 
all games must be held 
under its rules, which 
are exclusively published 
in this handbook, and a 
copy should be in the 
hands of every athlete 
and every club officer in America. 
This book contains the official rules 
for running, jumping, weight throw- 
ing, hurdling, pole vaulting, swim- 
ming, boxing, wrestling, etc. Price 
10 cents. 




g^^ SPALDING ATHLETIC LffiRARY/^ 





No. 292— Official Intercolle- 
giate A.A.A.A. Handbook. 

Contains constitution, 
by-laws, laws of ath- 
k'tics and rules to gov- 
ern the awarding of the 
championship cup of the 
Intercollegiate Athletic 
Association of Amateur 
Athletes of America, 
the governing bodj' in 
college athletics. Con- 
tains official intercollegiate records 
from 1876 to date, with the winner's 
name and time in each event, list of 
points won by each college, and list 
of officers of the association from 
1889. Price 10 cents. 

No. 24.'5— Official Y.M.C.A. 
Handbook. 

Edited by G. T. Hep- 
bron, the well-known 
athletic authority. It 
contains the official rules 
governing all sports un- 
der the jurisdiction of 
the Y.M.C.A., a com- 
plete report of the 
physical directors' con- 
ference, official Y.M.C.A. 
scoring tables, pentathlon rules, many 
pictures of the leading Y.M.C.A. 
athletes of the country; official Y.M. 
C.A. athletic rules, constitution and 
by-laws of the Athletic League of 
Y.M.C.A., all-around indoor test, vol- 
ley ball rules; illustrated. Price 10 
cents. 

Tio. 2S1— Official Handbook 
of the Public Schools 
Athletic Lieagrue. 

This is the official 
handbook of the Public 
SchMuls Athletic Leagu 
which embraces all the 
l)ublic schools of Greater 
New York. It contains 
the official rules tha 
govern all the contests 
of the league, and con 
stitution, by-laws and 
Edited by Dr. Luther Hal- 
«ey Gulick, superintendent of phy 
sical education in the New York 
public schools. Illustrated. Price 
10 cents. 

No. 298— Intercol- 
legiate Cross 
Country Hand- 
book. 
Contains constitution 
«nd by-laws, list of of- 
ficers, and records of the 
association. ^ Price 10 
cent*. ' 




officers. 





Group XIII. Athletic 
Accomplishments 

No. 177— How to Swim, 

By J. H. Sterrett, a 
leading American Bwim- 
ming authority. The in- 
structions will interest 
the expert as well as the 
novice; the illuatrationa 
were made from photo- 
graphs especially posed, 
showing the Bwimmer in 
clear water; a valuable 
feature is the series of "land drill" 
exercises for the beginner, which ia 
Illustrated by many drawings. The 
contents comprise: A plea for educa- 
tion in swimming; swimming as an 
exercise and for development; land 
drill exercises; plain swimming; best 
methods of learning; the brea«t 
stroke, etc , etc Price 10 cents. 

No. 396— Speed Swimmlngr. 

By Champion C. M. 
Daniels of the New 
York Athletic Club team, 
holder of numerous 
American records, and 
the best swimmer In 
America qualified to 
write on the subject. 
Any boy should be able 
to increase his speed in 
the water after reading Ghamploa 
Daniels' instructions on the subject. 
Price 10 cents. 

No. 12S— How to Row. 

By E. J. Giannini, of 
the New York A. C, 
one of America's most 
famous amateur oars- 
men and champ! o n 8. 
This book will instruct 
any one who la a lover 
of rowing how to be- 
come an expert. It is 
fully illustrated, show- 
ing how to hold the oars, the finish 
of the stroke and other information 
that will prove valuable to the be- 
ginner. Price 10 cents. 
No. 23— Canoeing. 

Paddling, sailing, 
cruising and racing ca- 
noes and their uses; 
with hints on rig and 
management; the choice 
of a canoe; sailing ca- 
noes; racing regula- 
tions; canoe I n g and 
camping. Fullj illus- 
trated. Price 10 cents. 








t^ SPALDING ATHLETIC LIBRARY/^ 






No. 209— How to Become a 
Skater. 

Contains advice for be- 
ginners; how to become 
a figure skater thorough- 
ly explained, with many 
diagrams showing how 
to do all the different 
tricks of the best figure 
skaters. Illustrated with 
pictures of prominent 
skaters and numerous 
diagrams. Price 10 cents. 

No. 282- Official Roller 
Skating Guide. 

Contains directions for 
becoming proficient as a 
fancy and trick roller 
skater, and rules for 
roller skating. Pictures 
of prominent trick skat- 
ers in action. Price 10 
cents. 

No. 178— How to Train for 
Bicycling, 

Gives methods of the 
best riders when train 
ing for long or short 
distance races; hints 
on training. Revised 
and up-to-date in every 
particular. Price 10 
cents. 

Group XIV. sjforts 

No. 140— Wrestling. 

Catch as catch can 
style. By E. 11. Hitch- 
cock, M.D., of Cornell, 
and R. F. Nelligan, of 
Amherst College. The 
book contains nearly 
seventy illustrations of 
the different holds, pho- 
tographed especially and 
so described that any- 
body who desires to become expert 
in wrestling can with little effort 
learn every one. Price 10 cents. 



No. 18— Fencing-. 

By Dr. Edward Breck, 
of Boston, editor of the 
Swordsman, and a promi- 
nent amateur fencer. A 
book that has stood the 
test of time, and is uni- 
versally acknowledged to 
be a standard work. II- 
Price 10 cents. 







No. 162— Boxing Gaide. 

For many years books 
have been issued on the 
art of boxing, but it 
has remained for us to 
arrange a book that we 
think is sure to fill all 
demands. It contains 
over 70 pages of illus- 
trations showing all the 
latest blows, posed es- 
pecially for this book under the 
supervision of a well-known instruc- 
tor of boxing, who makes a specialty 
if teaching and knows how to im- 
part his knowledge. Price 10 cents. 

\o. 165— The Art of Fencing. 

This is a new book by 
Ktgis and Louis Senac, 
nf New York, famous 
instructors and leading 
authorities on the sub- 
ject. Messrs. Senac give 
in detail how every 
move should be made, 
and tell - it so clearly 
chat anyone can follow 
the instructions. Price 10 cents. 

No. 236— How to Wrestle. 

^Yithout question the 
most complete and up- 
to-date book on wrest- 
ling that has ever been 
printed. Edited by F. 
R. Toombs, and devoted 
principally to special 
poses and illustrations 
by George H a c k e n- 
schmidt, the "Russian 

Lion." Price 10 cents. 

No. 102— Ground Tumbling. 
By Prof. Henry Walter 

Worth, who was for 

years physical director 

"f the Armour Institute 

of Technology. Any 

boy, by reading this 

book and following the 

instructions, can become 

proficient. Price 10 cents. 

No. 28{>— Tumbling for Ama- 
teurs, This book was special- 
ly compiled for the use 
of amateurs by Dr. 
James T. Gwathmey, 
director of the Vander- 
bilt University Gymnas- 
ium. Nashville, Tenn. 
Every variety of the pas- 
time is explained by 
text and pictures, the 

latter forming a very important fea- 
ture of the book, over 100 different 

positions being shown^ Price 10 eta. 






'^SPALDING ATHLETIC LIBRARY /7^ 



YOUNG i\ 
CORBETT J > 



full page 




No. 191— How to Puncli the 

^"^' By W. H. Rothwell 

("Young Corbett"). This 
book is undoubtedly the 
best treatise on bag 
punching that has ever 
been printed. Every va- 
riety of blow used in 
training ia shown and 
explained. The pictures 
c o m p rise thirty-three 
reproductions of Young 
Corbett as he appears while at work 
in his training quarters. The photo- 
graphs were taken by our special ar- 
tist and cannot be seen in any other 
publication. Fancy bag punching is 
treated by a well-known theatrical 
bag puncher, who shows the latest 
tricks. Price 10 cents. 

No. 143— Indian Clnbs and 
Dumb-Bells. 

Two of the most pop- 
ular forms of home or 
gymnasium exe r c i s e. 
ITiis book is written by 
A m e r i ca's amateur 
champion club swinger, 
J. H. Dougherty. It is 
clearly illustrated, by 
which any novice can 
become an expert. Price 10 cents. 

No. 166— How to Swing In- 
dian Clubs. 

By Prof. B. B. War- 
man, the well-known ex- 
ponent of physical cul- 
ture. By following the 
directions carefully any- 
one can become an ex- 
pert. Price 10 cents. 

No. 200— Dumb-Bells. 

This is undoubtedly 
the best work on dumb- 
bells that has ever bet-n 
offered. The author, 
Mr. G. Bojus, was for- 
merly superintendent of 
physical culture in the 
Elizabeth (N. J.) public 
schools, instructor at 
Columbia University (New 
York), instructor for four years at 
the Columbia summer school and is 
now proprietor of the Park Place 
Gymnasium, at 14 Park Place, New 
York City. The book contains 200 
photographs of all the various exer- 

Icises with the instructions in large, 
readable type. It should be in the 
hands of every teacher and pupil of 
! physical culture, and is invaluable 
for home exercise. Price 10 cents. 







No. 262— Medicine Ball Ex- 
ercises. 

This book is not a 
technical treatise, but a 
series of plain and prac- 
tical exercises with the 
medicine ball, suitable 
for boys and girls, busi- 
ness and professional 
men, in and out of gym- 
nasium. Lengthy ex- 
planation and technical 
nomenclature have been avoided and 
illustrations used instead. The exer- 
cises are fascinating and attractive, 
and avoid any semblance of drud- 
gery. Edited by W. J. Cromie, 
physical director Germantown (Pa.) 
Y.M.C.A. Price 10 cents. 

No. 29— Pulley Weight Exer- 
cises. 

By Dr. Henry S. An- 
derson, instructor in 
heavy gymnastics Yale 
gymnasium, Ander son 
Normal School, Chautau- 
iina University. In con- 
junction with a chest 
njachine anyone with 
this book can become 
perfectly developed. Price 10 cents. 

No. 283— Jiu Jitsu. 

A complete description 
of this famous Japanese 
system of self-defence. 
Each move thoroughly 
explained and illustrat- 
ed with numerous full- 
page pictures of Messrs. 
A. Minami and K. Ko- 
yama, two of the most 
famous exponents of the 
art of Jiu Jitsu, who posed espe- 
cially for this book. Be sure and 
ask for the Spalding Athletic Library 
liook on Jiu Jitsu. Price 10 cents. 



Group XV. 

Gymnastics 

No. 104— The Grading of 
Gymnastic Exercises. 

By G. M. Martin, I 
Physical Director of the 
Y. M. C. A. of Youngs- 
town, Ohio. It is a 
book that should be in 
the hands of every phy- 
sical director of the 
Y. M. C. A,, school, 
club, college, etc. Price 10 cents. 





■i^ SPALDING ATHLETIC LffiRARY/^ 





No. 214— Graded Calisthen- 
ics and Damb-Bell Drills. 

By Albert B. Weg- 
ener, Physical Director 
Y. M. C. A., Rochester, 
N. Y. Ever since graded 
apparatus work has 
been used in gymnas- 
tics, the necessity of 
having a mass drill that 
would harmonize with it 
has been felt. For years 
It has been the established custom in 
most gymnasiums of memorizing a 
set drill, never varied from one 
year's end to the other. Conse- 
quently the beginner was given the 
same kind and amount as the older 
member. With a view to giving uni- 
formity the present treatise is at- 
tempted. Price 10 cents. 



No. 254— Barn jam 
Bar Bell Drill. 

Edited by Dr. R. Tait 
McKenzie, Director Phy- 
sical Training, Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania. 
Profusely lllustr a t e d. 
Price 10 cents. 



No. 158— Indoor and Outdoor 
Gymnastic Games. 

Without question one 
of the best books of its 
kind ever published. 
Compiled by Prof. A. M. 
Chesley, the well-known 
Y. M. C. A. physical di- 
rector. It is a book 
that will prove valuable 
to indoor and outdoor 
gym nasiums. schools, 
outings and gatherings where there 
are a number to be amused. The 
games described comprise a list of 
120, divided into several groups. 
Price 10 cents. 

No. 124— Ho\v to Become a 
Gymnast. 

By Robert StoU, of 
the New York A. C, the 
American champion on 
the flying rings from 
1885 to 1892. Any boy 
who frequents a gym- 
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Keep 




m 



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£^^30) 



SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY 

Group II No. 300 



SPALDING'S 
HOW TO PLAY 
FOOT BALL 

A Primer on the Modern College Game 
With Tactics Brought Down to Date 

EDITED BY 

WALTER CAMP 

^ . <*■ 

New Edition — Revised for 1907 



Published by the 

AMERICAN SPORTS PUBLISHING COMPANY 

21 Warren Street, New York 



=xXr 







Copyright. 1907 

BY 

American Sports Publishing Company 
New York 



CONTENTS 



The All-America Foot Ball Team of 1906, 

All-America Teams from 1889 to 1906 

An Introductory Chapter for Beginners 

How to Play Foot Ball 

The Forward Pass and On-Side Kick 

How to Play Quarter-Back 

Play of the Backs . 

Signals . . • . 

Four-Men Formation Plays 

Training for Foot Ball 

What a Foot Ball Player Needs . 



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SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. 





THE AI ,1 -AMERICA FOOT 
BAI,I, TEAM, 1906 

BY WALTER CAMP. 
Copyright, 1906, by P. F. Collier & Sou. 




r*1 


SSIIHtlSSIIS 





First Eleven. Second Eleven. Third Eleven. 

End Forbes, Yale. Dague, Annapolis. Levene, Pennsylvania. 

Tackle Biglow, Yale. Draper, Pennsylvania. Weeks, West Point. 

Guard Burr, Harvard. Ziegler, Pennsylvania. Kersberg, Harvard. 

Center Dunn, Penn. State. Hockenberger, Yale. Hunt, Indians. 

Guard Thompson, Cornell, Dillon, Princeton. Christy, West Point. 

Tackle Cooney, Princeton. Osborn, Harvard. Northcroft, Annapolis. 

End Wister, Princeton. Marshall, Minnesota. Exendine, Indians. 

Quarter Eckersall, Chicago. Jones, Yale. E. Dillon, Princeton. 

Half-back .Mayhew, Brown. Hollenback, Penn. Morse, Yale. 

Half-back.. Knox, Yale. Wendell, Harvard. Manier, Vanderbilt. 

Full-back . . Veeder, Yale. McCormick, Princeton. Garrels, Michigan. 

The foot ball season of 1906 proved conclusively that possession 
of the ball had become too valuable under the old rules. Owing 
to the improvement of the attack by concentrated mass plays, 
a first-class team under the five-yard rule could push its way 
two to three yards at a time for half the length of the field to a 
touchdown. The fact that this was possible made it poor foot ball 
policy to attempt a run on the wings or open play with the 
risk of losing the ball. The ten-yard rule requiring double the 
distance to be gained in three downs forced open play at once. 
One would hardly risk a forward pass when he had the old five- 
yard rule. The changes have worked out to give us a game 
pleasing to the spectator, lessening the number of injuries, less 
exhausting on the players, and admitting of greater strategy and 
less dependence upon brawn. 

And the point above all to be borne in mind is the excellent 
balance of the various departments of the play. A game all 
kicking would speedily pall ; a game where the ball was thrown 
indiscriminately all over the field would soon lack interest ; a 
game that was all end runs and no attacks upon the middle of 
the line would become monotonous. The game as it stands is 
balanced by these various plays in a way that not even the most 



SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. 




expert coach could have foreseen, and it gives 
all kinds of men an opportunity. The light, 
active dodger is sought after, but he has not 
wholly supplanted the big, powerful man for 
the middle of the line. The heavyweight 
who may be too clumsy for other sports may 
be just the bulwark for the middle of the line 
and need not be abandoned for the greater 
activity of the small man. A fast man and a 
good kicker are 
necessities ; the 
long passer is 
coming into great 
demand ; there 
must be one abso- 
lutely sure catcher 
of punts ; there 
should be a drop 




Forlirs, Y;.I 
End 



or place kicker; 

the majority o f 

the men must be 

good t a c k 1 e r s, 

and altogether 

any weakness of 

any kind in any 

department of the 

game is likely to 

prove disastrous to the team exhibiting that 

weakness. 

-Having secured a game as well balanced as 
this, the public and authorities will be right- 
fully unwilling to risk its loss through retro- 
gression or experimentation. Less distance to 
be gained in three down will mean a return 
to mass plays. Greater freedom of the for- 
ward pass will make that pass a matter of 



Biglow, Yale 
Tackle 




Burr, Harvard 
Guard 



SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. 




luck instead of specific skill on the part of 
the passer and the man who is to catch the 
ball. Besides, by taking off the restrictions 
we should run the risk of bringing back the 
mass plays on tackle by the forcing back of 
still another man on the defense. This would 
weaken the line to such an extent that mass 
plays might quite possibly yield the necessary 
gains. The general desire is to have the rules 
crystallize, to permit them to exhibit such 
further possibilities as they may offer, and take 
no chance, by starting alterations, of disturbing 
the present balance. 

That seems to be the lesson of the season, 
but in order to keep it before the mind it 
ought to be pressed home with emphasis. 

A FAMOUS ELEVEN. 

In December, 1889, the writer, in a weekly 
publication issued in New 
York, described what he 
called, for lack of a better 
title, "The All-America 
Foot Ball Team." It may 
be of interest to note the 
men who formed that first 
collection of star players, and whom he re- 
garded as the best eleven men in their posi- 
tions : 

Ends — Stagg of Yale and Cumnock of 
Harvard. 

Tackles — ^Cowman of Princeton and Gill of 
Yale. 

Guards — Heffelfinger of Yale and Cranston 
of Harvard. 

Center — George of Princeton. 
Quarter-back — Poe of Princeton, 
Half-backs — Lee of Harvard and Channing 
of Princeton. 

Full-back — Ames of Princeton. 
This, then, was the first All-America team. 
and, in spite of the annual list of players 
selected by the writer during the years that 
have followed, surely those who remember Thompson, Cornell 
these men would be delighted to see them as Guard 



Dunn, Penn. State 
Center 




SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. 



they were in that day take part in the present 
game of 1906, and many believe that that team, 
even against stars of to-day, would quite hold 
its own. 

Since those days the number of candidates 
for teams and the number of men in the squad 
have grown to such an extent that it is ad- 
mitted by all that no first-class team would for 
a minute think themselves equipped with less 
than thirty available men. Hence, in the selec- 
tion of a national team one ought not to be 
satisfied with a lesser number, particularly 
inasmuch as on almost all the teams this year 
men are not graded as first and second eleven 
men, and it is often a question between two 
men which shall be put in first and which 
take his place later in the game. In almost all 
the big universities three complete elevens are 
carried through the season, and for this reason 
the writer has annually _ 

■ selected three elevens to 
make up the team, and he 
might as a coach of such a 
national team put in under 
certain conditions a man 
named in the third rather 

than a man named in the first for some par- 
ticular work required on the occasion. 

Forbes of Yale proved himself an ideal end 

under the present rules. He had been the 

fastest tackle on the gridiron in getting down 

the field on kicks. With all his speed he 

weighed as much as any ordinary guard, and, 

although at times the momentum of his 

weight caused him to overrun his mark, no 

back was strong enough to push him off when 

once he reached his man. His defensive work 

was good throughout, while on the offence 

no better man could have been chosen to go 

back of the line and lead the backs or plunge 

himself. ' 

He was not used in the Princeton game to 

carry the ball until the second half, but when 

he was sent had little difficulty in making his Wister, Princeton 

distance. And when he stood in the gap mask- End 



Cooney, Princeton 
Tackle 

Copyright by B. F. McManuB, 




SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LILRAUY. 




ing play for Linn and the other backs in the 
latter part of the Harvard contest he showed 
his broad conception of the play. 

Wister of Princeton was good in all-round 
end work, tackling, and getting down the field, 
thoroughly reliable, and in addition to this 
was a particularly graceful and clean handler 
of the forward pass. The Princeton system 
on the forward pass did not clear away the 
opponents for the runner as did Yale's, but in 
spite of this Wister, by his ability to catch the 
ball on a run when haff-way turned, made him- 
self particularly valuable. 

He was well built, and had been rather 
saved out from foot ball until he should secure 
his mature strength, and. being clever and 
adaptable, he picked up the game with ex- 
treme rapidity this year. 

Of the other ends that should be noted and who 
would, save in such star com- 
pany, have been All-America 
"ends, are Alcott of Yale, 
Parry of Chicago, Scarlett of 
Pennsylvania, Starr of Har- 
vard, Blake of Vanderbilt, 
and Hoagland of Princeton. 
Bigelow of Yale, as a tackle, needs no intro- 
duction to lovers of the sport. Absolutely 
steady, never caught napping, quiet, determined 
and powerful, he wa'' the star man of the year 
for the position. He was /ery fast in getting 
down the field, certain in his tackling, and in 
his defensive work a very hard man for in- 
terferers to get out of thj way. His style was 
not at all showy; there was no great rush 
when he started forward, but somehow or 
other he always managed to keep going 
straight at the runner in spite of interference, 
and usually reached him. Bigelow adapted 
himself to the new game with remarkable ' 
facility, particularly in the way of taking on- 
side kicks and forward passes. He was a 
student of the bound of the ball far beyond 
that of any other tackle of the year. In the Veeder, Yale 

Harvard game, after blocking the kick, he did Full-back 



Eckersall, Chicago 
Quarter-back 




10 



SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. 




not secure the ball for what looked like a 
certain touchdown. The chances were that 
the ball would strike on its end and come up 
to the desired height for him to run on with 
it. He gave it every chance to do this, but 
finding it still lying fiat was obliged to fall 
on it. 

Cooney of Princeton was better than last 
year, owing to better physical condition and 
less of the worries of captaincy. Always a 
stalwart man in defence, he proved excep- 
tionally good in that respect this year and 
made good openings for his men through 
which to come. He was also an able assistant 
to Captain Dillon in judgment, and his ex- 
perience of the former season v/as particularly 
valuable in this respect. Furthermore, he was 
on the watch always when his side was on 
the offensive to see "that nobody broke through 
between him and guard and 
followed up the play. Many 
tackles have been careless 
in this respect, and it has 
been expensive for their 
team. It was he who in 
the second half of the Cor- 
nell game became the bulwark of defence to 
his team by his solution of certain parts of the 
Cornell attack, and he it was who did much 
to check Yale's assault later in the year. 

SOME OF THE GOOD LINE MEN. 

Among the tackles outside of those named 
in the teams above, Horr of Syracuse comes 
very close, and at times was competent to dis- 
place some of them. 

Pullen of West Point, had he not met with 
an accident, would undoubtedly have made the 
position. Wauseka of the Indians was another 
most reliable man, and Paige of Yale, in spite 
of its being his first season, showed splendid 
capabilities. 

Burr of Harvard, as stated in these columns 
last year,_ and as practically confessed by all 
critics this year, is, in addition to his punting 



W- 



Mayhew, Brown 
Half-back 




,„•#* 



SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. 11 

ability, a first-class guard. He played the position well. He 
is powerful, active, has foot ball sense, and can be relied upon to 
extend himself to his limit no matter what the odds may be 
against him. When to all this is added his ability as a distance 
kicker, it is no wonder that he is regarded as an especially valu- 
able man. 

In the Yale game he repeatedly took passes which came from 
his center rolling along the ground, and in spite of every handi- 
cap managed to get the ball up and get it off for his kick without 
being blocked. Any one of these poor passes might have lost 
an ordinary game, and there would have been no fault found with 
the kicker had he failed to get the ball off. Burr handled each 
one of them well, just as he did last year, only under even 
more adverse conditions. He kicks a long ball and gets it 
high enough so that his ends can cover a good portion of the 
kick. 

Thompson of Cornell was probably the most powerful guard 
playing on the gridiron this year, and in the game against Prince- 
ton, when they put the plays across and over him and out on 
his wing, Cornell went through the Princeton team without diffi- 
culty, and in this attack eventually secured a touchdown. It 
was this very ability of Thompson that led to Cornell's final 
undoing at Pennsylvania when her team had the ball on the 
very goal line, and yet in several trials were unable to put it 
over. They sent their plays up into the center, where they 
thought they could rely upon the power of Thompson. But no 
man is good enough to do all the work, and particularly not in 
the present game, if the opponents know that he is to be selected 
to do it. Not a Heffelfinger or a Hare could break through or 
force back a line which had been warned in advance of that one 
particular spot. 

Of the guards, Erwin and Brides of Yale were a fine pair, and 
could hold their own in any company, as could also Krueger and 
Krider of Swarthmore, Pevear of Dartmouth, Stannard of 
Princeton, and Dillon c f the Indians. 

Dunn of Penn. State was the best center of the season, and 
it was he who led his team to such remarkable results, a good 
deal of it depending upon Dunn himself. He weighs just under 
two hundred, is something over six feet in height, and absolutely 
reliable in his passing, secure in blocking, active in breaking 
through, and in diagnosing pl^ys. He was a stumbling-block to 
Yale, and proved to be a similar difficult proposition for all the 
teams that met Penn. State. Some idea of his record and accom- 
plishments may be gathered from the fact that his team' was 
never scored upon save by Yale, although their schedule included 



12 SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. 

games with Yale, Carlisle Indians, and the Navy. Captain 
Dunn's team defeated the Carlisle Indians, and performed a 
similar feat with the Navy. He persistently broke through and 
blocked kicks. Able to run the hundred inside of eleven seconds, 
he was down under his own side's kicks with the ends. Beyond 
all and giving him added worth was his earnestness of purpose 
and character. 

Of other strong centers, there were Parker of Harvard, whose 
only weakness was occasional poor passes for kicks, Newman of 
Cornell, Stone of Vanderbilt, Sultan of West Point, and Dwyer of 
Pennsylvania. 

Eckersall of Chicago, in a season when drop-kicking has been 
most valuable, possessed the same abilities of the quarter-back 
which gave him the position last year, and in addition, even to 
greater perfection, the qualities of a drop-kicker. Unfortunately, 
in one or two of his games, the field was a sea of mud, and it 
was impossible for any one to bring off these kicks, but, outside 
of O'Brien of Swarthmore, he has been the only drop-kicker 
who has been a really consistent menace to the opposing goals. 
In his last game — that with Nebraska — he kicked no less than 
five. But it is the combination of qualities thaf entitles him to the 
place rather than any one excellence. He is a good general, and 
like Jones of Yale can get his work out of his team; he is a 
wonderful punter, kicking as far as Burr, and with Veeder's 
accuracy; he is a deadly tackier, about the only man I ever saw 
who knew just how to reach a man like Heston in a broken 
field, and he can run back a kick with "Eddie" Dillon of 
Princeton. 

^ The quarter-back position has been one in which it is par- 
ticularly hard to make a selection. There have been many this 
season who would have eclipsed the stare of other years. Beyond 
those noted in the above All-America team, there are Norton 
of the Navy, who showed excellent judgment in running his 
team ; O'Brien of Swarthmore, probably, outside of Eckersall, 
the best drop-kicker on the gridiron ; Schwartz of Brown, a 
clever performer; Libby of the Indians, a sure catcher; and 
Lawrence of Pennsylvania, who with such short experience 
developed into a capable general. 

Mayhew of Brown was the most remarkable half-back of the 
year, and gave more trouble to opposing teams than anybody 
else, particularly when one considers the games in which he 
played. He was very fast, quick at seeing his opportunity, and 
a sure handler of the ball, and, on the whole, first class in every 
department of the play. His tackling was strong, sharp and clean, 
and he had the keenest of eyes for the ball. 



SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. 13 

Knox of Yale made longer runs against the strongest defensive 
teams than any other man on the gridiron. It was he who ran 
more than half the length of the field through the Brown team, 
and performed a similar feat against West Point as well as in 
Yale's final game of the year, that with Harvard. Against a 
team which was at the top of its game, Knox went from the 
middle of the, field in spite of attempted tackles down almost to 
the goal line, only being finally stopped by Wendell from behind. 
It was Knox also who did the sure catching of punts for Yale 
in the Princeton game, and he was the man who, standing alone 
between the runner and Yale's goal line, stopped Dillon of 
Princeton when he was making a run almost as good as that 
which Knox later made in the Harvard game. He was an excel- 
lent performer of the on-side kick in its most approved fashion. 

FAST MEN BEHIND THE LINE. 

The field of half-backs was an exceptional one, and most of 
the teams which had first and second strings had some difficulty 
in selecting their men. 

Linn of Yale was one of the stars in the second half of both 
Yale's games. Roome of Yale, incapacitated through a large 
portion of the season by injury, was unable to do himself justice. 

Harlan and Roulon-Miller of Princeton were both first class, 
as were also Hubbard of Amherst, Chalmers of Lafayette, Greene 
and Farwell of Pennsylvania, and Mount Pleasant of the Indians, 
also Gibson of Cornell and Bomar of Yale. 

Hill of West Point, Spencer of the Navy, and Curtiss of Brown 
all come in for a good share of praise. 

Veeder of Yale was the best forward passer (a province of 
especial importance in the game this year) seen on the field 
during the season. It was he who, with one long sweep of his 
arm, placed Yale within scoring distance both in the Harvard 
and Princeton games. He concealed his eventual intention well, 
took plenty of time, and could deliberately hurl the ball for a 
considerable distance and with remarkable accuracy. 

Besides that, he was a long-distance and very accurate punter 
and a sure catcher of punts. He did all this work for his team 
in the Harvard game, and not only caught the ball with cer- 
tainty, but usually managed to dodge the first man on his run 
back. 

His kicking out from his own goal when his team had twice 
been penalized was as cool a piece of work as has been seen 
during the season, and upon that steadiness depended the result. 

Among the other backs, Sieber of Gettysburg stood out 
strongly, as did Peterson of Tufts and Wolder of Cornell. 



14 



SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. 



ALL-AMERICA TEAMS FROM 1889 TO 1906. 



1889 
Cumnock, Harvard. 
Cowan, Princeton. 
Cranston, Harvard. 
George, Princeton. 
Heffelflnger, Yale. 
Gill, Yale. 
Stagg, Yale. 
Poe, Princeton. 
Lee, Harvard. 
Channing, Princeton. 
Ames, Princeton. 



1890 
Hallowell, Harvard. 
Newell, Harvard. 
Riggs, Princeton. 
Cranston, Harvard. 
Heffelflnger, Yale. 
Rhodes, Yale. 
Wcrren, Princeton. 
Dean, Harvard. 
Corbett, Harvard. 
McClung, Yale. 
Homans, Princeton. 



1891 
Hinkey, Yale. 
Winter, Yale. 
Heffelflnger, Yale. 
Adams, Pennsylvania 
Riggs, Princeton. 
Newell, Harvard. 
Hartwell, Yale. 
King, Princeton. 
Lake, Harvard. 
McClung, Yale. 
Homans, Princeton. 



1892 
Hinkey, Yale. 
Wallis, Yale. 
Waters, Harvard. 
Lewis, Harvard. 
Wheeler, Princeton. 
Newell, Harvard. 
Hallowell, Harvard. 
McCormick, Yale. 
Brewer, Harvard. 
King, Princeton. 
Thayer, Pennsylvania. 



1893 
Hinkey, Yale. 
Lea, Princeton. 
W'heeler, Princeton. 
Lewis, Harvard. 
Hickok, Yale. 
Newell, Harvard. 
Trenchard, Princeton. 
King, Princeton. 
Brewer, Harvard. 
Morse, Princeton. 
Butterworth, Yale. 



1894 
Hinkey, Yale. 
Waters, Harvard. 
W^heeler, Princeton. 
Stillman, Yale. 
Hickok, Yale. 
Lea, Princeton. 
Gelbert, Pennsylvania 
Adoe, Yale. 
Knipe, Pennsylvania. 
Brooke, Pennsylvania. 
Butterworth, Yale. 



1895 
Cabot, Harvard. 
Lea, Princeton. 
Wharton, Pennsylvania. 
Bull, Pennsylvanfa. 
Riggs, Princeton. 
Murphy, Yale. 
Gelbert. Pennsylvania. 
Wyckoff, Cornell. 
Thorne, Yale. 
Brewer, Harvard. 
Brooke, Pennsylvania. 



1896 
Cabot, Harvard. 
Church, Princeton. 
Wharton, Pennsylvania. 
Gailey, Princeton. 
Woodruff, Pennsylvania. 
Murphy, Yale. 
Gelbert, Ptninsylvania. 
Fincke, Yale. 
Wrightington, Harvard. 
Kelly, Princeton. 
Baird, Princeton. 



1897 
Cochran, Princeton. 
Chamberlain, Yale. 
Hare, Pennsylvania. 
Doucette, Harvard. 
Brown, Yale. 
Outland, Pennsylvania 
Hall, Yale. 
DeSaulles, Yale. 
Dibblee, Harvard. 
Kelly, Princeton. 
Minds, Pennsylvania. 



Palmer, Princeton. 
Hillebrand, Princeton. 
Hare, Pennsylvania. 
Overfield, Pennsylvania. 
Brown, Yale. 
Chamberlain, Yale. 
Hallowell, Harvard. 
Daly, Harvard. 
Outland, Pennsylvania. 
Dibblee, Harvard. 
Hirschberger, Chicago. 



Campbell, Harvard. 
Hillebrand, Princeton. 
Hare, Pennsylvania. 
Overfield. Pennsylvania. 
Brown, Yale. 
Stillman, Yale. 
Poe, Princeton. 
Daly, Harvard. 
Seneca, Indians. 
McCracken, Pennsylvania. 
McBride, Yale. 



1900 
Campbell, Harvard. 
Bloomer, Yale. 
Brown, Yale. 
Olcott, Yale. 
Hare, Pennsylvania. 
Stillman, Yale. 
Hallowell. Harvard. 
Fincke, Yale. 
Chadwick, Yale. 
Morley, Columbia. 
Hale. Yale. 



SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. 



16 



1901 
Campbell, Harvard. 
Cutts, Harvard. 
Warner, Cornell. 
Holt, Yale. 
Lee, Harvard. 
Bunker, West Point. 
Davis, Princeton. 
Daly, West Point. 
Kernan, Harvard. 
Weekes, Columbia. 
Graydon, Harvard. 



1902 
Shevlin, Yale. 
Hogan, Yale. 
DeWitt, Princeton. 
Holt, Yale. 
Glass, Yale. 
Kinney, Yale. 
Bowditch, Harvard. 
Rockwell, Yale. 
Chadwick, Yale. 
Bunker, West Point. 
Graydon, Harvard. 



1903. 
Henry, Princeton. 
Hogan, Yale. 
DeWitt, Princeton. 
Hooper, Dartmouth. 
A. Marshall, Harvard. 
Knowlton, Harvard. 
Rafferty, Yale. 
Johnson, Carlisle. 
Heston, Michigan. 
Kafer, Princeton. 
Smith, Columbia. 



1904 
Shevlin, Yale. 
Cooney, Princeton. 
Piekarski, Pennsylvania. 
Tipton, West Point. 
Kinney, Yale. 
Hogan, Yale. 
Eckersall^ Chicago. 
Stevenson, Pennsylvania. 
Hurley, Harvard. 
Heston, Michigan. 
Smith, Pennsylvania. 



1905 
Shevlin, Yale. 
Lamson, i'tmsylvania. 
Tripp, Yale. 
Torrey, Pennsylvania. 
Burr, Harvard. 
Squires, Harvard. 
Glaze, Dartmouth. 
Eckersall, Chicago. 
Uuome, Yale. 
Iluhhard. Amherst. 
McCormick, Princeton. 



1906 
Forbes, Yale. 
Biglow, Yale. 
Burr, Harvard. 
Dunn, Penn State. 
Thompson, Cornell. 
Cooney, Princeton. 
Wister, Princeton. 
Eckersall, Chicago. 
Mayhew, Brown. 
Knox, Yale. 
Veeder, Yale, 



SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY 



17 





AN INTRODUCl DRY CHAPTER 
FOR BEGINNERS 

BY WALTER CAMP. 






nossimiisti 





Those who are taking up the sport for the first time should 
observe certain rules which will enable them to become adept 
players with less mistakes than perhaps would otherwise fall to 
their lot. i 

A beginner in foot ball should do two things : He should read 
the rules, and he should, if possible, watch the practice. If the 
latter be impossible, he and his men must, after having read the 
rules, start in and, with eleven on a side, play according to their 
own interpretation of these rules. When differences of opinion 
arise as to the meaning of any rule, a letter addressed to the 
publishers of Spalding's Official Foot Ball Guide — the American 
Sports Publishing Company, 21 Warren Street, New York — 
will always elicit a ready and satisfactory answer. 

The first thing to be done in starting the practice is to provide 
the accessories of the game, which, in foot ball, arc of the simplest 
kind. The field should be marked out with ordinary lime lines, 
enclosing a space of 330 feet long and 160 feet wide. While not 
absolutely necessary, it is customary to mark the field also with 
transverse lines every five yards, for the benefit of the referee in 
determining how far the ball is advanced at every down, and also 
with lines running parallel to the side line and five yards apart, in 
order to aid the umpire in determining that a forward pass, if 
made, crosses the line of scrimmage at least five yards out, 
also whether the quarter-back in making a run follows a 
certain rule which provides that he must cross the line of 
scrimmage five yards from the point where the ball was put 
in play. The same end is accomplished by merely making 
short marks at right angles on each line. In the middle of 
the lines forming the ends of the field, the goal posts are 
erected, and should be eighteen feet six inches apart, with cross- 
bar ten feet from the ground. The posts should project several 
feet above the cross bar The ball used is an oval leather cover 
containing a rubber inner, which is inflated by means of a small 
air pump or the lungs. The ball used by the principal teams is 



SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. 19 

the Intercollegiate Match, No. J5, adopted by the Intercollegiate 
Association, and made by A. G. Spalding & Bros. 

The costumes of the players form another very important 
feature and should be of a proper and serviceable nature. Canvas 
makes most serviceable jackets for the players, as do also jerseys 
reinforced with leather. These can be purchased at a small 
expense from any athletic outfitter. The canvas jacket should 
fit closely, but not too tightly, and lace up in front, so that it 
may be drawn quite snugly. Some have elastic pieces set in 
at the sides, back of the arms, but these additions are by no 
means necessary. Jerseys, with leather patches on elbows and 
shoulders, are also worn. 

The trousers should be of some stout material, fustian for 
example, and well padded. This padding can be done by any 
seamstress, quilting in soft material over knees and thighs, or 
the regular athletic outfitters furnish trousers provided with the 
padding. Long woolen stockings are worn, and not infrequently 
shin guards by men playing in the forward line. 

The most important feature of the entire uniform is the shoe. 
This may be the ordinary canvas and leather base ball shoe with 
leather cross-pieces nailed across the sole to prevent slipping. 
Such is the most inexpensive form, but the best shoes are made 
entirely of leather, of moderately stout material, fitting the foot 
firmly, yet comfortably, lacing well up on the ankles, and the 
soles provided with a small leather spike, which can be renewed 
when worn down. Inside this shoe, and either attached to the 
bottom of it or not, as preferred, a thin leather anklet laces 
tightly over the foot, and is an almost £ure preventive of sprained 
ankles. 

Head gears are made to protect the runner and must not be 
composed of sole leather, papier mache, or any other hard, un- 
yielding substance that might injure another player. (A com- 
plete list of a foot ball player's requirements will be found in a 
subsequent chapter in this book.) 

Underneath the canvas jacket any woolen underwear may be 
put on, most players wearing knit jerseys. As mentioned above, 
there are several players who can, to advantage, go without the 
regulation canvas jacket and wear a jersey in its place. These are 
especially the quarter-back, the center-rush or snap-back. Of 
recent years backs and linemen tend more than ever to the adop- 
tion of the leather-reinforced jersey. 

The team of eleven men is usually divided into seven rushers 
or forwards, who stand in a line facing their seven opponents ; a 
quarter-back, who stands just behind this line; two half-backs, 
a few yards behind the quarter-back; and finally, a full-back or 
goal tend, who stands at kicking distance behind the half-backs. 



SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. 21 

This gives the general formation, but is, of course, dependent 
upon the plays to be executed. 

Before cornmencing practice, a man should be chosen to act as 
referee, umpire and linesman, for in practice games it is hardly 
necessary to have more than one official. The two sides then 
toss up, and the one winning the toss has choice of goal or kick- 
off. If there be a wind, the winner will naturally and wisely take 
the goal from which that wind is blowing and allow his opponent 
to have the ball. If there be no advantage in the goals he may 
choose the kick-off, and his opponents in that case take which- 
ever goal they like. The two teams then line up ; the holders of 
the ball placing it upon the exact center of the field, and the 
opponents being obliged to stand back in their own territory at 
least ten yards, until the ball has been touched with the foot. 
Some man of the side having the kick-off must then kick the ball 
at least ten yards into the opponents' territory. Preferably, there- 
fore, he will send it across the goal line or else as far as he can, 
and still have his forwards reach the spot in season to prevent 
too great headway being acquired by the opponents' interference, 
but he will not kick it across the side line. The opponents then 
catch it and return it by a kick, or they run with it. If one of 
them runs with it he may be tackled by the opponents. He may 
not, however, be tackled below the knees, save by the five middle 
men of the forward line. As soon as the ball is fairly held; 
that is, both player and ball brought to a standstill, or the 
runner with the ball touches the ground with any part of his 
person, except his hands or feet, while in the grasp of an op- 
ponent, the referee blows his whistle and the runner has the 
bill "down," and someone upon his side, usually the man called 
the snap-back or center-rush, must place the ball on the ground 
at that spot for a "scrimmage," as it is termed. The ball is then 
put in play again, placing it flat on the ground with its long axis 
parallel to the side line (while the men of each team keep on 
their own side of the ball, under the penalty of a foul for off- 
side play, a line parallel to the goal line and passing through the 
end of the ball nearest the side's own goal line determining the 
position of the players of each side) by the snap-back's kicking 
the ball or snapping it back, either with his foot, or more com.- 
monly with his hands, to a player of his own side just behind 
him, who is called the quarter-back. The ball is in play, and 
both sides may press forward as soon as the ball is put in motion 
by the snap-back. Naturally, however, as the quarter-back usually 
passes it still further behind him to a half-back, or back, to kick 
or run with, it is the opposing side which is most anxious to 
push forward, while the side having the ball endeavor by all 
lawful means to retard that advance until their runner or kicker 



^ 





SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. 23 

has had time to execute his play. It is this antagonism of desire on 
the part of both sides that has given rise to the special legislation 
regarding the use of the hands, body and arms of the contestants 
— and beginners must carefully note the distinction. As soon as 
the snap-back has sent the ball behind him, he has really placed 
all the men in his own line off-side; that is, between the ball 
and the opponents' goal, and they, therefore, can theoretically, 
occupy only the position in which they stand, while the opponents 
have the legal right to run past them as quickly as possible. 
For this reason, and bearing in mind that the men "on side" 
have the best claim to right of way, it has been enacted that the 
side having possession of the ball may not use their hands or 
arms, but only their bodies, when thus ofif-side, to obstruct or 
interrupt their adversaries, while the side running through in the 
endeavor to stop the runner, or secure possession of the ball, 
may use their hands and arms to make passage for themselves. 
The game thus progresses in a series of downs, followed by 
runs or kicks, as the case may be, the only limitation being that 
of a rule designed to prevent one side continuously keeping 
possession of the ball without any material advance or retreat, 
which would be manifestly unfair to the opponents. This rule 
provides that in three "downs" or attempts to advance the ball, 
a side not having made ten yards toward the opponents' goal 
must surrender possession of the ball. As a matter of fact, it 
is seldom that a team actually surrenders the ball in this way, 
because, after two attempts, if the prospects of completing the 
ten-yards gain appear small, it is so manifestly politic to kick the 
ball as far as possible down the field, that such a method is 
more likely to be adopted than to make a last attempt by a run 
and give the enemy possession almost on the spot. In such an 
exigency, if a kick be made, the rules provide that it must be 
such a kick as to give the opponents fair and equal chance to 
gain possession of the ball and must go beyond the line of 
scrimmage unless stopped by an opponent. A player may also, 
under certain restrictions, carefully stated in the rules, make 
what is known as a forward pass, that is, throw the ball forward 
to another player of his own side. There is one other element 
entering into this progress of the game, and that is the fair 
catch. This can be made from a kick by the opponents, pro- 
vided the catcher indicates his intention by raising his hand 
in the air, takes the ball on the fly, and no other of his 
own side touches it. This entitles him to a free kick ; that 
is, his opponents cannot come within ten yards of the spot 
where he made the catch, while he (and his side) may re- 
tire such distance toward his own goal as he sees fit, and 



-,!..»* ««'„S 



i-mm^M. 






# # 



^ 
t 



h' 









* T^ ^, 




1— Action plays near Princeton's goal. 2 — A tackle. 3— Punting. 
YALE-PRINCETON GAME, 1906. 



SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. 25 

then make a punt or a drop, or give the ball to some one of his 
own side to place the ball for a place kick. Here again, as at 
kick-off, when taking the free kick, he must make an actual kick 
of at least ten yards, unless the ball is stopped by the opponents. 
His own men must be behind the ball when he kicks it, or be 
adjudged off-side. 

Whenever the ball goes across the side boundary line of the 
field, it is said to go "into touch," or out of bounds, and it must 
be at once brought back to the point where it crossed the line, 
and then put in play by some member of the side which carried 
it out, or first secured possession of it after it went out. The 
method of putting it in play is to take it to the spot where it 
crossed the line and then carry it at right angles into the field at 
least five and not more than fifteen yards, and make an ordinary 
scrimmage of it, the same as after a down. The player who 
intends walking with it must, before stepping into the field, 
declare how many paces he will walk in, in order that the 
opponents may know where the ball will be put in play. We 
will suppose that the ball by a succession of these plays, runs, 
kicks, forward pass, downs, fair catches, etc., has advanced 
toward one or the other of the goals, until it is within kicking 
distance of the goal posts. The question will now arise in the 
mind of the captain of the attacking side as to whether his best 
plan of operation will be to try a drop-kick at the goal, or to 
contmue the running attempts, in the hope of carrying the ball 
across the goal line, for this latter play will count his side a 
touchdown, and entitle them to a try-at-goal. 

In deciding, therefore, whether to try a drop-kick, or continue 
the running attempts, he should reflect upon the value of the 
scores. The touchdown itself will count 5 points, even if he 
afterward fail to convert it into a goal, by sending the ball over 
the bar and between the posts, while, if he succeed in converting 
it, the touchdown and goal together count 6 points. A drop- 
kick, if successful, counts 4 points, but is, of course, even if 
attempted, by no means sure of resulting successfully. He must, 
therefore, carefully consider all the issues at this point, and it 
is the handling of those problems that shows his quality as a 
captain. H he elects to continue his running attempts, and 
eventually carries the ball across the line, he secures a touch- 
down at the spot where the ball is finally held, after being car- 
ried over, and any player of his side may then bring it out, and 
when he reaches a suitable distance, place the ball for one of 
his side to kick, the opponents, meantime, standing behind their 
goal line. In placing the ball it is held in the hands of the 
placer, close to, but not touching the ground, and then carefully 
aimed until the direction is proper; the kicker himself may aim 



SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. 27 

it, touching it with his hands, provided the ball does not touch 
the ground. Then, at a signal from the kicker that it is right, 
it is placed upon the ground, still steadied by the hand or finger 
of the placer, and instantly kicked by the place kicker. The 
reason for this keeping it off the ground until the last instant 
is that the opponents can charge forward as soon as the ball 
touches the ground, and hence would surely stop the kick if 
much time intervened. If the ball goes over the goal, it scores 
as above indicated, and the opponents then take it to the middle 
of the field for kick-off again, the same as at the commence- 
ment of the match. The opponents have the privilege either of 
taking the kick-off themselves or of having the side which 
scored kick-off. The ball is also tahen to the center of the field 
if the goal be missed after a touchdown, although formerly the 
opponents couk^ then bring it out only to the twenty-five-yard 
line. 

There is one other issue to be considered at this point, and 
that is, if the ball be in possession of the defenders of the goal, 
or if it fall into their hands when thus close to their own goal. 
Of course, they will naturally endeavor, by running or kicking, 
to, if possible, free themselves from the unpleasant situation that 
menaces them. Sometimes, however, this becomes impossible, 
and there is a provision in the rules which gives them an oppor- 
tunity of relief, at a sacrifice, it is true, but scoring less against 
them than if their opponents should regain possession of the ball 
and make a touchdown or a goal, A player may at any time 
kick, pass or carry the ball across his own goal line, and there 
touch it down for safety. This, while it scores two points for 
his opponents, give: his side the privilege of bringing the ball 
out to the twenty- five-yard line, and then taking a kick-out, per- 
formed like kick-off or any other free kick, but it can be a drop- 
kick, a place-kick or a punt. 

The succession of plays continues for thirty-five minutes in a 
regular match. Then intervenes a ten-minute intermission, after 
which the side which did not have the kick-off at the commence- 
ment of the match has possession of the ball for the kick-off 
for a second thirty-five minutes. The result of the match is 
determined by the number of points scored during the two halves, 
a goal from a touchdown yielding 6 points, one from the field — 
that is, without the aid of a touchdown — 4 points ; a touchdown 
from which no goal is kicked giving 5 points, and a safety count- 
ing 2 points for the opponents. In practice it is usual to have 
the two periods of play considerably shorter than thirty-five 
minutes, generally not over twenty or twenty-five. 



SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY, 



29 





HOW TO PLAY FOOT BALL 

BY WALTER CAMP. 




r*i 


(P°^ (P°<S^ (go(5^ go(5?) (go(??) (go^ (go^ go^ (go(??) 





I wish to preface the brief remarks which I take occasion to 
make in this chapter regarding special plays in foot ball with 
the statement that they are not intended to cover the first prin- 
ciples of the individual positions in the game. In another book 
I have dwelt upon these at length, and have there defined with as 
great accuracy as I could the principal duties assignable to the 
occupant of each position on the team. In addition to this, I 
have there given the main features of team play. It is worth 
while to mention this at the outset, because a team can make 
no greater mistake than by taking up what are known as "trick" 
plays, or, in fact, any of the ordinary team plays in the present 
modern game, before the individuals of that team have become 
thoroughly perfected in the practical rudiments of the game, 
and perform almost by instinct the ordinary duties of their 
positions. A team which undertakes to make strategic plays be- 
fore mastering these primary points will always find itself work- 
ing at a tremendous disadvantage, and the waste of power will 
be almost incalculable. Perhaps I could not put it more plainly 
than to say that the tendency is altogether too much toward 
what is known as "git thar" principles in all of our lines of sport 
to-day. A crew endeavors to row in a shell before learning the 
principles of the stroke ; our boxers are apt to go in for the 
swinging, knock-out blow at the sacrifice of the more old-fash- 
ioned, but better form, sparring; but in none of these forms is 
It more evident than in the one under discussion, namely, foot 
ball. It is not at all uncommon to see a team playing intricate 
criss-crosses, double and forward passes and concealed ball plays, 
whose men are still tackling high, and whose half-backs kick a 
punt from low down on the toe. To every reader of this book 
then, I say with the heartiest good will, master the rudiments 
first if you wish to make yourself valuable to any team; master 
them thoroughly if you wish to see your team win when it 
comes to important matches. These special plays which follow 
are plays which captains and coaches can work out to an almo.'^t 



SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARIT. 3? 

infinite number of variations, but it will be the individual players 
on the team who will, in the end, determine whether the use of 
these plays will turn out successfully. 

Under the present rules, whenever a free kick is attempted, it 
must be an actual kick of not less than ten yards into the oppo- 
nent's territory. For this reason all the flying wedge opening 
plays of some years ago, as well as formed wedges from fair 
catches and kick-outs, have disappeared. The captain now has 
to perform the principal part of his strategic play, outside of the 
kick, from ordinary downs, instead of from what have been 
called "free kicks," but what have been really "free wedges." 
Furthermore, the more recent changes in the rules make one of 
the prime essentials of a good team proficiency in running, for- 
ward passing and quick kicking from regular formations. 

I, therefore, begin with running in the line. By this I mean 
running, from his position in the line, by any one of the seven 
men forming the forward line in the team. Some years ago there 
was a great deal of guard running, and in a good many books 
published recently on the game, the guard is spoken of as by all 
odds the most available man in the line for running with the 
ball. That is true to this extent. The guard occupies a good 
position for short and, perhaps, unexpected runs, but with the 
modern game the guard is such a feature in the defensive work 
that it has become a good deal of a question whether he ought to 
be given much running to do on his own account, and especially 
as he must now, from his position in the line. He can no 
longer be taken back into what is known as the guard-back 
formation. But if the reader will bear this in mind, and so not 
make use of his guard except to such an extent as shall still 
preserve the guard for his ordinary work, one can say that he 
has in these guards two available men in the line. The most 
natural run for the guard or tackle is between the tackle and 
guard on the other side of the line from which he stands. In 
the performance of this run by the tackle, the principal feature 
is to disguise the fact that the tackle is about to start, and his 
getting a quick and free start, not followed, or followed at a 
considerable distance only by his vis-a-vis. In order to do this 
he must form the habit of holding himself in the same position 
when he is not going to make this run that he occupies when he 
is going to undertake it, for any difference will indicate to his 
opponent what the play is to be. But, breaking away, he runs 
closely behind the quarter-back, taking the ball on the fly as he 
passes, and making a short and sharp dash in between his own 
guard and tackle, or preferably just about over the tackle's 
position, who, with the assistance of the half and full-back, one 
usually preceding and the other following, break through with 



SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. 33 

him, his own quarter-back and end protecting him from behind, 
also closing in upon him as he goes through. A tackle can also 
be run in a similar fashion between the tackle and end, guard 
and center, or even entirely around the end, but this latter play 
is of no great value except with particularly fast tackles, and 
more than that, it uses up the tackle's wind a good deal more 
than when he goes through the line, because the interference is 
likely to stand out pretty well toward the edge of the field, and 
the tackle will run his full distance and not be able to get through 
the end after all, thus having taken a considerable dash and 
under high speed and with no good result, but merely the loss 
of a down. In defining the tackle's running, I have also defined 
the running of the guard where he goes around behind the 
quarter in a similar fashion. These plays are strong where the 
guard is a big man and a hard runner with good legs. A fat 
man is useless in such a case. The University of Pennsylvania 
performed some very excellent work in dropping guards back as 
interferers, and also in giving the guards themselves the ball 
occasionally. The ends may be used exactly as the guards or 
tackles in running, or they may be dropped back of the line into 
practically the half-back positions, and transferring positions and 
alternating with the half-back taking the ball. 

One of the most effective plays ever worked was that in 
which the end-rusher was dropped back of the line and sent in 
between the tackle and guard repeatedly, on his own side, the 
ball being passed to him quite a little distance from the quarter; 
then suddently the same play was made, and the ball was 
passed directly over the head of this end-rusher to the half- 
back, who had crept out beyond, and who thus took the ball in 
a free field and made a free, long run. This was repeated 
again in the same game, showing that the play itself was good 
even to be used more than once. The above plays are also 
assisted by special formation, the players taking positions on 
signals. 

Other runs which are possible by the line men are, of course, 
criss-cross and double passes. One example of these criss-crosses 
will illustrate sufficiently to enable a captain or coach to carry 
out a great variety of them, using every man in his line if he 
wishes. 

For instance, the tackle and half-back criss-cross. As in the 
instance I described of the ordinary tackle run, the tackle — say 
the left tackle — suddenly shakes himself free from his opponent 
and dashes straight at the quarter, a few feet behind him, of 
course; the quarter passes him the ball as he reaches him, 
exactly as though the left tackle were then going around be- 
tween' the right tackle and the guard. But instead of doing 



SPALDING'S ATHLETIC til'BRARY. 35 

this, the left tackle passes to the right half, who runs to the 
left end, the half, full-back and quarter all interfering for him. 
The great point in this play is to see that the opposing right 
tackle does not get the runner as he starts off to get the ball, 
and furthermore, that this right tackle and right end are blocked 
late but long. Such a criss-cross can also be worked with the 
end, and with the guard it can also be tried to turn either in- 
side or outside of the end. So much for the line men running. 
Wing shifts or line shifts, that is, plays wherein one side of the 
line shifts just before the ball is put in play over to the other 
side, are also becoming increasingly common. 

Next we come to the half-backs and full-backs. Every one is 
familiar with the following plays, which we only mention in order 
to call them, to the attention of the captain who is studying out in 
the early part of the season what plays he shall make the most of. 
The half-back running on his own side between any of the various 
men in the line; the half-back running between any of the men on 
the side away from his own side ; the full-back running on the 
right side or the left side through the same openings and under 
the same circumstances and with practically the same interfer- 
ence, for in the modern game the captain is wise who uses his 
three men behind the line in such a way that any one of them 
may perform any of the various plays devised for the backs, and 
then maintain a similar formation, no matter what the play is to 
be. One cannot too strongly deprecate the exact detailing of certain 
movements in certain plays to get through or block or to take care 
of particular individuals when that move leads to the betrayal of 
the play before it has actually come off. The cardinal points to 
be remembered regarding running by the half-backs and full- 
backs are these : That the interference must depend upon the 
speed of the men engaged, and that no interference should be such 
as to slow up the runner appreciably, unless it be for some trick 
play or double pass where the slowing up of the runner means 
merely his being caught after getting rid of the ball. I have seen 
many a good team spoiled by their attempting to follow out a set 
rule as to the order in which interferers should reach the end. 
For instance, in the days of Heffelfinger, he showed how a guard 
could readily go from his own position out to the opposite end, 
and before the runner, and interfere most nobly for him all the 
way down the field. For this reason every guard was at once 
coached to go out and interfere on the end. Three out of five 
were too big and slow to accomplish this to any advantage, but 
that did not seem to make any difference. Somebody had written 
that the guard should interfere on the end, and the result was that 
everybody had to wait until the guard got out there. Meantime, 
the runner was usually caught from behind. A good guard who 



SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY 37 

can pick up his feet lively, and who can get around quickly and 
easily after blocking, can get out before an ordinarily fast runner. 
So, too, can the opposite end. This season it is not unlikely that 
the man who is allowed to play back of the line, provided he is 
outside the position of the man on the end of the line, will be 
used as an interferer. Som'", teams use the tackle here, but this 
is a mistake, because the tackle should slow up the opposing 
tackle and should also make the play safe from behind. A team 
ought not to have a quarter-back who is too slow to get out to 
the end as an interferer before the back with the ball reaches the 
other point. But for all that there are quarter-backs, and good 
ones, too, who are a little slow in this and hold back the runner. 
These men should either be coached into better speed or taught 
a little different way of getting rid of the ball on the run, per- 
haps, or be sent to perform the tackle's duties, and let the tackle 
get there if the tackle is a remarkably fast man ; otherwise such 
a transfer would only make bad worse. From what I have al- 
ready said the captain can see that he must measure his inter- 
ference by the speed of his interferers, and match them with the 
speed of his runner with the ball in order to satisfactorily solve 
the equation for his own team. It is the captain of brains who 
wins by doing just these things, while the captain without them 
takes the hard and fast rule that has been laid down by some 
one, perhaps of his own team, who has written an article from 
the knowledge of only one or two teams, and thinks that all can 
be brought up to exactly the same point in the same way. 

Regarding going through the line close to the center by backs 
(and by backs I mean the half-backs as well), there are two 
ways of helping a man through the line. One is to batter a hole 
before him and let him slip through, and the other is to put him 
up against the line and then push him so hard that the line has 
to yield and let him through. There are line plays which com- 
bine a variety of these tactics, but there are some principles to be 
remembered in connection with them which will give them some- 
thing more than a careless "hit or miss" move. In the first place, 
a big, heavy man should never be run into the line with one or 
two light interferers preceding him, whereas a light man can be 
run in behind two heavy men with abandon. The reason for this 
is that there are times when the hole will be choked up in spite 
of the attempt of the interferers, and a heavy man getting his 
head down may strike one of the interferers in the back and in- 
capacitate him for future work. It is not so apt to hurt the run- 
ner as it is the man whom he strikes, although there have been 
cases of injury to the runner. When the hole is choked up, and 
heavy men are interfering, they can usually keep the mass mov- 
ing away from the runner, even if they do not open the hole for 




1— Instruction in Itreakin.i;- tliroimh; Slaiuiard. second man from tin- left 
C^ooney leaning over in front; Captain Dillon, hands on knees; half-baok 
iibbott back of Captain. 2— '-Bin" Edwards, Princeton, prominent umpire. 
PRINCETON PRACTICE SCENES. 



SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. 39 

him, and this play is much less hard and far less dangerous. In 
sending two light interferers ahead to spring an opening for the 
runner, it should be borne in mind that an opening made in this 
way is a quick, sharp one, and should not be called upon to rely 
for its efficacy upon steady pushing. An opening, on the other 
hand, made by two heavy men in this fashion can be much smaller 
and rely largely upon the accumulated force even after the run- 
ner strikes the line. The men who go ahead to interfere must 
always remember if they have to go down to fall away from the 
opening and not block it up. The men who run behind the run- 
ner should always remember that it is their duty not only to pro- 
tect him from behind and push and crowd him when he begins to 
slow up, but never, under any circumstances, to interfere with his 
legs. Careless men going behind a runner will oftentimes step on 
his heels and throw him when the runner left to himself could 
have made his distance. The ends are particularly serviceable in 
this pushing work, and there are very few ends at the present 
day who do not understand their half-backs and backs so well 
that they can go up \\rith them into line and give them courage 
and assistance by pushing after they have struck the line. 

To come now to the wedges or mass plays. Owing to the 
prejudice of the public and the feeling that wedge work was 
taking too much of the attention of the players, captains and 
coaches, the rule-makers attempted to eliminate a great deal of 
this work by the passage of a rule against momentum-mass plays 
as well as the passage of a rule insisting upon actual kicks. This 
latter rule I have mentioned earlier in this book. There is no 
question but that this has done away with a great deal of the 
most showy part of the flying wedge, but rules against momen- 
tum-mass playing had not and are not likely to eliminate the 
use of the principle of wedges. They took off the weight which 
it was possible to get into these wedges, and in that way were 
an excellent thing, but it required more severe legislation to 
eliminate all mass plays. This, however, was accomplished quite 
effectively by the ten-yard rule adopted in 1906. 

The development of the position of quarter-back, so far as run- 
ning is concerned, has been toward the old rules, when many 
years ago it was possible for the man receiving the ball from the 
snap-back to carry it forward. Some two years since a rule was 
enacted again permitting the quarter-back to run, providing, 
however, he went out at least five yards from the point at which 
the ball was snapped. The first season this permission did not 
offer any very great developments along the line, but last year 
it was tried with far more effect, and like any other play of this 
nature, seems to be developing in the hands of the coaches and 
players until it promises to be a considerable feature of the game. 



SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. 41 

It is interesting, because it admits of one more possibility, and a 
run of this nature when it is thoroughly successful develops into 
spectacular play which pleases the spectator and demands one 
more qualification in a quarter-back. 

There are several methods of effecting this play, and although 
naturally it is difficult to bring it off unless it is performed un- 
expectedly, It does lend itself to the development of interference. 
The usual method is for the interference to circle outside of 
tackle, the quarter-back protected by the interferers making a 
very direct run out toward the end and circling as his interferers 
turn in. 

Another method is for the ball to be passed back apparently 
to the full-back for a kick, and he acting, as will be seen, as a 
quarter-back, may run with the ball out around the end or any- 
where, so long as he passes the line of scrimmage at least five 
yards out from the point where the ball was snapped. Forward 
passing by any man back of the line is allowable this year, pro- 
vided the ball crosses the line of scrimmage at least five yards 
out from the point where it was put in play. This was most 
brilliantly developed by one or two teams last season and pro- 
duced some very interesting features. 

To come to the last point of this brief summary of plays, 
namely, kicking. This department under the present rules be- 
comes still more important. The special points about kicking 
will be the accurate placing of the ball and the acquirement of 
short and long-distance punting as well as place kicking. Kick- 
ing into touch, where admissible under the rules, should be made 
much more of, and it is becoming absolutely necessary for a team 
to have good punters and quick, sharp kickers in order to take 
advantage of certain modifications in the laws of the game. To 
go into the details of these kicks would be an almost infinite task, 
but the captain can study out the situation from the following 
premises : A kick is absolutely necessary at kick-off, kick-out 
and every fair catch. What kind of a kick then will be most 
advantageous to his team? A short one, high, where his man 
can get under it, or a long-distance one, giving the opponents a 
chance, perhaps, of return, but enabling him, if he has fast ends, 
to hold the ball down at the distance of the kick? 

Kicking has thus come to be an absolute essential in a well- 
rounded team, and the style of that kicking adapted to the 
make-up of the individual components of that team in end 
rushes, tackles and backs. 

The new rule providing that when a kicked ball strikes the 
ground it puts everybody on side, has led to many short punts 
over the rush line, and a general development of kicks similar to 
those formerly known as quarter-back kicks. 




E. B. COCHEMS, 
Coach St. Louis University. 



SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARlT. 



43 





THE FORWARD PASS AND 
ON-SIDE KICK 

BY EDWARD B. COCHEMS, 

Left half-back, University of Wisconsin, 1901. 
Director of Athletics, St. Louis University. 






IISSIISIISSSIl 


o 



The necessary brevity of this article will not permit of a 
detailed discussion of the forward pass and on-side kick. Owing 
to the fact that coaches and others over the country interested 
in the revised rules have had but one short season to test and 
develop these new features of Rugby, and this season in the 
Middle West being even abridged by reform legislation, only 
hints and general suggestions will be in order. In one or two 
instances I will deviate from this plan. 

Under the old rules, the first principles of offence had been 
to maintain possession of the ball to the last extremity. This 
was due to the fact that the longer the team possessed the ball, 
the shorter the period of time the opposing team had in which 
to score. Also, that practically the only chance to score was 
during the period of possession. With only five yards to go this 
principle generally governed the coaches' plans for the season. 
The idea had become so firmly rooted in foot ball tactics as a 
fundamental principle that scarcely any of last year's foot ball 
mentors divorced themselves from its influence. 

The rule giving the ball to the opponents on the spot' from 
which the ball was passed, if it touched the ground before 
coming in contact with any player, seemed drastic and fatal to a 
reasonable belief in its practicability. Most coaches accordingly 
confined their efforts to short passes of the basket ball variety 
and usually essayed to protect the receiver by interference. The 
Rules Committee apparently have since agreed with the view of 
the majority and have changed the rules to read, "not loss of 
the ball," but a "fifteen yard penalty," on the first and second 
down for a failure to make a successful pass. The lack of faith 
in the value of the play had another result, and that is, it drove 
most coaches to the development of the on-side kick. Indeed, 
before the new rules were adopted, Rugby, excepting rowing 
perhaps, was freer of the element of chance than any of the 
other collegiate or professional sports. Under the new rules, 



44 



SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. 



chance became an important factor, and this must be continually 
kept in mind hereafter in any conception of the use of the pass 
and the on-side kick. 

In order to fully understand the value of these plays one must 
consider carefully the physical proportions of the ball and the 
manual performance essential in its most perfect execution. This, 
however, is seldom given attention. A base ball pitcher would 
be but a poor artist if he did not take cognizance of the size, 
weight and shape of the ball and its seams. This is even more 




Fig. 1. 
End-over-end pass— underhand or round-arm. 

important for the player who contemplates the use of a forward 
pass or on-side kick. 

There are various ways in which the ball can be passed and 
kicked. Each method depends on its value for the play in which 
it figures ; the player who makes it ; the portion of the field in 
which it takes place ; the opponents' defence ; the weather condi- 
tions, etc. The basket ball pass was used considerably in the 
Eas't. The player holds the ball above his head with both hands 
in the act of delivery, the same as though he were throwing a 
basket ball. This method does not depend upon the shape of 



SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. 45 

the ball, is accurate, and fairly safe, but good only for short 
distances. 

Fig. I represents the end-over-end pass. The fingers lap 
considerably over the end of the ball in order to secure a firm 
grasp. The longitudinal or longest axis is parallel with the ulna 
and radius of the forearm. The ball rests against the arm 
during the act of delivery only and when delivered flies end 
over end in the same position. It can be thrown with a side or 
underhand throw. This style is good for a short or long pass. 




Fig. 2. 
Underhand spiral— fingers on lacing. 

passes of 35 yards or more, flight distance being possible. It is 
good in rainy weather, since the ball is not so apt to slip with 
the fingers over the end. For all-around uses it is the safest. 
Moreover, any player can learn to make it for reasonable dis- 
tances. 

Besides these two methods, we have what I might term a 
broad side pass. The finger tips just overlap the lacing, which 
afford a firm hold. The ball can be thrown many yards, either 
with a side or overhead delivery, as contingencies necessitate. 

Fig. 2 brings us to the forward pass spiral. The ball is grasped 



4g SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. 

with the fingers /ust over the lacing, with lacings facing the 
ground and one end resting on the wrist. It is an underhand 
throw, similar to the form used in heaving the discus, with this 
difference, that it is not a full turn. It is good for short passes 
and high ones, but is weak, owing to the opponents' ability to 
block it and skill necessary in its execution. It is good for a 
high throw especially, because the fingers, lying between the 
lacings, afford the necessary friction for an upward pass. 

Figs. 3, 4, 5 and 6 represent the overhand spiral. It is the 
acme of forward passing methods. The accomplishment of this 




Fig. 3. 
Correct position of hand on ball for overhand pass, with thumb on lace. 

style demands many weary hours of drill and a hand large 
•enough to encircle the ball at a point, as seen in the pictures 
near the seventh lacing. For distances this style has no equal. 
Nevertheless in rainy weather it is useless. To make this throw 
the ball is firmly grasped at the circumference near the far 
lacing with either the thumb (Figs. 3 and 4) slightly over and 
between the sixth and seventh lacings, or the fingers (Figs. 5 
and 6) (which is just a reverse position of the hand), and the = 
fingers or thumb grasping the ball slightly above the seventh 
lacing on the opposite side of the ball. The thumb or fingers, 



SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY, 



47 



as the case may be, coming in contact with the lacing, causes the 
friction which results in the spiral motion of the ball, which flies 
with its long axis horizontally. With this style the ball can be 
hurled like a projectile from 50 to 60 yards. Of the various 
methods demonstrated, this is the only one which cannot be 
performed by every player. All the others can be accomplished 
by faithful endeavor. From practical experience and mathe- 
rnatical investigation I tind that scarcely four out of twenty 
players can ever hope to successfully accomplish this pass. In 
some squads no one will be found capable. A player must have 




Fig. 4. 
(Jverhand spiral— thumb on the lace. 

a girth measurement of nearly nine inches from thumb to second 
linger, measured from the tip of the thumb to the tip of the 
secpnd finger, tape following the contour of the hand. Most 
players have a measurement of from 7^/^ to 8^ inches. More- 
over, the fingers and thumb must be powerful. If one would 
measure a bowling ball from thumb to finger hole, or encircle an 
ordinary base ball, he v/ould get a complete idea. A strong 
bowler with necessary girth or a base ball pitcher should make a 
good forward passer. 

The advantages of this method, which like the pass itself is 



48 SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBBABY. 

practically a fair weather play, come from the distance that it 
can be hurled, its speed and accuracy and the overhead throw, 
which prevents blocking or interference. The old style of 
receiving a passed or kicked ball was to form a basket of the 
hands and abdominal region of the body and to draw in the 
abdomen at the moment of contact, breaking the rebound. Under 
the new rules this style had better be dispensed with as much as 
possible and the ball received as one would catch a base ball. 
(Fig. 7.) 




Fig. 5. 
Correct position of hand on ball for overhand spiral— fingers on the lace. 

The on-side kick was used oftener last year than the forward 
pass, owing to the fact that it was supposed to be more accurate 
and practical. Instead of nullifying the play the moment the 
ball touched the ground, as with the pass, this fact put every 
player on-side. The kick can be made end-over-end, if the 
object is to have it roll forward, or kicked with a spiral motion, 
if the aim is to place it. Some kick the ball so that its middle 
portion fits the instep and the long axis is perpendicular to the 
foot. This is an excellent method to apply for short distances, 
and for placing it is the most accurate of them all. 



SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRART. 49 

The on-side kick is most effective in the opponents' section of 
the field or just beyond the center field. Of course it can be 
used unexpectedly in a team's own territory, but in the oppo- 
nents' field it gives the required distance and the opportunity of 
recovery without loss of distance which a regular punt would 
secure. Instead of keeping the ball in the air it should be 
kicked to the ground as soon as the case will permit, since the 
moment it touches, the whole team is on-side. The longer the 
kicker can delay kicking the further down the field the team can 




Overhand spiral— fingers on lacing. 



get to either recover the ball themselves or form interference for 
the player who is supposed to recover. Should a team have a 
very fast player or players and an accurate punter the ball can 
be kicked in the air to one side, and the fast players, by being 
stationed back of the ball when kicked, can recover before it 
touches the ground. This play can be worked quite often owing 
to the fact that the opponents will be lead to believe that the 
ball cannot be recovered until it touches the ground. Another 
good play, and usually effective for a score when properly 
executed, is the quick, shprt punt over the head of the safety 



60 



SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. 



man or to one side of him. Sometimes, when within the 
opponents' 25 or 35-yard Hne, a high pmit that goes only ten or 
fifteen yards is worth while. Often the opponents will miss the 
ball, due to the numbers attempting to catch it, and this conse- 
quently leaves a free-for-all play in which any one is apt to 
recover it. A free catch is the only way to prevent this play. 
In order to be successful at the on-side kick it is necessary for 
the kicker to spend many hours practicing the various kicks in 
detail and the players in learning to pick up the ball on the run 
while it is rolling on the ground. 




Fig. 7. 
Receiving a pass. 

The new rules have made Rugby the most symmetrical sport 
of all. It now embraces the best traits of base ball, track, tennis, 
basket ball, etc. For practice a good game is to erect basket 
ball posts at either end of the field and use the foot ball as you 
would a basket ball under basket ball rules. In this way 
proficiency in the use of the forward pass can be easily brought 
about. Another good scheme is to place targets on a convenient 
fence and practice hitting it. A prize for the most accurate 
shooter is always an incentive to work. 



SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. 



51 



Should I begin to explain the different plays in which the pass 
and kick could figure, I would invite myself to an endless task. 
However, in closing this article, I would suggest that each coach 
and player diagram all the plays that he knows and try and fit 
it up so that a forward pass or an on-side kick will figure in it. 
Otherwise he will be planning plays especially adapted for the 
pass or kick and because of its singularity of special formation 
will make it easy of detection. Moreover, a pass fitted on a regular 
play will make both trick and straight play out of it and conse- 
quently add strength to both. 




Fig 
Overhand pass after delivering. 




1 —Captain Morse (in the Icnid) and Roome, two of the baclis, making a false 
run, while man with the ball goes in another direction. 2 — Captain Morse 
making a dash around the end. 3 — Yale backs ready to carry the ball 
(Captain Sam Morse on the right). 

YALE PRACTICE SCENES. 



SPALDING'S ATHI^ETIC LIBRARY. 





HOW TO PLAY 
QUARTER-BACK 

BY WALTER H. ECKERSALL, 

University of Chicago. 






OSOHSSSHH 


t,a 



The position of quarter-back is considered by many to be the 
most important one on a foot ball team, but to my mind each 
of the eleven positions is a critical one. At some time during 
every game an opportunity comes to each man to play his position 
as it should be played, and on his ability to grasp that opportunity 
depends the result of many a contest. 

A foot ball team is composed of eleven men, and if, as some- 
times happens, one man is apparently doing all the scoring, you 
may be sure the other ten men are doing their duty in order to 
make such a feat possible, and praise should be given to them 
equally with the fortunate individual performer. 

The quarter-back position may wisely be termed the keystone 
one of a team. Especially is this so, as is usually the case, when 
the quarter-back gives the signals. He is then truly the field 
captain and largely responsible for the outcome of the contest 
through which he directs his men. 

- A team should have the utmost confidence in its quarter-back 
in order to play with the speed and precision by which games 
are won. On the other hand, the quarter-back, by steady, consis- 
tent play and ability to deal with emergencies, should merit this 
confidence. Often the very tones in which the signals are given 
can bring order out of chaos, and vice versa. 

There are just as many different ways of playing quarter-back 
as there are coaches and quarter-backs. Of course, a certain 
set of playing rules must be followed, but aside from that, the 
field left for devising original plays is large and on the coach 
largely depends the origin of these plays. If the formations are 
such "that a great deal of time is required to carry them out 
successfully the playing of the quarter-back will naturally be 
slower, and, on the other hand, if trick playing, running and 
kicking are resorted to, the speed of the quarter-back is propor- 
tionately increased. 

The material with which a coach has to work often determines 




iii>i ruction in line work. 3 — Instruction i:i 
lueakiug through. 
SCENES IN HARVARD PRACTICE, 



SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. 55 

the style of play to be adopted. If the men are heavy, and con- 
■^equently slow, the plan of action will have to be along the line 
of their plunging, line-plugging abilities. And, on the other hand, 
if the material is light, a speedy, crafty campaign must be planned 
to offset the lack of weight. 

Other points which the coach considers carefully in devising 
the plays for his quarter-back are the abilities and handicaps of 
the opposing team. Perhaps one team is noted for a certain 
style of play, hence plays are planned to cope successfully, if 
possible, with this method. These plans failing, often an entirely 
different mode of procedure is expounded to the players between 
the halves by the coach, and the quarter-back receives his instruc- 
tions accordingly. 

As each succeeding team naturally puts up a different game the 
coach is obliged to think up new plays constantly and teach them 
to his men. 

So it seems to me the coach does a great deal of hard work 
that the quarter-back is generally given credit for. Still, the 
quarter-back must use his good judgment in the direction of 
these plays in the heat of battle, or the best-laid plans of the 
coach are for naught ; so, perhaps, after all the responsibility is 
equally divided. 

REQUIREMENTS OF THE QUARTER-BACK. 

As a general rule, with but few exceptions, the quarter-back 
is a small fellow, weighing in the neighborhood of one hundred 
and fifty pounds, small of stature, but very compactly built, a 
good runner, plenty of nerve, good judgment and cool-headed. 

Theoretically, he is the captain of the team, for he directs its 
play from the start of the game to the end. If he is an intelligent 
and experienced player, his judgment will rarely be questioned 
by the captain, and if this be the case the captain should be 
reprimanded for such interference. The quarter-back is depended 
upon for the team's victories and blamed, generally, for its 
defeats. 

This man should have a combination of qualities, which, for- 
tunately, most quarter-backs have. 

First — He must have a good memory. He should be able to 
remember from sixty to seventy different plays and the signals 
for them, and he must know them in such a way that there 
is no hesitancy or delay on his part in giving them. 

Second— He must be able to devise some plan for finding out 
the weaknesses in the opposing team, and then hammer them 
consistently. This is accomplished most readily by using the 




1— rractice Id runniug around end; foot ball represents end man on opposing 
team. 2— Coach Rockwell training the men how to side-step with the ball 
or dodge while i-unning. 3 — Captain Sam Morse recovering a fumble and 
starting for a man ahead. 4 — Coach Rockwell and Trainer John Mack 
showing a player how to make a forward pass over an opposing player. 
YALE PRACTICE SCENES, 



SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. 57 

full-back and sending him at every point in the line, thus finding 
some spot which is weaker than any of the others. 

Third — He must not use any man too much, for fear of tiring 
him too quickly, thus weakening the offense and the team as a 
result. 

Fourth^— He should consult with his own line men in regard to 
the position of their opponents, thus ascertaining, in a measure, 
the chances of sending a play through one of them with a marked 
degree of success. 

Fifth — ^He should always encourage his team mates, whether 
they are being outplayed or otherwise, for it is too well known 
in foot ball that the players never lie down and a little encourage- 
ment goes a great way. 

Sixth — He must always bear in mind the coach's instructions, 
and also consider them seriously. 

Seventh — Always consider your opponents as gentlemen. 

Eighth — Always treat the officials in a courteous manner, being 
ever mindful of the fact that they are selected as impartial 
overseers of the game, and, too, that any act of discourtesy on 
the part of any player gives the officials the power to send the 
offender from the game. 

Ninth — Be a cheerful loser and give the credit where it 
belongs. 

Tenth — Take your victories modestly and your defeats with 
courage. 

POSITION OF THE QUARTER-BACK. 

The quarter-back should stand squarely behind the center in a 
crouched position. It is necessary that he hold his hands in a 
fixed position to receive the ball. He should make no move 
whatever, with his hands, or by a dip, from bending of the knees, 
to receive the ball, for if he does he immediately gives a warning 
to the opposing team, thus enabling them in many cases to get 
the charge on his own team mates. In connection with this, it 
may be necessary to add, that it is very helpful to have a starting 
signal. This enables the team to start at the same time and 
does not give the opponents any undue advantage, which might 
come if the quarter were to give a motion with his hands or 
some other outward sign. 

In receiving the ball from the center, the quarter should use 
his hands as much as possible. I have found it very useful by 
having my hands close to my body in such a manner that the 
ball comes in contact with my body and hands at practically the 
same time, causing no delay whatever, in passing the ball to the 
player who was called upon to carry it on that particular play. 





0^^^ 




3 Illustrating the forward pass, the ball hping held bv both hands and 

tin-own in the manner used in basket ball. 2— Captain Foster of the Har- 
vard. I'.Mlfi tenm 



PRACTICE SCENES. 



SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. 59 

Many coaches advocate a side position, which necessitates, as 
they claim, a surer pass from the center, but it does not allow 
the quarter to start quickly, thus delaying him in getting the 
ball to the runner immediately, which is a very essential point. 

The quarter must familiarize himself as much as possible with 
the ball. He should spend plenty of time working with his 
center, making whatever adjustments and suggestions he deems 
necessary for the further perfection of his play. He must spend 
some time practicing with a wet, heavy ball, for no one can tell 
when the conditions will be such that the ball will become wet, 
heavy and soggy. 

PASSING. 

In my estimation, passing is the most important work of the 
quarter-back. As has already been stated, nearly every team has 
its quarter coached differently in the various branches of attack. 

When the full-back is called upon to make a straight plunge 
on the half-back for a straight buck or cross-buck the quarter 
should never fail to place the ball in the stomach of the man 
who is to carry it. This is a cardinal point in the work of the 
quarter and too much emphasis cannot be laid on it. 

If the full-back is to make a straight buck on the right of 
center, the quarter should pivot on his left foot, quarter of the 
way round, and with his left hand place the ball in the pit of 
the stomach of the full-back, and vice versa if he bucks on the 
left side. The same theory holds true in passing to the half- 
backs for straight bucks and cross-bucks, only on the cross-bucks 
he steps to the side and back, and places the ball in the stomach 
as before. Of course, in the wide end runs and trick plays this 
cannot be carried out, but should be always borne in mind by 
the quarter-back. 

This point of passing is very essential to good team work, for 
nothing will slow up a team quicker than poor passing, which is 
of course the fault of the quarter-back. If the players begin to 
lose confidence in the quarter-back they will not put the same 
dash and drive in their work as they would otherwise. Then 
again, the quarter-back is only a cog in the great machine, and 
he should fulfill his part of the work without any hesitation or 
delay. 

TACKLING. 

As a general rule the offensive quarter-back plays defensive 
full-back on defence and as such innumerable opportunities 
present themselves for him to test his own tackling ability. 



SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. 61 

When playing the above position on defence it is best to play 
from fifteen to twenty yards back of the scrimmage, thus 
enabling the quarter to stop a runner in the open field without 
any considerable gain, and because it is easier to stop him then 
than it would be if he once obtained a good start. 

Too much time cannot be spent in practicing tackling. It is 
a fundamental requisite of his position and should be perfected 
by him, more than by any one else. 

The quarter should never run up on a man, when he once gets 
loose, for it is the easiest thing in the world to dodge a man 
when he is coming up to meet you. The tackier must wait for 
the runner to come to him, and then by some original schemes, 
such as a little jumping sideways, endeavor to hit him about the 
thighs, as the rule forbidding tackling below the knees is being 
enforced. The quarter must be able to tackle with both shoulders 
equally well, and should not favor one shoulder, as is quite 
frequently the case. 

It is generally better to corner the runner, if possible, between 
the side-line and yourself, and when you are absolutely sure you 
have him safe, you should make a running dive at him, thus 
enabling the tackier to break any stiff-arm and prevent the 
runner from dodging. Nothing is more distasteful to the fol- 
lower of foot ball than to see a half-hearted attempt at tackling, 
such as a tackle around the neck or by the arm. From such 
attempts as these injuries are inflicted, occasionally of a serious 
nature. 

The defensive quarter of course is forced by circumstances to 
tackle a runner wherever he can. The player in this position 
should be a man of experience, intelligence and strength. He 
should be able to size up situations quickly and direct his team 
mates accordingly. An experienced, defensive quarter is occa- 
sionally able to foresee a certain play by the actions of the backs 
of the opposing team. Not unfrequently does an experienced 
half or full-back point with his eyes or feet in the direction of 
a play and naturally more so in the case of the inexperienced 
player. One great point, which he must continually bear in 
mind, is not to go into a play too quickly, for it may happen 
that it is a fake or split interference play, and, naturally, to get 
the defensive quarter drawn in, adds to the value of the play. 
He must always throw himself under a pile and never try to 
resist a mass standing up. 

As a general rule the play on a third down is either a kick 
or a buck through the line and after the game is fifteen minutes 
old the man backing up the line should know what is going to 
happen. 



SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRART. 63 

INTERFERENCE. 

The quarter-back is quite an important man in the interference 
and much can be said about his work in this particular branch. 
In straight phmges by the halves or full-back, he should nut 
attempt to get in ahead of the runner, or immediately behind, 
because he thus has a tendency to clog and slow up the play. 
The quicker the play gets up to the line of scrimmage, the more 
value it has, and the quarter can follow and add his weight and 
strength when the play has met some opposition, but not until 
then. When the quarter plays thus he is practically a free man 
and must be constantly alert for fumbles, which occasionally 
happen and frequently result seriously. In end-running, it is a 
cardinal principle for the quarter to head the interference. 

When the half-backs are called upon for cross-bucks off the 
tackles the quarter should buckle on to them around the hips 
and help them along to the best of his ability, always placing the 
ball in their stomachs. It is a mighty good point to practice the 
whirling form on this play, that is, when the player has struck 
some opposition, twist or whirl him in such a way that he will 
free himself from the tackier. The quarter should practice 
dragging a great deal, because it is a mighty good point, and in 
a crucial game every inch of ground counts. 

In open-field interference the interferer shcnild not hesitate to 
leave his feet to take a man out of the way, espcn.illy it the 
opponent is the defensive full-back. Of course, the intrrferer 
must make sure of his man, and this can best be done by getting 
him between the side-line and himself, then making a lunge for 
him, so that his body will strike the tackier about the knees. 
But the interferer must be certain of his position before the 
lunge is made, as the tackier may side-step the interferer as he 
takes the lunge. This is the surest way there is for taking a 
man out of the way, and it is a form that can be accomplished 
with practice. Work on the tackling dummy is mighty good 
for this. 

HANDLING PUNTS. 

The new rule which allows any player possession of the ball 
after it has been kicked will undoubtedly put a premium on 
quarter-backs who are perfected in this branch of the game. No 
one rale can be laid down telling a player how to catch a foot 
ball, but numerous suggestions can be made upon this point. 

A punted ball has no definite direction, for it may be diverted 
from its course by numerous air currents which come from 
openings in the grandstands or other sources, thus making it 
very hard to judge the ball accurately. Of course the ball is 




» a 



SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. 65 

caught against the body, if properly judged, with the aid of the 
arms and hands. It is also a good thing to bring the leg in 
action, by pulling it up in such a manner as not to allow the ball 
to drop downward after being caught. 

The quarter-back should pay no attention whatever to the men 
who are coming down to tackle him. He must make sure of the 
ball and then of the men who are coming down to tackle him. 
When he has caught the ball he should carry it in such a way 
that the point is well up under the arm and the other point 
resting in the palm of his hand. When he is tackled he must 
be absolutely sure to hold on to the ball by wrapping both arms 
around it. It is a rather poor policy to attempt to catch a ball 
on the run, as the chances of missing it are greater than the 
chances of catching it. When carrying the ball the runner should 
never run straight into a man, because an injury is easier averted 
by side-stepping and getting the force of the blow on the side. 

Kick-offs are different from punts in that they have a definite 
direction, thus making them easier to catch. It is best to catch 
kick-offs on the run, if possible, because they are much simpler 
to handle and the catcher runs very little risk of dropping them, 
and then, again, he is moving rather fast, covering the ground 
and in a better position to dodge. Always get possession of the 
ball if it goes behind the goal line, for if the opponents get it, 
it is a touchdown for them. 

GIVING SIGNALS. 

The quarter-back in giving signals must give them loud and 
clear. The fundamental point in this branch of the quarter's 
work is his utmost familiarity with the signals. He must have 
them continually at his tongue's end and he should help other 
members of the team memorize them. 

If a signal is to be repeated the quarter must rise from a 
crouching to a standing position and give the signal with the 
same clearness and distinctness as before. He must never turn 
to either side and repeat the signal, for he may unconsciously 
give the play away. When a repetition of the signal is called 
for it is best to turn around and face the backs and then turn 
back and give it to the line. Especially is this true on a day 
when there is plenty of noise, and for this reason I favor series 
plays, when two or three plays can be run off from one signal, 
thus giving a team the advantage of fast play. 

PUNTING AND DROP-KICKING. 

It is a rather difficult matter to describe how to kick a foot 
ball accurately. Kicking applies to punting as well as scoring 








] — A drop-kjck. .Shows that the follow-through is considerably less, giving 
less distance Imt greater accuracj-. 2 — Illustrates the following-through on 
a long punt. 



SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. 67 

from the field, but the two branches of this part of the game are 
absolutely distinct. 

It is hardly necessary, I suppose, to explain that a punt differs 
from a drop-kick in that when the former is nmde the ball is 
dropped and kicked before it touches the ground. In a drop- 
kick the ball is dropped to the ground and kicked just as it is 
rising on the bound. 

In the last few years, with the development of place-kicking, 
drop-kicking has to a certain extent gone out of use. So far as 
I am concerned I prefer drop-kicking to place-kicking. In the 
latter form of scoring the responsibility is divided between two 
men — the one who holds the ball and the actual kicker. This 
division of responsibility of course doubles the chances of 
failure, for not only must the kicker do his work accurately and 
quickly, but the man who holds the ball also must make no 
mistake. 

Just what is the exact secret of successful kicking is as hard 
for me to explain as for any one else. No two kickers use abso- 
lutely the same method. I know that when I was first learning 
to kick I was frequently told by good coaches that my method 
w^as all wrong. 

The two most important points about kicking, whether it is 
punting or drop-kicking, are accuracy and speed. No matter 
how good a kicker a man may be — no matter how accurate even— 
if he is not fast in getting the ball away he is practically help- 
less. Therefore, a man learning to kick should endeavor first 
and foremost to attain speed. It must be the right kind of 
speed, too. The kind that is best understood by the phrase 
"make haste slowly." A man who loses his sureness in attempt- 
ing to get speed is just as bad as a man who is so slow as to 
have his kick blocked. 

The kicker should always try to make a kick in just the same 
space of time, whether he is merely practicing on a clear field or 
actually kicking from behind the line in a game. He should try 
and feel just as if there were no one trying to break through the 
line and block his kick. He should know he has just about so 
many seconds in which to get the ball away and he must take 
all that time to increase the accuracy of the kick. 

Accuracy, after a certain point in the development of kicking, 
is better than distance. An accurate punter can generally place 
the ball so that a man on the opposing team who catches it is 
almost sure to be tackled before he can run back any great 
distance. On the other hand, as one frequently sees in a game, 
some punter gets great distance, but the man who catches the 
ball is able to run it back. 



SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. 69 

In punting, the kicker should always have a good idea of just 
where the opposing back-field men are waiting to receive the 
ball. It should be his idea to get the greatest possible distance, 
at the same time trying to put the ball where it is hardest for 
the opponent to get it and where the ends on his own team will 
have the least difficulty in making a tackle. 

All this applies to punting, but although this is the most 
important branch in the kicking end of the game, it is the drop- 
kicking that appeals to the spectator. A large proportion of 
every crowd at a game knows really little about the finer points 
of foot ball. This class of spectators does not realize how 
important punting is. A man is apt to forget that a single punt 
may gain forty or fifty yards in a few seconds, which it has 
taken the opposing team many minutes of hard play to obtain. 

This is not the case with drop-kicking. If the drop-kick is 
successful, it gains four points, and the spectators appreciate it 
more than any other kind of kicking, just as they are apt to 
think more of the effort which gains the last yard for a touch- 
down than of a much longer gain made earlier. 

As I have already said, it is rather hard to explain how to 
make drop-kicks. In making such a kick the kicker should get 
the ball on a high pass, about shoulder high, then turn a little 
to the right before dropping the ball to the ground. Then just 
as it rises on the bound he is in a position to swing at it with 
his right leg full force. 

Before making a drop-kick it is always well for the man who 
is about to attempt it to look at the ground about him closely, 
so that he may avoid any rough places. The slightest inaccuracy 
in' dropping the ball or in kicking affects the accuracy of one's 
aim enormously. Not only must the ball be dropped just right, 
but it must be kicked at just the right second. The toe and 
instep should come in contact with the ball at the same time and 
the square-toed shoe is of very great value in accomplishing 
this end. 

However, when all is said in explanation and when the most 
accurate pictures of drop-kicking have been studied, it remains 
for the beginner, who wants to learn how to do it, to get a foot 
ball and try. That is the only way. No explanation or coaching 
will make up for experience. 




W. T. REID, JR. 



SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. 





PLAY OF THE BACKS 

BY W. T. REID, JR., 

Full-back Harvard Foot Ball Team of 1899 and Head 
Coach Harvard 'Varsity Foot Ball Team for 1905. 




r^ 


IISI3lllll3tll3l3 





Properly speaking, the term "backs" refers to the quarter- 
back, the two half-backs and the full-back. This article, how- 
ever, will deal only with the three latter positions, leaving the very 
technical work of the quarter-back to some other writer. 

The three backs, as we shall term them, are closely associated 
in everything that they do. On the offence they alternate in 
carrying the ball and in pushing each other along, while on the 
defence at least two of them, and sometimes all three, are called 
upon to reinforce the rush line. And they are usually of about 
the same size and weight. 

With all these points of similarity there is much that belongs 
to each separate position that goes to make it unwise for a back 
to attempt to play in more than one position. For instance, if 
the right half attempts to play at left half he must accustom 
himself to the use of the right side of his body in interference 
instead of his left, to starting toward the right side of the line 
for many of his main plays instead of to the left, to receiving the 
ball from the quarter-back from another angle, and in general to 
an almost exactly opposite way of doing things from that to 
which he has been accustomed. From these observations it must 
be clear that while the duties of the various positions are just 
different enough to make it unwise to change players about, they 
are nevertheless so nearly alike fundamentally as to make it pos- 
sible to deal with them as a whole, thereby saving much repetition 
and unnecessary explanation. 

QUALIFICATIONS. 

The mental qualifications of a good back are first of all that 
he shall enter into his work with the proper spirit. Unless he 
has this spirit— that is, unless he is willing to subordinate his 
personal wishes to the general welfare of the team, and what 
is more, to do so heartily and enthusiastically — he cannot hope 
ever to be a great player, even though he have marked indi- 
vidual ability along every line of play. Team play is the essence 



•'^^f^. 




/^ 



I 




1-FINISH OF KICK. 2— GOOD ARI\I DEFENSE TO LOW TACKLE. 



SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. 73 

of successful foot ball, and he who is looking first of all to his 
own interests will never make a "team" player; he will not con- 
tribute his share to the esprit de corps of the backs, and he will 
never "fight" for all he is worth from the beginning of a game 
until the end. 

Besides having the proper spirit he should be heartily co- 
operative ; he should be full of aggressiveness both on the offence 
and defence; full of sand and grit, and imbued with a rea- 
sonable amount of judgment. Physically a back should be com- 
pactly built, strong and quick, never slow nor clumsy, and should 
weigh anywhere from 170 to 190 pounds. Formerly it was not 
necessary to have such heavy backs, owing to the fact that one 
or more linemen could always be used to do the heavy line- 
breaking work. Now, however, when the ball must be carried 
over the greater portion of the field by a limited number of men — 
the necessity for heavy, powerful backs to do this, must be evi- 
dent. In earlier days, before the defensive side of the game 
came to be so well understood, and before special styles of de- 
fence were devised to meet special forms of offense — it was 
generally planned to have at least one of the backs a good end 
runner. This provision is not so important now as it once was, 
owing to the fact that end running is no longer practiced with 
old time success. The defence has mastered the end running 
game, unless indeed it consist of skillfully devised deception. In 
its place has come the demand for heavy line buckers and plung- 
ers. Hence, it is well for teams of to-day to choose for backs, 
those men who can as nearly as possible perform the task of the 
linemen of the past two or three years. If, in meeting these re- 
quirements, an end runner turns up — ^well and good. The aver- 
age end-running of the present day is quite as likely to lose 
ground as it is to gain it, and this is particulary true when the 
opposing tackles play well out from their guards. Of course 
end runs will always be used strategically, to prevent the op- 
ponents from concentrating their defence on the bucking, but 
very seldom, with the idea of making consistent ground. Finally, 
the back should have the knack of not getting hurt. Some men 
have this to a marked degee, and almost never get hurt, while 
others are equally unfortunate and are constantly being injured. 
As team play is dependent upon "drill," and that in its turn is 
dependent upon the individual, it is easy to see why an "immune" 
back is most desirable. 

FUNDAMENTAL POINTS. ' 

Too much emphasis cannot be placed upon the necessity for 
thorough drill in fundamentals. These fundamentals consist of 
falling on the ball, passing it, kicking, catching and carrying it. 




1-COACH STAGG OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO. 2-STAGG 



2— STAGG. JR. 



SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. 76 

"Falling on the ball," or, more properly speaking, falling around 
the ball, should be practiced while the ball is at rest, and then, 
while it is in motion, to the right, left, front and rear. In any 
case the player should be very careful not to dive at it in such a 
way as to dive the top of his shoulder into the ground, for a bad 
bruise or injury is likely to result. 

Neither should he ever attempt to fall flat upon the ball in 
order to prevent injury to his wind or his chest; instead, he 
should fall flat, either so that his weight shall be on his elbows or 
knees, or else so that his body at his waist is doubled up around 
the ball, which he shall hug closely with his arms and hands. 

In diving for the ball the player should dive as closely to the 
ground as possible, thus preventing an opponent from getting 
under him. He should always see to it that his body is between 
the ball and an opponent. These points make for added safety 
and protection. 

Backs should have enough practice in passing balls to feel 
thoroughly at home with them. This is especially true under the 
new rules. They cannot be sure of this unless they handle new 
balls, wet balls, old balls and dry balls, and unless they handle 
them incessantly. 

Unless this is the case a team is likely to find itself with- 
out a kicker, perhaps in the midst of some important game. 
And the ordinary need for a kicker has been increased greatly 
by the changes in the rules, which make it necessary to advance 
the ball over the central portion of the field, with only four 
inen behind the line — which is, of course, a much slower and 
less powerful way than that practiced year before last. Here 
it is that a superior kicker can be of inestimable service to his 
team — since in no way can big gains be so quickly or easily made 
as through the kicking game. Therefore it is of the greatest 
importance that as many of the backs as possible should be good 
kickers, or at least punters. 

Indeed a good kicking game, if successful, is certain to bring 
wath it quicker and more frequent scoring than almost any other 
style of play. This is due, of course, to the enormous distances 
which good kicks cover, together with the consequent saving of 
time and energy. Even more attention should be devoted to 
catching, for almost nothing in foot ball may result so disas- 
trously as a bad fumble in the back field. Unless a back is sure 
at catching, or shows signs of becoming sure, with practice and 
experience, he should never be allowed to attempt catching. 
Bungling work in the back field is the most demoralizing thing 
than can happen to any team. 

Carrying the ball is the main function of the backs, hence the 
need of knowing how to carry it safely. This depends upon the 



76 SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. 

way in which the ball is held. For end runs one end of the ball 
should be tucked under the arm — not too far under, so that it can 
be knocked out — while the other end should be firmly grasped 
and covered with the hand. In bucking, the ball should be held 
in the pocket formed by the stomach and legs, as the runner 
crouches, with both hands, though in case a back feels that he 
has the ball secure there is no reason why he should not use 
one hand to ward off opponents. In the case of end runs the 
back should be prepared to ward off runners with either hand, 
changing the ball when necessary from one side to the other. 
And whether bucking or running, a back should never allow 
himself to loosen this hold on the ball, owing to the necessity 
of giving much attention to passing some particular opponent. 
The grip on the ball should be automatic and vise-like. Where 
a back is uncertain of his hold he may get good practice by 
bouncing a ball against a wall and then clapping it at once into 
position on the return. 

It is of course necessary that the backs should tackle and 
interfere well. This means that they should both tackle and 
interfere low — the only difference between the two being that in 
case of a tackle the runner takes hold of his man, while in the 
interference he does all that the tackier does except take hold. 
A high tackier or interferer has no place behind the line, par- 
ticularly in these days. 

Finally, no back can be effective who does not start quickly. 
An offence which is so slow in reaching its object as to allow 
a concentration of opponents at that spot before the play hits is 
of course worthless. The attack must be quick and hard. For 
this reason the backs should constantly practice getting off 
quickly and getting up their maximum speed instantly. There 
are several ways of starting. Some backs stand in a crouching 
position, with one foot a little in the rear of the other, and with 
the knees turned well in. This enables them to start to the 
right or left or to the front without a moment's loss of time and 
with great initial power. Other backs assume a sprinting start. 
The sprint start position, with only one hand touching the ground, 
and that only sufficiently to steady the runner, is at the present 
time generally conceded to be the most effective. Both ways are 
good ; in fact, any way is good that will enable a back to get off 
quickly and in any direction. The things to be avoided are a 
momentary straightening of the back at the instant of the start, 
and a short backward step. In case the latter step seems neces- 
sary the back should take his position with one foot back to begin 
with, thus making it unnecessary to take an additional one. 
There should be no backward motion of either foot 



SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. 77 

In general, backs should exercise extreme care to prevent 
unevenness in starting. Starting too soon or too late is only 
productive of fumbles and offside play, to say nothing of the 
upsetting influence which it produces throughout the team. 
. Along with his fundamentals, every back should spend con- 
siderable time in learning the rules of the game. This part of 
the work is often entirely neglected, and much to the detriment 
of the individual, for how can a man play a game well or intel- 
ligently when he does not even know the rules governing the 
game? It is an altogether too common sight to see teams let 
opportunities slip through ignorance of the rules ; indeed, such 
ignorance has on more than one occasion actually cost a team 
its game, and such neglect has even existed in some of the larger 
university teams. 

A foot ball player is frequently called upon most unexpectedly, 
to decide instantly upon some question of the game, and just as 
frequently his decision or lack of decision enables him either to 
do the right or the wrong thing and thus either secure an added 
advantage or else precipitate an added disadvantage upon his 
side. 

Every back should be absolutely familiar with the distinctions 
between a "safety," a "touchback" and a "touchdown." He 
should know what constitutes a "fair catch" — what a violation 
of it, and so on throughout the rules. 

And after the rules have been mastered, a player should be 
told to make his play always, in case of doubt — and then refer 
to the officials — and under no consideration to stop because he 
hears a whistle blow or because he hears some one yelling for 
him to stop. A player can never make a mistake in carrying out 
this suggestion, and may, on some occasion, save himself a bad 
blunder through a misunderstanding. 



The position of back is one of the most exhaustive ones in all 
foot ball. At no other position is there so little opportunity for 
rest or let-up. It is go, go, all the time, first with the ball, then 
in the interference, then on defense. It is necessary, then, that 
a back should always be in the very best of condition, never over- 
worked, always full of vigor and life. It is better to underwork 
a back than to overwork him. 

Of the two half-backs on a team' it is generally planned that 
one shall be a good end runner, the other a good plunger or 
bucker. Such an arrangement gives more all around possibilities 
to an eleven, particularly where there is an opportunity for broken 
field running. 



78 SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. 

On the offense the position of the backs will depend tipon 
the style of game that is adopted. Sometimes they are played 
a full five yards behmd the rush line, on other occasions 
they are played a scant three, while on still other occasions 
they form at even greater or less distance. The possibili- 
ties of formation are never ending, especially under the new 
rules allowing forward passing. When in position, and just 
previous to starting, the backs should take every precaution 
to prevent giving the direction of the play away by uncon- 
scious glances, movements or "leanings." It is also well for 
the back to save himself whenever he can from the nervous 
tension of prolonged waiting. Many backs subject themselves 
to some such strain by getting onto their toes several moments 
before the ball is to be put in play, or by not "letting up" at 
the call of "time." This may be avoided if the back will 
"key himself up" just at the last moment. But above all a 
back should be steady. He should never in all his play slow 
up for his interference, or even allow any other back to be 
slowed up by dilatoriness on his own part. He should start 
instantly and "dig" — never letting up an instant for any- 
thing. He should play with indomitable spirit. If he fails to 
gain the first try he should grit his teeth and make it gain the 
second. 

In end running a back should be careful not to run too close 
to his interference when in case the interference is upset he is 
likely to fall over his protectors. Instead he should run with 
a little interval between himself and his interference, thus giving 
himself a chance to see where they are going and to take instant 
advantage of any upset. Where possible it is well for a back to 
run low so long as he can see where he is going, for by so doing 
he is likely to cause his opponents a moment's delay in locating 
him. When tackled he should aim to fall forward. To this 
end he should run with his body slanting forward, where it is 
exceedingly difficult for an opponent to overcome the combined 
power of gravity and the player's efforts. After falling, a back 
should never hold the ball out at arm's reach, as there is danger 
that it may be stolen from him. 

In bucking, one of the very important points to be kept in 
mind is that of keeping the eyes open. A back who closes his 
eyes as he makes his plunge is likely to fall flat on his face 
when an opening in the line presents itself suddenly where he 
had expected to find the passage choked. A back should never 
allow himself to hesitate or slow up as he strikes the line, he 
should strike it while at his maximum speed. A back may run 
high or low, according to circumstances, particularly so long as 



SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. 79 

he keeps his feet — a most valuable quality. It is also wise for 
the back to take short steps, as in this way he is not so likely 
to find himself too much spread out where the footing is hardly 
firm and where it is almost impossible to get his feet under him 
in case of some sudden shove or push. The legs should accord- 
ingly be bent as the back strikes the line, because in this way 
he is able to exert much lifting power in case of need. The 
arms and hands should also be used to make progress. Many 
backs lose much of their effectiveness because they utilize only a 
portion of their power. The feet should ordinarily be kept on 
the ground, because only when they are there are they of much 
service. When, however, there is an imperative need of making 
a gain of a foot or so the back had best dive at the line — this 
being especially applicable to the full-back. Hurdling is now 
absolutely forbidden. When downed after a buck — or after 
any play, for that matter — a back should instantly straighten 
out so that there are no doubled up joints for succeeding 
players to fall upon. Where a back is attempting to assist 
a fellow player along he should aim to get him low and 
boost him along with his shoulders, rarely with the hands. 
And under no circumstances should he give him a final shove 
in the neighborhood of the shoulders, for this is certain to cause 
the runner to topple forward. In case a back is tackled and seems 
about to fall a fellow player can often be of great service if 
he will grasp the runner by the arm or elbow, and at the same 
time that he holds him up pull him forward. It frequently hap- 
pens in such a case that the runner will shake off the tackier and 
make an additional gain of several feet or even yards before 
being finally downed. 

In attempting line bucking the back should keep his chin 
close in to his neck, so as to prevent having his head twisted 
back over his shoulder, and he should also buck with the 
muscles of the neck held tense. This will tend to prevent bad 
wrenches of the neck and possibly injury to it. \yhen in the 
midst of a line-bucking play which has resolved itself into a 
pushing contest between the two teams, the back should seek an 
outlet at the point of least resistance, usually to be found by 
feeling his way in different directions, and in general, a back 
should not raise his head until he has wholly cleared the sec- 
ondary defense, as in this position it is very difficult for oppo- 
nents to stop him, unless they have a clean chance for a tackle. 

In case a back feels any doubt about the signal for a play, he 
should at once call out. "Signal." Otherwise collisions, fumbles 
and confusion will result. And no matter what a back thinks, he 
should invariablv follow out the signal. The fault is not his if 



go SPALDING'S ATHLETIC HlBRART. 

the play does not gain, but it is absolutely his fault if he does not 
go where he is directed. This rule should be absolute. 

Another rule which should be invariably followed is that of 
never running back. It is a back's function to advance the ball, 
If he is unable to do so he should at least never lose ground. 

If a back fumbles he should fall on the ball at once, never 
attempting to pick it up unless it bounces high. Attempting 
to pick up a fumbled ball is only making a bad matter worse. 
A back is responsible for the ball if it comes to him, and he 
should always remember that the possession of it is of the first 
importance. 

It is the half-back's duty to afford proper protection to his 
kicker. He should afford it. He should also be reliable in 
getting any particular opponent who may be assigned to him 
to keep out of a given play out of the play. He should put 
his entire strength into every play and should always have 
his "nose on the bail." He should follow it everywhere. Mr. 
Forbes has hit the nail on the head in this respect when he 
says : "A man's value to his team varies as the square of his 
distance from the ball." 

In the midst of play, whether on the offense or defense, the 
backs should see to encourage each other by a word, a touch or 
a look. Such simple though effective aids to thorough sym- 
pathy and harmony between them should never be overlooked. 
A hearty word of confidence spoken immediately after a bad 
fumble or other blunder will always cause the unfortunate 
player to put new life and determination into his work, while 
a bit of cutting sarcasm will drive him to anger or else dis- 
hearten him. When off the field a back should never allow 
himself to make unfavorable comments on any of his fellow 
players, unless indeed it be to the coach or captain. Nothing is 
so likely to spoil relations among players as criticism — offered 
behind the back. Certain annoyances should be borne for the 
sake of the team, even though they may be at times very 
exasperating. When a fellow back or fellow player is injured and 
confined to his bed nothing will so contribute to hearty relation- 
ship as frequent calls and anxious solicitation for recovery. 

DEFENSE. 

On the defense the backs and ends will have much to look 
after. Each has his particular station behind the line, with its 
primary and secondary responsibilities. Just what these positions 
are, whether far from the rush line, near to it or in it, must 
depend upon the style of game that is being played. Suffice it to 



SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. 81 

say, however, that all styles are planned to the same end — to stop 
opposing plays. 

As a rule the backs are so distributed as to most broadly 
cover the possible openings at which opponents are likely to 
direct their plays. Consequently as the opponent's offense varies, 
so should the defense. Sometimes it seems well to attempt to 
meet opponents behind their own line, at other times to meet 
them at the line, and on other occasions still to meet them 
behind your own line. Again, a back is sometimes held respon- 
sible for a run around the opposite side of the line from that on 
which he is stationed, so that the various combinations of respon- 
sibilities, due to the tactics of any particular opponent, are never 
ending. 

Ordinarily the backs are looked upon as forming a secondary 
line of defense. In such a case they must exercise great care 
not to get drawn into a play too quickly, and yet they should 
be equally careful not to wait too long before attacking the 
play. A back who waits too long is as bad as one who goes 
in too early. A happy medium is what should be aimed at, and 
it can be obtained only by constant practice and vigilant watch- 
fulness. To exercise this vigilance the back must needs stand 
high enough to see where the play is going, and at the same 
time not be so high as to allow of being struck by an opponent 
while in an extended position. The instant a back sizes up a play 
he should get as soon as possible to the point of attack, watching 
carefully for trick plays, short kicks and forward passes all the 
while. A back will seldom be fooled by such plays if he will 
always keep a close eye on straggling players, and remember that 
the ball, not the motion of any mass, indicates the point of attack. 
Once a back has decided to attempt to head off a runner or a 
play, at a certain point, he should get his eye on the man with the 
ball and keep it there, never losing sight of him, always keeping 
his position in the interference in mind and never allowing him- 
self to attempt to see where he is going. That part of it will 
take care of itself. Such precautions as those just outlined will 
prevent most any back from being fooled as to the location of 
the ball— owing to a temporary relaxation of vigilance. And 
vigilance in these days of concealed methods of passing the ball 
is exceedingly necessary. In attempting to stop end runs, and in 
fact in stopping any play, a back should never allow an opponent 
to hit him with his body; he should keep his opponent away with 
his arms. A back has no business to allow himself to get hit. 
In meeting heavy mass plays the back should either dive at the 
base of the head of the play, grabbing an arm full of legs, or m 
case he is too slow in getting there and the play is dragging along 



82 SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. 

he should, if chance offers, seek to swing the head of the play to 
one side where the direct line of pressure is broken and where a 
momentary delay will give his own players a chance to down the 
runner before the opponents have a chance to reorganize. Many 
times one man can upset a mass play effectually, where had he 
tried to tackle one of the players he would have been thrown off 
or dragged along some distance further. 

The question as to whether a back shall break through and 
attempt to tackle behind an opponent's line is a very difficult one 
to treat. Sometimes, where a back is strong on the defense and 
the opposing line is weak it is advisable. But where the opposing 
rush line is a strong one and particularly where it is stronger 
than your own it is certainly inadvisable. In such a case the 
backs should hold themselves as reserves rather than as of the 
rush line. Otherwise, in case an opponent clears your rush line, 
a long run is likely to follow. 

In everything that they do, whether on offense or defense, the 
three backs should combine in every possible way with the 
quarter-back. The center rush, the three backs and the quarter- 
back should practice constantly together so as to get the purely 
mechanical work of their positions well ordered, and in a con- 
test the three backs should keep the quarter-back constantly 
informed of weak places in the opposing defense, that he may 
profit by them when occasion demands. In a nutshell, all four 
backs should strive for mental, moral and physical team play 
both on and off the field. 

BACK-FIELD WORK. 

In the back field, the main function of the backs is the handling 
of kicks, and it is one of the most trying functions of all foot ball. 
To have to catch a ball while one's opponents are in many cases 
standing within arm's reach like so many wolves ready to take 
advantage of the slightest slip up is bad enough, but when these 
conditions are augmented by the necessity of judging a high kick 
in a gale of wind, and remembering that a kicked ball touching 
the ground puts every one on-side, they become well-nigh unbear- 
able except to the coolest, most skillful and best drilled players. 
Such, however, is the trying position in which backs often find 
themselves on thirty or forty separate occasions in a single game. 
And worst of all they are severely censured where they fail of 
a clean record. A team can never know how much kicking it is 
likely to meet in any game until the game is on, and it can never 
know when the winning or losing of a game may turn upon the 
safe handling of a single kick. The possibilities of catastrophes 
are greater in the back field than in any other branch of foot ball 



SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. 83 

play, and so it is imperative that only the most reliable men 
should represent an eleven there. The backs, then, cannot be 
given too much practice in catching kicks under every possible 
condition. They should practice with ends running down on 
them, with the wind against the kicker as well as with him, with 
a wet and dry ball. Furthermore, they should be given an oppor- 
tunity to handle rolling, bouncing and twisting balls. 

Under ordinary circumstances only one back is kept in the back 
field, although this year it is probable that two will be needed. 
It is his duty to handle all unexpected kicks and to tackle any 
runner that may get by the other ten players. He must be a sure 
catcher and tackier, and something of a kicker. This back may 
find himself on some occasion in the very trying position of 
being the only man between his goal and a fast opponent. When 
this is the case the back must, as a general rule, depend upon his 
own initiative for his line of action. No one else can lay it out 
for him. There are, however, one or two points which any back 
will do well to keep in mind. It is always a good plan to try to 
force the runner to take that direction that will bring him nearest 
to the side line, where it may be possible either to corner him or 
to force him out of bounds. There is little sense in undertaking 
to tackle a runner who has the whole field to manoeuvre in, when 
you can reduce the field by two-thirds. Another point to be kept 
in mind is that of never running at full speed at a runner whom 
it is your intention to tackle, especially when he has an oppor- 
tunity to side-step or dodge you. This side-stepping is the easiest 
thing imaginable where the tackier bears down on his victim at 
full speed. It is frequently illustrated when ends overrun a full- 
back, who by a simple side-step eludes them and makes a good 
run. Instead, the back should run fast toward his opponent until 
he gets within fifteen or twenty yards of him, when he should 
slow up and get ready to respond to dodging, which can only be 
done when the back has full control of his body. And he 
should exercise great care not to be fooled by some false motion 
on the part of the runner. This false motion is usually given 
with the upper part of the body, and can only be detected by 
keeping a close watch on the hips, which will always give away 
the real tendency of the body. 

In case it may at some time seem advisable to utilize the 
defensive ability of the goal tender, as we may call him, on the 
rush line, and consequently to put another man back there in 
his place, a sure catcher should be chosen even if he is unable 
to do much at open field tackling. The reasoning here is that 
where a back is given one opportunity to prevent a touchdown 
by a decisive tackle in the open field — which is frequently missed 



g4 SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. 

by even the best players, owing to the tremendous speed of the 
runner — he is given twenty chances to catch the ball where any 
one catch, if missed, might mean a touchdown. Under these 
circumstances it is of course better to provide for the common 
play rather than for the emergency. The goal tend should keep 
a sharp lookout for trick plays and where possible keep his 
fellow players posted by calling out advice which his distance 
from the scrimmage may enable him to give. 

The moment the opponents give evidence of an intention to 
kick, one or two of the other backs should at once drop back 
to reinforce the goal tend. Care must of course be taken that 
the evidence is genuine before they go clear back, but once 
they feel sure of this point they should run back at full speed, 
looking over their shoulders about every ten yards to prevent 
the kick from surprising them, or else to be ready for a return 
to the line in case of a fake. Backs frequently loaf back to 
their position. This is all wrong; they should be either on the 
line or way back of it, with as little time as possible wasted in 
getting into either position. The distance of these backs from 
the rush line and their relative positions in the back field will 
depend upon circumstances. If the kicker is a good one and 
has the wind at his back they should of course play further 
back than if he is a poor kicker and has a stiff wind against 
him. The thing to be avoided is the danger of playing too 
far back. This is a very common fault among novices, who 
dread having the ball kicked over their heads and who, in order 
to prevent such a catastrophe, play so far back that it is impos- 
sible for them to catch more than three out of five of the 
shorter kicks, owing to the impossibility of getting under the 
ball. It is better policy to take one chance in fifty of having a 
kick go over one's head for the sake of catching the great 
majority of them than it is to prevent a kick over one's head 
at the expense of having to handle them on the bounce, where 
the opportunities for gaining ground after the catch are nil. 
No ball should be allowed to bounce, for it puts the opponents 
all on-side. They should all be caught on the fly, and if balls 
are bouncing it shows that the backs are not covering the ground 
in a thorough manner. 

Once they are the proper distance behind the line the backs 
should spread out in such a way as best to cover the territory in 
which the ball is likely to fall. To this end they should not 
stand too near each other or too near the side line. If they 
stand too near together they will overlap much ground, and if 
they stand too near the side line they will enable themselves to 
catch many balls which go in touch and which there is no need 



SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. 85 

of providing for, while at the same time they will be unable to 
cover much important ground within the field. The backs 
should play far enough apart so that they can concentrate at any 
given spot in time to be of assistance to each other either in 
catching or in the interference. In case a strong wind is blowing 
at the kicker's back one of the backs should play a little in rear 
of the others in order to provide for a possible misjudging or for 
fumbles. Under ordinary conditions one of the backs should play 
well in front of the others in order to be ready for short kicks or 
other tricks. In case one of the backs essays a fair catch the 
others should be on the watch for a fumble. The best way to get 
practice on these various points is to put two sets of backs, with 
center, at work kicking and catching. Then a competition may 
be encouraged with result that all the players become interested, 
and in the endeavor to win the competition give each other the 
best practice possible. 

Whenever possible it is well to have ends run down under the 
kicks, thereby givhig the backs every opportunity to catch kicks 
"under fire." Continuous back-field practice is very exhausting, 
so that it is well whenever much practice of this kind is under- 
taken to have alternate squads of players, thereby saving all 
of them from overwork. Should the backs become tired of the 
practice and allow it to become lackadaisical, it should at once 
be discontinued, as carelessness in back-field practice is worse 
than none at all. 

In preparing to catch kicks the backs should make every 
endeavor to get under the ball in time enough to enable them 
to receive it while they are standing still. To do this they must 
be able to "size up" a ball as soon as it rises in the air. 

In running up on a ball the backs should also be careful not 
to overrun it, remembering that it is much easier to run up on a 
ball than to run back for it in case it is misjudged. Furthermore, 
in case a back who is careful to keep the ball in front of him 
misjudges it and it hits him in the chest, he stands a much 
better chance of recovering the ball as it falls in front of him 
than he would have if he overran the ball and it fell behind him. 

While in the act of catching a back should concentrate his 
entire attention on the ball, never attempting to divide it with 
the opposing ends. The plea that a back often advances for 
this tendency is that he ^s afraid of a bad fall just as he is 
completing the catch, or that he wants to see where the ends 
are, that he may dodge them more effectively, etc., etc. These 
excuses should all be denied on the ground that the possession 
of the ball is the thing. And in this connection it is just as 
well to say that in case a back fumbles in the back field he 



86 SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBEAET. 

should fall on the ball at once. This poiml should be so drilled 
into the players that it is second nature to diem. 

The moment a back has caught the ball he should turn his 
attention to his opponents, seeking how he can dodge them and 
run the kick back. In case he catches the kick in time to 
decide from his own observations in which direction to run a 
back should experience little difficulty in getting off safely. But 
when the ball and the ends arrive almost simultaneously the 
situation is more difficult. In such a position the other backs 
should assist by a word or two. At first the giving of such 
directions will end in much confusion, but as the backs become 
more and more accustomed to each other this difficulty will 
disappear, to be followed by satisfactory results. Where a back 
is a good dodger he can often fool opponents by making a false 
start in one direction and then following it up with a real start 
in another. This ability is natural, and no coaching can develop 
it except where the player has in him the crude qualities. 

One thing, however, every back can be taught, and that is 
that he shall never run back. Running back in back-field work 
is even more fatal than in ordinary scrimmage play. Another 
thing to be borne in mind is that under no circumstances can a 
back use his "straight-arm" more effectually than in the broken 
field running that forms such a big part of back-field work. 
Here it is that opponents are usually few and the time com- 
paratively long for shifting the ball from one hand to the other 
in order to do this warding off. 

With this we may be said to have covered, after a general 
fashion, the topic embraced under the main title, and therefore 
to have completed this article. One thing yet remains to be 
said, however, and that is that no back who wishes to get the 
most out of these suggestions can hope to do so unless he first 
puts into himself the right spirit, and follows it up with staunch 
obedience to his training rules. 



SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. 



87 





SIGNALS 

BY ROCKWELL AND HOGAN, 
Quarter and Tackle of Yale Team of 1902. 






onsstmoos 





The first essential in any system of signals is simplicity. An 
intricate and complicated system always militates against the 
team using it ; the quarter is troubled in framing his signals and 
the speed which should accompany successful play is impossible. 
The confusion and uncertainty of the quarter afTects the other 
members of the team ; they do not jump into the plays with the 
dash and vim which characterize a team confident of its signals 
and receiving inspiration from the knowledge that the whole 
team is working on the same play. It does not follow because 
your system is simple, that your opponents will make it out. 
The chances are very much against their doing so, and while 
they take their attention from the play to watch your signals 
you gain such advantage over them as will enable you to push 
your plays so successfully as to give them something else to 
think of save your signals. Yet in spite of the extreme improb- 
ability of discovering your signals it may happen that your 
team will be discouraged and its play materially affected by 
believing that your opponents are playing its signals. So, in all 
the systems given in this article, provision is made for a change, 
which should be made immediately in such a case; a change 
which is in keeping with the simplicity of the system and yet 
sufficient to regain the confidence of your team. 

In any system of signaling there are always two considera- 
tions: the quarter, or whoever calls the signals, and the rest of 
the team. The system should be such as will enable the quarter 



88 SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. 

to give the plays quickly and accurately. There should be no 
hesitation whatever on the quarter's part. He should practice 
calling off the plays to himself until he has every one in his 
control and can use any of them when he needs it. Not only 
should there be no hesitation on the part of the quarter, but 
the rest of the team also should grasp the play as soon as it is 
called. The play originates with the quarter and so is per- 
fectly evident to him, but it should also be clear to the team 
just as soon as the signal denoting it is given. Very often you 
will see the quarter call the signal and then wait till the rest of 
the team understands it before receiving the ball from the 
centre. There should be no wait. The system should be one 
to enable the whole team to get the play immediately the signal 
is called. On the speed with which the ball is put into play 
depends to a considerable extent the success of the offensive 
work of the team and, therefore, it is most essential that there 
should be no unnecessary delay after the signal is called. All 
the systems taken in this article have those ends in view. They 
have all been tried and found to conform to the demands of any 
situation. 

For the sake of clearness the different systems are numbered 
as Code I, Code II, etc. In the diagrams the black solid square 
denotes the player taking the ball ; the heavy, continuous line the 
direction which he takes ; the zig-zag line shows how the ball 
reached him and the dotted lines the directions taken by the 
other players, save the one carrying the ball. The dotted squares 
indicate changes in position assumed by the players in such a 
play as a wing-shift, etc. 

To indicate the positions the following abbreviations have 
been adopted: L. E., left end; R. E., right end; L. T. left 



SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARl. 89 

tackle ; R. T., right tackle ; L. G., left guard ; R'. G., right guard , 
C, center ; Q., quarter-back ; L. H., left half-back ; R. H., right 
half-back; R B., full-back. 

For Code I a letter system is taken, having as a base a word, 
or combination of words, containing either ten or eleven letters, 
in which the same letter does not occur twice. It may be 
either ten or eleven, as the center may or may not be denoted 
by a letter. Such words as f-o-r-m-i-d-a-b-l-e, d-a-n-g-e-r- 
o-u-s-1-y, i-m-p-o-r-t-a-n-c-e, or combinations like p-r-i-v-a-t-e- 
b-o-d-y, c-h-a-r-g-e-d-w-o-r-k, c-o-n-v-i-c-t-l-a-m-p — any word or 
combination in which the same letter does rot occur twice and 
which has ten or eleven letters. Take the combination H-a-n-o- 
v-e-r — C-i-t-y, and beginning with the left end give each posi- 
tion a letter. 

CITY 

Q. L.H. F.B. R.H. 

The letters H, A, N, V, E, R, stand for holes thus: 

H — Means end run around your own Left End. 

A — Means play through Left Tackle, either inside or outside 

his position. 
N — Means play through Left Guard. 
V — Means play through Right Guard. 
E — Means play through Right Tackle, either inside or outside 

his position. 
R — End run around your own Right End. 



H ^ N 


OVER 


L.E. L.T. L.G. 


C. R.G. R.T. R.E. 



SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. 



Let the first letter given in the signal indicate the player who 
is to carry the ball and the next letter the hole or direction in 
which the ball goes. For example, let the letters called in the 
signal be: I, A. The play indicated is the Left Half-back 
through Left Tackle. Naturally the quarter would call more 
letters than those merely required to denote the play, so this 
signal might run in such a way as. "I — A — B — C — D." The 
last three letters only helping to prevent the signal from being 
discovered. The following is a diagram of the play: 
R.H. 



RlO 

6h 



Org. 

f 

D 



LE, L.T.A.M.6. C 







^ 


u 






R.6. 


R.T. 


R.E 



C^^^J'^^^-r>.^\r\f\J\t\j^rJ 



m 

LH 



a 



-" a 



R.H. 



f:b. 

Fig. I. 
Your L. T. and L. E. push the opposing R. T. (designated In 
the diagram by a circle) back. Your L. H. follows straight be- 
hind your L. T. with the Q., F. B. and R. H. holding him on his 
feet and pushing him through the hole. The linemen charge 
straight at their opponents with the exception of the R. E., 
who goes in front of his own line and tries to get hold of the 
man with the ball and pull him along. 



SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. 



Let the signal given be: "Y— E— A— R." The play is the 
R. H. through R. T. Fig. 2 shows the play. 



-> 



Dlt 



/ 
t 
1 




n 


n 


1 1 




1 


L.E. 


LT 


L.G. 


c 1 

Q L 


R.6. 


R/.T. 
, -'//•'TV 


H.t 



RH. 



D □-•■ 

Fig. 2. 
Here your R. T. and R. E. push the opposing L. T. back and 
the L. E. runs in front of his own line, as did the R. E. in 
Fig. I, and pulls the man with the ball. For the duty of the 
other men see the explanation after Fig. i. 



92 



SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. 



Let the signal given be: "T — V — I — S — T." The play is 
your F. B. through your R. G. Fig. 3 shows this play. 



L£. 



-^U: 







Q 







n 


D 


g 


fa 


D 


L.T. 


LG. 


c| 


; RG. 


ax 







R,H 



Here your R, G. with the assistance of R. T. pushes the 
opposing L. G, back. The F. B. get the ball from Q., who 
must be careful to get out of his way, and follows straight 
behind the R. G. Your R. H. and L. H. should keep him on 
his feet after he has met opposition and the two ends, both of 
whom should have come around in front of their own line, 
ought to pull him through the grasp of opposing tacklers. All 
the linemen should push their opponents back and away from 
the man with the ball. 



SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. 



Suppose the signal Is : "T — N — O — K — B." The play is the 
F. B. through L. G., as shown in Fig. 4, 



^il- 







^ 3 


n 6 


L.E. L.T. L.G. ; 


i |C. R.6. 


RT R.E. 


/ 
/ 

/ 


I]o- 





a 

L.H., 






f:0. 



"D 

R.H. 



Fig. 4. 

This play is exactly similar to that shown in Fig. 3 save that 
the L. G. and L. T. are the men who make hole by pushing the 
opposing R. G. out of the way. 



94 



SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. 



Suppose the signal called is : "I — E — D — C — B." The play is 
the L. H. through R. T., a cross-huck. Fig. 5 shows the play. 



D 

L£. 



u 

LT. 




L.H. 



Q.. 

F.B. 
Fig. 5. 



□r-^- ...""" 



In this play your R. T. and R. E. get the opposing tackle out 
of the way ; the R. H. goes straight into the hole, the L. H. car- 
rying the ball next; then the Q. and L. T., who comes around 
into the play from his position in the line ; the L. E. is the last 
man to follow the play — he makes it safe, watches for fumbtes; 
the F. B. runs straight out from his position and keeps the 
opposing L. E. from getting ihe play. 



SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. 



95 



Let the signal be: "Y— A— R— D— S." This is your R. H. 
through L. T, The L. T. and L. E. make the hole ; R. T. and R. 
E. follow around into the play. Fig. 6 shows this play, which 
is the same as that in Fig. 5, only on the opposite side of your 
line. 



o 



L.E 



K 



D ,n 




□ 

R/E 



Let the signal be: "Y— H— A— B— K." This is your R. H 
around your L. E., as shown in Fig. 7. 



96 



SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. 





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-O 


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<u 


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'tr> 


'Ck 






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IT 










W 


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fc 


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100 SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. 

In Code I the signal for a kick could be any letter not in the 
combination you adopt as your key. Suppose the letter B de- 
notes a kick. Then the full signal for the F. B. to kick the 
ball would be: "T— B— C— A— O." In Fig. ii is seen the 
formation now commonly adopted for a kick. 

^ A 



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F^B. 
Fig. II. 







The two ends get \^ ell outside their Tackles and as soon as 
the ball is snapped, go straight down the field. The L. T. jostles 
the opposing Tackle and then goes down. The other linemen 
should hold their opponents long enough to ensure the F. B.'s 
having time to get the kick off in safety. The Q., L. H. and R. 
H., leaning forward on their hands, in the positions shown in 
Fig. II, protect the F. B. from anyone who may succeed in 
breaking through the line. 

The simple plays have now been given in Code I. These are 



SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. lOi 

the plays which every team must be absolute master of. They 
may be played in every part o£ the field and on their success 
depends to a great extent the success of your team. 

The following diagrams illustrate plays intended to puzzle 
your opponents and which they may not be prepared to meiet. 
However, they should not be practiced until your team has 
mastered the simple plays. Too often will a team depend for 
success on tricks and fancy maneuvers, neglecting the steady, 
straight foot ball that is the hardest to withstand when played 
properly, only to be doomed to disappointment as a result. 



A SIGNAL FOR A WING SHIFT 

(using code l) 

The Quarter may call out "Formation A," if the play is to go 
on the left of centre ; "Formation B,'' if the play is to go on 
the right. (See Fig. 12.) Then, either the regular sigiial for 
an end run or a signal for a quick drive into line following a 
feint at an end run. (Fig. 13.) 



SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIKRARY. 



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104 



SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. 



The team lines up in regular formation as in Fig. i. The sig- 
nal given, the line sidestep to the right two positions, as in figure; 
the L.T, then becomes centre, Q. and L.H. keep their position 
while the F.B. and R.G. alter position with the line men. Now, we 
have seven men on our right wing, as opposed to four of our 
opponents. The play can be a cross buck, as in Fig. 5, or an end 



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R.H. 

L.H. 

Fig. 14— Wing Shift. 2nd Method. 

run, as in Fig. 8. Whatever the play used it is absclutely essen- 
tial that the play start the instant the shift is made. To perfect 
this play, both tackles should be drilled in passing the ball to the 
quarter. Thus, the shift can be ordered either to the right or 
left, as the case may warrant. There should be daily practice by 
the entire line in this quick change of positions, so that when 
the signal is called the play may be executed like a flash. 



SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. 

FAKE KICK. 



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SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. 





FOUR-MEN FORMATION 
PLAYS 




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The following eight plays are the so-called "Four-men forma- 
tion plays.'' In them one of the line men is called back either to 
run with the ball or assist in the interference. In the following 
plays it is the L.T. who is brought back and placed directly be- 
hind R.T. It will be noticed that the R.H. takes his position 



LE. LG. C. R.G. R.T. y^ RE. 

D D n D ETD 



L.T. 

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F.a 

Fig. i6. 

always "outside the position occupied by the man on the end 
of the liae" to conform with the requirements of the 1904 rules. 
This play is the simple end run. The L.H. carries the ball 
around your own right end. R.H. and F.B. block the opposing 
end. Q.B. after he has passed the ball to L.H. and L.T. form 
interference for the runner. 



SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. 



107 



This play is a "tandem" on right tackle. The L.T. carries the 
ball and runs straight at his own R.T. The Q., L.H., F.B. and 



LL L.G. 



X, 



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RH 



R.H. all follow, helping L.T. to keep his feet and pushing him 
through the line. This play should be always good for a gain of 
two yards when used alternately with play in Fig. 18. 



108 



SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. 



This play is the same as in Fig. 17, except that the F.B. carries 
the ball. The F.B. keeps running close behind the L.T., ready 
to take advantage of the first opening. A good full-back often- 
times adds two or three yards by a quick shift or dive after the 



O 

R.G. RJ.y ^ R.E. 

nan 




n 

R.H. 



Fig. 18. 



play appears stopped. A strap sewed on the jacket of L.T. or 
suitably fastened on the back of his belt may be of help to F.B., 
who when tackled can grasp this strap and be sometimes pulled 
clear of tacklers. The R.H. protects F.B. from opposing end; 
L.H. and Q. push as in play in Fig. 17. 



SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. 



109 



L.E. 

D 



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D 



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Fig. 19. 



LX 



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In this play the L.T. lakes the ball and runs directly on R.G. 
R.G. pushes his man to the right and R.T. helps him. Q., L.H., 
F.B., and R.H. push as in play in Fig. 17. 



110 SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. 

This play is the delayed pass to L.H. The Q. pretends to pass 
to L.T. (who, of course, feigns to receive it), then turns, hiding 
it the while, and passes to L.H., who runs directly outside R.T. 
F.B., L.T., and R.H. run as if the play were between center and 
R.G. and must push and fight just as hard as if they were carry- 
ing the ball. The L.T. must be careful not to knock the ball 
from the Q's hands. He should reach out over the ball and 
cover the ball with his arms while the fake pass is being made 



LE. 

D 



L.G. 

D 



Lii. 





and then double up as if he had the ball and shoot into the line. 
The Q. can materially aid the deception by turning his back to 
opponents after he has made the fake pass to L.T. He should 
hold the ball a moment and then pass to L.H. L.H. must give Q. 
time to make his fake pass and then to hold ball a moment. L.H. 
runs direct on R.T. R.T. and R.E. try to coax their opposing 
tackle through on the outside. This play to be most effective 
should be used sparingly and always on a first or second down. 
Try it after the play in Fig. 19 has been used two or three times. 



SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. 



Ill 



This is the quarter-back run around the right end. The R.H. 
and F.B. block the opposing end. L.T. and L.H. make the inter- 




sD 



ference, as in Fig. i6. Q. receives ball from center and runs 
wide. This should be a very good play with a fast quarter. 



112 



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y SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. 115 

If the Q. at any time thinks it desirable to change the manner 
of calling the signals, he may readily do so by having the signal 
start with the second, the third or the fourth letter, or by not 
having the signal start till he has called some letter agreed on 
that is not in the key and is not used in the plays. 

CODE II. 
A Combination of Letters and Numbers. 

Let the F. be the hole between guard ind center; H., the hole 
between tackle and guard; K., the hole just outside tackle; B., 
end run. 

As each letter taken separately stands for the two holes, i. e., 
F. would mean either the hole between R.G. and C. or L.G. and 
C, so some method must be adopted to signify which hole is 
meant. Now, if the signal starts with an odd number, the hole 
on the left side of center is meant ; if it starts with an even num- 
ber, the hole on the right side is to be the outlet for the play. 
For example, the signal ''3 — B," etc., means and end run around 
your own left end; and "6 — B," etc., means an end run around 
number to the training table early in the season, but make it 
your own right end. Therefore "3 — B," etc., will always mean 
an end run around your own left end and the right half-back will 
carry the ball. So the completed signal will be : "3 — B— 4 — M." 
The number 4 and the letter M mean nothing. The complete 
signal for the left half-back to carry the ball around your own 
right end would be: "4— B— 11— X." Since the signal starts 
with an even number it shows that the play is to go on the right 
side of center and the letter B signifies that the play is an end 
run. 

This code contains but the simple ordinary plays used by every 
team during the first weeks of practice. There are ten plays in 
all, not, however, including the kick, and are as follows: 

L.H. run around R.E 4 — ^ 

R'.H. run around L.E 3 — B 

L.H. dive through L.G. and L.T 7 — H 

R.H. dive through R.G. and R.T 12— H 

L.H. cross-buck just outside R.T 14 — K 



116 SPALDING'S ATHLETIC l^IBRARY. 

R.H. cross-buck just outside R.T 7 — K 

F.B. dive through R.G. and C 6 — F 

F.B, dive through L.G. and C g — F 

L.T. run just outside R.T 2—6 — K 

R.T. run just outside R.T 3 — n — K 

It will be noticed that the L.H., L.T., R.H. and R.T. carry 
the ball through the same hole (K). Whenever the L.T. is to 
carry it the signal will start with two even numbers and when- 
ever the R.T. carries the ball, with two odd numbers. Thus: 

Signal: 4— 8— K— 5— Y. (See Fig. 10.) 

Signal: 2 — K — 9— B. (See Fig. 5.) 

Signal: 3— 7— K— 4— R. (See Fig. 9.) 

Signal: 9 — K — 2 — M. (See Fig. 6.) 

Signal: 4— B— 11— X. (See Fig. 8.) 

The absence of letters from signal might indicate a kick; thus: 
4—6 — 7— .11. (See Fig. 11.) 

CODE III. 

A SYSTEM OF NUMBERS ILLUSTRATED. 

In this system it will be seen that the even numbers are plays 
on the right of center and the odd numbers are plays on the left. 

4. L.G through R.G. 

5. R.G through L.G. 

6. L.T through R.T. 

7. R.T through L.T. 

8. L.H around R.E. 

9. R.H around L.E. 

10. L.H cross-buck through R.T. 

11. R.H cross-buck through L.T. 

12. R.H straight through R.T. 

13- LH straight through L.T. 

14- F.B straight through R.C. 

15- F.B straight through L.C. 

16. L.E. . . ; run around R.E. 

17- RE run around L.E, 

Kick: any number over 300. 



SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. 117 

Now, let the second number given be the key number, the 
number which represents the play. For instance: 

Signal: 6 — 8 — g — 27 — 4 (See Fig. 8.) 

Signal: 5 — 12 — 21 — 7 (See Fig. 2.) 

Signal: 8 — 13—42—9. (See Fig. i.) 

Signal: 5—15—8—2. (See Fig. 4.) 

Signal: 6 — 11 — 43 — 8. (See Fig. 6.) 

Signal: 357—952. (See Fig. 11.) 

Etc., etc. 

In the last two codes the Quarter may readily change the key 
number at any time and so be certain that his signals are un- 
known to his opponents. 

A SEQUENCE OF PLAYS 

It frequently happens that a leam, especially a school team, 
will have one man who has clearly outplayed every opponent he 
has faced and upon whom the quarter may depend when there is 
a distance that must be gained. Under such conditions a team 
should have a sequence of plays, i. c., three or more plays pre- 
viously committed to memory, to be executed in quick succession 
without a signal. Assuming that the tackle is the steady and 
reliable man, then, select three or more plays through his position 
and constantly practice them as a series without any intermis- 
sion. 

A sequence of five plays illustrated : 

In Code III. — The second number the key: 

6— (i2)-28-4. (Fig. 2.) 

5— ( 6)— 21— 9. (Fig. 10.) 

2— (10)— 7— 5. (Fig. 5.) 

7— (10)— 42— 8. (Fig. 5) 

8— (11)— 29— 6. (Fig. 6.) 

If the first four plays are successful the opponents will nat- 
urally shift over, to try and "brace up" the weak spot, and the 
last play is intended to surprise them and is, therefore, sent on 
the opposite (left) side of the line. 



jjg SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. 

WHEN TO USE THE SEQUENCE 

The best time to employ the sequence is in the opponent's terri- 
tory about twenty-five yards from the goal, when quickness and 
speed of plays used is so essential to success. Then, too, it is 
highly probable that the "cheering" makes it hard to hear the 
signals. 

There are various ways to signal the sequences, but a simple 
and effective way is to have the quarter make some such remark 
as this : "There's only twenty yards to go, fellows ; stay together 
now!" This would mean that the next signal was the first of the 
sequence and that it would be played without any more direction 
from the quarter-back. 

Too much emphasis cannot be laid on how essential to your 
team's success is a thorough knowledge of the signals. Every 
player should know just what he is to do in each play; the very 
instant the signal is given, he should recognize the play and de- 
termine to do what is expected of him. The players, apart from 
the general practice, should repeat the signals to themselves and 
get familiar with their individual duties in each play. Confidence 
is almost essential to success in offensive work, and a team can 
have but little confidence in its ability to advance the b^ll till 
every one has thoroughly mastered the signals. 



SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. 



119 





TRAINING FOR FOOT BALL 

BV MICHAEL MURTHY. 






ssiistiiiiias 


S 



The days of the extremes of training, both in foot ball and 
other sports have, at any rate for the time being, gone by. The 
old-fashioned notion that men must be deprived of everything 
they wanted for their comfort and go through a period of actual 
physical suffering has been exploded. Young men, and partic- 
ularly college men, do not need the severe regimen adopted in 
the old days, when training was confined only to a certain class 
and that class one indulging in all sorts of dissipation between 
times. For this reason treatises on training can be far mor? 
brief than in the times when the exact percentage of food stuffs 
was figured out to a nicety. Moreover, foot ball is one of those 
fortunate sports which comes at a season of the year when the 
weather, except in the very early part of it, is not exceedingly 
hot, but rather bracing, and unless there is something radically 
wrong with the man, as a rule, during the foot ball season, his 
appetite should in the main improve. 

It is really the nervous tension which has come to be great 
and it is to the relief of that nervous tension that many of the 
best friends of the game are looking in hopes that alterations 
in the rules may improve this condition. 

The great majority of the players are not affected by this, but 
the captain, coach and quarter-back usually pass through periods 
where the worry is quite extreme, and while it makes little 
difference to the coach it does affect the captain and quarter- 
back very materially and with these men, the greatest problem 
of the training season is to see that they pay less rather than 
more attention to the sport and get some relaxation at periods. 

The general physical condition of the men is in these days 
looked after both by the trainer and by competent surgeons, so 
far as injuries are concerned. 



120 SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY'. 

The problem of how much work a man should do and when 
he should work is one of general consultation between coach, 
trainer and captain — the trainer's opinion being in the main 
accepted as final — and as a rule this trio make satisfactory de- 
cisions. Sometimes a man is found who is able to deceive all 
three as to his condition, but not often, and, moreover, such men 
are usually men whose personal idiosyncrasies are known. 

One of the most difficult points in training a foot ball team is 
to keep them steadily progressing and not have a slump at some 
disastrous period during the season. Men dififer so greatly in- 
dividually that the accepted method of working the men now- 
adays is to watch these peculiarities and not try to judge all 
men by the same rule, but to lay off first one and then another 
as occasion demands, giving them all an opportunity for suffi- 
cient practice, but forcing no man to work too long. 

It takes a good deal of time to teach a man modern foot ball 
and he has to go through a certain period of steady work before 
he combines the necessary knowledge with the skill ; hence an 
especial reason for consistency in carrying out training develop- 
ment. Foot ball men all need quickness and the w^ork should be 
devoted to short periods of snappy play rather than long periods 
which get the man into the bad habit of playing slowly because 
he is tired. 

A foot ball player beyond all else needs to have a sort of 
superfluous energy to draw upon at the time of his match and 
to exhaust this is to make a very serious mistake. The men 
should, therefore, be very carefully watched in order to see that 
the work is not at the expense of this energy, which must be 
called upon at a critical time. No man should find himself in 
a game without a feeling that he would at least like to make a 
touchdown whether it is possible or not, and the making of touch- 
downs is practically impossible if the man's physical and mental 
condition is such as to leave him without desire to do so. 

The first problem in the season that faces captain, coaches and 
trainers is that of making selection from a great mass of mate- 
rial. This material will be scattered over three or four different 



SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. 12I 

fields and in all sorts of physical condition, as some men take 
care of themselves during the summer while others do not. A 
coach may easily be deceived by lack of condition in a man who, 
when in shape, would play a strong game. For this reason 
critical watching and very likely some inquiry as to the past 
performance of the man is very advisable. As soon as the 
material has begun to be sifted it becomes necessary to sort out 
a part of it for the 'Varsity, but it is wise not to take a great 
many men to a training table early but make this rather a reward 
of merit in a way, at the same time taking possibly the absolutely 
iure men who are not likely to have the best of living otherwise. 

All this matter is a question of judgment and a little study 
and reflection on the subject is returned many times over in 
the results later in the season. It is hardly worth while, al- 
though I know it has been adopted by some trainers, to put men 
who are going to play foot ball through special courses of gym- 
nastics, unless it may be for some special weakness of the 
individual. It is certainly a good plan for foot ball men to be 
handled by a track trainer in learning to start quickly. Gym- 
nasium apparatus, however, is not proving very successful for 
general teams. A little setting up work in the early part of the 
season is often a good thing and some running, but after the 
season is once under way the men have plenty to do without 
taking these special exercises, except it may be to reduce the 
weight of a man who is very heavy. Running around the field 
for men who are temporarily laid ofT, and for the whole squad 
in the early part of the season, is a good thing. 

Another great problem is to keep enough backs to last through 
the season. The backs are usually lighter than the forwards and 
being given a good deal more of the running work to do (and 
this is particularly true under the new rules where the men 
behind the line will have to do a good deal of line hammering 
without heavy interference) is rather apt to call for all the 
material that a coach and trainer can keep going. And 
even then at the end of the season the good men are scarce 
The first part of the season the practice ought to be very short— 



122 SPALDING'S ATHLETIC LIBRARY. 

four or five minutes— and the team worked up to longer periods 
as the weather grows cooler and they improve in condition. 
By mid-season they should be able to play two fifteen-minute 
halves with ease, and if possible a fifteen and a twenty-minute 
half. By November they should be able to stand a slightly 
longer period in order that by the time of the big games they 
may be able to go the necessary two thirty-five minute halves. 

As to protectors for the players, it is well worth while to use 
such protectors as are likely to save the players from injury, 
but of late it is feared too much has been done in this way so 
that the players were rendered rather less plucky, and, moreover, 
in some instances were probably made tender. Under the present 
rules the doing away with the heavy head protectors will be a 
great step in advance and will probably save many injuries. Nose 
guards are rather difftcult to breathe through, but properly ar- 
ranged are not dangerous. Protectors for the thigh and shins 
are good things and if a man receives an injured shoulder some 
kind of protection there is also advisable. 

So far as foot ball is concerned a strict diet is not essential, 
but the men should not be permitted to smoke, nor should they 
be given alcoholic drinks except for medicinal purposes or when 
a man is very tired. The living should be plain and substantial 
and every effort made to have his training table attractive and 
the food appetizing. 



SPALDING'S OFFICIAL FOOT BALL GUIDE. 






WHAT A FOOT BALL 
PLAYER NEEDS 



f °^ f °^ f °^ f °^ ?°^ f "^ §°^ ^°^ ^°^ 

^J)oa) (5^§) (^5)o2) (^5)o2) (y)o§) (^5)o§) ($5)oa) ^g) ^g 



The pivotal point in a Rugby foot ball game is naturally the ball itself. 
Upon this object the whole interest in the game centers, and naturally if 
the ball is not right the game suffers. The Spalding Intercollegiate Foot 
Ball No. J5 is the only Official Rugby Foot Ball, simply because it is recog- 
nized as a really perfect ball and because it can be depended upon to al 
ways stand up and give a good account of itself. Over twenty years of 
use in this country without a single ball burst is sufficient evidence of the 



X, 





quality of this ball. This is acr-onnttd tor heoause of the close inspection 
at the tannery and again after the balls are finished, and as a matter of 
fact, it is rarely that even the slightest defect in either leather or sewing 
is overlooked, so careful is this factory inspection. The No. J5 Official 
Rugby Foot Ball is guaranteed absolutely. It is put up complete with 
leather case and pure Para rubber bladder and inflater, lacing needle and 
rawhide lace are also included. The price of the No. J5 foot ball complete 
is $5.00. Other Spalding Rugby foot balls are furnished at prices running 
from $L00 each, up. All of them are made of good quality material; they 



SPALDING'S OFFICIAL FOOT BALL GUIDE. 

are sewn in the most careful manner in the Spalding factory and they are 
all guaranteed absolutely, both as regards material and workmanship. In 
the Spalding Catalogue of Foot Ball Goods and other athletic supplies will 
be found the most complete line of equipment for the Rugby game Blad- 
ders, foot ball inflaters, including also a very satisfactory style of foot ball 
timer, which costs $2.50 each. With this timer it is possible to time accu- 
rately an entire half of a foot ball match, stopping during interruptions 
and starting again when players resume, the timing going on continuously 
until the end of the half. 

Another article which is included in the Spalding line and which is really 
very necessary for a foot ball team that is anxious to perfect itself in the 
game is the Spalding Foot Ball Tackling Machine, including the special 
releasing attachment which they have devised. Most of the accidents on 
the foot ball field are caused by the lack of knowledge on the part of the 
players of the proper method of tackling opponent players, and this 
device has been gotten up in order to instruct players how to tackle prop- 
erly. The tackling dummy itself, made of brown canvas without joining 
at waist and reinforced at bottom with heavy sole leather, costs $15.00 each. 
The releasing attachment, complete with pulley block to run on cross rod 
and spliced to connecting rope, costs $10.00 each, and the steel cross rod. 
threaded at both ends, complete with nuts and washers, costs $7.50. 



WHAT TO WEAR FOR FOOT BALL. 
Various rulings have been made by the Rules Committee in regard to the 
style of outfit that should be permitted for use by foot ball players. In this 
particular, Spalding foot ball equipment will be found to conform always 
to the latest rulings of the Rules Committee. There is not an article in- 
cluded in the Spalding line which is not made in exact accordance with the 
ofiicial rules, and in purchasing from A. G. 
Spalding & Bros, the player may be certain 
that the equipment supplied is i-ight in every 
particular and is correct for use on the foot 
ball field 
The best grade of foot ball clothing included 

in the Spalding line is known 

as the 'Varsity, and in this 

grade the sleeveless jackets 

cost for the VK style, which 

is specially reinforced, $1.50 

each, and for the VJ regular 

style,$l 25each. The trousers 

in this quality cost $2.50 per 

pair. Tliey are known as the 

No VT. and a special union 
No. VK. suit made up of the No. VT No. VT. 

trousers and the No. VJ jacket, connected by a substantial elastic belt, cost? 





SPALDING'S OFFICIAL FOOT BALL CUIDE. 




No. 30 



$5.00 complete Moleskin foot ball pants cost in the various qualities, No, 
OOR. paddnd, $5 00 per pair, sanit- quality, uupa(l<le<l, $4.00 per pair, and in 
No. OJMR quality, padded. $3.25 per pair. Canvas trousers cost from 85 
cents to $1.75 per pair, and sleeveless canvas jackets cost from 40 cents to 
75 cents each. ' 

The Spalding No 30 shin guard is made up on what are 
generally recognized as the only correct principles. It really 
protects without being uncomfortably heavy, and is listed at 
$2.00 per pair. Spalding furnishes other styles also, all of 
which are well made, at $1.50, $1.00, 50 cents and 40 cents 
per pair. Well made shoulder pads of the best quality, 
No. B, cost $2.50 each. The No. D leather shoulder pad costs 
Sl.OO each> and other styles of leather and canvas pads cost 
50 cents and 25 cents each A combined leg, knee and shin 
guard, the Spaldins: No C, costs $5.00 each, and it is a very 
satisfactory article indeed 

An article that was designed by Mike Murphy, trainer of the University 
of Pennsylvania foot ball team, and for many ye^rs trainer of the Yale foot 
])all team, is the Spalding patent ankle brace for foot ball shoes. It is 
made of finely tempered steel, jointed, and absolutely prevents turning 
of the ankle. It can be put in by any shoemaker. The price of this ankle 
brace is 50 cetits per rair. 

The Spalding styles; of head harness have become universally known as 
the only e Drrect styles for use by up-to-date foot ball players and for this 

season they have retained 

the styles which they made 

up with such good success 

hist season, the best of which 

was the No A style at $5.00 

each, the others being No, B 

at $3.00 and No. C at $2 00, 

They have added this season, 

however, three other styles, 

light in weight, well venti 

lated and all furnished with 
adjustable ear pieces. These are No. M, unpadded, $2.50 eacii and No. MP, 
padded with felt. $2.50 each, and No. E, $1.50 each. 

Tlie Morrill nose masks are too well known to need any special descrip 
tion They are made now in four different styles and sizes, and the price 
for either is $1.50 each They are all described fully in the Spalding cata 
logue. Separate mouthpieces are furnished in various styles also for 
25 cents each. 

Every pair of Spalding foot ball shoes is built under the direct super- 
vision of experts in the Spalding factory. They are worn by the players 
on every college and school team of any importance in this country. I he 
best quality of the Spalding foot ball shoes is jinown as No. A2-0, and 





No. A. 



No. M. 
(Patent applied for.) 



SPALDING'S OFFICIAL FOOT BALL GUIDE. 




No. A2-0. Front View. No. A2-0. Side View. 



is reeogrnized as standard by 
the foot ball players every- 
• where. It is made of the 
finest kangraroo leather with 
circular reinforce on sides. 
It is a hand-made shoe 
throughout, really a genuine 
bench made shoe, and which 
is different from what is 
ordinarily known as a hand- 
made shoe, as this is a 
cobbler made shoe through- 
out. The price of the No. 
A2-0 shoe is $7.50 per pair. 
The Spalding No. A2-0S shoe 
is made in the same quality, 
but somewhat lighter, being 
designed especially for sprinting, and sells at the same price, $7.50. The 
other Spalding foot ball shoes are. No. A2-M, $5.00 per pair; No. A2-S, 
another sprinting shoe, $5.00 per pair, and No. A-3, $4.00 per pair. 

A copy of the Spalding Fall and Winter Sports Catalogue containing 
prices and pictures of everything necessary for foot ball, basket ball, 
skating, and all other seasonable pastimes will be mailed free to any 
address on request to any Spalding store, a list of which is gi^en below: 

New York City-124-128 Nassau Street and 29-33 West 42d Street. 

Philadelphia, Pa.-1013 Filbert Street. 

Boston, Mass.— 73 Federal Street. 

Baltimore, Md.— 208 East Baltimore Street. 

Washington, D. C.-709 14th Street, N. W. (Colorado Building). 

Pittsburg, Pa. -439 Wood Street. 

Buffalo, N. Y.-611 Main Street. 

Syracuse, N. Y.— University Block. 

Cincinnati. O.— Fountain Square,-27 East 5th Street. 

('hicago, 111.— 147-149 Wabash Avenue. 

St. Louis, MO.-710 Pine Street. 

Cleveland, 0.-741 Euclid Avenue. 

Kansas City, Mo.-llll Walnut Street. 

Minneapolis, Minn.— 39 Sixth Street, South. 

Detroit, Mich. —254 Woodward Avenue. 

New Orleans, La. — 140 Carondelet Street. 

Denver, Colo. —1616 Arapahoe Street. 

San Francisco, Cal.— 134 Geary Street. 

Montreal, Canada— 443 St. James Street. 

London, England— 53, 54, 55, Fetter Lane^ and West End Branch, 29, Hay- 
market, S. W 




The Spalding Official 

Intercollegiate 

Foot Ball 



^=D^ 





C=?N 



/j~3 U^-»~ p~~ |~»_ CT!! t^ 




No. J5. This is the only Official Rugby Foot 
Ball, and is used in every important match played 
in this country. Guaranteed absolutely if seal of 
box is unbroken. We pack with leather case and 
pure Para rubber bladder, an inflater, lacing 
needle and rawhide lace. . Complete, $5.00 

Prices subject to change without notice 

^^J Send for handsomely illustrated catalogue of all athletic sports. 



Montreal, 
Canada 



Commuiiicatious addressed to 

A„ G. SPALDING & BROS.* 

in any of the following cities will receive attention- 
For street numbers see inside front cover of this bof)k. 



New York 
Buffalo 
Syracuse 



Boston 
Pittsburg 
Baltimore 



Philadelphia 
Washington 
New Orleans 



Chicago 

Cleveland 

Detroit 



St. Louis 
Cincinnati 
Kansas City 



San Francisco 

Denver 
Minneapolis 



These prices in effect July 5. 1907. 




THE 

Spalding Rugby ** Special" 




No. A. A substantial ball in every detail. Made of spe- 
cially tanned imported grain leather and put together in 
a most thorough manner. Superior in style and quality 
to the many balls put on the market in imitation of our 
Official No. J5 ball. Each ball put up in a sealed box with 
guaranteed bladder and rawhide lace. . Each, $3.50 

No. B. Selected fine grain leather case. Well made and 
will give excellent satisfaction. Each ball packed com- 
plete in sealed box with guaranteed bladder and rawhide 
lace. Regulation size Each, $3.00 

No. S. Good quality leather case, pebble graining. Each 
ball packed complete with guaranteed bladder in sealed 
l)o\. Substantially made throughout. Regulation size. 

Each, $2.00 

Prices subject to change without notice 

Send for handsomely illustrated catalogue of all athletic sports. 



Montreal, 
Canada 



Communications addressed to 

A. G. SPALDING & BROS. 

in any of the following cities will receive attention- 
For street numbers see inside front cover of ttiis book. 



London, 
England 



Neiv York 

Buffalo 
Syracuse 



Boston 
Pittsburg 
Baltimore 



Philadelphia 
Washington 
New Orleans 



Chicago 

Cleveland 

Detroit 



St. Louis 
Cincinnati 



San Francisco 
Denver 



Kansas City Minneapolis 



These prices in effect July 5, 1907. 



Rugby Foot Balls 




No. F. Handsomely grained cowhide case of excellent 
quality. Each ball packed complete with guaranteed 
bladder and rawhide lace in sealed box. Regulation size. 

Each, $2.50 

No. C, Well made leather case, pebble graining; standard 
trade-mark quality. Each ball packed complete with 
guaranteed bladder in sealed box. Regulation size. 

Each, $1.50 

No. D. Taade-mark quality ; leather case, pebbled grain- 
ing. Each ball complete with guaranteed bladder in 
sealed box. Regulation size. . . . Each, $1.25 
No. 25. Leather case, trade-mark quality. Each ball com- 
plete with guaranteed bladder in sealed box. Regulation 

size Each, $1.00 

Prices subject to change without notice 
Send for handsomely illustrated catalog-ue of all athletic sports 



Commnnieatioiis addressed to 

A* C. SPALDING & BROS. 

in any of the foUowing cities will receive attention 
For sH,reet numbers see inside front cover of this boi 



Montreal, 
Canada 



London, 
England 



New York 
Buffalo 
Syracuse 



Boston I Philadelphia 
Pittsburg \ Washington 
Baltimore I New Orleans 



Chicago 

Cleveland 

Detroit 



St. Lotiis 
Cincinnati 
Kansas City 



Sa7i Francisco 

Denver 
Minneapolis 



These prices in effect July 5, 1907. 




Showing No. VK Jacket. Note reinforce- 
ment and extra large arm holee. 



The Spalding 

Special 

'Varsity 

Foot Ball 

Jackets, 

Sleeveless 

■fATE make two styles 
of jackets, both 
sleeveless.in this grade. 
The illustrations will 
show some of the fea- 
tures of the VK style, 
which is made accord- 
ing to the very latest 
ideas. Arm holes, par- 
ticularly, are made ex- 
tra large, and there is 
a heavy reinforcement 
running all around 
them and around neck 
and back to give addi- 
tional strength where 
it is most needed and to 
support lacing at edges. 
No.VK. Jacket, sleeve- 
less. Each, $1.50 
No.VJ. Jacket, sleeve- 
less ; regular style, 
without reinforce- 

^^ „„ ^ ments. Each. $1.25 

No. VK. 

Prices subject to change without notice. 

Send for handsomely illustrated catalogue of all athletic sports, 




Montreal, 
Canada 



Communications addressed to 

' A. C. SPALDING & BROS. 

in any of the following cities will receive attention: 
For street numbers see inside front cover of this book. 



London, 
England 



New York 

Buffalo 

Syracuse 



Boston 
Pittsburg 
Baltimore 



Philadelphia 
Washington 
New Orleans 



Chicago I St. Louis 

Cleveland] Cincinnati 

Detroit \ Kansas City 



San Francisco 

Denver 
Minneapolis 



These prices in effect July 5, 1907. 



=z====zz=:5fgfej 




ITe Spalding Special 
'Varsity Foot Ball Trousers 



(PADDED) 




The hips and 
knees are prop- 
erly padded ac- 
cording to our 
improved method, 
with pure curled 
hair, and the 
thighs have cane 
strips. Abso- 
lutely best grade 

throughout. 
Trousers padded. 

No. VT. 
Per pair, $2.50 



No. VT. 



Send 



Prices subject to change without notice. 

for handsomely illustrated catalogue of all athletic sports. 



Ci>minuiii(*ations addressed to 



Montreal.] At C. SPALDING & BROS. London, 

Canada \ in any of the following cities will receive attention: [ England 

For street numbers see inside froTit cover of this book. 



New York 
Buffalo 
Syracuse 



Boston I Philadelphia 
Pittsburg Washington 
Baltimore I New Orleans 



Chicago 

Cleveland 

Detroit 



St. Louis 
Cincinnati 
Kansas City 



San Francisco 

Denver 
Minneapolis 



These prices in effect July 5. 1907. 




=^ 



Spalding 
'Varsity 
Union 
Suit 



IWTADE up of our 
^^^ 'Varsity No. 
VT Pants and No. 
VJ Jacket, con- 
nected by a sub- 
stantial elastic 
belt. This suit 
will give excellent 
satisfaction. It 
conforms to each 
movement of the 
body and makes 
an ideal outfit in 
every way. 

No. VTJ. 

Spalding- 'Varsity 

Union Foot Ball 

Suit. 

Price, $5.00 



No. \TJ. 
Prices subject to change without notice. 

Send for handsomely illustrated catalogue of all athletic sports. 



These prices in effect July 5, 1907. 



Foot Ball Jackets 

Sleeveless Jacket, made of special brown canvas. 

soft finish, sewed with the best and strongest 

linen ; hand made eyelets for lacing 

No. I. Each, 75c. 

Sleeveless Jacket, made of good quality brown 

canvas. Well made throughout. 

No. 2. Each, 50c. 

Sleeveless Jacket, good quality white canvas. 

Well made. No. 3. Each, 40C. 




No. 1 



Foot Ball Pants 

MOLESKIN 

Intercollegiate Foot Ball Pants, lace front, 
made of the best and most serviceable 
drab moleskin, manufactured expressly for 
the purpose. The hips and knees are 
padded according to our improved method 
with curled hair, and the thighs have 

cane strips. 
No. OOR. Padded. , Pair, $5.00 
No. OOR. Unpadded. " 4.00 

No. OMR. Made in same style as our 
\x mt^ No. OOR, but of a cheaper grade of mole- 

rt^^ , skin. Padded. . . Pair. $3.25 
Showing method of ^ a m.i« r a «* 

padding Nos. OOR, CANVAS 

OMR, IP and 2P ^^^^ jp^ Extra quality brown canvas. 

soft finish, well padded throughout and cane strips at thighs. $1.75 

No. 2 P. Good quality brown canvas, well padded and substantially 

made. . Per pair.$ f .50 

No. X P. Made of Heavy white drill and well padded. " .85 , 

Prices subject to change without notice 

Send for handsomely illustrated catalogue of all athletic sports 




Montreal, 
Canada 



Communications addressed to 

A4C SPALDING & BROS. I London, 

in any of the following cities will receive attention : | England 
For street numbers see inside front coverof this book. 



New York 
Buffalo 
Syracuse 



Boston I Philadelphia 
Pittsburg Washington 
Baltimore I New Orleans 



Chicago 

Cleveland 

Detroit 



St. Louis I San Francisco 
Cincinnati Denver 

Kansas City] Minneapolis 



These prices in effect July 5, 1907. 




Spalding Foot Ball Shoes 

Every pair of Spalding Foot Ball Shoes is built 
under the direct supervision of experts in our fac- 
tory. They are worn by the players on every college 
and school team of any importance in this country, 
and notably by the following most successful teams: 
Yale, Princeton, Cornell, University of Pennsyl- 
vania, Carlisle, West Point and Annapolis, 






NO.A2-0. 
Front View 



No. A2-0. 
Side View 



No. A2-0S. Arrange- 

Side View merit of Cleats 



No. A2-0. Recognized as standard by foot 
ball players everywhere. Finest kangaroo 
leather with circular reinforce on sides. 
Hand made throughout, a genuine bench 
made shoe. . . . Per pair, $7.5 O 

No. A2-OS. Sprinting Shoe, extremely light ; 
same quality as our No. A2-0. Pair, $7.50 

Prices subject to change without notice. 

Send for handsomely illustrated catalogue of all athletic sports. vIt' 



These prices in effect July 5, 1907, 




Spalding Foot Ball Shoes 

Every pair of Spalding Foot Ball Shoes is built 
under the direct supervision of experts in our fac- 
tory. They are worn by the players on every college 
and school team of any importance in this country, 
and notably by the following most successful teams: 
Yale, Princeton, Cornell, University of Pennsyl- 
vania, Carlisle, West Point and Annapolis. 




No. A2-M No. A2-S No. A-3 

No. A2-M. The 'Varsity Shoe. Finest black 
calfskin; hand made throughout. Equipped 
with Spalding Foot Ball Ankle Brace. Will 
^ive excellent satisfaction. Per pair, $5.00 

No. A2-S. The Club Special Shoe. Sprint- 
ing Shoe, extremely light; black calfskin, 
good quality, very well made. Pair, $5.00 

No. A-3. The Amateur Special Shoe. Black 
calfskin, good quality, machine sewed. A 
very serviceable shoe. Per pair, $4.00{ 

Prices subject to change without notice. 

^ Send for handsomely illustrated catalogue of all athletic sports. 

. These prices in effect July 5, 1907. 



THE SPALDING HEAD HARNESS 




No. C 

No. B. Soft black leather top 
and sides, soft leather ear 
pieces, adjustable chin strap; 
rear extension. Top padded 
with felt and well ventilated. 
Sides stitched and felt padded 
with canvas lining. S3. 00 
No. M. Soft, good quality 
black leather, unpadded. Has 
adjustable ear pieces, gives 
necessary protection, and at 
the same time is one of the 
most camfortable and satis- 
factory styles of head harness 
that we have ever made. 

Each, $2.50 
No. M P. Similar in style to 
No. M, but padded with felt. 
Each, $2.50 
No. E. Made of special and 
very durable material ; nicely 
padded and well made. Same 
design as No. MP. $ 1 . 50 
No. C. Soft black leather top, well ventilated; moleskin sides and ear 
pieces, elastic chin strap ; rear extension. Nicely padded with felt 

and substantially made Each, $2.00 

When ordering any of these Head Harness specify size of hat worn. 

Prices subject to change without notice 
Send for handsomely illustrated catalogue of all athletic sports. 



Patent applied for. 




Montreal, 
Canada 



Couimuiiications addressed to 

A« G. SPALDiNC & BROS. 

iu auy of the following cities will receive attention: 
For street numbers see inside front coverof this book. 



London, 
England 



New York 
Buffalo 
Syracuse 



Boston 
Pittsburg 
Baltimore 



Philadelphia 

Washington 
New Orleans 



Chicago 

Cleveland 

Detroit 



St. Louis I Sa7i Francisco 
Cincinnati Deuiier 

Kansas City I Minn ea pol is 



These prices in effect July 5, 1907. 



THE SPALDING HEAD HARNESS 




(Patent applied for.) 

No. A. Firm tanned 
black leather, molded to 
shape, perforated for ven- 
tilation and well padded. 
Adjustable chin strap : 
rear extension. This 
head harness presents a 
perfectly smooth sur- 
face, and, while giving 
absolute protection, i s 
one of the coolest and 
lightest made. When 
ordering, specify size of 
hat worn. Each, $5.00 



MORRILL NOSE MASK 

(Patented Sept. 29, 1891) 

None genuine which do not 
bear the name Morrill and date 
of patent. Morrill's Nose Mask 
is made of the finest rubber, and 
no wire or metal is used in its 
construction. It has become a 
necessity on every foot ball 
team and afYords absolute pro- 
tection to the nose and teeth. 

No. 1. Regulation style and size. 
No. IB. Regulation style, youths' size, . '* 

No. O. Full size, with adjustable mouthpiece. " 
No. OB. Youths' size, with adjustable mouthpiece. 
Prices subject to change without notice 

Send for handsomely illustrated catalogue of all athletic sports 




Montreal, 
Canada 



Communications addressed to 

Ai C. SPALDING &. BROS. 

in any of the follo-wing cities will receive attention- 
For street numbers see inside front cover of this book 



London, 
England 



New York 
Buffalo 
Syracuse 



Boston 
Pittsburg 
Baltimore 



Philadelphia 
Washington 
Neu' Orleans 



Chicago St. Louis 

Cleveland] Cincinnati 

Detroit [Kansas City 



San Francisco 

Denver 
Minneapolis 



These prices in effect July 5, 1907. 





No. 30 



Spalding Patented Shin Guard 

(Patent applied for) 
We claim that this shin guard is made accord- 
ing to the only correct principles, in that : 
First— It is built \o prevent contact with 
the sensitive shin bone, rather than to at- 
teynpt to soften a blow by piling on padding. 
Second— It is thoroughly ventilated, mak- 
ing it the most comfortable to wear of any. 
Third— It is extremely light in weight, 
simply consisting of elkskin ventilated leg- 
piece with molded "barbette" piece and 
soft tanned leather fastening straps. 
No. 30. Per pair, $2.00 



Spalding Foot BaU Shin Guards 

No. 60. Covering of black lea- 
ther, backed up with real rattan 
reeds; felt padding. Leather 
straps and bindings Light in 
weight and wellmade. Pair, $1.50 
No. 10. Best quality moleskin, 
same material as in our No. OOR 
foot ball pants, backed up with 
real rattan reeds. Pair, $1.00 

We are snaking two sizes 

and styles of canvas shin 

guards, both well made and 

light in weight. 

No. 9. Canvas, length 11 inches, with reeds. 
No. 8. Canvas, length 9 inches, with reeds. 

Prices subject to change without notice. 

Send for handsomely illustrated catalogue of all athletic sports. 





40c. 



Communications addressed to 
Montreal\ A, C. SPALDING & BROS. 

Canada \ in any of the following cities will receive attention: 
For street numbers see inside front cover of this book. 



London, 
England 



New York 
Buffalo 
Syracuse 



Boston I Philadelphia 
Pittsburg I Washington 
Baltimore \ New Orleans 



Chicago 

Cleveland 

Detroit 



St. Louis 
Cincinnati 
Kansas City 



San Francisco 

Denver 
Minneapolis 



These prices in effect July 5, 1907. 




LAWSON 

FOOT BALL TIMER 




A continuous timer, arranged so that an entire half may be 
timed accurately, stopped during interruptions, and started 
again when play is resumed. Can be used also for timing 

other athletic events. 
Lawson Foot Ball Timer, Nickel Case. . Each, $2.50 j 
Prices subject to change without notice. 
^ Send for handsomely illustrated catalogue of all athletic sports. 



Montreal, 
Canada 



Commuaii-ittions addressed to 

Ai C. SPALDING & BROS. 

in any of the following cities will receive attention: 
For street numbers see inside front cover of this book. 



London, 
England 



New York 

Buffalo 

Syracuse 



Boston I Philadelphia Chicago I St. Louis 
Pittsburg Washington Cleveland] Cincinnati 
Baltimore 1 New Orleans Detroit \ Kansas City 



San Francisco 

Denver 
Minneapolis 



These prices in effect July 5. 1907. 



THE FOLLOWING INDEX FROM SPALDING'S 
LATEST CATALOGUES WILL GIVE AN 
IDEA OF THE GREAT VARIETY OF 
ATHLETIC GOODS MANUFACTURED AND 
SOLD BY A. G. SPALDING & BROS. 



Abdominal Masseur 64 
Abdomen Prot'r 13, 41 
Ankle Brace, Foot Ball 7 
Ankle Brace, Skate 32 
Ankle Pad, Hockey 34 
Ankle Supporters . 32 
Ash Bars. . . 63 
Attachments, Chest 

Weight. . . 61 
Backstops, Outdoor 44 
Balls. Base . . 69 
Balls. Basket . 43, 44 
Balls. Foot, Ass'n 10, 11 
Balls. Foot. Rugby 3,4 
Balls. Golf . . 25 
Balls. Hand . . 51 
Balls, Indoor Base . 42 
Balls, Medicine . 51 
Balls. Polo . .41 
Ball. Push . . 51 
Balls. Volley . . 51 
Balls. Water Polo . 51 
Bar Bells. . . 63 
Bar Stalls . . 56 
Bar Stall Benches . 56 
Bars, Trapeze . . 66 
Bars, Horizontal . 67 
Bags, Skate . . 33 
Bags, Striking 54. 55 
Bandages. Elastic . 14 
Bandages, Silk . 14 
Bars, Parallel . .67 
Bases, Indoor . . 42 
Base Balls . . 69 
Basket Balls . 43. 44 
Bats.Indoor Base Ball 42 
Belts. Leather 11, 15 
Belts. Worsted Web 11 , 15 
Belts, Elastic . . 14 
Blades. Foil . . 58 
Blades, Sword . 58 

Bladders. Basket Ball 44 
Bladders. Foot Ball 5. 11 
Bladders, St'k'g Bag 55 
^ooks. Basket Ball 

Score . . .44 



Caddy Bags . . 25 
Caps. Skull . . 12 
Catchers' Protector 42 
Caps, University . 21 
Chamois Pad. Fenc'g 60 
Chest Weights . 61 
Clubs. Indian . 62. 63 
Cross Bars . . 49 
Cushions. Toboggan 46 
Discus . . . 49 
Disks. St'k'g Bag . 57 
Dumb Bells . 62. 63 
Elastic Bandages . 14 
Elbow Protector . 60 
Emblems . . . 21 
Exerciser. Home . 68 
Exercisers. Whitely 68 
Exhibition Clubs . 63 
Fencing Sticks . 58 
Finger Protection . 44 
Flags. College . 21 

Foils, Fencing . 58 
Foot Balls, Ass'n 10, 11 
Foot Balls, Rugby 3, 4 
Foot Ball Goal Nets 11 
Foot Ball Timer . 5 
Glove, Foot Ball . 13 
Gloves, Hockey . 37 
Gloves, Boxing 52. 53 
Gloves, Fencing . 59 
Gloves, Handball . 51 
Goals, Basket Ball . 44 
Goals, Foot Ball . 11 
Goals, Hockey . 37 
Golf Clubs . . 25 
Grips, Athletic . 22 
Gymnasium Board, 

Home . . .65 
Gymnas'm. Home . 65 
Hammers, Athletic 48 
Handballs . . 51 
Hangers. Indian Club 63 
Hats, University . 21 
Head Harness . . 8 
Health Pull . . 68 
Hob Nails . . 17 



Hockey Sticks 36, 37 
Hockey Pucks . 37 
Hockey Goals . . 37 
Hockey Tights . 38 
Horizontal Bars. Door- 
way . . .67 
Hurdles, Safety . 50 
Indoor Base Ball 

Goods ... 42 
Indian Clubs . 62, 63 
Inflaters, Foot Ball 5 
Inflaters, Strik'g Bag 55 
Jackets, Fencing . 60 
Jackets. Foot Ball . 6 
Jerseys 12. 18, 19, 38. 45 
Knee Protector . 42 
Knickerbockers. Foot 

Ball ... 12 
Lace. Foot Ball . 5 
Lanes for Sprints . 50 
Leg Guards. Foot Ball 7 
Leg Guards, Hockey 38 
Leg Guards, Polo . 41 
Letters, Embroidered 21 
Letters, Woven . 21 
Lockers. Durand . 68 
Machine, Tackling . 5 
Masks, Nose . . 8 
Masks. Fencing . 60 
Masseur. Abdominal 64 
Medicine Balls . 51 
Mattresses . . 67 
Measur'g Tape. Steel 50 
Megaphones . . 5 
Mitts. Striking Bag 55 
Mitts, Handball , 51 
Mocassins . . 47 
Mouthpiece . . 8 
Net, Volley Ball . 51 
Needle, Lacing . 5 
Nose Masks . . 8 
Numbers, Compet'rs' 49 
Pads, Foot Ball . 7 
Pants, Basket Ball. 45 
Pants, Foot Ball. 
Rugby ... 6 



SPALDING'S ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE 
AND PRICE LIST FURNISHED FREE UPON 
APPLICATION TO ANY OF SPALDING'S 
STORES-FOR LOCATION OF WHICH SEE 
INSIDE FRONT COVER OF THIS BOOK. : • • 



Pants, F't Ball, Ass'n 12 
Pants, Knee . . 20 
Pants, Roller Polo . 41 
Pants, Running . 22 
Pants. Hockey . 38 
Plastrons, Fencing- 60 
Platforms.St'k'gBagST 
Poles, Ski . . 47 

Poles, Vaulting . 49 
Polo Goods . .41 
Polo Goal Cages . 41 
Polo Sticks . . 41 
Protect'r. Abdomen 13 
Protector. Elbow . 60 
Protectors, Foot Ball 13 
Protectors, Polo . 41 
Protector, Wire 13, 41 
Protection for Run- 
ning Shoes . . 22 
Pucks, Hockey . 37 
Push Ball . . 51 
Pushers, Chamois . 22 
Puttees. Golf . . 17 
Quoits . . .51 
Rapiers . . .58 
Referees' Whistle . 50 
Referees' Horns . 50 
Rings, Exercising . 66 
Rings, Swinging . 66 
Rowing Machines . 64 
Rubber Discs . , 17 
Rubber Mouthpiece 8 
Scabbards for Skates 26 
Score Books, Basket 

Ball ... 44 
Seven-foot Circle . 50 
Shin Guards, Rugby 7 
Shin Guards, Ass'n 11 
Shin Guards, Hockey 38 
Shin Guards. Polo . 41 
Shirts . . . 20 
Shirts, Basket Ball 45 
Shirts, Ass'n F't Ball 12 
Shirts, Sleeveless . 20 
Shoes, Basket Ball 45 
Shoes, Bowling . 19 



Shoes, Clog . . 19 
Shoes, Cross Country 22 
Shoes, Fencing . 59 
Shoes, Foot Ball, 

Rugby ... 9 
Shoes, Foot Ball, 

Association . . 11 
Shoes, Indoor Ath. . 22 
Shoes, Golf . . 17 
Shoes, Gymnasium 23 
Shoes, Gymnasium., 

Ladies' . . . 23 
Shoes, Jumping . 22 
Shoes, Running . 22 
Shoes, Skating 34, 35 
Shoes, Ladies' Skat'g 35 
Shoes, Squash . 24 

Shot, Athl'c, Indoor 48 
Shot, Massage . 64 
Shot. Regulation . 48 
Shoulder Pads . 7 

Single Trapeze . 66 
Skate Bags . . 33 
Skates, Hockey 27,29, 30 
Skate Holders . 26 

Skates, Ice . 28, 32, 33 
Skates, Ra.Mug . 26 
Skates, Rink, Ice . 31 
Skate Rollers . . 40 
Skates, Roller 39, 40 
Skates, Tubular . 26 
Skate Sundries 26,32,33 
Skate Straps . . 33 
Skis .... 47 
Sleeve Bands, College 21 
Snow Shoes . . 47 
Snow Shoe Sandals 47 
Standards, Vaulting 49 
Standards, Volley Ball 51 
Starter's Pistol . 50 
Sticks, Hockey 30. 37 
Sticks, Fencing . 58 
Sticks, Polo . . 41 
Steel Tapes . . 50 
Stockings . . 15 



Stockings, Bask. Ball 42 
Stockings, Foot Ball 12 
Stop Watch . . 50 
Striking Bags . 54, 55 
Suit, Union Foot Ball 6 
Supporters, Elastic 13 
Supporters, Hackey 

Ankle . . 14,34 
Supporters, Wrist . 13 
Suspensories . 13 

Squash Balls . . 24 
Squash Racquets , 24 
Squash Ten. Rackets 24 
Sweaters . . 16, 17 
Swivels, Strik'g Bag 54 
Swords, Fencing , 58 
Swords, Duelling . 58 
Tackling Machine . 5 
Take-off Board . 50 
Tapes, Measuring . 50 
Thumb Protector . 44 
Tights ... 20 
Toboggans . . 46 
Toboggan Cushions 46 
Toboggan Toe Caps 46 
Toe or Stop Boards 50 
Toques . . . 46 
Trapeze, Single . 66 
Trapeze, Adjustable 66 
Trunks . 20 

Umpires' Whistle . 50 
Uniforms, Indoor . 42 
Vaulting Poles and 

Standards . . 49 
Volley Ball . 51 

Water Polo Ball . 51 
Whitely Exerciser . 68 
Waist Reducer . 56 
Wands. Calisthenic 63 
Wands, School . 63 
Weights. 56-lb. 48 

Wrestling Machine. 56 
Wrist Supporters . 13 
Wrist Machines . 66 
Y. M. C. A. Trousers 20 



SE 







Albert G. and J. Walter Spalding commenced business March 
ist, 1876, at Chicago, under the firm name A. G. Spalding & Bro. , 
with a capital of $800. Two years later their brother-in-law, 
William T. Brown, came into the business, and the firm name 
was then changed to A. G. Spalding & Bros. 

The business was founded on the Athletic reputation of Mr. 
A. G. Spalding, who acquired a national prominence in the realm 
of Sport, as Captain and Pitcher of the Forest City's of Rockford, 
111. (1865-70), the original Boston Base Ball Club (Champions of 
the United States, 1871-75), and the Chicago Ball Club C1876-77), 
first Champions of the National League. He was also one of the 
original organizers, and for many years a director, of the National 
League of America, the premier Base Ball organization of the 
world. jMr. Spalding has taken an important part in Base Ball 
affairs ever since it became the National Game of the United States 
at the close of the Civil War in 1865. The returning veterans of 
that War, who had played the game as a camp diversion, dis- 
seminated this new American field sport throughout the country, 
and thus gave it its national character. 

Base Ball Goods were the only articles of merchandise carried 
the first year, the total sales amounting to $11,000. Gradually 
implements and accessories of Athletic Sports were added, until 
the firm now manufacture the requisites for all kinds of Athletic 
Sports. Originally the firm contracted for their supplies from 
outside manufacturers, but finding it impossible, by this method, 
to keep the standard of quality up to their high ideals, they 
gradually commenced the manufacture of their own goods, and 
by the acquisition from time to time of various established 
factories located in different parts of the country, are now able 
to, and do manufacture in their own factories everything bearing 
the Spalding Trade- Mark, which stands the world over as a 
guarantee of the highest quality. 



J 



There are over three thousand persons ernployed in various 
capacities in A, G. Spalding & Bros.' factories and stores located 
in all the leading cities of the United States, Canada and England. 
A capital of over $4,000,000 is employed in carrying on this busi- 
ness, and the annual sales exceed the total combined annual sales 
of all other manufacturers in the world making a similar line 
of goods. 

A. G. Spalding & Bros, have always taken a leading part in 
the introduction, encouragement and support of all new Sports 
and Games, and the prominence attained by Athletic Sports in 
the United States is in a very great measure due to the energy, 
enterprise and liberality of this progressive concern. They were 
the pioneers, and in fact the founders, of the Athletic Goods 
Trade in America, and are now universally recognized as the 
undisputed Leaders in the Athletic Goods line throughout the 
world. 

The late Marshall Field of Chicago, America's greatest Mer- 
chant, speaking of the business of A. G. Spalding & Bros., said: 
"I am familiar with its early career, growth and development, 
and when I compare its unpromising outlook and the special 
field for its operations that existed at its inception in 1876, witii 
its present magnitude, I consider it one of the most remarkable 
mercantile successes of the world." 

The millions of Athletes using them, and the thousands of 
Dealers selling them, attest to the High Quality of Spalding's 
Athletic Goods, and they must determine the future history of 
this concern. 



^l^. 







ATHLETIC I 



B LIBRARY OF CONGRESS "^f 

' iiiiiiiiliilfiii iiiiiiiiiiiii ^ 



006 010 781 6 



A separate book covers _ . 

and is Official and Standard 
Price 10 cents each 



GRAND PRIZE 



ST. LOUIS. 1904 




GRAND PRIX 




PARIS, 1900 



Spalding 
athletic goods 

ARE THE STANDARD OF THE IV^ORLD 



A. G. Spalding ® Bros. 

MAINTAIN WHOLESALE and RETAIL STORES /n the FOLLOWING CITItlS 



NEW YORK CHIC 

PHILADELPHIA ST. 

BOSTON C 

BALTIMORE 
WASHINGTON 
PITTSBURG 
BUFFALO 
SYRACUSE 

NEW ORLEANS 
MONTREAL. CAN 



CHICAGO 
ST. LOUIS 
CINCINNATI 
CLEVELAND 
DETROIT 

KANSAS CITY 
MINNEAPOLIS 
DENVER 
)ANS SAN FRANCISCO 

LONDON, ENG 



Factories owned and operated by A.G.Spaldin^ & Bros, and whei 
"odcMarktcf Athletic Goods are made are located inthe folli 



IHEW YORK CHICAGO SAK FRANCISCO CHICOPEE,MASS.| 
BROOKLYN BOSTON PHILADELPHIA LONDON, ENG.