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No. XL11. 









. . . 


M. R. A. S., 






G. C. S. I., G. C. I. JE. f G. B- E.. LL. D., 




(All rights reserved}. 


II ? II 

,r t. 

( ^4// rights reserved* ) 

Printed by P. Vishi Nath & Sons, Photographers and Proprietors 
of 'Kashmir Pratap Steam Press' Srioagar 

and Published by 

The Research Department, Jammu & Kashmir State, 

? i ipo ; 



The present edition of the Spandakarikas 
with the Nirnaya of Kshemaraja is based on 
the collation of the following manuseripts:- 

A Belonging to this office Library. 
Contains 37 leaves written in exquisite 
Sarada characters. Each page of it contains 16 
lines. It is a transcript of some old manuscript, 
written on new Kashmiri paper and is on 
the whole incorrect. 

B, Belongs to Pandit Rajanaka 
Mahesvara of this Department. Consists of 
40 leaves, is written in Sarada charac- 
ters on new Kashmiri paper about fifty years 
old and is generally correct. TJnfortunatelyi 
it runs only up to the 25th Karika. 
Despite this defect, it has proved a valuable 
guide in the preparation of the present 

0. A transcript kindly got prepared* 
at the request of the Research Department, 
by the Curator, Government Oriental Manus- 
cripts Library, Egmore, Madras, of about 54 
pages, without beginning and wanting in thfe 
commentary on the 13th stanza of the 3rd 

I have here to express my thanks to 
the Curator, Government Oriental Manuscripts 
Library, Madras, through whose kindness I 

secured a copy of the complete work in his 
possession, and to Pandit Mahesvar Razdan, 
Pandit f my office, as also to those of mj 
subordinates who helped me every now and 

then with their suggestions in preparing- the 
present Yolume of the Kashmir Sanskrit 

Srinagar, Kashmir. j Madhmudan KanL 
6 January, 1925. j 


Ever since the beginning of the Christian 
era until, more or less definitely, the close of 
the seventh century, the valley of Kashmir 
remained in close contact with the Buddhists. 
They carried on their proselytising propaganda 
successfully and the whole of Kashmir came 
under their sway. 

Teachers like Dlgnaga and Dbarmakirti 
appealed most to the minds of the people and 
consequenly the belief of the populate in the 
tenets of the Shaivaism received a great shock. 
The voice of the Shaivaistic teachers of this 
period was feeble in comparison with that of 
the Buddhists. The former busied themselves 
with the work of giving the colouring of the 
Dualistic Shaivaism to the extant Shaivagamas. 
The present Idealistic monism was unknown 
or less heard and spoken of. It was in the 
8th century that Vasugupta was born and 
studied the Shaivagamas from the standpoint 
of the Idealistic Monism. The power of 
argumenting was so strong in the Buddhist 
philosophers that even he felt in a fix to 
meet them and come out triumphant in 
creedal controversies, 

Some of the Buddhist teachers, headed 
by Nagabodhi, engaged him in a wordy warfare 
of discussions. When all his intellectual 
resources failed him to gain victory over 


them, he . tried to seek divine help and 
"implored the favour of Shiva. Te him, He 

appeared in a dream and instructed him to 
repair to the ya mountain, where he 
could find the Shivasutras engraved on 
the rock. Thus 'receiving the holy command, 
Vasugupta hurried to the spot and great was 
bis joy when he found them there. The 
Sutras were copied and published by him. 

The Spanda system owes its origin to 
them and concerns itself with their elucida- 
tion and popularisation v The Spandakarikas, 
which have already been presented to the 
.public the . recensions of Ramakantha and 
Utpala Bhatta, form a detailed commentary 
on the Shiva&utras. Oa this point, all 
Shaivaistic writers are agreed. It is only 
the authorship of the Karikas that has 
.practically remained and will remain a 
scatter of dispute. 

Utpala Bhatta the author of the 
Spandapradipika, a commentary on the 
Spandakarikas, together with a host of other 
Spanda students endorses the view that they 
are the work and production of Kallata, 
the chief disciple of Vasugupta. The 
fifty third stanza in the Spandapradipika 
reads as follows; 


.** Kallata Bhatta rightly versified the 
secret doctrine after ke received it from his 
teacher Yasugupta who had discerned the, 
real being. 55 

. ..It may be borne in mind in this 

..connection... that the stanaa is not found in 

the recensions of Raraakantha and Kshemaraja. 

Kshemaraja upholds th view that they 

were written by Vasugupta himself. What 

lends .weight to his assumption is the presence 

of the following stanza in his recension of 

th Spandakarikas : 

^^t^ I 


The occurrence of the word 'Vasuguptavat* 
in the above stanza is very important for 
the solution of the riddle. The probable 
objection that might be raised against this 
view is the absence of this stanza in other 
recensions. But it does not seem to vitiate 
the view of Kshemaraja as Maheshvarananda, 
the reputed author of the .Maharthamanjari, 
quotes it in toto in the commentary on his 
own Maharthamanjari, ( See page 8 bottom 
Trifandrum edition. ) : 

The name of the commentary written 
by Kshemaraja is Spandanirnaya. It was 
undertaken at the request of his own pious 
pupil Sura. The material,, that the author 
used in preparing it, is openly declared to 

have been obtained from Abhinavagapta, 
the illustrious exponent of the Shaivagama. 


Kshemaraja in his own recension of the 
Karikas follows partially the same order and 
division as was adopted by Ramakantha. 
The Karikas, numbering in all fifty, are 
arranged into three chapters and each chapter 
is called Nissyanda, i. e., vibration. The first 
vibration goes by the name of the vitality m real 
nature, the second by the energy in the rise 
of intuition and the third by the energy in and 
of glory. The last chapter, though called 
Nissyanda, does not form part of the main 
body of the book and is a mere panegyric on 
the "author's spiritual teacher and the author. 


The author himself undertakes to 
discuss what spanda really stands for by both 
positive and negative lines of description. 

Positively he describes it as that power 
of consciousness which infuses life into the 
physical senses, otherwise appearing insentient. 
The realisation of that power is within, an 
easy reach to him who watches and observes 
clearly his own free conscious nature. This 

mode of exertion is according to the Shaivaistic 
terminology known as Bhairava. * The same 
power of spanda, while animating the senses, 
is aptly described as causing creation j 
existence and dissolution. Every phenomenon 
in the life-history of the animate nature is 
brought into existence, maintained and lastly 
put to an end by the same power. The 
realisation of that state places one above the 
fears of creative and destructive forces that 
bring about changes in everything whether 
animate or inanimate. 

Negatively it means a state wherein 
no pain, no pleasure, no perceptible exists. 
It is said that an object when sensed 
represents nothing more than its conscious- 
ness, viz. -apart from consciousness it has no 
basis. For fuller treatment of this point 
the attention of the reader is drawn to 
page 36 of the text. 

The objection how an individual soul, 
regarded identical with that principle, 
experiences the limitation in his powers, 
is ^ best replied by the author when he 
says that it is his free will : that makes 
him appear as limited in his glory. When, 
on the other hand, the individual sonl 9 
out of his own 'free will, identifies him- 
self with that radical principle of univer- 
sal consciousness, all his chains drop down 


and his original .glory returns to him, 

The ' embodied soul, though in reality 
5 identical with that principle of universal 
conscious energy, does not appear as such, 
owing to the three self- imposed limitations 
known as Anava, Mayiya and Karma. 
These defilements circumscribe his powers 
of desire, knowledge and activity. When, 
through persistent introspection and the 
right mode of approaching things external,, 
these impurities are over, there shines forth 
that supreme state wherein there is perfect 
bliss, perfect knowledge and perfect authorship. 
The 'supreme state is not, as some 
blindly suppose, a kind of vacuum, but it 
is rather an inexhaustible store-house of 
complete knowledge and complete activity* 
As an ever-present perceptivity spanda 
principle can n'eyer assume the state of 
being recollected. 

The spanda principle itself appears 
, in the subject-object relation. When iden- 
tical With light, it appears in the 
subjective aspect and, when identical 
with the manifest action, it assumes the 
form of the object Consequently, the whole 
world whether subjective or objective, being the 
manifestation of that one principle, is 
always known to him who realises the 


essence of that principle. Por that principle 
constitutes both the subject and the object 
the only two logical constituents of the 

The author enumerates several emo- 
tional moods in which, as a consequence of 
one's attentive frame of mind, the spanda 
principle is well realised. 

' II ? II 

n vu 

, 4 



I | 

* ff^r I ^ 

sri: II 


I ^ftWFRlW f| 

*V *"S *\ 

^ i!' ( ^ u ) 

^T^fTt fl^fT 


f T 



1 IT* Jo 


^T fl- 


| ' 

i' ( 

^rtt^S ;?; 3^ 

; I f 




: u' ( f ^T" 1 u I 

H V 

ftf f^TTf 

n ^ n 


^ra >rrs: i s i< 3 

FT ^% I 

^FiM ft 

I '[ 1 1 

: f 




it ' 


p ^: u ' 



r: i '[^ i ] 



: i '{> i 3 ] 





TO ^ "< 1 4 1 1 HTRI ON ^4;cJ^H<|| 









Tfo Jo trgf|f% qrs: 



: n 

I ' f ojro 1 1 4r i 

:' ( ^ I 

I ( 

few flf 3?w i 

taw: ir(t oS r o 


f| u 3 






HSTRT TO *nJT: *r snfi: 11' (30 ^rro i ^ o 

: n 

II vs || 

: i 



f ' |i% 

R^^^ II 2; II 


u 5. n 



j 1 

' ( ^r 

II -5 



:?TMl UU 

J^_^S_ ^\ *V (TV fNO ' /V 

?tu^nriv^5^^ w- 






> 3^-4 ft ft 


: U 



9 [ ^T* 3, I U I 1 ] 

" r 
^ ' 'H .. 

^lfMi -3 fit 



-Ha- sr^- 

-.**. -f-rwpT^w 

^W dB^T4^ 




TORT? I ; 

V 1 ** ) 


3 ^ 

^^^ w ^ 


IMS u 



1-W > 

5 T ?rr 





cIUT ^5ftr [ ^ I 

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ITFT: , 



: II ? 5. II 




r.- 1) ' [ f v ^ i 




n* KM 

II ^o || 


: Sff El 

T% ^ 

u ( foo tr< 


^ n 

: II 



ft^rr l g=r 


n \ u 




' qio i% 1 1 





n % n 

t , JT g 

n ^ n 


* r\ r\ 

: n 

n * n 


tl ^ H 


n ' ( 

f T% 

: n tu 

ftwuftferfir ft^ ^ (ft^rray : 



11 [fir. 

t *srnitei*iiitf 

n ^ u 


: n ft 

n ^ ii 

- u ^ ii 



: I 


% ?:?rftrrar ^s 

II ^ II 



t i 

ii ( wo 50 ** i ; 

II ^ II 


; i 
n ' (i% tro ^^ y 

M i 





I * fr^^H^ri^ rf 

flnr: , 




; ERRPft W 




: $< TORT 



u ( ^ I 



: n ^ i 




: u \t n 


JTT gfarr: II ( wr 30 ^ i 


[ R i ] 


n* ( VI 


fl^fT SR^f^r: II U U 



t II ^H n 



r u' ( 

: ( 

n \* u 


T? 'n?g 




II t II 

n ^ u 



II ? II 

II ^ II 

W $RJ 



Sankara's Span da Energy out of Her 
own nature portrays, on the background of 
Her pure self, the totality of categories, as 
a mirror does the city, from earth up to Siva, 
which (totality) is one in substance with Her 
own self. She is the divinity representing 
the faculty of cognition. She forms the vita- 
lity of mantras and is ever abloom. Identical 
with the universe of sound and with the 
supreme egoity or infinite consciousness, She 
exults in glory all the wide world over. 

My Spandasandoha has already thrown 
light in a measure on the principle of Spanda^ 
And now an adequate effort is directed to 
giving a detailed and satisfactory exposition 
of the same principle. 

This gloss on the Spanda system 
calculated to explain the right interconnection 

of the Sutras, i. e. the Spandakarikas; to 
enable a student for acquiring a close 
approach to the highest principle; to r teach 
the method of pointed reasoning and the 
right application of the means (upaya); to help 
in the proper understanding of the self-evident 
truths and lastly to bring home the secret 
philosophy of Kashmir Shaivism. The intelli- 
gent should, hence, piu their attention to 
this gloss and thereby acquire the wealth 
of Spanda. 


[Tradition.]. Vasugupta, a great teacher of 
the past, received initiation in a dream 
from Parama Siva Who is ever ready to 
exhibit His kindness to the universe and 
his spiritual glory was as a consequence 
enkindled by His grace. Under Hi 3 holy 
command, once, he repaired to the Maha- 
deva mountain and found, the heretofore 
hidden Siva Sutras, engraved on the surface 
of the rock. To elucidate the harmony that 
subsets between the revelation and the 
experience, the Sutras were collected and 
ep.tomed in the 51 slokas of the Spanda 
Sastra, which are clear yet deep 

(Synopsis of the book.) 

The first 25 stanzas discuss the energy 
of Swarupa or the vitality In real nature; 
the next seven, the energy ia the rise of 
Sahajavidya or intuition; the last 19, mention 
the energy in and of glory. Thus the Span- 
dakarikas are arranged into three chapters. 

| Contents of the first chapter ]. Of them the 

first begins with the stanza of salutation which, 
besides being such, gives, in a nutshell, the 
subject-matter of the thesis. The next four 
stanzas prove the Spanda principle by valid 
arguments. The sixth and the seventh 
describe the means to its attainment along 
with its recognising characteristic. The eighth 
is devoted to refutation of the objections 
raised against the means. The ninth stren- 
gthens the position of the upaya, because it 
discusses the unfailing character of the latter 
in leading to the goaL The tenth explains 
the real nature of the goal as obtainable by 
that means. The eleventh tells how the 
delusion of the world ceases by strict adherence 
thereto. The 12th. and the 18th, by discar- 
ding the view of the Nihilists, bring out the 
striking contrast between their view and that 
of Spanda. The 14th establishes the indes 


truotibility of the Spanda principle although 

the world of objects brought Into ,play 
by that principle is destructible. While 
supporting the same view, the 15th and the 
16th explode the theory of Nihilism. The 
17th remarks that, while the realisation of 
this principle is always within the reach of 
the fully awakened, the partially awakened 
hare" it 'only at the two extreme stages. The 
18th gives the sphere of the objects that 
are sensed by the fully awakened. The 19th 
'summarises the process conducive to the 
vanishing of obstacles in the way of the 
fully awakened. The 2.0th relates how, in 
the case of the unenlightened, the real 
nature, is shrouded in mystery. The 21st is 
directed to emphasise the necessity of in- 
cessant exertion for the acquisition of com- 
plete' enlightenment. The 22nd says that 
there are particular functions in the worldly 
life, which 9 as leading to the stoppage of 
all others, afford the field for this exertion, 
"The 23rd 25th urge that ; the enlightened 
should always be on the alert to be per- 
fectly enlightened by cutting to pieces, in 
a manner befitting yogis, the veil of dark- 
ness akin to the state of sound sleep. 

This is the sum and substance of 

the section beginning with "at Whose waking 
etc", and ending " will be enlightened etc 15 . 

[TEXT] 1. ( We ) offer our salu- 
tation to that Sankara Who is 
the fountain-head of all glory 
manifest in the wheel of energies 
and at Whose waking and slee- 
ping the world finds its rise and 

[ COMMENT. ]-Sankara means the one Being 
through Whose favour one gets the recogni- 
tion of the full display of the universal 
consciousness identical with the adualisrn of 
supreme bliss wherein all troables cease 
totally. Sankara thus represents one's own 
real nature. We salute Him, i. e., while 
thinking over Him as superior to the whole 
universe, we try to find entrance in Him 
by forgetting the idea of limited and artificial 
experiencer created by Him. Entrance~in-Him^ 
which bears the fruit of liberation-in-life, 
will be explained, here, in this treatise. The 
use of plural is meant, here to convey the 
idea of identity with regard to all those 
who are worthy of divine grace and who 
deserve an affectionate glance of kindness. 
The half of the stanza beginning " at 


Whose etc. 93 fully brings out what was implied 
by c Hlm\ I. e ? the unique characteristic of 
Sankara. The supreme goal is Mahadeva of: 
the nature of light and is identical with the 
complete freedom akin to the supreme Sakti 
serving as an Arani or a means of friction 
between the two creative poles of bliss and 
activity. He forms the very essence of con- 
templation on the Universal consciousness 
which stands for the supreme import of the 
universe of sounds. The Power-of-freedom is 
known by the name of Spanda as the deri- 
vative sense of the word is a slight shake. 


She is always manifesting end- 
less cycles of creation and destruction etc. 
on her own background as a mirror reflects 
the city. It will be explained later on how 
these appear to be separate from Her al- 
though they are not such. By this it follows 
that the supreme being is always, in reality 
ne with the principle of Spanda and is 
never otherwise. 

Some hold that the highest principle 
is motionless (Aspanda). But tHeir conten- 
tion is false because, in that case, the whole 
universe will have to be regarded as lord- 
less inasmuch as the Supreme being will be 
perfectly inactive. 

This treatise bears an appropriate title 
of Spanda Sastra and is decidedly written to 
illustrate the true nature, or, in other words, 
Sankara of the nature of Spanda Energy 
forming the essence of all activity. This 
will be quite clear further on. 

The selfsame Spanda Energy stands 
for the bliss consisting in the enjoyment of 
one Universal consciousness embracing end- 
less cycles of creation and dissolution. She 
is really of the nature of manifesting involu- 
tion and evolution of the perceiver and the 
perceived symbolising the entire world of the 
s pure and the impure. As forming the ultimate 
goal of the teaching of all the Upanishads,, 
She is simultaneously identical with emanation 
and absorption. 

The same principle constitutes the stage 
of absorption, when appearing as the destro- 
yer of the previously created aggregate of 
categories from Siva to the gross earth. With 
reference to the state of those that are about 
to come into being, it assumes a creative 
function and appears as the state of emana- 
tion- The stage of the disappearance of the 
external world leads to the wakening of the 
inward consciousness. And what we consider 


as the stage o Ignoring the idea of inward 
consciousness is that of .the awakening of the 
universe. The same idea is expressed in the 
revealed text: c The goddess is always enjoy- 
ing, ( lit. licking); she appears always as full; 
she is a wave of the ocean of consciousness- 
she constitutes the volitional aspect of the 
Lord '. 

The Great God presents Himself, by 
His power of freedom, at the stage of |he 
seven perceivers from Siva to Sakala as also 
at the stage of their respective ranges of 
perception. When He feels a playful desire 
to mystify His own internal nature, He 
appears in the order of descent. And the 
preceding perceivers fall into the back- 
ground and the succeeding come into the 
forefront although the former serve as subs- 
trata for the latter. 

As regards the order of ascent, He 
gradually brings into play the preceding forms 
and removes the subsequent ones in the cas e 
of the Jnana Yogins. Hence it is that He 
makes each succeeding form give up the 
limitation and appear in full perfection in 
the preceding. Similarly, each previous form 
gives up perfection gradually and adopts 

limitation in His order of descent.' Hence, 

every thing is of the nature of every thing? 

The apparent cognition of duality is exclu- 
sively due to limitation caused to appear by 
Him. The teaching, herein given, is directed 
to destroy the cognition of duality 3 root and 
branch. Enough of this digression. 

Goddess of Consciousness sleeps and 
is wakeful simultaneously* She can be felt 
to exist by instrospection because She is 
appearing, simultaneously as- bringing int 
the foreground the perception of external and 
internal sense objects such as Mue and plea- 
sure etc. and as momentarily being oblivious 
of the true nature identical with the percei- 
ver and . as. putting a stop to the previous 
perceptions yellow etc. Hence the men of 
great wisdom should, for putting an end 
to this mundane existence,, perfectly concen- 
trate their mind upon Her, 

To express the identity of -emanation 
and absorption, the phrase * by steeping and 
awakening' was explained by Bhatta Sri ' 
Kallata in his gloss as "an absolute desire" 
as the volitional aspect without any distinc- 
tion. The collector (author) also in the 
passage, 'That is to be known as Unmesa 


from whence the idea of another arises in 
the mind of a man who is already content 
plating upon one object. One should rea- 
lise that Unmesa oneself. 51 , will describe 
Unmesa as the dropping of the old -idea 
giving rise to the new; because the concep- 
tion of a new idea is not practicable with- 
out the old being given up. This will be 
fully dealt with in its proper place. 

It will be plainly said that the awake- 
ning, referred to in the passage 'The loss 
of the happiness of supreme immortality/ 
implies absorption ultimately. The absorp- 
tion, or the ceasing of perturbation alluded 
to in '"When the agitation ceases then the 
supreme stage is possible ', is, as will be 
discussed further on, the awakening of the 
supreme state. Hence, in practice the one 
Sakti, though of double nature, is sometimes 
known with reference to waking and some- 
times ,with reference to sleeping. Hence, 
absorption is emanation and vice versa. 

Thus the former half of the verse 
implies that the waking of the universe, 
consisting of the Categories from Siva to earth' 
is due to Sankara's Sakti appearing in the 

form of objectivity to the entire exclusion 


of the subjective self. The waking referred to 
means the creation which is based on indivi- 
duality, which presupposes the forgetfulness 
of the ultimate identity and which is multi- 
form in nature. It means also the absorp- 
tion of the world by the selfsame Sakti 
now appering as of the nature of the 
dawning forth of the reality leading to the 
total neglect of the external world. Absorp- 
tion here indicates the dissolution of the 
individual multifariousness that leads to the 
waking of non-duality. Truly speaking, 
nothing arises and nothing subsides. 

There is only one supreme Universal 
Consciousness Who, though free from gra- 
dational limitation, manifests Herself in 
different forms. She is metaphorically said 
to wake or to sleep as will be explained 
later on. The other functions of God such 
as protection, destruction, favour (or assi- 
milation) are included in absorption and 
emanation, as being particular forms of the 
same. Hence, the reference to absorption 
and emanation hints also at the fivefold 
function of Paramesvara. 

All this, that I. have said here, is 
very well explained for the most part in 


my Spandasandoha which Is an exposition 

of the first Sutra only, 

[The objector questions]. Ah! HoW IS it 

that you say 4 by Whose etc/ when 
you know that, according to the sacred 
Mahartha view, the various phenomena of 
creation and destruction etc. of the uni- 
verse are brought about by their respective 
presiding deities ? 

To remove the abore doubt, the phrase, 
* Tarn Saktichakravibhavaprabhavam ' Is to be 
explained thus: Him, the source of all the 
glory manifest In the wheel of powers; 
Him, Who is the source or primordial 
cause of the glory or the grand play- 
afforded by the creative activity, manifesta- 
tion, enjoyment, and absorption which 
all proceed from the wheel or the aggre- 
gate of the twelve divinities such as Srsti 
Kakta etc. the presiding deities of creation 
etc. The traditional lore says that the 
divinities, Srsti etc., perform the play of 
creation, dissolution etc. of the world, eter- 
nally, while they tightly embrace the glori- 
ous Manthana Bhairava, the Supreme Lord 
of the circle. 


f Second interpretation of Sakti--ch*kra]. This 

phrase is used also to serve as a reply to 
t'ke query, how the Supreme Lord stands 
as the cause of the several stages of bein<^ 
such as reation s dissolution etc M to which 
the world is subject? The objective world, 
that exists or is likely to have existence 
is of the nature of light, being manifest'. 
It is described as forming the wheel of 
powers because it stands and has existence 
only as appearing identical with the internal 
light of the Supreme Lord. As is said by 
the learned in such passages as 'The Lord 
brings into manifestation the whole of thino 1 - 
hood which already exists in His self 
Without that the desire of creation is not 

In consideration of the preceding 
view, the Supreme Lord is proclaimed in 
the revealed texts to be infinite as regards 
His powers. He is the source or cause of 
the glory of the world i, e,, the endless 
variety due to mutual union and separation 
of the group of Saktis which have manifes- 
tation as their ultimate aim. The selfsame 
God is the cause of the evolution and the 
involution of the universe. Because He unites 
and disjoins variously all the phenomenal 

manifestations which are identical, with Him 
and which stand as of the nature of cogni- 
tion. The same* view is taken by Ebatta Sri 
Kallata. In both the explanations of ^Sakti- 
ebakra eta.' giren above, there is an appro- 
priateness of the words of Kallata's gloss y 
which run as ' The causality of the creation 
of the glory a the wheel of powers iden- 
tical in nature with cognition 7 . 

[Third iBterpreiatron]. Keeping in 

the revealed text 6t His powers (are) the whole 
world" as also tbe text of the book under 
explanation "Hence there is no state which 
cannot be identified with Siva in all contem- 
plations over the word and the meaning'" \ 
the wheel of Saktis represents the world, 

[FoOTtb interpretation]- According to the 

secret teaching "The vacuum, that is 
situated in the upper half of the KhecharL 
is the sphere of Vamesi" 7 the phrase also 
implies the aggregate of such Saktis as 
Vamesvari, Kbecbari, Dikcbari etc., as is 
very well explained by me in the S panda* 
sandoha. Vamesvari etc. symbolise the mani- 
festation of the wheel of Saktis, which has 
been described in these two explanations and 
will be described in the passage c These are 


in readiness to hide their real natmre to 
him whose understanding is dull', 

vFiftfc, sixth and seventh interpretations). AcCOr- 

to the passage 'from whence this group 
of senses', it means the class cf senses; 
and according to 'relying on that strength 
the Mantras', the eternal Mantra, According 


to 'the group of powers emanating from the 
^roup of respective sounds ', it stands for the 
nature, of the form of Brahmi, Mahesvari etc, 

Elation of safcti-ohtfcn- The Supreme Lord 

vibhava-prabhavam , - ,1 -i 

is free in the glory 

or in the greatness of the wheel of Saktis 

which I have explained at length in. the 
Spandasandoha and which can thus symbolise 
endless things. He is not 'a slave like cattle, 

(Second explanation). If it be taken in. 

the Bahubrihi sense as on whose wakiag 
or manifestation depends upon the inner iin- 
foldment of the mass of light, it will imply 
that the recognition of the real .nature of 
the Supreme Lord is -easily obtained by 
introspecting His Inter nai nature. 

\Scond explanation <o the wWe stanza)* 

Sankara Who reveals the true 
turo to th devotees; WJao ]& the -cause of 


the manifestation of the supreme goddess or 
consciousness and by revealing and conceal- 
ing the real nature 3 Who, being Himself 
bliss and intelligence alone, brings about the 
destruction and creation of the universe 
which stands for both its phases, the external 
and the internal in. accordance with the view 
'The world within Is represented by the 
world outside", 

(Third interpretation of the stanza/* Saluta 

. tioiEi to- that Sankara Who is the cause of 
the greatness of the goddess of consciousness 
identical with the waking etc. which lead 
to the creation etc. of the world; by 
whose waking or outward activity the world 
emanates; and by whose sleeping or in ward- 
faced ness, it comes to dissolution. 

Thus this verse can be interpreted 
both according to the order of words and 
according as the sense demands. The Sup- 
reme Lord, though possessed of the body 
and others, creates and dissolves the uni- 
verse consisting of the fivefold sense-objecte 
such as form etc. by the ingoing and the 
outgoing of senses. It is referred to by the 
knower of the secret truth in, Hence/thu, 


even In ordinary intercourse, the Supreme 
Lord, while invested with the body and others, 
externally manifests, out of His own will] 
the groups of things already shining inside! 
To convey the sense, such as the above, 
the teacher has rejected the use of s by Whose 
power of freedom' and adopted that of 'by 
Whose waking and sleeping'. 

Herein the praise of Sankara or entrance 
in Him is described as the ultimate aim. 
By taking the phrase 'Sakti-chakra etc/ in 
the Bahubrhi sense and by interpreting it 
as 'Whose manifestation is due to the glory 
of the wheel of powers', the evolution of the 
group of innate faculties is described as the 
means to the attainment of that entrance 
in Sankara. By giving the sense of the 
determinative compound to the same phrase 
in the way, i. e., the revealer, to the 
devotees, of the manifestation of the supreme 
deity or consciousness, the fruit is hinted at. 

The author refers to the same 
in, Then he will become the Lord of the 
circle'. Hence, the connection of the 
subject-matter of this book and the means 
(Upaya) is that of the end and the means, 


Thus the same Sutra briefly ejives the 
subject-matter, the means, the connection of 

the two and the fruit of the study of this 
science. (1st Stanza) 

[ context ]. "What is the proof of the 
existence of such real nature as Sankara 
and how does He produce the world with- 
out any cause such as material, etc.? In 
case the materiality were attributed to Him, 
He could have been concealed by t h e 
world, just as a lump of the earth by 
the jug; and the consequent appearence and 
disappearance of Him would give rise to 
difference in His nature. There should on 
that supposition naturally be some cause of 
His manifestation and on the creation of the 
world the duality would ensue. 

To strike at a blow all such objections 
to the ground the author says; 

[TEXT] 2,- To Him, in Whom 
this whole objective world takes 
the stand and from Whom it comes 
out, an obstruction is nowhere 
possible because of His unensh- 
rouded nature. 


[COMMENT.]- To this real nature of 
Sankara full of light and bliss, there is no 
obstruction or there is no checking of the 
flow either in. some place, 'time or form 
owing to His unveiled being or unconcealed 

The substance of the above is as 
follows. Whatever there can be supposed 
to obstruct the light o f consciousness, such as 
the life-breath, the Puryasfcaka, and pleasure 
and blue etc., if that does not manifest by 
itself it is naught; and if it does, it will 
be identical with Sankara. Because all, that 
shines, is of the nature of Sankara identical 
with light. Hence, what can obstruct whom? 
And what is the meaning of obstruction ? The 
same is supported by the phrase starting 
with ' in Whom etc.' which qualifies ( to Him '. 
'In Whom' implies, in which self,, of the 
nature of consciousness, this whole objective 
world, in the form of the cogniser, the 
cognition and the cocnisable, finds existence; 
and manifest by whose light it finds its 
being'. To Him how can there be a hinder- 
ance by that objective world ? Because on 
His so called obstruction, the supposed obs- 
tructer will lose itself as manifesting. This 
completes the sense here expressed. 


The above is referred to in the Ajada- 
pramatr-siddhi: 'How can He be checked by 
the life-breath identical with Him ?' 

(objector says). Indeed it is true that 
the light of the nature of existence is possible 
to the created, but whence the creation of 
the created ? In reply to this is said: 
'from Whom is come out'. Keeping in view 
the power of memory, dreaming, ideation and 
the mystic creation of Yogis, it is improper 
to discard the causal connection between the 
world and consciousness, as endorsed by 
selfexperience, and to accept it as exsting 
between the world and matter, atoms etc. 
without the warrant of either proof or reason. 
The word < objectivity ' implies that a product 
is the effect of an action of the agent and 
is not the effect of an insentient cause. For 
to attribute causality to the insentient is 
absurd, according to the Iswarapratyabhijna 
view which will find its place in e The 
pair of states is here styled as the doer 
and the deed'. 

The word 'whole' implicitly means 
the indifference of the doer with reference 
to material etc. It is nowhere witnessed that 


the work such as jug etc. conceals the nature 
of the doer such as a potter etc. 

[Objector questions]. The process of COH1- 

log out is, as a matter of fact, possible 
with reference to something located inside. 
Was the objective world, then, located some- 
where just at the very beginning ? 

No. It is not anywhere else located 
but in that self-same consciousness. Hence 
is said 'in Whom etc/. The phrase 'in Whom 
located' should be used twice by repetition. 
It purports that if the world did not exist in 
the form of consciousness as undifferentiated 
from the light of I-ness, how could that 
world come, out of that consciousness, into 
being without such requisites as material etc. ? 
Because according to the revealed text, 'Just 
as the big tree of Banyan is found potentially 
in its own seed, in the same way is this 
whole world, of the movable and immovable, 
in the heart-radical' and according to the 
forecited argument 'of the Lord dwelling in- 
side the self, this world is located in Him, 
appearing as identical with Him. 

Hence this God of consciousness evolves 
the world as a materialisation of His own 


mature. Thus the construction is: In Whom 
when only located is come ont from Whom. 
The partical s cha } is synonymous with c eva j 
and should not be taken with the word that 
precedes it in the order of the text, 

[Objector questions]. If it can be taken 
for granted that this world has separated as 
an emanation from that mass of light, from 
that Universal Consciousness, tiow can the 
universe be manifest ? For it is untenable to 
regard something, at once, as separte from 
manifestation and as becoming manifest as it 
involves contradiction in terms. 

To answer this query, the phrase < come 
out from Whom ' also should be repeated 
twice and connected as 'even when bein<* 
come out from Whom, is located in Whom 1 ! 
The 'cha' here should be taken to mean 'even' 
and should not, as before, be taken strictly 
in the textual order. 

The upshot of the whole is that the 
world has not come out from Him as do 
walnuts etc. from a bag. But that self-same 
God, owing to His free and independent 
nature, is engaged in pibfrurmg the universe 


as if separate from Him, O n the -grou 
of His own self as a mirror reflects the city. 

if ft be 
not concealed bj ^ a 

the stages of creation and preservation in the 
way suggested, He cannot avoid being concealed 
by the stage of the world's di 88 olution which 

The same phrase 'from Whom even 
when come out is located only in Whom' 
removes the above objection. Because the per- 
Reiving consciousness cannot exist apart from 
the perceptible world. The phrase suggests that 
the created world, even when coining to 
dissolution, exists as identical with Him and 
that no entire annihilation of the nature of 
vacuum is possible to the world. Because, 
on the strength of the argument t6 be refer- 
red to later on, such an annihilation cannot 
be reasonably conceived to exist without 
the light serving as support. 

The above idea is found referred 1 to 
in the Sri Svacchanda Sastra; ' Th6 rion- 
is described as the vacuum 


the latter is described as the naught. 
goddess, 'that -is to be considered as naught 

wherein things have gone to destruction'. 

Thus the whole stanza means ; No- 
thing of the nature of space, time, form 
etc, caa be supposed, with propriety,, to be 
an obstructor to Him, Whose work is 
this whole world and by Whose light it 
shines and stands as identical with Whose 
light even at its destruction. Hence, this 
principle is pervading, eternal, endowed with 
all powers, self-luminous and eternally exis- 
tent. The weak proofs, which shed light OB 
unknown things, are out of place, useless 
and inapplicable in proving His existence 
Nay, the existence of these very proofs and 
other things of the world " depends on the 
existence of this principle. The same is 
referred to by my teacher in the Tantra- 
loka: c He the same God forms the supreme 
vitality even of those proofs which consti- 
tute the life of things in general 5 . 

The phrase < from Whom even, when 
come out, this world' should be twice con- 
nected with In Whom located 9 . The phrase, 
in this case, would yield the following 
sense. This world, even when manifest by 
Whose light, is of the nature of Whose 


light, I. e., Whose light Is this entire world 
of the knowable, in proof of Whose exis- 
tence. The world Is nothing else than this 

Thus, nowhere and never is an obs- 
truction possible, as is proved by self-ex- 
perience, to this principle that manifests 
creation, preservation, destruction and unifi- 
cation. That is capable of doing impossible 
things. The great teacher Utpaladeva also 
sings In the same tune; 'O Lord of all, 
Thy one overlorfship is unprecedented as 
, it lias nothing to rale. There is yet another 
of Thee whereby this phenomenal world 
does not present itself in the light in which 
it ordinarily stands/ The meaning is that 
the world, when manifesting,, is one with 
manifestation. Nothing can manifest as sepa- 
rate from manifestation. 

The Yogi should always be intent 
upon finding entrance in his own reality 
whether at the stage of ingoing, by the 
mention of the phrase * in Whom located ' 
or whether at that of outgoing, by the 
statement of ' from Whom come out ' or at 
both the stages of concentration, i. e., ingo- 


ing and outgoing, because his own reality 
is beyond obstruction. As will be said in 
* when the agitation ceases then the highest 
stage is possible. 5 and also in * There is no 
such state as cannot be identified with Siva 
in contemplations upon the word and the 


He ( one's own real nature ) is not 
subject either to obstruction or to negation 
even though there be existing in some 
place such a cogniser as an agnostic Saugata 
or in some place a counter argument. Be- 
cause it is admitted tacitly by a man deter- 
mined upon negativing His existence! that 
He does exist in the form of luminosity 
that shines by itself and that He is etee- 
nally existent. Because he or that, that 
negatives His existence, must have either 
existence, or non-existence. If non-existence, 
then this picture of negation without the 
negativer would be groundless. If otherwise, 
then his or its existence would go to prove 
the existence of God Who is in reality 
identical with him or that. Besides, his or 
its existence is quite manifest. Reference 
to this will be found in, 'and not that in- 
ternal nature.' 


Thus, the . author describes that the 
principle of Sankara is one with the real 
natur-., transcends the world, is of the na- 
tare of the world and is performing crea- 
tion, destruction etc. of the universe. Ac- 
cording to him, the ultimate object of 
meditation in all tlieistic schools is not 
different from this principle of Spanda. The 
diversity of meditation, he says, is exclu- 
sively due to the absolute freedom of Spanda. 

In fact, the entire universe is the 
manifestation of the essence of the activity 
of this principle. This also is supported in- 
directly by him in 'the Mantras are endo- 
wed with the strength of the omniscient 
when relying on that vitality. 1 Thus there is 
no room for the objections before referred to. 

I pray that the intelligent, unpre- 
judiced and unelated readers may themselves 
detect and appreciate the difference between 
my commentary and those of other comment- 
ators on the Spanda Sutras which are as 
valuable as the desire-granting gem. I c$n. 
not expose that, word after word, to avoid 
increase in the volume of this work, St. 2 


[CONTEXT. ] Even though the principle 
of God is being obstructed by none accor- 
ding to the previously mentioned arguments,, 
it will by itself be concealed in the states 
of "waking etc., because in these such rea- 
lity is not experienced. The author, feeling 
that his view will not be accepted by the 
objector owing to the above ' objection, clears 
his position once more and explains. 

[TEXT]. 3. Even though the St- 
ream of in-dividual differentiation., 
which, in reality, Is not separate 
from that principle of the states 
walking etc., is af low; that princi- 
ple never withdraws itself from 
its own nature of cognition. 

( COMMENT. ) The word * Jagrat 5 is a 
synonym of Jagara because they are both 
found used - in this sense by the cultured. 
Though the stream of differentiation, either 
as known to the people in the form 
of "waking, dreaming and dreamless sleep 
or as known to -the Yogis in the form of 
concentration and meditation , be found flow- 
ing in diverse forms, that principle nerer 
keeps itself back from its .own 

29 ' 

vanishing cognitive nature which constitu- 
tes the life of the whole universe. If it 
were itself to withdraw, then,, even the 
waking etc. would lose their existence, for 
they would in that case be deprived of its 
light. Its cognitive nature is known to all 
through self -experience in waking and drea- 
ming. Though in the dreamless state she 
(cognitive nature) is not felt so, yet her 
existence is there; because, otherwise, the 
subsequent remembrance is incompatible. That 
principle does, not withdraw from percep- 
tivity i. e., from its real nature, even if 
the object of perception, such as states etc., 
may through its glory cease to exist. There 
lies no harm in its ceasing to exist. 'EVA' 
stands for c API ' and does not in meaning follow 


the textual order. The meaning therefore 
is even in their absence that principle 
does not withdraw. 

c Not separate from that \ besides qua- 
lifying c differentiation of 
1st explanation of waking etc.', is used as a 
Tadabhinne reason. Hence, it means of 
the form of light ', being 
manifest as identical with that real nature 
or Siva. Existence of one thing is impossi- 


ble "without the other in the case of the 


two which are mutually identical. 

This should be analysed as * that ' 
and 'not separate from.' 
2nd explanation. The former stands for the 
subject of the sentence 
( that flows') and the latter implies absolute 
identity of waking etc., with reference to 
Siva. The construction and the meaning in 
this case would be that that principle flows, 
assumes diversity, even though the differen- 
tiation of waking etc, be existing, and that 
it never withdraws from its own real nature. 

This Tadabhinne is also used by the 
author in refutation of the views of evolu- 
tion and polynomism of Sankhya, Pancha-ratra 
and Sabdika etc., by his entering into the 
discussion whether the individual differen- 
tiation of waking and the like is evolution 
or polynomism. 

If this manifestation of states, he 

says, be a little different, 

Rejection of the being an evolution, from 

theorj of Parmama. pure consciousness 3 then the 

latter also will be the same 

on the former's evolution. Hence, nothing 


would come to light. Thus there is no 
room for evolution, as is referred to in the 

Sri Kirana:- 'Evolution is possible to the 
insentient and does not rightly apply to 
the sentient/ 


The polynomisnij which gives rise io 

the unreal diversity of 

Kejiction of the forms, is also unjustifiable ; 

theory of Vivart*. because the world that is 

sensed cannot be unreal. 

For if the world were unreal, the principle 

of Brahma will hare to be similarly viewed. 

From this Tadabhinne follows God's 
capability of accomplishing impossible things. 
The Supreme Lord is manifest in the form 
of the Trinity of Powers called Apara, 
Para, and Parapara, owing to individuality, 
identity and the both; because He si- 
multaneously manifests the individuality of 
waking etc. and His own identity therein. 
Thus, the Supreme Lord manifests as the 
transcendental Trika principle. 

Hence, it is explained here that he is 
verily Sankara, who thus observes and in- 
vestigates this his own nature although taking 
his stand in such states as waking etc. 
( 3rd Stanza ). 


(CONTEST). Now in the one following 
stanza the author refutes the Saugatas, who 
believe in the continuity of knowledge on 
the strength of the argument, 'All this, 
pleasure and pain etc., is of the form of 
one single consciousness though' of various 
forms and shapes', and the Mimansakas who 
assert that 'All this is Atma who is al- 
ways over-shadowed by the conditions of 
pleasure etc., and is capable - of being belie- 
ved to exist by one's own' conciousness.' 

[TEXT] 4. I am happy, I 
miserable; ! am attached-these 
and other cognitions evidently 
find their place in one being in 
whom the states of pleasure etc., 
are woven. 

( COMMENT. ) The same I, who is happy, 

am miserable, i. e., the same I, who is 

attached owing to appetition closely follow- 

ing pleasure, am hated out of aversion 

accompanying pain; all such perceptions 

or cognitions are 1 found in one permanent 

principle of self, i. e., take their rest in 

that "inward-faced self evidently, (Evidently 

i. e., with one's own self as a witness.) 

. Otherwise the interconnection of ephemeral 


perceptions and of the ideas, bora of their 
impressions will not hold good. Because the 
ephemeral perceptions come to an end with 
themselves, , i. e., disappear sooa on their rise, 
and the ideas cannot., move oa s on the ab- 
sence of perception. 

The particle (Cha) -used thrice here 

developes the sense of connection,. Because 
it implies the connection of one thing with 
other or others. 6 In one ' is qualified as 
s in that', i. e., in which the states of 
pleasure etc, which rise and subside, are 
woven, i. e., strung together like the beads 
in a rosary. 

While describing the states as being 
remembered when they appear as connected 
together, the author, by the word * tah ' 
hints that, although, according to the view 
of the philosophers who believe in the transi- 
ency of cognition, the recollection is born of 
perceptional imperessions and is, as such 
pinned to the form of the perceived, yet 
it can only be similar to the perception and 
cannot determine the thing that has been 
sensed in the past Every thing is set 
aright by admitting the existence of on 


permanent perceiver .who dwells inside 
the consciousness of -all. Enough of these 

subtleties as they are sure to prove 
sickening to the readers of tender heart. 
Seekers after these nia-y look Into the Praty- 
abhijna. I have here attempted to explain 
something of the inner significance as the 
author has here touched his view only in 
brief* Hence,, no intelligent people should 
condemn me for this attempt. 

To criticise the view of the Mimansa- 

kas this should tie thus 

2nd explanation explained, evidently I, e. s 

of the Text. on the evidence of the 

people, all such perceptions 
as fi 1 am happy 5 etc., -are found,, i. e., 

they find their stay, in a being such &s the 

perceiver of the form of Piiryastata and 
full to the brim of the states, pleasure etc, 
But these perceptions do not find room in 
the real nature of Sankara blissful and 
intelligent Whom we have accepted as 
the one real principle* Thus the real 
principle is not the self that is always 
environed by such conditions as pleasure 
etc,, but that which is of the nature of 

But when, by His own impurity 
to be explained farther on a He ( true prin- 
ciple ) conceals His real, nature and manifests 
Himself in that state, then He is surely to 
be of the form of the happy etc., In the 
state of Puryastaka. But, even there, there 
is no obstruction possible to Him by 
pleasure etc., as Is already referred to. 
Hence He is never subject to them. 

By giving up the use of such per- 
ceptions as 4 I am thin, 5 * I am fat ? etc., 
and by mentioning that '-I am happy, 
miserable, ' etc., the author means that one 
recognises one's self as one in nature with 
Shiva by letting the state of Puryastaka- s 
which is diversified by such perceptions as 
I am happy etc., sink in the stage of in- 
going as also by the vanishing (as an 
accompaniment of the stage of Puryastaka),, 
of the external world,, such as body, jug 
etc. Hence to get rid of Puryastaka 
the effort should be resorted to. ( 4th. St. ) 

(CONTEXT). After ... having described the 
untenability of all other theories by the 
forecited arguments, the author, the best of 
the teachers of the secret doctrine, knowing 

. 6 

the occult processes and revealed tests and 
fall of experijace, now enunciates 'that the 
principle of Spanda alone lias the real exis- 
tence, being based on reasoning, 

(TEXT), 5 a Where-in no pain 
no pleasure no per- 

Th negative description .Ceptible HO perCei- 

o Spanda as Sankarft. V6F exist and Where 

even the state of in- 
sentlency does not find room that 
in reality is the principle. 

( COMMENT.) We can with reason say that 
the perceptible/ whether Internal as pleasure 
and pain etc., or whether external as blue 
and yellow etc., and the perceiver such as 

Puryastaka^ body^ senses, etc., . hare evidently 

no real existence because like the stage of 
dreamless . sleep these are not sensed. 
Eyen when they are sensed,, they repres- 
ent consciousness alone- For they., as being 
sensed^ are of the nature of consciousness. 
The same is- referred - to by my great grand 
teacher, the renewable Utpalacharya profici- 
ent in the knowledge of occult principles,, 
in the sacred Isvarapratyabhijna :- s The thing* 
. can come to light . Is . of the nature of 


light: 'one which has no light cannot exist/ 

Even here it will be mentioned in 
'Because .of being of the form of His cogni. 
tion and owing to the adoption of the identity 
with Him/ Hence, that is the real principle 
of the form of- pure light in which the percep- 
tible, ..pain, pleasure etc., blue etc., and the 
perceiver of that, do not exist 

Prom this can it be inferred that 

the true principle is of the 

OlbjeetioE . nature of 'vacuity '' owing 

to the cessation of the : 

ntire categories of the perceiYer and the 

perceptible ? 

No. -VEven the state' of vacuum does 

not exist.' Because the real principle is 
that where even the. state .of' -vacuum,, i e. 3 
the form.. , of : empty space, does not exist. 
The insentiency (radium) must either mani- 
fest or not manifest. If it does not manifest, 
then, how can it be said that it , exists ? : 
If that becomes manifest then it is nothing 
else .than '.manifestation being of -the .nature'. 
of manifestation. Disappearance of manifes- 
tation is nevet possible, because, In its 
absence^ the absence o manifestation.- cannot-' 


be said to exist. It will find Its place in 
e not that internal nature. 3 

The real principle is that where 
there does not exist the 

2nd explanation of state of linCOllSClOllSiiesS of 

Mudha-bimva. the , form of Brahma which 

is identical in principle 
with the pure light devoid of thinking 
of the nature of Aisvarya, lordship, and 
which is the favourite belief of the 
Vedantists who say, * Vijnanm Brahma/ 
i e,, Brahma, is knowledge. For even that 
Brahma is insentient without the power of 
Spanda of the nature of freedom. It is 
said in the Pratyabhijna : * Thinking is 
known to constitute the nature of liiit 

O 5 

otherwise the light, even though reflecting 
things, will be like the insentient things 
such as crystal etc. * and also in the hymn 
of Bhatta Nayaka : c How much fruit, 
Lord, can the supreme Brahma bear, 
owing to its neutrality, if Thy masculine 
power of regulating be not there, in the 
form of a beautiful female of Thy devotion ? ' 

Thus that principle alone has the 

real existence which has been discussed in 


the passages c where seated ' etc. That 
verily exists la the inartificial form of 
perfection as supported by reasoning, experi- 
ence, and revealed texts, and not in the 
artificial one like blue etc. As is said by 
the venerable teacher : s The insentient 
things are thus like the non -existent with 
reference to their self and are properly 
speaking only of light. The light alone 
exists of one's own self either by it or by 
the self of others/ The revered Bartrhari 
refers to the same : c Reality can be attri- 
buted to that which is at the beginning, at 

C; O 3 

the end and in the middle ; which does not 
come to light, its reality is as much 

( is nil ).' All the sentences in the text 
convey a determinate - sense. Hence, the 
word 6 Eva ? should be used thrice. 

Thus in the Sutra it is enunciated 
by the author that the ultimate reality 
exists in the form .of Spaada Energy, after 
lie has brought out the absurdity of the 
views, being untenable, of the believers in 
the continuity of consciousness in- the form 
of pleasure etc s in the principle of percep- 
tivity dimmed by pleasure etc., in -the 
multiplicity of the perceptible and the 


pcrceirer, and In the Brahma of the form 
of thinking-less light. This also is discussed 
herein that thafe principle really exists on 
whose reYeiation, as the principle of Energy, 
as the essence of activity, and as the 
consequence of penetrating observation 
concentration and initiation, all this pain, 
pleasure, the perceptible, the perceiver and 
their absence etc. comes to naught; because 
the whole universe is meant as its enjoy- 
ment. The vernerable teacher refers to it 
in: 6 Ihat is the path .of. . Sankara- in which 
pains appear as pleasures, poison as nectar 
and the world of life and death as liberation/ 
In , this reference, the path of Sankara 
means the current of the Supreme Power 
which is a means to the attainment of the 
real nature as Sankara. ( 5th. Stanza }. 

( CONTEXT ). Now is described the means, 
with a recognising mark, for the recogni- 
tion of that principle which has thus been 
logically demonstrated. 

C TEXT ). 6 AHD 7. Very carefully 
and with great effort 

The positTe diicription Should that prltlCH 

of spanda as Sankara j ..pie be examined by 

which this class of 
senses, along with the inner cir- 


c!e although unconscious, acts as 
conscious by itself and . under- 
goes the processes of operation,, 
existence and dissolution. Because 
this, its inartificial freedom, Is 

( COMMENT. ) That previously explained 
principle should be examined with faith 
and effort which, is of the form f the des- 
truction of all variations, as discussed in 
the Sivasutra r Effort is Bairava', which 
is identical with the full and free onward 
course of. the innate glory and with the 
spirit of service to the perfect internal 
nature and which is known as an exertion 
of the form of Bhairava. Because this 
inartificial and innate freedom, known to 
all through self-experience, of that one's 
own nature, identical with Siva and of 
the form of Spanda principle, is manifest 
everywhere with reference to both the 
sentient and the insentient. c Is manifest 
is understood. 

In reply to what that principle is, 
is said the passage beginning with * by 
which ' and ending with ' undergoes. 3 * .This ' 


refers to such class of senses, i. e., thirteen 
senses, as is known to the people in the 
form of a ball etc. and not as defined in 
the Sastras. Because, in the case of the 
latter, we cannot refer to that by ' this ', 
being always invisible. This class of senses, 
though exceedingly unconscious, though ap- 
pearing as if insentient under delusion and 
though assuming unconsciousness in a greater 
degree than a limited self, undergoes the 
states of flowing on, staying and destruc- 
tion like the non-unconscious or the sentient, 
i. e., goes towards the sense-object, feels at- 
tached to that and withdraws therefrom like 
the sentient. How ? Along with the inner 

The inner Circle refers to the sense 
divinities and not the internal senses because 
the latter are included in the word ' class '. 
It does not either refer to the Puryastaka to 
be explained further on ; because the triad of 
the internal senses mentioned therein is 
associated, being akin, with the class. Nor 
does it apply to sense-objects; because, 
being mere impressions, they do not appear 
directly as authors of such functions as 


moving on etc., to the pupil who is to 
be instructed and "who does not know Yoga. 
And the Yogi, who has realised the sense- 
objects, needs no instruction, because he 
himself has acquired the habit of attentively 
studying the Supreme Principle. 

Hence, the view of some people that 
the c class of senses 5 should be connected 
with * the unconscious like the conscious * 
and not with the inner Circle of sense divini- 
ties is baseless because that Circle is identical 
with the enjoyment of consciousness. The 
author by the text means that this one's 
own nature identical with Sankara, uniform- . 
ly and simultaneously manifests, out of its 
own freedom consisting in accomplishing dif- 
ficult things, the Circle of Sense divinities 
as an essence of consciousness and the class 
of senses as appearing insentient, 

This one's own nature, according to 
the author, makes the sense divinities and 
the class of senses perform such states as 
moving on, staying and destruction. Through 
its grace 'the class of senses 3 though in- 
sentient, appears to perform those func- 
tions/ just as these holy sense divinities 


bring about the creation etc. of particular 
phenomena. Though, according to the mystic 
view, there exists no insentient class of sen- 
ses but the sense divinities possessed of the 
body of knowledge, yet this has been refer- 
red 'to as if existing, because the pupil to 
be instructed should be introduced to the 
explanation of the occult things gradually 
according to the well-accepted observation. 

Thus, while observing the Circle of 
the rays of his own glory presiding respec- 
tively over the functions such as moving 
on etc., of senses identical in form with 
ball etc., the Yogi may examine his own 
nature, as one in form with Holy Sankara, 
and as goading these both on to their ob- 
jects. This also is implied by the text that 
the Yogi possesses everywhere the inarti- 
ficial freedom of his own real nature which 
serves him as a means to the attainment 
of that. 

Hence, as forming the highhest aim, 
this principle is worthy of being examined. 
This only can be examined, because by the 
previous arguments, its means are easy. It 
should/ hence, be examined with respect, 


with the great pride consisting in the un- 
hindered enjoyment of desired object. Such 
an examination is here quite in season ac- 
cording to the view here explained. So says 
the great teacher; 'May these, my sense 
activities, in their full play, fall on their 
respective objects! May I, Lord, never, 
even, for a moment, be so rash as to lose 
the happiness of identity with Thee P 

The Kritya affix in 6 Pariksyam ' de- 
notes worthiness, practicability, timeliness 
and command etc. 

The author has, by this, also rejected 
the view of the Charvakas who attribute 
consciousness to senses etc.; because every- 
body's self -experience bears witness to this 
that by virtue of the strength of the real 
self, the insentient class of senses, undergoes, 
like the not-unconscious, the states of moving 
on etc. ( 6th and 7th Stanzas). 

[ CONTEXT ]. How is it said, that the senses 
undergo the states of moving on etc., on 
their acquiring, as it were, the conscious- 
ness from that Principle, inspite of the 
commonplace observation that the perceiver, 
himself and at his own option, directs the 


senses like the scythe etc? How is this also 
said, that that Principle should with effort 
be examined, when it is known that our de- 
sire mores only towards the outside a d 
never exerts itself to engage in the exami- 
nation of that Principle ? To repudiate 
these is said ( the following ) 

Q f * 

[TEXT] 8.- This does not act 
as a director of the goad of desire. 

th^^ 3 "- ?" beco e equal to 
that (Principle) by the inspira- 
tion of the vitality of the self. 

[ COMMENT. ]_ This man of the world 
does not work as fc he pusher On of ^ ad 
of desire, i. e . does not engaffe IQ ^ 
the senses towards their objects. But he can" 
become similar to that by slight insT)ira 
** of that Principle of Sp^dl '" 
forms the strength of the self identical with 
cons.ousnes, Even the insentient can b 
come the sentient, when anointed with a 


rZi D r tar f I ~ neSS - Th *> t^t 

Pnnciple makes capable of moving on etc 

ot only the senses but also the Ufict 

is b C USciousQess ^to them. 

It is by vxrtue of this that he thinks I 


directed the senses 9s . He loses Mmself when 
without the Inspiration of that Principle. 

Hence that Principle deserves to be 
examined that converts into sentiency both 
the senses and the perceiver by the inflow 
of the current proceeding , from the Circle 
of the rays of its own light. Thus all this 
is quite logical, If, in the teeth of this, the 
objector sticks to the view that the senses 
are directed by a different sense in the form 
of a goad called desire, then that sense of 
desire, being itself of the nature of the 
directed,, will require another sense for its 
direction, that also will in turn another.* 
Thus the series will go on ad infinitum. 

Now, as regards the objection " that 
our desire does not exert itself to engage 
etc/' the former half of the stanza is used 
in confirmation of it and the latter in 
reply hereto. The sense is as follows,, 
Yes, this man cannot set his desire to work 
to examine the reality. He is not capable 
of sensing the reality by desire, because 
that reality is inconceivable. But when he 
<calms down the desire, always in hot pur- 
suit of objects, by allowing it full and free 


satiation and when lie touches the Principle 
of Spanda or the strength of the inward 
self, endowing its own senses with conscious- 
ness 9 then he will be similar to that. By 
its influx he will attain freedom eYery- 
where like that principle. Hence, the reality 
should be examined. The word Sparsa is 
used with reference to the strength of the 


self because the tactile perception predo- 
minates at the stage of Sakti. (8th Stanza. ) 

( CONTEXT. ) Why does not even this 
embodied self shine in all its pefection, 
being of the nature of paramesvara? Why 
does he require a touch of the force of 
the inward self ? In response to these the 
author says. 

[TEXT) 9. When to him, who 
is incapacitated by his own im- 
purity and is attached to actions, 
the agitation ceases, then the high* 
est state will come into being. 

( COMMENT. ) This one's own. power 
of desire, brought into play by one's own 
freedom, is of the nature of non-contempla- 
tion of the reality. It is an impurity 


technically known as the Anava defilement. 
It appears in the form of imperfection, owing 
to the limitation of desire. The power 
of cognition does gradually, owing to the 
delusion of non-identity, give tip omniscience 
and adopt limitation in knowledge, and forms 
itself into the inner sense and the cognitive 
senses, till, at last, it gets limited in full 
and passes into aa impurity, technically 
known as the Mayiya Mala ( defilement due 
to illusion ) which consists in the individual 
manifestation of the objectivity. The active 
aspect, in turn, gives up the perfect author- 
ship due to non-identity and assumes limi- 
ted authorship and undergoes limitations by 
and by, in the form of action-senses, till, 
at last, it gets limited completely. It also 
is an impurity known by the name of 
Karma Mala consisting of virtuous and ieious 
acts. With reference to the man Incapa- 
citated or deprived o omniscience and per- 
fect am-thorship by that impurity and conse- 
quently always distracted by desires, on 
account of the oon-obtaiaraent of the desired 
objects, connected with the acts, L e the 
performances both religious and worldly,, 
and. hence ' not finding vest even for a 


moment in his own real nature, when 
by the firm grasp of the arguments, ex- 
plained before and to be referred to later on, 
and by self-experience, the agitation, con- 
sisting in the Tain conception of the per- 
ceptivity slave to desires, dissolves, through 
the vanishing of the attribution of the 
self to the non-self and the reverse; then 
the highest state of the spanda principle 
will take place, i. e. will come within his 
recognition. The highest state will not take 
place then and there because it is eternal. 
The same is explained in the Vijnana Bhairava: 
" The mind, consciousness, energy ?*nd the 
self, when this quaternion, beloved one, 
vanishes, then that form of Bhairava re- 
veals itself". Those, who hold the opinion 
that the phrase * one's own impurity * sug- 
gests that there is some separate substance 
corresponding to impurity, have been in- 
directly criticised. (9th Stanza). 

( CONTEXT ) When the agitation of the 

nature of one 's own identity 

Objection ^fc^ t] ie limited perceiver 

has been over, the reality 

will be devoid of activity like the waveless 

ocean? To lull this suspicion to rest the 

author says. 


(TEXT.) 10. Then will flash 
forth the inartificial nature char- 
acterised by cognition and activity, 
because he knows and does all 
the desired. 

< COMMENT. ) c Then ' Is used with, 
reference to the pupil to be instructed. 
Then on the cessation of agitation dawns 
to this man the inartificial innate nature, which 
is identical with the nature before explained 
and with the reality of Paramesvara, and 
in which knowledge and action of the 
nature of harmonious light and bliss* form 
the invariable characteristic. Whence does 
it become manifest ? In reference to this 
query is said: because he knows and does, 
then, i.e. on the occasion of entrance in 
that Supreme State, all the desired, i. e. 
all that he wished to know or to do at 
the time of his desire to enter therein. 

The duplicate use of the particle ' cha 5 
denotes simultaneity. It does not denote, 
as some think, the identity of cognition 
and action. It is already implied by the 
one phrase, i. e. characterised by cognition 
and activity, qualifying nature as descrip- 
tive of the real exitsence. (10th Stania ) , 


( CONTEXT. ) Now is explained that the 
world of life and death ceases to exist to 
him, who harmonises non-meditation with 
meditation by the fixed and firm grasp of 
the spanda. principle realised by the evolutive 
meditation,, discussed and defined in the 
Sutras such as ' whereby the class of senses 
etc. 8 and 6 on *s own impurity etc. * 

(TEXT) 11. . How can this 
accursed path of life and death 
fall to the Jot of the one who feels 
as If w wonder-stricken, while re- 
garding that nature as the un- 
derlying principle? 

( COMMENT. ) A Yogi looks at or 
observes his own nature, identical with the 
spanda principle and recognised by the 
close scrutiny of the arguments and the 
revelations alluded to above, as the 
underlying principle pervading even, at the 
stage of Vyutthana. He sticks to the Aranl 
of this twofold creation. All his ideas 
vanish and the Circle of his senses simulta- 
neously attains full manifestation, by his taking 
stand firmly in the intermediate stage f 
pervading, at once, both th preceding and 


the succeeding stages, through tfhe m'editatlon 
of involution and evolution, in the manner 
of tradition described in the -Sri Vijnaoa 
Bhairava and Kaksyastotra:-' ;fi The aerial 
power does neither go away nor enter. By 
that, one assumes the form of Bhairava, when 
the intermediate is evolved by the certainty,' 5 
and " Thou manifestest singly in the form 
of the universe, standing, like a pillar of gold, 
in the middle and having, all around, 
directed by mind simultaneously all powers 
of vision etc. towards their respective 
objects. !J 

The Yogi observes this vast totality 
of beings, which rises from and dissolves 
in the ether of consciousness, like a series 
of reflections appearing and disappearing 
Inside a mirror,, by finding 'entrance in the 
Mudra of Holy Bhairava, described in the 
revealed test: " With ' the aim inside, { al- 
though ) looking outside and above the 
states of waking and sleeping. This is that 
Mudra of Bhairava, concealed in all the 
Tantraa. J? At the end of thousands of births 
the thread of all his ( Yogi ? s ) functions 
gets broken, all of a sudden, by the re- 
cognition of his own extraordinary reality 
full of a novel -supreme bliss. He look 


as if wonder-stricken or as if entered .into 
the Mndra of amazement. The best of the 
Yogis thus stands fixed, i. e." does not swerve 
from his fixed stand. To him the proper 
real nature reveals itself suddenly by the 
attainment of complete development. He i& 
immune from the damned succession of life 
and death, which strikes terror in the 
whole world. For, its cause consisting in 
the innate impurity has ceased to exist. 
As is said in the Sri Purva Sastra; " Al- 
though enjoying sense objects, he cannot, as 
a lotus leaf by water 9 be affected by 
evils who has his mind fixed on the reality. 
One, who is armed cap-a-pie with the 
Mantra etc. serving as an antidote against 
poison, -does not faint, under its influence, 
though eating poison. Similarly, a Yogi of 
great wisdom", (llth Stanza.) 

( CONTEXT. ) The, author now addresses 
the Vedantists, the Naiyayikas (Aksapada;, 
the Madhyamikas etc. who hold the view 
that, at the dissolution of agitation, there 
remains the reality ( identical with naught ) 
exclusively in the form of universal destruc- 
tion; and explains the extraordinariness of 
the spanda principle, one in form with 
matter, in opposition to the reality accepted 
by them. 



(TEXT.) 12. Non-existence 
cannot be conceived to exist. 
Even insentiency does not exist 
there, because owing to Abhiyoga 

there is- the determination, " That 
was. " 

13. Hence, that is artificial. The 
knowable is always like the sound 
sleep. That reality can never 
thus assume the state of being 

( COMMENT. ) Non-existence, as under- 
stood by the Vedantists etc., cannot be 
conceived to exist by such a reference as: 
" Verily, at the beginning-, all this ^vas 
naught." For the existential conception is 
applicable with reference to the existing 
things. And non-existence is nothing in 
reality. If the existential conception be 
ascribed to it, it will have to be treated 
as something and, as such, will lose itself 
as non-existence. Moreover, how can that 
universal destruction be conceived where 
even the conceiver himself disappears? If 
you accept the existence of the conceiver, 
the universal destruction is impossible. Eor, 
in that case, the conceiver remains there as 


coming under the category of the universe. 
Hence, fehe universal destruction does not 
constitute the reality. 

This conceiver is artificial. And he 
becomes one with riOR-exis- 
Objection strengthened tence. He brings into concep- 
and elucidated. tioii the destruction of the 
world by means of imagina- 
tion, and, on the maturity of the conception, 
cannot help becoming one with non- 
existence, being identical with the existing. 
On the conception of non-existence, there 
is no non-unconsciousness, 
The author replies, i. e . there is no seiitiency 
but the reverse. By 

this argument " Hence, all, existence and 
non-existence, that is conceived, appears, 
evidently, to be a creation of the imagination 
only on the maturity of conception. " the 
ultimate object of life can never be gained 
by the conception of naught or the 
universal destruction. 

The state of universal destruction ( Sunya ) 

is akin to that vacuum which 

The objector says. | s described by Nagarjuna 

in a Vacuity is regarded as 

such because it is devoid of all attributes 3 all 

categories, all troubles and desires; but in 

reality there is no vacuum ." 


Yes, It is -so, if the free and ultimate 
state of the nature of pure 
The author r* p ii* 6 . intelligence and bliss be 
admitted as the substratum. 
The Vijnana Bhairava also agrees to it as 
such, because it describes in the passage 
44 one above the limitations of space and 
time, *' the power of Paramesvara in the 
form of vacuity in which the state of 
consciousness is stated as the ultimate 
substratum. This has to be accepted. 
Otherwise, the statement " But in reality 
( there is ) no vacuum " would be meaning- 
less by the side of the statement " yad 
yad eva atibhavyate. " 

All, that has been said in the passage 
of the Alokamala : " That undefinable state is 
called Sunyata being unknowable to the 
people of our stamp. It does not indeed 
refer to the popular meaning that the 
atheists assign to it. ", is true. You ( objec- 
tor ) are justified in saying that it is un- 
knowable and hence inexpressible to the 
people of your understanding. But how to 
call it by vacuum ? Because even vacuum 
is verily knowable inasmuch as it is con- 
ceived and engraved on imagination. If the 
people of your position cannot understand 


that reality, they may -serve faithfully 
the true teachers who are well versed in 
the art of realising that. But they should 
not throw themselves and others into the 
bottomless abyss of great delusion by 
concocting through their wisdom! such tech- 
nicalities as vacuum etc. 

How is it known that there is inse- 
ntiency ? In reply to this is said s because 
etc. ' 

6 Abhiyoga 3 or the declaration, such 
as how I was! \ of the one, who has 
just given up the mood of meditation 
regarding the introspection in connexion 
with that state of meditation, leads to the 
determination c that was ' i. e. ' I was ex- 
ceedingly insentient. ' Hence, that state of 
insentiency is artificial, being thus remem- 
bered. That state, as being experienced, 
indicates the existence and not the non-exis- 
tence of the perceiver who is present there. 
The form of consciousness remains unimper- 
feet even in the state of universal destruct- 
ion. Hence, his non-existence can never be 


Blue etc, is recollected -only when 
previously seen and 

The objector says, determined. Determination 
is impossible in the case 
of the one that has been reduced to the 
form of vacuum and has consequently the 
function of the determinative faculty 
suppressed. Then how was it said that that 
is insentiency, in the face of the subsequent 
determination, 1 e. 'that was'? 

This is the property of the knowable 
that it is not remembered 

The author sajs. by the perceiver so long 
as, through the impressions 
retained in the self, the knowable is not 
determined by thisness. Although limited 
in the imaginary states of Sunya etc., 
the cogniser stands as the ultimate 
unconventional subjectivity. He can never 
be separate from his own self. Hence 
the idea only is determinative of him. The 
perceiver in the form of Sunya, in opposi- 
tion to the universe, is then existing by 
self-experience and contemplated as subject, 
as he is remembered subsequently as limi- 
ted. Hence, there is no incongruity. 


Thus the state of vacuum is artificial 
and brought into being by the conception 
of things that have never existed, accor- 
ding to the argument previously referred 
to ' Tasmad bhutam etc. 9 The Supreme Lord 
gives manifestation to this state of vacuum 
for concealing the right knowledge \ and 
it appears as an end to fools. The 
knowable and the form of the knowable 
are like the sound sleep. 

The dreamless sleep in the form of 
insentiency is easy of 
Substance. access to all. It being 

so, of what use is it to 
acquire the state of another Sunya by the 
effort of meditation ? Because both are equal 
as regards unreality. Many philosophers, 
such as Vedantins, Naiyayakas, Sankhyas 
and Saugatas etc., have fallen into this 
great ocean of insentiency in the form of 
Sunya. Sunya has 9 indeed, proved a hindrance 
even to those who were about to enter 
the state of the spanda principle, when their 
efforts slackened. As the author will say 
in the passage beginning with * Thou in 
that great sky ' and ending with * insentient 
like the state of sound sleep/ Therefore 


the author seems to have spared no pains 
to nip the theory of Sunya in the bud. 
He -will further explain it in the passage 
' The effort directed towards actions etc.', 
even though it is explained here as a thing 
to be avoided. Hence, I have attempted 
to expose its defect?. The worthy readers 
who study my explanations attentively should 
not be angry with me for this. The criti- 
cism of the Saugatas involves that of the 
Vedantists and others, because their conten- 
tion is similar. Hence I have not gone 
into details. 

Now let us turn to the subject. That 
reality of the name .of Spanda does not, 
thus, 'like Sunya, assume the state of being 
recollected because that reality can never, 
with propriety, be said to be imperceptible 
owing to its 'being identical with the ever 
existing perceiver. So says the Brhadarany- 
aka : Ah, by what means can one know 
the knower?" Though the state of medita- 
tion is remembered by the Yogi on his 
' Vyutthana ' under the influence oC life- 
breath etc., yet that alone does not consti- 
tute the Spanda Tattva. It is, besides being- 
60, of the form of supreme .perceiver, ever 


present and unlimited, full of light and 
bliss. As will be said in: " There is no 
such state in the contemplation of the 
word and the meaning as cannot be identi- 
fied with Siva. " Hence, this principle, 
being of the form of unlimited enjoyment, 
can never be an object of remembrance 
and can never be insentient. 

Reference to that reality by the 
pronoun 'that* is, strictly speaking, impro- 
per, because it relates to something that 
had been sensed and is now remembered. 
(But it could not be helped because there 
is no other means to express the reality 
than that of human speech which, princi- 
pally, has to do with the physical world 
and seldom or never with the metaphysical. ) 
1 That' rightly applies to the inartificial 
nature according to the view of Isvaraprat- 
yabbijna: "The self not deprived of freedom.' 1 
'Never assumes' suggests that the reality is 
never perceived in the state of being remem- 
bered. (Stanzas. 12 & 13. ) 

( CONTEXT. ) In the passage beginning 
with ' In Whom seated ' it is said that 
consciousness assumes the form of universal 


objectivity. Hence, the artificial form of non- 
existence, brought into being by its own thou- 
ght, is also assumed by it. Accordingly, how 
can the sentiency of the form of unlimited 
enjoyment come to it? To remove this ob- 
jection is explained. 

(TEXT.) 14. The pair of states 
is here styled objectivity and sub- 
jectivity. The objectivity is perish- 
able and the subjectivity indes- 

15. Only that effort here cea- 
ses which is directed towards the 
objectivity. On the ceasing of that, 
a fool thinks, e I am dissolved* 1 

16. Destruction is never possi- 
ble to that inner nature which forms 
the abode of the attribute of omni- 
science, because another is not fou- 

(COMMENT.) Here, in the doctrine 
of the spanda principle, the couple of states 
is styled subjectivity and objectivity. Their 
differentiation is found purely in the use of 
words. The two, in fact, represent the unitary 


principle of the form of Sankara who is free 
and full of light. This Principle, being perva- 
ded by action identical with light, is not sepa- 
rate from the existence of the doer, i. e. agent- 
ship. When manifest, as identical with that 
action, it assumes the form of the category, the 
world, the body and their absence etc. and is 
called the object. Because ausality cannot be 
attributed to anything else than that principle. 
As is said in the Sri Pratyabhijna : " the in- 
sentient can not be said to possess that power 
whereby aught could come into existence from 
naught. Hence, the tie of cause and effect is 
based on the principle of subjectivity and 
objectivity. " 

The objectiveness of this world consists in 
this that the principle of spanda brings into 
being, like the reflections in a mirror and as 
separate from the nature of consciousness* 
such endless manifestations as body, blue 
etc. by the gradual processes of uniting 
and separating such emanations as place, 
time, etc., although these emanations are not 
separate from consciousness. Whatever He 
manifests is, being manifested, subject to 
decay as regards the external form. Decay 


is here to be understood in the light of 
Conversion from objectivity to subjectivity. 

Hence, it is that the Lord creates and 
destroys only the objective aspect of the 
perceiver, i e. body etc., and not the subjec- 
tive of tbe form of * individual light. ' 
Because the individual is one in form with 
the Lord, although possessed of the body etc. 
Hence of the two, objectivity and subjec- 
tivity, the former is perishable and the 
latter, as identical with the nature of 
consciousness, is deathless. Eor, even at both 
the emanation and tbe absorption of the world, 
that reality does not deviate from the real 
nature. If it were to do so, the world's 
emanation and absorption would not manifest. 
Hence, it is sentient as forming the essence 
of an unimperf ect enjoyment even in the state 
of the insentient etc. 

In the performance of the meditation 
on non-existence, as also 

The; objector says. i n sound sleep etc., W6 do 

not perceive the self as doer* 
For, its functioning is nowhere seen therein. 


Yes. That effort or exertion, ^hich is 

directed towards objects or 

The author says is engaged in the function 

of directing the senses 

etc., only ceases and stops at the stage 
of the objective destruction. And, on 
the ceasing of that, the unintelligent fool, 
whose real nature is eclipsed by the involutive 
meditation, thinks c I am dissolved. ' Des- 
truction can never befall or can never be 
possible to that inward nature, of the form of 
individual light, which ( inward nature ) is 
the abode of the attribute of omniscience. 
(The word c omniscience ' suggests perfect 
agentship etc ). Por none else is found as 
the perceiver of the destruction of that 
inward nature. If there be recognised some 
such perceiver, he will, verily then, represent 
his own self, i. e. the inward consciousness. If 
he ( the perceiver ) is not found, how can 
you say, then, with determination that the 
state of destruction exists ? 

None perceives the destruction of that 

inward nature but he him- 

The objector says,; se lf of the nature of light. 


How 3 then, can non-existence be predi- 
cated of him as identical 

The author replies. ^ltb fo^ i nvrar d nature ? 

The phrase s owing to the 

not-finding of another J should, on this inter- 
pretation, be explained as owing to the ab- 
sence of perception by another. It is true that 
just as the absence of a jag is determined from 
perceiving the place without the- jug, so could 
be the absence of the self from the perception 
of something selfless. But the existence of 
the perceiver thereof is essential in this case. 
Hence, the non-existence of the self per- 
ceiving it does not hold good. 

If he ( the inward nature ) were to 
disappear on the cessation of the effort 
directed towards the objective world, then, 
on some subsequent time, the percep- 
tion of some other effort would not be 
possible and, hence, the non-perception of 
any other effort would follow. 

Moreover, how can the foolish suspect 
the disappearance of the inward-faced reality 
by the non-perception of the outgoing 
energy in the dreamless sleep etc.. knowing 
that the disappearance of one thing cannot 
affect another ? 


Disappearance is never possible to that 
inward-faced perceiver identical with light 
by the absence, or by the manifestation 
of the absence, of the effort directed to 
the objective world. The inward-faced nature, 
which forms the habitat of the attribute 
of omniscience, knows even that state 
of absence, because, otherwise, , that very 
state wiirnot exist. The genitive case ' of 
another' is used, here, to convey the 
nominative and accusative senses. 

The inward-faced nature is regarded as 
a state, in consideration of the fact that 
the subjectivity is treated somewhat like 
the opposite of the objectivity, As before 
argued, the former is, in reality, the ex- 
periencer in the states of waking etc. 
* The inward-faced ' means the one in 
whom the supreme egoity predominates. 
( Stanza 16* ) 

( CONTEXT. ) After having discussed 
how the unenlightened determines, even 
though unjustifiably, the dissolution of his 
own perceiving self, on the cessation of his 
external operations, the author describes the 
mode and form in which the fully enlight- 
ened and the partially enlightened understand 
the self. 


[TEXT.] 17. The fully enlight- 
ened has, ever and always, the 
knowledge of that reality, invari- 
able in all the three States; the 
other, only at the beginning and 
at the end. 

( COMMENT. ) By the firm grasp of 
the forecited occult processes, the invarible, 
or the never-vanishing knowledge, or the 
unlimited manifestation of that real nature 
which forms the topic of this treatise, is 
possible perpetually in all the three states, 
waking, dreaming and dreamless sleep and 
always at the beginning, in the middle and at 
the end to the one who is very well en- 
lightened or who is devoid of the impress* 
ion of unenlightenment. He appears always 
as one with the real' nature identical with 
Sankara. The other, i. e. the partially enligh- 
tened, has it only at the beginning, viz. on the 
desire to manifest and at the end, viz, on. the 
inward-facedness identical with the immersion 
of those .states which are of the form of con- 
sciousness suited to them, and never in 
their middle identical with the subsistence 
of the manifestation of things agreeable to 
them. As is said in the Sri Sivadrsti 
** She is indeed perceived as existing in 


the states necessitating the presence of the 
knower at the beginning of all cognitions or 
in the fruit, through the immersion .in that/' 

Bhatta Lollata also has, in his own 
gloss, interpreted 6 at the beginning and 
end of those ' just in the same way as I 
hare done. We hare never had schooling 
in forcing the farfetched meanings, in con- 
formity with the words of the gloss of 
Bhatta Sri Kallata, in the sutras which 
yield a quite clear sense. 

Because, the one who is not fully enlight- 
ened has the knowledge of that only at the 
beginning and at the end of those states* 
hence, he is a fit recipient and is, as such, 
being prepared to be fully enlightened by 
the instructions on the spanda principle. 
The author will refer to it in the passage 
starting with: ( hence the one, always on 
the alert to haye ihe clear yision of spanda 
principle while waking etc '; also in e the 
unenlightened is like the state of dreamless 
sleep, the enlightened is unenshrouded; ' also 
in the passage beginning with ' likewise 
eten in dreaming ' and also in that starting 
with * one should always be awakened. 7 



Here, for the purpose of perfectly en- 
lightening 1 the already enlightened, the instru- 
ction is undertaken to fill even the middle 
state, of the form of the determination of 
the things, with the happiness of the fourth 
like the initial and the final stages of the 
three states waking etc. This will be ex- 
plained later on. So say the Sivasutras ; 
cs The happiness of the fourth is possible 
on the differentiation of waking, dream- 
ing and dreamless sleep; " " In the three, 
the fourth should be besprinkled like oil; " 
" Viresa the experiencer of the triad. " 
( Stanza 17. ) 

[ CONTEXT. ] Now the author describes 
how the fully enlightened acquires realisation 
individually in the three states. 

[-TEXT. ] 18. The all-pervading 
lord manifests, in the two states, 
as possessed of the supreme 
power in the form of the know- 
ledge and the knowable and, in 
the other than those, as identical 
with consciousness. 


( COMMENT. ) To the fully enlight- 
ened, the all-pervading real nature, identi- 
cal with Sankara, appears, in the two sta- 
tes of waking and dreaming, as possessed 
of the supreme power which manifests 
itself in the form of the knowledge and , 
the knowable at the middle stage; and in 
its own form as the spanda principle, at 
the initial and the final stages of the 
cognition. Therein, the fully enlightened, 
like Sadasiva and Isvara, envisages the 
whole universe as his own body. The phrase - 
fi in the other than those : implies in the 
dreamless sleep and not, as some say, in 
the dreamless and the fourth states. Because 
the fourth is impertinent, as regards the 
subject under discussion; 'invariable in the 
three states, ' And because the realisation 
of that is itself the fourth state. In the sound 
sleep this all-pervading principle appears to 
him as identical with consciousness, owing to 
the stoppage of the entire knowable, viz., 
objective world. This relates to the fully en- 
lightened and does not follow the order of 
things. Because, in the latter case, the phrase 
6 identical with consciousness in the other 
than those ' would be incongruous. For, 


with reference to the people, the dreamless 
sleep is of the form of subconscious state 
and, with reference to Siva, even waking 
and dreamless sleep are identical with 
consciousness. Besides, it is useless as re- 
gards the topic under discussion. 

The concluding portion of the first 
chapter beginning from this place should 
be very carefully examined; because, though 
meant to perfectly enlighten the enlightened, 
it has not been recognised as such by other 
commentators. We are not expected to write 
such things word after word. ( Stanza 18. ) 

[ CONTEXT. ] Now the author justifies 
how even the middle stage of waking etc, 
does not stand in the way of the enlight- 

[TEXT.] 19. Particular emana- 
tions of spanda, which begin with 
qualities and whose existence is 
due to and based on generic span- 
da, never oppose the knower. 

[ COMMENT. ] Here, by the term 
qualities is meant goodness, attachment and" 

Inertia, ' which have the principle of mate- 
riality for their field of glory and which 
take their stand in the principle of inaya. 
As ; Is said in the Sri Svacchanda in con- 
nection with the arrangement of the bed- 
sheets of maya: " The red and the white 
should be known as forming the lower and 
the upper covers and inertia as the middle. 
These qualities are thus arranged. " 

Currents of those particular manifesta- 
tions of the spanda principle, which begin 
from 'kala'.and end with the 'earth* and 
which halve those qualities at their heads 
mean such effusions as body, senses and the 
worlds, as the perceptions of blue and plea- 
sure etc, and, with reference to a Yogi, as 
the light and the sound etc. They never op- 
pose, viz., they never conceal the real nat- 
ure, ia the case of the knower, i. e. fully 
enlightened soul that has no future birth. 
Because, according to the view discussed 'in 
Whom established, ' they take their birth 
from and are identical with the generic 
spanda principle before described and servin^ 
as their support. The power of conscious- 
ness pertaining to Paramesvara, manifesting 
itself at the stage of Sri Sadasiva etc. in 


the form of the triad of powers, cogni- 
tion, action and maya, assumes, owing to 
the excess of limitation, the form of goodness, 
activity and inertia for the performance of the 
play in the manner described in the Sri Praty- 
abhijna; " Those, which constitute the cogni- 
tion, the action and the maya of the Lord 
with reference to things existing as His own 
body, form goodness, activity and inertia of 
the fettered. " By means of this, the fully 
enlightened knows, always, this whole uni- 
verse as presided over by that reality and 
as identical with the manifestation of his 
own conscious powers arid feels merged in 
the spanda principle, although never put- 
ting himself in opposition to the parti- 
cular spanda forms which begin with 
qualities. ( Stanza 19. ) 

( CONTEXT. ) 'Now is described how 
these fetter the unenlightened. 

( IEXT. ) 20. Indeed, these, be- 
ing always in readines to conceal 
their own position, throw the peo- 
ple of unawakened intellect into the 
terrible ocean of the path of wori d- 
ly existence, which is difficult of 


(COMMENT.) These before described 
effusions of spanda, beginning with quali- 
ties, which are ready or which always ex- 
ert themselves only in hiding their own 
position identical with the spanda principle, 
throw almost all the worldly, people of un 
awakened intellect who hare not recogni- 
sed their own spanda reality identical with 
the power of the Lord, and who believe 
the body to be the self and the Yogis 
of limited power, who mistake the life- 
breath etc. for the self, on the fierce and 
painful path of the world which is diffi- 
cult to be crossed over, i. e., across which 
the totality of .living creatures is taken with 
great difficulty by the adepts. As is said 
in the Sri Malinivijaya; " Others are called 
ghorataris ( fiercer ) which, while embracing 
Kudra souls, throw down and down the 
jivas being attached only to sense objects. " 

The same supreme energy, which has 
been described before and which is identical 
with the spanda principle, is called the vam- 
esvari power, because it vomits in and out this 
whole universe and because it runs .counter 
to the march of the world. The four circles 


of the divinities, bearing the forms respec- 
tively of khechari, gochari, dikchari, and 
bhuchari and called into existence by that 
energy, lead the fully enlightened to the 
higher stages and the unenlightened to the 
lower and lower. The Kbecharis which, 
as moving in the ether of knowledge, are a 
means to the manifestation of the temporal 
freedom, non-duality, omnipotence, omniscie- 
nce, perfection and pervasiveness in the 
case of the fully enlightened, serve, while 
moving in the state of < sunya-prainata' and 
while in the form of cloaks, as a means to 
the limitation due to the association of tem- 
porality, limited activity and limited know- 
ledge, in the case of the unenlightened. Goch- 
aris, which move in the stages of- deter- 
minatfve faculty, egoism and mind, whose 
( of stages ) sphere is' constituted by the idea- 
tion as denoted by the word fi gau' speech, 
produce determination, conceit and imagina- 
tion identical, in the case of the fully en- 
lightened, with his own self, and in the case- 
of the laymen, with individualities. Dikcharis, 
moving in the ten quarters or in the ten 
stages of external senses, lead to the mani- 
festation of non-duality in the case of the 
fully enlightened and to the duality in the 

' 78 

case of others. Bhucharis, which move -in 
and are identical, being materialised, with the 
state of the knowable of the form of the 
pentad denoted by the term c bhu, ' show 
themselves to the fully enlightened in the 
form of conscious light. To others they ap- 
pear as manifesting limitedness everywhere. 
Thus, these four circles, of the form of the 
limited experience^ inner sense, the outer 
senses and the knowable,, and identical with 
the particular spanda emanations beginning 
with qualities, throw the people of unawakened 
intellect, throw the worldly people and the 
Yogis who feel satisfied only with the mani- 
festation of the light and the sound etc., 
into this world which is an evolution of par- 
ticular elements. [ Stanza 20. ] 

(CONTEXT. ) Because it is so. 

(TEXT.) 21 Hence, while even 
in the waking state* the one, who 
is always in readiness to have the 
clear vision of the spanda principle, 
realises his own real nature very 

[ COMMENT. ] Even while waking or 
existing in the waking state, he realises, not 
after long, his own real nature identical with 
Sankara, who is always on the alert for the 


clear vision or contemplation of the spanda 
principle described before and to be ex- 
plained later on, i. e. who is fixed always 
in the introspection of his inward reality, ac- 
cording to the way chalked out in the Bha- 
gavadgita; " who, being ever meditative, 
worship me, after fixing their mind in me." 
Similarly his internal nature, identical with 
Sankara, by itself emerges before him and 
by this emersion the enlightened becomes 
fully enlightened, i. e. becomes liberated in 
life, through the attainment of perpetual and 
never vanishing inspiration. ( Stanza 21. ) 

( CONTEXT. ) The author now describes 
how those, these very states, offer the field, 
first of all, for exertion, which have been 
called into being by the strong and forceful 
reliance, which easily lead to the destruc- 
tion of all other states and in which the trea- 
sure of the spanda gets opened and comes 
face to face with the person who is always 
on the alert. 

( TEXT. ) 22. The spanda princi- 
ple is established there in that 
state to which gets reduced the 
one who is exceedingly exaspera- 
ted or the one who is exceedingly 
pleased or the one who is deeply 


considering what to do or the 
one running to and fro a 

( COMMENT. ) AH regards all the diffe- 
rent ways and means of meditation,, the Yogis, 
as a matter of fact, get one-pointedness, 
only after putting .down all other functions, j 
If, in these states of vehement wrath etc. 
which s by themselves and without any effort, 
lead to the cessation of all other functions, 
the Yogis, who are always on the alert for the 
clear vision of the spanda principle, draw 
themselves in, all of a sudden; then they are 
sure to obtain their desired objects at no 
distant date. And those, who are not Yogis, 
are like idiots in this respect. 

6 The immensely exasperated ' suggests 
the one whose circle of rays is drawn in, 
under the potent influence of the divinity in 
the form of the destructive desire immediately 
arising either from the sight of the enemy 
who has recently inflicted a terrible wound 
or from the hearing of the enemy's heart- 
rending words. ' The exceedingly ecstasied ' 
implies the one the group of whose senses is 
fully awakened and is, hence, energising un- 
der the influence of the divinity emerging, 
in the form of the gratification of the desire, 
just at the sight of the lotus-like face of the 


long-wooed beloved. ' Thinking what to do ' 
indicates the man who runs in fright, being 
all around encompassed by an inhuman and 
strong force, and is reduced to the state in 
which he feels hanging in the balance of 
uncertainty and who has all his sense-divini 
ties brought to a standstill under the con- 
sciousness of uncertainty occasioned by the 
exhaustion of all the possible means of shel- 
ter. * The running J denotes the person who is 
closely pursued by a rut elephant etc. and 
who, being in utter despair of life, is atten- 
tive altogether to a hasty flight under the goad- 
ing of the divinity of the activity which is 
in full swing owing to all the other func- 
tions being drawn towards itself. 

The Yogi, who is perpetually on the 
alert to have the clairvoyance of the spanda 
principle, attains to the state of the cessa- 
tion of all other operations in the moods 
mostly akin to the above and in such as the 
horrible fright caused by the sight of a lion, 
a huge serpent etc. The spanda principle 
presents itself ,to him in that particular state 
of the stoppage of operations. Hence, being 
alive to the state of the cessation of 
operations, the Yogi should at once put 
down the feelings of anger and uncertainty 


just as a tortoise contracts all its limbs and 
should bring into manifestation the states of 
ecstasy and wild retreat by the process relatin^ 
to the obtainment of perfection. He should 
contemplate on his own spanda energy that 
has come to stand face to face with him. 
As is said in the Sri Vijnanabhairava: " That 
reality alone survives when a Yogi fixes his 
intellect in the states of love, anger, greed, 
infatuation, conceit and envy. He should 
deeply consider over the bliss that surges 
on the achievement of some happy object and 
on the seeing of a relative after a long time. 
The existence of Brahman is near at hand 
at the end of sneezing etc., in fear, in deep 
grief, in flight from an elephant, in cu- 
riosity and at the end of hunger etc," 
(Stanza. 22) 

( CONTEXT. ) Now is described how the 
perpetually alert can get liberation-in-life 
identical with the permanent presence of 
that reality, first by introspecting in these 
states the spanda energy after the forecited 
manner and then by meditating on that 
energy in all states. 

[TEXT.] 23-25. Both the sun 
and the moon, while leaving be- 
hind by the upper path this ob- 


ject of the world, set in the path 
of Susumna after taking" their 
stand in that state of which the 
Yogi takes firm hold and stands 
fixed with this vow ' I shall cer- 
tainly and necessarily do that 
which this reality will say to me 5 . 
Then, in that great ether where 
the moon and the sun have dis- 
appeared, he, who acts as in the 
sound sleep, is indeed insentient 
and he, the unenveloped therein, is 

[ COMMENT. J The Yogi vows and deter- 
mines that he should give up all the exter- 
nality and necessarily do that, or, that he should 
exclusively address himself to that which this, 
his nature, identical with Sankara, says 
to him or makes him reflect on that 
reality which he experienced before as being; 
manifest and as full of intelligence and 
bliss. He stands fixed, after taking his 
basis in, or contemplating, as the end of 
life, the spanda state full of intelligence 
and bliss and previously experienced in the 
moods of vehement wrath etc. He gets 
inflexibly into the state in which all ideas 
have subsided and vanished. 


Taking their stand in that state of his, 
the moon and the sun, the exhaling and 
inhaling breaths, both unite together in the 
abode of heart and simultaneously set, or 
subside, in the path of Susumna in the Brahmic 
artery by the upper path, or by. the path 
of the upleading breath. How ? Leaving the 
objectivity represented by the cosmic egg or 
deserting the microcosm presided over by 
Brahma the presiding deity of the Brabmic 
aperture, or giving up confinement to the 
body as far up as the upper gate. The Yogi, 
then on transgressing the bodily limitation, 
reaches to that high ether, identical with 
the disappearance of the entire objective 
existence, wherein the previously referred 
to moon and sun disappear totally. The 
Yogi, who even in that ether acts as in the 
dreaming and dreamless states or who still 
takes his stand on the stage of sunya etc, 
owing to slackness of his exertion and under 
the delusion of the spanda effusion beginning 
with the qualities and in the form of the 
khechari etc., is addressed as insentient, as 
the one to whom his own real nature has not 
manifested itself properly. 

As is said by Sri Bhatta Kallata in: 
" Taking stand in which state of spanda/' 


and in "with whom, the manifestation of his 
own real nature has not properly taken place 
he, being deluded by the dreaming etc., is 
unenlightened, is concealed. " 

But he, who does not even for a moment 
relax therein by the strength of activity and by 
the quickness of exertion, is addressed as en- 
lightened, as standing identical only with 
the ether of consciousness on account of 
his being not overcome by darkness. Hence, 
the teacher has instructed that the Yogi' 
should always be exertive. 

. ; f\ __ 


End of the first Chapter. 


Thus, IB the first chapter, the author has 
explained the spanda principle as identical with 

Connection of the first the real nature, as justifi- 
and second chapters able by arguments, and 

as recognisable along with the recognitive 
mark by the involutive meditation. Now, 
he introduces the second chapter, namely 
the c rise of the innate knowledge, " 9 consis- 
ting of the seven stanzas from * 6 relying 
on that >J to " granting identity with the 
reality of Siva. " In it, as helping to reveal 
the universal identity with consciousness, he 
explains how the same spanda principle can 
even when adopting universality 3 be recogni- 
sed by the evolutive meditation, just as the Yogi 
gets perfect enlightenment referred to before 
by the perpetual realisation of that reality, 
The universe is twofold as pure and as 
impure. The first two slokas describe that the 
Content of the pure, in the form of mantra 

second chapter e tc # emanates from that 

reality, is identical with that and gets merged 
in that. The next two slokas say that the 
impure also is identical with that, The 
fifth tells that the man, who gets libera- 


ted in life, is fixed in the knowledge 
of that reality. The last two relate how 
the Toga practisers get their desired objects 
by the realisation of this principle. 

This is the abstract [of the second chapter]. 
( CONTEXT, ) The author now describes 
how that pure aspect of the world, of the 
form of the mantras etc., referred to in " In 
Whom established this objective world, from 
Whom come out. is emanated from that 
reality, is manifest through that and gets 
merged in that. 

(TEXT.) 1 and 2. The incaota- 
tions, on catching hold of that 
strength, get endued with the 
power of omniscience and per- 
form their functions just as the 
senses of the embodied do. They, 
together with the mind of their 
practisers, get absorbed in that 
alone, being peaceful and purged 
of impurities. Hence, these incanta- 
tions possess the real nature of 

(COMMENT.) Relying on, or catching 
hold of, that strength or the life vitality con- 
substantial with the spanda reality, as their 
ultimate support on account of identity, 


the holy and worshipful mantras, such as 
Ananta, Vyoraavyapi etc., get their full and 
free play by the power of their omniscience 
and perform their functions of creation, dis- 
solution, concealment and benefaction in the 
d.omain of the embodied. The word * omni- 
scient ' is used chiefly with reference to 
meaning aod as such suggests omnipotence 
etc. The above idea is exemplified thus: just 
as the senses of the embodied operate in 
the manifestation of sense-objects by virtue 
of that strength in the manner described 

The Mantras get also purged of impuri- 
ties and their defilement of functioning dis- 
appears on the achievement of their objects. 
In that self-same vitality of spanda they 
get absorbed, never to come into existence 
again, by the proper attainment of identity 
and lose their property of denoting particular 
deities. They get divested of the impurity 
of functioning and merge, together with the 
knowledge of the practisers, in that vitality 
of spanda. As has been mid, " Have gone ' 
to the diseaseless state after gracing 'the ' 
aggregate of the Jivas. " These mantras and 
their lords are possessed of the nature of 
the great Lord Siva and are one in- sufe- 


stance with the generic spanda principle, 
because they emanate from that, are created 
by the prowess of that and get merged 
in that. 

Why are not the senses also of the form 
Objector days, of the omniscient^ if they and 

the Mantras emanate etc. equally from 

that .reality ? 

The Lord forms the body and the sen- 
The author replies, ses individually by His 
own power of Maya. Where- 
as, by that of knowledge. He produces, 
out of ether, the Mantras whose essence 
lies in describing various deities. Possession 
of such attributes as omniscience etc, by 
these Mantras is quite justifiable, because, 
eyen at the Mayic stage, the Mantra, as 
descriptive of some deity, has no limitation 
in knowledge like the body and the Puryas- 
taka etc. and since it does not get degraded 
from the stage of the perceiver, according to 
the view of the Pratyabhijna : " The deter- 
mination * this is a jug * manifests in the 
form of the Lord's power and never in that 
of objectivity as being beyond both the name 
and the form. " This is explained at length 
in the commentary on the Karika of the 
Sri Pratyabhijna : " On the manifestation of 

the duality one' in essence. " 

This stanza should be explained in the 
above manner with reference to Aoanta 
Bhattaraka etc. who, standing on the stage 
of knowledge, perform creation etc, 

All the Mantras, in the shape of the 

senses -of the teachers 

( Second interpretation engaged in the initiation 

of the stanza). ^ re ^ On ^ ^^ 

catch hold of the vitality 
of that spanda principle and perform such func- 
tions, along with the mind of the practiser, as 
the procuring of deliverance and enjoyment 
They rightly merge in that alone, after they 
lose their existence as articulate sounds and 
are, hence, purified. In this explanation, the 
phrase, * along with the mind of the prac- 
tiser, ' goes with the preceding stanza. 

Thus it is implied that the vitality of 
the spanda principle series as the substratum 
of the Mantras, not only as regards the 
stages of emanation and absorption but also 
as regards that of functioning. 

The gist of the whole is that, accord- 
ing to the Saiva School which has got ten 
divisions, eighteen divisions and so on, the 
Mantras are identical in substance with the 
Spanda Reality. [ Stanza ]. 12. 


[CONTEXT.] Having explained with 
justification that the creation, believed as pure 
and as of the form of the Mantras and their 
lords etc, is one in nature with Siva, the 
author now introduces summarily the esoteric 
Tiew of the Sri Matasastra etc. "in explaining 
that the impure creation of the form of 
Maya etc. is consubstantial with Siva. 

(TEXT.) 3 and 4. The Jiva 
is identical with the whole uni- 
verse, because the genesis of all 
things is attributed to him and 
because he adopts the universality 
on account of the knowledge of 
the whole. Hence, there is no state, 
in Contemplations of the word 
and the meaning, which cannot be 
identified with Siva: The experien- 
cer stands everywhere and always 
in the form of the experienced. 

( o o ic M . ) Because the Jiva, the 
perceiver, is identical with the whole, i. e., 
is, like Siva, of the form of the universe 
hence, by that reason, as regards the words 
and their meanings and the ideation, there 
is no such state, either at the beginning or 
in the middle or at the end, as cannot be 
identified with Siva. Thus everything is of 


the nature of Siva. This being so, the 
enjoyer, as of the form of consciousness 
and as a perceirer, is, always and every- 
where, in the stage of the diverse elements 
and worlds etc , standing uniformly, neither 
more nor less, in the form of the enjoy- 
able or in the form of the body and blue 
etc. The enjoyable has no existence apart 
from the enjoyer. 

The passage beginning with 'Jiva' and 
ending with 'Siva' indirectly tells that there 
is no real differentiation between the Jiva 
and Siva and, hence, there should be no 
idea of imperfection even in the states of 
body etc. The feeling of oneness in nature 
with Siva full of intelligence alone should 
prevail As has been said in the commentary 
on the Sri Pratyabhijna : " There is no 
" divergence of opinion on this point that not 
only those get success, who regard and 
worship even the body as identical with. 
Siva and with all the thirty six categories, 
but also those who regard and worship 
even a Jug etc, in that light." Bhatta 
Sri Vamana has also said : " Because a 
thing sensed is itself based on consciousness 
and because it cannot be said to exist as 
sensed independently of that consciousness, 


the whole is the object of that conseiouness* 
Thus one should realise one's identity with 
consciousness , " 

In reply to the query how the Jiva is 
identical with the whole? is said : because 
he is the origin, or the cause of the crea- 
tion, of all things. The phrase 6 sarwabhava 
etc.' is used with reference to its ablative 
significance. According *to the view of the 
Sri Jnanagarbha hymn, ** Your playful 
desire becomes the cause of the diversity, 
such as the perceiver, the perceiving, the 
perception and the perceptible, and that 
diversity disappears somewhere on your 
playful desire being over. Seldom does a 
certain man realise it in this light.", the 
Jiva is the source of all things because 
the world exists on the manifestation of 

consciousness. The Jiva is of the form of 
the whole and has all powers because the 
universe emanates from him. I have ex~. 
plained this in my comments on the second 

The latter half of the third stanza s 
beginning with s knowledge of that 1 gives 
another reason why the Jiva is identical 
with the whole ; because the identity of 
the Jiva with the whole is perceived owing 


to the fact that the Jira Is identical with 
the knowledge of the whole objective 
world typified by blue and pleasure etc. 
All the necessary instructions are included 
in the span-da reality , because the above 
two stanzas . refer to the occult practi- 
ces and the stories, teaching the right 
knowledge based on such an argumentative 
justification as leads to the extirpation of 
the tree of individualism, and because the 
first and the last sutras refer to the 
great reality, the sutra beginning with 
* waking etc. ' to that of the Trika system 
and the Stanza s catching hold of that V to 
the essence of all meditations. (Stanzas 3. and 4.) 

[ CONTEXT. ] Now the author explains 
that the liberation is essentially the same as 
the realisation of this identity with the 

(TBXT.) 5 Or he, who possess- 
es this sort of cognition, or he, 
who regards this whole universe 
as a play and is always united* 
is beyond doubt liberated in life. 
' ( COMMENT. ) The word 'or' 
denotes that the form of the involutive 
meditation, described in the first chapter, 
is optional,, but this realisation of identity 


with the universe is essential and hard to 
be obtained. Hence, the meaning is as 
follows. Such a cognition is seldom to be 
had and falls to the lot of that fortunate 
person who has no succeeding births. He, 
who obtains this, regards this whole uni- 
verse as a play or creates and dissolves it 
by the evolution and involution of his 
own consciousness and is always united or 
is a great Yogi according to the view : 
" Those who, being ever united, worship 
me with their mind fixed in me. " Such 
a man, though living, though possessed of 
life-breath etc., has all the bondages burnt 
to ashes by the fire of knowledge and on 
the falling of the body he becomes Siva. 
A man, whose character is of the above 
description, is free, even, though living, and 
is never and no way fettered. 

The phrase fi no doubt J suggests that 
the liberation by means of initiation etc. is 
based on the faith in the teacher and that 
the liberation by means of the above know- 
ledge and conduct has for its basis the 
faith in one's own self. ( St. 5. ) 

[ CONTEXT ] . The author, in the follow- 
ing two stanzas, says that this great realisa- 
tion verily serves the practiser, the teacher 


etc., as a means to . their achievement of 
the desired objects 

(TEXT.) 6 and 7 This only is the 
manifestation, in the meditator's 
mind, of that object of medita- 
tion that the willing practiser 
gets unified with that self* This 
surely is the acquisition of the 
immortality, this surely the realisa- 
tion ofthe self, this the liberative 
initiation leading to the identity 
with Siva. 

( COMMENT. ) As referred to in 
the declaration 8t The devotee should worship 
Siva after becoming Siva." , this is the rise, 
or the manifestation, in the mind, or the 
consciousness, of the contemplator of the object 
of contemplation, either in the form of the 
real nature of Siva described in * no such 
state as is not Siva' or in the form of 
a particular deity of .the Mantra leading 
to the attainment of particular processes, that 
the practiser, or the contemplator, such as 
the teacher etc., acquires unification, as 
described in ' there is no such state etc.', 
with that or with Siva. It is not the 
envisaging of some separate form, such 
as the five-headed etc. The attainment of 


identity with that Siva is not due to a mere 
determination but to the deep and definite 
contemplative desire of becoming one with 
Siva identical with universal consciousness. 
The sum and substance of the whole 
is that, because the whole universe culminates 
in the identity with the spanda principle, 
there is no such deity of the contemplated 
Mantra as, indeed, will not come face 
to face with him in whom the strong con- 
viction I myself am Siva full of intelli- 
gence and happiness and my body is this 
universe because of my identity therewith, 
in the form of its consciousness.' fructi- 
fies in excluding all other desires. As has 
been said by my revered great grand teacher: 
" O Lord, what does not serve as a sacred 
place to the devotees in this world which 
visibly is identical with Thee and where 
does not their Mantra bear fruit ? " 

This alone is the acquisition of the 
nectar of supreme identity. The word ' alone' 
suggests that the parctisers die unavoidably 
even though the ordinary nectar, having 
the property of temporarily invigorating 
the body, be obtained. Out of this con- 
sideration, the Sri Svacchanda winds up the 
description of the ordinary way of acquiring 


nectar with. " Victory over the death by 
time is not possible by acquiring nectar. n 
and introduces, in terms of praise, the right 
way of obtaining nectar in the passage, 
beginning with " Or the one, established 
in the supreme principle, is never teasel 
by all the forms of time* r> having, in the 
middle, " The whole should be regarded as 
of the form of Siva and Sakti." and ending 
with " He, though living, is free, who has 
this conviction always. Time cannot limit 
him who always meditates on Siva. That 
Yogi meditates on the state of Svacchanda, 
and acquires equality with Svacchanda 
through the Yoga of Svacchanda, which 
leads him to move like Svacchanda. He, 
becoming Svacchanda, always ffioves freely 
and is independent/ 8 

This is the cognition and this is the 
knowledge of the self. The knowledge 
referred to in " The self should be known." 
consists in the recognition of the as self 
essentially identical with Siva "Who is 
omniscient and free and does not, according 
to the tradition ; " Those votaries of the 
self do not attain to the high state." , 
consist, as the Vedantists say, in the knowledge; 
" This whole is verily Purtisa /' This is 


similarly the favour of the teacher to the 
self of the pupil, essential for the process 
of uniting him at the time of initiation. 
The teacher, knowing this way of obtainment 
does his duty as a teacher in uniting the 
self of the disciple with Siva. 

This ia the Liberative initiation based 
on self-faith and granting the unity to 
J-utraka etc. with the ultimate reality 
identical with Siva. As is said : " He, who 
thus, knows the reality, gets doubtlesslv 
the initiation granting deliverance without 
offering sesamum and ghee ." Even the 
initiation of the sacrificer is to be treated 
as such. The best of the great teachers 
(Vasugupta) has not used the word 'alone' 
with reference to this initiation lest the people 
might grow sceptic over the sacrificial 




of the Thus, for the mani- 

, ^station of the per- 

feet enlightenment, the previous two chapters 
have explained the entry ,. into the apanda 
principle,, which can be contemplated in both 
the involutive and envolutive meditations and 
which serves as a means of friction between 
the two creative poles. In this the third 
chapter, namely the Vibhuti Spanda, compri- 
sing nineteen stanzas, starting with the verse 
'yatheccha 5 and ending with 'will become Lord 
of the circle 9 , the author, in the first place, 
describes summarily how, by the long parc 
tised grasp of this principle of spanda, there 
dawn forth the higher and the lower phases 
of glory. Secondly, be goes on to the 
definition of bondage and freedom. Thirdly 
and lastly, he discusses conclusively what was 
undertaken at the very beginning of this 

The first two verses discuss the freedom 

as in dreaming, on the analogy of the freedom 

Contents of the chapter. as i n waking. The third 9 

while dilating on its opposite, implicitly 


enjoins that one should resort to perpetual 
exertlveness. The fourth and the fifth deal 
with the manifestation of the knowledge of 
desired objects, the sixth with the manif^s- 
tation of the operative energy and subjection 
of hunger etc* and the seventh and the eighth 
respectively explain the acquisition of omni- 
science and the disappearance of grief. The 
ninth defines evolution of the nature of 
spanda. The tenth argues why to discard cer- 
tain powers appearing as obstacles in the way 
of superior meditation. The inspiration of the 
nature of the universal identity, as explained in 
, the second chapter, has been discussed in the 
eleventh. Twelfth is devoted to the description 
of the process leading to inspiration. The 
aext triad sets forth the bondage and the 
bound. The 16th says that the spanda 
principle alone pervades in both the states 
of bondage and freedom. The author again 
tarns to the definition of bondage as deser- 
ving of being broken asunder in the seven- 
teenth and the eighteenth. The last, while 
describing the means' of breaking that bondage, 
recapitulates the sense of. the first Sutra. 

(CONTEXT,) In connection with the previous 
statement ^cognition of the spanda principle 
is always possible to the perfectly enlightened.*. 


the Instruction has been given in s heBce 3 one 
should ever be exertiye.' regarding the attain- 
ment of perfect enlightenment by the -ordi- 
narily enlightened through the introspection 
of the spaoda principle in the waking state. The 
passage beginning with 'which state etc/ 
relates to the tearing of the Yogi's veil, in 
the form of the dreamless state, by the 
skilled practice in the constant meditation 
on the means. Now, the author Illustrates, 
the -Yogi's glory suited to the dreaming, in ' 
order to prove the perfect enlightenment 
obtained through the disappearance of the 
condition of ordinary dreaming and dream- 
less states. 

[TEXT.] 1 and 2. Just as 
Supporter, being eagerly reques- 
ted, grants, to the waking and 
embodied the objects deep-rooted 
In the heart after causing the rise 
of the moon and the sun, so, 
also in the dreaming state, does 
He^ necessarily manifest desired 
objects, appearing Himself always 
before the Yogi more manifestly in 
the centra! path (Susumna) owing 
to His -never vanishing prayerful 


(COMMENT.) The word ^supporter 5 * as 
tymologically meaning the one who holds 
the whole universe in himself, represen- 
ts th real nature identical with Sankara* 

[Explanation j as fc aa. when eagerlv re- 

ef 'just as j * ?, . *, , 

the., .to heart 5 ], quested or propitiated, 
through tke introspection of the internal 

nature, by the Yogi who is waking, 

or to whom Ms own real freedom has 
manifested itself in the waking state, and 
who is embodied or to whom the know- 
ledge of the microcosm has revealed itself 
even in the embodied state s ..He grants 
the objects rooted in the heart,* or grants 
such .desired objects as the knowledge of 
the light, the sound etc., the rousing of 
the ' intellect and acquaintance ' with the 
obstruction of knowledge in general. 

How? After causing tke rise of the 
[Explanation, moon and the sun or of 

of 'after , * ... i j.i 

eanBin*...the sun']. the , cognitive and the 

operative energies. The operative energy 
fully develops all that is manifested by 
tke cognitive power. The great Lord, on 
His entrance in the Yogi's body, performs 
the influx of particular forms of know- 
ledge by the gradual development of the right 
and the left lights representing respectively the 


cognition and the operation manifested "by 
the process of radical support in the form 
of intelligence awakened by meditation. 

So Supporter appeares clearly, or 
(Explanation as unenshrouded. in the 

of 'so also ^ ' 

in... attitude*). central path, i. e.j Susiimna^ 

of the Yogi who, is fixed in the sham 
sleep and who has always nerer Yanishing 
prayerful altitude, or is intent upon pray- 
ing to God, by means of his meditation accor- 
ding to ,the traditional' yiews "when 
sleep is not yet come,, but the externa 1 
objects have disappeared,, that state reYeais 
itself as supreme goddess and is to be 
experienced by the mind only 3 and 'He, who 
medidates 5 in the Brahmic aperture as well 
as in the heart, on the power,, weak yet fat., 
gets the freedom in the sleeping state on 
his entrance in that/ on the power of con- 
sciousness which is engaged in disgorging 
and swallowing and which serves as a friction 
between the two ereatire poles represented 
by them (disgorging and swallowing). And. He 
[ Supporter ], without Ml, reveals, e^ea 
in the sieaping state, to the Yogi whose 
intellectual mirror is cleansed by the long 
practice in meditation,, all such desired 
objects as the Anav% Sainbhava, Sakta 


Inspirations and others. 

This Yogi never gets subjected to 
ipsentie.ncy in the dreamy and the dreamless 
states. The dreaming state suggests the 
dreamless state. The same phrase s by 
the uever-yanishing prayerful attitude' if 
repeated, serves as a reason for the revelation 
of the desired objects and means that God 
Soes not overlook the diyine propitiation^ 
of the nature of the disappearance of the 
Mayic defilement and obtainable by the 
devotional meditation on the internal nature* 
The great Lord of consciousness * grants 
indeed all that is asked of Him through the 
service suited to the inward nature. The 
word 'waking' should, as an equivocal word, 
be explained as the one who at once is 
wide awake to the supreme reality and is 
in the waking condition. (Stsl-2.) 

[ CONTEXT. ] Now is explained that, 
if a man be not thus concentrated, he is 
not entitled to be a Yogi. 

(TEXT.) 3. If otherwise> he* 
like an ordinary person* will 
always be subject to creation in the 
waking and the dreaming states, 
because the creation is free, being 
characterised by independence, in 


the states of waking and dreaming. 

( COMMENT. ) If, in the way chalked 
oufc before, Supporter be not worshipped 
always, ' then, owing io absence of the 
realisation 'of his owa real nature, this Yogi 
will, eTer always, in both the states of 

waking and dreaming, be, like an ordinary 
person, governed by the Lord's creation 
which is of the nature of determining and 
manifesting the specific aad ordinary things 
of the world. The sense is thai this creation 
will throw even the Togi g like an ordinary 
person,, into the pit of worldly existence. 
As is said ; " The outgoing of the creatures 
is 'due to the Lord's desire. 11 The phrase 
fi beisg characterised by that 5 means that 
the Lord's creation 'is quite free aad 
independent in manifesting . things in such 
states as dreaming, waking, etc. (St. 3.) 

( CONTEXT. ) Thus having discussed 
and cleared the means of uprooting the 
dreaming the dreamless states for the 

purpose of acquiring perfect enlightenment, 
the author explains with illustrations the 
means of entrance in the spanda principle 
of the perfectly enlightened and instructs 
that the knowledge of the object desired 
to be known is also possible thus. 


( TEXT. ) 4 and 5l Just as the same 
thing, as was with all the atten- 
tiveness of mind dimly perceived 
before, becomes clearer when 
observed through the exertion of 
one's own power, so, on catching 
hold of the vitality, the thioghood 
becomes at once manifest in the 
same way f by the same reality and 
in the same place so which it 
actually exists. 

(COMMENT.) The particle 'hi* conveys 
the sense of 'kila' (Indeed). ' In spite of 
mental attentiveness, a thing is seen dimly 
owing to such' difficulties as distance etc. It 
becomes not only clear but also clearer when 
observed minutely through one's own visual 
power. So, that vitality of the spanda prin- 
ciple, which is found identically, in one's own 
real nature,, with Sankara in the ultimate- 
form of the compact mass of *bliss s becomes 
manifest In a clearer way, soon on being obser- 
ved through the effort' of meditation on its 
unity with the internal nature. How ? On 
catching hold, or on the merging in his 
own self, by the practiser, of the stage of 
artificial perceptivity attributed to the body 


Immediately on the vitality of spands 
being grasped, that treasure 
Second interpret- etcj desired to be knowiij repeal 
ftonof 5th St. themselves to 'the practiser, 
or the Yogi who repeatedly 
keeps alive the stage of artificial percep- 
tivity attributed to body and intellect,. 
ia that place, in. tfaafc - position and in 
that ultimate form of gold etc. ia which 
they actually exist. (Stanza, 5.) 

(CONTEXT.) Mow is explained that the 
operative energy etc, reveal themselves 
through this vitality aioae. 

(TEXT*) 6. Just as a feeble 
person addresses himself to his 
own duty by catching 1 hold of that 
strength, so does he, woh is excee- 
dingly hungry, subdue hunger- ; 

[COMMENT.] An emaciated per SOB , such 
as the sage -whose vital elements have all 
become reduced, sets himself to his own 
task, or to the performance which is binding 
on him, by catchiog hold of the strength 
of spanda, or by perpetually keeping alire 
through the inspiration of spanda the state 
of perceptivity attributed to life-breath. He 
can by the inspiration of that vitality perform 
ercn. aa act hard of accomplishment. Like- 


wise, the one who is terribly hungry can 
subdue hunger, thirst etc, by that inspir- 
ation. Subjection to pairs (heat and 
cold] is not possible in the case of the one 
who has attained to the stage of conscious- 
ness because that subjection has the force 
only in the stage, of life-breath etc., which 
got merged in that of consciousness. 

( Stanza. 6. ) 

[CONTEXT. ] Because thus a number of 
such occult powers is obtained by means 
of that vitality in accordance with the lo^i- 


cal method given in the previous Sutra, hence, 

( TEXT )7.-Just as omniscience etc. 
reveal themselves on the pervasion 
of the body by this principle, so 
they will do, anywhere and every- 
where, where the Yogi takes his 
stand in his own real self. 

[COMMENT.) Just as the attributes, 
omniscience, omnipotence and the like ' of 
the form of the experience of things 
suited to that state s manifest themselves 
to the embodied on the body being per- 
vaded by the spanda principle identical 
with one's own nature; so 5 if this embodied 
self take his stand in his never-vanishing 
self of consciousness, either through the 


withdrawal of all his sense activities in the 
manner of contraction of limbs by a tortoise 
or through the process of full evolution, or 
if he fix his mood of meditation on that 
conscious self recognised by the aforesaid 
recognitive marks, he will, everywhere and 
in the totality of categories from Siva down 
to earth, become so, or become possessed of 
such attributes as omniscience, omnipotence 
and the like, . suited to the state of 
Sankara. [St. 7.] 

[ CONTEXT. ] The author (now) says that 
the Yogi will get, besides the above, the follow- 
ing by virtue of this spanda reality. 

[TEXT.] 8. The feeling of grief 
is the thief of body; it proceeds! rom 
ignorance; if that ignorance disap- 
pear by Unmesa, whence can that 
grief exist in absence of its cause? 

[ COMMENT. ] - The feeling of grief, 
which is experienced by the man believing 
his body to be the self, acts as a thief 
inasmuch as it steals away the wealth of 
perfect knowledge and causes the poverty 
in the form of limitation. Origin and exis- 
tence of grief are due to ignorance or to 
the non-recognition of one's own real nature 
identical with bliss and intelligence. If 


the ignorance disappear, or be uprooted, by 
unmesa, the real nature of which will be 
described later on, then whence can this 
grief, without ignorance which is its cause, 
exist? i e., it can never exist. On the 
banishing of grief, the inevitable sufferings 
of the body, such as sickness etc., disappear 
and in proportion to their disappearance the 
real nature of the Yogi manifests itself just 
as the real nature of gold does when it is 
heated and dross disappears. 

Thus the wealth of a great Yogi consists 
in the perpetual absence of grief taking place 
even in his embodied state. As has been 
said by Madalasa, a Yogini of the first 
order, when she addressed the young boys: 
"May you not be reduced to stupidity with 
regard to this your own worn-out dress, 
your own body, which deserves to be cast, off ! 
This your body is determined by virtuous 
and vicious acts and this your dress by 
pleasure etc." 

This ako is indirectly hinted at in this 
stanza that the Yogi, who desires limited 
powers, rises superior to the state of being 
wrinkled and grey-haired, when the whole 
of his body gets, as if by elixir, affected 
by the meditative practice. (St, 8) 


(CONTEXT,) Now in reply to the 
query; of what description and obtainable by 
what means is this unmesa which has been so 
frequently referred to before ? the author says, 

[TEXT.] 9. That is to be known 
as unmesa whence the rise of 
another thought takes place in 
the mind of a man who is already 
engaged in one. One should 
introspectively know it. 

[ COMMENT. ]' The spanda principle 5 
identical with the fire and the moon 
and leading to the disappearance of all 
the varieties of a particular thought by 
the sudden subsidence of the basis thereof 
and by the full manifestation-of-conscious- 
n'ess caused by the excessive concentration 
of consciousness in that thought, gives rise 
to the unearthly manifestation in the form of 
the bliss of consciousness io the case of the 
Yogi who, according to the view: "Conscious- 
ness cannot shift to another object when 
it is already fixed in one invisible object. 
Then that conception matures exceedingly in, 
the intermediate form." is engaged or has 
concentrated himself in one particular idea 
in which all its varieties have ceased to exist 
owing to the strength of the basis. 


The Unmesa should ba known, or 
recognised, in one's own self as identical 
with an extraordinary bliss by approaching 
the self through the concentration of the 
inartificial exertiveness in its subjective 
aspect only, because the objectivity has 
totally, in this case, vanished. 

Some interpret the stanza in the follow- 
ing way. Unmesa is that from which the rise 
of the other idea suddenly takes place in 
the mind of a man who is already occupied 
with one idea relating to a particular object 
and which pervades both the ideas. (St.9), 

(CONTEXT.) Now the author instructs 
that a great Yogi should reject those parti- 
cular powers which even inferior Yogis can, 
by their efforts, acquire and which have 
been roused into being by the meditation 
on Unmesa. 

fTBXT.J .10. From it the light, 
from it the sound, from it the from 
emanate, not long after, as a dis- 
turbance to the embodied. 

[COMMENT.] As a disturbance and as an 
impediment, by granting a temporary grati- 
fication in the attainment of the spanda 
principle, do immediately flow forth, in the 
case of the Yogi in whom the attribution 


of I-ness to the gross and subtle forms 
of body has not yet vanished, from this 
unmesa, which is being referred to, the 
light, equal to that of the pupils of eyes in 
the middle of the eyebrows and the like 
and identical with the light of the 
general objective world, the sound, which 
is equal to that which is never interrupted 
and identical with the sound as undisting- 
uished by the variation of meanings, the 
form, or the light that manifests things even 
in darkness, and the fiavour $ or the extraor- 
dinary taste experienced by the tip of the 
tongue. As the ancients say: "Those are 
regarded as disturbances in the state of 
meditation and as occult powers in Vyutthana.'* 
This stanza implicitly refers to the fact 
that the light and the sound etc. are mere 
disturbances to the Yogi, mistaking the body 
for the self, even though he be exert ive to 
introspect unmesa. ( Stanza 10. ) 

[CONTEXT.] Now is explained that the 
Yogi, who drowns the perceptivity of the 
body in this real nature of unmesa. attains 
to the higher stage of experiencership even 
in that bodied form. 

(TEXT. ) 11. Why to speak much? 
This will come into e x p e r i- 


once byl itself when the Yogi 
stands fixed as pervading all 
objects as at the time of desiring 
to see. 

, (COMMENT.) As the object desired to be 
seen manifests itself in its internal identity 
at the time of the indeterminate desire of 
seeing which presents itself in the form of 
Pasyanti, so when the Yogi stands fixed 
in,- or never swerves from, the state of 
unnaesa, after pervading all objects included 
in the categories from earth up to Siva as 
referred to in the treatment of the paths 
given in the Svacchanda and other works, 
or, after taking this whole universe into 
the consideration of identity with meditation on 
his own determination, i. e. "I, like Sadasiva, 
represent this whole universe," then that 
fruit, which consists in the bliss of entrance , 
into the supreme experiencership in which 
the objectivity has merged and which is 
awakened by the unification of the entire 
knowable, will, by itself, be, indeed f known 
or be experienced by one's own conscious- 
ness. It is useless to speak much on this 
point. [St. .11.] 

[CONTEXT]. While winding up the 
description of the process of entrance, the 


author brings that spanda principle, being 
diversified by numerous objects, to the mind 
of the pupil to be instructed, by saying 
that the entrance in the spanda principle 
becomes always possible to the fully enligh- 
tened' who meditates on the series of means 
discussed at the end of the enunciation 
1 Cognition of that is always available/ 

(TXBT.) 12. The Yogi should 
always be exceedingly on the alert, 
after observing the whole universe 
of 'objectivity with cognition. He 
should establish the whole in one 
place and then he will not be 
troubled by another. 

COMMENT. The yogi should always, i. e. 
at the beginning, in the middle and at the 
end of consciousness in the waking, the 
dreaming and the dreamless states, be on the 
alert, or should resort to full enlightenments 
with the divine vision of the basis of spanda 
principle fully awakened. How? By obser- 
ving or by thinking over, according to the 
view described in: "Hence there is no such 
state in all the ideas relating to the word 
and the meaning as cannot be identified 
with Siva. 9 the whole range of objects such 
as blue and pleasure etc. with the help of 


cognition or with the help of external 

He should regard this whole as 
established* in one real nature as creative 
and as identical with Sankara or he should 
know this as identical with that real nature 
in both the states of involution and evolu- 
tion. It also is implied that he should 
regard even the intermediate state as iden- 
tical with the materialisation of the bliss 
of consciousness by the firmness of the basis 
in the first and the last stages. 

Thus he will not be troubled by 
anything else because his own self 
is admitted to be present in the 
whole. As has been said by the author 
of the Sri Pratyabhijna; " Whence can s in 
the world filled with his own party, there 
be a fear to this ever-happy Yogi who 
without any doubt, O Lord, regards this 
whole universe of objects as Thy body ? " 
( Stanza 12, ) 

( CONTEXT ). The author now defines 
the fetters and the fettered, entertaining a 
doubt: who is the troubler and who 
the troubled referred to in ' Then he will not 
be troubled by any one else * because the whole 
universe is said to be identical with Siva ? 


(TEXT.) 13. He (the real nature) 
is regarded as the fettered when, 
being shorn of his own glory by 

Kala, he gets reduced to the state 
of being enjoyed by the group-of- 

Powers which proceeds form the 
universe of sound. 

COMMENT. -This real nature or 8ankara s 

of the form of light, who has so often 
been described here, is proclaimed in all 
the revelations wnder such titles as Spanda, 
Lalita, Isvara, and others. He is free, is 
always engaged in. performing the fivefold 
act and is found always in union with His 
power according to the view of the Sri 
Svacchanda Sastra: *' This Lord, as being the 
cause of the universe thus established, per- 
forms creation, maintenance, dissolution, 
concealment and assimilation." 

His eternal power of freedom is known 
in different places under such numerous 
designations as perfect egoity, supreme, 
Matsyodari, the great being, energy, 
wave, essense, heart, Bhairavi, god- 
dess, flame etc. Appearing as the mistress 
of the whole alphabet from c a ' to *ksha' 
encased, as it were, in the casket of the 
transcendental principle and the unobstruc- 


ted energy, appearing in contemplation as 
free from gradation, although presenting 
itself in the form of a series of all such 
processes as creation, dissolution etc. perva- 
ded by the cirele-of -all-powers which is 
identical with the manifestation of the six 
paths representing the endless variety of the 
Word and the meaning, appearing as the 
great ever-sounding and unutterable Mantra 
and appearing as forming the vitality of the 
whole, the supreme egoity of this real nature of 
Sankara constitutes the highest stage of 

The same supreme egoity of God is, 
as manifesting in its own self the activity 
of the various objects of this vast universe, 
referred to here under the title of spanda, 
according to its derivative sense of quicke- 
ning. So long as God desires to effect, in 
the play of mystifying His own real nature, 
the piecemeal manifestation, on His own 
background, of His own Self beautified by 
the supreme energy variegated by the 
numerous powers of the universe; this. His 
one undifferentiated energy of thinking, 
reduces itself into the form of the volitional 
power and later on into those of cognition 
and action. As such, it manifests itself as 


twofold according to the division of seed 
and matrix suggestive of Siya and Sakti 
respectively. It also appears as ninefold and 
as fifty fold according to the division of 
classes [letter-groups] and Kalas [letters] respec- 
tively. It brings about the performance of 
the divine fivefold act, while appearing in 
several forms of the goddess of consciousness 
such as Aghora, Ghora arid Ghoratara. 

As has been said in the following 
passages of the Malinivijayottara : " That 
goddess, who has been described as the inse- 
parable power of the world's supporter, 
reduces herself into the form of volition 
when He wishes to create. Listen how 
she, though one, gets diversified. That 
power is described as the cognitive one, 
which in this world causes the determinate 
knowledge 6 this knowable is thus and not 
otherwise. 1 She is known by the name 
of activity when she accomplishes that 
thing just after she has turned herself to 
the world of objectivity with the determi- 
nation 'let this whole be thus.' This 
goddess, though thus appearing in two 
forms only, assumes endless forms, like a 
desire-granting gem, according to the condi- 
tion of objects. Then she at once gets 


into the state of maternity and becomes 
differentiated as twofold, ninefold and fifty- 
fold under the name of the Malini. She 
appears twofold according to the division 
of seed and matrix. The vowels represent 
the seed and the consonants beginning 
with ka* the matrix. She appears nine- 
fold according to the class division. And 
according to the division into individual 
letters, she is aglow with fifty rays. Of 
the two the seed is called Siva and the 
matrix Sakti. The octave of classes is, to 
be known as beginning in order with Aghora. 
The same octave according to the division 
of Sakti represents that of Mahesvari etc. 
beautiful-faced One, the great Lord has 
made this Malini fiftyfold as descriptive of 
Rudras of that number as well as Saktis 
of that number. Those are called Apara 
and Ghoratari who, while embracing the 
Rudra souls, throw down and down the 
souls which are attached to sense-objects 
only. Those are Ghora and Parapara who 
cause, just as before, the attachment with 
the fruit of actions of mixed character 
and who, as such, block the path to libera- 
tion. The knowers of reality call those 
powers of Siva, Aghora and Para who grant 


the fruit of the state of Siva to the creatures 
just as before. " 

He, the same real nature, identical with 
Sankara, Is regarded as, or is said in the 
revelations to be, the fettered when He is 
reduced to the State of being enjoyed by, or 
of being a slave to, Siva and the class of 
divinities such as Brahmi etc, represented 
by the nine classes proceeding from the 
universe of sounds. The reason is given 
through the medium of a qualifying phrase 
' being shorn of the glory by Kala ' to remove 
the objection: how the experience^ great 
Lord, got reduced to such a condition. Kala 
denotes the power of Maya inasmuch as the 
word Kala means the one which throws out or 
limits in extent. He stands with His su- 
premacy hidden by His own Maya when div- 
ested of the glory by that Kala. 

Kala-vilupta-vibhavah means the one 
whose glory is obliterated, 

Second Interpretation or whose attributes of 
of the phrase 'Kala- perfection and activity are 
yiiupta-Yibhayah. concealed, by Kala, viz. the 

power which evolves the limited activity, and 
by the sheath in the form of limited activity, 
limited knowledge, time, fate, and attachment 
as typified by Kala. The same phrase is used 


as a reply to Even granting this, how has 
He been brought down to the state of slavery 
to the group of powers? ' As such, the phrase 
means: because He does not take rest even 
for a moment In His- own real nature, being 
shorn of glory or being, as if, led and re-led 
into the moods of pleasure and grief etc. by 
Kalas, representing either the presiding deities 
of the groups of letters such as Brahmi 
etc. or those of the individual letters, such 
as are prescribed in the Malinivijaya. 
Under the pressure, as it were, of 
impressions of gross and subtle words 
associated with a chain of such definite 
and indefinite cognitions as 6 am attached, 
am limited, may do something, this I 
take and this I reject. 5 

Hence, He, being of the above nature, 
is said to be a Pasu or the one enslaved by 
the group of powers. He appears as if 
partially shorn pf the glory or as if contra- 
cted by Kala or non-revelation. In fact, 
the Pasu's real nature, as identical with 
Siva, has gone nowhere, because, in absence 
of that, his existence cannot manifest. He 
cannot meditate on His own real self on 
having been shorn of the glory by Kala 
or by the words and cognitions appearing 


limited in the aforesaid way. 

(CONTEXT.) Now the author analyses 
how the fettered is made such and how 

he is put to troubles hy the cognitive power 

when limited. 

(TEXT.) 14 Origination of the 
cognitions of the fettered marks 
the disappearance of the bliss of 
supreme immortality. By that he 
loses his own independence. That 
origination has its object in sense 


( COMMENT. ) The same origination, smac- 
king of dissolution, in the fettered, of ideas or 
cognitions whether pertaining to the world or 
to the Sastras or to the individual objects 
.associated with the former, marks the dis- 
appearance, or the subsidence, of the flow of 
the bliss of the supreme immortality or of 
the conscious being. The state of supreme 
consciousness seems, as it were, to be absent 
on account of its being not contemplated, 
even though it exists when the cognition 
of individual objects takes place. Hence, 
it has been said ao. By this origination 
of cognitions, this fettered soul loses inde- 
pendence or becomes dependent on that 
principle as is said in the Sri Sivasutra; 


"Cognition is the bondage." The revered 
Vyasa Muni also says; "In childhood he 
is dependent on parents." Madalasa also 
refers to the same idea in "Do not indulge 


too much in your association with the 
materiality by references to father, child, 
mother, beloved, mine and not-mlne." 

The origination of cognitions takes 
place through quick and slow opera- 
tions in general in the sphere of different 
objects of knowledge. The meaning is that, 
so long as this cognition of different 
individual objects is agoing, the man is 
fettered and that, when the whole of objectivity 
is, by the way explained before, realised 
as identical with his own self through 
the fixed knowledge, he is liberated in life. 
As has been said in the passage : "Or the 
one etc." Thus there is no disagreement 
between the previous passage 'there is no 
such state etc. 1 and the present 'the Origi- 
nation in the fettered of the cognitions 
etc/ ( Stanza 14. ) 

( CONTEXT ) The author now removes 
the objection: if the origination of cognitions 
in the fettered represents the disappearance 
of the bliss of supreme immortality, then 
how it is said that he becomes a slave to 


the sroup of powers. 

(TEXT.) 15. Powers are always 
in readiness to conceal the real 
nature from the fettered, because 
the orgination of cognitions is not 
possible without the association 
of words. 

[COMMENT.] The particle 'cha' deve- 
lops the sense, of doubt and introduces 
another statement 'to nullify that doubt. 
The powers explained hereto are ever in 
readiness to conceal the real nature iden- 
tical with Siva from the fettered or to serve 
as a means in not allowing him to proper- 
ly meditate on this real nature standing 
as the ultimate basis. So long as the 
fettered does not get recognition of his own 
real nature identical with the bliss of 
supreme immortality, these powers keep 
themselves in readiness to hide the real 
nature. Because the origination of 
cognitions, or the flow of knowledge both 
definite and indefinite, cannot, in the case 
of the fettered, take place without the 
association of words either in their subtle 
and suppressed form, such as 'I know this' 
or in their gross. 

Thus, even the lower creatures possess 


the thinking power involved- in the use of 
sounds, such as that of inward affirmation 
by means of the nod of the head. Other- 
wise, the child cannot, properly speaking, 
catch, for the first time, the conventionali- 
ties, because it is devoid of the power of 
thinking with '.regard to pros, and cons. 
Ideation is 'known to all through 
self-experience as based on association with 
the gross words. (Stanza 15.) 

(CON-TEXT.) While completing the sense 
given in the three preceding 'stanzas and 
while strengthening again the previously 
referred to identity of this vast objectivity 
with the generic spanda principle, the author 
defines in the following the emancipation 
and the bondage as identical with the 
realisation and the non-realisation of that 

[TEXT.] 16. That this operative 
energy of Siva, existing in the fet- 
tered, is a binder & the same* when 
realised as forming a path to the 
reality, secures the supreme power. 
(COMMENT.) This active power is 
referred to by the antecedent that> because 
it is described in the three preceding stanzas 
and bv the demonstrative adjective 'this' 


because it manifests in the form of the 
objectivity. It belongs to Siva identical 
with consciousness and the real nature. 
It represents the spanda principle, is 
the supreme mistress and is called the 
power of activity as creating the endless 
varieties of the universe. As existing^ 
according to the way before discussed, in 
Siva assuming, Himself, the stage of the 
fettered and as anointing Him, appearing 
as identical with the life-breath and the 
Puryastaka, with a drop-o-the-egoity in 
the form of the limited activity, it becomes 
a binder. Because it causes the botheration of 
acceptance and rejection and because it 
conceals the real nature when not realised 
in the above manner. 

When the same power of activity is 
realised by the Yogi as identical with the 
way to the reality of Siva or with the 
supreme power which, according to the 
view of the Sri Vijnana Bhattaraka : "(When 
a man attains) the realisation of non-iso- 
lation through his entrance into the state 
of Sakti, then he becomes of the form of 
Siva. This Sakti of Siva is here called 
Mukha (the face or the gate leading to 
unification with Siva). 5 ' is the means to the 


attainment of the end; or when he, even 
in the flow of definite and indefinite ideas, 
looks upon this whole objectivity as a part 
of his own self identical with Siva, then it 
will secure him the supreme power identical 
with the supreme bliss. ( Stanza 16.) 

[TEXT.] 17 and 18. ( The fettered ), 
being bound up with Puryastaka s 
of the form of the rise of sence ob- 
jects and operating through the 
mind, egoism and the determina- 
tive faculty, assumes dependence 
and experiences, as an enjoyment, 
the origination of cognitions issu- 
ing from that Puryastaka. He under- 
goes the cycle of birth and death 
on account of that Puryastaka. We 
will explain later on what causes 
the disappearance of the worldly 
existence of the fettered. - 

( COMMENT. ) He experiences the fruit 
proceeding from Puryastaka. Because 
perception etc, take place in cognitions, 
hence, this fettered is dependent and 
is thrown hither and thither at every 
step by such goddesses as Brahnii etc. 
through the association of words. He is 
not self-dependent like the fully enlightened, 


Due to- -the existence - of . the. .same 
Puryastaka, the ..various effects of his actions 
are again, and -again awakened and. he 
iindergoes ; cycles . of birth and , death OT 
assumes and gives up bodies .fit .for the 
experiencing of particular -fruits. . We .will 
immediately describe the . caugje, or .the', easy 
means, of the destruction, .or the total 
dissolution, through the .annihilation of the 
impurity of Puryastaka, of the worldly 
existence which he gets from Puryastaka 
when being bound up with that. The author 
has himself described that easy means in 
this treatise. 

The use ' of the present tense conveys 
here the sense of futurity according to the 
Sutra of Panini : fifi The present tense is 
optionally used to denote the near 
future. 5 ' [St. 18.] 

(CONTEXT.) While supporting the 
above, the author recapitulates the sense 
of the, first Sutra. . - .' J 

(TEXT.) 19. But when he gets 
established in the one principle, 
then he regulates dissolution and : 
origination of that Puryastaka 
and gets sublimated into the 
supreme experiencership. Then he 


also, becomes the /lord of the 
circle. ; / ... 

: '' (tioMMEKT.) 'When the 'fettered " medi- 
tates upon the'' previously described processes 

of entrance in the supreme -principle and 
becomes thereby properly and inflexibly 
merged in, or identical with, that spanda 
principle or supreme egoity 5 then, by 
means of invoiutive and evolutive 
meditations, . he controls absorption and 
emanation, or brings about involution and 
evolution, from his own real nature 
identical with Sankara, of the Puryastaka 
described in the preceding Sutra or of the 
universe through the Puryastaka. He gets also 
sublimated into tho. supreme experiencership or 
catches hold, by the process of recognition, 
of the already existing supreme experien- 
cership by getting the collective experience 
of all the categories from earth up to Siva, 
Then he will become the lord of the 
circle of powers .or of the mass of his 
own rays described in the first Sutra. He 
will in short, even in his embodied exis- 
tence, attain to the state of Mahesvara. 

The glorious teacher Vasugupta brings 
out the importance of this Sastra as for- 
ming the essense of the great reality, 


which he has described at the beginning 
and the end of this treatise, and as 
towering, thereby, orer the whole of the 
secret doctrines regarding the Saivaism. 

End of the third chapter. 


0- ; - 

( CONTEXT, ) In the Conclusion of the pre- 
sent treatise the author, by the use of equivocal 
terminology, panegyrises the supreme 'state of 
span da as wfell as the eloquent; power of his 
own teacher. 

(TEXT) 1. . I offer my homage 
to that wonderful speech of my 
teacher, serving as a boat in going 
across the fathomless ocean of 
doubts, and full of such words as 
express many an interesting idea, 

( COMMENT. ) I offer my homage to, or 
find entrance into, that uncommon Guru-bharati 
which Is superior to all and which is of the 
form of unearthly bliss; or I address that 
speech, through my exertion, which is greet- 
ing m@ 9 as it were, ion account of its manifes- 
tation, in all states and which enables a, mam 
to be fixed in the contemplation of his own 

'The phrase * Guru-bharati ' may mean 
that supreme speech which acts as a teacher 
being according to the view '* The Sakti of 
Siva is here called the face," the cause of the 


attainment of the state of Siva. It may 

mean that supreme speech which s as embra- 
cing all the subsequent forms such as 
Pasyanti etc., is fittingly great, ' 

The Guru-bharati seems s as it were 9 to 
be a boat in crossing the expansive ocean of 
various doubts. The ocean of doubts is 
originally identical with the uncertainty, or 
the lack of the determinate knowledge 
regarding supreme egoity, and is fathomless or s 
difficult of being crossed over. The metaphor 
of navigation is applicable in both the sen- 
ses of Guru-bharati. It has for its ultimate 
object, or the ultimate resting place, various 
forms of bliss or it has various meanings 
and words put in an interesting arrangement. 

. [St. 1.] 

( CONTEXT. ) While exhorting the 
seekers and. while evoking their confidence 
in this Sastra by putting io his own name 
as significant of well-established 'glory, the 
author- in the following stanza describes the 
great fruit which this Sastra yields when 

kept secret. 

(TEXT) 2. This wealth, of 

knowledge always leads, as it 
did .Vasugupta, to welfare all 
the people, who have with certainty 


enshrined this wealth, difficult 
of obtainment, in the cave of 
their hearts when obtained. 

(COMMENT.) Just as the knowledge 
given in this treatise led its teacher,, Vasugupta 
by name, to his welfare, after this knowle- 
dge, difficult of acquisition and regarded as the 
highest wealth on account of its being a means 
to the attainment of all objects of human life, 
was obtained from, or was found on, the rock as 
the essence of Sankara's instruction in a dream, 
so does this always lead all the people in gen- 
eral, as there is no limitation of rales gover- 
ning the recipiency, to their unification with 
the real nature identical with Sankara, when 
they enshrine this wealth of knowledge in. the 
deep recesses of the cave of their heart, and 
when they conceal it from the unfit and make 
it their own by fixed realisation. : 

The phrase 6 Hridgahantakritanihiteh 5 
means the one who has positively treasured up 
(the wealth of knowledge) in the heart which 
is identical with light and reflection and 
which, therefore, is treated as a cave due to 
its accommodation of the whole universe. (St. 2) 

Although the counting is not possible 
of the commentaries on this Sastra and altho- 


ugh the intelligent people are mostly indiff- 
erent by nature,, yet those few critics are sure 
to know the special merit of my commentary, 
who, being, as it were, the swans of intelli- 
gence, are keen enough to detect the essence. 

( Terse 1. ) 

My teacher did not like to be bracketed 
with the common herd of other numerous 
commentators, and hence, did not comment 
on the S panda Sastra. 

I have before given a summary state- 
ment of the chief differences in the spanda- 
sandoha and to-day, because of the ferTent 
prayer of my own pupil Sura who feels- 
glorified by the inspiration of Rudra Sakti 
and who has become one with Siva, I, 
Ksemaraja, explain that Sastra through the 
help of the great instruction of my own 
.....t'ea'eher. ( verses. 2. ' 3. . 4. ) 

Those are not qualified for the study of 
this Sastra, who have not acquired the intelli- 
gence purified by instruction from the right 
sort of teachers, whose doubts are not 
cleared up by the secret philosophy of the 
sacred teachings of the Saivaism and who s 
being tender of intellect, have not previously 
tasted the nectar of the Sri Pratyabhijna. This 
may be properly digested by the high-minded. 

[verse 5.] 


This supreme energy of consciousness 
exults in all glory as the abode of the unique 
and ever-manifest bliss. It represents the 
expansive emanation of paths from Siva 
to earth and is diversified by the mani- 
festation of various states of creation, main- 
tenance and absorption. A drop of its 
current stands in the form of this universe. 

[verse 6.J 

Here endi the Sri Spandanirnaya, the work of Sri 
Ksemaraja, pupil of Maharaaheavaracharya Srirnad Abhmava- 
guptanatha, great grand pupil of the author of the Sri 





Page Line For Read 


1 17 system system is 

5 8 9 rise & dissolution dissolution & rise 

6 18 Her her 

{) 10 instrospection introspection 

11 7 appering appearing 

15 1 nature to nature from 

16 1516 whose Whose 

17 4 inside. inside.' 
17 12 Bahubrhi ' Bahubrihi 





'In whom* 

'In whom etc.* 








creation of 











partical , 

parti ole 















who is 

who am 



































































as self 

self as 











































Malinivijaya. Under 

Malinivijaya, under