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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 




HISTORICAL SOCIETY 



OF 



NEW MEXICO 



No. 16 



THE SPANISH LANGUAGE 



IN 



NEW MEXICO 

AND 

SOUTHERN COLORADO 



BY 



AURELIO M. ESPINOSA, PH. D., 

Assistant Professor of Spanish, 
At the Leland Stanford Junior University. 



MAY, 1911 



SANTA FE, N. M. 
NEW MEXICAN PRINTING COMPANY 



HISTORICAL SOCIETY 

OF 

NEW MEXICO 



No. 16 



THE SPANISH LANGUAGE 



IN 



NEW MEXICO 

AND 

SOUTHERN COLORADO 



BY 



AURELIO M. ESPINOSA, PH. D., 

Assistant Professor of Spanish, 
At the Leland Stanford Junior University. 



MAY, 1911 



SANTA FE, N. M. 
NEW MEXICAN PRINTING COMPANY 
1911. 



OFFICERS 



OF THE 

HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF NEW MEXICO 

ign 

President Hon. L. Bradford Prince, LL. D. 

j Hon. William J. Mills 
Vice-Presidents < Hon. Frank W. Clancy 

( Hon. Ralph E. Twitchell 

Recording Secretary William M. Berger 

Asst. Recording Secretary Mrs. J. P. Victory 

Corresponding Secretary Ernest A. Johnston 

Treasurer John K. Stauffer 

Curator Henry Woodruff 

LIFE MEMBERS 



1881 
William G. Ritch.* 

1883 
L. Bradford Prince, L. L. 

1885 
William W. Griffin.* 

1887 
Francisco A. Manzanares.* 

1889 

L. P. Browne.* 
Jefferson Raynolds. 
Ruel M. Johnson.* 
William A. Vincent. 
Wilson Wadding-ham.* 
Mariano S. Oterp.* 
Nicolas T. Armijo.* 
Angus A. Grant.* 
Joshua S. Raynoids. 
Wm. C. Hazeldine.* 
Numa Reymond. 
Russell Marcy. 

1890 

Pedro Y. Jaramillo.* 
Jose E. Chaves. 
Samuel P. Foster.* 
Gustav Billing'.* 
Eutimio Montoya.* 

Thomas B. Catron. 
J. Pablo Gallegos.* 



*Deceased. 



1890 

Charles H. Gildersleeve.* 
Mariano Barela.* 
D. C. H. Dane. 

Walter C. Hadley.* 

1891 

H. B. Fergusson. 
Charles B. Eddy. 
Abram Staab. 
W. A. Hawkins. 
Mrs. Louisa Bristol. 
Frank Springer. 
Rufus J. Palen. 

1892 

William T. Thornton. 
Richard Mansfield White. 

1895 
Thomas Lowthian.* 

1896 

Antonio Joseph.* 
Felipe Chaves.* 
Henry C. Carter. 

1902 

William M. Berger. 
Solomon Spiegelberg.* 

1907 

Felix Martinez. 
Solomon Luna. 
Nestor Armijo. 

1908 
Mrs. Ella May Chaves. 



HONORARY MEMBERS 



Adolph F. A. Bandelier. 
Ellen Kearney Bascome. 
William W. H. Davis. 



E. G. Littlejohn. 
George W. Martin. 
Reuben Gold Thwaites. 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE SOCIETY 



No. 1. 1881 Inaugural Address of Hon. W. G. Ritch. 

No. 2. 1882 "Kin and Clan," by Adolph F. Bandelier, 

No. 3. 1896 "The Stone Idols of New Mexico." (Illu- 
strated) by Hon. L. Bradford Prince. 

No. 4. 1903 "The Stone Lions of Cochiti," by Hon. L. 
Bradford Prince. 

No. 5. 1904 Bi-ennial Report; English. 

No. 6. 1904 Bi-ennial Report; Spanish. 

No. 7. 1906 "The Franciscan Martyrs of 1680." 

No. 8. 1906 The Defeat of the Commanches in 1716. 

No. 9. 1907 -Bi-ennial Report. 

No. 10. 1907 Journal of New Mexico Convention of Septem- 
ber, 1849. 

No. 11. 1908 -The California Column. 

No. 12. 1908 Carson's Fight with the Commanches at Adobe 
Walls. 

No. 13. 1909 Bi-ennial Report. 

No. 14. 1909 The Palace, Santa Fe, N. M. 

No. 15. 1910 Catalogue of Books in the Library of the 
Society, relating to New Mexico and the 
Southwest (English.) 

No. 16. 1911 "The Spanish Language in New Mexico and 
Southern Colorado," byAurelio M. Espi- 
nosa, Ph. D. 



PREFACE. 

This article has been written at the request of many 
of my New Mexico friends and at the request and 
and personal desire of the president of the New Mex- 
ico Historical Society, for a popular presentation 
of the subject, the Spanish language in New Mexico 
and Colorado. I have attempted, therefore, to avoid 
all philological discussion, and endeavored to treat 
the matter not from the view point of the specialist. 
The points which I hope I have made clear, are the 
following: 

1st. The Spanish language as spoken to-day by 
nearly one quarter of a million people in New Mexico 
and Colorado, is not a vulgar dialect, as many misin- 
formed persons believe, but a rich archaic Spanish 
dialect, largely Castilian in source. 

2nd. The indigenous Indian elements are unim- 
portant, and only the Nahuatl of Mexico has exercised 
an important influence, being the language of a semi- 
civilized nation. 

3rd. The influence of the English language on the 
Spanish of the entire South-west is one of the greatest 
importance, and of the most intense interest to the 
philologists and ethnologists. 

4th. The Spanish language in New Mexico and in 
the entire South-west has had a great influence on the 
English vernacular of these regions, and it's study is 
of the greatest importance. 

5th. The State school of laws of the South-west, 
should make the study of Spanish possible in the 
public. schools, for the benefit of the Spanish speaking 
children of these regions, who have no opportunity 



Z PREFACE. 

to learn to read their native tongue. To learn En- 
glish no one has to forget Spanish or any other 
language. 

6th. The scientific and compresive study New Mex- 
ican Spanish folklore should be encouraged in every 
legitimate way by the learned Societies and educa- 
tional Institutions of New Mexico. 

Stanford University, California, April, 1911. 



CONTENTS. 

I. The Sources. 

II. Distinguishing Characteristics. 

III. The Nahuatl and other Indigenous Elements. 

IV. The English Influence. 

V. The Influence of Spanish on the English Lan- 

guage. 

VI. New Mexican Spanish Folklore. 



I. 

THE SOURCES. 

1. After the fall of the Roman Empire in the fifth 
century of our era, Latin continued to be the spoken 
language of a number of it's peoples. This Latin was 
not the classic language of Cicero and Virgil, but 
popular Latin, as old as classic Latin and different 
from it in many respects. This popular Latin was the 
principal source of the neo-Latin tongues which were 
gradually developed in the different regions of the old 
Roman Empire. In the end, the popular Latin lost its 
individual existence, leaving, however, its descend- 
ants, the Romance languages. 

The Spanish language must have been an independ- 
ent tongue by the 8th century of our era, though we 
have no written specimens, dating earlier than the 10th 
century. The oldest Spanish documents of the llth 
and 12th centuries, show us a language completely 
divorced from the Latin with an independent and 
national importance. The Spanish language is a Latin 
language, notwithstanding the Germanic and Arabic 
elements which entered long after its Latin founda- 
tions had been firmly established. 

This old Spanish language which we see in its writ- 
ten form in the "Misterio de los Reyes Magos," ! and in 
"El Gantar de Mio Cid," 2 was perfected in the XlVth 

1 A 12th century composition; Ed. of R. Mene"ndez Pidal 
Madrid, 1900. 

2 Ordinarily known as the Poem of the, Cid. The first im- 
portant literary poetic composition in the Spanish language, 
guage, dating from the llth century, according to R. Mene'ndez 
Pidal; Ed. Madrid, 1900. 



6 SPANISH LANGUAGE IN NEW MEXICO 

and XVth centuries, and its majesty and literary glory 
reached their culmination with the Don Quixote of Cer- 
vantes 3 and the famous dramatists of the 17th cen 
tury, Lope de Vega and Calder6n. 4 

2. This Spanish language of the XVIth and 
XVIIth centuries, made glorious by such names as 
those of Cervantes, Lope de Vega and Calder6n, was 
precisely the language which the Spanish Conquista- 
dores carried to America. They carried it to Mexico 
in the XVIth century, and from there to New Mex- 
ico in the XVIIth century. Juan de Onate made the 
first permanent settlement in New Mexico as early as 
1598, but the Indian revolution of 1860 drove all the 
Spaniards out of the new province and a new settle- 
ment was not effected until 1693 when Diego De 
Vargas re-entered with new and old colonies. 

The Sources of the Spanish of New Mexico and 
southern Colorado are to be found, then, in the Cas- 
tilian Spanish of the XVIth century, together with 
other Spanish dialects of less importance, the Anda- 
lusian, the Galician and the western Spanish-Portu- 
guese dialects. The first inhabitants of New Mexico 
represented these many dialects, and furthermore, 
the dialects were probably, all represented in differ- 
ent chronological stages; Spanish settlers came bo 
New Mexico as early as 1598, but the immigration 
continued until the middle of the XVIIIth century. 
During all that time, however, the Castilian was the 

3 Mig-uel de Cervantes Saavedra (1547-1616). The first part 
of Don Quixote appeared at Alcala de Henares in 1605. 

4 Lope de Vega Carpio (1562-1635); the most prolific drama- 
tist known. 

Pedro Calderon de la Barca (1600-1681). 



AND SOUTHERN COLORADO. 7 

language of the court and the all-important dialect 
which all spoke. 1 

1 See my Studies on New Mexican Spanish, I, g 2, 3, 6. 
(Published in Eevue de Dialectologic Romane, Nos. 2, 3, 1909: 
Halle, Germany, and in Bulletin of the University of New 
Mexico, Language Series Vol. I, No. 2, 1910.) 



II. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

3. For more than three hundred years, New 
Mexican Spanish has had an isolated and independent 
existence; completely divorced from any contact with 
the Spanish of Spain or Mexico. Other than the 
Nahuati elements introduced from Mexico and the 
modern English influence, of which we shall speak 
later, no influence whatever has come to disturb the 
slow development of this original Castilian treasure, 
which wonderfully conservative, and deprived of the 
literary culture which enriches a language, remains 
to-day as it was brought here in the XVIIth. century, 
a Spanish linguistic monument, which no influence 
or power can ever destroy. 

The Spanish language is extremely conservative. 
It is not too much to say, that the French language 
reached a period of development, already in the Xllth. 
century, which the Spanish dialects have not yet 
reached. The New Mexican Spanish, perhaps the 
most isolated daughter of the Spanish language of the 
Golden Age has been so conservative, that a good part 
of its vocabulary and of its grammar, including pho- 
nology, has changed but little since the XVIth. and 
XVIIth. centuries. The changes, of course, are nu- 
merous. No language, however conservative, can stand 
still, and phonetic change in linguistic science is to be 
expected, just as growth or decay in the biological 
sciences. 

'4. The first and most important character of the 
Spanish language of New Mexico and southern Colo- 
rado, is, therefore, its archaim. I believe there is no 



AND SOUTHERN COLORADO. 9 

modern Spanish dialect, either in Spain or America, 
that can surpass the New Mexican in archaic words 
and expressions, constructions and sounds. The 
reasons for this, are evident, when one considers the 
long period of isolation and lack of literary culture. 
The Spanish of Castile has undoubtedly undergone 
more change, than the New Mexican, since the XVIth. 
century, owing to the ever increasing influence of the 
literary language, and neighboring dialects, which 
though unimportant, have never yielded to theCastilian- 
Though, the author believes, that New Mexican Spa- 
nish, is as archaic, or rather, preserves as many ar- 
chaisms as any other Spanish dialects known, it is 
also to be noted that the Spanish-American dialects 
all preserve many archaisms in common, an for that 
matter many of the dialects of Spain have their share 
in the phenomenon in question. To state categori- 
cally, which are purely New Mexican archaisms is 
no easy matter, but some seem fairly certain. This 
article is not a comparative philological treastise, (a 
matter treated in detail in my Studies in New Mexican 
Spanish) hence no comparisons with the other dialects 
are made. Among the common New Mexican archa- 
isms are: (a) ansi, ansina, asina, naidien, agora, traidrd, 
lamber,. ivierno, pos, onque, dende, trujo. mesmo, anque, 
ay, comigo, vide, (vi), cuasi (casi), escuro, via (veia), 
adrede, endenantes, sospirar (b) quese(que esde) Some 
of these are Pan-American. The sound given to II 
(ie, a y sound) and to z or c before e or i (ie, as s) is 
also Pan-American, but not archaic. 

6. As to the all important distinguishing char- 
acteristics which are peculiarly New Mexican, we 
/iv\ight mention the following: 



10 SPANISH LANGUAGE IN NEW MEXICO 

(I) Phonetic Changes. 

(a) The complete, fall of intervocalic II, in some dis- 
tricts, as in the San Luis Valley (Southern Colorado), 
and its fall in certain positions in the rest of the New 
Mexican Spanish territory. Examples: Cabello-cabeo, 
silla-sia, ellos-eos. 1 

(b) The change of Spanish s(from whatever source) 
to a sound like the English h. This is widespread 
among the rural uneducated classess. Examples: 
Nosotros-noJiotros, los libros-loh libros, casa-caha. 5 

(c) The change of the Spanish ending ado to an 
general. 3 Examples: soldau (soldado), comprau (com- 
prado. 

(d) The change of final posttonic e to i after certain 
palatal groups. Examples: Suefle-sueni, noche-nochi, 
calle-cayi* 

(e) The complete fall of nasal consonantes leaving 
nasal vowels. 5 

1 Studies in New Mexican Spanish, I 158. 

2 Ibid I 153. 

3 Ibid g 180 (2). 

4 Ibid 47. 
6 Ibid I 20. 

II. riorpho logical Changes. 

Among the morphological changes are: 

(a) nos (pronoun) los. l 

(b) The charge of accent in the first person plural 
of the subjunctive, and of m to n in the same form: 
Examples: vayamos vdyanos, [compremos cdmprenos, 
etc. 2 

(c) Indicative forms made like imperative forms, in 
certain verb forms. 3 

1 Studies in New Mexican Spanish. I. \ 128. 

2 Ibid \\ 10, 142. 

3 Ibid g 208. 



AND SOUTHERN COLORADO. 11 

(d) The change of a to o and o to e by analogy. 4 

(e) Several juxtaposed words, resulting in a new 
formation, such as: algotro (algun otro), nuay (no 
hay), estiotro (este otro), cunos (con unos), pel (para 
ellos), quisque (que es que), diay (de alii), etc. 5 

4 Ibid g 42, 48. 

5 Studies in New Mexican Spanish, Part II, Morphology, 
will appear soon in the Revue de Dialectogie Romane. 



III. 

THE NAHUATL AND OTHER INDIGENOUS 
ELEHENTS. 1 

1 A careful preliminary work on the change found in the 
Nahuatl Elements in Spanish, may be seen in Harden' s "The 
Phonology of the Spanish Dialect of Mexico C%," (Baltimore, 
1896). 

6. The Nahuatl or Nauatl language was the most 
important language which the Spsniards encountered 
in (J^exico. It was the language of a semi-civilized 
Aztec nation, and its influence in the Spanish language 
of Mexico was very pronounced. The Nanuatl words 
found in New Mexico and Southern Colorado, are 
words brought from Mexico in the XVIIth century, 
precisely at the same time when the Spanish colonists 
were entering slowly into New Mexico by way of 
Mexico. Perhaps not more than one hundred Nahuatl 
words, all told, are used in New Mexican Spanish. 2 
In Mexico they have, on the whole, remained un- 
changed since that time, even in cases where in New 
Mexico they have later undergone other phonetic 
developments, Examples of this last phenomen are: 

(1) Nahuatl x (pronounced sh as old Spanish x) 
became modern Mexico Spanish./ (as English ft), just 
as old Spahish x (sh) became j both in Spain and Ame- 
rica; but in New Mexican Spanish the old Nahuatl sh 
sound has remained. 3 Examples: 4 

Nahuatl xaxal New Mex. Sp. shashal, Mexico Span- 
ish jajal. 

2 Studies in New Mexican Spanish, \ 164. 

3 In Southern New Mexico, it is also pronouced J, probably 
through Mexican influence (Studies in New Mexican Span, 
ish, g 165). 



AND SOUTHERN COLORADO. 13 

Nahuatl xoxo New Mex. Sp. shosho, Mexico Span- 
ish jojo. 

Nahuatl xocoqme New Mex. Sp. shocoque, Mexico 
Spanish Jocose. 

(2) Nahuatl tl became in Mexican Spanish, ke or t 
or remained, but in New Mexican Spanish t, always. 
Examples: 

Nauatl tlapechtli, N. Mex., Sp., tapeiste, Mexican 
Sp., tapeskle.. 

Nahuatl tlemulli, N. Mex. Sp., temole, Mexican Sp., 
tlemole or klemole. 

7. As to the indigenous elements, that is, ele. 
ments introduced from the New Mexico Indians and 
surrounding tribes, including all together, the Pueblo 
Indians of the Rio Grande, the Utes and Navahoes of 
the mountains, and wandering Comanches, it is certain 
that no important linguistic traces are to be found. 
Their influence was little felt, linguistically speaking, 
and perhaps not more than a score of words have 
found their way into the Spahish language of New 
Mexico, from all these Indian races mentioned. * 
The writer is not familiar with the New Mexico In- 
dian languages and cannot vouch for the origin of 
some apparently Indian words. In my New Mex- 
ican Vocabularies and Studies, I have only noted some 
twenty words for which I could find neither Spanish 
nor Nahuatl source. Of these, the following seem to 
be of native Indian origin: 

1 Batacdn (bean), Pueblo Indians of the North? 

2 Cambalachi (trade, market, business affair), Co- 
manche. ' / 

1 I do dot include, here, the native names of plants and 
animals. This would increase the number by at least two- 
score. 



14 SPANISH LANGUAGE IN NEW MEXICO 

3 Canatt (idea, caprice) Pueblo Indians of the 
North? 

4 ChacMquite (turquoise), Pueblo Indians. 

5 Macucha> (coward, akward), Pueblo Indian? 

6 Maruca, (wife, woman) Navahoe. 

7 Naca or Nacayg, (Spaniard, stranger), Pueblo In- 
dians of the North. 

8 Techi, (friend, pal), Pueblo Indians. 

9 Tegua, (moccasin), Pueblo Indians of the North. 

10 Tuta* (no, not at all), Ute. 

11 Yugue> (grease, dirt), Apache, or Ute? 



IV. 
THE ENGLISH INFLUENCE. 

8. In the year 1846 New Mexico was occupied 
by the American Army under Kearney and in 1848 by 
the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, it became a part of 
the United States of North America. For some sixty 
years, therefore, the Spanish speaking inhabitants 
of New Mexico have been in continous, direct and ne- 
cessary, contact with English speaking people. The 
influence of the English language on the Spanish has 
been great, considering the short time, some three 
hundred words, including verbs, nouns, adjectives 
and other parts of speech, having already become a 
fixed part of the New Mexican Spanish vocabulary. 
The study of these words constitutes some of the 
most interesting phenomena of linguistic changes and 
speech mixture. A preliminary study of the phon- 
etic changes in the New Mexican Spanish words of 
English origin is found in the author's Studies in New 
Mexican Spanish, x and a detailed study is now in 
preparation. Here I shall merely give word lists to 

show the tremendous influence of the English on the 
Spanish language in our territory. Though it will 
be at once seen that many words are those for which 
there were no Spanish equivalents, known in New 
Mexico, others are additions to the linguistic field. 
All told, there are in current use among the unedu- 
cated classes of New Mexico and Southern Colorado, 
some three hundred words of English origin. 2 

1 %% 215,263 

2 This does not include many English words and phrarse 
used by educated Spanish- Americans, which are straight un- 
changed English words and mingled in Spanish conversation- 
In the list above, I include only real hispanized vocables, 
when half of the people who use them are ignorant of their 
source. 



16 SPANISH LANGUAGE IN NEW MEXICO 

9. The greatest English influence is felt, of 
co.use, in the cities, where the English speaking peo. 
pie are more numerous, but a large part of the three 
hundred words found,in the New Mexican vocabulary 
are known and used by people from the mountain and 
country districts, where English is spoken only by a 
few 

The old people, i. e, those above say, sixty five years 
of age use little English in their speech, while the 
younger generation, or those between the ages of six 
and forty use the largest number of English borrow- 
ed words. Among school children, especially in larger 
cities and towns, and among those who work in the 
cities, as clerks, porters, laundry girls, etc., there is 
to be seen not only the greatest English influence, but 
even astonishing speech mixture, such as phrases 
half Spanish half English etc.. and it is not at all rare 
to see Spanish-American people in the stores or 
streets, speaking Spanish and mingling here and 
there English words, which are not felt to be English. 

This speech mixture is not confined to the unedu- 
cated and lower classes, but pervades the whole 
speech of the Spanish-Americans in New Mexico, Co- 
lorado, Texas, Arizona and California. The autor is 
familiar, however, only with the conditions in New 
Mexico and Colorado. Here, one may often go to an 
evening party where both Spanish and English are 
spoken, in spite of the fact that only Spanish speak- 
ing speaking persons attend. Modern conditions 
in society have demanded that the New Mexicans 
learn and use English words and phrases. At such 
gatherings one hears such expressions as "jugvr al 
high five," "Ese es tu widow" (at cards), "Ahi viene tu 
felow," "Que ice cream tan fine," "Dame candy, " 



AND SOUTHERN ^ COLORADO. 17 

"Thank you Seflorita," "You bet si," "Well vdmonos," 
"Hello, Compadre" "Aquivan los refreshments", etc., 
etc. The autor himself is not free from such speech 
mixtures. Among the higher educated classes of the 
cities, it is not at all rare to find young school children 
who speak more English than Spanish, and in some 
cases children who ignore Spanish altogether, though 
their parents may speak it. They learn English at 
school an with their associates and converse often 
with their parents in English while the parents reply 
in Spanish, and they understand each other perfectly. 
. 10. Tne number of people who speak only 
Spanish, among the Spanish-speaking inhabitants of 
New Mexico and southern Colorado, is by no means 
small. Tne total Spanish-speaking population of 
these regions I estimated in my Studies in New Mex- 
ican Spanish, at about, 250,000, of which some 50,000 
are found in Colorado. 1 1 cannot say definitely what 
proportion of these, speak only Spanish. A large 
number of the people are not at all familiar with the 
English language, especially in the remote country 
Districts. If I were to make a guess, I would say 
that'of the total 250,000 some 80, 000, or one third of the 
entire Spanish-speaking population do not speak the 
English language, though some of these may under- 
stand a few words of English. About two thirds, then, 
of the Spanish inhabitants of the regions in question 
speak English and understand it, while one third 
speak only Spanish, and understands a little En- 
glish and about one out of every five persons is totally 
ignorant of the English language. There are, of 

1 Introduction, page 1. The Santa Fe New Mexican (Oct. 
1909), believes I overestimated the population in question by 
about 50,000. No statistics are available. 



18 SPANISH "LANGUAGE IN NEW MEXICO 

course, great differences, if one distinguishes social 
classes, the cities, country districts, etc. In the 
cities and towns perhaps ninety percent of the New 
Mexicans speak English, while the figures may be 
easily reversed in the remote districts etc. It is also 
to be noted, that in Southern Colorado the percentage 
of English speaking Spanish-Americans is larger 
than in New Mexico. With this observation must 
also be mentioned a curious fact. Throughout the 
Spanish speaking regions of the United States, there 
has always been a persistent effort to teach these in- 
habitants the English language. Generally speaking, 
and from the point of view of the schools the effort 
has been successful, and fortunately. I am not fami- 
liar with the school-laws of the States and Territories 
of the South-west, other than those of New Mexico 
and Colorado, In Colorado, since long ago, the law 
of the State requires that in the school-districts where 
the majority of the children are of Spanish parents, 
the teacher must know both Spanish and English and 
may teach them to read in Spanish, in adition to the 
other school branches- And these people speak more* 
and better English .than in New Mexico, where no 
such law exists, and where, in fact, there is great 
animosity on the part of the school authorities, lest 
the Spanish speaking children learn to read Spanish. 
It has always seemed to me a very foolish argument, 
to insist, that to learn English, the children must 
forget Spanish. The learning of English is a sure 
fact. All are learning it and very quickly. But there 
is one danger, namely, that unles the school-laws 



AND SOUTHERN COLORADO. 



19 



provide for their Spanish instruction, they will forget 
their beautiful native tongue. 1 

11. We shall not enter here into a philological 
treatment of the phonetic changes in words of English 
origin, current in New Mexico. Those desiring to 
study these phenomena will consult the author's pre- 
liminary study in the work already mentioned. We 
shall only give examples, to illustrate the English 
influence. 

(a) Verbs directly borrowed from the English, to 
which is attached the Spanish infinitive ending: 

baquiar from English (to) back plus -iar. 



-ar 

-iar. 

-ar. 

-iar. 



bosiar 

craquiar * * u 

chachar " " 

deschachar " " 

fuliar " " 

lonchar " " 

puliar " " 

pushar " " 

ri/iar " " 

roseliar " " 

shainiar " " 

trampiar ' ' 

tritiar " " 

Nearly all verbs are of the first conjugation. 

1 I have attempted to answer in $g 9, 10 many questions 
touching the problems of speech mixture in New Mexico, pro, 
pounded to me in a recent letter by Professor Rudolph Lenz- 
of Santiago de Chili. 

For the culture value of Spanish, see the excellent article 
of Professor Hills of Colorado College. il A Plea for more 
Spanish in the Schools of Colorado." Colorado College Studies 
Vol. XII. No. 17. 



boss 

crack 

charge 

discharge 

fool 

lunch 

pull 

push 

drill 

rustle 

shine 

tramp 



20 



SPANISH LANGUAGE IN NEW MEXICO 



(b) Nouns directly borrowed from the English to 
which is attached a Spanish ending: 

jaquero ' from the English hackman. 

piler. 
cheating, 
switchman, 
fooler, 
backer, 
canvasser, 
pulling. 

(c) Nouns directly borrowed with regular phonetic 
development in toto: 

lonchi from the English lunch. 

laundry. 

lot (land). 

oat-meal. 

automobile. 

pancake. 

partner. 



pilero 

chitiada 

suichero 

juliador 

baquiador 

cambasiador 

puliada 



londre 
lote 
otemil 
otomovil 
panqueque 
parna 
pone 
queque 
quique 
rigue 
rinque 
sete 
sute 
tiquete 

(d) Adjectives regularly and phonetically hispan- 
ized: 

from the English broke. 
" " " crazy. 

" smart. 

" funny. 

" high-toned. 



poney. 

cake. 

kick. 

rig. 

drink (liquor). 

set. 

suit (clothes). 

ticket. 



broquis 

crese 

esmarte 

fone 

jaitun 1 



AND SOUTHERN COLORADO. 21 

Jul " " " fool. 

lain " " " .fine. 

ponque " " " punk. 

(e) Interjections and oaths. 

albechu from the English Fll bet yon. 

gurbai " " " Good bye. 

jald " " " Hello. 

auchi " " " Ouch! 

sh6 i i Pshaw! 

shoquis " " " Shucks! 

sanamagdn " " " Son of a gun! 

gi-juis " " " Gee whis! 

12. The Spanish translations used for govern- 
mental, political, educational, industrial and house- 
hold terminologies, furnish materials which are suf- 
ficient for a long and interesting study. Frequently, 
words as a rule Spanish, are combined in order to 
translate the English word of phras'e in question, 
while at other times the English terminologies are 
translated literally, into a Spanish which is perfectly 
clear to the New Mexicans, but which in many cases 
would be well nigh unintelligible to our Spanish 
brothers in other Spanish countries. I have not yet 
made a definite and complete classification of these 
phenomena, and shall content myself, here, by giving 
a -few of the most interesting. The local Spanish 
newspapers are full of such hispanized or Spanish 
translated English terms or phrases. Examples: 

abridor dejarros, can opener. 

alianza de los rancheros, farmers' alliance. 

came de bote, canned meat. 

casa de corte, court house. 

cuerpo de education, board of education. 

1 These adjectives are usually not inflected; jaitiinis. 



22 SPANISH LANGUAGE IN NEW MEXICO 

dipo de la unidn, union depot. 
efectos secos, dry goods. 
enumerador del censo, census enumerator. 
escuela de reforma, reform school. 
esteque de pierna, round steak. 
frijoles dejarro, canned beans. 
frutas evaporadas, evaporated fruits. 
implementos de rancho, ranch implements. 
jamdn de almuerzo, break-fast bacon. 
mdquina de cortar sacate, hay mower. 
mdquina de trillar, threshing machine. 
mayor de laciudad* city mayor. 
medicina de patente, patent medecine. 
mesa de libreHa, library table. 
notario publico, notary public. 
palita de los panqueques, pancake paddle. 
patio de maderas, lumber yards. 
policia montada, mounted police. 
queso de nata, cream cheese. 
reserva florestal, foreste reserve. 
supervisor de Uorestas, forest supervisor, 
tiquete de paso repondo, return ticket. 
vendedor de tiquetes, ticket seller. 
viaje redondo, round trip. 



V 

THE INFLUENCE OF SPANISH ON THE 
ENGLISH LANGUAGE. 

13. The study of the Spanish influence on the 
English language in New Mexico, or for that matter, 
in the whole South-west, where Spanish has been 
spoken for over three centuries, is one which yet 
remains to be done. A careful classification of the 
words, considering source, pronunciation and exact 
meaning would be a reward to any one who would 
undertake such a problem; and although the results 
would be of interest and importance, especially 
from the view of point of English scholars, it 
would not fail to throw light on points of Spanish 
historical grammar. Like the other chapters of our 
article, this chapter will not enter into a detailed 
treatment of the matter in question. I shall merely 
indicate in a general way the importance of this sub- 
ject and illustrate by examples the character of the 
Spanish elements of the English language in New 
Mexico and southern Colorado. No doubt, a large 
number of the Spanish words and phrases used 
here are also current in the English of Texas, 1 Ari- 
zona and California, but as I have not made a careful 
study of the conditions in all these regions, I shall 
merely indicate those, or some of those used in New 
Mexico, without indicating source or different mean 

1 A careful and interesting study of the Spanish words used 
in Texas, is one by, H. Tallichet, " A Contribution towards a 
vocabulary of Spanish and Mexican, words used in Texas." 
Dialect Notes, Parts IV, V and VI. About four hundred 
words are listed of which the author says, only some two hun- 
dred are now in current use. 



24 SPANISH LANGUAGE IN NEW NEXICO 

ings if any, in other regions. I am of the opinion 
that New Mexico and Texas have been the great 
distributing centers of the large majority of the 
Spanish words used in the Spanish south-west, though 
of course, to indicate where first introduced, and when 
are problems, which though not impossible to solve, 
do not concern me here. 

14. The Spanish influence on the English speech 
in New Mexico and the whole southwest is far greater 
than one would first imagine. As for New Mexico and 
Colorado, there are some two hundred words in cur- 
rent use among those who have lived here for several 
years. This would not include, of course, people of 
our larger towns and cities, many of whom live among 
an English-speaking community with no contact what- 
ever with Spanish-speaking people. One must also 
consider that a large number of Spanish words which 
were in current use in the pioneer days, i. e., 1850- 
1880, are rapidly disappearing on account of the pass- 
ing away of older institutions, for example such 
words as Idtigo (strap), shaps or shaparejos, alcalde, 
vaquero, lariat, (rope), bronco, etc. 

The Spanish phrases used currently by the English- 
speaking inhabitants, here, are also very numerous, 
and jus.t as the New Mexicans will canverse in Spanish 
and mingle here and there English words and phrases 
(see 8), the English-speaking inhabitants may be 
often heard conversing in English and mingling here 
and there, Spanish words and phrases. I shall now 
give in alphabetical order lists (not complete) of Span- 
ish words and phrases used in New Mexico and South- 
ern Colorado. 

(a) Spanish words current in the English vernacu- 
lar of New Mexico and Southern Colorado, with their 



AND SOUTHERN COLORADO. 25 

meanings. Since we are concerned with the words 
only, we need not indicate, here, the exact pronuncia- 
tion. In general they should be pronounced according 
to the Spanish rules of pronunciation. 

acequia, cequia, irrigation ditch. 

qdobe, dobe, mud brick. 

amigo, friend. 

arroyo, creek (dry, as a rule). 

atole, corn mush. 

baile, ball dance. 

bronco, wild horse. 

burro-, burro, donkey. 

caballero, sir, gentleman. 

centavo, cent. 

compodre, friend, pal. 

conquistador, conqueror, (Spanish). 

corral, corral; fenced yard. 

chile, chile. 

disciplina, Penitentes' (flagellant's) whip. 

estufa, (Pueblo Indian secret) council hall. 

fandango, dance, ball. 

fiesta, feast; celebration. 

frijoles, beans. 

gallo-race, roos terpulling race or game. 

hombre, man. 

Idtigo, saddle strap; qinch strap; halter strap. 

lareat(a), cowboys rope (rawhide). 

loco, crazy; a little off. 

manana, to-morrow; some day. 

myordomo, ditch overseer. 

mesa, table-land. 

morada, Council house of Penitentes. 

olla, Indian jug or jar. 

padre, priest. 



26 SPANISH LANGUAGE IN NEW MEXICO 

paisano, countryman. 

penitente. flagellant brother. 

pedn, peon; laborer. 

peso, dollar. 

pindn, pinion nut or pinion wood. 

pinto, spotted. 

placita, courtyard of Mexican house. 

presto, quick. 

pueblo, Indian village. 

rancho, ranch; farm, 

ranchero, farmer; ranchman. 

sarape, Indian blanket. 

senor, sir; man. 

senora, madam; wife. 

sombrero, hat, big wide brimmed hat. 

tamale, chile, corn (and meat) sandwich. 

tinaja, Indian jar. 

tombe', Indian (base) drum. 

tortilla, tortilla (Mexican). 

vaquero, cowpuncher. 

vega-grass, meadow grass. 

(b) Spanish phrases and one word expressions, 
current in the English vernacular of New Mexico and 
Southern Colorado, with meanings: 

Adios! Good bye! 

Buenos dias! Good morning! t 

Buenas noches! Good night; good evening! 

carambas! jingo! 

como le va? how are you? 

c6mo estd? how are you? 

como estamos? how are you? 

con mucho gusto, gladly. 

mucho tveno, very good; alright. 

no sabe, I don't know; you don't know. 



AND SOUTHERN COLORADO. 27 

no senor, no, sir. 

no weno, no good. 

no iveno por nada, no good at all. 

poco caliente, a little warm. 

poco frio, a little cold. 

sabe, or \sabe the burro? do you understand? do you 
catch on? 

vamos (pronounced also vamoose) let us go; get out, 
go away. 

vamos the rancho, let us or we, leave the ranch. 
! (bueno)good', fine; alright! x 



1 I am indebted to some of my students for help in gathering 
some of these expressions and words, and in particular to Miss 
Matilde Allen, of Cubero, New Mexico. 



VI. 
NEW flEXICAN SPANISH FOLKLORE. 

15. The Folklore study of Spanish-America is a 
field that is unlimited. In South America a good deal 
of research is now being done largely through the 
personal efforts of a few specialists such as Dr. 
Rudolph Lenz and Sefior Vicufia Cifuentes, of San- 
tiago de Chile. l in Mexico very little scientific work 
has been done, and in Texas, Arizona, Colorado and 
California, nothing that is of importance has been 
accomplished. The author of this article has been 
gathering in some of these regions both philological 
and folklore materials for some eight years, and the 
attempt is being made to carry on this research 
in a scientific way and in the light of modern philolo- 
gical progress. New Mexico on account of the fact 
that it is isolated, presents a unique problem in the 
folklore field of Spanish-America. The institutions 
of learingand learned societies of the territory should 
undertake the study of New Mexican Spanish, 
Archeology, History, Folklore and Linguistics on a 
large scale and encourage studies along these lines 
in every possible way. 2 

16. I shall not publish the folk materials gathered 
in New Mexico for the last few years, until each one 

1 Dr. Lenz has recently organized an enthusiastic Chilean 
Folklore Society, with "La Eevista de Folklore Cliileno" as its 
organ. (1909). 

2 The University of the Territory which by right ought to 
deem it its privilege to lend support to such studies has taken 

very little interest in Spanish. It is to be hoped that in the 
future, some wise president will institute a regular department 
of Spanish language, literature and folklore at the University. 



AND SOUTHERN COLORADO. 29 

of the parts has assumed large proportions. I shall 
indicate, here, however, the kind and amount of the 
materials gathered, especially for the benefit of those 
who in response to a circular letter, which I published 
a year ago, have contributed in suchagenerous manner 
to increase my store house of New Mexican Spanish 
folklore materials. 1 The materials gathered thus far, 
mentioning them in the order of provisional literary 
importance and stating the amount of material in each 
class I am classifying in the following manner: 

I. Traditional Spanish ballads. Popular Spanish 
ballads composed in Spain previous to the XVIth cen- 
tury and preserved here by oral tradition. I have 
discovered thus far, eight- in twenty-four versions. 
These are: 

(1) La dama v el pastor or (La Zagala), four ver- 
sions. 

1 So valuable are the materials sent to me, many times, by 
my New Mexico friends, that I wish to thank beforehand, and 
express my gratitude to the persons who have aided me in the 
gathering of materials, and in particular, Mr. Eusebio Cha- 
con, of Trinidad, Col'o; Mr. Tito JVLaez, of Trinidad, Colo; 
Mr Celso Espinosa, of Albuquerque, N. M: Mr. Francisco 
Garcia, of Santa Fe", N. M; Mr. Candido Ortiz, of Santa Fe", 
N. M; Mr. George Metzger, of Ranches de Atrisco. N. M; 
Mr. Eduardo Espinosa, of Taos, N. M; Mr, J. M. C. Chavez, 
of Abiquiu, N. M; Miss Isabel Mordy, of Albuquerque, N. 
M; Mr. Jesus M.. Espinosa, of Conejos, Colo; Mr. Jos A. 
Ribera, of PeSa Blanca, N. M; Mr. Justiniano Atencio, of 
Nutrias, N. M; Mrs. Marianita Wagner, of Albuquerque, N. 
M; Miss Benjamina Gutierrez, of Los Griegos, N. M; Mr. 
Teofilo Romero, of Barelas, N. M; Mr. Juan C. Garcia, of 
Puerto de Luna, N. M; Mr. Crescencio Torres, of Del Norte 

Colo; Mr. Manuel Vigil, of Albuquerque, N. M; Mr. Victo- 
riano Ulibarri, of Tierra Amarilla, N. M; Miss Maria Espi- 
nosa, of Albuquerque, N. M; Miss Rumaldita Chaves, of 
Sabinal, N. M; Miss Adelina Montoya, of Bernardo, N. M., 
and many more. 



30 SPANISH LANGUAGE IN NEW MEXICO 

(2) La Esposa Infiel (assonance in 6), two versions, 

(3) La Delgadina, six versions. 

(4) La Esposa Infiel (assonance in i), four ver- 
sions. 

(5) Gerineldo, four versions. 

(6) El Pastor Desgraciado, one version. 

(7) La Aparici6n, three versions. 

(8) Las Senas del Marido, one version. 

These popular ballads with others, which may be 
found, will be published in a separate book, entitled, 
"RomancerilloNuevo-Mexicano," as a modest contri- 
bution to Don Ram6n Mene"ndez Pidal and his wife 
Dofia Maria Goyri de Mz. Pidal, who are to publish a 
"Romancero tiadicional Espaflol," or a complete bal- 
lad collection of the Spanish ballads old and modern 
of all the Spanish countries. 

II. Modern ballads. These are many numerous 
and some of very literary merit. I shall probably 
publish only the best. Among those gathered tfrus 
far are the following: 

1. Isabel Aranda. one version. 

2. Luis Rodarte, one version. 

3. Jesus Leal, one version. 

4. Luisita, one version. 

5. Las maflanas de Belen, two versions. 

6. Reyes Ruiz, two versions. 
(7) , Pachuca, one version. 

.(8) Apolonio, one versiou. 

(9) Chaparita, one version. 

(10) Rumaldo, one version. 

(11) Ignacio Parras, one version. 

(12) David, one version. 

(13) Cruz Chavez, one version. 

(14) Don Fernando, one version. 



AND SOUTHERN COLORADO. 31 

(15) Paustin Sanchez, one version. 

(16) Monteros, two versions. 

(17) Macario Romero, four versions. 

The last one, "Macario Romero," of which I have 
four versions, I consider the jewel of the modern New 
Mexican popular ballads, so I shall, here, give one of 
the complete versions: 

Corrido de flacario Romero. 

(Recited by Juanita Lucero, of Juan Tafoya. New 
Mex., 18 years of age, who learned it in the same place. 
Dice Macario Romero, al capitan Villalplata: 
'Conce'dame una licencia, par'ir a ver a mi chata." 
Le responde Villalplata: "Macario ^que" vas hacer? 
Te van a quitar la vida, por una ingrata mujer." 
Dice Macario Romero: parandose en los estribos: 
"Si al cabo que me han hacer, si todos son mis 

amigos." 

Y el capitan Villalplata: " Por mi licencia no vas; 
Si lo llevas en capricho, en tu salud lo hallaras." 
Dice Macario Romero, enfrentando a la garita: 
"Me voy ver a mi chata, pues nadie me lo quita." 
Dice la nina Rosita: "Papa aqui viene Macario." 
'Hijita, <; en que lo conoces?' 'Lo conozco en el caballo. ' 
Dice el papa de Rosita: "Pues <jque plan le forma- 

remos? 

"Le formaremos un baile; las armas le quitaremos." 
Luego que llega Macario' lo convidan a bailar, 
Pero Romero muy vivo, no se quisoemborrachar. 
Dice la nina Rosita: "Les jugaremos un trato. 
Ensillate dos caballos, ya estamos perdiendo el rato. 
Dice el papa de Rosita: "Macario hombre, hazme 

un favor; 

No te la lleves orita, que sea en otra ocasi6n." 
Dice MacarioRomero: "Hombreel favor selohiciera; 



32 SPANISH LANGUAGE IN NEW MEXICO 

Si no me la llevo orita, toda esta gente se riera." 
Le dice el papa a Rosita: 'Ya que mal lo has pensado' 
<;Que esperanzas te mantienen, d'irte con un des- 

graciado?" 

Dice la nifia Rosita: "No le diga desgraciado; 
Porque el no tiene la culpa. yo soy quien lo he ena- 

morado. " 

Al llegar 1'agua grande, iban muy entrenidos; 
Cuando menos acordaron, les dieron el primer tiro. 
Dice Macario Romero: ",;Porqu6 ora no entran 

marchando? 

Que estoy impuesto a matar, las aguilitas volando." 
Dice la nifia Rosita: "Tu tirales a matalos, 
Tii tirales matalos, yo te cuido las espaldas." 
Dice Macario Romero: "Rosita querida mia, 
Quiero morir en tus brazos, y alii acabar mi vida." 
Dice la nifia Rosita: "Romero, querido mio, 
Para morir en mis brazos, todo esto se ha cumplido. ' 
Dice la nifia Rosifca: "Ora si quedaron bien, 
YamataronaMacario,puesmatenmeami tambi^n." 
Sale la nifia Rosita, en busca de una pistola. 
t'Ora lo veran cobardes, como ora les hago bola." 
III. Modern popular "versos." By ''-verso" the New 
Mexicans mean, short octosyllabic verse strophies 
(as a rule 4, 6 or 8 verses or lines), with assonance of 
the even verses only (Romance). They are sung at 
dances, social gatherings, or for mere competition 
among the composers. These have been for the most 
part composed in New Mexican soil, by personsj 
usually men, called "puetas," or "cantadores," and 
are a good index to the New Mexican Spanish char- 
acter and sentiments. I have now in my possession a 
little over one thousand of these popular "versos.'* 
Here are transcribed a few of them : 



AND .SOUTHERN COLORADO. 33 

1. 

Pintar tu bella hermosura 
Quisiera con un pincel, 
Pues eres una criatura 
Nacida del dios de Israel. 

2. 

Quisiera ser pajarito, 
Pero no de los azules, 
Para ir a ver a mi chata, 
Sabado, Domingo y Lunes. 

3. 

Ante noche fui a tu casa, 
Tres golpes le di al candau; 
No estas buena para amores, 
Tienes el suefio pesau. 

4. 

Mai haya la ropa negra, 
Y el sastre que la cort6; 
Mi negrita tiene luto 
Sin que me haya muerto yo. 

5. 

Ya la luna tiene cuernos 
Y el lucero 1' acompafia, 
;Ay que triste queda un hombre, 
Cuando una guera lo engafia! 
6. 

El clavel que tu me dites, 
El dia de la Acensi6n, 
No fu clavel sino clavo, 
Que clavo mi coraz6ri. 



34 SPANISH LANGUAGE IN NEW MEXICO 

7. 

Dicen que lo negro es triste; 
Yo digo que no es verdad, 
Tu tienes los ojbs negros, 
Y eres mi felicidad. 

8. 

Si quieres que yo te olvide, 
Pidele a Dios que.muera; 
Porque viv6 es imposible 
Olvidar a quien yo quiera. 

IV. New Mexican Spanish riddles (adivinanzas). 
These are usually recited, not sung, but while some- 
times metrical and sometimes not, assonance is usual- 
ly present. I have collected 150 of them. 

(a) Metrical and assonanced: 
En alto vive y en alto mora, 

Y en alto teje la tejedora. La arafia. 

Una vaca josca 1 paso por el mar 

Pegando bramidos sin ser animal. La nube. 

(b) Non-metrical though assonanced: 
Rita, Rita, que en el monte grita, 
Y en su casa calla'dita. El hacha. 
Una vieja con un diente, 

Recoge toda su gente. La campana. 

V. Pastorelas or Los Patores (New Mexican Nati- 
vity plays). I have two manuscripts. 

VI. Aparici6n de Nuestra Sefiora de Guadalupe. 
New Mexican plays treating of the apparition of Our 
Lady of Guadalupe. I have one complete and one in- 
complete manuscript. The complete M. S. I owe to 
the kindness of Mr. Candido Ortiz, of Santa Fe", N. M. 

VII. Las Posadas. A dramatic composition, deal- 

1 Hosca. 



AND SOUTHERN COLORADO. 35 

ing with episodes from the life of Christ. I have one 
manuscript. 

VIII. Primera Persecuci6n de Jesus. A dramatic 
composition, treating of the slaughter of the innocents 
and the flight of the Child Jesus into Egypt. I possess 
one very old manuscript. 

IX. De'cimas, Inditas, Cuandos (varied ballad like 
compositions, some of literary merit, others of no 
merit whatever). These are not yet definitely classi- 
fied. There are about 50 of these in my possession. 

X. Nursery Rhymes. Rhymed nonsense, etc. 
Classified under these categories I have a large 

collection of such rhmyes as: 

"El piojo y la liendre se quieren casar, 
Pero no pueden porque no tienen pan." 

Entre melon y melamba 
Mataron una ternera; 
Melon se comi6 la carne, 
Melamba la cagalera. 
Sefiora Santa Ana, 
Sefior San Joaquin, 
Arroya este nifio, 
Se quiere dormir, etc. etc. 

XI. Cuentos (folk-tales.) These are very abund- 
ant in New Mexico, both long and short. Among the 
very long ones I have versions of: 

(1) Pedro de Urdimalas. 

(2) Mano Fashico (a series of short anecdotes). 

(3) La Zorra. 

(4) El Negrito poeta. 

(5) Cuentos locales hist6ricos. 

XII. Cantadas, Canciones (Songs.) These are 
being gathered also by C. P. Lummis, the author of 



36 SPANISH LANGUAGE IN NEW MEXICO 

"TJie Land of Poco Tiempo." They are semi-learned 
in source. I understand Mr. Lummis will make a 
complete collection of them, accompanied by the 
music, so we await his work with the greatest 
interest. 

XIII. Current New Mexican Spanish customs, 
superstitions and beliefs. Here we have another 
field that alone is worthy of study and research. In 
our region the most interesting fact, at once evident, 
is, that, customs, superstitions and beliefs vary 
greatly from one region to another. Here are in- 
cluded some 200 popular remedies. l 

XIV. Proverbs (refranes or dichos.) I have col- 
lected about six hundred of these. Many are asson- 
anced but rarely metrical: 

1. Haz bien y no acates a quien. 

2. Pan ajeno hace al hijo bueno. 

3. Recaudo hace cocina no Catalina. 

4. Las viejas de noche son gatas de dia beatas. 

.5. El que da lo que ha menester el diablo se rie 
deel. 
6. Onde hay cuecho hay derecho. 

XV. New Mexican Spanish Christian names and 
surnames. The former offer intereresting material, 
for the study of phonetic change, as in: 

Emiterio-Miterio, Eulogia-Ologia, Aurelio-Abrelio, 
etc, while the latter are of special interest to History 
and Etchnology. 

XVI. The English language in New Mexican Spa- 
nish Folk-lore. These materials include for the most 
part, short stories, anecdotes, plays on words, and 
the like. For example: 

1 I have published part of these materials in the Journal of 
American Folklore, Dec., 1910. 



AND SOUTHERN COLORADO. 37 

Give me a match, Quiere comprar el macho. 
You damn fool, y la f rezadita azul. 

XVII. Christian prayers (Spanish): and Latin 
words and phrases (parady of the responses at mass 
etc.,) in New Mexican Spanish Folk-lore. Los mu- 
chachos traviesos (The mischievous boys), known a 
large number of such paredies, and the like, such as: 

Padre nuestro que estas en los cielos, 2 

Tu cuidas las vacas y yo los becerros. etc., etc. 

XVIII. Child rend's games (juegos infantiles), 
Some twenty of these, with words etc., and evidently 
traditional in character, are in my collections. 

XIX. La Cocica popular. 3 

5 A most excellent article, entitled; "El Latin en el Folk-lore 
Chileno," has just been published by K. E. Laval, in the Re. 
vista de Folk-lore Chileno, Vol, I, No. I 1910, Santiago de 
Chile. 

3 The materials for this study are being- collected by my 
wife. 




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