LIBRARY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN OI6.7IH *^o.3K-32G Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2010 with funding from University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign W http://www.archive.org/details/spatialstudiesin324325whee ) Council of Planning Librarians EXCHANGE BIBLIOGRAPHY October 1972 324 325 SPATIAL STUDIES IN TRANSPORTATION: Introduction and Annotated Bibliography James O. Wheeler, Associate Professor Department of Geography The University of Georgia IHE LIBRARY DEIHE OCT 1^^1972 UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGM Mrs. Mary Vance, Editor Post Office Box 229 Monticello, Illinois 61856 COUNCIL OF PLANNING LIBRARIANS Exchange Bibliography #324-^^325 SPATIAL STUDIES OF TRANSPORTATION: INTRODUCTION AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY by James 0. Wheeler Associate Professor Departoent of Geography University of Georgia PREFACE This bibliography has grown out of the author's research and his teaching of undergraduate and graduate courses over the last several years in the geography of transportation. The need was felt for a bibliography on a subject with a diverse and widely scattered literature. The annotations were developed not only to aid the beginning student with the field but also to guide the advanced graduate student to specific topics and approaches. The bibliography is linited to references in English and basically covers the last ten years. No clain of conpleteness is intended, although the ain has been to survey the essential literature. Many individuals have assisted in the conpletion of this bibliography. Those deserving special thanks include Messrs. George Anderson, Janes Nance, John D. Stephens, and Mark Sullivan, all graduate students in geography at Michigan State University. Their long hours spent in the library have greatly aided in giving this bibliography whatever accuracy and usefulness it nay have. However, the author retains full responsibility for any errors and onissions, and it is hoped that these will be called to his attention for future correction. Finally, the author especially wishes to thank his wife, Sharon, for careful checking of detail and for typing both rough drafts and the final copy. Janes 0, Wheeler 2. . CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 CONTENTS Page Preface ^ I. Introduction to Bibliography 3 II. Transportation Geography 6 III. User Guide 9 A. Organization ^ B. Topical Guide 10 C. Periodical Abbreviations ll IV. Bibliography 13 A. Annotated Bibliography... 13 B. Topical Index 1^^ x-rl. 3. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 I. INTRODUCTION TO BIBLIOGRAPHY This bibliography covers the essential literature in English over the last decade on spatial studies of transportation. It has of course proven inpossible to include all of the references relevant to transportation geography or even expressly a part of the field in a volune of restricted length. However, an attenpt is aade to survey the nore significant books and articles of interest to the student of transportation geography. More obscure material, found in discussion papers or in nineographed form, are generally not included. Nor are doctoral dissertations or naster theses. The bibliography is designed to aid researchers in the general field of transportation, and nore specifically in the spatial analysis of transportation, to readily locate uaterial dealing with their particular interest. The abstracts are intended to point up salient features of the books or articles not always evident in the title. The bibliography also gives sone indication of the anount of research done on particular subjects, as well as the current findings and understanding of the various topics. Further, a close examination of the bibliography should suggest additional research areas. For exanple, sone of the theoretical studies nay suggest further theoretical development or alternatively nay prove useful for nore practical planning or policy oriented research, A second and related purpose of the bibliography is for the college and university student interested in transportation as a spatial science, including the role of transportation in locational theories. Careful study of the bibliography should place the student in touch with a wide range of useful transportation geography literature. By reference to the classification systen used here, the student nay direct his readings around specific kinds of topics and concepts. The bibliography then should assist one in developing a knowledge of part or all of the field. Likewise, a student indirectly interested in transportation nay skin the entries for books and articles useful a particular research project or for independent study. In short, the bibliography nay be used as a reference book or as a guide to developing a competence in under- standing the spatial components of transportation. It is hoped that this volune will be useful not only to academic researchers, instructors, and students, but also will be used by those nore interested in policy and planning aspects of transportation. AccorJitgly, sone focus is given to books and articles treating the spatial role in transportation planning and policy fornulation. As is well-known, transportation planning directly involves the location of routes, their use, and their in- pact. An up-to-date knowledge of the literature in these areas is therefore fundamental, and it is anticipated that this publication would be of considerable utility to those involved in planning and executing transportation change. In this regard, a large number of articles are included fron the Highway Research Record and Highway Research Bulletin. 4. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 The urban scholar will also find much of interest here, as a high proportion of the stuaies are of various facets of urban transportation. These studies range frou general introductory statenents of the status and problens of transportation in the city to nore narrowly focused treatment of individual problens and in- dividual urban areas. Research in urban transportation has been carried out by a great variety of scholars representing nunerous disciplines; entries in this bibliography reflect this wide range of viewpoints and approaches. Although nany of the studies here are properly classified as descriptive, a certain bias towards research enphasizing a theoretical content and approach oay be noted. It is felt that these studies are of nore general interest to a wider audience and are nore use- ful as a base on which to build future research. It is hoped that greater concern will be placed in the future on nore theoretical and conceptual types of investigations, especially in areas in which such an approach has been rare in the past. Entitled "Spatial Studies of Transportation," this bibliography goes well beyond the disciplinary boundary of geography in including a variety of material on the spatial studies of transportation. A minority of the entries are by those trained as geographers. Also prominently representee is research by regional scientists, economists planners, transportation engineers, end sociologists, to name only a few. The bibliography is interdisciplinary because the research on spatial transportation is approached by a variety of disciplinary viewpoints. However, there was an effort made to include most of the significant articles from the geographical periodical literature in the past decade. As indicated, the emphasis here is on the literature from the 1960's, and generally only the most important or prominent studies prior to 1960 have been included. Studies of migration have in general not been included here, nor have studies in diffusion pro- cesses (See Gunnar Olsson, Distant an d Hunan Interaction , Phil- adelphia: Regional Science Research Institute, Bibliography Series No. 2, 1965 and Lawrence A. Brown, D iffusion Processes and Loc ation: A Conceptual Framework and Bibliop^raphy , Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Regional Science Research Institute, Bibliography Series No. 4, 1968). Selectea studies focusing on transportation and industrial location are referenced, but a much more inclusive source is Benjai.iin H. Stevens and Carolyn A. Brackett, Industrial Location : A Review and Annotated Bibliography of Theoretical. Empirical and Case Studies . Philadelphia: Regional Science Research Institute, Bibliography Series No. 3, 1967. This bibliography differs fron ether available reference sources in coverage, purpose, and scope. It night be regarded as a complement to an older annotated bibliography: R. Wolfe and B. Hickok, an ..nnotated Bibliography of the Geography of Trans - portation , Berkeley: Institute of Transportation and Traffic Engineei ing. University of California, 1961. ^ publication by William R. Siddall, Transportation Geography: A Bibliography , Manhattan: Kansas State University Library, 1965, contains many references going back to 1950, emphasizing modes of transportation and a 5. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 regional classification wherever possible. Many references on gen- eral and historical studies in transportation are included, with relatively few references to theoretical approaches and urban studies, especially outside the field of geography. A bibliography emphas- izing theoretical and urban research is Williau R, Black and Frank E. Horton, i. Bibliography of Selec t ed Research on Ne tv7orks^ and Urban Transpor tat ion Relevant to C urre nt Transportation Geo- graphy Researc h, Evanston: Northwestern University, Department of Geography Research Report No. 28, undated, on additional source conplenenting Siddall's and providing a base of general v/orks in transportation geography" is Russell B. Abacas and Mark C. Geyer, Transportation: A Ge ographica l Bibliograph y, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, Departnent of Geography, 1970. A raonthly publication referencing a wide spectrun of literature is Current Literature in Traffic and Tran sporta tion , Evanston: Northwestern University, The Transportation Center. Other useful references on specialized topics Sources of Information in Tran sp ortation . Evanston: North- western University, The Transportation Center, 1964; Katherine D. Warden, "Selecte. Bibliography: Transportation and Econonic Development," in G. Fronn, editor, Tra nsport Investnent and Econonic Deve lopnent . Washington, D,C.: Brookings Institution, 1965, pp. 277- 305; and Jaioes 0. Wheeler, Research on the Journey to Work : Introduction and Bibliograph y, Monticello, Illinois: Council of Planning Librarians, No. 65, 1969. 6. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-^^325 II. TI UNSPORT.iTION GEOGtUiPHY Transportation geography is a field with a rapidly expanding literature and growin,'^ proninence, having energed a nere fifteen to twenty years ago as a visible subfield of geography. Based largely on the nethodological staterents of Ullnan (884, 885) in the nid-fifties and carried into the sixties by Garrison's power- ful influence, the field has had especially vigorous development during the last decade. Although the developnent has been uneven, due in part to the irole of individual researchers, the field has taken on a skeletal fom and organization which is attracting an increasing nunber of students and researchers. The field is suf- ficiently defined to suggest a considerable potential for further growth founded on the existing research base. Transportation geography is defined here as the study of the interactions anong locations on the earth as raanifest by connections and novenents. The field nay be divided for convenience of dis- cussion into three broad and overlapping areas, in each of which the prinary focus nay be on transportation patterns or on proc- esses. The fii-st research cluster examines the routes or con- nections anong places, emphasizing the location, structure, and evolution of routes or networks. The research interest here is normally at a nacroscale, rather than at the scale used by the transportation engineer in fixing exact routing. These studies range from the highly morphologic to those focusing on the pro- cesses generating netv;ork developnent. Both theoretical con- ceptualizations and empirical analyses have been followed. A second research core seeks to understand the areal variation in movement among locations. A nunber of interaction of flov/ models are employed to describe such flow variability. A con- siderable literature in urban and transportation planning has concentrated on the development and testing of models of movement. Also into this second research category fall the numerous studies, especially of the past, which treat the extent of hinterlands or urban trade areas using interaction data. Only a sampling of these studies is included here, and a mere complete source is Brian J.L. Berry and Allan Fred (61). Both the study of networks and movement on networks has given emphasis to the analysis of patterns, rather than to the processes operating through tine which alter transportation patterns. The third area of spatial research on transportation is impact analysis, in which the effects of networks and movements are con- sidered on land use, activity nodes, and behavior. Here the studies are commonly process-oriented in that changes in transportation are recognized to be interdependent with change in nontransport features of the area. A most considerable literature exists here, where the boundary lines between transportation and other areas of geography becor.e indistinct. In some such studies, transportation is regarded as one of a series of independent variables inducing change or explaining a portion of the areal variations in some variable. 7. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 These three research clusters describe the field abstractly in terms of kinds of relationships rather than by kinds of trans- port nodes or by regions on the earth. This three-fold division is appropriate whether at the scale of a snail city or that of a continent. Because of the concentration of aovei^ent within cities, there are a large nunber of stuaies dealing with urban trans- portation, and such studies in this bibliography are generally identified as having an urban focus, as well as noting whether they enphasize networks, flows, or iapact. Many of the articles in this bibliography can be conceptualized within the franework of Berry's "geographic natrix" (Brian J.L. Berry, "Approaches to Regional Analysis: A Synthesis," Annals , Association of ^>aerican Geographers . Vol. 54, March 1964, pp. 2-11). Berry identifies five basic approaches to regional analysis: "One can exanine: (a) the arrangeaent of cells within a row or part of a row; or (b) the arrangeuent of cells within a column or part of a column, ' Since the rows of the matrix represent characteristics of places and the columns refer to places or locations, the first approach leads, in the context of transportation geography, to an analysis of the way in which transportation characteristics vary in magnitude and importance from place to place (depending on the scale of investigation). The second approach would identify the significance of transportation at a particular node and the relationship between transportation and other functions and attributes of that node, as in the stuiy of port cities. Instead of studying only a single column, one night undertake: "(c) comparison of pairs or of whole series of rows; and (d) comparison of pairs of columns or of whole series of columns," These two approaches are simple extensions of the former tv/o and involve the study of somewhat more complex relationships. The third approach (c) considers the spatial associations am.ong dif- ferent transport variables, such as accessibility and movement, or between transport and nontransport variables, such as movement cost and production economies of scale. This approach may also include comparative analysis of modes or types of movement at a number of locations. The fourth approach (d) represents a com- parative regional analysis of transportation in different parts of the world or at different locations. 8. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 mny enpirical studies focus on a portion of the natrix, pointing up a fifth approach: "(e) the study of a 'box* or subnatrix." As Berry indicates, this approach nay "involve sone or all of steps (a) -(d) above" and represent a case study nethod. These five approaches nay each be considered in the tenporal dimension, allowing a total of ten ways to undertake research in the geography of transportation. Many kinds of transportation data nay be placed into natrix fom to readily depict interaction anong locations. In contrast to the geographic natrix described above, an interaction natrix consists of n rows for origins and n colunns for destinations. The elenents of the natrix nay indicate V7hether or not a direct con- nection exists between origin i and destination j (adjacency natrix) or nay represent the nagnitude of flow between i and j, A large nunber of techniques exist for the analyses of such natrices (805). A nore conplete review of the field of transportation geography may be found in Janes 0. VJheeler, "An Overview of Research in Transportation Geography," The East Lakes Geographer . Vol. 7, 1971, 9. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 III. USER GUID E A. OL-ganization This bibliography classifies each article into at least one topic, as indicated by the topical guide. Frequently an entry is cross classified. A topical index is provided at the end. The classification systen includes the traditional divisions by :..odes, but only where the study rather directly focuses on a node. If appropriate, the study is placed into topics 5, 6, or 7 (networks, flows, and transport inpact). The study nay also be classified Ly approach, general, historical, or theoretical-conceptual, as well as by subject area (as with nodes or urban research). A catejjory terned "Transportation Data" points up data sources, data collect- ion and display nethods, and iata uses in the field of spatial studies in transportation. It is felt that this organization v/ill be of naxinun benefit to the greatest nunber of users. 10. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 B. Topical Guide 1. General 2. Theoretical-Conceptual a. General b. Travel Models 3. Historical 4. Urban 5. Networks a. Network Measures and Structure b. Route Location c. Route Evolution 6. Flows and Movement a. International b. Interresional c. Intraurban 7. lapact of Transportation a. Highway Effects b. Econovaic and Regional Development c. Ports 8. Modal Studies a. Rail b. Highway c . Water d. Air e. Pipe f. Other 9. Transportation Data 11. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 C. Periodical Abbreviations The nanes and abbreviations of periodicals connonly appearing in this bibliography are given below. AER /kAAG CG EG GA GR G HSGTJ HRBB HRR ITJ JG JRS JTEP JTH LE PRSA PG SGRT TESG TPR - /jnerican Econonic Review - /merican Journal of Sociology - /jinals, Association of Anerican Geographers - Australian Geographer - Australian Geographical Studies - Business History Review - Canadian Geographer - East Lakes Geographer - East Midland Geographer - Econonic Development and Cultural Change - Econonic Geography - Ekistics - Environnent and Planning - Fortune - Geografiska Annaler - Geographical Analysis - Geographical Journal - Geographical Review - Geography - High Speed GrounJ Transportation Journal - Highway Research Board Bulletin - Highway Research Record - Institute of Transport Journal - Journal of Air Law and Coixierce - Journal of Anerican Institute of Planners - Journal of Geography - Journal of Industrial Econonics - Journal of Political Econony - Journal of Regional Science - Journal of Transport Economics and Policy - Journal of Transport History - Journal of Tropical Geography - Journal of the Institute of Highway Engineers - Journal of the Institute of Mathenatical Applications - Land Econor.ics - Monthly Labor Review - New Zealand Geographer - Papers of the Regional Science Association - Proceedings, Association of Aiaerican Geographers - Professional Geographer - Scientific Anerican - Scottish Geographical Magazine - Social Forces - Soviet Geography: Review and Translation - Tijdschrift voor Econonische en Sociale Geografie - Town Planning Review CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 TE - Traffic Engineering TQ - Traffic Quarterly - Transactions: Institute of British Geographers - Transport and Connunications Review - Transportation Journal - Transportation Research TS - Transportation Science - Urban Affairs Quarterly US - Urban Studies - Yearbook of the Association of Pacific Coast Geographers 13. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 IV. BIBLIOGRAPHY "• Annotated Bibliog;raphy 1. Adams, John S. 'Directional Bias in Intra-Urban Migration," EG, Vol. 45, October 1969, pp. 302-323. (2,4). 2. Adans, Russell B. "U, S. Metropolitan Migration: Dimensions and Predictability," PROCEEDINGS, A. A. G., Vol. 1, 1969, pp. 1-6. (2,4). 3. Alagona, Dagago. "Transport in Africa in Relation to Econonic Development," ITJ, Vol, 31, January 1965, pp. 53-56. (7b), Treats the problems of economic nationalism in African deve lopment . 4. Albrink, Karl S. and Joseph F. Cobbs. "'Research into the Value of Landlocked Right-of-Way Parcels," HRR, No. 8, 1963, pp. 95-106. (7a). Recommends appraisers and negotiators use case studies to aid in the establishment of a method that can be applied to determine land values, 5. Aldcroft, Derek H. "The Decontrol of British Shipping and Railways after the First World War," JTH, Vol. 5, November 1961, pp. 89-104. (3, 8a, 8c). Outlines the reconstruction problems involved in decent- ralizing railv/ay and shipping industries and compares the way in which the government dealt with decentralization from 1918 to 1921. 6. Aldercroft, Derek H. "The Eclipse of British Coastal Shipping, 1913-21," JTH, Vol. 6, May 1963, pp. 24-38. (3,3c). 7. Alexander, David and Leon N. Moses, "Competition Under Uneven Regulation,'- AER, Vol, 53, May 1963, pp. 466-473. (2a). Presentation of a theoretical scheme to demonstrate hox7 an increase in the regulated rate is equivalent to a reduction in the supply of regulated transport, as justifi' cation for the extension of agricultural exemption to rail and v/ater carriers. 14. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 8, Alexander, John W. "Freight Rates as a Geographic Factor in Illinois/^ EG, Vol. 20, January 1944, pp. 25-30. (6,7). Presents a series of naps showing the freight rate structure and the relationship of this structure to the location of grain and livestock production; concludes that the rate structure favors production of grain in the East and livestock in the West and Northwest. 9. Alexander, John W., and S. Earl Brown, and Richard Dahlberg. "Freight Rates: Selected Aspects of Uniforn and Nodal Regions,'' EG, Vol. 34, January 1958, pp. 1-18. (6b). Maps and describes the rate structure in Wisconsin. 10. Alexander, John W. , and S. Earl Brown, and Richard Dahlberg. "International Trade: Selected Types of World Regions," EG, Vol. 36, April 1960, pp. 95-115. (6a). Proposes seven classification systems for regionalizing data on international trade, giving the characteristics, . evaluations, and usefulness of each. 11. Alexanderson, Gunnar and G. Norstron. WORLD SHIPPING: AN ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY OF PORTS AND SEABORNE TRx'UDE. New York: John Wiley 6c Sons, Inc., 1964. (1,7c, 8c). ■ " A conprehensive treatment of world shipping, sea routes, and hinterlands, with systematic and regional chapters, 12. Alonso, Willian. "A Theory of the Urban Land Market," PRSA, Vol. 6, 1960, pp. 149-157. (2a). Presents a non-nathenatical overview of a theory of the ,, urban land aarket, based on agricultural rent theory and involving trade-offs between rent and transport. 13. Andreassen, John C.L. "Canadian National Railway Records," BUSINESS HISTORY REVIEW, Vol. 39, 1965, pp. 115-119. (8a, 9). A progress report on the attenpts to organize the records of the Canadian National Railways for greater research usefulness, 14. Andrews, J.A.C. ''Urban Transportation in Canada," TE, Vol. 38, October 1967, pp. 58-61. (4). A study of eleven Canadian cities showing the decline of transit despite population growth and giving reconmendations for nore investnent in transport systems. 15. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 15. Appleton, J. H. ''The Efficiency of the Great Australian Divide as a Barrier to Railway Comnunication,'' TRANS- ACTIONS: ItlSTITUTE OF BRITISH GEOGR/vPHERS, No. 33, 1963, pp. 101-122. (5c). The notion that the Great Australian Divide is an effective barrier to transportation is analyzed and qualified. 16. Appleton, J. H. A MORPHOLOGICAL APPROACH TO THE GEOGR^iPHY OF TRANSPORT. Yorkshire, England: University of Hull, 1965, (2a). The purpose of this study is to exanine the part played by Dorphological studies in the geography of transportation. The reasons for transportation geography's nonnorphological trends in the past are examined and its inplications for further studies in geography are considered. An attempt is nade to put the norphological approach into perspective insofar as it is relevant to the geography of transportation. 17. Appleton, J. H. "Sone Geographical Aspects of the Moderni- zation of British Railways," G, Vol. 52, Novenber 1967, pp. 357-363. (5b, 5c, 8a). Presents a factual account of changes in network shape, utilization, and character and evaluates closure of certain lines, changes in ownerships, "Merry-go-round" systems, and proposed truck routes. 18. Appleyard, Donald, Kevin Lynch and John Myer. "The View fron the Road,'= HRR, No. 2, 1963, pp. 21-30. (5b). Discusses the landscape seen by the driver and passengers along highway routes, out-lines objectives to provide the vievjer with coherent fom and a clarified iuage and meaning of the environment, and uses field data to suggest such findings nay be employed in highway planning. 19. Arth, Maurice P. "Federal Transport Regulatory Policy," AER, Vol. 52, May 1962, pp. 416-425. (1). Based on evaluation of the Ueeks and Mueller reports, the Hector and Arpia protests, the Doyle study, and the Landis Report, steps are identified which should be taken to iiuprove federal regulation of transportation. It is concluded that the greatest needs are for low-cost competitive pricing of carrier services and universal and adequate pricing for government-facility services. 16. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 20. Ashley, Roger H. and William F. Berard. "Interchange Development Along 180 Miles of 1-94," HRR, No. 96, 1965, pp. 46-58. (2a,4,7a). Analysis and classification of freeway interchanges as they relate to coonunity Jevelopnent, 21. Ashton, Winifred D. THE THEORY OF ROAD TRi^FFIC FLOW. Lonuon, England: Methuen &Co., Ltd., 1966. (2). Conprehensive textbook on traffic flow theory written primarily for statisticians, applied natheuaticians and engineers specializing in the traffic field. Although the approach is theoretical, the author contends that a number of the results collected still find practical application. 22. Aynvarg, Ye. S. "Zones of Influence of Middle-Size Cities, Their Boundaries and Passenger Flows," SGRT, Vol. 10, Novenber 1969, pp. 549-558. (2b,4,6c). A modified gravity model and concepts fron Christaller and Zipt are used to identify the central city's zone of influence, the demographic and passenger-generating potential of the zone, and the population in any con- centric ring in the zone or in the entire zone. 23. Ayre, Josephine. "History and Regulation of Trailer-on- Flatcar Movement," HRR, No. 153, 1967, pp. 1-30. (3,3a). Traces the influence of the ICC through successive i investigations and shows that piggy-back transport has increased due to recent ICC investigations. 24. Baker, Robert F. "A Practical View of the Systems Approach," TQ, Vol. 21, January 1967, pp. 471-486. (1,2a). Identification of existing weaknesses in the systems approach to transportation, 25. Balchin, W.G.V. AIR TR/^SPORT AND GEOGRAPHY. London, England: The Royal Geographical Society, 1947. (l,8d). A pioneering effort to chart the geographic implications of a relatively new medium of transportation. A general background discussion is follov;ed by descriptions of world air routes and regional air traffic patterns. 17. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324 -#32 5 26. Balkus, Koznas, •'Transportation Inplications of Alternative Sketch Plans," HPJl, No. 180, 1967, pp. 52-70. (2b, 4, 6c). A uniforr.1 application of travel generation criteria is applied to sets of population distributions. Trip generation is then estimated in several regions. 27. Balkus, Kozroas. "Metropolitan Highway Systens in the Frane- work of Social Welfare Decisions," FRSA, Vol. 22, 1969, pp. 39-54. (2a,4,5,8b). Regression equations are used to detemine the process of service standard fornatlon, the norms that guide the distribution of services, and perfornance parameters of the systen. A nodel of an optinun highway network is presented, 28. Ballard, Cordelle Kenper. "Transportation Dependents," TQ, Vol. 21, January 1967, pp. 83-90. (1,4). An outline of the transport needs of the aged, sug- gesting that a conprehensive effort is needed to provide convenient nodes of transportation. 29. Ballert, Albert G. "The Great Lakes Coal Trade: Present and Future," EG, Vol. 29, January 1953, pp. 48-59. (1,3c). Discussion of tenporal shifts in the volume of coal handled by selected ports and identification of the reasons for changes. 30. Banford, Franklin. "Land-Use Control at Freeway Interchanges in California," TQ, Vol. 19, Novenber 1965, pp. 541-555. (4,7a). A call for continued local land use control to coordinate connunity adjustuent and integrate the freeway into the connunity consistent with connunity values, 31. Bannard, J. U. "Sone Current Thoughts on Transport Co-ordin- ation," ITJ, Vol. 31, May 1966, pp. 370-376. (8). The author calls for maintenance of conpetition between road and rail transport by the government to encourage forms of transport that would provide the right quality at the lowest cost. 10. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 32. Bardwell, George E, and Taul R. Merry. "Measuring the Econonic lupact of a Linited-Access Highway on Contiunities, Land Use, and Land Values," HRBB 268, 1960, pp. 37-73. (2a, 7a). Analysis of sales tax collections to measure the econonic inpact of a highway on bypassed connunities and on land value and land use to demonstrate preliminary effects of a partially completed limited access highway in Colorado. 33. Barker, T.C, "Passenger Transport in Nineteenth Century London, JTH, Vol. 6, Ifey 1964, pp. 166-174. (3, 8a, 9). A survey of source material. 34. Barloon, Marvin J. "The Interrelationship of the Changing Structure of American Transportation and Changes in Industrial Location," LE, Vol. 41, May 1965, pp. 169- 179. (2a, 5, 7). Examines the relationship between industrial location and transport systems, notes that U. S. industry is relatively footloose with respect to transport, and that "changes in industrial output and in location appear to alter the structure of transportation, rather than the converse, • 35. Barnes, Charles F,, Jr. "Integrating Land Use and Traffic Forecasting, =• HRBB 297, 1961, pp. 1-13. (4). Discusses the procedures used and the basic information gained during the development of the land use analysis for the Hartford Area Traffic Study. 36. barrington, R. "The Hamburg Outer-Harbour Project and Re- lated Developments," TESG, Vol. 59, March-April 1563, pp. 106-lOa. (7c). Describes a proposed site for harbor development needed ^ to meet the demands created by new super tankers. 37. Barry, Walter A., Jr. "Proposed English Channel Tunnel: Its Estimated Traffic and Revenue," TQ, Vol. 15, April 1961, pp. 269-234. (1). Discusses the findings of a survey to estimate traffic and revenues for an electric railway tunnel and concludes that such a tunnel is economically feasible. 38. Barton, Thomas Frank. "Railroads of Southeast Asia," JG, Vol. 59, 1960, pp. 21-33. (8a). Examination of the major rail networks serving Thailand, Malaya, Cambodia, and Laos, surveying their extent, pattern, international aspects, passenger and goods flow, and future. 19. CPL Exchange Bibliography niii-nib Barton, Thonas Frank. "Outlets to the Sea for Land-Locked Laos," JG, Vol. 59, 1960, pp. 206-219. (1,8c). Describes the need for access to ocean shipping, the effects of renaining French colonial rule, and the viability of potential outlets. 40. Bauer, K. W. 'A Ifethod for Attaining Realistic Local Highway Systen Flans," HRBB 326, 1962, pp. 37-45. (4,8b). Concludes that aost cities do not have long range plans and that local plans are quite ineffective in achieving integrated urban highways aainly because they are technically inadequate. 41. Bauer, K. W. "Use of Official Map Procedure to Reserve Land for Future Highways," HRR, No. 8, 1963, pp. 82-94. (5b, 3b), Outlines and demonstrates planning for official naps designating right-of-way lines and site boundaries for streets and highways to prevent extensive and costly developcent within these lines in Wisconsin. 42. Beaver, S. H. "Ships and Shipping: The Geographical Conse- quences of Technological Progress," G, Vol. 52, 1967, pp. 133-156. (6a, 8c). Discussion of three najor results of technical progress leading to trade route changes: the substitution of oil for coal, the developnent of refrigeration, and changes in the nature of international trade that have both resulted froa and influenced changes in ship construction. 43. Becht, J. Edwin. A GEOGRAPHY OF TR/iNS PORTrtTION AND BUSINESS LOGISTICS. Dubuque, Iowa: Brown Co., 1970. (1). An introductory statement emphasizing transportation patterns, the role of terrain, climate, historical factors, carrier operations, and business logistics, 44. Becknan, ITornan. "Impact of the Transportation Planning Process," TQ, Vol. 20, April 1966, pp. 159-173. (1). A consideration of social, econoaic, and political effects of conprehensive transportation, encouraging a holistic approach to transport developnent. 20. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 45. Beckr.iann, Martin, C. B. McGuire, and Christopher B. Winsten. STUDIES IN THE ECONOMICS OF TRANSPORTATION. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1956. (2). The purpose of the studies included within this volune is to develop and illustrate certain concepts, rjethods, and nodels that r.iay have usefulness as points of departure for assessing capabilities and appraising efficiency of operation of transportation systems. 46. Becknann, Martin, C. B. McGuire, and Christopher B. Winsten. "On the Theory of Traffic Flow in Networks," TQ, Vol. 21, January 1967, pp. 109-117. (2b, 5a). Discusses ideal properties of transportation theory of traffic flow, reviews basic nodels of flow having linear progranning solutions, and conr>ents on implications for road utilization and road benefits. 47. Beckmann, Martin, C. B. McGuire, and Christopher B. Winsten. "Principles of Optinun Location for Transportation Net- works," QUANTITATIVE GEOGRAPHY PART I: ECONOMIC AND CULTUR.;L TOPICS. W. L. Garrison and D. F. Marble, eds . , 'S>-t; '.' : Evanston, Illinois: Departoent of Geography, North- ^\'.'<:i western University, 1967, pp. 95-119. (2, 5a, 5b). Discrete and continuous nodels of optimal network design are fornulated in the paper which solve the optimal design problem: How should a given total sun available for initial construction and subsequent maintenance cost be allocated in order to effect the greatest savings in transportation cost for road users? The author contends that the models fornulated are primarily valuable for heuristic purposes. 48. Beesley, M. E. and J. F. Kain. Urban Form, Car Ownership and Public Policy: An Appraisal of Traffic in Towns,'' US, Vol. 1, November 1964, pp. 174-203. (1,4). The 'Traffic in Towns" report of 1963 is critically analyzed, 49. Beesley, M. E. and J. F. Kain. "Forecasting Car Ownership and Use,'' US, Vol. 2, November 1965, pp. 163-135. (2a, 4), Refines estimates of future levels of car ownership and transit use for Leeds, England, incorporating changes in urban form as a variable affecting car ownership and transit use. 50. Behling, Burton N. "Factors in Future Development of Rail Piggyback,' HRR, No. 153, 1967, pp. 39-42. (8a). 21. CPL Exchange Bibliography #32A-#325 51. Belousov, I. I. "Transportation and the Foriaation of Econonic Regions," SGRT, Vol. 5, Novenber 1964, pp. 19-23. (2a, 7b), A -fithodology for deternining an optical location pattern in the U.S.S.R. that would entail nininun cozibined pro- duction and transport costs for each product. 52. Ben, C, R. J. Bouchard, and C. E. Sweet, Jr. "An Evaluation of Sinplified Procedures for Determining Travel Patterns in a Snail Urban «rea," HRR, No. 88, 1965, pp. 137-170. (2b, 4, 6c). Concludes that detailed socio-economic data combined V7ith linited travel data can be satisfactorily used to conpute zonal trip productions and attractions. 53. Benepe, Barry. "Pedestrian in the City," TQ, Vol. 19, January 1965, pp. 28-42. (4). Traces the development and decline of consideration of pedestrians in urban transport networks and sets criteria for planning for pedestrian use of streets on various street networks. 54. Benesh, Alvin H, "Traffic Assignments by the Shortest Path Method Usin^ the TD Factor," TQ, Vol. 21, October 1967, pp. 553-567. (2b). A weighting method is described to improve traffic assignments using the time-distance factor. 55. Benishay, Haskel and Gilbert R. Whitaker, Jr. "Demand and Supply in Freight Transportation, ■' JOURNi^L OF INDUSTRIAL ECONOMICS, Vol. 14, June 1966, pp. 243-262. (8). A preliminary investigation of the market structure of the common carrier freight industry, providing estimates of demand elasticities, demand prices, and income elastic- ities for various transportation modes, and some "best conjecture" on the supply side and market structure of the industry. The results of regression analysis il- lustrate the difficulty in e.?.pirical analysis of an industry characterized by "excess capacities," regulation, differing firm production functions, and inadequate data. 56. Benishay, Haskel and Gilbert R. Whitaker, Jr. "Tax Burden Ratios in Transportation,'' LE, Vol. 43, February 1967, pp. 44-55. (8). Tax burden ratios are discussed and computed for rail, motor, v/ater, and pipe carriers. 57. Bennett, R. F, "Road Transport in a Rapid Transit System," ITJ, Vol. 32, March 1968, pp. 333-344. (8). 22. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 58. Bergsnan, Joel. "Consents on Quandt and Baunol's Demand Model for /abstract Transport Modes," JRS, Vol. 7, Sunner 1967, pp. 83-85. (2b). Presents a quantitative example which "indicates that Quandt-Baunol's framework can be profitably used in an investment planning model" that is more realistic than the usual framework "which ignores the relationship between price and demand." 59. Berry, Brian J.L. and William Garrison. "A Source of Theory for Highway Impact Studies," HIGHWAY RESEARCH BO/iRD SPECIi^ REPORT NO. 28, 1957, pp. 79-84. (2, 7a, 8b). 60. Berry, Brian J.L. and William Garrison. "Recent Studies Con- cerning the Role of Transportation in the Space Economy," AAAG, Vol. 49, September 1959, pp. 328-342. (7). The author reviews and evaluates the theoretical con- tributions of studies in which patterns of economic activity are related to transport systems, including the "Raum and Verkehar' series; highway impact studies con- ducted at the University of Washington; and investigations of the interrelationships of bus services, towns, and their hinterlands undertaken in Sweden and the United Kingdom. 61. Berry, Brian J.L. and Allan Pred. CENTRAL PLACE STUDIES: A BIBLIOGRi>.PHY OF THEORY AND APPLICATIONS. (Supplement). Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Regional Science Research Institute. Bibliography Series No. 1. 1965. (1,4). 62. Berry Brian, J.L. and Allan Pred. ESSAYS ON COMMODITY FLOWS AND THE SPATIAL STRUCTURE OF THE INDL\N ECONOMY. Depart- ment of Geography Research Paper No. 111. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago, 1966. (2,6b). This study provides a cartographic portrayal and statistical analysis of movements in 63 commodity groups overland and coastwise among 36 reporting units in India. The three essays, jointly prepared by- various combinations of authors, comprise, about 60 pages of text, the' remainder of the volu:::e' being devoted to naps and tabulations. 63. Berry, Brian J.L. and Paul Schwind, "Infoniation and Entropy in Migrant Flows," GA, Vol. 1, January 1969, pp. 5-14. (2a). A reviev; of information theory and entropy and their relevance to research design and inference in studies of migration. 23. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 64. Berry, Donald S., et al. THE TECHNOLOGY OF UREilN TRANSPORTATION. Evanston, Illinois: Northv/estern University Press, 1963. (4,8f). An understanding of the capabilities of the different types of facilities for urban transportation is inportant in planning for the efficient novenent of persons and goods in metropolitan areas; this study presents, for each of several types of facilities, infornation on design features, capacity, perfornance, costs, and ranges in conditions for which each type night be best suited. Infornation is included on automotive transportation, various types of transit systens, possible innovations, and on central area circulation. 65. Best, Alan C.G. THE SWAZILAND RAILW;.Y: A STUDY IN POLITICO- ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY. East Lansing, Michigan: African Studies Center, Michigan State University, 1966, (3,3a). The purpose of this study is to examine the geographical aspects of the Swaziland railway from its inception during the eighteen-f ifties to the present. 66. Betz, Mathew J. and Jankie N. Supusad. "Traffic and Staggered Working Hours," TQ, Vol. 19, April 1965, pp. 188-203. (4). A nethod of staggering working hours to relieve congestion; the effects of staggering on land use, highway configura- tion, and transit planning, 67. Bevis, Howard W, "Forecasting Zonal Traffic Volumes," TQ, Vol, 10, No. 2, April 1956, pp. 207-222. (2b, 4, 6c). Bevis uses Detroit Metropolitan Area Survey data to demonstrate an interative technique for the prediction of inter-zonal trips, computing the probability of interchange and the index of friction. 68. Bieber, Alain. "Modal Evolution of Inter-city Travel Demand: A Markovian Analysis," TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH, December 1967, pp. 311-337. (2a,4). 69. Bielak, Stanley F, and James F. McCarthy, "Highway Income, Expenditures, and User-Tax Earnings in Standard Metro- politan Statistical Areas," HRR, No. 106, 1966, pp. 58- 76. (4). Compares highway income, expenditures, and highway-user earnings for selected SMSA's. User income sources provided almost seventy-five percent of the revenue income . 24. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 70. Bird, Janes. THE GEOGR/vPHY OF THE PORT OF LONDON. London, England: Hutchinson University Press, 1957. (7c). The author contends that it is viuch nore convenient to define a port in terns of its function rather than in terns of its forn. Hence, the essential task perforned in this study was to trace and describe the developnent of those areas vjhere the function of transshipnent was carried out in the port areas of netropolitan London. The conplicated foms of this transshipnent function suggest that it is inpossible to nake precise linear linits to the port of London. 71. Bird, Jaixs. 'Seaports and the European Econonic Connunity," GEOGR/'.PHIG/iL JOURNAL, Vol. 133, September 1967, pp. 302- 328. (7c, 8c). Using E. E. C. data, this paper presents problems of naritice transport and calls for reconsideration of seaport developnent and policy decision-naking to inprove future planning of seaports. 72. Bird, Janes. ''Traffic Flows to and fron British Seaports," G, Vol. 54, July 1969, pp. 284-302. (6a). A reviev? using recent iata. 73. Birkhead, E. "The Financial Failure of British Air Transport Companies," JTH, Vol. 4, May 1960, pp. 133-145. (3,3d). / Treats the uneconomical aspects of early twentieth century air transport. 74. Black, Alan. "A Method for Deternining the Optinal Division of Express and Local Rail Transit Service," HRBB 347, 1962, pp. 106-120. (2a, 5, 8a). Proposes a breakpoint on radial routes allowing local trains to serve the area between the breakpoint and the . CBD and express trains to serve the area beyond the breakpoint. 75. Black, Alan. "Comparison of Three Parameters of Nonresidential Trip Generation," HRR, No. 114, 1966, pp. 1-7. (2b, 4, 6c). Compares land use, land and floor area, and enploynent in an attempt to determine the best type of measurement fron which to estimate trips to non-residential areas. The findings indicate that no one method is best, but that floor area is best for commercial, enploynent for manufacturing, and land use for public buildings. 25. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324 -#32 5 76. Bleile, George W. and Leon M. Moses, "Transportation and the Spatial Distribution of Econonlc Activity,'' HRBB 311, 1962, pp. 27-30. (2a,4,7). This article deals with aspects of the suburbanization of econonic activity, concentrating on intra-netropolitan distribution of nanufacturing. It compares relocation patterns for large and snail fires and supports the hypothesis that the inner city is the "seedbed" of new snail enterprise. 77. Blurton, Michael A.S. "Special Bus Service," TE, Vol. 37, February 1967, pp. 17-20. (4,3). Conpares nass transit denonstration projects in Peoria and Decatur, Illinois, and indicates changes which r.:ay encourage greater use of mass transit systems. 78. Boal, F. W. and D. B. Johnson. ''The Functions of Retail and Service Establishnent on Coonercial Ribbons," CG, Vol. 9, No. 3, 1965, pp. 159-169. (2a, 4). A review of current concepts concerning the character and function of connercial ribbons and the exanination of the function of cue such ribbon in Calgary, Alberta. Concludes that the central place concept is applicable to the connercial ribbon, but that such application would be operationally conplex because of the mixture of establishment types ou such ribbons and their functional overlap, 79. Borchert, John R. and Donald D. Corroll. "Tine-Series Maps for the Projection of Land -Use Patterns," HRBB 311, 1962, pp. 13-26, (2a, 4). By times series napping of residential and commercial land-use patterns, future patterns are extrapolated for use in hi crhu/^v n1ann<no use in highway planning 80. Borchert, John R, "/vmerican Metropolitan Evolution," GR, Vol, 57, July 1967, pp. 301-332. (2a, 3, 4, 7). Presents the evolution of the present pattern of SMSA's from 1790 to 1960, identifying four major epochs in /u^rican history: soilwagon era, 1790-1830; iron horse era, 1830-1870; steel rail era, 1370-1920; and auto- air-amenity era, 1920- , discussing the technological innovations which characterize each epoch. 26. CPL Exchange Libliography #324-#325 81. Bostick, T. x.. and T. R. Todd. "Travel Characteristics of Persons Living in Larger Cities," HRR, No. 106, 1966, pp. 52-57. (4,6c). Using natiom^ide eutonobile use survey data, the authors relate the choice of travel nodes to the nearness of public transportation, the distance to work, and fanily incorae. The use of the autonobile, the dominant mode of transportation, tends to increase with income. 82. Botha, D. "A Descriptive Model of Social Contacts within a Community, '■ ERISTICS, Vol. 30, August 1970, pp. 110-116. (2a,4). "The purpose of this study is to determine the variables influencing the level and character of the social contacts within communities of around 7,000 people." 83. Bot2ov7, Hermann. "An Empirical Method for Estimating Auto Commuting Costs," HRR, No. 157, 1967, pp. 56-70. (Cb) . By estimating auto operating costs for counties within the study region, significant variations in cost per car and cost per car mile are indicated. 84. Bouchard, Richard J. and Clyde E. Fyers. "Use of Gravity Model for Prescribing Urban Travel: An Analysis and Critique, ■ HRR, No. 83, 1965, pp. 1-43. (2b, 4, 6c). For the gravity model to accurately describe traffic flow, the model should incorporate average area travel time factors, should stratify trips or balance interzonal attraction factors, and should be adjusted for geographic bias. 85. von Boventer, Edwin. "The Relationship between Transportation Costs and Location Rent in Transportation Problems," JRS, Vol. 3, Wiater 1961, pp. 27-40. (2a, 6, 7). Discusses the "simultaneous determination of transport costs and rent payments at both the production and consumption sites." 86. von Boventer, Edwin. "Comments on Kadas," PRSA, Vol. 12, 1963, pp. 203-209. (2a, 7). Discusses the interaction between internal economies and transportation costs and the role of input-output studies as indicators of a region's economic structure, and sug- gests closer examination of the problem of agglomeration economies and diseconomies. 27. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 87. BowersoK, Donald J. "Influences of Hishways on Selection of Six Industrial Locations," HR3B, No. 268, 1960, pp. 13-23. (7a). u report on the findings of interviews with representatives of six industrial firas adjacent to free access roads. For these fims the highways influence was considered inportant cut not critical, 88. Boyce, Byrl N. ''Excess Acquisition Revisited: Control of Land Use at the Interstate Interchange, " LE, Vol. 45, August 1969, pp. 293-303. (7a). Methods of land use regulation are evaluated. 89. Boyce, David E. "The Effect of Direction and Length of Person Trips on Urban Travel Patterns," JRS, Vol. 6, Suncer 1965, pp. 65-80. (2a, 4, 6c). Tests existing theoretical constructs through the application of nulti-variate analysis to urban travel data, specifically testing the assunption that trip volume is independent of the direction of the trips. 90. Boyce, David S. and Seynour E. Goldstone. ''A Regional Econoaic Sinulation Model for Urban Transportation Plan- ning, == HRR, Wo. 149, 1966, pp. 29-41," (2a, 4). Treats forecasts of population and enploynent for urban transportation regions using a regional sinulation nodel consisting of a set of recursive difference equations describing the denographic and enploynent sectors of a cetropolitan region. 91. Boyce, David E. and Seynour E. Goldstone, ''Effect of Trip Direction on Inter-zonal Trip Volumes: Test of a Basic Assunption of Trip Distribution Models,'' HRR, No. 165, 1967, pp. 76-38. (2a, 4, 6c). Using an analysis of variance of interzonal trip data, the author tests the assunption that interzonal volunes are independent of the location of zones and are instead a function of the separation of zones. The findings substantiated the assunption for arterial trips, but not for transit trips. The study also indicates the un- ifornity of the total trip pattern by trip direction. 92. Boyd, Alan S. 'The United States Department of Transportation,'" JOURi^.\L OF ..IR LAW a COMMERCE, Vol, 33, Spring 1967, pp. 225-233. (1). Discussion of the administrative structure of the Department of Transportation. 28. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 93. Boyce, Yngve. ROUTING METHODS: PRINCIPLES FOR HANDLING MULTIPLE SALESMEN PROBLEMS. LunJ Studies in Geography, Series C, Mo. 5, Lund, Sweden: C. W. K. Gleerup, 1985. (2, 5a, 5b). 94. Branch, Melville C. "Urban Planning and the New Mobility,'' JOURNAL OF .AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF PU\NNERS, Vol. 30, February 1964, pp. 2-6. (4,8a). Traces the increase in helicopter passenger airlines and recorjnends analysis of their disruptive effects before their use becones widespread. 95. Brant, Austin E., Jr. and Dana E. Low. "Cost-Saving Techniques for Collection and Analysis of Origin-Destination Survey Data," HRR, No. 205, 1967, pp. 50-66. (9). 96. Brenner, Robert. 'Geometries as an Approach to Macroscopic Theories of Traffic Flow," HRR, No. 15, 1963, pp. 44-59. (2b,6). Borrowing concepts fron thernodynanics, Brenner proposes a theoretical schena that would identify stable, un- stable, and r;.etastable regions of space, providing macroscopic variants for operational decisions. The approach offers a type of sensitivity analysis pursuant to operational decision naking and investigation of traffic flov7 problems. 97. Brighan, Eugene F. "The Determinants of Residential Land Values," LE, Vol. 41, November 1965, pp. 325-334. (4,7). Describes and tests a model of single-family residential land values in Los iingeles County, California, incorp- orating site characteristics of accessibility, amenities, topography, present and future use, and certain historical factors. 98. Britton, John N.H. "The Development of Port Kembla, N. S, W. , " G, Vol. 46, July 1961, pp. 247-250. (7c). A berth and an inner harbor are the two main needs to improve Port Kembla's capacity to handle cargo. 99. Britton, John N.H, "The Transport Functions of Port Kembla," EG, Vol. 38, October 1962, pp. 347-358. (7c). Presents a detailed analysis of the composition and direction of cargo moving through Port Kembla, Australia; examines foreland and hinterland patterns using the origins and destinations of community flow; and treats the significance of secondary industry and competitive forces which influence port viability. 29. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 100. Britton, John N.H. "Interstate Transport Conpetition and the Port of Melbourne," AUSTRALIrVN GEOGRAPHICAL STUDIES, Vol. 1, October 1963, pp. 84-95. (7c). 101. Britton, John N.H. "The External Relations of Seaports: Sone New Considerations," TESG, Vol. 56, May- June 1965, pp. 109-112. (6a, 7c). Consideration of the flow patterns of Melbourne using descriptive and infernetial statistical techniques in an attenpt to distinguish discrete foreland characteristics produced by conbinations of connodities. The author concludes that full understanding of a port's external relations is only achieved through combining the co-^juodity flow approach with analysis of foreland characteristics. 102. Britton, John N.H. "Coastwise External Relations on the Ports of Victoria's coastwise general cargo inport and export systeu by presenting a descriptive outline of patterns of connodity flows and analyzing foreland characteristics. 103. Britton, John N.H. "A Geographical Approach to the Exanin- ation of Industrial Linkages," CG, Vol. 13, Autunn 1969, pp. 185-198. (2,6b). Residuals fron regression and the gravity model are used to identify interregional manufacturing links. Patterns of freight dispatches can be explained con- siderably by the market size of each region and dis- tance from the zone by origin. 104. Brodsky, Harold. "Highways and Outdoor Recreation," HRR, No. 161, 1967, pp. 22-29. (8b). A wide-ranging discussion of highways as a recreational resource, highway accessibility, and the crisis in outdoor recreation. 105. Brookfield, H. C, "New Railroad and Port Developments in East and Central Africa," EG, Vol. 31, January 1955, pp. 60-70. (7c, 8a). The status of schemes to expand rail and port facilities contrasting transport development in two areas of Africa. 106. Brooks, Peter W, "The Development of Air Transport," JTEP, Vol. 1, May 1967, pp. 164-173. (3,8d). The history of aviation over six decades on the continents. 30. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 107. Brown, Lawrence A. and Frank E. Horton. "Functional Distance: An Operational Approach," GA, Vol. 2, January 1970, pp. 76-83. (2a, 6b). Using a Markov nodel, nean first passage tice is cal- culated as a measure of functional distance, using migration data fron New York State . 108. Brown, Lawrence A, and Frank E. Horton. "On the Use of Markov Chains in Movement Research," EG, Vol. 46, June 1970, pp. 393-403. (1,2a). A discussion of Markov chains as a descriptive tool and as a model of geographic systems and processes. 109. Brown, Lawrence A. and David B, Lcngbrake. "Migration Flows in Intraurban Space: Place Utility Considerations," Ai\AG, Vol. 60, June 1970, pp. 368-384. (2a, 4). The main objective is the construction and evolution of place utility functions based on socioeconomic and mig- ration characteristics using 1966-67 Cedar Rapids data. 110. Brown, Lawrence A., John Odland, and Reginald G. Golledge. 'Migration, Functional Distance, and the Urban Hierarchy," EG, Vol. 46, July 1970, pp. 472-485. (2a, 6b). Using the one-hundred largest SMSA's, the study focuses on a hierarchial classification of places and identifica- tion of system-wide migration fields for each SMSA, 111. Brown, Robert T. and Clell G. Harral. "Estimating Highway Benefits in Under-developed Countries," HRR, No. 115, 1966, pp. 29-43. (2a, 7b). Presents both a non-mathematical and algebraic model to demonstrate the maximum difference between the contributions which highway projects make to national incom.e and the cost of the projects. 112. Brown, Robert T. TRANSPORT AND THE ECONOMIC INTEGRATION OF SOUTH i\ME RICA. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1966. (7b). This study attempts to present in broad outline a trans- portation strategy for the whole continent of South America, since economic development efforts in Latin Arierica have been focuses primarily on the problems and potentials of individual countries in isolation. The basic assumption is that Latin American econoiiic progress requires larger export markets, a wider geographic aistri- bution of industrial activity, and interdependence in marketing and transportation. 31. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 113. Brown, Sanuel P. "The Future of Toll Roads," TQ, Vol. 15, July 1961, pp. 520-534. (7,8b). The national and regional inpact cf the inter-state systen of toll roads in the United States, 114. Bruck, H. W. , Stephen H. Putnan, and Wilbur A. Steger. "Evaluation of Alternative Transportation Proposals: The Northeast Corridor," JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF PLANNERS, Vol. 32, November 1966, pp. 322-333. (2a, 7). Examination of sone of the indirect consequences of alternative transportation investnents in the northeast corridor. Inpact nodeling uay be an aid in estimating and evaluating the consequences of denographic, econonic, and land use changes. 115. Buchanan, Colin D. "Britain Road Problens," GEOGRAPHICAL JOURNAL, Vol. 130, Decenber 1964, pp. 470-483. (1,3,4,5). Reflections on the introduction of the autonobile in Great Britain, new road construction connecting urban centers, and the problen of providing efficient circulation while also providing surroundings reasonably free fron adverse environnental effects of uotor traffic. 116. Buhl, Walter F, "Intercity Highway Transport Share Tends to Vary Inversely with Size of Plant," HRR, No. 175, 1967, pp. 9-14. (8b). This article is concerned with the relationship between highway carrier share and the traffic characteristics of: conriodity, size of shipment , and distance. 117. Buhr, Johann H., Donald R. Drew, Joseph A. Wattleworth, and Thonas G. Williams. "A Nationwide Study of Freeway Merging Operations," HRR, No. 202, 1967, pp. 76-122. (8b,9). A description of air photographic techniques, data reduction r.ethods, and the variety of data which may be used in merging studies. 32. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324 -#32 5 118. Bunge, Willian. "Toward a General Theory of Movenent," THEORETICAL GEOGR^'^PHY. Lund, Sweden: C. W. K. Gleerup, 1962, pp. 108-129. (2a). This chapter of Bunge 's larger text includes a brief connent on general flow nodels, a review of spatial novenent theories in their traditional categories based on subject ratter, and a discussion of their abstract spa- tial properties, leading to a reclassification of the theories and a conclusion which coonents on geographic unity. The author strives to unite two bodies of theory: central place theory and movenent theory. 119. Bunke, Harvey C. "The Status of Rate-Making," LE, Vol. 36, May 1960, pp. 129-Ul. (3,8). Historical review of rate regulation in the United States indicates a fundamental shift in rate making policy showing that competitive pricing is essential if the transportation system, specifically the railroads, is to '' be operated as an economic enterprise. 120. Bunker, R. "Travel in Stevenage," TPR, Vol. 38, October 1967-68, pp. 215-232. (4). Using descriptive statistics, this summary of a travel survey in Stevenage points out the need for concern with the regional and functional relationships of future new towns . 121. Burch, James S, "Traffic Interactance between Cities," HRBB, No. 297, 1961, pp. 14-17. (2b,4,6b). Evaluation of the interaction between five cities and -,.■ ■ towns in North Carolina, using a quadratic adaption of '■ the gravity model to predict traffic exchange. 122. Burghardt, Anarew F. "The Origin and Development of the Road Network of the Niagara Peninsula, Ontario, 1770-1851," i\AAG, Vol. 59, September 1969, pp. 417-440. (3,5,8b). Historical analysis suggests that Indian trails did not predetermine the road alignments and that towns created roads, rather than vice versa. 123. Burton, Robert C. and Frederick D, Knapp. "Socio-Economic Change in Vicinity of Capital Beltway in Virginia," HRR, No. 75, 1964, pp. 32-47. (7a). Changes in land and real property values, land uses, traffic patterns, travel habits, and business activity associated with an interstate highway over a period of time. 33. CPL Exchanse Bibliography #324-#325 124. Eurtt, Everett J., Jr. "Workers adapt to Plant Relocation in Suburbia (Greater Boston)," MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, April 1968, pp. 1-5. (4,6c). 125. Butas, Larry F, "Various Sinultaneous Equation for Inter- zonal Divergences and Link Assignnents ," TQ, Vol. 18, July 1964, pp. 383-405. (2a, 4). A nethod for deterniining the nanner in which interzonal trip transfers diverge and take on various lengths, 126. Butas, Larry F. "Sinultaneous Differential Equations for Trip Distributions," TQ, Vol. 20, april 1966, pp. 248- 267. (2b, 6c). Develops a dynanically interdependent nodel, which conpares favorably in enpirical results with the nodified gravity uodel. 127. Caueron, M. A. "Theory and Practice in Transport," ITJ, Vol. 31, November 1964, pp. 20-23. (1). 128. Canpbell, Thonias C. "Agricultural Exeaptions froa Motor Carrier Regulation," LE, Vol. 36, February 1960, pp. 14-25. (8b). The issue of non-unifom regulation of carriers and coaiaodities is analyzed in an exanination of the Motor Carrier Act of 1935 and Transportation Act of 1953. 129. Canpbell, Wilson E. 'Transportation Systeu Corridors,' HRR, Vol. 166, 1967, pp. 26-35. (1). 130. Campbell, Wilson E. "An Evaluation of Alternative Land Use and Transportation Systems in the Chicago Age," HRR, No. 238, 1968, pp. 103-115. (4,6c). cat's role in a land use and transportation study is described. 131. Cannon, John G. "Historic Old Sacranento and U. S. Inter- state Route 5,' TQ, Vol. 19, July 1965, pp. 405-412. (4,5b). Discusses cooperative planning of a freeway and a historic renewal area in downtown Sacramento. 132. Cano, Jose Luis. "Freeways in Lima, Peru," TE, Vol. 36, August 1966, pp. 54-57. (4,7c). A brief overview. 34. CPL Exchange Bibliography y/324-#325 133. Carlson, Fred A. "Traffic on the Ohio River Systen," JG, Vol. 59, Novenber 1960, pp. 357-360. (8c). Traffic and construction on the Ohio River. 134. Carlson, Robert E. "British Railroads and Engineers and the Beginnings of Anierican Railroad Developnent," BUSINESS HISTORY REVIEW, Vol. 34, Sumer 1960, pp. 137-149. (3,8a). 135. Carroll, J. Douglas, Jr., and Gerald P. Jones. "Interpretation of Desire Line Charts Made on a Cartographatron," HRBB, 253, 1960, pp. 86-108. (9). 136. Carroll, J. Douglas, Jr., and Roger L. Creighton, and John R. Hanburg. "Transportation Planning for Central Areas," JOURN/i OF AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF PLANNERS, Vol. 27, February 1961, pp. 26-34. (4). 137. Carrothers, Gerald A. P. "An Historical Review of the Gravity and Potential Concepts of Hunan Interaction," JOURNAL OF /J^RICAN INSTITUTE OF PLANNERS, Vol. 22, Spring 1956, pp. 94-102. (2b). Discusses and explains various uodels and fornuli, including a bibliography (83 English written articles and books). 138. Carter, John F. "The Urban Traffic Problen," TQ, Vol. 16, April 1962, pp. 260-270. (1,4). '''' A general discussion. 139. Carter, Richard E. "A Conparative Analysis of United States Ports and Their Traffic Characteristics," EG, Vol. 38, April 1962, pp. 162-175. (7c). A series of naps are analyzed in a general discussion '■• ' of United States water traffic. 140. Casetti, Enilio. "Optinal Location of Steel Mills Serving the Quebec and Southern Ontario Steel Market," CG, Vol. 10, No. 1, 1966, pp. 27-39. (2a, 6b, 7). Linear progranning techniques are used to analyze both the inpact of increased steel consumption in Canada and the inpact of iron ore shipments fron Seven Islands to Great Lakes steel centers on the optinun location of steel nills supplying the Canadian narket. 35. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 141. Caswell, Stearns W. "Effect of Zone Size on Zonal Inter- change Calculations Based on the Opportunity Model in a Honogeneous Region," HRR, No. 165, 1967, pp. 22-40. (2 b, 4, 6c). Errors in interzonal trip distributions arise fron zone size, trip density, and the trip generation constant used in the nodel. Snaller zones pernit nore accurate calculations of zonal trip interchange. 142. Casvjell, Stearns W. "A Theoretical Model for Deternination of Expressway Usage in a Uniforc Region," HRR, No. 238, 1958, pp. 79-102. (2a, 7a). Mean trip density is estinated for isolated and parallel freeway networks with liraited and unlinited accessibility. 143. Cella, Francis R. "Highway Location and Econonic Developaent ," HRBB 327, 1962, pp. 73-76. (5b, 7a, 7b). Factors for use in determining econonic effects of highway locations are identified. 144. Cernakian, Jean. "The European Inland Waterways Network: A Case Study in the Geography of European Cooperation," YEARBOOK OF THE ASSOCIATION OF PACIFIC COAST GEOGRAPHERS, Vol. 28, 1966, pp. 175-179. (8c). 145. Chacey, D. Kenneth. "Ground Transportation in the Years Ahead," TQ, Vol. 18, April 1964, pp. 188-201. (1,8). Discusses today's transport problems and the need for new concepts for their solution. 146. Chang, Sen-Dou. "Land Use and Intra-Urban Travel in Taipei," PROCEEDINGS, A. A. G., Vol. 2, 1970, pp. 40-45. (4,7,8). The inpact of rapid urban development on travel (cornuting distances and congestion). 147. Chapman, Albert S. "Trans-Europe Express: Overall Travel Tir.e in Competition for passengers," EG, Vol. 44, October 1968, pp. 283-295. (6a, 8). Compares TEE travel time with air travel time from selected traffic generating centers to principal destinations. It is suggested that short to aoderate length trips are best served by Trans-Europe Express. 36. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 1A8. Charnes, A., S. C. Littlechild, M. J. L. Kirby, and W. M. Raike. "Chance Constrained Models for Transport Pricing and Scheduling under Coupetition," TS, Vol. 2, February 1968, pp. 57-76. (2a). A "nodel-link" raathenatical -aodel. 149. Cherner, Morrie. "Property Values as Affected by Highway Landscape Developments," HRR, No. 53, 1964, pp. 4-7. (4,7a). This Chicago area study indicates that over tice the value of residential property adjacent to freeways was not lower than similar property at a slightly greater distance from freeways, and people interviewed agreed that the beauty of the freeway adjacent to their property v/as due to the highway's landscaping. 150. Cherniack, Nathan. "Critique of Hone -Interview Type 0-D Surveys in Urban Areas," HRBB 253, 1960, pp. 166-188. (4,9). 151. Cherniack, Nathan. "A Statement of the Urban Passenger Transportation Problen," HRBB 293, 1961, pp. 21-32. (4,8f). Alternative cethods of urban transportation are evaluated and conditions in urban areas that help to create in- adequate metropolitan transportation systems are discussed. 152. Chigarkin, A. V, "The Use of Landscape Surveys in the Planning of New Railroads," SGRT, Vol. 4, May 1963, pp. 30-37. (5b, 8a). A study of "specific railroad-building problems, such ' • as landfoms, geology, water supply, availability of road ballast," as well as the effect of agriculture and mineral exploitation. 153. Chinitz, Benjamin. "The Effect of Transportation Forms on Regional Economic Growth," TQ, Vol. 14, April 1960, pp. 129-142. (2a, 7b). Treatment of the historic role of transport cost in the U.S. (centralization and decentralization phases) and its relationship to industrial location, products shipped, and length of haul. 37. CPL Exchanse Bibliography #324 -#32 5 154. Christensen, David E, "A Simplified Traffic Flow Map,'' PG, Vol. 13, 1961, pp. 21-22. (9). 155. Christensen, David E. 'The Auto in Anerica's Landscape and Way of Life," G, Vol. 51, November 1966, pp. 339-348. (1.8b). Brief overview of autonotive transportation in Acerica. 155. Church, Donald E. "Volune and Characteristics of Intercity Travel During Winter 1963," HRR, No. 64, 1964, pp. 100- 105. (4,6c). 157. Church, Donald E. "New Trucking Data fron 1963 Census of Transportation," HRR, No. 82, 1965, pp. 38-53. (9). 158. Church, Donald E. "Inpact of Size and Distance on Intercity Highv;ay Share of Transportation of Industrial Products," HRR, No. 175, 1967, pp. 1-8. (8b). 159. Clark, Colin. "Transport: The Maker and Breaker of Cities," TPR, Vol. 28, 1958, pp. 237-250. (1,3,2). 160. Clark, Colin, and G. H. Peters. "The 'Intervening Opportunities' Method of Traffic Analysis,'' TQ, Vol. 19, January 1965, pp. 101-119. (2b, 4, 6c). An application of the nodel to London and Copenhagen. "The principal of 'intervening opportunities' appears to be an important step forward in our knowledge re- lating to travel habits . . . and it undermine (s) our faith in the effects of distance." 161. Clark, Colin and Hans Rudalf Roeske. "The 'Intervening Opportunities' Method--West Midlands Traffic Study," TQ, Vol. 23, July 1969, pp. 365-377. (2b, 4, 6c). The intervening opportunities model is used to com- paritively describe travel patterns of male and female and manual and non-manual workers, the friction of distance being greater for female and non-manual workers. 162. Clark, J. E., Ill, and D. A. Morin. "Securing Travel Data by Telephone Interviews," TE, Vol. 36, June 1966, pp. 47-49. (9). 38. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 163. Clark, W.A.V. "Consucer Travel Patterns and the Concept of Range," AAAG, Vol. 58, June 1968, pp. 386-396. (2,6). Less than one-half of those surveyed purchased goods and services at the nearest center offering those goods and services, and significant differences in trip length were noted. This indicates nodification of the "range of a good" concept. 164. Clark, W.A.V. "Measurenent and Explanation in Intra-Urban Residential Mobility," TESG, Vol. 61, January-February 1970, pp. 49-57. (2,4,6c). "This study first exanines the reasons given by a sanple of novers for changing residence, both to test the generalizations (on why people nove) drawn from the literature, and to test the extent to which reasons for novenent are related to spatial patterns of novenent. A second concern is with the sinulation of the spatial patterns of intra-urban novecent." 165. Clark, VJ.A.V. and Gerald Rushton. "Models of Intra-Urban Consuner Behavior and Their Implications for Central Place Theory," EG, Vol. 46, July 1970, pp. 486-497. (2a). Testing the "nearest center hypothesis." 166. Clarke, J. I, "The Trans -Cane roon Railway," G, Vol. 51, January 1966, pp. 55-58. (3,8a). Brief suLm^ary of the history and extent of railroads. 167. Clawson, Marion, "lupllcations of Recreational Needs for Highway Inprovenents ,'' HRBB 311, 1962, pp. 31-38. (7a). Basic factors of outdoor recreation denand and their inpact on future highway use are exanined. It is con- cluded that nost highways are not well suited for handling future recreation traffic; yet outdoor recreation travel demands will be a najor constituent of total highway denands in the future, 168. Clayton, John E. "Containerization in Transporting Agri- cultural Perishables," HRR, No. 153, 1967, pp. 54-59. (1). 169. Cline, Marvin G. "Urban Freeways and Social Strucuture — Sone Problens and Proposals," HRR, No. 2, pp. 12-20. (4,7a). Literature associated with highway developnent and social change is reviewed under the general headings of the city as a social systen, psychological inpact of physical dis- ruption and psychological disruption, and social function- ing. Including social science research in highway plan- ning nay niniaize social and psychological disruption. 39. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 170. Clozier, Rene. GEOGRAPHIE DE LA CIRCULATION. Paris, France: Editions Genln, 1963. (1). This test provides a highly descriptive regional account of the developnent of various nodes of transport through- out the world. 171. Cole, Leon Monroe. "Transport Investment Strategies and Econonic Development," LE, Vol. 44, August 1968, pp. 307-319. (7b). 172. Coleiaan, Robert R. "A Study of Urban Travel Tines in Pennsylvania Cities," HRBB 303, 1951, pp. 62-75. (4). 173. Collins, Frederick L. and Adolf D. May, Jr. "^ Cocputer Program for Freeway and Highx^ay Capacity," TE, Vol. 38, April 1968, pp. 44-49. (2b). The program calculates service volune, nunber of lanes, and level of service. 174. Colwell, Robert C. "Interactions between Transportation and Urban Econonic Growth," HRR, No. 23, 1963, pp. 6-11. (7b), 175. Conant, Michael. "The Myth of Inter-Railroad Conpetition, " LE, Vol. 38, August 1962, pp. 249-255. (8a). The structural oligopoly of the railroad industry and peculiar narket and cost structures negate conpetition between railroads. Poolings and consolidations should be required to enable a nore econonical allocation of resources. 176. Conley, J. H., R. S. Farnscoorth, E. Koenigsberg, and V. Wiersena. "A Linear Programing Approach to the Total Movement of a Homogeneous Product," TS, Vol. 2, November 1968, pp. 209-302. (2b). 177. Connally, Julia rt. and Charles 0. Meiburg. "The Washington Capital Beltway and Its Impact on Industrial and Multi- Family Expansion in Virginia," HRR, No. 217, 1968, pp. 9-27. (4, 6c, 7a). Access to freeway facilities is stated as a major factor in industrial location. Changing commuting patterns and expansion of the area's laborshed result from the opening of the beltv;ay. To ease congestion at inter-changes, rezoning of land use is suggested. 178. Conway, Thomas, Jr. "Rapid Transit Must Be Improved to Alleviate Traffic Congestion," TQ, Vol. 16, January 1962, pp. 103-118. (4,8). The description of rapid transit services in two large cities. 40. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 179. Cook, W. R. "Transport Decision of Certain Firms in the Black Country," JTEP, Vol. 1, Septenber 1967, pp. 325- 344. (7,8). The decision-making process is significantly influenced by personal qualities of the decision nakers. While transport costs are important, they are not always a decisive factor; desired quality of transport service varies with each firn. 180. Corradino, Joseph C. "The Effect of the Highway System and Land Development on Trip Production," TE, Vol. 38, June 1968, pp. 32-39. (2b, 4, 6c, 7a) . Quantifies relationships between trip-making and land use, economic status of travelers, and capabilities of transport system to predict future trip-making. 181. Corradino, Joseph C. , and Michael G. Ferreri. "In-Flight Origin-Destination Study at Philadelphia International Airport," HRR, No. 274, 1969, pp. 35-43. (9). 182. Cox, Kevin. "The Application of Linear Programming to Geographic Problems," TESG, Vol. 56, July-August 1965, pp. 228-235. (2a, 6b). An introduction to the transportation model and an application to aluminum bar flows, 183. Coyle, John J., H. Kirk Dansereau, John C. Frey, and Robert D. Pashek. "Interchange Protection and Community Structure," HRR, No. 75, 1964, pp. 62-74. (2a, 4, 5b, 7a) . To aid in the selection of locations for interchanges in rural and suburban areas, the factors of community grov/th, land use planning, and community structure are used to develop a model for land use planning at inter- changes. 184. Creighton, Roger L., Irving Hoch, Morton Schneider, and Hyman Joseph. "Estimating Efficient Spacing for Arterial and Expressways," HRBB 253, 1960, pp. 1-43. (2a, 4, 5b). 185. Creighton, Robert L. , Irving Hock, Morton Schneider, and Hyman Joseph. "Transportation in Regional Development," HSGTJ, Vol. 2, January 1968, pp. 1-7. (4,7b). To reverse the trend of unplanned urban growth, it is suggested that population should be concentrated along appropriate transport corridors in accordance with a regional development plan. 41. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 186. Creighton, Roger L., Irving Hoch, Morton Schneider, and Hyoan Joseph. "Measurements and the Regional Planning Process," HRR, No. 229, 1968, pp. 1-6. (7b). The regional planning process is outlined with reference to the role of transportation in regional developnent. 187. Crevo, Charles C. "Characteristics of Sunner Weekend Recreational Travel," HRR, No. 41, 1963, pp. 51-60. (6b). An analysis of travel time, vehicle occupancy, trip production and population density, and hourly distribut- ions of vehicles arriving at recreational sites indicates facilities at these locations do not influence the length of travel tine, although car occupancy varies with facilities available. 138. Cribbins, P. D., W. T. Hill, and H. 0. Seagraves. "Econonic Inpact of Selected Sections of Interstate Routes on Land Value and Use," HJIR, No. 75, 1964, pp. 1-31. (7a). It is concluded that controlled access facilities have done little to stinulate or depress land values and development during the study periods. 189. Cullen, Donald E. "Labor-Market Aspects of the St. Lawrence Seaway Project," JOURNAL OF POLITICAL ECONOMY, Vol. 60, June 1960, pp. 232-251. (6,7). The sources of the workers enployed, their connuting patterns, and the project's inpact on area wage and labor supply. 190. Curry, S. Leigh, Jr. ='Urban Renewal and Urban Transportations Contrasting Concepts and Methods," HRR, No. 137, 1966, pp. 22-24. (1,4). Connunity participation in urban renewal programs is contrasted with the lack of connunity participation in transportation planning. 191. Curtis, Willian H. "An Analysis and Evaluation of Urban Street Patterns Possible with a Freev/ay Network," TE, Vol. 33, October 1962, pp. 16-23. (2a, 4, 5a). An analysis of two types of street patterns that can be utilized where a freeway systen is superinposed over an existing grid street systen indicates the differentiated, non-continuous street pattern is equal to or superior to a continuous grid pattern, when used in conjunction with a freeway systen. 42. CPL Exchanse Bibliography #324-#325 192. Dansereau, H. Kirk, John C. Frey, and Robert D. Pashek. "Highvjay Developnent, Coonunity Attitudes and Organization," HRR, No. 16, 1963, pp. 44-59. (4,7a). Discussion of connunity social structure, attitudes, and complexity. 193. Dansereau, H. Kirk, John C. Frey, and Robert D. Pashek. •'Five Years of Highway Research: A Sociological Per- spective," HRR, No. 75, 1964, pp. 76-81. (1,4,7a). The inpact of highways on two connunities is analyzed with respect to population growth, level of living, attitude change, connunity organization and highway use. The results indicate population growth, rising levels of living, and increased connunity organization. Connunity participation in the planning process is reconnended, 194. Davis, Howard W. "A Review of Federal Rate Regulation and Its Inpact upon the Railroad Industry," LE, Vol. 44, February 1968, pp. 1-10. (8a). Procedural delays, inequities in rate regulation, and the concept of a naxinun rate indicate federal rate regulation has adverse consequences for railroads. 195. Davis, J. Tait, "Parkways, Values and Developnent in the Washington Metropolitan Region," HRR, No, 16, 1963, pp. 32-43, (4,7a), Factor analysis of land value variation patterns between parkway and non-parkway facilities, 196. Dayal, Edison. "The Changing Patterns of India's Inter- national Trade," EG, Vol. 44, July 1968, pp. 240-269. (6a). The areal features of India's trade linkages (inports and exports) , 197. Deen, Thonas B., Willian L, Mertz, and Neal A. Irwin. "Application of a Modal Split Model to Travel Estinates for the Washington Area," HRR, No. 38, 1963, pp. 97- 123. (2b,4,6c). The gravity nodel and a nodal split nodel are used to test nodal split inplications of two proposed land use plans. A test of the nodal split nodel produced accuracy sufficient for planning purposes. 43. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 198. Deen, Thopas B. , William L, Mertz, and Neal A. Irwin. "A Study of Transit Fringe Parking Usage," HRR, No. 130, 1966, pp. 1-19. (4,8f). The feasibility of extended use of fringe parking facilities is exanined. The viability of the facilities is discussed with reference to proxinity to the alternative node of travel, the type of alternate travel node, trip purpose, and costs of parking, 199. Denaree, Allan T. "Cars and Cities on a Collision Course," FORTUNE, February 1970, pp. 124-128. (1,4). 200. Despicht, Nigel S. POLICIES FOR TRANSPORT IN THE COMMON Mf.RKET. Sidcup, Kent, U.K.: Lanbarde Press, 1964. (1). The author of this text describes the progress nade, since the inception of the Connon Market, and the pro- spects for the connon transport policy now energing in the Corinunity, demonstrating how this connon policy fits into the overall franework of the Cocjaunity under con- struction. 201. Despicht, Nigel S. "Transport and the Corjnon Market," ITJ, Vols. 31 and 32, January 1966, pp. 277-280; March 1966, pp. 322-326; Septenber 1966, pp. 475-479; and November 1966, pp. 20-26. (1,7b). A discussion of the role of transportation and the political and econonic effects of the transportation policy of the connon market. 202. Deutschnan, Harold D. and Nathan L. Jaschik. "Income and Related Transportation and Land-Use Planning Implications," HRR, No. 240, 1968, pp.' 52-65. (2a,4,6c). The study indicates that incoce is a sensitive measure of auto-ownership, transit use, auto and total trip making, and honeownership. 203. Dewdney, John C, ''The Daily Journey to Work in County Durham," TPR, Vol. 31, 1960-61, pp. 107-124. (6). 204. Dial, Robert B. "Transit Pathfinder Algorithm," HRR, No. 205, 1967, pp. 67-85. (2a, 5a). A computer program to find cininun time paths through a large nultinodal transportation system. 44. CPL Exchange Bibliography y/324-#325 205. Dickey, John W. and Paul W. Schuldiner. "A Model of the Maxinua Generation of Traffic to Planned Shopping Centers," HRR, No. 130, 1966, pp. 44-54. (2b, 4, 6c). A linear progranning fornat is used to calculate the naxiuun generation rates for three classes of planned centers of various size. 206. Dickey, John W,, Frank E. Hortcn, acd Edwin N. Thomas. "Areal Aggregation and Forecasting Precision in Urban Trans- portation Studies," TESG, Vol. 60, January-February 1969, pp. 60-62. (2a,4,6c). 207. Dickins, Justin H. "New Systen Developed for Traffic Data acquisition," TE, Vol. 35, December 1964, pp. 12-15. (9). "New (photographic) techniques instituted by Port of New York authority permit gathering of simultaneous traffic statistics for extensive roadway networks and complex interchange systems." 208. Dickinson, G. C. "The Development of Suburban Road Passenger Transport in Leeds, 1840-95," JTH, Vol. 4, November 1950, pp. 214-224. (3,4,8). 209. Dickinson, Robert E. "The Geography of Commuting in West Germany," i^^J2, Vol. 49, Decenbsr 1959, pp. 443-456. ., (4,6c). Rebuilding industry faster than housing stimulated confuting. The social and economic aspects of commuting are discussed. 210. Dickson, K. B. "Evolution of Seaports in Ghana: 1800-1928," Ai^iiG, Vol. 65, Iferch 1965, pp. 98-111. (7c). The survival or disappearance of Ghanan ports is examined with reference to changes in the speed and direction of Ghana's economic development. 211. Dickson, K. B. "Trade Patterns in Ghana at the Beginning of the Eighteenth Century," GR, Vol. 56, July 1966, pp. 417-430. (3). 212. Dodge, William H. "The Inherest Advantages of Carrier Modes under the National Transportation Policy," LE, Vol. 44, November 1968, pp. 492-502. (8). The National Transportation Policy which preserves the "inherent advantages" of each mode of transportation is questioned, V-Jhile the United States has the best transport system in the world, it is also among the most inefficient. 45. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324 -#32 5 213. Donanski, Ryszard. "Reuarks on Siaultaneous and Aniso- tropic Models of the Transportation Network. Connents by A. J. Scott." PRSA, Vol. 19, 1967, pp. 223-228. (2a, 5). This paper considers the nodel of a transportation network as a systen of edges and capacities as presented by Scott. Unlike Scott's research the author suggests that transportation networks and settlement patterns should be deternined simultaneously, as well as the simultaneous determination of the spatial pattern of transportation network complexes consisting of different kinds of transport. Examples of both research approaches are provided. 214. Doxiadis, C. A. "Ekistics and Traffic," TQ, Vol. 17, July 1963, pp. 439-457. (1,4). Presents the evolution, scale and character of urban growth, describing and ecumenopolis, the settlement of the future and place of traffic in the functions of these future cities. 215. Doxiadis, C. A. "Man's Movement and His Settlements," EKISTICS, Vol. 29, May 1970, pp. 296-321. (1). 216. Drew, Donald R, "Deterministic Aspects of Freeways Operations and Control," HRR, No. 99, 1965, pp. 48-58. (2b). Congestion is defined quantitatively. Deterministic and probabilistic models of traffic are discussed with emphasis on deterministic models. 217. Drew, Donald R, "Classification and Applications of Traffic Problems by Models," TE, Vol. 36, November 1965, pp. 23-24, and 43. (2b). Brief treatment of physical and theoretical models, traffic variables, and the example of freeway merging, 218. Drew, Donald R. "Application of Discrete Distributions to Traffic," TE, Vol. 36, December 1965, pp. 24-25. (2b). Discussion of applying probability distributions to traffic flow, 219. Drew, Donald R. "Application of Continuous Distributions to Traffic," TE, Vol. 36, January 1966, pp. 29-31. (2b). 220. Drew, Donald R, "Application of the Markov Process to Traffic," TE, Vol. 36, March 1966, pp. 50-51. (2b). 221. Drew, Donald R. "The Macroscopic Approach to Traffic Flow," TE, Vol, 36, April 1966, pp. 70-71. (2b). 46. CPL Exchanse Bibliography #324-#325 222. Drew, Donald R. "The Energy-Mocientun Concept of Traffic Flow," TE, Vol. 36, June 1966, pp. 52-54. (2b). Explores correspondence between traffic flow and fluid flow. 223. Drusch, Robert L, "Estimating Annual Average Daily Traffic fron Short-Tern Traffic Counts," HRR, No. 118, 1966, pp. 85-95. (9). Traffic counts reported four tines a year at stations grouped on the basis of average monthly flows for several consecutive years will yield accurate traffic counts and less cost. 224. Duckhan, Baron E*. "The Navigation of the Yorkshire Ouse During the Nineteenth Century," JTH, Vol. 6, May 1964, pp. 182-188. (3,8c). 225. Due, John F. "The City of Frineville Railway and the Econonic Developnent of Crook County," EG, Vol. 43, April 1967, pp. 170-181. (7,8a). .. . Owned by the city of Frineville, the railway stiaulated the developnent of the lumber industry. 226. Dunbar, A. R. "The Control of Public Transport," ITJ, Vol. 31, No. 7, November 1965, pp. 225-233. (8a, 8b). 227. Dunne, M. C, R. W. Rothery, and R. B. Potts. "A Discrete Markov Model of Vehicular Traffic," TS, Vol. 2, No. 3, August 1968, pp. 233-251. (2,6). 228. Durden, Dennis and Duane Marble, "The Role of Theory in CBD Planning," JOURNAL OF /^IffiRICAN INSTITUTE OF PL/iNNERS, Vol. 27, February 1961, pp. 10-16. (2a, 4). , The need for theory and the lack of theory available for urban planners are discussed. 229. Dwyer, D, J. "The Developnent of China's Waterways," G, Vol. 46, 1961, pp. 165-167. (1,8c). 230. Dycknan, John, "Transportation in Cities," SCIENTIFIC Al^ERICAN, Vol. 213, September 1965, pp. 162-174. (1,4). 231. Eckert, Edv/ard D. "A Concept for Interstate System Rest Areas," HRR, No. 23, 1963, pp. 42-46. (7a). Criteria for the selection of rest area sites is discussed. 232. Edens, H, J. "Origin and Destination Surveys by Telephone," TE, Vol. 33, April 1963. (9). 47, CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 233. Edie, L. C, R. S. Foote, Robert Herraan, and Richard Rothery. "Analysis of Single-Lane Traffic Flow," TE, Vol. 33, January 1963, pp. 21-27. (2b). Quantitative treatnent of data fron Holland Tunnel, 234. Elliott, Tinothy S. "Developnent of Third Level Air Trans- portation," JOURNAL OF AIR LAW AND COMMERCE, Vol. 29, Sumer 1963, pp. 182-204. (8d). Investigates the problens and prospects associated v/ith the use of light aircraft in scheduled air service to snail cities. 235. Ellis, Jack B. and Carlton S. Van Doren. "A Coaparative Evaluation of Gravity and Systen Theory Models for Statewide Recreational Traffic Flow," JRS, Vol. 6, Winter 1966, pp. 57-69. (2b, 6b). The systems theory is considered to have generated nore insights, although the gravity model nay be suited for snail sinple systens. 236. Ellis, Raynond H. "Toward Measurenent of the Connunity Consequences of Urban Freeways," HRR, No. 229, 1968, pp. 38-52. (4,7a). A strategy for measuring the ties between the household site and non-household sites is described, 237. Emmons, D. "Suggestions on the Developnent of Metropolitan Rapid Transit," HSGTJ, Vol. 1, September 1967, pp. 307- 315. (4). Guidelines for the successful initiation and completion of rapid transit systens are established. 238. Fagin, Henry. "'Comprehensive Metropolitan Passenger Planning,' HRBB 293, 1961, pp. 32-36. (1,4). The fundamental philosophy and concepts of comprehensive metropolitan transportation planning as represented by the Penn Jersey Transportation Study are discussed. 239. Fagin, Henry. "The Penn Jersey Transportation Study: The Launching of a Permanent Regional Planning Process," JOURNAL OF ^'illERICAN INSTITUTE OF PLANNERS, Vol. 29, February 1963, pp. 9-18. (4). Discusses the policy issues, administrative problens, and research design associated with the Penn Jersey Transportation Study. 48. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 240. Falk, Edward L. "Measurenent of Connunity Values: The Spokane Experiment," HRR, No. 229, 1968, pp. 53-64. (4,7a). Presentation of a nethod of neasuring connunity attitudes towards planning proposals, 241. Falternayer, Edmund K. "The Rail Route to a More Mobile Acerica," FORTUNE, Vol. 74, July 1966, pp. 106-109. (8a). 242. Farcer, Richard N. "Municipal Ownership of Transit Facilities in Snaller Cities,'' TQ, Vol. 17, January 1963, pp. 57-67. (4). Suggests that the present transit financial problen is one of denand and cities find thenselves operating transit systens by default of private enterprise. 243. Farcer, Richard N. "The Economics of Congestions," TJ, Vol. 4, Fall 1964, pp. 28-34. (4). Costs, problens, and econonic solutions to urban traffic congestion. 244. Farcer, Richard N. "Motor Trucking in California," TJ, Vol. 4, Surcer 1965, pp. 33-40. (8b). "California state law has influenced narket structure and economic results." 245. Farris, Martin T. "Rail Mergers: New Interest in an Old Approach," TJ, Vol. 1, Sunner 1962, pp. 30-37. (8a). Overviev; of subject. 246. Farris, Martin T. "Transport Regulation and Econonic Efficiency," AER, Vol. 59, May 1969, pp. 244-250. (7b). Regulatory policies reduce the efficiency of the transportation industry and perpetuates the industry's oligopolistic characteristics. Economists should investigate regulation policy using oligopoly theory. 247. Fearon, Peter. "The Formative Years of the British Aircraft Industry," BUSINESS HISTORY REVIEW, Vol. 43, Winter 1969, pp. <■': 76-495. (3,8d). The early growth of the industry depended upon military orders. 248. Fellman, Jerome D. "Emergent Urban Problems of Intercity Motor Transportation," LE, Vol. 27, 1951, pp. 91-101. (4,8b). 49. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 249. Ferguson, George A. "Developnent or Transportation Systen Alternatives," HRR, No. 148, 1966, pp. 1-8. (1). Aspects of traffic engineering and resource allocation are discussed with reference to a total franework of transportation planning. 250. Field, Earle. "Sone Aspects of Traveling in Stuart England," TQ, Vol. 18, July 1964, pp. 406-420. (3). 251. Fisher, Ronald J. and Arthur B, Sosslau. "Census Data as a Source for Urban Transportation Planning," HRR, No. 141, 1966, pp. 47-72. (4,9). 252. Flaherty, Mark C. "Conmercial Highway Service Districts and the Interstate: Their Proper Relationship in an Urban Setting," HRR, No. 96, 1965, pp. 8-18. (2a, 4, 7a). A nethod for deternining the amount of land that should be aade available for highway oriented uses. Differences are noted in land development when planning principles are followed and when they are ignored. 253. Flatt, Allan C. "Effect of Piggyback Operation on Volune of Highway Truck Traffic," HRR, No. 153, 1967, ?p. 43-53. (6b, 8a, 8b). 254. Fleet, Christopher R. and Sydney R. Robertson. "Trip Generation in the Transportation Planning Process," HRR, No. 240, 1968, pp. 11-31. (2b, 4, 9). Standard trip generation estimating procedures are evaluated, and it is suggested that well-designed scall sauple cross-sections and on-site surveys nay permit periodic re -evaluations of estimating procedures. 255. Fleischer, Gerald A. "Effect of Highway Improvements on Travel Time of Commercial Vehicles: A Twenty -Five -Year Case Study," HRR, No. 12, 1963, pp. 19-47. (8b). 256. Fleishes, Aaron, "On Prediction and Urban Traffic," PRSA, Vol. 7, 1961, pp. 43-50. (2b,4,6c). The author of this paper treats the proposition, "if the volune of traffic between tv;o points in a metro- polis v;ere predictable, then urban congestion could be relieved and resolved." 50% CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 257. Flening, Doujlas K. "The Independent Transport Carrier in Ocean Tranp Trades," EG, Vol. 44, January 1968, pp. 21- 36. (6a, 7c, 8c). The contenporary independent ocean carrier operations in world tranp trades and the interplay of econonics and geography characterizing these operations. 258. Fletcher, Daniel 0. "Decline of the Great Lakes Package- Freight Carrier," BUSINESS HISTORY REVIEW, Vol. 36, Winter 1962, pp. 387-407. (8c). The disappearance of the package -freight carrier is considered a consequence of several econonic factors which caused large-scale changes in Great Lakes shipping, 259. Fockena, Andreae F. J. "The Canal Connunlcations of Central Holland," JTH, Vol. 4, May 1960, pp. 174-179. (3, 6b, 8c). Describes the conflict of interest between requirements of effective flood defense and of waterborne traffic and states that vested interests at the tine of the ^ ,, Netherlands unification pernitted only partial inprove- nents to the canal systen. 260. Forbes, T. W. "Hunan Factor Considerations in Traffic Flow Theory," HRR, No. 15, 1963, pp. 60-66. (2b). The expectation of congestion, poor visibility, and the psychological squeezing of lane width caused by an adjacent v/all influence an individual's behavior in traffic. The effect of these factors on traffic flow is expressed uathenatically. 261. Forward, C. N. "Recent Changes in the Fom and Function of the Port of St. John's Newfoundland," CG, Vol. 11, No. 2, 1967, pp. 101-116. (7c). Traces the changes in the port's water front land use, coonodity trade, and vessel traffic in the context of econonic developnent. 262. Foster, R. T. "Pipeline Developnent in the United Kingdom," G, Vol. 54, April 1969, pp. 204-211. (5,8e). Maps and review. 263. Franklin, Willian D. "The Highway 'Interchange Couplex' and Econonic Developnent," TQ, Vol. 24, January 1970, pp. 77-91. (7a, 7b). 264. Frederick, Joseph C. "Aesthetic Considerations in Urban Arterial Route Planning," HRR, No. 23, 1963, pp. 22-38. (4,5b). 51. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324 -#32 5 265. French, Alexander. "Highway Ton-Miles," HRR, No. 82, 1965, pp. 77-93. (6b, 8b). The procedures for estinating highway ton-niles, probler.is in such analysis, and a couparison of highway ton-niles V7ith sinilar values for other rnodes of transportation. 266. Frey, J. C, H. K. Dansereau, R. D. Pashek, and «. Twark. "Land-Use Planning and the Interchange Connunity," HRBB 327, 1962, pp. 56-66. (4). 267. Fulton, Maurice and L. C, Hoch. "Transportation Factors Affecting Locational Decisions," EG, Vol. 35, January 1959, pp. 51-59. (2a, 7). A general discussion of the role of transportation as a locational determinant. Freight rates and the quality of transport service are considered interdependent variables within the entire frauework of production and riarketing objectives. 268. Gakenheiner, Ralph A. "Planning, Transportation, and the Snail City," TQ, Vol. 18, April 1964, pp. 282-295. (4). Treatnent of aspects unique to the snail city. 269. Gakenheiner, Ralph A. "High Speed Transit in Urban Areas,'' HSGTJ, Vol. 1, January 1967, pp. 22-31. (4). General discussion of the inpact of high speed transit in urban areas, emphasizing the technological demands of such systems and the requirements they will exert on the management of urban centers. 270. Gakenheiner, Ralph A. "Social Factors in Planning Urban Transportation," HSGTJ, Vol. 2, September 1968, pp. 400-400. (4). Considers transport problems associated with low- incone families. 271. Ganz, Alexander, "Emerging Patterns of Urban Growth and Travel," HRR, No. 229, 1968, pp. 21-37. (4, 6c, 7a). The trend towards dispersal of travel away from the central city is discussed with reference to land use, travel patterns, and mode of travel, 272. Garrison, Willian L. and Duane F. Marble. "Analysis of Highway Networks: A Linear Programming Formulation," HIGHIJAY r^SEARCH BOARD PROCEEDINGS, No. 37, 1958, pp. 1-14. (2a, 5, 8b). 52. CPL Exchcnge Bibliography #324-#325 273. Garrison, Uillian L. and Marion E. Marts. GEOGRi'^PHIC m- P/.CT OF HIGH17AY IMPROVEMENT. Seattle, Washington: University of Washington, 1958. (2,7a). This study is an attenpt to neasure the effects of the re-alignnent and iriprovenent of U. S. Highway 99 in the vicinity of Marysville, Washington. It is intended to conpleuent the majority of highway "inpact" studies by presenting results in great detail for a single case. Wiereas the najority of stuiies have dealt with a relatively few selected inaicators, this study nakes use of nany different indicators of effects and presents hundreds of separate corabinations and conparisons of data. 2 74. Garrison, Willian L. "Spatial Structure of the Econony: 1," ;u\AG, Vol. 49, June 1959, pp. 232-239. (1,2a). Review of six books which examine the spatial pattern of econonic activity. Econouiic insights are used to construct patterns v/hich in turn nay be interpreted by geographic insights, 275. Garrison, Willian L. "Spatial Structure of the Econony: II," ;^iG, Vol. 49, Decenber 1959, pp. 471-482. (1,2a). Exanines the uses of linear progranning, sunnarizing the structure and acconplishcents of five nodels. 2 76. Garrison, Willian L. STUDIES OF HIGffl^?AY DEVELOPMENT xU^D GEOGR/iPHIC CHi^KGE. Seattle, VJashington: University of Washington Press, 1959. (2,7a). ^ This volune presents findings of investigations of the spatial pattern of shopping centers in their relation to highway inprovenents , relationships between highway travel and residential and comercial site selection, and the utilization of highvjay transportation in re- lation to the arrangenent of custoner tributary areas and supplying centers at local, regional and national levels. 277. Garrison, Willian L. "Connectivity of the Interstate Highway Systen," PRSA, Vol. 6, 1960, pp. 121-137. (2, 5a,Ca,Gb) . An introduction to the analysis of the transportation netv7orks and sone descriptive approaches via graph theory. A conparativc analysis between the railway and interstate highway networks reveals that despite the sprawling character of the Interstate Systen, certain places on the network are enphasized nore than central places on the railroad network. 53. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 278. Garrison, Willian L. "Supply and Denand for Land at Highway Interchange," HRBB 288, 1961, pp. ^1-66. (7a). Problens of estimating long tern land use patterns arise fron increased denand for traffic intensive land uses and lack of pertinent price infornation. Tenporal and regional inter-relationships affecting land usages are not adequately understood, 279. Garrison, Williara L. "Intra- and Interurban Transportation Networks," in F. Pitts, editor. URBAN SYSTEMS AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT. Eugene, Oregon: University of Oregon, School of Business Adainistration, 1962, pp. 28-38. (2a, 5, 7b). Focuses on the relationship between spatial features of economic development and transportation networks and points up "the need for criteria to guide decisions about transportation networks," 280. Garrison, Willian L. and Duane F, Marble. "Factor-Analytic Study of the Connectivity of a Transportation Network," PRSA, Vol. 12, 1964, pp. 231-238. (2,5a). In this research on the structure of a transportation network, the connection matrix of the Venezuelan air transport system is subjected to factor analysis. The authors conclude that structure of transportation net- works nay be explained largely on the basis of neighbor- hood and regionalization effects. 281. Garrison, Willian L. and Duane F. Marble. "Urban Trans- portation Planning Models in 1975," JOURNAL OF *\MERICAN INSTITUTE OF PLANNERS, Vol. 31, 1965, pp. 156-158. (1,4). 282. Garrison, Willian L. A PROLEGOMENON TO THE FORECASTING OF TRANSPORTATION DEVELOPMENT. Evanston, Illinois: The Transportation Center, Northwestern University, 1965. (2a, 5). 283. Garrison, Willian L. "Urban Transportation Studies," in PAPERS ON REGION*\L STATISTIC/iL STUDIES, Sylvia Ostry and T, K. Rynes, editors. Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Press, 1966, pp. 1-13. (1,4). Review, comments, and suggested future research directions, emphasizing a system approach. 54, CPL Exchange Bibliography #324 -#32 5 284. Gauthier, Hov/ard L. "Transportation and the Growth of the Sao Paulo Econony," JRS, Vol. 8, Sunner 1968, pp. 77-94. (2a, 5a, 7b). Valued graph-theoretic measures and canonical analysis are used to exanine the relationship between the developnent of a transportation systen and the spatial pattern of urban econonic growth. 285. Gauthier, Hov/ard L. "Geography, Transportation, and Regional Developrent," EG, Vol. 46, October 1970, pp. 612-619. (2a, 7b). A review of ways of viewing transportation in the developcent process, arguing for the necessity of considering transportation as a spatial systen in regional developnent and suggesting some problems that arise in attempting to relate the spatial impact of transportation to goals of regional intergration. 286. George, Stephen, Jr. "Transportation Systen Developnent and Evaluation as Practiced in Seattle," HRR, No. 238, 1968, pp. 116-120. (4). 287. Gern, R. C. and H. R. Joyner. "Crossroute Access Design in Interchange Areas," HRR, No. 59, 1964, pp. 1-8. (2a, 5a). Equations which aid in deterraining proper spacing between interchange ramp terminals and crossroute access points are developed for avoiding congestion. 288. Getis, Arthur. "Residential Location and the Journey from IJork," PROCEEDINGS, A. A. G., Vol. 1, 1969, pp. 55-59. (2a, 4, 6c). This paper questions the concept that the CBD is the control point of the city and instead views the city as having several work foci. A probability model is used to describe frequency of work trips by distance from work places. 289. Gilpin, Margaret C. "Mj^re and RoLisdal, Norway: A Study in the Rural Transport Systen of a Coastal Area," G, Vol. 53, April 1968, pp. 145-162. (1). 290. Ginsburg, Norton. "China's Railway Network," GR, Vol. 41, July 1951, pp. 470-474. (5,8a). 55. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 291. Glejser, H. and A. Dranais. "A Gravity Model of Inter- dependent Equations to Estiaate Flow Creation and Diversion,'' JRS, Vol. 9, December 1969, pp. 439-450. (2b, 4, 6c). Negative and positive interdependence are accounted for in the gravity nodel franework. The results of testing indicate sociological barriers to be an inportant obstacle to population flows. 292. Goldin, Kenneth D. "Three Aspects of Highway Efficiency: Amount, Quality, and Price," JTEP, Vol. 2, September 1968, pp. 349-366. (2a, 5a). "A study of efficient pricing of an efficient highway capacity, taking into consideration peaked and stochastic demand and users' diversity of preferences for quality." 293. Goldman, Thomas. "Efficient Transportation and Industrial Location," PRSA, Vol. 4, 1958, pp. 91-106. (7). 294. Goldstein, Sidney. "Nonuser Benefits from Highways," HRR, No. 20, 1963, pp. 162-181. (7a). An economy wide discussion of the concept of non-user benefits. The results of numerous impact studies are synthesized and efforts to quantify non-user benefits are delineated. 295. Goldstein, Sidney and Kurt Kayer. "Migration and the Journey to Work," SOCIAL FORCES, Vol. 42, May 1964, pp. 472-481. (4,6). 296. Golledge, R. G. "Some Notes on the Effect of Road Competition on the Transportation of Certain Coi-xiodities in Northern New South Wales," AUSTRALUvN GEOGRAPHER, Vol. 8, 1961, pp. 116-118. (8). A comparison of railroad "bulk loading" rates with shipment rates for roads. Discusses the means by which railroads maintain their competitive position despite rate differences with roads. 297. Golledge, R. G. "A Geographical Analysis of Newcastle's Rail Freight Traffic," EG, Vol. 39, January 1963, pp. 60-73. (4, 6b, 8a). An analysis of Newcastle's development as a leading freight terminal, the direction and force of inter- action, originating and terminating traffic, and rail traffic regions in northern New South Wales. 56. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#32 5 298. Goodwin, ^^llan. "Attitudes and Shopper Mobility in a Snail City," HRR, No. 233, 1968, pp. 16-26. (4,6c). Like shopper attitudes in large cities, shoppers in sraaller cities also considered parking as the nost iaportant disadvantage to a CBD shopping trip. Snail city CBD shoppers tended to be in low or high incone groups and older than suburban shoppers. 299. Goodwin, Crawford D. "Econoaists and Railways in Colonial Australia," JTH, Vol. 6, Noveaber 1963, pp. 65-86. (3, 6b, 7b, 8a). Presentation of reactions of writers on railways in colonial Australia. 300. Gorizontov, B. B. and S. S. Tsenin. "Problems in the Geography of Economic-Transport Links of the World Socialist System," SORT, Vol. 6, January 1965, pp. 25-28. (8a). Outlines some of the major needs of future transport in the Socialist world and suggests steps for strengthening the rail sector of the transport system. 301. Goss, R. 0, "Towards an Economic Appraisal of Port Invest- ments," JTEP, Vol. 1, September 1967, pp. 249-272. (7c). Problems of port investment techniques, pricing systems, and cost-benefit analysis. 302. Gottfeld, Gunther M. "Rapid Transit Expansion in Stockholm, Sweden," TQ, Vol. 18, October 1964, pp. 576-588. (4,5c, 8f). 303. Gould, Peter R. and Robert H. T. Smith. "Method in Commodity Flow Studies," AUSTRALIAN GEOGR^iFHER, Vol. 8, 1961, pp. 73-77. (1,2a, 6). Describes a technique for mapping deviations from a least-squares regression line to identify pertinent questions for subsequent field work. 304. Gould, Peter R. and Robert H. T. Smith. "Transportation in Africa," GR, Vol. 53, October 1963, pp. 599-600. (1). 305. Graham, E. F. "application of Large Network Traffic Assign- ments to Small Area Route Location Studies," HRR, No. 114, 1966, pp. 8-19. (2a, 4, 5b). By reducing the size of the area used for the distribution of trips, assignment of traffic to alternate routes is accomplished and the location of individual segments of a total freeway system is possible. 57, CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 306. Grecco, W. L. and S. M. Breuning. "Application of Systems Engineering Methods to Traffic Forecasting," HRRB 347, 1962, pp. 10-23. (2b, 4, 6c). The principals of linear graph theory and the requirements for using these methods are discussed. The techniques of systems engineering are compared with the gravity model and the electrostatic model to estimate work trips in a hypothetical community. 307. Grecco, W, L. and S. M. Breuning. "A Systems Engineering Model for Trip Generation and Distribution," HRR, No. 38, 1963, pp. 124-146. (2b, 4, 6c). Linear graph theory can be used to find a systems solution for trip distribution problems. The components of a systems engineering approach are emphasized. The stuJy indicates system engineering models encourage a more precise definition of parameters and their interaction. 308. Green, F. H. W, "Bus Service in the British Isles," GR, Vol. 41, October 1951, pp. 645-655. (8b). 309. Green, F. H. W. "Coramunity of Interest Areas in Western Europe — Some Geographical Aspects of Local Passenger Traffic," EG, Vol. 29, October 1953, pp. 283-298. (4,8). A discussion of the hinterland relationships of urban places in Western Europe; bus service is used to delimit hinterlands. 310. Green, Mark K. "Multiple Screenline Study to Determine Statewide Traffic Patterns," HRBB 253, 1960, pp. 139- 144. (9). A report on the methodology of screenline surveys. 311. Griffiths, I. L. "The Daily Movement to Work of Anthracite Miners in South Wales," TESG, Vol. 53, August-September 1962, pp. 184-189. (4,6). 312. Grossman, David A. and Melvin R. Levin. "Area Development and Highway Transportation," HRR, No. 16, 1963, pp. 24- 31. (7a). Examination of the effects of highways on areas of economic distress or redevelopment and the implications of the location and the construction schedules of the Interstate Highway System on several distressed areas of the United States. 58. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 313. Grotewold, Andreas and Lois Grotewold. "Sone Geographic Aspects of International Trade," EG, Vol. 33, July 1957, pp. 257-266. (6a). Presents sor.e basic generalizations about international trade by exanining the size and distribution of trade areas, connodity conposition, and the direction of the trade. 314. Grotewold, ^indreas. "Von Thunen in Retrospect," EG, Vol. 30, October 1959, pp. 346-355. (2a, 7). An explanation and defense of Von Thunen 's theory of the location of agricultural production. The developcent of nodern transportation and the changing tastes of city dwellers are considered as two basic reasons for deviations fron the theoretical land use pattern around American and European cities. 315. Grotewold, Andreas. "Sone Aspects of the Geography of International Trade," EG, Vol. 37, October 1961, pp. 309-319. (6a). 316. Guest, Ross B. "The Growth of Soviet Air Cargo," JG, Vol. 65, October 1966, pp. 323-327. (8d). Air freight, nail, and express traffic has increased ^' ' • rapidly but still accounts for only a snail per cent of the Soviet Union's total freight traffic. 317. Gutterberg, Albert Z. "Urban Structure and Urban Growth," JOURNAL OF AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF PL/iNNERS, Vol. 26, May 1960, pp. 104-110. (7). The elements of structure are identified, the nutual • ' "■' ' influences of urban structure and urban growth are considered, and the dynanic interdependency of various urban structural phenomena are demonstrated by analyzing the effects of a change in transportation efficiency. 318. Guyton, John W. and W. S. Pollard, Jr. "Corridor Analysis of Travel Desires as Utilized in Major Street Planning," HRBB 347, 1962, pp. 222-253. (4). The use of desire charts as an aid in street and highway planning for urban areas. 319. Haas, R. C. G. and J. F. Morrall. "Analysis of Pedestrian Circulation through a Tunnel Network," TQ, Vol. 21, April 1967, pp. 229-235. (2a, 6c). A study of pedestrians within a university to provide future design criteria. 59. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 320. Hadden, Jeffrey K. "The Use of Public Transportation in Milwaukee, Wisconsin," TQ, Vol. 18, April 1964, pp. 219-232. (4,8f). Deternines variables important in predicting use of public transit: age of area of city, density, distance fron CBD, and socioeconoaic status, 321. Raggett, Peter. ^'Networks," LOCATIONAL ANALYSIS IN HUMAN GEOGIUiPHY. New York, New York: St. l-Iartin's Press, 1966, pp. 61-86. (5). This chapter focuses on a discussion of the location of routes, density pattern of route networks, and models of network change. The writing depends heavily upon empirical research of other authors for purposes of illustrations. 322. Raggett, Peter. 'Network Models in Geography,'' in Richard J. Chorley and Peter Raggett, editors, MODELS IN GEOGRAPRY. London, England: Methuen and Company, Ch. 15, 1967, pp. 609-668. (5). Treatment of a linear feature, such as rivers, railways, and polygons from a geometrical viewpoint. Models of increasing complexity are described, from the single path to the cellular network. 323. Raggett, Peter. "An Extension of the Horton Combinatorial Model in Regional Righway Networks," JRS, Vol. 7, Winter 1967, (supplem.ent) , pp. 281-290. (5a). The combinatorial ordering system is extended to highway networks and may be integrated within more general statements of central place systems. Branching ratios may be of value in designing networks to meet loadings at peak-hours. 324. Raggett, Peter and Richard J. Chorley. NETWORK ANALYSIS IN GEOGRAPRY. New York, New York: St. Martin's Press, 1969. (5). Part I, "Spatial Structures," discusses ways of describing networks in both topologic and geometric terms and introduces the role of graph theory in geo- graphic analysis; Part II, "Evaluation of Structures," sets the spatial structure of networks against their prim.al and dual roles--as conductors of, and barriers to, flows. Part III, "Structural Change," traces the patterns of network evolution and attempts to build projective growth models through simulation and related techniques. 60. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 325. Haight, Frank A. "The Future of Traffic Flow Theory," TQ, Vol. 17, Novenber 1963, pp. 516-527. (2b, 6). Since traffic flow theory is inconplete, it should be expanded with probability and statistical nodels tying in with traffic engineering and applied nathenatics, 326. Haikalis, George and Hyman Joseph, "Econoaic Evaluation of Traffic Networks," HRBB 306, 1961, pp. 39-63. (5b). Four alternate traffic systens are conpared to select the least cost plan. Total travel costs for users and total capital requirenents are two criteria used for conparisons. 327. Haley, Charles E., Edward M. Hall, and Arnold A. Johnson. "Travel Tine — A Measure of Service and a Criterion for Inprovenent Priorities," HRR, No. 35, 1963, pp. 1-17. (4,5). Presentation of a priority formula to aid in deteroining najor street construction priorities in urban areas. Travel tine is used as a neasure of the level of traffic service and as the basic criterion for the priority fomula. 328. Hall, Peter. "Transportation," US, Vol. 6, Novenber 1969, pp. 408-435. (1,4,7a). A general discussion of the influence of intra- and interurban transportation on urban forn. 329. Hanburg, John R., Charles R. Guinn, George T. Lathrop and George C. Hennens. "Linear Progranning Test of Journey- to-Work Miniuization," HRR, No. 102, 1965, pp. 67-75. (2b,4,6c). The degree of influence of the journey-to-work trip on residential location is analyzed. It is concluded that people are not indifferent to tine of travel, but do not locate to nininize travel tine. Higher tine indifference rates were associated with upper socioeconomic groups. 330. Hamilton, Calvin S. "The Development of a Land-Use Data Bank for Transportation Planning," HRR, No. 64, 1964, pp. 84-99. (4,9). Different levels of data collection necessary for trans- portation planning are discussed with reference to the Pittsburgh Area Transportation Survey. Types of land use at the city-block level are presented and their role in simulation studies is presented. 61. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 331. Hamilton, C. W. "Mathematical Research in Traffic Flow," HSGTJ, Vol. 1, September 1967, pp. 339-346. (2b). Discusses the approaches to the modeling of traffic flow problems, specifically the relation of road traffic, hydrodynamic analogies, and traffic dynamics. 332. Har.7nond, Harold F. "The New Age of Transportation Coordinationj TQ, Vol. 21, October 1967, pp. 501-519. (1). 333. Hampton, P. "Empirical Evidence on the Determinants of Interregional Trade Flows," ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND CULTURAL CHANGE, Vol. 18, October 1969, pp. 34-39. (6b). Regression analysis of couimodity flows in New Zealand's manufacturing industries. 334. Hance, William A. "Transportation in Madagascar," GR, Vol. 48, January 1958, pp. 45-68. (1,8). Madagascar's roads, rail, air, and port systems are described and compared with the transport systems of African countries. 335. Hancock, l>Iacklin L, "Transpottation and Organic Urban Design," TQ, Vol. 17, January 1963, pp. 5-23. (4). Develops a hypothesis for urban design to link effective handling of traffic with the design of communities. 336. Hand, Irving and C, Dwight Hixon. "Planning, Traffic and Transportation in Metropolitan Areas," TQ, Vol. 17, April 1963, pp. 254-271. (4). Describes the goals and programs of the Nashville Metropolitan Area Transportation Survey. 337. Haning, Charles R. and C. V. Wootan. "Value of Commercial Motor Vehicle Time Saved," HRR, No. 82, 1965, pp. 54- 76. (8b). The possibilities of determining reliable estimates of the dollar value of time savings occurring from the use of improved highway facilities are examined. Operating costs for commercial trucks are established, and time costs are estimated for each commercial truck category. 338. Hansen, Walter G. "How Accessibility Shapes Land Use," JOURN/i OF /VMERICAN INSTITUTE OF PLANNERS, Vol. 25, May 1959, pp. 73-76. (2a, 4, 7). 62. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 339. Hansen, Walter G. "Land Use Forecasting for Transportation Planning," HRBB 253, 1960, pp. 145-151. (2a). Discussion of a land use forecasting procedure, a review of the over-all transportation planning process, and a presentation of a land use model based on accessibility and vacant developable land. 340. Hansen, Walter G. "Evaluation of Gravity Model Trip Dis- tribution Procedures," HRBB 347, 1962, pp. 67-76. (2b,4,6c). The gravity nodel is tested and fit to Washington, D.C., 0-D survey data, and it is shown that the basic gravity nodel fomulatibn can serve as a franework for fore- casting urban traffic flows. 341. Hanson, Perry. "Movement Fields: A Viable Surrogate for Connunication Fields," RESEARCH REPORT No. 59, Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University, Department of Geography, 1970. (2,6), The paper presents an empirical exploration of the relationship between individual travel patterns and individual conraunication patterns using a sample, rural Korean population. The relationship between a household's daily, recurrent travel patterns and its information field is evident since the former is defined as the spatial point set where face-to-face inter- personal contacts can occur, and the latter actually ''^' defines the subset of locations where contacts occur. 342. Hanson, Philip. "Soviet Inland Waterways," JTH, Vol. 6, May 1963, pp. 3-13. (3,8c). A note on the past and present role of Soviet inland water transport. 343. Harbeson-, Robert W. "Diversification and Transport Invest- ment," LE, Vol. 46, February 1970, pp. 12-21. (8a). Discusses the diversification of railroad corporations ' ' ■ and the organization of holding companies by railroads. 344. Harmelink, M. D, , G. C. Harper, and H. M. Edwards. "Trip Production and Attraction Characteristics in Small Cities," HRR, No. 205, 1967, pp. 1-19. (2b,4,6c). • ■ The study indicates the most reliable prediction of trip production to be car ownership. The accuracy of trip estimation decreased with increased segregation of trip purpose. Trip attraction is related to land use characteristics of each zone. 63, CPL Exchange Bibliography #324 -#32 5 345. Harper, B. C, S. and H. M. Edwards. "Generation of Person Trips by Areas within the Central Business District," HRBB 253, 1960, pp. 44-61. (2a, 4, 6c). Regression analysis indicates a positive relationship between floor space in use and travel to zones within the CBD. 346. Harr, Charles M. "Transportation and Econoaic Opportunity," TQ, Vol. 21, October 1967, pp. 521-526. (1,4,7b). A brief statecent within the urban context. 347. Harris, Britton. "Experiments in Projection of Transportation and Land Use," TQ, Vol. 16, April 1962, pp. 305-319. (2,4). The article describes briefly sone of the nore experimental techniques for analyzing problems of the Philadelphia-Camden-Trenton metropolitan region. 348. Hart, Alan S. "Evolution of the Sacramento Freeway System," TQ, Vol. 17, November 1963, pp. 557-572. (5,8b). Discusses the decision-naking process in determining which would be the best master plan for a freeway system. 349. Hart, Harold W. "The Sedan Chair as a Means of Public Conveyance," JTH, Vol. 5, November 1962, pp. 205-218. (1,3). 350. Harvey, Thomas N. "A Method of Network Evaluation Using the Output of the Traffic Assignment Process," HRR, No. 238, 1968, pp. 46-63. (2a, 4, 5c). Consumer surplus is used as a measure of benefit for comparing benefits and losses from a particular network change. Fixed travel demand need not be assumed and only interzonal volumes and interzonal separations for the networks investigated are required. 351. Hawrey, Philip E. "On the Choice of Forecasting Models for Air Travel," JRS, Vol. 9, August 1969, pp. 215-224. (2b,6b,8d). The gravity model and abstract mode model are compared. The export predictions of the gravity model are considered superior to the abstract mode model. ett. CPL Exchanse Bibliography #324 -#32 5 352. Hay, George A., Edward K. Morlok, and Abraham Charnes. "Toward Optinal Planning of a Two-Mode Urban Transportation System: A Linear Progranning Fomulation," HRR, No. 148, 1966, pp. 20-48. (2a,4,8f). Linear programing is used to establish optinun trans- portation service for autonobile transport facilities and nass transit facilities in a radial, downtown oriented corridor. The objective is to find what combination minimizes capital and operating costs of transit and auto transport during the design year, 353. Haynes, John J. "Some Considerations of Vehicular Density on Urban Freeways," HRR, No. 99, 1965, pp. 59-80. (2b, 4, 6c). In uncongested conditions frequency distributions of densities are closely approximated by the Poisson distribution. 354. Healy, Kent T. "The Merger Movement in Transportation," AER, Vol. 52, May 1962, pp. 436-444. (8a). An evaluation of mergers, questioning the benefits of expected elimination of parallel routes and terminal facilities, 355. Heanue, Kevin E., Lamelle B. Hamner, and Rose M. Hall. "Adequacy of Clustered Hone Interview Sampling for Calibrating a Gravity Model Trip Distribution Formula," HRR, No. 88, 1965, pp. 116-136. (2b, 4, 6c, 9). ' ' Gravity model trip distributions over larger trip volumes are not significantly different from 0-D survey data. While clustered sampling provides stable trip volumes, it does not provide for adequate data for ~ calibration as the sample is biased by the location of sampling zones. 356. Heanue, Kevin E. and Clyde E. Pyers. "A Comparative Evaluation of Trip Distribution Procedures," HRR, No. 114, 1966, pp. 20-50. (2b, 4, 6c). The Fratar, gravity, intervening opportunities, and competing opportunities models are comparatively evaluated. The Frater model is accurate for areas of stabilized land-use patterns, and the unadjusted intervening opportunities model more accurately simulates travel patterns than an unadjusted gravity model. 65. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 357. Heier, John J. and David M. Glancy, "Modern Expressways and Public Transportation," TQ, Vol. 17, January 1963, pp. 124-132. (4). Presents the "balanced systen" which is the efficient novenent of people and goods between desired points; also the writer approaches the suitability of various forms of public transportation to assist in providing adequate circulation. 358. Heitneyer, Roderick. "Some Available Traffic Forecasts and the Potential Demand for Coanercial Supersonic Air- craft," JOURNAL OF AIR LAW AND COMMERCE, Vol. 28, Spring 1961-62, pp. 153-171. (8d). 359. Helin, Ronald A. "Finland Regains an Outlet to the Sea," GR, Vol. 5G, April 1968, pp. 167-194. (3,8c). A description of the genesis and the functions of the Sainaa Canal. 360. Henderson, Arthur. "European and North American Traffic, Engineering and Design,'' TQ, Vol. 16, November 1962, pp. 510-520. (1,6). A simple comparison of driving and traffic characteristics. 361. Hendrix, Frank L. "Federal Transportation Statistics: An Analysis," TJ, Vol. 5, Fall 1965, pp. 5-15. (9). 362. Herbert, Budd and Richard Runyan. "The 1963 Census of Transportation: Review and Prospects," PG, Vol. 19, September 1967, pp. 268-271. (9). Due to a lack of utilization of the 1963 Census of Transportation, this paper is written with the purpose of bridging the communications gap between potential users and the publishers of the data. The major part of the paper focuses on each of the surveys conducted by the Bureau of the Census, highlighting a few generalizations. A second section suggests areas of use and also offers criticisms for improvement of any future census of transportation. 363. Herr, Phillip B. "The Timing of Highway Impact," TQ, Vol. 16, April 1962, pp. 279-288. (7a). Impact usually began before the facility was in service, surged to a peak shortly after its opening, then fell to a lower level in the next few years. 66. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 364. Herrin3, Frank W, "Metropolitan Growth and Metropolitan Travel Patterns," HRBB 293, 1961, pp. 9-20. (4,6c). A description of netropolitan growth in the New York metropolitan region focusing on changing patterns of travel behavior in response to metropolitan growth. 365. Heynann, Hans, Jr. "Air Transport and Econonic Developnent: Some Connents on Foreign Aid Prograos," AER, Vol. 52, May 1962, pp. 386-395. (7,8d). General discussion of the importance of air transport to underdeveloped countries. 366. Hickey, Joseph E., Jr. "A Scenic Approach to Scenic Road- building," TQ, Vol. 19, November 1965, pp. 578-593. (5b). The role of aesthetics in route selection, 367. Hill, Donald M, and Norman Dodd. "Travel Mode Split in Assignment Programs," HRBB 347, 1962, pp. 290-301. (2b, 4,6c). A mathematical model used for trip prediction in Toronto, Canada, 'Ha.v;.:;!- 368. Hill, Donald M. and H, G. Von Cube. "Development of a Model for Forecasting Travel Mode Choice in Urban Areas," HRR, No. 38, 1963, pp. 78-96. (2b, 4, 6c). • -' ' Travel mode choice behavior for trips to work is ■-' '• ■■' related to travel time, travel cost, the status of trip makers, and the level of convenience associated with each node. 369. Hill, Donald M. and Norman Dodd. "Studies of Trends of Travel between 1954 and 1964 in a Large Metropolitan Area," HRR, No. 141, 1966, pp. 1-23. (2a, 4, 6c). ' - A comparative analysis indicates to what extent the travel characteristics used in a traffic predicticn model have changed. The motive, time, duration, and method of travel are discussed. It is concluded that there is an overall stability between person trips and the reasons for travel, that trip length is not signifi- cantly different, and that public transport preferences are similar. 67. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 370. Hille, Stanley J. and Theodore K. Martin, "Consuner Preference in Transportation," HRR, No. 197, 1967, pp. 36-43. (2a,4,6c). The consuner 's concept of the ideal transportation system is identified using factor analysis. While there is sone variation by trip purpose, cost and tine factors are not considered as important as reliability of destination achievement. 371. Hilling, David. "Tena: The Geography of a New Port," G, Vol. 51, 1966, pp. 111-125. (7c). A description of Teoa's site, construction, trade structure, hinterland, industries, and significance to West Africa. 372. Hilton, George W. "Decline of Railroad Commutation," BUSINESS HISTORY REVIEW, Vol. 36, Summer 1962, pp. 171-187. (4,8a). An examination of the economic factors responsible for the decline in railroad commuter traffic and of recent policy issues which indicate further decline and possible extinction of commuter traffic. 373. Hilton, George W. "Rail Transit and the Pattern of Modern Cities: The California Case," TQ, Vol. 21, July 1967, pp. 379-393. (4, 6c, 7, 8a). A study of the relations "between the geographical pattern, the technology of urban transportation, and the other forces at work on the form of American cities," with emphasis on San Francisco and Los Angeles, 374. Hixon, Dwight C, "An Analysis of Urban Travel Times and Traffic Volume Characteristics," HRBB 303, 1961, pp. 103-116. (2a, 4, 6c). Travel time is used as a basis for comparing the level of traffic service on arterial routes in the Nashville, Tennessee, metropolitan area. 375. Hoch, Irving. ''Benefit-Cost Methods for Evaluating Express- way Construction," TQ, Vol. 15, April 1961, pp. 208- 225. (7,8b). "Outlines sone general procedures for calculating benefits and costs of expressways construction." 376. Hoel, Lester A. "Truck Travel in the Los Angeles Metro- politan Area," TQ, Vol. 18, October 1964, pp. 535-553. (4, 6c, 8b). Presents 0-D data on commodity movement. 68. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 377. Hoel, Lester A. "Considerations Affecting the Choice of Urban Transportation Systens," TE, Vol, 37, May 1967, pp. 36-40. (1,4). rt general discussion, calling for nore research as an aid for planning. 378. Hoel, Lester A. "Pedestrian Travel Rates in Central Business Districts," TE, Vol. 38, January 1968, pp. 10- 13. (4,6c). Factors affecting pedestrian travel include tine of day, external influences, temperature, sex, trip purpose, and socioeconomic status. 379. Hoffnan, George A, "Minimizing Land Used by Automobiles and Buses in Urban Central Core: Underground Highways and Parking Facilities," HRR, No. 102, 1965, pp. 98-114. (4). A study of design features of tunnel construction costs and the comparison of tunnel costs, compared to the cost of surface routes, indicates that by the turn of the century it nay be cheaper to move and park cars and buses underground in the center of many American cities. 380. Holmes, J. H, "The Suburbanization of Cessnock Coalfield Towns: 1954-1964," AUSTRiiLLiN GEOGRAPHICAL STUDIES, Vol. 3, October 1964, pp. 105-128. (4,6). ' Examines coronunity changes with changes in the coalfield economy. 381. Holmes, Jerold M. "The Pan anerican Highway," JG, Vol. 62, April 1963, pp. 145-151. (1,8b). 382. Holzner, Lutz. "The Rhine -Main-Danube Waterhighway," JG, Vol. 65, September 1966, pp. 270-284. (3,8c). Discusses the history and impact of a canal link joining the Main River and the Danube River, 383. Hooson, David J.M. "The Middle Volga: An Emerging Focal Region in the Soviet Union," GEOGRAPHICAL JOURN/iL, Vol. 126, June 1960, pp. 180-189. (8c). The middle Volga region will continue in industrial growth, as it is near established population centers and has improved transport lines with all parts of the nation. 69. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 384. Hoover, Edgar M, "Motor Metropolis: Some Observations on Urban Transportation in Arierica," JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL ECONOMICS, Vol. 13, June 1965, pp. 177-192. (1,4). The relationship between the use of private autonobiles and the econonic and social problems associated with urban expansicn. 385. Hoover, Robert. "Policy Growth and Transportation Plannins in the Detroit Metropolitan Area," PRSA, Vol. 7, 1961, pp. 223-240. (4). The author presents an historical sketch of the developnent of transportation in the Detroit area and enphasizes, by way of the Detroit example, that planning is a function which proceeds according to certain definite growth stages. 386. Horn, John W. , P. D. Cribbons, J. D. Blackburn, and C. E. Vick, Jr. "Effects of Coijcercial Roadside Development on Traffic Flow in North Carolina," HRBB 303, 1961, pp. 76-93. (2a, 6, 7a). Average car and maximum car methods are used to gather data used to construct models indicating the association between traffic flow characteristics and business types along the route. 387. Horn, John W. "Impact of Industrial Development on Traffic Generation in Rural Areas of North Carolina," HRBB 347, 1962, pp. 133-142. (6). A report of a survey investigating and interpreting the characteristics of traffic generated in open rural areas and traffic generated by manufacturing industries. 388. Horn, R. William. "Air Cargo Ton-Miles— A Statistic of Growing Importance," HRR, No. 82, 1965, pp. 94-99. (8d,9). The growth of cargo traffic is discussed. The CAB and ATA data collection procedures and data categories are evaluated. 389. Horton, Frank E. and Paul W. Shuldiner. "The Analysis of Land -Use Linkages," HRR, No. 165, 1967, pp. 96-107. (2a, 4, 6c). The Markov chain model is used to describe linkages among land use and activities. 70. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 390. Horton, Frank E. "The Utility of Trip Forecasting Models Based on Aggregate Land Use Data," PG, Vol. 19, November 1967, pp. 319-322. (2a, 4). "The problen posed here is the extent to which division or aggregation of land use groups, both areally and by type, affect the accuracy of travel forecasts." 391. Horton, Frank E. GECGR/'vPHIC STUDIES OF URBAN TRANSPORTATION AND NET^;ORK /iNALYSIS. Department of Geography, Studies in Geography No. 16, Evanston, Illinois, Northwestern University Press, 1968. (4,5). Six papers are presented in this volume, four of which are reports of research and explorations into aspects of urban transportation, and the remaining two are con- cerned V7ith applications of graph theory to network analysis. The papers vary widely in viewpoint, but they share a common focus in striving toward the «' development and application of theory in transportation geography. 392. Horton, Frank E. "Location Factors as Determinants of Consumer Attraction to Retail Firms," AAAG, Vol. 58, December 1968, pp. 787-801. (2a, 4). "Spatial variability in consumer attraction to retail firms may be considered a function of the location of individual retail locations," Analysis of Waco, Texas, data indicates "that location of competition and in- vestment factors are extremely im.portant considerations when attempting to explain differences in the number of consumers attracted to retail firms." 393. Horton, Frank E. and Robert I. Wittick. "A Spatial Model for Examining the Journey-to-Work in a Planning Context,' PG, Vol. 21, July 1969, pp. 223-226. (2a, 4, 6c). The dual of the transportation problem is analyzed. It is suggested that the dual is of interest to planners as an indicator of optimal locations for residential and employment growth. 394. Horton, Frank E. and David R. Reynolds. "Effects of Urban Spatial Structure on Individual Behavior," EG, Vol. 47, January 1971, pp. 36-48. (2s, 4). Based on Cedar Rapids, Iowa, data, the authors examine changes in spatial behavior as adjustm,ents to changes in urban spatial structure, rather than as active agents of structural change, and focus on the concepts of objective spatial structure and action and activity space. 71. CPL Exchanse Bibliography #324-#325 395. Horwood, Edgar M, "Freeway Inpact on Municipal Land Planning Effort,'' HRBB 268, 1960, pp. 1-12. (4,7a), A reexaninatiqn of some of the factors which inpose serious limitations upon the integration of city planning and highv/ay development processes. Survey indicates no unifom conceptualization of problens within and anong agencies dealing with integrated planning. 396. Horwood, Edgar M, and Clark D. Rogers. "Electronic Mapping Research and Developnent," HRBB 347, 1962, pp. 147-155. (1,9). A discussion of computer graphics and their applicability to transportation studies, 397. Horwood, Edward M. "Cocmunity Consequences of Highway Inprovenent," HRR, No. 96, 1965, pp. 1-7. (7a). A correlation and evaluation of the economic and connunity inpact of highway bypasses and circunferential freeways indicate snail towns nay suffer fron bypasses, while a larger center nay benefit. Circunferential freeway studies indicate the tendency of industrial and connercial activity to locate along these routes, 398. Houston, Cecil, "Market Potential and Potential Transportation Costs: An Evaluation of the Concepts and Their Surface Patterns in the U.S.S.R.," CG, Vol. 13, Autunn 1969, pp. 210-236, (2a, 6b). Various neasures of nass and distance are used to exanine their role in the macro geographic pattern of narket potential and potential transportation costs, 399. Howe, Robert T, "Can the Urban Transportation Problem be Solved?" TQ, Vol. 14, January 1960, pp. 85-94. (4). Treatment of behavior of gas and human movement, entropy and urban transportation, city planning and electro- statics. Conclusion: ''Fundamentally, the urban trans- portation problem cannot really be solved," 400. Howe, Robert T, "A Theoretical Prediction of Work-Trip Patterns," HRBB 253, 1960, pp. 155-165. (2b, 4, 6c). A model based on principals of electrostatics is used for the prediction of work-trip patterns in metro- politan areas. 72, CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 401. Howe, Robert T. "A Theoretical Prediction of Work-Trips in the Minneapolis -St. Paul nrea," HRBB 347, 1962, pp. 156-181. (2b, 4, 6c). Predictions based on principals of electrostatics indicate potential use for predicting future distribution of work places and residences. 402. Howe, Robert T. "A Critical Analysis of an Origin- Destination Survey," HRR, No, 41, 1963, pp. 79-98. (2b, 4, 6c), A 1957 0-D survey is evaluated using the author's field theory of novenent oodel and the gravity nodel. The predicted patterns of novenent and the pattern indicated by the survey are significantly different. 403. Hoyle, B. S. "Recent Changes in the Pattern of East African Railways," TESG, Vol. 54, Novenber 1963, pp. 237-242. (8a). 404. Hoyle, B, S. "Early Port Developnent in East Africa: An Illustration of the Concept of Changing Port Hierarchies," TESG, Vol. 58, March-April 1967, pp. 94-102. (7c). 405. Hoyle, B, S. "East African Seaports: An Application of the Concept of Vuiyport'," TRANSACTIONS: INSTITUTE OF BRITISH GEOGRAPHERS, No, 44, 1968, pp, 163-183. (2a, 7c). East African ports are conpared to a hypothetical pattern of port developnent. Changing patterns of port facilities are used to indicate stages of port evolution, 406. Hoyt, Honer. "The Effect of the Autonobile on Patterns of Urban Growth," TQ, Vol. 17, April 1963, pp. 293-301. (4). 407. Huff, David L, "A Topographical Model of Consuner Space Preferences," PRSA, Vol. 6, 1960, pp. 159-173, (2b, 6c). The paper points out a nunber of factors which are felt to be inportant in conditioning consuner space preferences, The use of graph theory and natrix algebra nake it possible to deternine how each of these factors affect one another as well as the relative degree of inter- dependence of each element. The nodel presented pernits the fornulation and testing of hypotheses which specify distinctive features of these variables with respect to individual consumers of various types. The prinary feature of this nodel is that it provides a scheme for explaining already observed behavior and is not intended to be a predictive tool. 73. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324 -#32 5 408. Huff, David L. "A Note on the Linitations of Intraurban Gravity Models," LE, Vol. 38, February 1962, pp. 64-66. (2 b). 409. Huff, David L. "A Probabilistic Analysis of Shopping Center Trade Areas," LE, Vol. 39, February 1963, pp. 81-90. (2,6). Presentation of a nodel to deteruine retail trade of a shopping center, 410. Huff, David L. and George F, Jenks. "A Graphic Inter- pretation of the Friction of Distance in Gravity Models,' AAAG, Vol. 58, December 1968, pp. 814-824. (2b). Portrays complex three-dimensional surfaces stenning fron gravity nodel to facilitate understanding of spatial beliavior. 411. Hunphrys, G. "The Journey to Work in Industrial South Wales," TRiiNSACTIONS : INSTITUTE OF BRITISH GEOGRAPHERS, No. 36, 1965, pp. 85-96. (6). Workers tend to travel well beyond their local area to work, allov;ing for greater freedon of choice in industrial location, 412. Hunter, Holland. "The Passenger Car in the U.S.S.R." HRR, No. 115, 1966, pp. 64-70. (1,8b). A general discussion of Russian attempts to avoid auto- oriented transportation problems, as evidenced in the West, by restricting private ownership of vehicles. 413. Hunter, Holland, SOVIET TRANSPORT EXPERIENCE: ITS LESSONS FOR OTHER COUNTRIES. Washington, D.C: Brookings Institution, 1968. (1,8). This book focuses on two aspects of Soviet transport policy: the effort to hold dovm transport investment to make existing investment serve more productively and the conscious decision to minimize road investment relative to investment in rail and water transport. 414. Hurst, Michael E. Eliot. "Land Use and Traffic Generation in Urban Areas, with Particular Reference to Perth," SCOTTISH GECGRAPHICAL MAGAZINE, Vol. 80, 1964, p. 53. (2b,4,6c). Investigates "traffic as a function of land use" in an Australian setting. 74. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 415. Hurst, Hichael E. Eliot. "The Structure of Movenent and Household Travel Behavior," US, Vol. 6, February 1969, pp. 70-82. (2b, 4, 6c). Travel motivation is broken down into goals and occurrences. Life style and positional utility are described. 416. Hurst, Michael E. Eliot. "Land Use/Travel Movenent Relation- ships," TQ, Vol. 23, April 1969, pp. 263-274. (2b, 4, 6c). Multiple regression techniques are used to develop a descriptive nodel of traffic novenent. 417. Hurst, Michael E, Eliot. "Confluence at the Work Site: Sone Applications of Urban Work Journey Applications of Urban Work Journey Analyses," TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH, Vol. 4, 1970, pp. 163-184. (2b, 4, 6c). "The purpose of this paper is to compare some alternative methods of analyzing work trip data, as applied to data collected in a recent survey in Perth, Scotland." 418. Hurst, Michael E. Eliot. "An approach to the Study of Non- residential Land Use Traffic Generation," AAAG, Vol. 60, March 1970, pp. 153-173. (2a, 4, 6c). . .' Results of analysis of Perth, Scotland, "indicate that there is a functional relationship between land use and the volume of urban travel, and that it appears that location and the intensity of use of the land are also important variables in such a relationship." 419. Hurter, Arthur P. and Leon N. Moses. "Transportation Invest- ment and Regional Development," JOURNAL OF AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF PL/JWERS, Vol. 30, May 1964, pp. 132-139. (2a, 7). This article discusses inter-regional linear programming models. The assumptions and data requirements of the efficiency and transportation models are examined and extentions and modifications of inter-regional linear programming are proposed. 420. Hutchinson, B. G. "A Planning Morphology for Transportation Systems," TQ, Vol. 20, July 1966, pp. 347-360. (1). Review of planning concepts and the syrten concept. 421. Hyman, G. M. "The Calibration of Trip Distribution Models," ENVIRONMENT AND PL^\NNING, Vol. 1, 1969, pp. 105-112. (2b,4,6c). A mathematical discussion of various distribution models. 75. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 422. Hyoans, Edgar M. "Mass Transportation in Cincinnati: Past, Present, and Future," TE, Vol. 37, October 1966, pp. 49-53. (3,4, 8f). 423. Hynes, Cecil V. "An Origin-Destination Study of Truck Traffic in Michigan," TQ, Vol. 21, April 1967, pp. 269-280. (6b, 8b). A study of truck aoveuent by carrier type and state of origin and destination. 424. Irwin, N. A., Norrian Dodd, and H. G. von Cube. "Capacity Restraint in ^^ssignnent Prograns," HRBB 297, 1961, pp. 109-127. (2b, 5, 6). A traffic siculation nodel incorporating a feedback nechanisn by which capacity restraint and vehicle congestion are allowed to affect route generation, trip distribution, and vehicle assignraent in successive progran blocks, 425. Irwin, N. A. and H. G. von Cube. "Capacity Restraint in Multi-Travel Mode Assignment Programs, " HRBB 347, 1962, pp. 253-239. (2b,4,5,6). An intensive discussion of a nodel used for estinating vehicular and transit flovz in Toronto, Canada. Capacity restraints and the resultant congestion in roads and parking lots are allowed to affect the choice of traffic node, route selection, and trip voluae distribution in successive progran blocks, 426. Isard, Walter. LOCATION /^D SPACE-ECONOMY. New York, New York: John Wiley, 1956. (2). 427. Isard, Walter, et al. "Interregional Flow *\naly3is and Balance of Payments Statements," METHODS OF REGIONAL ANALYSIS: ^M INTRODUCTION TO REGIONi^ SCIENCE. Cambridge, I'iassachusetts: M.I.T. Press, 1960, pp. 122-iei. (2,6). This chapter examines the location quotient, commodity flow investigations, regional and interregional money flow studies, and balance of payment statements. Several empirical applications of the techniques are given. 76. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 428. Isard, Walter. "Interregional Linear Frograoning," METHODS OF REGION/iL ANALYSIS: AN INTRODUCTION TO REGIONAL SCIENCE. Canbridge, Massachusetts: M.I.T. Press, 1960, pp. A 13-492. (2,6). The general interregional nodel presented in this chapter has been developed in its purely fornal aspects, pri- narily to serve as background against which specific, useful nodels night be developed. Aside froc the fornal presentation of the nodel, applications to the dairy and coal industries are nade. 429. Izyunskiy, 0. A. "Transport Developnent of the Middle Ob Oil District," SGRT, Vol. 11, October 1970, pp. 89-94. (7b, 8a, 8c). "Two basic alternative transport systens are analyzed for the new oil-producing districts along the Middle Ob valley in West Siberia. One is the construction of a railroad parallel to the Ob River; the other is in the use of the vjaterway itself." 430. Janieson, G. B. , W. K. Mackay, and J, C, R, Latchford. "Transportation and Land Use Structures," US, Vol. 4, November 1967, pp. 201-217. (2a,4,6c). Conparisons of different urban land use distributions and their effect on travel. 431. Janelle, Donald G. "Spatial Reorganization: A Model and Concept," AAAG, Vol. 59, June 1969, pp. 348-364. (2a, 7). ..: ';\ • "Travel-tine connectivity is a key factor in defining a process of the spatial reorganization of nan's functional establishnents. A case study relating ■■ "'' highway developnent with the growth in wholesale ac- tivity for selected cities in the upper nidwest of the United States indicates that, aside fron being a good surrogate of transport efficiency, travel-tine con- nectivity is also a good neasure of the relative ad- vantage of a given place in attracting to itself the centralization and specialization of hunan activity," 432. Jefferies, Wilbur R. and Everett C, Carter. "Sinplified Techniques for Developing Transportation Plans--Trip Generation in Snail Urban Areas," HRR, No. 240, 1968, pp. 66-87. (2b, 4, 9). Socioecononic and land use characteristics of snail urban areas are analyzed to establish a sinplified nethod of conducting transportation surveys. Vehicle ownership is considered a najor indicator of trip generation. 77. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324 -#32 5 433. Johnson, J. A., G. Potvin, and N. E. Wilson. "The Planning and Econonics of High Speed Transportation for a Region under Rapid Urbanization," HSGTJ, Vol. 1, January 1967, pp. 32-46. (2a). Decision rules for policy makers are developed using theoretical cost and value concepts, 434. Johnson, Janes F. "The Influence of Cost Distance Factors on the Overseas Export of Corn fron the United States Midwest," EG, Vol. 45, April 1969, pp. 170-179. (6a). Exanines factors affecting the transportation of com exports, finding a great disparity between linear and cost distances fron locations to regional ports. 435. Johnson, R. J, "An Index of Accessibility and Its Use in the Study of Bus Service and Settlenent Patterns," TESG, Vol. 57, January-February 1966, pp. 33-38. (2a). 436. Johnson, R. J. "The Distribution of an Intra-netropolitan Central Place Hierarchy," AUSTRALIAN GEOGRAPHICAL STUDIES, Vol. 4, April 1966, pp. 19-34. (2a, 4), 437. Johnson, R. J. and Peter J. Ricner. "A Note on Consuner Behavior in an Urban Hierarchy," JRS, Vol. 7, Winter 1967, pp. 161-166. (2a,4). Postulated relationships between the central place hierarchy and consuner behavior are not substantiated. 438. Johnson, R. J. "Railways, Urban Growth and Central Place Patterns: An Exanple fron South-east Melbourne," TESG, Vol. 59, January-February 1968, pp. 33-41. (4,7,8a). 439. Johnson, R, J. "An Outline of the Developcent of Melbourne's Street Pattern," AUSTRALIAN GEOGRAPHER, Vol. 10, Septenber 1968, pp. 453-465. (3,5,7). After outlining the historical developnent of the city and its street pattern, chi-square is used to test for differences in the basic grid pattern. The results are used as an indicator of high, internediate, or low status housing. 440. Johnson, W. B. , editor. TRAFFIC IN A NEW ZEALAND CITY. Christchurch, New Zealand: Regional Planning Authority, 1965. (4). 78. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 441. Jones, Richard M. "Local Labour Markets, the Journey to Work, and Government Location Policy,'' TPR, Vol, 41, April 1970, pp. 168-170. (1). Identifies three distinct labor narkets in industrial South Wales. 442. Jones, Robert W. "Method for Estimating Potential Increases in Traffic Volumes Based on 0-D Survey Data from A Mid- Western City," HRR, No. 88, 1965, pp. 171-181. (2a, 4, 6c). Factor analysis indicates socioeconomic level and pro- portion of land-use devoted to single family residences are the principal criteria associated with trip generating potential of 0-D zones. 443. Jordan, Thomas D. "Development of the Sky Count Technique for Highway Traffic Analysis," HRR, No. 19, 1953, pp. 35-46. (9). The wide and rapid coverage of areas is a major advantage of airphoto techniques. 444. Kagayama, Tomoo. "Commuter Traffic in Tokyo and Osaka,'' TQ, Vol. 19, November 1965, pp. 609-622. (4, 5c, 6c). Treatment of rapid transit network, traffic volume and capacity, and nev? projects to alleviate congestion. 445. Kain, John F. ''The Journey to Work as a Determinant of Residential Location," PRSA, Vol. 9, 1962, pp. 137- 160. (2,4,7). The paper presents empirical evidence on the manner in which transportation costs influence the household's ' ' choice of a residential location and describes a res- • idential location model. The hypothesis central to research is that households substitute journey-to-work expenditures for site expenditures. This substitution " ' ■ depends primarily on household preferences for low ■ density residential services. 446. Kain, John F. "The Development of Urban Transportation Models, PRSA, Vol. 14, 1965, pp. 147-173, (4). This paper discusses the objectives and summarizes some of the principal findings of a large-scale model building activity--the RAND Corporation study of urban transpor- tation. The importance of this project lies in treating large-scale research problems instead of being tied to solving the urban transportation problems of any specific municipality or urban area. 79. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 447. Kain, John F, "Postwar Metropolitan Developnent: Housing Preferences and Auto Ownership," AER, Vol. 57, May 1967, pp. 223-234. (2a,4). Correlation techniques indicate income is a greater determinant of auto-ownership than fanily size and residential density. The hypothesis that autonobile ownership and residential density are jointly and simultaneously determined was not affirmed conclusively. 448. Kanaan, Nuhad J. "Structure and Requirements of the Trans- port Network of Syria," HRR, No. 115, 1966, pp. 19-28. (2a, 5a). Graph theoretic measures and multiple regression are used to analyze network structure and spatial variation in the distributions of population and economic activity. Iterative analysis for distinct time periods demonstrates increases or decreases in the accessibility of urban places to the network. 449. Kansky, Karl J. STRUCTURE OF TRi\NSPORTATION NETWORKS. Department of Geography Research Paper No. 84, Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press, 1963. (2,5a,5b,5c). This study explores the utility of certain graph theoretic indices in the study of regional transportation systems. 450. Kansky, Karl J. "Travel Patterns of Urban Residents," TS, Vol, 1, November 1967, pp. 261-285. (2a, 4). "This paper proposes a method of describing and classifying traffic patterns of urban residents," using factor analysis on Chicago data. 451. Kaplan, Norman N. "The Growth and Output and Inputs in Soviet Transport and Communications," AER, Vol. 57, December 1967, pp. 1154-1167. (8). Output indexes for communications and transportation systems are constructed and compared with United States data, A retardation in output growth within the post- war era is noted. 452. Kaufmann, John H. "Planning for Transport Investment in the Development of Iran," x\ER, Vol. 52, May 1962, pp. 396-404, (7). Integrated transport and comr.iunications development should be designed in terms of land, population, and natural resources, as they relate to the perspective values of the country's inputs and technological and engineering constraints. 80. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 453. Kazanskiy, N. M. and Yu. V. Lasts. ''Methods of Forecasting Freight Flows in Planning a Transport Net," SGRT, Vol. 4, September 1963, pp. 3-18. (2a, 6b, 8a). Discussion of the distribution of freight flows anong existing and planned networks, based on traffic expected fron planned regional production. 454. Keefer, Louis E. "Estinating the Daily Vehicle Miles of Travel in the Chicago and Fr.ttsburgh Metropolitan Areas," HRBB 281, 1961, pp. 1-15. (4,6c). 455. Keefer, Louis E, "Characteristics of Captive and Choice Transit Trips in the Pittsburgh Metropolitan Area," HRBB 347, 1962, pp. 24-33. (4,6c). Finds significantly different trip characteristics for those who choose to use nass transit and those who have no alternative to transit usage, 456. Keefer, Louis E, "A New Transportation Plan for Pittsburgh, TQ, Vol. 17, November 1963, pp. 544-556. (4). Describes the plan and the prospects of its inplenent- ation, including sone of the unusual problens. 457. Keefer, Louis E. "Shaping the Demand for Mass Transportat- ion," TQ, Vol. 18, October 1964, pp. 589-596. (4,8f). The difficult problens involved in shaping nass transit demand are outlined. 458. Kellett, John R, "Urban and Transport History from Legal Recoras : An Example from G las gov; Solicitors' Papers," JTH, Vol. 6, November 1964, pp. 222-240. (3, 4, 8a, 9). Using solicitors' records, this case study indicates the broad range of available information concerning attitudes and actions of landholders, types of agri- culture practiced, mineral deposits, existing road facilities, and market outlets, which is comple- mentary to a study of railroad development. 459. Kemp, Barbara. "Social Impact of a Highway on an Urban Community," HRR, No. 75, 1964, pp. 92-102. (4,7a). To reduce possible harmful social effects of freeway location, families were interviewed; most did not x^/ant to leave the area, felt they could not influence the location decision, and felt that displacement should not occur until sufficient housing was available for the displaced. 81. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324 -#32 5 460. Kennedy, Charles J. "Connuter Services in the Boston Area, 1835-1860," BUSINESS HISTORY REVIEW, Suniner 1962, Vol. 36, pp. 153-170. (3,7). An analysis of the inportance of fare structures and services on suburban growth. 461. Kent, Malcoln F. "Intercity Freight Haulage, By Connodity, Shipping Density and Type of Transport, 1960," HRR, No. 82, 1965, pp. 1-31. (6b, 8). Freight haulage is described using data gathered by the Bureau of the Budget and the Interstate Coonerce Conmission. 462. Kenyon, Janes B. "Elenents in Inter-Port Conpetition in the United States," EG, Vol. 46, January 1970, pp. 1-24. (7c). "The object of this paper is to analyze the shifting r.iagnitudes and conposition of general cargo freight anong selected United States ports in terns of the extent and uakeup of their donestic hinterlands, their overseas trade orientation, and the econonic character of the port netropolis itself, and to review sone of the changing conditions and practices that seera to hold special sicnificance to the conpetitive struggle anong American ports . " 463. Kerr, Donald. "The St. Lawrence Seaway and Trade on the Great Lakes, 1958-63," CG, Vol. 8, 1964, pp. 188-196. (8c). 464. Kerr, L. W. "Deteraination of 0-D Zones by Means of Land- Use Data," HRBB 347, 1962, pp. 182-185. (4,9). A review of factors to consider in establishing 0-D zones, 465. Keyes, Lucile Sheppard. "The Transpacific Route Invest- igation: Historical Background and Sone Major Issues," JOURNAL OF AIR LAW AND COMCRCE, Vol. 34, Winter 1968, pp. 1-26. (5,8d). This investigation considers the problem of regulating freight rates and passenger fares for international air carriers. The characteristics of the administrative processes which lead to the awarding of major inter- national air routes are discussed. 82. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 466. Kibal 'chich 0. Ji. "The Distribution of Population and Related Indicators in Long-Tern Planning of Passenger Traffic," SGRT, Vol. 4, Septenber 1963, pp. 26-35. (6b). Presentation of a nethodology to forecast "passenger intensity" of population centers and economic regions. 467. Kiley, Edward V. "Highways as a Factor in Industrial Location," HRR, No. 75, 1964, pp. 48-52. (7a). A survey of businesses to exanine the influence of high- ways on locational decisions. Location factors nentioned most frequently, in order, are: proxii.iity to good high- ways, abundant labor supply, availability of suitable land, and proximity to niarkets. 468. King, H.W.H. and E. R. Woolnington. "The Role of the River in the Development of Settlement in the Lower Hunter Valley," AUSTRiiLIAN GEOGR^IPHER, Vol. 8, September 1960, pp. 3-16. (7,8c). 469. Kirby, Arthur. "The Effect of Port Re-organization in Great Britain," ITJ, Vol. 31, May 1965, pp. 133-139 and 148. (7c). More comprehensive powers for port authorities and more emphasis on containerization and unitization would speed the movement of cargo through ports, helping to solve the fundamental problems of overloading and congestion. 470. Kish, George. "Soviet Air Transport," GR, Vol. 48, July 1958, pp. 309-320. (8d). Air traffic in the U.S.S.R. and major air traffic centers. 471. Kish, George. "Railroad Passenger Transport in the Soviet Union," GR, Vol. 53, July 1963, pp. 363-376. (6b, 7a). 472. Kish, George. "Transportation within the European Economic Community: Problems and Policies," EAST LAKES GEO- GRi^FHER, Vol. 1, 1964, pp. 13-20. (3,7,8). 473. Kissling, C. C. "Linkage Importance in a Regional Highway Network," CG, Vol. 13, Sunir^er 1969, pp. 113-127. (2a, 5a). The graph theoretic measure of accessibility developed by Shimbel is used to analyze the regional highway net- work of Nova Scotia. Highly accessible nodes indicate areas of high economic activity. 83. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324 -#325 474. Klar, Janes S. and Israel Resnifoff. "Land Use and Trans- portation Planning," TQ, Vol. 19, April 1965, pp. 169-187. (1). A report on transport planning in Connecticut. 475. Klein, Maury and Kozo Yananura. "The Growth Strategies of Southern Railroads, 1865-1893," BUSINESS HISTORY REVIEW, Vol. 41, Winter 1967, pp. 358-377. (3,8a). The growth strategies of Southern railroads appear to be dependent upon individual situations, producing a spectrun of strategies. 476. Knox, Naphtali K. "A Simplified Traffic Model for Snail Cities, = TQ, Vol. 16, July 1962, pp. 336-350. (2b, 4, 6c). The paper shows how established gravity nodel techniques can be applied in analyzing proposed traffic systems based on general land use plans for a saall city. 477. Kock, A. Robert and M. Snodgrass, "Linear Programming Applied to Location and Product Flow Determination in the Tomato Processing Industry," PRSA, Vol. 5, 1959, pp. 151-162. (2,6b). This paper uses the transportation nodel of linear programming to investigate a few specific inter- regional problems relating to the tonato processing industry in the U.S. 478. Kolars, John and Henry J. Malin. "Population and Accessi- bility: An Analysis of Turkish Railroads," OR, Vol. 60, April 1970, pp. 229-246. (2a, 5c, 8a). Describes a method for simulating the growth of a railroad network, the results of which are compared with detailed historical summary of railroads in Turkey. 479. Kole, Charles P. "Variation of Work-Home Trip as Function of Travel Tine," TE, Vol. 35, December 1964, pp. 23-27 and 47. (2b,4,6c). Regression analysis of work-trips shows strong relation- ship to travel tine in Phoenix. 480. Kolifrath, Michael and Paul W. Shuldiner. "Covariance Analysis of Manufacturing Trip Generation," HRR, No. 165, 1967, pp. 117-128. (2b,4,6c). Covariance analysis is used to test the utility of sub- dividing manufacturing land into subclasses for estimating trip attractions. 84. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324 -#32 5 481. Kresge, David T. and Paul 0. Roberts. "Sinulation of Policy Alternatives for Columbia," /iER, Vol. 58, May 1968, pp. 341-359. (2a, 5c). Conbines nacro-econooic modeling with detail simulation of transport network development in multiple tine periods, allowing comparison and evaluation of alternate develop- t.-£nt strategies, policies, and investment plans. 482. Krusling, James R, "Cincinnati's Highway System," TE, Vol. 37, October 1966, pp. 31-34. (3,4,8b). Historical survey. 483. Kuei-Sheng Chang, "The Changing Railroad Pattern in Mainland China," GR, Vol. 51, October 1961, pp. 534-548. (8a). 484. Kuhn, Herman A.J. "Factors Influencing Traffic Generation at Rural Highway Service Areas," HRR, No. 240, 1968, pp. 1-10. (6). The factors of visibility, accessibility, facility type, location v/ith reference to other facilities, and inter- change class strongly influence the volume of traffic at rural service areas. 485. Kurylo, Walter. "A Look at the Pan American Highway System," TQ, Vol. 18, April 1964, pp. 143-155. (8b). Travel conditions on the Inter-American Highway. 486. Lachene, Rene. "Networks and the Location of Economic Activities," PRSA, Vol. 14, 1965, pp. 183-196. (5,7). The paper focuses upon the problem of intense con- centration of activity at one point of a national territory. An observation of an actual situation (Paris) led the author to ask what part transportation plays in affecting the geographical distribution of activities and to build representative models of the simplest kinds of relationships. 487. Lancaster, Jane. "A Railroad to Great Slave Lake," PG, Vol. 13, September 1961, pp. 31-35. (8a). The paper is a policy statement of the needs for a railv;ay system servicing the mineral-rich areas sur- rounding Great Slave Lake, 85. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 488. Landon, Charles E. "The Recent Developnent of Freight Traffic on the Mississippi River," JTH, Vol. 5, May 1961, pp. 33-53. (8c). 489. Lang, A. S. and Martin Wohl. "Evaluation of Highway Inpact," HRBB 268, pp. 105-119. (7a). The tern 'inpact" is analyzed and the evaluation of user and non-user benefits are discussed. Traffic engineers and social scientists nust v?ork in conjunction to for- mulate basic concepts of highway inpact. 490. Lansing, John B. and Eva Mueller. "Residential Location and Urban Mobility," HRR, No. 106, 1966, pp. 77-96. (2,4,6c), Residential patterns are defined by density and distance in niles fron the center of the city. Locational pre- ferences are exanined, and journey-to-work trips are described by node and distance of travel. The existing pattern of location is influenced by fanily incone and by stage in the fanily life style. 491. Lansing, John B. and Gary Hendricks. "How People Perceive the Cost of the Journey to VJork," HRR, No. 197, 1967, pp. 44-55. (2a, 4, 6c). Most people do not estimate the costs of journeying-to- work; however, when the cost is estimated, fuel cost estimating is too high. People are aware of parking fees at the vjorkplace, but are unaware of trip costs for different nodes of travel. 492. Lapin, Howard A. "Index Numbers for Urban Travel," JOURNAL OF AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF PLANNERS, Vol. 27, August 1961, pp. 215-217. (4,9). The desirability of preparing and maintaining indices of vehicular passenger niles at local, regional, and national levels. 493. Larson, C. Theodore. "The Motor Road: Forerunner of the Universal City," TQ, Vol. 18, October 1964, pp. 459- 490. (1,5a, 8b). A look at the major highway networks of the continents and at urban growth. 494. Lathrop, George T. , John R. Hamburg, and Frederick Young. "Opportunity-Accessibility Model for Allocating Regional Growth," HRR, No. 102, 1965, pp. 54-66. (2a, 7). A description of an allocation model based largely on access to a regional center or set of sub-centers. 86. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 495. Lawton, R, "The Journey to Work in England and Wales: Forty Years of Change," TESG, Vol. 54, March 1963, pp. 61-69. (3,4). 496. Leathers, Nancy J, "Residential Location and Mode of Trans- portation to Work: A Model of Choice," TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH, August 1967, pp. 129-155. (4,8). 497. Lee, G.H.C. "The New Mass Market in Air Travel," ITJ, Vol. 31, Itorch 1965, pp. 101-103. (8d). A brief discussion of the reasons for an increase in air passenger service and the problems created. 498. Lees, Audrey. "Car Parking in Cities," TPR, Vol. 34, April 1963-64, pp. 39-49. (4). A look at the problen in Coventry, England. 499. Lenly, Janes H. "Mississippi River: St. Louis' Friend or Foe?" BUSINESS HISTORY REVIEW, Vol. 39, Spring 1965, pp. 7-15. (0a,8c). Conflict between Chicago and St. Louis over the use of rails or the river. 500. Letenare, Gene and George V, Wickstron, "The Dataplotter — A Tool for Transportation Planning," HRBB 347, 1962, pp. 203-210. (9). Evaluation of computerized napping techniques. 501. Levin, David R. "The Highway Interchange Land-Use Problen," HRBB 288, 1961, pp. 1-24. (7a), Methods of controlling land usage at expressway inter- changes are analyzed and evaluated in terns of their potential effectiveness, cost, and adninistration. 502. Levin, David R. "Infornal Notes on Sociological Effects of Highways," HRR, No. 75, 1964, pp. 82-83. (7a). 503. Levin, Melvin R. and David A. Grossnan. "The Expressv/ay Lnpact on a Secondary Central Business District," TQ, Vol. 15, April 1961, pp. 185-207. (7a). The economic impact of the freeway on Pawtucket, Rhode Island. 87. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324 -#32 5 504. Levinson, Herbert S. and F, Houston Wynn, "Sone Aspects of Future Transportation in Urban Areas," HRBB 326, 1962, pp. 1-31. (4). Fundanental inter-relationships between land use, socio- econonic status, and transportation node, 505. Levinson, Herbert S. arid F. Houston Wynn. "Effects of Density on Urban Transportation Requirements," HRR, No. 2, 1963, pp. 38-64. (2a, 4, 6c). Intra- and inter-city transportation requirenents are related to paraneters of population density. Regional and historical effects of population density and their relationship to travel behavior are extensively analyzed. 506. Levinson, Herbert S. and Kenneth R, Roberts. "Systen Con- figurations in Urban Transportation Planning," HRR, Wo. 64, 1964, pp. 71-83. (4,5). Analysis indicates urban freeway systens should avoid convergence in central areas; a grid system would achieve more equitable freeway loadings than a radial circumferential systen. 507. Lewis, E. V. 'Transportation Modal Interfaces," HSGTJ, Vol. 2, May 1968, pp. 339-352. (8). Evaluates the concept of containerization and discusses its impact on trade and transport facilities. 508. Lewis, G. J. "Commuting and the Village in Mid-Wales," G, Vol. 52, July 1967, pp. 294-304. (4,7a). A case study of an area suffering from depopulation and an assessment of the impact of commuting on the socio- economic structure of the village. The influence of commuting in planning future settlements. 509. Lewis, Janes E. "Changes in Highway Mobility in the United States South: 1940 to 1960," PG, Vol. 20, November 1968, pp. 382-387. (7,8b). The use of a simple technique for measuring and mapping highway nobility as a means of identifying relative levels of economic development is demonstrated in this paper. Illustration of the technique is made by examining changes in the level of highway mobility in the Southern states during the 1940-1960 period. 88. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 510. Ley land, George P. "Inplication of the New Haven Census Use Test for Transportation and Land-Use Planning," HRR, No, 229, 1968, pp. 77-98. (2a, 4, 9). A special census which incorporates data to be gathered by the 1970 national census is used to generate base file. The file is a valuable tool for planners in formulating an efficient and inexpensive planning information system, 511. Lichfield, .Nathaniel and Honor Chapman. "Cost Benefit Analysis and Road Proposals for a Shopping Centre. A Case Study: Edgware, ' JTEP, Vol. 2, September 1958, pp. 280-320. (4,5b), 512. Lieper, Joseph McC. "The Role of the Automobile in Mid- to\TO Manhattan," TQ, Vol. 16, ..pril 1962, pp. 212-228. (4). The core activities, the priority of space needs, and their linkage are evaluated to develop the basis for future policies on transportation access and circulation; concludes that the only alternative is improved mass transportation systems. 513. Lieper, Joseph McC. "Transportation Planning in a Mature Metropolis," URBAN AFFAIRS QUARTERLY, Vol. 1, December 1965, pp. 22-38. (1,4). Survey of problems in transport planning in New York City. 514. Lindsay, Jean. "The Aberdeenshire Canal, 1805-54," JTH, Vol. 6, May 1964, pp. 150-165. (3,8c), Historical survey, 515. Lissitzyn, Oliver J, "The Participation of the United States in World Air Transport: Statistics and the National Interest," JOURN.^L OF AIR LxJJ AND COMMERCE, Vol. 28, Winter 1961-62, pp. 1-17, (8d,9). Discussion of the reliability of statistics dealing with U, S. air transport, 516. Lloyd, Trevor and David C. Nutt. "Transportation of Ungava Iron Ore," CG, Vol. 4, 1960, pp. 26-38. (6a). A general discussion of the project, including aspects of transporting the concentrated ore and a discussion concerning selection of an ice-free port site in Greenland. 89. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-^325 517. Loewenstein, Louis K. "Connuting and the Cost of Housing in Philadelphia," TQ, Vol. 17, April 1963, pp. 302-319. (2,4). The article shows that, to a certain extent, higher ho:!Sin3 costs and the larger and nore costly journey- to-work are both a function of distance fron the down- tovm area. 518. Logan, M. I. "Work-Residence Locations in the City," AUSTRALIAN GEOGRAPHICAL STUDIES, Vol. 6, October 1968, pp. 151-166. (4,6c). Concepts of urban form and function are reviewed with specific reference to the labor-shed in Sydney, Australia, The study indicates a najor trend away fron the nononuclear concept of an urban region. 519. Long, A. "Internal Transport Developcents in East Africa," G, Vol. 50, January 1965, pp. 78-81. (8). Reviews recent activities expanding railways, lake services, and ports. 520. Long, Poter and Lewis Hayashi. "Traffic and Travel in Thailand," TE, Vol. 37, July 1967, pp. 72-75. (1). 521. Long, Wesley H. "City Characteristics and the Denand for Interurban Air Travel," LE, Vol. 44, May 1968, pp. 197-204. (4,8d). An assessment of the effects of denographic and geo- graphic characteristics of large cities on air travel. 522. Longley, Janes W. and Beatrice T, Go ley. "A Statistical Evaluation of the Influence of Highways on Rural Land Values in the United States," HRBB 327, 1962, pp. 21- 55. (7a). Rural land sales are exanined to deteraine the relation between type of road and price per acre and price per fam and distance to nearest trading center. Higher prices per acre are associated with hard surfaced roads and proxinity to trading centers. Regional variations in the pattern are exanined for selected areas in the United States, 50. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 523. Lonsdale, Richard E. "Two North Carolina Connuting Patterns," EG, Vol. 42, April 1966, pp. 114-13G. (2b, 6b). Analysis of conmuting characteristics, labor narket areas, personal factors affecting coumuting, with an example of probability aodels to simulate traffic, based on two factories enploying workers of different econonic levels. 524. Loubal, Peter S, "A Network Evaluation Procedure," HRR, No. 205, 1967, pp. 96-109. (2a, 5c, 6). A procedure for considering the effects of new and inproved netv7ork links on travel tine and volune of traffic flov7 is described. It is a variation of ninioun path tree-building and traffic loading pro- cedures. 525. Love joy, Warren B. "New York Port Authority's 1958 0-D Survey Using Continuous Sanpling," HRBB 253, 1960, pp. 152-154. (4,9). ■ ' '' The rationale and technique of continuous sanpling are described. Continuous sanpling avoids the effects of short tern variations in traffic patterns that night . ' influence the reliability of data gathered in short, intensive traffic surveys. 526. Lo^^^:y, Ira S. ''Location Paraneters in the Pittsburgh Model," PRSA, Vol. 11, 1963, pp. 145-165. (2,4). A nodel is constructed which assunes the distribution of basic activities and proceeds to distribute around each work-place a residential population which supplies the labor force and acts as a base for the location of • ' population-serving activities. The uarket-potential of each location is evaluated and retail and service enployr;.ent is spatially distributed according to these potentials. 527. Luster, George A. and Wade G, Fox. "Cartographic and Design Work for a Conprehensive Origin-Destination Survey," HRBB 297, 1961, pp. 52-73. (4,9). The nethods and procedures used for the analysis and representation of Pittsburgh Area Transportation Study data. 528. HcConnell, Janes E, "A Note on the Geography of Connodity Trade," PG, Vol. 22, July 1970, pp. 181-184. (2,6a). Points up areas of neglect and sunnarizes theoretical and enpirical foundations for further research. 91. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 529. McCutcheon, W. /„ "xhe Newry Navigation: The Earliest Inland Canal in the British Isles,'' G, Vol. 129, Decenbei- 1963, pp. 466-480. (3,7.7c). The growth and decline of the Newry Navigation and the inpact of canal traffic on the port of Newry. 530. McElhiney, Paul T. "Evaluating Freeway Perfornance in Los Angeles," TQ, Vol. 14, July 1960, pp. 296-312. (4). 531. McElroy, J. P. "Pedestrian Conveyors," TPR, Vol. 32, July 1961, pp. 125-140. (3,4). History of conveyors and their application to urban congestion. 532. McFarlAne, Marion. "Developments in Southland, New Zealand: The Port of Bluff," G, Vol. 46, July 1961, pp. 250-252. (7c). Report on port renewal. 533. McGrath, Willian R. "Transportation and Urban Developnent," TQ, Vol. 18, October 1964, pp. 491-501. (4). A statecent of the iraportance of coordinated transport planning for urban developnent. 534. Mcllwraith, Thonas F. "The Adequacy of Rural Roads in the Era before Railways: An Illustration fron Upper Canada," CG, Vol. 14, 1970, pp. 344-360. (8b). A challenge to the traditional belief that early Ontario roads were intolerable. Roads were found to be of United importance in land choice by early settlers. 535. McKain, Walter C. "Coixiunity Response to Highway Inprovecent,' HRR, No. 96, 1965, pp. 19-23. (4,7a). The influence of hunan factors and social conditions, 536. McKenna, David, "Conrauting in the 1970 's," ITJ, Vol. 32, 1967, pp. 37-93. (4,6). 537. MacKinnon, Ross D. "Dynanic Progratxiing and Geographical Systems," EG, Vol. 46, June 1970, pp. 350-366. (2a). Dynanic progranning is outlined, geographical applications are discussed (including applications to transportation systems)', and advantages and linitations are considered. 92. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 538. MacNab, J. H. "The Air Freight Industry of New Zealand," NEW ZEALAND GEOGRAPHER, Vol. 16, 1960, pp. 190-203. (5a, 6b, 8a). Brief survey of routes and freight traffic within New Zealand. 539. Mactier, Stewart. "Cargo Handling in the Deep-Sea Liner Trades,'- ITJ, Vol. 31, Novenber 1964, pp. 13-19. (7c, 8c). "A review of the problem of cargo liner turn-round in port in relation to current and future trends." 540. Mahon, G, R. "Railx^ays and Bogs in Ireland," JTH, Vol. 5, Novenber 1961, pp. 116-126. (5a, 8a). Notes on building permanent and temporary railways over Irish bogs. 541. Malik, Rashid A. "Pakistan's Intra-Regional Pattern of Transportation," JG, Vol. 61, 1962, pp. 209-214. (3). The characteristics of land and water transportation. 542. Malo, Alger F, "The Relation of Mass Transportation to Total Transportation in Detroit," TQ, Vol. 15, April 1961, pp. 226-247. (4,8). 543. Maloney, Willian L. "Shifts in Petroleum Transportation," HRR, No. G2, 1965, pp. 100-103. (8c). 544. Manhein, Marvin L. "Data Accuracy in Route Location," TQ, Vol. 15, January 1961, pp. 153-178. (5b). An enuneration of steps and variables to consider in route location decisions. 545. Manhein, Marvin L. "Transportation, Problem-Solving and the Effective Use of Computers," HRR, No. 148, 1966, pp. 49-58. (1,2a). 546. Manhein, Marvin L. "Principles of Transport Systems Analysis," HRR, No. 180, 1967, pp. 11-20. (1,2a). 547. Manners, Gerald, "Public Transport Policy and the Railways of the U.S.A.;' SCOTTISH GEOGP-.PHIC/X I>1AGAZINE, Vol. 76, 1960, pp. 172-176. (3, 6b, 8a). Description of changes in competitive position of U.S. railway freight and passenger traffic. 93. CPL Eixhange Bibliography #324-#325 548. Manners, Gerald. "Transport Costs, Freight Rates and the Changing Econonic Geography of Iron Ore," G, Vol. 52, July 1967, pp. 260-279. (3,6b). A conparison of world trade patterns in iron ore in 1950 with patterns in 1960. 549. Marble, Duane F. "Transport Inputs at Urban Residential Sites," PRSA, Vol. 5, 1959, pp. 253-266. (2,4,7). This paper represents an attaapt to raise the level of infomation regarding transport inputs to households through an empirical exanination of the transport in- puts to a nunber of households in a nediun-sized American city, T\'io separate studies vjere undertaken using a linear regression nodel, one vjith trip frequency as the dependent variable, and the total distance traveled as the dependent variable in the second study. A decision nodel is then proposed wherein an individual nust choose frou anong a set of trips whose relative desirability depends upon one's completeness of information. 550. Marble, tuane F. "User Services and the Demand for Land at Interchange Points," HRBB 288, 1961, pp. 25-31. (2a, 7a). Characteristics of the service industry and user re- action to the prohibition of commercial construction on rights-of-way of the interstate highway system; suggestions for further research on user services and demand for land at interchanges. 551. Marble, Duane F. "Some Cultural and Social Aspects of Transport Impact on Underdeveloped Areas," in F. Pitts, editor, URB/vN SYSTEMS ."JTO ECONOMIC DEVELOPl-ENT. Eugene, Oregon: University of Oregon, School of Business Administration, 1962, pp. 39-43. (7). A short statement emphasizing the need for greater understanding of the cultural and social aspects of transport impact. 552. Marble, Duaae F. "A Theoretical Exploration of Individual Travel Behavior," QUANTITATIVE GEOGR/\PHY PART I: ECONOMIC mD CULTURi"iL TOPICS. W. L. Garrison and D. F. Marble. Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University, Department of Geography, 1967, pp. 33-53. (2,4,6c). The study offers a preliminary exploration of some theoretical aspects of day-torday movement patterns exhibited by most individuals. Game-theoretic form- ulations are presented for the analysis of complex decision situations of individual travel behavior. 94. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-^^325 553. Marceilis, Jack C. "An Econonic Evaluation of Traffic Movenent at Various Speeds," HRR, No. 35, 1963, pp. 18- 40. (2a). Discussion of the cost of resources consuned by the transportation industry. Optical traffic speeds, which nininize the cost of traffic novenent in a variety of situations, are established for passenger and cormercial vehicles, 554. Marcou, George T. "A Survey of the Literature on Inter- Cocnunity Traffic," HRBB 347, 1962, pp. 302-318. (4,9). Includes zn annotated bibliography. 555. Martin, Brian V. and Charles B. Warden. "Transportation and Planning in Developing Countries," TQ, Vol, 19, January 1965, pp. 59-75. (7b). Indicates the need for ccnprehensive planning and presents a uodel to evaluate alternative plans "for particular combinations of econouic and geographic conditions." 556. Martin, Brian V, and Marvin L. lianhein, "A Research Progran for Comparison of Traffic Assignment Techniques," HRR, No. 38, 1965, pp. 69-84. (2b, 4, 6c). A conputer progran which allows for incremental loading of the netv7ork and the use of a generation curve function to revise input interzonal transfers. 557. Marx, Daniel, Jr. "Regulation of International Liner- Shipping and Freedon of the Seas," JOURNAL OF INDUSTRUJL ECONOMICS, Vol. 16, Novenber 1967, pp. 46-62. (5a, 8c). An extensive discussion of alleged inequities in the rates charged by ocean liners to carry cargo. 558. Matsuuoto, Hiroshi, "An Expressway for Tokyo," TQ, Vol. 16, Novenbe:- 1952, pp. 590-606. (4,8b). Planning methods, financial organization, and economic consideration for the construction of the first express- way are reviewed in the context of Tokyo's needs and characteristics. 559. Maxwell, David. "The Regulation of Motor-Carrier Rates by the Interstate Commerce Commission," LE, Vol. 36, February 1969, pp. 79-91. (8b). 95. CPL Exchanse Bibliography #324-#325 560. 14ay, Adolf D. Jr., Patrick Athol, Willian Parker, and Jar.ies B. Rudden. "Developnent and Evaluation of Congress Street Expressway Pilot detection Systen," HRR, No. 21, 1963, pp. 48-68. (4,9). Autonatic traffic control r^asures used in a pilot project in the Chicago area are described. Speed, volune, and density data are auto:..atically gathered, recorded, napped, and analyzed. A comprehensive data library, suitable for ciacro- and uicroscopic analysis has been one result of the project. 561. Mayer, Albert J. and Robert B. Snock. "The Continuing Traffic Study: Methods of Keeping 0-D Data Up-to-Date," HRBB 253, 1960, pp. 109-113. (4,9). 562. Mayer, Albert J. and Joanne L. Wallace, "A New Method of Obtaining Origin and Destination Data," HRBB 347, 1962, pp. 34-39. (9). By interviev7ing people at the tine they renewed their licenses at the local auto bureau, traffic survey costs were substantially reduced. The advantages and dis- advantages of this technique are discussed. 563. Ilayer, Albert J. and Sue M. Snock. "Public Response to In- creased Bus Service," HRR, No. 2, 1963, pp. 79-93. (4). Interviews indicated a public desire for more bus service; yet reluctance to use the facilities was observed. 564. Mayer, Harold M. "Prospects and Problem of the Port of Chicago," EG, Vol. 31, April 1955, pp. 95-125. (3,7c). Describes the historical developnent of the port and its facilities. The nost serious limitations to future potential traffic are the inadequacies of the channels in the Chicago area and the lack of a comprehensive regional port plan. 565. Mayer, Harold M, "Urban Geography and Urban Transportation Planning," TQ, Vol. 17, Noveuber 1963, pp. 610-631. (1,4). An excellent introductory article on the basic concepts of urban geography. 566. Mayer, Harold M. "Sone Observations of the Future of Cities and Urban Areas," TQ, Vol. IG, July 1964, pp. 371-382. (4). Reviews the trend toward urbanization and the decline of uass transit and predicts increased concentration of population in large urban centers and of traffic in cities and on high-capacity routes. <:6. CPL Ejcchange Bibliography #324 -#32 5 567. Mayer, Harold il. "Hish-Speed Rail Passenger Transportation and Regional Developnent in the Midv;est," TQ, Vol. 21, July 1967, pp. 395-405. (4,7,3a). A consideration of a high-speed rail facility and its possible iupact on the Chicago region of the U.S. 568. Mazanova, M, B. "The Role of Ilaritiiat Transportation in the Econonic Ties between the Econonic-Geographic Regions of the U.S.S.R.," SGRT, Vol. 1, April 1960, pp. 59-63. (6b, 7. 8c). Brief treatment of the region- forcing role of sea transportation. 569. Mazanova, M. B. "I«larine Transport as a National Specialized Activity of a Major Econonic Region," SGRT, Vol. 4, May 1963, pp. 3-9. (8c). "The role of naritiae transport, particularly overseas shipping, is discussed for several Soviet econonic regions," 570. Mead, W. R. "Problens of a Divided Waterx-7ay," G, Vol. 47, January 1962, pp. 89-92. (3,8c). Outlines history of Finland's Sainaa Canal and the political problens of rebuilding the canal as a joint Finnish-Russo project. 571. Meadows, R, "Traffic and Marketing Aspects of Service Station Locations and Developnent in Australia," TQ, Vol. 21, January 1967, pp. 67-02. (7a). 572. Medhurst, Franklin. "Traffic Induced by Central Area Functions," TPR, Vol. 34, April 1963-64, pp. 50-60. (4). Describes a survey undertaken to deternine the size and drawing power of the CBD in Manchester, England. 573. Medvedkov, Y. "Entropy: An Assessnent of Potentialities in Geography," EG, Vol, 46, June 1970, pp. 306-316. (2,6). Concludes that "the concept of entropy acts as a catalyst for better insight into couplex relationships'' and has application to flows data. 574. Ifeinig, D. U. "A Conparatxve Historical Geography of Ti?o Railnets; Colunbia Basin end Southern Australia, ■■ /V^\G, Vol, 52, Dece;.iber 1962, pp. 394-413. (3,5b,0a). This extensive discussion of the tv;o railnets euphasizes the inportance of understanding the present railway pattern in terns of the process of its formation. 97. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 575. Melanid, Alexander. "Transportation in Eastern Arabia," GR, Vol. 52, January 1962, pp. 122-124. (1). 576. Mellor, R.E.H. "Throush-Railway Links between U.S.S.R. and Its Neighbors," G, Vol. 49, Novenber 1964, pp. 416-418. (Sa). Describes the use of rolling stock which nay be used on different s^uge railways nerely by interchanging broad- gauge bogies with standard ones, or vice versa. 577. Mennott, Frederick W., Brian V. Martin, and Alexander J. Bone. "Predicting Future Demand for Urban Area Trans- portation," HRBB 326, 1962, pp. 69-97. (2a, 4, 6c). The transportation planning process is described and divided into the principal phases of inventories, estimates of urban growth, and the aeternination of future travel demand, an annotated bibliography per- taining to the prediction of future demands for urban area transportation is included, 578. Meyer, John R., J. F. Kain, and M. Wohl. THE URBAN TR/^S- PORTATION PROBLEM, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1965. (1,4,6,7,8). A synthesis of the major empirical generalizations derived from a number of U. S, metropolitan transportation studies. Changes in location, trip travel patterns, line-haul systems and pricing procedures are discussed. 579. Meyer, John R. "Transport Technologies for Developing Countries," .^ER, Vol. 56, May 1966, pp. 83-90. (7b, 8). A revievj of several transport systems (rail, air, and truck) and their application to underdeveloped countries, 580. Meyer, John R. "Urban Transportation," iu THE METROPOLITAN ENIGMiA., James Q, Wilson, editor, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1968, pp. 41-69. (1,4). A valuable overview. 581. Mickle, D, Grant, "The Role of the Highway in Urban Development," TE, Vol. 36, April 1966, pp. 32-36. (1,4,7a). A general discussion. 582. Midler, Joseph L. "A Stochastic Multi-period Multimode Transportation Model," TS, Vol. 3, February 1969, pp. 3-29. (2a, 8). "Model for selecting an optimal combination of trans- portation modes over a multiperiod planning horizon. ' 98, CPL Exchange Bibliography #324 -'^32 5 583. Miklius, Walter. "Sone Characteristics of Nonregulated For-Hire Truck Transportation of Agricultural Conmodities ," LE, Vol. 42, May 1966, pp. 226-229. (8b). 584. Miller, M. "High Speed Ground Transportation Research and Developaent,'= HSGTJ, Vol. 1, January 1967, pp. 13-21. (1). aspects of research and developcent associated with inproveoent of transport systens, 585. Miller, Ronald E. "Capital Costs in Air-Transportation," JOURN/1 OF INDUSTRIAL ECONOMICS, Vol. 13, July 1964, pp. 236-249. (8d). Brief study of air transport econonics. 586. Mills, Edv7in S. "An Aggregative Model of Resource Allocation in a Metropolitan Area," AER, Vol. 57, May 1957, pp. 197-210. (4). A quantitative nodel to "explain the sizes and structures of urban areas. " 587. Millward, R, "Road Investnent Criteria: A Case Study,'' JTEP, Vol. 2, November 1968, pp. 183-200. (2a, 5b). Descriptions of "nethods used to calculate the econonic value of a projected new road" in the U.K. 588. Mirheydar, Dorreh. "Problens of Transportation Routes in Iran," JG, Vol. 60, February 1961, pp. 70-74. (8). 589. liishan, E. J. "Interpretation of the Benefits of Private Transport, '= JTEP, Vol. 1, May 1967, p?. 134-189. (2a). A treatcent of the congestion costs of private cars and an argument that congestion "nay give rise to nis leading decands for j.nvestnent in road engineering." 590. Mogridge, M.J.H. "The Prediction of Car Ownership," JTEP, Vol. 1, January 1967, pp. 52-74. (2a). An econonetric method for long-tern forecasting is presented and compared with other nethods. 591. Mohring, Herbert. "Land Values and the Heasurenent of Highway Benefits," J0URNx\L OF PCLITIC/iL ECONO^IY, Vol. 69, June 1961, pp. 236-249. (4,7a). A consideration of travel tine and property values in the city. 99. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 592. Morison, Ian U. and Walter G. Hansen. "Canberra: Toward a Schene for Continuous Growth," HRR, No. 229, 1968, pp. 7-20. (4,7a). Alternate plans for urban subcentrallzation are exanined. It is concluded that arrangecent of urban developnent along corridors of an expressway systen will permit urban expansion with a nininun of congestion and provide naxinua support for a good public transport systera. 593. Morrill, Richard L. and Williaa Garrison. "Projections of Inter-Regional Patterns of Trade in vrneat and Flour," EC, Vol. 36, April 1960, pp. 116-126. (2a, 6b). A spatial price equilibriun model, based on the trans- portation problen of linear progracning, is used to project the V7heat and flour flows in the U.S. 594. Morrill, Richard L. MIGR.\TION /^ID THE SPRE.U) AND GROVJTH OF URBAN SETTLEMENT. (Lund Studies in Geography, Series B, No, 26) Lund, Sweden: Departuent of Geography, Royal University of Lund. (2a, 4, 5). 595. Morrill, Richard L. "The Movenent of Persons and the Trans- portation Problen," QUANTITATIVE GECGRi"iPHY PART I: ECONOMIC AND CULTUR/i TOPICS. W. L. Garrison and D. F. Marble, editors, Evanston, Illinois: Departcent of Geography, Northwestern University, 1967, pp. 84-94. (2,6b). The paper presents a probabilis'cic adaptation of a noirnative progracning nodel conbining the transportation problen, which assigns goods or persons to regions over a transport network and a sicple probability function for error in response. Enpirical application of the nodel is nade for novenent of patients to physicians in western Pennsylvania. 596. Morrill, Richard L., Robert Earickson, and Philip Rees. "Factors Influencing Distances Traveled to Hospitals," EG, Vol. 46, ^pril 1970, pp. 161-171. (2b,4,6c). "The rate of use of hospitals declines with distance, or nore precisely, V7ith intervening opportunities. Social ai.J econonic distictions according to race and incone effectively reduce access to physicians and hospitals for the Negro and for the poor in general." 597. Morris, Robert L. "Evaluating the Requirenents for a Dovm- town Circulation Systen," HRBB 347, 1962, pp. 211-221. (2a,4). A general nodel of a central city circulation systen, designed to facilitate pedestrian traffic. 100. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 598. Morris, S. S. "South Africa's /.pproach to Urban Traffic and Freeways," TQ, Vol. 18, April 1964, pp. 202-218. (5c), A discussion of route development. 599. Morris, S. S. "The I-ipact of the Motorcar on Urban Evolution,'' TQ, Vol. 20, July 1966, pp. 419-434. (4,7a). Enphasis on Capetown, South Africa. 600. Moses, Leon N. "Towards a Theory of Intra -Urban Wage Differentials and Their Influence on Travel Patterns," PRSA, Vol. 9, 1962, pp. 53-64. (2,6). The prinary objective of the paper is to elaborate on an analytical tool, the wage gradient, that uay prove as useful as the rent gradient in the study of urban problems. The analysis shows what wage would have to be offered at any given point in order to attract any labor from that or other places in the uran area. Alternatively, the analysis suggests how high the wage rate would have to be in any place in order to attract labor fron sorae particular place. 601. Moses, Leon N. and Harold F, Williamson, Jr. "Value of Tiue, Choice of Mode, and the Subsidy Issue in Urban Trans- portation," JOURNAL OF POLITIC/iL ECONOMY, Vol. 71, June 1963, pp. 247-264. (4). 602. Moses, Leon N. and Harold F. Williamson, Jr. "The Location of Economic Activity in Cities," AER, Vol. 57, May 1967, pp. 211-222. (4,7). Decentralization of the cities results from firm relocation, transportation, and satellite area development. 603. Mosher, Walter W. , Jr. "A Capacity-Restraint Algorithm for Assigning Flow to a Transport Network," HRR, No. 6, 1963, pp. 41-70. (2a, 5, 6). An algorithm permitting the evaluation of network performances is described. Network loadings are governed by individually determined link functions. • • For road networks optimum performance functions for the entire network can be established by equalizing path figures for appropriate sets of paths. 604. Mossman, Frank H. "A Concept ional Framework for the Logistics of Distribution Systems," TR/iNSPORTATION JOURNAL, Vol. 1, Summer 1962, pp. 23-29. (1). 101. CPL Exchange Bibliography #3?4-#?25 605. Muckleston, Keith U. and Fred E, Dohrs. "The Relative Importance of Transport on the Volga hsfore and after the Connunist Revolution," FG, Vol. 17, March 1965, pp. 22-25. (8c). In reply to an earlier article, the authors contend that the Volga was a truly significant transport route prior to the revolution and its role has steadily dininished since that tine, 606. MunJell, R. A. "The Pure Theory of International Trade," /iER, Vol. 50, March 1960, pp. 67-110. (2,&a). 607. Munro, John M. "Planning the Appalachian Developneut Highway Systea: Soce Critical Questions," LE, Vol. 45, May 1969, pp. 149-161. (5b, 7a). The inability of transportation investment to initiate econonic redevelopnent and the lack of careful planning are najor criticisns of the federal governuent's high- way schene. 608. Muranyi, Thonas. "Estinating Traffic Volunes by Systematic Sarapling," HRBB 281, 1961, pp. 16-47. (2a, 6). Using Swiss data and probability theory, Muranyi presents a nodel for prediction of an entire country's annual average daily traffic and the duration and peak values of critical hours. 609. Muranyi, Thonas. "A Method of Estlnating Traffic Behavior on All Routes in a Metropolitan County," HRR, No. 41, 1963, pp. 61-78. (2a, 6). 610. Murdie, Robert A. "Cultural Differences in Consuner Travel," EG, Vol. 41, July 1965, pp. 211-233. (2a, 6). A conparison of travel patterns of Old Order Mennonites and "nodern ' Canadians yields between group differences which suggest socio-econonic influences on relative nobility. 611. Murphy, Rhoads. "China's Transport Problem and Connunist Planning,'^ EG, Vol. 32, January 1956, pp. 17-28. (1,8). A discussion of the proposition that extension of transport facilities are the solution to China's econonic problecs. All forns of carriers and the strategy and uotives of government planning are considered. 102. CPL Exchanse Bibliography #324-#325 612. Myers, Surxier, "Personal Transportation for the Poor," TQ, Vol. 24, April 1970, pp. 191-206. (4). The author suggests providing autoaobile transportation and taxi-bus service to low-incor.:e areas to increase the nobility of the inhabitants. 613. Nader, G. A. "Socio-Econonic Status and Consuner Behavior," US, Vol. 6, June 1969, pp. 235-245. (2b, 4, 6c). Type of house is used as a variable describing consuner behavior and socio-econonic status. 614. Nash, Allan N. and Stanley J. Hille. "Public Attitudes toward Transport Modes: A Sunnary of Two Pilot Studies," HRR, Wo. 233, 1968, pp. 33-46. (8). Consuner attitudes towards existing road systems and attitudes of an ideal transportation systen are surveyed . 615. Nash, Williar.i W. and Jerrold R. Voss. "Analyzing the Socio-Econonic Inpacts of Urban Highways," HRBB 268, 1960, pp. 30-94. (4,7a). 616. Naughton, P. W. "Container Transport--The Shipping View- point," ITJ, Vol. 32, Novenber 1967, pp. 273-277. (1). 617. Neal, A. F. "Passenger Transport in Conurbations," ITJ, Vol. 31, Nove.riber 1965, pp. 234-241. (4). A review of the types of urban transport, rail and road, and of the requirenents of a good transport systen. 618. Neidercorn, J. H. and B. V. Bechdolt, Jr. "An Econonic Derivation of the 'Gravity Law' of Spatial Inter- action," JRS, Vol. 9, August 1969, pp. 273-282. (2b, 6). An attenpt to derive the "gravity law" of spatial interaction fron the principle of utility naxinization. 619. Nelson, J. G. "Pre-European Trade between Australia, Indonesia and the Asiatic Mainlands," CG, Vol. 5, Winter 1961, pp. 18-22. (3,6a). Although existing evidence suggests this trade, the duration and intensity of the trading is still unresolved. 103. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 620. Nelson, Janes C. "Effects of Public Regulation on Railroad Performance," MR, Vol. 50, May 1960, pp. 495-505. (8a). 621. Neslon, Jar.as R. "Transport Policy for European Econonic Intergration," AER, Vol. 58, May 1968, pp. 378-392. (1,8). A wide ranging discur.sion of EEC transport policy, emphasizing the policy for Rhine traffic. 622. Nelson, Robert A. "Railroad Mergers and Public Policy," LE, Vol. 41, May 1965, pp. 133-192. (8a). Article describes the need for nergers. 623. Nenhauser, G. L. "Scheduling Local and Express Service," TS, Vol. 3, May 1969, pp. 164-175. (2,8). 624. Neutze, G. M. "Major Determinant of Location Patterns," LE, Vol. 43, May 1967, pp. 227-232. (1,7). A brief treatment of location theory, 625. Newton, Milton B. "Route Geography and the Routes of St. Helena Parish, Louisiana," AAAG, Vol. 60, January 1970, pp. 134-152. (3). Historical treatment of routes as a cultural feature on the landscape. 626. Nicholson, John. "Some Shipping Problems," ITJ, Vol. 31, July 1965, pp. 159-165. (8c). A brief generalized summary of problems in the shipping trade and some answers to then. 627. Niedercorn, John H. and John F. Kain. "Suburbanization of Employment and Population: 1948-1975," HRR, No. 38, 1963, pp. 25-39. (2a, 7). An econometric model is presented to explain population and employment changes in central cities and metro- politan rings from 1954-1958. Land use patterns for a typical metropolitan area are predicted for the year 1965 and 1975. Despite decentralizing forces, it is predicted that employment iu the central cities will increase faster than population growth in central cities. 628. Nikol'skiy, I. V. "The Geography of Transportation of Kazakhstan," SGRT, Vol. 2, I-larch 1961, pp. 44-54. (6b, 8a), Survey of freight flows, transport facilities and linkages of a part of central Asia. 104. CPL Exchange Bibliography ^>324-#j25 629. Nikol'skiy, I. V. "Railroad Freight Traffic of the U.S.S.R.," SGRT, Vol. 2, June 1961, pp. 39-93. (6b, 8a). Based on a book on transportation geography of U.S.S.R. , presenting data and nunerous naps. 630. Molen, John, Jr. "Defining 'Intercity' for Transportation Purposes,'' HRR, No. 82, 1965, pp. 109-113. (4). 631. Nordbeck, Stig. "Conputing Distances in Road Nets," PRSA, Vol. 12, 1964, pp. 207-220. (2,5). "Swedish experinents to locate census data in a national grid-syster.i . . . provide the background for work described here: measuring distance by conputer." 632. Nornan, N. E. "Transport Developnents in East Africa, 1965," ITJ, Vol. 31, March 1966, pp. 327-329. (1,8). A brief reviev; of existing transport services. 633. Nornann, 0. K. "Variations in Flow at Intersections as Related to Size of City, Type of Facility and Capacity Utilization," HRBB 352, 1962, pp. 55-99. (2a, 4, 7c). Efficiency of traffic novenent and the influence of several factors on traffic flow, 634. Nystuen, John 0. "A Theory and Siuulation of Intraurban Travel," QUANTITATFJE GEOGRAPHY PART I: ECONOMIC AND CULTURAL TOPICS. W. L. Garrison and D. F. Marble, editors, Evanston, Illinois: Departnent of Geography, Northvjestern University, 1967, pp. 54-83. (2,4,7). The study describes a geographical theory relating urban travel behavior to the spatial arrangeaent of urban facilities. Enphasis is on relating nultiple- purpose shopping trips by custoners to the arrangenent of retail stores in centers, but the author considers the general theory presented broad enough to include all types of intraurban travel. 635. O'Brien, Bob R. "The Future Road Systen of Yellowstone National Park," £\i\AG, Vol. 56, Septeuber 1966, pp. 385-407. (5). 105. CPL Exchange Bibliogrsphy #32/4-#325 636. 'Conner, A, H. "Now Railway Construction and the Pattern of Econordc Developnsnt in East Africa," TPx^'ciSACTIONS : INSTITUTE OF BRITISH GECGRi'.PHERS, No. 36, 1965, pp. 21-30. (7b, 8a). Pvailvray construction has not stinulated economic developi:£nt in areas of peasant agriculture already served by roads. Railway construction must be con- sidered only part of an integrated econoaic developnent progran. 637. O'Dell, Andrew C. "Transport of r.berdeen," SCOTTISH GEOGRAPHICAL MAG/^INE, Vol. 79, 1963, pp. 108-113. (4). Description of the various transport facilities of Aberdeen, including port, rail, road, canal, and air services, 638. Oi, Walter Y. and Paul U. Shuldiner. AN ANALYSIS OF URB/JJ TRAVEL DEM..NDS, Evanston, Illinois: Transportation Center, Northwestern University, 1962. (1,4,6,9). The purpose of this study is to gain an understanding of the phenomenon of urban travel behavior. Part of the text provides a critical evaluation of origin-destination studies and another portion provides an alternative nethodology to the usual treatnent of 0-D data. Finally, attention is turned to the importance of travel and transportation as it is revealed in the expenditure patterns of urban families. 639. Ojo, G, J, Afolabi, "Sone Observations on Journey to Agricultural Work in Yorubaland, S, W, Nigeria," EG, Vol, 46, July 1970, pp. 459-471, (6). Treats "the characteristic features of journey to work noticeable in areas whose econoaies are still doainated by prinary production." 640. Okondo, P. J. Habenga. "The Relaticn between Education and Transportation in East Africa," IR^iNSPORTATION JOURNAL, Vol. 4, Sunxier 1965, pp. 14-20, (1,3). Historical look at trade, transportation, and education. 641. Oliver, Robert M. and Leonard Newnan, "Effect of Trucks on Freeway Flows," HRR, No, 15, 1963, pp, 67-72. (7). As slow noving vehicles nay block passing attenpts or nultiple lane freeways, the forcation and dissipation of queues are natheraatically described as a function of traffic velocity, traffic density, and passing inter ia. 106. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-ir325 642. Olson, Philip. "Theoretical Orientations and Highway Impact Studies," TQ, Vol. 16, Novcnber 1962, pp. 521- 530. (2,7a). The paper suggests a guide for planning locations of future highways through the incorporation of existing theory and new conceptualization into highway-related research by using connunity study techniques. 643. Olsson, Gunnar. DIST/iNCE AND HUI1c\N INTER/iCTlON: A REVIEW Airo BIBLIOGIU.PHY. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Regional Science Research Institute, 1965. (1,2,6). This study broadly reviews and comments upon the literature in which the distance variable in spatial interaction has been treated. The first chapter coror^nts on the role of distance in the existing location theories. The second chapter has as its focus migration and general diffusion nodels, while the third penetrates nore deeply into problems con- nected with the use of gravity and potential nodels, 644. Olsson, Gunnar. "Explanation, Prediction, and Meaning Variance: An Assessnent of Distance, Interacting Models j FG, Vol. 46, June 1970, pp. 223-231. (2b). This paper treats definition of the terns explanation and prediction, especially with regard to interaction, along with renarks about statistical inference, neaning variance, and connectability of spatial theories. 645. Olsson, Rune. "Connodity Flows and Regional Inter- dependence," PRSA, Vol. 12, 1964, pp. 225-230. (2,5,6). A presentation of exanples of naps and tables fron surveys nade in connection with planning of trans- portation routes in Svreden and the analytic nethods used in such studies. Results of the cocn-odity flow studies are regarded as signs of the ability to produce transport in different kinds of regions and econonic units and can be used both in input-output studies and in traffic planning. 646. Or ford, K. J. "The Future of the Bus," IT J, Vol. 31, November 1965, pp. 242-247. (8b). A discussion of bus service, bus verses car, and the future of the bus. 647. Orr, Earlc VJ. "A Synthesis of Theories of Location of Transport Rates and of Spatial Price Equilibrium," PRSA, Vol. 3, p. 61. (2). 107. CPL Exchance Bibliography C32/'>-#325 648. Osborn, H. E. '^Ro^'d Haulage and Roads," ITJ, Vol. 31, July 1966, pp. 417-438. (8b). An overviev; of the subject, including nany tables. 649. Owen, Wilfred. "Transportation and Technology," AER, Vol. 52, May 1962, pp. 405-413. (1,7). An article dealing with the cost of transport, plans for the developnent of transportation, and the potential of future technology. 650. 0\ien, Wilfred. STRi\TEGY FOR MOBILITY. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution, 1964. (1,7b). The text is designed to guide the allocation of resources in emerging economies and in foreign assistance pro- graos, to uncover the possibilities that science and technology offer for the solution of transport problens, to develop criteria for judging the economic potential of transport investments, and to determine effective means of implementing transport programs. 651. Owen, Wilfred. "Road Transportation and Food Production," HRR, No. 125, 1966, pp. 1-10. (1,7b). Owen analyzes the transportation aspects of the food problem using a broad systems approach that utilizes both transportation and non-transportation investments. 652. Paleyev, Yu. N. "Transport Problems of the Volga Region in Connection with Development of its Productive Forces," SGRT, February 1967, pp. 117-125. (7j). 653. Pappas, P. "Trip Lengths in Relations to Facilities and Journey to Work," ERISTICS, Vol. 30, August 1970, pp. 87-97. (2,4). "Discusses the distribution of trips by the distances they cover from the home . . . and examines certain relationships between trip lengths and such basic variables as income, density, and distance." 654. Patmore, J. Allan and B. Litt. "The Railway Network of Merseyside," TRiiNSACTIONS : INSTITUTE OF BRITISH GEOGRAPHERS, No. 29, 1961, pp. 231-244. (5c, 8a). A consideration of the forces that have resulted in the evolution of the rail network, indicating the effects of competition between individual companies on network evolution. 108. CPL Exchanse Bibliography #324-i^-325 655. Patnore, J. x'.llan. "The Changing Network of British Rail- ways," G, Vol. 47, Novenber 1962, pp. 401-405. (5c, 6, 8a). Description of passenger and freight flow naps and future changes in Britain's rail network. S56. Patnore, J. t.llan. "The Railway Network of the Manchester Conurbation," TRi^NSACTIONS : INSTITUTE OF BRITISH GEOGR/\PHERS, No. 34, 1964, pp. 159-173. (5c, 8a). Factors of site and situation and their influence on netv/ork evolution. 657. Patnore, J. Allan. "The British Railway Network in the Beeching Era," EG, Vol. 41, January 1965, pp. 71-81. (5b, 5c, 3a). Exanines the expected railroad network changes resulting fron inplenentation of the Beeching Report. The article considers the effects of closures, the role of rural branches, altered traffic flows, and the conpetitive duplication of the future network. 658. Patterson, J. H. "50 Years of the Bern-Lotschberg-Sinplon Railway," G, Vol. 48, Novenber 1963, pp. 404-406. (3,5b). Discussion of najor resources for the construction of the railv/ay and speculations about its future. 659. Pattison, Irna E , "Roads in Canada," TE, Vol. 33, August 1963, pp. 11-15. (3,5). Descriptive treatnent with historical enphasis on routes. 660. Pattison, Willian D, "The Pacific Railroad Rediscovered," GR, Vol. 52, January 1962, pp. 25-36. (3,5,8a). Pattison describes the building of the Pacific railroad and presents re-discovered photographs of the construction. 661. Patton, Donald J. "The Traffic Patterns on Anerican Inland Waterways," EG, Vol. 32, January 1956, pp. 29-37. (6b, 8c). A sui:inary of traffic density patterns for all ports on the inland waterway systen, coijnents on general traffic features, and problems of traffic density. 662. Patton, Donald J, "General Cargo Hinterlands of New York, Philadelphia, Baltinore, and New Orleans," AAAG, Vol. 43, Deceuber 1958, pp. 436-455. (6b, 7c). Origin and destination naps of each city's port hinterlands and factors contributing to the fornation of these patterns. 109. CPL Ejcchange Bibliography 7'A324-#325 663. Patton, Donald J. "Railroad Rate Structures, Ocean Trade Routes and the Hinterland Relation of Halifax and St. John," TESG, Vol. 52, January 1961, pp. 2-13. (7c, 8a), 664. Pavlenko, V. F. "The Transport-Geography Situation and Inter-Regional Links of Central Asia," SORT, Vol. 4, November 1963, pp. 27-33. (6b, 8a). Treatment of inter-regional novenent by connodities and econonic regions, 665. Payne, No man J. "Ground Transportation at Major European Airports," HRR, No. 234, 1968, pp. 18-28. (4). Discussion of the increasing congestion of airport terminal facilities and the decreasing levels of surface accessibility to terninals. 666. Pegrun, Dudley F. "The Los Angeles Metropolitan Transit Authority," LE, Vol. 37, August 1951, pp. 247-255. (4). Study of its history, function, and structure. 667. Pendleton, William C. "Land Use at Freeway Interchanges,'' IQ, Vol. 15, July 1961, pp. 535-546. (7a). Probler.i3 of traffic and land use and suggestions for additional research. 668. Pendleton, William C. "Relation of Highway Accessibility to Urban Real Estate Values," HRR, No, 16, 1963, pp. 14-23. (6c, 7a). House prices, job accessibility, and driving tine and distance to the CBD are used to relate 0-D data to data concerning the urban housing market. 669. Pendleton, William C, "An Empirical Study of Changes in Land Use at Freeway Interchanges," TQ, Vol, 19, January 1965, pp, 89-100, (2a, 7a, 9). "This paper discusses the use of aerial photographs in assembling data on changes in land use,. . . presents the findings from a study of land development around sixty-four freeway interchanges," and suggests a simple model to explain observed rates of change. 670. Penfold, Anthony, "Caracas: Urban Growth and Trans- portation," TPR, Vol. 41, April 1970, pp. 103-120. (3,4). Historical survey. 110. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 671. Penrose, E. F, "The Place of Transport in Econonic and Political Geocraphy," TRi\NSPORT AND COl-MJNICATIONS REVIEW, Vol. 5, 1952, pp. 1-8. (1). 672. Perazich, George and Leonard L, Fischnan. "Methodology for Evaluating Costs and Benefits of Alternative Urban Transportation Systenis," HRR, No. 148, 1966, pp. 59-71. (8). 673. Perkins, Dudley. "The Problens Facing the Port of London Authority in the Light of the Devlin Report," ITJ, Vol. 31, March 1966, pp. 314-321. (7c). 674. Perle, Eugene D, "Estination of Transportation Denand," PRSA, Vol. 15, 1965, pp. 203-215. (2,8). The paper attenpts to fonaulate a fracework for estinating transportation demand relationships for railroads and motor carriers in the U. S,, where interest focuses upon the market behavior of the respective nodes during the 1950-1960 interval for manufactured goods. Demand elasticities are empirically derived to explain the pattern of inteirmodal competition. 675. Pettit, D.E.A, "Retail Distribution Problems," ITJ, Vol. 31, September 1966, pp. 470-474. (1,6). 676. Pfister, Richard L, "The Commodity Balance of Trade of the Pacific Northwest for Selected Years, 1929-1955," PRSA, Vol. 5, 1959, pp. 237-252. (6). The purpose of this paper is to describe and to analyze the commodity trade between the Pacific Northwest and the rest of the v/orld and to examine the position of the Northwest, a region specializing primarily in the production of food and rav? materials, relative to other regions of the U.S. which have more highly industrialized and diversified economies. 677. Pieters, L, J. "A Hundred Years of Sea-Comnunication between England and the Netherlands," JTH, Vol. 6, November 1964, pp. 210-221. (3,8c). 678. Pignataro, Louis J. "Urban Transportation, Techniques," HSGTJ, Vol. 2, May 1968, pp. 246-259. (1,4). This general discussion stresses the development of public transportation systems and the factors which may increase acceptance of such systems. 111. CPL Exchan-a Bibliography t'A324-#325 679. Pignataro, Louis J. and John C, Falcocchio. "Transpor- tation Needs for Lev? Incone Fanilies," TQ, Vol. 23, October 1969, pp. 505-527. (A). Surveys of low-incone groups indicate trip generation is significantly below average, and it is suggested that public transportation will provide needed nobility, 680. Pikarsky, Milton. "Conprehensive Planning for the Chicago Crosstown Expressway," HRR, Ko. 180, 1967, pp. 35-51. (1,5b). 681. Pillsbury, Warren A. "Econonics of Highway Location: A Critique of Collateral Effect /oialysis," HRR, No. 75, pp. 53-61. (5b). Pillsbury reviews highway location nethodology and evaluates collateral effect analysis in view of the criticisms of those who favor narginal user benefits and costs as a ceasure of highway efficiency. 682. Pitts, Forrest. "A Graph Theory Approach to Historical Geography," FG, Vol. 17, 1965, pp. 15-20. (2a, 3, 5a). Uses graph-theoretic indices to neasure to centrality of Moscow. 683. Plowden, S.P.C. "Transportation Studies Examined," JTEP, Vol. 1, January 1967, pp. 5-27. (2a,4). i>n overview of predictive nethods for urban transport developcent. 684. Piowoan, E. G. "The Transportation Crisis of 1933," TRi^NSPORTATION JOURNAL, Vol. 1, Fall 1961, pp. 9-14. (1). Concents on various forns of transportation in 1933. 685. Plowman, E. G. "How Control of Transportation Contributes to Profitability," TRANSPORTATION JOURNAL, Vol. 2, Winter 1952, pp. 13-18. (8). Connon carrier choice. 686. Pluoraer, Andrew V., Leo G. Wilkie, and Robert F. Gran. "Holiday and Sunner Weekend Traffic Survey," HRBB 297, 1961, pp. 74-85. (6). Conpares traffic volunes of recreational and non- recreational trips with respect to tine of day, day of travel, and toll road as opposed to non-toll road user destination. 112. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 687. Polyakov, Ye. A. "Selection of an Optimal Forn of Surface Transportation in the Northeast of the U.S.S.R.," SGRT, Vol. 4, Movenber 1963, pp. 34-42. (5,8a). Presents factors affecting gau^e suitability in areas of high constructing and operating costs. 688. Porter, Philip U. "VJhat is the Point of Mininun Aggregate Travel," AA/iG, Vol. 53, June 1963, pp. 224-232. (2a). The point of nininun aggregate travel nay be deternined by least squares analysis. The author describes the nethod and presents a graphic method for finding the point. 689. Pourcelet, Michel. "The International Element in Air Trans- port," JOURNAL OF AIR LAW AND COI^IMERCE, Vol. 33, Winter 1987, pp. 75-85. (8d). The need for and types of international agreecents, such as pooling. 690. Fred, Allan. "Toward a Typology of Manufacturing Flows," GR, Vol. 54, January 1964, pp. 65-84. (6). Examines volune and length of flow characteristics for plants with similar production functions in dissimilar regions and for plants v/ith dissimilar production functions in similar regions, A typology of manu- facturing flows is developed for industries oriented to raw-material and fuel, market, and labor and agglomiation economies. 691. Pred, Allan. "The Intrametropolitan Location of American Manufacturing," lUAG, Vol. 54, June 1964, pp. 165-180. (7). Urban decentralization and intra-cetropolitan locational patterns of selected industrial groups are analyzed and the effect of transportation noted, 692. Proudlove, J. Alan. "A Traffic Plan for London," TPR, Vol. 31, pp. 53-73. (4). A report of a "long term plan of highway development in the London area." 693. Proudlove, J. .ilan. "Traffic in Towns: A Review," TPR, Vol. 34, 1963-64, pp. 253-268. (4). 113. CPL Sxchanse Bibliography #324-#325 694. Prybyla, Ian S, "Transportation in Connunist China," LE, Vol. 42, August 1966,' pp. 263-281. (3,8). Describes historical growth of railroads, shipping and aviation in China; concludes that progress was the result of totalitarianisn which would ignore the hunan costs involved. 695. Pursifull, L. J. "Juabo Jet aircraft and the Impact They Will Have on Transportation," HRR, No. 234, 1968, pp. 1-17. (l,8d). 696. Pushkareo, Boris. "Highway Location as a Problen of Urban and Landscape Design," HRR, No. 23, 1963, pp. 7-18. (5b). Principles of aesthetic highway location are described. Adherence to topography, respect for nan-nade geonetry, and the provision of a succession of different views are requirenents for highway construction that oust be balanced with econouic considerations. 697. Putnan, Stephen H. "Modeling and Evaluating the Indirect Impacts of Alternative Northeast Corridor Transportation Systens," HRR, No. 180, 1967, pp. 81-93. (2a, 5, 7). 698. Pyers, Clyde E. "Evaluation of Intervening Opportunities Trip Distribution Model," HRR, No. 114, 1966, pp. 71-98. (2b,4,6c). The author compares travel patterns estiraated by the intervening opportunities nodel with 0-D survey data and concludes that the nodel satisfactorily simulates the survey data. 699. Quandt, Richard E. "Models of Transportation and Optimal Network Construction," JRS, Vol. 2, 1960, pp. 27-46. (5). 700. Quandt, Richard E. and William J. Baunol. "The Demand for Abstract Transport Modes: Theory and Measurement," JRS, Vol. 6, Winter 1966, pp. 13-26. (2b). A model of an abstract mode travel demand is formulated and tested. The results indicate an abstract mode approach enables the investigation of modal character- istics without specifying the identity of the mode. 701. Quandt, Richard E. and Kan Hua Young. "Cross Sectional Travel Demand Models: Estimates and Tests," JRS, Vol. 9, August 1969, pp. 201-214. (2b). A variety of potential demand equations are estimated and analyzed using variates of the "abstract mode model." IIA. CPL Exchange Bibliography ,'>324-#325 702. Quarnby, D. A. "Choice of Travel Mode for the Journsy to Work: Sone Findings," JTEP, Vol. 1, Septenber 1967, pp. 273-314. (2a, 4). A study of nodal choice in Leeds, enphasizing travel tine and costs. 703. Quinby, Henry D. "Transportation for Super-regions," TQ, Vol. 17, July 1963, pp. 325-340. (7). The author aiscusses the evolution and characteristics of predicted super-regions and the transportation facilities that will be required, 704. Quinlan, H. G. "The Changing Role of Sydney in Australia's x^ir Transport," AUSTRi^^LLAN GEOGRi'.PHICAL STUDIES, Vol. 1, April 1963, pp. 49-60. (4,8d). Tine table data are used to delinit hinterlands for najor Australian cities. 705. Rae, John B. "Financial Probleros of the Anerican Aircraft Industry, 1906-1940," BUSINESS HISTORY REVIEW, Vol. 39, 1965, pp. 99-114. (3,8d). 706. Randall, Duncan P. "VJilnington, North Carolina: The Historical Developnent of a Port City," m\AG, Vol. 58, September 1968, pp. 441-451. (3,7c). Randall identifies three functional periods reflecting the changing pattern and significance of transport foms and the changing character of the area served by Wilnington. 707. Ray, D. M. "Cultural Differences in Consuner Travel Behavior in Eastern Ontario," CG, Vol. 11, 1967, pp. 143-156. (6). 708. Raynond, S. E. 'British Railways — Towards a Solution and a Modern Railway," ITJ, Vol. 31, May 1966, pp. 363-369. (Oa), A brief review of sone of the problens of the railroad V7ith new developnents and suggestions. 709. Peed, Wallace E. "Indirect Connectivity and Hierarchies of Urban Doninance," AAAG, Vol. 60, Decenber 1970, pp. 770-735. (2a,5a,8d). A nethod of deternining doninance is applied to Indian air traffic flows. 115. CPL Exchanse Bibliography #324-#325 710. Reeves, F. A. "New Zealand's Overseas Air Policy and its National and Econonic Vr.lue," ITJ, Vol. 31, September 1965, pp. 200-206. (1,3d). 711. Reynolds, D. J. "The Econonics of Rural Motorv7ays," JOURNAL OF INDUSTRI/X ECONOMICS, Vol. 10, Novenber 1961, pp. 10-20. (8b). 712. Rice, Joseph F. "Adoption of Aerial Survey Methods for Traffic Operations," HRR, No. 19, 1S63, pp. 47-52. (9). Several instances are enumerated which demonstrate the effectiveness of aerial photographic techniques in solving problems associated with traffic flow. 713. Richards, Hoy A. "Transportation Costs and Plant Location: A Review of Principal Theories," TRivNSPORTATION JOURN.U., Vol. 2, Winter 1962, pp. 19-24. (7). A brief summary. 714. Ridley, T. M. "Reducing the Travel Tine in a Transport Network," in: A. J. Scott, editor, STUDIES IN REGIONAL SCIENCE, London, England: PionLtd., 1969, pp. 73-88. (2,5). This paper treats the problem in transportation analysis of the allocation of investment to a network and the related problem of the proper scheduling of invest- ments. The author provides a method of solution for the best combination for investment, given an existing network, a number of possible links which can be built or improved, and a fixed budget. A restriction on the general problem of the scheduling of investment. 715. Rimmer, Peter J. "Changes in the Status of Seaports, 1953-1963," NEW ZEALAND GEOGRAPHER, Vol. 21, 1965, pp. 65-72. (7c). Maps and commentary on New Zealand's seaports. 716. Rirxier, Peter J. "The Problem of Comparing and Classifying Seaports," FG, Vol. 18, 1966, pp. 83-91. (7c). The paper represents a break from the many detailed studies of individual ports which provide little in- for-uation regarding an acceptable scale against which the activities or relative importance of any given port can be measured. The paper is, then, a search for such an acceptable measure through review of literature of the measurement of ports and an assessment of the available criteria by analyzing data on New Zealand seaports. 116. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 717. Rinner, Peter J. "A Resurgence in New Zealand Coastal Trade," G, Vol. 51, July 1966, pp. 248-251. (8c). Credits resurgence of trade to specialized ships v;ith rapid turn around and nininun shore labor. 718. Rinner, Peter J. "The Search for Spatial Regularities in the Development of Australian Seaports, 1861-1961," GEOGR/iFISICi ANNALER, Vol. 49B, 1967, pp. 42-54. (3,7c). The nodel of transport developnent put forth by Taaffe, Morrill, and Gould is nodified by weighting links on the transport network and by including a port that survives the historical displacenent process. Uses net tonnage figures to indicate port growth. 719. Rinner, Peter J. "Changes in the Ranking of Australian Seaports, 1951-2 - 1961-2," TESG, Vol. 58, January- February 1957, pp. 28-38. (7c). 720. Rinner, Peter J. "The Changing Status of New Zealand Sea- ports, 1853-1960," /iAAG, Vol. 57, March 1967, pp. 88- 100. (2a, 3, 7c). A verbal nodel of the evolution of New Zealand's port locations. Vested port interests, the nature of cargo, and actions of the central governnent are uajor factors affecting the pattern of port developnent. 721. Rinner, Peter J, "Recent Changes in the Status of Sea- ports in the New Zealand Coastal Trade," EG, Vol. 43, July 1967, pp. 231-243. (7c). Uses cargo tonnages as an indication of status and exaaines changes produced by the introduction of a rail ferry. 722. Rinner, Peter J. "The Transportation Method of Linear Progranning, with a New Zealand Example," NEW ZEALAND GEOGRAPHER, Vol. 24, April 1968, pp. 90-99. (2,6). An introJuctory explanation, using cenent novenent as an exanple, 723. Roberts, John M. et al. "The Snail Highway Business of U.S. 30 in Nebraska," EG, Vol. 32, April 1956, pp. 139-152. (7a). Describes the snail highway business conplex and its relation to traffic flow. 117. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 724. Roberts, Paul 0. and David T. Kresga. "Siuulation of Transport Policy Alternatives for Colonbia," AER, Vol. 58, May 1968, pp. 341-359. (2,7,8). An explanation of sone conputer nodels developed and a description of a "nodel of the economy and the trans- portation systen of Colonbia." 725. Robinson, Carlton C. "Freeways in the Urban Setting," TQ, Vol. 17, July 1963, pp. 432-438. (4). The article attempts to answer the question: "Will the city becone a better place to live as present freeway development continues?" He believes it will. 726. Rodgers, Allan L. "The Port of Genova: External and Internal Relations," AAAG, Vol. 48, December 1958, pp. 319-351. (7c). Analysis and interpretation of the relationships of the port of Genova to its foreland and hinterland. 727. Roeseler, Wolfgang G. "Traffic Forecasting and the Land- Use Plan," TQ, Vol. 19, July 1965, pp. 396-404. (4). 728. Rogers, Andre. "A Markovian Policy Model of Interregional Migration," PRSA, Vol. 17, 1966, pp. 205-224. (2,6). A fundamental model of interregional migration is defined which describes current behavior and indicates the distributional consequences of mobility trends. The paper extends the model to include population dis- tribution goals and defines the policy requirements for the achievement of these goals; concludes with a brief consideration of how Markovian nodels may be used in regional data bank operations and continuously updated information systems. 729. Rom, V. Ya. "The Volga-Baltic Waterway," SGRT, Vol. 11, November 1961, pp. 32-43. (3, 6b, 8c). Treatment of history and expected freight changes in the northwestern part of European Russia. 730. Rose, Warren. "Catalyst of an Economy: The Houston Ship Channel," LE, Vol. 43, February 1967, pp. 32-43. (7,3c), 731. Ross, H. Laurence. "Reasons for Moves to and from a Central City Area," SOCIAL FORCES, Vol. 40, March 1962, pp. 261-263. (4). 113. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 732. Roth, G. J. and J. M. Thonson. "The Relief of Traffic Congestion by Parking Restrictions," TPR, Vol. 34, 1963-64, pp. 185-198. (4). Reasons, nethods, inplications, and benefits of parking restrictions. 733. Roth, G. J. "An Economic Approach to Traffic Congestion," TPR, Vol. 36, 1965-66, pp. 49-61. (4). Describes "a nunber of concepts coEnonly used in the field of econonics and considers their application to the stuJy of traffic on congested roads." 734. Row, Arthur T. "Transportation i.-i the Center City Developcent Plan for Philadelphia," HRBB 293, 1961, pp. 45-57. (4). A complex of underground railroad connections, an improved subway station, and a major bus garage and parking garage directly connected with the expressway system have increased accessibility to the CBD and has led to a proposed major downtown development project, 735. Ruiter, Earl R. "Improvements in Understanding, Calibrating and Applying the Opportunity Model," HRR, No. 165, 1967, pp. 1-21. (2b). 736. Sackrey, Charles M. , Jr. "Overcapacity in the United States International Air Transport Industry," JOURN/iL OF AIR LAW AND COMi'JERCE, Vol. 32, Winter 1966, pp. 24-93. (8d) . Discussion of the lATA, air agreements, under-utilizaticn and overcapacity of airlines. 737. Salesbury, William and Alan To^msend. "Transportation Studies and British Planning Practice," TPR, Vol. 41, January' 1970, pp. 63-79. (1,3). A general discussion of transportation planning techniques and the history of transportation planning in Great Britain. 738. Saouelson, P. A. "Spatial Price Equilibrium and Linear Programming," mR, Vol. 42, June 1952, pp. 283-303. (2a, 6). The use of linear prograroing changes a purely des- criptive problem in non-normative economics into a maximization problem. 739. Savigear, Flavia, "A Quantative Measure of Accessibility," TPR, Vol. 38, 1967-68, pp. 64-72. (2,4,8b). 119. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 740. Sav7hill, Ray B. and Keith C. Crandall. "Sone Measurable Qualities of Traffic Service Influenced by Freeways," HRR, No. 49, 1964, pp. 30-53. (8b). Travel tine and fuel consunption are used as measures of freeway service. Freeway construction always produced savings in travel tine; however, fuel savings uay not result. 741. Scaperlanda, Anthony. "The Role of Transportation in the Economic Integration of Underdeveloped Areas," LE, Vol. 42, May 1966, pp. 205-209. (7b). "Synthesis of a transportation policy . . . consistent with development goals of econonic integration efforts in underdeveloped areas." 742. Schary, Philip. "Ccnpetition, Regulation and the Air Freight Industry," JOURNAL OF .xIR L/JJ /iND COM-iERCE, Vol. 30, Winter 1964, pp. 62-71. (8d). Conpetition between all cargo airlines and passenger airlines for air freight. 743. Schary, Philip. "The Civil Aeronautics Board and the All- Cargo Airlines: The Early Years," BUSINESS HISTORY REVIEW, Vol. 41, 1967, pp. 272-284. (3,8d). 744. Schenker, Eric. "Technical Efficiency of British Motor Transport Under Nationalization," TR^'iNS PORTATION JOURN/i, Vol. 4, Spring 1965, pp. 5-11. (8b). 745. Schenker, Eric, and John Wilson, "The Use of Public Mass Transportation in the Major Metropolitan Areas of the United States," LE, Vol. 43, August 1967, pp. 361-367. (A, 8). 746. Schiupeler, Charles C. and Willian L. Grecco. "Systecs Evaluation: /m Approach Based on Community Structure and Values," HRR, No. 238, 1968, pp. 123-152. (2a, 4). The use of linear programing techniques to foruulate an evaluative procedure for transportation systens based on connunity development criteria and extensions of the procedure in land use planning and other aspects of transportation planning. 120. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324 -#32 5 /47. Schrnandt, Henry and G. Ross Stephens, "Public Transportation and the tJorker," TQ, Vol. 17, Novenber 1963, pp. 573- 583. (4,6). The article represents a sanpling of 1960 census data on coGnuting and non-conniuting workers and the relation- ship anong several variables that affect the trans- portation patronage pattern. 748. Schtaitt, Robert C. ''Population Densities and Autonobile 0\mership in a Metropolitan Area," JOURI'J/iL OF /itERIC/O^ INSTITUTE OF PL/J.WERS, Vol. 27, Novenber 1961, pp. 332-333. (2a, 4). Multiple regression analysis shows that the nunber of autouobiles per household can be forecast by using census data indicating the nunber of households per net acre and the percentage of households in nulti-unit structures. 749. Schneider, Morton. "A Direct Approach to Traffic Assign- ment," HRR, No. 6, 1963, pp. 71-75. (2b, 4, 6c). Presents the traffic assignnent method of analysis and a nodel of traffic flow. 750. Schneider, Morton. "Direct Estination of Traffic Volune at a Point," HRR, No. 165, 1967, pp. 108-116. (2a). 751. Schnore, Leo F. "The Use of Public Transportation in Urban Areas," TQ, Vol. 16, Novenber 1962, pp. 488-498. (4,8). •. . !' With Qultiple regression analysis, the author shows hov7 the factors of city size, density, and age nake for variations in the use of nass transit systeus. 752. Schofield, G. "The Canalization of the Moselle," G, Vol. 50, April 1965, pp. 161-163. (8c). Outlines the benefits frou canalizing the river, 753. Schultz, Gwen H. "Using Dots for Traffic Flow Maps," PG, Vol. 13, January 1961, pp. 13-19. (1,9). A technique for using dots instead of utilizing variations of line widths to portray differences in traffic volune is presented. The author suggests that this type of nap has tV7o advantages over variable line width maps: (1) highways occupy their proper positions and relation- ships without distortion, and (2) dots can be counted, naking it easier to estinate nunerical values. 121. CPL Exchanse Bibliography #324-#325 754. Schwarty, N. L. "Discrete Progracs for Moving Known Cargoes fror; Origins to Dnstinations on Tine at Mininun Bargeline Fleet Cost," IS, Vol. 2, May 1968, pp. ISA- US. (2,6). 755. Schwartz, Arthur, "Forecasting Transit Use," HRBB 297, 1961, pp. 18-35. (2a, 6). The use of autoaobile ownership, net residential density, and transit service characteristics to forecast transit use, CBD trips constitute the basis for the denand for najor transit inprovecents. 756. Schwartz, Arthur. "Sampling Methods for the Collection of Conprehens ive Transit Passenger Data," HRR, No. 205, 1967, pp. 86-95. (9). By dividing transit service into sanpling units, one can obtain conprehens ive data on passenger usage. 757. Schwind, Paul J. "The Geography of Railroad Piggyback Operations," TQ, Vol. 21, April 1967, pp. 237-248. (5,6, 8a). Exanination of TOFC route patterns, traffic flows, cost and efficiency, and teminals (including naps). 758. Scott, Allen J, "A Progranning Model of an Integrated Transportation Network," PRSA, Vol. 19, 1967, pp. 215- 222. (2,5a). The paper considers the problen of how to deteraine an optinal transportation network linking a given set of settlements. The paper proceeds by justifying the analysis of network structure as a set of binary-coded edge incidences, qualified by the distances betvjeen nodes and onitting considerations of capacity. Given a constraint upon the total uileage of the network that can be constructed, this nodel assunes that the geo- graphical structure of the network should be in sone sense optimized. 759. Scott, Peter. ''Car Ownership in Australian Cities," TPR, Vol. 31, 1960-61, pp. 125-134. (4). A breakdovm by several cities. 760. Scott, Roy V. "/inerican Railroads and Agricultural Extension, 1900-1914: A Study in Railway Developnental Techniques," BUSINESS HISTORY REVIEW, Vol. 39, 1965, pp. 74-98. (3,7,8a). 122. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324 -#325 761. Sealy, Kenneth R, "Road and Rail Transit in Britain," G, Vol. 49, July 1964, pp. 293-303. (8a, 8b). A review of najor legislation affecting road and rail transport in Britain fron 1921-1962. 762. Sealy, Kenneth R. "The Siting and Developnent of British Airports," GECGR/iPHIC/iL J0UR1>I/>L, Vol. 133, June 1967, pp. 148-173. (5,8d). Presents a general discussion of national patterns of airport traffic and airport developnent in England. 763. Sealy, Kenneth R. THE GEOGRAPHY OF AIR TR.\NSPORT. Chicago, Illinois: Aldine Publishing Co., 1968. (8d). The author discusses the physical geography of air transport V7herein he details the influence of topography and clinate on the location and construction of air terninals and on flying conditions and air routes. He then proceeds to discuss the economic and technical developnent of air transport, conparing it with other neans of transportation. A detailed analysis of world air routes, vjith a conparison between Europe, the United States, and underdeveloped countries follows, and the book concludes with a section on underdeveloped areas and offers speculations on the future course of air travel. 764. Senple, R. Keith and L. H. Wang. "A Geographical Analysis of Redundancy in Inter-Urban Transportation Links," Discussion Paper No. 5, Toronto, Canada: Departnent of Geography, University of Toronto, 1970. (2,5a). The paper analyzes the redundancy of six selected inter- urban highway networks in Canada, which was acconplishsd by developing a technique using infornation theory to neasure the cooplexity in networks. A redundancy index v/as then calculated vjhich related the conplexity in bounded real world networks with corresponding bounded ideal networks. 765. Sen, P. K. "Calcutta Traffic Problens," TQ, Vol. 16, April 1962, pp. 289-304. (4). The description of Calcutta, its road and traffic growth, nass transportation, and traffic departnents reveal that the basic problen is congestion. 123. CPL Exchar.33 Bibliography #324-#325 766. Seneca, Joseph J. and Charles J. Cicchetti. "A Gravity Model Analysis of the Denand for Public Cczxi.unication," JRS, Vol. 9, December 1969, pp. A59-470. (2b). A gravity analysis of telegran service indicates physical distance, rather than econonic distance, provides a higher association with volune. 767. Seshagiri, M. , R. Narasinhan, S. Mehndiratta, and B. K. Chanda. "Conputer Generated Ti-.e Tables and Bus Schedules for a Large Bus Transport Network," TS, Vol. 3, February 1969, pp. 69-35. (2,5,8b). 768. Shaner, H. W. "Econonic Evaluation of Investments in Agri- cultural Penetration Roads in Developing Countries," HRR, No. 180, 1967, pp. 120-132. (7b). Concepts of engineering economy and econonic development are used to evaluate penetration. 769. Shanker, K. "Age and Average Trip Length of Trucks in India," TQ, Vol. 20, January 1966, pp. 104-117. (6b, 8b). "The overall average trip length of goods vehicles of various age groups on truck routes under present Indian conditions has been worked out for certain groups of routes classified by effective length of such routes." 770. Sharp, C. J. "The Choice Between Cars and Buses on Urban Roads," JTEP, Vol. 1, January 1967, pp. 104-111. (4). A discussion of when bus travel is nore desirable than auto novenent and a suggestion that a balance in code choice night be planned on the criterion of the total of all journey tines. 771. Sheman, Roger. "A Private Ownership Bias in Transit Choice," I£R, Vol. 57, December 1967, pp. 1211-1217. (8), 772. Shiatte, Kenneth H. "Composite Networks— A New Planning and Testing Tool," TQ, Vol. 20, January 1966, pp. 118- 135. (5c, 9). Describes a computerized method to produce networks requiring less detailed coding and allowing network configurations to be changed without errors. 124. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 773. Shuldiner, Paul W. "Trip Generation and the Hoce," HRBB 347, 1962, pp. 40-59. (2b,4,6c). Fanily size and vehicle ownership have the greatest positive effect on the frequency of person-trips. Other socio-econonic and dwelling unit characteristics are exanined for their influence on the frequency of person-trips. 774. Shuldiner, Paul W. "Land Use, Activity and Non-Residential Trip Generation," HRR, No, 141, 1966, pp. 73-88. (2b, 4, 6c), Review and analysis of the concepts and procedures used in transportation studies to derive non-residential trip attractions. 775. Shunate, Robert P. and Jar.es R. Dirksen, "A Sinulation Systen for Study of Traffic Flow Behavior," HRR, No. 72, 1964, pp. 19-39. (2b). A conputer sinulation systen using the language called SIMCAR is described. Only a United anount of training is needed to use the progran which specifies highway geonetry, driver and vehicle characteristics, and con- trol elenents. 776. Shunk, G. A., U. L. Grecco, and V. L. Anderson. "The Journey to Work: A Singular Basis for Travel Pattern Surveys," HRR, No. 240, 1968, pp. 32-51. (4,6c). Mutliple regression techniques indicate journey-to-work data nay be used to predict the links used by total day and all purpose travel. 777. Siddall, Willian R. "Railroad Gauges and Spatial Inter- action," GR, Vol. 59, January 1969, pp. 29-57. (5,8a). The world gauge situation as it exists today is napped and described. 778. Sielski, Matthew C. "Effect of Northwest Expressway on Alternate ..rterial Streets," HRR, No. 21, 1963, pp. 106-126. (6,7a). Before and after conparisons of travel tine, fuel con- sunption, accidents, and factors relating to highway benefits on arterial streets indicate the freeway will result in substantial lowering of travel costs on routes near the freeway. 125. CPL Exchange Dibliography #324-#325 779. Sinnons, Janes W. "Changing Residence in the City: A Reviev? of Intraurban Mobility," GR, Vol. 58, October 1968, pp. 622-651. (2,6c). This study examines who coves, why they nove, and where they nove within the city. 780. Sinnons, Janes W. "Interprovincial Interaction Patterns," CG, Vol. 14, 1970, pp. 372-376. (6b). A brief discussion on correlations among various kinds of interactions and an attempt to generalize an index of linkages anong Canadian provinces. 781. Sins, J. B. "Freight Rates and Their Break -Even Points," TRANSPORTATION JOURNAL, Vol. 5, Winter 1965, pp. 41-44. (2). 782. Sinclair, Robert. "Von Thunen and Urban Sprawl," AAAG, Vol. 57, March 1967, pp. 72-87. (2a, 7). A discussion of the inappropriateness of directly applying Von Thunen' s model to agricultural land use around modern cities and a description of an alternate schene based on examination of urban growth processes, 783. Singer, Russell E. "The Future Role of the Automobile in Urban Transportation," TQ, Vol. 18, April 1964, pp. 156-168. (1,4). The automobile is here to stay. 784. Slayton, William L. "Urban Renewal and Mass Transportation Planning," TQ, Vol. 16, January 1962, pp. 5-14. (4). Discusses the coordination necessary from all sectors including transportation to improve the urban environ- ment. 785. Sneed, R. "The Road Space Required for Traffic in To^tos," TPR, Vol. 33, April 1962-63, pp. 279-292. (4). Methods of routing and space needed, with examples fron London. 786. Sneed, R. ''The Effect of Some Kinds of Routing Systems on the Amount of Traffic in the Central Areas of Towns," JOURNAL OF THE INSTITUTE OF HIGHI\'Ay ENGINEERING, Vol. 10, 1963, pp. 5-26. (5,6). 787. Sneed, R. "The Traffic Problem in Towns," TPR, Vol. 35, July 1964-65, pp. 133-158. (4). Overview of the subject including car-bus speed and tine, road design, and traffic density. 126. CIL Exchange Bibliography #324-yr325 788. Sneed, R. "A Theoretical Model of Conuuter Traffic in Towns," JOURN/iL OF THE INSTITUTE OF MATHEMATICAL APPLICATIONS, Vol. 1, 1965, pp. 208-225. (2a, 4). 789. Sneed, R. "Traffic Studies and Urban Congestion," JTEP, Vol. 2, January 1968, pp. 30-70. (4,5,6). "A quantitative analysis of capacity and congestion in real and imaginary tovm centers" and suggested renedies, 790. Snerk, George M. "Denand Considerations in Urban Trans- portation,'' TQ, Vol. 18, July 1964, pp. 421-432. (4). Connents on the lack of appeal of public transport, price considerations, and quality in urban transport, with final cocicents on the Seattle Monorail study, 791. Snerk, George M. "Subsidies for Urban Mass Transportation," LE, Vol. 41, February 1965, pp. 62-65. (4,8). 792. Scerk, George M. "The Streetcar: Shaper of Acerican Cities," TQ, Vol. 21, October 1967, pp. 569-584. (3,7). Historical. 793. Snethurst, P. R. "The National Travel Surveys," TPR, Vol. 38, April 1967-68, pp. 43-63. (9). Techniques involved in the survey and use of the data in planning, 794. Snith, Bob L. "Gravity Model Theory ..pplied to a Snail City Using a Snail Sanple of Origin-Destination Data," HRR, No. 88, 1965, pp. 85-115. (2b, 4, 6c). Using the gravity nodel and a sanple of a longer origin- destination survey of zonal trip production, trip attraction and travel tine adequately reproduce the longer 0-D survey and nay be used for planning purposes. 795. Snith, David A. "Interaction within a Fragnented State: The Exanple of Hawaii," EG, Vol. 39, July 1963, pp. 234-244. (2b, 6b). The use of a nodified gravity nodel and sinple correlations to neasure interaction between Hawaiian cities. The findings indicate the friction of distance is not significantly different fron studies using the gravity nodel in the continental United States. 796. Snith, David i., "Transportation and Terrain in Britain," GR, Vol. 54, July 1964, pp. 431-432. (5). 127. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 797. Snith, Frank ... "Relative Role of Highway Transport in the U. S. Economy, " HRR, No. 175, 1967, pp. 27-32. (1,8b). 798. Snith, Ian. "The Western Nigeria Road Developnent Survey: A Case Study in Pre-Investnent Analysis in Developing Countries," JTEP, Vol. 2, January 1968, pp. 9A-104. (7b). 799. Snith, Robert H.T. "Rigidity of Rail Hinterland Boundaries in Australia," AAAG, Vol. 50, March 1960, pp. 55-57. (5,6,8a). Regression analysis indicates a changing pattern of railway hinterlands. Legislation is directly responsible for this change. 800. Snith, Robert H.T. "Transport Competition in Australian Border Areas: The Exanple of Southern New South Wales," EG, Vol. 39, January 1963, pp. 1-13. (6,8). Considering New South Vales as characteristic of the features and problems of Australia's transport systen, it is suggested that through rates should be applied on interstate rail cons igncent to all centers rather than just capitol cities, 801. Snith, Robert H.T. "Railvjay Connodity Movement between New South Hales and Victoria," AUSTRALLiN GEOGRAPHER, Vol. 9, 1963, pp. 88-96. (6b, 8a). A paper describing connodity flow prior to the introduction of a standard gauge railway. 802. Snith, Robert H.T. "Toward a Measure of Conplenentarity, " EG, Vol. 40, January 1964, pp. 1-8. (2a, 6b). Uses agricultural connodity flow to the New England states to analyze the notion of conplentarity and to neasure its relative significance. 803. Snith, Robert H.T. "The Developnent and Function of Trans- port Routes in Southern New South Wales, 1860-1930," AUSTRiiLI/^ GEOGRAPHIC/i STUDIES, Vol. 2, April 1964, pp. 47-65. (3, 5c, 8a, 8b). The historical developnent of roads and railways. 128. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 804. Snith, Robert H.T. and Alan M. Hay. "A Theory of the Spatial Structure of Internal Trade in Underdeveloped Countries," GA, Vol. 1, April 1969, pp. 121-135. (2a, 6b). The objectives of this article are to present the theory of internal trade, depict the theory with graphical nodels, and to test hypotheses derived fron the nodels. 805. Snith, Robert H.T, "Concepts and Methods in Coonodity Flow Analysis," EG, Vol. 46, June 1970, pp. 404-416. (2a). A valuable review of quantitative nethods used in connodity flow studies and ways of conceptualizing cotxiodity flow research. 806. Snith, Wilbur S. "Synthesized Travel Desires," TQ, Vol. 16, January 1962, pp. 173-200. (2,4,6c). By defining the factors which govern urban travel, the author develops an interactance fomula to forecast zone to zone novenent; the fornula is tested by conparing sinulated results with those fron hone interviews and ground count, 807. Snith, Wilbur S, "Research and Worldwide Urban Transport- ation," HRR, No. 125, 1966, pp. 30-39. (4,9). Travel patterns within several cities are conpared and sinilarities in the patterns suggest the need for a nore complete exchange of transportation planning data and techniques of analysis, 808. Suitzler, Janes R, and Leslie M. Frink. "Regional Transport Planning in Central Anerica," TQ, Vol. 20, July 1966, pp. 447-464, (7b, 9). Discussion of the initial developcent of transport planning and data collection. 809. Snock, Robert, "An Iterative Assignment Approach to Capacity Restraint on Arterial Networks," HRBB 347, 1962, pp, 60-66, (2a, 5, 6), Snock describes a nethod for conputer assignnent in the total process of transportation planning. 810. Snock, Robert. "A Conparative Description of a Capacity- Restrained Traffic Assignnent," HRR, No. 6, 1963, pp. 12-40. (2a, 5, 6). A step-by-step history of a capacity restraint assign- nent probleu is presented as an illustration of its use in highway planr.ing. 129. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324 -#32 5 811. Snell, R, R, , et al, "Traffic Assignment with a Nonlinear Travel Tizie Function," TS, Vol. 2, May 1968, pp. 146-159. (2). 812. Snitzler, Janes R. "Transporting Cattle in Argentina," TRANSPORTATION JOURNiVL, Vol. 1, Spring 1962, pp. 23-29. (6). 813. Snyder, David E. "Cocnercial Passenger Linkage and the Metropolitan Nodality of Montevideo," EG, Vol. 38, April 1962, pp. 95-112. (4, 5a, 6a). An analysis of the spatial differences in passenger linkages focusing on the node of Montevideo and a description of the transport network, the hierarchial structure anong urban places on the network, and the conparitive roles of several carrier types, 814. Sobernan, Richard M. "Econonic Analysis of Highway Design in Developing Countries," HRR, No, 115, 1966, pp. 44-63. (5b, 7b). A franework for analyzing the choice of technology possible in producing a given output of transportation and for exanining the trade-off anong capital costs, road-use costs, and road uaintenance under varying conditions of unenploynent, interest rates, and foreign exchange rates. The study denonstrates the nost efficient technology in one country is not the sane as in another. 815. Soja, Edward W. "Transaction Flows and National Unity: The Nigerian Case," in Gwendolen M. Carter and Ann Paden, editors, EXPANDING HORIZONS IN AFRICAN STUDIES, Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University Press, 1969, pp. 321-328, (6), A discussion of the use of teleconnunications data and the applications of an indifference nodel to trans- action flows, 816. Solesbury, Willian and Alan Townsend, "Transportation Studies and British Planning Practice," TPR, Vol. 41, January 1970, pp. 63-79. (1). 817. Soltoan, Theodore J, "Effects of Alternate Loading Sequences on Results fron Chicago Trip Distribution and /xssignnent Model," HRR, No. 114, 1966, pp. 122- 140. (2b, 4, 6c). 130. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 818. Solonon, R. J. "External Relations of the Port of Hobart, 1804-1961,'^ AUSTRiiLIAN GEOGRi\PHER, Vol. 9, 1963, pp. 43-53. (3,7c). The port's historical developnent and hinterland and foreland connections, 819. Soccers, Lavjrence M. "Distribution and Significance of the Foreign Trade Ports of Norway," EG, Vol. 36, October 1960, pp. 306-312. (6a, 7c). Coastal trade centers act as principal focal points of production and distribution. 820. Sopher, David E, "Pilgrin Circulation in Gujarat," GR, Vol. 58, July 1968, pp. 392-425. (6b). A wide-ranging discussion of pilgrin traffic in Hindu holy places, considering the influences of caste, occupation, income, and the nature of the religious center on the spatial pattern of pilgrinages. 821. Squibb, Glenn A. "Tailoring Rates and Service for Market Developnent," TRANSPORTATION JOURNAL, Vol. 5, Fall 1965, pp. 16-22. (8). An exanple using coal transportation by rail and lake vessel. 822. Srinivasan, N. S. "Growing Traffic and Transportation Probleas in Indian Cities," TE, Vol. 37, July 1967, pp. 44-48. (4). 823. Stabler, J. C. "Exports and Evolution: The Process of Regional Change," LE, Vol. 44, February 1968, pp. 11- 23. (7b). The article gives an overview of location theory and regional developnent as they relate to exports. 824. Stairs, Sonia. 'Selecting an Optical Traffic Network," JTEP, Vol. 2, May 1968, pp. 218-231, (2a, 5). Consideration of three network selection problens: optiv.:al methods, heuristic rules, and interactive conputing. 825. Stanhagen, Uillian H. "Highway Interchanges and Land-Use Controls," HRBB 288, 1961, pp. 32-60. (7a, 8b). Land use controls as practiced in several states are extensively analyzed and evaluated. 131. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324 -#32 5 826. Stanley, Willian R. "Transport Expansion in Liberia," GR, Vol. 60, October 1970, pp. 529-547. (3,5c). Historical inspection of the developnsnt and expansion of the transport network, generally supporting the sequence of transport suggested by Taaffe, Morrill, and Gould. 827. Statler, W. H. and R, A. Blay. "Role of the Rotary Wing in Future Short-Haul Transportation," HSGTJ, Vol. 2, May 1968, pp. 369-387. (6,8d). A wide-ranging discussion of V/STOL vehicles, consider- ing their potential inpact on travel tine, and on najor regions of the United States with short-haul trans- portation probleas. 828. Stern, Stan. "Traffic Floxi; Data Acquisition Using Magnetic- Loop Vehicle Detectors," HRR, No. 154, 1967, pp. 38-52. (9). 829. Stokes, Charles J. "The Freight Transport Systen of Colonbia, 1959," EG, Vol. 43, January 1967, pp. 71-90. (8). The transport systen is divided into sub-systens by node of transport and aj-eal unit. In an examination of attenpts by each areal unit to solve its transport problens, recent transport developnent is shown to be suv^erfluous to integration of the sub-systens. 830. Stowers, Joseph R. and Ednund L. Kanwit. "The Use of Behavioral Surveys in Forecasting Transportation Requirecents," HRR, No. 106, 1966, pp. 44-51. (2b, 4, 6c), Indicates fanily characteristics, rather than distance and density variables, should be the najor variables studied in trip genaration analysis, 831. Stronbon, Donald A. "Highway Planning in Ethiopia," TQ, Vol. 20, January 1966, pp. 147-156. (1,8b). 832. Stroup, Robert H. , Louis A. Vargha, and Robert K. Main. "Predicting the Economic Inpact of Alternate Interstate Route Locations," HRBB 327, 1962, pp, 67-72. (5b, 7a). The effects of alternate highway routes on the location of highway-oriented business are projected for diffcrcnl: business types by connunity. Changes observed along an existing route are used as the basis for projecting. Conparisons are nade on the basis of access, visibility, developnent potential, advertising restrictions, and anticipated driver behavior. 132. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 833. Stroup, Robert H, and Louis A. Vargha. "Econonic Inpact of Secondary Road Inproveuents , " HRR, No, 16, 1963, pp. 1- 13. (7a). The effects of improved rural roads on the trading patterns of rural residents are exanined, indicating that road inprovenents lead to inter- and intra- county narket adjustnents, specialization of enter- prise, and concentration of business. 834. Sturney, S. G. "National Shipping Policies," JOURN.U. OF INDUSTRL.L ECONOMICS, Vol. 14, November 1965, pp. 14- 29. (1,8c). Rationale, methods, and effects of assisting shipping, 835. Sturney, S, G. "Economics and International Liner Service," JTEP, Vol. 1, May 1967, pp. 190-203. (8c). "An examination of the system of conferences to control charges by cargo lines." 836. Sullivan, Sheldon W. and C. E. Pyers. "Results of Use of Pre-Intetview Contacts in Pittsburgh," HRBB 297, 1961, pp. 42-51. (4,9). Pre-interviewing techniques as part of a hone-interview origin-destination survey help increase the accuracy of trip recording. 837. Sullivan, Sheldon W. "Variations in Personal Travel Habits by Day of Week," HRR, No. 41, 1963, pp. 39-44. (4,6c). Due to large variations in traffic volune by day of week, by trip purpose, and node, it is suggested that 0-D studies compensate for these variations in their sampling procedure. 838. Surti, Vasant H. and Edward F. Gervais. "Peak Period Comfort and Service Evaluation of an Urban Freeway and an Alternate Surface Street," HRR, No. 157, 1967, pp. 144- 178. (2a, 4). Galvanic skin response equipment is used to measure driver stress on a freeway and a parallel route. At peak periods the freeway generates more stress than the parallel route. 839. Sutton, Robert M. "The Origins of iimerican Land-Grant Railroad Rates," BUSINESS HISTORY REVIEW, Vol. 40, 1966, pp. 66-76. (8a). 133. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 840. Sychrava, L. "Soe^e Thoughts on Feasibility Studies Occassioned by the Appraisal of Road Projects in Thailand," JTEP, Vol. 2, Septenber 1968, pp. 332-348. (7a, 7b). Discussion of "the selection and ranking of 124 projects, considering costs and benefits, likely increases in output, and the intangible social changes brought by a road to hitherto isolated villages." 841. Sylven, Erik. "Traffic Forecasting: Concepts and Approaches, PRSA, Vol. 14, 1965, pp. 137-145. (2b, 4, 6c). The author briefly outlines and critically reviews the Cross-Fratar nethod of traffic projections, and then proposes an approach to a dynamic nodel using data fron Gothenburg, Sweden. 842. Taaffe, Edward J. "Air Transportation and United States Urban Distribution," GR, Vol. 46, April 1956, pp. 219- 238. (2b, 4, 6b). Analysis of the effects of urban size, function, proxinity to other cities, and railroad services on the air traffic of United States cities. 843. Taaffe, Edward J. "Sone Recent Books on Transportation," I.AAG, Vol. 47, March 1957, pp. 100-103. (1). 844. Taaffe, Edward J. "A Map Analysis of United States Air- line Conpetition," JOURNi\L OF AIR LAW AND COI«IMERCE, Vol. 25, 1958, pp. 121-147. (2,8d). 845. Taaffe, Edward J. "Trends in Airline Passenger Traffic: A Geographical Case Study," AA^X, Vol. 49, Deceniber 1959, pp. 393-408. (2a, 4, 5, 6b). A series of naps is examined for evidence of a re- lationship between air passenger growth rates and characteristics of individual routes. Resort travel, length of haul, and low coach fares. all affect pass- enger traffic. 846. Taaffe, Edward J. "Traffic Flow in Berlin," GR, Vol. 51, April 1961, pp. 305-307. (4,dc). 847. Taaffe, Edward J, "The Urban Hierarchy: ..n Air Pass- enger Definition," EG, Vol. 38, January 1962, pp. 1- 14. (2b, 4, 6b). A conparision of the actual hierarchial pattern of air traffic with a theoretical hierarchy predicted by the gravity nodel. Air traffic is influenced by the increasing doainance of large centers, regional ties, and intensification of the hierarchical nature of inter-city linkages. 134. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 848. Taaffe, Edward J,, Barry J. Garner, and Maurice H, Yeates. THE PERIPHER/\L JOURNEY TO WORK. Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University Press, 1963. (2b, 4, 6c). Probability nodels, nodified fron population and dis- tance variables, are used to simulate conmuting to a west suburban part of the Chicago urban area. 849. Taaffe, Edward J. "Pedestrian Conveyors in the United States,'' GR, Vol. 53, January 1963, pp. 132-133. (4). 850. Taaffe, Edward J., Richard L. Morrill, and Peter R. Gould. "Transport Expansion in Underdeveloped Countries: A Conparative Analysis," GR, Vol. 53, October 1963, pp. 503-529. (2a, 5c, 7b). A verbal model of a six phase ideal-typical sequence of transportation developrr.ent is described with particular reference to Ghana and Nigeria. 851. Taaffe, Robert N. "Transportation and Regional Special- ization: The Exanple of Soviet Central Asia," Ai'iAG, Vol. 52, March 1962, pp. 80-98. (2a, 7b, 8a). Discussion of the expansion of rail transportation and its inpetus to regional developnent. Regional special- ization is considered a nore viable goal for develop- nent programs than regional self-sufficiency. 852. Taaffe, Robert N. "Interregional Passenger Movement in the Soviet Union," EAST LAKES GECGR/IPHER, Vol. 3, 1967, pp. 47-79. (2b, 6b, 8a). Analysis of passenger flows with particular attention to inter-rcgional passenger novenent. The gravity nodel is used to predict flows and to analyze flov; variations, 853. Tallany, Bertrara D. "The Interstate Highway Systen," TQ, Vol. 16, January 1962, pp. 95-102. (5,8b). A prediction of traffic systems in 1975 shows the routes needing expansion. 854. Tan, T. "A Mathematical Model for Commuter Traffic in Satellite Tovms," TS, Vol. 1, February 1967, pp. 6-23. (2a, 4, 6c). Charts, diagrams, tables, and bibliography. 135. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 855. Tanifji, Shozo. "Traffic and Transportation in the Capital Region of Japan," TE, Vol. 36, August 1966, pp. 58-63. (4,5,6). Discussion and naps of traffic flow, routes, and transport facilities, 856. Thatch, Daynon, Stanley J. Hille, and Terence Brown. "A Plan for the Efficient Use of Washington's Area Airports,'' JOURNAL OF AIR LAW AND COMMERCE, Vol. 35, Spring 1969, pp. 204-215. (4,8d). 857. Thiel, Floyd I. "Social Effects of Modern Highway Trans- portation," HRBB 327, 1962, pp. 1-20. (7a). Discussion of the influence of highway developnent on nobile and drive-in services, opportunities for enploynent, and residential characteristics. Public planning should include an exaaination of social in- fluences of highway developnent. 858. Thiel, Floyd I. "Highway Interchange Area Developnent," HRR, No. 96, 1965, pp. 24-25. (8c). A conbination of land use controls utilizing police pov7er and erainent donain and joint planning by state and local officials is recomnended for highway interchange developnent. Review of results of prior inter- change studies, 859. Thillainatagan, R. "Traffic Laprovenents in Madras," TQ, Vol. 18, July 1964, pp. 449-456. (4). 860. Thonas, Benjauin E. "Modern Trans-Saharan Routes," GR, Vol. 42, April 1952, pp. 267-282, (5). Current air and notor transport routes, indicating the problens associated with desert travel. 861. Thonas, Benjanin E. "The Railways of French Worth Africa," EG, Vol. 29, April 1953, pp. 95-106. (8a). While the railroads of Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco have nany sinilarities, contrasts between then pronote differential effects fron post World War II truck conpetition. 136. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 862. Thonas, Benjamin E. "Methods and Objectives in Transportation Geography," PG, Vol. 8, July 1956, pp. 2-5. (1). Anerlcan uethods and objectives in the geography of transportation, both as a specialty and as a part of hunan geography, are exanined to see what 1 imitations they place upon the development of this field. Three luajor cethods are euphasized: (1) the neans of trans- portation, (2) the nature of the goods carried, and (3) the routes followed by the various types of trans- portation and the resulting patterns on the earth's surface, 863. Thonas, Benjanin E. "Railways and Ports in French West Africa," EG, Vol. 33, January 1957, pp. 1-15. (7b, 7c, 8a). Currently the railroads are organized to encourage exports; interior developcent necessitates a re- organization of the transport structure. 864. Thonas, E. and Frank E. Horton. FURTHER COIMiNTS ON THE ANALYSIS OF NON-EESIDENTIiJ. TRIP GENERATION. Evanston, Illinois: The Transportation Center, Northwestern University, 1966. (2,4). 865. Thonas, E. N. and J. L. Schafer. "Expanded Models of Urban and Transportation Systens," HSGTJ, Vol. 1, May 1967, pp. 154-201. (2a,4). Presents a nodel of the urban systen and of the urban transportation systen, giving enphasis to the social and psychological aspects of urban systens. 866. Thonas, Frank H. THE DENVER AND RIO GRANDE I^ESTERN Ri\ILROAD: A GEOGRiiPHIC ANALYSIS. Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University Studies in Geography, No. 4, 1960. (8a). The purpose of this study is to analyze for the year 1956 the relationship between the actual traffic organization of selected cocnodities and the potential traffic of these cocnodities in the counties of the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad hinterland and to describe with the aid of naps and actual origination and flow patterns of these cocnodities. 867. Thonas, Frank H, "Soce Relationships between a Railroad and Its Region," TESG, Vol. 53, June-July 1962, pp. 155-161. (7,8a). 137. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 868. Thonas, Frank H. "Evolution of Railroad Route -to-Route Relationships: L Case Study of the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad," JG, Vol. 62, Decenber 1963, pp. 389-396. (7,8a). Analysis of the functional relationships between a transport systen and the region it serves. 869. Thonas, Frank H. "Railroads and Economic Growth in the United States," GR, Vol. 54, October 1964, pp. 579-580. (7b, 8a, 8c). Review of two studies questioning the assumption that railroads were a najor initator of economic growth, 870. Thonas, Richard C. "The Effect of One-Way Traffic Operation on Retail Business," TE, Vol. 33, July 1968, pp. 44-48. (7a). 871. Thonas, Thonas C. "Value of Tine for Connuting Motorists," HRR, No. 245, 1968, pp. 17-35. (5b, 6). Calculation of travel tine savings by estinating coefficients of toll and travel-tine variables in route choice nodels. Investigates a variety of factors affecting route choice, 872. Thonpson, Bryan. "Recreational Travel: A Review and Pilot Study," TQ, Vol. 21, October 1967, pp. 527-542. (2b, 6b). Examination of methods used for analysis of recreational travel, including a pilot study of camper flow in Ontario, 873. Tonazinis, Anthony R. "A New Method of Trip Distribution in an Urban Area," HRBB 347, 1962, pp. 77-99. (2b, 4, 6c). Simulation of trip interchanges with a model based on probability theory and certain aspects of the gravity model. Tests of the model indicate revision necessary. 874. Tonazinis, Anthony R. and George V, Wickstron. "Forming a Comprehensive Transportation Flows Model," HRBB 347, 1962, pp. 254-257. (2b, 4, 6c). An outline of the structure of a conprehensive model of traffic flow. 875. Tonazinis, mthony R. "Modal Split Model in the Penn- Jersey Transportation Study Area,'' HRR, No. 165, 1967, pp. 41-75. (2b, 4). 138. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 876. Tooazinis, Anthony R. "Objectives and Obstacles in Mass Transit Developnent ," HSGTJ, Vol. 1, Septenber 1967, pp. 364-377. (4). The Penn-Jersey Transportation Study indicates that the transportation planner nust first focus on the goals and objectives that each system nust meet, and then surnount the technical obstacles to developing an essentially modern transport system. 877. Tonuma, Koichi. "The Network City," HSGTJ, Vol. 3, May 1969, pp. 203-219. (4). The prediction of a network city, a single urban complex, in Japan by the end of the 20th century. 878. Treiterer, Joseph and James I. Taylor. "Traffic Flow Investigations by Photogramnetric Techniques," HRR, No. 142, 1966, pp. 1-12. (9). A method of measuring traffic movement in a way that is appropriate for the testing and validation of present theories of traffic flow. Accurate vehicle trajectories, and corresponding spacing and velocity data are obtained. 879. Treweek, K. H. "Systems Analysis for the Management of North Atlantic Air Traffic over the Next Ten Years," ITJ, Vol. 32, September 1968, pp. 441-449. (5,6a). Characteristics of traffic flow are analyzed, flight paths are suggested, and the requirements of improved air traffic management are described. 880. Truett, J. B. and A. J. Balek. "On the Need for a Definition of Demand for Transportation," HSGTJ, Vol. 2, Septenber 1968, pp. 576-592. (1). A definition of demand should include those factors which motivate demand for transportation. An examination of the definitions of demand implied by current estimating and forecasting procedures indicates no comprehensive and adequate definition. 881. Turton, B. J. "The Changing Transport Geography of the East Midlands," EAST MIDLAND GEOGRAPHER, Vol. 4, June 1969, pp. 387-399. (1). A review of road and rail transport. 139. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 882. Udy, Stanley H. , Jr. "Occupation, Counuting, and Linited Access Highway Use," HRBB 347, 1962, pp. 100-105. (4,6c). Occupation differentials of coonuters using a linited access highway. Sales, professional, and technical workers predoninently use the expressway. 883. Ullnan, Edward L, "The Railroad Pattern of the United States," GR, Vol. 39, April 1949, pp. 242-256. (5b, 6b, 8a). A classic discussion of traffic and route characteristics of American railways. 884. Ullnan, Edward L. "Transportation Geography," AMERICAN GEOGRAPHY: INVENTORY AND PROSPECT. Preston Janes and C. Jones, editors, Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press, 1954, pp. 310-332. (1). The author presents one of the earliest modern articulations emphasizing the integrative role of transportation geography and the basis for interaction anong places on the earth. 885. Ullnan, Edward L. "The Role of Transportation and the Basis for Interaction," in W. L. Thonas , editor, MAN'S ROLE IN CEPiNGING THE FACE OF THE EARTH, Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press, 1956, pp. 862-880. (1,2). Classic methodological statement of transportation and spatial studies. 886. Ullnan, Edward L. /.^RICAN COIMODITY FLOW. Seattle, Washington: University of Washington Press, 1957. (2, 6, 8a, 8c). This text contains a description and an interpretation, through text and naps, of railroad and water traffic flows in American domestic and foreign trade. 887. Ullnan, Edward L. "Trade Centers and Tributary Areas of the Philippines," GR, Vol. 50, April 1960, pp. 203- 218. (4,6b). A description of trade centers and tributary areas N indicates the Philippines distribution nost closely approaches Christaller's Ks4 arrangement. 888. Van Ballegoyen de Jong, J. P. A. "Rail Transport in the Harbour Area of Rotterdam," IT J, Vol. 31, July 1965, pp. 174-177. (3, 7c, 8a). Very brief post-1945 history of the port with some discussion of the railroads. 140. CPL Exchange BibliDgraphy #324 -#32 5 889. Van Hoef, Robert F. "State and Local Highway Planning in Michigan," HRBB 293, 1961, pp. 40-44. (8b). General discussion of the highv/ay planning program. 890. Vance, Janes E, "The Oregon Trail and Union Pacific Railroad: A Contrast in Purpose," iVu'iG, Vol. 51, December 1961, pp. 357-379. (8a). Conparison of motives for travel and the characteristics of the trail and railway. 891. Vance, Janes E. "Housing the Worker: The Er.ployr.ient Linkage as a Force in Urban Structure," EG, Vol. 42, October 1966, pp. 294-325. (4). A consideration of general principles of industrial structure, transportation, and the nature of worker housing, including a descriptive model of housing change and industrial growth, 892. Vargha, Louis A. "Highway Bypasses, Natural Barriers and Connunity Growth in Michigan," HRBB 268, 1960, pp. 29- 36. (4,7a). 893. Varlanov, J. S. and N. N. Kazanskiy. "Forecast of Average Length of Haul on Soviet Railroads," SGRT, Vol. 4, : , September 1963, pp. 19-25. (7b, 8a). Based on analysis of rail bulk freight traffic, it is predicted that the average length of haul will be reduced over the next fifteen years. 894. Varlanov, J. S. "Problems of Transport Development of the West Siberian Plain in Conjunctions with the Formation of a New Economic Complex in its Territory," SGRT, Vol. 10, June 1969, pp. 312-326. (7b, 8a). Railroad development is considered the optimal initial approach to the region's transport needs. 895. Vasilevskiy, L. I. "Basic Research Problems in the Geography of Transportation of Capitalist and Underdeveloped Countries," SGRT, Vol. 4, September 1963, pp. 36-58. (1,2a). "The author discusses the subject of transport geography, develops formulas to measure the intensity of the geo- graphical division of labor, describes several population- nobility indices and their use as research tools and out- lines principles and criteria to be used in mapping the transportation of capitalist and underdeveloped count- ries." 141. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 896. Vickrey, Willian S. "Pricing in Urban and Suburban Trans- port," AER, Vol. 53, May 1963, pp. 452-465. (4,6). The peak and off-peak pricing of autonotive trans- portation: nethods, reasons, and the resultant change in novenent patterns. 897. Vickrey, Willian S. "Optinization of Traffic and Facilities," JTEP, Vol. 1, May 1967, pp. 123-136. (2a, 4). Efficiency nethods are proposed to icprove urban traffic congestion, predicted upon a differential pricing systen for using facilities. 898. Vickrey, Willian S. "Congestion Theory and Transport Invest- cent," AER, Vol. 59, May 1969, pp. 251-260. (2a). Six types of congestion are identified. User costs of bottleneck congestion are discussed and graduated user tolls are suggested as a nethod to relieve congrestion. 899. Voorhees, Alan M., Charles F. Barnes, Jr., and Francis E. Colenan. "Traffic Patterns and Land-Use Alternatives," 347, 1962, pp. 1-9. (4,6c). Discussion of factors that influence trip length and nethods of reducing trip length. 900. Voorhees, Alan M., Salvatore J. Bellons, Joseph L. Schafer, and Donald E. Cleveland. "Factors in Work-Trip Lengths," HRR, No, 141, 1966, pp. 24-26. (2a, 4, 6c). Authors discuss najor factors affecting the length of urban work-trips: Incone of trip naker, node of travel, the peak-hour travel characteristics, and the distribut- ion of euploynent opportunities, 901. Vorob'yev, A. A. "Problens in the Location of Transportation in the Southern Part of Eastern Siberia," SGRT, Vol. 5, May 1964, pp. 3-12. (5). Discussion of "future developnent of a transport net for the Baykol region." 902. Vuchic, Vukan. "The Role of Public Transportation in Hanburg, Gcrnany," TQ, Vol. 18, January 1964, pp. 118- 140, (4). 903. Wabe, J, S, "Dispersal of Enploynent and the Journey to Work: A Case Study," JTEP, Vol. 1, Septenber 1967, pp. 345-361. (4). Study of a firn's labor force in central London and later after suburbanization. 142. CPL Exchange Bibliography mi\-ini5 904. Wachs, Martin. "Relationships between Driver's Attitudes Toward .ilternate Routes and Driver and Route Chara- cteristics," HRR, No. 197, 1967, pp. 70-37. (5,6c). Factor analysis, canonical correlation, and inultiple correlation-regression are used. Different attitudes are related to the length of the trip and the importance of amenities. The trip-to-work route is influeced by the ease of access to the destination. 905. Wachs, Martin, "A Survey of Citizens' Opinions of the Effectiveness, Needs, and Techniques of Urban Trans- portation Planning," HRR, No. 229, 1968, pp. 65-76. (4). The survey indicates people regard investment in trans- portation to be valuable and that there is a need for nore attention to questions of nass transit. Not much importance is attached to the beautif ication of trans- portation facilities and little interest in participation in the planning process is expressed, except where the respondent is directly affected by the proposed fac- ilities. Attitudes and opinions are related to socio- econoaic characteristics of the respondents. 906. VJagner, F, A., Jr. and Adolf D. May, Jr. "Use of Aerial Photography in Freeway Traffic Operations Studies," HRR, No. 19, 1963, pp. 24-34. (9). The procedures for conducting aerial photographic I / , density studies and presentation of naps of data and mapping techniques. 907. Waite, Graham G. "Techniques of Land Acquisition for Future Highway Needs," HRR, No. 8, 1963, pp. 60-81. (8b). The state's power to acquire highway rights-of-way and methods and probler:S of financing such acquisitions. Problems of acquisition in rural, suburban, urban cities are discussed with reference to specific states. 908. Walker, John R. "Social Status of Head of Household and Trip Generation from Home," HRR, No. 114, 1966, pp. 141-151. (2a, 4, 6c). The number of trips generated in a hone is positively correlated with social status of the head-of -household, number of cars used by the household, and the number of people in the household. 909. Walker, John R, "Rank Classification: A Procedure for Determining Future Trip Enas," HRR, No. 240, 1968, pp. 88-99. (2a, 4, 6c). The use of rank correlation techniques to examine the relationship of several socio-economic variables and several categories of trip purposes. 143. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 910. Wallace, Willian H. "Railroad Traffic Densities and Patterns," ^^JG, Vol. 48, Decenber 1958, pp. 352-374. (5, 6, 8a). Presentation at the regional and national level of rail traffic Jensity and flow patterns. 911. Wallace, Willian H, "Freight Traffic Functions of Anglo- Anerican Railroads," AAAG, Vol. 53, Septeaber 1963, pp. 312-331. (5,6,8a). On the basis of freight traffic, railroads are classified as internal traffic, originating traffic, terninating traffic, bridge line, or balanced traffic railways. 912. Wallace, Willian H. "The Bridge Line: A Distinctive Type of Anglo-Anerican Railroad," EG, Vol. 41, January 1965, pp. 1-38. (6,8a). Aggregation of "bridge-lines" into eight regional groups and analysis in terns of connodity flow, and percent of internal, originating, terriinating, and bridge traffic functions , 913. Walnsley, Mildred M. "The Bygone Electric Interurban Railway Systen," FG, Vol. 17, May 1965, pp. 1-6. (3,8a). This paper presents an historical account of the rapid development and decline of the electric interurban railv/ay systen in the East and Midwest of the U.S. A discussion is also included of how the interurban pronoted the expansion of narkets for locally grown produce and opened up the cultural opportunities of the city for rural residents living on or near the right-of-vjay. 914. Walters, Alan A, "A Developnent Model of Transport," /^ER, Vol. 58, May 1968, pp. 360-377. (2a, 5b, 7a). Presents a sinple nodel which considers the effects of transport investments on link development. 915. Ward, David. ''A Coiiparative Historical Geography of Street Car Suburbs in Boston, Massachusetts, and Leeds, England: 1850-1920," Ai\i\G, Vol. 59, Decenber 1964, pp. 477-480. (3,4). The conparison indicates that different conditions and chronologies of urban growth are responsible for dis- sinilarities in the street car suburbs. 144. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 916. Ward, Marion iJ. "The Distribution of Motor Spirit in New Zealand," NEW ZEALAND GEOGR.'.PHER, Vol. 19, 1963, pp. 126- 141. (6). Treatment of iuports, distribution, and significance of petroleun. 917. Ward, Marion W. "Port Swettenhan and its Hinterland, 1900-1950, ■■ JOURNAL OF TROPICAL GEOGRiiPHY, Vol. 19, Decenber 1964, pp. 69-78. (7c). Historical growth of the port and its hinterland, v/ith enphasis on the econouic aspects, 918. Ward, Marion W. -'Progress in Transport Geography," in Ronald V. Cooke and Janes H. Johnson, editiors, TRENDS IN GEOGRAPHY: AN INTRODUCTORY SURVEY. London, England: Pergamon Press, 1969, pp. 164-172. (1,5). J. brief review emphasizing studies of network analysis designed for the teacher and introductory student. 919. Warner, Larkin, ''Railroad Rates and the Groi-zth of Coal Trucking in Ohio," LE, Vol. 38, August 1962, pp. 231- 239. (8a, 8b). 920. Warntz, Williaa. "Transportation, Social Physics, and the Law of Refraction," PG, Vol. 9, 1957, pp. 2-7. (2,5,6). 921. Warntz, Willian. "Transatlantic Flights and Pressure Patterns," GR, Vol. 51, April 1961, pp. 187-212. (2,5). A discussion of airline routes indicates the nathenatical and graphical techniques used in planning least-tine paths for cir traffic. 922. Warren, K. "The Sheffield Rail Trade, 1861-1930: An Episode in the Locational History of the British Steel Industry," TRANSACTIONS: INSTITUTE OF BRITISH GECGRi'i- PHERS, No. 34, 1964, pp. 131-157. (3,8a). An intensive case study linking the characteristics of rail trade to broader changes in the English econony. 923. Watson, J. W. "Geography — A Discipline in Distance," SCOTTISH GEOGR^'iPHICX M/\G/^INE, Vol. 71, 1955, pp. 1- 13. (1). Discussion of the important role of distance, its different neasurenents and significance. 145. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 924. Wattlevjorth, Joseph A. and Willian A. McCasland. "Study Techniques for Planning Free\7ay Surveillance and Control," HRR, No. 99, 1965, pp. 200-223. (5,9). Entrance ranp origin-destination studies, input-output studies of closed freeway sub-systens, aerial photography, and input-output studies of initial intersections are discussed as aids to planning freeway networks. 925. Watts, H. D. "The Inland Waterways of the United Kingdom in the 1960's," EG, Vol. 43, October 1967, pp. 303- 313. (8c). A general discussion of water transport and watervjays on which use is restricted, 926. Weaver, Robert C. "The Federal Interest in Urban Mass Transportation," TQ, Vol. 17, January 1963, pp. 24-32. (4,8). Federal interest is based on effective land use, health of core cities and their suburbs, the vitality of the CBD, since the shape of urban areas depend upon the transportation structure, 927. Webb, G. R. "The Changing Role of Australian Coastal Shipping," G, Vol. 48, November 1963, pp. 414-417. (6,8c). Brief discussion of decline in passenger and general cargo traffic and the expansion of bulk cargo traffic, 928. Webber, Melvin M. "Transportation Planning Model," TQ, Vol. 15, July 1961, pp. 373-390, (2a). Weaknesses of static-descriptive models as contrasted with the advantages of dynamic-behavioral approaches. 929. Wehner, B. "Proposals for the Solution of Traffic Problems in Towns," ERISTICS, Vol. 21, April 1966, pp. 225-229. (4). 930. Weigend, Guido G. "Bordeaux: An Example of Changing Port Functions," GR, Vol. 45, April 1955, pp. 217-243. (7c). A description of port genesis and functions. 931. Weigend, Guido G. "The Problem of Hinterland and Foreland as Illustrated by the Port of Hamburg," EG, Vol. 32, January 1956, pp. 1-16, (7c). A discussion of the concepts hinterland and foreland, transportation problems, and port traffic. 146. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 932. Weigend, Guido G. "Sone Elements in the Study of Port Geography,'^ GR, Vol. 48, April 1958, pp. 185-200. (7c). The concepts of port, carrier, cargo, hinterland, fore- land, and naritiLie space are analyzed systenatically. 933. Weiner, Edv7ard. "Modal Split Revisited," TQ, Vol. 23, January 1969, pp. 5-29. (2b). Types of transit estimating procedures are discussed, along with recent developments in nodal split procedures. 934. Weiner, Melvin M. "Directional Traffic Flow," TQ, Vol. 20, October 1966, pp. 589-615. (2,5,6). Using topological concepts, unidirectional traffic flow in a road network of arbitrary geonetry is determined, ■^ ■ "Some of the differences between topological graphs and directional flow graphs are reviewed." 935. Wendt, Paul F. "Influence of Transportation Changes on Urban Land Uses and Values," HRBB 268, 1960, pp. 95- ■ ' '■ 104. (7). Reviev7 of theories of urban land values, with particular reference to the effects of transportation changes on land values. Summary of urban land value trends and new approaches to studies of the influence of trans- portation on urban land uses and values. 936. Werner, Christian. "The Role of Topology and Geometry in Optimal Network Design," PRSA, Vol. 21, 1968, pp. 173-190. (5a, 5b, 5c). This paper evaluates the interrelationship that holds, under idealized conditions, betx.-een the spatial design of a netvjork and the joint costs of its construction and operation; and the effects of bundling are studied and used to adjust any given network with regard to its spatial design until the total costs assume a mininuo. A major result of the study is the finding that, if flow declines at least linearly with distance, the ninimun cost solution is a network of minimum length. 147. CPL Exchange Bibliography ,"^324 -#325 937. Werner, Christian. "The Law of Refraction in Transportation Geography: Its Multivariate Extension," CG, Vol. 12, 1968, pp. 2G-40. (5). Considers a nore general fern of the problem proposed by Von Stackleburg by dividing a region into any finite number of honogeneous sub-regions. Presents an algorithm which identifies the path of nininun total costs between two point locations and a technique for plotting the path directly fron a nap showing these cost sub-regions. 938. Werner, Christian. "Networks of Mininun Length, " CG, Vol. 13, 1969, pp. 47-69. (5). Treats the problen of detemining network configuration which interconnects a given set of nodes in a honogeneous plane and is of nininun length. 939. Wernstedt, Frederick L. "Cebu: Focus of Philippine Inter- state Trade," EG, Vol. 32, October 1956, pp. 336-346. (3,7c). A case study which outlines the port's historical developrient, inter- is land trade patterns, and export trade. 940. Whalen, Joseph T. and Thonas H. Flynn. "The Truck Cones First," HRR, No. 217, 1968, pp. 28-40. (8b). Describes service facilities and reconnends nore efficient service areas, 941. ^Jhebell, C.F.J. "Corridors: A Theory of Urban Systens," AAAG, Vol. 59, March 1969, pp. 1-26, (1,3). Uses Southern Ontario as an illustration of principles of corridor theory, discussed in five stages of developnent. 942. Wheeler, Janes 0, "The Transportation Model and Changing Hone-Work Location," FG, Vol. 19, May 1967, pp. 144- 148. (2,4,6c). The paper presents two applications of the normative transportation nodel under different spatial structures of hone and work. The first traces journey-to-work changes resulting frou different locational arrange- ments of hone and work in a hypothetical city. The second, based on Pittsburgh data, neasures first the effect of work-trips by modifying residential locations and secondly by nodifying only workplace distributions. 148. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 943. Wheeler, Jar.es 0. "Work-Trip Length and the Ghetto," LE, Vol. 44, February 1968, pp. 107-112. (4,6c). The role of the Negro ghettos in Pittsburgh on Negro travel patterns. 944. Wheeler, Jair.es 0. "Sone Effects of Occupational Status on Work-Trips,'' JRS, Vol. 9, April 1969, pp. 69-78. (2a, 4,6c). Multiple correlation and regression are used to examine the relationship between status of traveler and distance traveled. 945. Wheeler, Janes 0. "Transport Inputs and Residential Rent Theory," GA, Vol. 2, January 1970, pp. 43-54. (2,4,6c). The postulate of residential rent theory that transport inputs vary positively with status holds in general in Tulsa, although work-trips cannot be explained sinply by this transport postulate. 946. Wheeler, Janes 0. "The Structure of Metropolitan Work-Trips ^ PG, Vol. 22, May 1970, pp. 152-158. (2,4,6c). The linkage-structure of work-trips in Tulsa analyzed by origin and destination zones is described by a snail nunber of independent factors fron a factor- analytic solution. The importance of centrality in urban organization is incorporated in several of the factors. The attractive power of destinations seens to increase with an increase in centrality of location and size of labor force employed, 947. VJheeler, P. T. "The Developaent of Shipping Services to the East Coast of Sutherland," JTH, Vol. 6, November 1963, pp. 110-116. (3,8c). 948. IJhite, H. P. "New Ports in Dahoney and Togo," G, Vol. 46, April 1961, pp. 160-163. (7c). Report on shipping potential. 949. White, H. P. "The Movement of Export Crops in Nigeria," TESG, Vol. 54, November 1963, pp. 248-252. (6b). 950. VJhite, H. P. "London's Rail Teminals and Their Suburban Traffic: A Geographic Appraisal of the Connuter Problem," GR, Vol. 54, July 1964, pp. 347-365. (3,4,6c). Presents a history of connuter traffic and commuting patterns. 149. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324 -#325 951. VJhite, H. P. "The Rapid Transit Revival— A Conparative Review of Overseas Practice,'' US, Vol. 4, June 1967, pp. 137-148. (8). Review of technology and finance of rapid transit in North Anerica and Europe. 952. Whiteside, Robert E., C. Larry Cothran, and Willian M Kean. "Intercity Traffic Projections," HRR, No. 205, 1967, pp. 110-135. (2,4,6c). Using 0-D for Arizona and Illinois, growth factors are developed to project traffic to 1985 levels. 953. VJhittington, G. "The Swaziland Railway," TESG, Vol. 57, March-April 1966, pp. 68-73. (8a). 954. Wiant, Rex H. "A Simplified Method for Forecasting Urban Traffic," HRBB 297, 1961, pp. 128-145. (2b,4,6c). Presents the technique used in forecasting 1980 traffic VDlunes in selected Iowa cities, based on population and land use data, 955. Widdison, J, G, "Mexico's Transsierran Railroad," GR, Vol. 51, July 1961, pp. 429-430. (8a). 956. Wiens, Harold J. "Riverine and Coastal Junks in China's CoLTT-erce," EG, Vol. 31, July 1955, pp. 248-264, (6). Exanines Chinese junk traffic and its centers of activity and evaluates the traffic's regional and national sign- ificance to connunist China. 957. Williams, Anthony and Wilber Zelinsky. "On Soue Patterns in International Tourist Flows," EG, Vol. 46, October 1970, pp. 549-567. (6a). An attempt to uncover najor patterns of flow anong selected countries which Joninate the international tourist market. 958. Williams, Ernest W. , Jr. FREIGHT TR^U-JSPORTATION IN THE SOVIET UNION. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1962. (1,6,7,8). This text surveys the structure, growth, and node of operations of Soviet transportation. The primary objective is to assess Soviet performance in moving freight. 150. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 959. Wilson, A. G. "Inter-regional Connodity Flows: Entropy Maximizing Approaches," GA, Vol. 2, July 1970, pp. 255- 282. (2,6b). A whole fanily of gravity nodels are derived by applying entropy naxiaizing principles; inter-regional input- output equations are treated as constants, and "a nunber of integrated gravity and input-output nodels are denonstrated." 960. Wilson, George W, "The Nature of Conpetition in the Motor Transport Industry," LE, Vol. 36, Novenber 1960, pp. 387- 391. (8b). Various opinions on conpetition and Federal controls. 961. Wilson, George W. "Case Studies of Effect of Roads on Developnent," HRR, No. 115, 1966, pp. 10-18. (7a). Specific studies in Latin America and Asia are sumarized, Road developnent is construed to be in response to developnent already in progress or a partial initator of developnent. Increased transportation capacity is not considered a causative agent of developnent in a relatively static or deteriorating situation. 962. Wilson, George W. "Transportation and Price Stability," . AER, Vol, 59, May 1969, pp. 261-269. (1,7). 963. Wingo, Lowden and Harvey S. Perloff. "The Washington Trans- portation Plan: Technics or Politics," PRSA, Vol. 7, 1961, pp. 249-262. (4). The paper develops around the Washington Plan as a back- ground for the elaboration of the idea of a broad systens approach to urban transportation planning. The thene advanced in the paper is that the choice of a trans- portation systen is the core developnental decision that the netropolitan region can nake and that there are peculiar characteristics of this decision which have special inplications for netropolitan planning. 964. Wingo, Lowden. TRANSPORTATION AND URBAN LAND. Washington, D.C.: Resources for the Future, Inc., 1964. (2,4,7). The author presents nathenatical nodels relating accessibility and land use; the study also denonstrates the role of internal transportation in ordering the urban studies. 151. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 965. Wise, M. J. "The Inpact of a Channel Tunnel on the Planning of South-Eastern England," GEOGRi\PHICAL JOURANL, Vol. 13, June 1965, pp. 167-184. (7). The channel tunnel appears to reinforce the circunstances that are leading to the growth of the "servicing" industries in London and to increase the econonic dis- equilibriun between the South-east and the North and West. 966. Witheford, David K. "Traffic Assignnent Analysis and Evaluation," HRR, No. 6, 1963, pp. 1-11. (2a, 4, 6c). Criterion for viable traffic assignnent analysis with reference to the Pittsburgh Area Transportation Survey. 967. Wohl, Martin. "Deaand, Cost, Price and Capacity Relationships Applied to Travel Forecastin3," HRR, No. 38, 1963, pp. 40-54. (2b, 6). Presents a general forn of travel forecasting which incorporates feedback aechanisns affecting traffic volune and tine and route capacity. Describes price, volune, and denand relationships for fixed and changing capacity systens, 968. Wohl, Martin. "Costs of Urban Transport Systens of Varying Capacity and Service," HRR, No. 64, 1964, pp. 1-70. (2,4,6c). The cost of services to work-trip comnuters is analyzed extensively. Residential collection, line-haul, and dowiitown distribution costs per passenger trip for principal transport nodes associated with urban, radial, CBD-oriented facilities are exanined. This analysis demonstrates a franework for conducting cost analyses and using the results for decision naking. 969. Wohl, Martin, and Brian V. Martin. "Methods of Evaluating Alternative Road Projects," JIEP, Vol. 1, January 1967, pp. 28-45. (5,7). A critical evaluation of four nethods of road investment: annual cost, benefit-cost ratio, rate-of-return, and net present nethods, the latter of which is considered preferable. 970. Wohl, Martin. "Notes on Transient Queuing Behavior, Capacity Restraint Functions, and Their Relationship to Travel Forecasting," PRSA, Vol. 21, 1968, pp. 191-202. (2,4,6). 152. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-^r'325 971. Wolfe, Roy I. "Contributions fron Geography to Urban Transportation Research," HRBB 326, 1962, pp. 46-68. (1,4). Discussion of spatial concepts applicable to urban transportation theory, of central place theory, and of cartographic techniques. 972. Wolfe, Roy I. "Transportation and Politics: The Exanple of Canada," iJu^G, Vol. 52, June 1962, pp. 176-190. (7). The North-South geographic axis, and the East-West political axis of North America are conpared to deno- c: nstrate the political-geographic influence affecting the transport systems of Canada and the United States. 973. Wolfe, Roy I. TRANSPORTATION AND POLITICS. Princeton, New Jersey: D. Van Nostrand Co., Inc., 1963. (7). Where transportation itself is at the center of interest, it is inevitably the economics of transportation that is discussed, with the implication that once this is under- stood, transportation is understood. In the present text, transportation is the center of interest, but its economic relations enter only when they have political significance. It is the political implications of transportation that are treated in this text. 974. Wolfe, Roy I. "Land Use and Transportation," CG, Vol. 7, 1963, pp. 148-149. (7). 975. Wolfe, Roy I. "Effect of Ribbon Development on Traffic Flow,' TQ, Vol. 18, January 1964, pp. 105-117. (7a). Treats "desirable and undesirable" effects with data from Ontario. 976. Wolfpert, Julian, "The Basis for Stability of Interregional Transactions," GA, Vol. 1, April 1969, pp. 152-180. (2,6b). Focuses on a series of questions involving migration stability V7hich have implications for regional development, 977. Wood, Donald F. "The Distances-Traveled Technique for Measuring Value of Recreation Areas: An Application," LE, Vol, 37, November 1961, pp. 363-369, (6). Study in Wisconsin of boating facilities. 978. Woods, K. B. and R. F. Leggett. "Transportation and Economic Potential in the Arctic," TQ, Vol. 14, October 1960, pp. 435-453. (1). 153. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 979. Woodward, George A. "The New Italian autostrade Network," G, January 1963, Vol. 48, pp. 68-70. (5,7). Outlines progress on construction of this United access highway systea. Speculates on changes in Italian nanufacturing which nay result. 980. Wootton, H. J. and G. W. Pick. "A Model for Trips Generated by Households," JTEP, Vol. 1, May 1967, pp. 137-153. (2,4,6c). Presentation of nethods of trip volunes and the role of household attributes in the trip generation nodel. 981. Wright, Paul H. "Traffic, Traffic Generators in the Central Business District," TE, Vol. 35, March 1965, pp. 23-24 and 46. (4,6,7). Exanines land use changes in the CBD and their effect on traffic, 982. VJright, Paul H. "Relationships of Traffic and Floor Space Use in Central Business District," HRR, No. 114, 1966, pp. 152-168. (2,4,6c). Multiple correlation-regression analysis indicates traffic flow to the CBD is nost closely related to floor-space use classifications of retail sales, services, office, and public establishments . 983. Wright, Winthrop R. "Foreign-Owned Railways in Argentina: A Case Study of Econonic Nationalism," BUSINESS HISTORY REVIEW, Vol. 71, 1967, pp. 62-93. (8a). 984. Wynn, F. Houston and C. Eric Linder. "Tests of Inter- actance Fornulas Derived fron 0-D Data," HRBB 253, 1960, pp. 62-85. (2b,4,6c). An extensive discussion of interactance fornulas and their reliability. Test of the fornulas indicated their ability to predict the total volune of vehicle niles on selected urban expressways within 10 percent of the actual volune. 985. Wynn, F. Houston, "Who Makes the Trips? Notes on an Exploratory Investigation of One-Worker Households in Chattanooga," HRR, No. 75, 1964, pp. 34-91. (4,6). Trip characteristics indicates total trips for workers increase as fanily size and the nunber of vehicles owned increases. Work-day length is inversely related to the worker's total nunber of trips. 154. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 986. l/ynn, F. Houston, and Herbert B. Levinson. "Sone Considerations in Appraising Bus Transit Potentials," HRR, No. 197, 1967, pp. 1-24. (4). An analysis of potential development of bus transit in nediuu-size urban areas, with reference to population characteristics, land use, and the opportunity to utilize alternated forns of personal transport. The study suggests new concepts in transit are required, 987. Yanada, Masao. "Urban Development and Expressways in Tokyo," HRR, No. 169, 1967, pp. 30-36. (4). 988. Yapa, Lakshnan, Mario Polese, and Julian Wolpert. "Inter- dependence of Coaauting, Migration, and Job-Site Selection," EG, Vol. 47, January 1971, pp. 59-72. (2,4,5c). ''Exanines the interdependence of residential and euploynent nobility, both in terns of the nicro-analytic nover-stayer decision and the nacro problen of national and regional investment allocation criteria." 989. Yaseen, David U. "The British Motorway," TQ, Vol. 19, July 1965, pp. 413-427. (8b). A description of the inter- and intrastate freaways in Great Britain. 990. Yaseen, David W. "The Interstate Connercial Zone: An Industrial Location Factor," LE, Vol. 42, February 1966, pp. 107-112. (1,7). Currently existing ICC zones and proposed new zonation concepts. 991. Yates, Barbara A. "Railroads and Waterways of Africa," JG, Vol. 60, March 1961, pp. 120-134. (8a, 8c). Exanination of rail and water networks enphasizing the lack of an integrated transport complex. 992. Yeates, Maurice. "Hinterland Delinitation: A Distance Mininizing ^^pproach," PG, Vol. 15, January 1963, pp. 7-10. (2). This paper treats the situation where a researcher wishes to construct hinterlands based upon optinal criteria and to compare the result with "real world" observation. 155. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 993. Yeates, Maurice. "A Note Concerning the Developnent of a Geographic Model of International Trade," GA, Vol. 1, October 1969, pp. 399-403. (2b, 6a). "Denonstrates that the volune of trade between countries can be explained by a nodification of the gravity nodel." 994. Yegrova, V. V. "The Econoaic Effectiveness of the Construction of Pioneering Railroads in Newly Developed Areas," SGRT, Vol. 5, April 1964, pp. 46-55. (7,8a). Analysis of "econonic benefits derived fron the construction of Lena Railroad in terns of savings of transport costs conpared with previous transport routes and in terns of the contribution nade to the national econony by the developnent and settlenent of the area served by the railroad." 995. Yordon, Wesley J. "Regulation of Intercity Bus Fares: The Problen of Cost Analysis," LE, Vol. 44, May 1968, pp. 245-253. (8b). The article describes existing practices in the regulation of bus fares, and points out large loopholes which result fron this defect. 996. Zabonski, Bogdan. "A Snooth-Flov? Street Pattern for Metropolis," PG, Vol. 14, January 1962, pp. 29-33. (4,5,6). The ain of this paper is to introduce a totally new concept in the design of an optinun urban street grid, and to point out its advantages as a neans of facilitating the flow of city traffic, 997. Zaidi, Igtidar H. "Measuring the Locational Conplenentarity of Central Places in West Pakistan: A Macro-geographic Franework," EG, Vol. 44, July 1968, pp. 218-239. (4,6). Considers connuting distances, narket potential, transport situational and conmunication patterns in measuring advantages and disadvantages of central places. 998. Zaytsen, I. F. "A Territorial Model of Productive Forces," SGRT, Vol. 10, November 1969, pp. 507-522. (6,7). A territorial nodel of production is constructed on the basis of regional units and four prelininary nodels which describe a single product industry, transport flows, a regional unit, and the decision of labor anong regional units . 156. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 999. Zell, Charles E. "San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge Trans -Bay Bus Riders Survey," HRR, No. 114, 1966, pp. 169-182. (4,3c). The survey indicates changes in enploynent and residence caused shifts in bus patronage, and the initiation of an exclusive bus lane did not cause a major increase in bus patronage or a reduction in auto traffic on the bridge. 1000. Zwick, Charles J. "The Denand for Transportation Service in a Grov7ing Econony," HRR, No. 2, 1963, pp. 3-5. (7). Most future econonic growth is expected to be rooted in factors outside of the transportation industry. Major influences in future transportation requirements are changing industrial nix, a larger proportion of incone spent on amenities, and the purchasing of goods and services that increase the denand for transport facilities. 157. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 B. Topical Index 1. General 11, 19, 24, 25, 28, 29, 37, 39, 43, 44, 48, 61, 92, 108, 115, 127, 129, 138, 145, 155, 159, 168, 170, 190, 193, 199, 200, 201, 214, 215, 229, 230, 238, 249, 274, 275, 281, 283, 289, 303, 304, 328, 332, 334, 346, 349, 360, 377, 381, 384, 396, 412, 413, 420, 441, 474, 493, 513, 520, 545, 546, 565, 575, 578, 580, 581, 584, 604, 611, 616, 621, 624, 632, 638, 640, 643, 649, 650, 651, 671, 675, 678, 680, 684, 595, 710, 737, 753, 783, 797, 816, 831, 834, 843, 862, 880, 881, 884, 885, 895, 918, 923, 941, 958, 962, 971, 978, 990. 2. Theoretical - Conceptual 1, 2, 21, 45, 47, 59, 62, 93, 103, 159, 163, 164, 227, 273, 276, 277, 280, 341, 347, 409, 426, 427, 428, 445, 449, 477, 517, 526, 528, 549, 552, 573, 595, 600, 606, 623, 631, 634, 642, 643, 645, 647, 653, 674, 714, 722, 724, 728, 739, 754, 758, 764, 767, 779, 781, 806, 811, 844, 864, 885, 386, 920, 921, 934, 942, 945, 946, 952, 959, 964, 968, 970, 976, 980, 982, 988, 992. 2a. General 7, 12, 16, 20, 24, 27, 32, 34, 46, 49, 51, 63, 68, 74, 76, 78, 79, 80, 82, 85, 86, 89, 90, 91, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 114, 118, 125, 140, 142, 148, 153, 165, 182, 183, 184, 191, 202, 204, 206, 213, 228, 252, 267, 272, 274, 275, 279, 282, 284, 285, 287, 288, 292, 303, 305, 306, 314, 319, 338, 339, 345, 350, 352, 369, 370, 374, 386, 389, 390, 392, 393, 394, 398, 405, 418, 419, 430, 431, 433, 435, 436, 437, 442, 447, 448, 450, 453, 473, 478, 481, 490, 491, 494, 505, 510, 524, 537, 545, 546, 550, 553, 577, 582, 587, 589, 590, 593, 594, 597, 603, 608, 609, 610, 627, 633, 669, 682, 683, 688, 697, 702, 709, 720, 733, 746, 748, 750, 755, 782, 788, 802, 804, 805, 809, 810, 824, 838, 345, 850, 851, 854, 865, 895, 897, 898, 900, 908, 909, 914, 928, 944, 966. 2b. Travel Models 22, 26, 52, 54, 58, 67, 75, 84, 96, 121, 126, 137, 141, 160, 161, 173, 176, 180, 197, 205, 216, 217, 218, 219, 220, 221, 222, 233, 235, 254, 256, 260, 291, 307, 325, 329, 331, 340, 344, 351, 353, 355, 356, 367, 368, 400, 401, 402, 407, 408, 410, 414, 415, 416, 417, 421, 424, 425, 432, 476, 479, 480, 523, 556, 596, 613, 618, 644, 693, 700, 701, 735, 749, 766, 773, 774, 775, 794, 795, 817, 830, 841, 842, 847, 848, 852, 872, 873, 874, 875, 933, 954, 967, 984, 993. 3. Historical 3, 6, 23, 33, 65, 73, 80, 106, 115, 119, 122, 134, 159, 166, 208, 211, 224, 247, 250, 259, 299, 342, 349, 359, 382, 422, 439, 458, 460, 472, 475, 482, 495, 514, 529, 531, 547, 548, 564, 570, 574, 619, 625, 640, 650, 659, 660, 670, 677, 682, 694, 705, 706, 718, 720, 729, 737, 743, 760, 792, 803, 818, 826, 888, 913, 915, 922, 158. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324 -#32 5 4. Urban 1, 2, 14, 20, 22, 26, 27, 28, 30, 35, 40, 48, 49, 52, 53, 61, 64, 66, 67, 68, 69, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 30, 81, 82, 84, 89, 90, 91, 94, 97, 109, 115, 120, 121, 124, 125, 130, 131, 132, 136, 138, 141, 146, 149, 150, 151, 156, 160, 161, 164, 169, 172, 177, 178, 180, 183, 184, 185, 190, 191, 192, 193, 195, 197, 198, 199, 202, 205, 206, 208, 209, 214, 228, 230, 236, 237, 238, 239, 240, 242, 243, 248, 251, 252, 254, 256, 264, 266, 268, 269, 270, 271, 281, 283, 286, 288, 291, 295, 297, 298, 302, 305, 306, 307, 309, 311, 318, 320, 327, 328, 329, 330, 335, 336, 338, 340, 344, 345, 346, 347, 350, 352, 353, 355, 356, 357, 364, 367, 368, 369, 370, 372, 373, 374, 376, 377, 378, 379, 380, 384, 385, 389, 390, 391, 392, 393, 394, 395, 399, 400, 401, 402, 406, 414, 415, 416, 417, 418, 421, 422, 425, 430, 432, 436, 437, 438, 440, 442, 444, 445, 446, 447, 450, 454, 455, 456, 457, 458, 459, 464, 476, 479, 480, 482, 490, 491, 492, 495, 496, 498, 504, 505, 506, 508, 510, 511, 512, 513, 517, 518, 521, 525, 526, 527, 530, 531, 533, 535, 536, 542, 549, 552, 554, 556, 558, 560, 561, 563, 565, 566, 567, 572, 577, 578, 580, 581, 586, 591, 592, 594, 596, 597, 599, 601, 602, 612, •■ 613, 615, 617, 630, 633, 634, 637, 638, 653, 665, 666, 670, 678, 683, 692, 693, 698, 702, 704, 725, 727, 731, 732, 733, 734, 739, 745, 746, 747, 748, 749, 751, 759, 765, 770, 773, 774, 776, 783, 784, 785, 787, 788, 789, 790, 791, 794, 806, 807, 813, 817, 822, 830, 836, 837, 838, 841, 842, 845, 846, 847, 848, 849, 854, 855, 856, 859, 364, 865, 873, 874, 875, 876, 877, 882, 887, 891, G92 , 896, 897, 899, 900, 902, 903, 905, 908, 909, 915, 926, 929, 942, 943, 944, 945, 946, 950, 952, 954, 963, 964, 966, 968, 970, 971, 980, 981, 982, 984, 985, 987, 988, 996, 997, 999. 5. Networks 27, 34, 74, 115, 122, 213, 262, 272, 279, 282, 290, 321, 322, 324, 327, 348, 391, 424, 425, 439, 465, 486, 506, 594, 603, 631, 635, 645, 659, 660, 687, 697, 699, 714, 757, 762, 767, 777, 786, 789, 796, 799, 809, 810, 824, 845, 853, 855, 860, 879, 901, 904, 910, 911, 918, 920, 921, 924, 934, 937, 938, 969, 979, 996. 5a. Network Measures and Structure 46, 47, 93, 191, 204, 277, 280, 284, 237, 292, 323, 448, 449, 473, 493, 538, 540, 682, 709, 758, 764, 813, 936. 5b. Route Location 17, 18, 41, 47, 93, 131, 143, 152, 133, 184, 264, 305, 326, 366, 449, 511, 544, 574, 587, 607, 657, 658, 680, 681, 696, 814, 832, 871, 883, 914, 936. 5c. Route Evolution 15, 17, 302, 350, 444, 449, 478, 481, 524, 598, 654, 655, 656, 657, 772, 803, 826, 850, 936. 159. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 6. Flows and Movenent 8, 85, 96, 163, 189, 203, 227, 295, 303, 311, 325, 341, 360, 380, 386, 387, 409, 411, 424, 425, 427, 428, 484, 524, 536, 573, 578, 600, 603, 608, 609, 610, 618, 638, 639, 643, 645, 655, 675, 676, 686, 690, 707, 722, 728, 738, 747, 754, 755, 757, 778, 786, 789, 799, 800, 809, 810, 812, 815, 827, 855, 871, 886, 896, 910, 911, 912, 916, 920, 927, 934, 956, 958, 967, 970, 977, 981, 985, 996, 997, 998. 7b. Econonic and Regional Developnenfc 3, 51, 111, 112, 143, 153, 171, 174, 185, 186, 201, 246, 263, 279, 284, 285, 299, 346, 429, 555, 579, 636, 650, 651, 652, 741, 768, 798, 808, 814, 823, 840, 850, 851, 863, 869, 893, 894. 7c. Ports 11, 36, 70, 71, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 105, 132, 139, 210, 257, 261, 301, 371, 404, 405, 462, 469, 529, 532, 539, 564, 633, 662, 663, 673, 706, 715, 716, 718, 719, 720, 721, 726, 818, 819, 863, 888, 917, 930, 931, 932, 939, 948. 8. Modal Studies 31, 55, 55, 57, 77, 119, 145, 146, 147, 178, 179, 208, 212, 296, 309, 334, 413, 451, 461, 472, 496, 507, 519, 541, 542, 578, 579, 582, 588, 611, 614, 621, 623, 632, 674, 685, 694, 724, 745, 751, 771, 791, 800, 821, 829, 926, 951, 958. 8a. Rail 5, 13, 17, 23, 33, 38, 50, 65, 74, 94, 105, 134, 152, 166, 175, 194, 225, 226, 241, 245, 253, 277, 290, 297, 299, 300, 343, 354, 372, 373, 403, 429, 438, 453, 458, 475, 478, 483, 487, 499, 538, 540, 547, 567, 574, 620, 622, 628, 629, 636, 654, 655, 656, 657, 660, 663, 664, 687, 708, 757, 760, 761, 777, 799, 801, 803, 839, 851, 352, 861, 863, 866, 867, 868, 869, 883, 886, 888, 890, 893, 894, 910, 911, 912, 913, 919, 922, 953, 955, 983, 991, 994. 8b. Highway 27, 40, 41, 59, 83, 104, 113, 116, 117, 122, 128, 155, 158, 226, 244, 248, 253, 255, 265, 272, 277, 308, 337, 348, 375, 376, 381, 412, 423, 482, 485, 493, 509, 534, 558, 559, 583, 646, 648, 711, 739, 740, 744, 761, 767, 769, 797, 803, 825, 831, 853, 889, 907, 919, 940, 960, 989, 995. 160. CPL Exchanse Bibliography #324-#325 3c. Water 5, 6, 11, 29, 39, 42, 71, 133, 144, 224, 229, 257, 258, 259, 342, 359, 382, 383, 429, 463, 468, 488, 499, 514, 539, 543, 557, 568, 569, 570, 605, 626, 661, 677, 717, 729, 730, 752, 834, 835, 858, 869, 886, 925, 927, 947, 991. 8(1. Air 25, 73, 106, 234, 247, 316, 351, 358, 365, 388, 465, 470, 497, 515, 521, 585, 689, 695, 704, 705, 709, 710, 736, 742, 74J, 762j 763, 827, 844, 856. 8e. Pipe 262. 8f. Other 64, 151, 198, 302, 320, 352, 422, 457. 9, Transportation Data 13, 33, 95, 117, 135, 150, 154, 157, 162, 181, 207, 223, 232, 251, 254, 310, 330, 355, 361, 362, 388, 396, 432, 443, 458, 464, 492, 500, 510, 515, 525, 527, 554, 560, 561, 562, 638, 669, 712, 753, 756, 772, 793, 807, 308, 828, 836, 878, 906, 924. 161. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 TOPIC.VL GUIDE 1. General 2. Theoretical-Conceptual a. General b. Travel Models 3. Historical 4. Urban 5. Networks a. Network Measures and Structure b. Route Location c. Route Evolution Flows and Movenent a. International b. Interregional c . Intraurban Inpact of Transportation a. Highway Effects b. Econonic and Regional Davelopnent c. Ports Modal Studies a. b, c. d. Rail Highvjay Water Air e. f. Pipe Other Transportation Data COUNCIL OF PL/JSIWING LIBR/\Kl/.riS Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 S?ATL\L STUDIES OF TR^iKSPORTATION: INTRODUCTION AND ANNOTATED BI'^LIOGR/iPHY Additional copies available fron: Council of Planning Librarians Pcot Office Box 229 Monticello, Illinois, 61856 for $16.00.