LIBRARY OF THE
UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS
Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2010 with funding from
University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign
) Council of Planning Librarians
SPATIAL STUDIES IN TRANSPORTATION: Introduction and
James O. Wheeler, Associate Professor
Department of Geography
The University of Georgia
IHE LIBRARY DEIHE
UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS
Mrs. Mary Vance, Editor
Post Office Box 229
Monticello, Illinois 61856
COUNCIL OF PLANNING LIBRARIANS Exchange Bibliography #324-^^325
SPATIAL STUDIES OF TRANSPORTATION:
INTRODUCTION AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY
James 0. Wheeler
Departoent of Geography
University of Georgia
This bibliography has grown out of the author's research and
his teaching of undergraduate and graduate courses over the last
several years in the geography of transportation. The need was
felt for a bibliography on a subject with a diverse and widely
scattered literature. The annotations were developed not only to
aid the beginning student with the field but also to guide the
advanced graduate student to specific topics and approaches. The
bibliography is linited to references in English and basically
covers the last ten years. No clain of conpleteness is intended,
although the ain has been to survey the essential literature.
Many individuals have assisted in the conpletion of this
bibliography. Those deserving special thanks include Messrs. George
Anderson, Janes Nance, John D. Stephens, and Mark Sullivan, all
graduate students in geography at Michigan State University. Their
long hours spent in the library have greatly aided in giving this
bibliography whatever accuracy and usefulness it nay have. However,
the author retains full responsibility for any errors and onissions,
and it is hoped that these will be called to his attention for future
Finally, the author especially wishes to thank his wife, Sharon,
for careful checking of detail and for typing both rough drafts
and the final copy.
Janes 0, Wheeler
2. . CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
I. Introduction to Bibliography 3
II. Transportation Geography 6
III. User Guide 9
A. Organization ^
B. Topical Guide 10
C. Periodical Abbreviations ll
IV. Bibliography 13
A. Annotated Bibliography... 13
B. Topical Index 1^^
3. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
I. INTRODUCTION TO BIBLIOGRAPHY
This bibliography covers the essential literature in English
over the last decade on spatial studies of transportation. It has
of course proven inpossible to include all of the references
relevant to transportation geography or even expressly a part of
the field in a volune of restricted length. However, an attenpt
is aade to survey the nore significant books and articles of
interest to the student of transportation geography. More obscure
material, found in discussion papers or in nineographed form, are
generally not included. Nor are doctoral dissertations or naster
The bibliography is designed to aid researchers in the general
field of transportation, and nore specifically in the spatial
analysis of transportation, to readily locate uaterial dealing with
their particular interest. The abstracts are intended to point up
salient features of the books or articles not always evident in
the title. The bibliography also gives sone indication of the
anount of research done on particular subjects, as well as the
current findings and understanding of the various topics. Further,
a close examination of the bibliography should suggest additional
research areas. For exanple, sone of the theoretical studies nay
suggest further theoretical development or alternatively nay prove
useful for nore practical planning or policy oriented research,
A second and related purpose of the bibliography is for the
college and university student interested in transportation as a
spatial science, including the role of transportation in locational
theories. Careful study of the bibliography should place the
student in touch with a wide range of useful transportation geography
literature. By reference to the classification systen used here,
the student nay direct his readings around specific kinds of topics
and concepts. The bibliography then should assist one in developing
a knowledge of part or all of the field. Likewise, a student
indirectly interested in transportation nay skin the entries for
books and articles useful a particular research project or for
independent study. In short, the bibliography nay be used as a
reference book or as a guide to developing a competence in under-
standing the spatial components of transportation.
It is hoped that this volune will be useful not only to
academic researchers, instructors, and students, but also will be
used by those nore interested in policy and planning aspects of
transportation. AccorJitgly, sone focus is given to books and
articles treating the spatial role in transportation planning and
policy fornulation. As is well-known, transportation planning
directly involves the location of routes, their use, and their in-
pact. An up-to-date knowledge of the literature in these areas is
therefore fundamental, and it is anticipated that this publication
would be of considerable utility to those involved in planning and
executing transportation change. In this regard, a large number of
articles are included fron the Highway Research Record and Highway
4. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
The urban scholar will also find much of interest here, as a
high proportion of the stuaies are of various facets of urban
transportation. These studies range frou general introductory
statenents of the status and problens of transportation in the city
to nore narrowly focused treatment of individual problens and in-
dividual urban areas. Research in urban transportation has been
carried out by a great variety of scholars representing nunerous
disciplines; entries in this bibliography reflect this wide range
of viewpoints and approaches.
Although nany of the studies here are properly classified as
descriptive, a certain bias towards research enphasizing a theoretical
content and approach oay be noted. It is felt that these studies
are of nore general interest to a wider audience and are nore use-
ful as a base on which to build future research. It is hoped that
greater concern will be placed in the future on nore theoretical
and conceptual types of investigations, especially in areas in which
such an approach has been rare in the past.
Entitled "Spatial Studies of Transportation," this bibliography
goes well beyond the disciplinary boundary of geography in including
a variety of material on the spatial studies of transportation. A
minority of the entries are by those trained as geographers. Also
prominently representee is research by regional scientists, economists
planners, transportation engineers, end sociologists, to name only
a few. The bibliography is interdisciplinary because the research
on spatial transportation is approached by a variety of disciplinary
viewpoints. However, there was an effort made to include most of
the significant articles from the geographical periodical literature
in the past decade.
As indicated, the emphasis here is on the literature from the
1960's, and generally only the most important or prominent studies
prior to 1960 have been included. Studies of migration have in
general not been included here, nor have studies in diffusion pro-
cesses (See Gunnar Olsson, Distant an d Hunan Interaction , Phil-
adelphia: Regional Science Research Institute, Bibliography Series
No. 2, 1965 and Lawrence A. Brown, D iffusion Processes and Loc ation:
A Conceptual Framework and Bibliop^raphy , Philadelphia, Pennsylvania:
Regional Science Research Institute, Bibliography Series No. 4,
1968). Selectea studies focusing on transportation and industrial
location are referenced, but a much more inclusive source is
Benjai.iin H. Stevens and Carolyn A. Brackett, Industrial Location :
A Review and Annotated Bibliography of Theoretical. Empirical and
Case Studies . Philadelphia: Regional Science Research Institute,
Bibliography Series No. 3, 1967.
This bibliography differs fron ether available reference
sources in coverage, purpose, and scope. It night be regarded as
a complement to an older annotated bibliography: R. Wolfe and
B. Hickok, an ..nnotated Bibliography of the Geography of Trans -
portation , Berkeley: Institute of Transportation and Traffic Engineei
ing. University of California, 1961. ^ publication by William R.
Siddall, Transportation Geography: A Bibliography , Manhattan:
Kansas State University Library, 1965, contains many references
going back to 1950, emphasizing modes of transportation and a
5. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
regional classification wherever possible. Many references on gen-
eral and historical studies in transportation are included, with
relatively few references to theoretical approaches and urban studies,
especially outside the field of geography. A bibliography emphas-
izing theoretical and urban research is Williau R, Black and
Frank E. Horton, i. Bibliography of Selec t ed Research on Ne tv7orks^
and Urban Transpor tat ion Relevant to C urre nt Transportation Geo-
graphy Researc h, Evanston: Northwestern University, Department of
Geography Research Report No. 28, undated, on additional source
conplenenting Siddall's and providing a base of general v/orks in
transportation geography" is Russell B. Abacas and Mark C. Geyer,
Transportation: A Ge ographica l Bibliograph y, Minneapolis: University
of Minnesota, Departnent of Geography, 1970. A raonthly publication
referencing a wide spectrun of literature is Current Literature in
Traffic and Tran sporta tion , Evanston: Northwestern University,
The Transportation Center. Other useful references on specialized
topics Sources of Information in Tran sp ortation . Evanston: North-
western University, The Transportation Center, 1964; Katherine
D. Warden, "Selecte. Bibliography: Transportation and Econonic
Development," in G. Fronn, editor, Tra nsport Investnent and Econonic
Deve lopnent . Washington, D,C.: Brookings Institution, 1965, pp. 277-
305; and Jaioes 0. Wheeler, Research on the Journey to Work :
Introduction and Bibliograph y, Monticello, Illinois: Council of
Planning Librarians, No. 65, 1969.
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II. TI UNSPORT.iTION GEOGtUiPHY
Transportation geography is a field with a rapidly expanding
literature and growin,'^ proninence, having energed a nere fifteen
to twenty years ago as a visible subfield of geography. Based
largely on the nethodological staterents of Ullnan (884, 885) in
the nid-fifties and carried into the sixties by Garrison's power-
ful influence, the field has had especially vigorous development
during the last decade. Although the developnent has been uneven,
due in part to the irole of individual researchers, the field has
taken on a skeletal fom and organization which is attracting an
increasing nunber of students and researchers. The field is suf-
ficiently defined to suggest a considerable potential for further
growth founded on the existing research base.
Transportation geography is defined here as the study of the
interactions anong locations on the earth as raanifest by connections
and novenents. The field nay be divided for convenience of dis-
cussion into three broad and overlapping areas, in each of which
the prinary focus nay be on transportation patterns or on proc-
esses. The fii-st research cluster examines the routes or con-
nections anong places, emphasizing the location, structure, and
evolution of routes or networks. The research interest here is
normally at a nacroscale, rather than at the scale used by the
transportation engineer in fixing exact routing. These studies
range from the highly morphologic to those focusing on the pro-
cesses generating netv;ork developnent. Both theoretical con-
ceptualizations and empirical analyses have been followed.
A second research core seeks to understand the areal variation
in movement among locations. A nunber of interaction of flov/
models are employed to describe such flow variability. A con-
siderable literature in urban and transportation planning has
concentrated on the development and testing of models of movement.
Also into this second research category fall the numerous studies,
especially of the past, which treat the extent of hinterlands or
urban trade areas using interaction data. Only a sampling of
these studies is included here, and a mere complete source is
Brian J.L. Berry and Allan Fred (61). Both the study of networks
and movement on networks has given emphasis to the analysis of
patterns, rather than to the processes operating through tine
which alter transportation patterns.
The third area of spatial research on transportation is impact
analysis, in which the effects of networks and movements are con-
sidered on land use, activity nodes, and behavior. Here the studies
are commonly process-oriented in that changes in transportation
are recognized to be interdependent with change in nontransport
features of the area. A most considerable literature exists here,
where the boundary lines between transportation and other areas of
geography becor.e indistinct. In some such studies, transportation
is regarded as one of a series of independent variables inducing
change or explaining a portion of the areal variations in some
7. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
These three research clusters describe the field abstractly
in terms of kinds of relationships rather than by kinds of trans-
port nodes or by regions on the earth. This three-fold division
is appropriate whether at the scale of a snail city or that of a
continent. Because of the concentration of aovei^ent within cities,
there are a large nunber of stuaies dealing with urban trans-
portation, and such studies in this bibliography are generally
identified as having an urban focus, as well as noting whether they
enphasize networks, flows, or iapact.
Many of the articles in this bibliography can be conceptualized
within the franework of Berry's "geographic natrix" (Brian J.L.
Berry, "Approaches to Regional Analysis: A Synthesis," Annals ,
Association of ^>aerican Geographers . Vol. 54, March 1964, pp. 2-11).
Berry identifies five basic approaches to regional analysis: "One
(a) the arrangeaent of cells within a row or part of a row; or
(b) the arrangeuent of cells within a column or part of a
Since the rows of the matrix represent characteristics of
places and the columns refer to places or locations, the first
approach leads, in the context of transportation geography, to
an analysis of the way in which transportation characteristics
vary in magnitude and importance from place to place (depending
on the scale of investigation). The second approach would identify
the significance of transportation at a particular node and the
relationship between transportation and other functions and
attributes of that node, as in the stuiy of port cities.
Instead of studying only a single column, one night undertake:
"(c) comparison of pairs or of whole series of rows; and
(d) comparison of pairs of columns or of whole series of
These two approaches are simple extensions of the former tv/o and
involve the study of somewhat more complex relationships. The
third approach (c) considers the spatial associations am.ong dif-
ferent transport variables, such as accessibility and movement, or
between transport and nontransport variables, such as movement
cost and production economies of scale. This approach may also
include comparative analysis of modes or types of movement at a
number of locations. The fourth approach (d) represents a com-
parative regional analysis of transportation in different parts of
the world or at different locations.
8. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
mny enpirical studies focus on a portion of the natrix,
pointing up a fifth approach:
"(e) the study of a 'box* or subnatrix."
As Berry indicates, this approach nay "involve sone or all of
steps (a) -(d) above" and represent a case study nethod.
These five approaches nay each be considered in the tenporal
dimension, allowing a total of ten ways to undertake research in
the geography of transportation.
Many kinds of transportation data nay be placed into natrix
fom to readily depict interaction anong locations. In contrast
to the geographic natrix described above, an interaction natrix
consists of n rows for origins and n colunns for destinations. The
elenents of the natrix nay indicate V7hether or not a direct con-
nection exists between origin i and destination j (adjacency
natrix) or nay represent the nagnitude of flow between i and j, A
large nunber of techniques exist for the analyses of such
A nore conplete review of the field of transportation geography
may be found in Janes 0. VJheeler, "An Overview of Research in
Transportation Geography," The East Lakes Geographer . Vol. 7, 1971,
9. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
III. USER GUID E
This bibliography classifies each article into at least one
topic, as indicated by the topical guide. Frequently an entry
is cross classified. A topical index is provided at the end. The
classification systen includes the traditional divisions by :..odes,
but only where the study rather directly focuses on a node. If
appropriate, the study is placed into topics 5, 6, or 7 (networks,
flows, and transport inpact). The study nay also be classified Ly
approach, general, historical, or theoretical-conceptual, as well
as by subject area (as with nodes or urban research). A catejjory
terned "Transportation Data" points up data sources, data collect-
ion and display nethods, and iata uses in the field of spatial
studies in transportation. It is felt that this organization v/ill
be of naxinun benefit to the greatest nunber of users.
10. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
b. Travel Models
a. Network Measures and Structure
b. Route Location
c. Route Evolution
6. Flows and Movement
7. lapact of Transportation
a. Highway Effects
b. Econovaic and Regional Development
8. Modal Studies
c . Water
9. Transportation Data
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C. Periodical Abbreviations
The nanes and abbreviations of periodicals connonly appearing
in this bibliography are given below.
- /jnerican Econonic Review
- /merican Journal of Sociology
- /jinals, Association of Anerican Geographers
- Australian Geographer
- Australian Geographical Studies
- Business History Review
- Canadian Geographer
- East Lakes Geographer
- East Midland Geographer
- Econonic Development and Cultural Change
- Econonic Geography
- Environnent and Planning
- Geografiska Annaler
- Geographical Analysis
- Geographical Journal
- Geographical Review
- High Speed GrounJ Transportation Journal
- Highway Research Board Bulletin
- Highway Research Record
- Institute of Transport Journal
- Journal of Air Law and Coixierce
- Journal of Anerican Institute of Planners
- Journal of Geography
- Journal of Industrial Econonics
- Journal of Political Econony
- Journal of Regional Science
- Journal of Transport Economics and Policy
- Journal of Transport History
- Journal of Tropical Geography
- Journal of the Institute of Highway Engineers
- Journal of the Institute of Mathenatical Applications
- Land Econor.ics
- Monthly Labor Review
- New Zealand Geographer
- Papers of the Regional Science Association
- Proceedings, Association of Aiaerican Geographers
- Professional Geographer
- Scientific Anerican
- Scottish Geographical Magazine
- Social Forces
- Soviet Geography: Review and Translation
- Tijdschrift voor Econonische en Sociale Geografie
- Town Planning Review
CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
TE - Traffic Engineering
TQ - Traffic Quarterly
- Transactions: Institute of British Geographers
- Transport and Connunications Review
- Transportation Journal
- Transportation Research
TS - Transportation Science
- Urban Affairs Quarterly
US - Urban Studies
- Yearbook of the Association of Pacific Coast
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"• Annotated Bibliog;raphy
1. Adams, John S. 'Directional Bias in Intra-Urban Migration,"
EG, Vol. 45, October 1969, pp. 302-323. (2,4).
2. Adans, Russell B. "U, S. Metropolitan Migration: Dimensions
and Predictability," PROCEEDINGS, A. A. G., Vol. 1, 1969,
pp. 1-6. (2,4).
3. Alagona, Dagago. "Transport in Africa in Relation to Econonic
Development," ITJ, Vol, 31, January 1965, pp. 53-56. (7b),
Treats the problems of economic nationalism in African
deve lopment .
4. Albrink, Karl S. and Joseph F. Cobbs. "'Research into the Value
of Landlocked Right-of-Way Parcels," HRR, No. 8, 1963,
pp. 95-106. (7a).
Recommends appraisers and negotiators use case studies
to aid in the establishment of a method that can be
applied to determine land values,
5. Aldcroft, Derek H. "The Decontrol of British Shipping and
Railways after the First World War," JTH, Vol. 5,
November 1961, pp. 89-104. (3, 8a, 8c).
Outlines the reconstruction problems involved in decent-
ralizing railv/ay and shipping industries and compares the
way in which the government dealt with decentralization
from 1918 to 1921.
6. Aldercroft, Derek H. "The Eclipse of British Coastal Shipping,
1913-21," JTH, Vol. 6, May 1963, pp. 24-38. (3,3c).
7. Alexander, David and Leon N. Moses, "Competition Under Uneven
Regulation,'- AER, Vol, 53, May 1963, pp. 466-473. (2a).
Presentation of a theoretical scheme to demonstrate hox7
an increase in the regulated rate is equivalent to a
reduction in the supply of regulated transport, as justifi'
cation for the extension of agricultural exemption to
rail and v/ater carriers.
14. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
8, Alexander, John W. "Freight Rates as a Geographic Factor in
Illinois/^ EG, Vol. 20, January 1944, pp. 25-30. (6,7).
Presents a series of naps showing the freight rate
structure and the relationship of this structure to the
location of grain and livestock production; concludes
that the rate structure favors production of grain in
the East and livestock in the West and Northwest.
9. Alexander, John W., and S. Earl Brown, and Richard Dahlberg.
"Freight Rates: Selected Aspects of Uniforn and Nodal
Regions,'' EG, Vol. 34, January 1958, pp. 1-18. (6b).
Maps and describes the rate structure in Wisconsin.
10. Alexander, John W. , and S. Earl Brown, and Richard Dahlberg.
"International Trade: Selected Types of World Regions,"
EG, Vol. 36, April 1960, pp. 95-115. (6a).
Proposes seven classification systems for regionalizing
data on international trade, giving the characteristics,
. evaluations, and usefulness of each.
11. Alexanderson, Gunnar and G. Norstron. WORLD SHIPPING: AN
ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY OF PORTS AND SEABORNE TRx'UDE. New York:
John Wiley 6c Sons, Inc., 1964. (1,7c, 8c).
■ " A conprehensive treatment of world shipping, sea routes,
and hinterlands, with systematic and regional chapters,
12. Alonso, Willian. "A Theory of the Urban Land Market," PRSA,
Vol. 6, 1960, pp. 149-157. (2a).
Presents a non-nathenatical overview of a theory of the
,, urban land aarket, based on agricultural rent theory and
involving trade-offs between rent and transport.
13. Andreassen, John C.L. "Canadian National Railway Records,"
BUSINESS HISTORY REVIEW, Vol. 39, 1965, pp. 115-119.
A progress report on the attenpts to organize the records
of the Canadian National Railways for greater research
14. Andrews, J.A.C. ''Urban Transportation in Canada," TE, Vol. 38,
October 1967, pp. 58-61. (4).
A study of eleven Canadian cities showing the decline of
transit despite population growth and giving reconmendations
for nore investnent in transport systems.
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15. Appleton, J. H. ''The Efficiency of the Great Australian
Divide as a Barrier to Railway Comnunication,'' TRANS-
ACTIONS: ItlSTITUTE OF BRITISH GEOGR/vPHERS, No. 33,
1963, pp. 101-122. (5c).
The notion that the Great Australian Divide is an effective
barrier to transportation is analyzed and qualified.
16. Appleton, J. H. A MORPHOLOGICAL APPROACH TO THE GEOGR^iPHY OF
TRANSPORT. Yorkshire, England: University of Hull, 1965,
The purpose of this study is to exanine the part played
by Dorphological studies in the geography of transportation.
The reasons for transportation geography's nonnorphological
trends in the past are examined and its inplications for
further studies in geography are considered. An attempt
is nade to put the norphological approach into perspective
insofar as it is relevant to the geography of transportation.
17. Appleton, J. H. "Sone Geographical Aspects of the Moderni-
zation of British Railways," G, Vol. 52, Novenber 1967,
pp. 357-363. (5b, 5c, 8a).
Presents a factual account of changes in network shape,
utilization, and character and evaluates closure of
certain lines, changes in ownerships, "Merry-go-round"
systems, and proposed truck routes.
18. Appleyard, Donald, Kevin Lynch and John Myer. "The View fron
the Road,'= HRR, No. 2, 1963, pp. 21-30. (5b).
Discusses the landscape seen by the driver and passengers
along highway routes, out-lines objectives to provide the
vievjer with coherent fom and a clarified iuage and
meaning of the environment, and uses field data to
suggest such findings nay be employed in highway planning.
19. Arth, Maurice P. "Federal Transport Regulatory Policy,"
AER, Vol. 52, May 1962, pp. 416-425. (1).
Based on evaluation of the Ueeks and Mueller reports,
the Hector and Arpia protests, the Doyle study, and the
Landis Report, steps are identified which should be
taken to iiuprove federal regulation of transportation.
It is concluded that the greatest needs are for low-cost
competitive pricing of carrier services and universal
and adequate pricing for government-facility services.
16. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
20. Ashley, Roger H. and William F. Berard. "Interchange
Development Along 180 Miles of 1-94," HRR, No. 96,
1965, pp. 46-58. (2a,4,7a).
Analysis and classification of freeway interchanges as
they relate to coonunity Jevelopnent,
21. Ashton, Winifred D. THE THEORY OF ROAD TRi^FFIC FLOW. Lonuon,
England: Methuen &Co., Ltd., 1966. (2).
Conprehensive textbook on traffic flow theory written
primarily for statisticians, applied natheuaticians and
engineers specializing in the traffic field. Although
the approach is theoretical, the author contends that a
number of the results collected still find practical
22. Aynvarg, Ye. S. "Zones of Influence of Middle-Size Cities,
Their Boundaries and Passenger Flows," SGRT, Vol. 10,
Novenber 1969, pp. 549-558. (2b,4,6c).
A modified gravity model and concepts fron Christaller
and Zipt are used to identify the central city's zone
of influence, the demographic and passenger-generating
potential of the zone, and the population in any con-
centric ring in the zone or in the entire zone.
23. Ayre, Josephine. "History and Regulation of Trailer-on-
Flatcar Movement," HRR, No. 153, 1967, pp. 1-30. (3,3a).
Traces the influence of the ICC through successive
i investigations and shows that piggy-back transport has
increased due to recent ICC investigations.
24. Baker, Robert F. "A Practical View of the Systems Approach,"
TQ, Vol. 21, January 1967, pp. 471-486. (1,2a).
Identification of existing weaknesses in the systems
approach to transportation,
25. Balchin, W.G.V. AIR TR/^SPORT AND GEOGRAPHY. London, England:
The Royal Geographical Society, 1947. (l,8d).
A pioneering effort to chart the geographic implications
of a relatively new medium of transportation. A general
background discussion is follov;ed by descriptions of
world air routes and regional air traffic patterns.
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26. Balkus, Koznas, •'Transportation Inplications of Alternative
Sketch Plans," HPJl, No. 180, 1967, pp. 52-70. (2b, 4, 6c).
A uniforr.1 application of travel generation criteria is
applied to sets of population distributions. Trip
generation is then estimated in several regions.
27. Balkus, Kozroas. "Metropolitan Highway Systens in the Frane-
work of Social Welfare Decisions," FRSA, Vol. 22, 1969,
pp. 39-54. (2a,4,5,8b).
Regression equations are used to detemine the process
of service standard fornatlon, the norms that guide the
distribution of services, and perfornance parameters of
the systen. A nodel of an optinun highway network is
28. Ballard, Cordelle Kenper. "Transportation Dependents," TQ,
Vol. 21, January 1967, pp. 83-90. (1,4).
An outline of the transport needs of the aged, sug-
gesting that a conprehensive effort is needed to provide
convenient nodes of transportation.
29. Ballert, Albert G. "The Great Lakes Coal Trade: Present and
Future," EG, Vol. 29, January 1953, pp. 48-59. (1,3c).
Discussion of tenporal shifts in the volume of coal
handled by selected ports and identification of the
reasons for changes.
30. Banford, Franklin. "Land-Use Control at Freeway Interchanges
in California," TQ, Vol. 19, Novenber 1965, pp. 541-555.
A call for continued local land use control to coordinate
connunity adjustuent and integrate the freeway into the
connunity consistent with connunity values,
31. Bannard, J. U. "Sone Current Thoughts on Transport Co-ordin-
ation," ITJ, Vol. 31, May 1966, pp. 370-376. (8).
The author calls for maintenance of conpetition between
road and rail transport by the government to encourage
forms of transport that would provide the right quality
at the lowest cost.
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32. Bardwell, George E, and Taul R. Merry. "Measuring the
Econonic lupact of a Linited-Access Highway on
Contiunities, Land Use, and Land Values," HRBB 268,
1960, pp. 37-73. (2a, 7a).
Analysis of sales tax collections to measure the econonic
inpact of a highway on bypassed connunities and on land
value and land use to demonstrate preliminary effects of
a partially completed limited access highway in Colorado.
33. Barker, T.C, "Passenger Transport in Nineteenth Century London,
JTH, Vol. 6, Ifey 1964, pp. 166-174. (3, 8a, 9).
A survey of source material.
34. Barloon, Marvin J. "The Interrelationship of the Changing
Structure of American Transportation and Changes in
Industrial Location," LE, Vol. 41, May 1965, pp. 169-
179. (2a, 5, 7).
Examines the relationship between industrial location
and transport systems, notes that U. S. industry is
relatively footloose with respect to transport, and that
"changes in industrial output and in location appear to
alter the structure of transportation, rather than the
35. Barnes, Charles F,, Jr. "Integrating Land Use and Traffic
Forecasting, =• HRBB 297, 1961, pp. 1-13. (4).
Discusses the procedures used and the basic information
gained during the development of the land use analysis
for the Hartford Area Traffic Study.
36. barrington, R. "The Hamburg Outer-Harbour Project and Re-
lated Developments," TESG, Vol. 59, March-April 1563,
pp. 106-lOa. (7c).
Describes a proposed site for harbor development needed
^ to meet the demands created by new super tankers.
37. Barry, Walter A., Jr. "Proposed English Channel Tunnel: Its
Estimated Traffic and Revenue," TQ, Vol. 15, April 1961,
pp. 269-234. (1).
Discusses the findings of a survey to estimate traffic
and revenues for an electric railway tunnel and concludes
that such a tunnel is economically feasible.
38. Barton, Thomas Frank. "Railroads of Southeast Asia," JG, Vol.
59, 1960, pp. 21-33. (8a).
Examination of the major rail networks serving Thailand,
Malaya, Cambodia, and Laos, surveying their extent,
pattern, international aspects, passenger and goods
flow, and future.
19. CPL Exchange Bibliography niii-nib
Barton, Thonas Frank. "Outlets to the Sea for Land-Locked Laos,"
JG, Vol. 59, 1960, pp. 206-219. (1,8c).
Describes the need for access to ocean shipping, the
effects of renaining French colonial rule, and the
viability of potential outlets.
40. Bauer, K. W. 'A Ifethod for Attaining Realistic Local Highway
Systen Flans," HRBB 326, 1962, pp. 37-45. (4,8b).
Concludes that aost cities do not have long range plans
and that local plans are quite ineffective in achieving
integrated urban highways aainly because they are
41. Bauer, K. W. "Use of Official Map Procedure to Reserve Land
for Future Highways," HRR, No. 8, 1963, pp. 82-94. (5b, 3b),
Outlines and demonstrates planning for official naps
designating right-of-way lines and site boundaries for
streets and highways to prevent extensive and costly
developcent within these lines in Wisconsin.
42. Beaver, S. H. "Ships and Shipping: The Geographical Conse-
quences of Technological Progress," G, Vol. 52, 1967,
pp. 133-156. (6a, 8c).
Discussion of three najor results of technical progress
leading to trade route changes: the substitution of oil
for coal, the developnent of refrigeration, and changes
in the nature of international trade that have both
resulted froa and influenced changes in ship construction.
43. Becht, J. Edwin. A GEOGRAPHY OF TR/iNS PORTrtTION AND BUSINESS
LOGISTICS. Dubuque, Iowa: Brown Co., 1970. (1).
An introductory statement emphasizing transportation
patterns, the role of terrain, climate, historical
factors, carrier operations, and business logistics,
44. Becknan, ITornan. "Impact of the Transportation Planning
Process," TQ, Vol. 20, April 1966, pp. 159-173. (1).
A consideration of social, econoaic, and political effects
of conprehensive transportation, encouraging a holistic
approach to transport developnent.
20. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
45. Beckr.iann, Martin, C. B. McGuire, and Christopher B. Winsten.
STUDIES IN THE ECONOMICS OF TRANSPORTATION. New Haven,
Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1956. (2).
The purpose of the studies included within this volune is
to develop and illustrate certain concepts, rjethods, and
nodels that r.iay have usefulness as points of departure
for assessing capabilities and appraising efficiency of
operation of transportation systems.
46. Becknann, Martin, C. B. McGuire, and Christopher B. Winsten.
"On the Theory of Traffic Flow in Networks," TQ, Vol. 21,
January 1967, pp. 109-117. (2b, 5a).
Discusses ideal properties of transportation theory of
traffic flow, reviews basic nodels of flow having linear
progranning solutions, and conr>ents on implications for
road utilization and road benefits.
47. Beckmann, Martin, C. B. McGuire, and Christopher B. Winsten.
"Principles of Optinun Location for Transportation Net-
works," QUANTITATIVE GEOGRAPHY PART I: ECONOMIC AND
CULTUR.;L TOPICS. W. L. Garrison and D. F. Marble, eds . ,
'S>-t; '.' : Evanston, Illinois: Departoent of Geography, North-
^\'.'<:i western University, 1967, pp. 95-119. (2, 5a, 5b).
Discrete and continuous nodels of optimal network design
are fornulated in the paper which solve the optimal
design problem: How should a given total sun available
for initial construction and subsequent maintenance cost
be allocated in order to effect the greatest savings in
transportation cost for road users? The author contends
that the models fornulated are primarily valuable for
48. Beesley, M. E. and J. F. Kain. Urban Form, Car Ownership
and Public Policy: An Appraisal of Traffic in Towns,''
US, Vol. 1, November 1964, pp. 174-203. (1,4).
The 'Traffic in Towns" report of 1963 is critically
49. Beesley, M. E. and J. F. Kain. "Forecasting Car Ownership
and Use,'' US, Vol. 2, November 1965, pp. 163-135. (2a, 4),
Refines estimates of future levels of car ownership and
transit use for Leeds, England, incorporating changes
in urban form as a variable affecting car ownership and
50. Behling, Burton N. "Factors in Future Development of Rail
Piggyback,' HRR, No. 153, 1967, pp. 39-42. (8a).
21. CPL Exchange Bibliography #32A-#325
51. Belousov, I. I. "Transportation and the Foriaation of Econonic
Regions," SGRT, Vol. 5, Novenber 1964, pp. 19-23. (2a, 7b),
A -fithodology for deternining an optical location pattern
in the U.S.S.R. that would entail nininun cozibined pro-
duction and transport costs for each product.
52. Ben, C, R. J. Bouchard, and C. E. Sweet, Jr. "An Evaluation
of Sinplified Procedures for Determining Travel Patterns
in a Snail Urban «rea," HRR, No. 88, 1965, pp. 137-170.
(2b, 4, 6c).
Concludes that detailed socio-economic data combined V7ith
linited travel data can be satisfactorily used to conpute
zonal trip productions and attractions.
53. Benepe, Barry. "Pedestrian in the City," TQ, Vol. 19, January
1965, pp. 28-42. (4).
Traces the development and decline of consideration of
pedestrians in urban transport networks and sets criteria
for planning for pedestrian use of streets on various
54. Benesh, Alvin H, "Traffic Assignments by the Shortest Path
Method Usin^ the TD Factor," TQ, Vol. 21, October 1967,
pp. 553-567. (2b).
A weighting method is described to improve traffic
assignments using the time-distance factor.
55. Benishay, Haskel and Gilbert R. Whitaker, Jr. "Demand and
Supply in Freight Transportation, ■' JOURNi^L OF INDUSTRIAL
ECONOMICS, Vol. 14, June 1966, pp. 243-262. (8).
A preliminary investigation of the market structure of
the common carrier freight industry, providing estimates
of demand elasticities, demand prices, and income elastic-
ities for various transportation modes, and some "best
conjecture" on the supply side and market structure of
the industry. The results of regression analysis il-
lustrate the difficulty in e.?.pirical analysis of an
industry characterized by "excess capacities," regulation,
differing firm production functions, and inadequate data.
56. Benishay, Haskel and Gilbert R. Whitaker, Jr. "Tax Burden
Ratios in Transportation,'' LE, Vol. 43, February 1967,
pp. 44-55. (8).
Tax burden ratios are discussed and computed for rail,
motor, v/ater, and pipe carriers.
57. Bennett, R. F, "Road Transport in a Rapid Transit System,"
ITJ, Vol. 32, March 1968, pp. 333-344. (8).
22. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
58. Bergsnan, Joel. "Consents on Quandt and Baunol's Demand
Model for /abstract Transport Modes," JRS, Vol. 7,
Sunner 1967, pp. 83-85. (2b).
Presents a quantitative example which "indicates that
Quandt-Baunol's framework can be profitably used in an
investment planning model" that is more realistic than
the usual framework "which ignores the relationship
between price and demand."
59. Berry, Brian J.L. and William Garrison. "A Source of Theory
for Highway Impact Studies," HIGHWAY RESEARCH BO/iRD
SPECIi^ REPORT NO. 28, 1957, pp. 79-84. (2, 7a, 8b).
60. Berry, Brian J.L. and William Garrison. "Recent Studies Con-
cerning the Role of Transportation in the Space Economy,"
AAAG, Vol. 49, September 1959, pp. 328-342. (7).
The author reviews and evaluates the theoretical con-
tributions of studies in which patterns of economic
activity are related to transport systems, including the
"Raum and Verkehar' series; highway impact studies con-
ducted at the University of Washington; and investigations
of the interrelationships of bus services, towns, and
their hinterlands undertaken in Sweden and the United
61. Berry, Brian J.L. and Allan Pred. CENTRAL PLACE STUDIES: A
BIBLIOGRi>.PHY OF THEORY AND APPLICATIONS. (Supplement).
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Regional Science Research
Institute. Bibliography Series No. 1. 1965. (1,4).
62. Berry Brian, J.L. and Allan Pred. ESSAYS ON COMMODITY FLOWS
AND THE SPATIAL STRUCTURE OF THE INDL\N ECONOMY. Depart-
ment of Geography Research Paper No. 111. Chicago,
Illinois: University of Chicago, 1966. (2,6b).
This study provides a cartographic portrayal and
statistical analysis of movements in 63 commodity groups
overland and coastwise among 36 reporting units in India.
The three essays, jointly prepared by- various combinations
of authors, comprise, about 60 pages of text, the' remainder
of the volu:::e' being devoted to naps and tabulations.
63. Berry, Brian J.L. and Paul Schwind, "Infoniation and Entropy
in Migrant Flows," GA, Vol. 1, January 1969, pp. 5-14.
A reviev; of information theory and entropy and their
relevance to research design and inference in studies
23. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
64. Berry, Donald S., et al. THE TECHNOLOGY OF UREilN TRANSPORTATION.
Evanston, Illinois: Northv/estern University Press, 1963.
An understanding of the capabilities of the different
types of facilities for urban transportation is inportant
in planning for the efficient novenent of persons and
goods in metropolitan areas; this study presents, for
each of several types of facilities, infornation on design
features, capacity, perfornance, costs, and ranges in
conditions for which each type night be best suited.
Infornation is included on automotive transportation,
various types of transit systens, possible innovations,
and on central area circulation.
65. Best, Alan C.G. THE SWAZILAND RAILW;.Y: A STUDY IN POLITICO-
ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY. East Lansing, Michigan: African
Studies Center, Michigan State University, 1966, (3,3a).
The purpose of this study is to examine the geographical
aspects of the Swaziland railway from its inception
during the eighteen-f ifties to the present.
66. Betz, Mathew J. and Jankie N. Supusad. "Traffic and Staggered
Working Hours," TQ, Vol. 19, April 1965, pp. 188-203. (4).
A nethod of staggering working hours to relieve congestion;
the effects of staggering on land use, highway configura-
tion, and transit planning,
67. Bevis, Howard W, "Forecasting Zonal Traffic Volumes," TQ,
Vol, 10, No. 2, April 1956, pp. 207-222. (2b, 4, 6c).
Bevis uses Detroit Metropolitan Area Survey data to
demonstrate an interative technique for the prediction
of inter-zonal trips, computing the probability of
interchange and the index of friction.
68. Bieber, Alain. "Modal Evolution of Inter-city Travel Demand:
A Markovian Analysis," TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH,
December 1967, pp. 311-337. (2a,4).
69. Bielak, Stanley F, and James F. McCarthy, "Highway Income,
Expenditures, and User-Tax Earnings in Standard Metro-
politan Statistical Areas," HRR, No. 106, 1966, pp. 58-
Compares highway income, expenditures, and highway-user
earnings for selected SMSA's. User income sources
provided almost seventy-five percent of the revenue
24. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
70. Bird, Janes. THE GEOGR/vPHY OF THE PORT OF LONDON. London,
England: Hutchinson University Press, 1957. (7c).
The author contends that it is viuch nore convenient to
define a port in terns of its function rather than in
terns of its forn. Hence, the essential task perforned
in this study was to trace and describe the developnent
of those areas vjhere the function of transshipnent was
carried out in the port areas of netropolitan London.
The conplicated foms of this transshipnent function
suggest that it is inpossible to nake precise linear
linits to the port of London.
71. Bird, Jaixs. 'Seaports and the European Econonic Connunity,"
GEOGR/'.PHIG/iL JOURNAL, Vol. 133, September 1967, pp. 302-
328. (7c, 8c).
Using E. E. C. data, this paper presents problems of
naritice transport and calls for reconsideration of
seaport developnent and policy decision-naking to inprove
future planning of seaports.
72. Bird, Janes. ''Traffic Flows to and fron British Seaports,"
G, Vol. 54, July 1969, pp. 284-302. (6a).
A reviev? using recent iata.
73. Birkhead, E. "The Financial Failure of British Air Transport
Companies," JTH, Vol. 4, May 1960, pp. 133-145. (3,3d).
/ Treats the uneconomical aspects of early twentieth century
74. Black, Alan. "A Method for Deternining the Optinal Division
of Express and Local Rail Transit Service," HRBB 347,
1962, pp. 106-120. (2a, 5, 8a).
Proposes a breakpoint on radial routes allowing local
trains to serve the area between the breakpoint and the
. CBD and express trains to serve the area beyond the
75. Black, Alan. "Comparison of Three Parameters of Nonresidential
Trip Generation," HRR, No. 114, 1966, pp. 1-7. (2b, 4, 6c).
Compares land use, land and floor area, and enploynent
in an attempt to determine the best type of measurement
fron which to estimate trips to non-residential areas.
The findings indicate that no one method is best, but
that floor area is best for commercial, enploynent for
manufacturing, and land use for public buildings.
25. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324 -#32 5
76. Bleile, George W. and Leon M. Moses, "Transportation and the
Spatial Distribution of Econonlc Activity,'' HRBB 311,
1962, pp. 27-30. (2a,4,7).
This article deals with aspects of the suburbanization
of econonic activity, concentrating on intra-netropolitan
distribution of nanufacturing. It compares relocation
patterns for large and snail fires and supports the
hypothesis that the inner city is the "seedbed" of new
77. Blurton, Michael A.S. "Special Bus Service," TE, Vol. 37,
February 1967, pp. 17-20. (4,3).
Conpares nass transit denonstration projects in Peoria
and Decatur, Illinois, and indicates changes which r.:ay
encourage greater use of mass transit systems.
78. Boal, F. W. and D. B. Johnson. ''The Functions of Retail and
Service Establishnent on Coonercial Ribbons," CG, Vol.
9, No. 3, 1965, pp. 159-169. (2a, 4).
A review of current concepts concerning the character
and function of connercial ribbons and the exanination
of the function of cue such ribbon in Calgary, Alberta.
Concludes that the central place concept is applicable
to the connercial ribbon, but that such application
would be operationally conplex because of the mixture
of establishment types ou such ribbons and their functional
79. Borchert, John R. and Donald D. Corroll. "Tine-Series Maps
for the Projection of Land -Use Patterns," HRBB 311,
1962, pp. 13-26, (2a, 4).
By times series napping of residential and commercial
land-use patterns, future patterns are extrapolated for
use in hi crhu/^v n1ann<no
use in highway planning
80. Borchert, John R, "/vmerican Metropolitan Evolution," GR, Vol,
57, July 1967, pp. 301-332. (2a, 3, 4, 7).
Presents the evolution of the present pattern of SMSA's
from 1790 to 1960, identifying four major epochs in
/u^rican history: soilwagon era, 1790-1830; iron horse
era, 1830-1870; steel rail era, 1370-1920; and auto-
air-amenity era, 1920- , discussing the technological
innovations which characterize each epoch.
26. CPL Exchange Libliography #324-#325
81. Bostick, T. x.. and T. R. Todd. "Travel Characteristics of
Persons Living in Larger Cities," HRR, No. 106, 1966,
pp. 52-57. (4,6c).
Using natiom^ide eutonobile use survey data, the authors
relate the choice of travel nodes to the nearness of
public transportation, the distance to work, and fanily
incorae. The use of the autonobile, the dominant mode of
transportation, tends to increase with income.
82. Botha, D. "A Descriptive Model of Social Contacts within a
Community, '■ ERISTICS, Vol. 30, August 1970, pp. 110-116.
"The purpose of this study is to determine the variables
influencing the level and character of the social contacts
within communities of around 7,000 people."
83. Bot2ov7, Hermann. "An Empirical Method for Estimating Auto
Commuting Costs," HRR, No. 157, 1967, pp. 56-70. (Cb) .
By estimating auto operating costs for counties within
the study region, significant variations in cost per car
and cost per car mile are indicated.
84. Bouchard, Richard J. and Clyde E. Fyers. "Use of Gravity
Model for Prescribing Urban Travel: An Analysis and
Critique, ■ HRR, No. 83, 1965, pp. 1-43. (2b, 4, 6c).
For the gravity model to accurately describe traffic
flow, the model should incorporate average area travel
time factors, should stratify trips or balance interzonal
attraction factors, and should be adjusted for geographic
85. von Boventer, Edwin. "The Relationship between Transportation
Costs and Location Rent in Transportation Problems,"
JRS, Vol. 3, Wiater 1961, pp. 27-40. (2a, 6, 7).
Discusses the "simultaneous determination of transport
costs and rent payments at both the production and
86. von Boventer, Edwin. "Comments on Kadas," PRSA, Vol. 12,
1963, pp. 203-209. (2a, 7).
Discusses the interaction between internal economies and
transportation costs and the role of input-output studies
as indicators of a region's economic structure, and sug-
gests closer examination of the problem of agglomeration
economies and diseconomies.
27. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
87. BowersoK, Donald J. "Influences of Hishways on Selection of
Six Industrial Locations," HR3B, No. 268, 1960, pp. 13-23.
u report on the findings of interviews with representatives
of six industrial firas adjacent to free access roads.
For these fims the highways influence was considered
inportant cut not critical,
88. Boyce, Byrl N. ''Excess Acquisition Revisited: Control of Land
Use at the Interstate Interchange, " LE, Vol. 45, August
1969, pp. 293-303. (7a).
Methods of land use regulation are evaluated.
89. Boyce, David E. "The Effect of Direction and Length of
Person Trips on Urban Travel Patterns," JRS, Vol. 6,
Suncer 1965, pp. 65-80. (2a, 4, 6c).
Tests existing theoretical constructs through the
application of nulti-variate analysis to urban travel
data, specifically testing the assunption that trip
volume is independent of the direction of the trips.
90. Boyce, David S. and Seynour E. Goldstone. ''A Regional
Econoaic Sinulation Model for Urban Transportation Plan-
ning, == HRR, Wo. 149, 1966, pp. 29-41," (2a, 4).
Treats forecasts of population and enploynent for urban
transportation regions using a regional sinulation nodel
consisting of a set of recursive difference equations
describing the denographic and enploynent sectors of a
91. Boyce, David E. and Seynour E. Goldstone, ''Effect of Trip
Direction on Inter-zonal Trip Volumes: Test of a Basic
Assunption of Trip Distribution Models,'' HRR, No. 165,
1967, pp. 76-38. (2a, 4, 6c).
Using an analysis of variance of interzonal trip data,
the author tests the assunption that interzonal volunes
are independent of the location of zones and are instead
a function of the separation of zones. The findings
substantiated the assunption for arterial trips, but not
for transit trips. The study also indicates the un-
ifornity of the total trip pattern by trip direction.
92. Boyd, Alan S. 'The United States Department of Transportation,'"
JOURi^.\L OF ..IR LAW a COMMERCE, Vol, 33, Spring 1967,
pp. 225-233. (1).
Discussion of the administrative structure of the
Department of Transportation.
28. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
93. Boyce, Yngve. ROUTING METHODS: PRINCIPLES FOR HANDLING
MULTIPLE SALESMEN PROBLEMS. LunJ Studies in Geography,
Series C, Mo. 5, Lund, Sweden: C. W. K. Gleerup, 1985.
(2, 5a, 5b).
94. Branch, Melville C. "Urban Planning and the New Mobility,''
JOURNAL OF .AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF PU\NNERS, Vol. 30,
February 1964, pp. 2-6. (4,8a).
Traces the increase in helicopter passenger airlines and
recorjnends analysis of their disruptive effects before
their use becones widespread.
95. Brant, Austin E., Jr. and Dana E. Low. "Cost-Saving Techniques
for Collection and Analysis of Origin-Destination Survey
Data," HRR, No. 205, 1967, pp. 50-66. (9).
96. Brenner, Robert. 'Geometries as an Approach to Macroscopic
Theories of Traffic Flow," HRR, No. 15, 1963, pp. 44-59.
Borrowing concepts fron thernodynanics, Brenner proposes
a theoretical schena that would identify stable, un-
stable, and r;.etastable regions of space, providing
macroscopic variants for operational decisions. The
approach offers a type of sensitivity analysis pursuant
to operational decision naking and investigation of
traffic flov7 problems.
97. Brighan, Eugene F. "The Determinants of Residential Land
Values," LE, Vol. 41, November 1965, pp. 325-334. (4,7).
Describes and tests a model of single-family residential
land values in Los iingeles County, California, incorp-
orating site characteristics of accessibility, amenities,
topography, present and future use, and certain historical
98. Britton, John N.H. "The Development of Port Kembla, N. S, W. , "
G, Vol. 46, July 1961, pp. 247-250. (7c).
A berth and an inner harbor are the two main needs to
improve Port Kembla's capacity to handle cargo.
99. Britton, John N.H, "The Transport Functions of Port Kembla,"
EG, Vol. 38, October 1962, pp. 347-358. (7c).
Presents a detailed analysis of the composition and
direction of cargo moving through Port Kembla, Australia;
examines foreland and hinterland patterns using the origins
and destinations of community flow; and treats the
significance of secondary industry and competitive forces
which influence port viability.
29. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
100. Britton, John N.H. "Interstate Transport Conpetition and
the Port of Melbourne," AUSTRALIrVN GEOGRAPHICAL STUDIES,
Vol. 1, October 1963, pp. 84-95. (7c).
101. Britton, John N.H. "The External Relations of Seaports:
Sone New Considerations," TESG, Vol. 56, May- June 1965,
pp. 109-112. (6a, 7c).
Consideration of the flow patterns of Melbourne using
descriptive and infernetial statistical techniques in an
attenpt to distinguish discrete foreland characteristics
produced by conbinations of connodities. The author
concludes that full understanding of a port's external
relations is only achieved through combining the co-^juodity
flow approach with analysis of foreland characteristics.
102. Britton, John N.H. "Coastwise External Relations on the
Ports of Victoria's coastwise general cargo inport and
export systeu by presenting a descriptive outline of
patterns of connodity flows and analyzing foreland
103. Britton, John N.H. "A Geographical Approach to the Exanin-
ation of Industrial Linkages," CG, Vol. 13, Autunn
1969, pp. 185-198. (2,6b).
Residuals fron regression and the gravity model are
used to identify interregional manufacturing links.
Patterns of freight dispatches can be explained con-
siderably by the market size of each region and dis-
tance from the zone by origin.
104. Brodsky, Harold. "Highways and Outdoor Recreation," HRR,
No. 161, 1967, pp. 22-29. (8b).
A wide-ranging discussion of highways as a recreational
resource, highway accessibility, and the crisis in
105. Brookfield, H. C, "New Railroad and Port Developments in
East and Central Africa," EG, Vol. 31, January 1955,
pp. 60-70. (7c, 8a).
The status of schemes to expand rail and port facilities
contrasting transport development in two areas of
106. Brooks, Peter W, "The Development of Air Transport," JTEP,
Vol. 1, May 1967, pp. 164-173. (3,8d).
The history of aviation over six decades on the
30. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
107. Brown, Lawrence A. and Frank E. Horton. "Functional
Distance: An Operational Approach," GA, Vol. 2,
January 1970, pp. 76-83. (2a, 6b).
Using a Markov nodel, nean first passage tice is cal-
culated as a measure of functional distance, using
migration data fron New York State .
108. Brown, Lawrence A, and Frank E. Horton. "On the Use of
Markov Chains in Movement Research," EG, Vol. 46,
June 1970, pp. 393-403. (1,2a).
A discussion of Markov chains as a descriptive tool and
as a model of geographic systems and processes.
109. Brown, Lawrence A. and David B, Lcngbrake. "Migration Flows
in Intraurban Space: Place Utility Considerations,"
Ai\AG, Vol. 60, June 1970, pp. 368-384. (2a, 4).
The main objective is the construction and evolution of
place utility functions based on socioeconomic and mig-
ration characteristics using 1966-67 Cedar Rapids data.
110. Brown, Lawrence A., John Odland, and Reginald G. Golledge.
'Migration, Functional Distance, and the Urban Hierarchy,"
EG, Vol. 46, July 1970, pp. 472-485. (2a, 6b).
Using the one-hundred largest SMSA's, the study focuses
on a hierarchial classification of places and identifica-
tion of system-wide migration fields for each SMSA,
111. Brown, Robert T. and Clell G. Harral. "Estimating Highway
Benefits in Under-developed Countries," HRR, No. 115,
1966, pp. 29-43. (2a, 7b).
Presents both a non-mathematical and algebraic model to
demonstrate the maximum difference between the contributions
which highway projects make to national incom.e and the
cost of the projects.
112. Brown, Robert T. TRANSPORT AND THE ECONOMIC INTEGRATION OF
SOUTH i\ME RICA. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution,
This study attempts to present in broad outline a trans-
portation strategy for the whole continent of South
America, since economic development efforts in Latin
Arierica have been focuses primarily on the problems and
potentials of individual countries in isolation. The
basic assumption is that Latin American econoiiic progress
requires larger export markets, a wider geographic aistri-
bution of industrial activity, and interdependence in
marketing and transportation.
31. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
113. Brown, Sanuel P. "The Future of Toll Roads," TQ, Vol. 15,
July 1961, pp. 520-534. (7,8b).
The national and regional inpact cf the inter-state
systen of toll roads in the United States,
114. Bruck, H. W. , Stephen H. Putnan, and Wilbur A. Steger.
"Evaluation of Alternative Transportation Proposals:
The Northeast Corridor," JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE
OF PLANNERS, Vol. 32, November 1966, pp. 322-333. (2a, 7).
Examination of sone of the indirect consequences of
alternative transportation investnents in the northeast
corridor. Inpact nodeling uay be an aid in estimating
and evaluating the consequences of denographic, econonic,
and land use changes.
115. Buchanan, Colin D. "Britain Road Problens," GEOGRAPHICAL
JOURNAL, Vol. 130, Decenber 1964, pp. 470-483. (1,3,4,5).
Reflections on the introduction of the autonobile in
Great Britain, new road construction connecting urban
centers, and the problen of providing efficient circulation
while also providing surroundings reasonably free fron
adverse environnental effects of uotor traffic.
116. Buhl, Walter F, "Intercity Highway Transport Share Tends
to Vary Inversely with Size of Plant," HRR, No. 175,
1967, pp. 9-14. (8b).
This article is concerned with the relationship between
highway carrier share and the traffic characteristics
of: conriodity, size of shipment , and distance.
117. Buhr, Johann H., Donald R. Drew, Joseph A. Wattleworth,
and Thonas G. Williams. "A Nationwide Study of Freeway
Merging Operations," HRR, No. 202, 1967, pp. 76-122.
A description of air photographic techniques, data
reduction r.ethods, and the variety of data which may be
used in merging studies.
32. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324 -#32 5
118. Bunge, Willian. "Toward a General Theory of Movenent,"
THEORETICAL GEOGR^'^PHY. Lund, Sweden: C. W. K. Gleerup,
1962, pp. 108-129. (2a).
This chapter of Bunge 's larger text includes a brief
connent on general flow nodels, a review of spatial
novenent theories in their traditional categories based
on subject ratter, and a discussion of their abstract spa-
tial properties, leading to a reclassification of the
theories and a conclusion which coonents on geographic
unity. The author strives to unite two bodies of theory:
central place theory and movenent theory.
119. Bunke, Harvey C. "The Status of Rate-Making," LE, Vol. 36,
May 1960, pp. 129-Ul. (3,8).
Historical review of rate regulation in the United States
indicates a fundamental shift in rate making policy
showing that competitive pricing is essential if the
transportation system, specifically the railroads, is to
'' be operated as an economic enterprise.
120. Bunker, R. "Travel in Stevenage," TPR, Vol. 38, October
1967-68, pp. 215-232. (4).
Using descriptive statistics, this summary of a travel
survey in Stevenage points out the need for concern with
the regional and functional relationships of future new
121. Burch, James S, "Traffic Interactance between Cities,"
HRBB, No. 297, 1961, pp. 14-17. (2b,4,6b).
Evaluation of the interaction between five cities and
-,.■ ■ towns in North Carolina, using a quadratic adaption of
'■ the gravity model to predict traffic exchange.
122. Burghardt, Anarew F. "The Origin and Development of the Road
Network of the Niagara Peninsula, Ontario, 1770-1851,"
i\AAG, Vol. 59, September 1969, pp. 417-440. (3,5,8b).
Historical analysis suggests that Indian trails did not
predetermine the road alignments and that towns created
roads, rather than vice versa.
123. Burton, Robert C. and Frederick D, Knapp. "Socio-Economic
Change in Vicinity of Capital Beltway in Virginia," HRR,
No. 75, 1964, pp. 32-47. (7a).
Changes in land and real property values, land uses,
traffic patterns, travel habits, and business activity
associated with an interstate highway over a period of
33. CPL Exchanse Bibliography #324-#325
124. Eurtt, Everett J., Jr. "Workers adapt to Plant Relocation
in Suburbia (Greater Boston)," MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW,
April 1968, pp. 1-5. (4,6c).
125. Butas, Larry F, "Various Sinultaneous Equation for Inter-
zonal Divergences and Link Assignnents ," TQ, Vol. 18,
July 1964, pp. 383-405. (2a, 4).
A nethod for deterniining the nanner in which interzonal
trip transfers diverge and take on various lengths,
126. Butas, Larry F. "Sinultaneous Differential Equations for
Trip Distributions," TQ, Vol. 20, april 1966, pp. 248-
267. (2b, 6c).
Develops a dynanically interdependent nodel, which conpares
favorably in enpirical results with the nodified gravity
127. Caueron, M. A. "Theory and Practice in Transport," ITJ,
Vol. 31, November 1964, pp. 20-23. (1).
128. Canpbell, Thonias C. "Agricultural Exeaptions froa Motor
Carrier Regulation," LE, Vol. 36, February 1960,
pp. 14-25. (8b).
The issue of non-unifom regulation of carriers and
coaiaodities is analyzed in an exanination of the Motor
Carrier Act of 1935 and Transportation Act of 1953.
Canpbell, Wilson E. 'Transportation Systeu Corridors,'
HRR, Vol. 166, 1967, pp. 26-35. (1).
130. Campbell, Wilson E. "An Evaluation of Alternative Land Use
and Transportation Systems in the Chicago Age," HRR,
No. 238, 1968, pp. 103-115. (4,6c).
cat's role in a land use and transportation study is
131. Cannon, John G. "Historic Old Sacranento and U. S. Inter-
state Route 5,' TQ, Vol. 19, July 1965, pp. 405-412.
Discusses cooperative planning of a freeway and a
historic renewal area in downtown Sacramento.
132. Cano, Jose Luis. "Freeways in Lima, Peru," TE, Vol. 36,
August 1966, pp. 54-57. (4,7c).
A brief overview.
34. CPL Exchange Bibliography y/324-#325
133. Carlson, Fred A. "Traffic on the Ohio River Systen," JG,
Vol. 59, Novenber 1960, pp. 357-360. (8c).
Traffic and construction on the Ohio River.
134. Carlson, Robert E. "British Railroads and Engineers and the
Beginnings of Anierican Railroad Developnent," BUSINESS
HISTORY REVIEW, Vol. 34, Sumer 1960, pp. 137-149. (3,8a).
135. Carroll, J. Douglas, Jr., and Gerald P. Jones. "Interpretation
of Desire Line Charts Made on a Cartographatron," HRBB,
253, 1960, pp. 86-108. (9).
136. Carroll, J. Douglas, Jr., and Roger L. Creighton, and John R.
Hanburg. "Transportation Planning for Central Areas,"
JOURN/i OF AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF PLANNERS, Vol. 27,
February 1961, pp. 26-34. (4).
137. Carrothers, Gerald A. P. "An Historical Review of the
Gravity and Potential Concepts of Hunan Interaction,"
JOURNAL OF /J^RICAN INSTITUTE OF PLANNERS, Vol. 22,
Spring 1956, pp. 94-102. (2b).
Discusses and explains various uodels and fornuli,
including a bibliography (83 English written articles
138. Carter, John F. "The Urban Traffic Problen," TQ, Vol. 16,
April 1962, pp. 260-270. (1,4).
'''' A general discussion.
139. Carter, Richard E. "A Conparative Analysis of United States
Ports and Their Traffic Characteristics," EG, Vol. 38,
April 1962, pp. 162-175. (7c).
A series of naps are analyzed in a general discussion
'■• ' of United States water traffic.
140. Casetti, Enilio. "Optinal Location of Steel Mills Serving
the Quebec and Southern Ontario Steel Market," CG,
Vol. 10, No. 1, 1966, pp. 27-39. (2a, 6b, 7).
Linear progranning techniques are used to analyze both
the inpact of increased steel consumption in Canada and
the inpact of iron ore shipments fron Seven Islands to
Great Lakes steel centers on the optinun location of
steel nills supplying the Canadian narket.
35. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
141. Caswell, Stearns W. "Effect of Zone Size on Zonal Inter-
change Calculations Based on the Opportunity Model in a
Honogeneous Region," HRR, No. 165, 1967, pp. 22-40.
(2 b, 4, 6c).
Errors in interzonal trip distributions arise fron zone
size, trip density, and the trip generation constant
used in the nodel. Snaller zones pernit nore accurate
calculations of zonal trip interchange.
142. Casvjell, Stearns W. "A Theoretical Model for Deternination
of Expressway Usage in a Uniforc Region," HRR, No. 238,
1958, pp. 79-102. (2a, 7a).
Mean trip density is estinated for isolated and parallel
freeway networks with liraited and unlinited accessibility.
143. Cella, Francis R. "Highway Location and Econonic Developaent ,"
HRBB 327, 1962, pp. 73-76. (5b, 7a, 7b).
Factors for use in determining econonic effects of highway
locations are identified.
144. Cernakian, Jean. "The European Inland Waterways Network: A
Case Study in the Geography of European Cooperation,"
YEARBOOK OF THE ASSOCIATION OF PACIFIC COAST GEOGRAPHERS,
Vol. 28, 1966, pp. 175-179. (8c).
145. Chacey, D. Kenneth. "Ground Transportation in the Years
Ahead," TQ, Vol. 18, April 1964, pp. 188-201. (1,8).
Discusses today's transport problems and the need for
new concepts for their solution.
146. Chang, Sen-Dou. "Land Use and Intra-Urban Travel in Taipei,"
PROCEEDINGS, A. A. G., Vol. 2, 1970, pp. 40-45. (4,7,8).
The inpact of rapid urban development on travel (cornuting
distances and congestion).
147. Chapman, Albert S. "Trans-Europe Express: Overall Travel
Tir.e in Competition for passengers," EG, Vol. 44,
October 1968, pp. 283-295. (6a, 8).
Compares TEE travel time with air travel time from selected
traffic generating centers to principal destinations.
It is suggested that short to aoderate length trips are
best served by Trans-Europe Express.
36. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
1A8. Charnes, A., S. C. Littlechild, M. J. L. Kirby, and W. M.
Raike. "Chance Constrained Models for Transport Pricing
and Scheduling under Coupetition," TS, Vol. 2, February
1968, pp. 57-76. (2a).
A "nodel-link" raathenatical -aodel.
149. Cherner, Morrie. "Property Values as Affected by Highway
Landscape Developments," HRR, No. 53, 1964, pp. 4-7.
This Chicago area study indicates that over tice the
value of residential property adjacent to freeways was
not lower than similar property at a slightly greater
distance from freeways, and people interviewed agreed
that the beauty of the freeway adjacent to their
property v/as due to the highway's landscaping.
150. Cherniack, Nathan. "Critique of Hone -Interview Type 0-D
Surveys in Urban Areas," HRBB 253, 1960, pp. 166-188.
151. Cherniack, Nathan. "A Statement of the Urban Passenger
Transportation Problen," HRBB 293, 1961, pp. 21-32.
Alternative cethods of urban transportation are evaluated
and conditions in urban areas that help to create in-
adequate metropolitan transportation systems are discussed.
152. Chigarkin, A. V, "The Use of Landscape Surveys in the
Planning of New Railroads," SGRT, Vol. 4, May 1963,
pp. 30-37. (5b, 8a).
A study of "specific railroad-building problems, such
' • as landfoms, geology, water supply, availability of
road ballast," as well as the effect of agriculture and
153. Chinitz, Benjamin. "The Effect of Transportation Forms on
Regional Economic Growth," TQ, Vol. 14, April 1960,
pp. 129-142. (2a, 7b).
Treatment of the historic role of transport cost in the
U.S. (centralization and decentralization phases) and
its relationship to industrial location, products
shipped, and length of haul.
37. CPL Exchanse Bibliography #324 -#32 5
154. Christensen, David E, "A Simplified Traffic Flow Map,'' PG,
Vol. 13, 1961, pp. 21-22. (9).
155. Christensen, David E. 'The Auto in Anerica's Landscape and
Way of Life," G, Vol. 51, November 1966, pp. 339-348.
Brief overview of autonotive transportation in Acerica.
155. Church, Donald E. "Volune and Characteristics of Intercity
Travel During Winter 1963," HRR, No. 64, 1964, pp. 100-
157. Church, Donald E. "New Trucking Data fron 1963 Census of
Transportation," HRR, No. 82, 1965, pp. 38-53. (9).
158. Church, Donald E. "Inpact of Size and Distance on Intercity
Highv;ay Share of Transportation of Industrial Products,"
HRR, No. 175, 1967, pp. 1-8. (8b).
159. Clark, Colin. "Transport: The Maker and Breaker of Cities,"
TPR, Vol. 28, 1958, pp. 237-250. (1,3,2).
160. Clark, Colin, and G. H. Peters. "The 'Intervening Opportunities'
Method of Traffic Analysis,'' TQ, Vol. 19, January 1965,
pp. 101-119. (2b, 4, 6c).
An application of the nodel to London and Copenhagen.
"The principal of 'intervening opportunities' appears
to be an important step forward in our knowledge re-
lating to travel habits . . . and it undermine (s) our
faith in the effects of distance."
161. Clark, Colin and Hans Rudalf Roeske. "The 'Intervening
Opportunities' Method--West Midlands Traffic Study,"
TQ, Vol. 23, July 1969, pp. 365-377. (2b, 4, 6c).
The intervening opportunities model is used to com-
paritively describe travel patterns of male and female
and manual and non-manual workers, the friction of
distance being greater for female and non-manual workers.
162. Clark, J. E., Ill, and D. A. Morin. "Securing Travel Data
by Telephone Interviews," TE, Vol. 36, June 1966,
pp. 47-49. (9).
38. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
163. Clark, W.A.V. "Consucer Travel Patterns and the Concept of
Range," AAAG, Vol. 58, June 1968, pp. 386-396. (2,6).
Less than one-half of those surveyed purchased goods and
services at the nearest center offering those goods and
services, and significant differences in trip length were
noted. This indicates nodification of the "range of a
164. Clark, W.A.V. "Measurenent and Explanation in Intra-Urban
Residential Mobility," TESG, Vol. 61, January-February
1970, pp. 49-57. (2,4,6c).
"This study first exanines the reasons given by a sanple
of novers for changing residence, both to test the
generalizations (on why people nove) drawn from the
literature, and to test the extent to which reasons for
novenent are related to spatial patterns of novenent.
A second concern is with the sinulation of the spatial
patterns of intra-urban novecent."
165. Clark, VJ.A.V. and Gerald Rushton. "Models of Intra-Urban
Consuner Behavior and Their Implications for Central
Place Theory," EG, Vol. 46, July 1970, pp. 486-497. (2a).
Testing the "nearest center hypothesis."
166. Clarke, J. I, "The Trans -Cane roon Railway," G, Vol. 51,
January 1966, pp. 55-58. (3,8a).
Brief suLm^ary of the history and extent of railroads.
167. Clawson, Marion, "lupllcations of Recreational Needs for
Highway Inprovenents ,'' HRBB 311, 1962, pp. 31-38. (7a).
Basic factors of outdoor recreation denand and their
inpact on future highway use are exanined. It is con-
cluded that nost highways are not well suited for handling
future recreation traffic; yet outdoor recreation travel
demands will be a najor constituent of total highway
denands in the future,
168. Clayton, John E. "Containerization in Transporting Agri-
cultural Perishables," HRR, No. 153, 1967, pp. 54-59. (1).
169. Cline, Marvin G. "Urban Freeways and Social Strucuture — Sone
Problens and Proposals," HRR, No. 2, pp. 12-20. (4,7a).
Literature associated with highway developnent and social
change is reviewed under the general headings of the city
as a social systen, psychological inpact of physical dis-
ruption and psychological disruption, and social function-
ing. Including social science research in highway plan-
ning nay niniaize social and psychological disruption.
39. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
170. Clozier, Rene. GEOGRAPHIE DE LA CIRCULATION. Paris,
France: Editions Genln, 1963. (1).
This test provides a highly descriptive regional account
of the developnent of various nodes of transport through-
out the world.
171. Cole, Leon Monroe. "Transport Investment Strategies and
Econonic Development," LE, Vol. 44, August 1968, pp.
172. Coleiaan, Robert R. "A Study of Urban Travel Tines in
Pennsylvania Cities," HRBB 303, 1951, pp. 62-75. (4).
173. Collins, Frederick L. and Adolf D. May, Jr. "^ Cocputer
Program for Freeway and Highx^ay Capacity," TE, Vol. 38,
April 1968, pp. 44-49. (2b).
The program calculates service volune, nunber of lanes,
and level of service.
174. Colwell, Robert C. "Interactions between Transportation and
Urban Econonic Growth," HRR, No. 23, 1963, pp. 6-11. (7b),
175. Conant, Michael. "The Myth of Inter-Railroad Conpetition, "
LE, Vol. 38, August 1962, pp. 249-255. (8a).
The structural oligopoly of the railroad industry and
peculiar narket and cost structures negate conpetition
between railroads. Poolings and consolidations should
be required to enable a nore econonical allocation of
176. Conley, J. H., R. S. Farnscoorth, E. Koenigsberg, and V.
Wiersena. "A Linear Programing Approach to the Total
Movement of a Homogeneous Product," TS, Vol. 2,
November 1968, pp. 209-302. (2b).
177. Connally, Julia rt. and Charles 0. Meiburg. "The Washington
Capital Beltway and Its Impact on Industrial and Multi-
Family Expansion in Virginia," HRR, No. 217, 1968,
pp. 9-27. (4, 6c, 7a).
Access to freeway facilities is stated as a major
factor in industrial location. Changing commuting
patterns and expansion of the area's laborshed result
from the opening of the beltv;ay. To ease congestion
at inter-changes, rezoning of land use is suggested.
178. Conway, Thomas, Jr. "Rapid Transit Must Be Improved to
Alleviate Traffic Congestion," TQ, Vol. 16, January
1962, pp. 103-118. (4,8).
The description of rapid transit services in two large
40. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
179. Cook, W. R. "Transport Decision of Certain Firms in the
Black Country," JTEP, Vol. 1, Septenber 1967, pp. 325-
The decision-making process is significantly influenced
by personal qualities of the decision nakers. While
transport costs are important, they are not always a
decisive factor; desired quality of transport service
varies with each firn.
180. Corradino, Joseph C. "The Effect of the Highway System and
Land Development on Trip Production," TE, Vol. 38,
June 1968, pp. 32-39. (2b, 4, 6c, 7a) .
Quantifies relationships between trip-making and land
use, economic status of travelers, and capabilities of
transport system to predict future trip-making.
181. Corradino, Joseph C. , and Michael G. Ferreri. "In-Flight
Origin-Destination Study at Philadelphia International
Airport," HRR, No. 274, 1969, pp. 35-43. (9).
182. Cox, Kevin. "The Application of Linear Programming to
Geographic Problems," TESG, Vol. 56, July-August 1965,
pp. 228-235. (2a, 6b).
An introduction to the transportation model and an
application to aluminum bar flows,
183. Coyle, John J., H. Kirk Dansereau, John C. Frey, and Robert
D. Pashek. "Interchange Protection and Community
Structure," HRR, No. 75, 1964, pp. 62-74. (2a, 4, 5b, 7a) .
To aid in the selection of locations for interchanges
in rural and suburban areas, the factors of community
grov/th, land use planning, and community structure are
used to develop a model for land use planning at inter-
184. Creighton, Roger L., Irving Hoch, Morton Schneider, and
Hyman Joseph. "Estimating Efficient Spacing for Arterial
and Expressways," HRBB 253, 1960, pp. 1-43. (2a, 4, 5b).
185. Creighton, Robert L. , Irving Hock, Morton Schneider, and
Hyman Joseph. "Transportation in Regional Development,"
HSGTJ, Vol. 2, January 1968, pp. 1-7. (4,7b).
To reverse the trend of unplanned urban growth, it is
suggested that population should be concentrated along
appropriate transport corridors in accordance with a
regional development plan.
41. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
186. Creighton, Roger L., Irving Hoch, Morton Schneider, and
Hyoan Joseph. "Measurements and the Regional Planning
Process," HRR, No. 229, 1968, pp. 1-6. (7b).
The regional planning process is outlined with reference
to the role of transportation in regional developnent.
187. Crevo, Charles C. "Characteristics of Sunner Weekend
Recreational Travel," HRR, No. 41, 1963, pp. 51-60. (6b).
An analysis of travel time, vehicle occupancy, trip
production and population density, and hourly distribut-
ions of vehicles arriving at recreational sites indicates
facilities at these locations do not influence the
length of travel tine, although car occupancy varies
with facilities available.
138. Cribbins, P. D., W. T. Hill, and H. 0. Seagraves. "Econonic
Inpact of Selected Sections of Interstate Routes on Land
Value and Use," HJIR, No. 75, 1964, pp. 1-31. (7a).
It is concluded that controlled access facilities have
done little to stinulate or depress land values and
development during the study periods.
189. Cullen, Donald E. "Labor-Market Aspects of the St. Lawrence
Seaway Project," JOURNAL OF POLITICAL ECONOMY, Vol. 60,
June 1960, pp. 232-251. (6,7).
The sources of the workers enployed, their connuting
patterns, and the project's inpact on area wage and
190. Curry, S. Leigh, Jr. ='Urban Renewal and Urban Transportations
Contrasting Concepts and Methods," HRR, No. 137, 1966,
pp. 22-24. (1,4).
Connunity participation in urban renewal programs is
contrasted with the lack of connunity participation in
191. Curtis, Willian H. "An Analysis and Evaluation of Urban
Street Patterns Possible with a Freev/ay Network," TE,
Vol. 33, October 1962, pp. 16-23. (2a, 4, 5a).
An analysis of two types of street patterns that can be
utilized where a freeway systen is superinposed over an
existing grid street systen indicates the differentiated,
non-continuous street pattern is equal to or superior
to a continuous grid pattern, when used in conjunction
with a freeway systen.
42. CPL Exchanse Bibliography #324-#325
192. Dansereau, H. Kirk, John C. Frey, and Robert D. Pashek.
"Highvjay Developnent, Coonunity Attitudes and
Organization," HRR, No. 16, 1963, pp. 44-59. (4,7a).
Discussion of connunity social structure, attitudes, and
193. Dansereau, H. Kirk, John C. Frey, and Robert D. Pashek.
•'Five Years of Highway Research: A Sociological Per-
spective," HRR, No. 75, 1964, pp. 76-81. (1,4,7a).
The inpact of highways on two connunities is analyzed
with respect to population growth, level of living,
attitude change, connunity organization and highway use.
The results indicate population growth, rising levels of
living, and increased connunity organization. Connunity
participation in the planning process is reconnended,
194. Davis, Howard W. "A Review of Federal Rate Regulation and
Its Inpact upon the Railroad Industry," LE, Vol. 44,
February 1968, pp. 1-10. (8a).
Procedural delays, inequities in rate regulation, and
the concept of a naxinun rate indicate federal rate
regulation has adverse consequences for railroads.
195. Davis, J. Tait, "Parkways, Values and Developnent in the
Washington Metropolitan Region," HRR, No, 16, 1963,
pp. 32-43, (4,7a),
Factor analysis of land value variation patterns between
parkway and non-parkway facilities,
196. Dayal, Edison. "The Changing Patterns of India's Inter-
national Trade," EG, Vol. 44, July 1968, pp. 240-269.
The areal features of India's trade linkages (inports
and exports) ,
197. Deen, Thonas B., Willian L, Mertz, and Neal A. Irwin.
"Application of a Modal Split Model to Travel Estinates
for the Washington Area," HRR, No. 38, 1963, pp. 97-
The gravity nodel and a nodal split nodel are used to
test nodal split inplications of two proposed land use
plans. A test of the nodal split nodel produced accuracy
sufficient for planning purposes.
43. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
198. Deen, Thopas B. , William L, Mertz, and Neal A. Irwin.
"A Study of Transit Fringe Parking Usage," HRR, No. 130,
1966, pp. 1-19. (4,8f).
The feasibility of extended use of fringe parking
facilities is exanined. The viability of the facilities
is discussed with reference to proxinity to the alternative
node of travel, the type of alternate travel node, trip
purpose, and costs of parking,
199. Denaree, Allan T. "Cars and Cities on a Collision Course,"
FORTUNE, February 1970, pp. 124-128. (1,4).
200. Despicht, Nigel S. POLICIES FOR TRANSPORT IN THE COMMON
Mf.RKET. Sidcup, Kent, U.K.: Lanbarde Press, 1964. (1).
The author of this text describes the progress nade,
since the inception of the Connon Market, and the pro-
spects for the connon transport policy now energing in
the Corinunity, demonstrating how this connon policy fits
into the overall franework of the Cocjaunity under con-
201. Despicht, Nigel S. "Transport and the Corjnon Market," ITJ,
Vols. 31 and 32, January 1966, pp. 277-280; March 1966,
pp. 322-326; Septenber 1966, pp. 475-479; and November
1966, pp. 20-26. (1,7b).
A discussion of the role of transportation and the
political and econonic effects of the transportation
policy of the connon market.
202. Deutschnan, Harold D. and Nathan L. Jaschik. "Income and
Related Transportation and Land-Use Planning Implications,"
HRR, No. 240, 1968, pp.' 52-65. (2a,4,6c).
The study indicates that incoce is a sensitive measure
of auto-ownership, transit use, auto and total trip
making, and honeownership.
203. Dewdney, John C, ''The Daily Journey to Work in County
Durham," TPR, Vol. 31, 1960-61, pp. 107-124. (6).
204. Dial, Robert B. "Transit Pathfinder Algorithm," HRR, No.
205, 1967, pp. 67-85. (2a, 5a).
A computer program to find cininun time paths through
a large nultinodal transportation system.
44. CPL Exchange Bibliography y/324-#325
205. Dickey, John W. and Paul W. Schuldiner. "A Model of the
Maxinua Generation of Traffic to Planned Shopping
Centers," HRR, No. 130, 1966, pp. 44-54. (2b, 4, 6c).
A linear progranning fornat is used to calculate the
naxiuun generation rates for three classes of planned
centers of various size.
206. Dickey, John W,, Frank E. Hortcn, acd Edwin N. Thomas. "Areal
Aggregation and Forecasting Precision in Urban Trans-
portation Studies," TESG, Vol. 60, January-February 1969,
pp. 60-62. (2a,4,6c).
207. Dickins, Justin H. "New Systen Developed for Traffic Data
acquisition," TE, Vol. 35, December 1964, pp. 12-15. (9).
"New (photographic) techniques instituted by Port of
New York authority permit gathering of simultaneous
traffic statistics for extensive roadway networks and
complex interchange systems."
208. Dickinson, G. C. "The Development of Suburban Road Passenger
Transport in Leeds, 1840-95," JTH, Vol. 4, November 1950,
pp. 214-224. (3,4,8).
209. Dickinson, Robert E. "The Geography of Commuting in West
Germany," i^^J2, Vol. 49, Decenbsr 1959, pp. 443-456.
Rebuilding industry faster than housing stimulated
confuting. The social and economic aspects of
commuting are discussed.
210. Dickson, K. B. "Evolution of Seaports in Ghana: 1800-1928,"
Ai^iiG, Vol. 65, Iferch 1965, pp. 98-111. (7c).
The survival or disappearance of Ghanan ports is examined
with reference to changes in the speed and direction of
Ghana's economic development.
211. Dickson, K. B. "Trade Patterns in Ghana at the Beginning
of the Eighteenth Century," GR, Vol. 56, July 1966,
pp. 417-430. (3).
212. Dodge, William H. "The Inherest Advantages of Carrier Modes
under the National Transportation Policy," LE, Vol. 44,
November 1968, pp. 492-502. (8).
The National Transportation Policy which preserves the
"inherent advantages" of each mode of transportation is
questioned, V-Jhile the United States has the best
transport system in the world, it is also among the
45. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324 -#32 5
213. Donanski, Ryszard. "Reuarks on Siaultaneous and Aniso-
tropic Models of the Transportation Network. Connents
by A. J. Scott." PRSA, Vol. 19, 1967, pp. 223-228.
This paper considers the nodel of a transportation network
as a systen of edges and capacities as presented by
Scott. Unlike Scott's research the author suggests
that transportation networks and settlement patterns
should be deternined simultaneously, as well as the
simultaneous determination of the spatial pattern of
transportation network complexes consisting of different
kinds of transport. Examples of both research approaches
214. Doxiadis, C. A. "Ekistics and Traffic," TQ, Vol. 17,
July 1963, pp. 439-457. (1,4).
Presents the evolution, scale and character of urban
growth, describing and ecumenopolis, the settlement of
the future and place of traffic in the functions of
these future cities.
215. Doxiadis, C. A. "Man's Movement and His Settlements,"
EKISTICS, Vol. 29, May 1970, pp. 296-321. (1).
216. Drew, Donald R, "Deterministic Aspects of Freeways Operations
and Control," HRR, No. 99, 1965, pp. 48-58. (2b).
Congestion is defined quantitatively. Deterministic
and probabilistic models of traffic are discussed with
emphasis on deterministic models.
217. Drew, Donald R, "Classification and Applications of Traffic
Problems by Models," TE, Vol. 36, November 1965, pp.
23-24, and 43. (2b).
Brief treatment of physical and theoretical models,
traffic variables, and the example of freeway merging,
218. Drew, Donald R. "Application of Discrete Distributions to
Traffic," TE, Vol. 36, December 1965, pp. 24-25. (2b).
Discussion of applying probability distributions to
219. Drew, Donald R. "Application of Continuous Distributions
to Traffic," TE, Vol. 36, January 1966, pp. 29-31. (2b).
220. Drew, Donald R, "Application of the Markov Process to
Traffic," TE, Vol. 36, March 1966, pp. 50-51. (2b).
221. Drew, Donald R. "The Macroscopic Approach to Traffic
Flow," TE, Vol, 36, April 1966, pp. 70-71. (2b).
46. CPL Exchanse Bibliography #324-#325
222. Drew, Donald R. "The Energy-Mocientun Concept of Traffic
Flow," TE, Vol. 36, June 1966, pp. 52-54. (2b).
Explores correspondence between traffic flow and fluid flow.
223. Drusch, Robert L, "Estimating Annual Average Daily Traffic
fron Short-Tern Traffic Counts," HRR, No. 118, 1966,
pp. 85-95. (9).
Traffic counts reported four tines a year at stations
grouped on the basis of average monthly flows for
several consecutive years will yield accurate traffic
counts and less cost.
224. Duckhan, Baron E*. "The Navigation of the Yorkshire Ouse
During the Nineteenth Century," JTH, Vol. 6, May 1964,
pp. 182-188. (3,8c).
225. Due, John F. "The City of Frineville Railway and the
Econonic Developnent of Crook County," EG, Vol. 43,
April 1967, pp. 170-181. (7,8a).
.. . Owned by the city of Frineville, the railway stiaulated
the developnent of the lumber industry.
226. Dunbar, A. R. "The Control of Public Transport," ITJ,
Vol. 31, No. 7, November 1965, pp. 225-233. (8a, 8b).
227. Dunne, M. C, R. W. Rothery, and R. B. Potts. "A Discrete
Markov Model of Vehicular Traffic," TS, Vol. 2, No. 3,
August 1968, pp. 233-251. (2,6).
228. Durden, Dennis and Duane Marble, "The Role of Theory in
CBD Planning," JOURNAL OF /^IffiRICAN INSTITUTE OF PL/iNNERS,
Vol. 27, February 1961, pp. 10-16. (2a, 4).
, The need for theory and the lack of theory available
for urban planners are discussed.
229. Dwyer, D, J. "The Developnent of China's Waterways," G,
Vol. 46, 1961, pp. 165-167. (1,8c).
230. Dycknan, John, "Transportation in Cities," SCIENTIFIC
Al^ERICAN, Vol. 213, September 1965, pp. 162-174. (1,4).
231. Eckert, Edv/ard D. "A Concept for Interstate System Rest
Areas," HRR, No. 23, 1963, pp. 42-46. (7a).
Criteria for the selection of rest area sites is
232. Edens, H, J. "Origin and Destination Surveys by Telephone,"
TE, Vol. 33, April 1963. (9).
47, CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
233. Edie, L. C, R. S. Foote, Robert Herraan, and Richard
Rothery. "Analysis of Single-Lane Traffic Flow," TE,
Vol. 33, January 1963, pp. 21-27. (2b).
Quantitative treatnent of data fron Holland Tunnel,
234. Elliott, Tinothy S. "Developnent of Third Level Air Trans-
portation," JOURNAL OF AIR LAW AND COMMERCE, Vol. 29,
Sumer 1963, pp. 182-204. (8d).
Investigates the problens and prospects associated v/ith
the use of light aircraft in scheduled air service to
235. Ellis, Jack B. and Carlton S. Van Doren. "A Coaparative
Evaluation of Gravity and Systen Theory Models for
Statewide Recreational Traffic Flow," JRS, Vol. 6,
Winter 1966, pp. 57-69. (2b, 6b).
The systems theory is considered to have generated nore
insights, although the gravity model nay be suited for
snail sinple systens.
236. Ellis, Raynond H. "Toward Measurenent of the Connunity
Consequences of Urban Freeways," HRR, No. 229, 1968,
pp. 38-52. (4,7a).
A strategy for measuring the ties between the household
site and non-household sites is described,
237. Emmons, D. "Suggestions on the Developnent of Metropolitan
Rapid Transit," HSGTJ, Vol. 1, September 1967, pp. 307-
Guidelines for the successful initiation and completion
of rapid transit systens are established.
238. Fagin, Henry. "'Comprehensive Metropolitan Passenger Planning,'
HRBB 293, 1961, pp. 32-36. (1,4).
The fundamental philosophy and concepts of comprehensive
metropolitan transportation planning as represented by
the Penn Jersey Transportation Study are discussed.
239. Fagin, Henry. "The Penn Jersey Transportation Study: The
Launching of a Permanent Regional Planning Process,"
JOURNAL OF ^'illERICAN INSTITUTE OF PLANNERS, Vol. 29,
February 1963, pp. 9-18. (4).
Discusses the policy issues, administrative problens,
and research design associated with the Penn Jersey
48. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
240. Falk, Edward L. "Measurenent of Connunity Values: The
Spokane Experiment," HRR, No. 229, 1968, pp. 53-64.
Presentation of a nethod of neasuring connunity attitudes
towards planning proposals,
241. Falternayer, Edmund K. "The Rail Route to a More Mobile
Acerica," FORTUNE, Vol. 74, July 1966, pp. 106-109. (8a).
242. Farcer, Richard N. "Municipal Ownership of Transit
Facilities in Snaller Cities,'' TQ, Vol. 17, January 1963,
pp. 57-67. (4).
Suggests that the present transit financial problen is
one of denand and cities find thenselves operating
transit systens by default of private enterprise.
243. Farcer, Richard N. "The Economics of Congestions," TJ,
Vol. 4, Fall 1964, pp. 28-34. (4).
Costs, problens, and econonic solutions to urban
244. Farcer, Richard N. "Motor Trucking in California," TJ,
Vol. 4, Surcer 1965, pp. 33-40. (8b).
"California state law has influenced narket
structure and economic results."
245. Farris, Martin T. "Rail Mergers: New Interest in an Old
Approach," TJ, Vol. 1, Sunner 1962, pp. 30-37. (8a).
Overviev; of subject.
246. Farris, Martin T. "Transport Regulation and Econonic
Efficiency," AER, Vol. 59, May 1969, pp. 244-250. (7b).
Regulatory policies reduce the efficiency of the
transportation industry and perpetuates the industry's
oligopolistic characteristics. Economists should
investigate regulation policy using oligopoly theory.
247. Fearon, Peter. "The Formative Years of the British Aircraft
Industry," BUSINESS HISTORY REVIEW, Vol. 43, Winter 1969,
pp. <■': 76-495. (3,8d).
The early growth of the industry depended upon military
248. Fellman, Jerome D. "Emergent Urban Problems of Intercity
Motor Transportation," LE, Vol. 27, 1951, pp. 91-101.
49. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
249. Ferguson, George A. "Developnent or Transportation Systen
Alternatives," HRR, No. 148, 1966, pp. 1-8. (1).
Aspects of traffic engineering and resource allocation
are discussed with reference to a total franework of
250. Field, Earle. "Sone Aspects of Traveling in Stuart England,"
TQ, Vol. 18, July 1964, pp. 406-420. (3).
251. Fisher, Ronald J. and Arthur B, Sosslau. "Census Data as a
Source for Urban Transportation Planning," HRR, No. 141,
1966, pp. 47-72. (4,9).
252. Flaherty, Mark C. "Conmercial Highway Service Districts and
the Interstate: Their Proper Relationship in an Urban
Setting," HRR, No. 96, 1965, pp. 8-18. (2a, 4, 7a).
A nethod for deternining the amount of land that should
be aade available for highway oriented uses. Differences
are noted in land development when planning principles
are followed and when they are ignored.
253. Flatt, Allan C. "Effect of Piggyback Operation on Volune of
Highway Truck Traffic," HRR, No. 153, 1967, ?p. 43-53.
(6b, 8a, 8b).
254. Fleet, Christopher R. and Sydney R. Robertson. "Trip
Generation in the Transportation Planning Process,"
HRR, No. 240, 1968, pp. 11-31. (2b, 4, 9).
Standard trip generation estimating procedures are
evaluated, and it is suggested that well-designed scall
sauple cross-sections and on-site surveys nay permit
periodic re -evaluations of estimating procedures.
255. Fleischer, Gerald A. "Effect of Highway Improvements on Travel
Time of Commercial Vehicles: A Twenty -Five -Year Case
Study," HRR, No. 12, 1963, pp. 19-47. (8b).
256. Fleishes, Aaron, "On Prediction and Urban Traffic," PRSA,
Vol. 7, 1961, pp. 43-50. (2b,4,6c).
The author of this paper treats the proposition, "if
the volune of traffic between tv;o points in a metro-
polis v;ere predictable, then urban congestion could be
relieved and resolved."
50% CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
257. Flening, Doujlas K. "The Independent Transport Carrier in
Ocean Tranp Trades," EG, Vol. 44, January 1968, pp. 21-
36. (6a, 7c, 8c).
The contenporary independent ocean carrier operations
in world tranp trades and the interplay of econonics
and geography characterizing these operations.
258. Fletcher, Daniel 0. "Decline of the Great Lakes Package-
Freight Carrier," BUSINESS HISTORY REVIEW, Vol. 36,
Winter 1962, pp. 387-407. (8c).
The disappearance of the package -freight carrier is
considered a consequence of several econonic factors
which caused large-scale changes in Great Lakes shipping,
259. Fockena, Andreae F. J. "The Canal Connunlcations of Central
Holland," JTH, Vol. 4, May 1960, pp. 174-179. (3, 6b, 8c).
Describes the conflict of interest between requirements
of effective flood defense and of waterborne traffic
and states that vested interests at the tine of the
^ ,, Netherlands unification pernitted only partial inprove-
nents to the canal systen.
260. Forbes, T. W. "Hunan Factor Considerations in Traffic Flow
Theory," HRR, No. 15, 1963, pp. 60-66. (2b).
The expectation of congestion, poor visibility, and the
psychological squeezing of lane width caused by an
adjacent v/all influence an individual's behavior in
traffic. The effect of these factors on traffic flow
is expressed uathenatically.
261. Forward, C. N. "Recent Changes in the Fom and Function of
the Port of St. John's Newfoundland," CG, Vol. 11, No. 2,
1967, pp. 101-116. (7c).
Traces the changes in the port's water front land use,
coonodity trade, and vessel traffic in the context of
262. Foster, R. T. "Pipeline Developnent in the United Kingdom,"
G, Vol. 54, April 1969, pp. 204-211. (5,8e).
Maps and review.
263. Franklin, Willian D. "The Highway 'Interchange Couplex' and
Econonic Developnent," TQ, Vol. 24, January 1970,
pp. 77-91. (7a, 7b).
264. Frederick, Joseph C. "Aesthetic Considerations in Urban
Arterial Route Planning," HRR, No. 23, 1963, pp. 22-38.
51. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324 -#32 5
265. French, Alexander. "Highway Ton-Miles," HRR, No. 82, 1965,
pp. 77-93. (6b, 8b).
The procedures for estinating highway ton-niles,
probler.is in such analysis, and a couparison of highway
ton-niles V7ith sinilar values for other rnodes of
266. Frey, J. C, H. K. Dansereau, R. D. Pashek, and «. Twark.
"Land-Use Planning and the Interchange Connunity,"
HRBB 327, 1962, pp. 56-66. (4).
267. Fulton, Maurice and L. C, Hoch. "Transportation Factors
Affecting Locational Decisions," EG, Vol. 35, January
1959, pp. 51-59. (2a, 7).
A general discussion of the role of transportation as a
locational determinant. Freight rates and the quality
of transport service are considered interdependent
variables within the entire frauework of production
and riarketing objectives.
268. Gakenheiner, Ralph A. "Planning, Transportation, and the
Snail City," TQ, Vol. 18, April 1964, pp. 282-295. (4).
Treatnent of aspects unique to the snail city.
269. Gakenheiner, Ralph A. "High Speed Transit in Urban Areas,''
HSGTJ, Vol. 1, January 1967, pp. 22-31. (4).
General discussion of the inpact of high speed transit
in urban areas, emphasizing the technological demands
of such systems and the requirements they will exert on
the management of urban centers.
270. Gakenheiner, Ralph A. "Social Factors in Planning Urban
Transportation," HSGTJ, Vol. 2, September 1968, pp.
Considers transport problems associated with low-
271. Ganz, Alexander, "Emerging Patterns of Urban Growth and
Travel," HRR, No. 229, 1968, pp. 21-37. (4, 6c, 7a).
The trend towards dispersal of travel away from the
central city is discussed with reference to land use,
travel patterns, and mode of travel,
272. Garrison, Willian L. and Duane F. Marble. "Analysis of
Highway Networks: A Linear Programming Formulation,"
HIGHIJAY r^SEARCH BOARD PROCEEDINGS, No. 37, 1958,
pp. 1-14. (2a, 5, 8b).
52. CPL Exchcnge Bibliography #324-#325
273. Garrison, Uillian L. and Marion E. Marts. GEOGRi'^PHIC m-
P/.CT OF HIGH17AY IMPROVEMENT. Seattle, Washington:
University of Washington, 1958. (2,7a).
This study is an attenpt to neasure the effects of the
re-alignnent and iriprovenent of U. S. Highway 99 in
the vicinity of Marysville, Washington. It is intended
to conpleuent the majority of highway "inpact" studies
by presenting results in great detail for a single case.
Wiereas the najority of stuiies have dealt with a
relatively few selected inaicators, this study nakes
use of nany different indicators of effects and presents
hundreds of separate corabinations and conparisons of data.
2 74. Garrison, Willian L. "Spatial Structure of the Econony:
1," ;u\AG, Vol. 49, June 1959, pp. 232-239. (1,2a).
Review of six books which examine the spatial pattern
of econonic activity. Econouiic insights are used to
construct patterns v/hich in turn nay be interpreted by
275. Garrison, Willian L. "Spatial Structure of the Econony:
II," ;^iG, Vol. 49, Decenber 1959, pp. 471-482. (1,2a).
Exanines the uses of linear progranning, sunnarizing
the structure and acconplishcents of five nodels.
2 76. Garrison, Willian L. STUDIES OF HIGffl^?AY DEVELOPMENT xU^D
GEOGR/iPHIC CHi^KGE. Seattle, VJashington: University of
Washington Press, 1959. (2,7a).
^ This volune presents findings of investigations of the
spatial pattern of shopping centers in their relation
to highway inprovenents , relationships between highway
travel and residential and comercial site selection,
and the utilization of highvjay transportation in re-
lation to the arrangenent of custoner tributary areas
and supplying centers at local, regional and national
277. Garrison, Willian L. "Connectivity of the Interstate
Highway Systen," PRSA, Vol. 6, 1960, pp. 121-137. (2,
An introduction to the analysis of the transportation
netv7orks and sone descriptive approaches via graph
theory. A conparativc analysis between the railway and
interstate highway networks reveals that despite the
sprawling character of the Interstate Systen, certain
places on the network are enphasized nore than central
places on the railroad network.
53. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
278. Garrison, Willian L. "Supply and Denand for Land at Highway
Interchange," HRBB 288, 1961, pp. ^1-66. (7a).
Problens of estimating long tern land use patterns arise
fron increased denand for traffic intensive land uses and
lack of pertinent price infornation. Tenporal and
regional inter-relationships affecting land usages
are not adequately understood,
279. Garrison, Williara L. "Intra- and Interurban Transportation
Networks," in F. Pitts, editor. URBAN SYSTEMS AND
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT. Eugene, Oregon: University of
Oregon, School of Business Adainistration, 1962, pp.
28-38. (2a, 5, 7b).
Focuses on the relationship between spatial features
of economic development and transportation networks
and points up "the need for criteria to guide decisions
about transportation networks,"
280. Garrison, Willian L. and Duane F, Marble. "Factor-Analytic
Study of the Connectivity of a Transportation Network,"
PRSA, Vol. 12, 1964, pp. 231-238. (2,5a).
In this research on the structure of a transportation
network, the connection matrix of the Venezuelan air
transport system is subjected to factor analysis. The
authors conclude that structure of transportation net-
works nay be explained largely on the basis of neighbor-
hood and regionalization effects.
281. Garrison, Willian L. and Duane F. Marble. "Urban Trans-
portation Planning Models in 1975," JOURNAL OF *\MERICAN
INSTITUTE OF PLANNERS, Vol. 31, 1965, pp. 156-158.
282. Garrison, Willian L. A PROLEGOMENON TO THE FORECASTING OF
TRANSPORTATION DEVELOPMENT. Evanston, Illinois: The
Transportation Center, Northwestern University, 1965.
283. Garrison, Willian L. "Urban Transportation Studies," in
PAPERS ON REGION*\L STATISTIC/iL STUDIES, Sylvia Ostry
and T, K. Rynes, editors. Toronto, Canada: University
of Toronto Press, 1966, pp. 1-13. (1,4).
Review, comments, and suggested future research
directions, emphasizing a system approach.
54, CPL Exchange Bibliography #324 -#32 5
284. Gauthier, Hov/ard L. "Transportation and the Growth of the
Sao Paulo Econony," JRS, Vol. 8, Sunner 1968, pp. 77-94.
(2a, 5a, 7b).
Valued graph-theoretic measures and canonical analysis
are used to exanine the relationship between the
developnent of a transportation systen and the spatial
pattern of urban econonic growth.
285. Gauthier, Hov/ard L. "Geography, Transportation, and Regional
Developrent," EG, Vol. 46, October 1970, pp. 612-619.
A review of ways of viewing transportation in the
developcent process, arguing for the necessity of
considering transportation as a spatial systen in
regional developnent and suggesting some problems
that arise in attempting to relate the spatial impact
of transportation to goals of regional intergration.
286. George, Stephen, Jr. "Transportation Systen Developnent and
Evaluation as Practiced in Seattle," HRR, No. 238, 1968,
pp. 116-120. (4).
287. Gern, R. C. and H. R. Joyner. "Crossroute Access Design in
Interchange Areas," HRR, No. 59, 1964, pp. 1-8. (2a, 5a).
Equations which aid in deterraining proper spacing between
interchange ramp terminals and crossroute access points
are developed for avoiding congestion.
288. Getis, Arthur. "Residential Location and the Journey from
IJork," PROCEEDINGS, A. A. G., Vol. 1, 1969, pp. 55-59.
(2a, 4, 6c).
This paper questions the concept that the CBD is the
control point of the city and instead views the city
as having several work foci. A probability model is
used to describe frequency of work trips by distance
from work places.
289. Gilpin, Margaret C. "Mj^re and RoLisdal, Norway: A Study
in the Rural Transport Systen of a Coastal Area," G,
Vol. 53, April 1968, pp. 145-162. (1).
290. Ginsburg, Norton. "China's Railway Network," GR, Vol. 41,
July 1951, pp. 470-474. (5,8a).
55. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
291. Glejser, H. and A. Dranais. "A Gravity Model of Inter-
dependent Equations to Estiaate Flow Creation and
Diversion,'' JRS, Vol. 9, December 1969, pp. 439-450.
(2b, 4, 6c).
Negative and positive interdependence are accounted for
in the gravity nodel franework. The results of testing
indicate sociological barriers to be an inportant
obstacle to population flows.
292. Goldin, Kenneth D. "Three Aspects of Highway Efficiency:
Amount, Quality, and Price," JTEP, Vol. 2, September
1968, pp. 349-366. (2a, 5a).
"A study of efficient pricing of an efficient highway
capacity, taking into consideration peaked and stochastic
demand and users' diversity of preferences for quality."
293. Goldman, Thomas. "Efficient Transportation and Industrial
Location," PRSA, Vol. 4, 1958, pp. 91-106. (7).
294. Goldstein, Sidney. "Nonuser Benefits from Highways," HRR,
No. 20, 1963, pp. 162-181. (7a).
An economy wide discussion of the concept of non-user
benefits. The results of numerous impact studies are
synthesized and efforts to quantify non-user benefits
295. Goldstein, Sidney and Kurt Kayer. "Migration and the
Journey to Work," SOCIAL FORCES, Vol. 42, May 1964,
pp. 472-481. (4,6).
296. Golledge, R. G. "Some Notes on the Effect of Road Competition
on the Transportation of Certain Coi-xiodities in Northern
New South Wales," AUSTRALUvN GEOGRAPHER, Vol. 8, 1961,
pp. 116-118. (8).
A comparison of railroad "bulk loading" rates with
shipment rates for roads. Discusses the means by
which railroads maintain their competitive position
despite rate differences with roads.
297. Golledge, R. G. "A Geographical Analysis of Newcastle's
Rail Freight Traffic," EG, Vol. 39, January 1963,
pp. 60-73. (4, 6b, 8a).
An analysis of Newcastle's development as a leading
freight terminal, the direction and force of inter-
action, originating and terminating traffic, and rail
traffic regions in northern New South Wales.
56. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#32 5
298. Goodwin, ^^llan. "Attitudes and Shopper Mobility in a Snail
City," HRR, No. 233, 1968, pp. 16-26. (4,6c).
Like shopper attitudes in large cities, shoppers in sraaller
cities also considered parking as the nost iaportant
disadvantage to a CBD shopping trip. Snail city CBD
shoppers tended to be in low or high incone groups and
older than suburban shoppers.
299. Goodwin, Crawford D. "Econoaists and Railways in Colonial
Australia," JTH, Vol. 6, Noveaber 1963, pp. 65-86.
(3, 6b, 7b, 8a).
Presentation of reactions of writers on railways in
300. Gorizontov, B. B. and S. S. Tsenin. "Problems in the
Geography of Economic-Transport Links of the World
Socialist System," SORT, Vol. 6, January 1965, pp.
Outlines some of the major needs of future transport
in the Socialist world and suggests steps for strengthening
the rail sector of the transport system.
301. Goss, R. 0, "Towards an Economic Appraisal of Port Invest-
ments," JTEP, Vol. 1, September 1967, pp. 249-272. (7c).
Problems of port investment techniques, pricing systems,
and cost-benefit analysis.
302. Gottfeld, Gunther M. "Rapid Transit Expansion in Stockholm,
Sweden," TQ, Vol. 18, October 1964, pp. 576-588. (4,5c,
303. Gould, Peter R. and Robert H. T. Smith. "Method in Commodity
Flow Studies," AUSTRALIAN GEOGR^iFHER, Vol. 8, 1961,
pp. 73-77. (1,2a, 6).
Describes a technique for mapping deviations from a
least-squares regression line to identify pertinent
questions for subsequent field work.
304. Gould, Peter R. and Robert H. T. Smith. "Transportation in
Africa," GR, Vol. 53, October 1963, pp. 599-600. (1).
305. Graham, E. F. "application of Large Network Traffic Assign-
ments to Small Area Route Location Studies," HRR, No.
114, 1966, pp. 8-19. (2a, 4, 5b).
By reducing the size of the area used for the distribution
of trips, assignment of traffic to alternate routes is
accomplished and the location of individual segments of
a total freeway system is possible.
57, CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
306. Grecco, W. L. and S. M. Breuning. "Application of Systems
Engineering Methods to Traffic Forecasting," HRRB 347,
1962, pp. 10-23. (2b, 4, 6c).
The principals of linear graph theory and the requirements
for using these methods are discussed. The techniques of
systems engineering are compared with the gravity model
and the electrostatic model to estimate work trips in a
307. Grecco, W, L. and S. M. Breuning. "A Systems Engineering
Model for Trip Generation and Distribution," HRR, No.
38, 1963, pp. 124-146. (2b, 4, 6c).
Linear graph theory can be used to find a systems solution
for trip distribution problems. The components of a
systems engineering approach are emphasized. The stuJy
indicates system engineering models encourage a more
precise definition of parameters and their interaction.
308. Green, F. H. W, "Bus Service in the British Isles," GR,
Vol. 41, October 1951, pp. 645-655. (8b).
309. Green, F. H. W. "Coramunity of Interest Areas in Western
Europe — Some Geographical Aspects of Local Passenger
Traffic," EG, Vol. 29, October 1953, pp. 283-298. (4,8).
A discussion of the hinterland relationships of urban
places in Western Europe; bus service is used to
310. Green, Mark K. "Multiple Screenline Study to Determine
Statewide Traffic Patterns," HRBB 253, 1960, pp. 139-
A report on the methodology of screenline surveys.
311. Griffiths, I. L. "The Daily Movement to Work of Anthracite
Miners in South Wales," TESG, Vol. 53, August-September
1962, pp. 184-189. (4,6).
312. Grossman, David A. and Melvin R. Levin. "Area Development
and Highway Transportation," HRR, No. 16, 1963, pp. 24-
Examination of the effects of highways on areas of
economic distress or redevelopment and the implications
of the location and the construction schedules of the
Interstate Highway System on several distressed areas
of the United States.
58. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
313. Grotewold, Andreas and Lois Grotewold. "Sone Geographic
Aspects of International Trade," EG, Vol. 33, July 1957,
pp. 257-266. (6a).
Presents sor.e basic generalizations about international
trade by exanining the size and distribution of trade
areas, connodity conposition, and the direction of the
314. Grotewold, ^indreas. "Von Thunen in Retrospect," EG, Vol. 30,
October 1959, pp. 346-355. (2a, 7).
An explanation and defense of Von Thunen 's theory of the
location of agricultural production. The developcent
of nodern transportation and the changing tastes of city
dwellers are considered as two basic reasons for deviations
fron the theoretical land use pattern around American
and European cities.
315. Grotewold, Andreas. "Sone Aspects of the Geography of
International Trade," EG, Vol. 37, October 1961,
pp. 309-319. (6a).
316. Guest, Ross B. "The Growth of Soviet Air Cargo," JG,
Vol. 65, October 1966, pp. 323-327. (8d).
Air freight, nail, and express traffic has increased
^' ' • rapidly but still accounts for only a snail per cent
of the Soviet Union's total freight traffic.
317. Gutterberg, Albert Z. "Urban Structure and Urban Growth,"
JOURNAL OF AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF PL/iNNERS, Vol. 26,
May 1960, pp. 104-110. (7).
The elements of structure are identified, the nutual
• ' "■' ' influences of urban structure and urban growth are
considered, and the dynanic interdependency of various
urban structural phenomena are demonstrated by analyzing
the effects of a change in transportation efficiency.
318. Guyton, John W. and W. S. Pollard, Jr. "Corridor Analysis
of Travel Desires as Utilized in Major Street Planning,"
HRBB 347, 1962, pp. 222-253. (4).
The use of desire charts as an aid in street and highway
planning for urban areas.
319. Haas, R. C. G. and J. F. Morrall. "Analysis of Pedestrian
Circulation through a Tunnel Network," TQ, Vol. 21,
April 1967, pp. 229-235. (2a, 6c).
A study of pedestrians within a university to provide
future design criteria.
59. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
320. Hadden, Jeffrey K. "The Use of Public Transportation in
Milwaukee, Wisconsin," TQ, Vol. 18, April 1964,
pp. 219-232. (4,8f).
Deternines variables important in predicting use of
public transit: age of area of city, density, distance
fron CBD, and socioeconoaic status,
321. Raggett, Peter. ^'Networks," LOCATIONAL ANALYSIS IN HUMAN
GEOGIUiPHY. New York, New York: St. l-Iartin's Press,
1966, pp. 61-86. (5).
This chapter focuses on a discussion of the location of
routes, density pattern of route networks, and models of
network change. The writing depends heavily upon
empirical research of other authors for purposes of
322. Raggett, Peter. 'Network Models in Geography,'' in Richard
J. Chorley and Peter Raggett, editors, MODELS IN
GEOGRAPRY. London, England: Methuen and Company,
Ch. 15, 1967, pp. 609-668. (5).
Treatment of a linear feature, such as rivers, railways,
and polygons from a geometrical viewpoint. Models of
increasing complexity are described, from the single
path to the cellular network.
323. Raggett, Peter. "An Extension of the Horton Combinatorial
Model in Regional Righway Networks," JRS, Vol. 7,
Winter 1967, (supplem.ent) , pp. 281-290. (5a).
The combinatorial ordering system is extended to highway
networks and may be integrated within more general
statements of central place systems. Branching ratios
may be of value in designing networks to meet loadings
324. Raggett, Peter and Richard J. Chorley. NETWORK ANALYSIS IN
GEOGRAPRY. New York, New York: St. Martin's Press,
Part I, "Spatial Structures," discusses ways of
describing networks in both topologic and geometric
terms and introduces the role of graph theory in geo-
graphic analysis; Part II, "Evaluation of Structures,"
sets the spatial structure of networks against their
prim.al and dual roles--as conductors of, and barriers
to, flows. Part III, "Structural Change," traces the
patterns of network evolution and attempts to build
projective growth models through simulation and related
60. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
325. Haight, Frank A. "The Future of Traffic Flow Theory," TQ,
Vol. 17, Novenber 1963, pp. 516-527. (2b, 6).
Since traffic flow theory is inconplete, it should be
expanded with probability and statistical nodels tying
in with traffic engineering and applied nathenatics,
326. Haikalis, George and Hyman Joseph, "Econoaic Evaluation of
Traffic Networks," HRBB 306, 1961, pp. 39-63. (5b).
Four alternate traffic systens are conpared to select
the least cost plan. Total travel costs for users and
total capital requirenents are two criteria used for
327. Haley, Charles E., Edward M. Hall, and Arnold A. Johnson.
"Travel Tine — A Measure of Service and a Criterion for
Inprovenent Priorities," HRR, No. 35, 1963, pp. 1-17.
Presentation of a priority formula to aid in deteroining
najor street construction priorities in urban areas.
Travel tine is used as a neasure of the level of traffic
service and as the basic criterion for the priority fomula.
328. Hall, Peter. "Transportation," US, Vol. 6, Novenber 1969,
pp. 408-435. (1,4,7a).
A general discussion of the influence of intra- and
interurban transportation on urban forn.
329. Hanburg, John R., Charles R. Guinn, George T. Lathrop and
George C. Hennens. "Linear Progranning Test of Journey-
to-Work Miniuization," HRR, No. 102, 1965, pp. 67-75.
The degree of influence of the journey-to-work trip on
residential location is analyzed. It is concluded that
people are not indifferent to tine of travel, but do not
locate to nininize travel tine. Higher tine indifference
rates were associated with upper socioeconomic groups.
330. Hamilton, Calvin S. "The Development of a Land-Use Data
Bank for Transportation Planning," HRR, No. 64, 1964,
pp. 84-99. (4,9).
Different levels of data collection necessary for trans-
portation planning are discussed with reference to the
Pittsburgh Area Transportation Survey. Types of land
use at the city-block level are presented and their
role in simulation studies is presented.
61. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
331. Hamilton, C. W. "Mathematical Research in Traffic Flow,"
HSGTJ, Vol. 1, September 1967, pp. 339-346. (2b).
Discusses the approaches to the modeling of traffic flow
problems, specifically the relation of road traffic,
hydrodynamic analogies, and traffic dynamics.
332. Har.7nond, Harold F. "The New Age of Transportation Coordinationj
TQ, Vol. 21, October 1967, pp. 501-519. (1).
333. Hampton, P. "Empirical Evidence on the Determinants of
Interregional Trade Flows," ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND
CULTURAL CHANGE, Vol. 18, October 1969, pp. 34-39. (6b).
Regression analysis of couimodity flows in New Zealand's
334. Hance, William A. "Transportation in Madagascar," GR,
Vol. 48, January 1958, pp. 45-68. (1,8).
Madagascar's roads, rail, air, and port systems are
described and compared with the transport systems of
335. Hancock, l>Iacklin L, "Transpottation and Organic Urban
Design," TQ, Vol. 17, January 1963, pp. 5-23. (4).
Develops a hypothesis for urban design to link effective
handling of traffic with the design of communities.
336. Hand, Irving and C, Dwight Hixon. "Planning, Traffic and
Transportation in Metropolitan Areas," TQ, Vol. 17,
April 1963, pp. 254-271. (4).
Describes the goals and programs of the Nashville
Metropolitan Area Transportation Survey.
337. Haning, Charles R. and C. V. Wootan. "Value of Commercial
Motor Vehicle Time Saved," HRR, No. 82, 1965, pp. 54-
The possibilities of determining reliable estimates of
the dollar value of time savings occurring from the use
of improved highway facilities are examined. Operating
costs for commercial trucks are established, and time
costs are estimated for each commercial truck category.
338. Hansen, Walter G. "How Accessibility Shapes Land Use,"
JOURN/i OF /VMERICAN INSTITUTE OF PLANNERS, Vol. 25,
May 1959, pp. 73-76. (2a, 4, 7).
62. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
339. Hansen, Walter G. "Land Use Forecasting for Transportation
Planning," HRBB 253, 1960, pp. 145-151. (2a).
Discussion of a land use forecasting procedure, a review
of the over-all transportation planning process, and a
presentation of a land use model based on accessibility
and vacant developable land.
340. Hansen, Walter G. "Evaluation of Gravity Model Trip Dis-
tribution Procedures," HRBB 347, 1962, pp. 67-76.
The gravity nodel is tested and fit to Washington, D.C.,
0-D survey data, and it is shown that the basic gravity
nodel fomulatibn can serve as a franework for fore-
casting urban traffic flows.
341. Hanson, Perry. "Movement Fields: A Viable Surrogate for
Connunication Fields," RESEARCH REPORT No. 59,
Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University,
Department of Geography, 1970. (2,6),
The paper presents an empirical exploration of the
relationship between individual travel patterns and
individual conraunication patterns using a sample,
rural Korean population. The relationship between a
household's daily, recurrent travel patterns and its
information field is evident since the former is defined
as the spatial point set where face-to-face inter-
personal contacts can occur, and the latter actually
''^' defines the subset of locations where contacts occur.
342. Hanson, Philip. "Soviet Inland Waterways," JTH, Vol. 6,
May 1963, pp. 3-13. (3,8c).
A note on the past and present role of Soviet inland
343. Harbeson-, Robert W. "Diversification and Transport Invest-
ment," LE, Vol. 46, February 1970, pp. 12-21. (8a).
Discusses the diversification of railroad corporations
' ' ■ and the organization of holding companies by railroads.
344. Harmelink, M. D, , G. C. Harper, and H. M. Edwards. "Trip
Production and Attraction Characteristics in Small
Cities," HRR, No. 205, 1967, pp. 1-19. (2b,4,6c).
• ■ The study indicates the most reliable prediction of trip
production to be car ownership. The accuracy of trip
estimation decreased with increased segregation of trip
purpose. Trip attraction is related to land use
characteristics of each zone.
63, CPL Exchange Bibliography #324 -#32 5
345. Harper, B. C, S. and H. M. Edwards. "Generation of Person
Trips by Areas within the Central Business District,"
HRBB 253, 1960, pp. 44-61. (2a, 4, 6c).
Regression analysis indicates a positive relationship
between floor space in use and travel to zones within
346. Harr, Charles M. "Transportation and Econoaic Opportunity,"
TQ, Vol. 21, October 1967, pp. 521-526. (1,4,7b).
A brief statecent within the urban context.
347. Harris, Britton. "Experiments in Projection of Transportation
and Land Use," TQ, Vol. 16, April 1962, pp. 305-319.
The article describes briefly sone of the nore
experimental techniques for analyzing problems of the
Philadelphia-Camden-Trenton metropolitan region.
348. Hart, Alan S. "Evolution of the Sacramento Freeway System,"
TQ, Vol. 17, November 1963, pp. 557-572. (5,8b).
Discusses the decision-naking process in determining
which would be the best master plan for a freeway system.
349. Hart, Harold W. "The Sedan Chair as a Means of Public
Conveyance," JTH, Vol. 5, November 1962, pp. 205-218.
350. Harvey, Thomas N. "A Method of Network Evaluation Using
the Output of the Traffic Assignment Process," HRR,
No. 238, 1968, pp. 46-63. (2a, 4, 5c).
Consumer surplus is used as a measure of benefit for
comparing benefits and losses from a particular network
change. Fixed travel demand need not be assumed and
only interzonal volumes and interzonal separations for
the networks investigated are required.
351. Hawrey, Philip E. "On the Choice of Forecasting Models for
Air Travel," JRS, Vol. 9, August 1969, pp. 215-224.
The gravity model and abstract mode model are compared.
The export predictions of the gravity model are considered
superior to the abstract mode model.
ett. CPL Exchanse Bibliography #324 -#32 5
352. Hay, George A., Edward K. Morlok, and Abraham Charnes.
"Toward Optinal Planning of a Two-Mode Urban Transportation
System: A Linear Progranning Fomulation," HRR, No. 148,
1966, pp. 20-48. (2a,4,8f).
Linear programing is used to establish optinun trans-
portation service for autonobile transport facilities
and nass transit facilities in a radial, downtown oriented
corridor. The objective is to find what combination
minimizes capital and operating costs of transit and auto
transport during the design year,
353. Haynes, John J. "Some Considerations of Vehicular Density on
Urban Freeways," HRR, No. 99, 1965, pp. 59-80. (2b, 4, 6c).
In uncongested conditions frequency distributions of
densities are closely approximated by the Poisson
354. Healy, Kent T. "The Merger Movement in Transportation,"
AER, Vol. 52, May 1962, pp. 436-444. (8a).
An evaluation of mergers, questioning the benefits of
expected elimination of parallel routes and terminal
355. Heanue, Kevin E., Lamelle B. Hamner, and Rose M. Hall.
"Adequacy of Clustered Hone Interview Sampling for
Calibrating a Gravity Model Trip Distribution Formula,"
HRR, No. 88, 1965, pp. 116-136. (2b, 4, 6c, 9).
' ' Gravity model trip distributions over larger trip
volumes are not significantly different from 0-D
survey data. While clustered sampling provides stable
trip volumes, it does not provide for adequate data for
~ calibration as the sample is biased by the location of
356. Heanue, Kevin E. and Clyde E. Pyers. "A Comparative
Evaluation of Trip Distribution Procedures," HRR,
No. 114, 1966, pp. 20-50. (2b, 4, 6c).
The Fratar, gravity, intervening opportunities, and
competing opportunities models are comparatively
evaluated. The Frater model is accurate for areas of
stabilized land-use patterns, and the unadjusted
intervening opportunities model more accurately
simulates travel patterns than an unadjusted gravity
65. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
357. Heier, John J. and David M. Glancy, "Modern Expressways
and Public Transportation," TQ, Vol. 17, January 1963,
pp. 124-132. (4).
Presents the "balanced systen" which is the efficient
novenent of people and goods between desired points;
also the writer approaches the suitability of various
forms of public transportation to assist in providing
358. Heitneyer, Roderick. "Some Available Traffic Forecasts and
the Potential Demand for Coanercial Supersonic Air-
craft," JOURNAL OF AIR LAW AND COMMERCE, Vol. 28,
Spring 1961-62, pp. 153-171. (8d).
359. Helin, Ronald A. "Finland Regains an Outlet to the Sea,"
GR, Vol. 5G, April 1968, pp. 167-194. (3,8c).
A description of the genesis and the functions of the
360. Henderson, Arthur. "European and North American Traffic,
Engineering and Design,'' TQ, Vol. 16, November 1962,
pp. 510-520. (1,6).
A simple comparison of driving and traffic characteristics.
361. Hendrix, Frank L. "Federal Transportation Statistics:
An Analysis," TJ, Vol. 5, Fall 1965, pp. 5-15. (9).
362. Herbert, Budd and Richard Runyan. "The 1963 Census of
Transportation: Review and Prospects," PG, Vol. 19,
September 1967, pp. 268-271. (9).
Due to a lack of utilization of the 1963 Census of
Transportation, this paper is written with the purpose
of bridging the communications gap between potential
users and the publishers of the data. The major part
of the paper focuses on each of the surveys conducted
by the Bureau of the Census, highlighting a few
generalizations. A second section suggests areas of
use and also offers criticisms for improvement of any
future census of transportation.
363. Herr, Phillip B. "The Timing of Highway Impact," TQ, Vol.
16, April 1962, pp. 279-288. (7a).
Impact usually began before the facility was in service,
surged to a peak shortly after its opening, then fell
to a lower level in the next few years.
66. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
364. Herrin3, Frank W, "Metropolitan Growth and Metropolitan
Travel Patterns," HRBB 293, 1961, pp. 9-20. (4,6c).
A description of netropolitan growth in the New York
metropolitan region focusing on changing patterns of
travel behavior in response to metropolitan growth.
365. Heynann, Hans, Jr. "Air Transport and Econonic Developnent:
Some Connents on Foreign Aid Prograos," AER, Vol. 52,
May 1962, pp. 386-395. (7,8d).
General discussion of the importance of air transport
to underdeveloped countries.
366. Hickey, Joseph E., Jr. "A Scenic Approach to Scenic Road-
building," TQ, Vol. 19, November 1965, pp. 578-593. (5b).
The role of aesthetics in route selection,
367. Hill, Donald M, and Norman Dodd. "Travel Mode Split in
Assignment Programs," HRBB 347, 1962, pp. 290-301. (2b,
A mathematical model used for trip prediction in
368. Hill, Donald M. and H, G. Von Cube. "Development of a
Model for Forecasting Travel Mode Choice in Urban Areas,"
HRR, No. 38, 1963, pp. 78-96. (2b, 4, 6c).
• -' ' Travel mode choice behavior for trips to work is
■-' '• ■■' related to travel time, travel cost, the status of
trip makers, and the level of convenience associated
with each node.
369. Hill, Donald M. and Norman Dodd. "Studies of Trends of
Travel between 1954 and 1964 in a Large Metropolitan
Area," HRR, No. 141, 1966, pp. 1-23. (2a, 4, 6c).
' - A comparative analysis indicates to what extent the
travel characteristics used in a traffic predicticn
model have changed. The motive, time, duration, and
method of travel are discussed. It is concluded that
there is an overall stability between person trips and
the reasons for travel, that trip length is not signifi-
cantly different, and that public transport preferences
67. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
370. Hille, Stanley J. and Theodore K. Martin, "Consuner
Preference in Transportation," HRR, No. 197, 1967,
pp. 36-43. (2a,4,6c).
The consuner 's concept of the ideal transportation system
is identified using factor analysis. While there is sone
variation by trip purpose, cost and tine factors are not
considered as important as reliability of destination
371. Hilling, David. "Tena: The Geography of a New Port," G,
Vol. 51, 1966, pp. 111-125. (7c).
A description of Teoa's site, construction, trade
structure, hinterland, industries, and significance to
372. Hilton, George W. "Decline of Railroad Commutation,"
BUSINESS HISTORY REVIEW, Vol. 36, Summer 1962, pp.
An examination of the economic factors responsible for
the decline in railroad commuter traffic and of recent
policy issues which indicate further decline and
possible extinction of commuter traffic.
373. Hilton, George W. "Rail Transit and the Pattern of Modern
Cities: The California Case," TQ, Vol. 21, July 1967,
pp. 379-393. (4, 6c, 7, 8a).
A study of the relations "between the geographical
pattern, the technology of urban transportation, and
the other forces at work on the form of American cities,"
with emphasis on San Francisco and Los Angeles,
374. Hixon, Dwight C, "An Analysis of Urban Travel Times and
Traffic Volume Characteristics," HRBB 303, 1961,
pp. 103-116. (2a, 4, 6c).
Travel time is used as a basis for comparing the level
of traffic service on arterial routes in the Nashville,
Tennessee, metropolitan area.
375. Hoch, Irving. ''Benefit-Cost Methods for Evaluating Express-
way Construction," TQ, Vol. 15, April 1961, pp. 208-
"Outlines sone general procedures for calculating
benefits and costs of expressways construction."
376. Hoel, Lester A. "Truck Travel in the Los Angeles Metro-
politan Area," TQ, Vol. 18, October 1964, pp. 535-553.
(4, 6c, 8b).
Presents 0-D data on commodity movement.
68. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
377. Hoel, Lester A. "Considerations Affecting the Choice of
Urban Transportation Systens," TE, Vol, 37, May 1967,
pp. 36-40. (1,4).
rt general discussion, calling for nore research as an
aid for planning.
378. Hoel, Lester A. "Pedestrian Travel Rates in Central
Business Districts," TE, Vol. 38, January 1968, pp. 10-
Factors affecting pedestrian travel include tine of day,
external influences, temperature, sex, trip purpose,
and socioeconomic status.
379. Hoffnan, George A, "Minimizing Land Used by Automobiles and
Buses in Urban Central Core: Underground Highways and
Parking Facilities," HRR, No. 102, 1965, pp. 98-114.
A study of design features of tunnel construction costs
and the comparison of tunnel costs, compared to the cost
of surface routes, indicates that by the turn of the
century it nay be cheaper to move and park cars and
buses underground in the center of many American cities.
380. Holmes, J. H, "The Suburbanization of Cessnock Coalfield
Towns: 1954-1964," AUSTRiiLLiN GEOGRAPHICAL STUDIES,
Vol. 3, October 1964, pp. 105-128. (4,6).
' Examines coronunity changes with changes in the
381. Holmes, Jerold M. "The Pan anerican Highway," JG, Vol. 62,
April 1963, pp. 145-151. (1,8b).
382. Holzner, Lutz. "The Rhine -Main-Danube Waterhighway,"
JG, Vol. 65, September 1966, pp. 270-284. (3,8c).
Discusses the history and impact of a canal link joining
the Main River and the Danube River,
383. Hooson, David J.M. "The Middle Volga: An Emerging Focal
Region in the Soviet Union," GEOGRAPHICAL JOURN/iL,
Vol. 126, June 1960, pp. 180-189. (8c).
The middle Volga region will continue in industrial
growth, as it is near established population centers
and has improved transport lines with all parts of the
69. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
384. Hoover, Edgar M, "Motor Metropolis: Some Observations on
Urban Transportation in Arierica," JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL
ECONOMICS, Vol. 13, June 1965, pp. 177-192. (1,4).
The relationship between the use of private autonobiles
and the econonic and social problems associated with
385. Hoover, Robert. "Policy Growth and Transportation Plannins
in the Detroit Metropolitan Area," PRSA, Vol. 7, 1961,
pp. 223-240. (4).
The author presents an historical sketch of the developnent
of transportation in the Detroit area and enphasizes, by
way of the Detroit example, that planning is a function
which proceeds according to certain definite growth stages.
386. Horn, John W. , P. D. Cribbons, J. D. Blackburn, and C. E. Vick,
Jr. "Effects of Coijcercial Roadside Development on
Traffic Flow in North Carolina," HRBB 303, 1961,
pp. 76-93. (2a, 6, 7a).
Average car and maximum car methods are used to gather
data used to construct models indicating the association
between traffic flow characteristics and business types
along the route.
387. Horn, John W. "Impact of Industrial Development on Traffic
Generation in Rural Areas of North Carolina," HRBB 347,
1962, pp. 133-142. (6).
A report of a survey investigating and interpreting the
characteristics of traffic generated in open rural areas
and traffic generated by manufacturing industries.
388. Horn, R. William. "Air Cargo Ton-Miles— A Statistic of
Growing Importance," HRR, No. 82, 1965, pp. 94-99. (8d,9).
The growth of cargo traffic is discussed. The CAB and
ATA data collection procedures and data categories are
389. Horton, Frank E. and Paul W. Shuldiner. "The Analysis of
Land -Use Linkages," HRR, No. 165, 1967, pp. 96-107.
(2a, 4, 6c).
The Markov chain model is used to describe linkages
among land use and activities.
70. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
390. Horton, Frank E. "The Utility of Trip Forecasting Models
Based on Aggregate Land Use Data," PG, Vol. 19,
November 1967, pp. 319-322. (2a, 4).
"The problen posed here is the extent to which division
or aggregation of land use groups, both areally and by
type, affect the accuracy of travel forecasts."
391. Horton, Frank E. GECGR/'vPHIC STUDIES OF URBAN TRANSPORTATION
AND NET^;ORK /iNALYSIS. Department of Geography, Studies
in Geography No. 16, Evanston, Illinois, Northwestern
University Press, 1968. (4,5).
Six papers are presented in this volume, four of which
are reports of research and explorations into aspects
of urban transportation, and the remaining two are con-
cerned V7ith applications of graph theory to network
analysis. The papers vary widely in viewpoint, but
they share a common focus in striving toward the
«' development and application of theory in transportation
392. Horton, Frank E. "Location Factors as Determinants of
Consumer Attraction to Retail Firms," AAAG, Vol. 58,
December 1968, pp. 787-801. (2a, 4).
"Spatial variability in consumer attraction to retail
firms may be considered a function of the location of
individual retail locations," Analysis of Waco, Texas,
data indicates "that location of competition and in-
vestment factors are extremely im.portant considerations
when attempting to explain differences in the number of
consumers attracted to retail firms."
393. Horton, Frank E. and Robert I. Wittick. "A Spatial Model
for Examining the Journey-to-Work in a Planning Context,'
PG, Vol. 21, July 1969, pp. 223-226. (2a, 4, 6c).
The dual of the transportation problem is analyzed.
It is suggested that the dual is of interest to planners
as an indicator of optimal locations for residential
and employment growth.
394. Horton, Frank E. and David R. Reynolds. "Effects of Urban
Spatial Structure on Individual Behavior," EG, Vol. 47,
January 1971, pp. 36-48. (2s, 4).
Based on Cedar Rapids, Iowa, data, the authors examine
changes in spatial behavior as adjustm,ents to changes
in urban spatial structure, rather than as active agents
of structural change, and focus on the concepts of
objective spatial structure and action and activity
71. CPL Exchanse Bibliography #324-#325
395. Horwood, Edgar M, "Freeway Inpact on Municipal Land Planning
Effort,'' HRBB 268, 1960, pp. 1-12. (4,7a),
A reexaninatiqn of some of the factors which inpose
serious limitations upon the integration of city planning
and highv/ay development processes. Survey indicates no
unifom conceptualization of problens within and anong
agencies dealing with integrated planning.
396. Horwood, Edgar M, and Clark D. Rogers. "Electronic Mapping
Research and Developnent," HRBB 347, 1962, pp. 147-155.
A discussion of computer graphics and their applicability
to transportation studies,
397. Horwood, Edward M. "Cocmunity Consequences of Highway
Inprovenent," HRR, No. 96, 1965, pp. 1-7. (7a).
A correlation and evaluation of the economic and
connunity inpact of highway bypasses and circunferential
freeways indicate snail towns nay suffer fron bypasses,
while a larger center nay benefit. Circunferential
freeway studies indicate the tendency of industrial
and connercial activity to locate along these routes,
398. Houston, Cecil, "Market Potential and Potential Transportation
Costs: An Evaluation of the Concepts and Their Surface
Patterns in the U.S.S.R.," CG, Vol. 13, Autunn 1969,
pp. 210-236, (2a, 6b).
Various neasures of nass and distance are used to
exanine their role in the macro geographic pattern of
narket potential and potential transportation costs,
399. Howe, Robert T, "Can the Urban Transportation Problem be
Solved?" TQ, Vol. 14, January 1960, pp. 85-94. (4).
Treatment of behavior of gas and human movement, entropy
and urban transportation, city planning and electro-
statics. Conclusion: ''Fundamentally, the urban trans-
portation problem cannot really be solved,"
400. Howe, Robert T, "A Theoretical Prediction of Work-Trip
Patterns," HRBB 253, 1960, pp. 155-165. (2b, 4, 6c).
A model based on principals of electrostatics is used
for the prediction of work-trip patterns in metro-
72, CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
401. Howe, Robert T. "A Theoretical Prediction of Work-Trips
in the Minneapolis -St. Paul nrea," HRBB 347, 1962,
pp. 156-181. (2b, 4, 6c).
Predictions based on principals of electrostatics
indicate potential use for predicting future
distribution of work places and residences.
402. Howe, Robert T. "A Critical Analysis of an Origin-
Destination Survey," HRR, No, 41, 1963, pp. 79-98.
(2b, 4, 6c),
A 1957 0-D survey is evaluated using the author's field
theory of novenent oodel and the gravity nodel. The
predicted patterns of novenent and the pattern indicated
by the survey are significantly different.
403. Hoyle, B. S. "Recent Changes in the Pattern of East
African Railways," TESG, Vol. 54, Novenber 1963,
pp. 237-242. (8a).
404. Hoyle, B, S. "Early Port Developnent in East Africa: An
Illustration of the Concept of Changing Port Hierarchies,"
TESG, Vol. 58, March-April 1967, pp. 94-102. (7c).
405. Hoyle, B, S. "East African Seaports: An Application of the
Concept of Vuiyport'," TRANSACTIONS: INSTITUTE OF
BRITISH GEOGRAPHERS, No, 44, 1968, pp, 163-183. (2a, 7c).
East African ports are conpared to a hypothetical
pattern of port developnent. Changing patterns of port
facilities are used to indicate stages of port evolution,
406. Hoyt, Honer. "The Effect of the Autonobile on Patterns of
Urban Growth," TQ, Vol. 17, April 1963, pp. 293-301.
407. Huff, David L, "A Topographical Model of Consuner Space
Preferences," PRSA, Vol. 6, 1960, pp. 159-173, (2b, 6c).
The paper points out a nunber of factors which are felt
to be inportant in conditioning consuner space preferences,
The use of graph theory and natrix algebra nake it
possible to deternine how each of these factors affect
one another as well as the relative degree of inter-
dependence of each element. The nodel presented pernits
the fornulation and testing of hypotheses which specify
distinctive features of these variables with respect to
individual consumers of various types. The prinary
feature of this nodel is that it provides a scheme for
explaining already observed behavior and is not intended
to be a predictive tool.
73. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324 -#32 5
408. Huff, David L. "A Note on the Linitations of Intraurban
Gravity Models," LE, Vol. 38, February 1962, pp. 64-66.
409. Huff, David L. "A Probabilistic Analysis of Shopping Center
Trade Areas," LE, Vol. 39, February 1963, pp. 81-90.
Presentation of a nodel to deteruine retail trade of a
410. Huff, David L. and George F, Jenks. "A Graphic Inter-
pretation of the Friction of Distance in Gravity Models,'
AAAG, Vol. 58, December 1968, pp. 814-824. (2b).
Portrays complex three-dimensional surfaces stenning
fron gravity nodel to facilitate understanding of
411. Hunphrys, G. "The Journey to Work in Industrial South
Wales," TRiiNSACTIONS : INSTITUTE OF BRITISH GEOGRAPHERS,
No. 36, 1965, pp. 85-96. (6).
Workers tend to travel well beyond their local area to
work, allov;ing for greater freedon of choice in
412. Hunter, Holland. "The Passenger Car in the U.S.S.R." HRR,
No. 115, 1966, pp. 64-70. (1,8b).
A general discussion of Russian attempts to avoid auto-
oriented transportation problems, as evidenced in the
West, by restricting private ownership of vehicles.
413. Hunter, Holland, SOVIET TRANSPORT EXPERIENCE: ITS LESSONS
FOR OTHER COUNTRIES. Washington, D.C: Brookings
Institution, 1968. (1,8).
This book focuses on two aspects of Soviet transport
policy: the effort to hold dovm transport investment
to make existing investment serve more productively and
the conscious decision to minimize road investment
relative to investment in rail and water transport.
414. Hurst, Michael E. Eliot. "Land Use and Traffic Generation
in Urban Areas, with Particular Reference to Perth,"
SCOTTISH GECGRAPHICAL MAGAZINE, Vol. 80, 1964, p. 53.
Investigates "traffic as a function of land use" in an
74. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
415. Hurst, Hichael E. Eliot. "The Structure of Movenent and
Household Travel Behavior," US, Vol. 6, February 1969,
pp. 70-82. (2b, 4, 6c).
Travel motivation is broken down into goals and
occurrences. Life style and positional utility are
416. Hurst, Michael E. Eliot. "Land Use/Travel Movenent Relation-
ships," TQ, Vol. 23, April 1969, pp. 263-274. (2b, 4, 6c).
Multiple regression techniques are used to develop a
descriptive nodel of traffic novenent.
417. Hurst, Michael E, Eliot. "Confluence at the Work Site: Sone
Applications of Urban Work Journey Applications of Urban
Work Journey Analyses," TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH, Vol. 4,
1970, pp. 163-184. (2b, 4, 6c).
"The purpose of this paper is to compare some alternative
methods of analyzing work trip data, as applied to data
collected in a recent survey in Perth, Scotland."
418. Hurst, Michael E. Eliot. "An approach to the Study of Non-
residential Land Use Traffic Generation," AAAG, Vol. 60,
March 1970, pp. 153-173. (2a, 4, 6c).
. .' Results of analysis of Perth, Scotland, "indicate that
there is a functional relationship between land use and
the volume of urban travel, and that it appears that
location and the intensity of use of the land are also
important variables in such a relationship."
419. Hurter, Arthur P. and Leon N. Moses. "Transportation Invest-
ment and Regional Development," JOURNAL OF AMERICAN
INSTITUTE OF PL/JWERS, Vol. 30, May 1964, pp. 132-139.
This article discusses inter-regional linear programming
models. The assumptions and data requirements of the
efficiency and transportation models are examined and
extentions and modifications of inter-regional linear
programming are proposed.
420. Hutchinson, B. G. "A Planning Morphology for Transportation
Systems," TQ, Vol. 20, July 1966, pp. 347-360. (1).
Review of planning concepts and the syrten concept.
421. Hyman, G. M. "The Calibration of Trip Distribution Models,"
ENVIRONMENT AND PL^\NNING, Vol. 1, 1969, pp. 105-112.
A mathematical discussion of various distribution
75. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
422. Hyoans, Edgar M. "Mass Transportation in Cincinnati: Past,
Present, and Future," TE, Vol. 37, October 1966, pp.
49-53. (3,4, 8f).
423. Hynes, Cecil V. "An Origin-Destination Study of Truck
Traffic in Michigan," TQ, Vol. 21, April 1967, pp.
269-280. (6b, 8b).
A study of truck aoveuent by carrier type and state of
origin and destination.
424. Irwin, N. A., Norrian Dodd, and H. G. von Cube. "Capacity
Restraint in ^^ssignnent Prograns," HRBB 297, 1961,
pp. 109-127. (2b, 5, 6).
A traffic siculation nodel incorporating a feedback
nechanisn by which capacity restraint and vehicle
congestion are allowed to affect route generation,
trip distribution, and vehicle assignraent in successive
425. Irwin, N. A. and H. G. von Cube. "Capacity Restraint in
Multi-Travel Mode Assignment Programs, " HRBB 347, 1962,
pp. 253-239. (2b,4,5,6).
An intensive discussion of a nodel used for estinating
vehicular and transit flovz in Toronto, Canada. Capacity
restraints and the resultant congestion in roads and
parking lots are allowed to affect the choice of traffic
node, route selection, and trip voluae distribution in
successive progran blocks,
426. Isard, Walter. LOCATION /^D SPACE-ECONOMY. New York,
New York: John Wiley, 1956. (2).
427. Isard, Walter, et al. "Interregional Flow *\naly3is and
Balance of Payments Statements," METHODS OF REGIONAL
ANALYSIS: ^M INTRODUCTION TO REGIONi^ SCIENCE.
Cambridge, I'iassachusetts: M.I.T. Press, 1960, pp.
This chapter examines the location quotient, commodity
flow investigations, regional and interregional money
flow studies, and balance of payment statements. Several
empirical applications of the techniques are given.
76. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
428. Isard, Walter. "Interregional Linear Frograoning," METHODS
OF REGION/iL ANALYSIS: AN INTRODUCTION TO REGIONAL
SCIENCE. Canbridge, Massachusetts: M.I.T. Press,
1960, pp. A 13-492. (2,6).
The general interregional nodel presented in this chapter
has been developed in its purely fornal aspects, pri-
narily to serve as background against which specific,
useful nodels night be developed. Aside froc the fornal
presentation of the nodel, applications to the dairy and
coal industries are nade.
429. Izyunskiy, 0. A. "Transport Developnent of the Middle Ob
Oil District," SGRT, Vol. 11, October 1970, pp. 89-94.
(7b, 8a, 8c).
"Two basic alternative transport systens are analyzed
for the new oil-producing districts along the Middle Ob
valley in West Siberia. One is the construction of a
railroad parallel to the Ob River; the other is in the
use of the vjaterway itself."
430. Janieson, G. B. , W. K. Mackay, and J, C, R, Latchford.
"Transportation and Land Use Structures," US, Vol. 4,
November 1967, pp. 201-217. (2a,4,6c).
Conparisons of different urban land use distributions
and their effect on travel.
431. Janelle, Donald G. "Spatial Reorganization: A Model and
Concept," AAAG, Vol. 59, June 1969, pp. 348-364. (2a, 7).
..: ';\ • "Travel-tine connectivity is a key factor in defining
a process of the spatial reorganization of nan's
functional establishnents. A case study relating
■■ "'' highway developnent with the growth in wholesale ac-
tivity for selected cities in the upper nidwest of the
United States indicates that, aside fron being a good
surrogate of transport efficiency, travel-tine con-
nectivity is also a good neasure of the relative ad-
vantage of a given place in attracting to itself the
centralization and specialization of hunan activity,"
432. Jefferies, Wilbur R. and Everett C, Carter. "Sinplified
Techniques for Developing Transportation Plans--Trip
Generation in Snail Urban Areas," HRR, No. 240, 1968,
pp. 66-87. (2b, 4, 9).
Socioecononic and land use characteristics of snail urban
areas are analyzed to establish a sinplified nethod of
conducting transportation surveys. Vehicle ownership
is considered a najor indicator of trip generation.
77. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324 -#32 5
433. Johnson, J. A., G. Potvin, and N. E. Wilson. "The Planning
and Econonics of High Speed Transportation for a Region
under Rapid Urbanization," HSGTJ, Vol. 1, January 1967,
pp. 32-46. (2a).
Decision rules for policy makers are developed using
theoretical cost and value concepts,
434. Johnson, Janes F. "The Influence of Cost Distance Factors
on the Overseas Export of Corn fron the United States
Midwest," EG, Vol. 45, April 1969, pp. 170-179. (6a).
Exanines factors affecting the transportation of com
exports, finding a great disparity between linear and
cost distances fron locations to regional ports.
435. Johnson, R. J, "An Index of Accessibility and Its Use in the
Study of Bus Service and Settlenent Patterns," TESG,
Vol. 57, January-February 1966, pp. 33-38. (2a).
436. Johnson, R. J. "The Distribution of an Intra-netropolitan
Central Place Hierarchy," AUSTRALIAN GEOGRAPHICAL
STUDIES, Vol. 4, April 1966, pp. 19-34. (2a, 4),
437. Johnson, R. J. and Peter J. Ricner. "A Note on Consuner
Behavior in an Urban Hierarchy," JRS, Vol. 7, Winter
1967, pp. 161-166. (2a,4).
Postulated relationships between the central place
hierarchy and consuner behavior are not substantiated.
438. Johnson, R. J. "Railways, Urban Growth and Central Place
Patterns: An Exanple fron South-east Melbourne," TESG,
Vol. 59, January-February 1968, pp. 33-41. (4,7,8a).
439. Johnson, R, J. "An Outline of the Developcent of Melbourne's
Street Pattern," AUSTRALIAN GEOGRAPHER, Vol. 10,
Septenber 1968, pp. 453-465. (3,5,7).
After outlining the historical developnent of the city
and its street pattern, chi-square is used to test for
differences in the basic grid pattern. The results are
used as an indicator of high, internediate, or low
440. Johnson, W. B. , editor. TRAFFIC IN A NEW ZEALAND CITY.
Christchurch, New Zealand: Regional Planning
Authority, 1965. (4).
78. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
441. Jones, Richard M. "Local Labour Markets, the Journey to Work,
and Government Location Policy,'' TPR, Vol, 41, April 1970,
pp. 168-170. (1).
Identifies three distinct labor narkets in industrial
442. Jones, Robert W. "Method for Estimating Potential Increases
in Traffic Volumes Based on 0-D Survey Data from A Mid-
Western City," HRR, No. 88, 1965, pp. 171-181. (2a, 4, 6c).
Factor analysis indicates socioeconomic level and pro-
portion of land-use devoted to single family residences
are the principal criteria associated with trip generating
potential of 0-D zones.
443. Jordan, Thomas D. "Development of the Sky Count Technique
for Highway Traffic Analysis," HRR, No. 19, 1953,
pp. 35-46. (9).
The wide and rapid coverage of areas is a major
advantage of airphoto techniques.
444. Kagayama, Tomoo. "Commuter Traffic in Tokyo and Osaka,''
TQ, Vol. 19, November 1965, pp. 609-622. (4, 5c, 6c).
Treatment of rapid transit network, traffic volume and
capacity, and nev? projects to alleviate congestion.
445. Kain, John F. ''The Journey to Work as a Determinant of
Residential Location," PRSA, Vol. 9, 1962, pp. 137-
The paper presents empirical evidence on the manner in
which transportation costs influence the household's
' ' choice of a residential location and describes a res-
• idential location model. The hypothesis central to
research is that households substitute journey-to-work
expenditures for site expenditures. This substitution
" ' ■ depends primarily on household preferences for low
■ density residential services.
446. Kain, John F. "The Development of Urban Transportation Models,
PRSA, Vol. 14, 1965, pp. 147-173, (4).
This paper discusses the objectives and summarizes some
of the principal findings of a large-scale model building
activity--the RAND Corporation study of urban transpor-
tation. The importance of this project lies in treating
large-scale research problems instead of being tied to
solving the urban transportation problems of any specific
municipality or urban area.
79. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
447. Kain, John F, "Postwar Metropolitan Developnent: Housing
Preferences and Auto Ownership," AER, Vol. 57, May 1967,
pp. 223-234. (2a,4).
Correlation techniques indicate income is a greater
determinant of auto-ownership than fanily size and
residential density. The hypothesis that autonobile
ownership and residential density are jointly and
simultaneously determined was not affirmed conclusively.
448. Kanaan, Nuhad J. "Structure and Requirements of the Trans-
port Network of Syria," HRR, No. 115, 1966, pp. 19-28.
Graph theoretic measures and multiple regression are
used to analyze network structure and spatial variation
in the distributions of population and economic activity.
Iterative analysis for distinct time periods demonstrates
increases or decreases in the accessibility of urban
places to the network.
449. Kansky, Karl J. STRUCTURE OF TRi\NSPORTATION NETWORKS.
Department of Geography Research Paper No. 84,
Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press, 1963.
This study explores the utility of certain graph theoretic
indices in the study of regional transportation systems.
450. Kansky, Karl J. "Travel Patterns of Urban Residents,"
TS, Vol, 1, November 1967, pp. 261-285. (2a, 4).
"This paper proposes a method of describing and
classifying traffic patterns of urban residents,"
using factor analysis on Chicago data.
451. Kaplan, Norman N. "The Growth and Output and Inputs in
Soviet Transport and Communications," AER, Vol. 57,
December 1967, pp. 1154-1167. (8).
Output indexes for communications and transportation
systems are constructed and compared with United States
data, A retardation in output growth within the post-
war era is noted.
452. Kaufmann, John H. "Planning for Transport Investment in
the Development of Iran," x\ER, Vol. 52, May 1962,
pp. 396-404, (7).
Integrated transport and comr.iunications development
should be designed in terms of land, population, and
natural resources, as they relate to the perspective
values of the country's inputs and technological and
80. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
453. Kazanskiy, N. M. and Yu. V. Lasts. ''Methods of Forecasting
Freight Flows in Planning a Transport Net," SGRT, Vol.
4, September 1963, pp. 3-18. (2a, 6b, 8a).
Discussion of the distribution of freight flows anong
existing and planned networks, based on traffic
expected fron planned regional production.
454. Keefer, Louis E. "Estinating the Daily Vehicle Miles of
Travel in the Chicago and Fr.ttsburgh Metropolitan
Areas," HRBB 281, 1961, pp. 1-15. (4,6c).
455. Keefer, Louis E, "Characteristics of Captive and Choice
Transit Trips in the Pittsburgh Metropolitan Area,"
HRBB 347, 1962, pp. 24-33. (4,6c).
Finds significantly different trip characteristics for
those who choose to use nass transit and those who have
no alternative to transit usage,
456. Keefer, Louis E, "A New Transportation Plan for Pittsburgh,
TQ, Vol. 17, November 1963, pp. 544-556. (4).
Describes the plan and the prospects of its inplenent-
ation, including sone of the unusual problens.
457. Keefer, Louis E. "Shaping the Demand for Mass Transportat-
ion," TQ, Vol. 18, October 1964, pp. 589-596. (4,8f).
The difficult problens involved in shaping nass transit
demand are outlined.
458. Kellett, John R, "Urban and Transport History from Legal
Recoras : An Example from G las gov; Solicitors' Papers,"
JTH, Vol. 6, November 1964, pp. 222-240. (3, 4, 8a, 9).
Using solicitors' records, this case study indicates
the broad range of available information concerning
attitudes and actions of landholders, types of agri-
culture practiced, mineral deposits, existing road
facilities, and market outlets, which is comple-
mentary to a study of railroad development.
459. Kemp, Barbara. "Social Impact of a Highway on an Urban
Community," HRR, No. 75, 1964, pp. 92-102. (4,7a).
To reduce possible harmful social effects of freeway
location, families were interviewed; most did not x^/ant
to leave the area, felt they could not influence the
location decision, and felt that displacement should
not occur until sufficient housing was available for
81. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324 -#32 5
460. Kennedy, Charles J. "Connuter Services in the Boston Area,
1835-1860," BUSINESS HISTORY REVIEW, Suniner 1962,
Vol. 36, pp. 153-170. (3,7).
An analysis of the inportance of fare structures and
services on suburban growth.
461. Kent, Malcoln F. "Intercity Freight Haulage, By Connodity,
Shipping Density and Type of Transport, 1960," HRR,
No. 82, 1965, pp. 1-31. (6b, 8).
Freight haulage is described using data gathered by the
Bureau of the Budget and the Interstate Coonerce
462. Kenyon, Janes B. "Elenents in Inter-Port Conpetition in
the United States," EG, Vol. 46, January 1970, pp. 1-24.
"The object of this paper is to analyze the shifting
r.iagnitudes and conposition of general cargo freight anong
selected United States ports in terns of the extent and
uakeup of their donestic hinterlands, their overseas
trade orientation, and the econonic character of the
port netropolis itself, and to review sone of the
changing conditions and practices that seera to hold
special sicnificance to the conpetitive struggle anong
American ports . "
463. Kerr, Donald. "The St. Lawrence Seaway and Trade on the
Great Lakes, 1958-63," CG, Vol. 8, 1964, pp. 188-196.
464. Kerr, L. W. "Deteraination of 0-D Zones by Means of Land-
Use Data," HRBB 347, 1962, pp. 182-185. (4,9).
A review of factors to consider in establishing
465. Keyes, Lucile Sheppard. "The Transpacific Route Invest-
igation: Historical Background and Sone Major Issues,"
JOURNAL OF AIR LAW AND COMCRCE, Vol. 34, Winter 1968,
pp. 1-26. (5,8d).
This investigation considers the problem of regulating
freight rates and passenger fares for international
air carriers. The characteristics of the administrative
processes which lead to the awarding of major inter-
national air routes are discussed.
82. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
466. Kibal 'chich 0. Ji. "The Distribution of Population and
Related Indicators in Long-Tern Planning of Passenger
Traffic," SGRT, Vol. 4, Septenber 1963, pp. 26-35. (6b).
Presentation of a nethodology to forecast "passenger
intensity" of population centers and economic regions.
467. Kiley, Edward V. "Highways as a Factor in Industrial
Location," HRR, No. 75, 1964, pp. 48-52. (7a).
A survey of businesses to exanine the influence of high-
ways on locational decisions. Location factors nentioned
most frequently, in order, are: proxii.iity to good high-
ways, abundant labor supply, availability of suitable
land, and proximity to niarkets.
468. King, H.W.H. and E. R. Woolnington. "The Role of the River
in the Development of Settlement in the Lower Hunter
Valley," AUSTRiiLIAN GEOGR^IPHER, Vol. 8, September 1960,
pp. 3-16. (7,8c).
469. Kirby, Arthur. "The Effect of Port Re-organization in Great
Britain," ITJ, Vol. 31, May 1965, pp. 133-139 and 148.
More comprehensive powers for port authorities and more
emphasis on containerization and unitization would speed
the movement of cargo through ports, helping to solve
the fundamental problems of overloading and congestion.
470. Kish, George. "Soviet Air Transport," GR, Vol. 48, July
1958, pp. 309-320. (8d).
Air traffic in the U.S.S.R. and major air traffic centers.
471. Kish, George. "Railroad Passenger Transport in the Soviet
Union," GR, Vol. 53, July 1963, pp. 363-376. (6b, 7a).
472. Kish, George. "Transportation within the European Economic
Community: Problems and Policies," EAST LAKES GEO-
GRi^FHER, Vol. 1, 1964, pp. 13-20. (3,7,8).
473. Kissling, C. C. "Linkage Importance in a Regional Highway
Network," CG, Vol. 13, Sunir^er 1969, pp. 113-127. (2a, 5a).
The graph theoretic measure of accessibility developed
by Shimbel is used to analyze the regional highway net-
work of Nova Scotia. Highly accessible nodes indicate
areas of high economic activity.
83. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324 -#325
474. Klar, Janes S. and Israel Resnifoff. "Land Use and Trans-
portation Planning," TQ, Vol. 19, April 1965, pp. 169-187.
A report on transport planning in Connecticut.
475. Klein, Maury and Kozo Yananura. "The Growth Strategies of
Southern Railroads, 1865-1893," BUSINESS HISTORY REVIEW,
Vol. 41, Winter 1967, pp. 358-377. (3,8a).
The growth strategies of Southern railroads appear to be
dependent upon individual situations, producing a
spectrun of strategies.
476. Knox, Naphtali K. "A Simplified Traffic Model for Snail
Cities, = TQ, Vol. 16, July 1962, pp. 336-350. (2b, 4, 6c).
The paper shows how established gravity nodel techniques
can be applied in analyzing proposed traffic systems
based on general land use plans for a saall city.
477. Kock, A. Robert and M. Snodgrass, "Linear Programming Applied
to Location and Product Flow Determination in the Tomato
Processing Industry," PRSA, Vol. 5, 1959, pp. 151-162.
This paper uses the transportation nodel of linear
programming to investigate a few specific inter-
regional problems relating to the tonato processing
industry in the U.S.
478. Kolars, John and Henry J. Malin. "Population and Accessi-
bility: An Analysis of Turkish Railroads," OR, Vol.
60, April 1970, pp. 229-246. (2a, 5c, 8a).
Describes a method for simulating the growth of a
railroad network, the results of which are compared
with detailed historical summary of railroads in Turkey.
479. Kole, Charles P. "Variation of Work-Home Trip as Function
of Travel Tine," TE, Vol. 35, December 1964, pp. 23-27
and 47. (2b,4,6c).
Regression analysis of work-trips shows strong relation-
ship to travel tine in Phoenix.
480. Kolifrath, Michael and Paul W. Shuldiner. "Covariance
Analysis of Manufacturing Trip Generation," HRR, No. 165,
1967, pp. 117-128. (2b,4,6c).
Covariance analysis is used to test the utility of sub-
dividing manufacturing land into subclasses for estimating
84. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324 -#32 5
481. Kresge, David T. and Paul 0. Roberts. "Sinulation of Policy
Alternatives for Columbia," /iER, Vol. 58, May 1968,
pp. 341-359. (2a, 5c).
Conbines nacro-econooic modeling with detail simulation
of transport network development in multiple tine periods,
allowing comparison and evaluation of alternate develop-
t.-£nt strategies, policies, and investment plans.
482. Krusling, James R, "Cincinnati's Highway System," TE, Vol.
37, October 1966, pp. 31-34. (3,4,8b).
483. Kuei-Sheng Chang, "The Changing Railroad Pattern in Mainland
China," GR, Vol. 51, October 1961, pp. 534-548. (8a).
484. Kuhn, Herman A.J. "Factors Influencing Traffic Generation
at Rural Highway Service Areas," HRR, No. 240, 1968,
pp. 1-10. (6).
The factors of visibility, accessibility, facility type,
location v/ith reference to other facilities, and inter-
change class strongly influence the volume of traffic
at rural service areas.
485. Kurylo, Walter. "A Look at the Pan American Highway System,"
TQ, Vol. 18, April 1964, pp. 143-155. (8b).
Travel conditions on the Inter-American Highway.
486. Lachene, Rene. "Networks and the Location of Economic
Activities," PRSA, Vol. 14, 1965, pp. 183-196. (5,7).
The paper focuses upon the problem of intense con-
centration of activity at one point of a national
territory. An observation of an actual situation
(Paris) led the author to ask what part transportation
plays in affecting the geographical distribution of
activities and to build representative models of the
simplest kinds of relationships.
487. Lancaster, Jane. "A Railroad to Great Slave Lake," PG,
Vol. 13, September 1961, pp. 31-35. (8a).
The paper is a policy statement of the needs for a
railv;ay system servicing the mineral-rich areas sur-
rounding Great Slave Lake,
85. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
488. Landon, Charles E. "The Recent Developnent of Freight
Traffic on the Mississippi River," JTH, Vol. 5, May
1961, pp. 33-53. (8c).
489. Lang, A. S. and Martin Wohl. "Evaluation of Highway Inpact,"
HRBB 268, pp. 105-119. (7a).
The tern 'inpact" is analyzed and the evaluation of user
and non-user benefits are discussed. Traffic engineers
and social scientists nust v?ork in conjunction to for-
mulate basic concepts of highway inpact.
490. Lansing, John B. and Eva Mueller. "Residential Location and
Urban Mobility," HRR, No. 106, 1966, pp. 77-96. (2,4,6c),
Residential patterns are defined by density and distance
in niles fron the center of the city. Locational pre-
ferences are exanined, and journey-to-work trips are
described by node and distance of travel. The existing
pattern of location is influenced by fanily incone and
by stage in the fanily life style.
491. Lansing, John B. and Gary Hendricks. "How People Perceive
the Cost of the Journey to VJork," HRR, No. 197, 1967,
pp. 44-55. (2a, 4, 6c).
Most people do not estimate the costs of journeying-to-
work; however, when the cost is estimated, fuel cost
estimating is too high. People are aware of parking
fees at the vjorkplace, but are unaware of trip costs
for different nodes of travel.
492. Lapin, Howard A. "Index Numbers for Urban Travel," JOURNAL
OF AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF PLANNERS, Vol. 27, August 1961,
pp. 215-217. (4,9).
The desirability of preparing and maintaining indices
of vehicular passenger niles at local, regional, and
493. Larson, C. Theodore. "The Motor Road: Forerunner of the
Universal City," TQ, Vol. 18, October 1964, pp. 459-
490. (1,5a, 8b).
A look at the major highway networks of the continents
and at urban growth.
494. Lathrop, George T. , John R. Hamburg, and Frederick Young.
"Opportunity-Accessibility Model for Allocating Regional
Growth," HRR, No. 102, 1965, pp. 54-66. (2a, 7).
A description of an allocation model based largely on
access to a regional center or set of sub-centers.
86. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
495. Lawton, R, "The Journey to Work in England and Wales:
Forty Years of Change," TESG, Vol. 54, March 1963,
pp. 61-69. (3,4).
496. Leathers, Nancy J, "Residential Location and Mode of Trans-
portation to Work: A Model of Choice," TRANSPORTATION
RESEARCH, August 1967, pp. 129-155. (4,8).
497. Lee, G.H.C. "The New Mass Market in Air Travel," ITJ,
Vol. 31, Itorch 1965, pp. 101-103. (8d).
A brief discussion of the reasons for an increase in air
passenger service and the problems created.
498. Lees, Audrey. "Car Parking in Cities," TPR, Vol. 34,
April 1963-64, pp. 39-49. (4).
A look at the problen in Coventry, England.
499. Lenly, Janes H. "Mississippi River: St. Louis' Friend or
Foe?" BUSINESS HISTORY REVIEW, Vol. 39, Spring 1965,
pp. 7-15. (0a,8c).
Conflict between Chicago and St. Louis over the use of
rails or the river.
500. Letenare, Gene and George V, Wickstron, "The Dataplotter —
A Tool for Transportation Planning," HRBB 347, 1962,
pp. 203-210. (9).
Evaluation of computerized napping techniques.
501. Levin, David R. "The Highway Interchange Land-Use Problen,"
HRBB 288, 1961, pp. 1-24. (7a),
Methods of controlling land usage at expressway inter-
changes are analyzed and evaluated in terns of their
potential effectiveness, cost, and adninistration.
502. Levin, David R. "Infornal Notes on Sociological Effects
of Highways," HRR, No. 75, 1964, pp. 82-83. (7a).
503. Levin, Melvin R. and David A. Grossnan. "The Expressv/ay
Lnpact on a Secondary Central Business District," TQ,
Vol. 15, April 1961, pp. 185-207. (7a).
The economic impact of the freeway on Pawtucket,
87. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324 -#32 5
504. Levinson, Herbert S. and F, Houston Wynn, "Sone Aspects of
Future Transportation in Urban Areas," HRBB 326, 1962,
pp. 1-31. (4).
Fundanental inter-relationships between land use, socio-
econonic status, and transportation node,
505. Levinson, Herbert S. arid F. Houston Wynn. "Effects of
Density on Urban Transportation Requirements," HRR,
No. 2, 1963, pp. 38-64. (2a, 4, 6c).
Intra- and inter-city transportation requirenents are
related to paraneters of population density. Regional
and historical effects of population density and their
relationship to travel behavior are extensively analyzed.
506. Levinson, Herbert S. and Kenneth R, Roberts. "Systen Con-
figurations in Urban Transportation Planning," HRR,
Wo. 64, 1964, pp. 71-83. (4,5).
Analysis indicates urban freeway systens should avoid
convergence in central areas; a grid system would
achieve more equitable freeway loadings than a radial
507. Lewis, E. V. 'Transportation Modal Interfaces," HSGTJ,
Vol. 2, May 1968, pp. 339-352. (8).
Evaluates the concept of containerization and discusses
its impact on trade and transport facilities.
508. Lewis, G. J. "Commuting and the Village in Mid-Wales," G,
Vol. 52, July 1967, pp. 294-304. (4,7a).
A case study of an area suffering from depopulation and
an assessment of the impact of commuting on the socio-
economic structure of the village. The influence of
commuting in planning future settlements.
509. Lewis, Janes E. "Changes in Highway Mobility in the United
States South: 1940 to 1960," PG, Vol. 20, November 1968,
pp. 382-387. (7,8b).
The use of a simple technique for measuring and mapping
highway nobility as a means of identifying relative levels
of economic development is demonstrated in this paper.
Illustration of the technique is made by examining changes
in the level of highway mobility in the Southern states
during the 1940-1960 period.
88. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
510. Ley land, George P. "Inplication of the New Haven Census
Use Test for Transportation and Land-Use Planning,"
HRR, No, 229, 1968, pp. 77-98. (2a, 4, 9).
A special census which incorporates data to be gathered
by the 1970 national census is used to generate base
file. The file is a valuable tool for planners in
formulating an efficient and inexpensive planning
511. Lichfield, .Nathaniel and Honor Chapman. "Cost Benefit
Analysis and Road Proposals for a Shopping Centre.
A Case Study: Edgware, ' JTEP, Vol. 2, September 1958,
pp. 280-320. (4,5b),
512. Lieper, Joseph McC. "The Role of the Automobile in Mid-
to\TO Manhattan," TQ, Vol. 16, ..pril 1962, pp. 212-228.
The core activities, the priority of space needs, and
their linkage are evaluated to develop the basis for
future policies on transportation access and circulation;
concludes that the only alternative is improved mass
513. Lieper, Joseph McC. "Transportation Planning in a Mature
Metropolis," URBAN AFFAIRS QUARTERLY, Vol. 1, December
1965, pp. 22-38. (1,4).
Survey of problems in transport planning in New York
514. Lindsay, Jean. "The Aberdeenshire Canal, 1805-54," JTH,
Vol. 6, May 1964, pp. 150-165. (3,8c),
515. Lissitzyn, Oliver J, "The Participation of the United States
in World Air Transport: Statistics and the National
Interest," JOURN.^L OF AIR LxJJ AND COMMERCE, Vol. 28,
Winter 1961-62, pp. 1-17, (8d,9).
Discussion of the reliability of statistics dealing
with U, S. air transport,
516. Lloyd, Trevor and David C. Nutt. "Transportation of Ungava
Iron Ore," CG, Vol. 4, 1960, pp. 26-38. (6a).
A general discussion of the project, including aspects
of transporting the concentrated ore and a discussion
concerning selection of an ice-free port site in
89. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-^325
517. Loewenstein, Louis K. "Connuting and the Cost of Housing
in Philadelphia," TQ, Vol. 17, April 1963, pp. 302-319.
The article shows that, to a certain extent, higher
ho:!Sin3 costs and the larger and nore costly journey-
to-work are both a function of distance fron the down-
518. Logan, M. I. "Work-Residence Locations in the City,"
AUSTRALIAN GEOGRAPHICAL STUDIES, Vol. 6, October 1968,
pp. 151-166. (4,6c).
Concepts of urban form and function are reviewed with
specific reference to the labor-shed in Sydney,
Australia, The study indicates a najor trend away fron
the nononuclear concept of an urban region.
519. Long, A. "Internal Transport Developcents in East Africa,"
G, Vol. 50, January 1965, pp. 78-81. (8).
Reviews recent activities expanding railways, lake
services, and ports.
520. Long, Poter and Lewis Hayashi. "Traffic and Travel in
Thailand," TE, Vol. 37, July 1967, pp. 72-75. (1).
521. Long, Wesley H. "City Characteristics and the Denand for
Interurban Air Travel," LE, Vol. 44, May 1968, pp.
An assessment of the effects of denographic and geo-
graphic characteristics of large cities on air travel.
522. Longley, Janes W. and Beatrice T, Go ley. "A Statistical
Evaluation of the Influence of Highways on Rural Land
Values in the United States," HRBB 327, 1962, pp. 21-
Rural land sales are exanined to deteraine the relation
between type of road and price per acre and price per
fam and distance to nearest trading center. Higher
prices per acre are associated with hard surfaced roads
and proxinity to trading centers. Regional variations
in the pattern are exanined for selected areas in the
50. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
523. Lonsdale, Richard E. "Two North Carolina Connuting Patterns,"
EG, Vol. 42, April 1966, pp. 114-13G. (2b, 6b).
Analysis of conmuting characteristics, labor narket areas,
personal factors affecting coumuting, with an example of
probability aodels to simulate traffic, based on two
factories enploying workers of different econonic levels.
524. Loubal, Peter S, "A Network Evaluation Procedure," HRR,
No. 205, 1967, pp. 96-109. (2a, 5c, 6).
A procedure for considering the effects of new and
inproved netv7ork links on travel tine and volune of
traffic flov7 is described. It is a variation of
ninioun path tree-building and traffic loading pro-
525. Love joy, Warren B. "New York Port Authority's 1958 0-D
Survey Using Continuous Sanpling," HRBB 253, 1960,
pp. 152-154. (4,9).
■ ' '' The rationale and technique of continuous sanpling are
described. Continuous sanpling avoids the effects of
short tern variations in traffic patterns that night
. ' influence the reliability of data gathered in short,
intensive traffic surveys.
526. Lo^^^:y, Ira S. ''Location Paraneters in the Pittsburgh
Model," PRSA, Vol. 11, 1963, pp. 145-165. (2,4).
A nodel is constructed which assunes the distribution
of basic activities and proceeds to distribute around
each work-place a residential population which supplies
the labor force and acts as a base for the location of
• ' population-serving activities. The uarket-potential
of each location is evaluated and retail and service
enployr;.ent is spatially distributed according to these
527. Luster, George A. and Wade G, Fox. "Cartographic and Design
Work for a Conprehensive Origin-Destination Survey,"
HRBB 297, 1961, pp. 52-73. (4,9).
The nethods and procedures used for the analysis and
representation of Pittsburgh Area Transportation Study
528. HcConnell, Janes E, "A Note on the Geography of Connodity
Trade," PG, Vol. 22, July 1970, pp. 181-184. (2,6a).
Points up areas of neglect and sunnarizes theoretical
and enpirical foundations for further research.
91. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
529. McCutcheon, W. /„ "xhe Newry Navigation: The Earliest
Inland Canal in the British Isles,'' G, Vol. 129,
Decenbei- 1963, pp. 466-480. (3,7.7c).
The growth and decline of the Newry Navigation and the
inpact of canal traffic on the port of Newry.
530. McElhiney, Paul T. "Evaluating Freeway Perfornance in Los
Angeles," TQ, Vol. 14, July 1960, pp. 296-312. (4).
531. McElroy, J. P. "Pedestrian Conveyors," TPR, Vol. 32, July
1961, pp. 125-140. (3,4).
History of conveyors and their application to urban
532. McFarlAne, Marion. "Developments in Southland, New Zealand:
The Port of Bluff," G, Vol. 46, July 1961, pp. 250-252.
Report on port renewal.
533. McGrath, Willian R. "Transportation and Urban Developnent,"
TQ, Vol. 18, October 1964, pp. 491-501. (4).
A statecent of the iraportance of coordinated transport
planning for urban developnent.
534. Mcllwraith, Thonas F. "The Adequacy of Rural Roads in the
Era before Railways: An Illustration fron Upper Canada,"
CG, Vol. 14, 1970, pp. 344-360. (8b).
A challenge to the traditional belief that early Ontario
roads were intolerable. Roads were found to be of
United importance in land choice by early settlers.
535. McKain, Walter C. "Coixiunity Response to Highway Inprovecent,'
HRR, No. 96, 1965, pp. 19-23. (4,7a).
The influence of hunan factors and social conditions,
536. McKenna, David, "Conrauting in the 1970 's," ITJ, Vol. 32,
1967, pp. 37-93. (4,6).
537. MacKinnon, Ross D. "Dynanic Progratxiing and Geographical
Systems," EG, Vol. 46, June 1970, pp. 350-366. (2a).
Dynanic progranning is outlined, geographical applications
are discussed (including applications to transportation
systems)', and advantages and linitations are considered.
92. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
538. MacNab, J. H. "The Air Freight Industry of New Zealand,"
NEW ZEALAND GEOGRAPHER, Vol. 16, 1960, pp. 190-203.
(5a, 6b, 8a).
Brief survey of routes and freight traffic within New
539. Mactier, Stewart. "Cargo Handling in the Deep-Sea Liner
Trades,'- ITJ, Vol. 31, Novenber 1964, pp. 13-19. (7c, 8c).
"A review of the problem of cargo liner turn-round in
port in relation to current and future trends."
540. Mahon, G, R. "Railx^ays and Bogs in Ireland," JTH, Vol. 5,
Novenber 1961, pp. 116-126. (5a, 8a).
Notes on building permanent and temporary railways over
541. Malik, Rashid A. "Pakistan's Intra-Regional Pattern of
Transportation," JG, Vol. 61, 1962, pp. 209-214. (3).
The characteristics of land and water transportation.
542. Malo, Alger F, "The Relation of Mass Transportation to
Total Transportation in Detroit," TQ, Vol. 15, April
1961, pp. 226-247. (4,8).
543. Maloney, Willian L. "Shifts in Petroleum Transportation,"
HRR, No. G2, 1965, pp. 100-103. (8c).
544. Manhein, Marvin L. "Data Accuracy in Route Location," TQ,
Vol. 15, January 1961, pp. 153-178. (5b).
An enuneration of steps and variables to consider in
route location decisions.
545. Manhein, Marvin L. "Transportation, Problem-Solving and
the Effective Use of Computers," HRR, No. 148, 1966,
pp. 49-58. (1,2a).
546. Manhein, Marvin L. "Principles of Transport Systems
Analysis," HRR, No. 180, 1967, pp. 11-20. (1,2a).
547. Manners, Gerald, "Public Transport Policy and the Railways
of the U.S.A.;' SCOTTISH GEOGP-.PHIC/X I>1AGAZINE, Vol. 76,
1960, pp. 172-176. (3, 6b, 8a).
Description of changes in competitive position of U.S.
railway freight and passenger traffic.
93. CPL Eixhange Bibliography #324-#325
548. Manners, Gerald. "Transport Costs, Freight Rates and the
Changing Econonic Geography of Iron Ore," G, Vol. 52,
July 1967, pp. 260-279. (3,6b).
A conparison of world trade patterns in iron ore in
1950 with patterns in 1960.
549. Marble, Duane F. "Transport Inputs at Urban Residential
Sites," PRSA, Vol. 5, 1959, pp. 253-266. (2,4,7).
This paper represents an attaapt to raise the level of
infomation regarding transport inputs to households
through an empirical exanination of the transport in-
puts to a nunber of households in a nediun-sized American
city, T\'io separate studies vjere undertaken using a
linear regression nodel, one vjith trip frequency as the
dependent variable, and the total distance traveled as the
dependent variable in the second study. A decision nodel
is then proposed wherein an individual nust choose frou
anong a set of trips whose relative desirability depends
upon one's completeness of information.
550. Marble, tuane F. "User Services and the Demand for Land at
Interchange Points," HRBB 288, 1961, pp. 25-31. (2a, 7a).
Characteristics of the service industry and user re-
action to the prohibition of commercial construction
on rights-of-way of the interstate highway system;
suggestions for further research on user services and
demand for land at interchanges.
551. Marble, Duane F. "Some Cultural and Social Aspects of
Transport Impact on Underdeveloped Areas," in F. Pitts,
editor, URB/vN SYSTEMS ."JTO ECONOMIC DEVELOPl-ENT.
Eugene, Oregon: University of Oregon, School of
Business Administration, 1962, pp. 39-43. (7).
A short statement emphasizing the need for greater
understanding of the cultural and social aspects of
552. Marble, Duaae F. "A Theoretical Exploration of Individual
Travel Behavior," QUANTITATIVE GEOGR/\PHY PART I:
ECONOMIC mD CULTURi"iL TOPICS. W. L. Garrison and D. F.
Marble. Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University,
Department of Geography, 1967, pp. 33-53. (2,4,6c).
The study offers a preliminary exploration of some
theoretical aspects of day-torday movement patterns
exhibited by most individuals. Game-theoretic form-
ulations are presented for the analysis of complex
decision situations of individual travel behavior.
94. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-^^325
553. Marceilis, Jack C. "An Econonic Evaluation of Traffic
Movenent at Various Speeds," HRR, No. 35, 1963, pp. 18-
Discussion of the cost of resources consuned by the
transportation industry. Optical traffic speeds, which
nininize the cost of traffic novenent in a variety of
situations, are established for passenger and cormercial
554. Marcou, George T. "A Survey of the Literature on Inter-
Cocnunity Traffic," HRBB 347, 1962, pp. 302-318. (4,9).
Includes zn annotated bibliography.
555. Martin, Brian V. and Charles B. Warden. "Transportation and
Planning in Developing Countries," TQ, Vol, 19,
January 1965, pp. 59-75. (7b).
Indicates the need for ccnprehensive planning and presents
a uodel to evaluate alternative plans "for particular
combinations of econouic and geographic conditions."
556. Martin, Brian V, and Marvin L. lianhein, "A Research
Progran for Comparison of Traffic Assignment Techniques,"
HRR, No. 38, 1965, pp. 69-84. (2b, 4, 6c).
A conputer progran which allows for incremental loading
of the netv7ork and the use of a generation curve function
to revise input interzonal transfers.
557. Marx, Daniel, Jr. "Regulation of International Liner-
Shipping and Freedon of the Seas," JOURNAL OF INDUSTRUJL
ECONOMICS, Vol. 16, Novenber 1967, pp. 46-62. (5a, 8c).
An extensive discussion of alleged inequities in the
rates charged by ocean liners to carry cargo.
558. Matsuuoto, Hiroshi, "An Expressway for Tokyo," TQ, Vol. 16,
Novenbe:- 1952, pp. 590-606. (4,8b).
Planning methods, financial organization, and economic
consideration for the construction of the first express-
way are reviewed in the context of Tokyo's needs and
559. Maxwell, David. "The Regulation of Motor-Carrier Rates by
the Interstate Commerce Commission," LE, Vol. 36,
February 1969, pp. 79-91. (8b).
95. CPL Exchanse Bibliography #324-#325
560. 14ay, Adolf D. Jr., Patrick Athol, Willian Parker, and
Jar.ies B. Rudden. "Developnent and Evaluation of Congress
Street Expressway Pilot detection Systen," HRR, No. 21,
1963, pp. 48-68. (4,9).
Autonatic traffic control r^asures used in a pilot project
in the Chicago area are described. Speed, volune, and
density data are auto:..atically gathered, recorded,
napped, and analyzed. A comprehensive data library,
suitable for ciacro- and uicroscopic analysis has been
one result of the project.
561. Mayer, Albert J. and Robert B. Snock. "The Continuing
Traffic Study: Methods of Keeping 0-D Data Up-to-Date,"
HRBB 253, 1960, pp. 109-113. (4,9).
562. Mayer, Albert J. and Joanne L. Wallace, "A New Method of
Obtaining Origin and Destination Data," HRBB 347, 1962,
pp. 34-39. (9).
By interviev7ing people at the tine they renewed their
licenses at the local auto bureau, traffic survey costs
were substantially reduced. The advantages and dis-
advantages of this technique are discussed.
563. Ilayer, Albert J. and Sue M. Snock. "Public Response to In-
creased Bus Service," HRR, No. 2, 1963, pp. 79-93. (4).
Interviews indicated a public desire for more bus service;
yet reluctance to use the facilities was observed.
564. Mayer, Harold M. "Prospects and Problem of the Port of
Chicago," EG, Vol. 31, April 1955, pp. 95-125. (3,7c).
Describes the historical developnent of the port and
its facilities. The nost serious limitations to future
potential traffic are the inadequacies of the channels
in the Chicago area and the lack of a comprehensive
regional port plan.
565. Mayer, Harold M, "Urban Geography and Urban Transportation
Planning," TQ, Vol. 17, Noveuber 1963, pp. 610-631. (1,4).
An excellent introductory article on the basic concepts
of urban geography.
566. Mayer, Harold M. "Sone Observations of the Future of Cities
and Urban Areas," TQ, Vol. IG, July 1964, pp. 371-382.
Reviews the trend toward urbanization and the decline
of uass transit and predicts increased concentration
of population in large urban centers and of traffic in
cities and on high-capacity routes.
<:6. CPL Ejcchange Bibliography #324 -#32 5
567. Mayer, Harold il. "Hish-Speed Rail Passenger Transportation
and Regional Developnent in the Midv;est," TQ, Vol. 21,
July 1967, pp. 395-405. (4,7,3a).
A consideration of a high-speed rail facility and its
possible iupact on the Chicago region of the U.S.
568. Mazanova, M, B. "The Role of Ilaritiiat Transportation in the
Econonic Ties between the Econonic-Geographic Regions of
the U.S.S.R.," SGRT, Vol. 1, April 1960, pp. 59-63.
(6b, 7. 8c).
Brief treatment of the region- forcing role of sea
569. Mazanova, M. B. "I«larine Transport as a National Specialized
Activity of a Major Econonic Region," SGRT, Vol. 4,
May 1963, pp. 3-9. (8c).
"The role of naritiae transport, particularly overseas
shipping, is discussed for several Soviet econonic
570. Mead, W. R. "Problens of a Divided Waterx-7ay," G, Vol. 47,
January 1962, pp. 89-92. (3,8c).
Outlines history of Finland's Sainaa Canal and the
political problens of rebuilding the canal as a joint
571. Meadows, R, "Traffic and Marketing Aspects of Service
Station Locations and Developnent in Australia," TQ,
Vol. 21, January 1967, pp. 67-02. (7a).
572. Medhurst, Franklin. "Traffic Induced by Central Area
Functions," TPR, Vol. 34, April 1963-64, pp. 50-60. (4).
Describes a survey undertaken to deternine the size and
drawing power of the CBD in Manchester, England.
573. Medvedkov, Y. "Entropy: An Assessnent of Potentialities
in Geography," EG, Vol, 46, June 1970, pp. 306-316.
Concludes that "the concept of entropy acts as a
catalyst for better insight into couplex relationships''
and has application to flows data.
574. Ifeinig, D. U. "A Conparatxve Historical Geography of Ti?o
Railnets; Colunbia Basin end Southern Australia, ■■
/V^\G, Vol, 52, Dece;.iber 1962, pp. 394-413. (3,5b,0a).
This extensive discussion of the tv;o railnets euphasizes
the inportance of understanding the present railway
pattern in terns of the process of its formation.
97. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
575. Melanid, Alexander. "Transportation in Eastern Arabia,"
GR, Vol. 52, January 1962, pp. 122-124. (1).
576. Mellor, R.E.H. "Throush-Railway Links between U.S.S.R. and
Its Neighbors," G, Vol. 49, Novenber 1964, pp. 416-418.
Describes the use of rolling stock which nay be used on
different s^uge railways nerely by interchanging broad-
gauge bogies with standard ones, or vice versa.
577. Mennott, Frederick W., Brian V. Martin, and Alexander J.
Bone. "Predicting Future Demand for Urban Area Trans-
portation," HRBB 326, 1962, pp. 69-97. (2a, 4, 6c).
The transportation planning process is described and
divided into the principal phases of inventories,
estimates of urban growth, and the aeternination of
future travel demand, an annotated bibliography per-
taining to the prediction of future demands for urban
area transportation is included,
578. Meyer, John R., J. F. Kain, and M. Wohl. THE URBAN TR/^S-
PORTATION PROBLEM, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard
University Press, 1965. (1,4,6,7,8).
A synthesis of the major empirical generalizations derived
from a number of U. S, metropolitan transportation studies.
Changes in location, trip travel patterns, line-haul
systems and pricing procedures are discussed.
579. Meyer, John R. "Transport Technologies for Developing
Countries," .^ER, Vol. 56, May 1966, pp. 83-90. (7b, 8).
A revievj of several transport systems (rail, air, and
truck) and their application to underdeveloped countries,
580. Meyer, John R. "Urban Transportation," iu THE METROPOLITAN
ENIGMiA., James Q, Wilson, editor, Cambridge, Massachusetts:
Harvard University Press, 1968, pp. 41-69. (1,4).
A valuable overview.
581. Mickle, D, Grant, "The Role of the Highway in Urban
Development," TE, Vol. 36, April 1966, pp. 32-36.
A general discussion.
582. Midler, Joseph L. "A Stochastic Multi-period Multimode
Transportation Model," TS, Vol. 3, February 1969,
pp. 3-29. (2a, 8).
"Model for selecting an optimal combination of trans-
portation modes over a multiperiod planning horizon. '
98, CPL Exchange Bibliography #324 -'^32 5
583. Miklius, Walter. "Sone Characteristics of Nonregulated
For-Hire Truck Transportation of Agricultural Conmodities ,"
LE, Vol. 42, May 1966, pp. 226-229. (8b).
584. Miller, M. "High Speed Ground Transportation Research and
Developaent,'= HSGTJ, Vol. 1, January 1967, pp. 13-21.
aspects of research and developcent associated with
inproveoent of transport systens,
585. Miller, Ronald E. "Capital Costs in Air-Transportation,"
JOURN/1 OF INDUSTRIAL ECONOMICS, Vol. 13, July 1964,
pp. 236-249. (8d).
Brief study of air transport econonics.
586. Mills, Edv7in S. "An Aggregative Model of Resource Allocation
in a Metropolitan Area," AER, Vol. 57, May 1957, pp.
A quantitative nodel to "explain the sizes and structures
of urban areas. "
587. Millward, R, "Road Investnent Criteria: A Case Study,''
JTEP, Vol. 2, November 1968, pp. 183-200. (2a, 5b).
Descriptions of "nethods used to calculate the econonic
value of a projected new road" in the U.K.
588. Mirheydar, Dorreh. "Problens of Transportation Routes in
Iran," JG, Vol. 60, February 1961, pp. 70-74. (8).
589. liishan, E. J. "Interpretation of the Benefits of Private
Transport, '= JTEP, Vol. 1, May 1967, p?. 134-189. (2a).
A treatcent of the congestion costs of private cars and
an argument that congestion "nay give rise to nis leading
decands for j.nvestnent in road engineering."
590. Mogridge, M.J.H. "The Prediction of Car Ownership," JTEP,
Vol. 1, January 1967, pp. 52-74. (2a).
An econonetric method for long-tern forecasting is
presented and compared with other nethods.
591. Mohring, Herbert. "Land Values and the Heasurenent of
Highway Benefits," J0URNx\L OF PCLITIC/iL ECONO^IY, Vol.
69, June 1961, pp. 236-249. (4,7a).
A consideration of travel tine and property values in
99. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
592. Morison, Ian U. and Walter G. Hansen. "Canberra: Toward
a Schene for Continuous Growth," HRR, No. 229, 1968,
pp. 7-20. (4,7a).
Alternate plans for urban subcentrallzation are exanined.
It is concluded that arrangecent of urban developnent
along corridors of an expressway systen will permit
urban expansion with a nininun of congestion and
provide naxinua support for a good public transport
593. Morrill, Richard L. and Williaa Garrison. "Projections of
Inter-Regional Patterns of Trade in vrneat and Flour,"
EC, Vol. 36, April 1960, pp. 116-126. (2a, 6b).
A spatial price equilibriun model, based on the trans-
portation problen of linear progracning, is used to
project the V7heat and flour flows in the U.S.
594. Morrill, Richard L. MIGR.\TION /^ID THE SPRE.U) AND GROVJTH
OF URBAN SETTLEMENT. (Lund Studies in Geography, Series
B, No, 26) Lund, Sweden: Departuent of Geography,
Royal University of Lund. (2a, 4, 5).
595. Morrill, Richard L. "The Movenent of Persons and the Trans-
portation Problen," QUANTITATIVE GECGRi"iPHY PART I:
ECONOMIC AND CULTUR/i TOPICS. W. L. Garrison and D. F.
Marble, editors, Evanston, Illinois: Departcent of
Geography, Northwestern University, 1967, pp. 84-94.
The paper presents a probabilis'cic adaptation of a
noirnative progracning nodel conbining the transportation
problen, which assigns goods or persons to regions over
a transport network and a sicple probability function
for error in response. Enpirical application of the
nodel is nade for novenent of patients to physicians in
596. Morrill, Richard L., Robert Earickson, and Philip Rees.
"Factors Influencing Distances Traveled to Hospitals,"
EG, Vol. 46, ^pril 1970, pp. 161-171. (2b,4,6c).
"The rate of use of hospitals declines with distance,
or nore precisely, V7ith intervening opportunities.
Social ai.J econonic distictions according to race and
incone effectively reduce access to physicians and
hospitals for the Negro and for the poor in general."
597. Morris, Robert L. "Evaluating the Requirenents for a Dovm-
town Circulation Systen," HRBB 347, 1962, pp. 211-221.
A general nodel of a central city circulation systen,
designed to facilitate pedestrian traffic.
100. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
598. Morris, S. S. "South Africa's /.pproach to Urban Traffic
and Freeways," TQ, Vol. 18, April 1964, pp. 202-218. (5c),
A discussion of route development.
599. Morris, S. S. "The I-ipact of the Motorcar on Urban
Evolution,'' TQ, Vol. 20, July 1966, pp. 419-434. (4,7a).
Enphasis on Capetown, South Africa.
600. Moses, Leon N. "Towards a Theory of Intra -Urban Wage
Differentials and Their Influence on Travel Patterns,"
PRSA, Vol. 9, 1962, pp. 53-64. (2,6).
The prinary objective of the paper is to elaborate on
an analytical tool, the wage gradient, that uay prove
as useful as the rent gradient in the study of urban
problems. The analysis shows what wage would have to
be offered at any given point in order to attract any
labor from that or other places in the uran area.
Alternatively, the analysis suggests how high the wage
rate would have to be in any place in order to attract
labor fron sorae particular place.
601. Moses, Leon N. and Harold F, Williamson, Jr. "Value of Tiue,
Choice of Mode, and the Subsidy Issue in Urban Trans-
portation," JOURNAL OF POLITIC/iL ECONOMY, Vol. 71,
June 1963, pp. 247-264. (4).
602. Moses, Leon N. and Harold F. Williamson, Jr. "The Location
of Economic Activity in Cities," AER, Vol. 57, May 1967,
pp. 211-222. (4,7).
Decentralization of the cities results from firm
relocation, transportation, and satellite area
603. Mosher, Walter W. , Jr. "A Capacity-Restraint Algorithm for
Assigning Flow to a Transport Network," HRR, No. 6,
1963, pp. 41-70. (2a, 5, 6).
An algorithm permitting the evaluation of network
performances is described. Network loadings are
governed by individually determined link functions.
• • For road networks optimum performance functions for
the entire network can be established by equalizing
path figures for appropriate sets of paths.
604. Mossman, Frank H. "A Concept ional Framework for the
Logistics of Distribution Systems," TR/iNSPORTATION
JOURNAL, Vol. 1, Summer 1962, pp. 23-29. (1).
101. CPL Exchange Bibliography #3?4-#?25
605. Muckleston, Keith U. and Fred E, Dohrs. "The Relative
Importance of Transport on the Volga hsfore and after
the Connunist Revolution," FG, Vol. 17, March 1965,
pp. 22-25. (8c).
In reply to an earlier article, the authors contend that
the Volga was a truly significant transport route prior
to the revolution and its role has steadily dininished
since that tine,
606. MunJell, R. A. "The Pure Theory of International Trade,"
/iER, Vol. 50, March 1960, pp. 67-110. (2,&a).
607. Munro, John M. "Planning the Appalachian Developneut Highway
Systea: Soce Critical Questions," LE, Vol. 45, May 1969,
pp. 149-161. (5b, 7a).
The inability of transportation investment to initiate
econonic redevelopnent and the lack of careful planning
are najor criticisns of the federal governuent's high-
608. Muranyi, Thonas. "Estinating Traffic Volunes by Systematic
Sarapling," HRBB 281, 1961, pp. 16-47. (2a, 6).
Using Swiss data and probability theory, Muranyi
presents a nodel for prediction of an entire country's
annual average daily traffic and the duration and peak
values of critical hours.
609. Muranyi, Thonas. "A Method of Estlnating Traffic Behavior
on All Routes in a Metropolitan County," HRR, No. 41,
1963, pp. 61-78. (2a, 6).
610. Murdie, Robert A. "Cultural Differences in Consuner
Travel," EG, Vol. 41, July 1965, pp. 211-233. (2a, 6).
A conparison of travel patterns of Old Order
Mennonites and "nodern ' Canadians yields between
group differences which suggest socio-econonic
influences on relative nobility.
611. Murphy, Rhoads. "China's Transport Problem and Connunist
Planning,'^ EG, Vol. 32, January 1956, pp. 17-28. (1,8).
A discussion of the proposition that extension of
transport facilities are the solution to China's
econonic problecs. All forns of carriers and the
strategy and uotives of government planning are
102. CPL Exchanse Bibliography #324-#325
612. Myers, Surxier, "Personal Transportation for the Poor,"
TQ, Vol. 24, April 1970, pp. 191-206. (4).
The author suggests providing autoaobile transportation
and taxi-bus service to low-incor.:e areas to increase
the nobility of the inhabitants.
613. Nader, G. A. "Socio-Econonic Status and Consuner Behavior,"
US, Vol. 6, June 1969, pp. 235-245. (2b, 4, 6c).
Type of house is used as a variable describing consuner
behavior and socio-econonic status.
614. Nash, Allan N. and Stanley J. Hille. "Public Attitudes
toward Transport Modes: A Sunnary of Two Pilot Studies,"
HRR, Wo. 233, 1968, pp. 33-46. (8).
Consuner attitudes towards existing road systems and
attitudes of an ideal transportation systen are
615. Nash, Williar.i W. and Jerrold R. Voss. "Analyzing the
Socio-Econonic Inpacts of Urban Highways," HRBB 268,
1960, pp. 30-94. (4,7a).
616. Naughton, P. W. "Container Transport--The Shipping View-
point," ITJ, Vol. 32, Novenber 1967, pp. 273-277. (1).
617. Neal, A. F. "Passenger Transport in Conurbations," ITJ,
Vol. 31, Nove.riber 1965, pp. 234-241. (4).
A review of the types of urban transport, rail and
road, and of the requirenents of a good transport
618. Neidercorn, J. H. and B. V. Bechdolt, Jr. "An Econonic
Derivation of the 'Gravity Law' of Spatial Inter-
action," JRS, Vol. 9, August 1969, pp. 273-282. (2b, 6).
An attenpt to derive the "gravity law" of spatial
interaction fron the principle of utility naxinization.
619. Nelson, J. G. "Pre-European Trade between Australia,
Indonesia and the Asiatic Mainlands," CG, Vol. 5,
Winter 1961, pp. 18-22. (3,6a).
Although existing evidence suggests this trade, the
duration and intensity of the trading is still
103. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
620. Nelson, Janes C. "Effects of Public Regulation on Railroad
Performance," MR, Vol. 50, May 1960, pp. 495-505. (8a).
621. Neslon, Jar.as R. "Transport Policy for European Econonic
Intergration," AER, Vol. 58, May 1968, pp. 378-392.
A wide ranging discur.sion of EEC transport policy,
emphasizing the policy for Rhine traffic.
622. Nelson, Robert A. "Railroad Mergers and Public Policy,"
LE, Vol. 41, May 1965, pp. 133-192. (8a).
Article describes the need for nergers.
623. Nenhauser, G. L. "Scheduling Local and Express Service,"
TS, Vol. 3, May 1969, pp. 164-175. (2,8).
624. Neutze, G. M. "Major Determinant of Location Patterns,"
LE, Vol. 43, May 1967, pp. 227-232. (1,7).
A brief treatment of location theory,
625. Newton, Milton B. "Route Geography and the Routes of St.
Helena Parish, Louisiana," AAAG, Vol. 60, January 1970,
pp. 134-152. (3).
Historical treatment of routes as a cultural feature
on the landscape.
626. Nicholson, John. "Some Shipping Problems," ITJ, Vol. 31,
July 1965, pp. 159-165. (8c).
A brief generalized summary of problems in the
shipping trade and some answers to then.
627. Niedercorn, John H. and John F. Kain. "Suburbanization of
Employment and Population: 1948-1975," HRR, No. 38,
1963, pp. 25-39. (2a, 7).
An econometric model is presented to explain population
and employment changes in central cities and metro-
politan rings from 1954-1958. Land use patterns for
a typical metropolitan area are predicted for the year
1965 and 1975. Despite decentralizing forces, it is
predicted that employment iu the central cities will
increase faster than population growth in central cities.
628. Nikol'skiy, I. V. "The Geography of Transportation of
Kazakhstan," SGRT, Vol. 2, I-larch 1961, pp. 44-54. (6b, 8a),
Survey of freight flows, transport facilities and
linkages of a part of central Asia.
104. CPL Exchange Bibliography ^>324-#j25
629. Nikol'skiy, I. V. "Railroad Freight Traffic of the U.S.S.R.,"
SGRT, Vol. 2, June 1961, pp. 39-93. (6b, 8a).
Based on a book on transportation geography of
U.S.S.R. , presenting data and nunerous naps.
630. Molen, John, Jr. "Defining 'Intercity' for Transportation
Purposes,'' HRR, No. 82, 1965, pp. 109-113. (4).
631. Nordbeck, Stig. "Conputing Distances in Road Nets," PRSA,
Vol. 12, 1964, pp. 207-220. (2,5).
"Swedish experinents to locate census data in a
national grid-syster.i . . . provide the background for
work described here: measuring distance by conputer."
632. Nornan, N. E. "Transport Developnents in East Africa, 1965,"
ITJ, Vol. 31, March 1966, pp. 327-329. (1,8).
A brief reviev; of existing transport services.
633. Nornann, 0. K. "Variations in Flow at Intersections as
Related to Size of City, Type of Facility and Capacity
Utilization," HRBB 352, 1962, pp. 55-99. (2a, 4, 7c).
Efficiency of traffic novenent and the influence of
several factors on traffic flow,
634. Nystuen, John 0. "A Theory and Siuulation of Intraurban
Travel," QUANTITATFJE GEOGRAPHY PART I: ECONOMIC AND
CULTURAL TOPICS. W. L. Garrison and D. F. Marble,
editors, Evanston, Illinois: Departnent of Geography,
Northvjestern University, 1967, pp. 54-83. (2,4,7).
The study describes a geographical theory relating
urban travel behavior to the spatial arrangeaent of
urban facilities. Enphasis is on relating nultiple-
purpose shopping trips by custoners to the arrangenent
of retail stores in centers, but the author considers
the general theory presented broad enough to include
all types of intraurban travel.
635. O'Brien, Bob R. "The Future Road Systen of Yellowstone
National Park," £\i\AG, Vol. 56, Septeuber 1966, pp.
105. CPL Exchange Bibliogrsphy #32/4-#325
636. 'Conner, A, H. "Now Railway Construction and the Pattern
of Econordc Developnsnt in East Africa," TPx^'ciSACTIONS :
INSTITUTE OF BRITISH GECGRi'.PHERS, No. 36, 1965, pp.
21-30. (7b, 8a).
Pvailvray construction has not stinulated economic
developi:£nt in areas of peasant agriculture already
served by roads. Railway construction must be con-
sidered only part of an integrated econoaic developnent
637. O'Dell, Andrew C. "Transport of r.berdeen," SCOTTISH
GEOGRAPHICAL MAG/^INE, Vol. 79, 1963, pp. 108-113. (4).
Description of the various transport facilities of
Aberdeen, including port, rail, road, canal, and air
638. Oi, Walter Y. and Paul U. Shuldiner. AN ANALYSIS OF URB/JJ
TRAVEL DEM..NDS, Evanston, Illinois: Transportation
Center, Northwestern University, 1962. (1,4,6,9).
The purpose of this study is to gain an understanding
of the phenomenon of urban travel behavior. Part of the
text provides a critical evaluation of origin-destination
studies and another portion provides an alternative
nethodology to the usual treatnent of 0-D data. Finally,
attention is turned to the importance of travel and
transportation as it is revealed in the expenditure
patterns of urban families.
639. Ojo, G, J, Afolabi, "Sone Observations on Journey to
Agricultural Work in Yorubaland, S, W, Nigeria,"
EG, Vol, 46, July 1970, pp. 459-471, (6).
Treats "the characteristic features of journey to work
noticeable in areas whose econoaies are still doainated
by prinary production."
640. Okondo, P. J. Habenga. "The Relaticn between Education
and Transportation in East Africa," IR^iNSPORTATION
JOURNAL, Vol. 4, Sunxier 1965, pp. 14-20, (1,3).
Historical look at trade, transportation, and education.
641. Oliver, Robert M. and Leonard Newnan, "Effect of Trucks
on Freeway Flows," HRR, No, 15, 1963, pp, 67-72. (7).
As slow noving vehicles nay block passing attenpts or
nultiple lane freeways, the forcation and dissipation
of queues are natheraatically described as a function
of traffic velocity, traffic density, and passing
106. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-ir325
642. Olson, Philip. "Theoretical Orientations and Highway
Impact Studies," TQ, Vol. 16, Novcnber 1962, pp. 521-
The paper suggests a guide for planning locations of
future highways through the incorporation of existing
theory and new conceptualization into highway-related
research by using connunity study techniques.
643. Olsson, Gunnar. DIST/iNCE AND HUI1c\N INTER/iCTlON: A REVIEW
Airo BIBLIOGIU.PHY. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Regional
Science Research Institute, 1965. (1,2,6).
This study broadly reviews and comments upon the
literature in which the distance variable in spatial
interaction has been treated. The first chapter
coror^nts on the role of distance in the existing
location theories. The second chapter has as its
focus migration and general diffusion nodels, while
the third penetrates nore deeply into problems con-
nected with the use of gravity and potential nodels,
644. Olsson, Gunnar. "Explanation, Prediction, and Meaning
Variance: An Assessnent of Distance, Interacting Models j
FG, Vol. 46, June 1970, pp. 223-231. (2b).
This paper treats definition of the terns explanation
and prediction, especially with regard to interaction,
along with renarks about statistical inference, neaning
variance, and connectability of spatial theories.
645. Olsson, Rune. "Connodity Flows and Regional Inter-
dependence," PRSA, Vol. 12, 1964, pp. 225-230. (2,5,6).
A presentation of exanples of naps and tables fron
surveys nade in connection with planning of trans-
portation routes in Svreden and the analytic nethods
used in such studies. Results of the cocn-odity flow
studies are regarded as signs of the ability to produce
transport in different kinds of regions and econonic
units and can be used both in input-output studies and
in traffic planning.
646. Or ford, K. J. "The Future of the Bus," IT J, Vol. 31,
November 1965, pp. 242-247. (8b).
A discussion of bus service, bus verses car, and the
future of the bus.
647. Orr, Earlc VJ. "A Synthesis of Theories of Location of
Transport Rates and of Spatial Price Equilibrium,"
PRSA, Vol. 3, p. 61. (2).
107. CPL Exchance Bibliography C32/'>-#325
648. Osborn, H. E. '^Ro^'d Haulage and Roads," ITJ, Vol. 31,
July 1966, pp. 417-438. (8b).
An overviev; of the subject, including nany tables.
649. Owen, Wilfred. "Transportation and Technology," AER, Vol.
52, May 1962, pp. 405-413. (1,7).
An article dealing with the cost of transport, plans
for the developnent of transportation, and the potential
of future technology.
650. 0\ien, Wilfred. STRi\TEGY FOR MOBILITY. Washington, D.C.:
The Brookings Institution, 1964. (1,7b).
The text is designed to guide the allocation of resources
in emerging economies and in foreign assistance pro-
graos, to uncover the possibilities that science and
technology offer for the solution of transport problens,
to develop criteria for judging the economic potential
of transport investments, and to determine effective
means of implementing transport programs.
651. Owen, Wilfred. "Road Transportation and Food Production,"
HRR, No. 125, 1966, pp. 1-10. (1,7b).
Owen analyzes the transportation aspects of the food
problem using a broad systems approach that utilizes
both transportation and non-transportation investments.
652. Paleyev, Yu. N. "Transport Problems of the Volga Region in
Connection with Development of its Productive Forces,"
SGRT, February 1967, pp. 117-125. (7j).
653. Pappas, P. "Trip Lengths in Relations to Facilities and
Journey to Work," ERISTICS, Vol. 30, August 1970,
pp. 87-97. (2,4).
"Discusses the distribution of trips by the distances
they cover from the home . . . and examines certain
relationships between trip lengths and such basic
variables as income, density, and distance."
654. Patmore, J. Allan and B. Litt. "The Railway Network of
Merseyside," TRiiNSACTIONS : INSTITUTE OF BRITISH
GEOGRAPHERS, No. 29, 1961, pp. 231-244. (5c, 8a).
A consideration of the forces that have resulted in the
evolution of the rail network, indicating the effects
of competition between individual companies on network
108. CPL Exchanse Bibliography #324-i^-325
655. Patnore, J. x'.llan. "The Changing Network of British Rail-
ways," G, Vol. 47, Novenber 1962, pp. 401-405. (5c, 6, 8a).
Description of passenger and freight flow naps and
future changes in Britain's rail network.
S56. Patnore, J. t.llan. "The Railway Network of the Manchester
Conurbation," TRi^NSACTIONS : INSTITUTE OF BRITISH
GEOGR/\PHERS, No. 34, 1964, pp. 159-173. (5c, 8a).
Factors of site and situation and their influence on
657. Patnore, J. Allan. "The British Railway Network in the
Beeching Era," EG, Vol. 41, January 1965, pp. 71-81.
(5b, 5c, 3a).
Exanines the expected railroad network changes resulting
fron inplenentation of the Beeching Report. The article
considers the effects of closures, the role of rural
branches, altered traffic flows, and the conpetitive
duplication of the future network.
658. Patterson, J. H. "50 Years of the Bern-Lotschberg-Sinplon
Railway," G, Vol. 48, Novenber 1963, pp. 404-406. (3,5b).
Discussion of najor resources for the construction of
the railv/ay and speculations about its future.
659. Pattison, Irna E , "Roads in Canada," TE, Vol. 33, August
1963, pp. 11-15. (3,5).
Descriptive treatnent with historical enphasis on routes.
660. Pattison, Willian D, "The Pacific Railroad Rediscovered,"
GR, Vol. 52, January 1962, pp. 25-36. (3,5,8a).
Pattison describes the building of the Pacific railroad
and presents re-discovered photographs of the
661. Patton, Donald J. "The Traffic Patterns on Anerican Inland
Waterways," EG, Vol. 32, January 1956, pp. 29-37. (6b, 8c).
A sui:inary of traffic density patterns for all ports
on the inland waterway systen, coijnents on general
traffic features, and problems of traffic density.
662. Patton, Donald J, "General Cargo Hinterlands of New York,
Philadelphia, Baltinore, and New Orleans," AAAG,
Vol. 43, Deceuber 1958, pp. 436-455. (6b, 7c).
Origin and destination naps of each city's port
hinterlands and factors contributing to the fornation
of these patterns.
109. CPL Ejcchange Bibliography 7'A324-#325
663. Patton, Donald J. "Railroad Rate Structures, Ocean Trade
Routes and the Hinterland Relation of Halifax and
St. John," TESG, Vol. 52, January 1961, pp. 2-13. (7c, 8a),
664. Pavlenko, V. F. "The Transport-Geography Situation and
Inter-Regional Links of Central Asia," SORT, Vol. 4,
November 1963, pp. 27-33. (6b, 8a).
Treatment of inter-regional novenent by connodities
and econonic regions,
665. Payne, No man J. "Ground Transportation at Major European
Airports," HRR, No. 234, 1968, pp. 18-28. (4).
Discussion of the increasing congestion of airport
terminal facilities and the decreasing levels of
surface accessibility to terninals.
666. Pegrun, Dudley F. "The Los Angeles Metropolitan Transit
Authority," LE, Vol. 37, August 1951, pp. 247-255. (4).
Study of its history, function, and structure.
667. Pendleton, William C. "Land Use at Freeway Interchanges,''
IQ, Vol. 15, July 1961, pp. 535-546. (7a).
Probler.i3 of traffic and land use and suggestions for
668. Pendleton, William C. "Relation of Highway Accessibility
to Urban Real Estate Values," HRR, No, 16, 1963,
pp. 14-23. (6c, 7a).
House prices, job accessibility, and driving tine and
distance to the CBD are used to relate 0-D data to
data concerning the urban housing market.
669. Pendleton, William C, "An Empirical Study of Changes in
Land Use at Freeway Interchanges," TQ, Vol, 19,
January 1965, pp, 89-100, (2a, 7a, 9).
"This paper discusses the use of aerial photographs
in assembling data on changes in land use,. . .
presents the findings from a study of land development
around sixty-four freeway interchanges," and suggests a
simple model to explain observed rates of change.
670. Penfold, Anthony, "Caracas: Urban Growth and Trans-
portation," TPR, Vol. 41, April 1970, pp. 103-120.
110. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
671. Penrose, E. F, "The Place of Transport in Econonic and
Political Geocraphy," TRi\NSPORT AND COl-MJNICATIONS
REVIEW, Vol. 5, 1952, pp. 1-8. (1).
672. Perazich, George and Leonard L, Fischnan. "Methodology for
Evaluating Costs and Benefits of Alternative Urban
Transportation Systenis," HRR, No. 148, 1966, pp. 59-71.
673. Perkins, Dudley. "The Problens Facing the Port of London
Authority in the Light of the Devlin Report," ITJ,
Vol. 31, March 1966, pp. 314-321. (7c).
674. Perle, Eugene D, "Estination of Transportation Denand,"
PRSA, Vol. 15, 1965, pp. 203-215. (2,8).
The paper attenpts to fonaulate a fracework for estinating
transportation demand relationships for railroads and
motor carriers in the U. S,, where interest focuses
upon the market behavior of the respective nodes during
the 1950-1960 interval for manufactured goods. Demand
elasticities are empirically derived to explain the
pattern of inteirmodal competition.
675. Pettit, D.E.A, "Retail Distribution Problems," ITJ,
Vol. 31, September 1966, pp. 470-474. (1,6).
676. Pfister, Richard L, "The Commodity Balance of Trade of
the Pacific Northwest for Selected Years, 1929-1955,"
PRSA, Vol. 5, 1959, pp. 237-252. (6).
The purpose of this paper is to describe and to analyze
the commodity trade between the Pacific Northwest and
the rest of the v/orld and to examine the position of
the Northwest, a region specializing primarily in the
production of food and rav? materials, relative to other
regions of the U.S. which have more highly industrialized
and diversified economies.
677. Pieters, L, J. "A Hundred Years of Sea-Comnunication between
England and the Netherlands," JTH, Vol. 6, November 1964,
pp. 210-221. (3,8c).
678. Pignataro, Louis J. "Urban Transportation, Techniques,"
HSGTJ, Vol. 2, May 1968, pp. 246-259. (1,4).
This general discussion stresses the development of
public transportation systems and the factors which
may increase acceptance of such systems.
111. CPL Exchan-a Bibliography t'A324-#325
679. Pignataro, Louis J. and John C, Falcocchio. "Transpor-
tation Needs for Lev? Incone Fanilies," TQ, Vol. 23,
October 1969, pp. 505-527. (A).
Surveys of low-incone groups indicate trip generation
is significantly below average, and it is suggested
that public transportation will provide needed nobility,
680. Pikarsky, Milton. "Conprehensive Planning for the Chicago
Crosstown Expressway," HRR, Ko. 180, 1967, pp. 35-51.
681. Pillsbury, Warren A. "Econonics of Highway Location: A
Critique of Collateral Effect /oialysis," HRR, No. 75,
pp. 53-61. (5b).
Pillsbury reviews highway location nethodology and
evaluates collateral effect analysis in view of the
criticisms of those who favor narginal user benefits
and costs as a ceasure of highway efficiency.
682. Pitts, Forrest. "A Graph Theory Approach to Historical
Geography," FG, Vol. 17, 1965, pp. 15-20. (2a, 3, 5a).
Uses graph-theoretic indices to neasure to centrality
683. Plowden, S.P.C. "Transportation Studies Examined,"
JTEP, Vol. 1, January 1967, pp. 5-27. (2a,4).
i>n overview of predictive nethods for urban transport
684. Piowoan, E. G. "The Transportation Crisis of 1933,"
TRi^NSPORTATION JOURNAL, Vol. 1, Fall 1961, pp. 9-14.
Concents on various forns of transportation in 1933.
685. Plowman, E. G. "How Control of Transportation Contributes
to Profitability," TRANSPORTATION JOURNAL, Vol. 2,
Winter 1952, pp. 13-18. (8).
Connon carrier choice.
686. Pluoraer, Andrew V., Leo G. Wilkie, and Robert F. Gran.
"Holiday and Sunner Weekend Traffic Survey," HRBB
297, 1961, pp. 74-85. (6).
Conpares traffic volunes of recreational and non-
recreational trips with respect to tine of day, day
of travel, and toll road as opposed to non-toll road
112. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
687. Polyakov, Ye. A. "Selection of an Optimal Forn of Surface
Transportation in the Northeast of the U.S.S.R.,"
SGRT, Vol. 4, Movenber 1963, pp. 34-42. (5,8a).
Presents factors affecting gau^e suitability in areas
of high constructing and operating costs.
688. Porter, Philip U. "VJhat is the Point of Mininun Aggregate
Travel," AA/iG, Vol. 53, June 1963, pp. 224-232. (2a).
The point of nininun aggregate travel nay be deternined
by least squares analysis. The author describes the
nethod and presents a graphic method for finding the
689. Pourcelet, Michel. "The International Element in Air Trans-
port," JOURNAL OF AIR LAW AND COI^IMERCE, Vol. 33, Winter
1987, pp. 75-85. (8d).
The need for and types of international agreecents, such
690. Fred, Allan. "Toward a Typology of Manufacturing Flows,"
GR, Vol. 54, January 1964, pp. 65-84. (6).
Examines volune and length of flow characteristics for
plants with similar production functions in dissimilar
regions and for plants v/ith dissimilar production
functions in similar regions, A typology of manu-
facturing flows is developed for industries oriented
to raw-material and fuel, market, and labor and
691. Pred, Allan. "The Intrametropolitan Location of American
Manufacturing," lUAG, Vol. 54, June 1964, pp. 165-180.
Urban decentralization and intra-cetropolitan locational
patterns of selected industrial groups are analyzed and
the effect of transportation noted,
692. Proudlove, J. Alan. "A Traffic Plan for London," TPR,
Vol. 31, pp. 53-73. (4).
A report of a "long term plan of highway development
in the London area."
693. Proudlove, J. .ilan. "Traffic in Towns: A Review," TPR,
Vol. 34, 1963-64, pp. 253-268. (4).
113. CPL Sxchanse Bibliography #324-#325
694. Prybyla, Ian S, "Transportation in Connunist China," LE,
Vol. 42, August 1966,' pp. 263-281. (3,8).
Describes historical growth of railroads, shipping and
aviation in China; concludes that progress was the
result of totalitarianisn which would ignore the hunan
695. Pursifull, L. J. "Juabo Jet aircraft and the Impact They
Will Have on Transportation," HRR, No. 234, 1968,
pp. 1-17. (l,8d).
696. Pushkareo, Boris. "Highway Location as a Problen of Urban
and Landscape Design," HRR, No. 23, 1963, pp. 7-18. (5b).
Principles of aesthetic highway location are described.
Adherence to topography, respect for nan-nade geonetry,
and the provision of a succession of different views are
requirenents for highway construction that oust be
balanced with econouic considerations.
697. Putnan, Stephen H. "Modeling and Evaluating the Indirect
Impacts of Alternative Northeast Corridor Transportation
Systens," HRR, No. 180, 1967, pp. 81-93. (2a, 5, 7).
698. Pyers, Clyde E. "Evaluation of Intervening Opportunities
Trip Distribution Model," HRR, No. 114, 1966, pp. 71-98.
The author compares travel patterns estiraated by the
intervening opportunities nodel with 0-D survey data
and concludes that the nodel satisfactorily simulates
the survey data.
699. Quandt, Richard E. "Models of Transportation and Optimal
Network Construction," JRS, Vol. 2, 1960, pp. 27-46. (5).
700. Quandt, Richard E. and William J. Baunol. "The Demand for
Abstract Transport Modes: Theory and Measurement,"
JRS, Vol. 6, Winter 1966, pp. 13-26. (2b).
A model of an abstract mode travel demand is formulated
and tested. The results indicate an abstract mode
approach enables the investigation of modal character-
istics without specifying the identity of the mode.
701. Quandt, Richard E. and Kan Hua Young. "Cross Sectional
Travel Demand Models: Estimates and Tests," JRS, Vol.
9, August 1969, pp. 201-214. (2b).
A variety of potential demand equations are estimated
and analyzed using variates of the "abstract mode
IIA. CPL Exchange Bibliography ,'>324-#325
702. Quarnby, D. A. "Choice of Travel Mode for the Journsy to
Work: Sone Findings," JTEP, Vol. 1, Septenber 1967,
pp. 273-314. (2a, 4).
A study of nodal choice in Leeds, enphasizing travel
tine and costs.
703. Quinby, Henry D. "Transportation for Super-regions," TQ,
Vol. 17, July 1963, pp. 325-340. (7).
The author aiscusses the evolution and characteristics
of predicted super-regions and the transportation
facilities that will be required,
704. Quinlan, H. G. "The Changing Role of Sydney in Australia's
x^ir Transport," AUSTRi^^LLAN GEOGRi'.PHICAL STUDIES, Vol. 1,
April 1963, pp. 49-60. (4,8d).
Tine table data are used to delinit hinterlands for
najor Australian cities.
705. Rae, John B. "Financial Probleros of the Anerican Aircraft
Industry, 1906-1940," BUSINESS HISTORY REVIEW, Vol. 39,
1965, pp. 99-114. (3,8d).
706. Randall, Duncan P. "VJilnington, North Carolina: The
Historical Developnent of a Port City," m\AG, Vol. 58,
September 1968, pp. 441-451. (3,7c).
Randall identifies three functional periods reflecting
the changing pattern and significance of transport foms
and the changing character of the area served by
707. Ray, D. M. "Cultural Differences in Consuner Travel
Behavior in Eastern Ontario," CG, Vol. 11, 1967,
pp. 143-156. (6).
708. Raynond, S. E. 'British Railways — Towards a Solution and a
Modern Railway," ITJ, Vol. 31, May 1966, pp. 363-369. (Oa),
A brief review of sone of the problens of the railroad
V7ith new developnents and suggestions.
709. Peed, Wallace E. "Indirect Connectivity and Hierarchies
of Urban Doninance," AAAG, Vol. 60, Decenber 1970,
pp. 770-735. (2a,5a,8d).
A nethod of deternining doninance is applied to Indian
air traffic flows.
115. CPL Exchanse Bibliography #324-#325
710. Reeves, F. A. "New Zealand's Overseas Air Policy and its
National and Econonic Vr.lue," ITJ, Vol. 31, September
1965, pp. 200-206. (1,3d).
711. Reynolds, D. J. "The Econonics of Rural Motorv7ays," JOURNAL
OF INDUSTRI/X ECONOMICS, Vol. 10, Novenber 1961, pp.
712. Rice, Joseph F. "Adoption of Aerial Survey Methods for
Traffic Operations," HRR, No. 19, 1S63, pp. 47-52. (9).
Several instances are enumerated which demonstrate the
effectiveness of aerial photographic techniques in
solving problems associated with traffic flow.
713. Richards, Hoy A. "Transportation Costs and Plant Location:
A Review of Principal Theories," TRivNSPORTATION JOURN.U.,
Vol. 2, Winter 1962, pp. 19-24. (7).
A brief summary.
714. Ridley, T. M. "Reducing the Travel Tine in a Transport
Network," in: A. J. Scott, editor, STUDIES IN REGIONAL
SCIENCE, London, England: PionLtd., 1969, pp. 73-88.
This paper treats the problem in transportation analysis
of the allocation of investment to a network and the
related problem of the proper scheduling of invest-
ments. The author provides a method of solution for
the best combination for investment, given an existing
network, a number of possible links which can be built
or improved, and a fixed budget. A restriction on the
general problem of the scheduling of investment.
715. Rimmer, Peter J. "Changes in the Status of Seaports,
1953-1963," NEW ZEALAND GEOGRAPHER, Vol. 21, 1965,
pp. 65-72. (7c).
Maps and commentary on New Zealand's seaports.
716. Rirxier, Peter J. "The Problem of Comparing and Classifying
Seaports," FG, Vol. 18, 1966, pp. 83-91. (7c).
The paper represents a break from the many detailed
studies of individual ports which provide little in-
for-uation regarding an acceptable scale against which
the activities or relative importance of any given port
can be measured. The paper is, then, a search for such
an acceptable measure through review of literature of
the measurement of ports and an assessment of the
available criteria by analyzing data on New Zealand
116. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
717. Rinner, Peter J. "A Resurgence in New Zealand Coastal
Trade," G, Vol. 51, July 1966, pp. 248-251. (8c).
Credits resurgence of trade to specialized ships v;ith
rapid turn around and nininun shore labor.
718. Rinner, Peter J. "The Search for Spatial Regularities in
the Development of Australian Seaports, 1861-1961,"
GEOGR/iFISICi ANNALER, Vol. 49B, 1967, pp. 42-54. (3,7c).
The nodel of transport developnent put forth by Taaffe,
Morrill, and Gould is nodified by weighting links on
the transport network and by including a port that
survives the historical displacenent process. Uses
net tonnage figures to indicate port growth.
719. Rinner, Peter J. "Changes in the Ranking of Australian
Seaports, 1951-2 - 1961-2," TESG, Vol. 58, January-
February 1957, pp. 28-38. (7c).
720. Rinner, Peter J. "The Changing Status of New Zealand Sea-
ports, 1853-1960," /iAAG, Vol. 57, March 1967, pp. 88-
100. (2a, 3, 7c).
A verbal nodel of the evolution of New Zealand's port
locations. Vested port interests, the nature of cargo,
and actions of the central governnent are uajor factors
affecting the pattern of port developnent.
721. Rinner, Peter J, "Recent Changes in the Status of Sea-
ports in the New Zealand Coastal Trade," EG, Vol. 43,
July 1967, pp. 231-243. (7c).
Uses cargo tonnages as an indication of status and
exaaines changes produced by the introduction of a
722. Rinner, Peter J. "The Transportation Method of Linear
Progranning, with a New Zealand Example," NEW
ZEALAND GEOGRAPHER, Vol. 24, April 1968, pp. 90-99.
An introJuctory explanation, using cenent novenent as
723. Roberts, John M. et al. "The Snail Highway Business of
U.S. 30 in Nebraska," EG, Vol. 32, April 1956, pp.
Describes the snail highway business conplex and its
relation to traffic flow.
117. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
724. Roberts, Paul 0. and David T. Kresga. "Siuulation of
Transport Policy Alternatives for Colonbia," AER,
Vol. 58, May 1968, pp. 341-359. (2,7,8).
An explanation of sone conputer nodels developed and a
description of a "nodel of the economy and the trans-
portation systen of Colonbia."
725. Robinson, Carlton C. "Freeways in the Urban Setting," TQ,
Vol. 17, July 1963, pp. 432-438. (4).
The article attempts to answer the question: "Will the
city becone a better place to live as present freeway
development continues?" He believes it will.
726. Rodgers, Allan L. "The Port of Genova: External and
Internal Relations," AAAG, Vol. 48, December 1958,
pp. 319-351. (7c).
Analysis and interpretation of the relationships of the
port of Genova to its foreland and hinterland.
727. Roeseler, Wolfgang G. "Traffic Forecasting and the Land-
Use Plan," TQ, Vol. 19, July 1965, pp. 396-404. (4).
728. Rogers, Andre. "A Markovian Policy Model of Interregional
Migration," PRSA, Vol. 17, 1966, pp. 205-224. (2,6).
A fundamental model of interregional migration is
defined which describes current behavior and indicates
the distributional consequences of mobility trends.
The paper extends the model to include population dis-
tribution goals and defines the policy requirements for
the achievement of these goals; concludes with a brief
consideration of how Markovian nodels may be used in
regional data bank operations and continuously updated
729. Rom, V. Ya. "The Volga-Baltic Waterway," SGRT, Vol. 11,
November 1961, pp. 32-43. (3, 6b, 8c).
Treatment of history and expected freight changes in
the northwestern part of European Russia.
730. Rose, Warren. "Catalyst of an Economy: The Houston Ship
Channel," LE, Vol. 43, February 1967, pp. 32-43. (7,3c),
731. Ross, H. Laurence. "Reasons for Moves to and from a
Central City Area," SOCIAL FORCES, Vol. 40, March
1962, pp. 261-263. (4).
113. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
732. Roth, G. J. and J. M. Thonson. "The Relief of Traffic
Congestion by Parking Restrictions," TPR, Vol. 34,
1963-64, pp. 185-198. (4).
Reasons, nethods, inplications, and benefits of parking
733. Roth, G. J. "An Economic Approach to Traffic Congestion,"
TPR, Vol. 36, 1965-66, pp. 49-61. (4).
Describes "a nunber of concepts coEnonly used in the
field of econonics and considers their application to
the stuJy of traffic on congested roads."
734. Row, Arthur T. "Transportation i.-i the Center City Developcent
Plan for Philadelphia," HRBB 293, 1961, pp. 45-57. (4).
A complex of underground railroad connections, an
improved subway station, and a major bus garage and
parking garage directly connected with the expressway
system have increased accessibility to the CBD and has
led to a proposed major downtown development project,
735. Ruiter, Earl R. "Improvements in Understanding, Calibrating
and Applying the Opportunity Model," HRR, No. 165,
1967, pp. 1-21. (2b).
736. Sackrey, Charles M. , Jr. "Overcapacity in the United States
International Air Transport Industry," JOURN/iL OF AIR
LAW AND COMi'JERCE, Vol. 32, Winter 1966, pp. 24-93. (8d) .
Discussion of the lATA, air agreements, under-utilizaticn
and overcapacity of airlines.
737. Salesbury, William and Alan To^msend. "Transportation
Studies and British Planning Practice," TPR, Vol. 41,
January' 1970, pp. 63-79. (1,3).
A general discussion of transportation planning techniques
and the history of transportation planning in Great
738. Saouelson, P. A. "Spatial Price Equilibrium and Linear
Programming," mR, Vol. 42, June 1952, pp. 283-303.
The use of linear prograroing changes a purely des-
criptive problem in non-normative economics into a
739. Savigear, Flavia, "A Quantative Measure of Accessibility,"
TPR, Vol. 38, 1967-68, pp. 64-72. (2,4,8b).
119. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
740. Sav7hill, Ray B. and Keith C. Crandall. "Sone Measurable
Qualities of Traffic Service Influenced by Freeways,"
HRR, No. 49, 1964, pp. 30-53. (8b).
Travel tine and fuel consunption are used as measures
of freeway service. Freeway construction always
produced savings in travel tine; however, fuel savings
uay not result.
741. Scaperlanda, Anthony. "The Role of Transportation in the
Economic Integration of Underdeveloped Areas," LE,
Vol. 42, May 1966, pp. 205-209. (7b).
"Synthesis of a transportation policy . . . consistent
with development goals of econonic integration efforts
in underdeveloped areas."
742. Schary, Philip. "Ccnpetition, Regulation and the Air
Freight Industry," JOURNAL OF .xIR L/JJ /iND COM-iERCE,
Vol. 30, Winter 1964, pp. 62-71. (8d).
Conpetition between all cargo airlines and passenger
airlines for air freight.
743. Schary, Philip. "The Civil Aeronautics Board and the All-
Cargo Airlines: The Early Years," BUSINESS HISTORY
REVIEW, Vol. 41, 1967, pp. 272-284. (3,8d).
744. Schenker, Eric. "Technical Efficiency of British Motor
Transport Under Nationalization," TR^'iNS PORTATION JOURN/i,
Vol. 4, Spring 1965, pp. 5-11. (8b).
745. Schenker, Eric, and John Wilson, "The Use of Public Mass
Transportation in the Major Metropolitan Areas of the
United States," LE, Vol. 43, August 1967, pp. 361-367.
746. Schiupeler, Charles C. and Willian L. Grecco. "Systecs
Evaluation: /m Approach Based on Community Structure
and Values," HRR, No. 238, 1968, pp. 123-152. (2a, 4).
The use of linear programing techniques to foruulate
an evaluative procedure for transportation systens
based on connunity development criteria and extensions
of the procedure in land use planning and other aspects
of transportation planning.
120. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324 -#32 5
/47. Schrnandt, Henry and G. Ross Stephens, "Public Transportation
and the tJorker," TQ, Vol. 17, Novenber 1963, pp. 573-
The article represents a sanpling of 1960 census data
on coGnuting and non-conniuting workers and the relation-
ship anong several variables that affect the trans-
portation patronage pattern.
748. Schtaitt, Robert C. ''Population Densities and Autonobile
0\mership in a Metropolitan Area," JOURI'J/iL OF /itERIC/O^
INSTITUTE OF PL/J.WERS, Vol. 27, Novenber 1961, pp.
332-333. (2a, 4).
Multiple regression analysis shows that the nunber of
autouobiles per household can be forecast by using
census data indicating the nunber of households per
net acre and the percentage of households in nulti-unit
749. Schneider, Morton. "A Direct Approach to Traffic Assign-
ment," HRR, No. 6, 1963, pp. 71-75. (2b, 4, 6c).
Presents the traffic assignnent method of analysis and
a nodel of traffic flow.
750. Schneider, Morton. "Direct Estination of Traffic Volune
at a Point," HRR, No. 165, 1967, pp. 108-116. (2a).
751. Schnore, Leo F. "The Use of Public Transportation in Urban
Areas," TQ, Vol. 16, Novenber 1962, pp. 488-498. (4,8).
•. . !' With Qultiple regression analysis, the author shows
hov7 the factors of city size, density, and age nake
for variations in the use of nass transit systeus.
752. Schofield, G. "The Canalization of the Moselle," G, Vol.
50, April 1965, pp. 161-163. (8c).
Outlines the benefits frou canalizing the river,
753. Schultz, Gwen H. "Using Dots for Traffic Flow Maps," PG,
Vol. 13, January 1961, pp. 13-19. (1,9).
A technique for using dots instead of utilizing variations
of line widths to portray differences in traffic volune
is presented. The author suggests that this type of nap
has tV7o advantages over variable line width maps:
(1) highways occupy their proper positions and relation-
ships without distortion, and (2) dots can be counted,
naking it easier to estinate nunerical values.
121. CPL Exchanse Bibliography #324-#325
754. Schwarty, N. L. "Discrete Progracs for Moving Known
Cargoes fror; Origins to Dnstinations on Tine at Mininun
Bargeline Fleet Cost," IS, Vol. 2, May 1968, pp. ISA-
755. Schwartz, Arthur, "Forecasting Transit Use," HRBB 297, 1961,
pp. 18-35. (2a, 6).
The use of autoaobile ownership, net residential density,
and transit service characteristics to forecast transit
use, CBD trips constitute the basis for the denand for
najor transit inprovecents.
756. Schwartz, Arthur. "Sampling Methods for the Collection of
Conprehens ive Transit Passenger Data," HRR, No. 205,
1967, pp. 86-95. (9).
By dividing transit service into sanpling units, one
can obtain conprehens ive data on passenger usage.
757. Schwind, Paul J. "The Geography of Railroad Piggyback
Operations," TQ, Vol. 21, April 1967, pp. 237-248. (5,6,
Exanination of TOFC route patterns, traffic flows,
cost and efficiency, and teminals (including naps).
758. Scott, Allen J, "A Progranning Model of an Integrated
Transportation Network," PRSA, Vol. 19, 1967, pp. 215-
The paper considers the problen of how to deteraine an
optinal transportation network linking a given set of
settlements. The paper proceeds by justifying the
analysis of network structure as a set of binary-coded
edge incidences, qualified by the distances betvjeen
nodes and onitting considerations of capacity. Given
a constraint upon the total uileage of the network that
can be constructed, this nodel assunes that the geo-
graphical structure of the network should be in sone
759. Scott, Peter. ''Car Ownership in Australian Cities," TPR,
Vol. 31, 1960-61, pp. 125-134. (4).
A breakdovm by several cities.
760. Scott, Roy V. "/inerican Railroads and Agricultural
Extension, 1900-1914: A Study in Railway Developnental
Techniques," BUSINESS HISTORY REVIEW, Vol. 39, 1965,
pp. 74-98. (3,7,8a).
122. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324 -#325
761. Sealy, Kenneth R, "Road and Rail Transit in Britain," G,
Vol. 49, July 1964, pp. 293-303. (8a, 8b).
A review of najor legislation affecting road and rail
transport in Britain fron 1921-1962.
762. Sealy, Kenneth R. "The Siting and Developnent of British
Airports," GECGR/iPHIC/iL J0UR1>I/>L, Vol. 133, June 1967,
pp. 148-173. (5,8d).
Presents a general discussion of national patterns of
airport traffic and airport developnent in England.
763. Sealy, Kenneth R. THE GEOGRAPHY OF AIR TR.\NSPORT. Chicago,
Illinois: Aldine Publishing Co., 1968. (8d).
The author discusses the physical geography of air
transport V7herein he details the influence of topography
and clinate on the location and construction of air
terninals and on flying conditions and air routes. He
then proceeds to discuss the economic and technical
developnent of air transport, conparing it with other
neans of transportation. A detailed analysis of world
air routes, vjith a conparison between Europe, the
United States, and underdeveloped countries follows, and
the book concludes with a section on underdeveloped
areas and offers speculations on the future course of
764. Senple, R. Keith and L. H. Wang. "A Geographical Analysis
of Redundancy in Inter-Urban Transportation Links,"
Discussion Paper No. 5, Toronto, Canada: Departnent of
Geography, University of Toronto, 1970. (2,5a).
The paper analyzes the redundancy of six selected inter-
urban highway networks in Canada, which was acconplishsd
by developing a technique using infornation theory to
neasure the cooplexity in networks. A redundancy
index v/as then calculated vjhich related the conplexity
in bounded real world networks with corresponding
bounded ideal networks.
765. Sen, P. K. "Calcutta Traffic Problens," TQ, Vol. 16,
April 1962, pp. 289-304. (4).
The description of Calcutta, its road and traffic
growth, nass transportation, and traffic departnents
reveal that the basic problen is congestion.
123. CPL Exchar.33 Bibliography #324-#325
766. Seneca, Joseph J. and Charles J. Cicchetti. "A Gravity
Model Analysis of the Denand for Public Cczxi.unication,"
JRS, Vol. 9, December 1969, pp. A59-470. (2b).
A gravity analysis of telegran service indicates physical
distance, rather than econonic distance, provides a
higher association with volune.
767. Seshagiri, M. , R. Narasinhan, S. Mehndiratta, and B. K.
Chanda. "Conputer Generated Ti-.e Tables and Bus
Schedules for a Large Bus Transport Network," TS,
Vol. 3, February 1969, pp. 69-35. (2,5,8b).
768. Shaner, H. W. "Econonic Evaluation of Investments in Agri-
cultural Penetration Roads in Developing Countries,"
HRR, No. 180, 1967, pp. 120-132. (7b).
Concepts of engineering economy and econonic development
are used to evaluate penetration.
769. Shanker, K. "Age and Average Trip Length of Trucks in
India," TQ, Vol. 20, January 1966, pp. 104-117. (6b, 8b).
"The overall average trip length of goods vehicles of
various age groups on truck routes under present Indian
conditions has been worked out for certain groups of
routes classified by effective length of such routes."
770. Sharp, C. J. "The Choice Between Cars and Buses on Urban
Roads," JTEP, Vol. 1, January 1967, pp. 104-111. (4).
A discussion of when bus travel is nore desirable than
auto novenent and a suggestion that a balance in code
choice night be planned on the criterion of the total
of all journey tines.
771. Sheman, Roger. "A Private Ownership Bias in Transit
Choice," I£R, Vol. 57, December 1967, pp. 1211-1217. (8),
772. Shiatte, Kenneth H. "Composite Networks— A New Planning
and Testing Tool," TQ, Vol. 20, January 1966, pp. 118-
135. (5c, 9).
Describes a computerized method to produce networks
requiring less detailed coding and allowing network
configurations to be changed without errors.
124. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
773. Shuldiner, Paul W. "Trip Generation and the Hoce," HRBB
347, 1962, pp. 40-59. (2b,4,6c).
Fanily size and vehicle ownership have the greatest
positive effect on the frequency of person-trips. Other
socio-econonic and dwelling unit characteristics are
exanined for their influence on the frequency of
774. Shuldiner, Paul W. "Land Use, Activity and Non-Residential
Trip Generation," HRR, No, 141, 1966, pp. 73-88. (2b, 4, 6c),
Review and analysis of the concepts and procedures used
in transportation studies to derive non-residential
775. Shunate, Robert P. and Jar.es R. Dirksen, "A Sinulation
Systen for Study of Traffic Flow Behavior," HRR, No. 72,
1964, pp. 19-39. (2b).
A conputer sinulation systen using the language called
SIMCAR is described. Only a United anount of training
is needed to use the progran which specifies highway
geonetry, driver and vehicle characteristics, and con-
776. Shunk, G. A., U. L. Grecco, and V. L. Anderson. "The
Journey to Work: A Singular Basis for Travel Pattern
Surveys," HRR, No. 240, 1968, pp. 32-51. (4,6c).
Mutliple regression techniques indicate journey-to-work
data nay be used to predict the links used by total day
and all purpose travel.
777. Siddall, Willian R. "Railroad Gauges and Spatial Inter-
action," GR, Vol. 59, January 1969, pp. 29-57. (5,8a).
The world gauge situation as it exists today is napped
778. Sielski, Matthew C. "Effect of Northwest Expressway on
Alternate ..rterial Streets," HRR, No. 21, 1963, pp.
Before and after conparisons of travel tine, fuel con-
sunption, accidents, and factors relating to highway
benefits on arterial streets indicate the freeway will
result in substantial lowering of travel costs on
routes near the freeway.
125. CPL Exchange Dibliography #324-#325
779. Sinnons, Janes W. "Changing Residence in the City: A Reviev?
of Intraurban Mobility," GR, Vol. 58, October 1968,
pp. 622-651. (2,6c).
This study examines who coves, why they nove, and where
they nove within the city.
780. Sinnons, Janes W. "Interprovincial Interaction Patterns,"
CG, Vol. 14, 1970, pp. 372-376. (6b).
A brief discussion on correlations among various kinds
of interactions and an attempt to generalize an index
of linkages anong Canadian provinces.
781. Sins, J. B. "Freight Rates and Their Break -Even Points,"
TRANSPORTATION JOURNAL, Vol. 5, Winter 1965, pp. 41-44.
782. Sinclair, Robert. "Von Thunen and Urban Sprawl," AAAG,
Vol. 57, March 1967, pp. 72-87. (2a, 7).
A discussion of the inappropriateness of directly
applying Von Thunen' s model to agricultural land use
around modern cities and a description of an alternate
schene based on examination of urban growth processes,
783. Singer, Russell E. "The Future Role of the Automobile in
Urban Transportation," TQ, Vol. 18, April 1964, pp.
The automobile is here to stay.
784. Slayton, William L. "Urban Renewal and Mass Transportation
Planning," TQ, Vol. 16, January 1962, pp. 5-14. (4).
Discusses the coordination necessary from all sectors
including transportation to improve the urban environ-
785. Sneed, R. "The Road Space Required for Traffic in To^tos,"
TPR, Vol. 33, April 1962-63, pp. 279-292. (4).
Methods of routing and space needed, with examples
786. Sneed, R. ''The Effect of Some Kinds of Routing Systems on
the Amount of Traffic in the Central Areas of Towns,"
JOURNAL OF THE INSTITUTE OF HIGHI\'Ay ENGINEERING, Vol.
10, 1963, pp. 5-26. (5,6).
787. Sneed, R. "The Traffic Problem in Towns," TPR, Vol. 35,
July 1964-65, pp. 133-158. (4).
Overview of the subject including car-bus speed and
tine, road design, and traffic density.
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788. Sneed, R. "A Theoretical Model of Conuuter Traffic in
Towns," JOURN/iL OF THE INSTITUTE OF MATHEMATICAL
APPLICATIONS, Vol. 1, 1965, pp. 208-225. (2a, 4).
789. Sneed, R. "Traffic Studies and Urban Congestion," JTEP,
Vol. 2, January 1968, pp. 30-70. (4,5,6).
"A quantitative analysis of capacity and congestion
in real and imaginary tovm centers" and suggested
790. Snerk, George M. "Denand Considerations in Urban Trans-
portation,'' TQ, Vol. 18, July 1964, pp. 421-432. (4).
Connents on the lack of appeal of public transport,
price considerations, and quality in urban transport,
with final cocicents on the Seattle Monorail study,
791. Snerk, George M. "Subsidies for Urban Mass Transportation,"
LE, Vol. 41, February 1965, pp. 62-65. (4,8).
792. Scerk, George M. "The Streetcar: Shaper of Acerican
Cities," TQ, Vol. 21, October 1967, pp. 569-584. (3,7).
793. Snethurst, P. R. "The National Travel Surveys," TPR, Vol.
38, April 1967-68, pp. 43-63. (9).
Techniques involved in the survey and use of the data
794. Snith, Bob L. "Gravity Model Theory ..pplied to a Snail City
Using a Snail Sanple of Origin-Destination Data," HRR,
No. 88, 1965, pp. 85-115. (2b, 4, 6c).
Using the gravity nodel and a sanple of a longer origin-
destination survey of zonal trip production, trip
attraction and travel tine adequately reproduce the
longer 0-D survey and nay be used for planning purposes.
795. Snith, David A. "Interaction within a Fragnented State:
The Exanple of Hawaii," EG, Vol. 39, July 1963, pp.
234-244. (2b, 6b).
The use of a nodified gravity nodel and sinple correlations
to neasure interaction between Hawaiian cities. The
findings indicate the friction of distance is not
significantly different fron studies using the gravity
nodel in the continental United States.
796. Snith, David i., "Transportation and Terrain in Britain,"
GR, Vol. 54, July 1964, pp. 431-432. (5).
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797. Snith, Frank ... "Relative Role of Highway Transport in the
U. S. Economy, " HRR, No. 175, 1967, pp. 27-32. (1,8b).
798. Snith, Ian. "The Western Nigeria Road Developnent Survey:
A Case Study in Pre-Investnent Analysis in Developing
Countries," JTEP, Vol. 2, January 1968, pp. 9A-104.
799. Snith, Robert H.T. "Rigidity of Rail Hinterland Boundaries
in Australia," AAAG, Vol. 50, March 1960, pp. 55-57.
Regression analysis indicates a changing pattern of
railway hinterlands. Legislation is directly responsible
for this change.
800. Snith, Robert H.T. "Transport Competition in Australian
Border Areas: The Exanple of Southern New South
Wales," EG, Vol. 39, January 1963, pp. 1-13. (6,8).
Considering New South Vales as characteristic of the
features and problems of Australia's transport systen,
it is suggested that through rates should be applied on
interstate rail cons igncent to all centers rather than
just capitol cities,
801. Snith, Robert H.T. "Railvjay Connodity Movement between
New South Hales and Victoria," AUSTRALLiN GEOGRAPHER,
Vol. 9, 1963, pp. 88-96. (6b, 8a).
A paper describing connodity flow prior to the introduction
of a standard gauge railway.
802. Snith, Robert H.T. "Toward a Measure of Conplenentarity, "
EG, Vol. 40, January 1964, pp. 1-8. (2a, 6b).
Uses agricultural connodity flow to the New England
states to analyze the notion of conplentarity and to
neasure its relative significance.
803. Snith, Robert H.T. "The Developnent and Function of Trans-
port Routes in Southern New South Wales, 1860-1930,"
AUSTRiiLI/^ GEOGRAPHIC/i STUDIES, Vol. 2, April 1964,
pp. 47-65. (3, 5c, 8a, 8b).
The historical developnent of roads and railways.
128. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
804. Snith, Robert H.T. and Alan M. Hay. "A Theory of the
Spatial Structure of Internal Trade in Underdeveloped
Countries," GA, Vol. 1, April 1969, pp. 121-135. (2a, 6b).
The objectives of this article are to present the theory
of internal trade, depict the theory with graphical
nodels, and to test hypotheses derived fron the nodels.
805. Snith, Robert H.T, "Concepts and Methods in Coonodity Flow
Analysis," EG, Vol. 46, June 1970, pp. 404-416. (2a).
A valuable review of quantitative nethods used in
connodity flow studies and ways of conceptualizing
cotxiodity flow research.
806. Snith, Wilbur S. "Synthesized Travel Desires," TQ, Vol.
16, January 1962, pp. 173-200. (2,4,6c).
By defining the factors which govern urban travel, the
author develops an interactance fomula to forecast
zone to zone novenent; the fornula is tested by conparing
sinulated results with those fron hone interviews and
807. Snith, Wilbur S, "Research and Worldwide Urban Transport-
ation," HRR, No. 125, 1966, pp. 30-39. (4,9).
Travel patterns within several cities are conpared and
sinilarities in the patterns suggest the need for a
nore complete exchange of transportation planning data
and techniques of analysis,
808. Suitzler, Janes R, and Leslie M. Frink. "Regional Transport
Planning in Central Anerica," TQ, Vol. 20, July 1966,
pp. 447-464, (7b, 9).
Discussion of the initial developcent of transport
planning and data collection.
809. Snock, Robert, "An Iterative Assignment Approach to
Capacity Restraint on Arterial Networks," HRBB 347,
1962, pp, 60-66, (2a, 5, 6),
Snock describes a nethod for conputer assignnent in the
total process of transportation planning.
810. Snock, Robert. "A Conparative Description of a Capacity-
Restrained Traffic Assignnent," HRR, No. 6, 1963, pp.
12-40. (2a, 5, 6).
A step-by-step history of a capacity restraint assign-
nent probleu is presented as an illustration of its
use in highway planr.ing.
129. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324 -#32 5
811. Snell, R, R, , et al, "Traffic Assignment with a Nonlinear
Travel Tizie Function," TS, Vol. 2, May 1968, pp. 146-159.
812. Snitzler, Janes R. "Transporting Cattle in Argentina,"
TRANSPORTATION JOURNiVL, Vol. 1, Spring 1962, pp. 23-29.
813. Snyder, David E. "Cocnercial Passenger Linkage and the
Metropolitan Nodality of Montevideo," EG, Vol. 38,
April 1962, pp. 95-112. (4, 5a, 6a).
An analysis of the spatial differences in passenger
linkages focusing on the node of Montevideo and a
description of the transport network, the hierarchial
structure anong urban places on the network, and the
conparitive roles of several carrier types,
814. Sobernan, Richard M. "Econonic Analysis of Highway Design
in Developing Countries," HRR, No, 115, 1966, pp. 44-63.
A franework for analyzing the choice of technology
possible in producing a given output of transportation
and for exanining the trade-off anong capital costs,
road-use costs, and road uaintenance under varying
conditions of unenploynent, interest rates, and
foreign exchange rates. The study denonstrates the
nost efficient technology in one country is not the
sane as in another.
815. Soja, Edward W. "Transaction Flows and National Unity:
The Nigerian Case," in Gwendolen M. Carter and Ann
Paden, editors, EXPANDING HORIZONS IN AFRICAN STUDIES,
Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University Press,
1969, pp. 321-328, (6),
A discussion of the use of teleconnunications data and
the applications of an indifference nodel to trans-
816. Solesbury, Willian and Alan Townsend, "Transportation
Studies and British Planning Practice," TPR, Vol. 41,
January 1970, pp. 63-79. (1).
817. Soltoan, Theodore J, "Effects of Alternate Loading
Sequences on Results fron Chicago Trip Distribution
and /xssignnent Model," HRR, No. 114, 1966, pp. 122-
140. (2b, 4, 6c).
130. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
818. Solonon, R. J. "External Relations of the Port of Hobart,
1804-1961,'^ AUSTRiiLIAN GEOGRi\PHER, Vol. 9, 1963,
pp. 43-53. (3,7c).
The port's historical developnent and hinterland and
819. Soccers, Lavjrence M. "Distribution and Significance of
the Foreign Trade Ports of Norway," EG, Vol. 36,
October 1960, pp. 306-312. (6a, 7c).
Coastal trade centers act as principal focal points
of production and distribution.
820. Sopher, David E, "Pilgrin Circulation in Gujarat," GR,
Vol. 58, July 1968, pp. 392-425. (6b).
A wide-ranging discussion of pilgrin traffic in Hindu
holy places, considering the influences of caste,
occupation, income, and the nature of the religious
center on the spatial pattern of pilgrinages.
821. Squibb, Glenn A. "Tailoring Rates and Service for Market
Developnent," TRANSPORTATION JOURNAL, Vol. 5, Fall 1965,
pp. 16-22. (8).
An exanple using coal transportation by rail and lake
822. Srinivasan, N. S. "Growing Traffic and Transportation
Probleas in Indian Cities," TE, Vol. 37, July 1967,
pp. 44-48. (4).
823. Stabler, J. C. "Exports and Evolution: The Process of
Regional Change," LE, Vol. 44, February 1968, pp. 11-
The article gives an overview of location theory and
regional developnent as they relate to exports.
824. Stairs, Sonia. 'Selecting an Optical Traffic Network,"
JTEP, Vol. 2, May 1968, pp. 218-231, (2a, 5).
Consideration of three network selection problens:
optiv.:al methods, heuristic rules, and interactive
825. Stanhagen, Uillian H. "Highway Interchanges and Land-Use
Controls," HRBB 288, 1961, pp. 32-60. (7a, 8b).
Land use controls as practiced in several states are
extensively analyzed and evaluated.
131. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324 -#32 5
826. Stanley, Willian R. "Transport Expansion in Liberia," GR,
Vol. 60, October 1970, pp. 529-547. (3,5c).
Historical inspection of the developnsnt and expansion
of the transport network, generally supporting the
sequence of transport suggested by Taaffe, Morrill,
827. Statler, W. H. and R, A. Blay. "Role of the Rotary Wing
in Future Short-Haul Transportation," HSGTJ, Vol. 2,
May 1968, pp. 369-387. (6,8d).
A wide-ranging discussion of V/STOL vehicles, consider-
ing their potential inpact on travel tine, and on najor
regions of the United States with short-haul trans-
828. Stern, Stan. "Traffic Floxi; Data Acquisition Using Magnetic-
Loop Vehicle Detectors," HRR, No. 154, 1967, pp. 38-52.
829. Stokes, Charles J. "The Freight Transport Systen of
Colonbia, 1959," EG, Vol. 43, January 1967, pp. 71-90.
The transport systen is divided into sub-systens by
node of transport and aj-eal unit. In an examination
of attenpts by each areal unit to solve its transport
problens, recent transport developnent is shown to be
suv^erfluous to integration of the sub-systens.
830. Stowers, Joseph R. and Ednund L. Kanwit. "The Use of
Behavioral Surveys in Forecasting Transportation
Requirecents," HRR, No. 106, 1966, pp. 44-51. (2b, 4, 6c),
Indicates fanily characteristics, rather than distance
and density variables, should be the najor variables
studied in trip genaration analysis,
831. Stronbon, Donald A. "Highway Planning in Ethiopia," TQ,
Vol. 20, January 1966, pp. 147-156. (1,8b).
832. Stroup, Robert H. , Louis A. Vargha, and Robert K. Main.
"Predicting the Economic Inpact of Alternate Interstate
Route Locations," HRBB 327, 1962, pp, 67-72. (5b, 7a).
The effects of alternate highway routes on the location
of highway-oriented business are projected for diffcrcnl:
business types by connunity. Changes observed along an
existing route are used as the basis for projecting.
Conparisons are nade on the basis of access, visibility,
developnent potential, advertising restrictions, and
anticipated driver behavior.
132. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
833. Stroup, Robert H, and Louis A. Vargha. "Econonic Inpact of
Secondary Road Inproveuents , " HRR, No, 16, 1963, pp. 1-
The effects of improved rural roads on the trading
patterns of rural residents are exanined, indicating
that road inprovenents lead to inter- and intra-
county narket adjustnents, specialization of enter-
prise, and concentration of business.
834. Sturney, S. G. "National Shipping Policies," JOURN.U. OF
INDUSTRL.L ECONOMICS, Vol. 14, November 1965, pp. 14-
Rationale, methods, and effects of assisting shipping,
835. Sturney, S, G. "Economics and International Liner Service,"
JTEP, Vol. 1, May 1967, pp. 190-203. (8c).
"An examination of the system of conferences to control
charges by cargo lines."
836. Sullivan, Sheldon W. and C. E. Pyers. "Results of Use of
Pre-Intetview Contacts in Pittsburgh," HRBB 297, 1961,
pp. 42-51. (4,9).
Pre-interviewing techniques as part of a hone-interview
origin-destination survey help increase the accuracy of
837. Sullivan, Sheldon W. "Variations in Personal Travel Habits
by Day of Week," HRR, No. 41, 1963, pp. 39-44. (4,6c).
Due to large variations in traffic volune by day of
week, by trip purpose, and node, it is suggested that
0-D studies compensate for these variations in their
838. Surti, Vasant H. and Edward F. Gervais. "Peak Period Comfort
and Service Evaluation of an Urban Freeway and an
Alternate Surface Street," HRR, No. 157, 1967, pp. 144-
178. (2a, 4).
Galvanic skin response equipment is used to measure
driver stress on a freeway and a parallel route. At
peak periods the freeway generates more stress than
the parallel route.
839. Sutton, Robert M. "The Origins of iimerican Land-Grant
Railroad Rates," BUSINESS HISTORY REVIEW, Vol. 40,
1966, pp. 66-76. (8a).
133. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
840. Sychrava, L. "Soe^e Thoughts on Feasibility Studies
Occassioned by the Appraisal of Road Projects in
Thailand," JTEP, Vol. 2, Septenber 1968, pp. 332-348.
Discussion of "the selection and ranking of 124 projects,
considering costs and benefits, likely increases in
output, and the intangible social changes brought by a
road to hitherto isolated villages."
841. Sylven, Erik. "Traffic Forecasting: Concepts and Approaches,
PRSA, Vol. 14, 1965, pp. 137-145. (2b, 4, 6c).
The author briefly outlines and critically reviews the
Cross-Fratar nethod of traffic projections, and then
proposes an approach to a dynamic nodel using data fron
842. Taaffe, Edward J. "Air Transportation and United States
Urban Distribution," GR, Vol. 46, April 1956, pp. 219-
238. (2b, 4, 6b).
Analysis of the effects of urban size, function,
proxinity to other cities, and railroad services on
the air traffic of United States cities.
843. Taaffe, Edward J. "Sone Recent Books on Transportation,"
I.AAG, Vol. 47, March 1957, pp. 100-103. (1).
844. Taaffe, Edward J. "A Map Analysis of United States Air-
line Conpetition," JOURNi\L OF AIR LAW AND COI«IMERCE,
Vol. 25, 1958, pp. 121-147. (2,8d).
845. Taaffe, Edward J. "Trends in Airline Passenger Traffic:
A Geographical Case Study," AA^X, Vol. 49, Deceniber
1959, pp. 393-408. (2a, 4, 5, 6b).
A series of naps is examined for evidence of a re-
lationship between air passenger growth rates and
characteristics of individual routes. Resort travel,
length of haul, and low coach fares. all affect pass-
846. Taaffe, Edward J. "Traffic Flow in Berlin," GR, Vol. 51,
April 1961, pp. 305-307. (4,dc).
847. Taaffe, Edward J, "The Urban Hierarchy: ..n Air Pass-
enger Definition," EG, Vol. 38, January 1962, pp. 1-
14. (2b, 4, 6b).
A conparision of the actual hierarchial pattern of air
traffic with a theoretical hierarchy predicted by the
gravity nodel. Air traffic is influenced by the
increasing doainance of large centers, regional ties,
and intensification of the hierarchical nature of
134. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
848. Taaffe, Edward J,, Barry J. Garner, and Maurice H, Yeates.
THE PERIPHER/\L JOURNEY TO WORK. Evanston, Illinois:
Northwestern University Press, 1963. (2b, 4, 6c).
Probability nodels, nodified fron population and dis-
tance variables, are used to simulate conmuting to a
west suburban part of the Chicago urban area.
849. Taaffe, Edward J. "Pedestrian Conveyors in the United
States,'' GR, Vol. 53, January 1963, pp. 132-133. (4).
850. Taaffe, Edward J., Richard L. Morrill, and Peter R. Gould.
"Transport Expansion in Underdeveloped Countries: A
Conparative Analysis," GR, Vol. 53, October 1963, pp.
503-529. (2a, 5c, 7b).
A verbal model of a six phase ideal-typical sequence
of transportation developrr.ent is described with
particular reference to Ghana and Nigeria.
851. Taaffe, Robert N. "Transportation and Regional Special-
ization: The Exanple of Soviet Central Asia," Ai'iAG,
Vol. 52, March 1962, pp. 80-98. (2a, 7b, 8a).
Discussion of the expansion of rail transportation and
its inpetus to regional developnent. Regional special-
ization is considered a nore viable goal for develop-
nent programs than regional self-sufficiency.
852. Taaffe, Robert N. "Interregional Passenger Movement in the
Soviet Union," EAST LAKES GECGR/IPHER, Vol. 3, 1967,
pp. 47-79. (2b, 6b, 8a).
Analysis of passenger flows with particular attention
to inter-rcgional passenger novenent. The gravity
nodel is used to predict flows and to analyze flov;
853. Tallany, Bertrara D. "The Interstate Highway Systen,"
TQ, Vol. 16, January 1962, pp. 95-102. (5,8b).
A prediction of traffic systems in 1975 shows the
routes needing expansion.
854. Tan, T. "A Mathematical Model for Commuter Traffic in
Satellite Tovms," TS, Vol. 1, February 1967, pp. 6-23.
(2a, 4, 6c).
Charts, diagrams, tables, and bibliography.
135. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
855. Tanifji, Shozo. "Traffic and Transportation in the Capital
Region of Japan," TE, Vol. 36, August 1966, pp. 58-63.
Discussion and naps of traffic flow, routes, and
856. Thatch, Daynon, Stanley J. Hille, and Terence Brown. "A
Plan for the Efficient Use of Washington's Area Airports,''
JOURNAL OF AIR LAW AND COMMERCE, Vol. 35, Spring 1969,
pp. 204-215. (4,8d).
857. Thiel, Floyd I. "Social Effects of Modern Highway Trans-
portation," HRBB 327, 1962, pp. 1-20. (7a).
Discussion of the influence of highway developnent on
nobile and drive-in services, opportunities for
enploynent, and residential characteristics. Public
planning should include an exaaination of social in-
fluences of highway developnent.
858. Thiel, Floyd I. "Highway Interchange Area Developnent,"
HRR, No. 96, 1965, pp. 24-25. (8c).
A conbination of land use controls utilizing police pov7er
and erainent donain and joint planning by state and local
officials is recomnended for highway interchange
developnent. Review of results of prior inter-
859. Thillainatagan, R. "Traffic Laprovenents in Madras," TQ,
Vol. 18, July 1964, pp. 449-456. (4).
860. Thonas, Benjauin E. "Modern Trans-Saharan Routes," GR,
Vol. 42, April 1952, pp. 267-282, (5).
Current air and notor transport routes, indicating the
problens associated with desert travel.
861. Thonas, Benjanin E. "The Railways of French Worth Africa,"
EG, Vol. 29, April 1953, pp. 95-106. (8a).
While the railroads of Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco
have nany sinilarities, contrasts between then pronote
differential effects fron post World War II truck
136. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
862. Thonas, Benjamin E. "Methods and Objectives in Transportation
Geography," PG, Vol. 8, July 1956, pp. 2-5. (1).
Anerlcan uethods and objectives in the geography of
transportation, both as a specialty and as a part of
hunan geography, are exanined to see what 1 imitations
they place upon the development of this field. Three
luajor cethods are euphasized: (1) the neans of trans-
portation, (2) the nature of the goods carried, and
(3) the routes followed by the various types of trans-
portation and the resulting patterns on the earth's surface,
863. Thonas, Benjanin E. "Railways and Ports in French West
Africa," EG, Vol. 33, January 1957, pp. 1-15. (7b, 7c, 8a).
Currently the railroads are organized to encourage
exports; interior developcent necessitates a re-
organization of the transport structure.
864. Thonas, E. and Frank E. Horton. FURTHER COIMiNTS ON THE
ANALYSIS OF NON-EESIDENTIiJ. TRIP GENERATION. Evanston,
Illinois: The Transportation Center, Northwestern
University, 1966. (2,4).
865. Thonas, E. N. and J. L. Schafer. "Expanded Models of Urban
and Transportation Systens," HSGTJ, Vol. 1, May 1967,
pp. 154-201. (2a,4).
Presents a nodel of the urban systen and of the urban
transportation systen, giving enphasis to the social
and psychological aspects of urban systens.
866. Thonas, Frank H. THE DENVER AND RIO GRANDE I^ESTERN
Ri\ILROAD: A GEOGRiiPHIC ANALYSIS. Evanston, Illinois:
Northwestern University Studies in Geography, No. 4,
The purpose of this study is to analyze for the year
1956 the relationship between the actual traffic
organization of selected cocnodities and the potential
traffic of these cocnodities in the counties of the
Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad hinterland and
to describe with the aid of naps and actual origination
and flow patterns of these cocnodities.
867. Thonas, Frank H, "Soce Relationships between a Railroad
and Its Region," TESG, Vol. 53, June-July 1962,
pp. 155-161. (7,8a).
137. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
868. Thonas, Frank H. "Evolution of Railroad Route -to-Route
Relationships: L Case Study of the Denver and Rio
Grande Western Railroad," JG, Vol. 62, Decenber 1963,
pp. 389-396. (7,8a).
Analysis of the functional relationships between a
transport systen and the region it serves.
869. Thonas, Frank H. "Railroads and Economic Growth in the
United States," GR, Vol. 54, October 1964, pp. 579-580.
(7b, 8a, 8c).
Review of two studies questioning the assumption that
railroads were a najor initator of economic growth,
870. Thonas, Richard C. "The Effect of One-Way Traffic Operation
on Retail Business," TE, Vol. 33, July 1968, pp. 44-48.
871. Thonas, Thonas C. "Value of Tine for Connuting Motorists,"
HRR, No. 245, 1968, pp. 17-35. (5b, 6).
Calculation of travel tine savings by estinating
coefficients of toll and travel-tine variables in
route choice nodels. Investigates a variety of factors
affecting route choice,
872. Thonpson, Bryan. "Recreational Travel: A Review and Pilot
Study," TQ, Vol. 21, October 1967, pp. 527-542. (2b, 6b).
Examination of methods used for analysis of recreational
travel, including a pilot study of camper flow in
873. Tonazinis, Anthony R. "A New Method of Trip Distribution
in an Urban Area," HRBB 347, 1962, pp. 77-99. (2b, 4, 6c).
Simulation of trip interchanges with a model based on
probability theory and certain aspects of the gravity
model. Tests of the model indicate revision necessary.
874. Tonazinis, Anthony R. and George V, Wickstron. "Forming a
Comprehensive Transportation Flows Model," HRBB 347,
1962, pp. 254-257. (2b, 4, 6c).
An outline of the structure of a conprehensive model
of traffic flow.
875. Tonazinis, mthony R. "Modal Split Model in the Penn-
Jersey Transportation Study Area,'' HRR, No. 165, 1967,
pp. 41-75. (2b, 4).
138. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
876. Tooazinis, Anthony R. "Objectives and Obstacles in Mass
Transit Developnent ," HSGTJ, Vol. 1, Septenber 1967,
pp. 364-377. (4).
The Penn-Jersey Transportation Study indicates that the
transportation planner nust first focus on the goals and
objectives that each system nust meet, and then surnount
the technical obstacles to developing an essentially
modern transport system.
877. Tonuma, Koichi. "The Network City," HSGTJ, Vol. 3, May 1969,
pp. 203-219. (4).
The prediction of a network city, a single urban complex,
in Japan by the end of the 20th century.
878. Treiterer, Joseph and James I. Taylor. "Traffic Flow
Investigations by Photogramnetric Techniques," HRR,
No. 142, 1966, pp. 1-12. (9).
A method of measuring traffic movement in a way that is
appropriate for the testing and validation of present
theories of traffic flow. Accurate vehicle trajectories,
and corresponding spacing and velocity data are obtained.
879. Treweek, K. H. "Systems Analysis for the Management of
North Atlantic Air Traffic over the Next Ten Years,"
ITJ, Vol. 32, September 1968, pp. 441-449. (5,6a).
Characteristics of traffic flow are analyzed, flight
paths are suggested, and the requirements of improved
air traffic management are described.
880. Truett, J. B. and A. J. Balek. "On the Need for a Definition
of Demand for Transportation," HSGTJ, Vol. 2, Septenber
1968, pp. 576-592. (1).
A definition of demand should include those factors which
motivate demand for transportation. An examination of
the definitions of demand implied by current estimating
and forecasting procedures indicates no comprehensive
and adequate definition.
881. Turton, B. J. "The Changing Transport Geography of the
East Midlands," EAST MIDLAND GEOGRAPHER, Vol. 4, June
1969, pp. 387-399. (1).
A review of road and rail transport.
139. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
882. Udy, Stanley H. , Jr. "Occupation, Counuting, and Linited
Access Highway Use," HRBB 347, 1962, pp. 100-105. (4,6c).
Occupation differentials of coonuters using a linited
access highway. Sales, professional, and technical
workers predoninently use the expressway.
883. Ullnan, Edward L, "The Railroad Pattern of the United
States," GR, Vol. 39, April 1949, pp. 242-256. (5b,
A classic discussion of traffic and route characteristics
of American railways.
884. Ullnan, Edward L. "Transportation Geography," AMERICAN
GEOGRAPHY: INVENTORY AND PROSPECT. Preston Janes and
C. Jones, editors, Syracuse, New York: Syracuse
University Press, 1954, pp. 310-332. (1).
The author presents one of the earliest modern
articulations emphasizing the integrative role of
transportation geography and the basis for interaction
anong places on the earth.
885. Ullnan, Edward L. "The Role of Transportation and the Basis
for Interaction," in W. L. Thonas , editor, MAN'S ROLE
IN CEPiNGING THE FACE OF THE EARTH, Chicago, Illinois:
University of Chicago Press, 1956, pp. 862-880. (1,2).
Classic methodological statement of transportation and
886. Ullnan, Edward L. /.^RICAN COIMODITY FLOW. Seattle,
Washington: University of Washington Press, 1957.
(2, 6, 8a, 8c).
This text contains a description and an interpretation,
through text and naps, of railroad and water traffic
flows in American domestic and foreign trade.
887. Ullnan, Edward L. "Trade Centers and Tributary Areas of
the Philippines," GR, Vol. 50, April 1960, pp. 203-
A description of trade centers and tributary areas
N indicates the Philippines distribution nost closely
approaches Christaller's Ks4 arrangement.
888. Van Ballegoyen de Jong, J. P. A. "Rail Transport in the
Harbour Area of Rotterdam," IT J, Vol. 31, July 1965,
pp. 174-177. (3, 7c, 8a).
Very brief post-1945 history of the port with some
discussion of the railroads.
140. CPL Exchange BibliDgraphy #324 -#32 5
889. Van Hoef, Robert F. "State and Local Highway Planning in
Michigan," HRBB 293, 1961, pp. 40-44. (8b).
General discussion of the highv/ay planning program.
890. Vance, Janes E, "The Oregon Trail and Union Pacific
Railroad: A Contrast in Purpose," iVu'iG, Vol. 51,
December 1961, pp. 357-379. (8a).
Conparison of motives for travel and the characteristics
of the trail and railway.
891. Vance, Janes E. "Housing the Worker: The Er.ployr.ient Linkage
as a Force in Urban Structure," EG, Vol. 42, October
1966, pp. 294-325. (4).
A consideration of general principles of industrial
structure, transportation, and the nature of worker
housing, including a descriptive model of housing
change and industrial growth,
892. Vargha, Louis A. "Highway Bypasses, Natural Barriers and
Connunity Growth in Michigan," HRBB 268, 1960, pp. 29-
893. Varlanov, J. S. and N. N. Kazanskiy. "Forecast of Average
Length of Haul on Soviet Railroads," SGRT, Vol. 4,
: , September 1963, pp. 19-25. (7b, 8a).
Based on analysis of rail bulk freight traffic, it is
predicted that the average length of haul will be
reduced over the next fifteen years.
894. Varlanov, J. S. "Problems of Transport Development of the
West Siberian Plain in Conjunctions with the Formation
of a New Economic Complex in its Territory," SGRT,
Vol. 10, June 1969, pp. 312-326. (7b, 8a).
Railroad development is considered the optimal initial
approach to the region's transport needs.
895. Vasilevskiy, L. I. "Basic Research Problems in the Geography
of Transportation of Capitalist and Underdeveloped
Countries," SGRT, Vol. 4, September 1963, pp. 36-58.
"The author discusses the subject of transport geography,
develops formulas to measure the intensity of the geo-
graphical division of labor, describes several population-
nobility indices and their use as research tools and out-
lines principles and criteria to be used in mapping the
transportation of capitalist and underdeveloped count-
141. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
896. Vickrey, Willian S. "Pricing in Urban and Suburban Trans-
port," AER, Vol. 53, May 1963, pp. 452-465. (4,6).
The peak and off-peak pricing of autonotive trans-
portation: nethods, reasons, and the resultant change
in novenent patterns.
897. Vickrey, Willian S. "Optinization of Traffic and Facilities,"
JTEP, Vol. 1, May 1967, pp. 123-136. (2a, 4).
Efficiency nethods are proposed to icprove urban traffic
congestion, predicted upon a differential pricing systen
for using facilities.
898. Vickrey, Willian S. "Congestion Theory and Transport Invest-
cent," AER, Vol. 59, May 1969, pp. 251-260. (2a).
Six types of congestion are identified. User costs
of bottleneck congestion are discussed and graduated
user tolls are suggested as a nethod to relieve
899. Voorhees, Alan M., Charles F. Barnes, Jr., and Francis E.
Colenan. "Traffic Patterns and Land-Use Alternatives,"
347, 1962, pp. 1-9. (4,6c).
Discussion of factors that influence trip length and
nethods of reducing trip length.
900. Voorhees, Alan M., Salvatore J. Bellons, Joseph L. Schafer,
and Donald E. Cleveland. "Factors in Work-Trip Lengths,"
HRR, No, 141, 1966, pp. 24-26. (2a, 4, 6c).
Authors discuss najor factors affecting the length of
urban work-trips: Incone of trip naker, node of travel,
the peak-hour travel characteristics, and the distribut-
ion of euploynent opportunities,
901. Vorob'yev, A. A. "Problens in the Location of Transportation
in the Southern Part of Eastern Siberia," SGRT, Vol. 5,
May 1964, pp. 3-12. (5).
Discussion of "future developnent of a transport net
for the Baykol region."
902. Vuchic, Vukan. "The Role of Public Transportation in
Hanburg, Gcrnany," TQ, Vol. 18, January 1964, pp. 118-
903. Wabe, J, S, "Dispersal of Enploynent and the Journey to
Work: A Case Study," JTEP, Vol. 1, Septenber 1967,
pp. 345-361. (4).
Study of a firn's labor force in central London and
later after suburbanization.
142. CPL Exchange Bibliography mi\-ini5
904. Wachs, Martin. "Relationships between Driver's Attitudes
Toward .ilternate Routes and Driver and Route Chara-
cteristics," HRR, No. 197, 1967, pp. 70-37. (5,6c).
Factor analysis, canonical correlation, and inultiple
correlation-regression are used. Different attitudes
are related to the length of the trip and the importance
of amenities. The trip-to-work route is influeced by
the ease of access to the destination.
905. Wachs, Martin, "A Survey of Citizens' Opinions of the
Effectiveness, Needs, and Techniques of Urban Trans-
portation Planning," HRR, No. 229, 1968, pp. 65-76. (4).
The survey indicates people regard investment in trans-
portation to be valuable and that there is a need for
nore attention to questions of nass transit. Not much
importance is attached to the beautif ication of trans-
portation facilities and little interest in participation
in the planning process is expressed, except where the
respondent is directly affected by the proposed fac-
ilities. Attitudes and opinions are related to socio-
econoaic characteristics of the respondents.
906. VJagner, F, A., Jr. and Adolf D. May, Jr. "Use of Aerial
Photography in Freeway Traffic Operations Studies,"
HRR, No. 19, 1963, pp. 24-34. (9).
The procedures for conducting aerial photographic
I / , density studies and presentation of naps of data and
907. Waite, Graham G. "Techniques of Land Acquisition for Future
Highway Needs," HRR, No. 8, 1963, pp. 60-81. (8b).
The state's power to acquire highway rights-of-way and
methods and probler:S of financing such acquisitions.
Problems of acquisition in rural, suburban, urban cities
are discussed with reference to specific states.
908. Walker, John R. "Social Status of Head of Household and
Trip Generation from Home," HRR, No. 114, 1966, pp.
141-151. (2a, 4, 6c).
The number of trips generated in a hone is positively
correlated with social status of the head-of -household,
number of cars used by the household, and the number of
people in the household.
909. Walker, John R, "Rank Classification: A Procedure for
Determining Future Trip Enas," HRR, No. 240, 1968,
pp. 88-99. (2a, 4, 6c).
The use of rank correlation techniques to examine the
relationship of several socio-economic variables and
several categories of trip purposes.
143. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
910. Wallace, Willian H. "Railroad Traffic Densities and
Patterns," ^^JG, Vol. 48, Decenber 1958, pp. 352-374.
(5, 6, 8a).
Presentation at the regional and national level of rail
traffic Jensity and flow patterns.
911. Wallace, Willian H, "Freight Traffic Functions of Anglo-
Anerican Railroads," AAAG, Vol. 53, Septeaber 1963,
pp. 312-331. (5,6,8a).
On the basis of freight traffic, railroads are classified
as internal traffic, originating traffic, terninating
traffic, bridge line, or balanced traffic railways.
912. Wallace, Willian H. "The Bridge Line: A Distinctive Type
of Anglo-Anerican Railroad," EG, Vol. 41, January 1965,
pp. 1-38. (6,8a).
Aggregation of "bridge-lines" into eight regional groups
and analysis in terns of connodity flow, and percent of
internal, originating, terriinating, and bridge traffic
913. Walnsley, Mildred M. "The Bygone Electric Interurban Railway
Systen," FG, Vol. 17, May 1965, pp. 1-6. (3,8a).
This paper presents an historical account of the rapid
development and decline of the electric interurban
railv/ay systen in the East and Midwest of the U.S.
A discussion is also included of how the interurban
pronoted the expansion of narkets for locally grown
produce and opened up the cultural opportunities of
the city for rural residents living on or near the
914. Walters, Alan A, "A Developnent Model of Transport," /^ER,
Vol. 58, May 1968, pp. 360-377. (2a, 5b, 7a).
Presents a sinple nodel which considers the effects
of transport investments on link development.
915. Ward, David. ''A Coiiparative Historical Geography of Street
Car Suburbs in Boston, Massachusetts, and Leeds, England:
1850-1920," Ai\i\G, Vol. 59, Decenber 1964, pp. 477-480.
The conparison indicates that different conditions and
chronologies of urban growth are responsible for dis-
sinilarities in the street car suburbs.
144. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
916. Ward, Marion iJ. "The Distribution of Motor Spirit in New
Zealand," NEW ZEALAND GEOGR.'.PHER, Vol. 19, 1963, pp. 126-
Treatment of iuports, distribution, and significance of
917. Ward, Marion W. "Port Swettenhan and its Hinterland,
1900-1950, ■■ JOURNAL OF TROPICAL GEOGRiiPHY, Vol. 19,
Decenber 1964, pp. 69-78. (7c).
Historical growth of the port and its hinterland, v/ith
enphasis on the econouic aspects,
918. Ward, Marion W. -'Progress in Transport Geography," in
Ronald V. Cooke and Janes H. Johnson, editiors, TRENDS
IN GEOGRAPHY: AN INTRODUCTORY SURVEY. London, England:
Pergamon Press, 1969, pp. 164-172. (1,5).
J. brief review emphasizing studies of network analysis
designed for the teacher and introductory student.
919. Warner, Larkin, ''Railroad Rates and the Groi-zth of Coal
Trucking in Ohio," LE, Vol. 38, August 1962, pp. 231-
239. (8a, 8b).
920. Warntz, Williaa. "Transportation, Social Physics, and the
Law of Refraction," PG, Vol. 9, 1957, pp. 2-7. (2,5,6).
921. Warntz, Willian. "Transatlantic Flights and Pressure
Patterns," GR, Vol. 51, April 1961, pp. 187-212. (2,5).
A discussion of airline routes indicates the nathenatical
and graphical techniques used in planning least-tine
paths for cir traffic.
922. Warren, K. "The Sheffield Rail Trade, 1861-1930: An
Episode in the Locational History of the British Steel
Industry," TRANSACTIONS: INSTITUTE OF BRITISH GECGRi'i-
PHERS, No. 34, 1964, pp. 131-157. (3,8a).
An intensive case study linking the characteristics of
rail trade to broader changes in the English econony.
923. Watson, J. W. "Geography — A Discipline in Distance,"
SCOTTISH GEOGR^'iPHICX M/\G/^INE, Vol. 71, 1955, pp. 1-
Discussion of the important role of distance, its
different neasurenents and significance.
145. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
924. Wattlevjorth, Joseph A. and Willian A. McCasland. "Study
Techniques for Planning Free\7ay Surveillance and
Control," HRR, No. 99, 1965, pp. 200-223. (5,9).
Entrance ranp origin-destination studies, input-output
studies of closed freeway sub-systens, aerial photography,
and input-output studies of initial intersections are
discussed as aids to planning freeway networks.
925. Watts, H. D. "The Inland Waterways of the United Kingdom
in the 1960's," EG, Vol. 43, October 1967, pp. 303-
A general discussion of water transport and watervjays
on which use is restricted,
926. Weaver, Robert C. "The Federal Interest in Urban Mass
Transportation," TQ, Vol. 17, January 1963, pp. 24-32.
Federal interest is based on effective land use, health
of core cities and their suburbs, the vitality of the
CBD, since the shape of urban areas depend upon the
927. Webb, G. R. "The Changing Role of Australian Coastal
Shipping," G, Vol. 48, November 1963, pp. 414-417.
Brief discussion of decline in passenger and general
cargo traffic and the expansion of bulk cargo traffic,
928. Webber, Melvin M. "Transportation Planning Model," TQ,
Vol. 15, July 1961, pp. 373-390, (2a).
Weaknesses of static-descriptive models as contrasted
with the advantages of dynamic-behavioral approaches.
929. Wehner, B. "Proposals for the Solution of Traffic Problems
in Towns," ERISTICS, Vol. 21, April 1966, pp. 225-229.
930. Weigend, Guido G. "Bordeaux: An Example of Changing Port
Functions," GR, Vol. 45, April 1955, pp. 217-243. (7c).
A description of port genesis and functions.
931. Weigend, Guido G. "The Problem of Hinterland and Foreland
as Illustrated by the Port of Hamburg," EG, Vol. 32,
January 1956, pp. 1-16, (7c).
A discussion of the concepts hinterland and foreland,
transportation problems, and port traffic.
146. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
932. Weigend, Guido G. "Sone Elements in the Study of Port
Geography,'^ GR, Vol. 48, April 1958, pp. 185-200. (7c).
The concepts of port, carrier, cargo, hinterland, fore-
land, and naritiLie space are analyzed systenatically.
933. Weiner, Edv7ard. "Modal Split Revisited," TQ, Vol. 23,
January 1969, pp. 5-29. (2b).
Types of transit estimating procedures are discussed,
along with recent developments in nodal split procedures.
934. Weiner, Melvin M. "Directional Traffic Flow," TQ, Vol. 20,
October 1966, pp. 589-615. (2,5,6).
Using topological concepts, unidirectional traffic flow
in a road network of arbitrary geonetry is determined,
■^ ■ "Some of the differences between topological graphs and
directional flow graphs are reviewed."
935. Wendt, Paul F. "Influence of Transportation Changes on
Urban Land Uses and Values," HRBB 268, 1960, pp. 95-
■ ' '■ 104. (7).
Reviev7 of theories of urban land values, with particular
reference to the effects of transportation changes on
land values. Summary of urban land value trends and
new approaches to studies of the influence of trans-
portation on urban land uses and values.
936. Werner, Christian. "The Role of Topology and Geometry
in Optimal Network Design," PRSA, Vol. 21, 1968, pp.
173-190. (5a, 5b, 5c).
This paper evaluates the interrelationship that holds,
under idealized conditions, betx.-een the spatial design
of a netvjork and the joint costs of its construction
and operation; and the effects of bundling are studied
and used to adjust any given network with regard to
its spatial design until the total costs assume a
mininuo. A major result of the study is the finding
that, if flow declines at least linearly with distance,
the ninimun cost solution is a network of minimum
147. CPL Exchange Bibliography ,"^324 -#325
937. Werner, Christian. "The Law of Refraction in Transportation
Geography: Its Multivariate Extension," CG, Vol. 12,
1968, pp. 2G-40. (5).
Considers a nore general fern of the problem proposed by
Von Stackleburg by dividing a region into any finite
number of honogeneous sub-regions. Presents an
algorithm which identifies the path of nininun total
costs between two point locations and a technique for
plotting the path directly fron a nap showing these
938. Werner, Christian. "Networks of Mininun Length, " CG, Vol.
13, 1969, pp. 47-69. (5).
Treats the problen of detemining network configuration
which interconnects a given set of nodes in a
honogeneous plane and is of nininun length.
939. Wernstedt, Frederick L. "Cebu: Focus of Philippine Inter-
state Trade," EG, Vol. 32, October 1956, pp. 336-346.
A case study which outlines the port's historical
developrient, inter- is land trade patterns, and export
940. Whalen, Joseph T. and Thonas H. Flynn. "The Truck Cones
First," HRR, No. 217, 1968, pp. 28-40. (8b).
Describes service facilities and reconnends nore
efficient service areas,
941. ^Jhebell, C.F.J. "Corridors: A Theory of Urban Systens,"
AAAG, Vol. 59, March 1969, pp. 1-26, (1,3).
Uses Southern Ontario as an illustration of principles
of corridor theory, discussed in five stages of
942. Wheeler, Janes 0, "The Transportation Model and Changing
Hone-Work Location," FG, Vol. 19, May 1967, pp. 144-
The paper presents two applications of the normative
transportation nodel under different spatial structures
of hone and work. The first traces journey-to-work
changes resulting frou different locational arrange-
ments of hone and work in a hypothetical city. The
second, based on Pittsburgh data, neasures first the
effect of work-trips by modifying residential locations
and secondly by nodifying only workplace distributions.
148. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
943. Wheeler, Jar.es 0. "Work-Trip Length and the Ghetto," LE,
Vol. 44, February 1968, pp. 107-112. (4,6c).
The role of the Negro ghettos in Pittsburgh on Negro
944. Wheeler, Jair.es 0. "Sone Effects of Occupational Status on
Work-Trips,'' JRS, Vol. 9, April 1969, pp. 69-78. (2a,
Multiple correlation and regression are used to examine
the relationship between status of traveler and distance
945. Wheeler, Janes 0. "Transport Inputs and Residential Rent
Theory," GA, Vol. 2, January 1970, pp. 43-54. (2,4,6c).
The postulate of residential rent theory that transport
inputs vary positively with status holds in general in
Tulsa, although work-trips cannot be explained sinply
by this transport postulate.
946. Wheeler, Janes 0. "The Structure of Metropolitan Work-Trips ^
PG, Vol. 22, May 1970, pp. 152-158. (2,4,6c).
The linkage-structure of work-trips in Tulsa analyzed
by origin and destination zones is described by a
snail nunber of independent factors fron a factor-
analytic solution. The importance of centrality in
urban organization is incorporated in several of the
factors. The attractive power of destinations
seens to increase with an increase in centrality of
location and size of labor force employed,
947. VJheeler, P. T. "The Developaent of Shipping Services to the
East Coast of Sutherland," JTH, Vol. 6, November 1963,
pp. 110-116. (3,8c).
948. IJhite, H. P. "New Ports in Dahoney and Togo," G, Vol. 46,
April 1961, pp. 160-163. (7c).
Report on shipping potential.
949. White, H. P. "The Movement of Export Crops in Nigeria,"
TESG, Vol. 54, November 1963, pp. 248-252. (6b).
950. VJhite, H. P. "London's Rail Teminals and Their Suburban
Traffic: A Geographic Appraisal of the Connuter
Problem," GR, Vol. 54, July 1964, pp. 347-365. (3,4,6c).
Presents a history of connuter traffic and commuting
149. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324 -#325
951. VJhite, H. P. "The Rapid Transit Revival— A Conparative
Review of Overseas Practice,'' US, Vol. 4, June 1967,
pp. 137-148. (8).
Review of technology and finance of rapid transit in
North Anerica and Europe.
952. Whiteside, Robert E., C. Larry Cothran, and Willian M
Kean. "Intercity Traffic Projections," HRR, No. 205,
1967, pp. 110-135. (2,4,6c).
Using 0-D for Arizona and Illinois, growth factors are
developed to project traffic to 1985 levels.
953. VJhittington, G. "The Swaziland Railway," TESG, Vol. 57,
March-April 1966, pp. 68-73. (8a).
954. Wiant, Rex H. "A Simplified Method for Forecasting Urban
Traffic," HRBB 297, 1961, pp. 128-145. (2b,4,6c).
Presents the technique used in forecasting 1980 traffic
VDlunes in selected Iowa cities, based on population
and land use data,
955. Widdison, J, G, "Mexico's Transsierran Railroad," GR,
Vol. 51, July 1961, pp. 429-430. (8a).
956. Wiens, Harold J. "Riverine and Coastal Junks in China's
CoLTT-erce," EG, Vol. 31, July 1955, pp. 248-264, (6).
Exanines Chinese junk traffic and its centers of activity
and evaluates the traffic's regional and national sign-
ificance to connunist China.
957. Williams, Anthony and Wilber Zelinsky. "On Soue Patterns
in International Tourist Flows," EG, Vol. 46, October
1970, pp. 549-567. (6a).
An attempt to uncover najor patterns of flow anong
selected countries which Joninate the international
958. Williams, Ernest W. , Jr. FREIGHT TR^U-JSPORTATION IN THE
SOVIET UNION. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton
University Press, 1962. (1,6,7,8).
This text surveys the structure, growth, and node of
operations of Soviet transportation. The primary
objective is to assess Soviet performance in moving
150. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
959. Wilson, A. G. "Inter-regional Connodity Flows: Entropy
Maximizing Approaches," GA, Vol. 2, July 1970, pp. 255-
A whole fanily of gravity nodels are derived by applying
entropy naxiaizing principles; inter-regional input-
output equations are treated as constants, and "a nunber
of integrated gravity and input-output nodels are
960. Wilson, George W, "The Nature of Conpetition in the Motor
Transport Industry," LE, Vol. 36, Novenber 1960, pp. 387-
Various opinions on conpetition and Federal controls.
961. Wilson, George W. "Case Studies of Effect of Roads on
Developnent," HRR, No. 115, 1966, pp. 10-18. (7a).
Specific studies in Latin America and Asia are sumarized,
Road developnent is construed to be in response to
developnent already in progress or a partial initator
of developnent. Increased transportation capacity is
not considered a causative agent of developnent in a
relatively static or deteriorating situation.
962. Wilson, George W. "Transportation and Price Stability," .
AER, Vol, 59, May 1969, pp. 261-269. (1,7).
963. Wingo, Lowden and Harvey S. Perloff. "The Washington Trans-
portation Plan: Technics or Politics," PRSA, Vol. 7,
1961, pp. 249-262. (4).
The paper develops around the Washington Plan as a back-
ground for the elaboration of the idea of a broad systens
approach to urban transportation planning. The thene
advanced in the paper is that the choice of a trans-
portation systen is the core developnental decision that
the netropolitan region can nake and that there are
peculiar characteristics of this decision which have
special inplications for netropolitan planning.
964. Wingo, Lowden. TRANSPORTATION AND URBAN LAND. Washington,
D.C.: Resources for the Future, Inc., 1964. (2,4,7).
The author presents nathenatical nodels relating
accessibility and land use; the study also denonstrates
the role of internal transportation in ordering the
151. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
965. Wise, M. J. "The Inpact of a Channel Tunnel on the Planning
of South-Eastern England," GEOGRi\PHICAL JOURANL, Vol. 13,
June 1965, pp. 167-184. (7).
The channel tunnel appears to reinforce the circunstances
that are leading to the growth of the "servicing"
industries in London and to increase the econonic dis-
equilibriun between the South-east and the North and
966. Witheford, David K. "Traffic Assignnent Analysis and
Evaluation," HRR, No. 6, 1963, pp. 1-11. (2a, 4, 6c).
Criterion for viable traffic assignnent analysis with
reference to the Pittsburgh Area Transportation Survey.
967. Wohl, Martin. "Deaand, Cost, Price and Capacity Relationships
Applied to Travel Forecastin3," HRR, No. 38, 1963, pp.
40-54. (2b, 6).
Presents a general forn of travel forecasting which
incorporates feedback aechanisns affecting traffic
volune and tine and route capacity. Describes price,
volune, and denand relationships for fixed and changing
968. Wohl, Martin. "Costs of Urban Transport Systens of Varying
Capacity and Service," HRR, No. 64, 1964, pp. 1-70.
The cost of services to work-trip comnuters is analyzed
extensively. Residential collection, line-haul, and
dowiitown distribution costs per passenger trip for
principal transport nodes associated with urban, radial,
CBD-oriented facilities are exanined. This analysis
demonstrates a franework for conducting cost analyses
and using the results for decision naking.
969. Wohl, Martin, and Brian V. Martin. "Methods of Evaluating
Alternative Road Projects," JIEP, Vol. 1, January 1967,
pp. 28-45. (5,7).
A critical evaluation of four nethods of road investment:
annual cost, benefit-cost ratio, rate-of-return, and net
present nethods, the latter of which is considered
970. Wohl, Martin. "Notes on Transient Queuing Behavior, Capacity
Restraint Functions, and Their Relationship to Travel
Forecasting," PRSA, Vol. 21, 1968, pp. 191-202. (2,4,6).
152. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-^r'325
971. Wolfe, Roy I. "Contributions fron Geography to Urban
Transportation Research," HRBB 326, 1962, pp. 46-68.
Discussion of spatial concepts applicable to urban
transportation theory, of central place theory, and of
972. Wolfe, Roy I. "Transportation and Politics: The Exanple
of Canada," iJu^G, Vol. 52, June 1962, pp. 176-190. (7).
The North-South geographic axis, and the East-West
political axis of North America are conpared to deno- c:
nstrate the political-geographic influence affecting
the transport systems of Canada and the United States.
973. Wolfe, Roy I. TRANSPORTATION AND POLITICS. Princeton, New
Jersey: D. Van Nostrand Co., Inc., 1963. (7).
Where transportation itself is at the center of interest,
it is inevitably the economics of transportation that is
discussed, with the implication that once this is under-
stood, transportation is understood. In the present
text, transportation is the center of interest, but its
economic relations enter only when they have political
significance. It is the political implications of
transportation that are treated in this text.
974. Wolfe, Roy I. "Land Use and Transportation," CG, Vol. 7,
1963, pp. 148-149. (7).
975. Wolfe, Roy I. "Effect of Ribbon Development on Traffic Flow,'
TQ, Vol. 18, January 1964, pp. 105-117. (7a).
Treats "desirable and undesirable" effects with data
976. Wolfpert, Julian, "The Basis for Stability of Interregional
Transactions," GA, Vol. 1, April 1969, pp. 152-180.
Focuses on a series of questions involving migration
stability V7hich have implications for regional
977. Wood, Donald F. "The Distances-Traveled Technique for
Measuring Value of Recreation Areas: An Application,"
LE, Vol, 37, November 1961, pp. 363-369, (6).
Study in Wisconsin of boating facilities.
978. Woods, K. B. and R. F. Leggett. "Transportation and Economic
Potential in the Arctic," TQ, Vol. 14, October 1960,
pp. 435-453. (1).
153. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
979. Woodward, George A. "The New Italian autostrade Network,"
G, January 1963, Vol. 48, pp. 68-70. (5,7).
Outlines progress on construction of this United access
highway systea. Speculates on changes in Italian
nanufacturing which nay result.
980. Wootton, H. J. and G. W. Pick. "A Model for Trips Generated
by Households," JTEP, Vol. 1, May 1967, pp. 137-153.
Presentation of nethods of trip volunes and the role of
household attributes in the trip generation nodel.
981. Wright, Paul H. "Traffic, Traffic Generators in the Central
Business District," TE, Vol. 35, March 1965, pp. 23-24
and 46. (4,6,7).
Exanines land use changes in the CBD and their effect
982. VJright, Paul H. "Relationships of Traffic and Floor Space
Use in Central Business District," HRR, No. 114, 1966,
pp. 152-168. (2,4,6c).
Multiple correlation-regression analysis indicates
traffic flow to the CBD is nost closely related to
floor-space use classifications of retail sales,
services, office, and public establishments .
983. Wright, Winthrop R. "Foreign-Owned Railways in Argentina:
A Case Study of Econonic Nationalism," BUSINESS HISTORY
REVIEW, Vol. 71, 1967, pp. 62-93. (8a).
984. Wynn, F. Houston and C. Eric Linder. "Tests of Inter-
actance Fornulas Derived fron 0-D Data," HRBB 253,
1960, pp. 62-85. (2b,4,6c).
An extensive discussion of interactance fornulas and
their reliability. Test of the fornulas indicated
their ability to predict the total volune of vehicle
niles on selected urban expressways within 10 percent
of the actual volune.
985. Wynn, F. Houston, "Who Makes the Trips? Notes on an
Exploratory Investigation of One-Worker Households in
Chattanooga," HRR, No. 75, 1964, pp. 34-91. (4,6).
Trip characteristics indicates total trips for workers
increase as fanily size and the nunber of vehicles owned
increases. Work-day length is inversely related to the
worker's total nunber of trips.
154. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
986. l/ynn, F. Houston, and Herbert B. Levinson. "Sone Considerations
in Appraising Bus Transit Potentials," HRR, No. 197,
1967, pp. 1-24. (4).
An analysis of potential development of bus transit in
nediuu-size urban areas, with reference to population
characteristics, land use, and the opportunity to
utilize alternated forns of personal transport. The
study suggests new concepts in transit are required,
987. Yanada, Masao. "Urban Development and Expressways in Tokyo,"
HRR, No. 169, 1967, pp. 30-36. (4).
988. Yapa, Lakshnan, Mario Polese, and Julian Wolpert. "Inter-
dependence of Coaauting, Migration, and Job-Site
Selection," EG, Vol. 47, January 1971, pp. 59-72. (2,4,5c).
''Exanines the interdependence of residential and
euploynent nobility, both in terns of the nicro-analytic
nover-stayer decision and the nacro problen of national
and regional investment allocation criteria."
989. Yaseen, David U. "The British Motorway," TQ, Vol. 19,
July 1965, pp. 413-427. (8b).
A description of the inter- and intrastate freaways in
990. Yaseen, David W. "The Interstate Connercial Zone: An
Industrial Location Factor," LE, Vol. 42, February
1966, pp. 107-112. (1,7).
Currently existing ICC zones and proposed new zonation
991. Yates, Barbara A. "Railroads and Waterways of Africa," JG,
Vol. 60, March 1961, pp. 120-134. (8a, 8c).
Exanination of rail and water networks enphasizing
the lack of an integrated transport complex.
992. Yeates, Maurice. "Hinterland Delinitation: A Distance
Mininizing ^^pproach," PG, Vol. 15, January 1963, pp.
This paper treats the situation where a researcher wishes
to construct hinterlands based upon optinal criteria
and to compare the result with "real world" observation.
155. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
993. Yeates, Maurice. "A Note Concerning the Developnent of a
Geographic Model of International Trade," GA, Vol. 1,
October 1969, pp. 399-403. (2b, 6a).
"Denonstrates that the volune of trade between countries
can be explained by a nodification of the gravity nodel."
994. Yegrova, V. V. "The Econoaic Effectiveness of the
Construction of Pioneering Railroads in Newly Developed
Areas," SGRT, Vol. 5, April 1964, pp. 46-55. (7,8a).
Analysis of "econonic benefits derived fron the
construction of Lena Railroad in terns of savings of
transport costs conpared with previous transport routes
and in terns of the contribution nade to the national
econony by the developnent and settlenent of the area
served by the railroad."
995. Yordon, Wesley J. "Regulation of Intercity Bus Fares: The
Problen of Cost Analysis," LE, Vol. 44, May 1968,
pp. 245-253. (8b).
The article describes existing practices in the regulation
of bus fares, and points out large loopholes which
result fron this defect.
996. Zabonski, Bogdan. "A Snooth-Flov? Street Pattern for
Metropolis," PG, Vol. 14, January 1962, pp. 29-33.
The ain of this paper is to introduce a totally new
concept in the design of an optinun urban street grid,
and to point out its advantages as a neans of
facilitating the flow of city traffic,
997. Zaidi, Igtidar H. "Measuring the Locational Conplenentarity
of Central Places in West Pakistan: A Macro-geographic
Franework," EG, Vol. 44, July 1968, pp. 218-239. (4,6).
Considers connuting distances, narket potential,
transport situational and conmunication patterns in
measuring advantages and disadvantages of central
998. Zaytsen, I. F. "A Territorial Model of Productive Forces,"
SGRT, Vol. 10, November 1969, pp. 507-522. (6,7).
A territorial nodel of production is constructed on the
basis of regional units and four prelininary nodels which
describe a single product industry, transport flows,
a regional unit, and the decision of labor anong regional
156. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
999. Zell, Charles E. "San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge Trans -Bay
Bus Riders Survey," HRR, No. 114, 1966, pp. 169-182.
The survey indicates changes in enploynent and residence
caused shifts in bus patronage, and the initiation of an
exclusive bus lane did not cause a major increase in bus
patronage or a reduction in auto traffic on the bridge.
1000. Zwick, Charles J. "The Denand for Transportation Service in
a Grov7ing Econony," HRR, No. 2, 1963, pp. 3-5. (7).
Most future econonic growth is expected to be rooted in
factors outside of the transportation industry. Major
influences in future transportation requirements are
changing industrial nix, a larger proportion of incone
spent on amenities, and the purchasing of goods and
services that increase the denand for transport facilities.
157. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
B. Topical Index
11, 19, 24, 25, 28, 29, 37, 39, 43, 44, 48, 61, 92, 108, 115,
127, 129, 138, 145, 155, 159, 168, 170, 190, 193, 199, 200, 201,
214, 215, 229, 230, 238, 249, 274, 275, 281, 283, 289, 303, 304,
328, 332, 334, 346, 349, 360, 377, 381, 384, 396, 412, 413, 420,
441, 474, 493, 513, 520, 545, 546, 565, 575, 578, 580, 581, 584,
604, 611, 616, 621, 624, 632, 638, 640, 643, 649, 650, 651, 671,
675, 678, 680, 684, 595, 710, 737, 753, 783, 797, 816, 831, 834,
843, 862, 880, 881, 884, 885, 895, 918, 923, 941, 958, 962, 971,
2. Theoretical - Conceptual
1, 2, 21, 45, 47, 59, 62, 93, 103, 159, 163, 164, 227, 273, 276,
277, 280, 341, 347, 409, 426, 427, 428, 445, 449, 477, 517, 526,
528, 549, 552, 573, 595, 600, 606, 623, 631, 634, 642, 643, 645,
647, 653, 674, 714, 722, 724, 728, 739, 754, 758, 764, 767, 779,
781, 806, 811, 844, 864, 885, 386, 920, 921, 934, 942, 945, 946,
952, 959, 964, 968, 970, 976, 980, 982, 988, 992.
7, 12, 16, 20, 24, 27, 32, 34, 46, 49, 51, 63, 68, 74, 76, 78,
79, 80, 82, 85, 86, 89, 90, 91, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 114,
118, 125, 140, 142, 148, 153, 165, 182, 183, 184, 191, 202, 204,
206, 213, 228, 252, 267, 272, 274, 275, 279, 282, 284, 285, 287,
288, 292, 303, 305, 306, 314, 319, 338, 339, 345, 350, 352, 369,
370, 374, 386, 389, 390, 392, 393, 394, 398, 405, 418, 419, 430,
431, 433, 435, 436, 437, 442, 447, 448, 450, 453, 473, 478, 481,
490, 491, 494, 505, 510, 524, 537, 545, 546, 550, 553, 577, 582,
587, 589, 590, 593, 594, 597, 603, 608, 609, 610, 627, 633, 669,
682, 683, 688, 697, 702, 709, 720, 733, 746, 748, 750, 755, 782,
788, 802, 804, 805, 809, 810, 824, 838, 345, 850, 851, 854, 865,
895, 897, 898, 900, 908, 909, 914, 928, 944, 966.
2b. Travel Models
22, 26, 52, 54, 58, 67, 75, 84, 96, 121, 126, 137, 141, 160, 161,
173, 176, 180, 197, 205, 216, 217, 218, 219, 220, 221, 222, 233,
235, 254, 256, 260, 291, 307, 325, 329, 331, 340, 344, 351, 353,
355, 356, 367, 368, 400, 401, 402, 407, 408, 410, 414, 415, 416,
417, 421, 424, 425, 432, 476, 479, 480, 523, 556, 596, 613, 618,
644, 693, 700, 701, 735, 749, 766, 773, 774, 775, 794, 795, 817,
830, 841, 842, 847, 848, 852, 872, 873, 874, 875, 933, 954, 967,
3, 6, 23, 33, 65, 73, 80, 106, 115, 119, 122, 134, 159, 166, 208,
211, 224, 247, 250, 259, 299, 342, 349, 359, 382, 422, 439, 458,
460, 472, 475, 482, 495, 514, 529, 531, 547, 548, 564, 570, 574,
619, 625, 640, 650, 659, 660, 670, 677, 682, 694, 705, 706, 718,
720, 729, 737, 743, 760, 792, 803, 818, 826, 888, 913, 915, 922,
158. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324 -#32 5
1, 2, 14, 20, 22, 26, 27, 28, 30, 35, 40, 48, 49, 52, 53, 61, 64,
66, 67, 68, 69, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 30, 81, 82, 84, 89, 90, 91,
94, 97, 109, 115, 120, 121, 124, 125, 130, 131, 132, 136, 138,
141, 146, 149, 150, 151, 156, 160, 161, 164, 169, 172, 177, 178,
180, 183, 184, 185, 190, 191, 192, 193, 195, 197, 198, 199, 202,
205, 206, 208, 209, 214, 228, 230, 236, 237, 238, 239, 240, 242,
243, 248, 251, 252, 254, 256, 264, 266, 268, 269, 270, 271, 281,
283, 286, 288, 291, 295, 297, 298, 302, 305, 306, 307, 309, 311,
318, 320, 327, 328, 329, 330, 335, 336, 338, 340, 344, 345, 346,
347, 350, 352, 353, 355, 356, 357, 364, 367, 368, 369, 370, 372,
373, 374, 376, 377, 378, 379, 380, 384, 385, 389, 390, 391, 392,
393, 394, 395, 399, 400, 401, 402, 406, 414, 415, 416, 417, 418,
421, 422, 425, 430, 432, 436, 437, 438, 440, 442, 444, 445, 446,
447, 450, 454, 455, 456, 457, 458, 459, 464, 476, 479, 480, 482,
490, 491, 492, 495, 496, 498, 504, 505, 506, 508, 510, 511, 512,
513, 517, 518, 521, 525, 526, 527, 530, 531, 533, 535, 536, 542,
549, 552, 554, 556, 558, 560, 561, 563, 565, 566, 567, 572, 577,
578, 580, 581, 586, 591, 592, 594, 596, 597, 599, 601, 602, 612,
•■ 613, 615, 617, 630, 633, 634, 637, 638, 653, 665, 666, 670, 678,
683, 692, 693, 698, 702, 704, 725, 727, 731, 732, 733, 734, 739,
745, 746, 747, 748, 749, 751, 759, 765, 770, 773, 774, 776, 783,
784, 785, 787, 788, 789, 790, 791, 794, 806, 807, 813, 817, 822,
830, 836, 837, 838, 841, 842, 845, 846, 847, 848, 849, 854, 855,
856, 859, 364, 865, 873, 874, 875, 876, 877, 882, 887, 891, G92 ,
896, 897, 899, 900, 902, 903, 905, 908, 909, 915, 926, 929, 942,
943, 944, 945, 946, 950, 952, 954, 963, 964, 966, 968, 970, 971,
980, 981, 982, 984, 985, 987, 988, 996, 997, 999.
27, 34, 74, 115, 122, 213, 262, 272, 279, 282, 290, 321, 322, 324,
327, 348, 391, 424, 425, 439, 465, 486, 506, 594, 603, 631, 635,
645, 659, 660, 687, 697, 699, 714, 757, 762, 767, 777, 786, 789,
796, 799, 809, 810, 824, 845, 853, 855, 860, 879, 901, 904, 910,
911, 918, 920, 921, 924, 934, 937, 938, 969, 979, 996.
5a. Network Measures and Structure
46, 47, 93, 191, 204, 277, 280, 284, 237, 292, 323, 448, 449,
473, 493, 538, 540, 682, 709, 758, 764, 813, 936.
5b. Route Location
17, 18, 41, 47, 93, 131, 143, 152, 133, 184, 264, 305, 326, 366,
449, 511, 544, 574, 587, 607, 657, 658, 680, 681, 696, 814, 832,
871, 883, 914, 936.
5c. Route Evolution
15, 17, 302, 350, 444, 449, 478, 481, 524, 598, 654, 655, 656,
657, 772, 803, 826, 850, 936.
159. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
6. Flows and Movenent
8, 85, 96, 163, 189, 203, 227, 295, 303, 311, 325, 341, 360, 380,
386, 387, 409, 411, 424, 425, 427, 428, 484, 524, 536, 573, 578,
600, 603, 608, 609, 610, 618, 638, 639, 643, 645, 655, 675, 676,
686, 690, 707, 722, 728, 738, 747, 754, 755, 757, 778, 786, 789,
799, 800, 809, 810, 812, 815, 827, 855, 871, 886, 896, 910, 911,
912, 916, 920, 927, 934, 956, 958, 967, 970, 977, 981, 985, 996,
7b. Econonic and Regional Developnenfc
3, 51, 111, 112, 143, 153, 171, 174, 185, 186, 201, 246, 263,
279, 284, 285, 299, 346, 429, 555, 579, 636, 650, 651, 652, 741,
768, 798, 808, 814, 823, 840, 850, 851, 863, 869, 893, 894.
11, 36, 70, 71, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 105, 132, 139, 210, 257,
261, 301, 371, 404, 405, 462, 469, 529, 532, 539, 564, 633, 662,
663, 673, 706, 715, 716, 718, 719, 720, 721, 726, 818, 819, 863,
888, 917, 930, 931, 932, 939, 948.
8. Modal Studies
31, 55, 55, 57, 77, 119, 145, 146, 147, 178, 179, 208, 212, 296,
309, 334, 413, 451, 461, 472, 496, 507, 519, 541, 542, 578, 579,
582, 588, 611, 614, 621, 623, 632, 674, 685, 694, 724, 745, 751,
771, 791, 800, 821, 829, 926, 951, 958.
5, 13, 17, 23, 33, 38, 50, 65, 74, 94, 105, 134, 152, 166, 175,
194, 225, 226, 241, 245, 253, 277, 290, 297, 299, 300, 343, 354,
372, 373, 403, 429, 438, 453, 458, 475, 478, 483, 487, 499, 538,
540, 547, 567, 574, 620, 622, 628, 629, 636, 654, 655, 656, 657,
660, 663, 664, 687, 708, 757, 760, 761, 777, 799, 801, 803, 839,
851, 352, 861, 863, 866, 867, 868, 869, 883, 886, 888, 890, 893,
894, 910, 911, 912, 913, 919, 922, 953, 955, 983, 991, 994.
27, 40, 41, 59, 83, 104, 113, 116, 117, 122, 128, 155, 158, 226,
244, 248, 253, 255, 265, 272, 277, 308, 337, 348, 375, 376, 381,
412, 423, 482, 485, 493, 509, 534, 558, 559, 583, 646, 648, 711,
739, 740, 744, 761, 767, 769, 797, 803, 825, 831, 853, 889, 907,
919, 940, 960, 989, 995.
160. CPL Exchanse Bibliography #324-#325
5, 6, 11, 29, 39, 42, 71, 133, 144, 224, 229, 257, 258, 259,
342, 359, 382, 383, 429, 463, 468, 488, 499, 514, 539, 543,
557, 568, 569, 570, 605, 626, 661, 677, 717, 729, 730, 752,
834, 835, 858, 869, 886, 925, 927, 947, 991.
25, 73, 106, 234, 247, 316, 351, 358, 365, 388, 465, 470, 497,
515, 521, 585, 689, 695, 704, 705, 709, 710, 736, 742, 74J, 762j
763, 827, 844, 856.
64, 151, 198, 302, 320, 352, 422, 457.
9, Transportation Data
13, 33, 95, 117, 135, 150, 154, 157, 162, 181, 207, 223, 232,
251, 254, 310, 330, 355, 361, 362, 388, 396, 432, 443, 458,
464, 492, 500, 510, 515, 525, 527, 554, 560, 561, 562, 638,
669, 712, 753, 756, 772, 793, 807, 308, 828, 836, 878, 906,
161. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
b. Travel Models
a. Network Measures and Structure
b. Route Location
c. Route Evolution
Flows and Movenent
c . Intraurban
Inpact of Transportation
a. Highway Effects
b. Econonic and Regional Davelopnent
COUNCIL OF PL/JSIWING LIBR/\Kl/.riS Exchange Bibliography #324-#325
S?ATL\L STUDIES OF TR^iKSPORTATION: INTRODUCTION AND ANNOTATED
Additional copies available fron:
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Pcot Office Box 229
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