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Full text of "Spatial studies in transportation: introduction and annotated bibliography"

LIBRARY OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 

AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN 



OI6.7IH 
*^o.3K-32G 







Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign 



W 



http://www.archive.org/details/spatialstudiesin324325whee 



) Council of Planning Librarians 



EXCHANGE BIBLIOGRAPHY 



October 1972 



324 
325 



SPATIAL STUDIES IN TRANSPORTATION: Introduction and 
Annotated Bibliography 



James O. Wheeler, Associate Professor 
Department of Geography 
The University of Georgia 



IHE LIBRARY DEIHE 



OCT 1^^1972 



UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 
AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGM 



Mrs. Mary Vance, Editor 
Post Office Box 229 
Monticello, Illinois 61856 



COUNCIL OF PLANNING LIBRARIANS Exchange Bibliography #324-^^325 

SPATIAL STUDIES OF TRANSPORTATION: 
INTRODUCTION AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 

by 



James 0. Wheeler 
Associate Professor 
Departoent of Geography 
University of Georgia 



PREFACE 

This bibliography has grown out of the author's research and 
his teaching of undergraduate and graduate courses over the last 
several years in the geography of transportation. The need was 
felt for a bibliography on a subject with a diverse and widely 
scattered literature. The annotations were developed not only to 
aid the beginning student with the field but also to guide the 
advanced graduate student to specific topics and approaches. The 
bibliography is linited to references in English and basically 
covers the last ten years. No clain of conpleteness is intended, 
although the ain has been to survey the essential literature. 

Many individuals have assisted in the conpletion of this 
bibliography. Those deserving special thanks include Messrs. George 
Anderson, Janes Nance, John D. Stephens, and Mark Sullivan, all 
graduate students in geography at Michigan State University. Their 
long hours spent in the library have greatly aided in giving this 
bibliography whatever accuracy and usefulness it nay have. However, 
the author retains full responsibility for any errors and onissions, 
and it is hoped that these will be called to his attention for future 
correction. 

Finally, the author especially wishes to thank his wife, Sharon, 
for careful checking of detail and for typing both rough drafts 
and the final copy. 



Janes 0, Wheeler 



2. . CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

CONTENTS 

Page 
Preface ^ 

I. Introduction to Bibliography 3 

II. Transportation Geography 6 

III. User Guide 9 

A. Organization ^ 

B. Topical Guide 10 

C. Periodical Abbreviations ll 

IV. Bibliography 13 

A. Annotated Bibliography... 13 

B. Topical Index 1^^ 



x-rl. 



3. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 



I. INTRODUCTION TO BIBLIOGRAPHY 

This bibliography covers the essential literature in English 
over the last decade on spatial studies of transportation. It has 
of course proven inpossible to include all of the references 
relevant to transportation geography or even expressly a part of 
the field in a volune of restricted length. However, an attenpt 
is aade to survey the nore significant books and articles of 
interest to the student of transportation geography. More obscure 
material, found in discussion papers or in nineographed form, are 
generally not included. Nor are doctoral dissertations or naster 
theses. 

The bibliography is designed to aid researchers in the general 
field of transportation, and nore specifically in the spatial 
analysis of transportation, to readily locate uaterial dealing with 
their particular interest. The abstracts are intended to point up 
salient features of the books or articles not always evident in 
the title. The bibliography also gives sone indication of the 
anount of research done on particular subjects, as well as the 
current findings and understanding of the various topics. Further, 
a close examination of the bibliography should suggest additional 
research areas. For exanple, sone of the theoretical studies nay 
suggest further theoretical development or alternatively nay prove 
useful for nore practical planning or policy oriented research, 

A second and related purpose of the bibliography is for the 
college and university student interested in transportation as a 
spatial science, including the role of transportation in locational 
theories. Careful study of the bibliography should place the 
student in touch with a wide range of useful transportation geography 
literature. By reference to the classification systen used here, 
the student nay direct his readings around specific kinds of topics 
and concepts. The bibliography then should assist one in developing 
a knowledge of part or all of the field. Likewise, a student 
indirectly interested in transportation nay skin the entries for 
books and articles useful a particular research project or for 
independent study. In short, the bibliography nay be used as a 
reference book or as a guide to developing a competence in under- 
standing the spatial components of transportation. 

It is hoped that this volune will be useful not only to 
academic researchers, instructors, and students, but also will be 
used by those nore interested in policy and planning aspects of 
transportation. AccorJitgly, sone focus is given to books and 
articles treating the spatial role in transportation planning and 
policy fornulation. As is well-known, transportation planning 
directly involves the location of routes, their use, and their in- 
pact. An up-to-date knowledge of the literature in these areas is 
therefore fundamental, and it is anticipated that this publication 
would be of considerable utility to those involved in planning and 
executing transportation change. In this regard, a large number of 
articles are included fron the Highway Research Record and Highway 
Research Bulletin. 



4. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

The urban scholar will also find much of interest here, as a 
high proportion of the stuaies are of various facets of urban 
transportation. These studies range frou general introductory 
statenents of the status and problens of transportation in the city 
to nore narrowly focused treatment of individual problens and in- 
dividual urban areas. Research in urban transportation has been 
carried out by a great variety of scholars representing nunerous 
disciplines; entries in this bibliography reflect this wide range 
of viewpoints and approaches. 

Although nany of the studies here are properly classified as 
descriptive, a certain bias towards research enphasizing a theoretical 
content and approach oay be noted. It is felt that these studies 
are of nore general interest to a wider audience and are nore use- 
ful as a base on which to build future research. It is hoped that 
greater concern will be placed in the future on nore theoretical 
and conceptual types of investigations, especially in areas in which 
such an approach has been rare in the past. 

Entitled "Spatial Studies of Transportation," this bibliography 
goes well beyond the disciplinary boundary of geography in including 
a variety of material on the spatial studies of transportation. A 
minority of the entries are by those trained as geographers. Also 
prominently representee is research by regional scientists, economists 
planners, transportation engineers, end sociologists, to name only 
a few. The bibliography is interdisciplinary because the research 
on spatial transportation is approached by a variety of disciplinary 
viewpoints. However, there was an effort made to include most of 
the significant articles from the geographical periodical literature 
in the past decade. 

As indicated, the emphasis here is on the literature from the 
1960's, and generally only the most important or prominent studies 
prior to 1960 have been included. Studies of migration have in 
general not been included here, nor have studies in diffusion pro- 
cesses (See Gunnar Olsson, Distant an d Hunan Interaction , Phil- 
adelphia: Regional Science Research Institute, Bibliography Series 
No. 2, 1965 and Lawrence A. Brown, D iffusion Processes and Loc ation: 
A Conceptual Framework and Bibliop^raphy , Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: 
Regional Science Research Institute, Bibliography Series No. 4, 
1968). Selectea studies focusing on transportation and industrial 
location are referenced, but a much more inclusive source is 
Benjai.iin H. Stevens and Carolyn A. Brackett, Industrial Location : 
A Review and Annotated Bibliography of Theoretical. Empirical and 
Case Studies . Philadelphia: Regional Science Research Institute, 
Bibliography Series No. 3, 1967. 

This bibliography differs fron ether available reference 
sources in coverage, purpose, and scope. It night be regarded as 
a complement to an older annotated bibliography: R. Wolfe and 
B. Hickok, an ..nnotated Bibliography of the Geography of Trans - 
portation , Berkeley: Institute of Transportation and Traffic Engineei 
ing. University of California, 1961. ^ publication by William R. 
Siddall, Transportation Geography: A Bibliography , Manhattan: 
Kansas State University Library, 1965, contains many references 
going back to 1950, emphasizing modes of transportation and a 



5. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

regional classification wherever possible. Many references on gen- 
eral and historical studies in transportation are included, with 
relatively few references to theoretical approaches and urban studies, 
especially outside the field of geography. A bibliography emphas- 
izing theoretical and urban research is Williau R, Black and 
Frank E. Horton, i. Bibliography of Selec t ed Research on Ne tv7orks^ 
and Urban Transpor tat ion Relevant to C urre nt Transportation Geo- 
graphy Researc h, Evanston: Northwestern University, Department of 
Geography Research Report No. 28, undated, on additional source 
conplenenting Siddall's and providing a base of general v/orks in 
transportation geography" is Russell B. Abacas and Mark C. Geyer, 
Transportation: A Ge ographica l Bibliograph y, Minneapolis: University 
of Minnesota, Departnent of Geography, 1970. A raonthly publication 
referencing a wide spectrun of literature is Current Literature in 
Traffic and Tran sporta tion , Evanston: Northwestern University, 
The Transportation Center. Other useful references on specialized 
topics Sources of Information in Tran sp ortation . Evanston: North- 
western University, The Transportation Center, 1964; Katherine 
D. Warden, "Selecte. Bibliography: Transportation and Econonic 
Development," in G. Fronn, editor, Tra nsport Investnent and Econonic 
Deve lopnent . Washington, D,C.: Brookings Institution, 1965, pp. 277- 
305; and Jaioes 0. Wheeler, Research on the Journey to Work : 
Introduction and Bibliograph y, Monticello, Illinois: Council of 
Planning Librarians, No. 65, 1969. 



6. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-^^325 



II. TI UNSPORT.iTION GEOGtUiPHY 

Transportation geography is a field with a rapidly expanding 
literature and growin,'^ proninence, having energed a nere fifteen 
to twenty years ago as a visible subfield of geography. Based 
largely on the nethodological staterents of Ullnan (884, 885) in 
the nid-fifties and carried into the sixties by Garrison's power- 
ful influence, the field has had especially vigorous development 
during the last decade. Although the developnent has been uneven, 
due in part to the irole of individual researchers, the field has 
taken on a skeletal fom and organization which is attracting an 
increasing nunber of students and researchers. The field is suf- 
ficiently defined to suggest a considerable potential for further 
growth founded on the existing research base. 

Transportation geography is defined here as the study of the 
interactions anong locations on the earth as raanifest by connections 
and novenents. The field nay be divided for convenience of dis- 
cussion into three broad and overlapping areas, in each of which 
the prinary focus nay be on transportation patterns or on proc- 
esses. The fii-st research cluster examines the routes or con- 
nections anong places, emphasizing the location, structure, and 
evolution of routes or networks. The research interest here is 
normally at a nacroscale, rather than at the scale used by the 
transportation engineer in fixing exact routing. These studies 
range from the highly morphologic to those focusing on the pro- 
cesses generating netv;ork developnent. Both theoretical con- 
ceptualizations and empirical analyses have been followed. 

A second research core seeks to understand the areal variation 
in movement among locations. A nunber of interaction of flov/ 
models are employed to describe such flow variability. A con- 
siderable literature in urban and transportation planning has 
concentrated on the development and testing of models of movement. 
Also into this second research category fall the numerous studies, 
especially of the past, which treat the extent of hinterlands or 
urban trade areas using interaction data. Only a sampling of 
these studies is included here, and a mere complete source is 
Brian J.L. Berry and Allan Fred (61). Both the study of networks 
and movement on networks has given emphasis to the analysis of 
patterns, rather than to the processes operating through tine 
which alter transportation patterns. 

The third area of spatial research on transportation is impact 
analysis, in which the effects of networks and movements are con- 
sidered on land use, activity nodes, and behavior. Here the studies 
are commonly process-oriented in that changes in transportation 
are recognized to be interdependent with change in nontransport 
features of the area. A most considerable literature exists here, 
where the boundary lines between transportation and other areas of 
geography becor.e indistinct. In some such studies, transportation 
is regarded as one of a series of independent variables inducing 
change or explaining a portion of the areal variations in some 
variable. 



7. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

These three research clusters describe the field abstractly 
in terms of kinds of relationships rather than by kinds of trans- 
port nodes or by regions on the earth. This three-fold division 
is appropriate whether at the scale of a snail city or that of a 
continent. Because of the concentration of aovei^ent within cities, 
there are a large nunber of stuaies dealing with urban trans- 
portation, and such studies in this bibliography are generally 
identified as having an urban focus, as well as noting whether they 
enphasize networks, flows, or iapact. 

Many of the articles in this bibliography can be conceptualized 
within the franework of Berry's "geographic natrix" (Brian J.L. 
Berry, "Approaches to Regional Analysis: A Synthesis," Annals , 
Association of ^>aerican Geographers . Vol. 54, March 1964, pp. 2-11). 
Berry identifies five basic approaches to regional analysis: "One 
can exanine: 

(a) the arrangeaent of cells within a row or part of a row; or 

(b) the arrangeuent of cells within a column or part of a 
column, ' 

Since the rows of the matrix represent characteristics of 
places and the columns refer to places or locations, the first 
approach leads, in the context of transportation geography, to 
an analysis of the way in which transportation characteristics 
vary in magnitude and importance from place to place (depending 
on the scale of investigation). The second approach would identify 
the significance of transportation at a particular node and the 
relationship between transportation and other functions and 
attributes of that node, as in the stuiy of port cities. 

Instead of studying only a single column, one night undertake: 

"(c) comparison of pairs or of whole series of rows; and 
(d) comparison of pairs of columns or of whole series of 
columns," 

These two approaches are simple extensions of the former tv/o and 
involve the study of somewhat more complex relationships. The 
third approach (c) considers the spatial associations am.ong dif- 
ferent transport variables, such as accessibility and movement, or 
between transport and nontransport variables, such as movement 
cost and production economies of scale. This approach may also 
include comparative analysis of modes or types of movement at a 
number of locations. The fourth approach (d) represents a com- 
parative regional analysis of transportation in different parts of 
the world or at different locations. 



8. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

mny enpirical studies focus on a portion of the natrix, 
pointing up a fifth approach: 

"(e) the study of a 'box* or subnatrix." 

As Berry indicates, this approach nay "involve sone or all of 
steps (a) -(d) above" and represent a case study nethod. 

These five approaches nay each be considered in the tenporal 
dimension, allowing a total of ten ways to undertake research in 
the geography of transportation. 

Many kinds of transportation data nay be placed into natrix 
fom to readily depict interaction anong locations. In contrast 
to the geographic natrix described above, an interaction natrix 
consists of n rows for origins and n colunns for destinations. The 
elenents of the natrix nay indicate V7hether or not a direct con- 
nection exists between origin i and destination j (adjacency 
natrix) or nay represent the nagnitude of flow between i and j, A 
large nunber of techniques exist for the analyses of such 
natrices (805). 

A nore conplete review of the field of transportation geography 
may be found in Janes 0. VJheeler, "An Overview of Research in 
Transportation Geography," The East Lakes Geographer . Vol. 7, 1971, 



9. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 



III. USER GUID E 

A. OL-ganization 

This bibliography classifies each article into at least one 
topic, as indicated by the topical guide. Frequently an entry 
is cross classified. A topical index is provided at the end. The 
classification systen includes the traditional divisions by :..odes, 
but only where the study rather directly focuses on a node. If 
appropriate, the study is placed into topics 5, 6, or 7 (networks, 
flows, and transport inpact). The study nay also be classified Ly 
approach, general, historical, or theoretical-conceptual, as well 
as by subject area (as with nodes or urban research). A catejjory 
terned "Transportation Data" points up data sources, data collect- 
ion and display nethods, and iata uses in the field of spatial 
studies in transportation. It is felt that this organization v/ill 
be of naxinun benefit to the greatest nunber of users. 



10. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 



B. 


Topical Guide 


1. 


General 


2. 


Theoretical-Conceptual 




a. General 




b. Travel Models 


3. 


Historical 


4. 


Urban 


5. 


Networks 



a. Network Measures and Structure 

b. Route Location 

c. Route Evolution 

6. Flows and Movement 

a. International 

b. Interresional 

c. Intraurban 

7. lapact of Transportation 

a. Highway Effects 

b. Econovaic and Regional Development 

c. Ports 

8. Modal Studies 

a. Rail 

b. Highway 

c . Water 

d. Air 

e. Pipe 

f. Other 

9. Transportation Data 



11. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 
C. Periodical Abbreviations 



The nanes and abbreviations of periodicals connonly appearing 
in this bibliography are given below. 



AER 
/kAAG 



CG 



EG 



GA 

GR 

G 

HSGTJ 

HRBB 

HRR 

ITJ 



JG 



JRS 

JTEP 

JTH 



LE 

PRSA 
PG 



SGRT 
TESG 
TPR 



- /jnerican Econonic Review 

- /merican Journal of Sociology 

- /jinals, Association of Anerican Geographers 

- Australian Geographer 

- Australian Geographical Studies 

- Business History Review 

- Canadian Geographer 

- East Lakes Geographer 

- East Midland Geographer 

- Econonic Development and Cultural Change 

- Econonic Geography 

- Ekistics 

- Environnent and Planning 

- Fortune 

- Geografiska Annaler 

- Geographical Analysis 

- Geographical Journal 

- Geographical Review 

- Geography 

- High Speed GrounJ Transportation Journal 

- Highway Research Board Bulletin 

- Highway Research Record 

- Institute of Transport Journal 

- Journal of Air Law and Coixierce 

- Journal of Anerican Institute of Planners 

- Journal of Geography 

- Journal of Industrial Econonics 

- Journal of Political Econony 

- Journal of Regional Science 

- Journal of Transport Economics and Policy 

- Journal of Transport History 

- Journal of Tropical Geography 

- Journal of the Institute of Highway Engineers 

- Journal of the Institute of Mathenatical Applications 

- Land Econor.ics 

- Monthly Labor Review 

- New Zealand Geographer 

- Papers of the Regional Science Association 

- Proceedings, Association of Aiaerican Geographers 

- Professional Geographer 

- Scientific Anerican 

- Scottish Geographical Magazine 

- Social Forces 

- Soviet Geography: Review and Translation 

- Tijdschrift voor Econonische en Sociale Geografie 

- Town Planning Review 



CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 



TE - Traffic Engineering 
TQ - Traffic Quarterly 

- Transactions: Institute of British Geographers 

- Transport and Connunications Review 

- Transportation Journal 

- Transportation Research 
TS - Transportation Science 

- Urban Affairs Quarterly 
US - Urban Studies 

- Yearbook of the Association of Pacific Coast 
Geographers 



13. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 



IV. BIBLIOGRAPHY 
"• Annotated Bibliog;raphy 

1. Adams, John S. 'Directional Bias in Intra-Urban Migration," 

EG, Vol. 45, October 1969, pp. 302-323. (2,4). 

2. Adans, Russell B. "U, S. Metropolitan Migration: Dimensions 

and Predictability," PROCEEDINGS, A. A. G., Vol. 1, 1969, 
pp. 1-6. (2,4). 

3. Alagona, Dagago. "Transport in Africa in Relation to Econonic 

Development," ITJ, Vol, 31, January 1965, pp. 53-56. (7b), 

Treats the problems of economic nationalism in African 
deve lopment . 

4. Albrink, Karl S. and Joseph F. Cobbs. "'Research into the Value 

of Landlocked Right-of-Way Parcels," HRR, No. 8, 1963, 
pp. 95-106. (7a). 

Recommends appraisers and negotiators use case studies 
to aid in the establishment of a method that can be 
applied to determine land values, 

5. Aldcroft, Derek H. "The Decontrol of British Shipping and 

Railways after the First World War," JTH, Vol. 5, 
November 1961, pp. 89-104. (3, 8a, 8c). 

Outlines the reconstruction problems involved in decent- 
ralizing railv/ay and shipping industries and compares the 
way in which the government dealt with decentralization 
from 1918 to 1921. 

6. Aldercroft, Derek H. "The Eclipse of British Coastal Shipping, 

1913-21," JTH, Vol. 6, May 1963, pp. 24-38. (3,3c). 

7. Alexander, David and Leon N. Moses, "Competition Under Uneven 

Regulation,'- AER, Vol, 53, May 1963, pp. 466-473. (2a). 

Presentation of a theoretical scheme to demonstrate hox7 
an increase in the regulated rate is equivalent to a 
reduction in the supply of regulated transport, as justifi' 
cation for the extension of agricultural exemption to 
rail and v/ater carriers. 



14. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

8, Alexander, John W. "Freight Rates as a Geographic Factor in 

Illinois/^ EG, Vol. 20, January 1944, pp. 25-30. (6,7). 

Presents a series of naps showing the freight rate 
structure and the relationship of this structure to the 
location of grain and livestock production; concludes 
that the rate structure favors production of grain in 
the East and livestock in the West and Northwest. 

9. Alexander, John W., and S. Earl Brown, and Richard Dahlberg. 

"Freight Rates: Selected Aspects of Uniforn and Nodal 
Regions,'' EG, Vol. 34, January 1958, pp. 1-18. (6b). 

Maps and describes the rate structure in Wisconsin. 

10. Alexander, John W. , and S. Earl Brown, and Richard Dahlberg. 

"International Trade: Selected Types of World Regions," 
EG, Vol. 36, April 1960, pp. 95-115. (6a). 

Proposes seven classification systems for regionalizing 
data on international trade, giving the characteristics, 
. evaluations, and usefulness of each. 

11. Alexanderson, Gunnar and G. Norstron. WORLD SHIPPING: AN 

ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY OF PORTS AND SEABORNE TRx'UDE. New York: 
John Wiley 6c Sons, Inc., 1964. (1,7c, 8c). 

■ " A conprehensive treatment of world shipping, sea routes, 
and hinterlands, with systematic and regional chapters, 

12. Alonso, Willian. "A Theory of the Urban Land Market," PRSA, 

Vol. 6, 1960, pp. 149-157. (2a). 



Presents a non-nathenatical overview of a theory of the 
,, urban land aarket, based on agricultural rent theory and 
involving trade-offs between rent and transport. 

13. Andreassen, John C.L. "Canadian National Railway Records," 

BUSINESS HISTORY REVIEW, Vol. 39, 1965, pp. 115-119. 
(8a, 9). 

A progress report on the attenpts to organize the records 
of the Canadian National Railways for greater research 
usefulness, 

14. Andrews, J.A.C. ''Urban Transportation in Canada," TE, Vol. 38, 

October 1967, pp. 58-61. (4). 

A study of eleven Canadian cities showing the decline of 
transit despite population growth and giving reconmendations 
for nore investnent in transport systems. 



15. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

15. Appleton, J. H. ''The Efficiency of the Great Australian 

Divide as a Barrier to Railway Comnunication,'' TRANS- 
ACTIONS: ItlSTITUTE OF BRITISH GEOGR/vPHERS, No. 33, 
1963, pp. 101-122. (5c). 

The notion that the Great Australian Divide is an effective 
barrier to transportation is analyzed and qualified. 

16. Appleton, J. H. A MORPHOLOGICAL APPROACH TO THE GEOGR^iPHY OF 

TRANSPORT. Yorkshire, England: University of Hull, 1965, 
(2a). 

The purpose of this study is to exanine the part played 
by Dorphological studies in the geography of transportation. 
The reasons for transportation geography's nonnorphological 
trends in the past are examined and its inplications for 
further studies in geography are considered. An attempt 
is nade to put the norphological approach into perspective 
insofar as it is relevant to the geography of transportation. 

17. Appleton, J. H. "Sone Geographical Aspects of the Moderni- 

zation of British Railways," G, Vol. 52, Novenber 1967, 
pp. 357-363. (5b, 5c, 8a). 

Presents a factual account of changes in network shape, 
utilization, and character and evaluates closure of 
certain lines, changes in ownerships, "Merry-go-round" 
systems, and proposed truck routes. 

18. Appleyard, Donald, Kevin Lynch and John Myer. "The View fron 

the Road,'= HRR, No. 2, 1963, pp. 21-30. (5b). 

Discusses the landscape seen by the driver and passengers 
along highway routes, out-lines objectives to provide the 
vievjer with coherent fom and a clarified iuage and 
meaning of the environment, and uses field data to 
suggest such findings nay be employed in highway planning. 

19. Arth, Maurice P. "Federal Transport Regulatory Policy," 

AER, Vol. 52, May 1962, pp. 416-425. (1). 

Based on evaluation of the Ueeks and Mueller reports, 
the Hector and Arpia protests, the Doyle study, and the 
Landis Report, steps are identified which should be 
taken to iiuprove federal regulation of transportation. 
It is concluded that the greatest needs are for low-cost 
competitive pricing of carrier services and universal 
and adequate pricing for government-facility services. 



16. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

20. Ashley, Roger H. and William F. Berard. "Interchange 

Development Along 180 Miles of 1-94," HRR, No. 96, 
1965, pp. 46-58. (2a,4,7a). 

Analysis and classification of freeway interchanges as 
they relate to coonunity Jevelopnent, 

21. Ashton, Winifred D. THE THEORY OF ROAD TRi^FFIC FLOW. Lonuon, 

England: Methuen &Co., Ltd., 1966. (2). 

Conprehensive textbook on traffic flow theory written 
primarily for statisticians, applied natheuaticians and 
engineers specializing in the traffic field. Although 
the approach is theoretical, the author contends that a 
number of the results collected still find practical 
application. 

22. Aynvarg, Ye. S. "Zones of Influence of Middle-Size Cities, 

Their Boundaries and Passenger Flows," SGRT, Vol. 10, 
Novenber 1969, pp. 549-558. (2b,4,6c). 

A modified gravity model and concepts fron Christaller 
and Zipt are used to identify the central city's zone 
of influence, the demographic and passenger-generating 
potential of the zone, and the population in any con- 
centric ring in the zone or in the entire zone. 

23. Ayre, Josephine. "History and Regulation of Trailer-on- 

Flatcar Movement," HRR, No. 153, 1967, pp. 1-30. (3,3a). 

Traces the influence of the ICC through successive 
i investigations and shows that piggy-back transport has 

increased due to recent ICC investigations. 

24. Baker, Robert F. "A Practical View of the Systems Approach," 

TQ, Vol. 21, January 1967, pp. 471-486. (1,2a). 

Identification of existing weaknesses in the systems 
approach to transportation, 

25. Balchin, W.G.V. AIR TR/^SPORT AND GEOGRAPHY. London, England: 

The Royal Geographical Society, 1947. (l,8d). 

A pioneering effort to chart the geographic implications 
of a relatively new medium of transportation. A general 
background discussion is follov;ed by descriptions of 
world air routes and regional air traffic patterns. 



17. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324 -#32 5 

26. Balkus, Koznas, •'Transportation Inplications of Alternative 

Sketch Plans," HPJl, No. 180, 1967, pp. 52-70. (2b, 4, 6c). 

A uniforr.1 application of travel generation criteria is 
applied to sets of population distributions. Trip 
generation is then estimated in several regions. 

27. Balkus, Kozroas. "Metropolitan Highway Systens in the Frane- 

work of Social Welfare Decisions," FRSA, Vol. 22, 1969, 
pp. 39-54. (2a,4,5,8b). 

Regression equations are used to detemine the process 
of service standard fornatlon, the norms that guide the 
distribution of services, and perfornance parameters of 
the systen. A nodel of an optinun highway network is 
presented, 

28. Ballard, Cordelle Kenper. "Transportation Dependents," TQ, 

Vol. 21, January 1967, pp. 83-90. (1,4). 

An outline of the transport needs of the aged, sug- 
gesting that a conprehensive effort is needed to provide 
convenient nodes of transportation. 

29. Ballert, Albert G. "The Great Lakes Coal Trade: Present and 

Future," EG, Vol. 29, January 1953, pp. 48-59. (1,3c). 

Discussion of tenporal shifts in the volume of coal 
handled by selected ports and identification of the 
reasons for changes. 

30. Banford, Franklin. "Land-Use Control at Freeway Interchanges 

in California," TQ, Vol. 19, Novenber 1965, pp. 541-555. 
(4,7a). 

A call for continued local land use control to coordinate 
connunity adjustuent and integrate the freeway into the 
connunity consistent with connunity values, 

31. Bannard, J. U. "Sone Current Thoughts on Transport Co-ordin- 

ation," ITJ, Vol. 31, May 1966, pp. 370-376. (8). 

The author calls for maintenance of conpetition between 
road and rail transport by the government to encourage 
forms of transport that would provide the right quality 
at the lowest cost. 



10. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

32. Bardwell, George E, and Taul R. Merry. "Measuring the 

Econonic lupact of a Linited-Access Highway on 
Contiunities, Land Use, and Land Values," HRBB 268, 
1960, pp. 37-73. (2a, 7a). 

Analysis of sales tax collections to measure the econonic 
inpact of a highway on bypassed connunities and on land 
value and land use to demonstrate preliminary effects of 
a partially completed limited access highway in Colorado. 

33. Barker, T.C, "Passenger Transport in Nineteenth Century London, 

JTH, Vol. 6, Ifey 1964, pp. 166-174. (3, 8a, 9). 

A survey of source material. 

34. Barloon, Marvin J. "The Interrelationship of the Changing 

Structure of American Transportation and Changes in 
Industrial Location," LE, Vol. 41, May 1965, pp. 169- 
179. (2a, 5, 7). 

Examines the relationship between industrial location 
and transport systems, notes that U. S. industry is 
relatively footloose with respect to transport, and that 
"changes in industrial output and in location appear to 
alter the structure of transportation, rather than the 
converse, • 

35. Barnes, Charles F,, Jr. "Integrating Land Use and Traffic 

Forecasting, =• HRBB 297, 1961, pp. 1-13. (4). 

Discusses the procedures used and the basic information 
gained during the development of the land use analysis 
for the Hartford Area Traffic Study. 

36. barrington, R. "The Hamburg Outer-Harbour Project and Re- 

lated Developments," TESG, Vol. 59, March-April 1563, 
pp. 106-lOa. (7c). 

Describes a proposed site for harbor development needed 
^ to meet the demands created by new super tankers. 

37. Barry, Walter A., Jr. "Proposed English Channel Tunnel: Its 

Estimated Traffic and Revenue," TQ, Vol. 15, April 1961, 
pp. 269-234. (1). 

Discusses the findings of a survey to estimate traffic 
and revenues for an electric railway tunnel and concludes 
that such a tunnel is economically feasible. 

38. Barton, Thomas Frank. "Railroads of Southeast Asia," JG, Vol. 

59, 1960, pp. 21-33. (8a). 

Examination of the major rail networks serving Thailand, 
Malaya, Cambodia, and Laos, surveying their extent, 
pattern, international aspects, passenger and goods 
flow, and future. 



19. CPL Exchange Bibliography niii-nib 

Barton, Thonas Frank. "Outlets to the Sea for Land-Locked Laos," 
JG, Vol. 59, 1960, pp. 206-219. (1,8c). 

Describes the need for access to ocean shipping, the 
effects of renaining French colonial rule, and the 
viability of potential outlets. 

40. Bauer, K. W. 'A Ifethod for Attaining Realistic Local Highway 

Systen Flans," HRBB 326, 1962, pp. 37-45. (4,8b). 

Concludes that aost cities do not have long range plans 
and that local plans are quite ineffective in achieving 
integrated urban highways aainly because they are 
technically inadequate. 

41. Bauer, K. W. "Use of Official Map Procedure to Reserve Land 

for Future Highways," HRR, No. 8, 1963, pp. 82-94. (5b, 3b), 

Outlines and demonstrates planning for official naps 
designating right-of-way lines and site boundaries for 
streets and highways to prevent extensive and costly 
developcent within these lines in Wisconsin. 

42. Beaver, S. H. "Ships and Shipping: The Geographical Conse- 

quences of Technological Progress," G, Vol. 52, 1967, 
pp. 133-156. (6a, 8c). 

Discussion of three najor results of technical progress 
leading to trade route changes: the substitution of oil 
for coal, the developnent of refrigeration, and changes 
in the nature of international trade that have both 
resulted froa and influenced changes in ship construction. 

43. Becht, J. Edwin. A GEOGRAPHY OF TR/iNS PORTrtTION AND BUSINESS 

LOGISTICS. Dubuque, Iowa: Brown Co., 1970. (1). 

An introductory statement emphasizing transportation 
patterns, the role of terrain, climate, historical 
factors, carrier operations, and business logistics, 

44. Becknan, ITornan. "Impact of the Transportation Planning 

Process," TQ, Vol. 20, April 1966, pp. 159-173. (1). 

A consideration of social, econoaic, and political effects 
of conprehensive transportation, encouraging a holistic 
approach to transport developnent. 



20. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

45. Beckr.iann, Martin, C. B. McGuire, and Christopher B. Winsten. 

STUDIES IN THE ECONOMICS OF TRANSPORTATION. New Haven, 
Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1956. (2). 

The purpose of the studies included within this volune is 
to develop and illustrate certain concepts, rjethods, and 
nodels that r.iay have usefulness as points of departure 
for assessing capabilities and appraising efficiency of 
operation of transportation systems. 

46. Becknann, Martin, C. B. McGuire, and Christopher B. Winsten. 

"On the Theory of Traffic Flow in Networks," TQ, Vol. 21, 
January 1967, pp. 109-117. (2b, 5a). 

Discusses ideal properties of transportation theory of 
traffic flow, reviews basic nodels of flow having linear 
progranning solutions, and conr>ents on implications for 
road utilization and road benefits. 

47. Beckmann, Martin, C. B. McGuire, and Christopher B. Winsten. 

"Principles of Optinun Location for Transportation Net- 
works," QUANTITATIVE GEOGRAPHY PART I: ECONOMIC AND 
CULTUR.;L TOPICS. W. L. Garrison and D. F. Marble, eds . , 
'S>-t; '.' : Evanston, Illinois: Departoent of Geography, North- 

^\'.'<:i western University, 1967, pp. 95-119. (2, 5a, 5b). 

Discrete and continuous nodels of optimal network design 
are fornulated in the paper which solve the optimal 
design problem: How should a given total sun available 
for initial construction and subsequent maintenance cost 
be allocated in order to effect the greatest savings in 
transportation cost for road users? The author contends 
that the models fornulated are primarily valuable for 
heuristic purposes. 

48. Beesley, M. E. and J. F. Kain. Urban Form, Car Ownership 

and Public Policy: An Appraisal of Traffic in Towns,'' 
US, Vol. 1, November 1964, pp. 174-203. (1,4). 

The 'Traffic in Towns" report of 1963 is critically 
analyzed, 

49. Beesley, M. E. and J. F. Kain. "Forecasting Car Ownership 

and Use,'' US, Vol. 2, November 1965, pp. 163-135. (2a, 4), 

Refines estimates of future levels of car ownership and 
transit use for Leeds, England, incorporating changes 
in urban form as a variable affecting car ownership and 
transit use. 

50. Behling, Burton N. "Factors in Future Development of Rail 

Piggyback,' HRR, No. 153, 1967, pp. 39-42. (8a). 



21. CPL Exchange Bibliography #32A-#325 

51. Belousov, I. I. "Transportation and the Foriaation of Econonic 

Regions," SGRT, Vol. 5, Novenber 1964, pp. 19-23. (2a, 7b), 

A -fithodology for deternining an optical location pattern 
in the U.S.S.R. that would entail nininun cozibined pro- 
duction and transport costs for each product. 

52. Ben, C, R. J. Bouchard, and C. E. Sweet, Jr. "An Evaluation 

of Sinplified Procedures for Determining Travel Patterns 
in a Snail Urban «rea," HRR, No. 88, 1965, pp. 137-170. 
(2b, 4, 6c). 

Concludes that detailed socio-economic data combined V7ith 
linited travel data can be satisfactorily used to conpute 
zonal trip productions and attractions. 

53. Benepe, Barry. "Pedestrian in the City," TQ, Vol. 19, January 

1965, pp. 28-42. (4). 

Traces the development and decline of consideration of 
pedestrians in urban transport networks and sets criteria 
for planning for pedestrian use of streets on various 
street networks. 

54. Benesh, Alvin H, "Traffic Assignments by the Shortest Path 

Method Usin^ the TD Factor," TQ, Vol. 21, October 1967, 
pp. 553-567. (2b). 

A weighting method is described to improve traffic 
assignments using the time-distance factor. 

55. Benishay, Haskel and Gilbert R. Whitaker, Jr. "Demand and 

Supply in Freight Transportation, ■' JOURNi^L OF INDUSTRIAL 
ECONOMICS, Vol. 14, June 1966, pp. 243-262. (8). 

A preliminary investigation of the market structure of 
the common carrier freight industry, providing estimates 
of demand elasticities, demand prices, and income elastic- 
ities for various transportation modes, and some "best 
conjecture" on the supply side and market structure of 
the industry. The results of regression analysis il- 
lustrate the difficulty in e.?.pirical analysis of an 
industry characterized by "excess capacities," regulation, 
differing firm production functions, and inadequate data. 

56. Benishay, Haskel and Gilbert R. Whitaker, Jr. "Tax Burden 

Ratios in Transportation,'' LE, Vol. 43, February 1967, 
pp. 44-55. (8). 

Tax burden ratios are discussed and computed for rail, 
motor, v/ater, and pipe carriers. 

57. Bennett, R. F, "Road Transport in a Rapid Transit System," 

ITJ, Vol. 32, March 1968, pp. 333-344. (8). 



22. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

58. Bergsnan, Joel. "Consents on Quandt and Baunol's Demand 

Model for /abstract Transport Modes," JRS, Vol. 7, 
Sunner 1967, pp. 83-85. (2b). 

Presents a quantitative example which "indicates that 
Quandt-Baunol's framework can be profitably used in an 
investment planning model" that is more realistic than 
the usual framework "which ignores the relationship 
between price and demand." 

59. Berry, Brian J.L. and William Garrison. "A Source of Theory 

for Highway Impact Studies," HIGHWAY RESEARCH BO/iRD 
SPECIi^ REPORT NO. 28, 1957, pp. 79-84. (2, 7a, 8b). 

60. Berry, Brian J.L. and William Garrison. "Recent Studies Con- 

cerning the Role of Transportation in the Space Economy," 
AAAG, Vol. 49, September 1959, pp. 328-342. (7). 

The author reviews and evaluates the theoretical con- 
tributions of studies in which patterns of economic 
activity are related to transport systems, including the 
"Raum and Verkehar' series; highway impact studies con- 
ducted at the University of Washington; and investigations 
of the interrelationships of bus services, towns, and 
their hinterlands undertaken in Sweden and the United 
Kingdom. 

61. Berry, Brian J.L. and Allan Pred. CENTRAL PLACE STUDIES: A 

BIBLIOGRi>.PHY OF THEORY AND APPLICATIONS. (Supplement). 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Regional Science Research 
Institute. Bibliography Series No. 1. 1965. (1,4). 

62. Berry Brian, J.L. and Allan Pred. ESSAYS ON COMMODITY FLOWS 

AND THE SPATIAL STRUCTURE OF THE INDL\N ECONOMY. Depart- 
ment of Geography Research Paper No. 111. Chicago, 
Illinois: University of Chicago, 1966. (2,6b). 

This study provides a cartographic portrayal and 
statistical analysis of movements in 63 commodity groups 
overland and coastwise among 36 reporting units in India. 
The three essays, jointly prepared by- various combinations 
of authors, comprise, about 60 pages of text, the' remainder 
of the volu:::e' being devoted to naps and tabulations. 

63. Berry, Brian J.L. and Paul Schwind, "Infoniation and Entropy 

in Migrant Flows," GA, Vol. 1, January 1969, pp. 5-14. 
(2a). 

A reviev; of information theory and entropy and their 
relevance to research design and inference in studies 
of migration. 



23. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

64. Berry, Donald S., et al. THE TECHNOLOGY OF UREilN TRANSPORTATION. 

Evanston, Illinois: Northv/estern University Press, 1963. 
(4,8f). 

An understanding of the capabilities of the different 
types of facilities for urban transportation is inportant 
in planning for the efficient novenent of persons and 
goods in metropolitan areas; this study presents, for 
each of several types of facilities, infornation on design 
features, capacity, perfornance, costs, and ranges in 
conditions for which each type night be best suited. 
Infornation is included on automotive transportation, 
various types of transit systens, possible innovations, 
and on central area circulation. 

65. Best, Alan C.G. THE SWAZILAND RAILW;.Y: A STUDY IN POLITICO- 

ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY. East Lansing, Michigan: African 
Studies Center, Michigan State University, 1966, (3,3a). 

The purpose of this study is to examine the geographical 
aspects of the Swaziland railway from its inception 
during the eighteen-f ifties to the present. 

66. Betz, Mathew J. and Jankie N. Supusad. "Traffic and Staggered 

Working Hours," TQ, Vol. 19, April 1965, pp. 188-203. (4). 

A nethod of staggering working hours to relieve congestion; 
the effects of staggering on land use, highway configura- 
tion, and transit planning, 

67. Bevis, Howard W, "Forecasting Zonal Traffic Volumes," TQ, 

Vol, 10, No. 2, April 1956, pp. 207-222. (2b, 4, 6c). 

Bevis uses Detroit Metropolitan Area Survey data to 
demonstrate an interative technique for the prediction 
of inter-zonal trips, computing the probability of 
interchange and the index of friction. 

68. Bieber, Alain. "Modal Evolution of Inter-city Travel Demand: 

A Markovian Analysis," TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH, 
December 1967, pp. 311-337. (2a,4). 

69. Bielak, Stanley F, and James F. McCarthy, "Highway Income, 

Expenditures, and User-Tax Earnings in Standard Metro- 
politan Statistical Areas," HRR, No. 106, 1966, pp. 58- 
76. (4). 

Compares highway income, expenditures, and highway-user 

earnings for selected SMSA's. User income sources 

provided almost seventy-five percent of the revenue 
income . 



24. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

70. Bird, Janes. THE GEOGR/vPHY OF THE PORT OF LONDON. London, 

England: Hutchinson University Press, 1957. (7c). 

The author contends that it is viuch nore convenient to 
define a port in terns of its function rather than in 
terns of its forn. Hence, the essential task perforned 
in this study was to trace and describe the developnent 
of those areas vjhere the function of transshipnent was 
carried out in the port areas of netropolitan London. 
The conplicated foms of this transshipnent function 
suggest that it is inpossible to nake precise linear 
linits to the port of London. 

71. Bird, Jaixs. 'Seaports and the European Econonic Connunity," 

GEOGR/'.PHIG/iL JOURNAL, Vol. 133, September 1967, pp. 302- 
328. (7c, 8c). 

Using E. E. C. data, this paper presents problems of 
naritice transport and calls for reconsideration of 
seaport developnent and policy decision-naking to inprove 
future planning of seaports. 

72. Bird, Janes. ''Traffic Flows to and fron British Seaports," 

G, Vol. 54, July 1969, pp. 284-302. (6a). 

A reviev? using recent iata. 

73. Birkhead, E. "The Financial Failure of British Air Transport 

Companies," JTH, Vol. 4, May 1960, pp. 133-145. (3,3d). 

/ Treats the uneconomical aspects of early twentieth century 
air transport. 

74. Black, Alan. "A Method for Deternining the Optinal Division 

of Express and Local Rail Transit Service," HRBB 347, 
1962, pp. 106-120. (2a, 5, 8a). 

Proposes a breakpoint on radial routes allowing local 

trains to serve the area between the breakpoint and the 

. CBD and express trains to serve the area beyond the 
breakpoint. 

75. Black, Alan. "Comparison of Three Parameters of Nonresidential 

Trip Generation," HRR, No. 114, 1966, pp. 1-7. (2b, 4, 6c). 

Compares land use, land and floor area, and enploynent 
in an attempt to determine the best type of measurement 
fron which to estimate trips to non-residential areas. 
The findings indicate that no one method is best, but 
that floor area is best for commercial, enploynent for 
manufacturing, and land use for public buildings. 



25. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324 -#32 5 

76. Bleile, George W. and Leon M. Moses, "Transportation and the 

Spatial Distribution of Econonlc Activity,'' HRBB 311, 
1962, pp. 27-30. (2a,4,7). 

This article deals with aspects of the suburbanization 
of econonic activity, concentrating on intra-netropolitan 
distribution of nanufacturing. It compares relocation 
patterns for large and snail fires and supports the 
hypothesis that the inner city is the "seedbed" of new 
snail enterprise. 

77. Blurton, Michael A.S. "Special Bus Service," TE, Vol. 37, 

February 1967, pp. 17-20. (4,3). 

Conpares nass transit denonstration projects in Peoria 
and Decatur, Illinois, and indicates changes which r.:ay 
encourage greater use of mass transit systems. 

78. Boal, F. W. and D. B. Johnson. ''The Functions of Retail and 

Service Establishnent on Coonercial Ribbons," CG, Vol. 
9, No. 3, 1965, pp. 159-169. (2a, 4). 

A review of current concepts concerning the character 
and function of connercial ribbons and the exanination 
of the function of cue such ribbon in Calgary, Alberta. 
Concludes that the central place concept is applicable 
to the connercial ribbon, but that such application 
would be operationally conplex because of the mixture 
of establishment types ou such ribbons and their functional 
overlap, 

79. Borchert, John R. and Donald D. Corroll. "Tine-Series Maps 

for the Projection of Land -Use Patterns," HRBB 311, 
1962, pp. 13-26, (2a, 4). 

By times series napping of residential and commercial 
land-use patterns, future patterns are extrapolated for 

use in hi crhu/^v n1ann<no 



use in highway planning 



80. Borchert, John R, "/vmerican Metropolitan Evolution," GR, Vol, 
57, July 1967, pp. 301-332. (2a, 3, 4, 7). 

Presents the evolution of the present pattern of SMSA's 
from 1790 to 1960, identifying four major epochs in 
/u^rican history: soilwagon era, 1790-1830; iron horse 
era, 1830-1870; steel rail era, 1370-1920; and auto- 
air-amenity era, 1920- , discussing the technological 
innovations which characterize each epoch. 



26. CPL Exchange Libliography #324-#325 

81. Bostick, T. x.. and T. R. Todd. "Travel Characteristics of 

Persons Living in Larger Cities," HRR, No. 106, 1966, 
pp. 52-57. (4,6c). 

Using natiom^ide eutonobile use survey data, the authors 
relate the choice of travel nodes to the nearness of 
public transportation, the distance to work, and fanily 
incorae. The use of the autonobile, the dominant mode of 
transportation, tends to increase with income. 

82. Botha, D. "A Descriptive Model of Social Contacts within a 

Community, '■ ERISTICS, Vol. 30, August 1970, pp. 110-116. 
(2a,4). 

"The purpose of this study is to determine the variables 
influencing the level and character of the social contacts 
within communities of around 7,000 people." 

83. Bot2ov7, Hermann. "An Empirical Method for Estimating Auto 

Commuting Costs," HRR, No. 157, 1967, pp. 56-70. (Cb) . 

By estimating auto operating costs for counties within 
the study region, significant variations in cost per car 
and cost per car mile are indicated. 

84. Bouchard, Richard J. and Clyde E. Fyers. "Use of Gravity 

Model for Prescribing Urban Travel: An Analysis and 
Critique, ■ HRR, No. 83, 1965, pp. 1-43. (2b, 4, 6c). 

For the gravity model to accurately describe traffic 
flow, the model should incorporate average area travel 
time factors, should stratify trips or balance interzonal 
attraction factors, and should be adjusted for geographic 
bias. 

85. von Boventer, Edwin. "The Relationship between Transportation 

Costs and Location Rent in Transportation Problems," 
JRS, Vol. 3, Wiater 1961, pp. 27-40. (2a, 6, 7). 

Discusses the "simultaneous determination of transport 
costs and rent payments at both the production and 
consumption sites." 

86. von Boventer, Edwin. "Comments on Kadas," PRSA, Vol. 12, 

1963, pp. 203-209. (2a, 7). 

Discusses the interaction between internal economies and 
transportation costs and the role of input-output studies 
as indicators of a region's economic structure, and sug- 
gests closer examination of the problem of agglomeration 
economies and diseconomies. 



27. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

87. BowersoK, Donald J. "Influences of Hishways on Selection of 

Six Industrial Locations," HR3B, No. 268, 1960, pp. 13-23. 
(7a). 

u report on the findings of interviews with representatives 
of six industrial firas adjacent to free access roads. 
For these fims the highways influence was considered 
inportant cut not critical, 

88. Boyce, Byrl N. ''Excess Acquisition Revisited: Control of Land 

Use at the Interstate Interchange, " LE, Vol. 45, August 
1969, pp. 293-303. (7a). 

Methods of land use regulation are evaluated. 

89. Boyce, David E. "The Effect of Direction and Length of 

Person Trips on Urban Travel Patterns," JRS, Vol. 6, 
Suncer 1965, pp. 65-80. (2a, 4, 6c). 

Tests existing theoretical constructs through the 
application of nulti-variate analysis to urban travel 
data, specifically testing the assunption that trip 
volume is independent of the direction of the trips. 

90. Boyce, David S. and Seynour E. Goldstone. ''A Regional 

Econoaic Sinulation Model for Urban Transportation Plan- 
ning, == HRR, Wo. 149, 1966, pp. 29-41," (2a, 4). 

Treats forecasts of population and enploynent for urban 
transportation regions using a regional sinulation nodel 
consisting of a set of recursive difference equations 
describing the denographic and enploynent sectors of a 
cetropolitan region. 

91. Boyce, David E. and Seynour E. Goldstone, ''Effect of Trip 

Direction on Inter-zonal Trip Volumes: Test of a Basic 
Assunption of Trip Distribution Models,'' HRR, No. 165, 
1967, pp. 76-38. (2a, 4, 6c). 

Using an analysis of variance of interzonal trip data, 
the author tests the assunption that interzonal volunes 
are independent of the location of zones and are instead 
a function of the separation of zones. The findings 
substantiated the assunption for arterial trips, but not 
for transit trips. The study also indicates the un- 
ifornity of the total trip pattern by trip direction. 

92. Boyd, Alan S. 'The United States Department of Transportation,'" 

JOURi^.\L OF ..IR LAW a COMMERCE, Vol, 33, Spring 1967, 
pp. 225-233. (1). 

Discussion of the administrative structure of the 
Department of Transportation. 



28. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

93. Boyce, Yngve. ROUTING METHODS: PRINCIPLES FOR HANDLING 

MULTIPLE SALESMEN PROBLEMS. LunJ Studies in Geography, 
Series C, Mo. 5, Lund, Sweden: C. W. K. Gleerup, 1985. 
(2, 5a, 5b). 

94. Branch, Melville C. "Urban Planning and the New Mobility,'' 

JOURNAL OF .AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF PU\NNERS, Vol. 30, 
February 1964, pp. 2-6. (4,8a). 

Traces the increase in helicopter passenger airlines and 
recorjnends analysis of their disruptive effects before 
their use becones widespread. 

95. Brant, Austin E., Jr. and Dana E. Low. "Cost-Saving Techniques 

for Collection and Analysis of Origin-Destination Survey 
Data," HRR, No. 205, 1967, pp. 50-66. (9). 

96. Brenner, Robert. 'Geometries as an Approach to Macroscopic 

Theories of Traffic Flow," HRR, No. 15, 1963, pp. 44-59. 
(2b,6). 

Borrowing concepts fron thernodynanics, Brenner proposes 
a theoretical schena that would identify stable, un- 
stable, and r;.etastable regions of space, providing 
macroscopic variants for operational decisions. The 
approach offers a type of sensitivity analysis pursuant 
to operational decision naking and investigation of 
traffic flov7 problems. 

97. Brighan, Eugene F. "The Determinants of Residential Land 

Values," LE, Vol. 41, November 1965, pp. 325-334. (4,7). 

Describes and tests a model of single-family residential 
land values in Los iingeles County, California, incorp- 
orating site characteristics of accessibility, amenities, 
topography, present and future use, and certain historical 
factors. 

98. Britton, John N.H. "The Development of Port Kembla, N. S, W. , " 

G, Vol. 46, July 1961, pp. 247-250. (7c). 

A berth and an inner harbor are the two main needs to 
improve Port Kembla's capacity to handle cargo. 

99. Britton, John N.H, "The Transport Functions of Port Kembla," 

EG, Vol. 38, October 1962, pp. 347-358. (7c). 

Presents a detailed analysis of the composition and 
direction of cargo moving through Port Kembla, Australia; 
examines foreland and hinterland patterns using the origins 
and destinations of community flow; and treats the 
significance of secondary industry and competitive forces 
which influence port viability. 



29. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

100. Britton, John N.H. "Interstate Transport Conpetition and 

the Port of Melbourne," AUSTRALIrVN GEOGRAPHICAL STUDIES, 
Vol. 1, October 1963, pp. 84-95. (7c). 

101. Britton, John N.H. "The External Relations of Seaports: 

Sone New Considerations," TESG, Vol. 56, May- June 1965, 
pp. 109-112. (6a, 7c). 

Consideration of the flow patterns of Melbourne using 
descriptive and infernetial statistical techniques in an 
attenpt to distinguish discrete foreland characteristics 
produced by conbinations of connodities. The author 
concludes that full understanding of a port's external 
relations is only achieved through combining the co-^juodity 
flow approach with analysis of foreland characteristics. 

102. Britton, John N.H. "Coastwise External Relations on the 

Ports of Victoria's coastwise general cargo inport and 
export systeu by presenting a descriptive outline of 
patterns of connodity flows and analyzing foreland 
characteristics. 

103. Britton, John N.H. "A Geographical Approach to the Exanin- 

ation of Industrial Linkages," CG, Vol. 13, Autunn 
1969, pp. 185-198. (2,6b). 

Residuals fron regression and the gravity model are 
used to identify interregional manufacturing links. 
Patterns of freight dispatches can be explained con- 
siderably by the market size of each region and dis- 
tance from the zone by origin. 

104. Brodsky, Harold. "Highways and Outdoor Recreation," HRR, 

No. 161, 1967, pp. 22-29. (8b). 

A wide-ranging discussion of highways as a recreational 
resource, highway accessibility, and the crisis in 
outdoor recreation. 

105. Brookfield, H. C, "New Railroad and Port Developments in 

East and Central Africa," EG, Vol. 31, January 1955, 
pp. 60-70. (7c, 8a). 

The status of schemes to expand rail and port facilities 
contrasting transport development in two areas of 
Africa. 

106. Brooks, Peter W, "The Development of Air Transport," JTEP, 

Vol. 1, May 1967, pp. 164-173. (3,8d). 

The history of aviation over six decades on the 
continents. 



30. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

107. Brown, Lawrence A. and Frank E. Horton. "Functional 

Distance: An Operational Approach," GA, Vol. 2, 
January 1970, pp. 76-83. (2a, 6b). 

Using a Markov nodel, nean first passage tice is cal- 
culated as a measure of functional distance, using 
migration data fron New York State . 

108. Brown, Lawrence A, and Frank E. Horton. "On the Use of 

Markov Chains in Movement Research," EG, Vol. 46, 
June 1970, pp. 393-403. (1,2a). 

A discussion of Markov chains as a descriptive tool and 
as a model of geographic systems and processes. 

109. Brown, Lawrence A. and David B, Lcngbrake. "Migration Flows 

in Intraurban Space: Place Utility Considerations," 
Ai\AG, Vol. 60, June 1970, pp. 368-384. (2a, 4). 

The main objective is the construction and evolution of 
place utility functions based on socioeconomic and mig- 
ration characteristics using 1966-67 Cedar Rapids data. 

110. Brown, Lawrence A., John Odland, and Reginald G. Golledge. 

'Migration, Functional Distance, and the Urban Hierarchy," 
EG, Vol. 46, July 1970, pp. 472-485. (2a, 6b). 

Using the one-hundred largest SMSA's, the study focuses 
on a hierarchial classification of places and identifica- 
tion of system-wide migration fields for each SMSA, 

111. Brown, Robert T. and Clell G. Harral. "Estimating Highway 

Benefits in Under-developed Countries," HRR, No. 115, 
1966, pp. 29-43. (2a, 7b). 

Presents both a non-mathematical and algebraic model to 

demonstrate the maximum difference between the contributions 

which highway projects make to national incom.e and the 
cost of the projects. 

112. Brown, Robert T. TRANSPORT AND THE ECONOMIC INTEGRATION OF 

SOUTH i\ME RICA. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 
1966. (7b). 

This study attempts to present in broad outline a trans- 
portation strategy for the whole continent of South 
America, since economic development efforts in Latin 
Arierica have been focuses primarily on the problems and 
potentials of individual countries in isolation. The 
basic assumption is that Latin American econoiiic progress 
requires larger export markets, a wider geographic aistri- 
bution of industrial activity, and interdependence in 
marketing and transportation. 



31. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

113. Brown, Sanuel P. "The Future of Toll Roads," TQ, Vol. 15, 

July 1961, pp. 520-534. (7,8b). 

The national and regional inpact cf the inter-state 
systen of toll roads in the United States, 

114. Bruck, H. W. , Stephen H. Putnan, and Wilbur A. Steger. 

"Evaluation of Alternative Transportation Proposals: 

The Northeast Corridor," JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE 

OF PLANNERS, Vol. 32, November 1966, pp. 322-333. (2a, 7). 

Examination of sone of the indirect consequences of 
alternative transportation investnents in the northeast 
corridor. Inpact nodeling uay be an aid in estimating 
and evaluating the consequences of denographic, econonic, 
and land use changes. 

115. Buchanan, Colin D. "Britain Road Problens," GEOGRAPHICAL 

JOURNAL, Vol. 130, Decenber 1964, pp. 470-483. (1,3,4,5). 

Reflections on the introduction of the autonobile in 
Great Britain, new road construction connecting urban 
centers, and the problen of providing efficient circulation 
while also providing surroundings reasonably free fron 
adverse environnental effects of uotor traffic. 

116. Buhl, Walter F, "Intercity Highway Transport Share Tends 

to Vary Inversely with Size of Plant," HRR, No. 175, 
1967, pp. 9-14. (8b). 

This article is concerned with the relationship between 
highway carrier share and the traffic characteristics 
of: conriodity, size of shipment , and distance. 

117. Buhr, Johann H., Donald R. Drew, Joseph A. Wattleworth, 

and Thonas G. Williams. "A Nationwide Study of Freeway 
Merging Operations," HRR, No. 202, 1967, pp. 76-122. 
(8b,9). 

A description of air photographic techniques, data 
reduction r.ethods, and the variety of data which may be 
used in merging studies. 



32. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324 -#32 5 

118. Bunge, Willian. "Toward a General Theory of Movenent," 

THEORETICAL GEOGR^'^PHY. Lund, Sweden: C. W. K. Gleerup, 
1962, pp. 108-129. (2a). 

This chapter of Bunge 's larger text includes a brief 
connent on general flow nodels, a review of spatial 
novenent theories in their traditional categories based 
on subject ratter, and a discussion of their abstract spa- 
tial properties, leading to a reclassification of the 
theories and a conclusion which coonents on geographic 
unity. The author strives to unite two bodies of theory: 
central place theory and movenent theory. 

119. Bunke, Harvey C. "The Status of Rate-Making," LE, Vol. 36, 

May 1960, pp. 129-Ul. (3,8). 

Historical review of rate regulation in the United States 
indicates a fundamental shift in rate making policy 
showing that competitive pricing is essential if the 
transportation system, specifically the railroads, is to 
'' be operated as an economic enterprise. 

120. Bunker, R. "Travel in Stevenage," TPR, Vol. 38, October 

1967-68, pp. 215-232. (4). 

Using descriptive statistics, this summary of a travel 
survey in Stevenage points out the need for concern with 
the regional and functional relationships of future new 
towns . 

121. Burch, James S, "Traffic Interactance between Cities," 

HRBB, No. 297, 1961, pp. 14-17. (2b,4,6b). 

Evaluation of the interaction between five cities and 
-,.■ ■ towns in North Carolina, using a quadratic adaption of 

'■ the gravity model to predict traffic exchange. 

122. Burghardt, Anarew F. "The Origin and Development of the Road 

Network of the Niagara Peninsula, Ontario, 1770-1851," 
i\AAG, Vol. 59, September 1969, pp. 417-440. (3,5,8b). 

Historical analysis suggests that Indian trails did not 
predetermine the road alignments and that towns created 
roads, rather than vice versa. 

123. Burton, Robert C. and Frederick D, Knapp. "Socio-Economic 

Change in Vicinity of Capital Beltway in Virginia," HRR, 
No. 75, 1964, pp. 32-47. (7a). 

Changes in land and real property values, land uses, 
traffic patterns, travel habits, and business activity 
associated with an interstate highway over a period of 
time. 



33. CPL Exchanse Bibliography #324-#325 

124. Eurtt, Everett J., Jr. "Workers adapt to Plant Relocation 

in Suburbia (Greater Boston)," MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, 
April 1968, pp. 1-5. (4,6c). 

125. Butas, Larry F, "Various Sinultaneous Equation for Inter- 

zonal Divergences and Link Assignnents ," TQ, Vol. 18, 
July 1964, pp. 383-405. (2a, 4). 

A nethod for deterniining the nanner in which interzonal 
trip transfers diverge and take on various lengths, 

126. Butas, Larry F. "Sinultaneous Differential Equations for 

Trip Distributions," TQ, Vol. 20, april 1966, pp. 248- 
267. (2b, 6c). 

Develops a dynanically interdependent nodel, which conpares 
favorably in enpirical results with the nodified gravity 
uodel. 

127. Caueron, M. A. "Theory and Practice in Transport," ITJ, 

Vol. 31, November 1964, pp. 20-23. (1). 

128. Canpbell, Thonias C. "Agricultural Exeaptions froa Motor 

Carrier Regulation," LE, Vol. 36, February 1960, 
pp. 14-25. (8b). 

The issue of non-unifom regulation of carriers and 
coaiaodities is analyzed in an exanination of the Motor 
Carrier Act of 1935 and Transportation Act of 1953. 



129. 



Canpbell, Wilson E. 'Transportation Systeu Corridors,' 
HRR, Vol. 166, 1967, pp. 26-35. (1). 



130. Campbell, Wilson E. "An Evaluation of Alternative Land Use 

and Transportation Systems in the Chicago Age," HRR, 
No. 238, 1968, pp. 103-115. (4,6c). 

cat's role in a land use and transportation study is 
described. 

131. Cannon, John G. "Historic Old Sacranento and U. S. Inter- 

state Route 5,' TQ, Vol. 19, July 1965, pp. 405-412. 
(4,5b). 

Discusses cooperative planning of a freeway and a 
historic renewal area in downtown Sacramento. 

132. Cano, Jose Luis. "Freeways in Lima, Peru," TE, Vol. 36, 

August 1966, pp. 54-57. (4,7c). 

A brief overview. 



34. CPL Exchange Bibliography y/324-#325 

133. Carlson, Fred A. "Traffic on the Ohio River Systen," JG, 

Vol. 59, Novenber 1960, pp. 357-360. (8c). 

Traffic and construction on the Ohio River. 

134. Carlson, Robert E. "British Railroads and Engineers and the 

Beginnings of Anierican Railroad Developnent," BUSINESS 
HISTORY REVIEW, Vol. 34, Sumer 1960, pp. 137-149. (3,8a). 

135. Carroll, J. Douglas, Jr., and Gerald P. Jones. "Interpretation 

of Desire Line Charts Made on a Cartographatron," HRBB, 
253, 1960, pp. 86-108. (9). 

136. Carroll, J. Douglas, Jr., and Roger L. Creighton, and John R. 

Hanburg. "Transportation Planning for Central Areas," 
JOURN/i OF AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF PLANNERS, Vol. 27, 
February 1961, pp. 26-34. (4). 

137. Carrothers, Gerald A. P. "An Historical Review of the 

Gravity and Potential Concepts of Hunan Interaction," 
JOURNAL OF /J^RICAN INSTITUTE OF PLANNERS, Vol. 22, 
Spring 1956, pp. 94-102. (2b). 

Discusses and explains various uodels and fornuli, 
including a bibliography (83 English written articles 
and books). 

138. Carter, John F. "The Urban Traffic Problen," TQ, Vol. 16, 

April 1962, pp. 260-270. (1,4). 

'''' A general discussion. 

139. Carter, Richard E. "A Conparative Analysis of United States 

Ports and Their Traffic Characteristics," EG, Vol. 38, 
April 1962, pp. 162-175. (7c). 

A series of naps are analyzed in a general discussion 
'■• ' of United States water traffic. 

140. Casetti, Enilio. "Optinal Location of Steel Mills Serving 

the Quebec and Southern Ontario Steel Market," CG, 
Vol. 10, No. 1, 1966, pp. 27-39. (2a, 6b, 7). 

Linear progranning techniques are used to analyze both 
the inpact of increased steel consumption in Canada and 
the inpact of iron ore shipments fron Seven Islands to 
Great Lakes steel centers on the optinun location of 
steel nills supplying the Canadian narket. 



35. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

141. Caswell, Stearns W. "Effect of Zone Size on Zonal Inter- 

change Calculations Based on the Opportunity Model in a 
Honogeneous Region," HRR, No. 165, 1967, pp. 22-40. 
(2 b, 4, 6c). 

Errors in interzonal trip distributions arise fron zone 
size, trip density, and the trip generation constant 
used in the nodel. Snaller zones pernit nore accurate 
calculations of zonal trip interchange. 

142. Casvjell, Stearns W. "A Theoretical Model for Deternination 

of Expressway Usage in a Uniforc Region," HRR, No. 238, 
1958, pp. 79-102. (2a, 7a). 

Mean trip density is estinated for isolated and parallel 
freeway networks with liraited and unlinited accessibility. 

143. Cella, Francis R. "Highway Location and Econonic Developaent ," 

HRBB 327, 1962, pp. 73-76. (5b, 7a, 7b). 

Factors for use in determining econonic effects of highway 
locations are identified. 

144. Cernakian, Jean. "The European Inland Waterways Network: A 

Case Study in the Geography of European Cooperation," 
YEARBOOK OF THE ASSOCIATION OF PACIFIC COAST GEOGRAPHERS, 
Vol. 28, 1966, pp. 175-179. (8c). 

145. Chacey, D. Kenneth. "Ground Transportation in the Years 

Ahead," TQ, Vol. 18, April 1964, pp. 188-201. (1,8). 

Discusses today's transport problems and the need for 
new concepts for their solution. 

146. Chang, Sen-Dou. "Land Use and Intra-Urban Travel in Taipei," 

PROCEEDINGS, A. A. G., Vol. 2, 1970, pp. 40-45. (4,7,8). 

The inpact of rapid urban development on travel (cornuting 
distances and congestion). 

147. Chapman, Albert S. "Trans-Europe Express: Overall Travel 

Tir.e in Competition for passengers," EG, Vol. 44, 
October 1968, pp. 283-295. (6a, 8). 

Compares TEE travel time with air travel time from selected 
traffic generating centers to principal destinations. 
It is suggested that short to aoderate length trips are 
best served by Trans-Europe Express. 



36. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

1A8. Charnes, A., S. C. Littlechild, M. J. L. Kirby, and W. M. 

Raike. "Chance Constrained Models for Transport Pricing 
and Scheduling under Coupetition," TS, Vol. 2, February 
1968, pp. 57-76. (2a). 

A "nodel-link" raathenatical -aodel. 

149. Cherner, Morrie. "Property Values as Affected by Highway 

Landscape Developments," HRR, No. 53, 1964, pp. 4-7. 
(4,7a). 

This Chicago area study indicates that over tice the 
value of residential property adjacent to freeways was 
not lower than similar property at a slightly greater 
distance from freeways, and people interviewed agreed 
that the beauty of the freeway adjacent to their 
property v/as due to the highway's landscaping. 

150. Cherniack, Nathan. "Critique of Hone -Interview Type 0-D 

Surveys in Urban Areas," HRBB 253, 1960, pp. 166-188. 
(4,9). 

151. Cherniack, Nathan. "A Statement of the Urban Passenger 

Transportation Problen," HRBB 293, 1961, pp. 21-32. 
(4,8f). 

Alternative cethods of urban transportation are evaluated 
and conditions in urban areas that help to create in- 
adequate metropolitan transportation systems are discussed. 

152. Chigarkin, A. V, "The Use of Landscape Surveys in the 

Planning of New Railroads," SGRT, Vol. 4, May 1963, 
pp. 30-37. (5b, 8a). 

A study of "specific railroad-building problems, such 
' • as landfoms, geology, water supply, availability of 

road ballast," as well as the effect of agriculture and 
mineral exploitation. 

153. Chinitz, Benjamin. "The Effect of Transportation Forms on 

Regional Economic Growth," TQ, Vol. 14, April 1960, 
pp. 129-142. (2a, 7b). 

Treatment of the historic role of transport cost in the 
U.S. (centralization and decentralization phases) and 
its relationship to industrial location, products 
shipped, and length of haul. 



37. CPL Exchanse Bibliography #324 -#32 5 

154. Christensen, David E, "A Simplified Traffic Flow Map,'' PG, 

Vol. 13, 1961, pp. 21-22. (9). 

155. Christensen, David E. 'The Auto in Anerica's Landscape and 

Way of Life," G, Vol. 51, November 1966, pp. 339-348. 
(1.8b). 

Brief overview of autonotive transportation in Acerica. 

155. Church, Donald E. "Volune and Characteristics of Intercity 
Travel During Winter 1963," HRR, No. 64, 1964, pp. 100- 
105. (4,6c). 

157. Church, Donald E. "New Trucking Data fron 1963 Census of 

Transportation," HRR, No. 82, 1965, pp. 38-53. (9). 

158. Church, Donald E. "Inpact of Size and Distance on Intercity 

Highv;ay Share of Transportation of Industrial Products," 
HRR, No. 175, 1967, pp. 1-8. (8b). 

159. Clark, Colin. "Transport: The Maker and Breaker of Cities," 

TPR, Vol. 28, 1958, pp. 237-250. (1,3,2). 

160. Clark, Colin, and G. H. Peters. "The 'Intervening Opportunities' 

Method of Traffic Analysis,'' TQ, Vol. 19, January 1965, 
pp. 101-119. (2b, 4, 6c). 

An application of the nodel to London and Copenhagen. 
"The principal of 'intervening opportunities' appears 
to be an important step forward in our knowledge re- 
lating to travel habits . . . and it undermine (s) our 
faith in the effects of distance." 

161. Clark, Colin and Hans Rudalf Roeske. "The 'Intervening 

Opportunities' Method--West Midlands Traffic Study," 
TQ, Vol. 23, July 1969, pp. 365-377. (2b, 4, 6c). 

The intervening opportunities model is used to com- 
paritively describe travel patterns of male and female 
and manual and non-manual workers, the friction of 
distance being greater for female and non-manual workers. 

162. Clark, J. E., Ill, and D. A. Morin. "Securing Travel Data 

by Telephone Interviews," TE, Vol. 36, June 1966, 
pp. 47-49. (9). 



38. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

163. Clark, W.A.V. "Consucer Travel Patterns and the Concept of 

Range," AAAG, Vol. 58, June 1968, pp. 386-396. (2,6). 

Less than one-half of those surveyed purchased goods and 
services at the nearest center offering those goods and 
services, and significant differences in trip length were 
noted. This indicates nodification of the "range of a 
good" concept. 

164. Clark, W.A.V. "Measurenent and Explanation in Intra-Urban 

Residential Mobility," TESG, Vol. 61, January-February 
1970, pp. 49-57. (2,4,6c). 

"This study first exanines the reasons given by a sanple 
of novers for changing residence, both to test the 
generalizations (on why people nove) drawn from the 
literature, and to test the extent to which reasons for 
novenent are related to spatial patterns of novenent. 
A second concern is with the sinulation of the spatial 
patterns of intra-urban novecent." 

165. Clark, VJ.A.V. and Gerald Rushton. "Models of Intra-Urban 

Consuner Behavior and Their Implications for Central 
Place Theory," EG, Vol. 46, July 1970, pp. 486-497. (2a). 

Testing the "nearest center hypothesis." 

166. Clarke, J. I, "The Trans -Cane roon Railway," G, Vol. 51, 

January 1966, pp. 55-58. (3,8a). 

Brief suLm^ary of the history and extent of railroads. 

167. Clawson, Marion, "lupllcations of Recreational Needs for 

Highway Inprovenents ,'' HRBB 311, 1962, pp. 31-38. (7a). 

Basic factors of outdoor recreation denand and their 
inpact on future highway use are exanined. It is con- 
cluded that nost highways are not well suited for handling 
future recreation traffic; yet outdoor recreation travel 
demands will be a najor constituent of total highway 
denands in the future, 

168. Clayton, John E. "Containerization in Transporting Agri- 

cultural Perishables," HRR, No. 153, 1967, pp. 54-59. (1). 

169. Cline, Marvin G. "Urban Freeways and Social Strucuture — Sone 

Problens and Proposals," HRR, No. 2, pp. 12-20. (4,7a). 

Literature associated with highway developnent and social 
change is reviewed under the general headings of the city 
as a social systen, psychological inpact of physical dis- 
ruption and psychological disruption, and social function- 
ing. Including social science research in highway plan- 
ning nay niniaize social and psychological disruption. 



39. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

170. Clozier, Rene. GEOGRAPHIE DE LA CIRCULATION. Paris, 

France: Editions Genln, 1963. (1). 

This test provides a highly descriptive regional account 
of the developnent of various nodes of transport through- 
out the world. 

171. Cole, Leon Monroe. "Transport Investment Strategies and 

Econonic Development," LE, Vol. 44, August 1968, pp. 
307-319. (7b). 

172. Coleiaan, Robert R. "A Study of Urban Travel Tines in 

Pennsylvania Cities," HRBB 303, 1951, pp. 62-75. (4). 

173. Collins, Frederick L. and Adolf D. May, Jr. "^ Cocputer 

Program for Freeway and Highx^ay Capacity," TE, Vol. 38, 
April 1968, pp. 44-49. (2b). 

The program calculates service volune, nunber of lanes, 
and level of service. 

174. Colwell, Robert C. "Interactions between Transportation and 

Urban Econonic Growth," HRR, No. 23, 1963, pp. 6-11. (7b), 

175. Conant, Michael. "The Myth of Inter-Railroad Conpetition, " 

LE, Vol. 38, August 1962, pp. 249-255. (8a). 

The structural oligopoly of the railroad industry and 
peculiar narket and cost structures negate conpetition 
between railroads. Poolings and consolidations should 
be required to enable a nore econonical allocation of 
resources. 

176. Conley, J. H., R. S. Farnscoorth, E. Koenigsberg, and V. 

Wiersena. "A Linear Programing Approach to the Total 
Movement of a Homogeneous Product," TS, Vol. 2, 
November 1968, pp. 209-302. (2b). 

177. Connally, Julia rt. and Charles 0. Meiburg. "The Washington 

Capital Beltway and Its Impact on Industrial and Multi- 
Family Expansion in Virginia," HRR, No. 217, 1968, 
pp. 9-27. (4, 6c, 7a). 

Access to freeway facilities is stated as a major 
factor in industrial location. Changing commuting 
patterns and expansion of the area's laborshed result 
from the opening of the beltv;ay. To ease congestion 
at inter-changes, rezoning of land use is suggested. 

178. Conway, Thomas, Jr. "Rapid Transit Must Be Improved to 

Alleviate Traffic Congestion," TQ, Vol. 16, January 
1962, pp. 103-118. (4,8). 

The description of rapid transit services in two large 
cities. 



40. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

179. Cook, W. R. "Transport Decision of Certain Firms in the 

Black Country," JTEP, Vol. 1, Septenber 1967, pp. 325- 
344. (7,8). 

The decision-making process is significantly influenced 
by personal qualities of the decision nakers. While 
transport costs are important, they are not always a 
decisive factor; desired quality of transport service 
varies with each firn. 

180. Corradino, Joseph C. "The Effect of the Highway System and 

Land Development on Trip Production," TE, Vol. 38, 
June 1968, pp. 32-39. (2b, 4, 6c, 7a) . 

Quantifies relationships between trip-making and land 
use, economic status of travelers, and capabilities of 
transport system to predict future trip-making. 

181. Corradino, Joseph C. , and Michael G. Ferreri. "In-Flight 

Origin-Destination Study at Philadelphia International 
Airport," HRR, No. 274, 1969, pp. 35-43. (9). 

182. Cox, Kevin. "The Application of Linear Programming to 

Geographic Problems," TESG, Vol. 56, July-August 1965, 
pp. 228-235. (2a, 6b). 

An introduction to the transportation model and an 
application to aluminum bar flows, 

183. Coyle, John J., H. Kirk Dansereau, John C. Frey, and Robert 

D. Pashek. "Interchange Protection and Community 
Structure," HRR, No. 75, 1964, pp. 62-74. (2a, 4, 5b, 7a) . 

To aid in the selection of locations for interchanges 
in rural and suburban areas, the factors of community 
grov/th, land use planning, and community structure are 
used to develop a model for land use planning at inter- 
changes. 

184. Creighton, Roger L., Irving Hoch, Morton Schneider, and 

Hyman Joseph. "Estimating Efficient Spacing for Arterial 
and Expressways," HRBB 253, 1960, pp. 1-43. (2a, 4, 5b). 

185. Creighton, Robert L. , Irving Hock, Morton Schneider, and 

Hyman Joseph. "Transportation in Regional Development," 
HSGTJ, Vol. 2, January 1968, pp. 1-7. (4,7b). 

To reverse the trend of unplanned urban growth, it is 
suggested that population should be concentrated along 
appropriate transport corridors in accordance with a 
regional development plan. 



41. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

186. Creighton, Roger L., Irving Hoch, Morton Schneider, and 

Hyoan Joseph. "Measurements and the Regional Planning 
Process," HRR, No. 229, 1968, pp. 1-6. (7b). 

The regional planning process is outlined with reference 
to the role of transportation in regional developnent. 

187. Crevo, Charles C. "Characteristics of Sunner Weekend 

Recreational Travel," HRR, No. 41, 1963, pp. 51-60. (6b). 

An analysis of travel time, vehicle occupancy, trip 
production and population density, and hourly distribut- 
ions of vehicles arriving at recreational sites indicates 
facilities at these locations do not influence the 
length of travel tine, although car occupancy varies 
with facilities available. 

138. Cribbins, P. D., W. T. Hill, and H. 0. Seagraves. "Econonic 
Inpact of Selected Sections of Interstate Routes on Land 
Value and Use," HJIR, No. 75, 1964, pp. 1-31. (7a). 

It is concluded that controlled access facilities have 
done little to stinulate or depress land values and 
development during the study periods. 

189. Cullen, Donald E. "Labor-Market Aspects of the St. Lawrence 

Seaway Project," JOURNAL OF POLITICAL ECONOMY, Vol. 60, 
June 1960, pp. 232-251. (6,7). 

The sources of the workers enployed, their connuting 
patterns, and the project's inpact on area wage and 
labor supply. 

190. Curry, S. Leigh, Jr. ='Urban Renewal and Urban Transportations 

Contrasting Concepts and Methods," HRR, No. 137, 1966, 
pp. 22-24. (1,4). 

Connunity participation in urban renewal programs is 
contrasted with the lack of connunity participation in 
transportation planning. 

191. Curtis, Willian H. "An Analysis and Evaluation of Urban 

Street Patterns Possible with a Freev/ay Network," TE, 
Vol. 33, October 1962, pp. 16-23. (2a, 4, 5a). 

An analysis of two types of street patterns that can be 
utilized where a freeway systen is superinposed over an 
existing grid street systen indicates the differentiated, 
non-continuous street pattern is equal to or superior 
to a continuous grid pattern, when used in conjunction 
with a freeway systen. 



42. CPL Exchanse Bibliography #324-#325 

192. Dansereau, H. Kirk, John C. Frey, and Robert D. Pashek. 

"Highvjay Developnent, Coonunity Attitudes and 
Organization," HRR, No. 16, 1963, pp. 44-59. (4,7a). 

Discussion of connunity social structure, attitudes, and 
complexity. 

193. Dansereau, H. Kirk, John C. Frey, and Robert D. Pashek. 

•'Five Years of Highway Research: A Sociological Per- 
spective," HRR, No. 75, 1964, pp. 76-81. (1,4,7a). 

The inpact of highways on two connunities is analyzed 
with respect to population growth, level of living, 
attitude change, connunity organization and highway use. 
The results indicate population growth, rising levels of 
living, and increased connunity organization. Connunity 
participation in the planning process is reconnended, 

194. Davis, Howard W. "A Review of Federal Rate Regulation and 

Its Inpact upon the Railroad Industry," LE, Vol. 44, 
February 1968, pp. 1-10. (8a). 

Procedural delays, inequities in rate regulation, and 
the concept of a naxinun rate indicate federal rate 
regulation has adverse consequences for railroads. 

195. Davis, J. Tait, "Parkways, Values and Developnent in the 

Washington Metropolitan Region," HRR, No, 16, 1963, 
pp. 32-43, (4,7a), 

Factor analysis of land value variation patterns between 
parkway and non-parkway facilities, 

196. Dayal, Edison. "The Changing Patterns of India's Inter- 

national Trade," EG, Vol. 44, July 1968, pp. 240-269. 
(6a). 

The areal features of India's trade linkages (inports 
and exports) , 

197. Deen, Thonas B., Willian L, Mertz, and Neal A. Irwin. 

"Application of a Modal Split Model to Travel Estinates 
for the Washington Area," HRR, No. 38, 1963, pp. 97- 
123. (2b,4,6c). 

The gravity nodel and a nodal split nodel are used to 
test nodal split inplications of two proposed land use 
plans. A test of the nodal split nodel produced accuracy 
sufficient for planning purposes. 



43. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

198. Deen, Thopas B. , William L, Mertz, and Neal A. Irwin. 

"A Study of Transit Fringe Parking Usage," HRR, No. 130, 
1966, pp. 1-19. (4,8f). 

The feasibility of extended use of fringe parking 
facilities is exanined. The viability of the facilities 
is discussed with reference to proxinity to the alternative 
node of travel, the type of alternate travel node, trip 
purpose, and costs of parking, 

199. Denaree, Allan T. "Cars and Cities on a Collision Course," 

FORTUNE, February 1970, pp. 124-128. (1,4). 

200. Despicht, Nigel S. POLICIES FOR TRANSPORT IN THE COMMON 

Mf.RKET. Sidcup, Kent, U.K.: Lanbarde Press, 1964. (1). 

The author of this text describes the progress nade, 
since the inception of the Connon Market, and the pro- 
spects for the connon transport policy now energing in 
the Corinunity, demonstrating how this connon policy fits 
into the overall franework of the Cocjaunity under con- 
struction. 

201. Despicht, Nigel S. "Transport and the Corjnon Market," ITJ, 

Vols. 31 and 32, January 1966, pp. 277-280; March 1966, 
pp. 322-326; Septenber 1966, pp. 475-479; and November 
1966, pp. 20-26. (1,7b). 

A discussion of the role of transportation and the 
political and econonic effects of the transportation 
policy of the connon market. 

202. Deutschnan, Harold D. and Nathan L. Jaschik. "Income and 

Related Transportation and Land-Use Planning Implications," 
HRR, No. 240, 1968, pp.' 52-65. (2a,4,6c). 

The study indicates that incoce is a sensitive measure 
of auto-ownership, transit use, auto and total trip 
making, and honeownership. 

203. Dewdney, John C, ''The Daily Journey to Work in County 

Durham," TPR, Vol. 31, 1960-61, pp. 107-124. (6). 

204. Dial, Robert B. "Transit Pathfinder Algorithm," HRR, No. 

205, 1967, pp. 67-85. (2a, 5a). 

A computer program to find cininun time paths through 
a large nultinodal transportation system. 



44. CPL Exchange Bibliography y/324-#325 

205. Dickey, John W. and Paul W. Schuldiner. "A Model of the 

Maxinua Generation of Traffic to Planned Shopping 
Centers," HRR, No. 130, 1966, pp. 44-54. (2b, 4, 6c). 

A linear progranning fornat is used to calculate the 
naxiuun generation rates for three classes of planned 
centers of various size. 

206. Dickey, John W,, Frank E. Hortcn, acd Edwin N. Thomas. "Areal 

Aggregation and Forecasting Precision in Urban Trans- 
portation Studies," TESG, Vol. 60, January-February 1969, 
pp. 60-62. (2a,4,6c). 

207. Dickins, Justin H. "New Systen Developed for Traffic Data 

acquisition," TE, Vol. 35, December 1964, pp. 12-15. (9). 

"New (photographic) techniques instituted by Port of 
New York authority permit gathering of simultaneous 
traffic statistics for extensive roadway networks and 
complex interchange systems." 

208. Dickinson, G. C. "The Development of Suburban Road Passenger 

Transport in Leeds, 1840-95," JTH, Vol. 4, November 1950, 
pp. 214-224. (3,4,8). 

209. Dickinson, Robert E. "The Geography of Commuting in West 

Germany," i^^J2, Vol. 49, Decenbsr 1959, pp. 443-456. 
., (4,6c). 

Rebuilding industry faster than housing stimulated 
confuting. The social and economic aspects of 
commuting are discussed. 

210. Dickson, K. B. "Evolution of Seaports in Ghana: 1800-1928," 

Ai^iiG, Vol. 65, Iferch 1965, pp. 98-111. (7c). 

The survival or disappearance of Ghanan ports is examined 
with reference to changes in the speed and direction of 
Ghana's economic development. 

211. Dickson, K. B. "Trade Patterns in Ghana at the Beginning 

of the Eighteenth Century," GR, Vol. 56, July 1966, 
pp. 417-430. (3). 

212. Dodge, William H. "The Inherest Advantages of Carrier Modes 

under the National Transportation Policy," LE, Vol. 44, 
November 1968, pp. 492-502. (8). 

The National Transportation Policy which preserves the 
"inherent advantages" of each mode of transportation is 
questioned, V-Jhile the United States has the best 
transport system in the world, it is also among the 
most inefficient. 



45. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324 -#32 5 

213. Donanski, Ryszard. "Reuarks on Siaultaneous and Aniso- 

tropic Models of the Transportation Network. Connents 
by A. J. Scott." PRSA, Vol. 19, 1967, pp. 223-228. 
(2a, 5). 

This paper considers the nodel of a transportation network 
as a systen of edges and capacities as presented by 
Scott. Unlike Scott's research the author suggests 
that transportation networks and settlement patterns 
should be deternined simultaneously, as well as the 
simultaneous determination of the spatial pattern of 
transportation network complexes consisting of different 
kinds of transport. Examples of both research approaches 
are provided. 

214. Doxiadis, C. A. "Ekistics and Traffic," TQ, Vol. 17, 

July 1963, pp. 439-457. (1,4). 

Presents the evolution, scale and character of urban 
growth, describing and ecumenopolis, the settlement of 
the future and place of traffic in the functions of 
these future cities. 

215. Doxiadis, C. A. "Man's Movement and His Settlements," 

EKISTICS, Vol. 29, May 1970, pp. 296-321. (1). 

216. Drew, Donald R, "Deterministic Aspects of Freeways Operations 

and Control," HRR, No. 99, 1965, pp. 48-58. (2b). 

Congestion is defined quantitatively. Deterministic 
and probabilistic models of traffic are discussed with 
emphasis on deterministic models. 

217. Drew, Donald R, "Classification and Applications of Traffic 

Problems by Models," TE, Vol. 36, November 1965, pp. 
23-24, and 43. (2b). 

Brief treatment of physical and theoretical models, 
traffic variables, and the example of freeway merging, 

218. Drew, Donald R. "Application of Discrete Distributions to 

Traffic," TE, Vol. 36, December 1965, pp. 24-25. (2b). 

Discussion of applying probability distributions to 
traffic flow, 

219. Drew, Donald R. "Application of Continuous Distributions 

to Traffic," TE, Vol. 36, January 1966, pp. 29-31. (2b). 

220. Drew, Donald R, "Application of the Markov Process to 

Traffic," TE, Vol. 36, March 1966, pp. 50-51. (2b). 

221. Drew, Donald R. "The Macroscopic Approach to Traffic 

Flow," TE, Vol, 36, April 1966, pp. 70-71. (2b). 



46. CPL Exchanse Bibliography #324-#325 

222. Drew, Donald R. "The Energy-Mocientun Concept of Traffic 

Flow," TE, Vol. 36, June 1966, pp. 52-54. (2b). 

Explores correspondence between traffic flow and fluid flow. 

223. Drusch, Robert L, "Estimating Annual Average Daily Traffic 

fron Short-Tern Traffic Counts," HRR, No. 118, 1966, 
pp. 85-95. (9). 

Traffic counts reported four tines a year at stations 
grouped on the basis of average monthly flows for 
several consecutive years will yield accurate traffic 
counts and less cost. 

224. Duckhan, Baron E*. "The Navigation of the Yorkshire Ouse 

During the Nineteenth Century," JTH, Vol. 6, May 1964, 
pp. 182-188. (3,8c). 

225. Due, John F. "The City of Frineville Railway and the 

Econonic Developnent of Crook County," EG, Vol. 43, 
April 1967, pp. 170-181. (7,8a). 

.. . Owned by the city of Frineville, the railway stiaulated 
the developnent of the lumber industry. 

226. Dunbar, A. R. "The Control of Public Transport," ITJ, 

Vol. 31, No. 7, November 1965, pp. 225-233. (8a, 8b). 

227. Dunne, M. C, R. W. Rothery, and R. B. Potts. "A Discrete 

Markov Model of Vehicular Traffic," TS, Vol. 2, No. 3, 
August 1968, pp. 233-251. (2,6). 

228. Durden, Dennis and Duane Marble, "The Role of Theory in 

CBD Planning," JOURNAL OF /^IffiRICAN INSTITUTE OF PL/iNNERS, 
Vol. 27, February 1961, pp. 10-16. (2a, 4). 

, The need for theory and the lack of theory available 
for urban planners are discussed. 

229. Dwyer, D, J. "The Developnent of China's Waterways," G, 

Vol. 46, 1961, pp. 165-167. (1,8c). 

230. Dycknan, John, "Transportation in Cities," SCIENTIFIC 

Al^ERICAN, Vol. 213, September 1965, pp. 162-174. (1,4). 

231. Eckert, Edv/ard D. "A Concept for Interstate System Rest 

Areas," HRR, No. 23, 1963, pp. 42-46. (7a). 

Criteria for the selection of rest area sites is 
discussed. 

232. Edens, H, J. "Origin and Destination Surveys by Telephone," 

TE, Vol. 33, April 1963. (9). 



47, CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

233. Edie, L. C, R. S. Foote, Robert Herraan, and Richard 

Rothery. "Analysis of Single-Lane Traffic Flow," TE, 
Vol. 33, January 1963, pp. 21-27. (2b). 

Quantitative treatnent of data fron Holland Tunnel, 

234. Elliott, Tinothy S. "Developnent of Third Level Air Trans- 

portation," JOURNAL OF AIR LAW AND COMMERCE, Vol. 29, 
Sumer 1963, pp. 182-204. (8d). 

Investigates the problens and prospects associated v/ith 
the use of light aircraft in scheduled air service to 
snail cities. 

235. Ellis, Jack B. and Carlton S. Van Doren. "A Coaparative 

Evaluation of Gravity and Systen Theory Models for 
Statewide Recreational Traffic Flow," JRS, Vol. 6, 
Winter 1966, pp. 57-69. (2b, 6b). 

The systems theory is considered to have generated nore 
insights, although the gravity model nay be suited for 
snail sinple systens. 

236. Ellis, Raynond H. "Toward Measurenent of the Connunity 

Consequences of Urban Freeways," HRR, No. 229, 1968, 
pp. 38-52. (4,7a). 

A strategy for measuring the ties between the household 
site and non-household sites is described, 

237. Emmons, D. "Suggestions on the Developnent of Metropolitan 

Rapid Transit," HSGTJ, Vol. 1, September 1967, pp. 307- 
315. (4). 

Guidelines for the successful initiation and completion 
of rapid transit systens are established. 

238. Fagin, Henry. "'Comprehensive Metropolitan Passenger Planning,' 

HRBB 293, 1961, pp. 32-36. (1,4). 

The fundamental philosophy and concepts of comprehensive 
metropolitan transportation planning as represented by 
the Penn Jersey Transportation Study are discussed. 

239. Fagin, Henry. "The Penn Jersey Transportation Study: The 

Launching of a Permanent Regional Planning Process," 
JOURNAL OF ^'illERICAN INSTITUTE OF PLANNERS, Vol. 29, 
February 1963, pp. 9-18. (4). 

Discusses the policy issues, administrative problens, 
and research design associated with the Penn Jersey 
Transportation Study. 



48. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

240. Falk, Edward L. "Measurenent of Connunity Values: The 

Spokane Experiment," HRR, No. 229, 1968, pp. 53-64. 
(4,7a). 

Presentation of a nethod of neasuring connunity attitudes 
towards planning proposals, 

241. Falternayer, Edmund K. "The Rail Route to a More Mobile 

Acerica," FORTUNE, Vol. 74, July 1966, pp. 106-109. (8a). 

242. Farcer, Richard N. "Municipal Ownership of Transit 

Facilities in Snaller Cities,'' TQ, Vol. 17, January 1963, 
pp. 57-67. (4). 

Suggests that the present transit financial problen is 
one of denand and cities find thenselves operating 
transit systens by default of private enterprise. 

243. Farcer, Richard N. "The Economics of Congestions," TJ, 

Vol. 4, Fall 1964, pp. 28-34. (4). 

Costs, problens, and econonic solutions to urban 
traffic congestion. 

244. Farcer, Richard N. "Motor Trucking in California," TJ, 

Vol. 4, Surcer 1965, pp. 33-40. (8b). 

"California state law has influenced narket 
structure and economic results." 

245. Farris, Martin T. "Rail Mergers: New Interest in an Old 

Approach," TJ, Vol. 1, Sunner 1962, pp. 30-37. (8a). 

Overviev; of subject. 

246. Farris, Martin T. "Transport Regulation and Econonic 

Efficiency," AER, Vol. 59, May 1969, pp. 244-250. (7b). 

Regulatory policies reduce the efficiency of the 
transportation industry and perpetuates the industry's 
oligopolistic characteristics. Economists should 
investigate regulation policy using oligopoly theory. 

247. Fearon, Peter. "The Formative Years of the British Aircraft 

Industry," BUSINESS HISTORY REVIEW, Vol. 43, Winter 1969, 
pp. <■': 76-495. (3,8d). 

The early growth of the industry depended upon military 
orders. 

248. Fellman, Jerome D. "Emergent Urban Problems of Intercity 

Motor Transportation," LE, Vol. 27, 1951, pp. 91-101. 
(4,8b). 



49. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

249. Ferguson, George A. "Developnent or Transportation Systen 

Alternatives," HRR, No. 148, 1966, pp. 1-8. (1). 

Aspects of traffic engineering and resource allocation 
are discussed with reference to a total franework of 
transportation planning. 

250. Field, Earle. "Sone Aspects of Traveling in Stuart England," 

TQ, Vol. 18, July 1964, pp. 406-420. (3). 

251. Fisher, Ronald J. and Arthur B, Sosslau. "Census Data as a 

Source for Urban Transportation Planning," HRR, No. 141, 
1966, pp. 47-72. (4,9). 

252. Flaherty, Mark C. "Conmercial Highway Service Districts and 

the Interstate: Their Proper Relationship in an Urban 
Setting," HRR, No. 96, 1965, pp. 8-18. (2a, 4, 7a). 

A nethod for deternining the amount of land that should 
be aade available for highway oriented uses. Differences 
are noted in land development when planning principles 
are followed and when they are ignored. 

253. Flatt, Allan C. "Effect of Piggyback Operation on Volune of 

Highway Truck Traffic," HRR, No. 153, 1967, ?p. 43-53. 
(6b, 8a, 8b). 

254. Fleet, Christopher R. and Sydney R. Robertson. "Trip 

Generation in the Transportation Planning Process," 
HRR, No. 240, 1968, pp. 11-31. (2b, 4, 9). 

Standard trip generation estimating procedures are 
evaluated, and it is suggested that well-designed scall 
sauple cross-sections and on-site surveys nay permit 
periodic re -evaluations of estimating procedures. 

255. Fleischer, Gerald A. "Effect of Highway Improvements on Travel 

Time of Commercial Vehicles: A Twenty -Five -Year Case 
Study," HRR, No. 12, 1963, pp. 19-47. (8b). 

256. Fleishes, Aaron, "On Prediction and Urban Traffic," PRSA, 

Vol. 7, 1961, pp. 43-50. (2b,4,6c). 

The author of this paper treats the proposition, "if 
the volune of traffic between tv;o points in a metro- 
polis v;ere predictable, then urban congestion could be 
relieved and resolved." 



50% CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

257. Flening, Doujlas K. "The Independent Transport Carrier in 

Ocean Tranp Trades," EG, Vol. 44, January 1968, pp. 21- 
36. (6a, 7c, 8c). 

The contenporary independent ocean carrier operations 
in world tranp trades and the interplay of econonics 
and geography characterizing these operations. 

258. Fletcher, Daniel 0. "Decline of the Great Lakes Package- 

Freight Carrier," BUSINESS HISTORY REVIEW, Vol. 36, 
Winter 1962, pp. 387-407. (8c). 

The disappearance of the package -freight carrier is 
considered a consequence of several econonic factors 
which caused large-scale changes in Great Lakes shipping, 

259. Fockena, Andreae F. J. "The Canal Connunlcations of Central 

Holland," JTH, Vol. 4, May 1960, pp. 174-179. (3, 6b, 8c). 

Describes the conflict of interest between requirements 
of effective flood defense and of waterborne traffic 
and states that vested interests at the tine of the 
^ ,, Netherlands unification pernitted only partial inprove- 
nents to the canal systen. 

260. Forbes, T. W. "Hunan Factor Considerations in Traffic Flow 

Theory," HRR, No. 15, 1963, pp. 60-66. (2b). 

The expectation of congestion, poor visibility, and the 
psychological squeezing of lane width caused by an 
adjacent v/all influence an individual's behavior in 
traffic. The effect of these factors on traffic flow 
is expressed uathenatically. 

261. Forward, C. N. "Recent Changes in the Fom and Function of 

the Port of St. John's Newfoundland," CG, Vol. 11, No. 2, 
1967, pp. 101-116. (7c). 

Traces the changes in the port's water front land use, 
coonodity trade, and vessel traffic in the context of 
econonic developnent. 

262. Foster, R. T. "Pipeline Developnent in the United Kingdom," 

G, Vol. 54, April 1969, pp. 204-211. (5,8e). 

Maps and review. 

263. Franklin, Willian D. "The Highway 'Interchange Couplex' and 

Econonic Developnent," TQ, Vol. 24, January 1970, 
pp. 77-91. (7a, 7b). 

264. Frederick, Joseph C. "Aesthetic Considerations in Urban 

Arterial Route Planning," HRR, No. 23, 1963, pp. 22-38. 
(4,5b). 



51. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324 -#32 5 

265. French, Alexander. "Highway Ton-Miles," HRR, No. 82, 1965, 

pp. 77-93. (6b, 8b). 

The procedures for estinating highway ton-niles, 
probler.is in such analysis, and a couparison of highway 
ton-niles V7ith sinilar values for other rnodes of 
transportation. 

266. Frey, J. C, H. K. Dansereau, R. D. Pashek, and «. Twark. 

"Land-Use Planning and the Interchange Connunity," 
HRBB 327, 1962, pp. 56-66. (4). 

267. Fulton, Maurice and L. C, Hoch. "Transportation Factors 

Affecting Locational Decisions," EG, Vol. 35, January 
1959, pp. 51-59. (2a, 7). 

A general discussion of the role of transportation as a 
locational determinant. Freight rates and the quality 
of transport service are considered interdependent 
variables within the entire frauework of production 
and riarketing objectives. 

268. Gakenheiner, Ralph A. "Planning, Transportation, and the 

Snail City," TQ, Vol. 18, April 1964, pp. 282-295. (4). 

Treatnent of aspects unique to the snail city. 

269. Gakenheiner, Ralph A. "High Speed Transit in Urban Areas,'' 

HSGTJ, Vol. 1, January 1967, pp. 22-31. (4). 

General discussion of the inpact of high speed transit 
in urban areas, emphasizing the technological demands 
of such systems and the requirements they will exert on 
the management of urban centers. 

270. Gakenheiner, Ralph A. "Social Factors in Planning Urban 

Transportation," HSGTJ, Vol. 2, September 1968, pp. 
400-400. (4). 

Considers transport problems associated with low- 
incone families. 

271. Ganz, Alexander, "Emerging Patterns of Urban Growth and 

Travel," HRR, No. 229, 1968, pp. 21-37. (4, 6c, 7a). 

The trend towards dispersal of travel away from the 
central city is discussed with reference to land use, 
travel patterns, and mode of travel, 

272. Garrison, Willian L. and Duane F. Marble. "Analysis of 

Highway Networks: A Linear Programming Formulation," 
HIGHIJAY r^SEARCH BOARD PROCEEDINGS, No. 37, 1958, 
pp. 1-14. (2a, 5, 8b). 



52. CPL Exchcnge Bibliography #324-#325 

273. Garrison, Uillian L. and Marion E. Marts. GEOGRi'^PHIC m- 
P/.CT OF HIGH17AY IMPROVEMENT. Seattle, Washington: 
University of Washington, 1958. (2,7a). 

This study is an attenpt to neasure the effects of the 
re-alignnent and iriprovenent of U. S. Highway 99 in 
the vicinity of Marysville, Washington. It is intended 
to conpleuent the majority of highway "inpact" studies 
by presenting results in great detail for a single case. 
Wiereas the najority of stuiies have dealt with a 
relatively few selected inaicators, this study nakes 
use of nany different indicators of effects and presents 
hundreds of separate corabinations and conparisons of data. 

2 74. Garrison, Willian L. "Spatial Structure of the Econony: 
1," ;u\AG, Vol. 49, June 1959, pp. 232-239. (1,2a). 

Review of six books which examine the spatial pattern 
of econonic activity. Econouiic insights are used to 
construct patterns v/hich in turn nay be interpreted by 
geographic insights, 

275. Garrison, Willian L. "Spatial Structure of the Econony: 

II," ;^iG, Vol. 49, Decenber 1959, pp. 471-482. (1,2a). 

Exanines the uses of linear progranning, sunnarizing 
the structure and acconplishcents of five nodels. 

2 76. Garrison, Willian L. STUDIES OF HIGffl^?AY DEVELOPMENT xU^D 

GEOGR/iPHIC CHi^KGE. Seattle, VJashington: University of 
Washington Press, 1959. (2,7a). 

^ This volune presents findings of investigations of the 
spatial pattern of shopping centers in their relation 
to highway inprovenents , relationships between highway 
travel and residential and comercial site selection, 
and the utilization of highvjay transportation in re- 
lation to the arrangenent of custoner tributary areas 
and supplying centers at local, regional and national 
levels. 

277. Garrison, Willian L. "Connectivity of the Interstate 

Highway Systen," PRSA, Vol. 6, 1960, pp. 121-137. (2, 
5a,Ca,Gb) . 

An introduction to the analysis of the transportation 
netv7orks and sone descriptive approaches via graph 
theory. A conparativc analysis between the railway and 
interstate highway networks reveals that despite the 
sprawling character of the Interstate Systen, certain 
places on the network are enphasized nore than central 
places on the railroad network. 



53. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

278. Garrison, Willian L. "Supply and Denand for Land at Highway 

Interchange," HRBB 288, 1961, pp. ^1-66. (7a). 

Problens of estimating long tern land use patterns arise 
fron increased denand for traffic intensive land uses and 
lack of pertinent price infornation. Tenporal and 
regional inter-relationships affecting land usages 
are not adequately understood, 

279. Garrison, Williara L. "Intra- and Interurban Transportation 

Networks," in F. Pitts, editor. URBAN SYSTEMS AND 
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT. Eugene, Oregon: University of 
Oregon, School of Business Adainistration, 1962, pp. 
28-38. (2a, 5, 7b). 

Focuses on the relationship between spatial features 
of economic development and transportation networks 
and points up "the need for criteria to guide decisions 
about transportation networks," 

280. Garrison, Willian L. and Duane F, Marble. "Factor-Analytic 

Study of the Connectivity of a Transportation Network," 
PRSA, Vol. 12, 1964, pp. 231-238. (2,5a). 

In this research on the structure of a transportation 
network, the connection matrix of the Venezuelan air 
transport system is subjected to factor analysis. The 
authors conclude that structure of transportation net- 
works nay be explained largely on the basis of neighbor- 
hood and regionalization effects. 

281. Garrison, Willian L. and Duane F. Marble. "Urban Trans- 

portation Planning Models in 1975," JOURNAL OF *\MERICAN 
INSTITUTE OF PLANNERS, Vol. 31, 1965, pp. 156-158. 
(1,4). 

282. Garrison, Willian L. A PROLEGOMENON TO THE FORECASTING OF 

TRANSPORTATION DEVELOPMENT. Evanston, Illinois: The 
Transportation Center, Northwestern University, 1965. 
(2a, 5). 

283. Garrison, Willian L. "Urban Transportation Studies," in 

PAPERS ON REGION*\L STATISTIC/iL STUDIES, Sylvia Ostry 
and T, K. Rynes, editors. Toronto, Canada: University 
of Toronto Press, 1966, pp. 1-13. (1,4). 

Review, comments, and suggested future research 
directions, emphasizing a system approach. 



54, CPL Exchange Bibliography #324 -#32 5 

284. Gauthier, Hov/ard L. "Transportation and the Growth of the 

Sao Paulo Econony," JRS, Vol. 8, Sunner 1968, pp. 77-94. 
(2a, 5a, 7b). 

Valued graph-theoretic measures and canonical analysis 
are used to exanine the relationship between the 
developnent of a transportation systen and the spatial 
pattern of urban econonic growth. 

285. Gauthier, Hov/ard L. "Geography, Transportation, and Regional 

Developrent," EG, Vol. 46, October 1970, pp. 612-619. 
(2a, 7b). 

A review of ways of viewing transportation in the 
developcent process, arguing for the necessity of 
considering transportation as a spatial systen in 
regional developnent and suggesting some problems 
that arise in attempting to relate the spatial impact 
of transportation to goals of regional intergration. 

286. George, Stephen, Jr. "Transportation Systen Developnent and 

Evaluation as Practiced in Seattle," HRR, No. 238, 1968, 
pp. 116-120. (4). 

287. Gern, R. C. and H. R. Joyner. "Crossroute Access Design in 

Interchange Areas," HRR, No. 59, 1964, pp. 1-8. (2a, 5a). 

Equations which aid in deterraining proper spacing between 
interchange ramp terminals and crossroute access points 
are developed for avoiding congestion. 

288. Getis, Arthur. "Residential Location and the Journey from 

IJork," PROCEEDINGS, A. A. G., Vol. 1, 1969, pp. 55-59. 
(2a, 4, 6c). 

This paper questions the concept that the CBD is the 
control point of the city and instead views the city 
as having several work foci. A probability model is 
used to describe frequency of work trips by distance 
from work places. 

289. Gilpin, Margaret C. "Mj^re and RoLisdal, Norway: A Study 

in the Rural Transport Systen of a Coastal Area," G, 
Vol. 53, April 1968, pp. 145-162. (1). 

290. Ginsburg, Norton. "China's Railway Network," GR, Vol. 41, 

July 1951, pp. 470-474. (5,8a). 



55. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

291. Glejser, H. and A. Dranais. "A Gravity Model of Inter- 

dependent Equations to Estiaate Flow Creation and 
Diversion,'' JRS, Vol. 9, December 1969, pp. 439-450. 
(2b, 4, 6c). 

Negative and positive interdependence are accounted for 
in the gravity nodel franework. The results of testing 
indicate sociological barriers to be an inportant 
obstacle to population flows. 

292. Goldin, Kenneth D. "Three Aspects of Highway Efficiency: 

Amount, Quality, and Price," JTEP, Vol. 2, September 
1968, pp. 349-366. (2a, 5a). 

"A study of efficient pricing of an efficient highway 
capacity, taking into consideration peaked and stochastic 
demand and users' diversity of preferences for quality." 

293. Goldman, Thomas. "Efficient Transportation and Industrial 

Location," PRSA, Vol. 4, 1958, pp. 91-106. (7). 

294. Goldstein, Sidney. "Nonuser Benefits from Highways," HRR, 

No. 20, 1963, pp. 162-181. (7a). 

An economy wide discussion of the concept of non-user 
benefits. The results of numerous impact studies are 
synthesized and efforts to quantify non-user benefits 
are delineated. 

295. Goldstein, Sidney and Kurt Kayer. "Migration and the 

Journey to Work," SOCIAL FORCES, Vol. 42, May 1964, 
pp. 472-481. (4,6). 

296. Golledge, R. G. "Some Notes on the Effect of Road Competition 

on the Transportation of Certain Coi-xiodities in Northern 
New South Wales," AUSTRALUvN GEOGRAPHER, Vol. 8, 1961, 
pp. 116-118. (8). 

A comparison of railroad "bulk loading" rates with 
shipment rates for roads. Discusses the means by 
which railroads maintain their competitive position 
despite rate differences with roads. 

297. Golledge, R. G. "A Geographical Analysis of Newcastle's 

Rail Freight Traffic," EG, Vol. 39, January 1963, 
pp. 60-73. (4, 6b, 8a). 

An analysis of Newcastle's development as a leading 
freight terminal, the direction and force of inter- 
action, originating and terminating traffic, and rail 
traffic regions in northern New South Wales. 



56. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#32 5 

298. Goodwin, ^^llan. "Attitudes and Shopper Mobility in a Snail 

City," HRR, No. 233, 1968, pp. 16-26. (4,6c). 

Like shopper attitudes in large cities, shoppers in sraaller 
cities also considered parking as the nost iaportant 
disadvantage to a CBD shopping trip. Snail city CBD 
shoppers tended to be in low or high incone groups and 
older than suburban shoppers. 

299. Goodwin, Crawford D. "Econoaists and Railways in Colonial 

Australia," JTH, Vol. 6, Noveaber 1963, pp. 65-86. 
(3, 6b, 7b, 8a). 

Presentation of reactions of writers on railways in 
colonial Australia. 

300. Gorizontov, B. B. and S. S. Tsenin. "Problems in the 

Geography of Economic-Transport Links of the World 
Socialist System," SORT, Vol. 6, January 1965, pp. 
25-28. (8a). 

Outlines some of the major needs of future transport 

in the Socialist world and suggests steps for strengthening 

the rail sector of the transport system. 

301. Goss, R. 0, "Towards an Economic Appraisal of Port Invest- 

ments," JTEP, Vol. 1, September 1967, pp. 249-272. (7c). 

Problems of port investment techniques, pricing systems, 
and cost-benefit analysis. 

302. Gottfeld, Gunther M. "Rapid Transit Expansion in Stockholm, 

Sweden," TQ, Vol. 18, October 1964, pp. 576-588. (4,5c, 
8f). 

303. Gould, Peter R. and Robert H. T. Smith. "Method in Commodity 

Flow Studies," AUSTRALIAN GEOGR^iFHER, Vol. 8, 1961, 
pp. 73-77. (1,2a, 6). 

Describes a technique for mapping deviations from a 
least-squares regression line to identify pertinent 
questions for subsequent field work. 

304. Gould, Peter R. and Robert H. T. Smith. "Transportation in 

Africa," GR, Vol. 53, October 1963, pp. 599-600. (1). 

305. Graham, E. F. "application of Large Network Traffic Assign- 

ments to Small Area Route Location Studies," HRR, No. 
114, 1966, pp. 8-19. (2a, 4, 5b). 

By reducing the size of the area used for the distribution 
of trips, assignment of traffic to alternate routes is 
accomplished and the location of individual segments of 
a total freeway system is possible. 



57, CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

306. Grecco, W. L. and S. M. Breuning. "Application of Systems 

Engineering Methods to Traffic Forecasting," HRRB 347, 
1962, pp. 10-23. (2b, 4, 6c). 

The principals of linear graph theory and the requirements 
for using these methods are discussed. The techniques of 
systems engineering are compared with the gravity model 
and the electrostatic model to estimate work trips in a 
hypothetical community. 

307. Grecco, W, L. and S. M. Breuning. "A Systems Engineering 

Model for Trip Generation and Distribution," HRR, No. 
38, 1963, pp. 124-146. (2b, 4, 6c). 

Linear graph theory can be used to find a systems solution 
for trip distribution problems. The components of a 
systems engineering approach are emphasized. The stuJy 
indicates system engineering models encourage a more 
precise definition of parameters and their interaction. 

308. Green, F. H. W, "Bus Service in the British Isles," GR, 

Vol. 41, October 1951, pp. 645-655. (8b). 

309. Green, F. H. W. "Coramunity of Interest Areas in Western 

Europe — Some Geographical Aspects of Local Passenger 
Traffic," EG, Vol. 29, October 1953, pp. 283-298. (4,8). 

A discussion of the hinterland relationships of urban 
places in Western Europe; bus service is used to 
delimit hinterlands. 

310. Green, Mark K. "Multiple Screenline Study to Determine 

Statewide Traffic Patterns," HRBB 253, 1960, pp. 139- 
144. (9). 

A report on the methodology of screenline surveys. 

311. Griffiths, I. L. "The Daily Movement to Work of Anthracite 

Miners in South Wales," TESG, Vol. 53, August-September 
1962, pp. 184-189. (4,6). 

312. Grossman, David A. and Melvin R. Levin. "Area Development 

and Highway Transportation," HRR, No. 16, 1963, pp. 24- 
31. (7a). 

Examination of the effects of highways on areas of 
economic distress or redevelopment and the implications 
of the location and the construction schedules of the 
Interstate Highway System on several distressed areas 
of the United States. 



58. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

313. Grotewold, Andreas and Lois Grotewold. "Sone Geographic 

Aspects of International Trade," EG, Vol. 33, July 1957, 
pp. 257-266. (6a). 

Presents sor.e basic generalizations about international 
trade by exanining the size and distribution of trade 
areas, connodity conposition, and the direction of the 
trade. 

314. Grotewold, ^indreas. "Von Thunen in Retrospect," EG, Vol. 30, 

October 1959, pp. 346-355. (2a, 7). 

An explanation and defense of Von Thunen 's theory of the 
location of agricultural production. The developcent 
of nodern transportation and the changing tastes of city 
dwellers are considered as two basic reasons for deviations 
fron the theoretical land use pattern around American 
and European cities. 

315. Grotewold, Andreas. "Sone Aspects of the Geography of 

International Trade," EG, Vol. 37, October 1961, 
pp. 309-319. (6a). 

316. Guest, Ross B. "The Growth of Soviet Air Cargo," JG, 

Vol. 65, October 1966, pp. 323-327. (8d). 

Air freight, nail, and express traffic has increased 
^' ' • rapidly but still accounts for only a snail per cent 

of the Soviet Union's total freight traffic. 

317. Gutterberg, Albert Z. "Urban Structure and Urban Growth," 

JOURNAL OF AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF PL/iNNERS, Vol. 26, 
May 1960, pp. 104-110. (7). 

The elements of structure are identified, the nutual 
• ' "■' ' influences of urban structure and urban growth are 

considered, and the dynanic interdependency of various 
urban structural phenomena are demonstrated by analyzing 
the effects of a change in transportation efficiency. 

318. Guyton, John W. and W. S. Pollard, Jr. "Corridor Analysis 

of Travel Desires as Utilized in Major Street Planning," 
HRBB 347, 1962, pp. 222-253. (4). 

The use of desire charts as an aid in street and highway 
planning for urban areas. 

319. Haas, R. C. G. and J. F. Morrall. "Analysis of Pedestrian 

Circulation through a Tunnel Network," TQ, Vol. 21, 
April 1967, pp. 229-235. (2a, 6c). 

A study of pedestrians within a university to provide 
future design criteria. 



59. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

320. Hadden, Jeffrey K. "The Use of Public Transportation in 

Milwaukee, Wisconsin," TQ, Vol. 18, April 1964, 
pp. 219-232. (4,8f). 

Deternines variables important in predicting use of 
public transit: age of area of city, density, distance 
fron CBD, and socioeconoaic status, 

321. Raggett, Peter. ^'Networks," LOCATIONAL ANALYSIS IN HUMAN 

GEOGIUiPHY. New York, New York: St. l-Iartin's Press, 
1966, pp. 61-86. (5). 

This chapter focuses on a discussion of the location of 
routes, density pattern of route networks, and models of 
network change. The writing depends heavily upon 
empirical research of other authors for purposes of 
illustrations. 

322. Raggett, Peter. 'Network Models in Geography,'' in Richard 

J. Chorley and Peter Raggett, editors, MODELS IN 
GEOGRAPRY. London, England: Methuen and Company, 
Ch. 15, 1967, pp. 609-668. (5). 

Treatment of a linear feature, such as rivers, railways, 
and polygons from a geometrical viewpoint. Models of 
increasing complexity are described, from the single 
path to the cellular network. 

323. Raggett, Peter. "An Extension of the Horton Combinatorial 

Model in Regional Righway Networks," JRS, Vol. 7, 
Winter 1967, (supplem.ent) , pp. 281-290. (5a). 

The combinatorial ordering system is extended to highway 
networks and may be integrated within more general 
statements of central place systems. Branching ratios 
may be of value in designing networks to meet loadings 
at peak-hours. 

324. Raggett, Peter and Richard J. Chorley. NETWORK ANALYSIS IN 

GEOGRAPRY. New York, New York: St. Martin's Press, 
1969. (5). 

Part I, "Spatial Structures," discusses ways of 
describing networks in both topologic and geometric 
terms and introduces the role of graph theory in geo- 
graphic analysis; Part II, "Evaluation of Structures," 
sets the spatial structure of networks against their 
prim.al and dual roles--as conductors of, and barriers 
to, flows. Part III, "Structural Change," traces the 
patterns of network evolution and attempts to build 
projective growth models through simulation and related 
techniques. 



60. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

325. Haight, Frank A. "The Future of Traffic Flow Theory," TQ, 

Vol. 17, Novenber 1963, pp. 516-527. (2b, 6). 

Since traffic flow theory is inconplete, it should be 
expanded with probability and statistical nodels tying 
in with traffic engineering and applied nathenatics, 

326. Haikalis, George and Hyman Joseph, "Econoaic Evaluation of 

Traffic Networks," HRBB 306, 1961, pp. 39-63. (5b). 

Four alternate traffic systens are conpared to select 
the least cost plan. Total travel costs for users and 
total capital requirenents are two criteria used for 
conparisons. 

327. Haley, Charles E., Edward M. Hall, and Arnold A. Johnson. 

"Travel Tine — A Measure of Service and a Criterion for 
Inprovenent Priorities," HRR, No. 35, 1963, pp. 1-17. 
(4,5). 

Presentation of a priority formula to aid in deteroining 
najor street construction priorities in urban areas. 
Travel tine is used as a neasure of the level of traffic 
service and as the basic criterion for the priority fomula. 

328. Hall, Peter. "Transportation," US, Vol. 6, Novenber 1969, 

pp. 408-435. (1,4,7a). 

A general discussion of the influence of intra- and 
interurban transportation on urban forn. 

329. Hanburg, John R., Charles R. Guinn, George T. Lathrop and 

George C. Hennens. "Linear Progranning Test of Journey- 
to-Work Miniuization," HRR, No. 102, 1965, pp. 67-75. 
(2b,4,6c). 

The degree of influence of the journey-to-work trip on 
residential location is analyzed. It is concluded that 
people are not indifferent to tine of travel, but do not 
locate to nininize travel tine. Higher tine indifference 
rates were associated with upper socioeconomic groups. 

330. Hamilton, Calvin S. "The Development of a Land-Use Data 

Bank for Transportation Planning," HRR, No. 64, 1964, 
pp. 84-99. (4,9). 

Different levels of data collection necessary for trans- 
portation planning are discussed with reference to the 
Pittsburgh Area Transportation Survey. Types of land 
use at the city-block level are presented and their 
role in simulation studies is presented. 



61. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

331. Hamilton, C. W. "Mathematical Research in Traffic Flow," 

HSGTJ, Vol. 1, September 1967, pp. 339-346. (2b). 

Discusses the approaches to the modeling of traffic flow 
problems, specifically the relation of road traffic, 
hydrodynamic analogies, and traffic dynamics. 

332. Har.7nond, Harold F. "The New Age of Transportation Coordinationj 

TQ, Vol. 21, October 1967, pp. 501-519. (1). 

333. Hampton, P. "Empirical Evidence on the Determinants of 

Interregional Trade Flows," ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND 
CULTURAL CHANGE, Vol. 18, October 1969, pp. 34-39. (6b). 

Regression analysis of couimodity flows in New Zealand's 
manufacturing industries. 

334. Hance, William A. "Transportation in Madagascar," GR, 

Vol. 48, January 1958, pp. 45-68. (1,8). 

Madagascar's roads, rail, air, and port systems are 
described and compared with the transport systems of 
African countries. 

335. Hancock, l>Iacklin L, "Transpottation and Organic Urban 

Design," TQ, Vol. 17, January 1963, pp. 5-23. (4). 

Develops a hypothesis for urban design to link effective 
handling of traffic with the design of communities. 

336. Hand, Irving and C, Dwight Hixon. "Planning, Traffic and 

Transportation in Metropolitan Areas," TQ, Vol. 17, 
April 1963, pp. 254-271. (4). 

Describes the goals and programs of the Nashville 
Metropolitan Area Transportation Survey. 

337. Haning, Charles R. and C. V. Wootan. "Value of Commercial 

Motor Vehicle Time Saved," HRR, No. 82, 1965, pp. 54- 
76. (8b). 

The possibilities of determining reliable estimates of 
the dollar value of time savings occurring from the use 
of improved highway facilities are examined. Operating 
costs for commercial trucks are established, and time 
costs are estimated for each commercial truck category. 

338. Hansen, Walter G. "How Accessibility Shapes Land Use," 

JOURN/i OF /VMERICAN INSTITUTE OF PLANNERS, Vol. 25, 
May 1959, pp. 73-76. (2a, 4, 7). 



62. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

339. Hansen, Walter G. "Land Use Forecasting for Transportation 

Planning," HRBB 253, 1960, pp. 145-151. (2a). 

Discussion of a land use forecasting procedure, a review 
of the over-all transportation planning process, and a 
presentation of a land use model based on accessibility 
and vacant developable land. 

340. Hansen, Walter G. "Evaluation of Gravity Model Trip Dis- 

tribution Procedures," HRBB 347, 1962, pp. 67-76. 
(2b,4,6c). 

The gravity nodel is tested and fit to Washington, D.C., 
0-D survey data, and it is shown that the basic gravity 
nodel fomulatibn can serve as a franework for fore- 
casting urban traffic flows. 

341. Hanson, Perry. "Movement Fields: A Viable Surrogate for 

Connunication Fields," RESEARCH REPORT No. 59, 
Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University, 
Department of Geography, 1970. (2,6), 

The paper presents an empirical exploration of the 
relationship between individual travel patterns and 
individual conraunication patterns using a sample, 
rural Korean population. The relationship between a 
household's daily, recurrent travel patterns and its 
information field is evident since the former is defined 
as the spatial point set where face-to-face inter- 
personal contacts can occur, and the latter actually 
''^' defines the subset of locations where contacts occur. 



342. Hanson, Philip. "Soviet Inland Waterways," JTH, Vol. 6, 

May 1963, pp. 3-13. (3,8c). 

A note on the past and present role of Soviet inland 
water transport. 

343. Harbeson-, Robert W. "Diversification and Transport Invest- 

ment," LE, Vol. 46, February 1970, pp. 12-21. (8a). 

Discusses the diversification of railroad corporations 
' ' ■ and the organization of holding companies by railroads. 

344. Harmelink, M. D, , G. C. Harper, and H. M. Edwards. "Trip 

Production and Attraction Characteristics in Small 
Cities," HRR, No. 205, 1967, pp. 1-19. (2b,4,6c). 

• ■ The study indicates the most reliable prediction of trip 
production to be car ownership. The accuracy of trip 
estimation decreased with increased segregation of trip 
purpose. Trip attraction is related to land use 
characteristics of each zone. 



63, CPL Exchange Bibliography #324 -#32 5 

345. Harper, B. C, S. and H. M. Edwards. "Generation of Person 

Trips by Areas within the Central Business District," 
HRBB 253, 1960, pp. 44-61. (2a, 4, 6c). 

Regression analysis indicates a positive relationship 
between floor space in use and travel to zones within 
the CBD. 

346. Harr, Charles M. "Transportation and Econoaic Opportunity," 

TQ, Vol. 21, October 1967, pp. 521-526. (1,4,7b). 

A brief statecent within the urban context. 

347. Harris, Britton. "Experiments in Projection of Transportation 

and Land Use," TQ, Vol. 16, April 1962, pp. 305-319. 
(2,4). 

The article describes briefly sone of the nore 
experimental techniques for analyzing problems of the 
Philadelphia-Camden-Trenton metropolitan region. 

348. Hart, Alan S. "Evolution of the Sacramento Freeway System," 

TQ, Vol. 17, November 1963, pp. 557-572. (5,8b). 

Discusses the decision-naking process in determining 
which would be the best master plan for a freeway system. 

349. Hart, Harold W. "The Sedan Chair as a Means of Public 

Conveyance," JTH, Vol. 5, November 1962, pp. 205-218. 
(1,3). 

350. Harvey, Thomas N. "A Method of Network Evaluation Using 

the Output of the Traffic Assignment Process," HRR, 
No. 238, 1968, pp. 46-63. (2a, 4, 5c). 

Consumer surplus is used as a measure of benefit for 
comparing benefits and losses from a particular network 
change. Fixed travel demand need not be assumed and 
only interzonal volumes and interzonal separations for 
the networks investigated are required. 

351. Hawrey, Philip E. "On the Choice of Forecasting Models for 

Air Travel," JRS, Vol. 9, August 1969, pp. 215-224. 
(2b,6b,8d). 

The gravity model and abstract mode model are compared. 
The export predictions of the gravity model are considered 
superior to the abstract mode model. 



ett. CPL Exchanse Bibliography #324 -#32 5 

352. Hay, George A., Edward K. Morlok, and Abraham Charnes. 

"Toward Optinal Planning of a Two-Mode Urban Transportation 
System: A Linear Progranning Fomulation," HRR, No. 148, 
1966, pp. 20-48. (2a,4,8f). 

Linear programing is used to establish optinun trans- 
portation service for autonobile transport facilities 
and nass transit facilities in a radial, downtown oriented 
corridor. The objective is to find what combination 
minimizes capital and operating costs of transit and auto 
transport during the design year, 

353. Haynes, John J. "Some Considerations of Vehicular Density on 

Urban Freeways," HRR, No. 99, 1965, pp. 59-80. (2b, 4, 6c). 

In uncongested conditions frequency distributions of 
densities are closely approximated by the Poisson 
distribution. 

354. Healy, Kent T. "The Merger Movement in Transportation," 

AER, Vol. 52, May 1962, pp. 436-444. (8a). 

An evaluation of mergers, questioning the benefits of 
expected elimination of parallel routes and terminal 
facilities, 

355. Heanue, Kevin E., Lamelle B. Hamner, and Rose M. Hall. 

"Adequacy of Clustered Hone Interview Sampling for 
Calibrating a Gravity Model Trip Distribution Formula," 
HRR, No. 88, 1965, pp. 116-136. (2b, 4, 6c, 9). 

' ' Gravity model trip distributions over larger trip 
volumes are not significantly different from 0-D 
survey data. While clustered sampling provides stable 
trip volumes, it does not provide for adequate data for 
~ calibration as the sample is biased by the location of 
sampling zones. 

356. Heanue, Kevin E. and Clyde E. Pyers. "A Comparative 

Evaluation of Trip Distribution Procedures," HRR, 
No. 114, 1966, pp. 20-50. (2b, 4, 6c). 

The Fratar, gravity, intervening opportunities, and 
competing opportunities models are comparatively 
evaluated. The Frater model is accurate for areas of 
stabilized land-use patterns, and the unadjusted 
intervening opportunities model more accurately 
simulates travel patterns than an unadjusted gravity 
model. 



65. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

357. Heier, John J. and David M. Glancy, "Modern Expressways 

and Public Transportation," TQ, Vol. 17, January 1963, 
pp. 124-132. (4). 

Presents the "balanced systen" which is the efficient 
novenent of people and goods between desired points; 
also the writer approaches the suitability of various 
forms of public transportation to assist in providing 
adequate circulation. 

358. Heitneyer, Roderick. "Some Available Traffic Forecasts and 

the Potential Demand for Coanercial Supersonic Air- 
craft," JOURNAL OF AIR LAW AND COMMERCE, Vol. 28, 
Spring 1961-62, pp. 153-171. (8d). 

359. Helin, Ronald A. "Finland Regains an Outlet to the Sea," 

GR, Vol. 5G, April 1968, pp. 167-194. (3,8c). 

A description of the genesis and the functions of the 
Sainaa Canal. 

360. Henderson, Arthur. "European and North American Traffic, 

Engineering and Design,'' TQ, Vol. 16, November 1962, 
pp. 510-520. (1,6). 

A simple comparison of driving and traffic characteristics. 

361. Hendrix, Frank L. "Federal Transportation Statistics: 

An Analysis," TJ, Vol. 5, Fall 1965, pp. 5-15. (9). 

362. Herbert, Budd and Richard Runyan. "The 1963 Census of 

Transportation: Review and Prospects," PG, Vol. 19, 
September 1967, pp. 268-271. (9). 

Due to a lack of utilization of the 1963 Census of 
Transportation, this paper is written with the purpose 
of bridging the communications gap between potential 
users and the publishers of the data. The major part 
of the paper focuses on each of the surveys conducted 
by the Bureau of the Census, highlighting a few 
generalizations. A second section suggests areas of 
use and also offers criticisms for improvement of any 
future census of transportation. 

363. Herr, Phillip B. "The Timing of Highway Impact," TQ, Vol. 

16, April 1962, pp. 279-288. (7a). 

Impact usually began before the facility was in service, 
surged to a peak shortly after its opening, then fell 
to a lower level in the next few years. 



66. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

364. Herrin3, Frank W, "Metropolitan Growth and Metropolitan 

Travel Patterns," HRBB 293, 1961, pp. 9-20. (4,6c). 

A description of netropolitan growth in the New York 
metropolitan region focusing on changing patterns of 
travel behavior in response to metropolitan growth. 

365. Heynann, Hans, Jr. "Air Transport and Econonic Developnent: 

Some Connents on Foreign Aid Prograos," AER, Vol. 52, 
May 1962, pp. 386-395. (7,8d). 

General discussion of the importance of air transport 
to underdeveloped countries. 

366. Hickey, Joseph E., Jr. "A Scenic Approach to Scenic Road- 

building," TQ, Vol. 19, November 1965, pp. 578-593. (5b). 

The role of aesthetics in route selection, 

367. Hill, Donald M, and Norman Dodd. "Travel Mode Split in 

Assignment Programs," HRBB 347, 1962, pp. 290-301. (2b, 
4,6c). 

A mathematical model used for trip prediction in 
Toronto, Canada, 
'Ha.v;.:;!- 

368. Hill, Donald M. and H, G. Von Cube. "Development of a 

Model for Forecasting Travel Mode Choice in Urban Areas," 
HRR, No. 38, 1963, pp. 78-96. (2b, 4, 6c). 

• -' ' Travel mode choice behavior for trips to work is 
■-' '• ■■' related to travel time, travel cost, the status of 

trip makers, and the level of convenience associated 
with each node. 

369. Hill, Donald M. and Norman Dodd. "Studies of Trends of 

Travel between 1954 and 1964 in a Large Metropolitan 
Area," HRR, No. 141, 1966, pp. 1-23. (2a, 4, 6c). 

' - A comparative analysis indicates to what extent the 
travel characteristics used in a traffic predicticn 
model have changed. The motive, time, duration, and 
method of travel are discussed. It is concluded that 
there is an overall stability between person trips and 
the reasons for travel, that trip length is not signifi- 
cantly different, and that public transport preferences 
are similar. 



67. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

370. Hille, Stanley J. and Theodore K. Martin, "Consuner 

Preference in Transportation," HRR, No. 197, 1967, 
pp. 36-43. (2a,4,6c). 

The consuner 's concept of the ideal transportation system 
is identified using factor analysis. While there is sone 
variation by trip purpose, cost and tine factors are not 
considered as important as reliability of destination 
achievement. 

371. Hilling, David. "Tena: The Geography of a New Port," G, 

Vol. 51, 1966, pp. 111-125. (7c). 

A description of Teoa's site, construction, trade 
structure, hinterland, industries, and significance to 
West Africa. 

372. Hilton, George W. "Decline of Railroad Commutation," 

BUSINESS HISTORY REVIEW, Vol. 36, Summer 1962, pp. 
171-187. (4,8a). 

An examination of the economic factors responsible for 
the decline in railroad commuter traffic and of recent 
policy issues which indicate further decline and 
possible extinction of commuter traffic. 

373. Hilton, George W. "Rail Transit and the Pattern of Modern 

Cities: The California Case," TQ, Vol. 21, July 1967, 
pp. 379-393. (4, 6c, 7, 8a). 

A study of the relations "between the geographical 
pattern, the technology of urban transportation, and 
the other forces at work on the form of American cities," 
with emphasis on San Francisco and Los Angeles, 

374. Hixon, Dwight C, "An Analysis of Urban Travel Times and 

Traffic Volume Characteristics," HRBB 303, 1961, 
pp. 103-116. (2a, 4, 6c). 

Travel time is used as a basis for comparing the level 
of traffic service on arterial routes in the Nashville, 
Tennessee, metropolitan area. 

375. Hoch, Irving. ''Benefit-Cost Methods for Evaluating Express- 

way Construction," TQ, Vol. 15, April 1961, pp. 208- 
225. (7,8b). 

"Outlines sone general procedures for calculating 
benefits and costs of expressways construction." 

376. Hoel, Lester A. "Truck Travel in the Los Angeles Metro- 

politan Area," TQ, Vol. 18, October 1964, pp. 535-553. 
(4, 6c, 8b). 

Presents 0-D data on commodity movement. 



68. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

377. Hoel, Lester A. "Considerations Affecting the Choice of 

Urban Transportation Systens," TE, Vol, 37, May 1967, 
pp. 36-40. (1,4). 

rt general discussion, calling for nore research as an 
aid for planning. 

378. Hoel, Lester A. "Pedestrian Travel Rates in Central 

Business Districts," TE, Vol. 38, January 1968, pp. 10- 
13. (4,6c). 

Factors affecting pedestrian travel include tine of day, 
external influences, temperature, sex, trip purpose, 
and socioeconomic status. 

379. Hoffnan, George A, "Minimizing Land Used by Automobiles and 

Buses in Urban Central Core: Underground Highways and 
Parking Facilities," HRR, No. 102, 1965, pp. 98-114. 
(4). 

A study of design features of tunnel construction costs 
and the comparison of tunnel costs, compared to the cost 
of surface routes, indicates that by the turn of the 
century it nay be cheaper to move and park cars and 
buses underground in the center of many American cities. 

380. Holmes, J. H, "The Suburbanization of Cessnock Coalfield 

Towns: 1954-1964," AUSTRiiLLiN GEOGRAPHICAL STUDIES, 
Vol. 3, October 1964, pp. 105-128. (4,6). 

' Examines coronunity changes with changes in the 

coalfield economy. 

381. Holmes, Jerold M. "The Pan anerican Highway," JG, Vol. 62, 

April 1963, pp. 145-151. (1,8b). 

382. Holzner, Lutz. "The Rhine -Main-Danube Waterhighway," 

JG, Vol. 65, September 1966, pp. 270-284. (3,8c). 

Discusses the history and impact of a canal link joining 
the Main River and the Danube River, 

383. Hooson, David J.M. "The Middle Volga: An Emerging Focal 

Region in the Soviet Union," GEOGRAPHICAL JOURN/iL, 
Vol. 126, June 1960, pp. 180-189. (8c). 

The middle Volga region will continue in industrial 

growth, as it is near established population centers 

and has improved transport lines with all parts of the 
nation. 



69. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

384. Hoover, Edgar M, "Motor Metropolis: Some Observations on 

Urban Transportation in Arierica," JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL 
ECONOMICS, Vol. 13, June 1965, pp. 177-192. (1,4). 

The relationship between the use of private autonobiles 
and the econonic and social problems associated with 
urban expansicn. 

385. Hoover, Robert. "Policy Growth and Transportation Plannins 

in the Detroit Metropolitan Area," PRSA, Vol. 7, 1961, 
pp. 223-240. (4). 

The author presents an historical sketch of the developnent 
of transportation in the Detroit area and enphasizes, by 
way of the Detroit example, that planning is a function 
which proceeds according to certain definite growth stages. 

386. Horn, John W. , P. D. Cribbons, J. D. Blackburn, and C. E. Vick, 

Jr. "Effects of Coijcercial Roadside Development on 
Traffic Flow in North Carolina," HRBB 303, 1961, 
pp. 76-93. (2a, 6, 7a). 

Average car and maximum car methods are used to gather 
data used to construct models indicating the association 
between traffic flow characteristics and business types 
along the route. 

387. Horn, John W. "Impact of Industrial Development on Traffic 

Generation in Rural Areas of North Carolina," HRBB 347, 
1962, pp. 133-142. (6). 

A report of a survey investigating and interpreting the 
characteristics of traffic generated in open rural areas 
and traffic generated by manufacturing industries. 

388. Horn, R. William. "Air Cargo Ton-Miles— A Statistic of 

Growing Importance," HRR, No. 82, 1965, pp. 94-99. (8d,9). 

The growth of cargo traffic is discussed. The CAB and 
ATA data collection procedures and data categories are 
evaluated. 

389. Horton, Frank E. and Paul W. Shuldiner. "The Analysis of 

Land -Use Linkages," HRR, No. 165, 1967, pp. 96-107. 
(2a, 4, 6c). 

The Markov chain model is used to describe linkages 
among land use and activities. 



70. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

390. Horton, Frank E. "The Utility of Trip Forecasting Models 

Based on Aggregate Land Use Data," PG, Vol. 19, 
November 1967, pp. 319-322. (2a, 4). 

"The problen posed here is the extent to which division 
or aggregation of land use groups, both areally and by 
type, affect the accuracy of travel forecasts." 

391. Horton, Frank E. GECGR/'vPHIC STUDIES OF URBAN TRANSPORTATION 

AND NET^;ORK /iNALYSIS. Department of Geography, Studies 
in Geography No. 16, Evanston, Illinois, Northwestern 
University Press, 1968. (4,5). 

Six papers are presented in this volume, four of which 
are reports of research and explorations into aspects 
of urban transportation, and the remaining two are con- 
cerned V7ith applications of graph theory to network 
analysis. The papers vary widely in viewpoint, but 
they share a common focus in striving toward the 
«' development and application of theory in transportation 
geography. 

392. Horton, Frank E. "Location Factors as Determinants of 

Consumer Attraction to Retail Firms," AAAG, Vol. 58, 
December 1968, pp. 787-801. (2a, 4). 

"Spatial variability in consumer attraction to retail 
firms may be considered a function of the location of 
individual retail locations," Analysis of Waco, Texas, 
data indicates "that location of competition and in- 
vestment factors are extremely im.portant considerations 
when attempting to explain differences in the number of 
consumers attracted to retail firms." 

393. Horton, Frank E. and Robert I. Wittick. "A Spatial Model 

for Examining the Journey-to-Work in a Planning Context,' 
PG, Vol. 21, July 1969, pp. 223-226. (2a, 4, 6c). 

The dual of the transportation problem is analyzed. 
It is suggested that the dual is of interest to planners 
as an indicator of optimal locations for residential 
and employment growth. 

394. Horton, Frank E. and David R. Reynolds. "Effects of Urban 

Spatial Structure on Individual Behavior," EG, Vol. 47, 
January 1971, pp. 36-48. (2s, 4). 

Based on Cedar Rapids, Iowa, data, the authors examine 
changes in spatial behavior as adjustm,ents to changes 
in urban spatial structure, rather than as active agents 
of structural change, and focus on the concepts of 
objective spatial structure and action and activity 
space. 



71. CPL Exchanse Bibliography #324-#325 

395. Horwood, Edgar M, "Freeway Inpact on Municipal Land Planning 

Effort,'' HRBB 268, 1960, pp. 1-12. (4,7a), 

A reexaninatiqn of some of the factors which inpose 
serious limitations upon the integration of city planning 
and highv/ay development processes. Survey indicates no 
unifom conceptualization of problens within and anong 
agencies dealing with integrated planning. 

396. Horwood, Edgar M, and Clark D. Rogers. "Electronic Mapping 

Research and Developnent," HRBB 347, 1962, pp. 147-155. 
(1,9). 

A discussion of computer graphics and their applicability 
to transportation studies, 

397. Horwood, Edward M. "Cocmunity Consequences of Highway 

Inprovenent," HRR, No. 96, 1965, pp. 1-7. (7a). 

A correlation and evaluation of the economic and 
connunity inpact of highway bypasses and circunferential 
freeways indicate snail towns nay suffer fron bypasses, 
while a larger center nay benefit. Circunferential 
freeway studies indicate the tendency of industrial 
and connercial activity to locate along these routes, 

398. Houston, Cecil, "Market Potential and Potential Transportation 

Costs: An Evaluation of the Concepts and Their Surface 
Patterns in the U.S.S.R.," CG, Vol. 13, Autunn 1969, 
pp. 210-236, (2a, 6b). 

Various neasures of nass and distance are used to 
exanine their role in the macro geographic pattern of 
narket potential and potential transportation costs, 

399. Howe, Robert T, "Can the Urban Transportation Problem be 

Solved?" TQ, Vol. 14, January 1960, pp. 85-94. (4). 

Treatment of behavior of gas and human movement, entropy 
and urban transportation, city planning and electro- 
statics. Conclusion: ''Fundamentally, the urban trans- 
portation problem cannot really be solved," 

400. Howe, Robert T, "A Theoretical Prediction of Work-Trip 

Patterns," HRBB 253, 1960, pp. 155-165. (2b, 4, 6c). 

A model based on principals of electrostatics is used 
for the prediction of work-trip patterns in metro- 
politan areas. 



72, CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

401. Howe, Robert T. "A Theoretical Prediction of Work-Trips 

in the Minneapolis -St. Paul nrea," HRBB 347, 1962, 
pp. 156-181. (2b, 4, 6c). 

Predictions based on principals of electrostatics 
indicate potential use for predicting future 
distribution of work places and residences. 

402. Howe, Robert T. "A Critical Analysis of an Origin- 

Destination Survey," HRR, No, 41, 1963, pp. 79-98. 
(2b, 4, 6c), 

A 1957 0-D survey is evaluated using the author's field 
theory of novenent oodel and the gravity nodel. The 
predicted patterns of novenent and the pattern indicated 
by the survey are significantly different. 

403. Hoyle, B. S. "Recent Changes in the Pattern of East 

African Railways," TESG, Vol. 54, Novenber 1963, 
pp. 237-242. (8a). 

404. Hoyle, B, S. "Early Port Developnent in East Africa: An 

Illustration of the Concept of Changing Port Hierarchies," 
TESG, Vol. 58, March-April 1967, pp. 94-102. (7c). 

405. Hoyle, B, S. "East African Seaports: An Application of the 

Concept of Vuiyport'," TRANSACTIONS: INSTITUTE OF 
BRITISH GEOGRAPHERS, No, 44, 1968, pp, 163-183. (2a, 7c). 

East African ports are conpared to a hypothetical 
pattern of port developnent. Changing patterns of port 
facilities are used to indicate stages of port evolution, 

406. Hoyt, Honer. "The Effect of the Autonobile on Patterns of 

Urban Growth," TQ, Vol. 17, April 1963, pp. 293-301. 
(4). 

407. Huff, David L, "A Topographical Model of Consuner Space 

Preferences," PRSA, Vol. 6, 1960, pp. 159-173, (2b, 6c). 

The paper points out a nunber of factors which are felt 
to be inportant in conditioning consuner space preferences, 
The use of graph theory and natrix algebra nake it 
possible to deternine how each of these factors affect 
one another as well as the relative degree of inter- 
dependence of each element. The nodel presented pernits 
the fornulation and testing of hypotheses which specify 
distinctive features of these variables with respect to 
individual consumers of various types. The prinary 
feature of this nodel is that it provides a scheme for 
explaining already observed behavior and is not intended 
to be a predictive tool. 



73. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324 -#32 5 

408. Huff, David L. "A Note on the Linitations of Intraurban 

Gravity Models," LE, Vol. 38, February 1962, pp. 64-66. 
(2 b). 

409. Huff, David L. "A Probabilistic Analysis of Shopping Center 

Trade Areas," LE, Vol. 39, February 1963, pp. 81-90. 
(2,6). 

Presentation of a nodel to deteruine retail trade of a 
shopping center, 

410. Huff, David L. and George F, Jenks. "A Graphic Inter- 

pretation of the Friction of Distance in Gravity Models,' 
AAAG, Vol. 58, December 1968, pp. 814-824. (2b). 

Portrays complex three-dimensional surfaces stenning 
fron gravity nodel to facilitate understanding of 
spatial beliavior. 

411. Hunphrys, G. "The Journey to Work in Industrial South 

Wales," TRiiNSACTIONS : INSTITUTE OF BRITISH GEOGRAPHERS, 
No. 36, 1965, pp. 85-96. (6). 

Workers tend to travel well beyond their local area to 
work, allov;ing for greater freedon of choice in 
industrial location, 

412. Hunter, Holland. "The Passenger Car in the U.S.S.R." HRR, 

No. 115, 1966, pp. 64-70. (1,8b). 

A general discussion of Russian attempts to avoid auto- 
oriented transportation problems, as evidenced in the 
West, by restricting private ownership of vehicles. 

413. Hunter, Holland, SOVIET TRANSPORT EXPERIENCE: ITS LESSONS 

FOR OTHER COUNTRIES. Washington, D.C: Brookings 
Institution, 1968. (1,8). 

This book focuses on two aspects of Soviet transport 
policy: the effort to hold dovm transport investment 
to make existing investment serve more productively and 
the conscious decision to minimize road investment 
relative to investment in rail and water transport. 

414. Hurst, Michael E. Eliot. "Land Use and Traffic Generation 

in Urban Areas, with Particular Reference to Perth," 
SCOTTISH GECGRAPHICAL MAGAZINE, Vol. 80, 1964, p. 53. 
(2b,4,6c). 

Investigates "traffic as a function of land use" in an 
Australian setting. 



74. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

415. Hurst, Hichael E. Eliot. "The Structure of Movenent and 

Household Travel Behavior," US, Vol. 6, February 1969, 
pp. 70-82. (2b, 4, 6c). 

Travel motivation is broken down into goals and 
occurrences. Life style and positional utility are 
described. 

416. Hurst, Michael E. Eliot. "Land Use/Travel Movenent Relation- 

ships," TQ, Vol. 23, April 1969, pp. 263-274. (2b, 4, 6c). 

Multiple regression techniques are used to develop a 
descriptive nodel of traffic novenent. 

417. Hurst, Michael E, Eliot. "Confluence at the Work Site: Sone 

Applications of Urban Work Journey Applications of Urban 
Work Journey Analyses," TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH, Vol. 4, 
1970, pp. 163-184. (2b, 4, 6c). 

"The purpose of this paper is to compare some alternative 
methods of analyzing work trip data, as applied to data 
collected in a recent survey in Perth, Scotland." 

418. Hurst, Michael E. Eliot. "An approach to the Study of Non- 

residential Land Use Traffic Generation," AAAG, Vol. 60, 
March 1970, pp. 153-173. (2a, 4, 6c). 

. .' Results of analysis of Perth, Scotland, "indicate that 
there is a functional relationship between land use and 
the volume of urban travel, and that it appears that 
location and the intensity of use of the land are also 
important variables in such a relationship." 

419. Hurter, Arthur P. and Leon N. Moses. "Transportation Invest- 

ment and Regional Development," JOURNAL OF AMERICAN 
INSTITUTE OF PL/JWERS, Vol. 30, May 1964, pp. 132-139. 
(2a, 7). 

This article discusses inter-regional linear programming 
models. The assumptions and data requirements of the 
efficiency and transportation models are examined and 
extentions and modifications of inter-regional linear 
programming are proposed. 

420. Hutchinson, B. G. "A Planning Morphology for Transportation 

Systems," TQ, Vol. 20, July 1966, pp. 347-360. (1). 

Review of planning concepts and the syrten concept. 

421. Hyman, G. M. "The Calibration of Trip Distribution Models," 

ENVIRONMENT AND PL^\NNING, Vol. 1, 1969, pp. 105-112. 
(2b,4,6c). 

A mathematical discussion of various distribution 
models. 



75. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

422. Hyoans, Edgar M. "Mass Transportation in Cincinnati: Past, 

Present, and Future," TE, Vol. 37, October 1966, pp. 
49-53. (3,4, 8f). 

423. Hynes, Cecil V. "An Origin-Destination Study of Truck 

Traffic in Michigan," TQ, Vol. 21, April 1967, pp. 
269-280. (6b, 8b). 

A study of truck aoveuent by carrier type and state of 
origin and destination. 

424. Irwin, N. A., Norrian Dodd, and H. G. von Cube. "Capacity 

Restraint in ^^ssignnent Prograns," HRBB 297, 1961, 
pp. 109-127. (2b, 5, 6). 

A traffic siculation nodel incorporating a feedback 
nechanisn by which capacity restraint and vehicle 
congestion are allowed to affect route generation, 
trip distribution, and vehicle assignraent in successive 
progran blocks, 

425. Irwin, N. A. and H. G. von Cube. "Capacity Restraint in 

Multi-Travel Mode Assignment Programs, " HRBB 347, 1962, 
pp. 253-239. (2b,4,5,6). 

An intensive discussion of a nodel used for estinating 
vehicular and transit flovz in Toronto, Canada. Capacity 
restraints and the resultant congestion in roads and 
parking lots are allowed to affect the choice of traffic 
node, route selection, and trip voluae distribution in 
successive progran blocks, 

426. Isard, Walter. LOCATION /^D SPACE-ECONOMY. New York, 

New York: John Wiley, 1956. (2). 

427. Isard, Walter, et al. "Interregional Flow *\naly3is and 

Balance of Payments Statements," METHODS OF REGIONAL 
ANALYSIS: ^M INTRODUCTION TO REGIONi^ SCIENCE. 
Cambridge, I'iassachusetts: M.I.T. Press, 1960, pp. 
122-iei. (2,6). 

This chapter examines the location quotient, commodity 
flow investigations, regional and interregional money 
flow studies, and balance of payment statements. Several 
empirical applications of the techniques are given. 



76. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

428. Isard, Walter. "Interregional Linear Frograoning," METHODS 

OF REGION/iL ANALYSIS: AN INTRODUCTION TO REGIONAL 
SCIENCE. Canbridge, Massachusetts: M.I.T. Press, 
1960, pp. A 13-492. (2,6). 

The general interregional nodel presented in this chapter 
has been developed in its purely fornal aspects, pri- 
narily to serve as background against which specific, 
useful nodels night be developed. Aside froc the fornal 
presentation of the nodel, applications to the dairy and 
coal industries are nade. 

429. Izyunskiy, 0. A. "Transport Developnent of the Middle Ob 

Oil District," SGRT, Vol. 11, October 1970, pp. 89-94. 
(7b, 8a, 8c). 

"Two basic alternative transport systens are analyzed 
for the new oil-producing districts along the Middle Ob 
valley in West Siberia. One is the construction of a 
railroad parallel to the Ob River; the other is in the 
use of the vjaterway itself." 

430. Janieson, G. B. , W. K. Mackay, and J, C, R, Latchford. 

"Transportation and Land Use Structures," US, Vol. 4, 
November 1967, pp. 201-217. (2a,4,6c). 

Conparisons of different urban land use distributions 
and their effect on travel. 

431. Janelle, Donald G. "Spatial Reorganization: A Model and 

Concept," AAAG, Vol. 59, June 1969, pp. 348-364. (2a, 7). 

..: ';\ • "Travel-tine connectivity is a key factor in defining 
a process of the spatial reorganization of nan's 
functional establishnents. A case study relating 

■■ "'' highway developnent with the growth in wholesale ac- 
tivity for selected cities in the upper nidwest of the 
United States indicates that, aside fron being a good 
surrogate of transport efficiency, travel-tine con- 
nectivity is also a good neasure of the relative ad- 
vantage of a given place in attracting to itself the 
centralization and specialization of hunan activity," 

432. Jefferies, Wilbur R. and Everett C, Carter. "Sinplified 

Techniques for Developing Transportation Plans--Trip 
Generation in Snail Urban Areas," HRR, No. 240, 1968, 
pp. 66-87. (2b, 4, 9). 

Socioecononic and land use characteristics of snail urban 
areas are analyzed to establish a sinplified nethod of 
conducting transportation surveys. Vehicle ownership 
is considered a najor indicator of trip generation. 



77. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324 -#32 5 

433. Johnson, J. A., G. Potvin, and N. E. Wilson. "The Planning 

and Econonics of High Speed Transportation for a Region 
under Rapid Urbanization," HSGTJ, Vol. 1, January 1967, 
pp. 32-46. (2a). 

Decision rules for policy makers are developed using 
theoretical cost and value concepts, 

434. Johnson, Janes F. "The Influence of Cost Distance Factors 

on the Overseas Export of Corn fron the United States 
Midwest," EG, Vol. 45, April 1969, pp. 170-179. (6a). 

Exanines factors affecting the transportation of com 
exports, finding a great disparity between linear and 
cost distances fron locations to regional ports. 

435. Johnson, R. J, "An Index of Accessibility and Its Use in the 

Study of Bus Service and Settlenent Patterns," TESG, 
Vol. 57, January-February 1966, pp. 33-38. (2a). 

436. Johnson, R. J. "The Distribution of an Intra-netropolitan 

Central Place Hierarchy," AUSTRALIAN GEOGRAPHICAL 
STUDIES, Vol. 4, April 1966, pp. 19-34. (2a, 4), 

437. Johnson, R. J. and Peter J. Ricner. "A Note on Consuner 

Behavior in an Urban Hierarchy," JRS, Vol. 7, Winter 
1967, pp. 161-166. (2a,4). 

Postulated relationships between the central place 
hierarchy and consuner behavior are not substantiated. 

438. Johnson, R. J. "Railways, Urban Growth and Central Place 

Patterns: An Exanple fron South-east Melbourne," TESG, 
Vol. 59, January-February 1968, pp. 33-41. (4,7,8a). 

439. Johnson, R, J. "An Outline of the Developcent of Melbourne's 

Street Pattern," AUSTRALIAN GEOGRAPHER, Vol. 10, 
Septenber 1968, pp. 453-465. (3,5,7). 

After outlining the historical developnent of the city 
and its street pattern, chi-square is used to test for 
differences in the basic grid pattern. The results are 
used as an indicator of high, internediate, or low 
status housing. 

440. Johnson, W. B. , editor. TRAFFIC IN A NEW ZEALAND CITY. 

Christchurch, New Zealand: Regional Planning 
Authority, 1965. (4). 



78. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

441. Jones, Richard M. "Local Labour Markets, the Journey to Work, 

and Government Location Policy,'' TPR, Vol, 41, April 1970, 
pp. 168-170. (1). 

Identifies three distinct labor narkets in industrial 
South Wales. 

442. Jones, Robert W. "Method for Estimating Potential Increases 

in Traffic Volumes Based on 0-D Survey Data from A Mid- 
Western City," HRR, No. 88, 1965, pp. 171-181. (2a, 4, 6c). 

Factor analysis indicates socioeconomic level and pro- 
portion of land-use devoted to single family residences 
are the principal criteria associated with trip generating 
potential of 0-D zones. 

443. Jordan, Thomas D. "Development of the Sky Count Technique 

for Highway Traffic Analysis," HRR, No. 19, 1953, 
pp. 35-46. (9). 

The wide and rapid coverage of areas is a major 
advantage of airphoto techniques. 

444. Kagayama, Tomoo. "Commuter Traffic in Tokyo and Osaka,'' 

TQ, Vol. 19, November 1965, pp. 609-622. (4, 5c, 6c). 

Treatment of rapid transit network, traffic volume and 
capacity, and nev? projects to alleviate congestion. 

445. Kain, John F. ''The Journey to Work as a Determinant of 

Residential Location," PRSA, Vol. 9, 1962, pp. 137- 
160. (2,4,7). 

The paper presents empirical evidence on the manner in 
which transportation costs influence the household's 
' ' choice of a residential location and describes a res- 
• idential location model. The hypothesis central to 

research is that households substitute journey-to-work 
expenditures for site expenditures. This substitution 
" ' ■ depends primarily on household preferences for low 
■ density residential services. 

446. Kain, John F. "The Development of Urban Transportation Models, 

PRSA, Vol. 14, 1965, pp. 147-173, (4). 

This paper discusses the objectives and summarizes some 
of the principal findings of a large-scale model building 
activity--the RAND Corporation study of urban transpor- 
tation. The importance of this project lies in treating 
large-scale research problems instead of being tied to 
solving the urban transportation problems of any specific 
municipality or urban area. 



79. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

447. Kain, John F, "Postwar Metropolitan Developnent: Housing 

Preferences and Auto Ownership," AER, Vol. 57, May 1967, 
pp. 223-234. (2a,4). 

Correlation techniques indicate income is a greater 
determinant of auto-ownership than fanily size and 
residential density. The hypothesis that autonobile 
ownership and residential density are jointly and 
simultaneously determined was not affirmed conclusively. 

448. Kanaan, Nuhad J. "Structure and Requirements of the Trans- 

port Network of Syria," HRR, No. 115, 1966, pp. 19-28. 
(2a, 5a). 

Graph theoretic measures and multiple regression are 
used to analyze network structure and spatial variation 
in the distributions of population and economic activity. 
Iterative analysis for distinct time periods demonstrates 
increases or decreases in the accessibility of urban 
places to the network. 

449. Kansky, Karl J. STRUCTURE OF TRi\NSPORTATION NETWORKS. 

Department of Geography Research Paper No. 84, 
Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press, 1963. 
(2,5a,5b,5c). 

This study explores the utility of certain graph theoretic 
indices in the study of regional transportation systems. 

450. Kansky, Karl J. "Travel Patterns of Urban Residents," 

TS, Vol, 1, November 1967, pp. 261-285. (2a, 4). 

"This paper proposes a method of describing and 
classifying traffic patterns of urban residents," 
using factor analysis on Chicago data. 

451. Kaplan, Norman N. "The Growth and Output and Inputs in 

Soviet Transport and Communications," AER, Vol. 57, 
December 1967, pp. 1154-1167. (8). 

Output indexes for communications and transportation 
systems are constructed and compared with United States 
data, A retardation in output growth within the post- 
war era is noted. 

452. Kaufmann, John H. "Planning for Transport Investment in 

the Development of Iran," x\ER, Vol. 52, May 1962, 
pp. 396-404, (7). 

Integrated transport and comr.iunications development 
should be designed in terms of land, population, and 
natural resources, as they relate to the perspective 
values of the country's inputs and technological and 
engineering constraints. 



80. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

453. Kazanskiy, N. M. and Yu. V. Lasts. ''Methods of Forecasting 

Freight Flows in Planning a Transport Net," SGRT, Vol. 
4, September 1963, pp. 3-18. (2a, 6b, 8a). 

Discussion of the distribution of freight flows anong 
existing and planned networks, based on traffic 
expected fron planned regional production. 

454. Keefer, Louis E. "Estinating the Daily Vehicle Miles of 

Travel in the Chicago and Fr.ttsburgh Metropolitan 
Areas," HRBB 281, 1961, pp. 1-15. (4,6c). 

455. Keefer, Louis E, "Characteristics of Captive and Choice 

Transit Trips in the Pittsburgh Metropolitan Area," 
HRBB 347, 1962, pp. 24-33. (4,6c). 

Finds significantly different trip characteristics for 
those who choose to use nass transit and those who have 
no alternative to transit usage, 

456. Keefer, Louis E, "A New Transportation Plan for Pittsburgh, 

TQ, Vol. 17, November 1963, pp. 544-556. (4). 

Describes the plan and the prospects of its inplenent- 
ation, including sone of the unusual problens. 

457. Keefer, Louis E. "Shaping the Demand for Mass Transportat- 

ion," TQ, Vol. 18, October 1964, pp. 589-596. (4,8f). 

The difficult problens involved in shaping nass transit 
demand are outlined. 

458. Kellett, John R, "Urban and Transport History from Legal 

Recoras : An Example from G las gov; Solicitors' Papers," 
JTH, Vol. 6, November 1964, pp. 222-240. (3, 4, 8a, 9). 

Using solicitors' records, this case study indicates 
the broad range of available information concerning 
attitudes and actions of landholders, types of agri- 
culture practiced, mineral deposits, existing road 
facilities, and market outlets, which is comple- 
mentary to a study of railroad development. 

459. Kemp, Barbara. "Social Impact of a Highway on an Urban 

Community," HRR, No. 75, 1964, pp. 92-102. (4,7a). 

To reduce possible harmful social effects of freeway 
location, families were interviewed; most did not x^/ant 
to leave the area, felt they could not influence the 
location decision, and felt that displacement should 
not occur until sufficient housing was available for 
the displaced. 



81. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324 -#32 5 

460. Kennedy, Charles J. "Connuter Services in the Boston Area, 

1835-1860," BUSINESS HISTORY REVIEW, Suniner 1962, 
Vol. 36, pp. 153-170. (3,7). 

An analysis of the inportance of fare structures and 
services on suburban growth. 

461. Kent, Malcoln F. "Intercity Freight Haulage, By Connodity, 

Shipping Density and Type of Transport, 1960," HRR, 
No. 82, 1965, pp. 1-31. (6b, 8). 

Freight haulage is described using data gathered by the 
Bureau of the Budget and the Interstate Coonerce 
Conmission. 

462. Kenyon, Janes B. "Elenents in Inter-Port Conpetition in 

the United States," EG, Vol. 46, January 1970, pp. 1-24. 
(7c). 

"The object of this paper is to analyze the shifting 
r.iagnitudes and conposition of general cargo freight anong 
selected United States ports in terns of the extent and 
uakeup of their donestic hinterlands, their overseas 
trade orientation, and the econonic character of the 
port netropolis itself, and to review sone of the 
changing conditions and practices that seera to hold 
special sicnificance to the conpetitive struggle anong 
American ports . " 

463. Kerr, Donald. "The St. Lawrence Seaway and Trade on the 

Great Lakes, 1958-63," CG, Vol. 8, 1964, pp. 188-196. 
(8c). 

464. Kerr, L. W. "Deteraination of 0-D Zones by Means of Land- 

Use Data," HRBB 347, 1962, pp. 182-185. (4,9). 

A review of factors to consider in establishing 
0-D zones, 

465. Keyes, Lucile Sheppard. "The Transpacific Route Invest- 

igation: Historical Background and Sone Major Issues," 
JOURNAL OF AIR LAW AND COMCRCE, Vol. 34, Winter 1968, 
pp. 1-26. (5,8d). 

This investigation considers the problem of regulating 
freight rates and passenger fares for international 
air carriers. The characteristics of the administrative 
processes which lead to the awarding of major inter- 
national air routes are discussed. 



82. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

466. Kibal 'chich 0. Ji. "The Distribution of Population and 

Related Indicators in Long-Tern Planning of Passenger 
Traffic," SGRT, Vol. 4, Septenber 1963, pp. 26-35. (6b). 

Presentation of a nethodology to forecast "passenger 
intensity" of population centers and economic regions. 

467. Kiley, Edward V. "Highways as a Factor in Industrial 

Location," HRR, No. 75, 1964, pp. 48-52. (7a). 

A survey of businesses to exanine the influence of high- 
ways on locational decisions. Location factors nentioned 
most frequently, in order, are: proxii.iity to good high- 
ways, abundant labor supply, availability of suitable 
land, and proximity to niarkets. 

468. King, H.W.H. and E. R. Woolnington. "The Role of the River 

in the Development of Settlement in the Lower Hunter 
Valley," AUSTRiiLIAN GEOGR^IPHER, Vol. 8, September 1960, 
pp. 3-16. (7,8c). 

469. Kirby, Arthur. "The Effect of Port Re-organization in Great 

Britain," ITJ, Vol. 31, May 1965, pp. 133-139 and 148. 
(7c). 

More comprehensive powers for port authorities and more 
emphasis on containerization and unitization would speed 
the movement of cargo through ports, helping to solve 
the fundamental problems of overloading and congestion. 

470. Kish, George. "Soviet Air Transport," GR, Vol. 48, July 

1958, pp. 309-320. (8d). 

Air traffic in the U.S.S.R. and major air traffic centers. 

471. Kish, George. "Railroad Passenger Transport in the Soviet 

Union," GR, Vol. 53, July 1963, pp. 363-376. (6b, 7a). 

472. Kish, George. "Transportation within the European Economic 

Community: Problems and Policies," EAST LAKES GEO- 
GRi^FHER, Vol. 1, 1964, pp. 13-20. (3,7,8). 

473. Kissling, C. C. "Linkage Importance in a Regional Highway 

Network," CG, Vol. 13, Sunir^er 1969, pp. 113-127. (2a, 5a). 

The graph theoretic measure of accessibility developed 
by Shimbel is used to analyze the regional highway net- 
work of Nova Scotia. Highly accessible nodes indicate 
areas of high economic activity. 



83. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324 -#325 

474. Klar, Janes S. and Israel Resnifoff. "Land Use and Trans- 

portation Planning," TQ, Vol. 19, April 1965, pp. 169-187. 
(1). 

A report on transport planning in Connecticut. 

475. Klein, Maury and Kozo Yananura. "The Growth Strategies of 

Southern Railroads, 1865-1893," BUSINESS HISTORY REVIEW, 
Vol. 41, Winter 1967, pp. 358-377. (3,8a). 

The growth strategies of Southern railroads appear to be 
dependent upon individual situations, producing a 
spectrun of strategies. 

476. Knox, Naphtali K. "A Simplified Traffic Model for Snail 

Cities, = TQ, Vol. 16, July 1962, pp. 336-350. (2b, 4, 6c). 

The paper shows how established gravity nodel techniques 
can be applied in analyzing proposed traffic systems 
based on general land use plans for a saall city. 

477. Kock, A. Robert and M. Snodgrass, "Linear Programming Applied 

to Location and Product Flow Determination in the Tomato 
Processing Industry," PRSA, Vol. 5, 1959, pp. 151-162. 
(2,6b). 

This paper uses the transportation nodel of linear 
programming to investigate a few specific inter- 
regional problems relating to the tonato processing 
industry in the U.S. 

478. Kolars, John and Henry J. Malin. "Population and Accessi- 

bility: An Analysis of Turkish Railroads," OR, Vol. 
60, April 1970, pp. 229-246. (2a, 5c, 8a). 

Describes a method for simulating the growth of a 
railroad network, the results of which are compared 
with detailed historical summary of railroads in Turkey. 

479. Kole, Charles P. "Variation of Work-Home Trip as Function 

of Travel Tine," TE, Vol. 35, December 1964, pp. 23-27 
and 47. (2b,4,6c). 

Regression analysis of work-trips shows strong relation- 
ship to travel tine in Phoenix. 

480. Kolifrath, Michael and Paul W. Shuldiner. "Covariance 

Analysis of Manufacturing Trip Generation," HRR, No. 165, 
1967, pp. 117-128. (2b,4,6c). 

Covariance analysis is used to test the utility of sub- 
dividing manufacturing land into subclasses for estimating 
trip attractions. 



84. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324 -#32 5 

481. Kresge, David T. and Paul 0. Roberts. "Sinulation of Policy 

Alternatives for Columbia," /iER, Vol. 58, May 1968, 
pp. 341-359. (2a, 5c). 

Conbines nacro-econooic modeling with detail simulation 
of transport network development in multiple tine periods, 
allowing comparison and evaluation of alternate develop- 
t.-£nt strategies, policies, and investment plans. 

482. Krusling, James R, "Cincinnati's Highway System," TE, Vol. 

37, October 1966, pp. 31-34. (3,4,8b). 

Historical survey. 

483. Kuei-Sheng Chang, "The Changing Railroad Pattern in Mainland 

China," GR, Vol. 51, October 1961, pp. 534-548. (8a). 

484. Kuhn, Herman A.J. "Factors Influencing Traffic Generation 

at Rural Highway Service Areas," HRR, No. 240, 1968, 
pp. 1-10. (6). 

The factors of visibility, accessibility, facility type, 
location v/ith reference to other facilities, and inter- 
change class strongly influence the volume of traffic 
at rural service areas. 

485. Kurylo, Walter. "A Look at the Pan American Highway System," 

TQ, Vol. 18, April 1964, pp. 143-155. (8b). 

Travel conditions on the Inter-American Highway. 

486. Lachene, Rene. "Networks and the Location of Economic 

Activities," PRSA, Vol. 14, 1965, pp. 183-196. (5,7). 

The paper focuses upon the problem of intense con- 
centration of activity at one point of a national 
territory. An observation of an actual situation 
(Paris) led the author to ask what part transportation 
plays in affecting the geographical distribution of 
activities and to build representative models of the 
simplest kinds of relationships. 

487. Lancaster, Jane. "A Railroad to Great Slave Lake," PG, 

Vol. 13, September 1961, pp. 31-35. (8a). 

The paper is a policy statement of the needs for a 
railv;ay system servicing the mineral-rich areas sur- 
rounding Great Slave Lake, 



85. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

488. Landon, Charles E. "The Recent Developnent of Freight 

Traffic on the Mississippi River," JTH, Vol. 5, May 
1961, pp. 33-53. (8c). 

489. Lang, A. S. and Martin Wohl. "Evaluation of Highway Inpact," 

HRBB 268, pp. 105-119. (7a). 

The tern 'inpact" is analyzed and the evaluation of user 
and non-user benefits are discussed. Traffic engineers 
and social scientists nust v?ork in conjunction to for- 
mulate basic concepts of highway inpact. 

490. Lansing, John B. and Eva Mueller. "Residential Location and 

Urban Mobility," HRR, No. 106, 1966, pp. 77-96. (2,4,6c), 

Residential patterns are defined by density and distance 
in niles fron the center of the city. Locational pre- 
ferences are exanined, and journey-to-work trips are 
described by node and distance of travel. The existing 
pattern of location is influenced by fanily incone and 
by stage in the fanily life style. 

491. Lansing, John B. and Gary Hendricks. "How People Perceive 

the Cost of the Journey to VJork," HRR, No. 197, 1967, 
pp. 44-55. (2a, 4, 6c). 

Most people do not estimate the costs of journeying-to- 
work; however, when the cost is estimated, fuel cost 
estimating is too high. People are aware of parking 
fees at the vjorkplace, but are unaware of trip costs 
for different nodes of travel. 

492. Lapin, Howard A. "Index Numbers for Urban Travel," JOURNAL 

OF AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF PLANNERS, Vol. 27, August 1961, 
pp. 215-217. (4,9). 

The desirability of preparing and maintaining indices 
of vehicular passenger niles at local, regional, and 
national levels. 

493. Larson, C. Theodore. "The Motor Road: Forerunner of the 

Universal City," TQ, Vol. 18, October 1964, pp. 459- 
490. (1,5a, 8b). 

A look at the major highway networks of the continents 
and at urban growth. 

494. Lathrop, George T. , John R. Hamburg, and Frederick Young. 

"Opportunity-Accessibility Model for Allocating Regional 
Growth," HRR, No. 102, 1965, pp. 54-66. (2a, 7). 

A description of an allocation model based largely on 
access to a regional center or set of sub-centers. 



86. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

495. Lawton, R, "The Journey to Work in England and Wales: 

Forty Years of Change," TESG, Vol. 54, March 1963, 
pp. 61-69. (3,4). 

496. Leathers, Nancy J, "Residential Location and Mode of Trans- 

portation to Work: A Model of Choice," TRANSPORTATION 
RESEARCH, August 1967, pp. 129-155. (4,8). 

497. Lee, G.H.C. "The New Mass Market in Air Travel," ITJ, 

Vol. 31, Itorch 1965, pp. 101-103. (8d). 

A brief discussion of the reasons for an increase in air 
passenger service and the problems created. 

498. Lees, Audrey. "Car Parking in Cities," TPR, Vol. 34, 

April 1963-64, pp. 39-49. (4). 

A look at the problen in Coventry, England. 

499. Lenly, Janes H. "Mississippi River: St. Louis' Friend or 

Foe?" BUSINESS HISTORY REVIEW, Vol. 39, Spring 1965, 
pp. 7-15. (0a,8c). 

Conflict between Chicago and St. Louis over the use of 
rails or the river. 

500. Letenare, Gene and George V, Wickstron, "The Dataplotter — 

A Tool for Transportation Planning," HRBB 347, 1962, 
pp. 203-210. (9). 

Evaluation of computerized napping techniques. 

501. Levin, David R. "The Highway Interchange Land-Use Problen," 

HRBB 288, 1961, pp. 1-24. (7a), 

Methods of controlling land usage at expressway inter- 
changes are analyzed and evaluated in terns of their 
potential effectiveness, cost, and adninistration. 

502. Levin, David R. "Infornal Notes on Sociological Effects 

of Highways," HRR, No. 75, 1964, pp. 82-83. (7a). 

503. Levin, Melvin R. and David A. Grossnan. "The Expressv/ay 

Lnpact on a Secondary Central Business District," TQ, 
Vol. 15, April 1961, pp. 185-207. (7a). 

The economic impact of the freeway on Pawtucket, 
Rhode Island. 



87. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324 -#32 5 

504. Levinson, Herbert S. and F, Houston Wynn, "Sone Aspects of 

Future Transportation in Urban Areas," HRBB 326, 1962, 
pp. 1-31. (4). 

Fundanental inter-relationships between land use, socio- 
econonic status, and transportation node, 

505. Levinson, Herbert S. arid F. Houston Wynn. "Effects of 

Density on Urban Transportation Requirements," HRR, 
No. 2, 1963, pp. 38-64. (2a, 4, 6c). 

Intra- and inter-city transportation requirenents are 
related to paraneters of population density. Regional 
and historical effects of population density and their 
relationship to travel behavior are extensively analyzed. 

506. Levinson, Herbert S. and Kenneth R, Roberts. "Systen Con- 

figurations in Urban Transportation Planning," HRR, 
Wo. 64, 1964, pp. 71-83. (4,5). 

Analysis indicates urban freeway systens should avoid 
convergence in central areas; a grid system would 
achieve more equitable freeway loadings than a radial 
circumferential systen. 

507. Lewis, E. V. 'Transportation Modal Interfaces," HSGTJ, 

Vol. 2, May 1968, pp. 339-352. (8). 

Evaluates the concept of containerization and discusses 
its impact on trade and transport facilities. 

508. Lewis, G. J. "Commuting and the Village in Mid-Wales," G, 

Vol. 52, July 1967, pp. 294-304. (4,7a). 

A case study of an area suffering from depopulation and 
an assessment of the impact of commuting on the socio- 
economic structure of the village. The influence of 
commuting in planning future settlements. 

509. Lewis, Janes E. "Changes in Highway Mobility in the United 

States South: 1940 to 1960," PG, Vol. 20, November 1968, 
pp. 382-387. (7,8b). 

The use of a simple technique for measuring and mapping 
highway nobility as a means of identifying relative levels 
of economic development is demonstrated in this paper. 
Illustration of the technique is made by examining changes 
in the level of highway mobility in the Southern states 
during the 1940-1960 period. 



88. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

510. Ley land, George P. "Inplication of the New Haven Census 

Use Test for Transportation and Land-Use Planning," 
HRR, No, 229, 1968, pp. 77-98. (2a, 4, 9). 

A special census which incorporates data to be gathered 
by the 1970 national census is used to generate base 
file. The file is a valuable tool for planners in 
formulating an efficient and inexpensive planning 
information system, 

511. Lichfield, .Nathaniel and Honor Chapman. "Cost Benefit 

Analysis and Road Proposals for a Shopping Centre. 

A Case Study: Edgware, ' JTEP, Vol. 2, September 1958, 

pp. 280-320. (4,5b), 

512. Lieper, Joseph McC. "The Role of the Automobile in Mid- 

to\TO Manhattan," TQ, Vol. 16, ..pril 1962, pp. 212-228. 
(4). 

The core activities, the priority of space needs, and 
their linkage are evaluated to develop the basis for 
future policies on transportation access and circulation; 
concludes that the only alternative is improved mass 
transportation systems. 

513. Lieper, Joseph McC. "Transportation Planning in a Mature 

Metropolis," URBAN AFFAIRS QUARTERLY, Vol. 1, December 
1965, pp. 22-38. (1,4). 

Survey of problems in transport planning in New York 
City. 

514. Lindsay, Jean. "The Aberdeenshire Canal, 1805-54," JTH, 

Vol. 6, May 1964, pp. 150-165. (3,8c), 

Historical survey, 

515. Lissitzyn, Oliver J, "The Participation of the United States 

in World Air Transport: Statistics and the National 
Interest," JOURN.^L OF AIR LxJJ AND COMMERCE, Vol. 28, 
Winter 1961-62, pp. 1-17, (8d,9). 

Discussion of the reliability of statistics dealing 
with U, S. air transport, 

516. Lloyd, Trevor and David C. Nutt. "Transportation of Ungava 

Iron Ore," CG, Vol. 4, 1960, pp. 26-38. (6a). 

A general discussion of the project, including aspects 
of transporting the concentrated ore and a discussion 
concerning selection of an ice-free port site in 
Greenland. 



89. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-^325 

517. Loewenstein, Louis K. "Connuting and the Cost of Housing 

in Philadelphia," TQ, Vol. 17, April 1963, pp. 302-319. 
(2,4). 

The article shows that, to a certain extent, higher 
ho:!Sin3 costs and the larger and nore costly journey- 
to-work are both a function of distance fron the down- 
tovm area. 

518. Logan, M. I. "Work-Residence Locations in the City," 

AUSTRALIAN GEOGRAPHICAL STUDIES, Vol. 6, October 1968, 
pp. 151-166. (4,6c). 

Concepts of urban form and function are reviewed with 
specific reference to the labor-shed in Sydney, 
Australia, The study indicates a najor trend away fron 
the nononuclear concept of an urban region. 

519. Long, A. "Internal Transport Developcents in East Africa," 

G, Vol. 50, January 1965, pp. 78-81. (8). 

Reviews recent activities expanding railways, lake 
services, and ports. 

520. Long, Poter and Lewis Hayashi. "Traffic and Travel in 

Thailand," TE, Vol. 37, July 1967, pp. 72-75. (1). 

521. Long, Wesley H. "City Characteristics and the Denand for 

Interurban Air Travel," LE, Vol. 44, May 1968, pp. 
197-204. (4,8d). 

An assessment of the effects of denographic and geo- 
graphic characteristics of large cities on air travel. 

522. Longley, Janes W. and Beatrice T, Go ley. "A Statistical 

Evaluation of the Influence of Highways on Rural Land 
Values in the United States," HRBB 327, 1962, pp. 21- 
55. (7a). 

Rural land sales are exanined to deteraine the relation 
between type of road and price per acre and price per 
fam and distance to nearest trading center. Higher 
prices per acre are associated with hard surfaced roads 
and proxinity to trading centers. Regional variations 
in the pattern are exanined for selected areas in the 
United States, 



50. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

523. Lonsdale, Richard E. "Two North Carolina Connuting Patterns," 

EG, Vol. 42, April 1966, pp. 114-13G. (2b, 6b). 

Analysis of conmuting characteristics, labor narket areas, 
personal factors affecting coumuting, with an example of 
probability aodels to simulate traffic, based on two 
factories enploying workers of different econonic levels. 

524. Loubal, Peter S, "A Network Evaluation Procedure," HRR, 

No. 205, 1967, pp. 96-109. (2a, 5c, 6). 

A procedure for considering the effects of new and 
inproved netv7ork links on travel tine and volune of 
traffic flov7 is described. It is a variation of 
ninioun path tree-building and traffic loading pro- 
cedures. 

525. Love joy, Warren B. "New York Port Authority's 1958 0-D 

Survey Using Continuous Sanpling," HRBB 253, 1960, 
pp. 152-154. (4,9). 

■ ' '' The rationale and technique of continuous sanpling are 
described. Continuous sanpling avoids the effects of 
short tern variations in traffic patterns that night 

. ' influence the reliability of data gathered in short, 
intensive traffic surveys. 

526. Lo^^^:y, Ira S. ''Location Paraneters in the Pittsburgh 

Model," PRSA, Vol. 11, 1963, pp. 145-165. (2,4). 

A nodel is constructed which assunes the distribution 
of basic activities and proceeds to distribute around 
each work-place a residential population which supplies 
the labor force and acts as a base for the location of 
• ' population-serving activities. The uarket-potential 
of each location is evaluated and retail and service 
enployr;.ent is spatially distributed according to these 
potentials. 

527. Luster, George A. and Wade G, Fox. "Cartographic and Design 

Work for a Conprehensive Origin-Destination Survey," 
HRBB 297, 1961, pp. 52-73. (4,9). 

The nethods and procedures used for the analysis and 
representation of Pittsburgh Area Transportation Study 
data. 

528. HcConnell, Janes E, "A Note on the Geography of Connodity 

Trade," PG, Vol. 22, July 1970, pp. 181-184. (2,6a). 

Points up areas of neglect and sunnarizes theoretical 
and enpirical foundations for further research. 



91. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

529. McCutcheon, W. /„ "xhe Newry Navigation: The Earliest 

Inland Canal in the British Isles,'' G, Vol. 129, 
Decenbei- 1963, pp. 466-480. (3,7.7c). 

The growth and decline of the Newry Navigation and the 
inpact of canal traffic on the port of Newry. 

530. McElhiney, Paul T. "Evaluating Freeway Perfornance in Los 

Angeles," TQ, Vol. 14, July 1960, pp. 296-312. (4). 

531. McElroy, J. P. "Pedestrian Conveyors," TPR, Vol. 32, July 

1961, pp. 125-140. (3,4). 

History of conveyors and their application to urban 
congestion. 

532. McFarlAne, Marion. "Developments in Southland, New Zealand: 

The Port of Bluff," G, Vol. 46, July 1961, pp. 250-252. 
(7c). 

Report on port renewal. 

533. McGrath, Willian R. "Transportation and Urban Developnent," 

TQ, Vol. 18, October 1964, pp. 491-501. (4). 

A statecent of the iraportance of coordinated transport 
planning for urban developnent. 

534. Mcllwraith, Thonas F. "The Adequacy of Rural Roads in the 

Era before Railways: An Illustration fron Upper Canada," 
CG, Vol. 14, 1970, pp. 344-360. (8b). 

A challenge to the traditional belief that early Ontario 
roads were intolerable. Roads were found to be of 
United importance in land choice by early settlers. 

535. McKain, Walter C. "Coixiunity Response to Highway Inprovecent,' 

HRR, No. 96, 1965, pp. 19-23. (4,7a). 

The influence of hunan factors and social conditions, 

536. McKenna, David, "Conrauting in the 1970 's," ITJ, Vol. 32, 

1967, pp. 37-93. (4,6). 

537. MacKinnon, Ross D. "Dynanic Progratxiing and Geographical 

Systems," EG, Vol. 46, June 1970, pp. 350-366. (2a). 

Dynanic progranning is outlined, geographical applications 
are discussed (including applications to transportation 
systems)', and advantages and linitations are considered. 



92. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

538. MacNab, J. H. "The Air Freight Industry of New Zealand," 

NEW ZEALAND GEOGRAPHER, Vol. 16, 1960, pp. 190-203. 
(5a, 6b, 8a). 

Brief survey of routes and freight traffic within New 
Zealand. 

539. Mactier, Stewart. "Cargo Handling in the Deep-Sea Liner 

Trades,'- ITJ, Vol. 31, Novenber 1964, pp. 13-19. (7c, 8c). 

"A review of the problem of cargo liner turn-round in 
port in relation to current and future trends." 

540. Mahon, G, R. "Railx^ays and Bogs in Ireland," JTH, Vol. 5, 

Novenber 1961, pp. 116-126. (5a, 8a). 

Notes on building permanent and temporary railways over 
Irish bogs. 

541. Malik, Rashid A. "Pakistan's Intra-Regional Pattern of 

Transportation," JG, Vol. 61, 1962, pp. 209-214. (3). 

The characteristics of land and water transportation. 

542. Malo, Alger F, "The Relation of Mass Transportation to 

Total Transportation in Detroit," TQ, Vol. 15, April 
1961, pp. 226-247. (4,8). 

543. Maloney, Willian L. "Shifts in Petroleum Transportation," 

HRR, No. G2, 1965, pp. 100-103. (8c). 

544. Manhein, Marvin L. "Data Accuracy in Route Location," TQ, 

Vol. 15, January 1961, pp. 153-178. (5b). 

An enuneration of steps and variables to consider in 
route location decisions. 

545. Manhein, Marvin L. "Transportation, Problem-Solving and 

the Effective Use of Computers," HRR, No. 148, 1966, 
pp. 49-58. (1,2a). 

546. Manhein, Marvin L. "Principles of Transport Systems 

Analysis," HRR, No. 180, 1967, pp. 11-20. (1,2a). 

547. Manners, Gerald, "Public Transport Policy and the Railways 

of the U.S.A.;' SCOTTISH GEOGP-.PHIC/X I>1AGAZINE, Vol. 76, 
1960, pp. 172-176. (3, 6b, 8a). 

Description of changes in competitive position of U.S. 
railway freight and passenger traffic. 



93. CPL Eixhange Bibliography #324-#325 

548. Manners, Gerald. "Transport Costs, Freight Rates and the 

Changing Econonic Geography of Iron Ore," G, Vol. 52, 
July 1967, pp. 260-279. (3,6b). 

A conparison of world trade patterns in iron ore in 
1950 with patterns in 1960. 

549. Marble, Duane F. "Transport Inputs at Urban Residential 

Sites," PRSA, Vol. 5, 1959, pp. 253-266. (2,4,7). 

This paper represents an attaapt to raise the level of 
infomation regarding transport inputs to households 
through an empirical exanination of the transport in- 
puts to a nunber of households in a nediun-sized American 
city, T\'io separate studies vjere undertaken using a 
linear regression nodel, one vjith trip frequency as the 
dependent variable, and the total distance traveled as the 
dependent variable in the second study. A decision nodel 
is then proposed wherein an individual nust choose frou 
anong a set of trips whose relative desirability depends 
upon one's completeness of information. 

550. Marble, tuane F. "User Services and the Demand for Land at 

Interchange Points," HRBB 288, 1961, pp. 25-31. (2a, 7a). 

Characteristics of the service industry and user re- 
action to the prohibition of commercial construction 
on rights-of-way of the interstate highway system; 
suggestions for further research on user services and 
demand for land at interchanges. 

551. Marble, Duane F. "Some Cultural and Social Aspects of 

Transport Impact on Underdeveloped Areas," in F. Pitts, 
editor, URB/vN SYSTEMS ."JTO ECONOMIC DEVELOPl-ENT. 
Eugene, Oregon: University of Oregon, School of 
Business Administration, 1962, pp. 39-43. (7). 

A short statement emphasizing the need for greater 
understanding of the cultural and social aspects of 
transport impact. 

552. Marble, Duaae F. "A Theoretical Exploration of Individual 

Travel Behavior," QUANTITATIVE GEOGR/\PHY PART I: 
ECONOMIC mD CULTURi"iL TOPICS. W. L. Garrison and D. F. 
Marble. Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University, 
Department of Geography, 1967, pp. 33-53. (2,4,6c). 

The study offers a preliminary exploration of some 
theoretical aspects of day-torday movement patterns 
exhibited by most individuals. Game-theoretic form- 
ulations are presented for the analysis of complex 
decision situations of individual travel behavior. 



94. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-^^325 

553. Marceilis, Jack C. "An Econonic Evaluation of Traffic 

Movenent at Various Speeds," HRR, No. 35, 1963, pp. 18- 
40. (2a). 

Discussion of the cost of resources consuned by the 
transportation industry. Optical traffic speeds, which 
nininize the cost of traffic novenent in a variety of 
situations, are established for passenger and cormercial 
vehicles, 

554. Marcou, George T. "A Survey of the Literature on Inter- 

Cocnunity Traffic," HRBB 347, 1962, pp. 302-318. (4,9). 

Includes zn annotated bibliography. 

555. Martin, Brian V. and Charles B. Warden. "Transportation and 

Planning in Developing Countries," TQ, Vol, 19, 
January 1965, pp. 59-75. (7b). 

Indicates the need for ccnprehensive planning and presents 
a uodel to evaluate alternative plans "for particular 
combinations of econouic and geographic conditions." 

556. Martin, Brian V, and Marvin L. lianhein, "A Research 

Progran for Comparison of Traffic Assignment Techniques," 
HRR, No. 38, 1965, pp. 69-84. (2b, 4, 6c). 

A conputer progran which allows for incremental loading 
of the netv7ork and the use of a generation curve function 
to revise input interzonal transfers. 

557. Marx, Daniel, Jr. "Regulation of International Liner- 

Shipping and Freedon of the Seas," JOURNAL OF INDUSTRUJL 
ECONOMICS, Vol. 16, Novenber 1967, pp. 46-62. (5a, 8c). 

An extensive discussion of alleged inequities in the 
rates charged by ocean liners to carry cargo. 

558. Matsuuoto, Hiroshi, "An Expressway for Tokyo," TQ, Vol. 16, 

Novenbe:- 1952, pp. 590-606. (4,8b). 

Planning methods, financial organization, and economic 
consideration for the construction of the first express- 
way are reviewed in the context of Tokyo's needs and 
characteristics. 

559. Maxwell, David. "The Regulation of Motor-Carrier Rates by 

the Interstate Commerce Commission," LE, Vol. 36, 
February 1969, pp. 79-91. (8b). 



95. CPL Exchanse Bibliography #324-#325 

560. 14ay, Adolf D. Jr., Patrick Athol, Willian Parker, and 

Jar.ies B. Rudden. "Developnent and Evaluation of Congress 
Street Expressway Pilot detection Systen," HRR, No. 21, 
1963, pp. 48-68. (4,9). 

Autonatic traffic control r^asures used in a pilot project 
in the Chicago area are described. Speed, volune, and 
density data are auto:..atically gathered, recorded, 
napped, and analyzed. A comprehensive data library, 
suitable for ciacro- and uicroscopic analysis has been 
one result of the project. 

561. Mayer, Albert J. and Robert B. Snock. "The Continuing 

Traffic Study: Methods of Keeping 0-D Data Up-to-Date," 
HRBB 253, 1960, pp. 109-113. (4,9). 

562. Mayer, Albert J. and Joanne L. Wallace, "A New Method of 

Obtaining Origin and Destination Data," HRBB 347, 1962, 
pp. 34-39. (9). 

By interviev7ing people at the tine they renewed their 
licenses at the local auto bureau, traffic survey costs 
were substantially reduced. The advantages and dis- 
advantages of this technique are discussed. 

563. Ilayer, Albert J. and Sue M. Snock. "Public Response to In- 

creased Bus Service," HRR, No. 2, 1963, pp. 79-93. (4). 

Interviews indicated a public desire for more bus service; 
yet reluctance to use the facilities was observed. 

564. Mayer, Harold M. "Prospects and Problem of the Port of 

Chicago," EG, Vol. 31, April 1955, pp. 95-125. (3,7c). 

Describes the historical developnent of the port and 
its facilities. The nost serious limitations to future 
potential traffic are the inadequacies of the channels 
in the Chicago area and the lack of a comprehensive 
regional port plan. 

565. Mayer, Harold M, "Urban Geography and Urban Transportation 

Planning," TQ, Vol. 17, Noveuber 1963, pp. 610-631. (1,4). 

An excellent introductory article on the basic concepts 
of urban geography. 

566. Mayer, Harold M. "Sone Observations of the Future of Cities 

and Urban Areas," TQ, Vol. IG, July 1964, pp. 371-382. 
(4). 

Reviews the trend toward urbanization and the decline 
of uass transit and predicts increased concentration 
of population in large urban centers and of traffic in 
cities and on high-capacity routes. 



<:6. CPL Ejcchange Bibliography #324 -#32 5 

567. Mayer, Harold il. "Hish-Speed Rail Passenger Transportation 

and Regional Developnent in the Midv;est," TQ, Vol. 21, 
July 1967, pp. 395-405. (4,7,3a). 

A consideration of a high-speed rail facility and its 
possible iupact on the Chicago region of the U.S. 

568. Mazanova, M, B. "The Role of Ilaritiiat Transportation in the 

Econonic Ties between the Econonic-Geographic Regions of 
the U.S.S.R.," SGRT, Vol. 1, April 1960, pp. 59-63. 
(6b, 7. 8c). 

Brief treatment of the region- forcing role of sea 
transportation. 

569. Mazanova, M. B. "I«larine Transport as a National Specialized 

Activity of a Major Econonic Region," SGRT, Vol. 4, 
May 1963, pp. 3-9. (8c). 



"The role of naritiae transport, particularly overseas 
shipping, is discussed for several Soviet econonic 
regions," 

570. Mead, W. R. "Problens of a Divided Waterx-7ay," G, Vol. 47, 

January 1962, pp. 89-92. (3,8c). 

Outlines history of Finland's Sainaa Canal and the 
political problens of rebuilding the canal as a joint 
Finnish-Russo project. 

571. Meadows, R, "Traffic and Marketing Aspects of Service 

Station Locations and Developnent in Australia," TQ, 
Vol. 21, January 1967, pp. 67-02. (7a). 

572. Medhurst, Franklin. "Traffic Induced by Central Area 

Functions," TPR, Vol. 34, April 1963-64, pp. 50-60. (4). 

Describes a survey undertaken to deternine the size and 
drawing power of the CBD in Manchester, England. 

573. Medvedkov, Y. "Entropy: An Assessnent of Potentialities 

in Geography," EG, Vol, 46, June 1970, pp. 306-316. 
(2,6). 

Concludes that "the concept of entropy acts as a 
catalyst for better insight into couplex relationships'' 

and has application to flows data. 

574. Ifeinig, D. U. "A Conparatxve Historical Geography of Ti?o 

Railnets; Colunbia Basin end Southern Australia, ■■ 
/V^\G, Vol, 52, Dece;.iber 1962, pp. 394-413. (3,5b,0a). 

This extensive discussion of the tv;o railnets euphasizes 
the inportance of understanding the present railway 
pattern in terns of the process of its formation. 



97. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

575. Melanid, Alexander. "Transportation in Eastern Arabia," 

GR, Vol. 52, January 1962, pp. 122-124. (1). 

576. Mellor, R.E.H. "Throush-Railway Links between U.S.S.R. and 

Its Neighbors," G, Vol. 49, Novenber 1964, pp. 416-418. 
(Sa). 

Describes the use of rolling stock which nay be used on 
different s^uge railways nerely by interchanging broad- 
gauge bogies with standard ones, or vice versa. 

577. Mennott, Frederick W., Brian V. Martin, and Alexander J. 

Bone. "Predicting Future Demand for Urban Area Trans- 
portation," HRBB 326, 1962, pp. 69-97. (2a, 4, 6c). 

The transportation planning process is described and 
divided into the principal phases of inventories, 
estimates of urban growth, and the aeternination of 
future travel demand, an annotated bibliography per- 
taining to the prediction of future demands for urban 
area transportation is included, 

578. Meyer, John R., J. F. Kain, and M. Wohl. THE URBAN TR/^S- 

PORTATION PROBLEM, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard 
University Press, 1965. (1,4,6,7,8). 

A synthesis of the major empirical generalizations derived 
from a number of U. S, metropolitan transportation studies. 
Changes in location, trip travel patterns, line-haul 
systems and pricing procedures are discussed. 

579. Meyer, John R. "Transport Technologies for Developing 

Countries," .^ER, Vol. 56, May 1966, pp. 83-90. (7b, 8). 

A revievj of several transport systems (rail, air, and 
truck) and their application to underdeveloped countries, 

580. Meyer, John R. "Urban Transportation," iu THE METROPOLITAN 

ENIGMiA., James Q, Wilson, editor, Cambridge, Massachusetts: 
Harvard University Press, 1968, pp. 41-69. (1,4). 

A valuable overview. 

581. Mickle, D, Grant, "The Role of the Highway in Urban 

Development," TE, Vol. 36, April 1966, pp. 32-36. 
(1,4,7a). 

A general discussion. 

582. Midler, Joseph L. "A Stochastic Multi-period Multimode 

Transportation Model," TS, Vol. 3, February 1969, 
pp. 3-29. (2a, 8). 

"Model for selecting an optimal combination of trans- 
portation modes over a multiperiod planning horizon. ' 



98, CPL Exchange Bibliography #324 -'^32 5 

583. Miklius, Walter. "Sone Characteristics of Nonregulated 

For-Hire Truck Transportation of Agricultural Conmodities ," 
LE, Vol. 42, May 1966, pp. 226-229. (8b). 

584. Miller, M. "High Speed Ground Transportation Research and 

Developaent,'= HSGTJ, Vol. 1, January 1967, pp. 13-21. 
(1). 

aspects of research and developcent associated with 
inproveoent of transport systens, 

585. Miller, Ronald E. "Capital Costs in Air-Transportation," 

JOURN/1 OF INDUSTRIAL ECONOMICS, Vol. 13, July 1964, 
pp. 236-249. (8d). 

Brief study of air transport econonics. 

586. Mills, Edv7in S. "An Aggregative Model of Resource Allocation 

in a Metropolitan Area," AER, Vol. 57, May 1957, pp. 
197-210. (4). 

A quantitative nodel to "explain the sizes and structures 
of urban areas. " 

587. Millward, R, "Road Investnent Criteria: A Case Study,'' 

JTEP, Vol. 2, November 1968, pp. 183-200. (2a, 5b). 

Descriptions of "nethods used to calculate the econonic 
value of a projected new road" in the U.K. 

588. Mirheydar, Dorreh. "Problens of Transportation Routes in 

Iran," JG, Vol. 60, February 1961, pp. 70-74. (8). 

589. liishan, E. J. "Interpretation of the Benefits of Private 

Transport, '= JTEP, Vol. 1, May 1967, p?. 134-189. (2a). 

A treatcent of the congestion costs of private cars and 
an argument that congestion "nay give rise to nis leading 
decands for j.nvestnent in road engineering." 

590. Mogridge, M.J.H. "The Prediction of Car Ownership," JTEP, 

Vol. 1, January 1967, pp. 52-74. (2a). 

An econonetric method for long-tern forecasting is 
presented and compared with other nethods. 

591. Mohring, Herbert. "Land Values and the Heasurenent of 

Highway Benefits," J0URNx\L OF PCLITIC/iL ECONO^IY, Vol. 
69, June 1961, pp. 236-249. (4,7a). 

A consideration of travel tine and property values in 
the city. 



99. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

592. Morison, Ian U. and Walter G. Hansen. "Canberra: Toward 

a Schene for Continuous Growth," HRR, No. 229, 1968, 
pp. 7-20. (4,7a). 

Alternate plans for urban subcentrallzation are exanined. 
It is concluded that arrangecent of urban developnent 
along corridors of an expressway systen will permit 
urban expansion with a nininun of congestion and 
provide naxinua support for a good public transport 
systera. 

593. Morrill, Richard L. and Williaa Garrison. "Projections of 

Inter-Regional Patterns of Trade in vrneat and Flour," 
EC, Vol. 36, April 1960, pp. 116-126. (2a, 6b). 

A spatial price equilibriun model, based on the trans- 
portation problen of linear progracning, is used to 
project the V7heat and flour flows in the U.S. 

594. Morrill, Richard L. MIGR.\TION /^ID THE SPRE.U) AND GROVJTH 

OF URBAN SETTLEMENT. (Lund Studies in Geography, Series 
B, No, 26) Lund, Sweden: Departuent of Geography, 
Royal University of Lund. (2a, 4, 5). 

595. Morrill, Richard L. "The Movenent of Persons and the Trans- 

portation Problen," QUANTITATIVE GECGRi"iPHY PART I: 
ECONOMIC AND CULTUR/i TOPICS. W. L. Garrison and D. F. 
Marble, editors, Evanston, Illinois: Departcent of 
Geography, Northwestern University, 1967, pp. 84-94. 
(2,6b). 

The paper presents a probabilis'cic adaptation of a 
noirnative progracning nodel conbining the transportation 
problen, which assigns goods or persons to regions over 
a transport network and a sicple probability function 
for error in response. Enpirical application of the 
nodel is nade for novenent of patients to physicians in 
western Pennsylvania. 

596. Morrill, Richard L., Robert Earickson, and Philip Rees. 

"Factors Influencing Distances Traveled to Hospitals," 
EG, Vol. 46, ^pril 1970, pp. 161-171. (2b,4,6c). 

"The rate of use of hospitals declines with distance, 
or nore precisely, V7ith intervening opportunities. 
Social ai.J econonic distictions according to race and 
incone effectively reduce access to physicians and 
hospitals for the Negro and for the poor in general." 

597. Morris, Robert L. "Evaluating the Requirenents for a Dovm- 

town Circulation Systen," HRBB 347, 1962, pp. 211-221. 
(2a,4). 

A general nodel of a central city circulation systen, 
designed to facilitate pedestrian traffic. 



100. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

598. Morris, S. S. "South Africa's /.pproach to Urban Traffic 

and Freeways," TQ, Vol. 18, April 1964, pp. 202-218. (5c), 

A discussion of route development. 

599. Morris, S. S. "The I-ipact of the Motorcar on Urban 

Evolution,'' TQ, Vol. 20, July 1966, pp. 419-434. (4,7a). 

Enphasis on Capetown, South Africa. 

600. Moses, Leon N. "Towards a Theory of Intra -Urban Wage 

Differentials and Their Influence on Travel Patterns," 
PRSA, Vol. 9, 1962, pp. 53-64. (2,6). 

The prinary objective of the paper is to elaborate on 
an analytical tool, the wage gradient, that uay prove 
as useful as the rent gradient in the study of urban 
problems. The analysis shows what wage would have to 
be offered at any given point in order to attract any 
labor from that or other places in the uran area. 
Alternatively, the analysis suggests how high the wage 
rate would have to be in any place in order to attract 
labor fron sorae particular place. 

601. Moses, Leon N. and Harold F, Williamson, Jr. "Value of Tiue, 

Choice of Mode, and the Subsidy Issue in Urban Trans- 
portation," JOURNAL OF POLITIC/iL ECONOMY, Vol. 71, 
June 1963, pp. 247-264. (4). 

602. Moses, Leon N. and Harold F. Williamson, Jr. "The Location 

of Economic Activity in Cities," AER, Vol. 57, May 1967, 
pp. 211-222. (4,7). 

Decentralization of the cities results from firm 
relocation, transportation, and satellite area 
development. 

603. Mosher, Walter W. , Jr. "A Capacity-Restraint Algorithm for 

Assigning Flow to a Transport Network," HRR, No. 6, 
1963, pp. 41-70. (2a, 5, 6). 

An algorithm permitting the evaluation of network 
performances is described. Network loadings are 
governed by individually determined link functions. 
• • For road networks optimum performance functions for 
the entire network can be established by equalizing 
path figures for appropriate sets of paths. 

604. Mossman, Frank H. "A Concept ional Framework for the 

Logistics of Distribution Systems," TR/iNSPORTATION 
JOURNAL, Vol. 1, Summer 1962, pp. 23-29. (1). 



101. CPL Exchange Bibliography #3?4-#?25 

605. Muckleston, Keith U. and Fred E, Dohrs. "The Relative 

Importance of Transport on the Volga hsfore and after 
the Connunist Revolution," FG, Vol. 17, March 1965, 
pp. 22-25. (8c). 

In reply to an earlier article, the authors contend that 

the Volga was a truly significant transport route prior 

to the revolution and its role has steadily dininished 
since that tine, 

606. MunJell, R. A. "The Pure Theory of International Trade," 

/iER, Vol. 50, March 1960, pp. 67-110. (2,&a). 

607. Munro, John M. "Planning the Appalachian Developneut Highway 

Systea: Soce Critical Questions," LE, Vol. 45, May 1969, 
pp. 149-161. (5b, 7a). 

The inability of transportation investment to initiate 
econonic redevelopnent and the lack of careful planning 
are najor criticisns of the federal governuent's high- 
way schene. 

608. Muranyi, Thonas. "Estinating Traffic Volunes by Systematic 

Sarapling," HRBB 281, 1961, pp. 16-47. (2a, 6). 

Using Swiss data and probability theory, Muranyi 
presents a nodel for prediction of an entire country's 
annual average daily traffic and the duration and peak 
values of critical hours. 

609. Muranyi, Thonas. "A Method of Estlnating Traffic Behavior 

on All Routes in a Metropolitan County," HRR, No. 41, 
1963, pp. 61-78. (2a, 6). 

610. Murdie, Robert A. "Cultural Differences in Consuner 

Travel," EG, Vol. 41, July 1965, pp. 211-233. (2a, 6). 

A conparison of travel patterns of Old Order 
Mennonites and "nodern ' Canadians yields between 
group differences which suggest socio-econonic 
influences on relative nobility. 

611. Murphy, Rhoads. "China's Transport Problem and Connunist 

Planning,'^ EG, Vol. 32, January 1956, pp. 17-28. (1,8). 

A discussion of the proposition that extension of 
transport facilities are the solution to China's 
econonic problecs. All forns of carriers and the 
strategy and uotives of government planning are 
considered. 



102. CPL Exchanse Bibliography #324-#325 

612. Myers, Surxier, "Personal Transportation for the Poor," 

TQ, Vol. 24, April 1970, pp. 191-206. (4). 

The author suggests providing autoaobile transportation 
and taxi-bus service to low-incor.:e areas to increase 
the nobility of the inhabitants. 

613. Nader, G. A. "Socio-Econonic Status and Consuner Behavior," 

US, Vol. 6, June 1969, pp. 235-245. (2b, 4, 6c). 

Type of house is used as a variable describing consuner 
behavior and socio-econonic status. 

614. Nash, Allan N. and Stanley J. Hille. "Public Attitudes 

toward Transport Modes: A Sunnary of Two Pilot Studies," 
HRR, Wo. 233, 1968, pp. 33-46. (8). 

Consuner attitudes towards existing road systems and 
attitudes of an ideal transportation systen are 
surveyed . 

615. Nash, Williar.i W. and Jerrold R. Voss. "Analyzing the 

Socio-Econonic Inpacts of Urban Highways," HRBB 268, 
1960, pp. 30-94. (4,7a). 

616. Naughton, P. W. "Container Transport--The Shipping View- 

point," ITJ, Vol. 32, Novenber 1967, pp. 273-277. (1). 

617. Neal, A. F. "Passenger Transport in Conurbations," ITJ, 

Vol. 31, Nove.riber 1965, pp. 234-241. (4). 

A review of the types of urban transport, rail and 
road, and of the requirenents of a good transport 
systen. 

618. Neidercorn, J. H. and B. V. Bechdolt, Jr. "An Econonic 

Derivation of the 'Gravity Law' of Spatial Inter- 
action," JRS, Vol. 9, August 1969, pp. 273-282. (2b, 6). 

An attenpt to derive the "gravity law" of spatial 
interaction fron the principle of utility naxinization. 

619. Nelson, J. G. "Pre-European Trade between Australia, 

Indonesia and the Asiatic Mainlands," CG, Vol. 5, 
Winter 1961, pp. 18-22. (3,6a). 

Although existing evidence suggests this trade, the 
duration and intensity of the trading is still 
unresolved. 



103. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

620. Nelson, Janes C. "Effects of Public Regulation on Railroad 

Performance," MR, Vol. 50, May 1960, pp. 495-505. (8a). 

621. Neslon, Jar.as R. "Transport Policy for European Econonic 

Intergration," AER, Vol. 58, May 1968, pp. 378-392. 
(1,8). 

A wide ranging discur.sion of EEC transport policy, 
emphasizing the policy for Rhine traffic. 

622. Nelson, Robert A. "Railroad Mergers and Public Policy," 

LE, Vol. 41, May 1965, pp. 133-192. (8a). 

Article describes the need for nergers. 

623. Nenhauser, G. L. "Scheduling Local and Express Service," 

TS, Vol. 3, May 1969, pp. 164-175. (2,8). 

624. Neutze, G. M. "Major Determinant of Location Patterns," 

LE, Vol. 43, May 1967, pp. 227-232. (1,7). 

A brief treatment of location theory, 

625. Newton, Milton B. "Route Geography and the Routes of St. 

Helena Parish, Louisiana," AAAG, Vol. 60, January 1970, 
pp. 134-152. (3). 

Historical treatment of routes as a cultural feature 
on the landscape. 

626. Nicholson, John. "Some Shipping Problems," ITJ, Vol. 31, 

July 1965, pp. 159-165. (8c). 

A brief generalized summary of problems in the 
shipping trade and some answers to then. 

627. Niedercorn, John H. and John F. Kain. "Suburbanization of 

Employment and Population: 1948-1975," HRR, No. 38, 
1963, pp. 25-39. (2a, 7). 

An econometric model is presented to explain population 
and employment changes in central cities and metro- 
politan rings from 1954-1958. Land use patterns for 
a typical metropolitan area are predicted for the year 
1965 and 1975. Despite decentralizing forces, it is 
predicted that employment iu the central cities will 
increase faster than population growth in central cities. 

628. Nikol'skiy, I. V. "The Geography of Transportation of 

Kazakhstan," SGRT, Vol. 2, I-larch 1961, pp. 44-54. (6b, 8a), 

Survey of freight flows, transport facilities and 
linkages of a part of central Asia. 



104. CPL Exchange Bibliography ^>324-#j25 

629. Nikol'skiy, I. V. "Railroad Freight Traffic of the U.S.S.R.," 

SGRT, Vol. 2, June 1961, pp. 39-93. (6b, 8a). 

Based on a book on transportation geography of 
U.S.S.R. , presenting data and nunerous naps. 

630. Molen, John, Jr. "Defining 'Intercity' for Transportation 

Purposes,'' HRR, No. 82, 1965, pp. 109-113. (4). 

631. Nordbeck, Stig. "Conputing Distances in Road Nets," PRSA, 

Vol. 12, 1964, pp. 207-220. (2,5). 

"Swedish experinents to locate census data in a 
national grid-syster.i . . . provide the background for 
work described here: measuring distance by conputer." 

632. Nornan, N. E. "Transport Developnents in East Africa, 1965," 

ITJ, Vol. 31, March 1966, pp. 327-329. (1,8). 

A brief reviev; of existing transport services. 

633. Nornann, 0. K. "Variations in Flow at Intersections as 

Related to Size of City, Type of Facility and Capacity 
Utilization," HRBB 352, 1962, pp. 55-99. (2a, 4, 7c). 

Efficiency of traffic novenent and the influence of 
several factors on traffic flow, 

634. Nystuen, John 0. "A Theory and Siuulation of Intraurban 

Travel," QUANTITATFJE GEOGRAPHY PART I: ECONOMIC AND 
CULTURAL TOPICS. W. L. Garrison and D. F. Marble, 
editors, Evanston, Illinois: Departnent of Geography, 
Northvjestern University, 1967, pp. 54-83. (2,4,7). 

The study describes a geographical theory relating 
urban travel behavior to the spatial arrangeaent of 
urban facilities. Enphasis is on relating nultiple- 
purpose shopping trips by custoners to the arrangenent 
of retail stores in centers, but the author considers 
the general theory presented broad enough to include 
all types of intraurban travel. 

635. O'Brien, Bob R. "The Future Road Systen of Yellowstone 

National Park," £\i\AG, Vol. 56, Septeuber 1966, pp. 
385-407. (5). 



105. CPL Exchange Bibliogrsphy #32/4-#325 

636. 'Conner, A, H. "Now Railway Construction and the Pattern 

of Econordc Developnsnt in East Africa," TPx^'ciSACTIONS : 
INSTITUTE OF BRITISH GECGRi'.PHERS, No. 36, 1965, pp. 
21-30. (7b, 8a). 

Pvailvray construction has not stinulated economic 
developi:£nt in areas of peasant agriculture already 
served by roads. Railway construction must be con- 
sidered only part of an integrated econoaic developnent 
progran. 

637. O'Dell, Andrew C. "Transport of r.berdeen," SCOTTISH 

GEOGRAPHICAL MAG/^INE, Vol. 79, 1963, pp. 108-113. (4). 

Description of the various transport facilities of 
Aberdeen, including port, rail, road, canal, and air 
services, 

638. Oi, Walter Y. and Paul U. Shuldiner. AN ANALYSIS OF URB/JJ 

TRAVEL DEM..NDS, Evanston, Illinois: Transportation 
Center, Northwestern University, 1962. (1,4,6,9). 

The purpose of this study is to gain an understanding 
of the phenomenon of urban travel behavior. Part of the 
text provides a critical evaluation of origin-destination 
studies and another portion provides an alternative 
nethodology to the usual treatnent of 0-D data. Finally, 
attention is turned to the importance of travel and 
transportation as it is revealed in the expenditure 
patterns of urban families. 

639. Ojo, G, J, Afolabi, "Sone Observations on Journey to 

Agricultural Work in Yorubaland, S, W, Nigeria," 
EG, Vol, 46, July 1970, pp. 459-471, (6). 

Treats "the characteristic features of journey to work 
noticeable in areas whose econoaies are still doainated 
by prinary production." 

640. Okondo, P. J. Habenga. "The Relaticn between Education 

and Transportation in East Africa," IR^iNSPORTATION 
JOURNAL, Vol. 4, Sunxier 1965, pp. 14-20, (1,3). 

Historical look at trade, transportation, and education. 

641. Oliver, Robert M. and Leonard Newnan, "Effect of Trucks 

on Freeway Flows," HRR, No, 15, 1963, pp, 67-72. (7). 

As slow noving vehicles nay block passing attenpts or 
nultiple lane freeways, the forcation and dissipation 
of queues are natheraatically described as a function 
of traffic velocity, traffic density, and passing 
inter ia. 



106. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-ir325 

642. Olson, Philip. "Theoretical Orientations and Highway 

Impact Studies," TQ, Vol. 16, Novcnber 1962, pp. 521- 
530. (2,7a). 

The paper suggests a guide for planning locations of 
future highways through the incorporation of existing 
theory and new conceptualization into highway-related 
research by using connunity study techniques. 

643. Olsson, Gunnar. DIST/iNCE AND HUI1c\N INTER/iCTlON: A REVIEW 

Airo BIBLIOGIU.PHY. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Regional 
Science Research Institute, 1965. (1,2,6). 

This study broadly reviews and comments upon the 
literature in which the distance variable in spatial 
interaction has been treated. The first chapter 
coror^nts on the role of distance in the existing 
location theories. The second chapter has as its 
focus migration and general diffusion nodels, while 
the third penetrates nore deeply into problems con- 
nected with the use of gravity and potential nodels, 

644. Olsson, Gunnar. "Explanation, Prediction, and Meaning 

Variance: An Assessnent of Distance, Interacting Models j 
FG, Vol. 46, June 1970, pp. 223-231. (2b). 

This paper treats definition of the terns explanation 
and prediction, especially with regard to interaction, 
along with renarks about statistical inference, neaning 
variance, and connectability of spatial theories. 

645. Olsson, Rune. "Connodity Flows and Regional Inter- 

dependence," PRSA, Vol. 12, 1964, pp. 225-230. (2,5,6). 

A presentation of exanples of naps and tables fron 
surveys nade in connection with planning of trans- 
portation routes in Svreden and the analytic nethods 
used in such studies. Results of the cocn-odity flow 
studies are regarded as signs of the ability to produce 
transport in different kinds of regions and econonic 
units and can be used both in input-output studies and 
in traffic planning. 

646. Or ford, K. J. "The Future of the Bus," IT J, Vol. 31, 

November 1965, pp. 242-247. (8b). 

A discussion of bus service, bus verses car, and the 
future of the bus. 

647. Orr, Earlc VJ. "A Synthesis of Theories of Location of 

Transport Rates and of Spatial Price Equilibrium," 
PRSA, Vol. 3, p. 61. (2). 



107. CPL Exchance Bibliography C32/'>-#325 

648. Osborn, H. E. '^Ro^'d Haulage and Roads," ITJ, Vol. 31, 

July 1966, pp. 417-438. (8b). 

An overviev; of the subject, including nany tables. 

649. Owen, Wilfred. "Transportation and Technology," AER, Vol. 

52, May 1962, pp. 405-413. (1,7). 

An article dealing with the cost of transport, plans 
for the developnent of transportation, and the potential 
of future technology. 

650. 0\ien, Wilfred. STRi\TEGY FOR MOBILITY. Washington, D.C.: 

The Brookings Institution, 1964. (1,7b). 

The text is designed to guide the allocation of resources 
in emerging economies and in foreign assistance pro- 
graos, to uncover the possibilities that science and 
technology offer for the solution of transport problens, 
to develop criteria for judging the economic potential 
of transport investments, and to determine effective 
means of implementing transport programs. 

651. Owen, Wilfred. "Road Transportation and Food Production," 

HRR, No. 125, 1966, pp. 1-10. (1,7b). 

Owen analyzes the transportation aspects of the food 
problem using a broad systems approach that utilizes 
both transportation and non-transportation investments. 

652. Paleyev, Yu. N. "Transport Problems of the Volga Region in 

Connection with Development of its Productive Forces," 
SGRT, February 1967, pp. 117-125. (7j). 

653. Pappas, P. "Trip Lengths in Relations to Facilities and 

Journey to Work," ERISTICS, Vol. 30, August 1970, 
pp. 87-97. (2,4). 

"Discusses the distribution of trips by the distances 
they cover from the home . . . and examines certain 
relationships between trip lengths and such basic 
variables as income, density, and distance." 

654. Patmore, J. Allan and B. Litt. "The Railway Network of 

Merseyside," TRiiNSACTIONS : INSTITUTE OF BRITISH 
GEOGRAPHERS, No. 29, 1961, pp. 231-244. (5c, 8a). 

A consideration of the forces that have resulted in the 
evolution of the rail network, indicating the effects 
of competition between individual companies on network 
evolution. 



108. CPL Exchanse Bibliography #324-i^-325 

655. Patnore, J. x'.llan. "The Changing Network of British Rail- 
ways," G, Vol. 47, Novenber 1962, pp. 401-405. (5c, 6, 8a). 

Description of passenger and freight flow naps and 
future changes in Britain's rail network. 

S56. Patnore, J. t.llan. "The Railway Network of the Manchester 
Conurbation," TRi^NSACTIONS : INSTITUTE OF BRITISH 
GEOGR/\PHERS, No. 34, 1964, pp. 159-173. (5c, 8a). 

Factors of site and situation and their influence on 
netv/ork evolution. 

657. Patnore, J. Allan. "The British Railway Network in the 

Beeching Era," EG, Vol. 41, January 1965, pp. 71-81. 
(5b, 5c, 3a). 

Exanines the expected railroad network changes resulting 
fron inplenentation of the Beeching Report. The article 
considers the effects of closures, the role of rural 
branches, altered traffic flows, and the conpetitive 
duplication of the future network. 

658. Patterson, J. H. "50 Years of the Bern-Lotschberg-Sinplon 

Railway," G, Vol. 48, Novenber 1963, pp. 404-406. (3,5b). 

Discussion of najor resources for the construction of 
the railv/ay and speculations about its future. 

659. Pattison, Irna E , "Roads in Canada," TE, Vol. 33, August 

1963, pp. 11-15. (3,5). 

Descriptive treatnent with historical enphasis on routes. 

660. Pattison, Willian D, "The Pacific Railroad Rediscovered," 

GR, Vol. 52, January 1962, pp. 25-36. (3,5,8a). 

Pattison describes the building of the Pacific railroad 
and presents re-discovered photographs of the 
construction. 

661. Patton, Donald J. "The Traffic Patterns on Anerican Inland 

Waterways," EG, Vol. 32, January 1956, pp. 29-37. (6b, 8c). 

A sui:inary of traffic density patterns for all ports 
on the inland waterway systen, coijnents on general 
traffic features, and problems of traffic density. 

662. Patton, Donald J, "General Cargo Hinterlands of New York, 

Philadelphia, Baltinore, and New Orleans," AAAG, 
Vol. 43, Deceuber 1958, pp. 436-455. (6b, 7c). 

Origin and destination naps of each city's port 
hinterlands and factors contributing to the fornation 
of these patterns. 



109. CPL Ejcchange Bibliography 7'A324-#325 

663. Patton, Donald J. "Railroad Rate Structures, Ocean Trade 

Routes and the Hinterland Relation of Halifax and 

St. John," TESG, Vol. 52, January 1961, pp. 2-13. (7c, 8a), 

664. Pavlenko, V. F. "The Transport-Geography Situation and 

Inter-Regional Links of Central Asia," SORT, Vol. 4, 
November 1963, pp. 27-33. (6b, 8a). 

Treatment of inter-regional novenent by connodities 
and econonic regions, 

665. Payne, No man J. "Ground Transportation at Major European 

Airports," HRR, No. 234, 1968, pp. 18-28. (4). 

Discussion of the increasing congestion of airport 
terminal facilities and the decreasing levels of 
surface accessibility to terninals. 

666. Pegrun, Dudley F. "The Los Angeles Metropolitan Transit 

Authority," LE, Vol. 37, August 1951, pp. 247-255. (4). 

Study of its history, function, and structure. 

667. Pendleton, William C. "Land Use at Freeway Interchanges,'' 

IQ, Vol. 15, July 1961, pp. 535-546. (7a). 

Probler.i3 of traffic and land use and suggestions for 
additional research. 

668. Pendleton, William C. "Relation of Highway Accessibility 

to Urban Real Estate Values," HRR, No, 16, 1963, 
pp. 14-23. (6c, 7a). 

House prices, job accessibility, and driving tine and 
distance to the CBD are used to relate 0-D data to 
data concerning the urban housing market. 

669. Pendleton, William C, "An Empirical Study of Changes in 

Land Use at Freeway Interchanges," TQ, Vol, 19, 
January 1965, pp, 89-100, (2a, 7a, 9). 

"This paper discusses the use of aerial photographs 
in assembling data on changes in land use,. . . 
presents the findings from a study of land development 
around sixty-four freeway interchanges," and suggests a 
simple model to explain observed rates of change. 

670. Penfold, Anthony, "Caracas: Urban Growth and Trans- 

portation," TPR, Vol. 41, April 1970, pp. 103-120. 
(3,4). 

Historical survey. 



110. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

671. Penrose, E. F, "The Place of Transport in Econonic and 

Political Geocraphy," TRi\NSPORT AND COl-MJNICATIONS 
REVIEW, Vol. 5, 1952, pp. 1-8. (1). 

672. Perazich, George and Leonard L, Fischnan. "Methodology for 

Evaluating Costs and Benefits of Alternative Urban 
Transportation Systenis," HRR, No. 148, 1966, pp. 59-71. 
(8). 

673. Perkins, Dudley. "The Problens Facing the Port of London 

Authority in the Light of the Devlin Report," ITJ, 
Vol. 31, March 1966, pp. 314-321. (7c). 

674. Perle, Eugene D, "Estination of Transportation Denand," 

PRSA, Vol. 15, 1965, pp. 203-215. (2,8). 

The paper attenpts to fonaulate a fracework for estinating 
transportation demand relationships for railroads and 
motor carriers in the U. S,, where interest focuses 
upon the market behavior of the respective nodes during 
the 1950-1960 interval for manufactured goods. Demand 
elasticities are empirically derived to explain the 
pattern of inteirmodal competition. 

675. Pettit, D.E.A, "Retail Distribution Problems," ITJ, 

Vol. 31, September 1966, pp. 470-474. (1,6). 

676. Pfister, Richard L, "The Commodity Balance of Trade of 

the Pacific Northwest for Selected Years, 1929-1955," 
PRSA, Vol. 5, 1959, pp. 237-252. (6). 

The purpose of this paper is to describe and to analyze 
the commodity trade between the Pacific Northwest and 
the rest of the v/orld and to examine the position of 
the Northwest, a region specializing primarily in the 
production of food and rav? materials, relative to other 
regions of the U.S. which have more highly industrialized 
and diversified economies. 

677. Pieters, L, J. "A Hundred Years of Sea-Comnunication between 

England and the Netherlands," JTH, Vol. 6, November 1964, 
pp. 210-221. (3,8c). 

678. Pignataro, Louis J. "Urban Transportation, Techniques," 

HSGTJ, Vol. 2, May 1968, pp. 246-259. (1,4). 

This general discussion stresses the development of 
public transportation systems and the factors which 
may increase acceptance of such systems. 



111. CPL Exchan-a Bibliography t'A324-#325 

679. Pignataro, Louis J. and John C, Falcocchio. "Transpor- 

tation Needs for Lev? Incone Fanilies," TQ, Vol. 23, 
October 1969, pp. 505-527. (A). 

Surveys of low-incone groups indicate trip generation 
is significantly below average, and it is suggested 
that public transportation will provide needed nobility, 

680. Pikarsky, Milton. "Conprehensive Planning for the Chicago 

Crosstown Expressway," HRR, Ko. 180, 1967, pp. 35-51. 
(1,5b). 

681. Pillsbury, Warren A. "Econonics of Highway Location: A 

Critique of Collateral Effect /oialysis," HRR, No. 75, 
pp. 53-61. (5b). 

Pillsbury reviews highway location nethodology and 
evaluates collateral effect analysis in view of the 
criticisms of those who favor narginal user benefits 
and costs as a ceasure of highway efficiency. 

682. Pitts, Forrest. "A Graph Theory Approach to Historical 

Geography," FG, Vol. 17, 1965, pp. 15-20. (2a, 3, 5a). 

Uses graph-theoretic indices to neasure to centrality 
of Moscow. 

683. Plowden, S.P.C. "Transportation Studies Examined," 

JTEP, Vol. 1, January 1967, pp. 5-27. (2a,4). 

i>n overview of predictive nethods for urban transport 
developcent. 

684. Piowoan, E. G. "The Transportation Crisis of 1933," 

TRi^NSPORTATION JOURNAL, Vol. 1, Fall 1961, pp. 9-14. 
(1). 

Concents on various forns of transportation in 1933. 

685. Plowman, E. G. "How Control of Transportation Contributes 

to Profitability," TRANSPORTATION JOURNAL, Vol. 2, 
Winter 1952, pp. 13-18. (8). 

Connon carrier choice. 

686. Pluoraer, Andrew V., Leo G. Wilkie, and Robert F. Gran. 

"Holiday and Sunner Weekend Traffic Survey," HRBB 
297, 1961, pp. 74-85. (6). 

Conpares traffic volunes of recreational and non- 
recreational trips with respect to tine of day, day 
of travel, and toll road as opposed to non-toll road 
user destination. 



112. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

687. Polyakov, Ye. A. "Selection of an Optimal Forn of Surface 

Transportation in the Northeast of the U.S.S.R.," 
SGRT, Vol. 4, Movenber 1963, pp. 34-42. (5,8a). 

Presents factors affecting gau^e suitability in areas 
of high constructing and operating costs. 

688. Porter, Philip U. "VJhat is the Point of Mininun Aggregate 

Travel," AA/iG, Vol. 53, June 1963, pp. 224-232. (2a). 

The point of nininun aggregate travel nay be deternined 
by least squares analysis. The author describes the 
nethod and presents a graphic method for finding the 

point. 

689. Pourcelet, Michel. "The International Element in Air Trans- 

port," JOURNAL OF AIR LAW AND COI^IMERCE, Vol. 33, Winter 
1987, pp. 75-85. (8d). 

The need for and types of international agreecents, such 
as pooling. 

690. Fred, Allan. "Toward a Typology of Manufacturing Flows," 

GR, Vol. 54, January 1964, pp. 65-84. (6). 

Examines volune and length of flow characteristics for 
plants with similar production functions in dissimilar 
regions and for plants v/ith dissimilar production 
functions in similar regions, A typology of manu- 
facturing flows is developed for industries oriented 
to raw-material and fuel, market, and labor and 
agglomiation economies. 

691. Pred, Allan. "The Intrametropolitan Location of American 

Manufacturing," lUAG, Vol. 54, June 1964, pp. 165-180. 
(7). 

Urban decentralization and intra-cetropolitan locational 
patterns of selected industrial groups are analyzed and 
the effect of transportation noted, 

692. Proudlove, J. Alan. "A Traffic Plan for London," TPR, 

Vol. 31, pp. 53-73. (4). 

A report of a "long term plan of highway development 
in the London area." 

693. Proudlove, J. .ilan. "Traffic in Towns: A Review," TPR, 

Vol. 34, 1963-64, pp. 253-268. (4). 



113. CPL Sxchanse Bibliography #324-#325 

694. Prybyla, Ian S, "Transportation in Connunist China," LE, 

Vol. 42, August 1966,' pp. 263-281. (3,8). 

Describes historical growth of railroads, shipping and 
aviation in China; concludes that progress was the 
result of totalitarianisn which would ignore the hunan 
costs involved. 

695. Pursifull, L. J. "Juabo Jet aircraft and the Impact They 

Will Have on Transportation," HRR, No. 234, 1968, 
pp. 1-17. (l,8d). 

696. Pushkareo, Boris. "Highway Location as a Problen of Urban 

and Landscape Design," HRR, No. 23, 1963, pp. 7-18. (5b). 

Principles of aesthetic highway location are described. 
Adherence to topography, respect for nan-nade geonetry, 
and the provision of a succession of different views are 
requirenents for highway construction that oust be 
balanced with econouic considerations. 

697. Putnan, Stephen H. "Modeling and Evaluating the Indirect 

Impacts of Alternative Northeast Corridor Transportation 
Systens," HRR, No. 180, 1967, pp. 81-93. (2a, 5, 7). 

698. Pyers, Clyde E. "Evaluation of Intervening Opportunities 

Trip Distribution Model," HRR, No. 114, 1966, pp. 71-98. 
(2b,4,6c). 

The author compares travel patterns estiraated by the 
intervening opportunities nodel with 0-D survey data 
and concludes that the nodel satisfactorily simulates 
the survey data. 

699. Quandt, Richard E. "Models of Transportation and Optimal 

Network Construction," JRS, Vol. 2, 1960, pp. 27-46. (5). 

700. Quandt, Richard E. and William J. Baunol. "The Demand for 

Abstract Transport Modes: Theory and Measurement," 
JRS, Vol. 6, Winter 1966, pp. 13-26. (2b). 

A model of an abstract mode travel demand is formulated 
and tested. The results indicate an abstract mode 
approach enables the investigation of modal character- 
istics without specifying the identity of the mode. 

701. Quandt, Richard E. and Kan Hua Young. "Cross Sectional 

Travel Demand Models: Estimates and Tests," JRS, Vol. 
9, August 1969, pp. 201-214. (2b). 

A variety of potential demand equations are estimated 
and analyzed using variates of the "abstract mode 
model." 



IIA. CPL Exchange Bibliography ,'>324-#325 

702. Quarnby, D. A. "Choice of Travel Mode for the Journsy to 

Work: Sone Findings," JTEP, Vol. 1, Septenber 1967, 
pp. 273-314. (2a, 4). 

A study of nodal choice in Leeds, enphasizing travel 
tine and costs. 

703. Quinby, Henry D. "Transportation for Super-regions," TQ, 

Vol. 17, July 1963, pp. 325-340. (7). 

The author aiscusses the evolution and characteristics 
of predicted super-regions and the transportation 
facilities that will be required, 

704. Quinlan, H. G. "The Changing Role of Sydney in Australia's 

x^ir Transport," AUSTRi^^LLAN GEOGRi'.PHICAL STUDIES, Vol. 1, 
April 1963, pp. 49-60. (4,8d). 

Tine table data are used to delinit hinterlands for 
najor Australian cities. 

705. Rae, John B. "Financial Probleros of the Anerican Aircraft 

Industry, 1906-1940," BUSINESS HISTORY REVIEW, Vol. 39, 
1965, pp. 99-114. (3,8d). 

706. Randall, Duncan P. "VJilnington, North Carolina: The 

Historical Developnent of a Port City," m\AG, Vol. 58, 
September 1968, pp. 441-451. (3,7c). 

Randall identifies three functional periods reflecting 
the changing pattern and significance of transport foms 
and the changing character of the area served by 
Wilnington. 

707. Ray, D. M. "Cultural Differences in Consuner Travel 

Behavior in Eastern Ontario," CG, Vol. 11, 1967, 
pp. 143-156. (6). 

708. Raynond, S. E. 'British Railways — Towards a Solution and a 

Modern Railway," ITJ, Vol. 31, May 1966, pp. 363-369. (Oa), 

A brief review of sone of the problens of the railroad 
V7ith new developnents and suggestions. 

709. Peed, Wallace E. "Indirect Connectivity and Hierarchies 

of Urban Doninance," AAAG, Vol. 60, Decenber 1970, 
pp. 770-735. (2a,5a,8d). 

A nethod of deternining doninance is applied to Indian 
air traffic flows. 



115. CPL Exchanse Bibliography #324-#325 

710. Reeves, F. A. "New Zealand's Overseas Air Policy and its 

National and Econonic Vr.lue," ITJ, Vol. 31, September 
1965, pp. 200-206. (1,3d). 

711. Reynolds, D. J. "The Econonics of Rural Motorv7ays," JOURNAL 

OF INDUSTRI/X ECONOMICS, Vol. 10, Novenber 1961, pp. 
10-20. (8b). 

712. Rice, Joseph F. "Adoption of Aerial Survey Methods for 

Traffic Operations," HRR, No. 19, 1S63, pp. 47-52. (9). 

Several instances are enumerated which demonstrate the 
effectiveness of aerial photographic techniques in 
solving problems associated with traffic flow. 

713. Richards, Hoy A. "Transportation Costs and Plant Location: 

A Review of Principal Theories," TRivNSPORTATION JOURN.U., 
Vol. 2, Winter 1962, pp. 19-24. (7). 

A brief summary. 

714. Ridley, T. M. "Reducing the Travel Tine in a Transport 

Network," in: A. J. Scott, editor, STUDIES IN REGIONAL 
SCIENCE, London, England: PionLtd., 1969, pp. 73-88. 
(2,5). 

This paper treats the problem in transportation analysis 
of the allocation of investment to a network and the 
related problem of the proper scheduling of invest- 
ments. The author provides a method of solution for 
the best combination for investment, given an existing 
network, a number of possible links which can be built 
or improved, and a fixed budget. A restriction on the 
general problem of the scheduling of investment. 

715. Rimmer, Peter J. "Changes in the Status of Seaports, 

1953-1963," NEW ZEALAND GEOGRAPHER, Vol. 21, 1965, 
pp. 65-72. (7c). 

Maps and commentary on New Zealand's seaports. 

716. Rirxier, Peter J. "The Problem of Comparing and Classifying 

Seaports," FG, Vol. 18, 1966, pp. 83-91. (7c). 

The paper represents a break from the many detailed 
studies of individual ports which provide little in- 
for-uation regarding an acceptable scale against which 
the activities or relative importance of any given port 
can be measured. The paper is, then, a search for such 
an acceptable measure through review of literature of 
the measurement of ports and an assessment of the 
available criteria by analyzing data on New Zealand 
seaports. 



116. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

717. Rinner, Peter J. "A Resurgence in New Zealand Coastal 

Trade," G, Vol. 51, July 1966, pp. 248-251. (8c). 

Credits resurgence of trade to specialized ships v;ith 
rapid turn around and nininun shore labor. 

718. Rinner, Peter J. "The Search for Spatial Regularities in 

the Development of Australian Seaports, 1861-1961," 
GEOGR/iFISICi ANNALER, Vol. 49B, 1967, pp. 42-54. (3,7c). 

The nodel of transport developnent put forth by Taaffe, 
Morrill, and Gould is nodified by weighting links on 
the transport network and by including a port that 
survives the historical displacenent process. Uses 
net tonnage figures to indicate port growth. 

719. Rinner, Peter J. "Changes in the Ranking of Australian 

Seaports, 1951-2 - 1961-2," TESG, Vol. 58, January- 
February 1957, pp. 28-38. (7c). 

720. Rinner, Peter J. "The Changing Status of New Zealand Sea- 

ports, 1853-1960," /iAAG, Vol. 57, March 1967, pp. 88- 
100. (2a, 3, 7c). 

A verbal nodel of the evolution of New Zealand's port 
locations. Vested port interests, the nature of cargo, 
and actions of the central governnent are uajor factors 
affecting the pattern of port developnent. 

721. Rinner, Peter J, "Recent Changes in the Status of Sea- 

ports in the New Zealand Coastal Trade," EG, Vol. 43, 
July 1967, pp. 231-243. (7c). 

Uses cargo tonnages as an indication of status and 
exaaines changes produced by the introduction of a 
rail ferry. 

722. Rinner, Peter J. "The Transportation Method of Linear 

Progranning, with a New Zealand Example," NEW 
ZEALAND GEOGRAPHER, Vol. 24, April 1968, pp. 90-99. 
(2,6). 

An introJuctory explanation, using cenent novenent as 
an exanple, 

723. Roberts, John M. et al. "The Snail Highway Business of 

U.S. 30 in Nebraska," EG, Vol. 32, April 1956, pp. 
139-152. (7a). 

Describes the snail highway business conplex and its 
relation to traffic flow. 



117. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

724. Roberts, Paul 0. and David T. Kresga. "Siuulation of 

Transport Policy Alternatives for Colonbia," AER, 
Vol. 58, May 1968, pp. 341-359. (2,7,8). 

An explanation of sone conputer nodels developed and a 
description of a "nodel of the economy and the trans- 
portation systen of Colonbia." 

725. Robinson, Carlton C. "Freeways in the Urban Setting," TQ, 

Vol. 17, July 1963, pp. 432-438. (4). 

The article attempts to answer the question: "Will the 
city becone a better place to live as present freeway 
development continues?" He believes it will. 

726. Rodgers, Allan L. "The Port of Genova: External and 

Internal Relations," AAAG, Vol. 48, December 1958, 
pp. 319-351. (7c). 

Analysis and interpretation of the relationships of the 
port of Genova to its foreland and hinterland. 

727. Roeseler, Wolfgang G. "Traffic Forecasting and the Land- 

Use Plan," TQ, Vol. 19, July 1965, pp. 396-404. (4). 

728. Rogers, Andre. "A Markovian Policy Model of Interregional 

Migration," PRSA, Vol. 17, 1966, pp. 205-224. (2,6). 

A fundamental model of interregional migration is 
defined which describes current behavior and indicates 
the distributional consequences of mobility trends. 
The paper extends the model to include population dis- 
tribution goals and defines the policy requirements for 
the achievement of these goals; concludes with a brief 
consideration of how Markovian nodels may be used in 
regional data bank operations and continuously updated 
information systems. 

729. Rom, V. Ya. "The Volga-Baltic Waterway," SGRT, Vol. 11, 

November 1961, pp. 32-43. (3, 6b, 8c). 

Treatment of history and expected freight changes in 
the northwestern part of European Russia. 

730. Rose, Warren. "Catalyst of an Economy: The Houston Ship 

Channel," LE, Vol. 43, February 1967, pp. 32-43. (7,3c), 

731. Ross, H. Laurence. "Reasons for Moves to and from a 

Central City Area," SOCIAL FORCES, Vol. 40, March 
1962, pp. 261-263. (4). 



113. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

732. Roth, G. J. and J. M. Thonson. "The Relief of Traffic 

Congestion by Parking Restrictions," TPR, Vol. 34, 
1963-64, pp. 185-198. (4). 

Reasons, nethods, inplications, and benefits of parking 
restrictions. 

733. Roth, G. J. "An Economic Approach to Traffic Congestion," 

TPR, Vol. 36, 1965-66, pp. 49-61. (4). 

Describes "a nunber of concepts coEnonly used in the 
field of econonics and considers their application to 
the stuJy of traffic on congested roads." 

734. Row, Arthur T. "Transportation i.-i the Center City Developcent 

Plan for Philadelphia," HRBB 293, 1961, pp. 45-57. (4). 

A complex of underground railroad connections, an 
improved subway station, and a major bus garage and 
parking garage directly connected with the expressway 
system have increased accessibility to the CBD and has 
led to a proposed major downtown development project, 

735. Ruiter, Earl R. "Improvements in Understanding, Calibrating 

and Applying the Opportunity Model," HRR, No. 165, 
1967, pp. 1-21. (2b). 

736. Sackrey, Charles M. , Jr. "Overcapacity in the United States 

International Air Transport Industry," JOURN/iL OF AIR 
LAW AND COMi'JERCE, Vol. 32, Winter 1966, pp. 24-93. (8d) . 

Discussion of the lATA, air agreements, under-utilizaticn 
and overcapacity of airlines. 

737. Salesbury, William and Alan To^msend. "Transportation 

Studies and British Planning Practice," TPR, Vol. 41, 
January' 1970, pp. 63-79. (1,3). 

A general discussion of transportation planning techniques 
and the history of transportation planning in Great 
Britain. 

738. Saouelson, P. A. "Spatial Price Equilibrium and Linear 

Programming," mR, Vol. 42, June 1952, pp. 283-303. 
(2a, 6). 

The use of linear prograroing changes a purely des- 
criptive problem in non-normative economics into a 
maximization problem. 

739. Savigear, Flavia, "A Quantative Measure of Accessibility," 

TPR, Vol. 38, 1967-68, pp. 64-72. (2,4,8b). 



119. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

740. Sav7hill, Ray B. and Keith C. Crandall. "Sone Measurable 

Qualities of Traffic Service Influenced by Freeways," 
HRR, No. 49, 1964, pp. 30-53. (8b). 

Travel tine and fuel consunption are used as measures 
of freeway service. Freeway construction always 
produced savings in travel tine; however, fuel savings 
uay not result. 

741. Scaperlanda, Anthony. "The Role of Transportation in the 

Economic Integration of Underdeveloped Areas," LE, 
Vol. 42, May 1966, pp. 205-209. (7b). 

"Synthesis of a transportation policy . . . consistent 
with development goals of econonic integration efforts 
in underdeveloped areas." 

742. Schary, Philip. "Ccnpetition, Regulation and the Air 

Freight Industry," JOURNAL OF .xIR L/JJ /iND COM-iERCE, 
Vol. 30, Winter 1964, pp. 62-71. (8d). 

Conpetition between all cargo airlines and passenger 
airlines for air freight. 

743. Schary, Philip. "The Civil Aeronautics Board and the All- 

Cargo Airlines: The Early Years," BUSINESS HISTORY 
REVIEW, Vol. 41, 1967, pp. 272-284. (3,8d). 

744. Schenker, Eric. "Technical Efficiency of British Motor 

Transport Under Nationalization," TR^'iNS PORTATION JOURN/i, 
Vol. 4, Spring 1965, pp. 5-11. (8b). 

745. Schenker, Eric, and John Wilson, "The Use of Public Mass 

Transportation in the Major Metropolitan Areas of the 
United States," LE, Vol. 43, August 1967, pp. 361-367. 
(A, 8). 

746. Schiupeler, Charles C. and Willian L. Grecco. "Systecs 

Evaluation: /m Approach Based on Community Structure 
and Values," HRR, No. 238, 1968, pp. 123-152. (2a, 4). 

The use of linear programing techniques to foruulate 
an evaluative procedure for transportation systens 
based on connunity development criteria and extensions 
of the procedure in land use planning and other aspects 
of transportation planning. 



120. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324 -#32 5 

/47. Schrnandt, Henry and G. Ross Stephens, "Public Transportation 
and the tJorker," TQ, Vol. 17, Novenber 1963, pp. 573- 
583. (4,6). 

The article represents a sanpling of 1960 census data 
on coGnuting and non-conniuting workers and the relation- 
ship anong several variables that affect the trans- 
portation patronage pattern. 

748. Schtaitt, Robert C. ''Population Densities and Autonobile 

0\mership in a Metropolitan Area," JOURI'J/iL OF /itERIC/O^ 
INSTITUTE OF PL/J.WERS, Vol. 27, Novenber 1961, pp. 
332-333. (2a, 4). 

Multiple regression analysis shows that the nunber of 
autouobiles per household can be forecast by using 
census data indicating the nunber of households per 
net acre and the percentage of households in nulti-unit 
structures. 

749. Schneider, Morton. "A Direct Approach to Traffic Assign- 

ment," HRR, No. 6, 1963, pp. 71-75. (2b, 4, 6c). 

Presents the traffic assignnent method of analysis and 
a nodel of traffic flow. 

750. Schneider, Morton. "Direct Estination of Traffic Volune 

at a Point," HRR, No. 165, 1967, pp. 108-116. (2a). 

751. Schnore, Leo F. "The Use of Public Transportation in Urban 

Areas," TQ, Vol. 16, Novenber 1962, pp. 488-498. (4,8). 

•. . !' With Qultiple regression analysis, the author shows 
hov7 the factors of city size, density, and age nake 
for variations in the use of nass transit systeus. 

752. Schofield, G. "The Canalization of the Moselle," G, Vol. 

50, April 1965, pp. 161-163. (8c). 

Outlines the benefits frou canalizing the river, 

753. Schultz, Gwen H. "Using Dots for Traffic Flow Maps," PG, 

Vol. 13, January 1961, pp. 13-19. (1,9). 

A technique for using dots instead of utilizing variations 
of line widths to portray differences in traffic volune 
is presented. The author suggests that this type of nap 
has tV7o advantages over variable line width maps: 
(1) highways occupy their proper positions and relation- 
ships without distortion, and (2) dots can be counted, 
naking it easier to estinate nunerical values. 



121. CPL Exchanse Bibliography #324-#325 

754. Schwarty, N. L. "Discrete Progracs for Moving Known 

Cargoes fror; Origins to Dnstinations on Tine at Mininun 
Bargeline Fleet Cost," IS, Vol. 2, May 1968, pp. ISA- 
US. (2,6). 

755. Schwartz, Arthur, "Forecasting Transit Use," HRBB 297, 1961, 

pp. 18-35. (2a, 6). 

The use of autoaobile ownership, net residential density, 
and transit service characteristics to forecast transit 
use, CBD trips constitute the basis for the denand for 
najor transit inprovecents. 

756. Schwartz, Arthur. "Sampling Methods for the Collection of 

Conprehens ive Transit Passenger Data," HRR, No. 205, 
1967, pp. 86-95. (9). 

By dividing transit service into sanpling units, one 
can obtain conprehens ive data on passenger usage. 

757. Schwind, Paul J. "The Geography of Railroad Piggyback 

Operations," TQ, Vol. 21, April 1967, pp. 237-248. (5,6, 
8a). 

Exanination of TOFC route patterns, traffic flows, 
cost and efficiency, and teminals (including naps). 

758. Scott, Allen J, "A Progranning Model of an Integrated 

Transportation Network," PRSA, Vol. 19, 1967, pp. 215- 
222. (2,5a). 

The paper considers the problen of how to deteraine an 
optinal transportation network linking a given set of 
settlements. The paper proceeds by justifying the 
analysis of network structure as a set of binary-coded 
edge incidences, qualified by the distances betvjeen 
nodes and onitting considerations of capacity. Given 
a constraint upon the total uileage of the network that 
can be constructed, this nodel assunes that the geo- 
graphical structure of the network should be in sone 
sense optimized. 

759. Scott, Peter. ''Car Ownership in Australian Cities," TPR, 

Vol. 31, 1960-61, pp. 125-134. (4). 

A breakdovm by several cities. 

760. Scott, Roy V. "/inerican Railroads and Agricultural 

Extension, 1900-1914: A Study in Railway Developnental 
Techniques," BUSINESS HISTORY REVIEW, Vol. 39, 1965, 
pp. 74-98. (3,7,8a). 



122. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324 -#325 

761. Sealy, Kenneth R, "Road and Rail Transit in Britain," G, 

Vol. 49, July 1964, pp. 293-303. (8a, 8b). 

A review of najor legislation affecting road and rail 
transport in Britain fron 1921-1962. 

762. Sealy, Kenneth R. "The Siting and Developnent of British 

Airports," GECGR/iPHIC/iL J0UR1>I/>L, Vol. 133, June 1967, 
pp. 148-173. (5,8d). 

Presents a general discussion of national patterns of 
airport traffic and airport developnent in England. 

763. Sealy, Kenneth R. THE GEOGRAPHY OF AIR TR.\NSPORT. Chicago, 

Illinois: Aldine Publishing Co., 1968. (8d). 

The author discusses the physical geography of air 
transport V7herein he details the influence of topography 
and clinate on the location and construction of air 
terninals and on flying conditions and air routes. He 
then proceeds to discuss the economic and technical 
developnent of air transport, conparing it with other 
neans of transportation. A detailed analysis of world 
air routes, vjith a conparison between Europe, the 
United States, and underdeveloped countries follows, and 
the book concludes with a section on underdeveloped 
areas and offers speculations on the future course of 
air travel. 

764. Senple, R. Keith and L. H. Wang. "A Geographical Analysis 

of Redundancy in Inter-Urban Transportation Links," 
Discussion Paper No. 5, Toronto, Canada: Departnent of 
Geography, University of Toronto, 1970. (2,5a). 

The paper analyzes the redundancy of six selected inter- 
urban highway networks in Canada, which was acconplishsd 
by developing a technique using infornation theory to 
neasure the cooplexity in networks. A redundancy 
index v/as then calculated vjhich related the conplexity 
in bounded real world networks with corresponding 
bounded ideal networks. 

765. Sen, P. K. "Calcutta Traffic Problens," TQ, Vol. 16, 

April 1962, pp. 289-304. (4). 

The description of Calcutta, its road and traffic 
growth, nass transportation, and traffic departnents 
reveal that the basic problen is congestion. 



123. CPL Exchar.33 Bibliography #324-#325 

766. Seneca, Joseph J. and Charles J. Cicchetti. "A Gravity 

Model Analysis of the Denand for Public Cczxi.unication," 
JRS, Vol. 9, December 1969, pp. A59-470. (2b). 

A gravity analysis of telegran service indicates physical 
distance, rather than econonic distance, provides a 
higher association with volune. 

767. Seshagiri, M. , R. Narasinhan, S. Mehndiratta, and B. K. 

Chanda. "Conputer Generated Ti-.e Tables and Bus 
Schedules for a Large Bus Transport Network," TS, 
Vol. 3, February 1969, pp. 69-35. (2,5,8b). 

768. Shaner, H. W. "Econonic Evaluation of Investments in Agri- 

cultural Penetration Roads in Developing Countries," 
HRR, No. 180, 1967, pp. 120-132. (7b). 

Concepts of engineering economy and econonic development 
are used to evaluate penetration. 

769. Shanker, K. "Age and Average Trip Length of Trucks in 

India," TQ, Vol. 20, January 1966, pp. 104-117. (6b, 8b). 

"The overall average trip length of goods vehicles of 
various age groups on truck routes under present Indian 
conditions has been worked out for certain groups of 
routes classified by effective length of such routes." 

770. Sharp, C. J. "The Choice Between Cars and Buses on Urban 

Roads," JTEP, Vol. 1, January 1967, pp. 104-111. (4). 

A discussion of when bus travel is nore desirable than 
auto novenent and a suggestion that a balance in code 
choice night be planned on the criterion of the total 
of all journey tines. 

771. Sheman, Roger. "A Private Ownership Bias in Transit 

Choice," I£R, Vol. 57, December 1967, pp. 1211-1217. (8), 

772. Shiatte, Kenneth H. "Composite Networks— A New Planning 

and Testing Tool," TQ, Vol. 20, January 1966, pp. 118- 
135. (5c, 9). 

Describes a computerized method to produce networks 
requiring less detailed coding and allowing network 
configurations to be changed without errors. 



124. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

773. Shuldiner, Paul W. "Trip Generation and the Hoce," HRBB 

347, 1962, pp. 40-59. (2b,4,6c). 

Fanily size and vehicle ownership have the greatest 
positive effect on the frequency of person-trips. Other 
socio-econonic and dwelling unit characteristics are 
exanined for their influence on the frequency of 
person-trips. 

774. Shuldiner, Paul W. "Land Use, Activity and Non-Residential 

Trip Generation," HRR, No, 141, 1966, pp. 73-88. (2b, 4, 6c), 

Review and analysis of the concepts and procedures used 
in transportation studies to derive non-residential 
trip attractions. 

775. Shunate, Robert P. and Jar.es R. Dirksen, "A Sinulation 

Systen for Study of Traffic Flow Behavior," HRR, No. 72, 
1964, pp. 19-39. (2b). 

A conputer sinulation systen using the language called 
SIMCAR is described. Only a United anount of training 
is needed to use the progran which specifies highway 
geonetry, driver and vehicle characteristics, and con- 
trol elenents. 

776. Shunk, G. A., U. L. Grecco, and V. L. Anderson. "The 

Journey to Work: A Singular Basis for Travel Pattern 
Surveys," HRR, No. 240, 1968, pp. 32-51. (4,6c). 

Mutliple regression techniques indicate journey-to-work 
data nay be used to predict the links used by total day 
and all purpose travel. 

777. Siddall, Willian R. "Railroad Gauges and Spatial Inter- 

action," GR, Vol. 59, January 1969, pp. 29-57. (5,8a). 

The world gauge situation as it exists today is napped 
and described. 

778. Sielski, Matthew C. "Effect of Northwest Expressway on 

Alternate ..rterial Streets," HRR, No. 21, 1963, pp. 
106-126. (6,7a). 

Before and after conparisons of travel tine, fuel con- 
sunption, accidents, and factors relating to highway 
benefits on arterial streets indicate the freeway will 
result in substantial lowering of travel costs on 
routes near the freeway. 



125. CPL Exchange Dibliography #324-#325 

779. Sinnons, Janes W. "Changing Residence in the City: A Reviev? 

of Intraurban Mobility," GR, Vol. 58, October 1968, 
pp. 622-651. (2,6c). 

This study examines who coves, why they nove, and where 
they nove within the city. 

780. Sinnons, Janes W. "Interprovincial Interaction Patterns," 

CG, Vol. 14, 1970, pp. 372-376. (6b). 

A brief discussion on correlations among various kinds 
of interactions and an attempt to generalize an index 
of linkages anong Canadian provinces. 

781. Sins, J. B. "Freight Rates and Their Break -Even Points," 

TRANSPORTATION JOURNAL, Vol. 5, Winter 1965, pp. 41-44. 
(2). 

782. Sinclair, Robert. "Von Thunen and Urban Sprawl," AAAG, 

Vol. 57, March 1967, pp. 72-87. (2a, 7). 

A discussion of the inappropriateness of directly 
applying Von Thunen' s model to agricultural land use 
around modern cities and a description of an alternate 
schene based on examination of urban growth processes, 

783. Singer, Russell E. "The Future Role of the Automobile in 

Urban Transportation," TQ, Vol. 18, April 1964, pp. 
156-168. (1,4). 

The automobile is here to stay. 

784. Slayton, William L. "Urban Renewal and Mass Transportation 

Planning," TQ, Vol. 16, January 1962, pp. 5-14. (4). 

Discusses the coordination necessary from all sectors 
including transportation to improve the urban environ- 
ment. 

785. Sneed, R. "The Road Space Required for Traffic in To^tos," 

TPR, Vol. 33, April 1962-63, pp. 279-292. (4). 

Methods of routing and space needed, with examples 
fron London. 

786. Sneed, R. ''The Effect of Some Kinds of Routing Systems on 

the Amount of Traffic in the Central Areas of Towns," 
JOURNAL OF THE INSTITUTE OF HIGHI\'Ay ENGINEERING, Vol. 
10, 1963, pp. 5-26. (5,6). 

787. Sneed, R. "The Traffic Problem in Towns," TPR, Vol. 35, 

July 1964-65, pp. 133-158. (4). 

Overview of the subject including car-bus speed and 
tine, road design, and traffic density. 



126. CIL Exchange Bibliography #324-yr325 

788. Sneed, R. "A Theoretical Model of Conuuter Traffic in 

Towns," JOURN/iL OF THE INSTITUTE OF MATHEMATICAL 
APPLICATIONS, Vol. 1, 1965, pp. 208-225. (2a, 4). 

789. Sneed, R. "Traffic Studies and Urban Congestion," JTEP, 

Vol. 2, January 1968, pp. 30-70. (4,5,6). 

"A quantitative analysis of capacity and congestion 
in real and imaginary tovm centers" and suggested 
renedies, 

790. Snerk, George M. "Denand Considerations in Urban Trans- 

portation,'' TQ, Vol. 18, July 1964, pp. 421-432. (4). 

Connents on the lack of appeal of public transport, 
price considerations, and quality in urban transport, 
with final cocicents on the Seattle Monorail study, 

791. Snerk, George M. "Subsidies for Urban Mass Transportation," 

LE, Vol. 41, February 1965, pp. 62-65. (4,8). 

792. Scerk, George M. "The Streetcar: Shaper of Acerican 

Cities," TQ, Vol. 21, October 1967, pp. 569-584. (3,7). 

Historical. 

793. Snethurst, P. R. "The National Travel Surveys," TPR, Vol. 

38, April 1967-68, pp. 43-63. (9). 

Techniques involved in the survey and use of the data 
in planning, 

794. Snith, Bob L. "Gravity Model Theory ..pplied to a Snail City 

Using a Snail Sanple of Origin-Destination Data," HRR, 
No. 88, 1965, pp. 85-115. (2b, 4, 6c). 

Using the gravity nodel and a sanple of a longer origin- 
destination survey of zonal trip production, trip 
attraction and travel tine adequately reproduce the 
longer 0-D survey and nay be used for planning purposes. 

795. Snith, David A. "Interaction within a Fragnented State: 

The Exanple of Hawaii," EG, Vol. 39, July 1963, pp. 
234-244. (2b, 6b). 

The use of a nodified gravity nodel and sinple correlations 
to neasure interaction between Hawaiian cities. The 
findings indicate the friction of distance is not 
significantly different fron studies using the gravity 
nodel in the continental United States. 

796. Snith, David i., "Transportation and Terrain in Britain," 

GR, Vol. 54, July 1964, pp. 431-432. (5). 



127. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

797. Snith, Frank ... "Relative Role of Highway Transport in the 

U. S. Economy, " HRR, No. 175, 1967, pp. 27-32. (1,8b). 

798. Snith, Ian. "The Western Nigeria Road Developnent Survey: 

A Case Study in Pre-Investnent Analysis in Developing 
Countries," JTEP, Vol. 2, January 1968, pp. 9A-104. 
(7b). 

799. Snith, Robert H.T. "Rigidity of Rail Hinterland Boundaries 

in Australia," AAAG, Vol. 50, March 1960, pp. 55-57. 
(5,6,8a). 

Regression analysis indicates a changing pattern of 
railway hinterlands. Legislation is directly responsible 
for this change. 

800. Snith, Robert H.T. "Transport Competition in Australian 

Border Areas: The Exanple of Southern New South 
Wales," EG, Vol. 39, January 1963, pp. 1-13. (6,8). 

Considering New South Vales as characteristic of the 
features and problems of Australia's transport systen, 
it is suggested that through rates should be applied on 
interstate rail cons igncent to all centers rather than 
just capitol cities, 

801. Snith, Robert H.T. "Railvjay Connodity Movement between 

New South Hales and Victoria," AUSTRALLiN GEOGRAPHER, 
Vol. 9, 1963, pp. 88-96. (6b, 8a). 

A paper describing connodity flow prior to the introduction 
of a standard gauge railway. 

802. Snith, Robert H.T. "Toward a Measure of Conplenentarity, " 

EG, Vol. 40, January 1964, pp. 1-8. (2a, 6b). 

Uses agricultural connodity flow to the New England 
states to analyze the notion of conplentarity and to 
neasure its relative significance. 

803. Snith, Robert H.T. "The Developnent and Function of Trans- 

port Routes in Southern New South Wales, 1860-1930," 
AUSTRiiLI/^ GEOGRAPHIC/i STUDIES, Vol. 2, April 1964, 
pp. 47-65. (3, 5c, 8a, 8b). 

The historical developnent of roads and railways. 



128. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

804. Snith, Robert H.T. and Alan M. Hay. "A Theory of the 

Spatial Structure of Internal Trade in Underdeveloped 
Countries," GA, Vol. 1, April 1969, pp. 121-135. (2a, 6b). 

The objectives of this article are to present the theory 
of internal trade, depict the theory with graphical 
nodels, and to test hypotheses derived fron the nodels. 

805. Snith, Robert H.T, "Concepts and Methods in Coonodity Flow 

Analysis," EG, Vol. 46, June 1970, pp. 404-416. (2a). 

A valuable review of quantitative nethods used in 
connodity flow studies and ways of conceptualizing 
cotxiodity flow research. 

806. Snith, Wilbur S. "Synthesized Travel Desires," TQ, Vol. 

16, January 1962, pp. 173-200. (2,4,6c). 

By defining the factors which govern urban travel, the 
author develops an interactance fomula to forecast 
zone to zone novenent; the fornula is tested by conparing 
sinulated results with those fron hone interviews and 
ground count, 

807. Snith, Wilbur S, "Research and Worldwide Urban Transport- 

ation," HRR, No. 125, 1966, pp. 30-39. (4,9). 

Travel patterns within several cities are conpared and 
sinilarities in the patterns suggest the need for a 
nore complete exchange of transportation planning data 
and techniques of analysis, 

808. Suitzler, Janes R, and Leslie M. Frink. "Regional Transport 

Planning in Central Anerica," TQ, Vol. 20, July 1966, 
pp. 447-464, (7b, 9). 

Discussion of the initial developcent of transport 
planning and data collection. 

809. Snock, Robert, "An Iterative Assignment Approach to 

Capacity Restraint on Arterial Networks," HRBB 347, 
1962, pp, 60-66, (2a, 5, 6), 

Snock describes a nethod for conputer assignnent in the 
total process of transportation planning. 

810. Snock, Robert. "A Conparative Description of a Capacity- 

Restrained Traffic Assignnent," HRR, No. 6, 1963, pp. 
12-40. (2a, 5, 6). 

A step-by-step history of a capacity restraint assign- 
nent probleu is presented as an illustration of its 
use in highway planr.ing. 



129. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324 -#32 5 

811. Snell, R, R, , et al, "Traffic Assignment with a Nonlinear 

Travel Tizie Function," TS, Vol. 2, May 1968, pp. 146-159. 
(2). 

812. Snitzler, Janes R. "Transporting Cattle in Argentina," 

TRANSPORTATION JOURNiVL, Vol. 1, Spring 1962, pp. 23-29. 
(6). 

813. Snyder, David E. "Cocnercial Passenger Linkage and the 

Metropolitan Nodality of Montevideo," EG, Vol. 38, 
April 1962, pp. 95-112. (4, 5a, 6a). 

An analysis of the spatial differences in passenger 
linkages focusing on the node of Montevideo and a 
description of the transport network, the hierarchial 
structure anong urban places on the network, and the 
conparitive roles of several carrier types, 

814. Sobernan, Richard M. "Econonic Analysis of Highway Design 

in Developing Countries," HRR, No, 115, 1966, pp. 44-63. 
(5b, 7b). 

A franework for analyzing the choice of technology 
possible in producing a given output of transportation 
and for exanining the trade-off anong capital costs, 
road-use costs, and road uaintenance under varying 
conditions of unenploynent, interest rates, and 
foreign exchange rates. The study denonstrates the 
nost efficient technology in one country is not the 
sane as in another. 

815. Soja, Edward W. "Transaction Flows and National Unity: 

The Nigerian Case," in Gwendolen M. Carter and Ann 
Paden, editors, EXPANDING HORIZONS IN AFRICAN STUDIES, 
Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University Press, 
1969, pp. 321-328, (6), 

A discussion of the use of teleconnunications data and 
the applications of an indifference nodel to trans- 
action flows, 

816. Solesbury, Willian and Alan Townsend, "Transportation 

Studies and British Planning Practice," TPR, Vol. 41, 
January 1970, pp. 63-79. (1). 

817. Soltoan, Theodore J, "Effects of Alternate Loading 

Sequences on Results fron Chicago Trip Distribution 
and /xssignnent Model," HRR, No. 114, 1966, pp. 122- 
140. (2b, 4, 6c). 



130. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

818. Solonon, R. J. "External Relations of the Port of Hobart, 

1804-1961,'^ AUSTRiiLIAN GEOGRi\PHER, Vol. 9, 1963, 
pp. 43-53. (3,7c). 

The port's historical developnent and hinterland and 
foreland connections, 

819. Soccers, Lavjrence M. "Distribution and Significance of 

the Foreign Trade Ports of Norway," EG, Vol. 36, 
October 1960, pp. 306-312. (6a, 7c). 

Coastal trade centers act as principal focal points 
of production and distribution. 

820. Sopher, David E, "Pilgrin Circulation in Gujarat," GR, 

Vol. 58, July 1968, pp. 392-425. (6b). 

A wide-ranging discussion of pilgrin traffic in Hindu 
holy places, considering the influences of caste, 
occupation, income, and the nature of the religious 
center on the spatial pattern of pilgrinages. 

821. Squibb, Glenn A. "Tailoring Rates and Service for Market 

Developnent," TRANSPORTATION JOURNAL, Vol. 5, Fall 1965, 
pp. 16-22. (8). 

An exanple using coal transportation by rail and lake 
vessel. 

822. Srinivasan, N. S. "Growing Traffic and Transportation 

Probleas in Indian Cities," TE, Vol. 37, July 1967, 
pp. 44-48. (4). 

823. Stabler, J. C. "Exports and Evolution: The Process of 

Regional Change," LE, Vol. 44, February 1968, pp. 11- 
23. (7b). 

The article gives an overview of location theory and 
regional developnent as they relate to exports. 

824. Stairs, Sonia. 'Selecting an Optical Traffic Network," 

JTEP, Vol. 2, May 1968, pp. 218-231, (2a, 5). 

Consideration of three network selection problens: 
optiv.:al methods, heuristic rules, and interactive 
conputing. 

825. Stanhagen, Uillian H. "Highway Interchanges and Land-Use 

Controls," HRBB 288, 1961, pp. 32-60. (7a, 8b). 

Land use controls as practiced in several states are 
extensively analyzed and evaluated. 



131. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324 -#32 5 

826. Stanley, Willian R. "Transport Expansion in Liberia," GR, 

Vol. 60, October 1970, pp. 529-547. (3,5c). 

Historical inspection of the developnsnt and expansion 
of the transport network, generally supporting the 
sequence of transport suggested by Taaffe, Morrill, 
and Gould. 

827. Statler, W. H. and R, A. Blay. "Role of the Rotary Wing 

in Future Short-Haul Transportation," HSGTJ, Vol. 2, 
May 1968, pp. 369-387. (6,8d). 

A wide-ranging discussion of V/STOL vehicles, consider- 
ing their potential inpact on travel tine, and on najor 
regions of the United States with short-haul trans- 
portation probleas. 

828. Stern, Stan. "Traffic Floxi; Data Acquisition Using Magnetic- 

Loop Vehicle Detectors," HRR, No. 154, 1967, pp. 38-52. 
(9). 

829. Stokes, Charles J. "The Freight Transport Systen of 

Colonbia, 1959," EG, Vol. 43, January 1967, pp. 71-90. 
(8). 

The transport systen is divided into sub-systens by 
node of transport and aj-eal unit. In an examination 
of attenpts by each areal unit to solve its transport 
problens, recent transport developnent is shown to be 
suv^erfluous to integration of the sub-systens. 

830. Stowers, Joseph R. and Ednund L. Kanwit. "The Use of 

Behavioral Surveys in Forecasting Transportation 
Requirecents," HRR, No. 106, 1966, pp. 44-51. (2b, 4, 6c), 

Indicates fanily characteristics, rather than distance 
and density variables, should be the najor variables 
studied in trip genaration analysis, 

831. Stronbon, Donald A. "Highway Planning in Ethiopia," TQ, 

Vol. 20, January 1966, pp. 147-156. (1,8b). 

832. Stroup, Robert H. , Louis A. Vargha, and Robert K. Main. 

"Predicting the Economic Inpact of Alternate Interstate 
Route Locations," HRBB 327, 1962, pp, 67-72. (5b, 7a). 

The effects of alternate highway routes on the location 
of highway-oriented business are projected for diffcrcnl: 
business types by connunity. Changes observed along an 
existing route are used as the basis for projecting. 
Conparisons are nade on the basis of access, visibility, 
developnent potential, advertising restrictions, and 
anticipated driver behavior. 



132. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

833. Stroup, Robert H, and Louis A. Vargha. "Econonic Inpact of 

Secondary Road Inproveuents , " HRR, No, 16, 1963, pp. 1- 
13. (7a). 

The effects of improved rural roads on the trading 
patterns of rural residents are exanined, indicating 
that road inprovenents lead to inter- and intra- 
county narket adjustnents, specialization of enter- 
prise, and concentration of business. 

834. Sturney, S. G. "National Shipping Policies," JOURN.U. OF 

INDUSTRL.L ECONOMICS, Vol. 14, November 1965, pp. 14- 
29. (1,8c). 

Rationale, methods, and effects of assisting shipping, 

835. Sturney, S, G. "Economics and International Liner Service," 

JTEP, Vol. 1, May 1967, pp. 190-203. (8c). 

"An examination of the system of conferences to control 
charges by cargo lines." 

836. Sullivan, Sheldon W. and C. E. Pyers. "Results of Use of 

Pre-Intetview Contacts in Pittsburgh," HRBB 297, 1961, 
pp. 42-51. (4,9). 

Pre-interviewing techniques as part of a hone-interview 
origin-destination survey help increase the accuracy of 
trip recording. 

837. Sullivan, Sheldon W. "Variations in Personal Travel Habits 

by Day of Week," HRR, No. 41, 1963, pp. 39-44. (4,6c). 

Due to large variations in traffic volune by day of 
week, by trip purpose, and node, it is suggested that 
0-D studies compensate for these variations in their 
sampling procedure. 

838. Surti, Vasant H. and Edward F. Gervais. "Peak Period Comfort 

and Service Evaluation of an Urban Freeway and an 
Alternate Surface Street," HRR, No. 157, 1967, pp. 144- 
178. (2a, 4). 

Galvanic skin response equipment is used to measure 
driver stress on a freeway and a parallel route. At 
peak periods the freeway generates more stress than 
the parallel route. 

839. Sutton, Robert M. "The Origins of iimerican Land-Grant 

Railroad Rates," BUSINESS HISTORY REVIEW, Vol. 40, 
1966, pp. 66-76. (8a). 



133. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

840. Sychrava, L. "Soe^e Thoughts on Feasibility Studies 

Occassioned by the Appraisal of Road Projects in 
Thailand," JTEP, Vol. 2, Septenber 1968, pp. 332-348. 
(7a, 7b). 

Discussion of "the selection and ranking of 124 projects, 
considering costs and benefits, likely increases in 
output, and the intangible social changes brought by a 
road to hitherto isolated villages." 

841. Sylven, Erik. "Traffic Forecasting: Concepts and Approaches, 

PRSA, Vol. 14, 1965, pp. 137-145. (2b, 4, 6c). 

The author briefly outlines and critically reviews the 
Cross-Fratar nethod of traffic projections, and then 
proposes an approach to a dynamic nodel using data fron 
Gothenburg, Sweden. 

842. Taaffe, Edward J. "Air Transportation and United States 

Urban Distribution," GR, Vol. 46, April 1956, pp. 219- 
238. (2b, 4, 6b). 

Analysis of the effects of urban size, function, 
proxinity to other cities, and railroad services on 
the air traffic of United States cities. 

843. Taaffe, Edward J. "Sone Recent Books on Transportation," 

I.AAG, Vol. 47, March 1957, pp. 100-103. (1). 

844. Taaffe, Edward J. "A Map Analysis of United States Air- 

line Conpetition," JOURNi\L OF AIR LAW AND COI«IMERCE, 
Vol. 25, 1958, pp. 121-147. (2,8d). 

845. Taaffe, Edward J. "Trends in Airline Passenger Traffic: 

A Geographical Case Study," AA^X, Vol. 49, Deceniber 
1959, pp. 393-408. (2a, 4, 5, 6b). 

A series of naps is examined for evidence of a re- 
lationship between air passenger growth rates and 
characteristics of individual routes. Resort travel, 
length of haul, and low coach fares. all affect pass- 
enger traffic. 

846. Taaffe, Edward J. "Traffic Flow in Berlin," GR, Vol. 51, 

April 1961, pp. 305-307. (4,dc). 

847. Taaffe, Edward J, "The Urban Hierarchy: ..n Air Pass- 

enger Definition," EG, Vol. 38, January 1962, pp. 1- 
14. (2b, 4, 6b). 

A conparision of the actual hierarchial pattern of air 
traffic with a theoretical hierarchy predicted by the 
gravity nodel. Air traffic is influenced by the 
increasing doainance of large centers, regional ties, 
and intensification of the hierarchical nature of 
inter-city linkages. 



134. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

848. Taaffe, Edward J,, Barry J. Garner, and Maurice H, Yeates. 

THE PERIPHER/\L JOURNEY TO WORK. Evanston, Illinois: 
Northwestern University Press, 1963. (2b, 4, 6c). 

Probability nodels, nodified fron population and dis- 
tance variables, are used to simulate conmuting to a 
west suburban part of the Chicago urban area. 

849. Taaffe, Edward J. "Pedestrian Conveyors in the United 

States,'' GR, Vol. 53, January 1963, pp. 132-133. (4). 

850. Taaffe, Edward J., Richard L. Morrill, and Peter R. Gould. 

"Transport Expansion in Underdeveloped Countries: A 
Conparative Analysis," GR, Vol. 53, October 1963, pp. 
503-529. (2a, 5c, 7b). 

A verbal model of a six phase ideal-typical sequence 
of transportation developrr.ent is described with 
particular reference to Ghana and Nigeria. 

851. Taaffe, Robert N. "Transportation and Regional Special- 

ization: The Exanple of Soviet Central Asia," Ai'iAG, 
Vol. 52, March 1962, pp. 80-98. (2a, 7b, 8a). 

Discussion of the expansion of rail transportation and 
its inpetus to regional developnent. Regional special- 
ization is considered a nore viable goal for develop- 
nent programs than regional self-sufficiency. 

852. Taaffe, Robert N. "Interregional Passenger Movement in the 

Soviet Union," EAST LAKES GECGR/IPHER, Vol. 3, 1967, 
pp. 47-79. (2b, 6b, 8a). 

Analysis of passenger flows with particular attention 
to inter-rcgional passenger novenent. The gravity 
nodel is used to predict flows and to analyze flov; 
variations, 

853. Tallany, Bertrara D. "The Interstate Highway Systen," 

TQ, Vol. 16, January 1962, pp. 95-102. (5,8b). 

A prediction of traffic systems in 1975 shows the 
routes needing expansion. 

854. Tan, T. "A Mathematical Model for Commuter Traffic in 

Satellite Tovms," TS, Vol. 1, February 1967, pp. 6-23. 
(2a, 4, 6c). 

Charts, diagrams, tables, and bibliography. 



135. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

855. Tanifji, Shozo. "Traffic and Transportation in the Capital 

Region of Japan," TE, Vol. 36, August 1966, pp. 58-63. 
(4,5,6). 

Discussion and naps of traffic flow, routes, and 
transport facilities, 

856. Thatch, Daynon, Stanley J. Hille, and Terence Brown. "A 

Plan for the Efficient Use of Washington's Area Airports,'' 
JOURNAL OF AIR LAW AND COMMERCE, Vol. 35, Spring 1969, 
pp. 204-215. (4,8d). 

857. Thiel, Floyd I. "Social Effects of Modern Highway Trans- 

portation," HRBB 327, 1962, pp. 1-20. (7a). 

Discussion of the influence of highway developnent on 
nobile and drive-in services, opportunities for 
enploynent, and residential characteristics. Public 
planning should include an exaaination of social in- 
fluences of highway developnent. 

858. Thiel, Floyd I. "Highway Interchange Area Developnent," 

HRR, No. 96, 1965, pp. 24-25. (8c). 

A conbination of land use controls utilizing police pov7er 
and erainent donain and joint planning by state and local 
officials is recomnended for highway interchange 
developnent. Review of results of prior inter- 
change studies, 

859. Thillainatagan, R. "Traffic Laprovenents in Madras," TQ, 

Vol. 18, July 1964, pp. 449-456. (4). 

860. Thonas, Benjauin E. "Modern Trans-Saharan Routes," GR, 

Vol. 42, April 1952, pp. 267-282, (5). 

Current air and notor transport routes, indicating the 
problens associated with desert travel. 

861. Thonas, Benjanin E. "The Railways of French Worth Africa," 

EG, Vol. 29, April 1953, pp. 95-106. (8a). 

While the railroads of Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco 
have nany sinilarities, contrasts between then pronote 
differential effects fron post World War II truck 
conpetition. 



136. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

862. Thonas, Benjamin E. "Methods and Objectives in Transportation 

Geography," PG, Vol. 8, July 1956, pp. 2-5. (1). 

Anerlcan uethods and objectives in the geography of 
transportation, both as a specialty and as a part of 
hunan geography, are exanined to see what 1 imitations 
they place upon the development of this field. Three 
luajor cethods are euphasized: (1) the neans of trans- 
portation, (2) the nature of the goods carried, and 
(3) the routes followed by the various types of trans- 
portation and the resulting patterns on the earth's surface, 

863. Thonas, Benjanin E. "Railways and Ports in French West 

Africa," EG, Vol. 33, January 1957, pp. 1-15. (7b, 7c, 8a). 

Currently the railroads are organized to encourage 
exports; interior developcent necessitates a re- 
organization of the transport structure. 

864. Thonas, E. and Frank E. Horton. FURTHER COIMiNTS ON THE 

ANALYSIS OF NON-EESIDENTIiJ. TRIP GENERATION. Evanston, 
Illinois: The Transportation Center, Northwestern 
University, 1966. (2,4). 

865. Thonas, E. N. and J. L. Schafer. "Expanded Models of Urban 

and Transportation Systens," HSGTJ, Vol. 1, May 1967, 
pp. 154-201. (2a,4). 

Presents a nodel of the urban systen and of the urban 
transportation systen, giving enphasis to the social 
and psychological aspects of urban systens. 

866. Thonas, Frank H. THE DENVER AND RIO GRANDE I^ESTERN 

Ri\ILROAD: A GEOGRiiPHIC ANALYSIS. Evanston, Illinois: 
Northwestern University Studies in Geography, No. 4, 
1960. (8a). 

The purpose of this study is to analyze for the year 
1956 the relationship between the actual traffic 
organization of selected cocnodities and the potential 
traffic of these cocnodities in the counties of the 
Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad hinterland and 
to describe with the aid of naps and actual origination 
and flow patterns of these cocnodities. 

867. Thonas, Frank H, "Soce Relationships between a Railroad 

and Its Region," TESG, Vol. 53, June-July 1962, 
pp. 155-161. (7,8a). 



137. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

868. Thonas, Frank H. "Evolution of Railroad Route -to-Route 

Relationships: L Case Study of the Denver and Rio 
Grande Western Railroad," JG, Vol. 62, Decenber 1963, 
pp. 389-396. (7,8a). 

Analysis of the functional relationships between a 
transport systen and the region it serves. 

869. Thonas, Frank H. "Railroads and Economic Growth in the 

United States," GR, Vol. 54, October 1964, pp. 579-580. 
(7b, 8a, 8c). 

Review of two studies questioning the assumption that 
railroads were a najor initator of economic growth, 

870. Thonas, Richard C. "The Effect of One-Way Traffic Operation 

on Retail Business," TE, Vol. 33, July 1968, pp. 44-48. 
(7a). 

871. Thonas, Thonas C. "Value of Tine for Connuting Motorists," 

HRR, No. 245, 1968, pp. 17-35. (5b, 6). 

Calculation of travel tine savings by estinating 
coefficients of toll and travel-tine variables in 
route choice nodels. Investigates a variety of factors 
affecting route choice, 

872. Thonpson, Bryan. "Recreational Travel: A Review and Pilot 

Study," TQ, Vol. 21, October 1967, pp. 527-542. (2b, 6b). 

Examination of methods used for analysis of recreational 
travel, including a pilot study of camper flow in 
Ontario, 

873. Tonazinis, Anthony R. "A New Method of Trip Distribution 

in an Urban Area," HRBB 347, 1962, pp. 77-99. (2b, 4, 6c). 

Simulation of trip interchanges with a model based on 
probability theory and certain aspects of the gravity 
model. Tests of the model indicate revision necessary. 

874. Tonazinis, Anthony R. and George V, Wickstron. "Forming a 

Comprehensive Transportation Flows Model," HRBB 347, 
1962, pp. 254-257. (2b, 4, 6c). 

An outline of the structure of a conprehensive model 
of traffic flow. 

875. Tonazinis, mthony R. "Modal Split Model in the Penn- 

Jersey Transportation Study Area,'' HRR, No. 165, 1967, 
pp. 41-75. (2b, 4). 



138. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

876. Tooazinis, Anthony R. "Objectives and Obstacles in Mass 

Transit Developnent ," HSGTJ, Vol. 1, Septenber 1967, 
pp. 364-377. (4). 

The Penn-Jersey Transportation Study indicates that the 
transportation planner nust first focus on the goals and 
objectives that each system nust meet, and then surnount 
the technical obstacles to developing an essentially 
modern transport system. 

877. Tonuma, Koichi. "The Network City," HSGTJ, Vol. 3, May 1969, 

pp. 203-219. (4). 

The prediction of a network city, a single urban complex, 
in Japan by the end of the 20th century. 

878. Treiterer, Joseph and James I. Taylor. "Traffic Flow 

Investigations by Photogramnetric Techniques," HRR, 
No. 142, 1966, pp. 1-12. (9). 

A method of measuring traffic movement in a way that is 
appropriate for the testing and validation of present 
theories of traffic flow. Accurate vehicle trajectories, 
and corresponding spacing and velocity data are obtained. 

879. Treweek, K. H. "Systems Analysis for the Management of 

North Atlantic Air Traffic over the Next Ten Years," 
ITJ, Vol. 32, September 1968, pp. 441-449. (5,6a). 

Characteristics of traffic flow are analyzed, flight 
paths are suggested, and the requirements of improved 
air traffic management are described. 

880. Truett, J. B. and A. J. Balek. "On the Need for a Definition 

of Demand for Transportation," HSGTJ, Vol. 2, Septenber 

1968, pp. 576-592. (1). 

A definition of demand should include those factors which 
motivate demand for transportation. An examination of 
the definitions of demand implied by current estimating 
and forecasting procedures indicates no comprehensive 
and adequate definition. 

881. Turton, B. J. "The Changing Transport Geography of the 

East Midlands," EAST MIDLAND GEOGRAPHER, Vol. 4, June 

1969, pp. 387-399. (1). 

A review of road and rail transport. 



139. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

882. Udy, Stanley H. , Jr. "Occupation, Counuting, and Linited 

Access Highway Use," HRBB 347, 1962, pp. 100-105. (4,6c). 

Occupation differentials of coonuters using a linited 
access highway. Sales, professional, and technical 
workers predoninently use the expressway. 

883. Ullnan, Edward L, "The Railroad Pattern of the United 

States," GR, Vol. 39, April 1949, pp. 242-256. (5b, 
6b, 8a). 

A classic discussion of traffic and route characteristics 
of American railways. 

884. Ullnan, Edward L. "Transportation Geography," AMERICAN 

GEOGRAPHY: INVENTORY AND PROSPECT. Preston Janes and 
C. Jones, editors, Syracuse, New York: Syracuse 
University Press, 1954, pp. 310-332. (1). 

The author presents one of the earliest modern 
articulations emphasizing the integrative role of 
transportation geography and the basis for interaction 
anong places on the earth. 

885. Ullnan, Edward L. "The Role of Transportation and the Basis 

for Interaction," in W. L. Thonas , editor, MAN'S ROLE 
IN CEPiNGING THE FACE OF THE EARTH, Chicago, Illinois: 
University of Chicago Press, 1956, pp. 862-880. (1,2). 

Classic methodological statement of transportation and 
spatial studies. 

886. Ullnan, Edward L. /.^RICAN COIMODITY FLOW. Seattle, 

Washington: University of Washington Press, 1957. 
(2, 6, 8a, 8c). 

This text contains a description and an interpretation, 
through text and naps, of railroad and water traffic 
flows in American domestic and foreign trade. 

887. Ullnan, Edward L. "Trade Centers and Tributary Areas of 

the Philippines," GR, Vol. 50, April 1960, pp. 203- 
218. (4,6b). 

A description of trade centers and tributary areas 
N indicates the Philippines distribution nost closely 
approaches Christaller's Ks4 arrangement. 

888. Van Ballegoyen de Jong, J. P. A. "Rail Transport in the 

Harbour Area of Rotterdam," IT J, Vol. 31, July 1965, 
pp. 174-177. (3, 7c, 8a). 

Very brief post-1945 history of the port with some 
discussion of the railroads. 



140. CPL Exchange BibliDgraphy #324 -#32 5 

889. Van Hoef, Robert F. "State and Local Highway Planning in 

Michigan," HRBB 293, 1961, pp. 40-44. (8b). 

General discussion of the highv/ay planning program. 

890. Vance, Janes E, "The Oregon Trail and Union Pacific 

Railroad: A Contrast in Purpose," iVu'iG, Vol. 51, 
December 1961, pp. 357-379. (8a). 

Conparison of motives for travel and the characteristics 
of the trail and railway. 

891. Vance, Janes E. "Housing the Worker: The Er.ployr.ient Linkage 

as a Force in Urban Structure," EG, Vol. 42, October 
1966, pp. 294-325. (4). 

A consideration of general principles of industrial 
structure, transportation, and the nature of worker 
housing, including a descriptive model of housing 
change and industrial growth, 

892. Vargha, Louis A. "Highway Bypasses, Natural Barriers and 

Connunity Growth in Michigan," HRBB 268, 1960, pp. 29- 
36. (4,7a). 

893. Varlanov, J. S. and N. N. Kazanskiy. "Forecast of Average 

Length of Haul on Soviet Railroads," SGRT, Vol. 4, 
: , September 1963, pp. 19-25. (7b, 8a). 

Based on analysis of rail bulk freight traffic, it is 
predicted that the average length of haul will be 
reduced over the next fifteen years. 

894. Varlanov, J. S. "Problems of Transport Development of the 

West Siberian Plain in Conjunctions with the Formation 
of a New Economic Complex in its Territory," SGRT, 
Vol. 10, June 1969, pp. 312-326. (7b, 8a). 

Railroad development is considered the optimal initial 
approach to the region's transport needs. 

895. Vasilevskiy, L. I. "Basic Research Problems in the Geography 

of Transportation of Capitalist and Underdeveloped 
Countries," SGRT, Vol. 4, September 1963, pp. 36-58. 
(1,2a). 

"The author discusses the subject of transport geography, 
develops formulas to measure the intensity of the geo- 
graphical division of labor, describes several population- 
nobility indices and their use as research tools and out- 
lines principles and criteria to be used in mapping the 
transportation of capitalist and underdeveloped count- 
ries." 



141. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

896. Vickrey, Willian S. "Pricing in Urban and Suburban Trans- 

port," AER, Vol. 53, May 1963, pp. 452-465. (4,6). 

The peak and off-peak pricing of autonotive trans- 
portation: nethods, reasons, and the resultant change 
in novenent patterns. 

897. Vickrey, Willian S. "Optinization of Traffic and Facilities," 

JTEP, Vol. 1, May 1967, pp. 123-136. (2a, 4). 

Efficiency nethods are proposed to icprove urban traffic 
congestion, predicted upon a differential pricing systen 
for using facilities. 

898. Vickrey, Willian S. "Congestion Theory and Transport Invest- 

cent," AER, Vol. 59, May 1969, pp. 251-260. (2a). 

Six types of congestion are identified. User costs 
of bottleneck congestion are discussed and graduated 
user tolls are suggested as a nethod to relieve 
congrestion. 

899. Voorhees, Alan M., Charles F. Barnes, Jr., and Francis E. 

Colenan. "Traffic Patterns and Land-Use Alternatives," 
347, 1962, pp. 1-9. (4,6c). 



Discussion of factors that influence trip length and 
nethods of reducing trip length. 

900. Voorhees, Alan M., Salvatore J. Bellons, Joseph L. Schafer, 

and Donald E. Cleveland. "Factors in Work-Trip Lengths," 
HRR, No, 141, 1966, pp. 24-26. (2a, 4, 6c). 

Authors discuss najor factors affecting the length of 
urban work-trips: Incone of trip naker, node of travel, 
the peak-hour travel characteristics, and the distribut- 
ion of euploynent opportunities, 

901. Vorob'yev, A. A. "Problens in the Location of Transportation 

in the Southern Part of Eastern Siberia," SGRT, Vol. 5, 
May 1964, pp. 3-12. (5). 

Discussion of "future developnent of a transport net 
for the Baykol region." 

902. Vuchic, Vukan. "The Role of Public Transportation in 

Hanburg, Gcrnany," TQ, Vol. 18, January 1964, pp. 118- 
140, (4). 

903. Wabe, J, S, "Dispersal of Enploynent and the Journey to 

Work: A Case Study," JTEP, Vol. 1, Septenber 1967, 
pp. 345-361. (4). 

Study of a firn's labor force in central London and 
later after suburbanization. 



142. CPL Exchange Bibliography mi\-ini5 

904. Wachs, Martin. "Relationships between Driver's Attitudes 

Toward .ilternate Routes and Driver and Route Chara- 
cteristics," HRR, No. 197, 1967, pp. 70-37. (5,6c). 

Factor analysis, canonical correlation, and inultiple 
correlation-regression are used. Different attitudes 
are related to the length of the trip and the importance 
of amenities. The trip-to-work route is influeced by 
the ease of access to the destination. 

905. Wachs, Martin, "A Survey of Citizens' Opinions of the 

Effectiveness, Needs, and Techniques of Urban Trans- 
portation Planning," HRR, No. 229, 1968, pp. 65-76. (4). 

The survey indicates people regard investment in trans- 
portation to be valuable and that there is a need for 
nore attention to questions of nass transit. Not much 
importance is attached to the beautif ication of trans- 
portation facilities and little interest in participation 
in the planning process is expressed, except where the 
respondent is directly affected by the proposed fac- 
ilities. Attitudes and opinions are related to socio- 
econoaic characteristics of the respondents. 

906. VJagner, F, A., Jr. and Adolf D. May, Jr. "Use of Aerial 

Photography in Freeway Traffic Operations Studies," 
HRR, No. 19, 1963, pp. 24-34. (9). 

The procedures for conducting aerial photographic 
I / , density studies and presentation of naps of data and 
mapping techniques. 

907. Waite, Graham G. "Techniques of Land Acquisition for Future 

Highway Needs," HRR, No. 8, 1963, pp. 60-81. (8b). 

The state's power to acquire highway rights-of-way and 
methods and probler:S of financing such acquisitions. 
Problems of acquisition in rural, suburban, urban cities 
are discussed with reference to specific states. 

908. Walker, John R. "Social Status of Head of Household and 

Trip Generation from Home," HRR, No. 114, 1966, pp. 
141-151. (2a, 4, 6c). 

The number of trips generated in a hone is positively 
correlated with social status of the head-of -household, 
number of cars used by the household, and the number of 
people in the household. 

909. Walker, John R, "Rank Classification: A Procedure for 

Determining Future Trip Enas," HRR, No. 240, 1968, 
pp. 88-99. (2a, 4, 6c). 

The use of rank correlation techniques to examine the 
relationship of several socio-economic variables and 
several categories of trip purposes. 



143. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

910. Wallace, Willian H. "Railroad Traffic Densities and 

Patterns," ^^JG, Vol. 48, Decenber 1958, pp. 352-374. 
(5, 6, 8a). 

Presentation at the regional and national level of rail 
traffic Jensity and flow patterns. 

911. Wallace, Willian H, "Freight Traffic Functions of Anglo- 

Anerican Railroads," AAAG, Vol. 53, Septeaber 1963, 
pp. 312-331. (5,6,8a). 

On the basis of freight traffic, railroads are classified 
as internal traffic, originating traffic, terninating 
traffic, bridge line, or balanced traffic railways. 

912. Wallace, Willian H. "The Bridge Line: A Distinctive Type 

of Anglo-Anerican Railroad," EG, Vol. 41, January 1965, 
pp. 1-38. (6,8a). 

Aggregation of "bridge-lines" into eight regional groups 
and analysis in terns of connodity flow, and percent of 
internal, originating, terriinating, and bridge traffic 
functions , 

913. Walnsley, Mildred M. "The Bygone Electric Interurban Railway 

Systen," FG, Vol. 17, May 1965, pp. 1-6. (3,8a). 

This paper presents an historical account of the rapid 
development and decline of the electric interurban 
railv/ay systen in the East and Midwest of the U.S. 
A discussion is also included of how the interurban 
pronoted the expansion of narkets for locally grown 
produce and opened up the cultural opportunities of 
the city for rural residents living on or near the 
right-of-vjay. 

914. Walters, Alan A, "A Developnent Model of Transport," /^ER, 

Vol. 58, May 1968, pp. 360-377. (2a, 5b, 7a). 

Presents a sinple nodel which considers the effects 
of transport investments on link development. 

915. Ward, David. ''A Coiiparative Historical Geography of Street 

Car Suburbs in Boston, Massachusetts, and Leeds, England: 
1850-1920," Ai\i\G, Vol. 59, Decenber 1964, pp. 477-480. 
(3,4). 

The conparison indicates that different conditions and 
chronologies of urban growth are responsible for dis- 
sinilarities in the street car suburbs. 



144. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

916. Ward, Marion iJ. "The Distribution of Motor Spirit in New 

Zealand," NEW ZEALAND GEOGR.'.PHER, Vol. 19, 1963, pp. 126- 
141. (6). 

Treatment of iuports, distribution, and significance of 
petroleun. 

917. Ward, Marion W. "Port Swettenhan and its Hinterland, 

1900-1950, ■■ JOURNAL OF TROPICAL GEOGRiiPHY, Vol. 19, 
Decenber 1964, pp. 69-78. (7c). 

Historical growth of the port and its hinterland, v/ith 
enphasis on the econouic aspects, 

918. Ward, Marion W. -'Progress in Transport Geography," in 

Ronald V. Cooke and Janes H. Johnson, editiors, TRENDS 
IN GEOGRAPHY: AN INTRODUCTORY SURVEY. London, England: 
Pergamon Press, 1969, pp. 164-172. (1,5). 

J. brief review emphasizing studies of network analysis 
designed for the teacher and introductory student. 

919. Warner, Larkin, ''Railroad Rates and the Groi-zth of Coal 

Trucking in Ohio," LE, Vol. 38, August 1962, pp. 231- 
239. (8a, 8b). 

920. Warntz, Williaa. "Transportation, Social Physics, and the 

Law of Refraction," PG, Vol. 9, 1957, pp. 2-7. (2,5,6). 

921. Warntz, Willian. "Transatlantic Flights and Pressure 

Patterns," GR, Vol. 51, April 1961, pp. 187-212. (2,5). 

A discussion of airline routes indicates the nathenatical 
and graphical techniques used in planning least-tine 
paths for cir traffic. 

922. Warren, K. "The Sheffield Rail Trade, 1861-1930: An 

Episode in the Locational History of the British Steel 
Industry," TRANSACTIONS: INSTITUTE OF BRITISH GECGRi'i- 
PHERS, No. 34, 1964, pp. 131-157. (3,8a). 

An intensive case study linking the characteristics of 
rail trade to broader changes in the English econony. 

923. Watson, J. W. "Geography — A Discipline in Distance," 

SCOTTISH GEOGR^'iPHICX M/\G/^INE, Vol. 71, 1955, pp. 1- 
13. (1). 

Discussion of the important role of distance, its 
different neasurenents and significance. 



145. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

924. Wattlevjorth, Joseph A. and Willian A. McCasland. "Study 

Techniques for Planning Free\7ay Surveillance and 
Control," HRR, No. 99, 1965, pp. 200-223. (5,9). 

Entrance ranp origin-destination studies, input-output 
studies of closed freeway sub-systens, aerial photography, 
and input-output studies of initial intersections are 
discussed as aids to planning freeway networks. 

925. Watts, H. D. "The Inland Waterways of the United Kingdom 

in the 1960's," EG, Vol. 43, October 1967, pp. 303- 
313. (8c). 

A general discussion of water transport and watervjays 
on which use is restricted, 

926. Weaver, Robert C. "The Federal Interest in Urban Mass 

Transportation," TQ, Vol. 17, January 1963, pp. 24-32. 
(4,8). 

Federal interest is based on effective land use, health 
of core cities and their suburbs, the vitality of the 
CBD, since the shape of urban areas depend upon the 
transportation structure, 

927. Webb, G. R. "The Changing Role of Australian Coastal 

Shipping," G, Vol. 48, November 1963, pp. 414-417. 
(6,8c). 

Brief discussion of decline in passenger and general 
cargo traffic and the expansion of bulk cargo traffic, 

928. Webber, Melvin M. "Transportation Planning Model," TQ, 

Vol. 15, July 1961, pp. 373-390, (2a). 

Weaknesses of static-descriptive models as contrasted 
with the advantages of dynamic-behavioral approaches. 

929. Wehner, B. "Proposals for the Solution of Traffic Problems 

in Towns," ERISTICS, Vol. 21, April 1966, pp. 225-229. 
(4). 

930. Weigend, Guido G. "Bordeaux: An Example of Changing Port 

Functions," GR, Vol. 45, April 1955, pp. 217-243. (7c). 

A description of port genesis and functions. 

931. Weigend, Guido G. "The Problem of Hinterland and Foreland 

as Illustrated by the Port of Hamburg," EG, Vol. 32, 
January 1956, pp. 1-16, (7c). 

A discussion of the concepts hinterland and foreland, 
transportation problems, and port traffic. 



146. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

932. Weigend, Guido G. "Sone Elements in the Study of Port 

Geography,'^ GR, Vol. 48, April 1958, pp. 185-200. (7c). 

The concepts of port, carrier, cargo, hinterland, fore- 
land, and naritiLie space are analyzed systenatically. 

933. Weiner, Edv7ard. "Modal Split Revisited," TQ, Vol. 23, 

January 1969, pp. 5-29. (2b). 

Types of transit estimating procedures are discussed, 
along with recent developments in nodal split procedures. 

934. Weiner, Melvin M. "Directional Traffic Flow," TQ, Vol. 20, 

October 1966, pp. 589-615. (2,5,6). 

Using topological concepts, unidirectional traffic flow 
in a road network of arbitrary geonetry is determined, 
■^ ■ "Some of the differences between topological graphs and 
directional flow graphs are reviewed." 

935. Wendt, Paul F. "Influence of Transportation Changes on 

Urban Land Uses and Values," HRBB 268, 1960, pp. 95- 
■ ' '■ 104. (7). 

Reviev7 of theories of urban land values, with particular 
reference to the effects of transportation changes on 
land values. Summary of urban land value trends and 
new approaches to studies of the influence of trans- 
portation on urban land uses and values. 

936. Werner, Christian. "The Role of Topology and Geometry 

in Optimal Network Design," PRSA, Vol. 21, 1968, pp. 
173-190. (5a, 5b, 5c). 

This paper evaluates the interrelationship that holds, 
under idealized conditions, betx.-een the spatial design 
of a netvjork and the joint costs of its construction 
and operation; and the effects of bundling are studied 
and used to adjust any given network with regard to 
its spatial design until the total costs assume a 
mininuo. A major result of the study is the finding 
that, if flow declines at least linearly with distance, 
the ninimun cost solution is a network of minimum 
length. 



147. CPL Exchange Bibliography ,"^324 -#325 

937. Werner, Christian. "The Law of Refraction in Transportation 

Geography: Its Multivariate Extension," CG, Vol. 12, 
1968, pp. 2G-40. (5). 

Considers a nore general fern of the problem proposed by 
Von Stackleburg by dividing a region into any finite 
number of honogeneous sub-regions. Presents an 
algorithm which identifies the path of nininun total 
costs between two point locations and a technique for 
plotting the path directly fron a nap showing these 
cost sub-regions. 

938. Werner, Christian. "Networks of Mininun Length, " CG, Vol. 

13, 1969, pp. 47-69. (5). 

Treats the problen of detemining network configuration 
which interconnects a given set of nodes in a 
honogeneous plane and is of nininun length. 

939. Wernstedt, Frederick L. "Cebu: Focus of Philippine Inter- 

state Trade," EG, Vol. 32, October 1956, pp. 336-346. 
(3,7c). 

A case study which outlines the port's historical 
developrient, inter- is land trade patterns, and export 
trade. 

940. Whalen, Joseph T. and Thonas H. Flynn. "The Truck Cones 

First," HRR, No. 217, 1968, pp. 28-40. (8b). 

Describes service facilities and reconnends nore 
efficient service areas, 

941. ^Jhebell, C.F.J. "Corridors: A Theory of Urban Systens," 

AAAG, Vol. 59, March 1969, pp. 1-26, (1,3). 

Uses Southern Ontario as an illustration of principles 
of corridor theory, discussed in five stages of 
developnent. 

942. Wheeler, Janes 0, "The Transportation Model and Changing 

Hone-Work Location," FG, Vol. 19, May 1967, pp. 144- 
148. (2,4,6c). 

The paper presents two applications of the normative 
transportation nodel under different spatial structures 
of hone and work. The first traces journey-to-work 
changes resulting frou different locational arrange- 
ments of hone and work in a hypothetical city. The 
second, based on Pittsburgh data, neasures first the 
effect of work-trips by modifying residential locations 
and secondly by nodifying only workplace distributions. 



148. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

943. Wheeler, Jar.es 0. "Work-Trip Length and the Ghetto," LE, 

Vol. 44, February 1968, pp. 107-112. (4,6c). 

The role of the Negro ghettos in Pittsburgh on Negro 
travel patterns. 

944. Wheeler, Jair.es 0. "Sone Effects of Occupational Status on 

Work-Trips,'' JRS, Vol. 9, April 1969, pp. 69-78. (2a, 
4,6c). 

Multiple correlation and regression are used to examine 
the relationship between status of traveler and distance 
traveled. 

945. Wheeler, Janes 0. "Transport Inputs and Residential Rent 

Theory," GA, Vol. 2, January 1970, pp. 43-54. (2,4,6c). 

The postulate of residential rent theory that transport 
inputs vary positively with status holds in general in 
Tulsa, although work-trips cannot be explained sinply 
by this transport postulate. 

946. Wheeler, Janes 0. "The Structure of Metropolitan Work-Trips ^ 

PG, Vol. 22, May 1970, pp. 152-158. (2,4,6c). 

The linkage-structure of work-trips in Tulsa analyzed 
by origin and destination zones is described by a 
snail nunber of independent factors fron a factor- 
analytic solution. The importance of centrality in 
urban organization is incorporated in several of the 
factors. The attractive power of destinations 
seens to increase with an increase in centrality of 
location and size of labor force employed, 

947. VJheeler, P. T. "The Developaent of Shipping Services to the 

East Coast of Sutherland," JTH, Vol. 6, November 1963, 
pp. 110-116. (3,8c). 

948. IJhite, H. P. "New Ports in Dahoney and Togo," G, Vol. 46, 

April 1961, pp. 160-163. (7c). 

Report on shipping potential. 

949. White, H. P. "The Movement of Export Crops in Nigeria," 

TESG, Vol. 54, November 1963, pp. 248-252. (6b). 

950. VJhite, H. P. "London's Rail Teminals and Their Suburban 

Traffic: A Geographic Appraisal of the Connuter 
Problem," GR, Vol. 54, July 1964, pp. 347-365. (3,4,6c). 

Presents a history of connuter traffic and commuting 
patterns. 



149. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324 -#325 

951. VJhite, H. P. "The Rapid Transit Revival— A Conparative 

Review of Overseas Practice,'' US, Vol. 4, June 1967, 
pp. 137-148. (8). 

Review of technology and finance of rapid transit in 
North Anerica and Europe. 

952. Whiteside, Robert E., C. Larry Cothran, and Willian M 

Kean. "Intercity Traffic Projections," HRR, No. 205, 
1967, pp. 110-135. (2,4,6c). 

Using 0-D for Arizona and Illinois, growth factors are 
developed to project traffic to 1985 levels. 

953. VJhittington, G. "The Swaziland Railway," TESG, Vol. 57, 

March-April 1966, pp. 68-73. (8a). 

954. Wiant, Rex H. "A Simplified Method for Forecasting Urban 

Traffic," HRBB 297, 1961, pp. 128-145. (2b,4,6c). 

Presents the technique used in forecasting 1980 traffic 
VDlunes in selected Iowa cities, based on population 
and land use data, 

955. Widdison, J, G, "Mexico's Transsierran Railroad," GR, 

Vol. 51, July 1961, pp. 429-430. (8a). 

956. Wiens, Harold J. "Riverine and Coastal Junks in China's 

CoLTT-erce," EG, Vol. 31, July 1955, pp. 248-264, (6). 

Exanines Chinese junk traffic and its centers of activity 
and evaluates the traffic's regional and national sign- 
ificance to connunist China. 

957. Williams, Anthony and Wilber Zelinsky. "On Soue Patterns 

in International Tourist Flows," EG, Vol. 46, October 
1970, pp. 549-567. (6a). 

An attempt to uncover najor patterns of flow anong 
selected countries which Joninate the international 
tourist market. 

958. Williams, Ernest W. , Jr. FREIGHT TR^U-JSPORTATION IN THE 

SOVIET UNION. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton 
University Press, 1962. (1,6,7,8). 

This text surveys the structure, growth, and node of 
operations of Soviet transportation. The primary 
objective is to assess Soviet performance in moving 
freight. 



150. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

959. Wilson, A. G. "Inter-regional Connodity Flows: Entropy 

Maximizing Approaches," GA, Vol. 2, July 1970, pp. 255- 
282. (2,6b). 

A whole fanily of gravity nodels are derived by applying 
entropy naxiaizing principles; inter-regional input- 
output equations are treated as constants, and "a nunber 
of integrated gravity and input-output nodels are 
denonstrated." 

960. Wilson, George W, "The Nature of Conpetition in the Motor 

Transport Industry," LE, Vol. 36, Novenber 1960, pp. 387- 
391. (8b). 

Various opinions on conpetition and Federal controls. 

961. Wilson, George W. "Case Studies of Effect of Roads on 

Developnent," HRR, No. 115, 1966, pp. 10-18. (7a). 

Specific studies in Latin America and Asia are sumarized, 
Road developnent is construed to be in response to 
developnent already in progress or a partial initator 
of developnent. Increased transportation capacity is 
not considered a causative agent of developnent in a 
relatively static or deteriorating situation. 

962. Wilson, George W. "Transportation and Price Stability," . 

AER, Vol, 59, May 1969, pp. 261-269. (1,7). 

963. Wingo, Lowden and Harvey S. Perloff. "The Washington Trans- 

portation Plan: Technics or Politics," PRSA, Vol. 7, 
1961, pp. 249-262. (4). 

The paper develops around the Washington Plan as a back- 
ground for the elaboration of the idea of a broad systens 
approach to urban transportation planning. The thene 
advanced in the paper is that the choice of a trans- 
portation systen is the core developnental decision that 
the netropolitan region can nake and that there are 
peculiar characteristics of this decision which have 
special inplications for netropolitan planning. 

964. Wingo, Lowden. TRANSPORTATION AND URBAN LAND. Washington, 

D.C.: Resources for the Future, Inc., 1964. (2,4,7). 

The author presents nathenatical nodels relating 
accessibility and land use; the study also denonstrates 
the role of internal transportation in ordering the 
urban studies. 



151. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

965. Wise, M. J. "The Inpact of a Channel Tunnel on the Planning 

of South-Eastern England," GEOGRi\PHICAL JOURANL, Vol. 13, 
June 1965, pp. 167-184. (7). 

The channel tunnel appears to reinforce the circunstances 
that are leading to the growth of the "servicing" 
industries in London and to increase the econonic dis- 
equilibriun between the South-east and the North and 
West. 

966. Witheford, David K. "Traffic Assignnent Analysis and 

Evaluation," HRR, No. 6, 1963, pp. 1-11. (2a, 4, 6c). 

Criterion for viable traffic assignnent analysis with 
reference to the Pittsburgh Area Transportation Survey. 

967. Wohl, Martin. "Deaand, Cost, Price and Capacity Relationships 

Applied to Travel Forecastin3," HRR, No. 38, 1963, pp. 
40-54. (2b, 6). 

Presents a general forn of travel forecasting which 
incorporates feedback aechanisns affecting traffic 
volune and tine and route capacity. Describes price, 
volune, and denand relationships for fixed and changing 
capacity systens, 

968. Wohl, Martin. "Costs of Urban Transport Systens of Varying 

Capacity and Service," HRR, No. 64, 1964, pp. 1-70. 
(2,4,6c). 

The cost of services to work-trip comnuters is analyzed 
extensively. Residential collection, line-haul, and 
dowiitown distribution costs per passenger trip for 
principal transport nodes associated with urban, radial, 
CBD-oriented facilities are exanined. This analysis 
demonstrates a franework for conducting cost analyses 
and using the results for decision naking. 

969. Wohl, Martin, and Brian V. Martin. "Methods of Evaluating 

Alternative Road Projects," JIEP, Vol. 1, January 1967, 
pp. 28-45. (5,7). 

A critical evaluation of four nethods of road investment: 
annual cost, benefit-cost ratio, rate-of-return, and net 
present nethods, the latter of which is considered 
preferable. 

970. Wohl, Martin. "Notes on Transient Queuing Behavior, Capacity 

Restraint Functions, and Their Relationship to Travel 
Forecasting," PRSA, Vol. 21, 1968, pp. 191-202. (2,4,6). 



152. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-^r'325 

971. Wolfe, Roy I. "Contributions fron Geography to Urban 

Transportation Research," HRBB 326, 1962, pp. 46-68. 
(1,4). 

Discussion of spatial concepts applicable to urban 
transportation theory, of central place theory, and of 
cartographic techniques. 

972. Wolfe, Roy I. "Transportation and Politics: The Exanple 

of Canada," iJu^G, Vol. 52, June 1962, pp. 176-190. (7). 

The North-South geographic axis, and the East-West 
political axis of North America are conpared to deno- c: 
nstrate the political-geographic influence affecting 
the transport systems of Canada and the United States. 

973. Wolfe, Roy I. TRANSPORTATION AND POLITICS. Princeton, New 

Jersey: D. Van Nostrand Co., Inc., 1963. (7). 

Where transportation itself is at the center of interest, 
it is inevitably the economics of transportation that is 
discussed, with the implication that once this is under- 
stood, transportation is understood. In the present 
text, transportation is the center of interest, but its 
economic relations enter only when they have political 
significance. It is the political implications of 
transportation that are treated in this text. 

974. Wolfe, Roy I. "Land Use and Transportation," CG, Vol. 7, 

1963, pp. 148-149. (7). 

975. Wolfe, Roy I. "Effect of Ribbon Development on Traffic Flow,' 

TQ, Vol. 18, January 1964, pp. 105-117. (7a). 

Treats "desirable and undesirable" effects with data 
from Ontario. 

976. Wolfpert, Julian, "The Basis for Stability of Interregional 

Transactions," GA, Vol. 1, April 1969, pp. 152-180. 
(2,6b). 

Focuses on a series of questions involving migration 
stability V7hich have implications for regional 
development, 

977. Wood, Donald F. "The Distances-Traveled Technique for 

Measuring Value of Recreation Areas: An Application," 
LE, Vol, 37, November 1961, pp. 363-369, (6). 

Study in Wisconsin of boating facilities. 

978. Woods, K. B. and R. F. Leggett. "Transportation and Economic 

Potential in the Arctic," TQ, Vol. 14, October 1960, 
pp. 435-453. (1). 



153. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

979. Woodward, George A. "The New Italian autostrade Network," 

G, January 1963, Vol. 48, pp. 68-70. (5,7). 

Outlines progress on construction of this United access 
highway systea. Speculates on changes in Italian 
nanufacturing which nay result. 

980. Wootton, H. J. and G. W. Pick. "A Model for Trips Generated 

by Households," JTEP, Vol. 1, May 1967, pp. 137-153. 
(2,4,6c). 

Presentation of nethods of trip volunes and the role of 
household attributes in the trip generation nodel. 

981. Wright, Paul H. "Traffic, Traffic Generators in the Central 

Business District," TE, Vol. 35, March 1965, pp. 23-24 
and 46. (4,6,7). 

Exanines land use changes in the CBD and their effect 
on traffic, 

982. VJright, Paul H. "Relationships of Traffic and Floor Space 

Use in Central Business District," HRR, No. 114, 1966, 
pp. 152-168. (2,4,6c). 

Multiple correlation-regression analysis indicates 
traffic flow to the CBD is nost closely related to 
floor-space use classifications of retail sales, 
services, office, and public establishments . 

983. Wright, Winthrop R. "Foreign-Owned Railways in Argentina: 

A Case Study of Econonic Nationalism," BUSINESS HISTORY 
REVIEW, Vol. 71, 1967, pp. 62-93. (8a). 

984. Wynn, F. Houston and C. Eric Linder. "Tests of Inter- 

actance Fornulas Derived fron 0-D Data," HRBB 253, 
1960, pp. 62-85. (2b,4,6c). 

An extensive discussion of interactance fornulas and 
their reliability. Test of the fornulas indicated 
their ability to predict the total volune of vehicle 
niles on selected urban expressways within 10 percent 
of the actual volune. 

985. Wynn, F. Houston, "Who Makes the Trips? Notes on an 

Exploratory Investigation of One-Worker Households in 
Chattanooga," HRR, No. 75, 1964, pp. 34-91. (4,6). 

Trip characteristics indicates total trips for workers 
increase as fanily size and the nunber of vehicles owned 
increases. Work-day length is inversely related to the 
worker's total nunber of trips. 



154. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

986. l/ynn, F. Houston, and Herbert B. Levinson. "Sone Considerations 

in Appraising Bus Transit Potentials," HRR, No. 197, 
1967, pp. 1-24. (4). 

An analysis of potential development of bus transit in 
nediuu-size urban areas, with reference to population 
characteristics, land use, and the opportunity to 
utilize alternated forns of personal transport. The 
study suggests new concepts in transit are required, 

987. Yanada, Masao. "Urban Development and Expressways in Tokyo," 

HRR, No. 169, 1967, pp. 30-36. (4). 

988. Yapa, Lakshnan, Mario Polese, and Julian Wolpert. "Inter- 

dependence of Coaauting, Migration, and Job-Site 

Selection," EG, Vol. 47, January 1971, pp. 59-72. (2,4,5c). 

''Exanines the interdependence of residential and 
euploynent nobility, both in terns of the nicro-analytic 
nover-stayer decision and the nacro problen of national 
and regional investment allocation criteria." 

989. Yaseen, David U. "The British Motorway," TQ, Vol. 19, 

July 1965, pp. 413-427. (8b). 

A description of the inter- and intrastate freaways in 
Great Britain. 

990. Yaseen, David W. "The Interstate Connercial Zone: An 

Industrial Location Factor," LE, Vol. 42, February 
1966, pp. 107-112. (1,7). 

Currently existing ICC zones and proposed new zonation 
concepts. 

991. Yates, Barbara A. "Railroads and Waterways of Africa," JG, 

Vol. 60, March 1961, pp. 120-134. (8a, 8c). 

Exanination of rail and water networks enphasizing 
the lack of an integrated transport complex. 

992. Yeates, Maurice. "Hinterland Delinitation: A Distance 

Mininizing ^^pproach," PG, Vol. 15, January 1963, pp. 
7-10. (2). 

This paper treats the situation where a researcher wishes 
to construct hinterlands based upon optinal criteria 
and to compare the result with "real world" observation. 



155. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

993. Yeates, Maurice. "A Note Concerning the Developnent of a 

Geographic Model of International Trade," GA, Vol. 1, 
October 1969, pp. 399-403. (2b, 6a). 

"Denonstrates that the volune of trade between countries 
can be explained by a nodification of the gravity nodel." 

994. Yegrova, V. V. "The Econoaic Effectiveness of the 

Construction of Pioneering Railroads in Newly Developed 
Areas," SGRT, Vol. 5, April 1964, pp. 46-55. (7,8a). 

Analysis of "econonic benefits derived fron the 
construction of Lena Railroad in terns of savings of 
transport costs conpared with previous transport routes 
and in terns of the contribution nade to the national 
econony by the developnent and settlenent of the area 
served by the railroad." 

995. Yordon, Wesley J. "Regulation of Intercity Bus Fares: The 

Problen of Cost Analysis," LE, Vol. 44, May 1968, 
pp. 245-253. (8b). 

The article describes existing practices in the regulation 
of bus fares, and points out large loopholes which 
result fron this defect. 

996. Zabonski, Bogdan. "A Snooth-Flov? Street Pattern for 

Metropolis," PG, Vol. 14, January 1962, pp. 29-33. 
(4,5,6). 

The ain of this paper is to introduce a totally new 
concept in the design of an optinun urban street grid, 
and to point out its advantages as a neans of 
facilitating the flow of city traffic, 

997. Zaidi, Igtidar H. "Measuring the Locational Conplenentarity 

of Central Places in West Pakistan: A Macro-geographic 
Franework," EG, Vol. 44, July 1968, pp. 218-239. (4,6). 

Considers connuting distances, narket potential, 
transport situational and conmunication patterns in 
measuring advantages and disadvantages of central 
places. 

998. Zaytsen, I. F. "A Territorial Model of Productive Forces," 

SGRT, Vol. 10, November 1969, pp. 507-522. (6,7). 

A territorial nodel of production is constructed on the 
basis of regional units and four prelininary nodels which 
describe a single product industry, transport flows, 
a regional unit, and the decision of labor anong regional 
units . 



156. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

999. Zell, Charles E. "San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge Trans -Bay 
Bus Riders Survey," HRR, No. 114, 1966, pp. 169-182. 
(4,3c). 

The survey indicates changes in enploynent and residence 
caused shifts in bus patronage, and the initiation of an 
exclusive bus lane did not cause a major increase in bus 
patronage or a reduction in auto traffic on the bridge. 

1000. Zwick, Charles J. "The Denand for Transportation Service in 
a Grov7ing Econony," HRR, No. 2, 1963, pp. 3-5. (7). 

Most future econonic growth is expected to be rooted in 
factors outside of the transportation industry. Major 
influences in future transportation requirements are 
changing industrial nix, a larger proportion of incone 
spent on amenities, and the purchasing of goods and 
services that increase the denand for transport facilities. 



157. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

B. Topical Index 

1. General 

11, 19, 24, 25, 28, 29, 37, 39, 43, 44, 48, 61, 92, 108, 115, 

127, 129, 138, 145, 155, 159, 168, 170, 190, 193, 199, 200, 201, 

214, 215, 229, 230, 238, 249, 274, 275, 281, 283, 289, 303, 304, 

328, 332, 334, 346, 349, 360, 377, 381, 384, 396, 412, 413, 420, 

441, 474, 493, 513, 520, 545, 546, 565, 575, 578, 580, 581, 584, 

604, 611, 616, 621, 624, 632, 638, 640, 643, 649, 650, 651, 671, 

675, 678, 680, 684, 595, 710, 737, 753, 783, 797, 816, 831, 834, 

843, 862, 880, 881, 884, 885, 895, 918, 923, 941, 958, 962, 971, 

978, 990. 

2. Theoretical - Conceptual 

1, 2, 21, 45, 47, 59, 62, 93, 103, 159, 163, 164, 227, 273, 276, 

277, 280, 341, 347, 409, 426, 427, 428, 445, 449, 477, 517, 526, 

528, 549, 552, 573, 595, 600, 606, 623, 631, 634, 642, 643, 645, 

647, 653, 674, 714, 722, 724, 728, 739, 754, 758, 764, 767, 779, 

781, 806, 811, 844, 864, 885, 386, 920, 921, 934, 942, 945, 946, 

952, 959, 964, 968, 970, 976, 980, 982, 988, 992. 

2a. General 

7, 12, 16, 20, 24, 27, 32, 34, 46, 49, 51, 63, 68, 74, 76, 78, 

79, 80, 82, 85, 86, 89, 90, 91, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 114, 

118, 125, 140, 142, 148, 153, 165, 182, 183, 184, 191, 202, 204, 

206, 213, 228, 252, 267, 272, 274, 275, 279, 282, 284, 285, 287, 

288, 292, 303, 305, 306, 314, 319, 338, 339, 345, 350, 352, 369, 

370, 374, 386, 389, 390, 392, 393, 394, 398, 405, 418, 419, 430, 

431, 433, 435, 436, 437, 442, 447, 448, 450, 453, 473, 478, 481, 

490, 491, 494, 505, 510, 524, 537, 545, 546, 550, 553, 577, 582, 

587, 589, 590, 593, 594, 597, 603, 608, 609, 610, 627, 633, 669, 

682, 683, 688, 697, 702, 709, 720, 733, 746, 748, 750, 755, 782, 

788, 802, 804, 805, 809, 810, 824, 838, 345, 850, 851, 854, 865, 

895, 897, 898, 900, 908, 909, 914, 928, 944, 966. 

2b. Travel Models 

22, 26, 52, 54, 58, 67, 75, 84, 96, 121, 126, 137, 141, 160, 161, 

173, 176, 180, 197, 205, 216, 217, 218, 219, 220, 221, 222, 233, 

235, 254, 256, 260, 291, 307, 325, 329, 331, 340, 344, 351, 353, 

355, 356, 367, 368, 400, 401, 402, 407, 408, 410, 414, 415, 416, 

417, 421, 424, 425, 432, 476, 479, 480, 523, 556, 596, 613, 618, 

644, 693, 700, 701, 735, 749, 766, 773, 774, 775, 794, 795, 817, 

830, 841, 842, 847, 848, 852, 872, 873, 874, 875, 933, 954, 967, 
984, 993. 

3. Historical 

3, 6, 23, 33, 65, 73, 80, 106, 115, 119, 122, 134, 159, 166, 208, 

211, 224, 247, 250, 259, 299, 342, 349, 359, 382, 422, 439, 458, 

460, 472, 475, 482, 495, 514, 529, 531, 547, 548, 564, 570, 574, 

619, 625, 640, 650, 659, 660, 670, 677, 682, 694, 705, 706, 718, 

720, 729, 737, 743, 760, 792, 803, 818, 826, 888, 913, 915, 922, 



158. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324 -#32 5 

4. Urban 

1, 2, 14, 20, 22, 26, 27, 28, 30, 35, 40, 48, 49, 52, 53, 61, 64, 
66, 67, 68, 69, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 30, 81, 82, 84, 89, 90, 91, 
94, 97, 109, 115, 120, 121, 124, 125, 130, 131, 132, 136, 138, 

141, 146, 149, 150, 151, 156, 160, 161, 164, 169, 172, 177, 178, 

180, 183, 184, 185, 190, 191, 192, 193, 195, 197, 198, 199, 202, 

205, 206, 208, 209, 214, 228, 230, 236, 237, 238, 239, 240, 242, 

243, 248, 251, 252, 254, 256, 264, 266, 268, 269, 270, 271, 281, 

283, 286, 288, 291, 295, 297, 298, 302, 305, 306, 307, 309, 311, 

318, 320, 327, 328, 329, 330, 335, 336, 338, 340, 344, 345, 346, 

347, 350, 352, 353, 355, 356, 357, 364, 367, 368, 369, 370, 372, 

373, 374, 376, 377, 378, 379, 380, 384, 385, 389, 390, 391, 392, 

393, 394, 395, 399, 400, 401, 402, 406, 414, 415, 416, 417, 418, 

421, 422, 425, 430, 432, 436, 437, 438, 440, 442, 444, 445, 446, 

447, 450, 454, 455, 456, 457, 458, 459, 464, 476, 479, 480, 482, 

490, 491, 492, 495, 496, 498, 504, 505, 506, 508, 510, 511, 512, 

513, 517, 518, 521, 525, 526, 527, 530, 531, 533, 535, 536, 542, 

549, 552, 554, 556, 558, 560, 561, 563, 565, 566, 567, 572, 577, 

578, 580, 581, 586, 591, 592, 594, 596, 597, 599, 601, 602, 612, 

•■ 613, 615, 617, 630, 633, 634, 637, 638, 653, 665, 666, 670, 678, 

683, 692, 693, 698, 702, 704, 725, 727, 731, 732, 733, 734, 739, 

745, 746, 747, 748, 749, 751, 759, 765, 770, 773, 774, 776, 783, 

784, 785, 787, 788, 789, 790, 791, 794, 806, 807, 813, 817, 822, 

830, 836, 837, 838, 841, 842, 845, 846, 847, 848, 849, 854, 855, 

856, 859, 364, 865, 873, 874, 875, 876, 877, 882, 887, 891, G92 , 

896, 897, 899, 900, 902, 903, 905, 908, 909, 915, 926, 929, 942, 

943, 944, 945, 946, 950, 952, 954, 963, 964, 966, 968, 970, 971, 

980, 981, 982, 984, 985, 987, 988, 996, 997, 999. 

5. Networks 

27, 34, 74, 115, 122, 213, 262, 272, 279, 282, 290, 321, 322, 324, 
327, 348, 391, 424, 425, 439, 465, 486, 506, 594, 603, 631, 635, 
645, 659, 660, 687, 697, 699, 714, 757, 762, 767, 777, 786, 789, 
796, 799, 809, 810, 824, 845, 853, 855, 860, 879, 901, 904, 910, 
911, 918, 920, 921, 924, 934, 937, 938, 969, 979, 996. 

5a. Network Measures and Structure 

46, 47, 93, 191, 204, 277, 280, 284, 237, 292, 323, 448, 449, 
473, 493, 538, 540, 682, 709, 758, 764, 813, 936. 

5b. Route Location 

17, 18, 41, 47, 93, 131, 143, 152, 133, 184, 264, 305, 326, 366, 
449, 511, 544, 574, 587, 607, 657, 658, 680, 681, 696, 814, 832, 
871, 883, 914, 936. 

5c. Route Evolution 

15, 17, 302, 350, 444, 449, 478, 481, 524, 598, 654, 655, 656, 
657, 772, 803, 826, 850, 936. 



159. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

6. Flows and Movenent 

8, 85, 96, 163, 189, 203, 227, 295, 303, 311, 325, 341, 360, 380, 

386, 387, 409, 411, 424, 425, 427, 428, 484, 524, 536, 573, 578, 

600, 603, 608, 609, 610, 618, 638, 639, 643, 645, 655, 675, 676, 

686, 690, 707, 722, 728, 738, 747, 754, 755, 757, 778, 786, 789, 

799, 800, 809, 810, 812, 815, 827, 855, 871, 886, 896, 910, 911, 

912, 916, 920, 927, 934, 956, 958, 967, 970, 977, 981, 985, 996, 
997, 998. 

7b. Econonic and Regional Developnenfc 

3, 51, 111, 112, 143, 153, 171, 174, 185, 186, 201, 246, 263, 

279, 284, 285, 299, 346, 429, 555, 579, 636, 650, 651, 652, 741, 

768, 798, 808, 814, 823, 840, 850, 851, 863, 869, 893, 894. 

7c. Ports 

11, 36, 70, 71, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 105, 132, 139, 210, 257, 

261, 301, 371, 404, 405, 462, 469, 529, 532, 539, 564, 633, 662, 

663, 673, 706, 715, 716, 718, 719, 720, 721, 726, 818, 819, 863, 

888, 917, 930, 931, 932, 939, 948. 

8. Modal Studies 

31, 55, 55, 57, 77, 119, 145, 146, 147, 178, 179, 208, 212, 296, 

309, 334, 413, 451, 461, 472, 496, 507, 519, 541, 542, 578, 579, 

582, 588, 611, 614, 621, 623, 632, 674, 685, 694, 724, 745, 751, 

771, 791, 800, 821, 829, 926, 951, 958. 

8a. Rail 

5, 13, 17, 23, 33, 38, 50, 65, 74, 94, 105, 134, 152, 166, 175, 

194, 225, 226, 241, 245, 253, 277, 290, 297, 299, 300, 343, 354, 

372, 373, 403, 429, 438, 453, 458, 475, 478, 483, 487, 499, 538, 

540, 547, 567, 574, 620, 622, 628, 629, 636, 654, 655, 656, 657, 

660, 663, 664, 687, 708, 757, 760, 761, 777, 799, 801, 803, 839, 

851, 352, 861, 863, 866, 867, 868, 869, 883, 886, 888, 890, 893, 

894, 910, 911, 912, 913, 919, 922, 953, 955, 983, 991, 994. 

8b. Highway 

27, 40, 41, 59, 83, 104, 113, 116, 117, 122, 128, 155, 158, 226, 

244, 248, 253, 255, 265, 272, 277, 308, 337, 348, 375, 376, 381, 

412, 423, 482, 485, 493, 509, 534, 558, 559, 583, 646, 648, 711, 

739, 740, 744, 761, 767, 769, 797, 803, 825, 831, 853, 889, 907, 

919, 940, 960, 989, 995. 



160. CPL Exchanse Bibliography #324-#325 

3c. Water 

5, 6, 11, 29, 39, 42, 71, 133, 144, 224, 229, 257, 258, 259, 

342, 359, 382, 383, 429, 463, 468, 488, 499, 514, 539, 543, 

557, 568, 569, 570, 605, 626, 661, 677, 717, 729, 730, 752, 

834, 835, 858, 869, 886, 925, 927, 947, 991. 

8(1. Air 

25, 73, 106, 234, 247, 316, 351, 358, 365, 388, 465, 470, 497, 
515, 521, 585, 689, 695, 704, 705, 709, 710, 736, 742, 74J, 762j 
763, 827, 844, 856. 

8e. Pipe 

262. 
8f. Other 

64, 151, 198, 302, 320, 352, 422, 457. 

9, Transportation Data 

13, 33, 95, 117, 135, 150, 154, 157, 162, 181, 207, 223, 232, 
251, 254, 310, 330, 355, 361, 362, 388, 396, 432, 443, 458, 
464, 492, 500, 510, 515, 525, 527, 554, 560, 561, 562, 638, 
669, 712, 753, 756, 772, 793, 807, 308, 828, 836, 878, 906, 
924. 



161. CPL Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 





TOPIC.VL GUIDE 


1. 


General 


2. 


Theoretical-Conceptual 




a. General 




b. Travel Models 


3. 


Historical 


4. 


Urban 


5. 


Networks 



a. Network Measures and Structure 

b. Route Location 

c. Route Evolution 

Flows and Movenent 

a. International 

b. Interregional 

c . Intraurban 

Inpact of Transportation 

a. Highway Effects 

b. Econonic and Regional Davelopnent 

c. Ports 



Modal Studies 


a. 
b, 
c. 

d. 


Rail 
Highvjay 
Water 
Air 


e. 

f. 


Pipe 
Other 



Transportation Data 



COUNCIL OF PL/JSIWING LIBR/\Kl/.riS Exchange Bibliography #324-#325 

S?ATL\L STUDIES OF TR^iKSPORTATION: INTRODUCTION AND ANNOTATED 
BI'^LIOGR/iPHY 

Additional copies available fron: 

Council of Planning Librarians 
Pcot Office Box 229 
Monticello, Illinois, 61856 

for $16.00.