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TLhc Speaking Ipatrots. 


A L E X A N D E I N E P A K R A K E E T. 
( Psittariis fiijinfrivs.) 




H Scientific fIDanuaL 

By dr. KARL RUSS, 


ETC., ETC., 









3 7-l3'fo3'i-J^'l 














Purchase and Eeception 


The Cage 




Taming and Training 


Preservation of Health 





VIII. General Eemarks 

IX. The True Parrots 

X. The Grey Parrot 

Xr. The Timneh Parrot 

XII. The Greater Vaza Parrot 

XIII. The Lesser Vaza Parrot 

XIV. The Amazon Parrots 
XV. The Blue-fronted Amazon 

XVI. The Orange-winged Amazon 

XVII. Levaillant's Amazon 

XVIII. The Yellow-fronted Amazon 

XIX. The Yellow-shouldered Amazon 

XX. The Mealy Amazon 

XXI. The Golden-naped Amazon 

XXII. The Guatemalan Amazon 

















Chapter Page 

XXIII. The Festive Amazon 108 

XXIV. Salle's Amazon 109 

XXV. The Ebd-fronted Amazon 110 

XXVI. The White-fronted Amazon Ill 

XXVII. The Eed-throated Amazon ... ... ... 112 

XXVIII. The White-browed Amazon ... ... ... 113 

XXIX. The Eed-masked Amazon 115 

XXX. The Vinaceous Amazon IIG 

XXXI. The Yellow-cheeked Amazon 117 

XXXII. The Diademed Amazon 118 

XXXIII. Dufresne's Amazon 119 

XXXIV. The Pionin^, or Long-winged Parrots ... 120 
XXXV. The Senegal Parrot 122 

XXXVI. The Maitaka Parrot, or Eed-vented Parrot 124 

XXXVII. The Hawk-headed Parrot 125 

XXXVIII. The Eclecti 127 

XXXIX. The New Guinea Eclectus or Parrot ... 129 
XL. The Gilolo, or Halmahera Eclkctus or 

Parrot 131 

XLI. The Cerum Eclectus or Parrot 132 

XLII. The Great-billed Eclectus ... 133 

XLIII. MiJLLER's Parrot ... 134 

XLIV. The Cockatoos 136 

XLV. The True Cockatoos 142 

XLVI. The Lesser Sulphur-crested Cockatoo ... 143 

XLVII. The Greater Sulphur-crested Cockatoo ... 144 

XLVIII. The Greater White-crested Cockatoo ... 145 

XLIX. The Blue-eyed Cockatoo 146 

L. The Eed-crested Cockatoo 147 

LI. Leadbeater's Cockatoo 149 

LII. Goffin's Cockatoo 151 

LIII. DucoRPs' Cockatoo 151 

LIV. The Eoseate Cockatoo ... ... ... ... 153 


Chapter Pagk 

LV. The Slender-billed or Nasecus Cockatoo ... 155 

LVI. The Bare-eyed Cockatoo ... 156 

LVII. The Microglossus, or Macaw Cockatoo ... 158 

LVIII.- The Gkeat Black Cockatoo 158 

LIX. The Callipsittacus, or Cockatiel 160 

LX. The Cockatiel 161 

LXr. The Lories and Lorikeets ... 163 

LXIL The Broad-tailed, or True Lories 167 

LXIII. The Black-bonnet Lory... ... 169 

LXIV. The Lady Lory 171 

LXV. The Ceram Lory 172 

LXVI. The Red Lory 175 

LXVII. The Blue-breasted Lory ... 176 

LXVIII. The Sharp-tailed Lories or Lorikeets ... 178 

LXIX. The Blue Mountain Lory 180 

LXX. The Ornamented Lory or Lorikeet 183 

LXXL The Macaws 185 

LXXIL The Hyacinthine Macaw 188 

LXXIIL The Military Macaw 189 

LXXIV. The Eed and Blue Macaw 190 

LXXV. The Eed .and Yellow Macaw 192 

LXXVI. The Blue and Yellow Macaw ]93 

LXXVII. The Small or Brown-fronted Macaw ... 194 

LXXVIII. Illiger's Macaw 195 

LXXIX. The Noble Macaw 196 

LXXX, The Pal^ornithin.^, or Noble Parrakeets... 197 

LXXXL The Eing-necked Alexandrine Parrakeet... 200 

LXXXII. The Mauritius Alexandrine Parrakeet ... 203 

LXXXIII. The Great Alexandrine Parrakeet ... ... 204 

LXXXIV. The Javan Alexandrine Parrakeet ... ... 206 

LXXXV. The Eose-breasted Ai,exandrine Parrakeet 208 

LXXXVI. The Black-billed Alexandrine Parrakeet... 209 

LXXXVIL Luzian's Parrakeet 210 




















The Conures, or Wedge-tailed Parrakeets 

The Carolina Conure 

The Blue-crowned Conure 

The Yellow Conure 

The Golden-crowned Conure 

The Yellow-cheeked Conure ; the Brown 


The Bolborrhtnchi, or Thick-billed Parra 


The Grey-breasted or Quaker Parrakeet 

The Small-billed Parrakeets ... 

The Tovi Parrakeet 

The All-green Parrakeet 

The Canart-winged Parrakeet 

The Yellow-and-white-winged Parrakeet 

The Flat-tailed Parrakeets ... 

The Eose Hill Parrakeet 

The Red Shining Parrakeets 

The Masked Parrakeets 

The Undulated Grass Parrakeet 





The fancy for Speaking Parrots not only dates from very 
ancient times, but in the present day it is extraordinarily ardent 
and widespread. Doubtless, no other bird kept alone as a speaker 
will take in a higher degree the position of friend and companion 
to man than a parrot. 

Parrot lovers — as well as fanciers and breeders of other families 
of birds — may reasonably desire to have offered to them a source 
whence they may obtain advice as to purchase, care, training, 
&c. To supply such need I have undertaken the present work. 
Professional critics must judge whether I have succeeded in 
satisfying the just expectations and demands of the friends of 
these birds. 

Whoever ventures upon the production of such a work must, 
before all things, be furnished with the requisite knowledge 
founded upon experience, otherwise he will only lead his readers 
into error and exhibit his own deficiencies. 

It is probably well known that for some decades I have 
been exclusively occupied with the practical rearing of birds, 
and have, during that time, kept most of the species here 
described, and therefore I am acquainted with them, not merely 
in their outward appearance, but in their whole nature, their 
peculiarities, necessities, and capabilities. The abundance of 
information collected for my larger work, ''The Foreign Cage 
Birds,"* has proved extremely useful for the purposes of this 
book. Under any circumstances, in a work of this description 
practical directions on all points should be considered the chief 
object. Anyone glancing over the extremely rich and abundant 
descriptions and varied records of almost countless keepers of 
Speaking Parrots, which have appeared in my journal. The 
Feathered World,f during the course of the last ten years, and 

* " Die fremdlandisclaen Stubenvogel," Band III., Die Papageien. 
■fDie gefiederte Welt (Berlin, Louis Gerschel). 

viii PREFACE. 

trusting to my Laving used the same in conjunction with my 
own experiences, conscientiously and intelligently, may be able 
to judge whether I could venture, with perfect confidence, to 
fulfil the task before me. 

In accordance with its title, this book deals exclusively with 
those Parrots which have, up to the present time, been clearly 
proved to be gifted with speech. 

Considering that such a work as the present must assuredly 
attain a certain international value, I have not only treated or 
the conditions of the bird trade in its entirety, but also have 
added, as fully as possible, the names of the birds described, in 
the languages of the four countries (England, Germany, France, 
and Holland) into which the importation of Parrots chiefly takes 
place. In this, as in all my other writings, I have avoided 
mentioning names which have been arbitrarily or unsuitably 
applied, preference being given to the already existing appella- 
tions, so far as they prove suitable. Where it has been deemed 
advisable to introduce new names, I have also given the scientific 
appellation ; and if this was not practicable, such an one has 
been chosen as best agrees w^ith the peculiarities of the bird, or 
a name given by means of which the merits of some eminent 
explorer, connoisseur, keeper, or breeder, may be honoured. 

In the practical use of this manual, I would suggest the 
observance of the following direction : The name by which the 
bird is known to the reader should be sought in the Index, and 
then also all those parts in which it is mentioned by that or its 
other appellations should be carefully perused. The chapters 
on " Purchase and Reception," "The Cage," '"Food," ''Taming 
and Training," ''Preservation of Health," and "Diseases" 
should be attentively studied, as only by this means can guidance 
and advice in any case be found as desired. 

Among the numerous works which have appeared of late 
upon bird fancying, treatment, and breeding, the present is 
probably the only one which concerns itself particularly and 
exclusively with the subject in hand. I therefore wish all the 
more earnestly that it may entirely fulfil the expectations which 
all lovers of Speaking Parrots are justified in entertaining with 
regard to it. 


The Speaking Parrots, 

Part I.— General. 


Natural EndowmeiiU of the Parrot — Power of Imitating Speech, 
— Various S}jeGies — Physical Characteristics of the Talking 
SjJecies — Mental Endowments — The Parrot in Confinement — 
The Parrots in their Native Countries — Trade in Parrots — 
— Ill-treatment — Taming — Training. 

There are many advantages whicli the Parrot enjoys over all 
other creatures, and even over man. 

We envy it principally on account of its wings, the splendid 
gift with which kind Nature has endowed it, the power of soaring 
upwards into the ether, and hovering there, high above all other 
living creatures. Its fellows in the animal kingdom are behind 
it also in many other respects, and especially in the power of 
imitating human words. This capability of speech is not known 
to exist amongst any of the other animals, except birds ; even 
those quadrupeds which stand highest — the dog, the elephant, 
the horse, and others not unfrequently displaying a truly 
human sagacity — are denied this gift, though they may some- 
times surpass the talking birds in mental power. Of course, not 



nearly all birds can learn to speak, but only those of some 
species — very few in proportion to the whole. 

We are accustomed to regard speech as the most important 
advantage which man possesses over the inferior creation. 
It is speech which distinguishes him, under all circumstances, 
from animals, and its absence which causes even those most 
nearly allied to him to rank much lower. 

Beasts have, indeed, a language of their own, sounds and 
signs of definite meaning. He who doubts the truth of this 
assertion needs only go out into the fields and observe Nature. 
For a flock of any species of birds, let us take as an example the 
most common of all — sparrows. Harmlessly cheerful, they follow 
their occupation, hopping about in search of food, yet one 
note of alarm only is necessary to inform them all of an 
approaching danger ; moreover, their cry is varied according to 
the kind of danger which threatens. If a sparrowhawk come in 
sight, a '' t-i-r-r-r-r ! " of horror puts the whole flock to the 
hastiest flight ; when the cat approaches, a 'Hihrrr ! " of quite 
another style causes only a few of the most timid to fly to a 
safe distance ; but if a boy with a pea-shooter or a sling pass 
by, then a slight ''tirr!" merely warns the company to be 
attentive and cautious, and for the time being no timid fugitive 
hurries away. Then water is thrown out into the yard, and a 
joyful "tweet, tweet! " assembles the troop to pick up eagerly 
the bread crumbs, potato parings and other refuse which have 
been thrown out with it. A flight of rooks have settled for 
the night on the tops of the tall poplar trees, below which 
many people walk and drive along the road ; even a sportsman 
with his gun over his shoulder and his dogs on a leash are 
scarcely noticed ; only a few of the most timid fly away. Then 
a youthful marksman appears, who leads by a chain a tamed 
fox, for the support of which he must occasionally kill birds. 
As soon as this individual approaches, though under cover of a 
high fence, an old experienced rook utters an angry "Caw! " 
and with great rustling the whole flock hastens away. These 
are examples from Nature, proofs of the language, and, at the 
same time, of the power which birds possess of imparting 
information to each other. Indeed, we have instances of this 
among the lowest and smallest animals. If we scrape with a 
stick at the outer edge of an ant-heap, we see immediately that 
not only do numerous ants hasten thither, but suddenly a move- 
ment from that direction goes through the whole habitation. 


and excitement prevails from the centre to the boundaries. We 
see, therefore, that the creatures are able at once to inform each 
other of the event which has happened. 

If we consider in how comparatively small a degree the power 
of speech differs in mankind, from the most highly cultivated 
down to the savage scarcely capable of civilisation, then we 
must allow that the examples of brute speech quoted — and 
natural history has many such — should fill us, on nearer 
acquaintance, with admiration. Human speech, however, the 
sonorous, harmonious enunciation of thought and feeling, the 
clear expression of varied emotions, must always be considered 
the highest ; and, if an animal be able, though only partially, 
to imitate human language, it must decidedly belong to higher 
ranks of creation even than those which appear most to 
resemble man. 

With perfect justice, therefore, a lively and widespread love 
is entertained for creatures which can speak, that is to say, 
for birds gifted with the power of speech and trained to 
use it. 

Many a one may remember, in his youth, as an important 
event in his native town, the arrival of a talking bird. It was, 
say, a white cockatoo, which sat lazily and sleepily in the ring 
it was chained to and was carried about in, and now and then 
it would erect its brilliantly-coloured crest, and, nodding its head 
comically, and clapping its wings, would cry, with a shrill 
voice, "Cockatoo! Cockatoo!" Young and old ran to see it, 
and, when it pointedly added, '^Pretty Cocky is hungry!" not 
only were cakes and sweets brought to it in abundance, but 
halfpence rained upon the itinerant showman and his wonderful 
bird. The newspapers relate a good story about a talking 
bird. A newly-enlisted soldier in Vienna was one day gazing 
at a great macaw perched with the quiet dignity of a 
philosopher. When the man had walked round it several 
times, the bird suddenly exclaimed, ''Blockhead!" Hastily 
the young defender of his fatherland grasped his cap, made a 
hurried bow, and stammered, " I beg your honour's pardon, 
I thought you were a bird!" Thus, to a certain extent, the 
feathered speaker unites the whole race of birds with mankind, 
and stretching back into our youthful recollections, follows us 
through the whole course of our lives. In the present day a 
talking bird is no longer a rarity, for everywhere, even in 
villages and country houses, parrots are to be found — indeed, 

B 2 


in countless variety — among which there are almost more 
talkers than plumage birds. 

It is not parrots only that are capable of learning to 
pronounce human words, but a considerable number of other 
foreign and native birds, which, however — as far as our pre- 
sent knowledge extends — are limited to the members of certain 
families. Nevertheless, we must not maintain the latter opinion 
as an invariable rule, for of late important exceptions have 
come to light. Until lately, the birds acknowledged to be 
gifted with speech belonged only to the ranks of the parrots, 
particularly the larger species, besides the crow species, the 
raven and the starling ; but lately finches have been added, 
while, in several cases, canaries have learnt to speak. The 
parrot tribe is certainly the most noted and important of talking 
birds, and it is also true that besides the well-known clever 
talkers, some individuals related to most of the remaining 
species — even to the Cockatiel, or Wedge-tailed Cockatoo, and 
down to one of the smallest of all, the well-known Undulated 
Grass Parrakeet — have proved themselves to be gifted with 

Here I would wish to give a general description of all 
parrots, only the space which I have at my command would 
not nearly suffice. I, therefore, respectfully refer the reader 
to my work, " The Foreign Cage Birds," vol. iii, (the Parrots). 
and "Manual for Bird Fanciers," vol. i. I will only notice 
here the chief peculiarities of these extremely interesting birds : 
but, of course, I shall enter more fully into particulars con- 
cerning their care and training. 

At present there are upwards of 400 kinds of parrots known. 
A fixed and exact number I am not able to state, because, 
on the one hand, newly-discovered species come daily under 
our notice, and, on the other hand — and chiefly — because there 
are a great many about which ornithologists do not agree 
whether they belong to a real species, or whether they may 
only be reckoned as varieties peculiar to certain localities, or 
merely as chance diversities. The home of the parrot extends 
over all quarters of the globe, with the exception of Europe ; 
but it is chiefly in tropical countries. So large a family of 
varied and highly interesting birds must naturally, from ancient 
times, have offered manifold charms, to the savant, and 
it is not surprising, therefore, that we have numerous works 
on the subject. Among all the writings which deal with it, 


the monograph of Dr. Otto Finsch (Leyden, 1867-68) stands 
most conspicuous as a source of scientific knowledge. In 
my before-mentioned larger work I have confined myself to 
the researches of this, the most eminent of authors in this 
department, and, as far as such information was necessary, I 
have done the same here. 

Glancing, from this point of view, at the very many varieties 
which now chiefly demand our attention, I must first state, as 
a fact in my experience, that almost every species of parrot 
produces individuals in which the gift of speech evinces itself. 
We have talkers from the following kinds : True Parrots, or 
Grey and Black Parrots (Psittacns, L.), Amazon Parrots (Chry- 
sotis, Swns.), Noble Parrots {Eclectus, Wgl.), Long- winged 
Parrots {Pionias, Wgl.), True Cockatoo (Plectolophus, Vgrs.), 
Macaw Cockatoo {Microglossus, Gff.), Cockatiel {Callipsittacus, 
Lss.), Sharp-tailed Lories or Lorikeets (Trichoglossus, Vgrs.), 
Broad-tailed or True Lories {Bomicella, Wgl.), Macaws {Sittace, 
Wgl.), Noble Parrakeets {Palceornis, Vgrs.), Wedge-tailed 
Parrakeets (Conurus, Khl.), Thick-billed Parrakeets (Bolbo- 
rhynchus, Bp.), iSlender-billed Parrakeets {Brotogerys, Vgrs.), 
Flat-tailed Parrakeets {Platycercus, Vgrs.), Singing Parrakeet, 
or Undulated Parrakeet {Melopsittacus, Gld.). Up to the 
present, no speakers have been discovered among the hereafter- 
mentioned species : Mascai^enus, Lss. ; Dasyptilus, Wgl. ; Psitta- 
cula, Khl. ; Nasiterna, Wgl. ; Stringops, Gr. ; CoryUis, Fnsch. ; 
Psittacella, Schl. ; Euphema, Wgl. ; Pezoporus, 111. But, as has 
been said, we must on no account determine, or even suppose, 
that there are no speakers at all among the ranks of the last- 
named parrots; for as the Undulated Parrakeet made itself 
known all at once as a talker, so may we as reasonably expect 
this to take place with some species or other of the Euphema, 
Psittacula, CoryUis, &c. 

A physical description of parrots, concerning the structure of 
the body, and the nature of all the organs, would here be 
superfluous ; while, of course, the plumage and its colours in 
each species must be stated for the purposes of deter- 
mination and recognition. I would, however, on no account 
omit a detailed description of the tongue — the most 
characteristic physical feature of the speaking bird. '' As a 
rule, it appears thick, fleshy, blunt, with a point formed like 
an acorn, but more frequently covered on the foremost end 
with countless threadlike warts, which consist of somewhat 


flattened cylinders of elastic fibres, placed in layers, above 
which the pituitous tunic of the tongue lies in several hard, 
horny strata." In most varieties the tongue is of the former 
nature ; only in a few — the great macaws and macaw cockatoos — 
does it end in the horny point ; while in the lories and lorikeets 
the latter peculiarity, as described by Dr. Weinland, shows 
itself. It is not yet fully determined whether the bristled 
tongue really serves, as has been asserted, for the purpose of 
sucking up honey and flower juices, /"^t must be most par- 
ticularly noticed that those kinds which have the thick, fleshy, 
smooth tongue, i.e., the true parrots, show themselves best suited 
for imitating human words ; but of the other families also, 
including the lories or lorikeets, many have learnt to talk. 

Eegarding the mental endowments of parrots, the opinions 
of ornithologists, as well as of bird-fanciers, are extremely 
diverse. While one, in amiable partiality, and probably 
also in confusion and involuntary exaggeration, classes the 
speaking birds as nearly allied to man, not only ascribing to 
them cunning and quick comprehension, but also reason and 
warmth of feeling, another considers the utterance even of a 
notably gifted and instructed bird solely as a mechanical 
imitation speech, a mere chatter, undirected by any concep- 
tion of the sense of the words. 

I shall not here enter particularly into the habits, &c., of 
parrots in a state of nature, as I have already done so fully 
in my before-mentioned larger work. But this knowledge is 
necessary for the treatment of these birds in the cage. How 
could we know in what way we should feed and tend them, and, 
above all, successfully breed them and satisfy their wants, if we 
knew nothing of their natural life and habits ? The parrot in 
the aviary appears before us as in freedom, or, at any rate, in 
a half-wild condition ; the speaker, on the contrary, appears to 
us as a completely captive bird. In such a state it is deprived 
of everything which freedom bestowed on it. It can neither 
have its normal life nor sufficient motion. Air, light, tem- 
perature, and especially food, are all changed, and the conditions 
of its dwelling are only too strange. Here we must not act as 
in breeding time, not imitate nature as faithfully as possible, 
and supply what fails in as natural a manner as practicable ; but 
on the contrary, we must create new circumstances, and satisfy 
needs in a totally different manner. It must, however, be 
thoroughly understood that it is not a matter of indifference in 


what way caged parrots be fed ; rather have many years of 
experience fixed certain rules according to which nourishment 
must be given. Every transgression of the principles which I 
shall further lay down on this head, in the chapter about 
"Food," will be severely visited by the sickness, or even loss, 
of more or less valuable birds. First, we must notice that all 
parrots feed chiefly upon plants, upon fruits, seeds, blossoms, 
shoots, or other soft and delicate parts of vegetable growths. 
Many — for instance, the smaller species — need animal food for 
their own support and the rearing of their young, and thus 
probably devour insects when in freedom. 

All parrots are very destructive, for they gnaw and mangle 
much more than they need for food. They may, therefore, 
cause extraordinary damage to useful plants. They are on 
this account exposed to frequent pursuit wherever they appear 
in large flights, or at all numerously. Moreover, they are killed 
for use ; as, for example, for the plumage as an ornament, or for 
all kinds of feather work ; also to prepare the whole skin for 
collections. And, finally, many parrots are eaten as game. 

The fancy for speaking parrots is known to be very ancient. 
In all parts of the world, when Europeans first entered into 
communication with the natives, they found the latter had 
tame parrots — in India, in the islands of the Malay 
Archipelago, in America, and in Australia. When the dis- 
coverers of America landed in the New World, the Indians 
came to meet them with large tame macaws. In the villages 
in Guiana one never sees children playing about without 
parrots and monkeys with them ; and in Africa one finds 
round the huts of the negroes many Grey Parrots, which have 
been taken while young from the nests, reared by hand, and 
which now climb about on the straw roofs and trees with 
clipped wings. A popular superstition there says that there 
is so much heat in the nest of a Jaco that whoever thrusts his 
hand into it will be burnt, and that the white spots which 
many negroes have upon their hands have been caused by 
such indiscreet attempts. These marks, however, are the result 
of skin disease, and the whole fable has been invented merely 
for the purpose of frightening away others from plun- 
dering the parrots' nests — invented, that is to say, by those 
who themselves carry on this business. In South America, in 
the present day, the immense trees in which the large and 
splendid macaws build their nests are regarded as family 


property, which descends from father to son. The feathers 
of these birds formerly served for the decoration of their 
chieftains, and in the present age they adorn the hats of our 
ladies. Therefore, the feathers of the macaw, as well as the 
birds themselves, form an important article of commerce. 

Many thousands of live parrots are imported annually, and 
all find ready purchasers. In this bird trade, which has 
increased so enormously, especially during the last century, 
there is one very unpleasant side — the constantly prevailing 
diseases and death of the imported parrots, notably of the 
Grey Parrots, and also of many kinds of the smaller feathered 
tribes. It must on no account be thought that this melan- 
choly fact arises from any delicacy of the birds ; on the con- 
trary, in spite of all the terrible severities and sufferings 
which they must pass through, the greater number reach 
here alive, and of those which have become sickly the 
majority recover, live, and become perfectly healthy. In this 
we surely find a proof of the astonishingly strong hold on 
life with which most of these delicate-looking creatures are 

I will detail more circumstantially this much-to-be-regretted 
state of affairs. Mr. F. Connor writes from Brazil, in my 
periodical. ''The Feathered World": ''The natives, Indians 
and negroes of mixed race, bring the parrots in a miserable 
condition to the seaports, feed them with fruit and rice, and 
sell them to the traders at the average price of 2 milreis 
(4s.) a head. Parrots are most frequently obtained inland 
by barter for about half this price, and then taken in one 
of the numerous steamboats which ply upon the rivers Para 
and Amazon to the seaport towns. The purchasers keep 
them in large cases, in which some perches have been fixed, 
and which have laths nailed across the front, so that the 
birds have but little air and less light. Imagine such a dirty 
place as this, with no kind of provision for cleanliness, into 
which the food, consisting of bananas, oranges, and potatoes, 
is thrown, and in a climate where everything so soon decays 
in the terrible heat ! There the unfortunate birds become 
covered with dirt and vermin ; it is no wonder that their 
health is undermined and that incurable diseases attack them. 
Here they must remain until they are sold and transported 
to Europe in a steamer or sailing vessel. The treatment of 
the Grey Parrots in Africa is similar. The negroes bring 


tliem to market in long, reed-shaped baskets, which they 
carry upon their shoulders ; one after the other is seized from 
behind and dragged out so that it cannot bite. The treat- 
ment on the part of the purchasers is, according to unani- 
mous information, everywhere the same. In this, as in every 
part of the world, living birds are merely regarded as an 
article of commerce, and each one endeavours, with the least 
possible trouble, to get the highest possible gain." 

The parrots suffer much more on the steamboat than while 
in the hands of the buyers. They are pent in great numbers 
in proportionately small cases, which have bars only on one 
side, stowed in the lower hold of the ship, where they must 
suffer in the hot, steamy, smoky air, yet more from the fact 
that, whether it be from prejudice or necessity, they are denied 
drinking water. In spite of all such irrational treatment, the 
astonishingly greater number continue, as has been said, not 
only to live, but they appear- — which must strike us as equally 
wonderful — as a rule well fed and strong, and do not show signs 
of any kind of sickness. Thus they arrive in Europe. They are 
now obliged to pass through another severe struggle for 
existence — a raw climate, change of food, in short, totally 
different circumstances, and at the same time all sorts of dis- 
quiet and terror. Here they usually strive to live for one or two 
weeks, sometimes for six, and in rare cases for eight, but then 
they are, with very few exceptions, hopelessly lost. It is 
noteworthy that the disease may show itself, in a few days or 
hours after water has been given, in a parrot which up to that 
time appeared quite healthy. 

The Grey Parrots, as I said before, suffer most from these 
evil influences, and they are lost most frequently from blood- 
poisoning, as has been proved by the examination of numberless 
birds which have died immediately upon importation. Cure has 
been found impossible ; certainly, in spite of many and varied 
attempts, no successful treatment has as yet been discovered ; 
moreover, this disease is very dangerous, threatening other 
long since imported and healthy birds, through contagion. For 
these evils there are two remedies : either the wholesale dealers 
must arrange that the purchase of Grey Parrots be so 
looked after and regulated in their native places that the birds 
shall be no longer, from mere avarice, packed in masses together, 
and through shameful neglect given over to destruction ; in other 
words, the wholesale dealers must see that the parrots are 


treated reasonably and suitably, so that these birds, which have 
so strong a hold on life, may remain healthy and reach us in 
that condition ; or the entire trade in Giey Parrots must be 
brought to an end by the fanciers abstaining unanimously 
from purchasing until other arrangements are made. It is to 
be hoped that if the object cannot be attained by fitting 
arrangements as suggested, it may be brought about by the 
latter resource. 

The parrots brought over in sailing vessels are for the most 
part more sensibly kept and better cared for, and, therefore, 
mostly prove more capable of surviving their hardships. This 
cannot, however, be stated as a rule without exception, for the 
opposite also is known to occur. In conclusion, I may state 
that most parrots, like foreign birds in general, if they are 
not attacked by the incurable blood-poisoning after they have 
endured the long severe sea voyage, recover completely, and 
do not break down under other trials. 

Very many parrots, especially the Green Short-tailed, or 
Amazon Pairots, from America, also a considerable number 
of others from Asia and Africa, come to market already tame, 
or at least half tamed. Many of these have been old birds 
when caught. 

Scarcely anything is ascertained as to the mode of catching 
parrots. It is well known that the small parrots are caught in 
swarms with nets, birdlime, or snares, when they come to 
the drinking places, or on similar occasions. We can only sup- 
pose that the great talkers are usually captured in the same 
way. Concerning the taming in their native place, travellers 
relate that old Indian women have the astonishing art of making 
a wild, untractable, and vicious parrot in a short time so tame 
that after a few days, or even hours, anyone, even a stranger, 
may take it on his hand and stroke it. Many exaggerated 
stories are told as to this, but the fact is incontrovertible ; 
only the mode of procedure is not clear ; for some maintain 
that the Indian woman only dips her hand in water, and then 
strokes the bird over its back ; others are of opinion that she pours 
over it the juice of a narcotic plant ; while, according to another 
account, the bird is tamed by the injection of human saliva 
into the mouth. The greatest number of the parrots, however, 
which come to market tame are those taken out of the nest 
and fed from the mouth with chewed maize and similar food, 
and which have already passed through several hands — from 


the natives, Indians, or negroes, to the dealer ; from the latter, 
or, perhaps, directly from the first-mentioned, to the seamen, 
sailors, or ships' officers ; from them, again, either to the whole- 
sale dealer or to the parrot trainer in the seaports ; from one 
of these latter to the retail dealer ; and from him, or it may be 
from the wholesale dealer, finally into the hands of the amateur 
bird fancier. On this route the parrot, as may be supposed, 
has learnt many good, but also many bad, habits and lessons. 
The trainers in the seaport towns, who are called parrot teachers, 
are small publicans, keepers of seamen's taverns, barbers, 
discharged sailors, &c. — mostly uneducated men. They deliver 
the parrots, especially Amazon Parrots and Grey Parrots, usually 
when they are tame enough to perch on the finger, and to 
speak more or less, so that in these, of course, the amateur has 
valuable birds most thoroughly suited for further instruction. 
One unfortunate circumstance — and it is certainly very disagree- 
able — here presents itself, namely, that of an uncouth, broad 
and unpleasant accent, and all sorts of disgusting habits ; for 
example, many such parrots have learnt abusive words, vulgar 
speeches, and annoying sounds, such as imitating a consumptive 
cough, snoring, rattling in the throat, spitting, and so forth, 
and of these it is extremely difficult to break them. Nevertheless, 
such birds must not be considered worthless ; on the contrary, 
they are valuable by reason of their capability, and if one does 
not mind the trouble of careful training, they may be weaned 
from all bad habits, as instruction in good manners advances. 
Of late, the large bird-shops often offer trained or even speaking 
parrots. This is because they select from their supplies the 
best untrained birds, and give them over to the above-men- 
tioned trainers. Such a proceeding is commendable, and will, 
it is to be hoped, lead to the price of feathered speakers, which 
is much too high, being lessened by degrees so that they may 
be accessible to the less wealthy amateur. 



Tokens of a Desirable Speaking Parrot — Signs of Health — 
Precautions in Buying — "Acclimatised" Birds — Transport — 
Treatment on Acquisition. 

The species of parrot to be bought must be regulated by personal 
taste, special circumstances, locality, &c. Such an account 
as I here offer, superficial though it be, should afford the 
amateur with little or no knowledge of parrots sufficiently 
reliable information ; but hereafter I shall enter upon a full 
account of the different groups under notice, give a thorough 
description of all the varieties of the species treated, and exact 
information concerning all their peculiarities. Here it is only 
necessary to glance at the general tokens which denote a desir- 
able speaking parrot. 

As in all other birds, there are in parrots certain signs of 
health, which one should never fail to notice at the time of 
purchase. Each bird must look bright and cheerful, be in 
possession of its natural liveliness, have smooth neatly arranged 
plumage, especially on the belly ; the eyes must be clear, 
lively, not dim and dull ; nostrils not wet, dirty, or stuffed, 
and the breastbone not sharp and prominent. The bird must 
not appear melancholy, sitting motionless, with disordered or 
puffed-out plumage, breathing short while quiet, or opening 
the beak to take breath. Moulting plumage, the absence of 
the tail, and dirty feathers, are, on the contrary, especially in 
excitable birds, not to be regarded as dangerous symptoms. 
Most parrots, on importation, have their wings clipped more or 
less, on one or both sides. This is certainly a great evil 
against which it is vain to struggle, because the clipping of 
the wings is done either in their native place or on board 
ship to prevent the escape of the birds. It is all the more 
to be regretted in the large speakers, for, on the one hand, 
it often takes years before the stumps are replaced by new 
feathers, and, on the other, the parrots, thus deprived of their 
feathers, require especially careful, and, above all, competent 
treatment. Only when such a bird appears perfectly healthy 
and fat may it be bought without anxiety. 

There are various methods of setting about a satisfactory pur- 


chase ; nevertheless, whichever one may be selected, caution 
and, at least, some knowledge will be necessary, for the trade 
in live animals has its shady side, which may only too 
easily involve deception and consequent annoyance and disgust 
with the whole transaction. 

He who possesses a slight knowledge of these birds, and 
chiefly wants experience, may do best to buy a trained parrot, 
or, at least, one which is already acclimatised, and, if possible, 
half tamed. In the first place, the price must be considered, 
but, if the outlay of £5 and over is not a matter of much 
account, it is advisable to obtain a parrot which can speak, 
for, by this means, not only is one spared the trouble of 
training, and the chance of getting a useless or stupid bird, 
but one need not fear that the parrot may die during the 
process of training and acclimatisation. It must not be 
forgotten that in such a purchase it is necessary to have a 
guarantee that one has to do with a decidedly honest dealer, 
otherwise there will always be danger of being cheated. The 
value of such a speaker is, indeed, entirely fanciful ; one often 
hears the remark — it has even been found really to be so with 
the old Indian women in the forest — that a speaking bird is 
invaluable, because the owner will not part with it at anj^ 

Inasmuch, however, as well and properly treated parrots 
are, as a rule, able to bear many vicissitudes and live to a 
great age, the danger of a loss does not easily occur with 
an acclimatised bird, and as a good speaker finds at all times 
a ready sale at a moderate price, I cannot advise against 
the purchase of such a bird. In this there is really only 
the following to be attended to : First, get from the dealer 
the most exact information as to what the bird can do. Let 
this be obtained with certainty and with the understanding 
that the promise of what may be expected is rather less than 
more. Further, the seller should give full information as to 
former treatment, food, care, &c. This should always be re- 
quired in the purchase. 

It is more advantageous, if circumstances permit, to buy 
a quite untrained, or only half-taught parrot, and personally 
undertake the further instruction and education of the bird. 
A low price, however, incurs the chance that one may get 
a sickly bird, which dies in spite of the most careful nursing, 
or that one may buy an unmanageable old screamer which 


can hardly be taught anything. Whoever has opportunity, 
and knows something of the birds, will do well to select a 
Grey Parrot at the dealers'. Otherwise one must depend on 
the honesty of the seller. The first method certainly requires 
somewhat strong nerves ; for one must have heard the screeching 
which a number of Grey Parrots — say from eight to twenty — 
utter when packed together in one case, in order to be able 
to estimate what a great amount of affectionate interest is 
necessary if a novice is not to be frightened away for good 
and all. In the treatment, care, and training of such an 
untamed bird experience is needed, as I said before, from the 
want of which one may be exposed to annoyance and loss. 
Above al], knowledge of the previous management is necessary. 
When the parrots — mostly very young ones — have passed 
through the difficulties and dangers of the journey, and 
begin a hard struggle for life in becoming accustomed to 
our raw climate, the change of food, and the usage, which 
must terrify them greatly, and if they are not protected from 
draughts, changes of temperature, and other hurtful influences, 
yet nevertheless continue to thrive, there is certainly in this 
a proof that they possess an extraordinary and astonishing 
constitution. Of course, many are lost in this process, and 
in order to avoid this the greatest attention must be paid 
to the golden rule that every bird, like every animal, may 
be brought to exchange one kind of food for another without 
difficulty or danger, if it be done gradually ; but every 
sudden change works destruction, almost without exception. The 
bird, must, therefore, be managed at first exactly according to 
the directions of the dealer, and then accustomed, as its 
health may permit — perhaps after some weeks — to more suitable 
food, about which I shall give further details later on. 
This must be done in the following manner : The former 
food must be given in gradually lessening quantities, and the 
difference made up by the new. In case of necessity we must 
try to force the bird by hunger to take the latter. The 
example of a comrade which has long been accustomed to 
it is a great help, if placed beside the new arrival. 

In every transaction in living animals there are on the one 
side self-deceptions which are very difficult to avoid, and on 
the other, more dishonesty than in most bargains. It is a 
melancholy, but nevertheless undeniable fact, that only too often 
one party seeks to overreach the other, and that real or sup- 


posed, unintentional or planned, dishonesty is in such a matter 
to be found in persons otherwise thoroughly respectable. 
Anyone possessing a favourite bird, a talented creature, obtained, 
perhaps, after several failures, and which knows one or more 
speeches, is apt to consider it as a notable talker, and, in perfect 
conviction of the truth of this, declares it to be such. Now, 
circumstances occur which make a sale either desirable or 
necessary ; and then, without any evil intention, there is much 
more promised than the facts justify. On the other hand, many 
a buyer deceives himself with false hopes. He wishes to obtain 
an excellent bird for an extremely low price. Thus there are 
mutual deceptions, and consequently unavoidable quarrels and 
strife. Undeniably there are very many men in this trade who 
speculate in an unjustifiable manner upon the simplicity and 
credulity of others, cry up speaking parrots above their 
capabilities, and sell them much over their value. Indeed, 
surprising cases of deception come under my notice, in which 
quite untrained or old unintelligent birds have been sold as 
excellent speakers. 

A greater and more extensive evil, which under some cir- 
cumstances becomes suggestive of misdemeanour, arises out of 
so-called " acclimatised " birds. Under this title many parrots 
are put up for sale, which the inexperienced purchaser is 
made to believe, and even often feels fully convinced, offer 
the best guarantee of good quality in every respect. Now it 
is astonishing how much is included in the term " acclima- 
tised," or rather, how much it is made to include. Strictly 
speaking, a bird can only be regarded as acclimatised when it is 
not only quite accustomed to the country, but has moulted at 
least once, appears in full plumage, with all the other signs of 
health, and, above all things, is fully accustomed to the new 
diet and management. The vendor, especially the dealer, may, 
on the contrary, declare a parrot to be acclimatised when it has 
only in some degree become used to the change of climate and 
diet, and has only been imported a few months, or even weeks, 
no matter its condition. The slightest misadventure, especially 
the trials of a journey, may then cause sickness or death. The 
safeguard of such a guarantee of '* acclimatisation " is therefore 
nothing but an empty form of words. 

The next point which, indeed unnecessarily, gives rise to 
quarrels, is a want of knowledge and patience on the part 
of the buyer. One must be prepared, even in the case 


of an excellent, gifted, and well-taught parrot, to find that 
it will not, for the first few daj's, or, it may be, weeks, 
utter a word. Therefore, we may consider that these birds 
only speak or show off their powers in any direction when 
they feel physically quite well, safe, and comfortable. A 
proof of the mental endowments of the bird lies in the fact 
that with sharp wit it notices the alterations of its surround- 
ings, becomes used by degrees to the new circumstances, and 
then begins to feel at ease. I would beg my reader to turn 
for further information on this point to the section upon 
" Taming and Training." 

All parrots are conveyed wholesale in wooden chests, which 
are only wired in the front. As a rule, we find the recog- 
nised practical arrangement that the front wired side is so 
sloped off that one can see where to throw the food, and, 
at the same time, the sby birds can withdraw to the back- 
ground. The door is either placed in front in the bars or 
in the boards at the back, and is usually only just large 
enough for a bird to get through. There are no vessels for 
food, which ,is simply thrown on the floor. The large parrots 
mostly, as before mentioned, get no water at all, or it is only 
put in for them in earthen jars once or twice a day. In the 
cages of the lesser and smallest kind there usually hang 
simple jars or pots, which, unfortunately, are almost inva- 
riably fixed, so that they cannot be cleaned during the whole 
journey. Most cages are not even fitted with an arrange- 
ment for cleaning, so that the dirt, husks, and other refuse, 
as well as the excretions, lie rotting and infecting the air. 
Of late the cages sent out by the wholesale dealers for the 
sea voyage are so arranged that there is a movable border 
of about lin. to l^in. in width set in the front edge, close 
to the floor, through the opening of which the dirt is drawn 
out every day by means of an iron hook. Miss Christian 
Hagenbeck and others send out with their buyers very prac- 
tically arranged cage chests, capable of being disjointed ; 
therefore, I may with pleasure mention that there is on the 
part or many an earnest endeavour to abolish, or at least to 
mitigate, the evils mentioned. Naturally, there is still much 
left to be desired in this respect. 

For carriage inland, whether it be from the dealer to the 
amateur, or vice versa, the cages generally used are very suit- 
able, but otherwise appear very rough. They consist of a 



simple, oblong, wooden case, the front and upper side of which 
are barred, and the rest usually lined with thin zinc when 
intended for the larger parrots or for those much given to 
gnawing. The top slopes off to the back in proportion to 
the height of the bird, so that the back is only about two- 
thirds as high as the front. Either the top or the back forms 
a movable lid or door, through which the bird is taken in 
and out. In front, below the bars, this case has a space for 
food, separated from the floor by little boards or wooden 
laths ; and, further back, a thick perch, immediately above 
the floor. Most cages contain no water vessel, and often they 
are without a food trough or perch. It is rightly supposed 
that a parrot can do without drink for a short journey of 
three or four days, whereas a water vessel might be injurious 
to it, for in cold, cheerless weather the water sprinkled over 
it by the motion might cause it to take cold or some similar 
illness. Sometimes the endeavour has been made to prevent 
this by means of a sponge ; but, as a rule, the parrot pulls 
this out, and gets much more wet, or swallows it, and thereby 
brings on worse illness. English dealers fill the drinking 
vessel with bread, steeped in water, but this is not judicious, 
for it becomes sour and causes diarrhoea and the like. The 
pneumatic drinking vessel, which has lately been much used, 
may be recommended for parrots which have to travel a 
distance, but it must be entirely of metal, either zinc or 
tinned iron ; the cage, also, must be much larger than the 
customary ones, so that such a vessel may be put into it 
without cramping the bird too much ; the longer the journey 
the more space is required. For short distances it is best, 
as said before, that water should be left out. For convey- 
ance in cold seasons, special winter travelling cages are manu- 
factured, the outer part of which consists of a double case 
with a wired window, while the inner cage is a common 
travelling cage. 

Reception. — For every parrot ordered, or expected, the cage 
or stand should be in readiness, so that on its arrival it may 
not require to remain longer in the travelling case. In taking 
it out of the latter, and placing it in or on the former, especial 
care is needed. If possible, forcible means should not be used ; 
but, if it be found absolutely necessary, this part of the work 
should be done by someone who is entirely a stranger — remem- 
bering that the parrot will not forget it for a long time, and is. 


always sliy and friglatened or distrustful of anyone whom it 
supposes guilty of an offence of this kind towards it. 

On the arrival of many, indeed of most large parrots, it 
may be noted, an extremely disagreeable surprise is in store 
for the recipient, especially if he has no previous knowledge 
of the character and behaviour of such a bird. The anxiously 
expected Grey Parrot having arrived by the carrier, proceeds 
to fill the whole house with horror, for it screams " like a 
stuck pig ; " it can be quieted neither by kindness nor by 
anger, and behaves like a wild, untaught, unmanageable 
creature which cannot be treated by gentle means. Hence 
many an amateur has had his pleasure spoilt for ever, and only 
the connoisseur understands that it is exactly such birds 
which promise the best results, because they have the best 
talent. The great truth, *' The beginning is always difficult," 
must be recognised and remembered, especially in the fancy 
for parrots, for in hardly anything else do such splendid results 
and future pleasure repay the first difficulties. 

As soon as water and food have been placed in the permanent 
cage, the travelling case, with open door, should be placed 
directly opposite the open door of the former, so that the bird 
without any force may come out of the one and enter the other, 
and, if this should not take place quickly, patience must be 
exercised. If the parrot be so shy, and at the same time so 
stupid that it will not voluntarily leave the case, then a 
stranger, an entirely indifferent person, as said before, must 
catch it and take it out. This person, having drawn strong 
doeskin gloves on both hands, must wind a coarse linen towel 
round the right hand, and then, boldly and quickly, seize the 
parrot from behind by the head and neck, so that it cannot bite. 
This must be done with skill and caution, so that the valuable 
creature may not be in the least hurt. With the left hand 
it must be pushed at once, without delay, into the permanent 
cage, of which the door must be shut and the parrot left as 
long as possible to itself. 

If instead of a cage it is preferred to keep it on a ring or 
stand, it is most advisable that the inexperienced amateur, 
when giving the order to the dealer, should request him to put 
on the ring and chain in readiness. If it be necessary for the 
owner to have it done on arrival, then the bird should be seized 
as described above, but the beak should be held shut, and the 
head wrapped loosely in a cloth, then it is best to draw forward 


the left foot and firml}' screw on it the ring, which has been 
placed open and ready, while the other end of the chain must 
previously have been fastened to the stand. When letting the 
bird loose, as well as on approaching it afterwards, great care 
must be taken that it may not spring suddenly forward in wild 
anxiety, plunge down, and break or dislocate the leg. 

The small Long-tailed Parrots, or Parrakeets, as well as the 
smaller Short-tailed species, do not occasion so much trouble ; 
they must simply be left to come of their own accord out of 
the travelling cage, and go into the permanent cage when hunger 
induces them to do so. They are very rarely kept on stands 
or hoops. 

Unfortunately, it is often a long time before the terrified 
parrot regains its tranquillity after being dragged out by the 
dealer, and making a long journey in a narrow space ; a long 
time must elapse before it can summon courage, and not 
flutter violently, and give vent to the most deafening shrieks 
when anyone approaches it to clean the cage or give food. 
It is often weeks before it gradually becomes quiet, intelligent, 
and trustful, and soon afterwards teachable. 

If one has to deal with an untamed parrot, which is still 
quite wild and uncontrolled, it should not at first be placed 
either in the spacious permanent cage nor with a chain on a 
stand. In the former case, it will need a much longer time to 
accustom it to the new circumstances, and in the latter there 
is great danger of its suddenly plunging down in anxiety or 
fear, and injuring itself, as described above. 


Requirements of a good Parrot Cage — Square Cages — Cage of 
the Ornis Society of Berlin — Perches — Ornamental Cages — 
Open Stands — Chain and Leg Ring. 

The choice of a cage is important for any bird, but it is 
much more so for the members of the parrot family than 
for those of any other kind. This result of my experience, 
which I have already noticed in my work, *' The Foreign 

c 2 


Cage Birds," vol. iv. (Manual for the Management, Training, 
and Breeding of Cage Birds), I must here emphatically repeat, 
for it is especially of consequence for those parrots which are 
kept as speakers. 

Even fully acclimatised, well trained, and excellent speakers, 
get out of sorts, excited, and even ill, if obliged to change 
the habitation, and if the new one is not perfectly satisfactory. 
A newly-acquired parrot, again, needs a much longer time 
to settle down, and is much more difficult to tame and teach, 
if not provided from the commencement with a thoroughly 
comfortable cage. 

A good parrot cage should fulfil the following require- 
ments : 1. It must afford abundant space for the bird to 
have the necessary motion (this will be discussed more fully 
later on). 2. The best shape is a simple square, slightly 
vaulted at the top, without any projections, curves, flourishes, 
or such like decorations. 3. The cage for every parrot, but 
especially for every large parrot, should be entirely of metal. 

The most ordinary form of cage for single speakers is the 
simple square, not even vaulted at the top, and only slightly 
rounded at the sides, made of strong tinned iron wire ; mostly 
with wooden socles, and over the floor, at about an equal level 
with the socle, a grating also of strong wire. This cage has 
many defects. First, it is, as a rule, too small ; then the food 
and drinking vessels must be hooked inside, which, in the case 
of a parrot given to biting, is very dangerous ; finally, the wire 
grating and socle, together with the drawers (both the latter 
being usually of wood), are worse than useless. The " Ornis " 
Society of Bird Fanciers, in Berlin, had cages made for the 
accommodation of the parrots at its exhibition, which I may 
recommend as model cages (Fig. 1). Such a cage gives 
abundant room for movement, for it is 2^ft. high, and 
always 17in. in length and breadth for the Grey Parrots, 
the Amazons, Cockatoos, and all parrots of similar size ; 
while for the larger species, up to the Macaws, it must 
naturally be increased proportionately in size ; and for the 
smaller down to the Brotogerys and Undulated Parrakeets, 
it must be made smaller. The upper part is made of strong 
tinned wire, Jin. in diameter, and l^in. apart. The socle, 
drawers, and floor, are made of tinned iron plate ; the latter 
may consist, for greater convenience in cleaning, of a wire 
grating. The above-mentioned wire grating over the floor is 



abolislaed, first of all because the bird may break its leg in it, 

also because the dirt gathers in it in an offensive way ; but 
chiefly, because every parrot feels the need of stretching itself 
upon the ground, and bathing in the sand. The zinc drawer 
must also be easy to push in and out, so that the excretions may 
daily be sea-aped off, and the floor freshly strewed with dry, 

Fig. 1.— Cage of the Ornis Society of Berlin. 

clean sand. These movable drawers must be fastened outside 
with holdfasts or strong hooks, so that the mischievous parrot 
cannot open them. The socle should always be of a good height, 
at least 2|in. broad, otherwise the parrot will make the room 
very dirty by scratching out sand, &c. The door must be wide 
enough to allow of the bird being taken in and out easily, 


about 6in. or Tin. in width. It is mostly constructed to fall 
down from above ; but, as this is very inconvenient, it can also 
be made to open sideways ; in any case, it must fasten securely 
with a long hook, or a spring holdfast. Almost every parrot, 
especially the larger ones, whether it be from weariness, wan- 
tonness, or mischief, employs itself busily in breaking off 
anything that is not firm and secure in the cage, and 
particularly in bursting the fastening of the door. 

The perch needs much attention. In order that it may not 
be gnawed, it was formerly the custom to cover it with thin 
iron plate ; this, however, caused the bird much suffering, 
for, in the first place, it soon became so smooth that the 
parrot could with difficulty keep its position, often fell down 
at night, and suffered much from the continual exertion of 
holding fast ; secondly, it brought on corns and blisters to the 
feet by the pressure of the hard metal ; and thirdly, being a 
good conductor of heat, it gave the bird cold in the feet and 
stomach, and thus caused disease. By a suitable arrangement 
there is now introduced, on each side of the cage, below the 
food and drinking vessels, an iron ring, or a socket of strong 
zinc, and in this the perch is firmly wedged. For the perch, 
a piece of fresh stick, of not too hard wood, with the bark 
on it, should be chosen, and, as soon as it has been gnawed, 
it can, without difficulty, be replaced by another. If a stick 
without bark should be chosen, it must not be too smooth, 
but somewhat rough. A practical arrangement has lately been 
adopted for the food and drinking vessels ; an arched or 
hollow cover is soldered on, which encloses the food, so that 
the parrot cannot throw out and scatter the seed, &c., nor 
sprinkle the water about, as it can from the open vessels. 
These are pushed in, and, at the back of each, there is a 
wire grating, which prevents the bird escaping when the food 
and water are being changed. A perfectly satisfactory parrot 
cage should not be wanting in one particular which I consider 
most important, that is, a short comfortable perch in the 
upper part of the cage, to which the bird, when enjoying 
itself, can climb, on which it can sit comfortably and stretch 
out its wings. One unpleasant result of this is that it dirties 
the bars of the cage from this position ; this must either 
be at once cleaned, or a convenient drawer, with sand to catch 
it, must be introduced below the high perch. The ordinary 
much-used swing in the cage is, in my opinion, not only super- 


fluous, but even injurious, because it disturbs the comfort of the 
parrot and lessens the space necessary for it to stretch its wings. 

Cages for the lesser and smallest of the parrots, which are 
kept singly as speakers— also for the Alexandrine Parrakeets 
and the tJndulated Parrakeets — should resemble in all the 
arrangements the pattern cage of the " Ornis Society," of 
which an illustration has be6n given, with this difference, 
that the smaller the bird, the lighter should the wire frame 
be, the narrower the space between the wires, and the thinner 
the wire used ; also, for those kinds which do not gnaw, the 
socles and the drawers may be of wood, because parrots are 
known to belong to those birds which do not make much 
dirt. On the other hand, the wooden drawers are incon- 
venient for the bathing, and, therefore, a close grating must 
always be placed under them, instead of a floor, upon which 
the bath should be placed while the drawer is taken out. 
The space left open by the absence of the drawer must be 
closed by means of a trap door. In these cages it is more 
convenient if the door closes by sliding down along the wire 
bars. The drinking vessels should always be of glass or 
porcelain. The ordinary flower-pot saucer of stone ware, or, 
preferably, of porcelain, is the most suitable bathing vessel 
for all kinds of parrots ; or a common spittoon may be used. 
As these parrots do not alone climb, but, as a rule, like 
to fly and hop, the cage must have three perches, one high 
up, and the other two in the middle. 

Many amateurs wish their speaking bird to appear as an 
ornament in the household decoration, and have, therefore, 
the most splendid cage possible. In consequence, one sees 
many thoroughly unpractical cages, either round or of 
cylindrical, conical, or turreted form, made of brass plate 
or wire. Apart from the fact that such cages cramp the 
bird, or, at least, give it by no means suflScient space and 
comfortable quarters, many dangers lurk in them. The metal, 
as is well known, forms verdigris if not kept most carefully 
cleaned and dry ; and further, the stuff used for cleaning 
endangers the health and life of the bird. 

Cages of iron wire, either tinned or overlaid with zinc or 
other metal, may also form a pretty ornament for the room, and 
may, if wished, be painted according to fancy. Care must, 
however be taken to use a hard and quickly drying lacquer, 
and that the bird is not put into the cage until the colour, 


which must, of course, be quite free from poison, be perfectly 
dry. Of late a colourless lacquer has come into use, with 
which the shining brass may be washed over, and then dried 
so hard that the parrot's beak is not able to scratch it off, and, 
at the same time, the brass cannot form verdigris. If the 
unnatural round shape be set aside and the cage be built in 
the '' Ornis " or some other practical shape, brass may be 
chosen as the material. If this metal be used without the 
lacquer and the cage requires cleaning, the bird must always 
be taken out during the operation, and not put in again until 
the polished bars have been thoroughly rubbed dry and clean 
with a soft linen cloth. Most cleaning stuffs, especially the 
so-called oxalic acid, are very poisonous. 

Many amateurs prefer, instead of a cage, to have the parrot 
kept on an open stand in a ring or hoop. The arrangements of 
this kind known at present aire, unfortunately, on the whole, 
quite as unpractical and useless as many cages ; indeed, they 
may, as a rule, be considered an article of luxury. They are to 
be had of different kinds, and the worst of them are made 
entirely, even including the perch, of the hardest polished 
wood. What was said before on this point may here be 
repeated — the perch must always be easily replaced. 

The simplest parrot stand is a frame of about the height of a 
man, consisting of a column of hard polished wood, with a knob 
on the top, and below, above the foot, a contrivance about 
twenty-six inches long and twenty inches broad, in which is 
placed a movable drawer, the floor of this being thickly strewn 
with sand, as in the cage. On the sides of this are fixed the food 
and water vessels, while on the column a stair-like climbing pole 
of about six inches in width is attached, reaching up to the 
upper perch, about twenty inches long. The perch must not 
be too high, but passes at about the height of oft. Gin. 
through the column. At the ends of this perch the food 
and drinking vessels may be placed more conveniently than 
below. The vessels must always be most securely fastened, 
because the parrot sitting free thus employs itself all the more 
busily with them. They are most suitably arranged as drawers 
pushed into a leaden case, open at the top, the projecting edges 
of which, bent inwards, hold them firmly. 

More frequently one sees parrot stands with hoops or rings 
(Fig. 2). With the exception of the perch, they are, as a rule, 
made entirely of metal. Respecting the material and the 

Fig. 2. — PAEROT STAND. 


form, taste and fancy may here reign supreme, so long as two 
chief conditions are fulfilled — firstly, that the hoop is roomy in 
proportion to the size of the bird ; and, secondly, that the 
drawer (as described above) is arranged below the perch. The 
parrot stands which do not satisfy the two last demands I 
exclude as altogether useless. Those luxurious stands which, 
instead of answering these practical requirements, are furnished 
with fish globes, and even a cage for a smaller bird, are not only 
far from comfortable for the occupant, but, on the contrary, 
really involve cruelty to animals. The hoop for a parrot of the 
size of the Jacko must have a perch 2ft. long, and the arch must 
be about 20in. At the side^^ are placed the food and water 
vessels, concerning which and the perch the previous remarks 
hold good. I must mention the following advantages which I 
consider as essentials, although they are often neglected : 
First of all, every such stand should have an arrangement for 
climbing, by which the bird can get down to the drawer, so that 
it can daily, for at least an hour, paddle about in the sand, and 
satisfy an instinct of which I shall speak again later on. If 
such a contrivance be wanting the bird is made miserable, and it 
is by no means sufficient for it to have a firm seat above the 
hoop, for I consider this to be absolutely necessary in all cases, 
even when the hoop does not swing so loosely as to be set in 
motion by a slight touch. The natural motion of climbing is 
always much missed, and by the introduction of the upper perch 
an endeavour should be made to supply it as far as possible. 
The parrot stand shown in the illustration is so arranged that 
by means of two screws it can be lowered even to the foot, in 
order to render it possible for the bird to reach the drawer with 
the sand. The chain may also be lengthened by half, if it be 
made from light metal, so that the parrot may not be hindered 
in any way from walking over the whole space of the floor of 
the drawer. This stand has no special upper perch. If the 
bird wishes to climb, and the chain is long enough, it can easily 
clamber on to the upper arch of the stand. The chain, then, 
must be not only long enough, but it must have a swivel in the 
centre, so that the bird may turn in any direction and not get 
entangled. There may also sometimes be a perch screwed on to 
the arch at the top, and, finally, the chain may be so arranged 
that, when the parrot is again seated quietly in the hoop, the 
half may be removed, so that the foot has not to bear the whole 
weight continually. 


The owner, according to his judgment, may take off the hoop 
and hang it in the open air, or on the branch of a tree ; but 
there must always be a spring fastening on the hook, so that the 
parrot may not itself loosen the hoop and fall down with it. 

The most important, and, at the same time, the most diflScult 
matter, is the chain and the leg ring by which the parrot is 
fastened to the stand or hoop. All the parrot chains at 
present known in the trade are unsuitable. The choice of 
metal for it is, above all things, critical. Copper, brass, 
silver, and others are dangerous, owing to the formation of 
verdigris, and, like iron, are almost too heavy, so that such 
a chain annoys the bird by its great weight on the foot. 
Aluminium, which has lately been introduced, offers too slight 
a resistance to the beak, and would be cut through by it as 
by pincers. Upon these rocks are wrecked the hopes of 
finding any other suitable metal. There is yet a greater 
difficulty with regard to the foot ring, for it presses with 
the hard edge on the place where it is fixed — that is to say, 
on the side of the foot where the chain hangs down — and 
causes painful indurations of the skin, or else rubs it sore, 
and the fastening can scarcely resist the restless activity and 
really artist-like skill of the parrot in the use of its beak. 
Moreover, until the bird has become accustomed to the stand, 
it is likely to free itself, and do all sorts of mischief in the 
room, or, perhaps, escape, never to be seen again. 

There is nothing further to be said now than repeat the 
invitation which I have already addressed, in my above- 
mentioned ''Manual of the Care, Training, and Breeding of 
Cage Birds," to those who are skilled in this matter, to consider 
how to obtain suitable foot chains and rings in which all these 
evils are avoided, which are thoroughly firm and secure, and, at 
the same time, so light that they do not painfully burden 
the bird. It is certainly best, when a speaking parrot is 
accustomed to the hoop and ring, that it should never designedly 
be left unchained. For this there are many reasons, and there 
is, at least, always the danger lest the bird, getting a sudden 
fright, or otherwise being disturbed from its rest, might fly 
away through the open window, even if it had sat in the same 
room for ten years or more. 



Improper Feeding by Wholesale Buyers and Importers — Natural 
Food of Parrots — Corresj)onding Food in Captivity — Evils 
of Careless Feeding — Dietary Requisites — Lime — Drinking 
and Bathing Water. 

Suitability of food, always of surpassing importance, is ob- 
viously imperative in the case of tlie more valuable speakers. 
With reference to what I have already stated in a previous chapter, 
I will, first of all, once more point out that the wholesale buyer 
and importer have, up to the present, acted wrongly in this 
matter, and thus from the beginning sown the seeds of sickness 
or death. The large speakers are fed in their native places, 
after they are reared, with chewed maize, either with the same 
grain in a dry, hard condition, with or without the addition 
of ship-biscuits, or with bananas and other tropical fruits, as 
well as with boiled maize, boiled potatoes, &c., and many, 
kinds — especially the lories — get soaked East Indian rice. 
Everyone who brings over parrots feeds them according to his 
own notions and knowledge, and it may well be imagined that 
one and the same species is frequently managed in many 
different ways. In this lies the cause of manifold evils, and 
there is, indeed, a most pressing necessity that the entire import 
trade in parrots, and their management on the way, should 
be regulated with uniformity. The wholesale dealers must 
make an effort in this direction by demanding strong, healthy 
birds, and this can onl}'- be obtained by having the food and 
management from the first arranged suitably and naturally. 
It may be objected that this is not possible until the mode 
of life and sustenance in a state of freedom is fully known. 
The attainment of this object would require considerable travel 
and exploration, which, unfortunately, would have to extend 
to very distant regions. I can, however, most decidedly — as it 
is — express the opinion and repeat it, that the present modes 
of importation of all — and especially of the larger parrots — are, 
without exception, more or less pernicious. 

It is unquestionable that all the last-named birds, when in 
freedom, live chiefly on farinaceous seeds, to a slight extent on 
oily seeds, and partly, also, on the fresh and delicate parts 

FOOD. 29 

of plants. Therefore it is right to feed them in the new 
condition mostly with maize, together with some oats and the 
addition of some well-baked wheaten bread, not sour. The 
maize may be given either raw or boiled. The latter must 
be done in the following way : It must be soaked until a grain 
taken out will receive the impression of the finger-nail ; then 
the water must be poured off, and the grains rubbed dry 
with a coarse linen cloth. The wheaten bread, say, French bread, 
or Vienna rolls (not milk bread), must be stale and dried till 
hard, then broken in pieces and moistened with the smallest 
possible quantity of water. When it is perfectly soft the crust 
should be taken off with a knife, and the crumb alone squeezed, 
so that the whole is soft and crumby, but not sticky or 

Mr. Karl Hagenbeck was the first to point out, and I entirely 
agree with him, that all mashy food — that is to say, moistened 
bread, boiled maize, and the like — are injurious to these 
parrots, and their use, be it for a short time or for long, is 

They should, therefore, be accustomed to feed only on hard 
dry maize — horse's tooth in preference to pearl — and oats, 
both, of course, in the very best condition, also on well-baked, 
dry, not fresh, yet by no means old and dry, wheaten bread, 
which must on no account be mouldy, smell damp, or taste 
sour ; instead of this, the well-known ship's biscuit may be 
given dry and unmoistened. The grains of maize, when they are 
given dry, must first be scalded with boiling water to kill any 
possible animal or vegetable parasitical vermin ; of course, it is 
necessary, after the water has been poured off, to rub them 
with a clean cloth and put them in a hot place to dry well. 
With this simple food one may, in my opinion, keep the larger 
parrots constantly in good condition and avoid all evil or 

As soon as the parrot has become quite at home and 
thoroughly healthy and strong, one may begin to give it 
some refreshing additions in the shape of fruit. This should 
be carefully done with a cherry, grape, a piece of apple, of 
pear, or the like, according to the season, all, of course, in the 
best condition. One must, however, at first carefully notice 
the excretions of the bird, and, if they are slimy, watery, or, 
indeed, even loose, the giving of fruit must be at once dis- 
continued. Maize in the head and in a half-ripe condition, 


in a milky state, as it is usually called, may be given with 
equal or even better effect, the same precaution being used. 
As occasional tit-bits for the large talkers, hazel or walnuts, 
the so-called Brazilian earth nuts, or even sweet almonds, may 
be given, but a rule should be made that all such things should 
first be carefully tasted, to make sure that no bad, decayed, 
kernel or bitter almond be amongst them ; the last-named is 
well known to be a poison, and it may here be incidentally 
remarked that parsley is considered poisonous for parrots. All 
southern fruits, such as bananas, dates, figs, oranges, &;c., should 
not be given at all to the large speakers, or only with the 
greatest caution, each fruit being carefully tasted first. In the 
same way raw or boiled carrots, raw or roasted sweet chestnuts, 
melons, raisins, and different berries should be avoided, for one 
cannot be sure whether they may not be hurtful ; on the 
contrary, perfectly ripe, fresh, or well-dried roan or service 
berries may be given without hesitation. Green food I consider 
superfluous for the members of this group ; salad, or leaves of 
the different cabbages, are also dangerous. However, twigs to 
gnaw may always be given, at first of dry, moderately-hard, 
wood ; when quite accustomed to this, the bird may have 
branches with bark, buds, or leaves, preference being given 
to willow, poplar, all kinds of fruit trees, birch, beech, and 
even pine woods. I consider the very hard woods, containing 
tanning acids, as less suitable. Every parrot needs wood to 
gnaw, firstly, as a natural employment for its beak, and, 
secondly, as a fresh and suitable nourishment. An experienced 
parrot keeper, Mr. C. Dulitz, has pointed out the true inclination 
for animal or vegetable fat, and, in accordance with this opinion, 
many amateurs give, every day, a little piece of bread not too 
thickly spread with butter. Mr. Hagenbeck also allows a small 
piece of light cake, not too fatty, but I prefer to give some good 
light dry biscuit ; now and then a little piece of the best hard 
sugar cannot do any harm. It is probably well known that all 
the large parrots eat with avidity all kinds of human sustenance, 
roast meat, vegetables, potatoes, and, indeed, strange to say, not 
only sweet things, but also either salted, pickled, or peppery 
delicacies, and cases have been known where a bird, thus fed, 
has kept in excellent health and lived many years ; but, as a 
rule, valuable parrots are lost by the use of such unnatural 
food. The first consequence is frequently a miserable ailing 
condition, in which the bird itself plucks out its feathers ; of 

FOOD. 31 

tMs I shall speak further in the section "Diseases." In other 
cases various evils occur, only too often an illness in the 
whole body, so that the poor creature must die miserably of 
internal and external ulcers. It is not yet fully determined 
whether parrots which are kept separately in a cage really need 
animal food, such as mealworms or ant grubs. The African 
traveller, Soyaux, says that the Grey Parrots are known in 
West Africa as destroyers of the nests of other birds, and there 
are many examples of the different kinds of parrots in freedom 
being carnivorous ; but who can positively decide whether this 
is a natural or an abnormal occurrence ? 

The above directions as to food hold good in general for 
the following genera : Grey Parrots, Black Parrots, Amazons, 
Noble Parrots or Eclecti (but for the last-named more fruit is 
advisable), all Cockatoos, and the Macaws. 

All medium-sized parrots are fed with oats, hemp, canary 
seed, and millet ; the smaller kinds solely with the three last- 
named seeds. No hemp should be given the latter, because 
it is said to be injurious to them ; whereas for the former, 
as well as for the larger species, it is considered one of the 
best articles of diet, especially if they are very weak. As an 
addition, there are various other seeds — many kinds of millet 
(white, Senegal, and the different kinds which grow in the 
ear) — which may be given, as well as dry or fresh ears of 
corn, besides sunflower, dyer's saffron, and other seeds. With 
the exception of the oats and other grain, the latter, as well 
as all kinds of grass seeds, should rather be given in ears and 
panicles ; also heads of maize, half ripe. Oily seeds should 
never be given before they are fully ripe, for they may thus 
be very injurious, hemp especially. Some species, such as 
the large Alexandrine Parrakeet, eat dry maize, like the great 
parrots. To most of these it is absolutely necessary to give 
some sweet fruit daily, not merely occasionally, as with the 
former. On the whole, the instructions given on p. 29 also hold 
good here ; but there is less need to be anxious about giving 
southern fruits if only the precaution be taken to taste each 
separately. Green food is also a necessity for these species, and 
I recommend, besides the common chickweed, mignonette and 
tradescantia (spiderwort) ; cabbage and salad should never be 
given to these parrots. All green food must, of course, be in 
the best condition — clean, dry, not wet with dew or rain, on no 
account mildewed, or beginning to decay — and care should 


be taken that no leaves in such a condition be among it. 
Many of these species are bred in captivity*, and then they 
require, in addition to varieties of seed and fruit, some animal 
food, such as ant-grubs and mealworms. When kept only as 
speakers they should seldom or never get this food. With 
respect to tit-bits of all kinds, and the gnawing of branches 
or sticks, the directions given for the large parrots may be 
exactly followed. 

The genera to which the foregoing remarks apply are the 
following : Long-winged Parrots, Cockatiels, Long-billed Parra- 
keets (Henicognathus), Noble or Alexandrine Parrakeets, Wedge- 
tailed Parrakeets, Thick-billed Parrakeets, Slender-billed Parra- 
keets, Flat-tailed Parrakeets, and Undulated Parrakeets. 

The members of the remaining group, the Lories, must be dif- 
ferently fed, in accordance with their food in freedom. It is less 
possible in their case than in that of any other species to give 
the natural nourishment, for they are said to subsist partly on 
extremely sugary tropical fruits, and honey from the blossoms, 
and partly on insects. Of the substitutes which have been given 
them, and, I am pleased to say, with the best results, I will 
speak at greater length when describing this genus fully. 
Here, however, I may state explicitly that many of the 
articles of diet given satisfactorily in hot regions, especially 
soaked Indian rice,t boiled potatoes, tropical fruits, such as 
bananas, fee, very often — indeed, almost invariably — cause 
sickness and death. On the contrary, experience has taught us 
that the Broad-tailed or True Lories, and the Lorikeets, can only 
be considered hardy in this country when they are quite 
accustomed to live on seed, principally canary seed, but also 
on the different kinds of millet and oats. Some, such as the 
Blue Mountain Lory, eat seed by preference. Besides the 
two genera mentioned above, the Cropped-tailed Lory, or Nestor, 
may be here included. Although it has been asserted that it 
must get raw meat, it has been proved that it will keep in 
perfectly good health on the same food as its fellows. 

Having given so many directions upon this subject, it 
is only necessary for me to repeat now that all the articles 

* Directions for tlii^ breeding of parrots may be found in Rnss' " Manual 
for Bird Fanciers" (Handbuch filr Vogelliebbaber," Vol. I. ; Magdeburg). 

t The rice sbould be soaked in water, and then parboiled, the water poiired off 
and the pot with the half-cooked grains put in a hot place, and allowed to steam 
until fully cooked. Rice thus prepared is said to taste better, and to be more 
wholesome, than when wholly cooked in water. 

FOOD. 38 

of food which a parrot gets must be in every respect in per- 
fectly good condition. All seed must be full grown and well 
ripened, free from dirt and foreign seeds ; not too fresh (hemp 
especially), or it may cause diarrhoea ; nevertheless, not dried up 
nor rancid. It is also important, with regard to fruit, that it 
should not have been plucked too soon, then ripened, and probably 
become sour, but well grown, and ripened on the tree. Nor 
must it be in a soft state, over ripe and " squashy," but fresh 
and well flavoured. Careful attention must be given that in 
winter it be not icy cold, but only given after it has been cut 
into several pieces, laid in a warm room, and acquired the 
temperature of the surrounding air. If white bread be given, 
it must be well baked, as said before, without leaven, and with- 
out, or with only the least possible quantity of barm, not 
doughy or unevenly baked, but spongy and porous. It is also 
as important that it be not moistened in too much water, or for 
too long, lest all the nourishment be taken away. 

The directions hitherto given should serve as a general guide 
for the feeding of the parrots here treated of. Of course, 
I shall enter into fuller particulars of the special management 
and diet of each species when I speak in detail of each. 

All birds, and therefore all parrots, the single speaker, as 
well as the breeding couple, need lime to eat. Animal lime, 
in the form of the cuttlefish shell, appears most suitable, is 
eaten with relish on account of the salt contained in it, and 
is very wholesome. It is necessary, however, to avoid giving it 
to newly imported parrots, as it may cause immoderate thirst, 
and the drinking of much water, to which they are unaccus- 
tomed, tends to bring on diarrhoea. A whole shell, or at 
least a large piece, should be wedged between the bars of the 
cage. The next best thing is calcined oyster shells ; lime 
from old walls, and chalk, may also be recommended. Sand — 
good, clean, dry, fine sand, not dusty (silver sand is best) is — 
not only one of the best means of cleansing the cage, and 
keeping it clean, but it is also a necessity for health, as parrots, 
like other birds, swallow small stones to aid digestion. 

I will return later on to the subject of the Grey Parrots, 
Amazons, and others, as I have already mentioned, being often 
kept entirely without water. I may, however, here incidentally 
mention that I consider such treatment to be thoroughly inju- 
rious, and would impressively warn anyone against buying a parrot 
which has been kept without water to drink. The common 



custom of giving bread soaked in tea or coffee is, in my opinion, 
most mischievous, for, on the one hand, the small quantity of, 
it may be, warm fluid cannot satisfy the natural craving, and, 
on the other, mashy food overloads the stomach, disturbs the 
digestion, and thus either makes the bird ill, or is insufficient 
to maintain it in good health for any length of time, especially 
if, as is often unfortunately the case, it is entirely or even 
chiefly, fed on it, or if it lives on as much as it can get of this 
food, and refuses the more wholesome corn diet. 

With regard to drinking water, there are special precautionary 
measures to be attended to. Just as a human being may become 
more or less seriously ill if he drinks water from a strange 
well, without becoming gradually accustomed to it, so is it with 
birds, particularly with parrots. They should, therefore, at first 
only be allowed cold water which has been boiled, and not too 
m.uch at a time, at most five mouthfuls at once, and that about 
twice daily. By degrees the boiled water may be mixed with 
common water ; it must not be quite fresh or ice cold, but 
should have stood about an hour, and have acquired the tempera- 
ture of the room. Even when the parrot is fully acclimatised it 
should only get lukewarm water. The smaller species are mostly 
accustomed to an abundance of drinking and bathing water ; they 
must, therefore, get it, but always with the precaution that it 
should be lukewarm. 


Susceptibility of Parrots to Teaching — Taming hy Force — 
Aptitude for Taming and Teaching — Conditions to he Ob- 
served — Signs of a Talented Bird — Practical Directions for 
Training — Differences of Capability in Different Parrots — 
Mental Endowments oj the Parrot — Understands the Appli- 
cation of Words. 

The predilection and capability of parrots for imitation are 
not limited to human words, but extend to all sorts of other 
sounds. With such gifts a bird may be extremely valuable^ 


but it may also become just as unbearable and worthless. It 
gives the owner pleasure when the parrot learns to pronounce 
or even sing words, to pipe or whistle airs ; indeed, the songs 
of other birds are often repeated more or less faithfully ; but 
how unpleasant is it when it imitates the screaming cries 
of all the other birds which it hears, repeats all sorts of 
shrill sounds, such as the crowing of cocks, the barking of 
dogs, the creaking of doors, the whistling of steam engines, 
the crying of children, &c. ! It must, therefore, be the task 
of the trainer to divert its attention from all disagreeable, 
and to accustom it to pleasant sounds. 

Although the love of parrots in all their varieties is surpris- 
ingly active and wide-spread, yet it would assuredly be much 
more extensive if many real or supposed drawbacks did not 
present themselves. Many people have a dislike to parrots on 
account of their ''amphibious-like climbing"; "their deceit, 
cunning, and ill-temper" ; ''their dreadful noise" ; in short, on 
account of many disagreeable habits ; but, according to my firm 
conviction, founded on years of experience and exact observa- 
tion, all such complaints rest solely on prejudice, ignorance, or 
on the fault of the owner. The case is yet worse if, as Mr. 
Dulitz says, the parrot keeper happens not to be a lover of birds. 
The beautiful bird, in its pretty cage, serves only as an orna- 
ment to the room. The talent of learning to pronounce words 
at first gives pleasure, but after the charm of novelty has worn 
off the bird only serves to amuse visiting friends and acquaint- 
ances. It becomes more and more indifferent or wearisome to 
its owner ; its care is left to the servants, and its fate becomes 
joyless and pitiable, indeed it soon grows hateful to its owner. 
Almost every parrot, particularly if highly gifted and lively, 
wishes to love and to be loved — a fact which the amateur should 
never forget. Whoever cannot fulfil this chief condition of the 
parrot's well-being does very wrong in buying such a bird. All 
mistakes in training, instead of producing the good results 
which training ought, go. on the contrary, to bring out objec- 
tionable qualities. A grave truth is contained in the saying 
that " He who is not himself well instructed should not presume 
to instruct others" — be it man or animal. Nevertheless the 
training of our most favoured friends in the animal world, of 
our most intimate companions among domestic animals, is, as a 
rule, left in the hands of rough people, often not even good 
tempered, and generally incapable of doing their work well. 



Thus we see domestic animals spoilt — dogs, good tempered and 
obedient by nature., changed into wicked biting curs ; cats, 
deceitful and treacherous ; parrots, stupid, ill-tempered, and in- 
sufferable screamers. This is the more to be regretted because 
a well-trained animal of any kind is undoubtedly an estimable 
companion to man, capable of being to him, under certain 
circumstances, a friend in the fullest sense of the word. I 
will, therefore, endeavour to give directions how to obtain this 
most desirable result. 

Up to the present, experience has given us no tokens by which 
we may know at once with certainty whether a bird is more 
or less talented. Of course, the eye of a connoisseur may to 
some extent judge whether a parrot will turn out well, and 
prove gifted, easily tamed, and teachable ; cheerfulness, quick- 
ness, a bright shining eye, attention to all that is going on 
&;c., show the probability that we have "a good bird" before 
us ; but we cannot be quite certain of it, because there are 
many examples extant in which these signs have proved 
deceptive, and the parrot has been stubborn and stupid ; whereas 
another, which sat dull at first, has afterwards developed into 
an excellent speaker. Difference of sex may in this respect be 
regarded as unimportant, and, in spite of many opinions 
to the contrary, makes no difference in talent ; certainly, up 
to the present, nothing is known in support of such opinions 
as regards most of the large kinds. It is probably very 
generally known that the larger parrots live to a great age ; 
in a state of freedom probably all, with the exception of those 
which fall a victim to accident, and in captivity all those which 
enjoy suitable treatment. Naturally, the older a bird when 
caught, the more difficult it is to acclimatise and train, and the 
first thing to remember, in buying a bird which one wishes to 
teach to speak, is that the younger it is when purchased, the 
more amenable it is to teaching. Yet many cases are known in 
which the so-called " old screamers," that have little value in 
the trade, have become excellent speakers, though, of course, 
only after they have been years in captivity. As an example 
I may mention the Grey Parrot belonging to Mr. Neubauer, 
principal of the Grammar School at Eawitsch, which, when 
nearly twenty years of age, after being in his possession 
three years, began to speak, and learnt more than two hundred 
words, in three languages — German, Polish, and French. Every 
teachable and easily tamed parrot becomes naturally more and 


more docile as it becomes more accustomed to its abode, and 
the more it learns the less frequently is the disagreeable cry 

Dealers in a small way of business tame parrots, as a 
rule, by force, in a similar manner to the Indian women. 
Equipped with strong doeskin gloves, the man seizes the bird 
by the legs, pulls it out of the cage, without heeding its 
screeching and biting, holds it firmly on the forefinger of the 
left hand, and strokes it with the right until it yields to its fate 
and becomes tame and quiet. For this courage is before all 
things necessary, besides skill, perseverance, patience, and 
indifference to the great pain which, in spite of the gloves, the 
bites of the bird cause. The pincer-like form of the parrot's 
beak produces, when it bites hard, bruises and bleeding wounds, 
which are very painful and diflScult to heal. Great precaution 
must be taken against treacherous biting. It has been noticed 
that, as a rule, the small parrots bite much more frequently 
and more viciously than the large, for the latter really only bite 
when they are much enraged, but then, of course, very 
dangerously. In order to break them off the habit of biting 
they should be struck with the forefinger on the beak whenever 
they attempt it. I may here remark that almost all parrots, 
especially the larger species, are dangerous to other cage birds 
near them, or which may perhaps fly round the room in which 
they are. 

Amateurs will also often follow the above mode of proceeding, 
because, although it requires great exertion, yet it leads to the 
desired end more quickly than any other course. Mr. Meyer, 
the Comptroller of the King's Household, in Berlin, relates 
how he has often done it ; shutting himself up with a totally 
untrained Grey Parrot in a room, and treating the wild, 
struggling, screeching, and apparently uncontrollable bird in 
the manner described, for days if necessary, from morning till 
night, and even on into the night, until its timidity and defiance 
were at last conquered and it became tame and docile from 
weariness and hunger. Taming in this way must be regarded as 
one of the most difficult tasks in bird training, and I would not 
therefore recommend it to all amateurs. For if other modes 
of proceeding be slower and occupy more time, yet they have 
the advantage of establishing more friendly relations between 
the man and the bird, whereas this breaking in certainly cannot 
render the human heart mild and gentle. It also appears to 


me that a bird which has been thus put under control by such 
forcible means must always have the impression of slavery ; on 
the contrary, those which are trained in love and friendship are 
always naturally more attached to their master. 

Taming and training can only be carried on without difficulty 
and with the best results when the teacher is really possessed of 
a certain aptitude for it. There are people who can perform a 
difficult task of this kind with astonishing ease, while others, 
on the contrary, although they may have greater experience and 
much more knowledge, find it always difficult. 

When it is observed, however, that all kinds of birds are at 
once fearless, and even confident, towards the one, and with 
the other, even after years of intercourse, never become quite 
quiet and tame, one must involuntarily accept the supposition 
that it does not depend on the conduct nor manner of treat- 
ment, but from the very first must be founded on the outward 
appearance. It is said that parrots, like children, are frightened 
at a bearded man, whereas, at least in general, they show more 
affection to ladies and children. It is also said that male 
parrots are more amenable and loving towards women, and 
vice versa, females towards men, but conclusive observations 
with regard to such statements have not yet been made. 

In order to train a bird rapidly and completely, the following 
conditions, dictated by experience, must not be forgotten. The 
seat must never be higher, but always lower than the position of 
the human eye. It must always be placed so that the caretaker, 
or trainer, be between it and the light. The bird must always 
(especially in the case of the larger parrots) be rendered as far as 
possible helpless, for the more it finds itself in human power, 
the more easily it will become tame, and at the same time the 
sooner amenable to instruction. 

It should, therefore, at once be put in a very narrow cage, or 
chained upon a stand. Both proceedings, however, require 
caution ; even the taking of it out of the travelling cage must 
be set about very carefully, and should never be done by the 
owner himself. This also applies to the putting the chain on 
the foot. (See ante, p. 18). 

It must always be remembered, in dealing with even a per- 
fectly tame parrot, that, as a tropical bird, it has many pecu- 
liarities which demand care and attention, lest it should suffer 
in some respect. A highly gifted parrot, more than any other 
creature, is liable to be made ill or even to die from the effects 


of mental emotion ; and this not merely from terror or fright, 
but also from longing after a beloved master, who petted it, and 
then sold it, or after a feathered companion. It may also arise 
from anger and rage in consequence of a quarrel, either with 
some person or animal. It is necessary when giving food, as well 
as in approaching at any time, to be quiet and friendly, and to 
avoid, before all things, frightening it by sudden and hasty 
entrance. In all intercourse with it, especially in the training, no 
violence or outbreak of temper should be allowed on the part of 
the teacher. Parrots may also be spoilt by excitement. They 
should never be teased in joke or earnest, nor unnecessarily 
threatened, or punished. Panishment, as an aid to education, 
should only be used under certain conditions, and by a trainer 
who perfectly understands their character, and who has extensive 
experience in these matters. 

In taming, undisturbed quiet and an equable kindly temper are 
the chief conditions of success. At first, for a week or two, the 
bird should be left unnoticed to itself. Its natural sagacity 
will soon tell it that no danger to its life is intended, and as 
soon as it has left off its stupidly shy behaviour, and disagreeable 
screaming, it begins to observe its surroundings. As it becomes 
more acquainted with them it develops surprising sharpness of 
intellect. It knows each one who is friendly inclined towards it, 
and those who have offered it any real or supposed affront, and 
thus soon distinguishes between friend and foe. It learns to 
esteem its benefactor, and grows astonishingly fond of him. It 
is better not to use any forcible means ; but to avail oneself of 
some knack in order to tame the bird rapidly and perfectly. 
After having taken away its drinking water for some hours, it 
should be held out to it, as well as some especial tit-bit in order 
to accustom it to taking food from the hand. It easily becomes 
used to this, comes voluntarily on the finger, allows its head to 
be scratched and stroked till at last the owner may take hold 
of it and caress it. 

Dr. Lazarus, one of the most experienced connoisseurs and 
keepers of parrots, suggests the following somewhat unusual 
way : Whenever the newly imported parrot with constant gentle 
treatment (and often in spite of that it is only after the lapse of 
months) begins to be quiet and fearless, ceasing to screech at 
every approach, even coming to the bars and stretching out its 
head, though still very shy and nervous, then one may by degrees 
venture to stroke the beak or head cautiously with one finger. 


Now the attempt may be made to scratch the head while saying 
a few words coaxingly, especially such words as it already knows; 
this should be done in the twilight, or in the evening by gas 
light ; soon it will be pleased with such caresses, and will even 
put its head into its master's hand. These attempts should 
always be made through the cage bars, through which one 
should be able to reach easily (see ante, p. 21). The whole arm 
should never be put through the cage door, for this always makes 
the bird violent. Only after a long time, when it is quite 
accustomed to be stroked through the bars, and is no longer shy, 
should one begin to open the cage door and let it come out, and, 
then, not unless the room is quite quiet ; it must also have 
plenty of time to make up its mind, even if it be some hours, 
before it comes out, and climbs on the roof of the cage. Very 
soon it will look for this freedom with impatience. While it is 
out of the cage the owner should devote a great deal of attention 
to it. If it be tame enough to take food from the hand, catch a 
finger in its beak without biting, or push its head into the hand 
while one scratches the plumage with the other, then it is time 
it should learn to perch on the hand. If it should take too 
long a time to coax it to do this voluntarily, the bird must be 
accustomed by forcible means to do it (see p. 37). In the 
course of a week it will certainly be got to do so of its own 
free will. 

Before I enter upon the practical directions for training, I 
must first pronounce my verdict against an extremely im- 
proper, but unfortunately widespread, prejudice. This is the 
so-called "loosing of the tongue," which many people, how- 
ever, consider absolutely necessary, and which others, for their 
own advantage, declare to be desirable. I had, in common 
with other writers on this subject, firmly believed that the 
idea that a bird's tongue must be loosed in order that it may 
learn to speak, only found favour among uneducated people, 
and, therefore, had supposed it to be unnecessary to speak at 
length about this superstition ; whereas now I find that it 
is much more general than one could imagine. I even heard 
lately that it was taught in a young ladies' school of 
considerable standing. I also, from time to time, receive 
inquiries on this subject. Therefore, it must now be dis- 
tinctly declared that it is not necessary to loose the tongue of 
any bird, but that it is great cruelty to animals, and only brings 
profit to those men who speculate on the simplicity of others. 


The bird should be tamed and taught to speak at the 
same time. If it be already tame, it may be put at once 
into a roomy cage, but if not, this should not be done for 
a week or two. 

Let us now turn our attention to the teaching, for which, 
above all things (besides the conditions spoken of on p. 38), 
a friendly footing with the parrot, and loving sympathy with 
birds in general, together with quiet, are necessities. Every 
morning, on first going into the room where the parrot is, 
and every evening, as well as several times during the day, 
one word first, very distinctly pronounced, should be said to 
it clearly and sharply, and, if possible, all drawling, lisping, 
or other mispronunciation avoided. A full-toned word, with 
the vowel "a" or ''o," and also with a hard consonant^ such 
as ''k," ''p," "r," or "t," should be chosen, and hissing 
sounds avoided. The trainers in the seaport towns and the 
sailors on board ship usually teach the parrots the words 
'' Jacko ! " '' Cockatoo ! " " hurrah ! " *' Polly ! " &c., and after- 
wards " good Cocky ! " ''pretty Poll ! " and others. 

A Grey Parrot which I had had for a long time, which I 
considered valueless as a speaker because it would not learn 
anything, and with which I had determined to make an attempt 
at breeding, suddenly pronounced the words " The doctor ! " 
which the servant had often used in announcing a stranger. 
Experience teaches us that every parrot learns more easily 
from a female voice, which probably sounds more melodious 
to it. 

While the parrot is learning to speak it must be treated 
kindly, so that it may gain confidence, and, in particular, it 
must not be terrified, as it is apt to be at first on the approach 
of anyone, nor made nervous and shy, but kept quiet and 
attentive, in order that it may intelligently heed the teaching 
it receives. This should not, indeed, consist of merely train- 
ing the parrot to repeat certain words, but everything said 
must awaken in its mind a distinct perception. For this it is 
necessary that it should have some conception of place, time, 
space, and other circumstances. " Good morning ! " should be 
said early ; " Good evening ! " or "Good night! " late, "How 
do you do?" and "I am glad to see you!" on arrival, and 
" Good-bye ! " on going away. One should knock, and then 
call out " Come in ! " count out tit-bits to the bird, " One, 
two, three!" or names, "Nut, almond, apple!" Later on, 


it should be praised when it is good and obedient, and scolded 
when it is obstinate or will not obey. An intelligent bird 
soon comprehends such things, and it is often really astonish- 
ing with what sharpness and certainty it learns to know and 
distinguish under such circumstances. In teaching the parrot 
to sing one or more songs, or to whistle airs, care must be 
taken that only one key be made use of, whether it be taught 
by the mouth or by means of a flute. 

The parrot should at first be taught easy words, and progress 
by degrees to more difficult ones. Every day, or at least from 
time to time, all that the bird has hitherto learnt, almost 
from the very beginning should be repeated, and only when 
it is quite certain that it has all this by rote, or when it has 
been recalled to its recollection, should new words be repeated 
to it. In doing this, there must be no prompting while the 
bird practises, if it stop in the middle of a word, or a wrong 
double-syllabled pronunciation of the word may be learnt. 
One must wait always until it has ceased to speak, and then 
pronounce the word or sentence clearly once more. In break- 
ing off the habit of uttering unpleasant or disgusting words 
and sounds, one .must be careful not to laugh at them, for 
that would only incite the bird to pursue its evil ways the 
more eagerly, just as is the case with children. It can only 
forget them if they are never repeated in its presence, and a 
yet better plan is to interrupt it with some desirable expres- 
sion the moment it begins to pronounce them. Constant 
practice is necessary, not only for the bird which is being 
trained, but also for finished speakers ; and it must always 
be borne in mind that being at a standstill in any kind of 
learning means falling off, and that, therefore, with but 
scanty practice, the most highly gifted parrot is in danger of 
"going back," that is, of forgetting or confusing what it 
has learnt, or even of becoming stupid, and for this reason 
declining greatly in value. Teaching gradually step by step 
will certainly insure the parrot's becoming a good speaker. 

Of course, the talent of different birds varies considerably. 
One may learn with difficulty and be able only after long 
practice to pronounce a word, but then may remember it and 
always retain what it has been taught ; a second catches 
up words quickly, and even learns them at the first repetition, 
but forgets just as quickly ; a third learns rapidly and 
also remembers ; a fourth learns little or nothing ; a fifth 


may have no talent for imitating words, but may, nevertheless, 
whistle airs excellently ; a sixth imitates cock-crowing, the 
barking of dogs, the creaking of the vane, and all sorts of 
extraordinary sounds with the most deceptive exactness, but 
cannot pronounce a single articulate word. It is most important 
that the teacher should find out betimes the peculiar talent 
of each bird, and in this train it to the highest possible per- 
fection. As a general rule, it may be said that amongst all 
the different kinds of birds which learn to speak there is 
probably not a single one which is not capable of learning 
something, and, again, a parrot which learns some sentences 
soon, or even after some days' teaching, usually becomes a 
good talker. 

But, apart from imitative talent, there are other considerations. 
Above all, every parrot which is to be taught must enjoy 
perfect health and strength and have careful management. 
Further, as said before, the greater or less degree of tameness 
must have much influence. It is said that some birds never 
learn to speak clearly, but always pronounce with a lisp 
or rattle, or hoarsely ; but, in my opinion, this is always 
much more the fault of the teacher. There is no reason 
whatever to be discouraged if a parrot repeats the first words 
taught it indistinctly, in spite of their having been most clearly 
pronounced to it. This is always the case at first, with very 
few exceptions, and only after shorter or longer exercise is it 
able to pronounce words fully and clearly. 

It must be remembered that even the fully acclimatised 
parrot is very susceptible of any change, whether it be in 
food, attendance, treatment, or habitation. It may from such 
a cause become so excited and vexed as to sit for a long 
time silent and melancholy. This may be the reason why 
most speaking parrots, when sold and passing into the hands 
of a stranger (as mentioned on page 16) do not at first 
give any signs of their valuable peculiarities. Hence also 
the unfortunate fact that at a bird show it is scarcely 
possible to give the premium to the best speakers. At least, 
there is always the danger lest the judge commit a great 
injustice ; for while one accustoms itself rapidly to its new sur- 
roundings, another — and perhaps a much more valuable bird — 
obstinately refuses to utter a single word. Moreover, many 
highly gifted and well taught parrots never speak in the 
presence of a stranger, and as they naturally decrease greatly 


in value in this case, great importance must be attached to 
teaching every parrot not to be in the least disturbed by the 
presence of a new comer. 

Amongst the dealers and parrot trainers of the seaport 
towns a mode of proceeding is frequently adopted which I 
must at least mention, even though I can by no means recom- 
mend it. The cage is covered during the whole time of 
training with a cloth, so that the parrot — like young canaries 
in the box in which they are taught to sing — sits almost in 
complete darkness, and every disturbance and distraction 
being thus prevented, the whole attention of the bird is 
directed to its talking lessons. 

I consider it much more advisable to place a tamed trained 
speaking parrot beside a wild and frightened bird. All large 
parrots, especially the short-tailed species, are really clever 
birds ; they soon see that no harm happens to their com- 
panion, imitate its quietness, and often lose their wildness 
in an astonishingly short time. They also learn from it much 
faster than from the trainer to imitate human words, &c. 
Thus, a Mealy Amazon Parrot, which was clever in speaking 
and singing, taught a Blue-fronted Amazon to speak just 
as well. The Baroness von Siegroth gave a Grey Parrot a 
young Amazon to teach. It repeated words to its pupil for 
a time, and when the latter did not learn them the Grey 
Parrot cried out, " Blockhead ! " and turned away con- 
temptuously. Later on, when the Amazon had learnt several 
things, partly from its companion and partly from its owner, 
the two parrots held conversations early in the mornings, 
when they thought they were unnoticed. The lady heard 
the following conversation one morning . Eosa (this was the 
name of the Grey) — " Have you any money ? " Coco (this 
was the Amazon), in a sorrowful tone — " No." Eosa — 

"Eosa comes from " Coco — "Africa." Eosa — "The 

Emperor William!" Coco — "Long life to him." Eosa — 
"Battalion!" Coco — "March." On the other hand, in oppo- 
sition to this last recommendation, it is necessary at the beginning 
of the training to avoid placing two or more untrained parrots 
in the same or adjoining rooms, for they disturb each other, 
and encourage each other to scream. 

Whoever has an excellent speaker, especially a Grey Parrot, a 
large Levaillant's Amazon, or some similar parrot, often becomes 
(it may be involuntarily) quite enthusiastic about the talented 


creature. In this way many authors have allowed themselves 
to be carried away, so that they have given most extraordinary 
accounts of the accomplishments of these speakers. "Only 
too often," says Eowley, speaking on this subject, "has the 
endeavour been made to ascribe to the bird the complete and 
clear understanding of the sentence uttered, without considering 
that the partiality of the owner deceives him only too easily 
— for the wish is father to the thought." Such an exaggerated 
notion may be avoided by adhering simply to facts. It must 
always be recollected that the parrot has understanding, but 
not reason, that it can think and draw conclusions, but has 
not the power of perceiving, as we do, psychologically. It 
would be very unjust to maintain that the parrot merely chatters 
words mechanically, without ever having any idea of the 
meaning. How coaxingly it begs for some tit-bit, how angrily 
it can scold if it does not get it, how joyfully it chatters 
when its master returns after a long absence, and cries welcome 
to him. When anyone goes away, it will always say, " Good 
bye!" and not "1 am glad to see you!" and when someone 
knocks it will say, "Come in ! " When it wishes for something, 
it will say, "Please!" and "Thank you!" when it receives it. 
How attentively it heeds its lesson, and how well it can express 
its pleasure when it has learnt something new. These are 
facts which cannot be questioned, and which can be confirmed 
by everyone who has observed these birds closely. Indeed, it is 
true that the parrot is not merely raised by the gift of speech 
far above other animals, but that in mental talents — 'in which 
respect the dog alone can be compared to it — it is nearly 
allied to man. 

I would also direct attention to the fact that as a parrot 
progresses in learning it at the same time increases greatly 
in value. A Grey Parrot, or one of the so-called Amazon 
Parrots, which may be bought in a raw condition, for 20s., 
24s., 30s., 45s., to 60s., can be sold for double the sum 
when it speaks a word or two, and will fetch £10 when it 
can say some sentences, or even much more, say from £15 
to £50, when taught many things. 

One of the great advantages of parrots in general as cage 
birds is the small amount of attention which they need. 
All who have considered how simply and inexpensively these 
very valuable birds can be managed, must agree with me in 
this. A further peculiarity of parrots, especially of the larger 


species, which naturally increases the value, is that they live 
to an extraordinary age. It cannot, of course, be known what 
acre they attain in freedom, but in cages there are examples 
known, particularly amongst Cockatoos, Grey Parrots, Amazons, 
&c., in which they have lived much, more than a hundred 

No further directions for parrot training can be given, nor 
are they necessary ; for whoever has the inclination and ability 
for it will certainly be able to teach any talented bird by 
following the directions I have given. 


General Comfort — Dangerous Influences — Effects of Draughts, 
Excessive Heat, and Foul Air — Overhanging of the Cage — 
Care of Plumage — Bathing — Moulting — Play of Wings — 
Attention to Feet — Description of Perch. 

EvEEY lover of speaking parrots should regard it as an especial 
problem how to obtain for such birds as comfortable an existence 
as possible, to procure for them pleasures of all kinds, and to 
protect them from all hurtful influences. For this not only a 
suitable cage is necessary, but sufficient food of the best quality, 
attentive and affectionate treatment, and also the most careful 
attention to health. The last requires, above all things, that 
the bird be protected from all dangerous influences, from 
draughts, damp, cold, rapid changes of temperature, too great heat 
(artificial warmth as well as burning sunrays), steam or dust, 
air filled with noxious gases, or otherwise rendered injurious, 
from bad or unsuitable food, impure water, uncleanliness, and 
neglect of all kinds. I also include tobacco smoke, although 
experience teaches us that a parrot may become accustomed to 
the atmosphere of a busy inn, impregnated with smoke and 
vapour, and live in it long. 

A speaking parrot, even after it has been years in our 
possession, and is therefore fully acclimatised, should never be 
placed at an open window, even in calm warm weather, because 
there is always a draught under these circumstances, and this is 
invariably injurious to the bird. If it be desired to take it into 


the open air — and this is indeed very beneficial — it must be 
gone about with the greatest prudence. In the first place, the 
weather must be warm and calm, and then a place must be 
chosen where the bird will be protected from currents of air as well 
as from the direct glowing rays of the sun. Moreover, night air 
and fog must be avoided. Often enough a bird falls ill with 
influenza or inflammation of the throat and lungs without the 
cause being in any way apparent. Then assuredly a cold 
draught has. caught it, which has probably rushed in from an 
adjoining room when the door was opened, or which pours in 
through some unnoticed chink in the door or window, and blows 
straight to the spot where the cage stands. It has not been 
observed that the opening and shutting of every door produces 
a draught which often, at a considerable distance and quite 
unexpectedly, does much harm. Therefore the situation of the 
parrot's cage or stand in the room must be chosen with great 

Parrots, like all cage birds, suffer most in the morning, while 
the sitting room is being cleaned, when they are exposed, not 
only to draughts, but to damp dusty air and rapid changes of 
temperature, when icy cold air streams in, and the bird is not 
sufficiently protected. Covering the cage even with a very 
thick cloth is not sufficient ; the cage should always be taken, 
while the room is being cleaned, into another room of equal 
temperature. A cold, much more severe than one could 
suppose, and, from that cause, all the more mischievous, is often 
produced by some one coming out of the open air, or even from 
a cold room, and going at once close to the cage, as one is apt 
to do, without thinking, when giving food. If the parrot 
becomes in this way suddenly and seriously ill without any 
apparent cause, it is put down to the ''delicacy of such birds," 
without considering that such would not be the case if it 
received proper treatment and were reasonably accustomed to 

Too great heat has a most injurious influence, especially in a 
badly-ventilated room, whereas most parrots can bear a low 
temperature, even as low as 21deg. Fahr., if rapid variations be 
guarded against. The best temperature for all birds is that of 
an ordinary sitting-room, about 65deg. Fahr. 

Many who keep a parrot hang a cloth round the cage of theii 
favourite daring the night. It is well to do so in the case of 
newly-imported, and consequently unacclimatised, birds, or with 


birds of a species wliich is known to be weak and delicate, or 
witb very valuable birds. It may also be done if the bird stands 
in a room which becomes much lower in temperature during 
the night, or in which the parrot would be disturbed by a 
number of persons coming and going. But on no account must 
this be overdone, for it is very apt to make the bird become 
delicate. Therefore, a thick woollen cloth must not be chosen, 
or, if such be considered absolutely necessary, a thinner one 
should be taken for the summer. I recommend sackcloth, or 
carefully cleansed sacking of stout hemp or jute. These have the 
advantage of not being too warm in summer, and yet of being 
sufficient to keep out the cold in winter. Moreover, they are 
especially suitable for the purpose, because the bird cannot 
pull off threads and fluff, which may so easily be done from 
woollen or cotton materials, the swallowing of these often 
causing disease. 

The plumage needs great care, and this it should get in the case 
of all cage birds, but particularly parrots. One must see, in 
order to believe, in what a miserable condition our feathered 
friends from the Tropics arrive. Ragged, frequently almost 
featherless, sometimes bleedmg in several places, the end joints 
of the wings beaten off by continual uncontrolled flapping, 
bleeding, or even festering, with the hard firmly-fixed stumps of 
feathers ; the lower part of the body and the feet, sometimes 
the whole body, very dirty ; or, when in better condition, 
with better plumage, yet the feathers of one, or usually of both 
wings, and even of the tail, very much cut. Now at once to set 
about a thorough course of treatment for the plumage of this 
pitiable new-comer would be the surest method of killing it ; 
it must be done gradually, and with the utmost caution. 

After the parrot has quite settled down, and become to some 
extent acclimatised, for which about four or six weeks will 
be necessary, attention must be paid to the plumage. The 
dealers moisten the whole body by means of the mouth, 
either merel}'' with lukewarm water, or with some to which 
about a fourth part of rum or brandy has been added. 
The amateur can do this by means of a syringe or dust- 
ing brush. The alcohol and water must not be allowed to 
get into the eyes and beak. The cage should be placed in a 
tub, and syringed from all sides, so that the whole body is 
well wetted. Or, if preferred, on a hot summer's day, the 
bird may be put out in a heavy shower of rain. In any case, the 


slightest cold must be most carefully guarded against, and the 
parrot must be placed in a room of a temperature not lower 
than 65deg. for several hours — indeed, until the plumage is 
thoroughly dry. A bath may be given once a month ; in warm 
weather more frequently. The bird soon becomes accustomed 
to it, and takes an evident delight in it. 

Medium-sized and smaller parrots need only be bathed by 
compulsion when they will not voluntarily take a bath ; but 
for this purpose it is better to stick a leafy branch well wetted 
into their cage, for they mostly prefer to moisten their 
feathers on the wet leaves. As soon as they are quite accus- 
tomed to a bath, it should be put in the cage as often as 
possible, in summer on every warm day, and at other times 
when the room is thoroughly warm. Before putting in the 
bath the sand must be taken out of the drawer and the latter 
covered with paper. After the bath it should be well dried and 
again strewed with fresh sand. The bath alone, however, does 
not nearly include all the necessary care of the plumage. In the 
first place, the opportunity, at least, must be given to every 
parrot to paddle in the sand and bathe its feathers in it ; most 
of them do it very eagerly. The sand must possess the 
qualities mentioned on p. 33, and be perfectly dry and free from 

A very great difficulty in the care of the plumage is the 
removal of the stumps of feathers which have been broken or 
cut off. Experience shows that most parrots, especially the 
larger ones, when in captivity, pass through no regular moult, 
but that the salutary change of plumage often does not take 
place for years. As a rule, there is nothing for it but to pull 
out the stumps of the feathers by force. For this, of course, 
great caution and care are necessary. From one to three stumps 
should be drawn out with a little tweezers about every four or 
six weeks, first from one wing and then from the other, and 
afterwards in a similar way from the tail. This must be done 
adroitly and quickly, and care must be taken that the bird be 
not pressed or hurt in that or any other part of the body. If 
it should, nevertheless, bleed, the injured place should be 
moistened with a mixture consisting of one part of tincture 
of arnica to twenty parts of water. It may here be remarked 
that severe bleeding may be staunched by dipping the part in a 
mixture of liquor ferri sesquichlorati, one part to one hundred 
parts of water, and then covering with freshly-burnt lint of pure 


linen. One must carefully guard against catcliing hold firmly 
and tightly of any bird, parrots included, and must handle them 
as little as possible. Above all things, one must never 
pull out or break off a newly-sprouting feather with a still 
bleeding quill ; for by this, on the one hand, the plumage 
is spoilt, and, on the other, there is danger of severe 
hsemorrhage and weakening. It is, of course, advisable that 
the drawing of the stumps, as well as all other painful or 
unpleasant operations of the kind, should not be done by 
the owner, but by some stranger, especially when the bird 
is newly imported or only lately acquired. This person must 
be thoroughly trustworthy, not rough and unskilful, and, if 
possible, accustomed to such operations. 

Before I enter upon the actual diseases of parrots I must again 
notice the subject of moulting, or change of feathers, before 
mentioned, which may, at least, under some conditions, be 
regarded as a disorder. Whereas our native birds are known 
to moult, more or less, regularly every year, this process fails 
with most parrots, as I before remarked, and it cannot yet be 
determined whether this is natural or the result of captivity. 
In any case, the parrot-keeper must take it into con- 
sideration. In speaking of the care of the plumage, I have 
given directions how to remove the old stumps of the 
feathers, which would otherwise remain fixed, probably, for 
years. This must be done not only for the sake of appear- 
ance and to obtain the renewal, as soon as possible, of the 
wing and tail feathers, but it is also absolutely necessary 
for the restoration and preservation of health. If, owing to 
the captive state, the parrot retains the injured plumage 
too long a time, many dangers may arise, and, by the pluck- 
ing out of the feathers, it is sought to induce an artificial 

It must not be forgotten that the feather on the other wing, 
or on the other half of the tail corresponding to the one which 
has been pulled out, will fall out of its own accord, so that it 
would be an unnecessary trouble and torment to the bird if one 
were, for example, to pull out the first three pinions on each 
wing at the same time. 

If, however, an old parrot maintains an irreproachable 
plumage for years together, without renewal, it is by no means 
necessary to produce an artificial moult ; it is much better that 
its feathers should receive only partial treatment. This includes, 


above all things, careful physical attention in general, besides 
regular, abundant, and especially nourishing food, and the 
observation of all the other rules for management which I have 
already given. I may mention that the change of plumage 
goes on more slowly and with greater difficulty in the case of 
emaciated, weak, or old birds, and, therefore, at the commence- 
ment, particularly if it be artificially produced, the parrot must 
be well nourished ; the best hemp seed, eggbread or biscuits, 
also a teaspoonful of fresh ant grubs every day, a teaspoonful 
of good wine, and perhaps, also, from one to three, or at the 
most five drops of malic acid or tincture of iron, in the 
drinking water, or with the wine upon biscuit, may be highly 
recommended ; finally, a warm dry lodging and occasionally a 

In the plumage of the large parrots down often grows to a 
great extent, and, in consequence, apart from the necessity of 
movement in itself, every parrot must have a cage as large as 
possible, so that it may, by flapping its wings, subject its whole 
body thoroughly to the air. In case the cage, as only too often 
happens, is not sufficiently large, the parrot must be let out 
every day for a longer or shorter period, and then be accustomed 
to flap its wings well upon the perch in the upper part of the 
cage, as described on p. 22. If one has to deal with a wild 
bird which bites, and which cannot be let loose from the cage, 
or with an old stager which will no longer come out of its own 
accord, and which, not being accustomed to it, becomes very 
terrified when taken out by force, it is best to blow through the 
feathers with a little hand bellows or an indiarubber syringe. 
Even if it be very frightened on the first occasion, yet it will 
soon get used to it, and after a short time it will hold out 
its feathers voluntarily to the artificial wind. If the down be 
not removed at all it may interrupt the action of the skin by 
stopping up the pores, and thus cause boils, internal disease, or 
extreme irritation, which latter often leads to the unfortunate 
habit of self-plucking. 

A well kept bird of any kind should never have neglected 
feet, for if they are dirty, covered with filth, sore, or festering, 
they not seldom cause disease and death. Cleanliness, dry sand, 
and frequent baths are the best means of keeping them in order. 
Above all things the parrot needs a perch completely in accord- 
ance with nature. (See p. 22.) Neglected feet should be 
cleaned with a soft brush, warm water, and soap (catching 

E 2 


cold must be avoided), and then smeared with glycerine, 
diluted with water, one part to ten, or with the best olive 
oil. The claws rarely need to be cut, because with parrots 
which have sufiScient opportunities of climbing they do not 
grow too long. When it is necessary it must be done with 
great caution. 


Signs of III Health — Influenza — Catarrh in the Air Tubes, and 
Inflammation of the Mouth, Larynx, and Throat — Inflam- 
mation of the Lungs — Windpipe Worm or Larynx Worm 
— Diphtheria and Croup — Inflammation of the Bronchial Tubes 
and Lungs — Tuberculosis — Digestive Disorder — Flatulency — 
Inflammation of the Stomach and Intestines — Poisoning — 
Purging — Costiveness — Typhus — Blood Poisoning — Dropsy — 
Intestinal Worms — Emaciation — Choking and Vomiting — 
Disease of the Vent Glands — Diseases of the Ovary — Diseases 
of the Liver and Spleen — Heart Diseases — Diseases of the 
Brain — Diseases of the Eyes — Gout, Rheumatism, and Lameness 
— Wounds — Burns — Fractures of the Bones — Abscesses — 
Diseases of the Beah — Diseases of the Feet — Diseases of the 
Plumage — Table of Medicines, ivith Directions.^ 

I HAVE already admitted that the diseases of birds is to me 
a difficult point to deal with. I am not skilled as a pro- 
fessional medical man to give scientific descriptions, and I 
am too conscientious to enter upon so important a subject 
in a superficial manner. Until of late years this depart- 
ment of the practical management of birds was strangely 
neglected, and only very recently has it been treated in a 
systematic and scientific manner, in the work of Dr. Ziirn 
("The Diseases of Household Birds," Weimar, 1882). While, 
therefore, in my former works, especially in the " Manual for Bird 

*At the conclusion of this chapter the reader will find a list of the 
prescribed remedies, with directions for preparing and administering the same. 
The numbers indicate the remedy which should be given in each case. 


Fanciers," vol. i., in speaking of diseases, I entirely confined 
my statements to the results of my long experience, and both 
grounded the diagnosis and prescribed the treatment upon it, 
I will now extend my remarks by, as far as possible, intro- 
ducing the scientific descriptions of Professor ZUrn. I must, 
however, warn amateurs, keepers, and breeders, that the chief 
endeavour should be to guard against disease which it may 
not be possible to heal, or which can only be cured with 
great difficulty, and, with this view, I have given the preceding 
instructions upon the "Preservation of Health." 

When a parrot bristles its feathers, particularly on the back 
of the head and the neck, yawns often, and shakes its head, 
or sticks it under the feathers, and shudders or trembles as 
if cold, the case is very ominous, and should warn the owner 
carefully to watch the bird. Neither the peculiar grinding 
of the beak which is often heard when the parrot is uncom- 
fortable, or as the result of a bad habit, nor yet the bristling 
of the feathers on the neck, are generally signs of much 
importance. The chirping sound uttered now and then, when 
quiet in the evening, by a parrot which, to all appearance, is 
quite healthy, is, however, more serious, and is often followed 
by expectoration, coughing, snoring, heavy breathing with 
open beak, and the yet graver symptom of running from 
the beak and nostrils ; even a continuous moisture of the 
latter requires immediate attention. 

The principal indication of the state of health is in the 
condition of the excretions. In a thoroughly healthy parrot 
they consist of two parts, a thickish dark green and a thinnish 
white substance. Whenever both parts run into one another, 
or one predominates, when the excretion is all greenish-grey, 
slimy white, or watery, the bird is no longer quite healthy. 
Any severe internal disease of parrots is difficult to cure, 
because it is hard to make a proper diagnosis for each bird, 
and to find out which of the great organs has been attacked 
with the disorder, and what the evil effects may be which 
are produced on it. Professor Zilrn deserves our thanks for 
the manner in which he has described a great many such 
diseases, stated their symptoms, and prescribed remedies ; 
nevertheless, I am of opinion that it is difficult, indeed 
scarcely possible, even for an experienced bird fancier, to 
discover those signs of sickness in the living bird, and con- 
sequently not less difficult to subject it to the appropriate 


treatment. The last-named difficulty is unfortunately the 
greatest, for the disease and its remedy may be perfectly under- 
stood, and yet it may not be possible to use the latter, because 
the bird will not take it voluntarily, and, if force be employed, 
becomes so excited that greater danger arises. In severe 
internal disease, the compulsory administration of medicine 
should be avoided as much as possible ; yet it is but seldom that 
a sick parrot is so docile as voluntarily to take what is un- 

Influenza (Cold in Nose, Throat, and Mouth). — 
Symptoms : Sneezing ; slimy yellow discharge from the 
nostrils, which become encrusted ; rolling or shaking the 
head, discharge of slime. Treatment : To be kept dry and 
warm, and inhale tar vapour (84) ; smear inside with good 
grease ; rub beak and throat externally with a solution of 
chlorate of kali (37) (Ztirn) ; cleanse the nostrils and the beak 
with a feather dipped in salt water, and then moisten them 
with oil of almonds. 

Cataeeh in the Air Tubes (also Inflammation of the 
Mouth, Larynx, and Throat). — Symptoms : Hoarseness, 
coughing, rapid breathing, and rattling in the throat. Treat- 
ment : To administer something sweet, such as honey, sugar 
candy, or pure liquorice juice ; a mixture of sal ammoniac (76), 
half, or a whole, teaspoonful several times daily ; extract of 
dulcamara (19), a whole or half a teaspoonful twice daily; an 
inhalation of mild tar or pyroligneous vapour (30 and 84). Only 
lukewarm or tepid drinking water should be given, and the 
mouth, far back into the throat, and the nostrils, should be 
smeared with a solution of salicylic acid (73). The bird 
experiences relief if kept in a warm, moist atmosphere ; several 
times daily lukewarm water should be sprinkled round it, and 
the room kept at a temperature of 72deg. to 8odeg. Fahr. 

Inflammation op the Lungs. — Symptoms: Difficult, short, 
rapid, or wheezing breathing, with open beak, hot breast, 
melancholy, want of appetite, perceptible fever, painful cough- 
ing, discharge of yellow phlegm, sometimes streaked with blood 
(Ziirn) ; a chirping, gasping sound to be heard, particularly at 
quiet moments in the evening. Treatment : Warm, moist air, as 
above ; according to Zurn's prescription, two or three pills of 


carbonate of ammonia (5) or purified nitre (77) every three hours 
daily. The remedies for cold in the air tubes should also be 
given when the inflammation of the lungs is catarrhous. 

Windpipe Woem or Larynx Worm {Syngamus trachealis, s. 
Strongylus Syngaiims) is one of the most mischievous of parasites 
for cage or yard birds. It resembles a leech in shape, cylindrical, 
but pointed towards the end, of a reddish colour ; the male 
is •15752in. to -lOGOin., and the female '4725 Gin. to •51194in. 
in length, and from -OlQGOin. to •023628in. diameter. The eggs 
are cylindrical, and from •0043318in. long and •00l41768in. 
diameter. With a strong cover to its mouth, which acts as 
a cupping-glass, it bores into the mucous membrane of the 
larynx or windpipe, singly or in numbers, causes redness, 
swelling, accumulation of thick stringy phlegm, and, by 
this, as well as by its ever-increasing bodily size, causes 
suffocation. Symptoms : Peculiar cough, throwing the head 
about, want of breath, open beak, gasping for air, and 
discharge of phlegm. Cause : The sick bird has eaten the 
phlegm discharged by itself or some other bird, in which in- 
numerable eggs of the parasite may be found. Precautionary 
measures : The strictest isolation of every fresh arrival, as well 
as of every sick bird, and the most careful watching ; good, 
dry, airy quarters, and the utmost cleanliness. When the 
visitation appears as an epidemic, the cages and walls must 
be scrubbed with warm water and soap, or with a solution of 
carbolic acid (49). The food and drinking vessels must also be 
thoroughly scrubbed. Treatment : Examine the larynx, and 
take out the worm by means of tweezers (Ziirn) ; rub in 
pure spirits of turpentine or benzine ; give creosote vapour 
(54) to inhale, and administer half or one teaspoonful of pure 
linseed oil. 

Diphtheria and Croup (Diphtheritic-croupish Inflam- 
mation OF THE Mucous Membrane) is caused by vegetable 
parasites, called gregarinse."^ Symj^to^ns : Coughing, sneezing, 
difficult breathing with open beak, shaking of the head, dis- 
charge of sweet-smelling phlegm, difficulty in swallowing, 
gasping for air, and increasing shortness of breath, together 

* Gregarinse are microscopical living creatiu'es, which have of late been 
regarded mostly as vegetable organisms. They appear in masses and occasion 
severe symptoms of disease in men and animals. 


with snoring and rattling, growing dulness, sitting on the 
ground with drooping wings and closed eyes (at the same 
time nearly always catarrh in the bowels and watery, slimy ex- 
cretion) ; then trembling, shivering, and thirst. The seat of 
the disease is in the mucous membrane of the mouth, throat, 
larynx, the air tubes, the bronchial tubes, the intestines ; 
also in tbe membranes of the nose, the ligatures and cuticle 
of the eye. From the nostrils flows a yellow, slimy, clammy 
fluid, which hardens into a dark yellow or brownish crust, 
the eyelids swell, and adhere together. The illness usually 
lasts two or three weeks, or, it may be, sixty or seventy 
days. Preventative Meamres : Examine every freshly received 
bird, and isolate it for the purpose of noticing its condition. 
Strictly isolate every sick one, immediately destroy the bodies 
of those that die, and carefully clean the cages and vessels 
with a solution of carbolic acid (49). Treatment : As a rule, the 
diseased bird is lost, and the chief efforts must be directed 
to prevent any infection, which may be caused by the least 
touch of the secretions of the parts attacked. Administer a 
solution of carbolic acid (43) ; and smear or sprinkle, by 
means of a dusting brush, the diseased parts of the membrane 
with the same (43). The incrustations must be softened 
with good grease, and not pulled off forcibly ; a solution of 
nitrate of silver (28) is used for smearing, and then the parts 
washed with a solution of common salt (51), tincture of iodine 
(33), and, for the eyes, a solution of salicylic acid (73), a 
solution of vitriol of copper (55), and a solution of , tannin (82). 
Internally, one may give chlorate of kali (36), one teaspoonful 
three times daily, and smear with the same (37) externally. 

Inflammation of the Bronchial Tubes and Lungs is 
often produced by fungous parasites. STjmptoms : Hoarseness, 
snoring, rattling breathing, fever, want of appetite, great thirst, 
then rapid and great emaciation, and finally diarrhcea. Dura- 
tion: Six to eight days, often two months. Preventative 
Measures : Inhalation of a weak tar vapour (84) ; the most 
'extreme cleanliness, and the isolation of every suspected bird. 
Treatment : Inhalation of tincture of iodine (35) ; but very few 

Tuberculosis. — Of frequent occurrence not only in the 
lungs but principally in the liver ; also in the heart, the sac 


of the heart, spleen, kidneys, stomach, ovary, intestines, &c. 
Symptoms : Emaciation, and swellings upon the most diverse 
parts of the body. It must be regarded, so far as our know- 
ledge extends, as incurable, and, at the same time, here- 
ditary ; therefore the progeny of birds which have died of 
this disease must not be used for breeding purposes. 

DisOEDER OF THE DIGESTION. — Symptoms : Want of appetite, 
hard, brown excrement in small quantities ; apathy. Causes : 
Unsuitable or bad food, and consequent disturbed condition of 
the gall and other digestive fluids. Treatment : Light food, but 
little green food, some salt, and tepid drinking water; a tea- 
spoonful of lukewarm Bordeaux wine, with a small piece of 
sweet almond or walnut, often renders good service. Ziirn 
recommends also an infusion of peppermint (68) or calamus root 
(39) three times daily, a teaspoonful for a dose ; nevertheless 
I do not recommend this for parrots. In England a grain of 
cayenne pepper, or an infusion of the same, is given. 

Flatulency, also called Windy Swelling, appears as a 
flat white swelling ; is chiefly found among young birds, arises 
from disturbance of the digestion, and is, therefore, produced by 
unsuitable, bad, or over rich food ; it is caused also by bites. It 
may be cured, if not severe, by scanty and meagre food and 
careful pricking of the bladder- like swellings ; the air can then 
be pressed out gently, and the place should be rubbed with warm 
oil, or, if a large hole has been cut, it should be smeared with 
collodion (52). 

Inflammation of the Stomach and Intestines (Catarrh 
in the Stomach and Intestines, or Inflammation of the 
Bowels). — This is unfortunately very common. Cause : Stale, 
or otherwise bad food ; icy cold drinking water ; cold in the 
stomach ; eating some corrosive or poisonous substance ; also too 
fresh seed, or wet green herbs ; as well as, but this seldom 
occurs, the swallowing of metal, bone, glass, little stones, &c. 
Symptoms : Want of appetite, thirst, choking and vomiting, 
slimy, and even bloody, excretion, shivering, and weakness ; the 
bird sits continually at the food trough and turns over the 
food without eating it ; often the belly appears swollen and red. 
Treatment : Varies according to the cause. Quiet ; warm 
poultices ; also sand, as warm as is pleasant to the hand, which 


must be kept at the same temperature ; a solution of tannin (82) 
and Glauber's salt (23) as a purge, two or three times daily. 
If the stomach be injured by glass or such like substances, 
mucilage of linseed with a little oil should be given ; but it is 
usually in vain. The parasites mentioned on p. 55 also cause 
inflammation in the intestines, which shows itself in violent 
diarrhoea, immediate and extraordinary weakness and rapid 
death. In order to be assured of the cause, it is necessary to 
examine the excretions with a microscope. Treatment : Hypo- 
sulphide of natron (63) twice daily. Zlirn recommends a tea- 
spoonful of pure glycerine daily and a solution of salicylic 
acid (73). 

Poisoning in parrots usually arises only from three causes : 
Bitter almonds ; phosphorus from loose lucifer matches ; and 
oxalic acid from the cleaning of the cage. All are due to 
carelessness, and therefore watchfulness is the only pre- 
cautionary measure possible. SpnjHoms of Poisoning ivith Bitter 
Almonds: Anxiety; staggering; falling, without being able to 
rise ; trembling and cramp. Treatment : Dip the bird in cold 
water, or pour cold water over it ; administer spirits of sal-ammo- 
niac (75) or spirits of ether (29) every half-hour, or three times an 
hour. Symptoms of Poisoning by Phosphorus : Draggled plumage, 
want of appetite, purging, weakness. Treatment : Liquor chlori 
(15) every half-hour; rectified spirits of turpentine (83); and 
white of egg. Symptoms of Poisoning by Oxalic Acid : Stag- 
gering, helplessness, cramp. Remedy : White of Qgg and other 
mucilaginous substances ; calcined magnesia (60). It must be 
remarked that the determination of the cause is in all cases 
just as uncertain as the treatment, and that there is no prospect 
of the latter being successful unless it is possible to ascertain 
that the bird has been poisoned, and how, for there are several 
other maladies which exhibit similar symptoms. At any rate, 
when poisoning of any kind is suspected, some mucilaginous 
coating substance, white of egg, infusion of althea, or linseed, 
and calcined magnesia (60), may be given with advantage. 

Purging (Diarrhcea) arises from various causes, and con- 
sequently appears as a symptom in different diseases. It is 
necessary daily to look to the excrement of every parrot, 
to see if it maintains the condition mentioned on p. 53 ; if it 
becomes whiter, yellower, or more slimy, if the feathers under 


the tail stick together, and if the vent looks swollen or inflamed, 
then the cold in the intestines mentioned on p. 57 exists, and 
the remedies there given should be applied. If the excretion is 
whitish-green or chocolate coloured, becoming greener to 
greenish black, and of a sour, bad odour, if the appetite is quite 
gone, while the crop continues full, and there is great thirst, 
then there is severe inflammation of the intestines or stomach, 
and the bird mostly dies, from whatever cause the disease may 
have arisen. Treatment : Do not stop the purging, keep warm, 
give rice water, calcined magnesia (60j, or other mucilage ; when 
of a dysenteric appearance, accompanied by severe pressing and 
bending of the hinder part of the body, and even bloody excre- 
tions, then give from half to one teaspoonful of castor oil (72) 
with the mucilage ; if the excretions be blackish, half to a whole 
teaspoonful of red wine, one, two, or three times daily ; also 
laudanum (65) twice daily ; also a solution of nitrate of silver 
(27), one teaspoonful twice daily. The sticky feathers under the 
tail must be bathed and washed with warm water. 

CoSTiVENESS may naturally arise from various other diseases, 
but also from disturbance of the digestion or from intestinal 
worms. Symptoms : Continual effort to void ; tilting the hinder 
part of the body ; ruffled feathers ; melancholy ; and want of 
appetite. Treatment : Above all things endeavour to administer 
an enema — that is to say, introduce warm oil (castor oil and olive 
oil in equal parts) by dropping it into the vent from the head of 
a pin — by this means, after several repetitions, incredibly large 
masses of excrement pass away. Also a simple water enema 
may be used by means of an indiarubber ball with a thin glass 
pipe having a rounded point ; administer castor oil with 
mucilage once or twice daily in doses of one teaspoonful. 

Typhus (Infectious Typhoid, called Cholera in Fowls). 
— Cause : Microcosms and bacteria, also microscopical vegetable 
parasites, which are very contagious. Symptoms : Want of 
appetite, sitting about in a melancholy manner with drooping 
wings ; weakness ; severe purging, with excretions of thin 
yellowish white slime (slimy or chalky purging), which then 
become greenish, and soil the belly very much, often accom- 
panied with vomiting of a thin greenish fluid ; severe thirst, 
trembling, bristled feathers ; also staggering, and convulsions. 
Duration, from a day and a half to three days, but often for 


weeks ; with parrots this is unfortunately not seldom the case. 
Preventative Pleasures : Strict isolation of all newly bought birds 
and of those which have the disease ; careful disinfection (17), 
and the utmost cleanliness. If the disease has broken out, the 
birds which are still healthy should get a solution of sulphide 
of iron (20) in their drinking water for about a fortnight. 
Treatment : A similar solution of sulphide of iron (20), one 
teaspoonful three or four times daily. Eecovery is scarcely 

Blood-poisoning I have already described on p. 9, when 
speaking of importation, and the reader is requested first to 
refer there for its causes. The parrots which are subject to it, 
chiefly the Grey Parrots, arrive in Europe apparently quite 
healthy, well nourished, cheerful and with bright eyes ; but, 
as I said before, at the latest in eight weeks, and usually much 
sooner, they are, almost without exception, devoted to death, 
and die most quickly when they receive drinking water, 
of which for this reason the dealers entirely deprive them. 
Symptoms : Bristling feathers, especially on the neck ; sitting 
dull and melancholy ; a change takes place in the bare skin 
around the eye, from pure white to a dull bluish or yellowish grey ; 
refusal of food, and often, but not always, vomiting and purging, 
sometimes only the latter; shortness of breath and staggering, 
ending in death. Examinations by physicians (Dr. Grun, district 
physician in Gumbinnen ; Dr. Wolf, private lecturer ; and Dr. 
Moritz Lowinsohn, both of Berlin) have resulted in discovering 
appearances which are caused by decomposition of the blood, 
namely, dark thickish blood, not firmly coagulated, numerous 
dots of blood which have oozed from the lungs, sac of the 
heart, and covering of the brain ; yellow fibrous excrescences on 
the lungs and the liver ; scattered, red, inflammatory spots in 
the lungs ; frequently there are light yellow wedge-shaped hard 
excresences on the liver. The latter is often enlarged, decayed, 
and of a purplish red, or quite pale waxy-yellow colour ; there 
is also catarrh of the stomach and intestines, and at the time of 
death the symptom of choking, from flow of blood to the lungs, 
and the venous circulation of the right heart, of the great veins 
of the neck, and the veins of the soft membrane of the brain. 
In the decomposed blood there are bacteria of peculiar shapes 
like balls, sticks, and chains, and these prove beyond doubt 
poisoning of the serous fluid of the blood. These organisms of 


decay, if they are only present in small numbers, can be rejected 
by the body as soon as it has sufficient oxygen to breathe, as 
the bacteria of blood-poisoning are destroyed by oxygen, and 
nourished on the want of it. This miserable disease is 
extremely poisonous and very infectious, and, therefore, causes 
the illness of all arrivals as soon as one individual among 
them is attacked. The excretion may cause infection, even 
after months (Dr. Grun). Treatment recommended: Liquor 
chlori (15 and 16), milk of sulphur (79), phosphoric acid 
(69), quinine (14), tannin (82), extract of ergot (21 and 
22), salicylic acid (73 and 74), salicylate of soda (61 and 62), 
carbolic acid (43 and 45), and similar preparations, to be taken 
internally, or administered by subcutaneous injection ; also 
chilies (50). A dealer in Leipsig claims to have attained the 
best results from giving yolk of egg, beaten up in a little 
water. The use of ozone water (66), or the influence of 
oxygen, according to Dr. Grun's prescription, up to the present 
gives no guarantee of recovery, and I must repeat my con- 
viction, that all birds which are attacked with this disease 
are completely lost, and that, unfortunately, up to the present 
time we have no reliable remedy, nor yet the power to put a 
stop to this wretched trade (see p. 8). I cannot decide with 
certainty whether this disease of Grey Parrots is one and the 
same as the above described sickness, or typhus (infectious 

Deopsy. — Cause : Cold, especially after incautious forcible 
bathing in the case of the large parrots ; inflammation of the 
peritoneum, probably succeeded by other disorders, such as 
tubercles in the intestines. Sym^noms : At first, difficulty in 
breathing, then the body becomes swollen, and when it is much 
swelled, a fluid can be distinctly observed in the swollen part. 
Fortunately this is of rare occurrence. Cure : Scarcely possible. 

Intestinal Worms. — In several cases of late it has been 
ascertained with certainty that tape-worms and ascarides exist 
sometimes in parrots as well as in other birds. The former I 
have myself found and the latter have been sent to me. No 
researches have been made either as to the kinds of parasitical 
intestinal worm from which parrots suffer, nor as to their 
transmission by contagion. It would also be superfluous to give 
the symptoms caused by their presence, for emaciation, &;c,. 


may be produced also by other unhealthy conditions. The only 
certain test of the existence of these parasites is to notice if 
they are present in the excrement. Zilrn recommends as a 
remedy fresh gourd kernels, which certainly the parrots like to 
eat, and fresh areca nuts (6). As to the latter, however, I can 
say nothing. I advise pure linseed oil (it must not be dirty, 
rancid or otherwise spoilt) to be given to the affected parrot in 
doses of one teaspoonful every morning and evening, and in 
some cases even three times a day. The same advice applies 
in all other cases of intestinal worms. 

Emaciation or Atrophy is in itself no disease, but only a 
symptom of other disorders, sometimes only the result of some 
disturbance of the digestion, but usually arises from disease of 
the digestive or breathing organs, or other part, as from inflam- 
mation or suppuration of the glands of the vent. The remedy 
lies, therefore, in the discovery and alleviation of the cause. 

Choking and Vomiting are seen in several conditions of 
disease, and can only be cured by their removal. However, 
vomiting often occurs with the large parrots merely from mental 
excitement, fright, anxiety, &c., and may have but little signifi- 
cance, being only a passing attack. It also occurs when the 
stomach is overloaded, or after indigestible food has been eaten ; 
but even then it is mostly without danger. 

Disease of the Vent Glands (also called the Fat 
Glands). — These provide the bird with the necessary fatty 
substance for the maintenance of the plumage, and easily 
become affected, especially in the case of cage birds. This 
may be the reason, particularly with the parrots, of the irregular 
or failing moult (see page 50). Most frequently the glands 
get too full of fatty matter, and they then become hard or 
suppurate, so as to resemble a gathering, which is often 
erroneously taken for pip, and an attempt made to heal it 
by cutting it open or by foolishly cutting it off, by which the 
bird is exposed to the danger of losing its life. Preventative 
measures : These I will state at greater length in speaking 
of " Corpulency " ; but above all frequent voluntary or 
forced bathing may be recommended. Treatment'. Careful 
examination, whether the glands contain hard fat or true 


pus. In the first case, smear with warm olive oil, two or 
three times daily ; and have recourse to much green food, 
motion, and careful bathing with lukewarm water. If pus be 
present, careful puncturation, gentle pressure, and, according 
to Ziirn's recommendation, touching with a solution of boric 
acid (13). When inflammation of the vent glands arises (this 
usually takes place simultaneously with purging), remove the 
nearest feathers, apply a rag with Goulard water (11), and, 
according to Ziirn, cautiously smear the part with a solution of 
carbolic acid (47) ; then smear with mild grease, glycerine (25), 
or zinc ointment (86). 

Diseases of the Ovary, of course, occur in parrots ; but as 
no experiences concerning these are on record, nor any remedy 
prescribed, and as they are unlikely to occur in birds kept singly, 
I will here pass them over in silence. On the other hand, a 
parrot kept alone in a cage may often lay one or more eggs ; 
this even happens with some birds regularly every year. Usually 
this is of no consequence, for even if the bird appears indisposed 
for a few days, yet it recovers ; happily only in rare cases 
does it become really ill with the effort to lay. Symptoms : 
Heaviness, inclining to motionlessness, cowering on the ground, 
the hinder part of the body swollen, shuddering from time to 
time. Preventative measures: Administer lime as mentioned 
(page 33). Very carefully avoid all fright and anxiety, as in any 
illness ; prevent the bird becoming too fat. Treatment : Vapour 
bath, equal temperature, the utmost quiet possible, and careful 
dropping in of warm oil in the opening of the ovary, as 
described on page 59 ; but in this case it must be done with the 
head of a somewhat larger pin, the cavity being carefully opened 
as far as the egg, which must, of course, be pricked and gently 
pressed out. 

Diseases of the Liver and Spleen. — The first occur 
rather frequently in parrots. Causes : Wrong or over rich 
food. In consequence of catarrh in the intestines, the opening 
which conducts the gall into the smaller intestines becomes 
closed, from which results stoppage, and the gall becomes 
absorbed in the blood and causes jaundice. Treatment : 
Glauber's salt (23) as a purgative, and an infusion of calamus 
root (38), in doses of one teaspoonful ; for the rest, a light 
and sparing diet and green food. 


Other diseases of the liver are diflScult to recognise in parrots ; 
indeed, only two can really occur — the formation of tubercles in 
the liver, already mentioned on page 56, and fatty liver, or obesity 
in general. Symptoms of the latter : Laboured breathing, panting, 
difiSculty in moving, hard or thickish excretions. On closer 
examination the body is found to be completely laden with fat, 
flaccid inactive skin, full of folds, and probably also large places 
destitute of feathers. Preventative measures: It is best to take 
the parrot from the cage every day, and let it fly several times 
about the room ; otherwise procure a more roomy cage, with 
an arrangement for climbing ; always give wood to gnaw, and 
now and then a scanty diet. Treatment : The above measures 
should be used, green food given ; if the bird suffer from 
costiveness, castor oil (72) ; much movement, yet without the 
parrot being frightened, and bathing, but very cautiously. 

I do not know whether inflammation of the spleen really occurs 
in parrots ; its occurrence among barndoor fowl has been really 
proved. Causes: Often bacteria. Symj)toms : Sudden illness, 
trembling of the muscles, the feathers much bristled, evil- 
smelling, blood-streaked excrement, blood and foam from the 
mouth and nostrils, convulsive twitching ; when in a lesser 
degree and of slower progress, a bluish colour is seen on the 
mucous membrane, staggering, formation of swellings or lumps 
from the size of a pea to a hazel nut, which are hot and pain- 
ful, and which, when opened, are found to contain a sticky, 
yellowish, brown, gall-like matter, or a thin, watery humour ; 
there are also reddish-blue blisters on the tongue. Preventative 
measures : The strictest isolation. Treatment : A solution of 
carbolic acid (44), one teaspoonful, at intervals of half-an-hour, 
give eight or ten times, and brush the tumours over with a 
solution of carbolic acid (46). The bird is nearly always lost. 

Heart Diseases are naturally difficult to recognise in birds, 
whereas they occur much more frequently than is supposed. 
Ziirn speaks of inflammation of the sac of the heart, and 
gives as the symptoms, weakness, unsteady use of the feet, 
laboured breathing, and, above all things, very perceptible and 
rapid beating of the heart. The sick birds are mournful, sit 
apart, seek dark corners, tremble, and lie. Death soon takes 
place. Treatment : Experimentally, tincture of digitalis (18), two 
or three times daily. Besides this there are tubercles or ulcers 
in the heart, which I have often found myself ; fatty heart, and 


the contrary, atrophy of that organ, then dropsy of the heart ; 
also ossification of vascular tissues, or contraction of the cavity 
of the aorta ; finally, inflammation of the muscles or valves 
of the heart, produced by parasitical animalculae (see page 54, 
" Inflammation of the Lungs "). Eemedies can scarcely be 
applied in any of these diseases. Ziirn gives no further infor- 
mation on the subject. 

Diseases of the Brain frequently occur in parrots. If 
the brain (as well as the heart and the lungs) after death 
appear filled with blood, either all over or in parts, then we 
may know that congestion of the brain, or a condition called 
in man apoplexy, has arisen. Cause : Great excitement, terror, 
anxiety, &;c. ; too great heat, too much hemp seed in warm 
weather, and sudden and violent flow of blood. Symptoms : 
Strange manner of holding the head on one side, turning 
the eyes about, staggering or going backwards, twirling round, 
a rapid death in convulsions. Preventative measures : Averting 
the above-mentioned influences ; hydrochloric acid (78^ in the 
drinking water ; scanty diet, and much green food. Treat- 
ment : Cold water over the head, either with a douche or by 
laying on it a wet sponge ; as a purgative, castor oil (72). 

Convulsions, Epileptic Fits, &c,, are also the result of 
disorder in the brain, or other important organs. The parrot 
suddenly shrinks together, with violent twitching, beating of 
the wings, or twirling round ; or it begins to tremble, totters, 
rolls the eyes and then the head, falls down, and writhes 
violently. Causes : The same as above ; also from being kept 
in too small a cage ; too great heat either from the fire or 
the sun ; seclusion from mate, &c. Preventative measures : As 
above. Remedies: Change of food, much green food, and fruit; 
coolness, fresh air, change of place, and, for the rest, those 
suggested above. When the attack comes on, take the parrot in 
the hand and hold it upright, so that it may not bruise and 
injure itself severely, but may find relief. In doing this, 
however, one must guard against its bites. I strongly depre- 
cate the customary barbarous remedy of cutting off a toe, or 
otherwise letting blood. If convulsions only occur once, they 
are not of great importance ; only when they recur should 
remedies be applied, and, before all things, endeavours made 
to discover the cause. Not unfrequently the smaller, nimbler 



parrots injure the skull or spine on some sharp edge by flying 
up in sudden fright. Symptoms -. Staggering, falling down, 
convulsions, and violent convulsive writhings. Cure is mostly 
impossible. Alleviate by holding the bird in the hand, or 
laying it in a basket and covering it with a cloth. Staggers arise 
either from turning round constantly (as a vpry active parrot 
in a very small round cage may do), from injury, striking on 
a sharp corner, or from living parasites in the brain. Symp- 
toms : Holding the head on one side, bending backwards, 
twisting round, staggering, tumbling backwards^ and con- 
vulsions. Treatment : In the first case use a larger, square 
cage ; in other cases cure is scarcely possible. 

Diseases of the Eyes. — The eyes are more or less sympa- 
thetically affected by the diseases of other organs ; for example, 
in the diphtheritic-croupish inflammation of the mucous mem- 
brane (see p. 55), in which nearly always the cuticle of one 
or both eyes, the aponeurosis, and even the cornea, is affected, 
so that the lids appear swollen and stuck together, and the 
cornea becomes thick. Concerning the treatment, I beg to 
refer the reader to p. 55. 

Swelling and Inflammation of the Cuticle of the eye 
may also be caused by cold. Symptoms : Tears in the eyes, 
swelling of the lids, avoidance of the light. Remedy : Washing 
with lukewarm liquor chlori (16), or Goulard water (11), or 
solution of sulphate of zinc (87). 

Besides these, Inflammation of the Cuticle or Cornea of 
the eye may be caused by a blow or bite. Remedy -. Cool 
with water; smear with a solution of sulphate of zinc (87), or 
with a solution of potash and laudanum (71). 

INTERNA.L INFLAMMATION of the eye, which Ziirn has noticed 
in fowls, may also arise in parrots, and cause blindness 
(cataract). Treatment : Touching the apple of the eye with 
sulphate of atropia (8). I have several times observed a disease 
of the eyes in the Noble Parrakeets, which begins with a 
swelling of the lid, upon which, and even upon the apple of 
the eye, little ulcers form, so that the eye is destroyed. These 
parrakeets had the suppuration, which spread over one side 
of the head, and entirely discoloured it, for years, though 


the bird was otherwise quite healthy, for the couple bred 
with satisfactory results. As a remedy, a solution of nitrate 
of silver (28) should be used betimes. 

Warts on the Eyelids, Swellings or Scirrhds of the 
Eyelids, and of the cuticle, also occur ; they can only be 
removed by operation. 

Gout, Eheumatism and Lameness occur not unfrequently 
in parrots. Zlirn mentions two varieties of the first — festering, 
and gouty inflammation of the joints, which, however, as far 
as the parrot fancier is concerned, are very nearly the same. 
Causes : Cold or injury, also sitting upon too narrow and sharp- 
edged a perch. Symptoms : Loss of appetite, fever, swelling 
of the joints of the wings and feet, which are at first hard, 
very red, hot and painful, and then become soft and contain 
a fluid of mingled blood and pus ; later on they get hard 
again ; the contents, also, are hard, and resemble gall or cheese. 
Sometimes, after a lapse of weeks, they heal of themselves, 
but usually they leave enlargement of the joints behind ; in 
other cases, emaciation sets in slowly, poverty of the blood, 
pallor of the mucous membrane, then severe purging, and death 
from exhaustion. Treatment : Warmth and dryness ; when 
the swellings are inflamed and hot, cool with Goulard water 
(11) or vinegar and water ; if hard, rub with spirits of camphor 
(40), or spirits of ants (4), or smear with diluted tincture of 
iodine (34). Wrap them up also in warm woollen rags; if 
the swellings suppurate, cut them open, taking care not to 
do it too soon, press them, and then rub with a solution of 
carbolic acid (46). Give, in any case, an internal dose of 
a solution of salicylic acid (73). The useless perches must^ 
of course, be taken away, and replaced by good ones (see 
p. 22). 

Kheumatic Pains, which occur without swelling of the joints 
and cause painful lameness, and which arise from cold caught 
from a draught or after a bath, I have cured, as a rule, by 
rubbing with warm oil and wrapping up the suffering limb in a 
warm woollen cloth, which must, however, be firmly sewn 
on. Of course, the invalid must be kept in a warm room. 
Other lamenesses, which arise from severe injury to internal 
organs, can only be healed by the discovery and removal 

F 2 


of the cause. As soon as such disease is rightly deter- 
mined and heals with proper treatment, the lameness ceases of 
its own accord. 

Wounds. — It is astonishing with what wonderful self-healing 
power Nature has endued birds. It is only necessary to clean 
and cool even severe wounds with a damp sponge and the place 
will heal of itself, if only care be taken that the patient is kept 
quiet. In parrots the injuries mostly arise either from more or 
less severe bites, from chance cuts, or torn wounds, for instance, 
caused by a projecting piece of wire or a nail. All bites are 
hard to heal, because they consist of a bruise and tear at 
the same time. They should be washed with arnica water 
(7), or, if worse, with Goulard water (11); then smeared with 
glycerine (25), or lead ointment (10) ; this is usually sufficient. 
If the wound is very deep and bleeds much, lint must be 
laid on it to staunch the bleeding, after it has been care- 
fully cleaned with a sponge dipped in arnica water (7), 
or it must be smeared with collodion (53). In the worst 
cases the wound should be sewn surgically, and this is best 
left to the surgeon or his assistant ; collodion (53) should 
also be put on the wound when it has been sewn up. Great 
gaping wounds, which cannot be drawn together, especially torn 
wounds, after being washed with a sponge dipped in arnica 
water, should be touched with carbolic acid oil (41), or a. 
solution of boric acid (13). Wounds which heal badly, fester 
much, and break open again and again, must be cleaned once or 
twice daily with a lukewarm solution of carbolic acid (48), and 
then brushed over with a liniment composed of thin gum arable 
and carbolic acid (59), or boric acid (57). If, after the wound 
has closed, a swelling remain, the latter should be toached twice 
daily with spirits of camphor (40). 

BuENS. — A parrot, say, has flown upon a hot iron plate, or 
is scorched at the door of a stove. Such injuries should be 
treated as in mankind, with a liniment made of linseed oil and 
lime water (58) or Goulard's extract (56); in less severe cases 
with collodion (9), and covered with a thick dressing of wadding 
to exclude the air, and to prevent the parrot from licking off 
the poisonous remedy. 

Feactuees of the Bones of birds, also, heal with surprising 


quickness. A simple fracture of the leg above the ankle, 
which often occurs in parrots, merely requires rest in order to 
heal perfectly, so that the foot will not be in the least 
crooked. It is better, of course, to get both ends of the bone 
into the right position by carefully drawing and pulling them ; 
then to put on them two little smooth pieces of wood (splints), 
to bind these pretty firmly with a thick, soft, woollen thread, and 
to smear thickly and evenly over it plaster of Paris, or thick, 
warm, but on no account hot (joiner's) glue. Hold the bird 
fast till the glue is hardened, and then put it in a small 
cage. In about four weeks the bandage may be carefully 
removed by means of softening with water. If the fracture 
is in the wing, the feathers must of course be cut away first, 
not pulled, to avoid pain and irritation. Ziirn advises that 
the place be bound with a woollen bandage, and above this a 
linen bandage dipped in a solution of water glass or soluble 
glass, and then sprinkled with common lime. This bandage 
is said to have the advantage of keeping firm and being easily 
€ut off. For splints, Ziirn recommends strips of pasteboard, or, 
better still, thin Norwegian pine splints. 

Abscesses, besides being due to internal diseases, as already 
mentioned, frequently form from external causes in parrots, 
as well as in all large birds. First of all it is necessary to 
examine whether the swelling is hard, inflamed, and hot, or 
already yellow and soft, and then treat accordingly. Hard 
swellings should be softened by warm poultices containing some 
fat ; very inflamed swellings should be cooled with Goulard's 
water (11), and then softened with warm, often-renewed, 
poultices. A ripe abscess can usually be emptied without 
danger, with one cutting, and, after being pressed out, it should 
be covered with a so-called Hamburgh plaster (2G); or bound 
up with bandages dipped in carbolic acid oil (11). The worst 
disorder for a parrot is an encysted tumour, which forms most 
frequently in the head, near the beak or eye. It is neither hard 
nor soft ; it is filled with a membranous matter, and becomes 
very large or works deeper, in any case causing the bird discom- 
fort and pain. As long as it is small or lies loose in the skin, 
it may be taken off by burning with caustic ; a better way 
is to tie it round tightly with a thin but very firm thread. 
Encysted tumours, however, are mostly produced by internal 
disorders of the juices of the body, and local operations^ 


taken singly, cannot be of much use, as fresli tumours con- 
tinually arise. The parrot usually dies unless it can be restored 
by the strictest avoidance of all unnatural food, such as meat, 
fat, cake, potato, &;c. Administering a solution of salicylic acid 
(73) is sometimes of good service. Dreadful boils, filled with 
blood in the shape of lumps, sometimes form under the wings 
of newly-imported parrots which have been badly cared for 
on the voyage. Concerning these, I beg to refer the reader to 
the treatment for "Blood-poisoning." 

Diseases of the Beak. — All birds are subject to deformi- 
ties of the beak, which sometimes occur in freedom, but are 
usually due to the influences of captivity. The parrot's beak is 
often immoderately long, too much bent, or otherwise mis- 
shapen. In most cases such an abnormality is treated lightly, 
although it usually causes the loss of the bird. If the upper 
beak grows so far down over the under as to be a hin- 
drance to picking up food, it must be cut back to its 
natural length, and this is best done by a skilled hand with 
a sharp knife. It can certainly be done more easily with 
sharp pincers, but this is more dangerous, as the sensitive, i.e., 
the fleshy part of the beak, may be thus injured. In any case, 
care must be taken not to break it off or tear into it, so that 
splits come in the horn which leads down to the pith, for then 
it is scarcely possible to heal them ; they break open again and 
again, cause the bird much pain, and prevent it eating, so that 
it may probably die. Therefore, before being cut, the beak 
should be rubbed several times with warm oil. A split in the 
horn should be cleaned once a day with a brush, and smeared 
with a warm oily mixture. A beak which has been injured, and 
sometimes even a beak which has hitherto been quite sound, 
often begins all at once to increase enormously in size, growing 
an unnatural length, and the point at the same time splitting 
up in threads. Cause : Scanty or improper nourishment of 
the horny substance, and at the same time some particular 
irritation. Such a beak may be cut back with a pair of scissors, 
yet the bird is often lost from it, because the horn of the beak 
then begins indeed to grow fast, at the same time becoming soft, 
and either breaks off in little pieces, or bends, and is useless 
for cracking hard grains. Treatment : Natural food, especially 
give lime and sand ; avoid mashy food and tit bits, and take 
the bird into the open air until the weather becomes cold. 


Diseases of the Feet. — When the feet of birds are ne- 
glected, inflammation may be set up under the crust of dirt, 
with suppuration, and larger or smaller ulcers, which may lead 
to inflammation of the joints, the loss of some of the toes, or 
even of the whole foot. Treatment : If the inflamed foot be at 
once bathed in warm water, cooled with Goulard water (11), the 
sore places smeared with diluted glycerine, then thickly covered 
with the finest starch powder, and this treatment repeated every 
day, the cure will soon be complete. In obstinate cases lead 
ointment (10) should be used; or, if the wound be moist, 
ointment of carbonate of lead (12), but then the foot must be 
put in a little leather bag, and this firmly tied, because the 
ointment is poisonous for the bird. Indueations or cal- 
losities come from abscesses in the joints or from corns. 
Treatment : In the former the treatment should be as above ; 
in both cases the wretched cause, namely, the thin, hard, or 
otherwise unsuitable perch, should be removed. The corn must 
be softened by rubbing with warm olive oil, then washed with 
warm water and soap, and carefully pared with a small knife, 
but one must guard against drawing blood. If a tough hard 
thread has got wound round the foot (but this rarely happens 
to parrots), and by cutting into it has caused inflammation 
and suppuration, after being softened and washed as above, 
it must be extracted with the point of a knife, and the foot will 
heal of itself, if smeared with glycerine ointment (25). Cal- 
losities, ulcers, and lameness are often caused by the pressure or 
rubbing of the parrot's chain ; in all cases the ring must be 
taken away at once, and the parrot, if it may not be trusted to 
sit on the perch unfastened, must be put into a proper cage, 
when the foot will generally heal of its own accord ; but in 
severe cases it needs to be treated as above. In many parrots, 
in consequence of internal diseases, yellow mattery lumps form 
on the legs, especially between the toes ; these must be treated 
outwardly like other gatherings, but can usually only be removed 
by the cure of the disease which has produced them. Still more 
mischievous is a condition caused either by an abnormal pro- 
pensity, or by outward irritation, which actuates the bird to 
gnaw the foot, and even to eat off whole toes. Here, also, no 
cure can be effected without the removal of the exciting cause. 
In such cases, tincture of aloes (2) and similar things have been 
tried without effect ; the bird began to eat the other foot, then 
a wing, then the second, and, finally, other parts of the body. 


Some benefit is derived in such cases by bathing the part in 
a strong warm solution of potash (70), and then sponging it with 
carbolic oil (41). A parrot sometimes tears out a claw by catch- 
ing in the wires or in some split ; then the wound must be 
washed and cooled with arnica water (7), dried with a soft towel, 
and brushed over with lead collodion (9). Scab in the Foot 
(calcareous bones or elephantiasis) rarely occurs in parrots, but I 
have seen it in an old cockatoo. The feet become covered by 
degrees with a rind or crust, which increases continually in 
bulk, prevents the parrot climbing, and disfigures the legs ; it 
causes unbearable itching, and so worries the bird that it grows 
thin. It must be separated from other parrots, because the 
disease, which is caused by mites in the skin, is infectious. 
Treatment : The hard crust must be smeared with soft soap, and 
twentj^-four hours after softened with warm water, and cleansed 
as much as possible with a hard brush from scab (but the feet 
must not be made to bleed) and then rubbed with balm of Peru 
(67), or carbolic acid ointment (42). In more severe cases 
the treatment must be repeated. Finally, the feet must be 
smeared with glycerine. 

Diseases of the Plumage are caused by tiny parasites, which 
take up their abode in the skin or the feathers, or by a diseased 
internal condition. The first are of many kinds, and either 
produce an eruption (similar to the itch in man) or destroy the 
feathers themselves. Treatment : In order to make sure of 
their presence, microscopical examination is necessary, but, 
fortunately, they are easy to banish. Strong smelling stuffs, 
such as petroleum or spirituous oils, &c., are often used for 
yard fowls and for cage birds, without recollecting that they are 
just as disagreeable and hurtful to the bird as the vermin. I 
therefore recommend, in all cases, Peruvian balm (67), and, as a 
further, effectual, and harmless remedy, insect powder (31), with 
the greatest cleanliness and care of the plumage in general. If 
the bird gets some places on the body where the feathers decay, 
or it tears them out, and constantly scratches with the beak, so 
as even to make a sore, it is necessary at once to find out 
whether it is on account of bird mites (the so-called bird louse). 
These red parasites may be recognised with the naked eye. The 
affected spot should be brushed with tincture of insect powder 
(32), or smeared with diluted glycerine (24), over which should be 
puffed some insect powder (31). Next day it should be washed 


with soap, warm water, and a brush, and then rubbed thinly 
with olive oil. In severe cases the treatment must be repeated. 
When a parrot is badly attacked with mites, the cage should be 
scalded out with hot water, and, having been thoroughlj'- 
cleansed and dusted out with insect powder, should be taken 
to another place. Feather mites, &c., which live in the feathers 
and injure them, are also banished by brushing the affected 
place with tincture of insect powder (32), or Peruvian balm (67), 
and, after being bathed with soap and water, smeared lightly 
with olive oil ; for the rest, careful management of the plumage 
is necessary (see p. 48). If bald spots come, on which scales 
or scabs form, they, also, are probably due to some animal or 
vegetable microscopical parasite. No researches as regards these 
in parrots have as yet been made, and I have treated the affected 
bird in a similar way as for foot scab (p. 72) with good results. 

Self Plucking is one of the worst diseases of the larger 
and, indeed, of the most valuable parrots. It makes a most 
dreadful impression to see a clever-speaking, almost humanly- 
intelligent, bird become in a short time quite naked, with the 
exception of the head, and plucking out every feather that 
sprouts from its bleeding body. It has long been known that 
this diseased inclination is founded on improper management. 
Whether the cause lies in microscopical parasites or in the 
want of movement, the impossibility of shaking the feathers 
thoroughly in the air, and, consequently, in irritation of the 
skin produced by the closing of the pores from down, or in the 
corruption of the juices of the body, and the irritation which 
proceeds therefrom, or, finally, as many wish to maintain, 
merely from bad habit, is by no means determined with 
certainty. We can only point out the unfortunate fact 
that self-plucking is not rare, and that, to the present time, 
no certain mode of cure has been discovered. Preventative 
Measures : A constant supply of wood to gnaw, also lime and 
sand ; avoid all tit- bits and unnatural food in general. On 
the other hand, suitable food and careful treatment of the 
plumage (see p. 48). The owner should also occupy and amuse 
himself with the parrot as much as possible. Treatment : 
Sprinkle with eau de Cologne or diluted glycerine (24), or some 
similar liquid, through a vaporiser; smear the places with 
tincture of aloes (2), infusion of tobacco (81), or walnut leaves 
(85), or other bitter or unpleasant fluids ; brush with tincture of 


insect powder (32) ; puff well through the plumage several times 
a day by means of a hand bellows ; a daily douche bath (80), 
with cool water, in which spirit, French brandy, rum, or eau de 
Cologne has been mixed. In Eotterdam tin collars were put 
on some parrots who had the habit of plucking themselves, but 
without success ; nor, in fact, have any of these so-called 
remedies really worked a lasting cure. The best hope lies in 
the treatment of Mr. Dulitz, that of putting the parrot into totally 
fresh surroundings, supplying it with a roomy cage and dry 
sand to scrape, placing it near the fire in cold weather, douching 
it daily with lukewarm water, giving it only maize, oats, and 
little hemp, and, on the other hand, fruit, green food, and cuttle- 
fish shell ; and, while carrying on this management, in accordance 
with the laws of nature, busying oneself with the bird as much 
as possible. The Eev. Mr. Ottmann obtained the best results by 
allowing the infatuated parrot to starve, it being depiived of 
its food by degrees, till at last it only got a third part of the 
customary allowance; it thus became quite drooping, and left off 
the bad habit of mutilating itself. 

Table of Medicines, with Dieections for Mixing the 
SAME, AND Doses. 

All the medicines prescribed may be bought at an apothecary's 
or druggist's. If no directions are added to the name it must 
be asked for by that here given. Attention must be paid 
to the number which stands before each prescription, for there 
are many different dilutions and solutions of the thing 
mentioned, and each one applies only to the case in point. The 
bird-keeper must use his own judgment as to measurements in 
diluting or dissolving, but the strength of the sick bird should 
be rather under than over rated. The sub-cutaneous injections 
must be made with a very small glass syringe with a very fine 
point on the fleshy part of the breast. 

1. 1 part of alum to 200 parts of water. 

2. Tincture of aloes. 

3. Marshmallow root. 

4. Spirits of ants. 

5. Carbonate of ammonia formed with confection of roses or other 

suitable substance (bread) into pills, each pill to contain from 
2gr. to 5gr. of the ammonia. 

6. Powdered areca nut, about Igr. daily. 

7. Tincture of arnica mixed with water — 1 or 2 parts to 100 parts of 



8. Sulphate of atropia, Igr. to SOOgr. of distilled water. 

9. Lead collodion. 

10. Lead ointment. 

11. Goulard water. 

12. Carbonate of lead ointment. 

13. Boric acid, 5 parts to 100 parts. 

14. Sulphate of quinine. 

15. Liquor-chlori, from 3 minims to 5 minims for a dose in water. 

16. Liquor-chlori mixed with water, a teaspoonful to half a pint of water, 

for painting. 

17. Chloride of lime, solution, or simply mixed with water, for dis- 

infecting and scouring purposes. 

18. Tincture of digitalis, 1 minim to 2 minims in water, for a dose. 

19. Extract of dulcamara, 30gr. to half a pint of water. 

20. Solution of sulphide of iron, 30gr. to half a pint of water. 

21. Extract of ergot of rye, for internal use, dissolved in water, 1 part 

to 100 parts. 

22. The same, for injection, Igr. to 3gr. each time. 

23. Glauber's salt, ^gv. for a dose, in water. 

24. Glycerine 1 part, water 10 parts. 

25. Glycerine of starch — glycerine ointment. 

26. Hamburgh plaster. 

27. Solution of nitrate of silver, 1 part to from 300 to 500 parts of dis- 

tilled water. 

28. Solution of nitrate of silver, 1 part to 10 parts. 

29. Spirits of ether, 1 to 2 drops in water, 

30. Solution of pyroligneous acid, 1 part ; hot water, 50 parts ; to 

be held under the beak in a bottle. 

31. Insect powder. 

32. Tincture of insect powder. 

33. Tincture of iodine. 

34. Same, mixed with spirits of wine, 1 part to 50 parts. 

35. Same, mixed with equal parts of hot water for inhalation, to be 

held before the beak. 

36. Chlorate of kali, 1 part ; hot water, 200 parts ; for internal use. 

37. Same, 1 part with 20 parts of hot water, for painting. 

38. Infusion of sweet flag or calamus root, 1 part to 20 parts; 

39. Same, with bicarbonate of soda ; 40gr. of the latter to half a 

pint of the infusion. 

40. Spirits of camphor. 

41. 1 to 2 parts of carbolic acid to 100 parts of sweet oil. 

42. 1 part carbolic acid, 10 parts clarified lard. 

43. Solution of carbolic acid, 1 part to 30 parts of water ; for painting 

and sprinkling use. For internal use : 1 to 2 drops of this solution 
in water. 

44. Same, 1 part to 200 parts of water, in pleuro-pneumonia. 

45. Same, 1 part to 100 parts, for hypodermic injection ; each time 3 to 

5 drops. 

46. Same, 1 part to 50 parts, for syringing abscesses, ulcers, &c. 

47. Same, 1 part to 400 parts, for painting the rump. 

48. Same, 1 part to 100 parts, for cleansing wounds. 


49. Same, 1 part to 10 parts, for scrubbing cages. 

50. Chilies, one to three daily. 

51. Common salt, with water, a tablespoonful to half a pint. 

52. Collodion. 

53. 1 part of fluid chloride of iron and 10 parts of collodion. 

54. Creosote vapour ; 2 parts of creosote to 100 parts of water, stirred 

with a red-hot poker. 

55. Vitriol of copper, solution in distilled water, 3 parts to 100 parts. 

56. Equal parts of Goulard's Extract and sweet oil. 

57. 20gr. of boric acid to loz. of mucilage of Arabian gum. 

58. Equal parts of linseed oil and lime water. 

59. 2 parts of carbolic acid to 100 parts of mucilage of Arabian gum. 

60. Calcined magnesia, with water, to be rubbed on, and poured in, in a 

thin mixture. 

61. 1 part of salicylate of soda to 100 parts water. Dose, 1 tea- 


62. Same solution for hypodermic injection, 2 to 3 drops each time. 

63. Hyposulphide of soda, dissolved in warm water, igr. to Igr. twice daily. 

64. Spirits of turpentine, 1 part to 6 parts of sweet oil. 

65. Laudanum, 1 drop to from 5 drops to 30gr. of water. 

66. Ozonised water. 

67. Peruvian balsam. 

68. Infusion of peppermint leaves, loz. to a pint of water, with bicarbo- 

nate of soda ; one part of the latter to 60 parts of the infusion. 

69. Phosphoric acid and water, 1 part to 200 parts ; of this give 3 drops 

to 5 drops for a dose. 

70. One part of potash to 10 parts of water. 

71. Three parts laudanum, 10 parts potash, 750 parts water. 

72. Castor oil, half to 1 teaspoonful. 

73. Solution of salicylic acid, 1 part to 300 parts for internal and 

external use. 

74. Same ; 1 part to 500 parts water. Each time Igr. 

75. Spirits of sal-ammoniac, 1 drop to 2 drops in water. 

76. Half grain of chloride of ammonia to 1 fluid dram of clarified honey, 

50gr. of fennel water. 

77. Igr. to 2gr. of nitre for a dose, dissolved in water. 

78. Hydrochloric acid concentrated, 1 drop in a large wineglassful of water. 

79. 30gr. of milk of sulphur, 1 part to 200 parts ; a teaspoonful two or 

three times daily. 

80. Spray of lukewarm water, with svn addition of eau de Cologne, 

brandy, rum, or spirits. 

81. Infusion of tobacco leaves, loz. to a pint of water. 

82. Solution of tannin, 1 or 2 parts to 100 parts of warm water. 

83. Spirits of turpentine, rectified, 1 drop to 5 drops in water for a dose. 

84. Inhalation of tar vapour, 1 part of Norwegian tar and 50 parta 

of hot water, to be held under the nostril in a small bottle. 

85. Infusion of walnub leaves, loz. to a pint. 

86. Zinc ointment. 

87. Solution of sulphate of zinc, 3gr. to 500 parts of water. 

Part IL— The Speaking Parrots. 


Exposition of the Subject — Breeding of Valuable Speahers. 

In accordance with the title of this work, I must here treat of all 
parrots which have hitherto proved themselves to be gifted with 
speech, from the best speakers down to those species of which it 
has been shown that, at least, one of their kind has, at all 
events, learnt to pronounce one word. Of course, 1 shall notice 
them in proportion to their very varied gifts ; describe the 
valuable and remarkable talkers fully, and speak of the 
remainder the more shortly according as their importance to 
the fancier decreases. In my books, before mentioned, I have 
divided this family of birds into two great groups, the short- 
tailed, or true parrots, and the long-tailed, or parrakeets. The 
former number amongst their ranks the most excellent speakers, 
and I therefore now begin by describing them. Among them 
there are classes of which all the members have shown them- 
selves possessed of the gift of speech ; for instance, the Grey and 
the Black parrots, and the Amazons ; while in many other 
classes, in the short as well as the long-tailed species, hitherto 
only some kinds, or even only one individual, has proved itself 
capable of speaking. Those classes of which, as yet, no species 
has been found to be talkers, are mentioned on page 5, but are 
left otherwise unnoticed. One part of the subject of parrot 
fancying which, in later times, has become very important, i.e.^ 
breeding, I must of necessity pass over in complete silence, as 
not coming within the limits of this book. Of the lesser 
kinds, many, as is generally known, have already been most 
successfully bred, and the young used by preference for 
teaching to speak. Attempts at breeding the larger and more 


valuable speakers, have, up to the present time, scarcely ever been 
made ; on the one hand, because such a pair of birds would 
require a very large space for the purpose, and on the other, 
and chiefly, because one would not wish to expose valuable 
speakers to danger, or even to risk those parrots which pro- 
mise to repay their training well. This apprehension, however, 
is not well founded ; for, according to my experience, the bird 
is by no means more than ordinarily endangered during hatching, 
if treated competently. 


Talents as Speakers — Natural Historij — Existence in Captivitij. 

The class of True Parrots, with which the Grey Parrots 
{Psittaciis, L.) and the Black Parrots {Coracopsis, Wgl.) are 
-connected, includes the most noted of all the talkers. There 
are six varieties, two grey and four black, which, at the 
first glance, appear so different, and, on closer acquaintance, 
show so little agreement in their peculiarities, that the 
amateur might scarcely consider them as related, while the 
scientific observer ranks them together. The characters in 
which they agree are : Their beaks rounded off at the side, 
more or less broad and arched, with rounded top ; upper 
beak without dental section, indented like a file ; under beak 
lower, with a rounded socket edge gently bending out before the 
point ; nostrils large and round ; the cere, lores, and the broad 
circle round the eye (eye cere) bare ; tongue thick, smooth, with 
blunt end ; wings long and pointed, from nine to twelve pinion 
feathers ; tail broad, almost straight or rounded ; plumage soft, 
each feather ending abruptly ; feet strong, with thick tarsus 
and powerful crooked nails ; size between a jackdaw and a 
crow. In the Grey Parrot the beak is longer, more closely 
pressed together, with longer and thinner point, the tail is short, 
almost straight, the feathers bracket-shaped at the end. In the 
Black, on the contrary, the beak is thick, as high as it is 
long, with short, slightly prominent point ; the tail is longer 
and more rounded. Both appear to differ from the species 
most nearly related to them (the Amazon, or Short-winged 
Parrots) by the naked parts of the face ; in the Black species. 


tlie bare skin on tlie nose is mostly somewliat distended. The 
movements of tlie Grey species are unwieldy, the flight is, 
however rapid, but clumsy, the gait on the ground awkward, 
and even the climbing unskilful. In the Black species, the 
motion is rather more nimble, or at least quicker. The natural 
voice of the Grey is shrill and reverberating, that of the Black 
short and rough, sometimes also melodious. The speaking power 
of the former is probably the highest among all parrots ; that 
of the latter is insignificant, or, at any rate, only moderate, 
Concerning the life in freedom of the birds belonging to this 
family very little is known as yet, but all the more has their 
existence in captivity been investigated in every respect. All 
further particulars will be given in the description of the 
individual species. 


Psittacus erithaeus, L. 

Grey Parrot, Red-tailed Grey Parrot, or Jaco (German, Grauer 
Papagei oder Jako, rothschwdnziger Papagei uad roth- 
schwdnziger Graupapagei \ French, Perroquet gins, Perroquet 
cendre, Jaco ; Dutch, Grauwe of Grijze Papegaai) — Natural 
History — Importation — Talent for Speaking and other Imita- 
tions — Apprthension and Judgment — Illustrations — Precautions 
in Acquiring. 

No other parrot, indeed no other bird, is so highly gifted as the 
common Grey Parrot ; moreover, these gifts extend in various 
directions, for it is, without exception, the best of all talkers, 
and at the same time possessed of rich mental talents. It there- 
fore justly rejoices in the greatest and most general popularity. 

It is said to have been known from very ancient times, and, 
though it cannot be proved with certainty that the people of 
ancient civilisation possessed these birds, yet our authors of the 
sixteenth century speak of them. In the Middle Ages they 
were often brought to Europe, and since that time the love 
for them has become more and more wide-spread. 

On the other hand, it is astonishing that travellers, up 
to the present time, have not been able to get any satisfactory 
information of their life in freedom, and that we are still 

f^cL^ <^^ - P b JVuo^ 


ignorant as to tlieir food, manner of building, first plumage, and 
other important points. 

The Grey Parrot is ashen grey ; each feather on the head, 
neck, breast and back has a light edge. The wings are of 
a darker grey, without the light edge ; the quills greyish- 
black : the middle and lower part of the back, and the rump, 
are pure greyish-white ; the tail, as well as upper and lower 
tail coverts, scarlet ; breast, belly, sides, and hinder part of the 
body, whitish-grey ; the beak black, the eyes black, grey, 
yellow, or white, according to age : the skin on the nose, lores, 
and circle round the eye (eye cere), featherless and greyish-white; 
the feet bluish or whitish grey, dappled with black ; the claws 
black. The plumage, like that of most parrots, is more or 
less full of down. The size varies extraordinarily, and often 
depends upon the age, sex, and, probably, on the place where 
found; it is about that of a large pigeon — length 14|-in. to 
15|in. (the smallest from llfin. to 12Jin,); the wings from 
7iin. to 9in. ; the tail from 2|in. to 3|-in. long. The differ- 
ences in sex are not yet known with certainty ; the smaller, 
lighter-coloured parrots are taken to be the females, and the 
larger, darker ones, with long neck, for males. The negroes 
are said to assert that the nostrils of the males are round and 
those of the females oblong ; the only certain difference 
(according to Soyaux) probably is that the bones of the 
pelvis are close to each other in the male, and in the female 
are so far separated that an egg can pass through. 

The colour of the plumage of the young birds has not been 
ascertained with certainty, at least, no African traveller has 
stated whether the young leave the nest with a red tail, or 
whether, as asserted by some one who could, however, give no 
proof of his statement, they have at that stage a brown tail. 
Otto Eichter, of Bremerhaven, says that he recognises the 
young Grey Parrots as they come into the market most surely 
by the brown nest feathers which cover the whole body, with 
the exception of the head, pinions, tail, and belly, and which 
by degrees give place to the grey feathers with a light edge. 
These birds mostly have black eyes when they arrive, which 
gradually change to ashen grey ; in about five months they 
become light grey, and after the lapse of a year greyish-yellow, 
or pale yellow ; and not till after three or four years do they 
become maize-coloured, or yellowish-white. The tail is bright 
red, every feather faintly seamed with brown, changing by 



to these according to fancy, while the White-fronted and Eed- 
throated Amazons, also the Vinaceous and Dufresne's Amazon, 
are said to be 7Tiuch less teachable, and the smaller species, such 
as the Yellow-shouldered, Salle's, the White-fronted, and Eed- 
fronted Amazons, and others, are evidently much less gifted, 
and are admired much more on account of their pretty comical 

As a rule, the Amazons are fed by the dealers with oats, 
maize, and moistened bread ; and on this point I beg to refer 
the reader to the remarks r.ia'^e concerning the great parrots. 
But, as the knowledg3 we have of their life in freedom shows 
that iihey live on fruit, they should have some from time to 
time, and that of a good sveet con ion, particularly walnuts, 
hazel and other nuts. The evil consequences of an unnatural 
diet are seen in liO species of parrots so plainly ab in the^^e. 
But with suitable food and good management, they prove 
themselves to be very strong and hardy, and, like the Grey 
Parrot, attain to a great age. They are justly included among 
the most admired of all parrots. 

Further details will be found in the chapters on the 
individual species. Concerning ** Purchase," '' Management," 
** Taming," and " Training," I beg to refer the reader to the 
special sections. 


Psittacus sestivus, Lth. 
Blue-fronted Amazon Parr.t (Ger., Gemeine Amazone, hlos 
Amazone oder Amazonenpapagei, hlaustirnige, gevwhiliclie, 
hlau-und gelhkopfige Amazone, Rothbug amazone, Rothhugama- 
zonenpapagei und Kurzjiugelpapagei mit rothem Fliigelbug ; 
Fr., Perroquet Amazone a front bleu, Perroqatt Amazone a 
calotte bleu, Perroquet Lord du Bresii ; Dut., Gerwne 
Amazone Papegaai) — Physical Characteristics — Capacity far- 

The well-known com^- on Amazon, with red shoulders, has often 
up to recent times been confused with the Orange-fronted 
Amazon, because the name of Amazon Parrot /as added by 
Linne to the Latin name of the latter. The former is coloured 
in the following manner : The band on the forehead blue ; top 



of the head, cheeks, and throat, yellow ; shoulders, the central 
spot on the wings, and the base of the tail feathers, red ; 
all the feathers of the upper parts green, with a distinct 
dark tip ; the lesser and greater coverts of the wings striped 
with greenish yellow ; all the lower body light green ; on 
the breast and belly each feather has a narrow greenish tip, 
yellowish towards the leg ; beak uniformly brownish-black, 
inclining to black ; cere black ; eyes varying from yellow to 
orange-red ; the eye cere bluish ; the feet bluish-grey ; the 
claws black. The difference between the sexes has not yet 
been determined with certainty. The plumage of the young 
birds is duller in colour. Size, about that of a crow (length, 
from 14^in. to 16;Jin.; wings, from 8in. to Bfin.; tail, from 4|-in. 
to 5g-in.). There are numerous varieties in colour, in some 
of which the blue and yellow on the head extends more or less, 
or in which one or the other is wanting entirely ; the red on the 
shoulder may be smaller or larger, sometimes yellowish-red, 
inclining to yellow ; indeed, there are Amazons all yellow, but 
these are certainly rare. 

This Amazon is a native of the south of South America, 
Brazil, and Paraguay, as far as the Amazon river. Although 
it is the most numerous and common species, yet of its life in 
freedom but little as yet is known ; on the whole, the remarks 
made in the general description of the Amazons, page 93, 
apply to this. 

They are most highly prized by the natives, because they 
are said to be the best suited for training. They are, therefore, 
met with everywhere among the Indians, and of all species are 
brought in the greatest numbers to market. With us also they 
are considered by bird fanciers as very valuable. There are 
examples of astonishingly gifted Amazons, not only in capa- 
bility for learning to speak, but also in learning to sing songs, 
or piping in three or four different ways, and being surprisingly 
teachable. As among all the best speaking species, there are 
some to be found which will learn little or nothing ; but these 
must by no means be considered as worthless. 

The purchase of an Amazon, even more than of any other kind 
of parrot, is a matter of chance ; and I would again call atten- 
tion to the advice given on pages 12 et seq. Most of the Amazons 
arrive by the great steamships which ply regularly between 
Brazil, other parts of South America, and Europe, and may be 
had in the market from all the wholesale and retail dealers. 



Psittacus amazonicus, L. 

Orange-winged Amazon Parrot (Ger., Venezuela- Amazone, Kurz- 
Jlilgelpapagei mit grilneni Flugelhug, fdlschlich Gemeine 
Amazone oder gar Neuholldnderpapagei; Fr., Perroquet 
Amazone a ailes Oranges; Dut., Groenhoeg Amazone 
Papegaai) — Characteristics and Talents. 

This species is mucli rarer in the market than that just treated, 
and not nearly so much admired. It is found of the following 
colours : The band on the forehead and the lores blue ; front 
of the head and the cheek below the eye, as far as the beak, 
yellow ; shoulders green, only yellow at the bend of the wing ; 
central spot on the wing yellowish-red ; tail feathers at the base 
orange-red ; the whole of the upper feathers green, the feathers 
at the back of the neck with darker lines ; all the lower part of 
the body light green, mingled on the breast with a little down ; 
the beak is of a pale grey-yellow, with a dark-brown point, and 
at the base of the upper beak is a yellow spot ; the eyes vary from 
light yellow to vermilion ; feet brownish horn-grey. The hen is 
said to have duller shades on the head. Size, somewhat less 
than the Blue-fronted Amazon (length, IS^in. to 14^in. ; wings, 
from Tin. to 7 Jin. ; tail, 3f in. to SAin.). All the birds of this 
species which are imported appear to be the same in colour. 
They are natives of the East of Brazil, where they live in 
countless numbers in the forests on the coasts. Their food is 
said to consist of all kinds of tree fruits, principally that of the 
mangrove. They are described by the settlers as the worst 
screamers of all the family. In order to obtain them young it 
is often necessary to fell large trees with inaccessible branches. 
In their native country they are called " Kurika," and are con- 
sidered very teachable, and this is confirmed by Dr. Lazarus. If 
this Amazon is less a favourite amongst us than the Blue-fronted 
Amazon, the reason probably is that, even as a speaker, it does 
not cease from harsh cries. 

They are mostly brought from Venezuela by the sailors in the 



Psittacus Levaillanti, Gr. 

Douhle-fronted Amazon (Ger., Grosser oder dojypelter GelhJcopfr 
grosse gelbhopfige Amazone, Levaillant's Amazonenpapagei, 
Levaillant's Kurzflilgelpapagei ; Fr., Perroquet Amazone de 
Levaillant, Perroquet a tete jaune ; Dut., Dubhele Geelkop 
Papegaai) — Its Rank as a Talker — Physical Characteristics — 
Power of Apprehension. 

Many of the admirers of speaking parrots esteem the Double- 
fronted Amazon more highly than all others, and consider, 
indeed, that in every respect it excels even the Grey Parrot. 
Such an assertion must not, however, be allowed to pass 
unchallenged, for no one can with certainty say of any species 
that it is absolutely the best. If one considers the extraordinary 
gradations and manifold capabilities of different individuals of 
the same species, one is astonished at the diversity of their 
talents, and is convinced that these may be repeated in any of the 
species, rendering comparison with one another very difficult, if 
not impossible. I, therefore, emphatically protest against pro- 
nouncing a decided judgment on any variety, or even arranging 
the individuals in a settled order of merit. Of course, it may 
be asserted that one species belongs to the more gifted and 
another to the less gifted species, but this is, in fact, all, and 
beyond this, in truth, none can go. Without doubt, the great 
Double-fronted Amazon takes high rank as a speaker, but we 
certainly are not justified in pronouncing it to be the best 
of all. 

It is whitish-yellow on the forehead and about the beak; 
the rest of the head, neck, and throat is sulphur-yellow ; 
shoulder, central spot on the wing, and the inner webs of the 
four outermost tail feathers at the base, bright scarlet; the 
upper parts of the body dark-green ; the lower parts light- 
green ; none of the feathers have a dark edge ; about the leg 
the colour is yellow ; the beak yellowish-white ; the cere almost 
pure white ; the eyes vary from yellowish-brown to brownish- 
red, with a yellow or grey circle round the pupil; the eye 
cere bluish-white, often yellow-grey ; feet whitish-blue ; claws 
grey. The difference between the sexes is not yet known. 
The plumage of the young birds is yellow only on the forehead. 


■and top and sides of the head ; the red marks are pale and 
'dull. Size, nearly as large as a raven (length, 15in. to l74^in. ; 
wings, 8;lin. to 9in. ; tail, 4|in. to 52in.). It is only found in 
the South and West of Mexico, its native country, and on the 
•adjacent islands ; it is seen further north than any other 
Amazon parrot. 

It is much valued as a cage bird in its native land as well as 
with us, consequently it fetches a higher price than any of its 
fellows. The Indians steal the young from the nests, therefore 
all birds of this species come into the market at least half tame, 
and able to speak a few words ; but they come singly or in 
-small numbers. Immediately after their arrival they are 
-delicate, and need much care (see "Acclimatisation" and 
*' Management "), but when accustomed to the change they 
are among the most hardy of the parrot tribe. 

One great advantage which Levaillant's Amazon possesses is 
its power of apprehension, by which it is always able to repeat 
■clearly at once words that are taught it. On the other hand, 
there are amongst the ranks of this species some which will 
ne^er learn anything; yet the statement of the experiences 
given on page 36 should always be borne in mind, and such 
a bird should not be given up too soon as incapable of improve- 
ment, because, as has happened in many cases, it may be that 
after many years it will become an excellent speaker. I must 
■add that even the most excellent of these birds will, from time 
to time, give vent to its wild natural cry. 


Psittacus ochrocephalus, Gml. 

Yellow -fronted Amazon (Ger., Siirinam-Amazone unci Surinam- 
papagei, Gelbscheiteliger Kurzjlugelpapagei iind Gelhscheitel- 
Amazone ; Fr., Perroquet Amazone a front jaune, Perroquet 
de Cayenne; Dut., Geelvoorlioofd Papegaai, Geelvleeh Papegaai) 
— Physical Characteri'stics — Varieties — Habitat — Rank as 

All parrots included under the common of Amazon show 
in colouring and special marks such noticeable characters, that 
^ven a superficial observer could not be confused in determining 


tbe various species. Nevertheless, from olden times even to our 
own days, we find scientific observers as well as amateurs 
constantly confusing the birds of this genus, especially the 
Surinam, with other ones. The reader is, therefore, particularly 
requested to notice carefully the marks given in the following 
description : 

The Yellow-fronted Amazon is of a deep yellow from the 
forehead to the middle of the head, more or less over the back 
of the head, with a broad green stripe above the eye ; lores,, 
sides of the head, and throat, yellowish-green ; back of the head, 
cheeks, and neck, dark-green, each feather edged with a fine- 
black line ; the whole of the upper part of the body is a dark 
grass-green, without the darker edges to the feathers ; edge of 
the wings red ; the speckles on the wings, and the beard of the- 
quills of the outermost tail feathers, vary from reddish-yellow 
to scarlet ; all the lower parts of the body are of a lighter green 
than the upper ; reddish-yellow about the legs ; beak blackish- 
brown inclining to black ; on each side of the base of the^ 
upper beak there is a pinkish-white spot ; lower beak dark horn- 
grey ; the cere is blackish, thickly set with little black hairs ; 
eyes orange-red, with a thin yellow, and then a broad brown rim 
round the pupils ; eye cere bluish-white ; feet bluish- white ; 
claws almost pure white. 

There appear the following varieties of this species : The 
yellow on the head may be narrower or broader, and sometimes- 
extends over the whole front of the head, even over the eyes and 
the under beak ; sometimes it does not appear, or is confined to- 
a few feathers on the middle of the head and on the bridle ; the- 
yellow feathers are often edged here and there with red ; the 
edge of the forehead is green ; the red mark in the wing may 
be smaller or greater ; the beak may be lighter or darker brown,, 
with a fallow-red spot ; the iris with an inner ring of brown 
and an outer one of red ; eye cere grey. 

The plumage of the female and of the young is not yet 
known with certainty. The young birds which come into the 
market have but little yellow about them, and the red marks 
are duller. Size, about that of a raven (length, 14|in. to 16ic,; 
wings, from 8in. to 9in.; tail, from 4lin. to 5;^in.). 

It is a native of the north of South America. We are told 
by travellers that they are exceedingly numerous and common 
in Surinam, Guiana, and Venezuela. It is pursued on account of 
its flesh and feathers, but most commonly stolen from the 


nests. Tlie Indians, who consider them amongst the most 
teachable parrots, are said to rear and train them with special 
care. Surinam Amazons ma.y often be seen flying half-wild 
about the huts of the Indians, with cut wings, but they always 
return home in the evening. This species is with us one of the 
most common in the trade, as they are imported in rather larger 
numbers than the Double-fronted Amazon. They are esteemed 
as good speakers, as some of them develope in the most notable 
manner, not merely speaking well and clearly, but learning to 
laugh, weep, and sing prettily. Others, however, are found to 
be backward, but this is not often the case, most of them being 
good medium birds. 


Psittacus ochropterus, Gml. 

Single Yellow-headed Amazon (Ger., Kleiner Gelhkopf oder 
Sonnenpapagei, Gelhflugeliger Kurzfliigeligpapagei, Gelb- 
flilgeliger Amazonenpapagei, Gelbflugelamazone ; Fr., Per- 
roquet Amazone a epaulettes jaimes, Perroquet Amazone 
ocliroptere ; Dut., Kleene Geelkop Papegaai) — Power of 
Mimicry — Physical Characteristics. 

The little Yellow- shouldered Amazon is, by many of the friends 
of the feathered speakers, esteemed a great favourite, though con- 
sidered as among the commonest parrots in the trade ; while by 
others it is regarded, like all the smaller Amazons indeed, with 
actual contempt. This arises, probably, from the fact that the 
individual birds of this species display such an astonishing 
difference in their capacity for speech. Descriptions have been 
given by credible connoisseurs, according to which there are 
some extraordinarily-gifted Yellow-shouldered Amazons, which 
are particularly valuable, because they become uncommonly 
tame, are very amusing in their ways, and can imitate faithfully 
the voices of all sorts of animals, such as cock-crowing, cackling 
of hens, cooing of doves, mewing of cats, barking of dogs, &c. ; 
on the other hand, we find many Yellow-heads which are 
certainly very lovable, but which cannot be taught anything. 
One advantage is possessed by all of them — they belong to the 
most easily and perfectly tamable of all cage birds. 


The Yellow-shouldered Amazon may be distinguished according 
to sex. The male is pale-yellow on the forehead and lores ; 
the front and top of the head, cheeks, sides of the head, 
round the ear, and the upper part of the throat, yellow ; the 
shoulders are marked with a large yellow spot ; the central spot 
on the wings scarlet ; the four outer tail feathers, with about 
a third from the base of both webs, vermilion ; all the rest of 
the upper body dark grass-green, each feather has a black edge, 
only the upper covert of the tail is of a uniform yellow-green ; the 
lower part is of a scarcely perceptible lighter green, each feather 
having here also a dark edge ; about the leg the colour is yellow ; 
the beak is horn-white, inclining to bluish-grey ; the cere greyish- 
white ; the eyes dark-brown, yellowish-brown, or inclining to 
reddish-yellow, with a red circle outside the iris ; the eye 
cere white ; feet and claws whitish horn-grey. The female is 
universally duller in colour, and round the lower beak, and 
more or less on the cheeks, breast, and belly, of a cerulean 
blue. The plumage of the young birds has also a cerulean 
tinge, and this sometimes extends over the sides of the head 
and the throat. In many old birds the green feathers on the 
head, cheek, throat, neck, and shoulder are more or less yellow, 
or mixed with orange colour. Size, about that of a jackdaw 
^length 12Mn. to IS^in. ; wings, Tin. to 8in. ; tail, ofin. to 4^in.). 

It has been well described by old writers, Brisson amongst 
others, and Buffon gives a pleasing description of its cage-life ; 
but many errors prevail respecting it. The little Yellow-headed 
Amazon may be distinguished from all its fellows by its lesser 
size, the dark edge on the feathers of upper and lower body, and 
by the broad yellow shoulder. 


Psittacus farinosus, Bdd. 
Ileal?/ Amazon (Ger., Mullerpapagei, Midler oder Muller- 
amazone, lueisshepuderter Amazonenpapagei, hereifter Kurz- 
flilgelpapagei ; Fr., Perroquet Amazone p)Oudre'e, Meunier ; 
Dut., Midler Amazone Papegaai) — Qualities as a Talker — 
Physical Characteristics — Habitat. 

This is another favourite speaker ; it may decidedly be counted 
among the most talented, and it shows itself at the same time 


gentle and lovable ; but, unfortunately, it is also one of the 
worst screamers, and even when trained and perfectly tamed 
never ceases from time to time to utter the most ear-piercing 

The Mealy Amazon is yellowish-green on the forehead and 
cheeks ; the centre of the head is yellow, sometimes with fine 
red spots ; each feather on the top of the head is edged with 
violet ; all the upper part of the body is of a dark grass-green ; 
on the back of the head and neck each feather has a blackish 
tip ; the central spot on the wing is scarlet ; tail feathers 
green without red ; all the lower body light yellowish-green; 
lower coverts of the tail greenish-yellow ; beak whitish horn- 
grey ; at the base of both upper and lower beak an orange- 
yellow spot ; the skin on the nose blackish ; eyes dark-brown, 
inclining to red-brown ; the iris has a cherry-coloured ring ; 
the eye cere white ; feet dark-brown ; claws black. The differ- 
ence of sex, and the plumage when young, are as yet unknown. 
Special indications : The feathers appear as if powdered with 
flour, and, therefore, the upper part of the body looks grey- 
green ; when sitting still the whole bird looks uniformly grey- 
green ; moreover, though it has the red spots on the wing, 
there are no red marks in the tail, and its feathers are mixed 
with more down than those of any other parrot. In this species 
also varieties occur — many have no yellow on the top of the 
head ; in others it extends over the whole top of the head ; 
sometimes one is found without down. Size, about that of a 
raven or larger (length, iS^in. to 19^in. ; wings, 8|in. to lOin. ; 
tail, 4^in. to 5|in.). It is, therefore, one of the largest of the 
Amazon Parrots. 

It is a native of South America (Central Brazil, Guiana, 
Ecuador, Bolivia, and Panama), and is said to be especially 
numerous in Guiana. Its mode of life resembles, on the whole, 
that of the other Amazons. It is much hunted, is easily tamed 
and trained, and learns to speak well ; nevertheless, on account 
of its screaming, it is not so highly esteemed as its fellows 
previously described. 



Psittacus auripalliatus, Ls3. 

Golden-naped Amazon (Grer., Gelhnacken oder Gelbnacke- 
. Amazone, GelhnacJciger Papagei, Goldnackea-Amazone oder 

Amazonenpapagei, bios Goldnachen und gelhnaclciger Kurz- 
Jliigelpapagei ; Fr., Perroquet Amazone a collier d'or; Dut., 

Goudneh Amazone Papegaai) — Distinguishing Characteristics. 

Though nearly related to the preceding, this kind is easily- 
distinguished by the connoisseur. It is pale grass-green on the 
forehead, top of the head, and cheeks ; crown of the head 
cerulean blue, and more or less (sometimes not at all) yellow ; 
round the eyes blue, each feather edged with black ; nape of the 
neck lemon-colour ; the edge of the wing sometimes red, some- 
times with single red feathers, sometimes with large red marks 
on the shoulder ; central spot in wing red ; a third from the 
base of the tail feathers, on the inner side, red ; all the upper 
part of the body grass-green ; on the back and the sides of 
the neck each feather has a blackish tip ; lower parts of body 
greenish-yellow ; beak dark horn-grey, with a yellow spot at 
the base ; cere blackish, with small, black, bristly feathers ; 
eyes brown or reddish-yellow, whitish eye cere ; feet a brownish 
horn-grey ; claws black. The plumage of the young birds is 
said by Hagenbeck to be without the yellow feathers on the 
neck. Special indications : The cerulean colour on the crown 
of the head and round the eyes, the yellow neck, and the 
black, bristly feathers on the skin of the nose. Otherwise it 
bears a strong resemblance to the Surinam Amazon. Size, 
nearly that of a raven (length, 14iin. to lofin.; wings, 7Mn. 
to 8iin. ; tail, 4|in. to 4|in.). It is a native of Central 
America as far as Nicaragua. According to the account 
of the traveller, Dr. von Frantzius, it is much esteemed in 
Costa Eica as a cage bird, and valued as learning to speak 
easily. It appears in our markets less frequently than others 
of the same family, yet it is certainly among the best-known 



Psittacus guatemalensis, Hrtl. 

Guatemala Amazon (Ger., Guatemala- Amazojie, Blausclieitel- 
Amazonenpapagei, Blauscheitelig er Kurzflilgelp)apagei ; Fr., 
Perroquet Amazone cie Guatemale ; Dut., Guatemala Amazone 
Papegaai) — Characteristics. 

Among a number of freshly-imported Amazon Parrots one 
usually sees several different species which come from the same 
or neighbouring districts, and are brought by the buyers at the 
same time to the ships ; hence it is that the Guatemalan comes 
with the Mealy Amazon, yet it is much rarer. It is azure-blue 
on the forehead to the top of the head ; the sides of the head 
are a lively green ; the neck and shoulders greenish-grey ; 
central spot in the wing scarlet ; no red in the edge of the 
wing; the tail feathers altogether without red; all the upper 
part of the body dark grass-green ; lower part somewhat lighter ; 
the hinder parts and the lower covert of the tail yellow-green ; 
beak blackish ; on the upper beak a pinkish spot ; cere bluish- 
grey ; eyes carmine, with a broad brown circle round the iris ; 
eye cere bluish-white ; feet whitish-grey ; claws black. The 
female has green on the forehead, each feather just edged with 
blue ; the top of the head and the neck more of a purplish- 
blue ; cheeks, sides of the head, and throat, grass-green ; the 
beak lighter, blackish horn-grey, with a whitish spot, at the root 
of the lower beak ; the red ring in the iris is much narrower. 
Special indications : The blue on the top of the head ; no red 
in the edge of the wing or the tail ; down among the feathers 
of the back. Eather larger than a raven (length, 18|in. to 
19in. ; wings, 8^-in. to 9in. ; tail, 4iin. to 4|in.). It is said by 
travellers to be a native of Mexico, particularly of the south. 
On the whole the Guatemalan greatly resembles the Mealy 
Amazon. Like the others, it is easily tamed, and learns to 
speak well ; but is occasionally an unbearable screamer. 



Psittacus festivus, L. 

Festive Amazon (Ger., Blauhart, hlauhdrtige Amazone, rotJi- 
riichiger Amazonenpapagei, rotliriickige Amazone, blaukinniger 
Kurzflugelpapagei ; Fr., Perroquet Amazone a dos rouge, 
Perroquet Tavoua ; Dut., Blauwkeel Amazone Papegaai) — 
Character as a Talker — Natural Characteristics. 

This parrot, known since Linne wrote of it, has been much 
praised by older authors, especially by Buffon, as a speaker 
which is said even to surpass the Grey Parrot. Nevertheless, it 
has also some very unpleasant characteristics, for it is treache- 
rous and ill-tempered, and may bite even while being caressed. 
More modern travellers also, such as Schomburgk, assert that it 
is one of the most teachable parrots, speaks clearly, and learns 
to pipe songs well. Observation has, however, convinced us 
that these opinions are for the most part erroneous. All parrots, 
if badly trained, manifest treacherous, cunning ways, and among 
all the Amazons yet imported this one is decidedly wanting in 
talent for speaking. 

The band on the forehead and the lores are blood-red ; eye- 
brows and temple stripes light blue ; a broad green spot on the 
top of the head ; back of the head, as far as nape of neck, 
blue ; sides of the head green ; hinder part of the back and the 
rump scarlet ; no central spot on wing ; coverts of primaries, 
and bend of the wing, dark-blue ; only the outermost tail feather 
on each side has a red base ; all the upper parts of the body dark 
grass-green ; the lower parts somewhat lighter ; throat blue ; 
lower coverts of the tail yellow-green ; beak pale flesh-colour ; 
cere blackish ; eyes brown, inclining to carmine, with dark- 
brown rings round the iris ; eye cere whitish-grey ; feet greyish- 
white, or brownish horn-grey ; claws brown-black. (In many 
the hinder part of the back, the rump, and tail, are uni- 
formly green. It has not yet been ascertained whether this 
is the plumage of the female or of the young bird. The red 
lores are also sometimes absent, and the green spot on the top 
of the head extends more or less ; the back of the head as far 
as the neck is blue). Size, about that of a crow (length, 14|in.; 


wings, 7^in. to 8in.; tail, 3|in. to 3;|in. It is a native of Brazil, 
Bolivia, Guiana, and Venezuela. It is somewhat rare in the 
market, and this may be the reason why, even as an untrained 
bird, it fetches rather a high price. 


Psittacna Sallei, Scl. 

Salle's Amazon (Ger., St. Domingo- Amazone, weissstirnige Porfo- 
riho - Amazone, Blaukrone, Salle's Kurzflilgelpapagei; Fr., 
Perroquet Amazone de St. Domingo ; Dut., Salle's Amazone 
Papegaai) — Descrip)tion. 

In this species we introduce a group of smaller Amazons which 
are usually called collectively by the dealers " Porto Eico 
Parrots." As mentioned on page 97, they are far behind 
the great speakers previously treated of, both in the talent for 
speech and in general cleverness ; on the other hand, they are 
always very trustworthy and gentle ; but they must certainly be^ 
accounted dreadful screamers. Salle's Amazon Parrot has a 
white forehead and lores ; front and crown of the head dull 
blue ; cheeks green, near the ear black ; upper coverts of the 
tail yellow-green ; coverts of the primaries and bend of wing 
blue ; outer feathers of the tail, at the basal half, scarlet^ 
which colour decreases on the inside ; all the upper part of the 
body dark grass-green ; each feather edged with black ; lower 
part lighter grass-green ; the hinder part of the body with a round, 
dull scarlet spot ; near the leg bluish-green ; beak yellowish horn- 
grey ; cere whitish-grey ; eyes dark-brown, inclining to red- 
brown ; eye cere almost pure white ; feet whitish-grey ; claws 
horn-grey. Special indications : The want of the red line Ott 
the forehead, the eyebrow, and the central spot in wing ; the 
forehead is sometimes yellowish-white. About the size of a 
jackdaw (length, 12|in. to 13in. ; wings, 6|in. to 7iin. ; tail, 
3|-in. to 4in.). It is a native of the Island of St. Domingo. 

This pretty little parrot was described by Brisson as early as 
the year 1760, and was, therefore, known to the older writers ; 
but it was thought to be the female of the White-fronted 
Amazon Parrot. Dr. Sclater, in 1857, was the first to determine 


it with certainty as a species. It comes in comparatively small 
numbers into the market with us, and is not a special favourite. 
For the rest, the previous remarks on the small Amazons apply 
also to this. 


Psittacus vittatus, Bdd. 

Red-fronted Amazon (Ger., Rothstirnige Porioriko-Aviazone, hlos 
Portoriko - Amazone, rothstirniger Kurzfliigelpajmgei ; Fr., 
Perroqiiet Amazone a front rouge, Perroquet de St. Dominge ; 
Dut., Roodvoorhoofd Amazone Papegaai) — Description. 

This species also was taken to be the female of another kind. 
It was described by Boddaert in the year 1783, but until of 
late nothing was known of it. It has a scarlet band on the 
forehead ; all the upper part of the body is of a dark grass- 
green, each feather having a broad black tip ; the coverts of the 
primaries and bend of the wing dull blue ; the edge of the 
wing mostly green ; the outer feathers of the tail have a red 
spot at the base ; spot on the throat red ; all the lower part 
of the body light-green, on the front of the neck and breast 
each feather edged with black ; belly and lower coverts of 
the tail yellow-green ; beak horn-grey ; upper half of beak 
greyish-yellow at the base ; cere white ; eyes brown or reddish- 
yellow ; eye cere whitish ; feet of a brownish flesh-colour ; 
claws brown. Variations : Sometimes the face and upper part 
of the throat are red ; the edge of wings bright yellow ; the red 
spot on the throat is sometimes wanting. Special indications : 
The red band on the forehead, the blue covert feathers, and 
the blue bend of the wing ; no red spot in the wings. Size 
about that of a jackdaw (length, ISjin. ; wings, G^in. to 7in. ; 
tail, 3^in. to ^^in.). The traveller Moritz observed them at 
Porto Rico, and, according to his account, they do not differ in any 
way from the habits of all their larger congeners. They are 
said to lay waste the maize fields, frequenting them in flocks. 
When taken from the nest, and brought up by women, they 
are said to learn to imitate every possible tone of men or 
animals. They may be reckoned among the most common 


birds in the trade, yet they are highly esteemed by some 
amateurs. On the whole, however, as regards their talents, the 
remarks concerning the lesser species hold good. 


Pdittacas leucocephalus, L. 

White-fronted Amazon (Ger., Rothhalsige Kuha-Amazone, hlos 
Kuba-Ainazone, rothhduchiger Kurzfliigelpapacjei ; Fr., Perro- 
quet-Amazone a tete blanche, Perroquet Amazone de Cuba ; 
Dut., Havana of Cuba Amazone Pai^egaai) — Description — 
Domestic Character. 

This bird has been known as long as any of the American 
parrots, for it was mentioned by Aldrovandi. The first to 
describe it was Edwards, and Linne gave its scientific name. 
Old authors extolled it highly, and Catesby even calls it the 
"Paradise Parrot ; " Bechstein also includes it among the most 
teachable, and asserts that they chat much, and become very 

It is white on the forehead, top of the head, lores, and 
eye cere ; the cheeks, round the ear, and the throat, are purple- 
red ; the upper tail coverts yellow-green ; the coverts of the 
primaries and the bend of the wing blue ; the basal half of 
the tail feathers, on the inner webs, scarlet ; all the upper part 
of the body deep grass-green, each feather having a broad black 
tip ; the lower part is grass-green, the feathers being only lightly 
tipped with black ; the belly purple ; the leg feathers light-blue ; 
the lower tail coverts yellow-green ; the beak pale yellowish- 
white ; the cere pure white ; the eyes brownish or reddish-yellow ; 
the feet whitish flesh-colour; claws flesh-coloured. In the female 
the red spot on the throat is said to extend to the upper part of 
the breast, and the lower part of the breast to be purple. In 
young birds the plumage is as follows : Only the forehead 
white ; spot near the ear more of a greyish-black ; the cheeks 
green, with a few red feathers. Special marks : The absence 
of the band on the forehead, and the stripes of the eyebrows ; 
wings without central spot ; on the other hand, the purple belly. 


Size, fully that of a jackdaw (length, 12}in. to IS^in. ; wings, 
GJin. to 7fin. ; tail, 4|-in. to 4|in.). 

It is a native of the Island of Cuba. Dr. Gundlach has given 
some interesting particulars concerning its habits in freedom, 
and I may also refer the reader to the remarks on Amazons 
on page 94 : " The young birds in their native place are 
frequently stolen from the nest and brought up by hand ; they 
are esteemed because they learn easily to repeat words and 
sentences, become very tame and affectionate, and have pleasing 
habits and beautiful plumage." 

Fanciers among us also praise it as teachable, good-tempered, 
and easily tamed. " It chatters willingly and continuously," 
says Mr. K. Petermann, of Eostock, " but mostly incompre- 
hensibly, and though it possesses remarkable power of distinction 
and an excellent memory, yet it is in every material respect far 
behind the Grey Parrot, and the most noteworthy of the 
Amazons." This opinion is decidedly just. The above-named 
gentleman has a Cuban Parrot of this breed which has never 
been ill during twenty-two years. 

Pcittacua coUarius, L. 

Red-throated Amazon (Ger., WeissJcopJige Amazone, Jamaika- 
Amazone, Jamaika- Amazonenpapagei, weisskopfirjer Kurz- 
Jtilgelpapagei ; Fr., Perroquet Amazone a gorge rouge, Perro- 
quet Amazone de la Martinique; Dut., Witkop Amazone 
Papegaai) — Description . 

The Eed-throated Amazon Parrot has long been familiar to us ; 
it was described by Brisson (1760), and named by Linne ; yet it 
was formerly often confused with, or mistaken for, the White- 
fronted Amazon, to which, indeed, it bears a strong resem- 

It is of pure white on] the forehead and lores ; the top of 
the head is bluish-green, inclining to pure blue ; the sides of 
the head, and the upper part of the throat, also, as a rule, the 
back of the neck, are ruby or wine-coloured ; a spot under 


the eye is pale-blue ; about the ear greenish-blue ; upper tail 
coverts yellowish-green ; the coverts of the primaries are 
bluish-green ; all the tail feathers, except the two centre ones, 
are pure green, at the base scarlet ; all the upper part of the 
body is grass-green ; at the sides and back of the neck each 
feather is edged with black ; the under part of the body is a 
paler, lighter green ; the thigh, the hinder part of the body, and 
the lower tail coverts, yellowish-green ; the beak a waxy-yellow ; 
the end of the upper mandible is a greyish-white (a pale horn- 
grey sulphur colour at the base) ; the cere greyish-white ; feet 
yellowish brown-grey ; the claws black. Size, about that of a 
jackdaw (length, 12iin. to 13in. ; wings, 6|in. to 6Jin. ; tail, 
3|-in. to 4in.). 

The marks which serve to distinguish this species from the 
preceding are : The whole of the upper part of the body is grass- 
green, without the broad black tips on the feathers, which, 
however, appear narrow and faintly marked on the sides and 
back of the neck ; the red spot on the belly is wanting. 

It is a native of Jamaica, where it is said to be rather 
plentiful, to live chiefly on oranges, and in its habits to resemble 
others of this family. Many fanciers esteem it as teachable ; 
yet it certainly does not surpass the White-fronted Amazon, and 
scarcely even equals it. 


Psittacus albifrons, Sprrm. 

Sinctacle Parrot (Ger., Brillenamazone, Weissstirnige Amazone, 
Weisszilgeliger Kurzflllgelpapagei ; Fr., Perroquet a fronthlanc, 
Perroquet a joues rouges ; Dut., Witvoorhoofd Amazon 
Papegaai) — Description. 

Although described by Hernandez in the year 1651, yet this 
parrot has been almost up to the present time a rarity in museums 
as a stuffed specimen. In the trade it has long been one of the 
better known, though, perhaps, not one of the commonest. Of 
late, however, it has appeared several times at bird shows. 
It is white on the forehead and top of the head, with a blue, 



spot on tlae crown ; a narrow scarlet band on the forehead ; 
the lores are scarlet, also the eyebrow stripes, and a wide 
space round the eye near the beak (the red band on the forehead 
is sometimes wanting) ; the back of the head and neck are bluish- 
green ; the cheeks and space round the ear yellowish-green ; 
the bend of the wing and the coverts of the primaries bright 
scarlet ; the edge of the wing is green ; the four outer tail 
feathers are red on both webs at the base ; all the upper part of 
the body is dark grass-green, each feather having a dark edge ; 
the lower part of the body is a faint, paler green, with a faded dark 
edge to the feathers ; the belly and lower tail coverts yellowish- 
green ; the beak greyish waxy-yellow ; the skin on the nose 
yellowish-grey ; the eyes yellow, inclining to a reddish-brown ; 
eye cere a dark slate-colour ; feet a brownish-grey ; claws 
blackish. About the size of a jackdaw (length, 12|-in. to 12-^in. ; 
wings, 7iin. to 7-^in. ; tail, ojin. to 4|in.). It is a native of 
Mexico, Honduras, Guatemala, Nicaragua, and Costa Eica. 

This Amazon, which has hitherto received but little notice, 
has lately been described very favourably by Mr. F. Arnold, of 
Munich : ** It speaks a great deal, but only a few words clearly ; 
it learns very quickly, but forgets just as soon. Otherwise it is 
a delightful household companion, which allows the children to 
do as they like with it — drive it about in a doll's carriage, &c. 
It also is fond of teasing in its turn ; it climbs up the curtain 
just to such a height that its little friends cannot reach it, and 
challenges them with continual cries to pursue it further by the 
aid of chairs and tables, till at last it walks up and down, with 
a dignified air, on the curtain-pole at a safe height. Its wishes, 
such as to have its head scratched, to shake hands, or to receive 
a bit of biscuit or a piece of apple, must be immediately com- 
plied with ; or, if these modest desires are not attended to, it 
withdraws, and rejects all efforts at reconciliation by pecking 
with its beak. It destroys everything it can reach ; but, if it 
be scolded, it knows how, with wonderful sagacity, to disarm the 
intention by a great show of affection. On this account it has 
been, and continues to be, the favourite with all the members of 
the family." In this we have confirmation of the opinion as 
to the talent of the smaller Amazons which I have already 



PsittacuB brasiliensis, L. 

Red-mashed Amazon (Ger., Rothmasken-Amazone, Rothmasldrter 
Kurzfiilgelpaj^agei ; Fr., Perroquet Amazone a masque rouge; 
Dat., Roodmasher Amazone Papegaai) — Description. 

This Amazon, which belongs to the larger species, is also among 
the most interesting. It is one of those described by Edwards, 
and named by Linne ; yet the older writers have given no 
further information concerning it, and all knowledge of its 
habits, indeed of its native land, was wanting until recently. 

It is scarlet on the forehead and top of the head (the lores 
and sides of the forehead a dull scarlet ; the middle of the fore- 
head and front of the head pale-red, with a yellowish-green 
lustre) ; the cheeks and the space round the ear are of a 
bluish-red (the streak above the eye and near the ear is of a 
cornflower-blue) ; the back of the head and neck green (each 
feather having a red spot in the centre) ; the primaries and 
secondaries more or less yellow on the outer web ; the final 
half of the tail feathers scarlet, with greenish-yellow tips ; the 
two centre ones without red ; all the upper part of the body 
grass-green, the feathers having no dark edges (yet the upper 
coverts of the wings and shoulders have a bright blackish-blue 
lustre ; the back, rump, and upper tail coverts are pure 
green) ; all the lower part of the body is yellowish-green ; 
the upper part of the throat is bluish-red ; the beak brownish 
horn-grey, with a lighter ridge, a blackish point, and a yel- 
lowish-grey spot on either side of the upper mandible ; the 
lower beak is a yellowish horn-grey ; skin on the nose grey ; 
eyes brown, with an orange-red ring (sometimes it is dark-blue) ; 
the eye cere grey-blue ; feet grey ; claws black. The blackish- 
blue lustre may be considered as the special mark for recog- 
nition. Size, almost as large as a raven (length, 15|in. to 
17|in. ; wings, 8|in. to 9|in. ; tail, 4 Jin. to 5|in.). It has 
lately been proved to be a native of Southern Brazil. 

In the year 1828 there was a Eed-masked Amazon in the 
collection of living birds belonging to the Emperor of Austria, 
in Schonbrunn. Several decades later Count Hollstein brought 
another with him from his travels in Brazil, which then passed 
into the possession of Mr. Karl Hagenbeck, and was shown at 

I 2 


tlie great Ornis Exliibition, in Berlin, amongst tlie collection of 
Amazons wliicli I liave already mentioned several times. The 
tliird Amazon of this species was received by Mr. K. Petermann, 
in Eostock, through the bird dealer, A. Schiiifer, in Hamburg. 
This Amazon is said to become exceedingly tame, and so gentle 
that one may do all sorts of things to it without its biting. It 
is not credited with any special talent for speech ; yet it does not 
utter the harsh, ugly cry. 


Psittacus vinaceus, Pr. Wd. 

Vinaceous Amazon (Ger., Weinrothe Amazone, Tanhenhals- 
Amazone, rothschnclheliger Kurzfiucjelpapagei ; Fr., Perroqiiet 
Amazone a couleur de vin, Amazone d bee coideur de sang; Dut., 
Roodhek Amazone Papegaai) — Natural History — Capacity as 

Although this species was known to Brisson (1760), yet it was 
first described with exactness by Prince Max von Neuwied (1820). 
The Vinaceous Amazon, as this bird is usually called in the trade, 
is very beautiful in plumage. The edge of the forehead and 
lores are blood-red ; the forehead is dark-green ; the cheeks 
yellowish olive-green ; the head and upper part of the back 
dark grass-green, each feather with a narrow blackish border : 
the back of the neck bluish-lilac, each feather tipped with 
black ; the central spot of the wing scarlet (the primaries are 
broad, and red on both webs) ; the outer feathers of the tail 
scarlet on both webs ; the whole of the upper part of the body 
dark grass-green ; the throat is marked with a scarlet spot 
(which, however, is sometimes wanting) ; the breast and belly 
are of a dark wine-red (sometimes this extends even over the 
hinder parts of the body) ; the thigh and lower coverts of the 
tail yellowish-green ; the beak either a light or a deep blood- 
red, the point greyish-white ; the lower mandible reddish-grey ; 
the cere greenish or brownish-grey ; the eyes brown, inclining 
to orange-red : eye cere greenish or brownish-grey ; feet bluish- 
white ; claws horn-grey. About the size of a crow (length, 


13|in. ; wings, 7-J-in. to 8~in. ; tail, 4^in. to 4|in.). It is a 
native of Southern Brazil and Paraguay. 

Prince von Wied, Natterer, Azara, and Burmeister have 
written of this bird, and from their accounts we gather that 
this species does not differ in its habits from the others. Mr. 
Petermann, who has also observed them in their native country, 
met with them several times in large, noisy swarms in the tall, 
dense, primeval forests on the coast of St. Katherine, and has 
also frequently kept them in cages. When excited they erect 
the feathers on the back of the neck, and, so Mr. Petermann 
writes, *•' their orange-red eyes gleam with uncontrollable 
defiance ; yet they are not wicked, but gentle, and even old 
ones, which have been lamed by a shot in flight, soon become 
tame. In captivity they are extremely quiet, but cunning and 
teachable ; yet they learn comparatively little, and do not even 
speak distinctly. They must, in this respect, take secondary 
rank among the Amazons." 


Psittacua autumnalis, L. 

Yellow-cheelced Amazon (Ger., Gelbwangige-Amazone, Herhst- 
Ainazone, Herhspapagei, gelhwangiger KuTzfliigelpapagei ; 
Fr., Ferroquet Amazone d joues jaunes ; Dut., Geelwang 
Amazone Papegaai) — Distinguished from the Diademed 

The Yellow-cheeked Amazon, although long known, for it was 
described and pictured by Edwards, and named by Linne, has, 
even till the most modern times, been mistaken for, or confused 
with, the Diademed Amazon, not only by the dealers, but also 
by ornithologists ; and this is even still the case. The band on 
the forehead and the lores is scarlet ; the top of the head 
green, each feather having a bluish-lilac tip (sometimes appear- 
ing deep blue) ; the cheeks are grass-green ; the spot on the 
cheeks a high-coloured reddish-yellow ; the feathers of the 
neck grass-green, finely edged with black ; the central spot of 
the wing scarlet ; the outer web of the secondaries red ; the 


bend of the wing green ; only the outermost feathers of the 
tail with a faded red spot ; all the upper part of the body 
grass-green : the lower parts yellowish-green (sometimes the 
feathers are edged with black) ; the beak horn-grey ; the point 
and lower mandible black ; the cere whitish flesh-colour ; the 
eyes are red, with a narrow yellow circle round the iris ; the 
eye cere whitish ; feet whitish-grey ; claws blackish. Size, 
about that of a crow (length, 14^in. ; wings, 7in. to 7Jin. ; 
tail, 4in. to 4 Jin.). 

It presents special marks for recognition ; it may be dis- 
tinguished from its fellows, especially from the Diademed 
Amazon, by the red forehead and lores, the more or less bright- 
blue top of the head, and the deep-yellow cheek spot ; sometimes 
the throat is marked with red. It is a native of Central 
America, southerly Mexico, Honduras, and Guatemala, and, 
according to Dr. von Frantzius, also of Costa Eica. The 
Yellow-cheeked Amazon was first brought to the London 
Zoological Gardens in the year 1869, and has appeared since 
1878 at several bird shows, and at the bird dealers' now and 
then. The five specimens which were exhibited at the Ornis 
Exhibition, in 1879, by Mr. K. Hagenbeck and Miss Chr. 
Hagenbeck, displayed, in the most marked manner, the points of 
difference between this and the two most similar species. In 
respect of talent and capability for training, this parrot holds a 
secondary rank. 


Psittacus diadematus, Shw^. 

Diademed Amazon (Ger., Diadem- Amazoiie, Amazone mit lila- 
farhnem Sclieitel, lilascheiteliger Kurzflugelpa2')agei ; Fr., Perro- 
quet Amazone a diademe, Perroquet Amazone couronne ; Dut., 
Kroonen Amazone Papegaai) — Description. 

A NARROW band on the forehead and lores is of dark-scarlet ; 
the top of the head and the neck green ; the central spot in the 
wing scarlet (the secondaries are red on the outer web) ; the 
edge and coverts of the wing are green ; the outermost tail 
feathers are deep-red on the outer web ; all the upper part 


of the body is grass-green, without a dark edge to the feathers ; 
the beak is yellow ; the upper mandible along the edge and at 
the point is blackish ; the cere whitish-grey ; the eyes dark- 
brown, inclining to black, surrounded by a large whitish-grey 
eye cere ; the feet and claws are a blackish-grey. Size, 
about that of a crow (length, 14;|in. ; wings, 7in. to 7Jin. ; tail, 
4in. to 4^in.). Its special marks are dark-scarlet lores, and stripe 
on the forehead ; purplish-blue on the top of the head ; cheeks 
and sides of the head emerald-green, with one single yellow spot 
under the eye. It is a native of the district along the Amazon 
river, Guiana, Columbia, and Panama. 

This species was described and painted by Spix in the year 
1825. A Diademed Amazon was amongst the collection of the 
Emperor of Austria, at Schonbrunn, as early as 1845, and one 
was received in the Zoological Gardens, in London, in 1871 ; 
isolated specimens have appeared in the Berlin Exhibitions since 
1876. It agrees in general character with the preceding 


Psittacus Dufresnei (LvU.), Khl. 

Dufresnes Amazon (Ger., Granada - Amazone, Goldmasken) 
Amazone (!), Dufresnes Kurzflilgelpapagei ; Fr., Ferroquet 
Amazone de Dufresne ; Dut., Dufresnes Amazone Papegaai- 
— Description. 

Yellow lores, blue cheeks, and red on the front of the 
head, are the distinguishing marks of this species. It is 
grass-green on the back of the head and neck, each feather 
having a narrow black tip ; the front of the head is scarlet ; the 
lores deep-yellow ; the cheeks and upper part of the throat 
sky-blue ; on the back each green feather has a darkish edge ; 
the central spot on the wings vermilion ; the first three 
secondaries have the outer web red ; the edge and coverts 
of the wings are green ; the five outermost tail feathers 
have a large blood-red spot ; all the lower part of the body is a 
lighter green, without the dark border to the feathers ; the 
beak is pale coral-red ; the cere reddish-white ; eyes orange 


red ; eye cere white ; the feet are a yellowish-grey ; claws 
horn-grey. (Sometimes the whole front of the head is scarlet ; 
the lores, the base of the beak, and the upper part of the 
throat may be yellow ; the cheeks and the throat may also be 
blue.) Size, about that of a crow (length, 14^in. : wings, 7in. 
to 7|in. ; tail, 4in. to 4|-in.). It is a native of Central and 
Northern Brazil as far as Gaiana and New Granada. 

Schomburgk, Prince Max von Wied, Natterer, and others, 
have written of this species, and, according to them, the 
particulars of its mode of life are in no respect different from 
those of the others. A Dufresne's Amazon appeared in the 
collection of the Emperor, in Schonbrunn, as early as the year 
1830 ; and it has been brought into our markets now and then 
in later times : nevertheless, it continues to be one of the rarest 

Travellers differ in their opinion as to its talents, for, whereas 
the Prince asserts that it is teachable and soon learns to speak, 
Schomburgk denies this. Mr. Petermann says that it is highly 
esteemed in Brazil on account of its eminent talent for speaking, 
and there fetches a high price. 


Capacity as Talkers — Distinguishing Maries — Habitat — Impor- 
tation — Management. 

Far behind the two genera of which we have already spoken 
stand the Long-winged Parrots {Pionias, Wgl.), both in 
respect of talent for speech and mental capacity ; yet they 
greatly resemble them in physical and other peculiarities, 
as well as in their manner of life. They really only learn to 
chatter, not to talk properly. Among the fifty dift'erent species 
which are at present known, only three are speakers ; but this 
by no means proves that none of the others, or even most of 
them, will not at some time or other prove themselves to be 
gifted with speech. I shall, therefore, enter the more fully 
into the general descriptions, researches, and experiences forth- 
coming as to the genus Pionias. 


Their distinguishing marks are — the beak strong, longer than 
deep, somewhat compressed, with a long, overhanging point, 
mostly clearly cut, with a much-bent, sharp-edged ridge, distinctly 
furrowed ; the lower mandible is of the same depth, with a 
broader, more rounded socket-edge, and the rims hollowed ; 
the tongue is thick, fleshy, broad, and ending abruptly ; the 
nostrils are open, rounded ; the cere is either set with single 
bristles or feathered all over ; eye cere white ; the lores are 
feathered ; the wings are long, pointed, more than twice as 
long as the tail ; the latter is broad, straight, shaped at 
the end like a bracket, rarely rounded off ; the feet are 
strong, short, with powerful, much-bent claws ; the plumage soft, 
inclining to firmness, consisting of broad feathers, taking in 
many species the shape of scales on the head and neck ; no 
powdery down ; the prevailing colour is green ; no central spot 
in the wings ; the body is short, thick, and compact. Size, 
about that of a crow or starling. 

The Long-winged Parrots are more widespread than any 
other, for they appear in Asia, Africa, and America. Unfortu- 
nately, we have as yet but little information concerning their 
mode of life in freedom ; we only know that they inhabit trees 
preferably, and, except at brooding time, live gregariously, and 
in large flocks attack and do much harm to the useful crops, 
feed upon fruits and all kinds of seeds, and, like most of the 
parrots, build in trees. 

The dealers import only one species — the Small Senegal Parrot 
— regularly and in great numbers ; all the others come singl}'' 
and by chance. The Pioninse, which, however, are chiefly to be 
regarded as ornamental birds, have found in Mr. von Schleth- 
tendal, State Councillor, of Merseburg, and in the university 
bookseller, Mr. Fiedler, of Agram, sympathetic observers and 
friends. I have myself, in the course of years, kept a consider- 
able number of them. Immediately after importation they are, 
as a rule, very weak ; but as soon as they have recovered from 
the effects of the bad treatment they receive on the way, they 
in almost every case show themselves to be strong and hardy ; 
yet they do not appear to live as long as other parrots. Most 
of them are quiet birds, which move but little, soon become 
tame and affectionate, but from time to time scream most in- 
sufferably. Some of the smaller species are exceedingly gentle 
and lovable, and, moreover, never utter a disagreeable note. 
On the whole, they cannot be accounted favourites, because 


they are nearly all of a dull colour ; yet many species fetch 
a high price, not only on account of their rarity, but for their 
beauty and pleasing ways. No results have as yet been attained 
in the breeding of them, and this is much to be regretted, 
because travellers have not had an opportunity of observing 
their natural development. 

Their management is simple and inexpensive, for they really 
eat nothing but seeds and fruit. They are fed with canary 
seed, oats, sunflower seeds, and hemp ; but care must be used 
in giving the last, especially in warm weather. Good sweet 
fruit, milky maize heads, and a little green food, as well as 
green branches to gnaw, are necessary for their health. 

Psittacus Senegalus, L. 

Senegal Parrot (Ger., ALolirenlcopf-Papagei, Orange-hduchiger 
Langflilgelpapagei ; Fr., Perroquet du Senegal, Perroqiiet a tete 
noire; Dut., Senegal Langvleugel Papegaai) — Description — 
Regarded as an Ornamental Bird — Examples of Talkers — 

The pretty Senegal Parrot is one of the commonest birds in the 
trade, and arrives in great numbers every year. It is also one of 
those parrots which have been longest known, for, as early as 
the year 1455, it was mentioned by Aloysius Oada Mosto, and 
described, in 1760, by Brisson. 

The old male is of a brownish-grey, inclining to black, on the 
head, cheeks, and upper part of the throat ; on the hinder part 
of the back, the rump, and the upper tail coverts it is of a 
brilliant grass-green ; the quills are of an olive-greenish-brown ; 
wing coverts green, with a brown centre ; the shoulder feathers 
and the small under coverts of the wings are yellow ; the tail and 
all the upper parts of the body are light grass-green ; the throat 
and upper part of the breast grass-green, the rest of the under part 
of the body being yellow ; the breast and the belly are orange- 
colour, inclining to vermilion ; the under coverts of the tail 
yellow ; the beak is dark horn-grey, shading to black- 
brown ; the cere is blackish ; the eyes vary from sulphur-yellow 
to dark-brown ; the eye cere is blackish-grey or black ; 


the feet black-brown ; the claws black. The female — head, 
a lighter brown-grey ; the lower part of the body uniformly 
yellow (without any orange-red) ; the lower coverts of the tail 
yellowish-green ; otherwise it corresponds to the male. Size, 
scarcely that of a jackdaw (length, lO^in. to llin. ; wings, 
5 Jin. to G^in. ; tail, 2iin. to 2 Jin.). 

It is known to be a native of West Africa and Senegambia^, 
but it probably exists in the far interior of Africa. 

The Senegal Parrot is noticeable only as an ornamental bird 
for Zoological Gardens or special fanciers. The older writers 
assert unanimously that it has no talent for speech ; but this 
has of late been several times refuted, cases being shown in 
which the Senegal Parrot has learnt to speak. 

These descriptions proceed from the two gentlemen named in 
the last chapter and from Mr. A. E. Blaauw. The old bird of 
this species is exceedingly untameable and stupid ; with wild 
screams it throws itself headlong from the perch when anyone 
approaches, presses itself into a corner, stupid and shy, and 
utters a peculiar rattling sound ; the young birds are easily 
tamed and very affectionate. One of this kind was able to 
open any door, was fond of play, and extraordinarily droll, also 
gentle and good-tempered, allowed one to scratch its head or 
take it from the cage and pet it ; it only learnt, however, to 
imitate a few words, but it could copy the voices of other birds. 
Mr. Blaauw, in Amsterdam, says that his Senegal Parrot spoke 
French prettily, very clearly, and with a soft voice. " It sounds 
very strange when it mixes up the words and sentences with its 
natural cries, and at the same time screams articulately." 

Immediately after importation, at least in later times, this 
otherwise healthy and hardy bird becomes very weakly. It 
becomes ill then from every change of diet ; also, as would 
appear, when given hemp seed abundantly. Therefore, it should 
at first only get canary seed and oats, and, later on, be accus- 
tomed by degrees to hemp and sunflower seed. It must always 
have the addition of good sweet fruit, but in small quantities. 

— »^a>-5;.32«vL- 



Psittacus menatruus, L. 

The Blue-headed Parrot (Ger., Blauhopf, fdlschlich hlaukOpfiger 
Portoriko-papagei, Schwarzolirpapagei, Schwarzgeohrter Lang- 
fiilgelpapagei, M ait aha ; Fr., Perroquet d tete hleue ; Dut., 
Blauwkop Langvleugel Papegaai) — Distinguishing Marks — 
Character as a Talker. 

This species, wliicli, as early as 17G4, was well depicted by 
Edwards, and described by Linne, has, however, been con- 
stantly confused with others, although it may always be distin- 
guished from its congeners by its blue head, neck, and breast. 
It is coloured as follows : A broad band of corn-flower blue 
across the forehead ; the top of the head, neck, and back of the 
neck covered as with blue and green scales ; the spot on the 
ear black (but here also each feather is delicately tipped with 
blue) ; the upper part of the back is olive-green : the hinder 
part of the back, the rump, and the upper coverts of the tail, a 
pure green ; all the quills and their coverts are green ; the 
centre feathers of the tail green, blue at the point, the outer 
webs blue, and the inner webs at the base red ; all the upper 
part of the body a dark grass-green ; the coverts of the wings 
are a yellow-brownish olive-green ; the cheeks, sides of the 
head, and the upper part of the throat, blue ; the upper part of 
the breast greenish-blue, with a red lustre ; the lower part of 
the breast and the belly olive-green ; the under coverts of the 
tail a dark purplish-red, with a green band and a blue spot at 
the end ; the beak is a blackish-brown, with a red spot at the 
base of the upper mandible (when old, also on the lower 
mandible) ; the cere dark-grey ; the eyes grey, inclining to a 
blackish-brown ; eye cere slate-grey ; feet whitish-grey, with 
black scales and claws. The distinguishing marks of the female 
are not known with certainty. The plumage of the young bird 
is nearly uniformly green ; the forehead and top of the head are, 
strange to say, red ; the throat and upper part of the breast 
bluish ; the beak greyish-yellow, inclining to a reddish-orange. 
About the size of a jackdaw (length, lOJin. ; wings, 6|in. to 
7:^in.; tail, 2in. to 2|in.). According to Finsch, in any stage of 
plumage it may be recognised by the rump and the upper 


coverts of tlie tail being green, the lower tail coverts having 
green tips, and the two middle feathers of the tail blue tips. 

This Long-winged Parrot is a native of South America, from 
the South of Brazil to Panama, and lately it has been found in 
Central America. Sclater says it also lives in Mexico and 
Trinidad. It is said to resemble the Amazons in its natural 
habits. Mr. Petermann informs us that " it becomes extremely 
tame and affectionate, and displays much intelligence, although 
its talent for speech is small." 

Schlechtendal describes it as a good-tempered, rather awkward 
bird, which soon becomes tame, but has an unpleasant voice. 
Mrs. von Proscheck, of Vienna, had a Maitaka Parrot which 
talked, and the wholesale dealer, Mr. Fockelmann, in Hamburg, 
had such a one, which latter also learnt to whistle prettily. 
Mr. Fiedler had several which screamed almost incessantly ; but 
these were already old birds. The young Maitaka is, in my 
opinion, as pleasant a companion as the Senegal Parrot, and, 
like the latter, learns to chatter a little, but not much. 


Psittacua accipitrinus, L. 

Hawk-headed Caique, Hooded Parrot (Ger., Kragenpapagei, 
Hollen-Langflilgelpapagei, Fdcherpapagei (!) ; Fr., Perroquet d 
cravatte, Perroquet maille ; Dut., Havikhop Langvleugel Pape- 
gaai) — Description — Habitat — Domestic Character. 

The Hawk-headed Parrot must always be considered as one 
of the most beautiful and interesting. Its curious hood, or 
rufSe, of brown and blue feathers, which it erects when excited, 
so that it forms a circle round the head, gives it a strange 
appearance. It was mentioned by Clusius as early as 1605, and 
delineated by Edwards ; Brisson was able to describe it from a 
living specimen in the possession of the Marquise de Pompadour. 
Linne named it. 

It is coloured and marked as follows : The front and top of 
the head are white ; the lores, the part round the ear, the 
sides of the head, and the upper part of the throat, of a pale 


brown, each feather having a whitish spot on the stem ; on 
the back of the head and neck there are broad feathers 
about Ifin. in length, light-brown at the base, and with a 
broad blue tip, which form the movable collar or hood ; the 
back of the neck and all the upper part of the body are dark 
grass-green ; the primaries and their coverts are, however, black, 
with the outer webs only edged with green ; all the lower 
part of the body is brown, each feather with a broad blue edge ; 
the mandible is a blackish-brown ; the upper beak, with a light 
ridge ; the eyes brown, shading to vivid-yellow ; the eye cere 
brown ; the feet blackish-brown ; the claws black. Although 
this parrot appears in many varieties of shades, yet it is always 
easily recognised, and can never be confused with any other. 
It is one of the most stately parrots, and is almost as large 
as a raven (length, 14:Tin. ; wings, 6fin. to T^in. ; tail, 4 Jin. 
to 5-J-in.). 

It is a native of the most northerly part of South America, 
extending over North Brazil, Guiana, and Surinam. 

Burmeister thinks that the Hawk-headed Parrot is delicate, and 
that it is on this account it appears so seldom in the European 
markets. This supposition is, however, disposed of by examples 
of these birds proving themselves exceedingly healthy, and 
remaining strong and hardy in the cage for many years. Mr. 
Wigand, of Danzig, describes one which he had for eleven 
years. As a splendid and curious ornamental bird, it is one of 
the principal sights of zoological gardens and other resorts for 
the study of natural history. A Hawk-headed Parrot, belonging 
to Mr. Wiener, of London, which I had in my care for some 
time, appeared thoroughly tame, trained, and affectionate, 
displayed cleverness and intelligence, and said some English 
words very clearly and with perfect sense. It erected the hood 
more frequently in delight and pleasure than in anger. It is 
considered and praised by all who have kept it as being 
uncommonly quiet, peaceable, and gentle, not treacherous and 
cunning, nor vicious. Its w^hole character being cautious, it 
speaks slowly, pipes loudly and not unpleasantly, yet not 
frequently, screams piercingly and harshly, but leaves off 
directly if anyone speaks to it. Mr. Scheuba, of Olmlitz, 
possessed one which chattered the whole day, seldom screamed, 
and whose talents and capabilities for being trained caused 
this experienced parrot-keeper and connoisseur to reckon this 
species among those of the first rank. 


The best food for it is seed, with the addition of some biscuit 
or egg-bread ; sweet fruit, and fresh twigs to gnaw. It appears 
only singly, and seldom in our markets and exhibitions. 


Distinguishing Marks — ^5 Cage Birds — Management. 

The Eclecti, or, as they are called in Germany, "The Noble 
Parrots " (Eclectus, Wgl.) are large, handsome birds, closely 
allied to the Amazons as well as to the Pioninse, though they 
are distinguished from both' by very distinct marks. These 
marks are as follows : The beak remarkably large and powerful, 
rather thick and broad, deeply bent downwards at the base, 
rounded off at the sides and on the ridge ; the point of the 
upper mandible projects moderately : near the point there is a 
faint indentation ; the lower beak is deeper, with a broad socket- 
edge, the sharp edges towards the end are deeply hollowed out ; 
the tongue is thick, fleshy, ending abruptly ; the nostrils are 
small and round, and towards the cere are mostly covered with 
the feathers ; the circle round the eyes is feathered ; the wings 
are longer than the tail ; the latter is broad, almost straight, or 
rounded off ; the feet are strong and short ; the claws are 
powerful and curved ; the plumage is firm and hard ; the 
colour green or dark-red ; the body compact and stout. Size, 
that of a raven, or rather less. 

They are said to inhabit chiefly New Guinea, the Moluccas, 
and the Philippine Islands, and they probably extend as far as 
Celebes on the west, to Solomon's Island on the east, and north- 
wards as far as the Philippines. 

On the whole, we may regard their habits as similiar to those 
of the other larger parrots, only they are probably quieter, less 
active, more unwieldy, and more silent in freedom, as they are 
in the cage. Their food, as far as we know, consists of seeds, 
nuts, stone-fruits, and other soft, sweet fruits. Where they 
flourish in great number they effect, like all parrots, a good deal 
of damage. Though their flight is clumsy, they accomplish 
long distances quickly. They look awkward both in climbing 
and walking on the ground. When in the forests they are said 
to be more frequently solitary than gregarious. 


Dr. Finscli has divided the Eclecti into, two groups — firstly, 
the green or red species, without marks on the wings, with an 
almost straight tail, and the skin of the nose covered with 
feathers ; secondly, the yellowish-green species, with marked 
wings, longer rounded tail, and unfeathered skin on the nose. 
If this division be maintained, then on no account must the first 
group be divided into two kinds — green and red ; for Dr. A. B. 
Meyer, the well-known traveller, at present director of the 
Natural History Museum, in Dresden, has lately made the 
interesting discovery that two such variously-coloured birds 
always form one species, of which the green is the male and 
the red the female. The conclusion at which Dr. Meyer thus 
arrived, that the numerous green Eclecti shot down by him 
always proved upon examination to be male birds, and the red 
ones to be females, was at first much disputed, and even 
strenuously opposed ; nevertheless, it has been established as a 
fact by the experiments in breeding made by Dr. Frenzel, of 
Freiberg, as well as by information sent by Dr.. Finsch from 
the place of their habitation. 

The Eclecti, especially the male of the New Guinea Eclectus, 
must be reckoned amongst the best and longest-known cage 
birds ; yet they are almost always imported singly and most of 
them are very rare. Immediately after their arrival they appear 
very weak, and need much care to keep them alive and to 
acclimatise them ; but as soon as they have passed, after the 
first few months, through the dangers of the changed circum- 
stances, they become very healthy and hardy, and, with favourable 
surroundings, live many years. To their extreme quietness in 
the cage, of which I spoke before, is probably due the fact that 
they are not special favourites, though their strikingly-beautiful 
and brilliant plumage makes them of value as ornamental birds. 
They do not nearly equal the Grey Parrot nor the Amazon in 
intelligence, though they surpass the Pionin^e. We have many 
examples of very tame and affectionate Eclecti, as well as of 
individuals which have proved highly-talented speakers, though, 
on the whole, as talkers, they can only take third, or, at the 
best, secondary rank. 

Their management is somewhat dijQScult, for on their voyage 
to this country they are accustomed, as a rule, only to soaked 
rice, bananas, and other soft fruit ; but it is well to accustom 
them as soon as possible, but, of course, very gradually, in the 
manner described on page 29, to canary seed, oats, some hemp. 



(Psittacus Linnei.) 


and sunflower seed, also raw unshelled rice, and good fruit (tlie 
best is cherries, pears, or apples), with the addition of some 
egg-bread moistened in water, or some hard biscuit ; service 
berries are also eaten with eagerness, and are very wholesome. 
Branches for gnawing must not be omitted, young shoots of the 
pine being especially liked. If it be possible to obtain heads of 
maize fresh from the garden (preferably with the grain still in a 
milky state), nothing further can be needed for acclimatisation. 
Their diseases are the same as those of other parrots ; but at 
first they are apt to suffer from any change of temperature or 
draughts, coughing, panting, discharge from the nose, and, con- 
sequently, inflammation of the organs of breathing ; but these, 
if treated properly, will pass over without danger. 


Paittacns Linnei, Ess. ; P. polychlorus, Scpl. aa male, 
P. Linnei, Wgl. as female. 

Bed-sided Eclectus, or Red-sided Green Lory, male bird so-called 
(Ger., Grilnedelpapagei, grosser grilner Edelpapagei, and, erro- 
neously hy the dealers, Waclisschnahellori oder Wachsschnahel ; 
Fr., Grand Perroquet vert, ou Lori Perruche d flancs rouges; 
Dut., Groote groene Edelpapegaai) — Linnean Eclectus, 02* 
Linnean Lory, female so-called (Ger., Linne's Edelpapagei ; 
Fr., Perroquet de Linne ; Dut., Linne's Edelpapegaai) — Neio 
Guinea Eclectus or Parrot (Fr., Perroquet de la Nouvelle 
Guinee; Dut., New Guinea Edelpapegaai) — Description — 
Habitat — Lnportation — Domestic Character. 

It is an extraordinary sight to see a pair of these large birds 
sitting together and "' billing and cooing," for they are so 
different in appearance, and those who have not studied the 
matter can scarcely be persuaded to believe that they are mates ; 
indeed, I may here casually remark that the wholesale dealers- 
will even now hardly credit it. 

The male is grass-green, the upper and lower parts of 
the body being alike ; the primaries and their coverts are 



dark-blue ; tlie edge and bend of tlie wing and the smaller 
covert feathers along the fore part of the wing are light-blue ; 
tlie shoulders, the inner coverts of the wing, and the spot on the 
sjdes of the breast, scarlet ; the outer tail feathers, on both sides, 
dark-blue ; the reverse side of all the quills and tail feathers 
is a dull black, the tail feathers being a pale-yellow at the tip ; 
the upper mandible coral-red, the point pale waxy -yellow ; 
lower mandible black ; the eyes are blackish-brown, with a very 
narrow grey-brown circle, inclining to orange colour ; the feet 
leaden-grey, with black scales and claws. Size, about that of a 
raven (length, 14g^in. to 15|in. ; wings, lOin. to lOMn. ; tail, 
4jin. to 5^in.). 

The female is light-scarlet on the head, neck, and breast ; 
round the eye is a narrow blue ring ; a broad transverse 
band of ultramarine-blue runs across the upper part of the 
back ; the primaries are of a dark indigo-blue ; the inner web 
a dull black ; the large covert feathers are dark-red ; the 
under edge of the wing and the small inferior coverts are dark- 
blue ; the upper side of the tail has a broad bright-red tip ; on 
the reverse side it is blackish, and the end a faded red ; all the 
upper part of the body is dark-scarlet ; the sides of the breast 
and the belly are a brilliant dark-blue ; the lower tail coverts 
are light-red, finely edged with yellow ; the beak is black ; the 
eyes blackish-brown, with a pearly-white circle round the iris ; 
the feet are grey, with black scales and claws. Size, scarce 
noticeably smaller than the male (length, 14|-in. to loin. ; 
wings, O^in. to 9Jin. ; tail, 4iin.). 

The male of this species is distinguished from the Gilolo 
Eclectus by its lighter green colour and the small marks in the 
tail ; the female by the circle of beautiful blue feathers round 
the eye. 

They are natives of the New Guinea group of islands. I 
cannot give much information concerning their habits in freedom. 
The natives are said to take them in large numbers from the 
nests, as is the case with other parrots. The male was described 
by Scopoli in 1738, and well depicted by Edwards; the female 
was mentioned by Midler in 1776, but first described by Wagler 
in 1832. The old writers made many errors concerning these 
birds ; thus, for example, the green male bird was said to be a 
native of China. Since the time of Edwards, 1754, they have 
been brought over alive singly. The male has long been one of 
the ordinary objects of the bird-market, whereas the female, as 


tlie Linnean Eclectus, lias always, till of late, been accounted a 
rarity. "When once acclimatised they are both very hardy, and 
live well in this country in the open air. Some are exceedingly 
vicious in the cage ; but, in spite of this, often exhibit the 
peculiarity of allowing themselves to be taken out, and almost 
immediately become perfectly tame. Of course, it requires con- 
siderable courage to seize a large parrot with such a powerful 
beak, without hesitation, by the feet ; but when done, it appears 
to make such an impression on it that it at once ceases to 

Dr. Bodinus tells us of a green Eclectus which spoke excel- 
lently, and Mr. Scheuba, head master of the Upper Grammar 
School in Olmtitz, also considers these birds uncommonly 
teachable. I can assert of the female that it is tame and 
affectionate, and learns to speak a few words well. Kept as 
talkers, neither is a bad screamer ; as breeding birds, on the 
contrary, especially in the early morning, they make considerable 
noise ; in such case, also, the females are excessively vicious and 


Psittacus grandis, Ess.; P. polychlorus, Scpl. as male, P. grandis, Gml. 
as female. 

Male bird known by the same English, German, French, and 
Dutch names as the preceding species — The female, the Grand 
Eclectus (Ger., Grosser rother Edelpapagei, Rothedelpapagei, 
and, by the dealers, Grandilori ; Fr., Grand Perroquet rouge, 
Grand Eclectus rouge ; Dut., Groote roode Edelpapegaai) — 
Gilolo Eclectus or Parrot (Fr., Perroquet de Halmahera 
Dut., Halmahera Edelpapegaai) — Description. 

Strangely enough, the male bird of this species appears exactly 
the same as the preceding species, so that they cannot be dis- 
tinguished from each other by any certain mark. I, therefore, 
need not further describe the male of the Gilolo Eclectus. 

The female bird is scarlet on the head and neck ; the 
transverse band on the back is ultramarine, with a purple 

K 2 


lustre ; the primaries, their coverts, the border of the wing 
and the small under coverts of the wing, indigo-blue ; the tail 
is scarlet, blackish at the base, at the end, both above and 
below, lemon-yellow ; all the upper part of the body a dull 
scarlet ; the breast and belly violet-blue ; the lower coverts of 
the tail lemon-yellow ; the beak black ; the eyes dark-brown ; 
the iris a light or brownish-yellow ; the feet grey, with black 
scales and claws. Size, exactly the same as the preceding 
(length, 14Jin. to loin. ; wings, 9^in. to 9Jin. ; tail, 4iin.). 
Distinguishing marks are the different shading of the red, the 
broad yellow tip to the tail, and, in particular, the yellow coverts 
under the tail. Native of the Gilolo Islands. 

In other respects this species is said to resemble the New Guinea 
Eclectus. The female was mentioned by Miiller in 1776, named 
by Gmelin in 1788, and described by Kuhl. The red female of 
Gilolo is somewhat more frequent in the market than that of 
the New Guinea, but, nevertheless, it only appears singly. 


Psittacus intermedius, Ess. ; P. intermedius, Bp. as male ; P. cardinalis, 
Bdd. as female. 

Male bird hitherto hnown as, Ger., Mittlerer griiner JEdel- 
papagei and Mitteledelpapagei ; not been distinguished by the 
dealers — Female called the Crimson Lory, Blue-breasted Lory 
(Ger., Mittelerer r other Edelpapagei inid Kardinaledelpapagei ; 
Fr., Lori d' Aviboine) — Ceram Eclectus or Parrot (Fr., Perro- 
qiiet de Ceram; Dut., Ceram Edelpapegaai) — Description. 

The male of this species greatly resembles those of the two 
preceding, being, indeed, almost exactly alike, so that, according 
to Dr. Meyer, all three varieties might be included in one. 

The male of the Ceram Eclectus is a dark grass-green ; the 
primaries are indigo-blue ; the secondaries the same, but green on 
the outer web ; a nairow border of sk3^-blue on the wings ; the 
lower wing coverts and the plumage on the . shoulders, scarlet ; 
upper mandible red ; the point yellow ; the lower beak black ; the 
eyes blackish-brown ; the apple of the eye orange-red ; the feet 


ashen-grey, with black scales and claws. The distinguishing 
marks are the darker green ; the narrow blue border to the wing ; 
only the three outermost tail feathers bluish on the outer web. 
The size is not noticeably smaller than the two preceding (length, 
12 Jin. to 13§in. ; wings, 8in. to O^in. ; tail, 4 Jin. to 4 Jin.). 
The female is of a dark-scarlet ; on the upper part of the 
body more of a cherry red ; the band across the back dark- 
blue, with a violet lustre ; the edge of the wing, the small 
under coverts of the wing, the primaries and their coverts, 
blue ; the upper side of the tail red, the reverse side orange- 
yellow, the tip both above and below of bright yellow ; 
all the lower part of the body dark-blue ; the under covert of 
the tail orange-red. The last mentioned is said to be the chief 
mark of distinction (length, 12|in. ; wings, Sin. to 8|in. ; 
tail, 4|in. to 5in,). 

They are natives of the Ceram Islands. The male was first 
described by Bonaparte, 1854 ; the female, however, had 
already been described by Brisson, and named by Boddaert. 
The cock rarely appears in our markets ; I possessed one for 
several years which Dr. Platen had brought over. The female 
scarcely ever appears in the trade. 


Pdittacus megalorrhynchus, Bdd. 

Black-shouldered Parrot (Ger., Grossschnahelpapagei, ScJncarz- 
schulter-Edelpapagei ; Fr., Perroquet d epaulettes noires ; Dut., 
Zwartschouder Edeljoapegaai) — Distinginshing Marks. 

The species of which I am now about to speak may be dis- 
tinguished from the preceding at a glance, for the feathers of 
their wing coverts have shaded edges, and, consequently, the 
wings are not so uniform in colour, but are peculiarly marked ; 
the beak is decidedly larger, and mostly altogether red. The 
females are not red, like those of the previously-mentioned 
species, but do not, as far as we know at present, differ at 
all, or only very little, from the male. 

The Great-billed Eclectus is grass-green ; the plumage on the 


upper part of the back edged with a pale-blue ; the hinder part 
of the back and the rump sky-blue ; the flights ultramarine- 
blue, the inner webs having a dark edge ; the coverts of the 
primaries and secondaries marine-blue ; the last four or five green, 
black at the ends, with a broad orange-yellow border on the 
inner and outer webs ; the remaining large covert feathers 
black, deeply bordered on both webs with orange-yellow ; the 
tail feathers are dark-green, olive-yellow at the tip ; the reverse 
of the tail is all olive-yellow ; the lower part of the body is 
completely olive-yellowish green ; the breast and sides of the 
belly more yellow ; the beak vermilion, the point whitish ; the 
eyes dark-brown ; the eye cere a blackish-grey ; feet yellowish- 
brown, with black scales and claws. Size, about that of a raven 
(length, 14^in. to 15|in.; wings, 8iin. to 9jin. ; tail, 5in. to 


They are natives of the easterly Moluccas, but it is not yet cer- 
tain how far they extend. The species was mentioned by Brisson, 
Buff on, and others, as early as the year 17 GO, and described by 
Boddaert in 1783. The older writers make no mention of it. 
We have as yet unfortunately little information concerning the 
mode of life. The travellers. Dr. A. B. Meyer and von Eosen- 
berg, tell us that this parrot lives alone in the forests far from 
the dwellings of man, and utters loud cries when anyone 
approaches. No researches have been made as to its food, 
breeding, &c. 

It only appears singly in our markets ; indeed, the largest 
number known to have been imported at one time was six, 
which Dr. Platen brought from Celebes. It is said to speak 
well, but as yet we have no evidence on the point. 


Psittacus Miilleri, Tmm. 

The White-hilled Parrot (Ger., Midler s Edelpapagei, Weiss- 
schnaheJpcqxigei ; Fr., Perroquet de Midler ; Dut., Midler s 
Edelp)aj)egaai, Molenaar) — Description. 

This is the best known of the smaller Eclecti, for, although by 
no means frequent or numerous, yet it is occasionally imported. 


It is grass-green ; the head a pure and vivid green ; the back 
of the neck and the upper part of the back is rather a yellowish 
olive-green ; the middle and hinder part of the back and the 
rump marine blue, the upper coverts of the tail yellowish grass- 
green. : the inner web of the quills blackish ; the outer web 
green, finely edged with yellow ; the covert feathers the same ; 
the smaller covert feathers at the bend of the wing and the 
upper coverts of the shoulder are broadly edged with blue ; the 
feathers of the tail are grass-green above, edged with yellow, on 
the reverse side they are an olive-greenish yellow ; all the under 
part of the body is olive-greenish yellow ; the mandible coral- 
red or vermilion ; eyes a pale-yellow, inclining to brown ; the 
feet a greyish-yellow ; claws blackish. The female is said to 
be alike, and only to be distinguished by its darker eyes. 
The young bird may be recognised by its white beak. The 
special marks are : The vivid olive-green yellow colour on the 
back of the neck, the fore part of the back, and the under part 
of the 'body ; the blue on the hinder part of the back and rump, 
and the small blue covert feathers below the wing ; the black 
marks on the bend of the wing and the upper coverts of the 
wing are wanting. 

It is a native of Celebes, the Sulu Islands, and Sangir Islands. 
This species was exhibited in the Museum of Leyden, without 
mention of its native place ; and in the year 1828 Dr. S. Miiller 
procured one of them in the Island of Bouton, in the Strait of 
Malacca, where, as was afterwards proved, it never lives in 
freedom. In 1884 it was described and named by Temminck. 
Up to the present two varieties have been distinguished — the 
Eed-billed and the White-billed Mliller's Eclectus. From the 
researches of Dr. Meyer, whose opinions are supported by Dr. 
Platen, the white-billed birds are the young ones. Of its habits 
in breeding nothing is known. It is said to build its nest in 
hollows in steep, inaccessible cliffs. Those Mailer's Eclecti 
which come into the market are, therefore, mostly old birds. 
Dr. and Mrs. Platen brought over twenty head with them, but, 
unfortunately, these parrots not presenting an attractive appear- 
ance, received but little welcome from our breeders, and I never 
learnt whether anyone at that time was induced by my recom- 
mendation to make a trial of breeding ; no results have, however, 
been obtained. It is occasionally kept as a cage bird. It then 
sits lazily still throughout the day, and, therefore, does not 
excite any great admiration in parrot lovers. We have no 


information as to its capacity for speech, but, for aught that is 
known, it may develop that talent well. "We have, however, 
an example of its longevity, for a Miiller's Eclectus, in Halber- 
stadt, attained the age of eighty-five years. 


Genera — Natural History — Teinj^er — Talking Capacity — Impor- 
tation — Managemen t. 

The Cockatoo is among the best known and, in a certain sense, 
most favoured of the parrot tribe. The reminiscences of youthful 
days of which I spoke on page 3 have special reference to the 
Cockatoo. Cockatoos and Macaws have, indeed, been brought 
to Europe from the most ancient times, and are among the most 
characteristic of the beauties of tropical nature. The group, or 
lesser family, of parrots which includes the Cockatoos consists of 
the following genera : True Cockatoos {Fleet olopJnis, Vgrs.) ; 
Long - tailed Cockatoos {Cahjpthorrlujnchus, Vrgs. et Hrsf.) ; 
Macaw Cockatoos {Microglossus, Gffr.) ; Dwarf Cockatoos (Nasi- 
terna, Wgl.) ; Cockatiel (Calhpsittacus, Lss,). However, only 
three genera come within the limits of this work, for I must 
omit the Long-tailed and Dwarf Cockatoos. 

The Cockatoos have in general the following distinctive 
marks. Firstly, they are distinguished from all, or nearly all, 
other parrots by their feather crest, which appears in all without 
exception, but which is formed in various ways in the different 
species. Next, they have the strongest beak of all parrots, well- 
developed wings, and a short, straight tail, though in this last 
respect the Long-tailed Cockatoos are an exception. 

They are natives of Australia and the islands of the Indian 
Archipelago. They are more frequently to be found in small 
woods than in the dense primeval forests. Being thoroughly 
tree-birds, they climb cleverly and fly well, but walk awkwardly 
on the ground. Their habits are similar to those of the Amazons 
(see page 96j. Nearly all the various species live gregariously, 
and only the largest singly or in couples ; sometimes they 
assemble in extraordinarily large flocks, and then they raise a 


fearful screaming such as is never lieard from any other bird. 
Travellers especially mention one trait which is common to the 
Amazons and some others — that is, the sympathy they show for 
a companion which has been shot. With shrill cries of lamen- 
tation they flutter round it, and do not fly away until the 
sportsman has brought down others of their number. Their 
food consists of nuts and kernels, less frequently of fleshy fruits, 
besides all kinds of seeds, tubers, and, of course, maize and other 
grain. Like the other parrots, they build their nests in hollow 
trees, but some use holes in cliffs and rocks ; the breeding time 
is during our autumn and winter months, that being the spring 
of the antipodes. The larger species are said to lay two or 
three, the smaller four to six, eggs. After nesting time the 
flocks feed on the crops of the settlers, and effect great damage. 
For this reason, as well as for their delicious flesh and their 
feathers, they are hotly pursued. The settlers destroy them 
with guns, and the natives with a missile weapon known as the 
boomerang. Hence they are for the most part driven from the 
inhabited places, and forced to retreat to the bush. 

Buffon speaks emphatically in their praise. He declares that 
their beauty is enhanced by their pleasing ways and gentle 
behaviour ; that they are not only pert, merry, and droll, but 
also active and lively ; that in learning {i.e., aptitude for being 
trained) they appear to surpass all other parrots, but that they 
are far behind most species in talent for speech. Other authors 
also, incuding those of our own day, speak favourably of 
Cockatoos. " Their curiosity is unbounded," writes Lord Buxton ; 
" indeed, one might say that they regard man and his doings 
with the greatest interest, perhaps not totally devoid of con- 
tempt." Mr. Friedel says : " The Cockatoo is more a thinking 
and philosophising bird than any other, and, on account of its 
intense individuality, needs especially careful management, 
though this unfortunately seldom falls to its lot. In zoological 
gardens and menageries, with large numbers of similar birds, 
nothing of the kind can be entertained ; and in families which 
foster vanity and love of display by means of the bird and its 
cage, no one really cares for it ; in both cases the Cockatoo 
repays such neglect by sulkiness of manner. Among middle- 
class people, where, although petted, it is quite as much mis- 
understood, it soon, by means of its great cunning and power of 
comprehending its surroundings, becomes master of the situation 
— that is, of the female members of the family, and, with its 


deafening scream, which renders resistance impossible, it begins 
a reign of terror in the household. If, however, it be once 
actually reduced to obedience and discipline, it knows how to 
disarm anger by its coaxing and comical tenderness. To a 
discriminating lover of birds, who is able to take account of its 
character, and will treat it as a sagacious companion, it displays 
an intelligence in comparison with which that of the dog, 
usually placed in the highest rank amongst animal endowments, 
must be accounted decidedly inferior." 

One of the most sympathetic observers and zealous con- 
noisseurs of Cockatoos is Mr. Ernest Dulitz, of Berlin, of whose 
description of the birds I will here avail myself : '' No one who 
for any considerable time has noticed a really tame Cockatoo, 
with its beauty, its varying, pleasing, and impudently lively 
manner, will fail to regret that the most splendid of all parrots 
should so rarely be chosen as a companion and cage bird. (This 
arises from the cause mentioned on page 35 with regard to 
parrots generally.) A Cockatoo which cannot conceive any 
affection for its keeper, nor meets any return for the love of which 
it is capable, appears a cross, distrustful bird, with which, unless 
some change takes place in its surroundings, no one can make 
friends ; but it is just in this peculiarity of character that its 
high intellectual talents may be recognised. An Amazon or a 
Grey Parrot is contented to have an indifferent understanding 
with its master, and from time to time to allow familiarities 
according to its humour, even though it may not return them. 
It is otherwise with the Cockatoo ; it either loves its master with 
an ardent, passionate love, or it is at war with him, though very 
old birds that have often changed hands may be an exception 
to this rule. Having in the course of some years kept fifteen 
different species of Cockatoos, I unhesitatingly assert that no 
other parrot, of all those that come into the market, possesses 
such notable qualities, and is so likely to content an amateur who 
intelligently cares for and observes birds, as a Cockatoo, no 
matter of what species, provided, however, that it is already tame, 
or at least may easily be lamed. Unfortunately, such birds are 
by no means plentiful, and, it appears, have of late become more 
rare. At the present day, when ships bring over often hundreds 
at a time, the price has fallen to one-half and even one-fourth of 
their cost some fifteen or twenty years ago ; yet it must not be 
expected that such Cockatoos will indiscriminately become a 
source of pleasure to their several possessors. To attain this 


desirable end there is no other way than going to a trustworthy- 
dealer and asking him for one which he knows for certain to be 
capable and tame. It is hardly possible in this case for any 
mistake to arise, for the experienced dealer knows each bird 
perfectly. But of course one must not hesitate as to price, all 
the less because the bird may prove a means of delight to. its 
owner for years to come. If my advice were followed, it would 
not be loDg before amateur bird fanciers would choose the 
much more beautiful and engaging Cockatoo as a companion, 
rather than an Amazon or any other of the speaking kinds." 

Dr. Lazarus, on the other hand, does not speak very favour- 
ably of cockatoos, for he writes : " An amateur who for any 
length of time has had an opportunity of keeping and becoming 
acquainted with the veritable talking birds — i. e., Amazons and 
Grey Parrots — will find some difficulty in maintaining his pre- 
ference for Cockatoos. Every bird of the last named family 
must in the end become wearisome, owing to its want of 
speaking powers ; whereas the larger species, the Eed-crested and 
Lead beater's Cockatoo, which certainly display an interesting 
and attractive manner, render themselves altogether unbearable 
in a room by their ear-piercing cries, which very few of them 
ever entirely leave off. In spite of many who speak enthusi- 
astically of Cockatoos as cage birds, I on this account 
emphatically recommend that they should be kept only in large 
parks or spacious courts, or at least in anterooms, where they can- 
not greatly annoy either their owners or the neighbourhood by 
their screaming. I am convinced that by far the greater 
number of amateurs who have had the opportunity of being 
acquainted with the habits of Cockatoos would agree in my 

Mr. A. E. Brehm, however, speaking of the highly gifted 
intellect of the Cockatoo, says that it can put several words 
together so as to make sense, and apply whole sentences to 
suitable occasions ; and that it is impossible not to recognise in 
it a high degree of understanding. 

From other descriptions, especially those of Mr. Fiedler, 
University bookseller, of Agram, and Mr. A. E. Blaauw, of 
Amsterdam, as well as from my own experience, I find that the 
Cockatoo is certainly much more highly gifted than many other 
parrots, but, as regards speaking, assuredly not in the same 
degree as the Grey Parrot, and the more notable speakers among 
the Amazons. There are Cockatoos which learn to speak 


single words, or even sentences, very well ; but they do not even 
approach the readiness and extent of knowledge of words 
possessed by the former. 

Apart from its beauty, which is greatly enhanced when, in 
unwonted excitement, the bird erects its variegated crest, as 
well as some of the feathers on the bod}^ a healthy Cockatoo which 
feels itself contented and comfortable is one of the merriest birds 
imaginable. Its liveliness and pleasing ways, and, still more, 
its comical behaviour, surpass description. Nodding and bowing 
in the drollest manner, lifting its variegated feathers in 
changeful play, it gambols, tumbles, and climbs with amusing 
vivacity, imitating other birds, not only in their movements, 
but in the words they have learnt, and, above all, in their 
cries. Mr. A. E. Blaauw states, however, that his experience 
leads him to think that when several Cockatoos are kept 
together they scream less frequently : '' These gregarious birds 
like to see each other, they exchange bows and erect their 
crests ; in short, they find life less tedious, and tediousness 
is the chief cause of the screams of a cockatoo." With 
affectionate treatment, contrary to other parrots, the Cockatoo 
soon becomes surprisingly tame and gentle. But there are 
some not only wild and uncontrollable, but even extremely 
vicious. A Cockatoo, for example, which is always gentle to 
its master may, however, bite strangers : indeed, it has been 
found that a bird, hitherto good and affectionate, has all at 
once, without apparent reason, become wicked and furious. 
In such cases its bites may be extremely dangerous. Besides, 
there are instances in which Cockatoos show a remarkable 
memory for injuries received ; they have borne in mind for 
years an act of punishment or teasing, and have revencred 
themselves at a favourable opportunit}^ 

The comparatively small number of Cockatoos which were 
formerly imported alive into Europe were taken from the nests 
by the natives and reared by hand, but this is no longer the 
case. Cockatoos, like most other tropical birds, are caught in 
large numbers in nets, and exported to Europe by wholesale 
buyers. All species now come into the market annually in 
considerable numbers, and the prices have risen a good deal. 

We find these beautiful birds principally as an ornament in 
zoological gardens and other collections. That it has not 
attained to more general favour is probably due, apart from the 
causes mentioned by Mr. Dulitz (p. 139), to the fact that such 


a large bird needs more space than every household has to 
spare ; that it is accounted a dreadful screamer, does not belong 
to the most notable talkers, and finally, that the bites of a large 
Cockatoo, when wild or badly trained, are feared as dangerous. 
It is, therefore, rarely found in private dwellings, except in 
the gorgeous cages of a large drawing-room, ante-room, or the 
like. In spite of this, however, as may be seen from the above 
descriptions, they have their special fanciers, who show great 
partiality for them, closely observe and study them, and enthu- 
siastically esteem them as valuable cage-birds. 

The diet of Cockatoos is verj^ simple ; they must have chiefly 
seeds, hemp, canary seed, oats and maize, also stale dry bread, 
biscuit, or egg-bread, and good fruit, especially apples ; boiled 
rice, which was formerly so much given, should be avoided. 
An acclimatised Cockatoo of any species is one of the hardiest 
of birds, and can be kept without danger through the winter in 
a room without a fire. With good management it attains to an 
extreme old age. With regard to its cage, it must be borne 
in mind that it can do astonishing things with its beak, which 
can be used as hammer, pincers, or screw-driver, and with its 
cleverness and cunning it succeeds beyond belief in opening 
cage doors, loosing the foot chain, &c. " Foot chains and their 
fastenings, stands, wire grating, food and drinking vessels, strong 
wooden frames, and zinc linings, are destroyed ; it can even 
learn to undo a double screw," says Fiedler. Many efforts have 
been made to find a means of correcting this habit, but as yet 

The word "Cockatoo," in Karl Hagenbeck's opinion, is not a 
naere imitation of a natural sound. Dr. A. B. Meyer says it 
means ''pincers," or ''crab's claw," and has reference to the 



Plectdlophus, Vgrs. 

Distinguisliing Maries. 

The True Cockatoos are distinguished as follows : The beak 
strong, slightly arched ; the upper mandible deeply hollowed 
out, and the point strongly bent inwards — a broad, somewhat 
round ridge, and occasionally faint longitudinal furrows ; the 
lower beak is mostly somewhat deeper, with an upward curved 
socket edge, the sharp edges straight, and at the end sharply 
bent upwards ; the socket has a circular indentation ; the 
nostrils are small, round, open in the narrow cere, often set 
with short feathers ; the tongue is thick, fleshy, with a broad, 
blunt, rounded end ; the eyes prominent, very round, and 
expressive ; bare circle round the eye white ; lores feathered ; 
the wings are long and pointed ; the tail, medium length, 
broad, straight, or slightly rounded towards the outside, and 
sometimes towards the inside. The plumage is as soft as silk, 
each feather having a rounded tip, in rare cases with powdery 
down ; a crest formed by the long feathers of the forehead 
and top of the head, variously shaped, and when the bird is 
roused by excitement capable of being erected or spread out 
like a fan ; feet strong and large, with powerful hook-shaped 
claws. The prevailing tone is white, with variegated markings ; 
the figure compact, about the size of a jackdaw or crow. 

Two of the species are distinguished by their very long upper 
beak, and are called Long-billed or Nasecus Cockatoos \_Licmetis, 
Wgl.]. This species is found in Indo-Australia. 

The birds are imported in numbers alive, and being more or 
less valued as cage birds, they form an important article of 
commerce. It has not yet been determined whether they 
possess more talent than other parrots for speech. Their 
natural voice is, however, shrill and piercing. 



PsittacTia sulfureus, Gml. 

Small Cockatoo, Java Cockatoo (G-er., Kleiner gelhgehduhter, 
Kleiner Gelbhauhen, Kleiner gelhhdchiger, Kleiner gelhwangiger 
unci Gelhwanqen-Kakadu, Salonkakadu, gelbivangiger Kakadit 
mit gelber Hauhe ; Fr., Petit Cacatois a hiiiope jaune, Petit 
Cacatois blanc a huppe jaune ; Diit., Kleene Geelkuif Kakketoe) 
— Description. 

The Salphur-crested Cockatoo has, from antiquity to the present 
time, been one of the greatest favourites among the well-known 
parrots. It was described by Brisson as early as the year 1760, 
treated of by Seba in 1764, and named by Gmelin in 1788, and it 
had been previously mentioned by Aldrovandi and Gessner. It is 
of pure white, with a deep sulphur-yellow crest, divided into two 
parts, bending towards the back, but with the ends curved 
towards the front (the first three or four feathers are white, the 
rest a vivid yellow, so that the forehead appears white, and the 
lovely yellow only becomes visible in excitement, when the 
cockatoo erects its crest) ; there is a large round spot near the 
ear of sulphur-yellow, inclining to orange ; skin on the nose 
white ; eyes a deep dark brown ; naked skin round the eye 
bluish- white ; feet blackish-grey ; claws black. The female 
answers to the same description, but is said by Dr. Platen to 
have a light reddish-brown iris. Rather less in size than a 
crow (length, llin. to 12fin. ; wings, 8in. to 9^in. ; tail, 3Hn. 
to 4in.). It is one of the smallest of the Cockatoos. It is a 
native of Celebes, Bouton, Lombok, Timor, Floris, Sumbawa, and 
the islands in Tomini Bay. 

The travellers Wallace, Meyer, and lately Platen, have 
observed its habits in freedom, but give no particulars differing 
from those mentioned in the Introduction to this work. S. Miiller 
and von Martens frequently found it, as well as the Amazons, (fee, 
in captivity amongst the natives, and kept on perches, or forked 
sticks, with a double ring of buffalo horn fastened on the leg. 

Buffon describes its droll behaviour, lively and expressive 
nods, and the raising and dropping of its crest ; and praises it as 
being gentle, tractable, and unusually affectionate towards its 
mistress. It is also said to be extremely clean, and therefore 


very beautiful in its white plumage. Mr. A. Eose speaks of one 
wliicli said " Good Charles," and also danced, and when taking 
leave would cry, with pretty bows, " Good-bye." Every cockatoo 
of this species, without exception, soon becomes tame without 
trouble. This species is extremely affectionate, and never 
treacherous nor criven to biting ; it is also one of the healthiest 
and most hardy of cage birds. Its talent for speech, however, 
is not great, and only a few words may be expected from it. 


Psittacus galeritus, Lth. 

Great Yellow-crested Cockatoo, Great White CocJcatoo (Ger., 
Grosser gelbhduhiger Kahadu, grosser Gelhhauhen-Kahadu, 
grosser weisser Kakada mit gelber Hauhe ; Fr., Grand Cacatois 
a huppe jaune, Grand Cacatois hlanc a huppe jaune, Cacatois a 
Crete jaune; Dut., Reus Geelkiiif Kahhetoe of Groote Geelhuif 
Kahketoe) — Descrip)tion. 

This handsome cockatoo was one of those birds collected on 
Cook's voyage, which were named and described by Latham in 
1790. The old writers give no noteworthy particulars con- 
cerning it, yet it certainly had been imported alive in very early 
times. Like the above-mentioned bird, it is all white ; the 
feathers of the forehead, front of the head, and the first feathers 
of crest, are pure white, the rest are long, sharply bent backwards, 
and then upwards ; the finely cut feathers of the crest are sulphur- 
yellow ; the spot on the cheek yellowish-white ; the quills and 
tail feathers are yellow underneath ; beak black ; cere white ; eyes 
black, dark-brown, or reddish-brown ; a narrow white featherless 
circle round the eye ; feet blackish-grey, with black scales and 
claws. (The plumage sometimes has a yellowish tone on the 
breast and under part of the body also, but, more rarely, a rose- 
coloured shade.) Size: fully that of a crow (length, IG^in. to 
nhm. ; wings, 12fin. to \A:\m. ; tail, C^in. to 6fin.). It is a 
native of Australia — not towards the west — but extending 
throughout Tasmania. Concerning its life in freedom, the 
remarks which I have made in the Introduction about cockatoos 


apply to it. The cockatoos suffer from the same cruel method 
of pursuit as parrots generally ; for this reason principally they 
become shy and mistrustful, though by nature they are harmless 
and affectionate birds. 

The cockatoo under notice is one of the commonest objects 
of the bird market, yet it is not seen so frequently as the Lesser 
Sulphur-crested Cockatoo. With proper management (see Intro- 
duction, page 7) it is healthy and hardy, attains a great age 
in the cage, learns to dance, and do other tricks, but only speaks 
a few words, and can laugh like a human being. It is especially 
necessary to be careful in dealing with it, for many Greater 
Sulphur-crested Cockatoos are extremely vicious ; even those 
which otherwise behave well are inclined to bite strangers. 
Mr. Dulitz describes a hen which he possessed as pleasing, 
affectionate, and clever: *'It outdoes any cat in stealing and 
pilfering dainties, and is exceedingly fond of all sorts of tricks 
and practical jokes, draws my wife's needles out of her knitting, 
&c. At first it only said its name, afterwards it learnt, * Well, 
where is my Martha ? ' but never anything more." As a dis- 
tinction of sex, Mr. Dulitz can only mention with certainty that 
the male utters a dissyllabic and the female a monosyllabic cry, 
which latter sounds less harsh. 


Psittacna leucdlophua, Lss. 

The Greater White-crested Cockatoo (Ger., Weissgehduhter oder 
Weisshciuhiger Kakadu, grosser iveisser Kakadu mit weisser 
Hauhe, Weisshauhen-Kakadu ; Fr,, Grand Cacatois a huppe 
hlanche; Dut., Witkuif Kakketoe) — Description. 

This, again, is a species known from ancient times, which 
has been much written about and well described, and yet 
with regard to which many errors prevail, while, as to 
its habits, we have no knowledge. Even in Aldrovandi's work 
we find a picture of the Great White-crested Cockatoo, though, 
it is represented with an upright tail like that of a hen. 
Pigafetta also speaks of it, Brisson and Latham describe it 


minutely, and Bechstein, though shortly, speaks of it as a cage 
bird. As all unmeaning or inappropriate scientific names had 
been dropped, it was necessary to seek a new one, and the above 
name of Lesson's (1831) was applied to it. It is pure white, 
with a long, straight, broad crest, falling towards the back, 
without any yellow feathers ; the quills and tail feathers are 
light yellow underneath ; the beak black ; the cere covered with 
white feathers ; eyes black, dark-brown, or deep-red ; a broad 
bluish-white naked circle round the eye ; the feet blue-grey, 
with black scales and claws. Almost as large as a raven, but 
sometimes much smaller (length, llfin. to 14|-in. ; wings, lOin. 
to llin. ; tail, oin. to Giin.). 

Its habitat appears to cover a considerable region. It is 
found in the Eastern Moluccas, but over what extent is not yet 
known with certainty. The White-crested Cockatoo is said to 
speak better than other species. Lord Buxton, who bred a cross 
between this species and the Leadbeater Cockatoo, in freedom, 
in his park, thinks the White-crested Cockatoo is the most 
talented and least cunning of all. In particular, these birds 
develop an astonishing ingenuity in opening any kind of locks 
on cage doors or foot chains. Mr. A. E. Blaauw says, however, 
that it is among the worst screamers, and can really make a 
most distressing noise. It appears in the markets less frequently 
than its fellows. 


Psittacua ophthalmicus, Scl. 

Blue -eyed Cockatoo (Ger., Brill enhalcadu, Salomon . Kakadu, 
Kakadii ndt blauem Augenkreis, blaudugiger Kakadu, Nackt- 
augen-Kakadu, Kakadu ndt gelher hdngender Hauhe ; Fr., 
Cacatois oplithalmique, Cacatois a yeux bleus, Cacatois a 
lunettes; Dut., Blauivoog Kakketoe) — Description. 

This cockatoo has only been known since the year 1862, when 
a living specimen was presented to the Zoological Gardens, 
Regent's Park, and described and drawn by Dr. Sclater in the 
"Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London." It is 
white ; the feathers on the forehead are white, and then come 


long, light-yellow crest feathers, hanging towards the back ; the 
reverse side of the quills has the inner web yellow, and the 
reverse of the tail feathers at the base is yellow ; the beak 
black ; the cere grey ; the eyes dark brown ; a large featherless 
blue circle round the eyes ; the feet grey, with black scales and 
claws. Generally it is nearly as large in size as a raven, but 
often much smaller (length, 12|in. to 14in. ; wings, lOin. to 
10|in. ; tail, 5^in. to G^in.). 

It is a native of Solomon Islands, New Ireland, and New 
Britain. In the last-named place it is said by Layard to be 
exceedingly common, to be killed in large numbers, and to 
afford a very savoury soup. It is also frequently tamed by the 
natives. It is still rare in the trade, as well as at bird shows. 


Psittacus moluccensis, Gml. 

Rose-crested Cockatoo (Ger., MolukJcen-Kahadu, rothhduhiger 
Kakadu, Rothhaiibeii-Kakadit ; Fr., Cacatois a hiqope rouge ; 
Dut., Rooduif Kakketoe) — Physical Characteristics — Speaking 

This handsome cockatoo, which Edwards described in 1751, and 
pictorially delineated, which Gmelin moreover named scienti- 
fically in 1788, has, like many other birds, been much confused, 
or mistaken, by the old authors. 

The forehead, head, and sides of the neck are pure white ; the 
front crest feathers white, the next vermilion on the outer web, 
and white at the point and inner web ; the rest have the outer 
web dark, and the inner web light, vermilion. All the upper 
and under parts of the body are white, with a rosy shimmer, and 
a yellowish tone over them in a bright light ; the quills are 
light yellow on the reverse side ; the tail feathers, on that side, 
are orange-yellow ; the lower and hinder part of the body 
is rose-coloured ; the beak black ; the cere a dark bluish- 
grey ; the eyes black or dark-brown ; eye cere bluish-white ; 
the feet a blue blackish-grey ; scales and claws black. Almost 
as large as a raven, it appears larger than it really is on 



account of tlie thick plumage, which is often ruffled (length 
lo|in. to 17^in. ; wings, llfin. to lo|in. : tail, G|in. to 7in.). 
It has the peculiarity of being able to ruffle not only the tuft, 
but also the long chin feathers. 

It is indigenous to South and West Australia. On account of 
the pursuit it is subjected to when in freedom, this cockatoo, 
like its fellows, has become exceedingly shy and cautious. It is 
frequently taken from the nest and reared by hand. 

With good treatment it reaches a great age. I have known 
one which was nearly one hundred years old. In general it is 
considered affectionate, capable, and at the same time talented 
in speaking. Mr. Fiedler says it is gentler, and does not cry so 
shrilly, as the others ; it will follow its master like his shadow, 
and deserves to be valued for its pretty ways as well as for its 
beauty. Dr. Lazarus, on the contrary, found from experience 
that a cockatoo of this species screamed worse than any other, for 
its cries could be heard many hundred yards away. At such 
times — that is to say, when it hung in the open air, in the ring 
of a parrot stand, with erect flaming crest, bristling peach- 
coloured feathers on the chin, throat, and neck, and with 
outspread wings and tail — it was indeed a beautiful sight, but 
its ear-piercing shrieks were unbearable. Another cried less 
loudly and continuously, but at several intervals in the day so 
monotonously, that it was on that account just as wearisome. 
'•' The first could easily bite through the strongest chains, and 
its cries became at last so annoying that the neighbours seriously 
complained, and I was obliged to part with it. But I shall 
always regret that it was not possible for me to keep such an 
affectionate and beautiful bird. Of the three Eed-crested 
Cockatoos which I have possessed, the last was easily taught to 
imitate whistling, for it soon learnt to repeat signals and 
melodies with a soft, flute-like voice. Whenever a barrel organ 
was heard in the forecourt, it tried to follow separate airs, and if 
it did not succeed easily in this, yet it always at once caught the 
time and tune. As to speaking, however, it could only say two 
phrases." Mr. G. Hoffmann received a young cockatoo of this 
species which developed a high talent for speech. It learned to 
repeat several sentences well, and with great expression. At 
the same time it never screamed unpleasantly, but uttered a not 
unpleasant murmur. The very varied behaviour of the different 
specimens of this species depends, as may easily be understood, 
upon whether they have been taken from the nest and reared by 

iJUl n: 

I ., iiLWYORK. ,,A,/ 

(Psittacus Leadbeateri.) 


hand, or caught when they are already old, and then perhaps 
ill-treated. In the latter case it will display the more unpleasant 
qualities in a marked manner, and in the former the more 
agreeable ones. In the latter case, too, it is more obstinate and 
untractable than almost any other parrot. 

Most birds of this species are already very tame when they come 
into the market. Dr. Platen brought over twenty head with 
him ; but in general the Eed-crested Cockatoos are not frequently 


Psittacru Leadbeateri, Vgrs. 

Leadheater s Cockatoo (Ger., Leadheaters Kakadu, Leadheater s 
Kakatu, Inkakakadu ; Fr., Cacatois de Leadheater, Cacatois 
a Iiuppe tricolor e ; Dut., Driekleiir Kakketoe of Leadheater s 
Kakketoe) — Distinguishing Marks — Domestic Character. 

This cockatoo, which is in truth the most beautiful of all, was 
first described by Vigors in 1831. It is marked as follows: A 
narrow band of rose-colour on the forehead ; the feathers on the 
forehead and front of the head white, with a light rose- 
colour at the base ; the crest is formed by sixteen pointed 
feathers bent towards the front, which are vermilion at the 
base, then a broad stripe of yellow, again red, and then white at 
the end, so that the folded crest appears white, and only when 
the crest is erected in excitement can the splendour of the three 
colours be seen ; the back and sides of the head, the throat, 
lower part of the back, and all the under parts of the body, light 
rose-colour ; the upper part of the back and the wings are 
white ; the inner web of the flights and all underneath are 
a dark rose-colour ; the tail is white above, and underneath 
at the base, rose-colour ; the beak is a yellowish-grey white ; 
the cere and nostrils are hidden by little rose-coloured feathers ; 
the eyes are black, deep-brown, or reddish-brown ; the eye cere 
is yellowish-white ; the feet bluish-grey, with black scales and 
claws. It is about the size of a crow (length, 12^in. to IS^in. ; 
wings, lOin. to lOfin. ; tail, 5^in. to 6in.). The female is said by 
Gould to have a shorter crest, a narrower yellow band, and to 
be whiter underneath, with a tinge of rose-colour. 


It is a native of South and West Australia. Gould says it is 
a striking ornament to the primeval forests there, and appears at 
certain times in large flights at particular places. Its voice is 
not so shrill and piercing as that of other cockatoos, but rather 
soft and plaintive ; neither is it so noisy and excitable. 

Opinions concerning the different specimens of this bird differ 
just as much as in those of the cockatoos already treated, and, of 
course, from the same cause. Although in general Leadbeater's 
Cockatoo is gentle, affectionate, and peaceable with other birds, 
yet there are some among them which are so indescribably wild 
and vicious that every attempt at training them must fail. 
Mr. A. E. Blaauw writes that a Leadbeater's Cockatoo, which he 
had just received after the tiring journey from London to 
Amsterdam, came at once on to his outstretched finger, erected 
its splendid crest when desired, and chattered and piped most 
charmingly. Moreover, it was just as gentle towards strangers ; 
yet there were some individuals whom it could not bear and 
always pecked and screamed at without apparent reason. Dr. 
Lazarus finds that the Leadbeater's Cockatoos come into the 
market very little, or not at all tamed, and that they are much 
less vivacious, pleasing, and gifted than the others. In spite of 
great trouble, he was neither able to tame his own nor to 
teach them to speak a single word, not even to whistle a simple 
call. At the same time they were distressing screamers. More- 
over, the forcible taming which is always successfully tried with 
Jacos, Amazons, &c. (see page 37), made a Leadbeater Cockatoo, 
on the contrary, only the more wild and vicious. And, though 
this bird belonged to the exceptions of which I have before 
spoken, yet it is significant to find that it will not be tamed 
even by hunger and thirst. On the whole, this species coincides 
in all material respects with the preceding varieties. It cannot, 
indeed, be reckoned amongst the most eminenty gifted speakers, 
for a Leadbeater's Cockatoo will probably learn at most to 
chatter a few words or sentences. 

A specimen of this kind was first placed in the Zoological 
Gardens, in London, in 1854, and since 1863 it has appeared in 
our bird shops often enough to be considered a well-known 
object to fanciers. Its brilliant appearance misleads many a 
purchaser, who, on acquiring it, is at a loss how to manage it, 
and consequently gets rid of it again as soon as possible. 



Psittacus Goffini, Fnsch. 

Goffins Cocl-atoo (Ger., Goffins Kahadu oder Goffins Kakatu; 
Fr., Cacatois de Goffin ; Dut., Goffins KaTcketoe) — DescrijDtion. 

This cockatoo has a white forehead and white lores ; the 
feathers of the crest are white, rose-coloured at the base and 
light yellow underneath ; the quills are yellowish- white on 
the inner webs, and on the outer sulphur yellow ; the tail 
yellow underneath ; all the rest of the feathers white, with rose- 
coloured down on the head, throat, and breast ; the beak whitish 
horn-grey ; the cere and nostrils are covered with little white 
feathers ; the eyes blackish-brown, dark brown, or cherry- 
coloured ; a broad circle of bluish-white round the eyes ; the 
feet blackish-grey, with black claws and scales. It is nearly 
the size of a crow (length, 12|in. to IS^in. ; wings, 9|^in. to 
10|in. ; tail, 4in. to 4|in.). It resembles the Blood-stained 
Cockatoo, but is not red at the lores, it is also white round 
the beak, and is smaller. It is not yet known what region 
this species may claim as its habitat. Dr. Finsch described 
it, in 1863, from living specimens in the Zoological Gardens 
of Amsterdam and Rotterdam. It is not one of the rarest 
species, but appears from time to time in the market, although 
singly. Dr. Platen imported three, and a short time ago 
Mr. Abrahams, wholesale dealer, of London, had a couple for 
sale which were said to speak English. Mr. Fiedler says it 
resembles the Leadbeater's Cockatoo in character, is gentle, 
quiet, and affectionate, so that a child might play with it, but 
its screeching, which continues for hours at a time, is un- 


Psittacus Ducorpsi, Hmbr. et Jacq. 

Ducorps' Cockatoo (Ger., Ducorps' Kakada oder Ducorps' Kakatu ; 
Fr., Cacatois de Ducorps; Dut., Ducorps^ Kakketoe) — Dis- 
tinguishing Marks — Habitat — Domestic Character. 

This bird has a short erect crest, the point being turned away 
from the front, the reverse side of the feathers and both sides at 
the base being light yellow (in some specimens a pale reddish- 
yellow), otherwise the whole of the body is white, except the 


inner side of the flights, whicli is pale yellow, and the inner side of 
the tail feathers, which is of more pronounced yellow; sometimes 
the whole of the otherwise pure white plumage has a yellowish 
tinge ; tbe beak is greyish-white ; the cere and nostrils are set 
with little white feathers ; the eyes are black, dark brown, or 
dark red, a large bluish-white circle round the eye ; the feet are 
greyish-white, the scales and claws blackish. The size is rather 
larger than a jackdaw (length, 12in. to lo^in. ; wings, 8}in. to 
lOf in. ; tail, oiin. to 5|^in.). It resembles Goffin's Cockatoo, 
but is distinguished by the shorter crest, and by the feathers on 
the head, throat, and breast being other than red at the base. It 
may be distinguished from the Eed-vented Cockatoo by the 
absence of the red coverts underneath the tail. It is indigenous 
to the Solomon Islands. It was described and drawn by Hom- 
bron and Jacquinot in 1830, but is still rare both in museums as 
a stuffed specimen as well as alive among the dealers. Layard 
observed them in the Island of Bougainville on the mangrove 
trees, on the fruit of which they subsist. Strange to say, it has 
nearly always happened that the birds which have come into the 
possession of the fanciers — for example, Mr. Fiedler, Mr. Linden, 
and the Baroness Sidonie von Schlechta, of Vienna — have been 
hens, which have laid several eggs. The above-named lady 
describes one as follows : "I brought the cockatoo home wrapped 
up in a cloth, but the way it dashed itself against the bars of the 
cage did not lead me to expect the establishment of a very 
friendly footing between us. But how astonished was I when, 
after I had put off my hat, it seemed quite quiet, and allowed 
me to take it on my hand. The puzzle was afterwards solved, 
for whenever I put on my hat, or wore a bandage on my head 
for headache, it became either shy or wicked ; the dealer 
from whom I had bought it used to wear a round cap, and 
towards this man the bird had borne a grudge. It was only 
after a length of time that it began to know me with that or 
other hats, and when I called to it would recognise me and nod 
expressively. Its favourite food was roast potato, nuts, and oats, 
as well as a gruel made of polenta flour and water. It said 
several words and sentences very prettily, in a gentle childlike 
voice, but quickly and vivaciously." Mr. Linden also writes of a 
Ducorps' Cockatoo which he had, that it was tame and afifec- 
tionate, and was especially charmed by the sound of a lady's 
voice ; it laid an egg every year. 



Psittacus roseicapillus, Vll. 

Rose-crested Cockatoo, Rosy Cockatoo (Ger., Rosakakadu, Rosen- 
rotlier Kakadu, rosafarhner Kakadu, rosafarhner Kakatu ; Fr., 
Cacatois rosalbin, Cacatois rose; Dut., Rose Kakketoe) — 
DistinguisJiing Marks — Habitat — As a Cage Bird. 

One of the commonest birds in the market, the Roseate 
Cockatoo is also one of the greatest favourites. It is of a light 
rose-colour on the forehead, top of the head, and crest ; the 
reverse side of the crest feathers is of a dark rose-colour ; the 
back of the head, throat, cheeks, and all the lower part of the 
body dark rose-colour ; the back, shoulders, and wings are of 
dark ashen-grey ; the hinder part of the back, the rump, and 
the tail coverts, both upper and lower, are of greyish-white ; 
the tips and the reverse side of the flight feathers blackish- 
grey ; the tail is light-grey on the top, getting darker towards 
the tip, and blackish-grey underneath ; the beak greyish white, 
with a lighter point ; cere and nostrils covered with rose- 
coloured feathers ; eyes dark brown, black, rose, or blood-red, and 
a broad white circle round the eye ; the feet are ashen grey, 
inclining to a brownish flesh-colour, with black scales and claws. 
It is as large in size as a crow (length, 12in. to 12fin. ; 
wings, 9|in. to lOJin. ; tail, 4|in. to oiin.). The female has 
not yet been distinguished with certainty, for the marks pointed 
out for the purpose are said to be unreliable. Its habitat is the 
greater part of Australia, with the exception of the West, and 
in the mountain ranges it is found more than 700ft. above the 
sea. It was first described and named by Vieillot, in 1818. 
Gould found it in large numbers in Namoy, to which place it is 
not indigenous, but is said to have migrated there of late. This 
traveller, and also Captains Sturt and Elsey, saw it in flocks of 
from fifty to a hundred. They speak with enthusiasm of the 
splendid sight afforded by the picturesque flight of numbers of 
such birds. The young are very frequently stolen from the 
nest and brought up by the natives, who then take them to 
Sidney for sale. These travellers often saw them half tame 
living in the yards of the settlers with the hens and pigeons. 
Moreover, whole flocks of these cockatoos are caught in large 
nets during the time of migration ; therefore it is one of the 
commonest objects of the bird market. 


As it has of late been often described and observed as a cage 
bird, I must introduce only one sucli account, and I choose that 
of Miss M. Eeuleaux, an affectionate and enthusiastic friend of 
birds : " Our cockatoo, which we have named ' Eosa ' on account 
of its colour, at first sat still and silent in its cage, and was 
regarded as dumb. Without really having any belief in its 
capabilities, I repeated its name to it with a decided pronun- 
ciation ; but days afterwards there was heard, to our astonish- 
ment, from the adjoining room, where the cage stood, the word, 
' E-r-rosa ! ' After this the bird was no longer considered 
stupid, but everyone taught it something; thus it soon learnt 
to say * Come in,' if anyone knocked at the door. In order to 
make it understand the sense of the word, I used to knock on 
the food vessel, on which it was at first very frightened, and 
then drew back some steps with erected crest ; but before long 
it knocked with its beak itself, and then called out, ' Come in.' 
The servant, when cleaning the room in the morning, used 
sometimes to try to get the bird to speak, and, if it maintained 
an obstinate silence, she would say, ' You are a blockhead ! ' 
Ere long it would repeat ' Blockhead,' or perhaps only ' Block, 
block.' Then it learnt several words more or less distinctly, as 
well as my name, Mathilde, which is difficult to pronounce. 
This charming bird developed day by day, and we became as 
fond of it as if it had been a human being. If we left it alone 
in the room it became silent and gloomy ; but as soon as anyone 
approached the door it began to scream in order to attract 
attention ; whoever entered, it became most joyfully excited, and 
pressed its head against the wires to be scratched. If, however, 
no one went near, it grew impatient, whistled and piped in a 
high ke}', and said all the words it could think of. From being 
caressed it learnt to say by itself, ' Pretty fellow ! pretty fellow ! ' 
with an especially droll intonation. This affectionate bird 
unfortunately, soon died of cramp." Observations in many 
directions have proved that the Eoseate Cockatoo, even if not 
one of the most capable speakers, still belongs to those cage 
birds which, on account of their cleverness, drollness, and 
docility, are especially suited for friendly relations with human 
beings. Unfortunately, even the tamest and most affectionate 
give vent at times to their disagreeable cry. It is extremely 
fond of lying on its back and playing with a piece of wood, or 
some such thing, in its claws, turns somersaults and does other 
tricks, and, if it pinches its master's nose or ear for fun, it is 


most careful not to hurt. It is, undoubtedly, an affectionate 
and pleasing companion in a room, and the more it advances in 
taming and training the less frequently is its annoying cry 
heard. Its capability does not extend beyond one or two 
sentences or half-a-dozen words. 


Psittacus nasiea, Tmm. 

Slender-hithd Cockatoo, the Naseciis CocJcatoo, tJie Long-hilled 
White CocJcatoo (Ger., Nasenhalcadu, Kleiner Nasenhakadu, 
Langschnciheliger Kakatu ; Fr., Cacatois nasiqiie, Nasiterne ; 
Dut., Neus Kakketoe) — Description. 

The Nasecus Cockatoo was described and drawn by Temminck 
in 1819. It certainly presents an extraordinary appearance, on 
account of its long projecting upper mandible, and the name 
which has been given it for this reason is really in some degree 
apt. The band on the forehead, the lores and the stripe 
round the eye are scarlet ; a small rounded white crest, the 
feathers at the base having rosy down ; a yellow spot behind 
the eye ; all the rest of the body is white ; on the head and 
throat the feathers also have rose-coloured down ; the inner 
side of the flight feathers is whitish-yellow, on the reverse side 
light-yellow ; the tail is of a decided light-yellow on the inner 
webs and reverse side ; the spot on the upper part of the breast, 
and all the feathers at the base, are a dark rose-colour ; the 
thigh is of pale rosy-red ; the beak bluish-white, with a long 
projecting sharp point ; the cere and nostrils are covered with 
little rose-coloured feathers ; the eyes are black, dark, or light- 
brown, a broad bluish-white circle round the eye ; the feet 
bluish-grey, with black scales and claws. In size fully as large 
as a crow (length, 17|in. ; wings, 10 Jin. to 10|in. ; tail, 4iin. 
to 5in.). 

It is a native of South Australia. It is said to subsist chiefly 
upon orchids, tubers, and roots, which it digs out of the ground 
by means of its curious beak ; otherwise its habits do not differ 
from those of the preceding species. In its movements, flight. 


and gait it appears, however, more rapid and graceful, and is 
said to be rather a ground than a tree bird. Its nest is built 
in the hollows of gum-trees, and it is said to lay two eggs. 
Large swarms of them roost at night in the tall forest trees. 
They cause great damage to the crops ; they are on this account 
greatly pursued, and, like their congeners, have almost every- 
where been driven back into the bush. Many young ones are 
stolen from the nest, and brought up by hand ; but more 
frequently, the old ones are caught in flocks by means of nets. 

In the cage it usually appears sulky and ill-tempered, and 
at the same time is one of the worst of screechers. The majority 
learn only to say a few words, but some are said to be extraor- 
dinarily gifted in speech. A Nasecus Cockatoo belonging to Mr. 
Max Strahl became exceedingly tame, shook hands, and kissed, 
and when it was allowed to come out of the cage its joy and 
caresses knew no bounds. It made funny little leaps on the 
ground with its outspread fan-shaped tail, at the same time 
uttering peculiar notes. Mr. Miiller-Kiichler had a couple so 
tame that they accompanied him for long walks in the open air, 
flying from tree to tree, but would come at a call, and caress 
and kiss him. In their picturesque flight they often soared 
high into the air, and when pursued by a bird of prey the male 
mounted, screeching, to such a height that it was lost to sight, 
and thus escaped its pursuer. Taken when they are old, they are 
stupid, and very difficult to tame, very excitable, but not really 
vicious. The loird is very common in the trade. 


Peittacus gymndpis, Scl. 

Bare-eyed Cockatoo (Ger., Nacldaugen-Kakadu. ; Fr., Cacatois a 
yeux nus ; Dut., Naaktoog Kal'ketoe) — Distinguishing Marks 
— Rarity. 

According to the description of Mr. Blaauw, the Bare-eyed 
Cockatoo is coloured as follows : The forehead is a pale rose 
colour ; the straight, pointed crest is white, but reddish-yellow 
at the base ; the lores are almost blood-red ; the cheeks are a 
dirty yellow ; all the rest of the plumage white, having rose- 


coloured down on the feathers of the head and breast ; the 
quills and tail are sulphur-yellow underneath ; the beak is horn- 
white (not protracted like that of the Nasecus Cockatoos) ; the 
eyes dark-brown ; a bare circle of blackish-blue is round the 
eye (above the eye the feathers are movable like eyebrows, so 
that they sometimes come down to the eyes and only leave 
visible the bare skin under the eye). This gives the cockatoo 
an exceedingly good-humoured expression. Size : about the 
same as the Nasecus Cockatoo ; but in shape it resembles the 
Digging Cockatoo. 

It is indigenous to South Australia. It was first made known 
in the year 1871, by Dr. Sclater, and described from a specimen 
in the Zoological Gardens, in London. 

''When I received the Bare-eyed Cockatoo," writes Mr. 
Blaauw, " it was very shy, and would allow no one to approach 
it ; but it soon evinced curiosity when I busied myself with the 
other cockatoos. Then it began to touch my finger with its 
beak when I held it out to it. In an exceedingly short time it 
became tame, came flying on to my shoulder when I called it, 
and let me caress it. It also became accustomed to flying about 
in the open air, so that by soaring aloft it could always follow me ; 
if it lost sight of me it searched about with complaining cries, 
and gave loud expression to its delight, and revelled in caresses 
when it would find me again. Its flight was easy and rapid, in 
picturesque movements, and with upright crest ; it liked to 
tumble about in a high wind, but, on the other hand, disliked 
rain. It moves gracefully on the ground, running or jumping, 
and sometimes, with erected crest, it indulges in a comical 
little dance. Its natural voice is heard in protracted owl-like 
cries, which, however, it only utters in the evening and during 
flight. I consider this species one of the most affectionate and 
gifted of all the cockatoos." 

This description of a bird which is still rare appears to me 
so interesting that I have given it at full length, the more so 
that the Bare-eyed Cockatoo, of which there are only two 
specimens in the London Zoological Gardens, has of late been 
imported occasionally. Thus, Charles Jamrach offered one for 
sale in 1877, three in 1881, and J. Abrahams one in 1881. 



Microglossus, Gffr. 

Distinguishing Maries. 

The Macaw Cockatoo is thus designated because it unites the 
characteristics of the two genera known by these names. 
The distinguishing marks are as follows : The beak is larger 
than that of any other parrot, much longer than it is deep, 
opening wide, closely compressed at the sides ; the ridge is 
almost like a keel, bent down in a half-circle, with a long 
narrow point, turned inwards, the sharp edge has a rounded bow, 
a rectangular indentation, and a very broad socket edge ; the 
nostrils are round and small, and, like the cere and lores, 
covered with little velvety feathers ; the tongue is dark-red, 
fleshy, cylindrical, the upper side having a spoon-like depression, 
with a horny black point, shaped like an acorn ; the sides of the 
head and round the upper mandible, below the eye as far as the 
ear, and down to the base of the lower beak, featherless ; the 
wings are rather long, with short points ; the tail is long, broadly 
rounded off ; the feet are powerful, short, and thick ; the claws 
are not strong, and but little bent ; the plumage is soft, each 
feather rounded off, mixed with powdery down ; the crest con- 
sisting of long, narrow, finely-cut feathers, bent upwards and 
towards the back ; at the base of the lower beak there are long 
feathers. In colour it is black, and in size larger than a 



Peittacus aterrimus, Gml. 

Alecto Cockatoo, Great Palm Cockatoo (Ger., Schivarzer 
Rilsselpapagei, AraraJcakadii, schivarzer Ararakaladii; Fr., 
Cacatois Alecto, Microglosse ou Arara noir a trompe ; Dut., 
A ra Kalcketoe) — Description, 

A LIVING specimen of this bird presents a rare and peculiar 
appearance. Dr. Finsch states that it greatly resembles the 
macaws, and yet is decidedly a cockatoo. It is deep black all 
over the body, with a faint green tinge ; the whole plumage is 


filled with a fine dust-like powdery down, which makes its appear- 
ance almost grey. The crest is described in the generic review ; 
the beak is black, the ridge and sides a faint bluish-black ; the 
featherless skin under the eyes, and near the beak, is of a dark 
orange colour, inclining to blood-red, with lighter flesh-coloured 
veins ; the feet and claws black. The two sexes are said to be 
alike in outward appearance, save that the hen has a shorter 
beak. In size it is rather larger than a raven (length, 26|in. to 
31-|-in. ; wings, loin, to IGMn, ; tail,10in. to llfin.). 

It is indigenous to the north of Australia, and the neigh- 
bouring islands of the Malay Archipelago. Van der Meulen 
was the first to describe this bird in 1707, and was followed by 
Edwards, in 1764. Gmelin, in 1788, furnished the first drawing 
of it, and gave it its scientific name. Wallace supplies informa- 
tion as to its life in freedom. Its cry is a protracted, shrill, but 
plaintive, piping. It lives in low wooded districts, where it is 
found in couples or in small families ; its flight is slow and 
noiseless ; its food, seeds, together with the kernels of the 
canary-nut tree, the hard shells of which it is able to open with 
its powerful beak. Dr. 0. von Martens observed it in captivity 
in Bahia : " A droll fellow, which sits there stifily, with a red 
face, powerful beak, and a constantly erected feathery crest. 
On the approach of a stranger, as well as from pleasure, it utters 
rattling cries." According to other travellers, it lives in the 
tops of high trees, whether growing in woods or apart. It is 
cheerful and agile, and speeds on its way with powerful strokes 
of the wing. The couples are very shy. The young are 
frequently taken from the nest and brought up by hand, yet 
they seldom come to Europe. In the year 1860 Mr. Wester- 
man, Director of the Zoological Gardens in Amsterdam, had 
a Macaw Cockatoo, which had been fed with canary-nuts on 
the voyage, and was with difficulty accustomed to oats, &c., 
on which, however, he afterwards throve. Dr. Max Schmidt 
speaks of the great strength of its beak ; it bit a porcelain 
vessel to pieces, for example, and even made a hole in a cast 
iron pan. It eats seeds, and the mealy part of maize, and likes 
raw meat, but must have its food thoroughly bruised and 
crushed. Its voice reminds one of the creaking of a door, and 
travellers describe it as particularly jarring. It should be fed 
according to the directions given on p. 29, but it is also fond 
of nuts and fruit. It has been occasionally offered for sale of 
late years, by the great dealers. Mr. A. E. Blaauw conjectures 


that the purely black birds, with bright red cheeks, shorter 
crest, and shorter beak, are the old males ; and the lighter 
birds, with long beaks, which had remained unchanged after 
being in captivity for two years, are the hens. Dr. Platen 
imported three splendid specimens of this species, which were 
very tame, and spoke some words. 

To the amateur this bird is of little importance, as it can onl}' 
be regarded as a curiosity for zoological collections, or for 


Callipsittacus, Lss. 

Distingu ishing Marks. 

This name has been given to a genus of the cockatoo family 
which, like the Macaw Cockatoos, shows a marked distinction 
from the rest of the parrots. Corresponding with its German 
name, this parrot has a long graduated tail, from which the two 
central feathers extend pointedly to some distance. Could, 
Schlegel, and Finsch, in spite of this peculiarity, include it 
amongst the cockatoos, and I also follow this classification, 
although the species has of late been sub-divided and reckoned 
amongst the Flat-tailed Parrakeets. The distinguishing marks 
are as follows : The beak is similar to that of the real cockatoos, 
only weaker, the ridge more compact and angular, the point 
not so protracted; the nostrils round, open, with edges turning 
upwards, in the well-defined cere ; the tongue short, thick, 
rounded at the point, with a spoonlike cavity ; the eyes propor- 
tionately small and round, and a featherless circle round the 
eye ; the lores feathered ; the wings unusually long and 
pointed ; the tail as described above ; the feet of moderate 
size ; the claws rather weak, but sharp ; the plumage soft ; the 
crest feathers long, narrow, of a fibrous nature, the longest 
rather turned upwards ; the chin feathers below the under 
beak are long and broad. Other marks may be found in 
the description of the species. 


Psittacus Nov£e-Hollandis8, Gml. 

Crested Ground Parraheet, Crested Grass Parrakeet, Cockatoo 
Parrakeet, Coccatile, Coccateel, Joey (Ger., Nymfensittich, 
Nymfenlcakadu, hlos Nymfe, Korella, Kahadille, Falkenkakadu, 
Keilschwanzkakadu, Neuholldndischer Keilschivanzkakatu ; Fr., 
Callopsitte, Perruche callopsitte, Nymphique; Dut., Wigstaart' 
Kakketoe of Kakatilje) — Description. 

As a common object of the bird market, the Cockatiel could 
hardly present any interest to the reader but that it has 
lately been observed that some of them learn to speak a 
few words. It is a pretty but odd-looking bird, and is of value 
to the fancier because it is peaceable in the aviary and breeds 
without difficulty. Otherwise it is extremely stupid, and may 
become wearisome by reason of its continued monotonous cry. 

The Cockatiel was described and named by Gmelin in the 
year 1788. The male bird is of a bright light-yellow on 
the crest, front of the head, lores, cheeks, chin feathers, and 
upper part of the throat ; near the ear there is a yellowish-red 
spot ; the upper part of the body is of a brownish ashen-grey ; 
the hinder part of the back and the upper coverts of the tail are 
light ashen.grey ; the wings blackish-grey, with very broad 
white longitudinal stripes, underneath brownish - grey ; the 
central feathers of the tail light-grey, the rest dark-grey, 
underneath all black ; all the under parts of the body 
lighter than the upper, a pale brownish ashen-grey ; the 
under coverts of the tail a lighter and purer grey (the shading of 
the plumage varies from almost pure ashen-grey to an olive- 
greenish grey-brown) ; the beak horn-grey, brown at the base, 
the cere grey ; eyes dark-brown ; grey circle round the eyes ; 
feet light ashen-grey ; claws black. The female has a small 
yellow spot on the forehead ; the top of the head and the crest 
greyish-yellow ; front part of the cheeks ashen-grey ; a dark 
orange-yellow spot at the ear ; chin feathers greyish-yellow ; 
the hinder part of the back and the rump ashen-grey, finely 
veined with yellow ; all the rest of the upper part of the body 
a brownish ashen-grey ; the broad longitudinal stripes on th© 
wings are not pure white, but yellowish ; the upper coverts of 
the tail are grey, veined with yellow ; the under parts of the 
body are wholly of a lighter pale yellowish-grey; the tail 



greyish-black, veined witli yellow, grey underneath, also veined 
with yellow ; the hinder part of the body and the under coverts 
of the tail with broad transverse undulating lines of yellow. 
The plumage of the young birds resembles that of the adult 
female, but is of a darker brownish-grey ; the spot on the ear 
of a dull brown yellowish-red ; the young male bird has already 
a pale yellowish colour on the cheeks ; the belly and tail under- 
neath are brightly veined with yellow ; the lower side of the 
wing has a broad white transverse stripe. In size it is scarcely 
as large as a jackdaw (length, 12in. to loin. ; wings, G^in. to 
6^in. ; tail, ofin. to G^in.). 

It is found throughout almost the whole of Australia. Its 
abode is principally in the broad inland plains, yet it appears 
at irregular intervals in different districts as a migratory bird, 
or perhaps as a bird of passage. 

The development of this bird has been closely observed in 
captivity, and the account given by Gould has been fully con- 
firmed. It has been bred since the year 1846, and may 
be found in many aviaries or cages as a brood bird. It lays 
four, six, or even eleven eggs, and, as in captivity it regularly 
rears two, three, or even more broods, it may also be supposed 
to do the same in freedom. At the same time, it is one of the 
healthiest and most hardy cage birds, and has often been left 
throughout the winter in rooms without a fire, or even in the 
open air. A description of the breeding is given in my books 
mentioned on page 4. 

In a cage, the Oockatiel, as a rule, appears very stupid and 
shy ; in its native land, on the contrary, it is* accounted very 
easily tamed and gifted in speech. If one wishes to make a 
trial of this bird, it is necessary to take a young Joey which can 
fly and feed itself, and teach it to speak according to the 
directions given on page 41 and following pages. Such a bird 
becomes tame surprisingly soon ; it is also affectionate, and, as 
has been remarked, learns some words, though with a thin child- 
like voice ; it can also learn to pipe airs and to whistle the 
songs of all sorts of birds. Joeys are annually imported in con- 
siderable numbers, as well as being bred rather numerously ; 
it is not, however, very numerous in the market. So far as I 
know, speakers of this species have never been offered for sale. 




Distinguisliing Marks — Habitat — Life in Freedom — Importation 
— Management — Talking Capacitu, 

The Lories and Lorikeets constitute a sub-division among tlie 
parrots whicli differs greatly in character and peculiarities, as 
well as in the nature of its food, from all others of this family. 
In the first place, they strike us as the most splendid in colour 
and brilliancy, and as being specially pleasing in shape ; next, 
they unite a curiously clever and pert manner with odd, hasty, 
violent movements ; and, further, they show general irritability 
and have a shrill harsh cry. 

The following distinguishing marks may be mentioned as 
-common to the two genera which here come under our 
notice — the Broad-tailed, or True Lories {Domicella^ Wgl.), and 
the Sharp-tailed Lories, or Lorikeets {Trichoglossus, Vgrs.) : 
Beak compressed at the sides ; socket edge rising up in a 
•slanting direction ; the inner point of the beak without the file- 
like ridge which is found in almost all other parrots ; but the 
special distinction is the brush-like tongue, or rather the tongue 
furnished with papillae. 

It is found in Australia and the surrounding islands, the 
Indian Archipelago (not, however, including the Sunda Islands), 
and Polynesia. 

In accordance with the peculiar form of its tongue, it subsists 
on sweet juicy fruits and other soft parts of plants, the honey of 
£owers, and, without doubt, on animal food, insects, shell-less 
animals, &c. Stone fruits and all sorts of nuts must be difficult, 
if not impossible, for them to eat, on account of the form of the 
beak, but especially in the absence of the file-like edge ; many 
■species, however, eat mealy or oily seeds, at least w^hen in 
captivity. As yet but little inquiry has been made into their 
habits. Of course, it is clearly shown by their food that they 
are tree birds. They live, as far as we know, gregariously, 
sometimes in flocks consisting of several varieties. They present 
a splendid sight in their variegated plumage while scrambling 
iibout in a blossoming gum-tree. Their flight is rapid and 
skilful ; on the branches they run and hop more than they 
climb ; on the ground they move oddly, sideways, hopping, 
nodding, and making other comical gestures. Many species are 

M 2 


said to build their nests, in company, in the hollows of gum- 
trees. Travellers have given little or no account of their habits 
in breeding. Although the lories scarcely occasion any harm 
worth mentioning to the crops, or, at any rate, to the more 
valuable fruits, and though, moreover, their flesh is not 
agreeable, yet they have been greatly pursued of late years, for 
which reason, and on account of the felling of the gum-trees, 
they are in great part driven back, like the cockatoos, &c., 
from the inhabited districts. Formerly the natives killed them 
in order to ornament themselves with their heads, which they 
strung in rows, and the settlers shot them occasionally for the 
sake of their brilliant plumage ; they were also taken from the 
nest in small numbers, reared by hand, and brought to market. 
Now, however, they are taken in nets in whole flocks for export 
to Europe. They are also frequently kept as cage birds in their 
native countries, especially in India, and frequently chained to 
a ring made of cocoanut shell or buffalo horn, and they are often 
found to have such a ring attached to the foot when they arrive 

The importation is now rapidly increasing, and, as may easily 
be supposed, these beautiful and interesting birds have many 
admirers. Unfortunately, there are serious hindrances to their 
more general adoption as pets ; on the one hand is their high 
price, and, on the other, their real or supposed delicacy of 
habit, so that, in fact, only enthusiastic fanciers, who do not 
scruple to provide a troublesome and expensive diet, can keep 
them. Until a short time ago it was not thought possible to 
preserve them alive for any length of time ; but experience has 
shown this notion to be erroneous. Within the last ten years 
or less, at least one species, the Blue Mountain Lory, has been 
acclimatised in many aviaries, and bred through several genera- 
tions. Similarly, numerous other species have proved themselves 
very hardy in captivity if managed properly, and these have 
been of the species which do not become accustomed to seeds, 
but which subsist solely on fruit and soft food. 

Mr. Scheuba, head master of the Grammar School at Olmiitz, 
ranks high among the connoisseurs and judges who have observed 
lories, and to him chiefly we are indebted for valuable infor- 
mation as to the peculiarities of this bird and advice as to its 
management. I will, therefore, first quote from his works : 

The delicacy of the lories, or rather the opinion that all the 
bristle-tongued parrots are exceedingly delicate, is due to the 


fact that these birds are nearly always treated ignorantly, and 
that they are, as a rule, accustomed to a food {i.e., boiled rice) 
which may perhaps be suitable to them in hot countries, but 
which in our climate is only too hurtful. It contains little 
nourishment, so that the birds have to eat great quantities of it, 
and thereby incur disorders of the digestion ; at the same time 
it soon becomes sour, and, given cold, the abundance of the pap 
chills the stomach ; when, in addition to this, the other food 
given on the voyage — soaked sago, bananas, and other tropical 
fruit — fails, and our northerly kinds are given instead, fresh 
diseases are contracted by the already sickly bird. Since I have 
replaced the rice with more suitable food I have found, after 
several years' experience, that the lories, on the whole, and 
without the exception of any species, are not delicate, and 
especially when they arrive healthy, and have been fed during 
the voyage on stale moistened and then well-squeezed wheaten 
bread (for example, breakfast roll or Viennese bread). Good 
€gg-bread also is wholesome, but must only be given in 
moderate quantities ; children's biscuits or rusks (but baked with- 
out potash) are preferable. These articles must not be given 
soaked or moistened in milk — not that in itself cows' milk is 
injurious to lories, but it often happens that the cattle are fed 
on flatulent food, such as the refuse of cabbage and turnips, &;c., 
and then the milk may be very injurious. Hence lories may 
only be considered as likely to live if they take hemp and 
canary seed as their chief food. For the Broad-tailed Lories, 
which are difiScult to habituate to seed, I have mixed crushed 
hemp with the moistened roll, and thus accustomed them to a 
seed diet. 

All brush-tongued parrots are accustomed to seeds the more 
easily as they are taken young. The experienced animal dealer, 
Fluck, of Vienna, says that, as long as lories are accustomed only 
to soft food, they manifest a habit which makes them unen- 
durable to an amateur — hanging on the wires of the cage, they 
eject fluid excretions so as to make the room filthy. But 
Scheuba says that this only happens occasionally, as, for 
instance, after large quantities of soft food have been taken, 
such as moistened roll or soft fruit, and that it ceases as the 
bird becomes accustomed to seeds. As a wholesome food he 
recommends maize boiled according to the directions given on 
page 29, five or six grains to be given daily to each bird ; but 
better, in my opinion, is fresh milky maize, though, of course. 


this can only be obtained for a short season, also oats, canary- 
seed, millet, and grass seeds in fresh ears. Good soft fruits are 
absolutely necessary for all lories, and Scheuba gives pieces of 
the best figs ; but I consider good fully ripe cherries, pears, 
apples or grapes, according to the season, as healthier, especially 
sound, carefully-picked mountain ash or service berries. As a 
green food, Scheuba recommends pine twigs and fresh ears of 
corn, but willow twigs and the juicy stalks of the wild vine may 
also be given ; for the winter I recommend tradescantia occa- 
sionally. Scheuba gives all his lories, once or twice a week, 
a drink of sugar and water ; in case of sickness he gives it several 
times a day. He keeps the East Indian species in a temperature 
of 65deg. to 70deg. F., and the Australian birds keep well 
in 58deg. to 60deg. ; but heed must always be taken lest the 
air be too dry, and, therefore, a vessel with water should be 
placed on the cage, or a large wet sponge hung above it. It is 
said to be better to surround the cage with large leafy plants, 
which ought to be kept very damp ; but these must be so 
arranged that the lories can never eat the leaves. Every two or 
three weeks Scheuba syringes his lories with rum and water (1 
part to 4) or white wine and water (1 part to 3), but both must 
be of the best quality. They also like to bathe themselves, 
but are not so eager in this respect as other parrots ; they like 
it best when they can upset the bath, and then roll about in the 
wet sand. Draughts and cold must be carefully avoided after the 
bath. Dangerous influences, such as tobacco smoke, or touching 
the feeding vessels with fingers soiled with snuff, &c., are more 
injurious to lories than to any other kind of parrot. In truth, 
not merely judicious but also affectionate treatment is necessary 
to their well-being. Excitement or terror, pining for a care- 
taker, or grief at neglect, may cause sickness or even death. 
Some of them must certainly be considered bad screamers, but, 
like other parrots, as soon as they make some progress in 
training they gradually cease their cry. 

"As regards their talent for speech," writes Mr. Scheuba, 
*'the most contradictory opinions prevail. One says the Black- 
bonnet Lory is almost incapable of being taught, another says 
the same of the Ceram Lory, and a third of the Lady Lory, and 
so on ; in my opinion, considering the great talent of all the 
species, even of the smaller ones, such as the Ornamental Lory, 
&c., the development depends on the method used at the 
beginning and on the idiosyncrasy of the bird. This, I can 


perceive, for example, in a striking manner in the case of my 
two Blue-breasted Lories, for whereas the older never utters a 
sound which even faintly resembles a word, the other, which is 
certainly a very young bird, goes on chattering all sorts of 
things. Anyone wishing to teach a lory to speak must keep it 
separate, away from the allurements and cries of others. Differ- 
ence of sex, in respect of speech, is certainly unimportant. In 
my opinion, the lories, at least the larger species, are not surpassed 
by any other parrots in capability for training and teaching. It 
cannot be denied that there are among them some birds which 
are morose and impracticable, nor that they may be completely 
spoiled by ill-judged treatment, and made ill-tempered, self- 
willed, and obstinate." The old writers, even Seba, as early as 
the year 1734, then Edwards, and Buff on down to Bechstein, 
speak highly of some species as speakers, and this is confirmed by 
the traveller. Dr. A. B. Meyer, who observed them in their 
natural haunts, and who adds that they may be reckoned among 
our best talking parrots, only they need long and tiresome 
training, and one must constantly notice them. 

In addition to the commendable qualities already mentioned, 
Mr. Scheuba speaks of their comical play and wrestling, when 
first one and then another lies on its back and tries to drive away 
the other with beak and feet ; also of their slim, pretty forms, 
and the total harmlessness of their bites in comparison with 
those of many species, and especially of the large parrots. 
He thinks that they must continue to attract admirers in in- 
creasing numbers. 


Domicella, Wgl. 

The Broad-tailed, or True Lories, are the prettiest and most 
charming of their family. Although active and lively, they are 
gentler than their congeners with the pointed tail. Their 
special marks are as follows : A powerful beak, mostly as deep 
as it is long, compressed at the sides ; the upper mandible has 
a rounded ridge, much bent point, and is slightly hollowed out ; 
the lower beak also compressed, with straight socket edge. 


sometimes slightly hollowed ; the sharp edges are not hollowed 
out ; the tongue is thick and fleshy, with a spoon-like depression 
near the front ; it has fibrous, movable papillae ; the nostrils 
are round and open, situated in a narrow cere ; eyes dark-brown, 
inclining to orange-red ; nearly always a featherless circle round 
the eye ; feet powerful ; claws much bent ; the wings long and 
pointed ; the tail short and rounded, consisting of feathers 
equally graduated ; the plumage close, composed of somewhat 
hard feathers on the neck, but on the throat and upper part of 
the body they are long ; sometimes there is an irregular crest. 
The colours are brilliant ; there is probably no outward dis- 
tinction between the sexes ; the body is slim. Size, varying 
from that of a sparrow to a jackdaw. 

They are widely diffused over the Moluccas and Polynesia. 
Scarcely any inquiries have been made into their life in 
freedom, but, so far as is known, it agrees with the descrip- 
tions already given. The smallest species are said to subsist, at 
least at times, entirely on the honey of flowers. 

Some of them belong to those ornamental birds which have 
been known and imported from ancient times, and which are 
numerously kept in their native countries in cages or on foot- 
chains, and form an article of commerce which, in later times, 
has greatly increased. The majority can with difficulty be 
accustomed to seed as a diet. Some never take it, therefore 
they are more difficult to keep in captivity than the Sharp- 
tailed Lorikeets. Of course, the danger is greatest when they 
are being inured to the change of food and of climate. When 
they are acclimatised, they prove to be hardy, though they 
cannot, as was remarked before, bear cold or draughts as well as 
others of the tribe. We find a considerable number of speakers 
among their ranks, and, in my opinion, if they are more 
frequently imported, and their needs in captivity more observed, 
they will all, or all the greater species, prove gifted with speech, 
though, of course, only to a moderate extent. In proportion to 
their advancement in taming and training their shrill and often 
wearisome cry ceases. 



PsittacuB atricapillus, Wgl. 

Blach-honnet Lory, Blue-headed Lory, Purple- capijed Lory 
(Ger., ViolettMppiger T^ori, Schwarzkopjiger Lori, Schwarz- 
happenlori, Schwarzstirniger Frauenlori, Erzlori, Schwarz- 
kdppiger BreitscJavanzlori ; Fr., Perruche Lori a calotte 
noir, Lori d collier ; Dut., Purperzwartkop Loeri) — Dis- 
tinguishing Marks — Domestic Qualities. 

This parrot is peculiarly beautiful, and ranks high among the 
bristled-tongued species, for it is one of the most talented and 
longest known. It was described by Seba as early as 1734, and 
drawn first by Edwards and then by Brisson ; but Wagler, 
in 1832, was the first to give it the proper scientific name. 

It is deep black on the forehead and crown of the head ; on 
the back of the head there is a scarcely noticeable tuft of 
longer violet-black feathers ; the lores, sides of the head, 
throat, and neck are dark carmine ; the shoulders, back, upper 
coverts of the wings, and tail, a lighter blood-red ; the wings a 
dark grass-green ; shoulders a yellowish-brown ; quills green, 
inner web yellow, the points black ; the reverse side of the 
wing blackish -grey, with broad, yellow, transverse stripes ; 
the bend and the small under coverts of the wings dark- 
blue ; tail carmine-red, and broad purplish-brown bordered 
at the tip ; the tail, on the reverse side, somewhat lighter ; all 
the under part of the body a pale carmine ; a bright-yellow 
spot on the breast ; the thigh blue ; the beak orange-red ; the 
cere blackish ; the eyes brown, brownish-yellow, inclining to 
yellowish-red, with a narrow light-yellow ring round the pupil ; 
a featherless blackish circle round the eye ; the feet blackish- 
grey ; claws black. (The spot on the breast is sometimes only 
dappled red and yellow, and is often completely wanting, the 
green wings are sometimes spotted with yellow, the hinder 
part of the back is greenish-yellow, and other variations occur). 
Size, about that of a jackdaw (length, lOfin. to llfin. ; wings, 
ojin. to 6fin. ; tail, 3fin. to 4^in.). As far as we know at 
present, it is indigenous only to Ceram and Amboyna. 

Although scarcely anything is known of its life in freedom, 
yet we have detailed information as to its existence in captivity. 
According to the account of Dr. E. von Martens, they are 
brought from Ceram or Amboyna to Java, and then to Europe, 


and bear the first part of tlie journey well, but not the latter 
part. Of late the wholesale dealers have had them sent over 

Buifon speaks of it as a cage bird, and praises it as being 
affectionate and eminently talented. He says it learns to speak 
more easily and more clearly than any others of the lories, but 
that it is delicate and hard to keep. Bechstein speaks in similar 
terms. According to him, it is even said to be "the most 
teachable, tamest, most pleasing, and affectionate of all parrots. 
It talks constantly, but thickly, like a ventriloquist, imitates, 
with a clear pipe, whatever is whistled to it, and always wants 
to be noticed and petted, as well as tended and cared for. All 
its movements are hasty." 

In these words we have a true description of the bristled- 
tongued Parrots, and the facts established by the experiences of 
many enthusiastic amateurs confirm the statements of the older 
writers, with this exception, however, that by no means all 
lories belong to the most talented and best speakers. Like the 
rest, the Black-bonnet Lory is able to learn to repeat a few 
words or even sentences, which it brings out quickly and 
hurriedly, with a clear high voice. Although one of the best- 
known objects of the bird-shop, yet it is by no means common, 
but is only imported singly now and then. Being a peculiarly 
ornamental bird, it is often found in the possession of persons of 
position, and is usually a great favourite. Many of them, 
however, render themselves intolerable by their incurable 
screaming, though their cry is not so shrill as that of their 
congeners, but sounds more like piping. In several cases it has 
lived for many years in a cage. Thus the Black-bonnet Lory 
belonging to the Princess Charles of Prussia, which, after her 
death, was in the possession of the Prince, must have lived 
about twenty years in the cage. 

As regards diet, I must refer to my Introduction, and will 
only add that this is one of the lories which are most diflScult 
to accustom to seed. 



Psittacus lori, L. 

Blue-tailed Lory (Ger., Frauenlori, Rothnaclcenlori^ Blauschil- 
teriger Breitschwanzlori ; Fr., Perruche Lori des Dames, ou 
Lori a scajmlaire bleue ; Dut., Blauivstaart Loeri) — De- 

Not unnaturally most of tlie birds, and particularly the parrots, 
whicli enlisted tlie affection of mankind in olden times continue 
to be clierislied in the present day. This is above all the case 
■with the Lady Lory. Described by Edwards in 1751, named by 
Linne in 1761, and treated by various authors, from Seba and 
Buffon to Bechstein, it has been lauded by all as being at once 
very beautiful, extremely affectionate and highly gifted. In 
this opinion parrot connoisseurs and keepers still agree, and, 
though not classing it higher than its congeners, they yet rank 
it at least on a level with them, especially with the Black- 
honnet Lory. It also, in many respects, resembles this latter 

It is of a deep black on the top and back of the head ; the 
lores, sides of the head, band round the neck and throat, 
carmine ; the back of the neck and the shoulders deep blue, 
with a purplish tinge ; the middle of the back, the rump, and 
the upper coverts of the tail, scarlet ; the upper part of the 
back has a bluish-black transverse band ; the quills are dark 
grass-green on the outer side, and of a deep yellow on the 
inner, the tips black, the reverse side blackish-grey, with a 
yellow transverse band ; the upper coverts are green, and the 
lesser coverts on the bend of the wing bluish ; the small coverts 
underneath and the feathers on the shoulders are scarlet ; the 
basal half of the tail feathers is scarlet, the end half deep blue ; 
the reverse side is red at the base and dull olive-yellow at the 
tip ; the throat, breast, and belly, deep blue, with a violet tinge ; 
the sides of the breast and belly are scarlet ; round the thigh, 
the hinder part of the body and the under coverts of the tail, 
light-blue ; beak orange, inclining to carmine ; the cere dull 
yellow ; eyes brown to yellowish-red, featherless skin round 
them brownish-yellow ; feet and claws black. Nearly as large 
as the Black-bonnet Lory (length, 10:Tin. to llin. ; wings, 5|-in. 
to 6^in. ; tail, o^in. to 4in.). There are varieties in colour, in 
•which the blue mark on the upper part of the breast and throat 


is wanting, with a red stripe in the blue feathers on the shoulder, 
a black transverse stripe across the reverse side of the centre of 
the tail, blue on the back and sides of the neck, with black under 
coverts to the wing, and many other deviations from the above. 
The size is also undecided. It is not yet determined whether 
these differences arise from age, sex, or locality. It is known to 
be a native of New Guinea, Waygiou, Mysol, Salawatti, and 

Dr. Meyer informs us that it is very abundant in New Guinea, 
and is frequently kept in the cage, and learns to speak extremely 

Mr. Scheuba has a Lady Lory which is strongly attached and 
affectionate, kisses, lays itself on its back on the hand, allows 
itself to be played with, and even frolics like a kitten, and in 
moments of delight it pipes merrily ; at other times, occasionally 
even by night, it whistles rather sharply and shrilly. In 
comparison with other lories this one, although quite as lively, 
appears calmer and more even-tempered. It speaks a good deal, 
and says everything in a deep voice, as if from the throat of 
a weather-beaten sailor. It likes best to chatter at night, and 
then sticks its head into its food vessel. It seems also disposed 
to whistle songs if taught them. Dr. Platen brought over ten 
specimens in his collection. Unfortunately, in the trade and in 
exhibitions this beautiful species is still very rare. 


Psittacus garrulus, L. 

Chattering Lory, Crimson Lorij (Ger., Lori mit gelhein Biichen- 
fledc, GelhmanteUori, Ceram-Lori, Breitsdncanzlori mit 
gelhem BucJcenfled: ; Fr., Perruche Lori de Ceram ; Dut., 
Ceram Loeri) — Description. 

The Ceram Lory was formerh^ rare in the trade, and only very 
recently has it been imported at all frequently. Although it is 
one of the birds longest known (mentioned by Clusius as early 
as 1605, described and named by Linne, and well drawn by 
Edwards, Brisson, &:c.), yet, until the present time, very diffe- 
rent opinions have prevailed as to its talent. Buffon notices the 


difficulty whicli the Dutch had at first in bringing the bristled- 
tongued Parrots, and especially this species, alive to Europe. 

The Ceram Lory is scarlet, with a splendid metallic lustre, 
and a triangular spot of deep lemon.yellow, set in green, upon 
the upper part of the back ; the quills are green on the outer 
side, vermilion on the inner, about one-third, towards the point, 
black ; the secondaries are black on the inner side, only 
being red at the base ; the large upper coverts are olive-green ; 
the bend of the wing lemon-yellow ; the small coverts of the 
wing on the reverse side are also yellow ; the tail is red, dark 
green at the tip ; on the reverse side purplish-brown, and dull 
yellow at the end ; all the under part of the body is uniform 
red, save that it is green about the thigh ; the beak and the 
bare skin round it orange-red ; the skin on the nose bluish- 
grey ; eyes yellowish-brown, inclining to reddish-yellow ; a bluish- 
red featherless circle round the eye ; feet greyish-black ; claws 
black. In this species also there appear variations, as the spot on 
the shoulder extends more or less, sometimes is a dull red, and 
is sometimes wanting ; the tail green, shaded off to a bluish- 
black or quite blue. Size, nearly as large as the Black-bonnet 
Lory (length, lOjin. to llin. ; wings, o^^in. to 6|-in. ; tail, S^-in. 
to 4in.). It is a native of the north-easterly Moluccas. 

Its rarity in the trade, in spite of the wide extent of its 
habitat, and the frequency with which it is stolen from the nest 
and brought up by hand, probably arises from the fact that it is 
a great favourite with the natives themselves, and often kept 
and traded in. The opinions of the more modern amateurs and 
bird connoisseurs will not in the meantime be the less inte- 

One of the most eminent among them, Mr. E. von Schlech- 
tendal, pronounced this species to be one of the worst of 
screamers, and of no great capability ; but this judgment is 
opposed to that of Mr. A. E. Blaauw, who thus remarks: 
" Some years ago, I had a Ceram Lory which displayed consider- 
able talent. First of all, it imitated all sounds which struck its 
fancy, learnt to say many words, and repeated them with a 
gentle voice, and, one might say, almost with comprehension, so 
fittingly did it apply them. It loved me passionately, and would 
become enraged if any stranger touched me while it sat on my 
shoulder. It would dash at the person, and bite and scream so 
that I had some difficulty in soothing it again. It could dis- 
tinguish quite well whether the stranger touched my person, my 


chair, or anytliing near me — in the latter case it remained quiet. 
It was always excitable and violent, and any wlio approached it, 
or ventured on liberties, it punished by pecking at. Its voice 
had not the metallic sharpness of the other lories ; but by force 
of ever repeating the same tone, it became, like them, unbear- 
able. However, as soon as I took it out of the cage, it grew 
quiet. What it esteemed as the greatest treat was sugar and 
water, which it quickly lapped up with its long movable 

Mr. Heer, of Striegau, described it in similar terms. *'My 
Ceram Lory," he said, ''gives me much pleasure. It is exceed- 
ingly lively, and chatters continually ; when it is silent it likes 
to hang by the feet from the perch, so that its body swings 
downwards. Although I often hold it unrestrained on my 
finger at the open window, and, though it can fly well, it never 
occurs to it to escape. I never before had so tame a bird. It 
eats moistened Vienna roll with sugar, and is passionately fond 
of sugar and water. It takes especial pleasure in creeping 
between my coat and vest." 

Mr. Scheuba thinks that the incapacity of learning which 
the Ceram Lory shows in comparison with the others is due 
to the great attention which it pays to its surroundings ; it is 
never silent, and is always screaming, though not very shrilly. 
*' Mine is large, healthy, and rather impetuous. It does not do 
much in the way of talking, for it only says the often-heard 
word, * Wait, wait ' ; but this is probably caused by its having 
made friends with a Black-bonnet Lory, so that the two heed 
nothing else but one another, and converse continually in their 
natural cries. If I put them together they show infinite affec- 
tion towards each other, but I am obliged to put a speedy end 
to the association, for the rough, violent Ceram so sets upon the 
weaker Black-bonnet, that the latter is obliged to fly from its 
overwhelming caresses. The former takes little pleasure in 
human society. Casually I may here remark that it has 
several times laid eggs in its cage." 

Mr. C, Linden informs us that a lory of this species in his 
possession pipes prettily. 



Psittacus ruber, Gml. 

Moluccan Lory (Ger., Scharlachr other Lori, hlos rother Lori, Blau- 
schulteriger Breitschicanzlori ; Fr., Perruche Lori rouge, Lori 
rouge ; Dut., Roode Loeri') — Description — Talking Capacity. 

The Eed Lory, as it is usually called, was first described by 
Brisson in 17G0, and was named by Gmelin. S. Muller (1776) 
describes the pleasure he took in watching these beautiful red 
birds clambering about the trees while they ate the fruit and 
screamed incessantly. 

This lory is of a brilliant scarlet ; the first four quills are 
black on the outer web, the rest increase gradually in redness, 
the last three or four are dark blue, red at the base, and rose 
colour underneath ; there are two indistinct black transverse 
bands across the wing ; the hindermost covert feathers on each 
side of the back form a large blue spot ; the tail is a dull 
purplish-brown, duller on the reverse side ; the under coverts of 
the tail and a large spot behind the thigh brilliant blue ; the 
beak yellowish-red ; cere blackish-grey ; eyes brown to yellowish- 
red ; featherless skin blackish ; feet blackish-grey ; claws black. 
It is a native of the Moluccas, but it is not found on the Aroo 
Islands. Wallace saw it often in Amboyna, where it is found in 
large numbers on the blossoming trees, sucking the honey from 
the flowers. 

Mr. Scheuba gives the following interesting description of the 
species : '' One Eed Lory is quite unparalleled in speaking 
talent ; at the same time, it is extremely tame, affectionate, and 
gentle, kisses, and takes especial pleasure in being brought to 
me in bed in the morning, here tumbling about with delight and 
revelling in various antics. Moreover, it is very active, and 
cannot bear to be long in one place ; thus, it climbs all about my 
body, then jumps on the table, tears a bit of paper to pieces, or 
runs down the leg of my trousers to the ground, hops away, and 
then returns just as quickly to mount again. In the cage it 
often lies on its back, and, with feet and beak, plays with bits 
of wood, which it tears to fine shreds. It speaks with a femi- 
nine voice of high pitch, hurriedly and quickly, often for more 
than a quarter of an hour at a time ; frequently with a voice 
which suddenly changes, as if two persons spoke together, but 
then it sounds as if one heard it from a distance, and only a few 


words can be understood. Otherwise, it speaks very distinctly 
and clearly many words and whole sentences. It has learnt all it 
knows from other speaking parrots, from someone talking to it, or 
from the other birds, during the cleaning of the cages and the 
giving of food. Nearly every day it chatters something fresh 
which it has picked up in this way ; thus it talks nearly the whole 
day, but mostly in the evening, when its cage is covered. It can 
laugh in the most deceiving manner. If I go by night into the 
aviary to look after anything, and some bird wakens and cries, this 
one seldom joins in it, but calls out in an angry tone, ' Be still, 
you rascal ! ' or, in a tone of astonishment, ' Well, what's the 
matter ? ' In all this is displayed the talent and teachableness 
of the bird, and I could go on telling many tales about it — how 
it bites my finger as I take it back to the cage, and when I let 
the sliding door fall, runs away with a triumphant ' Ha ! ' ; how 
well it can express pleasure or grief, longing or delight, &c. It 
eats the finest wheaten bread mixed with biscuit, boiled maize, 
service berries dried and then moistened, besides hemp seed, oats 
and wheat half ripe in the ear, figs, and other fruit ; it also gets 
fresh pine shoots. If, it has eaten a great deal, it brings back 
the food, as if ruminating, in order to masticate it again com- 

To the present time, the Red Lory is one of the rarest in the 
market. Dr. Platen brought over seven specimens. 


Psittacus coccineus, Lth. 

Blue Diademed Lory (Ger., Blaastirniger Lovi, Diademlori 
Blauhrilstiger Breitschwanzlorl ; Fr., Perruche Lori violette et 
rouge; Dut., Blauiv en roode Loeri) — Description — Domestic 

It is greatly to be regretted that this lory, of which Mr. Scheuba, 
the noted connoisseur of Broad-tailed Lories, speaks as the most 
surpassingly splendid in colour, should be among the rarest in 
this country, especially as it has been known for a long period. 

The head, throat, and front of the neck are carmine ; 
across the crown of the head, from one eye to the other, there is 


( /'xiffnrus coccineu.i.) 


a blue band ; above and below the eye, reaching down to the 
neck on either side, there is a dark blue stripe ; the neck and 
shoulders are blue ; the hinder part of the back is dark carmine ; 
the rump and upper coverts of the tail, purple brownish red ; the 
quills red with black tips, a dull red on the reverse side ; 
across the wing there is a black transverse band ; the larger 
upper coverts of the wing, red, with a broad black edge ; the 
coverts on the shoulder, purplish black ; the edge and the lower 
coverts of the wing, red ; the tail a dark reddish brown, the 
inner webs scarlet ; all the lower part of the body carmine ; the 
lower part of the breast and the belly striped transversely with 
dark blue; the thigh, blue, with red transverse stripes; the 
under coverts of the tail red, with blue spots ; the beak a dull 
waxy yellow ; the cere, bluish; eyes, reddish amber; featherless 
skin round them, blackish ; feet, a bluish ashen grey ; claws, 
black ; size, nearly as large as the Black-bonnet Lory (length, 
lO^in. to 10|in. ; wings, Gin. to G^in. ; tail, 4|in. to 4|in.). It 
is a native of the Sangir Islands. This lory was described and 
named by Latham in 1790 ; older writers make no mention of it. 

Mr. A. B. Meyer informs us that he has found them occa- 
sionally in the Island of Celebes, and that they are brought by 
the native dealers to Manado for sale ; and it frequently 
happens that they are then lost. In all the islands thereabout 
a lively trade is carried on in simple objects of art and natural 
curiosities — such as baskets, &;c. — and among these the lories 
form an important item, because they are generally held in great 
favour as household pets. " A Blue-breasted Lory which I had," 
Dr. Meyer says, " was tame and affectionate towards my wife, 
but ill-tempered to me. It learnt, like all the lories, to speak just 
as clearly as other parrots, but not so easily and well as the 
cockatoos and eclecti ; it prefers screaming and screeching 
instead of repeating the words and sentences which it knows. 
Most lories die on the journey, and therefore one sees them 
but seldom in Europe." 

Mr. Scheuba adds the following particulars concerning a Blue- 
breasted Lory of his : " It is the quietest and most silent of all, 
and only utters its cry in the evening, and then it is not nearly 
as sharp and shrill as that of the others, but is rather a 
twittering or chattering ; only when frightened does it utter 
screaming sounds. It is extremely easily frightened, and then 
very difficult to soothe. Otherwise, it is a very nice bird, 
showing great affection ; and it is assuredly one of the most 


pleasant of the lories, for it is neither unclean of habit nor will 
it scream, and it soon learns to speak. Its talent, however, must 
not be rated very high, for it sits rather motionless and un- 
sympathetic upon its perch. Another, which I got afterwards, 
was scarcely half the size, and with less blue on the hinder 
part of the body, not dull in parts on the wing, but, on the 
contrary, almost yellowish red. Figs and heads of millet are 
the favourite food of the first-mentioned bird, which has the 
peculiarity of going regularly at eleven o'clock at night to its 
food vessel and eating hemp, although the room may be in total 

In Dr. Platen's collection there were seven specimens ; but 
usually it is extremely rare in the trade. 


Trichoglosaus, Vgra. 


This family of magnificent and brilliant plumaged birds con- 
tains many species, yet up to the present it is only known 
to include two which are speakers ; but these are to be accounted 
as the most interesting of all parrots, for they are distinguished 
in various ways ; they are beautiful, peculiar, and affectionate in 
manner, healthy and hard}^, and one of them has bred several 
times in captivity, and is, moreover, the only brood bird in the 
whole group of lories. 

As, in all probability, other species may in course of time 
■prove to be gifted with speech, it is proper that I should speak 
first of the Sharp-tailed Lories in general. They have the 
■following distinguishing marks : The beak is usually as deep as 
it is long, compressed at the sides ; the upper mandible has an 
^angular ridge, an overhanging point, which gradually becomes 
narrower, and is hollowed out gently but distinctly ; the lower 
mandible has a socket edge, which goes up in a slanting direc- 
tion ; the sharp edge is straight, not hollowed out ; the tongue 
is thick and jfleshy, with a spoon-like cavity on the upper side 
tnear the point, and covered with flexible papillae capable of 


being extended ; the nostrils are small, oval, and uncovered in 
the distinct narrow cere ; the eyes are usually dark and bright, 
but proportionately small ; the lores and the circle about 
the eye is feathered, only round the eye there is a narrow 
featherless rim ; the feet are short, powerful, with thick toes, 
and much bent nails ; the wings are long and pointed ; the tail 
is wedge-shaped, broadly graduated, wide at the base, the 
feathers regularly decreasing in width and rounded at the point. 
The sexes do not differ at all in plumage, and the young birds 
but little ; the body is slim, and about the size of a sparrow 
or jackdaw. 

They are natives of Australia, Polynesia, New Guinea, the 
Moluccas, and Papua. They live gregariously, probably even in 
the breeding season, but when this time is past they assemble in 
exceedingly large flocks of the various species, and migrate or 
take to flight as birds of passage. They fly rapidly and skilfully, 
with deafening cries, alight upon the gum trees, and will not 
be driven away even by shots, only hurrying from one tree to 
another when alarmed. On account of the felling of the gum 
trees as cultivation advances, and the constant pursuit they are 
subjected to, they have already been greatly reduced in numbers, 
and driven back into the bush, and have become so shy and 
cautious as no longer to approach the settlements. On the 
ground they have an odd sidelong jamp, but in trees they climb, 
or rather creep, rapidly among the branches. According to the 
observation of travellers, their food consists chiefly of the honey 
of flowers, and in the case of the three smallest species this is 
probably true ; the larger species feed principally on seeds, with 
sweet fruit, as has been proved by those in captivity. They can 
hardly do harm to the crops ; their life in freedom is otherwise 
scarcely known. Of late several species have been imported 
more frequently, inasmuch as they are caught by whole flocks 
in nets, at certain times, or vyhen migrating, or at the drinking 
places, (fee. The following species is a good representative 
of those kinds which come under notice in this country, and 
shall therefore be dealt with as fully as possible. 

N 2 



Psittacus Swainsoni, Jard. et Sib. 

Blue Mountain Parrot, Swainsons Lorikeet, Blue-hellied Lori- 
Iceet (Ger., Lorivon den hlauen Bergen, Gehirgslori, Blauhcluchi- 
ger Keilschwanzlori fdlsclilich hlaiier Gehirgslori, PJlaumen- 
kopfsittich (/); Fr., Perruclie Lori de Swainson, Perruche a 
houche d'or; Dut., SwainfO?i's Loeri) — Importation — Descrip- 
tion — Hardiness — Breeding — Treatment — Talking Powers. 
The Blue Mountain Lory affords a striking example of the im- 
portance to which the love of birds, and the pursuit and results 
of their breeding, may attain, not only as a matter of science, 
but also of practical business. As already mentioned elsewhere, 
the whole account of the importation and breeding of this 
bird is very interesting. First described and drawn by Buffon 
in 1783, and named by Gmelin, it was at that early date kept 
in captivity, and was imported into Europe alive by Joseph 
Banks in 1771. It is probable that since that time it has 
been brought over occasionally. A couple were sent to the 
Zoological Gardens in London in 1868 ; but the regular im- 
portation only dates from the year 1870, when it was com- 
menced by the wholesale dealer, Charles Jamrach, of London. 

The Blue Mountain Lory is of a purplish-blue on the head 
and throat ; the back of the head has a faint brownish tinge ; a 
broad yellowish-green band appears on the back of the neck ; 
all the upper part of the body is of a dark grass green ; the 
upper part of the back is more or less dappled with red and 
yellow (each feather having a red or yellow transverse spot) ; 
the quills are green on the outer web, and black on the inner ; 
blackish grey on the reverse side, with a broad light yellow 
transverse band ; the shoulders and under coverts of the wing 
vermilion ; the bend of the wing green ; the edge of the wing 
marked as if covered with red and yellow scales ; the tail 
feathers green, yellow on the inner web ; on the reverse side a 
dull brownish yellow, the inner webs light yellow ; the breast 
and neck vermilion ; the sides of the breast yellow ; the belly 
dark blue ; the thighs, the hinder part of the body, and the 
under coverts of the tail, red, dappled with yellow and green ; 
the beak is a brilliant red ; the skin on the nose bluish, in- 
clining to dark brown ; the eyes orange, inclining to amethystine 
red ; a red brown circle round the eye ; the feet brownish-grey ; 


claws blackisli. It is fully the size of a jackdaw (length, 13in. 
to 13|in. ; wings, o|-in. to 5|^in. ; tail, 4|in. to 5f in. It has 
lately been proved to be indigenous throughout the whole of 
Australia and Tasmania. 

When Charles Jamrach imported the first couple, and sold 
them to Mr. E. Linden of Eadolfzell for ten guineas, he saw, as 
an experienced dealer, that this species of bird must be hardy, 
because it lives chiefly on seed ; and, in truth, with the excep- 
tion of a few failures at first, the supposition has proved correct. 
This splendid bird is more and more frequently imported, can 
be easily managed, and, after a short time, bred with good 
results. It would be too wide a digression to enter upon the 
breeding more particularly. Mr. A. Heublein, sculptor, of 
Coburg, was, in 1873, the first to make the attempt ; and then 
several other bird fanciers reared Blue Mountain Lories, Mr. 
K. Petermann, merchant, of Eostock, having even bred them to 
the third generation. 

Its splendid colours, its uncommon lively, charmingly droll 
manner, no less than its aptitude for breeding, have gained 
for the Blue Mountain Lory numerous friends in an exceedingly 
short time, and from amateurs and breeders everywhere obtained 
for it a cordial welcome. In fact, one can scarcely imagine 
more beautiful and charming birds tlian a pair of these lories 
as described by Dr. Frenzel and Mr. Scheuba, as they hop side- 
ways in a circle, with droll gestures, nodding their heads 
expressively, then rolling over and wrestling, shaking hands, and 
nibbling one's finger without really biting, &c. They would be 
much greater favourites if they did not so often utter their dis- 
tracting piercing cry, which can only wdth difficulty be silenced. 
Although strong and hardy, the Blue Mountain Lory must be 
carefully protected from dangerous influences ; thus, it must 
never be kept in too hot a room, and any sudden change of diet 
must be strictly avoided. However, as I said before, with 
proper treatment it lives, and is healthy for many years in 

Its food consists of seeds, especially canary seed, oats, and a 
little hemp, with some moistened and well-squeezed-out egg- 
b''ead, or stale wheaten bread ; instead of the latter, cake or 
biscuit may sometimes be given. It is essentially necessary 
that good sweet fruit should be given daily. Great caution is 
needed in giving green food ; but, on the other hand, twigs for 
gnawing may always be supplied. 


According to our present knowledge, the Lory of the Blue 
Mountains will always be of great value as an ornamental bird, 
and for breeding purposes, but, in spite of this, it could not find 
a place in this work if it had not been proved beyond doubt to 
be gifted with speech. The first announcement of this fact, 
however, was not only met with head-shaking and surprise, but 
in several instances with positive disbelief, for throughout the 
whole family of Sharp-tailed Lories not one single speaker had 
hitherto been known. To Mr. K. Petermann, as already stated, 
we not only owe the breeding of this species, through several 
generations, but also the first announcement of their talent for 
speech. In the great bird show of the Ornis Society in Berlin, 
in 1879, there was a young lory belonging to the above-named 
breeder, which was healthy, beautiful in plumage, and exceed- 
ingly tame, imitated the note of the hawfinch, whistled several 
calls, and pronounced pretty clearly, or at least so that it could 
be understood, the name of his mistress, "Bertha," the eldest 
daughter of Mr. Petermann. Next we were told of a Blue 
Mountain Lory, which was gifted with a talent for speech, 
belonging to Dr. Frenzel, metallurgical chemist, of Freiburg. 
Then Mr. E. EUdiger, of Darmstadt, informed us that a bird of 
this species in his possession said the words "Come here," and 
*' Get away with you ! " Hence we may assume that, sooner or 
later, we shall witness a great advance in this species. When 
we consider that the Blue Mountain Lory, if kept singly and 
managed properly, not only belongs to the speaking parrots, and 
is one of the most beautiful and gentle of birds, but also becomes 
uncommonly tame and affectionate, we may, indeed, expect 
that it will attain great importance in the future, both as an 
ornamental and breeding bird as well as a speaker. 

Anyone wishing to tame it, and teach it to speak, should 
attempt to obtain one bred in this country and while still very 
young, for these prove much more manageable and teachable 
than those imported when old, while those, again, which have 
had mates are exceptionally hard to train after separation. 



Psittacua ornatus, L. 

Ornamental Jjovy (Ger., Blauohriger Keilschwanzlori, Schmuck- 
lori; Fr., Perruche Lori ornee ; Dut, Blauwoor Loeri) — Its 
Extraordinary Beauty — Description — Habitat — Rarity in the 
Bird Market — Character in Captivity — Talking Capacity. 

Few fanciers could be unaffected at tlie siglit of this beautiful 
little bird. I thought, when I first saw it, that it was the most 
beautiful of all the brilliant and splendid lories. Mr. Scheuba 
expresses himself in similar terms, and the old authors seem to 
be of the same opinion, for they called this bird " The Paradise 
Parrakeet." I gave it the popular name of Ornamented Lory, by 
which it is universally known, in accordance with the Latin 

It is among those parrots which have been long known. 
Edwards sketched it as early as 1747, Brisson described it in 
1760, and Linne named it. However, we had no particulars of 
its life in freedom, nor of its habits in captivity, till lately. 

It is violet-blue on the forehead and top of the head ; the 
back of the head inclines to blackish-blue ; round the back of 
the head and across the nape of the neck there is a scarlet band 
marked faintly as with scales of black ; the lores and a spot 
near the ear are blackish-blue ; on each side of the throat there 
is a broad bright-yellow stripe ; all the upper part of the body 
is a dark grass-green ; every feather on the fore part of the 
back has a broad yellow transverse stripe ; the quills are green 
on the outer web ; the inner web is of blackish-grey, dark grey 
on the reverse side ; the shoulders and under coverts of the 
wings are a deep yellow ; the centre feathers of the tail green, 
the outer ones are greenish-yellow at the tip, and at the basal 
half the inner webs are scarlet ; the cheeks and throat are 
scarlet ; the front of the neck and the breast the same, marked 
with broad black stripes ; the belly dark green ; the sides, 
hinder part of the body, and under coverts of the tail, marked 
as with green and yellow scales ; the beak red ; the cere 
blackish ; eyes dark brown, inclining to reddish-brown ; the 
featherless skin round them bluish-black ; feet dark grey ; claws 
black. In size it is scarcely as large as a thrush (length. 8f in. 
to 9Jin. ; wings, 4jin. to 4^in. ; tail, 2|in. to 3in.). 


It is a native of Celebes and the Togian Islands. Dr. A. B. 
Meyer found it there in abundance, and sometimes in very large 
flocks, wliich flew away with rapid strokes of the wing, uttering 
short shrill cries. The natives keep them in numbers, chained 
to a little stand before the doors of their huts by means of a 
ring made of cocoanut-shell, and feed them with rice and 
bananas. The above-named explorer informs us that this bird 
(like several other lories) has a perceptible and not unpleasant 
smell of musk. 

With us it is, unfortunately, among the rarest in the bird 
market ; moreover, the dealers have had troublesome experiences 
of it, for most Ornamented Lories die suddenly in spite of their 
arrival in apparently perfect health and in good plumage. This, 
however, I am convinced, arises solely from improper treatment, 
and I therefore call attention to the remarks on this point 
at page 8 of my Introduction. If these lories arrive in a 
healthy state, they are just as easily kept as the Blue 
Mountain Lory, for they only require the same care and diet, 
and resemble it in nearly every other respect. 

They have, however, already found friends who take an 
interest in them. Mr. Heer, of Striegau, writes as follows : 
" My male Ornamented Lory is a nice bird, very tame, and 
reminds one very much, in its actions, of the Blue Mountain 
Lory. It also appears to be very teachable, for it has picked 
up all sorts of words from other birds, which it imitates ; it 
chatters most, and many things, in the evening." Mr. A. Eberle 
writes of a couple, belonging to the bird dealer, Franz 
Petzold, of Prague, that the male spoke Italian, which it had 
probably learnt from the sailors on the voyage. " Among my 
bristle-tongued parrots," says Mr. Scheuba, '• the Ornamented 
Lories are not only by far the most splendid in colour, but also 
the liveliest, most impetuous, and restless ; there is not the least 
trace of timidity or shyness in them, even with strangers. 
When anyone approaches their cage, they at once come near 
to the wires and greet the visitor with somewhat shrill cries, 
and, if the old cock can, it catches a firm hold, with claws 
and beak, of any garment which has come too close, or else of 
the hand, and from which his grasp can only with difficulty be 
disengaged, and not even then, however, without his giving 
a few painful pecks. If neglected, it attracts attention by loud 
cries ; then, if anyone draws near, it expresses its joy by nodding 
its head and bowing, and, frequently while doing this, it catches 


the end of the pinion with its foot, so that the wing is some- 
what raised, and puts its head between the wing and the breast. 
In the same way it tries to chatter all sorts of things, but 
nothing but the words 'Parrot' and 'Wait, wait!' can be 
clearly distinguished. Its food consists of oats and boiled maize 
(of which latter it is passionately fond), as well as service 
berries and figs ; it gnaws eagerly the tops and needles of pine 
twigs." In other respects this species resembles those previously 
mentioned ; it is also of value as an ornamental bird, and can 
certainly be bred as well. It seems easier to train in speaking, 
yet its capabilities scarcely extend beyond a few words. 

As already mentioned, the Ornamented Lory is very rare in 
the trade. A specimen was first brought to the Zoological 
Gardens of London in 1873, and in Dr. Platen's collection there 
were twenty-eight specimens ; but usually it is only imported in 
couples or in small numbers. 


Sittace, Wgl. 

Knoivn as Sjjeaking Parrots from Ancient Times — Suited for 
Ornamental Purposes — Distinguishing Marks — Habitat — 
Life in Freedom — Food — Character in Captivity — Talking 

The Macaws are of special interest to the readers of this work, 
first because they belong to those speaking parrots which have 
been known from the most ancient times — we find them de- 
scribed even by Aldrovandi and Gessner — and, secondly, because 
they all, without exception, have the capacity of learning to 
speak. The greater number, and the larger among them, have 
the same relation to parrot lovers as have the cockatoos ; inas- 
much as, for the same reasons (see p. 137), they are not suitable 
for keeping in cages in the drawing room, but must, like them, 
be regarded rather as ornamental birds for ante-rooms, gardens, 
or verandahs, or even for the fowlyard and park. For this 
purpose, however, they are very acceptable, as almost without 
exception they are extremely healthy and hardy. Hence, also, 


they are much esteemed in zoological gardens and natural 
history collections. 

The following may be given as their distinguishing marks : 
Beak very large and strong ; upper mandible much bent down- 
wards, with a long overhanging point, and distinct indentation : 
the lower mandible deeper, with broad but slightly curved 
socket edge, abrupt point ; the ridge is flat, and has not a 
sharp edge ; the tongue is thick, somewhat larger in its an- 
terior part, lower down fleshy, with fine longitudinal furrows 
on the upper side, between which, upon the projecting ridges, 
grow little blunt papillae in rows, at the back four pairs of warts 
of unequal sizes, and a slightly notched edge slanting outwards 
in an oblique direction. The nostrils are round, set in the 
bare cere, the latter being covered only in some specimens 
with little feathers ; the cheeks, with the region round the eye, 
and near the lower mandible, are unfeathered, but some have 
rows of little feathers under the eye ; the wings are long and 
pointed ; the tail long, sharp, cuneiform ; the feathers gradu- 
ated, each being rounded at the tip ; the feet powerful ; legs 
short and thick ; claws large and much bent ; the plumage 
firm and hard, without the powdery down ; shape thickset, but 
much larger in appearance (owing to the long tail) than it in 
reality is ; size, varying from that of a pigeon to a domestic 

They are natives only of America, where they are found from 
the North of Mexico as far as South Brazil and Paraguay. The 
dense primeval forest is their abode, especially in the lowlands 
along the streams and rivers, but also in the mountains to an 
elevation of nearly 12,000ft. They live in couples, and after the 
nesting season in families ; many assemble from time to time, 
sometimes several species together, in large flocks. In their 
flight they cleave the air rapidly, but, in the case of the larger 
species, heavily ; their gait on the ground is awkward, in a side- 
long direction ; but, on the other hand, they climb rapidly and 
nimbly in the branches. All kinds of tree fruits and seeds, 
especially palm nuts, hard as stones, which they break with 
their powerful beaks, form their food. They sometimes fly to 
great distances, and attack the crops of the settlers with de- 
structive effect. They are eagerly pursued, as well on account 
of the damage they do as for their plumage and the food 
furnished by their flesh, which, however, is of no great delicacy. 
For this reason they have become exceedingly sly, and have 


learnt how to hide themselves so cunningly in the thick tops of 
the highest forest trees, that they can with difiSculty be shot. 
They have been almost universally driven out of the inhabited 
districts. Their nests are made in the hollows of gigantic old 
trees, and are occupied yearly by the same couples. They lay 
but two eggs, which are hatched by the hen only. 

The majority of those imported are young ones, taken from 
the nest by the Indians, reared by hand, and brought to the 
seaports ; consequently, nearly all the macaws which come into 
the market are fully, or at least half, tame. 

In captivity they are, as stated before, exceedingly healthy 
and hardy, and, at the same time, good-tempered and affec- 
tionate ; but, on the other hand, a macaw, when vicious, is 
extremely dangerous. An account of these birds, by the best 
connoisseur in this subdivision of parrots — Mr. Fiedler, university 
bookseller in Agram — will be found interesting. He has kept a 
variety of species for many years, and declares emphatically that 
it is a mistake to suppose that macaws are not suited for keeping 
in a room. ''On the contrary," he says, ''I can assert with 
confidence that none of them are screamers, and may, in truth, 
be kept in the room even of a nervous lady. Of course, one 
must not buy the first macaw that comes to hand, but one 
which is still young, and which is capable of receiving affec- 
tionate treatment and training. Such a bird will not only 
become uncommonly tame, allow itself to be caught and petted 
by a child, and fly into the open air and come back at call, 
but will never once screech." In contrast to this account, 
however, a macaw in the Zoological Gardens, where it is some- 
times wrongly treated by the attendants and very frequently 
teased by the public, may become an incorrigible screamer and 
a really vicious bird. 

The macaws learn to say many words, often whole sentences, 
with a loud, powerful, but usually an indistinct utterance. 
In capacity for speech they are, on the whole, a long way 
behind the Grey Parrots and Amazons, as well as the Alex- 
andrine Parrakeet, which is more nearly related to them ; 
although otherwise they are indeed very intelligent birds. The 
smaller species, again, are greatly surpassed by the larger in 
both respects. 

The macaws are fed similarly to the Amazons and Grey 
Parrots. The larger species are mostly kept singly, fastened by 
a chain to a stand, and the smaller species in couples in 


breeding cages. Nearly all tlie known species are imported 
alive. With, suitable treatment, the macaws, especially tbe 
intermediate and larger ones, attain, even in captivity, an 
astonishingly great age. 


Psittacus hyacinthinus, Lth. 

Hyacitithiiie Macaw {Ger., Grosser hlauer Arara, Hyazinth-Arara, 
oder Jn/azinthhUmer Arara; Fr., Ara hyacinthine, Ara Maxi- 
milien; Dut., Maximilians Ara) — Description — Habitat — 
This magnificent bird, with its powerful beak, can neither 
escape notice nor be mistaken for another ; it is well suited 
for zoological gardens. . Its whole body is dark cobalt blue, 
lighter on tlie head and throat, but darker on the crown of 
the head, back of the neck, wings, and tail ; the quills 
have a blackish edge on the inner web, and are of shining 
black on the reverse side ; the larger under coverts of the 
wings black ; the tail feathers black on the reverse side ; the 
beak black ; eyes blackish-brown ; the lores feathered ; the 
eye cere and the bare skin round the under mandible orange 
yellow ; the feet blackish-brown ; claws black. Its size is about 
that of a domestic cock, but longer in appearance (length, 
about 39fin. ; wings, 14:fin. ; longest tail feathers, ISin. to 

It is a native of Central Brazil as far north as the Amazon 
Eiver. It was described by Latham in 1790, and Azara also 
treated of it. Even in its native country it is rather rare, being 
found only in pairs or families. Until lately it was very scarce in 
Europe. In the Zoological Gardens in London it first appeared 
in 1867. The principal zoological collections have by degrees 
obtained specimens, and two may be found in the Berlin 
Garden. Miss Hagenbeck has occasionally exhibited one of 
these splendid birds. Dr. Finsch says he has heard one mur- 
muring words of some foreign language in a deep bass voice. 


(Pslttacus hyaciuth in us. ) 



Psittacus Hiilitaris, L. 

Green Macaiv (Ger., Soldatenarara, rothstirniger Arara, grosser 
griiner Arara, audi militdrischer Arara; Fr., Ara militaire ; 
Dut., Groene Itoodvoorhoofd Aixt) — Description — Habitat — 
Talking Capacity — Domestic Character. 

The popular name, which is also contained in the Latin appella- 
tion given by Linne, is probably due to the peculiar purplish- 
brown stripes on the cheeks of this bird, bearing some resem- 
blance to a pointed moustache, as well as to its brilliant plumage. 
It is said to have been mentioned by Garcilasso de la Vega as 
early as 1609, and was well described and drawn by Edwards 
in 1747. 

It is scarlet on the forehead and front of the head ; the top 
and back of the head are grass-green ; the shoulders of pale 
yellowish olive-green ; the hinder part of the back, the rump, 
and the upper coverts of the tail sky-blue ; the quills dark 
blue, olive green on the inner web, and on the reverse side 
wholly olive-greenish yellow ; the coverts of the primaries and 
secondaries and the bend of the wing dark blue ; the small 
under coverts of the wing green, the largest olive-greenish yellow ; 
the tail copper-brown, the inner webs edged with olive-yellow, 
about one third towards the tip blue ; the two outermost 
feathers quite blue, and the reverse side of all tail-feathers 
olive-greenish yellow ; all the rest of the body above and below 
olive-green ; the under coverts of the tail blue ; the beak black ; 
eyes greyish-yellow ; the bare cheeks are flesh-coloured, with 
four narrow stripes of purple-brown feathers, which unite to one 
spot at the under mandible. Medium size, much smaller than 
the dark blue Arara (length, 24|-in. to oOjin. ; wings, 13|in. 
to 16|in. ; tail, 12|in. to 16in.). 

It is a native of Bolivia as far as the north of Mexico, prin- 
cipally in Columbia, Peru, Ecuador, Panama, and Central 
America. It is found in the low-lying hot plains, as well as 
in the Andes to an elevation of nearly 12,000ft., and some- 
times also in the West Indies and Jamaica, when on its 

Buffon gives no further particulars of it^ but Bechstein saw it, 


with F. Thieme, the dealer, in Waltersliausen, and describes it 
as unusually teachable and talkative : " It at once learnt to 
repeat everything, called all the children in the house by name, 
was patient, obedient, lively, and distinguished greatly above 
the Blue and Eed Macaws. It is also more expensive than they, 
and is considered a greater rarity." It is sometimes seen in the 
bird shops and at shows ; the principal zoological gardens have 
it, and there it proves very hardy, for in Frankfort-on-the-Maine 
a Military Macaw has lived for nearly fifteen 3^ears. One sits 
unchained on a stand in the Gardens at Hamburg, and never 
attempts to fly away. The Military Macaw appears in extra- 
ordinarily varied sizes in the shops of the wholesale dealers, and 
hence it has occurred to men of science to divide it into two 
varieties. This, however, is of no importance to the amateur, 
for he can buy a large or small Military Macaw according to his 


Psittacus macao, L. 

Red and Bine Macaw (Ger., Arakanga, lidlhrother Arara, schar- 
lachrother Arara, grosser gelhflugeliger Arara, Mahao ; Fr., Ara 
rouge, Ara Macao ; Dut., Groote Geelvleugel Ara) — Anciently 
known — Destructiveness — Description — Domestic Character. 

This species was described by Gessner in 1557, and by Aldro- 
vandi in 1599, and is amongst the best known, both with regard 
to its habits in freedom and its life in captivity. Alexander 
von Humboldt, Schomburgk, and Arthur Schott may be named 
among travellers who have observed it. According to them all the 
general facts descriptive of the life of the macaw in freedom apply 
especially to this species. The settlers shoot these macaws with- 
out mercy, on account of the damage they do to the maize and 
other crops ; the natives pursue them unceasingly for the sake 
of their brilliant plumage, but their flesh is of little value. A 
tree in which the nest is built passes among the Indians as an 
inheritance from father to son, and is inhabited by the birds 
annually, though the nest is always robbed. The macaws 
imported belong, almost without exception, to these young 


hand-reared birds, and are, consequently, tame when they 
arrive, and capable of further training. 

The Eed and Blue Macaw is scarlet on the top and sides of 
the head ; the hinder part of the back, the rump, and the 
upper coverts of the tail, are sky-blue ; the quills and their 
coverts blue, blackish on the inner web ; the larger upper 
coverts of the wings, together with the long shoulder feathers, 
are orange-yellow, with a green spot at the tip ; the bend of 
the wing blue ; all the upper part of the body scarlet ; the 
tail feathers sky-blue at the tip, the two outermost all blue ; 
then this colour gradually decreases, so that on the two centre 
feathers it only appears as a little spot ; all the reverse side 
is also scarlet, only the under covert of the tail is blue ; the 
upper mandible is horn-coloured greyish-white, with a black 
spot at the base ; the under mandible black ; the eyes yellow- 
ish-white ; the featherless cheeks whitish-flesh coloured ; the 
feet blackish-grey, with black claws. In size it is almost as 
large as a domestic cock (length, 39|-in. ; wings, 14|in. to 
16iin. ; tail, lO^in. to 24fin.). It is a native of northerly 
South America, Bolivia, North Brazil, Guatemala, and Hon- 
duras, and is found also in Mexico and Peru. 

Bechstein gives full details of its life in captivity, but states 
only those facts which I have already mentioned in my intro- 
duction. This macaw is splendid to look at, can be accustomed 
to fly in and out of the house, is said to be very amenable to 
training, and learns to repeat words exceedingly well ; neverthe- 
less, it not unfrequently proves very vicious, so that children 
should on no account be left in the room alone with it. More 
recent observation of it has disclosed nothing new. The Eed 
and Blue Macaw is one of the commonest objects in zoological 
gardens. According to Dr. Max Schmidt, one in the Garden at 
Frankfort-on-the-Maine lived more than twenty years. It is to 
be found in almost every bird show. A Eed and Blue Macaw, 
shown by one Mr. Czarnikow in the Ornis Exhibition in Berlin 
in 1879, was in splendid plumage, uncommonly tame and affec- 
tionate, and was said to know more than one hundred words. 



Psittaeu3 chloropterus, Gr. 

Green-ii'inged Macaw (Ger., Grosser grunjiiigeliger Arara, 
dunJcelrother Arara, Grunfliig el- Arara ; Fr., Ara chloroptere, 
Ara aux ailes verts; Dut., Groote Groenvleugel Ara) — De- 
scription — Habitat — Longevity. 

This species is distinguished from tlie preceding only by the 
plumage being, on the whole, of a much darker red, and by its 
being green, not yellow, on the shoulders and upper coverts of 
the wing. It was first described by Gessner, then in 1760 by 
Brisson, and named by Gray in 1859. It is dark scarlet on 
the head, and on all the rest of the upper part of the body, 
each feather on the back of the neck and the fore part of the 
back being edged with green ; the middle and lower part of the 
back, as well as the upper coverts of the tail, are sky-blue ; 
the primaries dark blue, the inner web black, the reverse 
side purplish-red, the coverts dull blue ; the coverts of the 
shoulders and wings a dull olive-green ; the small coverts under 
the wing red, with a broad green edge ; the broad tip of the 
tail, and both the outermost feathers, dark blue ; all the lower 
part of the body a dark scarlet ; the under coverts of the tail 
sky-blue ; the upper mandible whitish horn-grey, with a black 
spot at the base ; the lower mandible black ; the featherless 
cheeks white ; the eyes yellow, or yellowish pearl-grey ; the 
feet are blackish-brown, with black claws. In size it is some- 
what less than the preceding (length, 30Jin. to 32Jin. ; wings, 
15fin. to 16-}in.; tail, 12|in. to 18|in.). 

It is found in the district extending from South Brazil, the 
Amazon river, and Guiana, as far as Panama and Uruguay. It 
is common in the trade and in zoological gardens, and can be 
kept in excellent condition for more than ten years ; but, of 
course, for a much longer period when receiving suitable treat- 
ment from a connoisseur. 


Psittacus ararauna, L. 
Blue and Buff Macaw (Ger., Blauer gelbhriistiger Arara, 
Gemeiner hlauer Arara, Ararauna, grosser gelh und hlauer 
Arara; Fr., Ara bleu, Ararauna; Dut., Blauwgeele Ara) 
— Description — Habitat — Domestic Character. 

The common Blue Macaw, as it is usually called in the trade, 
was described as early as 1558 by Thevet, and afterwards by 
Gessner and Aldrovandi. These authors also give details of 
its life in captivity, its food, and other peculiarities, which 
correspond with what we know of it now, though, of course, in 
accounts of the kind many fictions have crept in. Later writers, 
including Buffon, have also treated of it at length. 

It is olive-green on the forehead, and front of the head as far 
as above the eyes ; the top and back of the head is greenish- 
blue ; the cheeks and the region round the ear of a deep orange- 
yellow ; the stripe on the cheeks, and the upper part of the 
throat, black ; the quills and tail feathers are olive-yellow on 
the inner web, with black edges ; all the rest of the upper part 
of the body blue ; all the under part a deep orange-yellow ; the 
wings and tail are olive-yellow on the reverse side, and the 
under coverts of the tail blue ; the beak black ; the cere, the 
stripe near the beak, the lores, and the eye cere, flesh-coloured, 
usually powdered ; below the eye there are three lines of 
small black feathers, three similar lines in front of the eye, 
the former horizontal, the latter perpendicular; the eyes 
greenish-white, or greenish pearl-grey ; the feet brownish- 
black ; claws black. In size it is nearly as large as a domestic 
cock (length, o7-^in. ; wings, 14|in. to 15|in. ; tail, 19jin. 
to 21^in.). 

It is a native of South America from Honduras to Peru, and 
is also found in Bolivia and Uruguay. Of late, it has been 
largely imported ; it is common in the bird market, and is 
usually seen in zoological gardens. 

According to Dr. Schmidt and some others, it is very hardy. 
Linden states that a Blue and Yellow Macaw of his shows great 
intelligence, is very cunning, and has learnt to say many things, 
but particularly distinguishes itself by its capability of learning 
quickly. The dealers esteem it as the best speaker among the 



Psittacus severus, L. 

Green Macaw (Ger., Anahan, Rothhug-Arara, Zwergarara, 
Arara mit rothem Handgelenk ; Fr., Ara vert, Ara a front 
chatain ; Dut., Roodhaiid Ara) — DescriiJtion — Life in Cap- 
tivity — Imitative Powers. 

The Green Macaw, as it is usually called in the trade, was 
described by Markgraf in 1648, and afterwards by Brisson ; it 
was named by Linne. It is coloured in the following manner : 
The narrow band on the forehead, the stripe on the cheeks, and 
the stripe on the upper part of the throat near the lower 
mandible, are reddish-brown ; the head and back of the neck 
dark grass-green, each feather having a broad blue edge ; the 
quills a dull blue ; the inner web and tips blackish ; the 
secondaries edged with green, all copper-red on the reverse 
side ; the greater coverts dull blue ; the coverts along the 
bastard wing form a broad scarlet border ; the tail feathers 
reddish-brown, about one-third from the tip, dull blue, and 
coppery-red on the reverse side ; all the rest of the upper 
part of the body dark grass-green ; all the lower part of the 
body dull green ; the beak black, with a lighter horn-grey 
point ; the cere and featherless cheeks a yellowish flesh-colour, 
set in front of and below the eye, and as far as the ear, with 
rows of little black feathers ; the eyes yellowish-white, inclining 
to yellow ; feet blackish-brown ; claws black. In very old 
birds the edges of the wings, and the small and central under 
•coverts, are scarlet ; the greater coverts coppery-red ; and there 
are some red feathers about the thigh. In size, it is some- 
what larger than a pigeon (length, 20-^in. ; wings, 8fin. to 
lO^in. ; tail, 8 Jin. to 9fin.). 

This macaw is a native of a large district of southerly Brazil, 
and extends as far as Panama ; it has also been shot at the upper 
course of the Amazon. 

Buffon wrote much of its life in captivity. He praised the 
Small Macaw, not only as a beautiful and rare bird, but also on 
account of its gentle and endearing ways ; it is able to imitate 
the human voice, as well as the cries and whistling of other 
birds, but learns the former more easily, and does it more 


clearly than the large macaws. It listens to other speaking 
birds, and learns from them. Its voice, however, is not so 
strong, and it is said not to be able to pronounce the word 
" Macaw " as clearly as the larger species. It is common in the 
trade, and is frequently seen at exhibitions, though usually 
singly ; it is seldom found with amateurs, but often appears in 
zoological gardens. 


Psittacus maracana, VU. 

Illigers Arara (Ger., Rothrilckiger Arara, Rothstirniger Arara, 
Marakana ; Fr., Ara a joues rouges, Ara d'Jlliger ; Dut., 
Illigers A ra) — Rarity — Description. 

Illiger's Macaw was described and named by Vieillot in 1816 ; 
yet, though nearly as common in the trade as the preceding 
species, we have, to the present time, no details of its life 
in freedom, nor of its habits in captivity. It is of a dull 
vermilion on the forehead and hinder part of the back ; the 
crown of the head is a dull greenish-blue ; the rump and upper 
coverts of the tail yellowish- green ; the quills sky-blue, the 
inner webs being brownish-yellow; the reverse side of the quills 
and the large under coverts of the wings a dull olive-yellow ; 
the tail feathers are brownish-red at the basal half, the tip half 
greenish-blue ; the reverse side a dull olive-yellow ; all the rest 
of the upper part of the body olive, inclining to grass-green ; all 
the under part of the body the same ; the middle of the belly 
and the hinder part of the body a dull vermilion ; the beak 
blackish-brown ; the upper mandible lighter, greyish at the 
base and point ; the unfeathered cheeks reddish, inclining to 
sulphur-yellow, set with rows of little, black, bristly feathers ; 
the eyes orange, with a greyish-brown ring round the iris ; the 
feet a reddish-brown flesh-colour ; claws black. It is about the 
size of a pigeon (length, 16|in. ; wings, 7fin. to 8g-in. ; tail, 
7:^in. to 7f in.). It is a native of South Brazil, and is found near 
the mouths of the rivers. 

Like the preceding, this species is to be seen occasionally in 
zoological gardens and at exhibitions. Dr. Schmidt writes of 

o 2 


one which lived fifteen years in the Zoological Garden at Frank- 
fort. Dr. Frenzel, of Freiburg, had a couple which bred, but 
they, unfortunately, did not succeed in rearing the young. This 
bird is, on the whole, as great a favourite as the Small Macaw. 


Psittacus nobilia, L. 

Noble Parrot (Ger., Kleiner grimer Arara, Blaustirniger Arara, 
Blaustirn-Arara ; Fr., Ara noble, Petit Ara vert, Ara 
pavouane ; Dut,, Blauwneus Aixi) — Description — Cleverness 
as a Speaker. 

This species is the best known and greatest favourite among 
the small macaws. It is marine blue on the forehead and 
on the upper edge of the eye ; all the rest of the upper 
part of the body is dark grass-green ; the inner webs of 
the quills are of a dull olive-green, the reverse side of the 
quills olive-green ; the covert feathers on the bend of the wing, 
along the under part of the wing, and on the bastard wing, 
as well as the small under coverts of the wing, scarlet ; the 
largest under coverts of the wing olive greenish-yellow ; the 
reverse side of the tail also olive greenish-yellow ; all the 
under part of the body dull grass-green ; the upper mandible 
horn greyish-white ; the under beak horn brownish-black, 
with lighter tip ; the featherless cheeks white, without the 
row of small feathers ; eyes orange-yellow ; feet dark grey ; 
claws blackish-brown. In size it is nearly as large as a 
pigeon (length, 13^in. ; wings, 6fin. to 7in. ; tail, Og^in. to 6|in. 
It is a native of Central Brazil. 

The Noble Macaw was first described and made known by 
Linne in 1764. The Prince von Wied informs us that, although 
it is rather shy, and nowhere very common, yet he had seen it 
in small flocks on a cocoanut palm in the middle of a village, 
and had heard its loud cry in flight. Burmeister says it re- 
sembles its congeners in every respect. Though extremely rare 
in the trade and at exhibitions, it may usually be seen in zoo- 
logical gardens. Mrs. H. von Proschek, of Vienna, who is a 
great admirer of these birds, informs us that a couple in her 


possession are unsurpassed in tameness and affection, and that 
the male might compete with the best Grey Parrot in talent for 
speech. " It sings, laughs, knocks, and when I call, * Come in!' 
asks, * Where is the mistress ? ' &c. In all, it has learnt about 
fifty words, and it is astonishing how correctly it can apply them. 
It plays with an Amazon Parrot after the manner of two puppies 
tumbling each other about." This couple was in the possession 
of Mrs. von Proschek for years, and made several attempts at 
breeding, but unfortunately always without success. 


Palseornis, Vgrs. 

Distinguished for Form and Colour, for Talent in Speech, and 
for Breeding in Captivity — Description — Habitat — Varieties 
— Hardiness. 

The Palseornithinse, or, as they are called in Germany, the Noble 
Parrakeets, have become in several respects of great value to the 
amateur ; indeed, they have been admired and highly esteemed 
from the most ancient times, on account of their special pecu- 
liarities. Their superiority lies in their pleasing form and 
beautiful colours, as well as in their eminent talent for speech, 
and intelligence in general ; and, at the same time, in their 
unusually great aptitude for being tamed and trained ; and to 
these qualities may be added the advantage that many species 
of the genus breed more freely in the aviary than any others. 

While the Macaws, which belong also to the Long-tailed 
Parrots already described, cannot be classed exactly among true 
cage birds, the Palseornithinse form, in the group of parrakeets 
proper — of which we are about to treat — the most prominent 
and, strictly speaking, the only family among whose members 
we meet with very talented talkers. They may, therefore, pro- 
perly take precedence of the other species of parrakeets, which, 
indeed, are far behind them in this respect. 

The following may be regarded as their chief distinguishing 
marks : The beak powerful, as long as, or longer than, it is deep ; 
the basal half of the upper mandible set angularly, with a 


shallow longitudinal furrow ; sides only slightly compressed, the 
point bent sharply downwards and overhanging, with a small 
indentation ; the lower mandible with broad rounded socket edge ; 
the tongue thick, fleshy, with broad, blunt point ; the nostrils 
small, uncovered, in a narrow cere ; eyes large and round, with a 
power of dilating or contracting the pupil to an extraordinar}'' 
extent with every varying sensation ; the lores and region round 
the eye feathered ; the wings long and pointed ; flights obtusely 
rounded at the end, rarely quite pointed ; the tail graduated, in 
the shape of a wedge, the two centre feathers usually much 
longer than the rest ; the feet short and stout ; the plumage 
rather hard, without powdery down ; body strong, yet slim. 
Size, varying from that of a thrush to a pigeon. Flight exceed- 
ingly skilful and rapid, with quick strokes of the wing, hovering 
when about to descend ; a waddling gait, yet not so inelegant as 
that of its congeners. They climb rapidly and gracefully. 

They extend over a wide region, and are natives of Africa and 
Asia ; one species being found even in both hemispheres, whereas 
most of the others inhabit only a small circuit. Comparatively 
few observations have been made as to their life in freedom ; 
and here I have pleasure in drawing attention to the fact that 
the process of breeding has been carried on in captivity, and 
has given opportunities for studying the development of several 
species. The Noble Parrakeets are said to live almost without 
exception gregariously, different varieties, however, never being 

As regards nesting, they resemble the other parrots, in- 
asmuch as they build their nests in the hollows of trees, but 
some species use also holes in rocks or walls. The brood 
is said to consist of two eggs, and each couple produces 
several broods consecutively. They chiefly inhabit the plains 
along the rivers, where thick forests grow, but are also found 
in more open plains or hilly neighbourhoods, and several 
species are reported to have been met with in the mountains 
at a height of 11,000ft. Their food consists of all kinds of 
seeds and fruits. After the breeding season they assemble 
in greater or lesser numbers, and in their search for food 
attack the crops of rice and maize. On this account an exter- 
minating war is waged against them, and they therefore dis- 
play great craftiness and caution. They hide themselves most 
cunningly, aided by their green plumage, in the dense tops of 
the highest trees, remaining perfectly motionless till one after 


another flies secretly away. In countries where they are not 
pursued, as in India, they are, however, so bold that they build 
their nests in trees standing in the open spaces in thickly popu- 
lated towns, or in the holes of lofty buildings. 

Travellers tell us that in their native lands many varieties may 
be seen half tame in the villages, where they not only build as 
mentioned above, but also are fed with the domestic fowl. These 
parrakeets are great favourites among the natives, and are often 
seen with them, in cages or chained to rings. Many species are 
taken from the nest and reared by hand in great numbers, but 
the majority of those imported are certainly birds which have 
been captured by means of large nets at drinking places and the 
like. These latter are also easily tamed and trained ; and of those 
which come to us, not only do the young birds, taken from the 
nest and brought up by hand, but even those caught when old, 
become in a comparatively short time tame and affectionate, and 
prove themselves possessed of an aptitude for being trained. 

Among the various species of the Noble Parrakeets the capacity 
for speech differs in an extraordinary degree, even in individual 
birds of one and the same species ; yet, as in the case of the great 
Short-tailed Parrots, it is to be remarked that by far the greater 
number have proved themselves good speakers, and but few are 
incapable of good training. 

The above remarks especially concern one group, the so-called 
Alexandrine Parrakeets ; the charming, easily bred Blossom- 
headed or Eose-headed Parrakeets {Psiitacus FalceoTnis cyano- 
cephalus, L., and P. rosicejos, Essseu,, P. rosa, Bdd.), the pecu- 
liar and beautifully-coloured Malabar Parrakeet {P. jjei'isterodes, 
Fnsch.), &c., have not as yet proved themselves gifted with 
speech. Of course, I must exclude those which do not speak, 
and confine myself to the description of the Alexandrine Parra- 

They are healthy, hardy birds, which may be easily kept for 
years in a cage with simple management, being fed only with 
seeds — such as hemp, oats, canary-seed, and maize — with the 
addition of good fruit, and some biscuit and egg-bread. To this 
simplicity of treatment is joined the above-mentioned quality of 
special interest to readers of this work — namely, that they are 
among the best speakers ; and some species come near, or even 
excel, the Amazons and Grey Parrot, besides which they are 
exceedingly tame, amiable and gentle. They may, on the other 
hand, be reckoned among the worst screamers, and sometimes 


cannot be quieted by any means ; moreover, they are incorrigibly 
destructive to wood, completely wrecking every part of the cage 
or stand which is not of metal ; and they bully other birds most 
inexcusably. If handled carelessly, again, they may prove very 
vicious biters, and no bird becomes more obstinate, wicked, 
and spiteful than an Alexandrine Parrakeet, if treated igno- 
rantly or improperly. 

Some of the varieties described belong to the more common 
species in the trade ; others, on the contrary, are very rare. As 
birds are frequently imported which are not perfectly coloured, 
and as the amateur may purchase one which has been bred in 
this country, I may remark that all these parrakeets get their 
fully coloured plumage very late, seldom before they are two 
years old. 


Psittacus torquatus, Bdd. 

Ring-neched Parrakeet, Rose-ringed Parrakeet (Ger., Halshand- 
Edelsittichf Kleiner Alexandersittich, Alexanderpapagei, Hals- 
handsittich ; Fr., Per ruche d collier rose, Perruche Alexandre 
a collier de V hide, Perruche Alexandre a collier da Senegal; 
Dut., Kleene Alexanderparkiet of Halshand Edelparkiet) — 
Familiar to the Ancients — Its Beautu — Talent for Speech — 
Description — Habitat — Selection in Purchase. 

Wherever in ancient literature a parrot may be spoken of, 
this is always the species meant. Writers, from Pliny down 
to Aldrovandi and Gessner, give descriptions and drawings 
of it. Many errors concerning it have, however, crept in. 
It was said, among other things, to be a native of America, 
and was described as consisting of many varieties. We have 
records of its importation to Europe in the time of Alexander 
the Great. Buffon, Bechstein, and others, have written of its 
habits in captivity. 

Thus, from ancient times even to our own day, it has been 
admired and esteemed, not only for its capacity for speech, but 
also for its beauty. More recently, as a cage bird, we have dis- 
covered a special attraction in it, namely, its capacity for 


breeding. For this reason its natural development has been 
more closely observed than had ever been done before, notwith- 
standing the wide range of its habitat, its frequent appearance 
among us, and its familiarity as one of the best and most 
anciently known birds. 

The adult male of the Eing-necked Alexandrine Parrakeet is 
grass-green on the forehead, crown, and sides of the head ; the 
narrow lores black ; the back of the neck and head is a 
delicate mauve; round the hinder part of the neck there is a 
broad rose-coloured band, and on the throat a light yellow 
band ; the spot on the chin is black, and from it, along the 
sides of the head, runs a black stripe which grows narrower 
towards the back of the head ; the back is a yellowish olive- 
green ; the hinder part of the back, and the upper coverts of the 
tail, grass-green ; the quills dark grass-green, the outer webs 
having a narrow light yellow edge, the reverse side ashen-grey ; 
the two central feathers of the tail bluish-green ; the remainder 
yellowish-green, the inner web dull yellow, all on the reverse 
side dull yellow ; all the rest of the under part of the body 
yellowish-green ; the beak blood-red (or the upper mandible 
red, the under mandible black; or the upper one a blackish 
purple-red, the under one black) ; the eyes light yellow, sur- 
rounded by a featherless red cere ; feet blackish-grey, with 
black claws. In the adult female : The crown and sides of the 
head are green, much darker than in the male, with a slightly 
noticeable yellowish shade ; only a narrow grey band on the 
neck (the rose-coloured band on the neck, and the black spot on 
the chin, are absent) ; all the upper part of the body is a faint, 
dull olive-green, not so bright as in the male ; the hinder part 
of the back is a dull light green ; the upper mandible red ; the 
under mandible blackish-grey ; eyes light yellow. The young 
male resembles the old female, but is a paler green ; it has 
neither the neck band nor the chin spot, and only gets these in 
the second year. It is about the size of a small domestic pigeon 
(length, 14^in. to 15|in,; wings, 4|in. to 6Jin. ; the longest 
feathers of the tail, 4 Jin. to lOin. ; the outer feathers of the 
tail, 2in. to SJin.). 

It is a native of Asia and Africa; in the former continent it 
extends from Bengal to Nepal, Cashmere, Tenasserim, and Upper 
Pegu, as well as over Ceylon ; in the latter, from Senegal 
to Abyssinia, to 16deg. north and 7deg. south, it is found to 
an elevation of 11,000ft. In South Africa it has colonised 


itself, Laving been introduced either purposely or by chance. 
The dealers distinguish between the birds from the different 
continents ; the adult fuU-plumaged birds from Asia having 
red, and those from Africa black, beaks. 

There can scarcely be any other parrot so frequently stolen 
from the nest, and reared by hand, as this ; and, therefore, it 
not only comes into the market very numerously, but most of 
the Eing-necked Parrakeets are already tame enough to perch 
on the finger. This is especially the case with the Indian birds, 
for most of those sent from Senegal or Ceylon are caught in 
nets in great numbers when old. 

The Ring-necked Parrakeet is, indeed, of great value as a 
cage bird, for whether taken from the nest when young, or 
caught when old, it soon becomes very tame, in the first case 
surprisingly soon. In some cases it learns at once to speak well. 
There is a case on record where a parrakeet of this species 
acquired a hundred words, and, indeed, whole speeches ; more 
over, it learnt to pronounce several languages, English, Ger- 
man, and French, clearly and distinctly, and at the same time 
exhibited extraordinary cleverness and intelligence. The dis- 
agreeable qualities of the Noble Parrakeets, mentioned on p. 199, 
are, however, always found, even in the most accomplished 
speakers. On the other hand, an advantage possessed by these 
birds is their great hardihood, for they have been successfully 
kept in the open air throughout the winter. 

Mr. Photograh Otto Wigand, of Zeitz, was the first to breed 
the Eing-necked Alexandrine Parrakeet, and to describe the 
plumage of the young birds and its change of colour. By the 
observation thus afforded all previously disputed points were fully 
cleared up. 

Whoever wishes to buy a Eing-necked Parrakeet should 
choose, if possible, a young and uniformly green bird ; it is 
immaterial whether it may afterwards develop the colours of 
an adult male or female. An old, wild bird, which screams at 
every approach, should be avoided. The food mentioned on 
p. 199 should be given. With regard to taming and training, 
attention should be pai^ to the remarks on p. 34, et seq. 



Psittacaa eques, Bdd. 

Mauritius Alexandrine ParraJceet (Ger., Halsband-Edelsittich 
von Mauritius, hreitschivdnziger Halshand-Edelsittich, Ritter- 
oder Reiter-Edelsittich ; Yr., Perruche Alexandre de VIsle de 
Maurice ; Dut., Mauritius Edelparkiet) — Description — Rarity 
— Character in Captivity. 

This species is dark, without the greyish-green lustre ; 
a narrow band of blue on the neck ; on both sides of the throat 
there is a yellowish-vermilion spot ; the stripe on the chin 
black ; the narrow lores black ; the back and rump are nob 
bluish, but a bright dark green ; the large feathers on the 
shoulders, and the small coverts under the wing, are a bright 
yellow ; the tail feathers are dark green, without the blue lustre ; 
the inner web a dull yellow ; all the reverse side a dull orange- 
yellow ; the two central feathers of the tail are slightly pro- 
longed; all the under part of the body grass-green (the breast 
without the greyish-green) ; the upper mandible red ; the 
under mandible blackish-brown ; the eyes light yellow ; the 
eye cere orange-yellow ; the feet grey ; claws black. The 
female is similarly marked, but without the band on the throat 
and the lores lines ; when old, there is a black stripe on the 
lower cheek ; the beak is uniformly blackish-brown. In the 
plumage of the young bird all the under part of the body is of 
pale yellowish-green ; the upper mandible is reddish-brown at 
the base ; in other respects it resembles the female. The size 
is somewhat less than that of the species previously described 
(length, 15in. to 16in.; wings, 6|in. to 6|in. ; the longest 
feather of the tail, ojin. to 7|in. ; the outer feathers, 2|-in. to 

It is a native of Mauritius, Although very similar to the 
preceding species, and chiefly distinguishable by its colour, yet it 
has been positively asserted by Dr. Finsch and others to be a 
special variety, and as such I must, of course, treat of it. It 
was scientifically named by Boddaert, in 1783, and later on 
described and drawn by Brisson and Buffon. 

The brothers Newton, who are travelled observers, have made 
a few remarks concerning its life in freedom. According to 
them, it resembles its congeners, of which mention has previously 


been made. It appears but very rarely in the market, and is 
tben, perhaps, frequently confused with others. A Noble 
Parrakeet of this species which was in my possession became 
extremely tame and affectionate, and learnt to speak well. 


Psittacus eupatrius, L. 

Alexander Parrakeet (Ger., Rothschulteriger Edelsittich mit rosen^ 
rothem Halshand, G?'osser Alexander sittich, bios Alexander- 
sittich, rothschulteriger Edelsittich, Hochedelsittich ; Fr., 
Grande Per ruche Alexandre, Grande Perruche d' Alexandre; 
Dut., Groote Alexander-Parkiet) — DescrijHion — Habitat — 
Character in Captivity. 

Although not so common in the market as the preceding species, 
and though very rarely imported until lately, this parrakeet is 
nevertheless universally known, and appears to be essentially a 
larger copy of the other. It was first described and delineated 
by Edwards (1747-1764), and scientifically named by Linne. 

The adult male is grass-green, the hinder part of the neck 
and the upper part of the breast having a faint greyish-green 
shade; on the back of the neck there is a broad rose-coloured 
band, this unites at both sides of the neck with a black band, 
which begins at the base of the under mandible and covers the 
upper part of the throat ; the back is pure green ; the smallest 
covert feathers under the wing form a large brownish cherry- 
coloured spot ; the tail feathers are bluish on the basal half, dark 
olive greenish-yellow on the reverse side ; beak dark purpiish- 
red ; eyes yellowish-white ; feet flesh-colour ; claws blackish. The 
female has no red on the neck, and no black band on the upper 
part of the throat ; yet it has the red spot under the wing ; the 
beak is red. As to the plumage of the young bird (that is, in 
the state in which they come into the market), the upper 
part of the body is more a greyish olive-green ; the under 
part yellowish-green ; there is no trace of the band on the neck 
and throat, nor of the spot on the shoulder ; the eyes are 
yellowish-white. It is fully the size of a pigeon (length, 15|in. 


to I7fin. ; wings, 7in. to 8Jin. ; longest feather of the tail, Sin. 
to 12;iin. ; outer feathers of the tail, 2 Jin. to 3^in.). 

It is found throughout East India and in Ceylon, and is said 
to be especially numerous on the Indian Peninsula. 

In Ceylon the young are frequently taken from the nest, 
brought up by hand, and trained. This species is esteemed 
there, as among us, as affording one of the most accomplished 
speakers and, in all respects, cleverest parrots. Several 
admirers and connoisseurs have lately described its habits in 
captivity, especially Mr. E. Lieb, of Palmyra, in South Russia, 
and Dr. Steinhausen, of Strasburg, The former speaks of this 
parrakeet as exceedingly clever and intelligent, but remarks that 
its cry is unbearable, even the shrill voice of the Amazon Parrots 
being trifling in comparison. Dr. Steinhausen adds, however, 
that it is terrible to the ears of its keeper only when it feels 
wearied, dull, and uncomfortable, or wishes for something which 
is temptingly held out to it, or if it is annoyed at the appearance 
of a stranger. *' At other times it is extremely affectionate, 
takes its food from one's mouth, gives kisses, and chatters almost 
the whole day — talking, although without great variety, but 
with exceeding clearness and with a pleasing voice ; the feeling 
tone which it gives, for example, to the word * Girawa ' — its name 
— being specially noticeable. The similarity of its voice to that 
of a human being, its capability of expressing tenderness, and of 
varying the tone, is astonishing, and the infinite longing ex- 
pressed in it is often most touching. We must also mention in 
its praise that it always keeps its plumage clean and smooth. If 
a walnut (a fruit of which it is very fond) be given to it, it 
makes a peculiar use of the empty shell. It will not then drink 
in any but the following fashion : It holds the shell with its 
beak, and fills it carefully with water, and then returning to its 
feeding place, sips this." Several attempts have been made to 
breed this species, but, up to the present, without success. It 
commends itself as a general favourite by reason of its beauty, 
tameness, and gentleness ; and, if treated properly, it will become 
so in a much greater degree than is now the case. 

I have to caution the amateur not to disregard the remarks on 
training made on page 34, nor to buy without consideration such 
an arch-screamer as is described above. Otherwise, he must not 
reckon on being rewarded for the trouble he may take with the 



Psittacus Alexandri, L. 

Javan Parrakeet, Jew Parraheet (Ger., Rothschndheliger Edel- 
sittich mit rother Brust, Rosenhrilstiger Alexander sittich von 
Java, bios Alexandersittich von Java, javanischer Edelsittich, 
bios Alexandersittich (/), Rosenbrustsittich ; Fr., Perruche 
Alexandre de Java, Perruche a poifrine rose; Dut., Java 
Alexander Parkiet) — Description — Rareb/ Imported Alive — 
Interesting as a Cage Bird, 

Three species of these parrots very closely resemble each other, 
and therefore have received the common name of Rose-breasted 
Alexandrine Parrakeets. Until lately they were, in Europe, 
regarded as of little importance to the amateur. They 
were reported to have little intelligence, and not to be good- 
tempered ; but later keepers and connoisseurs have given a very 
favourable account of them. 

The Javan Alexandrine Parrakeet has a black band on 
the forehead, and black lores ; the top and sides of the 
head are greyish-green ; a broad black stripe appears on the 
chin and cheeks, and extends across the middle of the throat ; 
the nape and hinder part of the neck are grass-green ; the 
flights grey on the inner web, and ashen grey on the whole 
of the reverse side ; there is a large oblong spot of olive- 
yellow on the wing ; the tail is green, with a pale yellow tip ; 
the two central feathers blue, all on the reverse side a dull 
yellow ; all the rest of the upper part of the body is of an 
olive yellowish-green ; from the throat to the centre of the 
belly dull rose-colour ; the rest of the under part of the body 
yellowish-green; the beak red; the cere white; the eyes light 
yellow ; eye cere yellowish-grey ; the feet brownish-grey ; claws 
blackish. Size, somewhat less than that of the Ring-necked 
Alexandrine Parrakeet (length, l2Jin. to 13|in. ; wings, 5;^in. 
to 5|in. ; longest feather in the tail, A^m. to 5|^in. ; outermost 
feathers of the tail, 2in. to 2|in.). It is a native of Java, 
Borneo, and probably also of Sumatra and Malacca. 

This bird was one of those of which specimens were collected 
during Osbeck's journey in 1757, and was first described by 
Odhel in 1760, and named by Linne. It must therefore be 


accounted as the true Linne's Parrakeet, and most certainly is 
not the parrakeet which has been known in Europe from the 
time of Alexander and Caesar ; for this, as I remarked on 
page 200, was the bird now called the Ring-necked Alexandrine 

As this parrakeet, like all those previously described, is kept 
as a cage bird in its native country, and said to be a highly 
prized favourite, it is astonishing that it should be so rarely 
imported alive. Bechstein described it as " the most charming, 
teachable and talkative of parrots, and unusually tame, gentle 
and affectionate in its ways." Some years ago I had a Javan 
Alexandrine Parrakeet, but derived little pleasure from it, for it 
neither became tame nor proved itself teachable. Schlechtendal 
experienced the same thing; yet a second parrakeet of this 
species which he had proved very talented, learning to say 
things without any special teaching, and being exceedingly tame. 
The Baroness S. von Schlechta, of Vienna, seems to be the 
greatest admirer of the Javan Alexandrine Parrakeet. She has 
had five specimens, and speaks of them all as being exceedingly 
affectionate. Of one hen she says : " Not a note is disagreeable, 
or even harsh ; every one is clear and bright. It does not 
display towards me the least trace of viciousness or ill-temper, 
but allows itself to be caressed and fed from the mouth. It 
laid at short intervals as many as forty-two eggs, which were 
all, however, soft-shelled, and either eaten or destroyed by the 
bird itself. The other Javan Parrakeets also show great affec- 
tion for me, and are charmingly droll and intelligent. One of 
these birds says, with a clear voice, * Papagei !' then ' Anna. 
Papagei!' ' gei, gei !' and * ei, ei !' and then laughs loudly and 
clearly, so that I am obliged to join in its merriment. The 
male bird sings a clear short song, and nods its head right 
and left. Their tricks are very comical ; they make low 
bows, &c." 

"We thus find in this species, when treated properly and affec- 
tionately, a charming and interesting cage bird ; its talent for 
speech is, however, small in comparison with that developed by 
the species previously described. 



Psittacus Lathami, Fnsch. 

Cochin China Parraheet (Ger., Roih-und schwarzschndheliger 
Edelsittich mit rother Brust, Latham's rosenbrustiger Edel- 
sittich bios Latham's Edelsittich, Kochinchinasittich, Bartsittich, 
Schnurrbartsittich, Rosenringsittich (!) ; Fr., Perruche a bavette 
rose, Perruche de Pondicherrij, Perruche a moustaches ; Dut., 
Latham s Alexander Parhiet, Zwartkeel Edelparhiei) — Distinc- 
tive Marks — Habitat — Rarehj Imported — Hardiness. 

This species strongly resembles the preceding, and can only be 
distinguished from it by the following marks : The band on the 
forehead is broader ; the lores and the large spot on the 
chin black ; the whole of the upper part of the head and the 
cheeks light bluish-grey, the latter edged toward the back with 
a dull rose-colour ; the nape of the neck a brilliant grass-green ; 
a large olive-greenish yellow spot on the shoulder ; the wing 
coverts yellowish-green ; all the rest of the upper part of the 
body olive-yellowish green ; the throat and breast, as far as 
the beginning of the belly, pale rose-colour ; the rest of the 
under part of the body bluish yellow-green ; the upper mandible 
red ; the under mandible black ; the eyes bright yellow ; the 
feet blackish-grey ; the claws black. It is scarcely perceptibly 
larger in size than the preceding (length, lo^in. to 14^in. ; 
wings, 6|-in. to 6|in. ; the longest feathers in the tail, 6;lin. to 
6jin. ; the outer feathers of the tail, 5|-in. to 5;Jin.). 

It is found throughout the whole of India as far as Penang, 
and is also said to be met with in Cochin China. In the lower 
provinces of Bengal, flocks of these birds occasion great damage 
to the crops, especially in the rice fields. The young birds 
which are taken from the nest and brought up by hand are, like 
the Javan Alexandrine Parrakeet, greatly prized in their native 
country as cage birds. They, however, come but seldom to us. 
Several attempts made at breeding have proved unsuccessful. 
This species is found very hardy in zoological gardens, and it 
may be inferred that others would be equally so. 



Paittacus melanorrhynchus, Wgl. 

The Blach-hilled Alexandrine Parrakeet (Ger., Schwarz- 
schndbelifier Edelsittich mit votliev Brust, Schwarzschnabel- 
sittich; Fr., Perruche Alexandre a hec noir ; Dat., Zwartbek 
Edelparlciet, Smous-of Baardparlcief) — Distinctive Marks. 

By Blyth and Jerdon this species was considered to be the 
female, or young, of the one just described ; but after it had 
been described by Wagler, in 1832, from a living specimen in 
the possession of the King of Bavaria, it was determined by 
Finsch to be a distinct variety. Eraser also considered it to be 
a separate species (1850), and described it as such. It bears a 
strong resemblance to the two foregoing, and can be distin- 
guished only by the following marks : The narrow band on the 
forehead and the lorum stripe, as well as the broad stripe on the 
chin under the lower mandible, deep sooty-black; forehead 
greenish-blue ; crown of the head violet-blue ; stripe above and 
below the eye, extending each side as far as the nostril, yellowish- 
green ; the part behind the eye marked with violet undulatory 
lines ; the cheeks and the part round the ear blue ; a flesh- 
coloured stripe extends from the front of the throat round the 
cheeks as far as the middle of the back of the head ; the nape 
light yellowish-green ; spot on the shoulder small, oblong, 
dark olive-greenish yellow ; the reverse side of the tail a dull 
olive-greenish yellow ; the whole of the upper parts of the body 
green, the same colour as the two preceding species ; the beak a 
shining brownish-black ; the cere bluish-grey ; eyes pearl-white ; 
iris grey, with large black pupils ; feet bluish-grey ; claws bluish 
horn-grey. Size exactly the same as the Rose-breasted Alex- 
andrine Parrakeet. 

We have no knowledge as to the country it inhabits nor of 
its mode of life. Black-billed Alexandrine Parrakeets are fre- 
quently seen in the market and at bird shows. 

— "-T^^^l^^a^i^ft-a 



Psittacus Luziani, Vrrx. 

Luzians Parraheet (Ger., Prinz Luzians Edelsitticli, Bartsitiich, 
lAiziansittich ; Fr., Perruche de Liizian; Dut., Luzians 
Edelparkiet) — DescrijJtion — Habitat — Baritij. 

A GREEN Parrakeet with a blackish-green band on the forehead ; 
the crown and back of the head a reddish-grey-green ; the 
lores, and the spot on the chin, black ; the sides of the 
head vermilion ; the nape and back of the neck rose-coloured 
yellow ; the back pale green ; the quills darker green, a 
blackish-green on the reverse side ; the reverse side of the tail 
feathers greyish-yellow ; the throat grey ; the neck, and upper 
part of the breast, yellowish-green ; all the rest of the under 
parts of the body green ; the upper mandible vermilion, the 
lower black ; the eyes yellowish-white ; the feet black. In the 
female, or young bird, the plumage varies ; the sides of the head 
are dark red ; the crown of the head green ; the beak black ; 
otherwise similar. The male bird may be distinguished from 
the Javan Parrakeet by the absence of the yellow spot on the 
shoulder, and the red breast ; besides having a stouter beak and 
being much larger. 

According to Sclater, it is a native of China. It was described 
by Verreaux, in 1850, from a living specimen in the Zoological 
Garden at Amsterdam ; a second appeared in Van Aken's 
menagerie ; and a third in the London Zoological Gardens in 
1857. Since then this parrakeet has been seen aiow and then 
in the market, and the wholesale dealer, Henry Muller, of Ham- 
burg, had a beautiful male bird in full plumage, which was 
quite tame and spoke several phrases distinctly. Two specimens 
were sent to the Zoological Garden at Hamburg, in 1880, and 
the bird-dealer, Mr. Dieckmann, of Hamburg, offered a couple 
for £6 in 1882. Hence we may expect that these beautiful birds 
will sooner or later prove welcome additions to the European 
bird markets. 



Conurus, Khl. 

Distinguishing Marks — Habitat — Domestic Character. 

This group, whicli embraces the greatest number of species, 
may be distinguished by the following marks : A powerful beak, 
much bent, as deep as it is long, with a shallow groove on the 
lightly furrowed obtuse ridge, a distinct indentation, broad but 
slightly curved socket-edge, the lower mandible truncated at 
the anterior end, and with slightly curved cutting edges ; the 
tongue is thick, fleshy, and smooth ; eye cere naked ; the lores 
feathered ; the nostrils small, round, set in the narrow cere, 
which is rarely covered with feathers; pointed wings, longer 
than the tail ; the quills rounded off to a point at the end ; the 
tail is long, ending in the shape of a wedge, each feather 
decreasing in width symmetrically towards the end, and ter- 
minating in a rounded point ; the feet are powerful, with strong 
nails ; the plumage is usually hard, and the form compressed. 
It is about the size of a thrush or jackdaw. In all Conures the 
plumage of both sexes is alike. 

They have their home in South America, especially Brazil, i.e., 
they extend from Chili as far as South Mexico. Some are found 
exclusively in the West Indies, and only one species is a native 
of North America. The hot, damp lowlands along the Amazon 
River, which are densely covered with primeval forest, are their 
principal habitation. They live gregariously in more or less 
numerous flocks, consisting, even in fhe breeding season, of 
several species. The nest is built, as in the case of other 
parrots, in a hole in a tree, and one species builds in the holes 
of rocks. They are said to lay two or three eggs, but most 
species probably lay more. Being tree birds, the Conures fly 
very well and climb rapidly, though rather unskilfully, and on the 
ground walk awkwardly. Many, or probably all, species migrate 
from time to time, or wander as birds of passage. We may, 
without hesitation, assume their food to consist chiefly of seeds, 
and, in a lesser degree, of fruits and other vegetable substances. 
They cause immense damage to the crops, inasmuch as, like 
all parrots, they destroy far more than they consume. For this 
reason, and also because their flesh is savoury, they are hotly 

p 2 


pursued. The Indians take numbers of tlie young birds from 
the nests, in order to rear them for sale in the seaports. The 
old birds are caught in snares, or with bird-lime, and of late in 
flocks with large nets. 

Nearly all the Conures are easily tamed and prove exceedingly 
hardy in captivity. They are, therefore, seen more frequently, 
both as regards species and numbers, than most other parrots. 
Some may be reckoned among the commonest birds in the 
market, but many kinds, on the other hand, are rare and 
valuable. At first they seem, especially if old birds, to be 
shy, stupid, untameable, and far from agreeable, and their 
piercing cry, which it is impossible to silence, renders them 
altogether insupportable. But in a short time all, even the 
wildest old birds, become uncommonly tame and affectionate, 
and prove capable of high training and of being taught to 
speak ; they cannot, however, in any case, be esteemed clever as 
speakers, and they never discontinue their harsh cry, even when 
they are fully tamed. They are chiefly valued as ornamental 
birds, as they have all more or less brilliant plumage, and 
attract amateurs by the charm of their comical ways, with their 
nodding, bowing, erecting their feathers, and the dilatation or 
contraction of the pupil of the eye, &c., although one must 
patiently put up with the shrill continuous cry. Only a few 
species have as yet been successfully bred. The Conures, in 
point of food, need only seeds — hemp, canary seed, oats — with 
a little fruit, and biscuit or egg-bread. They should also have 
a constant supply of fresh branches for gnawing. On account 
of their small size they are seldom kept on stands, but more 
usually in cages, which, by reason of their inveterate habit of 
gnawing, must, with the exception of the perch, be wholly of 
metal. In aviaries they are, as a rule, very ill tempered and 
vicious towards other little birds. 

Of course I shall speak here of those Conures only which have 
been proved to possess capacity for speech. 

— »>in8?ib«>s-«— 



Psittacua carolinensis, L. 

Carolina ParraJceet (Ger., Nor darner ikanisclier Keilschicanzsitticli, 
Keilschwanzsittich von Karolina, Karolinensittich ; Fr., Per- 
rucJie de la Caroline, Perruche a tete jaune ; Dat., Zon 
Parkiet of Carolina Parkiei) — Description — Hahitat — As a 
Cage Bird. 

This, tlie only species indigenous to North America, is one of 
the commonest in the market, and, at the same time, one of the 
most beautiful and brilliant. It might, therefore, rejoice in 
universal admiration if it had not attributes which render it 
altogether unbearable. It was described by Catesby, 1731 ; 
scientifically named by Linne, 1766 ; spoken of by Buff on as a 
cage bird ; and delineated by Buffon and others. 

The Carolina Parrakeet, as it is mostly called, is of orange- 
vermilion on the forehead and front of the head, as far as the 
eyes, and on the cheeks down to the base of the beak ; the 
crown, back, and sides of the head, the region of the ear, and 
the upper part of the throat, a pure sulphur-yellow ; the quills 
dark green, bluish on the outer web, and black en the inner; 
the covert feathers of the primaries bluish-green ; the small 
coverts on the bend of the wing and the spurious wing lemon- 
yellow, a few edged with orange-red ; the tail dark grass-green, the 
tip bluish-green, the outer web on the reverse side blackish, the 
inner web greyish-yellow ; all the rest of the upper parts of the 
body dark grass-green ; the hinder part of the back somewhat 
lighter ; all the under part of the body a light yellowish-green ; 
the hinder part orange-yellow ; the beak horn-grey white ; eyes 
brownish-grey; feet greyish flesh-colour; claws black. In the 
old male bird the orange-yellow colouring on the bend of the 
wing is very broad ; in the female it is sometimes totally absent. 
In size it is equal to the jackdaw, but slimmer, with a much 
longer tail (length, 12 Jin. ; wings, 6|-in. to 7f in. ; longest feather 
in the tail, 5|in. to 6^in ; outer tail feathers, 3in. to o^^in.). 

Its home is in the south of North America, and is said to 
extend from the north-east of Maryland and north-west of Mis- 
souri, as far as Upper Arkansas, South-west Texas, and south of 
Florida. Although this parrakeet has been observed by the 
most eminent of American explorers — Wilson, Audubon, Prince 
"Wied, Coues, and others — yet there are many gaps in our know- 


ledge of its habits in freedom. Beclistein says that in liis time it 
had been frequently imported into Europe ; that it was fed on 
hemp seed ; and that, though it screamed much and spoke little, 
on account of its beauty and tameness it had many admirers. 
It occupies a similar position at the present day ; for many novices, 
dazzled by its brilliant plumage, buy it, and then discover that 
it is far from suitable as a cage bird. It is true Dr. E. Eey, of 
Halle, describes it as one which, if treated properly, may develop 
great intelligence. One couple, indeed, showed so much clever- 
ness that the ornithologist was of opinion that, in this respect, 
the Carolina Parrakeet took precedence of all the Long-tailed 
Parrots (either those which he had kept himself or otherwise 
observed), and, moreover, that it even surpassed many of the 
highly gifted Short-tailed species. Yet this same fancier admits 
that it never becomes so affectionate as the other parrots ; but^ 
on the contrary, always displays distrust and caution. 

The experience and observation of years has convinced me 
that a Carolina Parrakeet, caught when old, is never susceptible 
of taming and training, but always remains stupidly shy, obsti- 
nate, and untamable ; though a very young bird, which happens 
to fall into the hands of a judicious trainer who treats it pro- 
perly, becomes as completely tame and familiar as any of its 
congeners. As regards capacity for speech, certainly it can only 
attain to second or third rank, and, even if it becomes unusually 
tame and affectionate, it will at the best be wearisome by reason 
of its intolerable screaming. It is extremely hardy and long- 
lived. First, Dr. Eey, and afterwards Baron H. von Berlepsch 
(the latter in several instances), accustomed it to fly in and out 
of the house, and left it for the winter in a boarded apartment, 
the walls of which were also of wood, and which was, of course, 
a very cold place. It is generally kept in zoological gardens 
in swing cages, which are left in the open air, usually quite un- 
protected. The various attempts made at breeding have in but 
few cases produced any satisfactory result. In the Zoological 
Gardens the only effect was the laying of eggs ; but in my aviary 
the young have become fledged, and Dr. Nowotny has met with 
similar success. 

The Carolina Conure appears among us in large numbers and 
is common in the trade. 



Psittacus haBmorrhous, Sps. 

Blue-fronted Parraheet (Ger., Blaustirniger Keilschwanzsittich, 
hlaustirniger Sittich, Blaustirnsittich ; Fr., Perruche bouton 
hleu, Perruche a front bleu ; Dut., Blauwvoorlioofd Parldet) — 
Description — Domestic Character. 

Among the parrakeets treated in this book, the Blue-crowned 
Conure is of surpassing interest ; for, after careful observation, it 
has been described by two eminent fanciers as capable of speech 
and as otherwise very gifted. 

It is of bluish-green, inclining to sky-blue on the forehead 
and front of the head ; the wings dark green ; the first quill 
sky blue on the outer web, the other quills green ; all an olive 
greenish-yellow on the inner web and on the reverse side ; the 
tail green, the two central feathers all one colour, but the 
others coppery-red on the inner web ; all the feathers of the tail 
on the reverse side pale yellow ; all the rest of the upper parts 
of the body grass-green ; the under parts a pale lighter green ; 
the beak dull flesh-colour, inclining to brownish-red (according 
to Bolau it may be horn colour, with darker tips and under 
mandible) ; cere flesh-colour ; eyes orange-yellow, inclining to 
yellowish-brown ; the featherless circle round them whitish 
flesh-colour ; feet flesh-colour ; claws horn-brown. Size, the 
same as the Carolina Conure (length, 14-|in. ; wings, 6Jin. to 
8^in. ; longest tail feathers, 6^in. to 7jin. ; outermost tail 
feathers, 3^in. to 3Jin.). 

It is a native of Brazil, from Bahia to the boundaries of 
Bolivia, and is one of those species which have only been known 
in later times. The travellers Spix, Natterer, and Burmeister 
give no information as to its life in freedom. 

Although it is rarely imported alive, and is scarcely to be 
found even in the most important zoological collections, yet Mr. 
Schmalz, Ministerial secretary, of Vienna, at one time succeeded 
in obtaining five specimens, of which he tells us : " Even in 
a few days they became accustomed to my presence, although 
they were at first very shy, and I was then enabled to con- 
vince myself that they were parrots of a high degree of in- 
telligence. One had a festering wound from a bite, which I was 
obliged to clean and wash out daily with a sponge. The bird at 


first fluttered as if mad ; but by the fourth day it was corapletely 
tamed, and soon I did not need to take it in my hand at all ; 
for, when it saw me coming with the sponge, it voluntarily held 
its head bent forward. When it was quite well it began to fly 
about the room madly, by which it in no small degree disquieted 
the other birds; but when I called 'Aral' it stopped at once, 
and when I showed it the sponge it immediately flew to the 
place where I had always washed its head, and let me take it 
quietly in my hand. Now it is thoroughly tame, and allows 
itself to be laid on its back, &c. Formerly a dreadful 
screamer, and especially noisy in the morning, it has now been 
trained, by a few cross words and light taps on the beak, to 
abstain entirely from its cries. It is, moreover, charmingly 
affectionate, and has learnt without any particular teaching to 
say ' Ara ! Good Ara!' and 'Cockatoo I' just as plainly as any 
Grey Parrot. A female (for such it proved later on by laying 
eggs) of this species became just as tame, and learnt to say 
exactly the same words, but pronounced them more softly." 

Mrs. von Proschek, who also received a specimen of these 
parrakeets, informs us that it not only became uncom- 
monly tame, but also chattered much and continuously, and 
imitated the barking of dogs. Mr. Napoleon M. Kheil, of 
Prague, bought from M. Petzold, a bird dealer of that town, two 
specimens which proved equally gifted, droll, and affectionate, 
lively and comical, as any other parrot. Certainly, at times 
they uttered such harsh resounding cries as to be unbearable — 
the more brightly the sun shone the more they screamed ; but 
they also learnt to repeat some words. The Vienna bread, 
which was given dry, was always carried by them to the water 
vessel and dipped, in order that they might eat it wet. They 
expressed their pleasure by uttering murmuring sounds. 

This species first appeared in the Zoological Gardens in 
London in the year 18G4, when several specimens were shown. 
Since then it has been seen in other gardens and at exhibitions. 


Psittacus solstitialis, L. 

Solstitian Parralceet (Ger., Sonnensittich, Sonnenwendesittich, 
Orangegelher Keilschwanzsittich, Kessisittich ; Fr., Perruche 
soleil, Perruche jauiie ; Dat., Oranjegeele ParJciet) — Rarity — 
Description — Habitat — Domestic Character. 

This is among the most beautiful of the talking parrakeets ; 
but it is to be regretted that, though it extends over a large 
tract of country and is found in great numbers, it is extremely 
rare and seldom imported alive. It was named scientifically 
by Linne. 

Its plumage throughout is lemon-yellow ; the eye cere, the 
cheeks, and the part round the ear, reddish orange-yellow ; 
the rump and upper coverts of the tail pure yellow ; the 
primaries green at the base on the outer web, the tip half 
blue, the tip and the inner web black, with a yellow spot 
at the end, the secondaries blue, the inner web black, with 
a yellow spot at the end ; all the wing feathers are blackish- 
grey on the reverse side ; the coverts of the primaries deep blue, 
the inner web black with a yellow spot at the end ; the tail 
feathers olive-green, about one third from the tip blue, the 
outermost blue on the whole of the outer web, the centre ones 
yellowish-green at the basal half ; all on the reverse side a 
greenish-yellow grey ; the breast and belly reddish orange- 
yellow ; the beak dark brownish horn-grey ; eyes orange-red ; 
narrow featherless eye cere reddish flesh-colour ; feet brownish 
horn-grey ; claws black. Size, somewhat less than that of the 
Carolina Parrakeet (length, 12iin. ; wings, 5Jin. to G^in. ; 
longest feathers in the tail, 4 jin. to 6|-in. ; outermost tail 
feathers, 2|in. to oin.). 

It is a native of South America, from the Amazon Eiver to 
the Orinoko. The travellers, Natterer and Burmeister, fre- 
quently shot it, yet they give no information as regards its life 
in freedom. This, however, is described by the brothers 
Schomburgk, who saw it in large flocks at the foot of Mount 
Mairari. on the borders of Venezuela and Brazil, and on the 
Mahu Eiver. In the latter locality (where they are called 
Kessi-Kessi) they attracted attention by loud resounding cries. 
This bird, which is a special favourite with the natives. 


may often be seen in flocks of from thirty to forty flying about 
a village, and tbey nest in the trees which stand in the open 
spaces around the huts. 

The Yellow Conure was first placed in the London Zoological 
Gardens in 1862, and then but one specimen was procurable. 
It only appears occasionally in our bird shops and exhibitions. 
I once saw in Berlin, in the possession of a secondhand dealer, 
a bird of this species which had been for a length of time in 
the house of a private family. It was exceedingly tame and 
chattered some words most charmingly. 


Psittaeus aureus, Gml. 

Half-moon Parralx:eet (Ger., Orangestirniger Keilschiuanzsittich, 
HalhmondsitticJi, Goldstirnsittich, Goldstirne ; Fr., Perruche 
houton d'or, Perruche a front jaune, Perruche couronnee; 
Dut., Halve-macui Parlciet of Oranjevoorhoofd Parkiet) — De- 
scription — Habitat — Familiarhj Known — Value as a Speaker. 

A SLENDER, pretty parrakeet, which appears to us a charming 
creature, though the peculiar dull character of the Conures 
makes it seem less engaging than it really is. 

The Half-moon Parrakeet is marked in the following manner : 
Forehead, front of the head, and eye cere, orange-yellow, 
inclining to a deep orange-red ; the lores and the middle 
of the head a dull blue; the back of the head and the 
part round the eye and ear green, fading to a bluish shade ; all 
the rest of the upper part of the body grass-green, with a 
yellowish tinge ; the hinder part of the back and the rump a 
clear yellowish-green; the wings green, the tips black, with a blue 
spot on the outer web, and a greyish-yellow edge on the inner 
web, the reverse side a shining yellowish-grey ; the small under 
coverts of the wing greenish-yellow ; the reverse side of the tail 
blackish-grey ; the cheeks and throat a grey brownish-green, 
inclining to a brownish-yellow grey ; the lower part of the 
throat and all the rest of the under parts of the body greenish- 
yellow, inclining to orange-yellow on the breast and the middle 


(Psittacus aureus.) 

WYORK. ■ ^ 


of the belly ; tlie beak brownish-black ; cere blackish ; eyes 
grey, orange-yellow, or reddish-brown ; a narrow, greyish-brown, 
featherless circle round the eye ; the feet blackish-brown ; claws 
black. Size, that of a thrush (length, llin. ; wings, o^in. to 
6in. ; longest feathers in the tail, 4;lin. to 5|-in. ; outermost 
feathers of the tail, 2iin. to 2Jin.). 

In its native habitat (South America) it is found over a 
large tract of country, from Paraguay and Bolivia to Guiana 
and Surinam, and is exceedingly numerous. Travellers, in 
particular Prince Wied, and also Natterer, mention as its home 
the steppes and smaller woods in the neighbourhood of the 
coast, but not the primeval forest. 

It was described by old Markgraf in 1648, then mentioned by 
Brisson in 1760, scientifically named by Gmelin in 1788, and is 
among the most anciently known of the parrots, as well as being 
one of the earliest to be imported alive. Buffon spoke in praise 
of the Golden-crowned Conure (which, however, he wrongly sub- 
divided into two varieties), as being clever, engaging, and an 
excellent speaker. 

In the present day this species is one of the commonest 
objects in the market, and is a favourite for the aviary and 
ornamental cages, although its shrill cry is wearisome ; but in 
this respect it is by no means so disagreeable as its congeners. 
This parrakeet is also very hardy, unless, of course, it be sickly 
when bought. The majority of those imported are young birds, 
which are at first very delicate. The breeding of this variety 
has been attended, at least in one instance, with success, for Mr. 
C. Wenzel, a tradesman, of Danzig, has reared some young ones 
which have become fully fledged. 

It is interesting as being one of the best speakers among the 
Oonures, as will be seen from two descriptions from which I 
will quote. Mr. Schneider, master of the grammar school at 
Wittstock, states that he had a very tame Half-moon Parrakeet 
which could whistle, sneeze, and the like, and said some words, 
such as "Ara," "Papa," &c. The accounts given by Dr. 
Stolker, of St. Fiden, are extremely interesting. This orni- 
thologist received a Half-moon Parrakeet in a miserable 
state, but it soon recovered, and began, when fed, to cry, 
"Please! please I" if it wished for fruit or the like. Then 
it learnt the words, "That is good, very good ! " and, "Good 
day! how do you do ? ''^ — "Well, very well." If Dr. Stolker 
asked the question, the parrakeet answered as above. After- 


wards it learnt to say, " Good niglit, doctor ! " the names 
"Marie," "Julie," and "Leo," and "Well! Bilberli, where 
are you ? " At the same time it would try to bite the fore- 
finger, if held out to it, so that one had to take care when 
feeding it, and if scolded it cried out angrily, "Go away! 
Just wait, you rascal, I'll come to you 1 " Another time it would 
ask, "What are you doing? " and call out "Come down ! " It 
could laugh and sneeze, and when it did the latter it courteously 
wished itself "Good health!" "It rejoiced greatly at my 
return after a lengthened absence, and in its delight chattered 
most comical gibberish. But with all its affection and drollness, 
it uttered sometimes a most intolerable scream, and was so obsti- 
nate that it could not be silenced with threats. It occasionally 
interrupted itself in a comical manner by exclaiming, ' Be quiet ! ' 
and in this way it now and then admonished me if I made a 
noise by whistling or otherwise. If I sang or whistled something 
to it, it stretched itself to the utmost, and stepped gravely and 
with erected plumage up and down the perch, as if dancing, 
uttering now and then a whistle or cry. It had not accom- 
plished much in the way of singing ; it tried the tunes ' Kommt 
a Vogerl' geflogen,' and 'e Briefle auf mei Fuss!' It would 
rest at night suspended from the wire. Its diet consisted of seeds 
only — millet, canary seed, oats, and sunflower seeds — with a 
little whey cheese, turnip, or fruit, and with this it seemed to 
thrive well. It never spoke in the presence of strangers. If 
my own cat came into the room it took no notice, but would 
greet a strange one with a cackling cry. I might here remark 
incidentally that another Half-moon Parrakeet, owned by a 
friend of mine, also learnt to speak very well." 

A bird of this species in my own possession became tame 
without any trouble on my part, and when I went into the 
aviary would fly at once on to my shoulder or climb upon 
my outstretched finger. It may, I think, take precedence of 
all its congeners in teachableness and gentleness. It is usually 
sold in couples. 



Psittacus pertinax, L. 

St. TJiomas Conure (Ger., Keilschwanzsittich mit gelbem Gesicht^ 
Gelhwangiger Keilscliivcmzsittich, Gelhwangiger Sittich, St. 
Thomas- Sittich, gelhgriiner Grassittich, Goldmashen- Sittich ; 
Fr., Perruche a Joues jaunes, Perruche a j ones oranges; Dut., 
Geelicang Parldet). 


Psittacus seruginosTis, L. 

Brown-throated Conure (Ger., Keilschwanzsittich mit ocherhruun- 
licheni Gesicht, Keilschwanzsittich mit spangrilnem Oherhopf, 
hraungesichtiger Sittich, Braunivangensittich ; Fr., Perruche 
a gorge hrune, Perruche a joues hrunes ; Dut., Bruinwang 


Psittacus cactorum, Pr. Wd. 

Currassoiv Parrakeet, Maccawle ParraJceet (Ger., GrUnwangiger 
Keilschwanzsittich, KaJdussittich, KaJdus-Perildt ; Fr., Per- 
ruche cactus, Perruche a joues verts, Perruche d ventre orange; 
Dut., Groenwang Parldet). 

The last three species of Conures which come under our notice 
as speakers may be classed together, for, from the amateur's 
point of view, they are of little importance as talking birds, 
and otherwise resemble each other in several respects. At 
first sight, notwithstanding their plain plumage, they appear 
very attractive and charming, or at the least, pretty, droll little 
birds ; and for this reason they find many admirers. On closer 
acquaintance, however, they become quite unbearable, by reason 
of their shrill, piercing, and irrepressible cries, while their 
talent for speech, as before remarked, is bat small. Neverthe- 
less, being classed among speakers, they must find mention here. 
Among men of science these conures have excited much con- 
fusion and discussion, and no one, even in the present day, is 
quite clear respecting them. I shall, however, describe them 
here, as I have seen them before me in numbers for years, and I 
know them probably better than anyone else. 


The Yellow-cheeked Conure is dark orange on tlie forehead as 
far as the eyes, the lores, the temples, the region around 
the ear, the sides of the head, and the base of the beak ; the 
crown of the head is marine blue ; the back of the head and the 
nape of the neck greenish-yellow, all the rest of the upper parts 
of the body grass-green ; the tips of the wings greenish-blue, the 
inner webs edged with black, the reverse side blackish-grey ; the 
feathers of the tail bluish at the end, olive greenish-j-eliow on 
the reverse side, all the rest of the upper part grass-green ; the 
sides of the neck, the throat, and the upper part of the breast 
ochre-brownish olive-green ; the breast and all the rest of the 
under parts of the body a yellowish grass-green ; an orange 
spot in the middle of the belly ; the beak brownish horn-grey, 
inclining to a slate-coloured black ; the cere greyish, or some- 
times pure white ; the eyes brownish-yellow, inclining to dark- 
brown ; the unfeathered skin round the eye white ; the feet 
brownish horn-grey ; claws black. The plumage of the young 
bird orange only on the lores and round the eye ; the forehead 
and top of the head a dull marine blue ; the sides of the head, 
the base of the beak, and the throat olive-brown ; the belly 
orange. The intermediate plumage : A broad band of pale brownish 
yellow on the forehead ; the forehead and crown of the head 
brownish-green ; a broad orange-yellow circle round the eye ; 
the eye region, the cheeks, throat, and upper part of the 
breast, pale yellowish-brown ; the lower part of the belly orange- 
yellow. Size, that of a thrush (length, 9|in. to IQlin. : wings, 
4Jin. to 5|in. ; longest feather of the tail, 3|in. to 4|-in. : outer- 
most tail feathers, 2 Jin. to 3 in.). It is a native of South 
America, from Eio Negro to Darien, across Panama, the West 
Indian Islands, Trinidad, St. Croix, and St. Thomas. 

The Brown-throated Conure is of a pale ochre-brown on the 
forehead ; the crown of the head a dull marine blue ; the lores, 
round about the eye, the cheeks, and sides of the head ochre 
brownish-grey, marked as with fine black scales ; the wings a 
pale greenish-blue on the outer web, the inner web grey, the 
reverse side silver-grey ; the small under coverts of the wing 
yellowish-green ; the two central feathers of the tail blue on the 
tip, the basal half greenish, the others bluish-green, all olive 
greenish-yellow on the reverse side ; the rest of the upper 
part of the body a pure dark green ; the throat and upper part of 
the breast ochre brownish-grey, marked as with fine black 
scales ; the under part of the breast and the belly a pure 


greenish-yellow ; the breast and sides of the belly yellow ; the 
hinder part of the body a reddish orange-yellow, inclining to a 
bright orange-red ; the beak blackish-grey ; the cere white ; the 
feet flesh-colour ; the claws black. Size, same as the preceding. 
It inhabits the same districts as the Yellow-cheeked Conure. 

The Cactus Conure is olive-brown on the forehead and front 
of the head, with a brownish-grey shade through it ; the 
head grass-green ; the wings dark green, the tips greenish-blue, 
the inner webs blackish, the reverse side all greyish-black ; 
the small under coverts of the wing grass-green, with some 
yellowish feathers ; the tail greenish-blue, and the tip a dull 
greyish orange-yellow on the reverse side ; all the rest of the 
upper part of the body grass-green ; the lores, the cheeks, 
and round the ear light green ; the lower part of the cheeks, 
the throat, and upper part of the breast olive-greenish ochre- 
brown ; the breast, sides, belly, and hinder part of the body 
deep orange-yellow ; the thigh and under coverts of the tail 
light green ; beak a pinkish grey- white ; the skin on the nose 
white ; the eyes yellowish-grey or orange-yellow ; the broad 
bare circle round the qjq^ whitish-grey ; the feet dark flesh- 
colour ; claws black. Size, same as the two preceding. Home, 
the east of Brazil. 

According to the accounts of the travellers, Schomburgk, 
Natterer, and Burmeister, which are unfortunately very brief, we 
only know of these parrakeets that they have the same habits as 
those I spoke of in the lengthier description of the Conures. 

The two first-mentioned — the Yellow-cheeked Conure and 
the Brown-throated Conure — were described by Brisson, 1760, 
and named by Linne ; the Cactus Conure, however, was first dis- 
covered and described by Prince Max von Wied in 1820. Bech- 
stein depicts them both according to Buffon's description, and 
adds that they are usually kept in couples in brass wire cages, 
and fed with Vienna bread moistened in milk, and nuts, and 
that they are much admired on account of their beautiful colours, 
affection, and mutual tenderness — " but they hardly learn to 
speak at all, and make a constant disagreeable noise." 

At present all three species appear frequently and numerously 
in the market, so that they are amongst the commonest birds in 
the trade ; but the Cactus Conure is somewhat more rare than 
the others. The dealers and the amateurs do not, as a rule, make 
any distinction between these species, and only for breeders are 
they offered according to the different varieties ; but as yet, un- 


fortunately, in spite of many attempts, they have not been bred 
with any success. They are, however, extremely amusing, 
and become much more rapidly tame and gentle than their 
congeners above mentioned, and may be accustomed to fly about 
freely in the garden or courtyard, returning to perch on the hand 
when called. The Baroness von Schlechta praises the Brown- 
throated Conure as being " an affectionate and merry bird, which 
has often cheered me with its simple song, and cried out in a 
very amusing manner, clawing its beak with its foot, 'Pretty 
Poll ! pretty Poll ! there, there ! there, there !' In other respects 
it was very clever, but often very wild." Another specimen was 
more gentle. When these parrakeets have become tame after 
the manner described, and have been taught to speak, they 
seldom, if ever, utter their disagreeable cry. For this purpose 
it is, of course, necessary to obtain birds as young as possible. 


Bolborrhynchus, Bp. 

Distinguish ing MarJcs — Food. 

The Bolborrhynchi are a genus of parrots consisting of com- 
paratively few species, of which only one is common in the 
market, while the others are but rarely imported alive. The first- 
mentioned variety must, however, be reckoned among the speak- 
ing parrots. The Thick-billed Parrakeets are distinguished from 
alHed genera by the following marks : Beak powerful, thick, and 
short, bulging out at the sides, with a rounded ridge without 
the longitudinal furrow ; the upper mandible has a short, broad, 
blunt point, with slight indentation ; the lower mandible is 
deep, with broad socket-edge rounded off ; the nostrils small, 
uncovered, with puffy edges, only in exceptional cases covered by 
the feathers of the forehead; the lores feathered; the eye cere 
is hardly noticeable ; the feet are short and strong ; the wings 
long ; the quills pointed ; the tail feathers decreasing gradually 
towards the middle of the tail in shape of a wedge ; the 
plumage soft. The colouring has little brilliancy. Its size (not 
including the long tail) varies from that of a starling to a thrush. 


It is a native of South America, extending over the western, 
southern, and central parts, and one species occurs even in 
the north. All are found at considerable elevation, and some 
of them are said to be exclusively natives of the mountains. 

Their food appears to consist chiefly of seeds, and but little 
or no fruit. Experiments in the breeding of one of the Thick- 
billed Parrakeets have shown that in freedom as well as in 
captivity this parrot, in contradistinction to all others, builds its 
nest in open spaces. In their native country several species of 
these parrakeets are highly esteemed as cage birds. In food — 
that is, their diet in captivity — the Bolborrhynchi have the same 
tastes as the Conures. 


Psittacus monachus, Bdd. 

Grey-hreasted or Quaker ParraJceet (Ger., MdnchssittlcJi, Qudher- 
sittich, Mdusesittich, Monchspapagei, Quaker, junge Witiue, 
graukopjiger DickschnahelsittiGh ; Fr., Perruohe moine, Perruche 
souris ; Dut., Mouniks Dickhekparkiet of Muisparkief) — De- 
scription — Habitat — Character as a Cage Bird — Breeding in 

Like the Carolina Conure, the Quaker Parrakeet wins admirers 
at sight ; though its plumage is not so variegated and striking as 
that of the before-mentioned Conure, being much plainer, in soft 
colourings, yet it is uncommonly pleasing ; indeed, its whole 
appearance is so pretty that the discoverer, Azara, who observed 
it in its native country, gave it the name of '' the young widow." 
But the amateur who may be misled by this into buying a 
couple of these thick-billed Parrakeets will soon regret the step, 
for their continuous screaming, which cannot by any means be 
silenced, is unbearable, and scarcely to be endured even by the 
strongest nerves. 

The Grey-breasted Parrakeet is of a light grey on the fore- 
head, front of the head, lores, cheeks, throat, front of the 
neck, and breast, each feather having a narrow pale-grey tip, 



so that the grey on the forehead and breast appears marked 
as with delicate scales, the breast having a noticeably brown 
shade ; all the rest of the upper part of the body is grass- 
green ; the shoulders are shaded with an olive-greenish brown- 
grey ; the primaries indigo-blue ; the secondaries, the coverts, 
and the bend of the wing, blue ; the whole of the wings 
greenish-blue on the reverse side, the inner webs edged with 
greenish-yellow ; the lower part of the breast and the belly a 
light yellowish-grey; the lower part of the belly, the thigh, 
hinder part of the body, and the under coverts of the tail, 
yellowish-green ; beak yellowish-grey ; eyes brown ; feet brownish- 
grey ; claws blackish. The plumage of the young birds is of a 
less lively green and more uniform grey, the light tips to the 
feathers on the neck and breast not yet being apparent ; the 
wings are not a pure blue, but rather greenish. Size, that of 
a thrush (length, lOfin. ; wings, 4|in. to Gin. ; longest feathers 
of the tail, 4|in. to 5Jin. ; outermost feathers of the tail, 
2Jin. to 3§in.). 

Its home is in the western parts of South America, and it is 
said to be common in Paraguay, Uruguay, the Argentine 
Eepublic, and Bolivia. It is found in the mountains up to an 
elevation of between 300ft. and 400ft. The Grey-breasted 
Parrakeet was described and named by Gmelin, 1783. The 
American discoverers, especially Azara, Darwin, Eengger, 
Burmeister, Gibson, and others, have given us full details of 
its life in freedom. These parrakeets always live gregariously, 
even in the breeding season. Their flight is rapid and skilful, 
with quick strokes of the wing ; they climb with uncommon 
cleverness, but, on the ground, run awkwardly, and, being tree 
birds, seldom alight. A flock of them always betrays itself, 
wherever they may be, by continual shrill, piercing cries. Their 
food consists of seeds, fruits, and, during summer and autumn, 
chiefly of thistle seeds. The forests, a traveller tells us, con- 
tain thousands of the nests of these parrakeets, which usually 
hang from the ends of the branches, into which they are woven. 
Each separate nest consists of an ante-chamber, and behind 
this the real nest, which is always occupied by one couple. 
The entrance is usually effected from below, but if it should be 
at the side, it is protected by a projecting roof. In this manner 
about a dozen pairs build their nests close together; every 
spring the couples build new nests upon the old ones, and thus 
there arises in time an enormous pile of these structures in 


one mass, which may often weigh several hundredweights, and 
on many a sturdy old forest tree one may see seven or eight 
such settlements, in which the birds are constantly at work, 
mending the nests, (fee. ; and new ones are always added in spring 
for the fresh breeding season. Breeding begins in November, 
and the brood consists of seven or eight, but more generally 
of six. The nests are occupied by the birds, even after the 
breeding season, all through the year. Thorny twigs are used 
exclusively for building purposes, and Azara tells us that the 
part of the nest used for hatching is lined with grasses. The 
old clusters of nests often afford a refuge to strange guests, such 
as a species of duck, which finds them a convenient residence, 
and often even opossums turn them to account. Throughout 
the whole day piercing screams resound about the nests, and on 
this account, no less than the destruction to the crops of maize, 
fruit, <fec., the parrakeets are greatly disliked, the more so as, 
like all species of parrots, they destroy much more than they 
consume. They are, therefore, unrelentingly pursued, and as, 
in spite of this, they are by no means shy, are shot in great 
/numbers or caught in nets. They are considered most delicious 
game, so that regular parrot-shooting parties are frequently 
arranged. In many parts rewards are offered for their de- 
struction, and occasionally, in La Plata, they are shot down in 
thousands. Such is their perseverance, however, that they are 
not easily beaten back, and they return again and again to the 
maize fields. But in certain localities, where they have noticeably 
diminished, they are cautious and shy, and there the Quaker 
Parrakeet, to the annoyance of the sportsman, acts as a sentinel 
to all other animals. They may be often seen, after the close 
of the breeding season, flying about in large flocks in search of 

The old authors — Buffon, Bechstein, and others — speak of the 
Quaker Parrakeet as a cage bird. Bechstein says it appears of a 
melancholy temperament, becomes very tame, and learns to 
speak, although but little ; he adds, its cry of allurement is a 
high, sharp-sounding screech. Azara informs us that it is 
highly esteemed in its native country as a cage bird, and is 
regarded with preference as a talker. The account given by 
Gibson is very interesting. He says that one may often hear a 
Quaker, among the numerous swarms, repeating words which 
it has learnt in captivity and remembered after its escape : 
" Often, in passing through the forests, I heard, to my astonish- 

Q 2 


ment, a bird of this species hoarsely crying, 'Pretty Poll! ' " This 
traveller is of opinion that the Grey-breasted Parrakeet never 
learns to speak distinctly. The assertion is, however, emphati- 
cally denied by their affectionate admirer, Dr. D. A. Willink, of 
Utrecht. He found a trained Grey-breasted Parrakeet in the 
shop of a Mrs. Bianchi, at Nice, which made itself remarkable 
chiefly by trying furiously to bite all strangers, and which, 
consequently, no one would buy. '' As I visited the place 
frequently, the bird soon became accustomed to me, and began 
to speak. In French it could only say, ' To Arms ! ' and then it 
would imitate the tattoo on a drum ; in Italian it could say,. 
' Rosetta, come here ! give me a kiss ! ' Further, it coughed 
and laughed, and soon became so tame that it would come on 
my finger and kiss me. I bought it, and it is now unusually 
affectionate ; however, it is still vicious and unfriendly to every 
stranger. It speaks as clearly as the best grey parrot, but, in 
spite of this, has not left off its dreadful screech, which, unfor- 
tunately, it utters only too often." Mr. Exner also writes of a 
Grey-breasted Parrakeet, which he allows to fly freely in the 
garden, and which has learnt to speak a great deal and to sing, 
and can also laugh and cry. 

Anyone wishing to train a parrakeet of this species to speak 
will do well to see that he gets a young bird ; and, for this 
reason, I have clearly described the plumage in that stage. The- 
duller the colour and the more indistinct the grey undulatory 
lines on the neck and breast, the younger is the Quaker and the 
more amenable to teaching will it prove. 

This species is usually offered for sale in couples, and then 
either bought by ignorant amateurs, and disposed of again as 
soon as possible, or else purchased with the intention of keeping 
for breeding. The latter, indeed, gives rise to much excitement 
and pleasure, and has already, in many instances, been attended 
with successful results. In all cases this parrakeet has built 
nests similar to those used in freedom. The Quaker Parrakeet 
is well suited to zoological gardens, for it is hardy and strong, 
and may be kept quite well through the winter in unheated 



Brotogerys, Vgrs. 

Distinguishing Marks — Descrij^tion — Natural History — Character 
in Confinement. 

Anyone who has kept these little parrots — which are about the 
size of a finch or a thrush — and knows them thoroughly, will 
probably wonder why the ornithologist. Vigors, gave them a 
Greek name signifying ''gifted with human voice." Several 
species certainly have proved themselves capable of pronounc- 
ing words, but their talent in this respect is so very small 
that they can only be allowed the lowest position among the 
feathered speakers. On the other hand, they are mostly prettily 
coloured, attractive in their appearance, and amusing in their 
habits ; they become exceedingly tame and familiar, though 
never really affectionate and gentle, and always remain un- 
commonly disagreeable screamers. 

Finsch gives the following as their distinguishing marks : 
JBeak, rather long, slender, much compressed at the sides, with a 
rsharp ridge, long, thin, sharply bent downwards at the point, 
•and with a deep indentation ; the tongue thick, fleshy, blunt 
pointed; the nostrils, round and uncovered, set in broad un- 
feathered cere ; the lores feathered ; the eye cere bare ; the 
wings long and pointed ; the tail wedge-shaped, all feathers 
Tounded at the point ; the feet rather slender, with a short leg ; 
the plumage soft and full. Both sexes are said to be alike in 
colour. They are natives of South America throughout its 
whole extent, and some varieties also of Central America. 

We have but little knowledge of their mode of life in 
freedom. They live gregariously and are of amiable dispo- 
sition. It is not known whether, like their before-mentioned 
congeners, they build their nests together in numerous couples, 
but it is very unlikely. Their movements are in a degree 
clumsy ; they fly rapidly, but not skilfully, climb rather 
awkwardly, and trip clumsily on the ground. They are said 
to live on all kinds of seeds, fruits, berries, and other vege- 
table substances, and often to do great damage to the crops 
of maize, rice, fruit, &c. The nest stands, as is the case 
with other parrots, in a hollow of a tree, and the brood con- 
sists of from two to four. 

Like some other parrots, also, they are much esteemed in their 


native country as cage birds, yet they are hardly so frequently 
taken from the nest and reared by hand as are the larger species, 
but are more often caught when old. Owing to their amiability 
and trustful boldness, this is astonishingly simple. With a bird 
which can be used as a decoy it is easy to catch a whole flock by 
means of a horse-hair snare attached to a stick, or with a twig 
smeared with birdlime. They do not appear shy, even at the 
outset, like other birds, and though at first a little frightened, 
yet soon become bold, and even impudent, for they unite to 
attack the hand that feeds them, as if it were that of an 
enemy. Nodding their heads and with raised wings, uttering 
piercing cries, they appear very quarrelsome, and at the same 
time very comical, but at the least threat fly terrified into 
a corner. They nestle closely together in the most loving 
manner, whether they are a pair or two of the same sex. 
All their arrangements as to eating, drinking, flapping the 
wings, or sudden burst of chattering are carried on simul- 
taneously. In Brazil they are kept with clipped wings, chained 
upon a stand, fitted up with a horizontal perch, and a sliding 
box for rest at night. We, on the contrary, keep them as a 
rule by couples in a cage ; but they must be kept either by 
themselves, or with large peaceable parrots, for they are ex- 
tremely vicious towards smaller companions. For diet they 
chiefly need seeds, hemp, and oats, with a slight addition of 
sweet fruit and biscuit, or moistened egg-bread ; but the 
majority of them entirely refuse to take the two last named. 
They are very healthy and hardy, and can be kept without 
trouble for many years, only that cold and damp must be care- 
fully guarded against. It is true that one species, the largest, 
has already been kept through the winter in the open air, but I 
must warn the reader against this course in the case of any of 
the smaller varieties. Up to the present time eight species have 
been imported alive, but only one may be reckoned common in 
the market. Although, as before remarked, they are mostly 
kept in couples, yet only one single Small-billed Parrakeet has 
been bred in captivity. The rarer species fetch a rather high 
price. I shall, of course, only speak here of those which have 
already been proved to be speakers. 


Psittacus tovi, Gml. 
Tovi Parrakeet (Ger., Tovi'Schmalschncibelsittich, Tovisittich, 
Schmalschnabelsittich mit gelhen Unterjiilgeldechen, Goldkinn- 
sittich (/), gewohnlich bios Grassittich oder Grasperikit ; Fr., 
Perruche Tovi ; Dut., Tovi Parkiet) — Description — Habitat — 
Character in Captivity. 

Though commonly known, the Tovi Parrakeet is not often seen 
in the market. It is only imported occasionally, and usually in 
pairs. It was described and delineated by Brisson in 1760, but 
was often confused with other varieties by the older authors. 
They give us no particulars as to its life in captivity. 

All the body is green ; the head grass-green, with a tinge of 
malachite-green ; the hinder part of the neck and the shoulders 
have a shade of olive-brown ; the rest of the upper part of the 
body is dark green ; the rump and upper coverts of the tail 
a faint bluish grass-green ; the primaries have a blackish 
edge on the inner web ; the secondaries are bluish ; all 
the wing feathers are of a dull green on the reverse side, 
blackish on the outer web ; the coverts of the primaries are 
dark blue ; the central and smallest wing coverts, together 
with the coverts of the shoulder, a yellowish cinnamon-brown ; 
the small and central under coverts lemon-yellow ; the tail 
feathers dark malachite-green, a lighter 5'-ello wish-green on the 
reverse side ; a deep orange-yellow spot on the throat, close 
under the lower mandible ; all the under parts of the body light 
greenish-yellow ; the thighs, belly, and lower coverts of the tail 
grass-green, with a malachite-green lustre ; the beak whitish 
horn-grey ; the upper mandible has a blackish point ; eyes dark 
brown ; feet greyish flesh - colour ; dark horn - grey claws. 
About the size of a sparrow (length, 7|in. ; wings, 4in. to 4Jin. ; 
tail, 2;i;in. to 2fin.). The plumage and size of the young bird 
does not vary from the above. 

It is a native of Central America and the northern districts of 
South America ; it is said to be common in New Granada and 
Panama, but not to be found in Brazil. Dr. A. von Frantzius 
states that in Costa Rica he met with it only in the warmest 
parts, chiefly at the Gulf of Nicaya. He adds : ''They always 
die very soon on the highlands, where they are brought for sale 
in numbers. They are easily tamed, and learn to speak a 


Observation has taught us that in captivity they are by no 
means so delicate as described, but can stand our climate well ; 
they all become tame, but it is not yet known if they are all 
gifted with a talent for speech to the extent which Professor 
Hallbauer claims. A couple which belonged to his brother, a 
surgeon in the navy, and had been brought from the West Indies, 
learnt to speak. After a delay of about a year, when they had 
acquired fresh plumage of a beautiful character, they began to 
imitate an Amazon which was near their cage, or rather one of 
the couple did so, probably the male bird. '' Setting out by 
softly uttering 'Kickerick,' it by degrees pronounced the phrase 
completely as 'Kickericki.' Soon it learnt also the word 
*papa;' both words sounded very odd as pronounced in its 
tiny voice. It is worth noticing that when the little speaker 
said the word ' Kickericki,' it hopped about on its perch 
and clapped its wings, which heightened the comical impres- 
sion." Travellers have from time to time declared that the Tovi 
Parrakeet, in its native country, is far from rare as a talker. 
"We may expect, therefore, that this capability will develop 
itself more frequently among us in future, if the fanciers will 
but take the trouble to teach these birds, especially the young 

Both Mrs. Veronika Greiner and Mr. Schmalz (ministerial 
secretary), amateur bird fanciers and residents of Vienna, have 
had the good fortune to obtain successful results in the breeding 
of the Tovi Parrakeet. These birds, however, are not often to 
be found in aviaries, for their ear-piercing cries render them 


Psittacua tirica, Gml. 

All-green ParraJceet (Ger., Bhimenausittich, Tirilcasittich, hlos 
TiiHJca, hlos Grassittich, hlcmfiiigelifjer Sclimalschnahelsittich ; 
Fr., Perruche tirica; Dut., Tirica Parkiet) — Descrijjtion — 
Habitat — Importation — Character in Confinement. 

The All-green Parrakeet was described by Brisson as early as 
1760, and was named by Gmelin in 1788. No mention was 
made of it before this time. It is of a light grass-green on 
the forehead, all the rest of the upper part of the body dark 


grass-green ; the primaries are dark blue along the middle of 
shaft and broad grey-black on the inner web ; in the secon- 
daries the greyish-black decreases in extent, and the other wing 
feathers are uniformly green ; all on the reverse side dull 
green ; the coverts of the primaries dark blue ; the edge of the 
wing yellowish -green, and the small under coverts greenish- 
yellow ; the outermost tail feathers are yellowish-green on the 
inner web, and all are of blackish-green on the reverse side ; the 
cheeks and all the under parts of the body are of a light grass- 
green ; the beak reddish flesh-colour, the point almost white ; 
the cere greyish-green ; the wings almost pure green ; the 
coverts of the wing brownish-green. The size is that of a 
thrush (length, lO^in. ; wings, A^in. to 4fin. ; tail, 4in. to 

Its home extends from the east of Brazil to Guiana. The 
travellers, Natterer, Prince von Wied, Schomburgk, Burmeister, 
Karl Euler, and, more recently, Karl Petermann, have written 
of its life in freedom. It is common in the forest districts along 
the coast of Brazil, but is also found throughout that country, 
and where the forest borders on the plantations one frequently 
sees enormously large flocks of various species of Conures, and 
among them the Small-billed Parrakeets. Each species keeps 
separate in the vast host ; but the shrill cry of the All-green 
Parrakeet can be heard distinctly amid all the noise made 
by the multitude. On account of the harm they do to the 
maize and other crops, they are habitually shot. Many species 
are said to be delicious eating, yet, on the whole, they are not 
very highly esteemed as game. In recent times these birds 
have become an important article of commerce, and are, there- 
fore, caught in many ways. Until a short time ago, and as is 
even now the case in some places, they were so unsuspecting 
that a whole flock could be taken at one time in the manner 
described on p. 230. Where they have become more cautious, 
they are caught in nets, (fee, at the drinking places. 

The first wholesale importation to Germany was by Mr. 
William Schluter, who sent several hundred pairs to Mr. H. 
Schliiter, naturalist, of Halle, most of which were forthwith 
brought into the market chiefly through the agency of K. 
Gudera, bird dealei, at that time in Leipzig. Since then these 
Small-billed Parrakeets have reached Europe in greater or less 
numbers. Unfortunately, they are usually treated most impro- 
perly on the voyage, being fed with crushed maize, or bread 


moistened with water, the former thrown in among the dirt and 
the latter not unfrequently sour. If, then, they survive the 
trying journey from the colony of Blumenau to Eio Janeiro, and 
afterwards the passage to Hamburg or London, they may surely 
be included among the hardiest species ; and this is, indeed, 
true, for they have, in several instances, been kept in unheated 
rooms throughout the winter. 

Although the All-green Parrakeet in its native country is 
highly esteemed and often taught to speak there, and though it 
is so hardy that it has lived in zoological gardens for ten years 
or more, yet it does not enjoy any great popularity here. This 
is due to the fact that it is a bad screamer at times and that it 
has not as yet proved itself a suitable subject for breeding. I 
am convinced, however, that it would be advantageous if 
attempts at breeding it were made — and they would undoubtedly 
succeed — the young birds tamed, and then taught to speak. As 
their training advanced they would certainly cease from their 
disagreeable cry, and thus this comparatively worthless species 
might become a very valuable one. 


Psittacus xanthdpterus, Spx. 

Oranfie-winged Parrakeet (Ger., Schmalschnahelsittich mit hocJi- 
fjelber Flilgelhinde, Gelhfliigelsittich, Golhflilgelsittich, Kanarien- 
vogelsittich, Kanarienflugelsittich, gelhflugeliger^ Grassittich ; 
Fr., Perruche xanthoptere ; Dut., Oranjevlevgel Parkiet) — 
Description — Hahitat — Character in Captivity. 

Described and named by Spix in 1824, this species belongs to 
those known only in later times. It is grass-green all over the 
body ; above darker, beneath somewhat lighter ; quills bluish 
on the outer web, blackish-grey on the inner web ; all on 
the reverse side bluish-green ; the bend of the wing and the 
large upper coverts deep yellow (forming a broad yellow band 
across the wing) ; tail feathers olive greenish-yellow on the inner 
web, on the reverse side both webs are bluish-green ; the beak a 
light brownish grey-white ; eyes dark brown ; feet brownish horn- 
grey ; nearly as large as a thrush (length, 9f in. ; wings, 4|in. to 
4Jin. ; tail, 3fin. to 4in.). 


It is a native of, probably, the whole extent of Brazil, and is 
said to be particularly numerous in the region round the Amazon 
and in Bolivia ; Bartlett found it also in Peru. Of its life in 
freedom we only know that for the most part it is like that of 
its kindred species. Burmeister saw small flights of them every 
day in the neighbourhood of New Freiburg. 

In its native country this Small-billed Parrakeet is frequently 
kept as a pet, and in captivity displays the droll character which 
I described in speaking of the preceding species, but it is easily 
distinguishable from them by its marked gentleness. The 
following account is by an eminent connoisseur and affectionate 
admirer of foreign cage-birds — Dr. Luchs, a physician, of Warm- 
brunn : "My Canary-winged Parrakeet is an uncommonly tame, 
gentle, and affectionate bird. It grows daily more confident 
and familiar with me, though with strangers it is always shy. 
When I prepare to sit down to breakfast it begins to make a 
climbing journey from its open cage, up the window curtain 
beside it, across two birdcages, and down the curtain on the 
other side on to the adjacent sofa, thence up again by the table- 
cloth, and at last to the farther side of me, to feast on milk, 
moistened toast, sugar, and the like. If I do not at once take 
notice of it, it at first softly pecks my hand, but then more 
sharply, looking up at me from time to time to see if I will not 
give it the coveted food. As soon as it is satisfied it returns by 
the same route with all its difficulties. I could relate much of 
the droll caresses of my friendly parrakeet, but in doing so I 
should illustrate no intellectual gifts with which these parrots 
may in particular be endowed, but merely that which has already 
been observed in a higher degree in many other species. This 
variety, however, I have no hesitation in asserting, by no means 
belongs to the untalented and lower ranks. My little Canary- 
winged Parrakeet was able to say quite distinctly, ' There, there, 
Polly !' Its cry was by no means annoying or disagreeable, and 
was not often heard. Every time that I went into the room it 
greeted me with a call, also when I addressed it as 'Polly.' 
If it had settled to rest for the night and I went up and spoke 
to it, it would answer me, at first in a whisper, and then with a 
repeated cry." This species has not yet been bred with success. 

Their price stands usually high, although they are by no 
means beautiful, and have a very plain plumage. 



Psittacus virescens, Gml. 

The Yellow and White-ivinged Parraheet (Ger., Schmalschna- 
belsittick mit gelber und weisser Flilgelhinde, ^oeissfli'igeliger 
Schmalschnahelsittich, Weissschiuingensittich, Weissflilgel ; Fr., 
Perruche Chiriri, Perruche a ailes blanches ; Dut., Chiriri 
Parhiet) — Description — Habitat. 

All these Small-billed Parrakeets are extremely like eacli 
other, and the marks by which they may be distinguished are 
seldom very noticeable. Thus, the Yellow-and-white-winged 
Parrakeet can only be recognised beside the Canary-winged by 
observing that a white and a yellow band are visible at the same 
time in the outspread wings. The former was described by 
Brisson in 1760 and scientifically named by Gmelin in 1788, 
therefore it must be reckoned among the earlier known species. 
Buffon gives an account of its life in freedom, and even says 
that this little parrakeet learns to speak well. 

The Yellow-and-white-winged Parrakeet is dark grass-green ; 
the back has a shade of olive-green over it ; the first five quills 
are green, bluish along the shaft, the inner web edged with 
black ; the last four of the primaries and the secondaries are 
white as far as the three last, also on the shafts ; the greater 
dipper coverts of the wing sulphur-yellow, with white inner 
webs, the lesser quite white ; the bend of the wing yellow ; the 
tail green, the inner webs yellowish ; all the under parts of the 
body a little lighter yellowish-green than the upper ; the beak 
whitish horn-grey ; the cere white ; the eyes brown ; the feet 
yellowish horn-grey. Size, nearly as large as the preceding 
(length, 8f in. ; wings, 4Jin. to 4Jin. ; tail, o^in.). 

Its home extends from Paraguay to the north of Brazil, and it 
is said to be common along the Amazon Eiver. Wallace saw it 
in flights of several hundreds on the island of Mexicana at the 
mouth of the Amazon. The species, however, has only been im- 
ported alive since the year 1862, and it is still considered a rare 
object in our bird markets. The assertion made by Dr. Finsch, 
that it does not belong to the speaking parrots, has been in one 
case controverted, for Mr. Hinz, a merchant at Konigsberg, 
describes a Yellow-and-white-winged Parrakeet which he had 
taught to say clearly, "Papa!" and ''Polly! " 



Platycercus, Vgrs. 

Distinguishing Marks — Natural History — Character in Cap- 
tivity — Treatment — Capacity for Speech. 

The Platycerci, or Flat-tailed Parrakeets, take a liigh position 
among tlie more splendidly plumaged parrots. It is only within 
the past fifteen years that they have been imported into Europe 
in considerable numbers and numerous species. From the 
first they mefc with a warm welcome, and they may be seen 
sometimes in bird houses among the small ornamental and song 
birds, and at others in couples, in cages, or in companies, in large 
aviaries. In addition to their beauty and attractiveness, many- 
offer the advantage of being more or less easily bred ; and at no 
distant date we may expect that all species will have proved 
themselves easy to breed. At the same time, the admiration 
which they excite is attended by many drawbacks — for example, 
the high price usually asked for them, and also their delicacy 
of constitution, which often manifests itself in the most puzzling- 

Their special distinguishing marks are as follows : The beak 
is strong, short, nearly always deeper than it is long, rounded 
off, and with shallow indentation, with short, usually sharply 
bent-back point, and very broad socket edge ; the nostrils oblongs 
situate in a narrow cere, which is set with little hairs in front ;. 
the lores and eye cere covered with feathers ; the wings pointed 
and long ; tail broad, sharply graduated, each feather broad 
and rounded at the point ; the feet of medium strength ; the 
tongue thick, fleshy, smooth, blunt at the point — in many 
cases there is a faint depression at the front edige ; plumage 
soft, in rare cases somewhat hard, without powdery down. 
Size, varying from that of a thrush to a crow. 

They are distinguished from the other long-tailed parrots and 
parrakeets chiefly by being livelier and more active (only a 
few of the larger are clumsy), by being able to run about 
on the ground more rapidly and skilfully, and by flying mora 
gracefully, though they do not climb better. In contradis- 
tinction to the Noble Parrakeets, Oonures, Thick-billed and 
Small-billed Parrakeets, they prefer to live on the ground, and 
seek their food chiefly from grass seeds, running quickly along 
the earth. Their home extends throughout Timor, Booru, 


Ceram, the Eastern Moluccas, New Guinea, Australia, Tasmania, 
the New Hebrides, New Caledonia, New Zealand, the Norfolk 
and Auckland Islands, and some groups of the South Sea, the 
Fiji, Friendly, and Society Islands ; one species is also found on 
the Macquarie Islands, the most southerly point which parrots 
inhabit. Their nest, like that of other parrots, is said to be 
found in hollows in trees, especially the holes in the branches of 
the eucalyptus, and contains four to eight, or even twelve eggs ; 
moreover, they are said to hatch several broods annually and 
consecutively. After the nesting season they usually unite in 
large flocks, each species separately, seldom several varieties 
together, and fly about seeking food. Besides grass-seeds, they 
are said to eat many species of fruits, honey, and insects. Flying 
about only in the twilight, they sit quietly throughout the day, 
but are uncommonly lively early in the morning and in the 

Many of the Fiat-tailed Parrakeets cause considerable damage 
to the corn and other crops ; and for this reason, as well as on 
account of the delicious quality of their flesh, they are keenly 
pursued for sport ; but of late they have been more generally 
captured at the wells, &c., with large nets, for exportation to 

In captivity, we are met at the outset by the difficulty already 
referred to — namely, that directly after importation they are ex- 
ceedingly delicate, and die from the slightest ailment. This 
arises chiefly from their being (as I mentioned when speaking 
of the large parrots, on p. 8) so improperly treated — first, by 
the wholesale buyers abroad, and then during their voyage to 
Europe. If they arrive sound and healthy, are acclimatised 
according to the directions given on pp. 17 et seq., and are 
managed properly, they are amongst the hardiest of all cage- 
birds. Amateurs are emphatically warned against sudden 
changes in food or general treatment. 

The newly-purchased Platycerci should at first be given 
only the food which has been recommended by the dealer. It 
consists entirely of seeds. Canary or hemp are usually the 
seeds found in the travelling cages of the newly -imported 
birds ; and if to one of these the other be immediately added 
it may cause death. Only after they have been kept for weeks, 
and after one is fully convinced of the healthiness of the birds, 
should suitable seeds be given, and then in small, gradually 
increasing quantities ; and it is desirable in this way to accustom 


them, like the Noble Parrakeets and the Conures, to a really 
varied seed diet. Green food, it is to be noted, may in 
particular be dangerous to the Platycerci ; a very small 
piece is sufficient to make a freshly arrived bird very ill, and 
it may prove injurious or destructive to long acclimatised or 
even home-bred birds. Nevertheless, green food would appear 
to be a necessity, for they devour it with incredible eager- 
ness. I have habituated my Flat-tailed Parrakeets to it, by 
giving very small, and then gradually increasing quantities, of 
tradescantia, mignonette, or chickweed, so that afterwards 
they could take it without stint. All other green food, 
especially salad, must be entirely avoided. Fresh branches of 
trees, particularly of the willow, are, however, very whole- 
some for them. For the rest, they may have — but, I must 
again repeat, in very gradually increasing quantities — biscuit 
or egg bread, fresh or dried ant-grubs ; the last may be given in 
a mash of carrots, but only when they are about to breed ; 
finally, some good fruit — good apples, sweet pears, cherries, or 
grapes, and service berries ; but of these, with the exception of 
the last, only very little. I would recommend above all things, 
as most wholesome for the Platycerci, and, indeed, for parrots 
generally, fresh ears of corn or grass seeds in a milky state, or 
when quite ripe; the best are oats, millet, and canary seed. 
With such precautions the Platycerci prove extraordinarily 
hardy, for almost all — even the most delicate varieties — have thus 
been kept for a long time, and have even passed the winter in 
unheated rooms. 

They do not appear to take high rank in intelligence — at 
least, they are far behind the Noble Parrakeets and Conures. 
However, they have not the shrill cry of these latter, though 
from their screeching thev may become just as wearisome. Of 
late the talent for speech has in several varieties been proved, 
and for this reason they must find a place in this book. But 
even if every species of the Platycerci should prove to be gifted 
with speech, none of them would be found highly talented in 
that respect, for all, without exception, would only learn to 
chatter a few words. It is interesting, however, to find that 
this bird, of such splendid plumage and so easily bred, can be 
taught to speak ; and for the breeder, as well, doubtless, as for 
the fancier, there will be a special charm in breeding all species 
of Flat-tailed Parrakeets, and training the young thus obtained 
to become talkers. Many species arrive in Europe without the 


adult plumage, and therefore recognisable as young birds, and 
these are quite as well suited for teaching to speak as home-bred 
birds. Here, of course, I can only describe those varieties which 
up to this time have been proved to be speakers. 


Psittacu3 eximius, Shw. 

Rosella, Rosella Parrot (Ger., Bimter Plattschweifsittich, Bunt- 
sittich, Rosella, gemeiner Bimtsittich, Omnikolor, (/rilnburzeliger 
Plattschweifsittich, ivimderlicherweise Allfarhsittich oder bios 
Allfarh ; Fr., Perruche omnicolore ; Dut., Groenstuit of Rose 
Hill of Rosille Parkiet) — Capacity for Speech — Description — 
Habitat — History in Captivity — Selection. 

One of the most magnificently coloured of all parrots, the well- 
known Rose Hill Parrakeet, usually called the Rosella, had, till 
lately, been accounted anything but intelligent, and, in spite of 
the gorgeous splendour of its plumage, was no great favourite. 
It has, however, proved to be capable of speech, and on that 
account it will, without doubt, attain unexpected importance, at 
least in the eyes of the bird fancier. Discovered by Phillips and 
White in 1789-90, it was described and scientifically named by 
Shaw in 1812. Levaillant, in 1805, drew the portrait of a live 
Rosella which was in the possession of Madame Buonaparte. 

It is scarlet on the forehead, all over the head, and in the 
region around and below the eye ; on the nape of the neck 
there is a broad orange band ; the shoulders and upper part of 
the back black, every feather having a yellowish-green edge ; 
the rump and upper coverts of the tail are yellowish-green ; 
the quills blackish-brown, dark blue on the outer webs, and 
the last of them having a broad light green edge on the 
outer web ; the upper and under coverts and the edge of the 
wings purplish-blue ; below the wing a large black spot ; the 
two central feathers of the tail dark olive-green, the other tail 
feathers green at the basal half, the outermost feathers of the 
tail, on either side, greenish-blue, with white tips ; the throat 
and breast scarlet ; the spot under the chin, beginning at 
the lower mandible, from the lower part of the head to the 



ear, is white ; the under part of the breast deep yellow ; 
the sides of the breast yellow, each feather having a blackish 
spot in the centre ; the middle of the belly and the hinder 
part of the body bluish-green ; the under coverts of the tail 
red ; the beak a whitish yellow-grey ; the upper mandible 
a rather darker horn-grey at the base ; eyes dark-brown ; feet 
grey-brown ; claws blackish. The female may be similarly 
described, but the yellow spot on the nape of the neck is 
smaller : the middle of the belly and the hinder part of the 
body yellowish, not bluish-green. (According to Bargheer, the 
male is more purely and brilliantly coloured ; the light green 
spot round the eye is larger, and protracted sideways in the 
female ; in the latter also the sulphur-yellow spot on the back 
of the neck is wanting, and its place is supplied by the greenish 
colouring of the back ; the female also is said to be slimmer and 
her head more rounded ; the male stout in the body and thick 
in the head.) The plumage of the young birds is paler and 
duller, each feather edged with greyish-green, not with yellow ; 
on the back of the head there is a large grey spot, and on 
the nape a yellow one. Size, less than that of a crow (length, 
13|in. ; wings, 5|in. to 6|in. ; longest feather in the tail, 
6|in. to 6|in. ; outermost feather of the tail, ojin. to 3-^in.). 

It is a native of Tasmania, New South Wales, and South 
Australia. Its mode of life has been observed by Caley, 
Gould, Eietmann, &c. According to their observation, it 
is only found in circumscribed districts ; along the Hunter 
Eiver and in Tasmania it is very numerous. It prefers open, 
sandy, grass plains, with brushwood and large trees standing 
singly. In the last-named country different variegated parra- 
keets may be seen in company — the Pennant and the King's 
Parrakeet, besides the Rosella — but mostly in small flocks, 
running about on the roads, and, when frightened, flying up on 
the fences which mark the divisions of the land. They are so 
tame that one could almost knock them over with a stick. The 
food of the Eosella consists chiefly of seeds, but also of insects. 
Their voice is not shrill and piercing, but of a pleasant piping 
kind. The breeding season falls between October and January, 
and the brood sometimes consists of as many as eleven, but 
usually of five or six. The nest is built in the hollow of 
a tree, often far down inside the trunk, but easily accessible 
to this parrakeet, which is particularly clever in climbing. 
Since these parrakeets attack the ripening maize and other 


crops, inflicting considerable damage, and because their flesh 
is reckoned delicious eating, they have long been keenly pur- 
sued as game, and have everywhere been driven out of the 
inhabited districts. But of late, like most parrots, they have 
become an important article of commerce, and, therefore, they 
are chiefly caught alive in large nets. This is done principally 
when they begin their migrations in flocks. They then suddenly 
appear in neighbourhoods in which they are not found at other 
times, and, according to the success met with in capturing them, 
they are exported to Europe. 

We know comparatively little of the life of this very common 
variety in freedom ; we have, however, full details as to its 
existence in captivity. All that I have written on page 238, by 
way of introduction, applies especially to the Rosella. I wish, 
however, to mention emphatically that this bird can bear our 
climate exceedingly well, and has already in many cases, notably 
with Mr. Otto Wigand, photographer in Zeitz, shown that it 
can, without danger, pass the winter in our country in the open 
air. Wigand, in 1871, was the first to breed this species. 

The traveller, Gould, asserts that the Eosella, in spite of its 
brilliant plumage, is unable to excite a lasting interest; in- 
variably after a short time it becomes wearisome, and I fear that 
even the ease with which it can be bred will hardly lend it any 
considerable value. Nevertheless, it has found enthusiastic 
admirers, and among them Mr. A. Bargheer, teacher of music at 
Basel. He thus describes them : " A couple of Eosellas in 
a cage may appear quiet and stupid, because they are too shy 
and terrified to move about much. Where, on the other hand, 
they have plenty of room to fly about, they are uncommonly 
lively, and so attractive and entertaining that one may watch 
their antics with pleasure. Their flight is easy and graceful, 
their movements on the ground quick and skilful, although, like 
all parrots, they look awkward owing to the inward turn of the 
foot and the manner of lifting one over the other. They also 
climb rapidly, but prefer to fly, and frequently undertake con- 
tinuous exercise on the wing. One must use care, especially at 
first, in giving them green food ; but I gave twigs of willows, 
alder, beech, and fruit trees, afterwards ears of all kinds of corn 
and grasses, and, finally, chickweed and salad (but the latter is 
always dangerous for the Platycerci). In the autumn they had 
service berries, and in winter dried juniper berries; all others 
they rejected. They liked the fresh seeds of the sunflower 


greatly. The diet, of course, consisted chiefly of seeds — canary 
seed, millet, hemp, oats, and maize. The voice of the Rosella 
is a pleasant piping. The male utters a short but rather varied 
song, the female only a low soft call, and a loud, clear note of 
warning, both of which latter, however, are also peculiar to the 
male. The latter dances a love dance, holding himself upright, 
having the feathers of the neck and head erected, and the tail 
outspread like a fan, and raising his body with a quick backward 
motion, accompanied with clear, ardent notes. A full-grown 
Eosella cannot live peaceably with its equals or other birds." 
Mr. Bargheer has, from two couples, annually bred several 
broods, each of three to five nestlings. Strangely enough, the 
parrakeets always began to build their nest in our spring. 

Though I may willingly agree that the Rose Hill Parrakeet, 
if treated with more attention and affection, will become a 
pleasant companion in a room, yet I should by no means be 
justified on that account in giving it a place in the present 
work ; but at the house of Mr. Holtz, postal secretary, of 
Leipzig, I myself heard a Rosella which said, " Papa," 
f' Mamma," "Ella," and mixed up other words with its own 
strange natural chatter. Moreover, we have accounts of several 
talking Rosellas, but I consider it unnecessary to repeat them 
here. Of course, this species reaches a much higher value if 
there is a hope of training the young home-bred birds at once 
to become good speakers. For the purpose of teaching it is 
certainly most advantageous to choose from the miserable- 
looking, tailless, half-fledged, dirty young birds of a grey colour, 
which have been newly imported. 

Psittacus splendens, PI. 

Shining Parrakeet or Parrot, Fidji Parrakeet (Ger., Purpur- 
sittich, gldnzender Purpursittich, Glanzsittich, Fidschisittich, 
rather Pompadour sittich, pur purr other Plattschweifsittich; Fr., 
Perruche pourpre de Fidji, Perruche 2^ou7yre hrillante ; Dut., 

^ Purper-roode Fidji- ParJcief) — Beauty and Rarity — Description 
^—Habitat — Character in Captivity. 

As described on page 237, the Platycerci belong to the 
most richly coloured and variegated of all parrots, and the 



Shining Parrakeets are further distinguished by the brilliancy 
of their plumage. On account of their rarity, as well as their 
beauty, they command extraordinarily high prices, and are only 
to be found in the possession of the wealthy or in the larger 
zoological gardens. 

The Shining Parrakeet is crimson on the crown, back, and 
sides of the head, and on the sides of the neck ; the back of the- 
neck is marked with a broad blue band ; the whole of the upper 
part of the body, the wing coverts, the rump and upper tail 
coverts dark grass-green ; the primaries blue, the inner web 
edged with black ; the secondaries blue at the base of the 
outer web, greenish-blue at the tip, the last green, all have 
a black edge on the inner web ; quite black on the reverse 
side ; the under wing coverts marine-blue ; the tail feathers 
blue, with green edge at the base on the outer web, the 
two central ones green, with blue tip extending about one- 
third of their length ; the whole of the under part of the body 
crimson ; the beak bluish-black, the tip yellowish ; eyes a light 
orange-red ; feet blackish-brown ; claws black. It is about the 
size of a crow (length, 16Jin. to 17fin. ; wings, l\\r\. to 9in. ; 
central feathers of the tail, Z^in. to 8Jin. ; outermost tail 
feathers, 14fin. to 5^in.). 

It is a native of the Fiji Islands, but only of the little 
group of Viti, where it is found on some islands. It was 
discovered by Peale in 1848, and was observed and described 
by Layard and Griifife. The Shining Parrakeets attract atten- 
tion in the mangrove forests, not only by their brilliant colours, 
but, less agreeably, by their loud cries. They live chiefly in 
the forests. Their flight is heavy. They feed on berries and 
fruits, as well as seeds, and in some places do much damage to 
the crops of maize, &;c. While engaged in plundering they keep 
strict silence, having become shy and cautious owing to the 
pursuit they are subject to. When danger threatens, one of 
them utters a warning cry, and the whole body fly rapidly to the 
wood, to hide in the thick tops of the trees. If molested there 
they hurry away with loud screams. But if the sportsman 
affects to pass by, they are easily deceived, and he may get 
within shot. Layard states that they have been kept in 
captivity in the Fiji Islands from time immemorial, for the 
purpose of supplying feathers as ornaments. When taken 
from the nest (the brood consists usually of three), they 
become exceedingly tame, and can without difficulty be taught 


to fly about freely and to return regularly to the cage in the 

This parrakeet has been imported alive several times since 
1864, but always only singly or in pairs. In the year named 
it appeared in the Zoological Gardens in London, and afterwards 
in those of Amsterdam, Berlin, Hamburg, &c. It has been 
shown now and then at exhibitions, and was to be seen in the 
collections of Messrs. Wiener, Eittner-Bos, Blaauw, Scheuba, &c. 
The travellers tell us that it is gifted with speaking talent. A 
magnificent Shining Parrakeet which Miss C. Hagenbeck exhibited 
in the Ornis Exhibition, at Berlin, in 1880, was not only un- 
commonly tame, but a thorough good speaker. Eittner-Bos 
describes this species as awkward and clumsy in the cage : 
*' With the exception of its gorgeous plumage, I have failed to 
find any pleasant qualities in it, nevertheless I believe that all 
these large parrakeets would develop a completely different 
character if they were kept in a large aviary, where they had 
room to fly about." Mr. Scheuba had a Eed Shining Parrakeet 
which was so tame that it came voluntarily to perch upon the 

Psittacus larvatns, Ess. ; seu Psittacus personatus, Gr. 

The Masked Parrakeet (Ger., Maskensittich, schwarzmaskirter 
Plattschweifsittich ; Fr., Perruche a masque noire, Perroquet 
masque, Coracopse noir ; Dut., Masker Parkief) — Costliness 
and Rarity — Physical Characteristics — Habitat — In Captivity 
— Talent for Speech. 

The most stately of all the Platycerci, this is more rare, perhaps, 
than the Shining Parrakeet, and therefore the more costly. 

It is black on the forehead, front of the head, round the eye, 
and the lower mandible, so that the face appears as if covered 
by a mask ; the whole of the upper part of the body is dark 
grass-green ; the primaries are blue, blackish on the inner 
web ; the secondaries are green, the inner web edged with 
black ; all the quills black on the reverse side ; all the upper 


wing-coverts, and the bend of the wing, blue ; the largest under 
wing-coverts black ; the tail edged with black on the inner web 
and wholly black on the reverse side ; the throat, sides, thighs, 
and under tail-coverts green ; the front of the throat and breast 
deep yellow ; the front part of the belly darker yellow ; the 
hinder part of the belly orange-yellow ; the beak black ; eyes 
orange-red ; the feet and claws black. It is fully the size of a 
crow (length, 18^in. to 18 Jin. ; wings, 8|in. to 9^in. ; central 
feathers of the tail, 8§in. to 9 Jin. ; outermost tail feathers, 45in. 
to 5fin.). 

The Fiji Islands are its home, and there, accordingly, are 
found the largest and most beautiful of the Platycerci — the 
Bed Shining and the Masked Parrakeet. It is said to inhabit 
only some of the islands. Grilffe states that he saw the 
Masked Parrakeet in company with the Eed Shining Parra- 
keet in the mangrove bushes, in the swamp along the shores 
of the rivers, where they agreeably enlivened a scene otherwise 
devoid of animal life. 

In the year 1848, Gr. R. Gray described it from a live bird 
in a menagerie, but until Peale gave an account of it, the 
ornithologists (for instance, Schlegel) were much in error as to 
this variety. They took it to be the female or the young of 
one of the other Shining Parrakeets. We have no further 
details of its life in captivity. The zoological gardens show 
it even more rarely than the species before described, and only 
the very best private collections contain a specimen. Messrs. 
Wiener, of London, Scheuba, of Olmlitz, and Baron Comely 
in the Castle of Beaujardin, near Tours, lately announced 
that they have each a Masked Parrakeet. In the aviary of the 
last-named it keeps in excellent health at a temperature of 
8deg. C. I have seen specimens of this Parrakeet on several 
occasions in the menagerie of the dealer, Mr. Karl Hagenbeck, 
and in the wholesale shop of Miss Hagenbeck. In the latter 
collection I heard it speak loudly and clearly ; with this 
qualification, these birds appear more valuable than many 


Psittacus undulatus, Shw. 

Zehra Grass Parraheet, Zebra ParraJceet, Singing Parraheet, 
Shell or Scallop Parrot, Grass Parraheet (Ger., Wellenstreijiger 
Sittich, Wellenpapagei, Wellensittich, Kanariensittich, Mus- 
chelsittich, Undulatus, frilher Pepitapajjagei, fdlschlich audi 
Andulatus, Angidatus oder gar Andalusier, Dr. Finsch 
henannte ihn Wellenstreijiger Sin g sittich ; Fr., Perruche 
ondulee ; Dut., Grasparlciet) — Distinguishing MarJcs of the 
Genus — Description of the Species — Habitat — Breeding^ 
Capacity for Speech. 

The Undulated Parrakeet {Melopsittacus, Gld.) — literally tlie 
Singing Parrakeet — may be easily distinguished from all other 
talking parrots, for the only one of this genus is much smaller 
than any other, being about the size of a sparrow. Their 
special distinguishing marks are as follows : Beak rounded, with 
thin, long point to the upper mandible, which is bent outwards 
and provided with two fine indentations ; the nostrils are small 
and round, set in broad puffed-up cere ; the lores and eye 
cere feathered ; the wings long and pointed ; the tail long, 
wedge-shaped, the two central feathers projecting far beyond 
the rest ; the feet slender and weak ; the tongue short, fleshy, 
blunt pointed ; the plumage soft. As there is only one species, 
I shall give all other details in speaking of it. 

The points of contact between men and animals in general, 
and between men and speaking birds in particular, upon which I 
touched in the Introduction to this book, offer abundant matter 
of surprise for the amateur, and, indeed, for every intelligent 
person. But scarcely any illustration of this kind could have 
made so great an impression on all who witnessed it as the 
speaking Undulated Grass Parrakeet in the Ornis Exhibition 
in Berlin, in 1880. 

Stories of canary birds gifted with speech had long been 
made public, but were generally received with incredulity, 
though they came from an unquestionably trustworthy source. 
There, however, stood the Undulated Grass Parrakeet, certainly 
not more highly gifted by nature, bodily before the eyes of the 
unbelieving, and thousands of visitors to the exhibition could 


convince themselves that they were not the victims of decep- 

It is well known that the Undulated Grass Parrakeet has 
only appeared in our market in modern times. It was first 
described and scientifically named by Shaw in 1789-1813; in 
1831 it was mentioned as a rarity in the museum of the Linnean 
Society, in London. Gould gave the first description of its life 
in freedom, and this renowned naturalist brought the first living 
pair of Grass Parrakeets to Europe in 1840. In this short space 
of time — the last four decades — this, the smallest of all parrots 
imported alive, has become so common among us that it is to 
be found everywhere, whether in palace or in cottage, and is as 
completely at home as our yellow friend, the canary. Many 
thousands are imported annually, besides which it is bred from 
time to time in great numbers. 

It is a prettily coloured bird, of a yellowish-green on the 
upper part of the body, the plumage appearing in undulating 
lines, with blue spots on the cheeks, chin, and throat. It is 
about the size of a sparrow, but slimmer and prettier, with 
pointed wings and long graduated tail, and its comically dignified 
mien gives it a charming appearance, as it runs about in a 
lively manner, nodding its head and chattering so sweetly, as, 
on this account, to have received the name of *' Singing Parra- 

It is marked as follows : The full-grown male — the forehead 
and crown of the head pure straw-colour ; a narrow band of 
sulphur-yellow on the forehead ; broad lores and marks on 
the lower part of the cheek of the same colour ; in the centre of 
the cheek there are some rather long blue feathers, which form 
blue spots ; a long broad beard of yellow, and mixed in it also 
blue spots, but these are of a darker shade ; the back of the 
head (beginning about the middle) the sides of the head, the 
back part and nape of the neck, the shoulders, and the greatest 
part of the wing coverts are of a bright greenish-yellow, marked 
regularly with transverse undulations (each feather has four fine 
black transverse lines, those on the shoulders and wing coverts 
only two, but the latter are broader, and form half-circles) ; 
the hinder part of the back, the rump, and upper tail coverts, 
grass-green, the latter with more of a bluish-green shade ; 
the primaries and their coverts a dull green, the outer webs 
having a narrow yellow edge, the inner webs blackish, and in 
the centre broad yellowish spots (which below are lighter, 


narrow towards the front, becoming broad towards the back, 
and forming a transverse band right across the wing) ; the 
secondaries are green on the outer web, finely edged with 
yellow, yellow at the base and in the centre (so that the 
outspread wing shows on the upper side a yellowish-green, and, 
on the reverse side, a yellowish- white transverse band) ; all 
the quills are a dark ashen-grey on the reverse side ; the last 
quill feathers and their coverts, as well as the longest of the 
capillars, are brownish-black, with yellow tips ; the two central 
and longest tail feathers dark-blue; the rest are more of a 
greenish-blue, with a broad yellow central spot across both 
webs, and a broad black edge at the base of the inner webs (the 
tail has, on the outer and inner webs, two broad blackish-green 
bands running crosswise, and a similar acute-angled band of 
sulphur-yellow) ; all the under parts of the body, from the 
base of the beak, a yellowish grass-green ; the beak greenish 
horn-grey ; the cere dark-blue, more or less glazed ; the eyes 
pearly white, sometimes pale yellow, with large black iris ; 
broad bluish circle round the eye ; the feet bluish horn- 
coloured, those bred at home white ; claws blackish. The 
female is similarly marked, only the blue spots on the 
cheeks and beard are a little smaller ; but the chief mark of 
distinction is that the cere is greenish, yellowish, or brownish- 
grey. The plumage of the young bird is similar to the above 
on the forehead, crown of the head, and sides of the breast, but 
marked with pale dark transverse lines, the whole colouring 
paler, the green and yellow duller; the beak, at the time of 
leaving the nest, black (growing, after the second week, gradually 
a lighter green-grey) ; the cere flesh-coloured or bluish-white. 
Length, 8^in. to lO^in. ; width of outspread wings, lO^in. ; 
wings, 3-Jin. to 3|in. ; central tail feathers, 3|in. to 3Jin. ; 
outermost tail feathers, l^in. 

It is said to be a native of all parts of Australia, and not 
only is it found throughout an extensive range, but it is in some 
places very numerous. Its habits doubtless agree with those of 
the Platycerci, described on page 237. Gould especially draws 
attention to the regularity of these birds in all their movements. 
The flocks fly away at a certain time in the morning to seek for 
food, return home in the same way, and hurry off, morning and 
evening, to the drinking places. In the heat of the day they sit 
motionless in the thick tops of the trees. During the breeding 
season they live gregariously in the hollows of the gum-trees. 


Many pairs settle near each other, and sometimes two or more 
brood in the same nest. They are said to lay three or four 
eggs. Whether, as is the case in captivity, they hatch several 
broods consecutively, is not known ; but we may conclude, 
almost with certainty, that this is so. After the nesting season 
they collect in flocks of from twenty to a hundred head, 
and these again unite, apparently all at once, in enormous 
numbers, and, if the season be dry, undertake more or less 
distant migrations, and, driven by the drought from their 
customary habitations, appear suddenly in districts abounding 
more in water. Among them one often sees little flocks 
of Grass Parrakeets {Euj)hema, Wgl.) — for instance, the Tur- 
quoisine Grass Parrakeet — the Platycerci, and various others. 
In districts where they are not harassed they are exceedingly 
tame, and may be shot in great numbers. All their move- 
ments are graceful and rapid ; their flight is exceedingly 
quick ; they climb well, or rather, they slip about cleverly 
in the branches, and can walk well on the ground. Their 
food consists chiefly of grass seeds. They seek out the corn 
fields also, but do no great damage. On the other hand, 
however, they offer a valuable prey, for they are often caught 
by the flock in great nets, for the purpose of export to 
Europe. The chief places for the capture of Grass and other 
Parrakeets in this way are said to be the Alexandra and 
Wellington Lakes, both situated by the River Murray, where 
bird seekers resort annually for the capture of all sorts of 
beautiful parrots, but principally the Undulated Grass Parra- 
keet. Though no more than threepence or sixpence a head may 
be paid on the spot by the wholesale dealer, yet, owing to 
the multiplicity of the birds, considerable sums may be realised. 
The number of Undulated Parrakeets imported into Europe is 
estimated at from 2000 to 12,000. 

The Undulated Grass Parrakeet bears an unusually high value 
as an aviary bird, chiefly for the ease with which it may be 
bred — an advantage found to so great a degree in no other bird 
except the canary. It is bred with equal zeal either for pleasure 
or profit, for the admiration for this bird is always increasing, 
and the young Undulated Parrakeets may sometimes be disposed 
of to great advantage. Of course, in the spring and early 
summer months, when many thousand couples arrive on the 
large Australian ships, the prices fall, but they do not remain 
low very long, and in winter good breeding birds are expensive. 


In my small book, the "Undulated Grass Parrakeet" (Creutz, 
Magdeburg), full directions will be found for the purchase, 
management, breeding, and valuation of this species. It may be 
further remarked that the food is just the same as that directed 
on page 238 for the Platycerci. Single birds are best fed on 
canary seed, unshelled millet, and raw oats, with the addition 
of a little green food and ears of corn or grass. 

Just as the canary needed a comparatively long space of time 
for its complete naturalisation among us ; and again, as we are 
not really able to determine with exactness when the change 
from the greenish-grey plumage of the wild bird to the light 
yellow of the cultivated bird took place, or whether, indeed, 
several centuries were required to bring it about — in the same 
way the Grass Parrakeet shows itself to be peculiarly subject to 
the influences of development in breeding. Less than fifty 
years have sufficed for it to appear before us, not only in varieties 
of colouring, but also as a speaker. From the original variety 
we bred a yellowish-green, next a pure yellow was produced, and 
afterwards a white variety — the two latter had red eyes. 
Eventually a blue specimen was generated. Surely, no other 
bird has proved so readily subject to the influences of man in 
development by breeding. 

The principal attraction of the Grass Parrakeet for the readers 
of this book is, of course, its talent for speech. It is not really 
astonishing that the Undulated Grass Parrakeet should display a 
faculty for talking, belonging, as it does, to the Parrot family, 
and hence to those birds which, as this work abundantly proves, 
take a much higher rank than others. But when we consider 
that, though by no means the smallest of the parrots, it is 
one of the most diminutive imported alive ; and that, with its 
droll charming ways, its rapid movements, &c., it does not at all 
give the impression of a highly talented bird, then, indeed, its 
great aptitude for speech becomes somewhat surprising. 

Miss Eugenie Maier, of Stuttgart, was, in 1877, the first to 
give an account of a talker of this species. Her young Grass 
Parrakeet, which had not yet acquired its adult plumage, picked 
up some lovely notes from the song of a Japanese robin. " It 
was very tame, and at a call would fly to my shoulder or my 
hand. Then it learnt the trumpet notes of a pair of zebra 
finches, and forgot the call of the robin. I therefore sent the 
finches away, so that ' Misse ' — as I named the parrakeet — had 
no intercourse with other birds, and soon it also foro:ot the 


trumpeting. How great was my astonisliment and delight when 
one day it greeted me with the words, ' Come, dear little Misse, 
€ome r which it at first pronounced hesitatingly, but soon loudly 
and distinctly. I had always saluted it thus in the morning, but 
without the intention of teaching it to speak. Not long after- 
wards it began to say also, ' Oh, you dear little Misse, you little 
darling, come, give me a kiss.' It is most charming to see it 
and to hear it, when it plays with my finger, kissing it, then sing- 
ing, and trying to eat. It flies away, returns, and repeats these 
gambols countless times, during which it continually chatters 
the above words." 

Mr. William Bauer, of Tubingen, describes another speaking 
Grass Parrakeet : *'If anyone calls * Hansele, come,' it at once 
flies to him, sits on his shoulder or on his finger, and begins to 
chatter. It says most clearly, ' Hansele, where are you ? 
where are you?' and then replies to itself, ' Here I am ;' then it 
asks further, 'Are you good ?' and says very prettily, ' He is a 
dear little sweetie,' or ' Sweet Hansele! pretty boy !' If a tune 
is sung to it, it sings it also ; it can also laugh and cough, and 
is especially fond of getting 'kisses.' It puts its beak to 
one's lips, and kisses with a loud noise. At the same time it 
watches the eyes constantly, to see if they wear a friendly 
expression. If it wishes to be kissed, it says, * Come,' ' a kiss.' 
Of course, it is accustomed to be talked to a great deal, to be 
laughed at, and played with ; if not, it plays alone with a ball of 
cotton or a piece of roll. If not let out of the cage very soon in 
the morning, it cries and complains in truly lamentable tones. 
It talks also at night when the gas is lighted, and, if tired, it 
sings and rocks itself, whistling more and more softly, to sleep. 
It appears to have ceased from its natural cry entirely." It may 
be added that this parrakeet was sent by Mr. Bauer to the bird 
show at Berlin, where it took a silver medal, and was afterwards 
sold for £7 10s. 

Another interesting description is furnished by Mr. K. von 
Scheidt, of Coblentz. The Grass Parrakeet of which he writes 
was in the workroom of Mr. Schmitz, tailor, together with a 
canary bird, and it surprised the workers, who had taken much 
notice of it, by saying softly one day, " Go away, James ! you 
blockhead, you rascal !" The men scarcely believed their ears — 
one asserted and another denied that the bird had spoken — but 
soon they heard it talking quite loudly and distinctly. After- 
wards it learnt to smack with the tongue, to pipe long-drawn 


notes, and to kiss ; took food from the mouth of its master and 
his daughter, could distinguish between those around it, and 
would follow the young lady when she called. It never again 
uttered the natural cry of the Undulated Grass Parrakeet, but 
only made a by no means unpleasant twittering. 

Dr. Lazarus tells us of an Undulated Grass Parrakeet — 
"Mignon " — which was uncommonly tame. It would come at 
a call when flying free through the room, and perch on the 
hand ; and it learnt to pronounce its own name distinctly in a 
soft tone. This bird was exceedingly affectionate. 

The last account of a talking Grass Parrakeet which has come 
to hand is from Mr. A. Brandt, of Frauenburg : " A young male 
parrakeet, taken from the nest almost before it was fledged,, 
became remarkably tame in a few days ; and, as the owner had 
spare time to occupy himself with it, it soon learnt to say some 
words, and in the course of a year and a half it could say about 
fifty words, and even whole sentences distinctly. The bird is 
so teachable that it daily learns something fresh." As the above-^ 
named gentleman invites all fanciers to see and hear his 
Undulated Parrakeet, we can have no reason to doubt the 
extraordinary talent of this little speaker. Certainly, it has- 
not yet been excelled by any other of its species. 

After the instances given above, we can foresee for the 
Undulated Grass Parrakeet a much wider appreciation and 
greatly augmented value ; for, of all the speaking parrots, it is- 
among the least troublesome, and it is the most charming, and^ 
at the same time, the most easily obtained. 



-Vr. HI- :F'T^Xl<T(3r 



Parrots and Parrakeets 





Collectors In everi? part of tbe Morlb. 






Abscesses, 69, 70 
Acclimatised, misinterpretation of 
the term, 15 
Parrots, 13 
Advantages of parrots over other 

creatures, 1 
Africa, treatment of Grey parrots 

in, 8 
Age of : 

Amazons, 46 

Black-bonnet and lory, 170 
Cockatoos, 46, 141 
Grey parrot, 46, 90 
Uliger's macaw, 195 
Larger parrots, 36 
Macaws, 188 
Military macaw, 190 
Miiller's parrot, 136 
Parrots in general, 46 
E,ed-and-yellow macaw, 192 
Eed-crested cockatoo, 148 
Air tubes, catarrh in the, 54 
Alecto cockatoo, 158, 159, 160 
Alexanderpapagei, 200 
Alexander parrakeet, 204 
Alexandrine paeraseets : 
Food, 31, 32 
Names of : 

Black-billed, 209 
Great, 204, 205 
Javan, 206, 207 
Luzian's, 210 
Mauritius, 203, 204 
Eose-breasted, 208 
, (See also under respective 

All-green parrakeet : 
Breeding, 234 

All-green parrakeet (continued): 
Commerce, important article 

of, 233 
Food, utilised as, 233, 234 
Habitat, 233 
Hardiness, 234 
Importation, 233, 234 
In freedom, 233 
Named by Gmelin, 232 
Other names, 232 
Physical characteristics, 232 
Screamer, 234 
Size, 233 
Almonds, bitter, symptoms of 
poisoning with, 58 
Sweet, as food, 30 
Aluminium chains, 27 
Amazone a bee couleur de sang, 116 
Mit lilafarbnem Scheitel, 118 
Amazon parrots : 
Age, 46 
Breeding, 95 
Classification, confusion in, 

Contrasted with Black and 

Grey parrots, 78, 79 
Deportment, 94 
Food, 28-31, 94, 95, 97 
Foremost in rank of the New 

World parrots, 93 
Habitat, 94 
Importation, 96 
In freedom, 94, 95 
Named by Swainson, 93 
Names of : 

Blue-fronted, 97, 98 
Diademed, 118, 119 
Double-fronted, 100 
Dufresne's, 119 
Festive, 108, 109 



Amazon parrots {continued): 
Golden-naped, 106 
Guatemalan, 107 
Levaillant's, 100, 101 
Mealy, 104, 105 
Orange-winged, 99 
Eed-fronted, 110, 111 
Eed-masked, 115, 116 
Eed-throated, 112, 113 
Salle's, 109, 110 
Single yellow-headed, 103 
Vinaceons, 116, 117 
White-browed, 113, 114 
White-fronted, 111, 112 
Yellow-cheeked, 117, 118 
Yellow-fronted, 101-103 
Yellow-shouldered, 103, 

(See also under respective 
Natural History, 93-95 
Physical characteristics, 93, 94 
Pre-eminence as speakers in 

the New World, 93 
Price, 45 
Screamers, 96 
Size, 94 
Talents, 96, 97 
Varieties, 96, 97 
Water, keeping without, 33 
America, tame parrots in, 7 
Anakan, 194 
Anecdotes : 

Canary-winged parrakeet, 235 
Golden-crowned conure, 219, 

Great macaw, 3 
Grey-breasted parrakeet, 228 
Grey parrots, 36, 41, 44, 83-87 
Javan Alexandrine parrakeet, 

Mealy Amazon parrot, 44 
Noble macaw, 197 
Eedlory, 175, 176 
Eoseate cockatoo, 154 
Undulated grass parrakeet, 

White cockatoo, 3 
AngulatHs oder gar Andalusier, 247 
Animal fat as food, 30 
Animals distinguished from man, 2 

Animals, speech of, compared with 

that of men, 3 
Ant grubs as food, 32 

Heap, effect of disturbing, 2 
Apples as food, 29 
Ara a front chatain, 194 

A joues rouges, 195 

Aux ailes verts, 192 

Bleu, 193 

Chloroptere, 192 

D'llliger, 195 

Hyacinthine, 188 

Kakketoe, 158-160 

Macao, 190 

Maximilien, 188 

Militaire, 189 

Noble, 196 

Pavonane, 196 

Eouge, 190 

Vert, 194 
Arabians fond of Grey parrot, 

Arakanga, 190 
Arara, Illiger's, 195 

Mit rothem Handgelenk, 194 
Ararakakadu, 158, 159, 160 
Ararauna, 193 

Arnold's, Mr. F., description of the 
White-browed Amazon par- 
rot, 114 
Atrophy, 62 
Attention, small amount of, needed,. 

Auch militarischer arara, 189 
Australia, tame parrots in, 7 
Aviary, appearance of the parrot 
in, 6 


Bananas as food, 30, 32 
Bare-eted cockatoo : 

Blaauw's, Mr., description, 
156, 157 

Habitat, 157 

Named by Sclater, 156 

Other names, 156 

Physical characteristics, 156, 

Earity, 157 

Size, 157 



Bargheer's description of the Eose 

Hill parrakeet, 241-243 
Bartsittich, 208, 210 
Bathing, 49 
Baths, 51 

Bauer's, Mr, William, description 
of Undulated Grass parra- 
keet, 252 
Beak, diseases of, 70 

Grinding of, a sign of ill 

health, 53 
Moisture of, a sign of ill health, 
Beasts, language of, 2 
Bechstein, birds described by : 
Black-bonnet lory, 170 
Carolina conure, 214 
Javan Alexandrine parrakeet, 

Military macaw, 190, 191 
Bereifter, Kiirzflugelpapagei, 104 
Berries as food to be avoided, 30 
Birds, other than parrots, talkers, 4 
Speech acquired by few, 2 
Talking, not rare at the 
present day, 3 
Bitter almonds poisonous, 30 
Blaatjw, Mr. A. E., birds de- 
scribed by : 
Bare-eyed cockatoo, 156, 157 
Ceram lory, 173, 174 
Cockatoos, 140 
Great Black cockatoo, 159, 

Greater White-crested cocka- 
too, 146 
Leadbeater's cockatoo, 150 
Senegal parrot, 123 
Black-billed Alexandrine 

parrakeet : 
Named by Wagler, 209 
Other names, 209 
Physical characteristics, 209 
Size, 209 
Black-bonnet lory : 
Age, 170 

Bechstein' s remarks on, 170 
Buffon's remarks on, 170 
Domestic qualities, 170 
Food, 170 
Habitat, 169 

Black-bonnet lory (continued): 

Importation, 169, 170 

Named by Wagler, 169 

Other names, 169 

Physical characteristics, 169 

Size, 169 

Talents, 170 
Black parrots : 

Classification, 5, 78 

Contrasted with Amazon and 
Grey parrots, 78, 79 

Food, 28-31 

Greater Vaza, 91, 92 

Lesser Vaza, 92, 93 

Named by Linne, 5 
Black-shouldered parrot, 133 
Blaujiugiger Kakadu, 146 
Blaubart, 108 
Blaubiirtige Amazone, 108 
Blaubauchiger Keilschwanzlori fal- 
schlich blauer Gebirgslori, 
Blauer gelbbriistiger arara, 193 
Blaufltigeliger Schmalschnabelsit- 

tich, 232 
Blaukinniger Kurzfliigelpapagei, 

Blaukopf, 124 
Blaukrone, 109 

Blauohriger Keilschwanzlori, 183 
Blauscheitel - Amazonenpapagei, 

Blauscheiteliger Kiirzflugelpapagei, 

Blauachulteriger Breitschwanzlori, 

171, 175 
Blaustirn-Arara, 196 
Blaustirnige, 97 
Blaustirniger Arara, 196 

Keilschwanzsittich, 215 

Lori, 176 

Sittich, 215 
Blaustirnsittich, 215 
Blau-und gelbkopfige Amazone, 97 
Blauw en roode Loeri, 176 
Blauwgeele Ara, 193 
Blauwkeel Amazone Papegaai, 108 
Blauwkop Langvleugel Papegaai, 

Blauwneus Ara, 196 
Blauwoog Kakketoe, 146 



Blauwoor Loeri, 183 
Blauwstaart Loeri, 171 
Blanwvoorhoofd Parkiet, 215 
Bleeding, staunching, 49 
Blood-poisoning, 9, 60, 61 
Bios Alexandersittich, 204, 206 

Alexandersittich von Java, 206 

Amazone oder Amazonen- 
papagei, 97 

Goldnacken und gelbnackiger 
Knrzflugelpapagei, 106 

Grassittich, 232 

Kuba-Amazone, 111 

Nymfe, 161, 162 

Portoriko-Amazone, 110 

Eother Lori, 175 

Schwarzpapagei, 92 

Tirika, 232 
Blue and BufE macaw, 193 
Blue and Yellow macaw : 

Habitat, 193 

Linden's description, 193 

Named by Linne, 193 

Other names, 193 

Physical characteristics, 193 

Size, 193 

Talents, 193 
Blue-bellied lorikeet, 180 
Blub-bbeasted lory : 

Domestic character, 177, 178 

Food, 178 

Meyer's, Mr., descripbion, 177 

Named by Latham, 176 

Other names, 176 

Physical characteristics, 176, 

Scheuba's, Mr., remarks, 

Size, 177 
Blue-crowned conure : 

Food, 216 

Habitat, 215 

Khiel's, Mr. Napoleon M., 
description of. 216 

Named by Spix, 215 

Other names, 215 

Physical characteristics, 215 

Barely imported alive, 215 

Schmal'5, Mr,, account of, 215, 

Size, 215 

Blne-diademed lory, 176 
Blue-eyed cockatoo : 

Habitat, 147 

Named by Sclater, 146 

Other names, 146 

Physical characteristics, 146, 

Earity in the trade, 147 

Size, 147 

Utilised as food, 147 
Blue-fronted Amazon parrot : 

Capacity for training, 98 

Habitat, 98 

Importation, 98 

Named by Latham and Linne, 

Other names, 97 

Physical characteristics, 97, 

Purchase, 98 

Size, 98 
Blue-fronted parrakeet, 215 
Blue-headed lory, 169 

Parrot, 124 
Blue Mountain lory : 

Breeding, 181 

Examples, 182 

rood, 32, 181 

Hardiness, 181 

Importation, 181 

Natural history, 180 

Other names, 180 

Physical characteristics, 180, 

Price, 181 

Size, 181 

Talents, 181, 182 
Blue Mountain parrot, 180 
Blue-tailed lory, 171 
Blumenausittich, 232 
Boddaert, birds named by : 

Blossom-headed parrakeets, 

Grev-breasted parrakeet, 225- 

Mauritius Alexandrine parra- 
keet, 203, 204 

Mealy Amazon parrot, 104 

Psittacus cardinalis, 132 
Eqnes, 203 
Farinoaus, 104 



Boddaert, birds Bamed by {con- 
tinued) : 
Psittacus megalorrhynchus, 

Mdnachus, 225 
Eosa, 199 
Torquatus, 200 
Vittatus, 110 
Quaker parrakeet, 225-228 
Red-fronted Amazon parrot, 

Eing-necked Alexandrine par- 
rakeet, 200-202 
Eose-headed parrakeets, 199 


Breeding, 225 

Food, 225 

Grey-breasted, 225 

Habitat, 225 

Named by Bonaparte, 5, 224 

Physical characteristics, 224, 

Quaker, 225-228 

Size, 224, 225 
Bolborrhynchus, 224 
Bonaparte, birds named by : 

Bolborrhynchi, 5, 224, 225 

Psittacus intermedins, 132 
Bones, fractures of, 68, 69 
Bowels, inflammation of, 57, 58 
Brain, diseases of, 65 
Brandt's, Mr. A., description of Un- 
dulated Grass parrakeet, 253 
Brass cages, 23, 24 

Chains, 27 
Bravery of Grey parrots, 81 
Brazilian earth nuts as food, 30 
Bread as food, 29, 33 
Bread and butter as food, 30 
Breathing, heavy, with open beak, 

a sign of ill-health, 53 
Breeding : 

All Green parrakeet, 234 

Blue Mountain lory, 181 

Bolborrhynchi, 225 

Carolina conure, 214 

Cockatiel, 161, 162 

Cockatoos, 137 

Conures, 212 

Golden-crowned conure, 219 

Grey-breasted parrakeet, 223 

! Breeding {continued): 

Lories and lorikeets, 164 
Eing-necked Alexandrine par- 
rakeet, 200, 201 
Eose Hill parrakeet, 243 
Tovi parrakeet, 232 
Undulated Grass parrakeet, 

250, 251 
Valuable speakers, 77, 78 
Brehm's, Mr. A. E., anecdote of 
extraordinary Grey parrot, 
83, 84 
Eemarks on cockatoos, 139 
Breitschwanziger Halsband-Edel- 

sittich, 203 
Breitschwanz lori mit gelbem 

Eiickenfleck, 172 
Brillenamazone, 113 
Brillenkakadu, 146 
Brisson, birds described by: 
Salle's Amazon parrot, 109 
Yellow - shouldered Amazon 
parrot, 104 
Broad-tailed lories : 
Food, 32, 165, 168 
Habitat, 168 
Named by Wagler, 5 
Names of : 

Black-bonnet, 169, 170 
Blue-breasted, 176-178 
Ceram, 172-174 
Lady, 171, 172 
Eed, 175, 176 
Physical characteristics, 167, 

Size, 168 
Talents, 168 
Bronchial tubes and lungs, inflam- 
mation of, 56 
Brotogerys, 5, 229-236 

(See also nnder Small-hilled 
Brown-fronted macaw, 194, 195 

(See also nnder Small inacaiv) 
Brown-throated conure : 
Food, 223 
Habitat, 223 
Named by Linne, 221 
Other names, 221 
Physical characteristics, 222, 

s 2 



Brown-throated conure {continued) : 

Schlechta's, Baroness von, 
description of, 224 

Screamer, 221 

Size, 223 
Brush-toDgned parrots, food, 165 
Brute speech compared with that 

of men, 3 
BuFFON, birds described by : 

Black-bonnet lory, 170 

Cockatoos, 137 

Festive Amazon parrot, 108 

Small macaw, 195 
Bunter Plattschweifaittich, 240 
Buntsittich, 240 

Burmeister on Noble macaw, 196 
Burns, 68 

Buxton, Lord, on cockatoos, 137 
Buying, precautions in, 12 

(See also under Purchase) 


Cacatois a crete jaune, 144 
A Huppe rouge, 147 

Tricolore, 149 
Alecto, 158, 159, 160 
A lunettes, 141 
A yeux bleus, 146 

Nus, 156 
De Ducorps, 151 
De Goffin, 151 
De Leadbeater, 149 
Nasique, 155 
Ophthalmique, 146 
E/Osalbin, 153 
Eose, 153 
Cactus conure : 
Food, 223 
Habitat, 223 
Named by Prince Max von 

Wied, 221 
Other names, 221 
Physical charcteristics, 223 
Screamer, 221 
Size, 223 
Cages : 

Brass, 23, 24 
Choice of, 19 
Cleaning, 21, 23, 24 
Covering at night, 47, 48 

Cages (continued): 

Door, 21, 22 

Drinking vessel, 22, 23 

Floor, 20, 23 

Food vessel, 22, 23 

For carriage inland 16, 17 

For lesser parrots, 23 

For transportation, 16 

Illustration, 21 

Lacquer for, 23, 24 

Letting bird out of, 51 

Ordinary form, defects of, 20 

Ornamental, evils of, 23 

Ornis Society, Berlin, 20-22, 24 

Painting, 23, 24 

Perches, 22, 23 

Requirements of a good, 20 

Socle, 20, 21, 23 

Spittoon for drinking vessel, 23 

Swing, 22, 23 

Zinc drawer, 21 
"Cage Birds, Foreign," 4, 19, 20 
Caged parrots, treatment of, 6, 7 
Caging, 18 
Caique, Hawk-headed, 125 


Classification, 5, IGO 

Named by Lesson, 5, 160 

Physical characteristics, 160 

(See also under Cockatiel) 
Callopsitte, 161, 162 
Calypthorrhynchus, 136 
Canary seed as food, 32 
Canary-winged parrakeet : 

Cage bird, as a, 235 

Habitat, 235 

Luchs', Dr., account of, 235 

Named by Spix, 234 

Other names, 234 

Physical characteristics, 234 

Price, 235 

Size, 234 
Carnivorous parrots, 31 
Carolina conure : 

Bechstein's account of, 214 

Breeding, 214 

Cage bird, as a, 214 

Common in the trade, 214 

Habitat, 213 

Named by Linne, 213 

Other names, 213 



Carolina conure {continued) : 

Physical characteristics, 213 

Eey'p, Dr. E., description of, 

Size, 213 
Carolina parrakeet, 213 
Carriage inland, cages for, 16, 17 
Carrots as food, to be avoided, 30 
Catarrh in the air tubes, 54 

In the stomach and intestines, 
57, 58 
Catching, mode of, 10 
Catesby, Paradise parrot named 

by. 111 

Habitat, 133 

Named by Bonaparte, Bod- 
daert, &c., 132 

Other names, 132 

Physical characteristics, 132, 

Earity, 133 

Size, 133 
Ceram Edelpapegaai, 132 
Ceram Loeri, 172 
Ceram-Lori, 172 
Ceram lory : 

Blaauw's, Mr. A. E., remarks, 

Domestic qualities, 173, 174 

Food, 174 

Habitat, 173 

Heer's, Mr., description of, 174 

Named by Linne, 172 

Natural history, 172 

Other names, 172 

Physical characteristics, 173 

Earity in the trade, 173 

Scheuba's, Mr., remarks on, 

Schleehtendal's, Mr. E. von, 
opinion, 173 

Size, 173 
Chain for stand, 26, 27 
Changes, susceptibility to, 14, 43 
Chattering lory, 172 
Cherries as food, 29 
Chestnuts, sweet, to be avoided 

as food, 30 
Chests, transportation in wooden, 

Chirping sound a sign of ill health, 

Choking, 62 

Cholera, 59, GO 

Chrysotis, 93 

Named by Swainson, 5 
(See also under Amazon 'par- 

Classification of talkers, 4, 5, 77, 
Of true parrots, 78 

Claws, cutting, 52 

Cleaning cages, 21, 23, 24 

Coccateel, 161, 162 

Coccatile, 161, 162 

Cochin China parrakeet, 208 


Breeding, valuable for, 161, 

Cage bird, as a, 162 

Food, 31, 32 

Habitat, 162 

Importation, 162 

Named by Lesson and Gmelin, 
5, 161 

Other names, 161 

Physical characteristics, 161, 

Size, 162 

Speakers rare in the market, 

(/See also under Callijpsitta- 
Cockatoos : 

Age, 46, 141 

Blaauw's, Mr. A. E., de- 
scription of, 140 

Breeding, 137 

Brehm's, Mr. A. E., opinion 
of, 139 

Cages, 141 

Classification, 5, 136 

Distinguishing features, 136 

Dulitz's, Mr. Ernest, descrip- 
tion of, 138, 139 

Food, 28, 31, 141 

Friedel's, Mr., description of, 
137, 138 

Habitat, 136 

Importation, 140 

In freedom, 137 



Cockatoos (continued): 

Lazarus', Dr., description of, 

Macaw, tongue of, 6 

Names of : 

Alecto, 158-160 
Bare-eyed, 15G, 157 
Black, 158-160 
Blue-eyed, 146, 147 
Callipsittacus, 160-162 
Cockatiel, 160-162 
Ducorps', 151, 152 
Dwarf, 136 
Goffin's, 151 
Great Black, 158-160 
Great Palm, 158-160 
Great White, 144 
Great Yellow-crested, 144 
Greater Sulphur- crested, 

144, 145 

Greater White - crested, 

145, 146 
Java, 143 

Leadbeater's, 149, 150 
Lesser Sulphur-crested, 

143, 144 
Long-billed White, 155 
Long-tailed, 136 
Macaw, 5, 158 
Microglossus, 158 
Nasecus, 155, 156 
Parrakeet, 161, 162 
Eed-crested, 147-149 
Eoseate, 153-155 
Rose-crested, 147, 153 
Eosy, 153 

Slender-billed, 155, 156 
Small, 143 

Sulphur-crested, 143-145 
True, 5, 142 
White-crested, 145, 146 
{See also under respective 

Natural history, 136, 137 

Screamers, 141 

Strength, 141 

Talents, 137-140 

Temper, 137-139 
Cock birds more amenable to women 

than to men, 38 
Coffee as food, evils of, 34 

Cold in nose, throat, and mouth, 54 

Colours of parrots, object in de- 
scribing, 5 

Comfort, general, 46 

Comparison of parrots with othfr 
creatures, 1 

Connor, Mr. F., letter on importa- 
tion, 8 


Breeding, 212 
Classification, 5 
Domestic character, 212 
Food, 211, 212 
Habitat, 211 
In freedom, 211 
Named by Kiihl, 5, 211 
Names of : 

Blue-crowned, 215, 216 
Brown-throated, 221-224 
CactuH, 221-224 
Carolina, 213, 214 
Golden-crowned, 218-220 
Named by Kiihl, 5 
St. Thomas, 221 
Yellow, 217, 218 
Yellow-cheeked, 221-224 
(See also under respective 
Physical characteristics, 211 
Size, 211 
Convulsions, 65, 66 
Copper chains, 27 
Coracopse noir, 245 
Coracopsis, 78 

(See also under True parrots) 
Corn as food, 31 
Cornea, inflammation of, 60 
Coryllis, 5 
Costiveness, 59 
Coughing, 53 
Crested Grass parrakeet, 161, 162 

Ground parrakeet, 161, 162 
Crimson lory, 172 
Cropped -tailed lory, food, 32 
Croup, 55, 56 
Curassow parrakeet, 221 
Cuticle of the eye, swelling and 
inflammation of, 6G 


Dasyptilus, 5 



Dates as food, 30 
Dealers, tricks of, 13-15 
Desirable speaker, tokens of, 12 
Destructiveness of parrots, 7, 22 
Diadem-Amazone, 118 
Diademed Amazon pabrot : 
Habitat, 119 
Named by Shaw, 118 
Other names, 118 
Physical characteristics, 118, 

Size, 119 
Diademlori Blaubriistiger Breit- 

schwanzlori, 176 
DiarrhcBa, 58, 59 
Difference of capability in various 

parrots, 42, 43 
Digestion, disorders of, 57 
Diphtheria and croup, 55, 56 
Diphtheritic- croupish inflammation 
of the mucous membrane, 
55, 56 
Directions for mixing medicines, 

with doses, 74-76 
Diseases, judgment of health by 
excretions, 53 
Medicines for, 74-76 
Signs of ill health, 53, 54 
Diseases, list of : 
Abscesses, 69, 70 
Air tubes, catarrh in, 54 
Atrophy, 62 

Beak, diseases of the, 70 
Blood-poisoning, 9, 60, 61 
Bones, fractures of, 68, 69 
Bowels, inflammation of, 57, 58 
Brain, diseases of the, 65 
Bronchial tubes and lungs, 

inflammation of, 56 
Burns, 68 

Catarrh in the air tube?, 54 
In the stomach and in- 
testines, 57, 58 
Choking, 62 
Cholera, 59, 60 
Cold in nose, throat, and 

mouth, 54 
Convulsions, 65, QQ 
Cornea, inflammation of, QQ 
Costiveness, 59 
Coughing, 53 

Diseases, list of {contimued) -. 
Croup, 55, 56 
Cuticle of the eye, swelling 

and inflammation of, 66 
Diarrhoea, 58, 59 
Digestion, disorders of, 57 
Diphtheria and croup, 55, 56 
Diphtheritic-croupish inflam- 
mation of the mucous mem- 
brane, 55, 56 
Dropsy, 61 
Emaciation, 62 
Epileptic fits, 65, m 
Expectoration, 53 
Eyelids, scirrhus of, 67 
Swellings on, 67 
"Warts on, 67 
Eyes, diseases of the, &Q, 67 
Eat glands, disease of the, 

62, 63 
Eeathers, bristling, 53 
Feet, diseases of the, 71, 72 
Fits, epileptic, 65, QQ 
Flatulency, 57 

Fractures of the bones, 68, 69 
Gout, 67 
Gregarinse, 55 
Heart diseases, 64, 65 
Infectious typhoid, 59 
Inflammation of the bowels, 
57, 58 

Bronchial tubes and lungs. 

Lungs, 54, 55, 56 
Mouth, larynx, and throat, 

Mucous membrane, diph- 
theritic-croupish, 55, 56 
Stomach and intestines, 
57, 58 
Influenza, 54 
Internal inflammation of the 

eye, &Q, 67 
Intestinal worms, 61, 62 
Intestines, catarrh in, 57, 58 

Inflammation of, 57, 58 
Lameness, 67 
Larynx, inflammation of, 54 

Worm, 55 
Liver, diseases of the, 63, 64 
Lungs, inflammation of, 54-56 



Diseases, list of {continued): 

Mouth, cold in, 54 

Mouth, inflammation of, 54 

Mucous membrane, diph- 
theritic-croupish inflamma- 
tion of, 55, 56 

Nose, cold in, 54 

Ovary, diseases of the, 63 

Plucking, self, 73, 74 

Plumage, diseases of the, 72, 73 

Poisoning, 58 

Purging, 58, 59 

Eheumatic pains, 67, 68 

Eheumatism, 67 

Scirrhus of the eyelids* G7 

Self-plucking, 73, 74 

Snoring, 53 

Spleen, diseases of the, G3, 64 

Stomach and intestines, catarrh 
in, 57, 58 

Inflammation of, 57, 58 

Strongylus syngamus, 55 

Swellings on the eyelids, 67 

Swelling, windy, 57 

Syngamus trachealis, 55 

Throat, cold in, 54 

Inflammation of, 54 

Tuberculosis, 56, 57 

Typhoid, infectious, 59, 60 

Typhus, 59, 60 

Vent glands, diseases of the, 
62, 63 

Vomiting, 62 

Windpipe worm, 55 

Windy swelling, 57 

Worm, larynx or windpipe, 55 

Worms, intestinal, 61, 62 

Wounds, 68 
"Diseases of Household Birds, 

the," 52, 53 
Disputed species and varieties, 4 
Dr. Finsch benannte ihn Well- 

streiSger Singsittich, 247 
Dog, sagacity of, compared with 

that of the parrot, 1 
Domicella, 5, 167 

(/See also under Broad- tailed 
Door of cage, 20-23 
Double-fronted Amazon parrot, 100 
Drawer for stand, 26 

DriekleurKakketoeof Leadbeater'a 
Kakketoe, 149 

Drinking vessel for cage, 22, 23 
Vessel, pneumatic, 17 
Vessels for stands, 24 
Water, 34 

Dropsy, 61 

Dubbele Geelkop papegaai, 100 


Food, 152 

Habitat, 152 

Named by Hombron and 

Jacquinot, 151 
Other names, 151 
Physical characteristics, 151, 

Schleahta'e, Baroness, remarks 

on, 152 
Size, 152 
Ducorpa' kakadu oder Ducorps* 
kakatu, 151 
Kakketoe, 151 
Dufresne's Amazone papegaai, 119 
Dufresne's Amazon parrot: 
Habitat, 120 
Named by Levaillant and 

Kuhl, 119 
Other names, 119 
Physical characteristics, 119, 

Earity, 120 
Size, 120 
Talents, 120 
Dufresne's Kurzfliigelpapagei, 119 
Dulitz, Mr,, on taming and train- 
ing, 35 
Observations on Greater sul- 
phur-crested cockatoo, 145 
Treatment for self-plucking, 74 
Dulitz's, Mr. C, remarks on fat as 

food, 30 
Dulitz, Mr. Ernest, on cockatoos, 

138, 139 
Dukelrother arara, 192 
Dwarf cockatoos, 136 


Early lessons, 41, 42 
Eberle's, Mr. A., observations on 
Ornamented lory, 184 




As cage birds, 128 

Ceram, 132, 133 

Classification, 128 

Diseases, 129 

Food, 28-31, 127-129 

Gilolo, 131, 132 

Grand, 131 

Great-billed, 133, 134 

Habitat, 127 

Halmahera, 131, 132 

Linnean, 129, 

Muller's, 134-136 

Named by Wagler, 5, 127 

New Guinea, 129-131 

Physical characteristics, 127 

Eed-billed Muller's, 135 

Eed-sided, 129 

Size, 127 

Talents, 128 

White-billed Muller's, 135 

{See also under respective 
Elephant, sagacity of, compared 

with that of the parrot, 1 
Emaciation, 62 
Endowments of the parrot, 

natural, 1 
Epileptic fits, 65, 66 
Erzlori, 169 
Euphema, 5 
Exaggerated accounts of speakers, 

Excretions, judgment of health by, 

Expectoration, 53 
Exposition of the subject, 77 
Eye, inflammation of cornea, 

Internal inflammation of, 67 

Swelling and inflammation of 
cuticle, 66 
Eyelids, scirrhus of. 67 

Swellings on, 67 

Warts OD, 67 

Facherpapagei, 125 
Falkenkakadu, 161, 162 

Falschlich anch andulatus, 247 
Blaukopfiger Portorikopa- 

pagei, 124 
Gemeine Amazone oder gar 
NeuhoUanderpapagei, 99 
Farinaceous seeds the staple 
natural food of the larger 
parrots, 28 
Fastening to ring, 18, 19 
Fat glands, diseases of, 62, 63 
Feathered World, the, description 
of Grey parrots in, 84 
Letter in, 8 
Feathers, bristling of, a sign of ill 
health, 53 
Corresponding, falling out, 51 
Self-plucking, 73, 74 
Feeding, improper, by wholesale 
buyers and importers, 28 
Mr. Hagenbeck's practice in, 

(See also under Food) 
Feet, dirty, 51, 52 

Diseases of, 71, 72 
Festive Amazon parrot : 
General character, 108 
Habitat, 109 
Named by Linne, 108 
Other names, 108 
Physical characteristics, 108 
Rarity in the market, 109 
Size, 108, 109 

Talent for speaking, wanting 
in, 108 
Fidschisittich, 243 
Fiedler, Mr., birds described by : 
Cockatoos, 141 
Coffin's cockatoo, 151 
Macaws, 187 

Eed-crested cockatoo, 148 
Fidji parrakeet, 243 
Figs as food, 30 
FiNSCH, birds named by : 
Coryllis, 5 

Coffin's cockatoo, 151 
Malabar parrakeet. 199 
Psittacus Goffini, 151 
Lathami, 208 
Peristerodes, 199 
Rose - breasted Alexandrine 
parrakeet, 208 



Finsch's, Dr. Otto, description of 
Small-billed parrakeets, 229 

Monograph by, 5 

On talent of Grey parrots, 84 
Fischer, Dr., on the Grey parrot, 

Fits, epileptic, 65, Q& 
Flat-tailed parrakeets : 

Distinguished from other 
parrakeets, 237 

Food, 31, 32, 238, 239 

Hardinees, 238 

Importation, 233 

In freedom, 237, 238 

Masked, 2^5, 240 

Named by Vigors, 5, 237 

Natural history, 237, 238 

Physical characteristics, 237 

Popularity, 237 

Eed Shining, 243-245 

Eose Hill, 240-243 

Size, 237 

Talents, 239 

Treatment in captivity, 238, 

Utilised as food, 238 

(See also under respective 
Flatulency. 57 
Floor of cage, 20, 23 
Fluck on food for lories and lori- 
keets, 165 
Fog, exposure to, to be avoided, 

Food of Amazon parrots, 95, 97 

Birds in captivity, 29 

Black-bonnet lory, 170 

Blue-breasted lory, 178 

Blue-crowned conure, 216 

Blue Mountain lory, 181 

Bolborrhynchi, 225 

Broad-tailed lories, 165, 168 

Brown-throated conure, 223 

Brush-tongued parrots, 165 

Cactus conure, 223 

Ceram lory, 174 

Cockatoos, 141 

Ducorps' cockatoo, 152 

Eclecti, 127-129 

Flat-tailed parrakeets, 238, 

Food of GoJdeu-crowned conure, 220 
Great Black cockatoo, 159 
Greater Vaza parrot, 92 
Grey parrot, 88-90 
Hawk-headed ptirrot, 127 
Long-winged parrots, 122 
Lories and lorikeets, 164-166 
Macaws, 187, IBS 
Noble parrots, 127-129 
Palteornithina3, 199 
Pioninte, 122 
Eed lory, 176 

Eose Hill parrakeet, 242, 243 
Senegal parrot, 123 
Sharp-tailed lories, 179 
Slender-billed cockatoo, 155. 

Timneh parrot, 90, 91 
Undulated grass parrakeet, 

250, 251, 253 
Yellow-cheeked conure, 223 
Foods -. 

Almonds, sweet, 30 
Ant-grubs, 32 
Apples, 29 
Bananas, 30, 32 
Berries to be avoided, 30 
Bitter almonds poisonous, 30 
Brazilian earth nut?, 30 
Bread, 33 

And butter, 30 
Canary seed, 32 
Carrots injurious, 30 
Changing, 14 
Cherries, 29 
Chestnuts, sweet, to be 

avoided, 30 
Coffee, 34 
Condition of, 33 
Corn, 31 
Dates, 30 

Deleterious kinds, 30 
DuUtz's, Mr. C, remarks on, 

Fat, 30 
Figs, 30 

Fruit, 29, 31, 32 
Grapes, 29 
Green, 30-32 
Hazel nuts, 30 
Hemp, 31 



Foods {contimied) : 

Improper, 7 

Indian rice, soaked, 32 

Lime, 33 

Maize, 31 

Mashy, evils of, 34 

Mealworms, 32 

Melons injurious, 30 

Millet, 31, 32 

Natural, 28 

Nuts, 30 

Oats, 31, 32 

Oranges, 30 

Oyster-shells, 33 

Pears, 29 

Potatoes, 82 

Eaisins to be avoided, 30 

Eesults of bad, 30, 31 

Eice, 32 

Eoan berries, 30 

Saffron, dyers', 31 

Sand, to aid digestion, 33 

Seed, 31, 52 

Service berries, 30 

Sunflower seeds, 31 

Sweet almonds, 30 

Tea, 34 

Tit-bits, 30, 32 

Twigs to gnaw, 30, 32 

Vessel for cage, 22, 23 

Walnuts, 30 
Force, taming by, 35 
"Foreign Cage Birds," 4, 19, 

Fractures of the bones, 68, 69 
Frantzius, Dr. von, on the Golden- 
naped Amazon, 106 
On the Tovi parrakeet, 231 
Tiraneh parrot named by, 90 
Frauenlori, 171 
French bread as food, 29 
Friedel, Mr., on cockatoos, 137, 

Fruher Pepitapapagei, 247 
Fruit as food, 29, 31, 32 

Game, parrots eaten as, 
Gebirgs lori, 180 
Geelvleek Papegaai, 101 

Geelvoorhoofd Papegaai, 101 
Geelwang Amazone Papegaai, 117 

Parkiet, 221 
Gelbfliigelamazone, 103 
Geibfliigeliger Amazonen-papagei, 
Grassittich, 234 
Kurzflugeligpapagei, 103 
Gelbfliigelsittich, 234 
Gelbmantellori, 172 
Gelbnacken oder Gelbnacke-Ama- 

zone, 106 
Gelbnackiger Papagei, 100 
Gelbriiner Grassitich, 221 
Gelbscheiteliger Kurzflugelpapagei 
und Gelbscheitel-Amazone, 
Gelbwangige-Amazone, 117 
Gelbwangiger kakadu mit gelber 
Haube, 143 
Keilschwanzsittich, 221 
Kurzflugel-papagei, 117 
Sittich, 221 
Gemeine Amazone, 97 
Gemeiner blauer arara, 193 

Buntsittich, 240 
General description of parrots, 4 

Eemarks, 77, 78 
Gewohnlich bios Grassittich oder 

Grasperikit, 231 
Gewohnliche, 97 
Gewone Amazone Papegaai, 97 
Gibson's account of Grey-breasted 
parrakeet, 227, 228 


Habitat, 132 

Named by Scopoli, Gmelin, 

&c., 131 
Other names, 131 
Physical characteristics, 131, 

Size, 132 
Glanzender Purpursittich, 243 
Glanzsittich, 243 
Gmelix, birds named by : 

All-green parrakeet, 232-234 
Cockatiel, 161, 162 
Golden-crowned conure, 218- 

Great Black cockatoo, 158, 
159, 160 



Gmelin.birds named by {continued) -. 
Grey-breasted parrakeet, 226 
Psittacua aterrimus, 158, 159, 
Aureus, 218 
Gran die, 131 
Moluccensis, 147 
Novae HoUandiae, 161, 

Ochrocephalus, 101 
Ochropteris, 103 
Personatus, 245 
Euber, 175, 176 
Sulfureus, 143 
Tirica, 232 
Tovi, 231 
Vireseens, 236 
Eed-crested cockatoo, 147 
Eed Lory, 175, 176 
Tovi parrakeet, 231, 232 
Yellow-and-white-winged par- 
rakeet, 236 
Yellow-fronted Amazon jDarrot, 

Yellow - shouldered Amazon 
parrot, 103 


Fiedler's, Mr., opinion on, 

Named by Finsch, 151 

Other names, 151 

Physical characteristics, 151 

Size, 151 
Goffin's Kakadu oder Goffin's 

Kakatu, 151 
Golden-crowned conure : 

Breeding, 219 

Food, 220 

Habitat, 219 

Named by Gmelin, 218 

Other names, 218 

Physical characteristics, 218, 

Size, 219 

Stolker's, Dr., accounts of, 
219, 220 

Talents, 219, 220 
Golden-naped Amazon parrot : 

Habitat, 106 

Named by Lesson, 106 

Other names, 106 

Golden - naped Amazon parrot 
Physical characteristics, 106 
Earity in the market, 106 
Size, 106 

Surinam Amazon, resemblance 
to, 106 
Golbflugelsittich, 234 
Goldkinnsittich, 231 
I Goldmasken-Amazone, 119 
Goldmaaken Sittich, 221 
Goldnacken-Amazone oder Ama- 
j zonenpapagei, 106 

! Goldstirne, 218 
Gold stir n sittich, 218 
Good health indispensable to train- 
i ing, 43 

; Goudnek Amazone Papegaai, 106 
I Gould, birds described or named 

j Leadbeater's cockatoo, 149, 

Melopsittacus, 5, 247 
Eose Hill parrakeet, 242 
Singing parrakeet, 5 
Undulated Grass parrakeet, 
247, 248 
Gout, 67 

Graff G on habitat of Masked parra- 
keet, 246 
Granada- Amazone, 119 
Grand Cacatois ;\ huppe blanche, 
Cacaotis a huppe jaune, 144 
Blanc a liuppe jaune, 
Grand Eclectus, 131 

Eclectus rouge, 131 
Grand Perroquet rouge, 131 

Perroquet vert, 129, 131 
Grande Perruche Alexandre, 204 

Perruche d'Alexandre, 204 
Grandilori, 131 
Grand Vaza, 91 
Grapes as food, 29 
Grasparkiet, 247 
Grass parrakeet, Undulated, 24 

(See also under Undulated 
Grass parrakeet) 
Grass seed as food, 31 
Grauer Papagei oder Jako, 79 



Graukopfiger Dickschnabelsittich, 

Grauwe of Grijze Papegaai, 79 
Gray, birds named by : 

Masked parrakeet, 245, 24G 

Psittacus chloropterus, 192 
Levaillanti, 100 

Eed and yellow macaw, 192 

Stringops, 5 
Great Alexandrine paerakeet: 

Habitat, 205 

In captivity, 205 

Named by Linne, 204 

Other names, 204 

Physical characteristics, 204, 

Size, 205 

Steinhausen's, D., account of, 
Great-billed eclectus : 

Habitat, 134 

In freedom, 134 

Named by Boddaert, 133 

Other names, 133 

Physical characteristics, 133, 

Rarity in the market, 134 

Size, 134 
Great Black cockatoo : 

Blaanw's, Mr., remarks on, 
159, 160 

Food, 159 

Habitat, 159 

Marten's, Dr., remarks on, 159 

Named by Gmelin, 158 

Other names, 158 

Physical characteristics, 158, 

Schmidt's, Dr., account of, 

Size, 159 

Strength, 159 
Greater Sulphur-crested cock- 
atoo : 

Dulitz, Mr., observations on, 

Habitat, 144 

Named by Latham, 144 

Other names, 144 

Physical characteristics, 144 

Viciousness, 145 

Greater Vaza parrot : 

Food, 92 

Habitat, 92 

Hardiness, 91 

Inferiority as a talker, 91 

Mimicry, powers of, 91 

Named by Shaw, 91 

Natural history, 92 

Other names, 91 

Physical characteristics, 91 

Price, 92 

Size, 91, 92 
Greater White-crested cock- 
atoo : 

Habitat, 146 

Named by Lesson, 145, 146 

Other names, 145 

Physical characteristics, 146 

Screamer, 146 

Size, 146 

Talent, 146 
Great macaw, tongue of, 6 

Palm cockatoo, 158, 159, 160 

White cockatoo, 144 

Yellow-crested cockatoo, 144 
Green food, 30, 31, 32 

Lory, Eed-sided, 129 

Macaw, 189, 194 

Short-tailed parrots,tamewhen 
imported, 10 
Green-winged macaw, 192 
Gregaringe, 55 
Gret-breasted parrakeet : 

Breeding, 228 

Cage bird, as a, 227, 228 

Game, eaten as, 227 

Gibson's account of, 227, 228 

Habitat, 226 

In freedom, 226, 227 

Named by Boddaert and 
Gmelin, 225, 226 

Other names, 225 

Physical characteristics, 225, 

Screamer, 225 

Size, 226 

Willink's, Dr., account of, 
I 228 


I Age, 46, 89, 90 

' Anecdotes, 36, 41, 44, 83, 84 



Grey parrot {continued): 

Animals, imitation of calls of, 

Blood-poisoning", 9, GO, 61 

Bravery of parents, 81 

Breeding season, 81 

Carnivorous, 31 

Choosing, 82, 83 

Classification, 78 

Contrasted with Amazon and 
Black, 78 

Descriptions of, in The Fea- 
thered World, 84 

Diseases, 89 

Evils of present mode of im- 
portation, 90 

Eyes no criterion of talent, 83 

Food, 28-31, 81 

Habitat, 82 

Importation, 81, 82, 88-90 

In Africa, 7 

Jaco, its general name, 81 

Keeping without water, 33 

King bird, English name, 81 

Lazarus, Dr., on food, 89 

Life in freedom, 79, 80 

Males distinguished from fe- 
males, 80 

Named by Linne, 5, 79 

Natural cry, 81 
History, 79 

Opinions of connoisseurs on 
talent for speech, 83, 84 

Other names, 79 

Physical characteristics, 80 

Plumage of young, 80, 81 

Precautions in acquiring, 87-90 

Prevalence of disease and 
death among imported 
birds, 8 

Price, 45, 82 

Purchase, 87-89 

Eeception, 18 

Hemedies for diseases, 89 

Selection, 14 

Size, 80 

Superstition regarding heat of 
nest, 7 

Taming and training, 37 

Talent for speech and other 
imitations, 79, 83-87 

1 Grey parrot {continued) : 

Trade in, 8-11 
I Treatment of, in Africa, 9 

Water, drinking, 89 
Whistling, 87 
White tail, with, 81 
Grinding of the beak, a sign of ill 

health, 53 
Groenboeg Amazone Papegaai, 99 
Groene Roodvoorhoofd Ara, 189 
Groenstuit of Eose Hill of Eoaille 

Parkiet, 240 
Groenwang Parkiet, 221 
Groote Alexander-Parkiet, 204 
Geelvleugel Ara, 190 
Groene Edelpapegaai, 129, 

Groenvleugel Ara, 192 
Eood Edelpapegaai, 131 
Vaza Papegaai, 91 
Grossschnabelpapagei, 133 
Grosse gelbkopfige Amazone, 100 
Grosser Alexandersittich, 204 
Blauer Arara, 188 
Gelbfliigeliger Arara, 190 
Gelbhauben Kakadu, 144 
Gelbhaiibigec Kakadu, 144 
Gelb und blauer Arara, 193 
Griiner Arara, 189 

Edelpapagei, 129, 131 
Griinfliigeliger Arara, 192 
Oder doppelter Gelbkopf, 100 
Bother Edelpapagei, 131 
Schwarzpapagei, &1 
Vaza-Papagei, 91 
Weisser Kakadu mit gelber 
Haube, 144 
i Kakadu mit weisser 

Haube, 145 
Griinbiirzeliger Plattschweifsittich, 

Grun, Dr., on blood-poisoning, GO, 61 
{ Griinedelpapagei, 129, 131 
j Griinfliigel-Arara, 192 
Grunwangiger Keilschwanzsittich, 

Guatemala- Amazane, 107 

Amazone Papegaai, 107 
Guatemalan Amazon parrot : 
Habitat, 107 
Importation, 107 



Guatemalan Amazon parrot {con- 
Other names, 107 
Physical characteristics, 107 
Size, 107 
Talents, 107 
Guiana, tame parrots in, 7 
Gundlack, Dr., on the whitp- 
f rented Amazon parrot, 112 


Habitats : 

All-green parrakeet, 233 
Amazon pirrots, 94 
Bare-eyed cockatoo, 157 
Black-bonnet lory, 1G9 
Blue and Yellow macaw, 

Blue-breasted lory, 177 
Blue-crowned conure, 215 
Blue-eyed cockatoo, 147 
Blue-fronted Amazon parrot, 

Bolborrhynchi, 225 
Broad-tailed lories, 16S 
Brown-throated conure, 223 
Cactus conure, 223 
Canary-winged parrakeet, 235 
Carolina conure, 213 
Ceram eclectns, 133 

Lory, 173 
Cockatiel 162 
Cockatoos, 136 
Conures, 211 
Diademed Amazon parrot, 

Ducorps' cockatoo, 152 
Dufresne's Amazon parrot, 

Eclecti, 127 

Festive Amazon parrot, 109 
Gilolo eclectns, 132 
Golden-crowned conure, 219 
Golden-naped Amazon parrot, 

Great Alexandrine parrakeet, 

Great-billed eclectns, 134 
Great Black cockatoo, 159 

Habitats {continued): 

Greater Sulphur-crested cocka- 
too, 144 ' 

Vaza parrot, 92 
White-crested cockatoo, 

Grey-breasted parrakeet, 226 

Grey parrot, 82 

Guatemalan Amazon parrot, 

Hawk -headed parrot, 126 

Hyacinthine macaw, 188 

llliger's macaw, 195 

Javan Alexandrine parrakeet, 

Lady lory, 172 

Leadbeater's cockatoo, 150 

Lesser Vaza parrot, 93 

Long-winged parrots, 121 

Lories and lorikeets, 163 

Luzian's parrakeet, 210 

Macaws, 186 

Maitaka parrot, 125 

Masked parrakeet, 246 

Mauritius Alexandrine parra- 
keet, 203 

Mealy Amazon parrot, 105 

Military macaw, 189 

Miiller's parrot, 135 

New Guinea eclectus, 130 

Noble macaw, 196 
Parrots, 127 

Orange-winged Amazon par- 
rot, 99 

Ornamented lory, 184 

PalseornithinEe, 198 

Parrots generally, 4 

Pioninse, 121 

Red and Blue macaw, 191 
And Yellow macaw, 192 

Red-crested cockatoo, 148 

Red lory, 175 

Red-masked Amazon parrot-, 

Red shining parakeet, 244 

Red-throated Amazon parrot, 

Red-vented narrot, 125 

Ring-necked Alexandrine par- 
rakeet, 201, 202 

Roseate cockatoo, 15 



Habitats (continued): 

Eose - breasted Alexandrine 

parrakeet, 208 
Eose Hill parrakeet, 241 
Senegal parrot, 123 
Sharp-tailed lories, 179 
Slender-billed cockatoo, 155 
Small-billed parrakeets, 229 
Small macaw, 194 
Timneh parrot, 90 
Tovi parrakeet, 231 
Undulated grass parrakeet, 

White-browed Amazon parrot, 

White-fronted Amazon parrot, 

Yellow-and- white-winged par- 
rakeet, 236 
Yellow-cheeked Amazon par- 
rot, 118 

Conure, 222 
Yellow conure, 217 
Yellow- fronted Amazon par- 
rot, 102, 103 
Hagenbeck's, Miss Christian, me- 
thod of transporting birds, 
Hagenbeck's, Mr. Karl, opinion on 

food of parrots, 29, 30 
Half-moon parrakeet, 218 
Halmahera Edelpapegaai, 131 
Halbmondsittich, 218 
Halsband-Edelsittich, 200 
Von Mauritius, 203 
Halsbandsittich, 200 
Halve - maan Parkiet of Oranje- 

voorhoofd Parkiet, 218 
Havana of Cuba Amazone Pape- 

gaai, 111 
Havikkop Langvleugel Papegaai, 

Hawk-headed Caique, 125 
Hawk-headed parrot : 
Examples, 126 
Food, 127 

Named by Linne, 125 
Other names, 125 
Physical characteristics, 125, 

Earity, 127 

Hawk-headed parrot (continued): 

Size, 126 

Talent, 126 
Hazel nuts as food, 30 
Head, shaking, a sign of ill-health, 

Health, preservation of : 

Bathing, 49, 51 

Bleeding, staunching, 49 

Cage, letting out of, 51 

Claws, cutting, 52 

Cleanliness, 51 

Cold rooms, 47 

Corresponding feathers falling- 
out, 50 

Covering cage at night, 47, 48 

Dangerous influences, 46 

Eog, exposure to, to be 
avoided, 47 

Moulting, 50, 51 

Feet, dirty, 51, 52 

Hot rooms, 47 

Night air to be avoided, 47 

Open air, parrots in, 46, 47 

Perch, 51 

Plumage, care of, 48-52 

Sand, use of, 51 

Stumps of feathers, removing, 

Symptoms, 12, 52, 54 

Temperature, 46, 47 

Tobacco, effects of, 46 

Windows, open, not a suitable 
locality, 46 
Heart diseases, 64, 65 
Heer, Mr., on the colour of Grey 
parrots' eyes, 83, 

Description of Ceram lory, 

Description of Ornamented 
lory, 184 
Hellbrother Arara, 190 
Hemp as food, 31 
Henicognathus, Food, 31, 32 
Hens more amenable to men than 

to women, 38 
Herbspapagei, 117 
Herbst- Amazone, 117 
Hoarseness, 43 
Hochedelsittich, 204 
Hollen-Langfliigelpapagei, 125 



Hombron, Ducorps' cockatoo 
named by, 151 
Psittacus Ducorpsi named by, 
Home, native {see under Habitat) 
Hooded parrot, 125 
Hoops, 24 
*' Household Birds, Diseases of," 

Human speech compared with that 

of brutes, 3 
Htacinthine macaw : 
Habitat, 188 
Named by Latham, 188 
Other names, 188 
Physical characteristics, 188 
Earity in the market, 188 
Size, 188 
Hyazinth-arara, 188 


Ill health, signs of, 53, 54 

Illiger's Ara, 195 
Arara, 195 

Illiger's macaw : 
Habitat, 195 
Longevity, 196 
Named by Vieillot, 195 
Other names, 195 
Physical characteristics, 195 
Size, 195 

Ill-treatment of parrots during 
transportation, 8-11 

Importation : 

All-green parrakeet, 233 
Amazon parrots, 96 
Black-bonnet lory, 169, 170 
Blue-crowned conure, 215 
Blue-fronted Amazon parrot, 

Blue Mountain lory, 181 
Cockatiel, 162 
Cockatoos, 140 
Flat-tailed parrakeetp, 238 
General remarks, 8-12 
Grey parrot, 81, 88-90 
Guatemalan Amazon parrot, 

Javan Alexandrine parrakeet, 

Importation (continued): 

Levaillant'a Amazon parrot, 

Long-winged parrots, 121 
Lories and lorikeets, 164 
Orange-winged Amazon parrot, 

Pioninae, 121 

Eed-crested cockatoo, 149 
Red-shining parrakeet, 245 
Ring-necked Alexandrine par- 
rakeet, 202 
Rose-breasted Alexandrine 

parrakeet, 208 
Sharp-tailed lories, 179 
True cockatoos, 142 
Undulated Grass parrakeet, 

"Wings clipped on, 12 
Yellow-fronted Amazon, 103 
Imported birds, death and disease 

among, 8 
Indian women, their reputed power 
of taming parrots, 10 
Rice as food, 28, 32 
India, tame parrots in, 7 
Infectious typhoid, 59, 60 
Inflammation of the bowels, 57, 58 
Bronchial tubes and lungs, 56 
Cuticle of the eye, 66 
Eye, internal, 66, 67 
Lungs, 54, 55, 56 
Mouth, larynx, and throat, 54 
Mucous membrane, diphthe- 

ritic-croupish, 55, 56 
Stomach and intestines, 57, 58 
Influenza, 54 
Inkakakadu, 149 
Internal inflammation of the eye, 

66, 67 
Intestinal worms, 61, 62 
Intestines, catarrh in, 57, 58 
Inflammation of, 57, 58 
Introduction, 1-11 


Jaco, hoop for, 26 

Superstition regarding heat o£ 

nest, 7 
(See also under Gre^ parrot) 



Jacquinot, birds named by : 
Ducorps' cockatoo, 151 
Psittacus Ducorpsii, 151 

Jiiger's, Dr., opinion on talent of 
Grey parrots, 84 

Jamaica-Amazonenpapagei, 112 

Jamaika-Amazone, 112 

Java Alexander Parkiet, 206 
Cockatoo, 143 

Ja VAN Alexandrine parrakeet: 
Bechstein's description of, 207 
Cage bird, as a, 207 
Habitat, 20 G 
Named by Linnc, 206 
Other names, 206 
Physical characteristics, 206 
Earely imported alive, 207 
Schlechta's, Baroness von S., 

account of, 207 
Size, 206 

Javanischer Edelsittich, 206 

Javan parrakeet, 206 

Jew parrakeet, 206 

Joey, 161, 162 

Judging speakers at shows, 43 

Junge Witwe, 225 


KakadiUe, 161, 162 

Kakadu mit blauem Augenkreis, 

Mit gelber hiicgender Haube, 

Kaktus-Perikit, 221 
Kaktussittich, 221 
Kanarienflugelsittich, 234 
Kanariensittich, 247 
Kanarienvogelsittich, 234 
Kardinalepapagei, 132 
Karolinensittich, 213 
Kastner, Director, account of his 

Grey parrot, 84, 85 
Iveilschwanzkakadu, 161, 162 
Keilschwanzsittich mit gelbem 

Gesicht, 221 
Von Karolina, 213 
Kessi-kessi, 217 
Kessisittich, 217 
Keulemans on breeding season of 

Grey parrot, 81 

Kheil's, Mr. Napoleon M., descrip- 
tion of Blue-crowned conure, 
King birds, 81 

Kleene Alexanderparkiet of Hals- 
band Edelparkiet, 200 
Gaelkop Papegaai, 103 
Geelkuif Kakketoe, 143 
Kleiner Alexandersittich, 200 
Gelbbjickiger, 143 
Gelbgehaiibter, 143 
Gelbhauben, 143 
Gelbkopf oder Sonnenpapagei, 

Gelbwangiger und Gelbwan- 

gen-Kakadu, 143 
Griiner Arara, 196 
Nasenkakadu, 155 
Schwarzpapagei, 92 
Vaza-Papagei, 92 
Kochinchinasittich, 208 
Korella, 161, 162 
Kragcnpapagei, 125 
Kroonen Amazone Papegaai, 118 
KiJHL, birds named by : 
Conures, 5, 211, 212 
Dufresne's Amazon parrot, 119 
Psittacus Dufresnei, 119 
Wedge-tailed Parrakeets, 5, 
•ni, 212 
Kurzflugelpapagei mit griinem 

Fliigelbug, 99 
Kusu, 87 


Lacquer for cages, 23, 24 
Lady lory : 

Habitat, 171, 172 

Named by Linne, 171 

Natural history, 171 

Other names, 171 

Physical characteristics, 171, 

Earity in the trade, 172 

Scheuba's, Mr., description of, 

Size, 171, 172 

Talents, 172 

Varieties, 172 
Lameness, 67 



Langschnabeliger Kakatu, 155 
Languages, variety of, spoken by 

parrots, 36 
Larger parrots : 
Age, 36 
Food, 28-31 
Eeception, 18 
Larynx, inflammation of, 54 

Worm, 55 
Latham, birds named by : 
Blue-breasted lory, 176 
Blue-fronted Amazon parrot, 

Hyacinthine macaw, 188 
Psittacus Eestivus, 97 
Coccineus, 176 
Galeritus, 144 
Hyacinthus, 188 
Latham's Alexander Parkiet, 208 
Eosenbriistiger Edelsittich 
bios Latham's Edelsittich, 
Lazarus, Dr., birds described by : 
Account of undulated grass 

parrakeet, 253 
Amazon parrots, 96 
Cockatoos, 139 
Grey parrots, 82, 83, 89 
Leadbeater's cockatoo, 150 
E.ed-crested cockatoo, 148 
Leadbeater's cockatoo : 

Blaauw's, Mr. A. E., remarks 

on, 150 
Domestic character, 150 
Eorcible training, effects of,150 
Gould's observations on, 149, 

Habitat, 150 
Lazarus, Dr., observations on, 

Named by Vigors, 149 
Other names, 149 
Physical characteristics, 149 
Size, 149 
Talents, 150 
Leadbeater's Kakadu, 149 

Kakatu, 149 
Leg ring for stand, 27 
Lesser Sulphur-crested cock- 
atoo : 
Named by Gmelin, 143 

Lesser Sulphur- crested cockatoo 

Natural history, 143 
Other names, 143 
Physical characteristics, 143 
Talents, 144 
Lesser Vaza parrot : 

Distinguished from the Greater 

Vaza parrot, 92, 93 
Habitat, 93 
Named by Linne, 92 
Other names, 92 
Physical characteristics, 92, 93 
Earity in the market, 93 
Size, 92, 93 
Lesson, birds named by : 
Callipsittacus, 5, 160 
Cockatiel, 5, 160 
Golden-naped Amazon parrot, 

Greater White -created cocka- 
too, 145 
Psittacus auripalliatus, 106 
Leucolophus, 145 
Levaillant, Dufresne's Amazon 
parrot named by, 119 
Psittacus Dufresnei named by, 
Levaillant' s Amazon parrot : 
Apprehension, power of, 101 
Importation, 101 
Named by Gray, 100 
Other names, 100 
Physical characteristics, 100, 

Size, 101 

Talker, rank as a, 100 
Levaillant' 8 Amazonepapagei, 100 
Anecdote of Grey parrot, 83 
Kurzfliigelpapegei, 100 
Lilascheiteliger Kurzfliigelpapagei, 

Lime, 33 

Linden's account of Blue and Yel- 
low macaw, 193 
Linnean Eclectus, 129 

Lory, 129 
Linne, birds named by : 
Black parrots, 5 
Blossom - headed parrakeets, 

T 2 



Linne, birds named by {continued): 
Blue and Yellow macaw, 193 
Blue-fronted Amazon parrot, 

Brown-fronted macaw, 194, 

Brown-throated conure, 221- 

Carolina conure, 213, 214 
Ceram lory, 1V2-174 
I'estive Amazon parrot, 108 
Great Alexandrine parrakeet, 

204, 205 
Grey parrot, 79 
Hawk-headed parrot, 125 
Javan Alexandrine parrakeet, 

206, 207 
Lady lory, 171, 172 
Lesser Vaza parrot, 92 
Maitaka parrot, 124 
Military macaw, 189, 190 
Noble macaw, 196, 197 
Orange-winged Amazon par- 
rot, 99 
Ornamented lorikeet, 183-185 

Lory, 183-185 
Psittacus accipitrinus, 125 

^ruginosus, 221 

Alexandri, 206 

Amazonicus, 99 

Ararauna, 193 

Autumnalis, 117 

Braailiensis, 115 

Carolinensis, 213 

Collarius, 112 

Eapatrius, 204 

Festivus, 108 

Garrulus, 172-174 

Leueocephalus, 111 

Lori, 171, 172 

Maco, 190 

Menatruus, 124 

Militaris, 189 

Nobilis, 196 

Ornatus, 183 

Pertinax, 221 

Senegalns, 122 

Severus, 194 

Solstitialis, 217 
Eed and Bine macaw, 190, 

Linne, birds named by (continued): 
Red-masked Amazon parrot, 

Eed-throated Amazon parrot, 

Eed-vented parrot, 124 
Eose-headed parrakeets, 199 
Senegal Parrot, 122 
Small macaw, 194, 195 
White-fronted Amazon, 111 
Yellow-cheeked Amazon, 117 

Conure, 221-224 
Yellow conure, 217, 218 
Linne's Edelpapagei, 129 

Edelpapegaai, 129 
Lisping, 43 

Liver, diseases of, 63, 64 
Long-billed parrakeets, food for, 

31, 32 
Long-billed White cockatoo, 155 
Longevity, 46, 47 

(See also under Age) 
Long-tailed Cockatoos, 136 
Long-winged parrots, food, 31, 
(See also under Pioyiina') 
"Loosing of the tongue," 40 
Lori a collier, 169 

A scapulaire bleue, 171 
D'amboine, 132 
Mit gelbem Eiickenfleck, 172 
Perruche a liancs rouges, 129, 

Eouge, 175 

Von den blauen Bergen, 180 
Lories and lorikeets : 
Bathing, 166 
Breeding, 164 
Classification, 163 
Fluck on food for, 165 
Food, 28, 31, 32, 164-166 
Habitat, 163 
Importation, 164 
In freedom, 163 
Named by Vigors and Wagler, 

5, 163 
Names of : 

Black-bonnet, 169, 170 
Blue-bellied, 180 
Blue-breasted, 132, 176- 



Lories and lorikeets {continued): 
Blue-diademed, 176 
Blue-headed, 169 
Blue Mountain, 180-182 
Blue-tailed, 171 
Broad-tailed, 167, 168 
Ceram, 172-174 
Chattering, 172 
Crimson. 172 
Lady, 171, 172 
Linnean, 129 
Lorikeet.^, 178, 179, 183- 

Moluccan, 175 
Ornamented, 183-185 
Purple-capped, 169 
Red, 175, 176 
Eed-sided Green, 129 
Sharp-tailed, 178, 179 
Swainson's, 180 
True, 167, 168 
{See also under respective 

Physical characteristics, 163 
Popularity, 167 
Scheuba, Mr., on treatment 

of, 164-167 
Talents 166, 167 
Tongue, formation of, 6 
Loving disposition of parrots, 35 
Lowinsohn, Dr., examination on 

blood-poisoning, 60 
Luchs', Dr., account of Canary- 
winged parrakeet, 235 
Lungs, inflammation of, 54, 55, 

Luzian's Edelparkiet, 210 
Luziansittich, 210 
Luzian's parrakeet : 
Habitat, 210 
Named by Verreaux, 210 
Other names, 210 
Physical characteristics, 210 
Price, 210 
Karity, 210 


Macaw cockatoo, tongrue of, 6 

{See also under Microglossus) 

Macaws : 

Feathers an article of com- 
merce, 8 
Fiedler's, Mr., description, 

Food, 28-31, 187, 188 
Habitat, 186 
Hardiness, 185 
In captivity, 187 
In freedom, 186, 187 
Known as speakers from 

ancient times, 185 
Longevity, 188 
Named by Wagler, 5, 185 
Names of : 

Blue and Buff, 193 
Blue and Yellow, 193 
Brown-fronted, 194, 195 
Green, 189, 194 
Green-winged, 192 
Hyacinthine, 188 
Illiger's, 195, 196 
Military, 189, 190 
Noble, 196, 197 
Eed and Blue, 190, 191 
Eed and Yellow, 192 
Small, 194, 195 
(See also under resjpective 

Nests of, 7 
Ornamental birds, regarded as, 

Physical characteristics, 186 
Size, 186 
Talents, 187 
Utilised as food, 186 
Maccawle parrakeet, 221 
Maier's, Miss Eugenie, account of 
undulated Grass parrakeet, 
251, 252 

MAITAKA parrot : 

Examples, 125 

Habitat, 125 

Named by Linne, 124 

Other names, 124 

Petermann's, Mr., observa- 
tions on, 125 

Physical characteristics, 124 

Size, 124 
Maize as food, 28, 29, 31 
Makao, 190 



Malay Archipelago, tame parrots 

in, 7 
Management, training, and breed- 
ing of cage birds, manual 
for the, 20, 27 
Man, companion to, 36 

Distinguished from animals, 2 
"Manual for Bird Fanciers," 4, 

52, 53 
Marakama, 195 
Marten's, Dr. C. von, remarks on 

Great Black cockatoo, 159 
Masearenus, 5 
Mashy food, evils of, 29, 34 
Masked pabrakeet : 

Beauty, 245, 246 

Griiffe on habitat, 246 

Habitat, 246 

Named by Gray, &c., 215 

Other names, 245 

Physical characteristics, 245, 

Earity, 246 

Size, 246 

Talents, 246 
Maskensittich, 245 
Masker parkiet, 245 
Mauritius Alexandrine parrakeet : 

Habitat, 203 

Named by Boddaert, 203 

Newton Brothers' remarks on, 
203, 204 

Other names, 203 

Physical characteristics, 203 

Earity in market, 204 

Size, 203 

Talents, 204 
Mauritius Edelparkiet, 203 
Miiusesittich, 225 
Maximilian's Ara, 188 
Mealworms as food, 32 
Mealy Amazon parrot : 

Anecdote, 44 

Habitat, 105 

Named by Boddaert, 104 

Other names, 104 

Physical characteristics, 105 

Screamer, 105 

Size, 105 

Talents, 104, 105 
Medicines, table of, 74-76 

Medium-sized parrots, food, 31, 32 
Melons as food to be avoided, 30 
Melopsittacus, 247 

Named by Gould, 5 
Mental endowments, 6, 45 
Meunier, 104 
Meyer, Dr. A. B., on the Eclecti, 

Meyer's, Mr., description of Blue- 
breasted lory, 177 

Method of training Grey par- 
rots, 37 
Microglosse on Arara noir a 

trompe, 158-160 
Microglossus, 5 

Physical characteristics, 158 

(See also under Great Black 
Military macaw : 

Age, 190 

Bechstein's description of, 
190, 191 

Habitat, 189 

In captivity, 190 

Named by Linne, 189 

Other names, 189 

Physical characteristics, 189 

Size, 189 

Varieties, 190 
Millet as food, 31, 32 
Mitteledelpapagei, 132 
Mittlerer gruner Edelpapagei, 131 

Eother Edelpapagei, 132 
Mixing medicines, niirectiona for, 

Mohrenkopf-Papagei, 122 
Mohrenpapagei, 91 
Molenaar, 134 
Moluccan lory, 175 
Molukken-Kakadu, 147 
Monchspapagei, 225 
Monchssittich, 225 
Monniks Dickbekparkiet of Muis- 

parkiet, 225 
Monograph by Dr. Otto Finsch, 5 
Moulting, 50, 51 
Mouth, cold in, 54 
Mucous membrane, diphtheritic- 
croupish inflammation of, 
55, 56 
MuUer Amazone Papegaai, 104 



Muller Oder Mulleramazonej 104 
Mtillerpapagei, 104 
Miiller's Edelpapegei, 134 

Edelpapegaai, 134 
Muller' s parrot : 

Habitat, 135 

Longevity, 136 

Named by Temminck, 134 

Other names, 134 

Physical characteristics, 135 

Varieties, 135 
Miiller's, S., remarks on Red lory, 

Muschelsittich, 247 


Naaktoog Kakketoe, 156 
Nackfcaugen-Kakadu, 146, 156 
Nasecus cockatoo, 155 

{See also under Slender -hilled 
Nasenkakadu, 155 
Naaiterna, 5 
Nasiterne, 155 

Native place (see under Habitat) 
Natural endowments of the par- 
rot, 1 
Food, 28 
Nests, superstitions regarding, 7 

{See also imder Breeding) 
Neubauer's, Mr., anecdote of Grey 

parrot, 36 
NeuhoUandischer Keilschwanzka- 

katu, 161, 162 
Neus Kakketoe, 155 
New Guinea eclectus : 

Domestic character, 130, 131 

Habitat, 130 

Named by Scopoli, Wagler, 

(fee, 129 
Other names, 129 
Physical characteristics, 129, 

Size, 130 
New Guinea Edelpapegaai, 129 

Guinea parrot, 129 
Newton Brothers' remarks on 
Mauritius Alexandrine par- 
rakeet, 203, 204 
Night air to be avoided, 47 

Noble macaw : 

Examples, 196, 197 

Habitat, 196 

Named by Linne, 196 

Other names, 196 

Physical characteristics, 196 

Rarity in the trade, 196 

Size, 196 

Talents, 196, 197 
Noble parrakeets : 

Food, 31, 32 

Named by Vigors, 5 

Subject to disease of the eyes, 

{See also under Palceor- 
Noble parrot, 196 
Noble parrots : 
Food, 28-31 
Named by Wagler, 5 
(See also tender Eclecti) 
Non-fanciers, unsuccesssful train- 
ing by, 35 
Nordamerikanischer Keilschwanz- 

sittich, 213 
Nose, cold in, 54 
Nostrils, running of, a sign of ill 

health, 53 
Number of known varieties, 4 
Nuts as food, 30 
Nymfenkakadu, 161, 162 
Nymfensittich, 161, 162 
Nymphique, 161, 162 


Oats as food, 31, 32 

Objectionable qualities, 35 

Oder hyazinthblauer Arara, 188 

Oily seeds as food, 28 

Old parrots difficult to train, 36 
Plumage of, 50, 51 

Omnikolor, 240 

Open air, parrots in, 46, 47 

Orange-biiuchiger Langflligel - pa - 
pagei, 122 

Orangegelber Keilschwanz-sittich , 

Oranges as food, 30 

Orangestirniger Keilschwanz-sit- 
tich, 218 



Orange-winged Amazon par- 
rot : 

Habitat, 99 

Named \>j Linne, 99 

Other names, 99 

Physical characteristics, 99 

Earity in the market, 99 

Size, 99 

Talents, 99 
Orange-winged parrakeet, 234 
Oranjegeele parkiet, 217 
Oranjevleugel parkiet, 234 
Ornamental cage, deleterious effects 
of, 23 

Lory, 183 
Ornamental lory : 

Beauty, extraordinary, 183 

Examples, 184 

Food, 185 

Habitat, 184 

Named by Linne, 183 

Other names, 183 

Physical characteristics, 183 

Earity in the market, 184 

Scheuba's, Mr,, description of, 
184, 185 

Size, 183 

Talents, 184, 185 

Treatment, 184 
Ornis Society of Bird Fanciers in 
Berlin, cages designed by, 
Ottoman's, Rev. Mr., remedy for 

self plucking, 74 
Ovary, diseases of, G3 
Oxalic acid, symptoms of poisoning 

with, 58 
Oyster- shells, 33 

Pains, rheumatic, 67, 68 
Painting cages, 23, 24 
Palgeornis, 5, 197 

Pal^ornithin^, or Noble 
parrakeets : 

Ancient times, esteemed from, 

Classification, 197, 199 

Food, 199 

Habitat, 198 

Palseornithinae, or Noble parra- 
keets {continued): 
In freedom, 198, 199 
Named by Vigors, 197 
Names of : 

Black-billed Alexandrine, 

Great Alexandrine, 204, 

Javan Alexandrine, 206, 

Luzian's, 210 
Mauritius Alexandrine, 

203, 204 
Eing-necked Alexandrine, 

Eose-breasted Alexan- 
drine, 208 
{See also under resj^ective 

Physical characteristics, 197, 

Purchase, 200 
Screamers, 199, 200 
Size, 198 
Talents, 197, 199 
Paradise parrot. 111 
Parrakeets, names of : 
Alexander, 204 
Alexandrine, 200-210 
All-green, 232-234 
Black-billed Alexandrine, 209 
Blossom-headed, 199 
Blue-fronted, 215 
Canary-winged, 234, 235 
Carolina, 213 
Cochin China, 208 
Cockatoo, 161, 162 
Crested Grass, 161, 162 

Ground, 161, 162 
Curassow, 221 
Flat-tailed, 237-240 
Great Alexandrine, 204, 205 
Grey-breasted, 225-228 
Half-moon, 218 
Javan, 206 

Alexandrine, 206 
Jew, 206 
Luzian's, 210 
Macawle, 221 
Malabar, 199 



Parrakeets, names of {contintied)'. 

Masked, 245, 246 

Mauritius Alexandrine, 203, 

Noble, 5, 197-210 

Orange-winged, 234 

Palasornithinas, 197-210 

Quaker, 225-228 

Eed Shining, 243-245 

Eing-necked, 200 

Eose-breasted Alexandrine, 

Eose-headed, 199 

Eose Hill, 240-243 

Eose-ringed, 200 

Singing, 247 

Slender-billed, 5 

Small-billed, 229-230 

Solstitian, 217 

Thick -billed, 5 

Tovi, 231, 232 

Undulated, 5 

Grass, 247-253 

Wedge-tailed, 211, 212 

Yellow-and-white-winged, 236 

Zebra, 247 

Grass, 247 

(See also under respective 
Parrots, names of : 

Amazon, 93-120 

Black, 91-93 

Black-shouldered, 133 

Blue-fronted Amazon, 97, 98 

Blue-headed, 124 

Blue Mountain, 180 

Ceram, 132 

Diademed, 118, 119 

Double-fronted Amazon, 100 

Dufresne's Amazon, 119, 120 

Eclecti, 127-136 

Festive Amazon, 108, 109 

GUolo, 131, 132 

Golden-naped Amazon, 106 

Great-billed Eelefitus, 133, 134 

Greater Vaza, 91, 92 

Grey, 79-90 

Guatemalan Amazon, 107 

Halmahera, 131, 132 

Hawk-headed, 125-127 

Hooded, 125 

Parrots, names of {continued): 
Lesser Vaza, 92, 93 
Levaillant's Amazon, 100, 101 
Long-winged, 120-127 
Maitaka, 124, 125 
Mealy Amazon, 104, 105 
Miiller's, 134-136 
New Guinea., 129 
New Guinea eclectus, 129- 

Noble, 127-136, 196 
Orange-winged Amazon, 99 
Paradise, 111 
Pionin^, 120-127 
Porto Eico, 109 
Eed-billed Miiller's eclectus, 

Eed-fronted Amazon, 110, 111 
Eed-masked Amazon, 115, 

Eed-tailed Grey, 79 
Eed-throated Amazon, 112, 

Eed-vented, 124, 125 
Eosella, 240 

Salle's Amazon, 109, 110 
Scallop, 247 
Senegal, 122, 123 
Shell, 247 
Shining, 243 
Single Yellow-headed Amazon, 

Spectacle, 113 
Surinam Amazon, 101 
Timneh, 90, 91 
True, 78, 79 
Vaza, 91-93 

Vinaceous Amazon, 116, 117 
White-billed, 134 

Mtiller's eclectus, 135 
White-browed Amazon, 113, 

White-fronted Amazon, 111 
Yellow-cheeked Amazon, 117, 

Yellow-fronted Amazon, 101- 

Yellow - shouldered Amazon, 

103, 104 
(S'ee also under respective 

headings) . 



Peale, Psittacus splendens named 
by, 243 

Eed Shining parrakeet named 
by, 243 
Pears as food, 29 
Perch, 51 

For cage, 22, 23 

For stands, 24, 26 
Perroquet a front blanc, 113 

A cravatte, 125 

A epaulettes noire?, 133 

A joues rouges, 113 

Amazone a ailes Oranges, 99 
A calotte bleu, 97 
A collier d'or, 106 
A couleurde vin, 116 
A diademe, 118 
A dos rouge, 108 
A epaulettes jaunes, 103 
A front bleu, 97 
A front jaune, 101 
A front rouge, 110 
A gorge rouge, 112 
A joues jaunes, 117 
A masque rouge 115 
A tete blanche, 111 
Couroni e, 118 
DeCuba, 111 
De Dufresne, 119 
De Guatemale, 107 
De la Martinique, 112 
De Levaillant, 100 
De St. Domingo, 109 
Ochroptere, 103 
Poudree, 104 

A tete bleue, 124 
Jaune, 100 
Noire, 122 

Cendre, 79 

De Cayenne, 101 

De Ceram, 132 

De Halmahera, 131 

De la Nouvelle Guinee, 129 

DeLinne, 129 

De Miiller, 134 

De St. Dominge, 110 

Du Senegal, 122 

Gris, 79 

Lord du Bresil, 97 

Maille, 125 

Masque, 245 

Perroquet Tavoua, 108 
Timneh, 90 
Vaza, 91 
Perruche a ailes blanches, 236 
A bavette rose, 208 
A bouche d'or, 180 
A collier rose, 200 
A front bleu, 215 

Jaune, 218 
A joues jaunes, 221 

Oranges, 221 

Verts, 221 
Alexandre de I'lsle de Maurice, 

A bee noir, 209 

A collier de I'lnde, 200 

A collier du Senegal, 

De Java, 206 
A masque noire, 245 
A moustaches, 208 
A poitrine rose, 206 
A tete jaune, 213 
A ventre orange, 221 
Bouton bleu, 215 

D'or, 218 
Cactus, 221 
Callopsitte, 161, 162 
Chiriri, 236 
Couronnee, 218 
De la Caroline, 213 
De Luzian, 210 
De Pondicherry, 268 
Jaune, 217 
Lori a calotte noir, 169 

De Ceram, 172 

Des Dames, 171 

De Swainson, 180 

Ornee, 183 

Rouge, 175 

Violette et rouge, 176 
Moine, 225 
Omnicolore, 240 
Ondulee, 247 
Pourpre brillante, 243 

De Fidji, 243 
Soleil, 217 
Souris, 225 
Tirica, 232 
Tovi, 231 
Xanthoptere, 234 



Peterman, Mr. K., birds de- 

scribed by : 
Dufresne's Amazon parrot, 

Vinaceous Amazon parrot, 116 
Wtiite-fronted Amazon parrot, 

Petit Ara vert, 196 

Caeatois a, huppe janne, 143 

Blanc a huppe jaune, 143 
Vaza, 92 
Pezoporus, 5 
Pflaumenkopfsittich, 180 
Phosphorus, symptoms of poison- 
ing with, 58 
Physical characteristics : 
All-green parrakeet, 232 
Amazon parrots, 93, 94 
Bare-eyed cockatoo, 156, 157 
Black - billed Alexandrine 

parrakeet, 209 
Black-bonnet lory, 169 
Blue and yellow macaw, 193 
Blue-breasted lory, 176, 177 
Blue-crowned conure, 215 
Blue-eyed cockatoo, 146, 147 
Blue-fronted Amazon parrot, 

Blue Mountain lory, 180, 

Bolborrhynchi, 224, 225 
Broad-tailed lories, 167, 168 
Brown-throated conure, 222, 

Cactus conure, 223 
Callipsittacus, 160 
Canary-winged parrakeet, 234 
Carolina conure, 213 
Ceram eclectus, 132, 133 

Lory, 173 
Cockatiel, 161, 162 
Conures, 211 
Diademed Amazon parrot, 118, 

Ducorps' cockatoo, 151, 152 
Dufresne's Amazon parrot, 

119, 120 
Eclecti, 127 

Festive Amazon parrot, 108 
Flat-tailed parrakeets, 237 
Gofl&n's cockatoo, 151 

Physical characteristics {con- 

Golden-crowned conure, 218, 

Gold-naped Amazon parrot, 

Great Alexandrine parrakeet, 
204, 205 

Great-billed eclectus, 133, 134 

Great Black cockatoo, 158, 

Greater sulphur-crested cocka- 
too, 144 

Vaza parrot, 91 
White-crested cockatoo, 

Grey-breasted parrakeet, 225, 

Grey parrot, 80 

Guatemalan Amazon parrot, 

Hawk-headed parrot, 125, 126 

Hyacinthine macaw, 188 

Illiger's macaw, 195 

Javan Alexandrine parrakeet, 

Lady lory, 171,172 

Leadbeater's cockatoo, 149 

Lesser Sulphur-crested cocka- 
too, 143 

Levaillant'a Amazon parrot, 
100, 101 

Long-winged parrots, 121 

Lories and lorikeets, 163 

Luzian'a parrakeet, 210 

Macaws, 186 

Maitaka parrot, 124 

Masked parrakeet, 245, 246 

Mauritius Alexandrine parra- 
keet, 203 

Mealy Amazon parrot, 105 

Military macaw, 189 

Miiller's parrot, 135 

New Guinea eclectus, 129, 130 

Noble macaw, 196 
Parrots, 127 

Orange-winged Amazon parrot, 

Ornamented lory, 183 

PalffiornithinsB, 197, 193 

Pioninse, 121 


Physical characteristics {con- 

Eed and Blue macaw, 191 
And Yellow macaw, 192 

Eed-crested cockatoo, 147, 

Eed-fronted Amazon parrot, 

Eed lory, 175 

Eed -masked Amazon parrot, 

Eed Shining parrakeet, 244 

Eed-throated Amazon parrot, 
112, 113 

Eed-vented parrot, 124 

Eing-necked Alexandrine par- 
rakeet, 201 

Eoseate cockatoo, 153 

Eose-breasted Alexandrine par- 
rakeet, 208 

Eose Hill parrakeet, 240, 

Salle's Amazon parrot, 109 

Senegal parrot, 122, 123 

Sharp-tailed lories, 178, 179 

Slender-billed cockatoo, 155 

Small-billed i^arrakeets, 229 

Small macaw, 194 

Tovi parrakeet, 231 

True cockatoos, 142 

Undulated Grass parrakeet, 
248, 249 

Vinaceous Amazon parrot, 116, 

White-browed Amazon parrot, 
113, 114 

White-fronted Amazon parrot, 
111, 112 

Yellow-and-white-winged par- 
rakeet, 236 

Yellow-cheeked Amazon parrot, 
117, 118 

Conure, 222 

Yellow conure, 217 

Yellow-fronted Amazon parrot, 
101, 102 

Yellow - shouldered Amazon 
parrot. 104 
Pionias, 120 

Named by Wagler, 5 

{See also xmder Pionince) 

PiONiN-a;, OR Long-winged par- 
rots : 
Food, 122 
Habitat, 121 
Importation, 121 
In freedom, 121 
Named by Wagler, 5, 

Names of : 

Maitaka, 124 
Eed-vented, 124, 125 
Senegal, 122, 123 
{See also under respective 

Physical characteristics, 121 
Size, 121 
Talents, 120 
Platycerci, 237-246 

Named by Vigors, 5 
{See also under Flat- tailed 
Plectolophus, 136, 142 
Named by Vigors, 5 
{See also under True cock- 
Plucking, self, 73, 74 
Plumage, care of, 48-52 
Diseases of, 72, 73 
Object in describing, 5 
Pneumatic drinking vessel, 17 
Poisoning, 58 
Porto Eico parrots, 109 
Potatoes as food, 32 
Preservation of health, 46-52 

{See tinder Health, 2j reserva- 
tion of) 
Prices : 

Blue Mountain lory, 181 
Canary - winged parrakeet, 

Greater Vaza parrot, 92 
Grey parrot, 45, 82 
Luzian's parrakeet, 210 
Parrots in general, 13 
Eed Shining parrakeets, 

Small-billed parrakeet, 230 
Undulated Grass parrakeet, 
250, 252 
Prinz Luzian's Edelsittich, 210 
Psittacella, 5 


Psittacula, 5 

Psittacus, classification of, 5, 78 

(See also under True parrots) 
Psittacns accipitrinus, 125 
^ruginosus, 221 
Albifrons, 113 
Alexandri, 206 
Amazonicus, 99 
Ararauna, 193 
Aterrimus, 158 
Atricapillus, 109 
Aureus, 218 
Auripalliatus, 106 
Autumnalis, 117 
Brasiliensis, 115 
Cactorum, 221 
Carolinensis, 213 
Chloropterus, 192 
Coecineus, 176 
Diadematu?, 118 
Ducorpsi, 151 
Dufresnii, 119 
Eques, 203 

Erithaeu?, 79-90 

Eupatrius, 204 

Eximius, 240 

Farinosup, 104 

Feativus, 108 

Galeritus, 144 

Garralus, 172 

Goffini, 151 

Grandis, 131 

Guatemalensis, 107 

Gymnopis, 156 

Haecnorrlious, 215 

Hyacinthinus, 188 

Larvatus, 245 

Lathami, 208 

Leadbeateri, 149 

Leucocephalus, 111 

Leuc61opliu8, 145 

Linnei, 129 

Lori, 171 

Luziani, 210 

Macao, 190 

Maracana, 195 

Megalorrhynchus, 133 

Menstruus, 124 

Militaris, 189 

Moluccensis, 147 

Mdnachus, 225 

Psittacua Mulleri, 134 
Nasica, 155 
Niger, 92 

Nobilis, 196 

NovsB Hollandi^e, 161 

Ochrocephalus, 101 

Ochropterus, 103 

Ophthalmicus, 146 

Ornatus, 183 

Palgeornis cyanocephalus, 199 

Peristerodes, 199 

Personatus, 245 

Pertinax, 221 

Polychlorus, 129, 131 

Eosa, 199 

E-oseicapillns, 153 

Eosiceps, 199 

Euber, 175 

Sallei, 109 

Senegalus, 122 

Severus, 194 

Solstitialis, 217 

Splendens, 213 

Sulfureus, 143 

Swainsoni, 180 

Timneh, 90 

Tirica, 232 

Torquatus, 200 

Tovi, 231 

Undulatus, 247 

Vaza, 91 

Vinaceus, 116 

Virescens, 236 

Vittatus, 110 
Purchase : 

Blue-fronted Amazon parrot, 

Grey parrots, 87-89 

Palgeornithinse, 200 

Eing-necked Alexandrine par- 

rakeet, 202 
Eose Hill parrakeet, 243 
(See also under Price) 
Purchase and reception, 12-19 
Purging, 58, 59 

Purper-roode Fidji-Parkiet, 243 
Purperzwartkop Loeri, 169 
Purple-capped lory, 169 
Purpurr other Plattschweif sittich , 

Purpursittich, 243 




Quaker, 225 

Parrakeet, 225-228 

{See also under Grey -breasted 
Quakersittich, 225 


Raisins as food, to be avoided, 30 
Rattle in voice, 43 
Reception of parrots, 17-19 
Red and Blue macaw : 

Anciently known, 190 

Domestic character, 191 

Habitat, 191 

In freedom, 190 

Named by Linne, 190 

Other names, 190 

Physical characteristics, 191 

Size, 191 

Talents, 191 
Red and Yellow macaw : 

Age, 192 

Habitat, 192 

Named by Gray, 192 

Other names, 192 

Physical characteristics, 192 

Size, 192 
Red-billed Miiller's eclectus, 135 
Red-crested cockatoo : 

Age, 148 

Fiedler's, Mr., observations 
on, 148 

Habitat, 148 

Importation, 149 

Lazarus', Dr., account of, 148 

Named by Gmelin, 147 

Other names, 147 

Physical characteristics, 147, 

Size, 148 
Red-fronted Amazon parrot : 

Named by Boddaert, 110 

Other names, 110 

Physical characteristic?, 110 

Size, 110 

Talents, 111 

Training, 110, 111 

Red lory : 

Food, 17G 

Habitat, 175 

Miiller's, S., remarks on, 175 

Named by Gmelin, 175 

Other names, 175 

Physical characteristics, 175 

Rarity in the market, 176 

Scheuba'e, Mr., description, 
175, 17G 

Talents, 175, 176 
Red-masked Amazon parrot : 

Habitat, 115 

Named by Linno, 115 

Other names, 115 

Physical characteristics, 115 

Size, 115 

Tameness, 116 
Red Shining parrakeet: 

Habitat, 244 

Importation, 245 

In freedom, 244, 245 

Named by Peale, 243 

Other names, 243 

Physical characteristics, 244 

Price, high, 244 

Rarity, 244 

Rittner-Bos's description of, 

Size, 244 

Talents, 245 
Red-sided eclectus, 129 
Red-throated Amazon parrot: 

Habitat, 113 

Named by Linne, 112 

Other names, 112 

Physical characteristics, 112, 

Size, 113 

Talents, 113 
Red- vented parrot, 124, 125 

{See under Maitaka Parrot) 
Reuleaux's, Miss M., anecdote of 

Roseate cockatoo, 154 
Reus Geelkuif Kakketoe of Groote 

Geelkuif Ktikketoe, 144 
Rey's, Dr. E., description of Caro- 
lina conure, 214 
Rheumatic pains, 07, 68 
Rheumatism, 67 
Rice as food, 32 



Richter, Otto, on plumage of Grey 

parrots, 80 
Ring', fastening parrot to, 18, 19 


Anciently known, 200 

Breeding, 200, 201 

Cage bird,valuableas,200,202 

Habitat, 201, 202 

Importation, 202 

Named by Boddaert, 200 

Other names, 200 

Physical characteristics, 201 

Purchase, 202 

Size, 201 
Eing-necked parrakeet, 200 
Eitter-oder Eeiter-Edelsittich, 203 
Eittner-Bos's description of Eed 

Shining parrakeet, 245 
Eoan berries as food, 30 
Eoodbek Amazone Papegaai, 116 
Eoode Loeri, 175 
Eoodhand ara, 194 
Eoodmasker Amazone Papegaai, 

Eooduif Kakketoe, 147 
Eoodvoorhoofd Amazone Papegaai, 

Eooks, observations on, 2 
Eosafarbner Kakadu, 153 

Kakatu, 153 
Eosakakadu, 153 


Cage bird, as a, 154, 155 

Habitat, 153 

In freedom, 153 

Named by Vieillot, 153 

Other names, 153 

Physical characteristics, 153 

Eeuleaux, anecdote by Miss 

M., 154 
Size, 153 
Talents, 154, 155 


Habitat, 208 

Named by Finsch, 208 

Other names, 208 

Physical characteristics, 208 

Earely imported, 208 

Size, 208 

Eose-crested cockatoo, 147, 153 
EosE Hill parrakeet : 

Bargheer's description of, 241- 

Breeding, 243 

Commerce, important article 
of, 242 

Food, 242, 243 

Gould's remarks on, 242 

Habitat, 241 

In captivity, 242, 243 

Named by Shaw, 240 

Other names, 240 

Physical characteristics, 240, 

Selection, 243 

Size, 241 

Talents, 240, 242, 243 

Tamenes?, 241 
Eose Kakketoe, 153 
Eosella, 240 

Parrot, 240 
Eosenbriis tiger Alexandersittich 

von Java, 206 
Eosenbrustsittich, 206 
Eosenringsittich, 208 
Eosenrother Kakadu, 153 
Eose-ringed parrakeet, 200 
Eosy cockatoo, 153 
Eowley on exaggerated accounts 

of speakers, 45 
Eothbauchiger Kurzfliigelpapagei, 

Eothbugamazone, 97 
Eothbugamazonenpapagei und 

Kurzfliigelpapagei mit ro- 
them Fliigelbug, 97 
Eothbug-arara, 194 
Eothedelpapagei, 131 
Eother Pompadoursitfcich, 243 
Eothhalsige Kuba-Amazone, 111 
Eothhauben Kakadu, 147 
Eothhaiibiger Kakadu, 147 
Eothmasken- Amazone, 115 
Eothmaskirter Kurzfliigelpapagei, 

Eothnackenlori, 171 
Eothriickige Amazone, 108 
Eothrlickiger Amazonenpapagei, 

Arara, 195 



Eothschnjibeliger Edelsittich mit 

rother Brust, 20G 
Kurzfliigelpapagei, IIG 
Eothschulteriger Edelsittich, 204 
Edelsittioh mit rosenrothera 

Halsband, 204 
Eothschwilnziger Papagei und 

rothschwilnziger Graupapa- 

gei, 79 
Eothstirnige Portoriko-Amazone, 

Eothstirniger arara, 189, 195 

Kurzfliigelpapagei, 110 
Eoth und schwarzschnilbeliger 

Edelsittich mit rother Brust, 

Eusa's " Manual for Bird Fan- 

cier-s" 32, 52, 53 


Saffron, dyers', as food, 31 
Sailing vessels, transportation of 

parrots in, 10 
St. Domingo Amazone, 109 
St. Thomas Conure, 221 

Sittich, 221 
Salle's Amazone Papegaai, 109 
Salle's Amazon parrot : 

Named by Dr. Sclater, 109 

Other names, 109 

Physical characteristics, 109 

Screamer, 109 

Size, 109 

Talents, 109 
Salle's Kurzfliigelpapagei, 109 
Salomon-Kakada, 146 
Salonkakadu, 143 
Sand, 51 

To aid digestion, 33 
Scallop parrot, 247 
Scharlachrother Arara, 190 

Lori, 175 
Scheldt's, Mr. K. von, account of 
Undulated Grass parrakeet, 
252, 253 
SCHEUBA, Mr., birds described by: 

Blue-breasted lory, 176-178 

Ceram lory, 174 

Lady lory, 172 

Scheuba, Mr., birds described by 
Lories and lorikeets, 164-167 
Ornamented lorv, 184, 185 
Red lory, 175, 176 
Schlechta's, Baroness Sidonie von, 
birds described by : 
Brown-throated connre, 224 
Ducorps' cockatoo, 152 
Javan Alexandrine parrakeet, 

Timneh parrot, 90 
Schlechtendal's, Mr. E. von, obser- 
vations on Ceram lory, 173 
Schmalschnabelsittich mit gelben 
Unterflvigeldecken, 231 
Mit gelber und weisser Fliigel- 

binde, 236 
Mit hochgelber Fliigelbinde, 
Schmalz's, Mr., account of Blue- 
crowned conures, 215, 216 
Schmidt's, Dr., account of Great 

Black cockatoo, 159 
Schmucklori, 183 
Schnurbartsittich, 208 
Schomburgk on Dut'resne's Ama- 
zon parrot, 120 
Schwarzer Ararakakadu, 158-160 

Eiisselpapagei, 158-160 
Schwarzgeohrter Langfliigel papa- 

gei, 124 
Schwarzkappenlori, 169 
Schwarzkiippiger Breitschwanzlori, 

Schwarzkopfiger lori, 169 
Schwarzmaskirter Plattschweifsit- 

tich, 245 
Schwarzohrpapagei, 124 
Schwarzschn iibeliger Edelsittich 

mit rother Brust, 209 
Schwarzschnabelsittich, 209 
Schwarzschulter Edelpapagei, 133 
Schwarzstirniger Frauenlori, 169 
Schwendt's, Mr. 0., account of 
remarkable Grey parrot, 
85, 86 
Scirrhus of the eyelids, 67 
Sclater, Dr., birds named by : 
Bare-eyed cockatoo, 156 
Blue-eyed cockatoo, 146 



Sclattr, Dr., hirda named by 
{continued) : 
Psittacua gymnopis, 156 
Ophthalmicus, 146 
Sallei, 109 
Salle's Amazon parrot, 109 
Scopoli, New Guinea eclectua or 
parrot named by, 129 
Paittacus polychlorus named 
by, 129, 131 
Screamers, old, sometimes become 

speakers, 36 
Screaming, 35 
Seeds, farinaceous, as food, 29 

Oily, as food, 28 
Self plucking, 73, 74 
Senegal Langvleugel Papegaai, 

Senegal parrot : 

Blaauw's Mr., description of, 

Examples of talkers, 123 
Food, 123 

Named by Linne, 122 
Ornamental, 123 
Other names, 122 
Physical characteristics, 122, 

Natural history, 122 
Size, 123 
Talents, 123 
Service berries as food, 30 
Sharp- TAILED lories : 
Classification, 5 
Food, 179 
Habitat, 179 
Importation, 179 
In freedom, 179 
Named by Vigors, 178 
Names of : 

Blue Mountain, 180-182 
Ornamented, 183-185 
{See also under resioective 
Physical characteristics, 178, 

Size, 179 
Shaw, birds named by : 

Diademed Amazon parrot, 

Greater Vaza parrot, 91 

Shaw, birds named by (continued): 
Psittacus diadematus, 118 
Eximius, 240 
Undulatus, 247 
Eose Hill parrakeet, 240-243 
Undulated Grass parrakeet, 
Shell parrot, 247 
Shining parrakeet, 243 

(See also under Bed Shining 
Shining parrot, 243 
Shipping (see under Importation) 
Short-tailed species : 
Caging, 19 

Rarely kept on stands or 
hoops, 19 
Shows, judging speakers at, 43 
Shuddering, a sign of ill heath, 53 
Shyness in presence of strangers, 

Siegroth's, Baron von, account of 
Grey parrot, 86 
Anecdote of Grey parrot teach- 
ing Amazon to speak, 44 
Signs of ill health, 52-54 
Silver chains, 27 
Singing parrakeet, 247 
Named by Gould, 5 
{See also under Undulated 
Grass parralceet) 
Sittace, 185 

Named by Wagler, 5 
! Size : 

All-green parrakeet, 233 
Amazon parrots, 94 
Bare-eyed cockatoo, 157 
Black-billed Alexandrine par- 
rakeet, 209 
Black-bonnet lory, 169 
Blue and Yellow macaw, 193 
Blue-breasted lory, 177 
Blue-crowned conure, 215 
Blue-eyed cockatoo, 146, 147 
Blue-fronted Amazon parrot, 

Blue Mountain lory, 181 
Bolborrhynchi, 224, 225 
Broad-tailed lories, 168 
Brown-throated conure, 223 
Cactus conure, 223 



Size {continued): 

Canary-winged parrakeet, 234 
Carolina connre, 213 
Ceram eclectus, 133 

Lory, 173 
Cockatiel, 162 
Conures, 211 

Diademed Amazon parrot, 119 
Ducorpa' cockatoo, 152 
Dufresne's Amazon parrot, 

Eclecti, 127 
Festive Amazon parrot, 108, 

Flat-tailed parrakeets, 237 
Gilolo eclectus, 132 
Goffin's cockatoo, 151 
Golden-crowned connre, 219 
Gold-naped Amazon parrot, 

Great Alexandrine parrakeet, 

Great-billed eclectus, 134 
Great Black cockatoo, 159 
Greater Sulphur-crested cock- 
atoo, 144 
Vaza parrot, 92 

White-crested cockatoo, 
Grey -breasted parrakeet, 226 
Grey parrot, 80 
Guatemalan Amazon parrot, 

Hawk-headed parrot, 126 
Hyacinthine macaw, 188 
Uliger's macaw, 195 
Javan Alexandrine parrakeet, 

Lady lory, 171, 172 
Leadbeater's cockatoo, 149 
Lesser Vaza parrot, 92, 93 
Levaillant's Amazon parrot, 

Long-winged parrots, 121 
Macaws, 186 
Maitaka parrot, 124 
Masked parrakeet, 246 
Mauritius Alexandrine parra- 
keet, 203 
Mealy Amazon parrot, 105 
Military macaw, 189 

Size {continued): 

New Guinea eclectus, 130 

Noble macaw, 196 
Parrots, 127 

Orange-winged Amazon par- 
rot, 99 

Ornamental lory, 183 

PalaeornithinEC, 198 

Eed and Blue macaw, 191 
And Yellow macaw, 192 

Eed-crested cockatoo, 148 

Red-fronted Amazon parrot, 

Red-masked Amazon parrot, 

Red Shining parrakeet, 244 

Red-throated Amazon parrot, 

Red-vented parrot, 124 

Ring-necked Alexandrine par- 
rakeet, 201 

Roseate cockatoo, 153 

Rose-breasted Alexandrine 
parrakeet, 208 

Rose Hill parrakeet, 241 

Salle's Amazon parrot, 109 

Senegal parrot, 123 

Sharp-tailed lories, 179 

Slender-billed cockatoo, 155 

Small macaw, 194 

Tovi parrakeet, 231 

True cockatoos, 142 

Undulated grass parakeet, 249 

Vinaceous Amazon parrot, 116, 

White-browed Amazon parrot, 

White-fronted Amazon parrot, 

Yellow-and-white- winged par- 
rakeet, 236 

Yellow-cheeked Amazon par- 
rot, 118 

Conure, 222 

Yellow conure, 217 

Yellow-fronted Amazon par- 
rot, 102 

Yellow - shouldered Amazon 
parrot, 104 
Slender-billed cockatoo : 

Cage birds, examples of, 156 



Slender-billed cockatoo {continued) : 

Food, 155, 156 

Habitat, 155 

In freedom, 156 

Named by Temminck, 155 

Other names, 155 

Physical characteristics, 155 

Size, 155 
Slender-billed parrakeets : 

Food, 31, 32 

Named by Vigors, 5 
Small-billed parrakeets : 

Finsch's description of, 229 

Food, 229, 230 

Habitat, 229 

Hardiness, 230 - 

In freedom, 229 

Named by Vigors, 229 

Names of : 

Canary-winged, 234, 235 

Tovi, 231, 232 

Yello w-and-white-winged , 

(See also under respective 

Natural history, 229, 230 

Physical characteristics, 229 

Price, 230 

Talents, 229 
Small cockatoo, 143 

Long-tailed parrots (see under 
Small macaw : 

Buffon's description of, 194, 

Habitat, 194 

Named by Linne, 194 

Other names, 194 

Physical characteristics, 194 

Size, 194 

Talents, 194, 195 
Smous-of Baardparkiet, 209 
Snoring, 53 
Socle of cage, 21, 23 
Soldatenarara, 189 
Solstitian parrakeet, 217 
Sonnensittich, 217 
Sonnenwendesittich, 217 
Soyaux on Grey parrots, 31, 80, 87 
Sparrowhawk, effect of, on spar- 

Sparrows, observations on, 2 
Speakers, judging, at shows, 43 
Species and varieties, disputed, 4 
Spectacle parrot, 113 
Speech acquired by few birds, 2 
Capability of, 1 
Of men compared with that of 
animals, 3 
Spittoon for drinking vessel, 23 
Spix, birds named by : 

Blue-crowned conure, 215, 216 
Canary-winged parrakeet, 234, 

Psittacus ha3morrhous,215 
Xanthdpteyus, 234 
Spleen, diseases of, 63, 64 
Stands : 

Chain, 26, 36 
Drawer, 26 
Drinking vessel, 24 
Food vessel, 24 
Hoops, 24, 26, 27 
Illustration, 25 
Leg ring, 27 
Perches, 24, 26 
Einge, 26, 27 
(See also under Hoops) 
Steamboats, transportation in, 10 
Steinhausen's, Dr., account of 
Great Alexandrine parra- 
keet, 205 
Stolker's, Dr., accounts of Golden- 
crowned conure, 219, 220 
Stomach and intestines, catarrh in, 
57, 58 
Inflammation of, 57, 58 
Stringops, 5 

Strongylus Syngramus, 55 
Stiicklen's, Mr. W., account of Grey 

parrot, 86, 87 
Stumps of feathers, removing, 49 
Sulphur-crested cockatoos, 143-145 
(See uiuler Greater and Lesser 
Sulphur-crested coclcatoos) 
Sunflower seeds as food, 31 
Superstitions regarding nests, 7 
Surinam- Amazone und Surinam pa- 

pagei, 101 
Surinam Amazon parrot, 101 
Susceptibility of parrots to teach- 
ing, 34, 35 



Sv^ainson, Amazon parrots named 
by, 5, 93 

Chrysotis named by, 5, 93 
Swainson's Loeri, 180 

Lorikeet, 180 
Swelling of the cuticle of the eye, 

Windy, 57 
Swellings on the eyelid?, 67 
Swing for cage, 22, 23 
Symptoms of ill health, 53, 54 
Syngamus trachealis, 55 

Table of medicines, 74-76 
Talented bird, signs of, 36 
Talkers among other birds than 
parrots, 4 

Classification of, 4, 5 

Not rare at the present day, 3 
Tamed birds good teachers^, 44 
Taming and training : 

Aptitude for, 38 

Bad habits, breaking of, 42 

By force, 37 

By Indian women, 37 

By non-fanciers, 35 

Caging, 38 

Chaining, 38 

Changes, susceptibility to, 43 

Companion to man, 34 

Conditions to be observed, 35, 

Covering cage. 44 

Dealers, method adopted by, 36 

Difference of capability in 
various parrots, 42, 43 

Dulitz, Mr., on, 35 

Early lessons, 41, 42 

Enthusiasm of fanciers, 44, 45 

Exaggerated accounts of 
speakers, 45 

Good health an indispensable 
qualification, 44 

Grey parrots, 37 

Hoarseness, 43 

Ignorant, 35, 36 

Lazarus, Dr., on, 39, 40 

Lisping, 43 

*' Loosing of the tongue," 40 

Taming and training {continued): 
Loving disposition, 35 
Mental talents, 45 
Necessity for constant prac- 
tice, 42 
Objectionable qualities, 35 
Old birds difficult to train, 36 
" Old screamers," 36 
Practical directions, 39-44 
Rattle in voice, 43 
Repetition of lessons, 43 
Shyness in presence ot stran- 
gers, 43 
Talented bird, signs of, 36 
Tamed bird a good teacher, 44 
Teaching to speak, 41-46 
Teasing to be avoided, 39 
Untrained birds not to be 
placed together, 44 
Taubenhals-Amazone, 116 
Tea as food, evils of, 34 
Teachers or trainers, 11 
Teaching {see under Taming and 

Teasing to be avoided, 39 
Temminck, birds named by : 
Muller's parrot, 134 
Paittacus Mulleri, 134 

Nasica, 155 
Slender-billed or Nasecus 
cockatoo, 155 
Temperature, effects of sudden 
changes in, on parrots, 47 
Most suitable, 47 
Thick-billed parrakeets : 
Food, 31, 32 
Named by Bonaparte, 5 
{See also under Bolhorrhynchi) 
Throat, cold in, 54 
Timneb-Jako, 90 
Timneh-Papagei, 90 
Timneh Papegaai, 90 


Characteristics, 90 
Distinguished from Grey 

parrot, 90 
Food, 90, 91 
Habitat, 90 
Moultiijg, 90 
Names, 90 
Rarity in the market, 90 



Tirica Parkiet, 232 
Tirikasittich, 232 
Tobacco, effects of, 46 
Tongue, deacription of, 5 
" Tongue, loosing of the," 40 
Tongue of Great Macaws, 6 

Lories, 6 

Lorikeets, 6 
Tovi Parkiet, 231 


Breeding, 232 

Frantzius', Dr. A. von, re- 
marks on, 231 
Habitat, 231 
Named by Gmelin, 231 
Other names, 231 
Physical characteristics, 231 
Rarity in the market, 231 
Size, 231 
Talents, 232 
Tovi-Schmalschnabelsitticb, 231 
Tovisittich, 231 
Trade in parrots, 8-11 
Trainers, 11 
Training, 34-46 

(See also under Taming and 
Transportation, 16 
Cages for, 16 

{See also under Importation) 
Trembling, a sign of ill health, 53 
Trichoglossinse, 1G3-167 
Trichoglossus, 178 

Named by Vigors, 5 
{See also under Sharp-tailed 
True cockatoos: 
Importation, 142 
Named by Vigors, 5, 142 
Names of : 

Bare-eyed, 156, 157 
Blue-eyed, 146, 147 
Ducorps', 151, 152 
Goffin's, 151 
Greater sulphur-crested, 

144, 145 
Greater white-crested,145, 

Leadbeater's, 149, 150 
Lesser Sulphur-crested, 
143, 144 

True cockatoos {continued) -. 
Nasecus, 155, 156 
Eed-crested, 147-149 
Eoseate, 153-155 
Slender-billed, 155, 156 
Sulphur-crested, 143-145 
White-crested, 145, 146 
{See also under respective 
Physical characteristics, 142 
Size, 142 
True lories : 
Food, 32 

Named by Wagler, 5 
{See also under Broad-tailed 
True parrots : 

Amazon, Black, and Grey, 
contrasted, 78 
: Classification, 78 

Existence in captivity, 79 
i Natural history, 78 

Named by Linne, 5 
Names of : 

Greater Vaza, 91, 92 
Grey, 79-90 
Lesser Vaza, 92, 93 
Timneh, 90, 91 
{See also under respective 
Physical characteristics, 79 
Talents as speakers, 78 
Tuberculosis, 56, 57 
Twigs to gnaw, 30, 32 
Typhoid, infectious, 59, 60 
Typhus, 59, 60 


Undulated Grass parrakeet : 

Anecdotes, 251-253 

Bauer's, Mr. William, descrip- 
tion of, 252 

Beauty, 248 

Brandt's, Mr. A., account of, 

Breedingr, 250, 251 

Distinguishing features, 248 

Extraordinary specimen at the 
1880 Ornis Exhibition in 
Berlin, 247, 248 



Undulated Grass parrakeet {con- 
Food, 31, 32, 250, 251, 253 
Gould's description of, 248 
Habitat, 249 
Importation, 250 
Influences of man, subject to, 

Lazarus', Dr., account of, 253 
Maier'e,Mi88 Eugenie, account 

of, 251, 252 
Named by Gould and Shaw, 

Other names, 247 
Physical characteristics, 24S, 

Price, 252 
Scheldt's, Mr. K., account of, 

252, 253 
Size, 249 

Talents, 247, 251-253 
'"Undulated Grass Parrakeet," 

directions in, 251 
Undnlatus, 247 
Untamed Birds : 
Caging, 19 

Fastening to stand, 18, 19 
Treatment of, 14 
Ussher on importation of Grey 

parrots, 82 


Valuable speakers, breeding of, 77, 

Varieties and species, disputed, 4 
Vasa oder Vaza, 91 
Vaza parrots, 91-93 

(See also under Greater Vaza 
parrot and Lesser Vaza 
Vegetable fat as food, 30 
Veneznela-Amazone, 99 
Vent glands, diseases of, 62, 63 
Verreaux, Luzian' 8 parrakeet named 
by, 210 
Psittacus Luziani named by, 
ViEiLLOT, birds named by : 
Illiger's macaw, 195, 196 

Vieillot , bird a named by (continued) : 
Psittacus maracana, 195 

Roseicapillus, 153 
Eoseate cockatoo, 153 
j Vienna rolls as food, 29 
I Vigors, birds named by -. 
Brotogerys, 5, 229 
Calypthorrhynchus, 136 
Flat-tailed parrakeets, 5, 237- 

Leadbeater's cockatoo, 149 
Long-tailed cockatoos, 136 
Lorikeets, 5 

Noble parrakeets, 5, 197-200 
Paleeornis, 5, 197 
Pal£eornithina3, 197-200 
Platycercus, 5, 237 
Plectolophus, 142 
Psittacus Leadbeateri, 149 
Sharp-tailed lories, 5 
Slender-billed parrakeets, 5 
Small-billed parrakeets, 229, 

Trichoglossus, 5, 178 
ViNACEOus Amazon parrot : 

Named by Prince Max von 

Wied, 116 
Natural history, 116, 117 
Other names, 116 
Petermann's, Mr., description 

of, 117 
Physical characteristics, 116, 

Size, 116, 117 
Violettkappiger Lori, 169 
Vomiting, 62 

Vulgarity not a signification of 
worthlessness, 11 


Wachsschnabellori oder Wachs- 

schnabel, 129, 131 
Wagler, birds named by : 

Black-billed Alexandrine par- 
rakeet, 209 
Black-bonnet Lory, 169 
Broad-tailed Lories, 5, 167 
Dasyptilua, 5 
DomicelU, 5, 167 



Wagler, birds named by {con- 
Dwarf cockatoos, 136 
Eclectus, 5, 127 
Euphema, 5, 250 
Grass parrakeets, 250 
Licmetis, 142 

Long-wiuged parrots, 5, 120 
Macaws, 185-188 
Nasecus cockatoo, 142 
Nasiterna, 5, 136 
New Guinea eclectus or par- 
rot, 129 
Noble parrots, 5, 127 
Pionias, 5, 120 
Pioninae, 120 

Pflittacus atricapillus, 169 
Linnei, 129 
Melanorryhnchus, 209 
Sittace, 185 
True Lories, 5, 167 
Walnuts as food, 30 
Water, 34 

Keeping parrots without, 33 
Vessel, absence of, in trans- 
portation, 17 
Wedge-tailed cockatoo, 4 
Wedge-tailed parrakeets : 
Food, 31, 32 
Named by Kiihl, 5 
{See also under Gonnres) 
Weinland, Dr., opinion ou the 

tongues of parrots, 6 
Weinrothe Amazone, 116 
Weissbepuderter Amazonepapagei, 

Weissfliioel, 236 
Weissgehaubter oder Weissbiiu- 

biger Kakadu, 145 
Weissbauben-Kakadu, 145 
Weisskopfige Amazone, 112 
Weisskopfiger Kiirzflugelpapagei, 

Weiesscbnabelpapagei, 134 
Weisssehwingensitticb, 236 
Weisstirnige Amazone, 113 

Portoriko-Amazone, 109 
Weissziigeliger Kurzfliigelpapagei, 

Wellen papagei, 247 
Wellensittich, 247 

Wellenstreifiger Sittieh, 247 
White-billed Miiller's eclectus, 
Parrot. 134 
White-browed Amazon parrot : 
Arnold's, Mr. F., description 

of, 114 
Habitat, 114 
Other names, 113 
Physical characteristics, 113, 

Size, 114 
White-crested cockatoo, Greater, 
145, 146 
(See also under Greater White- 
crested cockatoo) 
White-fronted Amazon parrot: 
Habitat, 112 
Named by Linne, 111 
Opinions of writers, 111, 112 
Other names. 111 
Physical characteristics. 111, 

Size, 112 
Wholesale buyers and importers, 

improper feeding by, 28 
WiED, Prince Max von, birds 
named by : 
Cactus conure, 221 
Psittacus cactorum, 221 

Vinaceus, 116 
Vinaceons Amazon, 116 
Wied, Prince Max von, on Du- 
fresne's Amazon parrot, 120 
On the Noble macaw, 196 
Wigstairt-Kakketoe of Kakatilje, 

161, 162 
Willink's, Dr., account of Grey- 
breasted parrakeet, 228 
Windpipe worm, 55 
Windy swelling, 57 
Wings of parrots, 1 

Clipped on importation, 12 
Witkop Amazone Papegaai, 112 
Witkuif Kakketoe, 145 
Witvoorhoofd Amazon Papegaai, 

Wolf's, Dr., examination on blood- 
poisoning, 60 
Wooden chests, transportation of 
parrots in, 16 



Worm, windpipe or larynx, 55 
Worms, intestinal, 61, 62 
Wounds, 68 

Wunderlicherweiee allfarbsittich 
oder blo3 allfarb, 240 


Yawning a sign of ill health, 

Yellow - and - white - winged 
parrakeet : 

Habitat, 236 

Named by Gmelin, 236 

Other names, 236 

Physical characteristics, 236 

Size, 236 
Yellow-cheeked Amazon par- 

Diademed Amazon, distin- 
guished from, 117 

Habitat, 118 

Named by Linne, 117 

Other names, 112 

Physical characteristics, 117, 

Size, 118 
Yellow-cheeked conure : 

Food, 223 

Habitat, 222 

Named by Linne, 221 

Other names, 221 

Physical characteristics, 222 

Screamer, 221 

Size, 222 
Yellow conure : 

Habitat, 217 

In freedom, 216, 217 

Named by Linne, 217 

Other names, 217 

Physical characteristics, 217 

Earely imported alive, 217 

Size, 217 

Talents, 217, 218 

Yellow-fronted Amazon par- 
Habitat, 102, 103 
Importation, 103 
Named by Gmelin, 101 
Other names, 101 
Physical characteristice, 101, 

Size, 102 
Talents, 103 
Varieties, 102 
Yellow - headed Amazon parrot, 

single, 103 
Yellow - shouldered Amazon 


Distinguished from other 

Amazons, 104 
Mimicry, power of, 103 
Named by Gmelin, 103 
Other names, 103 
Physical characteristics, 104 
Size, 104 


Zebra Grass parrakeet, 247 

Parrakeet, 247 
Zinc drawer to cage, 21 
Zon Parkiet of Carolina Parkiet, 

Zoological Society of London, de- 
scription of Blue-eyed cock- 
atoo in Proceedings of, 146 
Ziirn, Dr., on diseases of the vent 
glands, 63 
On fractures of the bones, 69 
On gout, 67 
On influenza, 54 
On "The Diseases of House- 
hold Birds," 52, 53 
Eemedy for intestinal worms, 
Zwartbek Edelparkiet, 209 
Zwartkeel Edelparkiet, 208 
Zwergarara, 194 
Zwartachouder Edelpapegaai, 133 



New and Practical 



Animals 3 

Art and Virtu 5 

Bees and Birds 6 

Dogs 3 

Games 24 

Gardening 10 

General Literature .... 14 


Guides to Places 15 

Household 16 

Ladies' Work 16 

Mechanics 18 

Natural History 20 

Poultry 7 

Sports and Pastimes .... 21 


^^^^^ ^- ^*-^^84. 

"^^^L^' ^ 


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paper, price Is., by post, Is. Id. 


Containing Instructions for the Breeding, Management, and Working of Ferrets, 
paper, price 6d., by post, 7d. 
" Well XL- orthy of perusal . . , cyn'ains valuable information." — Sportsman. 


Their Varieties, Management, and Breeding. Re-issue, with Criticisms, &c., by Dr. Carter 
Blake. lUuscrated. In paper, price 6d.. by post, 6id. 
" Goes thoroughly into the subject."— Cambridge Chronicle. 


Ticket of Jacob Stainer (from "Old Violins ard their Makers"). 


Including eome references to those of modern times. Bv .Tames M Flfming. Illustrated 
■with Far-similes of Tickets and Sound Holes, &c. In the new "Renaissance" binding, 
price 6s. 6d.. by post, 7s. 
^^ Embraces a greater number of features than will he jound in any other single volume." 
—Daily Chronicle. 


Its Principles and Practice. By Walter Harvey. Illustrated. In paper, price Is., by nost. 
Is. Id. 

"Just what is wanted." — Ladies' Journal. 


Being Instructions in Colouring Photographs, Imitation Stained Glass, Decalcomanie. 
Queen Shell Work. Painting on China, Japanese Lacquer Work, StenciHine, Painting 
Magic Lantern Slides, Menu and Guest Cards, Spatter Work, Picture and Scrap Screens, 
Frosted Silver Work. Pictui-e Cleaning and Ref-torine, llluminiting and Symbolical 
Colouring. Illustrated. In cloth gilt, price 2s. 6d., by post, 2s. 8d. 
" Practical, satisfactory in its treatment, and very interesting." — The Queen. 


A Manual for Collectors. Being a Concise A.ccounn of the Development of the Potter's 
Art in England. ProfuseW Illustrated with Marks. Monograms, and F.tiyravings of charac- 
teristic Specimens. New Edition. In cloth gilt, price 3s. t:d.. by post, 3s. 8d, 
" The collector will find the worlcinvaluable." — Broad Arrow. 

L. Upcott Gill, Publisher, 170, Strand, W.C. 

6 Practical Handbooks, — Art and Virtu, Bees and Birds. 

Japanese Tail-piece (from "Decorative Painting"). 


A Practical Handbook nn Painting and Etching upon Various Objects and Materials for 
the Decoration of our Hornet. Illustrated with Novel Head and Tail Pieces. By B. C. 
Saward (Author of the Artistic Needlework in "The Dictionary of Needlework," Ac). 
A new Art Book, printed on tinted paper, with coloured ink, and bound in the new 
•• Renaissance" binaing, price 78. fid., by post, 7^. 9d. 
*'Spayedi. no pains to give useful infovmation as to thevarious processesof Decorative Painting." 
— Academy. 


A Guide to the : 

Giving the Value of the various Coins, fr'^m the prices realised at the chief sales of the 
past 20 years. Arraneed in chronological ordfir. Of immense valu« to collectors arid 
dealers. PLATES IN GOLD, SILVER. AND COPPEtt. In Monthly Parts, price 7d. 
I. to IX. now ready. 
" A useful guide . , . cannot he other v:ise than highly serviceable."— Batk Herali>. 

Edward VI. Half Sovereign, Third Year (from "A Guide to the Identification and 
Valuation ot British Coins "). 


A Manual for Collectors ; being a History and Description of the Coinage of Great Britain, 
from the Earliest Ages to the Present Time. Profusely Dlustrated. In cloth gilt, price 4s., 
by post, 4s. 4d. 
"A more useful, compendious, and reliable guide to the study and arrangement of tlie Coins of 
Great Britain could not well he placed in the Collector's hands."— The Eeli quart. 



Being Plain Instructions to the Amateur for the Successful Management of the Honey 
Bee. Illustrated. Third Edition. Revised and greatlv enlarged, and with numerous 
additional illustratiors. By Frank Cheshire. In cloth gilt, price 8s. 6d., by post, 3s. 9d. 
*' Here are full and plain instructions to the amateur on every p<rint." — Journal of Horti- 

L. Upcott Gill J Publisher, 170, Strand, W.C. 

Practical Handbooks. — Bees and Birds. 7 


Bsing a Short Treatise on Apiculture on Humane and Successful Principles. By Thomas 
ADDEY (the Lincolnshire Apiarian). In paper, price 6d., by post, 6id. 
" Pitll 0/ use/wl injoxmaiion'' — Bell's Life in London. 


Contains : Breeding Poultry for Prizes, Exhibition Poultry, and Management of the Poultry 
Yard. Handsomely Illustrated. New Edition, Revised and Enlarged. By James Long". 
In cloth gilt, price 2s. Cd., by post, 2s. yd. 
" We cannot speak in too liigh ienns of this." — Gardener's Chronicle. 


For use at all Poultry, Pigeon, Dog, Rabbit, and Cage Bird Shows. In Four Books, 
comprising: I. Minute Book; ll. Cash Book; III. Entries Book; IV. Ledger. With 
Full Directions and Illustrative Examples for Working them. N.B.— The set of Four 
JJooks is kept in Three Series : No. i, for Show of .500 Entries, 10s. 6d. the set; No. 2, 
for 1000 Entries, 15s. 6d. the set; and No. 3, for 1500 Entries, £1 Is. the set. Larger sizes in 
proportion. A Sample Set of sheets, post free, Is. 
"We can recommeynd the hooks as admirohly adapted for the purposes for Khich they are 
intended."— Tns Field. 

The PiKTAiL Duck (from "Ducks and Geese"). 


Their Characteristics, Points, and Management. By Various Breeders. Splendidly 
Illustrated. In paper, price Is. 6d., by post. Is. 7d. 
"A very desiralle little ii-orfc."— The Queen. 


Containing Full Directions for Successfully Breeding, Rearing, and Managing the various 
Beautiful Cage Birds imported into this Country. Beautifully Illustrated. By C. W. Gedney. 
In cloth gilt, in two vols., price 8s. 6d., by post, 9s. ; in extra cloth gilt, gilt edges, in one 
vol., price 93. 6d., by post, 10s. [May also ba had in two Vols, as follows :] 
" Full of iiiformation on every point." — Public Opinion. 



Their Varieties. Breeding and Management. Illustrated. (Forming Vol.1, of "Foreign 
Cage Birds.") In cloth gilt, price 8s. 6d., by post, 3i. 9d. 

L. Upcott Gill, Publisher, 170, Strand, W.C. 

Practical Handbooks. — Bees and Birds. 


Small Foreig^n Aviary Birds : 

ThPir Varieties, Brpefiin^, and Management. Beautifully Illnatrated iForming Vol. II. 
of '* Foreign Cape Birdn."] Tn olnth eilt. price 5s., by post, Ss. 3d. 

Aviary, with Room fob Moulting Show Birds (from "The Canary Book"). 


Containing Full Directions for the Breeding', Bearing, and Management of all Varieties 
of Canaries and Canary Mules, the Promotion and Management of Canary Societies 
and Exhibitions, and all otVier matters connected with this Fancy. Bv Robkrt L. "Wallace. 
TRATIONS of Prize Birds, Cages, &c. In cloth gilt, price 5s., by post, 5s. 4d. [May also 
be had in two Sections, as follow:] 
" This very comprehensive work . . . which is one of a viost practical character . . . vmy he 
safely consulted by nil canary fanciers," — The Field. 

L, Upcott Gill, Publisher, 170. Strayid, W.C. 

Practical Handbooks, — Bees and Birds, g 


Including Cages and Cage Making, Breeding, Managing, Mule Breeding. Diseases and 
their Treatmtnt, Moulting, Rats and Mice, &c. Illustrated. SECOND EDITION, 
KEVI8EU AND GREAIL.Y ENLARGED. {Forming lection I. of the " Canary Book.") 
In cloth, price 2s. 6d., by post, 2s. 9d. 


Containing Full Particulars of all the different Varieties, their Points of Excellence. Pre- 
paring Birds for Exhibition, Formation and Management of Canary Societies and Ex- 
hibitions. Illustrated. (Forming Sectiun II. of the " Canari/ Book.") SECOND EDITION, 
REVISED AND EN JL.ARGED. In cloth, price 2s. 6d., by post, 28. 9d. 

The African Owl (from "Fancy Pigeons"). 


Containing Full Directions for the Breeding and Management of Fancy Pigeons, and 
Descriptions of every known variety, together with all other information of interest or 
use to Pigeon Fanciers. Second Edition, bringing the siibject down to the present time. 
Handsomely Illustrated. By J. C. Lyell. In extra cloth gilt, price 7s. 6d., by post, 8s. 
•• One of the best of its /and."— Bell's Life. 


Or, how to Keep and Breed Foreign Birds with Pleasure and Profit in England, Dlus" 
trated. By W. T. Greene, M.D., M.A., F.Z.S., F.S.S., &c., Author of "Parrots in 
Captivity," and Editor of ** Notes on Cage Birds." In cloth gilt, price 3s, 6d., by post, 
3s. 9d. 
"Is worthy of a hearty welcome from all breeders and Iceepers of foreign birds." — Live 
Stock Journal. 

L. Upcott Gill, Publisher y \yo, Strand, W.C. 


Practical Handbooks. — Bees & Birds, Gardening. 


A Scientific Manual by Dr. Karl Rnss (Author of "The Foreign Aviary Birds," "Mflnual 
for Bird Fanciere," &c.). Translated by Leonora Schultze, and Re\ised by Dr. Karl Russ. 
In cloth gilt, price 7s. 6d., by po»c, se. 


Or, Practical Hints on the Management of British and Foreign Cage Birds, Hybrids, 
and Canaries. By Various Hands. Edited by W. T. Greene, M.A., M.D., F.S.S., F.Z.S., 
&c. In cloth gilt, price 4s, 6d., by post, 4s. 9d. 
" T/iere is no detail of lird management which is left unnoticed." — The Scotsman. 



A Practical Encyclopaedia of Horticulture for Amateurs and Professionals. Illustrated 
with upwards of 1.")(I0 engravings. In Monthly Parts, price Is. 
"No u-ork of the land could he of more use to ihc professional and amateur gardener."— 
Public Opinion. 

Noisette Rose (from "Greenhouie Management for Amateura"). 


Descriptions of the best Greenhouses and Frames, with Instructions for Building Ihem j. 
particulars of the various methods of Heatm?, Illnstrated Descriptions of the mosu 
Buitable Plants, with general and special Cultural Directions, and all necessary information 
for the Guidance of the Amateur. SECOND FDITION, revised and enlarged. Mag- 
nificently Illustrated. By W. J. May. In cloth pile, price 5s., by past, 5s. 6d. 
" Ought to he in the hands of everyhody." — The Queen. 

L. Upcott Gill J Publisher, 170^ Strand, W.C. 

Practical Handbooks. — Gardening. ii 

Amabanthus uiPocHONDRiAcuJ (from "The Illustrated Dictionary of Gardening "i. 

L. Upcott Gill, Publisher, 170^ Strand, W.C. 

12 Practical Handbooks. — Gardening. 


All About It, and How to Grow It. Forced indoors, and out of doors in various vrays. By 
William Roberts, In paper covers, price Cd., by post, 7d. 
•' IjOvevs of these beautiful flowers will welcome this edition." — Paper and Printing Tra&es 


Containing Practical Instructions for the Amateur to Overcome the Enemies of the 
Garden. With numerous Illustrations. In paper, price Is., by post. Is. id. 
"It IS just the sort of hook one would refer to in eniergencu." — The Florist ani> Pomo 



Contains: The most desirable sorts, the best Methods of Cultivation, the Prevention or 
Cure of the Diseases of the Apple, Pear. Peach and Nectarine, Apricot, Cherrv, Chesnnut, 
Currant, Fig, Filbert or Hazel ^ut, Gooseberry, Aitdlar, Mulberry or morus, Plum, Quince, 
Baspberry, .Strawberry, and W'alnuc. Fully Illustrated. By D. T. Fish. In cloch, price 5^., 
by post, 5s. 6d. 
"Treats in close and criiical detail of every %>rac:ical process in the rearing, training, ancl 
culture of hardy fruits."— The Garden. 


Statice Profusa (from "Hardy Perennials and Old-FasLioned Garden Powers "). 


Descriptions, alphabetically arranged, of the most desirable Plants for Borders, Pockeries, 
and Shrubbtries, including Foliage as well as Flowering Plants. Profusely lUuetrated. 
By J. Wood. In cloth, prica 5^., by post, 5s. 6d. 
" Seems particularly useful." — Athen^um, 


Being Plain Directions for the successful Growing of Grapes with the Means and 
Appliances usually at the command of Amateurs. Illustrated. By W. J. Mat. In paper» 
price Is., by post. Is. Id. 

" Plain and practical," — The Queen. 

L. Upcott Gill, Publisher^ 

yo, Strand, W.C. 

Practical Handbooks. — Gardening, 13 


Illustrated with ninety -three Diagrrams. By D. T. Fish. In paper, price Is., by post. Is. Id. 
" One of the few gardening hooks lliat ijcill suit everylody," — Gardener's Magazine. 


Containing Descriptions of Orchids suited to the requirements of the Amateur, with full 
Instructions for their successful Cultivation. With numerous beautiful Illustrations. By 
James Britten, F.L.S. , and W. H. Gower. In cloth gilt, price 78. 6d., by post, 7s. 9d. 

" The joint icorl: of a competent ho*anist . . . and a successful cultivator icilhthe experience 
of a quarter of a century." — Gardener's Chronicle. 


Being Practical Instructions for the successful Culture of Roses, with selections of the 
best varieties adapted to the lequirements of the Amateur in Town or Country, By 
W, D. Prior, In paper, price Is., by post, Is. Id. 
*' Clearly and practicallij set forth.''— Irish. Farmer's Gazette. 


Containing full Instructions for the successful performance of this interesting opera- 
tion. Illustrated. By D. T. Fish. In paper, price 6d., by post, 7d. 
" Full, practical . . . and contains many valuable hints." — Garden. 


Its History, Varieties, Cultivation, and Diseases. By D. T. Fish. In paper, price 6d., by 
post, 7d. 

" Beplete with valuable hints and sound information."— The Stationer. 


Illistrated. By D. T. Fish. Vol. I. includes Parts I. and II., and Vol. II. Parts III. 
and IV., as named beiow, la cloth gilt, price 2". 6a. each, by post 2s. 9JI. Paits, as under. 
Is. each, by pofct. Is. 2d : 

Part I.— Snowdrop, Bulbocodium, Sternbergia, Crocus, Colchicum, Tulip, and Hyacinth* 
Part II.— Anemone, Narcissus, and Lily. 

Pari! III.— Gladiolus, 1;Achenalia, Cyclamen, Ranunculus, and Scilla or Squill (Star 

Part IV.— Ixi.\s, Spabaxis, Tritonias, and Babianas; Iri«, Tiger Iris; Schizostyli 

Coccinea ; and The Dahlia. 
Part v.— Gloxinias, The Pancratium, The Tuberose, The Fritillaria, The Alstrce 
merias, The Tkiteleia Unifloba, '1 he Agapantbus Umbellatus, The Muscari (Musk 
or Grape Hyacinth", The P^onia, The Oxalis, The Amaryllis, 
" One of the best and mod trmtu-orthy boolcs on bulb culture that have been put before the 
public,"— Gardener's Chronicle. 


Being Instructions for the Planting and Cultivation of Trees for Ornament or Use, 
and selections and descriptions of those suited to special requirements as to Soil, Situation, 
&c. By William H. Ablett (Author of "English Trees and Tree Planting," &c.). In 
cloth gilt, price 2s. 6d., by post, 2s. 8d. 

"Full of practical remarks, tending to make it a reliable and useful guide to amateur 
gardeners." — The Farmer. 


Including also Melons, Vegetable Marrows, and Gourds. Illustrated. By W. J. Mat. 
In paper, price Is., by post. Is, Id, 
"Evidently the work of a thoroughly practical writer." — Brief, 


Concise Directions for the Cultivation of Vegetables, so as to insure good crops in small 
Gardens, with Lists of the best Varieties of each sort. By W. J. Mat. In paper, price 
Is., by post. Is. Id. 

"None more simple and practically useful."—Ts'E British Mail. 


Adapted for the use of all Growers and Gardeners. By William Earlet (Author of " High 
Class Kitchen Gardening," &c.). In cloth, price 23., by post. 2s. 2d. 
"Labour greatly assisted hy a perxisal of this work," — North British Agkiculturist. 

L. Upcott Gill, Publisher, 170^ Strand, IV.C, 

14 Practical Handbooks. — Gardening, General. 

FOECED OR Button Mcs^hr om (f om " Mushroom Culture f jr ^m<,Dcura '). 


With full Dirpctions for Successful Growth in Housps. She-^s. PpUaTS, and Pots, on ShelveF, 
and (.mt of Doors. Illuitrated. Bv W. J. May (Author of "Vine Culture for ArEateurs," 
"Vegetable Culture for Amateurs," "Cucumber Cuii/ure lor Amatfeurs"). In paper, price Is.. 
by po-r, is. Id. 
•' T?i/.s exceWzni little hool: gives every direction necessary."— Daily Bristol Times and 



A Guide to the Formation of a Library, and the Valuation of Bare and St rd-vrd Books 
By J. H. Slater. Barrister-at-L^w, Author of '* A Guide to the Legal Profession.'" Second 
Edition. In cloth, llSpp., price 2-i. Gi., by post, 2-. 9d. 
" A most excellent and useful Jmndboofc."— Public Opinion. 


Showing Clearly and Concisely the Method of Procedure Nece^Fary to Become a Physician, 
Sureeon, Apothecary, Chemist ana Druggist, Jiental Surgeon, and Veterinary Surgeon, 
Trained Nurse, &c., in the United Kingdom, the Colonies the Oontinent, and the Uniten 
Stares. The Work gives all Ppqnisite information as to Fets, Books, Examinations, &c. 
By E. WooTON (Author of " A Guide to Dcgraps"), Euited by Db. Forbes Winslow. Prici 
5s., by post, 5s. 5d. 
"There is here presented, in handy shape, a great mass of i n/or m a d'on."— The Scotsman. 


A Practical Treatise on the various methods of enterin<r either branch of the Legal Pro- 
fession: also a Course of Study for each of the Examinations, and selecte.i e»p°r8 of 
PREPARATION. By J, H. Slater, Barrister-at-Law, of the Middle Tempi-. Just ready- 
Price 7--*. 03., by post, S< 
"Anyone uTio, before entering on eiiher branch of the profession, desires iitformation io 

determine which branch it shall be, u-ill jind a great deal here that v:ill assist him." — The Law 

Student's Journal. 


In Arts, Science. Lit-erature, Law, Music an-^ Divinity, in th° United Kingdom, the Colonies, 
'he Continpnt. snd the United States. By E. Wooton (Authjr of " A Guide to the Medical 
Pro'e-sion," &c ). In cloth, price 15s.. by post, lo^-. 6d. 
" Is a complete storehouse of educational information." — The Graphic. 

SHORTHAND SYSTEMS: Which is the Best? 

Being a Discussion by various English Authors and Expprts on the merits of the several 
Style*, with ^pecim'nH of TaylorV, Gurnev's, Pibmaa's. Everett's, Janes'. Pocknell's, 
Peachey'e, Gue«t's, WilHams'. Odell's, R^^dfprn's. &6. Edited by Thomas Andepso~ 
(\Pthor of •' History of Shf^rtfcand," formerly Shorthand Writer in the Gla gow L'lW 
Courts. Parliamentary Reporter, &c.). In paper, price 1*^., by post. Is. Id. 
" Is certain to be veii'y much appreciated," — The Derby Mercury. 

L. Upcott Gill, Publisher, 170, Strand, W.C. 

Practical Handbooks. 

■General i Guides to Places. 15 



Beinjr Instruction in the Art of Shorthand Writing, as used in the Service of the Two 
Houses of Parliament. By R. E. Miller (of Dublin University; formerly Parliamentary 
Reporter ; Fellow of the Shorthand Society). In payer, price Is., by post, Is. Id, 


Comprising Directions and Desifrns for the Suitable Decoration of Churches for Christinas, 
Easter, Whitsuntide, and Harvest. Illustrated. In paper, pnce Is., by post. Is. Id. 
"Mi(c?i valuable and jjractical i/)/onnatjo?i." — Sylvia's Home Journal. 



A complete Handbook to the Riviera, with a notice of the new station, Alassio. Splendidly 
. Illustrated. By Rosa Baughan (Author of "Character Indicated by Handwiiting," " The 
Northern Watering Places of France "). In cloth gilt, price 2s. 6d., by post, 2s. 8d. 
" It is a model 'guide,' and supplies a ixanf." — The Field. 


Inland, at Home and Abroad: 

Contains Routes, Climate, and Season, Waters recommended for. Scenery, Objef'ts of 
Interest, Amusements, Churches, Doctors, Hydropathic Establishments, Hotels, House 
Agents, Newspapers, &c., with Map of British Watering Places, Seaside and Inland, and 
the Routes thereto. In cloth, price 4s., by post. 4s. 3d. ; with coloured map, 8d. extra. 
" We know of vo other u-ork in which all this injormation is to he ob'ained."— The Broad 

SoNNiNG— Thames Parade Reach (from "The Upper Thames"!. 


From Richmond to Oxford : A Guide for Boating Men, Angler?, Pic-nic Parties, and all 
Pleasure Seekers on the River. Arranged on an entirely new plan. Illustrated with 
Specially Prepared Engravings of some of the most Beautiful Scenery and Striking 
Obiects met with on the Thames. In paper, price Is. : in cloth, with elastic band and 
pocket, 28.. postage 2d. 

" One, of the most useful handbooks to the river yet published."— Tbe Graphic. 

Z. Upcott Gill, Publisher, 170, Strand, W.C. 

i6 Practical Handbooks. — Guides to Places, Household. 

Out and Home in Six "Weeks. By Thomas Greenwood. Illustrated. In cloth gilt, 
price 2s. 6d., by post, 2s. 9d. 

" We can conjidently recommend this boofc."— The Literary World. 


Being a Gn--de to Pereons in Search of a Suitable Place in which to Spend the ir Holidays, 
on the English and Welsh Coasts. New and Revised Edinion. with Descriptions of over 140 
Places. In paper, price 2s., by post, 2s. .Sd. ; with coloured Map, 6d. extra. 
" An cxtvcmelij handy little hoolc." — City Press. 



Showing the Railway and Steamboat Communicationp. the Central Points, and various 
places of interest to to\irists, m addition to all the Watering Places mentioned in the 
British Section of the "Dictionary of Watering Places," and in "Seaside Watering 
Places." Size of plate, 15in. by 14iin. Coloured, price 6d., by post, 7d. ; plain, price 3d., 
by post, Sid. 


A Guide for English People to the Holiday Resorts on the Coasts of the French Nether- 
lands, Picardv. Normandy, and Brittany. By Rosa Baughan (Author of " Win&er Havens 
in the Sunny South," &c.). In paper, price 28., by post, 2s. 2d. 
*' We have pleasiire in recommending this u-orl:."— Cook's Excursionist. 



Containing Full and Practical Instructions for Making Honiton Lace. With numerous 
Illustrations. In cloth gilt, price 3s. 6d., by post, 3s. 9d. 
"We have scldo)n seen a boolc of lids class letter got vp." — Bell's Weekly Messenger. 


Being Plain Directions for Taking Patterns, Fitting on, Cutting out. Making up, and 
Trimming Ladies' and Children's Dresses. By R. Munroe. In paper, price Is., by post. 
Is. Id. 
'*It is just the sort of hooh that anyone should have at hand to talce counsel icith." — The 


A series of Illustrated Manuals on Artistic and Popular Fancy Work of various kind?. 
Each number i« complete in ittelf, and issued at the uniform price of 6d. Now ready— . 
Macrame Lace I Tatting" | Applique. 

Patcliwork I Crewel Work | 

" Will prove a valuable acquisition to the student of art needlework."— Tk^ Englishvtoman's 


An Encyclopaedia of Artistic, Plain, and Fancy Needlework ; Plain, practical, complete, and 
magnificently Illustrated. By S. F. A. Caulfeild and B. C. Saward. Accepted by B.M, 
the Qaeen, H.R.H. the Princess of Wales. H.R.H. the Ductiess of Edinburgh, H R.H. the 
Duchess of Ponnaught, and H.R.H. the Duchess of Albany. Dedicated by special per- 
mission to H.R.H. Princess Lomse, Marchioness of Lorne. In demy 4to, .")2>pp., 829 illus- 
trations, extra cloth gilt, plain edges, cushioned bevelled boards, price 2Is. ; with gilt edges, 
22s, 6d, 
*'This very comphte and rather luxurious vohime is a thorough encyclopo'dia of artistic, 
plain, and fancy needlework. . . . After being submitted to the severe test of feminine criticism, 
the Dictionary emerges triumphant. . . . The volume, a^ a whole, deserves no small commenda- 
tion." — The Standard, 
•This volume, one of the handsomest of its kind, is illustrated in the best sense of the term, 
. . It is usefxd and concise — in fact, it is exactly what it professes to be. . . . This boolc has 
endured the severest test at our command with rare success." — The AtheNjEUm. 


Containing Full Instructions for Making and Ornamenting Articles so as to successfully 
imitate Carved Oak ; specially written for the use of Amateurs. By Rosa Baughan. 
Illustrated. In cloth gilt, price 2s. 6d., by post, 2s. 9d. 

L. Upcott Gill, Publisher, 170, Strand, IV. C. 

Details of Point de Reprise. 
(From "The Dictionary of Needlework"), 

1 8 Practical Handbooks. — Household, Mechanics. 

COOKERY FOR AM ATEURS ; or, French Dishes for EugUsh 

Homes of all Classes : 

Includes Simple Cookery, Middle-class Cookery, Superior Cookery, Cookery for Invalids, and 
Breakfast and Luncheon Cookery, Second Euiiion. By Madame Valerie. Second 
Edition. In paper, price Is., by poet. Is. 2d. 
"Is admirahlii suited to its imrpose." — The Broad Arrow. 


A Practical Guide for Persons about to reside in India; detailing the articles which 
should be taken out. and the requirements of home life and management there. By tii 
Anglo-Indian. In cloth, price '2s. 6d., by post, 2s. 8d. 
*' Is tliorougldy healthy in tone, and jn-actical," — Saturday Eeview. 


Being Plain Directions and Hints for the Proper Nursing of Sick Persons, and the 
Home Treatment of Diseases and Accidents in case of sudden emergencies. By 8. F. A. 
Caulfeild. In paper, price Is., by post. Is. Id. ; in cloth, price Is. Gd., by post. Is. 8d. 
"A copy ought to he in evenj nurseri/."— Society. 


A Scientific Manual on the Correction of Bodily Defects, and the Improvement and 
Preservation of Personal Appearance ; together with Foimulse for all tne Special Pre- 
parations Recommended. Btcoud Edition, revibed. By Edwin Wooton. In cloth gilt, 
price 2s. 6fi., by post. 2s. 9d. 
*' A valuable hook of reference for the toilet."— Weldon's Ladies' Journal. 

:=: »»■ &; ■ 



As applied to Farm Buildings of every description (Cow, Cattle and Calf Houses, Stables, 
Piggeries, Sheep Shelter Sheds, Root and other Stores, Poultry Houses), Dairies, and 
Country Houses and Cottages. Profusely Illustrated with Diagrams and PlaJis. By 
Robert Scott Burn. In cloth gilt, price 5s., by post, 5s. 3d. 

"A valunhlc hnndhoolcfor rendij )vf. i-bdc."— .JOURNAL OF FORESTRY. 

Plan of American SnoonNCi Punt (from ••Praccical Boat Building for Amateurs"). 


Containing full Instructions for Designing and Building Punts, Skiffs, Canoes, Sailing 
BoHts, &c. lully illustrated with working diagrams. Bv Adrian Neison, C.E. New 
Edition, revised and enlarged by Dixon Kemp ^Author of "Yacht Designing," "A Manual 
of lacht and Boat Sailing," &c.). In doth gilt, price 2?. 61., by post, 2s. 8d. 
"Possessesthe great merit ofheing thoroughly praciicul."— Bell's Life. 


Being Practical Instructions in the Making of various kinds of Frames for Paintings, 
Drawings, Photographs, and Engravings. Illustrated. By the Author of *' Carpentry and 
Joinery for Amateurs," &c. In cloth gilt, price 2s., by post, 2s. 2d. 
*' The hook is thoroughly exhaustive," — The Building World, 


Being Practical Instructions for Making and Mending small Articles in Tin. Copppr. 
Iron, Zinc, and Brass. Illustrated. Third Edition. By the Author of "Turning for 
.Amateurs," &c. In paper, price 6d„ by post, 6id. 
"Every possible information is given."— Thy. Reliquary. 


Being Comprehensive and Practical Instructions for the Manufacture of Fireworks, 
^^t,^^*"^^®^\^H?^^^tS^ 1^^ ^^® °' Amateurs. Profusely Illustrated. By W. H. Browne, 
Ph.D., M.A,, L.R.C.P., &c.. Second Edition. In cloth gilt, price 2s. 6d., by post, 2s. 9d. 
"A most complete little handbook."— Tue Field. 

L. Upcott Gill, Publisher, 170, Strand, W.C. 

Practical Handbooks. — Mechanics. 


Contains full Descriptions of the various Tools required in the above Arts, together 
with Practical Inetructiona for their use. By the A.uthor of "Turnini? for Amateurs," 
" Working in Sheet Metal." &c. In oloth jrilt, price 28. 6d., by post. 2s. 9d. 

'* TTie best of the hoolc CQW-ists of i^ractical instructions. 


Carbier C huck (from " Turnirg for Amateurs "). 


Being Descriptions of the Latbe and its Attachmpnts and Tools, wit>i Mimito Instrur- 
Tion« for their Eff^oti-A U«° on WooH, Mecal. Ivory, and oth^r Materials. NEW EDITION, 
REVISED AND ENLARGED. By James Lukix. B.A. (Rpctor of Wickfora ; Author vf 
"Thp liathe and iis Ut^es." "• Carpentry aad Jomerv for Amateun?," *• Working in Sheer, 
Metal," "Toymaking for Amateuri-," "Picture- Frame Making for Amateur?," &c.). Illus- 
trated with 141 Engravings. In cloth gil% price 2s. 6d., by p 'sc 23. 9d. 
" Gives the amateur copious descriptions of tools and methods 0/ u-oW.uig."— The Builder. 


A Practical Guide to the Art of Printinir; containing Descriptions of Presses and Materials, 
together with Details of tne Processes employed, to whicn is added a Glossary of Technical 
Terms. Illustrated. By P. E. Raynor. In paper, price Is., by post. Is. 2d. 
" Concise and comprehennve."—TB.E Figaro. 


Containing Descriptions of all the requisite Tools, and full Instructions for f-eir use in 
producing different varieties of Carvings. Illustrated. In paper, price Is., by post. Is. Id. 
"Willhe found of great interest."— Illustrated Carpenter and Builder. 


Giving the History and Construction of the Modern Organ, and Descriptions of the most 
remarkable Instruments. With Important Specifications of celebratea Organs. Illustrated. 
By C. A. Edwards. In cloth gilt, price 5s., by post, 5s. 5d. 
"An excellent treatise."— Midland Counties Herald. 


The Amateur's Guide to the Practical Management of a Piano without the intervention of 
a Professional. By Charles Babbington. In paper, price 6d., by post, Gid. 
" A very useful little hoolc." — Sylvia's Home Journal. 


Containing Instructions for the Home Construction of Simple Wooden Tovs, and of others 
that are moved or driven by Weights, Clockwork, Steam, Electricity, &c. Illustrated. 
By James Lukin, B.A. (Author of "Turning for Amateurs"). In cloth gilt, price 4s.. 
by post 4s. 5d. 

"A capital hook for boys." — Dispatch. 

L. Upcott Gill, Publisher, 170, Strand, 


20 Practical Handbooks, — Mechanics, Natural History, 

Their Designing, Making, and Sailing. Illustrated with 118 Designs and Working Diagrams. 
By J. Du V. Grosvenor. In leatherette, price 5s., by post, 5s. 3d. 
" We can safely commend the volvme," — The Graphic. 



A Manual of Instruction to the Amateur in Collecting, Preserving, and Setting-uo Natural 
Hiutorv Specimens oi all kinds. Fully Illustrated, with Engraving-* of Too's, Examnles, 
and Working Diagrams. By Montagu Browne. NEW AND EMLARGED EDITION. 
In cloth gilt, price 7s. 6i., by post, 8s. 
"Avery interesting and practical uorlc."— Scientific Literaet Eeview. 


Being Directions for Capturiwg, KilHng, and Preserving Lepidoptera and their Larvae. 
Illustrated. Reprinted, with additions, from "Practical Taxidermy." By Montagu 
Browne (Author of " Practical Taxidermy "). In paper, price Is., by post. Is, Id. 
•' One of the handiest little helps yet published." — Excelsior. 

The Koala (from " Zoological Notes "). 


On the Structure, Affinities, Habits, and Faculties of Animals; with Adventures among and 

Anecdotes of thein. By Arthur Nicols. F.G.8., F.R.G.S. ( Author of " The Puzzle of Life. 

and How it Has Been Put T. gether." ** Chapters from the Physical History of the Earth")! 

In walnut or sycamore, 8vo, price 7s. 6d., by post, 8s. 
From Professor Euskin.— " I have just opened your proofs, and am entirehi delighted by 
the glance at them. . . The engraving of the cobra— Mr. Babbage's—is the only true drawinq of 
it I ever saw." ^ •* • 


Being a Popular Account of the Seaweeds of Great Britain, their Collection and 
Preservation. Magnificently illustrated with 205 engravings. By W. H. Grattan. 
In cloth gilt, price 5s. B.i., by post, .53. 9d. 
**A really useful handbook."— VvBhic Opinion. 

L, Upcott Gill, Publisher, 170, Strand, W.C, 

Practical Handbooks. — Sports and Pastimes. 21 



Containing Full Instructions for Desiening and Buildinsr Punts, Skiffs, Canoes, Sailine 
Boats, &c. Particulars of the most suitable Sailinir Boats and Yachts for Amateurs, and 
Instructions for their proper handling:. Fully lUusTated wi<^h Designs and Working 
Diasrams. By Adrian Neison, C.E., Dixon Kemp, A.I.N.A., and G. Christopher Davies. 
In One Volume, cloth gilt, price 7s., by post, 7s. 5d. 
'M cojji'lal manual. . . . All is clearly aixS, concitelvi ex'^laineS,." — The Graphic. 

Banket's Patent Hawk Trap (from " Practical Gatre Preserving"). 


Containing the fullest Directions for Rearing and Preserving both Winged and Ground 
Game, ann Destrnving Vermin ; with other information of valupi to the Game Preserver. 
Illustrated. By William Carnegie (" Moorman"), Author of "Practical Trapping," &c. 
In cloth gilt, demy 8vo, price 2l8., by post, 2l8. 6d. 
*^li is practical, straightforward, and always lucid. The chapters on poaching and poachers, 
hoth human and animal, are particularly to the poiat, and amusing iicithal," — The World. 

Globe " Kacquet (from " Lawn Tennis'.for 1881 ■ 


Describing the various kinds of Courts and how to make them, and all the Newest ard 
Best Conrt Markers, Racquets, Poles, Nets, Balls, Scorers, &c. With numerous Illustra- 
tions. Pric9 Is., by post. Is. 2d. (Published Annually). 
•• Contains a vast amount of practical information."— SpommG Life. 

L. Upcott Gill, Publisher, 170^ Strand, W.C, 

22 Practical Handbooks. — Sports and Pastimes. 

Miscellaneous Observations on Birds and Animals, and on the Sport they Afford for the 
Gun in Great Briiaii , including Grouse, Partiirtgcs. Phi^asauts, Hares, Rabbit". Quail§, 
Woodcocks, Snipe, and Rook-'. By J. J. Manley, M.A. (Author of "Notes on Fisu and 
Fishing"). Illustrated with Sportii g ^ketcbes by J, 'Iemple. In cloth gilt, 400 pp., price 
78. 6d., by po-r, S>. 
" A thoroughly practical, as u-eJl as a very interesting hook."— The Graphic. 


Being some Papers on Traps and Trapping for Vermin, with a chapter on General Birr! 
Trapping and Snaring, By W, Carnegie (*' Moorman"). In paper, price Is., by post, is. Id 

" Cleverly "jcritten avd illustrated." — Sportsman. 

Blackwall Hitch (.frum "Boat Sail. ng for Amateurb"). 

Mooring Hitch ifrc m "Boat Sailing for Amateurs"}. 


Oontaining Particulars of the most Suitable Sailing Boats and YpcMs for Amateurs, a n*! 
Instructions for their Proper Handlinu. &c. lUust'-ated with numerous Diaerams. By 
G. Christopher Davies (Author of *The Swan and Her Crew," &c.'. In cloth gilt, price 
5s., by post, 5s. S'i. 
*' We know of no letter companion for the young rac/ifsmaii."— Sporting Chronicle. 


Being the Science and Art of Photography, both Wet Collodion and the various Dry Plate 
Processes. Developed for Amateurs and Beginners. Illustrated. U.v O. E. Wheeler. Id 
cloth gilt, price 4s., by post, 4s. 3d. [May also be had in Paris a* under :J 
" Alilie valuable to the Icginner and the practised pliotograplier." — Photographic Nevts, 


{Being Part I, of " Practical Photography "). In paper, price Is., by post. Is. 2d. 


{Beiyig Part II. of "Practical Photography "). In paper, price Is., by post. Is. 2d. 


{Being Part III. of *' Practical Photography "). In paper, price Is., by post. Is. 2d. 

L. Upcott Gill, Publisher J 170^ Strand, W.C. 

Practical Handbooks, — Sports and Pastimes. 

The Prussian, or Gibel Carp (fccm the " Fiactical Fisheiman "). 


Dealinc with the Natural History, the Legendary Lore, the Capture of British Fresh- 
water Fish, and Tackle and Tackle Making. Beautifully Illustrated. By J. H. Keene. 
In cloth gilt, gilt edges, price 10s. 6d., by post, lis. 
" It is by a thorouglihj practical angler , . . Will form a valuable addition to tlie anglers 
ibrary," — Fishing Gazette. 

The Quadrant Sociable (from '-Tricycles of the Year. 1881")'. 


Descript.ons of the New Inventions and Im prove ments for the present Season. Designed 
to assist intending purchasers in the choice of a machine. Illustrated. By Harby 
Hewitt Griffin. (Publi!?hed Annually.) In paoer, price Is., by post. Is. 2d. 
"It is as comprehensive as could he desired 
tiality of the Aiithor. "—Tb.-e Field. 

. We can readily testify to the strict impar- 

L. Upcott Gill, Publisher, 170, Strand, W.C, 

24 Practical Handbooks.— -Sports and Pastimes. 

Descriptions of tbe New Inventions and Improvements for the present Keaf on. Denigncd 
to assist intending purchasers in the choice of a machine. lUuscrated. By Harry 
Hewitt Griffin. (Pubhshed Annually.) In paper, price Is., by post. Is. Id. 
" J.U t?ie necessary di,eia.ils receive JuXl aiieniion." — The County Gentleman. 


Containing' a brief History of Piii.ving Oard*^, Full Instructions, with Illustrated Hands* 
for playinp nearly all known games of chance or fckill, from Whist to Napoleon ana 
Patience, and directions for performinpr a number of amusing Tricks. Illustrated. By 
H. Jfi. Heather. In cloth gilt, pries 5s., by post, .5s. 8d. 
"Descruesa large sliare of jiopularlty." — The Figaro. 



living full Directions as to Stage Arrangements, ** Making up," Costumes, and Acting, 
with numerous Illustrations. By Chas. Harrison. In cloth gilt, price 28. 6d., by 
V^ost, 2s. 8d. 

" Will he found invaluable." — Court Journal. 


Written specially for Representation bv Children, and Dpsigned to Intere=t both Actors and 
Audience. With iDStrnctions for Impromptu Scenery, Costumes, and Effects, and the Air^ 
of the various Sons-s. By Chas. Harrison (Author of "Amateur Tneatncals and Tableaux 
Vivants"). Price Is., by post, Is. Id. 


Their Organisation and Management, with Details of Various Devices for Extracting' 
Money from the Visitors. In paper, price Is., by post. Is. Id. 

*'Most amusiiuj. , . . A hatter hoolc cannot he purcliasci." — Weldon's Ladies' Journal, 

L. Upcott Gill, Publisher J 170, Strand, W.C. 







To he had of most Chemists, or a box of it sent {with directions 
for use) free from observation, Post Free, for 15 Stamps. 





" When the Public find they can get, 
in lbavper'8 * flDontbl^ * flDaoasine, 
One Hundred and Sixty royal octauo 
pages of Letter-press, and about Seuenty 
Illustrations for Is., they are pretty 

sure to inuest in it."—Illns. London Jfetvs. 

Ask to See it at your Bookseller's. 

Circulation nearly 30,000 Copies per month. 



Small jtost Svo, cloth extra, price 6s. each (e.rcejtt where otherwise stated). 



By:il. D. BLACKMOB.E. 

Lorna Doone. ^Illustrated Edition, 31s. 6d. 

Alice Lorraine. [and 35s. > 

Cradock Nowell. 

Clara Vau^han. 

Crips the Carrier. 

Erema ; or, my Father's Sin. 

Mary Anerley. 

Christowell : a Dartmoor Tale. 

Three Feathers. 

A Daug-hter of Heth. 


In Silk Attire. 

Lady Silverdale's Sweetheart. 


A Pair of Blue Eve^. 

The Return of the Native. 

The Trumpet Ma.ior. 

Far from the Maddin? Crowd. 

The Hand of Ethelberta. 

A Laodicean. 

Two on a Tower. 

Marv Marston. 

Guild Court. 

The Vicar's Daughter. 

Adela Cathcart. 

Stephen Archer and other Tales. 


Weighed and Wanting-. 

A Sea Queen. 

Wreck of the " Grosvenor." 

John Holds worth (Chief Mate^ 

A Sailor's Sweetheart. 

The " Lady Maud." 

Little Loo. 

Three Recruits and the Girls they left 
behind them. 

History of a Crime ; the Story of the Coup 

Anne ; a Novel. 

\_Secot}(l Edition nearhi reaclii. 

For the Major. Illustrated, uniform with 

the above, price 5s. \_Nearlti ready. 

By HELEN MATHERS, Authoress of 
"Comin' through the Rye," "Cherry 
Ripe," &c. 
My Lady Greensleeves. 
My Wife and I. 

Poganun People, their Loves and Lives. 
Old Town Folk. 

A Golden Sorrow. 
Out of Court. 


Ben Hur ; a Tale of the Christ, 

Elinor Dry den. 


An EngUsh Squire. 

By the Rev. E. GILLIAT, M.A. 
A Story of the Dragonades. 


Work ; a Story of Experience. 

By the Author of "ONE ONLY," "CON- 
STANTIA," &e. 
A French Heiress in her own Chateau. Six 


Crown Buildlngs, 188, Fleet Street, E.C. 


A dvertisements. 


First of 

each Month. 





"A very superior Publication at a Shilling, in which the highest styles of Fashion are 
accurately represented."— fF/V^v mid Glouceitter Herald. 



Ejcpressljf desu/ned for this fTournal, and Cnjnjv'njht 

Tliirty-two Pages of Letter-press, splendidly Illustrated with Over One Hundred 
Engravings of the Latest Fashions from Paris, and a new serial story. 

A Review of the Fashions. 

New Styles and Coming Fashions. 

Children's Dress in London and Paris, 

Notes of the Month, 

Fashionable Chapeaux, 

A Glance at the Theatres, 
New Fiirnitnre and Ornaments. 
Costumes for Town and Country Wear. 
New Serial Story, <tc. 
Fashionable Fine Art Needlework. 


First of 

each Month. 



MYBA'S JOURNAIi is the most ladylike and economical Fashion Magazine in 
the world. Its increasing cb-culation in the United Kingdom, the Colonies, Empu-e of 
India, and the United States, attests its success and popularity. 


Forty-Eight Pages Letterpress, Profusely Illustrated, Music Size. 

PLATE of the Newest Toilets for Ladies 
and Children. 

Ill May and November, a Treble 
Size Coloured Fashion Plate 
(Fourteen Figures) is Given. 


out Life-sized Patterns of all kinds of 

Articles of Dress. 

PATTERN of a Coming Mode. 
CHILDREN'S DRESS for Outdoor, Indoor, 

School, and Home Wear. 



SPINNINGS IN TOW^. By The Silkworm. 

What Dress to Wear and How to alter Dresses. 

Modeb from the Grands Magasins du Louvre, 

New Needlework of all descriptions. 

MYRA'S ANSWERS. Latest from Paris. 
Dress, Etiquette, Health, and Personal 
Attention. Needlework. Music. Books 
AND Authors. The Coisine. Modes for 
Children. House Furniture and Fur- 
nishing, Miscellaneous, &c. 

A FREE EXCHANGE is open to all who have 
Articles to dispose of or barter for. 

MYRA'S JOURNAL can be obtained through any Bookseller, or direct from the Publishers. 

Flat Paper Patterns of any Garment Illustrated in 
above Journals can be had of Madame Goubaud, 
by return of Post, price One Shilling each; for 
Children under lO years of Age, Sixpence each. 

GOUBAUD & SON, 89 & 40, Bedford Street, Couent Garden, W C 



IBo Amateurs. 

The following can be readily Procured or Disposed of by Amateurs 
and Private Persons, with Ease, Economy, and Expedition — 

AVIARY.— Appliances, British Birds, 
Canaries, Doves, Foreign Birds, Mule Birds, 
Partridges, Pheasants, Eggs. 

BRIC-A-BRAC— Coins, Crests, Curio- 
sities, Medals, Notes, Pottery, Stamps. 

COUNTRY HOUSE.- Apiary, Aquaria, 
Badgers, Cats, Ferrets, Foxes, Guinea Pigs, 
Hares, Hedgehogs, Mice, Monkeys, Rats, 
Silkworms, Squirrels, Vivarium. 

DOMESTIC— Bags, Bedding, Blinds, 
Boxes, China, Clocks, Culinary, Cutlery, 
Furniture, Linen, Machines, Ornaments, 
Perambulators, Provisions, Safes, Screens, 
Stoves, Upholstery, Urns, &c. 

DRESS.— New Boots, Dresses, Feathers, 
Furs, Habits, Hosiery, Lace, Linen, Macin- 
toshes, Mantles, Materials, Millinery, Para- 
sols, Petticoats, Shawls, Suits, Trimmings, 
Uniforms, &c. 

FARM.— Appliances, Cattle, Fodder, 
Iroats, Pigs. 

FINANCIAL.— Businesses, Chambers 
and Apartments, Houses, Shares. 

FINE ARTS.— Appliances, Drawings, 
Engravings, Etchings, Frames, Oleographs, 
Paintings, Photogi-aphs, Prints, Scraps. 

GARDEN.-Appliances, Blossoms, Bulbs 
and Tubers, Fernery, Fruit, Plants, Seeds, 
Vegetables and Herbs. 

lets, lirooches, (chains. Ear-rings, Lockets, 
Pins, Plate, Rings, Sets, AVatches. 

KENNEL.— Appliances, Beagles, Boar- 
hounds, Bulldogs, Colleys, Cross Breeds, 
Dachshunds, Dalmatians, Deerhounds, Foster 
Mothers, Fox and all other Terriers, Grey- 
hounds, Italian Greyhounds, Mastiffs, New- 
foundlands, Pointers, Pomeranians, Poodles, 
Retrievers, Setters, Sheepdogs, Spaniels, 
St. Bernards. 

LIBRARY.- Albums, Art and Virtu, 
Country Books, Educational, Fiction, Guides 
and Directories, History and Travel, Mag- 
azines, Manuscripts, Maps, Newspapers, Old 
Literature, Poetry and Drama, Religious,. 
Scientific and Professional. 

MECHANICS.— Fretwork, Machinery, 
Models, Printing, Tools, Turning. 

MUSIC. — Accordions, Banjoes, Bassoons, 
Bells, Clarionets, Concertinas, Cornets, 
Double Basses, Drums, Dulcimers, Flageo- 
lets, Flutes, Guitars, Harmoniums, Harps, 
Horns, Metronomes, Music, Musical Boxes, 
Organs, Pianos, Piccolos, Violas, Violins, 
, Violoncellos. 

PIGEONS.— Appliances, Antwerps and 
; Homers, Carriers, Fantails, Jacobins, Mag- 
pies, Nans, Owls, Pouters, Rocks, Rollers, 
Trumpeters, Tumblers, Turbits. 

POULTRY. — Appliances, Bantams, 
Brahmas, Broody Hens, Cochins, Creve, 
cceurs, Cross Breeds, Dorkings, Ducks, Eggs- 
Game, Geese, Guinea Fowl, Hamburghs, 
Houdans, Leghorns, Peafowl, Plymouth 
Rocks, Polands, Silkies, Spanish, Turkeys. 

RABBITS.— Appliances, Angoras, Bel- 
gian Hares, Dutch, Himalayans, Lops, Sil- 
ver Creams, Silver Greys. 

RIDING & DRIVING.-Apphances, 
Carriages, Carts, Chairs, Horses, Rugs, 
: Saddlery. 

1 SCIENTIFIC. - Botany, Chemistry, 
' Conchology, Electrical, Entomology, Geo- 
logy, Glasses, Instruments, Medical, Micro- 
scopic, Mineralogy, Natural History, Pho- 
togi-aphy, Telescopes. 

' Aquatics, Athletics, Bicycles, Cricket, Cro- 
quet, Flags, Hammocks, Indoor Games, 
Magic Lanterns, Shooting (Guns, Rifles, 
Pistols, &c.). Smoking, Swords, Tennis, 
Tents, Theatricals, Toys, Tricycles. 

WORK TABLE.— Knitting, Materials, 
Needlework, Sewing Machines, Work Boxes. 


Price 2d., 

Of all Newsagents and Bookstalls, or at the 

Office: 170, STRAND, LONDON, W.C 



Why many Persons Permanently Submit. 

to the 




'M unsightly 

For erery de/ect 0/ Jfature 


^rt offers a remedy." 


Ratliei? than attempt to Restore it. 

1st. — Because the old fashioned and objectionable Hair Dyes dry np and spoil the Hair. 
2nd.— Because the majority of " Hair Restorers " bring the users into ridicule by pro- 
ducing only a sickly yellow tint or dirty greenish stain, instead of a proper colour. 

The following Testimonials (of many hundreds received) declare the value of 


As positively restoring grey or white hair to the REALLY NATURAL colour, gloss, softness, luxuriance, 
and beauty of youth ; it so perfectly accomplishes its work and fulfils its promise, that in brilliant sun- 
shine, or under glaring gaslight, the user can alike defy detection in ever having been grey, or used a 
remedy, while as a nourisher and strengthener of weak hair it has no equal. 
Price 3s. 6d., sent in return for Stamps or Post Office Order, by the Proprietors, 
IiATREIIiliX: & CO., Walworth., Iiondou, or may be had of Chemists; 
But it is strongly advised that anything else, offered from interested motives, be resolutely refused, as 
Latreille's Hyperion NEVER DISAPPOINTS. All Chemists can readily procure through wholesale 
houses, if they have it not themselves in stock. 


20, Royal George-street, Stockport, 

February 26, 1880. 
Dear Sir,— My hair went white through trouble 
and sickness, but one bottle of yovir Hyperion 
Hair Restorer brought it back to a splendid brown, 
as nice as it was in my young days. I am now forty 
years old, and all my friends wonder to see me 
restored from white to brown. You can make 
what use you like of this. Yours truly, 

(Mrs.) Maria Worthington. 

High-street, Corsham, Wilts, 

December 2, 1874. 
Dear Sir,— I enclose stamps for another bottle 
of your Hyperion Hair Restorer ; its clean qualities 
are sufficient to recommend it anywhere. 

Yours respectfully, E. Maynard. 

1.^2, High-street, Stourbridge, May 16, 1878. 
Sir,— I find your Hyperion Hair Restorer is a 
first-class and really genuine article, and is well 
worth the money. After using it thrice, my hair 
began to turn the natural colour whereas before it 
was quite grey ; it also keeps the hair from falling 
off, and I shall always recommend it to every one I 
know. You are at liberty to pubUsh this if you 
choose. Yours truly, (Mrs.) M. Davis. 

St. Hehers, Jersey, 

August 1, 1873. 
Sir,— Please send me another bottle of your Hype- 
rion Hair Restorer ; I bear willing testimony to its 
being very pleasant to use, both as to cleanliness 
and absence of disagreeable smell. 

Yours truly, F. de Ldsignan. 

Thirsk, Yorks, January 26, 1876. 
Dear Sir, — I use your Hyperion Hair Restorer, 
and find it everything which has been said in its 
favour. I am, dear Sir, yours truly, T. Coates. 

Porchester, near Fareham, Hants, Oct. 16, 1875. 
Sir,— Please send me another bottle of your j 
Hyperion IJair Restorer ; it is better than any other 
restorer I Have tried. Yours faithfnllv, , 

(Mrs.) C. Christie. I 

2, Fu'-street, Sydenham, 

July in, 1873. 
Dear Sir,— I am most happy to tell you that I 
have reason to commend your excellent Hyperion 
Hair Restorer, as it has already turned the grey 
hair of a person fifty-seven yeai-s old to its natural 
colour. Yours respectfully, 

T. Whatmore. 

83, Dewsbury-road, Leeds, 

May 23, 1873. 
Dear Sir,— I want half-a-dozen more bottles of 
j'our Hyperion Hair Restorer, some for friends and 
the remainder for myseh ; it is the best restorer of 
grey hair to its natural coloiir. 
Yours truly, James Dawson. 

„* Be careful to ask for Latreille's Hyperion Hair Restorer, as the manu- 
facturer is also proprietor of Xjatreille's Excelsior Lotion, which is a' separate 
preparation, of universal repute for 20 years past, as a Producer of Hair. 




Nothing ever introduced has been found to equal 

E xcelsior L otion 

Celebrated among all classes of Society all over the 

Whiskers & Moustachios, 

Remedy for Baldness, Weak & Falling Hair, fie. 


Price 2s. 6d. per Bottle. 

Can be had of any Chemist, through Barclay, Sanger, Newbery, Edwards, 

Sutton, Thompson, Hovenden, Maw & Co., or any other Wholesale Chemist, or 

direct from ths Proprietors, 

LATREILLE & CO., Walworth, London, S.E. 

On remitting Post-office Order or Stamps. 

CAUTION.— 5e careful to ask for Latreille's "Excelsior Lotion," and refuse anything 
else that may he offered, as the enormous success, extending over twenty years, has led to 
many useless imitations, which can only disappoint. The title "EXCELSIOR 
LOTION " is a registered Trade Mark, to copy which will incur criminal ^prosecution. 

A dvertisements. 



Large Size, Post Free. 24 Stamps. 

Small Size, Post Free, 14 E 


,. o 

{Direct from Natures Laboratory) 

Is not a manufactured article, but a very remarkable natural produc*' 
the best substance known for Cleaning and Polishing Gold, S 'i 
and Jewels without the least injury, and will prevent pearls becomim^ 
discoloured. ' 

Sold in a handsome little box, with Brush, Leather, Directions fci- 
Use, an Analysis, and numerous Testimonials, price Is. 

A large size, containing also a Ring Cleaning Stick, and one fc r 
cleaning Studs and Buttons, price 2s. 

The SILICON is also sold in Powder, for Plate Cleaning, at 6d. 
and Is. per box, and in canisters at 2s. 6d. 

To be had through all Chemists, Fancy Goods Dealers, Jewellers, Brush 

Shops, and Ironmongers, throughout the kingdom. 
Wholesale of all London Fancy Warehouses and Wholesale Druggist- , 
and of the Proprietor, in bulk, rough, or in powder. ^T 



37G, STi^^isrr), XjOisrx)oisr. 

Advertisements. 31 



the Best, Purest, and most Fragrant Preparation for the Teeth, 
^alth depends in a great measure upon the soundness of the teeth 
and their freedom from decay, and all dentists allow that neither washes 
nor pastes can possibly be as eflS.cacious for polishing the teeth and 
keeping them sound and white as a pure and non-gritty tooth powder ; 
such Rowlands' Odonto has always proved itself to be. 


Preserves, Strengthens, and Beautifies the Hair ; it contains no lead or 
mineral ingredients, and can now be also had in a golden colour, which 
■\^ especially suited for fair or golden haired children and persons. Sizes, 
3. 6d., 7s., 10s. 6d., equal to four small. 


most Cooling, Healing, and Refreshing Wash for the Face, Hands, 
nd Arms, and is perfectly free from any mineral or metallic admixtures ; 
: disperses freckles, tan, redness, pimples, &c. 


1% a Botanical Wash for Cleansing the Hair and Skin of the Head from 
all impurities, scurf or dandriff ; the application of the Euplysia (which 
is perfectly innocent in its nature) should be made on retiring to rest at 
night, a practice that will render the morning use of Rowlands' 
Macassar Oil increasingly effective both as to health and beauty of the 
hair. 2s. 6d. per bottle. 


18 a Beautifully Pure, Delicate, and Fragrant Toilet Powder, and has 
°.tely been much improved. Each box has inside the lid a certificate of 
purity from Dr. Redwood, Ph.D., F.C.S., &c. Sold in three tints, 
white, rose, and cream. 2s, 6d. per box ; double that size, with 
pnfF, 4s. 

Ask any Chemist or Hairdresser for Rowlands' Articles, of 20, Hatton 
Garden, London, and avoid spurious worthless imitations under the 
same or similar names. 

'22 Advertisenients. 



Meat "Fibrine" Vegetable 


(WITH BEETROOT). Used in the Royal Kennels. 

Aivdrdeil over 70 Gold, Silver, mid lirouze Medals. 

l*uraef/ors to the Kptinel Club, Jiirminf/hain National, Societe 

St. Hubert, Cercle de la Chasse, and to 

All the Principal Enr/lish and l^oreign Canine Societies. 

We found, by frequent experiments with all kinds of vegetables, that 
Beetroot was the only one which retained its properties when made into a 
Biscuit, and we now present to our Customers a Biscuit combining the amount 
of vegetable matter absolutely necessary for the preservation of the Dog's 
health, with the other valuable and nutritious ingredients which have secured 
a world wide reputation for our Patent " Fibrine" Cakes. 


Pushed by certain Dealers for the sake of extra profit. 

See each Cake is Stamped "SPRATTS PATENT" and a "X." 



Of all our AGENTS, in 71b. and 141b. Tins. 

For Dainty Feeders, Delicate Dogs, and assisting Convalescence. Invalu- 
able for Pet Dogs, and also as a pick-me-up for Sporting Dogs on return 
from a hard day's work. 


For the cure of Distemper, Worms, Mange, Eczema, Ear Canker, Rheumatism, 
and the various other Canine Diseases. Full List post free. 


PRICE 6d., or POST FREE 8d. 

This work contains 120 pages of thoroughly Practical Information with regard 
to the treatment of Canine Diseases and Breeding and Rearing of Dogs. 


Non-poisonous and free from the objectionable smell, and danger in 
use, of Carbolic Acid. 




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