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Drs. Michener, Law, Harbaugh, Trumbower, Uautard, 
holcombe, huidekoper, and dickson. 






Letter of trantatittal, 

By Dr. D. E. Salmoit, Chiof of B 
Ilttkodt of adminiaterin^ medicinn, 

By Cu. B. HiCHKXEB, T. S.... 
Dueage* of tXe digeative organt, 

By Cb. B. Micheker, V. 8.... 
Di$tatet of 1A< ttniiarjr organi, 

By James Law, F. K. C. Y. 8. 
DUaun of Ae reapiratarg organ*, 

By W. H. HARBACCn, V. S 

DiBtaia of the gentrativt organt. 

By Jamm Law, F. E. C. V. 8. 
Diteafea of M« nervous tyatem, 

By M. H. Trumdower, V. S, .. 
DUeate* of the heart and blood reMtU, 

By M. R. Tbumboweu, V. 8 . . . 
D'ataeet of the eye, 

By jAKxa Law, F. B. C. V. 8 . 

By A. LiAOTARD, M. D., V. 8.. 
DUeatea ofthefetJoot, ankle, and fool, 

By A. A HOLCOMBE. D. V. S- .. 
i>t*eiitM of the ekin, 

By Jaues Law, F. B. C. V. 8. 
Wound* and their treatment, 

By Ch. B. Uichehkb, V. 8 

Oeneral dieeatea. 



By Wu-UAM DiciuoM, V. 8 

M. D 

, Vft 






Plate I. DigwtirA sppantua '. ^ 

11. Bots 6d 

III. iDtestioal worms &8 

IT. LoDgitudinal section throaifh kiiluey ^. t)6 

V. Microscapio anfttomy of kidney 8fl 

VI. Microscopic anatomy of kidney M 

Til. Calculi and instrument for removal 8d 

Till. Instruments nsed in difficalt labor 180 

IX. Normal presentations 180 

X. Abnormal presentations 180 

XI. Abaormal presentations ISO 

XII. Abnormal presentations 180 

XIII. Abnormal presentations 180 

XIT. Anterior presentations -■- 180 

XV. Position of the left In ng 131 

XVI. The nervons system 218 

XVII, Interior of obese, showing position of heart and diaphrn^m 346 

XVni, Circnlatory apparatus 246 

XIX. Theoretical section of the horse's eyo 268 

XX. Skeleton of the borue 356 

XXI. So petti cial layer of muscles 356 

XXII. Splint 356 

XXIII. Ring-bone 356 

XXIV. Tarions typen of spavin 356 

XXV. Bono-sp»vin 356 

XXVI. Bone-spavin 3.56 

XXVII. Dislocution of shoulder and elbow, I)o:irge1at't< app^imtus 356 

XXVIII. ThesliDgin ase 356 

XXIX. Anatomy of foot 418 

XXX. Anatomy of foot...... 418 

XXXI. Foundered fest 418 

XXXII. Biog-bone and navicular disease 418 

XXXllI. Qiiatt-er craek and remedies , 4X8 

XXXIT, Sound and contracted feet 41g 

XXXV. Diseases of the skin 44B 

XXXTI. Mites that infest the borse 440 

XXXVII. Qeneral diseases. Inflammation .- ,. 5^8 

XXXVIII. General diseases. Inflammation 5^ 

XXXIX. Olanilers, nasal septum of borse, right side, showing acute lesions. 528 
XXXX. Glanders, middle region of uaeal septum, left side, showing ulcers.. 528 
XXXXI. Glanders, posterior half of nasal septum, rigbt siile, showing cica- 
trices 628 

XXXXII. Bbocing ,., 542 

XXXX III. Shoeing ., 542 

XXXXIT. 8bo»tng 643 


8nt; I liave Ihe honor to submit lifrewilb a rcirart apoD diseases of 
tbe Uorse, n-bicb has bcon prepared with great caro by a nuiuber of tlio 
tnost eminent meiubereof tboxotcrinary profi.'.sskm in tlie Uiiiteil States. 
The prtHluction of u wctrk of tUis clinrauu^r is a task of such masnitiuie 
ttiat it could not be anilcrtaki-D hy any one man with ft prutipect of its 
early completion. It was deemtHl heat, tlierpfure, to ilivule tlie nubject 
into sections and to plaoe the pre)>arjtion of each section in tbe liaitda 
of a veterin»ri»n wIiokc practical experieaoo and reputation would in- 
eurc a Yaliiable coutributiOD, By adopting tbis plan tbe coQt«at8 <tf 
tbe vol ii [lie Iiave been made i-cady for tbe printer witLln a year (bom 
tbe time tbe work was begnii. While, on account of tbiit mctboil of 
prcpamtiou, tbiTL- may not bt: Quito tbo satue uniformity of style and 
treatment wbtch vonid be ex))ccted io a rolame writtoo by a Biaglo 
BUttior, it ii« bopdl tliat tliis will nut be roinul olijeetionHble, and tbe 
Bi»ec4ty completion and the cu-uiK.-rntioD of aiitbors irbo bare given 
special attention to tlieir snbjcctd will prove of crcnt ad%'aiiUiK0. 

Tbe need of a work on the diseases of the boi^e, whi(;h eoubl be dis- 
thbnied to farmers as a safe and scientinc ijnide in tbe treatment of 
tlii.s Hpccirit of our dome.t licit ted niiiiuals, either wbcii afl*oeted with 
elJgbt disoixicrs or serious illness, has long beeu felt. Tbia obnous 
waiiiba«l«d totlieprepamtioaof the present ("oluiuo, which isdeslfinod 
ax the iJrst of a wrJe-s to cover the diseases of all varietii'S of farm ani- 
mals. The vf riter would not advlso the fariucr iu oi-diuary circumataiiccs 
to disjicnse irltb bis vetcntmnao, any more than be wontd adTi«e him 
to treat tbe diseases of bis own family, to miinnfaeture Iiis own fnrni- 
lore, or to l«> bi» own blac-ksmilii. There are, however, only too many 
caseA in which tbe veterinarian can not be procured in time for success, 
If at all; and, conneqacntly, the firmer wbo knowd or Iins tbo rueansof 
leiiniing tho nntnreof ibc dj.scHse and the proper treat meat will be able 
to save an animal nlien otherwise be would lose one. It is eoniiuuii for 
ititelli^'nt people to lau^'h at thoideaof attempting to make every man 
bill own doctor, his own veterinarian, or bis own cnrpentcr, and in »□ 
ideal condition of society no doubt this would be abaunl. But under 
the conditions wbicli actually obtain on onr farms, the farmer who can 
QM tools, if but ankvranlly, oflCD (Inds it ostrcmely couvcuient to 
tern iw>rar illy iiittrp the foiietions of the carpenter; and ho also finila 
that in many ciLses he must treat bis ailing animals or allow tht-iu to 

iuDer witboiit (reatmiMit. Knowing tliis to Iki tUo cn«o, ia it- not tat 
better for the atocU-ow^uer to have at Uisvomraand theiuLviceofTctorl- 
niirians eniiin?iit in tlieir profesBion than for bim to follow (lie abRnnl, 
oftt'u barbamns metliotls of treatmcni wbluh have Ixhiu handed down 
by tradition from tb« empiriciam and i^orauce of long-past ngcst 

It is an extremely difflcalt matter to divost nioditfal HtiTatnre of taahri 
niKal ternoB iind expresRioiis more or less iiiwrniprflieiisible to the gen* 
ernl reader. This haa made acii^nCiSo medicine a seated lioolc to the 
maaaea of onr pfA^ple, and there is do subject of irliicb tliey are mort 
ignorant. An attempt lias been made in this work to present the vaa,r 
ler in hb simplo language as possible, and wliile Home of the aatbors 
liava liecn more happy than othem in this rcHpecti it is believed thai 
no {nrat dillicuUy will be met with ia any of the articUit. 

\vtiile thpsiibjcoi baa been treated in laiiguagu of a more or lc» 
popular atyle and the book is intended aa a guide to the farmer, ita in- 
trinsic acitutiflc valuoehoitid not be entirely tost sight of. In tuanf 
rcsi'cela it is a notalde contribntion to existing knowledge, and it wiU 
be j)ii2ed by the vetertnarinu not less than by the farmer. Na doubt 
tben^ are aome defects iu thia firat edition which the experience of ttia 
future wilt enable us to remedy, but aa a whole the book is one vbtch 
can not fad to be of Immease Her\-ieo in educating bora*; owncnt and in 
hastening the adoption of humane and BcientiBo treatiuent in the di»> 
orders which aflliot mau^a raoHt jKitletit and faithful aerrant. 

The illnst.ratioDB haves been very carefully drawn by Mr. Iluines, the 
grenier part of the Bnbjecte being aeleetcd by Dr, Cooper Curtice. In 
cuM's where they have been copied due credit has boon given on the 
plates, but It should he stated here that we are indebted to Dr. John 3. 
BillingB, ofthe Army Medical Muhcuui, for tin* us*> nf theAiixoui motletx 
and a nniuber of speciiuena of diseased fv*n Horn which drawings wer* 

Very reajjectfally, 

CJtfff q/ Lurmu of Jninioi /ridi«(ry. 

Hon. J. M. RuKic, 

HccTctarii ^ As ricitUure. 






PrnftM«r »f CaHh PatlMtog) aa4 'Unleiria al He .Vnc York Coltr^t of r«rtriNiirjr AM^ 
jMNs, Iiu/tKlor oj Ikf hurMu o/ Auinal lmilii$trj/, tie. 


HedictQ« may enter Uin body tlirougli any of the following designated 
cbsQoeU: First) hj the moathj second, by the lungs and upper air- 
paaMkgea; third, by tho stein; foarth, ander ttio skto [bypodetuiio 
DiethodA) ; flflb, by the reotnin ; and, Aixtfa, by intra-veiioiu) injeotions, 

(t) By thk mouth. — Medicines cnu bo givea by the mouth io tb« 
(brro «f pdwden*, Italh, drenches, tind electaaries. 

i'ori-rfer*.— Those slionld be as finely pulreriwid as possible, in order 
to Keraire a rapid solution aniTabsorbtion. Their action is in this way 
facilitated and iuteusified. Powdwrs must be free from aay irritant or 
eaoAtic action upon the mouth. Those that are without any disagreo- 
ftble tasto or boiqII are readily eaten on the feed or taken in tho drink- 
ing water. Whtin plati^d on tho feetl they shonld llrst be diKKolved or 
Ktspeoded in water aud thus spriukled on the feed. If mixed dry tha 

nte will often leare the medicine in the bottom of bis manger. 

BatU. — Wheu jiropcrly made theiio arc cylindrical iu shape, 2 inches 
iu length and about three fourths of nn inch in diameter. They should 
be frosb, t>ut, if neoeasary to keep them some time, they dhould be mudo 
□p with glycerine, or some anch agent, to prevent them from becoming 
too hard. Very old, hard balls, ore somotimes paJMHid whole witli the 

lOnrp, without being acted npon at all. I'aper is to be wrapped 
^aroaud balU wheu given; it should bo Ibiu but firm; toilet paper is the 
beau Balls are preferred to drenches when the meilicine is extrecnelj 
diMgreeable or uauaeaciug ; wheu the doso is not too large ; when the 



horao is agly to drcnpli ; nrlicn tiie meilivine is intended to act slowly. 
Ct-rtuiri mi'iliciiK-scaii not, or kIiouIiI uot^ 1>o ni<i(1(! ititoljull.s— mvUidnea 
requiring to bo givcD id large doftes, oils, cuiistic Hiibataiices, ttnlesa 
diluted and tborougbly mixed witb tbo vcbicic, dcliqucsceut or offlores- 
cent snlls. SnltstJinces siiitjililo fur IialU u'an be made np by Ibe 
addiliim of hoiiry, sirup, soap, etc., wben rt-Qiiired for immediate use. 
GcUtfue capsules of different sixes nre iion* obtninnble and are a cod- 
venient means of giving medicines in bull form, 

Dtenchen nrv to bn given wlien the iiio<lkuri<> is liqnid, wben the dose 
is large, aad wbeu wo dexiro speedy actlou. 

EUclv-arirt arc medicines mixed mostly vritli licorice-root poxrdpr, 
molassoSr or simp to Ibc consistency of bouey, or a " soft-solid." Tbcy 
are intended, chiefly, to net Inc.-illy npon the iiionlli mid tbront. They 
are given vitb a wooden itaddlu or strong long-baiidled spoon. 

When bulls aro to be given we should obijcrTo tbo following direc- 
tious: Insbapo they sbonbl Iw cylin<lrio4i1,of the size nbovo mentioned, 
and soft enough to bo easily compressed by the Augers. If mado round 
or egg-sba-ped, if too long or too hard, they aro liable to become fixed 
in the gnltft. find canKccboliin^. BuIIk may Xtv. given nilli the '^bnlling- 
gun" (obtainable at aoy vctcrioAry instnitueut maker's) or by the baud. 
If given by tbo band n moutb speculum or gag should be used to preveat 
the animal from biting tbo hand or rrnHhitig the ball. Always loosen 
tbe horse before attempting to give a Wllj if tied bo may breiiU liia 
baiter and iojnre bimeelf or the ooe giving tbe ball. With u littlo 
practice it is mncb easier to give a ball without the moutb-gag, as tbe 
borse always Cgbts more or less against having Iils mouth forced open. 
The tongue must be firmly graspeii with the left buml and gently pulled 
forward; the bull, slightly moistened, is then to be placed with the tips 
of tbe Angers of the right band ns far back into the mouth as poftaible; 
us Ibe tongue is leost'ued it 1.^ dniwii luu^ into the mouth and eitrries 
tbo ball backwanl with it. The month should be kept closed for a 
minute or two. Wc should always have a pail of wat«r at band to 
offer tbo borso after balling. Tliis precaution will often prevent him 
from coughing out tbo ball or its beeuniing lodgetl in tbe gullet. 

It is, very often, impossible to get balls x^")pc'''y made, or to induce 
owners or nttcmlants to attempt to give them, and for these reaaous med- 
icines by the moutb are mostly given in the form of drenehes. When 
medlciao is to be given as a drench we must becarefbl to use enough 
water or otltothonmgbly dissolve or dilute it; more than this makes the 
drench bulky and is unnecessary. Insoluble medicines, if notirritontor 
eorniKivp, may be given simply saapended in water; the bottle (o l»e 
well shaken immediately before giving the drench. Tbe bottle used for 
drenching purposes should be clean, strong, and smooth about Its 
neck; it should be without shoulders, tapering, and of a size to suit 
the amount to bo given. A borii or tin bottle may bo Ijetter, in that 
broken by tbe teeth. If the dose Is n umall one 



(be tiome'a beail may be lield np by tlio left hand, wbile tlie medicine is 
liourvd iuto tUo mouth by tbc rjgltt. Tho lelt tbuiub is to bo placed in 
ttie augiti i)f tha lower Jnir, and the lin<;t!i'8 Kjirtmil uut iu kuuU a mauuar 
M to supfMit the )ou-er lip. Should the dose be large, the horse ugly, 
or tilt) atteadaDt noable to support tbo liend aa directi.'d abore, tb« 
bead is tbt-n to bo bold up by tuauiDg tho tiucs of a loQf; bntidl«d 
wDotU'ii fork under the uoso-buud uf the butter ; the hnltPr-Rtmp or A 
rope luay be faateued to the Dose-bnod aud thrown over n limb, beam, 
or Uirongb a pulley sii»|)ended rrom the ceilitig. Another way of Hup< 
porting tho bend iit to place a loop in tho cud of a ropo, and jatrodnoe 
this loop into the luttulh jtist b<:?hirid Om upper front teeth or tnsbs, tlie 
frue end to he run tbreugb a pulley, as belbi-e described, uiid litHd by 
au assistant. It in tierur to bo f»stetie<l, ns tho liorse might do himself 
■arioiis iqjury if iniidK fast. Tho bead i» to b« vlvvated just enough to 
prevent the borsefrom tbrowini; the liipiid out of his mouth. Tho line 
of the face should be horizontal, or only the Ica^it particle higher. If 
the bead is dmwa too high tbo animal can not finrallonr with ease, or 
even nitb tuifety. (If this i.t doubtful, till your mouth vritb water, 
thruw back the bead aa far as possilile, and then try to sivallow]. The 
pvrsoQ giciug the drench should Kinnd on some object in onler to renoli 
the horse's tnontb, on » Icrel, or a little above it. The bottle or bom is 
ktben to be introduced nt the Hide of the mnutb, in front of tho niolar 
^Icctb, iu an upward direction. Xliia will eaase the horse to opco bis 
Bioutb, wbcu tho baso of tho bottJe is to be suddenly elevated, and 
lat 4onuccs of the liquid allowed to o^eape on the tongue as far Itaok 
ru poaalbtc, care bi'ing umhI not to get the neek of Iho bottle between 
the back t«eth. Tbe bottle fa to be immediately remorcd, and if tbe 
borao doe.«i not swallow this can be encouraged by rubbin;,' tbe fingera 
'or neck of the Iwttle against thH roof of tho nioiitb, occasionally ceuioT- 
big tbi'tu. AssooQ as Ibis is swallowed repeat tbo opemtion until he 
baa t«(keD all the drench. If coughini; occurs, or if, by Auy mishap, the 
Ibottlo should bo crushed in tbe mouth, lower the head immodiatelv. 

Do not rub, pinch, or jmund the throat, nor draw out the tongae 
wbeu giring ivdreucb. These in no way aid tho to swallow and 

Dreaeka mntt nrrrr be i/iren through the wow; ibey are liable to 
'•trauglo the auimsl, or, if the medicine is irritating, it sets up an in. 
flauintatiou of the nose, fauces, windpipe, and somclimea tbe luugs. 
Cattle are easily drenched by simply holding them by the nose irjlh the 
k'ft luiud, while the medlciuu is [wuied into the muiith with the right. 
Balls are not to bo ^ren to cattle; they often become iml>edded in tbe 
freat miiss of food iu tbo Htomach and net tardily or not at nil. 

(2) Medicines are ndmiai^tcred to the lun^A and upper air pa^sagea 
by InmilBatiou, inhalation, and nasal ilourhe. Intvffiatlon consists of 
blowing an impiilpable powder directly Into tbn nose. It is but rarely 
itwwrtod to. (Jascous and volaiilo medicines nro given by ijukalation^ 




as in also mc<1Icat«d 8t«an) or vapor. Of tiie gasos used w« may men* 
tioB, ati the clii«f ones, sulphurous acid gas, and occitsioually cUorine. 
Tb« aaimal or animnlB uro to be placed in a tiglitbuildiug, irherotbeM 
gases are generated, until the atmosphera is safflcicntlf impregnated 
with t!iem. Vulatilo Ditxllciiit-H, an Ibeaiia-Hilietic«, (etiier, chloroform^ 
etc.)} &re ouly to tie given by the attendtog surgeon. Medicatt'd vapors 
aro to Iw inhaled by placing a bucket containing hot water, vinegar and 
wntor, scalded hay or bran, to which carbolic acid, imline, or other 
rnvdidacH bavu becu added, iu tho bottom of a long grain tiag. The 
horae^s nose is to be inserted into the top of tbe bag, and he thus iu- 
haloa tbe "modicat«d steam." Care icnst bo taken not to have this 
hot enough to scald the auimal. Scalding bran or bay is often thu 
inhaled to favor discharges in sore throat or '• distoiuiief." 

The nasal douche is employed by the Teterinahan in treating somd 
local diseases of tho nasal cbambora. Special applianoes aud profes- 
sional knowledge are iifcessHrj- when using liquid medicines by this 
nielbod. It in not oftuii resorted to, eveu by vetenusry surgeons, sines 
the horse, as a rale, objects very strongly to this mode of medication. 

(3) By tux. Skin.— Medici ncd are often administered to our balr- 
covered animals by tJie skiti, yet care must lie taken in applying somo 
Diediciues, as tobacoo- water, carbolic acid eolations, etc, over the eutlre 
body, as poisoning aud deatb folloif in some instances from absorption 
through the akin. We must also cscrciso care, and not apply poisonous 
meiliciites over very large mw or abruded surfuecH, fur the same rea- 
sons. For domestic animals medicines are only to be applied by the 
skin for loc»l pnriKisi'tt or disciuws, as latidunum, chloroform liniment. 
etc., for neuralgia. 

(4) Undkk the Sein— Hyfodebmio Method. — Ucdiciues are fre- 
qneotly given by the bypodermic syringe, under the akin. It will not 
be safe for any but medical or veterinary practitioners to uav this form 
of medication, since tho medicines thus givcu are powerful poisons. 
There aro many precautions to be observed; a knowledge of anatomy 
is indii«{H>nKiblL'. 

(5) By tui: KbotL'H. — Medioinea may be given by tbe rectum when 
ve can not give or retain them by the mouth \ wbeu wo want a local 
action on t*ie lui^t gut; to destroy the small worms infesting tlie large 
bowvts; to sliiiHilat*) tbe peristaltic motion of tbe intestines and cause 
evocuatiou; and to nourish tho lK)dy. Medicines an^ hero given in the 
form of suppositories, or as liquid iiijcctious — enemas. 

Suppontorien are conical bodies made up of oil of theobroma and 
opium [or wtiatever me<licine is iiidicateil in special oimcs), arid are in- 
troduced into the rectnni or vagina to allay irritation and pain of thi-M 
porta. They are not much used iu veterinary practice. 

Enemati, when givi^u for ubKorjitiou, should be small in quantity, 
neutral or slightly acid in rcitctioii, and of a t«mpemturio of from 90^ 
to 100° F. These, like foods given by tbe recluuj, should only be iu- 


trodaoed after tbe last bowel h&n bnea emptied hj tbo hand, or by 
oupioua enemas of t«pid vater. Bneiuaa or clyetcra are moHtljr glren 
to aid tbe actiou of pbysice, aud idiould thon bp in quantities sufficient 
to dut^ud (be bowel andcaase tbe animal toejecl tbem. Simple water, 
salt and water, or soap aud water, in quaatitiett of a gallou or more, 
may be given every half bour. It is best that tbe borse retain tbem for 
Bomo little time, ae tbe liquid norvca to moiAtcn the dnng and faror 
a paaftage. stimulating enemas (tarpentine 2 oaaccs, in linsood oil 6 
wnces), sbotdd bo adiuiaistered aft«r tUo(t« already mentioned bare 
empttui the laat bowel, witfa tbe purpose of still farther iucreasint; the 
natural worm-like movement of the iDt«»tinee ami aiding tbe pargiog 

Liquids may bo thrown into tbe rectum by tbe means of a large 
fringe, or difTervut kindti of complicated pampas. A very gowl "in- 
F^jeotioD pipe^ can be made by any tinsmith at a triUiui; co^t, aud sboald 
be eonstautly on band at every stock-farm. It oonsista of a fanuel, 
about 6 inrhvs deep and 7 inches in diameter, which is to be furnished 
with a jiipo-like prolongation, placed at right anglcato it, from 1-1 to 16 
inches in length, and carefully rounded and soldered at the ends. This 
pipe most hapfr/eetly ftitooth, in order to prevent Injury to the roctam. 
Inlroiluce this pipe to its full extent, after thoroughly oiling it, and poor 
jtbc litjuid Into the fun iid rapidly. Tbe prt-.sMareorthoatmo.iphi-re will 
>rce tbe liquid into the bowels. For all ordinary purposes this instrn- 
leot is quite as good as the more complicated and expensive ones. 

Oniiu:iry cold wat4*r. or even ioecohi wiiter, is highly recnmmeniled 
by many as » rectal injection for horses overcome by tbe exoeaaive beat 
of summer, and may be given by this simple pipe. 

(6) IktraVenohs iNJKCTioNH. — InJectiou3 dircctly into v^ins are 
to be pracUoed by medical or VHtcriuary practilioiicrs only, as are prob- 
ably some other meaua of giving modiclues— iotni-trticbaet ii^ections, 


By CH. B. MtCHENBR, V. 3., 
Pr»fr»*orvf Cattte Fatkaiogy and Okttrtritw at ikt .Vnr York C»llff» ef riltrSnarf Sa^ 

It nil! not prove ah easy task to write *' a pltiin nccoant of the com* 
mon <1iM;nM-8, witU ilirectioiis for prrvirntive mrjisiirvit, liy^ieiiic L-ar«, 
aod the sUa|>li>r forms of meilical treatment'' of tbe digestive orgnQs of 
the horse. This stndy inchiUc? a careful couBideration of tUo food and 
drink of onr aiiiiDal^, t]ii?ir quatity, quaottty, aunlyscs, etc. Tlii», of 
Itself, In materiiil for h hook. Bdng- limiteil as to ttpaue, oue must en- 
deavor to give Eiinply AQ outlioe; to state the most im]x>rtaDt factA, 
leavtae roany j^pa, and continually checking tho disposition to nrite 
anyiliing like a full description as to cause, preventiou, and modes of 
treatineDt of disease. 

Thest! articles are addressed entirely to fanaers aud slock-nwiietB, 
and I mnst my prorossionnl bretiiron to IxMr this in tnind, uiieo 
dtgpoj«!d to co[iiplatu of a waul of scit!iitllit.' tivatuieut of the stibji'vts. 

Water.— tt is generally held, at least in practice, that any water that 
nock uQu l>e induced to drink is sufEcicutly pure for their use. This 
practice occasions tosses that vould startle us If statistics nero at baud. 
Water that is impnrn from tlie presence of decomposing organic mat- 
trr, such as ia fuuud iu wells and punitn in cloM! proximity to uiuuuro 
heaps and cesspools, ia frequently the cause of diarrhea, dysentery, 
and many other diseases of stock, while water that is impregnated with 
diOVrcui poisons, and coniaminateil with speclllc media of contagion, 
prodacea death in very many instances. 

Coaaidoring first the quantity of water required I>y the horse, it taay 
be stated tliai ultima our animals have j>cce(>K to wiiter continually they 
neverdrink to excess. Were the bone subjected to ship-voyages, or 
•ny other circumstances where he must depend npon liis attendant for 
tbe snpply of water, it may be roughly stated that each horso requires 
a daily average of about 8 gallons of water. This will vnry some- 
wliat upon the character of his food ; if upon green food, less water 
will be needed tbuu when fed upon do* bar and grain. 


The time of KiviDg vater sbontd be carefully studied. Atf««t, th« 
boree stinulil receive wut^r at leiiBl tbrve tittu-n a day ; vhen at worlc, 
mora ftcqueatl^r. The rule here alionld be to give iu Bmall quantities 
and ofteo. Xhero U a popular fallacy that If a horse ta warm be 
Khould not be allowed to drinlc, many claimiDg that the flrHt Hwallow 
of water "fouiidern^ the animal, or pniduiMu colic. This is erroueoua. 
2Io matter bow warm a horse may bo, it ia always entirely safe to allow 
liim f)x)m six to t«a Bwallowa of water. If this is gjveu ou f^oing into 
the stable, he Hlioiild be given at once a pnnnd or tn-o of hay aud 
allowed to rttat ahoiit an hour before fcediut:. If w»bT lie now offered 
liiu it will in many casee be refased, or at least he will driiik but spar- 
ingly. The danger, then, is not in tho '* flret swaJlow "ofwater, but la 
due to the f'xoKWsiv-e quantity that the animal will take whcu worm U 
not rmtrainod. 

Water should never be given to horsea when it ia ice-cold. It m^ 
not be riiM.'4'SKury to add hot wat«r, bnt we should b^ (■artful in placing 
wntertroughs aliont. our baruH to have lliem in eiich position that the 
aau may shine upon the water dnriug the wiuti-r monnngs. Water, 
evea though it be thus cold, seldom prudaces serioutt trouble if the 
horse has uot been deprived for u too great length of time. 

In reference to tho purity of wat4sr Suiitii, in his "Veterinary Hy- 
gicuo," claaiies spring, deep-well water, and uplaud surface-water aa 
wholesome; 6lore<L raiu-wator and surface-water from cattivated land 
as atupicious; river water to whieh sewage gains access and shallow- 
well wnt«r as danyerotu. The water that is uited for drinking purposes 
for stock so largely throughout some States can uot but be impure. £ 
refer to thoee sections whi-rc there ia au impervious clay snbsoil. It 
Is the custom to s<H>op or hollow out a large biusiu in tho different pas- 
tures. During rains these basins become filled with water. The cli^ 
aubsoil being almost ioipervioUH acts as a jug, and there is no escajie 
for the water except by cva)iora1iou. Such water is Htugniint, but 
would ho kept companttrvely fresh by sub»eqnent rains were it not for 
the fact that much organic matter is carried iuto (U)->»e ponds by snr* 
face drainage during each succeeding stxirm. This organic matter soon 
nudergocs decomiH>si(ioii, aud us tho result wo find disea.-scH of dtflTer- 
eot kinds much more prevalent where this water \» drunk than whcrs 
the wator-sup|)ly is wholesome. Agaiu, it must not be lost sight of 
that stagnant surraoe- water is ninch more certainly contaminated than 
is running water by one diseased animal of the herd, thus endangering 
the remainder. 

The chief impurities of water may be claaaeil asorpanicand inorgania. 
The organic impurities are either animal or vegetable substauceA. 
The salts of the mdals are the inor^tiic impurities. Ltmo causes 
hardiness of wster, and occasion will be taken to speak of this whoo 
d«»L'ribiiig tiitti-Htiuid coiicreiiuus. Halls of lead, iron, and copper are 
oIhu frequently found in water, and will be rererred to hereafter. 

About the only exainiaatioD of vaXeit that can h& miule by tho arer- 
•ge stock raiser is to ob««rre it« taste, color, smell, and clearoess. 
Pnru wsLter ix clenr and is without taste or smell. It should poesem a 
■light bluish tiut. 

Chemical anil tnicrnscopic ciamlnatioi) vill frequently be neoesaaiy 
in order to detect the iireovtice of cvrtaia poisons, buctvria, etc., and ciu 
of conree only lie iK>nductc<l by experts. 

Fooifs and /tiding. — In thiK place owe can not altcuipl anytliini* lilce a 
cumprebenuve discnsHion of the snbject, and I must cootent myself 
with merely (nvinK * fo"* ^*^^ oa to tbedifii-rcnt kinds of food, prepa- 
ration, diKestibilUy, ]»mper time of feeding, quality, and quantity. Ira- 
proper fe«^ditig and watering will donhtlesa account for orer ouebalf of 
the digestive diaordem met with in Uie horse, and hence the reader can 
not fail Co see bow very important it is to have some proper ideas oon- 
c^rning these subjects. 

Kindg of food. — In this country horses are fed chiefly npoii bay, grass, 
roots, oats, com, wheat, and r>-o. Many think that they could he fed on 
lti>rhiug else. Stewart, in "The Stable Book," gives CLe following ex- 
tract from I^odou's Bncycloiiedia of Agriculture, which is of interest 
at tbis point: 

ta «oni«> M^rili* PODDtriM tb«y (hot*M) an Totved to «ti\ialil on dried fl»b. and eren 

«a T»i;«teb1« m'tld; lu Arabia, oa uiU, flMib-bftll*, eggs, brulb. In lodU b«tM<* »r» 

Tariutul jr f«<l. I'bo nati vo p-Msc* »re jadj(otl wrjr autritioua. Few, ixirtiupa no o«tc 

iS>« grDwn; bark; U mro, knd not emaiiiomljr giwn toborao*. lu BiMiical • votoh, 

LsoBwtblti); liko tb» Ura, is itwd. On th« wwtsm sid* of lodin a Mirt of pigiKiti-{i«ft, 

I SsDod ifTMu (Cf<wr anXtottm ) foitiiv IIm ordinac; Cooil, wilb gruw wliitv in wneKni, »ud 

Lhar all the year rouud. Indian cum ur rice ja seldom £ivcii. In tlio WfMt Iiidloa 

ntaiM, guluett coni, aaicar votu lopa, and aoinotlnitui tuolaawa, an t;i«eii. Iti lb* 

Mahratta conntrj- aalt, p«pt>«r, and otber a|>i<rii are iTia()« into ball*, wttbHour and 

baU«r. and tbcva ar« Hijipoacd to prodac« aainwUon aDd to Bno tlw coat. Brolb 

Biad* from alMwp'a bead ta aomotiDiea gtrea. Id l-'ranco, Spain, and Italy. bc«idM Ihtt 

tgnusM, tb«)Mivaiariime«, Wn««, Uie topa of ai»«ia, a»d tli« BM>da of Iba enrob-lntt 

'an Klvaa to bnraM. 

For information as to tbe natritire value, chemistry, and classifica- 
tion of tlie dIfl'iTPrit kinds of fooil, I will refer the reader again to 
Sniitli's Veterinary llygiene. 

Wc caa not, however, leave aside entirely here a constdoration of tbA 
digestibility of foods; and by this we mean tlie rL'adiuess with which 
fowls undergo those changes iu the digestive canal tliat fit ttiem for 
ftbsorption and deposition as integral parts of the animal economy. 

Tho age and health of Ifan animal will, of coursi-, modify the digestl- 
btUty of foods, as will also the mauner and time of harvesting, preserv- 
ing, and preparing the foods. 

In the bonuf digi-.stion tukes place )>rinnipally in the Entestiuea, and 
ben, as iu all otlier animals aud with all foods, we lind that a certain 
part only of the provendi:r ts digested \ another portion is indigested. 
This projMHtioii of digejdteil and (ndigpsti^d fond mnst claim iMUwtng 
itotioe at least, for if the horse received too much food a large portion 
UQS»— 3 




of <lieestibl» fnod niUBt pnsa oat noacted upon, eiilailiiig Dot only tbe 
kwsof tbis uiinsetl fooil, biit a1»o rutliii;; for an iitinccti^Kirx expeudU 
tme of vital foreti ou tUo part of tlio digcstire organs of tUo liorac. It 
13 tbas tbat, in faul, too mucb food may make an auiuial poor. 

lu Belecling food for the horse we Hlionid renioinber tbo nnntoroical 
amuifcetncnt oftliu digt^■tl.iYoo^•;aI1M, iu wdl an tbu pb>6io1i>^ii'ul fiiuc- 
tious ]}crformed by each orgnii. Foods mast be wbolcdotue, clean, ami 
Rwect; the boiii-a of reeding rogitlnr; ibo mode of preparation found 
by practical esperienw) lo b« tlie Iwnt must bo iidht-red to, and clt-auli- 
iifKK in pri-)tnration and ad loiuiHt ration must be ubtterved. 

The leD(;tb of time occupied by etomaob digestion in tlio borso riiHca 
niili the dillercnt foo<ls. Hay and stran- pass out of tbo stoRiacb mora 
rapidly tban oatn. It would Ktwm to foHow, tbun, that oats Kbonid be 
givfu urter bay, for if reversed tbo bay would cause tbo oata lo bo seat 
onward into tbe iDtcstiuc^ before bcin jr fully acted upon by Itio etomacli, 
niiil as a r<'Riilt prmlnro imligrstinn. Experipnce contirniKlbis. Tbero 
u) anotbtT gooil rtiasun why bay abuuld 1»« givi-u Cist, purliuularly if 
tJie hoTSo ia very UnDgry or if exhausted from OTerworic, name]y, it 
coquircH more time in masticatiou (insurinjf proper admixture of saUvA) 
and can nut beb()U(!d:i>i :iro tho grains, lu (>ilber iiiKtanc^' water must 
not li« Kiven soou aAur feeding, as it washes or sluices tbo food frotn 
Ibo t^tomiicli before it is Sited for intetttinul dit;t-«tion. 

Tbo HtomacU begiiiH to empty itao.lf very soon after tho commence- 
ment nf feeding, and continues rapidly while eating. Afterwards tlio 
jKiH-tage 18 slower, and Keverul honrH arc required bvfor« tlio Ktomacb is 
eutircly empty. Tbo iiaturo of Uie woric required of the borso must 
gnido lis in tlie selection of liis food. Itapid or severe labor can not be 
jwrformtfd ou a full utoiiiacb- For «ucU horses food must be given in 
smalt (jnaatily ami fed to them abont two lionrs before going to their 
work. Even horses intcndeil for slow work must never be cngorf^ed 
with bulky, iuimti-itiouH food immt^diately before going to labor. TIis 
small stomach of the horse would seem to lead us to tbe eoncluBion 
that tliirt animal Kliiiald be fed in Kmnll quanlitirs and often, whieli, ia 
realily, should be done. Tbe disproportion between the siio of tbe 
stomaeb and iho amount of water drank telU us plainly that the borso 
should always be watered before feediog. One of tbe commoa errors 
of fuinling, and tho one tbnt produces more digcKtivo disordrrs than 
any other. Is tofecd tc» atnut after a hnrd dayU teork. This must Dcver 
bo done. If a horse Is completely Jaded it will be found beneQeial to 
give him an alooholio stimnlant on going into tbe stable. A small 
quiuility of bay may thru be jrivrii, but his grain should bo witbbclil 
for one or two hours. Tbese same remarks will apply with equal force 
to tbe borso that for any reason fans been fastiug for n long tinio. After 
» fast feed Icsh than tho borso would eat; for if allowed too much the 
stomacli becomes eogorf;t-(l, ita walls paralyzed, aud "colic'* is almost 
sure to follow. Tho horao should be fed thrco or four times a day; dot 







will it answer lo feed bim entirely npon coneentrateil food. Bulky food 
must lio fnvcii tu tletatD Ute graius in tliclr pasnngc throniih the lutes- 
tfnnl tract; bnik also favors distention, and (bus nuHilmnlcally aids 
altsui'iilion. To liorsos that do slow work for tlui grwitor part of tho 
lime, choppetl or cut liay fed with crushed oats, i;roanil corn, etc., ia 
tbo bt-Kt manner of f^i-diuf;, as it given tliu nM)uircd bidk, saves time, 
and half tlie labor of feeding. 

Sudden ckangt* of diet are altfatfs dangerotis.— "WUeu deaironB of chang- 
ing the food, do so verv gnidii.tlly. If a horse i» accnsloiued to oatx a 
sudden ctiunge to a full meal of curu will almost always sicken liim. If 
«Q merely intend to iticteaso tbo quantity of the v«ual feed, tlii9 again 
must liodone gi'adiiaUy. Tho qiiantiCy of fnod given ninsit always be 
in proiKirtioQ to the amount of labor tu be performed. If ahorse is to 
do less work, or rest entirely from work for a few days, see that he re- 
ceives less feed. If this vhb observed oven on Saturday uj|;bt nnd 
Sunday there would befewer cHsea of '^Monday moruingsicknesH/'snoh 
as mlics and tymphaugitis. Foods slionid also bo of a more laxative 
nature when the horse la to staitd fur sonic days. Aboro all things ive 
aid nvoid feeding ninsty or moldy foods. Those are very fnxiueut 

,nsc6 of dit;ea»e of different kinds. Liuig trouble, as bronchitis and 
^heaves," often follows the nse of snch food. The digestive organs 
always suffer from moldy or musty foods. MuKty bay in grnrrully con- 
ridered to produce disorder of the kidneys; and all know of the danger 
to pr4>f;nant animals from feeding upon crgotized grasses or grains. 

Leaving thr.sft somewhat general con.sidemlions, I will refer briefly to 
tbo ditfercjiL kiudK of fiimls: 

Aay.— The best bay for horses is timothy. It should be aboat ooe 
vear old, of a greenish color, crisp, clean, fresh, nnd posseuiDgasireett 
plenKant aroma. Even this good Imy, if kept fur too great a length of 
time^ loses part of its nuuriHlinicat, and while it may Dot be positively 
injurious, it is hard, dry, and indigeslibleu ^*ew bay is dllBcult to di- 
gi>st, produces much salivntiou {slobbering) and occasiunuliy purging 
and Irritation of the skin. If fed at all it shonid be mixed with ohl hay. 

Second crop or a/icrmalh. — This isnotujoHidt^redgood buy for bonuM, 
bat it is prizetl by some faruers as a good food for milch cows, they 
claiming that it increases the flow of milk. The value of hay depen<la 
upon llie time of cutting, as well as care in caring. Hay should be 
cnt when in full dower, but before the seeds fall; if lefl Umger, it be- 
oomoa dry and woody and lacks in ontntion. Ab eiMDUal point in 
uakiDg hay is tbnt wlien the crop is cut it shtnild remain as abort a 
time as jwtutible in the field. If lefl too long In the sun tt loses cutnrf 
flavor, and dries or wastes. Smith asserts tbat one boar loore tlioti i* 
ncoeosary in the sod eaaeee « less of Ifi to liO per eeuL In the feeding 
valoe of hay. It is irapotiaible to state any flxcil time that hay must 
hare to cure, this depeoding, of oouac, opoa tlie weatlwr, UiIgIluobs at 

tbo crop, and mnny otber ciroumstaiuws ; but It in veil known that in 
ordrr tn |in.'.serve tlie color ami aroma of liay it slioiihl be ttirueil or 
tcdikt) frequently ami cuml a» quickly a« pttntible. On tlio other hantt, 
bay spoils in ttie mow if liarvestt'd Uxi green or when not sntllciently 
dritnl. How-burnt bay iinxliiL'As disorder of the kidneya and bowels 
and tuuisea the horse to fall off in condition. Mnsty or moldy liay ha-s 
often bf en eaid to proclutv that p«valiar disease known Tariouelj' M 
oerebroBpinal nicniiigitiSf pntrid sore tbront, or cbokinff distemper. 

Tbt> avuragft horHi-, gfttitig Krain, should tie Hllowe<l Trom 10 to 13 
puiiudKof good hay a day. It fa a mistake of many to thiuk that borsea 
at li(.'bb work can be kept entirely oo hay. Sucb horsea aoon become 
pot-bellied, fait off in flcsli, and do not thrive. The aamo is true of 
<io1t«; nnlf>i).i the latter are fed with some grain they gn>w up to l>e 
long, lean, gawky creatures, and never make as good borees as those 
accustomed to grain, with or in addition to their hay. 

Straw. — The straws are not eiteasivoly fed io this conntiy.ftud when 
used At all rbey should be uut and niised with hay and ground or 
crnsboil grains. Wheat, rye, and oats straw are tlie ones most nsed, 
and of these oats straw is most easily digcslefl and contains tlie most 
oonrisbniuHt. Pea iitid bran straw arc occasionally fed to horac^ tb« 
pea being preferable acconling to most writerH. 

Ckaff. — Wheat and rye chaff should never be nsed as a food for 
houses. Thp beanis frefiuently become lodgtil in the tiiouth or throat 
and are productive of more or less serious trouble. lu the stomach and 
intestines they often serve as the nucleus of the "soft conLTCilous" 
which are to be descnl>ed when treating of obstructions of the digestive 

Oat ebaff. If fed In email quanttttea and mixed with «at bay or corn- 
fodder, ia ver7 mueh relished by horses. It la not to t>e given in large 
quuntities, h.h I have repeatf^^lly witnessed a tmnbleKoiiie and somelitnes 
fatal diarrhea to follow the practice of allowing bortsca or cattlu trtt ac- 
oeea to a pile of oat chaff. 

Oraiiu. — Oats take precedeneo of nil grains na a food for horses^ as 
the iogredieiits necei^'uir}' for the complete nutrition of the body exist 
in them in the best proportions. Oats are besides more easily digested 
and a larger proi>ortjou abrtorbod and oouverted into the various tissues 
of the body. Care iiiiiMt Iwtiikeii in selecting oats. According to Stew- 
art the be-st outs arti one year old, plump, Kbort^ bard, vleau, bright, and 
sweet Xcw oats nre indigestible. Kiln-dried oats are to be reibsed 
as a rule, for even though ongi'ially goo*! this drying process iujares 
them. Oats that Itavf^ sprouted or feritienteil arc iiyurious an<l should 
□ever be fed. Oats ari> to be given either whole or cnished ; whole in 
the minority of instances, crushed to old horsea and those having de* 
fcctive tec^Ib. liorses, alno, that bolt their feed are best fed upon 
crushed oatA and out of a mauler large enough to permit of spreading 
tbe grain in a thlu layer. 


The average horse requires, in addition to tUenltowance of hay above 
spoken of, about. 13 quarts ofgoorl oatti daily. Tbo l>est onta are tbou 
oat about one K(^ek before being folly ripe. Not only is tbo grain riclier 
at this time in untrttive Diat«ria!8, bat there is algo le&s wa«te from 
"scatterinfr" tbao if left to be'Come dead ripe. Moldy oats, like hay 
and straw, oot only produce serious digestive disorders, bob have beeai 
tbe uDiloabted cniiRC of outbreaks of that dread disease in horses, 9M 
ready referre^l to, ubaracterized by inability to eat or drink, auddea 
paralysis, and death. 

Wheat and rye. — These grains are not to be used as food for horeea 
exoepC in small qiiitnliticH, liruiseilorcrualipd, and (eti mixed with other 
grainu or hay. If fed aloue, in any fousiderable quantities, they are 
almost ocrtatD to produce digestive disonlers, larainitis (founder), and 
similar troubles. They should m^ver eotitttitate more than one-fourth 
of the grain ailowanoe, and should always be ground orernshe<l. 

Bran. — The bran of wheat is the one xaoul used, aud ita value iis a 
feeding stuff is variously estimated. It is not to be depended upou if 
given alone, bnt ni:iy be fwl with other grains. It »er\'o» to keep the 
bowels ojien. Sour bran 19 not to be given. It disorders the etomoch 
and iutetitiues aud way eveu produce seriouu results. 

Mahe—Corn. — This grain is not suitable as an exolnsive food for 
yontig burses, as it is delitncnt in salts. It is foil whole or gruumL 
Com oil the 00b is commonly used as the food for horses affected with 
•> Um[>a().^ If the 00m is old aud la to be fed Id this manner it should 
besoalceil in pure, clean water for ten or twelve hoars. Corn is better 
given gruuud, aud fed in quantities of froiu 1 to 2 iiuarts ul a meal 
mixed with crashed oat« or vbeat bran. We must be very particular 
in giving com to a horse that is not accustomed to its use. it must 
be oommL-uix-d in Hmall quuiitjtii^ti aud very grailually inereaiwi]. I 
kuow of DO grain more likely to prodnoe what is called acute indigea- 
tion than coru if these directions are not olworved. 

tAn*eed. — Ground liusec4 is occostonully fed with other foods to keep 
tJie bowels 0[u^u and to improve the condition of the skin. It is of par- 
tiuolar service during couvalescuuco, wUeu the bowels are sluggish in 
Ibelr acCioD. Unseed tea is very often given io irritable or inttamed 
conditions of the digestive organs. 

fiuofjr — I'o(atoa. — These are used as au article of food for the horse 
in mauy seiitionB. If fed raw and in large qoantitioe they often produce 
indigeetiOD. Their digestibility is favored by stemming or boiling. 
They poottess, in common with othur ruutM, slight laxative pru|N*rtJes. 
BorU.— These are not much used as food for horses. 
Oiirrott. — These make a most excelleni foiwl, particularly during sick- 
iiesa. They improve the appetite aud slightly increase tbe action of the 
bowels and kidneys. They iio.ssess also certain ultenitive profKirties. 
The ooat l>ea>mes smooth aud glosKy when carroto are fvd. Some vet- 
eriuary writers claim that cbrouic cough is cured by giving carrots for 


sometinio. Tho roots mny be coitsklGred lUcn as an mljunet to the r«g- 
uliir ri'gimp, niul if fud iii siuall quantities are tiigbl; beneflcia.). 

Ormsct. — Oniss is tlie mitiirnl toml of horses. It is viimiioscil of a 
great variety of iilaiilit, iliStTinR iriilety as to the aiuouut of notiriab- 
mout contnincil, noma being almost initiroly without valu(> as foods and 
only eattii wlieii tliere Is uotbing else oblniiiable, otbcrs are positively 
iitJiiHoosoreTeD poisonous. ^oneofthpgmsNpsHre^innioictittokevptbo 
lioivo in condition for work. Horses tbua f«d are "soft," sweat easily, 
purge, and soon tiro on tbd road or wb«u at bard work. To groiritig 
stock grass is iud^speusible, and tlicro is little or no doabt buttbat it acts 
OS an alterativu when givrii to borscs nccustoniod to grain and bay. It 
must bu given to such subjects in small quantities at first, 'flieetomaoh 
and iotcstines andi;rgo rest, and rccupcmte if tbo borso is turned to 
grass for a timecaeb year. Ittsatsocortaiu that duriog febrile diseases 
grains acts nlmoNt iia a uK-ilicini% lessiMiiug tbo fvrer and favoring re- 
covery; \«-onnds beal more rapidly tbaa when tbo borso is on grain, and 
Bomo cbrottic disorders (cbrouic cough for io&tnuce) disappear outircly 
vben at gniss. In my experience grass dfw-s more good nhen tbo borso 
(Tops it biniself. This may be doe to the sense of frtM'dom he enjoys 
at pasture^to tlio rest to hi.s feet and limbs, and for many similar 
reasons. Whea cut for bioi it sbonid bo fed ft-esb or when bat slightly 



Foods are prepared for feeding for any of the following reasons: To 
reuder the food more e.isily eaten; to make it more digestible; to 
economize in aioouut; to give it some dcw property, nod to prcservo 
it. Wo have already spoken of tho preparation of drying, and need 
not revert to this again, as it only serves to preserve the diflerent foods. 
Drj'iug does, however, change some of the properties of food, ■*. &. re- 
movi-s the laxative tendency of most of them. 

Tho different grains ore more easily eaten when ground, crushed, or 
even boiled, ftye or irbeat should never be given whole, aad even of 
corn it is found that there is less waste when ground, and, in commoD 
with all grains, it is more ca.iily digested than when fed whole. 

Uiiy and fodder are eeonomize<l when cut in short pieces. Not only 
will the horse eat the Decessary amount iu a shorter lime, but it (vill bo 
found that there is less wnstc.and the mastication of the gniins (wholo 
or omahed) fed with tbem is insuretl. 

RefereQcebfls already been made to those horses that bolt tbetrfood, 
tuA we need only remark hero that the consequences of such ravenous 
eating may be prevented if the grains are fed with cut bay, straw, or 
fodder. Ixjug or uncut hay should also be fed, even though a ccrtaio 
amonnt of hay or stmw is cut and fed mixed with gn\tt. 

Oni» objection to feeilingent hay mixed withgronnd orcmnbed pniiiis, 
atid wetteil, must not be overlooked during the hot moatbs. Such food 


is apt to nndereo fermctiltttion if Dot fcU dirrctl.r nlVr it in mixed, and 
U)« lulxinjE-l rough v%*eii, aolesa frequently •tcaldt.-il niul cleaiiei), becotnes 
Boar iiDtl enoujib of lis ticrapingit aro glvou witli Ilivi fiMxl to prodaee 
flaruli-iit (wmd) coliir. A Hinall ainountof »ilt. KbnuliI ulwayn bo rnixed 
vith siicb food. 

Bad bay sb^ald never bo cnt simply bccanae It insures o greater con- 
snmptiuii of it ; bad foods ard^ dear at uuy price mid should twver be fed. 
Vi*e bave before spokiMi of tliij iKlranta^if' of boilin;; rootn. Not only 
' docs tUia rcndtr them leaa liable la proiluce dij^eslive diaonlt-», but it 
also mftlcea Uiem deau. Boibog or stemuing gralos is to be recom- 
mendod when the teelb aro |>oop,orwhon thedigestireor^^nnsoro weak. 
Of ensilage as a foo<l for horses I have no i'spurit^iice, but am indintHl 
to think that (and Ibia opiiiiou is based upon the imperfect manner in 
which tho crop is often stored) disoixlered digestion would bo more fro- 
q^aeut wero it extensively fed. 


i)nt(J£j(7N.— This covers the ])eriod dnrlug which the youDg horse la 
catting bis tooTh, from birth to the age of five years. With (he hnrso 
moro diflbriilty is ex[i4>ripnved in cutting the Keeond or pertnsinont troth 
ihnu ffitb the first or milk teeth. There is a tcudoney among furiiicrH 
iiid many ToteriRarinns to pay too littlo attention totlie tt-cth of young 
Iturses. Pcrctvall rvlut«s au iu&tnnco illusttativo of this, that is host 
told in hiii own wurdn : 

I wiuirM)DHt»d to giro m; aplBion eonoMnins fthorw, lh«ii la liia fifth j«ir, wl)« 
faftd feil <M BiKuiusty for ttw last fottuiKlit, anil to rapidly il«i:liu«d lu (.'Ufialitiun in 
snBM'qiitiK'i'. tliut bis nnuer, a rctcniiitrf Hurgrgti, wan iiniliir ito Ii|;bl aitpirbctiainni 
ahoal bia lir«. II« liad hiiiwolf exaniluM lilit itHiulli, nitliuat liaving illuorrml nnj 
^tfcvt or i1l*na»c; (lioagli anatli*r vctcriuarj sargi'Mi nif of i>)>jriiuti itiat ill" >llffl. 
tiiUx or Eaability mBatfntnl in aiaslicatiou, and tho cooMfqucal oiiddlug, nniM fiiiu 
preleruatiiral lilnntticu of th« satfacra or lli« nolar Icetb, which wvro, In ououn 
ijDeiioa ftlt'd, bnt williunt benellctal tcsnll. it was after tblw llial I aaw tlio biitvc) 
•ikl 1 contcaa 1 wu, at tn; first cxaminiillon, quito ai lanrb at a 1dm lo olTor auj nut' 
b&ctOfjr interpretation 03 oltiere bad brrn. WbiUi nii-ililiitinc, Itomivrr, a(^■^ inj 
(Mpeotioa, on tb« apimrentlr oil murdiuary natnrn ot l)i« ra*«. It •Iriicli iiin (tiai I 
had t>o4 teao tneta^i. I tr^ut l>nek Into tbe «laMo and <li»ar«n'd two llttla ln> 
mon^ red anil bard, in tbv ftltaatiou of LIto lufcriot tnalii, nblcli, wIumi itraanl, gnia 
tfa» animal ioanflenblnpaiD. I ioalanllj: look oa I my pocket-knlf* and mad n cru- 
cial IneUlouB tlirongb tlicin Iwlh, dowa to tba eomlag taetb, fVoiB irlileJt muniant Ilia 
bano rccor<r«<l bi»appv(it« aod by di:src«« biavmitcd eondltlvn. 

Tho mouths of youu;; horiu.-;! xbould aliw Iw frequftilly i-intnlni'd lo 
aee if oite or more of tbe totlk tcelb art! not remaining loo long, caiiM' 
tag tho second teeth to grotr in erooUe^I, in wliieli ciuh* tho Arst teelli 
should be ri>uioveil by the futceps. 

Irregular iiit9 of tfttit, — Tliere is quite a fualilon of late years, nape* 
daily iDliirgeoiticaitohiivchttnie8Mecthtvgtilarly*'Ho«l«d''or**niapod*' 
by "veterinary deuti^ls." In son* instance* this la VL>ry Ixjui'lleial, 
vhile iu uiunt cases it is cutiiuly nnaocMaarr. Prom tlM vharactor of' 

the Tooil. tliernbbinirorirrindingsnrfaoeof the horse's teeth fihoaldbe 

rvMyh. Still we uiu^t reuicnib^r that the upper Juw is somewhat widet 
tlinii tUv lowiT, iumI that fruut tho (su'l uf tht< teetli not being i^>«rfe«tlj 
appoaed, a sharp ridjce is left unirom ou the inside of the lover molara 
and on th« outaideof the Dpper, which iimr excoriate the toiig'tie or 
lips to n eoiiBidcrnhlv extent. This eooditioD can readily bo felt by th« 
hiiiid, iitid ihem «harp ridp's wlieu fouud should be nuij>«4l down by » 
giiardiMl riuip. Any ou» chii do Ibiii Tithoat the aid of the vetenno* 
riitii. lu Homu iustAQoes the firat or last molar tooth is anoatiiraUr 
lone, owing to tho ahsouco of its Mlow on the opposite jaw, Shoald 
it Iw the last molar that is thus elotignte«l it will rc(|uiro the aid of thft 
veterinary surgeou, who has tho nocessar>' forceps or chisel for outtin^ 
IL Tho front niolarmiiy 1ms msiJeil down, if much patieuw is taken. 
Ill decay of the teeth it is quite common to And the tooth corres|>on<l- 
lug to the deuayed one on the opposite jaw very much elongated, 
•om«tfmo8 to that extent that the mouth can not lie pcrf<>ctty c1ose>d. 
Buob teeth masbAlsobe ehorteneft hy tbe boue forceps, chiHel, bone- 
aaw, or rasp. lu all instances where hordes "qnid^ their food, where 
they are slohberinf;, or where they evince pain in mastication, shown 
by holding tlu^r hend to one side while chvwing, the teeth shoald be 
carernlly txaminod. Jf, as is mostly the case, all these symptoms aro 
referable to sharp oonicra or projections of tho teeth, these ninstbe ro- 
moved by the rasp. If decayed teeth aro fouud, or other gcriuns ditB- 
cntty detected, an expert should bp called. 

7aofAocA«.— This is rare in the horse aud is mostly witneesed wh«i 
there is decay of a tooth. 1 hare observed It only in the molar teeth. 
Toothache is to l>o discovered iu tho horso by the pain expressed by 
him while feeding or drinkiug oold water, I have seen affected 
with toothache that would suddenly stop chewing, throw the head to one 
aide, and sHglitiy open the mouth. They behave as though some sharp 
body had punctured the mouth. If upon examination there in no for- 
eign body found wo nmstthou careftilly eiamine each tooth. If this 
can not l»e done with the hand iu tho mouth wo can, in most- instances, 
discover the aching tooth by pressing each tooth from without The 
horse will flinch when the boki tooth is pressed upon, lu most oa«e« 
there is nothing to he done bnt the ext:-action of the decayed tooth, and 
this, of course, is ouly to be attempted by the veterinarian. 

There ia a deformity^ known as parrot- mouth, that interferes with pre- 
hension, mastication, and, indirecUy, with digestion. The upper ineia- 
ora project iu front of and Iteyond the lower ones. Tho teeth of both 
jaws beoomo uuusaftUy long, as they are not worn down by friction. 
Such horses expericuoo much difficulty iu grazing. Little can be done 
except to oooaslonally exumiue tho teeth, aud if those of the lower jaw 
become so long that they bruiwi the " hars^ ol the upperjaw, tbey must 
be shorteueil by the rasp or t»i»w. Horses with this deformity ehould 
never be lull eutireiy at pasture. 




Lampaa is the ttame ^xy^h to » B^cltiog of tbc mncaiis Tnotnbrane 
ooverio£ the hiird palaleaiul |)roJ«ctiiig in ii more or Ies8 promiuciit 
rillge immp<1iHt4>ly behind the upper incisors. Tbvre is no doubt bat 
tliiit iu Auuiu raro iii.sluncfs, iiikI purtiinilarly while teething, there is a 
eoQgestioQ and fiw«|]ing of tbi^ part of the roof of tho niouLb which 
may interfero with feeding. Id one tuatance in my practice I found the 
swi'llitig w) pxt»'n!*iv« (luit th« niiiroiiii membrane was cnnfilit lietween 
the frotit teetb wlieii the borso attempted to eat. Bboiild tliis exist the 
evollen parts nre to be eearified, beingcarefal not to oat deeply into the 
«trnctures. An nslTingent wash of nlnni water nmyaleo be IjenefiofaL 
Borniug of the Ininpaa la cruet and uiio«cc«sdr)-, and sbould nover be 
permitted, as it often cansea seriouH rcsnlts to follow. 

It ia quite a conimoo opinion among on-ncrs of horses and stablemen 
that InmjmH in n diKeave Uiat very frequently existH. In fHcrt vlienover 
a horse fails to oat, mid if be does not exhibit very marlied ttyniptonts 
of a eerere illness, tbey say at once " be has the tampas.'' Ft is almost 
Imponibte to convince them to tbo cootrory, yet in a practice extend- 
ing over fifteen years I have upver seen but two or tlinee wisea of what 
is called lampRs that gave rise to The least trouble or that called for 
any treatment whatever. It may bo pat dovu, then, as more u disease 
of the stableman's iioaginaiion than of the borse^s month. 

StotnatUis. — This is an iuDummation of the mucous luembrane lining 
ttifl moutli and is pHMlue^l by irritAting medicines, frMxls, or other 8ub> 
Stances. In cities it frequently folloirs from eating out ot asbbarrels. 
Tbe symptoms are evelling of the mouth, whlcb is also hot and pain- 
fal to the touch; there inn cnpiouH diKcdiarge of Kslivn; tliu ttiu»)na 
membrane is reddened, and in some cases there are observed vesicles 
or olcers in the month. Tlie treatment in simple, soft fcefl alone often 
being all that is necessary. In some instances it may Ite ndviKiible to 
nsea wash of chlorate of putasb, borax, or alum, about ouebalf utinve 
to a pint of water. Hay, straw, or oats shonid not bo fed unless 
steamed or boiled. 

Qlotntit, or Inflammation of tbe tongno, is very similar to tho above, 
and mostly exists witli it and is doe to the same cnuties. lujnries 
Uie tODgne may produce tbis simple indammationof its covering met 
brane, or, if severe, may prodnco lesions muc-b more oxieustve, sucl 
OS laceratioDs, abncOKKes, eto. These latter wonhl require surgical 
ti«atm«Dt, bat for tbe simpler forms of inflammation of tho tongue tba 
tKatmeot reoouimended for stomatitis shonid bo followed. 

Ptj/alitm or salivatioa consists in an abnormal and cxceju^ive Heer»- 
tion of saliva. This is often seen as a symptom of irregular teeth, in- 
flammation of the mouth or tongne, or of the ttse of sncb medicines aa 
lobelia, mercory, and many ntbrrK. Some foods produce tbis. a^ clover, 
uid putienlariy aeooud uropj forvigu bodies, as uaiJs, ubeui-chnil, and 

corn cnba becoming lodged in ttiomontli. irtho cause is rcinoreil, aa a 
rule no furtlivr alU'ution is iiewasary. Astringent wasbes inuy bo 
a]i|ili«(1 to tlie lUDitth an » garglff or by nicftnit of n epon^. 

Phar^figitU i^ iiti iiinauiuutioii oftlie mucous niemltrAue liotu^ oftbo 
I»ltai->-tix ( ItacU i>Art of the moutb). It rarely exists iiule&s accompaiiieil 
by stomatitis, clossitia, op laryngitis. In those instances wUere tbe io- 
flammationisninKtlyKoiilliu'd tiilbi! pharynx W(' notice febrilesymptoins — 
didiciilty of »w:tllowiuf: eitlier Itqaiils or soIiiU ; tlicre is but little congb 
except irhen Uyiug to 8WAl)o<r'^ there {» no soreuesH on pressuru ovor 
larynx (large ring of tbo windpiyu). lucpctised ttow of saliva, difBculty 
of BVnllowing liquids in partiimlnr, ami congb only wbcn nttonipciug 
to svriillnw, aro tbe symptoina best inarTtwl in pharyngitis. For ireat- 
menL, chlorate of pota»1i in halT-onnce dofics three or fonr iimC8 n day 
U tho bc-it. This may bo Riven snspumlt'il in wanii water as a gaTjjle, 
or m:iy be mixed wiLb lii?um-u-n>ut ponder mid honey :inil given 
with A strong spoon or wooden paihlle. Bornx or alum water may be 
subittilnteil for cbtornteof )>otusb in tbe Knme-Kixcd dow.t. Roft fon<I 
should bi} given, Itiit I ha%'o fi<H>n huuo casc.4 wliere tbe animal would 
ent corn from the cob better thnn anytbing el&e. 

Paraltfsin of the phtrgnx, or, as it is iMiuimonly t;a1ln1, " jiar.ilysis of 
the throat,'' is oneof tlie most stubborn di.iea.s-'-sur the horse that wu nm 
ever uilled to treat. A horse is suddenly notieed to bo unable to eat, 
Rni.1 bis Tiiang'er is foniid to cont:iin mitdi saliva mid frothy food that 
bus been ivtiirni^tl IbruuKh bis nose. Tbe $j/mptoms whivh enable u.s to 
tell that paralysisol' tbe pharynx exiuta are asfollovrs: The owner sa>'s 
hebusahonte that "can't cat.^ That Is all he knows. Wo Hud tbo 
animal witli a somewhat anxtons ecmntenance; manger, as above tie- 
Bcribed; ]tul»c, ix-s|)i ration, nud temperature, at 0rat, about tbe tuimo 
as in health; the horse will constantly tr>' to cat or drink, but is nn- 
ablolodosn; if tTat«r be offered him from 5 pail ho will npjHiiently drink 
with avidity, but, if wc notice, tbu qnantity of water in the [iHil remains 
abontthe same; ho will continue trying to drink by the honr; if ho can 
succeed ill getting any Quid in to tho back part of tbe moutU it comes 
ont at once through the noiy*. Fwjils also reliirii tlimngh the nose, or 
are dropiwd from the mouth, quiddc-d. An examination of tlie month 
by inserting the band fails to And any obstruction or any abnormal 
condition, except, prrba|>s, that tbe partji are too Oabby to tbe touch. 
These cases go on from ba^l to worse ; tbe borse constantly and rapidly 
losos in coudition, becomes very much vinaciatM, tho eyes are hollow 
and lustreless, and deatb soon occurs from inanition. 

Treatment is very unsatisraatory. Bevcro blisters sbould be applied 
behind and nnder the jaw; tbe niotitb is to be frequently swabbed out 
with alum or chlorate of [)ot:ish, 1 ounce to a pint of water, by means 
of a s|ions:c fastened to Ibn end of a stloli. Strychnia is tbo best agent 
to be usftd to overcome this paralysis, and should bo given in 1 ^'niin 
dottes tliree or four tiiuos a day. If the eerviooa of a veterinarian oan 


be obtained h» should give this medicine by means of » bypodermie 
syringe, injeeting it deeply into the pharynx. In my experience the 
blister ext^nally, the iireqaeDt swabbing of the month, as above de- 
scribed, and the use of a nerve stimalant are all that can be done. This 
disease may be Diistakea at times for foreign bodies in the month or tcr 
the so called cerebra-spiual meningitis. It is to be dIstiDgnished from 
the f<Hiner by a carefinl examinatioQ of the month, the ^iseDce of any 
offendiog body, and by the flabby feel of the month ; from the latter by 
the animal i^peariDg in perfect health in ereiy particular except this 
inability to eat or drink. 

Abtamaea sometimes form in tbe pharynx and gire rise to sympttnns 
resembUng those of laryn^tis or distemper. Interference with breath- 
ing, that is of recent origin, and pcDgTession, withont any obso^'able 
swelling w soreness aboat tbe throat, will make as snspeet the forma- 
tion of an abscess in this locatioa. Bat little can be done in the way 
of treatment, save to bnrty tbe ripening of the abscess and its dis- 
charge, by steaming with bops, hay, or similar substances. If the ab- 
scess can be felt throogh the mooth it most be ojiened by the attend- 
ing veterinaiy surgeon. 


It is raze to find disease of this organ, except as a result ot the ib' 
trodoctioa of foreign bodies too large to pass, or to tbe exhibition >jt 
irritatiDg medieiBea. Great care should be taken in theadministiatHm 
of irritant or caastie medieues that tbey be tbonmgfaly dilated. If 
this is not done erosioos and nleeratimis of tbe throat ensue, axtd this 
again is prone to be foUowed by constriction — itarr^wing — <>f the gullet, 
Ibe mechanical tnMble of choking is quite erjoimoii. It fre^jueutly 
occurs vben tbe animal is suddenly starttol wage eaung spptew or rtwts, 
and we sboold be carefal never to saddcaiiy ^fpnattA or put a dog 
afttf horses or eows that aic feeding npon sacb suiMtauKa. If kft 
akne they ray r>xdy itrempt to swaik^w the o^^<wt nmij it i* kuffl- 
ciently nisrtiestfd 

Cht^ing also arises fium feeding oats in a 4e«p. zdtfTVw exkb^^tf. Ut 
eneh horses as eat vczy greedily, «r bots thor b^A. Wb«»t »:b»S tit 
also a freqnest nowrve of cheie. This ae>a'>sl a^aj i»^\.,; U'/o. *j» 
attempts toforee^gs down withwt breaicitiE or ifjm tar:.u% -A.].* '.eat 
are too large or noc of the prvpcr »ha(>«^ 

Whatever oi^eet cnnses the chekjxg. a mat jivl^ )::i tM v,fi^ ;/«rt 
cf the (enopfaagas. at its snddle perOML «r k^^m^. ',/, tut *vrxae&. jp i :u^ 
riseto thedengBsaoftSaf p4ar)raf<«L«»x»oc^u>4 tit^9^^*:tb//M.^.. i$, 
some cases where the ori^smal «£«:raef^A it V,^ W4 tt^ ^. it.^; ;a^ 
of the gBl>t above it to he imteui^ -rnh i^^ 

The Mf m^»&m a will wy aerwrc^ iaua i^mv-^a 'M tjwt vX? 'x-v.^g 
Aoke. In f il f i'j ajn i f a i i h r the fAyws » y^zp^tt :x Ui^ ^^f^ j^^rt^^t, >/i 
the a Mph s c — i Ite hm* wS fnasac: t^m'^um^ *4 gfai ^■•'f'.m. 


hnrriwl hreathing, n-uqaeat cough, excesaipo flow of ealiva, sweating, 
treinl>liii};, or stiiinpiiig with tlio fare-ftwt. Tli« aUitoinvn rapidly ditt- 
t«ti<U with e^s. The diagnosis is com )ilete<l by lui^uipulatiug the upper 
It nftliii throtU from without aiul b; the iutroUoctiOD of tho tiaud 
to til bnvM part of the month, finding the body lodged bore. In 
rrical choke (vtUere the obiilcnctioti U aituated at ftii,v iMiint between 
lite thnjiit'latcb itnd the 8hoiilder) theobjeiit can both be »een siid felt* 
The s.vmpturas hate are not so scvcrti ; tbo horse will bd se«n to o««a- 
Hioimlly drnvr himsidf np, antb bis n<>ck, nnd sometimes utter n load 
(dirit^lc; tbu ex[)rtuudon btKHxntts anxious, and Httenipt« utvonuting ar« 
inadr. Tlio abdoinRti is mostly full nod tjiupanttic. Shonid there be 
aiij- qiieHtloa as to the trouble a decided conctueioD may mostly b« 
roaehed by panrinff water into the thn>at from a Iwttle. It the ob- 
Btnuitinn is mnijilete you c»u «ee the gullet become distended with 
each bottle of watiT by standing on the left side of the horse iind »»teli- 
itig the cotirae of the cosophagns, justabovo the wiDdpi|>e. This is not 
alvriiyfi a Hure tcflt, iu« tbo oV>dtru('tion may bt* un auguliir butly, iii 
wbtch c^su litiuidd would puss it. Solids taken would show iu these 
raNL-a; but scdidM Bbmtlil not, however, Iw gireu, as they serve to iu- 
cre.ise the trouble by rendering tho removal of the body tnoro difficult. 
In cervical choke mw can always, with a little care, feel the iiuprisoued 

In Ikoraciochoke tlio symptoms ore still leas severe Ouratteutioa will 
be directed to this part of tht^ cesopbagus by food or water l>elug ejected 
through the nose or mouth nfter tho nniinal has taken a few swalkiwx. 
There will be some sympttnus of distress, fullness of the alMlomtn, 
cough, and occasioniilly the crying or sbnekitig as heard in u^rvical 
choice. The diagnosis in eoniplete if, upon pn->!!fii)g the prohang (a hol- 
low, ilexible tube mude for ibis [turpoKe), an obdirueliou is encountered. 
Treafment, — If the choke is at the beginning of the g'ullet (phargnffcal) 
vt< murtt endeavor to remove the ob»taete through the mouth. A 
muntb-gag or a[)eculiiin i^ lo be introduced into tJiemouth to protect 
tho band nnd arm of the o[)enLtor. Then while an assistant, with his 
hundtt gnks|K.-d tightly behind the object, prexse-f it apwurd and forward 
witb ill bis force, the ogxtrator iiinst pass his hand into the mouth until 
h(« ran seize the ob^trnction and draw it ontwanl. TUia mode of pn>- 
cedurc mUBt not be abandoned with the Qrst failure, as wo may get Ibe 
obstacle farther towani the nioutb by contiiim^ etiorl!). If we fail 
wilb tbu hand, forcept may be iutroduoed through the mouth and the 
object seized when tl in ju«t beyond tlie reach of tho llngersi. Should 
our elTorts entirely fail we must then endeavor to fort-e tlio obstruction 
downward by meaunof the probaiig. Thi^ tiiHtruirM'ut, which in orHudi 
eiguid gerviee iu reiuoviag choke in cattle, id decideilly more diingeroua 
to u«e for the borso, and I can not pass this point wirhout a word of 
enution to those who have been known to introduev into the horse's 
throat such ol^ecta as whip stalks, shovel -handles, etc. These ace 

ftlwa^s diuiBCrolu, aoil I have seeu tuore tbnn ou« bor!t« tilt* Trom Ibli 
bartmroaa treatment 

Cervieat ehoie.—lu thiR, aa well oh in t!ionici« choke, w,* miiHt rirstof 
■II eoilfavor tf» Rol'teii or Iubric:*tG the olwlruclioii by [luiiWiiji oil or 
macila^aouA drinks down tbe gullet. After this biui been duiio veftra 
to cudearor to move tbe ol>jet.-t bv {;vu(.lo iiitiiiipubilioiiA with tbr biuidA. 
If cbokcd with uAtsor obafi' (and ihenti hi-b tliu olij4*{:t» tlinl taml (m- 
qaeiitJy prodnce olioke in the borse), we sboald begin by fffmtly iu]ui>ra- 
itkg tbu luwur |>ort.ii>n uf the iui[>acl(-<l niais, nrtd tuidcitvorin;; lo work it 
loows little lit a tlnio. This is greatly i'avonit at tiriii>^ it' w nitply hot 
foiuen rations i in ro(>d lately about tlieobstructtou. We nhoiiM porMJut in 
these pOTiirtH fur hc teuittun brinr Wfore deciding to n'surl- td olJirr utid 
more diitigerotiB modes of trcatmeitL ShociUI ire fiul, howtM-rr, thn pro- 
bnug mny bo iiAcd. In the absiMioe of tbe reffuliir iiiMrniiirttt, wbioh 
mtist always be flexible and fluisbed with a gmuolL uii|>-HhA|ivd ex- 
ticmity, we may use a toiij; piece nf iniib Iiokp. Tbe mtxitJi in to be 
kf'pt oi>eu by a gag of wood or iron and Iho head ntigbtly raiMsl and 
exieud«iL The probant; Is tUen to be carefully guided by the baud iuto 
tbe upper part of the giillet and gently forc«il downward luitil the ob- 
■trac-tiun in reur^bed. Presanrti muMt then be gnidital and (Irm. I)o not, 
at Hrat. at[em|it too much f(m:e, or tlie (nsnpbagoH will 1>e ruptrire^l. 
Simply keep <ip this Arm, gontlo proasare iiDtllyon feci tbe ohjeet mov- 
ing, iifter which you are to rapidly follow It Ut tbit Htomaidi. If, again, 
thtK iikkIh u( treatment la uiiHUcc^rssfiil, a vt^t^rinariaii or inodiral doctor 
is to be called in, vbn can remove tbe object by culting down u[)on tli« 
pallet, opening it^ and remortDg tbe oflVndinjf bmly. Tblf> nlioaI4 
scarcely be utlempted by a nnviiw, as a knowlislgu' or the iiniiloiiiy of tit* 
partH is essential to avoid cattiug the large urt4>ry, vein, and nerve thiit 
ATecIofidy relaUMl to t4te lusophagns in its cervii^il pnrtinu. 

Tt^nuio eholie am only b« truated by ueaui of tbe lutr««ltK)tloa of 
oils anil macUaginoai drinks and the careful oao of Ui« probeug. Bom* 
practitionen Hpeak very bighly of tbe Talae of thick aoap-sndif geoer- 
OBidy homed down the aoimaFa throat. 

Striciure of tk« oaoyAtf^M li nonUy doe to corrtMive nwUeinM, pm. 
Tk>w dioking /oeeotnpaoied by laoenuioiu, which, In benling, narrow 
tiM pMMfEeK and preamreon tlw: gullet by tBtD.'n. Jn the nnionty of 
CHBa of ifHdtorv we aooo have Malatufn <rf the stallet In front of the 
eoMtrfded parCMa. Tfeia diUt»tion li doe U> the frr^ioent ■4x:aroiila. 
l*uo of mJM food nbore tbe eooatrktioo. Utth on be done in dtker 
of thmm iustsooen cxeepC to feed os aloppy or li>|oid Irml. 

Ouvfar dilUatlom of Jkt .i—i^ \mr^, — HOa Moetly Mlo«« ebofclng, and 
b dne to niKOi* of the m— wl^ eoaft of tbe ffsUeC, alknrtai; Ue tnieiv 
ml or innaowi ooet to bcrala or piMcli thmagli the IJ W M nt e d mw u a S tm 
walla. Tlitn aan or poach cndaally ealargen, fr*Nn tlw fre(|aeot fmpfia- 
ooBTBt of food, satil it pmmb* npon tbe foQct and pnmirta wwalloW' 
Inc. WhoB Pqrtia MO afc— tfco — Hd w te r la l aam pafilaay waabed; 

ont of tbc poiicb. The sjfmptoms prownting tliL'mselres nre as followi; 
Tlio liorse is able to sirnllnir a few Dioulbfiils uf food triibout aiipATeat 
(li5l.ri;»A; then lie will KUtltleoly stop Teediuf:, paw, cuutruct Ibo muitcbra 
of bis Dcck, and eject a portion of the food tbrougb bis uose or inoatb. 
As the ililiLlitlioii Lbusoinplios itself the symiitoins ^rndunlly subsidis 
ooly to rt'-appear wlu'Q be has agaio taken ^olid fooil. LkjiiidH pnss 
without any, or but little, inconv-euieiio& Sfanubl this dilatation exUt 
ill tbo certioal i¥);iou,eurgicat iiiterrvr«iice may somi-liuips prove cffvct- 
aa] ; ir )o tbo thoraeie porttou, notbiug c-an tie doiii*. »ud tbo patieat 
rapidly panses Troiu baud to hand by ^'fiwapping," nntll, st no divtaaC 
dati', tbc coniciits of the 8uc become too Gnu to be dislodged as here* 
tafore, uuil the animal succumbs. 


Impaetion-— Stomach ataggera, or got ged ttomacii. — These are terms 
given to tb« stoiiiacb wtien it is so euoriuously distended with food that 
it liMcs all pnweT of roiitrni;tin(C Qpon its contents. It ocuont niosb 
frciuciitly in tho»o bor8^.>( that Aftcir a Iouk fajtt arc [nven a larffc Tccn), 
or in IhosL' Ibat have joined ac-ocwa to the grain-bin and eaten rav- 
CDonsly. Thft proportionally suiall atomaob of the horse, as well as his 
inability to roniit, vill ncconnt for the freiinency of stomacli stajc^ra. 
I bare witnesMMl tbja Iroublu most fnK|Ui*iitIy in teainittt^rs^ kuntce anil 
tbuse that nrii not fed aa oAen aa they 8hoiiId be- After a long East it 
is Ibo custom to feed abundantly. Tho horse bolta his fooil, aatl tiM 
utuniacli not baviut; tim» to empty itself becomes diateodvd and 
paralyzed. To prevent tbia condttioo it is sufllcient to feed at eborler 
intervnifl, to givi: simall qnnnlitiesat n tiiae, and to secure tbc feod-bius 
so I'lial if a burite j;(*tM Iwue li(<can not "stufT himself to Itnrsting.'^ 

Sumptows. — Percirnll says that *'a atomaob airoply aarobarged witli 
food, vitbont any accompanying tytD]>anitic diGtcutioa, docs not ap- 
l^ienr tn oevaniun Uh'uI paiu, but to operate rather that bind of influcuoo 
upon the brain which gives rise to syaiptouis, not stomachic, but c(>re- ■ 
bral. Hence tlio analoiiy lwtwe«n this disease aiid atnggerB,and henoe 
tbu api>ollftlioa for it of ' stomach stag^ers.'^ The lioraeAOon after eat- 
ing liecuities dull and heavy, or drowsy ; tdight eolicky iiymptoms aro M 
observed, and atx) continnons ; he rarely lies down, but carries his bead * 
extended and low, nearly touebing tbc croiind. I)nllnes.i rapidly in- 
oraases, the eye» aro pnrtially closed, risioa is impaired, bo prc&soa or 
thrusts bis bead against the manger or sides of tbo t;tall, and paws or 
ev«n cHtubs with his fore feet. Respirations are less fre<iuent than in ■ 
hcullh, tbc pulse slow and slu^gisb. All these syniploHis rapidly in- 
crease in severity ; he becomes delirious; cold sweats bedew tbe body; 
be treuibles violently, slobliors or vomits a soar, fenncuting mass, 
•Uggers (Vom side lo tude, or plunges madly about tiutil he dropsdeail. 
Usually tbc bowels are constipati'd, although (and especially if tbe v.u- 
gor^mcnt Is duo to eating wheat or rye) diarrhea has been observed 
These oymptoQis resemble in some particulars those of *' blind" or 



"niod''8tage:era, bot]f irearecftrefiil to{^ttboAMforvort1ircniic, i.e.t 
raruiions entinK si'it-T a loag rust, or ;;nuiitip iiccc-ss to graiu-biiis, we 
sLiiiili] nol tw in tiiticli tlati^cr nf ctinfonnilhtp tliem. Posl-tnorlnu vx- 
amiiiiUJoDs«oiuetiiue)i rt'veiil ru|>luru ortliu Rtuniacli, onriti^ to iut eu»r- 
intktwdifiteiisioQ, aaU to the violence with vbichlietliniwKliiiiisdriu bia 
deliriam. If uot. roptiirorl tlie stoniAch will bo Uistoiidcc] to iU utmost 

Ti€iilmeHt for tliojw t-.-ises is ver.v iiusatisfactory. A ptirgativo of ' 
Barltiuloes nines, 1 ounce, should be givcu at onco. VVe nhould (Jien 
tr.v to stimulate tlie waII« of tbe stoniitcb to uonlraction by eiviug eiiy- 
ciino iKfppor, one-balf ouuco, or huIf-OTiiic* <Iwm'8 of Jamaica ginger, 
Ii\jvctionH into thv r#(*tiiiii, hifit gnt, of tnqieatiDH 2 ooncu?, in 8 onncra 
of liitseed oil, may stimulate the bo\re}s to act> and ihns, Ea a Dieaxurc, 
n.'licvo tho Jttomiiob. Uold BppIic;ttion» applitxl to tho head may in 
BoiDu caseti rolic^e tbe oercbnil symptotu!) already referred to, and some 
iMMiniMiond bleeding for tbe suiuu puipoAc. 

Tf/iipanite-i of the tlomach. — This is of BoinewhnI freqaeut occurrence, 
&(xi>rdiiii; to uiy oI>serviitian, but \t^ not, I bulicve, as a rale, aepnratcly 
trvMtcd of by vorks on Tcti-nonry nK-diciac. It is similar fn caa«« and 
sjEuptoms to the aboro, yet diKttiict euougb to enable tbe careHil ob- 
aer%'er to n>adily diflV'renliute between tbeui. In Lyuipauitea of the 
stomach wc lind thin organ to W greatly distended an Wfore, but in 
thifi ca«u Us enntcntg are Rttscous, or probably a mixttiro of food aad 
gsiu^n, like fenui'Utiug yeuHt. This dieea-iu uf tbe borsc eorresponds 
exactly with "liovcii" or "blown" in cattle, and may be dne to over- 
lowling Ibc stniuacb witU young, Kncculrnt^ growing hcrlwgc, clover in 
particalar, from whoRc enbseqaeot fermeutation gau is liberated ia 
qnautities KutUdetit to enormously tliHteiid tbo Kloniacli. Gruniug or 170 are also fertile can»e«or this distention if eaten iti any con- 
fiiderablc autoiiatit. Another vvxy fn-r|uenl cau^ of tttuinairh- bloat is 
OTurfcvding,patticnIarly if giveu immediately before banl work. Many 
.!(•. if tbey expect lo make a long journey, think to HI tlieir horse*, 
tbe fatigue romuMiuent tluTctoby giving uu exira alluwaii<-u of oats, 
or other food just before atartiug. This is most iiiJndieioQS. Tbe horse 1 
Martft to hilt work f<.i'li»g 1^11 and»!ed ; he Boon grows dull and 
lUtle&s, and f^ilK to rpi^[i4Uid lo tlii> whip; Hweata prufuKvly; atlenipla 
to lie down ; bis head is earned forwanl and downward, and if checked 
up Ib beary on tbe reins, sturablce or blunders forward oud often falls. 
Tf looked at f^n'riilty yoa can not fail to observe that lie Ik unnsnally full 
over the po*tivrior ribs. The tlanks may also be distended n-ilh gaa, 
■ad soand like a dram on bring ntnick, though I have nl^-ii» where 
Che fcaaea were eatirt-ly coulincd to the stomach. With this condltioft 
the |Min nod distreu»4 are constant ; the swelling referred to plainly ap- 
preciable; bead extt-nded and lt»w. n-lcbing or even vomiting of fo 
nwalod food. On placing the ear to tbe horse's windpipe a fltstinct iimk 
tallkt aonod caa be beard, as of air rushing tbrougb the windpipe. 
Swih eaaeaWe rat)id in their course and oltvu la.tiJ. 



rreafmwt/ must be prompt and energetic. An antacid slionld begiTan, 
anili »A tliese cuKce tuoiitly occur on tlie road avmy* probably, from a]l 
drug stores, yoa should haeten to the flrst bou8«. Get coinmoQ baking 
soUu, and adniintster 2 to 4 ounces of it as quickly ns i>o^iblo, Ooe- 
half ounce of cayenne ii«i>p(.T miiy be addeil tu tliii* viilh luU'Hiitage, u ■ 
it serrcs to ftid tlio stouiacli to (wntract upon ita coi)(unt8, mid expel the ™ 
gaa. Cburconl,iDanyamouDt; cUtortdeoflinie>oDe-batroniice; carbou- 
»te of amuioiiia, one-ltalfonnee; or nuy ruetlicino tlmt will utietik or stop 
fermentation, or absorb tbo saae», may U< given. A pliysic of 1 oddcs 
of ulocs, or 1 pint of Unseed oil should be given to onload tbe stouiacli 
and bowels, Cold trater.dnBhedwithforce over the stonmch, ia thought 
by 8OU10 to favor condensation of the gns. This Ies8i>u sliotdd be learned 
from onft of Ihese attackA— and doabtleaa vill be If, tu i8 often the case, 
tbe horse dies — th»t when n boree or any other animal is ex})ec|cd to 
do an unusual amonnt of work in nabort time he will best do it upon 
a Hpnre feed. Curb your geneniHlty and hnumuity(f) for tbe brnto an- 
til the Jonrney'a end, nud even then wait until tbe bone is tboroughlj' 
rested before ciriiig tbe usual fwd. 

Supturt of tht itomach.—T\m mo«tIy occurs aa a result of engoi^d 
or tympanitic Htomucb, and from the home violently throwiog himself m 
wbeu so affected. It may result from disease of the coataof the siom- I 
ach, ga^tiilis, stones or calculi, tiitnors, or anything tbat closes the 
opening of the stoiuoch into tbo iutcRtiucfi, and rorj violent pulling or 
jnmping imnieitiatcly after tbe aniuiiil ba^ eaten heartily of bulky food. 
These or similar causes may lead to this accident. ^ 

The aifmptoma of niptnrvt of the ntomach arc not constant, nor alwaja 9 
rfjliable. We should alvrays make ioquir; as to vbat and bow niach 
the horse has been fed at the lust meal. Vomiting has, pretty gen- 
erally, Iteen declared to be a symptom of rupture of thiM organ. 1 wish 
to prefaeo what I may ttuy conceming this with the statement tliat I 
have observed voniitiDg when tbe pottmortem e:iam{natlou revealed 
rapture; that I have found rupture of tbe stomach where vomiling 
bad not ocenrretl; that I have wilntuuted vomiting n'hen< the horse aooQ 
after made a rapid recovery* i. e.* when the stomach was not ruptured. 
Id spite of this ooatradictory evidence, I am of the opiuion that^ takea 
In eonneclion with other symptoms, this sign is of value ns pointing 
toward rupture of the stomach. This aecideut has occurred in my _ 
practice mostly in heavy draught borsea. A prominent symptom ob< ■ 
served (though 1 have also 8e«u it in diophragmatio hernia) is where 
the horse, if pas-sible, geU the f^nt feel on hight^r gnnind tbao the 
bind oues, or Bits on bis haunche«, like a dog. This iiositton affords ■ 
relief to some extent, and it will be muintaine<l fur some minutes; ttie 
also quickly regained when tbe horse has eliangetl it for some otber. 
Colicky sym])CumH, of course, are present, and these will x'ary much, 
and present no diagnostic value. As the case progresses " tlie horse 
vill ofteu strutub forward the foru legs, lean backwards and down- 

P will 

warris nntil the ItfUy nparlr (oucIipr Ilie proand.and tbpn riso tip ngnin 

ittt A gntau, after wliicU tbe dui<l from Lis iiostriU is issued iu iucrtu^ed 
qnttoUty." Tbe patse is faataad vealc, brealbiti^ tmrhed, body batlied 
ID a clAmmy eveat, limbs tremble vioK'ntly. the borw roeU or staggen 
from sido to eide, uti<! ilfiitb <]ui(!lcl,r eiiils tlie sveue. 

In the ^MBOoe of an}* patbognomouJc symptoiu Perclva]! sajra wa 
ntut talce into aooocnt the history of the case; tbe sabject of it; the 
droanstuKM attending it; tbe swoUcn condition of the at>domcD; tUe 
fij^tnptoms nf colio that cease sad^lenl}* and are succeeded b; cold 
■weatM aiMl irewoni; tbe pnlite from being (|uiok and small ami cbr«ady, 
growiog weah and more I'requeut, and, at length runuiug down and 
liecoRiioK altogetbct imptirc<*i>tiblo; the cooiitcnnnue denoline iiloom 
and despondeuc-y of the heaviest ehiiract«r; looking back at the ll»n)c 
and groaniog; sometimes croucbing with the bind quarters; with^ or 
witbixit ernctation and vomiting. 

TUcr« is no treatment that can be of any ase vbatcrer. Could ve bo 
aure of our diagnosis It would be better to destroy the animal at once. 
Sinve, bowever, there is always tbe (xissibilily of a mistake in diagnosis, 
wi*iiiaygivt')<ond(Ted ciiiium in 1-dnu-hm doNCAtrvorytwodr thix-o hours, 
vlUi the object of keeping the stomach aa quiet as jMssible. 

Qaxtritia U an iuflanimaMon of the inucouti Diciubrunc> lining tbo 
stomiivb. As an idiopntkiv disease it Tory rarely exists; but is mostly 
BWD to Iw due to mL-chuuical irritation, or to giving irritant and corro- 
live imiaona in too large doses or without sufficient dilution. The 
Bgmptoms are not wvll marked; there it) a fubille conditiou, colicky 
pains, and, nmstly, iHtrtue thirgt. When poiMins bave produced gas- 
tritis tii^ru will l»e other ayniptotus ruft-ruble to the action of tlie patiEc>, 
olar poison swallowed. IT, for instance, the gastritis is due to a salt 
oflead wo rnast expect to find difllonlt orlaborcil breathing, iiMotiiinal 
paioH, pArtiat paralysis uf Mxlvusur muKcle» primarily, tuttvriug gait, 
ooiivnlsions, and denth. Where the poisoning by Icail is gradual tbe 
■ytuptous differ aomewhac There is a gonc'ral apponranoc of uutbriftl- 
ne»9, loss of appetite, staring cunt, constipulioii, watt^ry swellings uud(>r 
the jaws, a gray or blue line along the margin of the gums, and a pro- 
grciuiive porulystK, nutvd often at first in the anterior extreniitica. 
Colicky symptoms are also observed. Abortion is often noticed during 
cliroiiic lead •poisoning. In all cases of Wad poisoning the stomach, and 
ofleu inte.Htiuea, show erOHiuus uf its lining membrane, wbich in other 
parts ie darker in color, and the mucous membrane is easily stripped 
off. Chronic poisoning by load is to bo expected near jmint worka, 
abont newly-painted buildings, where paint kegs arc left in the fletds, 
vhere horses take small particles of lea^l with their food, wboroaoil 
water riin»t throngh now Ivad pipeHi and where thu drinking water is 
drawn from wi^lls orviHteriisc^intaiiiiiig lead. Lead can be detected in 
almost all parta of the body at the poil'murtem examiualiou of uhionio 

U«35 3 

Trealment—Xn ncute gastritis, doe to tlie cart-loss or accidental nd- 
miuislTatiuu uf large quantities of this (loison, mrc ninst giro sulpbaric 
aciil, 30 to CO Uro)>s well dJlulcd vitU ivater, uiilk, wbilo of c^gs, oils, 
nud tlt'iiiul<-*«u( ilriuks, as liiieood gruel or tea. If the piulntis is 
clitoiiic, due to tbe toii£ ingestion of suiiill particles of lead, ve mast 
admiuisk*r from niiu-bulf to 1 pound of K|>Kt)rn tudls. lodidu of pota»> 
sinm in Idi-aclim doses, twice or tliricc dnily, nrc hero of mncb serviuft 
ir uiQub pain exists it may be relieved by giviug luorplua in 3 to ft 
uin doses, rei>ented two or tbree limes a dHi>'. 

Wbrro urscuio is tlio poisuu pnMlnciue KUKtritts or ei^tro-cuteritla 
(Eullaiiiiiintiou of tbe 6touiacb and bowels), we bare symptoms of al>- 
domitinl pniii, nnnsen, or vomiting, purging tbnt is necompaiiied b^ as 
offenaii'S odor, staggering gait, quickened breatbing, itaralyslti of tbe 
bind pxtremitics, and death. On opening a bor!>e thnt has died of 
arsenical poisoning wq arc stnicU by tbe escape of largo qnnutities of 
oQ'ensivo gas. TUeie aie patcbex of inllainniation nnd oxtravaaation of 
blood in tbo stomacb, niul often in Ibo intestines. Oliemicnl tests 
Kbould be rcsurled to bt-foiu giving a dtcided opinion lliuldeulb la due 
lo aisenie. Poinoniiig from this agent is most rommon nheri* sUeep 
^bnve been dipped in arsenical pieparalions for Ibo '•scalt'^ and tlieu 
j^atloned to run on pasture without llrst drying tlieir wool. Arsenic is 
thus dejMsited upon lliei;ra.s.>i and is eateu by borses grazing Ibenrtni, 
pro<lueing tbo eymtoms of gastritis uud dentb. Gastritis may ulso occur 
from poisoning by copper, tbo mercurials, nod some vegetable drugs. 
Gastrili-s produced l)y any of tite irritant |M]isf)na is to be treated with 
oils nnd dcuuik-eiit drinks. Opium maybe given to atlay paiuaud 
inflamuintiou. Care should bo observed in feeding for a time, bcfug 
.refnl to give only soft and easily digested foods. 




There arc sucb erroneous opinioTis exluut coQccrnliig tlic Imt nni 
Uie depredations it; is supposed to commit ujmu tbe koi-ae that a some- 
bat careful stuiiy should l>e made of it. 

Of the many insect parasites and tormeutors of so1i))edK tbe gad- 
flies {flistridif) are of the most importance. Cobbold, who is tbo best 
natbority on the subject, says : 

Tlio cvniDM>n gntl-lly {t!ailroji)iih$ njot) nllocki the animal ^hilo grazlnglato iit 
Ibo wiinuicri iU ot>joct Lcing, noi to ilcriro euBtrnHnco, but In deposit ic« pkcb. This 
la accoiiipli»b«d l>y mosiis of ■ glminoUB excretion, causing tliu nva (r^^n) to nd- 
b«r« to tli« liaira. Ib^ |)sr(8 Bi-lcct«d ota chieflj' tLoBo of tlio aiiouIiloT, bnsp of tlit 
ni'ok, nud inner part of tlio fnrele;|;«,ccrL'ciaJly nliotittUoltiii^ii, for in lh<'lll^ MliintlMiB 
thf honn irill bavo no diRlrnlirin rvncliing tbe ova wilti lis toiiKiiM. Wliuii tba 
nnimnl lick* thoeo parlfl nf Ilio cnnt wIkta th^ 'gg'^ hnvti htna |>lA«<>d thoniutcltimnf 
the loii{:iio, sidvd tif vninitb, Lnlc-hra tl>a ova, nud in ftoti IP tiling !*«• thuD Hire* 
nr*]iH fmui Itie timo of ihe d^poallion of tlio ckS" tbo Urvii' liavc uiadt tboEr cecapo. 
Aa tiia-;;i>t« tltcf am next tronaferred to tbe tuoiitb nnd uliiiuutolj' lo ttio atoinaali 
atouj; nilh fund and drink. A gttii tnanj Inri'a- periiih dining Ihtapsiuiivc mode of 
ittunigTatiou, aowv b«iug tIrop]>«d itva lite uiouth and utLcn bdog oruBtMil iu the 



fiultlcr durtng mutieation. II bail Ixira coIrolstM) lliatontar tt« tniujr bniitlrotla 
of rfCj^ailrpobitrcl on » etaglolioneitcamOjronc onl of Griy ortliu lurvie nrriri' witliln 
III* etuniock. NDtnitbalftDiling thla wuto llio iutrrior of ttio slouinch ninj- Vccomo 
cptmjilrtrjjr eoveied (cutii:nlar imrllou) willi bot«. Wliellicr llicro bo few or m&Dy 
ili«y ai« acrhitreri in lliu iiiltinliuii vhiully Uf in«au!i of tu-u lars« cojibftllc hooka. 
Atlti U)« WU liavo •tltkincd perfect f^rowtb Uiej volntitarily luoa<;n Itivlr bold &ud 
alliitr UiMuaelvi-a to b« canted along tlto ■]itii<:nlarrrani>l nntit tbvr ncapo with llio 
tecvM. In all caws Ihay woner or later liill to Ifaa gronnd ami whrn tmnKicrrml to 
th* wnl tbi-j- Iiiiry IkomMlvca t>en«ath the aurfare in orileF to nndergo trBntfortnntinn 
lulu tlir pi>i>A coutlitiou. naviuR remained iti Ihv earth (or a porimi of bik or tturr'n 
TCei'ka tbey Hiially rmrrcn finin itu-ir ]iiipal-co«:ooua ai perrcct dlptctoua (wtiiK"<^^ 
iuaeclB— (be itaiMly- It tbiis appears Dial bate vrdiDarlly pau aboBl eigbt itioiilba 
I tbcir lift'tiate in tl>o dtgeativo oigana oriL« hora^. 

Tbc K{M>ctes just (lescribeJ itifest r liiefly tlie stoinacli Hnd i1iiodeDntD-~ 
email c^nt loading from tbc «toiniu:b. 

ADotlicr Hpfciusof a-*/!-*!* affVcting tlio liorso is iho eegtrti^ ktrmorrhci 
Waiiit. lliviio zta fuuutl fiisloiivd Ui tliL> loucuus uuinbraue of tUe rectum,'^ 
(la»t got) or even ontsiilc npon the »iiuSt iinil occiision much irritation 
ntid nuiio^-auce, aiitl, at liuicit, ivquJre to Ite removed by tlio Hugers or 
force jiK. 

Tbo opinion, almost anivfrsaUy entertaiiicil, that bota frequeutljr 
cnaaerulickj imiiiH, i.t(-troii(.'ous. It in very cuitimuii tulieurby-Htutidcrs 
declare tliat Alttio^t every horse ivitb abdorainnl pains "has tbo bots," 
and tUeir enggt-sted troatmeDt is always varied and berolc. 

Almost all bor-ws In tlie coiiiifry, as well aB liontcs in the cities durluij 
Ihfir first yrar llii-re, Iiavo " the bot:<." it is in exccptiuually rare in- 
staiiroa that tbcy prodiicti Atiy ap|>rt'ciablu sytuptoms or diaturbauci'». 
Id my own practiro I llllV(^ neeer Icuonn bots to be tlio ciuise of aiiy 
ti>noDii ailment of the burse ; and only once has iny father, in » pnictice 
extendtirg over llfty years, kiioirn bot3 to be the tuLusc of di-iith. In 
tUin iniilauco the bols Acciocd to hfive eimultaueously loosened their 
boil) ttptm the mne<ous lining' of the stomneh, and were forced a9 AQ im- 
penneitble wi-dg© into lb« pyloric orifiw, or outlel, of tbo stomiich, nnd 
thns, pn-vi-iiting the pa-s^ige of food or medicine, produced death. 
Were tbo bots to attempt to fasten themselves to tlic Bcnsitivo lining of 
tht! tNiiXL'Isiii their outirani passage the; might f!auHo irritatioo and 
expressions «f pain in the form of colieliy symptoms, but thix they sel- 
dom or never do. Tbo opiniuu fnn|ui*nt)y exprejtscd nt post mortem ex- 
aminittions, nben the etomacli is found to be niptared, tbut "the bots 
have fBlcti through tbe stomach," is a^nin a raiutake. liota never 4o 
thin; the rupiure is due to nvrrdislention of the viseus with food or 
ga&es. Hiiiae writeis on veterinary Biedicine bavecvcn urired that bots, 
by their iirfs4*nee, stimnlatcd (he stomach eecretioiis, and were thus 
aclnally an aid t« diyestion. This opinion is as far from the trnth aa 
Uie mure general one refeired to itlm%'e, wmcerning the barm tbey do. 

fiots may, and probably do, when in largo enough numbers to be 
fastem-d to llie true digeslive portion of the stomach, slightly interfere 
vitb digestion ; the animal may not thrive, the coat atares, and croaoia- 

tfon tiiiiy folluw; but Wyonil tliio, witli tlie uxcPi>lioii alrrarly noted, 
/A(!y arc harintrsx. Hveii were tbey the ciiuse of trouble, llmro are no 
iiicilicjues tbut affect tliem; tipltlior acids, aor alknlies, antltelmiDtiw 
(worm ni«4]icio(>s), nor auotlynes culuso tbeiu to booome loos« anil (o 
pass out of tlie boil y. To pn-vfut (.b«iii it is necesnury to wittrb for tlieir 
cKgH oil till- K-gN itjiil diflVTL'uipnrtciof tliebotly iu tltc luto buiiiiuit atid 
autiiini). Tbesecg£sar« to be careflilly scraped offundbunKMl. Boroee 
nbould not bu watei'cti from stagnant ponds, ns tbey frcqaontly swallow 
ibe ri]>eiiiiiK ej^^x with siicdi WHtt-r. It in eiitirrly iiscleAS to aUvrnpt 
any tn'atment to rid Ibo burso of bot^ ; tliey go at tbeir appointed time, 
Hiid can not be dialodf^ before tbis. Wn sbould remember tbat in 
fullowiii;; Ibeir natnral eonrso or stnges of existence tbo botA loosen 
tbeir bold during Mny niid June mostly. Tbey are tbe.ii expelletl in 
preat iiuinberH, and borscowuers, noticing tbem in tbe ninuure, basten 
to iiH aayinf "my borse baa tbo bote." If ne are boneat we tell bim 
|b»r, in tbe nntnnil coarse of evetitA, nnMire is doing for liitn tbat wbicfa 
we can not do. Wh may nay in eonuhisiou, then, that Iwit* seUlom pro- 
daw any evil effects wbatever; that not more than once in ten thousand 
tiniefi are tbey tl><-' Oiiuso of coltcl<y syniptoms, and that tbey require uo 
luediuiue to eject tbein. 


Ittdfgeittion is a term applied to all those conditions vbcrc, from any 
cniiHe, dtgeHLioii Ih ijuperfeetly perl'ormed. It iti uoLatall uueouimon to. 
wltneKM in tbe borse ii.vntploiiis siniilur to those of dyspepsia in uiau. 
The diritnrbuneeji of digestion inoluded under tbi» biMtd are not so pro- 
uouQced M to produce colio, yet our con6i<kTiitiou of diseases of tbo 
digestlTe orfjans nonld be incomplete if we failed to mention this, Ibe 
most fl:>e(iiieiiit of all digestJ%'e diAonlers. The seal and causes of iudi- 
j^estioii are found to vary in different bor^e,-^ or even iu tbe Kama bor«o 
at dift'erenl: times. Apart from the imtigcstlbility of the food itself 
there are many canses prodiiettvoof indigostioD. Tho teetb ara oricu 
at fault. Where the-'U! are sliarp, irregatar, or decayed thu fiKid is im- 
iwileclly maaticated and swHlloweil before there is a proper admixture 
with the saliva. Boiling of the food; the bile— secrctiou of the liver 
— may be defeclire in quality or quantity; there may ho lack of secre- 
tiuti of tbe iHiueroiitic juice, or there may bo mimply waul of peristaltic 
iDovenieiit of tbe sloinitcb and intestines, thereby causing an tutcrrup- 
tioii of tbe passage of the ingeata. The principal scat of iudigestioo, 
bowet'er, Is in tbe stomach or small intestinns. Whenever, from any 
cause, the secretions from these parls are excessive or dilUciciit, dyti> 
pL'p^iu or iuiiigestioa miisb invariably follow, liidig&stioii is often due 
to keeping borsos on lov, marshy pastures, aod particularly daring 
cold weather; wiuteiiug oa hanl, dry hay or corQ-stalkii, and other 
bulky and innutrilive fowl; irn-gotar feeding or orerfetding ftbougb 
(bis latter is mure likely to produce engorged sLomiicb, or lympaoites 


■of tlio stomncb, wliich Imve liwn ilescrilmil Iiy snmo as "ncuto indU 

Si/wiitoiHf. — [tidieealioti i« cbaraoterized by irregular apix-tite; re- 

luii (ill focMl at timcvt, and at utliers c-.tting vnvoiioualy ; tli^- aii]ictit6 
Is not only irr«gulur, but is oft«ti (It^pnivf^l ; tlieru is adiKiKwifion ou 
tbe part of Ibe horse to ent unusanl substaiicex, ns worMi, tioiled IkhI- 
diiit;, ur oven his uwii feces ; the bowpls hi« inegulnr, to-<lay loose uiid 
bail saiclliLC, to-tiiorrow boatid ; Rrain ultcn piisstnl whole in the fecca 
ntid tfio buy ]i:iss(iil in biillN or im[>.-i(;ti>il masses tiiulergning but. little 
cbangtfj tJit* boriw frequently i>a&se8 coiiBidvrablo qmmtittea of wind 
tliAl lias a »)iir odnr. Thu animal loses flt'^b, the nUin presents a bard, 
dry appoamncfs, nnd B««ms very tifcht (hide bound). If thes6 syiup- 
tom8 Dceiir in a ttiugle horRC iu » otablt! vhere otlierH are k4>]>t we must 
look, riot to tlio feed, bat to tbe aoimal bimsclf for tbe caiiso of hU 

Treatmmt. — It is endeot, from tbe many causes of HidtKcaClon and 
frntn its protean forms, that wa luiiat bo exceedingly careful in our ex- 
uiuiuHtitm)* of the subject oftbi.^ disonler. Wo uiiist rouinieiice with 
tiie food, Ha quality, iiuatitity,and time of feeding; examine the water 
ttupply. and see, bealdee, that it is ^ron before feeding ; then ve tuust 
curi^fully observe tbecouditiou of Ibenioutb and teetb ; and, eoutiiiuhig 
oar obserriktionM m be»t we tnay^ endeavor to loeate tbe seat of trouble 
— wbelbcr it is in tbe etoiuuch, iotealineR, or aiinexetl orgiiU8 of digeN- 
tioii, as the Mvor and paocreiiB, If the teeth are sharp or irregular 
they must hv ni8iM«l down ; if any are decayed tbey must boexrracled ; 
if indigrjttiou la due to ravonouo ejiting or bolting the food, we must 
tbeu feed from a large manger where the grain caa he spreatl and Lbe 
hone comiwllod to eat slowly. 

In tlio great uiajmity of v^tsen I have found a calharCie, nloes I ounce, 
or 1Itu«oedoil I pint, to be of mneb service if given at the outset. Any 
trritiUioii, such od worms, undit^c.-ited AmmI, vXc, that are oiH-ratiut; as 
"catiscs," An.' thus rt'innv*.!, and in many instances no further treat- 
ment is re<)(iired. There is mostly a temleuey to diKlent^ion of tbe 
stooiflch and bowels with gas during indigestion, and X bai'e never 
found any treatment so efli-ctivo as the following alkaline tonic: Bnk* 
iiiR soda, ]>o«dered ginger, and |ioivdt?red gentian, equal parts. Thoso 
are to be thoroughly mixeil and given in heaping lable8|K>anfn] doites, 
iwico n day, before fc»-ding. T!iU powder is best given by dlssolviug 
lite above quantity iu abairpint of water, and given as a drench. 


Allboii[;lt there are several speetes of worms found in the intestines 
of boncest it will be suilicient, In an article liko this, to refer only to 
three or foor of the mo.'it common ones. Worms are most fruijuently 
seen in young liorAOS, ami in tho&e that are weak and debilitated. They 
(xnamonly exist iu homca that are on low^ wct^ or murshy pasturea, ttod 
la those tliat drink stagnaui- water. 


T1j« iutestina] worm moat coiuuionly seen is known as tlic Lumbritoii 
worm. lu form it is tuucb like tho coiuiuouearib-vroroi. ItJswliitcoi 
red(li«li in color, nod tiicaiinrcs from 4 to 12 inclu's iu length, tbongh 
soiDo iiiive been Keen that w(>re Di-ar1y 30 iiicbes lung. Id tbickticss 
tlu'y vary from the size of a rye Btxuv to tbat b{ a la(l>^ little ADger, 
bein<; tbickeat at the midtHe, and tapering »t both eada. They are 
found stugly or in groiiim or masBC^, And infest uUietly tlic small iutoi 

Atiotlier commoi) variety of intestinal worm is called tbe pfn-uwi 
ttiid is found mo);tlyintliu largo iiitcatinci). Tbc8«&ro8i:mi trauspaivii 
thrciul liko worms, nie^jsuring in length from 1 to 2 inches. 

Tliv tiiiJf-worm, onee Kiwn, is easily recoynizi'd. It is whllo, llatj' 
tbio, broad, and jointed. Tlio bend is found at the snmllrr end of Ibc 
vorni. Tupc-n-oriDS of tbc borso aomctimos meAsuro from 20 to30 feet 
in lengtli. 

Hi/mptoing o/ intestinal irormt. — Slight colicky pains are noticed at 
times, or there may only Iw switching of the tail, frequent paNsnges of 
muimre, ami eotne slight Htraioing, itching of the anus, and rubbing of 
the tnil or rump against tbe stall or fences ; tbe horse is in poor coudi 
tion ; does not shed his coat; is bide-boiiiid and pot bellied ; tbo up 
titv is depraved, licking the wallH, biting the wooilun work of tlie stall 
licking parts of his body, eating earth, and being i>articularly fund of 
sail; tbe bowola are irregular, uoustipatiuu or diarrhea beiug uotlced. 
Borne plnco mnch dependenco npon tbe symptom of itching of tbe up- 
per tip, OS shnvrn by the lioisc frcQnenlly turning it up and mbbing it 
upon tbe wall or stalls. Others again declare tliat whi-iiever we see the 
adherenco of a dried wbitisb stibstnuce about the anas worms arc pres- 
ent. The one symptom, however, that wu should always look for, and 
certainly tbe only one tbat may not deceive us, is seeing tbe borso pass 
Uie vorms iu his diiiig. 

Treatment. — Kemedies to destroy intestinal worms are much more t»f- 
flclout if given alter along fast, and then tbe worm medicine must be 
BUpptcmente<l by a physic to carry ont the worms. Among the best; 
Tormmcdtciucamay b« mentioned santouiuCf turjieDtiQc, tikrlarometio, 
iofasion of tobacco, and bitter tonics. To destroy tajie-wurms, ureon 
nut. male-fern, and pumpkin seeds are tbe best. If a horse is pass- 
ing the long rannd worms, for instance, tbe plan of treatment is to^ 
give tvice daily for three or foar days a drcncb composed of turpen-J 
tine, 1 onnee, and liuu'cd oil 'Jov^i ounces, to l>e followed on the Amrth^ 
day by a physic of Ttarbadoes aloes, I ounce. If tbe pinwoniis are 
present (the ones tbat infect the large bowrls), injections into the re 
tam of infasions of tobacco, infusions of qnassia cbi|)S, one half pouuttj 
to a gallon of water, once or twice daily for a few days, and followe<l bj 
a pfayNic, are nio.<'t heneticial. It sbnnid be borne in miiiil that intes 
iioal worms are mostly seen in horses that aro in poor condition; and 
ftD uficutiat part of oar treutuiout theu is to improve the appetite and 


powers of digestion. TiiiM ig bent Hone by giviiif; tbe vegetable tonics. 
OucLair ouuce of I'cruvUiu bark, gvuttan, ginger, quiumlu, etc, ia to 
be given twice a (In; in tbe feed or as a drencli. Unless some suck 
miNlJciDce nnd good food aud piiro vratcr are given to tone op tbe di- 
gestive orgaim tlie worim will rniiidly acciiniiiliite nguin, even thoilgli 
tbey may liave nil been exi»ellcil bj llio worm uiciIiciDcs proper. 


^paimodic or cramp cotic. — TbJa is tbe name given to that form of colic 
>i1a(«d by contmcttori, or spaam, of a (wrtion of tbe Binall iiitesliues. 
It is pPoduc!e<l by iudigestibic food} foreign bodies, as nails und stoDta 
intbobonels; Urge dhukwor uuld water when (be auiinal is warm; 
driviug abented borso tbroagli deep streams, cold rnias, draugbU (tf 
cold air, etc Uiieqaul dintribtition of oriiiterfercnRo with tbe nervous 
supjily hert> prodaoee cramp of tbeboweln, tbes^rae asexternal cramps 
ure prcKlucLHl. Spasmodic culit; in much mote frequently met with in 
high-bred, ronnd-barreled ner^'oos horses than in coarse, lymphatic 

Sgmpto»t9.—Tbes& fihoald be carefully studied io order to diagnose 
this from otherformsof collerequirtngquitodiOereattroutQient. Spas> 
modiv colic nlwuj'K begins snddenly. If fei'diug, tbe borstt is seen to 
atop abi'iiptly, stamp impatit'Dtiy, and probably look baukw.ird.t. llv: 
soon evinces more acute pain, and this is shown by pacing, enddenly 
lying down, rolliug, aud gettiug up. Tliore isthcii an interval of eiisej 
be will resume feeding, and ap[)e)ir to be entirely well. Tn a little while, 
however, tbe ]>aii)H n;ttirn and an> luereaHed in severity, only to ngiitn 
pass off for a time. As the attack progresses these interrals of ease 
become shorter and shorter, and pain may be oontinuous, tboiigli oven 
now ibere an- *!i!ireib;ttinns of piiin. Animals Hiilft-riii;^ from this form 
of colic evince the most Int-emc paiu ; thoy ihrotc themselves down, roll 
over und over, jump up, whir! about, drop down again, paw, or strike, 
rather, with the front feer, steam aud sweat, make frequent attempts to 
pas!t tbcir urine, and the penix is partially erected. Only u small 
amount of water is passed ut a time» aud this is due to the bladder he- 
iog 80 nrcqacotly emptied, i, e,, there i9 but Utile tcatcr to jxug. Thcs« 
attempts to urinate are almost always regarded an svre symptoinnof 
tFuulile of the kidneys or bladder. In reality they are only one of the 
many wayrt in which the horse eipresses the pro&encti of paia. Allow 
IDC to digress slightly, and to assure tho reader that diiieases of the 
bladder ur kidneys of the horse are ejxteedintjlif rare. The stomach and 
botvels are aflected In a thousand instances where the kidneys or blad- 
der are oncft Attempts to i>as8 water and failure to do so are not 
erf>nch to warrant as in pronouncing tho case one of "trouble with Ida 
wiitt-r,'^ nor whoiild we, if a horse yieldn or sinks whenpinehcd owr Ihe 
loins, declunj that kidney disease exists. Try this pressure ou any 


borso, ami tlie great mf^ority will tw $c«ii to thas y!ul<l ; in fiict'^tbiN is 
ralher a sign or Hymiitoiii of lieihlth tUao of disease. 

Td rocapitQiate the ayinptoois of spasmodic colic : Keep in mind the 
tiitttury oribo case, tlio typo of liorse, the siidiloiiiiessof tlie ntttwk, tbo 
Intervals of ease (which become of rdiort^^r duratiou hs the cams pro- 
Ki-eckseH), Ihu viiik-iit ]M)in, the normal temperature and palsednringthe 
intervals of case, the freqiiAnt attempts to arioate, the erectiou of Che 
petii», etc., Hud ihore is but little danger of coufoundiug tbi» witb 
other foniiN of colic. 

Tretttmeni.—S'mec the pain is dae to epaam or cramp of the bowela, 
iQedicines that overeoino spasmts — auti-spasmodics — nro the ones indi- 
cated. Prabably there is no meiliciiie Iwtter thau ubloRiI hydrat«, 
This i« to b« given iu a dose of 1 ounce in a half pint of water as a 
dreuub. A verycommou and good remedy is sulphuric ether and land- 
aniiui; of each ii ounceo in half pint of linseed oil. Another drcucb 
Day be comjiosed of 2 ouooes each of sulpburio other and alcohol In 8 
omiceK of water. If nothing else is at bnad we may give wbittky; ona- 
lialf pint iu bot water. If relief is not obtaint^d in one boar from any 
€f the above doaea, tbey may then be repeated. The body should be 
vnnnly clothed and perspiriition ii)duoe<l. Blankets dipped in very bot 
water ro whieh a small quantity of tuqieiitiiie ban been added should 
bo placed arouiul the belly and covered with dry blankets, or the abdo- 
men may ho rubbed with slimulating linimonta or mustard- water. Tbo 
difllenlty, however, of applying hot blankets and keeping them la place 
fureeK us, iu mo-it lustances to dispf^nse with tlieni. If the cramp is due 
to iiritanta in the bowels u cure is not compltte until we have giren a 
cathiu'tiu of 1 ounce of alues or 1 pint of linseed-oil. Iiijectious into tbO 
rectum of warm, soapy water, or salt and water, aid the cure. 

Oue wonl here about Itijuctions, or euemiii, as they are called. These, 
OS a rule, should be Inkewarm and from 3 to G guarta are to be given 
at a time. Tbey may be repeated every half hour if nccc^ary. Great 
care Is to be taikuu not to injure the rectum in giving rectal injections. 
A large syringe is tbo best means by which to give them. If this ta 
not to Ih! had, take a largo eldi^r, from which the pith baa been removed, 
or a piece of hose. A huge hog's bladder is to be fllWd witb the fluid 
to bo injeeled and tied about one end of the elder or hose. Tbo point 
to be hitro<luced into the rectum must be blunt, rounded, and smooth. 
It is to be tboroaghly oiled and then carefully poshed through the anus 
in a slightly upward direction. Pressure upon the bladder wdl force 
ita contents into the Imwel. iliicb force mvist be avoided, for the 
rectum may bo lacerated and seriouH oom plications or even death re- 
salt. Exercise will aid the action of the bowels in this and similar 
colicky troubles, but severe galloping or trotting ts to be ouudemued. 
If the horse eati b.iV4> a loose bos or juiddock it is the best, as bo wtU 
then take what exercise be wants. If the patient Imj Bztremely violeut 
it is otlen vrixfl to rvstrain him, since rupture of the stomach or dis- 
placemeucof the bowcU may result aud complicate the troublcA. 


FiatutfHt colU^Tj/mpanittt—Wind eoUo— Bloat. — Among tite moat 
frrqaentcauBoaof thisforniorcolicaretabementioued sudden cbuiiges 
«f food, t«o loug fasting and food tboQ giveu vrliile die niiiinul h cx- 
lUMtst«d, Qow bay or ^rain, large qnantities of green food, food Ihut 
haa lain in the manger for mine time and become sour, Indigestible 
food, irregotar teetb, crib bitlug, and in fact auyUiiug tbot producea 
indigestion may produce flatolent colic. 

The »tfmptomM of wind coHc arc not ao suddenly developed, nor ao 
aerere aa those of oranip coHo. At firat tlio hnrsu in noticisl to b« dall^ 
paws slighUj, raa; or may not lie down. Tlie pains from tbe start aro 
ooDtJDQoas. Tlic Mly oolatges, aod by striking it in front of tbi 
haanohes a droni'liIt» sound is elioitacl. If not wM)n relif^vml the abonvl 
•jnnptoma are aggravated, and in addition we notice difllcalt breatb* 
Ing, profuAC pt^ntpiratioD, trrmbliug of auterior Hmbs ttiuliing respirfr*^ 
lion, staggering irtun side to hIiIk. and, tiniilly, planglng furward de 
The diagnostic symptom of flatnlent colic is the distention of tbe boi 
da vicli eaa, detected, by tbe bloated appearauc« aud rcaoaance oa 

The (/■Mtmwif for wind oolic differs very materially from that of 
cramp colic Alkalinea neutralize the gaaea forme*!, and miiitt be 
promptly givea. Probably as good a domealic remedy as can be had 
b bakiog-eoda, to doaea of from S to 4 ouaoes. If tbis faUa, give cbic 
ride of lime in faalf-oanee doses, or tbe same riaantity of oarboaate oC3 
anuoonift ever; half bour nntU relieved. AlMorbeats are a!ao of aerr* 
iee* and we may give cbanxial io aay qaantity. Belaxaata and antirJ 
B|Msnodioi are also benefltdal in this form of oolio. Ubloral hydrate^ 
not only po aa ea o a tbet» qualittea, bat it alno fe an anti-ferment and a 
[HUD-relipver. It is tben particalarly well adapted io tbe treatment of 
viad oolic, and Mboold lio given io tlie eaae 6ued dowe and in Uie 
■aooer direetad for ^woiodie oolic 

A pbysie aboold alvaye be given io flataleot eolie aa early ae 
ble, tbe best being Barbadoes aloea in tbe doae already meotioi; 
Injections, per rectam. of torpentiae 1 to 2 oaacea, liiiaeed-«U 8 oonc 
nay be given frcqaeatly to stimolate the pertetaltte motion »f Uie bovJ 
da aud fiivor tbe eaeapa of wind. Blaoketa wrung oat of bot water d«] 
IO afford rellrf ; ther •boold be renewed every S or tO mini 
covered wjtb a dry woolea Uanket. Tfaia form of e<^ la mi 
■ore fatal than cramp eoltc, and requires prompt and parrtstent treat- 
ment. Itiacntudy nnmle to prediei the ieaalt,aoom app a w wtlyj 
_aaacka gaia|f on to ainedy dealb, wbDe otben that sfipear at tlw i 

ifaeTayaerrre yielding r^itdly to tjeatment. Do not cea a e y< 
ontn joa are rarv tbe animal ia dead. I vaa enlled, tn 
iuimee, nod on reaebiog my patSent tbe owner tnforaed me that *• tbe 
bone hm! Joat died." IW heart, bowwm, waa iCiH beating, and by 
Mceanrea (tappi^i ate.) I *'beo«ffbt Um back to )i&," an lb* 
I ■■■wrted. In Umm aeTere eaaea pcvetnteg of ibe bowaU fa 


the most prominent (ilisU-uded) |iurt by mentis of a small trocar aud 
camila, or wilU ibu iiecJIo of a hj]KKleriuic e.i,riugc, thus oUowing tb« 
Cfiua{>e of goa, lios often earetl life, uoiL sucli puocturea are not followed 
by any bad results in tlic majority of inistaoocs. 

Iwptiction o/ the large i,'i?c«(i»M. — Tliis is a very (■ninmon Imwcl tronble 
and oim which, if not promptly recogiiixi.>iluud proj^erly trc>at«d, rvMilU 
iu death. It is caosed mostly by overfeeding, c8i>ecially of grain, and 
I bare ttoliccd that it is mnc-li moro common n-bcrc- rye is Aid alono, or 
with other grains; old, dry, hiird bay, or stalks nlieu largely fed ; doll-' 
cit!n4jy of secretions of tbe intestinal tract, lack of water, waut of exer- 
cise, paralysis of uervo endings, medicines, etc. 

S}imptom6. — ImpactioD of the larg« botrcls is to b« diagDosod by a 
slight nbdominiil pain, which may iti8api>enr for u day or two to reap- 
pear with more violciee. The feces is passed somewhat more frccjucutly, 
but in smaller qaautities aod more dry ; the ahiloniea is fall, but not 
distCDdcd with gas ; the horse at first is noticed to |>aw and soon begins 
to look back at his aides. Probably onu of the most characteristic 
symptoms is the position assumed when down. Ho lies flat od hiB 
side, head and legs pxlt-ndcd, occiisionally raiHint; his bead to look 
toward his dank j he remains on bis side for from five to tifteen tninutce 
ftt a time. Evidently this position in the one giving the most rrocdom 
from pain. TTorises at times, walks abont the stidi, paws, looks at bis 
sides, backs tip against the stall which he pn-sst-s with bis tail, and 
Boou lies down again, assuming his farored position. Tbe bowels bavo 
oease<l entirely to more. The pulse is bnt tittle ebangod at flrst, being 
fall aud sluggish ; later, if this condition is not orcrron>e, it l»L'Com<« 
rapid and feeble. I have known hor«e« to suD'er from impaction of tbe 
iKJwels for a week, yet ereiitnally recover, and others have reported 
cases osteuding two or even three vreeka which ended favorably. As 
a rule, how*'vor, they seldom last over fonr or flro days, many, iu fact, 
dying sooner than this. 

The treatmeut consists of efforts to prodaoe movement of tbe bowels, 
and topn'vent indammation of l he same from arising. A Inrge cathartic 
is to be given us early an passihlo; either of the following are reoom- 
meuded: Powdered Barbadoes aloes 1 ounce, calomel 3 ilrams, aud 
powdered unx vomica 1 dram; or liuseed oil 1 pint, and crotou oil 15 
drops. Some favor tlio administration of Epsom sails, 1 ponnil, with 
oue-4)narler iiound of (x>mmon salt, chiiming that this causes the horse 
to drink largely of water, and thus mechanically softening the impacted 
mass and favoring ita expulsion. Whichever physic is selected it ia 
essential that you give a /uli Acme, This is nuich iHftterthnti small and 
repeated doses. It must be bonie iu mind that horses require about 
tweuty-four hours iu which to rcsiKind to a physic, nnd under no cir* 
oainstanoes are physics to be repeated sooner than this. If aloes has 
been giron and has failed to o|ierate at thepropvr time, oil or some dif- 
ferent cathartic shonbl then \)v administered. Allow the liurM* all the 
water be will drink. The acliou of the physic may Ue aided bygiviog, 







evrrj tbree or fuorbonra, oue-balf niinoc of tiucturc of bclliifloniia, or 
ouebAlf dido) of powilercd nus vomica. Copious euciuaa are to be 
gtvoii every liour, aud should bo rnricd; pvjng first soapy water, thoa 
salt ami vat^r, or tUv vtnatsiuas of tuqteutiiio already nlliided to ja 
dMCtibiu£ otb«r di^iues of the bowvlrt. Eiiciuas of glycerine, 2 to 4 
ODnccn, are otien beneflciaL Kubbiiii; or kucadiug of ilio iilNlominal 
walls, tlic npplicatiou of stimulatiug liuimeuts or strong muaUrd 
watfir wUI also, at tiiucs, favor tliu expolsioii of this tuasa. Walking 
QxerciKo miist i>ccuL»iuDally bo {[tven. If Ibis treatment is faithfully 
earrlMl oat from tbe start tbe miyoTity of caaea will tcrmiuatt; fuvoiably. 
Wborv relii-f is not obtained iufiummatioa of tlic bowels may en&uet 
uid deatb fulloir from tliis e;tutie. 

CoHMtiptUioit or coititenetu is oflea wttaosKd in tlie horso, and particQ- 
larly iu (tit> n>al, Maoy cotts die every year fro no failure on tbo pai't 
of lliv tittcodLiDt to nolo tbe «ouditioii of tbe bowels »oou af^er birtb. 
'Wli«acvcr tbo foal fitlla to )>a«a any feces, and in particnlar if it pre- 
•eats ODy signs of colicky itainii — xtrainiug, etc. — immediate attention 
muat be given it. As a rule, it will only bo necessary to give a few 
ii^ctioas of soapy water in tbo rectum and to introduce tbe finger 
tbroagh tbo anas to break down any li ante nod mas-a of dung found 
t1i<fre. If Ibinii ia uot cfiectivo, a purgutive must l>e given. OIIh are 
tlie best for tbese yoang animals, and I mostly seleot castor oil. giving 
Drom 2 to 4 ounces. The fool sbonld always get tbo first of tbe mother's 
nilk, ait this milk, for a few days, pOHseasei) decided laxative proiwrties. 
If a mare^ while suekliug, is taking laudatiimi or siuiilnr medicines, tbe 
liial sliould bo fed durtu£ litis tituo by biud and tbe tuurc uiill<ed upon 
tke gtOQud* Constipation in adalt horses is mostly the result of long 
. fc«dlDg on Hry, lunntritions food, deHcioney of intestinal seen'tiotis, 
scanty water supply, or |jn:k of fxcrLi-'w. If thy cxse is not complicated 
with ooliek)- Hymplom^s a change to ligbt> sloppy diet, linRcMl grnel or 
tea, witb plenty of exercise, is all that is required. If colic exists a 
eatbartle ia needed. In very many instances the coustipateil condition 
of the bowels is due to lack of intestinal secretions, and when so due, 
munt be bitted, by givtuK fluid extract of belladonna three tinier u day 
in 3-dram doAcs, and liaudfnl doses daily of £i>sod) salts in the feed. 


Gaatrie coaerrtiont, aiiculi (ttones) t'ri the atomach, — Tber* are prob- 
ably bat few Bymptums exhibited by tbe horae that will lead us to saa- 
pect Tbo presence of gastric calculi, and possibly none by which wecAU 
unmistakably naser» .beir preKcncc. Storii-s in tbo stomach bave ttcen 
most frequently fouud iu millcT's horses. A small piece of the millstone 
or other foreign body may tierre as a nucleus around which fa deposited 
in layers tbe ealcareoua substances which abonnd in their fe«d (tbe 
sweepings of the mill ttonr, mixed with ^oihI food). I have notit-ed, and 
It la gouerally recorded by veteriuary writers, tUat a depraved and 


capricious appetite is '»mmon in faorwe that have a atone fortning io 
tli«ir fitoiuacb. There is a tlisiKiHiliun to cat the wood -work of ibe 8t»- 
ble, etirth, am), in fact, lUiuost uay suliittiLiice williiii their rcncb. TEiis 
symptom must not> however, be considered as patboi^iionioiiic, siooe it 
U obx(?rv(M] when funiculi nro not prcsi^nt. Occasional i.'4)It(>H umyrcHnlt 
fhim tbcho " atoDiach Htoties,'^ anil when these Imlge at tlie outlet of the 
stomach they may pivo ri»» to Rymiitomsof oneoreed stoniHcfa, already 
deiteribc'I. I r«D)oiuber ono iustnnce in which I found a stono that 
weif>bi>d nearly 4 poniuls in tlie Rtomacb of a burse. 

The poKtUoii that tieeiua to afford the most relief to the afllicted ani- 
mal la sitting apon the haunches. Constipation may or m»y not be 
present. From all this vre may conclade that there is reason to soa- 
pcct the pre-.s«noe of atone ia the Htomach, if there ia a hiKlur}' of de- 
praved appetite; repealed attacksof colic (and iiartlcalarly if these bava 
recoTere*! ahruptlii)-, and the ]>osit)on sought by tbo horse while MuBbr- 
log — sitting on the hannchea, or standing with the front feet upon 
some elevatiou. During the fatal attack the syniptonia are simply 
those of obstruction, followed by those nf inflammation and gaiierene, 
and are not dia(;niMli>(\ Tlii'r« is, of cotiroe, no treatment that will 
prove effective. Wo can simply give remedies to move the bowels, t« 
celieve pain, and to combat inflammation. 

Inteitinal eoncretiong, calculi (atonet) in the iutestinea. — Thcsa ooncr^ 
tioDS are found mostly iu the large bowels, though they are occasiotially 
met with in the small intoetlne«. Ihey are of various sizes, weighing 
from 1 ounce to 25 ptmnds ; they may be single or multiple, aud differ 
in composition aud appearance, some being soft (composed mostly of 
animal or vej;rtablc matter), while others are iturous or bonay-oombed 
(consu<ting of animal and mineral matter], and others again that are . 
entirely bard and stone-like. The hair-balls, bo common to the stomach 
and intestinefl of (tattle, are very rare in the borw. Intirntinal calculi 
form around some foreign body oe a rule, mostly a nail, piece of wood, 
or somethiug of this description, whose shape they aasame to a certain 
extent. Layers are arranged concentrically aronnd snch nncleris until 
the sizes ab*)ve ajmkeu of ar« formed. Thcso atoue* are also often found 
In millers* horses, as well ftlaoas horses in limestone difltricta where the 
water is hard. Wlien the ualeali attain a safticient size and become 
lodged or blocked in Kome part of the iutCAtioea, they cnutie obslniclioD, 
inflammation of the bowels, colicky symptoms, and death. Some vete- 
riaRTians pretend to diaguoeo the presence of these bodies during life, 
but I know of no certain signs or symptoms that reveal them. Kecur- 
tian colics aud character of food and water may enable us to make a 
£01x1 gue--^ at times, but nothing more. 

Tbe ftfutptoms will bo those of obstruction of the bowels. Upon jk>#(- 
morlem examinations we will diKcover these ittone~s moxtly in the large 
bowels; the intestineH will lie InBanied or gangrenous about the point 
of obstruction. Sometimcji calculi have been expelled by the ucLion 




of a pbysic, or they may 1>e removed by tlio linnd whcD foand to oocop; 
tbe laat gaU 

TrfttfjiteHt. — As in coacrotionB of the Htomncli, ttiere can be bat littlo 
doru> uorc ebon to ovorcuiuv spasm (if auy cxiti^tfi), oml to (;iv« physics 
with the ho]>e of dtulodgiiig tbe Rtoiiu or stones and carrying them od 
aaii outwiud. 

TntuMstuception or Invagination is the slipping of a portion of the io- 
tCAtiDC into another portion imna«dtately H(UoiD)ng, like n partially 
turned gluvu finger. This may ucwur at any part of the boweU, but is 
most frf^qaeat >n the smnll guts. The invagitiiit^I portion may be 
slight — 3 or 3 indict only — iir i-xtun^ive, uicHanriiig ait many fuet.^ 
Trereg, vho bos vrittcn a moHt valuable work on inteatinal obstruo- 
tion in man, may be quott^d in subatance, to some oxtont. Be cautions 
as not to coiifouDtl vhat he clMwe as "nb-ttriictive intosansoeption" 
with tninNHUGCtiption of the dying. This latter i» oftvu ecuu upon 
pcit-mortcm eiamiiiatlou of chjldr«», or with us in young colts. Tbeee 
iDvagtnations occur shortly before death, and are dno to irrrgnlar con- 
tractionH «if the bowels tlmt take place during the act of dyiiic. Mus- 
cular actions are, at tliia time, irregular and tumultnoas, and it is not 
snr]>risittg that intU88nM«ptlon is produced. *' I ntnsflusccptions of the 
dying'* are charact^rir^d by the fnllowing peculiarities: Thi'y art*, smnll, 
tree from any trace of congc-^tioii, iullammation, or adhesion, and cuu 
Tcry ta«ily be re<lucM by slight traction; they are apt to be mul- 
^ple, and aro most frcqnontly directed forward, fn obstruoti%'o intns- 
snsi^l'tiun, on the other hand, the Inturueil bowel is in the dtrectton of 
the anus. There are adheisinuH of the iutcstinL-H at thitt point, couges- 
lion, inOammatJon, or ereo gangrene. 

Cntua of taraijimifi«n. — This necident is most likely to oooar in horses 
iliat are suffering from Kpaorn of the howid or in those wbern a ttmall 
portion of the gut is paralyzed, l^e natunil worm or ring-like con- 
traction of the got favors tbe passage of the contracted or paralyzed 
portion Into that in>rae<liately behind it. It may occur during tho ex- 
iBtunco of almost any abdominal trouble, as diarrhea, indammation of 
Ute bowels, or from injnr.cs, exifoeure to cohl, etc. 

S!/ii*ptom3.—Un\G63 tbo invaginated portion ofthogntbtcoraoastniug- 
Qlnletl. probably uu sym]>to;n!i will !>» appre<iiabli>, exiusptconHtipation. 
BtraogulalioD of tho bowel laay take place suddetily, and the horse die 
vithin twenty-four hours, or it may occur after several days, a week 
■T«n, and death follow at this lime, '»tierearenosym[)tom8 positively 
dla^lioiitic. UoMcky painn, more or less severe, are observed, and tht-re 
are no, or but few, i»a«sages of dnng. I bare nlKwrrexl aercro MtratHing 
in some instances of intussusception, and this should be given dutt- 
ereilit wbi'O (t occurs. As death approaches the horse sweats proluaelnf 
nglix, proAentH no anxious rotintenancM, the legs and ears become cold,! 
and there in often fVeedom ftom )»ain immediately before desth. In some 
nuv iustanceti the liorse [ecovers,«veu though tbe iuvagiuated portion of 

tlio gat lias becoaioetrangiilAted. Tbe imprisoucil poitiou here slougbs 
away so graduitlly thot n titiion Iiiik tuUi?n plncc tipttvcpn the intestine* 
at ttie poiut wli«ro oiio [Kirtiou bas slipped iuto tliat behind it. The 
piece sIoDgtiing off is foittid imsKfil %Tith tim manure. Sucli cases are 
eicecdioftly rnre. bnt tbcir possibility should gnido us in our tiratroent 
Cuthnrtic mcdicintA :iru muru culcululed to do barm tlinn good. We 
shoiiM treat witb anodynes and anti-spasmodics, chloral bydrat«, laiith 
Aatim, and solpbnric etlii^r, und iaiiliriric9 to prevent iiiflmnniatioii. 
Some practitioners favor tlie ailministnition of powdered opium, l to 'J 
driiDiH, every three or four boars. I^jcctioos of salt and vrater or 
eamlsious of turpentine arc g\ veu vritli the )^onIewbat faiicifat idea ofpro- 
ducin;; pfri.stulsiit of the iuleaLiiica in a dircotiun opposite to tlit> norniul 
ouc, ■'. o., coutractioD from the anas forward. Iftbiscau be produced by 
these or any other means, it will prove a valuable adjunct to other 
treatment. Softfeeil and ntncilaglnous atid uoiirishin^f drinks are to be 
given during theHe attackH, 

Voltutvt, Outtie or Ttcisting of tfu Boteels. — These aro the terms ap- 
plied to the bowels wben twisted or knotted. This accident is rathcra 
common one, and frequently rcsulta from the violent manner iu which 
a borse throws himself about when attiicked by 6](a.sp)odic colia The 
9ymp(onu arc the samn as those of iutussusccptioti and obstractions of 
the bowels; the same Uirectiuns as to treatment are therefore to ba 

Diarrhea is duo to eating moldy or luuttty food, drinking stagnant 
water, di^ascd condition of tlio teetli, eating irritating eabstanccs, to 
being kept on low, marshy pastures, and exposure during cold uigbts, 
low, damp stables, or to some morbid or indaminatory condition of the 
intestinal canal or some of its annexed or^antt. It is more frequently 
a 8yui|)toai of functional disorder timn an organic disease. Somchorsoe 
are predispoKeil to scout and are called '^washy" by horsemen; they 
are those of long iMylies, toug legs, and narrow, flat side^ Horses of 
this build arc almost sure to ecoiirif fed or watered immediately befora 
being put to work. Fast or road work, of course, npffravates this 
trouble. Diarrhea may exist as a compliealiou of othiT diseasee, as 
pneumoaia and iufloeuza for instance, and agaia daring the diseases of 
tlie liver. 

The tymptoma are the frequent ev&ouattous of liquid stools, witb or 
vllhout pronounced abdominal pain, loss of apiielite, emaciation, ete. 

Treatment is at tixea very simple, bnt requires the utmost caro and 
judgment. If duo to faulty food or water it is sufBcicnt to change 
these. If it results from some irritant in tlte iotostjuea, this is best 
gotten rid of by the administration of an oleaginous purge, the iliurrhea 
mostly disappearing with the cessation of the operatlou of the inedicloe. 
If, however, purging continues, it may be cheeked liy giving wheat flour 
iu water, starch water, wbite-oak bark tea, chalk, opium, or half dram 
I o£ sulphuric acid la oaehalf pint of water twice or tbriue daily. 




I bare (jood resnlU from powderwl opiam, 2 (IramB, and sabnitrate of 
buiinDtli, 1 oanrf, repealed tbnw timva a day. Onc-qtuirtur pooBd 
dos«8 of -the "'niompsooian coiuitositioa,^ to vrhicli may be added 1 
jwooe of baking sodn^ given two or thre« times a day, arc fteqaeotlf 

[i'ctive. It Hbould bo rGmembcrod In all oaaes ta look to Cbe vater 
id feed the Lorse in receiviog. If eit)ier of these is at fault tbey are 
at once to bc> dtscootiuned. We sbould feed s|uiriog^Iy of good, ea&tly 
digested fondft. In Uiat peculiar build of iu>rTon.s liorsea that sooiir on 
the n>ad bat little can be done, as a rule. Tbey &buuld be watered and 
fed as loD£ as possible before going oa a drive. If there is much flat- 
nlcney acconapanyiag diarrhea, bakiof; soda or other alkaline medidPMi 
often prDdni:e a ouTf<, n-bile if the dixcliarges Uavi- a ver>- disagreeRlile 
odor, this can be corrected by 1 oaaceof snlpliite of sotia or balfHliam 
doses of carbolic acid iu wnt'cr, repeated twice a day. liv Blow to resort 
to eittacr tbe vegetable or toiufnU astringents, sioce the mnjority of 
eases vlll yield tochauge of food and water, or Lbeadmf oiKtmLioa of oUs. 
Aflcnr.'inls feed apon vbeat-floar grud or other light foods. Tbe 
body fttiould bo wuruly clothed. 

Suferjmrgation. — Thia is tbe designation of tiiat diarrhea or tluz 
from tlie bowels that, at timos, is iodaced by and follows tbe action of 
a physic It is aocomponied by mucli irritatitm or even iullamniation 
of tbe bowels, and is always of a serious character. Altboagh iu mre 
instances it follows from a usual dose of physic and where every jiro- 
cauLton bas been taken, it is most likely to result under tbe following 
circumstauoeH : Too large a dust; of phy:iie; to giving physics to horses 
enBTeriiig firom puetuuouia, infiucuza, or other dt^bilitatLngdideases; to 
ruling or driving a horse when parging ; to ex|)osare or draiight-s of 
cold air, or giving large quajitities of cold water while tbe physic is 
Oftereting. There is always danger of sniHTpnrg.ition if a physic is 
given toa horse suffering from diseases of thcrespiratory organs. Small 
and often -repeated pbysica are also to be avoided, us they produce de- 
bility and great deprension of tbe system and predisiiose to tbls dis- 
oMer. When a physic is to be given we idioold give tbo horse sloppj- 
fcod until tbe medicine begins to oiterate; we mast clothe tbe body 
■vith a warm blanket: keep out ofdranj^hts; givo only chilled water ia 
imall qiuDtitJes. Aftrra horse has purged fruin twelve to twenty-four 
lioare it can mostly be stopped or *' set," as borstmeu say, by ft^eding 
on dry oats and hay. Sboald the purging continue, howevtir, it is 
best trt^atcdby giving domulcoot drinks — tiiLoet'd tea, oatmeal or wbeat- 
flour gruel. After this tbe astrlHgeuls ivimki-ii of for diairfaca may bo 
given. Besides this tbe borse is to receive brandy in doses of from 2 
lo 4 ounces, with milk and eggs, foor or five times a diiy. 

Laaiiullis " foonder'* is a frt^^juent setjiiels; of KUperpurgation and is 
to Iw gaaided against by removing the shoes and statidiug the horse on 
moi&t sjiwdust or some similar bedding. 

i/ytcMUriy— WlUittuis defines UyseDtct^r, or bloody itux, as an iutee- 

tinal inflanimatory action of a peculiar or Rpecific cbnmct^r, attended 
witb fevm; occasiouat aMotntDal pain, aud lluid alviae dlscliargoa, 
mingled vitb blood or albnniinoiis materials ; tlio txtixim changes, vbiob 
an; u-sually regarded as 8i>rcin1, beiug situated c^l]icf1.v iti the miuute 
gland Btructiirea and itit«r connective tissue of the targe iutestioe, and 
of an ulccrjitivo or gangrcnoiia cliaracter. To bo plainer, dy8«nt«ry jB 
obarnct«rized by ctjffee-fiolored or bloody diitcliargtw, liquid, and very 
offensive iii odor, and passed with mach tenesmua (straiuiug). It IB 
very rare ia the horse. 

Cawfti. — Probably the moRt common canse is keeping yoniig tiorse* 
iu i»articular for a loug time ou low, wet, luandiy paetores, without 
other feed (a diai'rbea of long standing sometimes ternmiateM in dysen- 
tory) ; exjuitiurc during cold, wet weatlier; dccowiioscd foods; atagoaat 
vater that ooiitJtins large qnantiticsof deooraiKiRing vegetable matter; 
low, damp, aud daik stables, particularly If crowded ; the exiBtence of 
eotne disease, as t^iberculosis of tbe abdominal form. 

S!/mptom$. — Tbo initial symptom is a cliill, wliicb probably escapee 
notice in the majority of instancea. Tlie disoliarges are offensive and 
for the most part liquid, altbougli It is common to find lamps of solid 
fecal matter floating in tins liquid jKirtioii ; shredit of mucous membraao 
and blood aro passed, or tlic cvacuatious may bo muco-purulent ; tbora 
Js mtioh straining, and, rarely, Hymjitoms of abdomiuid pain ; the horse 
lies down a great deal; the pulse is quickened and the teinperatnre 
elcvatvd. Tbo appetite may remain fair, bnt in Mpite of thiei tbo boraa 
rapidly loaes Hesh and becomes a sorry-looking object Death rarely 
follows under two to three weeks. Tbirst is a prominent syniptom. 

7Vm(nt«nt. — This i.s most no satisfactory, and 1 am inclined to place 
more deiiendeuce upon tbo care and feed than any medication that may 
be adopted. First of all tbe borse must be placed in a dry, varm, yet 
well -ventilated stable ; the skin is to receive attention by frequent rnb- 
binga of the surface of the body, witb blankets, and bandages to tbe 
legs. The vater mast be pure and given In small quantities; tbo food, 
that which is light and easily digested. Medicinally, we mast give at 
first a light dose of castor oil, about onc-linlf pint^ to wbiob has been 
.added 2 oauoes of laadaunm. Tbe vegetable or mineral astrlugenta 
ari! also to 1h' {riven. Starcli injections containing laudanum often 
aflurd grcut relict Tbe strength must be kept up by milk puncbeo* 
eggs, beef tea, oat-meal gmel, etc. In spite of the beet caro aud treat- 
inent, however, dysentery mostly proves fatal. 

IlarmorrhoiJa — Ptleii. — These arc rare in horses, althuugb more fre- 
quently met with than most people suppose. They arc diagnosed by 
tbe appearance of brtghtred irregular tumors after defecation, which 
may remain risible at all times or be seen only when the borsu is down 
or after paHsiiig bis manun). They are mostly due to constipation, to 
irritation or injuries, or follow from the severe straining during dyaeo- 
tery. I have observed them to follow from severe labor pains in the 







7Vfafai(>nr— Attention most be paid to the eomlition of the howols; 
tbry Mhuultl bo sofL, buL pnr^n;; is lo bo avoiiled. Tbe taiDois ahould 
be nrasbed in warm water and tlioroughlr cleaused, aftttr which we mast 
■OBiirf- ibeni &iid gently but lirtuly M|U(H>j:o out tlie liquid That will bo 
■ccn to follow tbe sliallow incisions. While tliid treatment may be 
cousidnntl a.s livroic, to wij the Ipaitt, by medical practitionerB, yet it 
boa invariably proren eucceaafal iu my cxperii:acc, no bad rrsnlt^ fol- 
lowing. All«r tbiia st^ui^^ziug ibe^e tumors ami l>e(ore rcplncing^ 
through tbe nnuR, bathe the pnrts with Botue anodyne waeii. I jtrefer 
for tliiti purpose tlir ^lyrx^rite nf tannin and hwdannm iu eqnal parts- 
ftlnriliigiDous iujectioiis iulotbercctnui inuy Im nf mirvice for a ftiw days* 

HateritiK is nn fullummation of the mucous mombrnne lining the 
boveta. ThisinQainmationmayextoudand iorolve tbe muscularor even 
aerous coats. From my observations entprilis is excwdingly rare in the 
boFBC unlcM caatti-d by irytiintM or corn)sive pQiNon-H, or following frota 
inragioatioQ, twisting of tbe bowels, eto. In fact, I can not remember 
ever to have Boeu hot ono cnso of enteritis apart from these or giiuilar 
canses. It in rlaimt'd, liowervr, by some that enteritis may be pro- 
dncrd by dritiktu^' -nhcu warm large quautiticM uf cold wat«r, driring 
through deop Htredms when the animal is heated, washing the entire 
surface of the iMxly at.sucb a tiuio, and by feeding moldy or musty 
foo«lB. or IcfWping the liorse in damp cellar stables. 

Symptoms. — Pobnlu Ayinptoms, from the omtct, mark all attacks of 
Idiopathic enteritis. Tbe membraoes of the nose, mouth, and eyee are 
congested and reddened, the month is hot and dry, rospiratinits are in- 
creased, the pulse is hanl and rapid, tem[H>rature is elerat4:d to 103'^ or 
105° Pab. UoUcky pains aro coutianous. Tbe horse walks abont the 
stallf paws, lies down carefulb', and mostfrc^iueotly turus biiuself upon 
bis back by the side of the tttiill and remaiuH iu this {losilion for Kume 
time. Thirst bt present. As a rale^ the bowels are sluggish or even 
<'ii;irL-.Iy inactive^ but when this disease is dae to irritant foodii or mod- 
it^uitft piirjiiuff aud tympanites may be prcseat- The inrtammatory 
pulse, high tem[ieratiire, continuous paiu, which is iuereased upon 
Itnssetirt', position of the horse when down, colduess of ears and legSf 
etc, will eunble us to dingnoRe a vamo of «mt«?rititt. Where enteritis fol- 
lows as a complication of diseases before descritxtl, the symptoms will 
dei>end u]>on the charHCter of the original intestinal disorder.* 

IVetUmeaf.— We must rely almost wholly upon opinm internally. 
Give I ur ^ drams nf powdered opium every three or four boura. 
One dram of extract of belladonna should be added to the above 
doses of opium. Onlomel in 1-dram doses twioo a day is also recom- 
mended. As a rale, purgatives and enemas are not to be given; our 
object is to beep tbe bowels as quiet an [msKiblo. IhiL hluukets applied 
to the belly, or counter- irritants to abdominal walls, ai-e ad vieable. Give 
BJucilagiDOOS drink.-*, as lin«eed tea, oatmeni gruel, and starch water. 
Avoid iili sulid foods that, are in the least hard, dry, aud indifjestible. 
U036 4 

If, frtaen the eymptoinn of iuflauioiatioii snbside, the bowels do not act, 
tij' to eucouia^e thia by iiu-ans of walking rxcrcifio and iujectioiis per 
rectum. Should tht'so fail i\ mild catliartio is indicated. 

Auotlicr form of disease, desvribDd by some as eutecitla, by others as 
mtipn entfrilix :ind "a/mjWr.ry of the large bo/Fc/«,"is innch mont C3mmoD. 
It iK jwihaiiti tUti most rnjiidly fatal of all bovrul diisoasc^, unci iit acea 
Qiost frequently in heavy draught horses. Its caases arc bard to deter- 
tniue, but it mtiy follow exposure to cold storms, iiuineniing the botly 
io cold \rat«r, mid in fact about the same causes that [troduce true 
eiiteritiH. Iii this diseaao wc find in the large bowels mostly an exten- 
Ai vc eifusioD or extnivittuktiou uf blooti botn'ceii the mucous aud musoalar 
coatfl, giving a bluish orblnck color. Tlio intestinal walls are thickened 
by this eO'usiou and Bometinies measure fiMim 2 to3 inches in thickness, 

The symploitis are wvcro and persistent pain, lubun^l re-spiration. 
rapid and tceak pulse, ]irofuse i>erspiraUuu, aud paleuesa of the visible 
Diucous inembrnntiS, A pceuliar, auxioiis exprc^j^iun exists that, euce 
seen, Ik almost diaffuostic. Toward the last the horse sighs, breathes 
Btertoronsly, staggers and pitches about, and dies iu a slate of deliriuiD. 
Tht'y rarcily live inure thau teu or twclvti houra, and ofLcu die iu&ido of 
six hours. 

Treatment. — This is of bat little avail, siaoo the case has mostly uiude 
great progress before btniig seen. Probably the best douiCJttJc remedy 
is white-oak bark tea given iu large and frcqaeuUy repeated doses. 
Tauuio aoid, 1 draui, or tluid extract of ergot, 1 onnce, are preferable, 
if at baud, aud can bo given every half hour until four or Qvo doses 
have beeti taken. Hot appHcatiunx to the body— blankets wrung out 
of hot water and spriukled wilb turpciittuo — are to be applied fre- 
quently. Mnstard water should bo applied with smart friction to the 
legs. Coald we see these cases at their iueeption general blood-letting 
might [iroTe of Bcrvico. 

Hernia. — There are several different kinds of bemiac that require no- 
tice at this point, not all of which, however, produce any serious symp- 
toms or results. Abdominal beruia or raptures are divided into reduci* 
bU. irraiucibtef and strangulated, according to eondition ; and into mj/mi* 
nal, scrotal^ tmtral, umbilical and diaphragmatic, accoiding to tbcir 
Bltaation. A hernia is reducible when it cau bo easily returned iuto the 
abdomen. It cuusisUt of a ttuft swelling, without heat, pain, or any 
uueasiueas, generally larger after a full meal, aud <tecreases in size as 
the bowels Ijccomo empty. An irredttcibh hernia is one that can not be 
returned iuto the abdomen, aud yet docs not cause any pain or uneasi- 
neas. SirangHlated hernia is one where tlin content>< of the sao are 
greatly distended, or where Crom pressure u|>outheblood-vesseUof tlie 
imprtsnoed portion tbe venous circulation is checked orstopi>ed, thereby 
canaing extensive congestion, awi-lliag, inti animation, and, if not re- 
lievi-d, gangrene uf thv part and ib-alli uf tbe animal, lieruiu m^J' be 
uougeuital aud accidental ur aequirud. 

• • • . t • 


Comgettital scrotal A^rjiia.— Not n few fools aro noticed ftttni bii-tb to 
bore an enlarged sci-otuni, wbicb griilually iua-tfOites itiMizou)! tualMitlt 
the sixtii tnnntli, sometimi'M Irjnccr. In some iustanccs 1 bavo noticed 
the aci-oluiu of a Hix-uitiuLbs oKl cult U> be oa largu oti tliat of un ailult 
BthUion, and bavo been repeatedly asked to |iresoribo treiitment: for it. 
Ibis is eotirely unneccsiiry in ntnety-niiio out of or«ry buuilred caaes, 
as tbia eiilnr;;t;uieuL trnttrvly di:ui)>i»vur.s by tbv tJnitt tbocdlt has reached 
bU fiecoad year. Auy inlerfereaceT uicdtuiual or surgical, in vcotsk tlau 
DselcK^ If the intestine contained witbio tbu scrotum sboutd at any 
time become strangutattd, it mu^t tUen be treated tlie same us in an 
adult horse. 

Scmialhernia is oansed by dilatation of tbe abeatb of the testicle, com- 
bined vitb relaxntioD of tbe fibrous tissue surroiindiu^ the Ingainal ring, 
tbiiii alloniiigllie inLeHtini^ to(lfHL>t>tiil to the surotiini. At Hrst ttiisixin- 
trriuitlcnl, a]>pfari»i; dtiriiig work and ri'tiiniing wlii>n the horse is at 
re&t. Tor a long tioiA this forcn of beruia may not cause tlic least aneosi- 
nt'ssordislrosa, In course oftinii', however, the imiirisoned gut In'ponies 
filled with feces, iU return into tlie »bdoDiiiial cavity ia prevented, und 
it Doou buuuiaes stnuigulutcd. While the t;^ut in thus filling tbo horse 
often npiKars dull, is disincliocd to move, np]>ctito is impnire^l, and there 
is rumbling and obstruction of tbe bowels. Colicky symptoms now 
tupcrvcnt-. I du not wixb to imply that stnof^ululiou ami itM c-onse* 
qurut train of symptoms aJjfAj^ follows in scrotftl hernia, as I know of on 
old horse where tho scrotnni, by weight of the containe^I gnt, forms a 
peDduIoiLs titmor rnuchiug half wuy to the hock, and yet he has ucvcr 
experienced uuy scriuiis iucouvcuience. 

liiifHiJiai hernia ia but on iacowplcte scrotal hernia, and, like tbe lat- 
ter, inny exi«t nnd ciiusfl no !jigni« of diiitreHH, or »gHin it may tKCome 
ftlratignlated and cause thi.' de;ith uf tbu :ii]imal. Iiiguiiml hernia is seen 
moitily in stallioiis, next in geldings, and very rarely in the mare. Bear- 
ing in mind that scrotal hernia i« Si-eu oidy in horsea, wo can proceed to 
detail the sffrnptotm of both strangulated, inguinid, .lud scrotal hernia 
at tbe same time. Whf ii, dariug the existence of colicky symptoms, 
we Qiid ahorw) kicking with his hind feetwbiic standing, or lying upon 
lii^ iMt^k, wn should look to tho ingiiinal region and Hcrotum. If scro- 
tal hrniia exiatfi the scrulum will be euhirged and lubnlateil; by press* 
oru wu may force a ix>rtion of the contents of tbo gut back into ibe 
al)doinen, elicithiga gurgling sound. If wo take u gentle but Arm hold 
upon the enlarged scrotum and tbeu have an assistaoL cause thehorae 
to cough, tho swelling will be felt to erpanti and as quickly {-DUfroct 


The liistor}' of these case.i will materially aid us^ as the owner cao 
otteu nasureusot' pceueUtug attacks of '^ colic," more or less m-vere, 
th»t hav« heoa instantaneously relieve<i in some (lo him) unftccounta- 
blD manner. The colicky symploois of th(^!(l• heruiu; are not diaynostie^ 
but, prubably, more closely roscmblo tboAo of eiitcritia than any nthec 

bowel diseases. Cold sweata, particularlg 0/ the acrotttm and (MgKt, ate 
liulil by domo %rrit«rs to be pattiogiiomoiiio. 

The (liagiiosis c»i>, in many ca^es, only lie maile by a reterinanan, . 
wlum he liuM rccuurHO to a rectal oxaruiuation ; tlie bowels can here be 
felt cQteriug the internal abdomiual ring. If tlid render UAii be sure of 
the exist«nce of these bemiic, bo should secure the horse U]>on its back, 
and, with a hand in the rectum, endeavor to cat<!h bold of the wander* 
lug bonel and pull it {^eiitly buuk into tbe caTity of the abilooieu. Prosa- 
nre should be made ui>ou the ecrotutn during thiri time. L once Buo- 
coeded iu reducing n strangulated scrotal hernia, after hnring cast the 
animal, by kei-ptiig a b»g of cracked ioe npon the acrotum, thuin onn- 
deusiug the imprisoned and cansing contniction of the awelling. 
U these meant; fail a velcrinanau must bo calleil to retluoo the hernia 
by meauH of inciRing the inguinal ring, replaeingthe int^Hlifie8,aad 
castrate, using clamps and performing the ^'covei'ed operation.*^ 

Ventral krrnia, — In this form of hernia the ])rotni»ton in Ihroagh 
some accidental opening or raptnro of some of the abdominal coats or 
ooverlDgs. It may ue«ur at any part of the belly except at the umblli- 
ens, and is caused by kieks^ blo\rM, hf>Qks, serere jamping' or pnlliug, 
etc Ventral hernia in most (.iimnion la iiregnant mares, and is here 
dae to the weight of the fubtus or some degenerative changee taking 
placo in the abdominal coata. It ia recognized by the appearance of a 
■welling, at the Intsc of which can be felt the opening or rent in the 
abdomiual tunirx, and from the fact bhnt tie swelling containing the 
intestines can be made to disappear when the animal ia placed in a 
favorable position. 

Treatment. — In many instances there is no ocoasion for treatment, aud 
again, wheco the hernial soo ia extensive, trcutment is of no avail. If 
the hernia is small we may attempt a cure by the methods to be da- 
scribed iu treating of utnbilical henila. If we are furtiinnto enough to 
be present when the hf>n)ia occurs, and particniarly if it is not too large, 
we may, by the proper appUcatiou of a pad and broad bandage, effect 
a perfect cure. 

Umbitim! hernia is the passing of any portion of the bowel or omen- 
tum through the navel, forming a " tttmor^at tliis jwint. ThLs is often 
congenital in onr animals, and is due to the imperfoct closure of the 
anibilicas aod to the position of the l>o<^ly. Many cases of urabilic.%1 
hernia, like Inguinal and scrotal of the congenital kind, disappear 
entirely by the time the animal reaches Its second or third year. Ad. 
vancitig age favom cure in these fuise<8 from the fart that the omentum 
(swinging support of the bowels) is proportionally shorter in adults 
tbau in foals, iliua lifting the intestines out uf the hernial sue and 
allowiug the opening in the walls to close. Probably one of the most 
frequent causes of iimbilical hernia in foals is the practice of keeping 
tlicm too long from their dums. oausiug them to frrt and worry, and 
he hour. Tho contraction of the abtlomlnal muselee 


and prosBuro of tho iotestiues during neigliinf; aecm to open the um- 
bilicuH ami iiitlaou iicniia. Accidents mny cati^e umbilical hernia in 

lulls io the same luauneraa veutral lierois iei prodaocil, though this 
vcrj rare. 

Trtatment — Tho treatment of umbltictil hernia varies mach vith 
(liffVreut practitioners. We hIiouUI remcmlter Ihu fnct that coiigttnital 
herniae are often removed vith age, but probably congenital umfciffool 
heruiae less bwinoatly than otbcra. Among the many plans of treat*' 
mcnt am to ha uaentioned the application of a pail over the tumor, tho 
IHiil being held iu plaou by a broad, tight baiid»ge placed nrontid the 
animal's ttody. TUo chief objecliou to this is the difficulty iu keeping 
the pad in its place. BUstcN are ofleo applied over the swelling, and 
as tbe shin banlens and contracts by the fornintiou of scabs an 

rtficial baudago or presaore is prudui-ed tb»t :it limt-s is Kuctieasfb], 

Another tn^atrneiit that has gained considerable repute of late yean 
oonslftt« in first clipping off Che hair over tbe swelling. Nitric acid is 
then applied by a Rmali brush, nniiig only enough tn moisten the sktn. 
This Beta up a deep-seatod adbusivu iutlammatiuu, which, in very many 
oasea, closes the opening in the narel. 8till another plan la to h^eet » 

latioD of common salt by m^^ti» of the hypodermic s\Tinge at three 

' four points attout the base of the swclliug. This nets in the same 
manner as tbe preeetling, but in my exiierieuce is net as edectual. 

Others again, after keeping the animal fasting for n few hours, cast 
oml secure it upon its back; the bovrel in then carefully returned into 
the abdomen. . The skin over the opening is to bo pinche<l up and one 
or two skewers are to be ruu through the skin from side to side as close 
as poitdblQ to tho umbilical opening. These skewers are kept in place 
by poesiog a eord around the akin between them and the alMlomcn and 
■ecnraly tied. Oroat care must he taken not t» draw these curds too 
tij/ht, as this would cause a speedy slough of tho skin, the intestines 
WDohl extrude, aiid dtiath results If properly applied an adhesimt la 
established between the skin aud the umhiliiuis which eOectuallycloses 
the orifice. 

IHiipkragnalie hemia~ — This consists of the passage of any of the 
abdumiiial vitieeni through a riMit in the diapbraicin (midrifT) into tho 
cavity of the thorax. It is rather a rare acctdoot and onn often iuipos- 
Kible to diagnose during life. Colicky symptoms, accompanied by great 
ilifGcalty in breathing, and tbe peculiar position so often assumed 
(that, uf sitting uiMn tbe hanuche^) arc sumowbat charaeterlNtic of this 
trouble, though thnie tiyinptoms, as we hare alreaily seen, may be pree- 
ent during diseases of the stomach or anterior portion of the bowels. 
T.M-ii could wo pronount%, with oertaiaty, this form of hernia, there Is 
litili- or nothing that cau be done. Leading the horse up a very steep 
gangway or causiug hira to rear up mny possibly cause the beruial 
portloD 1o return to its natural ppsitiun- This is nut (juuugh, however i 


PeritoHiih la au iuflainmatioD of the scroas mcuabraoe lining 
cavity of and cx^Tering tlio vis(!i-ni coiititi.ii-il withiu tlio abdoiiitiit 
It is very riiro to sco a caso of iUioiiatbic iwritomUs. It is, liowcvor, 
ftomevrhatcommou froDi extcnstnoortbc ioHiiuiniatorir nction inrulviuf 
orgnna covered by tlie peritoneum. Pfritonitis is otteu caused by in- 
juries, as [luiicturfd wounds of tbe abdomen, Ktvctc blows or kicks, or, 
'fts is Btill more cotiiuiou, following tbe operation of castration. It fol- 
lovg frequGutly from girangulnlcil bornia', iuvagioaUou, rnptnro of the 
stonincb, inteHtines, liver, or vroiiib. 

Ssmptomn. — Peritonitis i.s mostly precedt-d by a cbill ; tUe borse is not 
dis)>08e(l to move, and if compelled to do so, moveii wltb a stiO'or soro 
gait; be jtntrs witb tbe front foci, and probably suites at his belly 
witli the hind ones; lie* down very ciirefally, and as tbe t>aiti is in- 
creased wbito down, be tuaititains during moat of tbe time tbe standiog 
position ; be walks nueasily about tbe stalL CoDdtipaiioc i» usually 
present. Pressure on tbo belly causes acnte pain, ami tbe borwj will 
bite, strike, or kick at you if so di.sliubiHl; tbt' abdumeii is tucked up ; 
the extremities fine and cold. Tbo toraperatare is bigber thaa nonaal, 
rcacbiof from 103'^ to 101^ Fab. Tbo paUe ia pcrltouitia is almost, of 
itself, diagnostic; it is quickened, beating from seveuty to ninety beats 
per minule, aud is hard and iri'ry. Tbis peculiarity of tbe pubto ifl 
cbarncleristicof iuflaminatiou of tbe serous membrane, nod if oocorriog 
vitb colicky symptoms, and, in particular, if following auy iujaries, 
aecidcntnl or surgical, of tbe jierttoneuni, we may rest iisaured that 
peritonitis is present. Perltouitia iu tbe horse is moatl.i; fatal when ft 
is nt all extensive. If death does uob occur in a short time, the inflam- 
aaatioQ assumes a cbi-outc form, iu which there is au exteusivo effasioD 
of water iu tbe cavity of tbe Iwlly, coustitutiug what is ktion-u a8 
ascites, and which, as a rale, results in deatli. 

Tbe treatment of perilouitia is to hv Kouiewhitt like that of enteritis. 
Opium in powder, 1 to U drams, witb calomel, one b'alf dram, is to u« 
given every two, three, or four boors, and constitute oar main de- 
peudeuc* in this disease. Extensive counter-irritants over tbe belly, 
consiivtiucof mustard -plasters, turpentine stupes, or even mild blisters, 
arc highly recnnimeudeiL Purgatives mu^t never be given during tbid 
couiptaint. Should wo desire to move tbo bowels it csu l>o done by 
gentle enemas, though it is seldom ueccHriiiry to resort even to thin. 

Axcite»f or dropsy of tbe abdomen, is mostly seeu as a nvsult of sub- 
tcuie cr chronic peritonitis, bat may be due to diseases of the liver, 
kidneys, heart, or lungs. There will ho found, on opening tbe cavity 
of the Iwlly, a large collection of yellowish or reddish liquid; fi-om a 
few quarts to 8e%-eral gallons may Im* present, it may Iw clear in 
color, though generally it is yellowish or of a red tint, and coutttius 
Dumerons loose dalles of eoagulablo lyni[ih. 

Sumptaitis. — There is .slight tenderness <m presKunj; awkward gaitot 
the hind legs; the horso is dull, and may have occasional very slight 



colicky iiaiDS, bIioth by looking back aad nii-ikitie at tb« belly with 
Uie Iliad fvtft. Oncner^ Uuwevi'r, tliese colickjr symptoniH iiru uUiwut. 
Diarrhea ofteu precedes dcalb, but iluriiif? the progrcMi of lli» dim'UHO 
tlic- boircltt arc alteiuatol; uoufitipuud auU looiae. Oo pcicun^iiit; tbo 
abdotntijal nnlls we Aud tliat (lulliiptis exUte to the same height on liotli 
BJdca of Uie bdly; by suUdeiily pusbiug or Ktiikiiif; the iibiloineii wn 
call Lciu* tbe lushiug or iioodiHg uf wntcr. If (bu Ciish in uii U(lvutit;A.-(l 
oiiv tti« hor&v i« pot-bcllieU to tbc extreme, aad tlropeical avrcllluifsore 
sn>n tiiidur the belly und upon tlio legs. 

Trcalwrnt is, as a rule, uri:MtUractury. Salltiu catbartiotT as Gpsoui 
or Glaabrr saUs, ami diuretics, oaiice doses of saltpeter, are to bo 
girotL If a TotoriuAridQ Uat band hosboatd witlidrav the aecitmnlA- 
tioa of vater by tapiiiog and lUioiild tben ejideavor to preveut Hh re- 
curreKi'e (ihmigb tliis is nlmost xare Lo follow] by giving tbreo liiiiea a 
day ealtpeter, 1 oiiuui*, iiiid iutlidu of polnsb, 1 dratii, atid by tbe appli- 
calJoD of mustard or blisters orcr tbe abdomiunl waUs. Tonicfl, mln* 
cr.ll and vegetablt^, nru uIko itidieuled. Probably Ilia boMt Ifiitie ih one 
ooDsi-itiug of iKindereil sulpliate of iron, geutiun, aud ginger Ui ojual 
porta. A heaping tablespooDful of tbe mixture is to Im gtrciD ai * 
dreooh or miied witb tbe feud, tvico a day. Good ouLrilluiu foods 
aad goiitlo exorcise complete ibc LreaLmeut. 

DtsmsRs or tsk lived. 

This organ in tbe borw is but mrcly tbe iteat of di««aM, nml whvn 
we oonaider bov frequeoUy tbe llrar of mao la affected, tills can not 
bnt appear strange to all. There in a diflerence of the anatomical ar- 
raogemeDt of tlie Jivcr of the burse from lUiit of uiuu Ibat uiuy to aom« 
extnit Bceount for tbia rarity of dlaeaae in the former, ft is very com- 
non to bear tbe woald-be reterinarian assert tbataborse *' baa disease 
of Ua gaU-bladder." Ho thus dijtplays bis ignuranoe, as ibo horac baa 
BO sQcb biliary Te«errotr. This absetico of tbe gall-bladder may ao- 
eonnt to u certain extent for bis freedom from llrer diseases; as ofer- 
ditttSMioa of this and tbe preseoee In it of calcoli (stoues) in mau ta a 
frnjoesii Mtnoe of trouble. In dosMstio antmalH, tut In man, bot cli- 
nate* tend to pMdace diM*Aes of tke liver, just an in rotd climates 
iDBg diseases pravaiL Not only are diaeaaes of tbe llrer rare In borses, 
bat tb«y are also rery obMora, aad la many eaaes pass totally unob- 
■erred notil after deftth. Then nre some symptoms, bovevcr, nbicb, 
vben preaent, abonld uaketta examtoe tbe lirer as carefally as possi- 
ble. These an Jaandlea (yelloimcai of lire mneons membrioc* of tbe 
Boatb, sose, aad eym) and tbe eooditMm of tbe doag, It bciug ligbt in 
color md paaty in appearauee. 

BtpMitU, inftammation of tbe llrer, nay be gmcral or local and may 
•name an aeote or elironic form. Tbe «jrs*p(oa»of aentehepatitiaani: 
Pnl l oasa; tka borseissuffrring fkma aoaieiDt^Ttulpain, Imt not of a no- 
▼WBtypo; eoaatipatcd and clay oolared drag baUa,scaaiy ami faigh* 


colored urine, and genenil febrile symptoms. If lying down lie is mostly 
fonricl on the left Kid»; luokti oucaiiioiiaUy toward the rlgUt side, wlitcli, 
upou cloae in8i>ecUoD, may be found to be sligbtly enlarged over tbe 
posterior ribs, where pma upon pretttiure is utfto evinced. Obscure 
lanieueM iu front, of tbe right leg mostly, is said by some of tbe best 
veterinary writers to be a sym]>com of liepatttis. TUe hor&e, toward tbe 
last, reels or staggers iu bis gait and falls backward lu a faiotiag fit, 
dtiring oni" «if wliicU lii5 finally MHi^umlm. Donth is somi'timcw dao to 
rupture of the enveloping coat of tbe liver or of some of its bloixl-veS' 

Among tbe caatu that tejul to tliis disease \rc must mention first tbe 
ntiiuubitiat; oETiMst of overrucdiug, particularly duriut; bot weatber. 
Tbose horses that are well fed aod receive but little exei*cise — old favor- 
ites that are boiug liberally fad and bave passed the tium of servioe, 
pensioned hunies of yearn of faithful toil — these am the butt aubjecta 
for diseases of this organ. We must add to these cuasea tbe more 
mechanical ones, as injuries on the right side over tbe liver, worms in _ 
tbe Lirer, gall-stones id the biliary duct«, foreign boilies, as needier or I 
nulls ibat bave beeu swallowed and in their waiideriugs have entered 
tbe liver, and, lastly, in some instanoos, the extension of inllam (nation 
from oeigbboring parts, thus involving this organ. Acute hepatitis may 
terniinnto in chronic inllainniation, abscesses, rn[)tnru of tbe liver, or 
may disappear, leaving behind uo trace of disease whatever. 

Treatment. — This should oonsiat>, at first, of the attmiuistralion of 1 
ounce of Barbadocs aloes or other physic. A. large blister is to be ap- 
plied to the right side, letting it extend from a liLLle behind tbe gitth 
backward to the last rib and in width about 12 to^'^ iuche^ midway 
between the epiuo above and the middle of the belly below. Ueueral 
blood-letting, if bad recuarsu to early, most provu of much benefit ia 
acute iiillnmrautiOD of the liver. The vein in the neck — Jugular — moat 
be opened, and from 4 to 6 quarts of blood miiy bedrawn. Saline medi- 
oiues, to act on tbe kidneys, should follow this treatment ; L-ounoe do^ea 
of saltpeter or muriate of ammonia, repeated three or four times aday, 
are proluibly .is good as any. The horse is to bo fed sparingly on soft 
food, brau-iuasbea chiefly. If we prove suuceasful and recovery takes 
ploco, see to it that tbe horse nftcrwai'ds get<> regular exercise and that 
his food is not of a highly nutritious character, or excessive. 

It will, I thluk,be useless toattemptmuub of a description of chronic 
hepatitiiit the eymptoms of ibis trouble being so ob^touro that the veteri' 
nary snrgooo, in most cases, can scarcely bope to do more than diag- 
nose it by exclusion. True, ifa horse has had acute hepatitis and re- 
mains dull for too great a length of time, with oucasioual slight colicky _ 
ayinptoms, yellow membraneo, etc., we may not fear of being far wrong m 
in saying that this disease has pas;jcd to the chronic form ; but to diag- 
nose this form uf hepatitis, without any such previous kiiuwludge of 
the case, is, to tell the tratb, very often *' guess-work " with ua. 




Jaundice — fcttrm~Tke Yeltotet.— This is a coudition cauecd by the 
retentiou awl uU^rptiou of bile into iho b)oott U was Torruerly con- 
siilurei) to be a i|i.s«'ii!tH of itKttfk', but uiiu not. I tliiuk, be accepted lu 
niurc Uiuii a sym|itouj, or at must as expi'Gssiiif; tbu uocistcuce of fuiio 
tJuTial diaonler of tbe liver. " Tbe Yellows " is obsvrred by lookint; at 
tlic eyes, nose, aimI luontli, wIk^h it will be seen tbat tlicsc i>arti> an 
yellowisb instcail nf tlit^ jtalc-pitik color of beiiltli. In vvliile or ligbt- 
colort-d liorses tbe sklo even lahy sbow this yellow tint. Tbe uriuu is 
safTroQ- colored, the dung is of n dirty grfty color, and oonsHimtiou is 
moMly prtiscut. Jnuiidico may be present a» a syinptooi of al most any 
indninmaLiiry diseaKe. We kuow that when aa animal ia "fevered" 
tbo secretions are checked, tbe bile is retained and absorbed tlirougli> 
nut tlie nystem, and yellownfM^n of tlie mucous membranes follows, 
.Tnitndio? may also exist during the pre-souce of simple consttpntjon, 
bepatttiSf biliary calculi, absceiues, hardening of the liver, etc. 

Trca/meB*.— SVben janndioe exists we must endeavor to rid tbe sys- 
tem of tbe excess of bile, iind this is best nccomplisbed by givinj,' jmr- 
gativi!)) tUiit act npon tbe liver. Calomel, 2 draniK, tvicli nloi^s, 7 tirams, 
slionld lie given. Qlanber salts in bandfnl doses once or twice a day 
fur a wi'ck is also eire<^tivc. Miiyapplr, rbnbarb, catttor (til, and oilier 
f-^thiirlios tbal act upon the llr.'<l or smull bowels, may lie e4!lf<teii. 
Wo mui^t bo careful to c«e tbat tbe bowels are kept open by iivuiding 
bard, dry, bulky foods. 

Rttpture of Ike Hvcr. — Tbiit itt known to nocnr at titnes in the hone, 
mo^t frequently it) old, fat borses aud those that get bnt little exercise. 
HorKPS that bavognflered from chronic liver disease for yejirs eventually 
pn'M>nc KymptomN of colic and <lie ijaite Hnddenly. Cpon post-mortcM 
'exMiDiiiatiou wo discover tbat tbe liver had ruptured. Tbe cicatriuea 
or scars that are ofteu found upon the liver lead mu to tbink tbat that 
Ofgnn may snlFor amalt rnptnre and yet the borso recover froni it. This 
rewd: can not obtain, however, if the rent or tear is extunalve, since io 
wxdt cases death nmett quickly follow fixini beniorrtmge. or, later, from 
imritoultls. KnlnrgtMl liver is particnlarly liable to rupture, and it Is 
not .sarpiisfng that, when we read of thia orf^ntvei^bing 55 totiO pounds, 
this accident occurs. The liuiuediute causes of rupture appear to 
be cxcestfivp muscular exertJoii, sudden distention of the ubdonieii with 
^^^iL«ouie accident, as falliuK or beiu^ kickeil by auotber horse. 
^HmPqrMl>b"n»of ru|)turu will dviKMid u]m)u the extent of the Licera. 
tlofi. Jf slight there will be siiuidy the sympioms of abdominal pain, 
looking back to the sides, tying down, etc.; if extensive the Itoriu! is 
dall aud d<oect«d, baa no ajtpeiitc, breathing bccouics short and cntcb- 
iog, b» Kigli<) or sobfi, viHible mneou^ uietiibnitieM art< pale, extremities 
cold, pultie fast^ small, and weak or runuiug down. Countenance now 
ftbowd mncb diHtrosM, bo HWcats pnifniwiy, tottera in blR gait, props his 
leffs wide nparC, reels staggers, nnd falls. lie may get up Again, but 
400U falls dead. The rapid ranuing-do-vii pals4<, p:ileueds of tbe eyea, 


nospj nud aiontli. sigliiiig, Btortorousbreatliio^, tottering gait, etc., are 
tbe symptoms by whicli wc kuow tliat llio atiimul is dying from intrr- 
Dol beiiioriliagc. 

Trfatment.^Kul little cnn be doue. 0|)ium id poirilcr, in rloara of '1 
drams ervry two or tbree boiirs, may be given, witli tba idea of pr 
rctiting as mucli ax ponsiblo »U movcmi-nls of itiIiTiial organs. If 
havi) reason to suspect iuterual blcvdiug we sboald givo large and fr 
qtiiMit doses of white-oak bark ten, drum dose» of tauuic »r gallic ' 
acid, or the same qimntity of sagnr of lead, overy lialf lioiir or liour. 
Fluid iixtrnctorer^ut or tiucturoofttie cbloridoof iron, ianuocudose^, 
may be solncted. Cold water daslied upon tlio riglit side or injt-ctcd 
into lUe rectum is bigbly spokeu of as a mcana of clicckJDg tbo bem- 
orrbngo. M 

Biliary calculi. — OaU-atoaes. — Tbeso are rarely found in tbe liorse, but^ 
may occupy tliO bepatic ducts, giviug rlso to jaundice and to colicky 
pains. Tliero are no nbsolntely diagnostic symptoms, but slionid waJ 
find a horse that soffera from repeated attacksof colic, accoaipaniwl by 
syui]}tou]s of violent pain, and tbat daring or fultowing tbese attacks 
Iho nniiual isJaundicAd, wc may hazard Cho conjecture tbat gaU-»touc3 
are present. Tlicre is little or nothing to be dniio except to give medi- 
cines to orercouio pain, truntitig that theiie concretions may pass oa to 
the bnwcls, where, from their smalt size, lliey vill not occasion uoy ia* 

Diiieasea of tho pancreas and spleen arc ko rare, or their symploa)3.| 
BO little naderstnwl, that it is imimssible to write anythiug couceruiug 
either of tliuso organs iiiid their simple disea."H-s that will convey to (Uo j 
reader information from n worthy stand-poiut, t, «., that of oapcrieucofl 
and observation. It is sometimes well, even for tho veteriiiariaD. to n 
know tliat be docs uot know. This kuuwlcdge bas «avcd uiy ruadura . 
an inaiction. 


/M'\ '"''■'•' '*'"''*"/" 

.■<figro.ttntiiii ami/ittun 

. L'*'f''/ If'-'-' lilt 'til ft 'I rpfmtn 

r x'l'HSTis.w. won N\ s 


Bj JAMES LAW. F. R. C V. S., 
Pr^tuor o/ t'eitrt»itri/ .Virata, ehi., In Corurtl rntrrrtily. 

TliP niinnry orgnng coDBtitiite tlip main clinnnel tlirouRli wliifili are 
excretctl Ibi! tiiti-ogoiiDuti or atbuminoid prii](!ii>Ic», wliutlier derireil ili> 
leclly from the food or from IberaoMiiIaranii olberuitcop:ciii»iMl (isKues 
of tilt* body. Thoy constittite, bosidos, the cbauael tiirougli wliicb nre 
tUrowii out uiostof llic- jKiisoiis, wbptbiT liikuii iu by tb« iiioiub or skin 
or derelopeil io oonncctlou with faulty or natnral digestion, blood* 
fonuiag, nutrition, or tissue destruction; or, finally, poisous tbitt are 
develoiKHl wii-bin the body as th« Ksaii of noriual cell life or of the life 
of bacteria or other gt*riiiHtlmt have entered Lhu bcxly from vrilhout. To 
a large extent, therefore, these organs are tlie snuitary scavengers nud 
pnntiers of the system, and wbcrn their rnnclioiiH are impaired or ar- 
rP6tcd the retained poisons quickly above their pre-tence in resulting 
tlijionlers of the skin and connective tissue beneath it, of the nervoua 
system, or other organtt. Nor h thin iufluertce one*KidC4l. Scarcely au 
important organ of the body can enftcr ilerangcment without riitaiiing 
a corresiwnding disorder of the urinary system. Notiiinj* can be more 
Btriking than the mntual balance maiutainetl lietweeu the liquid secre* 
tionsoflbe »kiii and kidneys during hot and cold weather. I u sum- 
mer, nbi-u so much liriuid exUale» through the skin as avrent, compar- 
atively little urine is passc<l, whereas iu winter, when the skin is inact- 
Ire, Ihe orine in correxiMiudiugly iucreased. Tbia vicarious action of 
•kin and kidneys is Uitually kept within the limits of health, but at 
limeathe draiuioc off of llio water by the skin leaves too little to keep 
tbe solids of ihe urini^ aafely in KOlution, and these are liable to crys- 
tnlltze out and form stone and gravel. Similarly the passage in the 
aweat of some of the solids that tiorwally l'-av« llm body, dissolved in 
the nrine, ecrres to irritate tbe ekiu and preduce troublesome erupiioas, 
A disonlered liver coutribctes to the production, nnder different cir- 
ca mslauces, of an excess of liiliHry coloring-iuatter, which stains the 
nrine; of nn exce.-M of hippiiric acid aud allied products, wbicli, being 
lesM M>labIo than urea (the □ormal product of tiaauo cbauge), favor the 
fbniiBtloQ of Htoue, of taurocbolic acid, and other twdies Ibat tend, whea 




to destro; the blood globules and to a^aw irritntion of the 
liitliieys by ilio nwultitic bii^mo^lobiu excreted iu tbe urine, auil of 
glyeo^D too abuudaut to t)c biirucd ti|> in lliu nyiitfin, wbicb io- 
ducf'K sacL'bariiio urino (limK-lfft). Aiiy disorder loading to impftirwl 
fuuctional activity of tbe Iiiinfs in cansative of an exceiw of blppiiric 
acid and alUrd bodiu-Jt, of «isulic acid, of sugar, etc, in tbo iiriuo, which 
irritiitv Lbc Uidne^a even if tbey do not iirudaoo «<did deposiln in Lbe 
urinary paMsa^jes. Dist'ases of Ilie nervouB Byatem, and notably of the 
base of the brain and of the apiaal cord, indnce TarJoua urinary (US' 
onU'r», proiuiuent among wfaicli are dlabetva, obyluua urine, atid al- 
biiiiiiiiiiria. Certain affcctioiis, with imperfect nntrition or deatructiva 
waste of the bony tissues, tend to charge the urino with pbosplintesof 
lime and uiagnetiia, and endanger the furniation of atone and granb 
[n all extensive in(tainiiiations and acnte fevers tlie tiqtiida of (be urioO 
are diminished, while the solids (wnate product«), wbicli should rorai 
the urinary secretion, are increased, and the sarcbargwl ortne prove* 
initant to tb« urinary organs or the retained waste produele poiaoa 
the system at targe. 

Diseases of the heart and liinfrs, by inteiferliif; with the free ouwanl 
tlonr of thit blood from the right Hide of the beart^ tend to throw that 
liquid back on tbe veins, and this backward prcttaure of veuoua blood 
sirongly tends to disorderN of the kidneys, Cerfain poisons taken with 
the food and water, notably thtit fonnd in inafcneaian limeatone and 
those found in irriiaut diuretic plnnta, are eKiKKiJally injurious to ib« 
kidneys, as are aliso vanotiK cryptogams, whether pn-sent in musty hay 
or oats. The I(idn»\V8 uiny be irritulcd by fecdiiiji green vegetables 
covered with boar-frostor by iVtrnisbing an esoess of food rich i» pbaa- 
phates (wheat bran, beans, pease, votehea, lentils, rapt? cake, eotlon-seed 
caku) or l)y a privation of water whrrb entails a coiiceiilralcd condition 
and high density of the nrine. Exposure iu culd rain or annw storms, 
cold drnugbta of air, and dump bcdu are liable to further disorder an 
already overworked or irritable kiibiey. Finally, sprains of tbe back 
and bibiN may cause bleeding from tbe kidueyH or innamination. 

Tbe right kidney, weighing i!3^ onnces, is shai^d like a French lM*nu, 
and extends from the loins forwanl to beneath the heads of tbo last two 
ribs. Thp left kidney (Plate IV), resfuibleKabeartof enrdK,nnd extends 
fi-um lbe loi us forward beneath the bead of tbe last rib only. Each eon- 
aistsof tbreodistinct partu, (a) tbe external (cortical) or vH«cnbir par(,iu 
which the blood-vessels form elaborate capillary networkis willdn th« 
dilated globular saea which form the bej;iiiuingH of the aecreting 
(ariniferous) tabes and on tbe surface of the hJiihous seoreting tubes 
leailtng from the sacs inward towurd tlie Hei;ond or medullar)- part of 
tbe organ; {b) the internal (medullary) part, mmie up in the main of 
blood-vessels, lymphatics, and nerves extending between the notch on 
thi; inner biirdcruf the kbiney to and from the outer vascular portion, 
in which the sedetiou of uriue is almost exclusively carried oui and 




A Inrpe saccninr reservoir En tlie uenter or the kidney into nrhtch all 
uriti iferotiH tubes {wiir ttit^ir Kfi-ifliouH niid rrtim wliicli Ibe urino is 
earned avrny ihrougli atube rTi (iii%lt-t-}. ivhivfa i)a5se»uutoftlio notch at 
tbe inner bonltT of tliu kitliicjr hikI wliiob ojicns by ft valve-closed oriflee 
into thit roof of tin; bln<ldpr jtiHt in front of ittt tu>t-k. Tii« htiidd^r in a 
ililHtabI« rvs^rvoir fur tlie reloutiou of llio urine until the discomfort of 
ita preficnce caases its voiunlnry di«cliarge. It w kept ciiMwd by cir- 
cular mnsculflr fibers !*nrrotindin(» its neck or orilicp, nud U emptied by 
loofveil musculur tiberit exleiiiliii^ in al] dirt!ctiunH furward fn)m the 
□eck around the blind anterior end of the sac. Prom the bladder the 
arinp e«r(ipi'« tliwiitrh a dibitabb* lubt^ (nreibra) ^rbitib extends from 
Ibb iieck of the blitddor bac-kwiird ou the Hour uf tiic |)t<lvix, and in tho 
miUe througli tho {tenis to its fr«o cod, where it opens tbroagb a piulc 
fsonical papilla. In the miirci the un-lbra itt not mom tUan an inch in 
leuglb. and is siirroundetl by the circular nitiscnlar fiberct closing llio 
D«c)£ of tb« bladder. Ita op-^ninf; t]iay be found <Iirectty in tho median 
Hue of the tlonr of the viiira, about 4^ inclicH from it8 external oiieninK. 
Genera! ttymptomx. — These i4M*'y ettpvcially to acute inflaainiationa 
and the irrilatiou caused by stoue. The anitnni move^ Btillly on tbd 
binU limbs, straddles, and makes freqiicutattcmpta topnss uriuc, t^hicb 
may t>e in excosH, deficient in amount, liahlo to Hudden arrest in Kpita 
of the Klniiniu;^, i>a:!i»ed in dribiel!>. or entirely ^tippresiied. Agaiu, (t 
ntaj be moiliried in detisity or constituents. Di^icnlty in makiuf; a 
Bbarp tarn, or in If ins down nnd risinir virh or without frronniti?, drop- 
ping UiH 1):ick when mouiitf^d or wlit'U pinched nn the loinH \s migKeat- 
ixv of kidney disease, and 80 to a less extent are swelled legs, dropsy, 
aail di.-<cii»ca of (he skin and nervouH Nystem. The oiled band intro- 
doctil thiough the rectum may feel the bladder Ueueatb and detect any 
ov#T-4liittcii»iii>n, swelliu*;, temleruegs, or fitoue. Iti ponies the kidneys 
I'VfH may lie reached. 

Ec<uniaaliaa of the vrine. — tn some vaaei tho chan^ca in the uHne 
*i«tlM8ide si$:u or di»ea»e. In Uciilth the horee'a urine is of a dvep 
■oil»r rolop and has a 8tron;j odor. On a feed of grain nnd hay it may 
^w a unilorm transiKirency, while on a green nition lUere ia aa 
*1)ot)dimt white dc|>os(t of carbonate of time, Uf its morbid changes 
•'» follunine """(^ t" be luolicd for; (1) Color: White fnnn deposited 
fciltsoriime; brown op red from blond clots or coloring maltcr; y<'llow 
^ onngf> from bile or blood-pigment; pulo from cxcena of water, or 
**rtinn(ly colored from vegetable jngrediintB (xnntonln mnkes it red, 
rbnbari; or Bcnua, brown; tar or carlwlic acid, j-iccn). (2) DeMtty: 
Tie liorne'a urine nmy be 1.0:jO to l.«50, but it may greatly exceed tlila 
llttlnlielen nnd may sink to 1.007 in diuresis. (3) Chemical reaciioN, 
■< Wcertalned by blue litmua or hmI teat impeiK. The bors« on vege- 
USIi. iiif-t haa alkaline urine turidng red test innpcra blue, while in the 
U(^l;it]g-oolt and the horse fed on deah or ou bis own ttwtuos (in star- 
Wiou or abatlueacu during diaea-w) it U acid, turning blue litmus red. 

(4j Orgmmie tmrnatHmafU. « vWa filait;- lina i Hi—jk *— g-WWf bj 
ftioog nitrk acid and boiliof . vhm ihii^iil «^ ■iaaaeapie cuts ol 
the arinifcTOiu nibes, witk the tggi or hodie« «ff woib^ vith ncV| 
blood, cr bile. fS) /■ Or «Ut, ThichMyciTatafiKoirt ipaataMoiulf, 
or on boning, or ob the additaoa (rf'cfacHieal i e - a g e«l ». 

AlbamiDoos mine in the horse u ssnal^ fl^aiiy, ao that it h^ be 
dravD oot in threads, bat its pi es eBce caa alsi^^s he tested ■• feOmn: 
If the liQuid is opaqse, it Maj be fast pMsed thnach liter p^per; H 
mry dense and alnady preeipitadns in wmbMf it maj be ditatad ^tt 
distilled vater: add to the sospeeted liqaid aeetie acsd drap bj* disp 
■iitil it reddens Une litmns paper; tken bo3 gmOf ia a tnt tabe; 
if a precliHUte is thrown doTD^set the tabe aside to eoal and ttea add 
•troog aitrie acid. If the prcciiHtate is not d i aanl wd it is alboaea; if 
diaso) red it vas probabi v mate or hipponte nt asmoaia. AlbomeB h 
normally present in advanced gestation ; abBosmallf it ia seen in dii- 
cases ID vbich there ocean destmetioD of Hood globaleB (aathxax, low 
ferers, watery sUtes of the Uood, dropsieB), in disrasesor the heart 
and liver vhkfa prevent the free escape at blood firoa die v^oa sod 
throw back venoas pressure <m the kidneys, in inflsBBation at tks 
lon^ and pleorz, and even tympany (bhntiagK doabdeas fioai tbo 
same caose, and in all ccngcetive or iikfiaBB^tny diseacca ofthekid 
neys, acute or dironic. 

Casts cf the nriniferoas tubes can only be seen by placing the SDS- ] 
pecteil urine under the microscope. Tliey arp nsaally very elastic and 
mohlle. vaviu^ about in tLe liqaid when the cover-glass is tcnebed, and 
sbowiiii; a oniform clear transparency 'waxy or entangled circQlA' 
ei>:th«;:ial ceil^ or opaqae grannies or datteced red blood globnleso* 
clear refiangent oil globnles. They may be even densely opaque froXf^ 
cr>~<ttaU of earthy salts. 

Pn^ eeiJii may be fonndin the arine associated with albamen. antf' 
are teco^Jzed by clearing ap. irben treated with acetic acid, so tlia^ 
ea<:h cell .shows two or three naclei. 


OF rsisE. 

TIji.'* vtnnisVi in an excessive secretion of a clear, watery nrine of a 
low !»i»ecific;,'ravity fl.fXti) with a correspondingly anient thirst, a rap- 
i'lly ;Kh-anciijg emaciation, and great loss cf strength and spirit 

Il-i '.aimti may \fe any agent, medicinal, aliDieutary, or poisoaooa, 
whi';lj iiii'luly HtioiDlates the kidneys; the reckless adniioistration of 
t\hii*:t\vM, which form such a common coostituout of quaek horse-powdery 
a','ri»l fliurettc plants in grass or hay ; new oats still imperfectly cared ; 
an of rofjts or other very watery ftwd : a full allowance of salt to 
anirti;«lii that have Wcome inorilinately fondof it : l>>ore all, feeding 
on hay, grain, or bran which has not been properly dried and has be- 
come iiiujity and x^'^oieated by fnugi. Thnshay, straw, or oats secored 

n wet seasons and bentinfr in l!ie rick or Btacl: is csppcially ipjnrions. 
iltftico this iunli»l,v, like coma aoniJioleniHtn [elwyty htaggerA), in wtdo- 
epretui in notscunons, Hiicl eKptetiilly tn rniny diRtricts. 

Hymptoma. — The liorse drinks deep nt every opixtrt unity and jmiinCA 
anno on erery occasion wlieu 8topi>ed, the discharge beiug pale, watery, 
of a low deniiity, and inotloroas; ia short, it cootaiDS » great excess of 
wmtt-r iiiid a dfficiciKry of the solid excretions. So great is theciiniitity 
passed, UoueviT, thiit tli« koiuII aniontibof Kolidti in any invou Hitecimen 
ftiQoaDtA in twcDty-four hours to Tar niort- than tho nurniAl, a fact in 
beepiug vitli tlie mjtiti wnHliiig of thv lisRuoH and extreme emnetntion. 
The flanks become tucked np, the ial di6ai>pear£, the boties and luiiscles 
stand oat protntiiciitly, the skin becomes tenne and hidebnnnd. and the 
bair erect, soirjy, and deficient in luster. The eyn becomes dnll and 
sanken, tho spirits am depressed, the atiimni is iveiik and sln^gish, 
sn-oals on tbo slightest exerLiou, and can eudure little. The stibjent 
may snri'ire for monihSr or be may die early of exbanstion. In tho 
filigbter cases, urnheu the caaso ceasea to uperute, he may make a 
8<Mneicbat tardy rctov-ory. 

Treatment. — This consists in stopping the Ingestion of the fialty 
diDffs, poisons or food, and sapplying sonnd hay and grain frt-e from sll 
tdttit uf beating or uiustiness. A liberal i)n]>ply of boiled Huxseed 
is the drinking water at onc« serves to cliiniiinte the |H>isu» und tosheath 
Bnd protect tbe irritateil kidneys. Tonics like sulphnto or phosilhnte 
of iioo (2 drums morning and evening) and pondered gentiiin or 
I'eruTiau batk (1 drams) help greatly by bracing the syMeui and hasten- 
ing repair. To these may bo added agents calculated to destroy the fitn- 
(UB imd eliminate ils poiKonons prodnots. In that fi)nii nhicb depends 
va miuty fuutl nothing acts belter than largo do.tes uf iwlide of iKita-S- 
SLQm (2 drams), white in other cnsea creosote, carbolic aci<I il ilmm), 
otnilof turpentine (4 drams) properly dilntod, niuy bo resorted to. 



Ilia Is primarily a disease of tbe nerrons system or liver rather tlian 
tthe kidneys, yet, as tbe most prominentsyniptoni is the sweet urju«, 
■maybe treutt>«l itrrc. Its eatiMftnro varied, hnt rcsolvo themselves 
larp-ly into disorder of the Itx'er or di<<ordt!r of the braiu. One of the 
HQinent functions of tbe liver is the formation of glycogen, a 
le allied to grape-sngar, and pasrttng into it by fiirtbcr oxidation 
IB the blood. Tbis is aconst^iut function of tbe liver, but in beallb thu 
rrsnlUng sugar is bunie<l up in the circulation and does not ap]>ear in 
the orine. On the contrary, when the supply of oxygen is defective, aa 
iDoerlaiudiseasefi of the lungs, the whole of tbe sugar does not undergo 
«WDhnstion and tho excess Is excreted by tho kidneys. aI»o in certain 
Ihrms of enlarged liver the amoout of Kngarprodacel is more than can 
he disposed of in the natural way, and it apiwars iu tho urine. A tern- 


porary swoetncsa of th« urine afteii iKSfiun after a hearty meal on 
staruhy food, but tills is due altogetber to the soperabniidaDt supply of 
the sngar-fonning fooil, lasts for n few hours only, unci hiiK uo iniIIio- 
logitiiit t^igiiillcdiice. In many cases of fatal glycosuria the liver i$ 
foniicl to he etilargtHl, or at least cougeiited, aud it tg fouiiU that the dii- 
onter cait be produced experlnicntally by agencies which protlace an 
increase*! circiiliitiou through the lirer. Thus Bernard prmluced gly^ 
caiuria by pricking the nbloDg iiicdullii at the base of the braiu closo 
to the roots of the paeuiiao gastric nerve, which faappeos to be also th& 
Derve center [vaso-uotor) which presides over the contractions of tfaa 
minute blood -vesiiieliii. The pricking and irrJlalion of thia center leads 
to congestion of tlu* liver and the ttxuesaivo production of sugar. Irri- 
tation carried to this point throngb the pneamogastrio nerve caase* 
sacchaFiue urine, ami, in keepin;; with this, dii^case of the jxincreas has 
been found in this maliuly, the irritation being conveyeU tht-nce to ths 
brain ttirougU the pneuuiogaatrio nerve and retlccted to the liver through 
tbe vasomotor nerve*. The same result follows the reflection of irrita- 
tion from other sonrces, as from dilFereni ganglia (corpora striata. optic 
thulauti,puiiK,(rerebelUin),(»4rt>brum) of the brain. Similariy it is induced 
by iDterruptiou of the nervous control along the vaflo motor traots, aa 
in dcKtrnctioii of the upper or lower cer^Hcal Kymputhetio ganglion, by 
putting the nervous branch connecting these two, in injury to the spinal 
marrow in tbe interval between the brain and the second or fourth dorsal 
vertebra, or in disease of the ocolinc plexus, which directly presides 
over the liver. Certain chemical poJsiMis al.'io c^iuso Navoharint; urino, 
notiibly woorara, strychnin, morphia, phosphoric acid, alcohol, «tber, 
chiorororm, quiniii, aDimouIa, and arRenic. 

TIm- xymptnmH are arilvnt thirst and profnse secretion of a pale nrina 
of a high di'Ufiity (1. 000 and upward). rapi«l los« of couditioii, scmfy, un- 
thrifty skin, eostiveness or irregnlarity of the bowels, indigestion, and 
the pnwence in the urine of a sweet principle, grape-sngaror inosite, or 
both. This may be mo»l. pmniptly detected by toncliing th» tip of the 
ton{;ne with a drop. Sugnr may l>e dett^cted simply by adding a tea- 
spoonful uf liquid yeast to 1 ounces of tlie oi-ine and keeping it liglitly 
stopped at a (v>mpi>ralure of 70o to 80o F., for twelve hours, when 
the sngar will be- found to havu been changed into alcohol and e;irboa 
dioxide. The Ioks of density will giveindicalion of the amount of sugar 
transformed; thus tt density of ].035in a iirino which waa formeriy 1.060 
would indicate iibuut 15 grainH of Ktigar t<i ihe llniil onncu^. 

InoKile or mnscle-sngar, frci^uently pres«ut iu the hursu's urine, and 
even replacing the glucose, is not fermentable. Its presence may ba 
indicated by its sweetness and llio ubsonci; of fcrini-ntatiou, or by tial- 
lois' Evapuratt> the susperLeil urine at a giMitttt heat almual U> 
dryness, then adtl a drop of a solution of uercuriu nitrate and evapo> 
rate carefully to dryncas, when a yellowish resi<1ue is left that is changed 
on further cautions heating to a deep rose color, vhiuh disappears oa 
cooling and ro-ap^wnra on healing. 


dtnbeteR, dropsies in the limbs atui nuder tlie cbest and 
■ITjr, Kwollen eyelitls, u:itiiracU, ciiUrrbal iiiflanniiatiou of tba 
lunga, veak, ODcertaio gait, aail tlrowaiac«s may hn noter). 

Treatment is most satisfactory iu «aaea ilepeudeat on some cnrable 
seoftirer, piiticrcDS, laiigB, or bmhi. Tims, iu liver disease, a ma 
^{Mutora in warm v«atli«>r, or Id winter a warm, aiiiiny^ well-aired 
ihle, with Hufflcicnt: clothing and laxatives (sulplmlc of soda, 1 ounce 
daily) and allEalioa (carbonate or (Mttaaatnm, onivfonrtli oiiiice) may ben- 
eflu To lliiH may Ite added mild b1i»tt«rinf;, cup|tiiig, or even li>ecliing 
ov» the la«t ribs. Diseaaes of the brain or iKincroa;^ may be treated 
acconliiije to their indicAlions. The diet should he mainly albnminous, 
SQch as wheat bran or middling, i»cikse, bcaii«, vetches, and milk. Iq< 
de«d, an exclusiro milk diet is one of the very best remtxlial ageiioiea. 
It may be given as skini milk or butter-milk, :iud in the last case com- 
blhtsan anti(liiib<>1ic rcmi'dy in the lactic acid. Under such an exclu- 
"i^vdifit rec«ut and mild cases aru often entirely rcetuix'd, tbou(,'h at 
"■e expense of an attack of rheamatism. Codeia, one of llie alkaloida 
*r OfMum, is strongly recommended by Dr. Tyson. The dose for the 
'^Tte weald Uu 3 gruin^ thrice daily. In chauh Iu wliich thvru in muni> 
f^&t irritation of the brain bromide of potossiam, 4 drains, or ergot, oue- 
^alfouiieie, may bo resorteil to. Salicylic acid and aalieylato of sodinm 
•"ttre proved osefiil in certain cases ; also pliosphate of sodinni. Uilter 
^'Hkiea (especially uux vumiu^ ouu half drum) arc useful \a ioiprofLog 
^« iligcatiou and general health. 


•AtK^n in the hurtMt bloody urine ie usually the direct result of me' 

I *^«aieal injuries, aa sprains and fraotares of the lolus, lacerations of 

">•) sahdombar tuusdea (psoas), liritatiou caused by stouo iu the kid- 

■*>", ureter, blmldcr, or orethra. It may, however, occur with acute 

coiigMtiuii of the kiduwy, witti tumors in ita substauce, or with papil- 

'"toa or other diseaiUMl growib in the bladder. Acrid diuretic plaota 

|i>'«vat in the food may also lead to the escape of tdoml from the 

ItHtoey. The prediftpuflition to this alTeclion in, however, incomparably 

^■Kb tban iu the ease of the ox or ttheep, the diffi^reoce being attributed 

h> the greater plasticity of the borse't} blood Iu eoDuectiou with the 

l*ri!M quantity of fl brine. 

The blood may be pt-oitent in small clots or In more or less intimate 
*d>>iixtare with Ihu urine. Its condition may furnish Rome indication 
■• to tts aouroe ; thus, if f^m the kidneys it is more likely to be uul- 
foruljr dimised throagh the iiriue, while as funilshed by the bladder or 
P**IHea cIotH are more likely to he prctteuU Again, in bU-Mliut; from 
ll" kidney, miuute cylindrical clots iuolosing blood globules and formed 
I* ilie uriniferooa tubes can be detected under the microscope. Precis- 
Idd iIm) tnay be approximated by observing whether there w coexiiitiQg 
fraclnre, sprma of tho loins, atone or tumor iu tho bUdder or urethra. 

uoaa — 5 



The difleose beiog maliil; due to direct lujary, trtatmrnt will wntiat 
first ID romoviu^ each uause wbeuever possible, and then iu upplyiui 
gt^iit'ml aiul 1oo»l stjptifis. IrritauU in food muBl b« avolde<I, ripnufll 
a[i|)ropriatKl>- txi-atwl, aixl «I«ne in lilwldcr or uretlim removod. Thol 
give mQcilftginoua driukx (elliiperj eltu, lirist^vd tea) freely, and mvptio 
(tiiictnre of chloride of iron, 3 drains; acetate of lead, one-lialf dram 
(aniiio acid, one-liAlf dram ; or oil of tarpentlue, I onuce). If the (li« 
otmr{,'i3 in uliundant ai)ply cold water to the loiiiH aad keep Uie maima 
pert'ectly atill. 



Like dinbotcs, thig is rather a di^i'iwo of the llrer and blood-fonniB| 
fouctioiin than of tb« kidaey, btit as prominent symptoms are Iwsol 
ooutrol over the biud limbs and the pa^sitagu of ropy and dark-oolorem 
nrine, the rnl^r idea la that it is a disorder of the orioat; orgaos. IM 
is A complex nJTi'ction iliivctly couiioctcd n-itli a plethora iu the blood oj 
nitrogeiiixtHl cunHLJ t iicn tt, with extreme nerroui) luid muscular disordttf 
and tbe excretion of a dense reddish or browuijdi uriiw. It is directlj 
oniiiiected with high feeding, especially on highly nitrpgetiised tooi 
(oats, bcaus, pea»o, vct«beM,(M>ttoii-80«d meal), and willi a period of i(ll& 
iieiwt in the stall aiiiler full rations. The disease is iierer seen at p&» 
turv, ntiely under constant daily work, even tbough the feeding be high 
and the attack in utsnally precipitated by taking the borne From Ui4 
stable n»d 8iit>joctiitfi it toesom»e or work. The i>oi.4oning is notprcfr 
eiit wbeu taken from the Htable, a« the horse is likely to be uoticeablf 
lively and spinted, bat be will usnally saociimb nuder the first handred 
yanls or lialt' luiltt of exercitiiv It ntM^ns as if the aapiratuo' power 
the chest tinder tlie sudden exertion »n<l avt^Ierat^ breathing si>e«dil; 
drew from the gorged liver and abdominal veins (portal) the aecum 
latrd store nl' uitrogeoons matter in an iri][>«rfectly oxidized or ehil 
rated vonilitiuiif ami as it' the bliMHl, earcliurKoil with these material 
vas uaablo to mamtaiD the healthy fuDotioas of the oerre centers a 
ninHclea. A pei^uliar anatomical feutiu-eol' the burse's liver doublli 
contributes to this, namely, the perxisteuiw, thninghout life, of seve 
(MMi.'udcrablv reins leadiuj; directly from the veins of the stomach ai 
Intestines (portal veins) into the posterior veua oava and heart. 

This oondiliou, comiuou to fmtal muninials, perxists through life I 
tlir Hiili|M-ilH only, amiing our donit-stie animals. In all otb<<ni the [tor 
rem ha^t no communication with the vena cara except through 
capillnries of the liver. Witli the direct channel the rich, crado bloodj 
com lug from the iiil«ulinit>t is drawn utoneeinto the general oiroulatiod 
nurliitngfd by the secretion iu the liver and the chemical changed 
therein effected. Ilence thim dist^oso is iKs^ultar to 80li]>eds. U has be«4 
noticed rather mnre fr(H]uei)tly in luiin^ tbnn bnrseH, atlribatabU>, inaVi 
haps, to the nervous excitement attendant ua kait and to Uie fact thai 

tbftiiimatilated mare ts oatarBlly more excitable thao tlie doctte gel^- 

Sjimpttmu. — In tbe mildt^r forms tills Afr<^tion may api^^ar nn a Inme- 
>•«( in uDo limli, fnmi iii<l'>f)iiit(^ cause, siiooK'tliiig to some i>n<Mi'ii (•x- 
artliia and nttL-ndod b; a tluKhy-bniwn t^ilur of tbn lauuitiruiifji <jf ibo 
ejeaitd nG»e and aome irinciae irbeii ibe ribs are Htrnrk. Tlie 
*nvKrorni»t!nmofin uftermivor two ih\y» of r^st on a flill rntiAii, wlioii 
iiiiuial )i.iH l)i><>ii lukfti nut »n<l ilrivpn niiK liiiiitlr(<it piitx'M nr iiiiiri;. 
Bre ftDi] lire witb wliicb tin liiid lelt tlio stable siiililenl.v give |iUioo 
tudallnnui uiitl oppntMsion, aa stionn in livavititfUiinkn, ilJIiitt'il iimtrilfli 
pindie*! taw, iM^rspiriiiu skin, an<3 tretobliiig bo<ly. Tbe mii.-wIeM ortbe 
lotn* nr bauuch I>l><m)iiiu awulh^ii :iiii) r\g'n\, i)i» Hubjotit innvex Hliflly iir 
untewlily^croocbos beiiiml, tlie limbs lieJnff carried (^cmitbxctl, and lie 
>ooadiop9, aaable tosii)>]H)rt himtMilf. When dovru, the Ikk))' and llnibg 
innmred oouvultilvHly, hul thire m mi power of i-oonliriittion oC nioi'p- 
nvul in tlie muscles. Tbe poise ami breiitfaiiig are necetenit^-d, llie 
em red with a tiuf^u or brown, und the urines if iMHiird, i» aeeu U> be 
fcisbljr colonel, dark Irrvwii, red, ur blEiuk, bnt it cooiaius nuitber blontl 
ct'<bitor gtobiili'M. Tbe color is mainly duo U} biLTDuglobiii iind utber 
inivdertly t^tiibunttcHl L-oiiHtiliieut^ of tbe blood. 

It nay end futatly iu tt fi'w boura or days, ur a recovery may oii(«il«r 
•liieli is usually luore 8[H.-fdy aud |>erfect if it liu« wet in lU an t-Arly 
■^v. III the bite Htid tianljr recovuriw » jKirtiiil piiralyitiH of tbe bind 
Rnih« iii»y laxt for muntlis. A frequent hmiuuI of tlieae tanty voitcN Is 
sot'ilenflivi' waslinjT of tbe maw^Ies leadiiiR u|i froni tbi- fn>lit <tf til© 
Hide (thoHe suppliLM] by l.bc craral ner^-e), and a (;'>nipleLi* itiubilily to 

^pprrrmtiom nfthis nerionH afTectinn lies in rr«trictin(c the diet anil 
iHiii; daily i>x<'rc:iMe when tbL< auimul ib not at wrk. A bonw tbat 
Iu* hatl one attack sboalU never be left idle for a H)n;;le dHy In rbi> ntall 
vliara-yanl. Wbou a borxe hiw been uoiiduiuDM lo alMubitv ritpoMt 
• fino«l feeding he may bavo a liixatire {onubair to I punnil Olaaber 
■dts). iiud have ;;nuluute«l exunT)M<, begianilig' with a eborl walk, und 
•"iTf-Miiig day by <l.»y. 

Tbe trtaSnmi of the m(ld eases may coiuuat in a laxative, ffnuliuited 
^ily exercise, and a daily don of aaltprter (1 ounce), l^uddirii attBi:ka 
*ill Mtaetimea prDtnjitly subadi)« if Ukca on lli« loctaat and tbe aub- 
Jwi kept atiU and calmed by m doss of l>roni)dr of iKitoMtam (4 
) sad sweet Kpiriu of nii^r (1 oDQoe). Tim UriT baa (be advao* 
of locreaBini; tl»« •«<cn-lioa »f ibe kJd[»F>«. la Micro owe*, »s 
«Nlf, it is dmlrabln to begin trsslMeat by a full doee of aloe* (< I" « 
^ma) with tbe abors-BSflMd dose of bromide of pura*»inm, ami ibia 
luirr Biay be eooUooed at imerral* of four or atx faoarsr as may lie 
••qiiiaie to ralm tbe nrrvooa cxciieinraL Fomeolaiion" with warm 
*kter orer tbu loina am alwaya iMrfal in calotinic lite excit»bl*< iviudj- 
Qiui vf tbe spinal oovd, ussuk*. Urcr, aod kidmsf, sad also U bvur> 


iag fwcrvtioii from the two latter. On tbe second tl ay diuretics maybe 
reported to, Muvli us Haltpeter, oue-lialf ouuce, aud powdered colcbicam, 
ouuliulf dram, to be re]M>ated twicw daily. A laxative may be re- 
peated in Clirett or Tour dayn ithotild tlie ImwoIh si-i>iii tu di-iimud it, and 
as tUi> uervotiit uxci cement dittaiipeiira any reniaiuing muscular weak- 
DCM or paralysis may l>« treated by oue-balf draoi do>M>8 of titix vomica 
twice a day and a sttmnlatJng liniment (aqna ammotiiH and aweet-oil 
iti t*i|uat ]in>pi)r[ionH] rubbul on the torpid iuuscTuh. 

Duriug tUti course of tlie diseat>e friction to the limbs is usefuli and, 
in tbe advanced paralytic sta^ the application of electricity atoDg i 
line of tlie nITectcd mu.S(dt'-s. When the jmlient can not sUind lie mast 
have a thick, noft bed, and nliould be turned from side to side at least] 
every iwelvo hours. As soon as he can bo made ta stand bo may : 
helped up and oven supported in a sling. 


Intlawniationsof tlie kidneys have been difterentiat«I widely, accord- ; 
ing at! they were acute or cbrouic, parcncbymutoas or tubal, sapparatiT* 
or not, with iiicreiwHl nr shrunken kidney, eta, but in a work like ibe 
present, utility will be consulted by claaaing all under acute or ekronie 

The oauAMof intlamtnntionof the kidneys arc extremely raiicd. Coo- 
g««iioD ouuurM from the altered and irritant ptodueca paased tbrougb 
these organs during recovery fhim inHamniation8 of other organs and 
during fcvurM. ThiH may \aal only during the uxiKtcnuv of ita canties ■^ 
may persist and biKiome aggravated. Heart diseaws throwing the blood 
pressure back ou the veins and kidneys, is another cause. Diseaae at 
the ureter or bladdfr, ]>r»venting the escape of urinu from the kidney 
and causing iucreased fullncits and tension in its pelvis ami tubes, will 
deterniiDC inilammation. Decomposition of the detained unn« Id sach 
caites, and the pmdaction of nmmotna and otiier irritaitls, must also ho 
named. The advuncv of bouteria upward from the bliidder Lu tho kid- 
ney is another cause. The couaumptioii in hay or other fodder of acrid 
or irritant ]tlants, includiitg fiiugi, the absorption of uantharidine from 
a surface blisterud by HpuniMh Hies, the reckless ailmiaistratioii of din- 
relics, tho preseuce of stones in the kiduey, exposure of the surfaou to 
cold aud wet, aud the intlictiun of blows or spniins ou the loins, may 
contribute to its prwluction. Liver disonlcra which throw on tho Kid- 
neys the work of excreting Irritant products, diseuse& uf the lungs aud 
heart from which clots are curried, to he arrested in the small bloods 
TC£selH of tho kidney, and injuries and paralysis of tho spiual cord, i 
additional causes. 

The sjftaptomt are more or less fever, manifest stifToesa of the back ai 
•traddling gait with the hind limbs, difllunlty in lying down and riaini 
or in walking in a cirelf, the animal fcumf times groaning under the effort,' 
arching of the loins and tucking up of the llauk, looking back ut 

anrtomcD as If from colicky pain, and tenderness of the loins to pinch- 
iug, especi»\ly jant beoeatli tbe bony procenaes 6 iueli«fi U) cine side of 
the mediao Hue. Uriiie i» hahm-x] fre(]uentl.v, asmall quauitty at a time, 
of ft bfgb color, and Kometimi"^ mixed witli bloud or ovt-ii puK. UDdnr 
the isicrDBOope it sIiowh the microscopic casts referred to nudcr (;«iivral 
sj-mptoms. If treated by ucctic acid, boiling, aud 8ub»%quui)t addition 
of stroDg uitric acid, tlic n-Nultinj; and ppmixl^'nt pre<;ipi(iit«' itidicatea, 
tlie amoant of albamen. Ttie legs tend tu kwcII fmru ibo Fuot tip, aliio' 
the dependent piirtA benc-ntli the belly, and chest, and effiiitions of lujitld 
may occur wltliju tbe chest or nlxloinen. In tbit ronle imininl tlii^ alter* 
nate drawing ap and relazatiou of tlie testlcU-^ in the scrutuin are iug* 
£<-atire, and in small horses tiic oil«il hand introduced into the rectgni 
mnr reach the kidney aud ascertain its scusitivcuow. 

Treaimtnt di'iuand«,flrst, therviiioralof anyrevognizi-vli'uuHe. Then, 
if the HofTering and fe%'er are high, 3 to 4 (jiiaita of MikxI niny lifi ali- 
atracled from t ho Jugular rein; in freak Htil)ji!i:l» or uiiltrtut lu bifch fcTcr 
thia shoald be omitted. Xext relieve the kidneys as far as possible by 
tbruwjuf; tbvir work on the bonels aud skiu. A pint of caj^tor oil U 
le&(^ likely tliaa either aloes or salu to act on the kidneyn. To affect' 
llio shiD a warm stall aud heavy clothing may ho siipplenieoted hf 
dram doees of Dover's ttowder. Boiled SaXMee<l may be added t'O tbo 
driuklug irat«r, and also tlirovu into tbo rectum as an fnjecfirm, and 
blankets luturaled witb hnt irater shoald be pemiiitcntly appUod to tbo ' 
loios. Tfaia luay he foUovrcd by a very tbiu pal|i ot the iKsst irround 
mustard made with tepid water, rubbeil In aKaitiKt tbe direction of tbe 
hair, and covered np with paper and a blanket This may Iw ki*pt ou 
for an boar, or until tbe akin thickens and tbe bair stands erect, ft 
may then be robbed or sponged off and tbe blanket reapplied. When 
tbe aetioQ of the IwwcIh bns been msirted it may bo kept op by a doily 
doae of 2 or 3 ouur^M of Glaaber aalta. 

Daring recovery a coarse of bitter tonics (nax vomica 1 scruple, 
id gentian root 4 drains), sboald be fpven. The piiilimt nboBld 
be guarded against cold, ««t, and any active exertion for some 
tiioe after all active symptoms hare sabaUed. 

assontc asLkxnjLTiox oy the kwxzjb. 

Ohrooic inflammation of tbe kidneys U more commonly associated 
with albcunen and oaata in tbe nrtne than the acute form, and in aomi* 
inatatKws these oonditiOBa of tbe nrioe may be tbe only pronltwat] 
qrmptoms of tbe diaeaae. Though it may supervene oo blows, Injuriea, 
•ad exposorea. It ia moch more oonunooly oonaectcd with faulty eoD* < 
dltiou of tbe syaleB— «a indlgeatiea, heart diacase, lung or liver dia>' 
taao, unpcrfret blood formation or assimOatloo. In abort* ll is tatbtr 
tbeattradantonaooastitatiotjaliDlrmiiy Utanon a siaiple local injury. 

It may be aaaocialed «ilb varhmafarmBof discaae*] kidney, as dhrink- 
(atrephy), iuercaae (hypextropby), softeulng, rvd oungeaCion, wUl* . 



enlarK^mont, etc., so tbat it forms a i^Toap of dieeases ratlipr tlian a 
disi-ajieiby itswlf. 

Thv. sffrnptomii maj iDcludc BtiflTDPKs, veaknpao, anil incTeased sontri- 
Wltty of the loin«, and modified secretion of arme (increase or SPp- 
pressioii). or tbp flow Di:ty )m^ natiiml. UKnally it iK>ataiiiPi albnnien, 
the amount fiirtiiKliiDg a Tair cri(«rioti uC tliu graf ity of tbeafTeotion, 
and luicroscopic casts, also most abundant in bad caara. Dropnj, 
manifested in i^wclled \cs», is a signtacnnt ttymptom, and if tho effasioD 
takes plat'o aloti^ l.lio lower lino of tbe )iO(l>. i»r in cMent or abdomen, 
tlie(ti<;n)ficacic« ia increased. A sciirfy, nutbritYy skin, lack-lnst^r hair, 
inability to sasiain severe or cnntinne<l pxerlinn. jtoor or irrfipulnr ap- 
petite, loss of fat nud tlcsfa, softness of the mnsclett, and pn'lnr of ibe 
eyi'H anil none oro equally t<npf:<>Hlivt>. Soan> Kkin eriiptinoH nfrarioiu 
kinds. Anj' one or more of these symptoms wnntd warrant an examina- 
tion of the nrine for albnnien and raats, Iho Bnrljtig of which signifirti 
nnal inflammation. 

Treatment of tliese caaea Ih not always satisfaetor}', as the canse is 
liable to be maintainetl in the diaorders of important organM eltwwhere. 
If any Hudi coincidtMit disrusv of another orgiin or fnnotion can bo de- 
tected, that Hlionid l)e treated first or Kimnltaneously with this aOection 
of the kldoeya. In nil cases the building np of the generaJ health ta 
important, flenoe a conrsH of toniM may be given (phosphate of iron, 
2 dramis; nux vomica, 'M Krainsj powdered gentian nwt, 4 drams, 
daily), or W drops of unlphuric acid or nitro-mnriatic acid may he 
given daily in the drinking water. If there isnny eletated temperntnre 
of the body and tt^ndrruejw of the Inins, fementationn may b<i aiipli*>d, 
foltowed by n mustarr] pul p as for acute fnfliimmaliou, and even in Ibe 
absence of thOAo indications the mustard may be resorted to with ad- 
vantnge at intervala of a few diiys. In ROppression of nrine, fomenta- 
tioiiH with warm wiiti>r or with iiifiiKiiiti of di^ilallit leaves is a nnfi-r 
resort than diaretics, and cu pping over (lie loins may alio heoefit. To 
apply a cap abaro the skin and oil it; Ihca take a oarrow-montbed 
glass, mrify the air witliin it by intrmhiciiif; a tnper in fall flame for ft 
aecond, withdraw the taper and iu8tMntly apply tht* mouth of the gl. 
to Ihc nkin and hohl it cloxely applieil till the moling tends to form 
rarnuni in the glass and to draw up the skin, like a sucker. 

As in the acute iiitlitmuialion, every attention niust be given tosecu. 
warm clothing^ a warm stall, and pure air. 


Tumors, whether malignant or simple, wouhl gire rii«e to symptoms 
KACnibliuK Komc form of intiiiiuiuntluu. nud arc nut likely to be reeo^*^ 
niuHl (lurii)g life. To paraxiten of the kidney bvlouc the ^ehinococcntj^ 
tbehtrva) or hiadder-worm stage of the sninll eehinocoocna tape-worm 
of the dog; also the Cyxticercm /intutarU, another bladder-worm of an 
mikiiowo tai>e-wormi but iu these there is the poasibitity of the pas- 


sag^ with the nrine of a flf^9Pli*i1 lipad of tlie Wadder-wonn or of some 
of 1(« mtcnMCopic! linoklplH, wUicli mtgiit lui rooml in Ibe 8«Iinii>til of 
tbr nriue. Ho witb HtroMggliu sigtu (giant Htrooele), tlin larcmt of rontid 
wurni^ vrtiit^tj lt»« W-va foutid in tlie ki'Iuey of Uie bone, au<l the (jfta- 
ent» of wiiii-li (y>iilil only Ik* ccrtiBfil by ibe pu«ag« of its iu[«ro«coplo 
eg^ w of Uie entire worm. 


TtiiK affection oontiistii in HpaHiuotltc ctcMure uf tbe onUet fmai tbe 
blatlilvr b.Y loiiiu cuutracliuii or ibe circular uioiKuUr libera. Il iuii>' Im 
aocomjrauictl by a paiiirnl eoutractioo of Ute Dtasclea on tbe bwjy of tli« 
bladder.or if tbv organ is ulruiuly andaiy diataodeil tbeiw will tw nffVMrted 
with t«>ai[>iinkry iwralysfs. It Ib mu«t lriM|ut*nt lu tbe hcinu;, but liy ao 
mvaita iiiikiiowii in tlie mare. 

Tbv oawtu are luually bard and coutiauuatf driving witlMmt.n[t)Mrta- 
Dit,T for [>nj<«ing nrine, mUl rain-iiitonns, draogbu uf cold air wbeu per- 
ii{tirtug and fatigued, lli« adiuiuiKtmiiun uf Spauuib lly or tbe apjtltcs- 
tiun of exIeiMire blisters uf tbe tuiaie, abiine uf diuretioe, tbe preHeucd 
of itorid diorutic plants io tbo fodder, and tbe prcMcuue of atone in tho 
bladder. Am moMi iDar(!s reTuite to arinale while in bamejut, tbt^y should 
be otibitcbed at sait.ible times for urination. SpaxitiB uf ttis lMJw**la 
arc alwayK aUpadtxl by spaatn uf ibe bladder, beooe tbe free passage of 
vater a tUQiilly a Bytoptom of relief. 

The tgmptoma are fre<)U(>ut mretebiog and Hrainiog to orinale, witb no 
reeolt or a aligbt driblding only. Tbeiw vato efTortii are aiiended by 
tialti aiMl iiruaninf. On reMnniof his uatund pooitiou thn animal la 
uot fteed trom tbe pain* bot morea UMAsily, |>awit, sbakea the taiU 
kiebs at the abdomen witb bis bind teet, looks tfack to the Hunk, lies 
down and ru«a, arcbes tbe back, and aUetnpta lo urinate as bufore. If 
tbe oiled baud in inlroduced into tbe rectum tbe {:T«iUly distended blaii- 
dft may b« felt beueatb, and the patient will often sbriub wbetk it id 

It Im ImiiortaDt to DoCioe that irritation of tbe nriuary oreaos la oAea 
prrsent la inpacttoo of Ibe ooloo with solid niatt«ni, because tbe im- 
pacted iDtwtiBe uadar Uie stz>tMiag of tha patient is forced backw^r.l 
into tba pdTia and pceaaea npoo and tnilatSM tbe bludtiir. In uil-|i 
caaes tbe burae aiacds with bis fore limbs advacoed and Uie bind onrs 
■netted bade beyoad the oataral poatttm, aod ouUub freqnrot eBorta 
Ka oriBAtt witb rarymg neeeaa. UnptMOoed oba tmn vacorally eoa* 
dii4e that Itae aaeoadory oriaar) tiunbte ia tbe main and only oae, uimI 
tbe iolastioal hopaotiua and obatractioo is too often occlected until it 
Is fmmedtaMa. Io caaea wben (be irritaticM baa oaaaed ifMam of tbo 
oeck of tbe bladder aod orerdiMtirtiaioii of that cvgao, tbe miiiake is 
Hill mon eaaily nada, b«w» tt is iBp<irtant in all caMss to exatnioe for 
Ibe tmpAded bowel, foralnfra bend or loop at tbi> rnfraoepof tbe iiclria 
■■d tinally towaid Uw left aide. Tbe imp^ctett int«»iiu«leeIaeo(tiHHl 


doughy, and is easily indcotcd witb tbo knuckles, forming a marb«l 
cciiitriiHt witb the teiiH^, eiiiHtio, renilioiit oviTtlisiendeil liliuldvr. 

It niuiaiuB to l>e noted tliat similar symptoiuM may be detenu iued bj* 
a BtotiPt or 8vbac«nii8 niafM^ or stricture obstrncting tlie arethra, or in 
the new bom by thickened mncns in thnt dnct and the pressore of 
hanlfiH;d iinpi^cttid (€ce» in Lhv rvotum In obstruclion, tho hard in- 
imclwd botly can usaally be felt by tracing tbo urethra'along tbo lower 
and poslfiior wnrfany of th<' jtoniH and fnrwanl to the nievlian line af 
tbo floor of the pelvis to the neck of the bladder. That jiart of tbe 
iiFf tlira between the seat of obstrtiction and tbe bladder la uaually dis- 
tended with nrine, and feels enlarged, elastic, and flnctnatiiiir. 

Treatmcni may lie bei^iiii by taking tlic iiiiiiiml out of banicKK. Tbia 
£(iUiDfr» 8pr«ad clean litter beneath the belly or turn the patient oot on 
the dung-heap. Soaio seek to ostjtblish sympathetic action by {louring 
water from one TeJisel into another with dribbling noiw. Others soolbe 
and diHtrnol tbo atlunliun by kIow uhiatlini;. Friction of Ibo abdomen 
with wisps of straw may succeed, or it may be rabbed with ammania 
and oil. These failing, an injection of 2 ounces of landanniu or of an 
iafattion of 1 ounce of tobiiei'u in w utcr may be tried. In the maiv the 
ucck of the bladder in easily dilated by inserting two oiled fiDgers and 
elightly parting them. In the borso tbe oiled band introdaocd into t))« 
rectum may pivss from bef(»r« backwanl on the anterior or blind end of 
the lilaiUler. Finally a well-oiled gum elastic eatiieler may be entered 
into the urethra tbro-.igb the papilla at tbe end of the peois and pnshed 
on carefully until it has entered the bladder. To effect this tbo peuis 
inuHt BrHt be uitlidiann from iH sheath, and when tbe advancing etxl 
of tbo catheter has reached the bend of the urethra beneath ibo nuns 
it must be guidnl forward by pres»nre with the hand, which guidance 
must be continued onward into the bladder, tbe oiled hand being intro- 
duced into the rectum for this purpose. Tbo horse catheter, .'*J fee* 
long and <nie>tbird inch ia diameter^ may be bought of a snrgical-iudtra- 
meul maker. 


Paral.vsi8 of tlic body of the bladder with spasm of the neck baa been 
described under tbo lust beading, and may occur in the aume way from 
ovenlieten!»i')n in tctiinus, acute rheumatism, paraplegia, and bcini- 
plegisi,in which the niiiinid csu not stretch himself to stale, and in cys- 
titis, nfl'ectiug tbe body of the tjla<lder tmt not tbe neck. In all tbeae 
ca»e» the urine is suppressed. It also occurs as a re<sult of ditteaae of 
the posterior end of tbe spinal mnrruw and with broken back, and ia 
then associated with pjilsy of the tnil, and it may be of the hind limbs. 

The sffuiptomt are a constant dribbling uf urine when the neck is in- 
volved, tlie licpiid ruuntiig down tbe inside of the thighs and irritatiag 
tlie skin. When llio neck in unafToetcd the urine is rctalneil nntil the 
bladder is greatly overdisteudeU, when it may he expelled in agt 


b; tfae Bctire oontraclioQ of the muscular valla of tlie abdomen ; but 
tliis never empUirs the blatMpr, and tli« oilefl liand introduced tbrough 
tbo reclutii oiay frel Iho sofi, flabby organ ctill UalffuII of uriuc. This 
relftiutd uriue U Habits to decompof^ aud gi%'« vS atnoiouiu, wliicb dJa- 
■olrtw ibo cpitbclial cells, exposing Ibo raw mucous meubraae, aod 
CMnsiiig tliti n-urst t^iie of cyKtilix. Stipprt>!U(ion ami inconttneocA of 
uriiiu ate coiuiuod also to obstructioo of the urethra by tttotie or olber- 
wise; hence tliis sourvv of fallacy cLoatct be excluded by manual ex- 
aiuiiTation nlong the vbote course of that ducU 

Treatment Is only applifable in cases iu irbieh the detenniiiing canse 
can be abated. In rpme<1iable sprains of the back or disease of Iba 
Bpiniil cord tbe»c niaHt linvc appropriate trentineut, and tbe arine roust 
be druwn off frL>qucutljr with a catheter to prevent overdistension and 

Jar; to the bladder. If the paralyttis jkersistaaAer recovery of the 
lal cord, or if it conlintieti afti-r iclicf of spasm of tlic neck of the 
bladder, apply a palp of tunstard and water o^'er the back (larc of tbe 
belly in fVout of tbe udder, and cover with a rug antil the bair clnmls 
«rect. Ill the male t)i<t mustard may Iw applied bctwerii lliit tliiglis 
ftvoi ocar the anas dowDward. Daily dosea of 2 dianis extract of 
belladonna, or of 2 gmtnH powdered Spanish By, tnaj ser^o to ron«« 
the lost tone. These failing, a mild current of electricity daily luaj . 


Cyalltis may b« alight or severe, acute or chronic, partial or general. 
It may l>o caascd by abuse of dturetic», rs]>cciatly 6uch ua aiu imtutiug 
(eautbahdes, larpeutine, oopaiba, rcsiu. etc.), by Ibe pre&eaceof aeione 
or gravel in the bladdwr, tbe irritation of a catheter or other foreign 
body iutrodoced Crum without, the septic ferment (bacterium) iutro* 
iluccd on a (illhy catheter, tbe orenlisteusion of the bladder by re- 
tained uHoe, the extrication of ammonia from retained decornivosincj 
arine, n»ti]rjog in Ui-Mtructiou of the i-pitLvlial cells and irritation of 
tbe r&w surface, and a too-concentrated and irritating oriDe. Tbe 
application of Spanish flies or turgieotine over a too-cxteni'ivo aurfacc^,, 
euddcQ uxpoKnre of a perspiriag and tired horse to cold or wet, and tbe ' 
preseuce of acrid plants fu tbe fodder may cause cystitis, as tbey may 
nephritis. Finally, inllummation may extend from a disetuKd vugtn» 
or urethra to tbo bladder. 

Tbe tymptoma are slight or severe colicky pains ; tbe animal moves 
bhi hind feet uneauly nr even kicks at tbe abdomen, IooWk aroand at 
bis flunk, and may even lie down and rise frequently. More char- 
actrtintic are frequetilly repeated efforts to urinate, resulliug iu tbo 
diiteburge of a Utile clear, ur red, or more commonly floccident urine, 
alvajrs in jets, aa<l aecompniiied by Kigna of pain, which |wrsist after 
tbediiit-biirge, aa »huwu iu cnnliiiued ^t^aillillg, groaning, and perbapc 
in muvemeuu itt the feet and tail. Xbi} penis hangs from the sheftthf 

or in the mnre the rnlTji !h frpQnptitly oponed and pIobwI, m tifler ari- 
□attoD. The »Tiimal winces wlien the atnloaien la presoed in llie rrgion 
of fbe (tlu-atli or iultl<^r, and the bladder is found to hp Hcnttitivp and 
tender irhen prewu^d with the oikd hand introduced throngh tli« reclnm 
or vagina. lo the nian> the thickeuingof the walla of the bladder maj 
befeltby introdncinK one* fingrr through the urethra. The discharged 
nrino, which tuay l>e tiirhid or rven oily, contaitm an excess of tnacaS) 
with flat Rhredrt of momtirane, with acaly epithelial cells, and po» cm- 
piiKC'Ie^, each sliowinic two or more nuclei when treated with aoeitio acid, m 
but there are no micrwcopic tnbnlnr canta. bh io nephritis. If doe to I 
ntniiH in thu bladder, thai will he found on exam i nation tbrough rectam 
or vagina. 

Treatment implies, first., the reniovnl of the canse, whether poisona 
fowl or iw mcdtciiir, the removal of fpiinisb Hit-it or other hiiateri 
H^ruts from the nkin, or the extraction of stone or gravel. If (ho uri 
baa been retained and decoinpofii'd H must be completely evacuated 
through a clean citbeier, and the btaddi*r thoronghly waobad ont vith 
a Holution of 1 dram of l>orax iu a quart of water. This must be ro> 
peated twice daily until the urine iio longer decomposes, becaust^ aa 
long US ammonia ia developed in the bladder the protecting layer of 
epithelial cella will be dissolved and the aorfaoe kepi raw and irrila* 
ble. The diet must be light (bran mashes, roots, fteah grass), anil tba 
drink imjiregnatcd with linaecd tea, or aolution of alippory-eltn or 
niarHh-umltow. The same agenta maybe uaeil to inject into the rectam, 
or they may even be used along with bor^x and opium to inject into 
blaildiT (Kiini arubio, I dmm ; opinm, ] dram; t«pid water, 1 piutj. 
Fomentations over the loins are often of g^eat advaotage, and thesa ■ 
may t>e folloored or alternated with the application of mustard, as ia 
pHralysia. Ur the uioKlanI may be applied on the back part of the at>- 
donien below, or between tho tbighH from thu anus downwiurU. Finally, 
when the acute symptoms have subsided, a daily dose of bucliu 1 
dratD, and anx vomica one-half dram, will serve to restore loaL toue. 



Some horses, and eapecially mares, show an irritability of the blad- 
der nod nerve centers pre-sidiog over it by frequent uriuaCioQ Id 8iD^ 
gnautities. though the urine fa not manifestly changed in oharacter 
fiDil no more than the natui-al amount is passed in the tveuty-roar 
hnnrH. The disorder ap|H.-ars to have Its aource quite as frequently ia 
the generative or nervunn system aa in the urinary. A trooblesume 
and dangerous form is st.-eu iu marca. which da-nh oITand refune nil con- 
trol by tbe rein if driven with a full bladder, but usually prove docile 
if the bladder has t>een emptied iH'fore hilohing. In other eases tlift 
excitement connected with getting the tail over the reins is a powerftd 
drtf-rniining cause. Tbe coodiliou is marked in niaoy marea duiiug 
the period of A«a<. 



An ot«ft|nt)OQs liutatire (castor oil I pint) will nerre to reuinro any 
lowiNe of imtacion In ttie digt^sUvu ori;.iii(t, aa4 a ua re fat dietitig will 
avoul roQtiiiiie<l imiation by norid vegetable) agouu. TIil> blmlder 
aboulil be exaniintil to «e« that tlivro im tio nUme or otlier umse of ini* 
tatioD, aod tlie nUeatb aiitl [tetiU should bu i^ajibed wilb sonpiindB, any 
wbriccoiu matter retDOved from the bilocular cnvilj at ILe cad of the 
p«Qi», nod the uliole lubriratt.-d with Hwi«t oil. IiTiUhlunisUL-s Hbuuld 
be iiidiic<i>d to nririHtf bpfore tbcy ar« biiriie«Red, aixl those that clulvb 
thu lioe* uiidt;r tht tuil may hiive Iho tail set bit;h by witting (he cords 
on its lower sorface, or it may be pr«ireiit€»l getting over the reiiift Uy 
bftvinga strip carried froiii its fh^ecod to the liret'chiujf. Tboiie prov- 
ing troob1«HORi(r whim in heut may havn 4-dram dofieit of bromide of 
[Mlassioui, or they may b« served by ibe male or caatntted. t^omrumea 
tmtabiUty may Xk IcKsoued by daily dixscs of bclliulonua extract {I 
drnaOt or a better tone inoj be giveu to thit parts by balsam copaiba 
(1 draio). 

Di»RiSEi> cftowrna nf mv. itLADnRR. 

These iDSiy Iw of varioas kindtt, malignant or nimple. In the horse I 
bax'o fouEid villutis frrowths from the tuucous membrane e^tpecjally 
troublesome. They may be attached to the mtiiKiuH nieiiibraiiu by a 
oarronr neck or by a broad bam ooToring a great pnrt of the organ. 
The tympUtnu aie D\MiiuMit Ktruluiug, iiitsHjng of urine huiI blixid with 
nocasionally gravel. Aii exaniinalioii of the IdaJder «ith tJic hand in 
tbo rectum will detect tbo new growUi, which may ^v> di»tineuiHbed from 
a banl n«iBiaDt atnne. lu tnares, ia which tbe finger can be inserted 
into tbe bliuliler, the reoo;i;uillou i» still more ttutiHf;u!l«ry. Tbe polypi 
attached by narrow neekis may be removed by surgical operalloD, but 
for tboec with broad attauhmcutti Lreatuieut is emiueutly uuttaLlefau* 


Tbif) ocenra only in the nonr-lKirn, and eoiiHists In the non-clinmre (if 
Ike natural channel (nracbns). throngb which the urine i» discliurgiHl 
into tbe onter water-bug (allantojti) in fotlal life. At that early xliigo 
of the noimnt existeoca the bladder Tetiefiiblcii along lube, whitrh is pro- 
lotigefl ibrough the navel string and ojwuk into the outermost of tho 
two water-bags in which the ftetuM (loalA. In thin way the urine U pro- 
fenled from onU'riii;i the inner wulcr-ban (iimiiius), wheni it would 
mingle with tbe liqnids, bathing tbu Hkiu of tbe I'u-tuv and cause irrita- 
tion. At birtb tills ebannol cIobos up, and the urine takea the eonree 
nal to extra-uterine life. Imperfeet cIoNure Ik more fre(|neiit In 
Jr« than in ftmrnlea, because of the gree t length and snpall caliber of 
tW Rialc urethra and its consequent tendency to obtitrneti'Mi. In tbe 
friiiale (here may be ajjischarge of a few dropit only at a time, while in 
Uip male tbe urine will be esi>elled in Htruiig jel.s coiucidcutly with tbe 
■^tTMAiona of the bladder and walls of the abdotoea. 


Tbo first care is to ascertuin if tbe arctlira is pomoos by passinc » 
bnniuu catbutvr. Tliis determiued, tlie op«u uraobus may b« finul; 
ulused by a Btoiit waxed thread, carrieil with a neeille tUroiigh the tis- 
(taes Imck of tbe upoiiiiif; anil tied in fruiit, of it mt as to iuclooe as little 
sklD as possible. If a porttou of tbe navel striag remaiDs, tlit> tyioe of 
tbiit may Im< all suQieieiit. It is important to tie an early n» iioHsiblBao 
as to aroiil iullauiiuatioii of tbe uarel from contact witb tbe uriDv>. lu 
summer a liltbi carbolic avid water or tar water may be applied to 
koep off tbe flies. 

Er£B8ioN OP Tin: IILM»1BR. 

tikla eu occnr only in the female. U consists in ttio tuniinc of iht 
organ outside in tbi-ougli the vbaiiuelof tbe ui-etbra, bo that it appcan 
as a red, pear nbapeil ma«8 banging from tbe floor of the vnlra and pro- 
truding externally between its liiMt. It may be u imt-stt lik« tbe Ant, or 
it may swell up to the Hixeofan infaut'a head. Uu examining; ita upper 
aurfoee tbo oridces of tbe urethra may bo seen, one ou each side, a short 
difttance twlitnd tbe neck, witb the ariue ooxiug from tbem drop by 

This displaccniout usually Bupervenea on a flaccid condition of tbe 
bladder, the result of paralysis, over distention, or severe compree«ioD 
during a dItUcult parturition. 

Tbe protruding organ may l)o washed with a solution of 1 ounce of 
landanum and a teaspooufiil of carbolic aoJd in a quart of water, aod 
returned by pressing a smooth, ronuded object into the fundas and 
directing it into tbe urethra, while careful prcssuro is made ou tbe sur- 
rounding partA with the oUier band. If too liirge and resi.'^tant it may 
be woojid tightly in a strip of baudago about two tucfaea bruad so s« to 
eiprefis tbe great maaa of blood, and exudate and diminish tbe balk of 
tbe protruded organ soLbat itoAii he eaeily ]mt(lie<l baulc. This method 
has the additional advantage of projecting the organ againnt bmisee 
and lacenitionK in the ctVort made to return lU After the return utrain- 
iog may be liept in cbeok by ginug laadannm (1 to liounoes], and by 
applying a truss to press ujion tbe lips of tbe rulva (see erersion of tbe 
womb.) The patient should be kept in a stall a few inchen lower iu 
front than behind, so that tbe action of gravity will favor retentJuQ. 


This afi'eotiou belongs quite as much to tbe generative organs, yet i| 
can oot be entirely overlooked in a treatise on urinary disorders. l\ 
may Ite iDdnce<l by the same oiuiBes as cystitis (wbieb am), by tbe 
sage and tompurary arrest uf small ttonts, or Kruvel, by the Irritatlc 
oaased by foreign bodies iutiodaced from withont, by blows oo tb«i| 
penis by aticba, stones, er by tbo feet of a mnrv vliieb kicks while beiof 
served, by au iufectiug iutlammation eoutrauted iruui a mare served^ 

the first few d^y^ after partnritiou, or ooe safftrioif from leacorrliceo, 
by lufectiDg matter intruduc«il on a ilirty cutlieler, or by ibo exteusioo 
of inflanimBtioTi from an irritated bilocaUr carilj- fille«i with lianlened 
aeb«eeui)H mutLer, or frum uu uiirlfatised sbeath. 

The ajfrnptotHM are swelling, beat, nn<l tenderness of tbo sbeath and 
penis, dllBcalty, pain, and {^roaiiiug iu passing uriiit^, wtiicb in liable to 
BndiU-n U'mpor.iry arrp-»ts in tlie course of » uiictiiritiou, aud later a 
vbilicdi uiueo-|iiiruk-ut ooKiug from tbc iiapilla on tbc end of tlie jieuis. 
Tbece iB a tendency to erection of tbe iieiiis, and in va^es coutravted 
(Vom a mare tbe outer Rnrfnce of tbat orgnn will sbow more or less ex- 
tenffivo Kon>H luid nWrK. Slultions KuflVring tti lUis way will refuHr to 
luount, or baring BKiuuleil will fail to uoniplele tbe ucl of coition. If 
Bti entrance is elTi-cted infection of fbe mare is lUble to follow. 

Trratmmt in ttie eurlv Ktage-t c-onxiKtM in a (Ioi>e of pbyttic (alut>«, 
draiuM), aud fomeiitii lions of Witrni water to tbe lilieatb aud ]>euis. If 
there la reaaoo to finspcct tbe i>Te.sciic« of infection, inject Ibo uretbra 
twiee daily witb borax 1 drum, wafer 1 quart, using it tepid. Wlitre 
tbe mucU'puruleiit di.sobargw indicates the nupervenlion ul' ttie sfcond 
stage, a more astringent injeetion may be employed (nitrate of Htlver 30 
groins, water 1 quart), and tlie aanie may be n{>]>ticd to tlii-> surfaee of 
tbe penis aud Inside tbe sbcatb. Baltiain of i;(ipHibH (1 drum daily) 
mas' also be given witb advantage after tbe pnrnlent discbarge has a|>> 

Every stallion saffering ftoin urethritis sboald be withheld (h>m fierv- 
iee, aa should marea witb lencorrbcea. 

eTRicrrBB or the ueethk*. 

Tbfs is a permanent narrowing of tbo nretbru at a given point, the 
nwult of previoujt inllainuiatiuu, ranKe4t by tbo iHtsftai^e or urre^t of a 
atunt! or gravel, by strong aetringent injections in llie early nou-Mucret- 
log slagca of urotbi-Jtii;, or by eoutructiou of tbe Iruing menibranv oveur- 
riog daring tbe beuling uf uleers in negleeted luUummutiuns of that 
canal. Tbe trouble la abowu by tbe jiassage of oriue iti a flue streaiu 
witb straining, pain, and groaning, and by fre<|nunt |»ainfiil ori'ulious. 
It moat b« renu-died by inccbanical dilatation, witii eatlivhTH jiixlbirge 
enoagb t4> paM witb gentle forue, to be inserted once a day, anti to be 
used of larger size as tbe passage will adiuit Ibem. Tbe ejilbi-tiT nliunid 
be kept |>erfeotlr clean, aud watiiitnl in a borax solutiuu uud well ulU-d 
btfore it is introUticed. 


Tliejie consist in some of tbe solids of the urine that hove Iwen pro- 
cipitnte*! from the urine in tbe form of uryNtitiN, whieli nsnuin ii|>arl ai 
a fine powder}' maas or nia^ma, nr aggrt^gate into calculi or stiiDrN of 
varyiuK size. Their eumposition i« tlifn-fnre dctcrinini'd in illffiTitnt 
auiw al^ by tbe salts and other constitueniM found iliiinolveil lu 


licaltfay nrine, and by tbe additional oonstitticntawbic]! maybetbrown 
off in snhittnii in tlie nrine in dittt>ase. In tblti coiioeotion ic is itnpor* 
tant to ohtmive the foUowiug aualj^ia of tbe liorae^s urine in health: 

W»l«- »18.» 

Dim 13.4 

Diieaciil kdiI ormlm 0.1 

Hippnric ftnid... -■ .....^ua.... 96.4 

LacHotkcld auil lactaies...... !■• 

Uii«aiai>d uiviuulcmatui 3bL0 

S>ilplmtr«(»lkaliii*) , l.« 

Phof>).<lint«a (ttmosni] aoilk) ..^. ......... O.Q 

Cbli.Ti.lM{w><linm> ■ I.O 

C«rboi)ftt«B(pat«ab, migneMs, liom) -... ..—... Ifi-O 




The uarboiiute of linie, wUk-b i<i )iresont in large amonut in tbe orine o( 
hor.s«ft fetl oil Kreeii rodder, is |tra€tic»lly insoluble, atid t lit;ref(ire forms 
in tlio i>ussiif;L-8 uHcr itcuretioii, uud its uiiurwicopiv rounded uryt^taU 
give tbti oriue of sucti bor.4eti a luilky wbiluuBsa. U is tbta luuterial 
whicb coiistitntes tlie soft, wbit«, pultaceous mass tbat sometimea fills 
tbo bladder Lo n.-i>lv(ioit and rcquiivj^ to be waMliixl out'. In bay-fMl 
horses carbou)tt«s are still abuDdant, wliile in those mainly ^rain-fed 
tbey am ro|ila(HHl by biiipurutos aud (tliospbatt-s — the i>roducta of the 
wear of ti!Miit.-.s— tbe carlxioateg being the reMalt of uxidation o( tbe 
vegulablit acids in the fi>ud. Ciitbuiiiite of liuie, therefore, is a very 
couiNiou coustUucnt of nhuary calculi Ln berbivora, and iu muuy cases ^ 
is tlin nio«t ahiinilHnt constituent. ■ 

t>xalate of lime, like carbonate of lime, ia derived from tbe burning 
up of tbe carboniicivnin uiattvr of tlie l'i>o<l iu the system, one imimrtant 
Caotor bcinfc the loss perfect oxidation of the carl>on. Indeed, KUrsten- M 
berg and Sdimidt have demouKtrattnl on nan, horse, os, and rabbit, ™ 
that nnder tbe full play of tbe breathing (oxidiziTic) forceH oxalic, like 
other or^anit; acid^, i» resolved into carlionic ai^itl, tti kt-epin^ with 
this i« the olwtervation ofLehmann that in all cases in whicb man Ruf- 
fiwed fi-om interference with the breathing, oxalate of lime appeared la 
thenrine. An ex(-v!:3 of oxalate of lime in the nrine may, however, 
claim a different ori{;in. Urtu and btppiiriu auiils are found iu the uriue 
ofcamivora nud berbivora, rea|>eetiv«ly, aa tbe result of the bealtby 
wear (iliKasvimilatioii) of nitrogenous tissuea. But if these products are 
fully oxidizt^d thry ait> thrown ont in tbe form of the more scilnble area 
rather than as these aeitls. When tiHc acid out of tbe buily is treated 
vitb peroxide of lend it is resolved into urea, allantoine, atid oxallo 
acid, and Wnthler and Fremchs found that tlie nduiiniatration of uric 
acid nntonly increiisi-d tho excretion nf urea, hut aim of oiali-- arid. 
It may tfaererere be iDJerred that oxalic acid ia not produced from vha 
carlwnacwoas food alone, bnt also frura the diaintcgratioQ of the nitro- 
genouH tiH.ttue^ of (he btidy. An iiiipnrtnnt element of its prodnetioo 
is, however, the imperfeoC performance of the breathing fuiiciiona, and 





faenOB It is liable to wmmU from dls^asM oT tbe dwM (lir«vm, riimoisj 
l>roti«bttu, etc.). This i« aborr at] likely to pfove tbe emae if the mt 
ject Is fed to exoen on bigtiljr cwboBMeoBS ftxidB (gtmn wid iprwu food 
gvD«rally, potatoes, etc). 

Oarbooatc of BsgnoiiK, anotbcr almoat oocntwit Engredient of tha 
Qrinur^ calcali of thehorMk to famad iatkc mno vaya«the< 
of lime, hum the excess of earbonaoeaiM food (oncaaie Mids), beeoviiofi 
oxidUed ioto carboo dioxide^ which aoitec with tbe raa^esla (]crir«d 
from Uie food. 

Tbe pbospbatea of lime and ma^<-s)a ore not abondiiDt tn oriiiary 
ealcali of tbe home, tbe iihospbates being oolr present to rscetu io the 
orine in two coDditkms; (a) wb^a the ration is eic«8sire und speclallj 
rich io pho«pbonu( (whr^t bran, bmn», pi-nii, ri^tcrhes nii>e mkr, nil 
oake, coitofl-fiecd eakc)[ and {h) whto through tbe morbid ilcstmcliva 
ebanj^es io the livinj; tiuoM), and eitpeeially of tbe buDcx, a pr<eat 
amunat of pboephonw is givfn off as a wn«te prodant. nnder ibosa 
ouDdltUHU, however, tbe plitophitlcs may coutribote to tbe romiau'on »f 
calcal), and this is, above all, likely if tbe ahne is retainetl in tlie blad- 
der BDtn It bna anderipxie dectooi posit ion mid jovod off aiaiuoaia. Tbe 
ammonia at nnce anitp^ with tbe phnsphnre nf magnpxia to funii a 
doable aalt, phospbotp nt Hmmouia and mn^ine.fiik, wbicb, twinK i»Mtlii> 
blei ia at once precipitated. Tbe prectpitatioa of this salt is, however, 
nuv In tbe oriae of tbe h<vse, tbongb macb more ftvqaent in tbat of 
nao and mbi?ep. 

Tbeae are tbo oblef mineral oooatitnents of tbe urine which form In* 
gredienta In tbe hor»e'4 ealcnli, for thonjtb iron and mnniptttette nre 
asoally prvwnt it is only in minate qunntitica. 

Tbe exroM of mineral matters in a si>eciitK>ti of nrine nnquostionably 
contribntefl to tbe formation of calcnli, Jn^t as solation nf such nmttera 
oat of tbe body ia incrcaaiiigly diapoacd to throw them down tu the form 
of eryalala as it btHjiimea more miiRunirattMl nml upproaehea nearer to 
tbe ooodition of satiiratioa. [T«nce, in ooiiHiitering the oanaea of oaloalt 
we can not igoore tbe factor of an excH.ttM%'e rution, rich in mineral mat- 
ters and in cnrbouaveous m»tter8 (tbe sonrce of cAtbonntea and muoli 
of tbe oxalAiiM), oor eau we uviirloi>k tbu ootioetittiition of the nrine 
that oomea from dry food and privatioo of WHter, or from the t'xlnteitc« 
of UivtT whicli eanS4>H Nnsponsinn of tbi* Noun'tion of wah'r. In thi-Ma 
rannn. at lea^t tbe nsual nmotint of eoiids are thronrn off by tbe kid- 
neys, and aa tbi. water bt di mi nitibed there is danger of ita appniai'bing 
the point of snpematiiratinn, when tbe diHsDlvfMl HntiilH mnxt nmr«>iMa- 
rtly be thrown down. Hi^rice, calculi art^ more common in Htablvd 
horaaa fed on dry grain and bay, in (hose denied a sufficiency of wati-r 
orlbatltave water siippltwl Irregularly, in tbom Habjecied to profuse 
pentpiratton (as in sanimer), and in tboste Buffering from a w:itery 
diarrhett. On tbe whiili% civlcutt are ru'iit commonly found In winter, 
bMMue tl» UoraM are tbea on dry foediug, but sDob dry ftedinff U 


creii more condacire to tbcm in summer wbon the ccnditlon is aggn- 
Tateil hy the abuudaut loss of water by tbe Bkiu. 

Id the same way tho extreme liardtieKs of the water iu M-rhun dis- 
tricts mast be looked iipou as coiitrlbutiDg to the coQoentratiou gf tli4 
urlu« au(l vorreitpondltigly to the [irodtictioii of stODo. The carbonillfCi 
sulphates, etc., of lime and mngneaia taken in the wnter miiKt Iw hgain 
thrown out, and just in iiroportioD ai these add to tho ttolidti of Ue 
urine they dispose it to precipitate its least soluble coDStiiuents. That 
the horse is reiy obmxiouH to oalcnli on oertniii llmeetODe soils, aa otm 
the calcareous forioatioiis of central and wentern New York, Penmjl* 
Tania, and Ohio, in America.; of Norfolk, Suffolk, Derhysliire, Sbrop' 
ehire, and Gloucestershire, in England ; of Poitou aod Landes, in 
Frauco; nud Muolcb, iu Bavaria. 

But the siitiiration of the uriiio from any or all of these fsonditiosi 
can Duly be looked on uti an auxiliary cause, and uot aa iu itself u 
eOBcleat oue, except oq the rareac occasions. For a more dlnel 
and immediate cause we must look to the urRanio matter wliicli 
forma a targe proportion of all urinary calculi. This oonsititK of inacott, 
albameu, pus, hyaliue cAnta of tho uriuiferous tubes, epithelial cells, 
blood* etc., mainly ag:eitts that belouK to the doss of colloid or uod- 
crystalliue bodies. A horse may live for uioiiths and years with tho 
urine habitually of a high density, and having the mineral constitaent} 
in exccMH, without the lormatiou of stone or eravet; and again one with 
dilute Qrine of low specific gravity will have a calculus. 

Eaiuoy, Ord, and others furnish tho explanation. Tbey not only 
show that a colloid body, like mucui^, albumen^ pus, or blood, det«i- 
Diined the precipitation of the crystalUno salts in the solntiou, but tliey 
determined the precipitation in the form of globules or spht-rcs, cap** 
blc of developing by further deposits into caleuli. Heat intODSiflM 
this action of the colloids, and a colloid iu a state of dooom position is 
8I)ecially active. Tlio pn'R«nce,_lIifn!fori>, of developing fungi and 
bacteria must be looked upon as active factors iu causing calculL 

In looking, therefore, for the immediate causes of calculi we moat 
coosiderespeciiilly alt those conditions which determine the preaenoe 
of albumen, blood, and excess of mucus, pus, etc, iu tho urine. TbuA 
diHOa(ie« of distant organs leading to albumiuuna, diseases of the kid- 
neys and urinary passages causing the escapo of blood or the formation 
of uiueuB or pus, become direct causes of calculi. Foreign botlies of olt 
kinds in the bla«l<ler or kidney have long tieen known as dctermiuJn^ 
causes of calculi, and us forming the oeutml nucleus. This is now ex~ 
plained by the fact that these bodies are liable to carry bacteria intv 
the passages and thus dotormino deoomposition, and they ore furtht^r 
liable to irritate the mucous membrans aud bectime enveloped in a coat- 
ing of niucuN, pus, and jierhaps blood. 

The fact thai horses appear to suffer from calculi, cipeclally on the 
maguesiau limostouos, tlie some districts iu which they suffer from 

foHer^ may bo rimilarly ezplftiiietl. Tlio anlcnovn poison which pro* 
duoi-s f'uitcr presumubb' lewla to euub clianfjua iu the blood aod arine 
M vill farai&b tbc colloid iieoessarjr for piecipitation of llio uriuary^H 
salts m the form of calcuU. ^^ 

CUutiflcatioH of Urinarg CalcuU. — Tbcse liarebeeQ named acconliug 
tollip place wberotbi\v«ro foiiiid, renal {kMu*}y)t vretral (»r«t«r),r«t»«U | 
(bUilder). urethral {arvl\irii), iuu\ preputiaHKh*?Atb or preimct?)- Tbey j 
have bi-e» otbemido named aixwiUiiig to tlieir most abtiiidant cbemival 
csooslitufiit, i^^rboHate of lime, oxalate of time, aud pkoi^kaie of time oal- 
culu Tb« 8totK-« roniicd of c:irbouates or photjpbates are uaaally stsooth 
UD the Burfuce, tbuiigb tbi.<y Diay be molded iuto Ibo Hbape of the cav- I 
ity in vbich tbey bave beeu formed; thus those iii tboprlvisof tbe kid< ' 
uey may bave two or three short biaoeb-like prolou^tious, while those 
IB the bladder ore round, oval, or slightly Qaiteucd ujwu caob other. 
Calculi cuQtaiuiug oxalate of lime oo tbe other band have a rough* 
opeu, cxystaltine surface, which has gaiued fur them the name of mu), | 
ben7 culculi, fn>tii u snpiwiieil resemblauce to that fruit. Tlicse are 

Illy covereil with mnre or less mncua or blood, produced by the irri- 
ion of tbe mucous meiubranu by tbeir rough Kurfuces. Tbe color of 
cull varies fruin white to yellow and deep bruHu. the shades de> 
pendiiig mainly on tlie amoant of the cxiloriuj; matter of bloud, bile, or 
wine which tboy may coatain. | 

Renal Calcnli. — These may consist of minute, almost microscopic de- ' 
posits in the ariniferuus tnbi.>s in tlie sDb»taa(x; of tbe kidney, but more | 
ooaimouly thoy are lurf;o musses oud lodged iu the ptrlvis. Tbe largCff 
oalcali, sometimes weighing 12 to 21 ounces, are molded in tbe p«Jvi« 
of the kidney into acyliudroid mass, with irregularroonded swellliiga 
■t intervala. Some hare a di-rji brown, rou^b, crystaHirie niirfaoe of 
^ulate of lime, while others hare a smooth, pearly white a^iH-ct from 
^■bonate of lime. A smaller calealoSf vbich baa be«n called ooral* | 
1^6, is also cyliudroid, wilb a Dumber of browu, rouxh, crj'ttalline 
oxalate of lime brancbejt aud wbitlsh depressions of carbonate. These 
vary in size from 15 grains to nearly 2 oance*. LeM freqaeoUy ar* 
l^uud masses of very bard, liiowiitili white, roonded, pea-like ealcaU. 
These are smoother, Imi on tbe sarfoce erystab of oxalate of lime may 
be detected with a lens. Some renal calculi are f'rrmed of mora dl*- 
tinet layers, more loosely adbereot to eacli «tJ»ef, and eontaio an 4-x'WWi 
of mucus bat no oxalate of bme. FioaUjr a loewi af BRcaiioo of small 
msases, forming a very friable catenloa, la foaiiil of all »iJCM witblo tiw 
limits of llie pelvis of tbe kkloey. Tbeae, too, are to IImi mairt car 
bncate of lime (84 to SA per cenL), and vlUioat oxalatib i 

Hi/mptvma of reual MlcaU are rioteot ooUeky |nla« appearluK -ud. 
deuly, very oftcu in oooDeetioo witb exfeaoMinv work or thm drasiug 
of specially beary liwda, and la ecrutltt mam dMapjMrarleg «Uh eqaal 
Hiddenuesa. The nature of tbe ««tt« bt m m m nwr* Mulfrat fftt fa 

ited witb altffiSM of ite bMfc w4 I*te4 UttUf <nm«^ 


of ariii«, nnd Above nil tbepaeeocft ofgnvel yr\fh fbo nrioc, cst>cctaUy 
St tli« time ol' tliu aco^SM ot leMet. Tlie passage of blootl aud piu in tlie 
nriiie is eqiiHll.Y significant. IT the irrilatioit oC the kidney ^oes on to 
acttvfl iiillitniiiiitti(it) liii-ii tbu Hytnptumtt uf m^pliritid liru aildecL 

Uretral CaietiU. — Tboae ara no-callet) liecsuan thej are fonnd Id tha 
' paauge lonniii;; from tbe kiduey to tbo bladder. Tliey are simply small 
renal calnili wliicli liavi; c»i-a[>ed frum tbe iielris of tJie bidney kod 
have hfcouie arrertte-l in tbe urvter. Tb«y rivo rise to Kgrnptomt almost 
Idetitifiil viib ibi>»et>r rviial calculi, witli Xha diffurmice, that tbe colicky 
paiDs. causetl by \Ue obBtruetion of the un^t^r by tbo inipacto4l calculus, 
are more violent, ami if .the calculus pn.sses on into Tbe bladder tbe 
ri'Iiufi.1 JrmtaotaiicoiiHiiud cumptutv. If thcurcttirincomplutoly blocked 
for a lenstb of tiioe tbe retained aritie may ^ve rise to destructive ia- 
flatnination in tbe kidney, wbich in»y end iu tbo entire absorption of 
tbut organ, leaving only ii librnuM (uip!«ule containing iiii urinous fluid. 
If bntb tbe ureters are siuiilarly blocked tbe animal will die of urtecuio 

Treatment of HenaX and Vretral Calculi. — This is unsatisfactory, as It 
Is only tbe small calculi tbat can paas tbrougb tbe ureters uud e*ci^ie 
futo the bludd(T. Thin may 1m> favored by agenta which will relax tlie 
vallM of tbe ureters by counteracting their spasm and even lessoniiif 
their tone*, imd by a libenit usu of water and watery QuidH to iuoraase 
tlie urine and (be«nre u]>ou tbe cAlcnlns from behind. One or 
two uuuccs of laudanum or two dramn of extract of btdladouoa, may 
be given and re[)v:itcd uh it may be iieccHtciry, tbe relief of the pain 
being a fair criterion of the abating of the spasoi. To tbe same ead 
i]»e warm foincntationH across tbe loins, and tbese sbonld be kept up 
perAititenMy until relief ia ubtitiiied. Tbeee act not alone by aootb- 
ing nnd n^ittoviiig Ibo spasm and Inflammation, but tbcy aliio favor the 
freer secretion of a more watery urine and thus tend to c;irry off tiie 
Bnmller calculi. To further secure this obj«a give oool water frwjly, 
and let tbe food l>e only sucb as t^ontaina a large proportion of titjuid, 
l^nols, mashes, turnips, beets, apples, pntnpkhis, ensilage, succalent 
gni!»es, etc. If the acute atuge haH passtnl and the presence of the 
calculus is manifested only by the frequent passage of urine with gritty 
particles, by stlfTuess ot tbe loins aud bind limbs and by tenderness to 
preasare-, the most promising resort is a long run at pasture where the 
graMHes are fresh and succulent. The longcontiiiued secretioo of a 
watery urine will soiuetimi-s ruu.<(e the breaking down uf a cak-ulua, as 
tbe Imbibition of the less dense tluid by the orgunio spongebke frame 
vork of the ndcnlns caases it to swell nnd thus lessens its eohesioa. 
The same «>nd is Mingljt by the long nnntinneil nse of nlknlics (carbonate 
of potasslnni), nud of acids (inurintlc), each acting in a different way Co 
alter the density and onhesinn of the atone. But it is only exoep* 
tionally that iiny of these methods is entirely satisftictnry. If ioQam- 
matiou ul tbe kidneys devtiiop, txwat as advised uudur that head. 






8lom«ln thf bladder. — VeMieaJcalouIuM Cyttte ealeutvM. — Thpw maybe 

of any eizi- np to over a itouiut wlglit. Otm variety lit nttigli utid 
crystalliDe auti liati a yellowish irbite or deep broirn color. Tbe-ne ooa- 
lain al»n 1 8: per cent, airbonate of limo, tto rctnaindor being carbonate 
of niagtifaia, oxal.-ite of lime, and organic mutter. The plioKptintiu cal- 
cuti ure ymnoth und irbite nud formed of thin coiicvtiLhc layunt ofgrrAt 
bardncsa extt-Ddio^; from the Duclean outward. Tieside the phosphate 
of lime them contain the cart>ODates of lime and mairacBia and orfcaaio 
matter. In nome canett tlii> tilndder cnntnin;* nnd may tic even dUtendt-d 
by a H)ft pnltaceous maiM made up of mioutu round gratmlvs of carbou- 
atrs of lime and magoefia. This, when removed and dried, makes a 
flrui. whlt^, fttony mass. BomcrtituM thiH macma ia condcuttcd into a 
Miliil iiiii»^4 in ilit> bladder by reniion of the binding action of the iiiauua 
and other organic mailer, aud then fonua a cooglomerate stone of nearly 
nnirumi rooftintency and witlinnt Btra.lificatinn. 

The ajrmptvtM oftttone in the bladder arc tuoro obvioas than tho«e of 
reoal calculus. The rouifh ciulb4>rry calcnli i^speeially lead to irrttalion 
oTtiie macons membrane and frequent passing of arioe in small qnan- 
titiea and ofti-u miuf;le<! with mncna or Idoml, or containing niinuto 
gritty poitictes. At tiuics the flow is suddenly arre«ted, thou^b the 
animal eontimies to Htmin aud the bla^Mer ia not qtilte emptied. In 
tlie sraootfa pboopbattc rariety the irritation is much less niarketl, and 
nay even be iLltocfthi-r Hbitfiit. With 1li» pultuceotis deposit iu tho 
1)Iadder there le incoiitineiice of ariue, which dribbles away continually 
ami keeps the Ualr on the inner side of the thiRbs matted with soft 
tnafcma. In all caacs alike tbn ciilrnlnn may hn felt by the examination 
of the bladder with the oiieti baud in tbu rtrctum. The |H.>ar-HbaiiMl 
oBtUue of the bladder can be felt beneath, and within it lb« solid oval 
body. It is inofit easily recognized if the organ is half fVill of liquid, as 
then it in not grasped by the contracting walln of the bladder, but way 
be made to move from place to place in the liquid. If a pa[la4:euu5 
KOMis preMut it has a soft, dongby feeling, and when pressed an in- 
dSBtaliou is lefU 

■ In the marv the hanl 8tone may be toacbcd by Ibe finger totrodnccd 
H Uirungh the short nrvtbra. 

I The treaimmt of stone Id the bladder ooosists in the removal of the 
BoifeDtling bmly. In the mnre thin is easily elFeuIed with tUv Jilbotomy 
BliDrtwfM. Tbi«e arc idigbtly warmed and oiled, aud carried forward 
along the floor of tbts paasage of llie Tnlva for 4 iDcfaea, when the ori- 
floe of Ibe ntvUira will be felt exactly in the median line. Through 
I this the foroepB arv gradaully pu>thi>d with gculle usf^illatiiig muvemt-'Ut 

■ ontl) tfa«y enter the bladder and strike against the hard uirfacc of ibe 
Batonn. The atone is now grasiied Ivtwreu the bladi'w, care bviiig taken 
Vto foclufte lu) l<>oa« fold -^f the mucous membrane, and it is gradually 

withdrawn with the same carcfalog4<il1ating motioits as tiefore. FacJlity 
And aiilsty iu seising the stoue will be gn-atty (ttvorvd by haring tlM 

bladiler halt M\ of liqaid, and if necessnry one oiled hand may be Intro- 
daoed iuto tlio roctuui or vafftan to iissixt, Tlio resulting irritacioa 
iD»y bo treated by aa iDjeottou of laadauum, 1 uuace, iu a piut uf tepid 

The removal of the atoae in tlie borsc ia u. much more difficult pro- 
ceedintr- It cunaisU iu cultirig into tlio urvlliru jast bviicatb tbo anas 
and intro'lnoitig the lithntomy forceps from tiiis forward into tbe blad- 
der, as in the tiiare. It i» ueutlfut to diglend the uix'tbrii with tepid 
iTat«r or to iiiaeH a soitud or catheter to fnrnisb a guide tipou wbicb 
tbo iuciaioQ may bo iuad(>, and in cafto of a lareo stone it miiy be need- 
ful to enlarge the p:iR»:)Re by cutting in a direction u|iwnrtl nod ont- 
irard with a i>robt>-i>oiuted knife, the back of which is 8Ud uluu^ iu Lli« 
groove of a director until it enters tbe bladder. 

Tito horse muy bo o]>crat<^d upon iu tbe standinK iiosition, beine 
simply pretiHed ii^raiiist i\ wall by a pole passed from before baokwanl 
along the other aide of the body. The tepid water in injected into the 
end of the P'onis until it ia felt to ductnate under the preivsnre of tbo 
ftngcr, in the median liiie over the bone just beneath the anus. The 
incidion Ih then made into the center of tbe fluctuating utual, and &om 
above do\rnw;ini. When a sound or catheter is used as a guide it is 
iuHerletl through the penis until it can be felt through tbe sbiu ut the 
point where the incision is to bo made beneath the anus. Tbo skin ia 
then rendered tODSO by tbo tbniub and Augers of the left band proning 
on the two Bide« of the sound, while the rigbt band, armed with a 
scalpel, cuts downward on to the catheter. This vertical incision into 
the canal should escape wounding any im portaut blood-v«»Kel. It ia in 
making Ihe obliquely lateral inciRion in the enbscqnent dilatation of the 
un'thra and neck of the bladder that such danger is to be appreliendetL 

If the Htone is too large to be estracte*! through the ur^'lhra it may 
be broken dowo with tbe lithotrite and extracted piecemeal with the 
forceps. The litholrita is an instrument eumposed of u straight stem 
bent for an inch or more to one side ntits free end so as to form an obtuse 
anglr, and havingon the Knine »ide ii sliding bar moving iti a groove in 
tbe stem and opi^ratcd by a screw so that the stone may bo seixed be- _ 
tween tbe two blades at Its free extremity and crashed again and ogam I 
into pieces small enough to extract. Extra care is required to avoid 
injury to the urethra iu the estrdction of liio nuiiular fruginuuts, Hud 
the gravel or powder that can not be removed ia this way niuat be 
washed ont as odvisAl below. 

When a pnltatreous magma of cartmnat^^ of lime necamnlatea ia tba 
bladder it mast be washed out by injecting water throngh a catheter 
by means of n force pump or a fuuael, shaking it up with the hand intro- 
duced through Ihe rectum and allowing the mnddy liiiuid to flow oat 
through tbe tube. This is to be repeated nntil tbe bladder is empty 
and the watt-r conies away clear. A. catheter with a double tube ia 
Bometimes used, the injection piissing in tbrougb tbo one tnl»o and 




escaping tbronfrb tbe other. Buc tbo ftdranta^ is more apparent than 
real, as llie retention of tlio water until tli« miiginu Uns liet'ii Hhttkea 
a[i anil mixin) with it li»HtcnH grvally it.H cuui|ilt!t« cvacualioii. To 
prcrait tlic formaiiou uf it new depoait any fault in fcetliog (dry grwn 
aotl bay with privatiou of water, excess of bcaus, peas, ivbcat brnD, etc.] 
and iliftorderrt of Rtomncli, livpp, and lungs must 1»e rorri'cted. Give 
abanduDce of Moft drinking water, encrotira^ing the HuiiiiHl to drink by 
a baadful of saltdaily; let tbe food be laxative, consisting largely of 
roots, apple:;, pntnpkinH, ensilage, and give daily in tbe dnnliing water 
a dram of carlKiuate of potiisli or soda, rowdprw! gc*iitian root (3 
drams daily) will aliio Ber\'e to restore tbe tone of tbe stoiuacb aud 
aystem at large. 

I'rtVtral cateuliut.— Stone in the urethra. — This ia less frequent tban 
in cattle and Hbcep, owing tu the larger size of the urethra iu tbe borse 
anil tlie absence of the Sehaped curve and Terinifonn a]>[>eDdix. The 
calculi arrested in the nrethra are never formed there, bnt consist of 
oystiQ calculi which have been small enough to pass through tbe ut-ck 
of the bladdiT, but too large to pass through thu wlioly bMigtU of tbe 
nrrtbra and escape. Snob calculi therefore are primarily formed either 
lu tbe bladdrr or kidney, and have the cbcniical coniii4].->ition of tbe 
otber calculi found iu those or^^niis. They may be urrctstcd at auy point ' 
of tbe urethra, from the necli of the bladder bacli to tbe bend of the 
tntte beneath tbu anus, and from that point down to the extremity of 
tbe jteuis. I have found them most fteqaenlly in the papilla on tbe 
cxtrt-uji' eud of the i>eni8, and imnailiati^ly behind this. 

The tifmptoma are violent straining to urinate, but wllbout auy dis* 
charge, or with tbe eitcnpo of water in drojis only. Exawiuatiou of tbe 
end of the pvuift will detect the hwelling of the papilla or tbe urethra 
behind it, and tbe presence uf a hard mass iu tbe center. A probo in- 
serted into tbe urethra will strike against tbe gritty calculus. If the 
atone has Ix'en arrested higher up its {tosition may l>u detected as a 
imnll, bard, Sensitive knot on the line of tlie uietbra, iu the median line 
of the loTTcr surface of tbe penis, ur on the floor of the pelvis iu the 
nie^lian line fW)m tbe ucck of th« liladder baelt to the bend of tbe urethra 
beneath tbe anus. In any eaw the urethra between (be neck of the 
bladder and the point of obstruction is likely to be filled with Duid, uud 
to foel like a dittt^ndcd tube lluctuating on prcj?8ure. 

Treatment uyiy be begun by on attempt to estrnct tbo calculi by 
manipulation of the p:ipilla ou tbe end of the [leniK. This failing, the 
calculus may be seized with a pair of fine-pointed forcejis and with- 
drawn from the urethra; or. if necessary, a prob&poiuted knife may 
be Inserted and the urethra slightly dilated, or even laid opeu, and tbe 
Btone removed. If the stone has been arrested higher up it muett be 
extracted by a direct incision througb the walla of tbe urethra and 
down upon the nfxlute. Ifin the free (protr.ic.tiU) p«rtiou nf the penia, 
tbat organ is to bo withdrawu from its sbeatb nocil the uodule is ex- 




[ocised. If beTiind the eorotam, the inci8ioti mast In 

M II iaa Hdb between the tbig'hs and directly over tbA; 

Cbe nfnn nving hmn rcnderM t^iisa by tbe Bogt^rs and thnmb 

hie ft La If tbe stono has beL»n arrested in the intra-pelviB 

1 of tlio urethra, the irinisinii must be irnide bpneath ttieaoas nod 

l1uu]ub estractfd with forc6p», as in etnne in the bladder. The 

' the urethra mny be stitched up and usaaUy Iii>al3 slowtf 

uitorily. Henliiifr will W" favored by wastiiug two or Diree 

dftilj'' with a Bolntion of a teaspooiiful of carbolic acid in a pint 


I'rcputfaT cnlcidiii. — Cniculuji in the sheath or hilnfulnr caritij. — Tbesa 

i ('(iiiurvHaiis in the sbeiith, though the term hits beeu aUo applied 

the nodale of sebaceous mffi"*" "I'lnfa accumnlateB in the blind 

thi] papilla on the end nftbe 


pontihea (hilncular ciwity) by the 

petiiH. Within the Hhi*iith th« cr 

sebneoitms matter, or a ganutno cjn 

pbBt« and sulphate of limp,carl)onat 

These are fianily removed with the 

fthotild be Waiihed out with on»tile soap and warm water, and scoe<ired 

with BW(iet-oJl. 


1 miky ba a soft, <;h>oe!i>--likd 
s of carbonate, o«alate, phos- 
lagneHiti and orgiinin matter. 
:ers, after which tlie nheath I 

Antta uf'lJtF fir4iM, f. fUfrlrri'f'tAf I'. InthniUbitliUH , y,/>«wr. 

kMv« iM.««r If'iMHHBt («M» 


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f/i.'ii.. .'J I ii/'illiiry iiliwil-H III Ihr iil-iiiirriiliir /itir! iil'llii- i-ni-liiiil .inlviliillii' 
'Jif'.l'ii/'illiii I fih\t'ti,'\ III' till' /ii'/'if/iiiil.s III' I'l-ffiiri r Vi.Viif'ttiitl pli\t'u.\ nl'llii- ki/l/ii'\ . 
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I'l-ATK \'l. 

Hcilill (ilollll'l-lltuS . 

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IV ,v.s// I'l'tlif i/li,.-,irriilii.t. i; AITviTiil \twxH nt'tlir i/lfiniriile . 

,/ . htt-iy /iniiiti i/iitiilv li' l/i-- iii/'illiify /i/r.<ii.-.- ii/'r/n- • orliiiil 

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I{fll<ll (;i(HIII'll[Ill^ "illl USldlHlTlI M-SSctsil]lllc'ITci1'IllS. 

,1 Hi-urti'fi ol't-i-itiii iti-tf-i-y i I', Ailcft'itt \v,v^i-t o/'thf 
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ili-.f- ■!• 1 '■«■'■ lliirlri'l llAl''>'".i! 

lAMDJ ,\.\7' /.V.S'/'KI MI-.NT I'HU lU'.MOV.M. 


By W. H. HARBAUOH, V. S., Rlcbraotid, Vifginl*. 


The orgfins pertaiiiiog to ttie respiratory ruiictir>n n\»y be popnlnrly 
dasMLiI a« follows: The naiinl opviiliiKH, or nosiriis; the nasal cbitmt>i>ra, 
through u'tiidi tbe nir paxM>ii in (he bead ; the sniiiHeH in th(> b<>:ul, com- 
muniL-«tia^ irith tbe nasal chnnibent; the pbiirynx, couiuidu to tbe 
6ioctioDs of rcapiratjoii qihI a1ini<>»tatioQ; th& larynx, a complicated 
Atniclnre Aitiialed nt thr* top of tbn n-inil pipe; tlio tmclioa, or wind- 
pi |m>; tbe bnmrbi (into wbioh tbe vrucl-pipi> tlivf(U>8), two tubes leading 
fmni tbr winil-pipe tothe ri^ht and left Iiinff. res[»ectively ; tlie bron- 
cbJnl tubea, vbicb penetrate and coDwy air to all parts of the longs; 
the iungB. 

Tbe pleura U a thin membrane tliat eiirelops tbe lang and in reflected 
a^inst tlie viilU of tlie tbomcic cavity. Tbt3 diHplirii8:in in a niiiscular 
Btnlt■lnn^, wmiilfft«ly «i'puratiiie tlie rontrtntJi of tbn tbomcic cavity 
fmm tfaOM of the abilorainal cavity. It is etweiitially a mn»c1e of in- 
vpiriitlon, and tbe priucipal one. Otber muMiles »Jd in the mccbauiHta 
of respiration, bnt the iliHRasiw or injnrie!! of tbetn hare nothing to do 
vitb lb» rluKti nnder uouHidt^ratiuii. 

Just within tbe nasal opeiiingB the skin becomes gradnally but per- 
eeplihiy finer, until it is 8ueceede<l by the mncous ntoiubrano; tbe line 
of fir mark at ion in not iilwayN well ilefiiii^l. Ni>ar atxitit the junction of 
tfaeKkiu aud tueiubraoe is a email bolt", pre.senting tlie apinfai-anve of 
li»ring been miule with a paoch; tbfn iaibe opening of the naaal dnet, 
iruil tlint conveytt tho leant f^oni tbn eyes. \WtbiTi and al>ove the 
il openiugH are the i%ivi(b'S or fluxoresi ealletl the falne iioHtrilH; if 
the Hnger is inserted up into them it will be tleuionslPHted that tbe 
saiH-rlor extremity in blind; just in thifi siiiintion there iq oft<^n found 
ft liltin tumor, to )»e dettcritwil lipn>alter. Tbe naxal eh:iint»pni are com- 
pletely Nep!>ntte<l, the right from tbe len, by a carlilajiiipous ]i:irlit<on. 
R»ob niwal cbamber ia divided iuto tbme continuous rompartraenta 
bj tbe two turbinated bcnee. 

Tbe mnmtiH mpiiibninc lininff the nanitl ehaniberA, end in fitM tbe 
MlUre respiratory iraut, Is much more delicate and more freqaently 



il tban the rancoas membrane of any otticr part of the bodf. 
bo Bitiiises of the hvjul arc compartmeuts wblcb coDiinnatcate with tti« 
ii.<<»l olmnilM?ra and ure lined with a eoiitiDnatioD of tbe same men- 
rune thiit liaen the ita^al chanibcrit; U)i;ir prvsunce increases lli6 
ininnaiul tiKKl ides the Toroiof tbebt;aj witboul iuvrraKiiig ita weight 
Tbv horso, in a Doriaal condition, breathes exdasively throagh Un 
lustrila; un air jtoBsea tiirough the month in rosph'atiou. Thistioiw 
'teiis<Mi why bor*ea pnibiibly are iifTi'dril ofl«iuT wilh colds than other 
liitnuili^ TIjo orj£Uiia or rvspinilioii atv more liablu to dittease than the 
na oonaectcil witb any otb«r fimctioo of tbe auimul, nud, as manr 
nf tbc canst'S can be pr«vtfulcd, it is both imjtortaut ami prttfltaWe to 
)(iti>w and Ptndy the caast's. Th« respiratory ^iirfare in tliu lungs of 
tbe horse la estiinate<l to be from SOO to 5(H) square feet. 
The canEfeormaiiy of tbe diseases of these ergansutfiy be given aoder 
cumuiou ht'ad, boeauso even a simple eold, if noj^lecliHl or bailly 
[•utctlj may niii into the most; eoinpHcjitt'd lung dlseaae and termioale 
fliliiMy- '" ""^ ttl'ring and fall, wben the auimals are changing their 
oinil"! til*'".' if* a marked jiredispositioti to contract disease, aud oouse- 
iiii'ntly cAiro abould bo taken at those iwrioilR to prevent other eicitio; 

(1)11 1 "eit. 

HitillY ventilated stablcN are a frcquentaourcoor disease^ It is a great 

iiiUluko t" think that country stables uecoasarily have purer air than 

11 V pttiiblefl. Stables on Bome farms are no faultily constructed that it 

I !,),„„„t liri)>o88ible for tbo foul air to gain an exit. All BUblea abooM 

. „„ niiliuiiled supply of pure air, and be so arranged that Rtrong 

lianillil* '''"' ""' ^'"^ din'i^tly on tbe auimald. Hot atablca are alittort 

Itln 11 1 * "'y ventllat*-*!, aod the hot stable is a cause of disease on aocoost 

I Mm* tulrrine ehnngo of temperattire a horse is liable to when taken 

iMil and esln'in** ehanges of (emiwraiure are to be avoided, as certain 

ttiiu'iieii t'f dlaeaiii'. A horso taken from pasture aud kept io a hotaUbta 

U M)lHi>''t "»"' '*' «"'''■'"=' noold; tlio stable sIjohUUh) thrown open nod 

iUu (i.nipi'iiihiM' uriidnally increased in such cases, when practicable, to 

■(t*ld (lii^Niiildt'lt eliimge. 

A iitild,<'b'"" •("ble I* invariably (1aa)p,aDd is to be avoidcil as mnob 
',l,„(„.l,4'lii»it. and fowl stable. Dorses changed from a e^ld to a warm 

,1,,,,,, HI,. Iliibli^ to ooiilniot cold tliun wlien i-hanged from :i warm 

I I rttiihln. I'nns air la mure eiuMMitial than wainith, and Ibia fiu<t 

, i<ii|iri>lNll> reini'nilM'red when the stable is made cloao nod foul 

t . tMiiintli. Il In mort'M-ulioilucal tolceepthehorse warmwlth 

, iliitti Io piPVi'Ml Ihe ingress of puni air in order to make the 


< <-i|i| lt(> ikfl! diiiliK-d and kept clean. Gome farmer* nOow 

<.,iit<i|ii hi Ihtt hial In until ilivre is hardly sufficient room for 

I'liU l« » iwililctnll* prnetice, n" the di'eom|iosing orgaaio 

. ^yii||«ji«.l .1 M*« 1 liat are predispoaiug or excithig causes 

^ i^fl^^Hbn la utirliMiled ilia not Kifeto allow him to 


dry by eraporatloD ; rabbiog him dry and gradaally cooling bim ont ii 
tbe wisest treAtraent. When a faorse ia bot — oovered witb sweat — it ii 
danf^rons to allow bim tostnnd Jn adnttifrlit; it is the best jdan Co wallc 
liiin udUI hlH tetiipfnittira modpmteK. In Rticb chsoh a liglit blantot 
throwu over the aulioal may preveut a cold. Overwork ur overcxHrtion 
often canfles tbo most fatal cafies of congestion of f bn lungs. Avoid pro- 
longed orfnKt work wbeti tbo borse is ont of condition ontnnccnstoined 
to it. Auima)» tbat havo bi'C.n workitig mtt in rold niinK kIiouIcI b« dried 
and cooled out, and not left to dry by evaporation. When tbe tempera- 
toro of tbo weatbor is at the extreme, either of beat or eold, diseoKcs ot 
IliBorgana of rettpiration nrt> ninHt frequent. 

Tt is not to l>e snpiiosi-d tliat farmers can give their horses tbe par- 
ticular attention given to raluable racing and plea.sure horKe^, bnt 
tbey oao most assuredly f^ive them common aense care, and this wilt 
often save the life of a valuable or usi^ful animal. Neglect on tbe part 
of tbo owner is as often fperhaps oftener) the canse of di-spaso in the 
boree as uegUs^t on the part of the servant If Ibo owner |>roi>erly 
eonddera his interests be will study the welfare of bis bori>es so tbat 
be may b« ahlu to instruct the servant in details of stable manage- 
meut, an it often happens that thB fault on the part of the Kurvaut U 
dae to want of knowledge more than to willful neglect. 


Woonds iu tbia neighborhood are common, and are generally caused 
by |^>ltiug snagged on a uail or spliuler, or by the bito of another 
borse; or by getting *'ruu into,'' or b.v running againat somethiug. 
Occasionally tbe nostril is no badly torn and liLcerntcul tbat it is itn- 
poaalble to eHeet a cure without leaving tbo auimal blemishtil for 
IU&, bat iu the minority of instances the blemish or scar is due to tbd 
want of conacrvative treatment on tbe )>art of the owner or attendant. 
As soon as ]Ktaaible after Uie aceident the parts tihonld he brought 
together and held there by stitches. If too much time is allowed to 
elii|>se tbo sweliiDg of tbe parts wilt considerably interfere. The akin 
Id this neighborhrxid is thin and delicate, and therefore it is eaxy to iu- 
•ert sntares. Kever cut away any skiu that may be loose and hang- 
ing, or else a sear will certainly remain. Bring tbe parts in direct ap- 
position and place (he stitcbcs from a quarter to a half inch n|>ait, as 
circumstaueea may demand. It is not necesMiry to have &[ieeial snr- 
gcon»'' silk and needles for Ibis operation; good linen thread or ordi- 
nary Rilk thread will answer. The wound afterwards ont^y refjuirvs to 
be kept clean. For this purpose it should be cleansed and discbarges 
■wa«he<l away daily with a Bolutlan made of carbolic aeid I part, in 
i>ali-r40 parts. If the horse is inclined to rub the wound ngiiinst some 
olg^t **" account of the Irritability, his head should be tied by means 
of two baiter ropes to prevent hliu rubbing the wound o)K;n. The 
liesd should be so tied about too days, except when at work or eating. 


noatlis orborsesItnovTi to bu heiiUhy. After yoa bare become accns- 
lomol to tbe warintb of tho nioutli of tbe lu-nltby animal jou will bave 
ooilifiiualtf in iletecliiii; a niiirketl invrvAKB uf Uin tempt^nitnre. Some 
TClfHoartans become soeipert in tliis metboil ofexamiuatiou tbatlbey 
tni»t to it in [irrfcn'iKrtt t«» llin nsi; of tbiTiiiomt'tcrK. 

Ttie animal may iHaduii: bt} freijueDtly emits ii eort of sneeziog Btiort, 
but does not eougti unless tbe tbruat U aSwlvA; beexpela tbe air 
foiriblj- tbrongb }iiii noKtrilH very often in » miirrner that may be aptly 
callril ''blowing biH Do^te.^ A lew diiyti uflcr tbA tiltai^k bi-giiia tbi* (lis. 
chutge from tbe noflthU ohnnges from a valerj to tbat ofa tbivk ma- 
riliif^i iions state, of a ,vel1owi*tli-wbfto color, and may bL> more ur leaa 
ItruCnne. OfttMi tbe apiietitu in loKt.anil rbu animal liecomes debilt- 

fcMfffi^r.— Tbis di^ctiseis oot eeiioati, bat iaafimnch as neglect or 
bad treatment may canse it to ran into a dangerons eompIic:ition, It 
nbnold receive pn»|i«r attention. Tbe anlnial shouiit not lie wurke<l for 
a leir days. A fev days of qoiet rest, witL pore air and good food, 
will l»e of ereater bnnefit tban medication admin iatored wbile tbe borse 
ia eteitrd anil ex]MHWNl to dntiij^btH miil cbiingeH of tenipemtnre. 
Tbe IwuflH di*rive(l from tbe liibalatiou of sleam can not beovei-eKll- 
ttaliil. This ia effected by boldinj; the liorse'M bead over a backelfal 
ofboiliDf; vraterao tbat tbe animal will be compelled to iubalo aleum 
*ltk eTer7 inhalation of air. Stirring tb» hot water with a map of bay 
noses ibe Bteam to arise in greater abundance. By do means adopt 
the itemidonn metboil of sleamiug — advised by some authors and prac< 
tiee<l by many ptuplu — by pntting' tho head in » bag with but water or 
tealded bntn. CotninouHeuaewould be Huffieienttocotidemn tbe method, 
if those who practice it wonid only tbiuk. With tbe bead ao eloaely 
aiiilinpd in tbe Imjj tbe horse ia foaipelletl to inhale over and over tbe 
&nl air expelled from tbe luii<;s. Thin is malprurtiee on a bealtby 
btinv, and miicb vrornQ when tbe aniiual is ill, for then it baa a greater 
aeceiwity for pure uir. 

The borae ahould be made to inbalH HJeam four or Ave times a clay, 
about flfteea or twenty uiumtcis eiieh time. 

rarticalnr attention Bhonid be ]>aid to tbe diet. Give bran mashes, 
coaldi-'d oata, liuaeeil gruel, and graaa if in RenHon. If tb<* hiirse evtmH>tt 
no dh'Kire for thia soft diet, it is well to allow any kind of food be will 
«ttt, ancb an bay, oabi, oorn, etc. 

If tbe aDioial is constipate«l, relieve this symptom by injections 
(eaenaa) of u-arm water into the rectum (laat gut) three or lour times a 
day, bnl onder no clrcumstaneea administer pnrgative medieiaea. 

For simple ca>te«i tbe foregoing in all tbat is reqnireil, but if tbe ap- 
petite is lost, and tbe Animal appears debilitated and dtill, give 3 
MBMaof Uie aolulion of act'tiileot iimmonia and 2 drams of powdered 
ehlorataof potaaainm diluted with a pint of water three times a day aa 
* drotwlt. tte oareful wbeu giving tbu dreuub} du not youud tbe burse 


OD the gullet to luabe bim swallow ; be patl«Dt,and take time, and do 
it right. 

If tho weather b« cold, blanket tlie aiiiiual and beep Lim io a com- 
fortable atall. II' tlie tbroat is (K»re, tre«t as advised for that ailment, 
to be deacribcd hereafter. 

Wheti the iiiBaminutxir}' s^'iiiptuins Hiibnide and the upputite is uot re- 
gained, give 2 ounces each of the tiiictnre of gentian and spirits of □ itrous 
etherin a pint of wat^-r, as a drciicl), cver>' iiiKbt and muminK for itev- 
eraL dayt?. If, after ten days or two weeks, the dischure« from the nos- 
trils continues, give 1 dram of itowdereU snlpbate of Iron three timea a 
day. This may be mixed with bran and oats, if the bone will eat it, 
but if bu will uot cat the food with the iron in it, give tho iroo as m 
drench, dis-solved in a pint of water. 

It may be objciotod that ratlter more space than uccossaiy Is devoi 
to thiti simple afli'Ction ; but when !t is known that tlitrnn ih u tendenc; 
to the extension of the trouble, and that serious complications uia.y en 
sue, tho fact should be opprecialed that there is every rt-ason why the 
eommou eold shonld be tboi'oughly andenttood and intelligently ti%at«Hl' 
in order to prevent the more dangerous diseases. 




Tills is a snbacut© or chrontc inflanmiarUm of some part of the mem 
braiiu atlVotvd iu comiiiun cold, the disease just described. It is uiani- 
festcd by a persistent discbarge of a thick, white, or yellowish- vbite 
matter lYoru odh or both uoslriis. Tim Bbnisesof the head are the nsaal 
seat of tho diseiise. The commoDesI cause is a neglectetl or badly 
treated oold, and it uHuatly follows those cnses wbi^re the horse bag 
Bnffered exposure, been overworked, or has not received proper food, 
and, as a consequence, bas become debililaled. 

Other but less frwiuent causes for this afTeoIion are: Practnres of 
the bones that iuvolv« the membrane of the minuses; aud even blows 
on the bead over the sinuses, of suQicient force to rupture blood-vessels 
witbin. The blood thus escaping into the sinus acts as an irritant, and 
sets up an iiilluinnialion. DJNensed teeth often involve a sinus, and 
canso a fetid discharge from the nostril. Violent eougblug is siild to 
have forced particles of food into the sinus, which acted as a cause of 
the disease. Tumors growing in the sinnsies are known to have eaased 
It. It la also attributed to matter from disease of the tnrbinateil bones. 
Absorption of the bones fonuirjg thn walla of the Kinusos bas been 
oaased by thn pressure of pus collecting in them, and by tnuioro tilling 
up th« cavity. 

Symplomi. — The long-ctnitinucd discbarge, which vnrie-s in quantity 
according to the attendant circumstances — the cause of the trouble aud 
tbe part afTcctvd — will invariably indicate the diseiisc. Great cantioa 
must be exercised when examining thcKO cases, as horses have beea 
ooudemued as glaudcred wheu really thure was nothing more aiUug 


tbem than uasal gteet. Tbis affectioD is not ooDta.gtous, nor is tt dan- 

geroas, altliougb tlifDcuU to euro in somo iostaDocs. In most (»iso8 tbo 

discharge is frou one nostril only, which sigiiiJloit that the siuusea on 

that side of the ben<l are affected. The discharge may be ititerniittentt 

that is, qnantities may b« <lischar£;od at times, and ngnjii little or doqa 

for a day or so. The {^Intuls inidi^r and between lh« bones of the lower 

jaw Biay be etilargvil. 'Ihn |W(;uliHr rugged -ixlgud ulcer of glanders fa 

uot tu be fuutid on tbo ineuihraue witbin tbe uoslrils, but oecasioualtjr 

Mxes ar« to l>e se«ii tlitrre. If tbor« i^ any doubt ubuat U^ you abould 

ttady iveli the symptoms of glanders to enable you to be at least cxim- 

petpiit to form a safe tipinion. ■ 

The eye on tbe side of tbu discharging nostril may have a jteculiar 
Opt'carauou and look smaller than its fellow. There may bo an eularge- 
BKnt, having tbe appeanince of a bulging out of the bone over the 
imtt affcetiHl, l>etweeJi or bi-biw tbe eyes. The breath may be ofleimive, 
vbicJi fuOicatas decomposition of tbo matter or boneS) or, especially, 
disMw of tbe teeth. A di8ea#i-d tooth is further indicated by tbe 
kana holding bis bead to one side when eating, or dropping the food 
boiu the mouth after partly cbewiug it. When you lap on the bonea 
belveen the eyes, below tbe eyes and above the back teeth of the 
ii|<p«rjav, a hollow drum like sound is omitted, but if tbo siuus is 
Ulfd tfitb pus or eitntaiiis a large tnnior the sound eaiittetl vill l>o tbe 
wdo as if a solid ttiibstauce were struck; by this means the siuua 
tfltttM] may be locjited in some JDotances. Tbe hair may lie rough 
•^ the affected part, or even tbe bone may be' soft to Ibc touch aud 
Ik) iwi ffive Kumewbiii to |)r4.>ssut-e, or leave au itnprL'Ssiuu where it is 
peseed a|>ou with tbe finger. 

JVjKrtmntf.— Tbo cansc of tbo trouble mast be ns<;i'rtained before 
InAtnieut is commenced. In Ibe mauy cases whci¥ tbe auimal is in 
foor condition (iu fact iu all cases}, bo should have the tuost nutritive 
fooil and regular exeniise. Tbe fund, or box containing it, sboald be 
filBccd on the ground, us tbe de{>cudvut position of tbe head favors tbe 

The cases that do Dot require a surgical operation must, as a niJe, 

hare i>en(istent medical treatment. Mineral tonics are of the most 

Tal&e. For ei<;bt days give tbe following mixture: Hulpbnle of iron, 3 

oaoou; powdcreil nnx viimioa, 1 ounce) mix and make info sixteen 

powders. Give one powder mixe«l with tbe food twit-o a day. When 

all of the fore<!ning lias been administered the following may be tried 

fur clgbtdays: Sulphate of coppi'r, 4 ounces; powdered gentian, 6 oiin> 

ces; mix and divide into sixtc-eu powders. Give one on the food twice 

a day. If tbo animal will not eat tbe powder on tbo food, pnt the luedl- 

cine in a pint of water ia a bottle, shake well and give ns a dreacb. 

Afler this substitute tbo following: One dram of iodide of potassium 

dissolved in a bnckctrul of drinking water, one boor before each meal. 

Uacb buDcQt is often derived from the efiect of a bliaier over the face. 

Tb«on)inHry fly MiittnrplnAti'rof tliu drug' store mixed witTi one third its 
wcitiiht of lard is cfUcieat iSulpbur burnt iu tbe »tab)o while Uiu ani- 
mill iu thtire to iiibalo iU) ruincs iu aliw a valuable adjuact. Curfl Bhould 
tw taken llistt Ibe rnroes of tbe btiniiu},' sulpliiir iii-e sulbcivutly diluted 
with iiir, fto a.t nut to MufTuiiatu tbu hur^o. Clilondu uf Hmu Rpritikleil 
around tbe stall ia good. Alao keep a quantity of the chluridu uuUrr 
tbe hay tn tbe inaneer so that tbe gase^ vr\\l be inhaled as the borse 
holds hJH ht'iid orer the hay while eutiiij;. Keep the nostrils washed; 
tbn dJKi'hargax rnny bt< waxhed away for ap|>ear:iiir» luike, bat Nqnirtiug 
Rolutioiis up tbe uoae is worse than useless, as they do Dot oomo in oun- 
tact with thu diseilM-d jmrt. 

irihe uiLSJit gleet 19 the resultof a diseased tootb the tooth mnst be re- 
moviKl, ami Hie xubit«<{u«iit treatment will be according to inilicatioiui. 
The operation uf trephining is the best possible way to remove tbo 
tooth in AUL'h c&nf-Si, as it Immediately oprns the cavity which can b« at- 
t^iiilfit t« direct. • 

In all tfaoKe L-ase8 of na^al gleet wbore Kitmses contain either nolleo- 
tions nf pna or tamors, the only relief is by the trephine; and it Is a 
fact that, no mutter liuw thoroughly described, thiii) ih an operation that 
will \h} very seldom nttemptcU hy the n on- professional, although the 
ojteration is simple and attended tn the mnjorlty of instanceji wiih sne- 
crsN. It would therefore be a uiwliwa waste of time to give the utodu* 

An abscess involving the tarbioated boneti is eitnllar 10 the collcetioo 
of pus in the sinuses, and most bo rellercd by trephining. 


This is sometimes denoted by a chronic discharge, a snnffling Id tbo 
breatliing and it eontractioa of tbo Dostril. It if* a rctsalt of commou 
colil and ri-<jaireH thn Haunt trvatmt-itt tut pn>w;ribed for nasal gleet, viz, 
the sulphate of iron, snlphate of copper, iodide of potaselum, etc. The 
mfnibniiiPH of IkiIIi Ntilt-s may Imj afferted, but one side only is the mie; 
and the affected side may bu easily Ucti^ted by holding tbe bond tightly 
over one nutitril «t a time. When the heultfay side is clotted in this 
manner, tbe breathing through the affected side will deaioU3trata a 
dccniancd caliber ur an obstruction. 


Tumors with narrow baflea (somewhat pear-ahaped) are occasioually 
ionnd attached to the mtfmbmuo of the nasal chambfis, uud ur« ub- 
strnctiouM to breathing through tbe side iu which they are located. 
They varj' much in size; »ome are so small that their prescuoe is not 
nanifeftted, while others almost completely fill up tbe chamber, thereby 
causing a. xerion.': otvitruction tu the passage of air. The pMliuel of iJie 
tumor is geUL*rally actacbtHl high up in the chamber, and usually the 


bo f 



tnmor can not be Reen, but m^casionully it increases id sIzp tintil it can 
hp oI)firrvn1 witbitt the nuslril. Sumt'tiiuL-8, iu:«teiiil at banking (luirn 
tonartla the uusal oiwiiiiij;, it r»llt> back iuto Ilic pburynx. It cuueiva a 
«ll&<;ljur|<e front tbviioKtrit, u moro nr Ivj<is iiuisy snuffliitgBouriil ti) brostli- 
iag, iicconlitig tu itn Hize, u Jiitcbar^u of bliwd (if it is iiijunxl), and 

The 8iUe (bat it occupies oau be detectotl In tbe same vtiy as described 
for liio •lutccliou of tilt* offoeted Hide wbun tbe breutfaing Js obstructed 
by a tbickeiiwl membrane. 

Tbe onl.v rulief la reniurnl ot tbe i>olypuB, whieb, bke all other opera- 
lioiis, abould be done by an exi>«rt wUeu it ia pOHiibiii to ec-cure one. 
Tilt* o{>eratio» is perfomu'tl !>>' gninpiiig tint 1):um! uftlie tumor villi unit- 
ahlB foro«[M and twiatiiig it roaml and round until it i» torn from its 
atuurlitneut. Tbe reaiiltinj; bemorrba;;e ia cliecked by tbe iiso of an 
^tringeul loUon, aacb aa a Aoliitiou of tbe tinuturo of iron, etc. 


This is exactly tbe Bame kind of tnmor dcncribftd as nasal poly|>aB, 
tbe only difference being in the situation. Indeed, ttie )>odicc-i of tbe 
tumtM* mujr be uttaobiHl to tbe membrane of tbe naval clminlK>r as iK'vfore 
explainetl.or it may bo attached in tbe fatices (opening of tbu bxck part 
oftbi; mouth) which ia often the case, and by the body of the tumor 
falling into Uie pliarynx it getji the name of pbaryngejil polrpua. Xb 
tbiti Hiiaation it may seriously interfuro uitb bi-ealhmg. Humetimes it 
droits into tbe larynx, causing tbe most alarming symptoms. Theuni< 
inal coiigbn ur triiw to ctnigh, saliva tiown from tlie mouth, the breath- 
ing ia pvrfuriiifd with Ibv grcatratdifliculty aiiO accompanJetl bya loud 
liouH>; tbe animal appearft at if strangled and often falls exlian^tttid. 
Wlii*n ibe tumor is congbed out of the larynx the animal regains ipilckly 
ttud (HH>u apiieam an if riotliing was ailinj;. Tbcvw! suddi-n attiicks and 
qoiek recsOTeriea should lead to a detection of the trouble. The fxami- 
notion mast lie made by holdingthennimnl-H month open wiib a balling 
iron orqiecnlum and running the bund li:ick into tbe month. If tbe 
tnmor Is within reach it most b<^ remoTOd with forceps by toraion, nnd 
tbe heoiorrhago controlled as before advised. 


. Tills often oucnrs during tbe coarse of certain diseases, viz., influenKa, 
broucUttia, punnira bouurrha^ca, glandcrrs, etc. Uut it also oucuia 
iodeiHOideotof otiiMaffefltions; anil, as bufore miMitioiied, isu symptooi 
of polypus or tumor in tbv nuse. 

Injuries to tbe heail, exertion, violent sneezinfr — causing a rupture 
ofnAioall blood-TesM) — also induce it. Tbe bleeding is almost inva- 
riaUjr front one nuslrd only, and is never rery serious. The blood 
••cai>ea in dlojM (very seldom in a btream), and is never Imtbjr a« wIhid 

the heoiorrhiige is from the Inngs. {See Bleeding from Uie langs.) In 
most CitsL'H, batljing tlie bead and wtishing oat tbe Dostril wiUi eold 
water is all that is ueccosary. If tbo uiiiMt-iakiiowu^ou will bo gaidet] 
accordiag to cirouiu!itunce«. If tUe bloutliog coitttuaes, iwur Joe-coM 
water over ttie face, betweeu tliu eyt^ uiid down uvt*r ttie nasal ctaau- 
iM-rs. A baj; cuutuiuing ice lu small itiecea aiiiilie<I to the bead la aft«B 
eOiuieut. If ia B[)ite of these lueusurcu tbe boajorrbȣe Doutiaaes, try 
Itliifeiog the nostrils with cottou, tow, or oaliaia. Tie a etriug Around 
tbe plug before it i.s piubed up iuto tbe iiustril, ko tbut it can be safelj 
witbdrawn after four or five hours. If both nostrils are bli'vdlDg plof; 
only uue uostril at a time. If tbe heruorrhage is profuse aud iivrKisi- 
eut give a drcuch composed of I dram of ooetato of lead dissolved iu a 
pint of water; or 1 dram gallic acid diHHolved iu a piut of water may tM 


As already stated, tbo pharynx Is cotnmoD to the fnnctions of bolli 
reapiratiou aud alimentatiou. From this organ tbe nir p:is«es into tbo 
larynx and theiioc onward to tbe lutigs. Iu the |K>stcrior jtart of ilis 
Ithuryux is the superior extremity of the gallel, the canal tbroagb 
which the food and water pnss to the stomach. lutlauimation of the 
])barytix is n comjdSeation of other diseases, tiz., inlluetixa, atranglM, 
etc., Mud IS probably always, more or lesa, complicated with inflamma- 
tion of the larynx. Tliat it Hiay<>xi«taa an independent Rfft-etion there 
Is no rcasou to doubt, but so closely do the symptoms resemble those 
of laryngitis, and its tbe treatment is tbe same as for tbe latter disease, 
it is unnecessary to give it further cousideratJon in a separate article. 


The larynx Is situated iu the epace between tbe lowerjaw bones just 
buck uf tbe root of tbe tongue, aud is retained iu this positH>u by the 
wiudpipc, muscles, and boiie^ to which it is attached. It may be c«a- 
sidered as a box (somewhat depressed on each side], compused priuci- 
l»ally of cartilages aud Btaall muscles, and lined on the inside with a 
continuation of the respiratory mucous menibrano. i'oelrnorly it o]>eua 
iuto and is continuous with the windpipe. It is the organ of the niiue, 
the vocal cords beiug situated witbiu it; but lu the hor»e this funcUoo 
ia of tittle or no coosequencc. It dilates and contracts to a certain ex> 
tvut like the nostrils, thus nr^ulatiug tht^ vulumeof air passing through 
it. Tbo mucous membrane llulug it Interually is so highly sensitive 
that if tbe smallest particle of food hupi>eus to drop into it from lite 
pharynx the mnscle-s iiistiiutly luntracb aud violent oougbiug ensues, 
which is ountinuc-d until the sourcv of irritation is ejeotetl. This is a 
Vise prorlsioh of nature to prevent foreign sub.'ttauces gaining aoceas 
to ibo lungs. Tbnt proji.>«tiou called Adam's ap|>le iu tbe neck of man 
ta the prumiucut part of one of tbe cartilages Ibruiiug tbe laryux. 


Inflammation of Iho larynx is a serious and sometimes a fatal diseasev 
id, as iM^ruru stated, is uKiially compUcatL'd with iuflammatiou of Ui« 
>liarynx, (*oD8titutiii^ what is popiitHrly kriowu ns"sore tliroat.^ 

tSgrnptamt. — Alwut tlie first iiymi>tom nciticcil is tbe cougli, followed 
>y a diQit:ulty io sTraUowiDg, wl)icb may be due to Hit) sorfiicAH of tbe 
fneDibraae of the pliaryni, ovsr which the fooii or water must pass, or 
to the pain eaused by the eontractioii of the miiscleH nocesitary to impd 
the fiiod or water onward to tbe [gullet ; ur this muiiim <-oiitrac'tion of the 
muscles may eause a preiteure ou the larynx aud iiroduce the puiu, la 
maoy^instaiiceB the diOloulty iu awallowing is so great that the vrater, 
and in some cases the food, i» n^turiied through the nose. The mouth 
Is hot, and saliva dribbles from it. The glauds betni-cu the lower jaw 
boues and belov the ears may be swollen. Pressure ou the larynx 
tlidac4>8 a violent fit of coughing. The oough is very eharacteristtci It 
iseasiljr seen tiiat the animal is "coughing at his thniat." The head 
Ib nnre or less "poked tmt," and has thn appearance of Viug »lifily 
carried. The membrane in the noae becomes rei>l. A ilischarge from 
the nostHls soon appears. As the disease ndvaiiccs, the breathing may 
asMiHK^a more or less nuisy eharacter; sometimes a harsh niKping ttuore 
is emitted with every respiration, the breathing becomes hurried, and 
fKcasioDally the animal seems threatened with suffocation. 

Tr^dHf'Hf. — In all cases steam tliK UfwtrilK a» ndvitwd fur euld in the In b^d cases eause tbe steam to be inhaled continuously for 
hoars, ontil relief is alTorded. Have a fresh bucketful of bolliog water 
evrry flftren or tweuty minutet*. In each huckt^tfid of water put a table- 
iip«ioufuIof oil of luriK'utinf, which will be cjirriwl along with the steam 
to the affecteil parts and have a beneflcial effect. In mild cases steam- 
log the uontrils live, six, or seven liuies a day will 'tufliue. 

Tbe animal should be placed in a eomfortable, dry stall (a box-stall 
prvferred), bat should have n pure atmosphere to breathe. The body 
thuold b« blanketed, and baauages applied to the legs. Tiie diet should 
txmslst of soft food — bran msMlies, sralded oats, linseed gruel, and. best 
orall,gras8, if in season, which should bo carried to him assoouascut, 
and a f^e^h supply offorei) otteu. The manger or trough should not be 
too high nor Uto low, but a temjKtrary one should be constructed at 
about the height he carries his head, llavinp to rearh too high or too 
law may euiusti m much pain that the animal woiihl riither forego satis- 
lying what little api>etiLe be might have, than iuliiet pain by crautug 
bis bead for food or water. A supply of fresh water shnnld lie before 
him all tbe time; he will not driuk too much, nor will the cold water 
hurt him. Constipation (if present) must be relieved by enemas of 
warm vater, admiuistered three or four times during the twenty-fonr 

A tiuiment composed of 'J ounces of olive oil ami 1 ounce each of sola- 

ttoa of ammonia and tiuclnre of fiintharides, well Kliaken together, 

ilwald be thoroughly rubbed in about tbe throat from ear to ear, and 

1J035 T 


abont 6 Incbos down over tbc iriiuliMpo ami in ibe Kpnce betvppn the 
lover Java. This liniment Kbuald be npplied ODoe a day fur Iwoor 
tbTv» days. 

Wticn the animnt (^n nwnllow nirhont much difliRnUy, give tlie fti- 
lowing pr<-pamtioii : I'luid extract liyosoyamus 1 Urnui, powduntl olilo- 
rate potasHiam '2 dramii, simple «)rup or molasaea 3 onnces. Mit &U 
together and drcncli rfry carefully. Repeat tbe doHe erery six boari. 

If the uuimal in bivutliln;; witl) great dintrnlty do not atti'mpt l,o 
dr«[tcti him, Imt persevere in 8t«aruing tlie nostril^ aod dissolved 
drams of chlorate of potaAsiam in erory gallon of wat«r be will drfitk; 
even if bp can not kwhIIow morb of it (and flren if it in retnrnod throogli 
the iiostrilH). il will Ix; of some tM-nr(it n)i a gar^jlo Ui the pbiirynx. 

When the breathing begins to be loud, great relirf iaaflbrded iu soma 
casofl by {Hrtnjr a drench oompos^d of 3 drams of fluid extract of jab- 
ornndi in hnlf a pint of wntor. If benefit is derired, this di-enob may 
be repeated four or Are hours after the first doao la given. It will 
cause a fruo flow of »aliva from the month within thirty minutes. 

In urgent cilsas, when nnfTocntion Roems inevitable, the operation of 
traofaeotomy must Im> perfurtniHl. It nui^it be admittml tliat tfais opt'T- 
atlon appears to be (to the non- professional) aver^- formidable one, bot 
OA it i» oortainly a means of earing life whore all nlfa«r mi-aanrea faara 
failed, it is the duty of the writer to descriho it. To describe tbia 
operation in words that would make it comprehensible to the general 
Fcatleriaamnchmorc difficult ta-nk than performingtbeotteratinn, which 
in the bands of the expert is one of the simplesti anil attended with 
loss danger (from the oi>eratioo itself) than any of thespeiiial uixTalioua 
on organs. 

The operator abould be provided with n trncbeotoniy tube (to be 
pnrcbaecd from any veterlnai;y inetrumeut maker) and a t^barp knife, a 
sponge, and a Imcket of clean cnid water. The place lo be wlected for 
opening the wiiidpipe is that part which is fnuud, upon cx»miiiatiun, 
to be least covered with mnsctea. Run your band down tbe front i>art 
of the vindplpe and yoa may easily detc<:t the rings of cartilage of 
vbicb it is composed ; nhont 5 nr fi incbes Iwlow the throat it will be 
tbfl moHt plainly felt. Itigbt here, then, is the place lo cut through. 
Hare an nssistant bold the aniniaIN hend still ; no neeesRity nf putting 
a twilch on the nose. Grasp yuur knife firmly hi the right haml.M-lei^t 
tbe spot to cnt, and cut. Make the cut from above to below directly oo 
the median line on the anterior Kurfaco of the a-iud]>ipe. Do nut 
attempt to dissect yonr way iu, that is too slow, it annoys tbe horse 
and makeit him rcMtlcf<n,and IwHidca it gives a novice time to Ik-coios 
nervous. Make the cut about 3 incbea long ta the windpipe; this 
nscessitates cutting three or four rings. One bold, nervy stroke is 
nsnally anfflcifnt, but if it is necessary to make several other cu(<i to 
finish tbe operation do not hesitate. Your intention most be to make 
a hole in tbe windpipe sutSciently large to admit the tracheotomy tube, 


Ami yon bare not aocomplinhed yoar pnrpose nntil jon have done so. 
It ia quickly manifested when tbe wludpipe is govercd, tbe bet air 
rOKbes oat, nnil n-licn nir is taken in it is sncUinl in with a noiRe. A. 
8li;{lit bt-niorrbitge may resutt (it D«ror amouuta to much), wbicli is 
eaiuly controlletl bjr washing the woond with a Bix»nge ami <;oM water ; 
do not get any of tlio iratiT iu tUc«i»(l[)ipe. lioootDcglucttoiualruct 
your oKKiRtant to hold i\i& head dowu imiiictliately after tb« o{M>ration, 
M) that the ueck nill b» iu ii horizontal line. This will prevenc the 
blooil getting into the winil|)ii>e and allow it to drop ilirrctly on the 
groand. ir^oahArc tbo self udjiistablo tube. It retaiuft ite place iu 
tbo wnnnd without further trouble aftpr it is insertpd. The other kind 
rrqiiirr^ to be K4?cnr«d in position by means of two tapes or Rtrioga 
tied ntnand the neck. After tho hemorrhage in somewhat abati-d 
fiiton^e the blood away ADd eee that tbe tobe je thoroughly clean, then 
ioMfrt it, *lir@cting the tiilK> ilownn'ania townrdfltfae langs. To inauro 
tbe tolw being clfjin, it is best to keep it imnierwil in a aolotion of 1 
onnno of earbollc in 20 oum^s of water for about thirty minutes 
prerioOB to inserting it in the windpiite. 

The immediate relief this operation affonls is wonderful to behold. 
Tbe animal, a few minnteH t>efore on thp verge of death from Kuirrx-a* 
lioDteaiittiognload whceziog Honnd with every breath; with haggard 
DOiuiteoaocei body ewnying, pawing gasping, flghting for breath, is 
DOW breathing tranqnilly, and ten to one ia noHing about the stall in 
oearvfa of something to eat. 

Tlie toltp fthonlil W rrmovrd once a day and cleaned with the earlwlic 
acid Bolntion (1 to 30), and tbe diaeharge washed away from the wonnd 
with a solution of curbolfv avid, 1 )>art to iU part»i water. Several tiuiea 
a day tbe hand ahonld !« held over tbe opening in tbe tnbe to test tbe 
aoimal'a ability to brcathu throu;^h the niMtrilti, and an mm)ii hs it ia 
dentonstrated (bat brpatbing can be {performed in tbe natural way tbe 
raW abonid lie removed, the wound tbnronghly cleanseil with the car- 
botle acid aolution (1 lo 40), and closed by innerting fonr or fire aliltdies 
tkrovgk (A^aAin and mugcte. Do not iuclude tbe carlibiges of the wimt* 
pt[>« in tbe atitchea. Apply tbo carbolic acid solution to the wound 
tbrr« or four times a day until healed. When (be tnl>e is removed to 
olran it tbe lii« of the wonnd may t»e pressed together to ascertain 
whether or not the horse can breathe tbrongh (be larynx. The utw of 
the tube ahnnbl be disonntinnetl ns eoon as possible. 

It ia true that tracheotomy tnhea are Keldoni to l>e fonnd on farms, 
and L'apecitdly wh(.'n most urgently rrquiivd. In snob inatauces there 
ia nothing left to l>c dono bnt, witli a ntrong needle, pass a wax end or 
other Ntrong atring through each t>idu of the wonnd, including tbe car- 
tilage of tbe wind-pipe, and keep tbe wound open by tylB^^e atxings 
over the ne<:k. The operation of trnclieotomy is not air '^fccBsfol 

in saviujc the animard life, and tbo principal reason oP V jt i<i 

deferred too long and tbe animal is beyond ret^u^trj ul- 



During the time tlie tulie In nnei] the other treatment advised 
Dot be Deffleoted. After a few dnys the dtscbarse frooi the uostriU be- 
comes Ibiuker uud niure profuse:. Tbia fa a gowl s^mptora nud Bigtu- 
fl«fi tbat the acute stage hns ]>assed. At any time during the aitiiek, 
if tbf! boFKii bi^couics vt'uk, givu tbo following drench every four or fire 
bonr»: Spirits of Ditrous ether, 2 ounces; rectilied spirits, 3 ouuocs; 
water, 1 pint. When the power of Bwaltowing ia regaiu«d aud the pro- 
fii!4e di8i;liarge of thicit, yelUiwiHb-wliite matter frnm the nostrils on- 
uuuuccii the fact of the coiivalL-ctciiig Hlage, administer tlie futloniog: 
Tincture of the porchlorideof Iron, 1 oaace; tinotare of geotian, 'J oaao6«; 
water, 1 pint. This should be given every uiondug and evening for 
abont a week or t«ii dnyA. Gwid nutritive f(K>d mniit now l>e given — 
hiiy, oats, and corn. Do not be iu a hurry to put the auiinal back to 
work, bnt give plenty of time for a complete rccorery. OenUe and 
grnduiilly increasing exercise may tie given as soon as tfaeborso is able , 
to Ktuud it. d 

If abscesaeH form in connection with tliedisease they must be opened ^ 
to allow the escape of pne;, bnt do not rashly plunge a knife into swol- 
len glundu ; wait until yon am certain the swelling conuins pus. Tfa«i 
fornmtiuu of pus may be eutrouraged by the couetaut appltcatiou of j 
poultices for hours at a time. The best poultice for the purpose iai 
madeof linseed meal, with safflcieut hot water to make a thick paste. 
If the glands remain hwuUhii for somn time atter the atluuk, rub well 
orer tbein an application of the following : Blnlodlde of mercory, 1| 
dram; lanl, 1 ounce; mix well. This may bo applied once every daf | 
until the part In blistered. 

Sore throat is also a symptom of other diseases, such as iufluenia,! 
strangles, purpura hemorrhagica, etc, which diseases may be coosalted^ 
under tbrir proper beadiug». 

After a severe attack of inflatamatiOD of the larynx the mncoas mem- 
brane may bo left in a thicUenoil condition, or an ulccratlou of tbe partj 
may etisne, either of which are liable to produce a chronic congta. Ffl 
the ulceration it is useless to prescribe, bt^cause it cau neither be dii 
aoaetl nor topically treated by the non- professional. 

If a chronic cough remains after all the other symptoms have disap- 
peared. It Im advisabli; to give t dram of iodide of potassium din-solved 
in a bucketful of drinking water one hour before feeding, thi'ee times a 
day, for a month If necessary. Also rub in w^l the preparation of 
Iodide of mercury (as advised for the swollen glands) about the throat, 
frnm ear to far, and iu tho space between ch» lower jaw Ixtnes. The 
application may be repeated every third day until the part is blistered. 




Tins has been described by some authoritii^a. The symptoms given 
are: Sudden Mizure by a violent Utof coughing; the borge may reel 
and fall, and after a few miaates recover, aod be as well as ever. Tha 



breatment rocooi memled la : Give a plat of linseed oil aud nft«r ft has 
operated administer 3 drams of bromide of potassiam tbree times a clay, 
diH-Milveil ill tlu^ ciritiliing water, or girn aAuilrvnch in aliniit a Imlf 
pint of water, fur a werk. Tln-n give a dram of powdt-n-d aux vouiioa 
(either on the food or Bhaken with valet as a dreucb} ouce a day for 
a few weeks. 


Both of (bene dfseaiKus, it is claimed, alfect the horse. Bnt suoh 
oaaea mast bo rare, aa veterinarians of oxtcndiHl experience have failed 
1» reen^nizc a itingle case iii tlieirpractiue. Tlin»<ymptiini.s itrt^Ro niuelt 
like tlio8e of intl»iiimation of the larynx that it would be iuiposslble 
for the general reader to diserimtnatti between them. 


rionies that aro affected with a chronic disease that caases a load 
uatiatiiral uuIkh in tireathing are calleil ** roaren*." ThlschiKH lines not 
include tbose affected with sefero sore tbront, as iu these esuie^i thu 
breaibin^ iA noisy only during the Attack of the aciit« dli^ease. 

Koaring in ciauseil by an obstruction to tlio free pas«ijje of the nir in 
some part of tbe respiratory tract. Knsal polypi, thickening of the 
meoibraoo, pharyngeal polypi, deformed bone^, paralysis of the wtuj? 
of the uiistril, etc., are ocwiaional causes. The noisy breatbiiijiof lioraes 
After having been idle and put to Hnddeii exertion is not «lne to any dis- 
eaw, aadtsoaly teiajwrury. Very ofleua aervouH,excitablB horse will 
make a nnioo fnr a short time when startetl off, generally cansed by the 
craaipL-d puaitiou iu which tbu head and neck are fureud, in order to liiild 
him back. 

* Many other causes may occasIoo temporary, intermittanf; or penua- 
t nolMy respiriitiuii, but after all other ^an^eIl itreetiunieruted it will 
be fonnd that more than nine ont of ten cases of clironiu roaring are 
eaa»ied by piirulysis uf the mnsclea of tliu larynx j and ulmo«t invariably 
Ic i^ the mnsclea of the left side of the larynx that nre affected. 

In chroiiie rouHui; thu noisti itt niHdc whfin the air is drawn into the 
lougif; aud oidy when the disease is fur odvunccil id a Round jirodm^ 
wbvn tbe air is expelled, aud even then it Is not near so load as during 

Lu a normal condilioD the moxclca dilate the a]H'rtur« of the larynx 
by moving outward the cartilage aud vocal cord, allowing a sufllcient 
Tolamo of air to rash through, iiut when tlie u)uiM:les are paralyzed, 
the eartUage aud vocal coni that are normally controlled by the af- 
fected muscles remain stationary j therefore when tbe air rushes iu it 
lairttH this obstructioui and the noise is producetl. When the air is or- 
felled from the lanffg its very force pushes the cartilage and vocal oordB 
out, and consequently noise is not always produced tu the expiratory 



Tlie paralysid of tlift masclca is dop to ilcrnn^tncnfcortlionenrn tbf>t 
«up)>lt«H tliem uritU eiinrj^^y. Tbo muftcluK tif l^th Bitlest are not Hupiiiit^] 
by ibe same nerve; lliere is b right and a left nerve, each supplying its 
respective 'si lie. The r<'a-soii why llm iniiKcles on tho left airte are Ibit 
onra aaiially pnnUysed is owing to tb» (lifTT-i-ciiuo in the unntoinical 
arraDgemeat of the nervea. Tlie left ocrve Is mnch ]r>nger aud more 
•xposBd to iotorferenoo than the right nerve. This pair of nerves is 
given off frcun its parent lrmiV« (the piii-iimo^ii^ttrics) ntttr th« latter 
enter tiic chest, antl consequeiiUj they are called the rccurreuL laryngwd 
RerveAi on account of baling to recur to the larynx. 

In clironio rmirinp there is no evidenee of nny disease of the laryni, 
other limn the wastt'd w)nditioii of tbt« mtiseles In fpiestton. Tho dis- 
ease of the nerve is generally located far from the larynx. Disease of 
parts contiguons to tlio Dorve nlong any part of its conrse may interfere 
wilh itK iiroper funetion It is not reiilly necessary for tbe nerve itswlf 
to be the seat of disease ; pressure U])od it is sufficient ; tJie pressure of 
a tumor on the nerve ts A common caa»v. Disuawof lymphatic glands 
vithin the ebest through which the nerve passes ou its way back to the 
larynx is the most freipient inlernipliori of nervous supply, and conse- 
quently roaring. When roaring becomes confirnied medical treatment 
fa entirely uhoIcm, as it is imixiKAiblu to restore the wsated muMie aud 
at the same time remote the cause of the interrnptinn of the nervous 
supply. Before the disease beconieH i>t'r[uaiiout it may be l>etielicetl by 
a course of iodide of potasHium, when it is caused by disease of the 
lymphatic glauds. Hleotricity has betiO oscil with indifferent succi^^a. 
BliBtm-ing or flriug over the larj'nx is of course not worthy of trial if 
the disease is due to intwrference with tlie nerve supply. Theadniiois- 
tratiou of strychnia (nux voiuicat on the ground thai it la a nerve tonic, 
with tho view of stimulating the aflocteil moBOles, is treating only tbe 
result of the discam^ without considering the caiii^e, and if* therefore use- 
leas. The operation of extirpating the collapHed cartilage and vu(«l oord 
is believed to be the only relief, and as this operation iscrtiicaJaodcaa 
only bo performed by the skitlfal vetoriuarian, it will not be described 
- here. 

From the foregoing description of the disease it will be se«u that the 
name "roarinj;," by which the disease is gi'nerally known, is only a 
symptom uml not the disease. Cbrooio roariug is also in many cons 
Bceompanied by a cough. The best way to test whether a honte is a 
*' roarer" is to either make him pull a load rapidly up a hill or over a 
sandy mad or soft ground; or tP he is a eaddle biirso gallop him up a 
hill. Tbo object is to make him exert himself. Some horses require a 
great deal more exertiou thau otber^i before the cbameterisEic sound Is 
emitted. The greater thedistaunc he is forced the more he wilt appear 
eibansted if he is a roarer; in biid cases the animal h4L-cumt!M uttt^rly 
exbauKt«d, tho breathing is rapid aud difficult, the aostriU dilate to tbe 
fullest extent, aud tbe auimal appears as if suifocuUou was imminent. 


Ao nalmal tbftt Isa Toanj aboald not be ospd for breeding porposea, 
DO matter liow vultiahlu tlie stovk. Tbe taint is lra»^ini:isil>le iu many 
iuaitMOCtAf aui) tbtre in not Ibe lentil cUmltt in thu mitnlH of tbnse wlio 
know best llmt tlir otTspriiig vlioso sire or (lam is a roaier is Wru willi 
att ber«4itar.T predisposition to the affection. 

Omnling. — A common 1^1 uM'd by vpterinnrinns vhcn oxatDiin'nf* 
"tbtf wiuipof a Uorwi t8 to se* If bo la a "grumer." Tbis in a xoiiiiJ 
noUted daring expiratjon vbon tie animal is snddenlj- moved, or stait* 
lC4l, or Ktriicb nt. If be ^uDt« bt \a fartber test«il for roaring. Gruiiters 
vat- not alwayit roiirors, bill aa it !»< a common tbiiig Tor .1 ronrvr to grnut 
Nicb nil auiuial nnist l>e looked upon witb suspiuioD antil be is tbor- 
ougbljr trie<l by imllini; a load or g»l1npri1 up a bill. Tlie test should 
be a severe one. llor^ts sufferiug witU pleurisy, pk-urodyoiu, or riieii- 
matinm, and otbor ulfi^'tioiifi aireunipniiiet) v>*jib Diuub piiin, will f;ruiit 
vbvn uii>veil, or when tbe pain is aggrarated, but grunting under tbenu 
drcum^ttonccs doea uot Jtiatiry tbe teno of "^unter*^ beiuj^ apptietl to 
tbe bone, ae tbe ^ruutiui; cejisus vbeo tbe aaimal recovers from tbu 
disease tbat cauBos Mio jmin. 

Higk blo\cin]}. — ^TbiM term fs applied to a uoisy breathing made by 
Boaio lior^es. It is distinctly a na^^al sound, and luust not be cuii- 
fiHiiuled irltb "roninng," Tbe sound is proilu(M.-d by the ucliuD of the 
vostrtlK. It is a babit and not an nnKoundm-.Hs. (^iitrar)' to roaring, 
wbvD the animal Is pat to sprere eAertion tbe soood ceases. Au animal 
thai emits tbis sonnd is calk-d a " biebblover." Some horses b:tvi>, 
Itnrally, very narrow iia<ial openings, and thoy may emit sounds 

)di<r tbaii usual In tbelr bnsatbing wbe n exprcisMl. 

VntUtUng is only otie of tbe variations of tbe sound emitted by a 
horse called n " roarer," and therefore needs no furibrr notice, ezi-t'pt 
U> remind tbe re^tder tbat a wbiiitling MoncI may t>e jirodnced diirtni; 
an Atlnvl^ of severe sore throat or inflammatioQ of tbe larynx, wbiiib 
passes awuy nilb tbe diiH-Ase Ibut canscs it. 

T\iok Kind. — Tbis is unotbtr tiii|>erfluous term applied to asymptom. 
Tbe gtCAt tnHjoi'lty of horee« called " thick- vinded" belong eitbcr in tbe 
ebuH called " rouens" or are affected vitb ** heave*," and thereron no 
••patstB cUfMiAcatiob Is nr<Nli%l. Mares heavy with foal, horses exces- 
sively fat, and tboae tbat have not bcoo exuruisod fur so lougUiat (bu 
naMtalar system has heoome nnfit for work ; hontea with larKO bellim, 
and, es]woinlly, when the etomnrb is loaded with eoanio, flltroos, or 
bulky TimkI, voiit a loodrr soond than unlural io tbctr breatblug. and 
*n- called " tbick-winded." The treatment in socb canea is obvious: 
"Bentove the caowand tbo affect will oeue." While II nioatbeod* 
milttnl ibal "tble3[eotng of tbe moeofumembruieor ibeliner broiR-btal 
talN-nandair cells may raiise the breatbiog callefl llilrk-irlt><b-«l/ it 
nasi at tbe Mtne tiau) be admitted tbat there hi no symptom by which 
tJte coodltioe can be dt&ungnUhed from w hat will bemfter bb dcMrtbad 
M '^bearasi'' by tbe feueral caader, at least. 


Tbo windpipe, or trocliea, as U is teobnically called, is the flexible 
tiilM^ tli»t extoudit from the laryux wliicb it succeeds at the throat 
tu aboTe tbe base of the beart in the chesty wLei-e it termiDatm b; 
diriding into tbe right and lolt bronchi, the tnbts gotog to the right ■ 
ani) tfft lung reitpMttively. The windpipe {h composed of abuut fifty 
incomplete ring* of cartilage united by ligaiufuti*, A muscular layer 
ia situated on tJie superior surface of the rings. Internally tbotutw 
is lined with a continuation of tbe niucous membrane that lioea tbe 
«ntiro r(<Hpiratm-y trnci, which b^re baa very little sonKibiUty in 
contj-ast to that lining tbe larynx, which is endowed vilb exquisite 

The windi>ipe is not subject to any special dinea^e, bnt is more or 
less ftffvcled -during hirynfiitis (sore throat), influenza, bronchitis, etc., 
aiitl retjuircH no 8])ccial tri-atmcnl. The membrane may bo left in a 
thickened ooaditiou after theee attacks. Oi^e or mora of tbe rings 
may he accidentally fracturc<l, or the tube mny be distortc^l or mnl- 
fornied, the result of violent injury. After tbe operation of trache- 
otomy it in not uncommou to find a tumor or malformation as ft ro* 
enlt or Be(]uel of the operation. In passing over this ueiction atten- 
tion Is merely called to these defects, as they require no iinrticular 
attention in tho way of treatment. However, it muy bo stated that 
any one of tbe liefore-mentiuued conditions may constitute one of the 
causes of noisy respiration described as " roariDg." 


These t^ro sacbs are not iooluded in tbe organs of respiration, bob 
eometimes pus collects in thcui to an extent that considerably inter- 
feres with respiration. They are in close proximity to the pharynx and 
laryux, and when filled with matter the fuiictioua of the last-named or 
gans can not be properly performed. They are Kiluuted above the 
throat, and commnnicate with tbe pharynx, an well as with the cavity 
of the tympanum of the ear. They are peculiar to KoUpcds. They 
contain air, except when filled with jtus. Their function is anknowo. 

Unu or both guttural pouches may contain pus. The symptoms are: 
Swelling on the side below the ear and an intermittent discharge of 
matter fruai one or both uostrilB, e8|M*eiaIly when the head ia depnsased. 

Tbe swelling is soft, and, if pressed upon, matter will i-w:ape from 
tho nose if the head is deprc<«e<l. As before moutioued, these poaches 
oommunicate with the pharynx, and tbrongh this small opening matter 
may escape. A recovery is probable if tho animal is turned out to 
graze, or if he \n (M from tbe ground, as the de|H>-udent position of the 
bead favors the cscajie of matter frota the iiouches. lu addttiou to 
this, give tbe tonics recommended for nasal gleet If this treatment 
fails an operntJon must be performed, wbich should not be attempted 
by an}' one unacquainted with tbu unatumy of tlie part* 






To lay down ft set of rnlAs for the gnidauce of the general render In 
dJAcritui Dating between tb« diffiTcutaffectionnof tlieorgausof teApinw 
Uon «itii4leil in the tlioracic cavity, is a task hard to hccouipUbIi. Id 
Ui« flrat |iIii(M>, it IN presii lued tli»t the render him no kuowli!(]};e wbac- 
ever of (lie aoatoiuical arrangement, and probaWy bnt a meager idea 
of tlie Itliyeiology of tlie organs, tbiTcfore tbe u»c of trcbnit^I lanuiiajto, 
Tbkli would make tbe tusk a «tm|)Ie one, is ont of tbe question. And, 
to one who scarcely nnderstnods tbe stgntt and laws of liealth, it ia dif- 
flcalt to convey in (M>itipn-bi>nKive lungnagi^. in an article like this, an 
adeqnate idea of the 4,'reat iinportuutw aluiubt'd to Memt or ttyinptoma 
of disease. Then, apiln, tbe methods need for tbe detection of symp- 
lomii not vi.stble are eiich as require t^peclal cultivatjou of tbe parllca* 
lar aeoses brought into piny. It will be tbe endeavor of tbe writer, 
when describiug ibe syuipturus of eocb particnbir diM-iide, to do no in 
«Dcb toanuer tbat a ficrioud mistake should not be made; bat for tha 
braeflt of tbo»«> who raay desire a more tborongb QadocBtandiDg of the 
MjbJ<.>ct a bhvf rvvivw of thv variuuH mellioilK etuployed and an ex> 
planatJOD of certain ttyuptoms will be given here. 

PwUe.— By the pulse U meant tbe bcatiiifi^of the arteries, which fol- 
lows CflCb contraction of tbe bvart. The artery OHDally wlrrted in the 
borscfor"ia.kiueihe puUe'' is tbesnbmasitlar.v wbt-re Ic windH aroand 
the lower Jaw-botie. Un tbe inner side of the jaw-boue tbe artery may 
be rcMltly felt nod pressed against the bone, benco its adaptability for 
tiw parpoM' of detecting ea<-b pecaliarity. Tbenamberof beats in a 
minute, the regularity, the irregularity, tbe strength ur feeblenesii, and 
otbei pecitliuritiea are principally due to tbe action of tbe be^rt. 

In tbe healthy horse the average number of beats in a minute te 
abool foriy; but In different borses tbe number mny rary from thirty- 
five to forty-Qv« and still be oousmtent with health. Tbe breed and 
temp<::niiiieot of an animal hai mnch to do with tbe number of polna- 
tiona. Id a thoroughbred tbe number of beatx iu a gireu time is geo- 
cnlly gruaier ihao h) a coane-bred boise. The pulxe ia lesa frequent 
In ft dull plethoric animal than in an excitable one. Tbe state of tbe 
polM ahoald be tabi^D when tbe animal is quiet and at rent. Workj 
eserdse, and excitement increase tbe number of palsationa. If tbe 
pulse of ft burse be taken while standing qnielly In tbe stable it will be 
found leas fminent iban wbeo be is at paAture. 

It is not within the scope of a work of this Itiud !□ give all tbe iieoH 
liarities of tbe pnlae; only a few of tbe mtjot imporuut will be ootioed. 
ll sboold, however, be stated tbat if the reader woubl levm sometbiog 
of tbe pulse in diKeawe be mmtt fint betmme acquainted witb the potto 
inbealtb; be most kuow (he iiatnrat iKcaliarilies before be can detect 
tbe dcvtatuiua cuaibl by diaMmc 


By a/requenfpn^Mis menntai) increasptl Dumtwrof beatx io a given 
time. Au in/requent puUe niemis tliu rweiM. A QHtcA jiii^** rervrn uj 
tli6 time oi»>apie4l by tbe itidivi^uul pul^itfon. Ttio beat oiaj »trike 
tb^ fiiigor otth9r gviekly or »Jowtjf. Elcnce tlie polM raaj beat fortj 
Qtiicit iHiUattoim or forty Mlotc iiulHittiona in a minot«. 

Tbo]>ulae ia calleil intfrrmUUng wlieo tlie beat now and then IsomittraL 
Tb« omission ot tbe beat may be at tbe ond of a givQii number of puUa- 
tioiis, wheo it ts termed regularly interntifteat, orit may b« irrcgnlarl; 

A large pulse means that theTolnme is larger than tmnnl, aDdarauiK 
puhc means the op|>ositc. Wb«D tbe artery is easily oompre^eed and 
conveys the feelingofemi)tinessit.iscall«da/«A/epu/w. When a feel- 
ing of bardnesa and realataooe is conveyed to tbe floorer tt la turoied a 
hafd pulet. A double puUe is vben tbe beat Keems to give two r^ifd 
beatfl at once. Bestd«-8 other pcouliaritic-s tlie pulse may include tb6 ' 
Obaraeter of two or more of (be foregoing claiutea. ■ 

Id fever tbe poise la ciodifled. both as regards ftrqneocy and otber^ 
deviafiiinn from the norniiil standanl. When » tionio ia qatctly eland- 
ing at test, if the pntse beats flfty-flve or more in a mioate, fever u 
present. _ 

Tetnperalure.— The temperature of tbe healthy horse rangoa fromf 
almut 30^0 to 101 JO F, The may bo placed at about KW^ F. 
The temperature is subject to slight alterations by certain iot)aenc«a. 
Ahigb surrounding temperatnre incrcaaes the animal tem|)erature,aml 
Cold the rererse. Exercise ircreasps it. Mare» have a liipher tempers 
tare than males. Drinking ould water lowvra the aiiiuiul triit|>eratarah 
It is higher in the yoang tbau Id tbe old. Tbe process of dtgeetiou in- ■ 
creases the tempemtare. 

Tlie most accurate niclhod of taking the temperature is by introdoc- 
lug n regittlered clinical IhcrmoDiL-ter iuto the rtnituni. This instnimeot 
can be purchased from any dealer in surgical iustrumeuts. Even the 
best made may vary somewhat from being ex:ict, but one saffieientlj 
true for the pur[io»fl is easily obUined. It Hhonid he self- registering. 
Tbe thermometer should remain in tbe gut for atwut three or four 
minutes. Before inserting it yon ehonid Ite sore the mercury is below 
the minimum temperature. The end containing tbe mLhrcury Hbould tw 
pushed iu gently, leaving only salficieut outside to take bold of when ^ 
yoa desire to withdraw it. ■ 

In doseribing the symptoms of " cold in the bead^ the method of as- 
certaining un iDrreuKc-of tcm{>eraturoby placing the Onger iu the mooch 
il referred to. The metboil reiiuires oonaiderable practice and a deli- 
cacy of touch to become exi»ert, but, when a thrrmnmrter is not at 
hand, a little practice will enable a person of ordtaary iutelligeDue to 
detect the existence or absence of fever. fl 

IttwpirattoH.— In health, standing slill, the liorite breathes from tweira ^ 
to firtecu !inioa a minute; work or excitement iucreascs the auuibtirof 


The ehumrtw of the breathlnp fs chanced hy <1i9«ii«p. Quick breath- 
imp n<f«ra to on incpnucd aamber nf i«i»f>iratioDH, wliicli niAy be tine 10 
dtseaae or to nmplr cx«>rriKR. DiffcuU breathing in »Iw»yit anaociated 
vttb aometliing ftlnionnal, not) is oftm a pcrfecl guUle to the troobloi 
BtertmrtMu breathing mast not be ooiironnded vith the dtfBcall breath- 
ing or DoiKy rmipinifion of aora tbfOiit^ roaiiit^i, etc. By atertoroua 
breathioK is meiuit what, in the human being, is called ftnoring, whi(!b 
is doe to * relaxation of Ibe jkalatc and not to diseas« of the part. In 
tlie borse it is ^mrmtly lutWH-intiNl with brain diKpaKe, when th« con- 
■eqMOCd«nuiBem«Dt of the ucTToua fuuctionii caaaea the ivlHXHtion of 
tlie aoft palate. AhdomintU brentiting in wlien the rilw are kept its 
nearly alationarr a« poetible, and the aNlominal rousclea assist to a 
morh ipvater extent than niirnral in respiration; tbu alidoniAn in seen 
to work like a bellows. Tn pleurisy, owing to the pain cansed by mov- 
Lflg (be rib?, thin kind of hrrathingiit alvays pri9«mt Thoracic breath- 
htff is the opposite of abdominal breathing — that is. the ribs rise and 
(all more Ibao usual, while the alMlotnloal muscles remain fixed ; lliia 
is line to abdominal pain, sncli as pentonitin. etc. Irregular breathing 
is exemplified in ^ beave?)," and often durtug the txilical stages of acute 

8ttr€iien». — In the first stages of inflaminatory disease these funtrtjuna 
are noticed with Iwneflt. For ioitlanef^ iu the cotnmun cold at the be- 
giuning of the attack the membrane within the nustnls is dry and cou> 
gest&l, which state gradually gi^-es way to a watery discbarge, sooo' 
lollowed by n thick maoas. In ploarisy the surfaces are at first dry, 
■bicb can be L>iutily ascertainud by ptsciug the ear against the chest 
OTcr the affected part, when thedry nnrfaoesof t^e pleuriewil] be Ueanl 
nitibing sgniost each other, producing a sound likened to that of rub* 
tring two pleoea of paper one agaiuKt the other. In diseases of the 
respiratory organs the bowels are nsaally coiislipaled, and the ariaa 
beooiBCS less in quantity and of u biglinr (»>lor. The skin is nsually hot 
Ud dry, bnt tliere .ire iii-stance^ u-ben i)erspiratfOD is profuse. At the 
be^nnlng of the attack there is generally a chill (in most instan< 
ODDoticed by the attendant), caused by the contraction of the bltiod*^ 
rccaels in tlie skin driving the blood internally. 

Covfih. — Tliis is usoally a riolent effort to remove some sogroo of Ir- 
ritation Id the respiratory tmct. The drg amgh is heard iliiriog the 
first atagra nf dinease of the rp.<ipiratnry organs. In [ilenrixy the eongb 
ia ft dij one. The coagh in pleurisy is notitmiblc on art:ount of tho 
appannt effort of the anf loal to suppress it The mout coufih i* beard 
vheo the seoretioos (following a dry stage) are re-estaldhibed, CoOfkl 
la bnt a symptom — tlie efTrrt nf adinease. Roaring, bcavea, ptenrlsy, 
pBCtitroODia. etc, have a cough pn^uliiir to each alTectJoo. 

AiuettUaticm. — This term is applied to the method of doteoUog dU> 
PS of the organs wilhia the rbcst by Mfifenliig (o Ibe mutuU 
y tba ear is placed directly against the jiart, bat 



Bu inatinmc-nt called the stetboscope is employed. Tfae former is tb« 
beat luode for liorsod. la order to gain any satisfaction or knowledgo 
by tbo praolicooftbis method the render mast Rr»t becoinB familiar 
witli the sot) add iti a beulthy borsc, wbioli caa only be learned by pmo 
ticc. Mncb more |iractice and knowledge arc then requufd to diHcrimi> 
iiale properly bvtvrotin abiiuruiul souudnaud tboir siguiQcaooe. 

Peretusion. — Aa applied to the proctice of medicine thin lerm refem 
to tlieaut of Ktrikiiijf on some part of the body to determine the condi- 
lioiiof the interualor^us by the sound elicited. If a wall of a cavity ia _ 
strnck theKoand is easily distingnJAhcd from thatcmitt«d wbea iv solid ■ 
Btibstflncc 13 knocked on. When perenssinji the ebe-Hl, the ribs aro 
Rtrnck wilh the tipH oftlio Oiigers and thumb held togetlier, or with 
the knuckles. An instrument called the pleximeter is sometimes laid 
againiit the part, to strike on. If thr aiirrnco is soft over the part to he 
porciiftsed, the h'ft Imnd is pi^s.ted iigaiu»t it firmly, and the middle tin. 
gLT of it struck with the ends of the Qn^^rs of the right Land to bring 
out the sound. Thia method of examination al»o requires uiucb prac- 
tice ou the healthy as well us the uiihculchy aultual. 


As prcviooftly described, thu windpiiw tertninatcfl by diridtng Into 
the right and leftbrouchi, running to ttie right and luft tung, respect- 
ively. Atler reaching the luiiga tbeso tubes dlvido into iiiuouierable 
braiicbe.i, gradully tlecreaHing in size, wliiuh penetrate all partti of the 
tungri, uUiuiatfly tcnniuatiug iti the uir-celU. Tbe bronchial tubes are 
formed luucb the same as the windpipe, cousiuling of & hiu$e of carti- 
laginous rings with n layer of Qbrous and masculnr tissue, aud lined io- 
tc-rnally with a continuation of the reKpiratorr mticouti membrane;. 

Broochilis is ail iuilamuiatioH of tbe bronchial tubes. The macoos 
membrane aloue may be affeeted, or the iiiQamutation may involve the 
whole tube, flrouirhitis affecting (be larger tnbeM is less Hurioiia than 
when thu smaller are in%'olved. Tbe disease may be either acute or 
chronic. The causes are geDerally much the same as for other diseaMfl 
of the i-e«ptraiory organs, noticed in the beginning of this article. The 
S[>ecial ciUM'S uru: The iuhalaLion of irrilaliiig ga^ii^s and smoko, sod 
floids or solids gaining acc«ss to the parts. Bronchitis is occasionally 
a^ociatetl with inUuensa and other spcciQc fevers. It also superreoM 
ou tH>uiuiuu cold or sore throat. 

Sj/mptoau. — Tbe animal appears dull; tbe appetite is partially or 
wholly lost; tbe head hangs; the breathing is wry much quivkeuud; 
the cough, at Urst dry, and having somewhat the character of a '*bvk- 
iug oougb," 1h 8Uc(»pded in a few days by a tiioist rattling cough ; the 
mouth is hot ^ the visible meuibraues in tbe nose are re<l; the pulse ia 
flrequcuti and during tbe first stagu is hanl and quick, but us the dis- 
ease advances becomes smallir and moru frequent. After a few days a 
whitish discharge Irom the nostrils ensues; sometimes thui disuharca 




Is tinged vttb blood, nod ocoasioDHlly it nay be of a brownish or ntsty 
color. By aoscaltntiou or placitig tlie «ar to tbe sides of tU« client ud- 
natanil Hoaiiila can now Ik? Iieartl. The air passing orer tlie inflrtiucdi 
surfihce causes a biasing ur v.-Ufcziiig eouiit] wlivii tim vtimll tultos ara 
affected, and a hoarse, eooiop, or snoring sonnd whvn tlie larger tubei* 
are involved. Aneronoor two days tbe dry 8tn><o of tlio dls^aso is 
Hucct-etlcd by a Htiite of the nit;tiit>tanL>. Thv rur nunr iletccts a 
diffVreut sound, canned by the bursting of tbt; bubbles as tliuair |ia.Ksea( 
tbroogh tbo fluid, wbieb is tbe exudate of inaamuialion and the aug- 
mented Diucoussecretioiis of tlie membniue. Tbe niucas may be secreted 
Id great abundance, wbicb, by blocking up tbt- tuU-R, may cauHO a col- 
lapse of a large extent of brenttiing sui face. Usually tbo niacua is ex- 
peetomteil, that is, discharged tlirough th« nose. The nintter !« coughed 
op, and when it reaches Mie Isirynx miicb of it may l>i> (twalIow<Ml, or, as 
(h« catte may be, dinKibartfed from the uostxils. Tbt^ borse can not spit 
like the buinaa being, nor does tbe matter ooagheil up gain access to 
the Dionlb. In serinim eases all tbo Hym|it'>ms becomo nggrnvnted. 
Tbo tm>albiiig in labored, abort, quick, but not paitiful. It in bulb 
thoracic and abdominal. The ribs rise and fall mncb mora than nat- 
ara). TbiA fact alone isenoach to exclude tbe idea tbnt. tbe animal may 
beaOt'cted with pluuriny, because, in pleurisy, tbe rilw lire as uvarly 
fixed as in the power of tbe animal to do so, and the breathing aocoin< 
pltshed to a great extent by aid of tbe abdominal niuHclcK. The hur«o 
iwrsista in xtundiug throughout the attack. lie prefers to stand with 
head to a door or window to gain all tho fivtth air poKKible, but amy 
occasionally wander li.stles»1y almut tbe stall if not tied. The buwcU 
most likely are constipated; tbo dung is covered with slimy mucnn. 
This appcamuco of tho dung id asually defined by stableaien to bi. 
"♦■old on th« bowels,^ or "dung covered with cold." The urine i»i 
decreased in qnaoiity aad darker la color than umual. The animal 
allows more or less thirst; in some cases tbe month is full of sali%'>k 
The discharge from tbe nose increases iu quantity att tlie disease iiU- 
vaaces and indamiuatioa subKidrti. This is rather a good Kym|>t'im, as It 
shows one stage lias passed. The discbarge theu gradually decreiincs, 
tbe congli becomes less nksping but of mnn> fn'qncut occurreur« uittil 
it gradually disappears with tbe return of health. 

Brauchitis, aO'ectiug tbe smaller tulwd, U one of tbe moat faint 
diseased, while that of tbe larger tubes is never very serioiis. It must 
l>t> Btatcd, however, that it \h nn exccfdiiicly dtfllnilt. iniitti-r for a imhi- 
expert to discritaiuate between tbe two forms, and rurtlicr^it may lui 
wdl bo aald hero that the nou-expert will have diUloulCy In disorliub 
Dating betw«<«n bronchitis and pnenmonia. Therefore (lit* writer will 
eudeavor to |M)inl out a conrsf) of trcatiiirut in vtnh dlit-»i«r> (hut will 
posiUvety benefit eitlier affection if the reader happetis to Iw ttilwLabed 
in hia diagnosis. Tbo critic may siiy that thin plan Ih nut n truly Mtlntl^ 
tiUc method of tteating di:»ease. TJie uuly reply uvci-aiiai < 


id tbat tfais (wries of nrttcl^'s is intendcil to b« of practical mine to tbe 
faonj^owoinj; pulilie, and U in no mnnner intended ob a text-booh Tor 
experta mid tboAO alruady aoqualntcd wilb Ibv toebnieaJ literature oo 
tho Kubject. Scjenlific tii>rtnft wliicb vimld make thn work etuj for tbal 
antbnr wunld nul>' tvud to miik« it valiwlesB Ui tbe fenanU rmdiv. 
Likewise a different pre&cription for «Acb form and stsge of tlie affec- 
tion wuald only ouufase a person who is unablo to appreciate tiM various 
pbuet-s of tbe diKejiwie-. 

TrcatmcKt — <>f liTst inpnrtanoo is to ttisare a pure atmoisphurc to 
brestiM:, and next to niabp tbe pati«at*« qnartera at) comfortable a« pos- 
cible. A well Teutilnt^l box-stall BerT(>s best for all piir|)oseB. Cover 
tbe boAy with a bluikfl, ligbt or hrnvy wt the Heasun of tbd year do- 
nmndN. llaod rub tbe ieics ontil lhi\v are warm, tlicu a|<ply 6Uiauel or 
Df rby baada^ea from tbe boof$ to the knees and bocks, if tbe lege 
can not be made wartn trith Imiid nibUing alone, apply tbe liuinwut 
reeom mendfd in tbe treatment of More ibront. Rub iu ihoroagbly and 
tbeii put ou Ibe bandages. Al^o. rub tbe same lioiiDeBt well over tbe 
side of tbo cbcgt, behind tbo «Ibowand fiboalder blade, ooreriog tbe 
Bp»(!e bi^ginnini; immi-diatHly l>Hhincl tbu fllKiv and Rhoulder-blaile and 
ruuuiog back nboat 13 iucbes, and fram ibo elbow belovr to frithiu 5 or 
6 inrfaoa of tbe ridga of tbo backbone above. Repeat tbe application 
to ibc »ide of tbe cbeRt abont 5 dnys after tbp first one is applied. 

C()iuiM.>l llie animal to iiibiilu fil«':Lm sk ad\ tsnl fur vuld (ii tbe head. 
In eacb backetfol of iMaling water put a tabkspoonful of ml of turpen- 
tine. Tbin meilfcated vapor cotulii;; in direct contact witb tb<< inflaaied 
broiicbial tulie» in of diuuU gre»t«r In-nelit tban can be iroa^ne<l byow 
vbo baa not exficrieneed ita f^ood eflecL la aerious cases tbe sU-am 
abniild be inbalvil every hoar, and in any case tbe oOcner it is doue tbe 
^filter nill be tbe beneQcial rmullH. Tlireu times a day udniinister 
tbe fotlowinR dreucb : Solution of tlic acetate of ammouia, 3 oaiKee; 
H{ni its of ntlmus etber, 2 ounoee; biearbouata of potassiam, one-baJf 
ounce; wattrr, I pinL Cbjc idiisI bn nard in drenching. If it greatly 
excites tbe borssit is best not to pusli iu if yoa sec that it dot* barm 
do not persist in ranlciDg tbo animal wor^te. Be sattstied witb dtssolv- 
ing oue-balf ounce of bicarbonate nC potassiam in eveiy bucketAil 
of Witter the aniiital will drink. It is well to keep a baekf«tAil oCj 
cold iratcr before tbe animal all tbe time. If tbe horse is pnistTatcd, 
and has no ap[>etile give Cbe following drcocb : Spirits of nitrous etber, 

2 ounces; rectifiHcl spirita, 3 onnoes; water,! pint Kepent tbe doaaj 
every four or five faonra if it apiieara ft boiut^iiL Whvn the boraeis* 
bard to droucb. and if you bnye some one about wlio is expert io ad- 
niniatering balisi, give tbe followiug: Pulverized carbonate of amnoote, 

3 draiDs; Itnseed meal and nobiKKftft suffieient to make tbe vfaole tats 
aKtiBTmnas; wrap it witb a Riiiall piece of tiSKne p3i»nra»d it is ready 
to administer, lliis ball may htt repcnti'd every four or five bonri. 
Wbeo giving tbe ball care should be taken to prevent ica breaking in 

ti»e moath, u in «ftse of Boch aMident it will mafce the month sorat 
which mny i*rpv«nt tito animal fh>ai entitig. If tbe bowels are couati- 
patcd give enciaas of warm water. Do not give pargntire nietUcinra. 
Da not blp«) thu aiitaial. l>«picsaio£ LreaLment ouly bclpH to liriDgoo 
» fatal t«nniuatioD. 

If Uia aiiimal rptoins nn oppetite » soft diet is T^rt-femblft, saoh as 
aealded oulM, lirut uasfaee, and graas i/ iu 8«a«oa. Klin rffniuw oocAed 
food altow in small qnaotities anythini; he will eat Ha;, corn, nata, 
hitiart. applcfi, carrots may oil b« tried in tarn. Some horaca will diink 
a w cct milk when ttiey rpfone all otlinr ktnda of food, ami r-Hitocinll}' is 
this the ease if Ibe drinkitig wnter is witlilield for nwhilt). Oiie or two 
gallnnN ai » liinr^ four or fivfl tlirtiia a day, will impport life. Bear to 
miod that wb«n Cb« dJscaao is eHiablishod ft will run \ta cwiree, whicb 
najbofrom two to three weeks, or even longer. Goo«l nursinj; nnd 
patienoe are regair«d. 

When th(« iiyinptoins havcal>at4Hl aiul iiotbinc remains of the iliftcaae 
except the oongh aad a wfaito di^liarge froin the nostrils, all orlittr 
Be<liciDe8 should be diacoDtinutHl liud iiiM>ur»o of tooic trciilDient piir- 
aiied. Give the following mixtare: Pnlrerized Bolpbato of Iron, 3 
oaiiRiii; powdvrcd ^t>iili»ti, 8 ouiict-Sj mix well Logrthrr and divid'^ into 
•ixlifu powders. Qite a powd«r CT^Ty night and luomiug mixnl wilh 
bran and oata, if tbn animal will €at it, or sbakoo with about a pint of 
WBl«7 and adminiaterMl aa a drench. 

If thr eongb remains for a kMigtb of time that lemln yon to think it 
win become dhroaio, aay tliree or four weeks after tho hurMo ia a[i]>ar' 
eotly VCD, apply the liainient to thu throat and down orer the wind- 
pipp and art'r the hrennt. ' Kab it in tboroaghly onoe a day antit tbrru 
or foar aiiplit^^ttioas are tnado. Al»n give 1 dram of iodide of poUMdutn 
dlttsolred io a bucketful of drinkioff water, cue hour Itf-forerach meal 
for two or three weekaif neccftsary. Do not pnt tlio animal ut work loo 
■ooo after recovery. Allow ample time to ra^u Btfen^ttL Thifl dl«- 
ease is pmne to become chronic and may run into an inrrurablo vam- of 
thick wind. 

It has I>een staled tfaatit will be a difRctilt matter for the nmi pro- 
Cesaloual tu diacriminate between broniJiitin and pneunioniii. In hiut 
the two diseasea are often associated, coostitutini; Iironcbo>pnoamrnila| 
tbrrefore, the reader eboalil carefnlly otody the aymptoma and irnit* 
uieut uf pueumuula. 


TbEa may be due to the aaae ewBies aa ac^ite broncbilU, or II nay 
follow the latter diaoaae. An attack of the chrooie form la llabin Ut Im 
converted into aoota broBchJtia by a very aliifht oMaa. Thia I'hrontu 
afTection in moat tn atancaa la a aao c l a te d with tblckcnlnjT of the mmWn ut 
tb»> tntiea. Ita ooorsa ia aloaiir, it la laaa sovara, and >■ not Wittm- 
pauied with aa mncJk Caver »■ the acute fonn. If Ibe auiiuui la mm lad 


the breal tiing^ becoraea quickened nnd he soon shows signs of exhans- 
tlOD. lo many iiistHtiCL-^ thu auimal keeps up etrVDgth and appearanc^a 
DifNleratcly well, Imt in other cases the appetite is lost, flesh fp-adually 
didoppviir^, atiil tli» lioi-se bet^oiueatiiuaciatd aad tlt^bititaltfd. It is ao- 
oonip»iiie(l by a cough, which in some cases is a husky, smotheredt or 
miifflet] exi^uAi^ for a rough, while iu other caao8 the ouugb is hanl and 
cltMT. A whitish matter i3 discharged from the nose, which may bo 
cnrdled in some instances. If the ear i.4 placed againat the chest be- 
hind the shoulder blade, the rattle ofthe air passing through tliemuctu 
can be heanl within. It Is stated that thii rit;ht side of the heart may 
b«como ciilargfd to such an fxti-iit that It is easily f«lt bciiLing by plac- 
ing the band agiiiust the chest behind the right elbow. 

Treatmeat. — Generally the horse is kept at work when be is aOected 
with this form of bronchial trnnble, as the owner says " he has only a 
deep cold. " It is true that soiau authorities vxprtrtttt rh*- opinion that 
work does uo harm, but they are mistaken. Kest is necessary, if a euro 
is desired, as even under the most favorable circumstiuiees, a care is 
difllcult to effect. The animal can not stand eiertion, and slioold not 
be compelled to undergo it, Ucsldes, there is n ^reat probability of 
acute bronchitis supervening at any time. 

The animal should have much the same general care nnil medical 
treatment prescribed for the acute form ; If material benefit has out 
been derived give the following: Powdered nux voinicii, 3 ounces; 
powdered ni-seuto, 70 f^ralus; powdered sulphate of copper, 3 ounces; 
mix logetberanildivideinto thirty-four powders. Ulvea powder mlxetl 
with bran and oats every night and morning. An application of 
muKtard ajiplicd to thebreast is abeneflcial adjunct. If all other treat- 
ment fails, try the following combination, recommended hy a roqA au- 
thority: Hydrocyanic acid (Schecle's etrcngtli), 20 minims; nitrate of 
potas.<(inm,3 drams; bicarbonate of soda, 1 oance; water,lpint. Tbla 
dose should be given every morning and evening for one or two weeks, 
If necesBiiry. 

The diet should be the most uonrlshlug. Bad food Is hanufnl at 
Btiy time, but especially in this disease. Avoid bulky fixxl. Linseed 
maaUes, scalded oata, grass ami grc>en-bIndo fodder, if iu season, is tJie 
best diet. 


The lungs are the esseotial organs of respiration. They oqnstat of 
two (right and left) spongy masses, ooiiimonly called the "lights," 
sitaated entirely within the thoracic cavity. On account of the space 
taken up by the heart, the lelt lung is the smaller. I'^xtenmlly, they 
are completely covered by the pleura. The structure of the lung con- 
siste of a ligbt^ soft, but very strong and remarkably elastic tlasne, 
which can only Iw torn with diflicuUy. The lung of the fcptna 
which has never respired will sink if placed iu water, but after the 


Iniif; has been infliited with air it will float on vater so long as Tipnltli;. 
Thi.H fact is miule astlul fu deciding whetheror not an auiinni njislwm 
dead or divd aner il& birth. Kacb lung is divided futu a ovruia nam- 
ber of lobee, whtcli oroftulMlifidvd into oiiioberless lobules (little Iobe«). 
A little bntucbial tabe termiDates in ever^ ouu of tlirso Hniiitl lolmlfs. 
Tbu Ijttlf. tiilit> tlirn divides into mitinte bninctiea trbioli opeu inti) tLe 
air-ndlit {[mltno[i:ir>- ve«)nlei*) of ttie laiigs. The aireells are tittle oacs 
baving a dtaiaecer var.ving from one-wveatieth to ooe-tvo-liutidredth 
of ati inch; tbej liare bat one opening, lh» coiumuiiiciition with the 
branches of tb« little broncliial tubes. Sumll blood-vesscid ramify 
iu tbe watitt uf th« iitr-celbt. The wuIIa of tlio aireells are pxtrpaiely 
Uiiii and consist of two layt^rs; the blood vawtels, being bcttreea the 
Irtycra, thiia ex|K)«e a surface to the air id two diflfei'cDt cells. The 
air-oells are the cimiiummation of tlie iutricate stractaree fonitiag the 
respiratory apparatus. They are of (irime importance, all the rest be- 
ing comidemvtitarx. It is witbio these cells that is accomidisheil all that 
coui^titutc:! tbe iilLiiitatcre«alt of the function (if n-.s|tirat:i*>ii. It is lirre 
IbH (exchange nf gases takes place. As before stated, the walls of the 
oells are very thin; so, also, are the walls of the blood-vessels. Tl)n>ngh 
tbe-'W walls escapes from the blood the carbonic-acid gns that bus l>een 
abAurbtnl by tbe blood in its circulation tbmngh the ditlerviit purls of 
tbe body ; and through these walls is absorbed by tbe blood, from the 
air ID the air cells, tbe orygea gas which is the life-giviog element of 
the tttniospliere. 

Thtougbout tbe substance of the lungs the bronchial tubes tennloaUj 
in tbo air-cells. Blood-vessels are iu every part; likewise lymphatlo' 
TMselK and nerves, which reqntre no more than mention in this pnprr. 

T»i give a rude ideu of tbe !irninf(*^monL of tho respiratory appiirntus 
as a wbole, we may jinf&talily compare it to a tree, for tbe want of a 
t«r illastration. Say that all the respiratory tract Ooin (he naaidll 
nprnings back to the pharynx an< the riMils in the grouiul ; the larynx 
may be com|>ared tu the large part of the trunk Just ubove the earth j 
the windpipe will represent the body or the bole of the tree ; the right 
and left liroiichi maybe consideretl the first two or liirgeHt limbN] 
tht-* brouebial tubes are then comparable to all th^ n-st of the lliiilis, 
brancbcs and twigs, gradually becoming nioallrr and liniiicldnu nut 
more freiiuently, until the smallest twigs terminate by bavintc a leaf 
apiieniled; and to complete the coinpannoii we mny as well Hay the 
Iraf will do to repreKetit the air colls. Now, Imagine all piirts In snd 
arouud the limbs, branches, twigs, and leaves lllled In willi Mim«i nin* 
terial (say outtoo or tow) and the whole coven-d over wllli ollk or aatln 
to almut the Iveginning of thu bntnclu^ on each of (he OrMt I h o larttn 
limba. Tbe cotton or tow n-prestrnts the lung tinsue and (In* nlllt or 
sxia oorertDg will represent the pleura. It must be ndinlUeal lltal iIiIn 
U rather a roagb way to handle Kiieli ddiratii sfnictnreit, but If lliAi 
reader is [tosaeBaed of a good imaginuliou ho may gain, nl leaiil, a vtim*\ 

iiaii — 8 

"preticnHJon of the subject that trill Ruffioo forttie purpose of Wingbei- 
t«r ablo to lucate tlie various diseases »ud appreciate tbe niecbaiuaai of 
the respiratory organs in tbeir relations to each otlier. 


Inflammation of tLe Inn^ is always preceded bj congestion, or, to 
make it pliiiuer, conifiwliou may be cuuniderod a^ tb» tlntt aingt of to- 
flaoiniiitiou. OonjZPHtion in eHsentially an excess of bloo<l in tbe veHRels 
of the parts affeuted. CongesUoii of tbe lougs la the horse, wheu it 
exists as an independent affection, U generally canwd by overexertion 
when tiie animal is not in a lit oouditiou to undergo more tban BiotI«r- 
otc exercise. 

Tha methods practiced by tbe rraincrs of rnnning and trotting borses 
will give an idra of wbat is l^Tiiicd " |iuttiiig u borwe iti coiidiliMu " to 
Btiind fitfvt-n- uxiTtioD. Tbe auiiuitl at first gets waJking exercisets tbea 
after aome time be Is made to go faster and fartber each day; ibe 
amonnt of work io daily inrxeiised antil tbe home jsaak) to be " in condi- 
tion," At) antnial so prepared runs no risk of being affected with ooa- 
gestion of tbe lungs if be is otherwise bealthy. On the otbcr band, if 
tbe borse is kept in the stable for the pnrpo&e of laying on ful or for 
want of Kometbing to do, the muscular syBtem becomes soft, aad tbe 
borse is not in condition to stnnd thoAevere exertion of going fast or 
far, no matter bow bealtby bo may l>c id otbcr rAspects. If rach a 
borae be gi%-eu a hard ride or drire, be may start off in high spirits, 
bnt M>»ii becomes exhausted, and if he is pushed he will slacken bis 
pact:, show a deniru to stop, and may stagger or even fall. Examina- 
tion will show the DOfitrtls dilated, the Hanks heanug, tbe countenance 
baggnrd, and every other nppeHrauoe of ftuirtM*aliDU. How was tbic 
bntugbt ahcnitf Tbe heart and muscles were not aocastomed to the 
sudden and severe stTain put upon them; the heart became anable to ■ 
I>erform its work; tbo blood accnmalnted in tbe veseels of tbe lungs, ^ 
wbieli eventually became engorged with the stagnated blood, consti- 
tuting coiigeKtiou of the lungs. 

The animal, after having nodergone severe exertion, may not exhibit 
any nlannlng symptoms until retarnod to tbe stable; then be will be 
iiutiLi>d Hlanding with bis head flown, legs Kpread out, the eyes wildly 
stilling or dull and sonkeu. The breathing is very rapid and almost 
gasping, tbe body is covered with iiersptratioa io most cases, which, 
however, niny goon evaporate, leaving the snrfitco of the body nod the 
legFt and uarM cold; the breathing in bntli utHloniinat and thonuric; ihs 
' cheat rue« aod falls and the flanks are powerAilly broagbt Into aoClcM. ■ 
If the pulso ciui be felt at all it will be found licAting very h^nently, 
one humlrod or more to a minute. Tbe he.irt may bo felt tumQltaonaty 
thumping it Ui« hand is placed against tbe cfae«t l>ebtnd the lefl eliiow, 
or ft may 1>e scarcely iieroeptible. The animal may t ivmble all over the 
body. If tbe ear is placed o^tnst the side of the vheet a load murmiir 
will be hoard, and perhaps a fine crackling sound. 




Vo iDtelt)K«nt penoa should Riil to reeosnixe a case of eonecsHon of 
tlte luuKS wliQQ brongbtoo by owrt^renioi), asttiv liistory ol the vase is 
■nSlcirnt to point oat th« ailiiiful. Tb« ilifiiik*« may also arise from 
vatit of ttuOicivnt purr air In Bfahlcse (bat are badly v^^uUIhIviI. Id all 
eamea atsalloeahoa th« laogs are congested. It is also eeeii id couoee- 
tim vitb other diseases. 

y^tatmcnt. — If tlio animal is attacked by tfaediMi^ase wbitttaii tlierrwd 
atop bin intnediately. Do not attempt to return to the Btables. If lie 
is lu tb« stable make arrjiigviDeiitH at ouce to inaare an anlimitnl anp- 
ply of pure »ir. If die vcathor is warm, out iu ttiu opeu air in liie lN>«t 
place, but if too cold let him sIhuiI vith bea4l to the dcxu-. By no means 
hare bim walked, as is sometimes door. Lut him stand still ; lie lias all 
b« esn do if he obtains sufficient pore air to sustain life. If he is en- 
eumbaivd willi hsrueMS or siiddle remove it iit once aud begin rub- 
biug the body with dotlis or wisps of hay or sintw. This stimulatva 
the circnlatioQ Id the skin, and tbns aids iu relieving the lungs of tho 
extra quantity of hloati tlmt is stngnati'd tlien>. If you hare three or 
foar ostdstauts let them go to work with entbiisiasm, rub tbe body aud 
tcgK well, until theskiu fiwls ualurul; rub the Icen until they are warm, 
if po wi blc; mb io OT«r the cold part of the legs an application of itt« 
UalMeot nMKHnmeuded for the same puriMHie iu the trtf^tuicnt of brun- 
ebitiK, but do not H|ip}j it to the cbest. When the ctrcolation is re-eis* 
tabliabed. put baDdages on the le^ fiom the boufti np as fur as putwiblc. 
Tbn>v a blanket over the body and let the robbing be done ander tbo 
blanket. r>iffnsit)lo stimolants are th'e medicines iodicsted. Brandy, 
vhiriEy {or cvea alu or liecr if nothing else is at hand), ether, and tinct- 
ure of arnica are all 08«fiiL Twooonceseacfaof spiritsof nitrousetber 
aod akohol, 0vaa as a drench, diluted with a pint of water, iivcry hoor 
odUI lehef fa aflbrded, is among the lie«t of renn^HvH, But if it takes loo 
long to obtain this mixtore, gire a quarter of a pint of whisky In a pint 
of water every boar, or Cfc«saa>eqaantity of brandy as often, or a quart 
of Ale every hoar, or an ounce of tincture of arnica in a pint of water 
•recy hour nolil Dre or six doses have Iteen given. If none of these 
lemediea ara ac hand, 2 ounces of oil of turpentine, shakeo with a half 
pint of milk, may be pvcn. Thi» will have a beneficial effect until more 
applieabto rwciediea ate obtained. A tablespoooftil of aqua aramonia 
(barbdiorB), dilated with ;. pint of vatvr and given as a drench eveiy 
boar, baa aodoabtedly been of great service in saving life when notb- 
tag else caald be obtained in time tn be nwtl witli lienrfit. If thn for 
going iRatawit bils to be followed by a marked improvement aftftf'^ 
seven or eigfat boats' penereranoe, tbe animal may be bled from the 
jugular vein. T>o nofc take oiora than 5 or f> qnartji from the v^in, ni?d 
do not t^ieai tbe bleeding. Tbe blood tbns druM u will have a tanjr 

When 1 be alamtng symptoms have snb«idi>d active mraiinres matf 
ba stopped, but care mast be used in the geacr4d trcatiucnb of the 


mal for scTeral days, for It must be rememliered tbat confrestion majr 
be rollowecl t>y piieninonia. The auiiual shuuUl Uave s cuoifortsble 
stall, wlu^rt! lie will ciol \tv iiubjc^ctuil to draughts or sadden chaDges of 
temperature ; lie slioald be blanketed and the len^n kept baiidugiHl, The 
atr should be pure, a pteiiliful aupply of freifli cold water alwtijrs before 
bim, nud a diet coniposoU priucipalljr of bruu mashes, ttcaldetl oata, and 
gmw, if in neuBon. Whi-n rend; for use affain he should at drat receive 
ninrlerate exercise oiil.v, which way be daily iDcreased uu til lie may 
safely be put at reguliir work. 


This is bnt nnotber term for congestion of tbo Inngs, and for practi- 
cal puqto&ea tieedH uo 8]iecial dirxirriptioti, except to rtimurk ihat when a 
hemorrha^re occurs during the congested state of the lungs the blood 
escapes froto the raptured vessels and extravitsates tuto the lung tissue. 
Such vaHes are calle<l pulmoniiry aiwplesy, and usually uocur limiag 
the course of some specific dlsenso. 


Pneninonia may attack both lungs, but as a general mie nnn long 
only i» aflVctcd, aud in the great miyoritj of caws it is the right lung. 
The atrcelU are the jKirts alle<-l«d [>rincipally, but the minute branches 
of the bronchial tubes always, to a greater or less extent, are involved 
in the iniliiminalion. Iiithunruatlon of the lungs occurs in three priuci* 
pill varietit'it, but in a work of this kind there is no necessity to dis- 
critninnte, and therefurt? the disease will be described under a oomnKlD 
head, it already has been nieutioiied that pueuniuniamuy l»e compli- 
cated wilh bronchitis, and it; will licreiifter be poiuled out that it Is very 
oomuonly complicated with pleurisy. In this article the disi-unc will 
be considered luaiuly as an iude]>eudeut aflectlou, aud its complicatjoa* 
will be nmr« fully descritied under i<eparate heads. 

The iudauimatiou umially begiuH in thu lower part of tlie \ax\g and 
oxtenils upwards. The tiret singe of the disease consists of congestion 
or engorgement of the bloml-wsst-lH. and if Ihiscoudllion eon tinuea thai 
blood exudes from the vessels into the adjacent, lung tissue } if ruptore 
of small blood- voH8«<l8 occurs ilieto will bo extra vattat ions of blood in 
the contiguous parts. The fluids thus escapiug collect in the air-eells 
and in the miinite branches of the little bronchial tubes, and, bix'Oming 
coagulated there, romplflely b1oi:k up the cells and exclude the air. 

lu this condition the lung i» increased in volume and is much heavier, 
and will sink in water. The pleura covering the affected jiartsia al- 
ways more or less intlauied. A coutiunance of the foregoing phenom- 
ena Is marked by a furtlier esccnpe of the eoustitnents nf the blood, aud 
a change in the niembiaue of the cells, which become hwuIIcu. The 
cxadate that tlllH the air-cellA and minute bronchial branches undergoes 
disintegration, and is converted into ti fatty material. The waUtj of tbe 
celts almost Invariably remain unaltered. 

It must not bo imagined that (he foregoing changes take place in 


a aniform mnnner. While one portioa ifi onlj congested another part 
»»>- be nnilvreoing ilisiiitepratioD, wUlle 6tiU aaotber pact uiay be 
Involved in tbe oxuilntive stage. 

Tlic UHunl termination of (incnmonia is in rosoloUon, tbat in, a m- 
loratluD to bealtk. This is eradtially l)r(iiit;lit about by t]ie «xtiiled 
mulvria! contnined in the air cells and lung tissues becoming d«geu- 
eriited luto falty ami a mueuslike t'Ubstnuco wliit^'li are rviuovt^d by 
alworption. Tbe blood-rfssels return to their natural slate and tbe 
tibMMl circnliitt'}!^ in timiii hm iH-forc. Murb ninteriiil, tbo ri'KDlt or I be 
infiauiioalory process, ia also gotteu rid of l>y expectoration, or raiber 
(Id the t]fir^) by dii»tiliarge Ooiu tbo iiosti-iU. lu the caeea that do 
not teriDinate bo bapplly the lung may become gangrenous (or mor- 
tlflcd), or an absri-iiH may form, or tbt- dincaso ma^' be merged into' 
ibe i-bronic variety. 

PneunioDJn may be directly induced by nuy of tbo iotlneuc^s nnuied 
as general canKeit Tor dirieHKes of the orgiin» of reK]nration, but in 
many iQt(tat)i.-ra it is due to eitber willful neglect or ignorance, A 
eoinuiou c&ld or sore tbroat'may run into a fatal case of puenntonia If 
Ufgleeted or improperly IrefltMl. An animal may be debilitated by a 

Id, iirul when in Lbiit veakeiKtil nV,\iv, iiiny Im compellfd t<i ntidergo 

irtiun lieyond bifi atreugtli ; or be may be kept in biid quarters, tiuch 
as a bntlly ventilated stable, where the foul gases are abut in and Ibej 
pure air is abut out; or the atable may Iw so open that I'art* of the 
body are exjKHtetl to dnttightK of ct)ld air. ICilber of tbv fon'going 
aiu)i«a may induce congtsition of the Utugs in an animal prtHliaposvil to 
it ott account of having already a disease of the respiratory organs, 
Tbfl coDpeBtion is soon followed by the other stages of inllamuialiou, 
and a caKC of pnLMimonia is eMMblinihed with a t^mlent^y in a fatal ter- 
minatioii, as it is altogether likely the animal will be 8o nnich redueed 
In cvn«tiluLiou as to be nnablu to (igbt off u collapse. An animal is 
predisposed to piu-tim»nia when d»li)lilatcd by any coni<tituIional dia- 
eaw, and esiwcially during convalesceuee if exposett tu any of tlin ux. 
ctting canses. Foreign bndiiM, sucb lut foml, accidentally getting ia^ 
tba laogs by vay of the windpipe, as well as the inhalation pfimtn ting 
gMW and smoke, ofitimea prodace fatal utiavlis of inflammation of tbe 
iQDg and bronchial taltes. rneumonia is (Vequently Mwn iu uonneetlou 
wllfa olberdiwaars, saeh a« iuflnenza, piiri)nra hemorrhagicH, Ktrangl^a^ 
glandi-rn, et<:. An abnormal state of tbu blutid pn-di^pMses to iL 
Pnenrounia and pleurisy are most common during i-«ltl, damp weather, 
and eapecfolly dnring the prevalence of the cohl north and nortbeajit-, 
erty winds- Wounds puuctnrint: tbe thoracic cavity may induce It. 

Symptami. — Puenmonia, when a primary disease, ia nHhere4l In by a 
ohill. more or less prolonged, wbicb iu most cases Ja seen neilhfr by tb« 
owner nor the attendant, bat ia overlooked. Tbe breathing lierifm^^J 
accelerat<'d, and the animal bangs Us head and hau a very dull apptifjir. 
Rticr. The month is hot and h.t8 a Aticky freling to Ibe touch; ihi* heal 
•ODveyed io Lbe Quger m tbe moutb demuiutratM » ferar ; If Uin tJMii 




mometpr is plnoed in Hie mctnm the ttrnipcrnitare will be foaod to bave 
riecn to 103^ F., or bigbf>r. Tfae palse is very freqnent, beating fnin 
8«%'C-iit,v or eiglity to on« ImnlrtHl ur n)ort> a miniil©; Uie cbaraoter of 
tbe puise varies Tirr tntich; it may )ie.b:in1 or feeble, larg« or sifiall, 
intM-niLitin;:, etc. Tlt«re is ttanully n drv coagb fnim Uio bpj;iiinin|*. 
wbiub, bowerer, ebaopes in cbaract^ as tbe disease advAnct>,t ; rorio- 
stnnoe It may Iwcome moist, or if pleuritiy sets In tbe oouj^b trill be 
jH-culmr to the latter affectinti, that is, cut obort in the eadeuror to mp- 
pniis it. Ill KOmc caecs tbe diecbar^ frnm tbe iioHtribi is tinned with 
blood, while ia otber cosee it bas tbe appearanoo of matter. Tbe ap- 
petite is lost to A greater or leg£ futrut, but Cbe deaire for water la 
increased, partibularly (lanns tbe onset of tbe ferer. Tbe tnembi 
vitbiu lb« nostrils is red and at (Intt dry, but sooucr or latcrr 
moist. The legs are coM, Tbe boweU are more or leti const 
and n-bat diiof; is pnssed is nsnally oorered vitb a Hliay mneaa. The 
ariiie in piksM'd in Ktiialler qiiantitieii tban nsuai and in of a darlcer color. 

Tbe aoiiuat prefers to have tlie bead witere tbe freshest air can bo 
obtained. When nffectod with pneaiuooi^ a borse does uot He dnira, 
but piirsiKta in statiditig from tbi* l>e;;inntn£ of tbe nttauk. However, 
if iniHumouia is complicated «'itb pleurisy the horse may appear re^Ueaa 
anil lie down for a few moinciits to Eain relief Irom tbe pb>urit)C pains, 
bnt he sooo risen. In pnvttmonia the breathing is reo' rapid, nod some- 
iimnt even the most negligent ot>serrer will notice tbut it in dlflSeuIt, but 
wbeti tlie poeiitDonia is implicated with pleurisy tbe ribs are kept as ■ 
atil) aa possible and the brenthiiij; ts nbdomiiiai, tbut is, the abdomioat ^ 
tnusclea arc uow made to do an iiiiicb of the work as they eaa perfbm. 
Remember if pleurisy is not present there is no pain. To tbe ordiuary 
observer tbe nuiiual may not a|>iiear dnnKeron.Hly ill, as be does not show 
tbe serioOAoesA of tbe ailme ot by violence, as iu colic, bat a cartUul ob 
server will di.<«cover at a glance that tbe trouble is Bonetblng men 
arri'ius tbaii aoold. 

Jf tbe reatlej bas practiced noscoltation aod percussion saOlcieniiy to 
disenniinate tbe sounds, or ab^noe of sounds, of tbe dineiuuMi long fn>ai 
the RoniKlH of tbe nnrmiil lung, be may still further satisfy himself in 
diagooelng tbe aJImeut. When tbe long is bealtby, if ibe cbest i> 
knocked on, a more or Iprs rewmaiit sound is emitted, nooordinglo the 
[)urt Klravk ; but wbcn tbe air cells are filled with tie exudate of in- 
dnmmatioQ, and the surrounding lung (Issue cMWitains the exudate and 
extravsKHted blood, tJie air is excladed, and tJie part of the lung thas 
affected issuIidiGtHl; now, if tbe cbest is struck over this (H>lidirii:d juut, 
a dull soimd is obtaiued. Therefore, percussion uot only shows that 
tlie lung is aflecred with pneuiDODiii, but it points to tbe S|iat afii^oteil. 
Moreover, if pleurisy exi-stt in (wnjouctioo with pneumonta, and (h« 
walls of tbe cbe«t are knocked oa with a view of gaining inforniiitioii 
from the sounds elicited, wheu tliat part immMiutely over tbe afltH;ted 
plenra is struck, tbe animal Hinckee, as tbe blows, evoo if tbey are bat 
moderate, cauee severe paio. 






By wuRdltBtlun, Hatening to the muiiiis whliio tlia ctiO£t, wo eain 
miidi infofiuatioD. When the ear is pUoeU ngainst tlie cliest of » 
healthy horae Hie nwpirat«r.v uinrinur Ik licanl uiuroor joss (Ustinctly, 
aenarUiug bi lbs |>art of tbe clie-st tbat is bvtteath the ear. In tli« wry 
fimt Htage of pneniimnia this murmur i» louder ami hoAraer ; and, also, 
there is Leanl a fiul^ crackling soand mmethin^ similar to that pro<lnct><i 
vhcD saU is thrown iu a lire. After tbo afft'etetl |i;»rt bei-ouics «olnl 
tbero is an abtwiice of sontid orer th»t particniar part. After abimrp* 
tlott bepris, >'nn nill nj^ain bf-ar luiandii, wliicli gradimlly cbaiige iiotil 
the natural Koand ja hi-jLrd auuouncing tbe rctiiro of Iitfalth. 

When n fatal term tnation la approaching nil the Bymptome become jo- 
iHuri&ed. Tlie breathing l»ecompM (ttill luorn rapid and difflrnit; tbe 
Sattka beave; the poor animal ntart-s vi-iMly ftbotil as »f ttapiurinj; aid to 
drive off the trrrihle feeling of sulTocatiot) ; the body is bathed vitb tbo 
tmtnt of cl>*a(ii; he otaggeni, but quickly raoovers bis balanoe ; hu may 
now, for the firat Uaie during the attack, He dovn ; he does so, how. 
errr, In t)ie hn]w nf rflir.f, vrbidi btr t'liilN to did, and with difficnity 
BtniggleA to bia fe«t; be juints} be heaves; tbe Qostrits flap; hi: staK- 
gera aixl avuyii from aide to side and barkiranig and forwards, bat still 
tiles to retatu tbe Ktanding position, even by propping binisetf against 

K'BtalL U is no nse, ae iif^pra frarfnl aud agtnuz'niif fi^lit forbreatli, 
gptm down ; atill insliact with tbe desire to lire lie makos a few in- 
n-tiial efforts to breathe, vhich only resnlt in a horrible wbeexibff, 
iping nuii^e ; ibe limbs stretch oot and become rigid, and — be rises no' 
Bore. A bystander breaks the silence with tbe remark, "Be died 
hanl." Socb ia the usual death scene when canseil by pncnmonia. It 
unouuts to a reritable strangle agAinsttinffucation. Death cuAuea asa- 
ally in from tvn to twenly days after the beginning of the attack. On 
Ibe otbe-r hand when the diseaso hi terminating favorably the Kigns are 
Obrlmis. WUeo tbe fever abates the animal grailnally improTe» iu 
appi'tjte; be takea more notice of things aroand bim ; his itjiirits im> 
pruve} be baa&geucral appearance of returning health, and be liat 
do«D and reota caif. In the great majority of caaea pneamoiiia, if! 
pmiM*Hy treated, is by no means u fatal disease. 
Trctttmtnt.— The general outline of the treatment is moch the same 
advised for broticbilis. Tbe comfort and snrronndingg of ifae patient 
aoat \J6 altendeid to Ant Tbe qoarters should be the be«t that can be 
prouded. Pnre air ts essential. Avoid ]>lacing tbe animal in a stall 
where be may be exposed to draugbia of cold nir and sodden changes 
of tMnperatore. Some sntboritiea state tbat socb exposure is not 
faarmfol after pneumonia has set in, bm nererthelees tbe reader is ad* 
Tlseil to porsne the «)nai^rTatiTe coorse and not to experiment. Wb«a 
nakJRg the stable comfortably wann do not prevent the acceas of ptm 
air. It is mucli better for tbe animal if the air is cold and pare than 
it is warm and fooL It ta better to make the animal oomfortablo wit 
warm dolbing than to make tbe stable warm by uhnVtrnft otl t\iV 
Ulalioa. Tbt) aaitaal sboald bare an anlimited suyi 


drinking water from the start* Blanket the body. Rub (he lepi ortil 
they arc warm and then put batid»ReH on tbem from the boorH np u 
tar as th«y mv vxtM. If warmth cau not bo ro-eatAbli&biKl in the legi 
by band-mbbing alone, apply the UDioient as recomuenilcd in the treat 

leiit of bronubilts. 

The bandages should be removed once or twice every day, the leg* 
well rubbe<t, and the bandai;es reapplied. Rub well over the affected 
Bide an appliciilimi of the lininieiit iiuMilionHl In thi^ treatment of bots 
throat. The application may be repeated in four or h%'e days. Da not 
aso mustard; no donbt about its acting, »ad aetiiifr quickly, too, hat 
OXi>erieiieR teaches that it is not ho gontl lui Kcitnetbnip It>Ms Irritating 
and more proloiiKetl iu iut beueflcial effects. Much lianu is ofteu dooo 
by clipping off hair and rubbing in powerful escharntio blistotitig com- 
pounds. They do positive injury and retard recovery, and should not 
be allowed. Much benelit may be deriveil from hot applications to the 
sides of the cheat if the facilities are at band to apply them. If the 
weather be not too cold, and if the animal is in a comfortable stable, the 
following method may be tried : Have a tub of hot water handy to the 
stable door ; !iouk a woolen blanket in the water, then quickly wring as 
much water as possible out of it and wrap it around the chest. See 
that it (its clotwly to the ttkiu ; do not allow it to sag down so that air 
may get between it and thi* skin. Now wrap a dry blanket over the 
wet hot one. The hot blanket should be renewed every half hour, aud 
while it is off being wetted and wrung, the dry one whonlil reiiiaiu over 
the Wet parL of the c;he«t to prevent ruavtion. Tbo hot applications 
eboold be kept ii]> for three or four hour«, and when Rto|>i)ed, the skin 
should be quickly rubbed as dry as possible, an application of MuitneuC 
rubbod over the wet part, and a dry blanket snugly fitted over the 
animal ; and especial care should be taken to cover with it the wut part 
of the skin. If tho hot applications appear to benefit, they may be 
tried on three or four consecutive days. ITtitess every facility aud cir- 
cumstance favors tbe application of heat, in the foregoing manner do 
not attempt it If the weather is very cold, or any of the details are 
omitle<I, mort- bann thau good may reHiilt. In the majority of coses, 
warm clothing to the body, bandages to the tegs, and the liniment ap- 
plied to legs and chest will snlBcj'. 

It is possible that oases ocuur that may be slightly benefited by bleed- 
ing, but the non-cxiMjrt is certainly unable to dlscrlmluate iu such io- 
atancex, and therefore bloodletting should never be practiced. Indeed^ 
many veterinary practitioners of great experience wholly condemn the 
practice of bleeding in pneumonia, as i>oftitively hnrtfa). Wbeo paea- 
monia follows another disease the system is always more or less debitt- 
tBted, and n^qnirea the careful use of stimulants from the beginutog; 
to still furllier weaken the animal by tapping him (if the expr(^ssion 
may bo used), and letting e-seajM} in a stream the very source of his 
remaining strength, is one of the most effectual methods of retarding 
recovery, ovcu if it doea not hasten a fatal termination. 


AoMlier and oftentimes a fAtal mistake mado by tbc non-prorpssioQal 
i% tlio iodiscrimitiiite ami reckluxM uku of uuoiiite. Thiii drug in one of] 
Uk> most OL-tivu pu!iiou8, aiid sliould iiot l>o liaiidWil by any oou who 
does Qot tborougtily uu«len»taDil its actiou and umm. It la only leas 
Oftivecbau pni^sic acid in its )>oisonous<'ffect». It isaconimiiitopiDioo, 
on«a ex|iress«d by uiiu-|irof««8ioualti, Uiat acuiiile is u Ktiinataiil ; iioLb- 
Ing coald be more cri-o neons. In fact, it is just the reverse; it ia onal 
of ibeiDOxt powcrru] »fdalivi.'A nsrd in lltn imtrMce of medicine. Ia 
fatal tloseait kilta by |>nrnl\zittg itio rcr,T loni^cles n^c-d in breathing; it 
vnbena tbe action of (lie beart, and abould not be uspd in any bat 
«troo£ or atbfuii; lyiR-^ of inflamtuatiou, and tbeu only by ttic (expert. 
After ail ci tensive exiieiienev in tlie treatment of pneumonia in vnrioaa 
sectiutus froui tbu cold uortbtin rvKioos of Canada to tbit trniptTata 
cbrantoor Vir^pnia iind Noi-lti Carolina, tbe writer baadiKoardcil nvonito 
eurirely from ibi* HnI of medirinea be ukcs in the treatment of tliis affec- 
tifin. Do not i:>vu purfniiivc nit-dicines. If cotiNli|>»iton I'xititH. over*, 
oooie it by an allowance of laxative diet, «ucb as scalded oats, bran aud 
boseod iiifli^bes, and grass if in seaHnn. 

A carvful ob<icrTer will tiuticv (but tbu duuir paaM-d by tbe niiimal is 
ooated witb iniK-us ; lliia i» an indication that tbo bon-eU ave iu an irri- 
table condition ; in fact they nro nOeeted to s aniall estoot by tbB dis- 
Hne. Xiiw, if a ]iurt;iitive Ouhu is admiuiKlerei) th(< imtiible stiite ia 
■^mvaied ; they becoinc inordinately active and a diarrhea or aupcr- 
pnreatioD ia fNatabbsbrd that, provea a moat difiicult matter to ubeck. 
It most be remembered that the animal i» already veakoned by an cx- 
baastive disease, and tbe **ruuiiit)g ofT at the bonula^ not only still 
farther weakens tlie animal, bat nmy cause the bovcla to become iu- 
Saaicd, and thus insure a fatal termiuuliun. It ia a common practice 
anxng noD-profeitflieanN to give aloes and oil to a borse vitli pnca- 
Biooiaf and, conaideriug ihia faet, it la no nuuder that It proves aucb a 
fatal diaeaae in their bands. If tbe costivenesa ia not relieved by tbe 
Uxatiro diet, erive an cneuiu of about a quart of vurtn water tbreo or 
fonr times a day. 

A dirt oonai^ting principally of bran mashes, scalded oats, grass or 
blade fodder, vbcn in Bea^oo, ia preferable if tbe animal retaina an 
appettle; but if no desire iit evin^l^I for fuod uf tlii.-^ pjirttnilur dcscrip* 
tiOQ, then the animil must be allowed to eat uuytbiii^ that will bo 
takeo epootaneoa^ly. Ilay tea, made by i>ouriug boiling water over 
good bay in a largo backet, and allowing it to stand until cool, then 
Btraiuiug vS tbo liquid, will soniettmcrt creuU; a desire for fotHl. The 
ftiuaial may be allowed to drink as much of it aa be desires. Corn on 
tbe oob is often eaten wbeu everylbing else is refused. Bread may be 
tried, al»o apple-i or carrots. If tbe animal can be persuaded tu drink 
railk it nmy ha ttupiMrttil by it for davK. Tlin-e or four gallons of itweet 
iBilk may be givea daring tbe day, to wbicb may be stirred three or 
foar freah egga t^ each gallon of milk. borses will drink milk, 
« bile otbera will refase to toacb it. It should be boc 

all food roast bo tak«ii by tbc horse as be d«sirce ft. Xo food should 
be forc«4l dourn liin). If tlio miiuial will uot eat, you wilt otily bare to 
wail uutll a desire ia stiowu for food. All kinds may bu uQoml, first 
one tbinis »iid tlicn niiotlier, but foml sliould uot b« allowed to iviKaio 
loiip in trough or mangtr ; the very fiu't of it <!OiistaiiLly being Tjofoie 
him will cause him to loathe it. Wbcu the animal has no appetitv fat 
anything, the stomach is uot in a proper state to digest fooil, uud if It 
in iKiurcd or drenched into him it will ouly cause iiidigeatiuu aadagKT*' 
vjite the ciise. It in a goixl practiot^ to do iiothiug whea there is nolta- 
iiig to bo doue that will beoeflt. This refers to modiciDe as well u | 
food. Nothing is well done that is over done. The following drenck 
ahotild be udiuiuiater«d every six hourii: Holutiou of the auctate oF 
ammonia, 3 onnces ; spirits of nitrous ether, L ounce ; bicarbonate of 
potasstum, 3 drams; water, t pint. Care slioiild bo used in drent-hiug; 
DO rvckleasni-fui kucIi a:* filliug the moulb with lucdieiueji, then holding 
the hand tightly over the nostrils and pounding on the throat and 
wiiidpiiH), kicking the horse iu the belly or ribti, or other like condnct, 
ibonid t)0 practiced. If the animal cougb.<4 or attempts to congb while 
the head is up, let the hen<l dowu itntueiliately. Better to looe lIms 
nie4li<:irie than to caune it to get into the lungs. 

There are many valuable mRdicinos used for the difT^ront etHges ood 
diflrerftit ty[)es of pneumonia, but iu the upinlou of the writer it is uw- 
lenK In r«fer to thrm here, aa this work in iiilendeil for the use of thoM 
who arc not sufficiently a(M}naiuted with the dieeuse to recognize its 
various tyjiegaud stages; tberetore tbey would only confuse-. If yok^ 
e»n adminlsteraballorcapsulCfOrhavunny oueathaud wboiscapatrifl^ 
of doing it, a tiram of sul|>h»(e of quinine in a ottpsule, or mude into a 
ball, with sutHciunt linseeil meal and molasses, given every three Uouca 
duriug the height of tbe fever, will do good in many cases. The bati ut 
carbonate of ammonia, as ailvised in the treatmeut of brotichitia, may 
be tried if thv animal in liard to drundi. 

If the horse becomes very much dcbilitateil, stimulants of o more pro- 
uoiiriceil character are required. The folio wing drench Is uteful: KeoU- 
fifd spiritn. It ounct^s; spirits of nitrons ether, 2 ounces; wal«r, 1 pint. 
This may be r>*peated every four or nve boars if it seemn to beneSt. Or 
6 ounces of good whisky, dilated with a piulof water^ ma; be ffivoDM 
often, instead of the foregoing. 

There are cases where Hcdativcji are undoubtedly beneficial, bat a 
kuoniedge both ofdi^ase and me^licine is required to discriminate in 
Buuh cases; therefore tbe only rational course to pursae in a work of 
this kind is to map out a line of treatment chat will do good in all avtes 
and harm in uoae, and at tbe same time he within tbe understanding 
those who have not made a siweiul atudy of disease. 

During tbe period ofcoiivalescence g'tod nutritive food should be 
lowed in a mmlerale i|uantity. Tonic med cines should Ik satiatita 
Car those used during the fever. Tbe same mudiciuca advised for tJia 




covralwetng' period of Itmnchitis are equally rfBclcob In thin 
Likfwtar, tlic^atuo eeueral inttlrucCioiis txp\)\y li«r«. 

I>«atti may occur Juring thu flMt utage of thfl ilisflaae, owing to tbe 
Rpventy of tlir> fever, or it may oi;i!ur during the i>fno4l when the Iiinf^a 
•R AoUdtQcd bj' tlic (Miiilat« of the iDflammatioD fllliog up the air veils 
»n(l bronchial tnbeft, or it miij take place Inter, wbon the exudate faila 
to liquify nn<l and^rgo niKiorption, and %a then due te snpimmtion, tho 
formatum nf »n n))«icesH, or piugrenu or luorttflcalion. Ah u mutter of 
cnomt [tReomoiiiik Is most ofteo fatal wbeo both lunga are involved la 
tbe iDBaRiir.alion. 

Id conrlodinff, it may Im well to remind yon that if pneumonia is 
piwperlj treutfil the preal mnjorilj of oaseawill leniiluale in aconipleta 
mioratjoo tn henlth. In all cbsp!* mmrh will deiK-nd on tbe good judg- 
t of the person din'f.tinR the treatment of the oaae. If it ia seea- 
X Any one thing ih doing hnrm, ihfn thul particular thing should l»o 
otnltletd. Fur ituitance, if drcnchtng the animal is atteude«l with UHria, 
that i*, if it nnnecemnrfly excites him, or if he obstinately refused to 
■wallow tho nmltciuv. then do not furtlicr aunoy him by peisistently 
tryioj; to do what yon are able to aee only makes matleri! wor«c. Omit 
thedreDphing, »nddlssoli'«3dranigof bienrttonateof itotofisiiim iuerery 
bnrkelfnl of witter hv will drink of bis own free will. Giro tho qninine 
In capftulea or ballK. and iil^ the c»rbouate of ammonia batln. A ball- 
io|; iron (or mouth spocnlntn) nnty be obtiiine<l from any veterinary m- 
Blroinent dealer. A titllo pmcttw with it will enable you to b€C'>me 
■omewbat etp«'rt in piving inedifiDC!i in the latter form. Do not give 
qniainn and iimmonia together; let at lca<4t un hour intvrvetie between 
tW admioistration of tho tvo diflr«rene medlcioes. 


The thoracic cavity in divideil into two lateral oofopartmentfi, eseti 

Kttiinto); t>ue Innfr, bwideA other organs. Each tunc bad its eeparale 
iRil membrun» or caxeitng. Tbe anatomiral arrangefneut of lti« 
^^|«»itiiple tn the nnatonii^t, but a delujletl de>tcripliou ofit would 
H^n*l Iho cotuprvhvusion of ibn a^'erage reoiler. Suffice tt to aay 
tkal tlM pleura in the thin, gliittentng membrane that cuvem tbe luog 
and al«i wnnplelely eoverx the internal walls of (be cbe«t. It In verj 
tbio, and to iheonliuary observer apiwuritto be partof the lung, whicb. 
ia foet, it U for all practic&l pnrpo»eA. The unoolb, Rbioy unrfooe of 
tbe lonR. vm well a< the nnioolh, sbioy Burfaoe ao famriiar ou tbe rib. Is 
tbe pleura. Id health this sarflMw is always moist. A fluid {cal'«l 
sernm) U thrown off (»p«Teted) by the pleura, wbicb oSDics (be Mirface 
to bf constantly moist. ThLi U to prevent the cffieeta offrieiioa between 
the InngM and tbe walU of the clic»t and other eODtlrnoas pane wblcb 
ooRw in cootact It nuflt b« remembered the lungs am eonstaaily d| 
latiug each Um« a tireath is taken in, and rwitracling each ijoie * 
brrath of ait U ripclh-d. It nay \m n-adily mmn tba\ U W «„v wvi w 
tto aoUSMMd teat* of f Ae sar£ice of tbe iilean Uie wottwirt.ji^»\W 

aoil contraction Bod tlio consoqucnt rabuing of tho pHrts n^iiiat faiib 
other iroalil canM & serious friction, Tliiif, tbe:i, in tbe offic« of tbe 
plonrn — to secreto or moisten ii9 surface with a tluitl to prevcat tha ill 
eflVcts of frictiou. 

IriQammatioii of tliia membrane is oalletl pleunny. Betns so closelr 
united n-itb the lung, it can not ulwu.vit escape participiitioti in the (Ub- 
«a3« when tho latter is intlnaied. Pleurisy miiy W iliic to tho Haaie 
prtHlisfiosing niitt excitiii-; cauKi'.<i as oi^iitiunetl lu the b«giniinig of tbia 
work as KC-ueral causes for Jisoascs of the organs of respiration, ttocb 
aa exposure to sudden chaH);<-8 of tomiH>raturc, coufiaeuiuut lu duiop 
stabler, etc. It may bo oan3e<J Uy wynmls that penetrate tlie cheat, for 
it muBt be rBmembered that such urouiitls mii4t nece.s»Hrily pierce the 
pleura. A fractured rib may involve tho pleura. Tbu intlaiuiuatioa 
followiuf; such wounds may be circumscribed, that is, confined to a 
small aiva surroutidiii;:; th» wonml, or it may spread from Ilio wound 
and involve a larfre portion of the pleura. The pleura may bt; involved 
aeconclarily whcu the heart or it«i muinbraoe is the priuiary »eat of the 
didease. Ic may occur iu conjunction with broucbititt, intliu-iiEa, and 
oibi^r disoasc«. It is commoulj' seen in connection with rheumalism. 
I>i»eHKed gn)wth8 that interfere with (bo pleura may induce plt»urid,v, 
but it is most frequently met with in connection with pneumonia, for 
the reason (tlvoa heretofore. Pleurisy will bo dcsorilwd Iktc as on 
independent affection, allliongh it should be remenilieri'd tbatitia veij 
often asxociated with the foi-egoing diseases. 

When Ibeanimnl ia afferted with pleurisy an onlinary otKierverahnDid 
have no iliftionlty iu detecting the disease, proviileil the diagnostic 
Ryinptnms are studied beforebaod. The very HrKt atage Is a eonKentei) 
state of the blooil vessels in the paria affected ; the surface of the mrm- 
hrane becomes dry and ruuKliened (this fact will la.- attain referred to 
when the symptoms are described). This dry condition is followed, after 
a certain jwriod, by au effusiau of fluid, is, more Quid than usual It 
thrown off by the membrane when in a diseased condition. This fluid 
accumulates in the Hpaee betwwu Ibt! hiutrs and tbii walla of the tibt'Kt, 
constituting bydrothorai, or dropsy of the chest. Thin fluid may 
undergo certain changes; iu it float coagulated masses called llbrin. 
The Hurfnce of the luuf; may Hdliere to the internal Nurface of the ribn. 
The quantity of exuded UuJd vatien to a great extent. In some cases 
tbe chest contaiusau enormous amount, and when It is uoc absorbed 
pus may be generated to a greater or less extent, 

Sj/mptomn. — When the diKeJLsv existjit as an independent alTcctioD it ii 
osbered iu by a chill, but this is usnally overlooked. About the first 
thing noticed is tbo diatucUuaiiou of the animal to move or turu round. 
When made to do so be grunts or groans with jiain. He stands stiff; 
the ribs are fixed, that is, the ribs oiove very Ilitle in the actof bre&lh. 
iug, bat the nbitomen works more than natural; both the fore feet and 
elbows may be turned out ; during tho onset of the attack the animal 
maff be rustless, and act as tf be bad a slight ooliu; be may evea lie 


down, bat iloes notretnaiti loiig(lowu,for vhttp lieflnilsnorelierbesoon 
gel* op. AAer cfi'u»iou bugius tbese Bigus of resttesaueas dbaiiiH-'ar. 
If the observer looks for it, a furrow n-ill be foniiil running along tlta 
lower jiartof ttio cliiMt from bubiiiil tlio ^Ibow bacU to the diiuk; this is 
due tu tbv euileav'or of lb« iitiimal to ktM-p tlie ribs Qxed in an near ns 
possible HO imiDOvable positiou. Every niovemeut of tb^ cbetit ciiiis«>a 
exctucjutiiig i»<tiii, tliercftfre tlie cougli i» pi^culiur; it ia short and «up> 
prvsaed, and conu'S ns near bfing no cough as the iinimnl cfln luubo ic 
in Ills desire to tiupiiretis it. The brt^uthitig is hurried, the muulL Ia hot, 
the temperature being elevated from 102<^ or 103^ to lOu^ P. Tbc usual 
symjitomn that adcoiupaiiy fi-vt-r anj prfsciii, sndi as C'o:^tivfncHs,»4catity, 
dark-colorv'l uriuu, et«. The pulue in frvqacnt, perhaps seventy or more 
» QiiuDte, and is hard and viry. The legs and enra are cold. 

Pi«rcaHi)ioM is of vahialile service in tliis alTection. The ribs may be 
'flnick with tbo kDiicklL-». By xtrikiii;; ilitTurunt partx yua will come to 
* 5|>ot of greater or teas extent where the blows cause much pain to be 
evinced. Tbo animal may grant or groau evorj- time It la struck. 
Another niethoil of detvctiug ihe affecti^cl part is to the fingera 
between the rlb«t,e»cb space in succession, beginning behind theelbuw, 
anifl yoa arrive at a place whoro tlte pre.ssure causea more tHoching 
than at any other part. Auscnlt-ation is also usefni. In tbe first 
BtagL', wbi-u the surl'act'ti are dr^' and rough, if the ear is placed against 
diiTcrent parts of ihe chest you will eventually onue to the aftected 
put, vbich ivill be readily inauifeeted by a frtcCion Bouad very much 
like tliiit proilnred by nibbing two pieces of coarse paper together. 
The Kound a|ipearK immediately under the ear, and is distinct. No Kuoh 
friction sound oucu» when tbe niembratie fa healthy, «s the uatural 
moistare, heretofore roenlione<l. prevents the friction. In many casee 
tbia friction is so pronounced that it may be felt by placing tbo band 
over tbe alTected parL When the dry Klage is aucoeedcd by the exu- 
liatioQ of flnid, this friction sound disappears. After the cffnslon into 
tba oavily tuke-s place tbero sumetimcH i^ heard a tiubliug or nictallio 
sonnd, due to dropping of tbe exudate from above into tbe collected 
flnid In the buLtoni of tb« cavity, aa the cuUectfid fluid more or less 
sepantea tbe lung fh>in the chest vails. 

Within two or three diiys the iirgrut wyniptoma are abated, owing to 
tbe exudation of the tiatd and the subsidence of the pain. Tbo flnid 
nay now andcrgo absorption, and tbe case terminatu favorably wilhta 
a week or ti'n daya. 

If the qnaiitity of the effnsion is large, ita own volume rctanla the 
process of absorption to a great extent, and consequently oonvales- 
ornee is delayed. In mtme casea tbe aymptowH manifest a (u;rtous state. 
Tbe patse bei»>mes more froqueut>, tbe breathing more harried and 
Iftboredt tbe llunkfl work like t>ellnwB, the nostrils flap, the eyea stare 
vildly, tbo coutiteuauou expresses much anxiety, and general signs of 
diasolatlou aro plain. After a time swelltnga appear under Ibe cheat 
and abdomen and down tbe legs. Tbese swelliuga are due to trauft* 



Vision of tho fluid rrara vitbin tbe chest into tlie sarroanfling 
Tlie accuiualatioit in tlie chest ia csIIl-U hydro-choi'ax or drops; of the 
clieM. When tliin fluid ctiiitaiiiH \ms tin- ra^u tisoally provL-it fatal. The 
ooiiililiuti of I>U6 witliiu the (parity in cnllml fuipjieiun. 

I'leuriay may afftxt ouly a siiiall area of ouo Kide, or it may affiwt 
both Rides. It is oftener roiifinwl to tho riglit side. 

Treatment. — TliiM varies very littk^ from Lbo treatmiiut of brouchilis 
and iMieatnooia, but as frequently stated heretofore, pleorisy ia &o lia- 
ble to l>e complicated with either of tho disoascA named, tfa« varintion 
in the treatment may b« considered a» merely a<yuiict treatment of tlie 
pli'iiTitic coiiiplicntioa. 

The iustnictioiis in regard to tb« geooral maoa^meat of broDcbitii 
and pnenroouia mnat be adhered to in the treatment of pleuriHy. Com- 
fortable qiiarterH, ])ure air, irarm clolbiui,''tu tbe body and bandages to 
tho legs, a pleutiful supply of pure cold water, the laxative food, etc., 
in thia case are equally ncceaftary and efficaciona. Tbo hot applica- 
tions applied to the cho^t o^ dirpnttnl in tlie treiitment of pneumonia 
are verj- I>eiielicial in pli-uriKy, and should bo kept up while the symp- 
toms show tbe animal to Ite in pain. 

During; the first few day», wbou [tain ia mairifcsted by restlesso 
do not npply (be liriimeut to the xides of the ebeiit, as it will not onlj^ 
irritate tbe nnimal and increase tbe resflessne^a but will beiKlitcn tli 
fever ae well. After four or fite days, wtii-u tbe symptoms show thai; 
tbe acate stage has somewhat subsided, tbe Uniment may be well 
rubbed over tbo alfeetcd iiart with boneQt, as It will greatly promote 
the absorpuon of the elTiiHion. Tbe application may be repeated on al- 
ternate days until several applications have been madek From the bo- 
ginning tbe following drench sliould be gtvcn every six boars: Sola- 
tion of tho ncetate of uninioniiL, 3 ounces; spirits of nitrous etlier, X 
outice; bicarbonate of potassiom, 3 drams; water, 1 pint. ■ 

If the patient becomes debilitated tbe «trmulaiiU as prescribed for 
pneumonia should bi3 ascd according to the same dircctioua The«amo 
attention should bo given to tbe diet. If the animal will partake of 
ibe bran mashes, scalded oats, and grass, it is the best, but if he nyj 
fkiaes the laxative diet then be sliould be tried with diHereut kiiidtt 
food, and allowed whicbovur kind be desires. 

lu tbe beginning of tbo attack, if tbo pain is Mvore, csnsiDg the aoi^ 
mal to lie down or paw, tbo following drench should be given: Tiuct 
ure of upiuui, 2 uuucuh; raw llnMH^d oil, 12 uuiicl-s. If tbo pain cot 
tiuuea, tbe tincture of opium may be re|>eated within (bur or tlve boui 

If the 0080 is not progressing favorably in ten or twelve days aftt 
tbn l>f>giuciingof the attack, r^invale-<<<%nce i.-< delayed by tbe fluid iu the' 
chi^-tt lailiu); to be absorbed. Tbe animal becoiuvfl dull and weak, and 
evinces little or no desire for food. Tbe breathing becomes still cuore 
rapid and dillicult. An efl'ort mnst now Iw made to oxcito tbe absorp- 
tion of the cifuttiuu. An applicatiou uf llie liiiimunt sbuuld be rubbe<l 
over tbe lowor part of both side« and tbe bottom of the cbeAU TtLO 

fi>IIotriQg drench sbmtd bo ^rcn throe times n dny, for 8«ren or eifrht 
c1a>'« If it ta Deoeaaary auil upjieani to Ix-nuBt: Ttdctnre or the ppr- 
cJiloriUe of iron, 1 onnce; tincture of gentinii, 2 ounces; water, L pint. 
Alao sire I tlmm of iuilii]n«r jmliifu^inm ili-sfio)v(il in tlir-ilrinkiii^ tvatcr 
an liour before feeding, every ni{:Itt Aiid morning for a veck or twd. 

Bpdro thorax \& somelime^t difllriiU to uvi'rvome by raeans of the nxo 
of medlclnca alone, vben ao o]ieratioi] I'.allrd paracmtesU tkorac'it la 
performed. In plain langnage this mcAiis tapping the (client to allow an 
flaeapo for tlic acciimnlated flnid. Tlio operation is porformcd nitb 
ft oombini-d iuKtruinent f^llt^d the tnx^r find mnula. The puncture la 
made in the lower ]>art of the chest, in the aiKioe between the e1|;hth 
and ninth ribii. Wounding of thv intcnxistal nrtery '\n avoided by in- 
aertiug the iostramcnt as lu-ar as imssible to the anterior ©dfic of the 
rib. If tbe o]>er:itt()n is of ln'iiefil it is only so when performed Itefore 
Uio sLreugtb is loirered beyond recovery. The operation merely re' 
ccivi^ a jKiKsing notice here, aa it \» not presumed that the non-profes- 
siotiiU will iittempt it, although it ia altcudud with little danger or diCU- 
cnlt.v in the bituds of the expert. 

We hare described bronchitis, pnenmnnia, and pleorisy mainly aa 
they occur us iudcpendvnt disciufe.t, and have treated tbem in a way 
tliiii an iatellij;ent iKtrson can not possibly do harm. While it ts true 
mneh more might bare been aald in regnrd to the different stugca and 
lyjien of the affections, and aUo in reganl to tli« treatment of each atage 
and eiieh partinihir t}'|>e, tho {dan adopted is considered the wiseat on 
aiMrOiiut of Hiiiiplifyiug aa much as possible a subject of which the reader 
is jiupi>osed to kuow very little, if anything. 

A few wonlH will now Iw devoted to these aflVctions aa they occur, 
when two or mure vxiat at the same time and in the same animuL 


Tbc diseaae is eo called when the animal is affected Willi pleurisy and 
poeamonia combiae<l, which is most fre/iaently the ease. At the lie- 
ginning of the attack only one of tbe affeetiouft may l>e present, bnttfa* 
other aoon follows. It has already been stated that the pleura in eluselj 
adherent to the Inng. The plenra on this ac«oant is fre^jueotly more or 
Icfix nffeoled l>y the sprmdtng of the ioflaaimation from iheliing ti**oB. 
Tfaero Is a combination of thu symptoms of botli disejues, but to the or- 
dinary obserre-T the R}*niptoms of plenriay arp the most obTioui. The 
course of tremtmeni to be poreunl diflcra in no maaiier flrota tliat girea 
for the Bffeclioas vbea they ovcnr independenily. Tb« syvptoma wflt 
Iw your fuide aa to Uie adriaat^itjof giriagoti and laodannm for the 
pain if the pU-arisy is very aevcnw l>o aui reaort to it unleaa 11 is imo* 
Msary to aUay the pain. 


TbiaisthetermortrniisaiipHedwbeabroDefaitia, ptettriay, aMOtMMp 
ODDia aU extat at ooc6. TkU i« b/ oo bmu fteo&BMm ocoatncanft. 


nowever, it is impoaaiblo for one who i& not au expert to Jia^iose tbe 
state vj II] cerlaiuty. Tbo apparent syiuptoiiis ar« tlio saiuo ae vben 
the nQiiunl is uffected fritli pleuro pneumonia. 


This is also a comnaoo cotnplic^tioa. Kttber one or tbc other ouy be 
first ill operatiou. Wheu broiicbitU adects tbetiiiialler broDclilal tatwaj 
the inHammation readily ext«u<l8 to the air-cellg and theDc« to the luag 
tis^nv, onnfiti tut ills' piicumoiiiu. Or tliu bronchial tnbi^ may hti secoDd- 
nrily iavolred by the cstensioo of the iiidaiauiatiou Troui the airctill& 
Nothin£ iit regard to the treatment of this coiiilitiou re<|iiireH to be said 
here, as It has t>een fully described when sjieakinf; ot broiicbitis auil 
pnpumonia aH w'paralr di34'a.scfl, A brief nwiew of Mimruf the an b- 
vorableresaltsof pleurisy aud pneamoDia will Dot be out of place here:, 


There are instances, and es]>eciAlty when the surroaodin^ of the pa- 
tient have boou bad, \rhcii the inllitrainatioii tenniniitc^i in an absceesj 
in the lung. Sometiinot), when the itillammation has tieen extreme,] 
suppuration in a large portion of the iaug takes place. Impare air, tbe] 
rewnlt of. improper ventilation, is the most (Vetinent canse of this termi- 
nation. The syoiptoms of nuppiirattou in thi; lunt; am an exc«fediagly 
offeiisi^'e smell of the breath, and the discharge of the matter from tba'j 


Gangrene or mortifloation means a death of the part affected. Oo<] 
ca-sioiially, owiau to tlio intensity of the Inflammation or bad treatment, 
puouuionia and plouropneuiuoDia terminate iu uiortitiuatioo, which isj 
soon followed by the death of the animal. 

ABBCBRs m rnE spaces uetwkbk tuk ribs. 

Abeoeas of tho intercostal spaceti has bt-ou recorded an a reKiilt of 
pkartoy. Following the attui:!; of pleurisy an enlargement appejirti on 
some part of the che«t, which may burst of its own acoord. When it 
makes lis ap{>earatice it Ih advisable to apply iKtnltices of linseed meaJ ■ 
and hot water, or bathe it continuously for bonra at a time with water| 
n4 hot A8 can be comfortably borne. This treatment will hapten the 
forinatiuu of matter. \\'lien it in flott in the center it shonhl be lanoed 
and the matter allowed to escape. The course of tonic Ireatmtmt and 
nutritive food mtvifled in tbc treatment of pleurisy should be kept up. 

n.iiMopTy8ts — blbediho from tee lunqs. 


Bleeding fnnn the lungs may occur during the course of oongestlcnt 
of the longs, bronchitis, pueuinuiii^, iiillucnza. purjtnm hemorrhagica, 
or glanderjii. An accident or exiTtioii may can»e a rujitnre of & vessel. 
Pletbuni prcdiapoRcs to it. Following the rupture of a vessel the blood _ 
may escape Into the luug tissue and cause .aserioas altack of puen-l 
mottio, or it may Qll up the bronchial tubes aud prove fatitl by suObcat- 


[in; tbd animal. Wbeo ttto hemorrhage is &om tlic laags it ia accom- 

jlKiiiietl by coaghtng; the blooci is rrotliy aad comes from both nostrils. 

['\\'liereiLS trli«a the bteedln^ ts merely ftttm a rupttira of a vessel in 

>ine part of the hea<l (lieretofore described as liIcedlDg from the nose) 

' the blood is most likely to iasao from one nostril ooly, and the di&cbnrgo 

I is not accoinpaiiiftd by congbitig. TLc ear may be ivlat'ed against the 

< vindpipe along its course, and if the bloixt is from the lungx a gurg- 

Uui,' or rattling »onnd will bi- Iit'iinl. Wlieti it occurs in connection with 

' aootlier diseasu it eeldom rcqairt-3 special treatment, "When caascd by 

■oeident or ovcrexertiou the auiinnl shoald be kept quiet If the coagh 

is f^vqneut or paroxysmal a doso composed of 3 ounces of tincture of 

opium iu 8 onnw-s of raw linseed oil may be giren to allay the irrita- 

biUty, which may stop the bcuiorrhage by checking the cough. If the 

bemurrhago is profuse and continiiea for several lioura 1 dram of the 

•oetatc of lead dissolved to a pint of nater m»y be given as a dreiicb, 

or 1 oance of the tincture of tbe perchloride of iron, dtlntexl vrith a 

pint of water, may bo given instead of the lead. It is rare that tba 

hemorrhage is so profuse as to reqnire internal remedies. Bnt bem- 

orrbagc lutothe lung may occur ntid cause dontli by siilTocation withouC 

the least manifestation of it by the discbarge of blood from tUo nose. 


Palmonary cooeamptioa, "the same as pfatbisis or consumption In 
nan," has been de.scribcd by European authors as aEfecting the horse. It 
la meutfoned here merely to give the n'ritcr nn opportunity to say that 
be never saw a case of it, and never conver-seil vith a veterinarian on 
llio sulrject vbo has met n-ith a case iu the horse. Tbis fact docn noli 
I>Toru that the horse is exempt from the disease, bat it at least provos 
thai it mast be rare indeed. 


Ibis condition has been notiood as a residt of heart dlscasi>, and as ft 
is said, almost invariably to teruiinalo fatally, no further notice of tC 
is necessary here- 


Mncli rnnfnsion exists in the popular mind In reganl to tho natnra of 
broken wind. Many horsemen apply the term 10 all allraent* whsro 
the breathing is difhcalt or uoisy. Seientific retcrluarlans aro w«1l ao- 
qnnintcd n-ith tfae phenomena and locality of the ftfliMitton, but ilitirn U 
a great dlvci^etty of opinion as regards Ibo exact carue. AntiiiiiA Is 
geaeralty thought to be duo to spasm nf the small circular miiaol<**l)ial 
saronnd the broiicbial tabes. The continued oxMnirM of tbU ulfw^ 
ti»n of tho mnsele» leads to a paralysis of them, and ts eojinldi'rwl nris 
of the primary stages of broken iriud. 

Some eminent veterinarians mainuia that tlie txdtlvr ■ ""— -f bniheii 
wind is duo to a lesion of the pneumogaAtrJe aerre. '1 " In ^twA 

foundation for tbls opiaion then can bo 00 doabt. X\i*^ ^\\*w\\*\'ij.'>iM'n 
nous — 9 


nerres scud branches to tho broiicbiul tubcH, lun^s, hourt, Rtomach, eta. 
All tbo orgnus jUAt meuliaoed may sooner or later become iuvolved 
couoection tritU broken \ritul. It uay bosaiJ xhm brol^eQ wiml iaalvn: 
associated with dtaoitlcr of the fuuctioa of digestion. It is cMmed tUtt 
coarse or iniligeslible foinl irritates tbe braocbes of Ibc gmuuniogutiiB 
uvrrtM wbicb tiupiily the walltt of the stomach, aud this irritJ^on is rfr 
fiected or extended to the bmnches of tbe same Dcrvo Trhtch etipplj 
tba luD^ wbtii tbe lesioQH constituUiig broken wiml foltoir. 

lu itself broken wind is not a futal distruM, but di-atli ia geoeiall; 
Ottoaed by an nflection closely conuccted vith iU After death, if t^ 
organs are exaiuiucd, tbe Icsiona found dupcud muck upon the loi^ 
of time broken wiud has aflevled lUe auUuaL lu recvut cases very few 
cbiiDges are noticeable, but in auiiuals that bafe bceu brokcn-nind«J 
for a long time Uic cbangvs aro well marked. Tbo Uogs sreixiLcr thai 
oatoral, and of much less weight in proportion to the volume, as evi- 
deaoed by Hoatiug tbuin in water. Tbo vails of the small brooeliial 
tabes atid the nn'mlti-ano of tbe larger tnliea arc tliickcjied. Tbe right 
side of the heart ia enlarged and its cavities dUated. Tbe stomach is 
enlarged and its walls stretched. And in many old cases tbe lutestioal 
\ralU undergo tbo same chnnges. Tbe important cltange found in tbft 
luugs is a cotiOition technically caDiHl iitilmonary cmpbysoma. This 
is of two varieties: First, what is termed resiciilar emphysema, vluch 
couaiata of au enlargomeut of tbe capacity of tLeoircoIla (air vesieleiB} 
by dilation of their w.ills : the walla after a time degeuenitr, and flnaUy 
give way, and thua form a communtcatii>u with other air-celb. Tbe 
second form ia called interlobular emphysema, and follows the first 
In this variety tiie air Duds Its way into the lung tissne between tbs 
air-cellM, or, as Its name indicates, in tbe tissue bettreen tbe 

^'yfflj>r9iiK4.— Almost every experienced horseman is able to del 
"heaves," Tbe peculiar raoveraeiit of tho flanks and abilonien point 
out tbe ailment at once. But in recent eases the affeetcd animal Joi4M 
not always exhibit tho characteristic breathing unless exerted toacer-" 
tain extent. The cougb wbicb accompanies Ibis dtseaso is ]>eculiar to 
it. It is diOIcult to describe, but the fiouud is short, and something like 
a grunt. 

When air is inspired, that ia, taken in, it appears to bo done ia 
B:kmo uinuuorasin health; it may possibly b« done a little <iuicker th 
natural, but not enuugb to attract any nottoo. It is when the act 
expiration (or expcIUuK the air from the lungs) is [lerformed that the 
great cbaoge in the breathing is perceptible. It must uov be remem- 
bered that the lungs have lost much of their pover of coutxactiog on 
aoooant of tho degeneration of the walls of the ajr>cclls, and also on 
account of tho paralysis of muscular tissue before mentioned. Tho air 
passes into tbem freely, bat the power to exx)el it is tosti to a great 
extent by tbo lungs; therefore tho abdominal muscles are brought into 
play. These muscles, es|H!ciatly iu the region of the flank, arc seea to 


contracfrnTrap^^^^Hi&omenif tfaen complete tlio act of confrarirng', 
tiiu» Diaktut; n dl^l^Bnows-like B)oreiui;Dt at cacli ezpiralioo, » tiort 
of jvTky raotiun tritli ev(-o' breath. When tbe naimnl is exerteU a 
trbeexliig noise accompanies tbe breatliiog. Tliis noiso may be lu-ard 
to a legH extent nboii tliu utittnal is at rest if tbo enr bo B]>plied to the 

Aa before remarked, Indlgeatton is altrayn present in theso cases, 
Tbo animnl lias a depraved apiietite, as sIiowd by a desire to eat dirt 
tuid Hoilcil bwIdinjT, wliich be often devours id preference to die clean 
food in tbo traiigb or luuiij^cr. Tbe etomuch ia liable to bo overloaded 
witb iiKlige>8tibla food. Tbe abdoai«Q may assnmo that form called 
*' pot-bellied.^ Tbe BDioia) frequfmtly passes viud, whicsh ts of a very 
ofloBunTe odor. Attacks of cobc may occur, which lo some cases are 
CataL When first put to work dung is passed fVequcatly; tbe twwela 
an often loose, ^e auimal can not stftod much iirork, as the mnscubir 
is soft. Bound cbostc'd horseA are said to be itrc-disposcd to (lie 
, and it is certain tliat ia cases of lon^ staDding tbe cheat oaually 
>mi'A rounder than niitural, 

Ccrtoia "soiart" iudivtduals become totj export in manafpai; a bonio 
afleeled vith ^ heaves'' in sappressing the symptonM for a short time. 
ISieiy takewlvanta^e of the fact that the breathing is mach easier wlipn 
tbe Htomnob and intcstiuoa are empty. They b]so nwort to tbe luu of 
mediciaes that bave a depressing effect Wbca tbo veteriuarfan (■ ei- 
aaiolng a borso for souudness, and ho snspecta that tlie animal boa 
been " fixed,'' be usually gives tbe liorse as mnch n'at4>r as be will drink 
and. then lia.i him ridden or driven rapidly up a lull or on a bcary roail. 
Ibia will bring oat tbe characteristic breatbing of "btarfta.* All 
bnkcn-vinded bon«s bave tJie congfa peculiar to tbe afleetlon, bat It fa 
not regalar. A considerable time may elapse before It ia beard aail 
tlwB it may come on in paroxysms, especially when flcBt broagbt oat of 
tbe etable into the cold air, or wbca excited by work, or after a drink of 
eolil water. TIio ooogfa is nsaally the first symptom of tbe disease. 

Trtatment.—Vnien tbe disease ia eatabllsbbd there la no cora for it. 
Proper attention paid to ibe diet will reHere tJie distreesing aymptou 
Co a oertoln extent, bat they wUl imdODbtedly re-appear in tbelr lotea- 
sity the first time Uie animal orerioada tbe stotnaeh or la allowed food 
of bad qoality. Putting aaide all theories in regard to the prioiary 
oaaaoortheafTectioD, it isfrenerally ailmittcd that it bi closely allied to 
dcraogenenl of tbe digcAiivo organa, ntoat partieolarly tbe stomacfa;. 
This being the faf!t, it is but rcaaonable to infer that ff lb* anlakal ia 
anowed nothing bot food of the beat qoallty tbe pred la poaitioo lo 
** bearee" ia kaened. Glover bay and bulky food seoeraUy, «bi«b, aa 
a mlti, fl"nta'fl» but fittle ontziacati bare aaflcii to do with tbe eaoao ot 
tbe diseaae, and ibcrefore shoold be eattoriy omitted vfaeo tbe animal 
is aAectei, aa well as befora A bigb anlhoiity aaaerU that tbe diaeaa* j 
ia noltoown wbere clover bay is never oaed. Tbe diaC aboold be ooB' 
ftned to food of the baat goiUty aad ia tW awilliat SMPtttl. Tti^^MA. 

I the 

It o-fl 

ect of molfly or dnsty bay, frtiMcr, or rood of any tind can not ba 
overestimated. A Kinall iiiiautily of tlit> be&t liny oiive a day U aafi 
cieut. Tho auitnal alioald ioTariably be watered before feediog; never 
directly after a meal. It Is a good plan to sliglitly damjieu tbe food to 
allay the dust. The animal Bhould not be worked immediately aftern 
meal. Kxertion, vben the KtomacU is full, inriiriably aggravates On 
symptomH. Turulug on pasture gives relief. Carrots, potatoes, 
tuinips chopped and mixed with oats or corn are a good diet. 

Many different mcdicincB bavo been tried, but not onobas yet 
discovered that gives even partial satisfaction in tlio treatment 
broken wiud. Arsenic, however, la about tbe only remedy that retJuaa 
^ny reputation of being efficacious in palliating the symptoms. It is 
best administered in the form of tbe solution of arsenic iahydrochloRO 
aoitl (Liq. Acidi. An;.), wliieb should be obtained from the drug stotfty 
as it is then of a standard prcparatioo. Each ounce of tbe solution coa- 
taiiis a little over 4^ grains of arsenic. A tablespoonfal mixed wltb 
bran and oats threo timos a day for abont two weeks, then about twl<« 
a day for about two weeks longer, then once a day for several weeki, i* 
a good way to give this remedy. If tbe bowels do not act regularly, * 
pint of raw linseed oil may ho given onco or twice a montb. It mra^* 
however, be borne in mind that alt medical treatment is of BeeondaiT 
considoratioo; careful attention paid to the diet is of greatest impoC' 
tance. Brolcen-wiaded animals should not bo used for breediog pof' 
poses. A predispoaitioQ to the disease is likely to be ioberited. 




A chroDic congh may succeed tbe acute diseases of the respiratory 
orgADs, such as pneumonia, bronchitis, laryngitis, etc It accompaoitrf 
chrooic roaring, cUrooic bronchitis, broken wind. It may eacceed fo' 
fluenza. As previously stated, cough is but a symptom and not a dis- 
ease ia itself. Chronic congb is occisionally associated with diseue> 
other than those of the organs of respiration. It may be a symptom oC 
cfaroDio indigestion or of worms. In encb cases it is caased by a reflex 
nervous irritation. The proper treatment in all cases of chronic oongh 
ia to aaccrtiiio tbe nature of tbu di.seiisti of which it ia a symptom, 
then euro the disease if possible, and the cough wilt cease 

Tbe treatment oT the alTectlous will be fouud under their appropi 
beads, to whlob tbe reader ia referretl. i 


This J3 a form of rlieamatism that affects the intercostal nmseleSt 
that iH, the mnsclcs between the ribs. The apparent symptoms are vary 
similar to tlioso of plcnrisy. The animal is stiff and not inclined to 
torn around; the ribs arc kept in a fixed state as much as jiosaible. If 
the head is pulleil round soddcnly, or the affected side struck with the 
hand, or if tlxa spaces between the ribs are pressed with the Bogers tbe 
animal will flinch aod perhaps emit a grunt or groaa expressive 

vug a 


essivo ofB 


pain. It is distingaiabed Imm ploarisy by tbe absence of feveri 
(WSb, Uie Irict ion-son ail, the effusiun into the cliest, anil 1>y tbe exiBt- 
toK of rlieucnatittm in otiier porta. The trentmeut far this alTeotiou ia 
tttttne aa for rlienmatism affectioe otUer parts. 


Aecordiog to the theoiy of some teachers of physiology, ,Trhea an 
ffttoliig is uailo ia tho wall of the chest, sitfflciCDt for the admissioa of 
lfr,aeonapsoof the luiig Khouhl occur. UuL iu practice this ia aot al- 
WJ8 fofliiil to bo tho case. The writer hns attended several each cases, 
Ud«DeiaparticaInr vas not seen until alKtut tvolv'O hours after the 
WKudtfaaiaflictod. It is trao the breathing was cousiderably altered, 
but no bid effect followed the admUsion uf air iuto tho thoraclo cav- 
Kf. Tho voand was closed and treated according to tho method of 
tKaliof Toanda generally, and a speedy and perfect recorcry waa made. 
Tbenoond may oot penetrate the plctira ; in such eases no great harm 
iidUM^hot if tho pleura is pouetrated pleurisy may follow, and even 
PQciuaoiiia if tho wonnd involves the lung. 

^eeomiition culh-d pnuuino thor.ix means air in tho cheat This 

^bcfluo to a wound in the wall of the chest, or it may be dno to a 

brakos rtb, the sharp edge of which won ads tho lang BnOlciently to allow 

'^lOMcape into the space between the liini; and rib^ which Is natu- 

'*!'?' ft vacuum. Air gaining access to the thoracic cavity through 

'voamiinay have a peculiar effect. The woand maybe so made that 

*Imo tbe valls of the chest are dilating a little air is saclied !n, but 

during the coutmction of the wall thecontained air presses against the 

lorn put In HQcb a manner aa to entirely cluso tho wound ; thus a small 

Qouiity of air gains access with each inspiration, white none is allowed 

baeape antil the Inng is pressed iutoa very small oompaits and forced 

fMothe anterior part of tho chest. Tho same thing may occar from a 

btoken rib iutticLing a wound in the luug. In this form tho air gniua 

■ettts from the lung, and there may not even be an opening ia the 

fills of the chesL Decomposition of tho fluid in hydro- tliorax, with 

nascqaent generation of gat<e.<!, is said to have caused tho same con- 

'djtioo. In aneU cases the air is generally ab.<torbcd, nnd aspontaneooB 

euro is the result. Bat when the symptoms are urgent it is reoom- 

mended tliat the air be removed by a trocar nnd cauula or by an 


The treatment of wounds thali pcneiraUi the thoracic cavity shonld, 

r Ihu foregoing reason, be prompt. It tthould bo quickly ascertained 

hcther or not a foreign body remains in the wound, then it should ho 

ortiTigbly deanftfi with a solution of carbolic acid ono part in water 

rtj itarts. The wound should then be closed immediately. If it is an 

wound it shoald be closed with Buturea ; if torn or lacerated, a^ 

iKpamundtho chest 07er tbe dressing is the bosb plan. At 

Twita, air mast be preveoled from getting into the chcsb. afcaot m %uB 

e&etnally as possible. Tie after treatment oi tti« ^^M uxit. 


priocipally consist in keeping tlio partd otoan vith tbe eoIatioD of 
bolicnciJ, aod applyinj; frcalidrcssiug as oft<?a aa roquirod tokecpthe^ 
woandin a healthy (»iKlitioti. Curushoulil Im Uketi Uiut the discbnr^et 
TroQi the wound liare an oatlet in tbo most deiMuilent part. (See 
ivounds.) If tbe ironud cnnscs much pmn it sbonld be allayed vritli a 
doaeof tincturo of opium iu ravr linsood oil, as nd?iflcd iu tbe treav 
ment of pleurisy. If pleurisy supen'oues, it shotUd be treated as 
ristid uuder tliat head. 

Tnnips— SPASM OP the DiApna&cu. 

"ThQmp«''i8 gcnemlly thought to be, by tbe inexperienced, a 
pitation of the tivarU While it is true that i>alpitatton of tho heart is 
Bomctime<^ called " ihumps,^ it most not becoofouadeU with tbe affe 
tion under coiiKitlfraliou. 

Iu the beginning of this article on the diseases of the organs of 
piration ihedii^phrat^n \Tas brieiiy refurrvd toaa the principal and 
sential nutsulc of respiration. SpasuKxlio or irreK"'^ contiactions of 
itinmiuiare uiauifestod by what is familiarly known as hlocouglu. 
Thumps in the horse is identical with hiccoughs iu man, alUiongb tbe 
pccniiar mimo is not made in tlio throat of tbe liorso in all eases. 

Thcro should bo no difficulty in distingaisUiug this afTectiou from pal- 
pitation of the heart. Tho Jerky lootion nlTocta the whole body, and is 
not conQned to the region of the hearts If one hand is plac^ on tbo 
body at about tlio middle of the last rib, whilo tho other hand is pli 
o\-er tbo heart behind the left elbow it will be easily demonstrated tb 
thero is uo oounectiou between the thumping or Jerking of the di 
phrngm and the beating of the hmrt. If the ear is ptacetl ag;iiuat 
body it will bo disoorered that tht) sound is made iio.ttcrior to the regioi 
of tho heart. In fact, when the animal is alTected wilb spasms of tl 
diaphragm the beating of the heart is nsnaliy much weaker and h 
pteceptible than natural. Thumps is produced by tbe same cat 
which produce congestion of the lungs, and in often sotm in connection 
with tho latter disease. If not roliored, death usually results from con- 
geutiun oftbe lungs, us Uie breatliiog is interfered with by tbe inordi- 
nate action of this tho principal muscle of inspinition so much that 
pruiwr aeration of the blood can not take place. Tift treatment should 
be precisely the same aa prescribed for congestion of tbe lungs. 


Fott mortem examinations reveal o groat many instances of rnptar« 
of tbe diaphragm. It ia the general opinion among Tctorlnariaus tli^ 
tliia takes place after death, and is due to tho generation of gases in 
tbe decomposing carcass, which distood the intestjnoe 90 that tho dia^ 
pbragm is rupturwl by tho great pre-ssuro against it. Of coarse it is 
possible for it to hapi>«u before death and by straugulatiug the knuckle 
of iutriitino that may be in the rupture cause death; but tUere are no 
symptoms by which it miiy bo diagnosed. 


By Or. JAMES LAW. P. R. C. V. 3.. 


Inthcprimo of life, )nin{:;oronBlieaUti, and on sliinnlAting fonil Ktnll- 
ioiLs are subject to congCKtiuii of tli(^ (estiirlas, wliieli bei^omo Bwoll«-n, 
hot, aod tender, but idtbont any active inllaniiuatiaa. A reduction of 
tlio grain in tbe feed, Uie administrntjon of 1 or 2 onnoce of GluuLer 
salts daily in tho foo*I, and tho batliiof; of tlio affected organs daily 
Willi tfpid water or alum water will usaally restore tlieni to a bealihy 

WbcD tbe factors prodacing congestion aro extraordinarily potent, 
wben tticro baa been frequent copalation nnd hea\T grain ree^ling, 
wben ttie wealber is warm and tbe animal bas bad liLllo exorcise, and 
wben the proximity of otUerliorses or mares excite tbe generative in* 
tinct nitfaoal gnitincatinn, thi5 oon^Htinn may gniw to actnal inflaoi- 
kaiion. Among tbo other causea of orobitis aro blowtt and penetrating 
wounds iuplieating the tettticlee, abrasions of tbe ecnitnm by a cbaln 
or ro[>e passing inside the tbigb, contasions and frictions on tbe gland 
under rapid pncc^ or bravy draught, oomprusxian of tbo blood>TCSsels of 
the 6iH>ruiatic cord by tbe ingainal ring under the »anie eircumytances, 
and Bnally, aynipatJietic dUturbanco in cases of disease of tbe kidneys, 
bladder, or urethra. Stimnlants of the generative functions, like rue, 
savin, taosy, cant bar idt'ii, and dauiiaua may also be accessory causes of 
congestion and intlaDaination. Finally, certain specific diseases lilie 
mal du co'iti glanders, and tobcroalosis, localize<l in tbe testicles, vtil 
ouise inflammation. Apart from octaal wounds of tbe parts tbe symp- 
toiu of orcliitis are swelliug, beat, and tonderiio-sj of tlie tcaticlea, 
straddling with tbe hind legs alike lu standing and walking, stiffness 
and dragging of the bind limbH or of the limb on tbe affected side, 
■rcblng of the loins, Hbdouiinal paiu, manifested by glancing back at 
^be Bank, with more or less fever, elevatc<l body temperature, accder. 
sted palse and breathing, ioappotenoo, and dullness. In bad cases tbe 
■canty nrioo may be reddish and tbe swelling may extend to the sklu 
and envelopes of the testicle, wbicb may become thickened and doughy, 
piltiog on proMure. The swelling may be so mucti greater tn tlio con- 

TolntcJ oicrotoryduut along tlic upiwr bonier of tlic testicle 88 to ef^B- 
gcst tbo pt-esenco of a s«coutI stone. Brcn id tbe more Tiolcut attn*-^'^ 
tbo Intense suffering nlMtcs eonicvliat on tbo eeooud or Ibinl day. i^ 
it Insts loiigor it is liUcIy to give rise to the formatiou of mutter (aZ)* 
sccss). lu exceptioDal cases the testicle is struck witlt gaugrene oc 
death. Improvement may go on slowly to complete recovery, or UiS 
malady may suljsido into a subacute and cliroaic form vitli indaratton. 
Matter (abscess) may bo recognized by tlie presence of a soft spot, 
wburo pn;.ssuro witU two lingers will detect fluctuation ttom one \a 
the otbcr. When tliere is liquid exudation into the scrotum, or sack, 
SactuatiOQ may also bo felt, but tbo liquid can be made out to be 
around the testicle and can be pressed up into tbo abdomen tbroagh 
the inguinal canal. When abscess occnrs in tlio cord the matter uij* 
escape into the scrotal sack nud cavity of the abdomen and pya^tnia 
may follow. 

Treatment consists in perfect i-estand riuietude, tbe admiuistrntionof 
a purgative (1 poaudtolj pounds Glauber's salts), and the local appU- 
cation ofnn astringent lotion (acetate of lead 3 dniuis, extract of bell> 
donn& 2 drams, and vnter 1 quart) upon sofX rags or cotton wool, kept 
la oontjict with tbe part by a fiuiipeusory baudago. TUU bandage, of 
great mine for support, may be made nearly triangnlar and tied to a 
girth around the loiiis and to the upper part of the same surcingle by 
ttro bands carried backward and upward between tbo thighs. In sovoro 
eases scariBcalioas one-fourth inch deep serve to relievo vascular ten- 
sion. "When abscess is threatened its formation may be favore<l by 
warm fumi^ntations or [wulticcs, sod on the occurrence of flactnatioQ 
tbe knife may be employed to give free escape to the pus. Tbe rcsalt- 
ing cavity may tie injected daily with a weak carbolio acid lotion, 
salol may l>e introducetl. Tbe same agents may be osed on a gland! 
threatened with gnngrcne, but its prompt removal by castration is to 
be preferred, antiseptics being applied freely to tbe resulting cavitj. 



This is an enlarged and iudurated conditiOD of tbe gland resoltioi 
from chronic iullammatiou, though it is often associated with a speci 
deposit like glanders. In this oondition tbe natural stmotnre of tbe 
gland has given place to embryonal tissue (small, ronnd oelU, witli a 
few fibrons bundles), and its restoration to health is very inprobable^ 
Apart 6vm active indammation, it m.iy increase very slowly. Tbe dis- 
eased testicle is enlarged, firm, non-elastic, and comparatively inscasi- 
ble. The skin of the Bcrotum is tense, and it may be oedematons ([Si- 
ting on pressure), as are the deeper envelopes ainl spermatic cord. If] 
liquid ia prosenc in the sack the symptoms ore masked aooewhat; 
As it increases it eaoses awkward, straddling, dragging morcraeot of 
the hind limbs, or lameDess on tbe affecte<l side. The ^lecmatlo ooid 
often incceasefi at the same time with the tostiole, and Ui« inguinal 



rin;; bcfu^ Lbcroby stretched ami ctilurgetl, a portion of iutCHtino may 
e.wape into the sacbj couipticatiug tlie disease witb Lernia. 

Tlie ouly rational and effective treatinont Is castratiou, ami even tbia 
may not succ?cd vrhcn tlie diseaso is speciQc (glandere, tnbctcalosls). 


This maybe mercljaii accoiiipaiiimeiit of dropsy of tbc abdomen, the 
cavity of wbicb is voutiuuoiu witti that of tliu scrotum in tiorses. It 
may be tbe result, however, of local disooso ia the testicle, spermatic 
conl, or ttaUh of the sack. 

Tbe Htfmptomi arc enlargement of the scrotum, and fluctuation udcIct 
the Qogerg, the testicle being recognized as floating in water. Uy press- 
ure the liquid ia forced, in a .slow stream, and witli a porcoptiblo thrill, 
into the abdomen. Sometimes the conl, or the scrotum, are thickened 
and pit on jiressnrc. 

Treatmertt may be the same as for ascites, yet ivhen the effusiou haa 
resalted from inflammatian of tlie testicle or cord, astringent applicattODB 
(ohalk and viuegar) may bo applied, to these. Then if th<> liquid is not 
re-abaorbed underdinretics and tonics, it may be drawn off ttirongb the 
Qozzio of a hypodoriuic sjTinge, which has been flrst passed throngh 
carbolic acid. In geldings it is best to dissect out the sacks. 


lis is nn cnlnrgcmcot of tbo Tenons network of the spermatic cord, 
3d ptves rise to general thickcuiug of the cord from tbe testicle up to 
the ring. The same Dstringent dressings m.^y be tried aa in hydrocele, 
and this failing castration may be resorted to. 


Sometimes one or both testicles are wanting; in most such casea, 
however, they are merely partially developed, and retained in the in> 
gntual cnnal, or the abdomen (crj-ptorchid). In rare Ciisen there may 
boa third testicle, the imiraal becoming to this extent a donble monster. 
Teeth, hair, and other indications of a second fcetus have likewise been 
fonud Id the testicle, or scrotum. 


Tbe testicles may become tbe eeat of fibrous, calcircona, fatty, carti- 
IftgtuouH, or cystic dcgencnition, for all of which the appropriate trcnt- 
meut is castration. They al><o become the of cancer, glanders, or 
tuberculous, and castration is requisite, though with less hope of ar- 
restiuff the disease. Finally tlicy may become infested with oystio 
taiic-vurms, or the arm«l rouud wavm {tderostomwn equinumj. 



These are best removed by seJziug tUt-m between the thumb atjd foi 
linger and twisting thorn off. Or tbey may be eat ofiTwitli Kctssont anii 
the roots canterizul with nflrtitc of eilrer. 


The poiiiB of tbe hors43 is subject to greut CAuliQuvrBr-like growths on 
iU free eiul, which extend back into the substauce of the organ, obstract 
tbe passage of urine, aud cause very fetid discharges. Tbe only rcaort 
la to cut them off, together with whatever portion of the peu(» has (>e- 
oomo disease*! and inilurateil. Tbe operation, which should be jwr- 
formed by a veterinary surgeon, conaiata In cuttiog through the organ 
from its upper to ita lower aspect, twisting or tying the two dorsal 
artcrictt and leaving tbe urethra lungoi by half au inch to 1 iucb than 
the adjaceut structures. 


As the result of kicks, blows^ or of forcible sLrikiug of tbe yard uu 
tbe thighs of tlio maro which tt has failed to eater, the penis may be- 
come tbe seat of effuHion of blood from one or more rnptored blood- 
ressclH. This gives rise to a mure or kwt extensive Hwclling on one or 
more sides, followed by some heat and iiiQamuiation, and on recovery a 
eerious curviug of the orgau. The trcatmeut iu the early stages may 
be tbe applioatioo of lotiona, of alum, or other astringents, to limit the 
amount of vffusiou aud lavor abaorptiou. Tbe pcuis should be bus- 
peuded iu a sliug. 


This resalta from blows and other injuries, and also in some 
ttom too &e4]uent and exhausting Non'ice. The yiird hnngti from tlii 
sheath, flaccid, pendulous, and ofteu cold. The [lasaage of urine occui 
with lessened force, aud especially without the final jets. In oasea 
local injnry the inaammntion should tiist bo subdued by astringent attc 
emollient lotions, aud in all awes tlie system sliould bo invigorated bj 
nourishing diet, while 30-grain dosea of nux vomica are given twion i 
day. Finally,* weak current of electricity sent throaghthe penis froc 
just beueath the onits to the free portion of the yanl, oontiaued for, 
or fiiteeo minutes and repeated daily, may x>rove successful. 


Some stallions acquire tUis vicioas babit, stimulating tbe aexital in- 
Btiiiccto tbe discharge of semea, by nibbing tbe penis against tbe belly 
or between the fore limba Tbe only remedy ia a mechanical one, the 
flzinff of a net nuder the iwnis in such fashion as will prevent (be ex* 
tension of the penis, or so prick Uie organ aa to compal the ooimal to, 
desist through x>aiu. 



This U proptigitted, like sjphilid, by tlio act of copulation ami nfTvcts 
.'1 mareH. Ithasbciin lonfrknotrtiin Northern Africa, Ariibt», 

III ..'-ntal Europe. It was iuiporbed iuto IllinoiH iu l^[i in a 

Pcrcheron Iiorse. 

l'*rom one to ten days after copnintion, or In stallions it may be :in«r 
eomu Tceks, liiere is irritation, Hwelliiig, imil a livid redness of tbe «x- 
lerual organaof g«iieratioo, sometimes followed by tbo crupliott of Aimill 
blUtera one-flfth of an inch acrosa, on tlio penis, the vulva, clitoris, aud 
vaKi^l^ and tbe sabspqnent rnptore of tbeso vcsjclea »ud tlio forma- 
tion of nicers or small ojwn sore«. Vesicles have not been noticed in 
tbiadi»eaao in tliedry cUmatoof lUinoin. lutbomarotlicrotArn^quent 
contraction of the vnlva, tirioation, and tbe discharge of a wat«ry and 
latera tbick rigcidliqnidof awbiti&h.yellowisli, orreddislicolor, irltieh 
collecta ou and hoiIh the tail. Tbe swelling of the volva increases and 
decreased alternately, affectiug^ one part more than another and giviag 
a distorted appeanwce to tlie opening. The affection of the skin leads 
to tbe ap[iearaoceofeircQlU' wbita spots, which may remain di»tiucl or 
oo&leace into extetisire patches which persist for months. This with 
thp toiled tail, red, svolleo, puckered, and dlxtorled vulva, and nn In- 
creisins trealtiicss and paralysis of tbe hind limbs, serve to characterize 
tbe ufTectiOD. The maro rarely breeds, bat will take tbe maleand thai 
propai^te tbe disease. Tbe diseane winds ap with great emHcbtlob 
aotl Htapidity, and deatli in four months to two years. In horses wliich 
servo few mnre^ tb ore may l>o only swelling of the fibcatfa for a year, 
bat with frequent oopalatioa the progress is more rapid. The t**'"'* 
may be enlarged, sbmnken, or distorted; tbe testicles are unuRually 
peudant ood may be e:i]ar^F-d or wasted and flabby; the skin, as in the 
raaret ahovs white »pots and patcb««. Later tbo penis becomes par- 
tially poralyxed and bangs oat of tbe sheatli ; swelling of tbe adjacent 
lymphatic glands (in the groin) and even uf diiitaat ones, and of the 
Akio, appear, and tbo bind limbs become weak and nnsteady. In some 
infitaiicei tbe glands under tbo jav swell, and a discharge flows Iron 
tbo nose as in glandera. In other cues tbe itebing of tbe sbJn leads to 
gvaviof and extenstvo aoree. WeataiBss, enacistion, and Ktupidity 
bwnue oatQ deatb, in fatal cases, yet tbe scznat desire does not seem 
to lUL A stalltoD without sense to eat except when food was put in 
his iDoatli, wnald still neigfa aod seek to follow moros. In mDd eai 
an apparent reoorreiy stay ceaae, and tbroaffa sndi animals tbe iHaeasn : 
ts pfofiaeated to iMv localities to be rooaed into aeUvf^ and extenskw 
nadCTOestiniotasofMrTioe. The disesued serve oevten are tbe sent 
of erjftagamlc growthsL (Tliaanboffer). 

7irtatme»t of the malady bss proved uninetitly ■nssMsftctory It be- 
longB to tlie parely ooBtagfcms flisenses, and sboabl be atamped oot by 
the naorielcM slssgtter or eartntioo of erefy bone or nare that hae 
had semal eoBgw wilh a iHianseJ aeiaaL A nraviilna tat OoT«r«r| 


meat indomaity for the animals bo destroyed or castrated, and a serere 
penalty Tor puitiDg any SQcb auiaaal to breediQg, would serve as eflectaal 
accessory resorts. 


Tbis ia nsnally done at one year old, bnt may b« accompHsbed at a 
few weeks old, at tbe expense of an imperfect dovclopmeat of the fore 
parta. The Rimplidty and safety of tlio oiieratioii are greatest in tLe 
youug. Tbt; delay till two, three, or foar years old will secure a better 
derelopment and carriage of the fore parte. Tbo esseatial port o( 
casttatioo is tUo safe removal or dostraction of the testicle and the 
arrest or prevvtitiou of .blcvdiiig from tlie Hpermalic arl-ery found in 
tbe anterior pari of the cord. Into the mnoy methods of accomplish* 
Ing this, liiuited Bpacc forbids us to enter here, so that the mctliod moat 
commonly adopted, castration by clamps, will alone be noticed. Tbe 
animal having been thrown on his left side, and the right hind foot 
drawn np on the shoulder, the exposed Bcrotum, penis, and sheatb are 
vaahed with .soap aud water, auy coucrotiou of auburn being carefully 
removed from the bilocular cavity in the end of the i^enis. The left 
spermatic cord, just above the testielc, is now seized in the left hand, 
so as to render the skiu tense over tbe stone, and tbe right hand, armed 
with the knife, makes an incision from before bachwnrd, about three- 
foarths of an inch from and parallel to the median line between tbe 
thighs, deep enough to 6xx>ose the testicle aud long enough to allow 
that orgau to start out through the skin. At the moment of makiug 
this incision the left hand miist^ grasp the cord very firmly, otherwise 
the sudden rotractioD of the testicle by tbo crcmastcr masole may draw 
it out of tbe hand aud upvranls through the canal nnd even into tbe 
abdomen. In a few seconds, when the struggle aud retraction hare 
ceasc*l, the knife is inserte<l through the cord, between its anterior and 
posterior portions aud tbe latter, the ouo which the muscle rotracte, ia 
eut completely through. The testicle will now bang limp and there is 
no longer any tendency to retraction. It should bo pulled down until 
it will uo longer bang loose below tbo wound aud the dumjis applied 
aroQud the still attached portion of the cord, close up to the skin. Tbo 
Clamps, which may bo mndo of auy tough wood, are groovetl along the 
center of the surfaces opposed to each other, thereby fulftlUng two im- 
portant indtoations, (a) enabling the clamps to hold more securely and 
(6) providing for the application of an antiseptic to the cord. For tJiia 
puqiose a dram of sulphate of copper may be mixed with au ounce of 
lard nnd pressed into the groove in the fiiee of each claaip. In apply- 
ing the clamp over the cord it shoold be drawn so close with pioeersas 
to press out all blood Crom the compressed cord and destroy its vitali^f 
and the cord applied upon tbe couipressing clamps should be bo hard- 
twined that it will not stretch later aud slacken tbe hold. When tbe 
damp has been fixed tbe tejiticlu is cat ot£ ono-half to 1 lucb below it, 




■Ml tie clamp may bo left tlias for twenty- four lionrs; then, by cutting 
tlwronl around one eadoftlieolamp, tbe latter,may beopeucdaDd tlie 
stamp tlbt-ratcd, wittiout any dnngt-r of blet-din^. Slioiild t1i» stump 
laugoatof tbe woiitid it should be pnslicd inside with ttic linger nod 
Irn there. The woaud Khoutd begin to diKcUarge irhite matter on tbe 
iccoDd day in hot weather, or the third in cold, and from tliat time a 
|«od ncoTcrj' may bt> expected. 


Be TOoug boreo sudors It-Sii from ca«tration than tlio old, aud rory 
nroly perishes. Good liealtti in tlio subject is all important. C'astra- 
lioaalKiald ue^'er be attempted duriiifj the piev.ileiico of straugles, iu- 
lama, catarrhal fercr, contagioiis plenrisy, bronchitis, pncumonio, 
Foipatt btemorrbagica, or other specific discaac, uor ou subjects that 
hare been kept iu cloHe, illy ventilated, filthy buildings, where the 
tstifn u liable to haro been charged with putrid bacteria or other 
Ptuducts. 'Warm weather is to be profi'rrt'd to cdUI, but the tly time 
■IXHiM be avoided or the llies kept at a distance by tbe appticatioD of 
I vaitry solution of tar, carbolic acid, or camphor to tbo wound. 


Tbj] ia the remorat of a testicle or testicles that have failed to de- 
'kqiI into the &crotaro, but have be«n detained in ttio iugiiiual caual 
H lasiile tbe aMomen. The mnnipnlation requires au accurate an* 
•*««i«I Iiuowledge of the parts, aud special skill, experience, and 
•aotai dexterity.and can not be made clear to the uuprofssalonal mind 
JliXkort notice- It consists, bowerer, in the discoveiy and removal 
"'IboBiisslog glaud by exploring through the natural channel (the 
iDfaioal canal), or, iu case it is absent, through the inguinal ring or 
""Wgh on artilicifll openiug made in front aud above that channel bo- 
^ttn the abdominal mascles and the strong fascia on the inner side 
"^tfce thigh (Poupart's Hgameul). Whatever method ia used, the skin, 
nsiids, and instramcnt.s should be rendered aseptic with a solution of 
""ttcnric chloride 1 part ; water 2,000 p;irt3 (a carbolic iicid lo^on 
'*'' llic Infitmmeuts), aud the spermatic cord U best torn through by the 
Mrawnr. In manysucb cases, too, it is desirable tosew up the external 
*iwnd anil keep the animal still, to favor hc-afing of the wonnd by 


Sotie horses are pained aud very restless for some hours after castm* 
*"*iaiid this may citeml to cramps of the bowels and violent oollc. 
niig ii best kept in check by carefully tabbing the patient dry whcu be 
'"N!* from the operation, and then leading him in hand for some time. 
I^tliepsiiii Ktill iwrsistsa dosu of laudanum (1 ounce for au adult) may 

Bleeding from the waaud in Uie 8crolum and from the little nrtecy 
in tlio posterior portioo of the apertURtic conl always occara, and in 
vrartQ wcatlier may appear to b« quite free. It ecarecly ever last«, 
however, over flftoco minutes, and is ensily checked b.v linsbing cold 
water ng.iiiist the part. 

Blewliiiic from the spermatic artery in the anterior part of the cord 
may bo dangeroos when due precaatlon has not been taken to prcrcnt 
it'. In such case the stump of the cord shouUl bo Koti{;ht for tind the 
artery twisted with artery forceps or tied with a silk thread. If the 
Htump can not be found, pledgets of fov wet with tioctore of muriate 
of iron may be stuffed into the caual to favor the formatiou of clot and 
the closaro of the artery. 


If in castration the cord is left too Ions', bo as to bang oat of the 
wound, the Bkin wound in contracting grasps and Btranglee it, pr«- 
Tenliiig the free return of Muotl uud eauKitig a ftloadily advouctag 
Bwelling. In addition the cord becomes adherent to the lips of the 
wonnd in the shin, whence it derives an increased supply of blood, 
and is thereby stimulated to innro ntpid swelling. The subject walks 
stiffly, wiUi straddling giiit', loses apjietitc, and has a rapid pulse and 
high ferer. Gxamiualion of the wound discloses the partial closore of 
tlie skin wound, and tho protrusion from, its lips of the end of the cordi 
re<l, tense, and varying in size from n hazvl-uut upward. If there is 

00 material awelllug and little protrusiou the wound may be enlarged 
with tho knife and the eud of the cord broken loose front auy cooaeo- 
tion Willi the skin, and pushed up inside. If tho swclliog is larger the 
mass constitutes a tumor, aud must be removed. (See below.) 


This occurs in certain nnhealLhy Ktates of tho system, in anhealtby 
Bcasous, as the result of oi>eratitig without cleansiug the sheath and 
penis, or of keeping the subject iu a fdthy, impure building, as the 
result of infectiug the wound by bands or instramcuts bearing eeptic 
bacteria, or as the result of premature closure of the wound, and im- 
prisonment of matt4T. 

Pure air and cleanliness of groin uud wound are to be secured. 
ADtiseptlcs, like the mercuric chloride lolioo (1 part to 2,<H>U} aro to tw 
applied to the parts; tho wound, if closed, is to be oiwued onew, any 
accnmulat*^! matter or bloml washed out, and the antiseptic liquid 
freely applied. The most tense or depemlcnt parts of tlie swelling in 
sheath or penis, or beneath the belly, should be pricked at ioCcrvata 

01 3or 4 inches, and to a depth of half an inch, and antiyeptics freely 
used lo the surface Fonienlatious with warui water may also ba used 


to lavor oozing from tiie inciaious and to eucoorage tlio rormtttJon of 
while matter m tlio orlglual wounds, wbich muAt not be allowiMl to clow^ 
again at onc«. A free-, cream-Hke dLscbarge implies a bcallky action in 
Uta BOrc, uud is the prccnr-sor of recovery. 


Ill casea or Bfrelling, aa above, tbo penis may be imprisoned witbin 
Ui0 sbeath (pbyiiiosiH) or protraded and fiwoUeo bo tbat tt caa not be 
rvtiactrd into it (pnrapbyaiasis). In Ibeiw cuses the treiitineut indi* 
c&ted aboT(?i, and capcclaUy the acaritlcations, will prove a oaefUl prc- 
Umiaary resort. TbeuAe of astrin<;ent lotions is always desirable, and] 
in ease of the pn:)tradt}d jipnis the npplinntion of an olnstio or sitnpla 
linea baodage, fw> as to press out the blood aud accuaiulau-d Quid, will 
enable tbe operator to retnrn it. 


Tbeso are dan (orottp^h bundling ur dragging upon tbe vcrtl in oaiitni- 
Uon, to straugidiition of nuduly long coitls in tbe ext^rual wouuil, to 
adbesJon of tbeetid oftbocord to tlio Hkin, to inflammation of tlie cord 
saooecding expoeare to cold or wof, or to tbe prcsonce of septic or 
IfTltant niiittL^ra. Tbt->fie tnmors gf vo rise to a stiCT, straddliug gait, aud 
0Wy bo felt as banl masses in tbe groin connected above witb tbe cord. 
They may couliuuo to crow slowly for many yi-ani until Oiey reacb a 
weight of lo or IN) pounds, and contract adbesions to all stirronndio^ 
parts. If di3conucctc<I from ibo skin and inguinal canal they may be 
rsniovcd in tbu same manner as tliu testicle, wbile if larger and finnly 
adbuFcntto tbo skin andsarroundiog parts gcnemlly tUoy most bo care- 
foUy ditisecled from tbo pnrts, tbo artcrios being tied as they are reacbcd i 
and tbe oonl finally torn tbrongb nitb an ocrnsour. Wlion llie cord' 
has becomoswolten and indnrnted npinto tbenbdomen socb removal it 
fanpoasiblo, thotigh a partial destruction of tbo moss may slill be at* 
tempted by paaaiug white hot pointed irooa upvanl toward Uie lugaiDtdJ 
riositi tbe center of tbo tbickcuodand Indurated cord. 


This is only minired in case of bemia or protrusion of bowels or 
omcutain into tbo sack of tbo scrotam, and consists in tbe return of 
the bemia and tbo application of tbo caustic clamps over tbo cord and 
inner wiUIr of tbe ingainal canal, so Ibat tbe waits of tlie latter become 
adborent aliove tbo clamjis, the t^nal is obliterated, and furtber pro* 
tnukm is hindered. For tbe Inll description of ibis and of tbe opcra- 
tiOD for hernia in geldings, see article on bemia. 


itaon is a mncli more dHiigen>n!i operation in the mare tban iutbe 
^ of other domesticated ^uadruptids, aad aUouldix%\^i Vtbxvi^biX^ 


to except in anitnnla tbnt became uniuauage&'ble on tlie mnrraKeul 
boat, ami Ibnt xvill not breed or that are utterly nnsuited to brecdins- 
Formerly tlioopcratJon wii.s estou.'^ivcly practiced iu Euroiu-, the incinKiii 
being made through tUo Hank, and n, large proportion of tbo BubjecU 
pcrisbing. By oporatitig tUroiigb tlio vagiua tlie risk can be largely 
obviated, as tlio danger of oDliOiiltliy inHaniniatiotL ia the wound ii 
greatly' lessened. Tfao animal &liau]d be llxcd ia a trerls, nith each foot 
flxed to a post and a aliug placed under the body, or, better, It tea; be 
tbro^rn and put under cblorororm. The manual operation demandi 
BlKCial professioDRl knowledge and BkJU, bnt it consists essentialljr ia 
making an opening tliroagli tlteroof of the vagiiiajust above the neck 
of the nouib, then followiug vith the baud each lioru of the vomb 
nntil the ovary on that eido ia reached and grasped between the lipa of 
forceps and twisted off. It might bo torn off by an ecrasour eei>ecLall5 
conslruclcd for the purj'OSO. Tbo straining that follows the operation 
may bo chcclii-d by ounce doses of laudanani, and any risk of protra- 
siou of tbo bowels may 1>o obviated by applying the truss advised to 
prevent eversion of the womb. To further prevent the pressnro of 
the abdominal contents against the vaginal wound the marc should 
1>e tied short aud high for twenty-four or forty-eight hours, after which 
I linvo found it best to remove tlio truss ond allow tho privilege of 
lying down. Another Im]>ortant point Is to give bran mashea and 
other laxative diet only, and in moderate quantity, for a fortnight, and 
to uuload tho rectum by copious tiijccttons of \ranu water in case it 
should threaten to become impacted. 


Sterilily may be in the male or in the female. If duo to the Ptalltuii, 
then all the mares pat to him remain barren ; if due to the mare, sho 
alone fails to conceive. 

in the Btalliou sterility may be duo to tho following causes : (a) Im- 
perfect deveh>pmeut of tlie testicles, as in canc^ in which they aro re- 
tained within the abdomen} (b) inflammatioa of tho testicles, resulting 
in iudnration; (c) fatty degeneration of tho testicles, in stallions lib- 
erally fed on starchy food and not suOicicntly exercised; (d) fatty 
degencmtiou of tho cxcrotori.' duct:^ of the testicles {rasa de/erentitt)i 
(«) inflammation or ulceration of these ducts ; (/) iuflammalloii or olcer- 
ation of tho mucous mcmbrnno covering the penis; {g) injuries to the 
penis from blowa (often cauBintj pnraly.sis); (h) wnrty growths on tho 
end of the peuie; (i) tumors of other kinds (largely pigmentary) af- 
fecting the testicles or penis; (j) nervous diseases which abolish tbb 
sexual apiietite, or thai control over tho muscles which is essential to 
the act of coition; (itj azotnria with rc-siUting weakness or paralysis 
of the muscles of the loins or the firout of tho thigh (above the stiSe); 
(I) ossiSeation (anchylosis) of the Joints of the back or loins, which 
renders tho animal unable to rear or mount; (Nt) spavins, riogboac 


or other painfal aCTcclfons of tlie hind limbs, tlie i>a{n of nliich in 
moiinttug causes tbo animal to stiddeDly stop sbort iu tlic act. In tUe 
drat tlir«o of tbcsc only (n, b, norl c) is there ren] stcrilitf in (be svnso 
of the non-lie retopmeiit or iiitperft-ct tlovelopiuent of tlie malu rivif^-ing; 
element (BpermatoKoa). In the other examples the secretion may bo 
perfect in kind and amouut, bnt as copulation is prcreotcd it can not 
Tvaeh nnd iuipregnalo the ovum. 

In the mnrc barreniie^s is eqiinlly iliio to a variety of eauses. Xn a 
number of breeding studs the proportion of sterile mares lias varied 
from 20 to 40 per cent. It may be duo to: (a) Imt^erfcct development 
of the ovary and non-mnturntion of ova ; {b) eyatio or other tumors of 
the ovary ; (c) fatty dege in? ration of the ovary in very obese, pampered 
marea; (d) fatty degeneration of the excretory tubes of tlio ovaries 
(rnllopiau tubes); [e) catarrh of the n-omb, '^'itb tituco-pnrulent Uia- 
charge; (/) Irritable conditiou of the womb, with profnso eccrottoD, 
Btroining, and ejertioii of the semen; [g) nervous irritability, leading 
to the name expulsion of the male clemcut; (A) bigh condition (pktiiora) 
vitb profuse itecretlon and excitement; (i) lowcoiulition with imperfect 
maturation of tlie ovn and lack of sexual desire; (j) poor feeding, over- 
work, and chronic debilitatiag diseasea, as leading to the condition just 
named; (it) closure of the neck of the womb, temporarily by spasm, or 
l>enn»nently by inflaiamation and induration; (0 closure of the entrance 
to tlie vayiiia tlirough imperfomte hymen, a. rare tUoiigh not unknown 
oontlitioii in the mare; (iii) acquired indisposition to breed, fteen in old, 
banl worked marcs, which are first put to tlie atallion when aged; (n) 
cbangf^ of climate has repeatedly been followed by barronnesn; (o) Uy- 
bridity, wbioh in male and female alike, ueuully entails sterility. 

Tbo treatment of tbo mi\jority of tUese conditions will be found dealt 
with in other parts of this work, so that it is only necessary here to 
name tbem as causes. Some, however, must bo spcuitilly rftf<*rre<l to in 
this place. Stnliions with uudescended testicles are beyond the reach 
of medicine, and ^hoold bo castrated and devoted to other uses. Id- 
dumtctl testfclcH may KOmetimcs l»e remedied iti tlie early fltageM by 
smt-nring vitb a weak iodine ointment daily for a length of time, aud 
ftt (he same time invigoratjn^ the system by liberal feeding and judl- 
cinus work. Fatty liogeneration is best met by an albnminoid diet 
(whi'at bran, cotton-seed me:d, rape cake) and L'oustanI, well regulated 
work. Sacelmrine, starchy and fatty food (potatoes, wheat, corn, etc.) 
are to bo specially avoided. In tbo tnaro one difieased and irritable 
ovnry sbnuld be removed, to do awiiy uitb the resnlting excitability of 
tbo remainder of tUo generative organa. An irritable womb, with fre- 
quent Rtraining and the ejection of a prafnse secretion, may sonietimes 
be corrected by a restricted diet and full but well regulated work. 
Even fatigue will act beut'lit^ially in some such raaea, hvuva the practice 
of the Arab riding his mare to exhnnstion just before service. The 
perepiratiou In nncU u case, like tbo action of u purgative or the abstrac- 




tton of blood JDst before sefvioe, l>ctiefils, bj reudering ttie blowt-ve* 
Bete lCA9 full, by IcsseDioj; socrction iu the womb nutl clscwbeti>, ftnt 
tliua oouutCTiicting tli« U'lidoncy to Ibe ejevtiou iind Iukh of K(mii>ii. It 
these ineaDS nre Inuflectual a full dose of camphor (3 drams) or of r--(j- 
acin may at times assist. Low iwiidUion and iiti<pmiA demands just ibe 
oi>posito Jiuul of trcntmcnt — rich, nourishing:, nlbuuiiiioiil food, l>itta 
tonics (gi'iiliiiii), Riinsbine, gentle exercise, lilwral grooming, aiid imp- 
portiug txcatiueut gcuemlly are liere Id order. Spasmodic c1o«u«o( 
tUe nock of the womb is common end is easily remedied in the maro bj 
dilatation vitb the fiugi-rs. 

Tliu band, Btneared with belladonna ointment nnd vitli the flngen 
drawn into the form of & eouo, is Julroduce4l Ilirough the vagiua nutU 
the projecting, rounded necls of the womb is felt at its anterior eni 
This is opened by the careful insertion of ono hngor at a time until tlM 
fingers have been passed through the constricted neck into the ot>ea 
cavity of the womb. The introduction ia made with a gentle, rotary mo- 
tion, and all preuipiCato violence is avoided, as abrasion, laocmtion, or 
other canse of irritation ia likely to interfere with tho retention of tb« 
8cmeu and with Impregnation. If the ueok of the womb ia rigid and 
unyielding from tho indiirnlion which follows inflammation — a rare con- 
dition iu the mure, though commcm in tho con — more forctt will be req- 
uisite, and it may ereu be ueeilful to incise the ueck to the depth of 
one-sixth of an inch in four or more opposite directions, prior to forc- 
ible dilatation. The incision may be made with a probc-poiuted knife, 
and i^hoiild be done by a prufcKsional man if imsnible. Tlic anluofiueul 
dilatation may be best effected by the elow expansion of sponge or sea- 
weed tents inijorted into the narrow canal. In such casca it is b«it to 
let the wounds of tlip neck heal before putting to horse. An imperfo- 
rate bymen may bo freely Incised In a crucial manner untJl the passage 
will Admit the buintm hand. An ordinary kuife may be used for ibiii 
purpose, and after the ojwralion the stallion may be admitted at o nos 
or only after the wounds have healed. 


As the mere fact of sorrice by Che stallion does not insure pre^aocf, 
it is im]M)rtant that the rej>nlt sbonld lie determined, to ^ave thi> mare 
from uuneoesKary and di^ngi^rous work or medication when actually in 
foal and to obviate wasteful and needless precautions wbcu ebo ts dq^ 

The cessation and non -recurrence of the symptoms of heat (horsing; it 
a most significant tliongh not infallible sign nf conception. If the 
sexual excitement speedily subsides and the mare ]>ersistently refuaca 
the stallion for a month, she is probably pregnant. In very exceptional 
casex a mare will accept a second or thini Kervi<>e after weeks or mooiha, 
tbongh preguaut, and some mares will refuse the horse persistently, 
tbou;;h onnccptioii has not taken pla(X^, nnd this in spite of worn 
veather, gooil condition of the mare, and liber:il feeding. The recur- 


IQDC« of beat in the pregnant marc is most likely to t»I[« place in hot 
weather. IT heat merely per-sists an uriilau Ipiigtli of time after service, 
or if it re-appcars slimtlj' after, iu warm wcaUier and in a compara- 
tively idle mare, on good reeding, it js less significant, while the per* 
^atsQt abseoM of heat auder such coaditions tnajr be asoally accepted 
•« proof of conception. 

Ad unwonted eentleuess and docility od the partofa previously irrita- 
ble or vicious mare, and snperveiiing ou service, is an excellent iudica- 
t4on of pre^nancj, llie gcucrativo instinct wlticli caus«<t the excitement 
having been satisfied. 

An iuurease of fat, with softness and flabbinesM of miisete, a loss of 
energy, iudispoaition for active work, a manifestation of Inziiieaa, in- 
dee<l, and of btigue early and easily induced, when preceded by service, 
will asnally imply couoeption. 

Bnlargemetit of lUe abdomen, es|icc]ally in its lower third, with slight 
filling in Iwoeath the loins nnd hollowness of the back nro siRniflcant 
ayoiiitom^ though they may be entirely absent'. Swclliug ami Qrmuitss 
of thojndder, with the smoothing out of its wrinkles, is a saggcstive 
^gOf even though it api>ears only at intervals (luring gestation. 

A ste:uly increase in weight (1^ pounds daily) about the fonrth or 
fifth month is a osefnl indication of pregnancy. So is a swollen and red 
or binlsh-reii appeiranae of the vaginal mucous membrane. 

From the scveii Ih or eighth month ouwai-d the foal may bo felt by tha 
liand (palm or knuckles) pressed into the abdomen in front of the left 
•tide. The sudden push displaces the foid townnl the opposite side of 
the womb, and as it Ooats back its hard body is felt to strike against 
the hand. If the pressure is maintained the movements of the li^'e foat 
are feU, and espeeiully in the morning nnd after a drink of cold water, 
or daring feeding. A drink of cold witter will often stimulate the fa-tas 
to movements that may be seen by the eye, but mi excess of iced water 
may prove injurious, even to the causing of abortion. Cold water 
i]a«fae«l on the belty has a similar effect ou the foctns and equally ea. 
dangers abortion. 

ExamioAtiou of the ntems with the oiled hand iiitrodnced into tbo 
rectum It still more satisfactory, and if caatioosly conducted no mora 
dangerous. The rectum must be Urst emptied iind then llie Imnd car- 
rinl fcirwani until it reaches the front edge of the pelvic bones below, 
■ad pressed dowuwanl to ascertain the siiso and outline of the womb. 
Iu the unimpregoaled state the vagina and womb can bo felt as a sin- 
gle roniiileO tube, dividing in front to two smiiller tubes (the bonis of 
tbtt womb). In the pregnant mare not only the body of the womb is 
-ged, but still more so one of the honi.t (right or left'), and on com* 
on the latter is found to contain a bard, uoUular body, lloatiug In 
id, whii^h in the latter half of gestation may be stimulated bygen- 
tU preasnre to manifest s|x)nt»neous movements. By this method the 
luoo of the feotus may be determined as early as the third month. 


Tf tlie complete ncitural outlino oF tliu rlrgia wotab can not' 
out, careHil exaininatioii elioiiUl nlxrajK be mnde on the n'gbt and left 
6tiU\ Tor thu (^nlnrgdl liorii uiid iU livltis ooutouts. Bliould Uit^ir. stillj 
be diQlcalty tbe marc slionld bd placed on An iDclincd plan^ mtb be 
hiiKl iMirte lowest, and two nssistauts, standing on opposite sides of tin 
body, should raise tbe lower part of tlie a\nlop.ien by a sheet 
beneath it. Finally tbo car or Btetboscope applied od tbe wall of tist 
abdomen in front of the stifle may detect tb« beating of the fcetal lif 
(one buudred and twenty-Qvc per minute) and h blowing sound (tl 
Dtcrino songh}, tniicb less r»pid and corresponding to tlie nnml^eri 
tbe pnlso of the dam. It is heard most satisfactorily after the sixth ' 
eighth montli aud ia tho absence of active rumbling of tbe botreld < 
tlie dnm. 


Mares usually ^ about eleven months with young, though flret pr 
nancies often Inst n year. Foals have lived when born at tho tht 
bundrvdth day, so with olherM carried till the four Imndredtli day^ 
With the longer pregnancies there is a greater probability of male off* ' 



The pregnant mare should not bo exposed to tOJisins by a yoonj; and 
ardent stallion, uor should she be overworked or fatigued, particularly 
under the saddle or on oneveo ground. Yet exercise is beneficial to 
both mother and ofTripring, and in the absenco of moderate work Ibe 
breeding mure uliotdd be kept in a lot where she can tube exorcise ftt 

Tho food should bo liberal, but not fattening, oatJ», bran, sound hay, 
and other foods rich in tbe principles which form ticsh and bone being 
especially Indicated, All aliments that tend to indigestion aro to be 
especially avoided. Thus rank, aqueous, rapidly grown grass and other— 
green fixid, partially ripe rye grass, millet^ TTDngarian grass, vetches^ 
iwase, beans, or maize aro objectionablCt as is over-ripe fibrous, innn-" 
tritious bay, or that which has been injured and rendered musty by 
vot, or that which isinfested with smut or ergot. Food that tends to cos- 
tivenes.s should be avoided. Water givrn often, and at a tcmprraluro 
considerably above freezing, will avoid thcdaugcrsof indigestions und, 
abortions which result fbom taking too much Ice-cold water at one ttmi 
Very cohl or frozen food is objectionnble in tho same sense. Severe' 
surgical operations aud medicines that act violently on the womb, bow* 
els, or kidneys aro tobearoided nsbeinglinble to canse abortion. Co[ 
stipntion should bo corrected, if possible, by bran uasbeSf carrots, oi 
beetK, seconded by cxcereise, and if a meilicinal laxative is required IE 
should be olive oil or other equally bland agent. 

Tlie Htall of the pregnant mart; should not be too narrow so na to 
cramp her when lying down, or to entail violent oftbrts in getting ai>| 

nd N 

lW« M 


mnd it slioald not stopo too macli from ilie froot bsdEwardf as this 
Uironrs tbo freight ottho atenu back od the petvb and eadaofers ivo- 
tni^ioiis iiud evGu abartton. Viulcat tnfntal impttestous are to be 
avoiiU-d, (ot tbou^b tbc majority of m.ircs are not affected rlierebj, yet a 
eertaiu uamber an; so pnifoundlf impreisail tbat peeoliarities aad dta- 
tortions aro eutailed ou tUe oCspriug. Hence, tbere Is irlsdom dtova in 
b»al»blne parti colored or olijectionabl; tiate<I anitttals, and Ui06e that 
idi<>w deformities or faulty (wnforinaUon. Hcace, too, tbc importaQce 
of prerenlinjf proloDged ncnto saffering by tUc prpgnant mare, as wr 
talD troubles of the eyes, ft-ct, and joiuu iu the foals hare been clearly- 
traced to tbt^ cuuL-ciitratioQ of tbe motbec's mind on correspom^ing 
injured orgaus iu herself. Siro nod dam ahkc tc-od to reproduce Uieir 
personal defects wbivh prcdisposD to disease, bat the dam is far more 
likely to perpetoato the evil in her progeny which was cirrie^l while 
sbc was per.4anally eaduring severe suflTcriug caused by such defects. 
liencc, an aetirc bone spavin or ring-bone, causing lameness, is more ob- 
onabie than thai in which the Jiifiammntion and lameneos have both 
dj and an nctire oplitliulinia is more to be feared than even an obi 
cataract For this reason all active diseases in the breeding mare 
old be soothed and abated at as early a momeRt as possible. 


t is rare in the domestic Hiiimal» to find the Aetus developed else- 
where tbau in tbo womb. Tiie exceptional forms are thwjo in which 
the speru) of tlie male, making its way tlirough the womb and Fallopian 
tabes, impregnates the ovum prior to its esciipi-, and in which the now 
vitalised and growiu}: ovum, by reason of its gradually increajjiiig nize, 
becomes iniprisonett and fails to cscajw iuto the womb. The arrest of 
the ovum may be iu the sabstance of the ovary itself {ovarian preg- 
nancy), iu Ibo Fallopian tube (tubal pregnancy), or when by its coutiu- 
QODS eolargemeot it has ruptured its envelopes so that it escapes into' 
tbe cavity of the nbflomon, it may become attached to any part of tbo 
■eirous membrnue and draw its nourishment directly from that (abdoai- 
inal pregnancy). Iu all such cases there is an increase and enlarge- 
mcut oftbv ea]iillar3- blooJ-vpssels at the point to wliicb tbo cmbrjo 
has attached itsclfso as to furnish the needful nutriment for tbe grow- 
ing oOTitpnug. 

All appreciable symptoms are absent, unless from tbe death of 
Uio foitns, or its inlerferenco with normal functioris, general disonler 
and intlicatioQSOf parturition supervene. If these occur Inter than the 
natuml tlmu fur |}arturitiuu tbey are the more Hjgnillcaiit There may 
be genera) malaise, toss of appetite, elevated icmperatnre, acceleraterl 
palse, with or witbouL dtsUuct lubor paias. Examination with tbe 
oiled band in tbe rectum will reveal the wonibof tbc natural iinlm- 
pregnalcxl sixe an*! shape and with twih nurns of one Rise. Kurthi'r 
eiptoraliou may detect an clasiju mass uf lart from Ute vioiuXk iluA \n V\tfv 

interior of vlitch may be foH tlio characteristic solid body of tbe tetaa. 
If tite latter js sfiil alive and van bit stiiniilntcd to move the evideuce 
is even more piarfecl. Tbe f<Jl^tus may ilic nud bo carried for years, its 
sofb stracturus becoming absorbed so as to leave ouly tbe bouea, or by 
prc<siirc it may form a Qdtuloas oi)cuing tbrough ilie abdomtoal vralta, 
or IvHJ I'requeotlj' ttii-ougli tho vngina or rt-ctum. In the Iiittcr oases tlM 
best course is to favor tlin Qximkiion of tbe foat and to wanh out tbe re> 
suiting cavity with i\ solution of carbolic acid 1 part to water 50 parts. 
Thia may bo repeated daily. Whcro tlicrc is no spontaaeous opening 
it is injudtcons to iutcrfere, as tbo dauger from the retention of the 
fo&tus i.s less than 1h»t from Noptic fermeutations in the enormous fmtol 
sack when that has been opened to the air. 


These arc evidently prodacts of conception, in which tbo impregnated 
oviun haif fnile^I to develop naturally, aud presents only a ehautic masa 
of skin, hair, bones, muscles, etc., attached to the inner snrfac« of the 
wonil) by an umbilical cord, which in itself often abriveJed and wasteil. 
Thuy are usually accompauicd by a well-developed fcetos, so that thu 
mole may be looked ujton as a twin which has uudergouo arrest aud 
vitiation of development. They are expelled by tbe ordinary process 
of iiarlurittou, and u^iually, at tbe eamc time, witli the Qormally devel* 
oped offspring. 


This condition nppears to be due to bypertropliy (enliirgement) of 
tbo villi ou the iuuer surface of tbo womb, which become greatly in- 
creased in number and hollowed out internally into a series of cysts or 
pouches containing liipiid. Unlike tho true luolc, lUercfore, they appear 
to be disoaKc of tbo maternal struuturu of the wuiub ratbej- than uf the 
product of cx)nception. Kodet, in a case of this bind, which had pro- 
duced active labor ]tainti, quieted tho disorder with aiiodyncH and securt^d 
a recovery. Where tbia is not available attempts may be made to re- 
move the masfi with tbe eorutieuror olbertvise, fullowiug this up wilb 
auLiscptic ii^jecUons, as advised auder tbe last beadiug. 


This appcnrit aa a result of liomo dittcikso of the walls of tho womb, 
tut has been Ireinently observed after eesual congress, and has, there- 
fore, beou confounded witb pregnancy. Tbo symptoms are those of 
pregnancy, but without any movements of the i'oitas and without the 
detection of auy solid body tu the womb when o^camiued with tbe oiled 
band til the rectutu. At the end of lour or eight months there are 
signs of parturition or of frequent strniuing to pass urine, and after a 
time the liquid is discharged clear aud watery, or muddy, thick, and 
fetid. Tbo Laud introduced into tbe womb cau detect ucitber fLctiu 

. 151 

nor faptal tnembranc. If tlio neck of tlic iroinb closes llic liqiiiil may 
uccumtilate h second time, or even a Ibiril, if uo means are taken to 
correct tlie tendcQcy. Tbe best resort Is to remove any diseased product 
tliat may be fotiud attuctied to the walU of tliti wotub, and to inject it 
daily viith a wann solutioo of carbolic acid 2 drams, chloride of ziuo 
oDe lialf dram, waU'r, I qnait, A coursp of bitter touica, (jeuUim 3 
diams, sniplinte of iron 2 drama, daily, sbonid bo given, and a nutri- 
tions, «>a;«ily digested aud alightly laxative diet allowed. 


Tbia dilTcrs from fiiniplc dropsy of tUe ^roIub iu that tbe lliiid collecta { 
in Ibe fuuor of the tiro n'utcr bags (tbat in nliicli the foal iloats) aod 
oot in Uio otberwiHe void cavity of tlie womb. Thin uUection oau cio- 
cur only hi the prcgaaut animal, white dropsy of the wowli occurs in 
the uninipregnated. Tlie blood of tbo pregnant maro contains an ex- 
cess of water and a emallor proportion of nibuuicn and red globules, aud 
when this is still farther aggravated by ]>oor feetling, iind other unhy. 
gieoic couililioits, there is developed the tuadency to liquid transuda* 
tion from the vessels aud dropsy. As tlie watery condition of the blood 
increases with advauciuf; prcgaaocy, so dropsy of tbo amnios is a dis- 
ease of the last four or five months of gestation, 'flia abdomen is targe 
and )tendulo!is, and the swelling tluctiiatcii uiRler pre^.'siire, though tbe 
eoltil bmlyof the fnrtiis c-an still be felt to strike against tho hand 
pressed into tho Bwollinfr. If the tifttid is introduced into the vai^iua 
the womb ia found to lie tense ajid round, wHb the prtyecling nmndwl 
ueck effaced, while tho hand ia the rectum will detect tbe rounded 
swollen mans of tho womb so firm and tense that the body of tlie fu?!tn8 
can not be felt within it. The maro movoa weakly and unsteadily ou its 
Umbs, having diQicuIty iu Hujiportiug the great weight, and ia bad 
cases there may be Iosn of appetite, stocking (dropsy) of the bind limbs, 
difllcuUbreathing, aud uolicky pains. The tension may lead to abortion, 
or a slow, laborious parturition may occur at the usual time. 

Treatiuent consists ^ relieving the tension aud aecumulatiou by 
puncturing tbefo-tal tnembraue with a cnnuula and trocbar introduced 
tbroQgb the neck of tho wouib aud tho withdrawal of tbe trocbar so as 
to leave the canula ia titu. Or tbe uienibraTics may be punctured with 
the fiugfr and Ibc excess of liquid ullovrctl to escape. Tbiii may bring 
on ubortion, or the wonnd may close aud gestation continue to tbo fall 
term. A coarse of tonics (gentian root 2 drama, sulphate of iron 2 
drams, daily) will do much to fortify the system aud couuteract further 
excessive eHusiou. 


The diHiM>]tttion to dropsy often shows itself ia the hind and even in 
in the fore limbs, armind and beneath the vulva (purinu'iiui) and bu- 
auUi tbe abdomen aud chest. The affected parts are swolleu and pit 

on piTssiire, tint nrA not cnppctniiy ipmier, nnii Aawniie moroorI«». 
perfectl.v uiiOcr exercise, linud rubbing, and bnuiia^es. lu obstiiiat- 
cuseo rubbing iritb tbe folloiriDs llDimcot tuny be rceorlMlo: Coo-' 
poniul tincture of iodiuc, 3 ounces; tnniiie aci<J, oiic-bnlfdnttu; wutery. 
10 ouiice.%. It does not ]:i$t over n day or two ufter partaritioa. 


Tbo prossaro of tbc disteniled womb ou tbc nerrcs nod blood-rcssel 
of tbc iiolvttf, besidoK coiidiieiiig to droi>sy, occasionally cauwa craiDp^ 
of tbc bind limbs. Tbo limb is raised witboiit Rexiug tbe joiutS) lk0 
front of tbe boor being ilirccted towiird tbe ground, or tbe HpaHois 00- 
curring intermittently tbo foot Js kicked violently against tbe groand 
stA'eral times in rapid siieces-sion. Tbe ninscles arc felt to be firm mid 
rigid. TUc ciauips may be promgdly relieved by active nibbing, or by 
"n-alUlng the nnlmal about, and it does not r«appear after parturition. 


Tills mny result from compression by tbe gravid ^omb, and is best 
corrected by a graduated allowaDco of boiled flaxseed. 


Tbe prcssnre on tbo nerve.s of tbo pelvis is liable to cause paralyfli" 
of tbc bind limbs, or in tbo mare of tbe nerve of sigbt. Tbeae arc ob- 
stinato until after parturition, wben tlioy recover spontaneously, or 
under a course of nux vomica and (locnlly) stimulating linimenU. 


Tq tbe ninro, tbongb far loss frequently Ibaa in tho cow, parturitioa 
may iiot Iw completcil at term, and tbc foal may continue to be carried 
in tbe womb for a number of montbs, to tbe serious, or even fatal in- 
jury of tbe ninre. Ilamou rcconis ooo case in nbtcb tbo mare died 
after carrying tbc fiPtas for seventeen montbs, and Oaillier a similar re- 
sult after it bad been carried In'onty-tiro inoutbs. In these cases tbe 
foDtua retained its uatnrnl form, bat in one reported by Oobicr, tlie 
Iwnes only wore left in tbo womb amid a mass of apparently pnriilenl 

Tbo ca»iic iiiny be any effeotlve obstrnction to tbe act of parturition, 
SQcb as lack of contractile power in tbo womb, unduly strong (indaai- 
matory) :ii| ben ions between tbe womb and tbe fiHtal membranes, wrong 
presentation of tbe Itetus, contracted i>elvis (from fracture, or disvast! 
of tbo bones), or disease and induration of the neck of Uie womb.' 

Tlic mere prolongation of gestation docs not necessarily entail tbo 
death of tbe fual, benue tbe latter h-.vA lieeu bom alive at tbe four bun- 
drcdtli day. Even wbeu tbo foal has perisbe<t, pntrefactiou docs not 
eet ill unless tbo mcuibrancs (water bags) have been ruptured, and 8cp> 


tie bactorin liavo b(!eii admitted to tbo iut«rior or the womb. In the 
latter case a fetid Uccompusitiou .adraiiccs nii>]d).v, nnd tlic maro iiau- 
nlly p«rt8hc» ftom poisoning xritli tlic pntrid ni.'ittcrs nT»sorbcd. 

At tbv natural period of itart uritloii prp[>aratioiiii are appure nlly made 
for lliat act. Tlio Tnlrn swells and disclmrges mncli nmcfls, ilie udder 
L'DlArscs, the belly bcoomos more peudant, uad tbo nninial striiins moro 
or less. No progniss is made, botrever; tbero is not oven opening of 
tlio neck of tbo womb, and after a time tbo (tymptouis Rubsidu. The 
marc usnnlly rcfiise-s tin; nmU-, yet (Iicre an; i-xct'iitiotis fo tbis rule. If 
the neck of tlio vornb has been opened and putrcfyini; cbau;;cs bare 
net in in its contents, the maro loses appelito and condition, pines, dis- 
eharge* an olTensive matter fi-oin tbo gpuprati™ passages, and dies of 
iiiflammalion of tbe womb mul putrid iiifr^tion. In other there is 
n kIoiv wearing out of tbe streugtb aiid the maro linally dies of esbaus' 


The treatment is sncb as will fneiliiatethe ('ipulsioiiof tiie fo»tn.sniid 
its nicmbranoj*, and tbe subsccjuent washing out of the womb with dis- 
iufei:tauts. Bo loiignslhonioutlt of the womb is closed, time should be 
allowed for its natural dilatation, but if tin's does noteomo about after a 
day or two of Ktraining tin? open in g may be Kiiu-ared with exiraet of iwlla- 
donna, and the oiled hand, with the fingers and tliuiiib drawn into the 
form bfa cone, may bo inserted by slow ogctillatine movements into the 
iaterior of tbe womb. The water bagn may now be mptiired, any mal- 
p; Mtentalion rectified [KWDillkultrarttiriUon*'), and deli very effected. 
After remoral of tbo meiobraues wash out the wonib first wltb tepid 
water, niid then with a aobitiou of 2 ounces of borax in half a gallon of 

Thfs injection may have to bo repeated if n discharge sets in. Tlje 
Sirao course may be pursued even after prolonged rctenliou. If tbe 
partK of tbo firtim have been absorbed and the bones only left these 
it be carefully sought for and removed, and subscqaeut daily iujec- 
tions will bereqnircd for some time. In sucU cases, too, n coarse of iron 
tonics (Mulpbatu of iron, 2 drams daily), will bo higbly bcneBcial lu re- 
sturiug beallh and vigor. 


Abortion is, strictly speaking, the expulsion of the impregnated ovum 
at any jietiod from the date of impreguation until the foal can survive 
out of tbe womb. If tbe foal ia advanced enough to live it ia premature 
parturition, and iu the more this may occur aa early as tlio tenth month 
{three hundredth day). 

The luare may abort by reason of almost any cause that very pro- 
foiindty disturb'^ tlie system. Ueuce very violent luflamuiatious ofim* 
liurtanl internal organs (bowels, bidncys, blaildfx, InngK,) may inibtcn 
abortion. Profuse diarrhea, whether occurring from the reckless uko 
of purgatives, the consumption of irritanis Iu tbe fond, or a simple in- 
digestion ia an effeeli\'o cause. Xo less so is acute indigestion witk 

. sirai 


evolution of gas in llio intostiiies (blunting). Tlie iircKnuw of Hlonc la 
tlio kiilnHy.K, uivtur^, bladder, or nretlira may induce eo nitieii sytojia- 
tlietiu diBonter in tlio u omh as tii imluru tvlturtiiiii. In cscoiitiutial i:usc8 
Trlicruia luarcB como iu licat duriug gestation service by tlio stallion 
may c;iHso abortion. Blowg or pressure ou tlie aluIoineD, nipid driviaf 
or riding of the iireguaut mare, esi>*rially if she is soft and out of c^q- 
ditiou from idliincas; tbo brutal uso of tkeepur ur wlilp, and thojoMing' 
und.stniiuirigof travel by rail or boat are prolific causes. Bleedi)i|rtli« 
prt'guaut maw, a painful surgical oporation, and the tbrowjug and t-on- 
Btraiat resorted to for an operation are otlier cause*. Traveliuji on 
beavy, muddy roads, slli>s and falls on ice, and jumpjug uiuitl bo lidded. 
Tlie stimulatioii of the abtlominal organs by a full drink of iced water 
may procipitato a miscarriage, us may etposare to a cold rain-siorm or 
a very cold iiigbt after a warm daj'. Irritant, poisons that act on the 
urinary or generative organs, sncb as Spanish fliea, me, savin, tansy, 
cotton-root bark, crpot of ryo or otbcr grasses, tlio smut of maize aiid 
otbcr grain, and varicuis fungi in musty fodder uro additional caUMS. 
Frosted food, Indigestible fooil, and above all greeu succnlent vegetable* 
iuafrozenwtat^bave proved effective factors, and filthy, stagnant water 
is dangerous. Low condition iu the diuii and plethora have in opposite 
v.nys caused abortion, and hot relaxing stables and lack of eserciao 
strongly condnce to it. The exhaustion of the sire liy too frequent 'serv- 
icf, entailing debility of the oflsjjriug and disease of the fu-tus or of 
its envelopes, must be recognized as a further cause. 

The symptoms varj* mainly according as the abortion is early or late 
in pregnancy. In the first month or two of pregnancy the mare may 
misfiirry without observable syiiiptoms, and the fiwit only appcirs by 
her coming in licat. If more closely observed a small clot of bluod may 
be foaud behind her, in which a careful search roveaU the ruditueuta 
of the foal. If the occurrence is soniewhat later in gestation there will 
be Bume general disturbance, iuappeleuce^ neighing, and straining, and 
the email body of the fietus is cvpelled, enveloped in its membraoee. 
Abortions during tbe later stages of pregnancy are attended with 
greater roastltutionnl disturbiiuce, and tbe process resenibliut iiormiil 
parturition, wllb the agfrravation that more eRVjrt and straining is req- 
uisite to force the foBtus through the oomparatively nudJlatable mouth 
of the womb. Tliere is the swelling of tbe vulra, with mucus or even 
bloody discharge; the abdomen droops, the fianks fall in, the udder fills, 
the mare looks at her Hanks, paws with the fore feet and kicks with 
the hind, switches tbe tail, moves around uneasily, lies down and rises, 
strains, and, as in nntumi foaling, expels first mncus aud blood, then 
the waterM, and Qnally tbe fuitiis. This may ocumpy an hour or two, or 
ft may bo prolonged for a day or more, the symptoms subsiding for a 
time, only to reappear with renewed energy. If thei-e is malpri'st-nta- 
tiouof the fuctus it will binder progress until rectified, as m ditlicult 



fVBrtnritioD. Aburtioa may also be foUon«tl by Uie sumu aecideutS} as 
tlonitliug, retenUoD of the placenta, aud lencorrbcaa. 

The most important object in an impciuling iibnrtian i.H to n^co^iizo 
it at as I'nrly a 6^t»fc'C as possible, so that it may, if possible, be cut short 
and prerciited. Any general iodenuable illness iu u prcgoaut raara 
should lend to a closo oxamination of the rnlva ns regxtrds swelling, 
vascularity of i(s oiucouh tncinbntnc, and profuso mucous sccratiou, and 
above all auy streak or stniningof blo«d; also the coiiditiou of the ud- 
der, if that is congested and sivoUcd. Any sucb indication, with colicky 
painx, straining, however little, and active movement of the fuitua or 
entire abscuco of inoremeut, arc saggestive symptoms aiid should be 
duly coauteracted. 

The changes in the vulva and nddcr, vrith a soilcil and bloody condi- 
tion ofthe tail, ntay sug^^est uu abortion ah'eady accomplished, atid the 
examination with tlit? band in the vagina may detect the month of Itio 
vombsoft and dilatablo, and the interior of the organ sUtfbtly filled with 
n bloody liqnid. 

Trealmmt should be preventive if possible, and wonld embrace the 
avoidaaoe of all canscs mentioned, and particnliirly of suchns muy seeui 
to be particntarly operative in the particular case. Where abortions 
have already occurred in a stud, the especial cause, iu the matter of food, 
water, exposure to injiiriw, overivorl;, lack of exercise, etc., may often 
be idcntiHul and removed. A most important point is to avoid all 
MOMS of oouBtipation, diarrhea^ Iitdigestion, bloating, violent purga- 
tives, diuretics or other potent medictucS] painful operations, and slip- 
pery roads, unless well frasttHt. 

When abortion is imminent the mare should bo placed alone lo a 
roomy,dark,qnietKtall, and ha%'e the straining checked by some sedative. 
Lnudnonm is usually at hnnd and may be given in doses of 1 or ^ ounces, 
according to size, and relocated after two or three botirs, and even dally 
if neces!t»ry. Chloroform orchomthydrate,3drnm8, may 1>csnbstituteil 
if more convenient. These should be given in a pint or quurt of water, 
toavoid barning the mouth and throat. Or viburnum pranifolium, 1 
ounce, may be given and re])eatc<l if ucooasary to prevent atrainlug. 

When all measures fail and miscarriage proceeds, nil tbatcanhedone 
it to ii-tsist in the removal of thufrftnsitnd il.t memlinHies, as in ordinary 
parturition. As in the case of retention of the fa-Cus, it may bo neces- 
sary after delivery to employ antiseptic it^ectiona into the womb to 
counteract putrid fermoiitAtion. Tliis, however, is less requisite in the 
maruthan in the con-, in which the pnn-ak-nt c<intngiou8 alnirlion naisfe 
be counteracted by the persistent local use of antiseptics. After abor- 
acarefnl hygiene is demanded, cffpccially in the matter of pure nip 
CAsily digestible fooil. The mare Klumld not be Kt>rved again for a 
month or longer, and in no case until after all drscbarge from the vulva 



Ae tho |)crlo<l of |)arLiiritioa npproaclies tlic swelijog of tbp nddcf 
bespunks tUe coming eveut, tbe eugorgcnient in oxc(>|)iioDal ca»«se^'' 
teuilliiy foro-anl oii the lower surftico of (La iibilom«ii and eveu intoiU* 
bind liiuba. Fur ubuut a vri;ek a serous fluid oozes frou tie Uac aV** 
coucretes as a yellow, was-liUe mass around its orifice. AVioot tweniy 
four hours before tlic birth tliis gires place to » wtiltisli, milky liqoicS* 
wtiidi falls uiHiii iind mats tlio biiirs on tbe iuucr bides of tbe legts- 
Aiiotbcr syiaploiu is culargemeut of tbo vulva, witb reduess of ite Ha— 
tag membraQC, aud tbo escape of glairy uacus. Tb« belly droops, tli^ 
fianks fall iu, and tbo loius may even become depressed. Finally Iti^ 
maro iR'comes uucasy, stops feediug, looks anxious, nbisks lipr tail, and. 
may lie down and me again. la many marcs tbis is not repeated, but- 
tbe maro reni;iin8 down ; violcut contractions of tbe abdominal rautscles 
ensuej after two or three pains tbo water-bags appear aod bnrst, fol- 
lowed by the fore feel of the foa^ witb the iioae between tbo knurs, aod 
by a fun- more tbrues llio fa-tua is expelled. Iu other cases tbe act is 
acoompbshed standing. The vbole act may not occupy more than Qro 
or ten laiuutes. This, together witb the dtsposiiiou of the uiare to avoid 
obscrvaliou, renders the act one that is rarely seen by tbe attcadauts. 

Tbo Davcl-stt-iDg, wbicb coDuects tbo foal to tbe membranes, is rnpt- 
tired when the fwtus falls to the ground, or wht^n the mare rises, if 
she has beeu dowu, and tbe uieiubranes are expelled a few mioulea 


When there Is a single foal tbe common and desirable prcsental 
Is vritb tbe foro feet first, the nose between the kuccs, and witb tbe 
Axintof the boofs and knees and tbo forcbcad dircctctl upwanl toward 
tbe nnus, tail, and crunp (I'latu IX., tig. 1). Iu this rray the uataral i 
curvature of tbe body of tbe ftetua corresponds to the curve of tliA fl 
womb and genital i>assages, and particitlarly of tbo bony itelris, and 
the foal passes with much greater ease than if it were plac«d wiib its 
back downward toward the udder. When there isatnio birth lbs 
second foal usually comes witb its bind feet first, and the backs of tho 
legs, the points of tbe bocks, and the tail and cronparo turned opward 
toward the anus aud tail of tbe mare (riato IX, fig. '2). Iu ibis way, 
eren with a. posterior presentation, tbe curvature of tho body of tbe 
foal still corresiioud!! to that of tbe passages, and its expnlsioa may 
bo (luitc ns easy as in anterior presentation. Any pn-sentatloD aside 
from these two may bo said to bo abaormal and vrill be coil8id< 
under '•Difiioult Parturition." 


ulea I 



With natural presentation this is a rare occurrcncei. Tbe gnat 
length of tbe fore lioilis and face entail, in tbe uuterior prescntattoti, 
tbe formation of a luug cone, wbicb dilates and glides through tbe 



^t^mtf* with camimtmtiTt tamt. Em vith tW Ua4 feK im a i 
kr «aiiie»l fonn is p c w eat wi , ■«> t^ pt i— a »e«i hi» J M17 and 
qoM. DifflcoUy Mddjayermriwata^yfroMlWita fcri^f t«oa^ 
Hpninatuivlj bdbcB the paaaagn are ssBcifaUr iBlifaJ, ftiHa aww 
tv«ias of (liti pdrie booea or «tber nc^aatcsU obttnetiM in Uw 
pinwgM. (kwB ■oostzvoa d ia toc ti e— or daptieasiaBa in ibe ftptos, or 
Ihrn tlM taniiDg back oCoaa of the aeabcn aotkat tbe doocated 
fmka\ vr wt^ge-abaped oat) toe ia dane avay vith. Bat pranpt aa is 
tike BOHDal partorituui ia the mare, dtfiealt aad AfUjtd partnritJeaa 
in mrMDd«<l by »pcdal <laogp» and reqnin aoosual prvcaattons asd 
•hU Front the proclirit^ of tbe laate lo anbcattby ialUmautioDS of ' 
tie ^ritODeum and other atftkKaiaal o^aoSf penetratiag roaods of tli« 
wmbor vastna are lUUe to prora &taL Tli« oontractioDS of tbe 
«o«b uil abdominal walls are so povcrfitl aa to cxbaast and iK-namb 
llie am of tbe osststaat, and to ^ulanger penetratiDg voonds of tbe 
gtnitil iir^ns. By reasoa of tbe looeer oooonrtioo of tbe ftsul meu- 
Wa&M vitb the wombf aa eoeiparad wiOk tbocoof ntininanta, the rioleiit 
Uiroes uuty d<tacti thew mambraoea tbrooghoat their vholo ext«at, 
aod llta foul, being tfaos 8e[iaratcd from tbe moiber aud tbrotrn on its 
*»ii rcaouraes, dies at an e^rly »tapo of any protracted parturitioo. 
IVfiul rarely sanriTcs four butu^s After lbooD«ct of parttirirtit throes. 
Prca tli« grcAC teoEtb of the limbs and nee:: of the foal it is«x- 
tiUDct^-tlidlcnlt to aecure and briag ap limb or bead which has bew 
tuwdback xthen it sbuuld have Xtevu i>re80uted. Wlicn OAsistaiioe 
"BM bo rvodercd tbe operator sbotikl don n thick voolcu uutlembirt 
Tiib tbe sI<«veR cot oat nt tbe ehoaldcrs. ThJA protvi'ts thp liotly aiiJ 
Icares the wholp arm free for mniiipulation. Beloro insortiDR the iirin 
itthoold be smeared vllb lard. TbU protects tbe skin a^ost septic 
bfrctiao, and favors tbe intrmlaction of the hami and nrm. The bund 
tbofHd be insertt-d irith the thumb and Qi);:crs druwii tocother like a 
ont. miclht-r stafulioy or lying the maptj ehoiild be tiirnwl Willi heiid 
^tra liill and hiud parts raised us much as possible'. The i-oiiti'iits of 
tite Abilumen gravitating forward leave much more room for tnaoipula* 
tivtt. AVhatcver jmit of the foul is presented (hoinl, fimt> Rhoiihl bn bo- 
pan?'! iTith n cord aini mntiiiig noose before it i.t pii,sh«(l buck to starch 
fur tbe other misaiog parts. Even if a mf&slug part is rcnvhod no at- 
tempt ithoiihl be mndetoliring it up during; ti labor pnin. Pinching 
tlir XsM'k uill somctimc-ScUtH^k lUd piuiis and alliiw tbe operator lose- 
core BQcl bring op the misding member. In iutrnctabto cascA a larKo 
doseorcblornl hydrate (1 ounvo in a qnart: ofwiiter) nr the inhitlntioil 
of cblorororni and air (equal proportions) to tuaonsibillty may sKciiro a 
respite, dnrlns vrhich the miastng members mny bo reiihtctHt. IT tlio 
tccurt bavo been discbnrgcd aod the mucns driol up, the goiiltnl piui- 
8a£t*s and iHuly of tlie/i»lit4 sbimld belabrii^itcd with hml oroU boforo 
anj" attempt nt extraction is m;idi*. When ibe missing nit-mb"" itta 
been brought ap into iiositiou, aud presuutnliou htuj beuu rvn<XiQK 

nral, trsctioQ on tbe foD tns tnnst be mode otil.v <iurin(; ci Inbor poin. It 
n lunre is inclined to liick, it mny Uu Dwessary lo ajijil^- bubbles to (no* 
ttet Uie operator. 


Theso may bo brought ou by any violent exertion, am under tho 
saddlf, or in heavy dnmgUl, or in rapid paces, or in Iravel by rail or*] 
Be«, blows, kicksf crashing by other animals in a doonrny or gate. 
Excefisivo action of purgative or diuretic agents, or of agenta Uiatu^ 
ritjite the bnweitt or kidnfys, like arat^uio, Parts grepu, all canstic salts 
,and acidn, and acrid and oarcotico- acrid vegetables, is equally in- 
jurious. Finally, ttie ingestion of agents that Btitnnlatn theactimi of 
tliegniTid womb [ergot ofr^-e or of other griUAce,eDiDt,vaTioiiBfDDgi of 
fodder*, rue, «nvio, cotton-root, etc.) may bring on labor pains pr»- 

Besides the knowledge that pflrtarition is not yet due, tliero will be 
less I'ulargi'iueut, rcdncas and e\Yelliiig of the vulva, It-sa muL-ona dia- 
clinrge, le.SH tilling of theudiler, audleiisappearancc-Huf wax inid proba- 
bly none of milk ttom the ends of the teat«. The oiled band introduced 
into tbe vulva will not enter with tho ense UKnal at full term, and tlie 
neck of tho womb will bo felt not only closed, but with ibi projecting 
pnpillie, through wUicb it is iierfomted, not yet tliittened down and 
effaced, as at full term. Tho Eyiuptonis are Indeed those of threatened 
abortion, but at snob nn ndvaiicetl stage of gestation as is compatible 
with the Burvival of the ndspnug. 

The treatment consists in tbe separation of tbe mare firom all otber 
anluiala in a quiet, dark, secluded place, and the free use ofanti-apas- 
modicj and anoilyiies. Opinm in dram doses every two hours, or 
landanuiu iu ouiicv dixsi-s at rtiniiliir intcrvfiln, will oltcn suflicv. When 
tbe more urgent symptoms have subsided these doses may be repeated 
thrice a day till all cxcitenitut pusju's oft or uutU the passages have 
become relaxed and prepared for parturition. Viburnum pranifuUom, 
iu ounce doses, may Uc addcil if necessary. Should pHrtnrition become 
iuevitabic, it may be favored and any necessary assistance riimisbcd. 


A dlsprojMirtioD betweou tbe fottus got by a large stnlliou and tho 
pelvlsofn small dam Is a serious obstacle to partarition, sometimes 
seen in tim mure. Thiu is not the rule, however, as Ibo foal up to 
birth usually acoommodaten itself to the size of tbe dam, ax illustrated 
in the successf^il crossing of Percherou stallions on mustang marM>^ 
If tbo disproportion is too great the only resort ia emlrt/ol^my, 


More oommouty the obstruction ootncs from distortion nnd narrow* 
ing of tbe pelvis as the n*«ulL of IVacturcs. (I'liiteji XIV, Fig. 2.) 
Fractures at any point of the lateral iratl or floor of the pelvis are r^ 



paired will) llie rtirtn»tiotiafanrxti:iiavt>lK>iiy tU-potiit bul^iDg into tii« 

pMnge of tbe pelvis. Tfae displacetneut of tiie eaiis of tbc brukeii hooo 

il UKtUicr canceuf oountrictiuD am) betviHru tlie two coutlitioDs Uio 

fUMgeof tfae fcBttu mitjrbe reiidpred impiKLsible nithoiit embtyotomy. 

Pradute of the sacmm (ItiRCvutiDuatiuu of lUc buck buue formiiig ihb 

tn«|i} loads to tb« depressioo of tlie posterior part of tbat boot! in tbft 

looTortbc p«liri» anil Uie oarmn'iag of tbe pnsiuigo rroiu aboro doiva. 

waiJ by a bony ridge pre.senting its uliarp »^lge forwiml. 

Id Pleases in 'wliicli tlu-ru 1ms hren injury to the bones of tbu p<rlvis 
th«ot>maii prccMitioii is to iriUihotd tbe mare from brecdiog aud to 
ue lier fur wurk only. 

Ifftnare vith a p^via thtu narrowed bas got in foal iDadrerbeiitl^, 
ihftloa m»y Ik indaccd in tbo early moaibtt of eefttatjoa by slovly 
tntitdndag tbc oUed finder tbroagb tbe Deck of tbe womb and ioUovr- 
IdfftlifBbf tbe niber fiugers until tbe wliole band baa been ictroduccd. 
Tbu Uie water-bags may be brolcen, and with tbe CKoape of tb« liijuid 
tie Tomb will contract on tlio solid fcetue aud labor pains viU eti»ue. 
He fa-taa being small it will pass easily. 


TniDotB of rariooa kiDds may forio ia tbe ru^oa or eteewbero witbia 
tWpelrUf and wfaui Iur|^ enuagb will obstruct or prevent tbe po&sago 
of tbe ficLus. Oray marea, wbicbarefiosubjeut to black pigment tumois 
meUiHOtii) on tbe taU, aooe, and rttlva, ore tbe most Ukdy to eufltot 
torn Uiis. Still more mrely tbe wall of tlie vu^pnu Uicoiuos relaxed, 
:iid btan^ pn!uc«l by a maas of Inttsiliues will protrude UirousU ilio li^ia 
of tlie Tslva as n bemial sac, ooatainiag a part of tbe liowels. ^Vbere 
nuDor is KUiU it may only record and not nbsolatcly prereut parturi- 
A hernial protrosiou uf tbe vuU of the vagina may bo prt'ssed 
lackUHl emptied ao tbattbebody of tbefmtuaenjptgiugin tlie passage 
isy find no furcber obstacle. Wben a tnuor is too lar^t! Lu allow de- 
Urery tbe only resort is to remove it, but before procc«Uiug it lunAt be 
Blnrif BMKle oot that tbe obetroctioD la a mass of discaaed tiwae, aud 
BOli a Me oonlainiug iniestine.t. If tbe toRior bangs by a DUck it can 
Hsslly be moat safely removed by tbu tcroAeur, tbe cbuiu being passed 
uoaod tLc pcdioel and gradually tigbtened nutU tbat is torn tiirougb. 

B8B5IA OP Tiis ^rojcn. 

Tbe mptnra of tbe mnscnlo-flbroas itoor of tbc belly and tbe escape 
of tbc giavi<1 womb Into a sac formed by tbt* pcritoneani and skin hang- 
ine towaids tbe Kroaad, is de«icrjbed by all xttlurinary obsU-tricians, 
yet it hi Ttiy nnly eecn in ibe mare. Tbe form of the fuitua can tw 
fult tbrongh the walUof tbustic, so tbat it is easy to i-eoognize the condi- 
tian. Its cause is uxually external violence, tbough it may start from 
ombUical bemia. Wbeu ibe|ieriod of partarition :ini r~:r>*- 

dBort aboQld be to rciumtiwltEtaa witbia the proper abtl ^„.0 

I enn nomctiroes lie accomjilislieil wltU tbo aid of a stoutl 
grmlually tigbteacil nrotind tlic beUy. This fitiliiig, the mare iiia;! 
ploiynl on luT Eu\o or back aiitl frraviUtioii brougbt to tbe aiil of matti^ 
nlntion in seonrinf tlie retiii'n. Kvpii after tlielicriiiiilinsbcCQTcdneal 
the nMiisi'tl fihttuuf tbo womb nnilnbdomiual vralls maj serve to blniter 
imrtuiltiou, in wliicb case tbe oiled baod most be introduced lliroo|:li 
t1ic Tiigtna, tbo fa>tus brotij^bt into iiosttioii, and IractluD ooiucidsul 
witli tUo labor paiua employed to secure deliTer.T. 


Tbi& eouditloD h very uncommoa in tbe marc, tbougli oceasionally 
Bceti in tlic coif, owing to the greater Inxity of tlio broad ligamentsof 
tlio tronib in that animal. It consiaU in a revolution of tbo womb on 
itH own Axi&^ fto tbat its right or left side will he tnriicd npward (qaarltf 
r<>Tol[ition),or tbo lower snrfaco may bo torned upward and tbo upper 
jturfacc downward (biilf revobition). The effect Is to tbrow tbe narrow 
Dcek of tlie womb into a series of spiral folds, turning in (bv dinrction 
in wbk'b (he womb ham revolved, dosing the lieek and rendering dis- 
tention nnd dilatation impossible. 

The period and pains of parturition arrive, but- in spite of continn«d 
efforts no progress is made, neither water-bags nor liquids appeariug. 
The oiled band iutrodaeM into tbcclosed neck of the womb will readily 
detect tbo spiral direction of the folds on its inner surface. 

Tlie method of relief wliicb I have sucwssfully adojited iu the cow may 
be equally happy in tbe mare. Tbe dam is placed (with Ler bead op 
hill) on ber right side if tbo upper folds of tbo spiral turn toward the 
right, and on her left Bide if they turn toward the left ; nnd the oiled 
band is introduced through tbo ucck of tbo womb and a limb or other 
piirt of the bodj- of tho ftfituB is seized and pressed against the wall of 
the womb, while two or three assistants turn tho nnimnl over her liaelc 
toward the other kUIo. Tbe object is to keep tbe womb statiouary while 
the auimat is rolling. If success attends tbe effort, tbe constrictioa 
around the arm is suddenly relaxed, the spiral folda aru effaced, and 
tbo water-bags and fcetas press forward into the passage. If the Srat 
attempt does not succeed it may bo reiieated again and again until sue- 
c*'ss cniwMKs the effort. Among my occasional causes of failure bare 
been tbe prior death and decomposition of tho foetus, with the extrica- 
tion of gas and overdititention of the womb, and the superveucioti of 
inflammation and inflammatory esudatloii around the neck of the womb, 
which hinders untwisting. Tho firstof these conditionsoccnrsearly iu J 
tbe horse from tho detachment of tbe ftetal uicinbrancs from tbe wall ^ 
of the womb, and as the mare ia more subject to fatal peritonitis than 
tho cow, it may l>o concluded tbat Iwth these sonreea of failure ara 
more probable in tbe cqnJno subject. 

When the case is intractable, though the baud may be Cituily tn- 
trodaccd, tbo instrameut sbowD in Plato VUI, Fig. 7, may be used. 


llw at the- small end of the instrument has pnsised thPOUffh it a 
r<l with a ruiiDing uoose, to be passed arouml tn-o foiiC ur utiior 
potlion t>r tiiQ foDtos vbiob it may be possible to reach. The oords are 
then ilravn tight and fixed aronDd the handle of the instrument, thou 
ti; nsitig the ctoa.') tiiitidie its a luvertli» lii'tiiH atid womli niuy lioruUited 
in !i direction opposite to thnt caualug the obstrucliou. During this 
ffoeess the band duihI bo iiitm<lnr«ul lo ft'cl wlieii the twiHt ba:) t)ceii 
vtdooe. This method may b« nupplemeutod, if necessary, by ruUiog 
ttn Bute as described above. 


TliU U common u» u reMiilt of diDSciiit purtiiritiuii, but it may occur 
ft*n local injury before that act, nod may seriously interfere vtlh it. 
ttiicouilitfon is easily recognized by the soft, doughy Bwelliog sochor- 
Kferiitio of blood r.lots, and by the dark red color of (he mucous mera< 
liniK. I Imro lutd oi>ca ttucb suclliu^.t with the biilfo as lute as ten 
daj'slM'fore pnrtaritioD, evacuated the clots, aud dressed tlie wonnd 
daily villi aa a^triitgeul lotion [sulphate of zinco 1 dram, carbolic ncid 
Item, water I quart). A similar resort might be had, if necessary, 
dnrioc parturition. 


Tlje pressure uiwn the bladder contaiDinfr a stone or a tanior may 
(imrc so painful that thii mart* will rolnntarily KUpprcss the labor pains. 
Kiaminoliou of the bladder with the flngt-r intrwlticed through the 
nrrltini nilt detect the ofTeudiug ngcut. A stoue Hhoiild be extracted 
vith force[>8 (see "Till hotomy"). The large papillary' tumors which I 
liare met with in the marc's bladder have been invariably delicate in 
ira fcud could be removed piecemeal by forceps. Fortunately, 
es affected iu this vray rarely breed. 


In some antmnls, with more or less paralysis or weakness of the tail 
«n«l rectum, the rectum may become so impacted wit1i«olid fteces that 
tbo narc is unable to discharge Ibem, and the acoamulntion both by 
reason of ihe mc-cbanical obstruction and the paiu eaosed by prosxaro 
upon it will imiKd tbcammal to cut shortall labor paios. The rounded 
awolliog Hurroiiuding the anus will at once suggest the ronilition, wheo 
the obstruction may be removvd by the well-oiled or soapi-d liiind. 


This occurs in the mare of 8i>ecially excitable temperameut, or nniler 
partiottlnr causes of irritation, local or geuemL Labor pains thoagli 
ooDliuoiug for some time, produce no dilatation of the neck of tho 
womb, wbieb will be found firmly closed ko as to admit but one or two 
Aogen, Bod this, nitliougti the projectiuo at the uioutU qC vU« -wwaXk 
U035 11 


may iiBTe Dreo Mititeiy esfteeo^ so Hiu » dfnpie nrnwi opmf 
vitb rigid margins. 

Tbc BJioplcst treatmmt ooasi&ti id smearing tbis part with wlidti- 
traet ol' iH^laduniiu, ami iiftor aii iuterval iiiit«rting the lunil vrith Bb- 
gcrsauti tliuuib drawu into tlie form of a cnne, rii[itiiriiig tlie mea- 
branea aud brin^iug t.Le ftctas into positioD for extraction, as atlvntd 
uuder " Prolonged Retention of the F<etae.'' Auoth«r mode is to in- 
sert tbrongi] ttie neck of tbe wod])) iui ovoid cnontcbooc bag, emi'lfi 
and fiimislied ■witJi-iH elastic tulie 12 feet long. Carry tUe fiw enA 
end of tliix tube iiinvai-d to a lii-ijjbt of 8, 10, or 12 feet, insL-rt a illW 
into it, utid procev4 to diatead tbe h&g witb t«p)d or warm water. 


Tbi«c ownrring as tbe result of disease bare beeu several times ob- 
(Mrrcd in tbe iniire. They may «xiKt in the cavity of tbe atxlonien uhI 
eoQipn-aa and olwtnict Uie neck of tbe wotnb, or tbey way is^t^ud fiiuO 
aide to side of tbe v-agiua aci-oiM and just bobiud tbe neck of UieTomt^- 
In tbe Iiittor position tboy niny bo f'3lt and quietly rttmedipd by eaC' 
ting tbem iicrtHtK. In Lb« alMloint>ii tbey can only I>b reacbwd by iMi9~ 
ion, and two altorDalivea are presented : (I) To perform enibryotom^ 
and extract tbc f<rtus piecouical ; aud (3) to make an JDcieion int-<7 
tbe abdomen and extract by tbe Ciesarian nperation, or Hitnply to «a fc 
tbe constricting liaml and allAinpt delivery by tbe usual cbauuel. 


Tliis is probnbly always tbe resnit of direct tnecbanical injur)* aoA 
the tbrmatiou of riffid cicatrices whiub fail to dilate with tbe rcnisiuder 
of the p^ufsageN at the appriMicb ol' i>artnrttiun. Tbu prcseDUUiuu uf 
tbe f<£tus io the natural way and tbe occurrence of Hucoessive and 
active labor pains without any fJavorable rosulL will direafc attenttoii 
to tbo rigid and unyielding cicatrices which may be incited at one, 
two, or more [KdnlK to :i depth of hiilr an iocb or more, after which tli« 
DsUiral ex|Milsire efforts will asually prove effective. Tbe resulting 
wounds may be. «aHlie<l frequently with a aolation of one part of car- 
bolic acid to 50 parts of water, or of 1 part of mercnrio cbluride to 
to oOO parts water. 


Id ioflamiiitttJOD of tbe mncous membrane lining tbe cavity of tiie 
womb and iiupltcnting tbe ftetiil membranes, the resnlling embryonic 
tissue sonietimitR e-stAblbbea a tnmlium of direct continuity between 
tbe wutub and fictal lucukbrauea} tbe blood vessels of tbe one ootnmaiu* 
cate treely with those of tbe other aud tbo fibers of tbo one are pto* 
longed into the other. This causes retenttun of tbe membranes a 
birth, aud a special riak of ble«diiig fVom tbe womb, and of 
tic poisouiug. la excepUoual uaaes tbe adbuiiuon is more exteuair* 




•nil binds » portian of tbe body of tlie foal QraUy to the womb. In 
KcJiBMea it faas repeatedly beeu fouod inii>os8ible to BXtnict tbe fool 
mtitravb tullit'xious wore broken down. If tbey oau be reacbed vriUi 
llielmnd and recognized they may b« torn tbroi]f;h with the Angers or 
»itbaUontUooV, atUir wbioh delivery may be attempted with bopo of 


hffoald seem tiiat a iimall mare may usnally b« safely bred to ft 
Iwje stallion, yet this is not always the case, and when Hie sninll si^i? is 
m ifcllvidnnl mther than a ractal cbaraetcristic or tbe result of extreme 
jrwtb, thi' rule can not be i?jpccted to hold. There ia always great 
Awj^in breeding thf youn^, Kmall, And i]iidi>TeIoped fetiiAle, and the 
Swirfed repreecntative of a larger breed, as tbe oflfepring tend to par- 
Hke of the lai^ race characteristics and to show them even prior to 
Kitfc, When iriipregriMtion h»a occnrred lu iho very young' or in the 
dmM (eiiiale. there iiru two niteniatives — to iniliice abortion, or to 
»^iuutil there arc attempts at parthrition aad to extract by embry- 
(>t(ituy irimpnictieable otberKiso. 

coxHTattrrioN of a sbmuer by tub navel sinnta. 

la Bail i«id aiiimiils alike the winding of the nmbilieal cord round a 
BKniWor llie fietH4 someUrnefi IcadH to the ainpiitatiim of the liitter. 
ItitalwIcQown to get wonnd oronnd the ncok or a Utub at birtli, but 
■slWuare tbia doea not seriously impede parturition, as tha loowly 
>tUdi(d moinbraDea ai« caaily Bop»rated from [he womb and no Htrao- 
pJiliOD or retarding ocean!. The foal m;iy, however, die ftwin the 
MSKlioD of the plaoeatal ciraulatiou utiIeSH it U aiteedtly delivered. 


This cousists in the oxcesaive accumulatiou ofliquiil in the VL-niHcliw 

I of tbe brain so that the eraaial cavity is uii Urged and cou»titutea a 
freat projecting rounded mnsfi occupying tbe «pace from the oyei 
npwnnl. (Si*e ritito XIV, Fig. 3.) With an anterior preMenuiion (fore 
:feet aud uo.te) this presents an insuperable obstacle to iirugrcss, as tbe 
diseased emaiuoi ix too large to enter the pelvi» ut tbe sumo time with 
ilie forearms. With a posterior presenialiou (biod feet) all goM well 
Bntil the body sud shouldeni have ita^tseil uut, when progrcM (a nd- 
iculy arrested by the great bulk of the head. In tbe first case, Uie 
led band introdoced along the face detects the erniraiouii iizc of the 
od, which may be diminished by panetnring itwith a knife or trocbar 
id cannula in tbe median line, evacuating ihc water aodprOftlioc lo 
be thin bony walla. With a poBtcrior i-rewmtatioii, tlia mm» ooanw 
ost 1»e followed ; tbe band pawed along the neck will detect the cranial 
welling, which may be pnuutureil with a knife or tr«efaar. Oftanttmea 
itli an anterior prrscntaiiou the great sixe of tha bcftd lM4a \uUua 

<It^!aceTDent bac1iwar<l and tliua tlie Tore llmbei alone eD^ra^tsI 
pRHsagcs. Here tlio first objrct is to seek nnti bring up tliemiaoD^ 
head, nn«) tlien pnnctiire it lu above Ru;j;(!»tcil. 


Tbe nccuDiulnlion of liquid iii the Abdominal cavity of tlie fretDiii 
less Trcquent, but whnn prtsent it iiiiiy arrest iKirtiirilion ascompli'ttly 
as vil) bydcoccplialue. Witb an aaterior presentatioa tbe foal auj 
pass as far us Ibo sbouUters, but bebitid (bis all cITurts fail lo Mean i 
further advance. With a posterior presentation (be bind legs as far M 
tbe thigbs may be ex|>el!cd, but at this imint all progress ceases, lo 
eitbor caito tbo oiled baud poasctl inward by tho side of tlie foal villde- 
tcct the t'normoD.t diiitonlion of the aUlomcn aud its eoft, QactnatiBS 
contents. Tlie only course is to puuclure tbe carity and evacoato 
liquid. With tho anterior presentation this may be done wltb a looj 
trocbar and cannula, iutnxluceil throu;:b the cbcst and diapbragm ; or 
vitb a knife an iuciKton may be made between the first. two rilM, and 
the lungs and heart cut or torn out, icbeu tbe diapbrngm will be felti 
pnyrctiny strongly forwanl and may be easily panctnml. Sbonl 
there not be room to iatrodncc tbo band through tho cbctft, tho oil 
hand may be jMissed along beneath the breaat lione and tbe nbdomen 
punctnred. With a posterior presentation the abdomen mn&t bepauc^ 
nred In the same way, tbo hand, armed with a knife protccte<l in its 
pitltn, being passed along the side of the Sank or between the bind 
limbs. It sbonid bo added that moderate dropsy of the abdomen ia not 
incompatible with natural delirerj', the liquid being at first crowded 
back into the portion of tbo belly still engngeil in the womb, and passiii 
filowly fh>ni that into tbe advanced portion as soon ns that has ck-urcil 
the narrow passage of the pelvis, and passed out where ft can expaud. 


Id this case tbo tissues generally are distended with Hqaid, and ths 
Bkin is found at all iwints tense and rounded, and pitting on pressure 
with the Bngcrs. Ia some such cases deli%'cry may bo cilcctcd after th« 
«kin has been punctured at narrow intervals to allow the escape of the 
fluid and then liberally smeared with fresh lard. More commonly, 
however, it can not be reached at all points to be so punctured, nor 
safflcicntly reduced to bo extracted whole, and resort must be bad to 



This has been described as occnrring in a living fwtns, bnt I baro 
only met with it in tbe dead and decomposing foal, after fntile eflbrta 
have been made for Bevcral days to effect delivery. These cases ftra 
very difficult ones, »s tho fual is inllateil to sucb an extent that it Is 
impossible to advance it into the passages, and tbe skin of tbe foatas 


tbe vtOs or tbe ««ab a^ rm^m hnvtaesa* Mftyttatm 
ible to f9wa» tte ««e to ^bAe tm theocker. nehiir«BW 
'oiijiatt thatmvj be mimeA, ^ad fibe esse Mtcaderedthe mmaf- 
jveuid dflotenosbj-ltererj-lksid IvividsaBdcaaM. Hw 

UK thnt bad ovrieil a oott in tbis eoBfllloo far tarnr dafs. 

D03rrK4cnoi[s of hitscxes. 

Tb« tM Ls DIM alwBja derelepcd ajn t<rk >11y^ bac oMtaiB grooptt] 
flfaiuolesare liable toreouui sbort or tosfaorteobeeaaseofi 
tpasnodle nralractioD, so tbat erea tiie boaes beootae dtstorttd aMl] 
hrf*t«JL This is iDO«t comaMo ia Uie neck. Tb« booed of this paxtj 
aa<l ?ven ofilie face are drawn to oae afda and AotteDcd, the headT 
bein^; Urid firmly to the flank aod tbejaws betos twisted to the rigbfc' 
or left. Id other cases tbe flexor mnaotes o( the foi« liinbd are con* 
tracted to Uixt tbea«B»emb«raare8troD^beDtattbckn&e. In neitber 
of tbnK amtis can tbe distorted pan be extended ami ftraightenpd, so ' 
that body or Hm1>s mtuc necc^^rilj present doable, and natural delir* 
ery Is rendered iiapoasible. Tb« bent neck may sometimes be straight 
«Dcd after the mnaoleB bare been cat on tbo side to which it fa tamed, 
aod the beat limbs after the tetidoas oa tbe bick of the simnk bonehava' 
been ant acnuis. Failing Co iiccoiopliiih this, the next reiiort ia to oi< 


'I^anlo^* or diseased growths mny ftinn on any psrC of tho foal, in- 
ternal or exteronl, and hy their size impede or hinder parturitiou. lu 
some cases what appears as a tttoior h an imprisoned »nd aodereloped 
nrom, which hiis grafted itself on the ftptna. These nre iisiinlly aaecu- 
latedaod may coDtainxkiu, hair, mui^cle, Uoim.and othor uHtiiml titsuej*. 
Tbe only eoarse to be parsaed in eoch casea is to exciao the tumor) orj 
if (biA 18 not feasible, to perforin ttnt/r^otcmi/. 


MoDStroftity iu tli« foal in an orrasional nanse of dtfRrnlt paiinHtlon, 
eapecialty snch monnters as show cxcessivo de\'c1opment of goaio pari 
of tbe boily, a di.splacoment or distortion of parts, or a rcdnudauoy of 
partit, as in double moDstors. MoDStcra may be divided into — 

(I) Monstei-s with absence of parts— ^bseuun of head, limb, or other 

<'J) Monsters with some |>nrt abnormally small — d warred tioatl, limh, 
trunk, ete. 

(.1) Uonntem through uDuatuml division of parts — cleft heatl, trunk, 
limbs, tit!. 

(4) Monsters throDRli atrscnoe of natural divisioua — abacuuooX laouthi 
D0««, eyes, anus, coudneut digits, etti. 


(II) Monsters through fusiou of parts — one oentnU eye, one nasil 
opeuiug, «tc. 

(0) Monsters tbrongh aboorual positioa or form of p«rtA— cnrred 
spiue, face, Ijmbi etc 

(7) MonKteni throngb excess of fonaatiOD — euorinoas head, siii)« 
namcrar; digits etc. 

(6) Monsters through imperfect diDTerentiation of sexual organs — 
horm aphrodites. 

|*J) Uuuble tnoosters — double-Uoadod, doable-bodied, extra limbs, 

The caueet of monstrositios appear to be very varied. Somu mou- 
Btrositles, like extra digits, ab^uco of horns or tailu, etc. ran iu fami- 
lies aud aro praduoad almost as oertitinly as eolor or form. Others ar« 
associated with too close breediug, the ixiwurs ol'HyiuiiKslrica) develop- 
ment 1>uitig Jiitcrftin-d trith, Juitt tut in other cases a sexual incompati- 
bdity iadovoloped, near rolativ-es failing to brfsed with each other. 
Jlere arrest of dereloptnentof a part may arise from nccideotaJ diseasa 
of theombryo; houce vital organs are left out, or portions of orgaus, like 
the dividii)g walls of the heart, are oaiitte<L Sometimes an older ftelua 
is inclosed in the bod>' of uuuthvr, vmvh baviug startetl iodeiM^nilentlj 
Crom a seiMirate ovum, bnt the one hariag become embeddi<d in tlia 
semi fluid mass of the other aud haviug developed there simuluini^uuslj 
with it, but not so largely nor perfectly. In m:iny cases of redundauoa 
of part«, the extra jmrt or tnetnber has munift'sUy developed from the 
aauiiiovutn and nutrient center with the uormal mcuibor to wtiicb it 
remainK udhereut, jutil as a new tail will grow out iu a newt n-hen the 
the lonner bus been cut off. In thcenrly embryo, witb its great powers 
of dcvulopuifut, this factor can operate to far greater jKirptist^ than iu 
tbe adult animal. Its iotlueuoe is seen in the fact itoiuleil out by &t 
Bflairc that such redundant parts aro nearly always connected with the 
corresponding portions iu th^i normal foetns. Thus supcrflnnns legs or 
digits are iittached to the normal ones, doable heads or tails are oou- 
nected to a commou ueck or rump, and double bodies aro attached to 
each other by corrcspoudiug points, nuvol to navel, breast to breast^ 
back to back. All this snggtwts the development of extra parte from 
the same primary layer of the impregnated and developing ovum. The 
cfl'eot of disturbing ooudilioos in giving snob wrong directions to tbo 
developmental forces is well shown in the expcriuicnts of St Uilaire 
and Vnletitine in varnishing, xhnking, anil otherwise breaking up the 
natural (umn pel ions in eggs, aud thereby determining the formation of 
motistroaities at wilt. So, in the mammal, blows and other injuries 
that detach the fu-tal int'iiibraiie!* from the w.-ills of the womb or that 
modii^ their circnlatiou by iniliicing tuUammalion are at times followed 
by the development of a monster. The excitement^ mental and phys- 
ical, attendant on fright occasionally acts in a sliaUar way, aoLine prob- 
ably through the same cbauuela. 




The mon^itroiis forna likely to interfere with partariUon are sach u| 
^oaeoutrdt-'tievl or twisted limbs or B]>itie, uiiiKt be jiresented doubleiJ 
*Vre 8aprniumcr.iry limbs, lieail, or body most niipraacti tlio passnges 
*ttb tbe tiAtaral ones; irbere a bead or otber member has attained to 
UuiiKtunil BJse; wliere the body of one faitas lias become iack 
favattadied to aaoiber, etc. 

Bttractiom to sometimes posaiblo by stniighteaiDg the moinbera and 

■HBriPS mA ft pt oae otation as vill re^Inoe tbo presentiog mass to its , 

MMlliSt and most wedge-like (liuutiiKiuns. To flTeot this it maybe' 

Mrdfol to cnt the flexor teadon« of bent lEiobs or the muscles nn ibe 

iideof A twisted neck or bndj; anil one or more of the raanipnlatious 

Meesswy to eecore and brio? ap a mis-sin^ member may bo required. 

I0 mott owes of monstraBitj- by ext-ess, however, it iK npetlfal to remoro 

the saperflaotu parta, iu which case the general piinciples employed 

(br embrfoktmg most be followed. Tbe Cxsarian itectinn, by which tbe 

foBtna ts extracted tliroaffb nn itipiFdon in the wnllsofthe nMomen and 

▼onb, is inadmisiiible, as il praclienlly ciitaiU tlie Kacriliee of the mire, 

which ehooht never be done f<H- tbe sake of a monsier. See "Em- 

bry atomy/ 


Twins arc rare iu the mare, aod still more rare ia the impaction of 
both at ouce into the p^-lfis. The cooditlou wonld be easily re^xTgnized 
by tbe fact that two fore liDibu untl two hind woald occupy tbo p-issage ' 
at ooce, the front of the houfs of tbe fore feet being turned npnrard and 
those of tbe bind feet downward. If both belonged to one foal tbey 
woold be tUTiied iu the same direction. Once reoo^ized, the «>ndi- 
tioB is easily remedied by passing a rope witb a rauning aoose roaod 
cash fool of the foal tbst Is farthest ailranoed or that promisee to be 
easily extracted, and to push the mvmbers of tlie other fu'tns 
ialo the dvpib of tbe womb. As sooq as the one fortnii is fuUy 
In the pBssaife it will hold its place and its deUrery will pro- 
in tbe Batttral way. 



ilocwttiplcUJj GsteiKlr.1. Flexor inniloimhorrfiMi I 
I5wt mok ftt tha kiMw. 
Btnt bock (ttxn ihs abonlAer. 
Bentdownwanl oa Um neck. 
H*»d Mitd neck larant ti«ek twaeaik Hu> I.mmi. 
T>>n»«d t» itM iM*. 
TBTBMlnpwftrdanilbBckwudaa tbe buk. 

HcM irmlw. R)«4 liwt «tigag»d ia tb^ pclriB. 

TnuwnTM Bsth orfMl tnmdf-orjMlTia. 

InvniUtt Backiprfinltaflmrofpelvla. 

HiadUnb. (S??!"?.'i*l^"'^"*"*^ 

i Beat at lb* nip. 

Tnamne Bock offo*! to ridaof jwlris. 

iDVOrUd Back orfriollo Boor or pt^Tii. 

■swwtsaonof boJf i S'**" ^^^ '^"'^ ImoBpwMat^i. 




In cax^s of tliiH kiiid, not only an> ttie bnck tendons beliind (belt 
and sliauk-boae nudnly short, but the sinew fxlL-iidinB from tU* 
froDt of tbo shouldcrblndo over tlio iVoot of the «lbovr aud dotCi^ 
to Ihe head or the (thnnk-lwnc is aIro ttliorlcncd. The result 1b tb^^ 
tUo foro-Umb is beut at the knee and the elbow Is also rigiiUy ben C" 
Tlio coiiditioi) obsti'uctA imrtiiritioii by the t'vvt becomiiif^ pressed Hgatu»4| 
(Uc Uoor of tho pelvis or by tbo elbon- prcssiu^ ou it» anterior briiv' 
li«li['f is to bo obtained by forcEblo (-xtcusion. A lope witli n riinn)ii^^~ 
uoos« is p.isHcd around each fetlock and a ri?pener (see I'latu V1]I)^ 
planted in the brc.a»t is prciiacd in a direction npwanl and l^ackTcard, 
irhilc active Uactiou is ntade oa tho ropes. Jf the feet arc not thereby 
raised from tlic Door of tho pelvis tho palin of the baud luny be placed 
bcnitalh tbcui to protect the mucous meinbraiie until they have ad- 
Taucod sulllcietitly to obviate thia danger, iu the abseaco or n repel* 
ler, a smooth rounded fork-haodle roa^' be employed. If the shortoniui: 
is too great to allow uf tho extension oribcliint)» in this way, tbo lease 
tcudoud may be cut across bcliiud tho shank bone and in front of tbo 
elbow, and tbo liuib will bo easily straightened out. This is most easily 
done with an embryotomy knife furnished with a ring for the uiiddle 
linger, Ko lUat the blade may be protected iu the palm of tlie haad. 
(See Plate XI\% Fig. 4.) 

ONB rons-uaiB osossbd ov£b tqe back op tiib keck. 

With the long fore-limbs of tile foal this readily occnrs and the re- 
salting increase iu tliickucut, both at tho head and dhonlder. oQrrs a 
serious obstacle to progress. (Si:?e Plato X, Fig. 2.) The hand intro-, 
dnred into the pass;igo detects tbe head and one forefoot, nud furtlier' 
back on the same side of the head the second fool, from which tho limb 
may be traced obliquely across tho back of th(* neck. 

If panitritiou continues to make progress the displaced foot may 
bniiNB and lacerate the vagina. By seizing the limb abox'o the fetlock 
it may be ensily pushed over the bead to the proper side, irbuii jioT' 
turitioD will proceed uormnlly. 


Tbft Doso and one fore-foot present^ otid on examination the kneoof J 
the missing fore-limb is found farther back. (Plate X, Fig. 1.) FfrstJ 
place a noose each on the presenting pastern and lower Jaw, and push 
back the bmly of the fu-tns wifh a rcpcller, while the o|ierator seizing 
the shank of the bent limb cxtendm ft so aa to press bnck tho knee 
and bring forward the fetlock and foot. As progress Is made Itttio 
by little thii band H sVnl down from the region of the kuw to the fet' 
lock, and finally that is secured and brought up into the passage, 
when parlariliou wilt proceed without hiudrnuce. If both foro-limbs 


tre bent back the lietid mu^it bo noosed and tlio limbs brought up aa 
tboTt, ono lifter tUe oilier. IC is usually best to employ tbo loft band 
for tkerieht forc-liiub and the riglit band for tbc left fore-limb. 


Ib ilitft case, on tfX|)loratiuii by tbo side of tbe head aud presenting 

llml. the fibauldcr ooly can Ij« reached at flrst (Plate X, Fig. 4.) By 

Dootioglhe hoad and prc-Minlinr; ronvlimb tlicao may be drawn for- 

irartlinlo tbe pelvis, n»d the <iile<i band being carried along the fthoal- 

licr in tlie direction of tbc missing limb is enabled to reiidi and sclzo 

the fare ann just li«low the elbow. The body is now pushed back by 

the assutanta pressing on tbe head and presenting limb or on a repel- 

t*r planted in the breast nnttl the Unco can bo brought np into tbo pol- 

viit, iifter which the procedure in tbe same as descrilwd in the last par* 



tliiiiroay be iu> that the poll or nape of the neeb with the ears can bo 
fi^ltfjT back bc'ttveeu tbe fore- limbs, or so only the upper border of 
tUeoRck can l)ercache<l, hi^oit iind neelf being bent biirk beneath the 
hajf. With the bead only bent oa the neck, noose the two ptcaeuting 
HiDlis,tl«n iutroiluco the band between tltem uutil tbe ociso can he 
■tiwlia the palm of the hand. Next bare the a.^.sistant8 push back 
tlf}iresi:ntiug limbs, vhile the noso is strongly lifted upward over the 
(•rJEn of the pelvis. This accompliBbed it assumes the natural |>08itioa 
aod parturition is easy. 

When both bead and ncuk aiu lient downward it may be impossible 
tn reach the nose. If, however, the labor has only cximmenccd, the limbs 
luar he drawn u|kiu uuti! the operator can reach the car, by dragcing 
on irhii-h tbe head may be so far advanced that the fingers nia^' reach 
the orbit; inictionupon this white tbe limbii are being pushed back may 
bring the bead np so that it bends on tbc neck only, and the farther 
procedare will be aa de^jcdbed in the last paragraph. 

I f tbo labor bus been long in progress and tbo foetu^i is jammed into 
tbe prlviit, the womb emptied of the waters aud firmly contracted on its 
nntid contents, the case is incomparably morei dilDcnlt. The mare may 
be chlct'orormcd and Corned on bcr back with hind parts clevaii;d, and 
wondi may be iojecU^d with sweet-oil. Then, if the ear can be 
beil, tbo correction of the mal-pre»enta.tioti may be attempted an 
i^Kive ilericn'bed. Slionid this fail one or more sharj* books may bo In- 
flerted in the neck as the bead as can be reached, and nipea at> 
taobed to tlieso may be dragged on, while the body of the foal is pushed 
back by tbe fore-limbs or by a n'l^eller. Snch repnlslon should Iw made 
io n din'ction obliquely upward toward tbe loins of the mother so as to 
rotAte the ftetas in snch a way as to bring the head np. As this (s k* 
compHMit'd a hold should be sec-ured nearer and nearer to the nnne, with 
hand or bouk, nutil the head uaa be straightened out oii the n%t:W. 


All mcaus fflUlog, it becomes Dccessary to remore tlie rare-limbs 
[ttahrifitomjf) so as to tuaku iiiorL* s[i:iee Tor briugiitg up the bead. If^ 
creu tlicu, tliitt cnu not Iw accoiuplisiie*!, it may be pimsiblo to itaeh tlic 
body backward and apn-nnl with tbo rcptillur until tlie lilml-limba am 

; bronsrbt to the pnssase, when tlicy may be noosed and delivery cfleclcd 

[witb tbe i>utili>rior preseuutiou. 


In tliin catto, the fore-feet present, and (he oiled hand (Misled aloii^ 
the foreariufl in search of the raieeing head finds tbe tride of the neck 
titriicd to one side, tbo bead bring pcrhiips eniirt'Iy out of roneh. 
(Pl:ite Xlir, Fig. I.) To hrinj; forwanl the head it may !« desirable 
to lay the mare on tbo opposite side to that to which the head is 
ttiraedi and even to giro chloroform or other. Then tbe feet bciufi^ 
noo-stnl, the body of the ftutus is pushed by the band or n-pdler fur- 
vurd aud to tbe «ide op^iosite to that occupied by the head until tbo 
head ooine« vilhin reach, near the entranoe of the pelvis. If such dis- 
plaott&ent of the fwtus is diOicult, it may b« facilitated by a free use 
of oil cm: lard. When tbe notie can be seized it «aa be brought into tbe 
passage as wfaeo the head Is turned down. If it can not be reacbei) 
tJie orbit may he a%iiilt'<l of ti) draw the brad furward nutil the no«e can 
bo fieised or tbe lower jaw noosed, la very difHcnlt ca^s a rope may 
be passed around the neck by tbo hand, or with theaidof acurve<l car- 
rier (Plato Vlll), and traetion may be made uf>on thlK while the body 
is WiiiR rotated to tbo other side. In tbe samo way, in ha<l casea, 
A hook may be flxikl in the orbit or own between Uto bouea of tbo 
lower jaw to assist in bringing the head np into positioD. Shonld all 
fail, tbe ampiitntinn of the fore-limbs may be resorted to as advfwd 
under ihe last headtuK> 


This differs from the last mal-presentatlon only in tbe direction of 
tho head, which haa to bo sought almve rather than at one side^ aud U 
to I>e secured and brought forward in a siiuilar maiunir. (Plate XIII, 
Fig. 2.) ir a rope can bo iwtsiied around the nevk tt wlU prove moiit 
effectual, as it natnrally slides nearer to the head as the neck is 
straightened, and cuds by bringing tho head within easy reach. 


In this case fore-Umbe and head present naturally, but tho hind 
limbs bent forward from tbe hip and the loins arched allow tbo hind 
feet ftlso to eut«r the pa^^ages, aud the farther litbur advances tbo 
more firmly does the body of the foal liecome wedged into the pelvis. 
(Plat« XIl, Fie. 3') 'The condition is to be nnioguizcd by iutivducinf 
the oiled baud along the bully of the fietus, when (be hind feet will be 

felt adraDcing. Aa attempt sbould at odc« be made to push tbem 
baeb,oae after the other, over the brim of the pelrU. Failing in this, 
die mare may be toroed on her back, head down hill, and iiiv atu-mpt 
noeved. If it is possible to introdace a straight ro[rc: carrier, a 
passed through this may be put on the fetlock and the repoUion lii^re^>j 
made more effective. In case of cootinaed failure the aaterlor pre««at- 
iDg part of the body may be skinned and cat off zs Car back toward liie 
pelns as possible (see " Embryotomy ~j; then Doose.4 are placed oa the 
Mod fetlocks and traction is made npoo these while the r^aarteta are 
paslied back into the womb. Then the remainiag por:io3 is brou^Lt 
avaj by tbe posterior presentation. 


Tbe greatest diameter of tbe axis of the foal. like tbat of the pelvic 
passages, is ftt>iD above downward, and when the ftetaii enters tbe 
pelris with this greatest diameter engaged transversely or in the nar- 
nv diameter of the pelvis, parturition is rendered difficult or imi"K):^si- 
b)& la Bach a case the pasterns and head may be noosed, and tbe 
passages and engaged portioo of the foal freely labricated with lard, 
tbe limbs may be crossed over each other and tbe Ledil. acd a move- 
■unt of rotation effected in the fcetas nntil its face asil back are lamed 
nptoward the croap of the mother: then pa,txi:'.x:-j:i bec-jme.-; Datiin»l. 


In a roomy mare this is not an insuperable o'-'j=:a/:!e to [.arturi:ion, 

yet it may seriously impede it. by reasos of the cin'atare of the b^dy 

'>fthefo^ being opposite to chat of tbe pa.r<age3. aad tbe head and 

^tbets being liable to anest against the border of the i»rlvis. Lubri- 

otioDof the passage with lard and trao:ioa of the li'^ha and Le^d 

*ill osaallysafficewithor without the tamia^jof tht; r-iare on her back. 

'" obstinate cases two other resorts are 01^:1: 'I :o -jjra the foal. 

pushing back the fore-parts and fcrioging up the hind ^j as to make a 

* Posterior presentation, and r2j tbe ampatation of tbe fore-limbs, 

'*'er which extraction will osaally be ea.=y. 


*o this form the quarters of the foal w;:h the hiad-legi bent up be- 

"^iith them present, bat can not aflvance tbroa^b tbe [»elvis by reasoa 

''^ their balk. (Plate X, Fig. .?. The oile"! ha:.d introiijceil can rev.o^. 

Wze the outline of the buttocks, witb ta-r tail ar:-! a:;us ia ihe ccuu-r 

*0'l the sharp points of the hocts beneath. Firs: p.u? a r.:;.e ;;: j;::!-! 

»chlimb at the hoct, then with hand or repeller, ptLih the br.tto.ks 

™ck»ard and upwards, until the feet can be brought np into the pas- 

^^ Tbe great length of the shank and pastern in t %riou!» 

^^"taiJe to this, and in all cases tbe foot sboold 1) "^ 


palm of tliD liADd whilo bciug brought up over (lie brira of tlio pelrfs, 
Ol berviso tbu womb may be torn. Wfaen the i>aiti8 are loo Tiolent aud 
coDstaut to allow effective niaiiipiil.-itjon, soiot^ respite may be obtained 
by tbo USD of cliloroform or morphia, aud by tiiniitig tbn niiin.^ on her 
lincic, bat too often the operator ftfils ami the foal must be sacrificed. 
Tvu cour.4«i) lire Httll open: (irst, to cut throujjh the cords behind anil 
above the hock and extend tlie upper part of the limb, leavinc; the 
liocif bent, itnd extract in tlits wny, and, Kcconil, to aniptitate the hind 
limbs at the hip joint and remove tUem separately, after which the body 
may beeslracted. 


This is merely ati aggravated form of the presentation last de> 
scribed. (Plate XIl, Fig. 1). If the loarti in roomy n rope may be 
passed arouud each thigh and the body pushed upwai-d and forward, ao 
as to briug the bocks and heels upward. If this can be accompli-shed, 
iiooscs aruplacirduu the liuib farther and farther down until thofeltlock 
is reached auU brongbt into position. If failure is met with, then am- 
putation at the hips ia the dernier rcssort. 




ThesB are the counterparts of similar anterior presentations and are 
to be managed in the same way. 


Tliis is rare, yet not unknown, the foal beiug bent upon itself with 
the buck, recDgri)zul>lo by its Kharp row of spines, preseiileil at the en- 
trance of the pelvis, and the head nud all four feet turned back iuto the 
womb. {Plate XI, Fig. 1.) The body of the f<ems may be extended 
across the opening transversely so that the head corresponds to one side 
(right or left), or it may bo vertical with the head above or below. 

In any such position the object should bo to pnsh the body of the 
foetus forward and upward or to one side, as may best promise to bring 
lip the fore or hind extremities, and bring the latter into tho passage so 
as to coustitule a normal anterior or posterior presentation. Thia tmu- 
iog of the foetna may be favored by a given position of the mother, by 
the free nse of oil or lard on tho snrface of tho fcDtus, and by th? nso of 
a proueller. 


This is the reverse of the back presentation, the foal being extended 
across in front of the pelvic opooing, bat with the belly turned toward 
the p.-isKagi>s and with all four feet engaged in the jinsHage. (Plato XI^ 
Fig. 2.) The mostpromisiug coarse Is to secure tho hind feet with 


-ip^^jpfjI-flPfcrmshtho forcfoet forward into tliewomlt. Assooa"-^ 
ttHi i w Bi t fefc ptisbeJ furn-anl clear of (ho brim of tUe pelvis, traction. 
itooile ou tbu biad feet so as to brias the tliighs ioto tlie passage and 
)mtotth« re-CDtraaoe of the forO'-linibs. If it prove tli (Boa It to pnsli| 
bKl! Ibo t'ore-limlm a di>os«i may Iw piiHsed urouii<l tUu fftlm-k uf each' 
lud the floitl drawo ibrough the ey o of a rope carrier, hy mcaus of 
*inA Uie members loay be easily puahed back. 


ThitooDSisU in tbo dissection of the fictus so as to ndnce Its balk 
aaJiDoT of itis exit thmugb Uit> iM-lviii. Tb(> Intlictlious for I|8 adoj^ 
Urn liaro been furnished in the foregoing pagrs. Tlie o]H>rntion will 
twy in [liffercnt caseK occordtnjr to the necc*sit.v for the reniov-nl of ona 
omore [larts Jii order to seenre tUo poquisitc reductiou iu size. Thus 
[l nxj be ncedfal to retnov<> head ami iii>rk, one fore-timb or both, 0116 
bind limb or both, to remove differcut parts of the trnnk, or to retDore 
"ipertlnouB (monslrons) pnrls. Some of thoeimpl&st operations of cra- 
t"ryf^(i(nj (incisfon of the head in hyi^^(K^ephn1u^^, incision of the belly ■ 
■1 drojisj:] have alreaily becu deseriboO. It n-iuaias to uotioe the mora' 
^'ifficak pnioedares which caa be best aodertakeD by the skilled 


^t^uMioit o/tbf/ort limh.— This may osually be begnn oa the fet- 

'*>c1cof the limb projeeliog from the valra. An ctnbryotoiay knife ia 

''^nblc. This knife consists of a blade with a i^Iiarp. slightly booked 

1*^111, and one or two ring'it tn thn b;ick of thv bhulr lar^i- enough to 

fit oa the tnidillc Quger, while the bhide is protected in the palm of the 

^^^Ui. (See Plate XIV, Fig. 4.) Another form has the blade inserted 

"> a mortise in the handle from which it is pushed ont by a movable 

^tti>n when wiintcd. Fir«t place a iiooso around the fetlock of the 

I'tnbto be amputated, cut the skin circularly entirely around the fet- 

'Ock,ibtQ make an incj^onoo the iooer side of the liuib from the fetlock 

°1* titthi* breast bone. Kext dissect the skin from the limb, from thefet- 

'p*^k op lo the breast bone on the inner siilr, and as farnpon the shoulder 

"'ailo OS possible on the outer aide. Finally, cut through the muscles 

•ttftrliiiig the limb to the breast bone, and employ strong tnictiou on 

"^Olimb BoastadnijToutlliewliolelimb, shoulder blade lududL-d. The 

"^'^hcIm arontid the upper part of the shoulder bliidc are easily torn 

it)roii;;h and ne«l not be cut, even if that were portsibU-. In no case. , 

**»tifiia ttp fore-limb be removed uuless the shoulder blade ta taken with 

1 as thai furnishes the obstruction to delivery, above all when 

M Dn longer advanced by the estensioji of the fore-limb, but is pressed 

^^^ K) as to increase the alre.idy thickest i»o.tlcrior poiiion of the 

^_*i«!!L The preservatiini of the skin from the whole limb is advan- 

"*BraaR in various ways; it is easier to cut it circularly at the fetlock 

**aii at the shoalder; it covers tJic hand and knife iu making the need- 

^ loclstons, tbna acting as aprotectioii to the wom^ftu^\\ A^mtN^-a 


means oFlractionoQtbe body after ibellmb baA been removeil. Into- 
atfctiii^tliOHkin from tbe limb tbe knifo is not needfal at all points; mnd 
oritmay bestxippeil off nitb tbe Biigers or kiiuckh^s, or by a binnt it«a 
Bptid pushed i]|) iiisldo tbe liido, wbicb is iiieanwLil« lield teitse to itn- 
dor tUe Rjiuil efTectire. 

Auijiut-atioH of the head. — Tbiei is easy wbcn.botb fura-UinbsarelnnlpA 
b.urii and tha bead ainnc has niafle its exit iu I'lirU It is mure diflicuH 
vlicn tbe bend is still rctaJucd iu tbe ])assaf;ts or irombf ai iu double* 
headed moiiKtem. The he»d is Keetired by u book ia tbe lower jav, of\ 
in tbe orbit, or by a baiter, aud tbu tikiu in divided circularly uroatu 
tbe luwer i>art of tbe face or at tlie front of the ear^, Hccordiog to Uil 
amount of bead proti-udiiiff. Then nn incision 18 made backward iiloui 
the line of tbe tliroat, and tliu skin dbtiecl^d from tUe ui>vk ati far bade 
a« possible. Tbeu the musules nad otlier soft parts of tbe neck are cat 
aerofls, and tbe bodies of two vertebra) (ueck boues) are severed by 
enttlng wmpletely across the cartilage of the joint. The IjiiIgiDC of 
tbe ends of tbo b«iiieti will mrve to iiidieatu tbe Kcat of tlie joiuu Tbe 
bead mid detaclied iwrdon of tbe neck may now be reinore<l by steady 
pulling. If tberc is KtJIt nu obstarJe tbu knife may )>e again asetl to 
sever any obstiaate couaections. Ia tbe case of a double- beaded mon- 
ster, tbo whole of tbo seroud neck must be removed witb tbe head. 
AVben the bead has been det.^icbetl a rope should be passed ttnongh 
tlio oye-bolcs, or tbn>ugb an artificial opening in ttic akin, aud tied 
firmly around the skin, to be employed as a means of traction wheu the 
niJBiting limbs or the second bend have been brought up into position. 

AmptitatioH o/ the Jiintl fiui&.— Tliis may be required when there are 
extra hind Iiu)t)s, or whoa the hind limbs are bent forwanl at hock or 
hip joint Iu the former condition tbe procedure resoroblos that for 
removal of u fore-limb, but requires more anatomical knowle<lge. Bar- 
ing noosetl llio pastern, a circular incision is made through tbe skin 
around the fctlook, and a longitudinal one from that up to the groin, 
and tbo skin is dissected from the limb as high ujt as can be reacbt:<t, 
over tbe croup if possible. Then cut tbnnigh the nuiKcles arouuil the 
hip joint, aud, if jHissible, the two iulerarUcnlar ligaments of the joiut 
(ptibio-femnr.d and round), and extract the limb by strong drugging. 

Ia cose the limb is beat forward at the hock, a rope ia puttied ronuil 
that and pulled so ils to bring the point of tJie hock between the lijis 
of the vulva. The hamstring aud the lateral ligaments of the tiock are 
now cut Uirongh.aiid tbo limbs extemlcd by a lOpe tied round Ibo 
lower eod of the long bone above (tibia). In ease it is still netnlfnl to -] 
remove the upper part of tbo limb, tbe further procedure is tbe same 
as described in tbe last parngraph. 

In esse the limb is turned forwan) from the hip, and the fn*li)s no 
wedged into the passage that turning is lm])OSsible, tbe case is vei;y 
difficult. I have n?|>eatGdly succeeded by cutting in on the bip Joint 
and disarticulating it, then dissecting the muscles buck from the nppei 

1^ 175 

Ftbe thif;li ttone. A noose was pliicc<l nroimd t1i(Micckof tbebono 
mnd~[>nllc<l on forciblj, wbile any uudulj' resisting struetareii were cnt 
with ttic kuiri;. 

Cartirrigbt [<ecoDi mends to m.ike free Incisiona roamt the Iiip joints 
and t*ar tbroiigU tlic mnsclfs wbon they can not b* cut; then with 
cortU muiiil l!in pelvic liatii>«, atii) lioukN tnwrtvd in tbei opcniti^^K in tlie 
floor of tliu polvia to drag oat the pelric boues^ tlieu put cords aruuiid 
tbe bi^ulH of the tbigti bones and oxtrnct tbem j tlien remove the lutes- 
tiaee; and fiually, bj niciLOs of the loooo, detached skin, draw out tho 
hody witb the rtjinaiiuler of tbo bind liiiih.s iWiit forwanl beneath it. 

ItenffcDts hiK vrny into the pelvis of the foal, and with a kulfe sopar* 
Btcs tbc pii^lric bones from the loins, then akiiiiiiag the quarter di-Avrs 
oat these pelvic boned by means of nipcs and Iiook$, and along with 
tbvm tbe hind limbn. 

Tbe bind limbs baring been removed by one or the other of tb&se pro- 
cmIdtth, tbe \ooiic. ttkiii dctBf:hed from tbo [udvLs is u-Sf^d as a means of 
tmotioD aod delivery is uffveted. If it bus l>e<m u mou.strobity witbvx- 
tra bind llinb^, it may be possible to bring^ these up late tbe passage 
aod atn)7« them forinietion. 

Remoral of Ike alidominal ri»eera.—\n case where tbe belly is nnduly 
large, from decomposition, tumuni, or oLberviae, it may be needful to 
lay it open with tlie kuife and cut or tear out the coutcuta. 

Rcumnat of the thoracic viscera. — To diminish the bulk of the chest it 
has been found atlrisable to cut oat tbe breast-boue, remove tlie heart 
and Inugn, and allow the ribs to collapse with the lower troG eudsover- 
lapping eiicb other. 

I^htfeiioH of the fruw*.— In case it becomes necessary to remove other 
[wrtlonaof tbe trunk, ihti general nile should bo followed of preserving 
tbe akin so that all manipulation^i can be made inside this as a pro- 
tM^I<>r, that it may remain available hb a means of excrcitiing trnctiou 
on the n.Mnaiuiug parts of the body, and as a covering to protect the 
ragiaal walls against inJuricB from bones while sueh part ts passiug. 


Tliis is rare in the marc, but nob uukuon'u. In oouuectiou witb a fail' 
are of the womb to contract on ibsolf after parturitiou, or with evereiini 
uf the womb (casting the withers), aod congestion or Iflccratiou. If the 
blood accujuulatea in the flaccid wouib the condition may only be sus- 
fwcted by reason of the rapidly ndvanciiit,' weakness, swaying, unsteady 
ffaJt, banpnc head, paleuess of the eyes and other mucou.s membriknes, 
and weak, email, failing putso. The band introduced into the womb 
d«rects tbe presence of tlie blood pnrtly clotted. If tbe blood escapee 
by the Tolva the ooudltiou is evidvuU 

TnMtmcni ooasiflts in eracnating the womb of lis blood elota, giving 
• largo dose of powdered ci^ot of o'c, and in the applicatioa of cold 
vMeror loe to the Juinu and external generative orgaoa Beside this 


a sponge impregnated with a strong solntiou of alum, or, still better, 
TritI) tincture uf muriate nf imii may be iiitrodiiccd into tlie womb and 
squeezed so ns to bring (lie liquid io contact witU tlte walla goiiorally. 


If tlio wouibfuilfi to contract arterditTicull parturilioti, tbo nfter-paia*! 
will Ku me time!! lead to tlie fuiidutt pa^^iin;; itilo tli^ budy of tbe arfpa. 
and passing tlirougb tbat and tbe rHgiua until tbe wbole inverted organ , 
appears externally and bangs down on tbe tbiglia. Tbo icsnlt is rapid 
CDgorgcmcut and swelling of tlte organ, iuipactiou of tbe rectum witli 
ffeuos, and disteutiun of tbe bladder witb urine, all of which oonditiona 
Eeriously interfere wilb the return of tlio mass. In returning tbe vooib 
tbe standing ia preferable to the rccnmb(>nt position, uh the abtlomen 
is more pendant and there is less obstruction to tlic return. It way, 
hon-crcr, bo necessary to put hobbles ou the bind limbs to prevent tbe 
Qiare from Iciclcing. A clean sheet Bbotilil be held beneatb tbe womb 
and all Qltb, straw, and foreign bodies iva.slied from ttft surface. Tbcn 
with a broad, elastic (iiidia-rabber) band, or iu default of tbat a long 
atrip of calico 4 or 5 lucbes wide^Tind the womb as tightly as possible, 
beginning at its most dependent part (tbo extremity of tlic bom). This 
serves two good endti. It ^qtieezeei out into Ibe general cli*culatioD tbe 
enormous mass of blood which engorged and enlarged tbe organ, and 
it fnmtghcs a strong protective covering for tbo now delieato friable 
organ, through which it may bo safely manipulated williont danger of 
lacuralioii. Tbe next step may be tlie pressure on tbe general mass 
while those portions next the vulva are gradually pushed in witb the 
bauds; or tbe extreme lowest point (the end of tbo boru) may be Inrnud 
within ilself and pushed forward iuto tbe vagina by the closed fist, the 
relani being assisled by mauqmladous by the other hand, and even by 
thoso of assistants. By either mode the nianipnlutions may bo made 
witli almost perfect safety so loug as the organ is closely wrapped io 
the bandnge. Once a portion has been introduced into the vagina tbe 
rest will usually follow witb increasing ease, and the o]>eraUon should 
bo completed witb tbo band and arm extruded tbe full length within 
thewoiubaud mo%'edfron) point to poiut w) as to straighten out all parts 
of the organ and insure tbat no portion still romaiDa inverted witbio 
another portion. Should any such partial inversion bo left it will give 
rise to straining, under the force of wtiich it will gradually iucreaM 
until the wbole mass will bo protruded aa before. Tbe next btep is to 
apply a truss as an off&ctaal mechanical barrier to further escape of 
thoTomb through the vnlviu Tbo simplest is made witb two inch mpos, 
each about 13 feet long. Thevte ure each doubled and iulerwoveu at 
the bend, as seen in I'Intc VHI, Fig. 4. Tbe ring formetl by the inter- 
laciDgof the two ropes is adjusted around the vulva, tliotwo ends of 
tbe one rope nrc carried up on the rJKlit and left of thit tail and aloog 
thespiue, being wouud round each other in their coursef and are fiuallf 


titd to tbe appcr port of tbo collar cncircliog tlie Qeck. TIio remain- 
iojt«o entls, belonging to the other n>[>e, arc carried dowaorard aad 
fcffnnl betveeu the thighs aud tbenoe forward and upward oa the 
tiit» of the belly and client to be attached to the right and left sides of 
tteoollar. Theae ropes ore drawn tiglitly enough to keep closely np- 
plifd to tlie openiug without ehufing, and will lit still more securely 
Ata the mare raises her back to strain. It is desirable to tie the more 
tUrt u th:it Hhn ni.iy bu uniiblu to Ho down for a day or two, and she 
iknldbekept in a stall witli the hind parts higher than the fore. Violent 
iinimag may be checked by fhll doses of opium (ouc half dram), and 
u; QMtiTenftssor diarrhea should be obviated by a suitable laxative or 
Undite diet. 

laaome mares the contractions arc too violent to allow of the return 
of t^ womb, and fall doses of opium (uue-half dram), laudanum (two 
Otottsj, or chloral hydrate (one ounce) may be demanded, or the mare 
nut be rendered insouRihlo by other or chloroform. 


lUinay occur from the feet of the foal during parturilioo, or from 
lU^lneted efforts to assist, hut it is especially liable to take place in 
ttcererted, coogostcd, and friable organ. The n^snltant dangers nro 
liiftiliDg from tho wonnd, escape of the bowels through the opening 
W^ Uieir fotal injury by the mare's feet or otherwise, and peritoiutia 
J^ tbo extension of iaflammaUoD from tho wound and from tUo poia- 
Wftog action of tho septic liquids of iho womb cseaplng into the ab- 
dimlBsl cavity. The first object is to close the wound, bnt nnless in 
flnitiaa of tho womb this is practically impossible. In the last named 
'^I'lUtion tho wound must be carefblty and aocuratcly sewed np before 
Uie»oaibi8 rotnmed. After ita return, tho womb uinat bo injected 
i^ with an aDliKcptiu solution (borai one-half ounce or carbolic acid 
3 (Incbms to a finart of tepid waterl. If Inllammation threatens, 
tieaMoajon may bo bathed continuously with hot water by means of 
• biary woolen rag, and large doses of opium (ouc-half dram) may be 
gtr«a twice or thrice daily. 


Tbite Bre attended by dangers similar to those belonging to rupture 
"of (he wotnb, and in addition by tho risk of protrusion of the bladder, 
which appears through the lips of the vulva as a red pyriform mass. 
Bometimea atieli lacerations extend downward into the bladder, and 
nthf^ni upward into tho terminal gut (rectum). In still other cases 
L' anas m torn so that it forms one common orifice with the inalva. 
Too often such eases proro fatal, or at a recovery is not at- 
ned, and urine or fences or both, escape IVeely into the vagina. The 
11035 12 


Bimplc Inocration of Ihn anas ia easily sovcd Dp, bnfc the pnili of Ihtl 
muscular fibei's do not reunite ami tbe control oTer the lower bowel it | 
D^vcr fullj r«-fitiquirc4l. The sut-'cossriil stilcbiDg up of Dip noanil ems' 
oiuuicaUug vitti tlie blmliler or Ibo rectum requlrua UQUsual itkill aa4 1 
care, aud t1iou;;b I have Huecet'dcil lu a castt of tbe latter ktud, I aaa i 
not advise tbe attctiii»l b.v uuiirofL'ssioual itcraoos. 


See "Obstructions to j^rtariUoD." 


Tbciie may rcKult rrum iujurii^fl susiaiiied by tlie womb dnring or 
after parturittou, from exiicnuro to cold or wet^ or from tb« irritaat ue- 
tion of putTJd products witbin tlie womb. Under tbe inflammation tbt 
vomb rcDinins dilated and finccid, nnd dccotn position of its sccreiiou 
almost ahv»ysoot:ur8, HO lUat tbe iuQummalitin tends to assume a putrii 
character and general septic infection is likely to occnr. 

Tlio gifmpiomii urn n»licred in by Bliivcring, slaring coat, Rmnll rap 
puUe, elevalfd temperature, accelerated brvatliiug, ioappetcucc, wi 
arebed back, uliff moremcDt of tlio body, liMliing baeb at tbe fl»tika, 
and utieasy motioua of tbe bind UnibK, discbarge from tbe vulva of • 
liquid at Ijrat watery, reddisb, or yellowlslt, and titter it may be wliltisb 
or glairy, and fetid or not in diifcrent cases. Tenderness of tbo alxlo- 
mon shown on pressure is especially characteristic of cases afTcctini; 
tbe peritoneum or lining of tbu belly, auil is more niarlceil lowi>r iloim. 
If tbe animal sarrives, the inflaiDQiation tends to become chronic and 
attended by a wliiliiih muco purulent discharge. If, on Ibe contrnry, 
it proves fatal, doath is prurcdcHi by extreme prostration and irenlrocM 
from the general septic poSsoalug. 

In treatmcHt tbe first thing to l>e sought is the removal of all o4ron>| 
eivu and irritant mutters from tbe iromb through a caoutchouc tubo i 
troditced intotbo womb, and into which a funnel is fitted. Warm vat 
should be passed until it corner away clear. To insare that nil of tin 
womb has been wasbwl out, tbo oiled band may bo Introduced to carry 
tlio end of tbo tube into the two borna successively. When the ofTci 
sivo contents have btou thus rcnmved, tbo womb sboulil Iw injecU' 
with a quart of water holding in solution one-half onnce pennan;;aita 
of potash, or, in the abwiice of tbe bitter, two tenspoonfuls of carhoj 
aoid. Rt;|R-at twico daily. Fomcutaliuu of the abdumeu, or tbe appli 
cation of a warm flax-seed poultice, may greatly n^llere. Acetauili 
in doses of half an ounce, repeated twice or thrice a day, or stilpba 
of quinia in diK>es of one-third ounce, may bo employed to ^^duce t 
fever. If the great prostration indicates septic jxiisotiiii;; lar;;e doset 
{oaobalf oauce) btdulphtte of soda, or salicylate of soda may be r»- 
sorted to. 



TWa Jn a wlittr, {rlaHiiotis, rhronic dim-hfirge, the rpsntfr of a continocd 
cnb-ocutciaflamtnationof tlicmttcoudmciubraDOof lUc womb. Like the 
di!icluirg» of acute iuBammaUon it ooiitiin.'i many forms orbnct«ria, by 
Bome of vliicli it is mai]ifo.stly iuoculable on the penis of tbe atatlioD, 
prmlQcing ulovreuiid a sptxtttic i^onorrlKsal tliscliarge. 

Trictment may wamt ia tb« int«rDal aso of tonics (salpbate of iroo 
Sdriuns dnily). anil tho washing out of the womb, as described nndcp 
Ike taat headin^f, followed by an amtriugont aatiseptic injt^:tion (car- 
hoiia acid '2 teasyioonrnls, tannic acid one-half dram, water one quart). 
TbiB may b« repeated tvo or tbrco times a day. 


This Bometiiiios foltows on infliintm.ition of the wotiib, as it frequently 
does on disordt'r of tbu stouiacb. Itstiymptomaagrcc with those uf the 
ooiuoioD form of founder, aud treatoieut ueeU uot diHer. 


T\xu is comparatively rare in the marc, though in Home caHen tho ud- 
der becomes paiafuUy engorged before partiuitiou, and adougliy swetl- 
iog, pittiug on pressure, extends forward ou tbo lower surface of the 
abdoniea. VV'lion this goes on toactive iuflainmatiou oiio or both of the 
glands become enlarged, hot, tcnitc, aud painful; the milk in dried up 
or replaced by a watery or reddish serous fluid, which at times becomes 
tf.tid ; tlie animal walks lame, loses appetite, aud shows general diiior- 
der and fever. The cundilion may end in recovery, in absccsn, indu- 
ration, or gangrene, aud in some cases may lay the foundatiuu for a ta* 
mor of tbe gland. 

Tbe treatment is simple so long as there Is only congcstioo. Active 
rubbing with lard or oil, or better, camphorated oil, and the fieqaent 
drawing ofTof the milk, by the foal or with tho hand, wilt usually briug 
aboQt a rapid impruvemenb. When active inflammation is present fo- 
mentation with war.^l water may b« kppt up for an lionraod followed 
by the api>lii.-uiiou of t\n^ camphorated oil, to which has been addml Kome 
cfiirbonatn of soda aud extract of belladonna. A dose of laxative medi* 
cine (4 dram» Barbadoes aloes) will be of c>t*rvice in rediieine fever, and 
one half ounce saltpetor daily wUl serve a similar end. lu ease tbo milk 
caagnlateji in tbe udder aud can uot bo withdrawn, or wbea the liquid 
bncomfa fetid, a solution of 20 grains carbonate of soda and 10 drops 
carbulio acid dissidveil in an ounce of water should be injeeled into tho 
leat. Jn doing this it must be noted that tbe mare has three sepnrate 
dacts opening on tho summit of each tent and each must bo carefully in- 
jected. To draw off the fetid product it may bo needful to uiie a small 
milkiag^ tube, or spring teat-dilator doaigued. by the writer (^LMate V'lll^ 


flgs. 2 aod 3.) Wlien pus forms and poiote cxternaTIj*, and cnn not 
fltii a free escape by tlio tent, tbe sjiot wliero it lliiotuatpa must bo 
opened freely with tlic knife anil the cavity iiijectcil daily with the car- 
bolic acid lotion. V^hen the glnnd becomea hard and Indolent it 
bo rubbed daily with iodiuc ointmcut 1 part, vaseline 6 parts. 



As tbo result of indaiouiution of the uildur it may become the seat of 
an iodaratod diseased groivth, which may go on groTring aod seriously 
interfere with the moremeDt of tbo hind limbs. If sach ewellings will 
not give way iu their early stages to treatment by iodioo the only re- 
sort is to cut tlieai out witli a kuife. As tho glaud is ufteu implicated 
and has to be removed, aucb marcs can not Id the futuxo aackle their 
coits, and therefore shoald not bo bred. 



By the act of Hiieking, especially in cold wcatlier, the teats are snV 
jeet toabnuions, cracks, and scabs, and as tbo result of itncb irritatloo, 
orindepeadcTitly, warts somotimcji grow and prove troublesome. Tbo 
warts slioald be clipped off with sliarp scissors and their roota bnrned 
with a solid pencil of lunar caustic. This is best done before partari- 
tion to secure healing before suckling begins. For soro teata use an ■ 
obitinent of vaseliao 1 ounce, balsam of tola 5 grains, and snlphate of ; 
Eiuc G graiua. 

pi.ATK vm. 

faioiM.ib'l iifli.j- Kli-iiunl; 



By U. R. TRUMBOWER, V. 3. 



TIio nerrons system may bo roganled aa consisting of two seta of 
Wjpltia, pcripbornl ami central, the function of one being to Mtablish a 
eommanlcatton between the centers and tbo different pnrts of the body, 
and that of tlio other to gcuersto nervous force. Tho vhole tuay be 
arranged ander taodirisions: First. The cercbro^gpinal or nervous sys- 
tem of aniraal life. Se^iond. The ai/mpaihetic, giin;:lionif, or nervona 
eystcrn of organic life. Enchispossessedof itsowncentral and periph- 
eral orgnns. 

In the Jirttf the center Is made op of two portions, one large and 
cxiKiuded- the brain — placed iu tho cniiiial cavity; tli« ntticr elon- 
gated—spinal cord — ooDtiuuous with tlie hmin, and lodged in the canal 
of the vertebral eolaiun. Tho peripheral portion of this system consiata 
of till) crnrbi-o-spiriul nerves, which leave the axis in synimetrical pairs, 
and are distributed to the skin, the voluntary moscies, and tlio organa 
of common and spinal srosatioD. 

In the second, the central organ consists of a chain of ganglia con- 
nected by nvrvo conLs, which extends fnjm tlie head to the ruuip on 
each side of the spiuo. Tlionervesof this system are distributed to the 
inrolontary muscles, mucoas membrane, viscera, and blood- vossela. 

Tho two systems have free intercommuutcatiou, ganglia being at the 

Ttro substances, distingnlshablo by their color, enter Into the forma- 
tiou of nervous matter, viz, tlie white or uednllary, and the gray or 
oorlical substance. Both are Bofti fragile, and easily injured, in ooa- 
w^inenceof whirh the principal nervous centers are always well pro- 
tected by bony coverings. The ucr\'ou3 substances present two dia* 
tinct forms — neree fibers and nerva ce\l». Aa aggregation of nervo cells 
coQstitntes n non'e ganglion. 

The nerve Hlwra represent a conducting apparatus, and (ten'e to 
place tlie central nervuos orgaus iu couuectiou with peripheral end 



OTj^nns. The ncrvo cells, hoircvpp, liesulea tmnsinitting impulsfls, net 
aB pliysiotogicat oentcrt Tor uuLamaticor rod ex movements, and also 
for tlie sensory, peroeiJtive, trophic, onfl secretory lunctioDS. A ucrvo 
consists of a bundle of tubular liWrs, held together by a dense areolar 
tissue, and inclosed io a membrnnoas shcatU— tho ncnrilemraa. Nerve 
Qburs possuiis uo clusticity, but are very stroug. Divided nerreti do not 

l^vrrea nre thrown into a state of excitement vfacn etitnatated, and. 
ore, therefore, said to possess ejccitablc or irritable propertita. The 
HtJtniili tii:i}' bo itpptitd to, or may act npon any part of the iierre. 
Ken'es maybe patalyzcd by continuous pressure being applied. "When 
the nerves divide into brandies, tbero is never any splittitig up of tbeir 
ultitiiato fibers, nor yet ia there ever any coalcsciug of them; they 
retain their individuality from their eourcd to their termination. 

Nerves vrhich convey impressloas to the centers are termed sm»ory 
or centripetal^ aiitl ttioso whlcli tranntnit .lUmulaa from the centers to 
organs of motion are termed motor or cttttri/u^L 

The Ainctton of the nervous system mayt therefore, be defined in the 
simplest terms, as follows: /( ia intmitftt io astoriatt ike differtnt part$ 
of the Ihm};/ in nitch <i mattner that KfimKltui applied to one organ may e» 
cite or deprei* the activity of another. 

The brnJn is that portion of the cerebrospinal axis vithin the cro- 
ninm, 'nliieh may \n^ divtdi^d intn four parts — the mednUA ohlnjiffata, tbe 
cerebrtlum, thojion* Vitrolii, and thocerelirumj and It is covered by tbre« 
membranes called the meninges. The first of these membranes, the 
dura mater^ tfl a thick, white, fibrous membrane which lines the cavity 
of the enintntn, forming the internal perioslenm of the bones; it is cod- 
tinuouswitb tbe spinal cord to tbecxtreiuily of the canal. The second, 
the arachvoitt, is a delicate 6«roua membrane, and loosely envelops the 
brniu and spinal cord; it forma two layers, Ipavinff between tliem the 
arnehnnid Kpace Tvhich eontains the CFrpbn>'<ipinn], tlittd, the nse of 
which Is to protect the spinal cord and brain from pressure. The tbtril, 
tbe pin mater, is closely adherent to the entire sorfncc of tbe brain, hot 
is miirh thinner and more va-scnlar ttian when it reaches tho Sfiinal cord 
whiph it also envelops, and is eontinned to form tbe sheaths of tta4 
spinal nerves. 

The medulla obhngnta is llie prolongation of the spinal cord, extend- 
iug to the pons Varolii. This portion of tlie brain is ver>- tarfce tn tho 
horse; it Is pyramidal in Bhai>e, the narrowest part joining the cord. 

Thesis Varolii {s the transverse projection on the base of thebniin, 
between the me<lnll» oblongata and the jwdnncles of the cerebrum. 

Tho cerebellum is lodged in thn [wsterior part of the cranial CBrity. 
Immediately above the medulla oblongata; it is globular or elliptic*! in 
shape, tho tmnsvprse diiimeter beiiiji fjivatest. Tbe body of the cere- 
bethim Is c«m]H>8ud of pray matter externally and white in the center. 

The corebrumy or brain proper, occupies tho anterior portion of tbo 




cnnial cnrity. It ia ovoid iu sliajw, wtlb au irregular Ofttteueil base, 
mid ctmsista of lateral halres or heniispliwes, Tlie greater part ol 
Ibu Cfrcbrum is wuiposcd of wliito uiatUr. The liemi6i)lierefl of the 
ccrebnim ar« QBually said to he Uie seat of all ]>8ypliicnl sctivitics. 
^Oiily wlieu tliey are iutnct are tbo processcH of reeUiig, tliiukiii};, uud 
rilliug possible. After tbej are dc«Uoye<lj tlie orgnuisiu comes to be 

£e a complicated tnacliiiiu, mid itK activity is only tlio Dxpressioii of tlie 
'^ibtonialnnd exti'rnnl stimnli wliit^lmct upon it. Tlio c«rebeUam is the 
grent. and important central orgau for tbe fluer co-ordiiiatiou aud iule- 
gratioa of [aovemenU. fiijiiries to the cercbclliim cause distorbaiire of 
the rf|uilibriiiin of the body, bat do uot iuterfero M'itli the psyobiciil 
activities or the will or couKCiouttueas, iieitbcr docH »n injury to tbpse 
part£ f;ivo rise to pain. 

The gpiital cord or spinid marrow ig tbat part of the oerpbro-spjnal 
systt'in which is conlaiucd in tlie spiual canal of the baoUboue, aud 
extends from the metlulln oblongata to a ehort distnnce behind the 
loins. It ia an irrtj^nlnrly cylindrical structure, divided iuto two 
lateral symiuetrtcal bulvus by fis-sures. Tlie spinal cord terinioatea 
posteriorly in a pointed extremity, which isvoatinucd bya mass of ner- 
vous trunks — «iK</a equina. A transvcrao section of the cord reveala 
tliBt it is composed of white matter externally and of gray iutenially. 
The spinal cord dm*s not QIl np the whole spinal canal. The latter con- 
tains, besidc8,n largo venous siuuH, fatty matter, the membranes of the 
cord, and the ccrebro-ftpinal fluid. 

The spinal nerves, forty-two or forty-three in nnmbor, arise each by 
two roots, n snperior or sensory and an inferior or motor. The oervcs 
originalln;? fVoio the brain are twenty-four in iiurnlwr, and arranged in 
{uiirs, which are uamed first, second, third, etc., counting from before 
tMckwanl. They also rewive 8i>ecial names, according to their func- 
tions, or the parts to which they are distributed, viz : 

I. OlftcUity. 
S. Oiitic. 

3. Ociil»-ioator. 

4. Patbelio. 
C. TriCieiAl. 

7. Facisl. 

8. Audtloij. 

9. tilutwK)-r))aT]rni;«al. 

10. Pnaniiii>{;ultie. 

11. Spinttl-AcoeMorj.' 
13. Hjrpocloanftl. 


InOumniaiioii may attack the«e meiubrauee singly, or any one of tha 
anatomical lUvisiouR of the nerve matter, or it may invade the whole 
at onoe. Pmctical exiivrience, however, te;icbes us that primary in* 
flamnuttion of the dnra mater is of rare oocurrenoe, except In direct 
mechanteal iujui-ies to the head or dise^iseAof the bones of the cranium. 
Ni^ither is tht imtchueid efieu affected with acute in U mum at ion except 
aa a secondary revolt. Tho pla mat^r is most commonly the seat of 
Inflatumatiou, acute and snbacute, but from its iiitimute relation with 
the surface of the brain the latter very soon becomes involved in the 



■Dorbul chnnges. Practically, we can not separnte Inflammation of the 
|)ia ui:it«r from tbut of tlia brait; proper. Inll:initn;itJoii may, Lowovcr, 
exist iu the ceuterof the great iierre masses, tlie ct-rcbmui, cerebellum, 
pODs V»rolii| or ioe(]iin» at the base of tlio brain, witboot iarolvfng 
tbc sHrfiicc. Wbeo, tlicrcrorc, Joflammatlon itivades the brain and its 
enveloping niombranes it in i)roperly called eneephatitis ; when tbe 
mcmbraQos alone are affected, it is called meR!ttj/itis ; or tbe brain sub- 
stance alone, eer^ritit, 


Cavset. — ExpoHiirc to extreme lioat or cold, excesatrc continued cere- 
bial excitcmcut, direct iiijuri«3 to tbe brain, such as concu&jion, or from 
IVacturo of tbe eranitini, sotitotimes as a sequels to influenzu, pyemia, 
poisons baring a direct influeuce apou tbe encepkalic mass, et«. 

Sj^mptoms. — Acute cnci^pbalitis may be uslicred in by au increased 
seoKibility to uoiscs, vrith mora or leas ucrvou.s excitability, contraction 
of tbe pupil of tlic eye^ aud a quick, bard paUe. Id very acute attacks 
these symptoms, however, are iiot always uoted. This condilioo will 
soon be folloired by mnscular tnitcbiDg8,coiivnUive or spn^imoilic move- 
mouts, eyea wide 0]icti with shortness of eighL Ttio aniuiill becomea 
afraid tohavo bis head handled. CoDvalsionsand dclirinm^ill develop, 
wilb inability of nmscaliir eoutrol, or stupor aud oomn may sninTvoue. 
Where tlio membrniies ara greatly implicated courulsions and delirium 
with violence may be expected, bat wlicre tbe brain substances in prin- 
cipally alTi-ct«d stupor and couiu will be tlic prouiiucnt symptoua. la 
tlio former condition tbe pulne will be (juick aud hard, in the Initcr soft 
or depressed with oftea a dilatation of tbe pupils, and deep, ttlow, ster- 
teroua brcathuif;. Ttie symptoms may follow oiio auotbcr iu rapid suc- 
cession, and (be disease approach afat:il tcrmiuationio Icastban twelve 
hours. In subacute attacks tlie symptoms are bettor de&ue<t, aud tbo 
animal seldom dies bofoio tbo third day. Within three or four day« 
gradual improvement may become manifest, or ccrKbral nofleaing with 
partial paralysis may occur. In all cases of cncepbalitis there is a 
marked rise iu temperature from liio very onset of tbo disease, with a 
tendency to increase until the most alnrming symptoms develop, snc- 
ceedeil by a decrease wben coma becomes m.inifested. The violence 
aud character of tbo symptoms greatly depend upon the extent and 
location of the structures involved. Thus, in some cases wo may Qud 
marlicd paralysis of certain muscles, wblle in otUers wo may bavo spas- 
modic rigidity of mu-scles in a certain region. Very rarely tbe animal 
becomes extremely violent early in the attack, aud by rearing up, strib- 
iuR with tbe fore feet, or falliug over, may do himself great injury. 
Usually, however, tbo animal maintains tbo standing position, propping 
himself iigaiiiKt tlic mang(>r or wall until be falls fmni iunbility of mus- 
cular couLrol or unconsciousness. Occasionally he may go through a 



series of automatic luovcmonts iq liis delmnm, sach as trottiag or walk- 
lug. ami if loose in a stftU will move arount] in a circle iwrsistetitlj. 
Early auil inrrsisteiit constiiatioti of tlio bowola ia fi raarkeii symptoia 
iu nearly all acute affections of tbe bralii ; rcteutioo of tlie nriae, alao, 
la fbwjueutly obsoTrcd. 

Chronic cttirphfililia. — Tliit? may succeed tho acute sta^pe, ormay tw 
dao to atablo tuinsnia, blood iioi son, narcotism, lead-poisoDiug, etc. 
Contrary to acute enccpbalitts, this form is not cbaract«rtzc<l iu it» iui- 
Ual stages by excitability, quick and himt pulse, and btgh fuvcr. Tlie 
animal appears at flPHt stupid ; eatii slowly; die pupil of the eya does 
not re:ipoud to light quickly ; tlie animal often throws np his head or 
shakes it as if eiifforing Auddou twinges of pain. He is slow aud slug- 
gish in his movements, or tbero may bo partial paralyKis of one limb, 
one aide of the face, nect, or body. These nynipioiim, with uimib varia- 
tional may be prcscut for several days and then subside, or the disease 
may pass into the acute stage and tcrminat-e fatally. Chronic encepha- 
litis may affect an oaliual for tea days or two ^vecks without much var- 
iation Hi the symptoms before the crisis Is reached. If improvement 
oommeaces the 8ymi>toms usually disappear in the reverse order Id 
Thlclt they developed with the exception of the paralytic eflfects, whioh 
remain intractibloor permanent. Paralysis of certain sots of muscles 
is a very common result of chronic, subauitio, anil iicuto enceplmlitis, 
Bud JH due lo Horteaing of the brain, or to exudation into the cavities 
of tlie brain or nracbuoid space. 


Causeit. — Excess oF heat or cold, wounds of the cranlnm and mem* 
brsocs, rheumatism, infltieuza, rupture of mcuiugcal blood-vesseK etc 

£^|ifoiH9.— Id an attack of acute nicningiiis tlic symptoius apgwar 
Tory suddenly and are oflen extremely violent. The violent pain in the 
bead Is indicated by tbe animal fiying back in the Imltcr, plunging for 
ward or running ahead, rcsiirdless of ob.stnclcB or obstructions iu tbe 
way. Tbo palso is very rapid, the breathing accelerated or panting, 
tlie pupils of Uie eyes contracted, aud the muscles of the body quivvr> 
ing. All these symptoms niny develop within a few minutes or in a 
few hours. If the animal docs not obtain relief, spasms or rigidity of 
tbe muscles along one or both sides of the neck or back will become 
nianifeat, the head will be held elevated, the eyebiilla will retract 
into ibeir Kockcls, tUecye-lids twitch, couvuIhIohs and furiouH delirium 
will soon appear, followed by coma and death. Acute meningitis 
may result fatally in a very few hours. Dunng the wholo course of tbo 
disease the more vi(.il«nt Hyniptoin» occur in paroxysms, aud the least 
noiw or Uisturbauce serves to luduce them. In tbe quiescent periods 
tbe animal appears dull and drowsy. The urine is iVequeutly ejected 
in spurts aud strong effbrta ore made to pass niauaru. Ia suliacnU 


mtHirtgUh tlio symptoms will develop more slovrlj and be 1«s tanrked 
by vioteoce. Tlie aeiisory functioQfl may uot bp much interfered with 
uutil tlio near upproauh of tloatb. In snob nttucks tlie aninial may 
fiuCTer for a w(!«k or longer and iiUlm»t«)y recover. In mviiiagttiK the 
teinpcratui-c varies from 103° to 10i° F,, aocordiug to the sovcriti' ol j 
tlie attack. f 

Tlio violent symptoms of this disease mnst not bo confoondcd iritb 
tfaoiie of rabiuL Id tko latter lUe violence is directed at sumo object ur 
DpOQ tbe auiinal himself; in llie former uo malice is shown tovard tbe at- 
tcndittit or «>nrroaiiiIiii^ ohjectA, but is simply the miinirt'slalion of vx- 
cmcialing pnin in tbe lw,iA. Meningitis may be disttngaislied from 
cnceiilialitis and cercbritfs by tbe ultscnee of uijirkcd localized pantly tie 
symptoiDs, or of coma, nntil the near approach of dcnlh. It is cliaiao- 
terizeit by violence, incrcast-d stmaibility, and delirium. 


CdfrM. — The caases giviug rise to this disease ai-o very numerous. 
Among them may be mentioned all those named heretofore as causing 
enceplialitis and meningitis, cystic and cjitrarcous tumors, tbrombl, 
ura'iiiic poiMtiiiug, nictiustatic ubsu-s.scs, septic infccLiou, etc. 

Sj/tuptoms. — Cerebritis, when an accompanied by other disease, is sel- 
dom recognized as such dnring lire. It is aln-aj-s localized in extent, 
and the symptoms manifested depend ujion the location of the organic 
vhanjio for tlicir obnracter. The symptoms, therefore, are as varied as 
the caosi'S; tUcy are usually of slow development and persistent. Ver- 
tigo or giddiness may bo regarded as a constant symptom. The ani- 
mal may stop on tbe road, sliaki! Iiih head, or stagger, apjiarently un* 
decided in what direction to go. There may be contraction of the pu- 
pib, cramp of the muscles on the side of the neck or face, pulse emalt ' 
and hard and variable in rre4{ueiioy, oftt'n, however, slower than normal. 
The temperature is slightly increased, the respiratious may be slow and 
dce|i» the appetite capricious, bowels constipated; rapid emaciation ia>f 
a common symptom. iSnch conditions may be apparent for a week or^ 
la-o weeks; then the horse may become comatose. The pupils dihite, 
thu pulse becomes nitermitUng, swallowing difllcult, the muscles wliieii 
were previously rigid become rela-xed and paralyzeil, and tbe urine may 
either be retained or be discharged iuvolnntarily. In this way tbe ani- 
mal may survive aonlher week and then die in a paralyred nnd nncon- 
scions state. Kot iufreqiteutly, however, few of those symploiu-i are _ 
manifested, for in some eases the paralysis is sudden fhim exten.sive ■ 
lesions of tbe brain, and tbe animal may die witJiin twenty-four hours. 


Thta is one of the terminations of cerebritic. It may also be dne to 
an insuftieient Kax>ply of blood aa a result of diseased cerebral artciiea 
and of apoplexy. 


Symj>fow«.— Drowsiness, vorligo, or attackii of giddinpss, iiicrpx"* 
limiilit^', or fear of familiar objects, paralysis of oue liml), liemtplegia, 
tDipprfect control of tlio linil)s, and usually a n-eak, iiitcraiitlotit |)Ql(iC. 
In eomtcoAea the sytaptoms ar« ftnntagong to tlioso of apoplexy. Tlie 
abamoler of ttie eymptoins dopeads uj^mq the seat of the softvuiug or 
mhaeeaa wlOaa the brain. 


Tb)8 is a rosnU of an iaQammatiou iu tlio stractim of tlio brain af- 
footlDg tbe ooonectiiro tissoefl, which eventaally beoomti Iiypertropbied 
and pr«u upon nerve celU and fibers, causing tbcir ultimate ilisappear- 
ancc, leaving tlie parts biml and iDilnratcil. 

Ssmptepu. — This condition girea rise to a proffressive paralysis, and 
may extend along a certain bundle of flbcrs Into tho spinal cord. Com- 
plete paralyns almost inrnriably KuporreneK and cauiieit deatb. 


On making j>oii( morfsm ^laminatinns of horses which bavo died fn 
tbe first stages of cither of those diseases, wo ivitl find an excessive en.* 
(orgement of the capilliiries and sinall blood- vessels, with correspond- 
ingly increased redness and molccolar cUan{;cs in both contents and 
tbo walls of the reasBla. If the death baa occurred at a later period of 
the disease, in addition to the redness and engorgement vre wilt find 
that un exndation of tbo contents of thu blood-vusscis into tbo tissues 
and apon the sarfacea of the intiaincd parts has Bupervened. If tbo 
oaso bas been one of encepbatitis we will usually find mora or less wa- 
tery fluid in the ventricles (natural cavitlp-s in the brain), in tbe sub- 
arachnoid &]»ace, aud a serous exudation between the couvolutioua and 
latorstitial spaces of the gray matter under tbe mcmbrnues of the brain. 
The amouut of fluid varies in different coses. In some whcro the ani* 
mars blood was very plastic, exudations of a mcmbrauous character 
nay bo present and are found attached to tbe Burfacoof tbopia mater. 
In meningitis, especially iu cbronie cases, in addition to tbo serous 
effusion, we flud changes which may be reganled as characteristic in the 
ft>nnation uf a delicto and highly yascnlar layer or layers of membrane 
or organized etructuro on thu surface of the darn mater, and also indi- 
cations of bemorrhagea in connection vrith the mcmbraDons formatiuus. 
BiBmntoma or blood tumors may be fouud embeddetl in this membrane. 
In Bome coses the bcuiorrhages are copious, causing paralysis or 
spoplcxy, followed by speedy death. 

la cerebritis, or inflammation of the interior of the brain, there in a 
tendency to softening and suppuratiuu aud the formation of abscest^es. 
la BOBie cascB tbo abscesses urv small and namcroos, nurrouoded with 
ft HftcDod condition of the brain matter, and Kometimes we may find 
one large abscess. In cases of recent development the walU of the nh~ 
nrefi-iogeduad mgged and bare nolining mcmbr&ii«. lut^^ss 


or chronic cases, tlie walls ot tbo nbscessea are Renerallj- liued with a 
aU'onEr mcaibi-aitr, often Imviii^; tlio nppcaranue of a sac or cyst, and the 
cout^Hts have ft very oQcusive odor. 

TreatiBent. — Id all nciito nttacks of liiflammation iiirolving thn mem- 
branca or cerelinil masses, it is tlie pressure from tbo distended and 
engorged bloodvessels, and the rapid accuoiulatimi of inflummatory 
procIuctB, that cddangors the life of tlio aoimal in even the very early 
stage of tho disease. Tlio earlier tlio treatment is eommoncod to lessen 
the danger of fatal pressuro from the engorged blood- vessels, the less 
amooDtofinflatniuiktory products nod effusion we havo to contend vHh 
later OD, The leading object then to bo ncooniplished in the treatincat 
of tlie first stages of encephalitis, meningitis, or cerebritis is to relieve 
the engorgement of tho b]ood>vcKftets before a dangerous degree of cffa- 
sioD or exndation has taken place, and thereby le&seu the irritation or 
excitability of tlic afft^ctcd fltnictnres. If wo fally succeed in this stage 
in the accoiiiplishmeiit of this object, we certainly prevent a secoud 
stage of the disease, aud it will only be required to continue a treat- 
ment which will tend to lessen irritability to prevent a second engorge- 
uent from takiug place. Batif theatteuipttorcliorcthocngorgcment 
la tho first stage has biien only partially successful, and the second 
stage with its inflnoimatory products and exudations, whether serous 
or pla.stic, has set in, then the m:un objecta in further tn-atnient are to 
keep up the strength of tho ariiiual and bastca tlic absorption of tho 
exudative produutK as tnucb as possible. To obUlu Ibese results, whoa 
the animal is found in tho initial stage of tho disease, where there ia 
nnnatural excitability or stupor with iiicre:ise of temperature and qiiick- 
eacd puisc, wo must roly uikiu the safest and quickest acting remedy 
at hand, which Is copious bleeding fh>m tho jugular vein. Especially 
in acute meningitiFt, bleeding is imperatively demanded. Tho linger 
should be kept od tho pulme, aud the blood allowed to (low until thero 
is a marked fluttering or softening of the pnlse. As aoou as tho animal 
recovers eomcwhat from tho shock of tbo bleeding, the followiog medi- 
eino should bo made into a ball or dissolved in a pint of warm water, 
and be given at one dose : Barba<loes aloes, 7 drams ; calomel, 2 drams ; 
powdered ginger, 1 dram; tincture of aconite, 20 drops. 

Tho animal should be plncctl iu a cool, dark place, as free from noiso 
as pu>t.4ible, and cloths wrung out of hot water placed on bis hetid. 
These should bo renewed frequeutly for at least twelve hours. When 
the animal becomes thirsty half an ounce of saltpeter may be dissolved 
in his dritikiug water ererj' six hours. Injections of wAnn water into 
th» rectum may faeilitcte thci action of the purgative. Norwood's tincc- 
nre of veratrum virtde, in 20 drop doses, shoald bo given every boor, 
and one dram of solid extract of belladonna every four hours, until 
tho symptoms become mo^liAvMl and tbo pulse regntar aud full. 

f this treatment falls to give relief the disease will pass into tho nd< 
d stages, or if the animal has been neglected in the early stagM 


tbo trcntmcnt mast be supplanted with the liypodcrinic injection of 
ergotiii, ia 5 gniin doses, dissotvcd in a dram of water, every sis 
bours. Ttic liaibs timy bo poulticed abo^'e the fetlocks nllh mustard. 
Cold n-ater or Ice-bngs should uow take the place of the hot-water elotha 
on tbo Lead. Warm bliiukutiiig^, to iiromotc i>crspiratiuu, is to bo ob> 
ecrred in all cases in which there is uo excessive perspiraUon. 

If the disease becomes chrouic — cncopbalitU or meoincltiii — we must 
placo our reliance npon alteratiros and tcnics, with sneh intridtMital 
treatment an special tiymptotns may demand. Iodide of potaMHtuni in 
S-dram doses should bo given twico a day, aad 1 dram of catomol 
o&ce a day, to iadacc absorption of uffuaious or thickened mcmbrUDCs. 
ToDiCS, iu the form of iodide of iron in dram doxes, to which is added 
2 drams of powdered hydraslis, may also be given every six or eight 
tionrs, as soon as the active fever has abated. In all cases, after the 
disappearance of tbo acato symptoms, blisters (cantbaridesoiotiueut) 
shnuUl bo applied behind the poll. When paralytic effects remain nftc 
the disappearance of all other symptoms, snlphate of strychnia iu 2-grain' 
doses, in combination with tho other tonics, may be ^vcu twice a day, 
and be cotitiauetl uutil it pi-odaces muscnlnr twitching. Iu some cases 
of paralysis, as of the lips or throat, bcucQC may bo derived from the 
moderate nso of tlio electric battery. Munyof the recoveries wilt, bow- 
ever, under the most active and curly ta'utmeut, be but partial, and ia 
aU cases the animals become predisposed to subsequent attacks. A 
long period of time should bo allowed to pass boforo tho naimal is ox- 
oiispil to severe work or great heat. When tho disease depends npoa 
^necLauical itijuries they have to be treated and all causes of irritatioa 
to tbo brain removed. If it is duo to stable iitinsma, urmmic ])otsoD- 
ing, pyieraia, inftitenza, rheumatism, toxic agents, etc., they should 
receive prompt attention for their txumoval or mitigation. 

Cerebral soflcuiog, abscess, or sclerosis, nro prnctJcally inacccssihlo 
to treatment, otherwise thnu each relief as may bo afforded by the 
administration of opiates and general tonics, aiul, In fact, the diagno- 
sis is largely presumptive. 


Congestion of the brain consists In an nocnmulatfon of blood in the 
Tcssels, abw called hT|H>ra;mia, or engorgement. It may bo active or 
passive — active when there is an undue determination of blood or 
diminished arterial r<-fiistance, and passive when It accuninlute^ In the 
Tes-wls of thR brain, owing to some obstacle to its return by the veins. 

CauMe9.-~-Aeiivo cerebral congestion may bo dno to hypertrophy of 
tlie left ventricle of the heart, excessive exertion, the influence of ex- 
treme heat, eiulden and great excitement, artificial Btimutanls, etc. 
Posxivo congestion niiy Ixi produce<l by any mechanical obstructioD 
which prevents the proper return of blood through the veins to the, 
beart, sucli as small or iU-fittiug collar, which often impedes the blc 


earrontf famora or abcrsses prc&ftirif; on ttio T&iu m its courfic. and or* { 
panic IcsioQS of the heart with ri'eriti'Kitatioti. 

Kxtreiiielj- fut anioials with Khuii. tbick uec'ks arc poenliariy Kohjcut 
to attacks of cerebral congcslioD. Simple coagcstton, howercr, is 
tucn-l^' a ruiictjoiial iifrcction, ami in a.sii;;htur muttcnilcUvgn-ij tuvulvi-d 
00 itDiueiUatc Uaugcr. Extreme eDgorgetueut, ou the coutrar^'^ muy be 
foUon-ed by rupLuro of previously weakened arteries aud capillaries 
and cinse iniincdiate death, designated tlien a& a stroke of apoplexy, m 

Ss'uptoms. — Ci)iigt-.stioii or the brain Is u»ually sudden la tia tuaui- V 
fcstatioD and of short duration. The animal may stop very suddenly 
and sbnko his head or sttod quietly braced ou his legs, then stagger, 
niiiko a plunge, and fall. The eyes are staring, brca.lhiiig hurried and 
stertorous, and the uoslriis widely dilated. This may be follovcd by 
oouia, violent conx'uUiTd movements, and death. Generally, hovrever, 
the animal gains relief in a short time, but ho may remain weak aud 
giddy fur several days. If it is due to orgnuio change of the heart or 
to disease of the blood-vessels iu tUo brain, thou the symptoms may be 
of slow development manifested by drovainess, dimness er imperfect 
vision, difilcuity in voluntary movements, diminished sensibility of the 
skin, loss of conKcioiisuess, delirium, and tieath. In milder eusfs eO'a- 
sion may take p1ac« in the arachnoid spaces and ventricles of the brain 
foIlo\ve<1 by pundyiiis and other com jdj cations. 

Vtilhologg. — In congestion of the brain the cerebral vessels arc loaded 
vitb blooil, and the venous sinuses distended to an extreme degTce, 
aud the pressure exerted npon the braiu couslitutes actual comprea- 
sion, giving rise to the symptoms just mentioned. On poat mortem ex- 
nminatioiis this engorgement is found nuivcrsul thronghout the brain 
aud its membranes, vrhich serves to diHtinguish it from iuflammations 
of these structures, in wliich the engorgements are confined more or 
less to circums4:ril>ed t>ortions. A pr»Iong<-cl rorigt-stiau may, ho»-(>ver, 
lead to active inflammation, and in that case we irill And serous aud 
plastic exudations in the cavities of the bratn. In addition to the in- 
tensely engorgwl condition of the vessels we find the gray matter of 
the brain redder iu color than natural. In cases w here several attacks i 
have occurred the bloodresscis are ofteu found permnncutly dilated. ■ 

Trtatoieni. — Prompt removal of all mechanical olMdrucUons to the 
circulation. If it is due to venous obstruction by too light a collar, tbe 
loosening of the collar will give iuimedtatc relief. If due to tumors or 
abscesses, a snrgical operation becomes necessary to afford relief. To 
Tcvive the animal if he become partially or totally uuconsdous t-fdd 
water should be dashed on the head, and if Uiis does not aflTord ready 
relief recourse must be bad to bleeding to lessen arterial tension. Tinct- 
ure of vcratrurii viride or of aconite root may be given in twenty -drt^) 
doses every hour until conscionsness relunis. If the limbs ore cold 
liuclure of capaiiiuni or strong muBtan! watorsbould be applieil to thorn. 
If symptoms of paralysis reoiaiu after two or tbrve days, on active 


oathiirtic sntl toitiile of potansa will be indicated, to be glvon ns pro- 
Burib4Kl for iiiflnminatioii of tbe bmiu. 

l^rcrcuthn. — Well ailjiiiitcil collar, with strap running from the collar 
to tliG girtb, to bold doipo the collar wbeu pulUuK up fEradc; rc^lar 
feM Aiiil ext^rt^i.'^, without allowing tbo aniiiml to become excessivfly 
plethoricj niodenite cljvckiog, nlloiFing a free aod easy moveiiieQl of 
tliu Lead; ncll Tcutilat«d slabliiig, proi>er cicaoliucss, pore walvr, via. 


The term snnstrokc is npplit'd to iifiection.^ occa:iiDned not exclusiroly 
b> i-:iposi)ro to tbe smu'a rikys, its the word siguiQus, but by tliu ai^liun 
of great beat coiuitined geuer-Ally u'itb otber caiiseu, uuub as drynvss 
aDd rarefaction of tbe nir and an unusual aecumulation of electricity. 
Eibaastion produci^l by a long coiitinaed beat is often tbe es^utinl 
&utor, and ta called bent csbatislion. Uorses ou tlio lace track under- 
going protracted and severe work In bot veatber often aaocomb to beat 
axbaustioo. Dr.ingbt horses exposed to tbe direct rays of tbe sua for 
many honrs, wbich do not receive proi>er cure in wateriug, feeding,^ rest 
in abady places, suffer very frvquently from eunatrolte. 

Ssmplomt. — Sunstroke is manifested suddenly. Tbe atiioial stops, 
drops bis be-od, bdgius to stagger, and soon falls to the ground udcoq- 
scions. Tlu) breathing is marked witb great slurtor, the pulao in vt-ry 
«low and irregular, cold sweats break out in patches ou the snrface of 
tiic body, And tbe animal oft«a dies vithmit recovering consciouaodM. 

In be<it exhaustion tbe animal iisnally retjuireit nrgiug for souio time 
previous to tbe apiHiarauco of any other Kyuiploms, geueniily per- 
spiration ia checked, and then be becomes weak in bis gait, tbo 
breatbing burned or panting, eyes watery and bloodshot, nostrils 
dilated aod highly reildencd, assuming a dark, purple color; tbe pulse 
is rapid aud weak, tbe heart boanding, followetl by nnconscionsuess 
and death. If rccorery tikes place convalescence extends over a lotig 
period of time, dniing which incoortlination of movement may persist. 

Patluilofft/. — Sunstroke, virtually active cougestion of the brain, ofleu 
aocumitatiiwl by ell'usion and blood extrava«:ition, chiiractcrizcs this 
condition, witb often rapid and fatal lowedug of all tbo vital functions. 
Tha death may b^^ due in many itiHtanL*c.< to the iwrnplcte staguatiou in 
tbo circulation of tbe brain, induciug auiemia or want of uouriisbmL-at 
of that organ. In otber cases it may bo directly due to tbe exeessivo 
oompreasioii of tlie nerve matter controlling Ui8 hearth Action, and 
eanse paralysis of that organ. 

2>-rafniciir-. — Under no circnmstances is blood-letting permissible in 
•oustroUc. Ice or very cold water should be applied to tbe bead and 
mloag the spine and half an ounce of earl>oiiuli> of ammani:) or G ounces 
of wbiaky sboald bo given in a pint of water. Injections, [x:r rectum, 
of moderately ntrotig gtuger tea or wi-ak arumonia iratrr may be used 
with beueUt. Brisk friction of the limbs and the application of spirita 



of camjibor often yield good resnlt«. The atlminiatmtioti of the stima- 
lauts Blioold be Tei>cnte(l in one botir if ilie pnl;* has not b«coRio 
stroiigi^r niid slon'or. Iftlio auiiunl Is sufferiiig from licat exliaustion 
aiiullar treatment may be nsed, with the exception of colil to the head 
niut spine, for in tliia <:a.sft vtotliH wrun^ nut in hot water should be ap- 
pliptl. In either case, wljcn resicti'ja has oecurred prepanitions of Iron 
and general tunics may bo given during couTnloseeooe; Su)pbat« of 
Iroa 1 dram, gentian 3 drnnis, reil cinchona liark 2 drnnm ; mix nnd 
give in the feed inomiiif; and eventug. 

Prevention. — In very hot weather horses shonid bare wet s]>0U6ca or 
light Bun-8hadofl on tlio bend when at iTork, or tho head may bo sponged 
with cold water an many times a day us po.ssible. Propirr uttcnUoQ 
shnuhl bo given to feeding and walcrint;, never lu excess. During 
the warm months all stables should be cool aud well ventilated, and i( 
an animal l» debilitated from cxhaiislivo work or disease hosUoold re- 
ceive sucli treatment a<t will tend to build up the syAtem. 

An animal which has been nfl'ected with sunstroke is very Uablo to 
bnvo subsequent attacks when exposed to the Dccesiuiry exciting causes. 

ApopLKXT — cehehrai- nKMonnnAnn. 

Apoplexy is oCteu confounded with cerebral congestion, bat trno 
apoplexy alnays consUts in rupture of cerebral blood-vessela, with 
blood extravasation and furuiiilioii of bluod clot. 

Cautet. — Tiro causes are involved In the production of apoplexy, tha 
predispoaiiif} and tho cxciling cause, Tho predisposing cauee is degeu- 
cratiou or diaenso which weakens tho blood-vessel, the exciting cause 
is any one which tends to induce cerebral congestion. 

Sjfmptoms. — Apoplexy is cbaracterised by n sudden loss ofsensatiou 
and motion, profound Crunin, and steitorons and diltlctilt breathing. The 
actiou of tho heart is ItlMe disturbed at first, but soon becomes slower) 
then quicker and feeblur, and after a little time censes. If the rupture 
is one of a smalt artery and tho extrava»atton limited, sudden paraly- 
sis of somo part of the boily is the rcsnlt The extent and location of 
the paralysis depend upon the location within tho brain which is 
fniictionnlly deranged by the pressure of the extra vasatcd blood ; hence 
these conditions are very variable. 

In the absence of uny premonitory syniptoms or an inorensc of teni> 
peratare in the early stage of the attnck wo may be reasonably certain 
in making the distinction between this disease and congestion of tlift 
brain or sunstroke. 

Pathologg, — In apoplexy wc are generally able to find an atheromatous 
condition of the cerebral vessels with weakening aud degeueniUou of 
their walls. When a largo artery has been ruptured it is usually fol- 
lowed by immediate death, and large rents may be found in tho cere- 
brum, with great destruction of brain tissne. induced by tho forcible 
pleasure of the liberated blood. la smail citrava&atious prodac 


.kictl paraljaiA irithoiit markeil gtuieral disturjance, tlie aulaial may 
>VM'after a tiuie; iu such cu»«8 gi'uUua) abM)r]iti»n of tliedut takes 
pliM. Ib Urge clot$ atropby of t be brain siibataocd laay follow, or 
wflHiing aD<l from wnnt of nutritiou luny result, autl i-euderttio 
uimtt wortblcsa, uUiiuatcly reouUiuj; iii death. 
Trntment. — Place Ihu aoitnal in a quiel, coot placi;, ttvoiil all stimn- 
iig{(m}. Adoiiiiuter, ill liJB driiiktu^ water or feed, L' dram^ of t))< 
leoT |K)ta^HH twico a iVay for svvt^ral weeks if iieces^ar^. Mi-dical 
tBlertJFTNice witli sedatives orstimiitauts is more apt to be burmful tban 
^k&elit, and blood-lettiiiff iu an apoidectic flt in extremely basardouti. 
PioiD the fact that cerebral ii[)ui>l«xy is due to dificiised or veabeued 

'''ood-TwseUT tbc aulmal remaios sabjcct to aubscqueut altack«. 


VamtM, — [q injuries from direct riolouco a piece of brokcu boue ma; 
presanpoD the bmtn, and airuorditi;; Co its «ize the brain iH mblied ul 
"■nonnal itpace within th«i<.-rauiutu. It uiay alsube due tuau exIl-nra- 
'*tion of blood or to exndatiou in tbe subdural or aracbuoid s|>8c«B. 
IVath from actire cerobnvl oongcstioti resulta through compression. 
The ooourreiint may Hometimea liu traced t*> the direct cause, which 
^1 give nssumuce for tbe correct diaKnosis. 

Synptnm«. — Impairmciit of all the»|M«iat KcnRCsaiid localiKcd |>araly- 
*^ All (h'» symptoiiiH of lesseued fuuctloiml activity of tbe braiu are 
■^oiCBSled to aoiue degree. The paralysis rouiaius to be our guiilu for 
^ location of the catitw, for it trill be fuuud that the paralysis occurs 
■"■ Uieopposite HJdeuf tbe body from the lociitioD of the iujury, and 
"•* pMlu aaBeriiig paraiysU will deuote, to an cx[)ert veleriuariaii or 
fbysieiau, tbe part of the brain which is ealTering eumprcssiun. 

Treatmmt. — Tn-pbiuiug, by a skillful operator, for tbe removal of 
t^tauM! when due to depressed bone or the )>reseuce of foretgu bodies. 
A'lWQ the (iyinptoum of couipreitsioii follow other ncute diseases of the 
biiD, aftoplectic filH, etc, the treatment muKi be Kueb as the exigeucies 
of tbc case demands. 


Cautet. — ^This is f^enerally enuxed by an animal faltiof over back* 
vard and tttriking his poll, or perhaps falling forward on his uo&e; hy 
a blow urt the head, etc. 

Symptom*. — Concussion of the brain is characterized by giddineaa, 
stupor, inwn^ibility.orloitaof niuscHlari»owi-"r, succeediug immediately 
upon a blow or severe injury iuvolviug the cranium. The atiitaat 
luay rally quickly, or not for hours; death way oecur on the spot or 
after a few days. When there is only slight cniienssion or sluonlug 
tlie animal iooa recovm fmm the slicick. \Vhi*n inoi-c^ nevere, Insen' 
sibiltty may be complete aud coutinae for a considerable time; the 
animal lies aa if in a deep sleep; tbe pupils are iusetisibto *" l><<ht} 
tbe putse tintleriug or feeble; tbe surface of tUe \}ut\v *W *i 

1J035 13 ' 


relaxcMl, and the hrealliing sranwiy perceptible. Afterft rnrInl)1efo< 
tcrval partial retuvurj' may take place, wtiicb is tunrkiN] by paralytuii 
of some jwrts of tlie IwMly, often of a limit, tlio lips, ear, etc. Oon- 
valeM!euc43 is umially ti^dious, anil fri.-qiK'iilly ]K*rtnniietit iiiiimirtD«ne 
of KOine org^aii8 ntmamii. 

PathoioQg. — CoiicutsioD produces lac^ratioo of the brain, or at Ituutt 
a Jarring of tlio t)t-rvoii» ulfmirnti^, wLivh if not Huffiviontly Aei'ore to 
prodace (iiiiMoii ilcatli miiy leitil to Roftening nr iiillHmmiiUou, with 
tlieir roHpcvtivB syuiptoiuti of fuuctiuua) (It^niiif^ouiuut. 

Trtatment. — Tbe fintt object in tniatmeiit will be to establish reac- 
tion or to aiinii40 Mie frebli* Btiil wraki'iiiii^ bcurt. Tbin nan ufli-ii Im 
accoiiipliiibed by daHljitiK colli water ca tbe liead and body of tbe 
aniual ; frequent iiijectioiis of weak amaiouUi. water, ginger tea, or 
oil :tiiO turpentine nlionld be given pex rectum. Tii tbu niiijority of 
tascs this will Hoou brinK tbo bonte to n state of consciousness, lu 
more severe cases muBtanl poultices sbouUl be applied alon;; tbe 
spine and nl3ovo tbe fetlm-ks. As soon ns tlio nuiuinl gsins partial 
conscioiisnesH ntinuilants, iti the form of whisky or CHpHiimm lea, 
sbonid bo gireii. Owing to seveiity of the stracturiil injury to tbo 
bniiu or tbe posuilile rui>ture of blood-Tessets aud blood extruTasa- 
tion, tlie rR.ictton niiiy often l)e follnwed by eiicepbalitis or cprebritis, 
Bud will then Iiav« to b« treated acconlltigly. For this reason the 
stinmlAnt^ shoiilil not be administered too freely, and they must t>e 
abandoned u soon as rrraction is catAbliithed. There is no need for 

ftirllier tre.itmeiit nnleoH cmiplieatinns develop ii8 n Rer^mdary re.^t|]t. 
Bleeiliug, which is so ol^eii practiced, proves almost invariably fatal lu 
this form of brain ulTection. Wo Hhoutd also remember that it is nev^er 
aafe to drench a horse with l»rge quantities of medicine when be is na> 
cotiscioQs, for be is very liable tu draw the medicine into tbo lungs lu 

Prevention. — Tiinng hnnies, when bariiessed or bitted for tbo Brst few 
tiitie^, Bhould not bave their heads checked up high, for it freqiienlly 
cntises them to rear up, !inil,b4^ing luinbloto eontri)! their l)alan(*e, they 
are liable to full over ^idewayo or backwardtt, thus cuusiug bniiu coa* 
cuHslon wbeu tbey etrike the ground. 

AK.inaiA OP tub; braiit. 

I This Is a pliyeiolofiical conditioa in sleep. 

I Cau*e». — It is cjoHidered a disea»e or may give tise to ijlaease when 

I the clrcalatlou and blood supply of the brain are interfered with. In 

■ Buiue diseatieK nf tbo heart llie brain b«?L-nmeii amemic, uad faiutiug flta 
I occur, vritb tem)K>niry loss of consciouscesB. Tamers growing wilblo 
I tbe cranium may previa upon one or uioru arteries and stop the supply 

■ of liliiod to certain parts of tbe brain, thus inducing anit-nua, nltitiiatoly 
I airophy, soflcnine, or »nppnnttion. Probably the most frequent oauae 
B u fuuDd in plui;ifiug or ucclusiou of tJie urteries by a blood-dob 



^niffemi.— Imperrwt visfoD, constaotly dilated pupils, freqaenll; a 
bebl^ nml staggering gitit^ and occasiunally cratnpa, couvulsiona, or 
e)dlfiitio fi[« occur. 

iW4ob;y.— Tlie exact opposite of cerebral liyperiemia. Tlie bloo<l- 
vWKlsarefoanil empty, t6o iu«mbraiica blaocbed, aud tbobraui snb 

IVwdirn^ — lienioval of the remote canse wbeu possible. Oetieral 
tonics, imU'iUuua fuuii, n.-et, ami rumUTul from all uiuscij of ucrvuuB 


Itiis cooilition h prxluved by a I'iuilt in iiiitrition, embmcin^ tlie 
BXhm vtiinU tnilntM* niiieiiiiii. Gnidiiiil nlt^turption mid ehrintciiig uf 
'■nm sQtMtaaca may ariHe fn>iu iJiu cioiiRtaiit unil iiieremuiig preHSuro 
iMiiijfrQia tlie growth of tuiuora, de^eiieralioii in tlie arrerial wiilts, 
^rotv^biiluis <'t^- Atrophy of tbt? bniiti tiiuy bn gctn-ral or localized, 
^ucenbraui may wiut(« unay iu a rvouarkuble degree before auy iiidi- 
luf disease beeome^ rnanireiiL 

|ito«M.— It luuy give rJite to vicioiisnesSf paralysU, dbordeni o( 
I HOsatloti, coioA, OU). Trtutuoab ia of uo avail. 


'^>» tIfKMe i« moHi oftt>n seeii in yonn; foaU nod is mnQifested Xry 
u luiuaturaUjr large forelN'iid. The forebeii<l bnl^-s out, and tlin mi' 
^ ixmet ttiay be s«panited from tti>^ir conuiHrtioniS aud to jtart of tbe 
'''^11 be covered by tbe skia only. Fonls oeldoni gnrvive this affeelton, 
**•! trvatrneaC is uaeless. In borses liydrocvpbaln* ia a result of 
""'•io cDeiiingitis, when an effusion of Hemm it jMinred oat Into tbe 
*KDtriclM and araoliDOid spnces of the braiu. TUo disease is some- 
'tOM iiidieuled by a dlUiuuliy iu ooutrolliu}; voluularj' moveiQi-ntA, 
«IU4, etc When effusion as a result of meningitw h Ku»pe<^tpd, jodi<lo 
Of^otasNain 3 dram doses maybe f:irea twice a day luid a slroog 
tiiiuw applied bebiod Ibe eara. 


TbiDon wittiin the crantal cavity and the brain occur not iiifreqneTitly, 
Bud give rise to a variety of aympluuiN, iiuiHtrfc-ct <^ulltIol of vuluiiiary 
pcrenteot, local paralysis, epilepsy, etc. 

Oumua trnwurrw, grovtog from the walls of tbe craulam, are not rcry 

iigtrouM cffnts^ containing a fonnaTion Ideutiail to that of a tontti, 
ng from tbe tempoml bono, sometimes arc found lying loose within 
e crAuitiro. 

Tvaion of thr ehoroU pltJUM. known as frrnin Man4, are fnKjuenliy mi*t 
iUt vupostmortem vxamiujttious, but nciUuut £ivo ritw tu au^ AWnci- 


a1)Ic BjniitLomM iluriug Hfe. Tliey are foimd in borsi>s at nil agea, and 
are of slow ilv vt^loiimeut. Thoy aro fouud i» one or liotL of tbo Iat«ral 
ventricles, euvcloiied in tlu' folds of tljis elioroiil pli-xus. 

Melanotic lumorit li»vc been fouud iu tke braiu aud tueuiugea In the 
fi>ri» or small, black nodules, in ^.ly liorHes, niid in one instance are 
bcilievGd to bavo iDilUL-cd tUc couditioa kuc>^vu as Btriug-lialt. 

Fibi-oua litiiiorit may duv^lop witblu or fram Itie lueuiugeal structures 
of tlie brail). 

OluntmUmir tumor in a variuty of surcouia vory mnrly found Id tiie 
Structure of tbe cerebelluui, 

Treatuiout for tumoi-s of tlio brnio \n beyond onr ambition in tbe pres- 
eut age. 

8F ASM8— CR AUrS. 

Oaiises. — Spasm is a marked symptom in many diseases of tbe brain 
and of (lie »piuul cord, fspnsma may result frum irritutiun of tbv motor 
MerveH 0.1* c-unditclurtt, or may re»;ult fixim irritation of any jiurt of the 
sympathetio uerrons system, aud tliey usually indicate an exoeastvoV 
action of thu retlexinolor cttnterH. S[tat(uia may bi* induced by variona ^ 
mcdiciual ageut« given in puisouous doses, or byell'etu nmteriuln iu tlie 
circalaCiou, suvb ou ntix vomica or ita alkaloid strycbuia, lead prepara- 
tious, or an exeeas of tlie urea products in tbe ciroutntioo, etc. Spaama 
may be divided into two etaMKus: tonic Kpaum, nlien tite cramp is coo- 
tiiiiiouH or ^e^nllH in persiatuut rigidity* as in tetanus; cI«hw $paem, 
vbeu tbe cramping i« of abort duration, or is alternated witb reluxa> 
tlous. Cramps may be dtstiugnished from cbolcrato mox'emeiits by tbe 
extreme pain ur miU'iTiii); vvlitcb they induce. 8|> may ulleitt invoi- 
uulary as well as the vuiiiutary uuiscles, tlie muscles of tbe glottis, 
iut^stiues, aud even tbo lioart. Tbey are atvays auddeu iu tbeir deveN 


This is manifested by a strangling respiration; a vheezing noise U 
produced in tbe aet of inspiration; extreme anxiety aud suffering for 
want of air. The beatl i« exteniled, the body profusely jtersptriDg; 
jmldie very rapid ; soou great exhaustion becomes maulfesi; the mucous 
membranes become turgid and very dark-colored, aud tbe uuiuial tbiu 
may suffocate iu a sbort time. 


(See "Orampeolic") 


This may bo duo to spiual irritation, or a reflex from intestinal irrita- 
tion, aud is manifested by frcqueut but ineffectual atl«uipta to arlnaUw 



Spasmoilic coutra«tJon of tbe diaphragm, tlie principnl mnscb used 
In re^plrntioD, U geoerally occasioued by extreino and prolonged speed- 
injf oa tiie riioe-tr»ck or road. Tbu sevBro Ktraitt thus put upon tliis 
innscle fioall t' hidtices irritation of the nerves coiib'olliiig it, tuiil the cou- 
txactioDS become very forcible and violent, giving the jerking charac* 
t«r buoffu among hor3«mea m tbnmp«. This condition may bo dtsUn- 
gnitthe^l from riolent beating of tbi> beiirt by fooling the puline b4>iit at 
tbe angle uf tUt! Jaw, and at the i^anie tjtnu watching the jerking tuovu- 
mentof the \Hnly, when it wi!l Iw diticorored thai tho two bear do rclu- 
Uon to ojch other. (See "Palpjtotion of tho licart.") 


This Is frequently witoeasod in borses that stand oa Hlopiug plauk 
floors — generally in cold weather — or it may come «in soon after severe 
cxcrct'ie. It is prohably due to an irritaiion of the nerves of the thigh. 
In crHmpHof the hiud leg the limb becuuies perfectly rigid, and at- 
tempts to flex the leg are iiu successful ; the animal stands on the affected 
limb, Init is unable to niovn it; it i» unnaturally <xild ; it does not, bow- 
ever, appear to cause much suffering uulcss attompts aru niudo to 
change iKJHtliou. Thiscraiuii may be of short duration — a few minutes — 
or it may persist for several days. Thisconditiou is often taken foradis- 
lucftlioDof the nUUc-Joint. In tho latter tho foot Is extended backward, 
«Qd the horse is uuable to advance it, but drags the limb after him. An 
exaaiinalion of the Joiut also reveals a chango in form. Spa»m» may 
aff»-ct the uye-llds, by closuro or by retRiction. Spasm of tho steruo- 
mHxilluriM muitclc has biwn witiiussi^il, and tlio animal was uimblo tn 
i-loa« thejaws until the muscle became leluxed. 

Tr€atment. — An anodyne Huiment', composed of chloroform 1 part 
Mid soap liniment 4 partK, applied to crauiiwd musclox will nsuidly 
cauao rtrlaxation. This may be used where single exturuul muscles arc 
affected. In spanm of tho glottis inhalation of Bnlphunc ether will 
ipve quick relief. In spiisiu of tho diaphragm, rust and tho adminis- 
iratiou of half an ounc« of chlomform in :t ounces of whixky, with a 
pint of water ailded, will generally suffice to bring relief, or if this fails 
givu & grains of sulphatu of morphia by hyjiodcrmtc iiijccliou. If 
npasiiis result from organic disease of the nen'ous aystem, the latter 
should receive such treatiiioiil as it» character deniiirulit. In cramp of 
iho leg compidsorj' moveiiifiit usually causes relaxation vcryqnickly; 
tliontfore, tho animal Hhould 1h: led out of tlio etablo and be forceil to run 
or trot. Saddeo cervous excitement, caused by a crack of tho whip or 
•mart blow, will oftea bring about immediate relief. Should this fail, 
th« anodyne liuimfiit may be umnl along the insido of the thigh, and 
chloroform, other, or laudanum giveu interually. An ounce uf tho 
dUoraJ hydrate viU ctittaiul^' relieve the spasto whou givcu iutcrually, 

It thfl cramp may rotnnt sixin after the pffbet Ims passpd off, v' 
iu uiHti^ i';iM-H it iliivs X't'ry (iui<;kly. 

ConeuJsioHt. — AUtiougli tbera is no dfsooso of tfie ncrvuuH k^Majd 
wUioh can bi- ju-operly lermwl conviilsis-f, opjuHlify tlie u-SP of the word 
connilHion to int1ipflt4^ nny partioulitr itiricitHc, yol il \» ofti'D h()i a 
proniitiviit symptom tliat a ri>ir ironlit nmy not Iw ont of )ila(!«. Ueu- 
ci-al, irregular uiusfu^ar fou tract ions uf vaHoui parts uf rim Iwily, with 
tincuu-sciousnCAS, oliaravterize wlmt w« regArv] a» i-.iiiiviil»iiiiit^, iiinlllco 
ordinary Rpiisms are ilf;p«tn!eni upon s<inii' disease or irrilattou of lUe 
ii«rvoiiK BtructuruH, uliii-fly uf the brniii. No tnMtiiusitC in reijaintl; Id 
fact, a geiti-nil cbiivulsioii must iieccewtiirlly be Bt-'tMliuItetl iu lit ilun- 
Uoii. Siifipfiitliiig, n« it ilofs, respiratory luovvinvtita, clivcliin; tlie 
uxy^>tiiition iind (locarboniKiiiioii of tlie blood, tbo ni{>Ml nccnmntution 
of carbouic »cid gati in tliu blood and Ibe uxduMiun of oxyt^un quickly 
puts tlip blooil in n condilion to jirodiice tbe most relEable and spcnly 
avdattvuffTec-t npfU tbo uvrve excitability tJiat could be ruuu(l,iD<l 
oonnequeutly furuiKbeH ttR own rpnietly, ho far *a the eotiliiiaanoe of 
the ooiivnlsive ii;*roxystii iif coiicfiiied. Whatever trealui<?iit is iorti' 
tott^^l oiiiiit be dlrnuuxl tuvrardtt ii rtrinoval of the cause orthnconvolirt''*^ 


Ohorus is chanictcrixcil by iDvolitutacy contractions of volant^'' 
masctas. This tlisMiaA ia an olkwura disonlur, which raay lio dae ^ 
prvHxiiri' u|H>u A uiTve, cerebral scleroaio, small HOenriHtii:* in (li« bn«i'* 
etc ClioiiMo wyioptuinM have bc«ii proilucr*! by iiijci:tiii|; Kranulen **' 
ataruh into the artems entering the bruin. £]>ilci>$y and other furr*"* 
of cotivulalou'4 aiinuUlQ chorea in appearance 

Strinyhnlt is by lUMnR termed (;horea^ Tliis i« manifested by a inddef* 
jerkiii;;-uji ofouo or InitU bind Ivg« when tht- mitiuiit In walttiiig. Tbtt 
symptom tnay be very slight in aotne horses, but has a tendency to to- 
ereaso with tbo age of the animal. In some the cutchiDg-Qji ofthosf- 
fecLed U*g U very vi<dvnt, and when it i^ lowiMi-d to the ground tbe 
motion in ciiuBlly sudden and foruible, striking thu fool to tlio gnjuud 
like & pile-driver. Very rarely dioreamay be foand to affect onoof tbe 
fora legs, or tbe musoles of one side of the ni-i'k or the upper p»rt of tbe 
nerlt. Inrolniitiirj- jerking of the ninneles of the hiji or thigh is seen 
ocL-uaionully, and in termed Kbivering by honuMnon. 

Chorea is olten assoiriaietl with a nervous disposition, and is not oo 
frequent in RUiumls with a FhiggiRh lempprtiment. Tlio involuntary 
niUKcular eontraetions cunse no pain, and do tiot appear to prodnee 
mneh exhaustion of the aH'crtctl nmscle^, allhongh tbe jerking mny be 
rcgnlnr and persistent whenercr tlio animal is In motion. 

Treatment. — In a few casett, early in the appeanmne of this affprtion, 
general nerve tonics may beof benefit, vlr, iodide of iron, I dram; pnl- 
verixcd nux vomiut, 1 dntm ; pulverizeil Scutellaria, I ounce. Mix, and 
give in the feed once a day for two weeks. If tbe caoee is conoeoted 
jfMitJo braiu lesions treatoieiit is usually uoaaooessful. 

pre in itie 



Th« cause of epilepsy in «>tdoin traceable to nny special liraio lesiODB. 
Id u few caaes ft aoeompiiiii«8 diitea»e of tbe pituitary IxmIj*, vbicli is 
locnt«<l in tlie untlKr Riirfiioi- of tint timin. Snftrnin^ nf tli« ItRiio may 
give rise to Ibia iilTtcttoii. AltaekR luay occur ouly uueeortwiceayeW} 
or they may be of frefjoeiit nTiiiTwnce. 

Syntptoms. — No premoiiitopy mymptoms prece<ti5 an opiieptic fit. The 
aaiuiol KiMliIciiIy titHg<;erK; llin ii)UM:Ii*slM>eoii]t!L>raiui>e<l ; the jaws uiay 
tM sjiasiuodically opeaed and closed, and the toogiie be«-Diue lacerati'd 
between the teeth ; he ttHimn at the inuulb and falls down in a H|>a»iii. 
Ttio nritio Bovrs away inToliintijnly, and the breutliJnft niny be ten)po- 
ranly unvHted. Tlio paroxvHiii sihui jiaMse» ulf, and thH animal getHOU 
hu feet ill u lew minuter aft^er the return of conscioimness. 

TrratmeHl. — liuMhini; cold water on tbe huwl duntiK the pnroxysiD. 
Aft<T the recovery 1 dram of oxide of Kinc may be given lu hi« feed 
twtct* A day for Bcveral weeks, or beuetit may be deriveU from the touiu 
|ire«mlM!d for cborea. 


This condition, likf; that of Kpajtm and cnnvnlston, ia generally not a 
diseaseT but merely u symptom niuDtfe.4ted iia a result of a variety of 
t*nila affections, bucU as alropby, cbroulc tneuiugitis wllb effusioo, 
taiuom In tlie lateral veutrieles, etc. Another form of coma is that 
wliirb accouipauiuK acuU- diticiiiH-K of the brnin, wherein the aniniut uiuy 
be aneonscioais with sterterous breathing,difticult n'8pirution,etv. Wo 
luvet, however, with a type of cooia iu horsed which ean nut easily be 
Bttriltated to any »tH>eial diiwaHe of the braiu, nnless it he a inotHtlrd 
furui (if ci>iige»t)uu, wbiiib ia fiomotinieH amenable to treatnit-nt. Thin 
eonditlon l« termed immobilite by tbe Frencb, and sleepy staggers by 
nar stablemen. It is usually attributed to habitual ovoi'loading of the 
■tumacli witli bulky fund and want of exercise. 

^/mploma. — Sleepy staggers is eli»nu!tetiz;ed by drowsiiieKN, partial 
Innrnsibtlity, slaggi^li and often staggering gatt. The animal is in- 
titiued to drop his beiul in the manger and to go to sleep wltli a wad of 
hay in bis mouth, whieb be is apt to drop when be awakens. He will 
stand fur a long time with bis legs placed in any awkward position iu 
wbivb tbu owner may eboose to put tbem. The bowels are constipated, 
tliB iiqIhc slow and soft, with no fyvcror pnin. Tlie nitiiiial may remain 
iu this condition for many muulhs without niuch variation of ttyniptonii', 
or be may become entirely oomatose, with delirium or oonvulsiuus, aud 
die. Ckruuic ca^esare always uiiiuli better in fxild weather Ibau in tbe 
Bu miner. 

Trratm£nt. — Moderate hleetling from tbe jugular vein, 1 gallon from 
^IDe<lium-siKed, and 1^ or 2 gallons from a very large, heavy 
This should be iuimediately followed by a calbartic, compoaedj 


ofiitoes r>4lram!i, crotAQ oil drop!), aud 1 dram of CApHicum, to be 
luade into a ball vHh tianl soap, mola^iiefl, or bread soslced in water, 
EUid given oil an eni]>ty nIoidiktIi. Aft<-r the cuttiartic Lus ccaHed to 
Operate give ouc large tablespoonl'ul or balf an ounce of tlie folloviug 
tiifxtiiro lu'ico a diiy : Piilroi'izL*d hydraatiB, pulverised ginger, sodium 
biearboniite, of eiwh 4 onuses; mix. 

In some cattcs iodhle of potaasa in dram doaes twice a day, alteroated 
eavh week will 1 dram of calom*! twito a day, will prove aciccestiful. 
In caees nliore tbcro is n dei-'p coma or alnuwt continuous uii»)itKi;iocis- 
iwm, ice bags or cold-water tlotha sbould be applied to tlie head— be- 
tween tlie t'ars, dropping wvll down over tlie forebead and exteudiag 
backward from tUo ours for 4 or 5 lucbcsc 


Paral.TslB is a weakness or cessatiou of the muscular contraction, by 
diniiuntioii of losa of tlie condncting power or ntimulation of the mo.or 
ULM'ves. I'aralytic aflVctioutf are of two kinds, tLe perl'ect and the im- 
IM-rfoet. The former includes tlioso in wbicli both motion and eenel- 
bilily aro an<>cted ; thn latter those in which only one or tbe other is 
lost or dimiui.-«lied. Paralysis may he general or partial. The latter is 
divided into bemiplegia and paraplegia. When only a small iMirttou 
of tbo body is affected, as the face, a limb, tbo tail, it is designated by 
llie term loeul imnilysis. When (he irritJition ^xtendii from the pe- 
riphery to [Im wnter it is ttrmed refli-x paralysis. 

Causes. — ^They are very varied. Most of the acntc afleetions of tbe 
brain and spinal cord may lead to paralysis. Injuries, tumors, disease 
of tbe blood veHHelK of the brain, i>te., all h:ivt< a tetiiteney to prodnoe 
susjiensiou of the couduutitig motive power to tbe muscular Ktraotures. 
rn'a»Hn5 upon, or the serering of, a nerve (;aufie» a paralysia of the 
parts to wliicb sucli a nerve is dlstribiitiil. Apoplexy umy be termed 
a general paraly»iH, and in uon-fatal attacks in a frequent cause of tbe 
various forms of palsy. 


This can not lake place without producing immediate death. Tbe 
term Is, however, usually applietl to itaralyMH of tbe four extremities, 
irbetber any other portions of Mie body are involved or uot. This form 
of palsy is due to couipi^-ssiou of tbe brain by cougcetiou of its vessela, 
large clot formation in apoplexy, concussion or Rhook,or.any disease in 
which tbe whole brain structure is luvolved in fuucUonal disturbauoe. 


Hemiplegia is frequently tbe result of a tumor in the lateral ventricles 
oftltc brain, softening of ouc hemisphere of the cerebrum, jireasure 
fb}m cxtravotiatvd bluod, fracture of tbe cranium, or it may be doe to 


poiBOiis in tbe blood, or to reflpx origin. When hemiplegia is <!ae to or 
the result of a prior diseaso of tlie bratn, CKi)eetal1y of an intlamniatory 
cbarflclcr, it is selilom c-omiilctc; it may only nlYect one llmli and one 
Btd« of tue tiead, ucci£, or muscles aloii^ the Itaclt, and may jiass oS in 
a Tew days after tbe disappua ranee of all the oth«r evidences of tUe 
]triiunr,v aflfection. Tn the innjority of case^, hoxFeror, livmiplt>gta arises 
from enilKiti obHtruotiiig one or lunri' btnod-ressels of the brain, or the 
rupture of Bome vesael the wall ut which hud iK-conie weakened by 
d«gea«ration and the extravasation of blood. Senfiibility ju uio6t vaHee 
H not iiupairod, but in some there is a loss of seusibility aa well iia of 
motion. lu itomu cium'« the bluddt-r and ntctam are involved iu tbe 

Synptotns. — Tu hemiplegia tbo attach may be very eadden, and tlio 
animal fall down |)owerU>HK to move one side of the body ; oue elde of 
the lipM vrilt be i^Uxed; the tuuguu m:iy hang out on one Hide of tlio 
mouth; tbe tail uurved around sidevays; an inability to awallow fooil 
or water may b« present, nod often tbe uriae dribbles away as fast as it 
coltpcts in tbe bladder. f^nHtbility of tbe iillected side may be en- 
tirely lost or only jiartial ; the li mils maybe cold, and Bomelimett un> 
natarally warm. In r;a«e« wliprein the attack is not so severe the aul- 
mul may be able to maintain tbc> elaudiuj; position, but will have i;rvab 
dllUeulty iu uiuviuj; the aOecled aide. Ju huuIi caHea the aufnial may 
recover from the disability. In tbe more severe^, where there is com- 
plete tofta uf tbo (Hiwer of movement, recovvricM are ruro. 


Pua]ysl8 of the bind extremities is asually due to some injury, or 
iuflamnialioa affi-vting the spiniil oord. (See "Spinal Meningitis" aud 
"Myelitis.") It may also be due lo a rcflei irritntiou from disease of 
(K-ripbrrat ucrvc«, to Bpirnil Irritation or eungestion caused by blood 
poiHons, etc 

tSftHptomM, — When due to mechanical injury of the Hpinal conl, from 
a broken back or spinal bemorrhago, it is generally progre^ ve iu its char- 
acter, although it may \m nnddeu. When it i» causiil by agentn in the 
blood it may be intermittent or recurrent. 

Paraplegia is not difllcuU to leoogulze, for it Is charact«riKe4t by a 
weakness and im]M>rr<H:t control of the hind legH, aud powerless tail. 
The urine usually dribblea nwuy as it is formed and the manure is 
pa«bed out, ball by ball, without any voluntary effort, or the pa«sageq 
may cease entirely. When para)ilegia is complete, large and ill-con- 
ditioned sores soon form on the biji-<i and tliichs from chatlng and bruis- 
ing, which have a teuduucy to tjuickly wvakvu tbo auiuial aud uoccssi- 
tJLte bis destrucliou. 



TIliK is cbaracteris^Hl by ao inability to pro|>«rly control tbe move* 
mcDt of the limbs. Tbe aoimal ap)>earti usually perfectly houltby, bat 
tvlien be is lod out of Ins stiill tiis l4>gs biive a wobbly tnuvvittv>nl^ and 
«ill stumble or HlHg(:r-r, VHprciAlly lu (urntug. Wbcu tbiH is con* 
fliiKil to tbu bind itarts it umy be termetl a mollified form of paraplegia, 
but ofteo it may be nerrn to aO'ect nenrly all ihe rolualary muBcte« when 
tbey aro called Into play, aitd must be attributed to some xire^are ux* 
wind ou tbu base of tliu bntiu. 


Tbis is flreqaently met with in borses. It mny afTeot many parts of 
ctlie body, evco vital oif^ns, aiul Et is very frt-quuutly overlooked in 


Tbia is a frequent type of locul pnralyHis, and is da? t« ItnpnirmRnt 
of function of the motor norvc of Cbe fncial uinscle«, tbe purtio dtira. 
T)ie caufie may rxinl »t tbv iMitie of tbe brain, cumpreAsion uloni; iia 
co[irao after it leaves the medulla oblongata, or to a brutac afii-r it 
spretuls oat on the f^rent miuuteter muscle. 

St/7Hptont». — A finccif] condition of the cheek ronscleB, pendnlona Itps, 
inabilily Ui (tnwji the food, often n slow and weak movement in chew* 
iu£, uud tliffiuuUy and slonuess in driuUiug. 


Thi"! oniidition Ik oharacterixcd by roaring, and is osually caasod ^tj 
oil iiitkiue<t or byperiropbied brouubiul gUiud prexsiug ugiiioHt tbe lult 
recurrent laryngeal nerve, which interferes with it« ooQiliicting power. 
A similar condition is ocL-asionally indiicetl in netite pleuricty, where the 
recurrent uvrvu iK-couieu iuvulvoJiu lliediseaMid process or oumpres^ed 
by platttio exudation. 


This is generally the result of a blow or fall on the rump, which 
cauM-!t a fracture of tbe micrum iHine and injury to tbe nerves 8np|>ly> 
ing the tail and part of tbe rectum uiid uiiiAcles belonging lbfn*to. 
This h'aetare irould uot be ouspectedj were It not for the loss of motion 
of tbe UiL 


Characterized by perMstetit constipation -, freijiieiitly the atruDgest 
purgativea have no ellcut whatever on the niorenieut of the buwi-ls. 

In the absence of ttynipt^tnis of indlKestiou, or special dtsciLsf^n impli- 
cating tbe intestinal oanal, torpor of the bowels must be attributed to 


Mcint innervaCion. Tliis coqilitJoD may flf^pcml npon bram aOeo- 
Aoni, or be dae to reilt^x iiaralyHiK. f4iii1i|(*ii rtii.*ckK oi' perspiration 
Bt^lnitiiceexoewiive action of llie bovelx or puralyniit. 


nUnwially afTecrs tlie iieck or the Watldcr, uiiil in charartvrtzod by 
facMtititm-iT «f iirim' — Uu- urim? dribbles away ns fahl as rl is nctirclcd, 
DuMusf may beof n-lies (triffin, di«on«o of tlie ri.-«ltuii, luiuoracrow- 
I <nil)ia tbe pelvic cavity, injury t» the spiual ciinl, etc. 


ApRndj'rig of oycalgfat may oitcur very niiddetily fmm mptiira nf a 
nnel in tbe brain, acute lix^al conc«Bdon of tbe brain, tlie adtiiln- 
"oo of excessive doKi-it »t' belladonna or it« alkaloid atropia, ctp. 
tfmftoms. — lo nmam-osis tbe pupil is dilated to it« full vxteul, the 
(J* looki clear, but rioeH not re«iHiud to light. 

("Bnlysis of beariiifr, of the external ear, of the eyeli<l, parrial parnl- 
fui irf tbe bi>art aud orgaus of respiration, of the bluod vt-wteln from 
Norj tr. ilie vaso motor nerves of the oBsopba^s, or Iom of deplntitlon, 
Hl^J of the Btumach, all may be manifested when the Kapply of uur- 
^«>* tudanuM ja Impalrwl or RONpemled. 

^folmtnt. — In all paralytic »flV-ctiou» there may b<t aiKSrtfcwMi or ini- 

ininufflt of sensibility in addtttoti to the lo«« of motion, or tbera itwy 

^ ^§plTa$lhaia or increased seiiftibility in connection with tbe loss of 

^'^u. Tltese couditious tiiiiy call fur HiK-cial treatment in addition lo 

^^ Ibr loss of iDotiou. ^Vll(■^e hyiM'ra-.fithenia in wfll iimrktMl luutl 

'"^xljFiies may l>e oeeilefl to relieve RUffcrinff. Chloroform liniment or 

'J^lerniie injections of fivni 3 to u grains o{ sulphate of morphia will 

'^i lucal paio. If there is marketl auiPHlbesia or hrw of sen»ilji!ily It 

keome necessary to secure tbe animal in Kui;h a way that he can 

■affer serious injury from aoddetits which he can not avoid or foel. 

'^B (lie (real ment of any fonii of jHiralysis w» must always refer to Ibe 

"^kud attempt iln removal if it can liediMOovenil. In cnMes whi-re 

"WflBBBe can not be determined we Uavo to rely sokly upou a gi-ncral 

Wtriral and ioterual treatmeuL Externally, fly-hlistem or sipmik irri- 

""Uiiiimeiits may I»r applied to the i>iirnU/.ed part". In ht-mijib-jjiu 

'"J' should be applied ulung the bony part of th« nidii of the iifck ; tn 

•"^i^ple^a, acro»3 die loins. lit 6i>me cases bot'Water clothe will bo 

^"tflcial. Inlernally, it Is well to administer 1 dram of imwdered imi« 

*'*)i(a or 3 grains of sniphate of strychnia twice a day until twitclj- 

'K itt'pome of the voluuCury ninKc1r.t occur; then discontinue It fiTm-v- 

'^1 days, and tbcu commence agn\u with a smaller doHe, gmdoally in- 

''^•siiig it antil twUchinp recnrs, fu some eiwes Fowler's wdutio n of 

''^niciu U-uHpoonfiil duKcs tnice a d:iy. in the drinking 

**'«ficial. Occasionally beueflt muy bo derived from 


of tbe electric ctiiTeut^ esjiecially Id cases of roariog, fAcinl paralysis, 
|iHral}'Ai» Df tho e^'ehil, etc. Kntritious but not too bnik; fciocl, good 
vcutilatioQ, clean stablitif;, moderutv ejccrct&c if the aciron] is capabto 
of taking it, goot] gruouiiiig, etc., sUuulit be obs«rvei} lu all csLKeft. 



Causes. — This may bo inOuced by tbe irnCaut properties of blood- 
poi8ous,(*xliaustiuii,auil expUHure, spinal uuiicussioii, »1! forma of iujury 
to ttiit t«piim, tiiiuurs, caries of tbt^ verte-brie, rlieamatisiii, el«. 

8gmp{omn. — A obtll tnay 1x5 (bo pnxsursor, a rise in tutnperature, or a 
geueral weakuess aud sliirting of tho legs. Soon a painful, couvuUive 
twitchtugol' tlio ninsclea aeU In, followed by miiacular rigidity alon^ ibe 
npitie, in wbicih conilitioii the animal will move very stiffly aud evince 
great i>ain in turning. Bviduncea of panUyciis or paraplfjcia develop, 
retention or inconlincnct) of urine, and oftentimes sexual excitement is 
present. Tlio ]ire.s«nco of marked fever at the be^iniiiug of tho attack, 
ajtKOcii^ted with opinal Rympt4>iiiH,stionld lend as to sii.speetKpinal mea- 
ingitis or mycUtiH. These two condilionH usually appear together, or 
myelitis follows iiillaniination of tbe meninges so closely tbat it is almost 
impossible to separate tbe t^'o; practically it doe» not matter mucb, for 
tbe Irealment will be about tbe Kama in both caMeK. Spinal ueniugitia 
generally becomes chronic, ami Is tben marked priucipally by paralysis 
of tbat portion, or parts of it, posterior to the seat of tbn diH*.>iiK«. 

Vaihology. — In spinal racningitis we will Qud essentially the same €X>l»- 
ditton as in cerebral meningitis; there will be an etfaition of serum be- 
tween tbe memhranes, and often a plastic exudation firmly adherent to 
tlii'pm mufrr aurvrji to maintain a utate of paralyKiH for a lung time 
after the acnte symptoms have disappeared by compressing tbe cord. 
Finally, atrophy, softening, and even abseuss may develop wllhiu Cbo 
conl. Unlike in man, it 'm tisuatly found localized in h»rsi-N. 

Treatment, — Bu'^s filled with ice should be applied along tbe spine, to 
be followed Inter ou by strong blititers. Tiie fever sbonUl be controtleil 
as early as possible by givbig 20 drops of Norwood's tincture of vera* 
trumyiride everj boor, until the d^itireil rcHult is obtaineil. One drain 
of the fluid extract of belladonna, to control pain and vascular exoite- 
iDCDt of tbe spinal cord, may be given every live or six hours until the 
pupilx of th« eyen bfconu' [nvtty well dilaU'il. If lh«t pain '\» very in- 
lensu 5 grains of sulphate of uiorpbia should be iujected hypodermically. 
The animal must lie kept 9a free from excitement as poissible. If the 
urine ia retained iu the bladder it must be drawu off every four or »)& 
hours, fu Very ai!iite nttackK rbc diHeuKU genenilly proves fatal in a 
few days. If, however, the animal gf^ws butter some form of paraly- 
sis is apt to retii»in for a long time and tho trratment will bave to 
be directed ibcu toward a removal of the exudative products aud a 





BlreuglbeulDg or the s;sl«m ami Klltuulatiou uf tUf> oervouA fViuctioQfl, ' 
To iailaoe absorption ioflide of i>atas»a in 2 <1raiii iloses may be given 
dinsolviHl iu tbo drinking wittor twii» n day. ToHtrcugtbeu tbe ays* 
tt:iu, iodide of iron 1 dram tn-ioe a day atid L draia of tiax vomica oQe« 
a day may be given in tLi> feed. Elocthcity to the paralyzed and 
veakviied muHcIi>!i in lutviHublt!; tb« current 8bnn1d b«* weak, but Im 
Continued for btilf an liour two or tliceo tiinvK daily. If the disease la 
duu to a broken bmrk, caries of the vertebne, or some other irromedi- 
ablti cause, tlia auiin;\l slioald be destroyed at ouce. 


This is ft rnro disease, except as a secondary rosultof eplmd meniu- 
^gitia or irijurit^s to the Hpine. i'uiKoiiing, by leai), urseiiic, mercury, 
phosphorus, carboulc-a«id gJin, etc., hus beeii known to produce It. 
HyelitiA way 1>e conflni^l to a small sjmt in thn <^onl or may involve the 
whole for a variable distance. It may lead to softcuiug, absoess, or de* 

8j/mptoms. — The attack may be^n vtth a chill or convulsions; the 
ItiecleM twitoJi or iMrutimo cmmiK^d very early in the diHeuKC, and the 
bla<lder usually is aOeeted in the outset, iu which there may be tither 
rftontion or IneontinL'noe of uriui.'. TUese oouditious arw followed by 
couiplnte or partial paralysis of the muscles pOAlurior to tlie locality of 
Uie inllatued mrd, and the mu»clc.i bt^jfin to wasle away rapidly. The 
paralyzed Umb tiecomes cold aud dry, due to the siispensiou of proper 
circulation; the Joints luuy Hwell aud become Uidematous; vesicular 
eruptioHH appear on the skin, aii<l fr^^^uently gangrenouH sluiighs form 
OQ the paralysed parls. It ih exceedingly iteldum that recovery takes 
place. Id a few instauces it may a^isume a cbrotiio type, wbeu all the 
■yiDpioiDS become uiilij^ated, and thn.s eontiuno for somo time autil 
■epticwmfa, py;i*niia, orexh^m-stion rauttes death. 

Pathology. — The inflammaLiou tuny iuvolve nearly the whole length 
of the cord, bat generally it is tnore inientie in Rome places thau others; 
[vbeu due tfj niecliiiiiicid injury the infianiinatioa may remain eoulined 

I a small section. The cord is ttwolleu and congested, reddened, often 

)ft«oed and iufiltratud with pus ceils, atid tho uervc Dletueuls arc de- 


Trt^tnteat. — Similar to that of spinal meniugilui. 


This is the sequcnoe of myelitis, when some mild form of the disease 
.baa been eiisting. T1iick>Miing and hardeniu? of the interstitial tis»iies 
rof tbeoord, the result of iuHummatory products, constitute sclerosis. 
Tlie affected seetjou has a gray appearance, is firmer tlian the surround- 
ing tissue, sometimes presents a depresMed surface and at other times 
may be elevated above the geueral level of the cord. 

R^m;)fr>m«. — Paraly?! 8 of wnsatton or motimi In loca! mnscles, aatf 
wlii'ii l<>cut(->(l iu the region of the net^k may prcm-nc tliu syiuptuow «:>f 
louoiuotor ataxia or inco-ordiuatiou uf moToment. S|iinai Hclonnis nuAjr 
be Ba«|iecieil when tlicse tt.viuptoiu!} siic-'oeed an Attack uf rnyelitift, 

»TfMtfn«N(. — Tli« IihIicIl- of iron iniiy b« ^ir<^-Q iii ilKtm tiit<i^H tn-im s 
day fur a week, niteruating with two-gratu doses uf fiulpbate uf atijdi- 
Jiia twice a day for ft wvuk. 


The distinction between con^stion ond hypcra»nia is one of (lefre* 
raMi«^rUmu kiiul. Tii biitb wu Uuil »u exot.>»» of blood, lu h,v|wrj'aia 
the current is uuii^iially rapid, in congestion it in [umsualty &Iow. Tbu 
distinction between hrpt'rinmiit mid intlainiuatioii in ulso difficult tfi 
make; one is only th(> forerunner of the otlivr. Ah tbe blood vtrASels *" 
tbu i>iH miittir lire tlie |irinet(Kil uourc^^ of tmi)|)ly to the sptiml curd, by* 
peneraiaof the cord and of tlie tneuinges usually go together. Tli« symP' 
toins iin>, ttiert^fore, do-wly ullicil tu tboi^i) of Kpinitl int^nlngititj Al^ 
myi-Iitis When the pia uiuter i» diseased tlio spinal cord is almosC io* 
variably alTecl«d alKo. 

Cause, — Sndden checking of the perspiration, violent ezeroiae, bloffSi 
and falls. 

Symptirmx. — ^Th« Myni|>totn» may vary souofffaat with each oaac, atid 
oloiiiely re»eiiiblctbe Qr^t sytuptomn uf opitial meuln{;iUH, Hpinaltuniunii 
and luyelitls. First, some disturbance in moTeuient, lowering of tiM 
tenip<?raliire, and partial loss of nvnsihility poj»t4*rior to thi; sent of the 
congcriiiou. If in tbu cervical n-giuii it may cause intcrftTfUco in 
jii^athing and tbe notion of the beart. When in the region of iha loins 
thiTC inity l>e loss of control of the bladder. WImn tbo congestion is 
aufficicut to prudut-f. c(>mprtf»»ion of tbo cord, luiraplrgia may Xm com- 
plete. Usually fever, spasnm, muscular twitching, or niQscutur rigitUt; 
an' ah8t>ut, which will serve to distinguish spinal congestiou Ttom spinal 

Treatment. — Uot- water applicalfons fco the splue, omsdram du:*i-« Quid 
eztraotof b«lladouu»re]>eated erery four houret, and tincture uf uconito 
root 20 dro|>s ('Very hour until the symptoms become unii'liorutvd. If 
no lutlauiniatury productii ocvur the animal is likely to reoorur. 


lliis may beakusMl by extri^nic cold. cxhanBtitig diMAwa, spinal fin- 
buIiHin or plugging of a upinal biuwIvt'Huel, an interfereuce with the 
circulation thruugli the al)douiliial aorta, from ooniprosstoii, tbroinboHis, 
or ant-nrisinof that v-eHsel ; tbespiual vessels may bo cnniHvl toonnlnkcb 
tlir^mgU vasu-mutor iullucutsf^ a nwull of poriphunU irrilatiou uf fiom« 


Sptptomt. — Sjiiual ausmia cnuitm {inralyni!) of Iha mosnles niwd in 
extciitliDg tlie lioiW "Wben Uie blndder is affected it prewdes tlie w«ak* 
□ess itf motion, whil** in HpiDAl(»n;;t\stiun it follower, uiiil inrrea.<icd .sen* 
_5iliility, in place ur tUminisIiuil fMMtsiliilily, as iii S]>iual cougeatiou, is ob- 

rved, Pnwunre along tlie qiirie caux^.^ (>xce8ttive |i»iu. 

Treatweut—tf tbe excltiug chuho caii b« removed the nulmal recov- 
ent j if this fails, tbe siiioal cord may undergo softealug. 


When canMtd by tomors or otberwise wb»iri presaare is slight, it pro- 
dacfs li p.-ir.dyKiH nf th» niu»(rli-» iinihI in »xtrniliiij{ u limb iiud imntnu}- 
tion of those wliivlt dex it. WbtiU «i)mpre8.siou in j^ivat ilc:iaseii com* 
I>Iete loss or sensibility and uiotiou i>usterior to tbo compressed part of 
th© cord. 

Uunipi't-«tioii of a lat«rAl bftlf of Miu <M}rd prodmM»i motor pnn^lytiis, 
distarbauce iu tbe circalation, nnd difiionlty oruiovemeat, au iocreiieed 
eeasibiltt.r on tbe side oorroapouding to tbe uoHipr«t<st.'d twcliuu, aud a 
diuinislied aetutibility and some p»raly.sis on tlie opposite side. 

Treatment. — Wlit-u icoccuniusuHi'qui;ncuof apn^H.'dhi<;intlttinmat4>ry 
disease, iodide of potassa and general tonics arc indicated. VVbeii due 
to tiiRiorsgroviite witbio tlio spiiial canal, or to pressiiro from diS' 
placed boiie, no form of treatment will re«alt in uny beriefi.U 


This may arxrur tmm phang^nin tlie wall of ttiv blood-vesspl.i, in con- 
Devtioi) wilb Uiraora, a«:uie myelitis, traumatic injuries. etc. Tbe bluuU 
nay oscapo tbrou;;li tbe pia m ater intu tbe sub-aracbuoid cavity, aud 
large dots be formetl. 

SfviptoMM. — The symjitoms are largely d(>p(>n<l«nt upon the seat and 
extent of tbe bumorrbago, as tb(>y are principally dne to tbe coiupres* 
oion of tile cord. A lurge dob may proilace audduii paraplegia acMini' 
IMinicd by severe paiti along tho spioo ; uaiiaUy, however, tbo paralysis 
of Uoih motion aud Hennatiuii is not very ninrkeil at fiot ; on the Ht^Kimd 
or tbinl day ferer is apt to appear, and increased or diminisbed sensi- 
bility aluug Lbo Spine posterior to the scut of the clot. Wlien Ibo 
bladder and rectum are iurolved in the symptoms it ludicates tbat the 
■pina) oord is cuui|)re)iMMl. 

Treatment.— In tbe occurrence of iqjnries to the back of a horse, 
wbimoriv there is any eridenrai of paralysis, it i.** always advisablo to 
apply bftgs of toe along tbe spine to check or prevent hemorrlmK« or 
ooagestloa,and 3 drams of tbe duid extractor ergot and 20 drops of 
tinctnre of digitalis may Iw given every bonr until three doses have 
beoa Cabrn. Subscqiirntly tincture of helladonita iu balf-oaaoe doses 
maybe giveu tbn« times a day. If there is uocb paiu, 5 grains of 
■alplinte of morphia, injected under tho »l;in, will nffoni relief and lossoa 
tb» *«xoitabJlity of tbe animaL lu all cases tbe animal should be kept 
liwfectly qnieU 



TblH ta rarely obaerred in tbe horse, and antess ft is soffi^lently se- 
vere to iiroduco well-raarkeil arniptoms it woiiltl not l)o suBpectetl. U 
niaj- occur hi Badtlle-horiii!* from jumping, or il nia.v be produced by 
falling over an embaiikTDi;iit, or a violent fall u|>oii tlic bnuucliec} may 
produce it, OoucuaBiou mny be followed by pnrtial paralysis or spiual 
bemorrhage, giMiprally, liowevrr, it i.s confined to ii jiirrinp and Home 
di.sturtmiict) of llm iicrvrt cleitienlH of the cord, and tlio purulytiir effect 
which CUSUC8 bood paases off. Treatment consists m rest until the ani- 
mal biut completely recovered iVom the eliock. If si^condiLry effectafoU 
low ft-om hemorrhage, or uompresnioQ, they have to be txtuted aa here- 
tofore dirt^cted. 


Withlu the oubstanee of the eonl glioma, or the mixed gliosarooiDBtat 
is fouud to be the most frequent, tumors may form from the ujeninges 
and the vertehnw, bein>r of a fibrous or bony nature, and tiQect theapi- 
nal conl iudirently by coiupruasiOD. lu the uieuingeft we may find gli* 
oms, oaiicurs, pKammooia, fibromata; and aneuruimH of the spinal 
arteries have beeu discovered iu the spinnl caunL 

/Jyni/)(orajr.— Tumor* of the spinal canal cau:<eKymptoms of spinal irri- 
tation, or comiire»:'uou of the cord. The gradual and slow development 
of syiuptomii of paralysis of one or both bind limba or certain muscle* 
may load to a suspicion of sp'inal tumors. Tlie paralysis iudueed la 
progressive, but not usually marke*! with atrophy of the muscles, ot in- 
urua»cd HenHibility nluu^ the Kpine. When the tumor is within the spi- 
nal cord itself all the symptoms of myelitis may bo present. 

7Vea(»i«a(. — General tontea and dram doses of uux vomica may be 
given; iodide of iron or iodide of i>otasaa in drnm doses, three timee a 
d.iy in fi-ed, may, in a very few caxes, {jive some temporary lM>!UeAu 
Usually the disease progresses steadily antil it provea lataL 



TliiB is caused by a bruise or wound of n nerve, or to strangulation 
In a ligature when it is included in the ligation of an artery. The 
ohanges in an inttamed nerve are an enlargement, reddening of the 
nerve sheath, spots of extra vasatcd blood, and &omelime<s an intlltration 
Of serum mixed with pus. 

SjfMptomt. — Aonte pain of the parts supplied by the nerve, and absence 
of swelling or increased beat of the part. 

Treatment. — Hypodermic iiijectious of from 3 to 5 graina of morphia 
to relieve pain, hot fomentations, and reat. If it is due to an iuclasioD 
Of a ligature, the nerve shuulU be divided abore and below tbe ligainre. 



Keiiroma may be Troiu eulapfteineiK of the end of adivuie*! n<>rve,ordae 
to Qbrnas degeneration of n nwrvp whitTli has Iwen hniised or wonnded. 
Its most fruquciit occurreiic« is found aft<*r the oi>erMtioa of neiirot^nif 
for fool lamf nesa, and it ma.v apl'^^r only after the lA)>se of inoiitlia, 
or cfen years. Neuromn iigually dovolop within the sheath of the nerre 
with or without im[diui»ting the nerve fiheN. They are oval, runniag 
Wii^tbwise with the din-otlon of the ucrve. 

Sjfmptoma. — Pain of the affected limb or part ia tnaitifested, niorv es- 
pecially after rc-stiofr awhik', and wbcu pressure is made upou thQ 
tarnor it {■nniteA extreme Huflering. 

Trf'itment. — Excision of Ibe ttiiuor, including |iart of the ucrve abovs 
and below, and tlieo treat it like an; other »iiii|ile wouod. 


iflM may conalsfc in Tronnding, brniatng, Inceration, atretohiog, com- 
presaiMi, etc. The symittoniit which arc prodaocd will d«|>end ui>oa 
tbo extent, seat, and elianicler of the injury. Kerovery may quickly 
take platx', or it may lead to neuritis, ueuroiua, or spinal or cerebral Irri- 
■ tatioD, which may reanit in telannti, puralysia. and other aerioua de- 
ft raogeucDta. lu all disea^ea, whether produced by some form of ex- 
Htttmal violence or iiitrintiiv cau!W<t, the uervi>H are nueeK^urily involved, 
^^^9 aometimea it ia to a primary injury of them that the principal fault 
^TnlnoTenient or change of nulrition of a part is due. It is often diffl- 
cdU or imiKjHsible to disoover that un injury to a iit-rvu hna been in- 
flicted, but whenever this iu possible ti may enable us to remedy that 
which otherwise would result in permanent evil. Ti'eutnient should 
Gonwisl in relierint; cooipreaiiion, in hut fumentacionit, the application 
of aftodyue liniments, excision of the injured part, and rest. 


Tbia may oocar at^rudiually as an eueepbalitis, with implications of 
the Kpimd conl and ilii mcniiifceut. Uxually, however, it ajipcars a« an 
eiizouty iu a stable, city, or farming diatrict, not infrequeatly extead- 
ing long diatances in oerlaia well-defined lines, along rivers, valleys, 
or along ridges and monntains. l-'nr this reaMi>n the enxootio cerebro* 
Hptnal meningitis baa Ix-eu attributed by some veterinariaus to ntmoa- 
pheric iuKuenoes. The Bret written history we have of this disease was 
pabllshed about thirty yuars ago by Dr. Isaiah Hickcner, of Caruers- 
Tillo, P»^ in a pamphlet entitleil " i^amiysia of the I'arV'aguin.*' Sev- 
eraJ years later Prof. A. Large, of Bnniklyn, N. Y., gave ir the name of 

t"GerebrO'apiimt meningitis" on Hccoiint of its similarity lo that disease 
Id the hamaii family. Dr. J. C. Micheuer, of Colmar, Pa., in 18S2, 
Higge-tri'd the name of *' ]''nngi»U!< Tnxit-uiu Paralylk-us," lu view of 
Ibe exciting cause being found iu foods undergoing fermentation. In 

kiioa;; — u 


Eii|;land a ximilar (1ise:uw ban l>een called ** grafts staggen," dai 
eating tjo gniss wlieti il is npeuing ur wbeu it. i»4:at and enten wliile 
it iA heAtiiiK Aitl nnilergoltig fermeutatiou. Id eaateru PeuuHylvauiu 
it wiw formerly known by tlie uamo of *'i)utrid sore tliroat " rtnd 
"oliokiiig disti'tiiiwr." A iliseiwp similar in mntiy resptwls, which ia 
very prevalent In Virgluia, «HiM*oiaIly along tb«(>aAU<rD liordi>r, is coin- ^ 
moiily known by the oauie of " bliud staggers," and iti many of tlief 
BOiilb«rD Stat«& tbi« hm been attributed to tbe consuntptiotj of womq- 
eaten tmni. L'rort>Asor Liirge attribittftd the cause of tbe disease to a 
lack of sanitary couditicinM, poi-tonoiint gasen, or emanations de)>endfng 
npim defetttive sewerago in cities, defL*ctive draluago on lands in tbe 
country, and dc&ciont stable ventilation. 

Tbetw n^pnted causes, bowover, are iuadcqoatti to account foreo-callvd 
enztiiitic or L'pidBiiiiiMH>rebro.H)iinal Ru-niiigitiK. Il Imjneiilly proves as 
fatal on thti liitlH and table-lands of Mtiut«rdon Connty, N. J., Bucks, 
Muutgomery, Luhigli, and Kortlianipton Cniiniieo, Pa.^ an it dnvfi iti tbe 
dark, (lump, illy %'entilate<l stables in Xew York or Philiwlelphia. It 
attacks animals vbicb have beeu running »t pauture, wUure UniinagB 
has l>e«n {lerfecit, as well sut animals wbicb bare been stabled and kept 
on dry food, reganllntH of variation in niiy appntciitlile Sftnitary condi* 
tioD. It aQ'ects borses of all ages and botb seses ; teniperaiueDt or cou- 
diliuu does uot alter tbvir siiKueptiblUty. Mules are attacked as well 
as liorseH, and tbe mortality is equally as great. There is, however, a ^ 
variable itevority of nymptonm and degree of fatality in differeot oat- fl 

Tbiil tbBre (a some HpoeiQc causa wbieb indnces tbis disease is eer- 
tain, fur it is neitber contagions nor infectious. PerHonally. t Wlieve ■ 
tbp iiauac (m cunnectifd witb tbe food, either developed in it through 
Aufue fermentative procvas or uiwu it iu the form of ouo of the many 
paratiittc fnugi which grow on piniitj?, grains, and vegetation. That 
these, when lliey are coiisumiMl at certain Ktages of their development, 
make a noitwjuoiis impres.'^iou upon tbe brain and nllimately indnce 
striictiirat diaugeit is tibowti, I tbiuk, by tbo history of the outbreaks 
wbet'cver they cuu be trnM^d. iu many tuslances the outbreak of the 
diseasu liux bueu Kimultaueunsly witnessed where brewetA^ grains, oatii, 
and bay have lieen fed, which vfiuld be trat^^t from place to plact;, from 
oue didCHsed coutcr to uuotbvr. That they were tbe carriers, if not 
tbe prime factora, can uot be denied. 

Sifmptvms. — Tlio symptoms wliicli typify sporadic or epidemic cerebro- 
spinal meiiiiigilis in man an; m^ldoui witneK.-iL'd iu egnal distinctness 
among boraes, viz: esceasivo pain, bigb fever, and early muscular 
rigidity. In the recognition of the severity of the attack we may divide 
tbe symptoms into three grade-s. In the most rapidly fatal attacks, the 
animal may Urst indicate it by weak, ataggeriug gate, partial or LoUit 
inability to swallow solids or liqnifls, iinpnirmentol eyesight; twitvh- 
iug of the uiusolvs, and sliifbt crampb may be ('hservcd. rhtsl& Huoa 



follow«<1 by ft pnmlyflifl of tbe whole body, inability to stand, ilfrlirinm In 
wbich itm animal sometimes i^nea tliroit|{li u ft»ri(.>s or aittomiitlc moce- 
menu as if trotting or running; thnilcliriuni may Iwc^me very riolent 
and tfa« ftiiimiil inhis anoonacioasnflssbruisohisbeadm his struggles 
Teryfltfioaaly, bat usually a deep comi) renders Itimrinlet nntil bo exiiires. 
I>C*tli In (11086 cases uaunlly tnkes plnce In from four to twenty four 
bouni (torn tbe timu tbt* first ityni[it«inH biHianiti manifest The pulse la 
variable during tbe [trogro^sof tlie di8«t)^e; >t may be almost imper- 
oep(il>l« at ttnu'8, and tlien again very rapid and irr«ealar; the res- 
pirations g<3ni>rilly aro quick and (tatubing. Wben nitAckcd in tbia 
mpidly fatal funn ari> may tie alilo only to diHCin^uish it fmm tinot-pba- 
lUiit wbon other animals tu the same stnblci nr neigbborhooil are simi* 
larly alTectptl, In tlin nest form in wbirb it may de%Tlop, it first bo- 
oontos manifest by a difHonlty in awnllnwing and slownesR in maittica- 
tion, mail a weakuti^ which umy bt> Urst nottoed iu the struu^tb of the 
tail ; the animal will Ix* uiiahU^ to swit^ih it or to offer resistance when 
wo bund it ap over tbe cruup. Thii puUe ik oftvn a little kIowit Ibuii 
noniuU. There is uo evideuuo of ]>ain ; the respiratioas are uochangedf 
atul the temperature little leas titan normal ; Ihebowt.-ls may bo soma*; 
wbatcoiuttipatiMl. Tbrst: Hym|>toiU!( may ri>main unvbangmt for two ' 
thn-c dayn ami Mien i,'railual improremeiit take place, or the fiower to 
svallow may bocomo entirely lost and the wcakuo^ and uncertainty-] 
iu ti'-^il more and more (xrifeptilile; then Hli>p.piiieM8 or coma may ap- 
pear; the pnl»e b«u)mu.tde|>reAsed, iitowand w«^k, thebrualhiuff Hter- 
tenHiSi and paroxysms of delirium develop, with iuahilityto stand, and 
■MHO ripdity of the spinal ma»clcs or partial crftm|> of tbu neck and 
jawK. Ill Kn»h KLSHii dr^tb may oiTi^nr in from nix to ton <liiy8 from the 
oommeucL-mentof the attack. In many cahim thire is uo evidence of 
pail). H|iaHra. or frvt^r at any timn daring the progress of the dineaseti 
and (InHlly profound ouma develops and death follows, painless and 
wilbuuL a struggle. 

tn tbu last or mililest form, the inability of voluntary control of the 
Ijmlitt bwwnies hut rtligbtly marked, tliu|H>wer of HwalloM'ing nprrr en- 
tirely lodt, and the animal haa no fever, iMtiu.or uneoiisviouri movements.'* 
OWMrally tbo animal vill begin to improve about tbe fourth day and 

tfi a few cases the spinal symptomK, manifeNtcil by paraplegia, may 
bo tho mo«c prominent oywptoum; iu others they may be altugfthor ab- 
Hcataiid ihu main nymptom^ be ilifttenlty in ma«iticulion and HWallonr- 
log; rarely it may affect one limb only. In all ciiseH where coma re* 
nmitift iilwriit for six or seven ilays tlio aiiittiitl is likely to roL-over. 
When changes toward recovery take place, I he symptom.s usually leave 
In the revorna order In wbiuh they ileveloped, bnt local paralysis may 
rt*ai»in fur mime time, rarely jiersiHtciit. 

Onr attack di»eM not give immunity, for it may recur at some later 
tlmo and prow Intal. Uorseti have been known to pass through Uirco 
Utaeka, being alToeted for a week or longer each time. 

Treatment— In tbe worst cln&s of cases truatmcut Is vcrj seldom 
Bucrx-Asfiil, »ml it ia ilatigerotis to attempt the aduiiiiRtrittiou of medi* 
ciuc by tlie mouth, on acconntof the iuabilitv of tliouuiiiiul to swiUlow. 
Cold shower bnths may jicsHibly induce revuliiirti action iti oouDectioil 
with stimiilantA ]>cr rectum, 4 to G ounces of wbiskyio 2 jiiatsof mflk; 
the lulialatiou ut'iiuimonia rapur from a ftponge «aturiiri-d with dilut« 
aqua ammoiim umy nrous? couscinDKnei>i4 

1 u tb« 8«couil viiiNH of aaiins t liu treatmeu t recotu memled by Profeasor 
Lar^e ciiiiKlKLt In gU'ing a cathaitic composeii oC I ounce of oIoca flod 
tlio ndmiuistratiou of 1 to 2 drumts of tho »otid extract of brlladoiiaa, 
alternated every tbfijo hour* with 30 dr<)[>s of tiuct*ire of acoDito root, 
am) tbe appHcation of blitttcra to the ueck, spine, aud IbroaC When 
tUe animal Is unable to swallow, one-fonrtli-Kraiti diwcs of sulphate of 
atropia may be injected uiidiT the skin every four, ais, or eight boon, 
M the onse may demand. The atropia is a lieart stioiulunt, increaMS 
eapfllarycirciiUtioii, and (luiuis pain and exrilability. This treatment 
has t>een followed by very gnuifytng result-niti tbe biiiidi« of Profeaaor 
loirso aud otiieni. When the moat jiromtDent aymptems abate pr« 
sui>h footl aa they may be able to eat, keep Avsh, cool water i-ouNtaDtly 
beforu tbeui, fiup|>ort them lu slings if necessary ; clean stabliug aud 
picntj' of frexh air are of tbe utmost im[H>rtauce. 

l*atltotogg.~-Poat mortem examination reveals moreor le^ ooDceation 
of the blood vcntsels at the b;i8e ot the brain, vll'usiou iu tbe veutriclA* 
and in tbe Kubanichnnid Hpact* both in tbe cranial and tbe spioal cari- 
tics. Plastic exudation is often found adherent to the pia mut«r of tiie 
brain, anterior part of the spinal cord, and iu tbe rei;iou of tbe loins. 
Tlu' tirain and imhI appi-ar aoftencd in some uaaea where the {greatest 
eviik-uceof inllaniiuatuty actiuu existed. 

UggicHic measureii Hcc^ul.—VfheaevBi this dlHeaitc appears in a stable 
all the auimald should be removed an sood as iiossible. They sbodld 
be provided with clean, wpll-ventilated, aud weli-draiued stables, and 
curb animal should retTeive 1 dram of tbe extract or half an ounoe of 
the tincture of bidUidoruia twicuaday fur si-rurul days. The abandoned 
Stable should bo tborooghly cleanseil from all waate matters, receive a 
coat of wbittnvaxb containing 4 ounces of catholic actd to the gatloB, 
and should have time to dry tliorougbly before tbe hor»i.*R are replaoed* 
A complete chaufn of food is of tbe very greateet im)K>r{auce, on ao- 
count of tbe belief that the caitse resides in diseaseil grain, hay, and 


This diacAse is ebaracterized by spasms affecting the mnscles of tfc* 
tave, neck, body, aud limbs, of all the muscles supplied by (bo cerebrtK 
spinal ucn-es. Tbe spa-smsor muscular conlraclious arcrigid and per- 
sistent, yet mixed vitU oeooaiuual more lutet'se coutiracuoiis of couvtU- 
aive violeuee. 



Cauae».—The cunaea a^ttKK^^ ondcr two boAils, Iraumatie nliere 
It 10 iLe roaalt of injury, mid i^iopatkie where it ta <liie to otUer causes 
ttiau iujuries, Bucb as eul(3 and daiop, excessive frjglit, nervoaH exbaust* 
ioD fruiu overwork, cbmnic irritation ciuu^frd liy worms in llio intestiaeSf 
etc It) tbe iDHJnrJt.v of iiiatuui^vs tbe c;tii»f) of tetatiutt cnii be traued 
to votinds, o8i>ecial)y pricks or wounds of ibe fevt or of t«udiuoua 
Btnirtiired. Il fu>iii«tiines ToUoh's castrntion, docking. tb« intrwluctiou 
of iwtous, iiicbi!;ioo of a nerv«^ in a litiaturi^ etc. U may coitiu uti a 
long time uft«r tbe wound is Ijealed, tbree or four moatbo. In soma 
ovuiitri«8 wltero t«tauti4 appears to boenzoOtic tbo presumption istbat 
it IB 'Jill? to a sjKH'i Ai* germ. I lorst'K wilb a ntrvoUM, (•xoitnble ilLsposi i ion 
»T« mure pre<linpo<«tHl tbitii tbosu of a uioruMluggisli natnre. StaUitiiin 
ara more subject to develop tatanns as tbe result of woiimls than geLd- 
iDgH. autl geldini^) more tbun mares. 

.V^m^ftiwix. — Tlie attacks may \w acnle or Hnbaniite. In an acute at- 
tack the auimul uxually dies witbiu four da.vR. Tbe Unst syuiploms 
whicb attract tbe attention of tbe owner is diHlvuity m chewing and 
sfrallowiug, au eiteuBiou of tbe bead and protrusion over the iiiuor 
part of the eye of ttie membrana nictitans or baw. An examination of 
the moQtb will rereat an inability to open tbe jaws to their foil extent, 
ami the endeavor to do so will prwlnce grnat n«mm« excitAbility aud 
iuereafiod spatam of the iunscle.s of the Jaw and neck. Tbe uiusclea of 
tlw n^ck nml along thu Kpiut* bveomo rigid ami thtt lt^g;« are moved in a 
Btiir muuuer. Tbe slight^^st uoise or disturhaoce throws the animal 
into lucreased «paF>m nf all tbn afri;<:ti^l miiKcleit. Tbe tall !« UKuallj 
elevAt6d ftod held immovable; the Iwwuls beeome eoiistiputed early ia 
tiMKttack. The teuii>erature and pulse are not uiuub changed. These 
■jTioptoins in the acnte type become rapidly aggravated until all the 
raiuelce are rigid — in a Htutuof tonic H]»a»iii — with a continuous tremor 
ruDuing through Lhem; ii cold perspiratiou breaka oat on tbe body; 
the bn>atbiMg beootnes painful from tbe Kimsm of tbe mtisclea used in 
iVMptraiion; the jaws are completely set, eyeballs retracted, lipadrawa 
fctgbily over tbe tevtb, noslrilis dilatfd, and tbe aoimal presents a pic^ 
ore of the most extreme agony until death relieves him. The pulse, 
wbich at Untt was not luueh affected, will lievoine i[uiek ami hard, or 
Rmall aud thready when the aiNWoi affects tbe muHcleg of tbe bcnrt. 
In the subacut« oases the jaws may never become entirely locked ; the 
nervoua excitability and rigidity of muscles are not ho great. There ia, 
bowe%'er, always sooie stiffnesH of tbe neek or spine manifest in turu- 
ing ; tbe haw is turoed over tbe eye-ball wbcn thw nose In »;Ievate«l. It 
is Dot onoouimon fur ownt-rN to eontinue Knch animals at their work for 
MTeral days after the first symptoms have iHHiii obsprv<-d. All the 
eymt>toU8 may gnulually iiicreusti iu severity for a period often days, 
and then gradually diminish under j ltd ioions ti'eatiueut, or they may 
n^acb the stage wherein all tbo characters of acnto tetanus become ile- 
velvpcd. la souiu cases, however, we 6ud the m oscular cmguftMlJiKWt 



confined to the head or fnce, perliaps itirolnng those of tbo nedc 
Id Bueh coses we have complete tri»mufi — lock-jnw — »nd all the l<-ad 
AyiiipUiiDH are actituljr iIevelo[)(sit. Uii tlie uontrarjr, we nisiyfintl the 
bead nlmost exempt Id aotne cases, and have (tie body snd 1inil*s per- 
fectly rigid and incapable of movement without falling. 

TetanoH may pojisibly be confounded with ftpinal meaiDgitiR, but the 
oliarautef of the epasrnlocked jaw, retraction of the eyebatlti, the diffi- 
culty [d 8n'»llowiti;; due to spAKma of the iiiu!4cle8 of the phar.vux, anil, 
above all, the abseiioe of paralysis, should serve to make the distiiictiob. 

Treatment, — The animal Hhouhl Imj jdaoed in u box-atall withoab bed- 
ding, as fiirawny its possible from other horsoti. If in a eonntry district, 
thu aauiiul Khonid be put into an oulbiiildiiig or shed, where the noise of 
other animals will not reach hiui ; if the place is moderately dark it is 
all the better ; in lly time he should 1m; covereil Mi-jth a light nht'ct. The 
attendant must be very carefal and ijaict aboat him, to prevent alt un- 
necettsary excitement and Increase of KpuKra. 

A cathartic, composed of Barbadues aloes, 6 to 8 drams, with which 
may "be mixed 3 drains of the solid extract of belladonna, fthould bo 
given at once. This is best given in n ball form : if, however, the ani- 
mal is greatly (•xcited by the attempt or can not swallow, the ball may 
betlissolved in 3 ounces of olive oil and thrown on the back of the 
tongue with a syringe. If the jaws are set, or nejirly so, an attempt to 
ailuiintHltT in4;dicinu by the nioulh shotdd not he miule. In such cunea 
one qiiurier of a grain of alropia, with 5 grains of sulphate of mor|)hia, 
Hhcutilbedi!!)!oli*i>d in 1 dram of pure water and inj(H*tod under the skin. 
Tliix shonid be repeated fiiitni!iently often to keep the animal continually 
uuder its cffoct. This will iiRually mitigate the sererity of the spnsmotlie 
contraction of the affected muscles and le«sea sensibility to \>a\n. Good 
results may Ite obtained soinenraes by the injection per rectum of the 
fluid exicsct of bttlladoiina aud of cannalns indica, of each 1 dram, every 
four or SIX hours. This may be diluted with a quart of milk. When 
the animal is unable to swallow liquids, oatmeal grnci and milk should 
lie given liy injection \wt rt^i'tum to sustain thi» strenglh of thB animal. 
A padfnl of cool water should be constantly before him, place*! high 
enough for him to mnch it withoat ejiecinl effort; even if he can not 
drink, the lavmg of the mouth is refreshing. Bzoelleut Buooess fre* 
quLMitly may be obtaine^l by clothing the upj>er part of the bend, the 
neck, and greater part of the 1>ody in woolen blanketa kept aatamteil 
with very warm water. This treatment should be continued for six or 
eight hours at a time. It often relaxes the cramT>ed musolcfland gives 
theiD re^t. and the animal almost entire freedom from pain ; but it 
nliouhl lie used avery day until the acute K|>aMmH have permauenlly 
subsided in onter to Ite of any lasting benefit. 

Iftho cause isduelo thoinclusiou of a nerve in a ligature, the divi- 
sion of the nen'e Iwcomes neces-tan,'. When it is due to n wonnd all 
foreign substauces ebould beseai'cbed for aud be removed; if from a 






wmml Thfob baa benled an oxcisiou of the cicBfrix may be Iwneficial. 
lnaUcam» It Is iiot uut^oininou to have » ]>arlLil recurery folluwecl by 
ldi|iM vbeu tbe animal becomes eiciteil from any cuumv. 


Tliltdis^fUM iloeanot arise spoutan»ou8ly auioni; liontea, but i» tbera- 
vin bitf from a rabiil anJmnl — generally ailog or cat. The ik^'el- 
itof the <li««ad6 follows tb« bito iu from tbteo weeks to thrv« 
■mtla—rerjnirely JD t vol 70 or fourteen dnyn. 

SynjttoM*. — Thy fipHt manifttHUilitin ofiliB (K-vcIoiimeiit ofttiis ilisease 

»*> lican increasei) escitabtlity and ricioiisiiPSH; very slight, noises or 

^approach of a penou iucitiiA the animal to kick, nthku, or bit« ac 

uyolijent near him. Very oft-eti the hrir^e will hile Iiih own limhit or 

aAr\ Uceratln<; the tie-idi anil tt-aring the iikiii. The eyea apiwar atar- 

°>;'. 1'liJoilshot : the ears are on the alert to ttalch all BonnilH ; the bead 

Is Itt^l rrrcu In KOmr caac-^ the nnimal will uunttinially rub and bitti 

tli9 locality of the wound indicted by the rabid animal. This symptom 

"■; prweale all oihei's. Generally the bowela becomes coii8ti{iated and 

^nutcs frMiuent attempts at urination, which is painful and the urine 

v^durfc colored. TJiu furioiu aymptoms appear in paroxyama; at 

oiiiM times the ajiimal may eat and drink, althmigh HwuUowing a\>- 

pMrs tolteroiiie puintiil lonards the laUer Ktaj^e of the disease, and 

"lycspw nrnrwird paroxy.tms. The muscles of the limbs or hack may 

'f^atject to intenuitteiiL t^iKisms, or KpiismiHlic InMiiortt; finally tbA 

^linhs bocome paralyn^d, bn^athtn}; very diriicirlt, and convnlKiuim 

MpnTODf, followed by death. Th« pulse and respirations are tncj'eased 

■1 frequency from the i>utwt of the attack. Rabiea may possibly bo 

■*iKalem for tetattus. In the hitter dittease welind tonic Kp;iHuiH of the 

i!t'«ortii"ji*ws, or stiffness of the nock or back very early ta tbo 

k, and evideucu orvioiouitoes^ is absent. 

rrtatmeMt. — As eoon a-n the true nature of the disuase is nscertaini^d 

Itie animal fthould be killed. 

PrrrfntioH. — Vtiif 11 a horse is known to have been bitten by a rabid 
animal Immediate eauterisalion of the wouHil with a red-hot iron lUKf 
bly destroy the vims before absorption of it takes place. 


Tliia disease is not of frequLint occurrence. It may be doe to babita- 
ly dnukiuK water which has beeo standing in lemleo conductors or 
Ij old patut barrtfls, etu. It ba* boon met with in mizooiic form uvar 
inivltioj; works, where, by ilie fumes arising from aueb works, leail in 
be form of oxide, carbonate, or tiulpbate was detwtiited uu the graas 
uid brrlmtce wIiikU the horaes ate. 

HymptomM. — I.pail poisonint; produces derant;emeiit of tbo fanctlous 
if digeatioa aud locomoUuu, or it may alleut the lungs \iriu,til\ii]LU^. In. 


whatever system of oreniis tlie lead ia dcpcMJIed mostly there ^ill va 
buT<> tilt; Hymptitms ofnervouH dehilitj' tuudt tnunlfettt. If iu tho langfl] 
tbo brcatliiiig becomes dillluulc aud tbe niiiiual get« oat of bn^tb very 
qtiickly wlien he is compelled to run. Roiiriiig also in very freqneutlj 
a symptom of huid ]>oi.suriJii};. When it affects the slonuich tliu noitniil 
grattually fnlls avray in tle^b, the bair becomos roagb, the ekia tight, 
and colicky symptoms develop. When the deposit is priDci|»tilly iu the i 
mnscK'S partiiil or comph>te [mralysi-s gr^iJually dtn'i-hipK. Wheo largsj 
quaiitUivs of lead have bceo taken iu aiid absorbed, syuiptuuis rusem-j 
bling epilepsy may result, or coma nod delirium dorelop and prorsj 
fatal. In lead-poisoniiig tlioro is st'Ulom any increnso iu t«ttiperaiutv. 
A btnt) line fonnH along' the gum^ of the front t<'-etb, and the breath 
assumejt a i>eculiar oHtiiisire odor. Lead can always be detected Id the 
nrine by chemical t«sts. 

Treat>»ent. — The administrntJon of 2-drflm doses of iodide of potusa, ' 
three limcK a day. This will f<uin ioilidu of lead in the system, which 
is rapidly excreted by the kidneys. If much muscular wrakness or 
paralysis is present, sulphate of iron in dram dofii-s, and strychuJa in 2- 
graia doses oiay be given twice a day. Iu all cases of sn8)HM?t«<l lead- 
poisoning all nteneits vhich have entered into the snjiply of feed or 
water should bo examined for the presence of soluble lead. If It ocx:ara 
near lead works (;reat caro must be given to the supply of aauoutam- 
inated fodder, etc. 


Urffimic poisoning may affect the brain io nephritis, acute allmmina- 
ria, or when, from nuy cause, the functions of the kidneys becutue im- 
paired or snppreAoed and urea (a natural product) iM no lunger elimi- 
uated from these organs, causing it to accumulate in the system and give 
ntte to ura}mic poisoning. 

Symptoms. — TInemi« |Hii.'*oniiig is usually preceded by dropsy of the 
limbs or abdonieii ; a pi^culiar fetiil breath is often noticed ; tlien drow- 
siness, attacks of diarrhea, aud genemi debility ensue. Suddenly ex- 
treme stupor or coma develops ; the surfact' of the body becomes cold ; 
the pupils are intteusible to light ; the pnlse kIow and intci'mitting; the 
breathing labored, aud death supervenes. The temperature through- 
out the disease is seldom increased, unless the disease Iteoomes compli- 
i«ated with acute iutlauimatory discam of tho brain or respiratory 
'orgaus, which often ot^car a» a result of the urea in the circulation, 
Albnmen and tube castt, may frequently be found in the nrlue. Tbo 
diaeoae almost invariably provt\i fatal. 

Treatment. —This muat be directed to a removal of the cause. (See 
**Dhie(mB of the Kidney.") 


Eleetric shock, from condng in contact with electric wires, ia becom- 
ing a matterofmthor frequent occurrence, and baaasimilareffect upon 


the animal Bjvtem to a iboek from ligbtoing. Two degrees of electrio 
or lightaing shock may be observed, one prodnciag temporal? coDtrac* 
tioD of muscles and inseDSibility, from which recoreo' i^ possible, th« 
other killing directly, by prodncing a condition of nervoos and general 
iDsensibili^. In shocks which are not immediately fatal the animal is 
osoally insensible, the respiration slow, labored or gasping, the poise 
alow, feeble, and irregular, and the papils dilated and not sensitive, or 
they may be contracted and sensitive. The temperature is lowered. 
There may be a tendency to convnlsions or spasms. The predominat- 
ing symptoms are extreme cardiac and respiratory depression. 

Treatment. — Salphate of atropia sbonid be given bypodermically in 
one qnarter grain doses every hoor or two hours natil the heart beats 
Are invigorated, the number aud fullness of the respirations increased, 
and conscionsness retnms. Stimulating injections perrectom may also 
be useful in arousing the circulation; for this purpose whisky or am- 
monia water may be used. 



By M. R. TRUMBOWGR, V. 8., 8t««l>n«, lU. 




The heart Ua hollow, iuvDlimcary, muscular orgnu, situated as n<>arly 

ma poturible in tii« cciiler ol'the cliest, though iu impulse is Mt on the 

U>ft Aiile froiD tlie nitiiry niuvituBiit of the orgau in uvtiuii. It im cdiik- 

slia|i(^, with tbu baan iifiwdnls; tbeajtex point«dowDnanls, backwards, 

an<) to tbe left side. It extends tVom at)out- tlio tbinl to tlie eixtb rlba 

tuiUualve. Tlie average weight is abontC^ puunilK. In liori^es UHed for 

spi'nl tbe bmirt i^ rvlativdy lar;;i>r, auconlin^ to tbo weight of the aui- 

rooJ, titan in burd«a unecl for slow work. It is ruh[>«D(I«iI frota the spine 

hy rbe larfe blootI-re«tfe)3, aad held in position below by the attach- 

nieut of the pi>nt>ardiuin in lh» xlernuiii. It in ini-hii^ed fn u kuc, the 

pcrieuriliuni, vrbicb mcoiupuaeduf a, Qbroua, luciubruUL', liui-d by 

a tlelicato serous uembrjme. wliicfa is reflfclod over the beart ; tbe inner 

hiy>T ts QnulyadhereuC to tbo heart, Uic outer to the flbrou&«ao, and 

tbiTt> ixaii uilnrveniug Hpai-u kuowu ax the jM-ricunlial Hpiii-v, in wliieb 

aantall auiouut of serum — a tbiu trausliiceiic liquid— is pit-aeul cou' 


The bcarc is dindci by a shallow fissure into a right and left side; 
pncli iiT these is again stibdiTided by ii trau8r9i'so partition into two 
cotupartments, which communicate. Thus tliero are four cardiac t-avi- 
ties, the KUiifrior or upper onu» calkxl the auricles, the interior or 
fowor ones the ventriules. Tlie^no divisions are marbed ou the outside 
by groores, which coutalu the cardiac blood- ve&svls, aud are geuerally 
filled with fat. 

Tbu riiclit side of the heart may be cjiIIo*! tliu venous, the left thf ar- 
t4Ti»l (tide, iisiueil from tbe kiud of blood wUicti ]>assos tlirougli theiu. 
The auricles are tbiu-wallod oavitiea placed at the base, and are con- 
niTtiil with tlit>gi-e»t veiii^ the vena cai~;j_'aud jiulitionary veins. thnia;>li 
winch (htty ruueiru blwHl fruin all parts of the iKnly. TheanrioleA roto- 
muniL-nte with the ventricles each by a large aperture* the anricicto- 
t«atrtoular vriDvo, wbicb is furuished with a remarkable loecbnnlsiu of 




valves, nllowiiig the trnnRmiKsion of blomi from tlie aarioles into th4 
%'eiiti'icltwi, ImL preveutin^ a rev«r8o conrse. Tlio veulricle^ are thick- 
walled cavitit'A, fnriiiiiis tho tniire mas^^ivo portion of the heart towards 
tlioai>cs. Tliey arc separated by a ]>artittoa,au(1 are conuccted witli ■ 
tlie great arleriea, lli(> puluiouary artery and the aorUi, by wliich tbey ' 
send blood to all pnrts of tLe body. At the iitontb of the aorta aud at 
tliu mouth of tlio iMilmttiinry artury in uii iirran^naent of valres iueacb 
CAMS whioli iireveiiU tlm rfidiixof blood iuto the ventricles. The attri- 
cuio ventricular valves in tlie left side are eouii»o8«l of two flap*, heuce , 
ItJscitllod iho bienxpi4 nilve. In the hgbt sitle tlitx valvo has three fl 
flap!!, am) in called Ihe tricnapid ralve. Tbo 9a[>s which form the«e ™ 
valvtrs are cotmected with a teiidinona ring betireen the auriclea aud 
ventricles; and each flap of the aunculorentricular ralvea 14 supplied 
with tendinous conU, which are nttaelied to the frne margin and under 
Bnrfiii:e, mo an to kei>p tlie valves iaam when cluseil ; u condition which 
is |>roilnced by the shortening of nuisr.alar pillars with which th« 
oonls are conuccted. The arterial opcuiufs, both on the right aud 
on the left side, are pnivided with tlirei-- Hupped Heini-lunnr shaped 
valveti, to prevent the r«<;urg:i1ntiDii of blood when the veulriclefi con- 
tract. The veinsemptyiiig intotho auridr-s aro not capable of cloaure, 
but the posterior vena cava has an imperfect ralre at its aperture. 

The inner surfaci) of the heart Ih lined hy a K.rouH menibraoc, th« 
eudocardiutu, whieh is smooth and firmly adherent to the muM'.ular 
structure of the heart. Thia luembrano iti cofitiiiuotis with the lining 
mtMiihrane of thu blood veasolo, and it enters into the formation of the 

The uireuliilioii through tho heart in an foUowH: The venunn blood 1« 
oaiTied into the right aui-icle by the anterior and posterior vaum ea.vsa. 
It then paa^eH through the right auTicutoveniricuiaroin'miig into the 
right ventricle, theucc through the pulmonary artery to the lungs. It 
returns by the pitlmonury v»iii8 to tlm l(-rtaurii:le,theu m nin:e«l throu^ 
the auriculo-BenlrieiiUtr opeuiiig into the left ventricle, which propeta it 
Lhrou:;h the aorta ami itt branches iato the HyHti-ni, the veins returning 
it again to the heart. The circulation, thereioiNi. is double, Ihfe pulmon 
ary or lenHer being performed t)y the right, and the iiystowic or greater 
by the left sitle. 

As the bluotl IK forced through the heart by forcihin conti;a<:tJona oC 
ft« ninflcutar walls it has the action of a force pump, and givcd the im- 
pulse at eaeli beat, which we call the puUo— thudilataliou ofthearteriea 
throughout the nysteni. The ooiitra<:tion of th« aaricles ia <]nickly fol- 
lowed by that of tlie ventricles, and then a Klight panite occur*; this 
takes place in regular rythmical order during health. 

The action of the heart is governed and maiutaincdbjthe pneaoio-gaft- 
trie nerve (tenth pairof onkiii;il nervun); it in the inhibitory nervoof the 
heart, antt regulates. slows, and governs its action. When the nerve ta 
cut the heart- huattf iucroaae rapidly, aud iu foot the organ works without 



eosrrol. WlieD tbe ii«rro is andaly irritntcd tlie holdback or inbiliitoiy 
ioia la increiised, aud iUb bvurt sIuwk up iu Ibu Haiue ineHKure. Tbe 
kftcaritiesof tbe lieart, tbe pulmonary veins, auti tbe aorta or ayaletnio 
irU»)',i»iitain red or ilmid bIwKl, fit to circiibilv througli the body. 
Ite tigbt ca\-itie« of tho beart, wttb tbe ren«j eivie or eystcoiic vein* 
nlpulmuuur.v nrt(.>ry, cuotaiD dark blood, wbicb must bo traiiKmitted 
Uinni|li tbe lungs for reuoratiou. 

^eartcrios, oominonciiig in tn-o grviil trunliA, the aorta nud tbe pal. 
momy »rtory, andergo diviHiou as m the braucbingof a tree. Tbeir 
luaatliM mutitly uome uQ' at acute uui^lu^, and urn (jummuuly nf uui- 
fona dumetfir in each c»$e, bitt siicce-s.slfe)y diminish after and in cod- 
*^aeboo of diviKioti, iind iu tbia uiitnnur grmliially mur^o into the 
(apilbiy system of blood vesseU. As a general rul«, tbe combineil area 
of Ike branches is greater than that of tfao vessels front which they 
•*0aMU>, and heuco tiic collective uipacity of the arterial sysletn ig 
^i^Al^l at the capillary vosseK Tho aauie rule applies to the reins. 
'■iorO^'t of tbe dirirtion of tbe arteries 14 to make the blood move more 
•■Owly along their branches to the e»pillary vessels, and tbe eflcct o( 
"iQ aaioii of tho brauubeit of tliu reins ia to acoelerat« the Mjie^rd of the 
"''►odasit returtiH froiu tbe capillary vctiselit Ut Ibo veuotm trunks. 

In tke smaller ve^selo a frequent running together or anattomoais oe- 
^^ts. This admits of a free communication between the currents of 
'^^ood, aud must tend to promote e<]ual)ility of diKtrihutiou aud of press- 
'*'%, aod 1o ohviato the effects of local interruption. Tbe arteries are 
«iplilyf-l.i8iic, being extensile and rotiactile both in length and breadth, 
^tiling hie they are ulao coutrautile, being provided with luUHcular lia- 
ftatt. When cut across tbey present^ although empty, an open orifice; 
t^ voinx, on thL' other bund, collupne. 

In most parl» of the bixly tbo arteries are inclosed in a sl)ea.tb formed 
of ooQuoctive tissue, but are oonaccted so loosely tbat vbon the vessel 
bent acio^vi ila ends ri^ulily retniet same distance within tbe Hbuath. 
ludvjieuduiitly of tbis sUeatb arlcrius uru usually tlt'^i:rilred iis being 
foriaed of throe coats, named, from their relative positions, 0J!temai, 
middle^ ami iaUrnat. This applies to their structure so fVtr as it is 
discernahle by tbe uaktMl i-yo. Tbu internal, serous or tunica itttima 
is tbe ttiiUQCet, aud coutiauous with tbe liuiug muuibrane of the heart. 
Jt is made up of two layers, an inner, cousiutiug of a layer of epithelial 
•cales, and an outer, transparent, whitish, highly elastic, and {lerforated. 
The middle coat, tunica media, in ulastic, dens*', and of a yellow color, 
cuusiHtiug of nou-striated muscular and elastic libera, thickest in tbe 
largest arterica and Ivecomiog thinner in the smaller. In the scnallcst 
veast'U it is abuost entirely mus<!ular. Tbe exieriuil coat, tunica ad- 
ftntHia, is t;ompo^d mainly of due and closely woven liundleaof white 
counective liaauo, whioh chiefly run diagonally or obliquely round the 
vessel. In Ibis <Mat the nntrient vessels, tho roxa vaaorum, form a cap- 
illary Det-work, from which a lew peuelratu as fkr as the muscular coat. 



The Teitts illffer froin arteries io i>oese&3iD«: Ihinnnr wnltx, less etKatio 
and iiiostiiilar littsue, aud for tbe taont part a strongDr tunica aHeentitia. 
Tliey coUa|>8o wlieu cut acrosg or when tboy are empty. Tlie majority 
of v«iD8 ar« provided with riilres; t>ies» :ire foliU of tlie liuiDg uiom- 
brane, slroHgtlieiied by flbrotis tissae. They favor thii C4mr»« of tUo 
btcKKl and prevent its rcAiix. The nerrc4 n-bicli supply b»tti tbe ar- 
teries and the veins cotno from the Byiniuttbetic systooi. Tbe Rmnller 
arti'riPM lt>riiitii:ili> in the MyKtuin of minute vuismIk, kuMwa as the v^p- 
illaiit>8, which are interposed between the termination of the arteries 
and the ci>niaieuuetnoDt of the veius. Tbeir (kvuragu dijuaclcr is aboat 
one three- thuusaudtb of an inch. 


By plauitiff the ear behind tbe olbow agninst tbe leftwde of tbe uheat 
two distinct HoundK cun lie tieanl at ea<!li h(>;irt beat id health. The first 
18 rather mtif&ed and prolungetl, tbe second is short aud sudden. Tbe 
Brst is caused by the contractioa of tbe ventricles, tbe closing of tbe 
aurietiloventricHtar valves, and the forcible propulsion of the blood into 
the arteries; the KeiM>ml follows immediately, and is due to tiie redur 
of the bluMl just forced into tbe arteries, and the sadden closure of llie 
valves which prevent its return to tbe bctiit. In diiteasu of tbe bejirt 
or valves tbeae sonnds are gouerally modified, or supplanted by otbers. 
which vary so niurli inehanu-,ter aud are Nudiniiiult tode»cribe that ve 
can Dot ronsider thniii here ; loug aud extcusive expeneuce is requu« 
ta distinguisb tbeni practically. 


The circniation of the blood through tbe heart is constant, and ia 
maiiilaine4l by the jiropelling activity of tbis eruau. la the boree tbe 
heart beats from thirtysix to f«iriy-six times a intnute, varyingwith the 
diHpotnition, breeil, uud temperamunt of the animal. In the foul tbe 
pultitt is about three times as rapid as lu the adult, from six months to 
a year about twiiw as quick, and in the two- year old about one-t)narler 
faster. Tht> pulKe it* usually taken at the angle of the jaw, whera the 
artery crosses Ibe bone, and its fiircu or character is often indicative of 
the- nature of the disease from which an animal may Ix^MulTeriDg. The 
pulse, therefore, is named in auuonlunee with iU« character as slow, soft, 
small, fall, weak, (juick, hard, irregular, lutermitteut, venous, etc. 

Slow puhe is one where the n umber of beats are less than normal, and 
is often found in certain diseases of the brain. 

Soft or aimpreasifrle pnUie is one where the beat is ralber weak, l»nt not 
abnormally rapid. It is oftcMt found in debility due to waut of ussimi- 
lation or proper nourishment When iwoompanied with fever or loss 
of appetite it is usually indicative of derau^'uuieut uf tbe digestive 




Smnll puUe in one where the sensation conveyed to the Aoger fa one of 
leManrd diameter of the arterj*; it uiuj' bv uormul in frequency or 
B]i|rhtly [aeroase<l. Geimnilly (](i« to exhiiuation I'roiu work or discuac. 

Fuit or ttrony puiae is ouo which iiu|tart8 a buuudiug seti&Hlioii aa if 
from over (IiBtenhoii of the artery at each heart W-at. It is «8iially 
increaaod in frequeucy. This chanicttir may ho fvlt immeiliatfly huc- 
ceeding fast work, or In T«ry plethoric horses when slightly excited, 
On«a it may itidioabs a general eysteinio disturbaiioe or disease of the 

Wottk or feehte puUe is one which is hardly ]>erGept)ble. This may 
iadieatc orgnuic disease of the heart, or denuto £cueral weakDo&s froiu 
toaa of hluod. [jruluujjeil aiukiiess, Ktitrvatiuu, eto. 

Quidc or frequent puUe is ooe where the heart^beats are more rapid 
than normal, without any itjM'cial change in its character. Ic is foiiad 
m the early stage of nearly all iullammntory 4li»ea8t^a. 

Hard or iciry pHUt is one which is tenee, iucom{>res8ible,or vibrntiog, 
and la always increased lu freiiueiicy. Jt usually deiiotvH acute disease 
of seroan membnuiea, such as pleuritis, peritooiLia, menineilia, etc. 

Jrreyular pnlge M ouo in which Bercriil pulsntiorm follow in quick huc- 
oesalon and chen a pause ensuea. This may iuilicate disea^t of the 
heart, or of the nervous system, sometiuies observed in lingering, ex- 
Iiiiusting diseases. 

Jntfrmittfut pul9e is one where a beat is lost at regular intc-rvald. 
TbiH 18 almoKt invariably an Indication of disease of ihe henrU 

\'enoiu pulte may be soon alung the side of LJie ueck iu the jugidar 
fiUTow,aiid has the appearance of blood regurgitating in the vein at 
each beat of the heart. It uffually denote-'i disonao of the bnart, or an 
obstruntion to the flow of blood withtu the chest, from the prvjisureola 
unjor, dropsy, etc. 


Inonnsidering diseases of the heart we meet with many diOlcnlties, 
depending much upon the position which this organ occupies in the 
animal. Tbu shouldL-i-s cover so much of tho anterior portion of the 
cb«'.Mt, and often m very heavy murteled lior^tes the cbost walls are ho 
thl<'k,th:it a sntixfactory exainiuatiou of the heart cannot be iiiadu. 
I^isi-oMcs of this heart are not unooramon among harHe--«; the heart and its 
lut^uihraiies are frequently involveil in diseases of the respiratory oigana, 
diwasesof tho kidneys, rheiiinatisin, intluenza, etc. Somo of the dis- 
e««AH of Ibis organ are iiHver siisiwcted tty the cirdiiiJiry olwerver 
during life, aiHl are so difficult to diagnose with any degree of certainty 
tliiU we will have to ci)ntine ourselves to a general outline, giving at- 1 
teutiouto such syiDptoiiirt as may serve to leMl to a knowledge of their 
eziat^nee, with din>clious for tre»tmeiit, care, et& 

Jier**oU8 ulfeclions often produce prominent heart symptoms by cms- 
log fuuutiou>d disturbance of t^at urgau^ which, if removed, will leave 


tLc heart restored to perFeot rigor antl normal action. Or^iiic changes 
involviuj; the hicart or valvcfi, lioTcvcr, usually grow worse and ercnt-. 
uall; prove fatal. TLerelbm it i» imuviiKury ibul wearriveulaii ap{ir«- 
ciatiou of the ti'ue oaLure ami cauiies, so tbat we may be able to form a 
true estimate of the possibilities for recovery or CDixtaragcmeut for 
loetllcal treatment. 

Disease of the htMirt may occur at any age^ but it is wltneiified most 
fn^iueutly in youug horse*, which, wht-ti heiug trained for fast work, 
an? ol'teu subjected to excfssive hardship and fatigue. Ncrvmis or timid 
animals also suQur from, such diseases ui oro frequently than those of a 
sluggish disposition. Any cause wbieli induees a violent or sudden 
eliaiiyuiu the cliuulalioii may result in injury to the heart. Symptoms 
which may frequently denote disease of the heart are difficult breath- 
ing iir Hhort-n'indeilness, drujtsics of the limbs, habit ualcolducss of the 
extremities, giddiness or faiotiug attacks, inability to stand work al- 
tliougti the geueral api>earauc« would indicate etreugth and ability, eta. 



This will embrace myocarditis, endocarditis, and )ieriearditis. 


This is of rare occurrence without implication of the endocardium or 
pericnrdiuiu. That iuBamniahon of the mii^culiir wnllsof thclieurtmay 
frequently exist to some slight degree, induced byexceesire action, oan 
not be doiibtcd. Post-mortem exnmiuatious oceaeioually reveal absoew 
and deg«!ucrutioii within the walln of this organ, which were not sua* 
peuted during life. Myocarditis priuiarily involves the tuterstitial mus* 
eular tissue and the blood v&sseU, and presents itself iu asab-aoute or 
chronic type, which often leads to induration or hjpertrophy,&cca8ion- 
ally to the formation of pus and abscess, ll may als4ilead toa dilata- 
tion of the hiMirt and rupture. 

Cauaes. — Ovcr-cxcrtioQ or heart strain, IntluenKa, rheumatism, pyn- 
miu. esilension of endocanlitis or pericarditiK, etc Jtlyoiarditis usually 
involves the endocardial membrane very early In the atta(;(c, and devel. 
ops all the symptoms of endocarditis. Hence we wiP consider, as moat 
distinctive of inflammation of the heart, cndm-arditis. 


It la fk^uently found iu general rheumatism, involving the serous 
meriibraiie, some of the spenitic orxymotic fevurs, st-ptie pois<>ning, etc. 
Kiidocanlitis is a much more fnKtuent disease among horses than we 
are generally aware, ami often gives rise to symptoma which, at flrst, 
an-olkscure andiiQUoticed. I have witnessed twoetiztH'kicsof iotluBiisa 
iu wUiuh UU pvr cuut of tbo auimuls attacked duwlupod symptoms of 


efltier endocnrditiii or {leriRAnlitts. A certain nnmtier of tlieso casu 
sntwefiuenlly dereloped the ooiiditiou known ns lieaves, or graduiilly 
failed ia atrength, vitli recurrence of attacks of heart failure upon tbe 
slightest exertion, ronderliifr niuny of them valnetesa. In tlio rbeumatio 
type of infliieiiKa wo may ofu^n And th« heart becoming ini'olved iu the 
disease, in cuufiequence of the morbid material conveyed throuf^h tbe 
Ue-nrt 1 u the blood-stream. In view of the fart tlmt many affections, in 
even remote portions of the body, may be traced directly to a primary 
endocardial disease, we shall feel justified iu inviting special attention 
to thi« disease. 

Biulocarditis may be acute or assume various de^ees nf severity. 
In »<;ute inflammation ire find a tlnckeiitnir and a rouKlieiied appear- 
ance of the en<loran!ium through<mt the cuvitiea of the heart. Thii 
cuiidltion la soon foltowed by a eea^^ulntion of Qbrine upon the infliimed 
RHrfitcp, which iMlheres to it>, and by attrition soon becomes vrorki'd up 
into slircddy-like j;ranular vlovatious ; thi» may lead to the fonuatioa 
of Qbriuuus clota iu the heart and ondden death early in the disease, 
the Hccnnd or third day. This acute type of tbe disonse, however, doea 
Dot alwayii affect the whole interior of the heart, but Ih of(i-n contlnt^d 
to ouo ventriele or may be in patches ; it may extentl through the ventn- 
ola into the aorta or the pulmonary vein ; it may affect the valves prtn- 
eipally, which are composed of but little else than the emIocardimD 
folded npon itself. 

In aouto endocarditis ve invariably niU find myocantitie derelop 
oorre»p<)tiding to ibo uamo npaee, which in intensity may proilnce seri- 
OQi n>Kiilt« through the destruction of funetional ability or lead 1o 
weakness, abaooiis, or rupture. Immediately upoit the swelling of this 
membrane we will Qnd an abnormal action and abnormal sounds of tbe 

Subaente endocanlitis, which in the moot common form we meet, 
may not become appreciable for several days after its commencement 
It ii^ehanictirriKrd by Ix-ingcnn&neil to one or more anatomical divisions 
of the heart, and all the successive morbid chauj^es follow each other 
Iu a comparatively slow process. Often we would not be led to suBi)ect 
heart affection were it not for tbe distress in breathing, which it gen- 
erally occjisions when tlic tmimal is exrrciwd, esi>rciaUy if the vidvcs are 
much involved. When the disease extends into the arteries, atherom- 
atons deposits usually develop; when the inSamnintion is severe at the 
origin of the tendinous cnnis they m^y become softened and ruptuml. 
When much libriuuus cuitgula or cclluliir vcgetntiotis form upon Ihs 
tntlanied membrane, either in minute shreds or patches, or when forma- 
tion of fibrinous clots ocear^ iu the cavity affected, some of these matts- 
rials may be cjirrit-d from tbe cavity of the heart by the blooil -current 
into remote organs, consti ruling emiMdi that are liable to suddenly plug 
vessels and thereby interrupt important funcltons. In the great m;^or- 
ity of either acnte or subacato gradt:s of endocarditis, whatever tbo 
11035 IS 



exciting ranM>, the tnotil alarming tt^mptomailisappeariii » ir«pk or ten 
days, otteo leaving, Lowever, »ucb chances in the interior linins; or 
valvular (ttrnctnroflafl tA caose impairment in tbecircalation for a macli 
longer periiKi or time. Tliasp ch»iig«8 usually cnnKiett of tbtrlicning or 
IniluratJou of tliR ioflaniiHl stnieturea. Bnt while tho effectn of the 
inflummatton in tlie nieinbriine lining rbo vnlU of the rentricles may 
sabside to flacli a tlcgn-» as to cause little or no ineouvenietice, or even 
wholly disappear, yet Hftir the valvular BtmrturcM hare hwn involved, 
caosiug theui to be tbteker, lesa fl^xihle than normal, they tutually 
remain, obstmcting the free passage of the blood throngh the opening* 
of the heart, thereby indui^iuR Mu>n<Iar>* changes vhich take place 
alowly at first, but uilttDiit^ly Heriouiiiy inipnir the animal's aeefalneM. 
What was but a slight obfttroction to the crrealation doring the first ■ 
ftw weeks aAer the siitMidence of the cardiac inflammatory attack 
becomea in procciu of time ko mtii-h increntied a» to indtia- iniTrai^ed 
growth in the mnscalar stractnre of the b«art, constituting by)>erCro|>hy fl 
of the walls of the Tentriclea, more parlicniarly of the left, with corre- 
sponiling fnlhietm of the left anrieltf and puhnnnary veiuii, thereby pro* 
duuing fulliieaaof the otpillartes in the Inogs, pressure upon tbv air 
cella, difficBlt or a«thmatic breathing— gr«atl.v iDcrea»«d in attempts to _ 
work — until in a few months many of these cnneg become entirely dis* fl 
ahled for work. Sometiinea, too, droiwii^effntiinniiin the Itmlis or into 
the cavities of the body result from the irregular and deScient circul»- 
tlon. DerangemeDt of the nritiarr secretion, witb passive congMUon of 
the kidneys, may aUo appear. 

Bndocanlial Inlliimiuation in seldom fatal lu tU early atagea, but ia 
iDiiny cases the recovery is inoocnplpte, for a large proportion are left 
witb 8omc permanent thickening of the valves, wbicb couatitate tbe be- 
ginning of valvular diKt>a»4e. 

Sj/mptomM. — Ab alrenily )<tale<l, myocAnlttis is seldom recognized until 
pericarditiii or eudocanlitis Kn|K-r\'oneit. Hlai;;^riDg gait with painful 
movement of the fore-liiube, a constant irregolarity of the heart's action, 
but equality of atreopth regar«ile«s of the rapidity of the hesrt-beAts, 
constitute pethaiM the moiit prominent symptoms wbidi cbameterise 
myocarditis. When the diaeaac is aasoeiated with rbeumatiam, jiitla- 
cnza, or other xymotic diseases, these symptome may not be rtnOic-ieiitlr 
well deflncd to attract the attention they deeerve, and medical treat- 
ment preacribeil for the miligati'in of isnch disea^ often servM to a^- 
grapate the cardiac uReclion. hi chronic Divocarditis we gerverally 
lind a in-rsiHtcnt palpitation with irreg.ilarity of beat, wbicb, ujton ex- 
ercise, becomes greatly tntensiSed. Change in tbe eoands of the heart 
do not oeciir unleHs pericanlitis, endocardilta, or disease of the valves 
are nasociated with myocarditis. When it leads to hyjiertrophy we may 
find nn abnormally iucreaseil area of dullness on percnssion. In endo- 
oanlitis, when the attack is aiidden and severe, we may titnl many of the 
symptoma which eharacteriTe i>enc!inliti8 and pleuritis, bat a close ex* 
ammation will reveal notable diQVrenceti. 


ttshered in by a ebiD, with sudden and marked 
« p[il!i« rapidly detuviuies in strBUijtb or may 
hennp irnrenlar. while tbn heart beats more or leaa tumDllooagly. In 
tlwoirly staeea luft Mowiug aoands may be beanl by planing thi- rar 
•onrtliebaarton the led aide, wbieh correspond in nnrnber and rbytlim 
la the baarfg actioa. r^zcesaive paio, tboajfb not go great a» ui acuM 
|ibtnltn,in miuiifiaited vben the aiiiniAl i.s cnmpellei] tut rut; very often 
■Ukully in br*athiae — abortneaa of brt^atb — uu the Hli^jbteifc exr-rtiun 
<t*cl*f« VAfly in Uie atbiek. When the vaivea are involved in tbe in- 
il— atoiy prooeaa the risible mocoiui cnetabranes becttme eitbt^r very 
pilmr Tory dark colored, and biatiag may occur wbt^u tbe head is 
nddndy elurated. Wbtm tbu valvnii of the right Hii]« ant oiTeuted w« 
WfluTea re^urgiunt pdlsatioQ in tli^ iti^ular vein, la somu cases 
nfiml narked lamenesa of the left sbouldc-r, and whau tliu animal ia 
tarHiLibort to the left Hide be may jurono with pain, and tbe bearfa 
UliM bacume violeatly excitedt nlU»ou£h presHure a;;aiiiat the oheat- 
*NI«ilI not prodace puin aaleas roughly appliiMl. The animal ia not 
Jh|MHd lo eal or drink moeb ; tbe aurfaeo of tbe body »ad lef;a are 
■BU—nraly excmuvely hot -ami freqnuntly the body of tbe animal ia 
^ I wUaed tremor, [q nearly all i^uwa there in partial iiupprension 
't ilif innary secretion. Tbe aymptoma may continue with very little 
Vxlillcauon for three or fonr days, sometimes ai-ren days, without 
U} nu-lced chanets*. tf dbrinons clots torm in tbo heart the change 
*Ultniiiildeu iind (]uickly prove fatal unli;».i Ibi-y bocttini* li><* and 
■oowrieil (iway in tbe circulation; then apoplexy may reaolt from tbe 
P'*IXn(F of arteries too uuall to gire further tcanamiasion. Iftheaoi- 
^ nuifeats RympConia of improvt-menC, the nhaoges tiKually are «tow 
*>i ifasady anttl he feels appan-titly aa well aa ever, eata well, and 
Mnt freely iu his stall or yard. When be \a taken oat, however, tbe 
*UBbiK attMigtta often proves (l«re]>tjre, aa he may qoickty woakeu if 
iBKBdintoa flMb gait, tb« brt>atbinf; Ixecuine iiuit:keued with a donble 
IvokiioTement an in heaves, and all the former symptoma leappvarin 
*BndiAed degree. An examination at tbia sta.^ uay reveal valvniar 
bMAeient'v, cariliae hyiwrfrophy, or pnhnonary enjjiwgenieiit. 

It fiiiikl cA-tvn of ifodociiidiliH ileaib often occiir.s ab«)ut the fnnrtb day, 
'nun ihu formation of heart clot or too great embarrassment uf the 
ciKuUtion. Endocarditis may be au8pect«d in all easea where plain 
Vi|Hhui9 of canliiie affpf^tion are mAnttViatMl in animals affected with 
■SfaBliM, rbeumati&m, or any diHeaw) iu vrhtuh the blood may convey 
■qihc matter. 

Ante •Ddocardial iuflammation may bt dititineuinhcd from pIcnriMs 
^ thi aboMBoe of any friction miirmer, al>senee of pain wbeu tbe oiiest 
*^l k pemtssed, aod th4« abgeuoa of f-CTusion in the cavity of tbe dinst. 
'^ nay be distinguished (Vom pericarditis by the absence of the friction 
**<»i(tD sod want of an enlarscil arfM of diiUnexs on peniniution, 
rrMim^af. — Xho treatment will b« similar in both myocarditis and 


endocftnlitis. The objects to be attaineil will be to removo or mltiffftt* 
aa mucU aa possible the causo iiiduviug the iliAeaMD; to 3n<l a tniMliotaiH 
which will lessen the irritAbility of the heart without wetkkeDiDf; it; i 
and last, to inniutnia a free artitaiy secretion and prevent ezadatioD 
and hy|>ertro[)hy. So long ns there is aii innt-enso of temperature, with 
BOue ilejrree of ncauliueita or the uriue, it may b« mare to lM>lieve that 
there ia some degree of inHammatory action eziatiiig in the cardiac 
stracturcs, and, as lougasAny evidcncoof iutlamuiAtoryactiou remains, 
however moderate in degree, there in a tendency to increase or hyper- 
trophy or the coDueotive ti»xiio of tlie heart or vah'eK, theretiy render- 
iugitahiiost certain that tlie .structural clian^i's will bi-<xime permaneat 
ddIms cuiintcract«d by persistent treatment and complete re»U 

Tbe tinotare of diKitolia, in 20 drop dosos, rop«at«d every hour, ia 
perhapN the most reliable agent we know to eoiit.rol tbe irritflbility 
of the heart, and thio also h»s a dec'tded influence ui>ou the uri- 
nary secretion. After the desired impression npon tlie heart ieob- 
tained the doso may be repeated every two or three hours, or ae tlie 
case rnuy demiind. Fluid extraut of eonvaltaria majalit, tu 2-dnuB 
doftea, will quiet tbe tumultaous action of the heart in some cases wbers 
thedigitalift fails. Some vuterinarinns recommend bleeding, others cold 
paeka aronnd the chest or over tho heart. The former is decidedly 
objectionable, becfinso of its Ct>ndeiicy tu favor Hbriiious exudation andfl 
olot formation ; tbe latter is too risky a proceeding in the majority of V 
cases to warrant its use, for we find this disease in wet ami damp ata- 
blea in tbe moat a.i;gravated and fatal forms. Blistering and ^ttmulat- 
ing api)Iioati«iis to tho ebest should also be avoided. They nerve to 
irritate the animal and can do no possible good. Gblorato of iiotassa, 
in 2 dram do^fs, may bo given in tbe drinking water every four boars 
for the first five or six days, and then be 8U|>erceiied by the nitrate of 
potassa, in half-ounce doses, for the following week, or until tbonrlnary 
secretion becomes abnormally prolnse. Wliere the diKeiise is associated 
with rhenniatiHm 3-dram dones of salicylate of aoda may be sulwiitated 
for the chlorate of potai^sa. To guard against chronic indnralion of tbe 
valves the iodide of potossn, in one to 2-dram doses, should bo given 
early in the disease, and may bw Repeated two or thn« tiuii'H a tlay for 
several weeks. When chronic effects remain after the acute atage hat 
passed tliis drug be<.omen indispensable. 

When dropsy of tbe limbs develops, it i« due to weakened circniation 
or functional iiupairniont of tbe kidneys. Wbeu tbert- in mueb weak- 
ness in the action of the heart, or general debility is marked, the iodide 
of irou, in 1 dram doses, curabined. with hydnuttis, A drams, may bofl 
given three times a day. Arsenic, inS-graindosestwiceaday, willgive 
excellent results in some cases of weak faeart a^aoeiated with diOioult 
breathing. In all caxes ab»ulnte rest and warm stabling, with comfort- 
able clothing, beoomes necessary, and freedom from work should ba^ 
allowed lur a loag time after ail symptoDDt have disappeared. 



This ta a resolt or myocHnlitifl, or it raay arise from looalixed pynmie 
tofix-tJon or emboli ^m oC a oororiary vessel, oauiiiuK disiutef^ratioQ aud 
dietli of a part. Such abscess may be Kin};le anil large, or mnltiplo 
uiUiDall. Tliuy in^y wealce>u tba Ikhaci Miidicieiitly to i^anse rupture 
tf iU walls, or mity embarrass tbe ciroalation by pressure ui>ou tlie 
nilOH or ctvities safficJcot to prodaco death. 

jLlMoew of the heart oaoaot b« iliagiio»ml vitU any tlegree of i;er- 


Coutft. — Fericanlitifl may be in(Iiice<l by ooUl and damp stabliDg, 
wpUMire atid fatigue, fVom wouuda caused by brokeu rib«, etc Gou- 
tniiy, liow«>ver, it ia associated with au attack of luflaenza, rheum»- 
tin), pIpQHtts, vtc. 

Hfmptom*. — U-tually tbe disease manifests itself Jiliraptly by a brief 

*taipjof oltills coiuoideiit witb )>aiu in uioviag, a abort painful cougb, 

Apid and short breatbing, and bigli temperature, witb a rapid and 

wtl pnlsc. The fever is highest, with corresiwudinf* pulse, iu llio 

Btmiug and lowest iu tbe mortiiug. In the early stages of the disease 

^^t pulfie is refiulnr in beat ; tater, wbeo there is much cxudatiou pies* 

^t ID the pericanlial t*ac, the heart-beat l>ccomes muffled, ami may 1>e 

^^ ailotibled or rebounding character. By pUieiug the ear ai;aiust the 

*^ tide of tbe ehest behind tbe ellraw u raspiug sound may be heard, 

**irfflponding to the frequency of the heart-beat. This is knowu as 

'■^etuaad-fro trictiuQ nound. Between thOKi^<:oiid and fourth days this 

***urjd may disappear, due to a distention of the jiericardinm by nn esu- 

**ftlo or serious eftusion. As goon as this effusiou partly fills the perl- 

"^nfinm. wrcassion will re%-eal »ri abnormallv increased area of dull- 

•■•'•Sfl OYcr the regioa of the bcart, the beiirtbeatt) bcciimo k'sa iMiretptiblo 

tiSD la health, and in some uusfui a splushiug or flapping sound may 

Be audible. 

If the rlTtisiou bocoincsabsorbtMl, the tuaiid-lVo friction Bound usually 

IK for a short time; this Irictiou may ofteu be lelt by applying tbe 

uid to the side of the chest. In a few cases clonic spasms of tbe mna- 

les of the nt-ck may l>e present. In srnute ppricardttis, when the effa- 

lioQ is rapid aud excessive, the aiiimul may die iu a few days, or recovery 

y begin equally as early. In subacate or in chronic cases the efl'a- 

on may slowly become nugmeuted uutil the pressQi* upon the lungs 

ltd interference with the circulation becomes so great that death will 

alt. Whether the atta4;k Is acut«. subacute, or cbrouic, the charac- 

rietio iiymptoms which wdl guide us to a correct diagaoais are the 

-and-fni rHction sound, which is always synchronous wilJi the heart's 

tion, the high temperature with ban!, irritalile i)ul9e. and in cases of 

k>ericardial effubion the increased area of daltoesa orer tbe cardiaa 


re^OD. 'Wli«n tlie disease is aasociated vitb influenza or rlieamatlsm 
some of tlio symptoms raaj be obacure, but a careful examinatiou will 
revenl Rnfficicnt upon whidi to Iin-Sf a diagnnuji*. \Vhen perimirditia 
deri'lopA as a result of or fii cooneelion tritfa plearilis, tb« duttinction 
m«y Tint be renr rlparlr dpfinnble, neither will many recover. When 
it rpsnltH fVom a wound or broken rib It almosc inrariably proTee fot&l. 

Pathology. — Penoanlitifl may at nil times bo regar<le<l as a rery wri- 
OMH :ifl'i>L>iion. At first we will find ati intense inj^-tiou or acrnmula- 
tioiioPblooitin tlie vessels of tlie pericanlinm, giving it. a ceil aud .sviolleu 
ajipearanco, ilarinj; wliiuli we bavo tbe frictioa Houiid. In twentj>foar 
or forty-eight hours tliia etigorg^ineiit is foIJowod l>y an ^nidation of 
s«n>fibriiinii!< fluid, tbu fibriiions portion uf wliicb may soou furm a<!i>at- 
ing over tbe Internal surface of tlie s^ic, and may i)lciiuat«Iy 
form a union nf the opptMing Htii-faceti. Generally tlil» adbcsiou will 
only bo found to occapy a purtiua of tbe Burfucca. iU tlie seroua or 
wat«ry portion of tbiH efTuKiuri is abHorbad, tItedisliuuUieua uf tbe frio- 
tiOQ souud recurs, and may remain peceptible in raried decree fur a 
loug time. Wben tbe »errtus efTuiiion is very great, the preHure exerted 
D|>oti tbi: heart weakens ltd uvtion, aud may produce dcaLb hoou ; wbea 
it is not so great, it may cauue dropsit^s of other porlioiis of the Ltody. 
WbeJi tbo adhesions of Uio parlcardial sac to tlie body of tbo baart are 
extensive, ibey generally lead to increased growth or bjpertrophy of 
the heart, with ur without dilutatiuu of ita vuviUcn j whcu Ibe^T uru but 
slifibt, they niuy not cuu»e any iueouveuieuoe. 

Treatment. — lu acute or fiubacuta pcricar«litls tbo tlnettmof digitalis 
and tiiictnre of aconite root may be mixed, taking i-qual quautitiex, aud 
give 20 to 30 drop do8e« every bour uutil the pulae aud temperature 
become rc<luc«d. Dandagee should be applle^l to tbe legs; if they are 
very cold, tincture of capsicum should be tlrntnpplietl; the body should 
be warmly clulhMl iu blankt^tit, tu prt>moto {wrKpiratiuu. When tbe 
HuOeriug lYora paiu is very severts li ounces of tincture of opium may 
be giveu onco or twice a day; uitrate of pi>taa8a,ltalf ou oDiioe, iu 
drinking water, every six honrK; afti-r ther thinl day, lo^lideof ^lotaasa, 
in 2'dram duMta, may b« subslituted. llut packs to tbe cheat in Lho 
early stageJi of tbe disease may give marked relief, or smart blisters 
may be applied to (he eUlca of Uie chest with bcueiit. If tbu di(H.>;iJie 
btK^nuies chnmic, in4ltd« of inm aud gentian to support tbu HtretigtJi 
will be indicated, but tbe fodtde of pulaasa, in one or 2-dram doMss, 
two or tbree times a day, must not be abandonee! so long a» Uiere is an 
evidence of cffuittuu or plastic exudate accuuiulatiug in tho pericardial 
sac Where tne affuHJon is great and tbreaten» the life of tbe patient, 
tappiog, by an expert vetcrtuarian, may save tbo auimaL 



Acole valrulnr disease can not be distinguished from eodooftrdttts, 
and chroniu valvular afTuetions are generally the result of eudocanli&l 
infiammHtion. Tbe valves of the left side are the must subject — tbo 

ttafpid or, antl tlie aortlp or semilonar. Tl may ronfn<»( ri^nSn 
iDlftiDDstion and swelling;, or th« eilgen of tlit; valvcji niuy b(>t.-<>ni« 
iflltotioatcd by the orgauization of the cxtKintton, tbas uarroviug tbe 
paage. Valvnlar obKtrui-'tioD and adliL-nioiis tuuy occur, or Ttie t«uUi- 
Bou eordft maj' be Ie^gtben(^d orBlmrteiiPilttbiiHolkstructing tbe orifices 
lod twrmitting tbe rej^tirgiratiou of bluod. In prolntcteJ catteti tbo 
fbrota tiwue of the valve« may be transfomxHl ioto tibro-cartilnge or 
bme^or tbere nmy bodeiKmilH of ttalu; of liaie beoeaUi ihesAroas raem- 
bnM, wbicb may terniiDate in nlcpnitiou, rapt are, or fi&sures. Some- 
the Tnlres bccoiov covered by librinoas, fletthy, ur (»rtilaEn»ouft 
lomoT cKenMcace*. In cases of coosiUemlde diUtation of tbe 
thfire may be atropby and sbrtnkin;; of tbo valvps. 

— Valvalar disease may b« iiidicate^l by a vtinoas palse, 
)akiB£pal)H.sii)t«riniit(!ntpal«fl, irrr^^nlarputflu; paliiitatioti; couatant 
■Iwinul falloe88ortbeja?aIarTeinti; dinicultyofbt^atbiug wbeutbe 
■ninol beoomea excited, or im urged out ul a walk or into a fast tiot; 
•Haclti of vertigo ; cODfeation of the brain ; drojwical Hwflllinjc of tJie 
livbi AbluwinfE, cocHD^, orbabbliiicmuritiur may sometimea bebcaixl 
liy yhelag the ear over the heart on the left side of tbe cbf«t. 
Bfpcftrophy, or dilatalion, or botb, usually follows vnlviilar dts^asi?. 
IWaflanf.— Wbeti tlin pulse in irrp^iilar, or irritable, toiiics, Much a» 
P*if*ntumB of iron, gcutiau, aud eiugur may be given. Wben the 
Mlittu of the bean in jerting or violent, 20 to 30 drop doses of tiucttire 
of tlieiUiliN or of veratrum viride may be giren until tbeHe symptoms 
■htifc As tbediBease nearly alwayti ia tb» reault of eudocardltitt, the 
'*('>d« of potassa and general toDic«, sometimes HtintnlantH, when gen- 
'^^ dtbilitT soperreoes, may be of temporary benefit. Very few ani- 
"■l* rwnrer, or remain uiwful for any lengUi of time, after ODce marked 
"nWiic cbangea liave taken place in the valvnlar stfactare of the heart. 


f^rtn, eartilA^nom, and Aniijr formationa hnvo been oKwrvpd in 
'"uwrantnatanoes, in themnncnlartiiwue. Isolated calcareons masses 
'"^t Mnetimea been imbedded in the cardiac walla. Fibrtntjua cooffula 
"*A pftjtfotu oonerftiont may be found in tbe cavities of tbe iieart. The 
"finep Domnat of congnlato<l fibrin, separated, from tbo rnas.^ of blood, of 
^"liiliab oryelluwiahwbitei:cilor,(rHnKliirent, of a jelly-like consistence, 
'"dliaTiDgaDncleaa in tbei^enter. Tbcy may slightly ndhere to tbe sur- 
'"* of the cavity, from which they can eaj»ily be Hcparated witlumt 
•Itering tb« rtmrtore of the endocardinm. They probably result from 
^B eiceaa of coagalabiliiy of fibrin, which is prodnenl hy au organiza- 
^011 of the lympb during exnilatioa. They are ueually found in the 
''l.'ht aoncle and ventricle. 

I*fllypoo« cooerettena are firmer than the preceding, more Qpa(|ne, of 
* flbrouB texture, and may hi; composed of auccesaive layera. In aome 
IniUucei tbey are exceedingly mtuutc, while ia othera theif almoat &U 


one* or uoi« of tlio cavlUes. Their color fa osaally vhlte, bat 
sionally red from the presence of blood. Tbe; firtnljradbere to the 
docardiiiiri, mid wlioii dL-lju^lied from it give it a torn upjK-unitice. 
sioiiali;^ Avascular oouiiuuujuatioii seems to exist between tliutu and t 
giibstauM of tlio boart. They may bo tho result of fibrinous exadatiaa 
from infliiinmiitioii of the inner Kurftute of the heart, or the coagalatiuu 
of a pottioti of the blocx) which afterwards coutrucls adheeiou witJi tb« 
heart, Thtso concretions prove a aouroo of great Inc-onveuieuce, a 
often dflDger, no matter how formed. They cause a dtDiiiiutJon in the 
cavity in which they are found, thuti narrowing thn nrillcetlironffh wbicli 
the blood itasses, or preventing a proiier coaptation of tbo valves, whii 
may produce motit serious valvular disease. 

Symptamx. — These are frequently anocrt*in j they tnav, however. 
RUHpt^L'tetl when the actinn of the heart suddenly lM>4Mnie6 euibai 
with irregular and confused pulsatious, great difliuulty of brestbio 
and the aeaal signs dcpeodeat apon the imperfect arterialisatioa 
Che blood. 

Treatment. — Stimulants, whlaky, or earbonate of ammonia, roay 
of service. 


The distinction between fuuctional and organic diseases of the bea 
is not ejiRily made. >Ve may accept as n guide that the character of' 
or|;unic diseases of the heart is to progress, and that of functional to , 
occur at regular Intervals. Active exercise almost invariably ap| 
vatcs orgiinic, but seldom increases the 8ym]>t(>riisorfuu(;riiinal dif 
and that the physic^d mgiis generally are soon developed, and reooBii 
psruiaoent in organic, vhile,they seldom exist in fnoctionaU 


This Is a tumultuous and usually irn^gular beating of the h< 
It may be dite to a variety of causes, both fuuctiouat and organic. Wc 
wilt, bowever,excUule the organic causes vhich lead to Irregnlar action, 
aud give it a more siinplu apocilicalion. It may occur as a reaolt of 
indigestion, fright, increased ncrvousuess, sudden excileuieut, exces-] 
sive speeding, etc. (See '• Thumps.'*) 

iStfmptomx.—Tbe heart may act with each violence that eaoli beat may 
Jar the whole body of the animal, very comumnly it may Ijo lieATd at a 
short distance away fVx>ni the animal. It can, usually, be traced very 
readily to the exciting cause, which we may be able to avoid or over- 
come in the future and thereby obviate subsequent attacks. Rest, a 
mild stimulant, or a dose or two of tincture of digitalis or opium, will 
generally give prompt relief. When it ia due to organic impairment of j 
tlie heart it must lie regarded as a symptooi, not as a matter for pri* 
inary specific treatuiout 



Aetna! fainting rarelj- oocars mnoaff Lorscs. It niay, Iiowover, be 
Intluci^by a rapid aad great lu&s of blocMl.pain of great iiiteu»it;,a 
mecbauical iiit«rf«rcnco with ttio circulabiou of tlie brdiii, etc. 

Stfmptomx. — SyncojK! is (:liiiracU*riz<iil by » decrease or temporary bub- 
pcDKion of tbe actiou of tbe beart and respiration, witb partial or total 
lose of GOQBciousiiesa. It ircnerallyoccars siuldenty, tbuii^b tbt^re may 
be prcmoDitory symptoms, ns ffiddiooss or vertigo, dilatetl pupil, atag- 
gerinfCi bloncbing of tbe vUibla mucous membranes, a rapidly sinking 
poise, aud dro[:piii^ to the ground. Tbe pulse is fevbluor ceaxoa to 
beat; tht; liurfacu of the Irody turns cobi; breatbing is pcarnely to be 
perceived, and tbe aiiioia] may bo entirely uncouscious. Tbii* state is 
uu<-eriaiti Ui dumtloD ; gi>Utiratly it lants only a few minuter ; tbe otren* 
lation becomes reKtore<l, breathing b«>cotiieK more diiitiuct, and coO' 
acioDADCftft and muBvulartitrengtb retnrn. In ca(>es attended with muoh 
bemorrhag« or organic diseA&e of tbo beart, tbe fainting fit may be fatal, 
otberwiiH* it will prove but a trauKieut ocr^nrreiiee. In paralysis of the 
beart the symptoms may be exactly similar to syncope. Syucope may 
be ditttiiiguislied from apoplexy by the alisctiojof fltertorous breatliingi 
aod liridity of the risible uinoous membranes. 

TretttineHt. — DiLsb cold water on tbe hyad j administer a stimulant, 4 
ounces of wbisky nr balf an ounce ofoarboiiat^ of aiiiitionia. Prereot 
tbe animal from gcttiufc up too »oon, or tbe attiick may immediately 
recur. Afterwartltt, if tbe altauk waa due to wcAkii&ss from brsA of 
blood, Imikovensfaail blood, or as^nociate*! witb debdity, geuurdl tuuioBi 
net, and Dourisbing food are indicated. 


nvpGRTJEOpar op rne nBART — cakdiao K.NLAKaeMKKT. 

Hyjicrtrupby uf tbe beart implies uugmeutattou of bulk iu (La muaoa- 
lar Kubstance, witb or without dilatation or contraction of it.s caritiefl. 
It may cxiat vritb or wiliiuiit other cardiat; Hffi%tioni«. In valvular 
disease or valvular insufficiency by|)ertropby freqaently reaults aa » 
oonsequeuce of inoreasixi demand for propelling power. The difficul- 
ties witb wbicb it is muxt fre(|uei>tly coonccleil are dilatation and ossi* 
AcuUuu of tbe valves. It may also ckkuv iu couiieutiou witb atropbiod 
kidneys, weak heart, etc. It amy be caused by an increased <letcraii- 
natiou of blood to tbe organ, or from a latent form of myocarditis, and 
it may Hrtte from a long-coutiiiiied increase of action doi>enduat upoa 
Dcrvoun disentu!!. All tbe cavitiea of tbe heart may have tboir walls hy- 
pertrophiedorthethickening may involve one or moie. While the wall 
of n ToDtrlde is thickened its cavity may retain its normal size — aimpla 
kjfpfrtropkjt — or \n'. d\\at«i\^-*ntnlric kj/pertrophtf^-nr it may Iw con- 
tracted — c«tK«Htrio ktfpertrophji. Iiyi>erlropby of both ventricles in- 
creMCfl tbe length and broatlth of tbe heart. Hypertrophy of tho left 
Teotriele alone Increases iu length, of the right ventricle aloue iu- 



f-rcaflca its Ureadth toward the right side. Hypertrophy with dilatatioB 
may iiffecL Uit! ubiitutMsrs of lUe heart coiijoinUy or stijiarHtely. ThU 
form in by far the imwt frequent variety of (ainliiioeulttrgemeiiL \VlieB 
the eiitin^ h<-iirt U iifTuoted it a:<Miiiue8 a t:^<'l"'l'ir apiiearaiice, the »p«x 
beiiiK almost obliterated, and siiuat*'d trAusvtfrseljin tho cdoj*!, TUe 
bulk may become three or fonr tJoies greater than tbe averagu site ui 

Ssmptamit.—hi by|>orlropby of tbe heart, in addition to the nsaid' 
eymptoius laaoifetited in organic diseases of tbe heart, tbcre is a po«(?v- 
fiil and lioavinjj iinpiitse at each beat, which may be felt on tbe I»^ 
Hide, often aiNOOii the rii;bt. Tbeae pu1ttatiou.i are regular, and whe? ^ 
full and strong at tbe ja vr there ia a tendency to active oougeetion «3* 
the capillary vess«Lfi, wbiob freqaeatly jrivcs rise to local inflamraattoc:^ 
active hiemnrrbage, vl«. If tbe pultte isstnall and feeble at tbe Jaw iv^ * 
may i-ondiide that there is tiouie obstacle to tbe escape of tbe yood rror.^** 
the left ventricle into tbe aorta, which ha6 given riec to the byiwrtK^^^ 
pby. In case of byp«riropby with dilatation, tbe tmpulso is not ont^^ 
pnwerfnl and heaving, but it ix diFTuKetl over tbe whole region of Ihi 
heart, aud tbe normal sounds of tbe heart are greatly increased iu in 
tensity. Percu«fiion reveala an enlarjfod area of dulInesA) while theiak' 
pulse ignsiially much Htroiiger tbaa normal. 

Dropisy of the pericardium will f;ive tbosame vide space of dalloen, 
bat tbe iDipulfteand wtund are lessened. An ammal with a tnudcmte 
degree of eulurgcment may jKrssibly live a number of j'ears and Iw 
capable ofonlinary nork; itdejK'nds largely opon concomitant disease. 
As a rule, an animal affected with hypertrophy of the heart will soon 
be iueapacitut«d for work, and become u.ielesa and incurable. 

TreatiMHi. — If the cause can be discovered Mid is removable it aboald 
be done. The indiilo of pnras^n, in cases of valvular thickening, may 
be of Kci.ue ti«n«IiL iftuintiiiued fora xulBcient leugtUuf time; it may Im 
given in 2-dram doses, twice a day, for a month or more. Hydrocyaoio 
acid, in SOdrop doses twice a day, may relieve abnormsl mnsctilar ir- 
ritability. General toiii«>«, frcetlom from exeititmeut or fotigue, avcud> 
fljioe of bulky food, good ventilation, etc, are indicated. 


Tliis is an enlargement of the cavities of tbe heart, and may Im oon- 
fiued to one or eiiteud to all. Two forms of dilatation may be tuea- 
tioiicd— jHia;tJ« dtUttatioii, wliere there is normal tluckaeca of tbe wftU*, 
aiul pa*»ire or aiUnualed diUttatioik^ where tbe walls are simply diatmided 
or stretched out witbuul any addition of substance. 

Cauac*. — Any cause pro«lucing constant and exoeastvu exertion of 
thehrart may lead lo dilatation. Valvular disease is the most frequent 
caUKV. General anteniia prediapoAcs to it by prodnoing relaxation of 
musi>ulur liber. Changes in t.he muscular tissue of tbe heart'Walls, 
Berous inSltratioii from i>ericarditia, myocarditia, fatty degenerstioB 


ui'l inflltratton, ntropky of tlie miUMular filien, may all lead to ililnto- 


Sjfmptoms, — The morements af tlie heart nre fpehle anil i>rolonge<l, a 
dtspoaitioii to ataggoriug or vertigo, tlmpsy of llm limbs, very pule or 
Tcrf dark -colored niembraues, uiil diffiuult brealUtug ou Uits aliglib^bt 

Treatment. — General tonics, rich foot], liotl rest. 


Fatty degeneration may Involve tbe whole organ, or may be limited 
to its watlti, or evon to circuoiw-ritioil jiaUihes. Tho latter is Bituntetl nt 
lboexiprior.iinil}^ir«<^il:i|i|ifaraiK!e. WhHUtr>4uerally irivolvnl 
it h ll'il>by or tia<'<:i(l, and in eKtreine cases collapses when emptied or 
cut. upon dioaeotion the interior of the veutriclea is observed to be 
covered with buffcolonMl 8]>ot8 of a Rinj;idnr zij^/.ag form. This ap- 
pmrancte toay bo noticed Imueatli the (wrictardium, anit pervading the 
wbulc tbickiuvw oftbo vt^titriciilar walls, and in extreme tuises iIkmu of 
the Heshy columns in the interior of the heart. These Kpots are found 
to b« d^ceneraied lanacalar flbcra and colonies of oil-globnk-s. Fatty 
d«>gi«n(!ratjim iK often ansooiated with otb«r morbid ('onditinnN of the 
lif^art, )» obesity, dilatation, rapture. anenrif*m. etc It may be coti- 
nvctol with Ibtty dimunen nf oMirr or^n.i, an th» li^'wr, kidiiRya, rtv. 
Whtf-n it f'Xiaf:* alone its prcis^nce is npldom nn«i>ent4'd previnnn todi^ath. 
It may be iHtcuuilary M hypertmpby of tbe heart, to iiiyo«!ar(iiLiii, or to 
p«rric»rdici«. It may be due to deteriorated conditions of th« blood in 
wajitinjr diae oa ea. eKoessive bemorrhasvAt b^m or to potaoninfr with ar- 
HDi« aud phoiplioms. 

Sjimptoma. — Tlie moat protnineut ayroptonis of fatty de^oeration are 
a fp«iblK at-tion of tbo bn:irt>, a remarkably slow pulse, ^ii«ral debility, 
autl iitt<<uks of vertigo. It may exisl> lor u luttg time, but is apt to sud- 
denly termiuate in duath apon the occnrrence of other diseased, siirfn<:al 
0|M>r.itionH.«t4', It may involve a liability to sudden death from nii>tnro 
of the ventriunlar walla. 

Traitment. — Conflnemeat in feed to oaL.% wheat or rye bran, and 
timothy bay. Twenty dropn of Anlphnric acid may bo giveii in drink- 
ing- wattir three timt*a a day, and hyiHiphosphilAof iron in ^-dnim diwu^s, 
mixetl witli Cbe feed twice a day. Other touic* and atimaUuta an tbey 
may bu iudiuatvd. 


A illmlnntion of masenlar substance of the heart and coniieqnent de- 
crease in btdk and wvij{bt. It is generally duo to im[>erfeuc nutiitioQ 
fn)n> occluaion nf the bloml-vi'smdn which Hupply it. 

Symptoms, — The heart Iwat is we^ik and hardly peroeptildp ; the area 
of dnllnwsovorthe regioD of the beitrt is l«;j)4cuti(l. Kurther tliau thia 


it rurnishes no cbaracteristic symptoms wliiclt disttagatsh it from aoi 
otliur (litMiawa of tbia organ. Treatment isof uo avail. 

nuPTUSB OF rnn drart. 

This may oc«ar as the result of eome previous disease, a« fatty «l6- 
gf^iiiTHtion, ililmatiou witb vrunkueiut of tlie mutwnUr waHh, etc ll 
muy be cHnseil by ext«rnal rioleucf, a crushing fall, pressure of eome 
great weijibt, etc. Usually, deatb follows a ruptare very qaielclf, 
though au aaimal may live for some time wliea tlte rent is oot rtrj 


Tbid may ariKorrotn fiuuerat debility, tho result of exliau.stiugdu 
overwork or heart atniin, or loKt of blo<]d. IL is indicateil by a Bmall," 
feeble, but geuerally regular [tulse, coldness of tbe body, eto. 

Treaiment. — This rIiouUI bo direoteil to sojuiort and inoreoae tbe 
strength of tbe aaiiual,by touics, rest, aud autrittoiis food. Carbonato 
of ammonia may be gii'eu to stimulate tbe heart's octiou aud to pre- 
veut tbe formation of heart .elot. 


Congestion, or an aeeiimnlatioQ of the bU>oit iu tbe cavities of the 
heart, luay occur iu cousequeuce of flbrinous deposit* iuterferiiig wfth 
Ihtf free uioFeinente of the valves, usually the product of endocarditis. 

St/Mptomt. — Great difllcoUy of broatliing, paleness of tbe risible mu- 
cous membraneM, great anxiuty, fre(|uetitly au'-ompanied by a general 
tremor and cold perspiration, followed by deatb. It usually resullti ia 
death very i]utckly. 


This is acoaditlon sometimes found iu foals immediately after hirtb, 
and is due to nundosure of the/orawien ovale, which allows a mixtuer 
of tbe venous with the arterial bloo<l iu the left cttvities of tbe heart> 
It is oharacterizwl by adark purple or bluish oolorof lh» visible ranooos 
roeiubraues, sbortness of breatb, and general feebleness. Foals thus 
aOTected generally live only a few hours after birth. 


loflaiuuiation of arterlen in rarely ebtierved in the horse nit a pri- 
mary atfectiou. Direct ii^uries, such as blows, may produce u ouota- 
sion and subsequetit inflammation of tbe wall of an artery; seven 
nuiscuUr stniin may involve an iirterial trunk ; hyi>crlropby of the 
heart, by increiwing arterial tension, may reaulL in the pnKluctioo of a^ 
general eadartoritis. Septic infection may affect the Jouer coat audfl 
ultimately involve all three, or it may bo the result of an inttammatioo 
iu tbe vicinity of the vessels, ete. lullumiualiou of arteries, whatever 


the* caiuie may be, of>«n leads to very serjoaa renalta in thedevelopmeDt 
orarooudarycliaugea In tbeir wallm. Arteritis may be acute, subacute, 
or cbrooio; wheo tbe inner coat aIou« is iiQcotnl it is known as endar- 

SuMptoniM. — ArUtritiH iscliaractcrizcd by a painrul swelling along tbe 
intlaiued vessel, tlirobbhig pulHc, coMiiefix of liie putts snjiplicd liy the 
inflamed vessel, somctiiiiiM tbo fiirmution of gaiign;iioiis slonglis, sup' 
pnratiOD, absc«si<, etc In on in flnni motion of tbc iliac aru-rtes we fitid 
cjoldtiess and excessive lameness ur paralysis of one ur belli bind limbs. 

PaMo/ojrjr-'~lo acute arteritis we Hod swelling along tbe ves^iel, loss 
of elasticity, friabttily, aud thiuknniiJK uf tliu nalU^ a roughness and 
low of gloss of the iiiuur uoat^ with the formation of congalu or pas in 
tbe vesMl. Subacute or chronic arteritis may alTuct ouly tbe the outer 
coat— Jwrtor/rriVix ; bntb 1]i» outrr and middle co:it, or Uie inner coat 
aloae— «iid<irJ«nVi« ; and by weakeni ug the ruapcctivf coats leads to rup- 
ture, aoourism, or to degoue rations, such as bony, calcareous, fatty, 
attieromntouf, etc. It may niso lend to sclerosis or increase of librous 
tiKHuo, f.H[M-ciidly in the kidneys, wlu-n it may U'-snlt in tlie condition 
known as ar(tfrio-capi7/ary^6f-o«is. Ulirouic eiidurtentis is fruitful itj 
tbe product ion of thrombus aud atheroma. Arteritis may be limited to 
single tninks, or it may affect, more or less, all the arteries of the bwly. 
Artrries which are at the scat of chronic endarteritis are liable to suf- 
fer degenerative changes, oousistiug chit'Qy of fatty deguui^ratinn, cal- 
cification, or the breakiuf* down of the degencrate<l tissue, and the 
foniitttiot) of erosinnn III' nicer-like openings in the inner coat. These 
erosions are frequently callud atheromatous ulcers, and fragments of 
tissne from these ulcers may be carried into tbo circulation, forming 
emboli. Fibriuous thrombi are apt to form n|>on the roughened eur- 
face of the inner coat', or npnii the surface of the erosions. 

Fatty de^ooratiou aud calcification of the middle and outer coats 
nay occur, and large, hard, calcareous plates project inward, ujion which 
thrombi may form or luay exist iu couuectiou with atheroma of the in- 
ner coat. When there is much thickening and increase of new tissue 
IB the wall of the aflfected artery, ft may encroach upon the capacity of 
the Tpssel, and oven IcimI t« oblit:i^ratinn. This is often associated wttb 
intenitttial intlanimation of glandnliir orgnns. 

Trmimcnt. — Carbonate of [>utat;£a lu dram dottes, to Xw given in four 
onnres tltjuor aootateof ammonia every six hours. Scalded bran kiiOI- 
cicnt to produce luoKcuing uf the bowrlH, and complcto rest. Exter< 
ually, applicatious of hot water or hot hop iuftiaioa. 


Atheroma Is a direct result of au existing chronic endarteritis, the 
liunig membrane of the vessels being invariably involved to a greuttir 
or less deffrec It i» most (ruquetitly fouud iu tbe arteries, although 


the TOlns nanj' devRtop an AtberomntonR cnnilition wtien exposed to any 
source of prolongml iniuitiuu. Athfromi* m»y utfect nrtericii in aoy 
part of tbu buil> ; ia some tiistatic^ almost evety vessel is diaeasetl, in 
othtMonly a few, or even jtartfl of one vessel. It is a rerj' comnion 
rtfliilt of endoean litis cxteiiiliiig into the aorta, vliich we Snd (icrliaps 
the mcMit frerjueat (wat of at.lieronuk Aa a remit of thin pjiiifliUoo tiie 
aflevted veiuel becoincta iitii>airetl in its contractile powt^r, lo.-«ea ilM uatr 
oral atrengU], and in conse<]ueiie« of ita iaubilily Ut Aostaia ita aecu* 
tomed iDttiitial pr«S!«ur«, undergoej*, in many casos, dilatation at rlie seat 
of iliimnai , nnmiitifiilin;; mii iii iiiii In aji atbvmuiatDuii Tefuwl, enlcare- 
ou» deiHi^titii soon uccar, which render it rigitl, brittle, and iiiibjtM;t tn 
nloeratinn or rnptnre, la AOcb voA^elit tile coittrarttility is destioyeil, 
the middle coat, atrophied anil berotid repair. Atheraina in the Te#8«la 
of tlif! l>rai» ia a freijiieiit (■aiiiM> of perebnil :ipo|>lt*xy. Ha symptoma 
are uiaui/*>Jite<l by wliich wa can recognize tliiH conditiou daring lile. 


This is n8n;iHy the rsKult of arteriti*, and may partly or wholly be 
fm]K-.rviims to the (low of hinod. When tliis occurs in a large VKa»4?l it 
may be followeil by gan(£Tctie of the parts; Q«ually, however, culUT«raJ 
circulation will lie entiibliithed to nourish the partH previously wipplied 
by thB oblilerated veiuiel. In » few iuHtauce:! couatrtctiou of the aurta 
Las produced death. 


AniMirism is uaaally described, as true nud/alse. True {Uienrism ia a 
dtlatatiuu of thu eoiita of au artery ovi^r a larger or ttmaller piirt of itA 
coarse. Such dilatations are usually dae to chntuie eudartentis auil 
Hthenmia. Falitn anunriitin ia formed after ii punclnre of an nrtery by 
a dilatatioD of the adhe^ire lynipb by vhicb the poueturu waa niiit^sl. 

S^ptom*. — If the aiieiirii^m id seated aluug the nec'k or a limb, it ap- 
pears ;ui a tnmor in theconrse of an artery, and pnUating with it. The 
tumor is mund, aofi, and compressible, and yle]d.i a pcculiiir fluctiiatJoB 
U|K)n pressure. Cy applying the ear over it a [weuiiar piiman or hiss- 
ing Kouiid may sometinieJi Im> hoard. Pnlitation, aynchronouH with the 
action of the heart, is the dia^noMtie Myniptom. It in of a kIow, expaii- 
sive, ami heavy chnnwter, an if the whole tumor were enlarging ander 
the hand. Aaeiiri^inH tteatiMl internally may (Kvopy the cavity of the 
cratiium, cheHl^ or abdomen. As regards the fir^t, little ie koowD dur- 
ing life, for alt the aytuptoma which ibey pi-uduue may arise from utiier 
cHU»-9. Aneurism of the anterior aorta niiiy be situated very cloeely to 
thu heart or iti the arch, uud it is very Kcldom that nerati diNlingaish it 
fromdlMeaxeoftlie heart. The tnmor may encroach uiwn the wind-pipe 
and prcidiie«dit11eiilty in breaihiug, or it may pruduco iireHxure upon the 
TeDK cavaaiw the thoracic duct, utistriieting the lluw or bhiotl ami lymph. 

]b bet, wb«I««TeT porta (h« aneurisin maj mtch or finT>j«Tt to Tft piw" 

■OK. may bare tbeir fiiiiclions ttiispemled (ir iliitlurbeil, Wlieu the 

umorlo the ebcftt la \ugu wo generally finil mttcb irregalarity in the 

■Bliofl of tiie benrt; the onperfloial rt'insorthe neck arodistt-mded, auti 

tb«niU niinally (1r(jjiMi(!:i) Kw(.'1liti}; uiu1f>r llit^ Iirnaiit anil iif the limlm. 

Tlirre may be a very tranblesonie coiigb without any eviUeucc of iatig 

afivetion. Somctime'S poIsatioD of tbft tumor infty be felt at tbc lower 

partDf the nerk where it joins the cbettt. Whco the niicurism occarg 

la U« poflterinr martA no flia^nostic ayaiptoiua ar« apprecuble; whun tc 

oecunin Uie tuteroul iliac arLcrics au «saminattOD p«r rectDiu will r» 


Tluroiaone rorm ofaaAUiSB which la not anfreqamitW nverlonlied, 
tlbetiogtbflaatfnor roeaeDtericiirtery, primarily induced by a worm — 
Uu Sirwgytua vauUuM. This woriit prodawR an urtt-xitui, with atberwna, 
depieratirtn, and dilatation of tb« meaenteric an«nei, Maociated with 
tkraalKt aiid ani'nrisni. Tlio anenrisni giv«« riae toeolle, whiiib np 
pt^ni pcnodioilly in aver>' violejitand often pprsistent type. Ordinary 
BBlie T«oi6diea have no effect, and after a lime tbu atiimal Hmuuimbti to 
t^ diwaAe. In all cancd of animikls which are tialntually subject to 
ttlti-lij' attacks, parasitic anetimm of the anterior mesenteric artery 

fttUIaiti/. — Aneurisms may be difTane or »itccnlnted. The dtfTiiae con- 

B^ in a ntilform dilatation of all the coata of an artery, no that it as- 

**n)ft the ijhnp« of a oylrndriiul swolltng. The wall of the anearism 

■8 tlbcRKnatous or caluifled ; tbe middle coat may be atrupbied. Tbe 

*'«'''litMl orcirrninsirribed aneuri-sta coiisiitttt either in a dibttation of 

""•'iitinieirrunitereiico of an artery ot-cr a abort portion of its length, 

^ u a ililatation of only a smalt |M3rtioii of one side of tbe wall. Anen- 

"** Rnif tiecowe very large; aa it lueruaseH in xize ItpreKseH npi)ti aud 

i^iKctbe deMirudtiiMi of neigbborine tissues. The cavity of the aneu- 

nMual sac ill filled with iluid or clotted blood, or with lajerjs of Qbria 

*^icti adhere cbisely to its wall. D<>ittb Is produced nsually by tbe 

'''^ueaud interference of tbe ancnrism with ai^oitiiri^ oi'gauK, or by 

"'I^itre. In wornt aucuriRiu we usually find lar^e Ibronibi within tbe 

^tnriitmnl <ti]atatioti of tbe artery, which aomctinicd pluj; tbe whole 

J^pI or eitetui into the aorta. Portions of this tbroinbua or clot may 

w vaaliod away and priMlnt-o emholiHni of a smaller artery. The eflWt 

** BttJw case ia to producv auiemla of the loteattnnl c^nal, aerouA or 

"tooily exudation In lt8 walls, which leads to paralysis of the intestine 

'^i nsattant colicky symptonis. 

Trfatment. — The only treatuieubadvisable i» tuuxtiriiatu or ligatethe 
taiMr above aod. below. 


BBdUtcritis, witb its KulmKqaMiL rhanges in the walls of arteries, is 
ft* (triutary cause of rupture iu the m^iority of itutauotM. The rupttire 


mny be partial, inrolrtnp only one or two coats, and will then fonsaa 
aueurisru. If coinpIi>t«, it may produce deatli trlieii it invittreA a larga 
resstfl, e«]>cdAlb- if it in Kituated Id odo or tlio large cavitiea permittiiti 
aa cxcessi re escape of blood. Rupture may be produced by tuecLjiimttl 
TioI«nco or accidciit- 

Sj/mptoms. — In fatal mptnre afiflociated with profdae bloedlng, the 
animal Wcomeit weak, the visible mueuous intmbraiies become blauchfi 
the breutliiiiK hurried or gaspiug, pupils dilated, staggering lu |iit, 
eyDco]>e, deatb. When the h«morrbagoiH limited, the Bytnptomem&T 
not become notlceablo ; if it i« near the Kurface of the bo<I y a round or 
dilfiKte Hwelling or Inmor tnny form, coualitutiiig a kj/tfroma. Ifihe 
rapture Ib associated with an external voand the bleeding artery sb<jald 
be ligated, or where a tondage is applicable, pressure may be ap])lied 
by tight bandaging. As a secondary reKolt of nipliire of au arler^ire 
may have foruialion of absoesw, gangrene of a part, etc. 

Treatment. — When ropture of adeep-eeatednrlery is Rai!i|>ecte<l, br?® 
doiC8 of flaid extract of ergot may be given to prodnce contraction of 
the lilood-^'esftels. Tanttin and iron are also uiieful. The animal sbowl" 
b(? allowed to have as much waterashedeairea. After wuids sUiUDlao^ 
and uotirifihiug food are indicated. 


By thrombosis is generally noderstood the partial or compIetectosfS*^ 
of a vessel by a morbid product developed at the site of the obetm*'' 
liou. The coagulum, wliiuh in nKuallv llbrtuoiiii, is known as a throf** 
'boB. The term embolism designates an obstrnction cansed by any botl^ 
detached anil transported from the tnterinr of the heart, nrnfnome ve^ 
wl. 'Jlironibi owur aa the resnlt of an injury to tho wiill of the 
ormay follow its compreaston or dilatation ; they may result from 
alteration of the whII of the vesisel by dlBease, or by the retardatli 
the circulation. Theue formutiuuH may occur during life, in the heart, 
arteries, veins, or in the porlal system. Whena iwrtion ofQbriucoag' 
ulatea in oue of the arteries and is carried along by the circulation, il 
will be arrested, ufcourxe, in the capillaries, if not before; when in the 
veins it may not be stopped iiutil it reiichcttthe luugs; nud when in tbo 
]K)rtal system thecapillariesof the liver will prevent ilefnrtherprogreM. 
The formalmn of thrombi may act primarily by enusiug partial or com- 
plete (ibstmet ion, and wcondarily, either by larger or xnialler frag* 
menta beconnng detacheii from their end, and by being cwrried oloae 
by the circulation of the blood to remote veuela, embolism ; or by tte 
congtilnm Iieeoniing Aortened and converted into pns, couetituting aap- 
purative pblL-hilia. Tliej4e KubHtancCH occur moot frequently in those 
uflectiona characterized by groat exhaustion or debility, aspnenuKiuia, 
pur]>urn tnemorrhngioa, endocarditis, phlebitis, puorpural fever, hem- 
orrhagea, etc. Tliese coucreliona may furin Huddenly and produce in- 
Btantiincous death by retarding the blood curreut, or they may arisa 


grailoiilly, in which cflse tli© thrombi may be organized aod attiKhed to 
tbe walls of the Iienrt, or they ni:iy soften, and fVAj>ineiit8 of thcu (em- 
boli) may Iw carried away. The Hmall, wart UIch t-xoivMoenres, <KN!ur< 
riu;; 8oiuctiiiiL-H in fiiilouanlitis, inny occasionally f'orui a fouii<]atiou on 
vbicti a throtnbi may devcIoi>, 

Sf/mprontK. — When henrt riot or thrombus exists in the right side the 
return nf bloixl Inmi th^ lioily ami the afrHtinn in tbe lungn ih ini* 
fioded, and if duath occurs it is owing to syncope rather thau to strau- 
gulation in pnlrnonary nMpiratitm. Tlicre will be bnrritKl and ^a«piug 
breathing, paleness nnd ctihluess of the snrfacft of tlu) luMly, a ft-ehle 
and iiiivmiitU'iiC or fluttering pul^e, and faiiitint;. Whun a fibrinoiu 
coagiiluin ia carried into tho pulmonary artery lYoni the rightsideof ilia 
heart, thv itidicationa ara a Hwelliiig and iaiillnition of tlio luiiffH and 
pulmonary- apoplfxy. When the clot is sitnat^d in the left nivities of 
tht> heart or in lh(> aorta, d&ath, if it <)iiM;ur», tabus plooe either suddenly 
or at th« end of a few honrs from <»>nia. 

Palbalogy. — WhiMi a (Hia;;iilnrn in observed in the heart it may I>e«onittj 
a question n-bether it n-a^ formed dtiring life or alter death. The looseir' 
dark coagtda, so often fonud after death, arc polypi. If tbe deposition 
has taken place during the last momentA of life, the flbrin will tw iso- 
lated nnd mift, but not adherent to Ihevralls: if it bti ieulati^d, dense* 
and adherent or closely intertwittcd with the musdva of tbe papillae and 
tendinons conis, the deposition has occurred more or less remote from 
tLe act of dying. Occasionalty the fibrin may iHiseen liningoneof tl^ 
caritiea of the heart, like a false enduiuirdium, or else forming an addi- 
tiuual coat to the aorta or other large \-es.sela without piwlucing mucb 
olKtmctioa. Tbmmbi, in some instances, soften in their centers, and 
are then obxerved to contain apns-iikesn)>stance. Tftliis softening haa 
extended uontfiiderably au outer shell or cyst only may remain. The 
■Durcca of danger «xist not only in tho interruption of Ibe circulation of 
tlie blood, but also ia a morbid state of the system, produced l)y (ho dis- 
turlM*d uutritluu of a limb or organ, as well as the mingling of purulent 
mid gangrenous elements with theblooil. 

Treatment. — The urgent symptoms should Ix"- n-liorod byrost, »tim- 
nlantA, and the use of agenta n'hieh will actns solvents to IhuHlirinoua 
clots. Alkalies are specially useful for this purpose. Carbonate) of 
ammonia may Im; mlmimstered in all ca-ses of thromhns, and sbonlil bo 
continued for a long time in small doitus several times a day. In catidi 
of great debility aiwociate^l with a low grade of fever, stimulants and 
tonics, and atlro-muriatic acid as an antiseptic, may Lie beueHciaL 


InflflinrnMlon of veins may b« simple or diffuse. lu simple phlcbilH 
the di.'^ease of the vein is coalhied to a circumscribed or limited portion 
of a %'ein ; in ditTiise it iiivolve.s the vein fur a lung distance; it may evea 
•sleud from a limb ur foot to the huarU 
UOJO 10 

f?aiiMJ!. — PhlpWtia may be inince*! by contnsions or direct it 
at) extotiKiiiti of iiillantmatjon fruiti durroauding titutno, an ia 
formatioD of tuuior, or maligiinnt growth. Ills often duv toombotlnii 
infentire mat<TiaI, giin^enoDS matter, etc. Blooil-Icttiiig frocn 
juguliir vi;in is occajjioRnlly lullowcd by i)au;:cn)iiK pblvlHtJH. 

Sifnptoms. — Tlie symptoms vary aocoriiiiig to tbo extent ami Mvwitj 
oftbo inllamtiiatioD. In most cases the vein imsnollea, thitrktonl, and 
iiiihinitnd to such a degree ns to resemble an artery. A dilTiurd 
sirelliDg, with ereat teoJerneiw, may cxtenil uloofT (be affected yttmeA 
and Ibe animal mmifi^it all tlia dymptonui connected with .lentefowr 
anil iTTieral fiuictioiial disliirbunci?. 

Patholifgsf. — Thu iliH<:>iuM! isoaly aorimiN when large reins are Hflecltd- 
Tlieooats nndergo tiio same oUanjccB as iu arteritis, clotit of bluodaa'd 
lyinpb i>luf; the iDllmuod vessel, nnd if tbe inflammatory process oats' 
tinnes Uiesw an* nooverted intopnn, wbich rnptnres ibe vessel and pro- 
duces ade«;p al>HceA.t ; or it muy bu carrJL-d away in tbo circnlntion ut%i 
produce metastatio aboess in tbe Inngs or other remote orgiiiis. L" 
mild casein ilio elots may botrome absorbed and llm veHH(«l ri-stornl i*> 
health. PhlebitiHin ihecjHirse of the veins of Ibe limbs fregnenllj' le*'* 
to namerous abscesses, which may tn raiHtakcn fur farcy olc^atiDD^ 
A very oommoD result of phlebitis is an obliteration of the tiffcrtt-d i*"*^ 
tioa of therein, bat a^ collateral circulation is readily establifhed ibi* 
i« seldom of any material inoonrcnienoe. 

TVerrnifa*.— Phlebitis should bo treated by the application of a am*'* 
blister along the course of tbe inflamed vessel ; early openiii^ of aPj 
abwse'^es which mity form : the animal should have complete rest, W^ 
the bowelH Ih> kept loiMRwith bntn m:uihe.s. When tlio fever runs highi 
faalf-oanoe doses of nitrate of potassa mny be given in the drinkiol 
water, wliiidi may be changed in two nr three daya for drain doses of 
the iodide of pntaxitA. If the animal liccome^ Hebibtated, carlmnsl* (A 
ammonia, 1 draw, and iH>wder«d getitiau, 3 drams, may be given ever} 
six hours. 


This may be a rexidt of weakening of the coatA from inflamniatory 
dlMHUM and d^eneralion. It may also be dae to niecbaQiml ubstrui: 
tioa frota internal or external sonrocs. It la sometimes found in the 
vein which lies i;nperlleial over tbe inside of tbe hock joiut.aml may 
be due to tbe pretuure of a spavin. Occasionally it ma^ Iw obse-rved 
in istallions, which are more or less subject to varicocele or ditatutiuii of 
Ihr veins of tbe testicular cord. Ilumorrhoidal vnu!* or pilea are occa- 
sioually mot with, generally in horses wliicli run at pasture. Varicose 
Vutns may nliMnitt* and form an abM^esa in the anrronndingtiSKnea, nt 
they may rupture from internal blood pressure and tbe blood form 
large tumors where the tis^nea are solt. 

Trratf lions which manifeHi. a tendenoy to vurioocele tthoald 


wcarsaspensoT?- bags when tbey areexerciacd, Pilea maj often be »■ 
dunl It; KKtrinceiit washfi^ — tva m-Aila from nhitn QHk bnrk or fi satn- 
ntoil ■olntinri rtf ^om. TIih bi:»w4-lii «boii1il Im kr|>I looao with bran 
Rnubn Biiil ttie oniinal kept Qiiiet. in ihe 8t»il>lc. Wlien varicoHe veins 
tmt snperQoiaUjr and threaten to pro4lac« inoonrcnience, tltoy nay be 
I klwivd nnil hnldw aail tltiin ubliceratuil. SometitDea alisorjitioa 


Itwjsr^rmerly sappfwicd that the eiirrnfip« nf air into a voin at the 
tiatiikf Llip indict iimuT a woiiiiil ur in bl»-iil-luLtin<; wa-H exIrifnK^ly ilan- 
Seiflas ami very often pnniuood sadtleu deatli by interi'pring witli ibfi 
oirciiUtioit of tbo btootl tiiroagh the heart and lan(^ Danfff^r from air 
enbDlign is excn«(lingly iloubtrul, nalosus great tiuuDtititifi vrnvo furcuil 
l&Iai lirge win by artiflciul lueans. 


fnrpnnt bemorrba^ica aaaally oocuni ait a km]u«1 to debilitating dts- 
™H<,inich as Rtranglt^. iiitliieiiza, etc It may, liowerer, ariae in tlie 
•l^iiw of any ppe^ioii-i disonso in bft<Uy ventilated stables, niuous 
V*iriy Tnl burKc-K, ami in antm:ilK Kubj(<(!t t» I'jihauKting work ami ui- 
brnwieiuperaiiires. It 18 njipareully due to a primary dt^tenoi'aiiou of 
^f bhod, wcakncas of liie capillary vessels, and general deliility or ex- 
luution of tbe nerrons system. It3 gravity does not depeod so mucb 
B(jas tbe niiiount uf lilnid ezlravasatetl uh it duea upon Llm disturbance 
*r [limitiiitlKMl actiou uf tlie Viutomotor centers. 

tigmptoms. — ThJH di»i*asi) liefximrs inaniftvitcil by tbe ncctirrenoe of 

ttiMoQ swellings on vari<>ii»part.iof tbe body, on ttioliend or lipa, limb«, 

aMomeD, Ptc. They may b« diCiiHedor vypy miirkudly 4;irt-urus(!rilied, 

Uioogfa it) tbo advaniaid stages tliey cover large areas. Tbey pit on 

pivjisure are but aiigUtiy iiaiiiful to the ttMivh. The liuilis may 

sirdi to A very large size, the nosti-iU may become almost closed, ami 

Umi brail and ibroat may swell to tho |H>iut of safTooatioii. Tbe swi>l1- 

liugs not infrequently disap(>ear fr«im one portion nf the body and de- 

T«b>p on another, or may r(>4x.-d« from tbf Kurfiwxi and iuvtulo tlie intes- 

litiiwl moeoas membrane. TIm' luucon^ IiDingof the ito^itriUand muutb 

I'OOVDred witli dark rod or pur|i)e spots, a bloody colored serum Hows 

Ijrota tlu« nnstrilit, the tongue maybe anrollen and |irevontr eating or 

Idoeiu^ oflJie jaws. In tweulyfour or forty-eigbt hour^ biootly surnm 

iRUty exndi^ tliruugh tbe skin over tUo swollen parts, and dually large 

]^ajTr4<Qoas alonglis may form. The totuperatnre is never very high, 

I'tlw pabu is fn.i]ueul aud eoiuprossiblev and beooiue* feebler as the arii* 

bMea Btrengt b. A csough is ii»ually pretteut. l^e uhuo is scauty 

and high colored, and wbeu the inlestioas are much nffveted a bloody 

tltarrbeu may aet ia, witb ooliufcy pains. Some of lUu vuu»\va\. uti^ub 


1>ecnme implicatol In the dJMase, tli» tati^ mny hecnme (BdematoQ^ 
extnivasation may occur in t\it> Latostiiwl caiml, or vlTiiHion of aeran 
ioto tbecAvityoftbe chest or abdomen; occnsionallytlie brain b<«oiDet 
a(Tf4:teil. A few eases run ii mihl coiirso and rocovpry may comBieooe 
in tlir«e or four duys, genenilly, however, the ontlook is luifavorablp. 
In voverr cikstv-' Aoptic iioisouiut; la liitble to ovcur, which kuod biiugi 
the case to n fatal i.-wae. 

Patbotoffif. — Ou section sre find the cnpillaHea dilated, the coDDCCtive 
tissue tilled with a ooa^fulable or coiifnlatrd lymph, and freqaentljr we 
may dificx>ver giingrrouous spots beneath the skiu or iuvolviiij; the alas* 
The lyinptiatic glitods are AwoUen and intlaincd. lilxtensire extravssi' 
tioiis of blood may be found inibedde^l between the coats of the iBiei' 
tines, or excessive elTnitinn into the substance of the lungs. 

Treatment. — DiOiislble atiinulanU and lonica sliould be given fnm 
the very sturt, regardless of fever or frequency of the pulse. Carboo* 
ateof Riumonia, 1 dram jtluidexcractof red cinchona bark, 3dnm«,aiid 
tincture of ginger half an ounce, with half a pint nf water; thin gntdor 
millc should be given every four or six hom-s. SuIphal«;of [roiiiudrui 
dosea may be dis8ol%-ed in water and given every sis hours. Ubloref" 
of potnssa in 2 ounce do^s may be given every eight or twelve hattn- 
When the dinchargeti from the mouth and none become ofTensive to the 
einell, 10 drops of carbolic acid in 2 ounces of water may be given iu* 
drench, or thrown on the ri>ot of the tongue with a syringe several tin** 
a day. Where the swelling is %'ery great, incisions half an inch i" 
length penetrating the skiu should Imi ni.ide with a shaqi knife, to pC*" 
uiit drainage. The application of liniments or washes externally are " 
uo use, and if ii^udiciously used may do harm. OompIicatioDS, vh 
they an&e, must be treated with proper circun)si>ectioD. 


The lymphatic or absorbent system is connected with the blood' 
cular HyKtcni, and <H>nsiHt4 nf a ncriuii of tubes whicli absorb and oonl 
to the blood certain Huids. These tubes lead to lymphatic elands, 
through wUieh the fluid» pass to reach the right lymphatio vein and 
thoracic duct, Iwth of which enter the venous system near the he&rk 
Throuf^h the exoussively thin walls of the ciLpillaricM the Huid part of 
the blood transudes, to nourish the tissues outside the capillaries ; at 
the same time duid parses from the tissues into the blootl. The lluitl, 
after it passes into the tissues, oonstitotes the lymph, and aeia like a 
Htrt>am irrijo^tiug the tituiuc elements. Much of the Hiirphis of (his 
lyiuph passes iuto the lymph vessels, which iu their commeucvmeot can 
hardly be ti'eated as independent stmclureH, since their walls an so 
clo-Holy joinud witli the tis-sites through which they pass, being aothing 
more than spaces iu the coiiuecLivo tisMue uuUI they reach the lai^r 
lymph vessels, which liually empty into lymph glands. These lymph 
glauds are structures so placed that the lymph ilowlug towards 



larger trankii paHses t1iroii|;b t)i<*m, uudcrfioinj^H sort of filtration. From 
tbr foot of t1it8 nmiDgemont lymph glamU are siibjcct to inHHmnmu>ry 
diseases lu i|j» vicinity of i1i»^?iisotl stnicttires. bucaueo infectivi- luato- 
Httl Innng (xitireyeil In tlio lytoph (ilrt;ain loclgea in the i^IuihIh uuil itru- 
duoes irritation. 


Acat« inlliitnmation of tlie lymph gland:) ueaally ucoiirs in ounnectton 
vitti some iiilLiiiiiuatory pi'uuuss in cliu rt>(*iou from wliluli Jt8 lympli is 
gutlieml. Sev(^nil or iiU of tlie gliiniU in ii clatter may bfcome iifTcf^tt-xl, 
m» iu HtTHUKles, uaa»l cutarrb, or nuxul ^levU diKvuseil iir ulcerated leetb, 
tbe lymph glamls between the brancliea of the lower jaw almost inva- 
riably becuiuo nlTectoil, which may lead to Hiippuration or iiidunition. 
Similar r«»iilts obtain in other jKirtion-s of the Irady; in pnetimoiita Ibe 
bronchial glands beuouie affeeted; iu pbaryiigitlH, tbe poat-pharyugeol 
glands lying above tbe trachea beoonte alTeotedt etc. 

Sifmptomi. — The glaiuU swull aud bccomi) painful to the toncb, tbo 
connective Ussae snrronnding tbein becume«t involved, suppuration 
naaally take^ place, aud one or uioro abscessm torm. If the tuditiuma- 
tlOD ia of a milder type, reHoIatiou may take place and the owelliug 
recede, the exudative material bt^iiig absorbed, and the gland restored 
Withoat tbe oouurreuce of Huppunition, Tn the linib!* a whole cbula ot 
tbe glands along the lyuiphntic vessela may become nflected, aa iu facoyf 
phltibi(i«, or xeptic poiHuniiig. 

I Trmttment. — Pomentatioti with hot water, the appliuatioti of uim- 
pliorated aoap lliiimutil, ur camphorated oil, may produ<« a revulsive 
action and prevent etnppnration. If there ia any Indication of al>»(%88 
formiug, iioulticcs of liiiauod meal ami bran made intu a pa«tu with hot 
Vatcr ohould be apjtiied, or a mild blistering ointment rubbed in over 
tbe BVoUea gland. As soon oa fluctuation can bo felt a free openiug 
Diiut be mailu for tbn e^tcuiw of the contained jiuh. Tim wound may 
labaeQDently be washed out wi( h a .-uiliitiou of ciiloride of ziuc, 5 graius 
to tbb ounce of water, three times a day. 


Tbis is obaraoterized by an eulargoment and growth of lymphatio 
glaudH ; tbo cau'^es are ob-tunr^i, but tbey someti mes attain an euornioua 
lize, and eeriounly iuterfere with netghboriug organs. Tbia condition 
Is HOinotlmns found in the region of the throat above tbe larynx, and 
pruduceri wheezing or roaring, by prcuiiiti-; upon the recurrent UryiictNil 
lierve. [t may occur hi thv bronchial glands of tbe ohe^t, aud interfere 
witlt the action of tbe heart and respiration. The swell! ug la not palo- 
ful or feverish, it may \hi v«ry bard nr may be rather soft; occaxmnidly 
tbey ooiitalti a cheeky deposit or even under;;oailcinL'atioii. A comlition 
Blniost similar to ibis may be Induced by cbroQioinllamniatioD. In snob 
eaaen, however, the glandular struotnre may become lessened, as tbe 


mtiUafpresmivbyanindvaaeor Abroos or eonDcctirv tiame attl 

II large tamor at the aita of the f>Und mnalu. I^jk inav become 

sally abftnrlK^l, moru often, however, rocmreiMM* of indamniation Uk? 
place BDd fretinctiily Riiuill abaoeaaea form. 

TVMfmmf.— Rviteateil bliateriDg wltb olnttnontof caDtharidea fl partL 
bin-iotlido of mernirj I part, to be thoroughly mf le.I mid a)>|>)ied oune 
iti ten tluysortwo irceks. If this fails, vxtirpatioti will Im-voiqc occea- 



Bpedflc ioflAmmAtlonof the lympliatic strncturfA, OKnal) v (iflcctir " Mie 
bind leg, very seldota » fore leg. Tliis distaeu i» very kuiiden in ju 
ntliu!t:,exo(>odin£ly painfnl. accompaiiied by a liigb temperaturo. and 
grem gHneral dUturbaace. 

Causa. — Iloree-s of lymphatic or slnggish temperament are prediit. 
poaedtD Ibis affection. It aaunHy nttacke well fi-d aniiimis, aad Jd such 
cases may bo iIub u> an excesa uf nntrili%-« elements in the tilood. Sml- 
(leiiehangeH lu vorkoriD the habits of thennitnal may induce unattat-k 

Symptom*. — U is usually osbered in by a chill, riso in temp<.>ratum, 
and s<»nie nneasmew?; in a very uliort time this is followed by lamoness 
in one log and avellinf* on the iniddQ of the thigh. The swelling gradu- 
ally surmnmls the whole lirab, contiiuioK on downward notil it reachm 
Oie fiKil. The limb is excessively lender to the touch, the auimnl pi-r- 
spires, the breathing itt acc4>lrrated, puUe hard aail riaick, and the teto 
perature may retwh HHP FaU. The bowels early become constijMiU'iI 
and the ui-iue scanty. The nyinptouis UNUiilly are ou the inon-aee for 
about two days, then ihoy remain stationary for the same length o( 
time; thu fever then abates; the swelling recedes and beoomes less 
paiiiriil. It is very seldom, though, that all the swelling luavcia the leg; 
generally it leaves some pernmneut ettlargemeDt, and the animal be* 
ooiiiea subject to recurrent att:ii;k.s. Uccasionally, tite ingninal lyoi- 
phiitic glanda (in the groiu) undergo sapparatton, and pya^niia may 
Buiwrvene and prove fatal. In severe cases the limb lieconaeMdenDded 
of hiiir in patches, the skin remains indnmted with a Qbrooa growth, 
which la known by the uame of rl^kantiatu. 

Trrntmpnl. — Pomc^iitalinns with vinegar and water,eqnjil parts, tflj 
which ttild 2 ounces of nitrate of potassa for each gallon. This should be I 
app1i«l evety ten or fifteen miuut<,-s for itix or eight hours, then the lirg i 
may be dried with nwmiten clnth and bathed with camphorated aoapl 
liniment. Intemnlly, adminiKier tinrtnre of digitalla and itrntiit^- nwt> ' 
ei]tial iwtrtH of each, 30 drops every hour antil the fferer and pnlae ba- 
come reduced. Half-ounce do«e8 of nitrate of iKitiiasa in the drinking- 
wrtter everj- six hours, bran mashes, and rnniptete rest. This trcatiuentf 
If inKtitntedenrly in the attiick, ver:^- l^equeiitly brings abootaromuk- 
able change within lwenly>fuur hoars. 

*. J; 8 ; c & £. 


Br Dr. JAMES LAW. F. R. C. V. 3.. 

Frof'MMt of Vetoriaat}- Sci«ao*, oU., Cornell UuivKsitf. 

Wf can ««iir«*iy ovcrrRtimnte the *-a1ae of soiinil r-jw* in Cbp liofM^ 
■ml bvnoe nil (lit*etMt-B and iiiJiirieA wLicIi Mrioii»ly interfere witli vision 
•re matters of extreme greviiynml a|ii>rehanuoQ,farslioald tbey prove 
permanent thpy inT»ri»1tly «leprw.m1« thi^ iwllinp jirin^ to n oonsiderable 
cxttrtit. A blitxl bonte itt itlwa^a dungerouit in tliu flitddle or ia singlQ 
bwnew. aucl he is «oaroe]y l«s« so when, witb partially impaired viaion, 
ha MMa tbingR imperfertly, in a diRtortnl I'nrm or in a wrong pbuie, nnd 
when he (tbiM or 3%-oids olijpct« vbicb are couimuuplacu or faiiiiltiir. 
When wp add to tliiB tbat certain dispftwfi of the eyes, tike recnrring 
iuflammatioo (moon biindnotu), ore habitually tmofiiiiittcd from parent 
to offspring, we can realize still more fully Ui« imiMirtanceof tbese mala- 
Aies. Again, as a nxre mnlter of beanty, a Round, tall, clear, intellif^eut 
eye ia mmftliinK which mnnt always add a bi^li valau to our uquine 
friends and servanta. 


A fnl! dmwriptinnof thoRtruetiireof thp Rye luinflompatiblo witb oar 
prescribed bmiu, aud yet a short duHcripliou is absolutely eHSeuiial to 
tiie dear anderstiindinf; of what is to follow. 

The horse's pyw is a spheroidal body, liattcned behind, and witb its 
poBtvrior four-tirtbn ini^luseil by an u[KU|iit>, ivliit«, Ktrouj; tihrouii tueui- 
bmne (tJie sclerotic), on the inner side of which is laid a more delicate 
frinblu miMubranr, (Minxirttint; mainly of hliHHl'Teetwla and pit^nutnt nella 
(the chnroid), acd iliat iu its turn ia lineal by the extrooiely <ieii(!i4te and 
iwaaiLlrc ejtpanstou of the nerve of 8i|;lit (tharetiaa). Tboauterlor flflb 
of the sluiio of the eye buit^w* forwanl from wliat would bare l>een the 
dirrvt 1in« of the ecleruliu, aud thus rorum u wj^uiL'ut of a oiiicli smullcr 
iplipre thaij in incloeed by the aclerotie. It« walln, too, have tn health 
s perfect tninnlurency fmoi wbieh itliasderipod ibe navaexif transparent 
eornea. This IranHparuut cout in compoMMl, in lh«i oiain, of fibroM witli 
lymph taterapaeea,ajid it; is to the cpudilion of the»e and their cotideu- 
Mljon and oomprasMon that the transliiooney is litrRely duo. This may 
be sbowu by cumpreatilU}; wiUi tbe tlngera the eye of au ox whinh hasjoat 


b**n bjn«d. when tLe dear transparent cornea will Mtddenlj bewof 
oldutled ovtT wil b a wbitisli liliii* opacit}', nnd 1 bis nil! Kmaln nottl lltt 
coiu)iro<t8(oii isiiitiTTui>lL-<l. Tlie (iiterionif tbefyecontniimfhrwtrati. 
parent media for tlie refraction of the raysof liglit.ou tbi-ir wajfromtbe 
cornea to tbc visanl nerve. Of these media tbe anterior oue (aqieoiu 
bunitir) in lujuid, tbe jHKtteriur (vitreoue bninor] is spmi-Bolid, doJ tbc 
intermediate one [trj-stalhiie lens) U solid. Tbe spare (Wtinpied l>; Uie_ 
aqneous liomor corresponds nearly to tlie portion of the o^o covered I 
the trannparcnt cornea. It is, Iiovever, divided into two cbamben,i 
teriur litid poHlerior, Uy t bt> iriit, a contraelile cnrtniii witb n bole hi ' 
e«nter(tbepupil), nud wliicbmaybelookedonaAinfionieseamflpTDJK- 
tlou inwanl of tbe vascniar and pigmentary coat IVom its anterior mnrsiB 
at the iwjint where tbe «clen)tic or opaqne onter coat becomes continD'** 
witb tlio cornea or tranKpHreut one. Tliis iris, or curtain, bc«ii1eBiu 
abundance of blood- vea&els and pigment, potwewws two imls uf luuxcnUt 
fibers, one set radiating from the margin of the pnpil to tbe onter bonier 
of the curtain uLitnuttucbment to IhCKClerotio andchoroid,atid thcotbf' 
encircling the pupil in tliemannerof a ring. Tlieactionoftho twosett 
IK Deoeaaarily autagonUtic, tbe radiating fit>erft dilating the pnpil anl 
exposing; the interior of tbe eye to view, while tbe eirenlar fibers con> 
tract tbisciiicniiig and Khtit out the rayrt of light. The form of Wit: pnplt 
in tho borse is ovoid, with itM Inngest diameteT from Ride to side and its 
Dpjwr bonier ia fringed by several minute black bodies (corpora nigraj 
projecting forward and serving to some extent the purpose of eyebrows 
iu arresstiiig and ub»orbiiig the excess of rays of lisht which fall ii|mn 
the eye from above. These pigmentary projections in front of tbe upT>er 
bonbiroftbe pupil are often mislaken for t bo proiluetsot dlsoase or in- 
jury, in place of tbe normal and beneflcient protectors of the nerve of 
aigbt which they are. They may, like all other parts, beonmc tho seat of 
disease, bat so long as they and the iris retain their clear, dark aspect, 
without any tints of brown or yellow, they may be held to be healthy. 

Tbe vitreous or semi-solid refracting medium uccupit-s the posterior 
part of tbe eye— the part corresponding to tbe sclerotic, ohomid, aud 
retina — and haa a cousistency corresponding to that of tbe while of an 
egg, and n power of n^fniction of the light-rays correspondingly greater 
than tbe aqneous humor. 

Tlic ihtnl or solid refracting medium is a biconvex lens, with its con- 
vexity greatest on its posterior suriaco, which is lodged in n rlcpression 
in [he vitreous humor, while its anterior surfaco oorres)M>udH to tbe 
opening of the pupil. It is inclosed in a membranous covering (cap- 
sule), and ia maintained in iiosition by a membrane (saspensory liga- 
ment) which extends from the margin of tbe Ions ootivartl to tbe sele- 
nitic at the point of junctiou of the churutd and iris. This ligament Is, 
in its turn, famished with radiating muscnlar fibers, which change tbe 
fitriii or poHJlion of the letis no an to adapt it to uee with equal clearaMS 
objects at a distance or clone by. 

\tAher point wliicli Rtrikes the observer of llie horde's eyo is tlinl 
tbe darkness a briglit blnUI) linge is rellecteil from the witlel^' -dilated 
popiL TbiH is airing' to a comparntivo ali.s«iice of pi{rinf<nt in tJio cho- 
tai4coat inside Clio iij'iter part of tlie i>,vct>a1l, and enables tlio niiimal 
Co am nod advuiico tiitli securit.v in darkuess vbere tbe huiuDU eyo 
woqM be of little ano. Tlin lower part of the cavity of the borsc's eye, 
into vbicit the dazzling rays fall froui tbe et:y> i^ foniisbed witb au in- 
l«nse!y black lining, by wlilcIi tbo rays iMJuetratiag ibe inner uervoos 
layer are instantly abitorbed. 


7bl^iH; coiiaist of four straisbt muscles, two oblique and one rrtractor. 
TtiB (itr:ii(;hl uiiiatsled p:i^ lr<Hii the depth uf the orbit furranl ou ihft 
funer, oiiier, upper, and lower sides of the eyeball, and are Used to tbe 
anterior portion of tlie fibrouH (w^crotic) coat, so that in oontnictiiig 
ftingly Ibey respectively turn tbe eye inward, outward, apwaiil, and 
dowaaai'd. Whfu all act lofjcther they draw tho eyeball dc-ejily into 
iia socket. The reirac-tiir muscle also consists of tour inuscnlar slips, 
reiwatiug the atraigbt inuwlc-s on a siuallvr ttcale, but a^ Ibity are only 
atUolied on tbe back part of tbe eyeball they are less adapted to roll 
tbe oye than to draw it down into its socbel. Tbe tvo oblique inu ^cles 
n>tAt« tbe eye on its own axlH, tlie u[ii>er one turning ita oiit^sr surface 
upward audiDward,a»d the loweroueturtilug it downward and inward. 


Tills is a struoturv, wbicb, like tbe retnict-or mnscle, is not found in 
tbe eye of inau, bnt it server iu ttio lower animals to assist lu ntuiovlng 
forei|:n bodies from the fmnt of the eyeball. It consists, in the horse, 
of a cartilage of form, lbi<:k(;ned iiifvrioily and posteriorly 
where it Is intimately connetited wi'.b the miiM^es of the eyeball, and 
the fatty material aronnd them ; and espanded and Ihittoiied anteriorly 
wbero its uppur snrfucu In connave, and, aa it were, monldeil on tbe 
lower and Inner surface of the eyeball. Kxterually, it is covered by tbe 
mucous membrane wbieb tines the eyelids and extends over tbe front 
of Ibe eye. In the ordinary restful state of the eye tbe edge of this 
cartila^re shoald Just appi'^ar aa a tbin fohl rif membrane at thti inner 
AUgIc of tbo eye, but when the eyeball is drawn doeidy into tbe orbit 
Uic cartilage is pushed forwnni, outward, and upward over it until tbe 
entire globe may be hidden from sight. This protruNinn of the <:arti- 
luf^r, »o as to cover the eye, may bo induced in the bealtby eye by 
pressing tbe flnger and thumb on tbe upper and lower lida. so aa to cause 
rctnii'tion of the eyeball into its socket. When foreign bodies, such 
as Baud, dust, and ehafi', or other irrituntA, have falUn on tbe eyeball or 
ryelida. it is mmitarly projected to push Iheui oH', tbeirexpalsiou being 
further favorcU by a profuito dov uf tears. 


This U seen, to a Ipswr extent, in all pninral inflammationBof tlioeye, 
anil lo a very iHiirked degree in li>ckjiivr, when the «pasni of tlie nmscles 
of tliu eycltall drawH iIjr Littrr deeply iulu tlie ortttt uut] prajtrcts for- 
ward tbo tnaM>es of fat and the <»irtilae& The brutal practice of cut- 
ting off this apparatus, whenever it is projected, Decexsitntes tbi»ex- 
pliirintitin vrbich, it in IiojhmI, may sAve to many a faithftil tterrant a 
inoJit valmiWc nppeudngi!. That Ibe cartilage and menilirane may W 
ooioe the seat of iliaease 16 nndcuiable, but so long as its edfre ia thin 
and even, and its 8iirfae« siiiootli and regular, the tiK're fact of it^ jiro*- 
Jet^tion over a pnrtion or tbt* whole of thn eyel>atl in no evidence of 
diM-a^e in it^ Bubstnnce. uorany warrant for its removal. It ja usually 
but the evidence of the presuucei of Nome pain io Hoothor part of Iho 
eye, which the BuOeriug aniiual endeavors lo assuage by Ilie usy of this 
bonellcient provisioD. For the diseaHes of Ibe cartilage itself see 
" Bucephaloid Cancer.* 


This consists, flrst, of a gloud for the secretion of the tears, and, fteu- 
ond, of a series of canals for the oouvcyauce uf the superduous teurs 
Into the cavity of tbe nose. 

Tbu iilaod is situated above the ouu^r part of the oyebaU, and tbe 
tears which have llowetl over the eye and reached the inner aagte art 
there directed by a small conical papilla (lachrjfuial earuucle) into two 
niiuule oriQces, aud thence by two ducts (lachrymal) to a small pouch 
[Inchrymal biu*.) from which a canal leads through the bones of tbe fiive 
into tbe Doee. Tbi^ opens in the lower part of the uose ou the fli>or of 
the passage, and a little oatside tholiae ofnnionof the skin which lines 
the false noRtril with the mnraus membrane of tbe nose. In tbe ass 
and tniile this o|>eniug is situated on the roof Instead of tbe floor of the 
nose, but sLitl ciosii to the external opening. 


To avoid nnnpcpjigary repetition tbe following general directions are 
given for tbe exainlnalion of the eye: Tbe eye, and to a certain extent 
tlie mncoas membrane lining the eyelids, may be exposed to view by 
gently parting the eyelids with the thumb and forefiuger pTe«»ed on 
tbe middle of tbe res|iertive lids. The pressure, it is true, causes tbe 
protntsion of tbe haw over a portion of tbe lower and Inner part of the 
eye, but by gentlenesH and careful graduation of tbe pressure tbis rnnf 
be kept witbiu bounds, mid ofleiitiineMoven tin; interior of the nyc can 
be seen. As a rule it ia best to use the right hand for the left eye, and 
the left band for tbe rigbt^ tbe finger in each case being pressed on tlie 
npjM^r lid while the thumb dnprt'sncA thii lower one. In rxgps in which 
it is desirable to examine the inner side of tbe eyelid farther than is 
possible by the above means, the npper lid may tie drawn down by th« 
ej^elashes with tbe one band and theu overtetl over tbe tip uf the for*- 


fiagerof tliP other hsDil, ororcr i\ probe laFd flat ajatnat the middle 
dieliiL Wliervtbe interior of be ejaniined it is uselesa 
10 make Uie attempt in tlio open f>iiasbine ur ander a otoar sky. Tlie 
votst eases it in true, can ^^ >i^ii uiulwr sitL>li circum»taiioe«, but fur 
tli6 Blij>lii«r forms tlie borsa sbould bo taliou iiulixirs, wboro all liglit 
fhita above will 1m Hhiit uff, und ttliould bu plaotul no tlint tlic li^Ut sliall 
iail AD the eje from the front aud side. Tlteu the obserrer, plouioe him- 
self m from of tin' animal, will receive the poilected rays f«nu tbeeor- 
■wa, lliol'roDt of (he leas ;ldiJ the t»aok,ani] can much mure irfutily detect 
»ay clomliitrMi, uiiocity, or \ack of traosparcucy. Thu ex»miaati»n 
oaii Im made much mora saiiafoctory by placing' the horee in a dark 
eiiuntbvr aud illumitiaiirij^ the eye by a lainp pl:tced forwani aud out- 
ilfmrn the eye vrUiah i^ to be examinad. Any uloudin^HH iR thnx 
ily detiMJled, and any doubt may be resolred by moviot; th.3 lamp ao 
t tbe imnee of the flamu may b« pa-wcd in succeasioii over the vttola i 
aeeof tb« trans|>arent enraea and of the orystallinc lens. TbtM 
Imacis of the dame wit! be &eeu, the larger one upright, rulleuted from 
*^e anterior sarfaoe of the eye; a smaller one upright, reflected from 
^c anterior Murface of till* Imit^; uiitl a sucond small onu inverted fruni 
^B tttck siLxfdCA of the l<MiH. 80 )cm^ an th(>se imaguH are reHiH^tcd 
•txxn healthy surfaces tbey will be cle»r and i>erfect in oulliu«, bat, as 
*0<Mi M one slrikpfl on anareaufiipauity, it will Iwcnme dilTustNl, cloudy, 
^il iadrtiiiite. Thus, if the Large aprigbt ima^e becomes hazy nad im- 
XWrfi'vt over a particular spct of the ooroea, that will b« found co tie thu 
^Bitofdtsense and opiicity. Should tbe tar^ image remain clear, but 
tlw small upri;;ht one )iei»mi^ ditTutMi uml iiidrftnit*) ovor a givt'n point, 
it iBdicat£0 Opacity OQ the front of the capsule of the leua. If both 
upright Ima^B remain clear, while the Javortod one becomes indistinct 
at a girpn |»oiut, Iheii the opacity U iu the NnhsUUKX! of the lenn itself 
or in tha posterior part of its capsule. 

If io a {riven CAM the pupil remains so closely contracted that the 
dm-iKT partfl oftlie eye eaii not bo Keen the eyelids may be nibtied with 
extruct of belladonna, and Lu a short time the pupil will bo found 
widely dilated. 


jMffeaitiil iJimrdert. — i^me faulty conditions of the eyelids are oon- 
tital, 09 dirinion of na eyelid in tico, iifter the manner of harelip, ah- 
nonnallif imaJl ^peutHg beitt«e» Ik* li4s, oftoo conoected with imperfvet 
ilevoluptiieut of Ihu tiyc. Atid Hniurr uf the lida bg ndhivion. The lirst is 
tube remedied by i>aring I he edges of tbe division and then bringing 
Uiiim together, as in torn lids. The taat two, if remeidiable at all, re- 
<|iiIro aepu-alMti by tbe knife, aud subsequent tr«atmoQt with a cooling 
aAtrinj;Hnt eye wash. 

Krrfota dUordrra.—fipatm ofthtejielidtm»y he owing' to conittitational 
lOBouplibtLily, or to tbu pruaenco of loual irritiuils (iosoota, oUeraicat 


irritants, ftaod) etc.) in Mive>v, to woini(laorinQHiiimation of tlie maooas 
aitiinbrano, or to diseosti of tfao briiin. Wbon du« to local irritatioD, it 
may be t«ii]{Hiruril,v uverx^ul^l< by lastilling a tw iJnips nf a4|)n 
ctfuL aoliittou of cocaine into tlie eye, when tbe true caase mftf bo 
ascertained and rumovctl. Tin; (ici'?i>uft orc«utstUutional disease maftt 
be treated according to its nature. 

I>roopin{i ci/f H*/»— i'fw.vM.— Tliis is osually present iu tlje n)>|ier Ud. o' i 
is at least littJe notic«<l in tbe lower, ft is sometimes but a symptooi ^H 
piindytuN of uiiv-hulf of tUo fiu^A, in wbicb rbao tlitt our, li|»!«, Hud uostrtt* 
oit tbe same side 'will be found soft^ drooping, nod iuuutivu, nuil evci 
tlio liulf of the tougoo may partake of tfaa jmltiy. If tbe Rume conditio' <^ 
«xt»t» on botli sideit tbvre is difficult NnnlTling breatbinf;, fruui tha '^^ 
4lrawiu^' in Ibc flaiM oftUe nostrils in iuspimtion, and all foml is taU*'" 
in by tbe teetb,astbeH]>3 are useless. In botbtbere is a fnre di.icliar^° 
of saliva from tbo mouth during masticution. Tliis paralysis is a ff*' 
quent result of injury, by a poke, to tbe Keventb nerrc, as it passe* i>«^^' 
till! buck uftbo lower jair. In souiu ciuscni tbo paralyi«iH En oonfiniiZ ^^ 
the lid, the injury having been sustained by tUe muscles which ruiso ^^ 
or by tbe sujira- orbital norv© wbich emerges from the boue jnet aU?"*"* 
llie eye. Such injury to tlie luTve may have reniilled from fracturo *" 
the iirbital proct>.s» of tbe frontal bunu abuvu tbe eye ball. 

The condition aiay, however, be due to spasoi of tbe spbiuutcr musdOr 
which closes tbe lid^s, or to inSammatioa of the upper lid, tienally arff- 
Bult of blows on the orbit. In the latter case it may rtiu a slow ooiirM_ 
wiUi chronic thickening of the lid. 

Tbe paralysis due to tlie poke may be often remedied by, 6r8C, 
removal of any remaining inilariininlion by a wet sponge woru beneati 
the ear ami kept in place by a bandage; second, wlien all iullammati 
has passed by a blister on the same region, or by rubbing it daily wii 
aiuixturoin i-(|aal proportions of olive oil and strong aqua ainn)ODi». 
Improvement is usually slow, and it may be months before compk-to 
recovery ensues. 

In paralysis from blows above tbe eyes the same treatment may be 
applied to that part. 

Tbiokfuiug of the lid may be treated by painting irith Uuctnre o( 
iodine, and that failing, by cutting out an ellipitical strip of tbe t 
from the middle of the upper lid aud sHtcbing tlie edgett together. 


The eyelids suffer more or leas in all severe inflammations of the i 
whether external or internal, but tnusmueb as the disease »;ometimeir 
starts iu the lids and at other times i» exclamvety conSned to tbem, it 
deserves independent mention. 

Among tbe causes may bo named: exponure to draughts of cold 
or to cold raiu or snow-storms: the bites or stiugs of mosquitoes, 


ftod other iDsects ; snake-bites, prichft with tttoros, blows of wbip orclab; 
aoctdi'ii till bniiiicrK tt;^itiHt Ihu Htiill or Rrnuiul, especially during: tlie via- 
lent atnigglea of colic, outcritis, pbreaitis(;er3),aud v/hon tbrowu 
for oiieratlons. It in aUu a result of iiifecliu^ iuoculatroas, as of ery- 
sipolfts, antlirax, buil, etc., aiid is noted bj Leblauc as especially prev»> 
Iciit. amon^ lior:4L-M Itcptnti low marsliy pa^^tiiros. PiTiiilly, tliv introiluc- 
tioii of sand,, utinft', beards of barley and seeds of Lbe tiuesl grasses, 
Bod the uontact witU irritaDt uliemical powdeni, liquids, and gases (atn- 
tnonia from mnniiro or factory, cblorino, strong siilpbiir fitme-s, smoke, 
■ud other proilitctM of combustion, etc.), may tttitrt thu iiitbiinmiLtioii. 
The eyelids often undergo extreme infiarnmiitory and droi>sical swelling 
hi nrtioaria (nettleraah, surfoit). and iu the general inflamioatory dropsy 
known as purpura biornorrhagitiu. 

The affection will, therefore, readily diride itself into (I), inflamma' 
Uous due til (H>mttitiilioiial causes; (3), those due to diriM!;C injury, me- 
cbatiical or chemical; and (3), such as are duo to iooculuciou with ia- 
fectiug material. 

(1) lutUuimatious due to cotistitational cauAea are distinguished by 
the absence of any local vrouud. and the history of a low damp pasture, 
exiKntaro, indigestion from uawholosomc food, or the presence eUowbera 
on the limits or liody of the genenil doughy Hwellingtt of purpntft 
baemorrhagioa. The lids are swollen and thickened, it may be slightly 
or it may l>e so extremely that the eye ball can not be seen. If the lid 
can be everted tc show its mucous membrane, thut is seen to be of a 
fleep red color, especially along the branching litiesof the blood vessels. 
The piirt is hot aud paiuful, and a profuse Qow of tears and muuns 
escapes on the side of the face, causing irritation and loss of the hair. 
If improvement follows* this diwchartce becomes moro tenacious, aud 
tends to cause adhi>ttiou of the edges of the upper aud lower lids and 
to mat together the eyelashes iu bundles. This gradually decreasen to 
the nalnral amount, and the redness and conge-Hfeil ajipearance of the 
eyofldisuppearH, but swelliug, tUiukeuiiig, aud stlfTuc-iit of the lids may 
CDUtiQQe for a length of time. There may be more or less fever aooord- 
iugto the V'ioleuoo of the iutlamuinlion, but so lougaj^ tliereis uoserioiM 
diaesM) of thu interior of the eye or of other vital organ this is itsually 

The locfil IrcatJMHt oonsiRta In astringent, sootblug lotions (sugar of 
lend :iO griiins. litudnnum^ileiispoouHful, raiu water — hoiledaiuleouled — 
1 pint), applied with a soft cloth kept wet with the lotion, and hangover 
theeye by tying it totlui heailstall of the bridle on the two Hides. If 
Ibetnuoous membrane lining the lids is the seat of little red granular 
elevations, adrop of asolutioD of :i grains of nitrate of silver in an ounce 
of distilled water sbonid t>o applied wUh the soft end of a clean feather 
to the inside of the lid twice a day. The patient idiould he removttl 
ftoui all atiob conditions (|>asture, faulty food, cxposun*, vAc.) as may 
liftTe cMMd ot aggravated the dtseaee, aud from dust and irritant 

fames and gaseR. He Rboald be fed froinaiiianj;crbig1i«aoaf;b to favor 
tbe nstura of bloo<l from the lie^ul, and should he ii«pt from work, 
eHiwrJally in a tight cnilar. whicli would prtveut the dcsi-eut nf blood 
hy the Jugular veius. H\s dietslimiM be laxativr anil iioii fttiniulaliiig 
(grass, bran miMhoa, carrotff, toroipii, bt-eU, jiotaloes, or steamed lia.v>, 
and auy costivcacss should be oorre«tod by a mild doae of Hoseed oil (I 
tol^ pttitis). Ill cold weather warm blnnkctiiig rib> bo iKwdful, and 
uvea louae flaoiiet haudagas to the limbs, and heat slioah) nov«r be 
sought at the expense of pura air. 

(2) III iuHamtuittlons dao to local irritaots of fl non-iofeeCive kintl, a 
carvful examiuatioii will uHually roveal their ]treseiic«. and lb« first step 
must be their ri>inofal with a pair of blont forceps or the point of a lead 
pencil. Biibsrqiivnt treatment will bo in Uie luaiu tbu local LrcAUneut 
advised ahove. 

(3) In oise of inloctive in Bam (nation, there n-illortcnbefoQadapnelc 
or tear by which the septic matter has entered, and in Koch eas« the 
inflauMuatioii will fur a lime lif (:oiic-4-n(rat4.-d at Lhat point. A round 
or CDDioal swelling round an insect bite is espe-ciaily cliaracl eristic. A 
anake bite i& marked br the double prick mode by tbc two tc«th and 
by th«^ violent and riipiilly spreading inllamtnation. Erj'idiielas ia at< 
t«nded with much sweltiug, exti^adiug buyund the lids, and cansing the 
mucous membrane to protnule l>eyond the edge of the eyelid (cbemneis). 
This 19 cbarautcrizcd by a bright, auiform, rosy red, disappcariog oa 
pre^^nre, or later by a dark, livid hoc, but with less branching redness 
than in uuninfeutiug iiilliiminatioii, and latK of the ilark, dutiky, brown- 
isli or yellowish tint of anthrax. Little Tcsicles may appear on the 
akin, and pn.i may be f<mnd without any distinct limiting membrane, as 
in aliseesH. It is* early atteoiled by high fever and marked seacral 
weakuess and luappetenw. Anthrax of the lid» Ik marked by a firm 
Rwelling, aurniTiuuted by a blister, witli bloody serous oonteuts, whicb 
tends to burst niid dry up iuto a, slough, while the surroundiug pi 
beeumc iuvoh'ed tn the .tame way. Or it may ahuw as adifl'uuu dro; 
ca) swelling, wltJi less of the hanl central sloughing nodule, but like 
that teudiiig*to spread quickly. In Imth castvt alike the mucoiia mom* 
braue aud tbe skin, if while nattuine a du.-<>ky hrowa ory^lowisb browo 
hue, wbioh 'la largely characteristic. This may pa48 into ft black eolor 
by reason of the extravjisation of blooil. There appearB early gZMt 
const itjitional diaturbauoe, with much prostniliou aud veakoeM aad 
general izL'd antbrax symptoms. 

The treatatent of tbe&o will vary according to the eeTcrity. In 
bites may be tooohod with a solution of equal parts of giyotTiDe 
atjua aiurnouia, or a 10 per cent, solutiuu of carbohc m-id in m-aut. 
Suukc bites may be liathcd with aqua amumuia, and tiirsame afreot 
given in doses of 2 teaapoonfuls in a quart of water. Or aleohol may 
be given tn pint or quart dns<>(i^ ai!0(inliug totlieueeof the animal, la 
eryiijKtlaa the skin may be i^aiuced with tincture of uiurtate of traBa'Or 







»!tli anolfltion of 20 RTains of iodine in an onnce of carbolic acid, 

OH-bklf an onnce of tinctore of mnriatd of iron mny 1k» given tbrico 

dlilj io A Iwltte of vaU'r. In anUintx tliu tiwdline isliouM bo punted 

Willi tincture of iodine, or of tlie mixtnro of iodine and carbolic acid, 

uut it very itirealoiiiii)* it may bavi* llio tinetnre of tixlino iitjot'lM Into 

the gweliing with u Iiyiwderraic syrinjte, or tlip hard mass may W fW-ely 

inaen] to its depth wilh a abarp latinct and tUo lotion appliul to tbu 

eipoaed tlasaes. Internally iodide of jMjfastjium may be t;i\'en in doses 

of2ilrain« UiHce o day, or tinctare of tho iiiuriato of iron every four 



Tlibi is an iiiflammatinn of limited extent, advancing to tlie formarton 
of innttpr and tlio sloiigbing out of a small maos of ibe natnral tisane 
"f tlie ejeliii. It forma a firm, roundeil nwelliDC, nsnally near the mar- 
gin of tha lid, wliicli ttnppnratOK and burets m four or five days, ltd 
•^"urw nmy bo liii3t<'ned by » poultice of clinmomile Howers, to wliioll. 
^Mvt- been added a few drops of carbuliu acid, the whole appliwl In <i 
^cry tbia mnslin bag. If the swelling is slow to open after having be- 
*^tii«yeltowisb-wliit«, it may bo opent^d by a lanoot, the incision iM'iug 
Uivule at right angles to the margin of the lid. 


I. ID. 

Tbeee are reepecUrcty caused by wonnOs, tdougbs, ulcers, or other 
otsses of loss of substance of the mucoiiti membraue on the inside of 
Ibelidandof the skin on the outside; al$oof tumors, skin diseases, or 
paralyHis which leada to displacement of the margin of the i-yulid. As 
arole they rc(|utn< a Kui-gitral ofHTation, with removal of an eliptical 
portion of the rancous mcmUraue or skin, nsthecoso may be, but wbitih 
reijalres the skilled and delicate baud of the surgeon. 


This consists io the taming in of the eyelashos so as to irritate the 
front of ihe eye. If a siugln eyelash, 11 may W snipiied off with scis- 
sors close to the margin of the eyelid, or pulled out by the txiot with 
a pair of datbladed foi-ceps. It tho divergent la^ea are more uumer 
oiiK the treatment may bo as for entropion by escising an elliptical j>or- 
lion of skiu opposite the offending laMhpJ^ and stitching the e«)g8S 
together, bo as to draw outward the margin of the ltd at that point. 


Tbe eyeltda form afavoritesibo for tumors, and abovoall, warta, which 
eooaist in a simple diseased overgrowth (hypertrophy) of the aorfaoe 
layers of tbe skin. If small, these may be snipped otT with «cl8«ora« 

or tieil iiroiiiKl tlie npcic witb a Ktoiit. wnxetl llirpad anil left to drnp off, 
llietlcstiuL'iion lifiiig complcit-d, if m-ccasary, by the daily upplictttioa 
of a t)iec<i of Kiilphate of copper [blue vitriol), uulil any nnbealtby ma- 
terial liH8 l)wii removed. It more widely Bijrcail tbe wart may bUU be 
clippiMl ofl* witb curved scisKOrs or knife, and ihe caiialiu tborougbly 
applied day by day. 

A bleetliiig wart or erectile ttiinor is more liable to blrcd, and is be&t 
romovcd by constrictinjt its ueck with tlie waxed cord or rubber band, 
or if l<K> liroad for lltiH !t may b« traii»tGxed tbruu^b \t» batte by n nee- 
dle armed witb a. ilouble tbrctd, wliicli is tben to be cut in two and tied 
aronnd t\w two portioua of tbu neck of tbe tnmor. If Atilt broaclertlie 
armed netnllo may be carried Ibrough tbe base of tUe tuaior ut rtjia- 
Uir intei'vaU, 80 tbat tbe wbole may bo tied iu moderately sIzlhI sec- 

In gray and wbite borttct* binck pigmentary tumors (melanotic) are 
common on tbe black portions of skin, such as tbe eyelids, and are to 
be removed by scissors or knife, atHiotvliiig to their size. In tbe borse 
tUette do not usually tend to recur wbeu tborougbly tvmoved, but at 
timea tbey prove cancerons (as is tbe rule in man), and then they tend 
to reappear in the same site or in interool ofKADS witb, it may bo^ fatal 

Encysted, boneyOike (meliceroue), sebaceous, and Qbrous tamora of 
[tbe lida all retiuiro removal wiUi tlie knife. 


The eyelids are torn byattacks witb bornsof cattterOrwUb tbeteetli, 
or by gettint! caught on nails in i^tall rar.k or manger, on tbe point of 
stump fences or fence rails, on tbe barbs of wire-fences and on other 
pointed bodies. Tlic edges should be brought together as promptly as 
possible, so as to secure nnion witbont the formation of matter, puck- 
erinc of th« nkin, and unsightly diatortionH. Ureut care is necessary 
to bring tbe two edges together evenly without twisting or pnokering. 
The Himpletit moile of boldiiig tbem together is by a scries of sharp plus 
passed through tbe lips of the wound at int«rval8 of not over a t bird of 
an inch, and held together by a thntad twisted around each pin in Ihe 
form of the figare S, and carried obliquely from pin to pin in two direc- 
tions, Boas to prevent gaping of the wound in the intervals. Tbe(K>ints 
of tbe pins may then be out oflf with xciAsont, and tbe wound may be 
wet twice a day with a weak solution of carbolic acid. 


Tbongb cruelly excised for alleged "hooks," when it«elf perfectly 
healthy in tbe various diseases which lead to retraction of tbe eye Into 
its socket, tho bnw may, like ntht-r iKidily Htnietnrca, \mi itsi-tf tbe si-at 
of actual disease. Tbo pigmentary black tumors of white horses and 



•aft (encppUaloEd) cancer maj* attack tbia part primanty or cxteod to 
it trom tbe eyeball or e;eUil»i bftira have been fotiiiil groviug froiQ tta 
sarfooo; nod tbc mucous membrane ooveriiig it b4H;oiu«« iuflamcd iu 
MKiimou vitb lUat covering tbe fhint of tbe eye. TUeae JuQnmmntions 
are baC a pba^e of tbe iiiQiimiuatioD of tlie cxterual otnicuires o( tbe 
e;t% untl [lumand no particular uotice nor special treatment Tbe 
tumors lead to such Irregular onlnrgi'ment nod distortiou of tbo haw 
tb»t the condition is not to hoconfoanded with lliu Nimplu projectiooof 
tbe beallhy slri»:tur« over tho eyewUeu the lids are pusbe4 iipart with 
the Quger and thumb, luid tho same remark applies to the ulcemtiou or 
eariea of tbo cartilage. Id the latter case^ besides tbo spelling and 
dJatoi'lion of th<i ban-, there is tbiH pecoluirity, tbut iu the midst of tbe 
red inflamed masa there appears a white line or mass formed by tbe 
eiposed edge of the ulcerating cartilage. Tbo animal having beeo 
tbrovn and properly fixed, an as^iataot holds the eyelids apart while 
tbo opei^tor setzea (he haw with forceps or bcKtlc and carefully diAsents 
It out with bluDt-paiDted scixsors. The eye is then covered with a 
cloth kept wet with uu eye wa.4i, as for eztciual opbtbulmia. 


The escape of tears on the side of thocheok isusymptom of external 
tnflamiaattoD of tbe eye, but it may aUo occur from any disease of the 
Joebrymal apparattis vrhteb interferes with the normal progress of tbe 
tears to the nose. Ileuce, fii all cases when this symptom Is not at- 
teuded by special redness or swelling of the eyeltdst it is well to exam- 
log the lachrymal apparatuA Iu eonio instances the orifice of tbe lach* 
rymal dnot on the llnor of the naital chamber ami close to its anterior 
OHth't will be found blocked by a portiou of dry muoopurnleut matter, 
ou tbe removal of wbicb tears may begin to escape- This implies an 
loUiimmatiou of the canal, whiub may be helped by ocuasiunat apougiug 
oat of the nose with warm water, and tbe application of the same on 
the face. Another reme^^ly is to feed warm luJKbes of wheat brau from 
a nosebag, so Ibut the rulaxiug efliict..'* uf tho water vapor may b« 

Tbe two lachrymal openingfl, situated at the inner angle of the eye, 
may fail to admit ttm tears by reiison of tbeirdeviation outward in coo- 
tfoD with OTcrslon of the lower lid, or by reason of their ooustrictioo 
'^Itl Inflammation ofthe mucous membrane. Tbe lachrymal sac, into which 
tho lacbrymiil dnct^open, may fail to discharge its contents by reason of 
eouNtrictitmorclosureof thedutit leading to tbe nose, and it Uiea forms 
a rounded swelling beneath the inner angle of the eye^ The duct lead< 
ing from the luw: to the nose may be <»mprcs»ed or obliterated by fraot- 
QTM of tbe boocs of tbe face, and in disease of these bone4 (osteo-sar- 
eomn,Eio-cAlIeil oateoporosiH, diseased teeth, (jluudeni of the uasalalQiLaMi, 
abeoess of the same cavities). 
11035 17 


Ttic nnCTOivixl or olustructed tluuta miij' be niailo pervious by a floe 
eilrcr prol)e passcil Aowii to tbe iHubrymnl &ao, and any existing iiiilatn- 
mntioD of the |<^ may be eoiii]C«ractc«l by the ase of steamtDg 
luaslitfs (>f ff heat bran, by frnnenUitionx or vet clolba over tbe fdoe, aud 
even by tlie use of astriagent eye n'asbea and the iojectioii of similar 
liquid!! into tbo lacliryiiml canal from its nasal opcQiii);. Tbe ordiuary 
cyu waaU may tic used for tbis purpose, or it tn»y be injected after di- 
lution to bulf Itsstri^nslli. The frautiiri^a anddisoaKCS of tbo bones and 
tc<-th must be trrateil according to their special deiBaiids wUeu, if tb« 
oaual is atUl Icrt iwrvioua, it tuay bo again reudored ascfuL 



In iuQnmination of tbo oat«r parts of the eye ball tbo exposed vaa- _ 
cular und Kensilivo mucoun membrane (conjtiuGtivn) which covers tb«H 
ball, the eyelids, the hnw, and the bchryinal ^paratus, i»aaaally th« 
most deeply iuToIviKl, yet adjacent i>art8 are more or less implicate)], 
aiid vhen dlsp-iise is conwntrated on these conri;;aouH partn it consti- 
tulea a phase of external ophthalmia which demands a special noticei 
These liave ncc-ordingly been already treatnl of. 

Tbocauses of external ophthalraia are mainly those that act locally — 
blon-» n'ilh whips, ehibH, aud twig')), the presence of forci];;u bodies like 
hay -seed, chaff, dust, lime, sand, snuff, pollen of plants, flieD attracted by 
the brillimK^y of tbucye, vk-onnd« of tho bridle^ tbo mi;:raIio» of the 
scabies (mango) iut^cut iuto the eye, smoke, aiuoionia risiog from tbe 
excretioiiH, irritant ematiatioua from drying marshes, etc. A very dry 
air is alleged to act injuriously by drying the eye as well as by favoring 
the production of irritant tlust ; and the undue exposure to bright »uu- 
eliiue through a vrindow in front of the dtall, or to tho redectiou frot 
gnow or water, is nudonbtedly injurious. Tho nnprotrnted expoHure i 
tbe eyes to sunKhiuo Lhmugli the use of a very nhort overdraw check it 
to bo condemned, and tbe keeping of the horse in a very dark stall from 
which it is habitually led into the glare of fall annlight, intensified bj ' 
reflection from Know or white liniestoMo dust, must Ih> set down aiiiuag 
the locally acting cansoa, Batciposuro to cold aud wet, to rd.lnand 
snow istonns, to cold draaghts and vet lairs must also be acccptnl as 
causes of coDJunctivitis, the general di$onler which tbey produce affect- 
ing tho eye, if that happens to bo tho weakest and most anseoptihlo 
organ of the body, or if it has lieen subjected to any si>e(:ial local injury 
like dust, irritant ga»cs, or excess of light. Again, externaloplitlialmia 
is a constant conconittant of in Dam [nation of the coutiguonssnd coutio- 
uoas mucous niciubmucs, &$ thu^> of the no«w aud throat. Hence the 
red watery eyes that attend on nasal catarrh, sore throaty iotluenza, 
strangles, oasal glanders, aud (be like. In such cases bowerer, the 
affection of tho eye is snhsidinry .iml is mauifejitly ovcrdtiudowcU by tla 
primary aud predumiuating disease. 


He •jrnj'tomf iiro vateria^ of tbe eye, Bvollen lids, redness of the 
rnmaoi Dieiiilinuw (a|>nsed by \i\e Heiiamiioii of tli« lids — it ntny be a 
MM pink blttsb wkli luoru or It-ss bniiu-.Utn^ ivdtifKK, or it iii;iy bo a 
diirk rc(l, ns from i-ITtisioQ of blood — and a btaiab ojiiicity of tbe 
itii vhich i» normally dear and trausluccut Bat except irbco ro- 
folting from vouiiiln and actual rxtravasation of blood, tbo reduass is 
mn to bo auiicrfiL-ia], attd if the opacU; ia cuufiued to tbe edge^ aad 
ilu'-^nntinvolro (Itccntirec^jrneatlicatiupoas humor bchiadisKcrnto bo 
■till dear and limpid. Tbc fuver Is always leas Bevi!ra titan la intorDal 
ophlbalmia, and only i-niis bigli in tbo worst ca.sM. Tliu oyelids may 
teke|itc1o5et1, tbcvyi; bull rutnictcd, and tbo liaw protruded over ouo- 
Ibtnlof oQo-lialfof tbo ball, bat tbiais duetolJiopaiu ouly aud not to 
aji]ioxn%stro scuaibility toligbt, asttbutcn by tbo coin giaratively ividely 
ililaUtl iinpil. in intern:)! oplitltaliiiiii, on tbe txiiitrary, tbc iiiirroir 
watnitled jjupil b tbo mL-asiirouf tbe paiu caused by ttio railing of 
liRlitoa tbc (nflataed aud bousilive optic nerve (retian) and clioroid. 

If ibo afToction bas rrsiiltod frotu o n'ound of tbe comonj not only is 

Uml tliepoiutof gn*ateKlo}KiriIy, furminga white apeck or fleecy cload, 

''ut too often blood-Tesaels begin to extend from tbo adjacent vascular 

MTcriDff of tbfi eye (eclerolic) to Ibe white spot, and tbat portion of 

tfcscornea is rendered p(-rmatM>n!.ly opaqne. Again, if tbo wound Una 

bwB severe, tliougb stiti short. of cutUug into tbe anterior lajerHof tbe 

<Onie.ii tito iDJary may lead lo ulceration n-hicb may penetrato more or 

le«3 deeply and leave a bn*acb in the lissuo which, if filled «p at all, is 

rejtaired by opaijuu (ibriKia lisjiui! in place of the traiiMparciit ct-'Hular 

■trocture. Pus may form, and the cornea assumes a yelloirish tinge 

ami buFKlit, giviug um' tn a drcp sore which is liable to extend an an 

iiJccr, aod may bo in its turn followed by bulging of tbc cornea at tbat 

point (staphyloma}. This iuHammation of the conjunctiva may be 

■inply catarrb.-tl, with profuse muco-purnlent oi^clinrge; it may be 

gianulnr, tbc Aurface being covered with minute nil<Ii<ib elevations, or 

it may become tbe scat of a false membrane (dipbtberia). 

In IrmdN^ external ophtbalinia Lbo Unit object, is tbe removal of the 
cause. Bemovi) any dnst, cbalT, thorn, or other foreign boily from the 
eonjuncliva, purify tbe stable from all sources of ammnuiaeal or other 
irritant gas; keep tbo borso fi-oiu dusty roads, aud above nil from the 
prosimily of a leading wagon nud ita attoudant cloud of dust ; remove 
from p;isluro and fi-ed from a rack whioli is neither so high as to drop 
seeds, etc., into the eyes nor so low an to favor the accumulation of 
blornt in the head ; avoid, equally excess of light from a sonny window 
in frout of tbe st:i11 and excess of darkness from tbo absence of win- 
dows; pntMrro from cold draughts and rains and wet bedding, and ap* 
ply cnrat:ve measures for iutlammation of the adjacent mucous mem- 
branes or skin. If tbo irritant has been of A caustic nature remove 
tuty romaantof it by perttistent bathing witli tepid water and a soft 
ipoDge, or with water mixed with white of egg, or a gla&s filled with 


the liquii] may be loTertod over the eye bo tliat Its coiitenta maydlluta 
and remove tlie irritant. IF the suffering is rcry itevvro a lotion with 
a fev graius of extract of belladooiia or of morphia m an ooqco of 
walor may be applied, op If It ia ai'ailable a few drops of 4 ptr aeuu 
solution of awjiiiip may be instillrd into the vye. 

lu KtroiiK, rigorous patieutti beiieSt wilt usually bo obtained from a ' 
laxalive, such as 2 tablespootifola of Glauber's &aAla daily, and if tb« 
fever runs high from n daily doso of half an ounce of saltpeter. Am 
local appltoitiaiiii a»tritigeitt nduttuiiH aie usually the best, aa 30 gnuns 
of borax or uf sulphate of zino iu a quart of water, to be ai>plicd con- 
MAQtIy on a clotli, m advised, under inttamiuatiou of tbe eyelids, la 
the abseiiee of anything Ijetter cold water may sprvo every purpose. , 
Above all, adhesive and olty agents (inola&ses, angar, fata) are to be fl 
avoided, as only adding to the irritation. By way of BOgeesHng ageuta i 
that may br used with ^ood effect, ealt and aulphateof soda may be 
mimed, in aolutioiia double tlie alrengtli of sulphate of zino, nr 7 graina 
of uitrato of silver may be added to a quart of diatlUed water, aud ^ 
wilt be found especially applicable in grainilar conjunctivitis, diph* f 
tbcria, or commvuoinK ubicrulion. A cautharidea bttstur (I part of 
Spaaisli tly to 4 parts lard) may be rubbed on Lbe 6lde of tbo face 3 
inches below the eye, and washed off next morning with soap-suds i 
oiled daily till tbe scabs are dropped. 


A«arcsalt of cxteruul opbtlialmia, opiuiuo specks, elouds, or haziness 
are too often left on tbo coruea aud require for tbeir removal that 
tbey be daily touched frith a soft feather dipped in a solulion of 3 
grains nitrate of silver ju I ounce distilled water. Tliis ebould bo 
applied uulil all iuflauimatiou has subsided, aud until its contact ia 
comparatively painless. It is rarely Huuceesful with an old think soar 
following an ulcer, uor with an opacity baviuK red blood- veasels runutag 
aoroas it. 


These maybe treated with nitrate of silver lotion of twice the strength 
nsed for oi>acitios. Powdm-ed {{eiitiau, one half ounce, and sulphate of 
iron, otiu-fourlb ounce daily, may improve tbo gencnil health and iucreaae 
tbo reparatory power. 


Although inflammations of the iria, choroid, nud retina, the inner tm- 
oular and norvoas coats of the eye oocar to a certain extent iodepend- 
eutly of each other, yet one usually supcrveuea upon the other, aad 
as the symptoms are thus made to coincide it will be best for our prw 
eat purposes to treat the three as one disease. 


TheoMMMof Internal opfathnlmmnrelargvlytlioscortheextonml rorm 
only, noting n-Ub gn-ater intensity or ou a more aasceptlble eye. Sever« 
blou-s, brdist^a. )jiiiic[iiivs, etc., of the eye, tlio |)eiiet ration of foreign 
liotlies into ttio vya (t)iornH, Hpliiitciti of iron, clu.), autldeu traDSition 
from A 4uk Btnll to bright aannbino, to the gluro of snow or water, con- 
gtnnt glaru from a «iiuuy window, abuse of the orenlniv cheuk-reiu, 
rivitl li;;Ulniiigflas]ic8, tlraiiglitft of cold.ilamp nir; above all, when tho 
Htiimiil in \nTA\ticiuit, expoHnrv iu cold i-aiu and siiow8tonii», awimuiiniE 
cold livers, also certain general diseases liko rbeumatism, artbritiij, iu- 
t)ui*iiKa, and disorders of tlic digestive organs, may become oomjdicated 
by tbls affection. Front tbecUuw ntlatiou buLvrt^vn llie brain auJ oyt>— 
alike in tin; blood vrasels uud uurves — disoi-dera of tbe Brst lead to 
nOcctions of tUe second, aod the snme remark applies to tlic porsUtoot 
irrilatiou to vrlilub tbt.',jii\rsare»iibjocted in tiie ounnte of dentition. So 
potent JM tlie bi^t agitncy tb;it we dread a rucurrenve of opbtlialmia so 
long as deutJtioii tit iucouiplcte, and bopo for iuimniiity if tlie animal 

joompletes Its deutitiou without any pcrmauoot structaml cUaugo in tlL« 

Tlie symptoma will rary ncconting to the canse. If tbe attack la due 
to direct [tbymcAl injury the inttammattori of tUc cyelidn and stiiierQuial 
•tructuros may t>e quite as marked as tbnt of tbe interior of tbe eyei. 
If, un tbe other hand, froui g«nerul cau»»ti, or as a uomplicatioo of some 
di)*taut disease, the aftetitioo may tie largely conline«l to the deeper 
Striiclurert, and the BwelHug, redness, and tenderness of the superficial 
elructiirvH will bo Icse marked. Wlicn tbe cxti-rnal cr>ats thimcompar- 
alirely escape tbe extreme niiterior edge of tbe white or Hclerotio coat 
vbera it overlaps the border of tbe trauspareut cornea Is In a meas- 
tna from coitgcHtion, and, in tbe absence of tbe ob.scuring dark 
Igmcint, forma a wUiLiDh rint; around tbe cnnittu. TbiH in piirtly ilu6 
to tbe fact that a series of arteries (ciliary) paesiug to the inflamed iris 
penetrate the ^elerotie ooat u short dislauce behind i\& anterior border. 
Bud lbcrt.> Ik tbeift'oro » niarketl difference in color between the general 
BclenJliu occupied by thcao c^ju^fsted vcs-scIh and tbe anterior rim 
trim vbicU tlit^y are al>scot. Uufortunately tbe pigoient is often so 
abundant in the anterior |iurt of tbe sulerotic aa to hide thin symptom. 
In iutcnial npbtlialmia the opacity of the cornea may bo coiiflneil to 
B zone tu'ound the outer margin of the corucu, uud uvou this may bo a 
blujidi bozo mtber than a deep lleecy white, in consequence it becomes 

Iposaible to sec the interior of the chamber for the aqueoutt huniur and 

'the condltlou of ibe irin and pupil. The aiiueontt humor is usually tur< 
bill, an<l txus onmeioiis yellowish white Itakes tloatiug on Its sabstauce 
or depoaitwl in thv lower jmrt of tho chamber, so oh to cut off the view 
of tbe lua'LT itortniu ofUieiriH. The t^till visible iH>rtiou of the iris has 
lost its natnral, clear dark luster, wbicli Is replaced by a brownish or 
yelluMisb iM.'rc-lcaf ctdor. This is more markcfl in pmportiou as the 

Liris is iutlumed. and less bo as tbe lutbuumation ta coufiocd to ibecbo- 



roid. Tlio niuoiint of flcKx-nleat <U*iMMit in the cliamber of tliu aquroas 
htiinnr ia aUo iu direct mtiu tu llie iiiQauiuiatiou of tlie iris. Ptfrliat>s 
tlio moat markod TeAturc of iut«riial oi»littialmia is the cxtrctiie aud 
Iiaiiiful Boiisitiv«ues8 to H^lit. Un this ncconnt the li<ls uk uHDally 
closed, bnt when npf?ncii tb« papil m wcu t« bo iiHirowly closed eveu if 
the niiiniul hus bi-vu kept iu au obscured stall. Exccitttona to this aro 
seen vrhoD inllnmiQatory effusioD has orerSllvd the £lobe of the eye, aud 
by pri'SKtirQ on thorctiim panilyzoil it, orwheu the cznilatiou into 
the stib.staD(!e of the retina it»elf lias-simiUrly led to itsparalvKis. Then 
the ptipil iniiy bu dilated, auil frequeutly ita ntarj^iu lusea its regular 
ovoiil oiilltae and bevomea uaevou by reason of the adhesions nhich it 
hat} cociiracted tvjth the ca)>sule of the lens, tbruii^'h i\s iiiilatuuiaiury 
cxDdnliona. In the case of cxcessiro effusion into the glot>c of the eye 
that Is found to liave become teuso and liard so that it cnu nut be in- 
dented with tliv tip of the linger. With siich paralysis of the retina, 
rision m heavily clouded or entirely lobt, beuce in spito of the opoa 
]»upil Ihe Qu{;er may be approaclicd to the eye without the uuitniU be- 
cotiiiiig conscious of it until It touches the 8urfiice, and if the no»tc on 
the atTected side is (;ently strnck and a feint made to rejwat the blon' 
the patient makes uo efl'ott toevado it. Sonieliuicd the cdf^csof the con- 
tracled pupil become adherent to each oUier by nn intervening plastio 
exudatiuii, aud thL- upt'iiiii;; bcconien virtually abolished. In sevt-ro In. 
flnminations pus may form in the choroid or iris, and escaping' into the 
cavity of the nqueous liumoi- show m a yellowish irhite Ktratam beiov. 
In nearly uU ciises there is resultini; exudation iuto the lean or its cafi- 
8uU>, cotiKtitnliug a eluutliuuKM ur opacity (ualaraet), whieb iu severe 
and old staudiiij^ cases appears aa a vLite Heccy mass behind a widely fl 
dilate.) pujiil. In the nliiihtcr cases cataract is to bo recoguixcd by ex- 
amination of the eye in a dark chamber, with nn oblique side li^ht as 
described in the introductitm to this article. Cataracts that ap]>ear aa 
a simple haze or inik-finite ileecy cloud are usually on the capsule '(cap- 
sular), whili- those that show » radiating arrangciucut are in the Irns 
(lenticular), the rudintiDfT libers of ^vhich the exudate follows. Black 
cataincls are fcruied by the adhesion of thepiguient on the back of (bo 
iris to the front of the leits, and by the Kobsequent tearing loose of the 
iiis, leaving a i>ortion uf ils pigiuent adherent to the capsule of the Irns. 
If the pupil is So contracted that it is impossible to eco the lens, it may 
be dikitedby applying to the front of the eye with n feather some dro[is 
of a solution of 4 grains of atropia in an ounce of water. 

TU& Ircalmcnt oS internal o]dithaln)ia should embrace flrst the removal 
of all existing causes, or sources of Ag^nvation, of the disease, which 
uee«l not be here repeated. Siiecial care to protect tbe patient uguiust 
cold, wet, strong light, and active exertion, must^ however, be sjieclally 
insisted un. A dark stall, and a cloth bong over the eye, are important, 
while cleanliness, warmth, dryness, and rest are equally demanded. If 
the patieut is stJ'oug and vigorous a dose uf 4dnuusof ilaxlfadoesatoes 







may be gircn, »nd, if there is any irasuii to Riispi.>ct a rlieiiinntin orijrin, 
^«De-half a driitii iiowdi^red cok-liRMtm auU ooe-ltalF ounce salicylate of 
la may bo given dailj*. L'X'uDy tbe astriii^nt loiious ndviscd lor 
>^xCeruAl oi>btbnliiiiA may bo resorted to, (.>spec)ally when (lie supeiftcial 
liidaii) Illation is well marked. More itiiixtrtiiut, bowe^er, is to instill 
into tbe eye, u few ilrojia uL a time, a solution of 4 i^aiiis of ntropia in 
1 otiDCO distilled water. This may be effected vith tlie aid of a sott 
foaliier, iiiid iiiny be re]>ont«3il si iiiterrnis often niiniitcMnntil lim pupil 
is widely diliitetl. As tlio bor-se in Ut ha kept in a dark stall tbe cou- 
scquvnt odiuliutiou of light will be liarmless, and the dilntton of ibo 
pii]>il jirCTeQtH adhesions between tbo iris and. Ions, TClievcs the con> 
sluDt tension o( the eye in the cflnn, to nditpt tbe pupil to tbe light, 
niul solicits tbe contraction of tbe blood veHseht of tbo eye and tbe les- 
Kutug of cougestioii, exudation, and intrnocular presHiire.. Shitnld 
&tro]»ia not o^rce with tbe canc, it may be replaced, by utorpbia («aiiie 
fttrength) or cociiiao, in 4 per cent, solution. Another local tneasure is 
a blister, which can usually be applied to advantage on the side of the 
noso or bencnlh tbe ear. Spanish flie.'i may be DM-d as for exteriiul 
opbtiiulmia. In very eerere cases the parts beneath tbo eye may bo 
Bliaved and three oi- four leeches applii^d. SvtouR aro sometimes bene- 
flctal, and even puncture of the eyeball, bnt these Hhould be resen'ed 
for prufessiotial hands. 

Tbo diet tlironghout should be easily digestible and utodomte Id 
qoaiility — bran raafthca, middlings, grass, steamed, bay, etc. 

KrcQ after the netive iiillanimalion has subsided the ntropU lotioo 
•bould be C(>ntinut»l far some weeks to keep tbe eye in a Mtate of re^tt in 
Its still weak and irritable eondition, and during this period tbe patient 
should be kept in scnii-darhnesd, or taken out only with u dark shade 
over the eye. I'or tbo B.-uno reason heavy draughts and rnptd puces, 
vhtch vonld cause congesltou of tbu bead, should be carefully avoided. 



TIlis is an inflammatoryaffectionof the interior of the eye, intimately 
related to certain soils, diioates, and syHteuix, showing a strong ten* 
dcney to rocur again and again and nmially ending in blindness from 
ciUamct or other Berions injury. 

Itscausea may be fuudaniuutally attributed to soil. On damp days 
and miiraby grounds, on the frequently overflowed river bottoms and 
.deltas, on tbe coasts of Kean and lakes altcrnatt'b' nabinergi^'d and er- 
posed, this disease prcvailBC\teDBively,aDd in many instances in France 
(Deynal), Belgium, Alsace (Zundel Miltenlierger), Oeruiany, and Eng- 
land it ban very Inrgtdy decreased under laud drainage and improved 
netliodsof culture. Olhi^r indnencei*, moreor Ie.s.'sa»MMlated with nuch 
•oil, are potent causative factora. Thus damp air and a cloudy, vret 



climate, so conBtnntly a8HiK:iiit«<l with w«t lamis, arc utiircrsaUy 
chflrged witb causiDg tho disease. These act on tlio animal body to 
protluue a lympbatic coustitutiou with au BX(M>ti& uf couueulivu tiitsao, 
boneB, and muscles of coarse open Cextare, thick Bblos aiid gummy legs 
oove-tTtI witli » profusioii of lonf; hair. Huu»u the lifuvy linri«eH of Bel- 
gium and BoatUwcatcrn Franco buve euffereU eeverely from tbc nffuo- 
tiou, vliUehigh.dry lands adjacent, like OatAlouUiu Spain, ami Uaapb- 
iuy, Provence, and Langiiedoc, in France, have in the main escaped. 

Tin- rank aqneoiiH fodders grown on snch tmils are other ciiuse*, but 
tbeso ajraiu arc caloalated to undermine the cbaractcre of i>be nerv- 
ous and sangufneouB temperament, and to fiu|ierindaoe the lympbatic 
Other foods act by leading lo constipation and other disorders of llje 
digeslirn orgniia, thus impairing the general health ; lioooe in any aoi* 
mal predisposed to this diaeaee, beating, etarcby foods, soch as maize, 
vbeat, and buckwheat are Co be carefully avoided. It has been widely 
oharged that beans, peas, Tetclics, and other legumiuosa are dangerous, 
but a fuller inquiry contradicts this. If these arc well grown they in- 
vigorate and fortify tbe system, while like any other fodder if growa 
rank, itqueous, and deficient in assimilable principles they lend to lower 
the henlth aiid open the way for the disease. 

The period of dentition and trafuing is a fertile exciting cause, for 
tbougb tho malady may appear at any time from birth to old age, yet 
tbe groat majority of victioia are from two to six yoars old, and if a 
horse escape-s the nftectioii till after Mix there is a reaKOuable boiw that 
be will contiuuH (o resist it. The irritation about the bead during Ui« 
eruption of tbe teeth, and while fretting in the unwonted bridle and 
collar, the etimalating grain diot and tbe close air of the stable all com- 
bine to rouse tbe latent tendency to disease in the eye, while direct 
tpjories by bridle, wliip, or hay-seeds are not witboat their influence. 

In the same way local irritants like dust, Hovcru rain and (tnov* 
stornia, smoke and acrid vapors are contributing causes. 

It is evident, however, that no one of iheso is sufQcieot of itaelf to 
produce the disease, and it has been alleged that the true caM.s« is a 
niicrube, or the irritant product-s of ti iuicn>bc, wbicb is harbored in llie 
marshy soil. Tbe prerateuoe of tbe disease on tbe samo damp scilft 
vhtch produce ague in man and anthrax in cattle has bt^'en qnoteil in 
support of this doctrine, as also the fact that the malady is always 
more prevalent caterin paribun in basins surrounded by hills whero 
the air is still and such products are concentratrd, and tbat a forest or 
eimt>le belt of trees will, as in ague, at times limit the area of ita prev- 
alence. Another argument for thi< same view U found in the fact that 
on certain farms irrigated by town sewage this malady has become 
extremely prevalent, tbe eewaeo being assumed to form A eaitable 
□idus for tbc growth of tbc germ. But on these sewage farms a Tnsh 
crop may be cut every fortuight, and tbe |>rodueL is precisely that aque- 
ous material which contributes to a lyniphiitic atructuro and a low tone 



offasAlth. Tb« pres«aoe^ in tbes/Atem ofadefatte grrm baa not yat 
btctiKoreo, oatl in llie iireMot stale of oar koowledpe me ura only 
nmolad la efaargiaff tbe diaeaoe on dw deletrrtous emanmiotis froia 
IkoHuriiy soil tQ wbioh tMW(«rial liaraaBBta are cousuoUy jiroUaciag 

Bmditf U one of the moat potent caose^ The lymphatic coustlta- 

tioa b of coorae trauHinttUtl ami with it th« proclirity tu rvctirriug 

otbtlulaua. This i« Dotorioati iu the caao of both purects, tuald and 

'nail*. The tendency appears to Iw Btrouger, howewr, if oitliex puroat 

bu already suOVTud. Tims a aar« may have borw u uumber of soanil 

'oakaad tb«ii fallrn a victim lotbin maliuly, aud all foals siibseqacDtly 

^tm hnro likrwiao sufiuretl. So with the stallioQ. Royual evou 

Routes the apiK'aranc« of the disease In alternate g«aeration$, the 

•'•liion offspring ofbtind pairnts remaining sound ihrou-li life and yet 

Prodocing faal> which funiiiih tiuiuerons victirus or recurrent opht1ia1> 

"■Ilk On the contrary, the offspring of diseased pnreuta removed to 

^'ff^idry regions andfnmiAhed vith wholMome, uourtiiliing rations, will 

"^tely dl escape. llentiK thu dt'alt'rs take oolis that lire still sound 

*^^ tuTe bud tint ouh attack from the affected Ion- Pyrcneen (Prance) to 

'•>« mmffected Catalonia (Spain), with coufldenco that they will e^iuipe, 

***'l(h)tn the Jam Valley to Daaphiuy with tho same result. 

"Vi't tho hereditary taint is ho Htrong and pernieiuus that intelligent 
^■^tteineo everywhere refuse to breed from either horse or mare that 
^^^ooce saSered from recurrent ophthalmia, and the French Uovern- 
***«it»tBda not only reject all unsonnd stalUona, bat rofasc service to 
^*)y miirc which has MutTered vilh her eyes. It in thiM avoidance of thft 
*' ^reditary predisposition inoro than anything else (hat has rediien<l the 
•**rnierly wide prcvaloiiwi of tlii>< disease in the European wiuutrii-ji gen- 
*«Mliy. A consider.* t ion for the futnre of oar horses would dcaiaud tho 
^uaiiD of all sires that aro unlicensed, ami the refusal of a ltc«n»o to 
^uy Mire which has Biifi*ered ftoni this or ouy other «xtuiiuuuicable eoD- 
^titntioual duii;ase. 

Other ooDtribating oaosos dosorTO passing mention. Unwliotesome 
fi>od and a faulty tui^hod of feuding uudouUte<lly predisposes to thd 
disease, and in the name diNthct the cnrefiilly ft-d wilt escape in Rir 
larger prujiurtiuu than the badly fe«l. lint it is eo with every other 
couditiou whi<^i nnderrninee the general health. The presence of worms 
ill the intestines, overwork, and dubililatiug diuenHOs and causes of 
tvvry kind wi^ken the viuilllyand lay thesystscn more ojhmi toatlack. 
Thinrrj- long ago showed that tlio improvement of close, low, dark, 
datup stables, where the disease had previously prevailed, pracMcally 
kaulalied this nlTis^lion, Whatever contributes to strength and vigor 
is prolectivu— whatever contributes to weakness and poor health is 
Itfuvocative of the duiease iu the predisposed snbjoot. 

The tymptomt vary according to the severity of the attMk. In some 
Dues there i» lourkcd fever, aud iu other slighter oases this may bo 


almost altogatlier imnting, bat tbere is nlirayH n l;wk of vigor and oo- 
ecgy, butiwaking eonenil tUAorilcr. Tlie locttl symittouu nru U tbs 
ouio tbo«e of {uternnl oplitualDiin, witli, in many caseH, an iucreood 
Uar<lnes9 of tlio eye-ball fi-om i>ffiistou into Ua cavity. Tbo oootnotB^ 
pupil iloea uot expand iimcli in durlciicss, nor awn imJer tho nctwn 
bulltduiiim. Opacity advaucos from tlie inargtu, ov«r a |)arL or nlxoi 
of tlio cornen, but so long as it is transparcut there may Itu ecfn tl* 
turbid nquooas buiuor with or without floccuU, tbo diu^y iris nbl 
orilHuJciar black i)si>p(;t, tho sliglitlycloudud lens am] agrocaikh fcllv'^ 
rcfloction froiu Ihodoptliof tbo eye. From the iifth lotbo sevonllidi^ 
tho tloccoli prooipitates in the lovror part of tho chamber, exi>osiug luor'^ 
clearly tbo iris and lens, niij absorption comiacncos eo that tho 
oiny bo ck-nred np in ten or fiftecu iluys. 

The vbiimcterisiic of the disease is, however, its recnrrenco again aul 
again in the saino oyo until bUndncaH n-Hults. Tliu iitUiokti ai»y follov 
each other at iDtervals of a month, more i>r la>tt, but thoy ithov no te- 
lation to any particular pha») of tbu moon aa might bo iufeniMl from 
the faiuiliur uuiue, but are deteroiiued rather by the ueatber, tho brallb 
tho fooil, or by fiomepcrioilicity of tbo aystoni. From flvo to Hevtn at- 
toclcs nsaally result in blindness, aud then tho Hocood cyo is itablo 
be attaekod until it also ih ruined. 

la tho intervals betireen the attacks some remaining aymptoms be* 
tray the condition, and theac become more marketl after each hu 
eive atx-fssiif discas<>.. Evfuaricr the first attack there is a bluish 
round tlii! margin of the tmuKparont cornea. Tho cyo »eviii» Kmall 
than the other, at first because it is retracted in its socket, and often 
after several attacks because of actual shruitage (atrophy). Tho up|>er 
eyelid, in plauo of pri'scnlin^ a uniform, contiuiions arch, has al>oot 
one-third from ita inner angle nu abrupt betid, cauned by the eoutrao- 
tioD of the levator musclu. The froul.of tbo Iris has exchanged somoor 
its dark, clear brilliancy fornlusterle^ yt-Ilow, and the depth of tbooyo 
presents uioro or less of the gi'eouish yellow i>hadc. The pnpil romalna 
a liltlu eoutmctcd, except in advanced nnd nggravatetl rxses, when, 
with opu^iuti lens, it is widely dilated. If one eye only has suffervd, as 
is oonirnon, the contrast in these respects with the souuil eye is all Ibu 
more characteristic. Another featuro is tboorcct, attentive oarri 
tlio ear, to comiieusato to aome oxtont for tJie n-aning vision. 

The iitlackif vary greatly in sevt^rity iu differeut cases, but tlie 
reuce is chanieteii-itic, and all alike U-ad to cataract and intraocal 
effusion, vt'Uh pressure on tho retina nud abolition of sight. 

Tlie pn'(-«iitioa of this diiieaso is the greut object to bo afmed al, aotl 
this demands the most careful breeding, feeding, housing, aad general 
mauageuieutae iudic-ateil under causes. Much can alao ho done by migra- 
tion to a high, dry locAtion, but for this nnd malarious nfftsjtioos the im 
provomeut of the huid by drainage and good cuUJvaliou should l>c Lh( 
final aim. 


IS be- J 


I out --■tiifA-n.r y, bat b. bui;t'l.T tbo Hnmn tm Tur oommoB 
ata^wAaiioA ^Moa «asB», Uke rlirnuiuliHm, urn Itoiii-ntiwl lijr 
«^ Aav^f miwihml M fchkO Bi aoil 2 drimi dosoi ot unlU^liitn of 
a^vttmm^f. &t ocfcer caas irith markiil Uuntni<uu nf Ukt jtlittri> <if 
fcfTifcMifhtr—wiiir nflhw*'*'. iKincturoortlio nyo,urt!Vu(i tlie fiiti4' 
AatfspKaHLof l&aisis, tashfrl{Ksl. Dnritis ivcorory ftcoUfMi ot 
ttKBC- tens «BiB of tntiif 10 gntius mix voiitica, nml I oitnan ntil- 
]ii*«l«fti A^todBsinble to iDTlfTorvle Uio N)-Jit«iii an't tintp in 
^ritfaoiABnttHfe. neralgarreMrtbiknooklnfcoiitttif* vtiAtimtlU 
•loarwrttftttter MO oiiljr be ooadvmnud. Ttiu Lrin|itir4r]r p» 
*«7 wdi afc» ylMM ift oac or two vcvkii tliofitfli i<'>'«<i<:li il.iiiKli.til 
hai^asElikBlnakmgor a smaU tootlii Icavitijf M< r^iix •» i)"* 
Mt ariF iiBHas tka iniutioa. 

^■■■Mtacatt oftDterool opUtbnImia, oji of (Im riiMirfPiiUrff<*r 
i Bi dueri bcil tiniler tbn Drat of L|i«m (Il4*ti4w«, fl4 
may be obvi:itt<l by !■''■ ■ d/ 

llilai^lataHtkeniys of light n'oulil tiulax- < . j 'It 

fRfinciHoa wwtU not be roetonM], noil ilio animal wtMtlil Im IUMn Ui 
pvre « iavitetMa sliyfir. irperToot hlliiilfii*^* iMi[irtii*i»>l Itf rii44t*it ui 
fKWRWifceMnrcorsigljt, iinKbyioK wntil.l i>'i<t!t. 

HLST or THE SKBTB OP HlunT— Alf4lflM'«(llf 

m of tbis aflTwtioD nro tuiiioin or hIImt 4laMM i^ flfn )fM»M 

tfaorootaof tboopliu lu-rvt^i injury fai ilM MtfVH iminft-H 

t&r broui utiloye; aad tiillaiuiuatlon or tite <'|Mt't imryN wtthiN ll/« Jrf* 

(nUaaKoraodae pressuruou lli« n»iuu Trum drotftbial >fV \n>' --■' -'-iff 

aMaaioa. It uuj oLm occar from uverlo'id^Ml aUrfriiMrli, ft- ' >Ml 

biccdilic, aoil eren from tiio pmtsuru ortbu U''**'^! (rf«iHlr ' (M, 

Tbe «f miiioms are vide (litiitiLtioii of lU'i |iii|>i)>i, »rf wni>. < >l(|f 

Um iuertor of Uie globo, Uio uxparmiuu ranittiiiiritflliM mmm' '^tW 

darkoess. Oriltaar^* vjir^ wlieii broiiiibl lo tlii i 

■addoulj coatraot, ami tUtia ddal^i atiil unolriirt „ ^ 

adftfC tbemsolves to tbo umouat of Uglit. Tim t,-fftM <I/a> m fcJ. n ^m f f 

vbea ft foiDt to strike In m:id» iiiiIom lIm band im««m ii «>'iifhf(t f/f wtr^ 

Tbo ean are bold ereut aud lorii r|ii(okly Inwafit MNji (imIm, h'i'I Iftit 

borse Rt«p9 bigb to avoid ■tumbliuic over ubJadU i»tilirt« 11 mm Wf( 

TrcoimeRl Is ouly useful wbeu tliu diMiMM l« »fmt(<f»M>«'t«* ftf iMtfMN Ni- 
iblo caUM;, like eougeatetl Uralii, li^«d I VumUi 

liOQ reoovory duui not follow thitti-rntiim^ ■■> 

ply a btistur bebiud ibe cur uutlKiveouvUiUi 



A variety of tumors attark tlie eyeball — dermoid, papillary, fatty 
cystic, and melaiiotit!, but i>erhap8 the most fVeiiiient io tbe hoDMi i: 
vnccpbuluiU cancor. Tliio may grow in or on tho globe, the Iiaw, ib 
eyelid, ortlio bou«a of tbo orbit, and is ouly to be rcmetlicd if at all b, 
early and thomugli oxciKioii. ft may be diHtiufruisUvd fmm tim I 
daogeroiiB tumors by ibi softness, friability, aud great vascularity, 
bleodlHg uu tbo filigbtest tuuctii as well as by ita auitlomical structure. 



Tills oooslsts ill a bulging fortrard of the cornea at a given point by 
tbe snvuuUir yielding aud distontuon of its coats, aad it may be eitber 
tmnsparent or opaque aud viiscnlnr. In tbe laat form the iria baa 
become adberciit to tbe back of tUe curuea, aud tbe wbolu Ktrudure 
ban become f)lle<I with blood -resaels. Id tbe first form tbe bulgingoomea 
is attenuated ; iu tUo lik^t it m^y bo tkickened. TUe bv^t tn-atment is 
by excision of a [lortiuu of tlie iris so as to relieve tlio iutra ocular 


Aeariin the eye have been incidentally allud»l to under inaammatloD 
of the tills. 

Tbe Filaria lackrymaiU in awliite wortn, one-half to 1 inch long, which 
tnbabita tbe lacUrymal duct aud tbe under side of the eyelids and bav 
in liie borse, proilnciug a verminous coniuiiutivilis. Tlie fintt. g|«'p ia 
tfBalmeut in sucli case.<i Ia lo remove tbe worm with forcei*^, then treat 
as for external iuttammation. 

Tho FUaria papulosa is a delicate, white, silrery-lnoking wonn. wbiob 
I liavu repeatedly foaud 'I iiiuhes in lenglh. It inviideH the sujueoas 
humor, where itii constant aetive movemeuta make it an ubjeutof great 
iuturest, and it n frequently exhibited as a "snake in the eye." It Is 
fonud also iu other iuterual eavities of tho boriie, to which it undoubt- 
edly makeo its way from the food, and pspetiially the water swiUlowecl, 
■ad its preventiou ia therefore to be sought mainly iu the supply of 
pure water from cJose de*p wells. When present in the eye it causes 
intliimmati^^n aiid has to be removed through an incision made vitii 
tbe luuoet in the up|>er border of the cornea elose to tlie selemtic, th^B 
point of tbe instrument being direeted slightly forwiird to avoid fnjory^ 
to tho iris, Then apply cold water or astringent lotions. 

Tho ft-Amocffcciw, tho cystic or larval stage of tho ccbinococcuS tapft- 
vorm of tbo dog, has been foand in the eye of the huri>e and a cysticer>_ 
ca» {Cyatieereus ^tularit f) is also reported. 

The Pentastonia tfrniotdai, which iidiabitn tbe noHc of bon<e and d 
has been fouad by Stitttiu iu the eye of the horae, but the vuse 



— --=- ^ .f- 

^.h.Ciitf.ry rtr-^' ■ ^J-.,- •■'.- ^- - _■ .- . 
thouffh m>''f,'r Irr, r : -: -i^r.; '-' • .- 
mtrrr cieayit ■ '-j-'i'i- ■ "*-■- -.L'^- ■- 
iCryw'nUd/" >"-■ -" .-■ " ' - _^' ' 

(At a4fuer:-u.-- ^ivrj-nr jr ."i-* . ." 

r. /^levator ?n«.> A- ■i'sf,f j*."' - . - - 

thtx mffnbrarir -c-.tfy a '/ / ' - -- 
y.Siiiitrxfrr'frn.^ri-n."..'- .'■,'.'■■- ■■■:■. 
jA«tM of ihf trb'i ■■• ■ -/-■/: ■ " ■-/.-- 

m. tteri JcLaltrr I>,Mhmi p .171 



Br Prof. A. LIAUTARD. M. D.. V. M., 
Frtncipal «/ lit American t'tleriiuirg C^th^t, A'ev Tort, 

Tho coQaklertitton of tbe a8efiiltie»s ami ooaseqneutly of tbe value 

to tbeir buinnn masters of tlioHe of tho iurcrior nuttnala wUicli aro 

classed AS beants ur biirdeti ulUiuatvlj' au<l iialunillv resolves itiwil into 

au inquiry iuto tbe oouditiou of tbat special porliou of tbefr orgituiam 

whiuU coutrols tbt) fuiivttou of locomotion, for it i» only an liring, or- 

gHuize^l loo;oiuotivo niuoliiiics tUat cbe bor»o, the camel, the ox, andtbeir 

bunion bearing; compaiiioua are of iimutiuitl valuu to miui. TLis is 

e8|>ecially true iu regartl to tbe inombera of tbe equine family, tbe luost 

uumeroua and valuable of tb<tm all, aud it naturally follnwn that with 

tbu bortie for a gabjoct of discassiou the special topic nnillt'ddiogtlicmo 

of iiir|airy will, by an euiey lapse, becoiuu an htqiicitt into Itm couilitioD 

aiiil eOicieauy of bis iwwer for usefulDess as a carrier or traveler. Tbere 

jft a larj;!* amount of abMrnct intertvit in tli«sCutIyof thntcnilo^rmentof 

tbe animal economy wbtcb oaablcs its possessor to cbaiico bis place at 

will Had convey bimsclf wbilhersoever his ueeds or his moods may in- 

cIiD(> him ; but bow uiucb greater tbe interest that atticbptt to tlio dub' 

jPL't wlien it becomes a pmottcal and economic question and includes 

v4tbia ita parviov tbo various related topics wbicb belong to tlie do* 

mnios of phyetiology, pathology, tberapentics, and tbe entire round of 

scii'ntiGc fuvBatigatiou iuto wbicb it is finally merged aa a (tubject for 

medical anil surgical coasidomtion, iu a word, of actual disease and 

itH trcatlueitU It lit uot surprisiuf; tbat tbo iutriuiito andoompliciited 

app:iratu4 of locomottoD, witb tt« gymmetr)' and bormouy of moro- 

ment and the perfeetiou aud beauty of ittt dulaiU and ii(\inuvt», slionid 

bo uliuiringly deuominiitei) by students of creative design aud atteu- 

live obfterven of ualure uud ber marvelous voutrtvauciM aud adupta- 

tioiis a tiring machine. 

Tbu hoi-se in a state of domesticity is of all tbo animal tiitjuthe lai^- 
Mt sbanT with bitt roiiHtur in liii* liability to tbe accidents and daugers 
which ure among tbo incidents of oiviliiMd life. Prom bis (ixiKnnre to 
tlic missiles of war on tbe battle-field tohiHCliancc of picking up a nail 
fioui tbo city pavement there is uo Lour when bo is not iu danger of 






n. ^ 

(ocurriiif: iujiirios wliicU may ilotunnil tbo b^t skill of tli© rotorlna- . 
rlau iii-ai;ti tinner to icpair. Ami tliis is not ulooe true of caKtiultieifl 
which belong to tlio class of external ami trJUiimficciists, but iucluili^ 
as vrctl tlio-so of II kind perliai>8 more niiitieroua, which may result in 
lesions of iuternnl pnrta, frequently tbo most etrlous and obscure of aJl 
in their nature iinil efff>i;tii. 

Tho Uorxe is too iniportaot a factor lu the practical details of hum 
life nntl fills too l»rge » place in tlic ))Qni!u-KH ami pleatuire of the vrnri 
to justify nuy iniliObronco to his ticcds aud bis pbyeical comrort or ucf- 
lect in ffspeot to the preserralion of hiti peculiar puners furuKorulneRs. 
Ill this couuectlou It U hardly necessary to alliide to eentinieiital con- 
Bideratton.s of " huuiaiiity," so calltnl — a word wliiuh too often becomes 
a vrctobcd misuouior irheu ouc recalls tbo iicglects, the uistrculmcnt) 
the ort'rtn.slting mid other orueltiett, \a miiuy iuiitances toiturcH, of 
which he Uocuui^s tUo helpless vicliui. In enteriog soniciThat largely, 
therefore, opou a review of the subject, and trcuting in detail of the 
cauHVM, tbesyinpluiiiii, the pi-oi,'i'C3ts the Cie^ttmeul, the results, nnd the 
coosei)iioiices o{ lameneia in ike horse, ^e are porfurniiug a duty ^hich 
Deeds uo word of apology or JustiQcatJon. Tho subject cxplaius ou 
jiutiQes itself, and is its own vindication iitid illnslrulion if any a 

The function of locomotion is performed by the action of two prioul-, 
pal systems of orgaus, biiown in anatomical nud physiological teroiin 
ology IV9 pfuWroaad octire, tlic )iiKso7e« performiug tlie active nnd the 
boiten ibc pa3xive purtion of Lbo iiioveinent, the necessary coiiiiectioa 
between tho co operating organism being effected by means of a vital 
contact by which tho muscle is attnehed to tbo bone at certain detertni- 
nat*- poiiitH on the Hiirface of the latter. Tlie«e poititH of attachment 
appear lu the furm of sometimes an emiuenoA-, ttomeliiues a depix-ssion, 
Bometiuies a border or an augle^or again as a mero rougbne&s, bub 
each perfectly fulfllling its purpose, wliilo tbo necessary motion ia 
proridcd for by the formation of tho ends of the long boue» into the 
rec|uisiCe articulations, joints, or hinges. Every motiouis tbo product 
of the contraction of one or more of the masclcs, wliicb, as it arts 
upon the l)ony levers, gives riso to a movement of eiteiision ortleiioo, 
abdnctiou or ndductlou, i-otaliori or cireumdtietion. The luoveuieut 
of abduction is that which passes from and that of adduction that 
vbiuh passes towanls thu median liuu» or tbo center of tbe body. Tbo 
movemeiits of flcsioo nud exteuMon are too well nnderslood to D««d 
de&uiug. It ia tho combinatiou and rapid alleruatlons of these inor«* 
ments which produce the different postures and variotis gaits of the 
living animal, and it is their interruiitiuii and derangcnii-ut, from what* 
eocvor cause, which constitutes tbo pathological couditiou of lameneit. 

A oouctse examlnatiou of the genoml anatomy of these organs, bow. 
ever, must precede the consideration of tho pathological questions [ter- 
taiuiug to tbo subject. A statement such as wu have just given, coa* 


taiDiiig only tbe briefest liint of matters nliicb, tliougb not necessarily 
in their ultimato scientiflo minutJs, must be clearly comprehended in 
order t() ticquircanjuimetricalnud satiftfautory view of tbo tliciiic asa 
pnioUcal collatioQ of faots to be remembered, Analyzed, applied, and 

It viae tbo great Bacon v ho tvrote : " Tbe liuman body may tio rom- 
[lared, from its eomplnx and delicate urgnuiziitJon, to a musical iuatra- 
mciit of (lio most perfvct construct iuu, but esctt-diugly liable to de- 
raugeineot.^ In its degree the remark is equally applicable to the equino 
body, and if wo would keep it in tune and proSt by its liarmonioai 
Ktion we uu^tat least ac(iiiaintour»e1%'e^ with the rdaiiouaof iisparta 
and Ibe modo of their co-oiie ration. 


Tbo boQcs, thou, nro the hanl organs vrbioh in Uicir connection and 
totality caiistiuite tha Hkoletun of an animal. They are of varioua 
fbruiH, of which three — the long, the 6nt, and the small — are recognized^ 
in Uie oxtreniities. The«ti are moro or less regular in thrir form, but 
prosoot upon their surfaces a variety of aspects, cxhibitioi; iu turn, 
aceordiOR to thu n.-iiuiremeiit of each i»»e, a rougbened or smiKith Hur- 
tskvo, variously miirkodwith grooves, cix'st«, eniineiiees aud depress! ous, 
for the nece^ary muscular attach uients, and, h» iK'fnnt mpiiliniu-d, uro 
connected by articalatious and joints, of vhich some arc immovable and 
othorsof a niovalile kitiil. 

Tiiu subsUueu of Ihu bones is i.-D[uposcd of a mass of combiaeil earthy 
and aulmal matter, surrounded by a ftoe, fibrous envel(q>ing membrane 
(tbo periostcam) nrhiuh is intimately udheroiit to the external «urruoe of 
the bone, and u, in fact, tbe s»cretiug membrane of the bony structure. 
The bony tissue proper is of two couslatuuvca, the exterual portion be- 
iug bard and "compact,^ and called by tho latter term, while the inter* 
aal, known as tho *'' ftpong^' tissue*' or " areolar," is ultso of a coiiciLstencj 
Gormttpotidiiig with these de^riplivo terms. Those of tho bones wbiuli 
possess tills latter euusistuucy eontaiu also, lu tbeii' upungy port ion, tiMi 
mt^dullnry substance known as marrow, which is dejKKUted in larg« 
qnaiitittes in the interior of thu lon^ bonci«, and cAiH-cially ivhc-ro a ceo- 
trul cavity exists, called, for that loasun, the medullary vavity. Tba 
nourtshmeut of tho bones is effected by means of what is known as tbe 
nutrifiit/orameu, \\h\c\i is an openin<,' cstabllsheil fur tbe ]>nssa,ijL- of 
the bU>wl vcA-iels which convey the m-cessary nourish meat to the tiilerior 
of tho organ. Thcro are other miuulia} uoucerniiiK' lh« nourishment of 
the skeleton, such as tho venous arrangcaieiil and the ulussiQcaliou of 
their iirterial vessels into several urdera, wUiuh, though of interest as 
au abtttract study, are not of sufScient practical value to refer to hen^L 

Tbo active orKaus of locomotion, the mnxclra, form. Kpeuking gener* 
ally, tliv Oealiy covering of tho external pact of the fikcletou and aur- 

roaail tb« botiea of tbe extremities. They vary greatly in shHpe and 
BtTjs, being flat, triaogular, long, sbort, or broad, and are rarioDsly »ntl 
capriciously iidDicd, some from tbeir shape, &omo from their siiuatioD, 
anil otlitTs from their uHe.aiicl thus w» have abiiuctortt ami adductors, 
the iiyrauitilai aud orbicalar, the digaatrlcus, the vastus, and tbe rest. 
Those which are under the control of the vill, kiiowii an the roluntaiy 
rousclvM, ajtpvar iti the form of fleshy structureis, red ia color, and with 
flbera of vnrious degrees ot fineness, and are composed of *'/a*ercii(i,'' 
or btiiidles of 6l)«ni, united by couuective or tMiUuiur titwue, each £asci- 
cnlas being composed of amaller ones, less in size, bat auite<l in a simi- 
lar manner to coniiwitu thu lari;<!r formations, euch of which is oiivuloiied 
by u atriicture of aimilur nature known as tha tar<^letiima. M»uy of i 
the muKvles are united to the boueu by the direct coutaet of tbeir fiesliyfl 
libera, but, iu other iostauces, the body of the tnn.sc1e is more or less 
gi'tiduully trau«fonncd into u curdy or nii;mbrauuuti struclum kuowa 
aa the tendon or aiue^ir, nnd the attachment Is made by very abort fl 
flbrous threads through the medium of a long tendinous baud, wbicb, ^ 
passing from a siiigleone to several other of the bonem, effects its object 
at a point fur di<<taDt from its original attuuhmuut. In. tbtis carrying 
its action from one bone to another, or from one region of a limb to ^ 
another, tlieee tendons must tiecessartly have emooih surfaces o^etfl 
whicli to glide, either upon the boiiea themselves or formiMl at their" 
articulutioii^t, and this need m supplied by the secretion of the syuuvial 
Buiii, a yellow-ish, uuelnoua substnuiw, furnished by a peculiar teodiii* 
oua synovial sac, designed for the parposo. 

1 11 list rations iu point of the agency of the synovial flriid in assisling 
the sliding movements of tbe temlons may l>e found under their vartout 
forms at the shonlder joint, at the u^iper part of tbe l>one of tbe arm^ 
at the posterior part of the kneejoint, and also at the fetlocks, ou tbeir 
poslerior part. 

As the tendons, whether singly or iu company with otbertt, pass over 
these natnral pullies they are retained in place by strong fibrous bands 
or sheaths, which are by uo means exempt from dnugi-r of injury, as 
will be readily inferred from a com4ideration of their important sitccral 
ose as supports and re^uforeements of the tendons theniselvuH, with 
which they must nnces-sjirily share the stress of whatever force or straia 
ia bri>ugUt to bear upou both or cither. 

We have referred to that special formation of tbeexternnl sarfaco of fl 
a bono by which it is adapted to form a joint or arltoulution, either mov- 
able or f]X4!d, and a concise examination of the fonuation and siruclure 
of tbe movable Articulatious will bete bo iu place. These are fonneii 
geucrally by the extremities of the long, or they may eitst on the aor- 
faces of the short boues; tho poluta or regions where tbe contact oc- 
curs being denomiuatod the articular surface, which asiiumes iVom this 
oiroumstnnce a considerable variety of aspect aud form, being iu uuo 
CMO comparatively flat and at another elevated; or as forming a pro- 



trmlinir hea<I Of knob, vith a distiuct convexity ; and &g*in presentioff 
a corres|iou(Hii^ deiin>ssioii or cavity, uccurutely adapttnl to coiu|)let(*, 
by tbi.'ir co»[)tuttoii, tlie bnll nud sovket Joint. Tbo sirliciilation af the 
nnn ntid nbouldvr i» uu cxtnuple of tliv flrst kiud, vliile ttiai of tbd 
bi|> with tlie tiiigh botie is & |>m-fcct exbibiliuu of Uie Utter. 

The titrticture, wbuso officB is tbo r4>.leiitiou of tUu nrtt^jiilntion in 
place, U the ligament. Ttiin ix » while, iiiehtxtic, or yellowiKb t(>xture, 
po.<uie5siug in name degree tlic opposite quiilily. iu some iu!(tauL-«8 {t 
ifi of tt corded or funicular shape, but coiifiii>ta in others of a broad 
mcmbianc, in the first form serviug to bind the bones more tlniUy to- 
getlier, and in the latter Hiirruiiudiag or iiiclo«in^, in wbult; or in part, 
tbu brond articQiatioos, and calculated rather for the protection of Iha 
cavity from intruBion by tli« air than for other aonnrity. These latter 
arcuijiially fooud in connection with tlio8o of the joints which possess a 
frue and exIt-udiMl luoveiut-iit, but are also found m-eurupanyiny thef'uiuo- 
nlar ligaments either surronnding and inclosing the joints or occupy- 
ing the interior of their ntructiirt;, qh inicrariicutar, in whirh Kltiiatioa 
they secure the union of the several bones more firmly and effectively 
tbau would be possible forlhe capsular ligament unassisted. 

The Qnirernal need which pertainn to all inochanicat contriranres of 
motion has not been forgotten while providing for the perfect working 
of the luterestiuf piece of living tnacbiucry which jierforms the fuuc> 
tion of locomotion, an we aru cout«iaplating it, and nature has vcuHa- 
queutly provided for obviating tbo evits of attrition nud friction, and 
iusuring the easy play and smooth moreraem of its parts, by theestab- 
Itflbmcnt of the Bocretiou of the tynovia, liio vital lubricant of which wo 
bare before H]H>ken, aa a yellow, oily, or rather glairy Aceretioii, which 
pcrfonos tbe Indispensable offlco of faclHtatlng the play of the tvudunH 
over the jointa and t^Ttuin given poinlii of lliu bonus. ThiN fioid, 
whicb ia deposited io a coDtaiuing sac, the lining (seroas) meotbrancof 
which foriUB the secreting organ, iu of an excessively sensitive nature, 
and while it linex the Inner face of Ihn ligHmnnts, both CH|>.<inlar and 
fiiscicular, is attached only upon the edges of the bones without extend- 
ing upon tboir length or between tbe layers ol cartilage which lie bo- 
twven the bones nnd their articalar snrfares. 

OnrobjHct iu thus partially and concisely reviewing the Ktructnro 
and condition of the essential organs of locomotion hits been rather to 
outline a skotcli which may servo as a reference chart of the general 
feattirea of tbtj snbjetft, than to utTvr a minute ile»uriptioa of ihe parts 
referred to. Other points of interest will receive due attention nH vm 
proceed witli the ilhistration of oar subject and examine the matters 
wbiuh it most coacems as to bring under oonsidcratiou. The founda- 
lluii of facts wbleb we have thuu far prepared will be fuuud sulUciently 
broail. wo trust, to include whatever may be necessary to insure a ready 
comprebeosion of tbe essential matters which are to follow, as our re- 
view is carried forward to uompletiou. What we have said toucbing 

11 (W5 18 


these elementarj trntlis vill prol>al)ly be snlBcieDt to fAcititate a ckar 
UDilerslAudiug of the ri^iu ire merits esseatini to the ixu-fectiou and reg- 
iilarity wliiuti uhamclerize tlie nnriniil pf i fnrm»ii<f<; of tlie varions move- 
U3Kiit8 Tvbii;]) tf-tult III the accoitittli^limciit uf tlic aclion of locomotiou. 
So long a» the booes, the inuadefi hqiI their temlOQs, the joiota with 
their cartiUf^cs, tlieir liffnueiit? iiml Ibeii syoovjnl etracture; the 
acrve» hikI the etititriilliuK inlliivTiceM which thi'^~ exercise overall, nith 
the bloml veasels which disti'thiite to every part, however mJtiiite, the 
Titiili?.iiig fluid vrhiuh Niii^tuiiis the whole fabric in being niid activity — 
so lotig US tlieso vnrieUB cotistilueuts nnil ailjiiiicis of nnimal life pre- 
ser\'i< Mieit' imnnal cxemitliou from diM!»Ki!, trauniHthtm and pathalog- 
ical change, the faiiclion of locoinotiou vill coDtiuue to be perforuieil 
with jterfcction mid eflicieucy. 

But on the other hand, let. any element of diHense beeotnp implnnted 
in one or Kfveral of the parts deetiuod for couihiueU actiou, any change 
(»: irrej^nlarity of form, diEneosiuDS, location or action OGcnr in any por- 
tion of the apimratiis — any oh»tructtoit or niiKdire<:tioQ of vital power 
take place, any interference with the order of thepbeDoniena of Dortual 
nature, auy loss of hnrmony noil tack of baiaucc bo betrayed, luid ira 
have in the result the eonditiou of htmenesa. 



Pkyaioloffy, — Comprebeusively and uDtvvrsallr considered, then, the 
term lamtntstt siffinHes any irregulnrity or derangement of the tnnctloo 
of hicomotion irreH[>ective of Ihe eaiiHe which pnxtueed it or the (le- J 
gree of Its niaDifestation. Bovrever slightly or severely it nia^' be ex* ^ 
bibitcd, it ia all the «arae. The nicest observation raay W demanded 
for its deteetion, and it may need the most thoroaghly trained povren 
of discernment to identify atul locale tl, as m ea«eti where the auimal 
18 said to ho/aintittg, tfit^er, or to go sore. Or the patient may bo so far 
afflicted a& to refuse nttcrly to nse nn injured leg, and iindprrompulsory 
motion keep it raised from the ground, and prefer to travel on three 
legs rather than to bear any jwrtlon of his weight npon the afflicted 
nieinbur. In these twi>o:(tri'nK--'<r and in all the hitermedlate dvgt«(>s, 
the patient is simply fnwc — pathognotnonic uiiuittio; hciug considered 
and settled in a place of their own. 

These laat twocIaK.«ilieatk>nK oflheeonditmn of disahleil ftiiictioD, of J 
simple lameness and lameness on three legs, are very easy of iIet«ctioa, < 
but the first or uiore tenderness, or soreness, may ho very difficult to 
identify, nud at times very serious results have followed from the ob- 
scariLy which has enveloped the early stages of the malady. For it 
may easily wxnr that In the absence of the treatment which an early 
correct diagnoiii') would have indi&Ate<l, an insidious ailment may so take 
advantngo of the lapse of time na to root Itself too deeply into the 
economy to h < suhvcrttHl, and I>ecome transformed into a dtnabling 
chronic case, or possibly ooc that is incurablo and fatal. Ilouoa Ihe im< 



slanng early symloius liccatise tliey arc iinaocompBnt 
ilistuictiiihL |iri)iiuiinr«tl ch»r.ttitori^tic», aud t'rnm » luck ol' tlircateti- 
itg appearauoca ioforriufrtlio ubscnoe of danger. The possibilities of 
8iiaii)1ui.sli cuti never Iw tt-tfi^ly igmirml. An extra rautiou rosla imililiig, 
FTi-a if wjistw;!. TLa fiiltillmeut of the first duty of a praotltioucr, 
flifu iatnxluceit to a case, is not ain-aya uu eajny task, tliougli it is too 
frwiacatly ospcctetl that tlio dia^jaosls or " wLat is the matter^ verdict 
viiliw n?JcIie(1 by tlio qnickest ami .siireKt kind of :)ti *' iustaiitiineous' 
Iitftt-jw," and a suns proguosi*, or " how will iteuil" guessed atiustaiiter. 
l/saxlly tbo discovery that tbe aaitaal Is becoiniiig lame is coinpara- 
tinlj Au easy matter to a careful observer. SacU a person will Tcadll; 
uoit llio uli:itig«j) of luoveiiintit wliicli will liav» t:).ki<n place in Mm ani- 
mal be lioit he«n accu^ttoiued to drivu or ride, uulesH tbuy are indeed 
*ll;litaud limited to tbe last degree. But vrbnt is uot alvnys easy is 
tliedete^^tioti, aftordj&coTerin": the fact of nn rxi-stin;* irrdsdlur'ty, of 
thfl locality of ils point oforigiu, aud wliytber its seat !« in the near op 
offlef, orin the foreor tbebiod part of tbe body. Tbesoaro questions 
tooortcn irrongly answered, notwitbstandiii;; the fact tbat with a little 
Cartful Acruliiiy the point may be ciLsily svttlcd. Tbo error, wbidi ia 
too ofl'.ni committed, of pronouncing tbe leg upon wbiob the animal 
trnvirlH KOundly as tbe seat of tbo lameuc&s, is iberL'fiult of amisiutcr- 
twrtatiou of the pbysiolosy of locomotion in tbocrlppk-d animal. Mitch 
clepeudis upon tbe gait with which tlie animal moves vrbilo undvr exam- 
ination. Tbe act of Tvalking ia unfavorable for accurate o^jservatiou, 
though, If tbo .lulinal walks on tbreo legs, the decision !s easy to reach. 
The .irtion of galloping will often, by the laptdit.y of the innsrnlar niovo- 
xuentA and their quick HticccssioQ, interfere with a nice study of their 
Tbytljm, and it is only nnder some peculiar circumstances that the ei- 
Ainination can 1m safely condncteil wbito the animal is moving with that 
^)l. It. is while the animal in trotting tliiit tbo investigation i.s made 
irith the best chances of an intolligcnt decision, aud it is while moving 
with tbat gait, therefore, tliat the points should be looked for whicii 
must form tbe oleineats of tbe diagnosis. 

Our Qrsi consideration should bo tbo physiology of normal or healthy 
locomotion, tbat from thence ^rc may the more easily reach our conclu- 
sions touching tbat which is abnormal, otherwise lameness, nnd by tbia 
pnwcss WW ought to siiccopd i n obtaining a clew to tbe solution of tbe 
flrat problem, to wit: in vhich leg ia the teat oftlie lamcHexs f 

A word of deGuitioa is here necessary, in order to render that which 
followK more easily intelligible. In voterinarj- noiiicuclntnro each two 
of the legs us referred to in pair^, are denoiiiinatetl a biiicd. Tbe four 
points fKTcapied by the feet of the animal while standing at rest, form- 
ing a mpiam, the two fore legs arc known as the anterior biped; the 
two hi nder, tlie posterior ; the two on one side, tbe Uiliral ; and one of 
eitlier tbe frout or bind bii>ed with tbo opposite leg of the hind or front 
luped will form the d'lasotial biped. 


Considcriog, as it is proper to do, tbat in a condition of bcalth cacli 
Bcpnrato biped and eaub fudirldual leg is required to perronu aa equal 
aud miiforiu function and t o carry an evni or equal port ion of tlmweiglit 
or tliu body, it will bu ntadily apiirufiatetl tbiti (bo rvsidt uf (liiii etitial 
dislhbutioB will be a i-egular, eveoly bnlauced, uud emootb displace- 
mout of tUo bwly tbiis supitortetl by the four legs, and tbat therefore, 
according to tlie rapidity of tbo motion in different gnits, encb siii^lo 
leg witt he. nHiuirud ut eertaiii Ruc;i:eii$tve momeuls to War (be weigbt 
wbicli bail rested upou its congener wbilo it irns itself iii thu nlr, iu itic 
act of inoviag ; or, ngatu, tn'O dtB'er«nt lege of a biped may l>e called 
upon to boar tbe vciglt of the two legs of tbe opposite bipetl nbile 
also Iu llie air iu the act of moving. 

To simplify tbe matter by au Illustration, tlie welgbt of an animal 
may bo placed at 1,000, of Tvbicb eacb leg, in a normal and bealtby ooa- 
dition, supports wbilo nt rest S^iO. Wlien one of tlio fore legH is in ac- 
tion, or ill 1 be air, and earr>-iiig no weight, llsSSOabaro of ibe veigbt 
will bo thrown npon Itscotigener nr partner to sustain. If Ibe two legs 
of u biped arc both in actioiiand raitH-d from the tiround, their congcuere 
atlll resting in inaction, will carry tbe total weiglit of the other two, or 
500. And as tUo succession of luovemcNtM coutinnes, and th» change 
from one leg to another or from one biped to anotlie:', as may be nv 
quired by tho gait, procrcda, tbero will result n smooth, creu, and equal 
balancing of active nioremeiits, shifting the weight from one leg or one 
biped tu another, with symmetrical precision, and no ahall be preseoted 
witb au interesting example of tbo play of vital mechanics ia a bealtby 

Much may bo learned from tbo aocurato study of Ibo action of a 
siiiglu leg. yoriiially, its nioveiuentK will be withuul variation ur fail- 
ure. When at rest it will easily sustain the weight assigned to it, with- 
out showing hualtancy or betraying i>aiu, and wlioo it is raised front 
the ground in order to transfer tbe weight to its mate, it will iterform 
the act iu such a manner tbat when it ia again placed u(H)n the ground 
to rest it will be witb a firm tread, indicative of its ability to leceive 
again the burden to be thrown back upon it. Iu jdaiitiug it u|Kin Iho 
ground or raising it up again for the forward movement while in action, 
and again replanting It upon tbe earth, each movmnont will hn ttao 
same for eacli leg and for each biped, whether tbe act l»e that of walk- 
ing or trolling, or even of gallo|iinK. In shorty thu regular phiy of 
every part of the aiipanttus will tustify to tbe existence of tbat coodi- 
tiou of orderly sDuudnes^ aud efflcleut activity which is cloquentlysug- 
geslive of the condition of vital integrity, whicb is simply but compro- 
heuaively expressed by the terms IieaUh iind HOHndnrxa, 

But let Rome change, though slight and obscure, occur among the 
elements of tbo case, some invisihlo agency of evil intrndo among tke 
bariuonizing pi-oceases going forward; any disorder ocoar iu the f^ela- 




fioMoT eod|H-ratitiei>arta; aoytUmg appear to neatrftltze the efHcicncy 

of ritulizing forces; any (lisabiUty of a liaib to accept auil (o tliroir 

btckopon lis mate tlir port Inn of the wviglit which bplnngH toittnHii:^- 

laii, vlietiier ae tbe efl'ect ortra-.iiuaticuoct(ltfjit»(irotbci-wiav ; in ^ilort, 

vlialerer tends to dt'fvat the purfKue of uaLare iu arganizinff tUe Iimo- 

OHJltre nppnratus may W lookeil iiiion an acnoM of tamentM. And it is 

iiol tlie leaHt of the fiwt^ wliicb it is iuiiKtrtaut to remember lliat it is 

not eufliciettt to look for ibe munifestatiou of au existing diticonlnnce 

■D tJw action of the atroated limb alone, bnt that it is eliared b; the 

Afximl one, and mtint Iw searched for in that ok wvll as the halting 

iuouiUt, if the liitzardof anciroristo be avoided, Themodeofactiou 

of the leg, which i« the Beat of the lameue&s, will pary greatly from 

'hat rbieb it oxbibited when in a licaltby comlition, and the sound lej; 

<^)II iihn offer in)[)0rtant moditl<-atiotiK in the (wmv tbret! pnrtictilars 

'H.-fuK) alluded lo, to wit, that of resting oq the ground, that of ltd clts- 

vatloD and forward motioo, and that of striking the ground agsiitt when 

'he nill action of al«pping is accompliehfld. Inability in ttio luaiw leg 

^ Aastaiii U'eit^ht will imply exiiesHivo extortion by tin) sound one, and 

•Qck or facility or dispoutiou to rest the lame member on the ground 

^''H necessitate a longer contiininnco of that action on tho unnnd ftiite. 

^liaoges in the act of eievating the leg, or of carrying it forward, in 

'*"tlij will pre^vnt, liowevor, entirely opposite conditions between the 

'■"'O. The Iiimo mt-mber will be elcvutod rapidly, moved carefully for- 

^^x^I, and rcturood to the ground with caution aud bei^itancy, aud the 

**»ntact with tbo i>art1i will be eOocted as lipbtly i\a possible, while the 

*^t>iid limb will rent longeron the ground, niovu boldly uud rapidly 

rof^anl, and strike the ground promptly niiil forcibly. All this is duo 

^***tLe fact that the sound member canipsinoretbari its normal, healthy 

"Uttte of the (teiglit of the body, a sharo which may be in excess Itoin 

to 350, aud UiHA bring it-H bnnlen to a figure var^'ing from 251 to oOO, 

'^"l defyending upon the degree of tbo existing lameness, whether it in 

**>nply a ftligbt tenderness or soreness, or whether the trouble has 

^^«cbed natage which compels the |>atient to the awk wurdness of travel- 

**'g on three leg*. 

Thatall this is not mere theory, but rests on a foundation of fact may 
V>e established by observing the manifestations attending a single al- 
t«ntion in the balancing of the L>ody. In health, the snpi^mrt and 
Vfjotlibriam of that uiukh uf the body which is twrue by the fore legs is 
tiqanlize^l, and pa-ises by regnlnr iilternationa from the right to tlie left 
sitlo, and vice terun. But if the left leg becoming disabled, relieves 
ilscif by leaning, as it were, on the right, the latter becomes, coiisC' 
quently, practically heavier, and the mass of the boily will incline or 
settle npon thai tiide. IjHmi-iie.'^n of the left Hide, tbercfon*, means drop- 
ping or Hcttliug ou the right, and ric« vcraa. We einpbasiKe this state* 
oieut aud iasist ui>on it, the more from the (Vequoucy of the iustauces 



of error wbi^ han temt KBds oar Doctee, ia vbieA puttai liftTD ii 
riated apoa th«ir view tltAt ibe Icf «hich totbe aesc of tbc lameiiHU I 
tkat npoa wUeh ke divfH, ttad irhidk thtmaimamsmtaMUyaaf^mtA^ 


Properly oppncutinc Um remarks vhich bftTe prrottl(;d, and fA^U 
eoaprelwadias Uu Modai a^irwi^i and tk» true p«Uiolo^oriuMiU9* 
boi little KiBaiDS to be done In order to reaek aa atuwer to tbe qc* <** 
tioa aa to vhkh side of the Bnioial the bueneasis seated, except to ^Ex- 
amine tbe imlifat while tn actioo. We bare sliimlj iiIsImI iiiii naiis t"' 
fbr iirefernag the moremeoc of trotting for this porpoae. In ooodiv- ^' 
log such an examioatiun the aoioial should be onblanketed, and li^^'*' 
by a pluB halter ia tbe kanda of a moa vbo knoars how to manage i 
pace*, and prefereooa ahoald be gircD to a hard road for the triaL 
is to becxamloed rrotnrarioosposltioDS — fhita before, from bchiud,fli 
ftom each side. Watehiog him as be approaehes, as he recedea,aBil . 
be passes by, tlie observer sboold earefUlj study that tmportaot aeLic:^^ 
vbicb wo bare spokext (rf* as the iropjnmg «/ tin botiy upou ooo extreioil 
or the other, aod this caa leadDy be detected by atteadiiig closely 
the moMuas of tbo bead and of the btp. The head drops on the sasi ^^* 
side on wbirb the maw of the body will fall, dropping towanls tli- ^ 
right when the lameoess is iu the left fore-Ie-g, aud the bip droppinjc i^^- " 
posterior lameoess, alao on the soand le;, the reversal of theconditioDA.^^ 
of oonrw, pFr)dni;iii;j rovcre©d effects. Id olherwords, when IhB aojmst ^ 
lo trottiDg eshibiti signs of irrc^larity of aciion, orlaineness, and thii^""5l 
irrecatarity is accompanied by druppioK or uoddiog the bead, or de- 
pn^SMing tbe hip on the right side of tbe body, at the time the ft-ct 
the right side t^trike tbe gronnd, tbe horso is lame on the left side. If lbs 
dropping and nodding are on the near side the latneaess is on the off aide. 

Bui in a majority of cases the answer to tlio first questlou rvlaimg Co 
tbe lamenesa of a horse if^, after all, not a very difficult tajik. There are 
two other problems in tha caaa more difflcnltofsolotion and which orien 
require the exercise of a closer scrutiny, and draw uimn all tbe rvsoorees 
of the experienced pmctitioner to settle satisfactorily. Tliat a liorae is 
lam^in a gircn leg may be easily determined, but wbeu it becotaea 
neeesaary lo pronounce upon the qnerv a» to yrb:it part, what regtoo, 
what structure, la affected, tbe easy part of the tnsk ia over, and tte 
more difficult and imiKirtant, because more otMcore portion of thelo- 
vestlgntion bos commonocd— except, of coarse, in eaaes of which tJke 
ftatares are too difttirictly evident to the senses to admit of error. It 
in tmu tbuL by carefidly noting tbe manner in which a lame leg is |ier- 
forming its fimclions, and closely scniLitiizing tlminotions of the whole 
eitremity, nnd especially of the variona joints wbiob enter Into its 
strnctnre; by niinnlely examining pvery part of the limb; by obt$crria|t 
tliooutliuf '^^ testing tbc cliaugL-, ifiiuy, iu teuijH-'iuture utid the state 


of tlie sensibility — alt ttttwo ioveKtJgatioDtt majr guide the 9iirgeOR to a 
corivcS iocaIiz4LLtou<if tbe scat of trouble, bill li« ttiuar cuivTiilly refruiii 
from tbe adoption of a liasly conclusioit, niid idiovc qII, assnre lilmsclf 
tliat be basiiatfaJtod to make tlic foolf of nil llioor^riiiisnrtlituborso the 
miost lialdu to injur)' uud tvsioii, tbe eubjcci of tlii; moxt tliimmjib nnd 
minute cxaniiuation of nil tbe pai-ta wbicb comiiose tbe sufTeriDg ex- 

The Ki^attT liability of tbe foot than of niiy otber part of tlio ex- 

txeiaitiut lu injury friiai cosoaltiejt, uatnrul to its Kitiintiou and use, 

choiild alwa.Ts siigceat Ibe beginoing ofan iuqoiiy, est>^^>i*lly in-^Q ob- 

«cure ca«« of laiuenesa at tbat point. ladoed tbo lamruL-ss way baro 

Ao apparout location elseivbrro, vrben tbat istbetnic seal of tbo trouble, 

and tbe anrgt^on who, wblle examining bla tazue patieot, dlacovcra a 

riugtmao, and satisfying^ bimself tbnt be Was cncnniiteroil tbe cau»e of 

tbe disordered action fius|K^ud« lu$ iQrestie:ntioii witliontsabjootiiif^tlio 

ifotft to a cloNO scrnliny, may doeply regrut bis neglect and inadvertt^nca 

at a later day, wbeu regret* will avail notbiug; towards remedying tbo 

irreitarnblo injury wbicb bnseusacd npon his partial intdbod of oxplora- 

tioa. Bat, 08 in bomau paibologicnl experience, tbere are instances 

irfai.*a iniicrntable diseaKesi will dt^H vet- tbi-ir fatal meattage*), wbila leaving 

DO mark and making no sign by whivb tbey migbt be idcutifled and 

clas.vIi(Nl, HO it vilt bappea tliat in the hainbler animals the on.<>et and 

piogre&s of mysterious and unrecognizable ailments will at times baffle 

the best rcterinariaa Bkill, and leavo uur bnnlen -bearing servanta to 

aoccniuU to tbe inevitable, and suffer nnd perish in nurelieved distress. 



From tfae eloseoesa and intimacy of tbe connection existing Iwtween 
the two principal ele<ueiits of tbelmny stmrtnre while in henllh, it fre* 
qDeutlybuconiesexcecdiriyly diCliuuU, when a sLiiUiuf diKcase baasupcr- 
Teued, to dificrtniiiiiite aceuratety as to the i>art primiirily affected, 
and to determine positively whether tbo |)eriostenui or Iho body of Iho 
bone is fniKiniilly implicated. Yrt a knowledge of the fact is often of 
the first imporlancc, iu order to secure a fuvonible n-ault from Iho 
treatment t^> be institntod. It is, however, quite erideiit that In a 
nnjority of instances the bony growths which so frcqnently appear on 
the surface of tbcir structure, to which llic general 1 rrm of rTovtmu is 
applied, Iiarc bad tbcir origin in nn inflammation of the pciioateutn, or 
eovelopiDg membrane, and known as p^riOHtitu. Ilowovcr this may bo 
no bare as a fnipient result, somptincs on thp length of the Iwne, 
noR>ptimea at the extremities, and sometimes involving the articulation 
ttadf, certain bony growths, or exostoses, known otherwise by tbo 
term tpUnt, ringbone awl upariHt nil of wliieb, in nn important aonse, 
tuny iMi tinally refeirt^d to tbo periosteum as tbeir nutrient source and 



Bopport, al tmiat after their formation, if not for tbeir incipient ezist- 
«nce. It i« certain tbnt iiiHammution of tlie periosteum ia frequeutly 
n>ft>ra.1)l« to wouuOh ami brui^^s cansed by external agenuieK, nn«1 it is 
also truu tliat it m-iy jioH^ibly re-sult from Uh'- Hjiieadiiig iiiltatDniiitioa 
orsuri'ouiiiIiiiK diseiiited tissues, but in auy case tho rcHuIt is iiuirormly 
sceu iu tlie deposit of n bony growlh, more or less (iiffiisc. sometimes of 
irTu^jular outline, and at o1hi>rs projcctiog distinctly from tlii* surface 
from wbicb it NpringK, »» so commonly prfNCiiteit in tlic riiigbouo and 
the Kpaviri. Tiiis couiiitioa of j>erioBlitia is ofleii diflicult lodeterinijie. 
The fiigus of inflammation are so obscure, tbe spelling of tho parts so 
insiguiQcnnt, any increoso of licat so impotc^ptiblv, and (Iki Korenrss so 
slight, that even the moMtacute observer may fail to locate tlio ]>oiiil of 
Ittt oxtstetice, and it is often long after tlie discovery of the disensu itself 
that its location is iiositivcly revealed by the viBibK'preaeneeof the exos- 
tosis. Yet the first question had l)«en resolved, in tiiscovering the fact 
of the lameuesa, while the second iiud third remained unanswered), and 
the identification of the aflfected limb and the iwint of origin of the 
troiiblo reinaniuil unknown until their palpable revelation to tho senses. 
Wbeo, by careful scrutiny the ailment has been tiwated, n resort to treat- 
ment must be had at once, in order to prevent, if iiossiWe, any further 
<Iepo:iit of the calcareous strncture ami increasLi of iht^eTostotic jjrow ili. 
With this view Iho application of water, either warm or cold, nindered 
astringent by the addition of alum or sugar of li^ad, will be beueflciAl. ^ 
The teudency to th» formation of the bony gmwth, and the increaseof H 
its development after its actual formation, nuiy often be checked by the 
application of a tteverii blister of Spauifih fly. Tho failuru of thi-tuj means 
and the eatablisbmeut of the diseased process in the form of chronic 
periostitis ciiuses various elianges in the Imne covere*l bythedlsordetvd 
meuiliraue. and thu rt',-*ult may be softt^ning, degcnuratimi, or necrosis, 
but more usually it is followed by the formation of the bony growths 
refeiTed to, oathe caution bone, the coronet, tho bock, etc 

We first tarn onr attention to the splint, ascertain boa; enlargcmonts 
whicharudevetopetlonlhecannnnbone, betwtrnnihe knceorthehockaud 
the lellock joint, are called. They are found on the inside of the ley, 
fromlheknee, near to which they are to be tound, downward to about the 
lower third of tho principal cannon bone. They aro of various dimen- 
siona, and are readily pen-eptible both to the eye and to tho touolL 
Tbey vary considerably in size, raugiiiB from that of a larce iitit down- 
ward to very small proportious. In searching for them tbey may be 
readily detocte<l l)y the hand if they have attained siifflcicnt develop- 
ment in their usual situation, but ninnt be distinguished from a small 
bony enlargement which may bo felt at the tower third of the cannon 
bone, and is not a splint nor a pathnloj^-ical formation of any kind, bat 
merely tlie uormal developtneut of the small cannoo boue. 


^Ve Iiare sRid that sidints nro to bo found on the insWe of the leg. 
Ihut ia trut! as a geueral titatouvut, but it is not invariably so, and they 
docaaiotially appear on the oatside. It is also trae that tliey appvar 
mo3t commoulyon tbo fore legs, but this is not exclusively the ca«e, and 
^hey may al timua 1h> found on both tht; insidn mid ontAido of llie hind 
le^ UBually a splint forms only a true uxoatosla, or a siugle bony 
Srovth, with a somtrwhut base, but neither in tluH invariably tlia 
^ase. la eomc iostaaccs tboy assume more important dimcnitions, and' 
^KU)H from the iniiide ta the outAide of the iMoe, on ita posterior fnou, 
"between that and the saspensory ligament. This form is tenutMl the 
^>€il!/ed gplint, and c«nMtitutOB a seriouH and pennaueat deformity, iaooa- 
^Kqueuce of its interforuuco with the play of tho Bbroutt curd n-bicli 
2)aA»ies behind it, l>ecuiniug thua a Houroe ufcoutinoal irritation and cod 
•eijaently of permanent lameness. 

A. splint may thus frc-4|nciitly liccomn a caone of lameneH« tltnu^h not 

'Sieoeesarily in erery instance; bat it is a Jauieuces possessing fvaturoa 

peculiar to Itself. It Is not always continuous, but at timea nsHumeft 

An inlermitlcnteharact«r,and is more marked when the animal is warm 

than whvQ bo is ooul. If the luiDone^s is near the knee-joint, it is very 

apt to become aguravated when the animal is pat to work, and the gait 

acquires then a j>eculiar character, arisin;; from the manner in wliicb 

tho limb is carried outward from the kuee.<i downwards, which is done 

by a kind of abduction of the lower part of the log. Other nymptoma, 

liovever, than the lameness an<l the presence of the splint, which is its 

«iaae, may be lookeil for in tbe same connection as those which huva 

been roentioniHl as p«'rtainiiig to certnin evidences of perinstiliH, in the 

Increase of the temperature of Ibo part, with swelling and probably 

potoon pressure. This last symptom is of no little importance, siooe ! 

itc presence or absence Las in many cn^tos formed the determining point 

in dectdingu qucnbion of difTii^iiIt diagntisi.s. 

A splint being one of the n^ults of peri ostitis, and the latter one of 
tbeeRectsof external burls, It uatarnlly follows that the parts which 
are most exjmned to blowH and collisions will I>e those on which the 
splint will most commonly be found, and it may uot be improper, there- 
fore, to refer to hnrta from wtthoac as among tbe common causes of the 
lesion. But other <uusc8 may also be productive of the evil, and amon; 
tlieoe may bo mentioned the ovemtniiuing of an immature organism by 
tbe imposition ofexce.ssive labor upon a young animal at a too early 
period of bis life. The boacs which enter into the formatiozL of ttid 
cannon are three in number, one large and two Kmatli>r, which, during 
the youth of the animal, are more or less anleulated, with a limited 
amooot of mobility, hat which become in maturity Qrmly joined by a 
hgid anion and ossifioatiou of tbcir intiT articular surface. If the im- 
nalnre animal be coupolled, thtan, to pi^rrnrni exacting tasks beyond 
bis Ntrenglfa the ine^Htahle result will follow in tbe muscular straining, 
Ud [lerbapB tearing asunder uf tbo Qbers which unite the Iraues at their 


fMiinlA of jiinctnrc, nt)d it in difSfiilt ta nnd<>r.<ifAn(1 "hov the natrnral 
^JOPseijueticua of Kucli » local u-iitatioii dfrt'topiii^ in iiiUamiiuitioii ur 
periostitis eau be avoided. If tho n'sult wore dt'liberotely and ml»'Ui- 
gently dpAJ^ied it could Iianlly ho more cfTeclunlly aRcouiplished. 

The H|)liut ia an object of tbe comniuDCi^t occiirrMiO(\ t^o coiumon, 
indeed, that in large cities a liorso vbicli can itot exhibit ouc or mora 
B[)9citiioD» upon some portion of his extremities ig ouc of tlio rarst 
of KjH>ri:tde$. Though it i» in Home instanccB n niiu^ie of tnn>«Den 
and its disiM>vi;ry and cure are soiijeHiiiea beyond tliu al>ility of tli« 
sbrcivdest and most expcriottcetl vetcnoariau, yet ns a soai-ce of vital 
danger to the geoend cquioo organ izatioii, or even of functional d)6>«<, or of praetiral innonvenience, axide from tlio rare (•xeeptionnl 
caM'x n'liicli exist us mere samples of possibility, it euii not hr eoiiHid- 
ercd to Leloug to tbe category of aerious lesioDB. Tbe worst alisma 
tbat nttiiclies to it is tliat in (roncral estimation it is ranked amonff e,re- 
sores, and eoutiiiui-K itiduGuilely to be that and niitliiug \vhh or lietter. 
The iuUammalioa iu which they originated, acute at first, citlirr snb- 
siiles or assumc« thu chronic, form, and tbe bony growth Irecomea a i>et- 
iuaitcQuc, moTC or less established, it is trne, but doing no jwsitive barm, 
and not bittilering the aniiiia.1 from eoutiuuitig bis daily routine of hihor. 
All this, hoirerer, requires a proviso against tlieoocnrrenco of aitaliKe* 
qnent aruto attack, when, aa nttb other esONtoNef), a fn-nli neeess of 
acntc symptoms may bo followed by a new pathological activity wbicli 
shall again develop an a natural result a reappearance of the lameness. 

It ia of course the consideration of the cornpaniliro UaniilesKiiesn of 
splints that siiggestN and just ifiiw the poliry of nou-intprferenee, except 
as they become a positive cause of lamc-ucss. And a more [lositire 
nrgameut for such voa-interrerenoe consists tn tbe fact that any aclire 
and irritating treatment may so excite the purls as to bring alinttt a 
n^newedjKithu logical activity, which may result in a rednplicjttion of 
the phenomena, with a second edition if not a second and cnlnrgrd vol- 
unie of tbe whole story. For onr part our fnith is firm in the impolicy 
of interference, anil this faith is founded on an experieuce uf luauy 
years, during which oiir prncticc has been that of abstention. 

Of courae there will be exoeptionsi conditions which will at times 
indicate a diffflrent coarse. These will l>ccoine evident when the occa- 
sions present Ibetnselvi's, iind extmortiinaryfornis iindeflocta Of rnflam- 
ination nud growth in tlie tnuiors offer siiecial indications. But our 
conviction remains nnfhaken that surgical treatment of tlio operative 
bind is nsually useless, if not dangerous. Wo liave little fatth in tb« 
melbod of extirpation excn^pt under very »!peeial conditions, ntnoflg 
which that of dinnnativo size lias been named, which seems in itself to 
constitute n Mnfficient negative nrgnnient. But even in sncTi a case a 
resort to the knife or the gongc coaM scarcely find ajitstiticttion. since 
no uperaiivu procedure Is erer withoaC a degree of hazard, lo fiSJ 


Tiothinp oftlic consitjcratfons whiHi arc alwnysforcfljly negatiro in any 
qaeKtiou ot tlw inlliclion of pnin and tbe itiniPceH.s.tTy use or tbo knife. 
If an nculup«riostitiitortliccaiiuoQ bono bus beeu readily ilL'ttiovcrecl, 
tJie tlf'ataient wc liavo alromly suggested for that Ailment is at ouco 
indicatLH), :iiul tlic as(riii(<:cnt lotions may bo rolietl aponto brin^ about 
Iteni^Qi'Jal results. Sometimes, liowercr, prcfereuce may bo given to a 
lotion iKjJMessiiJR a somt'wiiat difft-Tenl quality, the alti'mlivi^ ».:oiisi.stiug 
of tincture of iodine a|>|ilicd to tlie inltamed 6i>ut several times daily. 
If the lameness persists under this mild courso of treatment it must of 
coorso bo attackt^d by otbfr nn^tlnKlfi, and wc mnKt rrsort to the can- 
tJiaridal oiiitmeutorSpiinish-fly blister, as we have before recoiuuietidcd. 
He^ideit tbiy, and producing uti unalogouis i^flevt, ibo coiniwunds of 
biniodidc of mercury' are favored by bo:iip. It i.s prepared ju tlio form 
of an oiutuieut, consisting of 1 dram of tbe biuiodldo to I ounee of1 
«itber lard or vaseline. It forms an cxceltent blistering and alteraiive 
fippUcatiou, and is of spcoial advautago in uewly formed or recently 
«Ii«corered exostosis 

It remains a iierlineot qnery, however, and one witich seems to l>e 
easily uii-swemd, wbellit-r u Ininor ho dimin«ti*-n in siz« tbatit can only 
Iwdctcctnl by diligent ftcnrcb, and irbicb is neither a diaflgorctnent nor 
an obstmotiou to tbe uiuiiou of the limb, need reeoiva any recognition 
-wbutover. Other modes of treatmeot fur splints are recommended and 
practical nbirh ticlong strictly to tbo domuiu of ojicrative veturinary 
snrgrry. Among tbeso are to be reckoned actual eauteriEatiou, or tbo 
sppHi!ation of tbo fire-Iron and tbe operation of [ici-iosteotomy. Tbeiia 
are fr^neutly indieated in tbe treatment of splints nhicli bave resisted 
-viMer tneaiis. 

Tbemoileof tbe development of tbeir growth; their intimacy, greater 
or lew. wiiL both the largo and tbo small cannon bones ; tlie possibility 
of their extending to the bai^k of tliesn Ihuu'h nndcr Ibu susjieu-sory 
Ugamcut; tba dangerooa oomplications which may follow the Tongh 
bandliug of tbo parts; witb also apoaeibility, and ioJccd aprobabllitj', 
of their return after ren:oval, these are the considerations which ha vo 
iuflaenced oar Judgment lu discardiug from our practice and our ap- 
proval tbe metboil of remornl by the saw or the chisel, as rccominonded 
by certain £uroiM:au vcteriuarianii. 


This peenlior torm fonnii tbo designation of tbe exOKtoMlt vhich is 
fbaoU on the coronet, in the digital, and also in the plialangcal region, 
probably because it extends quite around the coronet, which iteuuirclea 
tn tbe mauDcr of a ring, or perhai>s beonuso it ofti'n forms upon the 
lock of that iMine a regular osseous circlet^ tlirough wiiicli the back 
tt-ndons obtain a passage. The dtnicnsions which may be attained by 
Uxtsa tumors and the places where they ore asoally derclopcd 1irv»^ 


oansoil thnir HulMlivisioa ami claAsiGcation into thrc« rarietips, viUi the 
desi glial ions of kigk^ middk, and loic, tlioagli macb can not be said as 
to llie importniipo of .siicU dit^tinclion. It is triio that tbt* Hiifiboiio or 
phahingeiil t>xaHt(»<m iii»y be fotiiKl at vari«ii)>: pointitnti tliu coronet, ia 
one onse formJDg a l<)i-go buncli ou tlie upper pnrt aud quite olo&e to tbe 
fetlodk joint; tlieii np]>Oiiriii)coQ tlio very lower imrtiun around tiir-.npper 
bordfT of thi3 foot ; soen »guiii on tli« extreme fi-ont of the coronet; or 
perbnpa discovei'ed on tbo very back of it. Tbe Mbape iu wliisb tliay 
commonly nppear is favorable to their easy discovery, tboir form when 
near tlio fellock usually varjinfj too uiucb from tbe natunii outlines of 
tbo port wboi) compareil witb tliose of tbe opposite side to admit of 
error in tlie uialter. 

A ringbone when in front of the coronet, even when not very largely 
devt'lnpcd, iiMiunies tbi; furm of a diQ'uKod convox ttwifiling. If nitnalcil 
on llie lower part, it 'W'tll forta a tbick hag, encircling tbe upper |ioilioa 
of tbe foot; wbou found ou tbe posterior part, a siuatl, ebarp osseous 
gTOwlb somewhat projecting, sometimes on tbe inside and soin^tliues 
on Ibo outside uf tbu coroueL, muy L-oiupnKC the cntiro uiaitiro«ttation. 
^ As with splints, ringbones nia.y result from severe labor in early Hfc, 
l>efore tbo process of ossification lias been fully iierfeetetl ; or they may 
be referred to bruises, blows, spmins, or olber violence; or injuries of 
tendons, ligameubt, or joints may bo nuioug tbo accountable uvcidents. 
It is certain tbat tlioy may commonly be tniced to diseases and trau- 
matic lesions of tbe foot, and tbeir appearance may be reasonably an- 
tlcipawd among tbe seqnelie of nii abscess of tbo coronet ; or tbe cause 
may im a suveru coutusion rvitultiug from calking, or n deep punctnreil 
nuiiiid from picking np a nail orstepping upon niiy bard object ofsufll- 
cienlly iiTegulnr form to penetrate tbo sole. 

Moreover, !i rinybonemay cliiim to possess the cbaracter of a legacy — 
it may originate la berc<ltly. Thtsts a factof do little Importance iu its 
relation to t|iiest ions connected witli llie exieiisive interests of tbe stock 
breeilcr and |)urcbascr. To regard a liability to transmit «;onstitutionaI 
idiosyncrasies byeomoiuu prnpugatfon aa a disease or a diathesis would 
be obviously unpbilosophicnl ; but to reooguixe tbe tiict, In view of ex- 
isting evidences, in connection with the affection we are considering, ia 
but to render its duo to tbo claims of booost convictioa and sucb, a 
conviction we do not hesitate to own. Tbat it is an active temlency 
in respect to diseases generally it would be absurd to claim. BaC 
we do chiim that a dLsposition to contract this piirticulur form of 
Icsiou may be transmitted from parent to offspring, though in most 
oases only witb snflieient vigor to impress a predisjiosltion on ibe 
part of the bitter. Yet iu a smaller proportion of cases it may, iu point 
of fact, constitute a force sulliciont to act ua a secondary cause of de- 
veloped disease, which may id due time become ti visible ringboae. 

Tbo importance of this point when considered in reference to ths 
policy wbicb should be observed iu tbo sclectiou of breeding stocICi is 


irions, ami aa the vhole matter is witbiD tbe control of tbo on-oers 
brcmlera it will bo their ovrii fault if tbo udub<-ftkuil traiietiiission 
of Hnp;boDes from ouo equtiie gcneratioa toauotbcr sliall Ueallo^veil to 
oontiniii*. It is oar tteliff tliataiuoug Lbo disea^t^K wbJob arts kuowii for 
tbefr tetuleucy to |jur|wtuatu »u«l repeat tliemiielves Ity iixlivjiiual sao* 
ecssioD^ tbose of tbe bony stracturesatauil Crst, aiiil lliy iiifdmia' from 
suuU a fact wbicb would excluite every animal of doubtful Huiiiiiluess 
in its OSSOOU8 apimratas from Uie Mad list uuil tbo brood farm iu too 
plain forarEunient. 

Pcrio8titi« of tbe pbalangcn is an ailmoiit reqniring careful explora- 
tion and uunut« insjHwtion for it^ discovery and is qaito likely to rcsalt 
in a ringLtoni3 of wbicb lamoiiesa is die effetit. Tlic imKle of itti niiini- 
festatinn varies acoordio^ to tbo state of <leveIopiu«ot of tbe diseased 
grovUi aa affeutud by tbe cinrumtitanix's of it» ]o(»ttiaii and ilinieiiNJona. 
It is oommoul; of tbe kind Tvhicb, iu consequence of it> iuteruiittcnt 
cliaracter, is termed laments tchen cool, baviog tbe [leculiarity of exbib- 
iting itself wbi'ii theaninial sturtsfrom tbe stable and of diiinnisbing if 
not entirely disappeiHiot' after some dinuiiee of travel to icturu to its 
orlfTioal degree, if not indeed a fiorerer one wlieu be has agniu cooled 
off i» bis stable. The size of tbo ringboDe does not indicate tbe degree 
(o wbicU it eripplen tbe patient, bat Ibe [HiKiliun may, exjwciaUy wben 
it iuterferea vitli tbe free movemeut of tUe tendons wbicb pastt behind 
and in front of tbe ooi'onet. Wbilc a lar^'e ringUono will often inter- 
fere but little with tbe uiotiou of tbe limb, a smaller j>rowtb if sitaated 
under tbe tendon, may become tbe canse of tiousideraUle and continued 

A. ringbone ia doubtlesa a worse evil tban a splint. Its growtb, its 
loeatiou, its tendency to iucrcaKod development, its cxpotjnro to tbe in- 
flueuee of causes of renewetl danger, all t»nd to impart an nnfavorable 
eaatlo tbe prognosis of a case and tocuipbasize tbe importance and (be 
value of an early discovery of Its pre.senue and possible urowtli. Kven 
wben tbe discovery bns been accomplishe^l it is oftt^n tbe muu'- tb»t tbo 
tmib has come to ligbt loo bite for effectual treatment. Montba may 
have elapseil after the first mauifestatiou of tbe lameness Iwfore a dJs- 
covt-ry ha4 been made of tbe lesion from wbicb it buH oni;iuutnl, and 
> there is do tvcall for tbe lapsed time. And by the uncompromising seri- 
ousness of the discuumgiut; pruguusis tiiust tbe energy and severity of 
the treatment and the pnnnptness of its administration W measured. 
Tbe iwriustitis has been overlooke^l; any obauoe tbat mifbt have ex- 
isted for preveutiiig ito advance to the cbronio stage bas beeu lost; the 
oaseotis exudation is oHtjiblisbed; tbe ringbone is n flxeil fact, and tbo 
ludicatiotis art) urgent and pressing. These incUide severe blislerlng 
ouoe or twiw rc|«:atedi the applinution of tbo ri-d ifxlide of mpn^iiry, 
and if tbeiio fail, firing with tbo hot iron, and as a last t-esoit, Dcu- 
rotx»m>, high ur low ajt iudiuated b^ tbe seatuf tbelesiuu. 




Oa each Bide of tlie bone of tbo foot— the coQlubonp — tliero a 
maWy two supplementary organs wbicli nro called th^ cartilage* of th^ 
fooU Tbey nre soft, and tliouRli in a degree clastic, yet somowliat «- 
slating, niid are iinplantetl on tlte lateral wing of tlie cofliti-bone. Evi- 
dently tiieir ofDco is to assist in tlio elastio expansion and cnntraction 
of tliu iiostcrior part of the foot, and tbcir bt^ultUy and iionuHl nctiou 
donbtlesa contributes in an imiwrtant degree Cotlio perfect performnuco 
of Ibc functions of tlmt i>.'»Pt of tbo le^. These orprans nro, bowercr, 
liable tu undergo a proctuM ordiMe.iiie wbicb reitultA in an entiix! cbniige 
ju Ibelr properties, if not iu tbcir sbniie, by nhicb tbey acquire acb«^ 
nctcr of lianlncssifHuiting from tbe deposit ofeartby eiibstiince iu tbe 
intimate slructnru of tbe cat'tiUige^ and it is tbis cbnD},'e, wbca its con- 
Buuiuiatioa lias been atTected. tbat brings to our cogutziiuee tbodiKeaseil 
growth which Iins rccci%'ed the designation of tidchone*. Tbey nro 
situated on ouc or both sides of the leg, bulging abore ibc aupcrior 
bonier of the foot in the form of two ban! bodiM com|H>9ed of ossilied 
cartilage, irregularly Bt^uare in shape and unyielding under the pressure 
lOf the lingers. 

The fiideboiic uiay be a terfninatiou of alow inflammatory coudilioiit 
or of an acute nttnck as well, or may be caused by sprains, bruises, or 
blows ; or thoy may have their rise in («>rtaiii duwaseti aflmiting tbe foot 
pro{M.-r, as cuius, quarter cracks, or qnlltor, The deposit of calcareous 
matter iu the cartilage is not always uniforni, the base of that orgaa 
near its lino of uuioa with the coQInboDo being id some cases its limit, 
while at other times it isdiffuKetl thronghotit it^t ftnbstance, tbe size 
nnd prominence of the tumors varying tniicli in consequence. It wonld 
□atnmlly be inferred that the amount of interference with tbe proper J 
functions of foot which mast result IVoui sncb & patbological chaug« ^ 
would be proportioned to the size of the tumor, and that as the dimen- 
sions increased, tbe resulting lameness would be the greater iu degree. 
This, however, is uot tbo fact. A small tuuior, while in a condition of 
acute inflammation duriDg the formative stage, may cripple ft putient 
mnrn 8(> merely than auniclt larger one in a lattM- stage of the disease- In 
any case the Intceness is never wanting, and with itsiutL-rmittentcbarao* 
ler may nftnally bo detected when the animal Is cooleil off after labor or 
exercise. The class of animals in which this fcatui-o of the disease is 
most frequently witnessed la that of the heavy draft bonie, nnd ntlivH 
similarly employed. There is a wide m-irgin of diflereuco iu rcsjicet to 
the degrees of severity which may characterize different cases of side* 
bone. While one may be so slight as to cause no incouveuii^ncv, an- 
other may develop elements of danger \vhich may fuvolve the necessity 
of severe snrgical interference. 

The curative treatment should be similar to the prophylactic, and 
such mranH nhonhl hti nsetl as wunld tend to pn>vent the deposit of 
bony matters by cUeckiog tbe acute iuUammatioo which causes iU 


ineftnt) recommended arc tlic ftw tiso of the cold bath ; frcqnent 
■oakiog of tlte feet, uiul at a later periutl tn?atD)cnt with ioJiue, oillicr 
bjr iniutiiiR the surfaw with tht- Liucturo fievcral times daily, or by up- 
;&li oiutuient made by mixitig 1 dram of tbo crystals uilh 'i miiiuea 
!rascIiDC, rulibt'd iu OLooa day for several days. If tbis proves to bo 
etire, a Spanish fly blister, to vhich a few gralos of bioiodide of 
"iDcrcury havir been iiddcd, will, in a majority of c-aseK, effect the desired 
KBUltaml i-emove the laiueuess. If, fiimlly, Ihm tiuatmt-iit is rcsislei], 
Utecflse must be relegatett to tbc sargeoit for the operatiou of ucurot* 
ocDjr, or tlio npplicatiou of the firoiroii, fi«oly and deeply. 




This aflTection, popularly t«nn«l bone spavin, Is aa exoatosta of the 

bock joint. The general iinpresston is tliat it) a spavined hock the bouy 

ffrouth should be seated on the anterior aud ititcrual part of the joiut, 

■aBd tilts ia partially correct, as such a growth will coustitute a sparja 

in the uioHt correet sense of the tenii. But »n enlargemcut may appear 

On the iipiwr part of tiie bock also, or possibly a litth; bt*law the inner 

ftido of ibclower extremity of the shaub bune, formiug what is kuon-n 

ttfl a kifjk apnctM; or, again, the growth may form Just on the outside 

of the hock aud become nil outside or external sparirt. And, Anally, 

tb» entire uuder surfaco may beeume the seal of the oasi'ous d«[)o.sit, 

Kml iu voire the internal face of all the bones of the hock, and this again 

■a a hone tpavin. Thct-c would seem, then, to be but little difflcully ia 

ooniprelienilii)}; the natnre nf a bone spavin, and th?r« would be noue 

bat for the fact that there are similar alfectiouii wbidi miglic confuse a 

«lia{niosJs if not very carefully aud intelligently ninde. 

Bat the bock may bd S]tariuc<], wUilo to all outwntd observation it 

«tUl retains its perfect form. With uo enlargement tangible to sight 

or touch tbe auimiil may be dibbled by an occhU tpatin^ nu aucbylosis 

in liicL, wbicb has resulted from^ a union of several of the bones of the 

Joint, aud it isonly those vho are able to re^alize the im[K>rtauco of ita 

HctioD to the perfect fulfillment of the fnnction of propali^ion by the 

blud leg, who can comprehend tbe gravity of the only prognosis which 

Can be jruiliUi'd by the fauts of the ease — a prognosis which Is esxen* 

tially a sentcDco of serious import iu ri'spcct to the future usefulness 

and value of the animal. For no diseases, if wo except those acute )n- 

tlnnimiitory attacks npon vital organs lo wbicb the patient succumbs 

Mtouce, are more destructive tu the usefulness aud valuo of a horse 

tliao a couGrmed spavin. Serious in \\a iiiceptaon, serious in its prog-j 

MM, it is na ailment which, when onoo cstabliihcd, bocomea a fixed 

condition which there are no known means of disloilgiiig. The perios- 

titia. of which it la uearly always a termloatiou, is usually tbe efftrct of 

a truuma.ric cause oiwrating nitou tbe complicated 5trnct»r« of the 

hock, snob as a sprniu which ha-s torn o ligamentous iuscrtiou nnd lao- 

acateU BOme of itsUbers; or a violent elTurt in juniping^ galloviin^^<3C 


trotting, to whicb tbo victim hiis ItctMi compelled by tbe toiiuro of irbip 
and 8purwbJli3 in nse as n gntnblin; im{>I«in«ot by a, sportiog owuer, 
under the pri'tcit of" iiiiprovitig IiIk bree«l;" or the extni exertion ol 
Btaiiliig au iiiorilinati?ij Leavy load; oraii effort to reoovor Iiik balauw 
Avm II inisatep; or Blippitij; apou an icy surface ; or sliding with voni 
shoi'H u[Kiu a iKid pawuicnt, uiid ulbt-r kitidrud causes. And we can 
repent bere vbiit ue liave bi'fotv i>-.)id concerning l)ouc8, in rcs]ioct to 
heredity iim a cause. As to tUI&, our own exi>«ri4-ii<M> in an anthority— 
we do huoir of equine families in which this condition Uan been 
tniusniitted from Keneralion to Kenuruttoti, and animalH otherwitiu of 
excellent comformation rendered valuelwjs by the mist'ortuuo of a con- 
genital Hpavin. 

The evil la one of the most serioaa character for other rea&outt, amnng 
wbicli may bi- Mpcctlietl the slowiitNUt of tht-ir development and the iu< 
aidiouaueaa of their giowth. Ceitaio iodetimtc pheuotuena and aUrut. 
iiig cimngea aud incidents furul&b asimlly the only {Ktrteutfl of ap- 
pruia-hin^ trouble. Among these mgiis may be nieutioaed a i>ectiliur 
posture assnmed by the patienf. while at rc«t, and bwwming at length 
60 habitual that it can not fail to enggest the action of some biddea 
cause, tending tuKoinv uudeterminuble result. The iwiiturej^due to Ihfi 
nctinn of tUo adductor muselcK, the lower part of the lug being carried 
inward, aud the heel of tbo shoe resting ou tbo toe of the opposite foot. 
Then au unwillingucsH may Iw noticed in the auitual to move from oue 
side of the stall tu Lho other. Wheu drivvu he will travel, but Htifily, 
and n-itha eort of aidclotig gait between the shafts, and after fioishtDg 
his task and resthig agahi lu his stall, will pose with llie toe pointing 
forward, the heel raided, anil theliock Uexed. Some little heat and u con- 
siderable amount of inflaniiuatiou soon up|)oars. Tlic slight lameucH 
which appears when backing out of the stall ceoees to l»o uoticeahle h 
aftur a shortdistunce of travel. fl 

A minute examination of the hock will then begi n to reveal the extgt- 
ence of the lesion, inn bony enlurgeiacnt which may be detected ju-st at 
the junctiou of the hock and the oaauou bone, ou the in«ide and a little 
iu frvut, and tangible both to eight aud tom!h. This oiilatgeaieut or 
hone spavin gruwtt rapidly aud per^fstentl; and soou acquircH dimen- 
sious which render it impossible to doubt any longer its existence or 
its nature. Once established, ita development conliuueH under cod* 
ditions of progress similar tu those tu which we have before alludedi 
in speaking of utbei' like affeetions. The argomeut obtaiued by some 
thai because tbe^ie bouy deiwHits ure frequeutly found on both bocks 
they are not spavinn, in fiillucious. Iflbuy aro discovered on both 
hocks, it proves merely that they are not confined to a siuglejoiut. 

The chanieteristiclatucnesi* of bone spavin, aslt affects the inotiotiof 
of the hock joint, presauta two asjieuts. fn one claiut of oases It is most 
pronounoed when the honne in eoi>l, in thu other wheu ho is ut work. 
The first is charuotorized by tiie fact that wheu the auimai irarele the 



tM first toadies tbe grosnil, aud tbe heel doscends rooresloirlyttlie mo- 
tioD of tleis:ii}n at tlin linck tiikiiiK pUicti NtifHy, anil )iC4-oiii|)atiietl by a 
diuppiut; of iLe bip uii tbo oppusito siUo. lu tlie olber case tbe pcculi- 
iKtj' ia tUat liie laiueueHti iDorenftca am tlic Uoi'Ke travels } ttiat wben be 
ilo[M be seeks to favor tb« lame leg, »Dd wlien be resumes hU trork 
JMu aft<>r lu: Ktt!p» inucb oii liis too, UH iit tbe flrat viiiiuty. 

As vith Ni<]ubouea, ibou^li for a Romcn-liat differeut rea-toti, tbe di- 
Baiiu»iis of the Kimviu aind tbu degree of tbo lamvuess du not soein tu 
Imtauy determinato rcIatioD, tlie mo«l pronounced symptoins at times 
•ccompanjiDg a very dlmiimrire growth. But tUc difitiriclimi betwoea 
Am Ivorarietieii of cool ami tcarm may uueily bo detcriuiued by ruiueut- 
bering tbe fact that iu a majority of axses the first, or coot, is due to a 
wpja lixoslusiK, while tbu tiucuud i& guuerally coiinected with disease 
if tk» articolatiou, such as ulceration of the artioalitr otirfact!— :h con* 
lilino which, as vta proceed further, will nicoL our nttoutiou when W6 
ntcli tbu subject of spriogbalt. 

Uat'ttig thus fully cou&idered tbo history of bono spavin we arc pro- 
paml to givu due weight to the reasons wbich exist for tbe adverse 
imipiusis wbich wo muHt usually feel oom]>olled to pronounce whea 
tafloBn taring it in practice, as well as to realize the vahiu of iin early 
disoorery of the symptoms wbich denote its invimiim of tbu orguuisai. 
Uiabat scliloit), however, that tbo uecessary advantage of this early 
knoitlcdge can be Hccureil, nnd when the tnio nattiruof thu trouble- baa 
IxwoiDe apparcDt it is usually too late to re^rt to tbe reiuediiil mea»> 
vw which, if duly forewarned, a sktllful practitioner ruigbt bave em- 
plojeiL We are Hilly persuaded that but for the \ona of the lime wasted 
in till) tn^ttiiirnt of purely iuiagiiiury ailments very many cmtcs uf bono 
■paTln might bo arrested in their incipiency and their victimB jireserved 
fc' Jeam of comfort for tliemsolves and valuable labor to their owners. 

7q consider a hypothetical case: An early discovery of Innieneiw haa 

''Ben made; tbul iM, the existenco of an ocuto intlarnmation — of penos- 

'^^boa been detected. The inorease^l tcmperatun^ of tbo parta has 

1^ observed, with the sUnened gait aud tbe characteristic i>ose of tbo 

"•ft^and the question is proposed for sohition, " Wiiiit is to be done!" 

^•^li with ouly these comparatively doubtful ay tap louis— doubtful with 

'fa* uou-exjiert — we abonid direct our treatment to the bock in prefer- 

**ite to any other joint, since of all tbe joints of the bind leg it is this 

^liicU is most liablv to be attached, a natural result from it« peculiari* 

**^ of Ktructurc aud fuucUon. Aud in auawer to the query, " What ia 

*•* first indication P we sbonNl answer rM(— empbaticHlly, and as ao 

**Mtitial couditiuu, rest. Whether only threatened, suspected, or posj- 

^^ely diseased, the animal must be wholly releaseil from labor, and it 

''^'Utbo DO partial or tum|)orary qaiet of a few days. lu all stagusand 

*'0»ditioD8 of tbe disease^ whether tbe spavin is nothing more than a 

'■'npio ejcostosts, or whether accompanied by the complication of ar- 

Otitis, there must be a total suspousiou of effort until the danger ia 

11035 2it 


over. Less tbaita niontU's quiet oaglit not tobotlioaglicor— tfaelo 
the belter. 

Gootl reanltfl may also bo expected from local applieationa. The va- 
rious lotioiistrliicli cool tie parts, tUe a.string«uts <(7blch lower the ten- 
KioQ of the blood to«s<>Is, the tepiJ roiuentAtiotiB wbicli auctdorate the 
circulation in the vngorged cajiilliiriuit, tim Mtiinieuts of various compo- 
sltiiiu, the atiujulauts, the opiate autNlyiies> tJie aedativo prepuiaUons 
of ncouite, the atterativo frictious of iodiae— all tlieseara recoiuoaeuded 
and proscribed by oup or iiuolber. Wo prefer coiinter-irritauts, for Ib9 
Niinplu n'»soii, a.U)Uiig many others, that they tend by the prouiplueiss 
of their acliuu to preveut by auticlpatioa the formation of tbo bony 
deposits. The lameness will often yield to the blistering action of can- 
tharidcs, iu the form of oiutiuoDt or liDimout, and to tbo alt«riktire 
preparations of iodine or nicrcurj'. And if the owner of a epaviiitKl 
hot'M! really succeeds in removing the lameness, lie has accompli tthed 
nil that lie 18 jnstil\ed in hoping for; beyond this let him bo veil per- 
fiunded that n ■' cure " is impossible. ^ 

For tilts reason, moreover, be vrill do well to be on hiii guanl agains^^ 
tUe patented "cures" which the traveUng horse doctor may ur^e u^wd 
his creduti[y. and withhold bis faith from the circular of the agent who 
will dclugo biui witli tx;ferciiufis and ccrtUicatce. It is possible that 
uoetrums may iu some cxc'cptioniil tustuuces prove serviceable, bat tli« 
gn*ntur number of them iii-e uapablo of i>roduciug ouly injurious efliaoU. 
Tbe removal of the bony tumor can not be accomplished by aoy axuh 
means, and if a trial of these unknown coinponndd should 1>u followed 
by com plications no worse tbao the «stohlislimeut of one or more ugly, 
hairless cicatrioes, it will be well fur both the horse aud bis owuer. 

Rest aud couuter-irritation, with the projier medicaments, coustttnte, 
then, the prominent points in the treatment de^iignctl for the relief of 
bone spavlu. Yet there are cases iu which all the ageucies aud methods 
referred to seem to lack cfiectireness aud fail to produce satisfactory, 
resulut. Kithor Iberest has beeu prematurely iuterrupted^ or the blistjecs 
have failed to rightly modify the serous infiltrtttiou, or the onse in hand 
has Rome uudisceruihk eharactcri.stics which seem to havo reiiderecl the 
disease ueutral to the ageucieit employed ogaiust it. Au indioBtiou of 
more energetic means is iboo presented, aud Irec cauterizaLioti with the 
fire iitin bfc»imes uccexMiiry. 

At this point a word of explauatiou iu referouoe to this o]ieration of 
firing may l>o appropriate for the eatisfacUou of any among our readers. 
who may entertain on exaggeratett idea of its severity aud possihlA. 

The otieration is one of simplicity, but is nevertheless one which, io 
order to secure its benefits, must be reserved for times and oocasiouaof 
which only tlm best knowlMlge and highest discretion should be allowed 
to judt^e. It is not the mere application of a hot irou to agji-eu part of 
thobudy which cousLilutuiSlliuotHMUtiuu uf filing. It is the nicthudical 







and Kctentfficiiitrmi action of lieat intotliestrnctnre vithaviewtoagiven 
vOVct upon a diseased organ or tissue hy an expert aiir{;cou. Tbu firat 
is one of Ibc dogrtitrtt of moru buruing. Thu otbvr in SL-inntiQc canteriza- 
Uon, uiiU i.s a Hurgicjil mini ipiilattoii wbiuli sbonM be coinuiiUed exclu- 
alvt^ly to tbe practisetl band oftbe x'eteriii:^^ tiiirgeon. 

Kilbf-r firing nioiic or stimnljitioQ nitb blisters is wflii^acy for 
tb« ttlief of laiiu'iK'An from boiic siJaviri. Failure to produce relief after 
a few amdicatioDs and after allowinffasofficicnt iutorval of rest, sboold 
be follower] by a seeoiid, or. if tit>educl, a tliird firing. 

Til case of furlbcr failuro tbere is a resLTvo of eertalu spouial opera 
tioiis vhich have been trtetl and reuomaiended, among wbicb tbosu of 
tarsal tenotomy, pcriostcotouiy, tlie division of ncrvoaa brancUcs, etc, 
may t*o mentioned., bowwcr, belong to llie peculiar domaiu of 
tbe veterinary- praotitiouer, and need not uow engage our atteutJou. 


In tecbnical lan^ago a fracture is a'* solution of continnity in the 
fttructare or substjinco of a bone/' and it ranks among the laost seriooa 
of tbu IcHiuMH to wbich tbo biirHi; — iir any animal— ^-au be snbject. (t 
is a subject of special interest to vetenmiriaDS, and to bordo owners as 
well, in view oftbe variety of forms iu wbich it may ouour, aa well as 
of tbe loKK of time to wbieb it snbjects tbe patient, and tbe consequent 
•UftI>cu&ioii of bisvaniing capacity. Tliongb of letss AcriouR oonRc()ueuoo 
in tbe borse tliao in man, it is alwaya a iuatt«r of grave import. Jt is 
always kIow and tedioaa in bealiu*;, and ta fi-equeutly of doabtfu) nod 
nnsati-tf victory rvAult. 

Tbiti auliitiuu of cuntinaity may take place in tiroprincipiit ways. In 
tbe most nainerous iustaucea it iocludea tbe totJil tbickucss of tbelwoe 
and IS a eamjilete fniclnre. In otber cises it involves a jwrtlou only of 
tbe tbivkneJsx of tbe bone, nuil for t bat reason is demerit khI as ijtramj}/e(«. 
If tbe bone Is dividetl into two Kcparato portions, aud tbe soft parts 
have n-ceivod uo iujnry, tlie fraoturo is a timiiU one ; or it bucoiuos 
«oni/M>Kiiri if tbo soft ]>flrls bave suffered laceration, and eomtaintited if 
tho Iwnes bave been crusbed or ground into fragments, many or few. 
Tbe dirvclion of tbe brfitk also determines its Airtbcr classiflcatioo. 
Broken at a rigbt angle it is traitseertf ; at a different augic it bevoiuee 
cbliqut, ami it may be lott<jitudinat or Iciiglhn'ise. In a complete frac- 
tals, eJipeeially vf tbe oblii]ne kind, there in u condition of great impor- 
tance in respect to Its etl'ect upon tbe uUiuiate result of the treatment, 
in tbe fact that from various iMunes, Hocb a.s inntMMilnr contrauLiuus or 
exeeaslve motion, tbo bony fragmcuts do not maiatain their niutiial 
coaplntlou, bat bt^cume se.pamted nt tbe euds, aud this /act has nmde 
li DCiiCssary to add niiutber descriptive term in tbo words — wilh <lif> 
yloommf. And Ibis trrin again suggrsta ltd negative, and iulruduous 
tbe fmeture tcHhoitl ditplaoemenU when the fa«t« justify tbat deKrlp- 
tiou. Again, a f'muture may be itUradrtieular or exlradrtieuUtr. as it 


exteudg nrithin a joint or otberwine, nnd onoo more, intra'perioatmly 
wlicu tliu perioAteuiu rum»in iiiUiut. Ami, fimilty, tliere is no alwoluta 
limit to the use of descriptive t«riuiuology io tbe case. 

The coudition of dis]>lacemeDt id largely intlaetitial to determining; 
the qucatioD of treatmeut, nod flsnflocting the final ivsult of a c&se of 
fracture. Thio, hnwe%'«r, i.t depRiiil«iit upon ItK lociition or whotiior its 
8caC be io oue or tuoi-eof the axt-fi of tho bone, iu its Icuj;tb,it8 breadth, 
i*a thittciiesH, or its circamrcrence. An iDcooiplete flractun- may also 
bo cither Rimi>lc or coniiinnntcd, ttic jicrioftteiim, in the latter casowben 
it is ifttnet, liccpiog the fragments logcthur, the fracture in chat caw 
beloDuing to the intra periostval clasa. At times, also, there is only a | 
Ajtiiple tla.sure or split iu tho bone, makiug a cotiditiou of mach difflcultj 
of (lidgiioma. 

Two varieties of originating cnnse may be rooognized in eauett of frac- 
ture. They are the prediapt^sing aud the occauionai. Am Ut the Qrst, 
difl'erent spectett of iiDimais difier in the degree of their liabilily. That 
of the dog iei greater than that of the horse, and, iu horses, the variuas 
queationH of iige, the mmle of labor, the season of the year, tho portion 
of the body aiost exposed, and the exiatence of ailmentA, local and gen- 
eral, are all to be taken into account. 

Among horses, employed in heavy drangbt work or that aro 
driven over bad roads, are more exposed than light<drangbt or aaddto 
horseti, andaiiiuiaJM of different ages are not eipially liable. Dogii and 
young hor«e«, with those which have become sulllciently aged for their 
bones to have acquired an enhanced degree of frangibility, are more lia>{ 
bio than those which have not exceeded the time of their adnlt priui& ' 
The 8eai:uu of the year is undoubtedly, though in an incidental vay, 
an Importatit factor in the problem of the etiology of these accidents, 
for Ihniigli they may be observed at all timr-A, it is during the months 
irhL-n the etippery condition of tho icy roads reudera it dilSi-uIt for both 
men and beasts to keep their feet that they occur moHt frequeully. Th4 fl 
long bones, those especially which belong to the extremities, are most ^ 
frequently tho seat of fractures, from tlio circumstance of tbeir super- 
Acial position ; their ex|>osure to contact and collision, and the violt-nt 
nmscular efforts involved both in their constant rapid movcmeui aud 
their labor in the abafta or at the pole of heavy and heavily laden car- 

The relation between sundry idiosyncrasies and diatbesea and a 
liability to fractures is too constant and well established a pathological 
faol to need more than a passing reference. The history of rachitis, of 
melanosis, and of oKte(>-pori>.'iis, un rvlated to an abnormal fVaugibility of 
the bones, la a part of our common medical knowletlge. There are few 
persona who have not known of cases auoug their frieade of ft^qnent 
and almost siwutancons fractures, or at least of such as seem to be pru- 
dnceil by the slightest and most iuade(]uute violence, aud there la ao 
taugiblu reason for doubtiug an analogous condition iu individuals of 



theivinineoonstitntion. Among local prodiApoAing alTMsHona raptition 
mtistnot he omitted of ttacb botij' diseases as eartes, tul>etculosi3, aud 
iittiers of thoitanio class. 

OocaAiotml or " elSciout " caasca of fracture are in mo8t inatauoes ex- 
tenuil trnntuatieiuflf as violent coutactt^ collieioDo, falls, etc., or sud- 
•len uiisculur contrnvtions. Tltcsu PXU>Tnnl aceidents nru vnrioiis ia 
tbeir cbarncter, and are uKuully a(iN0ciiit«d with cjiiick miiHcular exer* 
tiaa. A violimt, inefleotual eObtt to muvo too heavy a load ; ti semt- 
I tpnsiBodic: bracing of tLo frame to avoid a fall or resist a pressui-o; a 
ifofck Jtitnp to e»c.n]>o n blon* ; stoppin;; too snddoiily after spetnliiig ; 
'Mrnggltng to liberate a foot from a rail, ])er)ia|u:i to be tlit^wa in the 
effort— all tlieso are familiar and easy examples of accidents happen- 
>■■)? liniirly, by which our equine servants 1>ocotiic «ufTer«rs. Wo may 
»d<l lo theso the frncturo o( the bon»«of thu vortolini, occnrring when 
*=a-Htiag a iiatient for the purpose of uadorgoinfr aKurgioal o[H!ratlon, 
^'■itc an much the resnlt of mascular contraction a.1 of a prei^xisting 
*l''»«5a*ii:d fondition of tbo houea. A fracturo owmrrtiig under tbortt) cir- 
**utnstu.nces may ho called with propriety indirert, while one which 
"^^ rMultetl frora a blow or n fall differently caused is of the direct kiud. 
^Ve now return to tho first it<'.m» in onr classification of the varietios 
**^ 1 auitucjs, for the purpose of bringing tltem iu tnru andei- an orderly 
'^^iow, and our llritt oxaminntion will tneludu those which bi>loiig to the 
*''*'»fc category, or tlie complete kind. Irregnlarity in the perforinanr^e of 
''lo rnni-tionri of the appiiratus to which tlio fraclitr^^d bone belongs is 
^ ■^cccdsury oousoquence of the existing lesion, and thisis/am^ievs. If 
*•*« broken bone belongs to one of the extremities, the impossibility of 
*«lo [tprform-inre of it« natural funnlion, in fiu^ttiiining the weight of the 
^**^lj jiud contrihutiug to tho act of locomotion, is usually complete, 
*-*»ouBb the degree of powerleaauess will vary according to the kiud of 
^*i«ture and the bone which is injured. For example, at'meinro of tho 
*^^unou botie without diMplac<*ment, or of uuh of the phalanges which 
^^tft «urronnde<l and su3taiQC<l by a complex flbrous structure, is, iu a 
*^rtain degree, not iui-ompatible with some amount of resting of tb« 
toot. Dut on tho contrary, if tho shank bono, or tliat of the forearm 
^ the implicate«l memlHT, it would be very diOicidt for the log toexer- 
Ose any agency whatever iu the support of the body. And in a frac- 
ture of the lower jaw it would be obviously futile to expect it to con- 
trit)nto niateri:ilty to the mastication of fooii. 

A fracture suldcim ixicurs which in not accompanied with a degree of 
deformity, greater or less, of the region or the leg atfect^ed. This Is 
due to the exudation of Mie blood into the me^hos of tho siirnmuding 
tissues and to t)ie dl8plact>mout which occurs bctweon the fntgmt'iitH of 
the bones, with subsetiuently tho swelling which follows the inllamnia- 
Uon of the Kurrounding tiiwueH. The character of the duforndty will 
mainly depend opon the manner in which the displacement occurs. 
In a Dorwal state of thiuga tho legs perform their movements with 


c»nti?rs or~Sases of nctton, with im pnrtf 
of iulormediaU- poiuU, wLile with a fracliire tltu flexibility and 
vtiivli will bo obserrmi at uiiiiatdral points are nmoog tbe tnosttbimElf 
characteristic sipfTis of tbe lesion. Xo oue iie«d be told tbac vbcn ^^' 
sbiifl of a linibi-s seen to bend midway betwooii tljejoinU, wttli '^' 
lower portiou Bviuging beelj, tbat tbc lef; is broken. Bttt tbvn* ^ 
6tiH some conditions where tbc exc&ssive mobibty is uot easy to >tct^ 
viib oATtainty. Snch arc the cabcs wboro tbe frnctaro czidtit iit a »)>'>" 
bone, ni'ar a laorabtR joint, or in » bono of a ntgiuti where ser*^ 
fdjorl and Bunll bones ;ire anited iu a grou;), or wen iu a loug Im^"'^ 
where its situ-ition is Kuch thiiL thu muscular covering jirercnU iJic "^^ 
iblo inaiiifL-^iUtiou of tbc syiuptoin. 

Jf tho HitiiAtion of a fracture precludes its discovery by mean 
this nbuonnal flexibility, otber detective tnetbo(l« reimiin. And ;i 
fM tlierc is noo devif)ive t$i;;ii irhicfa, thouch it may uot avail ia rv 
''fiuo, OS it does uot, is iu cusos where its testiuouy can bo secured - 
soluto and positive beyond question. TbU f^ erepiUtlion, or the [i 
li:ir elTeot wliicb is produced by the friction of the fractured fuirfi 
oui- H;;:aii)»L another. Though discerned by iho nr^ann of heario^ 
cat) scariicly be called a soaud, for tbe gratiug of tbe pnrtA as t 
rultliiiij,' takes pldcc U mora felt tbati be.ii>d, but thi>re is no midtakii 
its import in cases faroriblo for the appUeation of the test. Tho co ^*^ 
ditiou'S ill which it is not available lire tlifwo of ineotnpleto fractare, if 
which tbc mubility of the parUi isl.icUiu;;, aud those in which the who» 
army of pbcuumeua ai-e usually obscure. Toohtain the beiieSt of ibft> 
patbognoioonic sign requires delibcnite, careful, and gentle tuaiiipul&- 
tlon. Sometimes the hligbtCMt of moveinciitm will be KufScieot for i 
dorcloiitueat, after much rougher baudtiug has failed to di.scorcr r 
Perti:iiw the fiiilnre in tho latter case is dno to a sort of defeu^iv 
Kpaxiiiudic rigidity caused by the pain resulting froia tbe niUo iuterfer' 

More or less rcaetlro fivtt is ft asoal ftco»m|vanim<>ut of a fracture, 
and an ecuhyiunsis of tbe parts i<i lint a uatiiral occnrrencc, more cosily 
discorered in animals possessing alight colored and delicate skiu than 
in tboao of tbc npposite character. 

There are didicultica in tbc way of tbe diagnosis of an incom)4et« 
fracture, ereu sometimes when there is n degree of impairuieut In tb« 
fuurlinn of locouiolloo, with evidences of pain and KwelUng at tbe scat 
of lesion. There sbouM then be a careful examination for evidciicea ot 
a blow or other violence KatTictent to arcouot for the fracture^ tbuogb 
rer>' ofteu a suspicion of its c:[istcnco can only be converted into a cer- 
tainly by a minute history of the patient if it can be obtained up to tbe 
moment of the occurrence of Iheitijury. A diagnosis ought not tobe hast< 
ily pronuunctnl, and where good ground for suspicion exists It ought not 
to bo r(>jected upon any evidence less than tbe best Serions aoil (iitol 
oomplicatious are too often recorded of tbe results fblloiriug careless eoa- 


ions m Bfmnftrl*aSiMr5fflon"pTrfi^ciiTre"iJiay refer fo odo instano^of 
a coiRptctK fructure man i felting it»clf in au »niiiiiil <luring thti ucL of 
rising op iu Uts stall after a dccitiion Lud been iirououuceil tUiit lie IihU 
no TraLMuru ui all. 

Fractures are of course liable tocomplic»Lions,tli08c especmlly, from 
Ifae uattiro of the case, which urc of a ii-aumatjo ctiuracLcr, such as ex- 
ten^iro lacMuMous, tearinf; of li&suns, puncturvs, coiilusioii.^, et«. Btit 
tuless tboiw nre in comutnnJcation witli tlie fracture itself the iiidica* 
Uoo is totreut tliom simply lut iiiilepoiiil«'tit Icsioii<t upon nilu-r parbt of 
the Ixuly. A troaruatic empliyaciua will at timca cansc ti-ouble, and 
abmcsacs, uioru or les^ deep and dilTiiBed, luay follou'. in some caties 
«mn11 bouy fra^'mciitj froji a eouimiimted frnclure, becomiiig loosfr. 
widnclingas foreign bodic^-s Qiu.v give rise to troiiblcsoinc flstulouft 
tracts. A CrequoutcomplitiaLion iri hemorrhngc, rrhicb often becomes of 
Bcrtous coosequenoe. A fracture in cluse proximity to a Joiut niny 1)6 
accompauied by dangerous intlaniiuaUoas of iiuportniit orgnus, auU in- 
dooe an attack of pnuumunia, plenri-iy, arthritis, etc, ait welt oh lux* 
aliens or disloojittoiis, and the more so if situated near the chest. 0'<t»- 
jrrc'ir, fis A coiisei]iieiico of contusions or of beuiorihagc or of nu imped- 
iment to the circulation, caused by uuiiliiUrully applied n]ipnraLus, must 
not be overlooked among the occasional incidents; nor must loclyotc, 
nhlcli is not nn uncommon occumMicc K%'en foQndcr or LitnJnltis has 
been met with ae thoresaltof forced and long contiuncd immobilily 
of the feet in tho siaadlng poiiUiro, m uae of the iuvolvemcut^ of una- 
voidably protracted treatment. 

When a simple fractiitL* Una boon properly treated and the broken 
fiuilfl of the bone hare been secnrely held in coaptation one of two 
tkiugfi vill occur. Either — and this is the taore conimou event— thero 
will be a union of the two ends by ii Molid cicatrix, tho callus, or tho 
finds wdl continue &c|>araLcd or bccoiuu uuly partially united by an in- 
termediate fibroos stracture. In the first instance the fracture is con- 
Boltdaicd, or mtiteH, in the second tboro is a false articulalioo, or pgeviio- 

The time re^jnired for a Qrni union or trne eonsolidntion of n fracture 
will Tar>' with tue character of tlio bone aSVcicd.thc age andcon.<itita- 
tloti of the patient, and tho general couditiuus of the cast; The union 
will l»o perfected earlier iu a yonng than in an adnlt nnlnial, and sooner 
in the latter than iu thonged,und ageneiul bcal thy condition is of coui-se, 
hi «»very respect, an advantage. 

The mode of dratri nation, or method of repair iu lesions of the bones, 
bad been a subject of much study among inrestiga tors In pathology, and 
has elicited various expressions of opinion from those high in nuthority. 
fiui tho wuiglit of evidence and pre]H)nderance of opinion arc about 
settietl in furor of tho theory that the lav of rcpanition in t he »anio for 
botb the hard nnd tlio wft tissnee. In one c«80 n sionple exudation of 
aiaU'rUiJ, witb ibe pniper organiuition of neniy Canned tis«tift^ «U\. 


bring: Abojt a anion by tlie flrst intention, nnd in nnnltier Ibft viorV vlll 
be iiceompauifd by snppuratitm, or tlie uuitrn by ibe st'couU hileiitioii, 
a proceju fio ramiliiLr in tbe r«)mir of the soil strnctures by gmmilatloD. Ibe process iu its simpU-Hl fortn, iu a caKe in nbicli it 
advances wiUiout intf^rruplioii or comiilication lo a fnvorablo reeull it 
may probably b« correctly described in this wise : 

Ou tbe occiitTOiico or tbe injnry nii pfVusion of blood tnkod ploco be- 
twectri tliu endHof Ibe bono. Tbe coagulation of tbe llutd 8aoii fotlou'ti, 
ami tbift, afler a few days, undergoeH iibi^orptioti. Tbeic is then iiu 
excessof inflaniuiatiouiD tbcsurroiuidiugstnictnrc, wbicb soon spreads 
to Cbo bony tissue, when a txue ostitis i» establisbed, ami tbe ctmiiMcc 
tiKKue of the bone becomes tbe seat of a new vaHcuIarorgiiiiixiitiou, and 
of a ecrtAin exudation of plastic lymph, appearing between tbe peri- 
ostcam and tbe external sarfbc« of tbo booe^ ae well as on tlie inner 
Bide of (be medullary oavily. After a few days the eiidn of tbe iMne 
tbu8 surrounded by this exudate become involved in It, and tbe Ijmph, 
becoming vascular, is soon transformed into cartilagiuoas, and in doe 
time into bouy tissue. 

Tbns the time required for tbe cousoltdatlon of tbe ftaetured seg- 
mnnu la divisible into t«ro distinct {>eriods. In tbe first tbey are aur- 
ranndc<l by au external bony ring, and tbe meduUnry cavity in >'lp»ed 
by a bony plug or etopper, conetituting tbe period ot th« provmonal 
eatlvt. Tbia is followed by tbo period of ;i(^iwaaCTi(c«Ww, during which 
tbe proce^a is going forward of coDvertiog tbe oartJIaginoiis into 
OHseoas form. 

Tbe reaiorative process is sooner completed in the caroivoraas 
in tbe berbivorous tribea. In the former tbe temporary callos msy 
tain eufncient BneueKtt of ooDHistency for the earefal use of tbe limb 
vitbin four weeks, but with the latter a period offtomsix weelis lo two 
months in not too long to allow before rvmoviitg the su|)]iortitig iippa* 
ratus from tbe limb. 

This in general terms represents the fact when the resourcea of na- 
ture have not beon thwarted by untoward accidents, such as a watit of 
vigor in tbv constilutiuu of ttie patient or a buik of Hkill on the part of 
tho practitioner, and especially when, from any catiBe, the Iwoy frag- 
menta have uot l>eeii kept iu a state of i>erfect immobility and the con- 
stant friclion hss i)revented tbeosseous nnion of the twn portions, l-'all- 
nre.^ and ttiittfurtnnt.i( are alwuyK more than poHsible, and iiiisti-ad of a 
eolid and practicable bony union the sequel of tbe accident is sometimes 
a /(the joint, composed of more flexible cartilage, a jioor paeudoarthroai*. 
The explanation of this appears to l»e that, first, the sliarjj edges of tbe 
wdsofttio bouc disappear by beeomingrouude^lattheir extremeties bf 
friclion and iwlisbing againf*t each other. Then follows an exudation 
of a plastic nature wbicb becooiee transformed Into a cartilaginous layer 
of a rough articular aspect. Tn this bony nnclei soon appear, and Ibe 
lymph secretctl between tbo segmeuta thus transformed, instead of be- 



eoniiDg trnly os8i6cd, is clinngod into n sortof flbro-eartitagioons panel) 
or ca|i!>iil»r nnv, in nliioh a somi'w-liat aUiiiniinouft secrt^tiau, or jioeuito 
sytiovia, (lennits tUe uioveuieut to take place. Most cominoiily, liow- 
ever, in oorHiiiinals, the unioD oftliebi>tiy rrnRtncntMisobtHiiieil wlmll; 
tbrvogb tbc medium of a Inycr of GIbroas tissue, mid it is bccnast; tb« 
tintfjti hiis Iweti ui^t'ompUHhtKl by a ligauieiitoiLS formation only lliat mo- 
tion bvooDies practti'ablo. 

Xtie progaositi in a caso of fractari^ in an animal is one of the Kravcat 

vital import to tbo putioiit, and therefore of serious peconiary concern 

txt litsowner. Tlio peiio*! liaa not long elapsed vrbeu to bave received 

0utTti a Imrt wiu ijuitc «qnivalpnfc to undergoing » hcii tence of dentil for 

tbe AufTcrinff animal, and purliaj>sto-day asitnilitr %-cn]iet ispronouiiocd 

iu many vaat>H in wliiob tbe exet'citu) of a litllt- moobanical ingennily, 

vitlia due amoant of carof\il nursing, migbt scvare a contrary rasalc 

"UtI iiware tboreturn of tlip patient toll is former condition of soundness 

A<2cl usefiilnoea. Considered per se, a fracture in an animal is in fuel no 

'^•^s ntncnable to treatment tban tbe aume deiicnplion of injury in auy 

**tln>f ijring beiug. But tbe qnestiou of the proprioty and expediency 

^^ treatment its dependent upon certain speciSc points of collateral cou- 

^^ «rati«ii. 

-i^nt. The nature of the lesion itself is a point of paramonnt impor- 
'^'ttiie. A simple firaoture occurring in a bone where the ends eau t>e 
"■"tiily secured in coaptation, pr««cnLs tho most favorable conditions for 
^^«:5cessful treatment. If it be that of a long bone it viU be the lesa 
*^>*ioa8 if situated at or near the middle of its length than if it were Ln 
*^"C»M proximity to a joint, from the fact that perfect immobility pan 
'^t^ly, in the latter caMe, be secured without incurring tbe risk of 8u1>- 
**tloent rigidity of the joint, 

A simple is always less serious tlian a compound f^actnro. A corn- 
limited is always more daugerotis tlian a simple, and a tniiisventa 
^itiiik is easier to treat than one which is oblique. Tbe most ^e^io^8 are 
^ho»e trhicb are situated on parts of the body in which it is ililHculC to 
BFcnn^ I>erfe«t immobility, nnd eBpeotally those which are accompanied 
br suvore coutaMioiiM and lacerations In tbe soft parts; the protrusion of 
frjsineiitw tbroiigli tlie skin; tbe division of blood vessels by the broken 
Ri<bi of the bono; tbe existence of an articulation uear the point to 
irliiob indammation is likely to extend; the luxation of a fnigment of 
the bone; laceration of tbe periosteum; tbe presence of a large number 
of biiuy particlew, the result of llie rrushing of the bone — all these are 
Circumstances which discourage a favorable prognosis, and weigh agaioat 
tbe hope of saving the patient for fhture nsefnlnoiis. 

Fractures which may be accounted curable are tho-ne wbicb are not 
ooDspicuously visible, as those of tbe ribs/where displacements are 
either very limited or do not occur, the parts being kept in situ by the 
;re of thftir position, the shape of the bones, tbe articulations they 
with tbe vertebra, the sternum, or their cartilages of vrolou^ 


m either 

I Daturt 

I form* 


tiou; (lioso of trniisvorso pi'Oc(>.Kjws or tlm liinibnr vprtcbrn; tiiosc gf 
tUetwiics of Llio UivAi; those of the Ilium ; aiul tliiit of the cufllu boum. 
To continue tlit: category, tlie; are evidently cumblK nlieii tlu-ir iioei- 
tiOQ and tlic cbaractcr of tUo patient contribute to aiil tUc trcntmcnt. 
Tliosi> of th(! uranium, in Mie uliseiice of u^rvbral Icsiotw; Ibosc of ibo 
jau's; of tlie ribs, with (lis placement ; of the liip ; nnil tliose of tbe boiie 
of the leg ill inoniMv rc^i<)».s, btit nbctu tlieir vcilicul )Kiattiiiu luluiiU 
of perfect conptjttion. 

On tin* contrary, u i!oiiipouu(J, com p!i eft ted, or coiuiniiiuteil fracture, 
in whatevei" region it may be situiitecl, may be i.croiiiifc»l insurable. 

In treating fractnros lime i.-< an important ifleiuent uuil "tlcla.vt^ arc 
dangerous." Those of rcceut oocurrciicc unite more easily nnd tuoro 
regularly than o1U«r otios. 

SccoHtl. Asft general rule, fructureH arc Ic^ scriuuii iu anininlH nf the 
smaller sjiecies than in tbosc of more bulky diiucnsioiis. This injtuenee 
of species mM be readily appreciated srhcn wo realize tbnt the difficul- 
ties tuvnived iu the treatment of the latter eliuss bavo hardly any exist- 
ence in conneetion n-itb th(> former. The diflerencu iu weight and tiize, 
and conseqneitt facility in handling, and niahiug tbo necessary applica- 
tions; of dressings and other appliances far tho purpose of Bccnriug the 
indispensable immobility of the parln, iind tisnally a less degree of an- 
easiucsft la tho doportmeut of tbo patients mx> considerations iu (his 
connection of great tt'pight. 

Thin}. In rcsiurul to thu ulilizatioii of tbo animal, the mo9>t obviooa 
poiiil in estimating tbe gravity of the case in a frncture iiueidout is the 
certainly of the total loss of tbe serrices of tbe patient duriug trcsat- 
lueii I — certainly for a con*iidernble iieriod of time, purhnpA permanently. 
For example, tbe tVacttirc of the jaw of a steer jtist fattening for tho 
shambles nil! inrolvo a heavier loss than a similar awidont to a liorKe. 
Udually the fractnre of the bone^i of tbe extremities In aliontu is n very 
seriouii casualty, the more so proportiouateiy as the higher tegioti nf tbe 
limb is aQ'ectcd. In irorklug animals iti^ cxcevdiitgly dillicult to treat 
fracture in such a manner ns to restotv n limb to its original pcrftfc- 
tton of aioremeul. A fracture of a single bom; of an extiendly iu a 
breeding Ktullion or man> will not necessarily impair their T.ilue aa 
l>reedcra. Other spcciQcalioua under this head, thongh pertinfMitond 
more or less interesting, way l>e omitted. 

Fourth. Age and temper are important faclors ot cure. A youo;, 
groniiigt robust patient, nhose tis vUa is active, is uuieuable to treat' 
nicut which QUO with a wauiug constltutiou and paiit mature energka 
would be unable toendur<>, and a ilocile, quiet dispoitition vrill act oo- 
operaltvely with reineilial measnres which would lie uculrnlized by the 
fractions oppiisition of a peevish and intractable sufferer. 

Tho fulfillnient of three Indications is indispcns.ib[e io all fructiiHA. 
Tlie firitl is tlie reduction, or tho replaecnient, uf tlie jtattK iis nearly as 
possible in their uonual position. Thu second is their rcteutiou iu tlMt 


poMitioii for a iieriod sufficient for Llie formation of the provisional cal- 
lus, aiid tlie lliird, wLicb in (act ia t>ut au luddeut of tbc si-cuiiil, Uio 
viLrt'rul avoiilancti of any accidents or catiiiesof miscarriage wbicb uiigbt 
disturb tbe curattvo i>roccs9. 

lu refeivui'«! to tbe first cotisideratiou, It mast be remuuibered tbat 
Uie aceidout may befall the patient at a distance from bis Lome, aud 
bis rrtimral VK'a)nii\s llio fin-it diUy to iKi attciid<--d to. Of voiirsu tbis 
iuu»t be done oh carefully as |H>ssible. If ho can hts treated on llto spot 
iM uiiiob Ihit belter, Uiuugli tbUt ia Koldoni |ii-actieable, ami ttiu nietbod 
of iviuoral becomes tbe questiun calling for settlement. But two waya 
im'sent tbeniselvcs — be must eitbcr iralk or Iw carried. If tbc firnt, it 
b ueciiless to say tbat every cautioa mast be observed iu order to 
ob\iatt> additional pain for tbu suQcriog auiiual, and to avoid nuy 
sggrava:ioQ of Ibe injury. IahI slowly, aud witb partial support if pnic- 
ticable, tbc journey will not alirays involve untoward rctultii. Ifbu is 
earned it nin&t be by meaDs of a vagon, a track, or an aai balance: tbc 
hiller, liein;< designed and adapted to tbc pnrpose, would of course bo 
llic preferable vehicle. As a precaniiou wbicb nliould never be over- 
louknl, a temporary dreaaiog sheald first be applied. Tbis may be so 
d<]ne as for tbe time to anawer all tbc purpose of tUe peruianeot adjust- 
mciit niid luiuilagiag. ^Vitllout tlint^ sceiinng tbe patient, a fnu^tiireof 
All ipferior degree may be trausforined to oue of tbe severest kiud, and, 
liidL'fd a curable cbangt^^l tu an incurable injury. Wo recall a case in 
wbitb a fast trotting borsc, after ruuniog away in a fngbt caused by 
the ^Thistle of a locomotive, vas found on tbu rotul limping with 
exufMive lameuesa in tbe off fore leg, aud walked wilb uompitrativo 
TWtr some 2 miles to a stable before being seen by a snrgeou. Qis im- 
nirdiato reuiovat in an niubulance was advised, but befori'- that vebiolo 
could bo procured tbe horse laid down, and upon l>eing made to get 
upon bis feet vas found witb a well-marked couuniauted fracture of tbe 
CM suffr.isinis, witb considerable di-splacenii-nt. The patient, bowever, 
fifter loug treutment, made a comparatively good recovery and Ibougb 
ivltb a large booy deposit, a ringbone, was able to trot amoug tbc 

Tbe two obrioQs iudications iu cases of fracture are reil»clUtm, or re- 
pUoeinculiaud relcniioH. 

lu au iucom]>leto frnctarc, wbcrctbcrc is no displacement, tbe neces- 
Bity of reduction ditcs not exLst. Witb tbe bone kept in plaw by an in- 
tact |ierio<(leum, and the (Vagmeuts secured by tbe uuiujuretl fibrous and 
liganientons structure wbicb surronnds tbem, there is no dislocation 
to correct. It is also nt times renderwl iniiK>ssibIe by tbe seat of tlie 
firaclure it£«lf, by its dimensions nloue, or by Ibe resislaueu arising from 
the muscular contraction excited by the sni-gtcal manipubitiou. Tbis 
is i)ln»lratcd evcu iu nmall animals, na in dogs, by tbo cxeeeding diffl- 
ctilly eoconntcred in brinsing tbe ends of a broken femur or Immerns 
together, Ibu muscular conlniuiiou being even iu tiiese auiuials sufU- 
ricully forcible to renew the displacement. 


It !» jCPHPrally, tb8r»foT«>, oii)^- JVactnros of tlie long Imiieft, ami ttifa 
at [loiots not in cluso proximity lo tite trunk, tliat may bo conaidervd 
to be aiiivttiibk- to roiltK.-tioii. It ia true tlmt some of tbo ntim^ ftu[ter> 
ficial lKitii>s, iiH tliost) oftbc Iieud, of tliu pelvH, unduf tbutboractc wrUs 
may in some cases require apecial nianipulatjouti nml apjilbiDces for 
ihrir retention iti normal po.sition.s, but the treatinpnt of these and 
of II fmcttinHl leg cau not bo tbe samu. 

The mctbodfl of accompUsbtiig reduction vary with the features of 
each cniw, tbe mnnipuIntioDs being necessarily inodJIicd to mc-L-t cimug- 
lug Gi^(^um(lUl»<H;M. If tbti tlisplucuiiu-ut iti in IbetbickiiesHof tbebone, 
as iu transverse fracture, tlie uianipulntion of rvtiuvtion i»ii»i8ttf in 
applying a stcfwly pressure upon one of the fragmoutfi, while tbe other 
is kept steady tu its place, the object of the pnissuro being IUb r<xs- 
tublishment of the exact coincUlcniMi of the two bony surfaces. If the 
displacciucut bus taken place at an angle it will bo suDi(.-iL-nt iu order 
to eft'ect the reduction to press upon tbe sucnuiit or apex of the angle 
nnlil its disappenranco indicates that tho jMirts biive iMK-n brought into 
coaptation. This method in often practiced in the treatment of a frac- 
tured rib. In a longitudinal ttaoture, or when tbe ft-agmcnta are 
pressed together by tbo contraotiou of tbe mnsclcs to nliicb they give 
insertion until they so overlap as t<o correspond by certain points of 
tbefr circumference, tbe reditutiou is to be acoompUsbed by effcetiag 
llic movenientsof or/ffiMiVit, counler-extention. and coaptatiou. Exteusiou 
is accomplished by making traction upon the lower imrtioHofthe limb. 
Oountorexteusion oousists iu firmly bolditifir or couQuiDfT the upper or 
Imdy portion in such a mann<>r that it shall not be ad'ected by (he trac- 
tion applied to the lower; iu simpler laut^uage, buldiug it motionleM 
against the force exercised in tbe extension. In other words, the 
operator, grasping the limb below the fracture, draws it down or away 
fnim the trunk, while he Keekd, not to draw away, but simply to hold 
BtiW tbe up|>er portion until the broken ends of bone are brought to tbeir 
Dtttiiral relative positions when tho coaptation, which is thus atlVcted* 
has only to bo made permanent by tbe projier dressings to perfect the 

In treating fVacCures in small animals the strength of tbe hand is 
nsually salBcient for the required oiauipulations. In tbe fracture of 
tbe forearm of a dog, for example, vrbile the upper segment is flrtalj 
held by outi baud, tho lower may bo grasped t>y the other nnd tbo bona 
itself made to serve tbe purpose of a lever to bring abunt the deaitcd 
coiiptnlion. In such a case that is sufficient to overcome the musca- 
lar contraction and correct tbe overlapping or other malposition of tlie 
bones. If, however, the resistance can not l»e overcome iu this mode, 
the upper segment may be comu^ltted to an assistant for (bo manage- 
ment of tbe couuter extension, leaving to the operator the ft«e nse of 
both bands for the further manipulation of tb« case. 

liut if the reduction of l'ructui>:s in bmull auiunds is au easy tusk, it 


la far fWim b^lnc bo wb«n n Inrgc nnimni is tbo pntient, wlioscmasciiLir 
ron.'-u is liirguly griMtor lliaii tliat uT xvvural men c^iinliiiiml. In «iii;li u 
ciKe rtMut iiiUBt be lind not only to superior iiuuiWrs for lli« uecesaary 
force, bat in many casw* to mrclianical aids. A refurenue to the nio<le 
of prooeodiDR id a case of fracture with tli8pUMMjin«nt of the foro arm of 
A bnrse will iUuKtrale tlio matt<jr. TUe |mlf«ut la first, to be carefully 
oiut, oil tbe uDitijiired sjfle, witli ropes, or a bronil te»tber strap about 
18 (ee^t ^oag, panHotl undur au<l urounJ liis body and under tho HKillaof 
tliL- fnititiii-ed limb nud eccured at a poiot opi>oaito to tbe nnimal nud 
toward Uts buck. Tbin will loriit t)tu tuocliuiilojil means of counter ex- 
tension. Anotber ropo vill then be plac«d amunil tbe inferior part of 
the IciC below tbe p-iiut of fra<5ture. with wbinb to protlueu »':xteUBion, 
anil this will sometimes be furnisbed with a block or pntlies, in order 
to augtnoDt Ibo [xtvor vrben uocessary, and tbero is, in faot, always an 
advaiitujfe in tbeir uxe, oti the Hide of st^adinesK and uniformity, as welt 
M of increased power. It is secured nround tbe fetlock or tbo coronet> 
or wliit is bettor, above tbe kneonnd nearer tho point of fracture, ond 
ts committeil to aKSiHtantii. Tbe traetioii on tliis »buuld be firm, uni. 
fonu, and slow, witboat relaxing or Jerking, while tbe operator carefnlly 
watclien the pn)c4uiH. If tbo bnnv itt Kuperflinally Hitunted he is able to 
judge by the eye of any changes that may occur ia tbe t'orui or Icngtli 
of the |>arts under traction, aud discovering at tbo moment of its hap- 
pening the restoration of synimetry in the disturbed region, lie gently 
bat flrmly manipiilatea tbe place until all appearance of severed oou- 
tinuity liave vaiiisbed. Bomotimes tlio fact aud Ibe instant of restora- 
tion are indicated by a ]>eculiar sound, or *' click,'' as the ends of the 
bone slip into contact, to await tho next stop of tbe restorative pro. 

Tho process is the same when tho bonos are covered with thick nina- 
«ttlariQa«8«B, excepting that it Is attended with greater difficulties, from 
the fact that the Qnger must be subalitiited for tbe eye, and the (axis 
must lake tbe place of tbe sight, and the result naturally becomca more 

It freqaently happens that perfect coaptation is prevented by thoii 
terposilion between the bony surfaces of substances, sncb as a small'' 
ftagnieutof detachetl bonooraclotof btooiI,and soinetimes the BXlreme 
obliqaity of tho fraoturo is the oppoaiufj cautte, by permitting tho lM>nea 
to slip oaC of place. Thoflo are difficulties which can not always be 
overcome, even in small-gizod animals, and still it Is only when (hoy ore 
mastered that a correct conxolidation can tw looked for. Yet without 
It tbo continuity between tbo IVagments will be by a deformed catlas, 
tbe union will leave a ebortened, crooked or aoRular limb, and a disabled 

If timely assistance can be obtained, and the rtiluction accomplished 
immediately after the occurrence of the accident, that ia Ibo best time 
for it. 13uC if it can not be attended to uutil iuUaiuuiatiou baa become 



eatablislici] uiid Uie parts liavo become Hvollen and [winriil, time must 
be alloneil fur Itio BabsiUeiioe of tlieso 6yDi|)toui8 bafotc atteuipting Uie 
operation. A sjiasraodic iimsciilar eoiilractiou irliicb sometimes inter- 
poses a (iiilUrulty may Iw easily ovrrconie by Ktibjectiug the paticut to 
general anestlieeia, and iicetl not, tbercforc, cuuso auy loss of liioe. A. 
teoileDcy to tliis may also be overcome by tbv use of sedalircs and auli* 
pUtu;:istEe rL>mci.lJes. 

lUa rcdiiRtion of tbe frnoUire liaving been accompliEUied, tbo problem 
wbl<'!i follows is tbat of releation. Tiio parts wliicli bavo been reslortil 
to tlicir nalnnil posilioa must bo kept there, without di^turbauce or 
QKitiUioD, until the perfect formutioQ of a callns, ami it is bcro Uiat 
ampEi; latituile exlHt.'i for the exercise of iugODuity aud skill by tbo Hur- 
geon ill ibo contricauce of tbe uecessary apparatoa. One of tbe most 
important of tbe conditions wliicli are availiiblo by tlie norgeon in trea^ 
iDg butuan patieutd is dcuicd to tlic vcteitDariau id Uio uiauagementof 
tbtH^o wlituli Iwlong to tbe animal tribefi. Tbls in position. Tbe ititel- 
ngenco of tbo biimau patieut co operates n itb the instructJoos of tbe 
KUrgcoD, but with tbo animal KuQ'erer tbvre is a L-trntiminl nctn^oaiHtn 
between the ]>artics, and the forced cxIen^OQ and Jatigiiing posilioa 
irliicb mast for a coiisiik-rable )>crtod be maiiitaitied as n condition of 
re&toratiou require special and utlective appliances to liisurosucoee«fiil 
resalts. To obtain complete immobility is scarcely possible, and tti« 
snrgeoti must be content to roaeb a point as near oa possible to tliat 
wbicliin unattainnble. For tbi« n;n!son,asn'iUxubsi-t)ucntly be siren, tUe 
use of slings and tbo rcstniint of patients in very narrow stalls is mooli 
to be preferipd to tbo practivo sometimes recommended, of allovlug i>n' 
tii-c freedom of motion by turning tbem loose in box stalls. Temporary 
and movublo npparnttis aro not usually of difDenlt u»u in vetrriuary 
practice, but tbe restlessness of tbe patients and tbcir unwillingaess to 
submit quietly to tlte obanging of tbo dressings render it obligatory Co 
bove rcci>nrRO (o i)ermnnirnt and immovable bandages, wbicli sboald 
be rt-taiueU witbout diaturbancc until tbe process of couaoliduUon is ^ 
complete. ■ 

Tbe ninteriale composing the retaining npparotus eotieist of oiikuiii, 
banditgcs, and splints, n-itb an agglutinating comiwuud irbicb forms a 
species oC cement by wbicli tbe different coustitueDtaaro blcndvd into 
a consistent mass to be spread upon the surface corering tbo locality 
of llie fraclnre. Its components are blaek piteli, rosin, nud Venice lur- 
pontine, blended by beat. Tbe dressing mnybe applied directly to tbe 
skin, or u covering of ibin linen maybe inlerixiscd. A putty made 
with powdered chalk and tbe white of egg is recommended for HOinll 
animaltt, tbongh n mixture of stigar of lead and burnt ninm n-itb tbe 
nlbninen U preferred by otberi«. Another formula is spirilsof enmpbor, 
Gonlard'sextraetand albumen. AuotberrecommendatJon Im toMatnnilo 
tbeoaknm and bandages with nn adhesive solution fornie^l with gam 
■rabic, dextrine, flour paste, or starch. Ibi« ia adviecd particabirly 



teauU floimala. DextriDCmtx^l, ir1iil« warm, tritli burnt alum and 
llcDliol cooU aiiil solidifies into UKlony consisteiioy, and is iireforAblc to 
plisur of Paris, irliicb lit lots friablo auil lian \fsn tioliility, besideK heiug 
btavipraiiil roqtiiiiug coDstniit additious as it becomes older. Starch 
iml pljuitcr ori'iiriR form anotlier {rood coiii|iotind. 

la Hpjilying tlie dressing tliu leg is ustially padded with a cusliion of 

Oukuui, tliiuk and sofl ciiougb to equalize Ibe Irregularities of tlio sur- 

^■aod tu form a beddtug for tbe protei^tion of tbe skin from i;Iia(liig. 

Ot-er tiiis tbo spliniii am |ilaccd> Tbo tiiaterta) for tbesc Ia, variuuslf, 

pii>li'bi»:ir«l, ttiiii wood, hark, latbti; gutta iHircUa, strips of tbtn nit^tal, 

■• tiu or perhaps slieet irou. Tbeso sbould bo of 8ullleieut leugtU uot 

l*Iy Ui coviT the region of tho fracture, but to citend Bufljeienttjr 

^nrvaud bdoir to roudcr tlio imtnobitity more complcto than iu tbo 

UirnviiDdlug Joiuts. Tlio splints, again, are covered vitli ctotb lian- 

''^Sn, linen preferably, soaked iu a glutinous moisture. Tliese bnn- 

^Ra are lo be ciirt-fnlty applied, with a perfect condition of ligbtuu-ss. 

f^vy are usually uiado to embrace tli6 cutiro length of tbe leg, iu order 

avoid ibo |>ossibiIity of iuterforeuco with tho circulation of Ibo ci- 

retnily. as well as for the preveution of chafing. They should be rolled 

ruta the lower part of tho leg upwards, aud carefully secnrcd agaiuKt 

QOflCuing. In some inslauces ttuspeu»ory bandagea-uro recouinieud^ 

iQtesc-epting for small auiniats our Qxpcricuce docs not Justify a coa- 

bUmice to the r(.-connnpnf).itioiu 

Iliese peraiuucut dressings alirnys need careful watcbiug vUh refer- 
Uweto their immediate eQect upon tbe region they cover, ositecially 
^oiiiti: the first days sacoeftUug that of tlieir application. Any maiii- 
iiestation of pain, or any appi-iiranc*^ of swelling above or below, or any 
Mior anggestive of Buppuration should cxi:ilcsuitpicion,and a thorough 
(orcAtigation should follow without delay. Tho removal of the dress- 
ug should be performed with groat care, aud especially bo if time eiiougb 
iiu «1npse<l siuce its application to allow of a probability of a com- 
neucxmcut of ihv healing prou'Jisor the existence of any points of con- 
lalhUtiOD. With tbe original dressing property applie4l in ils entirety 
a the &rdC iastancc, tho cntiro extremity will baro lost all cbnnce of 
uoliilily. andlbei-ejuiiriug process may bo permit ted to proceed without 
ntn fereuoe. There will be no necessity aud there need bo no haste for 
removal or change except under such special conditions as have just 
teat incntivQcdjOrTThCD there i^reiuou to judge thatsolidiflcatiou ba« 
leuime perfect, or for tho i-omrurt of the animal, or for its n^daptation 
ft cuuaequcuce of the atiuphy of the limb from want of use. Owners 
if auituals aro ofleu tempted to remove a «pliut or bandage ptcuia- 
Brety at tbe risk of producing a seeoud fracture in couslmjucooo of the 
bilure of the callus properly to consolidate. 

Tb» method of applying the splinttt which vo have dcscribcxl refers 
o the sioiple Tiiiiety only. In a compound case the same rules must 
le observed, with tlie modiDciitiou of leaving openings through tbe 


thickness of ihe dressing, ojipositn tlio woand, in order to permit tha 
us4!U|i« ul' ]>iui ami to evuuru nccuiia to tlie i>oiul» inquiring lUc tippliua* 
tloa of ireaEiucnt. 


Of the cranial hone». — Frai:tiir«D of tliiH variety in Iarj;i> nnimalH are 
eoiuparatively rare, tUongh the revonls are not deKtituto of ca-^s. 
WboQ tbvy i>ci!ur, ir Is as lUo result of external violence, UieKuOTvretB 
l>eing i]8()Hlly riHiawaya which have come In nillision wilh a wall or a 
tree, or otbur obatruciion; or it may occur in those whu;h in pulling 
U{)oii the halter bare broken it with » Jerk and been thrown backwarda, 
as lulfihl i»ct!Mr in reariug loo violently. Under thcRo comlitfona we 
have witnessed fractnre^i of the parietal, of Ihe frontal, and of the 
aphetioid boiiea. These fractures nuiy be of both the complvtc and Ui6 
incomplete kind, which indeed is usually the case with those of the Sat 
tx)ne«, and they are liable to be coniplicAted wltb laceintionB of the 
((kin, in couHequenMs of wliich they are «ra8ily hroughc under obnervfr 
tion. But when the fact is otherwise and tlie skin is int<tct, the din;;- 
□oeia bccuulis diflictilt. The incomplete variety may bv unacoompanicd 
by any special symptoms, but in the complete kind one of the Imny 
plate8 may be so far detachml a» to pre&» ujmii thu cerebral Mnbitlance 
with siiQicient force to produce eeriona nervous comptioations. WUcd 
the iojary occurs at the base of the cranium hcraorrbngemoy bo looked 
for, with paralytic symptoms, aud when these uro present the nsnal ter- 
mination in death. U may still happen, however, that the ayntptoiua 
of an apparently very severe txincussiun may disappear, with the reautl 
of an early and complete recovery, and the siirgiMin will therefore do 
well to avoid undue precipitation in venturing npon a progoosis. la 
fractures of the orbital or the Kygoniatio bnn<>s (lie danger Is le^ press- 
ing than with injuries otherwi»(e located about the head. The treatment 
of cranial ft-actun-u is simple, though iuTotving tlie bent Hkill of tha 
experienced surgeon. When incomplete, hardly any interference la 
neeiled; even plain bandaging may uKually Im! disptfn&ed with. In the 
complete variety the danger to be combated is compression of tb« 
brain, and attention to this indication mnst not bo detayetl. The meaua 
to be employed are the trephiuiug of theekull over the seat of the H-ao- 
tnrc, and the elevation of the depressed bone or the removal of the fl 
portion which is causing the trouble. Fragments of bone in oommlun- ' 
ted cases, 1>ony exfoliations, collections of flaid, or even protmding 
]Mirtiiiii;4 of the brain suhHtancc uinst he cjin-fully cleansed away, uuda 
simple bandage so applied ae to fuvilitate the application ot uubsequeut 

Fracturea of the itynat of the face. — In respect to tlielr origin — nsually ' 
trantnatic — these injuries rank with the preceding, and are commonly of 
the incomplete variety. They may cosily bo overlooked and may even 
aomctimes escape recogoitioa antiL the reparative |»rouess has been well 


estnliltslieil niul tlio iliscovory of the vronod becomes dai^ to tlie proini. 
ni-iict' c-:i<is«^il lij xlici iiri'Stiiii:o of tbi^ iiniviHioiml riiUiiH ti'bicli marks lU 
cure, Wlicii tlie fnicturo is complete it wilt li« marked b.v loc»l rie- 
forinity, raobility oi tbe Crag:menta, ami creititatmn. Snsal ll«lno^ 
rliagt\ mnriiiff, frwiueijt sneezing, loosening or loss of teetli, diffloiilty 
of iiiasticiitiim, mid iiillamnialioti of the oavilii-H of tbf> siitiixt^s are 
varying fumplicatioits of tUesc accidents. Tbe object of tlie treatmeut 
elioiibi be the restoration of the depressed bones as nearly aa possible 
to ibeir noriiml position, and tlicir retention in pinoe by protecting 
H]ilint.s, nliicti kIkmiUI cover tb« entire facial re;;ion. And Kpeoial pre- 
caatious abonld bo observed to prereot tbe patient from disturbing tbe 
dressing by rubbing his licad against earroiinding objcctit, snob as tbe 
Btnl), 'ha manger, Ibo rack, etc. Cluta of btoo<l in tbo uasnl pnHsages 
maat be vnslied out, colleolions of pus ninst Iw removed from tbe 
Kinases, and if tbe teeth are loosened and likely to fall ont, tbey sbouLd 
be removed. If roaring in tlirentened, tracbentomy is indicated. 

Pfttcfurei o/the prem<ixiUnry bone. — These nro mentioned by cent 
nenliil authors. They arc. usually enconiitered in eonne<.<tion with fme-"^ 
luri-8 of tbe nasal bone, and may take place either in iho width or tbe 
length of the bone. 

The deformity of the ap]>cr lip, which is drawn sidewiso in thislcsionf 
renders it easy of dfsgnosis. Tbe abnormal mobility and tbo orepito* 
tloii, with the pain manifesteil by' the patient when nndergotng ex- 
aniinittion, are concurrent symptoms. Looseness of the teeth, iihuu- 
dsDt salivation, and entire inability to grasp tbo food complete the 
symptomatology of these accidents. In tbe treatment, splints of gntta 
pprt^iia or li'atbor aru KumeliineH u»ed^ but they are of diQiuult applieo- 
tiou. Our own judgment and practice are in fapor of tbe union of the 
bonen by means of metallic sninres. 

The totefrjaic. — A fracture hero is BOt an injury of infrequent oo- 
eurrcnce. It Involres the body of tbe bone, at its KymphysiH, or baek 
of il, and inclndes one or both of its branches, either more nr less for* 
Wiird, or nt the posterior |mrt, near the temporo maxillary iiiticnlutlon, 
at Ihu coronoid process. 

Falls, blofl's, or other external violence, or iwwerful mnscutar con- 
traottous during the use of the speculum, may bu mentioned among 
tbe causes of tbtx U'^ion. The fractnre of the neck and of the bmnchei 
in front of the checks cau^cs the tower Jaw, tbe trite denlid arch, to 
drop, n-lthont tbe ability to raise It again to tbe U|iper, and tbe result 
is a peculiar and cbnracteristic physiognomy. The prehension nnd 
muoticution of food become imimssihle; there is an abEindaiiC escape ol 
fetlil and sometimes bloody saliva, es)>ociiilly if llie gums liave been 
woundcl ; there is excessive mobility of tbe loner end of the Jawbone] 
and tliere is cropiiatton, and fretjaently paralysis of the under lip. But 
although tbe aspttet of an animal snn'cring with a complete and often 
oouipunnU and comminuted fracture of the Bubmnxiltn presents at limea 
11U30 liO 


a frigbt Tut spectacio, tho progDoats of tbo caao is cam pnrati rely aim- 
pie, »ii(L recovery usuatly only a aiiostion of time. Tim severity of ' 
tlio lesion corrcspouds in tlegree with that of the Tioleiice to wliich it 
is due, tUo decree of siuiplicity or tlio auiouut of coDipItcatioa, and 
vitli the sitQution of tho wonnil. It is simple when at the syoiphj-giii, 
hut become.^ more serious when it ufTcct.t one of tho bnmthrs, to Iw 
agai II aggravated when both arc involved. Fracture of the uoronoid 
process bceooiGS iruportaut priucipally as an evidence of the existence 
of a morbid dintbcsiK, such ns osteoporosis, or tho Hlco. h 

Tho paitictiljr sent of the injury, with its ttpcciul features, ttiII olfl 
course determine tho trcntuicut. For a simple HrAclure nitliout dis- 
phiceniont, provided thi-re in no Ulceration of tho periosteaai, nii ordi- 
uary Kiippoitiugbnndngc will usually bo suffielcut. But wlieu I here is 
displacement the reduction of tlic ftiicUiro must first be accouipllsbcd, 
and fur thin special splints aro uoccssury. [n a frnelui-o of tho syui- 
pbysis or of the bnmuheti the adjustment of the fragmeiitH by tiecurin| 
them witli metallic sntures is the Hut step necessary, to be folloned by] 
the application of snp[inrls, aMixidtinj: of splinta of leather or sheeli 
of metal, the entire front of the head being then covered with bandages 
prepared Tritb ndhoKive mixtureii. During tho entire course of trcaC- 
uienL a special method of feeding becomes necessary. The Inability 
tlie patient to appreciate the situation of course necessitates a r«soi 
to an artificial mode of iulrodueiug the nece^ary food into his -itomau1i,1 
and il is aecoiupUslied by forcing between the comnii&surcs of the lips, j 
in u li(]uhl form, by means of a syringe, tho milk or nutritive gruelf] 
selected for Lis sustenance, uuttl thn con;itoltdation is sufficiently ad* 
vanccd to permit the ingestion of food ofa more solid consistency. Ttie 
callus will usually bo sufficiently hardened in two or three weeks to al- 
low of a eb.Tngo of diet to maahes of cut hay and scalded grain, until 
the removal of tho drcsNiug rcuttoreshini to his old habit: of musticntioQ' 

Fritctu)c/i of rtriehrar. — These arc not very commoD, but when tht.'y do 
occur the bones most frefiuently injured aro those of the back and loiua. 
Tlio ortlinary causes of fracture are responsible bere as elsewbcro, saelifl 
as heavy blows on the spinal column, severe falls while coQTejiug hca%-y^ 
loads, and especially violent ellbrts in resisting tho process of casting. 
AUbougb occurring more or less frequently under the latter circnm- 
stancca, the accident \» not always attribntablu to carele^^sness or error 
in the mnnagemeut. It may, of couriie, sometimes renult from saeb a 
cause as a badly prepareil bed, or tho accidental presence of a banlj 
body concealed in tlic straw, or to a heavy fall \rhcn tho movements i 
the patient have not been sulUeieutly contmllcd by an ufTeotiro Rppa* 
ratu» nnditsskillfiiladaptnt in,bnt it is quite ns likely to bo caosed bj 
the violent re-sislanec and the consequent powerful ninscnlar oootnuv 
tion by the frtghtonc<I patient. The simple fact of the overarcbing of 
the vertebral column, with excessive pressure against it from the int«s- 
tiual mass, owing to the spasmodic action uf lie abdominal uiu^cles,] 


may noonnnt for it, anil &o also may tho strug-;les of Uio aoiual to 

tstapfi from the restraint of tlio bobblca nUilo frintic under tlio \>a\n of 

nniiporation witliont niijcsttipsiti. In tlicso cnscs tho fnictnro usually 

occiitK iu the Imily or tlio nriiiulur i)itrt, or both, of tliu iiostorior dorsal 

or Ibe Buterior lumbar Tertebra. When the transverse xjrocesscs of 

llii:lL<>t'ii.iiiK-il bonr^ :iro inj:iro<I, it is probably in ronsoqucDCOot tbo 

hcivj- concussion incident to strikinj; the ground when uast. Tlio iliag- 

Do^iiof a fmetaro of tbn body of a vertebra is not alvrays easy, cspo- 

ciiiliy when quito n-ccn(, and mitrp espiviatly when llicre is no accom- 

IKin>iiisdis[»lac(;nieut. There oro certain iieculiur signs actio lu pa nying 

Ibe occurreDCQ of tho accident tphilo an oi>cra1ion la iu progrcsii which 

lIwHiM al once exrito the suspicion oF tho surgeon. In tho midst of a 

*iolir:tl. «tnti;gti: the patient becomes suddi-uly ijuict ; Ihu movcuient of 

<k tbvp lustriinieut which at tlrst excited his resistance fails to p>e 

rise to any ftirthcr c**ideu&:» of scDsattoii ; pcrbapa a general trt»iiiblinp, 

bating for a few minutes, nrill follow, siicceodeil by a cold^ profuse per* 

»I>ir;ition, particularly Iwtwccn the hind legs, and froqnently there will 

bo mictarition nod defecation. Careful examination of tho vertebral 

crliiinii may tbcu detect a slight depression orirrogularity in tho tlirec- 

tluu of ibi; Hpiiie, and there ni:iy be a diiniuution or lo--v'< of seniuilion iu 

tile posterior jwirt of the tnink wliilo the anterior porliou continufs to 

lie IU sensitive as before. In making an attempt to get upon bia feet, 

Iioirever, npoo the removal of the boVtbles, only the fore part of the 

hoily will respond to l\n* eflorl, a degreo of paraplegia being present, 

and while the head, necb, aud foro part of the body will be raised, the 

bioil quarters and hind k^gs M-ilt remain inert. Tho nnimal may pcr- 

liajis Kuoi-ced iu rising and probably may l)c removed to liist stall, but 

tliedigptaeemeut of tho bune will follow, couverting tbo fracture into 

one of tho complete bind, either through tho exertion of walking or by 

a rcaeved attempt to rise after another fall, before teaching bis Blall. 

Ey this timo tho i>aralysls iscinnplete, and thocxtension of tbo luealn- 

l^lis which has become established is a cousuaimatioa soon reached. 

To say that the jirognosis of fracture of the body of tlio vortcbrto !« 
always scHoos is to s;K-ak verj- mildly. It were belter perhaps to say 
that tKiHuioaaily a case way recover. Fractures uf the IraDSVurse pro 
oesscfl are less serious, 

Instead of stating the indication in this claas <ri* cases, as if assumiog 
tlioui (o be mcdteable, tho quoatiuu naturally bcoomes ratbcr a tiucry ; 
"Oiin any treatment be recommended in a fraclnre of the body of a 
Tertebra f" The only indiealiou in such a case, iu our opinion, is to 
ivacb the trnc diagnosis in the shortest possiblo tiniu and to act ac- 
cordingly. If there is displacement, and the existeuce of seriona le- 
sions may bo inferred from tho ncrrons symptoms, the destmctioo of 
tlio Buflferiug animal api>ears to snggext itself x<4 the one conclusion in 
which coiisidemtions of policy, bniiianity, and science at once nuite. 
If, however, it is fairly cvtdoui that no displacement exists; that 

prMWnT* upon theMsplnal cord ih not yet present; that the animal will 
Ittllt* it^fitaucu i^ nble to riao nixtn bis feet nud to walk asliutt ilt^ 
taiicc, It may bo well to experiment upon tlio cil»o to tho extvot *^ 
plficiii;:; tlio pnticiit in tlii^ ninst fuvariible CireumstaiiCfH Tor n.-»itpryi 
aiul allow iiutmij ta ojwrato willio:.c further inter(i'rcni.'c. Tbla mny !>• 
accoutplislied by Becuriog ioimobilit.v of ttie wliole body .n.i inaeb *■* 
potsKibIc, and especially of tbc EuspccCed roi;ion, by placiaf; tlio pallea* < 
in slingM, in u Htidl KtifB(;iE>iitly narrow to preclude Intvral inoltoii.aitii^ 
corvring tliu loins with a tbkk coat of a<;glutluatire mixture, nalcb' 
and wait for derelopmcnts. 

Fraeiure of the ribs.— The dlffcr«DC rcffiona of the chest arc not fqniillj 
expi>H4*d In Ih« violence to which fnu!(ureH of the riha aru itae, KUd 
thajf are therefore either more conimon or more easily discovered, linriiig 
tifV:. nt somo ]KiiDt« than at others. The inoro cJipnsed regions are the 
muHlo and the posterior, while the front is largely covennl and do- 
fended by rlii> Hhouliler. A Kingle rib may be the Heal of fra('liirt>, or » 
nmnber may b« involved, and there may be li\juries ou both aideti i 
the client at the same time. It may take placxC lengthwise, in any pJT 
uf thu hone, though the middle, bcine the mo.^l exposed, ia tliu moai 
fi^quenlly hurt. lucouiplclo fraetui-es itre tuually lent^lhwUe, iaroh 
lag a portion only uf the thickness or one or other of the surfa 
The complete kind maybeei^her tmiisverso or obliqtiu, and are mo 
commonly denticulated. The fraeturo may boco[uiui»utcd,and h Bingle 
bone may Hbow one of the complete nud one of the iiiuom|di>tc kind, aB 
difl'ereut imints. The extent of siirfiice presented by the thoraciu 
gioii, with il.s r<mipb-le cxpoKuro at all ixjitits, cxplain.i the liability 
the ribs to Buffer from all the formsof eslemal violence. j 

In many lustaoooa fkncturea of these booes contiDue nndiscovoredfl 
C«pi*cially the ineomplete variety, without dis|ilacement, tlnMiKii tLo"! 
cvidt-uui-K of local pain, it (X'rtjiiii amount of AWcUin}{ aiul a tle^^rev of 
diitturbauco of the respiration, if uotioed duriu^ the examination of a 
patient , may suggest a suspiciou of their existence. Abnurmn) mobility 
aud erepitntinn are dilUcuIt of detoclioo, oven when pre^eui, and they 
are not always present. Wheu there is displacement the deformity 
which it ucciutions will betray the fuel, aud wbuii such an injury exinta 
tbi^ surgeon will of course become vigilant in view of possible aud 
prtibikble eomplicniions of thomciu trouble, and prc>pare Iiioisvlf for on 
encounter with a cutto of tniumatio pleuritis or pneumonia. Fatal la- 
juricM of the heurt are reex>rded. SuticutautHmx emphysema i» a com* 
itieu accompaniment of broken rib^, and we recall the death from tbu 
cauKC of n patient of our own, which had aufft-Ted a IVAeture of two 
rih.s In the region of llio withers under the cartilages of the shoulder, 
and i-if which the diagnosis was only made after the fatal ending of 
the riiiw. 

These hnrts are not often of a very serioua charneter, tlioagh tlie 
tuiiou is never ^a solid and cumpleto ua iu other fructurea, the oalliu 




^~MDSliy liDperwoe antr of n flbroua character, with no nmphiar- 
m ronsatioii. U till, complicationH occur vlik-li ma; impart: grav- 
itj" to tbo jiro^uosis. 

Priclurus with hnt n slight or no ilisplnrcitiRiit need no rednvlion. 
All tLar in uece«aai;v is it simple ap]ilicatioiioru blistertng uaturu an a 
tvnitive of inflammation or for ita BiibjneatioD wtieti pre^nt, and in 
^onlertoexcito an exudntioD vliich will teud to aid iu tbo t9Up|>ort and 
Innnabilization of the pnrts. At times, however, a tietter effect is ob- 
tiiiied by the applicalioD or a baudat^e placed firmly around the cbest, 
•Itlwagh, while this limits tbe uiotioB of the ribs, it is apt to render 
UercspIratioD luoro labored. 

Jf there is iliHpliicvnient with much acoonipaiiyiiig pain anil eviilctit 

tiTttaLioD of tht> liingn, tU« fracture luusl be i-^ducc<I wilhuut dehiy. 

The means of efTeoting this vary according to whether tho displaceiucufc 

it uutwanlK or inward'^. In tho (ir«t enso the Ih>uc may be i^trfti^'hlciici! 

by preasuro from without, while inthesecoDd the end of the bone iiiuet 

be raised by a lever, for the introduction of nbicb a small incisioa 

tliroiigli tbe skin <md intercostal spaces will be neceswiry. Wheu eoap. 

tntion biifl lieeii afTectrd it must bo retainv'd by the external a|)plic;itiou 

of nilhesive uiixtaro, with spliut^aod bandages around the chest. 

Fracttiret o/ the bonen of the peltis will be considered under their »:ep- 
arateilenomlnatioQS, as thoxe of the sacrum and the os innomtNala, or 
hip, which inoludea the sabdlrisioas of the iliaui, the pabcs, and the 

The Baerum. — Fractures of this l>one are rar«ly met with among' sol- 
ipeds. Among cattle, however, it is of common occurrence, beiiif,' aO 
triboted not only to the usual varieties of violeuce, aa blows and other 
external hurts, but to the act of coition, aud to violent efforts iu partu- 
rition. It iJ* goneraUy of the transverse kind, and may be recognized 
by tbe deformity which it ucca-sions. This is duo [u thedruppingof the 
botic^ with a change in ita direction and a lower attacbmeat of thetail, 
which also becomea more or loss paralysusd. The natural and spouttn«- 
ous relief which usually inter[>oses in theKe cases baa doubtlesN Iteen 
observed by the extensivH cattle breeders of the West, and tb«^ir prao- 
Uoe and example fiilly establishes the inutility of interference. Still,. 
caws may occur in which reduction may be indicated, and it then 
beoometta matter of nodiflicnlty. It is effected by the inti-oduotion of 
a round, smooth piece of wood Into the rectum as far as the fragment of 
bone, and using it as a lover, resting it upon another a.s a fulcrum jilacod 
tindorit ouUtidc. Tho bone having been thas retnrued may be kept ia 
place by (he ordinary external means iu use. 

Thf oi ianotninata. — Fractures of the ilinm may \m observHl either at 
the angle of the hip or at the neck of the bone; tbuseuf the pubes umy 
take place at the symphysis, or iu the body of the bone; ttioso of the 
Isoblum on the Boor of the bone, or at its posterior external angle. Or, 
agaui, tlie fracture may involve uU three of these couatituent ^Jix\A oC 


th«Iii|i boiiG b.v liavingitssitunlion iiilbeatticularcflvily — Uio acculn- 
luin by wliici) it joins tlio femur or Ihigli bonp. 

Somu i»f (liese frncliin-s an- rasily ifioyiiizol, while olUors are JiB- 
cult to iOc-iitiry, Tlieoidiiiar; ticfuiruily ubicli cLaractetizcMi [htelnn 
of 11)0 external nnglo of tlie iliutti, its tlropiitDg and Ibo diniionlion tf 
thnt K)iU« oftho hip in nriillh, aiiit<> in indicating Ilic> pxistfiiceoftlM 
comlilioiicxiiKssctl by tltetcim "liippcd." Uutaii iiicomifk'tcfracturt, 
or cue tbiil is complete nilLout displacement, or ctcu oue villi db- 
plaecincnt, often Oeruands tlio closest scrutiny for its diseoverj-. Tk« 
lanieiiesa may lie well iiJiirlted, jiiid »n iininial may show Imt little »?■ 
IK'iimneoof it while wnlkiiig, hut Dpon being urge^l into n trot nil 
lunuifeet it tiioio aud tnere, until prtscnily ho will ccaso to dm Ibe 
crip]>lcd limb alto{;ethcr, nnd i>cH(it'm his tnivoling entirely on tbreelest. 
The nciiti) chameter of llic Inmenesit will vary in de^reo as (he H>t 
of tliu Icsiuu approximates the acetabulum. Ju walking, the motiuu aX 
the hip ia ver>' limited, nnd the leg fa drnggctl, while nt rest it la »- 
lieved from bearing its sliiiro in suslnining the hotly. An intcltiKeut 
opinii^ti and eurreet icoueluxiuii will di^miul largely upon a kuowUnlgc 
of the history of tbo case, and while in Komc iustances that will bo hat 
11 rejtort of the common etiology of frncliin'f, sneb a» hiowa^ htiila, iitd 
other cclernal violence, the t^iniple fnet of n fall may furiiiab :u n sinjjle 
woixl a. satisfactory Kotutiou of tbc whole matter. 

With the exception of tlic deformity of the ilium in a fracture of Ui 
e:clenm1 angle, and nnle^.s there have been n trerioiis liiccratian of tu* 
sues and intiitration of Mood, or excessive disptacetnent, there are uo 
very dcfluito cxtetual symptoms lu a case ofa Iractutu of the hip trane. 
Tlieru IK one, however, which, in a majority of cases, wilt not fail — il: ii 
crepilation. Tins evidence l.s ottaimible by holb external and intt-ruul 
ex;uuiiiatiou — by manipulation of the gluteal surface and by rectal 
taxis. Very often a lateral motion, orbalaueing of the hinder iKirts hy 
pressing the body from one side to tbc other, will be snfntient to ren- 
der llio crepitation more distinct — a slight scusatiuu of grating, whJc 
niay ho pcrcclrcd eveu throngh the thick coating of muscle whi 
covers the bone — and the Kensalion may not only befell, but lu the 
of the expert may even become amlible. This exterual manifeiitati' 
is, however, not always suOicieut iu itM^lf, and fihould nlvraya be 
ciatetl with the rectal taxis for corroboratiou. it ia true that this ma 
fail to add to the evidence of fractuie, but till then the siaiplcleslluion 
aOVirdud by ihe detection of eri-pitation from the surface, though n 
fitroug conQriuatory point, is scarcely suQlcieally absolute to cslablijtb 
moro than a reasomtblo probability or strong suspicion in the case. 

In addiliou to the fiiet that the rectal exniniuntion brings the explopj 
log hand of the aiirgccu iuto near proximity to the desiretl imiot o^^ 
Bearch, and to au accurate knowlcdgeof thoaituatiou of parts, both j»ro 
aud con as respects bis own views, there is another advantage attend.- 
ant upon it which is well entitled to .ippreciation. Tiii^ is the fiuili 

with n-hicli be cad oTail bimseirortlie cooperation of an assistant, who 
cftD aiil tiiui bj QinnipnUtiDg tbc inipli cited limb and i)i.iciii£^ it iu ra> 
riouK positions, so Tar as tlie pationt irill iwrniit, ntiile llie Hiirgtmn 
bimsclf is tuatiijff csjiloratioDs niiU stiidyiiig the ofl'cct from witliia. 
By tbid Dietliod bo can batrdly fail to n!?^-ertaia the character of tbe 
ftnctnro and Ibo coDditlon of tbo bouy ends. By tbo rectal taxis, as if 
witli eyes in tbe finger ends, be will " see ^ vtXiat iB tbo extent of tbo 
fhictilrt: of tbo ilium or of tbo neck of tbat bono; to vrhat part of (be 
MDtral portion of tbo bone (the aeetabulnoa) it reaches; wbcther this 
is free from diRcn&o or not, and in xvbat location on the Uoor of tbo 
pelvis lb»^ lesion is sittiattd. Wo bnvo frciiiicntly, by this nietlio<l, liccu 
ftblo (o detect n fracturr at tbu synipbysis, ^vhicb from its history and 
ayinptODje and an citernal exatninatiou, could only bavc been guessed at 

Tet, u'itb nil its ndvautagcs, tbe rcctnl cxnuiinntiou is not uhvnya 
necessary, as, for example, vhen tbu fractciio is nt tbo posrerior and 
Qxtema] uogle of tbo isebium, wbcn by fticliou of Ibc bouy ends tbo 
flargeou may discern tbo crepitation iritbout it. 

Every \ariely of com plication, inchiding uiusculnr lacerations with 
tbe fiirnialioii of deep abscesses and injuries to tbo organs of tbo pelvic 
cavity, tbe bladder, tbe rectum, and tbo ulcnis, may bo associated 
nilli fractures of tbebip bouc. 

Ibo prognosis of tlieso lesions will UGCCssnrily vaiy considcratdy. A 
fntcture of Ibc most superlicial part of tbe bone of tbo iliiiui or of tbo 
bcbiuui, especially wbeietbcro is little displacement, will uuilo rapidly, 
leaviug a comparatively sonud auiuial often quite free from subsequent 
bimcuess. Bnt if tbero isiuucbdidplaceuiei)t,onIy&ligaDientous union 
will tate place, with much deformity and mor«j or less irregularily in 
(be gnil. Other fraclui-cs may be folloncil by complete disability of 
Ibc patient, as, for example, vben tbo cotyloid cavity is involved, or 
vben tbe reparatory process bos tefl bony deposits in tbo pelvic cavity 
at tbe lieat of tbe union, trbich may, n-ilb the female, interfere with tbo 
Btc|)s of parturition, or iiidueo sonic local paralysis by pressure niwn 
tbe nervea ivbivb govern tbe muscles of tbo bind le;rs. This is a con- 
dition not infrcqaontly observed wbon tLoeallos has been formed oa 
tbu flour uf tbe pelviJi ueur tbu obturator foramen, pressing tipou tbo 
conrse or involving tbe obturator nerve 

Tbu treatment of all fractnres of tbe hip bono sliould, in our estimik- 
tion, be of the simplest kind. Ecnderctl comparatively immovable by 
tlie tbiekuess of tbu musoles by which the region is euvelupiil, one es- 
sential indication suggestii itself, and tbat is, to place ibo auittial iu & 
poiutiou wbicb, us fur IIS {lossible, will bo Qxcd and peruinncut. For 
tbe accomplishment of this purpose tbe best measure, as wo consider it, 
is to pUinj him iu a stall of Just suflQcient width to admit liim, and to 
apply a set of filtngssongly, but comfortably. This will fulfill tbe cs^u> 
tiftl conditions of nH:ovcry, rest, and immobility. Ilbsteringnppbcft' 
tions would be injurious, though tbo adhesive mixture might prove in. 
some degree beneSc/a/. 


TliR miiiEtniirn porinil nllon-Ablo for solid union in a tVactnr^il liir>! 
in oiir juil^tiicnt, two monllis, »n(l wo Iiuve kiiowii cn.s<-it in wliicli llmt' 
ytaa too nliort u timv. 

As we liave l>Blbra said, tberA may bo cases in whioh the (reaimeol 
for fracture at the floor of tite pelvis has lieen followed by syminomsof ] 
jinrtiiil pamlj'NKi, thi; Hiiimal, wli(>ii lyinj; down, iK-iiic unable tu rcj^aiaj 
liis fvct, but moving fi^dy wlien placed it) an uprigbt posiUon. Tbis* 
eoDtlitiou is dim to Uio interference of tbe callua with tbe fnoctJ'onft of 
ibo obtnratoc iiervo, wbicb it presBOB upon or surroiiiuls. W« fvc\ war- 
ranted by onr experience in similar cases in cautioning owitcn* of hotSM 
in litis condition to cxcruieo duu patience, niiil to nvoid a pretuatnro 
Bi>nteii<:o of condenmntiou ngaiust llieir invalid servitnlti; tboy arp tint 
all irrecovpnibly piindyLic. With altcrDatioiis of iuo<lernto f xercise, rest 
in tbe slings, and tbo effect of time while tbe natiim] pn>ceNn »f absorp- 
tion is tailing «>QV-ct npou the callus, with otbtreleniCDts of change that 
may Uo bo opei-ntin;, tbe horse may in due time bcoomo nble to otiea 
mure earn bis flubsistcuco aud serve his master. J 

Fracture of the scapvla.—Tlih bono is seldom fractured, iia conipar4>" 
live exemption being duo to its (tec mobility and the protection it re- 
ceives from the snperimposed soft tissues. Only direct and powt-r'al 
causes nro snfncicnt to e.ll'cct the injury, and when it occurs the larg* 
rather than the ttmatlcr animals are the subjects. The canaps ure beavj 
blows or kicks, and violent collisions with nnyieUIinc objects. TboMi 
which are oocajtioncd by falls are generally at the neck of tbe boDe,^ 
of the traiisrerso and coniminntetl varieties. 

The diagnosis is not always easy. The symptoms are Innbib'ty to! 
the leg on tht^ jfroniitl and to carry weights, and tbcy ate present ll 
rorions degrees from slight to severe. Tbe leg rests upon the toe ao^ 
seems shortened, and locomotion is performed by Jumps. Moving tb« 
leg while examining it and raising the foot for inspection seem to pro- 
duce m»ub pain and cause the animal to rear. Crepitation ia readily 
felt with tho band npon the shonider when the li^g Is moved. If the 
fraetura occurs (u tho upper i»art of tbe bone, overlapping of the frag- 
ments and displacement will 1>e considerable. fl 

The fracliiru of this bone is tisually ctasiiisl among tbe more iorioarH 
nocident-s, though cases may occnr'which are fotloived by recovery wlth.- 
oul very serious idLiinate results, especially when the scat of tho injair 
is at some of the npper angles of tbe bone, or about theucromioQcreat 
But if tho neck and tho joint are the parts involved, complicatiooa ant 
apt to bo present which arc likely to disable the animal for life. 

If thero is no displacement n simple adhesive drvKsiiig, to strengthen:] 
and immobilixo the purta, will be suBicicnt. A coat of black pitch dl 
aolveil with wnic and Venice turpentine, and kept in place ori-r th«^ 
region with oakom or linen bandy, will be all tho tre»tmcut required, 
eftpc«inlly if tho animal is kept <|uipt in the slings. 

Disidacement cannot be remedied, aud reduction is next to impO«>. 



*^hlt. Sometimes ao Iron i»Ifitc is .ij-plifd over the pnrto and retaineii 
"5' liantlii^«-R, as in tlifi lirt'sjtirii; nl I'.oiirgolat ; and tliis niny Iw iidriii)- 
Itl^Qsljr ruplacui) by a {utd of thick leather. In smaller ttoimals tbe 
Pbls are retaiiietl b.r tlgnre H baiulages, enibraciafr both the norinal 
ttilUini di«na8A<l 8h()ulil«r», oro&Kui^ L-a«U oihor lu the axiUa aud uor- 
tml with a (Milting orudhusive uiixtiire- 

Fraeture* o/ the humcrtu. — Thi'st* an* more common in smiill th»D in 
largcanimal:), iinti iire atwaj's the result ofexterunl trauuiattsui. Thuy 
trp gcDcrally vury olilifiue, an,^ ofh-ii comRiinitted, and though more 
osuntly involving the Hhafl of the bone will iu some ciumm extviid to 
tbu upjier end nud into the articular head. There Is orxlinarily cou- 
8ider;ibh* displarieiinent in oonseqiicnoeof the overlapping nf the broken 
ends of the boue, and this, of course, causes moitt or Iciw tthortening of 
tbe limb. There will alao be swelling, with difflcaUy of loconiotion, 
anil cri'i>ilaiion will be easy of delfftion. This fniclure In alwa.vs a 
aerious damage to the patient, leaviug him witli a pcrmaueutly stiott- 
ened limbaad a rvmodilcsH, lifelong lameneas. 

irtrcatntent is determined on it will consist in the redaction of tbe 
fraclun; by iiieaus of extoiiKJon and counter extenBion. and in orilL-r to 
accomplish this tbe animal most be thrown. If successful in the redao 
tiou, then follows the ap[>1ication anil a^instment of tbo upparatns of 
r«leiilion, wliii:li must needs he of the most perfect and efficient kind. 
Ami Qually, this, however ekillfuUy •contrived and carofally adapted, 
will often fail to elTectany good purpose whatever. 

Pfacture of tke/oreartn. — A fracture in this region mfty also involve 
tlto nuliott or the cubitus, tiio llrst being broken at times in its upper 
portlou above tbe radio-cubital aruh at tbo oletirauou. If the fraclure 
occurs at any part of tbe forearm from the radio-cnbital arch down to 
the knee, it may involve eiilicr tht; radius alone or the radius and the 
cubitus, which arc there intimately united. 

Besides having the same etiology with moat of the Oactures, those of 
th» fortfarm are, nevertheless, more commouly due to kicks from other 
auim»U, vMpei^ially when crowdeil together in large numbers in inituffi- 
lucut space. It is a matter of observation that, under these circau- 
stances, fraetures of the incomplete kind are those which occur on the 
inside of the leg, tbe Itone being in that region almost entirely subcu- 
tatieous, whilH those of the complete class are cither oblique or trans- 
verse. The least comoiou are the longitudinal, iu the long axis of the 

This variety of fracture is easily rocngnizcd by the appearance of the 
Irg and ihu diQV-renL changes it undergucs. There is iuability to use 
tbuUmb; impossibility of locomotion; mobility below the iojury; the 
reu>Iy det4.'c:ioii of crepitation— in a word, the assemblage of all the 
signs and symptoms which have bceu already considered as associated 
with tbe bitilory of broken bones. 

The iVauiure of tbe cubitus aloue, principally above the radio ciibibaL 



nrcl), may be ascertained by the nggrarated lamcnesji, tlio a< 
eorciiess oa pro&snn!, and iierbaps a ocrlaiu lucrva>ie »f uioliov, vah i 
very alight crepiiation if tested for in tlie osual way. UisplaccMUt 
is not likely to take place except when ic is well up tovartls the ole- 
crnDDii or its tabcrosity, the npper secmetit of tbe bono Iwiitg ia tliat 
case likdy to Iw drawn upwanl^ For a simple fmvtnru of Lliis rvglon 
there exists a fair cbaace of recovery, but in a case of llic coniposal 
ODil commiuuted class tlieie is less grouud for a farorahlc jnosiioiit, 
e«pei;ially if the cUkiw joint li;i8 siift'ered injury. A fnittiiro of tl"e 
cubituH aloue ia not of serious importauee, except when tbe samucoi' 
dif ions pmrail. A. fracture of tbe ok-craoou is less aincuablu lo IKIA- 
mcnl, and promiACB little, better than aliijamcutoiis union. 

ConsidprtDg all tbo viirioiis conditions involving tho nature nail Ea- 
ten t Of tb(.>so lemons, the pusiUou and direction of the boneu u'[ti»i*tt' 
arm arn such as to render tho chance* for recovery from frnclare •* 
amo»2 tho best. The reduction, by extension and conuter exlcusl*"! 
the m.itutcuauce of the coaptation of tho segments; tbe adapliiic" 
of tho drciising by splintK, oaknnt, and ugglutiimlivu uiixtun't; kn 
a word, all tho dtttails of trcatuieut may be hetu fulOIlvd with ■ 
degree of facility aufl precision not attainable in any othirr part o( 
tbe organism. An important if not an essential point, bowcvtir, 
must be einphaiiized in rt-gar-l to tlio splints. WbelLer tliose are uf 
metal, wood, or other material, they should reach fruiu tlio elbav joint 
to the ground, and should be placed oa the posterior fuce and on both 
Sides of the le^. This is then to be socoutlued In a properly coustracted 
box as to preclude nil possibility of motion, while yet it nttist eu&taiti 
certain portion ol" the ivcighi <il tim liwiy. The irrm splint (represent 
lu riatc X-XVII) recommended by Uoargclct is desicued for fractures 
of the forearm, of tbe knee, and of the cannon bone, and »ill pidvc lOj 
be an appliance oi' great value. For small animals our preference i» [* 
an external covoriog of gattu ituruha, embracing tbe entire h*g. 
sheet of ttiUsabstaacQ of suitable thickness, acconling to theatzeor 
animal, softened in lukewarm water, is, when snRlcientiy pliable, ta 
on the outside of tho leg, and when suddenly h.-irdcue^I by the applies 
tiou of cold water Ibrnis a complete caaiugKuflicienlly rigid to resiat all 
motion. Patients treated in this manner have been able to uai: tbe 
limb freely, vilhoat pain, immcdiiitely aftrr the application of tho 
dressing. Tbe removnl of tbe splint is easily effected by culling it 
away, either wholly or in Ructiouj;, after softening it by immeniiug 
leg iu a warm bath. 

Frtwture of the knee. — This accident, happily, is of rare occnrrence, 
bat when it takes place is of a severe cbarnctcr, being of tbe cotnmii- 
nuted kind, and uln-ayx ticcoiiipiinie<l by sjuoviliii, with disease of t 
joinl, requiring for treatment therefor, besides the indiciitiou of perfi 
immobility of the joint, that of open joints, synovitis, and arthritis. 

Frticture of the femur. — The prutection which this bone recelrea ftoiQ 


B large ranss of muscles iti wliicli it is enveloped 

invest it nitb imniuuiiy in rc^^aril to fcactun-s. U roDtribuli's it^itibare 
o tb« list of flcciilcDte of tlib dcscriplioD, sometiruea in consequence of 

ioxtprnal violoiire aud 8oiiieliui«s »» tlie retiuU of luiiscular coutrncliou ; 
omi'liuies it takes \i\ac6 at Uic upper extrrmity of (he bone; soiui-liiiies 
t the lower; sometimes at the head, nben llie comtjlca become iiiipli- 
ak-<|; hut it is ptiucipnlly found iu the bod.v or dini<h>ai3. The frnc- 

t.iirc* niny be of mi; of tbu oidiiiary forma, siinplo or com |K>ui)<I,ciMiiplete 
JDconiplrte, trnosrerse or oblique, etc. A case of the nunmiDutcd 

X'urtoly \* recorded in wbicU ci^bty-livefnigtueutHorboiif vrerecouiilvil 

nnd reniovctL 

Tlie- ilnekiiessof tlie mascnlar covcriDji somotiiucs rciulcrs tbe tliag- 

tjoiii.s iljllicult by iDterfeniig with tbe in.-mi|}uIutioUr bat the erepitalton 

ijeai in TCdilily availiible even wbeu the snelliag ia oousiderublu and 

"Which ifl likely to l>e tbe case aa tbe re^iult of tbe interstitial hi-niorrbago 
which iiiitorally follows the laceration of the blood vessels of the rc^iou' 
iuvc^v-ed. If the fracture is at Uui iieck of the houe tbe muscles of that 
ref;ii>u (tbo gloteal) are firmly coulractcd and the lej^ seems to b,;fiburt- 
«ued iu con^qaeuco. Locomotion is im])o^»ible. Crex>itatiou may in 
toaie cnsea be discerned by rectal examination, ^itb one hand restiuj 
ot-er the coxo femoral (dip) articiihition. Fractures of tho tuberosities 
of the upper end of tbo bone, the great tn>e1iaiiter, may be identiQed 
by tbe deformity, the 8welliug» the impossibility of rotation, mid' the 
dragging of the leu; in n-alkiug. Fracturo of tbo body is always aocoui- 
fuiiiied by iliRplacemvut, and as n consequence a shortening of tho leg, 
nbicU is carrivd forwanl. The lamenesa in exec^Kive, the foot bctug 
morcil, liotli nhcu raising it from the ground and when setting it dovru, 
very timidly nud cautiously. The mauipulatious for the discovery of 
or«itilalioii :dway>4 c:nii<e much pain. Lesions of tbo lower end of tho 
bone are more difljcuU to diujjnostieatu with certainty, thongb the 
mauifcAlalion of pain while making heavy pressure upon tbe coudylea 
viU be tM> marked that ouly crcpitatiou will be needed to turn a sua- 
piclon intoacertaitity. 

Xbn question as to trentmcnt in fi-acturea of this deseriptioo teKolvex 
itself into the query nbclherany treatment can l>o nnggcsted that can. 
avail anything practically as a curatiro measure, whether, upon tho 
bypolbesis of reduction as an accoiupltsbeil fact, any permanent or eOi- 
cicnt device as » means of retention is \ritbiu the scope of human 
iogeunity. If tbo reduction weru kiiccvah fully perfornied vould it lie 
pnsnibtc to keep tbe parts la place hy any Uuowu mcuus ut our dis- 
posal T At tho best the most favorable result that could lie anticipated 
Tould be a rctinioa of the fragments, with a considerable shortening of 
the bone, and a helpless, liiupiu;;, crippled animal Iu remind us that fur 
bniiian achievement there is a " thus tar, iiU<l no faillier.'' 

Iu small Haimals,hovrevcr, attempts at treatiDC tit are JusliSable, and we 
arecouviacvd that iu mauy cases of diOiculiy in the applicatiuu of spliata 



And liaiulnfeH n paflpnt raaj be pl;i(»>d In a condition of nndtata; 
qiiiL-t atial IvfE to tbo processce nf natnra for '*tri>atiut*riL'' asitiiri^,v 
witli UM gcMKl DD a.s$aranceof afuvorabli' result as if be bml ham »ii^ 
jc'cteil to the moat heroic seaundHui artcm docrtoriug known toMMf* 
Ad a vube in point, we may mentiou tlie ome uf a pn;guiintl>itcli «1u(^ 
suffervil a fracture of tUe upiwr end of tlio femur by beiuj; run overhj 
a Hglit Wilson. Her " treatment" consisted Id being tied np in aIaT{0 
box iind let iilune. In due Lime she was duUvcred of a fuiuil^- of pap- 
pics, nud in tliree weeks sbe was rauning in tUe streets, lliaping Tecj 
Jtligliliy, am) iiutliinj]; tbe worec for licr accident. 

Fracture o/ the patella. — Tbis, fortanntely, is a rare accident and cikn 
only ri'siiU from direct vinlenci*, as a kick or other l>lo\v. Tin* Inmeaen 
wbiuh follows itiHaccouipaoied withc-noruious tuniefac-tiou of tbd joint 
and ili»«iiHe of tbe articalation. The proguosiB is nunvoidnbly adverse, 
de^iruetlou being tbe only termiiiatioo of an incurable and very paio* 
ful injury- 

Fractures 0/ tke (Mia are probably more ftequenlly eticonnto 
tlinu liny otliera among the clans of accldeota we are considering. Ag 
with iujiities of tbe forearm of a like character, tbey may bo uuinplete 
or incomplete ; tlie former wlien the bono is broken in lbt« middle or at 
tbe extrt^inilictt, and trauttverau, oblique, or longitudinal. Tbo idcuiD' 
plete kind ore more common In Ibis bone than in any otbor. 

Complete fhictures are e.nsy to recognize, either with or without dhi- 
placement. The animal is very lame, and tlin leg is either dr.igy:eil or 
held np clear from the ground by flt-xiou at tbe stiQe, while tbe lowet 
part bangs down. Carrying weight ormoving iKtckwards is impoMi- 
ble. There is exoessive mobility below the fraclure and well-marked 
crepitation. If there is much displacement, aa in au ublitjae fracture, 
tburc will be ooiiKiib>riible Hborteuing of the leg. 

While incomplete fractures can not be recognized in tbe tibia wjtfa 
any greater degree uf certainty tban in any other bone, Uiero are scmm 
facts associated with them by wlncli adin<roo8is may be jusUDed. Tbe 
byprttbetical history of a case may serve an an illnstration: 

Au animal bos received au iQjui->' by a blow or a kick uu the inside of 
tlio Ihiiu>, perhajts witliout showing any mark. Becoming very lame 
Iniiiiediately afterwanls, be is allowed a few days' rest. Being then 
tnkcn out again, lie ifepni» in bare reoororod his tionuducAS, but wiibia 
a dny or two hv betrays a little sorenese, and this increasing be be- 
oomois very Inme again, to be furloughed onec more, with tbe roitult 
of a leiiiporarii' imprt^tvouieiit. and again a ri'tiirn to labor anil SLgain 
a reln)\se of tbe lameness; and tbis nltornatiDU scfms to be tlio rote. 
Tbo leg being now cnrefUUy examined, a local periostitis ie readily diA- 
ooveriMl at the |M>iiit of the injury, the ]>&rt being warm, nwollen, and 
pnitiful. What further proof is neeesaarj* 1 Ik it not evident that a 
friioturD baa occurred, flrsi superficial — a mere split lu tbe bony stnio 
turd wbicb, fortunately, baa beeu duoovervil before some extra exertton 


or A casaal misstep bad developed it into one of tlie complete bind, 
pciKMibly witli c«]iiip1i(!ntiDns T W)mt other inference ciin sued a sorieg 
of syaiptoms thna repeated establish 1 

The pmsuonis of friictitre of the tihia must, as a rule, be niifavornble. 
TheditHcnlty of obtaining a nnion without shortening and coDscquctitly 
without lamoiio&a, is proof of the futility ofunliriury »t1e»i|)tH at trput- 
inent. But though this may be true iu respect to fractures of the com- 
plete kind, it its nut lu^cti^arily mi with the inuomplute variety,and with 
this class the simple treatment of the sliogs is all that is ncci-Bsnry to 
set!uro cousolklatiou. A few weelcs of this coiiQuoincut will bu suffl. 

With doga and other small animaU there arc casen whtoh may be 
snccessfully treated. If the neceiuiary dressings can be sQceessrully a[>- 
plied and rotiuiifMl, n euro will follow. 

FtactureM of the hock. — InjiirieH of the astragalus have twen reeorded 
which had a fata] tenuiuatiou. Fractures of the dk calciNhavralso been 
Obaerred, bat never with a favorable prognosis, and attempts to induce 
recovery have, as miRbt have been anticipated, prorcd fntile. 

Frartitret of the cannon hnntg. — Whether these occur in Iho fore or 
btiul legs they appear oitUer Iu thu body or near their cxtrt-milics. If 
in the bo<ly. as a rulo the three metacarpal or metatarsal are aim af- 
fected, and the fracture is generally transverse ond obliqne, nnd oneo 
eompimnd, one of thi> sef^mcntfi protruding Kliar]ily throngh the skin. 
Elaviiig uuly the skin fur a covering tbetltagnosU is easy. There in no 
displacement, bat excessive mobility, crepitation, inability to suslnfo 
weight, and the lofr ia kept off the ground by the flexion of the upper 

Mo region of the body affonla better faailities for the appHcatton of 
treatment, and the prognosis is, on this account, usually favorable. 
We recall acuso, however, which proved fatal, though under exceptional 
clrcuniHtanceH. The patient vim a vahialite Htallioa of higlily nervous 
org^ini nation, witb a comiiound fracture of one of the cannon hones, and 
bit uncouquerablo rcRtstancii to treatment, excited by tbeinteiiNR pain 
of the wound, precluded all chance of recovery, and ultiiualely caused 
bis ileath from nervous fever. 

The general form of treatment for these lesions wilt not differ from 
that which has been already indicated for other fntctun-s. KciliicUon, 
6ometimc«t uocc«sitating the casting of the patteutj oouptttion, com- 
paratively easy by reason of the subcutaneous situation of the l>one; 
retention, by means of spllutA and banilages — applieil on both (tides of 
the n!gi(io, and reaching to the ground as in friictnresof tliefurearni— 
these are alwa:rs iuUicatcd. We havvobtaiuctl excellent n-snllK by the 
lue of n mold of thick gutta perchn, composed of two sections and 
mnile Iu surround the entire lower part of the leg as In an luOexIble 

Fraetuu of the firat pkalatuc. — The hinder extromitj- is more liable 


tlian the fore to tliis injury. It is usnally tbe resnlt of a Tiol«nl eft"^ 
or of a tnuliUn misstep or tnistlDg of tbe log, ami may be tran»ven«. 
or, as b(i8 usually been tlie case in oar txperieDOo, longilQiliniil,exu«^ 
iu^ from the npper articular snrfHcedovu to the center of thebone.xiul 
geticmlly oblique and often comminntii). The SYmptA>ui8 are thofiittD- 
iug mid tcudcniesa of the region, possibly crypUiiliou ; a ocrtiuunbiMih 
diaI mobility; ait excessive decree of lameaess, and in some iofitinui 
dmjipiog )»ick of the fetlock, with pcrhn]>3 a atraighteuedoruprigU 
coudittmi of the pasCi-rn. 

Till) dilliculty of rednction and coaptatiou in this oeuideat, auiI tba 
jiroliabitily of bouy deposits, as of rlugboaes, resulting in Iouicucm, 
lire eirvumstnitces which tend to discourage a favorable prognoato. 

TiiR trcatiiit^ut is that which ha» Ih>vu ri-t!uii)metul[*d fur nil fractnrea, 
11% fur ns it can be applied. Tbe iron splint which haa been meotiotwd 
gires excellent results in many iDstaQces^ but if the fracture is tncoia- 
pleto iind witliotit displacenieut :i form of tre:ittneiit le^s cnergolio and 
severe should be attempted. One case in wltliin our knoa'ledge in 
wtiich the offucr of nn injured horse lost his property by liis refusal to 
ant^ect IhonntmiU to trentmont, the jiMfniorfem revealing only a &iiD{ile 
ftnctuiv with very Hliglit disphiceiiieiit. 

t'laetvrex of the coronet — Though these ara generally of the cod* 
minuted hind, there are often couditiouB nssocintcd with them whidi 
justify Ihu siiriri*ou in ntteoiptiug their In-atmeat. Though crepitation 
i« not always euKy lu detect, the excesi^ivu limieuesa, the Rorcncu on 
prt'Kanre, the InnblUty to carry irelgbt, the difficulty oxpetie-uced in 
raUhig the fintt, all tbeite suggest, as the solution of the question of 
diitgtio.sii'f the frai^ture of the coronet, niih the accompanying rcalixa- 
tioii of the fact that there is yet, by reason of the situation of the tnen)- 
lier, buinnbilixed as it is by its structuraand its surrouudingit, room 
left for^i not nnfhrorable pro;:»05i«. Only a sligbt maiiipulatiou wiFl 
be needetl in the treatment of this lesion. To reader tho imumbiliiy of 
tbe region mora fixed, to support the tmucs in their position by band- 
aging, and tocAtikbti^h forced immobility of tbe entire hody with Iho 
allugs is tiHually all that is required. Hingbouc, Iteing a common ae- 
qavliiof the ivpanitive process, uu^t reeeirodae attcuiiou aubseqacutiy. 
Oneof tbe severest complications likely to tie encoaotered is anchylosis. 

fVacMMm 0/ ti* M j)e(i«.— Tliongh these lesions are not of very rare 
oooarrenro their reoogniiiou is not easy, and there is more of specula- 
Uou tbau of certainty pertaining to their diagnosis. The animal ia 
very lame, and, a^ much as iMwaible, s]iar«s tbe injured foot, sometimm 
nsliug It n|Miu the toe atoiw and sooieiimes not at olL The foot t> 
very tender, and the expl»rtug pincers of the examining ani^^eoo auuM 
much pain. There is nothing to cuconntge n favorable prognoais, 
a not tmufnal temiiDntton is an anchylosis vith eitJier (be Bavieal 
bone or thi< roronet. 

No method of trcatmuuk neots to be aaggcstcd bcrc, Ui« iMnf 


fonnlog tlie oIBce or retention anaidiHl. LocAl treatinCDt by batliA and 
fotui-tiialioiiH will do tliu rest. It luaj- bo uioiitUs before tUere is any 
iui[ig4t(oa of Llio lameness. 

Fracture «f the s^amoid frouM.— This lesion baq been consiiieri'il by 

Vflehnarians, errouoously, wo tUink, ouo of raie oocun-encni. We t>e- 

licvu ic to be more froqiKMit tltiin Iiaa bcvn 8U|i|>osi-d. Miiny obscrxa. 

tloiutand careful di&scvliuiis liuvcuonviuued ua that fractures of these 

Itttli) boDOS have often been iui8tu.lEen for speoiOo leaioua r* tbe uumeis 

oa; ligninouts that arc iu[iIaDtvUii[>oD tlioir suporiorand inftirior inrCH, 

anil which have been described as a '* giviiij; way " or " breaking don u " 

of tbcsu ligatucala. lu our post mortem exaniiaatioos ve liAvo alvraye 

DOted tbe tict that wben ihe »tt:ichiaeiiU of tbo ligamoats were Cora 

from Lbcir bouy cannoetions luimto frnguicuts of bony structure were 

alM scpnmtOil, tbough wo liiivu failed to detect any ditwaiicd pruu;ss of 

the Il!)rou» tissue composii)^ lliu li^-anientous subsliiiico. 

From whatever cause this lesi<;j may arise, it can hardly be coiisid* 
erod oitof atraumatic nature, no exterual violence baring any apparent 
agency in producing it, and it ta our ttclief that it is due to a pccilHilf 
dc;;i-neratiuti nr Hoftcniut; of the bonus tliemsulvea, a theory which ac- 
quires plausibility frooi tbe coastderatiou of the ai)o:}gy consisteocv of 
the scaanioida. The disease ia a peculiar one, and the suddenucKa with 
vhicli dtlTurcot feet aro successively iittjiekeil, at Hfaort intervals and 
without any ubviom aiuse, seems to prnvc the exialencoofsoiuc latent 
morbid cause which has beuD unsaspectcdly iiiuubatiD;;. It is not pe- 
enllnr to any particniar ela^ of horses, nor to any special season of the 
year, having fallen under onr observation in eiujh of the four seasora. 
Thi* (•rnci-al fact is reported iu tbe hiatory of a majurily of ciise^ that it 
uakca its api>carance without premouillou in aaimala which, after en- 
joying a considerable period of rest, arc first exorcised or put to work, 
tbonghiu puiutof fact it may manifest ilxell' while the horse is still idle 
in hia stable. A. bypotlietical cose, in illnatratioD, will exphtin our 
tbeory : 

An animal which bus been a* rest in his stable is tjikeu oa^ to work 
and it witt bo presently noti(u^d that (bare is something uunsnal in his 
moreuient. His gait is changed, and he travels with abort, mincing 
Steps, without any of hU accustomed eaae and frceilom. Tbia may coa< 
tiuue until his n^tnpii to tJie stable, and then, after being placed in his 
stall, be will bo noticed shil'ling hiit weight froiu side to sidi* and from 
ouo lug to another, continuing the movement until rupture of the bony 
etructure takes place. But it may happen that the lamcuenti lu one or 
luorc of the exLremitica, anterior or posterior, HuddtMiIy increiueH, and it 
becomes evident that tbe ruptui-e has taken place in consequence of a 
mJTt^stop or a atainble while the lior»e is at work. Then, upon coming to 
a atan<lstdl, he will be found with one or more of his toca turuwl up— ho 
iti unable to plaoo the nflVeted foot flat on the ground. The fetloi-k has 
tlroppctl tmd the leg leuts upon this part, the skin of wUicli may have 

wrBSTiiM iiitart or may bavo been more or less eTtSnsireiy lacora' 
It si-ldum liiipiK-.tiH that muni tliuii Olio too at a tiiui^ will turn i]|i, > 
etill the lesion in otm will bo rollowed b; its oocarrcDco in auoilier« 
Oommouly two Teet ot a biped, tUo auterlor or pusuirlor, ur« aflWrti-il,' 
ami wo recall one case in wfaicli tlie tvo fore nut) one of the bind li-|;a, 
irero included at tbo naitto time. Th<> nccidotit, liowcvor, is qnitd 
likeljr to liappeii while the honw is »t rost in his stiill, aad lie may 
found iu the luorniug standing on his fetlocks. One of (be earlicxt 
tins CA^c-s otxriirring in our own experience bail I>een ander our care foe 
uovoral wocbrt for aii.-i[)ccted (li*!«H<! of llio fetlocks, the uatnre of wbieh 
bod not been made out, when, n))parent|y itaproTcd by tho troatmcfit 
wliiL'ti he lifid nnderjjone, the patient was luken out of the Htnltle tn Ito 
wnlUi'd a short di^ance into the conntry^bnt h;id little more than start* d 
vheu ho was called to a bait by the fnicture of the tiesauioids of both 
fore le^s. 

While there are no positive premonitory symptoms known of tbew 
frnctnres we beliere that there are signs and symptoms which come 
biib little short of beiug so, and the »pi»oaranoe of whteh will always 
justify a strons suspicion of the truth of the caso. These have bi-eD 
Indicated when referring to the soreness iu standing, the short ^ mtao. 
lug** gait, and the tenderness betrayed when pressure is made orer the 
scetamoids on the sides of the fetlock, with others lesa tangible and 

These injuries can never be aeeoanted lesa tb»a serious, and in oof 
f adjfmeut will never be other than fatal. If our theory of tbetr pathol* 
ogy is the correct one, and the canso of the lesions is tnily the soften- 
ing of tho sosamoidal l>ony stracture and indeiK^ndent of uny chaogea 
in tbo ligamentous tiber», the possibility of a solid o^seaus untoa caa 
h;inlly beconsiderod admiaslble. 

Iu respect to the treataiont to be recommendal and instituted It con 
only bo employed with any rational hope of benefit during the incnltt' 
tioii, and with tho anlicipntory purpose of prevention. It mast tje tag' 
gODtiHl by a suspicion of the I'eritieH of the case, and applied Itcfore a^y 
rupture has taken place. To prevent this and to antagonix<< the caogea 
wliicb might pnniipitale the (inid oatafttriiplu- — the rlevattou of tlio 
toett— resort must be bad to the slings and to the apphciition of flm 
bjLudugca or spliuttt, perhaps of plaster of Paris, with a high shoe, as 
about tho only indications which science and iiatnre are able lo offt-r. 
When the fnicturo la an occurred ercut, and the toes, uiie or more, am 
turued up, any fUrther resort to treatinout will be futile. 


Three olaaaea of injury will be consideml under this head. Tbeae 
Ar«, affeotions of the synovial ano! those nf the Joint structures, or of 
tbo 1mhi(>4 and their artteular surfaws, ami those forms of solution uf 
ooutiuail^' knovu as dislocations or luxations. 



Diteaxetof the gjfnotiat tact. — ^Xto fonos of nffection bcre pr«seot 
theaiMtilves, uut? liclogtle raaultof nnaViiiornDlsccroltnnwhioliimtiices 
> (IrojiHical couilitiou of tbosac wilbont aoy nciKe tnllaniinatory actiotii 
vbile the other tit charactoHxrd by osf-fKi^iYo inilamuiatoiy Kymptoiua, 
*ilb their luoilillcntions, constiltitiiit; synovitis. 

Sj/noriol tiropnieii. — We have already cousidered in a general way the 
preiM^uceoftUvsctt^cultaroil bags ill the joiuts, and iu some regions of (he 
lugs where the l>nss;if;o itf ttie tciidoitK Ijihcr^ phuT, iiiiil liiive tiotircd Uio 
similarity ofstrnctiirc aud functinii of hotli (he ;irticiihiriiiid the tcndi- 
ootu barHa>, as wc>ll aa the otiulogy of their lujuries and their patholog- 
ical history, and we now propose to treat of the affections of hoth. 

TTtVA/rt i/«. — This name it; {::wt:n to Ihii diluteih Inir^ie futiud at the 
{XMterior part of the fetlocic joint. 'Ihey have their orifiiu in a drop- 
flicwl twuditioii of the bursio of the joint Itself, and also of the tendon 
which elides Iwhiad it, ami are therefore fintlier linnwn hy the dcslg* 
oatioDS of artictflitr and tendinous. 

They apiwar in the form of soft and soruewhat symmetrical tnmora, of 
varyiag dimensions, and geucrnlly veil dcflQcil in their circnniferencc. 
Tliey are more or tense, according to Ihe aiunntit of -sceretion they 
contain, apparently becuiniug aufteraKthe foot is taistd and the fctloclE 
Qexcd. Usually they nro painless and only cnnse )aincnc68 undit cer- 
tain coaditious, as when they began to devc!o|> tbcu>seIvos wntlcr the 
Btimolnsof inflnmmatory nclion,or when largo enough to iuterlVrfl with 
the ftmctloDKof the tendonx, or again when Ihey have nridcrgouc cer- 
tain pathological changes, ancU as calciflcation, which i6 amuug their 

Windgalls may henttrihnted to external eini(;es,«neh an severolaUor 
or strains resulting from heavy pulling, fast driving, or juaiping, or 
lliey may b^ among the ee<inelfB of internal diuonlers and appear aa re- 
ealtaata of a pleatJtic or pneumonic attack. 

Au uuneeesfiary auiouul of nnxteiy is (tometimea experieneed respect- 
ing these growths, with much qnestioning touching the expediency of 
their n-inoval, all of whirh might bf sjiart'd, for n bile they constitute a 
blemish their nnsighttiness will not hiudcr the nscfnlncss of the animal, 
and iu any ease they mrely fall to show themselves easily amounblo to 
treat mpiit. 

When in their acute Stage, and when the dropsical condition is not 
eseessWe} pressure by bundages, slight alcoholic fk-ictlonA, sweating, the 
use of liniments, or ]>erhap8 a stiff blister of the ordinary kind will ac- 
complish all that will be de.sired. It will subdue t\u'. innmiiiualioa and 
abate the soreoens, and perhaps if the animal is not too soon returned 
to labor and exposed to tho same causes by vrhfch tbey were before in- 
duoeil, the excess of seort^tion will ho absorbed and the walls of the site 
Btreugthi-ned, and the wlndgall will[>ear. 

Hut if (be intlammation has U-como chntnic, and (he eulnrgcment baa 

becQof oon8i<lcrabIcdnratioi],tho uegatife course will be the wiserone. 

11035 21 


If nay licnoflt rcKiilts fmin tr»nti]i4>nt fc will be of only a IranBlent 1 

the ililnLutiuii ix-turniug whtia the patient \» again siibjectofl to XjSvst^ 

uiitil it will be a fortnuate circutustaocu it iullatniuuUon Luti tiot aupcx- 


Rut iintiviMis(;uiiIiiif; thn geiu-nilly bcDJjjnatit nature of the tu 
there are exceptional fas*'*, usimlly ulien it is prolnihly uiiilerguiiigi 
tain i>atholot;ic;il cbuuj^cs, wbicb may result iu lamcoess aiid itisalito 
the nnimut, in vrhiuh c:uie Rur«ieal trcntment \riH Ite liuUealed, («pt>cially 
if rc'iteated bU:$ter» bnre failed to improve the syniptonis. Firing \%, 
then n i>rri>m)neDt Kncperttioii, nnil many n useful life bim receireil a 
Dew least! ius the result of this operation timely performed. Tbe ufieni- 
tiou, which eoDsistaificiuptyiDg the sac by mejtits of puneturesi tbroagb 
null throngh, made witb a reil-bot nctHlle or wire, iiad the sobseiineot 
iujei!lJOii into tbe cjirity ofeertikin irritittiut; aiul nltemtivucomiMiUDda, 
deeigneil to effect ita closorc by exciting adheMvo inllainiiiation, Kfieh 
ns tfneture of iotlinc, i>i:iy be l-oiii mended ; but they are all too nrtii 
and energetic in their effects and retiuire tooiniirh !«p«[*iul alteurioii au( 
iutelligiMit oianaguoieut to bo to any bauds other tbau tba«i 
on expert vcterii)nrinu. 

BUuhI aparin atttl VioroughpiM, — The oomplicatcd armnjiicmcnt of tl 
hock joint, and the povcrfnl tendons which pass on the posterior pai 
are labrlcated witb tbe proiluct of M!cretIou from one tcudiuuussy novii 
and several articular t^yuovial encs. One large articular sac coutrt butt 
to the Inbrication of the shook bou« (the tibia-) nud the bones of Uie 
beck proper (the nslragiiliis). Tbe tendiiioiiH Rau \\v» back of tlio nrlto- 
ulation itscirnn(1extendsu|>wanlKiini1 down wards iu (be ptxivc of that 
joint through which tbe tlcxor (eudon.s slide. The dihitatiou of this 
arlieuhir synovial sac is what i$ denominated blood spaviit, t bo term 
tboroughpin being appliud to the dilatntion of tbe tcndinonK c-apsole. 

The Mooil spavin is situated ia front and a little inwuid of tbo liock] 
tbe tliaiYinjchpiu is fi>und at thr back and on the top of tbr hork. Tb( 
former is round, smooth, well dcfiucd, pnutcntiog on itn onter snrfai 
rnuuiug fniui below upwards, a vein whieb is wore ur lyss prominent i 
tho bursa is more or less dilated, and it is from this coiispicnoiis Id 
TesBcl that Uiti tuuiur derives its name. Tbe thoroughpiu is also rouai 
and smooth, but not so rognlarly formed, on each side and a little 
front of tbe tendons in that part of the bock known as the " IioIIowk,' 
immediately ''aek of the posterior faci- of the tibia or sbank bone. 

Iu their general characteristics these luuiors arO' similar to winHgalls* 
and one discriptiou of tbe origin, syniptoms, pathological cbuiigea, and. 
tteutmeut will serve for all equally, except that it is possible for a blood 
spavin to cause laiitencss^ and tbns (o involve u venliet of unsoandncM 
in the patient, n ciixumsiaucc which will of course justify ttsdoMiAca* 
tion by itself as a severer lonn of a single tyjio of disease. 

We have already refurred lo the snbjert of trr.ilmeut and the ni«nDl 
employed — rest, of course— with liuimeuts, Ldistora, etu.^ and nbat wa 


as UiD most aettve and beiicQcial of aoy, eariy, deep, and treW 
cauterua^i^m. Ttiere ;ire, besides, commcii'lntorj reports of 
>f ti¥Atiui?DL by the aiiplicatJon ur |>a(ls »uil piieuliiir baii(la]*i>s 
Vpoa tUe liouks, iiml it h el:iimeil tliat tlie removal n( itie rnniorji has 
boeu affected b>- their utte. Bui uur ctperieiicu vitU tliiH aii|>nRitiis lias 
net beeo nccomiMttied by sucb farorable results as vouU Juittify our 
tailonwment or lUe tlatterlng rei)t'esoutiUioqs wUich buve tuiiuvLiiiits 
appeuml in itn lieliair. 

Of<n joint* — liroken knees— SynocUia — ArthrUla. — The uoarucsanf tho 

nlations irliicU i>sUt-l)etweeD these eerural nRectioiis and tbeiv appareut 

iertiiiii n» iierliujts siKrces-^ive develop aioi its of a stinitar if not an 

BUtially idi^nticitl onjftu, wicU tliu adviiiiUgc tu be ({HiiMid by tUu 

aroiilniice of frcriiieiit repetitlou in tUe details of ttymptnms, Ireatmeutf 

etc-, are our reasons for treatinf; nuder a sialic bead (be ailmouts we 

hai'e groajH'd tngplUer iu tin; present clinpt^r. 

Tbe great, coiupi-ebeuaive, couimoii cause whose effect is the disa- 
bility, soiuetiiiics perniHBent aud sometimes only of traiisieut duration, 
of chiefly the hoFRe amonir our domestic animals, is exteraal trauinatiam. 
BtuWH, bruise!^, hurts by nearly every I;ui>wii form of I'ioU'Uce, falls, 
kicks, lacerations, punctures — we may add compulsory sLwed iu raciug 
and cruel nTerloadiai; of draogbt animals — cover tbe entire izTOUud of 
tbe di-tease^ aud injuries of tb(; joiuls, doit rcceivin°;our coasideratioD. 
Iu ime case, ii worklu^ bursu milking; a miNstvp stumbles, uikI falling 
OD Itis knees receives aburl, variously severe, from a laere abrasiou of 
tbe skin Imi laceration, a division nf the tegument, » Klougb, niortifi- 
catuiTi, and the e8ca|)e of the synovial Huid with or witliont exjKtsnro of 
Ibe bones and tbi'lrarLietilai- cartilages. 

la another case an animal, from one cause or another, perhai>s an im- 
pativnl bum|HT, hits furmcd the habit or strikiugor pawiut; 1>ts uiuDi;cr 
vitbhiti fore feet until iullaiDuiatioii of the knee-joint is induced, first as 
a iittlesweUinf*, diffused, painless; then as a periostitis of tbe bones of 
the koee: later as bony deposits, then iHinene!).'*, nud flually the inipli- 
oBliou of the Joint, and r«llowinK all tbe various conditions of cariiitii. 

In another case a horse has received a blow with a fork from a care- 
less hostler, on or near ajojot, or has been kickc^l by a at-able com- 
lion, nith tbe result of n punctured wounil, at first luild-lookin^, 
ilcss, apittirently ivitbout inlbimmatioo, and uot yet causiug lame- 
ness, but which, iu a few hours, or it may bo not until a fev days, be- 
iiMt excessively painful, grows worse; the eiilim joint shells, prcs- 
iHy dlflcliargea, aud at hmt ii casi- of /tttjipuralire si/norttiM Is preKeiiltnl, 
with perliajMs diaeaue of tbe joint projier, and arthritis as a climax. The 
pym^itoina of articular injuries vary uot ouly iu tbe degrees of the hurt, 
boi^u th(! nature of tbe lesion. 

Or. the condition otbroken kaeea, reantttngas we b&ve said, may have 
for iUi starting' ]>oiat a mere abnihion of tbe skin — a scrntcb apparently, 
which dtsappeon without a lesoitiug scar. Tbe ii^ory may, however, 


havo been more severe, tbe Wow Iiearier, tlie fall aggruvatwl liy war- 
ring npon an iriygiiliir dnrrAce, or ttkarp or rou(*h object-, trltb tfiuinc 
orcutliii^ of tlie skin, niiil tlii» Iiiceralion may remain. AmonrtcriMl 
cnsti tliau tUo Srst ta dotp broug^bt to our itotico. 

Another time, i mined iiit^ly folloiriiig tliu acciilont^ or ftossibly oat 
sofiufl of the iraumatJOEi, tUe teudioous sacs maybe opeiieil, with tfc« 
escajte of tbe s^noria; or jvorse, the tendoni) wliich )>^iss iii front dftki 
buce are toru, tUo itiflamiuation lias spread, the Joint and Ug an 
swollen, tlie animal is heuoming very lame; Ajfuorifia litis set la. Wili 
this the danger becomes very great, for soon siippurntion will be ttUiy 
lisheil, the external nont of the articulation iiropt-r bt-oi»ae ulceratcxl, if 
it is not already in that state, and we find oarselves in the pi-oscoceof 
an open joint, with sappHratlre tynoviti* — that is, with the worst safnt 
the conditimis of diseased processes, because of the lialutlly nf the wp- 
pmaliou tu biToaiu inflllniled into every part of Iho joint, macerartsS 
the ligaments und irritating the cartilages, soou to l>e8noceed«d bytlior 
nleerntiou, with the de8triictioii of the aitieolar surface, or thelesioB 
of nlceraiirc arthritis, one of the gravest among all the ilisorders kiw« 
to the nnimat economy. 

Rot ulcerative arthritis and suppurative synovitis may Iw developeJ 
in other connections than ihat with open joints ; the simplest and ap> 
pareiitly most hiirniless pnnettires may prove to be cause sufflcicnt. 
Por example, n liorso may be kicked, perhaps, on the inside of tbs 
bock ; there is a mark and a fen* drops of blood to indlcatu the spot; 
he is put to work, apparently free from pnin or lamenep.';, and p«- 
forms his task wiih his usual ease and facility. But on the fulloiriD; 
Dioriiiaf; the hock is foniid to lie a little swollen and there in some stiff- 
iiesin. A liltle later on he betrays a degree of uneasiness in the lo^, and 
shrinks (him resting his weight upon it, uioviu^^ it up and dunn for 
relief. The swelling has increased and isincreasing; thepain is severe, 
and, finally, there is an oozing at the spot where the kick impinged of 
an oily li(]uid mixe^I with whitish dro])s of suppuration. The mischief 
is done and a simple, harmless punctured wound has expanded into ft 
case of ulcerative urthritlH and supimrative Kyiiovitis. 

From ever so brief and succinct description of this traumatism of the 
arlieulationa, the serious and biiportaut character of these lesions, irre- 
spective of which particalar joint is affected, will be readily nndcrstood. 
Yet there will l>e inotliQcations in the prognosis In d'Hercnt cases, io 
accordance with the pecaliarities of structure in the joint specially 
involved, as for example, it is obvious that a hotter resnli mny be ex- 
pected from treatment when but a single joint, with only its plain artio* 
uhir surfaces is the place of injury, than iu one whicli is comiwsed of 
several bones, ntiitod in a compl<Jx formation, as in the ko«o or hock. 
As severe a lesion ns snppnmtivo synovitis always is, and lui frequently 
fatal as tt proves to be. still cases ariso iu which the iuUammatloa, as- 
suuiiug a modified character and at length sabaidiog, the leaioa tvrmi- 

nat*H favorably ami lenvps tim animal with n conipamtKTly sun ml a-n 
DBeful joint. There an; cases, buwcver, which tiTiuiuatft iu uo more 
drorablc a result tbau the nnioa of the boaea aod occlasioa oF tho 
johit, to rorm an ituchylosis, wliicli is scnrcoly a conUitioQ to justify n 
liigbdegroe of itatiNfiictioii, .sitiL-u it insurtis a iieritiuuvul lameues^ \Tith 
very little capacity for usofulnesa. 

Apprcciatitig uovr tho dangers associated wtth all wouuds of artica- 
latioDB, howercr simple and npparontly slight, iini] lioir serioiiH uud 
troubleaouie arc tUucouiplicalions which nro likely to arise duriuK their 
ptogress and treatment, ire are prepaml to understand and reuIii:utliB 
■i«c««sity nod the valuA of early and prompt attention upon their dis- 
cori'rj- and diagno><i.s. 

For simple brui&es, like those wbieb appear in tho form of broken 
kiMemor of cArpitiSf 6iiii[>te remediejs, uuch as vrarm fomoiitatioiui or 
cold water applicatione and compresses of astringent mixtures, suggest 
thMuselrus at ouue. Injuries of a more compllcntcd cIiAraeler, nslacer- 
■lions of the skin or tearing of soft strnctnre-s, vrill also be benefited by 
simple dre:^sin!:.s with antiseptic iaixtiiies,ns those of tho carbolic acid 
order. The escape of synovia should suggest the prompt use of collodion 
ilressiiigs toclieek the dotr and prevent the further cscapeof the lUiid. 
But if the dischurgt; is abundant and lieiivily suppurative, tittle can be 
done more than to put iu practice the "exiiectant" method irith narm 
fomentations, repeatedly applied, and soothing mucilaginous poulticea. 
Improvement, if any is possible, nill bcbutsloiv tonniutfeJil itself. The 
most difQcuU of all things to do, in view of varying Interests and opin- 
ions—that is, ill a practical sense — is tonbstain from "doing" entirely, 
and yet «•« are firmly couviocod thai uou Jutcrfcrucc, in the ciisea we 
are considering, is the best and wisest policy. 

In cases which are carried to a successful result the discharge wH? by 
degrees dtmiuish, the extreme pain will gradually subside and iJie con- 
valewcut Till begin timidly to rest bis foot npon the ground, and pres- 
ently to bear weight uiion it, and perhaps, after n long and tetlions 
processof recnporatlou, he may bo returned to his former and normal 
condition of nsef'ubiess. When the discharge has wholly ceased and the 
vonnds arc entirely healed, a blister oovorlug tho whole of the joiot for 
the purpose of stimulating the absorption of the exudation will be of 
great service. But if, on the contrary^ iheraisno amcl ioration of symp- 
toms nud the progress of tlie disease resists every attempt to chi^ck it; 
if the discharge continues to How, not ouly without ttb.itement, bnt in 
an increased volume, and nolulnueby usinglo opening but by a number 
of flstnlous tracts which have successively formed ; if it seems evident 
tliat this drainage is rapidly nnd painfully sapping the sntTcriag animal's 
vitality, and a doQcient fir tito! fails to cooperate with the means of 
cure, oil rational hope of recovery may be Sually ubciudoucd. Any far- 
ther wailinj: for chances, or time lost in experimenting, will bo mero 
cruelty and thero Dc«d bo uo hcsitntiuu couoeiuiog the uext step. The 



poorboaAt is under Kcntenc« or dcfiUi, aud evcrj conrtiiloration oridter- 
est aud of biimanily demnndu an iititicipation of oatare's cndciit in- 
tent in theqiiickand easj i-xecDtioii of tlie scDtenco. 

One af tlic essentials of treatment, and iimbablj an indispensabte 
oonditiou wbeQ recoTcr>* is iu any vri.'ii; nttaJiiitblc, is tliu susiH-iutioD of 
tt)«i>nlit'itt in sliagt). Ucsiioald be ouDtiuucdiotUecDiwloDgaahe cao 
be made to submit quietly to tbeir realraiuu 

r wj-a( to Rx.— Strength and solidity are so combined in tlie fonoatiou of 
tlio joints of Diir liirjiu animiiU tlial dialoaitiiin» vt luxatioitit urt' iiiju- 
xies vrhicli ate but rarely cucoQDtered. TUey are met nitb bat seldom 
in cattle aud less so in borses, wbile dogs aud smaller animals are more 
often tliesuffLTprs. 

Tbc accident of a luxation or {its Hyuonym) dislocation {displacaneiii) 
is teas often euconutered iu tbe animal raves lL»n iu man. This is not 
beuuose tlie former are less subject to occasional violence Involving 
(lowerfitl mit»!nlnr contractions, or ar» less olteu exi>o$<Nl to casualties 
similar to those wbicU rcsnU iu Inxaliou-t iu tlie Iiumau skcIetoD, bat 
becaujie it requires tbe coiiiieratiou of cunditions, anatomical, pliysio- 
logienl, and perhaps mecbauical, present inoneof tho races and tacLiug 
Iu tbe otber, bat wbich can not in every case Ixs clearly defined. Per- 
haps tlio greater relative lengtti of tlie bony levers iu tbe botnno fbr< 
■nation may coustitnto a caase of tbe difference. 

Among tUe preilis|iostug causes in animals, carles of arUcdlar suT' 
faces, articalar abscesses, excessive dropsical coodltjons, degeoerntlve 
softening of tbe li^Miiients, and any excessive laxity of the aoflt stroe- 
tures, may be euumerntcd. 

Tbo symptoms of fmct^ires and of dislocatious are DOt always so m- 
rinut astopreelmie the possibility of error in detormtQingaease wltbout 
a tliorongb examinutioii, but tbo essential diQ'ercucc, as it must ala-ays 
existf must alna>-s be discoverable. 

In a dislocation there ia one very pecidiar and oharacteristin fc&tare 
iu tbc impossibility of motion associated witb an cxcessiro liberty of 
tiioremeiit — the impos.tibibty of active or controlled motiou, «tH] b 
facility of pa.s.siv« movement (or movablcuess) at eiUier tbe atTvcted 
joint or at another of tbe snme leg near to it. In n dislocation of the 
ecapulo'litimcral (or sbotildcr) Joint tlic animal poescasce no power of 
motion over tbe liudi — no muscular contraclioii cau avail to atami it to 
perform its various functions — but In tbe bauds of tbe sorgeoii li may fl 
be miide to describe a senes of movements wbicli would be mmply ^ 
inil)os.siblo with tbo joint iu a state of integrity. 13otb rractureti and 
loxatious are marked by deformity, but vbite In a fracture nrttb dts- 
placenieut there will usually be a shortening of tbo leg, a dislocntiou 
may be accompanied by either a :!<liorteiiing or a lengtbenitig. Swelling 
of tlio parts is usually u wett-detined feature of tbcso injuries. 

With all tUi£ similarity iu tbe symptomatology of Inxattons noil 
fractures, there is uue sign which oitbur by its presence or its absenot 



Till greatly assist in eettlinf; n cnse of dilTerentitil dtiignosiK, ami thin is 
till' cxiKKmcc or luck ot rreftUatioti. It lim nu pLice or caune in a mere 
dislocatiou} il Itcloiigs to a fracture, if it im ii i:oni|ilcti; ouv. If tlinro is 
cr«pitatiou n-itli a dislocatiou tboD it proves that tlicre is a fmcture 


Tbu progiioitis ofa luxation ik cf)ini>an)tivply less aeriooa tlian tlintof 
a fracture, tlioiigb ac times tlie jndicatJoait of trciitmcot may proro to 
b« so (lilBcult to apply tliat compUuatious may arise of a r«ry ftrvcrc 

Tbe treataiont of luxations miiat of course Iw similar to that of frac- 
tures. Reduction, nnturatly, will Ite the Hrst indication iii botb caseit, 
and tlic retention of rho rcplnccd pons mnst follon-. Tbc redaction in- 
Tolves tbe same stt^jiK of oxtensiou and couDtor-extciision, performml 
in itiAsa-ine witnuer, wiih tbo patieut subdued by auesLbi^tics. 

Tbe differonce bettreeu tlio redaction of a dislocatiou and that of a 
fmcliire cousinU in tbo fuel that in tbe former tbo object in iriiiiply to 
re«toro tlie botK-8 to tbi.'ir true noruinl poititioo, witb each nrticiilar snr- 
fiice in exact contact with itn catii]>aufon ttiirface, tbe appiuutiis i)cc«h- 
[■ary afterwanls to keep tliem i» titu being siiQiUr to tbal vbivU Ik em- 
[doyed in fracture ciise.*, and wliich will usually require to be retained 
for a period of from forty to Qfty days, if not longer, before tbe ruptured 
retaining ligaments ai'o suAiulfHlIy firm to be tniKted to i^crfunn tlieir 
officu uuasfiiBted. A rariety of mauixiulations are to bo eui^doyed by 
tl)e fiurgeoD, consiKtiuc in piisbing, pulling, pn-j>siiig, rotating, and 
iiidetHi wbatcver movement may be ueec&sju-y, until tb<^ bont<M are forced 
iuto8iieh relativo positions that tbe inuscular contraction, operating 
tu just tbu rigbt directious, pulls tboopixisice matched ends togetber 
in true coaptation, u beail iuto a carlly, an articular emincuce into a 
trochlea, u.H tbe case may be. Tbo " selUng" ia ncconipauicil by a ik;- 
calinr Hi)ui>piut; sonud, atuliblo aud i<igiiilicaul', m well as a visible re- 
turn of tbe siirlact* to its noniial symuielry. 

8p^al dUlocatioiu. — While all tbe articulations of tbe Iwdy are liable 
to tbid foiiu of iiu'iry. tboro are three iu the large auimals which may 
Aloim a special coii-iidenitiou, viz : 

The shoulder joint. — We meution this displacement without intending 
to imply tlie practicability of any onliriary attempt at treatment, which 
let iiKually iiiiaucce.'^ful, tbe animal whose mishap it bas been to become 
a victim to it being disabled for life. Tbe superior bead of tbe arm 
bouo as it is received into the lower cavity of the Ebnulder blade is so 
•itnnted as to 1>e liable to be forceil out of place in four directioiut. It 
may escape ftoia its socket, according to ttio manner in which the vio> 
Icnee aSfccls U. outwards, inwanls, backwards, or forwanls, aud the 
deformity which results aud the efTccts which follow will correspond- 
ingly dilVur. We bare suid that treatment is geiiernlly ansnccessfal. 
It may be added tlial tbe iJifliculties vbich iiiter|*tise iu the wiiy of re. 
ductiuD ar« nearly inuunuonnUbk-, aud tliat tbe application of means 





ftff the retention of tbo parts after reduction wonid bo nextto impos^^ 
Bible. Tlie proptosis in saffic'teaUy graro from au; point of view fot» ^ 
tilt' tncklcss niiimal witli n <li4lo(^ted sitoiililor. 

The hip j'wijif.— Tliis joint pnrtnlies very inucli of tlio dmrncteristic*^* 
of the bDmero-scnpular arliriilalion, biiL is more strougly buUt. Tlie ^ 
bead of liic lliigli Iwrie is more st'paratcd,or prominent and rounder ia * 
form, aud (be euplike cavity orsocIicllHio wiiicb it fllsismuclidoeiter, m 
forming togetlicr a deep, trno ball-and-socket Joint, wlilrli fit. moreover, fl 
rct'ii forced by twoNl^ongco^l^io^fMniculftr ligaments, ifbicb unite tbeni ^ 
together. It will beeasi]y(»}mprebended, from tbisbiut of tiicaoatotDy 
of tlic region, tbat a lusatiou of Iho bip joint must bi? an necident of 
companitivuly nire oc^ourreiiec. And yel cases aro recorded in 'nrbich 
tbo bead of tbo bone bas been nOlruied to alip ont of its cavity and aa- 
fiunic vnrioii-4 pof^itions, inwnrtls, outirarda, forwards, and bacltwards. 

Tlio iiuliwitioiis of treatment are tboso of all cases of dtHloeatioo. 
Wbeu tbo redaction \s aecoiD]i1(8bed tbe surgeon trill bo apprised of 
tlie fact by tbe peculiar sunpping sonnd usually beard on flticb oceariioii). 

J'scutlo liLxatiom of the patdta.