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VOL. I. 


Oxford University Press Warehouse 
AuEN Corner, E.C. 

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A. D. 1 1 50 — A. D. 1300 

Second Edition, carefully Bevised 


[ All rights reserved ] 



Preface to the First Edition . . . . . . vii 

Preface to the Present Edition . xvi 

Introduction xix 

I. Old English Homilies. 

An Bispel (A Parable) i 

II. A Saxon Chronicle. 

The State of England in Stephen's reign (a.d. 
1137-1154) 9 

III. Old English Homilies. 

(a) In Diebus Dominicis : Sunday the Day of Rest 17 

(b) Hie dicendum est de Propheta : The Prophet 

Jeremiah (Jer. xxxviii. 6-12) . . . .21 

IV. Old English Homilies. 

(a) Dominica Palmarum. (Matt. xxi. 1-9) . . 26 

(b) In die Paschae. (Ps. cxvii [cxviii]. 24) . . 29 

(c) Dominica i. post Pascha. (Luke xxi v. 36) . 33 

(d) Dominica iv. post Pascha. (James i. 17) . . 36 

V. The Ormulum. 

Jewish and Christian Offerings , . . -39 

VI. Lajamon's Brut. 

Hengest and Horsa 64 

VII. Sawles Warde (Soul's Ward). 

Sermon on Matt. xxv. 43 87 

Description of Heaven 89 




VIII. The Life of St. Juliana. (Two Texts) 

IX. The Ancren Riwle (Rule of Nuns). 

The Seven Deadly Sins . . . . 

Directions how a Nun should live . 
X. The Wooing of our Lord . . . . 
XI. A Good Orison of our Lady . . . . 

XII. A Bestiary. 

Nature of the Lion 

Nature of the Eagle 

Nature of the Ant 

XIII. Old Kentish Sermons. 

Sermo in die Epiphaniae. (Matt. ii. i) 
Dominica Secunda post Octavam Epiphaniae. 
(John ii. i) 

XIV. Proverbs of Alfred. (Sections i, 2, 4, 10, 12, 

14, 22, 23) 

XV. English Version of Genesis and Exodus. 

Passages in the Life of Joseph .... 

XVI. Nicholas de Guildford. 

The Owl and the Nightingale 

XVII. A MoralOde [ J^^^^ 

( Trin. 


XVIII. Story of Havelok the Dane 
XIX. King Horn . . . ^ 


Glossarial Index 














A FEW words of explanation are necessary to explain how 
this volume came to take its present shape, and why this 
Preface is not written by the author. 

In 1867 a volume was published in the Clarendon Press 
Series with the title — ' Specimens of Early English, selected 
from the chief English Authors, a.d. 1250 — a.d. 1400, with 
Grammatical Introduction, Notes, and Glossary, by R. Morris, 
Esq.' This book soon ran out of print, and it was decided, 
several years ago, not to re- issue it in its first form, but to 
replace it by two volumes, or * parts,' which should be still 
better calculated to meet the wants of the increasing class of 
students who care to have some accurate knowledge about 
our early literature and the gradual formation of our lan- 
guage. The weakest point of the work, in its first form, was 
that the literature of the thirteenth century was but imper- 
fectly represented, whilst that of the twelfth century was not 
represented at all. 

In attempting to carry out the proposed alteration, it was 
soon found that the preparation of the second part was the 


easier of the two, as requiring but little new material. I was 
asked to assist in preparing it, and, in the end, the greater 
part of the work of preparation passed through my hands. 
The edition of 1867 contained 25 extracts, counting both 
extracts from Robert of Gloucester as one. It was divided 
very unequally, by taking the beginning of the fourteenth 
century as the point of division ; with the result that the 
former portion, containing oiAy /bur extracts, was left for 
Dr. Morris to deal with himself, whilst the latter portion, 
containing the remaining 21 extracts, all relating to the 
fourteenth century, was left to me. I made two alterations 
in the extracts, substituting a passage from Barbour's Bruce 
for one from Sir Gawayn and the Grene Knight, and 
Chaucer's Man of Lawes Tale for the Pardoner's and 
Prioress's Tales. I then revised the Notes, and rewrote 
the Glossary, in order to insert the references, which, in the 
first edition, were but seldom given. The latter work was 
rather heavy, but with some efficient aid from Mr. Brock, it 
was at last completed, and the whole volume was revised by 
Dr. Morris. It was published in 1872, with the title — 
* Specimens of Early English, &c., by the Rev. R. Morris 
and the Rev. W. W. Skeat. Part II : from Robert of 
Gloucester to Gower, a.d. 1298 — 1393.* My name was 
added to the title-page in consideration of the part which 
I had taken in the revision. The volume was so well 
received that a new edition of it, practically the third, was 
published in 1873. Previously to the above alterations, I 
had already written a volume of Specimens of English Lite- 
rature, from A.D. 1394 — 1597, by way of supplementing Dr. 
Morris's work. This appeared in 187 1 (second edition, 


1879); and may now be considered as forming Part III 
of the series of Specimens. 

Meanwhile, the task of providing the extracts for Part I 
fell upon Dr. Morris, who had before him the more serious 
task of first providing his material. This was no easy matter, 
as, for a good deal of it, he was dependent upon the Early 
English Text Society's publications, and was only at the 
beginning of some of the most important part of his work 
for that Society. He had, in fact, to edit his texts before he 
could satisfactorily make extracts from them ; and the second 
Series of his Old English Homilies did not appear till 1873. 
Since that time, the continual preparation of such important 
texts as the Blickling Homilies and the Cursor Mundi (the 
latter containing more than 30,000 lines printed four times 
over from different MSS.), has left him but little leisure. 
The Glossarial Index, in particular, required a long time for 
its compilation, as shewn by the fact that it contains nearly 
50 pages more than that to Part 11. It will readily be 
understood that the language of the twelfth and thirteenth 
centuries requires more frequent explanation than that of the 
fourteenth century, and is at the same time more difficult to 
explain. It has thus come to pass,^that the present part has 
been in course of preparation for some years, whilst Dr. 
Morris's opportunities of leisure were few and decreasing, so 
that the end of 188 1 saw the work still unfinished. At that 
time, I had just completed my Etymological Dictionary, and, 
being informed of all the circumstances, was asked to assist. 
When the work came into my hands, I found it in a very 
forward state. The whole was finally revised as far as the 
word Harmes in the Glossary, and the rest of the Glossary 


was mostly in type, with the exception of a small portion 
which was already written, though not quite ready for press. 
My portion of the work has been, accordingly, to revise the 
latter part of the Glossary, and to compile the Grammatical 
Introduction. I have taken the opportunity of verifying 
several of the references in the Glossary, including all words 
beginning with U, V, Y, 3, and all such words from Harpe 
to ]hverrt'Ut^ or beginning with W, as are not of com- 
mon occurrence, considering these to be the most im- 

In compiling the Grammatical Introduction, I have kept 
before me the original Introduction to the first edition of 
1867, from which I have borrowed largely, so that the 
main part of it is given in the author's own words. I 
have, however, made various additions and alterations, 
particularly in the table of the principal parts of the 
Strong Verbs, which are now numbered and indexed for 
the convenience of ready reference, a large number of 
them being still in use in modern English. A few pages 
are repeated, almost without alteration, from the Introduc- 
tion to Part II, for the sake of completeness. Section 5, 
on the Metre, for which I am responsible, is new. I have 
also inserted a passage on the pronunciation of Early 
English, copied (by permission) almost verbatim from Ellis's 
Early English Pronunciation ; and an account of the written 
symbols, copied, with some re-arrangement and slight modi- 
fications, from an important paper by Dr. F. H. Stratmann, 
which appeared in the Philological Society's Transactions 
for 1867. 

In the Preface to the Specimens of English, Part II, 


already published, it has been explained that the object 
of printing these Selections from Early English writers is 
to render the study of Early English more easy for those 
who have not the means or the opportunity of consulting 
the books containing the complete texts. 

The remarks made in that Preface have a still stronger 
significance when applied to the literature of the twelfth 
and thirteenth centuries. It is just for this important trans- 
ition-period, when a considerable simplification of our gram- 
mar was taking place, that the grammars and histories of 
literature are most meagre and least accurate, so that it is 
highly desirable that the student should be able to test for 
himself the statements which they contain. The best guides 
to the vocabulary of this period are Stratmann's Old English 
Dictionary and the Old English Dictionary by Matzner. 
The latter of these is, unfortunately, still unfinished, only 
a few parts having appeared. An excellent text-book, for 
those who are acquainted with German, is Matzner's ' Alten- 
glische Sprachproben.' 

Many of the texts from which extracts are here given 
have only recently been printed. The pieces marked I, 
III, IV, VII, VIII, X-XV inclusive, and XVI*-XVIII [now 
marked XVII-XIX] inclusive, are all taken from various 
works published for the Early English Text Society, and of 
these all but VIII, XVII [now XVIII], and XVIII [now 
XIX] are from texts edited by Dr. Morris. For the con- 
venience of readers, a list of the Early English Text Society's 
books quoted in the present volume is here subjoined : — 

No. 7. Genesis and Exodus, ed. Morris, 1865. (Ex- 
tract XV.) 


No. 14. King Horn, &c., ed. Lumby, 1866. (Extract 

XVIII [now XIX].) ^ 
No. 29. Old English Homilies, Series I, Part I; ed. 

Morris, i«67. (Extract III.) 
No. 34. Old English Homilies, Series I, Part II, 1868. 

(Extracts I, VII, X, XI.) 
No. 49.. An Old English Miscellany, ed. Morris, 1872. 

(Extracts XII, XIII, XIV, XVI* [now XVII ; 

Jes. Coll. MS.].) 
No. 51 The Life of St. Juliana, ed. Cockayne and Brock, 

1872. (Extract VIII.) 


No. 53. Old English Homilies, Series II, 1873. (Extracts 
IV and XVI* [now XVIII ; Trin. Coll. MS.].) 

No. IV (Extra Series.) Havelok the Dane, ed. Skeat, 
1868. (Extract XVII [now XVIII.]) 

Other volumes quoted are these following : — 

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, ed. Thorpe, 1861 ; ed. Earle, 

1867; and other editions. (Extract IL) 
The Ormulum, ed. White, 1852 ; of which a new edition, 

ed. Holt, appeared in 1878. (Extract V.) 
Layamon's Brut, ed. Madden, 1847. (Extract VI.) 
Ancren Riwle, ed. Morton, 1853. (Extract IX.) 
The Owl and the Nightingale, ed. Stevenson, 1838; ed. 

Wright, 1843 j ed. Stratmann, 1868. (Extract XVI.) 

Most of these volumes are more fully described in the 
short headings which precede each extract. 

^ The Extract gives the w/iole of King Horn; but Dr. Lumby's 
book also contains Floriz and Blancheflur, and the Assumption of the 


The ' Specimens ' are chronologically arranged, and well 
illustrate the numerous changes whereby the later Anglo- 
Saxon of the twelfth century gradually gave place to the 
English of the fourteenth century, as exemplified in Part II. 
The gradual introduction of Anglo-Norman words into our 
literature is a most interesting phenomenon of this period, 
and it is very instructive to observe how slowly these woi:ds, 
now so numerous, found their way into general use at the 
time when they were first introduced. The whole number 
of French words occurring in Layamon's Brut, a poem 
containing more that 32,000 (short) lines, does not exceed 
1 70, and even of these a few took "no root in our speech, 
and were soon disused ^ Or, to take an instance which the 
reader may test for himself, the part of the poem entitled On 
God Ureisun of Ure Lefdi (A Good Orison of Our Lady) ^, 
printed at p. 129, contains 99 rather long lines. The only 
foreign words in it are the proper names Cristes (whence 
Crisiene\ Marie, Gabriel, Jhesu\ the words offrie (line 4), 
deoflene (15), deouel (93), englene (16, 46, 70, 71), engles (27), 
rose, lilie (53), ym (55), previously borrowed from Latin 
during the Anglo-Saxon period; the Bible-words paradise 
(10, 49), cherubine (25), and seraphine (26); and finally, no 
more than five Anglo-Norman words, viz. ciclatune (51), 
trone (2«), seruise (50), i-kruned (52), and krune (52). Of 
these, the first appears in Chaucer (see the explanation in 
the Glossary to my edition of the Prioress's Tale, and in 
my note on the line in which it occurs), but is now obsolete ; 

1 See the list of Anglo-Norman words in Layamon, in Morris's 
Historical Outlines of English Accidence, p. 338. 

' I.e. to our Lady; called 'our Lady's' because it could be suitably 
addressed to her. The whole poem contains 171 lines. 


for the costly material which it denoted is no longer in use. 
But the words throne, service, crowned, and crown, as we 
should now spell them, are still in common use, and it is 
highly interesting to observe that, even in this early poem, 
they are introduced as easily and as naturally as if they 
formed a true part and parcel of the language. The word 
krune, crown, has here a corresponding verb formed on a 
genuine English model, and is duly furnished with the Eng- 
lish pp. suffix -^d and prefix /- (=A.S. ^<?-) in the true native 
manner ; thus shewing, that the admixture of the languages 
was one of vocabulary only, the English simply annexing such 
Anglo-Norman words as seemed likely to prove useful, and 
treating them grammatically after its own fashion. Students 
who will observe the manner in which foreign words were 
thus adopted and treated in the twelfth and thirteenth cen- 
turies, will gain a much clearer idea of the origin of modern 
English than can otherwise be obtained. 

It is observed in the Preface to Part II that n6 previous 
knowledge of oldest English (Anglo-Saxon) is required 
before commencing the study of the extracts contained in 
it ; but to the present volume the remark hardly applies. A 
frequent reference to the Grammar in Sweet's Anglo-Saxon 
Reader will often prove of considerable advantage; and 
those who are best acquainted with that work will make the 
quickest progress with the present one. At the same time, 
the very full Glossarial Index, with its thousands of refer- 
ences, occupying as it does no less than 178 [now 190] 
pages of the book, when used in conjunction with the 
Grammatical Introduction, ought to suffice for the com- 
prehension of all the pieces here printed; and Dr. Morris 


by this work of great labour, has laid all students of the 
subject under considerable obligation. Besides these helps, 
it will be found that the Notes deal with the principal diffi- 
culties of construction, and explain or illustrate most of the 
rarer words and forms. 

The series of Specimens of English, as exhibited in the 
three parts now completed (Part I being the last to appear), 
exhibits Extracts from sixty-six different works, ranging in 
date from a.d. i 150 to 1579, or from the reign of Stephen 
to Elizabeth. If to these we add the twenty-six extracts in 
Sweet's Anglo-Saxon Reader, we have specimens of as 
many as ninety-two different works, each in the spelling of 
the period to which it belongs or of a few years later, and 
ranging in date over seven centuries, from iElfred to Spenser; 
after which we have still a noble and unequalled literature 
for three centuries more. Perhaps there are many who 
have never realised that there are but few languages whose 
records are so ample as to admit of this ; and surely every 
Englishman who wishes to study, step by step, the develop- 
ment of a language and of a literature, and to watch the 
progress of human thought and expression throughout a 
whole millennium, had better begin at home, with the study 
of English. 



In preparing a new Edition of this work, advantage has 
been taken of the opportunity for making such improvements 
and corrections as could best be made, under the circum- 
stances. Dr. Morris's engagements leaving him but littie 
opportunity for the work, nearly all the alterations now 
found in it have been made by Mr. Mayhew and Professor 
Skeat, the former taking much the larger share in the work. 
Professor Skeat has supplied a few corrections in the text, 
added many notes, and revised the Introduction ; but Mr. 
Mayhew has carefully revised the whole work, the most 
laborious part of his contribution being the Glossarial Index, 
the whole of which he has recast and rewritten from begin- 
ning to end, verifying the references, adding new words, 
introducing hundreds of cognate forms, and bringing into 
harmony the explanations in the Notes and Glossary, which 
in the former edition were, in several instances, at variance, 
generally because the statements in the Notes had often been 
afterwards corrected in the Glossary. We hope that the 
result of this considerable labour will be found to increase 
considerably the accuracy and usefulness of the work. In a 
review of the book which appeared in the American Journal 


of Philolog}% iv. 334, and written by Professor James M. 
Garnett, several inaccuracies were pointed out. A similarly 
useful review, written by Professor E. Kolbing, appeared in 
Englische Studien, vi. 92 ; but some of the suggestions there 
made, recommending considerable alterations in the text, 
could not conveniently be carried out. Due regard has, in 
other respects, been paid to the corrections contained in 
these reviews, and we here record our thanks for them. 
Professor Garnett's review concluded with the remark that 
'teachers will be grateful for the book, hoping that the 
Second Edition will shew a decided improvement.' To 
what extent this hope has been realised, we must leave it 
to readers to judge. 


VOL. I. 



[The reader may compare these with the remarks in the 
Prefaces to the Second and Third Volumes of Specimens 
of English. The occasional repetition of the same state- 
ments, almost in the same words, is, from the nature of the 
case, inevitable.] 

§ I. The Alphabet, The symbols which require some ex- 
planation are the following. The additional symbols not 
now in use are f>, S, and 3; the capitals of which are p, D, 
and 3« Both f> and S are used to represent th^ with its 
two sounds, (i) that of th m. thirty and (2) that oi th in 
thine. Even in A.S. the use of these symbols is uncertain, 
and in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries no clear distinc- 
tion can be made between them, though some scribes use 
them with more or less uniformity. In Section IV, for 
example, the scribe writes f> at the beginning of words, 
and S in the middle or at the end. This is rather a graphic 
than a phonetic distinction. In Section XVI, only tS is used, 
and f> does not appear. 

The character 3 ( = A. S. j) has various powers. At the 
beginning of a word it is to be sounded as^, so that 5^ is our 
modern _>^^ ; in the middle of a word it had a guttural sound 
now lost, but still represented in our spelling by gh, as in li^i 



for Itg^/; at the end of a word it either had the same sound, 
or (rarely) stood for z. The last use is French, and is 
hardly to be found before the fourteenth century. 

The characters u and v are frequently interchanged, as 
noticed in the Glossarial Index. It may, however, be re- 
marked that V is almost always written as u between two 
vowels, as in haue for have, diuers for divers. In the 
Southern dialect we find v for f, as in vader father, vamen 
foemen. In some words, the most complete confusion pre- 
vails, as in vtiel = uvel^ evil ; uueles - tiveles, evils ; ure or vre, 
our ; ute or vte, out ; &c. We also find uu for initial w, as 
in uuan = wan ; and vv for the same, as in we = we, V for 
u is most common initially, as in the prefix vn-^un-, vre 
- ure^ vie = ute (let us), &c. 

The letter j does not occur at all in the pieces here 
printed, and only a few words (all French) occur, which 
would now be spelt with that letter ^. We may notice ioie 
joy, iuglurs jugglers. In some word§ initial /' had the sound 
of J', as in icede =ycEde, went; iaf-yaf^ gave; ieden ^yeden, 
went ; I'iuen -yiven^ to give ; iunge -yunge^ young. / also 
represents the A.S. prefix. ^^-, in which case it is a short 
unaccented vowel, as in iv^nde^ to find, iv6, foe. 

Besides the above, the symbol j was employed, in the 
twelfth century, to represent and^ as at p. lo, 1. 2 ; and 
the symbol S sometimes occurs as an abbreviation for t5<z/, 
that, as in 1. 11 on the same page. So also ^ for f>a/, as at 
p. 65, 1. 3- 

§ 2. Abbreviation, The most usual marks of contraction 
employed in Early English MSS. are few, and may soon 

^ On p. II, line 37 begins withy, but this is only a way of denoting 
that the capital / extends below the line. In fact, the letter j is 
nothing but a particular form of ?, which came at last to have a 
distinct value. 


be learnt. The commonest are these following, their * ex- 
pansions ' being denoted throughout this volume by the use 
of italic letters. 

A stroke over a vowel signifies m or n; as in su, hi, houd, 
meaning su/w, hxm, houwd. 

An upward curl, above the line, signifies er ; as in man^^ 
^ue, for man^r, s^ue (serve). But if this symbol follows 
the letter p, it means re ; as in p^che for pr^che. It arose 
from a roughly written <?, the letter r being understood. 

A small undotted / above the line means rt\ the letter r 
being understood, as before; hence p^nce, c^st, for pnnce, 
cr/st (Christ). 

A roughly written a (a) in like manner stands for ra ; as 
in g^cCy py, for gr^zce, pray. 

A curl, of a form which arose from a roughly written v 
(for «), signifies ur ; as in Jne, ?, for twrne, our. 

The reason for the upward curl after p being used for re, 
arose from the fact that there was already a way of writing 
p^r, viz. by drawing a stroke through the tail of the / : as in 
fily for p^ril. Sometimes this sign stood for par ; as in pty 
for party, 

A similar stroke, Ijut curling, enabled the scribe to abbre- 
viate pro. Thus we hdLve^ty^ue, for profit, prone (prove). 

At the end of a word, the mark a signifies es or is ; and 
the mark ' signifies us ; as in word^ for word<?j or word/j, and 
Y for \us, 

A rare mark of contraction is ^ for com or con ; as in 
o^/orty o^seilj for comfort, conseil (counsel). 

Other examples of contraction are ^ or gd for quod or 
quod, i. e. quoth ; ]?* for Ipat ; J?" for Ipou ; ^ for and^ ; S for 
8a/; and ;f for f>a/. Also t'^c, ihm, for i^jwj, xesum (Jesus, 

^ Sometimes a«/, according to the dialect. 


Jesum), where the h came from the Greek H (long e\ and 
the c from the Greek C (2, s). 

Sometimes a word is merely indicated by its initial letter 
or by a few letters. Examples may be found on p. lo, 
where k is for ^tng, Steph for Stephw^, b for hzscop ; and 
again, on p. 13, Will, Willm, for Wilk/w, Will^/m. 

On p. 96, the symbol & occurs, which arose out of a 
peculiar way of writing the Latin word ef, as may easily be 
seen in any very early MS., such as the Lindisfarne MS. of 
the Gospels in the British Museum. This was transplanted 
into English, to denote and, as having the same sense. The 
original use is preserved to this day in the contraction &c., 
to be read as eU. =» ef cetera. 

The above remarks will enable any one, after a short 
practice, to read early English in the original MSS. ; par- 
ticularly if the student will at first take care to select a piece 
of which a printed copy can be obtained, and will compare 
the MS. with the print. Latin MSS. are far more diflBcult, 
and abound in contractions, the words being much abbre- 
viated. Take, for example, the word fce = fac/e, p. 144, 
1. 87 ; and the sentence Qod nobis p. d. p. for Q«od uobis 
^restare ^ignetur p^r, in 1. 85 on the same page. 

Sometimes the scribe omits to mark a contraction, in 
which case the missing letters are supplied within square 
brackets. Thus she[n]de stands for shewde, which should 
have been written shede ; but the mark over the e is omitted; 
see p. 116, 1. 177. In other cases, letters have been sup- 
plied, within square brackets, for grammatical reasons. Thus 
at p. 182, 1. 413, the proper form is henne, but the scribe 
wrote hen. It is easy to tell why he did so, viz. because the 
final e is elided in the scansion of the line. 

§ 3. Pronunciation, On this difficult subject the student 


may consult Mr. Ellis's work on Early English Pronuncia- 
tion, and Mr. Sweet's History of English Sounds. Owing 
to the great changes that have taken place in our pronuncia- 
tion, it is not easy for the reader to gain any clear ideas as to; 
how Early English sounded vth^n spoken, unless he will take 
some pains to examine the matter for himself, first putting 
aside all preconceived notions evolved out of his inevitable 
ignorance. The pronunciation of Anglo-Saxon, as carefully 
explained in Mr. Sweet's Anglo-Saxon Reader, is here of 
great assistance, as the pronunciation of English in the twelfth 
and thirteenth centuries was very similar to it, with certain 
modifications, for which see Sweet's Middle English Primer. 
The best ^fw^r^/ rule that can be given for approximating to 
the sounds of Early English vowels, is to give to a, e, i\ o, u 
their present continental values ; i. e. to pronounce them as 
in German or Italian, carefully avoiding being misled by the 
peculiar sounds which occur in our familiar modern English, 

An account of the pronunciation of English in the time 
of Chaucer, and in the dialect used by him, will be found 
in the Preface to the edition of ihe poet's ' Man of Lawes 
Tale,' printed for the Clarendon Press. In Chapter V of 
Early EngHsh Pronunciations, by A. J. Ellis, p. 417, we find 
the following important remarks upon the ' Rhymed Poems 
of the Thirteenth Century and Earlier.' 

'In approaching these earlier poems we stand already 
upon very secure ground. The values of «, a/, au^ e^ ei^ euy 
/, i'<?, <?, <?/', ou as (aa or a, ai, au, ee or e, ei or ai, eu, ii or i, ee, 
00 or o, ui, oou or ou) ^ have every appearance of being the 

* Mr. Ellis denotes sounds by his palaeotype alphabet, founded on 
the continental values of the letters, and always writes palseotype letters 
between marks of parenthesis, as here and further on. He defines (a, 
e, i, o) as having respectively the sounds of a in Ital. matto\ e in 
Eng. met ; the initial e in Eng, event ; and in Fr. hotnme (Ital. o 
aperto). Next (aa, ee, ii, 00) are the same sounds lengthened, a$ in 


most ancient possible, and the only doubtful points turn on 
[certain] fine distinctions. . . . There was no longer a 
common or recognised superior dialect, for the English 
language had long ceased to be that of the nobility. From 
the Anglo-Saxon Charters of the Conqueror down to the 
memorable [English] proclamation issued by Henry III, and 
for a century afterwards, the English language was ignored 
by the authorities, and was only used by or for " lewd men." 
But there was a certain amount of education among the 
priests, who were the chief writers, and who saved the 
dialect from falling into the helplessness of the peasant 

* The chief points of diflSculty are the use of [written] ou 
for (uu, u), the use of uu for (yy, y) and even (/*, e), and 
of eu for (yy) ^. The meaning ofea, eOy oa, practically unused 
in the fourteenth century, has also to be determined . . . 
It will be found that ou was not used at all for (uu, u) till 
near the close of the thirteenth century, when the growing 
use of u for (yy) or (i, e), rendered the meaning of u un- 
certain. But in the pure thirteenth-century writings u only 
is employed for (uu), and becomes a test orthography. The 
combination eu or ew does not seem to have been used 
except as (eu). The combinations ea, eo, so frequently 
rhyme with e, and interchange with it orthographically, that 

Eng. father, mare, eve, and the former o of Ital. uomo. (U) has the 
sound of ou in English Louisa. The diphthongs (ai, ei, au, eu, ui, ou) 
are compounded of (a) and (i), &c., and resemble ai in Ger. hain ; 
Port. ei\ au in Ger. haus\ eu in Ital. Europa\ French oui\ ou in 
Dutch ou, not far from Eng. ou in house, especially as sounded in 
provincial English. 

^ (U) has been defined, in the last note, as having the sound of ^tm in 
Louisa; (uu) is the same sound prolonged. By (y) is meant the 
ordinary German dotted u, as in liicke; (yy) being the same sound 
prolonged, as in Ger. gemiith. By {%) is meant the sound of i in 
Eng. fish or river. 


their meaning was probably intentionally (ea, eo), with the 
stress on iht first element, and the second element obscure, 
so that the result scarcely differed from (ee') or even (ee) ^. 
The combination oa was either (aa) or {aa) *. The conso- 
nants seem to have been the same as in the fourteenth 
century, although 3 may possibly have retained more of the 
(^h) than the (j) character '.* 


The following is a scheme of the most usual etymological 
values of the E. E.* vowels, chiefly according to Dr. Strat- 
mann. The examples are all to be found in the Glossary, 
which gives both the meaning of the word and at least one 
reference to some passage where it occurs. 

As the relations of the E. E. to the A.S. vowels are some- 
what complex, the scheme is given in two forms. The 
former shews the historical descent from Anglo-Saxon down- 
wards, whilst the latter shews, conversely, how to refer the 
E. E. vowels to their A.S. originals. Both schemes deal with 
the symbols only, without consideration of pronunciation. 

(A) Scheme of the A.S. vowels, with their E. E. 

Short Vowels, a. The A.S. a was commonly retained, 
especially before a consonant followed by e. Before m and n 

^ By the (' ) following (ee) is meant simple voice, as in the slight 
sound of ^ in English open. The reader may simply pronounce Early 
English ea and eo as (ee), i. e. as Eng. a in mare. 

" By {aa) is meant Ger. ah in niahnen ; hardly differing from (aa), 
but a little deeper, approaching a in all, 

^ By (^) is meant the guttural g in Ger. wiege ; by (j) is meant the 
sound of ^ in Eng. yet. 

* E. E. = Early English, is here used to denote the language of the 
extracts in this volume (a.d. 1T50-1300). M. E. = Middle English, 
conveniently denotes the language from a.d. i 300-1 485 (accession of 
Henry VII). In the Glossary the symbol M. E. is used in a wider 
sense, so as to include E. E. also. 


it was at first retained, but was afterwards frequently (though 
not universally) changed into o. Examples : (i) name,/areny 
sake; cam, /ram; can, man; samnest; hand, lang. Also 
(2) from ; mon ; hond, long, 

8B. The A.S. CB was at first retained, but after awhile dis- 
appeared altogether. In its place we find E. E. a, e, and ea, 
the last of which is hardly ever found in the M. E. period. 
Examples: (i) dcBt (from dceg), meet (from mcBg) ; ' mcesse, 
/cBs/nen, (2) dac, dap, fader, smal. (3) et (at), fesi, gres, 
(4) ^pear, wear, weater, 

ea. The A.S. ea was sometimes retained, but not for long. 
Most commonly it became a, but cb and e are also found for it. 
In the M. E. period it appears only as a (or 0) and e, the 
former being much the commoner. Examples: (i) beam, 
eald (old), earm, (2) barn, cwalm, halden* (3) (Brd, cerfeS, 
bcBrn, (4) eld (old), erd, erm, 

eo. The A.S. eo was at first retained, or occasionally re- 
placed by ie. But its usual representative was e, as in M. E. 
Examples : (i) eorl, eor'Se, heorte, (2) hierle, (3) erl, er^e, herte, 

e. The A.S. e was almost always retained. It was very 
seldom written eo. The usual M. E. symbol was also e. 
Examples: (i) sende, telle, 'penche, (2) beorelS (for bere^), 

i. The A.S. t was retained ; as btdde, btnde, binne, in. 

XL, The A.S. u was retained; as (i) grund, under, wulfeSy 
wund. In M. E. we usually find ground, wound. But 
also appears, chiefly before liquids; as (2) comen, onder ; 
wode, note (nut). 

y. The A.S.J/ was changed into u. In the M. E. period it 
was (in general) further changed into /, as in modern Eng- 
lish. Examples : cussen, dude,fulde,fulle, verb. 

Long Vowels, a. The A.S. a was commonly retained 
at first, but in M. E. is seldom to be found except in the 
Northern dialect, in which it is extremely common. It 


usually gave place to o (long), which in M. E. was frequently 
written oo. The symbols ce and ea are also found, but were 
not of long continuance. Examples : (i) ba^fay^ gal, gasty 
halt, (2) fo, sb. ^\.,/ohygost'y written 00 in hooi-hot, bids, 
from A.S. hdtan ; written oa in boa ^bo- A.S. bd, (3) cBUy 
gcBt, sb. pi., scBri, (4) healt (for halt), 

8B. The A.S. d was at first retained, but soon disappeared. 
Its usual representatives were a and e, as in M. E. ; but ea is 
also found. Examples: (i) cer^ hce'^ene, reed, rcsden. (2) late, 
verb, rade, verb and sb., slape. (3) del^ leren, mel, se, (4) 
heale, leaden, meane, measL 

ea. The A.S. /a^ was at first retained, though usually re- 
placed by e (long), which in M. E. was frequently written ee^ 
except in some words (as heh). The symbol ce is tolerably 
common in Layamon and the Ormulum. A very curious 
substitution is i (also written j/ in M. E.), which occurs also 
in modern English. The Kentish has ia. Examples: (i) 
deade, dream, lean, leas, (2) bred, drem, de'S, sb., heh. (3) 
dcsIS, hceh, Icen. (4) ht'^ ; mod. E. high, (5) diath. 

eo. The A.S. eo ^ was at first retained, but usually gave way 
to long e, frequently written ee in M. E. Occasional varieties 
are /(still found), le and u. Examples : (i) deope, deore, leode, 
leo/, (2) dep, der, le/, sek. (3) liht, sb., mod. E. light, from 
A.S. leoht, (4) bien, dier, lief; pietie, dat. ol pief. (5) bii^, 
are; from A.S. 3/(?S. 

e. The A.S. /was retained. In modern English it com- 
monly appears as ee, though the pronunciation has changed. 
Examples : demen, grene, greten, seche, 

i. The A.S. i was retained. It still appears as /in modern 
English, though the pronunciation has become diphthongal. 
Examples : lif, sb., likien, min, '^in. 

} Usually printed ed,e<f, sls in the Glossary. 


o. The A.S. 6 was retained. In modem English it is 
usually written oo^ though the sound has changed. Examples : 
dom, don^ god adj., mone, 

u. The A.S. a was retained. In M.E. it frequently ap- 
pears as (?«, though without a change in the pronunciation. 
Modern English has commonly retained ou (or <m)\ but has 
changed the sound. Examples : buhe^ hur^ toun^ out, 

y. The A.S. y became u ; but M. E. and modern English 
commonly employ the symbol /* in corresponding words. 
Examples : fur^ hurede^ tuneS. Occasionally ut apipears, as 
in huide, to hide. 

(B) Scheme of the E. E. vowels, with their A.S. 

Short Vowels. 

fl(i) = A.S. a] chiefly before final m or «, or before m 
or n followed by another consonant : as cam, /ram ; can, 
man; samnest; hand, lang. Also before a consonant fol- 
lowed by ^ : as name, far en, sake. See also ^ (2). 

a (2) = A.S. CB ; as bac, hap, fader, smal, 

a (3) = A.S. ea ; as ham, cwalm, halden, 

^ (1) = A.S. ^ ; as dcBi (A.S. dceg), meet (A.S. mceg), mcesse, 

ce (2) = A.S. ea ; as cerd, cerfe^S, hcern, 

e {1) - K,S, e ', as sende, telle, penche, 

e (2) = A.S. CB ; as et, at (A.S. cBt),/est, gres. 

e (3) = A.S. ea ; as eld, adj., erd, erm, 

e (4) = A.S. eo ; as erl, er^e, herte. See ^^ (i). 

ea (i) = A.S. ea ; as hearn, eald, adj., earm, 

ea (2) - A.S. CB\ 2^^ pear, wear, weater, 

eo {1) = K,^, eo ', as eorl, eorlSe, heorte, 

eo (2) = A.S. e\ as heoreS, Not very common. 

/ (i) = A.S. /*; as hidde, hinde, binne, in, 

/e (i) = A.S. eo ; as hierte. Not very common. 


{i) = A.S. o; as hord^for^ prep., sorge^ word, 

(2) = A.S. a (being put for E. E. a) ; as from {yafrom^ 
mard)\ mon] hond^ long. See « (i). 

(3) = A.S. u, chiefly before liquids; as in comen^ onder; 
ilso in wode^ note (nut). 

« (i) = A.S. «; 3,sgrund^, under, wulues^ wund^. 

« (2) = A.S.^ ; as cussen, dude^fulde^fulle verb. 
Long Vowels. 

^ (4) = A.S. ef ; as ha, fay, g(^Ks^^^^ ^^^^• 

a (5) = A.S. <^ ; as late, verb, rade, verb and sb., j/^^^. 

^ (3) = A.S. ^ ; as cer, hce6ene, reed, rceden. 

^ (4) = A.S. ef ; as cen, gcEt sb. pi., sceri. 

cB (5) = A.S. ea, especially in Layamon ; as dce^, hceh, Icsn. 

^ (5) = A.S. /; as demen, grene, greten, seche. 

^ (6) = A.S. <^; as del, leren, mel, se. 

e (7) = A.S. ea', as bred, drem, deS sb., heh. 

e (8) = A.S. io ; as dep, der, lef, sek. 

ea (3) = A.S. ia) as deade, dream, lean, leas. 

ea (4) = A.S. d\ as heali. Not very common. 

ea (5) = A.S. d ; as heale, leaden, meane, meast. 

^(? (3) = A.S. ^; as deope, deor, leode, leof. 

/ (2) = A.S. ^ ; as Itf^h., likien, min, ISi'n. 

/(3) = A.S. /a or /o; as h'^ (A.S. hiah)-, liht sb. (A.S. 

/<? (2) = A.S. eo', as bien, dier, lief (K!^.bion, deor, l^of); 
hieue, dat. oi pief [K.^. ]>iof\ So also occasional /a = A.S. 
?a; as diath (A.S. o'J^S). 

c? (4) = A.S. ^ ; as dom, don, god adj., mone. 

(5) = A.S. d', zsfo sb. i>\.,fo/i, gost. Cf. ^^ in hoot = hot. 
bids, from A.S. ^tf/a;/ ; oa in ^(?fl — ho- A.S. ^t^. 

« (3) = A.S. a-, as 3«/^^, ^«r, tun, ut. At a later period, ou 
s more usual, as in hour, toun, out, 

^ At a later period written ground, wound 


u (4) = A.S.y; 2L%fur^ hurede^ iutwS, Also written ut\ as 
in huide, to hide. 

u (5) = A.S. /o ; as bt&, are (A.S. b/d(S). 

Some scribes affect peculiar modes of spelling, so that 
each piece is, in some degree, spelt in a way of its own; 
but the above values are the most usual. As instances of 
variation we may note braed for breed, broad; ceorl for 
eorl, earl; ceien for eten, to eat. The vowel / is also used 
in place of 3, as in dcBt = dcB^^ A.S. dcBg\ and the vowel u 
in place of w, as in duelle, to dwell, suor, swore. 

As regards the consonants, we may briefly remark that 
the A.S. / is written as « ( = z;) in E. E. in the middle of a 
word, between two vowels ; as leuen, to believe, A.S. led/an^ &c. 

The A.S. c becomes ch before e and /'; as chald^ chapmen^ 
cheas, cheose\ chid, child, chirm, riche. We even find lich 
from A.S. lie. 

The A.S. g becomes^, 3, 3^, i, h, w, in certain positions ; 
as yeme, ymen, berr^en, dcei, falhin, sorewe. Hence such 
varieties as folewen, folgen, folhin, foll^hen, folyn ; sorewe, 
sorey, sorge, soriy. The A.S. h at the end of a word or before 
/ passes into a guttural sound represented by a similar variety 
of spellings; as heye, hey, heh, hei (high); hi^te, Ipo^le, Ipouhl, &c. 

Some scribes, especially the one who wrote out the piece 
whence Section XV is taken, use g for 3 initially ; as gel, ger 
for yt, yr. 

In Section I we find ze/rtS for wurd, wrld for wurld; it is 
not unlikely that the scribe, in pronunciation, really dropped 
the initial w, and put 7V for u to mark this. The habit is 
very common, as in Shropshire, where wood, wool, and 
woman, are ^ood, *ool, 'ooman. So also wrsl, 1 7 { Jes.) 217; 
wrp, id. 355. Note also that, after w, the A.S. i may become 
or u, as in wole, wule, for A.S. wile ; wusle for A.S. wisle. 

It will be observed, from the above list, that the short 



and long vowels are not distinguished in writing. Almost 
the only general rule for discriminating them is that a vowel 
followed by a doubled consonant or by two consonants is 
short, as in kand, telle, under, &c. Modern English is of 
some assistance here ; thus ful = full, has the u short, but 
ful = foul, has the u long. But modern English occasionally 
shortens a vowel ; thus A.S. riad is now red, and the words 
hreadf dead, in which the spelling intimates that the vowel 
was originally long, as was the case, are now pronounced 
like bred and ded. 

The following etymological table of equivalent vowels in 
Anglo-Saxon, Old Saxon, Icelandic, Gothic, and Old High 
German may prove useful : — 





0. H. G. 

a, ge, ea 





e, eo 


e, ja 

a, 1, ai 


1, eo 








u, au 

o, u 

«, y 



u, y 

a, ^, ei 
a. ^ 

u, au 

u, o 

^, ei 



r t 

u, y 

6, a 

3e, ey, d 


o, e, au 



no, ou, a, 6 








ou, o 





lo, le 

In treating of the consonants, we may range A.S., O.S., 
Icel. and Goth, all under one category, which we may call 
Low-German ; and the table is as follows : — 

Low. G. 





Vor c 









ch, c 


^ At the end of a word, or in the middle ; not initially. 


One example of the use of the above table may suffice. 
The mod. E. long o answers to A.S. <f ; so that a s/one is 
A.S. sfdn. For A.S. sfdn we find O. Saxon s//h, Icel. 
steinn, Gothic siains, O.H. German sieiTiy in accordance with 
the table. The interchange of vowels in the older forms of 
these languages is far more regular than might be supposed. 

§ 4. Punctuation. Marks of punctuation occur in some of 
the MSS., but are much less exact in value than those in 
present use. The punctuation of the MSS. is adhered to 
in sections I-IV, VI-XI, XIII, XIV, and XVII. In the 
poetical pieces this punctuation commonly has a metrical^ 
not a grammatical value, so that the punctuation of the prose 
and poetical pieces must be considered separately. 

Prose. In the prose MSS. a dot (•) is very common, and is 
used with variable value, but usually marks some break in the 
sense, such as would now be represented by a comma, semi- 
colon, or full stop. The beginning of a new sentence is 
usually denoted by the employment of a capital letter, but 
not invariably. Sometimes we must insert a stop where the 
MS. has none, and neglect the stop in the MS. Thus, at 
p. 7, 1. 177, * f>an seieS haw god f>e gelty mannen 3e sene- 
3eden • an 3eur ^cenesse ' means ' then saith God to them, viz. 
to the guilty men, Ye sinned in your eternity.' 

Besides the dot, the scribes also employ a mark resembling 
an inverted semi-colon (f). See p. 18, 1. 25. This is usually 
a somewhat long pause, answering to a semi-colon or full 
stop. Sometimes it answers to a note of interrogation ; see 
p. 19, 1. 67. At p. 18, 1. 13, the dot between square brackets 
is inserted by the editor to mark a pause. A comma never 
occurs; the comma in 1. 14 (B), p. 21, should have been 
printed as a full stop. The commas in Section IX are in- 
serted to assist the reader. 


Poetry, In the Ormulum (Sect. V), the punctuation is the 
editor's, on the modern system ; so also in sections XII, 
XVIII, and XIX. In section VI, the stops (•) and (I) are 
purely metrical, the latter usually denoting the lighter pause 
at the end of a ' section ' or half-time, and the former the 
longer pause, at the end of a completed line. In section XI, 
there is a metrical stop (*) at the end of every line, but the 
end of the half-line is rarely marked; see, however, lines 28, 
3^> 37> 3^> 39> 5^> 7^- I^ Section XIV, there is a stop (with 
few exceptions) at the end of each * half-line,' and the lines, 
as printed, are to be read by pairs. In Section XV, the 
punctuation is the editor's, but there are a few exceptions in 
this instance. The MS. has, in fact, a few dots occurring 
in the middle of a line, which is shewn by retaining them 
within marks of parenthesis ; see 1. 2429. These dots mark 
the caesural pause. In the Owl and the Nightingale, the 
punctuation is the editor's ; but in the Moral Ode, the stops 
are those of the MS., and have a metrical value, as explained 

§ 5. Metre, It is remarkable that the favourite Anglo- 
Saxon alliterative metre, examples of which may be seen 
in Sweet's Anglo-Saxon Reader, is not exactly represented 
by any piece in the present selection. Those which most 
nearly approach it are the extracts from Layamon, the 
Bestiary, and the Proverbs of Alfred (Sections VI, XII, 
and XIV). In these poems, examples of alliteration are 
common, as in the following ^ : 

And leofliche him Aeren, 
and ^selden hine for ^serre; (vi. 25.) 

Welle htg is tat ^il 

tJat is ^euen-riche ; (xii. 27.) 

* Observe that a pair of short lines is here taken to form one com- 
plete line of alliterative verse. 

VOL. I. C 


He is one monne 
^wildest wayster; (xiv. 51.) 

If we examine the metre of Anglo-Saxon poetry, or of 
the alliterative poetry of the fourteenth century (such as 
William of Palerne and Piers Plowman), we shall observe 
that the alliteration generally falls in such a way that fzvo 
of the rime-letters (as they are called) come in \h& former 
half of the verse, and one in the latter; whereas, in the 
above examples, this arrangement is precisely reversed, as 
is very commonly the case. On the other hand, the old 
arrangement occurs in such lines as the following; 

Ich ^atte ^ngist 

^ors is mi brother ; (vi. 63.) 

He ou wolde wyssye 

wisliche J^inges; (xiv. 29.) 

il/ildeliche ich wunye 

J/yne leoue freond; (xiv. 37.) 

In general, the poets of this period were quite satisfied 
with obtaining only two rime-letters. 

Ut of J)an /eode 
to uncutJe /onde; (vi. 79.) 

))at beo'5 an us^eole, 

|jat weykren scolden; (vi. 89.) 

But the most remarkable point is the frequent introduction 
of rimes, so that the whole line is cut up into a pair of 
sections of variable length, each containing sometimes yi?«r, 
but most commonly three accented syllables. In the fol- 
lowing examples, the accented syllables are marked by an 
accent over the vowel-sound in each. The rimes are com- 
monly double^ as m father^ rather, and are denoted by italics. 
In some cases we have both rime and alliteration, the 
alliteration being likewise denoted by italic initial letters ; 

J)at ouer sie. we6ren xztimen 
JwitJe jelcutJe giimen ; (vi. 3.) 


]>Tt6 scipen g(fde 

c6men mid ])an fi(f(ie ; (vi. 7.) 

5if heo gri5 sShten, 

and 6f his fre6nd-scipe x6hten\ (vi. 19.) 

Many of the rimes are imperfect, being mere assonances, 
i. e. only alike in the vowel-sound. Such as these : 

Bilsenen jcuUen |>a f/ue 

J)a jexte sckl fortJ l/»e; (vi. 77.) 

J)er wes in6ni cniht ^iidne 

heo dr65en heore scipen vppe J)e Mwd; (vi. 185.) 

Owing to the variable lengths of the sections or half-lines, 
which are sometimes treated (as shewn above) as if they 
were complete lines, duly furnished with rimes, the metre 
of Layamon's Brut admits of many variations, which it is 
not necessary here further to particularise. Sometimes the 
nimaber of accents in the section of a poem of this character 
is reduced to two, and the number of accents in the complete 
line (or couplet) to /our, of which there are several ex- 
amples in the Bestiary and in the Proverbs of Alfred. A 
good example of a rimed couplet, with four accents, is the 

following : 

lude and stille 

his 6wene w///f; (xiv. 439.) 

Or the couplet may contain ^z'^ accents : 

^etere ]je vf^re 

i^ren J^at he n^re) (xiv. 447.) 

This variation of the number of accents in a line shews 
that the laws of metre were but imperfectly understood, as 
it introduces an irregularity which would now hardly be 

There are two forms of the section or half-line that 
deserve particular notice. These are (i) the regular section 
of three accents, with an accent on the penultimate syllable ; 

c 2 


and (2) the regular section of four accents, with an accent 
on the ultimate syllable. Examples are these : 

(i) And seiden ])at heo walden; (vi. 23.) 
©e leun stant on hille; (xii. i.) 
Ne gabbe ])u ne sch6tte; (xiv. 411.) 

(2) Ah hit ilomp an ofSer 'pi; (vi. 244.) 
fSe sunne swideS al his fligt; (xii. 70.) 
For ofte tiinge breke)) bon ; (xiv. 425.) 

If we prefix a section of the laUer form to one of the yorf?ier, 
we have the metre of the Ormulum (Section V) : 

And nu ice wile shs^wenn 5uw 

summ-d^l vfipp Godess h^llpe ; (v. 962.) 

The great peculiarity of this poem is its remarkable 
regularity, to which the poet adheres throughout with the 
utmost care, so that we are able to gather from it many 
valuable hints as to accent and pronunciation. The long 
line thus obtained is good and forcible, but in a poem of 
so great a length is felt to be almost mercilessly monotonous. 
The author does not allow his lines to rime, but the addition 
of a rime gives us an excellent form of metre, of which 
several examples occur in the Bestiary, though the first 
unaccented syllable of the section is often dropped, as in 
the fourth below : 

His hope is al to godewdrd 

And of his liiue he l6refS; 
fSat IS te sunne sikerlike, 

— Siis his sigte he beteS ; (xii. T04.) 

A reference to p. 137 will shew that kreS and de/e'S are 
considered as forming a rime, though it is really but an 
assonance. At pp. 136, 137, we see the variations that 
can easily be introduced intq this form of metre. Thus 
we may drop the initial unaccented syllables of each section, 
and introduce rimes at the end of every section ; with a very 
pleasing result: 


Al is man so is tis im 

wulde ge nu listen 
Old in hise sinnes dJm 

or he biciimetJ cxisten. 

Excellent examples of Orm's line, but with the addition of 
rime, may be found in Praed's poems : 

Twelve years ago I made a mock 

Of filthy trades and traffics ; 
I wondered what they meant by stock; 

I wrote delightful sapphics. 

The metre of the Moral Ode (pp. 194-221) is practically 
just the same, the difference being one to the eye only. 
The two sections are, in fact, united in one long line, a 
perfect example being seen in 1. 40, p. 196: 

]>e m6n })at wile syker beo 
to habbe godes blysse. 

Many of the lines are, however, more or less imperfect, 
owing to the frequent dropping of an unaccented syllable, 
especially at the beginning of a line. One thing the student 
should, however, particularly remark, viz. that the last accent 
in every line is invariably^ on the penultimate syllable, so 
that we obtain from it many important data for determining 
the use of the final -e in Chaucer. The only endings th t 
occur throughout are the unaccented syllables -^, -^, -en, 
-eney -ye, -er, -es, the first of these being by far the most 
common. Whoever, having a good ear, will ponder upon , 
this matter, will be led to see clearly, for himself, that the 
full sounding of the final -e, on which it is so necessary 
for a teacher of Early English to dwell, is a real thing, and 
not a mere fiction of grammarians. The same conclusion 
may be drawn from the metre of the Ormulum. 

Reverting once more to the section marked (i) on p. xxxvi., 

* In 1. 125 (p. 202), the form Horn is, of course, an error of the scribe 
for ilome ; see 1. 90, p. 200, and 1. 323, p. 216. 


we may observe that, with the addition of rime, it is the 

favourite metre of the author of King Horn, as in these 

examples : 

J?at folc hi giinne qpJlle 

And churchen for to UUe\ (xix. 6i.) 

To schupe schiille 5e idnde, 

And sinke to )« griinde ; (xix. 103.) 

But the poet constantly drops the initial unaccented syl- 
lable, as in 

Into schiipes h^de 

At J)e fiirste vf6rde\ (xix. 113.) 

He also allows himself numerous licenses, frequently drop- 
ping unaccented syllables in various parts of the line, 
altering the number of accents, and putting single rimes 
for double ones. The general effect is good, and the lines 
vigorous, but modern metre would not approve of the 
bringing of two accented syllables into close juxtaposition. 

Examples are : 

Bi ))e s^-side ; (xix. 135 ; cf. 203.) 

Bi J)e s^-brinke; (14T.) 

And J)i fafr-nesse; (213.) 

Ne n65t in J)e halle; (255.) 

pe king sede s6ne; (483.) 

pat his blod hatte ; (608.) 

Lastly, the section marked (2) on p. xxxvi., with the ad- 
dition of rime, occurs both in King Horn and in Havelok ; 
' as in the examples : 

Al Denemark, and al mi f/ 

Til thdt mi son* of helde b/; (xviii. 386.) 

pe stuard wds in h^rte vrS, 

— For he nuste what to d<^; (xix. 275.) 

And Iddde wi]) him A)?elbrz/j, 

pe gode stiiard of his hiis; (xix. 1539.) 

It is not particularly common, because both authors greatly 
preferred the double rime. The chief difference between 


these poems is in the normal length of the sections; in 
Horn the accents are commonly /hree, but in Havelok 
commonly /bur. The use of four accents, with the embel- 
lishment of a douMe rime, gives us section (2) with the 
addition of an unaccented syllable; which is the normal 
line in Havelok : 

And leue thdt it mighte w6ne 

In heuene-riche with godes sone ; (xviii. 406.) 

When the rime is only single, we have the familiar metre 
so common in Scott's ' Marmion,' as well as in the fourteenth 
century. Poems in a similar metre are Barbour's 'Bruce,' 
the ' Cursor Mundi,' Hampole's ' Pricke of Conscience,' 
Chaucer's ' House of Fame,' &c. 

The loss of final e reduced the double rimes of such 
poems as the Moral Ode to single rimes ; this gave us 
the familiar hymn-metre known as the common measure. 
Cowper's John Gilpin is also a good example of it. Both 
in Havelok and Horn some of the double rimes are im- 
perfect. Examples in the former are : do/^e, rode, diode, 
unless a line riming with dof^e has been lost (430) ; harde, 
crakede^ (567); rede, bethe^ (694); alle repeated (745). Ex- 
amples in the latter are much commoner, such as hiwesie, 
lasie (5); sones, gomes (21); heste, wersie {27); gripe, smite 
{51): more, yre (95); adrenche, of-pinche (105); ymge, 
iipinge (127) ; Suddene, kenne (143) ; Westernesse, blisse (157) ; 
gumes, i'Cume (161); &c., &c. 

For further remarks upon Metre, see Specimens, Part II, 
p. xvi, and the Introductions to the Selections from Chaucer 
in the Clarendon Press Series; also Dr. Guest's History 

* Dr. Morris ingeniously corrects these lines thus : 

And caste the knaue so harde adoun[e] 
That he crakede ther hise croune. 

' Unless we read bede, i.e. bid, which makes good sense. 


of English Rhythms, and Dr. Schipper's Englische Metrik, 
^Yhich is the latest work upon this subject. 


From historical testimony, and an examination of the 
literary records of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, 
we learn that the English speech was represented by three 
principal dialects.^ 

1. The Northern dialect, spoken throughout the Lowlands 
of Scotland, Northumberland, Durham, and nearly the whole 
of Yorkshire. Roughly speaking, the Humber and Ouse 
formed the southern boundary of this area, while the Pennine 
Chain determined its limits to the west 

2. The Midland dialect, spoken in the counties to the west 
of the Pennine Chain, in the East-Anglian counties, and in 
the whole of the Midland district. The Thames formed 
the southern boundary of this region. 

3. The Southern dialect, spoken in all the counties south 
of the Thames ; in Somersetshire, Gloucestershire, and por- 
tions of Herefordshire and Worcestershire. 

There is no doubt that the Midland dialect exercised an 
influence upon the Southern dialect wherever it happened 
to be geographically connected with it, just as the Northum- 
brian acted upon the adjacent Midland dialects; and this 
enables us to understand that admixture of grammatical 
forms which is to be found in some of our early English 

§ 7. These dialects ^ are distinguished from each other by 
the uniform employment of certain grammatical inflexions. 

^ See Higden's account of these dialects ; Sj>ecimens, part ii, p. 240. 
^ The Northern, Midland, and Southern dialects are sometimes desig- 
nated as Northumbrian, Mercian, and West-Saxon. 


A convenient test is to be found in the inflexion of the 
plural number, present tense, indicative mood. 

The Northern dialect commonly employs -es (dropped 
when ive, ye, or thai actually precedes), the Midland -en, and 
the Southern -eth, as the inflexion for all persons of the 
plural present indicative.* 


I St pers. ^op-^f,* hop-^«,^ ho^-eth, we hope. 
2nd „ ho^-es, hop-^«, hop-^/>^, ye hope. 

3rd „ hop-^j, hop-ew, ho^-eth, they hope. 

The inflexions of the singular number, though no absolute 
test of dialect, are of value in enabling us to separate the 
West-Midland from the East-Midland. 

The West-Midland conjugated its verb in the singular 
number and present tense almost like the Northern dialect. 


I St pers. hop-^, hop-^j*. 

2nd „ hop-^j, hop-^j. 

3rd „ hop-^j, hop-^j. 

The West-Midland of Shropshire seems to have employed 
the Southern inflexion -est and -eth, as well as -es, in the 2nd 
and 3rd persons singular indicative. 

The East-Midland dialect,* like the Southern, conjugated 
its verb in the sing. pres. indie, as follows : — 

I St pers. hop-^, 
2nd „ hop-^j/, 
3rd „ ho^-eth. 
Some of the East-Midland dialects geographically con- 
nected with the Northern seem to have occasionally employed 

* Observe the double use; (i) we hope, (2) we that hopes. 

^ This -es occurs also in the 2nd pi. imperative instead of -eth. 
^ The -n is frequently dropped in all persons. 

* For its two chief subdivisions and their characteristics, see Prefaces 
to 'Genesis and Exodus/ and 'An Old English Miscellany.' 



the inflexion -es in the .2nd and 3rd pers. as well as -esf and 
-eih. It is mostly found in poetical writers, who used it for 
the sake of obtaining an extra syllable riming with nouns pi. 
and adverbs in -es. 

The West-Midland is further distinguished from the East- 
Midland dialect in employing the inflexion -es for -es/ in the 
2nd pers. sing, preterite of weak verbs. We also find, in the 
West-Midland, the terminations -us, -ud, in place of -es, -ed. 

§ 8. The following differences between the Northern and 
Southern dialects are worth noticing. 



1. -es in all persons of the 
pi. pres. indic.^ and 

2. -es in all persons of the 
sing. pres. indie.'* 

3. No inflexion of person 
in the sing, or pi. of the 
preterite indie, of regular 
verbs -ed) as ist loved, 
2nd loved, 3rd loved {smg, 
and plural). 

4. Dropping of final e in the 
pt. t. 2nd person of strong 
verbs, as spak, spakest; 
segh, sawest. 

5. Infinitives drop the final 
-en {-e), as sing, to sing. 


-eth in the same. 

-e, -est, -eth {-th) in the same. 

Retention of the inflexions 
-ede, -edest, -ede, sing.; as 
I St lovede, 2nd lovedest, 3rd 
lovede; -en (pi.), as ist, 
2nd, 3rd loveden, 

2nd person, pt. t., of strong 
verbs ends in -e, as spek-e, 
spakest ; se^-e, sawest. 

Infinitives retain the final -en 


or -e, as sing-en, sing-e, to 

' The -es is dropped when the pronoun we, ye, or thai immediately 
precedes. ^ Dropped when / or he immediately precedes. 




6. Af for /Oy as sign of the 
infinitive, e.g. a/ fight^ 
to fight. 

7. Saly suld, shall, should. 

8. Present or imperfect par- 
ticiples end in -and (or 

9. Omission of the prefix j/- 
or I- in past participles, 
e. g. broken. 

10. The final -en in past par- 
ticiples is never dropped. 

11. No infinitives in -/, -le, 
-y, or -ye, 

12. No plurals in -en, -«, 
except eghen, hosen, oxen, 
schoortj/an (foes). 

1 3. The plurals hrether, chiU 
der, kuy {ky, cows), hend 

14. The genitive of nouns 
feminine ends in -es. 

15. No genitive plural in 

1 6. Adjectives drop all inflex- 
ions of number and case, 
except aller, alther^ alder, 
of all ; bather, of both. 

17. Definite article unin- 


^/ as a sign of the infinitive 
is wholly unknown in this 

Schal, scholde {schulde). 

Present or imperfect parti- 
ciples end in -tnde {-tng). 

Retention oi y- or /- in past 

participles, e. g. y-hroke, 

y-hroken {i-broke, i-broken). 

The final -en is often repre- 
sented by -<?, e. g. y-broke 
= y-broken ; t-/are = i- 
faren (gone). 

Numerous infinitives in -/, 
'ie, -y, or -ye, as ha/te, 
lovze, ponfyj &c. 

A large number of nouns 
form their plurals in -en. 

The plurals children, brethren 
(brothrerC), ken (kun), hond- 
en {honde). 

The genitive of nouns femi- 
nine ends in -e. 

Genitive plural in -ene re- 
tained as late as a.d. 1387. 

Adjectives retain many in- 
flexions of number and 

Definite article inflected : \fat 




fleeted: />a/ a demonstra- 
tive adjective. 

1 8. /^r, J>zr (these). 

1 9. Ic, zk, I (I). 

20. Sco, sho (she). 

21. Thai^ thair (Jhar\ thaim 
(thani) = they, their, them. 

22. Urs^ ^oures {yhoures), 
hirs^ ihairs = ours, yours, 
hers, theirs. 

23. Absence of the pronouns 
ha or ^ = he ; hine = him 
(acc.);z£;fl« = whom,which 
(ace.) ; hts{hisey is) = them ; 
his (is) - her, it. 

24. Use of ^^/^^« = hence ; 
thethen = thence ; whethen 

- whence. 

25. »S'w/« = as. 

26. -4/ = to ; fra = from ; //7 
= to. 

27. Conj. a/ = that. 


(^pet) the «^«/^r of the de- 
finite article, and not a 
demonstrative adjective. 

pise^ pes, 

Ich (uch), • 

Heo {hi, hue, ho), 

Hii (hi, heOy hue), here {hire, 
heore), hem {heom, huem), 

Ure, eowere {^oure, ore, or\ 
hire, here (heore). 

Use of the pronouns ha {a), 
hine, wan, his (is), his {is). 

Unknown in Southern dialect. 

Unknown in Southern dialect. 
Unknown in Southern dialect 

(but /// is in Chaucer). 
Unknown in Southern dialect. 



1. a; as in dan (bone), Iq/" 

2. i; as in kin, hil {hil\), pif, 

3. h; as in dink ; so also 
cloke (clutch). 


0; as in don, lof, loo/, 

u; as in kun,^ hul, put, 
ch ; as in bench ; so also 

^ Here « = A. S. y, pronounced as German ii. The Kentish dialect 
substitutes e for u, as ken (kin), hel (hill), pet (pit). 




kirke (church). 

croke (cross). 

rike (kingdom). 

skrike (screech, shriek). 

sek (sack). 

sk ; as in aske (to ask). 

4. Absence of compound 

5. qu {qWj quh) ; as in quat 

6. /; as in /el (fell), fa 

. See also chap, iv of Morris's 





schriche (schirche), 

zech {sech), 

ss ; as in esse (to ask). 
Use of the compound vowels 

m, eo (/V, ue)} 
hw (wh) ; as in hwat, 

V ; as in vel^ vo? 
Historical Outlines of English 



Gender. The genders of Old English nouns are three, — 
Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter, agreeing in general with 
the Anglo-Saxon or oldest English forms. 

Neut. wyf, child. A. S. wi/ cild, woman, child. 

Fem. soul^ sawel, heorte (herte), A. S. sdwol, heorie, soul, heart. 
Masc. drem, h,^,dr/am, song. 

^ The Southern dialect of Kent seems to have pronounced ea as j, as 
we find east, eaid {old), written yeasty yeald, 

* The Kentish dialect of the fourteenth century^ like the modem pro- 
vincial dialects of the South of England, has z K>t s, as zt'n^e, to sirig ; 
zay, say; zede, said. 

^ These Outlines are based upon the Southern dialect. 


After A.D. 1350 we find a tendency to limit the use of the 
neuter gender, as in the modern stage of the language. 

*The gender (says Mr. Sweet) is pardy natural, partly 
grammatical. By the natural gender names of men are 
masculine, of women feminine. Names of things have a 
grammatical gender, which is not determined by meaning, 
but by form. By the natural gender, children and the young 
of animals are regarded as neuter, because undeveloped. On 
the same principle diminutives are neuter, such as^/ mcegden 
(maiden). The word wif (woman) is neuter.' 

Declension. Substantives are of two kinds, strong and 
weak. Weak substantives are those which form the plural 
in -en^ originally in -an ; these will be considered last.^ All 
other substantives are strong. 

Strong substantives may be considered under three divi- 
sions, according as they were (originally) masculine, feminine, 
or neuter. 

Strong Declension : Masculines. 

Class I (^j-plurals). Substantives (originally masculine) 
ending in a consonant, and forming the plural in -es (A.S. 


(fl) Nom, Ace, ston {stone), Nom, Ace, ston-es. 
Gen, ston-es. Gen, ston-ene. 

DaL ston-e. Dai, ston-es. 

So also are declined day, del (deal, part), engel (angel), 
/eld (field), muth (mouth), ki'ng^ wey (way). 

Fader (father) drops the -es in the genitive case ; see 
Sweet, A.S. Grammar (Masculines, Class V). Winter has 

^ The arrangement closely follows that in Sweet's Anglo-Saxon 
Reader, which should be carefully compared with the declensions here 
given. Much fuller details of the declensions, &c. will be foimd in the 
Introduction to Old English Homilies, ed. Morris, First Series. 


the pi. winter and winters. Brother, moder, darter, suster 
are indeclinable in the singular, but make the plural in -en, 
as brothr-en (also brether-en), modr-eny do^ir-en, sustr-en ; in 
which respect they resemble the substantives in Class III 
below. Moder^ dorter, suster are, of coMvst, /eminine. 

Fend (fiend, &[i'tmy\frend,freond (friend), are also used 
as plurals ; see Sweet (Masculines, Class VI). 

Class II (mutation-plurals). 


Norn, Ace. fot {/oot). Norn, Ace. fet. 

Gen, fot-es. Gen, fot-e. 

Dat, fot-e. Dat, fot-e (fet-e). 

So also /^tS, pi. ie^ ; man, pi. men, which also has the dat. 
sing, men, formed by vowel-change, as in A. S., and the gen. 
and dat. pi. menne as well as manne. Got, gay t (goat), makes 
the pi. geet, Northern ^q>'/; cf. Icel. geit (goat), pi. geitr. 

Class HI («-nouns). Substantives (originally masculine) 
ending in a vowel, and forming the plural in -en (originally 
in -a), 


Nom, and Ace, son-e, suYi-e {son). 
Gen, son-e, sun-e, sim-es. 

Dat, son-e, sun-e. 



son-en, sun-en. 


sun-e, sun-es. 

Gen, son-ene, sun-ene. 

Dat, son-en, sun-en. 

, son-e, sun-e, 

Ace, s 




In this case, the gen. sing, sun-es, nom. and ace. pL 
sun-esy are due to making the declension conform to Class I 
above. The proper forms are gen. sing, sun-e (A. S. sun-a\ 
nom. and ace. pi. sun-e (A. S. sun-d) ; the nom. pi, form 
sun-en being due to confusion with the weak declension. 
So also wude, wode (wood) ; but the words of this class are 
very rare. 

Dialectal varieties. The Northumbrian dialect em- 
ploys hr ether ^ hr ether e (brethren), and the West-Midland has 
the curious pi. defter (daughters). The Northumb. gayt 
(goats) has already been noticed. The plural ending -es is 
often employed, in the Northern dialects, for substantives be- 
longing to nearly all other declensions, as well as for strong 
masculines ; it is also written -is or -ys. 

The suffix -us is a West-Midland variety of -es. 

Words of Romance origin form their plurals in -es, -s (or 
-z) ; as if belonging to the same declension as ston. 

Strong Declension : Feminines. 

Class I (<?-genitives). Substantives (originally feminine) 
ending in a consonant and forming the plural in -en (originally 
in -a). Here belong the substantives in Sweet, A. S. Gram- 
mar, Class I (3) and (r). 

Moreover, substantives ending in a vowel may be con- 
sidered as belonging to the same class, as the only difference 
of declension is in the nominative case singular. Here 
belong the substantives in Sweet, Class I (<2), and Class V. 


Nom, sawel (souT) ; dor-e {door). 
Gen, sowl-e ; dor-e. 
Dat, Ace, sowl-e : dor-e. 



Nom, sowl-en; dor-en. 
Gen, sowl-ene; dor-ene. 
Dai, Ace, sowl-en ; dor-en. 

Like sawel are declined ben (prayer), pi. denren; edder 
(adder), pi. eddr-en] syn (sin), pi. synn-en, sunn-en \ tide 
(A. S. tid)j pi. ttd-en. Also all nouns ending in -tng, -ung, 
and -ness. 

Like dore are declined denne (den), gt/e (gift), lay (law). 
World often forms the gen. sing, in -es. Hand, syn, form 
the pi. also in -e, as honde (hands), synne (sins). 

Ni'^t (night), w^t (wight), remain unchanged in the 
plural ; see Sweet, fem. sbs., Class III. Compare the com- 
pounds si ennight^ fortnight. For moder (mother), &c., see 
p. xlvii. 

It may be observed, further, that the final n of the plural 
inflexion sometimes drops off, as in hen-e = hen-en (prayers). 

Class II (mutation-plurals). Some substantives which 
form the plural by vowel-change are of the feminine gender ; 
see Masculines, Class IL An example is mous, a mouse, pi. 
mysy mice ; dat. pi. mus-e. So also gos, goos (goose), pi. ges^ 
gees. To this declension belonged originally cu, cou^ a cow, 
pi. kun, ken, kine. The Northern dialect prefers the pi. ky, 
kye (A. S. cy). 

Genitive of Feminine Nouns. It thus appears that 
the gen. sing, of fem. nouns is denoted by the vowel -e, not 
by -es, Chaucer has herte Mod, heart's blood ; widewe sone, 
widow's son ; The Prioresse Tale, the Tale of the Prioress ; 
The Nonne Prestes Tale, The Tale of the Nun's Priest. 
This rule is well illustrated in the modern terms Lords day 
and Lady day, the day of our Lady, the Virgin Mary.^ 

* Yet this is really the result of confusion. The word lefdye or lady 
is a weak substantive, and the genitive form properly answers to A.S. 

VOL. I. d 


Dialectal Varieties. As early as the latter part of the 
twelfth century we find a tendency in Northern writers to 
adopt -es as the genitive inflexion of feminine as well as of 
masculine nouns. See p. xlviii. 

Plurals in -en. We often find the same words forming 
their plurals in -es and -en (or -e), even in Southern writers.* 

Strong Declension: Neuters. 

Class I (^w-plurals). These answer to the A. S. ^-plurals, 
i. e. Class I of Neuter Nouns in Sweet, A. S. Reader. 


Nom, Ace, schip (s/itp). Norn, Ace, schip-en. 

Gen, schip-es. Gen, schip-ene. 

Da/, schip-e. Da/, schip-en. 

So also /reo (tree), of which the pi. /reow-en also occurs in 
the contracted form /reon, /ren ; deouel (devil) ; fa/ (vat) ; 
hened^ heaued (head) ; lim (limb) ; riche (kingdom) ; /oken ; 

Calf ehildj ey (tg^^ lamh^ form their plurals in -ren^ 
originally -ru ; see Sweet, A. S. Reader, Class II (r«-plurals). 
Hence the forms caluren, children or childern, eyren, lamhren 
(A. S. ceal/rUf ctldru, cegrUy lamhrti). 

Dialectal varieties. The Northern dialect avoids the 
use of these plurals in -ren^ all except child (pi. childer) 
form their plurals in -es, as ealues, ^gg^s^ lambes. 

Class II (plural unchanged). See Neuters, Class III, in 

hl<kfdigan^ which became lefdyetiy ladye^ lady. It was then naturally 
referred to the feminine declension of j/r<?«^ substantives, which opposed 
the addition of final -es. 
* See Preface to ' O. Eng. Homilies,* 2nd Series. 

substantives: weak declension, H 


Nom, Acc. hors Nom, Ace. hors 

Gen, hors-es Gen, hors-e 

Daf, hors-e Da/, hors-e. 

So also darn, hern (child) ; der (deer) ; folk ; hus (house) ; 
pund (pound); schep (sheep); ping\ ze;//* (wife, woman); 
weorc (work); word] yr (year). Hence wtlde der^ wild 
animals; horse knaues, horse-servants, grooms. In modern 
English, deer, sheep, swine, have a collective sense, and remain 
unchanged in the plural. Cf. also the tx^rt^sion^ five-pound- 
noie, two-year-old, Shakespeare has ' the neighs of horse ' ; 
Ant. and Cleop. iii. 6. 45. 

Weak Declension. 

In the singular, the A. S. endings -a, -e, and -an are all 
represented by final -e in Early English, so that the sub- 
stantives sterr-e (star), masculine, tung-e (tongue), feminine, 
and e^-e (eye), neuter, are all declined alike throughout, after 
the following scheme : — 


N, G, B. A, sterr-e. N, D, A, sterr-en. 

Gen, sterr-ene. 

In like manner are declined bee, pi. been ; chirch-e, pi. chirch- 
en\ ear-e, er-e (ear), pi. ear-en, er-en; flo (arrow), pl.yf^-w; 
fo (foe), pi. fo-n ; gom-e, gum-e (man), pi. gom-en, gum-en ; 
to (toe), pi. to-n, too-n; wis-e (wise, manner), pi. wis-en; 
wok-e, wuk-e (week), pi. wok-en, wuk-en. The final n of the 
plural sometimes drops off, as in myUe = myl-en, miles. 
Le/dy-e (lady), wright-e, wright, workman, tim-e, time, eorp-e, 
earth — although belonging to this declension — generally form 
the plural in -es. It may be noticed that, with the exception 
of monosyllabic words ending in a long vowel, weak sub^ 



stantives consist of two syllables at least, owing to the use 
of final -e in the nominative case. 

General Remarks on the Declensions. 

Case-endings. — a. The dative singular of all the declen- 
sions is denoted by a final -e, 

b. In the Northern dialect the genitive -es is often omitted, 
as man sone (son of man) ; he/d haire (hair of the head). 

c. No trace of the genitive plural -ene or -en is to be found 
in the Northern dialects. The genitive in -ene {-en, -yn)y in 
the other dialects, is often superseded by the dative with the 
preposition of, 

d. The A. S. dative pi. -um^ in some few cases, is denoted 
by -^; in the majority of instances it is the same as the 

Plurals in -en.— a. The plurals son-en (sons), dor-en 
(doors), schip-en (ships), show a tendency to change the 
A. S. suffixes -a, -«, first to -e, and afterwards to -en, 

b. The. Northern dialect seems to avoid the use of this 
inflexion, and the only instances that occur are eghen (eyes), 
oxenyhoseny shoon (shoes), andy^/i (foes). 

c. Brether (brothers), childer (children), hend (hands), hern 
(brains), ky (cows) are properly Northern plurals, but are 
occasionally found in Midland dialects having Northern 


Adjectives have a Definite (or Weak) and an Indefinite (or 
Strong) form; the former is used when the adjective is 
preceded by the definite article, a demonstrative or a pos- 
sessive pronoun ; the latter in all other cases. 


Examples : J^e god-e (the good) ; god (good). 
I. Definite Declensj^on. 


Nom, god-e (of all genders). 
J god-en (of all genders). 
* I god-e (later form). 
( god-en (masculine only). 
I god-e (of all genders). 


Nom, Dat, ( god-en (of all genders). 
Ace. \ god-e (later form). 

( god-ene (till a.d. 1200). 
( god-e (later form). 


II. Indefinite Declension. 





All genders, 





















Remarks on the Declension 0/ the Adjective, 

a. The vocative of adjectives takes the definite inflexion of 
the strong declension, and terminates in -e ; as, * stronge 
god,' * O ^onge (young) Hughe.' 

b. The genitive singular of the indefinite declension is 
more often expressed by the dative form with the prepo- 
sition ^than by the inflexion -es. 

Such forms as alleskynnes (of every kind), noskynnes (of no 
kind), are instances of the genitives alles (of all) and nos:=- 
nones (of none). 


The Northern dialect frequently employs the contracted 
forms alktHj nankin or nakin, ilkin (of each kind), sumkin, 

c. The genitive plural -re is retained in but few cases ; beye 
(both) makes gen. pi. bei-re (Northern bather) \ the latest 
example is al-re (of all), later all-er, ald-er^ alth-er, 

d. Adjectives of Romance origin form their plural in -es 
or ~s, as waieres principales (chief rivers) ; ihinges espiritueles 
(spiritual things) ; leiires capitals (capital letters). 


The comparative and superlative of adjectives are regularly 
formed by adding -ere, -re, -er^ and -este, est to the indefinite 
form. The Southern dialect often employs -ore, -or, and 
'Ostey -ost; and the Northern -are, -ar, and -aste, -asi, instead 
of -ere and -este. 

Adjectives and adverbs ending in -lich, -liche, have -laker 
or -loker in the comparative, and -lakest or -lokest in the 
superlative; which became -Iyer, -lyest in the fourteenth 
century. Adjectives and adverbs in the Northern dialect end 
in -lie, -like, or -ly, instead of -lich, -liche. 

Irregular Comparisons. 
The following adjectives are irregularly compared : — 


aid, old {old). 

aldre, eldre. eldest. 

r bad. 

/ badder. werst. 

\ ille {ill). 

< wers, wors. worst. 

\ uvel {evil). 

I werre, warre,^ war.^ 

( er, ere, 

( ar, or {early). 

erur. erst, 

arst, orest. 

> Warre, war, are not found in the Southern dialect. 




fer {/ar), 
god (good). 
heh, he^ {high). 


ferre, fer. 

betre, bet. 

herre, hirre. 

r lenger, leng, 
I lengre. 

lasse, lesse, les. 

lang, long (long). 

lyte {litik). 

{ mikel,michel,muchel, mor, mo. 
( miche,moche,muche. 

neh, ne3 (ntgh). nerre, ner. 

sare, sore (sore). sarre, sorre. 

Strang, strong. strengre, strenger. 



best. [hest. 
he^est, hext, 


most, mest. 

newest, next, 

sarrest, sorest. 


Eldre^ lengre, sirengre have vowel-change as well as the in- 
flexion of comparison ; later forms are older, longer, stronger. 

Corresponding with^ the above comparative forms, we 
have the adverbial forms wers or wurs (worse) ; fer, some- 
times y^rr^ (farther); bet (better); leng (longer): /^j (less); 
mo (more); ner, neor (nearer). The usual adverbial com- 
parative suffix is -er.. The superlative forms can be declined 
both as definite and indefinite; as pe eldest-e (the eldest), 
eldest (eldest). The adverbial form ends in -est. Com- 
parative forms in A. S. follow the definite declension only, 
to which they properly belong. 


on, oon. 
twa, tweie. 
J>reo, J>ri. 
foure, fower. 
fif, fife. • 
sexe, sixe. 



]?e forme, ]?e fyrste. 

)?e o)?er, )?at o]?er. 

)?e (or J)at) )?ridde. 

f)e fer)?e. 

f)e fifte. 

f>e sexte, sixte. 

J>e seuejje, seofej?e. 



ehte, eihte. J>e ei^tej^e. 

nijen. J>e nie)?e, nij>e. 

ten, tene. J>e teoJ>e, tej>e, tij>e. 

The forms J?e ton^ J>e ioPer^ stand for pet on, pet oper, 
where pet is a weakened form of pat. The E. E. oPer 
went out of use as an ordinal, its place being supplied by 
the French word second. The E. E. tipe (tenth) gives us 
Mod. E. tithe\ 

Dialectal Varieties. Twin (two), thrin (three), are 
Northern forms. Cf. Northern yi?«^, few ^. 

The Southern numerals answering to seventh^ eighth, &c. 
end in -pe, -the; the corresponding Northern numerals end 
in -end (or -and), as sevend, aghtend (or achtand), neghend, 
tend, and are due to Norse influence* The Kentish dialect 
prefers -ende to -pe, agreeing with the Old Frisian forms 
in -nd. Many Midland works have examples of forms in 

§ 12. PRONOUNS. 


The personal pronouns are ich, I ; pu, thou ; he, he ; heo, 
she ; hit, it. There are also some traces of dtml forms, as 
unky us two ; unker, of us two ; inc, you two : see the Glos- 


Nom, ich, uch. we. 

{Northern ik, ic, I). 

Gen, min. ure, ur, oiu*. 

Dat, Ace, me. us, ous. 

* The forms twin and thrin were originally distributive. The form 
fon (or fone) however, as shewn by the Northern texts of the Cursor 
Mundi, is a variant of quon or quone^hwon, produced by Celtic influ- 
ence (cf. the use oifioi wh in Aberdeen) j A.S. hwdn, hw<kne, a Ijttle. 



Nom. )?u, ]?ou. 36, jhe, ge, ye. 

G^. )?in. eower, jure. 

Daf. Ace, J>e. eow, ow, ou, 30U, yow. 

Masc. Fem. Neut. 

Nom, he, ha, a, heo, hi, hue, ho, he, ge, hit, it. 

{Nor/kern scho, sco, j^^i://. sche.) 
(x^«. his, hire, hir, his, hit. 

Daf. him, hire, hir, him, hit. 

Ace. hine, him, hi, hire ; hes, his, es, is, hit, it. 

JVom. hi, heo, hue ; Northern f)ai ; Midland ]?ei. 
Gen, hire, here, heore, hare, hir. 
Dat. heom, huem, ham, hem, hom ; J)aim, f>am, J)eim. 
Aec. hi, heo, hue; also as dat) also hes, his, is. 

Min, pin^ his^ are sometimes used as genitives, but in 
most instances they are merely possessive pronouns. Ure^ 
eower^ hire are genitives when used with an indefinite pro- 
noun ; as ure non, none of us. The personal pronouns are 
often used reflexively, as ieh me reste^ I rest myself. 

Dialectal varieties. leh^ uch^ are Southern forms ; uch^ 
Midland; ik^ ic^ /, Northern. / is used in the Southern 
dialect before «, as / nere ^ I ne werey I were not. 

Ha^ J, he, is p)eculiar to the Southern dialect. 

His {is) = them, her (sometimes it), occurs in Southern 
writers, but is unknown to the Northern dialect. £s {is) = 
them, &c., is found in Genesis and Exodus (East-Midland), 
where it coalesces with verbs and pronouns ; as caldes = calde 
es, called them ; dedis = dede is, did (placed) them ; hes = he + 
is, he them; wes =^ we + is, we them. In the Moral Ode, 
hes - he-\'is, he it ; see the Glossarial Index. 

Hit oj // similarly coalesces with verbs and pronouns in 


the same dialect ; as sagt = sag it, saw it ; wast - was it, it 
was; get = ge-\'ii, she it. 

Htne, him, is not found in the Northern dialect. 

SchOj SCO J she ; Jfai\ they ; />azm, pam, them, are Northern 
forms only ; sche^ Jfci, are Midland varieties. 

Bo, hit (gen.) are West-Midland forms. 

The above list of variant forms must not be considered as 
an exhaustive one. 

The pronouns are often agglutinated to verbs ; as ichoi = 
ich wot, I know ; icham, I am ; icholle = ich wolle, I will. 
Nuly = ne wule y, I will not. Mosti = moste i, I must. 


The reflexive use of the personal pronouns has been 
noticed above ; p. Ivii. Self is added to the personal pro- 
nouns (i) in the nominative, as ich self,pou self) (2) in the 
dative, as ich me self pou pe self he him self But the 
genitive often replaces the dative; as / mi self we ure 
self &c. 

Self when used as a demonstrative, signifies *same,' or 
* very.' 


The possessive pronouns were originally identical in form 
with the gen. case of the personal pronouns, as min, Ipin, his, 
hire, his (its), ure, yire, hire. Min, pin are commonly 
shortened to mi and//; the rest app)ear in several varieties 
of form. Hise appears as the plural of his. The Northern 
forms for our, your, their, are urs, ymres, thairs\ in some 
Midland dialects we find our en, y)uren, her en. 


The definite article pe, originally a demonstrative pronoun, 
was at first fully declined. 






Norn, )?e. 

)?a, )?eo, }?o. 

)?at, )?et, 

)?a, f)0. 

Gen, f)es, 

f)are, J^ere, 


)5are, f)ere. 

Dai, J>an, 




. f bane, 
\ pene. 


)?o, )?e, 

)?at, )?et, 



The following is the declension of ^pis, this. 

nr V u 1. 1. u- / l^^os, hues, bes, 

iV(?/«. }>is, }.es, ).eos, >ues, }.is, \ f ^^^ 'j^^^^ ^j^ 

(x^«. f)ises, f)isse, J)ises, f>isse, J)ise. 

DaL f>isen, J)ise, f>isse, f)ise, f>isen, f>ise. 

Ace, )?isne, }?os, f)as, J)ise, ]?is, aj «(?/?2. 

Dialectal Varieties. In the Northern dialect the def. 
article is indeclinable in the singular number. The plural 
is fia. 

In the Southern dialect ^pai (]?<?/) is the neut. article ; in the 
Northern it is used as a demonstrative pronoun, with the pi. 
pas = those. 

pisser (see Glossary) occurs as the dat. fem. sing, in the 
Kentish dialect. 

pivy these, swilc (slike, sic\ such, ilka, each, are Northern 
forms ; pulli, ptlke, are Southern. 

Masc. and Fem. Neut. 

Nom, hua, huo, huat, huet, wat. 

Gen, huas, huos, wos, same as masc. 

Dat, huam, hwom, wom, same as masc. 

Ace. * huan, wan, huam, huat, huet, wat. 

Dialectal varieties. The Northern forms are wha, qua, 
quhay who ; gen. quas, quhas ; dat. quam, quham ; ace. quam, 
quham, quhat. 


Wheper:='^\i\ch of two ; Northern quhether. 
While, which, wich = which ; Northern quhilk, 


The ordinary relatives are S^, S^/, indeclinable. The 
genitive, dative, and accusative of who are used as relatives, 
but not the nominative. 


1. Sum, som, some] sum — sum, the one — the other; pi. 
sume, some, 

2. Ouht, ouct, o^t, aught; nouht, nowTf, nouci, nowi, nahi, 
naught, nought. 

3. Man, men, usually shortened to me - one, used with a 
singular verb ; as me seith, one says. See Me in the Glos- 
sarial Index. 

4. Wha, one, any one ; wha-so, whosoever ; eiSer, either ; 
n(vSer, nd^er, neither. 

5. Ech, uche, ulche, each ; euerech, euerich, euerilc, every, 

§ 13. VERBS. 

There are two classes of verbs, strong and weak. The 
conjugation of strong verbs is effected by vowel-gradation ; 
the past tense of weak verbs is formed by adding -edt {-de, -/?) 
to the root-syllable, the passive participle being formed by 
adding -ed {-d, -/). Some weak verbs exhibit vowel-change, 
but they must be carefully distinguished from strong verbs. 
Thus the mod. E. hold, pt. t. held, is a strong verb ; but the 
mod. E. lell, pt. t. lol-d, is a weak one, as shewn at once by 
the added -d. Some verbs which are now weak, were once 
strong; and the verb to wear, now strong, was formerly 

Moods. There are four moods ; Indicative, Subjunctive, 


Imperative, and Infinitive. The infinitive ends in -en or -ten. 
There is also a gerund, used with /o ox for to, and expressive 
Df purpose; but the distinction between the infinitive and 
a^erund is not always observed. 

Tenses. Only two tenses are formed by inflexion, the 
Present and the Past. The Present is often used as a 

Participles. The present participle ends in -inde (also 
-inge, Northern -and). The past participle often has the 
prefix I- oxy-, as i-set'd, said ; except in the Northern diailect. 
The same prefix i- (A. S. ge-) appears also occasionally (as 
in A. S.) in any part of the verb; as i-scilde, may shield ; i-seh, 
saw ; i-seony to see ; i-sih^, he sees. 

Weak verbs may be divided into three classes, of which 
!ove, hear, and tell may be taken as the types. 

(a) 'iove '-class {-ten verbs). 

The original ending of the infinitive mood was -I'en (A.S. 
-tan), also appearing as -ie, -en, -e. 

Infinitive, lov-ien,^ lov-ie, lov-en, lov-e. 
Gerund. to lov-ienne, to lov-ene. 
Pres. Part, lov-inde {Northern luf-and). 
Past Part, i-lov-ed, y-lov-ed. 

Indicative Mood. 


• Singular. Plural. 

1 . lov-ie ; lov-e. lov-ieth, lov-eth ; lov-en ; lov-es.^ 

2. lov-est; lov-es. lov-ieth, lov-eth ; lov-en; lov-es. 

3. lov-eth ; lov-es. lov-ieth, lov-eth ; lov-en ; lov-es. 

^ Almost always written louien, with «, not v\ but v is used, for 
clearness, throughout this account of the verbs. 
' Also loV't (with we, ye, that). See remarks on the Dialects ; p. xli. 



Singular. Plural. 

1. lov-ede; lov-ed. lov-eden; lov-ede; lov-ed. 

2. lov-edest; lov-ed. lov-eden; lov-ede; lov-ed. 

3. lov-ede ; lov-ed. lov-eden ; lov-ede ; lov-ed. 

Subjunctive Mood. 


Sing, lov-ie ; lov-e. Plural lov-ien ; lov-en. 


Sing, lov-ede. Plural, lov-eden. 

Imperative Mood. 
Sing, lov-e. 

Plural. [ ""• ^""""''f^ ' ^''^'''^' 

\ b, lov-ie ; lov-e (when followed by the pronoun). 

So also clep-ien, to call ; her-ien^ to praise ; hop-ien^ to hope ; 
mak-ien^ to make ; schun-ien^ to shun ; pol-ien^ to suifer. The 
/ is often dropped. 

(h) ' Hear '-class (-^« verbs). 

Infinitive, her-en; her-e. 
Gerund. to her-enne, to her-en. 
Pres. Part, her-inde. 
Past Part, i-her-d, y-her-d. 


Indicative Mood. 


(For various dialectal forms compare lov-ien above.) 
Sing, her-e, her-est (her-st), her-eth (her-th). Plural, her-eth. 


Sing, her-de, herd-est, her-de. Plural, her-den, her-de. 


Subjunctive. Fres. Sing, her-e. Plural her-en. 

Past Sing, her-de. PluraL her-den. 

o. 1 T^, , f^- her-eth. 

Imperative. Sing, her. PluraL \ i y^ 

The third person singular of the present tense is frequently 
contracted to a monosyllabic form. Ex. : grtt for gred-e^ 
(cries) ; hit = hidetS (hides) ; let = letteS (hinders) ; let = ledetS 
(leads); sent ~ send-^IS (sends); 7vent = wendetS (wends, turns). 

(c) * Tell '-class (with vowel-change). 

Infinitive, tell-en, tellrc. 
Gerund. to tell-enne, to tell-en. 

Pres. Part, tell-inde. Past Part. ^ ,. i j ' 

( i-tol-d. 

Indicative Mood. 


(For various dialectal forms, compare lov-ien above.) 
Sing, tell-e, tell-est (tel-st), tell-eth (tel-th). Plur, tell-eth. 

past tense. 

J teal-de, teal-dest, teal-de. J teal-den. 

^' \ tol-de, tol-dest, tol-de. ' \ tol-den. 


Pres. Sing, tell-e. Plur, tell-en. 

_ " . ( teal-de. f teal-den. 

Fasi Stng. | ^^j_^^ Flur. | ^^,_^^^ 

Sing, tell-e. Plur. tell-eth. 

If the base of the verb ends in a double consonant, the 



2nd pers. sing, imperative ends in -^, as suii-en, to sell, imp. 
sull-e. Otherwise, the final -e is here dropped. 
To this class belong the following verbs. 


begg-en, bigg-en (buy), 
bring-en (bring), 
rech-en (reck), 
sech-en, (seek), 

sull-en, sell-en (sell), 

f)ench-en (think), 
f>inch-en (seem), 


J seal-de, 
I sol-de, 











werch-en, worch-en (work), wroj-te, 

Seggen, seien (say), makes the 2nd and 3rd pers. sing, 
indie, sei-st, set'-V; pt. t. sei-de, Leggen (lay), makes the 
pt. t. lei-de. Will-en (will), makes the pres. tense wilUe 
{wil-e, wol-e, wui-e); 2 p. wt'l-/ {wol-/^ wul-i); 3 p. will-e 
(wil-e^ wol-e, wul-e) ; pi. will-e^ (woll-e^^, wuIi-eS), Past 
tense woUde, wul-de, Pres. subj. wil-e, pi. will-en. Similarly 
nyll-en (will not, Lat. nolle) ; pt. t. nol-de. 

On the Formation of the Fast Tense of Weak 
Verbs. Properly speaking, the preterite is formed only by 
the suffix "de^ e in -e-de being due to a suffix (often causal) 
added to the base. The pp. suffix is -^. 

I. In verbs with a long radical vowel or base ending in a 
double consonant this -e- disappears, and -de only is added 
to the base. Moreover, -de becomes -ie after a * voiceless ' con- 
sonant, or (frequently) after /. Examples are the follo^ving. 





call-en (call), 



dem-en (judge). 



gred-en (cry), 






hid-en, hud-en (hide), 
ler-en (teach), 
met-en (meet), 
schnid-en (clothe), 

d, dipp-en (dip), 
kep-en (keep), 


hid-de, hud-de, 





2. When the base ends in Id, nd, r/, sf, ht, it, &c., then 
'de or 'te stands for d-de or i-te, as in the following : 




c, buld-en (build. 



lend-en (lend). 


i-lend, i-lent. 

lett-en (hinder), 



send-en (send), 


i-send, i-sent. 

rest-en (rest). 



In kyth-en (shew), the pt. t. kyth-de becomes kyd-de (also 
kud-de), pp. i-kydy i-kid, i-kud. Some few verbs have double 
forms in the pt. t, and pp., a being put for e, as del-en (deal), 
pt. t. del-te, dal-te, pp. del-t, daUL So also led-en (lead) ; 
leu-en (leave, pt. t. lef-te, laf-te) ; red-en (advise) ; spred-en 
(spread) ; swelt-en (die) ; swetf-en (sweat) ; thrett-en (threat). 
Clothen, clethen (clothe), has pt. t. cled-de, clad-de. 

Cacch-en (catch), lacch-en (seize), tech-en (teach) have the 
past tenses cayte, layte, tayte, also spelt cauyte, lauyte, 

Drench-en (make drink), has the past tense dreyn-te, 

Meng-en (mingle) has the past tense meyn-te, 

Habb-en (have) is thus conjugated — 

Indie, Pres. Sing, habb-e (hav-e), haf-st (ha-st), haf-th 

(hav-eth, ha-th). Plur. habb-eth (hav-eth). 
Indie, Past. Sing, haf-de (hav-ede, had-de) ; &c. 

VOL. I. e 



Strong verbs make the pt. t. by vowel-change, without the 
addition of the suflSx -de -(Je), This distinguishes them from 
verbs such as telly discussed in the conjugation last given. 
The characteristic ending of the pp. is -euy sometimes short- 
ened to -e. The tense-endings will be sufficiently clear from 
the following paradigm of the verb bind-en, to bind. 

Infinitive, bind-en, bind-e. 

Gerund, to bind-enne, to bind-en. 

Pres. Part, bind-inde. Past Part, i-bund-en. 

Indicative Mood. 


Sing, bind-e, bind-est, bint (bind-etS). Plur, bind-eS. 

past tense. 

Sing, band (bond) ; bund-e (bond-e) ; band (bond). 
Plur, bund-en. 

Subjunctive. Pres, Sing, bind-e. PJun bind-en. 

Pasl Sing, bund-e. Plur, bund-en. ' 

Imperative. Sing, bind. Plur, "j t • j ' 

Observe that, in this verb, the characteristic vowel of the 
past tense plural appears also in the 2nd pers. sing, of the 
same tense, and in the whole of the pt t. subjunctive ; and 
that this rule is invariable. The vowel of the pp. happens,, 
in this verb, to be the same, but in many verbs is different ; 
and again, some words preserve the same vowel throughout 
the past tenses indicative and subjunctive. In order to con- 
jugate a strong verb, we must know the characteristic vowels 
(i) of the infinitive, (2) of the ist and 3rd person of the past 
tense singular, (3) of the past tense plural (including also 


the 2nd person singular), and (4) of the pp. Strong verbs 
(if we follow the arrangement in Sweet's A. S. Grammar^) 
may be divided into seven conjugations according to their 
characteristic vowels. As exemplifying the various conjuga- 
tions, the following verbs may be chosen, viz. /izll, shake, 
bear, give, drink, drive, choose} 

In the following list, the forms given are the most regul^, 
generally the earliest forms ; they should be compared with 
the A. S. forms throughout. Owing to occasional confusion, 
and from other causes (chiefly phonetic), the regular forms 
are sometimes supplanted by others; In some cases dots 
are used to signify that there is no authority, in Early English, 
for the form to be used ; but it can generally be inferred. 

Strong verbs can be divided into two sets; those which, 
likey^/Zand shake, keep- the same vowel throughout the past 
tense, and those which, like the other five verbs, have a 
different vowel in the 2nd pers. sing, and in the plural 

The following paradigm exhibits the vowel-changes in 
these conjugations* 

1. /all. Present : a (or e, 0x0), Past : <?. Past part: a 

(or e, or o). 

2. shake. Present : a. Past : S? Past part : a. 

3. bear. Present : e (or i). Past sing. : a', pi. / (or 0), 

Past part. : (or «). 

* Except in the mere order of the conjugations, which are somewhat 
shifted for convenience, as explained below. 

' These may be remembered by help of the following doggerel coupletT— 

If e'er thou /a//, the shake with patience bear\ 
Give; seldom drink \ drive slowly; choose with care. 

The order of weak verbs, viz. Iffve, hear, tell, may be similarly remem- 
bered by the lines — 

Of Lovers soft spell 

Hear poets tell, 

' The mark over the denotes that the vowel is essentially long, 

e 2 


4. give. Present : t (or e). Past sing. ; a; pi. /. Past 

part. : /' (or e). 

5. drink. Present : i (or e). Past sing. : a; pi. u. Past 

part. : u (or d?). 

6. drive. Present: f. Past: d (or S); pi./. Past part.: 1*. 

7. choose. Present: eo = ^ (or «). Past: ea-i\ pi. k. 

Past part. : 0, 

Many of the above vowel-changes may be remembered by 
help of modern English. The following notes will be of use 
in this respect. 

\. fall, fell, fallen. The pt. t. vowel is e ; the pp. vowel is 
that of the infinitive. 

2. shake ^ shook, shakefi. The pt. t. vowel is d {^o(f)\ the 
pp. vowel is that of the infinitive. 

3. bear, bare, borne. The pt. t. vowel is a [plural /] ; the 
pp. vowel is commonly 0, 

4. give, gave, given. The pt. t. vowel is a [plural /, as in 3]; 
the pp. vowel is that of the infinitive. 

Here belongs get, gat, gotten ; where the pt. t. vowel is a 
[plural /, as before] ; and the pp. vowel is, properly, that of 
the infinitive, the E. E. pp. being geten, 

5. drink, drank, drunk. Vowels /, a, u ; but the «-vowel 
is used in the pt. t. plural as well as in the pp. Here belongs 
the E. E. dehen, pt. t. dalf pi. dulven, pp. dolven ; see p. Ixxvi. 

6. drive, drove, driven. The long represents an original 
d, later S, The short / of the pp. is used also in the pt. t. 
plural. Cf. conj. 5. 

7. choose, chose, chosen, E. E. cheosen ( = chheri) ; pt. t. 
cheas ( = chii), pi. curon ; pp. coren. 

The following is a list of the principal strong verbs oc- 
curring in Early English. 




I. ^ Fall '-conjugation. 




behald-en, behold-en 

beheld, beheold 





fald-en, fold-en {/old) 




fallen {/all) 

fel, feol, (fil, vil, 



fang-en, fong-en 
{/ake) ; contracted 
/orm fon. 

feng (veng) 




hald-en, hold-en 

held, heold 





hang-en, hong-en 

heng (hing) 



wald-en, wold-en, 
weld-en (luuld) 

weld (wield). 



walk-en {walk) 




wall-en (well^ boil) . 

wel, weol 

* • . • 


bet-en {beat) 

bet, beot (beet) 



gret-en {weep) 




hew-en {heiv) 

hew, heow (heu) 



let-en {lei, cause) 

let (leet) 



slep-en {sleep) 


slep (sleep) 



bihot-en {promise) 




blow-en {blow, as the 

blew (bleu) 


wind), blaw-en 



blow-en {blow, as a 




crow-en {crow) 

crew, creu 


* The prefix /- oiy- is omitted in this list throughout, though in com- 
mon use in the Southern dialect, especially in the pp. 



flew, fleaw 


het (heet) 



knew (kneow) 




rew (reu) 

sew (seow), 





)?rew (]>reu) 



19. flow-en {flew) 

20. grow-en (grow) 

21. hot-en {command) 

22. know-en, knaw-en 


23. mow-en {mow) 

24. row-en {row) 

25. sow-en, saw-en {sow) 

26. swop-en {sweep) 

27. J)row-en, }?raw-en 


In the two verbs following, the pp. has no longer the 
same vowel as the present tense, as was the case in the 
earliest period. 

28. lep-en {leap) lep (leep, leop) lop-en 

29. wep-en {weep) wep (weep, weop) wop-en 

To the same class belongs gan or gangen, to go, the pt. t. 
of which is borrowed from another root. 

30. gang-en, gong-en [code, ^ede] gan, gon 

{go)\ contracted 
forms gan, gon 

The verb laken, to sacrifice, originally strong, is weak in 
E. E. and M. E. 

II. ^ Shake '-conjugation. 

31. ak-en {ache) 

ok (00k) 

32. 2.vfdk'tn {awake) 



33. bak-en {bake) 

bok (book) 


34. draj-en, draw-en 

droh, dro3 (drou^, 



dreu5, drew) 









gnow (gnew) 






loh, logh 
schok, schook 



schof, schoof 
stod, stood 


tok, took 





wosch (wesch) 


weox^ (wex) 



35. fzx-en {/are, go) 

36. forsak-en {forsake) 

37. gnaw-en {gnaw) 

38. grav-en {bury) 

39. lad-en {lade) 

40. lagh-en {laugh), 

41. schak-en {shake) 

42. schav-en {shave) 

43. stand-en {stand) 

44. stap-en ^ {step, go) 

45. tak-en {take) 

46. wad-en {wade) 

47. wak-en {wake) 

48. wasch-en {ijuash) 

49. wax-en, wexen(zc;fl.r, 


Some verbs belonging to this conjugation have a weak 
form for the infinitive ; thus hebhen, to heave, stands for an 
original haf-ian *, base haf'\ scheppen, to shape, create, stands 
for schap-iah*^\ swerien, to swear, is from the base swar-. 
Slen, sleen, sle, to slay, is a contracted form from a base slah- 
or slag; Thus we may add to the above the following. 

50. hebb-en (heave) 

51. schepp-en {create) 

52. sleen, slen {slay) 

53. swer-ien {swear) 

* The weak form steppan is more common. 

* Originally wdx^ which became we6x even in A.S. 
' A.S. haf-en. 

* Put for swar-ettf by the influence of the preceding w. 

hof, heof (haf) 


schop, schoop 


sloh (slou) 


swor, swoor 



III. ' Bear '- conjugation. 






54. ber-en {bear) 

bar (ber) 

ber-en ^ 


55. brek-en 






56. cwel-en {die) 

• • • 


• . i> a 

57. hel-en {hide) 




58. scher-en 





59. sXt\-tn{steal) 




60. ter-en {tear) 




To this conjugation belongs nim-en, to take, with a similar 
pt. t. singular ; thus : — 

61. nim-en nam nom-en num-en 

{take) (nom-en) 


So also cum-en, to come, of which the original form was 
cwim-an ; as thus : — 


62. cum-en cam (com) com-en cum-en 


Spek-etiy to speak, at first made the pp. spek-en, for which 
spok-en was afterwards substituted, by analogy with verbs of 
this conjugation. See spek-en in Conjugation IV. The same 
remark applies to tred-en (tread), wev-en (weave). 

^ The vowel was not originally the same as that of the infinitive 
mood, being essentially long. Ber-en (infin.)«A.S. ber-an\ but ber-en, 
pt. t. pi. = A. S. brd-on. The compoundy&r^^r^w is similarly conjugated. 




IV. * Give *- conjugation. 


63. ^iv-en ^af 5ev-en ^iv-en (^ev-en, 

(^ev-enjgtve) jov-en) 

In other verbs the infinitive has <?, including gel-en (to get), 
of which the A. S. form was gt'lan ; so dho/orgelen. 


64. drep-en 




65. et-en {eat) 

at (et) 

et-en ^ 


66. forget-en 




67. fret-en 

frat (fret) 




68. get-en (get) 




69. kned-en 



70. met-en 





71. queS-en 




72. spek-en 



(spok-en) * 

73. stek-en(j//r>^, 






74. tred-en 






75. wev-en 






* The vowel was not originally the same as that of the infinitive 
mood, being essentially long, Et-en (infin.) = A.S. et-ani but et-enf pt. 
pl. = A.S. dton, 

^ Most commonly spok-en ; see remark upon the preceding conjuga- 
tion. So also trodmt woven. 



76. we3-en way wey-en 

{weigh) (wej) 

77. wrek-en wrak wrek-en wrek-en 

(wreak) (wrok-en) 

The following verbs have a weak form in the present 
tense. Otherwise, they agree with the verbs above. 

78. bidd-en bad (bed) bed-en bed-en 


t9- ligg-en {lie lai (lei) lej-en lej-en (lein) 


80. sitt-en {sit) sat set-en set-en 

The infinitive seen, sen (to see), is a contracted form, from 
an original sehw-an. The verb belongs to this conjugation. 

81. seen, sen jsah, sag, sej-en sej-en, 

I \ < sau, sei3, sei-en, sein, 

^ ' ( sei, se^ sen. 

V. * Drink*- conjugation. 


82. biginn-en Cbigan bigunn-en bigunn-eu 

(J>egin) (bigon bigonn-en bigonn-en^ 

83. bind-en (band bimd-en bund-en 

{bind) (bond bond-en bond-en 

84. climb-en Cclamb clumb-en clumb-en 

{climb) ^clomb clomb-en clomb-en 

85. cling-en clang clung-en clung-en 


86. ding-en (dang dung-en dung-en 

{strike) (dong dong-en dong-en 

^ Both a and u frequently become before a following n. Hence the 
forms bigan, bigunnen frequently appear as bigon^ bigonnen. 




. drink-en 

!. find-en 

), ginn-en 

>. grind-en 

. limp-en 

!. linn-en 

\. ring-en 

\, rinn-en 

;. schrink-en 

\, sing-en 

r. sink-en 

\, sling-en 

). spinn-en 

). spring-en 

[. sting-en 

J. stink-en 















































Gan, pi. gunneHf is often used as an. auxiliary verb, like mod. E 






103. swimm-en 



104. swing-en 





105. swink-en 





106. J?ring-en 





107. wind-en 





108. winn-en 



109. wring-en 






no. bern-en 




III. berst-en 





112. berj-en 




113. breid-en 




114. delv-en(^2^) 



115. feht-en ) 



f. fight)) 

fiht-en ; 

116. help-en 





117. kerv-en 





118. melt-en 



















119. sterv-en 


120. swell-en 


121. swelt-en 


122. swel^-en 


123. )>resch-en 


124. werp-en 


125. wurS-en^ 


126. jeld-en 




starf ( sturv-en 

(sterf) (storv-en 








127. jell-en (yell) jal 








128. abid-en^ 


129. aris-en 


130. bid-en 

• (wait) 

VI. * Drive '- conjugation. 

(abad, abid-en * abid-en 


( aras, aris-en aris-en 

( aros 

bad, bod bid-en bid-en 

* Put for werfS-en = A.S. weorfSan, e turning into « or <? by the 
influence of the preceding w. 

' In the pt. pi. and pp. the vowel i is shorty but in the infinitive it is 
long\ see next note. 

* In a^ady abody both a and are long, so that we also find abood. 
Comparing the note above, we see that the verb is abid-euy pt. s. abddy 
abSdy pt. pi. and pp. abid-en {abid-en) ; compare mod. E. drivCy drovCy 
driven ; ridey rodey ridden^ &c. 



131. biliv-en 


132. biswik-en 


133. bit-en (bite) 

134. driv-en 


135. flit-en 


136. glid-en 


137- grip-en 

138. liS-en 


139. rid-en (ride) 

140. rin-en 


141. ris-en (r/>^) 

142. riv-en (rive) 

143. schin-en 


144. schriv-en 

145. sih-en 


146. sij-en (y<^//) 

147. slid-en 


148. slit-en (slit) 

149. smit-en 


J 50. sniS-en (r«/) 

151. stij-en 








(bis wok 


bat, bot 



draf, drof 






glad, glod 









rad, rod 




ras, ros 



raf, rof 























stah, stej 






152. strid-en (strad, 


. . • • 


153. strik-en 


154. swik-en 


155. J>riv-en 


156. wrih-en^ 


157. writ-en 


158. wriS-en 


(strak, ■ strik-en 

swak ...... 

Jjraf, )3rof 

...... wri^-en 

wrat, wrot writ-en 










In Chaucer we find sir of 2,% the pt. t of striv-en^ to strive; 
but the verb was originally weak, pt. t. striv-ede. 

In Sect. I. 1. 196, we find the pt. pi. repen^ as if from an 
infinitive ripen (A. S. ripari), to reap; cf. p. 197, 1, 22. 

VII. * Choose '-conjugation, 
(eo, 6.) 

159. beod-en ) bead 

(offer) \ bed 

bed-en J 

160. breow-en ) brew 

(brew) > 

brew-en j 

161. cheos-en ) cheas cur-en 

(choose) > ches chos-en 



brow-en ^ 



cor-en ^ 

^ Another form is wreon ; see Conj. VIL 

* Brow-en is for bruw-etij by the influence of the w. 

' The A.S. forms are cur-orif cor-en, with r for s. 







162. cleov-en \ 



{cleave, slit) > 
clev-en j 


163. creop-en \ 
(creep) \ 




crep-en J 



164. dreoj-en 




165. fleo-n(/^^)) 
fle-n ) 



flog-en ^ 

166. fleot-en 








167. fleo^-en \ 


flej-en i 
fleen j 



flow-en ^ 

168. freos-en 



fror-en * 



169. leos-en 


lur-en ' 

lor-en ' 


les (lees) 




170. leo3-en (//>)) 
lej-en J 




171. reos-en 1 
{fall down)) 


rur-on * 

res (rees) 

172. reow-en 






* These two verbs are hardly distinguishable; see Stratmann, s. \ 
fleo^en^ fleon^ ?cci^fle6ganyfle6han in Sweet, Conj. VII. 

* A.S.froren\ Milton hvisfrore; cf. Prov. 'E.frorn, 

^ A. S. lufOHy loretty in the compound verb for-ledsan ; with r for j 
Hence Mod. Y^. forlorn. The M. 'E.forleosen is conjugated like leosen. 

* A.S. hruron, pt. pi. of hreSsan j with r for 5, 







173. scheot-en 




174. seo8-en 




175. tQon^ {draw) 

176. Seon^ 


teah, teh 




177. wreon' 





178. bu^-en (3(?ze;) 

179. duv-en(^/z;^) 

180. luk-en (lock) 

beah, beh 

deaef, def 






181. lut-en (pow 


182. schuv-en 


183. ^\jk.-tn{suck) 



sek (sok) 





The past tense and past participle of hruken 
to use, enjoy, nowhere occur in E.E. or M.E. 

(A. S. brUcan), 

Alphabetical Index to the List of Strong Verbs. 

[In the case of uncontracted verbs, the final -en is denoted 
by a hyphen only. The numbers refer to the list above.] 

awak-, 32. 
bak-, 33. 
behald-, i. 

beod-, 159. 
ber-, 54. 
bem-, no. 

berst-, III. 
berj-, 112. 
bet-, 10. 

abid-, 128. 
ak-, 31. 
aris-, 129. 

^ A.S. tedfiy contracted form from tihan. 
' A. S. fSedfif contracted form from iSihan, 

* A. S. wredn, contracted form from wrihan ; see ivrihen above, in 
Conj. VI, no. 156. 

VOL. I. f 



bid-, 130. 
bidd-, 78. 
biginn-, 82. 
bihot-, 15. 
biliv-, 131. 
bind-, 83. 
biswik-, 132. 

bit-, 133. 
blow-, 16, 17. 
breid-, 113. 
brek-, 55. 
breow-, 160. 
buj-, 178. 
cheos-, 16 1, 
cleov-, 162. 
climb-, 84. 
cling-, 85. 
creop-, 163. 
crow-, 18. 
cum-, 62. 
cwel-, 56. 
delv-, 114. 
ding-, 86. 
dra5-, 34. 
dreoj-, 164. 
drep-, 64. 
drink-, 87. 
driv-, 134. 
duv-, 179. 
et-, 65. 
fald-, 2. 
fall-, 3. 
fang-, 4. 

far-, 35- 
feht-, 115. 
find-, 88. 
fleon-, 165. 
fleot-, 166. 
fleoj-, 167. 

flit-, 135. 
flow-, 19. 
forber-, 54. 
forget-, 66. 

forleos-, 169. 
forsak-, 36. 
freos-, 168. 
fret-, 67. 
gang-, 30. 
get-, 68. 
ginn-, 89. 
glid-, 136. 
gnaw-, 37. 
gray-, 38. 
gret-, II. 
g^rind-, 90. 

grip-, 137- 
grow-, 20. 
hald-, 5. 
hang', 6. 
hebb-, 50. 

W-, 57- 
help-, 116. 
hew-, 12. 
hot-, 21. 
kerv-, 117. 
kned-, 69. 
know-, 22. 
laft-, 39. 
lagh-, 40. 
leos-, 169. 
leoj-, 170. 
lep-, 28". 
let-, 13. 

ligg'» 79- 
limp-, 91. 

linn-, 92. 

li»-, 138. 

Ink-, 180. 

Int-, 181, 

melt-, 118. 

met-, 70. 

mow-, 23. 

nim-, 61. 

que©-, 71. 

reos-, 171. 

reow-, 172. 

rid-, 139. 
rin-, 140. 
ring-, 93. 
rinn-, 94. 
ris-, 141. 
riv-, 142. 
row-, 24. 
schak-, 41. 
schav-, 42. 
scheot-, 173. 
schepp-, 51. 
scher-, 58. 
schin-, 143. 
schrink-, 95. 
schriv-, 144. 
schuv-, 182. 
seen, 81. 
seotJ-, 174. 
sih-, 145. 
sing-, 96. 
sink-, 97. 
sitt-, 80. 
si5-, 146. 
sleen, 52. 
slep-, 14. 
slid-, 147. 
sling-, 98. 
slit-, 148. 
smit-, 149. 
snitJ-, 150. 
sow-, '24, 
spek-, 72. 
spinn-, 99. 
spring-, 100. 
stand-, 43. 
stap-, 44. 
stek-, 73. 
stel-, 59. 
sterv-, 119. 
sting-, loi. 
stink-, 102. 
stij-, 151. 
strid-, 152. 

strik-, 153. 
suk-, 183. 
swell-, 120. 
swelt-, 121. 
swelj-, 122. 
swer-, 53. 
swik-, 154. 
swimm-, 103. 
swing-, 104. 
swink-, 105. 
swop-, 26. 
tak-, 45. 
teon, 175. 
ter-, 60. 
tred-, 74. 
Seon, 176. 
])resch-, 123. 
])ring-, 106. 
)>riv-, 155. 
))row-, 27. 
wad-, 46. 
wak-, 47. 
wald-, 7. 
walk-, 8. 
wall-, 9. 
wasch-, 48. 
wax-, 49. 
wep-, 29. 
werp-, 124. 
wev-, 75. 
wej-, .76. 
wind-, 107. 
winn-, 108. 
wrek-, 77. 
wreon, 177. 
wrih-, 156. 
wring-, 109. 
writ-, 157. 
wri©-, 158. 
wurC-, 125. 
5eld-, 126. 
jell-, 127. 
3iv-, 63. 


General Remarks on the Strong Cofijttgations, 

1. If the base of a verb ends in -e or -eo, the -e or -eo is 
the -^ of the inflexions in the present indicative and impera- 
tive, 2^fleJ> = flees ; sep = sees. 

2. Verbs having -d or -/ as the final letter of the root- 
syllable, take -/ instead of -de^ or -/fS as the inflexion of 
the 3 pers. pres. sing., as hint = bindeth, binds ; et = eateth, 
eats; ^r/W = grindeth, grinds; ^^/Z = holdeth, holds; rit- 
rideth, rides ; stont^ stent = standeth, stands. 

3. The 2nd and 3rd pers. are frequently contracted 
thus : est = eatest ; hinst = bindest ; drinkp = drinks ; dn/p = 

4. Verbs whose base originally terminated in g often re- 
tain it under the form 5 in the 2nd and 3rd pers. sing, 
indie. : as drawen, to draw, dra-^st, drawest, dra^th^ draws ; 
fleon^ to fly, fliyi^ fliest, flv^, flies ; wrien^ to cover, wrv^, 

5. In some verbs the vowel is changed in the 3rd sing, 
pres. indie, as hoten^ to command, hat^ commands ; standen^ 
to stand, stent, stands. 


Some verbs originally strong sometimes follow the weak 
conjugation : 

leten^ to let, pL t. lette (for lei), 

gripen, to seize, „ grapte (for grap or grop), 
slepen, to sleep, „ slepte (for slep\ 
treden, to tread, „ trodde (for trad), 
I. Ayn, awen, oyn, owen, to own; ist and 3rd sing. pres. 
indie, ah (aghy auh, awh, a^, ouh, og, ow); 2nd, awe {owe); 
pi. ayn {o^en, ogen, owen, ozve) ; pt. t. ahte {aghte, aukte, a^te, 
ogtey oughte), 

f 2 


2. Am is the ist pers. sing, of the old infinitive wesan, to 
be. The other persons are as follows: — 2nd pers. pres. 
indie. <fr/, ar/; 3rd, ts; pt. t. ist, was, wes; 2nd, were; pi. 
weren, were} 

For an, see unnen, to grant ; no. 1 3, p. ixxxv. 

3. Beon, ben, to be; ger. beonne, byenne, ist pers. pres. 
indie, be, bi, beo; 2nd; bis/, best\ 3rd, bith, beth, beeth, beoth, 
buth\ ist, 2nd and 3rd pers. pi. beth, beoth, buth\ imp. pi. 
beth, buth, 

4. Cunnen, to be able, to know; ist sing. pres. indie, can, 
con) 2nd, cunne, const, canst; 3rd, can, con; pi. cunnen, 
connen; pt. t. cuthe, couthe, coude (Eng. could); pp. cuth, 
couth, known. 

5. Dar, I dare, ist sing. pres. indie., dar, der; 2nd 
darst, derst; 3rd, dar; pi. durren, dorren, dorre; pt. /. dorste, 

6. Don, to do; ger. donne, doenne^ done, ist. sing. pres. 
indie. ^(9; 2nd, dest, dost; 3rd, deth; pi. doth; pt. t. ^«(/<?, 
^/*(tf^, dede; imp. pi. ^(9/^. 

7. Ihc^en, dowen, doive, to be good, to be worth; ist and 
3rd pres. dow ; pi. dowen, dowe, Deih (properly a present) is 
sometimes used for dohte, doughte (pt. tense). 

8. Gon^ to go; ger. gonne, gone, ist sing. pres. indie, go; 
ynd, gest, gost; 3rd, geth; pi. goth; pt. t. ^^^<?, yode, yde, 

yode ; imp. pi. goth ; pp. z^^?;^. 

9. Mugen^ tnogen, moyn^ mawen, to be able, may; ist 
sing. pres. indie, /w^, mat, mey; 2nd, mi'^f, migt; 3rd, »?^, 
m^?*; pi. muwen, mawen, mouen; pt. t. mi^te, mighte, moghte, 

10. Mot, ist sing. pres. indie, mot^, may, must; 2nd, 
most; 3rd, /w^/, w«/; pi. moten; pt. t. »/(?j/?, muste^, 

^ Sind or sinden (are) occasionally occurs, but is not used after laco. 
^ Cp. Ger. muss, musste, > 


• II, Schal, I St sing. pres. indie, schal {ssel\ shall; 2nd 
sc^aU (sselt) ; 3rd, schal (ssel) ; pi. schulen {ssollen, ssolle^ ssule, 
suk) ; pt. t. schuldey scholde (jssolde), 

12. \^ar/, I St and 3rd sing, "^xes.'mdxc, J?ar/{ther/,J?ar, 
/her), need ; 2nd, /hur/e ; pi. ihurfen ; pt. t. purfte^ therfte 

13. Unnen, to grant, ist sing, an^ on ; pi. unnen. We 
also find ist sing. unne\ pt. t. ti^e\ pp. unnen, 

14^ Witen^ to know, ist sing. pres. indie, wati^oot, wo/); 
2nd, wosf; 3rd, ze;a/ {woo/, wo/); pi. ze;//^/^ (jvifen); pt. t. 
w«/f, z«;«j/^ ; imp. sing, wt/e, pi. witeth, 

15. Willen^ to wish, ist sing. pres. indie, ze;///^ (wolle, 
wulle, wiky woky wule); 2nd, wz'l/^ wolt, wult; 3rd, ze;///^, 
wile^ wokf wule; pi. wtlleth, ivolle/h, wulleih, Pt. t. ze-^/a^^, 
wulde. See p, ixiv. 

Negative Forms. Am, have, wille, witen (know), take 
negative forms, as nam { = ne am), am not ; ms, is not ; nas, 
was not ; nadde, had not ; m'le, will not ; nol{ = ne woi\ knows 
not ; nuste, knew not. 

Dialectal Varieties. 


Weak Verbs, 

a. Present Tense, (i) For the inflexions of the Northern 
and Midland dialeets in the indie, pres. tense, see § 7, 
p. xli. (2) The East-Midland dialect has a tendency to omit 
-/ in the 2nd pers. sing., z^findes =■■ findest. 

3, Past Tense, (i) The Northern dialect drops all the 
inflexions of persons in the sing, and pi. of weak (and 
strong) verbs, as ist, 2nd, 3rd sing, loved, spak; ist, 2nd, 

^ TTiurste is sometimes written for durste^ taking the signification 
belonging Xojmrfte, 


3rd pi. loved J spak, (2) The West-Midland dialect has -es 
(also -^ = -es) as the inflexion of the 2nd pers. pt. tense of 
weak verbs, as lovedes - lovedest. 

The Southern and Midland dialects frequently drop the -« 
in all persons of the plural, as Icwede = loveden, loved. 

The Northern dialect prefers the forms ledde^ le/ie, redde^ 
to ladde, lafte^ radde (see p. Ixv). 

Strong Verbs. 

1. The Northern dialect employs the past tenses ^ar, brak^ 
gaf, spak, instead of ber, brek^ ge/i^ef), spek. 

2. The Northern dialect retains the a in the pt. t. of verbs 
conjugated like drink and drive. 












ros (roos). 




smot (smoot). 

Imperative Mood. 

The Northern and West-Midland dialects (and occa- 
sionally the East-Midland) employ -es instead of -eth in the 
2nd pers. pi. imperative of weak and strong verbs, e.g. loves, 

love ye. 

Infinitive Mood. 

1. The Northern dialect drops the infinitive ending -m 
or -e, as well as the gerundial -enne^. 

2. The Southern dialect abounds in infinitives in -/<?* 

* The gerundial inflection is often corrupted by Southern and Midland 
writers into -inge, as to sellinge = to sellenne, to sell. As early as the 
twelfth century we find such forms as to doende^to doenne, to do; to 
delende = to delenney to divide. 

* The dialects of the Southern counties still retain some of these 
infinitives, as sowy, to sow; milky, to milk. 


(•^e, >^), remnants of older forms in -w«, as ka/ze, to hate 
(A.S, hai't-an'y herye, to praise (A.S. her-i-an)] makte, to 
make (A.S. mac-i-an). These forms are never employed by 
any Northern writers. 


a. The pres. participle in the Southern dialect ends in 
'inde^ in the Northern in -and^ and in the Midland in -ende 
(-end) \ 

b. The passive participle of strong verbs ends in -en, but 
the n is often dropped in the Southern and Midland dialects 
(never in the Northern), as ibroke =» ibroken \ icorve = icorven 

The Northern dialect always omits the prefix /- (^-), as 
bunden for tbunden, corven for icorven. 

Anomalous Verbs. 
The Northern dialect has the following peculiar forms : — 

1. Sal ( = Southern schal, ssal), shall, takes no inflexion of 
person in the indie, mood, e. g. present tense, ist, 2nd, 
3rd, sing, sal, pi. sal; past tense, ist, 2nd, 3rd, sing. 
suld, sulde ( = Southern schulde, scholde, ssolde), should. 

2. Wil (pt. t. waldy walde) = will, follows the same rule. 

3. The verb to be is thus conjugated; — ist sing. pres. 
indie. IS, es ; 2nd, is (occasionally erl) ; 3rd, is, es ; pi. 
ist, 2nd, 3rd, ar, er (occasionally es); pt. t. sing, ist, 
2nd, 3rd, was (occasionally war) ; pi. ware {war), 

4. The following contracted forms are of frequent occur- 
rence : — bus = behoves ; bud = behoved ; ha ^io have ; 
ma = to make ; mas, mase = makes ; /a = to take ; ias^ 
lose - takes ; Ian = taken ; slan = slain. 

5. Mun, mon, shall, never occurs in any Southern dialect. 

* Present participles in -tn^e {-ing) are not uncommon in the Southern 
dialect, and the corruption commenced before A.D. 1300. 


IL The West-Midland dialect contracts schullen or schuln 
(the pi. of schal) into schin {schyn) or schun, e. g. pay schin 
knawe = they shall know. 

§ 14. ADVERBS. 


Adverbs are compared by the affixes -er (positive) and -est 
(superlative). Adverbs ending in -Itche often form the com- 
parative in -luker {-ioker)y and the superlative in -lukest 

See also the table of Irregular Comparison of Adjectives. 


Some adverbs have the prefix a« ( = an, on^ prep, on), 
written a- (before a consonant), an- (before a vowel) ; as 
a'^eny again ; anihte, by night ; ayr, yearly ; anende, lastly ; 
anunder, under. 

Occasionally we find of instead of a, as of-huve, above ; 
o/-newe, newly ; adown = 0/ dune, downwards (lit. off the 

The prepositions bt\ be {hy),/br, in, on, to, umhe (about), 
also occur as adverbial prefixes. 


1. Adverbs that now end in 4y formerly ended in -liche, 
(The adjectival affix sing, is -lich^ 

2. Adverbs are formed from adjectives by adding a final -e. 
Thus soih, sooth, true.; sothe, soothe, truly. ^ 

3. Other adverbial suffixes are : -es (genitive). Hence 
all-es, altogether, of necessity,' needs; ayn-es, against; 
amidd-es, amidst; among-es, amongst; bisid-es, besides; 

^ The loss of the final -e explains the modem use of adjectives for 
adverbs, as n^-^/= rightly; long =^\oxi^ (time). 

ADVERBS, Ixxxix 

death-es^ at death, dead ; dayes, by day ; Iz'v-eSy alive ; ned-es, 
of necessity; new-es, anew; ni^t-es, by night; iogeder-es, 
together. Un-es, on-es, once, henn-es, hence, neod-es^ needs, 
iwi-eSy twice, thrives, thrice, — are later forms for en-e, henn-e 
(henn-etiy heon-an), neod-e, twi-e (A.S. iwiwa)y ihri-e (A.S, 

4. ^en (-^) ; as about-en, about ; be/or-en, befor-n^ before ; 
buv-en^ buv-e^ above; binn-en., binn-e, within; wtth-out-en, 

5. 'Itnge 'y as all-Inge^ altogether; hed-ltnge, headlong; 
groV'linge, on the face, prone ; trtf-ltnge, playfully. Cf. 
Mod. E. dark-h'ngy in the dark. 

6. 'der^ motion to ; as ht-der, thi-dety wht'-dery hither, thither, 

7. -en (-^), motion from ; as henn-eriy henn-Cy hence ; thenn- 
etiy thenn-e, thence ; whenn-etiy whenn-e, whence, which gave 
rise to later forms with genitive affix -es, as henn-eSy thenn-es^ 
whenn-es (Mod. E. hence, thence^ whence^ 

8. 'Urn, 'Om (dat. pi.) ; as whil-oniy seld-um. 

Dialectal Varieties. The Scandinavian forms hethen, 
hence, queihen {whethen), whence, thetheiiy thence, surriy as, — 
are not used in the Southern dialect. 

The Northern dialect prefers the prefix on- (^-) to a- ; as 
on-slepey asleep; (?-3fl^, aback ; on-roundey around. 

In the West-Midland dialect we find in- as an adverbial 
prefix, as in-blande, together, mixedly ; m-Iyche, alike ; in- 
mydde, amidst; in-monge^ amongst.^ Chaucer uses in-fere, 

The Southern suffix -Itnge becomes -linges (Sc. -Ims) in the 
Northern dialect ; as grove-lmgeSy on the face, prone ; hand- 
h'nges, hand to hand; hed-lingeSy headlong. 

^ Alike f along (on account of), among^ are corruptions oi K,S, gelicCf 
gelong, gemang, Cp. enough = A. S. genSh, 


The Northern dialect employs -gafe or -ga/ (way) as a 
suffix ; as al-gate, always ; how-gate^ how-so ; Ihus-gaie, thus- 
wise ; swa-gaie, so-wise, in such a manner. 

In-withy within, ut-wtth, without, forwit^ before — are 
peculiar to the Northern dialect. 


The Northern dialect employs fra for the Southern fram 
(vram\ Midland^r^?, from; a/, ///, for the Southern to\ amel^ 
emely for the Southern amtddeSj amid. Mide^ midy with, toppe^ 
above ( = «/ oppe = at uppe^ lit. at up), are unknown to the 
Northern dialect. 


iy* takes a negative form in the West-Midland dialect, as 
nif= if not. 

No'hut occurs in the Midland dialect for only. 

Warn, warne - unless, thofquether - nevertheless, are un- 
known in the Southern dialect. 

Ac, but, is not found in the Northern dialect. 


Quine, quin ( = whi-ne, why not) occurs in the Northern 
dialect for O that! 



I. Plurals in -e (for -en)) -en] -es (for -en), 

par were abute blosme i-noje ; i6, i6. 

pej crowe bi-grede him bi J^e mershe ; i6. 304. 

Horn let [sone] wurche 

Chapeles and fi^/>r^^ ; 19-. 1408. 

pat folc hi gunne quelle, 

And churchen for to felle; 19. 62. 

pah we hit nusten, heo weren vre i-fere ; 1 7 (Jes.) 102. 
(Here the Trinity MS. has i/eren\ 

Twelfy^r^w he hadde; ipw 19. 

And bad him nimen him^^r^^ mide ; 15. 2478. 
2 {a). Genitives feminine in -e] strong declension. 

pu ert mire souk liht; 11. 5* 

Ne brekej? nouht Crist eft helle dure ; 17 (Jes.) 180. 

Ah helle kyng is oreles ; 1 7 (Jes.) 2 1 6. 

pe word bigan to springe 

Oi Rymenhilde weddinge ; 19. 1029. 
2 (3). Genitives in -e\ weak declension (usually feminine). 

Al min heorie blod to tSe ich offrie; 11. 4. 

And nime 3eme oi chirche stevene; 16. 727. 

pereuore ich Se bidde holi heouene kwene; 11. 83. 
3. Genitives plural in -ene {-en); -e; -es. 

In ^nglene londe; 6. 524. 

C«/i^/d'«^ aire faeirest ; 6. no. 

C«/i^/^ aire hendest; 6. 154. 

Vor Su ham hauest alesed of deoflene honde ; 1 1. 15. 


To englene londe; ii. i6; in englene reste; ii. 70. 

De him bar to manne frame; 12. 39. 

De moyses, Surg godes red, 

Wrot for lefful souks ned ; 15. 2523. 

4. Neuters plural: (a) unchanged; (b) in -en] (c) in -es. 

po heo hadde J^eos word i-cwede ; 16. 1653. 
Vmbe fiftene yr ; 6. 71. 
Heo dro5en heore sctpen uppe ]?e lond ; 6. 1 86. 
Alle ]?ine wordes beo]? i-sliked; i^. 841. 

5. Various cases of the definite article. 

Comen to pan kinge ; 6. 208. 

And Hengest swiSe faeire 

Herede pane king ; 6. 277. 

Summe bi pa honden ; summe bi pe tunge ; 

. . . summe hiper heorte ; 3 a. t6. 

p^ forme was snaw,^^/o5er is,/^/ ]?ridde fur; 3 a. 28. 

Biforen pam ilke stude ; 3 a. 46. 

God 3escop/fl niht; i. 62. 

pfl engles of heofene; 3 a, 5. 

We eovv wulleS seggen oi pa fredome ; 3 ^. 2. 

pe ancre /<?«<? ilke gult ne upbreide hire ; 9. 276. 

Hit ^2k%pare ule earding-stowe ; 16. 28. 

A ]?as haelf /^r^ Humbre ; 6. 234. 

Si sterre yede to-for hem ; 1 3. 1 1 . 

6. Adjectives : (a) definite ; (<5) indefinite. 

pis weoren '^z.fareste men; 6. 13.' 

Swa ]3e deor wilde ; 6. 86. 

YiiTQ fleschh'che feder; S a. 2, 

To luuien J^ene Imiende lauerd ; 8 a. 6. 


Mine leoue sustren; 9. i. 

HelpeS mid ower owune swinke; 9. 201. 

To sechen lond 2Lndgodne lauerd ; 6. 98. 

Cnihtene aire feir est \ 6. 178. 

An rice king wes, Strang and mihii ; i . i . 

He wolde ^earceon 2Ln2d gra/e laSienge; i. 6. 

And itt bitacnej)]? dene lif 

And al/e clene Ipddwess ; 5. 1592. 

Seofe leies [seven flames] of seoicu^re heowe, ]>e alle 
weren eateliche to bihaldene and muchele strengre 
f>en eani )>ing to J)olien ; 3 a. 19. 

7. Pronouns : personal, possessive, relative, indefinite. 
Eouwer wille ich wulle driven ; 6. 49. 

He heom wes leof 

JGfne al swa heore lif; 6. 139. 

Heh heo is and hali, 

Hired-men heo luuieS for-J)i; 6. 131. 

^eo his i-hote Frea; 

Heredmen hire louieS; 6. 133 (later text). 

Ah war mihte z«^^ hine finde ? 16. 1749. 

per-efter arerde god \as lage, . . . and wrate his him- 
self m stanene wax-bredene; i. 91. 

pepe godes milche secS, ivvis he mai hes [it] finden ; 
17 (Tr.) 219. 

Se \e aihte wile holde wel f>e hwile hes mu^e wealden, 

3ieue hes for Godes luue, Jeanne dotS hes wel ihealden; * 


* Hes = \\.\ also hes = he hes, he it. *He who desires to keep his 
property well whilst he may use jV, Ut him give it away for the love of 
Jod, then doth he well keep ?/.* So also ?V=them; 15. .2130, 2404. 


Ah ^// was unker voreward; i6. 1689. 

Unk schal i-tide harm and schonde; 16. 1733. 

Ne 3eue tch for inc nowSer, ]3at y me mahen harmen ; 
8 a. 113. 

-^mdraces of />zsser lage were Abel, Seth, Enoc, 
Noe; I. 85. 

Jfu ert mt're soule liht, and mine heorte blisse; 11. 5. 

Oi celchen vfel he waes wser; 6. 156. 

Nu we sculen eow sceawen hwilc hit is heom for to 
heren and nawiht for to ethalden [i. e. to retain 
or remember them]; 3 b, 22. 

pat ha leare ham mete [moderation], pat me meosure 
• hat ; 7. 50. ( J/<? hat = one calls, is called.) 

Wostu to wan man was i-bore ? 1 6. 7 1 6. 

Hwet is he pes were ]?at iu art to iweddet,/^/ /« hauest 
witS-uten me pine luue ilenet, for hwam pu letest 
Intel of /a/ tu schuldest luuien ? 8 «. 81. 

De corn %at ge to caue bereS, 
Al ^^/ bit otwinne ; 12. 268. 

(Ge- she ; get=ge it, she it ; bit, biteth.) 

8. Weak verbs. 

(a) Like love. 

pu /wfl^^e/<?j/ me fleme ; 19. 1291. 

Alle J^at pouerte wilfuUiche /(?//<?« ; 10. 22. 

Ich hopie ]?et hit schal beon ou swutSe biheue ; 9. 350. 

(h) Like hear. 

Nouhwuder elles ne go heo, bute ]?ider ase me sent 
hire; 9. 243. (Pres. s. indie.) 

Hi ledden him to Rouecestre; 2. 133. 


panne is mi ]?ralhod 

/ze;^/ in-to knijthod ; 19.439. 

{c) Like fell. 
ClotSes warme and wel z-wrouh/e; 9. 153. 

Ne rope he (he would not reck); 16. 427. 

He wel trowede ]?at he sej/de, 

And on 6odard handes leyde; 18. 382. 

9. Strong verbs. 

{a) hikQ/all, 

He/eng on to tellen him ; 8 a, 44. 

Ic am . . holden in bond; 15. 2076. 

Here Hf hi lete J>ere; 19. 1262. 

Heo tweien eoden . . into helle, alswa heom drihten 
het\ 3 a. 9. 

All men suUe ripen J^at hie ar sewen ; 17 (Tr.) 22. 

(3) Like shake. 

Bulled braed 
]3att bakenn wass inn ofne ; 5. 992. 

To him his swerd he dro'^ ; 19. 882. 

He wit and wald alle J>ing, and schop alle schafte ; 
17 (Jes.) 83. 

(c) Like bear. ^ 

Al schal beon J^er })eonne ikud, ]?at er \here'\ men 
lowen and stelen ; 17 (Jes.) 165. 

Hi nomen consejl betuene hem ; 13. 8. 

id) Uik^ give, 

De lene hauen "Se feiie freten] 15. 21 01. 

Al J)is f)at tu hauest ispeken of; 7. 194. 

He sag hise breSere misfaren; 15. 191 1. 


Ich wille speke toward ]?e 

Also f>u speke toward me; i6. 553. 

{e) Like drink. 
Hi gonne me assaile ; 19. 637. 

Heo swunken sore; 17 (Jes.) 354; he swanc sore; 
17 (Tr.)362. 

Wilde der 
Hauen min sune swolgen her; 15. 1975. 

Elewsius war^ wod ut of his witte; 8 a, 127. 

(/*) Like drive. 
Hi strike (pt. pi.) sell and maste; 19. 1025. 
I smot hem alle to grunde; 19. 639. 
pe sarazins he smat [miswritten smatte^ ; 19. 607. 

{g) Like choose, 

Ic f>e bidde , . for J^ine icorene; 3 a, 77. 

Scae [she]^^// d^ad forks J)ar micel; 2. 122. 

Al schal beon )?er J)eonne ikud, J^at er men lowen and 
stelen; 17 (Jes.) 165. 

Prest [priest] with token kope; 18. 429. 

10. Anomalous Verbs. 

pus ah mon te f)enchen; 7. 222. 

He binam him al Sat he ahte io hauen; 2. 112. 

Cristus him unne gode endinge ; 2. 204. 

He iaf him al Sat he cuthe axen him; 2. 109. 

Vor nis of ow non so kene 

pat durre abide mine onsene; 16. 1705. 

Nabbe ^e no swuch J^ing f)et ou ne deih forto habben ; 
9. 189. 

He mot mid me holde mid ri3te; 16. 1680. 


per ne parfhi^ beon adred of fure ne of ]?eue ; 17 
(Jes.) 44. 

Whi neltu fleon into \t bare? 16. 150. 

II. Adverbs. 

He haj5 giled J^e iwie\ 19. 1488. 

Do hit [let her do it] allunge ut of hire heorte ; 9. 

For further examples of the use of adverbs, see, in the 
Glossary, ^r, among , ayen, e/t, elles^/asiey henne^ heonene, hwer, 
hwi, hTJUu, hwylem, ichwer, iliche, ilome^ mow, iwtSy ma^ mid- 
twissey misliche^ muchel, nay na/re, nedcy oftCy o^erluker, seld, 
sonCy summesweisy swi^e, pankesy paVy parforCy parin, paroUy 
par to y paruorcy parwvSy penneyper-onyperuppeypideVy unpances, 
whancy wkanene, whavy willesy &c. 

VOL. I. 



Accession of Stephen (Dec. 26) 1135 

Stephen passes over to Normandy 11 37 

Battle of the Standard (Aug. 22) 1 138 

Stephen taken prisoner at Lincohi (Feb. 2) . . . .1141 
The Empress Maud escapes from Oxford (Dec. 20) . . . 1142 
History of British Kings ; by Geoffrey of Monmouth . . .1 147 
I. Old English Homilies (MS. Cotton, Vesp. A. 22) . . before 11 50 

The Earl of Chester is imprisoned 1151 

Henry, son of Maud, lands in England 11 52 

Death of Stephen (Oct. 25) ; Accession of Henry H . 1154 
n. A Saxon Chronicle (1137 — 1154) .... after 1154 

The Brut (in French) ; by Wace 1155 

Romance of the Holy Graal ; by Robert de Borron . . about 1 1 70 
Romance of Merlin ; by Robert de Borron .... about 11 70 

Accession of Richard I 1189 

Romances of Lancelot, Quest of the Holy Graal, and Mort 

Artus ; by Walter Map before 1 1 96 

Accession of John . . • 1199 

in. Old English Homilies (MS. Lambeth 487) . . before 1200 
XVII. A Moral Ode (earlier version) .... before 1200 

IV. Old English Homilies (MS. Trin. Coll. Cam.) . . before 1200 

V. The Ormulum about 1200 

VI. LayamotCs translation of Wace^s Brut . . . about 1205 

VII. Sours Ward about 1210 

VIII. Life of Saint Juliana about 12 10 

IX. The Ancren Riwle about 12 10 

X. Wooing of our Lord about 1 2 10 

XI. An Orison of our Lady about 12 10 

Life of St. Margaret (ed. Cockayne) about 12 10 

Life of St. Katharine (ed. Morton) about 12 10 

Accession of Henry III 12 16 

Cuckoo Song (ed. Ellis) before 1240 

XII. A Bestiary before 1250 

Miscellaneous Poems in Jesus Coll. MS., Oxford (in Old 

£ng. Miscellany, ed. Morris) • « . . . before 1250 



XIII. Old Kentish Sermons before 1250 

\V^, Proverbs of Alfred 1 246-1 250 

XV. English Version of Genesis and Exodus . . . about 1250 

XVI. The Owl and the Nightingale 1 246-1 250 

XVTL A Moral Ode (Jesus Coll. MS.) .... about 1250 
Chastel d' Amour ; by Robert Grosseteste . . . . before 1253 
Only EngUsh Proclamation of Henry IIJ (Oct. 18) . . . 1258 

Song against the King of Almaigne 1 264 

Birth of Dante . . 1265 

Accession of Edward I . 1272 

Prisoner's Prayer (ed. Ellis) before 1274 

Debate of the Body and the Soul, Land of Cockaygne, and 

other pieces before 1300 

yi^\YL. Havelok the Dane before 1300 

XIX. King Horn ' . before 1300 

Death of Edward I 1307 



The following extract, in one of the dialects of the south-east 
of England, is taken from the Cotton MS. Vespasian, A 22, which 
contains also a twelfth-century transcript of -S^lfric's Homily 
entitled * Sermo de Initio Greaturae, ad populum, quando volu- 
eris,' together with a fragment of another of ^lfric*s discourses 
by an unknown transcriber. These pieces are printed in * Old 
English Homilies and Homiletic Treatises' (pp. 216-245), edited 
by Dr. Morris for the Early English Text Society, 1 867-1 868. 

An Bispel (or Parable). 
[Dr. Morris's Old English Homilies, pp. 230-241.] 

[H]iT jelamp ))«/ an rice king wes. Strang and mihti. his 
land gelest wide and side, his folc was swi¥e aerfe^-telle. 
his under- J)eoden jewer on his cyne-rice wuneden. pa be- 
fel hit swa \at \i\m a fance befell to underjeite wa an alle 
his cyne-rice hiw were frend o^er fend, hold o^er fa. and he 5 
nam \i\m to rede \at \\tom wolde ^earceon anae grate la¥ienge. 
and J)ider ^eclepien all his under jjeod. \at hi bi ene fece to 
his curt [berie] come sceolde and sette aenne de^ie^. \at hi 
alle be j)e latst to j)a d<?5ie^. ))er were. Ac j)is ^esceod he 
hadde isett bi-twebne frend and fend. \at jian hi come 10 

* Read 'dc5e' or 'deic.' 


mistlice to berie. jef he frend were, me hine sceolde dere- 
w[u]r[¥]lice for6-clepien. and do hine wasse. and^iek him lus 
formemete. J)^/ him to Isjig ne |)uhte to abiden o^ se^ laford 
to |)e none inn-come. Gief he fend were, me sceolden anon 

15 eter gat ^emete mid gode repples and stiarne swepen. and 
stiarne hi ne besie. and binde hi^ hand and fett. and do hine 
into |)iest^messe. and J)er abide o^^ all[e] his ^eferen were 
^egadered. })a/ hi alle clene^ s'mle belocen were, pa sende 
se king his aerndraches of fif ce^n to alle his underJ)eoden. to 

20 3ela^ie ))is folc. hwet bute [fece] icome sum cofer sum later sum 
frend sum fend, and was idon bi ha/« al swa ser cwe'Se [we] 
Jjfl/ isett was. pa hit ))er-to com, jxa:/ se hlaford into ))ar halle 
come, mid his dierewur6* ^eferede. mid aerlen and aldren. 
mid cnihten mid ))einen. j)a cwe^S se hlafor[d] to his. Mer 

25 j>an«e we mid ure frienden to^e mete go. scewie* we )?es 
unco¥e maen ur 3ef6. ))a hi to-for hi^ come. ))a wente he hin 
to ha^ and J)us cwe^. Unwraste man wat macede* ^eu an 
alle mire rice ))at jie hatrede and wid^rwardnesse a^enes me 
5e-win[ne] sceolde. and to mine fa ^ebugon. Swa ibriice ic 

30 mine rice ne scule ^le mine mete ibite. ac scule j)a )>e hit mid 
mire lufe jearnede. pa })is was isegd. fa were cofe abruden into 
fest^messe. })e hi sturfe hungre. and se hlaford nam hit \um 
to [h]is frenden and et and dranc and macede hine wel bli¥e 
mid his and |)er hi hadden brad and win, and vii. sandon. 

35 [N]u gode menn understande^ |)is bispel. pes king is ure 
hlaford almihti god |)e is king ofer alle kingen. and hlaford 
ofer alle hlafordew. S[t]rang he is^ and michti. for he 
3esceop alle jjing of nahte. and na ]>ing ne maji® ajenes his 
wille. ne him wi^stande. for-))an him seigd se witi3e. Qui 

40 celorum contines ironos et cetera. \at is. hlaford of mihte }« 

1 MS. * of fe.' 2 MS. * of.' * MS. * clone.* * MS. • dierewurd.' 

• MS. * scepic' « MS. * lacedc' ^ MS. * his.' » Read * maij* or * mai.* 

7. A PARABLE. 3 

halst^ hefenen J)ri/;2settles. and tho^ neowelnesse J)e und^r 
eor^ is be-locest. fe dunan® \\x awi^hst mid* J)ina hand; 
he is iwiss mihti for-^an ]>e non mihte nis butow fra»i 
him. His land is all ))es middenard. for he alle jesceop. and 
all[e] dihte wi^-ute swince. He us is. king, and sceppend. 45 
and fader, and hlaford. King for he mid rihtwisnesse diht 
man and engel god and euel. sceppende. for he us machede 
lichame and sawle ableow. feder for he us fett and scred. and 
for^teh al-se [h]is cyldren. hlaford for-faw jje [h]is jeie* and 
drednesse is ofer us^ and [vel as] ah to biewne. He is ure "^ 50 
fad^r. he len^ us his eorSe to tolie. his^ corn to sawe. his 
eor^e us werp^ corn and westm. niatt. and dierchin. his loht 
leoem and lif. his water drench and fiscynn. his fer manifeald 
Jienmge. his sonne. mone. sterren. rien. daw. wind. wude. 
unitald fultume al )wz/ we habbe^ of j^ese feder we habbe^. 55 
of wa/« we alle and us sielfe* habbe^. Mii^e we ahct 
clepeien hine mod^r wene we. jTe mu^e we. hwat de^ si 
moder hire beam. formes[t] hi hit chere^^* and blissi^ be |)e 
]ichte. and sejie hi die^ und^r hire arme o¥er his hafed hele^ 
to don him slepe. and reste. pis de^ all 3Ture drihte. he 60 
blisse% us* mid d^eies licht. h[e] sweue^ us^ mid J)iestre 
nicht. Giet for an o^re }>ing god jescop }>a niht. He wat 
wel J)fl/ manije men bie^ sa ful of jescung. mihti efre isi 
Na ^ewold haw selfe. to bigeten w[u]rldlic echte. ))er-for god 
hafS ^^ 3escepe ha/7z reste. sume wile hares u«J>ances. ^eiet he 65 
cweS a wunder worden^^ lo J)ar sawle bi |)a witie ysaia/w. 
Numquid potest mulier ohliuisci infantem suum ut non 
nusereatur filii uteri suu \at is la Iief majTe wimaw forjete;/ 
his oge cild. \ai hi ne milsi. hire barn of hire ogen inno^. 

» MS. 'able' * MS. ' to.* ^ MS. has * inpon )>e dunan.' 

* MS. • eoi«e belucst mid.* « Read • eje ' or * eie.' « MS. * hus.' 

' MS. • hure.' • MS. * he.* » MS. ' sieljjc' " MS. * cheteS.* 

^ MS. • hafd.* " MS. * worder* 

B 2 


70 and 3ief hi for^iet )jah-hwe^er nell ic for^ete ))e cwe^ drihte». 
be ^dim \t he fad<?r is a;/fi? laford he him self cwe^^ be \q 
wilie. .S*/ ^^f? />(7/fr uhiest honor mens, si dominus uhi est timor 
mens. \at is. gif ic fader zm ^. wer is ^ mi mawscipe. 3if ic. 
hlaford wer is^ mine a^eie? ))er-fore. G. m. ure king, we oje^ 

75 w[u]r[t]hmint. hur sceappend al |)at we bie^. ure fader so^e 
lufe. ur hlaford drednesse. And J;is is se * king Jie wile wTte 
an alle his undfr|)eode wa hine lufe^ and hwa hine hate¥. hwa 
\i\m is frend o^er fend. And ))er-for he ha^ jela^ed alle 
fol[c]. to ane d3eTe. \at is domes d^eie. \at hi alle |)er beon 

80 be J)e latst. we ^ seden gerst \at ))es gerndraces wer isent of fif 
che^en. swa ibeo^. J)as fif che^en beo^ fif lagan. for-J)an \^ 
god is J)urh l^esen jecnowe. Si forme lage \at is si ^ecende 
lage. ))e god sett formest an ))es mawnes heorte. \at is ))at 
non man ne don o^ere. buton \at jje he wolde \at me ded[e] 

85 \i\m. Wi^-ute jieser lage nis man J)e ^escod habbe. JEm- 
draces of j)isser lage wer[en] abel. Seth. enoc. N6e. and swice 
gode man. Se¥e fes midfl5?nard was ^estafeled from J>a 
forme man to J)a latst fe w[u]r^ et ))es w[u]rldes ende. nas 
tid ne tyme ne ne w[u]r6. \at god ne send gode maenn his 

90 folc forte 3ela^ie to his rice. Ac si lage sone adiligde. }>urh 
unwreaste leahtni/^ and manifald senne. per-efter arerde god 
fas lage |)urh mojse« \t heretoche of his folce J)e he ))a ^ecas. 
and wrate his \i\m self in stanene wax bredene. and si ^eleste 
sume wile, and )?er-of were larj^awes and 3ela^ieres Moises 

95 and aarow. and samuel. and feje o¥re. Swa la^/ge \at si alswa 
swi^[e] abrea^. and adilijede. J)urh unhersa/wnesse. wat hit 
com to J)a time ))e god sende ))e halie witige. a«</ hi J)a arerd- 
on mid hare write ))urh fes halie gastes gife ))a god lage. 
and rihtleceden \at folc swa se hi mihtew. and bodeden ures 

100 hlafordes to-cyme j?es * helendes ih^^u cristes. j:e sceolde his 

» MS. • sel}> cwed/ 2 ^3. ' ham.* » MS. • his.' 

* MS. 'seo.* « MS. 'hwc* • MS. 'ses.' . . 

/. A PARABLE. 5 

a5eii wille. furh his gastes jife in ure heorte write, and don 
us mid his mihte \at stef-creft ne mihte. and an Jjesser laje 
of |)e witjin. wer la^ieres moche. ' Eft bine fece and Jjes lare 
and lage s\vi¥e acolede }>urh manifea[l]d senne^. and hur and 
hur Jjurh false godes j)e gelc J)iode haw selfe macede. sume of 105 
golde. sum of silure. oftreowe. ofstane. d;«^awente godes lof 
and w[u]r[t]hminte ix2jn J)e sceappende to }>are jesceafte. swa 
}^at ))a ure halende wes accenned of fa/;^ unwe/?2mede mede 
sante Marie, al se middewnard was mid senne begripe. and 
al folc jede in-io fes diefles mu^e. buto« wel feawe of wa^ no 
his lefe moder wes istriened. he }>a arerd alle godnisse. and 
sette his halie lage. and ))at j)e more is. ^iaf miht and 
stre;/c|)e ))urh^ jje gief of his gaste his hesne to fulforJSie. ^^at 
non o^re laje ne mihte. and understande^ hwu. pri ampres 
were an mancyn 3er his to-cyme. Ure acenneng wes ful. 115 
ur^ lif unwreast. ur dea^ grislic. he com andhxochXe ))ri l>^*«[g] 
Jj^r-ajen. he wes acende of fe clene mede. J>e efer ))urh-lefede 
mede. his lif was hali3e. his dea'S ful of milce. his clene 
acennende clewsede ure fule acennewde.* his hali lif rihtlecede 
ure unwreaste lif. his admoded dea^ ofer-co/w. and fordede 120 
ure scribe and ^elice dea^. })is is si fierce lage. An }>isser were 
serndraces aw^^ jela^ieres fa apf?j/les d;«^}>eleorni«ch[n]ihtes. 
j)er-efter ures helendes upsti^e to heuene. [comen] j)a apf?j/les 
and hare iunglenges \t\x\ efter come halie men and J)e hafed- 
men }>e nu beo^ in halie cyrce. fl;/^w[u]rSe^ o^* domes de^e. ^25 
))urh j)es hali gastes ^ife. and al-swa ure helende hdon leorde 
[and] manije |)ing [t]ehten }>a folce to freme. and ))is is si fifte 
lage. An ))isser beo^ bedeles and la^ieres to herit archebi- 
scopes, and biscop^j. prestes. and hare ^egeng. Ac J)ah we fif 
nddmmle, alle hit [is] on godes wille. and elc of ha;w jestren^ 130 
and fulfellj? o'^re. Of feses fif cejjen and of hare bedeles we 

» MS. • manifead finne.' « MS. *]>url.' » MS. *uii.' 

* MS. • of.* 


habbe^ jeu ^esed. Of fe folce we sigge^ Jja/ hit cTi/tt]> fast- 
lice, fram middenardes anginn alse fele alse deade beo^ 
alse fele beo^ to b^rie icome. wat frend. wat fa. and elce 

^ZS dej'e ))icce )jringe¥. Ac jief habbe6 und^rstande J>a/ we 
5"u er sede. eter gate me his scyft. and^QV me hi to jesceode^. 
Si gate |)a/ is elces mannes endedeie. \at he step^ ut of )>ese 
life into ))an o¥re. Ac we sede jew^. fa/ ^ief he frend were 
me sceolde 3ief \i\m his mor^e mete }^at he |)e bet mihte abide 

140 |>an^ more mete. Swa hit is here. J)a/ se gode man fe godes 
lufe ha^ jefolged to [h]is ende cuwj). witerlice^ wi^\it uuan- 
tnice^ |;er cume'S ))e hali engles \i\m to. and ^ef [he] ha^ ahte 
uniwasse o¥er hit w[u]r^ 3ewasse ij)er pine of ))e dea^ ))e he 
her ))ale¥. o¥er efter mid e^lice lette. and\>an lat me ))a sawle 

145 to merchestowe. ^af is* se morjemete si blisse )je he ha^ an 
J>ar sawle. jjat wite ^e wel. nan halege na¥ his fuUe blisse er 
he underfo adomes deie his licame. ))a/ w[u]rS se fulle mete. 
^2Jt se mann mid sawle and mid licame und^rfang^ sicer- 
nesse of ecer blisse. And wat beli;wp¥ hit jief he fend is* jje 

150 to ))are gate aimlp? God })urh his mucele milce ne letes us 
nefer fandie. Ac naj)eles ^ief he fend is * an unwreast mann 
j)er beo^ anu ^eredie. j)e weregede gastes })e hine uniredlice 
mid^rfange^ mid stiame swupen. Alse fele unpeawes alse [he] 
hade upe him and sennenn. al swa fendes he ))er ^emet. hine 

155 to underfo. and to don hine into ))iesternesse. o^* a domes 
djei alle godes fend simle fra/w his ^esec^e abroden bienn 
and hi [habbe^] to hare lean ha^ |)e lange seel jeleste. J)us 
hit ha^ ibi and is. and w[u]r^ o^' domesdei. Ac j^an;^ hit 
))er-to cum|? ]>af se hlaford a J)e mucele deie. cum)) forte isi and 

160 frend and fend. ))ann cum)) all his und^r))iede him to-fore. ))er 
he sit mid his derew[u]rj:e 3efered mid ni3en anglene had. 

» MS. • 3ehw.' » MS. * witetlice.' » Looks at first like • miantruce ' in MS. 

* MS. * his.' » MS. * oft.* 

7. A PARABLE. 7 

mid Jier unwSmmed meide his moder. mid his zposAen. mid 
t>a hagefad^ren. and j)0 hah'^e witien. mid martiren. mi[d] hali 
C0iffessore» mid halie meiden. mid al ))an |)e ))er midenarde 
for his lufe werpe^ abec. and lagelice her him ^env6. wic 165 
jeie. wic drednesse wur^ )>er. ^an fat fer to-for him abern^ 
pat middenard. ^an si eor^ alle cwaceS* j)an ]>q sterren failed, 
si sunne and se mone ajjestre^ for godes brictnesse. J)e 
w[o]lcne to ga^. and si hali rode tacne mid })e spere and mid 
)>e neiles ))urh angles beo^ forS ibrocht. y2Lnne ]>e angles cwa- 170 
cia¥. a»/ t[h]6 richtwise haw adredeS. wat sceol se senfulle 
don. |)e isecgS J)er his richtwise deme. }>e non ne maie bechece. 
non beswice. he is^ him self witnisse ^w^deme. Wat sceol 
se wrecce don. }>e bufon isej^ his hlaford fe he jegremed 
[h]afe^. under hi^ helle mu^ open, abuuten him all folc. hi^ 175 
selfe bi s[c]a«dlice senne beswapen. j>er ne mai no« frend 
o^re helpe. selc had innoh to do»ne a« hi^ selfe. pan seie^* 
hsjn god )>e gelty ma«ne« ^e sene^eden. an ^eur ecenesse. and 
56 scule bime an mire ecenisse. Je sene^den alse lange alse 
36 lefede and ^e scule birne alse \onge as ic lefie. Wite^ 1 80 
into ece fer. ))e is jaearced mine fo and his 5egen[g] Son[e] hi 
w[u]r6e^ abroden of his 3esecJ)e. And ^2in sone ge^ se hlaford 
mid his frenden to his mete, ^af his to [h]is esten. ))e sei^ an 
J>an hali write Delicie niee sunt esse cum filiis hominum, J)at 
is. Mine esten beo'S wunian mid mannen bearnen. Ac we 185 
[habbe^ ^e-] sed 51U litl her }^al hi sceolde« [h]abbe« god brad 
and uuin'. and vii. sonden. hi sculen habe ^at brad }>e sei^ 
i|>e godspel. Ego sum panis uiuus qui de celo descendit, pet is. 
Ic an; cwuce bread ))e astah fram hefene. se^^ ure helende. 
Se }>e of ))ese brad ett. ne sterfe^ he nefer. pis bread was 190 
imaced of ane hwete come, al-swa se he cwe^ i^e* god- 

1 MS. • cwaccd/ • MS. * his.' » MS. • sclj).' 

* MS. * seicd.* » MS. * uia.' « MS. * 3e«e/ 


spelle. Nisi granum frumenii, et cetera. j)is com >^as 
jesawen ))urh ))es sengles mu^ into ^es meidenes sere Marie, 
in fare burh of nazareth. }>is corn com ferst i«ne bethleew. 

*95 \al cwe^ us of breade. hit wex and bleowu^ in iudea. hit 
ripede in lexusalem, ludas and ))at leo¥re folc hit repen. and 
deden hit an ))ar rode alswa alse betwenen melstanent. 
Se^e^ hit was idon into }>er berien. alswa into ofne'^. )>anen 
hit was ibroht up into heofene to ))es hahes hlafordes borde. 

200 ))er hit fet. and engles. and mancinn in ecenisse. and j)is is 
hare bread, hwer scule we win finden ? Al swa se he cwe^. 
£go sum uitis uera, et cetera. 

» Read • ble6uw.' * MS. • Sede.* » MS. * h8fac* 


A.D. 1137-1154. 

The Old English Chronicle, sometimes called the Anglo- 
Saxon Chronicle, contains the history of Britain from the time of 
Caesar's invasion to the reign of Henry H, 1154. Some suppose, 
without much probability, that the establishment of this early 
national record is due to Alfred the Great. There are several 
MSB. of the Chronicle ; the earliest of which ends with the year 
891, and is in the handwriting of the ninth century. It was first 
edited, with a Latin translation, by Abraham Wheloc, and pub- 
lished at Cambridge in 1644. It was next edited in 1692, at 
Oxford, by Edmund Gibson, with a new Latin translation. In 
1823 it was edited by the Rev. James Ingram, with an English 
translation. An edition containing the texts of all the MSS. was 
edited, with an English translation, in 186 1, by Benjamin Thorpe, 
in the series * Rerum Britannicarum Medii Aevi Scriptores, or 
Chronicles and Memorials of Great Britain and Ireland during 
the Middle Ages,* published under the direction of the Master 
of the Rolls. A further edition was published in 1867 by Mr. 
Earle, the Professor of Anglo-Saxon at Oxford, accompanied 
by a very full Glossary, but without a translation. An edition 
of the Chronicle, down to the Norman Conquest, with an 
English translation by Mr. Richard Price, was published in 1848 
among the *Monumenta Historica Britannica.* 

The following extract from the Chronicle illustrates the 
changes that took place in our language during the first half of 
the twelfth century. It has some Midland peculiarities of dialect, 
and is supposed to have been written in the neighbourhood of 


The State of England in Stephen* s Reign. 
[Mr. Earle's edition, pp. 261-266 ; Thorpe's, pp. 382-385.1 

1 137. Dis gaere for ))e Ving Steph«^ ofer sae to Nor- 
mandi 1 ther wes under-fangen for.-)>i ^* hi uuenden* ^ 
he sculde ben alsuic alse the torn wes. ^ for he hadde get 
his tresor. ac he to-deld it 3 scatered sotlice. Micel hadde 
5 Henri \itng gadered gold 3 syluer. ;j na god ne dide me for 
his saule thar-of. 

pa ))e king Stephne to Englekw^f com })a macod he his 
gadering set Oxeneford. 3 ))ar he mm t>e hiscop Roger of 
Sereb^ri 1 Alex, hiscop of Lincol 1 te Canceler Rog^r hise 

10 neues. 3 dide aelle in pr/sun. til hi iafen up here castles, pa 
the suikes under-gseton ^ he milde man was 1 softe -} god. 
1 na justise ne dide. |)a dide[n] hi alle wunder. Hi had- 
den \i\m manred maked 3 athes suoren. ac hi nan treuthe 
ne heolden. alle he wseron for-sworen and here treothes 

15 for-loren. for aeuric rice man his castles makede 3 agaenes 
him heolden. 3 fylden )je land ful of castles. Hi suencten 
suy^e })e uurecce men of }>e land mid castel weorces. ))a 
|)e castles uuaren maked J)a fylden hi mid deoules ^ yuele 
men. pa namen hi J)a men J)e hi wenden ^ ani god hefden. 

20 bathe be nihtes 3 be daeies. carl-men and wizwmen. ^ diden 
\iQom in pr/sun eft^r gold "] syluer. 3 pined heow untellend- 
lice pining, for ne uuaeren naeure nan martyrs swa pined alse 
hi waeron. Me henged up bi the fet 3 smoked htom mid ful 
smoke. Me henged bi the J)u/wbes. other bi the hefed. 

25 3 hengen bryniges on [her] fet. Me dide cnotted strenges 
abuton here haeued. 3 uurythen to ^ it gaede to J>e haemes. 

* S = tSxt = that * In this and other words uu=w. 


Hi dyden heom in quarteme ))ar nadres -} snakes -} pades 
waeron inne. 3 drapen heom swa. Sume hi diden in crucet- 
hus ^ is in an cseste ))at was scort 3 nareu. -} un-dep. 3 dide 
scaerpe stanes ))er-inne. 3 |)rengde J>e man |)aer-inne. ^ hi^ 30 
braecon alle fe limes. In mani of |)e castles waeron lof 3 « 
gri« ^ waeron rachenteges ^ twa o))er thre men hadden 
onoh to baeron onne. J)at was sua maced. ^ is faestned to an 
beom. 3 diden an scaerp iren abuton J)a mannes throte and 
his hals. ^ he ne myhte nowiderwardes. ne sitten ne lien 35 
ne slepen. oc baeron al ^ iren. Mani j)usen[de] hi drapen 
mid hungaer. 

J ne can ne i ne mai tellen alle J)e wunder ne alle |>e 
pines ^ hi diden wrecce men on ))is land. 3 ^ lastede ))a xix 
wintre wile Stephne was king 3 aeure it was uuerse 3 uuerse. 40 
Hi laeiden gaeildes o[n] the tunes aeure uwwile 3 clepeden it 
tenserie. jja fe uurecce men ne hadden na;^ more to gyuen. 
jia raeueden hi 3 brendon alle the tunes. ^ wel J)U myhtes 
faren all a daeis fare sculdest ihu neure finden man in tune 
sittende. ne land tiled, pa was com daere. 3 fle[s]c 3 caese 3 45 
butere. for nan ne waes o ))e land. Wrecce men sturuen of 
hungaer. sume ieden on aelmes J)e waren sum wile rice men* 
sume flugen ut of lande. 

Wes naeure gaet mare wrecce-hed on land, ne naeure 
hethen men werse ne diden j)an hi diden. for ouer* sithon 50 
ne for-baren [hi] nouther circe ne cyrce-iaerd. oc nam^« al 
|)e god ^ {>ar-inne was. 3 brenden sythen |)e cyrce 3 al te 
gaedere. Ne hi ne for-baren hiscopes land ne dibhoies ne 
preostes. ac raeueden munekes 3 clerekes. 3 aeuric man other 
))e ouer^ myhte. Gif twa men o|)er iii coman ridend to an 55 
tun. al |)e tunscipe flugaen for heow. wenden ^ hi waeron 
raeueres. pe biscopes and lered men heo/w cursede aeure. 

* ? ouuer ■■ owhei: 


oc was heom naht j)ar-of. for hi uueron al for-curs3ed "} for- 
suoren 3 for-loren. 

60 War-S3e me tilede. )>e erthe ne bar nan corn, for J>e land 
was al for-don. mid suilce daedes. ^ hi sseden openlice ^ 
Christ slep. 3 his halechen. Suilc 3 mare })anne we cunnen 
saein. we ))olenden xix wintre for ure sinnes. 

On al J)is yuele time heold Martin abbot his abbot-rice 

65 XX wintry •} half gxv '} viii dseis. mid micel suinc, '} fand ))e 
munekes 3 te gastes al }>at heom be-houed 3 heold my eel canted 
in the hus. ^ J)0))-wethere wrohte on \>e circe 3 sette ))ar-to 
landes 3 rentes. ^ goded it suythe ^ laet it refen 3 brohte 
heoz« into }>e neuuae mynstr^ on S' Petres maesse daei mid 

70 micel wurtscipe. ^ was anno ab incsLvna/tone T>om. Mcxl. a 
cozwbustio;/e loci xxiii. And he for to Rome. ^ ))aer waes wael 
under-fangen fraw J)e pape Eugenie, and be-gaet thare pr/ui- 
legies. an of alle {>e landes of fabbot-rice. ^ an oJ)er of ))e 
landes ]>e lien to }>e circe-wican. ^ gif he leng moste liuen 

75 alse he mint to-don of {>e horder-wycan. And he begaet in 
landes J)at rice men hefden mid strengthe. of Will^/m Mal- 
duit J)e heold Roginghaz^ pae castel. he wan Cotinghawi 3 
Estun. and of Hugo of Waltmile he uuan Hyrtlingbwr^^. 
and Stanewig. 3 Ix sol. of Aldewingle [aelc gaer]. And he 

80 makede manie munek^j 3 plantede winiaerd. ^ makede man! 
weorkes. 3 wende J)e tun betere j)an it aer waes. 3 wses 
god munec 3 god man. 3 for|)i hi/w luueden God 3 gode 

Nu we willen saegen sum del wat belamp on Stephwd-j kinges 

85 time. On his time ye Judeus of Noruuic bohton an Christen 
cild beforen Estren 3 pineden him alle ))e ilce pining ^ ure 
Drihten was pined. ^ on lang fridaei him on rode hengen for 
ure Drihtines luue. 3 sythen byrieden hi;7z. Wenden ^ it sciilde 
ben for-holen. oc ure Dryhtin atywede ^ he was hali mar/yr, 3 

90 t[h]o munekes him namen. and bebyried[en] him heglice in 


J>e minstr^. and he maket )?ur[h] ure Drihtin wunderlice 3 
manifteldlice miracles. 3 hatte he Sane/ Willelm. 

1 138. On ))is gaer com Dauid king of Scotk^^ mid ormete 
fserd to |)is land, wolde winnan ))is lande. and him com to- 
gsenes Wilk/m eorl of Albamar ))e \>q king [h]adde beteht 95 
Euorwic 3 to other geuez men mid faeu men and fuhten wid 
htom, 3 fle/«den \>e king set te Standard. 3 sloghen suithe 
mice! of his genge. 

1 140. On ))is g3er wolde fe king Stephw^ taecen Rodb^rt 
eorl of Gloucestre Jje kinges sune Henries, ac he ne myhte 100 
for he wart it war. 

per-eft^r in |)e lengten Jjestrede J)e sunne ^ te daei. abuton 
non tid daeies. |)a men eten. ^ me lihtede candles to geten bi. 
and ))at was xiii kaknd, Aprzl. w3eron men suythe of-wundred. 

per-eft^r fordfeorde WiWelm ddrceht'scop of Cantwarbarr^. 105 
3 te king makede Teodbald ddTcehz'scop ^e was abbot in 
the Bee. 

per-eft^r wsex suythe mice! uuerre betuyx ]>c king ^ Randolf 
eorl of Cgestre noht for-))i ^ he ne iaf him al ^ he cuthe axen 
him. alse he dide alle othre. oc gefre \>e mare he iaf heom, |)e 1 10 
W3erse hi wseron him, pe eorl heold Lincol agaenes \>q king. 
^ benzm him al ^ he ahte to hauen. ■] te king for )?ider ^ be- 
S3ette him ^ his brother Wilk/ih de R[om]are in |>e castel. 
3 te 3eorl stgel ut ^ ferde eft^r Rodb^rt eorl of Gloucestre. 
3 brohte him ))ider mid micel ferd. 3 fuhten suythe on 115 
Candel masse daei agenes heore lauerd. ] namen him for 
his men him suyken ^ flugaen. ^ laed him to Bristowe ^ diden 
))ar in pnsun. ^ [m y9]teres. pa was al 'Engieland styred 
mar jjan aer waes. ^ al yuel waes in lande. 

per-eft^r com ^e king^j doht^r Henries J)e hefde ben Em- 120 
perice in Alamanie. ^ nu waes cuntesse in Angou. 3 com to 
Lundene ^ te Lundenissqe folc hire wolde taecen. ^ scae fleh 
3 forles j?ar micel. 


per-eft^r j)e biscop of Wincestre Henri j)e king^j* brother 

125 Steph^j spac wid Rodbfrt eorl^ wyd }>ewperice 3 suor heom 
athas ^ he neure ma mid le king his brother wolde balden. 
^ cursede alle | e men ))e mid him heoldon. 3 saede heom ^ he 
uuolde ituen htom up Wincestre. ^ dide heom cumen ))ider. 
pa hi ))3er-inne wgeren. ]>3. com ))e king^j* cuen [mid al] hire 

130 strengthe. 3 besaet heom, ^ |)er waes inne micel himgaer. pa 
hi ne leng ne muhten |)olen J>a stal[en] ^ hi ut ^ flugen. ^ hi 
wurthen war widuten ^ folecheden heom, 3 namen Rodb^ 
eorl of Glouces/re, 3 ledden him to Rouecestre. 3 diden hi« 
|)are in pnsun. 3 te emperice fleh into an minstre. pa feorden 

135 |>e wise men be-twyx |je kinges freond ^ te eorles freond, 3 
sahtlede sua ^ me sculde leten ut fe king of pr/sun for }>e 
eorl. ^ te eorl for ))e king. ^ sua diden. 

Sithen ^er-eher sahtleden |)e king ^ Randolf eorl at Stan- 
ford. 3 athes suoren 3 treuthes faeston ^ her nou|)er sculde 

140 be-suiken other. ^ it ne for-stod naht. for |)e king him sithen 
n2im in Ha;wtun. jjClrch wicce^ raed. "j dide hiw in pr/'sun. ^ 
ef[t] sones he let him ut Jjurch^ waerse red. to ^ forewarde ^ 
he suor on halido/w ^ gysles fand. J^at he alle his casdes 
sculde iiuen up. Sume he iaf up 3 sume ne iaf he noht 

145 3 dide fanne waerse })anne he haer sculde. 

pa was Engle land suythe to-deled, sume helden mid te 
king. 3 sume mid ))e;wperice. for ))a j>e king was in pnsun ))a 
wenden J>e eorles 3 te rice men ))at he neure mare sculde 
cumen ut. 3 * saehtleden wyd ))ewperice. ^ brohten hire into 

150 Oxen-ford. 3 iauen hire ]>e burch. pa ))e king was ute |)a 
herde ^ ssegen. ^ toe his feord 3 be-saet hire in J)e tur. 
3 me laet hire dun on niht of ]te tur mid rapes. 3 stal ut. 
^ scae fleh j iaede on fote to Walingford. 

paer-eft<?r scae ferde ouer sae. 3 hi of Normandi wenden alle 

* MS. ' stali.' « MS. * J>urhc wicci.' » MS. • >urhc.' 


fra ))e king, to J)e eorl of Angaeu. sume here jjankes 3 sume 155 
here un-})ankes. for he be-saet heom til hi a-iauen up here 
castles. ^ hi nan helpe ne haefden of ))e kinge, 

pa ferde Eustace J>e king^j* sune to France 3 nsim fe king^ j 
suster of France to wife, wende to bigaeton Normandi ))aer- 
|>urh. oc he spedde litel. 3 be gode rihte for he was an yuel 160 
man. for ware-se he [com he] dide mare yuel |>anne god. 
he reuede j)e landes ^ laeide mic[ele gilde]s on. he brohte 

his wif to Engleland. ^ dide hire in ]te caste[/ of] 

teb. . . . God wi;wman scae waes. oc scae hedde litel blisse mid 
him. ^ Christ ne wolde ^ he sculde lange rixan. 3 waerd ded 165 
3 his moder beien. 

3 te eorl of Angaeu waerd ded. 3 his sune Henri toe to 
|)e rice. 3 te cuen of France to-daelde fra J)e king. 3 scae com 
to ))e iunge eorl Henri. 3 he toe hire to wiue. 3 al Peitou 
mid hire, pa ferde he mid micel faerd into Engleland. 3 170 
wan castles. 3 te king ferde agenes him mid micel mare ferd. 
3 })o))waethere fuhtten hi noht. oc ferden J)e ddvcehtscop 3 te 
wise nie[n] betwux heom, 3 makede ¥ sahte ^ te king sculde 
ben lauerd 3 king wile he liuede. 3 aeft^r his daei ware Henri 
king. "3 he helde hi^ for fader 3 he him for sune. 3 sib 3 saehte 175 
sculde ben betwyx heom, 3 on al Engleland. pis 3 te othre 
foruuardes J)et hi makeden. suoren to halden J)e king 3 te 
eorl 3 te htscopes & te eorles 3 rice men alle. pa was }>e 
eorl under-fangen aet Wincestre 3 aet Lundene mid micel 
wurtscipe. "j alle diden him man-red. j suoren ]>e pais to 180 
halden. 3 hit ward sone suythe god pais, sua ^ neure was 
here, pa was )?e king strengere ))anne he seuert[e] her was. 
3 te eorl ferde ouer sae. 3 al folc him luuede for he dide god 
iustise 3 makede pais. 

1 154. On |)is gaer waerd J>e king Stephw^ ded 3 bebyried 185 
j>er his wif 3 his sune waeron bebyried aet Fauresfeld. j^aet 
minstre hi makeden. pa Jje king was ded. ))a was J>e eorl 


beionde sae. ^^ ne durste nan man don p)>er bute god for Jje 
micel eie of him, pa he to Engle land com, J)a was he under- 
lie fangen mid micel wurtscipe. and to king bletcaed in Lun- 
dene on \>e Sunnen daei be-foren midwinter dsei. and held \>xt 
micel curt. 

pat ilce daei' J)at Mart?« abbe>/ of Burch sculde J)ider faren. 

)>a saeclede he -^ ward ded iv Non. Jan. ;) te munekw innen 

195 daeis cusen o))er of heom saelf. Wilk/m de Walt<?uile is geha- 

ten. god clerc 3 god man. 3 wael luued of J)e ki'nge ^ of alle 

gode men. and o[n cyricjen byrie^^w \>abho/ hehlice ^ sone 

)>e cosan dbdo/ ferde j te muneces [mid him to] Oxen ford to 

))e king [and he] iaf him J)at abb^/-rice. j he ferde ^im sone 

200 [to Linc]ol J was \>cBr bletccBd to abbot aer he ham come. 

^ sithen was under fangen mid micel wurtscipe at Burch. mid 

micel pre>cessiun. •] stm he was alsua at Ramesaeie. ^ at 

Torn^l'. 3 at . . . •] Spall^/wg' j at *$". /. bares. ^ . . . j [he] 

«z^ is abbot, j ya/r^ haued begunnon. Christws him yxnne 

205 [gode endinge]. 



BEFORE A.D. I200. 

The two Homilies entitled *In Diebus Dominicis* and *Hic 
dicendum est de Propheta* are part of an incomplete series of 
discourses for the Christian year, contained in the Lambeth MS, . 
487. They have all been edited by Dr. Morris in * Old English 
Homilies' (pp. 1-182). The compiler of this collection is un- 
known ; he was probably the author of the first six discourses in 
the series, and translated and modernised the remainder from 
older English Homilies of the eleventh century. Those num- 
bered nine and ten in Dr. Morris's edition were written by 
-S^lfric, and bear the titles he gave them. The dialect is that 
of the south of England, in which many provincial elements 
now make their firs^ appearance in the <written language, 

(A) In Diehus Domimcis. 

[Dr. Morris's Old English Homilies, First Series, pp. 40-53.} 

[L]eofemen 5ef 50 lusten wule^. and 30 willeliche hit un- 
derstonden we eow wuUe^ suteliche seggen of J)a fredome 
J)e limped to J)an deie J)e is iclepe^ sunedei. Sunedei is 
ihaten j>es lauerdes dei and ec J)e dei of blisse and of lisse 
and of alle irest. On J)on deie J)a engles of heofene ham 5 
iblissie6. fortSi J)e J)a timing saulen habbe^ rest of heore 
pine, Gif hwa wule witen hwa erest bi-won reste ))am 
wrecche saule to-soJ)e ic eow segge. J)et wes sanc/e paul 
}>e apostel and mihhal |)e archangel heo tweieh eoden' et 
same time in-to helle alswa heom drihtea bet for to lokien 10 

VOL. I, C 


hu hit fer ferde. Mihhal code bi-foren and paul com efter 
and J)a scawede mihhal to sanc/e paul J)a wrecche sunfulle J>e 
J)er were wuniende[.] ))er-efter he him sceawede he^e treon 
eisliche beorninde et-foren helle 5ete. and uppon j>an treon 

15 he him sceawede \>e wrecche saulen a-honge. Suzwme bi )>a 
fet. summe bi J)a honden. su^wme bi ))e tunge. su/«me bi ye 
e5en. summe bi ye hefede. summe bi yer heorte. Seod¥an 
he him sceaude an ouen on berniwde fure he warp ut of him 
seofe leies uwil[c]an of seolcu¥re heowe ye alle weren eateliche 

20 to bihaldene and muchele strengre yen eani j>ing^ to )>olien. 
and yer wi¥-i«nen weren swi¥e feole saule a-honge. 5ette he 
him sceawede ane welle of fm^e and alle hire stremes urnen 
fm- berni«de. and ys, welle bi-wisten .xii. meister deoflen 
swilc ha weren kinges to pinen J)er-wi^innen J)a earmi;ig 

25 saulen ye for-gult weren f and heore ajene pine neure nere 
ye lesse |)ah heo meistres weren. Eft<?r yon he him sceaw- 
ede ye sea of helle and i«nan J)an sea weren .vii. bittere 
uye, ye forme was snaw^. fat o¥er is. j>et J)ridde fur. yet 
feortJe blod. ye fifte neddren. ye siste smor^er. the seofel>e 

30 ful stunch. heo wes wurse to folien yenne efreni of alle |>a 
o^re pine. Innan fan ilke sea weren un-aneo/wned deor 
suzwme feSer-foted'. Summe al bute fet, and heore e^en 
weren al swilc swa fur. and heore efem scean swa de^ ye 
leit a-monge Jjunre. fas ilke nefre ne swiken ne dei ne niht 

35 to brekene fa ermi«g licome of fa ilea men \>e on f isse Hue 
her hare scnTt enden nalden. Summe of fan mo«ne sare 
wepe^. Su/wme swa deor lude reme^. summe yer grOTiinde 
sike^. summe yer reowliche gne^e^ his ajene tunge. Su/«me 
fer wepe^. and alle heore teres beo^ berniwde gleden gli- 

40 dewde ouer heore a5ene nebbe. and swi¥e reowliche ilome 
jeijetS and ^eorne biseche^ fat me ham ibure5e. from fam 

» MS. * >urg.' » MS. * swnan.' » MS. * fotctd.' 


iiuele pinan[.] of jjas pinan speked (kw/'d ))€ halie wite^e. and 
)>us sei^. Miserere nostri domine quia penas inferni sustinere 
non possumus, Lauerd haue merci of us for^on )>a pinen of 
helle we ham ne majen iSolien. Seo^))an he him sceawede 45 
ane* stude i«ne-midde-warde^ helle. and bi-foren J)am ilke 
stude werew seofen clusterlokan J)ar neh ne mihte nan liui- 
ende mon gan for J)an ufele bretSe and j>er wi^-i;/na he him 
sceawede gan on aid mon }^et .iiii. deoflen ledden abuten. ))a 
escade paul to mihhal hwet ))e aide mon were. Jja cwe^ mih- 50 
hal heh-engel he wes an biscop on oSre' Hue fe nefre nalde 
cristes la3en lokien ne halden. ofter he walde anuppon his 
underlinges mid wohe motien and longe dringan ))enne he 
walde salmes singen oSer eani o¥er god don. Herefter iseh 
paul hwer .iiL deoflen ledden an meiden swi^ unbisor5e- 55 
iiche f 5eorne escade to mihhal hwi me heo swa ledde. J)a 
cwe^ mihhal. heo wes an meiden on o^er Hue j?^/ wel wiste 
hire licome in alle clenesse. ah heo nalde nefre nan o^er 
god don. Elmes5eom nes heo nefre. ah prud heo wes swi^e 
and modi, and li^ere and swikel. and wre^ful and ontful. and 60 
for¥i heo bi^ wuniende inne |)isse pine. Nu bi-gon paul to 
wepen wunderliche, and mihhal heh-engel J)er weop for^ 
mid him. j)a com ure drihten of heueneriche to heom on 
jjunres* Iiche and J)us cwe^. A hwi wepest \m paul. paul him 
onswerde. Lauerd** ic biwepe )>as monifolde pine ¥e ic her 65 
in helle iseo. J)a cwetS ure lauerd. A hwi nalden heo witen 
mine la^e ))e hwile heo weren on® eortSe f J)a seide paul him 
mildeHche to-5eines. Louerd nu ic bidde fe ^ef J)in wille is 
J>rt J)U heom ^efe rest la hwure j^en su«ne-dei a J)et cume 
domes-dei. Jja cwetS drihten to him. paul wel ic wat hwer ic 70 
sceal milcien. Ic heom wuUe milcien J)e weren eft^rward 

> MS. « and.' « MS. * -war«e.* ' MS. ' eo-Sre.' 

* MS. • wunres.' * MS. 'LauerS.* • MS. 'en,* 

C 2 


mine milce )>a hwile heo on liue weren. )?a wes sancfe paul 
swi^e wa. and abeh him redliche to his lauerdes fet and on- 
halsien hine gon mid jjas ilke weord pe ^e ma^en iheren. 

75 Lauerd he cwe^ J)a. Nu ic J)e bidde for J)ine kinedome and 
for J)ine engles. fz;/^ for J)ine muchele milce. and for alle j)ine 
weorkes. tf«^ for alle J)ine hale^en. awflf ec J)ine icorene, J)at 
J)U heom milcie J)es J)e red))er ))^/ ic to heom com a«fl? reste 
3efe J)en sunne-dei a )>^/ cume |)in heh domes dei. ))a on- 

80 swerede him drihten mildere steuene. Aris nu paul aris. 
Ic hsjn 5eue reste alswa \>\i ibeden hauest from non on 
sat<?rdei a J)a[t] cume monedeis lihting. J)f/ [bi^] efre forS to 
domes dei. Nu leofe bretSre ^e habbed iherd^ hwa erest 
biwon reste \>3Lm forgulte saule. Nu bi-cumetS hit j?erfore to 

85 uwilche cr/stene monne mucheles fe mare to hali^en and to 
wurSien J)e«ne dei J)e is icleped sunne-dei. for of J>am deie 
ure lauerd seolf sei^. Dies domm'cus est dies leticie & requiet» 
Sunne-dei is dei of blisse and of alle ireste. Nonfacietur in 
ea aliquid nisi deum or are manducare <k hihere cum pace ef leh- 

90 cia. Ne beo in hire naj)ing iwra[h]t bute chirche bisocnie and 
beode to criste and eoten and dri«ken mid gri^ and mid 
gledscipe. Sicut diciiur. pax in terra, pax in celo, pax inter 
homines, for swa is iset. gri^ on eorSe. and gri^ on hefene. 
and gri^ bitwenen uwilc cr/stene mo«ne. eft ure lauerd seolf 

95 seit. Maledictus homo qui non custodit sabaium, Amansed 
beo ))e mon Jje sunne-dei nulle iloken. And for-J)i leofe- 
men uwilc sunne-dei is to locan alswa ester-dei for heo is 
munching of his halie ariste from de'Se to Hue. flwflfmunejeing 
of ))am hali gast J)e he sende in his apostles on ]>on dei J)e is 
100 icleped wit-sunne-dei. ec we understonde^ }^et on sunne-dei 
drihten cume^ to demene al mon-cun; we a^eyi J)ene sunne* 
dei swifeliche wel to wurfien. and on alle clenesse to locan. 

* MS. • iherS.* 


for heo haf^ mid hire jjreo wurdliche mihte J)e 50 iheren 
ma^en. 'Set forme mihte is J)^/ heo on eor^e ^eue^ reste 
to alle eor6e Jjrelles wepmen and wifmen of heore Jjrel- 105 
weorkes. J)et o'Ser mihte is on heouene. for-fi fa engles heom 
rested ^ mare J)e«n on sum o'Ser dei. J)f/ \>ndde mihte is ]>e/ J)a 
ermiwg saule habbe^ ireste i;zne helle of heore muchele pine. 
Hwa efre fenne ilokie wel J>ene sunne-dei. o^er J)a otJre halie 
da^es ))e mon beot in chirche to lokien swa \>e sunne-dei. no 
beo heo dal-neominde of heofene riches blisse f mid j)an 
feder^. and mid fan sunne. and mid fan halie gast abuten 
ende. amen. Quod ipse prestare dignetur qui uiuit & regnat 
deus, per omnia secula seculorum. Amen. 

(B) Hie dicendum est de Propheta, 

\M\issus est ieremias in puieum et sietit ihi usque ad os. Qui 
cum aliquandiu ihi stetisset f dehilitaium est corpus eius. & tan- 
dem dimissis funibus suhtractus est, Et cum eorum duriciam, 
quia dehilis erat sustinere non posset, allati sunt panni de domo 
regia et circumpositi sunt funibus ne \e'\orum duricia lederetur, 5 
Leofemen we uinde^ in halie boo. f^/ ieremie fe prc?ph^/e 
stod in ane putte. and \et in fe uenne up to his mu^e and 
fa he hefede fer ane hwile istonde. fa \A' his licome 
swi^e feble. and me nom rapes and caste \n to \i\m for' to 
dra^en hine ut of fisse putte. Ah his licome wes se swi8e 10 
feble i \et he ne mihte noht if olie f e herdnesse of f e rapes, 
fa sende me elates ut of f es kinges huse for to bi-winden f e 
rapes. \et his licome fe feble wes ne sceolde noht wursien. 
Leofemen feos ilke weord fe ic habbe her iseid*, habbe^ 
muchele bi-tacnu«ge and god ha beo^ to heren and muchele 15 
betere to et-halden. Is hit god for to hiheren godes weordes 

' MS. 'hem heom rested.' « MS. 'ferde.* 

•MS. 'fro.' *MS.'iseit' 

23 ///. (B) old ENGLISH HOMILIES. 

and heom athalden f ^e fuliwis. for ure lauerd godalmihtin 
sei^ in ))an halie godspelle. Bsaft qui audiunt uerhum A 
custodiunt illud, iEdie and blessede beon alle \to J>e ihere^ 

20 godes weordes and heom athalde^. Nu 30 habbe^ iherd 
wulc hit is for to iheren godes weordes and heom ethalden. 
Nu we sculen eow* sceawen hwilc hit is heo/» for to heren 
and nawiht for to ethalden. for seint gregori sei^. MeUus 
est uiam ueritatis non agnoscere / qtiam post agnitam retroire, 

25 Betre hit is J)f/ mon ne iknawe noht J)e wei to godalmihtin 
J)e he hine icnawe and seod^ hine for-hojie ; and on o^r 
stude he seitS. Qui obturat aures suas ne audiat legem dei f 
oratio etus erit execrabilis, pe mon J)e tune^ his eren in halie 
chirche to^eines godes la^e and nule noht iheren J>e weordes 

30 )>e of him beo¥. his beoden beo^ aweriede and unwurtJe 
gode. Puteus est peccati pro/unditas. quia quam diu stas in 
luto f tarn diu iaces in mortali peccato, pes put bitacne^ deop- 
nesse of sunne. for alse longe alse we ligge^ in heued* 
sunnen f al j)a hwile we sto[n]de^ in the putte. and \et'm\t 

35 uenne up to J)e mu¥e alse feos men do^ J)e ligge^ inne 
eubruche and ine glutenerie and ine mana^as. and ine prude. 
and ine o¥re fule sunnen. and ^et beo^ riche men alremest 
))e habbe^ )>es muchele prude in ))is worlde. J)e habbe^ feire 
buses, and feire hames. feire wifes. and feire children, feire 

40 hors and feire claj)es. heauekes and hundes. castles and 
tunes, her-uppon heo J)enche^ muchele mare )>en uppo» 
godalmihtin j>e al |)is heom haue8 isend J)a \>e ligge^ i»ne 
swilc sunne. and ne J)enche^ noht for to arisen i heo delue^ 
deihwamliche heore put deoppre and deoppre. vnde propheta, 

45 Non claudit super te puteus os suum nisi clauseris os tuum, J?e 
proph^/e sei^. \et J>e put ne tune^ noht lihtliche his mu^ ouer 
us bute we tunen ure mu¥. ah 5if we tunetS ure mu^ 5 J>e«ne 

1 MS. • heow.* « MS. ' hcuetJ.* 


do we* alse j)e mon \>e delue^ ene put feower da5es o¥er fiue 
and ^nne he haue¥ hine alra lewgest idoluen i j)enne ualle^ he 
j>er-mne. \>e/ him breke^ ye sweore. \>e/, is ^/ he ualle^ in to 5° 
helle pine J>er neuer eft ne cume^ of bote. Ah leofemen 
godalmihtin haue^ isceawed* us wel muchele gr^ce. j^enne 
he haue^ geuen us to beon mu^' freo. ^/ we nia^e^ mid ure 
mu%e bringen us ut of fisse putte f J>e bitacne^ Jjeo deop- 
nesse of sunne. and }^et J)urh J)reo herde weies J)e J)us beot5 55 
ihaten. Cordis contricione. Oris con/essione, Operis satis- 
factione, J)ur5 heorte bireusunge*. J)urh muCes openunge. 
)>urh dede wel endinge. Cordis contritione moritur peccaium. 
oris confessione defertur ad tumulum. operis saiisfaciione tumu- 
latur in perpetuum. )>e[nne] we beotJ sari in ure heorte J)^/ we 6o 
isuneged habbeS J)enne slage we ure sunne f jjene we to sun- 
bote cume\5. |>enne do we bi ure sunne al swa me dea^ bi J)e 
deade. for eft^Jjan }^t J)e mon bi^ dead me leitS )>ene licome 
in j)ere )>ruh. Al swa J)U leist J)ine sunne in |)are J)ruh f 
hwenne ))U scrift undeniongest of fe sunnen |)e |?u idon 65 
hauest to-geines godes wille. ))enne J)U hauest )>ine sunnen 
ibet ' eft^r J)ines scriftes wissunge. J)enne buriest J)U J)ine 
swinen a;w/ bringest heom ut of J)ine on-vvalde. Per iere- 
miam notatur quilihet peccator qui in suo peccato moram facit. 
Bi ieremie J)e pr^ph^/e we a^en to understowden ulcne mon 70 
sunfulle. \ei li^ m heuie sunne and \\yx\\ so¥e scr/ft his sun- 
bendes nule slakien. funiculi amaritudines penitencie signifi- 
cant, pe rapes jje weren icast to him f bitacne^ \e herdnesse 
of scrifte. for nis nan of us se strong )>e hefde idon ))re hef [ed] 
sunnen \et his licome nere swi^e feble er he hefde idre5en 75 
J>et scr/Tt j)e |)er to bilimpe^. panni circumpositifunihusf ecclesie 
scuramenta significant quibus penitencie duricia mitigatur, J>as 

» MS. * W » MS. * isccawetS.' » MS. « mud.* 

* MS. * bireusunke.' 

24 /^^. (B) old ENGLISH HOMILIES. . 

kinges hus bitacne^ hali chirch[e. jja] elates )j^/ weien isende 
ut of J)[es kinges huse] for to binden J)e rapes mid i bitacnet 

80 J)e halie ureisuns ))e me singed in halie chirche. CTid J)e halie 
sacromews J)e me sacred in alesnesse of alia sunfulle. Leofe- 
men nu je habbe^ iherd^ of J)is putte Jje bitacni^ge J>e ic 
habbe embe ispeken. and }>e bitacninge of ))e prf?ph^/e. and 
\et fe rapes bitacnet. and hwat J)a cla^s bi-tacne^ J>e ))e 

85 rapes weren mide biwu«den. IheretS nu^e whulche J>inges 
wunie^ in |)isse putte. |)er wunie^ fower cunnes wurmes 
inne. J>et fordotS nu^e al t)eos midelerd. J)er wunie^ in-ne 
fa^e neddren. and beore^ atter u;/der heore tunge. Blake 
tadden and habbe^ atter uppon heore heorte. jeluwe frog- 

90 gen. and crabben. Crabbe is an manere of fissce in jjere 
sea. J)is fis is of swulc cunde. }^t, euer se he mare streng^^* 
him to sw[i]mminde mid Jje watere i se he mare swi/«metJ 
abac, and )>e aide crabbe seide to fe ^uwge. hwi ne swi/nmest 
])U for^ward^ in |)ere sea alse o^er fisses do's, andheo seide. 

95 Leofe moder swim j)U foren me and tech me hu ic seal 
swi;wmen foriSward and [heo] bi-gon to swiwmen for^ward 
mid J)e streme. and swam hire fer-a^en. J)as fa^e neddre 
bitacnet J)is fa^e folc J)e wune^ \n |)isse weorlde. ))e speket 
alse feire bi-foren heore eue;zcr/stene alse heo heom walde 
100 in to heore bosme puten. and swa sone se hi beo^ itumd 
awey frozw heom f heo^w to-twicche^ and to-dra^e^ mid ufele 
weordes. Hii ectam sunt doctores d: falsi christmni, pos 
men j)e |)us to-dra^e^* heore euencr/'stene bi-hinden heo hab- 
be^ J)e nome of cnstene ah fah heo beo^ cn'stes unwines 
105 and beo^ monsla5en for heo slaje^ heore a^ene saule. and 
bringe^ heom '^ in to J)are eche pine of helle. J>os blaca tadden 
\et habbe^ \€t atter uppon heore heorte. bi-tacne^ Jjes riche 

» MS. • iher«.* « MS. * streng?Jde«.' » ms. * fortywaitJ/ 

* MS. *dra3ed; * MS. •heon/ 

III. (b) hic dicendum est de propheta, 25 

men |)e habbe^ Jjes mucheles weorldes ehte and na majen 

noht itimien J)ar-of to eten ne to drinken ne na god don J>er- 

of for \>e luue of godalmihtin be haue^ hit heom al geuen. ah 

■" • 1 10 

ligge^ |>er-uppon alse fe tadde d&6 in )>ere eorSe ]>e/ neure 

ne mei itimien to eten hire fuUe i swa heo is afered leste J>eo 

eor6e hire trukie. J>eos ilke ehte )?e J>eos J>us ouerligge^ heom 

tmne'S to swart atter for heo failed J>er-J>urh in to J>er stronge 

pine })et na mon ne mei tellen. peos ^eolewe claj)es. [bi- 

tacne^ ]>o j)et feire^ heom seoluen.] for J>e ^eolewe claS is 

J)es deofles helfter^ J)eos wi/wmen J)e |)us liuie^^ beo^ J)es 

deofles musestoch iclepede. for )>enne \>e mon wule tilden 

his musestoch he binder uppon |)a swike chese and bret 

hine for J)on ^ef he scolde swote smelle. and J>urh jje 

sweote smel of J)e chese i he bicherre^ monie mus to )>e 

stoke. Alswa do^ monie of 'J)as wiwmen heo smurie'S 

heom mid blanchet ))f/ is J>es deofles sape and clajje^ heom 

mid ^eoluwe cla|)e jj^/ is fes deofles helft^r^ and seod¥an 

heo lokie^ in J)e scawere. J?^/ is jjes deofles hindene. pus 

heo do*S for to feiren heom seoluen. and to dra5en lechurs ^^^ 

to ham. ah heo fule^ heom soluen |)er-mide. Nu leofemen 

for godes lufe wite^ eow^ wi^ J>es deofles musestoch and 

wite^ eow J)et ^e ne beo noht J)e foa^e neddre. ne J)e blake 

tadde. ne J)e ^olewe frogge. fe feder. and J)e sune. and ]je 

halie gast. iscilde us |)er-wi^. and wi^ alle sunnen a buten 

e«de. per omnia secula seculorum. Amen. 

» So in MS. « MS. * luuie«/ ' MS. • how.* 



BEFORE A J). I200. 

The following Homilies are from a tolerably complete collec- 
tion by an unknown compiler, contained in the Trinity College 
Cambridge MS. marked B 14. 52. None of them, as far as I have 
been able to ascertain, appear to be later transcripts of £lfnc's 
Homilies. Four discourses are copies of older English versions, 
and others are probably free ^ translations from Latin originals. 
The whole of this series has been edited by Dr. Morris for 
the Early English Text Society, under the title *01d English 
Homilies, Second Series.' The dialect in which they are 
written is Southern, with an East-Midland element closely 
resembling that found in the * Story of Genesis and Exodus.' 
To the locality where these Homilies were written, and not to 
their date, must be ascribed the remarkable simplicity of their 
grammatical forms and syntactical structure. 

(A) Dominica Palmarum. 
[Dr. Morris's Old English Homilies, Second Series, pp. 89-109.] 

Turhe que precedehant dominum, et que sequehantur clama- 
bant dicentes, osanna filio dauidf henedicius qui uenit in nomine 
domini. It is custume \at ech chirchsocne got$ |)is dai a 
precession, and J)is wune haue^ Jjc biginni[n]gge of jjc holie 

^ Some of the Homilies in this collection contain a play upon native 
words that could scarcely be suggested by the Latin Homilies. 


pr(7cession jje ure helende makede to-ward te stede fer he 5 
wolde de^ JjoleiL Et cum uenisset bethfage ad moniem oliua- 
rum. Mittens \duos\ de discipulis I'ussit adduci asinam et sedit 
super earn, po \t com to bethfage Swo hatte J)e ))rop J)e 
pr^te one wunien. bi-sides i^xusaXem. on J)e fot of J>e dune 
\q men clepen mu«t oliuete. \o sende tweien of hise diciples 10 
into fe bureh of itxusaXevfx. and bed hem bringen a wig one 
te riden. noSer stede. ne palefrei. ne fair mule, ac J)eh he [were] 
aire lou^rdes lou^rd. and aire kingene ki[n]g. naj>eles he 
sende aft^r ))e aire unwurj)este wig one to riden. and }pat is 
asse. and gaf us forbisne of admodnesse on his dede. alse 15 
he do^ on oSre stede on his speche J)us que^inde. Discite 
a me f quia mitts sum et humilis corde, lerne^ of me for Jxz/ 
ich am milde and admod on herte. and^o tweien sanderbodes 
ferden and cudden in \>e bureh. ^at \>e helende was J)iderward. 
a?td funden an asse mid fole. and ledden hit to-genes him. and 20 
J?e holie apostles lei den here cloJ>es J)eruppe and ure helende 
rod ferone i into J)e holie burh. and \at burh folc hihten J)e 
hege strete and bihewgen it mid palmes. and mid o^re riche 
wedes. J>er he wolde J)urh-faren to J>e holi te;«ple. and wen- 
den ut togenes him. and beren on here honde blostme sum 25 
palm twig, and sum boh of oliue alse J)e holie boc sei^. 
Occurrunt turbe cum floribus et palmis redemtori o[b]uiam. et 
cetera, Det folc com togenes him. mid blostmen. and mid 
palmes. and understoden him mid p;y cession, swo me 
ki[n]g shal. and )>o jje ferden biforen him. and ¥0 J)e aft^r 30 
him comen. remden lude stefne fus qw^inde. \0\sanna 
filio dauid benedictus qui uenit in nomine domini, Silof daui^es 
bern blesced bie he J)e cumetS a godes name, and J)0 children 
J>e were« biforen diden alse )>e godspel sei^. Pueri hebre- 
orum viam pro et cetera, pe children briggeden jje wei bi- 35 
foren ure drihten. sume mid here clones, and sume mid 
boges \Q hie breken of ))e trewes and swo him brohten into 


)>e holie te77/ple. alse in his eorSliche^ heg settle. pu$ 
makede ure helende his holie precession, fro betfage to 

40 ievusalem. and elhc cristene man makej) tSis dai pr(?cession 
fro chirche to chirche. andeii agen. and hiiocne^ ))e holie pr^ 
cession J)e he makede J)is dai. and \ai mai ech man under- 
stonden. J)e wot wat bitocne^ J)ese tweie names, betfage. and 
itTusa\em, betfage interpreiatur domus bucce, uel huccarum 

45 sine maxtllarum, et significai ecclesiam in qua hucce funguniur 
officio suo peccaia confitendo ueniam postulando. deum laudando, 
Carnem chrjsti manducando, et sanguinem eius bibendo, gratias 
agendo, Betfage is cleped on englisse mu^ene hus. and 
bitocnet5 holie chirche. }^ai men noten inne here mu^s wike. 

50 |>anne hie seien here sinnes. and forgiuenesse bidden, and 
ure lou^rd \hes\x christ herien. and bruken his fles and his 
blod. \at is^ )>e holi husel. and him J)anken. lerusalem in- 
ierpretatur uisio pads et item significai ecclesiam in qua pax 
uera uidetur dum passio christi recolitur, et pacis osculum 

55 datur, \txusa\em is cleped so^ of sahtnesse. and bitocne^ 
holie chirche ))er bileffulle men inne beS sehte. J)enne pr^t 
cristes J)roweinge mineget$. and of J)e calice understonde^ 
tocne of sehtnesse. \at is messe cos. and J)e folc sent, and 
J)ermide bitocne^ \at ure drihten is |)ureh |)e holie loc wi^ 

60 bileffulle men maked sehte. and )>erfore chirche haue^ )« 
tocninge of bethphage J>enne )>e precession ut go^ of ier«- 
sa]eTci, and eft J)enne it in cume^. Nime we J)enne geme gif 
ure precession bi maked aft^r ure helendes precession. On 
his precession ferde sume biforen him and makede his weie 

65 toward lexusaXera, and sume briggeden J)e asse mid here 
clones, and sume mid boges J>e hie breken of \q trewes. ©0 
fe J>e weie makeden biforen him. bien folkes lorjjeawes. 
bisshopes and prates. J>e mid here wise lore ride6. and 

» MS. * heor-Slichc* a ^jg. • his/ 

jv. (b) in die pasche. 29 

maketS^ godes weie in to mannes heorte. Do J)e briggeden 
})e asse mid here clones, ben \>o fe wisse^ fe folc mid faire 7<* 
forbisne of here weldede. Do J)e briggeden J)e asse mid \>e 
brokene boges. ben fo )>e leren J>e folc to understonden god 
noht mid weldede. ac mid wise speche. J)0 J>e aft^r Hiw 
comen ben ))0 |)e here lif [leden] alse here lorSeawes hem 
lere¥. J)0 Jje bisides weren on his riht half, ben J>o J)e clene 75 
lif leden to quemende gode ' noht for hereworde. )>o J>e on 
his lift bond comen ben J)0 )>e clenliche liuen noht forto 
q«^mende gode i ac for hereword to hdMen, De asse l?e ure 
helende uppe set. ben jjo forsinegede Jje hauen al here )>onc 
uppen eor61iche richeise. and sinne hem is lo^ to leten. and 80 
unwill[i]che to bete, for hem |)inchet$ \>a/ godes hese heuie- 
liche seme^. and na¥eles gif hie ful don hie shulen on 
heuene endelese mede fon. Ure lou^rd ihesu christ J^e 
makede \n\.o \txus(Aem J)is dai his holie precession, jje ech 
chirche to-dai minege^. wisse and fulste us swo to folgen his 85 
holi eor[j>]liche prd?cession \at we mo ben on fe holie prt?- 
cession Jjc he wile maken a domes dai mid hise chosenef 
fro |>e dome m to heuene. Quod nobis presiei qui secula per 
omnia regnat. 

(B) In Die Pasche. 

Hec est dies quam fecit dominus exultemus et leiemur in ea, 
pis dai haueS ure drihten maked to gladien. and to blisseri 
us Jjonked wurSe him. and giarked ^at holie gestniwge. ))e he 
offe spec^ J)us q^/^inde. Ecce prandium vieum paratum. 
Mi bord is maked. and us bidde^^ alle J)erto J)us seggende. 5 
Venite prandium Cume^ to borde and understonde^ bred, ac 
er Jjenne we' holie bord bugen. and \at bred understonde do 

* MS. * maked/ « MS. • bidded/ « MS. ' >e.' 


we alse )>e spos^I bad. seiende )}us. Probei aukm se ipsum 
homo, ei sic de pane illo edai ei de calice bibaU Proue ech man 

lo him seluen. and gif he fele^ \ai he is wurSe }>er-to f ))enne 
understonde he \at husel. fz«</ drinke of }>e calice. ))e man 
hie understo«de^ wur^liche }>e cume^ ))erto on bicumeliche 
wise, fl//^/ mid bicumeliche wede. and on bicumeliche time. 
On bicumeliche wise cume^ |?e man j>e Erest shewed pr«te 

15 his sinnes and forlete^ and bimwrne^ and nime^ {jerof god 
wissinge. and o'Ser si^ fe holie acxen uppen his heued. and 
J)e six pinen J)e )>erto bilien. scilicet vigilias. labores, saccum. 
inedia, sitim, \at is wecche and swinch. harde clo^s. smerte 
dintes. selde eten and lesse drinken. pridde si^ palm 

20 sunedeies pr^ession. feor^e si¥es shere^uresdaies absolu- 
cio[«] J)e li^e J)e sinne bendes. J)e fiftiB si^ crepe to crache 
on lange fridai sixte si^e on ester euen gon abuten Jje fant- 
ston. J)e bitocne^ J)e holie sepulcre. and \t seue'Se si^ \ai 
holie bord bugen and \at bred bruken. bicumeliche wede 

25 ben tweire kinne. lichamliche and gostliche. J>e lichamliche 
wedes ben manie kinnes. ac of hem ne speke ich noht ac do 
of fe gostliche. )je ben ec fele kinnes. and alle hie bien faire 
\i\m j)e j)e husel underfo^. ac two J)erofFe ben swiche \at no 
man ne mai underfo. him selue« to hele bute he haue here 

30 o^er on him. )>e ben jjus clepede. Vesiis innocencie, VeSjUs 
misericordie. an is lo^lesnesse o^er sinbote. Ves/ts innth 
cencie restiiuitur in baptisnio dicente sacerdote Accipe uesiem 
candidam et inmaculatam, lo¥Iesnesse understonde^ J>e man 
at his folcni;/ge. and ^af bitocne^ J)e crisme clo^. |?e })e prest 

35 biwinde^ \>af child mide. and j)us sei^. Underfo shrud wit 
and clene. ))is shrud haue^ ech man on him aft^r his fulc- 
ni«ge. alle ]>e wile J)e he him berege^ fa/ he ne do ne ne 
que^e. ne ne ¥enche no J)ing for Jjat he bie unwur55ere gode f 
ne lo^ere men ' \>e iuele is soule ' pis wede is wel bicume- 

40 liche and biheue ech man to hauen J>enne he husel uiiderfo^ 

jv. (b) in die pasche. 31 

Det o¥er gostliche shnid ich embe spece f is mildhertnesse. 
j)e is nemed ec armhertnesse f armheorted is ))e man. \>e 
swi^ere reoweS his sinne. and he hem forlet tf«^ bet. and 
milce bit. alse ure drihte/i bad seien ))us. ATiserere anime 
tue placens deo, haue reo^e of J>in ogen sovle. ))enne likeste 45 
gode. Mildheorted be^ J?e man ))e reou^ his nehgebures 
unsaid, and liketS here aire sel^e and oft)in[c]^ sore wrecche 
mannes wanrede. and freure^ hem mid his weldede. No 
ma/r ])e sineged haue^ ne maiwi^uten ))ese^wedes holi husel 
uwderfonf bute to eche harme his soule and lichame and h^ 
ech ma» fe hit iwderfo^ wi8uten ei^er ))ese wedes shal ben 
shameliche driuen ut of ))is holi gestniwge. and buwden toge- 
dere his honden. and his fet. and worpen in to J>e ateliche 
pit of helle bi lire drihtenes word |?e sei^ to swiche men. 
Amice quomodo hue inirasii non habens uestem nupcialem et Sh 
cetera hwu come J>u [h]ider in mid uwbicumliche weden. ))is 
dai is bicumelich time husel to uwderfon. Quia hec dies quam 
fecit dominus, non quod magis hanc quam alias, sed quia 
maiora quam in aliis d morie resurgendo, et nos d morte resus- 
citando, for \at j)is makede ure drihtew ))e makede alle o^re. 60 
ac he kidde o'Serluker his mihte. and mawkin more milce 
dide on j)is dai f fanne on ani o^re. Do he aros of dea¥e 
\and\ rerde us mid him, Vnde exultemus et letemur in ea, he 
us fette ut of helle wowe. and Jjermide us gledede. and gif we 
hLw folgie^ he gins us heuene wele and ))ermide us blisse^ to 65 
dai j>onked. wur^ hi;w. forjji ))is dai is cleped estrene dai. 
Jjo/ is aristes dai. for \at ]>e he ))is dai aros of dea¥e. and we 
alle don f )janne we holi husel undernimen. gif we ben J>e[r] 
togenes on clene liflode. and on nhte leue. and wi^ alle men 
sehte. Ure lou^rd J)e us bit to ))is gestniwge. and bridge us 70 
to his holi fleis and to his holi blod and leue us he/w to 

1 MS. • J)us.' 


bruken. and ))us que^indQ. Accipite ef commidtte ex hoc omrus 
hie est e, c, s, m, n. et cetera, UnderstondeS fis and bruke^ 
it alle. for it is mi lichame ]>e giu shal alle lesen. he bet us 

75 ec his holi blod ))e shal ben shad giu to lesende and sei^ \ai 
j>ese two jjing bien ure bileue. Caro mea uere est ctbus et 
sanguis mens uere est potus. Mi fleis is wis mete, and mi 
blod iwis dri«ke and aft^r f^/ he sei^. Nisi manducaueritis 
carnem filii hominis et hiheritis eius sanguinem non hahebitis 

80 uiiam in uobis, Ne muge haue/i no lif on giu bute ge liue« 
bi mi fleis and bi mi blod. }^at husel Jje ge understonden i is 
his holi fleis and his blod. Erest it be6 ouelete and win. and 
j)ureh |>e holi word ))e ure helende Yiwi self seide mid his holi 
mu^ f and efter him pr^st hem sei^ atte swimesse t«me^ J>e 

85 bred to fleis and ^e win to blod. Set in carne remanet forma 
color et sapor, ac on ))e holi fleis bileue^ J)e shap and hiu. 
and smul of ouelete. and on ))e holi blod hew and smul of 
win. More mihte do^ ure helende J>enne j)e holi word j>e 
he ))urh his mu^ spec. ))anne he giueth mamies cunde^ 

90 [his flesc and blod] and Na))eles jjanne man ete^ and 
drinke^ ))ureh \t lichames cunde \at bred wur^ to fleis. 
and ))e drinke to blod. for-J)i mai godes word U/men j>e 
ouelete to fleis. and \at win to blod. and swo do^. and \at 
is J?e felefolde heste. J)e is aire hestene heste \ai alle 

95 cristene men agen to dai to notew. for \at ))is dai is cleped 
estre dai \at is estene da[i]. and te este is husel. and no 
man ne mai seien husel f wu god it is. Quia est precium 
mundi. for it is wur6 al pe wereld. and bet^re J>ene al J>e 
wereld. })is is J)e holi mann^ J)e ure driht^ sende alse snow 

100 sle^rende alse ))e pr^ph^e sei^. Fluit ille manna ad mem- 
ducandum et panem celi dedit eis, Panem angelorum mandu" 
cauit homo, he let htm reine ma«n^ to bi-liue. and gef hew 

1 MS. • cuinde/ 


bred of heuene. and men ete« englene [bred]. Manna 
inter preiaiur. quid est hoc ? Mann^ bitocne^ wat is tis 1 and 
\o ure drihte« sende ))is mete fro heuene ))e israelisse folke f 105 
it warS on eches mu^ wat mete se he mest luuede. and 
bitocne^ holi husel 1 J)e ech cristeman understont nu¥e. ))e 
is J)e mawne hegeste sweteste este ))e is of sinne clensed. 
o^er bigunne to clensende. and aire bit(?re bit(?rest eches 
mannas soule ))e ne haue^ alle. michele sinnes forleten. and no 
bet. o^r bigunnen alse ))e^ apoj/^/ sei^. Qui manducat cor- 
pus domini et hihit et cetera, Ech |>e understande^ \at holi 
husel unwur^liche he understant \\\m seluen eche pine, and 
endelese wowe. Nime we nu geme ure ech agen hi^;^ seluen. 
gif we bien cumen on bicumeliche wise. \at is to so^ shrifte. 115 
to holi axen a palm sunedai f to pr(7cession. a shere^ursdai 
to absoluciun. a langefridai to holi cruche. an ester euen to 
pr(K:ession [abuten ))e fanstone]. and gif we ben cumene 
mid bicumeliche wede. of lodlesnesse \at is clensinge. swo 
\at we hauen ure sinnes forleten. and bi shriftes wissenge 120 
bet. o'^r biguwnen to beten. and milce bidden. |)anne muge 
we biciuneliche to godes bord f bugen. and his bode wur¥- 
liche bniken. and J>ureh J?e holi este cumen to Ariste. Quod 
nobis prestet qui hodie surrexii et uiuit cum deo patre in unitate 
spiritus sancti. 

(C) [Dominica i, post Pascha,^ 

Stetit ihesus in medio discipulorum suorum dh dixit eis, pax 
uobis. legitur in ewangelio quod dominus ante passionem sedit 
dum discipulos docuit inter passionem et resurrectionem iacuit 
et quieuit. post passionem uero stetit. pacem eis opt[a]uit. we 
reden on j)e holi godspel boc. Jj^/ ure helende ))rowede on 5 
j>e holi rode, and dea^ ))olede. and mid his e'6eliche dea^e 

* MS. • ])a.' 
VOL. I. D 


lesde us of eche dea¥e. and on J)e J}ridde dai aros of dea^. 
afid arerde us raid him, and bihet us eche lif on blisse. gif 
we lede ure lif nu swo he us wisse^. We nime geme of 

10 |?re \iing on })is tale, on is )mz/ biforen his froweunge he sat 
ofte and tahte wisdoz« ))an pe hi/» folgeden. o^er is \ai 
bitwenen his ))rowenge and his ariste he lai on his sepulcre 
and swiede. and for fa/ ben J>e ))re dage biforen estre cleped 
swidages. De ])ridde is ]kz/ he stod among hise diciples. 

15 and hedi hem fri^ alse seint lucas sei^ on his godspelle jais 
qa^inde^. \S]teiii ihesus ei cetera. Ure lou^rd stod among 
his diciples t and bed hem fri^. and sehtnesse. Fri^ f for 
\at he hadde maked he/w fre f of J>e denies jjralsipe. l>e hie 
hadden a7id al ofspri[n]g one wuned. fro |»e time l>e adam 

20 ure forme fader gilte forte \ai ure helende mid his dea^ 
hem alesde. Sehtnesse f for \ai Jje he makede sehte )>e 
heuenliche fader wi^ ma [n] kin. and opene[de] togenes hew 
jje giate of paradis. ))e ))urh eue gilte wi^ hew was er lined. 
His trihus modis ponimur in huius exilii miseria quod alii 

25 sedent. alii iaceni. alii slant. On ))ese j)re wise we wuneden 
on ))is wreche wereld. sume sitte^. and sume lige^ and sume 
we stonde^. Danne we hauen ure sinnes forleten. and 
bireused. and bet. and ben huseled. we ben hege. ac alse wat 
se we sinegen. we ben fro hege to loge. and )>eh us ure 

30 sinnes rewe. and imint hauen j)^/ we hem wile forleten. 
na^eles we sitte^ forS }^at we he/» forleten. and beten alse 
ure drihten us minege^ bi J>e pr^plv/e fus que^inde. 
Surgile postquam sedistis q, m, p, d. Arisen J)anne ge hauen 
seten. ac we ne mugen J>j/ don f wi^uten his [h]elpe. seie we 

35 ))anne to \i\m, Domine tu cognouisti sessionem meam et resur- 
rectionem meam. lou^d \m wost wu ich habbe seten. and \ai 
ich ne mai wi^uten ))in [hjelp risen. Exurge domine adiuua 
vie, id estfac me exurgere, aris lou^rd f and [hjelp me up. Dus 

» MS. * qwedindc' 


sit man on his sinne swo ich seid haue. and J>us 11^ swo ich nu 
seie wile. Danne man sinege^ gretliche. and him ))inche¥ ))e 40 
sinne swete. and ne wile noht forletew hit. for J>a/ it hi^;^ on 
sume wise like^. and ))eh \>e htm forlete ne wile noht bi 
shriftes wissinge bete, he be^ ne^er ))anne he er was. alse 
fro sete to leire and demd to dea^e. and perto bunden. swo 
is j)e maan ))e halt faste his sinne. he is demd fro heuene 45 
to helle. fro ure lou^rd ih^ju chn'sf to alle denies, fro eche 
liue f to eche pine, bute^ he ))e bendes breke. and berege 
him mid bote, and alle fe wile j)e he ))us li^ on his sinne i 
jjc'rihte bileue and J)e so^e luue. ]>q he ah^ to hauen to 
gode i ben leirede. and slaine on his heorte and \>eT-]>uih 50 
he swike to undernimende alle holsum lore. jEV sic ihesus 
iacet in sepulcro cordis illius. et quiescit aput ilium a dodrina 
usque in diem tercium scilicet mentis illuminacionem. Primus 
enim dies est lux boni operis, Secundus clarificacio sermonis, 
Tercius illuminacio mentis, and on \at wise li^ ure helende on 55 
his heorte. alse on sepulcre. and swige^ of holsumnesse lore 
togenes him f forte \at on ))en J?ridde dai f \at [h]is heorte 
be liht for ))eh he do edie dede. ))e is nemned to o¥er dai. 
bo^e \i\m helped litel o^r noht. bute he haue god ))Onk J>e 
is euened to fe ))ridde dai. ac alse wat swo Jje pridde dage^. 60 
\at he's ))anne his heorte understant J?e liht of rihte bileue. 
and of so^e luue. J)enne rise^ ure helend on his heorte. and 
teche^ \iwi holsuzw lore, and j)us sei^. Cur iaces pronus in 
terra f Surge, Wi list J?u twrnd on fe eorSe I aris. J>a/ is to 
seien hwi luuest J>u ))ine fule sunnes. forlet hem. and 6^ 
bireuse hem. and bet hem. and bide milce f ))erof and gif he 
j>is lore understonde^ f he arist and stant. and ure helende 
stant on [h]is heorte. and bede^ him jjanne fri^. and sehtnesse 
and |)us que^. Pax uodis, fri^ i for pat he ben ))anne fried 
of J>e deueles jjralshipe i alse ich er seide. Sehtnesse f for 70 

» MS. * bote.* « MS. » hah.* 

D 2 


^at hie ben ))enne sahtnede wi=S j)e heuenliche fader, and is 
)?e giate of paradis opened to-genes hem. Per quam nos 
iniroducaL Qui viuit tt regnat per omnia secula seculorum 

(D) [Dominica iv. post Pascha!] 

Omne datum optimum et omne donum per/ectum desursum 

estf descendens a paire luminum, Seint iacob jje holla 

apoj/^/. |)e ure drihtew sette to lorjjeawe. ))e folc of \&[usa\em. 

he nam geme of \e wune f ))e weren \o i and get bien mid 

5 mannen f fewe gode i and fele iuele. and bigan to ti/men \t 

iuele to gode. mid his wise wordes. \t he wi^ hem spec mu^ 

wi^ mu¥e. pe hwile he wunede lichamliche among hem. and 

agen ))e time ))e ure drihten wolde him fechen fro J)is wreche 

woreld to his blisfulle riche f Jk) sette he on write J>e wise 

10 word ))e he spec, and l^at writ sende into chirchen. and hit is 

cumen into bis holi minstr^ to dai. and biforen giu rad beh 

ge it ne understonden. ac we wilen bi godes wissinge and bi 

his helpe. Jjerof cu))en giu ))ese lit word. Omne datum 

optimum et cetera. Ech god giue and ful giu^ cume% of 

15 heuene dunward. and ech idel. and unnit. and iuelf ne^n 

uppard. l^eh J)e unbileffulle swo ne lete. ac^ ]>anne he 

haue^ sineged. on \>onke o^er on speche. o'Ser on dede. 

WerpeS ]tat gilt uppen ure drihtew. and sei^. gif god hit 

ne wolde f swo hit ne were, and o¥er while werpe^ it uppen 

20 sheppendes J)e none ben. bute god self Jje alle J)ing shopl 

and sei^. ne was me no bet shapen. and o^r hwile uppen 

hwate. and sei¥. nahte ich no bet^re wate. and wile uppe fe 

deuel i and sei^. he me drof ferto ))e ne sholde. and lige* 

eches wordes. for ))eh ))e deuel muge man bi-charre f he ne 

1 MS. • ac lat.* 


mai no man neden. and on ))is wise werpe'S fe unbilefFulle 25 
man his agen gilt uppe )>e giltlese. Omm's auiem praua 
cogitacio in corde ascendit, tam innata quam illata vnde dicitur 
in ewangelio, Ut quid ascendunt cogitaciones in cordihus uesiris, 
ech unnit speche and Jjonc astigh^ m \q mawnes heorte. 
be swo it beo. alse })is writ sei^. Unus quisque ira\hi\itur d 30 
concupiscencia sua, abstractus, et illectus. ech man beo^ [for- 
tuht] bi sleht of his agene lichames luste alse J)e boc sei^. 
[iy\iabolus per sugesiionem inmittet homini malam cogiiacionem, 
j>e deuel mid his for-tihting^ bri«ge^ unnut ))onc on mannes 
heorte. and te^ h\m swo to iuele speche and to werse dede. 35 
and on )?is wis cume^ ech iuel J>onc. and speche. and dede. 
ne^n uppard. sam it haue angun of ))e mannes lichames wille 
sam it haue ))e biginning of the denies fortuhting. and for to 
bileande J?a/ no ma« werpe ))e gilt of his sinne anuppen god f 
and J)erfore sei'S^ seint iacob J>os word. Omne datum optimum 40 
et cetera, ech god giue f and ful giue i cume^ of heuene send 
of lemene fader. Datum aliud est honum ut quodfouet corpus 
Aliud est melius ut quod ornat cor, Aliud est optimum ut quod 
sanctificat hominem, pat godes giue is god fe fet and shrut 
J>e lichame alse J>e blostme ))e cume^ of coren of eor¥e. and 4 s 
of treuwe. J>e ben cleped werides winne. and ^at godes giue 
is bet^re. J)e alime^ J>e man of fiffolde mihte. his egen to sen 
his earen to listen his nose to smellen. his mu^ to runien. 
and his lichame al mid to fri^ende and ^at godes giue is 
best. J)e clense^ J?e man. of alle sinnes. and lese^ of helle i 50 
and td-genes him opened heuene and ^at is fulcning erest 
and si^enhusel, Bonum autem aliud incoatum ut fides, Aliud 
prouectum ut spes, Aliud perfectum ut car it as, Eft-sone sum 
godes giue is bigunnen alse rihte leue. and fur^re^ alse 
trust, and longenge to godes bihese and sum mid alle ful 55 

* MS. • tihtingt.' 2 MS. • seid.' 


alse so^ luue to gode and to mannen. and swiche ben Jie 
seuene. |)e ben cleped Carismatum dona, scilicet sapiencie et 
intellectus et cetera. Item remissio peccaiorum que datur in 
haptismo est datum optimum, Bonum uite eterne est donum 

60 perfectum, Eftsone j)e giuenesse of sinne is )>e beste giue. 
and ))ie giue he giue^ ech man in \t fulluht J>e giue of echc 
[lif] on blisse. is te fulle giue. and |>eo giue he giue^ mid |)e 
holi husel. |>anne man it understo«de^ rihtliche. and 
holsu/wliche. Swiche giues. and none iuele sende^ lemene 

65 fader mankin. Leomene fader we cleped ure drihten 
for ))an jje he sunne atend fe steores of hire leome. and te 
mone of hire leome. and al j)is middelerd^ aleme^. and ure 
ih^ju christi aleme^ J)e selue sunne f J)e alle o^re J»ing 
aleome^. and ec ))e man. Lumine intellectus et fidei aleme% 

70 of understondi[ng]nesse. and of rihte bileue. Angelomm 
autem et omnium mortalium and brin[ne^] on englen and on 
mannen ))e hete of so^ luve to him seluen. He send us 
J)e gode giue j>e alle sinnes forgif^. and J^e fulle giue Jie 
giue^ cch lif on blisse. Qui viuit et regnat per omnia [secula 

75 seculorum\ 

I MS. • middelherd.' 



ABOUT A.D. I200. 

The Ormulum consists of an imperfect series of Homilies, in 
alternate verses of eight and seven syllables, or in iambic verse of 
fifteen syllables, with a metrical point in the MS. after the eighth. 
It is wanting in alliteration and rhyme, and was probably written 
in imitation of some mediaeval Latin poems with which the writer 
was acquainted. The author was Orm, or Ormin, a canon regu- 
lar of the Order of St. Augustine, and he called the poem after 
his own name, as he himself tells us in the opening — 

* piss boc iss nemmnedd Orrmulum, 
Forr)>i >att Orrm itt wrohhte.' 

Orm was a purist in orthography, and for the right pronuncia- 
tion of his vowels he adopts a method of his own, and directs his 
readers to observe that the consonant is always doubled after a 
short vowel, and there only. In some few cases a semicircular 
mark over the vowel denotes its quantity. Other marks are used 
to denote contraction. 

The date of the Ormulum is not quite fixed. By most 
writers it is ascribed to a later date than La3amon's Brut. From 
the absence of Norman- French words, it seems to be much 
earlier. The simplicity of its language, almost as flexionless as 
Chaucer's, is due to its locality, being probably written in the 
neighbourhood of Lincoln, where the East-Midland dialect was 
spoken, with a tolerably strong infusion of the Danish element. 

The Ormulum was edited in 1852 by Dr. White, from the 
original MS. (Junius i) in the Bodleian Library. The extract 
here given is from this edition, corrected by the manuscript. 


Jewish and Christian Offerings, 

[White's edition, pp. 31-57.] 

'] nu ice wile shaewenn ^uw 

summ-del wi))}) Godess hellpe 
Off J>att Judisskenn follkess lac 

))att Drihhtin wass full cweme, 965 

^ mikell hellpe to |?e folic, 

to laeredd 1 to laewedd, 
Biforenn j^att te Laferrd Crist 

was borenn her to manne. 
Ace nu ne ge^^ne)))? itt hemm nohht 970 

to winnenn eche blisse 
pohh ))att te33 standenn da^^ -y nihht 

to ))eowwtenn Godd^ lakenn; 
Forr all itt iss onn^aeness Godd 

Jjohh ))att te33 swa ne wenenn, 975 

Forr))i j^att te^^ ne kepenn nohht 

noff Crist, noff Cristess moderr. 
-] tohh-swa-))ehh nu wile ice ^uw 

off ))e35re lakess awwnenn, 
Hu mikell god te^^ tacnenn uss 980 

off ure sawle nede; 
Forr all J?att lac wass sett ))urrh Godd, 

forr J)att itt shollde tacnenn 
Hu Cristess J>eoww birr)) lakenn Crist 

gastlike i gode ))aewess, 985 

Wi))J> all )>att tatt bitacnedd wass 

furrh alle ))e33re lakess. 

patt follkes lac wass shep, ^ gat, 

^ oxe, 1 cuUfre, and turrtle, 
■J te^^re lac wass bule, 3 lamb, 990 

J buckess twa togeddre, 



■] recles smec, -} bulltedd brsed 

))att bakenn wass inn ofne, 
3 smeredd wel wiJ)J> elesaew 

^ makedd fatt 3 nesshe; 
^ oJ>err stund tatt lac wass brsed 

all Jjeorrf wij>))utenn berrme; 
^ o)>err stund itt bakenn wass 

full harrd 3 starrc inn ofne; 
^ o))err stund tatt lac wass brennd 

3 turrnedd all till asskess. 
^ 353 wass sallt wi))J) iwhillc lac 

biforenn Drihhtin ofFredd; 
^ tatt wass don, Jjatt witt tu wel, 

forr mikell J)ing to tacnenn. 
All )>e33re lac wass swillc -} swillc, 

forr oJ>err ]>mg to tacnenn, 
patt uss iss swife mikell ned 

to foll^henn 3 to trowwenn; 
Forr uss birrj> nu biforenn Godd 

ofFrenn ))a lakess alle 
Rihht o ))att wise )?att uss iss 

bitacnedd ))urrh ))a lakess; 
3 witt tu ))att an wa^herifft 

wass spredd fra wah to wa5he, 
Biforenn an allterr ))att wass 

innresst i j^e^^re minnstre. 
patt wa^herifft wass henngedd t3er 

forr J>att itt hidenn shollde 
All J>att tatt t3er wi))))innenn wass 

fra Iseredd folic 3 laewedd, 
Wi))J}Utenn ))att te bisscopp sellf 

wij>)> blod -} ec wi)?J> recless 
pser shollde cumenn o ]>e ^er 








ann si{>e, 3 all himm ane. 1025 

^ enngless comenn ofFte jjger 

^ wij>)) ))e bisscopp spaekenn 
O Godess hallfe off mani^-whalt, 

himm 3 hiss folic to frofrenn. 
•3 bi })att allterr stodenn a^^ 1030 

l^att foUkess hali^domess, 
patt waeremi inn an arrke |)aer 

wel 1 wurrl^like ^emmde. 
3 taer oferr ))att arrke wass 

an oferrwerrc wel timmbredd, 1035 

patt wass Propitiatoriumm 

O Latin spaeche nemmnedd, 
Off ))att word tatt o Latin iss 

nemmnedd Propitiari, 
patt ma33 onn Ennglissh nemmnedd ben 1040 

miUcenn, 3 shawenn are, 
Forr whase do)) hiss are o j>e 

tibi propitiatur, 
Affterr J)att itt ma^^ wel inoh 

ben se35d o Latin spaeche. 1045 

•] taer uppo J)att oferrwerrc^ 

J)e33 hafFdenn liccness metedd 
Off Cherubyn, 3 haffdenn itt 

o twe35enn stokess metedd. 
All enngle|)eod to-daeledd iss 1050 

o ni^henn kinne ))eode; 
*] Cherubyn 3 Seraphyn 

sinndenn jja twe33enn |)eode 
patt sinndenn Drihhtin allre nest 

^ heh3hesst upp inn heoffne. 1055 

"3 off ))att an, off Cherubyn 

)>e53 haffdenn liccness metedd 

* MS. ' offerrwerrc' 


Uppo ))att oferrwerrc ))att wass 

abufenn farrke timmbredd. 
^ att te minnstre-dure wass 1060 

an allterr ))aer wi)))>-utenn ; 
^ bi J>att allterr wass l>e lac 

o fele wise jarrkedd 
purrh preostess, alls uss 8655)) soJj hoc, 

off Aaroness chilldre. 1065 

^ o ))att allterr hafFdenn jje^^ 

glowennde gledess ^arrkedd. 
3 off J>att errfe jjatt taer wass 

Drihhtin to lake ^arrkedd, 
Himm toe J>e bisscopp off ))e blod, 1070 

swa summ hiss boc himm tahhte. 
^ gledess inn hiss reclefatt 

he too J>3er o ))att allterr, 
J dide recless inn inoh 

Drihhtin ))aerwi))J) to J)eow[w]tenn, 1075 

A5J whann he shoUde ganngenn inn 

upp to J?att oJ>err allterr, 
patt wass a53 seness o \>e ^er, 

•3 a35 himm sellf himm ane, 
Forr mikell |>ing to tacnenn uss 1080 

jjatt uss birr^ alle trowwenn. 
He too J)e recless ^ te blod 

-} 3ede upp to J>att allterr 
patt wass wi))))innenn wa^herifFt, 

swa summ ice habbe shaewedd, 1085 

•^ tanne brennde he recless })aer, 

to ))eowwtenn Godd tocweme, 
Swa-jjatt taer wass swa mikell smec 

off recless att tatt allterr 
patt all he wass himm-sellf paer hidd 1090 


3 lokenn J?aer-wi))|)innenn ; 
3 toe himm fa fatt illke blod 

))att he J)3er haffde gre35t)edd, 
patt blod tatt he ))3er haflfde brohht, 

;j warrp itt taer wij))) strenncless, 1095 

Ej^whaer uppo ))att hall^he bord, 

^ ej^whaer o j)att allterr. 
^ sij?j)enn ^ede he J)eJ)enn fit 

to strennkenn i J)e kirrke 
Wi)>))utenn ))e53re wa^heriflft, nco 

swa summ hiss boc himm tahhte. 
■] siJ>J>enn comm he till ))e folic 

;j wessh himm hise cla))ess, 
Ace ))ohh-swa-))ehh he wass all da^^ 

unnelene anan till efenn. 1105 

Nu habbe ice shaewedd ^uw summ-del 

off ))a Judisskenn lakess 
patt Drihhtin toe full aedmodli^ 

biforenn Cristess eome, 
^ oflf ))att preost tatt tanne wass, mo 

J off })att bisseopp bajje. 
3 ee iee habbe shaewedd ^uw 

summ del off j^e^^re wikenn. 
J nu iee wile shaewenn ^uw 

all ))att whatt itt bitaenejjj), 11 15 

■] hu itt ma35 ^uw turrnemi all 

till 5ure sawless hellpe, 
3 hu 5e mujhenn lakenn Godd 

gastlike i gode ))3ewess 
Wi))j) all j)att Judewisshe lae 1120 

))att iee ^uw habbe shaewedd ; 
Forr 3UW birr)) nu biforenn Godd 

offrenn fa lakess alle, 


All o ))att wise patt ^uw iss 

bitacnedd ))urrh ))a lakess. 1125 

• pa lakess mihhtenn clennsenn hemm 

off sakess 3 off sinness, 
■3 gladenn Godd, ^iff ))att he wass 

hemm wraj> forr heore gillte. 
3 witt tu wel ))att Latin boc 1130 

full witerrlike uss kijje)?)? 
Whillc lac wass offredd forr J)e preost, 

whillc forr ]>e bisscopp offredd, 
3 whillc wass offredd forr J>e folic, 

to clennsenn hemm off sinne. 11 35 

pe ramm wass offredd forr ]>e preost 

to clennsenn himm off sinne, 
^ forr ))e bisscopp wass J?e calif 

offredd o jje^^re wise, 
^ forr J>e folic wass offredd bucc, 1140 

Drihhtin to lofe 3 wurr];e, 
patt he ]>ey^m ))urrh hiss mildherrtle53C 

forr^sefe fe^^re gilltess. 
Her habbe ice shaewedd j^rinne lac ♦ 

forr ))rinne kinne leode, 1145 

Forr bisscopp ^ forr unnderrpreost, 

•3 forr Jje foUkess nede. 
^ ure Laferrd Jesu Crist 

badd hise bedess })ri3ess, 
Biforenn Jjatt he takenn wass 11 50 

;) na^^ledd uppo rode. 
^ taer he badd forr alle \>2l 

))att onn himm sholldenn lefenn, 
Forr bisscopp 3 forr unnderrpreost, 

3 ec forr laewedd leode; 1155 


J mare wass hiss bede wurr)) 

jjann alle \fe^yQ lakess, 
To lesenn -} to clennsenn menn 

off alle kinne gillte, 
J tohh-swa-))ehh wass J>e33re lac 1160 

biforenn Cristess come 
Drihhtin full cweme inn alle |)a 

patt Godess lajhess heldenn. 
•3 nu ice wile shaewenn 3UW 

wi)))) min Drihhtiness hellf)e 1165 

All hu 3e mu3henn lakenn Godd 

gasdike i gode J^sewess 
Wi)))) all |)att Judewisshe lac 

jjatt 3UW her uppe iss shaewedd; 
5 iff fatt tu foll3hesst so|) meocle33c 11 70 

J so)) unnska))i3nesse*, 
pa lakesst tu Drihhtin wi))j) shep 

gastlike i J)ine ))aewess, 
Swa ))att itt ma33 wel hellpenn fe 

to winnenn Godess are; 1175 

Forr shep iss all unnskajjefull 

J stille der 3 lij>e, 
J make)))) itt nan mikell brace 

5iff mann itt wile bindenn, 
Ne forr))enn ))aer mann cwelle)))) itt 1180 

ne wij)))re)))) itt nohht swij)e. 
J forrj)i 8633)) ))att Latin boc, 

))att ))werrt-ut nohht ne le3he)))), 
patt ure Laferrd Jesu Crist 

inn ure mennisscnesse 11 85 

Toe j)ildili3 wi))))utenn brace 

))att mann himm band wi))j) wo3he, 
Rihht all swa summ ))e shep onnfo)) 

^ MS. ' annsha))ipesse.' 


Meocli3 Jjatt mann itt clippej?));' 
3 3ifF J>u cwennkesst i ]>e sellf, mo 

J laeresst me to cwennkenn 
Inn me galnessess fule stinnch 

J hire fule lusstess, 
"2 foll^hesst a33 claennessess slo)>, 

J laeresst me to foll3henn, 1195 

pa lakesst tu Drihhtin wij))> gat 

gastlike i ))ine })aewess, 
Swa-|)att itt ma^j wel hellpenn j)e 

to winnenn Godess are; 
Forr gat iss, J)att witt tu full wel, 1200 

gal deor, -} stinnke))|) fule 
J forr{)i tacne)))) itt full wel 

galnessess hate stinnchess. 
*3 forr))i sinndenn alle ))a 

))att shulenn inntill helle 1205 

Eflhedd wij))) gSt 3 nemmnedd gSt, 

o Goddspellbokess lare, 
Forr))i jjatt sinness fule stinnch 

shall shaedenn hemm fra Crista. 
J jifF j)U foUjhesst skill -j shaed 12 10. 

J witt i gode jjsewess, 
3 hafesst get, tohh J)U be ying, 

elldernemanness late, 
J hajherrlike ledesst te 

-} dafftelike -} fa^^re, 1215 

J ummbejjennkesst 333 occ a33 

hu j?u mihht Drihhtin cwemenn, 
J lufenn himm 3 dredenn himm 

~} hise la3hess haldenn, 
\Vi)))) oxe lakesst tu Drihhtin 1220 

gastlike i ))ine ))3ewess, 


Swa-|)att itt ma33 wel hellpenn J>e 

to winnenn Godess are. 
Forr oxe gaj> o clofenn fot 

•] shsede|))) hise clawwess, 1225 

purrh whatt he tacne)))) skill -y shged 

^ witt i gode jjaewess. 
;j oxe gannge)))) hajhelij 

*3 aldelike late|)|), 
;) 5ife|)|) bisne off |)att te birrf 1230 

all ha^helike 3 fa33re 
^ dafftelike ledenn |;e, 

wijijjutenn brace ^ bra]?|)e, 
J shaewenn ^et, tohh J>u be 3ung, 

elldernemanness late. 1235 

•3 oxe chewwe|)|) jjser he ga|) 

hiss cude, ■] taer he stannde]?]?, 
J chewwe)))) forrj^enn |)ser he lij>, 

forr ))e to 3ifenn bisne, 
patt te birrj) ummbejjennkenn a55 1240 

J chewwenn i |)in heorrte 
Hu |)U mihht cwemenn ])in Drihhtin, 

3 winnenn eche blisse. 
puss ]?u mihht lakenn Drihhtin Godd 

wi))J> oxe i gode jjsewess, 1245 

3iff )ju ))e ledesst all wi)))) skill, 

3 ha5helike ^ fa35re, 
^ ummbe]?ennkesst nihht 3 da33 

hu \m mihht Drihhtin cwemenn. 
3 3iff ))U firr|)resst fremmde menn 1350 

a33 afFterr |)ine fere, 
3 arrt te sellf a33 milde 3 meoc, 

^ all wi}?))Utenn galle, 
Wil>l> cuUfre lakesst tu Drihhtin 


gastlike i |)ine jiaewess, 1255 

Swa ))att itt ma^j wel hellpenn \>e 

to winnenn Godess are. 
Forr cullfre iss milde, 3 meoc, 3 swet, 

3 all wij)))Utenn galle, 
•] fede)j|) ojjerr cullfress bridd 1260 

all alls itt waere hire a^henn. 
J jiff ))U ledesst clene lif, 

3 murrcnesst i j?in heorrte 
patt tu swa lannge dwellesst her 

swa ferr fra Godess riche, 1265 

3 jeomesst tatt tu mote sket 

uppcumenn inntill heofFne, 
Upp till ]>i Laferrd Jesu Crist, 

to lofenn himm 3 lutenn, 
WiJ)}) turrtle lakesst tu \>m Godd 1370 

gastlike i ))ine l>aewess, 
Swa j)att itt majj wel hellpenn }>e 

to winnenn Godess are. 
Forr turrtle lede)))) charij lif, 

))att witt tu wel to so{)e, 1275 

Forr fra j>att hire make iss daed 

ne kepe)?]? jho nan o))err, 
Ace serrjhej)]) ajj forrjji jjatt jho 

ne ma55 himm nowwhar findenn. 
-j jiff |)att tu forrlangedd arrt 1280 

to cumenn upp till Criste, 
*3 nohht ne chesesst ojjerr Godd 

to folljhenn ne to jjeowwtenn, 
Wi))|)utenn Crist tatt wass -} iss 

|)itt Drihhtin 3 tin haefedd, 1285 

pa lakesst tu gastlike Godd 

wi|))) turrtle i j)ine j^aewess. 
'OL. L • E ' * 


J jiff J)U cwennkesst i J)e sellf 

all J)werrt-ut modijnesse, 
J laerest o{)re all-swa to don 1290 

J)urrh lare 3 ec jjurrh bisne, 
Wij)|? bule lakesst tu J>in Godd 

gastlike i ))ine J)aewess, 
Swa J)att itt majj well hellpenn j)e 

to winnenn Godess are. 1295 

Forr bule lite)))) modilij, 

-y bere))j) upp hiss haefedd, 
J drifej))) o|)re nowwt himm fra 

3 hallt himm all forr laferrd. 
3 jiff |)U cnawesst rihht tin Godd 1300 

-y herrcnesst hise spelless, 
;j lejjesst all |)in herrte onn himm, 

3 foUjhesst himm 3 bujhesst, 
•3 forr J)e lufe off himm forrsest 

hsBJjene Goddess alle, 1305 

•] arrt te sellf ajj milde j meoc, 

3 soflfte, 3 stille, 3 li))e, 
Wi)){) lamb j)u lakesst tin Drihhtin 

gastlike i ))ine Jjaewess, 
Swa ))att itt majj wel hellpenn j)e 1310 

to winnenn Godess are. 
Forr lamb is soffte -y stille deor, 

3 meoc, 3 milde, 3 li|)e, 
J itt cann cnawenn swijje wel 

hiss moderr ))aer jho blsete)))) 1315 

Bitwenenn an |)usennde shep, 

J)ohh ))att tejj blaetenn alle. 
J all swa birrj) jje cnawenn wel 

))in Godd ■] all hiss lare, 
J all forrwerrpenn haeJ)enndom 1320 


3 ojjre Goddess alle, 
Swa summ |)e lamb flej) o))re shep, 
3 foU^heJ))) a53 hiss moderr. 

Pe Judewisshe follkess boc 
hemm sej^de, 'patt hemm birrde 1325 

Twa bukkess samenn to ))e preost 

att kirrkedure brinngenn ; 
J te53 J)a didenn blij)eli5, 

swa summ |)e boc hemm tahhte, 
J brohhtenn twe^^enn bukkess ))aer 1330 

Drihhtin J)aerwi)))) to lakenn. 
J att te kirrkedure toe 

j)e preost ta twe^^enn bukkess, 
J o ))att ari he le^^de ))aer 

all j>e55re sake -} sinne, 1335 

J let itt eornenn for))wi|))) all 

fit inntill wilde wesste; 
3 toe -] snaj) ))att o))err bucc 

Drihhtin j)aerwi)jj> to lakenn. 
All J)iss wass don forr here ned, 1340 

3 ec forr ure nede; 
Forr hemm itt hallp biforenn Godd 

to clennsenn hemm off sinne, 
J all swa ma53 itt hellpenn ]>e, 

jiff ))att tu willt [itt] folljhenn. 1345 

5iff ))att tu willt full innwarrdlij 

wij)j) fulle trowwjje lefenn 
All Jjatt tatt wass bitacnedd taer, 

to lefenn 3 to trowwenn. 
pa majj jjatt trowwjje furr})renn^ ]>e 1350 

' MS. * frirr)>renn/ 
£ 2 

53 V. ORMULUKl. 

to winnenn Godess are. 
pa twe^^enn bukkess tacnenn uss 

an Godd off twinne kinde, 
patt iss J>e Laferrd Jesu Crist, 

jjatt iss off twinne kinde. 1355 

Forr Jesu Crist iss ful iwiss 

soj) Godd i Goddcunndnesse, 
^ he iss ec to fuUe soj) 

so|) mann i mennnisscnesse' ; 
Forr Crist iss baj)e Godd 3 mann, 1360 

an had off twinne kinde, 
•^ tiss birr)) trowwenn iwhillc mann 

J)att 3eome|)j) Godess are. 
An bucc rann ))aer awe^^ all cwicc 

wi)))) all ))e follkess sinne, 1365 

J Cristess Goddcunndnesse wass 

all cwicc 3 all unnpinedd 
paer Crist wass uppo rodetreo 

na53ledd forr ure nede. 
-} Cristess Goddcunndnesse all cwicc 1370 

3 all wij)))utenn pine 
Barr ure sinnes ))aer awe^^ 

|)ser Cristess mennisscnesse 
Drannc dae))ess drinnch .0 rodctre 

forr ure W03he dedess. 1375 

J all swa summ ))att oJ)err bucc 

toe ))aer wij)j) d3ej)ess pine, 
To wurr|)enn ))aer Drihhtin to lac 

forr all {)e follkess sinne, 
All swa toe Cristess mennisscle^^c 1380 

wi))j) daejjess pine o rode, 


* MS. * men-nisscnessc* 


Forr J)att he wollde wurrj>enn J>ser 

offredd Drihhtin to lake, 
Forr uss to clennsenn )>urrh hiss dse)) 

off sinness unnclaennesse. 1385 

■] all swa summ |)att cwike bucc 

comm inntill wilde wesste, 
All swa comm Cristess Goddcunndle^^c 

all cwicc upp inntill heoffne 
patt wass biforenn Cristess dsej) 1390 

swa summ itt wesste waere, 
Forr))i J)att ba))e enngless 3 menn 

itt haffdenn aer forrworrpenn. 
Forr enngless haflfdenn heofFness aerd 

forrlorenn all wij)J> rihhte; 1395 

Forr ))att tej^ woUdenn effnenn hemm 

3aen Godd jjurrh modijnesse; 
Forr whatt te^j fellenn sone dun 

off heoffne 3 inntill helle 
Till eche wa, forr))i jjatt tejj 1400 

forrwurrpenn eche blisse. 
J alle l>a l>att fellenn swa 

J)e33 sinndenn la))e deofless, 
^ stanndenn inn Jnirrh hgte 3 ni|) 

to scrennkenn menness sawless. 1405 

Ace J)U mihht werenn ]>e fra ))e33m 

jjurrh rihhte laefe o Criste, 
"2 |)urrh jjatt weorrc )>att tser tolij) 

wi|))> Jesu Cristess hellpe. 
■] ure twe33enn forrme menn 1410 

)>att Drihhtin shop off eor))e 
Forriurenn ec fon* heore gillt 

wij»|) rihht dom heoffness blisse, 
purrh J)att te33 forr J?e deofless raj? 

54 • y- ORMULUM, 

Drihhtiness ra|) forrwurrpenn ; 1415 

^ all forr))i wass heofFness aerd 

swa summ itt wesste waere,. 
Forr|)i Jjatt bajje enngless 3 menn 

itt haffdenn set forrworrpenn. 
3 Cristess Goddcunndnesse comm 1420 

cwicc inntill heoffness wesste 
Wi|)j) ure sinne i Jiatt tatt Crist 

toe dsej) forr ure sinne, 
All all swa summ ))att bucc attrann 

fit inntill wilde wesste 1425 

All cwicc, ^ barr awej^ wi))j) himm 

|>e foUkess sake ^ sinne. 
^ 5ifF jjatt iss l>att tu willt nu 

wi{)J) fuUe trowwjje lefenn 
patt Crist iss bajje Godd 3 mann, 1430 

an had off twinne kinde; 
J ^iff Jjatt iss J)att tu willt nu 

wi[)|) fulle troww))e lefenn 
patt Cristess Goddcunndnese wass 

all cwicc 3 all unnpinedd 1435 

paer Crist wass daed o rodetre 

forr all mannkinne nede; 
J jifF ))att iss ))att tu willt nu 

wi|)j) fulle troww))e lefenn 
patt Crist, taer he wass o ))e treo 1440 

naj^ledd forr ure nede, 
Drah harrd ^ hefi^ pine inoh 

))urrh fife grimme wundess, 
pa mihht tu lakenn j)in Drihhtin . 

gastlike i soj)fasst laefe, i445 

WiJ)j> all j>att te to trowwenn wass 

j)urrh ))a twa bukkess tacnedd. 


-J 3ifF J)U cwemesst tin Drihhtin 

bi da33ess, 3 bi nihhtess, 
Wij>j) fasstinng, 3 wi))Ji bedesang, 1450 

wij)j> cnelinng, 3 wijjj) wecche, 
pa lakesst tu wi))j> recless swa 

l>in Godd i ))ine [jsewess, 
Swa l>att itt ma33 wel hellpenn \>q 

to winnenn Godess are. 1455 

Forr all all swa summ recless smec 

iss swet biforenn manne, 
All all se iss swet biforenn Godd 

j)e gode manness bene. 
;] jiff j)in herrte iss arefull, 1460 

"} milde, 3 sofFte, 3 nesshe, 
Swa Jjatt tu mihht wel arenn himm 

j)att iss 33en ]>e forrgilltedd, 
3 all forrjifenn himm full neh 

Jje rihhte domess wraeche, 1465 

A53 whannse J)U forrjifesst tuss 

))in wraj)))e 3 ec j?in wraeche, 
A33 ))anne lakesst tu ))in Godd 

gastlike i ))ine ))aewess, 
Wi))J> laf J)att iss wij>j) elessew 1470 

all smeredd wel 3 nesshedd. 
pe rihhte dom iss starrc -} harrd 

•3 all j)e rihhte wraeche, 
Swa summ itt waere scorrcnedd laf 

|)att iss wij)))Utenn crummess. 1475 

J are '} millce •] mildherrtle33C 

■3 rihht forrjifenesse, 
patt iss fatt laf ))att smeredd iss 

wi))l> elesaew 3 nesshedd. 
•3 jifF j)att tu willt makenn laf, 1480 


)>u ]>resshesst tine shaefess, 
-} sij)|)enn winndwesst tu )>in corn, 

-j fra J)e chaff itt shaedesst, 
J gaddresst swa ))e clene com, 

all fra ))e chaff togeddre, 1485 

•^ grindesst itt, 3 cnedesst itt, 

3 harrdnesst itt wi|)j) haete; 
3 tanne mahht tu |)in Drihhtin 

lakenn j)aerwi|)|) tocweme, 
3iff ]>att tu ledfssst hali3 lif 1490 

I ))ohht, i word, i dede. 
-} tu mihht ec gasdike laf 

onn o))err wise ^arrkenn, 
J lakenn ]>m Drihhtin |)aerwijj)) 

well swijje wel tocweme. 1495 

5iff |)att iss jjatt tu jjurrh j>in spell 

till rihhte laefe turrnesst 
patt fiocc jjatt wass toske33redd ser 

j?urrh fele kinne dwilde, 
pa jjresshesst tu |)in corn wi))j> fle^^l, 1500 

I J)att tatt tu j>e53m shaewesst 
Hu sinnfuU lif j)e33 leddenn aer, 

^ hu j>e55 cwemmdenn deofell, 
-} hu ))e55 haffdenn addledd wel 

to dre^henn eche pine, 1505 

J hu fejjm haffde Drihhtin all 

forr heore woh forrworrpenn ; 
Wij)j) swillc j)U jjresshesst wel J)e folic, 

^iff jjatt tu ])uss hemjn toelesst; 
Forr jiff Jju shaewesst me min woh 15 10 

3 taelesst mine weorrkess, 
J seggesst swillc 3 swillc wass ]>u, 

|)U j>resshesst me wi|)j) wordess. 


J ^iff J)U shaewesst hemm off Godd 

*3 off hiss seddmodnesse, 15 15 

Hu wel he take)))) a33 wij))) J)a 

))att sekenn Godess are, 
3 ^iff ))U shaewesst hemm whatt laen 

iss jarrkedd hemm inn heoffne, 
5iff ))att te53 takenn Crisstenndom 1520 

3 Cristess lajhess haldenn, 
J spedesst wij)j) ))in spell swa wel 

))att te53 itt unnderrfanngenn, 
•] turrnenn till )>e Crisstenndom 

J till )>e rihhte laefe, 1525 

•] shsedenn fra jjatt hae))enn folic 

))att Godd iss all unncweme, 
' Forr Jiatt itt iss ))att illke chaff 

))att helle fir shall baernenn, 
pa winndwesst tu );in ))rosshenn corn, 1530 

J fra ))e chaff itt shaedesst, 
J gaddresst swa J)e clene com 

all fra ))e chaff togeddre. 
Forr ))urrh ))att tatt tu laeresst hemm 

to ben sammtale 3 sahhte 1535 

To ))eowwtenn an Allmahhti^ Godd 

wi)))) anfald rihhte lafe, 
1 a33 to ben ummbenn J)att an 

to winnenn eche blisse, 
purrh ))att tu sammnesst hemm i Godd, 1540 

))U gaddresst corn togeddre. 
Annd ))urrh ))att tu primmse^^nesst hemm, 

^ spellesst hemm, 3 laeresst 
All to forrwerrpenn modi3le33C, 

;] harrd 3 grammcund herrte, 1545 

3 a33 to folljhenn so)) meocle33C 


wit)|) luffsumm aeddmodnesse, 
paer j)urrh |)att tu brekesst wel \>m corn, 

3 grindesst itt 3 nesshesst. 
3 |)urrh J)att tatt tu fullhtnesst hemm 1550 

^ unnderr waterr dippesst, 
pu sammnesst all \\n mele inn an 

J cnedesst itt togeddre, 
Swa t)att te35 shulenn alle ben 

an bodi3 3 an sawle. 1555 

3 Jesu Crist himm sellf shall ben 

uppo ))att bodi3 haefedd, 
To fedenn 3 to fosstrenn hemm, 

to steorenn 3 to berr3henn. 
J |)urrh |)att tatt tu laeresst hemm 1560 

to l>olenn illc unnselljjc 
Wi|)|) innwarrd heorrte 3 soJ)tasst J)ild, 

all forr Jje lufe off Criste, 
All forr jjatt lufe ))att iss hat 

I Cristess |)eowwess heorrte, 1565 

paer Jjurrh j)att tu bakesst Godess laf 

3 harrdnesst itt jjurrh haete, 
purrh j)att tu harrdnesst hemm wij)j) spell 

to jjolenn illc unnseoll])e 
Wijjj) sojjfasst |)ild, all forr J)att fir 1570 

j)att sojjfasst lufe foll3hej)j). 
Forr so))fasst lufe baerne)))) a33, 

loc jiff ))Ut mihht ohht findenn, 
•3 whaersitt iss itt harrdnej))? all 

})e gode manness heorrte, 1575 

To |)olenn wij))? fuUfremedd l>ild 

all |)att tatt iss unnselll)e. 
•3 sone summ \\n laf bej) wel 

all grej)))edd tuss 3 jarrkedd, 


pa mahht tu lakenn Godd wij)j) all 1580 

gastlike wel tocweme. 
Forr Drihhtin take|)j) aedmodli^ 

Wi|)j) |)a Jjatt till himm turrnenn. 
;) 3iff j>u ledesst clene lif 

' onn alle kinne wise, 1585 

pa lakesst tu ^in Drihhtin swa 

gastlike i ]>me |)3ewess, 
Wij?j) j)errrflinng^ braed swa jjatt tu mihht 

Drihhtiness are winnenn. 
Forr Jjerrflinng braed iss clene braed, 1590 

Forr jjatt itt iss unnberrmedd, 
3 itt bitacnej))) clene lif, 

3 alle clene J)sewess, 
■3 clene jjohht, 3 clene word, 

^ alle cliene dedess. 1595 

3 3ifF |)in heorrte iss harrd ] starrc, 

J stSdefasst o Criste 
To |)olenn forr j)e lufe off himm 

all jjatt tatt is to dre^henn, 
pa lakesst tu ))in Drihhtin swa 1600 

gastlike i ))ine ])3ewess, 
Wi)))) fasst 3 findi^ laf 3 harrd 

wi|)))innenn 3 wi))))utenn, 
Swa |)att itt ma35 wel hellpenn j)e 

to winnenn Godess are. 1605 

J 5iff |)u mihht forrwerrpenn her 

j)i faderr, 3 ti moderr, 
;) wif, 3 child, *j hus, 3 ham, 

^ freond, ^ land, 3 ahhte, 
^ all forrwerrpenn her ))werrt-ut i6io 

^ MS. * >errflhig/ 


bitwenenn menn to biggenn, 
J ledenn harrd 3 hali3 lif 

all ane i wilde wesste, 
J pinenn l>aer J>i bodi^ a 

wil>)> chSle 3 J)risst 3 hunngerr, 1615 

Wi)))) fasstinng, 3 wij)|) swinnc ;j swat, 

wi|)|> bedess, 3 wi)))) wecchess, 
pa mihht tu lakenn swa j}in Godd 

gastlike i J)ine jjaewess 
Wi)))> lac, ))att all j)werrt-ut beoj) brennd 1620 

Drihhtin to I5fe 3 wurrjje, 
Swa )>att itt beoJ) ]?e rihht inoh 

to winnenn Godess are. 
Forr j)U ne mihht nohht ledenn her 

na bettre lif onn eor)>e 1625 

pann iss J)att tu l>weorrt-ut forrse 

J all J)werrt-ut forrwerrpe 
All weorelldlike lif 3 lusst, 

J fle fra menn till wesste, 
J taer wi))j) harrd 3 hali3 lif 1630 

beo ^eorrnfuU Crist to cwemenn. 
Forr swillc lif iss all |)werrt-iit daed 

Fra weorelldshipess lusstess, 
J itt iss turmedd all Jjurrh fir 

off so))fasst lufe. o Criste 1635 

Till dusst, forr|)i l>att swillke menn 

sojjfasst meocnesse foll3henn. 
3 a33 wass sallt wij>l> iwhillc lac, 

Forr ))att itt shollde tacnenn 
patt all ))att tu willt oflfrenn Godd, 1640 

jiff jjatt itt shall himm cwemenn. 
All birr)? itt ofFredd ben wi))j) skill, 

^. all wij)j) lufFsumm heorrte, 


Swa )>att itt be clennlike don, 

off rihht-bi^etenn ahhte, 1645 

Swa )>att te Laferrd Jesu Crist 

swetlike itt unnderrfannge. 
piss wass bitacnedd |>urrh ])e sallt 

jiatt ure mSte swetej^j), . 
3iff j>att iss ])att mann wile itt don 1650 

wij)j) witt 3 skill ])serinne. 
Forr witt 3 skill iss wel inoh 

jjurrh salltess smacc bitacnedd, 
J tatt forrj)i ))att witt ■} skill 

iss god inn alle ))inge, 1655 

All swa summ sallt iss swij)e god 

))aer jjaer itt tobilimmpe)))) ; 
J all forr))i wass seffe sallt 

wij)]) alle lakess offredd, 
Forrjii jiatt nohht ne ma^^ ben don 1660 

allmahhti3 Godd tocweme, 
But iff itt be wi|)j) witt 3 skill 

■3 luffsummlike forl)edd. 
All ))uss ))U mahht nu lakenn Godd 

gastlike i j)ine jisewess, 1665 

Wi)))) all l)att lac j)att offredd wass 

biforenn Cristess come. 

Ice se^^de guw nu littlser her 

biforenn o ))iss lare 
Summ del off — jiatt an wa^herifft 1670 

was spredd fra wah to wa^he, 
Biforenn an allterr jjatt wass 

innresst i l>e53re minnstre, 
Amang j)e Judewisshe folic, 

biforenn Cristess come; 1675 

62 r. ORMULUM. 

J ec ICC se35de )>att itt wass 

J)ser henngedd i j)att hfme, 
Forr j)att itt hidenn shollde faer 

all j?att taer wass wi])])innemi 
Fra loeredd ;i fra laewedd folic, 1680 

annd all fra fe^^re sihhjje, 
WiJ?))Utenn fatt te bisscopp sellf 

wij)J) blod 3 ec wij))? recless 
pser shollde. Jjeowwtenn o j)e 3er 

ann si]>e 3 all hinim ane; 1685 

"5 ec ice se53de littlaer her 

biforenn o |)iss lare, 
patt bi l^att allterr stodenn a 

])att follkess hali3domess, 
patt wserenn inn an arrke j)aer 1690 

wel ;] wurrj)like 3emedd; 
■;} tatt taer wass an oferrwerrc 

oferr j)att arrke timmbredd; 
J tatt te33 ec abufenn Jjatt 

hemm haffdenn liccness metedd 1695 

Off Cherubyn -^ Seraphyn, 

oflf twe33enn ennglejjeode ; 
"5 tatt te bisscopp o ])e jer 

ann sij)e ;] all himm ane 
Comm ])iderr inn to ])eowwtenn Godd 1700 

wi])J) blod ;] ec wij)]) recless; 
•5 tatt he brennde recless ])ser 

swa mikell att tatt allterr, 
patt all he wass hidd wifj) ])e smec, 

forr mikell j)ing to tacnenn; 1705 

■3 tatt he warrp siJ)J)enn j)e blod 

wi))]) strenncless o j)att allterr, 
3 o J)att bord, 3 si))J>enn fser 


wij)J)Utenn ij>e minnstre; 
J tatt he comm himm siJ?J)enn fit 1710 

-} wessh himm hise clajjess; 
J tatt he wass umiclene J>ohh 

fatt da33 anan till efenn ; 
All J)iss ice se33de 3UW littlaer 

her uferr mar a litell; 17 15 

•3 tiss me birrj> nu shsewenn 3UW ' 

whatt itt 3UW ma35 bitacnenn, 
•3 whaerwij))) itt ma33 fesstnenn.^uw 

inn 3ure rihhte Isefe. 



ABOUT A.D. 1205. 

The 'Brut' is a versified chronicle of the legendary history of 
Britain. It begins with the destruction of Troy and the flight of 
JEneas, from whom came Brut, or Brutus, who laid the foun- 
dation of the British monarchy, and goes down to the reign of 

The author of this Chronicle is La^amon, or Lawcman, a 
priest residing at Emely (now called Areley), on the Severn, near 
Redstone in Worcestershire. His authorities, as he himself tdk 
us, were three : — * The English book that St. Bede made ' (that 
is, Bede's Ecclesiastical History) ; a Latin work by SL Albin 
and Austin, of whose historical writings nothing is known ; and 
a ' book that a Frence clerk hight Wace made.* 

Wace*s Brut is in Norman- French, and was translated in 1155 
from Geoffrey of Monmouth's Latin History of the Britons. It 
contains 15,300 lines, which La^amon has expanded into 32,350. 

The Englishman's additions are, says Mr. Marsh, *the finest 
parts of the work, almost the only parts, in fact, which can be 
held to possess any poetical merit.* 

La^amon preserves the old unrhymed alliterative versification, 
falling occasionally into the use of rhyme, which is, of course, 
due to Norman- French influence. 

There are two manuscripts of La^amon's Brut, the one written 
early in the thirteenth century, the other about half a century 
later. The earlier version is in the Southern dialect, while the 
later has many Midland peculiarities. Both texts were edited 
by Sir Frederick Madden in 1847, from the Cottonian MSB., 
for the Society of Antiquaries, under the title of * La^amoos. 



Brut, or Chronicle of Britain ; a Poetical Semi-Saxon Paraphrase 
of the Brut of Wace.' 

The following extract from this edition has been collated with 
the MSS., and all contractions have been expanded. 

Hengest and Horsa, 
[Verses 13,785 to 14,387.] 

Text A. 
MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

Vnder j)an comen ti¥ende. 

to Vortiger j)an kinge. 

■f ouer sse weoren icumenf 

swi^e selcu^e gumen. 
5 inne ))ere Temese f 

to londe heo weore;i iciwwmen. 

j)reo scipen gode f 

comen mid j)an flode. 

Jjreo hundred cnihtenf 
ic also hit weoren kinges. 

wi^-uten Jjan scipen-mownen f 

jie weoren jier wi^-inne«. 

pis weoren ))a faereste menf 

))at auere her comen. 
15 ah heo weore hg&Sene f 

■f wes haerm ))a mare. 

Uortiger heom sende to i 

and axede hu heo weoren 

5if heo gri^ sohtenf 
30 & of his freond-scipe rohte«. 

Heo wisliche andswerdenf 

swa heo wel cu^en. 

& seiden f heo walden 1 

speken wi% )>an kinge. 

VOL. I. F 

Text B. 
MS. Otho, C.xiii. 

Vnder j)an com tydinge. 
to Vortiger j)an kinge. 
fat ouer sdd weren icome f 
swijie selliche gomes. 

\rto sipes godef 
i-come were mid |)an flode. 
|)ar-on jireo hundred cnihtes 
alse hit were kempes. 

pes weren j)e faireste men f 
j)at euere come here, 
ac hii weren hejjenef 
j)at was har[m] fe more. 



25 & leofliche him heren f 

& hgelden hine for haerre. 

and swaheo gunnenwendenf 

for^ to ))an kinge. 

pa wes Uortigeme fa kwgi 
30 in Cantuarie-buri. 

Jjer he mid his hirede 5 

haehliche spilede. 

j>er J)as cnihtes come«f 

bi-fore« Jjan folc-kinge. 
35 Sone swa heo hine imettenl 

faeire heo hine igraetten. 

& seiden j)at heo him woldenf 

hseren i ])isse londe. 

5if he heom wolde i 
40 mid rihten at-halden. 

pa andswerede Vortigerf 

of elchen vuele he wes war. 

An alle mine iliuel 

j)e ich iluued habbe. 
45 bi dseie no bi nihtes f 

ne saeh ich nauere aer swulche 

for eouwer cume» ich sem 
bli¥e f 

& mid me je sculle« bilaefu- 

& eouwer wille ich wulle 
driven i 
50 bi mine quicke liuen. 

Ah of eou ich wulle iwiten f 

])urh so^en eouwer wurS- 

peos comen to fan kmge f 

and faire hine grette. 

and seide fat hii wolde f 

him sand in his lomle. 

jif vs fou woUe ' 

mid rihte at-holde. 

po answerede Vortigerf 

fat of cche vuele he was war. 

In al mine lifuef 

fat ich ileued habbe f 

bi dai no bi nihtef 

ne seh ich soche cnihtes. 

for 30U ich am blifef 

and mid me ^e soUe bilefue. 

Ac forst ich wolle wite i 
for 30ure mochele worsipe. 



whaet* cnihte« je seon f 

& whaennenen je icumen 
55 ftwharjewullen beon treowef 

aide & aec neowe. 

pa answerede J)e o¥er i 

j)at wes )>e aldeste broker. 

Lust me nu lauerd kingf 
60 & ich j)e wullen cu¥en. 

what cnihtes we beo^f 

& whanene we icumen seo^. 

Ich hatte He«ges[t] f 

Hors is mi broker. 
65 we beo^ of Alemaiwne f 

a^elest aire londe. 

of J)at ilken aende i 

ye Angles is ihaten. 

Beo^ in ure londe f 
70 selcu¥e ti^ende. 

vmbe fiftene jerf 

j)at folc is" isomned. 

al ure iledene folc .' 

& heore loten werpe^. 
75 vppen jian fe hit failed' f 

he seal uaren of londe. 

bilseuen scuUen j)a fiuef 

|)a sexte seal for^ li^e. 

ut of ])an leode .' 
80 to u[n]cu^e londe. 

ne beo he na swa leof mon f 

uof6 he seal li^en. 

wat cnihtes beo jeof 
and wanene jeo i-comen 

po answerede ))e ojierf 
jiat was J)e elder bro))er. 

Ich hatte Hengeftf 
Hors hatte min bro))er. 
we beof of Alemaine f 
of one riche londe. 
of J)an ilke hende i 
jiat Englis his ihote. 
Beoj) in vre londe f 
wonder ))enges gonde. 
bi eche fiftene jer; 
j)at folk his i-somned. 
and werpej) Jjare hire lotesf 
fo[r] to londes seche f 
vp* wan |)at lot falle|)f 
he mot neod wende. 

ne beo he noht so riche f 
he mot lond seche. 

1 MS. * whahaet.' 

« MS. * him.* » MS. • faled.' 
F 2 

* MS. • vt.' 


VI. la^amon's brut. 

For )7er is folc swi¥e muchcl : 

msere ))ene heo walden. 
85 |>a wif fare^ mid childe i 

swa J)e deor wilde. 

seueralche 3ere f 

heo bere^ child j)ere. 

•p beo^ an us feole i 
90 ))at we fseren scolden. 

ne mihte we bilaeue i 

for Hue ne for dae¥e. 

ne for nauer nane j)ingef 

for ))an folc-kinge. 
95 pus we uerden |)ere f 

& for-))i beo^ nu here. 

to sechen vnder lufteM 

lond and godne lauerd. 

Nu bu hsefuest iherd lauerd 


ki[n]g f 
100 so^ of us ))urh alle )>i[n]g. 

pa awswserede Vortigerf 

of ale an vfele he wes war. 

Ich ileue ))e cnihtf 

•f ))U me sugge so^-riht. 
105 & wulche beo^ aeoure :' 
leuen f 

f 3e on ileue^. 

& eoure leotue goddf 

j)e 3e to lute6^. 

pa andswarede Hgenges[t] f 
no cnihtene aire fseirest. 

nis in al j)is kine-londf 


For[:e wifues go]> |)are mid 
alse ))e deor wilde. [childe f 
bi euereche 3ere f 
hii go)) mid childe J>ere. 
pat lot on vs ful; 
j)at we faren solde. 
ne moste we bi-lefue f 
for life ne for deajje. 

pus hit fare)) Jjere f 
))ar-fore we beo)) nou here. 

Nou j)Ou hauest ihord louerd 

soj) of vs and no lesing. 
po saide Vortigerf 
Jjat was wis and swijje war. 

And woche beoj) joure bi- 

J?at 360 an bi-ldfep. 

' MS. ' lufte.' 

» MS. * luted.' 



cniht swa muchel ne swa 

We habbe^ godes gode; 

J)e we luuie^ an ure mode. 
5 fa we habbe^ hope to f 

& heore^ heom mid^ mihte. 

pe an haehte Phebusf 

ye cr6eT SsXamus, 

))e J)ridde haehte Wode«f 
o "f is an weoli godd. 

J)e feor^e h3eh[te] Jupiter f 

of alle ]ji«ge he is war^ 

J)e fifte haehte Mercurioj f 

}>at is' fe haehste ouer us. 
!5 ])3e saexte haehte Appollin f 

•f is a godd wel idon. 

J)e seoue^e* hatte Teruagant 1 

an haeh godd in ure lon[d]. 

3et we habbe^ anne laeuedif 
;o ]>e haeh is & maehti. 

heh heo is & hali f 

hired-men heo luuie^ for-))i. 

heo is ihate Fraea f 

wel heo heom dihte^. 
?5 Ah for alle ure goden deore f 

J)a we scullen hseren. 

Woden hehde ])a haehste la^ef 

an ure aeldeme dae3en. 

he heom wes leoff 
40 aefne al swa heore lif. 

he wes heore walden 5 

We habbej> godes godef 
Jjat we louie^ in mode. 

pe on hatte Phebus i 
J)e o]teT Satumus. 
])e j)ri[d]de hatte Woden .' 
|)at was a mihti ))ing. 
J)e feorjie hatte Jubiterf 
of alle ])inges he his war. 
\>e fif j?e hatte Merchuriwj f 
Jjat his j)e behest ouer vs. 
]>e sixte hatte Appolin f 
])at his a god of gret win. 
]>e souejje hatte Teruagant f 
an heh god in vre lond. 
3et we habbe)> an leafdi i 
]7at heh his and mihti. 

jeo his i-hote Frea f 
heredmen hire louieji. 
To alle Jjeos godes; 
we worsipe werche)?. 
and for hire loue i 
j?eos da^es we heom ^efue. 
Mone we 3efue moneday i 
Tydea we ^efue tisdei. 
Woden we ^efue wendesdei ' 

* MS. * mid mid.' 

2 MS. * whar.* 
* MS. *seoSue5e.' 

» MS. *us.* 

VI. la'^mon's brut. 

and heom wurSscipe duden. 
)>ene feor^e dsei i ))ere wike f 
heo ^ifuen him to wur^scipe. 
145 pa punre heo jiuen \\xnits 

daei i 
for-J)i jiat heo heom helpen 

Freon heore Isefdit 
heo ^iuen hire fridaei. 
Saturnus heo jiuen saetter- 

daei i 
150 j)ene Sonne heo ^iuen sone- 

Monenen heo jifuenen mo- 

nedaei f 
Tidea heo ^euen tisdaei. 
pus seide Hse[n]gest f 
cnihten aire hendest. 
^55 pa answerede Vortig^rl 
of aelchen vfel he waes waer. 
Cnihtes je beo^ me leofue f 
ah jias ti^ende me beo^ 

eouwer ileuen beo^ vnwrastef 
160 5e ne ileoue^ noht an criste*. 
ah 3e ileoue6 a jiene wursef 
jie godd seolf awariede. 
eoure godes ne beo^ nohtes f 
in helle heo ni¥er ligge^. 
165 Ah neo^eles ich wulle eou 

at-haelde i 

pane ))onre we 3efue )K)risda 
Frea j)ane fridayf 
Saturnus )>an sateresdaL 

pus saide Hengestf 
cniht aire hendest. 
po answerede Vortigerf 
of alle harme he was war 
Cnihtes ^eo beo|) me leofue 
ac 50ure bilefues me be< 

Ac ich wolle ou at-holde 5 

1 MS. « cristre/ 



an mine anwalde. 

for nor^ beo^ j)a Peohtes f 

swi^ ohte cnihtes. 

\Q ofte lede^ in mine iDnde 5 
'o ferde swi^ stronge. 

& ofte do^^ me muchele 
scome f 

& ferfore ich habbe grome. 

& 3if 3e me wulle^ wraeken f 

& heore haefden me bi3eten. 
^5 ich eou wullen jeuen lond f 

muchel seoluer & gold. 

pa andswerede Haenge^t 1 

cnihtene aire feirest. 

3if hit wulle Satumusf 
to al hit seal iwur^ fus. 

& Woden ure lauerdf 

J>e we on bi-liue^. 

Hengest nom laeue f 

& to scipen gon li^e. 
5- j>er wes moni cniht strong f 

heo dro3en heore scipe» 
uppe J>e lo«d. 

ForS wenden dringches; 

to Vortigeme J>an kenge. 

biuoren wende Hengest i 
JO & Hors him aire haendest. 
' seo^^^n j>a Alemainiscemenf 

}>a a^ele weore» an deden. 

& seo^en heo senden him 

in min anwolde. 

for norj) beoJ> Jie Peutes f 

swil)e ohte cnihtes. 

)>at ofte doj) me samef 

and ))ar-vore ich habbe grame. 
And 3ef 3e wollej) me wreke \ 
of [hire] wijjere dedes. 
ich 30U woUe 3eue i 
jeftes swil)e deore, 
po saide Hengest f 

al hit sal iworjie j)us. 

Hengest nam lefuef 
and to sipe gan wende. 
and al hire godesf 
hii beore to londe. 

For]) hii wende alle ' 
to Vortiger his halle. 

' MS. 'dod.' 



heore Ssexisce cnihtes wel 
195 Hengestes cunnesmen f 

of his aldene cud^ew. 

Heo comen in to halle i 

haendeliche alle. 

bet^ weoren iscrudde i 
200 & bet^ weoren iuaedde. 

Haengest swaine i 

j)ene Vortigernes Jjeines. 

pa wes Vortigernes hired f 

for hehne ihalden. 
205 Bruttes weoren sseri f 

for swulchere isih'Se. 

Nes hit nawiht longe f 

Jjat ne comen to j)an kinge. 

cnihtes sunen uiuef 
210 J)a ifaren hafden biliue. 

heo saeiden to J)an kinge' 

neowe ti^wden. 

Nu for^-rihtesf 

icumew beo^ J)a Peohtes. 
215 J)urh ])i lond heo serne^ f 

& haer^ie^ & berne^. 

& al ))ene nor6 aendef 

iuseld to )>a« gruwde. 

her-of ])U most raeden i 
220 o^er alle we beo^ daeden. 
pe king hine bi-j?ohte .' 
whset he don mihte. 
he sende to fan innen i 

bet* weren i-scradf 
and bet weren ived. 
Hengestes sweinesf 
j)ane Vortiger his cnihtes. 

Bruttes weren son 5 
for ])an ilke sihte. 
Nas noht longe f 
j)at ne come tydinge. 

))at ))0 for))-rihtesf 
icomen were ))e Peutes. 
Oueral ))in lond hii emejil 
and slea]) bin folk and beame)>. 
and alle j)ane nor)) ende f 
hii fallej? to j)an gruwde. 
her-of j?ou most readef 
oj)er alle we beoj? deade. 
pe king sende his sonde f 
to |)eos cnihtes inne^ 
Jjat hii swijie sonef 

' MS. * bett.' 

« MS. • bed; 

3 MS. • hinnc.' 



after al his monnen. 
25 per com Hengest Jjer com 

))er com mani^ mon ful oht. 

|)er come« Jja Saxisce menf 

Hengestes cunnes-men. 

& ]>2L Alemainisce cnihtesf 
30 j)e beo^ gode to fihte. 

l)is isseh ])e king Vortiger i 

bli'Se wes he ])a^ j>er. 

pa Peohtes duden heore 

a ])as haelf Jjere Humbre 
heo weoren icume. 
35 & j>e king Vortiger f 

of heore cume wes ful war. 

to-gadere heo comen f 

& feole jier of-slo^en. 

}>er wes feht swi^e^ strong f 
40 comp swi^ sturne. 

pe Peohtes weoren ofte 
iwuned i 

Vortigerne to ou^r-cumen. 

& ))a heo j?ohten a[l]swaf 

ah hit ilomp an o¥er j>a. 
45 for hit wes heom al hele f 

j>at Hsengest wes j)ere. 

& })a cnihtes strongef 

])e comen of Saxelowde. 

& j>a ohte Alemanisce f 
550 J)e J)ider comen mid Horse. 

to him seolue come. 

par com Hengest and his 

brojjer f 
and manian o])er. 

l)at j)e king Vortiger f 

blijje was ])0 j)er. 

pe Peutes dude hire wonef 

a Jjis half Vmbre hii were 

And \>e king Vortiger f 
of hire come was war. 
to-gadere hii comen f 
and manie Jjar of-slojen. 

pe Peutes weren ofte i- 

woned i 
Vortiger to ouercome. 
and ))0 ij)ohten al so i 
ac hit bi-ful oj)erweies J>o. 
for hii hadde mochel caref 
for Hengest was J?are. 

1 MS. * mini.* 

MS. * )» ]>&: 

8 MS. * swidc' 



swi'Se monie Peohtesf 

heo slo3en i )>an fehte. 

feondliche heo fuhten i 

feoUen j)a faeie. 
255 pa \e non wes icumen ; 

j)a weoren Peohtes ouer- 

& swu^e heo awsei flo^en f 

an aelche halue* heo for^ 

& alle dai heo flu^enf 
260 monie & vnnifo^e. 

pe king Vortigernef 

wende to herberwe. 

& seuere him weore» on- 
uast f 

Hors & Hsengest. 
265 Haengest wes jjan kinge 

& him Lindesaje jef. 

and he jaef Horse i 

madmes ino3e. 

& alle heore cnihtesf 
270 he swi^ wel dihte. 

& hit gode stu«def 

stod a ])an ilke. 

Ne durste nauere Peohtes' 5 

cumen i ))an londes. 
275 no rseueres no utla^en f 

•p heo neoren sone of-slae^en. 

& Haengest swi^ faeire f 

for swi))e manie Peutesf 
hi! slojen in ]>an fihte. 

po ]>at non was icome f 
J)0 were Peutes ouer-come. 

and swij)e hii awe^ flojef 
on euereche side. 

And Vortiger fe kingf 
wende a^en to his hin. 

and to Hengest an[d] his 

cnihtes f 
he 3ef riche jeftes. 

Ne dorste neuere Peutesf 

come in jiisse londe. 

])at hii nere sone of-slajef 

and idon of lifda3e. 

and Hengest swi j)e hendelichef 

1 MS. • helue.' 

2 MS. * Peohtestes.* 



herede ))ane king. 

pa ilomp hit in ane timef 
Jo-f }>e king wes swi^ bli^e. 

an ane hse^e dseie i 

imong his du^e^e monnen. 

Hengest hine bi-))ohte i 

what he don mihte. 
^5 for he wolde wi^ fan ki«ge i 

holder runiwge. 

J>an kinge he eode to-foren i 

& faeire hine gon greten. 

pe king sone up stod i 
}o & s3ette hine hi him seoluen. 

heo drunken heo dremdenf 

blisse wes among heom. 

pa que^ Hengest to J)an 
kinge f 

Lauerd hsercne ti^ende. 
75 & ich ))e wulle raecchen i 

deome runen. 

jif j)u mine lare i 

wel wult lusten. 

& noht halden to wra^e f 
DO jiat ich wel leare. 

pe king answarede f 

swa Henges[t] hit wolde. 

pa sseide Hsengestf 

cnihten aire fseirest. 
05 Lauerd ich habbe moni a 

])ine monscipe ihae^ed. 

& l)in holde mon ibeo« i 

i lichen J^ine hirede. 

cwemde |)an kinge. 

po hit bi-ful in on time i 

j)at J)e king was swij?e blijje. 

Hengest wolde wi]) fan kinge f 
holde rou[n]ing. 
fane kinge he come bi-vore f 
and faire hine grette. 

po^ saide Hengest to fan 

kinge i 
Louerd hercne tydinge. 
and ich fe woUe telle f 
of deorne rouniwges. 
3ef f ou mine lore i 
wel wolt i-hure. 
and noht holde to wraf f e f 
5ef ich fe wel leore. 
And f e king answerede f 
alse Hengest hit wolde. 



& in seiche faehte i 
310 hsehst of jjine cnihte«. 

& ich habbe ofte ihserdf 

hohfulle ronenen. 

imong J)ine hired-monnen f 

heo hatie^ )>e swi^e. 
315 in to J)an bare dae'^ f 

5if heo hit dursten cu'^. 

Ofte heo stilleliche^ spaeke^ * 

& spilie^S mid runen. 

of twam 5u«ge monnen i 
320 ))at feor wunie^ hennen. 

J)e an haehte Vtherf 

))e o^er Ambrosie. 

))e ))ridde haehte Co[n]stance i 

)?es wes king i jjisse lond. 
325 & he her wes of-sla3en i 

|)urh swicfuUe lajen. 

Nu wulle^ cume ))a o^ere ' 

& wraeken heore bro^r. 

al forbaemen ))i londf 
330 & slaen ))ine leoden. 

]>e seoluen & \>me duje'^n i 

driuen ut of londe. 

& ))us sugge'S ))ine men i 

]>eT heo somned sitte^. 
335 for J>a twene bro^ere i 

beo^ beyne kine-borne. 

of Androeinnes kunne f 

\>2ls a^ele Bnittes. 

& J)us ))ine du3e^ef 

Louerd ofte ich habbe ihord : 

among jjine cnihtes. 
jjat hii J>e hatiej> swijje i 
into ))are bare deathe. 

Ofte hii stille spekej>. 
of two jonge cheldrew. 

))e on hatte Vther i 

J)e oj)er Aurehe. 

\>e ))ridde hehte Constance i 

))at \>ou dedest to deaj)e. 

Nou wollej) come jje operi 
and wreken hire broJ?er. 
al for-bearne ))i lond i 
and slean \>me leode. 

and J)us seggej> J)ine menf 
stille bi-twine heom. 

MS. • stilledliche.' 



.o stille ))e fordeme^^. 

Ah ich J)e wulle raedef 

of muchele ))ire neode. 

■f ))U bi^ite cnihtes^f 

))a gode beo^ to fihte. 
^5 & bi-tache me aenne castel f 

o^r ane kineliche burh. 

)>at ich mai inne Y\ggti 

)>a while l>a ich libbe. 

Ic am uor \e iuaidf 
)0 })3er-fore ic wene beon dacd. 

fare \tx ic auer fare 1 

naem ich ngeuere bute care. 

buten ich ligge faste f 

biclused inne castle. 
35 3if j>u ))is me wult don f 

ich hit wulle mid luue a-fon. 

& ich wulle biliue; 

senden after mine wiue. 

jjat is a Sexisc wimmonf 
5o of wisdome wel idon. 

& after Rouwewne f 
dohter i 

(>e me is swi'Se deore. 

penne ich habbe mi wiff 

& mine wine-maies. 
65 & ich beo i jjine londe i 

fulliche at-stonde. 

Jia bet ich wullen hiren fe' 

jif ))U j)is 3ettest me. 

pa answerede Vortiger f 

Ac ich jje wolle readef 
of mochele j)ine neode. 
j)at j)0u bi-3ete cnihtes f 
j)at gode beon to fihte f 
and bi-tak me one castel 5 

jjat ich mai on wonie. 

For ich ham for ))e i-veij>ed f 
jjat ich wene beo dead, 
jjare ware ich euere vare f 
nam .ich neuere boute care, 
bote ihc ligge faste i 
bi-clused in on castle. 
3ef )jou ))is woldes don f 

mi wif solde come sone. 

mire and mi dohter Rowenne i 

and moche of mine cunne. 

Wan we j)0s beo]) in londe i 
folliche at-stonde. 
l>e bet we wollej) cweme j)e f 
jef jjou l)is wolt granti me. 
po answerede Vortiger i 

» MS. • fordemed.' 

« MS. * cnihlest' 



370 of selchen vuele he wes war. 

Nim cnihtes biliuef 

& send aefter fine wiue. 

& sefter J>ine children 5 

J)an 3u«gen & J)an olden. 
375 & aefter ))ine cunnenf 

& afeoh heom mid wunne. 

})enne heo to j>e cume'S.' 

J>u sca[l]t habben gsersume. 

hgehliche heom to uede«.' 
.^8o & wlir^liche scruden. 

Ah nulle ich castel na burh i 

nane J)e bi-techen. 

for men me wolden scendenl 

i mine kine-lond^ 
385 for je halde^ ))a hae^ene 

l>at stod on eoure aelderen 

& we halde^ cristes la3ef 

& wuUe^ auere an ure dae^e. 

pa 3et spaec Haengestf 
390 cnihten aire hendest. 

Lauerd ich wuUe J)in iwilf 

dri3e« her & ouer-al. 

& don al mine daedef 

sefter j)ine raede. 
395 Nu ic wuUe biliue 5 

sende after mine wiue. 

& gefter mire dohterf 

J)e me is swa deore. 

|)at of ech vuele was war. 
Nim cnihtes swifef 
and send after )>ine wifue. 
and after ]>ine children 5 
))e 3ong and )>e heoldre. 
and after ))ine cunne 5 [ne. 
and onderfang heom mid win- 
wane hii to j)e comeJ>i 
})Ou salt habbe garisome. 
hehliche heom to fedel 
and worj»liche to scrude. 
Ac nelle ich castel ne borh '. 
nanne J>e bi-take. 
for men me wolde sende f 
in mine kinelonde. 
3ef ich hej>ene menf 

londes bi-toke. 

pe 3et spac Hengest f 
cniht aire hendest. 
Louerd nou ich wolle i 
don al jjine wille. 

Nou ich wolle bliue f 
sende after mine wifue. 

MS. ' kinc kine-Iond.' 



& aefter ohte mownen f 
o J>a bezste of mine cunne. 

and ]7U ^if me swa muchel 

to stonden a mire ajere 

swa wule anes bule hude i 

seiches weies ouer-spraeden. 
>5 feor from aelche castle ' 

amidden ane ualde. 

pen«e ne mai jje atwitef 

))e hsene ne J>e riche. 

^ jju aei haehne burhje f 
[o hse^ne monne babbe bi- 

pe king him ijettef 

swa Hengest jirnde. 

Hengest nom Iseuef 

& for^ he gon li^. 
15 & aefter his wiue sende 
sonde f 

to his a^ene lo«de. 

& he seolf wende jeond l>is 

to sechen aenne brae[d]ne 

)>er he mihte wel spraede' 
20 on his feire hude. 

He com aen enne ende. 

in enne faeire uelde. 

he hafde ane hudef 

bi3ite to his neode. 
25 o ane wilde bule f 

and ))0U jef me so mochel 

lond .' 
to stonde on min owe bond. 

ase wole a bole hudef 
m grene ouer-sprede. 
for fram echo castle! 
a-midde one felde. 
panne ne mai ]^e atwite i 
J)e pore no ))e riche. 
))at ))0u eni heh borhf 
h9]>ene man bi-takest 

And ])e ki^ him ^aff 
]>at lutel ]7at he ^ornde. 
Hengest nam lefue i 
and forj) he gan wende. 
and after his wifue he sende 

sonde ' 
to his owene londe. 
and him seolf wende f 

oueral to bi-holde. 

ware he mihte wel spredef 
his bole hude. 


VI. la^amon's brut. 

|)e wes wunder ane strong. 

He haefden aenne wisne 

);e wel cu^ a craften. 

jje nom J>as hude i 
430 & a bord leide. 

and whaette his saeresf 

alse he schaeren wolde. 

Of )>ere hude he kaerf enne 
J)wong f 

swi^e smal* & swi¥e long. 
435 nes J)e l>wong noht swi^ 
braed f 

buten swulc a twines |)raed. 

|)a al islit wes ]>e |>ongf 

he wes wunder ane long. 

a-buten he bilaedef 
440 muche del of londe. 

He bigon to deluenf 

die swi^ muchele. 

jjer-uppe stenene waif 

|)e wes strong ouer al. 
445 ane burh he arerde f 

muchele & mare. 

pa jje burh wes^ al ^aref 

|)a scop he hire nome. 

he haehte heo ful iwis f 
450 Kaer-Carrai an Bruttisc. 

& iEnglisce cnihtesf 

heo cleopeden pwong-Chas- 

Hengest hadde one wisne 

man i 
|)at wel cou))e of crafte. 
he nam })eos bole hudef 
and a borde'laide. 

par- of he makede ane |>wang f 

swi])e smal and swij)e lang. 
nas ]7e ]>wang noht brodf 

bote ase hit were a twined 


a-boute jjar-mid he leide i 
moche deal of londe. 
He lette ]k> deluef 
on euerech halue. 
))ar vppe stonene waif 
swij)e strong oueral. 
ane castel he arerde f 
fair to bi-holde. 
po J)e borh was al jaruf 
])0 sette he hire name, 
he hehte hire foliwisf 
Cayr-Karri in Bruttesse. 
and Englisse cnihtes! 

» MS. « swaL' 

^ MS.«wcL' 



nu and auere maref 

)>e nome sto[n]de^ ))ere. 
55 & for nan o^re^ gome f 

nseueden j)ae burh ]>ene nome. 

a )>et come Densce men i 

and driuen ut l>a Bruttes. 

J)ene l>ridde nome heo J>er 
saette f 
60 & Lane-castel hine hgehten. 

& for swulche gomenl 

J)ae tun hafde l>as )>reo no- 

Vnder ))an com li¥en hider f 

Hengestes wif mid hire scipen. 
65 heo haefde to iueren f 

fiftene hundred* rider[e]n. 

mid hire comew to iwiten f 

muchele aehtene scipen. 

|)er comen inne f 
70 muchel of Hengestes cunne. 

& Rouwew his dohterf 

))e him wes swi^e^ deore. 

Hit wes umbe- while f 

■f com j)e ilke time. 
75 f i^arked wes J)a burh i 

mid J)an aire bezste. 

Hewgest com to j)an kingef 

& bad him gistninge. 

& seide f he hafde an in i 
lo i^arked to-jeines him. 

& bad jjat he come ))er-tof 

nou and euere more f 
]>e name stondej> j>are. 

forte jjat Den[s]ce men i 
driuen vt ))e cnihtes. 
J>ane ))ridde name \>ax sette f 

and Leane-castel hine cleop- 

Vnder J)an com lij>e hider f 
Hengestes wif mid hire sipes. 

jeo hadde to iveref 
fiftene hundred rideres. 

and Rowen his dohterf 
J>at was him swi))e deore. 
Hit was bi on wile i 
))at com l>e ilke time. 
l)at i-^arked was J)e borhf 
mid j)an aire beste. [kinget 
and Hengest wende to jjan 
and bad hine to gystni«ge. 
and seide ))at he hadde on inf 
hi-makede to ^enes him. 

» MS. * odcre.* 
VOL. I. 

« MS. • hu/itJed.' 

» MS. • swidc' 



& he scolde beon faeire 

& J)e king him ^ette f 

swa Hengest hit wolde. 
485 Hit com to j)an time i 

•f j)e king gon for^ li¥e. 

mid j)an deoreste monnen * 

of alle his duje^e. 

for^ he gon bu^en i 
490 f he to burh com. 

he bi-heold J)ene waif 

up and dun ouer-al. 

al him wel likede i 

f he on lokede. 
495 He wende in to halle f 

& his hele^es mid him alle. 

bemen heo bleowen i 

gomen men gunnen cleopien. 

bord heo hetten breden' 
500 cnihtes setten Jjer to. 

heo aeten heo drunken f 

draem wes i burh^en. 

))a \>e du^eSe hafde i3eten i 

))a wes heom ))a bet iloten. 
505 Hoengest eode in to J?an 
inne i 

J)er wunede Rouwenne. 

he heo lette scrudenf 

mid vnimete prude. 

al f scrud j)e heo hafde on i 
510 heo weoren swi¥e wel ibon. 

And |)e king him grantedef 
alse Hengest wolde. 

ForJ) hii gonne wende i 
j)at hii come to fan ende. 
j)e king bi-heold fane wdli 
vp and dun oueral. 
al him wel likede f 
fat he on lokede. 
He wende in to halle f 
and his cnihtes mid him alle. 

hordes hii lette spredei 
cnihtes far to sete, 
hii eoten hii drongkenf 
blisse was a-mang heom. 

Hengest we«de to fe innei 

far Rowenne was inne^. 
he hire lette scrude 5 
mid onimete prude. 

' MS. 'hinne.' 



heo weoren mid j)an bezstef 

ibrusted mid golde. 

Heo bar an hir^ hondel 

ane guldene bolle. 
[5 i-uulled mid wine i 

)>e wes wunder ane god. 

Hse^e iborewne men f 

heo laedden to hallen. 

biuoren ))an kingef 
so fairest^ aire j>inge. 

Reowen sset a cneowef 

& cleopede to J)an kinge. 

& jjus serest saeide i 

in jEnglene londe. 
J5 Lauerd king wses haeill 

for J>ine kime ich aem uaein. 

pe king j)is ihaerdef 

& nuste what heo seide. 

J)e king Vortigeme i 
}o fraeinede his cnihtes sone. 

what weoren j»at spechef 

]je f maide spilede. 

pa andswerede Keredicf 

a cniht swi^e sellic. 
35 he wes j)e bezste latimer i 

))at ser com her. 

Lust me nu lauerd kingf 

& ich ])e wulle cu^en. 

whaet sei^ Rouwenne i 
40 faeirest wimmonnen. 

Hit beo=S ti^ende f 

Jeo bar in hire hondf • 
ane goldene bolle. 
hi- fulled mid wine J 
ne mihte non be richere. 
Heh^e ibore men i 
hire ladde in to halle. 
bi-vore jjan kinge f 
fairest alle j)ing. 
Rowenne sat a cnouwe - 
and seide to j)a« kinge. 
))us erest ^eo spac* 
in Englene lond. 
Louerd king wassayH 
for ))ine comes me beoj) hail. 
pe ki«g hit ihordef 
and nuste wat ^eo saide. 
\te king Vortigerne i 
haxede his cnihtes. 
wat were ))e speche 1 
J?at ))e maide speke. 
po answerede Kejjerehf. 
cniht mid J)e wisest, 
he was ]je beste latimer i 
))at euere wone[de] her. 
Lust nou mi louerd king i 
and ich jje wolle cu^en. 
wat seij> Rowenne * 
fairest of al wommanne. 
Hit is^ ))e wonef 

' MS. ' farrcst.* 

« MS. « his; 

G 2 



inne Saexe-londe. 

whaer swa aei du3e^e5 

gladie^ of drenche. 
545 ))at freond saei^ to freondef 

mid faeire loten hende. 

Leofue freond waes hailf 

))e o^er saei^ drinc hail. 

pe ilke jjat halt Jiene nap i 
550 he hine drinke'S up. 

o^er^ uul me jjider fare^f 

& bi-teche^* his iuerew. 

jjenne ]jat uul beo^ icumen i 

Jienne cusseo^ heo jjreoien. 
555 pis beo^ sele la3en i 

inne Saxe-londe. 

& inne Alemainef 

heo beo^ ihalden a^ele. 

pis iherde Uortigerf 
560 of alchen* uuele he wes war. 

& seide hit an Bruttisc 1 

ne cu¥e he nan ^Englisc. 

Maiden Rouwennef 

drinc blu¥eliche Jienne, 
565 pat maide drone up J>at win f 

& lette don o¥er ))er-in. 

& bi-taehten J)an kingef 

& ):rien hine custe. 

& J>urh j)a ilke leode« J 
570 ))a la^en comen to J>issen 

ine Saxe-londe, 

l>at freond saij) to his freond 1 
wane he sal drinke^. 
Leofue freond wassail i 
j)e ojjer sai}> dringhail. 
pe ilke ))at halt j^ane nap f 
jjane drinke drinkj>^ vp. 
and a^eo me hine ful]?f 
and take)) his ivere. 

pis beo)) l>e lawesi 
ine Saxlonde. 

pis ihorde Vortiger f 
of eche vuele he was war. 
and saide hit on Bruttessef 
ne coujje he noht on Englisse. 
Mayde Rowenne i 
dring blojieliche Jianne. 
pat jnaide dronk* vt |)at win i 
and lette don oj)er |)ar-in. 
and bi-tahte ))an kinge 1 
and he hit vp swipte. 
And Jjorh ))isne ilke game i 
))e lawe come to londe. 

1 MS. • dringe.' 
* MS. * bi-thcchetJ.' 

■ MS. * dringe dring}>.* 
» MS. • alchel.' 

» MS. •Oder.' 
• MS. 'drong; 



waes-hail & drinc-haeilf 

moni mon J)er-of is fain. 

Rouwenne ))e hendef 

sat bi ))an kinge. 
rs J>e king heo ^eorne biheold f 

heo was him an heorte leof. 

ofte he heo custef 

ofte he heo clupte. 

al his mod & his mainf 
Jo halde to j)an maeidene. 

pe wurse wes jjer fulnehf 

\>e in aelche gomene is ful 

pe wurse ne diide naeuere 

he maeingde ))as kinges 
J5 he murnede ful swi¥e f 

to habben ))at maeidew to 

pat wes swi^e^ ladlic ))ing f 

J)at jje.cristine king. 

luuede ))at ha^ene maide f 
)o leoden to haerme. 

f , maiden wes ))an kinge 

aefne alse his a^ene lif. 

he bad Hengest his dring i 

^iuen him j)at maide-child. 
)5 Hewgest funde an his rgedf 

to don f J?e king him bed; 

wassayl and drink '-haylf 
]>3X mani me« lofuieJ>. 
pe faire Rowennef 
sat bi fan kinge. 
]>e king hire jeorne bi-heold f 
jeo was him leof on heorte. 
ofte he hire custe .' 
and ofte he hire clupte. 

pe worse was jjare wel neh i 
|)at to soche game his wel 

J)e worse J>at neuere ne do)) 

he meynde fare fes kinges 

fe king momede swifef 
for habbe hire to wifue. 

pat was swife loflich fingf 
fat fe cristene king, 
louede fat maide heaf ene * 
folk to harme. / 

To Hengest bad fe kingf 
fat he fat maide ^efue him. 
Hengest funde on his reade i 
don fat fe king him beade. 

» MS. * dring-hayl. 

' MS. • swide.' 


VI. la^amon's brut. 

he 3ef him Rouwenne f 
wimmon swi^e hende. 
pan kinge hit was [icweme] i 
600 he makede heo to quene. 
al after ))an lajenf 
J)e stoden an hae¥e[ne] daejen. 

he 3ef him Rowennef 
womman swij)e hende. 
pane king hit was icweme f 
he makede hire to cwene. 
al after fe lawes i 
j)at stode in heajiene dai^e. 





* Sawles Warde* is the title of a Homiletic treatise contained 
in several MSS. (Bodleian 34; Royal 17 A 27; Titus D. 18). 
It has been ascribed to the author of the * Ancren Riwle,' * Hali 
Meidenhad' (Bodleian MS. 34; Gott. MS. Titus D. 18), 'pe 
Wohunge of Ure Lauerd' (Gott. MS. Titus D. 18); and the 
Lives of St. Juliana, St. Marharete, and St. Katherine (Bodl. MS. 
34; Royal MS. 17 A 27). 

The author of all these productions, which belong to a 
period not much later than Lajamon's Brut, is unknown. The 
dialect is Southern, with a slight admixture of Midland forms. 

For a fourteenth-century version of this piece by Dan Michel 
of Canterbury, see * Specimens of Early English,' Part II. p. 98. 

The following extract is taken from * Old English Homilies,* 
First Series, pp. 245 to 249, 1. 3 ; and p. 259, 1. 2, to p. 267. 


St scirei paterfamilias qua horafur ueniurus essef f vigilaret 
utique et non sineret perfodi domum suam, Uxq lauerd i J)e 
godspel teache^ us Jjurh abisne. hu we ahen wearliche to 
biwiten us seoluen wi^ )je unwiht of helle. ant wi^ his 
wrenches^ jef j)es lau^rd^ wiste he sei^ hwenne ani hwuch 5 
time. |)e |)eof walde cume to his has i he walde wakien. ne 
nalde he nawt j)olien J)e J>eof forte breoken hire, pis hus \q 

* MS. * wernches.* ' Royal and T. * J)e husebondc* 

8iS vji. soul's ward. 

ure lau^rd^ speke^ off is seolf ))e mon inwi^ ^e monnes wit. 
I ))is bus. is ])e huse lau^rd. ant te fulitohe wif .' mei beon wil 

lo ihaten. \faf ga fe bus efter bire i ha diht bit al to wundre. 
bute wit ase lau^rd chasti bire j)e bet^re. an/ bi-neome bire 
mucbel of ^ ^a/ ba walde. ant tab walde al bire bird folbin 
hire ouer-alf gef wit ne forbude bam. for alle bit' beo^ 
untobene. an/ rechelese binen .' bute ^ef be bam ribte. Ant 

IS bwucche beo^ Jieos binen; Su;wme beo^ wi^-vten. an/ 
su;wme wi^-in-nen. J^eo* wi^-vten beo^. ))e monnes fif wittes. 
Sib¥e. an/ beruwge. smecbunge. an/ smeallunge. an/ eucb 
limes felunge. ))eos beo^ binen vnder wit. as under buse 
lau^rd. an/ bwer-se he is ^emeles i nis bare nan jje ne feared 

20 ofte untobeliche. an/ gulte^ ilome. o^er ifol semblant i o^er^ 
in vuel dede. In-wi^ beo^ bis binen. in se moni mislicb 
))onc to cwemen wel ))e busewif f a^ein godes wille. an/ 
swerie^ somet rea^licbe. ^a/ efter hire bit scbal gan. \>2h we 
bit ne here nawt i we maben ifelen bare nurh^. an/ bare 

25 untobe here. a-J)et* bit cume forS. an/ ba wi^ eie. an/ wv6 
luue tuhte bam J>e bet^re. Ne bi^ neau^r bis bus for l>eos 
binen wel iwist. for bwon ])a/he slepe. o^er obwider [fare]'' 
from bame. j)^/ is bwen mon forget bis wit. an/ let bam 
iwur^en. ab ne bih<?ue^ bit nawt. \>a/ tis bus beo irobbet. for 

30 ))er is inne ]>e tre[sur] ]>a/ godd ^ef him seolf fore. ]>a/ is 
monnes sawle. forte breoke ))is bus eft^r jjis tresor. J>fl/godd 
bobte mid bis dea^. an/ lette lif rode i is moni J>eof a-buten 
ba bi dei an/ bi niht. vnsebelicbe gasttes wi^ alle unwreaste 
jjeawes. an/ ajein eucb god ))eaw. \>e biwite'S i|)is bus godes 

35 deore castel^. vnder wittes wissunge }^a/ is buse lau^rd. is 
eau^r bire unjieaw forte secben in-^ong abute Jie wabes to a- 
mur^rin bire Jirinne. )>«/ beaued J^rof is ))e feont. J?e meistre^ 

1 MS. * lauer^.' « R. * ofte of.' ^ R. * ha.' 

* R. * ])eos.' » MS. • Oder.' « Titus * til >at.' 

7 From R. and T. » R. * chatel.' 


ham alle a^eines him an/ his keis. ))e husebonde ^af is wit. 
warned his hus J)«s. vre lau^rd haue^ ileanett him fowre^ 
of his dehtren. \>a/ beo^ to vnderstonden \>e fowr. heaued 40 
jjeawes. J)e earste is warschipe icleopet. ant te o)>er is ihaten 
gastelich strangle, an/te J)ridde is mea^. rihtwisnesse Jie feorSe. 
Wit jje husbonde godes cunestable cleope^ war-schipe forS. 
an/ maki^ hire durewart. j)e warliche loki hwam ha leote in 
an/ ut. an/ of feor bihalde alle J?e cuminde. hwuch beo wur^e 45 
in^ong to habben f o^er beon bistekew j)rute. Streng^ 
stont nest hire. ]>a/ ^ef ei wule in f warschipes vn-))onkes. 
warni streng^e fore. ]>a/ is hire suster f an/ heo hit ut warpe. 
)>e J>ridde suster ]>a/ is mea^. hire he make^ meistre ou^r 
his willesfule hirde* j)^/ we ear of speken. ]fa/ ha leare ham 50 
mete. )>«/ me meosure hat. ^e middel of twa uueles'. for ]?«/ 
is ))eaw in euch stude an/ tuht forte halden. an/ hate^ ham 
alle ))a/ nan of ham a^ein hire i nohwer wi^ vnmeo^ f ne ga 
ou^r mete. ]te feor^e suster rihtwisnesse. sit hom nest* as 
deme. an/ beate^ jjeo \>e a^ulte^. an/ crune^ Jieo J)e wel do^. 55 
an/ deme'S euchan his dom eft^r his rihte. for dred^ of hire 
nime^ j)is* hirde'^ euch eft?r ^a/ he is warde to witene. ))e 
ehnen hare. ))e mu^ his. ))e earen hare. J)e hpndon hare, an/ 
euch alswa of pe ojjre wit[es]® ])a/ onont him ne schal nan 
un-j?eaw cumen i«. . . . 60 

Des crip/ion of Heaven. 

Hercni^ nu ))enne he sei^. an/ ^eornliche understonde^. 
[I]ch am mur¥es sonde, an/ munegunge of eche lif. ant 
Hues luue i-haten an/ cume riht from heouene \a/ ich habbe 
isehen nu ant ofte ear J>e blisse \a/ na monnes tunge ne mei 

J MS. 'froure.' ^ MS. ' hirS.' » R.*>ing.' 

* MS. • on best* ; T. * hom nest.* ^ MS. • dret.* 

« MS. * his* ; R. • >is.' ^ MS. ' hirS.' 

« MS. • wit* ; T. • wites' ; R. * wi^ \at wit.* 

90 VII, soul's ward. 

65 of tellen. J)e iblescede godd iseh ow offrahte. ant sumdel 
drupnin^ of \at fearlac talde of dea'S. ant of helle. ant sende 
me to gleadien ow. nawt for-J)i fa/ hit ne beo al so^ Jw/ he 
seide. ant |)at schulen alle uuele fondin. ant ifinden. Ah je 
wi^ J>e fulst of godd ne ))urue na J)i«g dreden for he sit on 

70 heh ^at is ow on helpe. ant is al-wealdent jj^/ haue^ ow to 
witene, A sei^ warschipe welcume Hues. luue. ant for \t 
luue of godd seolf ^ef ))U eauer sehe him f tele us sumhwet 
of him. ant of his eche blisse. ^e iseo^ (\uodL Hues luuef 
MurSdes'* sonde. Ich habbe isehen him ofte nawt tah alswa 

75 as he is f for a^ein ))e brihtnesse ant te Hht of his leor. \t 
sunne gleam is dose, ant ))unche^ a schadewe. ant for-J>i ne 
mahte ich nawt a^ein ))e leome of his wHte lokin ne bihaldenf 
bute J)urh a schene schawere' bituhhe me ant him Jx?/ schilde 
mine ehnen. Swa ich habbe ofte isehen jje haH fnwnesse. 

80 feader ant sune. ant haH gast. Jireo an[t] unto-dealet. ah lutle 
hwile ich mahte j)oHe J)e leome. ah su/?zmes weis ich mahte 
bihalden ure lau^rd \hesM cr/'st godes sune \at bohte us o 
rode. Hu he sit blisful on his feader riht half \at is al- 
wealdent rixle^ i \at eche Hf bute linnunge. se unimete 

85 feier i ]>at te engles ne beo^ neau^r ful on him to bihalden. 
ant jet ich iseh etscene* );e studen of his wunden. ant hu he 
schawe'S ham his feader to cu^en hu he luuede us anthn 
he wes buhsum to him J)e sende him swa to alesen us ant 
biseche^ him a for mowcuwnes heale. Eft^r him ich iseh on 

90 heh ou^r alle heouenHche [weordes] ** J>e eadi meiden his 
moder marie i-ne/wpnet sitten in a trone se swi'Se briht wi^* 
gimmes i-stirret. an/ hire wHte se weoleful. "^ ])at euch eorSlich 
Hht i is Jieoster l)e[r]-o-3eines. ))ear ich iseh as ha bit hire 
deore-wur^e sune se jeornliche. ant se inwardliche for J)eo ]^at 

1 R. »durcnin.' a MS. 'Murhdes.' ' R. * schadewe.* 

* R. * eSsene.' » From T. « MS. * wid.* ^ R. • meinfiil.' 


hire serui^. anf he hire ^ette^. bli'Seliche ^ al ^af ha bi-seche^. 95 
pet liht \>B. ich ne mahte lengre ))olien i Ich biseh to |)e engles 
anf to J>e archangles and to the o'Sre i |)e beo^ buuen ham. 
iblescede gastes J)e beo^ a biuore godd an/ senii^ him eau^r. 
an/ singed a unwer^e^. Nihe wordes ))er beo'S. ah hu ha 
beo^ i-ordret dnf sunderliche isette. J)e an buue J)e o^re. an/ 100 
euchanes meoster were long to tellen. Se muche murh^e 
ich hefde on hare on sih^e f \>a/ ne mahte ich longe hwile 
elles hwider lokin. Eft^r ham ich iseh towart te pa/riarches 
an/ te proiphe/es J)e makie^ ^ swuch murh^e ^a/ ha aren nu^e 
i J)a/ ilke lont of blisse \>a/ ha hefden of feor igre[i^e]t ear 105 
on eor^ an/ seo^ nu al \>a/ iso^et. \>a/ ha hefden longe ear 
icwiddet of ure lau^rd as he hefde ischawed ha;w i gastelich 
sih'^e. Ich iseh ))e apostles [Jjat weren] pom-e. an/ lah on 
eor6e. ifullet an/ bi^oten al of unimete blisse sitten i trones. 
ant al under hare uet \>a/ heh is i ))e worlde. ^arowe forte de- no 
men i \>e dei of dome kinges an/ keiseres. an/ alle cunreadnes 
of alle cunnes ledenes. Ich biheolt te Martyrs, an/ hare uni- 
mete murh^e )?e )?oleden her pinen. an/ dea'S for ure lau^rd. 
an/ lihtliche talden to alles cunnes neowcins. an/ eor^liche 
tintreohen a^eines )?e blisse \>a/ godd in hare heorte schawede 115 
ham to cumene. Eft?r ham ich biheolt jje cunfessurs bird 
)>e liueden igod lif. an/ haliche deiden. jje schine^ as do^ 
steorren ij)e eche blissen. an/ seo^ godd in his wlite ^a/ 
haue^.alle teares iwipet of hare ehnen. Ich iseh ]>a/ schene. 
an/ \>a/ brihte ferreden of \>e eadi meidnes ilikest towart 120 
engles. ant feolohlukest wi^ ham blissin an/ gleadien. ]>e 
libbinde iflesche ou^rga^ flesches lahe ant ou^rcume^ cunde 
}>e leaded heouenlich lif in eorSe as ha wunie^ hare murh^e. 
an/ hare blisse. ]>e feierlec of hare wlite. )?e swetnesse of 
hare songf ne mei na tunge tellen. Alle ha singe's })e J)er 125 

* MS. * blideliche.' a MS. * makied.' 

9Z VII. soul's ward. 

beo%. Ah hare song ne mahe nane buten heo singen. Se 
swote smul ham folhe^ hwider se ha wended, ^af me mahte 
libben aa bi Jie swotnesse. hwam se heo biseche'5 foref is 
sikerHche iborhen. for a^ein hare bisocnen 5 godd him seolf 

130 arise^ ]>af alle )?e o^re halheh sittende ihere^. Swi^ wel 
qud^ warschipe like^ us \>a/ tu seist. Ah nu ))U hauest se wel 
iseid ^ of euch a setnesse f of ))e seU sunder-lepes sumhwet 
sei us nu hwuch blisse is to alle iliche meane f an/ Hues luue 
hire ondswere'S. pe imeane blisse is seouenfald. leng^e of lif. 

'35 wit. an/ luue. an/ of )>e luue a gleadunge. wi^-ute met murie. 
loft-song, an/ lihtschipe. ant sikernesse. is J)e seoue^. J>ah 
ich })is sei^ warschipe sumdel understonde i jju most unwreo 
)?is witerluker an/ openin to })eos o^re. ant hit schal beon 
sei^ Hues luue warschipe as ))U wilnest Ha Huie^ a in 

140 a wlite. ]>a/ is brihtre seoueualde. an/ scheme fen })e sunne. 
ant eau^r in a streng^e to don buten euch swine al \>a/ ha 
wulle^. an/ eau^r mare in a steal in al ^a/ eauer god is wi^ 
ute wonunge. wi^-uten euch )?ing \>a/ mahe hearmin o'Ser 
eilin. in al \>a/ eau^r is. softe o^er swote. an/ hare Hf is godes 

'45 sih^e. an/ godes cnawlechunge as ure lau^rd seide. jw/ 
is q«od he eche lif to seon an/ cnawen so^* godd. an/ 
him ]>a/ he sende ih^ju cn'st ure lau^rd to ure alesnesse an/ 
beo^ for-))i ilich him i]>e ilke wHte ^a/ he is. for ha seo^ him 
as he is. nebbe to nebbe. Ha beo^ se wise ^a/ ha witen 

150 aUe godes reades. his runes an/ his domes pe deme 'beo^. 
an/ deopre pen eni sea dingle, ha seo^ i godd alle ping, an/ 
witen of al p^/ is an/ wes an/ esMer schal iwurden. hwet 
hit beo. hwi. an/ hwerto an/ hwer of hit bigunne '. Ha luuie^ 
god wi^-ute met. for ]>a/ ha understonde^ hu he haue^ bi 

155 ham idon purh his muchele godlec an/ hwet ha ahen his 
deorewur^e* milce to ^elden. ant euch an luue^ o^er ase 

1 MS. * iseiS.' a MS. * sod.' ' R. * biginne.' 

* MS. * deorewurde.* 


muchel as him seoluen. Se gleade ha beo^ of godd f ]>af 
al is hare blisse. se muchel )?^/ jie mei hit munne na mu^. . 
ne spealie na speche for-)?i ]^a/ euchan luue^ o^er as him 
seoluen. Euchan haue^ of o¥res ^ god ase muche murh^e 160 
as of his ahne. bi ))is ^e mahen seon an/ witen. \>af euchan' 
haue^ sunderlepes ase feole gleadschipes i as ha beo^^ monie 
alle. an/ euch of )?e ilke gleadschipes is to eau«?r-euch-an ase 
muche gleadunge f as his ahne sunderliche. ^et ou^ al ))is. 
hwen euchan luue^ godd mare )?en him seoluen. anf jjen 165 
alle )?e o^re^ f mare he gleade^ of godd wi^-uten ei etlunge 
\ten of his ahne gleadunge. an/ of alle j?e o^res. Neome^ 
nu j>enne ^eme ^ef neau^r anes heorte ne mei in hire und- 
eruon hire ahne gleadunge sunderliche iseide. so unimete 
muchel is )?e[n]* anlepi blisse. ^a/ ha nime^ in hire Jjus 170 
monie. an/ J)us muchele. for-]ji seide ure lau«?rd to ))eo jje him 
hefden icwemet. Intra in gaudiu;?/. e/ ce/era, Ga qua^ he 
in-to Jji lau^rdes blisse'. )?u most al gan J^rin. ant al beon 
bigotten j)rin for in ))e ne mei hit nanesweis neomen in. her- 
of ha herie^ godd an/ singed a un-werget eau^r iliche lusti 175 
in ))is loft-songes. as hit iwriten is. Bea/i qui habi/an/, e/ ce/era, 
Eadi beo^ )?eo lau^rd. jje ijjin hus wunie^ ha schulen herien 
J>e from worlde i«to worlde. Ha beo^ alle ase lihte an/ . 
as swifte as )?e sunne gleam ]je scheot {rova est into west, 
ase J)in ehe-lid tune^ ant opened for hwer-se-eau^r )?e gast 180 
wule )>e bodi is anan-riht wi^-ute lettunge. for ne mei ham 
na l?ing a^eines etstonden. for euch an is al® mihti to don al 
\a/ he wule. je makie to cwakien heouene ba an/ eor¥e wi^ 
his an finger. Sikere ha beo^ of al j?is of Jjulli lif. of jJuUi 
wit. of ))ulli luue an/'^ gleadunge jjrof. an/ of j?ulli blisse. \a/ 185 
hit ne mei^ neauer mare lutlin ne wursin. ne neome nan 

1 MS. * odres.' « MS. ' beod.' » mS. • odre.' 

♦ MS. • \e ; R. ' J)en.' ^ R. • hus.' • R. * as.* 

' R. • a.* » MS. • me.' 

94 v^^' soul's ward. 

ende. J)is lutle ich habbe iseid of ^af ich iseh in heouene ah 
nower neh ne seh^ ich al. ne )?a/ ^et Jwz/ ich iseh. ne ne con 
ich half tellen. Wit^^rliche quo^ warschipe. wel we under- 

190 stonde^ ^af tu hauest ibeo Jjear an/ so^ hauest iseid trof. 
eft^r ))i sih^e. ant wel is him )?^/ is war. an/ bisi^ him hu he 
mahe beast halden his hus \>a/ godes tresor is in a^eines 
godes unwine )?e weorre'S j)er towart a wi^ un]?eawes. for ))et. 
schal bringen him ))ider as he schal. al )?is \>a/ tu hauest 

195 ispeken of an[t] hundret si^ mare of blisse buten euch bale^ 
folhin anf ifinden. Qu(r6 streng^e hwen hit swa is i hwet 
mei tweamen us from godd an/ halden us J?eonne. ih am 
siker ine godd. j?^/ ne schal lif ne de'Sf ne wa ne wunne 
now^er to dealen us ant his luue. ah al ))is us haue^ igarck- 

200 et jef we as treowe tresures wite^ wel his tresor ^a/ is 
bitaht us to halden. as we schulen ful wel under his wengen. 
Warped ut quo^ warschipe f farlac ure fa. nis nawt riht ^a/ 
an hus halde ))eos tweien. for Jjer as murSes sonde is i an/ 
so¥ luue of eche lif. farlac is fleme. nu ut quo^ stren^e farlac 

205 ne schaltu na leng^re leuen in ure ende. nu qud^ [farlac] ich 
seide for god al }pa/ ich seide. an/ Jjah hit muri nere nes na 
lessere mi tale }^tn wes murh¥es sondes ne unbihefre to ow. 
)?ah hit ne beo so licwur^e ne icweme. Ei^er of ow haue^ 
his stunde to speokene. ne nis iwcker no^res tale to schunien 

210 in his time. )?u warnest of wa. he telle^ of wunne. muche neod 
is ^a/ me ow ba ^eomliche hercni. Flute nu farlac J)ah. hwil 
Hues luue is herinne. an/ ))ole wi^ efne heorte )?e dom of 
rihtwisnesse. for jju schal [t]. ful bli^eliche beon under-fon in 
as ofte as Hues luue stinte^^ forto spekene. Nv is wil ^ai 

215 husewif al stille. J)^/ er wes so willesful. Al ituht efter 
wittes wissunge }^a/ is husebonde. an/ Al J)^/ hird halt him 
stille. )?^/ wes i-wunet to beon fulitohen an/ don efter wil hare 

' MS. 'neh.* « R. 'balesiC » MS. *stuttc».* 

VII. soul's ward. 95 

lefdi. Ant nawt efter wit f lustne^ nu his lare. anf fonde^ 
euer euchan efter ]>af him limped to. ]>urk jjeos twa sonden. 
^a/ ha i-herd habbe^. an/ ]>a/ fowr sustren lerden )?ruppe for 220 
euch un))eawes in^ong his warde te witene. ant te warden 
treowliche. pvs ah mon te jjenchen ofte ant ilome. Ant wiS 
fulliche })ohtes awecchen his heorte. ))e i slep of ^emeles 
for-^et hire sawle heale. efter Jieos twa sonden. From helle 
sih^e biseon f to )?e blisse of heouene. To habben farlac of 225 
Jx2/ an f luue toward \>a/ o¥er. ant leaden him ant hinen. J)^/ 
beo^ his limen alle. nawt efter wil \>q untohe lefdi an f his 
lust leare^. ah efter \>af wit wule ^a/ is husebonde tuhten an/ 
teachen )?^/ wit ga euer biuore ant teache wil efter him. 
to al ^a/ he dihte^ an/ deme^ to donne. ant wi=S )?e fowr 230 
sustren i ))er fore ))e fowr heued Jjeawes. Warschipe. Strenc^e 
in godd. ant Me^. ant Rihtwisnesse. witen godes treosor 
^a/ is his ahne sawle. i)?e hus of Jje bodi i from ]?e jjeof of 
helle. l)ulli Jjoht make^ mon te fleon alle un)?eawes ant 
ontent his heorte toward )?e blisse of heouene. Ipa/ ure lauerd 235 
3eue us l^urh his hali milce J?^/ wi^ ))e feder. ant [t]e sune 
a«t [t]e hali gast rixle^S in J^reo had a buten ende. AMEN. 

Par seinte charite bidde^ a pater nost^r for iohan \>a/ Jjeos 
boc wrat 

Hwa se ))is writ haue^ ired. 240 

Ant crist him haue^ swa isped. 

Ich bidde par seinte charite. 

pet 36 bidden ofte for me. 

Aa pa/er nos/er, ant aue marie. 

pet ich mote ^a/ lif her drehen. 245 

Ant ure lauerd wel icwemen. 

I mi 5uhe^e anU in min elde. 

pet ich mot ihesu crist mi sawle ^elden. 






Two versions of this saint's life have been carefully edited 
for the Early English Text Society (1872) by the Rev. Oswald 
Cockayne and Mr. E. Brock, from whose edition the following 
extract is taken (pp. 4 to 21, 1. 9 ; p. 30, 1, j to p. 35, 1. 9), 

The Latin story of St. Juliana may be read in the Acta Sanc- 
torum, Feb. 16. There is a very early English metrical version 
in the Codex Exoniensis (ed. Thorpe), p. 242. 

Texf A, 
[Royal MS. 17 A. 27.] 

peos meiden. ant tis martir. wes iuliane ine/wpnet. in 
nichomedes burh. & of he^ene cun icwoaen, ant hire flesch- 
liche feder wes affrican ihaten. of jje he^ene mest J>eo j)a/ 
cristene weren : derfliche droh ham to dea^e. ah heo as J)eo 

5 \>a/ te heouenlich feder luuede.'leafde al hire aldrene lahen. 
& bigon to luuien jjene liuiende lauerd Jjc lufsum godd. Jwz/ 
wisse^ ant welded al \>a/ is on worlde : & al ^a/ iwraht is. 
pa wes bijjon time as redegunge tailed. Maximian Jje modi 
keiser ine rome heinde ant heriende he¥ene mawmez. wi^ 

10 unme^ muchel hird & unduhti duhe¥e. & fordemde alle J)eo : 
|)e on drihtin bilefden. Jjes Maximian luuede an heh mon of 
cunne ant eke riche of rente elewsius wes ihaten. ant weren 
as feolahes ^urh muche freontschipe. J)is meidenes feder & 




Text B. 

[Bodl. MS. 34.] 

peos meiden & teos martyr \at ich of munne ; wes Juliene 
inempnet. i Nichomedese burh. Al of hea^ene cun icumen 
& akennet. & hire fleshliche feader affrican hehte. j)e heande 
& heascede mest men J)e weren cristene. & droh \i2aii jjurji 
denie pinen to dea^e. Ah heo as )>eo \at te hehe heouen- 5 
liche lau^rd hefde his luue ilenet. leafde hire ealdrene lahen 
& bigon to luuien |)en aa liuiende go^ )?e lufsume laufrd. \at 
schupte alle schaftes & wealde^ & wisse^ efter J>et his wil is. 
al \at ischeapen is. 

Wes ijjon time as J>e redunge telle^. ]>e modi Maximien 10 
keiser irome. heriende. & heiende hea^ene maumez. wi^ 
unimea^ muchel hird. and wi^ heh duhe¥e. & fordemde alle 
J)eo \t o drihtin bilefden. pes mihti maximien luuede an 
eleusium biuoren monie of his men. Akennet of heh cun. 
& swi^e liche of rente. & 3ungf mon of ^eres. J^es 3unge mon 15 

VOL. I. H 


he. weren swi^e wel togederes. as he sumchere iseh hire ut- 

15 nume feir. ant freoliche. he felde him iwundet. paf wi^-uten 
lechnunge of hire libben he ne mahtc. Affrican wiste wel 
Jjfl/ he wes freo boren. & ]>a/ him walde bicumen a freo boren 
burde. ant ^ettede him his dohter. & wes sone ihondsald al 
hire unwilles. ah heo tniste on him jjat ne tnikene^ namon : 

20 Jwz/ traste'S treowliche on him. ant euch deis dei eode to 
chirche to leornen godes lare. ^eornliche to witen hu ha 

mahte best witen hire unweommet 

ah as ha wende hire 

summes weis to witene. sende him to seggen. ]>a/ nalde 

25 ha lihten swa lahe ne nehlechen him for nan liuiende 
mon. er j>en he were under Maximian behest in rome ^/ 
is heh reue. Sone so he iherde )?is. he bi-jet et te keiser 
jjtf/ he ^ettede him reue to beonne as \>a/ he ijirnd hefde. 
ant he as me ]>a luuede. lette leaden him into cure^ & te 

30 riche riden in. & tuhen him ^ont te tun : from strete to. 
strete. ant al J)e tur wes bitild. )?a/ he wes in. wi^ purpre 
wi^ pal. & wi^ ciclatun. & deorewur^ cla^s. as J)e ^af heh 
|)ing hefde to heden. ant j)a he hefde )?is idon : he sende hire 
to seggen. ]>a/ he hefde hire wil iwraht. & heo schulde his 

35 wurchen. 

luliane j)e edie ih«u cristes leouemon of his blisfule luue 
balde hire seoluen. sende him to onswere. bi an of hire son- 

» MS. * tare.' 


eleusii^. ^a/ })aj wes wel wi^ J>e king, hefde iunne* feolah- 
schipe to aflfrican. & wes iwunet ofte to cumen wi^ him to 
his in. & iseon his dohter. 

As he hefde en chere bihalden swi^e ^eorne hire utnumne 
feire. & freoliche ^uhe^e ; felde him iwundet in-wi^ in his 20 
heorte wi^ ye flan )?e of luue fleo^. svva )>«/ him })uhte j>et ne 
mahte he nanes weis wi^-ute Jje lechnunge of hire luue libben. 
Ant efter lutle stounde wi^-ute long steuene. wes him seolf 
sonde to Aflfrican hire feader. & bisohte him ^eorne ]>a/ he 
hire ^eue him. & he hire walde menskin wi^ al ^a/ he mahte. 25 
As J>e ]>ing i ye world ^a/ he meast luuede. Aflfrican wiste ]>af 
he wes swi^e freo iboren. Ant walde wel bicumen him a 
freo iboren burde. & ^etede him his bone. Ha wes him 
sone ihondsald J)ah hit hire unwil were. Ah ha truste upon 
him jwz/ ne truked na mon. ha trewliche him truste on. 30 
& eode to chirche euche dahe^es dei. to leornin godes lare. 
biddinde ^eorne wi^ reowfule reames. ]?«/ he wissede hire o 
hwuche wise ha mahte witen hire mei^ha^ 

Ah heo forte werien hire wi^ him summe hwile : sende 35 
him to seggen. ]>a/ nalde ha nawt lihten se lahe to luuien. 
Ne nalde ha neolechin him for na liuiende mon, ear J^en he 
were under Maximien. hehest i Rome. !?«/ is heh reue. He 
ase timliche as he hefde iherd )?is. bi^et ed te Keiser J^et he 
^ette him al ]>a/ he walde. & lette as me luuede \>3. leaden 40 
him i cure up of fowr hweoles. & teon him ^eon te tun 
J)ron from strete to strete. Al \>e cure ou^rtild J)^/ he wes 
itohen on : wi^ purpres & pelles. wi^ ciclatuns & cendals 
& deorewur^e elates. As Jje yaf se heh j)ing hefde to heden. 
ant se riche refschipe to rihten & to readen. |)a he hefde Jjus 45 
idon. sende hire ^us to seggen hire wil he hefde iwraht 
Nu his ha schulde wurchen. Juliene ))e eadie itiesu cristes 
leofmon of his blisfule luue balde hire seolue^, & sende him 

» MS. *mune.' 

Ha : : 


den. Elewsius wite ^u hit wel ireadi. wra^i so \>u wra^i. 
no lengre nulich hit heolen ))e. ^ef )?u wult leauen ]>e lahen 

40 j)a/ tu list in. ant leuen in godd feder. & in his deorewur^e 
sune. & ijje hali gast. ichulle wel neomen J>e. ^ef J?u nult no : 
)?u art wundi of me. & o^er luue sech Jje. pa )?e reue iherde 
))is : he wre^^ede him swi^e. & hire feder cleopede, ant 
feng on to tellen him. hu his doht^r droh him from deie to 

45 deie. ant efter \>a/ he wende to habben his iwil so ha him J)is 
word sulliche sende. Bi j?^/ ilke godd qu€r6 hire feder )?«/ 
me is la^ to gremien beo hit so^ )?(2/ tu seist to wra^er heale 
seide ha hit. ant nu ichulle o great grome al biteachen hire 
j)e. to wurchen J)i wil. & al ^a/ te wel like^ as mit tin ahne. 

50 & me cleopede hire forS biuoren hire feder. & he feng feire 
to fondin his dohter Mi deorewur^e dohter hwer-fore uor- 
sakestu J)i sy. ant ti selh^e. ))e weolen ant te wu/^nen )>«/ 
walden awakenin ant waxen of jji wedlac. Jj^/ ich ]>e to reade. 
for he is inoh lauerd elewsius ine rome. & tu maht beon 

55 leafdi dohter ^ef ]>u wel wult. luliane )?e eadie onswerede him 
& seide as Jjeo l)at ine godd hire hope hefde. ^ef he wule 
leuen an god al mihti. )>enne mei he speoken Jirof & inoh-ra^. 
speden. ant ^ef ]>a/ he nule nawt. ne schal wiuen on me. 
wiue l)er his wil is. j?a hire feder iherde j)is : )?a feng he to 

60 swerien. Bi mi kinewur^ lauerd apoUo, ant bi mi deore leafdi 
diane. ya^ ich muche luuie. ^ef )?u baldest heron, ichulle 
leoten deor to-teore« ant to-luken )?e. & 3eouen jji flesch: 
[to] fuheles of ]>q lufte. luliane him onswerede & softeliche 
seide. ne wen ))u nawiht leoue feder. Jj^/ tu affeare me swa. 

65 for ihesu crist godes sune Jw/ ich on leue & luuie as lauerd 


al openliche bi sonde to seggen. ))is word ha send te for 
nawt J)U hauest iswechte. wrea¥e se ]ju wrea¥e. Do ^at tu so 
do wult nnle ich ne ne mei ich lengre heolen hit te ^ef \m 
wult leauen. \e lahen )?et tu liuest in ant leuen i godd feader. 
& in his deorwurSe sune. & i )?e hali gast folkene froure. an 
godd J>a/ is igret wi^ euches cunnes gode : Ich chule wel 
neome J>e. & ^ef Jwz/ tu nult no : jju art windi of me : & 55 
o^r luue sech \q, ]>3l J)e hehe reue iherde ))is ondswere : 
bigon to wre¥en swi^e : & cleopede hire feder for^. & feng 
on to tellen. hwuch word ha sende him. Efter ]>a/ he wende 
forte habben idon al ]>a/ he wilnede. Affrican hire feader 
wundrede him swi¥e. & bigon to swerien. bi )>e ilke godes 60 
J>a/ me is la^ to gremien. beo hit so^ \>a/ tu seiist : to wra^er 
heale. ha seh^ hit. ant ich wulle o great grome al biteachen 
hire j)e : & tu do hire, al ^a/ tu wult. He )?onkede him. & 
heo wes icleopet forS. & Affrican hire feader feng on earst 
feire on ; to lokin jef he mahte wi^ eani luue speden. Juli- 65 
ene qucrS he mi deorewur^e dohter. sei me hwi J)U forsakest. 
]>i sy & ti selh¥e : ]>e weolew & te wunnen. ]>e walden- awak- 
enen. & waxen of j)e wedlac }>«/ ich reade )?e to : hit nis 
nan e^elich ))ing. J^e refschipe of rome. ant tu maht ^ef ]ju 
wulL beon burhene leafdi. & of alle ))e londes )?e perto ligge¥. 70 
Juliene J)e eadie ontswerede him & seide. [as )?eo J)at ine 
godd hire hope hefde.] jef he wule luuien. & leuen godd. al 
mihti ; Jjenne mei he [speoken] Jjrof. & speden inoh rea^e. 
for jef he ]>a/ nule no ; ich segge ]je )?a/ so^ is. ne schal he 
wiuen on me. Sei nu hwet ti wil is. affrican wrea^ede & 75 
swor swi^ deopliche. for ]>e drihtfule godd apollo mi lau^rd. 
& mi deore leafdi J>e deorewurSe diane ]>a/ ich muche luuie. 
3ef J)U baldest her-on ; ich schal leote wilde deor to-luken & 
to-teore )?e & 3eoue ))i flesch fode to fuheles of Jje lufte. 
Juliene him ondswerede. & softeliche seide. Ne lef j?u nawt 80 
leoue feader pa/ tu oflfeare me swa ; ich swerie ajein. j)e ih^^u 


lufsumest on Hue. Jjah ich beo forbemd. & to-loken limel. 
nulich heronont buhen jje nawiht pa feng eft hire [feder] on 
wi^ olhnvwge to fondi« ^ef he mahte eisweis wenden hire 
heorte. & seide hire lufsumliche. fa/ ne schulde ha nane 

70 wunne lihtliche wilnin : 1?^/ he ne schulde welden. wi^ ^af ha 
walde hire J)onc wenden Nai quo^ ^a/ meiden schuldich don 
me to him ^af is alle deoulen bitaht. & to eche de^ idemet. 
to furwur¥en wi^ him world abuten ende. for his wedlakes 
weole o^er for eni wunne. for so^ ich hit segge unwurS is hit 

75 me. ichulle \>a/ he hit wite wel. ant tu eke mid him Jja/ ich 
am iweddet to an )>«/ ichulle treowliche to halden ant wi^- 
uten les luuien. )?e is unlich him. & alle worldlich men. ne 
nullich him now^er leauen. ne lihen for weole ne for wunne. 
for wa. ne for wunne Jiet ^e mahen don me. jia feng hire 

80 feder te wre^^en swi^e ferlich & swi¥e hokerliche freinede. 
Me hwet is he Jjes were jjj/ tu art to iweddet. \>a/ tu hauest 
wi^-uten me fine luue ilene[t] for hwam fu letest lutel of fa/ 
tu schuldest luuiew. ne ich neuer fa/ ich wite nes wi^ him 
icnawen. For gode quc^ fet maiden fin harm is f e mare 

85 nawt forfi fet tu nauest ofte iherd of him ^are. fa/ is iesu 
godes sune. fe forto lesen moncun fa/ forloren schulden 
beon: lette his deorwur6e lif on rode, ne ich ne seh him 
neuer fa/ me sare forfunche^. ah ichim luuie ant leue as 
on lauerde. ne schal me firsin him from : nowSer deouel ne 

90 mon. For mi lif quo^ hire feder f e schal la¥in his luue for 
fu schalt beon ibeaten. mid besmes swa bittre fa/ tu wirni- 
mon were schal to wra¥er heale iwur^en. Swa muche quo^ 


crist godes sune. \af ich on leue. & luuie as leoflukest. & 
lufsumest lau^rd. |jat ich cwic beo forbearnd ba¥e lim & li^ 
ileitinde leie. Nulle ich J)e her onont Jjreate se J)U Jjreate 
buhe ne beien. 85 

Aflfrican feng eft on. & to fondin ongon ^ef he mahte 
eanis weis olhniinge wenden hire heorte : & leoftede luue- 
liche. & seide hire sikerliche. Ipaf ne schulde ha lihtliche 
wibii na wunne ; Jwz/ ha ne schulde wealden. wi'S jj^rean ]>af 
ha walde hire wil wenden. Nai qud^ ha J?^/ nis nawt. schulde 90 
ich do me to him. ]>af alle deoflen is bitaht. & to eche dea^ 
fordemet. to forwur^ wi^ him worlt buten ende i))e putte of 
helle : for his wedlackes weole o^er for ei wunne. To so¥e 
ich hit segge \>e. Vnwur^ hit is me. Ich chulle \ta/ he wite 
hit ful wel. & tu eke mid al ; ich am to an iweddet ))^/ ich 95 
chulle treowliche wi^ute leas luuien. ]>a/ is unlich him & 
alle worltliche men. ne nulle ich neauer mare him lihen ne 
leauen. for weole ne for wunne. for wa ne for wontrea^e J)a/ 
je me mahen wurchen. 

Hire feader feng on to wrea^in swi'Se ferliche & easkede 100 
hire hokerliche. Ant hwet is he \>es were ]taf tu art to iwed- 
det. )?«/ tu hauest wi^-ute me se forS ))i luue ilenet.* Jia/ tu 
letest Intel, of al ]>a/ tu schuldest luuien. Ne ich nes neauer 
J)fl/ ich wite 3et. wi^ him icnawen. for gode quo^ \>e meiden 
))in hearm is ]>e mare. Nawt for-})i ]>a/ tu nauest iherd of 105 
him 5are. \)a/ is ihesu godes sune. ]>a/ forte alesen moncun 
^f schulde beon forloren al ; lette lif o rode. Ich ne seh 
him neau^ & ^af me of J)unche^. Ah ich him luuie & wulle 
don. & leue on as o lau^rd. Ne schal me firsen him from. 
Now^er deouel ne mon. for mi lif qu(r6 hire feader )?e schal 1 10 
la¥in his luue. for \>u schalt habbe jjrof hearm & scheome 
ba¥e & nu J)u schalt on aire earst. as on ernesse swa beon 
ibeaten wi^ bittere besmen. ]>a/ tu were wummon of wu;;^- 
mone bosum to wra^rheale eau^r iboren ijje worlde. 

1 MS. * ileuet,' 


ha ich iwur^e him |)e leouere: So ich denire )?ing for his 
•luue drehe. ^af ti wil is : wurch nu. & he het hatterliche 

95 strupen hire steortnaket. & be ten hire swa lu¥ere ^a/ hire 
leofliche lich: li¥eri al oblode. & swa ha duden so lu^ere 
]>a/ te blod ^et adun of ]>e ^erden. & heo bigon to ^eien. 
Beaten so ^e beaten ^e beliales budeles. ne mahe ^e now^er 
mi luiie ne min bileaue lutlen toward him mi lufsum leof mi 

loo leowinde lauerd ne nullich leauen ower read ^af forreade^ 
ow seoluen. ne ower mix mawmex Ipa/ beo^ J>es feondes 
fetles heien ne herien. for teone ne for tintreow ^af ^e mahen 
timbrin. Na quo^ he is hit swa hit schal sutelin sone. for 
ichulle biteachen mislich }>i bodi to elewsium ]je riche reue 

'°5 irome ant he schal forswelten ant forreden })e efter es wille 
wi^ alles cunnes pinen. ^e quo^ };is meiden ^a/ mei crist 
welden. for ne mahe ^e nawt don me bute hwet he wule Jjeauien 
ow to muchelin mi mede & te mur^e )?«/ h^ to mei^hades 
menske for euer so je mare merri^ me her: so mi crune 

'^®bi^ brihtre & fehere. for ichulle bli^eliche drehen euereuch 
derf for mi deore lauerdes luue. ant softe me bi^ euch derf 
hwen ich him serui ))ah ]ju me to elewsium willes biteache : 
ne 3eue ich for inc now^er. Jja/ ^e me mahen barmen, for so 
5e mare me her harmed, so mare ^e me helped seoueuald to 

"5 heouene. & 5ef ^e me do^ to dea^e hit bi^ me deorewur^e 
ant ich schal ]>er-]>urh bli¥e bicumen into endelese blissen ant 
3e schulen wrecches awei ower wur^Ses )?^/ ^e iboren weren 
sinken to wra^er heale ow to J>e bale bitter deope into helle. 
Hire feder affrican \furh ))is bittre teone bitahte hire to elew- 


Swa muche c\ud^ \af meiden ich beo him ))e leou^re. se 115 
ich derfre J>ing for his luue drehe. [wurch] J>u j?a/ ti wil is. . 
3e (\u(P6 he bli^eliche. ant swi^e heatterliche. stmpen hire 
steort naket. & legged se lu^erliche on hire leofliche lich : 
[|)at] hit li^ri o blode. Me nom hire & dude swa }^at hit 
5eat adun of |)e ^erden. ant heo bigon to ^eien. Beaten se 120 
3e beaten ^e beliales budeles. ne mahe 3e now^er mi luue ne 
mi bileaue lutlin towart te liuiende godd mi leofsume leof- 
mon. )?e luuewur^e lau^rd. ne nulle ich leuen ower read ))e 
forreade^ ow seolf. ne J)e mix maumez ))e beo^ jjes feondes 
fetles ; heien ne herien. for teone ne for tintreohe ^at ^e me 125 
mahe timbrin. Na nult tu qud^ affrican. hit schal sone sutel- 
in. for ich chulle sende J>e nu & biteache J>i bodi to eleusiuw 
fe riche j)^/ reue is ou^r rome. ant he schal ]je forreaden. & 
makie to forswelten. as his ahne wil is J>urh al ))et eauer 
sar is. 130 

3e q//<76 ])is meiden J?^/ mei godd welden. ne mahe ^e nawt 
do me bute fet he wule J>eauien & Jjolien ow to donne to 
much mi mede & te murh^e j?^/ li^ to mei^hades menske. for 
eauer se ^e nu her mearre'S me mare : se mi crune schal 
beon brihttre ba & fehere. for-J)i ich chulle bli^eliche & wi^ 135 
bli^e heorte drehen eauer euch derf. for mi leofmones luue 
j)e lufsume lau^rd & softe me bi^ euch sar in his seruise. )?u 
wult J)U seist a^eoue me to eleusium )?e lu^ere. a-3ef me for 
nawiht ne ^eoue ich for inc now^er. pet ^e mahen ane pine 
me here. Ah hit ne hearme^ me nawt ah helped & heue^ 140 
up & make^ mine murh^es monifalde in heouene. ant ^ef ^e 
do^ me to dea^. hit bi^ deore to godd. & ich schal bli^e 
bicumen to endelese blissen. ant ^e schulen wrecches wei 
ower wur^es. ))«/ je weren i j^e worlt iboren & i-broht for^ 
se wra¥er heale ^e schule sinken adun to sar & to eche sorhe 145 
to bitternesse ant to bale deope into helle. 

Afifrican hire feader bitterliche iteonet bitahtte hire eleu- 


1 20 slum ))e lu^ere reue. ant he lette bringen hire biuoren him to 

his heh seotel as he set in dome as reue of Jje burhe . . . 

pa elewsius iseh J)is ]>a/ ha Jjus feng on 10 festnen hire 

seoluen J>ohte \>a/ he walde anan don hire ut of dahene & 

bed swi^ bringen hire brune of wallinde breas ant healden 

125 on hire heauet Jja/ hit urne endelong hire leofliche bodi dun 
to fe helen ant swa me dude sone. ah hire hende healent 
wiste hire unweommet. elewsius warS wod ut of his witte. 
ant nuste hwet seggen & het swi^e don hire ut of his 
ehsih¥e. & dreihen hire into dare hus & prisunes pine, ant 

130 he duden sone. Heo as ha ))rinne wes in J>eosternesse hire 
ane feng te cleopien to crist ant bidden )>eos bone. 

Lauerd godd al mihti. mi murh^e ant mi mede mi sy ant 
mi selh¥e J)U isist hu ich am bista^et ant bistonden festne 
mi bileaue steor me ant streng me. for al mi strenc^ is 

135 uppon fe. mi feder. & mi moder for ich nulle forsaken J>e : 
habbe^ forsaken me & al mi nest-falde cun me heane^ fet 
schulden mine freond beon : beo^ me mest feondes ant 
mine hinen me beo'S mest heanen ah habbich fin anes help 
ich am wil cweme ne leaf fu me neuer liuiende lauerd as fu 

'40 wistest daniel bimong Jje wode leuns ant te freo children 
ananie zacharie misael inempnet. biwistest unweo/wmet from 
]>e ferliche fur of Jje fumeise swa fu wite ant witen me to 
witen me from sunne. lauerd J>urh J>is lease lif : lead me to 
lestinde to J>e hauene of heale as J)u leddest israeles folc furh 


sium j)e lu^ere reue of rome & lette bringen hire biuoren his 
ehsih^e. as he set & demde. J>e hehe burh domes 

pa eleusius seh )x2/ ha \>us feng on to festnin hire seoluen 150 
iso^e bileaue ; fohte he walde don hire anan ut of dahene : 
ft bed biliue bringen forS brune wallinde bres. & healden 
hit se wal hat hehe up on hire heaued. \>a/ hit urne endde- 
long hire leofliche lich adun to hire healen. Me dude al as 
he het. Ah )>€ worldes wealdent Jj^/ wiste sein iuhan his 155 
ewanigeliste unhurt ij)e ueat of wallinde eoli J)er he wes idon 
in. |>a/ ase hal com up Jjrof ; as he wes hal meiden. ]>e ilke 
liues lau^d. wiste him unwemmet. his brud of Jje bres ]>af 
wes wallinde. swa ]>af ne Jjuhte hit hire buten ase wlech 
weater al ^a/ ha felde. Eleusius wod fa puste hwet segen. 160 
Ah hehte swi^e don hire ut of his ehsih^e. & dreaien in to 
dorc hus to prisunes pine ant swa ha wes idon sone. 

Heo as ha ])rinne wes i Jieosternesse hire ane. feng to 
cleopien to cnst & bidde feos bone, lau^rd godd almihti mi 
murh^e & mi mede. mi sy & al ))e selh^e. ))a/ ich efter 165 
seche J)U sist al hu ich am bistea^et & bistonden. festne mi 
bileaue. Riht me & read me. for al mi trust is on Jje. Steor 
me & streng me for al mi streng¥e is of ))e. mi feader & 
mi moder for-))i ^af ich nule fe forsaken ; habbe forsake me. 
ft al mi nestfalde cun. ]?a/ schulde beo me best freond; beo^ 170 
me meast feondes. & mine inhinen ; aire meast hea[r]men. 
herewur^e healent. habbe ich J)in anes help, ich am wilcweme 
ne forleaf J?u me nawt luuiende lau^rd. as J)u biwistest daniel 
bimong J>e wode liuns ilatet se lu¥ere. & te Jjreo children Jje 
chearre nalden from \)e lahen \>af ha schulden luuien. Ana- 175 
nie & A^arie & Misahel inempnet. Al \>u al wealdent bi- 
wistest ha;w unwemmet. wi^^ ))a/ ferliche fur i Jje furneise. 
swa J>u wunne of Jje worlt wite me & were & wit^re. & wisse 
burh }>i wisdom to wite me wi^ sunne. lau^rd liues lattow. 

» MS. * wid.' 


145 Jje reade sea buten schip druifot ant hare fan senchtest ^af 
ham efter sohten afal J>u mine famen ant to-drif drihtin Jjen 
deouel ]>a/ me derue'S. for ne mei na mon wi^uten fi 
strenc^e stonden him ajeines lef me \>a/ ich mote iseon him 
jet schent: J)a/ wene'S me to schrenchen ant schunchen of 

150 fe weie : haf leaded to eche lif. wite me from his la^ ant wi^ 
his crefti crokes. wite me wi^ mine unwines \>a/ tu beo euer 
iheret ante iheiet in heouene ant in eor^e beo \>u ^ iblescet 
as j)u were ant art. ant euer schalt beon in eche blisse. 


lead me ]?urh ))is lease. ]>is lutle leastinde lif ; to |>e hauene 180 
of heale. As \>u leaddest israeles leode of egipte bute schip 
dm fot Jjurh Jje reade sea. & asenchtest hare uan ye ferden 
ham efter. & tu folkes feader. aual mine vamen. & tu 
drihtin to-drif J^e deouel ]>a/ me denied, for ne mei na mon- 
nes streng^e wi^uten fin stonden him to ^eines. lef me ^a/ 185 
ich mote mihti meinfule godd iseon him ischeomet jet fe 
wene'S me to schrenchen. & schunchen of fe nearowe wei 
^a/ leaded to eche lif. loke me from his la^ liuiende lau^rS. 
Make me war & wite me wi^ his crefti crokes. \>a/ ha me ne 
crechen. were me swa wi^ ))en vnwine. helpleses heale. pa/ 190 
tu beo iheiet & iheret eaure in eor^e. as in heouene. Beo 
J>u aa iblescet lau^rd as fu were ant art & schalt beon in 




The *Ancren Riwle/ or Rule of Nuns, was written for a 
society of three pious anchoresses at Tarente (Tarrant-Kaines, 
or Kingston, near Crayford Bridge) in Dorsetshire. 

Richard Poor, a native of Tarente, and successively bishop of 
Chichester, Salisbury, and Durham, rebuilt or enlarged the little 
monastery of nuns founded by Ralph de Kahaines (a son of one 
of the first William's Norman barons), and died at Tarente in 
1237. Mr. Morton, the editor of the Ancren Riwle, thinks it 
probable that Poor was the author of this Rule of Nuns ; but this 
is mere conjecture. 

The following selection is from Morton's edition of the Ancren 
Riwle (pp. 208-216 ; 416-430), published for the Camden Society, 
1853, collated with MS. Nero A. xiv., Cleop. C, vi., Titus D. xviii. 

pus, mine leoue sustren, i^e wildernesse ase 56 gcr6 inne, 
mid Godes folke, toward lerusalemes lond, J)et is, ))e riche of 
heouene, beo^ swuche bastes, ^ swuche wurmes f ne not ich 
none sunne |)et ne njei beon iled to one of ham seouene, 
5 o^r to hore streones. Vnsta^eluest bileaue ajean holi lore, 
nis hit of prude? Inobedience her-to ualle^. Sigaldren^ 
4' false teolungesf leumige on ore ^ o swefnesf ^ alle wichche- 
creftes i niminge of husel ine [ani] heaued sunne, o^r ei 

1 T. * Sigaldrie.' 


o^er sacrament, nis hit J)e spece of prude Jjet ich cleopede 
presumciun, jif me wot hwuch sunne hit is f ^- jif me not lo 
nout, ))eonne is hit ^emeleste, under accidie, ))et ich cleopede 
slouh^e ; pe J)et ne warned o^r of his vuel, o¥er of his lure, 
nis hit slouh ^emeleste, o^er attri onde? Mis-iteo^eget, 
etholden cwide, o^er fundles, o^er lone, nis hit ^iscunge 
a6er J>eofte ? Etholden o^res hure, ouer his rihte terme, 15 
nis hit strong reflac ? pet is under ^iscunge. O^er ^if me 
jeme^ wurse ei J)ing ileaned o¥er biteih[t] to witene, jjen he 
wene ]>et hit ouh, nis hit tricherie, o^er 5emeleaste of slouh^ ? 
— also is dusi biheste, o¥er folliche ipluht troupe t ^ longe 
beon unbishped i Sf falsliche igon to schrifte i o¥er to longe 20 
abiden uorte techen godchilde pater noster Sf credo ? peos 
6f alle swuche, beo^ iled to slouh^ i Jjet is Jie ueorSe moder 
of J)e seouen heaued sunnen. peo Jjet drone eni drunch, 
o^r ei })ing dude hwar^uruh no childe ne schulde beon of 
hire istreoned i o^er fet istreoned schulde uorwur^en, nis 25 
J)is strong monsleiht, of golnesse awakened? Alle sunnen 
sunderliche, bi hore owune nomeliche nomen, ne muhte no 
mon rikenen f auh ine Jjeos |>et ich habbe iseid, alle fe o^re 
beo^ bilokene i Sf nis, ich wene, no mon ))et ne mei under- 
stonden him of his sunnen nomeliche, under summe of |>en 30 
like imenCj Jjet beo^ her iwritene. Of feos seoue bestes, 
^ of hore streones i^ wildernesse, Sf of onliche Hue, is iseid 
hiderto, — j)et aJle Jje uorSfarinde uonde^ to uordonne. pe 
Liun of Prude slea^ alle Jje prude, Sf alle Jjeo |)et beo^ heie, 
4* ouer heie iheorted. pe attri neddre alle |)eo ontfule, ^* 35 
alle J>eo lu^ere i^oncked. [pa/ beon malicius ^ li^re ajain 
o^re^] pe vnicorne alle Jjeo wre^fule; Sf al-so of J)e o^re 
areawe. Ase to God heo beo^ isleiene* ' auh heo libbe^ to 
j)e ueonde, ^' beo^ alle ine his hirde, Sf serue^ him ine his 
kurt, euerichon, of j^et mester, J>et him to ualle^. 40 

* From C. « MS. • isseine.' 


pe prude beo^ his bemares, drawe^ wind inward of world- 
lich[e] hereword, Sf eft, mid idel ^elpe, puffed hit utward, ase 
j)e bemare de^, uorte makien noise [and] lud dream to scheau- 
wen hore orheF. Auh jif heo wel |>ouhten of Godes bemares, 

45 ^ of J)e englene bemen of heouene, Jjet schulen a uour* halue 
J>e worlde, biuoren J)e grureful[e]^ dome grisliche bloawen, 
Arise^, deade, arise^ I cume^ to Drihtenes dome, uorte 
beon idemed f J>er no prud bemare ne mei beon iboruwen. 
5if heo fouhten J)is wel, heo wolden inouh-rea¥e i^ deofles 

50 seruise dimluker bemen. Of ):eos bemares sei^ [Seint] 
Jeremie, Onager soliiarius, in desiderio anime sue, aitraxit 
ventum amoris. Of J)eo J}et drawe^ wind inward, uor luue 
of hereword, sei^ Jeremie, ase ich er seide*. 

Summe iuglurs beo^ \t\. ne kunnen semen of non o'Ser 

55 gleo, buten makien cheres, ^- wrenchen mis hore mu^, if 
schulen mid hore eien. Of J>is mestere serue^ |)eo uniselie 
ontfule i^e deofles kurt, to bringen o leihtre hore ontfule 
louerd. Uor jif ei sei^ wel o^er de^ wel, nonesweis ne 
muwen heo loken J)iderward mid riht eie of gode heortef 

60 auh wincke^ o¥ere half, 6f biholde^ o luft ^ asquint : Sf ^if 
J)er is out to eadwiten, o^r [loken] lodlich, Jiiderward heo 
schule^® mid ei^er eien ; ^- hwon heo ihere^ ]?et god, heo 
sleate^ adun boa two hore earen i auh fet lust a^ean |)et vuel 
is euer wid open, peonne heo wrenched hore mu^ mis, 

65 hwon heo turned god to vuel f ^* ^if hit is sumdel vuel 
|)uruh more lastimge heo wrenched hit to wurse. peos beo^' 
hore owune prophetes forcwiddares. peos bodied biuoren 
hwu ]?e ateliche^ deouel schal ^et agesten* ham mid his 

1 MS. •horer; T. 'orhel'; C. *ore3el/ 

^ Morton wrongly has ' an our.* ' R. * grimfule/ 

* For * Of seide/ C. has * Of |>e prud drahinge in for luue of here- 

ward sal's (Jeremie) as ich seide.' ® T. * souk's.' 

« T. has * |>ase am.* ^ T. * atterluche.' • T. * glopnen.' 


grimme grennunge, ^ hu heo schulen ham sulf grennen ^ 
niuelen, ^ makien sur semblaunt uor ])e muchele angoise, 70 
i^ pine of helle. Auh for-|)ui heo beo^ Jje lesse te menen, 
J>et heo biuorenhond leorne'S hore meister to makien grimme 

pe wre^fule biuoren ))e ueonde skinned mid kniues, 4' ^^ 
is his knif-worpare^ ^ pleie^ mid sweordes, ^ bere^ ham bi 75 
Jie scherpe orde uppen his tunge. Sweord 4' knif ei^r beo^ 
scherpe ^ keoniinde wordes \>eX he worpe^ frommard him, 
^ skirme^ touward o^re. Auh heo bodied hwu J>e deoflen 
schulen pleien mid ham, mid hore scherpe aules, 4' skirmen 
mid ham abuten, ^ dvsten ase enne pilcheclut, euchon 80 
touward o^r, ^ mid helle sweordes al snesien* ham J)uruhut, 
J»et beo^ kene ^ keoniinde, ^ ateliche pinen. • 

pe slowe li^ ^ slepe^ i^e deofles berme, ase his deore 
deorlingf ^ te deouel lei^ his tutel adun to his earen, 4' 
tutele^ him al J>et he euer wule. Uor, so hit is sikerliche to 85 
hwamso is idel of god f ))e ueond ma^ele^ ^eorne, ^ te idele 
underuo^ luueliche his lore, pe fet is idel 4' jemeleas, he is 
[wel] J>es deofles bermes slep: auh he schal a domesdei 
grimliche abreiden mid te dredfule dreame of fe englene 
bemen f ^ ine helle wondrede * ateliche * awakien. Surgzfe, 90 
moriui qui jacetis in sepulchris : surgiie^ et venite ad judicium 

pe ^iscare is J>es feondes askeba^ie**, Sf li^ euer i^en asken, 
^ fare^ abuten asken ^ bisiliche sture^ him uorte rukelen 
muchele 6f monie ruken togedere, ^ blowe^ Jjerinne, 4' ablent 95 
him sulf f padere^ • 4' niake^ Jjerinne figures of augrim, ase 
feos rikenares do^ f habbe^S muchel uorto rikenen. pis is 
al )>es canges'' blisse, ^ te ueond bihalt al J?is gomen, ^ 

* T. 'castere.* ^ C. *snescn*; T. *sneasin.* » C. * wandre'Sc," 

* C. • echeliche/ « C. * askebath.* 

* C. • pat5ere« ' ; T. * pulSercs/ ^ C. * askebalSes.* 

TOL. I. I 


lauhwe^ J>et he to-berste^. Wei understond euerich wis mon 

100 [^ wummon] J)is t \>et gold ^ seoluer bo^, ^* euerich 
eor?>lich eihte, nis buten eor^e ^' asken, |)et ablent euerichne 
mon })et bloawe^ in ham f |>et is, J>et boluwe^ him ine 
ham f Jjumh ham ine heorte prude f ^ al fet he rukele^ 
^ gedere^ togedere, ^ ethalt of eni J)inge })et nis buten 

105 asken, more J>en hit beo neod, al schal ine helle iwur^en 
to him tadden ^- neddren, ^ boSe, ase Isaie sei^, schulen 
beon of wurmes his kurtel ^ 4' his kuuertur, }>et nolde her 
\>e neodfule ueden ne schruden. Subkr te sternetur tinea, et 
operttnentum iuum vermis, 

110 pe ^iure glutun is |>es feondes manciple. Uor he stike^ 

euer i^e celere, o^r i^e kuchene. His heorte is i^ disches i 

• his Jjouht is al i^e neppef his lif i¥e tunnef his soule i^ 

crocke. Kume^ forS biuoren his louerde bismitted 6f bi- 

smeoruwed, a disch * ine his one hond, Sf a scoale ' in his 

IIS o^erf ma¥ele^ mis* wordes, Sf wigele^ ase uordrunken mon 
J>et haue^ imunt to uallenf bihalt his greate wombe, ^ te 
ueond lauhwe^ J>et he to-berste^. God J>reate^ }>eos j)us ))uruh 
Isaie. Servi mei comedent, et vos esurietis, &c, f * Mine men,* he 
sei^, * Schulen eten, ^ ou schal euer hungren '' ^5e schulen 

i?obeon ueondes fode, world a buten endel' Quantum glori" 
ficavit se et in deltciis fuit, tanium date ei luctum et tormentum. 
In Apocalipsi : Contra unum poculum quod miscuit, miscete ei 
duo. ^]1 J)e gulchecuppe * weallinde bres to drincken, 6f jeot 
in his wide frote J)et he aswelte wi^innen *, Ajean one, ^if 

125 him two. Lo I swuch is Godes dom a5ean.j)e jiure^, ^ ajean 
J>e drinckares ® i^ Apocalipse 

* C. and T. * hwitcl/ a MS. 'dischs.' 

« T. • skale * ; C. * schalc' * MS. • mid ' ; T. and C. • mis.' 

" T. * kclchccuppc ' ; C. * keachecuppe.' 

« T. • incwi« ' ; C. * inwi«.* » C. ' glutuns.' 

• C. * druncwik ' ; T. * drunkensome.' 


[pp. 416-430.] 

Je, mine leoue sustren, ne schulen habben no best, bute 
kat one. Ancre J>et haue^ eihte funche^ bet husewif, ase 
Marthe was, fen ancre f ne none wise ne mei heo beon 
Marie, mid gri^fulnesse of heorte. Vor })eonne mot heo 130 
))enchen of J>e kues foddre, and of heorde-monne huire, 
oluhnen J>ene heiward, warien hwon me punt hire, ^* jelden, 
yaxAi, J>e hermes. Wat Crist, fis is lodlich fing hwon me 
inake^ mone in tune of ancre eihte. pauh, ^if eni mot nede 
habben ku^, loke fet heo none monne ne eilie, ne ne hermie f 135 
ne J>et hire J)Ouht ne beo nout J?eron i-uestned. Ancre ne 
ouh nout to habben no fing ]>et drawe utward hire heorte. 
None cheffare ne driue ^e. Ancre J>et is cheapild []>e 
bu^ for te sullen efter bi^ete], heo cheapen hire soule J>e 
chepmon of helle. [ping, Jjauh, \>a/ ha wurche^ ha mei wel, 140 
J>urh hire meistres read, for hire neod sullen, |/ah swa dern- 
Uche as ha mei, for misliche monne wordes.] Ne wite ^e nout 
in cure huse of o^er monnes finges, ne eihte, ne clones i ne 
nout ne underuo ^e J>e chirche uestimenz, ne J>ene caliz, bute 
jif [neod o^er] strenc^e hit makie, o¥er muchel eie f vor of 145 
swuche witunge is i-kumen muchel vuel oftesi¥en. Wi¥innen 
ower woanes^ ne lete ^e nenne mon slepen. ^if muchel 
neode mid alle make^ breken ower hus, ))e hwule )>et hit 
euer is i-broken, loke fet ^e habben ferinne mid ou one 
wnmmon of clene line deies ^' nihtes. jbq 

Uor¥i J>et no mon ne i-sih^ ou, ne je i-seo^ nenne mon, 
wel mei don' of ower clones, beon heo hwite, beon heo blakef 
bute J)et heo beon unorne 4' warme, ^- wel i-wrouhte— uelles 
wel i-tauwed; 4' habbe^ ase monie ase ou to neode^, to 
bedde and eke to rugge. ig^. 

» C. • hit.' * T. * wahes ' ; C. * wanes.' 

« T. 'duhen'; C. * don.» 

I 2 


Nexst fleshe ne schal mon werien no linene clo^, bute ^if 
hit beo of herde and of greate heorden. Slamin habbe 
hwose wule ; and hwose wule mei beon buten. 5e schulen 
liggen in on heater, and i-gurd. Ne here ^e non iren, ne 

1 60 here, ne ilespiles^ felles f ne ne beate ou Jjer mide, ne mid 
schurge i-le^ered ne i-leadedf ne mid holie*, ne mid breres 
ne ne biblodge ' hire sulf wi^uten schriftes leaue i ne ne 
nime, et enes, te ueole disceplines. Ower schone beon 
greate and warme. Ine sumer ^e habbe^ leaue uorto gon 

165 and sitten baruot f and hosen wi^uten uaumpez f and ligge 
ine ham hwoso like^ *. Sum >^aimmon inouh rea^ were^ J?e 
brech of heare ful wel i-knotted, and J>e strapeles adun to 
hire uet, i-laced ful ueste. 5^^ 3® muwen beon wimpel-leas, 
beo^ bi warme keppen and |)eruppon [o^er hwite ot$er] blake 

1 70 ueiles. [Ancren sume sungi^ in hare wimlunge na lesse 
J>ene lefdi. Sum sei^ Jja/ hit limpe'S to ei wummon cunde- 
liche forte weri[en] wimpel. Nai i wimpel ne hef [de] nou^r 
ne nemne^ hali write i ah wriheles of heuet. Ad Corinth. 
Mulier uelet caput suum. Wummon sei^ Jje apostel schal 

175 wrihen hire heauet. Wrihen, he sei^. naut wimplin. wrihen 
ha schal hire scheome, as sunfule Eue dohter f i mungunge 
of ))e sunne \at she[n]de us erst alle f 6f naut drah fa/ 
wriheles te tiflfung Sf te prude. Eft wule Seinte Panel }pai 
wummon wreo i chirche hire neb jette, leste vuel |)oht arise 

x8o J>urh hire on-sih¥e, Sf hoc est propter angelos. Hwi, Jjenne, J)U 
chirche ancren, al beo j)U iwimplet, openest J>ah ))i neb to 
weopmones ehe ? To-5eines Jje. Jje isist men, speke^ Seinte 
Panel. Ah ^ef ei ))ing wrihe^ j)i neb from monnes ehe — 
beo hit wah, beo hit cla^ i^i parlures jjurl, wel mei duhen ancre 

185 of o^er wimplunge^.] Hwose wule beon i-seien, J)auh heo 

* MS. * irspiles ' ; T. * ylcslipes * ; C. * ylespilles/ 

» T. • holin ' ; C. • holine/ » T. • blodeke * ; C. • biblo«gi.' 

* C. • wule' » MS. • wimlumpe/ 


atiffe * hire nis nout muchel wunder i auh to Codes eien heo 
is lufsumere, |)et is, uor J>e luue of him, untifFed wi¥uten. 
Ring, ne broche nabbe ^ef ne gurdel i-membred^ ne glouen, 
ne no swuch |>ing Jjet ou ne deih ' forto habben. [Under- 
stonde^ Jj^/ of alle J)eose }»inges nis nan best ne forbot i for 190 
alle ha beo^ of ]>e uttere riwle, Jja/ is lute strenc^e of. For 
hwon Jwz/ te inre beo wel iwist, as ic seide i^e frum^e, ^ 
mei beon i-changet hwerse-euer ei neod beo^ o^er eni skile 
hit aske^, efter ]>a/ ha mei, ase Jjuften, best seniin ]te leafdi 
riwle.] 195 

Euer me is leouere so ^e don gretture werkes, Ne makie 
none purses, uorte ureonden ou mide [bute te ]>qo \at ower 
meistre ^eueS ow his leaue] f ne blodbendes * of seolke [ne 
laz bute leaue] i auh schepie^, and seouwe^, and amende'S 
chirche clo^s, and poure monne clones ^. No J?ing ' ne 200 
schule 5e 5iuen wi^uten schriftes leaue* Helped mid ower 
owune swinke, so uor6 so 5e muwen, to schruden ou suluen 
and [feden jef neod is] ))eo fet ou serue^, ase Seint Jerome 
lere^. Ne beo ^e neuer "^ idel i uor anonrihtes J)e ueond 
beot' hire his were fet ine Godes werke ne wurche^'^l and 205 
he tutele'S anonrihtes touward hire. Uor, ]jeo hwule J)et he 
isih^ hire bisi, [he] fenche^ ))us: vor nout ich schulde nu 
kumen neih hire f ne mei heo nout i-hwuleh^°uorto hercnen" 
mine lore. Of idelnesse awakened muchel flesshes fondunge, 
Iniquitas Sodome saiuriias pant's et ocium : J>et is, al Sodomes 210 
cweadschipe com of idelnesse 6f of ful wombe. Iren Jjet li^ 
stille gedereS sone^^ rustf and water fet ne sture^ nout 
readliche^^ stinke^. Ancre ne schal nout forwur^en scol- 

» T. • atiffen * ; C. • atifi.* » MS. * i menbred ' ; C. * i membret.' 

» T. * deah ' ; C. • i-bur«\ * C. • blod-binden.' » C. • hettren.* 

• C. * nan swuc J>ing.* ^ C. * allunge.' . • T. * bedes.' 

• T. • swinkcs.' " C. * jemen * ; T. • 3eme/ " C. * lustni.* 
» C. • muchc/ " X. « ra«liche ' ; C. * readiliche.' 


meistre, ne tumen hire ancre hus to childrene scole. Hire 

215 meiden mei, J?auh, techen^ sum lutel meiden, Jjet were dute 
of forto leornen among * gromes f auh ancre ne ouh ' forte 
5emen bute God one. [pah, bi hire meistres read ha mei 
sum rihten a«d helpe te leren.J 

3e ne schulen senden lettres, ne underuon lettres, ne writen 

22-^ buten leaue. 3^ schulen beon i-dodded four si^en i^ 3ere, 
uorto lihten ower heaued [o^er ^ef je wuUe^ i-schauen hwase 
wule ieveset. Ah ha mot oftere weschen & kemben hire 
heauet] f and ase ofte i-leten blod i and oftere ^if neod is f 
and hwoso mei beon J>er wi^uten, ich hit mei wel i-¥olien. 

225 Hwon 5e beo^ i-leten blod, ^e ne schulen don no J)ing, J>eo 
freo dawes, ]?et ou greue i auh talked mid ouer meidenes 
and mid Jjeaufule talen schurte^ ou to-gederes. 5^ muwen 
don so ofte hwon ou Jjunche^ heuie, o^r beo^ uor sume 
worldliche J>inge S9rie o^er seke. So wisliche wite^ ou 

230 in our blod-letunge f and holder ou ine swuche reste J>et 
3e longe J>erefter muwen ine Godes seruise J>e monluker 
swinken* i and also hwon ^e i-uele^ eni secnesse f vor 
muchel sotschipe hit is uorto uorleosen, uor one deie, tene 
o¥er tweolue. Wasche^ ou hwarse 3e habbe6 neode, ase 

23s ofte ase 3e wulleS. 

Ancre J>et naue^ nout neih bond hire uode, beo^ bisie two 
wummen f one ))et bileaue euer et horn, on o^r Jjet wende 
ut hwon hit is neod .' and ]jeo beo ful unorne [o¥er a lute 
|)uhten] , o^er of feir elde f and bi ))e weie ase heo ge^ go 

240 singinde' hire beoden f ne ne holde heo nout none tale mid 
mon ne mid wummon f ne ne sitte ne ne stonde, bute ))et 
leste |)et heo mei, er Jjen heo kume hom. Nouhwuder elles 
ne go heo bute J>ider ase me sent hire. Wi^ute leaue ne ete 

* C. * learen/ * C. * bimong.* » For * ne ouh ' C. has • nach.* 

* C. * wurchen.* * C. * segginde.' 


heo ne ne drinke ute. pe o¥er beo euer inne, ne wi^ute j>e 
jeate ne go heo wi^ute leaue. Bo¥e beon obedient to hore 245 
dame in alle J>inges, bute ine sunne one. No J>ing nabben 
heo j)et hore dame hit nute f ne ne underuon no fing, ne 
ne 3iuen wi¥uten hire leaue. Nenne mon ne leten heo in f 
ne )>e jungre ne speke mid none monne bute leaue f ne ne 
go nout ut of tune wi¥uten siker uere i ne ne ligge ute. 250 
5if heo ne con o boke, sigge bi Paternostres and bi auez hire 
vres f and wurche fet me hat hire wi¥uten grucchunge. 
Habbe euer hire earen opene touward hire dame. Nou¥er 
of })e wummen ne beren urom hore dame, ne ne bringen to 
hire none idele talen, ne neowe ti^inges i ne bitweonen 255 
hamsulf ne singen f ne ne speken none worldliche spechen f 
ne lauhwen, ne ne pleien so ))et ei mon fet hit iseie muhte 
hit to vuel turnen. Ouer alle Jjirig leasunge and Inhere ^ 
wordes hatien. Hore her beo i-koruen i hore heued clo^ 
sitte lowe. Ei^er ligge one. Hore hesmel ^ beo heie istihd f 260 
al wi^ute broche. No mon ne i-seo ham unweawed*, ne 
open heaued. [Inwi^ ()e wanes ha muhe werie scapeloris 
hwen mantel ham heuege^, ute gan i-mantlet i J)e heaued 
i-hudeket.] Louh lokunge habben. Heo ne schulen cussen 
nenne mon, [ne cu^mon ne cunes mon ne for nan cutJ^e 265 
cluppen,] ne uor luue cluppen ne ku^ ne unku^ f ne wasshen 
hore heaued f ne loken ueste o none monne f ne toggen* 
mid him, ne pleien. Hore weaden beon of swuche scheape, 
^ alle hore aturn swuch fet hit beo eocene hwarto heo 
beo^ i-turnde. Hore lates loken warliche, Jjet non ne edwite 270 
ham ne ine huse, ne ut of huse. On alle wise uorberen to 
wre^en hore dame f and ase ofte ase heo hit do^, er heo 
drinken o¥er eten, makien hore uenie akneon adun to fer 

* C. * uuelc* * C. * Hare cop beo hecje isticched.* 

8 C. * unlepped.' * T. * toggle * ; C. * toggi.' 


eor^ biuoren hire, ^ sigge Afea culpa f and underaon J)e 

275 penitence Jjet heo lei^ upon hire, lutende hire louwe. pe 
ancre neuei: more fer efter ))ene ilke gult ne upbreide hire, 
uor none wre^e, bute 5if heo eft sone ualle i^t ilke f auh 
do hit allunge ut of hire heorte. And 5if eni strif arisen 
bitweonen J>e wummen, J>e ancre makie ei^r of ham to 

280 niakien o^r venie akneon to fer eor^e, and ei^er rihte up 
o^er, ^ kussen ham on ende f and |)e ancre legge on 
ei^r sum penitence \ more upon Jie ilke J>et gretluker 
haue'S agult pis is o J>ing, wute ^e wel to so^, J>et is 
God leouest— seih[t]nesse ^- some^ — 6f )>e ueonde lowest 5 

285 and for^i he is euer umbe to arearen sume wre^e ^. Nu 
isih^ j)e deoueP wel J?et hwon ))et fur is wel o brune, ^ 
me wule fet hit go ut, me sundre^ J)e brondes f and he de^ 
al so onond* fet ilke. Luue is Jesu Cristes fur fet he wule 
j)et blasie in vre heorte f and J>e deouel blowe^ forto puflfen 

290 hit ut 1 and hwon his blowinge ne geine^ nout, J>eonne 
bringe^ he up sum lu^er word, o^er sum [o^er] nouhtunge 
hwar j)uruh heo to-hurre^ * ei^er urommard o^er f and J?e 
Holi Gostes fur acwenche^, hwon J>e brondes, J)uruh wre^5^, 
beo^ i-sundred. And for^i, holden ham ine luue ueste to- 

295 gederes, and ne beo ham nout of hwon J>e ueond blowe; 
and nomeliche, ^if monie beo^ i-ueied somed *, and wel mid 
luue ontende. 

pauh J)e ancre on hire meidenes uor openliche gultes legge 
penitence, neuer-Jje-later "^ to J)e preoste schriuen ham ofte f 

300 auh euer f auh mid leaue. And ^if heo ne kunnen nout Jie 
mete graces, siggen in hore stude Pater noster 6f Aue Maria 
biuoren mete, and efter mete also, ^ Credo moaref and 

1 T. * somentalc* * T. and C. •la^tJe.' 

8 C. • sweoke ' ; T. * swike/ * T. * he dos bond to >et ilke.' 

« MS. * hurte© * ; C. and T. * hurren.* 

« T. * i fest togedere.* ^ C. * no'Selatere/ 


siggen }>us on ende, "Veder ^ Sune ^ Holi Gost ^' on 
Almihti God, he 3iue nre dame his grace, so lengre so more i 
4f leue hire ^ us bo'Se nimen god endinge f ^- for3elde alle 305 
J)et us god do's, ^ milce hore sotilen fet us god i-don habbe^ 
— hore soulen 4f alle cristene soulen. Amen." Bitweonen 
mele ne gniselie ^ ^e nout nou'Ser fnit, ne o^erhwat f ne ne 
drinken wi^uten leauei auh fe leaue beo liht in alle feo 
)>inges }>er nis sunne. Ette mete no word, o'Ser lut, ^* feo 310 
beon stille. Al so efter fe ancre cumplie [a^et prime] uort 
mid-morwen ne don no J)ing, ne ne siggen, hware J)uruh hire 
silence muwe beon i-sturbed. Non ancre seruant ne ouhte, 
mid rihte, uorto asken i-sette huire, bute mete Sf clo^ }>et 
heo mei vlutten bi, Sf Godes milce. Ne misleue non god, 315 
hwat so bitide, of fe ancre, fet he hire trukie ^. pe meidenes 
wi^uten, ^if heo serue^ J)e ancre al so ase heo owen, hore 
hure schal beon J)e eche blisse of heouene. Hwoso haue^ 
eie hbpe touward so heie hure, gledliche wule heo semen, 
6f lihtliche alle wo and alle teone J)olien. Mid eise ne mid 320 
este ne kume^ me nout to fer heouene ^. 

3e ancren owen J)is lutle laste stucchen reden to our 
wummen eueriche wike 6nes, uort fet heo hit kunnen. And 
muche neod is ou beo¥e J)et 36 nimen to ham gode 3eme ; 
vor 3e muwen muchel J)uruh ham beon i-goded, and i-wursed* 325 
on o^r halue. 3i^ heo sunege^ J)uruh ower 5emeleaste, 36 
schulen beon bicleoped ferof biuoren J)e heie demare ^ i and 
for^i, ase ou is muche neod, ^ ham is 3ete more, 3eorneliche 
teche'S ham to holden hore riulen, ho^ uor ou Sf for ham 
suluen f li^eliche fauh, ^ luueliche f uor swuch ouh wum- 330 
mone lore to beon — ^luuelich Sf li¥e, and seldhwonne^ sturne. 

* T. * gruse ' ; C. * gniuesi.* * * tnickie ' with * failc ' as gloss. 

• T. * ne hoe's mon nawt hlissc ' ; C. * ne hutJ me naut hlisse/ 

* T. • wursnet.* » T. • deme * ; C. • dom.* 

• C. * selthwennc' 


Bo¥e hit is riht J)et heo ou dreden ^* luuien f auh }>er beo 
more euer of luue J)en of drede. peonne schal hit wel uaren. 
Me schal helden eoli and win beo^e ine wunden, eftere 

335 godere lore i auh more of fe softe eolie )>en of fe bitinde 
wine ; J)et is, more of li^e wordes J)en of suinde ^ i vor J)erof 
kume6 finge best — fet is luue-eie. Lihtliche 4' sweteliche 
uor3iue^ ham hore gultes hwon heo ham i-knowe^ and bi- 
hote^ bote. 

340 Se uorS ase ^e muwen of drunch and of mete and of clo¥, 
and of o^er J)inges \>tt neode of flesche aske^, beo^ large 
touward ham, J)auh ^e pe neniwure beon and te herdure to 
ou suluen i vor so de^ he J>e wel blowe^ — went J)e neniwe 
ende of J)e home to his owune mu^e, ^' utward fene wide. 

345 And 3e don al so, ase ^e wulle^ ))et ower beoden bemen ^ 
dreamen wel ine Drihtenes earen ; and nout one to ower 
ones '*, auh to alle uolkes heale f ase ure Louerd leue, J)uruh 
fe grace of himsulf, J)et hit so mote beon. Amen ! 

O J)isse boc rede^ eueriche deie hwon ^e beo^ else — 

350 eueriche deie lesse o¥er more. Uor ich hopie fet hit schal 
beon ou, 5if se 3e rede^ ofte, swu^e biheue furuh Codes 
grace f and elles ich heuede vuele bitowen muchel of mine 
hwule. God hit wot', me were leouere uorto don me touward 
Rome J)en uorto biginnen hit eft forto donne. And ^if ^e 

355 iuinde^ Jiet 3e do^ al so ase 3e rede^, jjonke^ God 3eorne i 
and 3if 3e ne do^ nout, bidden Godes ore, and beo^ umbe 
J)er abuten J>et ^e hit bet hoi holden, efter ower mihte. Veder 
and Sune and Holi Gost, and on Almihti God, he wite ou 
in his warde! He gledie ou, and froure ou, mine leoue 

360 sustren ! and, for al fet 3e uor him drie^ and suffre^ he ne 
3iue ou neuer lesse huire ))en al-togedere him suluen I He 

* C. * stume • ; T. • suhiendc/ 

» C. and T. • Deu Ic set.' 

« T. • anres,' 


beo euer i-heied from worlde to worlde, euer on ecchenesse I 

Ase ofte ase ^e reader out ^ o fisse boc, greteS J>e lefdi 
mid one Aue Marie, uor him pet maked[e] ))eos riwle, and for 365 
him fet hire wrot and swonc her abuten. Inouh me^ful ich 
am, J)et bidde so lutel. 

* T. 'oht*; C. *cawct.- 




The 'Wooing of Our Lord' is a lengthy paraphrase of a 
portion of the seventh part of the Ancren Riwle (pp. 397-401). 
See * A Luue Ron * in ' An Old English Miscellany ' (ed. Morris), 
for a poetical version of the * Wooing.' 

The selection here given, for the sake of the West Midland 
peculiarities introduced by a later transcriber, is taken from Old 
English Homilies, First Series, pp. 277-283. 

Ihesu mi Hues luue riche ar-tu as lau^rd m heuene and in 
eorSe. and tab poure J>u bicom for me. westi and wrecched. 
Poure ))U born was of J)e meide« ))i moder. for J>e«ne ij)i 
bur6 tid in al \>e burh of belleem ne fant tu bus lewe ))er J)ine 

5 nesche childes limes inne mihte reste. Bot in a waheles bus 
imiddes J>e strete. Poure J)U wunde« was irattes and i clutes 
and caldelicbe dennet in a beastes cribbe. Bote swa J>u 
eldere wex i swa ))u pourere was. For i J>i childhad hafdes 
tu J)e pappe to J>i fode. and ti moder readi hwe« ))U pappe 

10 3emdes. Bote hwe« J)U eldere was. J>u ^af fuhel ofluht. 
fisch iflod folc on eor'Se fedesf ))oledes for wone of mete 
moni hat hungre as clerkes wit^rliche in godspel reden. and 
tu Jja/ heuene and eor^e and al J>is werld wrahtes. nauedes 
in al J)is werld hwer J)U o j)in ahen J>i heaued mihtes reste. 

15 Bote ba^e 3ung and eldre alle-gate })U hafdes hwer fu mihtes 


wrihe Jiine banes. Ah atte laste of J)i lif hwen J>u for me 
swa rewliche hengedes on rode, ne hafdes in al Jjis world 
hwer-wi^ Jia/ blisfule blodi bodi ))U mihtes hule and huide. 
and swa mi swete lefmon poure Jju Jjc self was. and te poure 
))U ra^este cheas. pou^rte j)U luuedes. pou^rte |)U tahtes. and 20 
5iuen J>u haues echeliche J)in endelese blisse. til alle J>a/ clenli 
for ))i luue mesaise and pou^rte wilfulliche J)olien. A hu 
schulde i beo riche. and tu mi leof swa poure i for-))i swete 
ih^ju crist wile i beo poure for Jje ; as tu was for J>e luue of 
me. for to beo riche wi^ Jje i J)in eche blisse. for wi^ pou^rte 25 
and wi^ wa schal mon wele buggen. A ihesu swete ih^ju leue 
))a/ te [luue of ))e beo al mi likinge]. Bote pou^rte wi^ menske 
is ea^ for to J)olien. Ah J)U mi lef for mi luue wi^ al |)i pou^rte 
was schomeliche heaned. f(5r hu mon fe ofte seide schome- 
liche wordes and\2i^fu\e^ hokeres. long weren hit al to teller. 30 
Bote muche schome J)U l)oledes. hwe;^ )>u ]>a/ neau^r su^^ne 
didesf was taken as untreowe. Broht biforen sinfule men 
))a hea^ene hundes of ha/» to beo demet. J>a/ demere art of 
werlde. per ))U bote of mon-kin schomeliche was demed. 
and te monquelliere fra de^s dom was lesed. For as i j)e 35 
godspel is writen. alle Jjai crieden o wode wulues wise Heng 
heng \>a/ treitur ihesus on rode. Heng him o rode, and lese 
us Baraban. was tat barabas a Jieof ]>a/ vfv6 tresun i ]>e burh 
hafde a mo« cwelled. bote mare schome J)U Jjoledes hwe« pa/ 
te sunefule men i ))i neb spitted. A ihesu hwa mihte mare 40 
Jjolen cristen o^r heaven i )>en mon him for schendlac i J)e 
beard spitted. And tu i )>i welefulle wlite. i j)a/ lufsume leor 
swuche schome Jjoledes. And al ]>e menske jjuhte for )?e luue 
of me. ]>a/ tu mihtes wi^ paf spatel ]>af swa biclarted ti leor 
wasche mi sawle. and make hit hwit and schene and semlike 45 
i J>i sihte. and for-))i ))U biddes me her-up-on J)enche. Sd/Oy 
quoniam propter te sustinui oprohrium operuit confusio faciem 

» MS. •haCfulc' 


meam, Vnderstond ))U seist and herteliche ))enke Jiat i for 
|)e luue of |)e jjolede schome and bismere. and schomeliche 

50 spateliwg of unwur^i ribauz \z. hea^ene hundes hilede mi neb 
for )>e. As tab he seide. ne dred tu nawt for J>e of me to 
)>ole schome of worlde wi^ute J>ine Gulte. Bote schome o\xer 
schomes j>oledes tu hwew Jju wes henged bituhhe twa }>eofes. 
As hwa se seie. He )?is is mare ))en )>eof. And for-j)i as hare 

55 meister he henges ham bituhhen. A ih^ju mi Hues luue 
hwat herte ne mai to-breke hwe^ ha herof .))enches hu J)U \ai 
menske art of al mon-kin. of alle bales bote, raon for to 
menske swuch schome j>oledes. Mon spekes ofte of wundres 
and of selcu'JSes \at misliche and monifald haue« bifalle«. 

60 bote J)is was te mfeaste wunder \ai eauer bifel on eorSe. 5a 
wund^ oufr wundres \at tat kiJde keiser cnined in heuene. 
schuppere of alle schaftes. for to mensken hise fan. walde 
he«ge bituhhe twa jjeoues. A ih^ju swete ih^ju J)at tu wes 
sche/^t for mi luue leue \at te luue of ))e &c. Inoh were 

65 pou^rte and schome wi^-ute« o^re pines bote ne |>uhte 
)>e neaufr mi Hues luue. \at tu mihtes fulHche mi frend- 
schipe buggen hwils J>e Hf )>e lasted A. deore cheap hefdes 
tu on me. ne was neau^r unwur6i j)i«g chepet swa deore. 
Al J)i Hf on eorSe wes iswink for me swa lengre swa mare. 

70 Ah bifore )>in ending swa unimeteliche )>u swanc and swa 
sare \at reade blod ))U swattes for as. ^int luk sei^ i J)e 
godspel. J)u was i swa Strang a swine ^ \at te swat as blodes 
dropes corn dune to )>e eor^e. Bute hwat tunge mai hit 
teUe. hwat heorte mai hit J>enche for sorhe and for reow^e 

75 of alle J)a buffetes and ta bali duntes \at tu J)oledest i J>in 
earst niminge hwe« \at iudas scharioth brohte ))a helle 
bearnes )>e to taken and bringen biforew hare princes, hu ha 
))e bundew swa hetelifaste \at te blod wrang ut at tine finger 
neiles as halhes bileuen and bunde« ledden rewH and dintede 

» MS. * swing/ 


unrideli o rug and o schuldres. and bifore J>e princes buffeted 80 
and beten. Si^en bifore pilat hu Jju was naket bundew faste 
to )>e ^iler. jw/ tu ne mihtes no wh wider wrenche fra )>a 
duntes. J)er J)U wes for mi luue wi^ cnotti swepes swungew 
swa J>at ti luueliche lich mihte beo to-torn and to-rent, and 
al J>i blisfule bodi streamed on a gore^ blod. Si^en o Jjin 85 
heaued wes set te crune of scharpe jjornes. \at wi^ eauriche 
J)orn wra/^g ut te reade blod of J>in heali heaued. Si^en 3ette 
buflfetet and to-dunet i \e heaued wi^ )>e red 3erde }^at te was 
ear in honde 3iuen J>e on hokerringe. A hwat schal i nu 
don ? Nu min herte mai to-breke. min ehne flowen al o 90 
water. A nu is mi lefmow demd for to deien. A nu mow 
ledes \i\m forS to munte caluarie to j)e cwalm-stowe. A lo 
he beres his rode up on his bare schuldres. and lef Jja duntes 
drepew me J>a/ tai )>e dunchen and jjrasten J)e for^ward swi^e 
toward ti dom. A lefmow hu mo« folhes te. J)ine frend 95 
sariliche wi^ reming and sorhe. ))ine fend hokerliche to 
schome and wundrew up o )>e. A nu haue j)ai broht him 
J)ider. A nu raise Jjai up J)e rode. Setis up jje warh-treo. A 
nu nacnes mo« mi lef. A. nu driuen ha him up wi^ swepes 
and wi^ schurges. A hu liue i for reow^e \ai seo mi 100 
lefmow up o rode, and swa to-drahen hise limes ^at i mai i« 
his bodi euch ban teller. A hu \ai ha nu driue;^ irnene neiles 
))urh ))ine feire hondes \n to hard rode ))urh jjine freoliche fet.. 
A nu of j)a hondew and of )?a fet swa luueli. streames te blod 
swa rewli. A nu bedew ha mi leof J>a/ sei^ J)^/ him J)ristes f 105 
aisille surest aire drinch menged wi^ galle }^at is ))ing bittrest. 
Twa bale drinch i blodleting swa sur and swa bittre. bote 
ne drinkes he hit noht. A nu swete ih^ju. jet up on al J)i 
wa ha eken schome and bismer. lahhen Jje to hokere )>er j)U 
o rode hengest. \m mi luueliche lef jjer J)U wi^ strahte earmes no 
henges o rode f was reow^ to rihtwise. lahter to J>e Inhere. 

* MS. • Girre.* 


And tu ]pat al J>e world fore mihte drede and diuere 5 was 
unwreste folk of world to hoker lahter. A Jja/ luuelike bodi 
Jw/ henges swa rewli swa blodi and swa kalde. A hu schal 

lis i nu Hue for nu deies mi lef for me up o J>e deore rode? 
Henges dun his heaued and sendes his sawle. Bote ne 
J)inche ha/» nawt 3et \at he is ful pinet. ne ^at rewfule deade 
bodi nulen ha nawt fri^ie. Bringen forS longis wi^ J>a/ 
brade scharpe sp^re. He jjurles his side cleues tat herte. 

1 20 and cumes flowinde ut of ^pat wide wunde. )>e blod )>a/ bohte. 
l>e wat^r }^at te world wesch of sake and of sunne. 



ABOUT A.D. 12 lO. 

The 'Orison of our Lady* is a short rhyming poem of 171 
lines, which the writer speaks of as an * English lay.* It is pro- 
bably a translation of a Latin poem by a monk named John. 
See Preface to * Old English Homilies,* First Series, p. ix. 

The whole poem is printed in * Old English Homilies,' First 
Series, from Cott. MS. Nero A ix. (pp. 191-199). 

Cbistes milde moder seynte marie. 

Mines Hues leome mi leoue lefdi. 

To J)e ich buwe and mine kneon ich beie. 

And al min heorte blod to ¥e ich ofFrie. 

pu art mire soule liht. and mine heorte blisse. 5 

Mi lif and mi tohope min heale mid iwisse. 

Ich ouh wur^ie ^e mid alle mine mihte. 

And singge j?e lofsong bi dale and bi nihte. 

Vor j)U me hauest iholpen aueole kunne wise. 

And ibrouht [me] of helle in-to paradise. 10 

Ich hit )>onkie ^e mi leoue lefdi. 

And j>onkie wuUe )>e hwule ^et ich liuie. 

Alle cristene men owen don ^e wurschipe. 

And singen ^e lofsong mid swu^e muchele gledschipe. 

Vor ^u ham hauest alesed of deoflene honde. 35 

And i-send mid blisse to englene londe. 

Wei owe[n] we Jie luuien mi swete lefdi. 

Wei owen we uor J)ine luue ure heorte beicn. 

VOL. I. K 


pu ert briht and blisful ouer alle vfrnnvaen. 

And god ¥u ert and gode leof ouer alle wepmen. 20 

Alle meidene were wurSe^ )>e one. 

Vor J)U ert hore blostme biuoren godes trone. 

Nis no wuwmon iboren jjet ¥e beo iliche. 

Ne non J)er nis ))in efning wi¥-i«ne heoueriche. 

Heih is \>\ kinestol onuppe cherubine. 25 

Biuoren ^ine leoue sune wi^-i«nen seraphine. 

Murie dreamed engles biuoren fin onsene. 

Pleie^. fl«t/sweie¥. and ^ingt^. bitweonen. 

Swu^e wel ham like^ biuoren ))e to beonne. 

Vor heo neu^r ne beo^ sead J)i ueir to iseonnc. 30 

pine blisse ne mei nowiht understonden. 

Vor al is godes riche an-under pine honden. 

Alle J)ine ureondes J)U makest riche kinges. 

pu ham 3iuest kinescrud beies and gold ringes. 

pu 3iuest eche reste ful of swete blisse. 35 

per ¥e neure dea^ ne com 5 ne herm ne serine sse 

per blowe^ i«ne blisse blostmen. hwite and reade. 

per ham neu^r ne mei. snou. ne uorst iureden. 

per ne mei non ualuwen. uor jjer is eche sumer. 

Ne non liuiinde J)ing woe J>er nis ne ^eomer. 40 

per heo schulen resten J>e her ^e do^ wurschipe. 

3if heo jeme^ hore lif cleane urom alle queadschipe. 

per ne schulen heo neu^r karien ne swinken. 

Ne weopen ne murnen ne helle stenches stinken. 

per me schal ham steoren mid guldene chelle. 45 

And schenchen ham eche lif mid englene wille. 

Ne mei non heorte fenchen ne nowiht arechen. 

Ne no mu^ imelen ne no tunge techen^ 

Hu muchel god ^u ^eirkest wi^-inne paradise. 

Ham fet swinke^ dei and niht i¥ine seruise. 50 

* MS. • legen.' 


Al J>in hird is i-schrud mid hwite ciclatune. 

And alle heo beo^ ikruned mid guldene krune. 

Heo beo^ so read so rose so hwit so fe lilie. 

And t\xer more heo beo^ gled and singed funihut murie. 

Mid brihte 3imstones hore krune is al biset. 55 

And al heo do^ J)et ham like^. so J>et no J)ing haw ne let. 

pi leoue sune is hore king and J)U ert hore kwene. 

Ne beo^ heo neu^r i-dreaued mid winde ne mid reine. 

Mid ham is eu^r more dei wi^ute nihte. 

Song wi'S-ute seoruwe and sib wi^-ute uihte. 60 

Mid ham is muruh^ moniuold wi^ute teone and treie. 

Gleobeames and gome inouh Hues wil and eche pleie. 

pereuore leoue lefdi long hit j>unche^ us wrecchen. 

Vort fu of fisse erme liue to ^ suluen us fecche. 

We ne muwen neuer habben fuUe gledschipe. 65 

Er we to j)e suluen kumen to J>ine heie wurschipe. 

Swete Codes moder softe meiden atid wel icoren. 

pin iliche neu^r nes ne neu^rmore ne wur6 iboren. 

Moder j)U ert and meiden cleane of alle laste. 

puruhtut hei and holi in englene reste. 70 

Al englene were and alle holie Jjing. 

Sigge^ and singed ))et tu ert Hues welsprung. 

And heo sigge^ alle ))et ¥e ne wonted neu^r ore. 

Ne no mon fet ^e wur^e^ ne mei ntMer beon uorloren. 

pu ert mire soule [leome] wi^-ute leasunge. 75 

Efter fine leoue sune i leouest aire finge. 

Al is }pe heouene ful of ))ine blisse. 

And so is al fes middeleard of fine mildheortnesse 

So muchel is J>i milce and fin edmodnesse. 

pet no mon f et ^ jeorne bit of helpe ne mei missen. 80 

Ilch mon fet to f e bisih^ f u finest milce and ore. 

pauh he ^e habbe swu^e agult and i-dreaued sore. 

pereuore ich ^ bidde holi heouene kwene. 

K 2 


pet tu 3if J)i wille is iher mine bene. 

Ich ^ bidde lefdi uor Jjere gretunge. 85- 

pet Gabriel ^e brouhte urom ure heouen kinge. 

And ek ich ^e biseche uor ih^ju cristes blode. 

pet for ure note was i-sched o^ere rode. 

Vor ^e muchele seoniwe ^^et was o'^ine mode. 

po ))u et ^e dea^ him bi-uore stode. 90 

pet ))u me makie cleane wi^-uten and eke wi^iwnen. 

So )>et me ne schende none kunnes sunne. 

pene lo^e deouel and alle kunnes dweoluh¥e. 

Aulem urom me ueor awei mid hore fule ful^e. 

Mi leoue lif urom fine luue ne schal me no fing to-dealen. 

Vor o^e is al ilong mi lif and eke min heale. 96 

Vor J)ine luue i swinke and sike wel ilome. 

Vor J)ine luue ich ham ibrouht in to )>eoudome. 

Vor Jiine luue ich uorsoc al fet me leof was. 




The Old English Bestiary is a free translation of the Physi- 
ologus of Thetbaldus, in Latin verse. (See Old English Miscel- 
lany, p. 201.) 

It has been frequently printed : twice by Mr. Thomas Wright, 
in (1) * Altdeutsche Blatter,* vol. ii. Leipzig, 1837 ; (2) in * Reli- 
quiae Antiquae,' vol. i. p. 208 ; by Matzner, in his * Altenglische 
Sprachproben' ; and by myself in 'An Old English Miscellany,' 
p. I, from the Arundel MS. 292. 

In the Codex Exoniensis (ed. Thorpe) there are two very 
curious descriptions of the panther (p. 355), and of the whale 
(p. 360), which may have formed part of an Old English poetical 
Bestiary. Mr. Wright has printed Philippe de Thaun's * Livres 
des Creatures * and * Le Bestiaire ' in his * Popular Treatises on 
Science written during the Middle Ages' (1841). 

The dialect in the Old English Bestiary is East-Midland. 

Natura leonis j\ 

De leun stant on hille, 

and he man hunten here, 

O^er ^urg his nese smel 

Smake ^at he negge, 

Bi wile weie so he wile 5 

To dele ni¥er wen den, 

Alle hisefet -steppes 

134 ^^^. ^ BESTIARY. 

After him he filled, 

Drage^ dust wi^ his stert 

^er he [dun] stepped, lo 

O^er dust o¥er deu, 

^at he ne cunne is finden, 

driue^ dun to his den 

vSar he him bergen wille. 


An o^er kinde he haue^; 15 

wanne he is ikindled, 

Stille li^ ¥e leun, 

ne stire^ he nout of slepe 

Til ^ sunne haue^ sinen 

^ries him abuten, 20 

^anne reiseS his fader him 

mit te rem ^at he make^. 


De ^ridde lage haue^ ¥e leun; 

¥anne he Me^ to slepen, 

Sal he neure luken 25 

^e lides of hise egen. 

Stgnificacw prime nature, 

Welle heg is tat hil, 

¥at is heuen-riche, 

vre louerd is te leun, 

^e liue^ ¥er abuuen ; 30 

wu ^o him likfede 

to ligten her on er¥e. 


Migte neure diuel witen, 

¥og he be derne hunte, 

hu he dun come, 35 

Ne wu he dennede him 

in 'Sat defte meiden, 

Marie bi name, 

¥e him bar to manne frame. 

ij^ et uj\ 

Do ure drigten ded was, 40 

and doluen, also his wille was, 

In a ston stille he lai 

til it kam ¥e 'Sridde^dai, 

His fader him filstnede swo 

¥at he ros fro dede ¥0, , 45 

vs to lif holden, 

wake^ so his wille is. 

So hirde for his folde; 

He is hirde, we ben sep; 

Silden he us wille, 50 

If we heren lo his word 

^at we ne gon nowor wille. 

Naiura aquile. 

Ki^en f^MJe ¥e ernes kinde, 

Also ic it o boke rede, 

wu he newe¥ his gu¥hede, 53 

hu he cume^ ut of elde, 

Si^en hise limes am unwelde, 

Si^en his •bee is al to- wrong, 

Si¥en his fligt ia al^nstrong, 

* MS. 'dridde.* ' 


and his egen dimme ; 60 

Here^ wu he newe^ him. 

A welle he seke^ ^at springeS ai 

bo^ bi nigt and bi dai, 

¥er-ouer he flege^, and up he te^, 

til ¥at he ^e heuene se^, 65 

¥urg skies sexe and seuene 

til he cume^ to heuene; 

So rigt so he cunne 

he houe^ in ¥e sunne; 

^e sunne swide^ al his fligt, 70 

and oc it make^ his egen brigt, 

Hise fe¥res fallen for ^e hete, 

and he dun mide to ^e wete 

Failed \n ^at welle gnind, 

^er he wurde^ heil and sund, 75 

and cume^ ut al newe, 

Ne were his bee untrewe. 

His bee is get biforn wro«g, 

¥og hise limes senden strong, 

Ne maig he tilen him now fode 80 

him self to none gode, 

¥anne go^ he to a ston, 

and he billed ^er-on, 

Billed til his bee bifom 

haue^ ^e wreng^e forloren, 85 

Si^n wi^ his rigte bile 

take^ mete ^at he wile. 


AI is m^ so is tis ern, 
wulde ge nu listen, 


Old in hise sinnes dem, 90 

Or he bicume^ cristen; 
and tus he newe^ him ^is man, 

¥a«ne he nime^ to kirke, 
Or he it bi^enken can, 

hise egen weren mirke; 95 

Forsaket ^re sata^nas, 

and ilk sinful dede; 
Take^ him to ih^ju crist, 

for he sal ben his mede; 
Leue^ on ure loue[r]d crist, 100 

and lereS prestes lore ; 
Of hise egen were^ ^e mist, 

wiles he drecche^ ^ore. " 
his hope is al to gode-ward, 

and of his luue he lere^, 105 

^at is te sunne sikerlike, 

¥us his sigte he bete^; 
Naked failed in '^e funt-fat, 

and cume^ ut al newe, 
buten a litel; wat is tat? no 

his mu^ is get untrewe; 
his mu^ is get wel unku^ 

wi^ paier nosier and crede ; 
Fare he nor^, er fare he su^, 

leren he sal his nede; 115 

bidden bone to gode, 

and tus his mu^ rigten; 
tilen him so ^e sowles fode, 

^urg gr^zce oflf ure drigtin. 

138 Xn. A BESTIARY, 

Natura formice. 

De mire is magti, 

mikel ge swinke^ 235 

In sum^r and \n softe wedcr, 

So we ofte sen hauen; 

In ¥e heruest 

hardilike ganged, 

and renneS rapelike, 240 

and rested hire seldum, 

and feche^ hire fode 

^er ge it mai finden, 

gaddre^ ilkines sed 

bo'^en of wude and of wed, 245 

Of corn and of gres, 

¥at [h]ire to hauen es, 

hale^ to hire hole, 

^at si¥en hire helped 

^ar ge wile ben winter agen; 250 

caue ge haue^ to crepen in, 

^at winter hire ne derie; 

Mete \n hire hule ¥at 

^at ge muge biliuen, 

^us ge tile^ ^ar, 255 

wiles ge time haue^, 

so it her teller ; 

oc finde ge 'Se wete, 

corn ¥at hire qweme^, 

AI ge forlete^ ^is o¥er se'S 260 

'^at ic her seide ; 

Ne bit ge nowt 'Se^ barlic 

beren abuten; 

^ MS. ' de/ 


oc sune^ it and sake^ forS, 

so it same were. 265 

get is wund^r of ¥is wirm 

more ^anne man wene¥, 

¥e corn ¥at ge to caue bere^ 

al get bit otwinne, 

¥at it ne forwurSe 270 

ne waxe hire fro, . 

er ge it eten wille. 


De mire mune^ us 

mete to tilen, 

Long liueno^e, 275 

¥is little wile 

¥e we on ¥is werld wunen : 


for ¥anne we of wenden, 

^anne is ure winter ; 

we sulen hung^ hauen 280 

and harde sures, 

buten we ben war here. 

do we for^i so do^ ¥is der, 

'^anne be we derue 
On ^at dai ^at dom sal ben, 285 

¥at it ne us harde rewe : 
Seke we ure liues fod, 

¥at we ben siker ^ere\ 
So ^is wirm in winter is, 

¥an ge ne tile^ nu/wmore. 290 

¥e mire sune^ ¥e barlic, 

¥anne ge fint te wete; 

> MS. ' dcrc' 



^e olde lage we ogen to sunen, 

^ newe we hauen motew. 
¥e com 'Sat ge to caue bere^, 295 

all ge it bit otwinne, 
¥e lage us lere^ to don god, 

and forbede^ us sinne. 
It bet us erSliche bodes, 

and bekue^^ [h]euelike; 300 

It fet ^e licham and te gost 

oc nowt o geuelike; 
vre louerd crist it leue us 

^at his lage us fede, 
nu and o domesdei, 305 

and tanne we hauen nede. ' 

» MS. ' bekued.' 



BEFORE A.D. I250. 

M. Paul Meyer found five short sermons in the Kentish 
dialect in Laud MS. 471 (Bodleian Library), along with their 
original in French, by Maurice de Sully. 

These five sermons are printed in * An Old English Miscellany,' 
pp. 26-36. 

Sermo in Die JEpiphame. 

CvM natus asset ihesus in betleem iude in dithus herodis 
regis ecce magi ab oriente ueneruwt ierosolimam dicentes. 
Vbi tsi qui natus est rex iudeor«;w. % We redeth i J)0 holi 
godespelle of te dai ase ure louerd god almichti i-bore was 
of ure lauedi seiwte Marie i J)e cite of bethleem. Jjct si sterre 5 
was seauinge of his beringe. swo apierede te J)0 J)rie kinges 
of hejjenesse. to-janes J)0 sunne risindde. And al swo hi 
bi-knewe his beringe bi J)0 sterre. swo hi nom^;^ conseil 
be-tuene hem J)et hi wolden gon for to hyne an-uri. and J)et 
hi wolden offri him. gold, and stor. and Mirre. And al swo 10 
hi hedden aparailed here offrendes swo kam si sterre J)et 
yede to-for hem in-to \Qrtisa\em, pere hi spekew to herodes 
and hym askede. wer was se king of gyus J)et was i-bore. 
And herodes i-herde J)et o king was i-bore J)et solde bi king 
of geus. swo was michel anud. and alle hise men. for })et 15 
he was of-dred for to liese his king-riche of \trusa\em, po 
dede he somoni alle Jjo wyse clerekes J>et kuj?e J>e laghe and 


hem askede wer crist solde bien i-bore. Hi answerden J)et 
ine \tvusa\em, for hit was swo i-seid and be-hote hwile;w bi 

20 })o profetes. And al-swo herodes i-herde J)is. swo spac te 
}>o jjrie kinges. and hem seide. GoJ> ha seide into bethleem 
and sechej) J)et child, and wanne ye hit habbeth hi-funde swo 
an-uret hit. and efter }>et cometh to me. and hie wille go 
and an-uri hit. pet ne seide he nocht herodes for J)et he hit 

25 wolde on-uri i ac for J)et he hit wolde slon. yef he hit michte 
finde. po kinges hem wenten and hi seghen J>o sterre j>et 
yede bi-fore hem. al-wat hi kam over J)0 huse. war ure 
louerd was. and al swo hi hedden i-fonden ure louerd f swo 
hin an-urede. and him ofFrede hire oftrendes. Gold. and. 

30 stor. and Mirre. po nicht efter J?et aperede an ongel of 
heuene in here slepe ine metinge and hem seide and het. 
|)et hi ne solde a-yen wende be herodes. ac be an o)>er weye 
wende into hire londes. H Lordinges and leuedis J)is is si 
glorius miracle, and si gbrius se}^winge of ure lordes beringe. 

35 J>et us tel}> ))et holi godespel of te day. and ye muee wel 
under-stonde be }>o speche of }>e godspelle }>et me sal to dai 
mor makie oflfrinke j>an an ofren daL and }>er-of us yeft 
ensample })0 }>rie kinges of hej)enesse. J)et comen fram ver- 
rene londes ure louerd to seche. and him makie oflfrinke. 

40 And be fet hi oflfrede gold. }>et is cuuenable yeftte to kinge : 
seawede fet he was sothfast king\ and be }>et hi oflfrede Stor. 
}>et me oflfrede wylem be j)0 ialde laghe to here godes sacre- 
fisef seawede J>e[t] he was verray prest. And be })et hi 
oflfrede Mirre. }>et is biter J)ing. signefieth j)et hi hedde bi- 

45 liaue J)et he was diadlich. })et dialh solde suflfri for man-ken. 
Nu i-hiereth wet signefieth j)et Gold. fet. Stor. J>et Mirre. 
And oflfre we Gostliche to ure loide. J)et [h]i oflfrede fles- 
liche. pet Gold J)et is bricht and glareth ine j)0 brichtnesse 
of J)0 sunne. signefieth the gode beleaue. J>et is bricht ine J)e 

> MS. 'kink.' 


gode cristenemannes herte. Si gode beleaue licht and is 50 
bricht ine }>o herte of \>o gode Ma«ne ase gold. OfFre we 
faime god almichti god gold. Be-leue we stede-fast-liche. 
fet he is fader and sune. and holy gost. is on-lepi god. 
Wo so hath beleaue ine gode swo offreth him god gold. J)et 
Stor signefied gode werkes. for ase se smech of J>e store 55 
wanne hit is i-do into \>e uer66 and goth upward to J)0 heuene 
and to gode ward swo amuntet si gode biddinge to gode of 
Jk) herte of j>o gode cristenemawne. Swo we mowe sigge 
j>et stor signefieth }>e herte. and se smech luue of gode. Bi ^ 
Jiet Mirre j>at is biter. a«d be l>o biternesse defendet J)et Cors 60 
j)et is mide i-smered. J>et no werm nel comme i-hende i sig- 
nefiet \>o gode werkes j)et is biter to J>o yemernesse of ure 
flesce. Si Mirre signefiet uastinge. for J>o luue of gode 
wakie. go ine pelrimage. uisiti J)e poure. and to sike. and 
to do alle }>e gode J>et he may do for godes luue. J)0 ilke 65 
finges so bieth bitere to J>o wrichede flessce. Ac al-so si 
mirre loket j)et bodi pet no werm ne may J)er i-hende come i 
so us defewdet Jjo ilke l)inges fram senne. and fram J)e amon- 
estemewt of J)0 dieule pet ha ne may us mis-do. Lordinges 
nu ye habbet i-herd j)0 signefiawce of J)0 offringes pet maden 70 
j)0 J>rie kinges of hefenesse to gode. ye^ habbet to gode 
i-offred of yure selure. and of yure er)>liche godes. Ne ne 
oflfreth him nacht on-lepiliche to day. ac alle }>o daies i J)0 
yere gostliche. Gold, and Stor. and Mirre. ase hie habbe 
i-told. Gold * fore Gode belaue. Stor i for holy urisun. 75 
Mirre. for gode werkes. \>et bieth J)0 offringes. pet ure 
louerd be-sekej) aueriche daye po cristenemawne. and were- 
fore se c/iristenm2Ln yef has dej> i of-seruet 1)0 blisce of heuene. 
And ih^ju crist )^et for us wolde an erjje bi [i]-bore. a«d 
anured of fo jjrie kinges of painime i he yeu[e] us his grace 80 
of Jk) holi gost in ure hertes wer-bi we moue hatie Jk) ileke 

' MS. • Li.» * MS. • hye.* 


jjinges ))et he hatedh. and lete \o ilke * jjinges jjat he for-biet. 
and luuie \o ilke jjinges'* \2X he luued. and do J)0 ilke' Jjinges 
\2X he hddt. ine him so bileue and bidde a«d semi. J)et we 
85 mowe habbe |?o blisce of heueriche. Q«od uobis ^restare 
dignetur iper. [&c.] 

Domzmica] secunda post octavam epiphanie, Sermo Euan. 

Nuptie f<2c/e su«t in chana galiMe. et erat mater ih^ ju ibi. 
Vocatus est 2Mdem ih^jwj ad nuptias et discipuli eius. H pet 
holj godspel of to day us telj). Jjet a bredale was i-maked ine 

90 \o londe of ierwj^Wm. in ane cite J)at was i-cleped Cane in 
jja time })at godes sune yede in erjje fles[ch]liche ac. To J)a 
bredale was ure leuedi seiwte Marie, and ure louerd '-^esus 
crist and hise deciples. so iuel auenture Jjet wyn failede. at 
J)ise bredale. |?o seide ure leuedi seinte Marie, to here sune. 

95 hi ne habbet no wyn. And ure louerd answerde and sede to 
hire. Wat be-longeth hit to me ojjer to ))e wyman. Nu ne 
dorste hi namore sigge. ure lauedi. Hac hye spac to \o 
serganz ))et seruede of \o wyne. and hem seyde. al J)et he 
hot yu do \ so doj). And ure louerd clepede ))e serganz a«d 

100 seyde to him. Fol-vellet ha seyde. }>os Ydres. J>et is to 
sigge J>os Cr66s. o{)er J>os fatew of watere. for })er were, 
vi. Ydres of stone. Jjet ware i-clepede bal)ieres wer })0 %\us 
hem wesse for clenesse. and for religiun. Ase J)e custome 
was ine \o time. \o sergawz uuluelden Jjo faten of watere 

105 and hasteliche was i-went into wyne. bie j>o wille of ure 
louerde, \o seide ure lord, to \o serganz. Moveth to-gid^re 
and bereth to Architriclin. J>at was se J>et ferst was i-serued. 
And al-so hedde i-drunke of J)ise wyne })et ure louerd hedde 
i-maked of })e watere : ha niste nocht })e miracle, ac Jjo 

no serganz wel hit wiste. ))et hedde Jjet water i-brocht. \o seide 

» MS. • ileke/ » MS. * ilek )>inkes.' » MS. • ilck.* 


Architriclin to J)0 bredgume. Ojjer men seyde he do}) forj) 
J)et beste wyn Jjet hi habbej) ferst at here bredale, and j>u 
hest ido }>e contr^rie jx?t }>u hest i-hialde J>et beste wyn wat 
nu f jjis was fe commtncernQni of j>o miracles of ure louerde 
J)et he made flesliche in erj)e, and ))0 beleuede on himf his 115 
deciples, Ine sigge nacht })et hi ne hedden Jjer before ine 
him beliaue f ac fore j)e miracle j)et hi seghe f was here 
beliaue J)e more i-stre//g})ed, Nu ye habbej) i-herd j)e Mira- 
cle, nu i-here|) j)e signefiance, pet wat^r bitockned se euele 
f^ristenemaw, for al-so J>et wat^r is natureliche chald and 120 
a-kelj) alle jjo \eX. hit drinkej>f so is se euele r-^risteman 
chald of J50 luue of Gode, for })0 euele werkes fet hi doj). 
Ase so is Lecherie, spusbreche, Roberie. Manslechtes, Hus- 
berners. Bakbiteres. and alle oj)re euele deden. })urch wyche 
})inkes man ofserueth })et fer of helle. Ase godes oghe 125 
mudh hit seid. and alle J>o signefied j>et wat^rf J>et Jjurch. 
yem<?re werkes. oJ)er Jjurch yemer i-wil liesed j>o blisce of 
heuene. J)et wyn fat is naturelliche hot ine him-selue f and 
an-het alle \o |?et hit drinkedf be-tokned alle J>o |?et bied 
an-h^dt of })e luue of ure lorde. Nu lordinges ure lord god 130 
almichti. J)at hwylem in one stede. and ine one time flesliche 
makede of wat^re wyn f yet habbej) manitime maked of 
watere wyn f gostliche. wanne })urch his grace maked of Jjo 
euele manne good man. of })e orgeilus umble. of })e lechur 
chaste, of })e nij)inge large, and of alle oj)re folies f so ha 135 
maket of j)0 wat(?re wyn. J)is his si signefiance of })e miracle. 
Nu loke euerich man toward him-seluen. yef he is win f J)et 
is to siggen yef he is an-heet of j)0 luue of gode. ojjer yef he 
is wat^r. j>et is yef })U art chold of godes luue. yef ))U art 
euel man i besech ure lorde fet he do ine \q his uertu. J)et 140 
ha ]?e wende of euele into gode. and J)et he do j^e do swiche 
werkes ))et J)u mote habbe \o blisce of heuene. Quod uohis, 
prestare digneiur [Sfcl 

VOL. I. L 



A.D. I 246-1 250. 

The poem containing the Proverbs of Alfred was once very 
popular in England. It professes to contain the wise sayings 
dehvered by Alfred to his Witenagem6t at Seaford. Allu- 
sions are made to these Proverbs in the poem of the Owl and 

There is a MS. of this poem in Jesus College, Oxford (29), 
and another in Lincoln College, Oxford. There were copies 
in Trinity College, Cambridge, and Cotton Collection, Galba 
A xix, which are now lost. 

The present selection, in the Southern dialect, is taken from 
* An Old English Miscellany * (edited for the Early English Text 
Society by Dr. Morris, 1872), pp. io2-'i3o, 

Incipiunt documenta Regis AluredL 


At Seuorde 

s^te Jjeynes monye. 

fele Biscopes. 

and feole bok-il^red. 

Eorles prute. 5 

knyhtes egleche. 


J)ar wes )>e eorl Alurich. 

of J>are lawe swijjc wis. 

And ek Ealured 

englene hurde. 10 

Englene durlyngf 

on englene londe he wes kyng. 

Heom he bi-gon Idre. 

so ye mawe i-hure. 

hw hi. heore lif ic 

lede scholden. 

Alured. he wes in englene lond. 

and king, wel swij>e strong. 

He wes king, and he wes clerek, 

wel he luuede godes werk. 20 

He wes wis on his word. 

and war. on his werke. 

he wes J>e wysuste mon i 

})at wes engle-londe on. 


pvs que}) Alured 25 

englene frouer. 

wolde ye mi leode 

lusten dure lou^rde. 

he 6u wolde wyssye. 

wisliche J>inges. 30 

hw ye myhte worldes. 

w[u]rj)sipes welde. 

and ek eure saule. 

somnen to criste. 

wyse were fe wordes. 35 

J)e seyde pe king Alured. 

L 2 


Mildeliche ich Munye. 

myne leoue freond. 

poure and riche. 

leode myne 40 

J)at ye alle andrede. 

vre dryhten crist. 

luuyen hine and lykyen. 

for he is lou^rd of lyf. 

He is one. godl 45 

ouer alle godnesse. 

He is one gleaw. 

ouer alle glednesse. 

He is one. blisse. 

ou^r alle blissen. 50 

He is one monne. 

Mildest mayster. 

He is one. folkes fader, 

and frouer. 

He is one. rihtwis. 55 

and so riche king. 

\>3X him ne schal beo wone. 

nouht of his wille. 

J>e^ hine her on worlde. 

w[u]rj)ie jjenchej). ... 60 


pus que}) Alured. 

pe eorl and })e e})elyng. 

ibure}) vnder g6dne king. 75 

J)at lond to leden. 

myd lawelyche deden. 

1 MS. * we.' 


And J)e clerek and J>e knyht. 

he schulle d^men euelyche riht. 

j>e poure. and J>e ryche. 80 

ddmen ilyche. 

Hwych so }>e mon soweJ> i 

al swuch he schal mowe. 

And eu^niyches monnes dom. 

to his owere dure churre)). ... 


J)us quej> Alured. 

Monymon wene)) 160 

J>at he wene ne J)arf. 

longes lyues. 

ac him lyej) J?e wrench. 

for J>anne his lyues 

dire best luuede. 165 

})enne he schal Idtenf 

lyf his owe. 

for nys no w[u]rt wexynde^ 

a wude. ne a velde. , 

)>at euer mvwe J>as feye ^ , 'V^b^^ V- 

furj) vp-holde. 

Not no mon J>ene tyme. 

hwanne he schal. heonne tume. 

Ne nomon J)ene ende. 

hwenne he schal heonne wende. 175 

Dryhten hit one wojt. 

dowej)es louerd, 

hwanne vre lif 

leten schule. . . . 

* MS. *uexynde.* 



J)us que J) Alured. 195 

Ne ilef J)U nouht to fele. 

uppe })e s66 J>at floweJ>. 

If jju hafst madmes 

monye and inowe. 

gold and seoluer. 200 

hit schal gnyde to nouht. 

to duste hit schal dryuen. 

Dryhten schal libben euere. 

Monymon for his gold. 

hauej) godes vrre. 205 

And for his seoluer. 

hym seolue for-yemeJ>. 

for-yete}) and forlesej). 

Betere him by-come 

iboren J)at he ndre. ... 210 


l)us quej> Alured. 

If ))U hauest seorewe. 

ne seye J)U hit nouht j)an are we. 

seye hit j)ine sadelbowe. 

and ryd ]>e singinde for]). 230 

j>enne wile wene. \^. • ^ ^ 

yet })ine wise ne conf '/ ' 

jjat J)e J)ine wise wel lyke. 

serewe if })U hauest. 

and })e erewe hit wotf \ 235 

by-fore, he J)e menej)* 

by-hynde he J)e telej). 



J)U hit myht segge swyhc mow. 

J)at J)e ful wel on. '^^<^^v^ j/- ''r^ ku ' ^ ^ - 

wy))-vte echere ore. ' ^ • ' - ^< "^v . .^. -2^;^ 

he on J)e Muchele more. 

By-hud hit on ))ire heorte f 

))at ))e eft ne. smeorte. 

Ne let J)u hyne'wite. 

al J)at J)in heorte by-wite. ... 245 



bus queb Alured. , , ■ / ,v- - 4»o 

Ne gabbe J)u ne schotte. '''^^L 

ne chid J)U wyj) none sotte. 

ne myd manyes cunnes tales. 

ne chid J)u wij) nenne d wales. 

Ne neu^r ))U ne bi-gynne. 415 

to telle ))ine tyj)inges. 

At nones fremannes bprde. 

ne haue ))u to "feTe wdrde. 

Mid fewe worde. wismon 

fele biluken wel con. 420 

And sottes bolt is sone i-scohte. 

for-J)i ich holde hine for [a] dote. 

))at say)) al his wille. 

J)anne he scholde beon stille. 

For ofte tunge brekej) bon f 425 

))eyh heo seolf nabbe non. 


J)us que)) Alureli. 

Wis child is fader blisse. 

If hit so bi-tyde)> 


j)at ))U bem ibidest. 430 

j)e hwile hit is lutel. 

ler him mon-J>ewes. 

J)anne hit is wexyndet 

hit schal wende J)ar-to. / 

J>e betere hit schal ivnirf^^^ '^^ * 435 

euer buuen eorJ>e. r 

Ac if }>u him lest welde. 

werende^on worlde. 

lude and stille. 

his owene wille. 440 

hwanne cumej) ealde. 

ne myht J)u hyne awelde. 

J)anne dej) hit sone. 

]?at J)e bij> vnyqueme., . ...a/ 

Ofer-howeJ) ))in ibod. 445 

and makej> ))e ofte sory-mod. 

Betere J>e were. 

iboren J)at he nere. 

for betere is child vnbore. 

J)ane vnbuhsum. 450 

J)e mon ))e spare)) yeorde. 

and yonge childe. 

and let hit arixlye. 

J)at he hit areche ne may. 

J>at him schal on ealde * 455 

sore reowe. Amen, 

Expliciunt dicta Regis Aluredi, 

^ Read wexende ; see 1. 433. 



ABOUT A,D. 1250. 

The following passages in the life of Joseph are taken from 
* The Story of Genesis and Exodus,' an Early English song, edited 
for the Early English Text Society by R. Morris, 1865. 

Nothing is known of the author of this interesting version ; the 
MS. from which it is edited was written shortly before a.d. 1300, 
and the dialect is most probably the East-Midland of South 

FOr sextene ger ioseph was old, 
Qwane he was in-to egipte sold; 
He was iacobes gunkeste sune, 
Brictest of wastme^ and of witt^ wune, 1910 

If he sag hise bre^ere mis-faren, 
His fader he it gan vn-hillen & baren; 
He wulde ^at he sulde hem ten 
^at he wel ^ewed sulde ben; 

for-^i wexem wi^ [him] gret ni^ 1915 

And hate, for it in ille li%. 
¥0 wex her hertes ni^ful & bold 
Qwanne he hem adde is dremes told, 
¥at his handful stod rigt up soren, 
And here it leigen alle hem bi-foren; 1920 

* MS. * waspene.* 


And sunne, & mone, & sterres .xi©. 

wurSeden him wi^ frigti luue; 

¥o seide his fader, *hu mai ^is sen 

¥at ^u salt ^us wur¥ed ben, 

^at ^ine bre¥ere, and ic, and she 1925 

'Sat ¥e bar, sulen luten ¥e?' 

^us he chidden hem bi-twen, 

^oge ^hogte iacob si^e it sulde ben. 

Hise bre^ere kepten at sichem 

Hirdnesse, & iacob to sen hem 1930 

sente ioseph to dalen ebron ; 

And he was redi his wil to don. 

In sichem feld ne fonde hem nogt. 

In dotayin he fond hem sogt; 

He knewen hi;« fro feren kumen, 1935 

Hate hem on ros, in herte numen; 

Swilc ni^ & hate ros hem on, 

He redden alle him for to slon. 

'Nai,' qwad ruben, *slo we him nogt, 

O^er sinne may ben wrogt, 1940 

Q«at-so him drempte ¥or q«iles he slep, 

In ^is cisternesse^ old and dep. 

Get wur^ [h]e worpen naked and cold, 

Qwat-so his dremes owen a-wold.' 

^is dede was don wid herte sor, 1945 

Ne wulde ruben nogt drechen ^or; 

He gede and sogte an o^er stede, 

His erue in bettre lewse he dede; 

Vdas dor qwiles gaf hem red, 

^at was fulfilt of deme sped; 1950 

fro galaad men wi^ chafare 

* MS. * ^isternessc* 


Sag he ^or kumen wid spices ware; 

To-warde egipte he gunne ten. 

ludas tagte hu it sulde ben, 

Joseph solde ^e bre^ere ten, 1955 

for .XXX. plates to ¥e chapmen; 

Get wast bettre he ^us was sold, 

dan he ¥or storae in here wold. 

Dan Tuhen cam =55ider a-gen, 
to ^at cist<?messe he ran to sen; i960 

He missed Joseph and ^hogte swem, 
wende him slagen, set up an rem; 
Nile he blinnen, swilc sorwe him^ cliued. 
Til him he sweren ^at he liued. 
^o nomen he ^e childes srud, 1965 

^e iacob hadde madim in prud; 
In kides blod he wenten it, 
¥0 was ^or-on an rewli lit. 
Sondere men he it leiden on, 
And senten it iacob i«-to ebron, 1970 

And shewed it hi;;z, and boden him sen 
If his childes wede it migte ben ; 
Senten him bode he funden it. 
¥0 iacob sag dat sori writ, 

He gret, and seide ¥at 'wilde der 1975 

Hauen min sune swolgen her.' 
His clones rent, in haigre srid. 
Long grot and sorge is him bi-tid. 
His sunes comen him to sen, 
And hertedin him if it migte ben; 1980 

*Nai! nai!' qwat he, 'helped it nogt, 
Mai non herti;^g on me ben wrogt ; 

1 MS. * he.' 


ic sal ligten till helle dale, 

And groten ^r min sunes bale.' 

(^r was in helle a sundri stede, 1985 

wor ^Q seli folc reste dede; 

^or he stunden til helpe cam, 

Til ih^ju crist fro ^e>5en hem ^ nam.) 

^e chapmen skinden* here fare, 

In-to egipte ledden ^at ware; 1990 

wi^ putifar ^ kinges stiward. 

He maden swi^e bigetel forward, 

So michel fe ^or is hem told, 

He hauen him bogt, he hauen sold. 

Pvtifar trewi^ hise wiwes tale. 
And haued dempt iosep to bale; 
He bad [him] ben sperd fast[e] dun, 
And holden harde in prisun. 2040 

Anlitel stund, qwile he was ^r. 
So ggin him luuen ^e pn'suner. 
And him de chartre haue^ bi-tagt, 
wi^ ^o pnsunes to liuen in hagt. 
Or for misdede, or for on-sagen, 2045 

^r woren to ^at pnsun dragen, 
On ^at ^ kinges kuppe bed. 
And on ^e made ^e kinges bred; 
Hem drempte dremes bo^n onigt, 
And he wurSen swi¥e sore o-frigt; 2050 

Joseph hem seruede ^r on sel. 
At here drink and at here mel. 
He herde hem mwmen, he hem freinde for-q«at; 
Harde dremes ogen awold ^at. 

» MS. ' »eden he.' ^ MS. * skiuden; 


^o seide he to ^e butuler, 2055 

*Tel me ^In drem, mi broker her. 
Q«e^er-so it wur^e softe or strong, 
^e reching wurS on god bi-long/ 
*"liyre drempte, ic stod at a win-tre, 

lYL ^at adde waxen buges ^re, 2060 

Orest it blomede, an J si^en bar 
^e beries ripe, wnrS ic war; 
^e kinges [kuppe] ic hadde on bond, 
^e beries ^or-inne me ^hugte ic wrong, 
And bar it drinken to pharaon, 2065 

Me drempte, als ic was wune to don/ 
< f^ ood is,' qwa^ Joseph, * to dremen of win, 

vJ heilnesse an blisse is ^er-in; 
^re daies ben get for to cumen, 
^u salt ben ut of pnsun numen, 2070 

And on ^in oflSz set agen; 
Of me ^u ^henke ^an it sal ben. 
Bed min herdne to pharaon, 
^a[t] ic ut of pr/sun wur^e don, 
for ic am stolen of kinde lond, 2075 

and her wrigteleslike holden m bond/ 

Qua^ ^is bred-wrigte, Mi^e^ nu me, 
me drempte ic bar bread-lepes ^re, 
And ^or-in bread and o^er meten, 
Qwilke ben wune ¥e kinges to eten; 2080 

And fugeles hauen ^or-on lagt, 
^or-fore ic am in sorge and hagt, 
for ic ne migte me nogt weren, 
Ne ¥at mete fro hem beren/ 
*1\/r® wore leuere,' qwad Joseph, 2085 

-Ll-L * Of eddi dremes rechen swep ; 
^u salt, after ¥e ^ridde dei, 


ben do on rode, weila-wei! 

And fugeles sulen ^i fleis to-teren, 

^at sal non agte mugen ^ weren/ 2090 

So^ wur6 so ioseph seide ^t, 

^is buteler Ioseph sone for-gat. 

Two ger si^en was Ioseph sperd 

^or in pr/*sun wi^-uten erd; 

Do drempte pharaon king a drem, 2095 

^at he stod bi ^e flodes strern, 
And ¥eden ut-comen .vii. neet, 
Eumlc wel swi^e fet and gret. 
And .viL lene after ¥0, 

^e deden ^^e .vii. fette wo, a 100 

^e lene hauen 'Se fette freten; 
^is drem ne mai 'Se king for-geten. 
An o^er drem cam Mim bi-foren, 
.vii. eares wexen fette of coren, 
On an busk, ranc and wel tidi, 2105 

And .vii. lene rigt ^or-bi, 
welkede, and smale, and drugte numen, 
¥e ranc he hauen ^ ou^r-cumen, 
To-samen it smiten and, on a stund, 
^ fette 'JSrist hem to ^ grund. 2 no 

'Se king abraid and woe in ^hogt, 
^s dremes swep ne wot he nogt, 
Ne was non so wis man \n al his lond, 
¥e kude vn-don ^is dremes bond ; 
^o him bi-^hogte "Sat buteler 2 115 

Of ^at him drempte in prisun ^r, 
And of ioseph in ^e prisun, 
And he it tolde ^ king pharaun. 
Ioseph was sone in prisun ¥0 sogt*, 

* MS. 'hogt.* 


And shauen, & clad, & to him brogt; 2120 

¥e king him bad ben hardi & bold, 

If he can rechen ^is dremes wold; 

He told him qwat him drempte o nigt, 

And iosep rechede his drem wel rigt. 

*^is two dremes bo^en ben on, 2125 

God wile ^ tawnen, king pharaon; 

^o .vij. ger ben get to cumen, 

In al fulsum-hed sulen it ben numen, 

And .vij. o^ere sulen after ben, 

Sori and nedful men sulen is sen; 2130 

Al ^at ^ise first ,vii. maken, 

Sulen ^is o^ere vii. rospen & raken; 

Ic rede ^e king, nu her bi-foren, 

To maken la^es and gadere« coren, 

^at ^in folc ne wurS vnder-numen, 2135 

Q«an ^o hungri gere ben forS-cumen/ 

King pharaon listnede hise red, 

^at wur^ him si^en seli sped. 

He bi-tagte iosep his ring, 

And his bege of gold for wurSing, 2140 

And bad him al his lond bi-sen. 

And under him hegest for to ben, 

And bad him welden in his bond 

His folc, and agte, & al his lond; 

^o was vnder him ^anne putifar, 2145 

And his wif ^at hem ^ so to-bar. 

Iosep to wiue his dowter nam, 

O^er is nu ^an^ ear bi-cam; 

And ghe ^er him two childer bar, 

Or men wurS of ^at hunger war, 2150 

first manassen and effraym; 

» MS. * him.* a MS. ♦ quzn." 


He luueden god, he geld it hem. 

¥e .vii. fulsu;;2 geres faren, 

losep cu^e him bi-foren waren; 

¥an coren wantede in o^er lond, 2155 

^o ynug [was] vnder his hond, 

Hvnger wex in lond chanaan, 
And his .x. sunes iacob for-¥an 
Sente in to egipt to bringen coren; 
He bilef at hom ^e was gungest boren. 2160 

¥e .X. comen, for nede sogt, 
To losep, and he ne knewen him nogt; 
And ¥og he lutten him frigtilike, 
An^ seiden to him mildelike, 
*We ben sondes for nede driuen 2165 

To bigen coren ^or-bi to liuen.' 
(losep hem knew al in his ^hogt 
Als he let he knew hem nogt.) 
*It semet wel ^at ge spies ben, 
And in to ^is lond cumen to sen, 2170 

And cume ge for non o¥er ^ing, 
but for to spien ur lord ^ king.' 
*Nai,' he seiden eumlc on, 

* Spies were we neu^r non, 

Oc alle we ben on faderes sunen, 2175 

For hunger do¥es hider cumen.' 

* Oc nu ic wot ge spies ben, 

for bi gure bering men mai it sen; 

Hu sulde oni man, poure for-geten, 

swilke and so manige sunes bigeten? 2180 

for seldu;;2 bi-tid self ani king 

swilc men to sen of hise ofspring/ 

* A lou^rd, merci! get is ¥or on, 
xjL migt he nogt fro his fader gon; 


He is gungest, hoten beniamin, 2185 

for we ben alle of ebrisse kin/ 
'Nu, bi ^e fei^ ic og to king pharaon, 
sule ge nogt alle e^en gon, 
Til ge me bringen beniamin, 
¥a[t] gungeste broker of gure kin.* 2190 

For ^ was losep sore for-dred 
^at he wore oc ^hurg hem for-red; 
He dede hem binden, and leden dun, 
And speren faste in his prisun ; 
^ ^ridde dai he let hem gon, 2195 

Al but ^ ton bro^r symeon; 
^is symeon bi-lef ^t in bond, 
To wedde under losepes bond, 
^es o'Sere bre^ere, sone on-on. 
Token leue. and wenten hom ; 2200 

And sone he weren ¥eden went, 
Wei sore he hauen hem bi-ment, 
And seiden hem ^an ^or bi-twen, 
*Wrigtful we in sorwe ben, 

for we sinigeden quilum or 2205 

On hure broker michil mor, 
for we werneden him merci, 
Nu drege we sorge al for-^i/ 
Wende here non it on his mod, 
Oc losep al it under-stod. 2210 

osepes men ^or qwiles deden 
Al-so losep hem adde beden; 
^o bre^ere seckes hauen he filt, 
And in eu^rilc ^e silu^r pilt 

^at ¥or was paid for ¥e coren, 2215 

And bun den ^e mu^es ^or bi-foren ; 
Oc ^e bre^ere ne wiste« it nogt 




Hu ¥is dede wur^e wrogt; 

Oc alle he weren ou^r-¥ogt, 

And hauen it so to iacob brogt, 2220 

And tolden him so of here sped, 

And al he it listnede m frigtihed ; 

And qwan men ^ seckes ^or un-bond, 

And in ^ coren ^9 agtes fond, 

Alle he woren ^anne son ofrigt. 2225 

Iacob ^us him bi-mene^ o-rigt, 

'Wei michel sorge is me bi-cumen, 

^t min two childre aren me for-nume«; 

Of losep wot ic ending non, 

And bondes ben leid on symeon; 2230 

If ge beniamin fro me don, 

Dead and sorge me sege^ on; 

Ai sal beniamin wi^ me bi-lewen 

¥or qmles ic sal on werlde liuen/ 

^o q«a^ iudas, *us sal ben hard, 2235 

If we no holden him non forward.' 

Wex der^e, 'Sis coren is gon, 
Iacob eft bit hem faren agon, 
Oc he ne duren ^e weie cumen in, 
*but ge wi^ us senden beniamin;' 2240 

^o q«a^ he, 'q«an it is ned, 
And [I] ne can no bettre red, 
Bere^ dat silu^r hoi agon, 
^at hem ¥or-of ne wante non, 
And o¥er siluer ¥or bi-foren, 2245 

for to bigen wi^ o^er coren; 
fruit and spices of dere pris, 
Bere^ ^at man ¥at is so wis; 
God hunne him e^emoded^ ben, 

* MS. * e-Simodes.' 


And sende me min childre agen/ 2250 

¥0 nomen he forS weie rigt, 
Til he ben cumen in-to egypte ligt ; 
And qt/anne losep hem alle sag, 
^Kinde ^ogt in his herte was. 
He bad his stiward gerken is meten, 2255 

He seide he sulden wi^ him alle eten ; 
He ledde hem alle to losepes biri, 
Her non hadden ^o loten miri. 
'Lou^d/ he seiden ¥0 eu^rilc on, 
*Gur silu^ is gu brogt a-gon, 2260 

It was in ure seckes don, 
Ne wiste ur non gilt ¥or-on.' 
*Be^ nu stille,' qaad stiward, 
'for ic nu haue min forward/ 
¥or cam ^at broker symeon 2265 

And kiste is bre^ere on and on ; 
Wei fagen he was of here come, 
for he was numen '^or to nome. 
It was vndren time or more, 
Om cam ^at riche lou^rd 'Sore; 2270 

And al ^o bri¥ere, of frigti mod, 
fellen bi-forn ¥at lou^rd-is fot. 
And bedden him riche present 
^at here fader hi[m] adde sent; 
And he leuelike it under-stod, 2275 

for alle he weren of kinde blod. 
*T lue^,' qaad he, *^at fader get, 
JL-i =Sat ¥us manige sunes bi-gat?' 
Mou^rd,* he seiden, *get he liue^': — 
Wot ic %or non ¥at he ne biue^r — 2280 

'And ^is is gunge beniamin, 

* ? Kind Cogt was in his herte "Sag. 

M 2 


Hider brogt after bode-word ^in.' 

^ losep sag him ^r bi-foren, 

Bi fader & moder broker boren, 

Him oufr-wente his herte oxi-on, 2285 

Kinde luue gan him ou^r-gon ; 

Sone he gede ut and stille he gret, 

'Sat al his wlite wurS teres wet. 

After ^at grot, he weis is wliten, 

And cam ^an in and bad he/« eten; 2290 

He dede hem wassen and him bi-foren, 

And sette hem as he weren boren; 

Get he ^hogte of his faderes wunes 

Hu he sette at ^e mete hise sunes; 

Of eu^rilc sonde, of eu^rilc win, 2295 

most and best he gaf beniamin. 

In fulsn/w-hed he wur6en gla^, 

losep ne ^oht ¥or-of no sca^, 

Oc it him likede swi^e wel, 

And hem lerede and tagte wel, 2300 

And hu he sulden hem best leden. 

Queue he comen in vnkinde ¥eden ; 

*And al ^e bettre sule ge speden, 

If ge wilen gu wi^ trewei^e leden.' 

Eft on morwen qwan it was dai, 2305 

Or or ^e bre^ere ferden a-wei. 

Here seckes woren alle filt wi^ coren, 

And ¥e siluer ^r-in bi-foren; 

And ¥e seek ^at agte beniamin 

losepes cuppe hid was ^or-in; 2310 

And q^/uan he weren ut tune went, 

losep haue^ hem after sent. 

^is sonde hem ou^rtake^ ra^, 

And bi-calle^ of harme and sca^e ; 


*Vn-seli men, q^/at haue ge don? 2315 

Gret vn-sel¥ehe is gu cumen on, 

for is it nogt min lord for-holen, 

'^a[t] gure on haue^ is cuppe stolen.' 

^[o] seiden ^ bre^ere sikerlike, 

'Vp quom ^u it findes witterlike, 2320 

He [be] slagen and we agen driuen 

In-to ^raldom, eu^rmor to liuen/ 

He gan hem ransaken on and on, 

And fond it ^or sone a-non, 

And nam ^o bre^ere eu^rilk on, 2325 

And ledde hem sorful a-gon, 

And brogte hem bi-for iosep 

Wid reweli lote, and sorwe, and wep. 

¥0 qudX iosep, *ne wiste ge nogt 

^at ic am o wol witter ^ogt ? 2330 

Mai nogt longe me ben for-holen 

Qwat-so-eu^re on londe wur^ stolen.' 

'Lou^rdl' q«ad ludas, 'do wi^ me 

Q«at-so ^i wille on werlde be, 

Wi^-^an-¥at ^u fri^ beniamin; 2335 

ic ledde [him] ut on trewthe min, 

¥at he sulde ef[t] cumen a-gen 

to hise fader, and wi^ him ben.' 

^ cam iosep swilc rew^e up-on, 

he dede halle ut ^e to^ere gon, 2340 

And spac un-e^es, so e gret, 

¥at alle hise wlite wurS teres wet. 

*Ic am iosep, drede^ gu nogt, 

for gure hel^e or hider brogt; 

To ger ben nu ¥at derSe is cumen, 2345 

Get sulen .v. fuUe ben numen, 

^t men ne sulen sowen ne sheren, 


So sal drugte ^ feldes deren. 

Rape^ gu to min fader a-gen, 

And sei^ him qmlke min blisses ben, 2350 

And do^ him to me cumen hider, 

And ge and gure orf al to-gider; 

Of lewse god in lond gersen 

sulen ge sundri riche ben/ 

Eu^rilc he kiste, on ilc he gret, 2355 

lie here was of is teres wet. 

Sone it was king pharaon kid 
Hu ^is newe tiding wurS bi-tid ; 
And he was bli^, in herte fagen, 
^at losep wulde him ^ider dragen, 2360 

for luue of losep migte he timen. 
He bad cartes and waines nimen, 
And fechen wiues, and childre, and men, 
And gaf hem ^r al lond gersen, 
And het hem ^at he sulden hauen 2365 

More and bet ^an he kude crauen. 
losep gaf ilc here twinne snid, 
Beniamin most he made pnid; 
fif weden best bar beniamin, 

^re hundred plates of silu^r fin, 2370 

Al-so fele o^re ^or-til. 
He bad ben in is faderes wil, 
And .X. asses wi^ semes fest; 
Of aile egiptes weKhe best 

Graf he is bre^re, wi^ herte bli^e, 2375 

And bad hem rapen hem homward swi¥e ; 
And he so deden wi^ herte fagen. 
Toward here fader he gunen dragen, 
And qwane he comen him bi-foren, 
Ne wiste he nogt q«at he woren. 2380 


*Lou^rd,' he seiden, * Israel, 

losep "^in sune grete^ 'Se wel, 

And sende6 'Se bode ^at he liueth, 

Al egipte in his wil cliue^/ 

lacob a-braid, and txewed it nogt, 2385 

Til he sag al ^zX yreV6e brogt. 

*Wel me/ qua^ he, *wel is me wel, 

^at ic aue abiden ^us swil[c] sell 

And ic sal to min sune fare 

And sen [him], or ic of werlde chare.' 2390 

Acob^ wente ut of lond chanaan. 

And of is kinde wel manie a man ; 

losep wel faire him vnder-stod, 

And pharaon ^ogte it ful good ; 

for ^at he weren hirde-men, 2395 

He bad hem ben in lond gersen. 

lacob was brogt bi-foren ^e king 

for to geuen him his bliscing. 

'fader dere,' qud}6 pharaon, 

*hu fele ger be ^ on?' 2400 

*An hundred ger and .xxx. mo 

Haue ic her drogen in werlde wo, 

^og ^inke^ me 'Sor-offen fo, 

^og ic is haue drogen in wo, 

si¥en ic gan on werlde ben, 2405 

Her vten erd, man-kin bi-twen; 

So linked eu^rilc wis[e] man, 

^e wot q«or-of man-kin bi-gan, 

And ^e of adames gilte mune^, 

^at he her uten herdes wune^/ ^2410 

Pharaon bad him wurSen wel 
in softe reste and seli mel; 
Him 2 and hise sunes in reste dede 

> Read J^coh. « MS, 'he' 


In lond gersen, on sundri stede; 
Si^en ^or was mad on scit^, 2415 

^ was y-oten Rames^. 
lacob on line wunede ^or 
In reste fuUe .xiiij. ger; 
And god him let bi-foren sen 
Q«ilc time hise ending sulde ben; 2420 

He bad iosep his leue sune 
On ^hing ¥at [he] offe wel mune, 
'Sat qusxi it wurS mid him don, 
He sulde him birien in ebron; 
And witterlike he it aue6 him seid, 2425 

^ stede ^or abraham was leid; 
So was him lif to wurSen leid, 
Qwuor ali gast stille hadde seid 
Him and hise eldere{.) fer ear bi-foren, 
Qwuor iesu crist wulde ben boren, 2430 

And qwuor ben dead, and qwuor ben grauen; 
He ^ogt wi^ hem reste to hauen. 
Iosep swor him al-so he bad, 
And he ^r-of wurS bliSe & glad. 
Or ^n he wiste oiGF werlde faren, 2435 

He bade hise kinde to him charen, 
. And seide q«at of hem sulde ben, 
Hali gast dede it him seen; 
In dene ending and ali lif. 

So he for-let %[s werldes strif. ^440 

Osep^dede hise lich faire geren, 
Wassen, and riche-like smeren, 
And spice-like swete smaken; 
And egipte folc him bi-waken 
xl. nigtes and .xl. daiges, 2445 

swilc woren egipte lages 

* Read ]ostp. 


And pharaon king cam bode bi-foren, 2475 

^at losep haue^ his fader sworen; 

And he it him gatte ^or he wel dede, 

And bad him nimen hi^ feres mide, 

Wel wopnede men and wis of here[n], 

dat noman hem bi weie deren ; 2480 

^bX here is led, ^is folc is rad, 

he foren a-buten bi adad; 

fill seuene nigt he ^r abiden, 

And bi-meni«g for iacob deden; 

So longe he hauen ^e^en numen, 2485 

To ^um iurdon ^at he ben ciimen. 

And ou^r pharan til ebron; 

^or is '^at liche in biriele don, 

And losep in to egipte went, 

Wid al is folc ut wi^ him [s]ent. 2490 

Hise bre^ere comen him ^anne to, 
And gunnen him bi-seken alle so; 
*Vre fader,' he seiden, 'or he was dead, 
Vs he ^is bodewurd seigen bead, 
Hure sinne ^u \nm for-giue, 2495 

Wi^-¥anne-^at we vnder ^ liuen.' 
Alle he fellen him ^r to fot, 
To be^en me^ and bedden ot^; 
And he it for-gaf hem mildelike, 
And luuede hem alle kinde-like. 2500 

Osep an hundred ger was hold, 
And his kin wexen manige-fold; 
He bad sibbe cumen him bi-foren, 
Or he was ut of werlde boren; 
*It sal,' qwa^ he, *ben so^, bi-foren 2505 

¥at god ha^ ure eldere sworen; 

» MS. ' oc* 


He sal gu leden in his bond 

He^n to ^at hotene lond; 

for godes luue get bid ic gu, 

LesteJS* it 'Sanne, bote^ it nu, 2510 

'Sat mine bene ne be for-loren, 

wi^ gu ben mine bones boren.' 

He it him gatten and wurS he dead, 

God do ^ soule seli red! 

Hise liche was spice-like maked, 2515 

And longe egipte-like waked, 

And ^o biried hem bi-foren, 

And si'Sen late of londe boren. 

Hise o^re bre^ere, on and on, 

Woren ybiried at ebron. 2520 

An her endede, to ful in wis, 

^e boc ^e is hoten genesis, 

^ moyses, ^urg godes red, 

Wrot for lefful soules ned. 

God schilde hise sowle fro belle bale, 2525 

^ made it 'Sus on engel talel 

And he ^at %iise lettres wrot, 

God him helpe well mot, 

And berge is sowle fro sorge & grot 

Of helle pine, cold & hot ! 2530 

And die men, ^e it heren wilen, 

God leue hem in his blisse spilen 

Among engeles & seli men, 

Wi^uten ende in reste ben, 

And luue & pais us bi-twen, 2535 

And god so graunte, amen, amen! 

» MS. * Lested/ 



A.D. 1 246-1 250. 

The poem entitied *The Owl and the Nightingale' (edited 
for the Roxburghe Society by the Rev. J. Stevenson, 1838 ; for 
the Percy Society by Thomas Wright, M.A., F.S.A., 1843; 
and by Francis Henry Stratmann, of Krefeld, 1868) is attri- 
buted to Nicholas de Guildford, who is mentioned in the poem 
itself as living at Portesham in Dorsetshire. 

The precise date of the piece is a matter of dispute, some 
critics ascribing it to the reign of Henry HI, and others to 
that of Edward I, but it is certainly not later than the time of 
Henry HI. For proofs of date see * An Old English Miscellany,' 
Preface, p. xi. 

The poem is written in the dialect of the south of England, 
but is free from any of those broad provincialisms which cha- 
racterise a particular county. 

The Owl and the Ntghiittgale, 

[Collated with Cotton MS. Calig. A. ix, and Jesus College MS., 

Oxford, 29.] 

IcH was in one sumere dale. 
In one swijje dijele hale, 
I-herde ich holde grata tale 
An ule and one nijtingale. 

Line 2 C. * su>e'; J. * swi>e.' 4 C. *hule*; J. * ule.' 


pat plait was stif and starC and strong, 5 

Sum wile softe, and lud among; 

An[d] ai|jer a3en ofer swal, 

And let )>at vule mod ut al. 

And eijjer seide of oj)eres custe 

pat alre-worste j)at hi wuste; 10 

And hure and hure of o)>ere[s] songe 

Hi heolde plaiding swi)>e stronge. 

pe ni3tingale bi-gon )>e speche, 
In one hume of one beche ; 
And sat up one vaire boje, 15 

par were abute blosme i-noje, 
In ore waste )>icke hegge, 
I-meind mid spire and grene segge. 
Heo was )>e gladur vor )>e rise, 
And song a vele cunne wise: 20 

Bet )>u3te fe drem \2X he were 
Of harpe and pipe, fan he nere. 
Bet jjujte )>at he were i-shote 
Of harpe and pipe j)an of )>rote. 

po stod on old stoc j)ar bi-side, 25 

par Jk) ule song hire tide. 
And was mid ivi al bi-growe. 
Hit was ))are ule earding-stowe. 

pe nijtingale hi i-sej, 
And hi bi-heold and over-sej, 30 

And fujte wel vule of )>are ule, 
For me hi halt lol>lich and fule : 
* Unwijt,' heo sede, * awei Jju fleo ! 

7 J. ' ey])er/ C. * sual'; J. * swal.* 8 C. * wole/ la C. * holde'; 

C. * su))e.' 14 C. • breche*; J. * beche.' 19 C. « Ho.* J. * gladdr^f.* 

20 J. * veole.* 21 C. *Het.* 30 C. * bi-hold/ 31 C. ' wl.* 

33 C. *ho'; C. 'flo.* 


Me is the w[e]rs fat ich fe seo; 

I-wis for )>ine vule lete 35 

Wei oft ich mine song for-lete ; 

Min heorte at-flij>, and fait mi tunge, 

Wonne j)U art to me i-)>runge. 

Me luste bet speten, fane singe 

Of fine fule ^ojelinge/ 40 

peos ule abod fort hit was eve, 
Heo ne mi^te no leng bileve, 
Vor hire heorte was so gret, 
pat wel nej hire fnast at-schet; 
And warp a word far-after longe: 45 

* Hu f incf e nu bi mine songe ? 
We[n]st fu fat ich ne cunne singe, 
pej ich ne cunne of writelinge ? 
I-lome fu dest me grame, 

And seist me bofe teone and schame; 50 

3if ich f e heolde on mine note, 
So hit bi-tide fat ich mote I 
And f u were ut of fine rise, 
pu scholdest singe an ofer wise.' 

pe ni^tingale jaf answare : * 55 

* 3if ich me loki wit f e bare, 
And me schilde wif fe blete, 

Ne recche ich nojt of fine frete; 

3if ich me holde in mine hegge, 

Ne recche ich never what fu segge. 60 

Ich wot fat fu art un-milde 

Wif heom fat ne muje from fe schilde; 

34 C. * so*; J. * iseo/ 35 C. * wle.* 37 C. *hortc.' C. • tongc/ 

41 C. * pos hule.* 42 C. * Ho.' 43 C. ' horte.' 50 C. * tone.* 

51 C. 'holde.' 57 C wit.' 63 C. 'hom.' C. * se.' 


And Jju tukest wroj)e and uvele 

Whar J>u mijt over smale fu^ele; 

Vor-))i j)U art lo)> al fujel-kunne, 65 

And alle heo j)e drive)> heonne, 

And )>e bi-schriche)> and bi-gredet, 

And wel narewe fe bi-ledet; 

And ek forJ>e j?e sulve mose 

Hire )>onkes wolde )>e to-tose. 70 

pu art lodlich to bi-holde, 

And ))U art lo)> in monie volde; 

pi bodi is short, fi sweore is smal, 

Grettere is fin heved J>an fu al ; 

pin ejen beof col-blake and brode, 75 

Rijt swo heo weren i-peint mid wode; 

pu starest so )>u wille abiten 

Al fat ))U mijt mid clivre smiten; 

pi bile is stif and scharp and hoked, 

Rijt so an owel fat is croked, 80 

par-mid fu clackes[t] oft and longe, 

And fat is on of fine songe, 

Ac fu fretest to mine fleshe, 

Mid fine clivres woldest me meshe; 

pe were i-cundur to one frogge, 85 

[pat sit at mulnef under cogge], 

Snailes, mus, and fule wijte, 

Beof fine cunde and fine rijte. 

pu sittest adai, and fii^st ani^t, 

pu cuf est fat fu art on un-wijt ; 90 

pu art lodlich and un-clene, 

Bi fine neste ich hit mene, 

65 C. * fuel-kunne.* 66 C. * ho.' C. * honne.* 73 C. * swore/ 

75 C. ' bo)).' 78 C. • mist/ 86 From J. 


And ek bi fine fule brode, 

pu fedest on heom a wel ful fode/ 

peos word ajaf )>e nijtingale, 
And after fare longe tale 140 

Heo song so lude and so scharpe, 
Ri^t so me gmlde schille harpe. 
peos ule luste j?ider-ward, 
And heold hire eje neofer-ward. 
And sat to-swoUe and i-bolje, 145 

Also heo hadde on frogge i-swol3e. 
For heo wel wiste and was i-war 
pat heo song hire a bisemar; 
And nofeles heo ^af andsware, 
*Whi neltu fleon into )>e bare, 150 

And schewi whefer unker beo 
Of brijter heowe, of vairur bleo?* 
*No, j)u havest wel scharpe clawe, 
Ne kepich nojt fat fu me clawe, 
pu havest clivers swife stronge, 155 

pu twengst far-mid so dof a tonge. 
pu fo3test, so dof fin i-like, 
Mid faire worde me bi-swike; 
Ich nolde don fat f u me raddest 
Ich wiste wel fat fu me misraddest; 160 

Schamie f e for fin un-rede I 

Un-wrojen is fi swikel-hede; 


94 C. • hom.' 139 C. * pos/ 141 C. * He.' 143 C. * pos hule/ 
144 C* hold.* C. * no])erwad.* 145 C. * i-suolle.* 146-151 

C. *ho.' 146 C. M-suolje.' 148 C. * andsuare.' 150 C. * flon.' 

151 C, »Sewi*; J. 'schewi.' 152C. *howe.' C. *blo.' 

155 C. • su>e.' 156 C. 'tuengst.' 162 C. * suikel-hcde.' 



Schild j)ine swikeldom vram fe li^te, 

And hud j)at wo^e amon[g] )>e ri3te. 

pane j)U wilt fin un-rijt spene, 

Loke j)at hit ne beo i-sene; 

Vor swikedom have|> scheme and hete, 

5if hit is ope and under-^ete. 

Ne speddestu no^t mid )>ine un-wrenche, 

For ich am war, and can wel blenche; 

Ne help)) no^t )>at fu beo to j)riste; 

Ich wolde vijte bet mid liste, 

pan ))U mid al )>ine strengj)e; 

Ich habbe on brede, and ek on lengfe 

Castel god on mine rise; 

" Wel fi^t j)at wel flijt," sei)> )>e wise. 

Ac lete we awei )>eos cheste, 

Vor swiche wordes beo)> un-wreste ; 

And fo we on mid ri^te dome, 

Mid faire worde and mid isome. 

pe3 we ne beon at one acorde, 

We muje bet mid fayre worde, 

Wit-ute cheste, and bute fi^te, 

Plaidi mid foje and mid ri3te; 

And mai ure eifer wat he wile 

Mid ri3te segge and mid skile/ 

po qua)) :|)e ule, *wo schal us seme, 
pat kunne and wille rijt us deme.' 
*Ich wot wel,' quaj> fe ni^tingale, 
* Ne farf j)arof beo no tale. 
Maister Nichole of Guldeforde, 








163 C. ' suikeldom.' 166, 181, 190 C. *bo.' 167 C. * haved.' 

174 C. • ech.* 178 C. * suiche.* C. » bo>.' 180 C. * wsdome.' 

185 C. • hure.' C. 'hi.' 187 C. 'hule.' C. * pu.* 


He is wis and war of worde ; 

He is of dome swi)>e gleu, 

And him is loJ> evrich un))eu; 

He wot insist in eche songe, 195 

Wo singet wel, wo singet wronge; 

And he can schede vrom j?e ri3te 

pat wo^e, j)at )>uster from fe lijte/ 

po ule one wile hi bi-jjojte, 
And after fan )>is word up-bro^te: 200 

* Ich granti wel )>at he us deme, 
Vor fej he were wile breme, 
And leof hin^ were nijtingale, 
And oJ)er wijte, gente and smale, 
Ich wot he is nu swife acoled, 205 

Nis he vor fe nojt afoled, 
pat he for J)ine olde luve 
Me adun legge and fe buve ; 
Ne schaltu nevre so him queme, 
pat he for fe fals dom deme. 210 

He is nu ripe and fastrede, 
Ne lust him nu to none un-rede; 
Nu him ne lust na more pleie, 
He wile gon a ri^te weie/ 

pe ni^tingale was al jare 21$ 

Heo hadde i-leorned wel aiware: 
'Ule/ heo sede, *seie me so]j, 
Wi dostu j?at un-wijtes do^)? 
pu singest anijt, and nojt adai, 
And al )>i song is wailawai ; 220 

pu mijt mid )>ine songe afere 

193-205 C. *suj)e.' 199 C. *hule.' 203 C. * lof.' 211 C. *him.' 
2 16 C. « Ho.' C. • ilorned/ 217 C. * Hule.' C. * ho.' 

VOL. I. N 


Alle ))at i-here)) fine i-bere; 

pu schirchest and ^ollest to fine fere, 

pat hit is grislich to i-here, 

Hit j)inchest bofe wise and snepe 22? 

Nojt fat j)u singe, ac fat fu wepe. 

pu flijst anijt, and no3t adai; 

parof ich w[u]ndri, and wel mai : 

Vor evrich fing fat schuniet rijt, 

Hit luvef f uster and hatiet lijt ; 230 

And evrich fing fat luvef misdede. 

Hit luvef fuster to his dede/ 

peos hule luste swife longe, 
And was of-teoned swife stronge; 
Heo quaf , * pu hattest nijtingale, 255 

pu mijtest bet hoten galegale, 
Vor fu havest to monie tale. 
Lat fine tunge habbe spale ! 
pu wenest fat fes dai beo fin oje: 
Lat me nu habbe mine froje; 2§o 

Beo nu stille, and lat me speke, 
Ich wille beon of f e a-wreke, 
And lust hu ich con me bi-telle 
Mid rijte sofe wif-ute spelle. 
pu seist fat ich me hude adai, 265 

par-to ne segge ich nich ne nai; 
And lust ich telle fe ware-vore 
Al wi hit is and ware-vore ; 
Ich habbe bile stif and stronge, 

223 J. • scrichest.' 231 C. * is lof.' 253 C. « pos.' C. * sn|>e.' 

254 C. * of-toncd su>e.' 255 C. * Ho.* 259, 261 C. * bo.' 

262 C. * bon.' 264 C, * wit-utc' 266 J. * nik no,* 


And gode clivers scharp[e] and longe, 270 

So hit bi-cume)> to havekes cunne ; 

Hit is min hijte, hit is mi wune, 

pat ich me dra^e to mine cunde, 

Ne mai noman j)are-vore [me] schende ; 

On me hit is [ful] wel i-sene, 275 

Vor ri^te cunde ich am so kene, 

Vor-j)i ich am loJ> smale fojle, 

pat fleoJ> bi grunde and bi j?uvele, 

Hi me bi-chermet and bi-grede)>, 

And heore flockes to me ledef; 280 

Me is leof to habbe reste, 

And sitte stille in mine neste. 

Wenestu fat havec beo fe worse, 

pe3 crowe bi-grede him bi J>e mershe, 

And goJ> to him mid heore chirme, 305 

Rijt so hi wille wij) him schirme ? 

pe havec fol^ejj gode rede, 

He fiijt his wei, and lat hem grede. 

3et )>u me seist of oJ>er J>inge, 
And telst fat ich ne can nojt singe, 310 

Ac al mi reorde is woning, 
And to i-here grislich fing. 
pat nis nojt soJj, ich singe efne 
Mid fulle dreme and lude stefne. 
pu wenist fat ech song beo grislich 315 

pat fine pipinge nis i-lich: 
Mi stefne is bold and nojt un-orne, 

378 C. *flot»/ a8o, 305 C. *horc.' 281 C. Mof/ 

303, 315 C. *bo.' 308 C. *And.' 3H C.*rorde.' 

313 C. •i-hirc' 

K 2 


Heo is i-lich one grete home, 

And j?in is i-lich one pipe 

Of one smale weode un-ijpe, 320 

Ich singe bet fan )>u dest: 

pu chaterest so do)> on Irish prest; 

Ich singe an eve ari5t[e] time, 

And seoJ))>e won hit is bed-time, 

pe fridde sife at middelni^te, 335 

And so ich mine song adijte 

Wone ich i-seo arise veorre 

Ofer dai-rim o))er dai-sterre, 

Ich do god mid mine )>rote, 

And wami men to heore note. 330 

Ac ))U singest alle longe nijt, 

From eve fort hit is dai-lijt, 

And evre lestej) J)in o song 

So longe so J>e nijt is long, 

And evre crowej) ))i wrecche crei, 335 

pat he ne swikej? ni^t ne dai; 

Mid )>ine pipinge ))u adunest 

pas monnes earen far j?u wunest, 

And makest fine song so un-wi3t 

pat me ne telf of j?e nowijt. 340 

Evrich mur3J)e mai so longe i-leste, 

pat heo shal liki wel un-wreste; 

Vor harpe and pipe and fu3eles songe 

Mislikef, 3if hit is to longe, 

Ne beo j?e song never so murie, 345 

pat he ne shal finche wel un-murie, 

318, 342 C. *ho,* 322 C. *prcost.' 324 C. • so»e.' 

325 * ad.' 327 C. *i-so'; •vorrc' 330 C. *hore.' 

333 C. * seist.' 339 C. * un-wrl).' 340 C. * far nojt wrj>,' 

345 C. * bo; 


Jef he i-lestejj over un-wille ; 

So J>u mijt J)ine song aspille. 

Vor hit is soJ>, Alvred hit seide, 

And me hit mai in boke rede, 350 

"Evrich J)ing mai leosen his godhede 

Mid unmefe and mid over-dede/ 


pe ni^tingale in hire Jjo^te 
At-heold al J>is, and longe Jjo^te 
Wat heo far-after mijte segge ; 
Vor heo nee mijte no3t alegge 
pat J)e ule hadde hire i-sed; 395 

Vor heo spac bofe rijt an[d] red. 
An[d] hire of-Jjujte J>at heo hadde 
pe speche so feor-vor]> i-ladde, 
An[d] was oferd fat hire answare 
Ne w[u]rj)e no^t arijt i-fare. 400 

Ac nofeles heo spac boldeliche, 
Vor he is wis J>at hardeliche 
WiJ> his vo berj) grete i-lete, 
pat he vor arejfe hit ne fdr-lete; 
Vor swich worj) bold jif J>u flijst, 405 

pat wile fleo 5if J>u niswicst. 
Jif he isij> fat J>u nart are^, 
He wile of bore w[u]rthen barej. 
And forfi fej fe ni3tingale 
Were aferd, heo spac bolde tale. 410 

350 C. • inc.* 351 C. Mosen.' 393 C. * At-holde.' 

393» 394» 397» 4^0 C. • ho.' 395 C. 'hulc' 396 C. *he.* 

398 C. * for.* 401 C. * he.' 405 C. * fuich.' 

406 C. •wleflo*; Msuicst.' 



'Ule/ heo seide, *wi dostu so? 
pu singest awinter wolawo; 
pu singest so dojj hen[ne] a snowe, 
Al J>at heo singe)> hit is for wowe ; 
Awintere J)U singest wrojje and ^omere, 415 

An[d] evre Jju art dumb asumere; 
Hit is for fine fule nij^e, 
pat Jju ne mi^t mid us beo blij>e, 
Vor j)u forbernest wel nej for onde 
Wane ure blisse cumejj to londe. 420 

pu farest so dojj j)e ille, 
Evrich blisse him is un-wille; 
Grucchiqg and luring him beo)> rade, 
3if he i-seojj Jjat men beojj glade ; 
He wolde )>at he i-se^e 425 

Teres in evrich monnes e^e: 
Ne rojte he fe^ flockes were 
I-meind bi toppes and bi here. 
Al-so Jju dost on J)ire side; 
Vor wanne snou lijj ficke and wide, 430 

And alle wi^tes habbej> sorje, 
pu singest from eve fort amorje. 
Ac ich alle blisse mid me bringe; 
Ech wijt is glad for mine J>inge, 
And blisse)* hit wanne ich cume, 435 

And hijtej* a^en mine kume. 
pe blostme ginnejj springe and sprede 
Beojje ine treo and ek on mede; 
pe lilie mid hire faire wlite 
Wol-cumejj me, J>at j>u hit w[i]te, 440 

412 C. *Hule ho.' 414 C. *ho.' 418 C. 'bo.* 

423 C. * hoW 424 C. * boK ; • i8oJ>.' 438 a * tro.' 


Bit me mid hire faire bleo 

pat ich schulle to hire fleo; 

pe rose also mid hire rude, 

pat cumej) ut of Jjc Jjorne wude, 

Bit me fat ich shulle singe 445 

Vor hire luve one skentinge/ 

J>e ule sede, 

' pu havest bi-cleoped, also Jju bede, 550 

An[d] ich fe habbe i-^ive answare; 

Ac ar we to unker dome fare 

Ich wille speke toward J>e, 

Al-so j)U speke toward me, 

An[d] J)U me answere jif )m mi^t.' 555 

... ))U atwitest me mine mete, 

And seist fat ich fule wi^tes ete: 

Ac wat etestu, J>at fu ne lije, 

Bute attercoppe and fule vli^e? 600 

And wormes, ^if fu mijt finde 

Among J)e volde of harde rinde ? 

3et ich can do wel gode wike, 

Vor ich can loki manne w'ike; 

And mine wike beof wel gode, 605 

Vor ich helpe to manne vode ; 

Ich can nimen mus at berne, 

And ek at chirche in fe derne; 

441 C. *Bid'; *blo.' 442 C. 'flo.* 444 C. *wode/ 

445 C. 'Bid/ 549 C. *hule.' 550 C. '-eloped.* 

551 C. 'ansuarc' 597 C. * atuitcst/ 598,60! C. 'An.* 

601 J. * myht.* 605 C. 'An*; *bo>.* 608 C. 'An*; Mne.* 


Vor me is leof to Cristes huse, 

To clansi hit wij) fule muse ; 610 

Ne schal J)ar nevre come to 

Ful wijt, ^if ich hit mai i-vo. 

And ^if me lust on mi skentinge 

To wernen oj)er w[u]nierige, 

Ich habbe at wude treon wel grete, 615 

Mit ))icke bo^e noj)ing blete, 

Mid ivi grene al bi-growe, 

pat evre stont i-liche i-blowe, 

And his heou never ne vor-leost, 

Wan hit sniuj> ne wan hit freost; 620 

par-in ich habbe god i-hold, 

Awintre warm, asumere cold. 

Wane min hus stont brijt and grene. 

Of J>ine nis noj>ing i-sene.' 

pe nijtingale at fisse worde 
Was wel nej ut of rede i-worfe, 660 

And }>05te ^eome on hire mode, 
3if heo ojt elles understode, 
3if heo kuj)e ojt bute singe, 
pat mijte helpe to ofer J>inge, 
Her-to heo moste andswere vinde, 665 

0]>er mid alle beon bi-hinde. 
And hit is suj>e strong to 63 te 
Ajen soJ> and a^en ri3te. 

609 C. * lof/ 613 C. * An' ; * on.' 615 C. • tron.' 

619 C. *hou'; *-lost/ 620 C. * frost.' 661 C. 'An*; *3orne.* 

662, 663, 665 C. • ho/ 666 C. * bon.' 667 C. * An.' 


*Ule, J)U axest me/ heo seide, 
* 3if ich kon eni oj)er dede, 
Bute singen in sume tide, 

And bringe blisse feor and wide. 710 

Wi axestu of craftes mine? 
Betere is min on fan alle fine; 
Betere is o song of mine mufe, 
pan al J>at evre J>i kun kuj>e. 
And lust, ich telle fe ware-vore: 715 

Wostu to wan man was i-bore? 
To fare blisse of heoveneriche, 
par ever is song and murjfe i-liche, 
pider fundef evrich man 

pat enifing of gode kan. 720 

Vor-fi me singf in holi chirche. 
And clerkes ginnef songes wirche, 
pat man i-fenche bi fe songe 
Wider he shal, and far beon longe; 
pat he fe murjfe ne vor-jete, 725 

Ac J>ar-of fenche and bi-jete, 
And nime jeme of chirche stevene, 
Hu murie is fe blisse of heovene. 
Clerkes, munekes, and kanunes, 
par beof feos gode wike-tunes, 730 

Arisef up to middelni^te, 
And singef of fe heovene lijte: 
And preostes upe londe singef, 
Wane fe lijt of daie springef; 
An ich horn helpe wat I mai, 735 

707 C. 'Hule*; 'ho.' 710 C. 'An'; *for/ 

715. 722, 727 C. * An/ 717 C. « hoveneriche.' 

730 C. 'boh ]>os'; 'wicke/ 728, 732 C. 'hovene.* 

733 C. * An.' 733 C. * An prostes.' 


Ich singe mid horn ni^t and dai; 

An[d] heo beoJ> alle for me ))e gladdefe, 

An[d] to jje songe beoJ> J>e raddere. 

Ich warni men to heore gode, 

pat hi beon blijje on heore mode, 740 

And bidde j)at hi moten i-seche 

pan ilke song Jjat ever is eche. 

Nu j)U mi3t, ule, sitte and clinge; 

Her among nis no chateringe. 

Ich graunti J>at we go to dome 745 

To-fore ))e sulve pope of Rome. 

Ac abid 3ete noJ>eles, 

pu shalt i-here an o))er wes; 

Ne shaltu for [al] Engelonde 

At })isse worde me at-stonde.' 750 

• • * • • • ' 

* Abid I abid r j)e ule seide, 
'pu gest al to mid swikelede; 
Alle J>ine wordes j)U bi-leist, 

pat hit J)incjj soJj al j)at J>u seist; 840 

Alle j)ine wordes beoJ> i-sliked, 

And so bi-semed and bi-liked, 

pat alle J>eo Jjat hi avojj, 

Hi wene)) Jjat J>u segge soth. 

Abid ! abid I me schal ))e jene, 845 

Wu hit shal w[u]rj)e wel i-sene, 

pat j)U havest muchel i-loje 

Wone j)i lesing boj? unwro^e. 

pu seist j)at fu singist mankunne, 

And techest heom j)at hi fundiej) heonne 850 

737 C. ' ho hoW 738, 841 C. * bo)>; 740 C. * bon'; • hore/ 

743 C. * hulc* 842 C. * An/ 843 C. * J>o.' 

850 C. * horn* ; * honne.* , 


Up to j)e songe })at evre i-lest : 

Ac hit is aire w[u]nder mest, 

pat j)U darst lije so qpeliche. 

Wenest j)u hi bringe so lijtliche 

To Codes riche al singinde? 855 

Wi nultu singe an o})er j)eode, 905 

War hit is muchele more neode? 

pu neaver ne singst in Irlonde, 

Ne J)U ne cumest no^t in Scotlonde: 

Hwi nultu fare to Noreweie? 

And singen men of Galeweie? 910 

par beo^ men fat lutel kunne 

Of songe j)at is bineo^e fe sunne ; 

Wi nultu jjare preoste singe, 

And teche of jjire writelinge ? 

And wisi heom mid fire stevene, 915 

Hu engeles singej) in heovene? 

pu farest so do^ an ydel wel, 

pat springe)? bi burne J>at is snel, 

And let for-druje \>e dune, 

And flohj) on idel far a-dune. 920 

pe nihtegale i-h[e]rde this, 1635 

And hupte uppon on blowe ris, 
And herre sat fan heo dude ear; 
* Ule,' heo seide, * beo nu wear, 
Nulle ich wif fe plaidi na more, 

910 C. 'singinge.' 915 C. *hoin.' 916 C. *ine.' 

918 C. 'Ijar.' 919 C. •-drue/ 920 a *floh/ 

1^36, 7 C. 'An/ 1638 C. * Hule/ 


For her j)u mist Jji rihte lore; 1640 

J)u ^elpest )>at J)U art manne lo)>, 

And ever-euch wiht is wi^ )>e wroj); 

And mid 3ollinge and mid i-grede, 

J)u wanst wel J>at )>u art un-lede. 

pu seist fat gromes )>e i-fo^, 1645 

And heie on rodde Jje an-ho^, 

And J>e to-twichet and to-schake^, 

And summe of J>e schawles make^; 

Me JjunchJ) fat j)U for-leost fat game, 

pu ^elpest of fire oje schame ; 1650 

Me funchf fat fu me gest an honde, 

pu ^elpest of fire ojene schonde/ 

po heo hadde feos word i-cwede, 

Heo sat in one faire stede, 

And far-after hire stevene dihte, 1655 

And song so schille and so brihte, 

pat feor and ner me hit i-herde. 

par-vore anan to hire cherde 

prusche, and frostle, and wudewale, 

And fuheles bofe grete and smale; 1660 

For-f an heom fuhte fat heo hadde 

pe ule over-come, vor-f an heo gradde 

And sungen alswa veale wise. 

And blisse was among fe rise; 

Rijt swa me gret fe manne a schame, 1665 

pat tavelef and for-leost fat game. 

1640 C. *J>e.* 1641 C. * 3eilpest.* 1642 C. 'An'; *worJ>.' 

1643 C. *An'; *3ulifige.' 1646, 7, 8 C. *An/ 

1648 J. *scheules.' 1649, 51 C. •J>unch.' 1650, 2 C. 'sulpest.' 

1654 C. * stude.' 1656, 60, 63 C. * An.' 1662 C. * houle.* 

1663 C. * vale.' 1664 • An'; ? * pat* 1665 C. * gred' 
1666 C. *gome.* 


peos ule )>o heo Jjis i-herde, 
' Havestu/ heo seide, * i-banned ferde ? 
An wultu, wrecche, wi^ me fijte? 
Nai, nai, navestu none mijte. 1670 

Hwat gredejj feo ))at hider come? 
Me fmicj) j)U ledest ferde to me. 
Je schule wite ar ^e fleo heonne, 
Hwuch is j>e strenj^e of mine kunne; 
For ))eo J>e havej> bile i-hoked, 1675 

And clivres scharpe and wel i-croked, 
AUe heo beoJ> of mine kunrede, 
And walde come, 3if ich bede ; 
pe seolfe coc, jjat wel can fi^te, 
He mot mid me holde mid ri3te, 1680 

For bojje we habbej) stevene bri3te, 
And sitte)> under weolcne bi nijte.' 

' Ah hit was unker voreward, 

po we come[n] hider-ward, 1690 

pat we Jjar-to holde scholde, 

par riht[ne] dom us jive wolde, 

Wultu nu breke foreward? 

Ich wene dom j)e j)inkj) to hard; 

For jju ne darst domes abide, 1695 

pu wult nu, wreche, fijte and chide. 

3et ich ow alle wolde rede, 

At ihc utheste uppon ow grede, 

pat [je] ojjer fiht-lac letej? beo, 

And ginne)> rajje awei fleo. 1700 

1667 C. 'hule.' 1676 C. 'An*; 'charpc* 1678 C. 'An*; 'come.' 
1692 Readpzu 1694 C. ']>ing.' 16^ Read ov/er. 


For, bi j)e clivres j)at ich here, 

3ef 56 abide)) mine here, 

3e schule on ojjer wise singe, 

And acursi alle fijtinge; 

Vor nis of ow non so kene, 1705 

J)at durre abide mine onsene.' 

peos ule spac wel baldeliche; 

For fah heo nadde swo hwatliche 

I-fare after hire here, 

Heo walde nojjeles jefe answere 1710 

pe ni3tegale mid swucche worde. 

For moni man mid speres orde, 

HaveJ) lutle strencj^e, and mid his schelde, 

Ah noJ)eles in one felde 

purh belde worde and mid i-lete, .1715 

Dej) his i-vo for arehj^e swete. 

pe wranne, for heo cuj>e singe, 

par com in fare more3ening, 

To Jielpe Jjare nijtegale : 

For j)ah heo hadde stevene smale, 1720 

Heo hadde gode frote and schille, 

And feale manne song a wille; 

pe wranne was wel wis i-holde, 

Vor j)e5 heo nere i-bred a wolde, 

Heo was i-tojen among monne, 1725 

And hire wisdom brohte )>onne; 

Heo mijte speke hwar heo walde, 

To-vore J)e king ))ah heo scholde. 

*LusteJ),' heo cwaj), *late)> me speke: 

1704 J. * cursi.* 1707 C. * hule/ 1 71 3 C. * chdde.' 

1 710, 1714 C. * neoJ>eles/ 1718 C. * more3ennge.' I721 C. *>orte.' 

1722 C. 'An fale.' 1725 C. *mannenne'; J. * mai^unne.* 
1726 C. '^ernic* 


Hwat! wuUe ^e )>is pes to-breke, 1730 

And do fan kinge swuche schame? 

Jet nis he nouj)er ded ne lame, 

Unk schal i-tide harm and schonde, 

3ef ^e do)> grij)-bruche on his londe. 

Late)> beo, and beoJ> i-some, 1735 

An[d] fare)> riht to ower dome, 

An[d] latej) dom j)is plaid to-breke, 

Al-swo hit was erur bi-speke.* 

* Ich an wel,' cwaj) j)e ni^tegale ; 
*Ah, wranne, nawt for fire tale, 1740 

Ah do for mire lahfulnesse: 
Ich nolde fat un-rihtfulnesse 
Me at fen ende over-kome; 
Ich nam of-drad of none dome. 
Bi-hote ich habbe, sof hit is, 1745 

pat maister Nichole, fat is wis, 
Bi-twixen us deme schulde; 
And ^et ich wene fat he wule, 
Ah war mihte we hine finde?' 
pe wranne sat in ore linde, 1750 

* Hwat, nute je,' cwaf heo, * his horn ? 
He wunef at Portes-hom, 
At one tune ine Dorsete, 
Bi fare see in ore ut-lete ; 
par he demef manie rijte dom, 1755 

And diht and writ mani wisdom, 
And furh his mufe and furh his honde 
Hit is fe betere into Scotlonde. 
To seche hine is lihtlich fing, 

1 731 C. 'An do I>anne swuch.* 1732 C. *3e'; J. *yet.' 

1 733 C. ' Hunke/ 1 747 C. * Bi-tuxen.' 

1748 C. « An 3cf •; J. *yet.' 1751 C. * nu3te.' 1756, 7 C. •An.' 


He navejj bute one woning: 1760 

pat is bischopen muchel schame; 

And alle J>an fat of his nome 

Habbejj i-herd and of his dede, 

Hwi nullejj hi nimen heom to rede, 

pat he were mid heom i-lome 1765 

For [to] teche heom of his wisdome, 

And jive him rente a veale stude, 

pat he mijte heom i-lome be mide?' 

'Certes/ cwa)> fe ule, *j)at is so^: 
peos riche men wel muche mis-do^, 1770 

pat letejj fane gode mon, 
pat of so feole J>inge con, 
And jivef rente wel mis-liche, 
And of him letef wel lihtliche; 
Wi^ heore cunne heo beof mildre, 1775 

And jevejj rente litle childre, 
Swo heore wit hi demj) adwole, 
pat ever abid maister Nichole. 
Ah ute we fah to him fare, 
For far is unker dom al jare/ 1780 

*Do we,' the nijtegale seide: 
*Ah wa schal unker speche rede, 
And telle to-vore unker deme?' 

* par-of ich schal fe wel i-cweme,' 
Cwaf fe ule, *for al ende of orde, 1785 

Telle ich con word after worde: ] 

And jef fe fincf fat ich mis-rempe, 
pu stond ajein and do me crempe.* 
Mid fisse worde forf hi ferden. 

1 761 C. «his; 1763 C. 'ihert.' 1 767 C. *An'; 'vale.' 
1769 C. * hule.' 1773, 4, 6 C. * An.' 1785 C. * houle.' 


Al bute here and bute verde[n], 1790 

To Portesham J>at heo bi-come ; 
Ah hu heo spedde of heore dome 
Ne can ich eu namore telle ; 
Her nis na more of j)is[se] spelle. 

1 793 C. ' chan.' 

VOL. I. 



A. D. 1250. 

The oldest version of the * Moral Ode ' is found in the Lam- 
beth MS. 487, from which it was printed by the present editor 
in 'Old English Homilies,' First Series. This poem was first 
printed by Hickes in his * Thesaurus/ vol. i. p. 222, from one of 
the Digby MSB. ; it was afterwards edited by Mr. Furnivali in 
1858 from the Egerton MS. 613, for the Philological Society. 
I have added another and later version from a Jesus MS. in 
* An Old English Miscellany' (Early English Text Society, 1872). 
These are all in the Southern dialect; but an early copy with 

Text A. 
[Jesus MS.] 
ch am eldre J)an ich wes a winter and ek on lore. 


Ich welde more Jjan ich dude, my wyt auhte beo more. 
Wei longe ich habbe child ibeo. a werke and eke on dede. 
pah ich beo of wynter old. to yong ich am on rede. 
Vnne^ lif ich habbe ilad. and yet me J)ink)> ich lede. 5 
Hwenne ich me bij^enche. ful sore ich me adrede. 
Mest al J)at ich habbe idon. is idelnesse and chilce. 
Wei late ich habbe me bi-j)Ouht. bute god do me mylce. 
Veole idel word ich habbe ispeke. seojjJ>e ich speke cu)>e. 
And feole yonge deden ido. J)at me of-J>inche)> nujie. 10 

5 MS. ' Unned.' 



BEJ'ORE A. D. J200. 

East Midland varieties is printed in my Second Series of Old 
English Homilies, from the Trinity College MS. B 14. 52. 

The poem in its present form seems to have been copied 
and modernized from a version much older than the later half 
of the twelfth century. 

For the sake of comparing the language at two different 
periods and in two different dialects, the whole poem is given 
from the Jesus MS. (as printed in *An Old English Miscellany,' 
p. 58) and from the Trinity MS. B. 14. 52 (* Old English Homi- 
lies,' Second Series, p. 220), 

Tejcf B. 

[Trinity MS.} 

Ich am nu elder fan ich was a wintre and a lore. 
Ich wealde more J)an idude mi wit oh to be more 
To longe ich habbe child iben a worde and a dade. 
J)eih ibie a winter eald to jung ich am on rade. 
Vnnet lif ich habbe Had. and 3iet me J^inche^ ilade. 5 
pan ibi^enche me J)ar-on wel sore ime adrade. 
Mast al ich habbe idon is idelnesse and chilce. 
Wel late ich habbe me bijjoht bute me God do milce. 
Fele idel word ich habbe ispeken se^en ich speken cu^e. 
And fele 3eunge dade idon ))e me ofSinke^ nu^. 



Al to lome ich habbe agult. on werke and on worde. 
Al to muchel ich habbe i-spend. to lutel i-leyd an horde. 
Best al ))at me likede er. nv hit me mys-lykej). 
pe muchel folewej) his wil. him seolue he bi-swikej>. 
Mon let J)i fol lust ouer-go. and eft hit J)e like)). 15 

Ich myhte habbe bet i-do. heuede ich eny selhjje. 
>Iv ich wolde and i ne may. for elde. ne for vnhelhjje. 
Elde is me bi-stolen on. er j)an ich hit wiste. 
Ne may ich bi-seo me bi-fore. for smoke ne for myste. 
Erewe we beoj) to donne god. vaiel al to j)riste. 20 

More eye stondej) mon of mon. J)an him to cryste. 
pe wel ne doj) hwile he may. hit schal him sore reowe. 
Hwenne alle men repen schule. J)at heo ear seowe. 
Do^ to gode J)at ye muwen. j)e hwile ye beoJ) alyue. 
Ne lipne no mon to muchel. to childe. ne to wyue. 25 
pe him seolue for-yet. for wiue. oJ)er for childe. 
He schal cumen on vuele stude. bute god him beo milde. 
Sende vch sum god bivoren him. Jje hwile he may to heouene. 
Betere is on almes bi-uoren. J)ane beoJ) after seouene. 
Ne beo J)e leouere J)an j)i seolf. j)i mey ne J)i mowe. 30 
Sot is J)at is oj)er mannes freond. more j)an his owe. 
Ne lipne no wif to hire were, ne were to his w}'Tie. 
Beo vor him seolue vych mon. ))e hwile he beo)) alyue. 
Wis is ))at him seolue bi))enk)). j)e hwile he mot libbe. 
Vor sone wille)) him for-yete ))e fremede and ))e sibbe. 35 
pe wel nule do hwile he may. ne schal he hwenne he wolde. 
Mony monnes sore iswynk. ofte habbej) vnholde. 
Ne scholde nomon don a virst. ne slakien wel to donne. 
Vor mony mon bihotej) wel. ))at hit for-yetej) sone. 
pe mon ))at wile syker beo. to habbe godes blysse. 40 
Do wel him seolf ))e hwile he may. ))enne haue)) he hit myd 

24 MS. ' Dod.' 34 MS. • pij.* 


Alto lome ich habbe igult a werke and a worde. 

Alto muchel ic habbe ispend to litel ileid on hojrde. 

Mast al J)at me likede ar nu hit me mislica^. 

pe muchel fol3e^ his iwil him selfen he biswica'S. 
• ■ • • • • • 

Ich mihte habben bet idem, hadde ich ]>o isel^. 15 

Nu ich wolde ac ijie mai for eMe and for unhal^e 

Elde me is bistolen on ar ich hit iwiste. 

Ne mai ich isien bifore me for snaeche ne for miste 

Ar^e we. be^ to don god to juel al to j)riste 

More eie stpndeS man of man ))an him do of criste. 20 

pe wel ne de^ ]>q hwile he mai wel ofte hit sal him rewen. 

pan alle men sulle ripen bat hie ar sewen. 

V, * -- 

Do al^to gode ]?at he mu^e ech ]>e hwile he be'^ aliue^ 
Ne lipnenoman to muchel to childe ne to wiue. 
pe ))e him selfe forjiet for wiue o^er for childe 25 

He sal cumen on.euel stede bute him God be milde.. 
Sende god biforen him man J)e hwile he mai to heuene 
For betre is on almesse biforen ])an ben after seuene. 
Ne bie ))e leuere Jjan ]>e self ne ])i maei ne j>i mowe 
Sot is ))e is o¥er mannes frend betere J?an his owen. 30 
Ne hopie wif to hire were ne were to his wiue 
Be for him self afric man ]>e hwile he be^ aliue. 
Wis [is] J)e him selue bi^enche^ J)e hwile he mot libben 
For sone wille^S him forjiete fe fremde and j?e sibbe. 
pe wel ne do^ |>e hwile he mai ne sal he J)an he wolde. 
For mani mannes sore iswinc habbe^ ofte unholde. 36 
Ne solde noman don a furst ne laten wel to done 
For mani man bihote^ wel fat hi for^iete^ sone. 
pe man J?e wile siker ben to habben godes blisse. 
Do wel him self ))e hwile he mai j)anne haue^ hes mid 
iwisse. 40 

24 MS. • Nu/ 


peos riche men wenej) to beon syker. jjurh walles and jjurh 
diche. [heoue-riche. 

Ah heo doj) heore ayhte in siker stude. fat sendej) hit to 
Vor J)er ne j)arf. he beon adred. of fure ne of Jjeue. 
par ne may hit bynyme. J)e loJ)e ne fe leoue. 45 

per ne J)arf he beon of-dred. of yefte. ne of yelde. 
pider we sendej) and seolf berej). to lutel and to selde. 
pider we schulde drawen and don. wel ofte and ilome. 
Ne may J)er non hit vs bynymen. myd wrongwise dome, 
pider we schulden drawen and don. wolde ye me ileue. 50 
Vor ))er ne may hit vs by-nyme. j)e king, ne fe schirrdue. 
Al j)e beste J)at we habbej). ))ider we schulde sende. 
Vor ))er we hit myhte vinden eft. and habben .0. buten ende 
He j)at her doj) eny god. to habbe godes ore. 
Al he schal vynde fer. an hundred folde more. 55 

pe ))at ayhte wile holde wel. j)e hwile he may him wolde. 
Yeue hit for godes luue. fenne do)) he hit wel iholde. 
Vre swynk and vre tylehjje. is iwuned to swynde. 
Ah heo j)at hit yeuej) for godes luue. eft hit mowen ivynde. 
Ne schal non vuel beon vn-bouht. ne no god vn-vor-gulde. 
Vuel we doJ) al to muchel. godf lasse fane we scholde. 
pe j)at mest doJ) nv to g6de. and te fe leste to la))e. 
Eyfer to lutel and to muchel. schal funchen heom ef[t] ba])e. 
per me schal vre werkes weyen by-vore heouene kinge. 
And yeuen vs vre swynkes lean, after vre earnynge. 65 
Everuych mon myd fat he hauef. may bugge heoueriche. 
pe riche and fe poure bofe. ah nouht alle ilyche. 
pe poure. myd his penye. fe riche myd his punde. 
pat is fe wunderlicheste ware, fat euer was ifunde. 

And ofte god con more fonk. fe fat yuef him lasse. 70 
Alle his werkes. and his yeftes. is in ryhtwisnesse, 

63 MS. * ef to babe.' 

^VIT, A MORAL ODM. 1 99 

pe riche men wene^ siker ben purch wa'len and thurh 

He de^ his aihte an siker stede jie hit sent to heue riche. 
For jjarf he ben of-drad of fure ne of ))ieue. 
par ne mai hit him binime \t lo^e ne \e lieue. 
par ne |)arf he habben care of here ne of ^ielde. 45 

pider we sende^ and ec bere^ to litel and to selde: 
pider we solden drawen and don wel ofte and ilome. 
For ))ar ne sal me us naht binime mid wrongwise dome. 
pider we solde jierne drawen wolde ^ie me ileuen. 
For ne mai hit us binime no king ne no syrreue. 50 

Al J)at beste J)at we habbe^ her J)ider we solde sende. 
For ))ar we mihte finden eft. and habben abuten ende. 
Se )je her do^ ani god forto haben godes ore. 
Al he hit sal eft finde jjar and hundredfealde more. 
Se ]?e aihte wile holde wel J)e hwile hes mu^e wealden. 55 
5ieue hes for godes luue Jjanne do^ hes wel ihealden. 
For ure swinch and ure til¥e is ofte wuned to swinde 
Ac al )>at we 3ieue^ for godes luue al we hit sulen eft finden. 
Ne sal ])ar non euel ben unboht ne god unforjolden. 
Euel we do^ al to muchel and god lasse ))an we solden. 60 
Se ))e mast do^ nu to gode and se last to lothe. 
Ei^er to litel and to muchel hem sal jjunche bo¥e. 
par me sal ure werkes wei3en bifore )>an heuen kinge 
And ^ieuen us ure werkes lean after ure tmxngt. 
Africh man mid ))at he haue^ mai bugge heue riche. 65 
pe ))e more haue^ and )>e ))e lasse bo¥e iliche. 
Alse on mid his peni se o¥er mid his punde. 
pis is J)et wunderlukeste ware ))at ani man funde. 
And s^ |>e more ne iriai don mid his gode i))anke. 
Alse wel se )>e J)e haue^ goldes fele manke. 70 

And ofte god can more fane fan fe him 3ieue^ lasse. 
Al his werkes and his weies is milce and rihtwi[s]nesse. 

70 MS. * haued.* 


Lvtel lok is gode leof. J)at cumej) of gode ^ille. 
And lutel he let on muchel wowe. j>er fe heorte is ille. 
Heouene and eorJ)e he ouer-syhj). his eyen beoj> so brihte. 
Sunne. and mone. heuene. andinr, beoJ> feostre. ayeynhislyhte. 
Nis him for-hole nowiht. ne ihud. so muchele beoj) his myhte. 
Nis no so derne dede idon. in so feostre nyhte. 
He wot hwat fenchej). and hwat doj>. alle quyke wyhte. 
Nis no lou^rd such is crist. ne king, such vre dryhte. 79 
• •••••• 

Heouene and eor))e. and al j)at is. biloken is. in his honde. 
He doj> al fat his wille is. a watere. and eke on londe. 
He makede fysses in ]je sea. and fuweles in the lufte. 
He wit and wald alle fing. and schop alle schafte. 
He wes erest of alle J)ing. and euer byj> buten ende. 
He is on ewiche stude. wende hwer ))u wende. 85 

He is buuen and bi-nej)en. bi-voren vs and bi-hinde. 
pe j)at godes wille doj). ichwer may him fynde. 
Hvych rune he iherj). J)e wot alle dede. 
He J)urh-syhJ). vych monnes J)onk. wy hwat schal vs to rede, 
pe j)at brekej) godes hes. and gultej> so ildme. 90 

Hwat schulle we seggen oj)er don. at J)e muchele dome, 
pe ))at luue)> vnryht. arid heore lif. vuele ledej>. 
We Jjat neu^r god ne duden. fen heueneliche demej). 
Hwat schulle seggen ofer don. fer engles heom drede. 
Crist for his muchele myhte. us helpe fenne and rede. 
Hwat schulle we beren vs bi-v6ren. mid hwan schulle we 

pe[r] schule beon deoulen so veole. fat wullef vs forwreye. 
Nabbef heo nowiht for-yete. of al fat heo iseyen. 
Al fat we mysduden here, heo hit wullef cufe fere. 
Bute we habben hit ibet. fe hwile we her were. 100 

Al heo habbef in heore wryte. fat we mysduden here. 

95 MS. * hus.* 


Litel 16c is gode lef fe cume^ of gode wille. 
And e^lale muchel jieue ])an his herte is ille. 
Heuene and er¥e he ouer sih^ his eien be^ ful brihte. 75 

• •■••■ ■ 
Nis him no ))ing forholen swo muchel is his mihte 
Ne bie hit no swo derne idon ne on swo |>uster nihte. 
He wot hwat j)enche^ and hwat do^ alle quike wihte 
Nis louerd swilch is crist ne king swilch ure drihte. 
Bo'Se ^ieme^ \q his bien bi daie and bi nihte. 80 
Heuene and er^e and al J?at is biloken is in his honden 
He do^ al J)at his wille is awatere and alonde 

He make^ l?e fisses in \q sa \e fueles on jje lofte. 

He wit and wealde^ alle Jjing and he sop alle safte. 

He is ord abuten ord and ende abuten ende. 85 

He is one afre on eche stede wende J?ar ]?u wende. 

He is buuen us and bine^n biforen and bihinde 

pe godes wille do^ aihware he maij him finde 

Elche rune he here^ and he wot alle dade 

He J)urh-sih^ elches mannes j)anc wi hwat sal us to rade. 

We J)e breke'S godes has and gulte^ swo ilome 91 

Hwat sulle we seggen o^er don ate muchele dome 

We fe luueden unriht and euel lif ladden. 

• • • . • • • • 
Hwat sulle we seggen o¥er don jjar sengles be^ ofdradde. 

• ••••• • 

Hwat sulle we beren us biforen mid hwan sulle we iqweme 
We ))e nafre god ne duden |)an heuenliche deme. 96 

par sulle ben deflen swo fele |>at willed us forwreien. 
Nabbed hie no ))ing for^ieten of ))at hie her iseien. 

Al jjat hie iseien her hie willed cu¥en Jjare 

Bute we haben hit ibet fe hwile we here waren. 100 

Al hie habbe^ on here write fat we misduden here. 


pah we hit nusten, heo weren vre i-fere. 
Hwat schullej) horlinges don. ))e swiken. and the forsworene. 
SwiJ?e veole beoj) icleped, and fewe beoj) icorene. 
Way hwi were heo bi-yete. hwi weren heo iborene. 105 
pat schulle beo to dejie idemed. and euer-more forlorene. 
Huych mon him seolue schal her. bi-cleopien. and ek deme. 
His owene werkes and his jjouht. to witnesse hit schal teme. 
Ne may him nomon deme so wel. iwis. ne al so ryhte. 
For non ne knoweJ> so wel his ))onk. bute vfe dryhte. no 
Vych mon wot him seolue best, his werkes and his wille. 
pat lest wot he sey|) ofte mest and he fat al wot is stille. 
Nis no witnesse al so muchel. so mo«nes owe heorte. 
For so seyj) fat vnhol is him seolue hwat him smeortef. 
Vych moil schal him seolue deme. to defe ofer to lyue. 
pe witnesse of his owe werk. fer-to him schal dryue. n6 
And al fat eu^r mon haff idon. seffen heo com to monne. 
Al so he hit iseye on boke iwryten. hit schal him finche 

Ne schal nomon beon ydemed. after his bigynnynge'. 
Ah dom schal folyen vych mon. after his endinge 120 
If f e ende is vuel. al hit is vuei. god yef vs god ende. 
God yef vs vre ende g<5d. hwider fat he vs lende. 
pe mon fa/ neu^r nule do god. ne neu^r god lif Lde. 
pat def cume to his dure, he may sore a-drede. 
pat he ne muwe bidden ore. for fat i-tyt ilom. 125 

Vor-fi is wis fat bit ore. and bet. bi-vore fe dome. 
Hwenne def is at fe dure, wel late he bit ore. 
Wel late he letef fat vuei. f enne he ne may do na more. 
Bilef sunne hwil fu myht. and do bi godes lore. 
And do to gode hwat fu myht. if fu wilt habben ore. 130 
For we hit ileuef wel. and dryhten seolf hit seyde. 
On hwiche tyme so eu^r fe mon. of-f inchef his mysdede. 
Ofer rafer ofer later, milce he schal y-mete. 


peih we hes ne niseien hie waren ure iferen. 

Hwat sullen horlinges don Jjes wichen and ))e forsworene 

Wi swo fele be^ icleped swo fewe bet5 icorene 

Wi hwi waren hie bi^iete to hwan waren hie iborene. 105 

pe suUe ben to dea^e idemd and afremo forlorene 

Elch man sal |)ar biclepien himselfen and ec demen. 

His 03en were and his j)anc to witnesse he sal temen. 

Ne mai him noman alse wel demen ne alse rihte 

For non ne cnowe^ hine alse wel buten one drihte. no 

Man wot him self best his werkes and his wille. 

Se ))e last wot he sei^ ofte mast se fit al wot is stille 

Nis no witnesse alse muchel se mannes o^en hierte 

Hwo se sei^ fat hie be^ hoi him self wot his smierte. 

Elch man sal him selfen demen to dea¥e o^er to liue. 

pe witnesse of his 03en were to o^er fan hine sal driue. 116 

Al fat afri man haue^ idon se^en he cam to manne 

Swo he hit iseie aboc iwrite he sal hit fenche fanne 

Ac drihte ne deme^ noman after his biginninge 

Ac al his lif sal ben teald after his endinge 120 

3ief fe endinge is god al hit is god and euel 3ief euel is 

fe ende. 
God 3ieue fat ure ende be god and yieue fat he us lende. 
Se man fe nafre nele don god ne nafre god lif lade. 
Are dea^ and dom cume^ to his dure he mai3 him sore adrade 
pat he ne mu3e fanne bidden ore for fat itit ilome 125 
For-f i he wis f e bit and bi3iet and bet bifore dome 
panne fe dea^ is ate dure wel late he bidde^ ore 
Wel late he late^ euel were fan he hit ne mai don no more. 
Senne lat fe and f u nah him fan f u hit ne miht do no more ; 
For-fi he is sot fe swo abit "to habben godes ore. 130 
peih hwe^ere we hit leue^ wel for drihte self hit sade. 
Elche time sal fe man of-funche his misdade 
O^er ra^er o¥er later milce he sal imete. 

108 MS. * Hie' 


Ah he J)at nouht nauej) ib^t. muchel he hauej) to bete. 
Mony mon seyj> hwo rekj> of pyne. ))at schal habben ende. 
Ne bidde ich no bet. bute ich beo. ilesed a domes day 
of bende. 136 

Lutel wot he hwat is pyne. and Intel he hit iknowej). 
Hwich hete is far J)e soule wunej). hw bitter wynd \er blowej>. 
Hedde he iwuned fer enne day. oJ)er vnne))e one tyde. 
Nolde he for al J)e middelerd. an o))er j)er abyde. 140 
Swife g/imlych stench fer is. and wurj) wy))-vten ende 
And hwo j>e enes cumej> fer. vt may he neu^r ))enne wende. 
Neu^r ich in helle ne com. ne )jer to cume ne recche. 
pah ich al ))es worldes weole. fer wende to vecche. 
pat seyden J)eo ))at weren ))er. heo hit wisten myd iwisse. 
per wur^ seorewe of seoue yer. for souenyhtes blysse. 146 
And for J)e blysse ))at ende hauej) f endeles is ))e pyne. 
Beter is worie wateres drunc. J)ane atter meynd myd wyne. 
Swynes brede is swete. so is of j)e wilde deore. 
Al to deore he hit buj). fat yeuej? far-vore his sweore. 150 
Ful wombe may lihtliche speken. of hunger and of festen. 
So may of pyne. fat not hwat hit is. fat eu^r-mo schal lesten. 
Hedde he ifonded su;«me stunde. he wolde seggen al ofer. 
And lete for crist. beo wijand child, fader, suster. and brofer. 
Al he wolde ofer don. and oferluker fenche. 155 

Hwenne he bif ouhte on helle fur. fat nof ing ne may quenche. 
Eure he wolde in bonen beon. and in godnesse wunye. 
Wif fat he myhte helle fur. eu^r fleon and schonye. 
And lete sker al fes worldes weole. and fes worldes blysse. 
Wif fat he myhte to heouene cumen. and l)eo f er myd iwisse. 
Ich wile eu seggen of fe dome, as ich eu er seyde. 161 
On fe day and on fe dome, vs helpe Cryst and rede. 
per we. muwen beon aferd. and sore vs of-drede. 
per vych schal seon him bi-fore. his word and ek his dede. 

146 MS. • >urh/ * sonenyhtcs.* 1^8 MS. * dning.' 


5 ])e her naue'S ibet muchel he haue^ to bete 
man sei^ hwo reche pine fe sal habben ende 135 
)idde ich no bet bie ich alesed a domesdai of 

wot he hwat is pine and litel he cnowe^ 
:h hit is j)ar sowle wunie^ hwu biter wind ))ar blowe^. 
e he ben J)ar on o¥er two bare tiden. , 
J he for al midde;n-eard ))e fridde far abiden. 140 

labbe^ isaid ]>e come j)anne j)it wiste mid iwisse. 
vur^e sore^e seue 3ier for seue nihte blisse. 
ure blisse jie ende haue^ for ende- lease pine 
e is wori water J)an atter imengd mid wine. 
:s brade is wel swete swo is of wilde diere. 145 

to diere he hit abui^ ]>e ^iefiJ J)ar-fore his swiere. 
irombe mai lihtliche speken of hunger and of fasten 
mai of pine ]>e not hwat is pine j)e sal ilasten. 
e [he] fonded sume stunde he wolde seggen o^er 
g him ware wif and child suster and fader and broker. 
J wolde o^erluker don and o^erluker penche 151 

he bi¥ohte an helle fur J?at nowiht ne mai quenche 
he wolde her in wo and in wane wunien 
[jan he mihte helle fur biflen and bisunien. 
e him ware al wele and er¥eliche blisse 155 

))e muchele blisse cume J)is murie mid iwisse. 
mile nu cumen eft to J)e dome Jje ich eow ar of sade. 
e daie and on ])e dome us helpe crist and rade 
ve mu^en ben sore offerd and harde us ofdrade. 159 
Ich sal al isien him biforen his word and ec his dade. 
134 MS. * haued.' 142 MS. ' Wo.' 


Al schal beon ))er feonne ikud. J)at er men lowen and stelen. 
Al schal beon J)er feonne vnwrien. fa/ men her wrien andhtX^n, 
Vve schullej) aire monne lyf. iknowe al so vre owe. 167 
per schulle beon euenynges. fe riche and ek J)e lowe. 

pe dom schal beon sone idon. no lest he nowhit longe. 
Ne schal him nomon menen Jjer. of strengjje. ne of wronge. 
peo schullen habbe harde dom. j)at er weren harde. 171 
peo ))at vuele heolde wrecche men. and vuele lawe arerde. 

Alle J>eo J>at beoj) icumen. of ad am and of eve. 
Alle heo schule J)ider cumen. and so we owen hit ileue. 
peo J>at habbe)) wel idon. after heore mihte. 175 

To heoueriche heo schulle vare. for)? myd him vre dryhte. 
peo yil habbej> feondes werk idon. and jjer-in beoJ) ifunde. 
Heo schulle fare forJ> myd himf in-to helle gninde. 
per ho schulle wunyen .0. buten ore and ende. 179 

Ne brekej) nouht crist eft helle dure, to lesen heom of bende. 
Nys no seollich ))eh heom beo wo. he mawe wunye ejje, 
Nul neu^r eft crist })olye de)). to lesen heom of dejie. 
Enes drihte helle brek. his freond he vt brouhte. 
Him seolue he jjolede dej> for vs. wel deore he vs abouhte. 
Nolde hit nomon do for me. ne suster for brojjer. 185 
Nolde hit sone do for vader. ne nomon for oJ)er. 
Vre aire lou^rd for vs ))relles. ipyned wes on rode. 
Vre bendes he vnbond. and bouhte vs myd his blode. 
And we yeuej> vnnej>e. a stucche of vre brede. [j)e dede. 
We ne J)enchej> nouht \2X he schal deme. |)e quyke and ek 
Muchel luue he vs cudde. wolde we hit vnderstonde. 191 


Al sal ))ar ben fanne cu^ ])at men lu3en her and halen. 
Al sal ))ar ben ))anne unwrien J)at men her hudden and stalen. 
We sullen aire manne lif icnowen alse ure o^en 
par sullen efninges ben to J)e heie and to ]?e lo^e. 
Ne sal ))eih no man samie ))iar ne farf he him adrade. 
3ief him her ofjjinche^ his gult and bet his misdade. i66 
For hem ne same^ ne ne grame^ ))e sulle ben ibore^e 
Ac fo¥re habbe^ same and grame and o^er fele sore^e. 
pe dom sal ben sone idon ne last hit nowiht longe 
Ne sal him noman mene J)ar-of strenc^e ne of wronge 
po sulle habben hardne dom Jje here waren hardde 171 
po J>e euel hielden wreche men and euel laje arerde. 
Elch after jjat he haue^ idon sal ))ar ben fanne idemd 
Bli^e mai he ))anne ben \e god haue^ wel iquemd. 
Alle Jk) ))e sprunge be^ of adaf« and of eue 175 

Alle hie sulle Jjider cume for so'Se we hit ileue^. 
po J)e habbe^ wel idon after here mihte 
To heueriche hie sulle fare forS mid ure drihte. 
po J>e deueles werkes habe^ idon and far-inne be^ ifunde 
Hie sulle fare forS mid hem into helle grunde. 180 

par hie sulle wunien abuten ore and ende. 
Brec^ nafre eft crist helle dure for [to] lesen hem of bende 
Nis no sellich \e\h. hem be wo and |)eih hem be unease 
Ne sal nafre eft crist Jjolien dea^ for [to] lesen hem of dea^e. 
iEnes drihten helle brae his frend he ut brohte 185 

Him self he Jjolede dea^ for hem wel diere he hes bohte. 
Nolde hit mo^e don for mai ne suster [for] bro^r 
Nolde sune don for fader ne no man for o^r. 
Vre aire louerd for his jjralles ipined he was arode 
Ure bendes he unbond and bohte us mid his blode. 190 
We ^ieue^ unease for his luue a steche of ure breade 
Ne fenche we naht |?ar ))at sal deme Jje qmca and )>e deade. 
Muchel luue he us kedde wolde we hit understonde. 

169 MS. 'M.' 173 MS. ♦idem«/ 176 MS. 'ileued.' 


pat vre elderne mys-duden. we habbej> harde on honde. 

DeJ> com i j)is middelerd. ))urh )>e deofles onde. [londe. 

And sunne. and sorewe, and muchel swynk. a watere. and a 

Vre forme faderes gult. we abuggej> alle. 195 

Al his ofsprung after him. in harme is ifalle. 

purst and hunger, chele. and hete. and ache^ vnhelj)e. 

purh him com in j)is myddelerd. and ope vnyselyhfe, 

Nere nomon elles ded ne sek. ne non vnhele. 

Ah myhten libben eu^r-mo. myd blysse and myd wele. 

Lutel hit J)inche)) monjnnon. ah muchel wes J)e sunne. 201 
For whon alle J?olieJ> dej). Jjat comen of heore kunne. 
Vre sunne and vre sor. vs may sore of-))unche. 
In sunnen we libbej) alle. and seorewe. and in swynke. 
Hwenne god nom so muche wreche. for one mys-dede. 
We J)at ofte mys-doj). we mowen vs sore adrede. 206 

Adam and his ofsprung. for ore bare sunne. 
Weren feole hundred wynter in pyne. and on vnwunne. 
And ))eo J)at lede|> heore lif. myd vnriht and myd wronge. 
Bute hit godes mylce beo. he beoj) J)ar wel longe. 210 
Godes wisdom is wel muchel. and al so is his myhte. 
Nis his mylce nowiht lasse. ah al by one wyhte. 
More he one may for-yeue. ))an al volk agulte kunne. 
peyh seolf deouel myhte habbe mylce. if he hit bigunne. 
pe J)at godes mylce sek)). iwis he hit may fynde. , . 215 
Ah helle kyng. is ore-les. wij) )?on ]?at he may bynde. 
pe J?at doj) his wille mest. he schal habbe wrst mede. 
His baj) schal beo wallynde pich. his bed bernynde glede. 

* MS. * ache and.' 


pat ure elderne misduden we habe^ euel an honde. 

Dea^ cam in ))is middenaerd l?urh ealde deueles onde 195 

And senne and sore^e and iswinch awatere and [a]londe. 

Vre foremes faderes gult we abuge^ alle 

Al his ofspmng after him in harem is biualle 

purst and hunger, chele and hete and alle unhal¥e 

purh dea^ cam in ])is middeneard and o^er unisal^e. 200 

Nare noman elles dead ne sic ne [non] unsele 

Ac mihte libbe afremo ablisse and an hale. 

Litel lac is gode lief |?e cume^ of gode wille 

And ablate muchel ^ieue |?an his herte is ille 

Litel hit j)unche^ maniman ac muchel was J>e senne 205 

For hwan alle ])olie^ dea^ ]>e comen of here kenne 

Here senne a?td ec ure ojen us mu^e sore of])unche 

For senne we libe6 alle her in soreje and in swunche. 

Se^n god naw swo mukel wrache for one misdede 

We ))e swo ofte misdo^ we mu^en us ea¥e ofdrade. 210 

Adam and al his ofspreng for one bare senne. 

Was fele hundred wintre an helle a pine and unwenne. 

po ))e lade^ here lif mid imrihte and mid wronge 

Bute hit godes milce do hie. sulle wunie J)ar longe. 

Godes wisdom is wel muchel and alsse is his mihte 215 

Ac nis his mihte nowiht lasse ac bi^er ilke wihte. 

More he one mai^ for^ieue )>an alle folc gulte cunne 

Self deuel mihte habben milce ^ief he hit bigunne. 

pej)e godes milche sec^ iwis he mai hes finden 

Ac helle king is ore-leas wi^ J)0 fe he mai binden. 220 

Se de^ his wille mast he sal habbe werest mede 

His ba^ sal be wallinde pich his bed bamende glede. 

Werse he do^ his gode wines ))an his fiendes 

God silde alle godes friend wi^ swo euele friende. 

Nafre an helle ine cam ne cumen ich Jjar ne reche 225 

peih ich aches woreldes wele fare mihte fech^ 

215 MS. *mulcheL* 
VOI,. I. P 


Also ich hit telle as wyse men vs seyden. 
And on heore boke. hit iwryten is. ])at me may hit reden. 
Ich hit segge for heom. fat er ))is hit nusten. 221 

And warny heom wi]? harme. if heo me wulle)) lusten, 
VnderstondeJ) nv to me. edye men and arme. 
Ich wille ou telle of helle pyne. and warny of harme. 
par is hunger and furst. vuele tweye ivere. 225 

peos pyne jjoliej) \tr, })at were mete-nyfinges here, 
par is wonyng and wop. after vlche strete. 
Ho vare]? from hete to chele. from chele to ))ar hete. 
Hwenne heo cumej) in hete. )?e chele heom jjinche)) lysse. 
penne heo cumej) eft to chele. of hete heo habbej> mysse 
Eyjjer heom do)) wo y-nouh. nabbej) heo none lisse. 231 
Heo nuten hwej)er heom do)) wurse, myd neu^ none iwisse. 
Heo walke)) eu^r and seche)) reste. ah heo hit ne muwe imdte. 
For heo nolde hwile heo myhten. heore sunnen ibete. 
Heo scheche)) reste ))er non nys. for-))i ne muwen hi finde 
Ah walke)) ))ar bo))e vp and dun. so water do)) myd winde. 
pis beo)) ))e. ))at weren her mid hwom me heold feste. 
And ))eo ))at gode bi-heyhte wel. and nolden hit ileste. 
And ))eo ))at god were by-gunne and ful-endy hit nolden. 
Nv were her. nv were ))er. heo nuste hwat heo wolden. 240 
pet ich pych. j)at eu^ walle)). \ai heo schuUe habbe ))ere. 
peo \at lede)) heore lyf vnwreste. and eke false were. 
par is fur an hundred-folde. hatture jjane be vre. 
Ne may hit quenche no salt auene strdm. ne sture. 
pat is ))et fur ))at eu^r bam)), ne may hit nomon quenche. 245 
par-inne beo)) ))eo. ))at her wes leof. poure men to swenche. 
peo ))at were swikelemen. and ful of vuele wrenche. 
And ]7eo ))at ne myhte vuele do. and was hit leof to ))enche. 
peo ))at luued reving. and stale, and hordom. and drunken 
And on deoueles werke. blu))eliche swunken. 250 

peo fat were so lese. fat me heom ne myhte il^uen. 


peih ich wille seggen eow }jat wise men us saden 
And [a] boc hit is write j>ar me hit mai rade. 
Ic wille seggen hit j>o }je hit hem self nesten 229 

^w^warnin hem wi^ here unfreme ^ief hie me willed hlesten. 
Vnderstonde^ nu to meward eadi men and arme 
Ich wille tellen eow of helle pine and warnin eow wi^ harme. 
An helle hunger and ))urst euel two iferen. 
pos pine ]>olie^ ]>o ]>e ware meteni^inges here, 
par is woning and wop after ache strate 235 

Hie fare^ fram hate [to] chele fra^w chele to hate. 
pan hie be^ in |?e hate chele hem j)uncheS blisse 
pan hie cume^ eft to chele of hate hie habbe^ misse. 
Ei^r do's hem wo inoh nabbed [hie] none lisse. 
Niten hwe^er hem do^ wers to nafre none wisse. 240 
Hie walked afre and seche^ reste ac hie hes ne mujen imeten. 
For-)>i ))e hie nolde ]>e hwile hie mihten here senne beten. 
Hie seche^ reste |)ar non nis ac hie hies ne mujen ifinden. 
Ac walked weri up and dun se water do^ mid winde 
pat be^ J)0 j>e waren her an ]>anc unstedefaste 245 

And ^ ]>e gode biheten aihte and hit him ilaste. 
And Jk) J>e god were bigunnen and ful endin hit nolden. 
Nu waren her and nu ))ar and nesten hwat he wolden 
par is pich ))at afre wallet )>ar suUe wunien inne 
po ))e lade^ here lif on werre and an unwiime. 250 

par is fur ))is hundredfeald hatere }jan be ure. 
Ne mai hit quenche salt water ne auene stream ne sture. 
pis is j>at fur ]>at afre barne^ [hit] ne mai no wiht quenche. 
par-inne be^ )>e was to lef wreche men to swenche. 
po j>e [waren] swikele men and ful of euele wrenchen 255 
And ]>o ))e mihten euel don and lief hit was to ))enchen. 
pe luueden rauing and stale hordom and dru[n]ken 
And Q.n defies werkes bli^liche swunken. 
po J>e waren swo lease men ))at mes ne mihte leuen 

p 2 

212 Xl^II. A MORAL ODE. 


Med-yorne domes men. and wrongwise reuen. 

pe ))at wes leof oJ)er mannes wif. and his owe Mten.' 

And ]>e ]>at sunege)) ofte. on drunken, and on m^te. 254 

peo Jjat wrecche men bynymej). his eyhte. andhit ley J? an horde. 

And lutel let on godes bode, and of godes worde. 

peo }jat almes nolde yeue ))ere he iseyh ))e neode. 

Ne his poure kunesmen. at him ne myhte nouht spede. 

pe )>at nolde here godes sonde. Jjar he sat. at his horde. 

And was leof o))er mannes \>ing. huere )>an beon schulde. 260 

And weren al to gr^di. of seoluer. and of golde. 

And luueden vntrewnesse. )>at heo schulden beon hdlde. 

And \6ten fat hi scolden do. and duden ))at heo ne scholden 

Heo schullej) wunyen in helle. j>e ueondes onwolde. 

pe fat were gaderares. of fisse worldes ayhte. 265 

And duden fat fe lofe gost heom tycede and tahte. 

And alle feo fe myd dusye wise, deouele her iquemef. 

peo beof nv in helle wif him. fordon. and for-d^mde. 

Bute feo fat of-finchef her. sore heore mysdede. 

And heore gultes gunnen lete. and betere lif to lede. 270 

per beof neddren. and snaken. euethen and fniden. 

per teref and fretef. fa/vuele spekef. fe nyffule and^ prude. 

Neuer sunne fer ne schinef. ne mdne. ne steorre. 

per is muchel godes h^te. and muchel godes eorre. 

Euer far is muchel smech. feosternesse and eye. 275 

Nis fer neuer ofer lyht. bute fe swarte leye. 

per lyf fe lodliche ueond. in stronge rake-teye. 

p^/ is fe fat was myd god. in heouene swife heye. 

per beof ateliche ueondes. and grysliche wyhtes. 

per schule f e wrecche soulen iseon. \>af sunegeden bi sihtes. 

per is f e lofe sathanas. and beelzebub fe olde. 281 

Efe heo mwue beon adred. fat heom schulde biholde. 

Ne may non heorte hit fenche. ne no tunge telle. 

Hw muche pyne. hw ueole ueondes. beof in feostre helle. 


Medjierne domes men arid wrongwise reuen. 260 

po j>e o^er mannes wif was lief her ojen e^late 
Arid yo j>e sunegeden muchel on dru[n]ken and on ate. 
pe wreche men binomen here aihte and leide his on horde. 
pe litel lete of godes bode and of godes worde. 

And ))e, his o^en nolde jieue J)ar he iseih ))e niede 265 

• ■ • • . . . • 

Ne nolde ihere godes men ]>an he sat at his biede. 
po ))e was o^er mannes )>ing leuere fan hit solde 
And waren al to gradi of siluer and of golde, 
po ]>e untrewnesse deden J>an Jje he solden ben holde. 

And leten al ))at hie solden don and deden \>2Lt hie wolden. 

• • • • . . • 

po ))e waren ^ietceres of ))is wereldes aihte 271 

And dude al ))at J>e lo^e gost hem tihte to and taihte. 
And al j)0 \>e ani-wise deuel iquemde 
po be^ mid him in helle fordon and demde. 
Bute fo ]>e ofSuhte sore [her] here misdade 275 

And gunne here gultes bete and betere lif lade. 
par be^ naddren and snaken eueten and fruden 
pe tere^ and frete^ J)0 euele swiken fe ni^fule and \>e prude 
Nafre sunne |)ar ne sine^ ne mone ne storre. 
par is muchel godes hete and muchel godes oerre. 280 
Afre ]>ar is euel smech ))iestemesse and eie 
Nis j>ar nafre o¥er liht J)an ]>e swarte leie. 
par lige^ ateliche fiend in stronge raketeie 
pat be^ J>o ))e waren mid god angles swi^e heie. 
pat be^ ateliche fiend and eiseliche wihten 285 

po sulle )>e wreche sowle isien J>e sinegeden ))urh sihte 
par is se lo^e sathanas and belzebub se ealde 
Ea^e he mu^en ben sore ofdrad J>e sullen hes bihealde. 
Ne mai non herte hit Jjenche ne tunge hit ne mai telle 
Hwu muchele pine ne hwu fele senden in helle 290 

274 MS. 'hem/ 282 MS. *oder.' 

214 ^y^^- -4 MORAL ODE. 

For al J>e pyiie Jjat her is. nulle ich eu nouht lye. 285 
Nis hit bute gome and gleo. al ))at mon may her dreye. 
And yet ne dof heom noJ)ing so wo. in Jje lo)>e bende. 
Ase J>a/ witen heore pyne. ne schal habbe non ende. 
par beo)) fe he|)ene men. J)at were lawe-lese. 
pet nes nouht of godes forbode. ne of godes hese. 290 
Vuele cristenemen. beo]> )>er heonire uere. 
peo )>at heore cristendom. vuele heolden here. 
Yet heo beof a wise stude. anyj)e[r] helle gninde. 
Ne schullen heo neu^r cumen up i for marke. ne for punde. 
Ne may helpe J>er. noufer beode ne almesse. 295 

For nys nofer in helle. ore ne [forjyeuenesse. 
Nu schilde him vych mon hwile he may. wi|) fe ilke pyne. 
And warny vich his freond. so ich habbe myne. 
peo f^/ schilde heom ne kunnen. ich heom wille teche. 
Ich con beon eyj>er if ich schal. lycome and soule leche. 300 
Lete we J)at god forbed. alle mon-kunne. 
And do we J)at he vs hat. and schilde we vs m]> sunne. 
Luuye we god myd vie heorte. and myd alle vre myhte. 
Vre euen-cristen. as vs seolf. for so vs lerede dryhte. 
Al fat me rede]> and syngej>. bi-voren godes borde. 305 
Al hit honge)> and hald. bi ))isse twam worde. 
Alle godes lawe he fulle]>. ]te newe. and ek Jje olde. 
pat hauej) Jjeos ilke two luuen. and wel heom wile atholde. 
Ah soj) ich hit eu segge. ofte we agulte)> alle. 
For strong hit is to stonde longe. and lyht hit is to falle. 310 
Ah dryhten crist vs yeue streng))e. stonde fat we mote. 
And of alle vre simnen. vs lete cume to bote. 
Vve wilnej) after worldes ayhte. fat longe ne may ileste. 
And mest leggef vre swynk. on fing vnstudeueste. 
If fat we swunkea for gode. half, fat we dof for eyhte. 315 
Nere we nouht so ofte bi-cherd. ne so vuele by-keihte. 
Yef we seruede god. so we dof earmynges, 

316 MS. 'by-fouhta* 


Of J>o pine )>e far bie^ nelle ich eow naht lie 

Nis hit bute gamen and glie of fat man mai here drie. 

And 5iet ne do^ hem naht alse wo in j)e lo^ bende 

Swo ))at he witen Jjat here pine sal nafre habben ende 

par be^ ))e ha'^ne men fe waren laje-lease 295 

pe [hem] nes naht of godes bode ne of godes hease. 

Euele cristene men hie be^ here iferen 

po J)e here cristendom euele hielden here. 

And jiet he be^ a werse stede ani^r helle grmide 

Ne sullen [hie] nafre cumen tit for peni ne for punde. 300 

Ne mai hem no^r helpe )>ar ibede ne almesse 

For naht solden bidde ))ar ore ne for^ieuenesse. 

Silde him elch man fe hwile he mai wi^ ]>os helle pine. 

Afid warnie his frend Jjar-wi^ swo ich habbe ido mine. 

po Jje silde hem ne cunnen ich hem wille tache 305 

Ich can ben ai^er jief isal lichame and sowle lache. 

Late we fat god forbet alle mankenne 

And do we fat he us hat and silde we us wi^ senne. 

Luue we god mid ure herte and mid al ure mihte 

A?td ure emcristen alse us self swo us tache'S drihte. 310 

Al fat me r^de^ and singed® bifore godes borde 

Al hit hanged and halt bi fese twam worde 

Alle godes lajes hie fulled fe newe and fe ealde 

pe fe fos two luues halt and wile hes wel healde. 

Ac hie bie^ wel arefe^-heald swo ofte we gulte^ alle 315 

For hit is strong te stonde longe and liht hit is to falle. 

Ac drihte crist jeue us streng^e stonde fat we moten 

And of alle ure gultes jieue us cume bote. 

We wilnie'S after wereldes wele fe longe ne mai ilaste 

And lege^ mast al ure swine on fing unstedefaste. 320 

Swrmke [we] for godes luue half j^at we do¥ for eihte. 

Nare we naht swo ofte bicherd ne swo euele bikeihte 

?ief we serueden god half fat we do^ for erminges 

308 MS. • wid.' 310 MS. * tachcd.* 31 1 MS. • singed/ 313 MS. « godel.' 


We mihte habbe more of heouene. fan eorles o))er kynges. 
Ne mowe nouht weryen heom. wij) chele ne wij) hunger. 
Ne wij) elde ne wij) dej>e. ))e eldure ne J)e yonge[r]. 320 
Ah J)er nys hunger nor j>urst ne def, ne vnhelfe ne elde. 
Of )jis world we Jjenchef ofte; and fer-of al to selde. 
Vve schulde vs bi-|)enche. wel ofte and wel ildme. 
Hwat we beoj). to hwan we schulen. and of hwan we comen. 
Hw lutle hwile we beof here, hw longe elles-hware. 325 
And after gode wel wurche. Jjenne ne ]>uruue noht kare. 
If we were wyse men. J)us we schulde fenche. 
Bute we wur)>e vs iwar. fes world vs wile for-drenche. 
Mest alle men he yeuej) drynke. of one deofles [schenche.] 
He schal him cunne schilde wel. yef he him. [wole bi-J)enche.] 
Mid almyhtyes godes luue. vte we vs werie. 331 

Wi]> |>eos wrecche worldes luue. \>e heo vs ne derye. 
Mid festen. and almesse and beoden. were we vs wiJ) sunne. 
Mid ]>e wepnen ))at god hauej) yeuen. to alle monkunne. 
Lete we ))eo brode stret. and ))ene wey grene. 335 

pat lat J)e nyej)e to helle. of folke. and mo ich wene. 
Go we )>ene narewe wey. ]>ene wey so schene. 
per forj) fare)> lutel folk, and }jat is wel e]>-sene. 
pe brode stret is vre wil. fat is.vs lof to lete. 
pe fat al felewef his wil. he faref fe brode strete. 340 

pe narewe way is godes heste. fat forf faref wel fawe. 
pat beof feo. fe heom schedef wel. wif vych vnfewe. 
peos gof vnnefe ayeyn fe cleo. ayeyn fe heye huUe. 
peos letef awei al heore wil. for godes hestes to fulle. 
Go we alle fene wei. for he vs wile brynge. 345 

Mid fe fewe feyre men by-uoren heouene kinge. 
per is aire murehfe mest. myd englene songe. 
Wel edy wurf f ilke mon. fat fer byf vnderuonge. 


We mihten habben more an heuene ))a[n] jierles and kinges 
Ne muje we werien na^er ne wi^ |)urst ne wi^ hunger 325 
Ne wi^ elde ne wi^ dea^ fe elder ne \>e jeunger 
Ac j>ar nis hunger ne ]>urst. dea^ ne unhal^e ne elde. 
Of ))esse riche we ))enche^ to ofte of Jjare alto selde. 
We solden bi)>enchen us wel ofte and ilome 
Hwat we be^ to hwan we sullen and of hwan we come* 
Hwu litle hwile we bie^ her hwu longe elles hware 331 
Hwat we mu^an habben her and hwat we finde^ j>are. 
3ief [we] waren wise men fus we solden j)enchen 
But we wur^n us iwar fis wereld us wile drenchen 
Mast alle men hit jieue^ drinken of on euele senche. 335 
He sal him cunnen silde wel jief hit him nele screnche 
Mid al-mihtin godes luue lite we us biwerien 
Wi^ j>esses wreches woreldes luue ]>at hit ne muje us derien 
Mid almesse. mid fasten and mid.ibeden werie we us wi^ 
Mid ]>o wapne )>e god haue^ jieue alle man-kenne. [senne. 
Late we Jje brode strate and Jjane weg bene 341 

pe lat fe nie^e dal to helle of manne me mai wene. 
Go we J>ane narewe pa^ and ))ene wei grene 
par for^ fare^ wel litel folc and eche is fair and isene 
pe brode strate is ure wil. ))e is lo^ te Isete 345 

po \>e fol^e^ here iwil hie fare^ bi J)are strate. 
Hie mu^en lihtliche cumen mid Jjare ni^er helde 
purh one godelease wude to one bare felde 
pa[t] narewe pa^ is godes has. Jjar for^ fare^ wel feawe 
pat be^ J)0 \>e hem silde^ jierne wi^ achen un^eawe. 350 

pos go^ unea¥e ajien Jje cliue and ajien )>e heie hulle 
pos leten al here iwil for godes luue to fulle. 
Go we alle fane wei for he us wile bringe 
Mid J)0 feawe faire men bifore fe heuen kinge 
par is aire blisse mast mid angles songe. 355 

pe is a J)usend wintre )>ar ne Jjunche^ hit him naht longe. 
325, 339 MS. *wid.' 340 MS. 'haued.' 

21 8 XVn. A MORAL ODE. 

pe lest hauef murehjje. he haue)> so muche. ne bit he namore 

Hwo so |>eo blisse for fisse foryet. hit may him rewe sore. 

Ne may no pyne ne no wone beon in heouene riche. 351 

pah fer beon wonynges feole. and oJ)er vnyliche. 

Summe habbe)) lasse murehj)e. and summe habbef more. 

Vych after J)at he dude her. and after ^af heo swunken sore. 

Ne wrf fer bred ne wyn. ne nones kunnes este. 355 

God one schal beon eche lif. and blisse [and] eche reste. 

per nys noufer fou ne grey, ne konyng. ne hermyne. 

Ne oter. ne acquerne. beuveyr ne sablyne. 

Ne j)er ne wur]j ful iwis. worldes wele none. 

Al Jje murehjje fat me vs bihatf al hit is god one. 360 

Nis J)er no murehfe so muchel. so is godes syhte. 

He is so)> sunne. and briht. and day bute nyhte. 

He is vyche godes ful. nys him nowiht wi]>-vte. 

Nis heom nones godes wone i fat wunef hym abute. 

per is weole bute wone. and reste bute swynke. 365 

Hwo may fider cume and nule. hit schal hym sore of-J)inche. 

per is blysse bute teone. and lif wif-vte defe. 

peo fat schulle wunye fer. blife mvwen heo beon ej>e. 

per is yonghede buten ealde. and hele buten vnhelfe. 

per nys seorewe ne no sor. neu«: non vnhelfe. 370 

Seoffe me dryhten iseo. so he is myd iwisse. 

He one may beon and schal. englene and monne blisse. 

peo schulen of him more iseon. fat her him luuede more. 
And more iseon and iwyten. his milce and his ore. 
On him heo schullen fynden. al fat mon may luste. 375 
And on lyues bee iseon. al fat heo her nusten. 
Crist seolf one schal beon. i-nouh to alle derlinges. 

370 ReadYVi%t\^, 


pe last haue^ blisse he haue^ swo muchel ))at he ne bit no 

pe J)at blisse forgot hit sal him rewen sore. [more 

Ne mai non euel ne non wane ben in godes riche 

peih )>ar ben wuniinges fele elch o^er uniliche 360 

Sume )>ar habbe^ lasse blisse and sume Jjar habbe^ more 

Elch after J)at he dude her after ]>ane J)e he swanc sore 

Ne sal ]>ar ben bread ne win ne o^er kennes este 

God one sal ben ache lif and blisse and ache reste. 

Ne sal far ben foh ne grai ne cunin ne ermine 365 

Ne aquerne ne metheschele ne beuer ne sabeline. 

Ne sal ]jer ben na^er scat ne srud ne wereldes wele none. 

Al \e blisse fe me us bihat al hit sal ben god one 

Ne mai no blisse ben alse muchel se is godes sihte. 

He is so^ sunne and briht and dai abute nihte. 370 

He is aches godes ful nis him no wiht uten 

Nones godes hem nis wane J)e wunie^ him abuten. 

par is wele abuten wane and reste abuten swunche. 

pe mu^en and nelle^ ]>ider cume hit hem mai oft)unche. 

par is blisse abuten trei3e and lif abuten dea^e ' 375 

po ))e afre suUe wunie )>ar bli^e hie mu^e ben ea^e. 

par is ^ieu^ abuten elde and hale abuten unhal^e 

Nis J>ar sare^e ne sor non ne nafre unisal^e. 

par me drihte self isien swo se is mid iwisse 

He one mai and sal al ben angles and manne blisse. 380 

And J)eih ne be^ here eien naht alle iliche brihte 

Hi nabbed naht iliche muchel alle of godes lihte 

On ))esse Hue he naren naht alle of ore mihte 

Ne )>ar ne sullen habben god alle bi one wihte. 

po sullen more of him isien J>e luueden hine more 385 

And more icnowen and ec witen his mihte and his ore 

On him hie suUe finden al fat man mai to hleste 

On him he sullen ec isien al fat hie ar nesten. 

Crist sal one bien inojh alle his derlinges. 

357 MS. 'sswo.' 381 MS. 'bed; 


He one is more and betere. J)an alle wordliche ]>inges. 

Inouh hi habbej) )>at hyne habbe)>. )>at alle ))inges welde]>. 

Him to seonne murie hit is. so fayr he is to biholde. 380 

God is so swete and so mucheL in his godnesse. 

Al ))at wes and is. is wel wurse and lasse. 

Ne may nomo« hit segge. ne wyten myd iwisse. 

Hu muchele murehjje habbe]> heo. J)at beof \n heuene blisse 

To ))are blisse bringe vs god. Jjat leste]> buten ende. 385 

Hwenne he vre saule vn-bind. of lichomliche bende. 

Crist vs lete such lif lede. and habbe her such ende. 

pat we mote to him cume. hwenne we heonne wendej>. Am^. 

Bidde we nu leoue freond. yonge and ek olde. 

pat he J)at J)is wryt wrot. his saule beo l>er atholde. hxaen, 390 


That evere micte leden ut here, 

Or stede onne ride, or handlen spere, 

Thre children he hauede bi his wif, 

He hem louede so his lif. 

He hauede a sone [and] douhtres two, 350 

Swithe fayre, as fel it so. 

He that wile non forbere 

Riche ne poqre, king ne kaysere, 

Deth him tok than he bes[t] wolde 

Liuen, but hyse dayes were fulde; 355 

That he ne moucte no more Hue, 

For gol ne siluer, ne for no gyue. 

Hwan he that wiste, rathe he sende 
After prestes, fer an[d] hende, 
Chanounes gode, and monkes bethe, 36^ 

Him for to wisse and [for] to rede ; 
Him for to hoslen and to shriue, 
Hwil [that] his bodi were on Hue. 

Hwan he was hosled and shriuen, 
His quiste maked and for him gyuen, 365 
His knictes dede he alle site. 
For thorw hem he wolde wite 
Hwo micte yeme hise children yunge, 
Til that he kouthen speken wit tunge; 
Speken and gangen, on horse riden, 370 

Knictes an[d] sweynes bi here siden. 
He spoken theroffe and chosen sone 
A riche man, that under mone 
Was the trewest that he wende, 
Godard, the kinges oune frende; 375 

And seyden, he moucte hem best loke 

346 MS. * uth/ 362 MS. • hoslon' ; • an for to/ 

373 MS. 'was,' 376 MS. *moucthe.' 


Yif that he hem undertoke, 

Til hise sone moucte here 

Helm on heued, and leden ut here; 

In his hand a spere stark, 38a 

And king ben maked of Denemark. 

He wel trowede that he seyde 

And on Godard handes leyde ; 

And seyde, * Here biteche I the 

Mine children alle thre, 385 

Al denemark, and al mi fe, 

Til that mi sone of helde be ; 

But that ich wille, that thou suere 

On auter, and on messe-gere. 

On the belles that men ringes, 390 

On messe bok the prest on singes, 

That thou mine children shalt wel yeme, 

That hire kin be ful wel queme, 

Til mi sone mowe ben knict, 

Thanne biteche him tho his rict, 395 

Denemark, and that thertil longes, 

Casteles and tunes, wodes and wonges.' 

Godard stirt up, an[d] swor al that 
The king him bad, and sithen sat 
By the knictes, that ther ware, 400 

That wepen alle swithe sare 
For the king that deide sone; 
Ihesu Crist, that makede mone, 
On the mirke nict to shine, 

Wite his soule fro helle pine; 405 

And leue that it mote wone 
In hevene-riche with godes sone I 

378 MS. *mouthe.' 388 MS. * tho.' 392 MS. 'we.' 
394 MS. * knicth.* 395 MS, * ricth.' 404 MS. • nith.' 



wan Birkabeyn was leyd in graue, 
The erl dede sone take the knaue, 
Hauelok, that was the eir, 410 

Swanborow his sister, Helfled, the tother, 
And in the castel dede he hem do, 
Ther non ne micte hem comen to 
Of here kyn, ther thei sperd wore ; 
Ther he greten ofte sore, 415 

Bothe for hmiger and for kold, 
Or he weren thre winter hold. 
Feblelike he gaf hem clothes. 
He ne yaf a note of his othes ; 
He hem [ne] clothede rict, ne fedde, 420 

Ne hem ne dede richelike be-bedde. 
Thanne Godard was sikerlike 
Under God the moste swike, 
That eure in erthe shaped was, 
Withuten on, the wike Judas. 425 

Have he the malisun to day 
Of alle that eure speken may I 
Of patriarck, and [ek] of pope I 
And of prest with loken kope ! 
Of monekes and hermites bothe I 430 

And of the leue holi rode. 
That God him selue ran on blodel 
Crist warie him with his mouth! 
Waried w[o]rihe he of north and suth ! 
Oflfe alle men that speken kunne I 435 

Of Crist, that made mone and sunnel 
Thanne he hauede of al the lond 
Al the folk tilled intil his hond, 

411 ? the fair; see 1. 605. 414 MS. 'were.* 419 MS. • rith.* 

436 MS. ' maude.' 



And alle haueden sworen him oth, 

Riche and poure, lef and loth, 440 

That he sholden hise wille freme, 

And that he shulde him nouct greme, 

He thoucte a ful strong trechery, 

A trayson, and a felony, 

Of the children for to make : 445 

The deuel of helle him sone take I 

Hwan that was thouct, onon he ferde 
To the torn- ther he woren sperde, 
Ther he greten for hunger and cold; 
The knaue that was sumdel bold, 456 

Kam him ageyn, on knes him sette, 
And Godard ful feyre he ther grette, 
And Godard seyde, 'What is yow? 
Hwi grete ye and goulen nou?' 
' For us hungreth swithe sore :* — 455 

Seyden [that] he wolden more, 
* We ne haue to hete, ne we ne haue 
Her-inne neyther knict ne knaue 
That yeueth us drinken, ne no mete, 
Haluendel that we moun ete. 460 

Wo is us that we weren bom I 
Weilaweil nis it no korn 
That men micte maken of bred? 
Us hungreth, we aren ney ded.' 

Godard herde [tho] here wa, 465 

Ther-ofFe yaf he nouct a stra, 
Bot tok the maydnes bothe samen, 
Also it were up on his gamen, 

442 MS. * nouth.' 443 MS. * thouthe.' 447 MS. • thouth/ 

453MS. *yw.* 458 MS. • knith.* 464MS. 'ths.' 

466 MS. • nouth.* 468 MS. « hiis.' 


Also he wolde with hem leyke, 

That weren for hunger grene and bleike. 470 

Of bothen he karf on-two here throtes, 

And sithen [karf] hem al to grotes. 

Ther was sorwe, wo-so it sawe I 

Hwan the children bi the wawe 

Leyen and sprauleden in the blod; 475 

Hauelok it saw, and the[r] bistod. 

Ful sori was that seli knaue, 

Mikel dred he moucte haue, 

For at hise herte he saw a knif, 

For to reuen him hise lyf, 480 

But the knaue that litel was 

He knelede bifor that Judas, 

And seyde, ' louerd merci nou ! 

Manrede, louerd biddi you! 

Al Denemark I wile you yeue, 485 

To that forward thu late me Hue. 

Here I wile on boke swere, 

That neure more ne shal I here 

Ayen the, louerd, shel ne spere, 

Ne other wepne here, that may you dere. 490 

Louerd haue merci of me I 

To-day I wile fro Denemark fle, 

Ne neuere more comen ageyn; 

Sweren Y wole that Bircabein 

Neuere yete me ne gat :' — 495 

Hwan the deuel herde that, 

Sumdel bigan him for to rewe ; ' 

Withdrow the knif, that was [ful] lewe, 

Of the seli children blod; 

474 MS. 'bith.* 478 MS. 'mouthe.' 481 MS. *kaue.' 

487 MS. * hi.' 



Ther was miracle fair and god ! 500 

That he the knaue nouct ne slou 

But for rewnesse him with-drow. 

Of Auelok rewede him ful sore 

And thoucte he wolde that he ded wore, 

Buton that he moucte wit his hend 505 

Ne drepe him nouct, that fule fend! 

Thoucte he, als he him bistod, 

Starinde als he were wod ; 

' Yif Y late him Hues go. 

He micte me wirchen michel wo, 510 

Grith ne get Y neuere mo, 

He may [me] waiten for to slo; 

And yf he were brouct of line. 

And mine children wolden thriue 

Louerdinges after me, 515 

Of al Denemark micten he be. 

God it wite, he shal ben ded, 

Wile I taken non other red; 

I shal do casten him in the se 

Ther I wile that he drench [ed] be, 520 

Abouten his hals an anker god. 

That he ne flete in the flod." 

Ther anon he dede sende 

After a fishere that he wende, 

That wolde al his wille do, 525 

And sone anon he seyde him to: 

* Grim, thou wost thu art my thral, 

Wilte don mi wille al. 

That I wile bidden the, 

To morwen [I] shal maken the fre, 530 

501 MS. • nouth/ 50a MS. * fo ' ; • thit* 

505, 6 MS..*nouth.* 519 MS. 'she.' 


And aucte the yeuen, and riche make, 

With-than [that] thu wilt this child take, 

And leden him with the to-nicht. 

Than thou sest the mone licht. 

Into the se, and don him ther-inne 535 

Al wile [I] taken on me the sinne/ 

Grim tok the child and bond him faste, 

Hwil the bondes micte laste, 

That weren of ful strong[e] line: 

Tho was Hauelok in ful strong pine, 540 

Wiste he neuere er wat was wo: 

Ihesu Crist, that makede to go 

The halte, and the doumbe speken, 

Hauelok, the of Godard wreken ! 

Hwan Grim him hauede faste bounden, 545 

And sithen in an eld cloth wtwnden, 
A keuel of clutes, ful unwraste. 
That he [ne] moucte speke ne fnaste, 
Hwere he wolde him bere or lede; 
Hwan he hauede don that dede, 550 

Than the swike him gan bede. 
That he shulde him forth [lede], 
And him drinchen in the se, 
That forwarde makeden he. 

In a poke, ful and blac, 555 

Sone he caste him on his bac, 
Ant bar him hom to hise cleue, 
And bitaucte him Dame Leue, 
And seyde, 'Wite thou this knaue. 
Also thou wilt my lif haue ; 560 

I shal dreinchen him in the se, 

J4 MS. 'selith.* 540 MS. 'her.* 548. MS. 'mouthe.* 

^i Hwan .... MS. 'hauede hethede.* See line 2396. 560 MS. 'with.' 


For him shole we ben maked fre, 

Gold hauen ynou and other fe, 

That hauet mi louerd bihoten me.* 

Hwan Dame [Leue] herde that, 565 

Up she stirte, and nouct ne sat, 

And caste the knaue adoun so harde. 

That hise croune he ther crakede 

Ageyn a gret ston, ther it lay. 

Tho Hauelok micte sei, *WeilaweiI 570 

That euere was I kinges bern!* 

That him ne hauede grip or ern, 

Leoun or wlf, wluine or bere. 

Or other best, that wolde him dere. 

So lay that child to middel nict 575 

That Grim bad Leue bringen lict, 

For to don on [him] his clothes: 

' Ne thenkeste nowt of mine othes 

That ich haue mi louerd sworen? 

Ne wile I nouth be forioren. 580 

I shal beren him to the se, 

(Thou wost that bi-houes me;) 

And I shal drenchen him ther-inne; 

Ris up swithe, and go thu binne, 

And blou the fir, and lict a kandeL* 585 

Als she shulde his clothes handel 

On for to don, and blawe the fir, 

She saw ther-inne a lict ful shir. 

Also brict so it were day, 

Aboute the knaue ther he lay. 590 

Of hise mouth it stod a stem, 

566 MS. * nouth/ 575 MS. * nicth.* 582 MS. * houcs.* 
585, 88 MS. Mith.' 587 MS. *ther.* 589 MS. * brith.' 


Als it were a sunne-bem; 

Also lict was it ther-inne, 

So ther brenden cerges [thr]inne: 

'Ihesu Crist!' wat dame Leue, 595 

' Hwat is that lict in ure cleue ! 

Ris up Grim, and loke wat it menes, 

Hwat is the lict as thou wenes/ 

He stirten bothe up to the knaue, 

For [him] man shal god wille haue, 600 

Vnkeueleden him, and swithe unbounden ; 

And sone anon [upon] him funden, 

Als he tirneden of his serk, 

On his net shuldre a kyne merk, 

A swithe brict, a swithe fair: 605 

*GoddotI' quath Grim, 'this [is] ure eir 

That shal [ben] louerd of Denemark, 

He shal ben king strong and stark; 

He shal hauen in his hand 

Al Denemark and Engeland ; 610 

He shal do Godard ful wo. 

He shal him hangen or quik flo ; 

Or he shal him al quic graue, 

Of him shal he no merci haue/ 

Thus seide Grim, and sore gret, 615 

And sone fel him to the fet. 

And seide, 'Louerd, have merci 

Of me, and Leue that is me bi I 

Louerd we aren bothe thine, 

Thine cherles, thine hine. 620 

Lowerd, we sholen the wel fede, 

Til that thu cone riden on stede, 

693, 6, 8 MS. ' lith.' 597 MS. ' Sir ' (for Ris). 604 MS. ' ritlt' 

605 MS. • brith.» 


Til that thu cone ful wel bere 

Helm on heued, sheld and spere. 

He ne shal neuere wite, sikerlike, 625 

Godard, that fule swike. 

Thoru other man, louerd, than thorn the, 

Sal I neuere freman be. 

Thou shalt me, louerd, fre maken. 

For I shal yemen the and waken; 630 

Thoru the wile I fredom haue :' 

Tho was Haueloc a blithe knaue. 

He sat him up, and crauede bred, 

And seide, *Ich am [wel] ney dede, 

Hwat for hunger, wat for bondes, 635 

That thu leidest on min hondes; 

And for [J)e] keuel at the laste 

That in mi mouth was thrist[e] faste. 

Y was with ther so harde prangled, 

That I was ther with ney strangled/ 640 

*Wel is me that thu mayct ete.' 

*Goddoth!' quath Leue, *Y shal the fete 

Bred an[d] chese, butere and milk, 

Pastees and flaunes, al with suilk 

Shole we sone the wel fede, 645 

Louerd, in this mikel nede. 

Soth it is, that men seyt and suereth: 

" Ther God wile helpen, nouct no dereth :" ' 

Thanne sho hauede brouct the mete, 
Haueloc anon bigan to ete 650 

Grundlike, and was [tho] ful blithe; 
Couthe he nouct his hunger mithe. 

626 ? Godard that is fule swike. 639, 40 MS. * the.' 

• 641 MS. *mayth hete.' 648, 5a MS. *nouth.* 

6^9 MS. • brouth.* 


A lof he et, Y wot, and more, 

For him hungrede swithe sore. 

Thre dayes ther bifom, I wene, 655 

Et he lio mete, that was wel sene. 

Hwan he hauede eten and was fed. 

Grim dede maken a ful fayr bed; 

Vnclothede him, and dede him ther-inne. 

And seyde, *Slep sone, with muchel winne; 660 

Slep wel faste, and dred the nouct. 

Fro sorwe to ioie art thu brouct.' 

Sone so it was lict of day, 

Grim it undertok the wey 

To the wicke traitour Godard, 665 

That was Denemarkes a stiward, 

And seyde, * Louerd, don ich haue 

That thou me bede of the knaue ; 

He is drenched in the flod, 

Abouten his hals an anker god; 670 

He is witeriike ded, 

Eteth he neure more bred; 

He lith drenched in the se ! — 

Yif me gold, [and] other fe. 

That Y mowe riche be, 675 

And with thi chartre make fre, 

For thu ful wel bihetet me, 

Thanne 1 last[e] spak with the.' 

Godard stod, and lokede on him 

Thoruch-like, with eyen grim, 680 

And seyde, *Wiltu [nou] ben erl? 

Go hom swithe fiile drit-cherl; 

653 MS. 'het, woth.' 661 MS. 'nouth.' 662 MS. 'brouth/ 

663 MS. 'lith.' 666 MS. Menemak.' 

680 MS. 'thomth-like.* 


Go hethen, and be euere more 

Thral and cherl, als thou er wore, 

Shal [thou] haue non other mede, 685 

For litel, I [shal] do the lede 

To the galues, so God me rede I 

For thou haues don a wicke dede: 

Thou maict stonden her to longe, 

Bute thou swithe [h]ethen gonge.' 690 

Grim thoucte to late that he ran 
Fro that traytour that wicke man; 
And thoucte, * Wat shal me to rede ? 
Wite he him on Hue, he wile bethe 
Heye hangen on galwe tre : 695 

Betere us is of londe to fle, 
And berwen bothen ure Hues, 
And mine children, and mine wiues." 
Grim solde sone al his corn, 
Shep wit woUe, net wit horn, 700 

Hors, and swin [and gate] wit berd, 
The gees, the hennes of the yerd ; 
Al he solde, that ouct doucte, 
That he eure seUe moucte, 

And al he to the peni drou: 705 

Hise ship he gre3rthede wel inow, 
He dede it tere, an[d] ful wel pike, 
That it ne doutede sond ne krike ; 
Ther-inne dide a ful god mast, 
Stronge kables, and ful fast. 710 

Ores god, an[d] ful god seyl, 
Ther-inne wantede nouct a nayl. 
That euere he sholde ther-inne do : 

686 MS. *ig/ 689 MS. *mait.' 69a MS. «tha/ 

700 MS. * neth/ 703 MS. *outh douthe.* 712 MS. * nouth.' 


Hwan he hauedet greythed so, 

Hauelok the yunge he dide ther-inne, 715 

Him and his wif, hise sones thrinne, 

And hise two doutres, that faire wore, 

And sone dede he leyn in an ore, 

And drou him to the heye se, 

Ther he mict alther-best[e] fle: 720 

Fro lond woren he bote a mile, 

Ne were neuere but ane hwile. 

That it ne bigan a wind to rise 

Out of the north, men calleth *bise,' 

And drof hem intil Engelond, 725 

That al was sithen in his bond, 

His, that Hauelok was the name; 

But or he hauede michel shame, 

Michel sorwe and michel tene, 

And thrie he gat it al bidene, 730 

Als ye shulen nou forthwar[d] lere 

Yf that ye wilen ther-to here. 

In Humber Grim bigan to lende, 
In Lindeseye, net at the north ende, 
Ther sat [h]is ship up on the sond, 735 

But Grim it drou up to the lond. 
And there he made a litel cote, 
To him and to hise flote. 
Bigan he there for to erthe 

A litel bus to maken of erthe. 740 

So that he wel thore were 
Of here herboru herborwed there, 
And for that Grim that place aucte. 
The stede of Grim the name laucte, 

720 MS. • mith.* 734MS. irith.* 

743 MS. * aute.* 744 MS. * lautc' 


So that [hit] Grimesbi calleth alle 745 

That ther-ofFe speken alle, 
Affid so shulen men callen it ay, 
Bituene this and domesday. 

745.6 Qy. read 

So that he Grimesbi hit calle 
That theroffe speken alle. 




The * Geste of Kyng Horn* is probably a translation of the 
French romance of Horn and Rimenhild, written in the thir- 
teenth century ; but the first conception of the poem is probably 
of a much earlier date. M. Francisque Michel believes that this 
romance had its origin on English soil, and was recomposed by 
the Norman poets after the Conquest. 

* King Horn* has been printed at various times — (i) in 1802 by 
Ritson, from the Harl. MS. 2253 ; (2) by Francisque Michel, 
from Camb. MS. Gg, 4, 27, 2, for the Bannatyne Club, 1854; 
(3) by Lumby, for the Early English Text Society, 1867 ; (4) by 
Matzner in his * Altenglische Sprachproben,* 1869; {5) by Horst- 
mann, from Laud MS. 1 08, in 'Archiv fiir das Studium der neueren 
Sprachen und Literaturen,* 1872. 

AUe been he blij)e 

fat to my songe ly\>e: 

A sang ihc schal 30U singe 

Of Murry J)e kinge. 

King he was biweste 5 

So longe so hit laste. 

Godhild het his quen, 

Faire[r] ne mi^te^ non ben. 

He hadde a sone \>a/ het horn. 

Fairer ne mi3te non beo born. lo 

Ne no rein upon birine, 

Ne sum^e upon bischine, 

^ MS. • miste.* 


Fairer nis non J)ane he was, 

He was brijt so fe glas, 

He was whit so l>e flur, 15 

Rose red was his colur. 

In none kinge-riche 

Nas no« his iliche. 

Twelf feren he hadde 

pat alle [he] wij) him ladde. 20 

Alle riche manwes sones, 

And alle hi were faire gomes, 

WiJ) him for to pleie, 

And mest he luuede tweie; 

pat on him het ha))ulf child, 25 

And ^ o\er Fikenild. 

Aj)ulf was ))e beste, 

And fikenylde J)e werste. 

Hit was upon a som^res day, 

Also ihc 30U telle may, 30 

Murri })e gode king 

Rod on his pleing 

Bi ]je se side, 

Ase he was woned ride. 

He fo«d bi ))e strt^nde, 35 

Ariued on his lowde, 

Schipes fiftene 

WiJ) sarazins kene: 

He axede what [hi] isojte, 

Ojj^r to londe brojte, 40 

A Payn hit of herde 

And hym wel sone answarede: 

'pi lo«d folk we schulle slon. 

And alle \ai Crist leuej)^ upon 

« MS. * lue>.' 


And J)e selue rijt anon, 45 

Ne schaltu to-dai henne gon/ 

pe kyng alijte of his stede, 

For J)0 he hauede nede, 

And his gode kni3tes two; 

Al to fewe he hadde J)0. 50 

Swerd hi gun«e gripe 

And to-gadere smite. 

Hy smyten under schelde 

pat sume hit yfelde: 

pe king hadde al to fewe 55 

To^enes so vele schrewe: 

So fele mijten efe^ 

Bringe hem J)re to defe^ 

pe pains come to londe 

And neme hit in here honde : 60 

pflt folc hi gun«e quelle, 

And churehen for to felle : 

per ne moste libbe 

pe fremde ne J)e sibbe, 

Bute hi here la^e asoke, 65 

A7td to here toke. 

Of alle wymmanne 

Wurst was Godhild Jjanne; 

For Murri heo weop sore 

And for Horn ^ute more. 70 

He wenten ut of halle 

Fram hire maidenes alle 

Under a roche of stone, 

per heo liuede alone, 

per heo s^ruede gode 75 

A3enes fe paynes forbode: 

> MS. *y>e.' • MS. 'di^e/ 


per he s^ruede cnste 

pflt no payn hit ne wiste : 

Eure heo bad for horn child 

pat Jesu crtst him beo myld. 80 

Horn was in paynes honde 

WiJ> his feren of J>e londe. 

Muchel was his fairhede 

For ihesu cr/st him makede. 

Payns him wolde slen, 85 

O^er al quic [wolde] flen, 

3ef his fairnesse nere : 

pe children alle asla^e were. 

pawne spak on Admira[l]d 

Of wordes he was bald, 90 

'Horn J)U art wel kene, 

And ^at is wel isene; 

pu art gret and strong, 

Fair and euene long, 

pu schalt waxe more 95 

Bi fulle seue ^ere : 

3^^ f^ mote to liue go 

And fine feren also, 

3ef hit so bi-falle 

3© scholde slen us alle: 100 

paruore ))U most to stere, 

pu and ))ine ifere, 

To schupe schuUe je funde, 

And sinke to ]>e grunde, 

pe se 30U schal adrenche, 105 

Ne schal hit us nojt of-J)inche ; 

For if J)U were aliue, 

WiJ) swerd of^r wij) kniue. 

We scholden alle deie 

And Yi fader del> abeie.' no 


pe children hi br03te to strt?nde, 

Wringinde here honde, 

Into schupes horde 

At })e furste worde. 

Ofte hadde horn beo wo 115 

Ac neure wurs }>an him was J)0. 

pe se bigan to flowe, 

And horn child to rowe, 

pe se })«t schup so faste drof 

pe children dradde }>erof. 120 

Hi wenden wel y-wisse^ 

Of here Uf to misse, 

Al )>e day and al )>e nijt 

Til hit sprang [)>e] dai lijt, 

Til Horn sa^ on }>e str^nde 125 

Men gon in J)e londe. 

* Feren' qua^ he * 30«ge, 
Ihc telle 30U tij)inge, 
Ihc here fojeles singe 

And [se] )>at gras him springe. 130 

Bli)>e beo we on lyue, 

Ure schup is on ryue/ 

Of schup hi gunwe funde, 

And setten fot^ to grunde, 

Bi }>e se side 135 

Hi lete« Jwzt schup ride : 

panne spak him child horn, 

In suddene he was ibom. 

* Schup, bi }>e se flode 

Daies haue )>u gode: 140 

Bi })e se brinke 

No wat^r })e nadrmke: 

1 MS. *to-wisse/ * MS. 'font' 

VOL. I. R 


3ef ))U cume to Suddene 

Gret ))U wel aP myne ken/re, 

Gret ))U wel my moder, 145 

Godhild quen ))e gode, 

And seie ))e paene kyng, 

Jesu cristes wi)>er[l]ing, 

pat ich am hoi and fer 

On }>is lond ariued her : 150 

And seie ^ hei schal fonde 

pe dent of myne honde/ 

pe children 3ede to Tune, 

Bi dales and bi dune. 

Hy metten wij> ailmar king, 155 

Crist 3eue« him his blessing, 

King of West^rnesse, 

Crist 3iue him muchel blisse, 

He him spac to horn child 

Wordes )>at were mild: 160 

* Whannes beo 5e, faire gumes, 

pat her to londe beo)) icume, 

Alle J)r[e]ottene 

Of bodie swi))e kene. 

Bigod ^at me makede, 165 

A swihc fair uerade 

Ne sau3 ihc in none stimde, 

Bi westernesse ^ londe : 

Seie me wat ^e seche/ 

Horn spak here speche, 170 

He spak for hem alle, 

Uor so hit moste biualle 

He was J>e faireste 

And of wit })e beste. 

» MS. «of.' 2 MS. •westcne.' 


* We beo)> of Suddenne, 175 
Icome of gode kenne, 

Of Cristene blode, 

And kynges swij^e^ gode. 

Payns })er gun«e ariue 

And duden hem of lyue. 180 

Hi slo3en and todroje 

Cristene men ino3e. 

So crist me mote rede, 

Us he dude lede 

Into a galeie, 185 

WiJ) J)e se to pleie, 

Dai hit is igon and o}>er, 

Wifute sail and roJ>er. 

Ure schip bigan to swymme 

To )>is londes brymme. 190 

Nu )>u mi^t us slen and binde 

Ure^ honde [us] bihynde, 

Bute 5ef hit beo }>i wille 

Helpe [us] }>at we ne spille/ 

panne spak )>e gode kyng. 195 

I-wis he nas no Nifing. 

* Seie me, child, what is ))i name, 
Ne schaltu haue bute game.* 

pe child him answerde 

Sone so he hit herde: 200 

* Horn ihc am ihote, 
Icomen ut of )>e bote, 
Fram )>e se side 

Kyng wel mote )>e tide/ 

panne hym spak })e gode king 205 

*Wel bruc )>u ))i neueniwg 

1 MS. * sujje.' « MS. * Ore.* 

244 ^^^- ^^^^ HORN. 

Horn ))U go wel schulle 

Bi dales and bi hulle 

Horn }>u lude sime 

Bi dales and bi dune 210 

So schal l>i name springe 

From kynge to kynge, 

And }>i faimesse 

Abute West^rnesse, 

pe str6ngj)e of fine honde 215 

Into eurech londe. 

Horn, ))U art so swete 

Ne may ihc J>e forlete.' 

Horn rod Aylmar }>e kyng 

And mid him his fund[l]yng 220 

And alle his ifere 

p^t were him so dere. 

pe kyng com in to halle 

Among his kni3tes alle: 

ForJ> he clupede a})elbrus, 225 

pat was stiward of his hus. 

* Stiwarde, tak nu here . 

Mi fundlyng for to lere 

Of J>ine mester^, 

Of wude and of riuere, 230 

And tech him to harpe 

Wi)) his nayles scharpe, 

Biuore me to kerue 

And of }>e cupe serue ; 

pu tech him of alle }>e liste 235 

pat })u cure of wiste, 

And* his feiren J>ou wise 

Into oJ>ere s^ruise: 

* MS. « In/ 


Horn }>u underuonge 

Tech^ him of harpe and songe/ 240 

[And] Ailbnis gan lere 

Horn and his yfere : 

Horn in herte la^te 

Al )>at he him ta^te. 

In J)e curt and ute, 245 

And elles al abute, 

Luuede men horn child, 

And mest him louede Rymenhild, 

pe kynges o^ene dorter*, 

He was mest in J>05te, 250 

Heo louede so hom child 

pat ne^ heo gan wexe wild: 

For heo ne mijte at horde 

WiJ) him speke no worde, 

Ne no^t in }>e halle 255 

Among })e kni^tes alle, 

Ne nowhar in non o)>^re stede: 

Of folk heo hadde drede : 

Bi daie ne bi ni^te 

WiJ) him speke ne mi^te; 260 

Hire sore^e ne hire pine 

Ne mi3te neure fine. 

In heorte heo hadde wo, 

And })us [heo] hire bifo^te )>o, 

Heo sende hire sonde 265 

A))elbrus to honde 

pat he come hire to, 

And also scholde horn do 

Al in to bure. 

For heo ga« to lure. 270 

* MS. « And tech.* » MS. * doster.* 


And ^ sonde seide 

pat sik lai ]>at maide 

And bad him come swij)e, 

For heo nas noting bli)>e. 

pe stuard was in herte wo, 275 

For he nuste what to do, 

Wat Rymenhild hure fo^te 

Gret wunder him fu^te, 

Abute horn ))e ^onge 

To bure for to bringe, 280 

He jjo^te upon his mode 

Hit nas for none gode: 

He tok [wi)>] him anofer, 

A))ulf, homes broJ)er. 

*A)>ulf,' he sede, 'ri^t anon 285 

pu schalt wi)> me to bure gon 

To speke wi)> Rymenhild stille 

And witen [al] hure wille. 

In homes ilike 

pu schalt hure biswike : 290 

Sore ihc me ofdrede 

He wolde horn mis-rede/ 

Aj)elbms gan A)>ulf lede 

And into bure wij> him ^ede. 

Anon upon A)>ulf child 295 

Rymenhild gan wexe wild : 

He wewde \fat horn hit were 

pat heo hauede )>ere: 

Heo sette him on bedde ; 

Wi)> A)>ulf child he wedde, 300 

On hire armes tweie 

A)>ulf heo gan leie. 

* Horn,' qudp heo, * wel longe 


Ihc habbe }>e luued strange. 

pu schalt })i trew))e pli^te 305 

On myn bond her rijte 

Me to spuse holde, 

And ihc })e lord to wolde/ 

A})ulf sede on hire ere^ 

So stille so hit were : 310 

* pi tale nu )>u lynne, 

For horn nis nojt herin;ze, 

Ne beo we no^t iliche : 

Horn is fair^ and riche, 

Fairer bi one ribbe 315 

pane eni man pat libbe : 

pej horn were under molde 

Oper elles wher he wolde 

0)>er henne a )>use«d mile, 

Ihc nolde him ne.)>e bigile/ 320 

Rymenhild hire biwente 

And A)>elbrus fule heo schente. 

' Henwes )>u go, )>u fule J)eof, 

Ne wurstu me neure more leof, 

Went ut of my bur, 325 

Wi)> muchel mesauentur. 

Schame mote }>u fonge 

And on hi3e rode anhonge. 

Ne spek ihc no3t wi)> horn 

Nis he no^t so unorn; 330 

Hor[n] is fairer )>ane beo he : 

Wi)> muchel schame mote )>u deie/ 

A)>elbrus in a stunde 

Fel anon to grunde. 

*[AI] Lefdi min oje' 335 

1 MS. • ire/ « MS. * fairer.' 


Li}>e me a litel fro^e. 

Lust whi ihc wonde 

Bringe ))e horn to honde. 

For horn is fair and riche, 

Nis no whar his iliche. 340 

Aylmar ))e gode kyng 

Dude him on mi lokyng; 

3ef horn were her abute, 

[Wei] sore y me dute 

WiJ) him ^e wolden pleie 345 

Bitwex 30U selue tweie, 

panwe scholde wi)>uten o}>e 

pe kyng maken us wro)>e. 

Rymenhild, forjef me )>i tene, 

[My] Lefdi, [and] my queue, 350 

And horn ihc schal )>e fecche 

Wham so hit [euere] recche/ 

Rymenhild ^ef he cu)>e 

Gan lynne wi)) hire mu)>e : 

Heo makede hire wel bli)>e, 355 

Wei was hire ^at si)>e, 

* Go nu/ qua]^ heo * sone 

And send* him aft^r none, 

Whane }>e kyng arise 

On a squieres wise 360 

To wude for to pleie 

Nis non })at him biwreie. 

He schal wi)> me bileue 

Til hit beo ner^ eue, 

To hauen of him mi wille 365 

Aft^r ne recche i^ what me telle/ 

Aylbrus wende hire fro 

1 ? read * bring.* » MS. 'nir/ » MS. * recchecche.* 


Horn in halle fond he J>o 

Bifore }>e kyng on benche 

[Red] wyn for to schenche. 370 

'Horn/ qua^ he, *so hende 

To bure nu )>u wende, 

After mete stille 

WiJ) Rymenhild to duelle; 

Wordes swij>e^ bolde 375 

In herte )>u hem holde. 

Horn beo me wel trewe 

Ne schal hit )>e neure rewe/ 

Horn in herte leide 

Al )>flt he him seide; 380 

He ^eode in wel ri^te 

To Rymenhild }>e bri^te, 

On knes he him sette 

And sweteliche hure grette. 

Of his feire si^te 385 

Al J)e bur gan li^te. 

He spac faire speche, 

Ne dor[s]te him noman teche. 

* Wel }>u sitte and softe, 

Rymenhild Kinges dorter'*, 390 

Wi)> fine Maidenes sixe 

pat J)e sittej) nixte. 

Kinges stuard [and] ure 

Sende me in to bure 

Wi)> l>e speke ihc scholde: 395 

Seie me what )>u woldest 

Seie and ich schal here 

What )>i wille were/ 

Rymenhild up gan stonde 

» MS. • sujje/ a MS. • }>e bri5tc.' 


And tok him bi )>e honde; 400 

Heo sette him on pelle 

Of wyn to drinke his fulle : 

Heo makede him faire chere 

And tok him abute )>e swere. 

Ofte heo him custe 405 

So wel so hire luste. 

' Horn/ heo sede, * wifute strif 

pu schalt haue me to J)i wif 

Horn, haue of me rew)>e 

And plijt * me \\ trewjje.' 410 

Horn jK) him bifo^te 

What he speke mi^te. 

* Crist/ Q^a\ he, * J)e wisse 

And jiue J)e joye and blisse^ 

Of ))ine husebonde 415 

Wher he beo \n lowde. 

Ihc am ibore to lowe 

Such wim;wa« to knowe'. 

Ihc am icome of ))ralle 

And fuwdliwg [am] bifalle. 420 

Ne feoUe hit )>e of cu«de 

To spuse beo me bunde: 

Hit nere no fair wedding 

Bitwexe a )>ral and a king/ 

po gan Rymenhild mislyke 435 

And sore gan to sike : 

Armes heo gan bu5e 

Adun he feol iswoje. 

Horn in herte was fuf wo. 

And tok hire on his armes two, 430 

1 MS. *pHst.* 2 MS. «|,e heuene blissc' 

' ? * such a wyf to owe.* 


He gan hire for to kesse 
Wei ofte mid ywisse. 

* Lem;wan ' he sede * dere, 
pin herte nu )>u stere. 

Help [))u] me to kni^te .435 

Bi al J)ine mi^te, 

To my lord )>e king, 

pat he me ^iue dubbing: 

panwe is mi J)ralhod 

Iwewt in to knijthod, 440 

And i schal wexe more 

And do, lemrmn, )>i lore/ 

Rymenhild, fat swete ))ing, 

Wakede of hire swooning. 

* Horn/ qua]f heo, * wel ^ sone 445 
pat schal beon idone : 

pu schalt beo dubbed km'jt 

Are [hit] come seue ni3t. 

Haue [\>u\ her ))is cuppe 

And J)is Ring ))er-uppe 450 

To Aylbrus ure^ stuard, 

And se he holde foreward : 

Seie ich him biseche 

Wij) loueliche speche 

pat he B,dun falle 455 

Bifore )>e ki«g in halle, 

-4«d? bidde })e king arijte 

Dubbe j>e to kni^te. 

WiJ) seluer and wiJ) golde 

Hit wurj) him wel i^olde. 460 

Crist him lene spede 

pin erende to bede.' 

1 MS. «uel/ 2 MS. 'and.' 

25^ ^I^' ^ING HORN. 

Horn tok his leue 

For hit was ne^ eue. 

A^lhrus he so^te 465 

And '^2.f him J)at he bro^te; 

And tolde him ful ^are 

Hu he hadde ifare ; 

And sede him [of] his nede 

And bihet him his mede. 470 

A|>elbrus also swij)e 

We«te to halle bli)>e* 

* Kyng/ he sede, * ))U leste 
A tale mid })e beste ; 

pu schalt bere crime 475 

I« )>is ilke tune ? ; 

Tomore^e is J)i feste: 

pfr bihouej) geste. 

Hit nere no^t for-loren 

For to kni^ti child horn, 480 

pine armes for to welde, 

God knijt he schal ^elde/ 

pe king sede sone, 

* pat is wel idone. 

Horn me wel iqwmiej), 485 

God kni3t him bisemej). 

He schal haue mi dubbing 

And afterward [be] mi derling. 

Aftd alle his feren twelf 

He schal kni^ten him self: 490 

Alle he schal hem knijte 

Bifore me })is ni^te/ 

Til )>e li3t of day sprang 

Ailmar him fujte la;zg. 

» MS. « bliue/ 2 Ms. . Tomori^e in J)is tune/ 


pe day bigan to spri«ge, 495 

Horn com biuore )>e ki«ge, 
Mid his twelf yfere, 
Sume hi were hi^ere; 
Horn he dubbede to kni^te 
Wib swerd and spures bri^te, 500 

He sette him on a stede whit: 
per nas no kni^t hym ilik. 
He smot him a litel wi^t 
And bed him beon a god kni3t 
A})ulf fel a knes ))ar 505 

Biuore the king Aylmar. 
• King/ he sede, * so kene 
Grante me a bene: 
Nu is kni3[t] sire horn 

pat in suddenwe was iboren: 510 

Lord he is of \onde 
Ouer us )>at bi him stpnde; 
pin armes he ha)> and scheld 
To fijte wi)> upon })e feld: 
Let him us alle kni^te 51$ 

For J)tft is ure* ri^te/ 
Ayhnar sede sone ywis: 
*Do nu ))at )>i wille is/ 
Horn adun [gan] li^te 

And makede hem alle kni^tes. 520 

Mwrie was )>e feste 
Al of faire gestes : 
Ac Rymenhild nas nojt Jyer 
And }>at hire ))U3te seue 3er. 
Aft^ horn heo sente 525 

And he to bure wewte, 
Nolde he nojt go one 

1 ? * his/ 

254 ' ^^^* KING HORN. 

A|)ulf was his mone. 

Rymenhild on flore stod, 

Homes come hire ))U3te god: 530 

And sede 'Welcome, sire horn 

And AJ>ulf kni5t }e bifom. 

Kni^t, nu is )>i time 

For to sitte bi me; 

Do nu J)at J>u er of spake, 535 

To )>i wif )>u me take. 

Ef })U art trewe of dedes 

Do nu ase }>u sedes. 

Nu )>u hast wille J)ine 

Unbind me of my pine/ 540 

* Rymenhild ' quaj) he * beo stille : 

Ihc wulle don al )>i wille. 

Also hit mot bitide 

Mid sp^re ischal furst ride, 

And mi knijthod proue, 545 

Ar ihc ]?e ginne to woje. 

We be}) knijtes jowge 

Of o dai al isprwnge, 

And of ure mest^re 

So is }>e manure 550 

Wi)> sume oJ>ere kni^te 

Wei for his lemman fijte 

Or he eni wif take : 

For-J)i me stonde|> ))e more rape. 

Today, so crist me blesse, 555 

Ihc wulle do pruesse, 

For )>i luue, in J)e felde 

Mid spere and mid schelde. 

If ihc come to lyue 

Ihc schal ))e take to wyue/ 560 


' Kni^t/ qua|> heo, * trewe, 

Ihc wene ihc mai ))e leue : 

Tak nu her J)is gold ring, 

God him is \>q dubbing; 

per is upon |>e ringe 565 

Igraue Rymenhild J)e ^onge: 

per nis no« bet^re anonder sunwe 

pat eni man of telle cunwe; 

For my luue )>u hit were 

And on ))i finger )>u him here: 570 

pe stones beo)) of suche gr^ce 

pat J)U ne schalt in none place 

Of none du«tes beon ofdrad, 

Ne on bataille beon amad, 

Ef }>u loke )>fran 575 

And )>e«ke upo« )>i lewman. 

And sire A)>ulf, J)i hropeT, 

He schal haue ano}>er. 

Horn [God] ihc }>e biteche*, 

WiJ) loueliche speche, 580 

Crist 3eue god erndinge 

pe ajen to bringe/ 

pe kni3t hire gan kesse, 

And heo him to blesse, 

Leue at hire he nam, 585 

And in to halle cam : 

pe kni^tes ^eden to table^ 

And home ^ede to stable. 

par he tok his god fole 

Also blak so eny cole; 590 

pe fole schok }>e brunie 

pat al )>e curt gan denie, 

^ MS. * biseche.* 


pe fole bigan to springe 

And horn murie to singe. 

Horn rod in a while 595 

More ))an a myle. 

He fond o schup stonde 

Wij) hejiene honde: 

He axede what hi sojte 

Oj)^r to londe bro3te. 600 

An hand him gan bihelde, 

pat spac wordes belde 

*pis lond we wulle))^ wynne 

And sle ^at ^er is inne.' 

Horn gan his swerd gr/pe, 605 

And on his arme [hit] wype : 

pe sarazins he smatte 

pat his blod hatte: 

At eureche dunte 

pe heued of wente; 610 

po gun«e ))e hiwdes gone 

Abute horn al one: 

He lokede on ))e ringe, 

And jjojte on rimenilde, 

He SI05 j>er on haste 615 

On hundred bi ))e laste. 

Ne mi3te no man telle 

pat folc Jiflt he gan quelle. 

Of alle ^at were aliue 

Ne mijte ))er non ))riue. 620 

Horn tok })e maist^res heued, 

pat he hadde him bireued, 

And sette hit on his swerde, 

* MS. ' wullej; 


Anouen at ))an orde. 

He uerde hom in to halle, 625 

Among }>e knijtes alle, 

* Kyng/ he sede, ' wel fu sitte 

And alle }>ine kni3tes mitte; 

To day, after mi dubbing, 

So i rod on mi ple[y]ing, 630 

I fond o schup rowe 

po hit gan to flowe, 

Al wij) sarazines kyn, 

And none londisse men, 

To dai for to pine 635 

pe and alle }>ine. 

Hi gonne me assaille, 

Mi swerd me nolde faille, 

I smot hem alle to grunde, 

0}>er jaf hem de}>es^ wunde. 640 

pat heued i ))e bridge 

Of ))e maist^r kiwge. 

Nu is }>i wile i3olde, 

King, }>at ))U me kni3ti wolde^/ 

Amore3e ))0 ))e day gan sprmge 645 

pe king him rod an hiwtinge, 

At hom lefte Fikenhild, 

pat was ]>e wurste moder child. 

Heo ferde in to bure 

To sen auewtwre: 650 

Heo saj Rymenild sitte 

Also he were of witte : 

Heo sat on ]>e sunne, 

Wi)) teres^ al biruwne. 

Horn sede ' lef, }>in ore ! 655 

1 MS. • dij)es.' a MS. ' woldest/ » MS. * tires.' 

OL- I. S 


Wi wepestu so sore?' 

Heo sede 'nojt i ne wepe, 

Bute ase i lay aslepe 

To ))e se my net i caste, 

And hit nolde no^t ilaste, 660 

A gret fiss at the furste 

Mi net he gan to berste. 

Ihc wene ))at ihc schal leose 

pe fiss ]>at ihc wolde cheose/ 

'Crist' qua\> horn 'and seint steuene, 665 

Tume ))ine sweuene. 

Ne schal i })e biswike, 

Ne do ^at })e mislike. 

I schal me make ))in owe 

To holden and to knowe 670 

For eurech ojj^re wijte, 

And )>arto mi treu))e i^ plijte/ 

Muchel was )>e rujie 

pat was at \>3xe tru))e: 

For Rymenhild weop ille: 675 

And hom let \>e teres ^ stille. 

*Le»ima«' qua\> he 'dere, 

pu schalt more ihere 

pi sweuen [ich] schal wende 

0))^r sum man schal us schende. 680 

pe fiss j)at brak l>e lyne, 

Ywis, he do}> us pine: 

\>at schal don us [some] tene, 

And wur}> wel sone isene/ 

Aylmar rod bi sture, 685 

And horn lai in [))e] bure. 

Fykenhild hadde enuye 

» MS. MJ^e.' ^ MS. 'tires.* 


And sede ))es folye : 

*Aylmar ihc Jje wame, 

Horn j>e wule berne: 690 

Ihc herde whar he sede, 

And his swerd for}> leide, 

To bringe )>e of lyue, 

And take Rymenhild to wyue. 

He li}) [nu] in bure, 695 

Under cou^rture, 

By Rym^hild ))i dorter, 

And so he doj) wel ofte; 

And }?ider j)U go al ri^t, 

per }>u him finde mi^t; 700 

pu do him ut of londe, 

0\er he doJ) ))e schonde.' 

Aylmar a^en gan turne 

Wel modi and wel mume: 

[To boure he gan 5erne 705 

Durste hym no man werne] 

He fond horn in arme 

On Rymewhilde barme. 

*Awei ut/ he sede, *fule }>eof! 

Ne wurstu me neuremore leof. 710 

Wend ut of my bure 

Wij) muchel messauentwre. 

Wel sone, bute J)U flitte, 

Wij) swerde ihc J)e anhitte. 

Wend ut of my londe 715 

Oyr )>u schalt haue schonde.' 

Horn sadelede his stede 

Wi)) armes he hym gan schrede': 

^ MS. * And his annes he gan sprede.* See line 848. 

S 2 


His brunie he gan lace, 

So he scholde in to place ; 720 

His swerd he gan fonge, 

Nabod he nojt to longe. 

He 3ede for)) bliue 

To Rymewhild his wyue. 

He sede, *Le»iman derling, 725 

Nu hauestu ))i sweuening. 

pe fiss \ai j)i net rente, 

Fram ))e he me sente 

[))e king gynne)) wij) me striue, 

Awey he wole me driue.] 730 

Rymenhild, haue wel godne day. 

No leng abiden i ne may. 

In to uncujje londe, 

Wel more for to fonde, 

I schal wune ))ere 735 

Fulle seue jere. 

At seue ^eres ende, 

3ef i ne come ne sende, 

Tak l>e husebonde, 

For me \\i ne wowde ; 740 

In armes ))U me fonge, 

And kesse ^ me wel longe/ 

He custe him wel a stu//de. 

And Rymenhild feol to grunde. 

Horn tok his leue, 745 

Ne mijte he no le«g bileue; 

He tok A}>ulf, his fere, 

Al abute }>e swere. 

And sede *kni3t so trewe, 

Kep wel mi luue newe. 750 

» MS. 'kes/ 


pu neure me ne forsoke: 

Rymenhild ))U kep and loke.' 

His stede he gan bistr/de 

AndfoT^ he ga« ride: 

To ))e hauene he ferde, 755 

And a. god schup he hurede, 

pat him sgholde lowde 

In westene lowde. 

A))ulf weop wi)) e^e*, 

And al ^at him iseje^. 760 

[pe wynd him gan stonde, 

And drof tyl Irelonde.] 

To \ond he him sette 

And fot o« stirop sette. 

He fo«d bi }>e/weie 765 

Kynges sones tweie, 

pat on him het harild, 

And yat o^r berild. 

Berild gan him preie, 

pat he scholde him seie, 770 

What his name were 

And what he wolde ))ere. 

* Cutb^rd,* he sede, * ihc bote, 

Icomew ut of }>e bote, 

Wei feor fram biweste 775 

To seche mine beste.' 

Berild gan him nier ride 

And tok him bi jie bridel, 

*Wel beo ))U knijt ifoimde 

Wi)) me ))u lef a stunde ; 780 

Also mote i sterue 

pe ki«g ))U schalt s^rue ; 

» MS. * i3e/ » MS. • isije.' 


Ne sa5 i neure my lyne 

So fair kni5t aryue' 

Cutb^rd heo ladde in to halle 785 

And he 2L kne gan falle: 

He sette him a knewelyng 

And grette wel }>e gode kyng. 

pdinne sede Berild sone: 

' Sire king, of him l>u hast to done, 790 

Bitak him ))i lond to werie 

Ne schal hit noman dene; 

For he is )>e faireste man 

\)at eure 3ut on ]>i londe cam/ 

pawne sede j)e king so dere: 795 

'Welcome beo l>u here. 

Go nu Berild swife, 

And make him ful blij>e; 

And whan l>u farst to wo5e, 

Tak him j)ine gloue: 800 

Iment )>u hauest to wyue, 

Awai he schal ))e dryue. 

For Cutberdes fairhede 

Ne schal ]>e neure wel spede/ 

Hit was at Cristesmasse, 805 

Nei))er more ne lasse: 

[pe king hym makede a feste, 

Wi|> his kni^tes beste.] 

per cam in at none 

A geau«t swi))e^ sone, 810 

larmed fram paynyme, 

And seide yes ryme. 

'Site stille, sire kyng, 

And herkne ))is tyfyng: 

» MS. * su>e/ 



Her buj) pae«s ariued 815 

Wei mo Jjane fiue. 

Her beoj) on ))e so/^de, 

Ki«g, upo» )>i londe, 

On of hew wile fi^te 

A^ew [l>i] )>re knijtes: 820 

3ef ot>^r^ fre slen ure, 

Al ))is lo«d beo 30ure : 

3ef ure on ouercome)> jour ))reo, 

Al )jis lo«d schal ure beo. 

Tomoreje^be J?e fijtiwge, 825 

Whane J?e li3t of daye sprmge.' 

pawne sede )>e kyng |>urston, 

'Cutb^rd schal beo ))at on, 

Berild schal beo ^fai o))er, 

pe ))ridde Harild^ his bro))er. 830 

For hi beoj) )>e strengeste 

-4«^ of armes ))e beste. 

Bute what schal us to rede, 

Ihc wene we be}> alle dede/ 

Cutberd sat at horde 835 

And sede }>es wordes': 

* Sire ki«g, hit nis no ri3te 

On wi|> )>r^ to fijte, 

A^en one huwde 

pre cr/stew me« to fonde. 840 

Sire i schal al one, 

Wi))ute more ymone, 

Wi)> mi swerd, wel ej)e, 

Bringe hem }>re to de}>e.' 

pe kyng aros amoreje 845 

pat hadde muchel sor3e 

? 5oure. « MS. * Alrid/ » ? J)is worde. 


And Cutb^rd ros of bedde, 
Wi)) armes he him schredde : 
Horn his brunie gan on caste, 
And lacede hit wel faste, 850 

And caw to jie kiwge 
At his uprisinge. 
* Ki//g/ he sede, ' cmm to fel[de] 
For to bihelde 

Hu we fi3te schulle, 855 

And toga[de]re go wulle/ 
Ri3t at prime tide 
Hi guwnew [hem] ut ride, 
And fu«de« on a gr<fne 

A geaiwt swi}>e^ kene. 860 

His fere« hiw biside 
Hore dej) to abide. 
pe ilke bataille 
Cuiherd gan assaille: 

He 5af dewtes ino3e, 865 

pe knijtes felle iswo3e, 
His dent he gan wij)dra5e. 
For hi were ne3 asla3e: 
And sede *kni3tes nu 3e reste 
One while ef 30U leste.' 870 

Hi sede hi neuere nadde 
Of kni3te dentes so harde, 
[Bute of }>e king Mory 
pat was so swyfe stordy;] 
He was of homes kuwne, 875 

Iborn in Suddenne. 
H Horn h\m gon to agme, 
And his blod arise. 

1 MS. * su|>e/ 


Biuo[r] him sa3 he stowde, 

pat driue« him of lowde, 880 

And ^at his fader sloj; 

To him his swerd he droj, 

He lokede on his rynge, 

And J)03te on Rymenhilde, 

Ho smot him ))ure5 ))e herte, 885 

pat sore him gan to smerte; 

pe paens \>at er were so sturne, 

Hi gunne awei urne; 

Horn and his compaynye, 

Gunne aft^r hez« wel swi}>e hije, 890 

-4«^ slo5en alle }>e hundes, 

Er hi here schipes funde: 

To de))e he hem alle bro^te, 

His fader de}> wel dere hi bo3te: 

Of alle }>e kynges knijtes, 895 

Ne scapede }>er no wi3te, 

Bute his sones tweie 

Bifore him he sa3 deie. 

pe ki«g bigaw to grete 

And teres for to lete, qoo 

Me[n] leidew hem in bare 

And burden hem ful 3are; 

pe ki«g com in to halle 

Among his .kni3tes alle. 

* Horn/ he sede, *i seie J>e 905 

Do as i schal rede jie. 

Asla3e« be)) mine heir[i]s, 

And J)u art kni3t of muchel pris, 

And of grete str^ng}>e, 

And fair o bodie leng))e; 910 

Mi rewgne }>u schalt welde, 


And to spuse helde 

Reynild mi do'^ter, 

pat sittej) on ))e lofte/ 

* O sire king, wi|) ynconge 915 

Scholte ihc hit underionge 

pi do3t^r, ^at je me bede, 

Ower re«gne for to lede. 

Wei more ihc schal jie senie, 

Sire kyng, or jju sterue. • 920 

pi sorwe schal wende 

Or seue jeres ende: 

Wanne hit is [i-]wente, 

Sire king, jef me mi rente : 

Whawne i l>i dojter 3erne 925 

Ne schaltu me hire werne*/ 

Cutb^rd wonede }>ere 

Fulle seue ^ere, 

pat to Rymenild he ne sente 

Ne him self ne wente. 930 

Rymenild was in Westfmesse 

WiJ) wel muchel sorinesse, 

A king \fer gan ariue 

pat wolde hire haue to wyue, 

Aton he was wiJ) jie king 935 

Of l^at ilke weddiwg : 

pe daies were schorte, 

pat Rim<?«hild ne dorste 

Letew in none wise; 

A writ he dude deuise, 940 

Ajjulf hit dude write 

pat horn ne luuede no^t lite. 

Heo sewde hire sonde 

To eu^reche londe, 


To seche horn J)e knijt 945 

per me him fi«de mi3te; 

Horn nojt ^ of ne herde. 

Til o dai l>at he ferde 

To wude for to schete, 

A knaue he ga« imete. 950 

Horn sede, *Leue fere, 

Wat sechestu here?' 

* Knijt, if beo }>i wille 
I mai |)e sone telle. 

I seche fra/« biweste 955 

Horn of West^messe: 

For a maiden Rymenhild 

pat for him gan wexe wild. 

A king hire wile wedde 

And bridge to his bedde : 960 

King Modi of Reynes, 

On of homes enemis; 

Ihc habbe walke wide, 

Bi }>e se side, 

[Ich neuere my3t of reche 965 

Wij) no londisse speche,] 

Nis he no-war ifuwde : 

Walawai l>e stiwdel 

Wailaway j)e while 1 

Nu wur)) Rymenild bigiled,' 970 

Horn iherde wij) his eres\ 

And spak wi}> bitere teres*: 

* Knaue wel ))e bitide, 
Horn stowdej) ))e biside, 

A^en to hure ))u turne 975 

And seie ))at heo ne murne, 

* MS. ' ires.' « MS. • tires.' 


For i schal beo \er bitime, 

A soneday bi pryme.' 

pe knaue was wel bli))e 

And hijede ^en bliue. 980 

pe se bigan to }>ro5e 

Under hire woje. 

pe knaue ))er gan adrinke: 

Rymewhild hit mijte of-l>i«ke: 

Rymenhild undude fe dure-pin 985 

Of }>e hus \er heo was in, 

To loke wij> hire eje^ 

If heo 03t of horn iseje^: 

po fo«d heo ))e knaue adrent, 

pat he hadde for horn isewt, 990 

And }^ scholde horn bringe. 

Hire fingres he gan wriwge. 

Horn cam to jjurston jie kyng, 

And tolde him }>is ti}>ing; 

po he was iknowe 995 

'pat Rimenhz'id was his oje, 

Of his gode kenne, 

pe king of Suddenne, 

And hu he SI03 in felde 

pat his fader quelde: 1000 

And seide, *ki«g ))e wise, 

5eld me mi s^ruise 

Rymewhild help me wiwne 

pat ))U nojt ne liwne: 

And i schal do to spuse 1005 

pi do^t^r wel to huse: 

Heo schal to spuse haue' 

A))ulf mi gode felaje, 

' MS. • i5e/ * MS. Msije.' * Originally, perhaps, a^es^hzue^ 


God knijt mid }>e beste 

And [on] jie tr^weste.' 10 10 

pe ki«g sede so stille, 

* Horn haue nu }>i wiUe/ 

He dude writes sewde 

Into yrlonde 

Aftfr knijtes lijte^ 10 15 

Irisse men to fi^te. 

To horn come ino^e, 

pat to schupe dro3e. 

Horn dude him in ]>e weie 

On a god galeie. 1020 

pe [wynd] him gan to blowe 

In a litel Jjroje. 

pe se bigan to posse 

Rijt in to West^messe. 

Hi strike seil and maste 1025 

And ankere giwne caste. 

Or eny day was spniwge 

Oj)er belle iruwge 

pe word bigan to spriwge 

Of Rymewhilde weddiwge. 1030 

Horn was in ))e wat^re, 

Ne mijte he come no latere. 

He let his schup stowde, 

And 3ede [him up] to londe. 

His folk he dude abide 1035 

Under wude side. 

Hor[n] him jede alone, 

Also he spruwge of stone. 

A palm(?re he ])ar mette, 

And faire hine grette : 1040 

* ? wi5tc. 

270 X7X. KING HORN. 

* Palmare ))U schalt me telle 

Al of ))ine spelle.' 

He sede upon his tale: 

*I come fram o brudaie; 

Ihc was at o wedding 1045 

Of a maide Ryme«hild: 

Ne mijte heo adreje^, 

p^t heo ne weop wij> eje*; 

Heo sede fat heo nolde 

Ben ispused wij) golde, 1050 

Heo hadde on husebonde 

pe3 he were ut of lo»de. 

Modi ihote hadde ) ' 

To bure }^ai me hire ladde : I 

And i«[-to a] string halle, 1055 

Wi|)inne castel walle, 

p<?r i was atte jate, 

Nolde hi me in late. 

Awai i gan glide, 

p^ deol* i nolde abide. 1060 

pe bride wepej> sore 

And ^at is much deole/ 

Qua)) horn, * So Crist me rede 

We schulle chaungi wede : 

Haue her clo))es myne 1065 

And tak me ))i sclauyne. 

Today i schal J)er drinke 

pat some hit schulle of-))inke/ 

His sclauyn he gan^ dun legge, 

And Horn hit dude ' on rigge, 1070 

» MS. 'adrije/ * MS. * ije.' 

' These two lines come after 1058 in the MS. 

* ? de>e. * MS. • dude.' « MS. * And tok hit on his rigge.' 


He tok horn his clojjes, 

pat nere him nojt lo)>e. 

Horn tok burdon and scrippe, 

And [to-]wro;2g his lippe. 

He makede him a ful chere 1075 

And al bicolwede his swere. 

He makede him unbicomelich, 

As^ he nas neuremore ilich, 

He com to ))e gateward 

pat him answerede hard : 1080 

Horn bad undo softe 

Mani tyme and ofte; 

Ne mi3te he awynne 

pat he come ^erinne. 

Horn gan to jje jate turne 1085 

And ))at wiket unspurne; 

pe boye hit scholde abugge, 

Horn )>reu him ouer jje brigge. 

pat his ribbes him to-brake: 

And su]>]>e [Horn] com in atte gateV 1090 

He sette him wel lo^e, 

In begg<?res rowe; 

He lokede him abute 

Wi|j his colwie snute ; 

He sej Rymewhild sitte 1095 

Ase heo were of witte 

Sore wepinge and 3erne : 

Ne mi3te hure noman wume. 

He lokede in eche halke, 

Ne sej he nowhar waJke 1100 

Ajjulf his felawe, 

pat he cujje knowe. 

MS. * Hes/ L. has ' And Horn gan into balle rake.' 


A))ulf was in ))e ture 

Abute for to pure 

Aft^r his comynge, 1105 

3ef schup \i\m wolde bridge. 

He se3 J)e se flowe 

-4«^/ horn nowar rowe. 

He sede upon his songe: 

* Horn nu ))U ert wel longe 11 10 

Rymewhild J)U me toke 

pflt i [hire] scholde loke; 

Ihc habbe kept hure eure 

Com nu o)>er neure. 

I ne may no le«g hure kepe, 11 15 

For sore3e nu y wepe/ 

Rymenhild ros of benche 

Wyn for to schenche : 

MUr mete in sale, 

Bojje wyn and ale. 11 20 

On horn he bar an honde, 

So laje was \n londe, 

Knijtes and squier 

Alle dro«ke« of ))e ber. 

Bute horn alone 1125 

Nadde Jj<?rof no mone. 

Horn sat upo« ))e grwnde, 

In ))U3te he was ibu«de. 

He sede, * Quen so he«de, 

To meward ))U wewde, 1130 

pu jef us wi)) ))e furste 

pe beggeres beo)) of-J)urste. » 

Hure horn heo leide adun, 

And fulde him of a brun, 

His boUe of a galun, 1135 


For heo wende he were a glotoun. 

He seide, * Haue ))is cuppe, 

And J)u ]>lng^ ^er uppe: 

Ne sa5 ihc neure, so ihc wene, 

Beggere ))at were so kene/ 1140 

Horn tok it his ifere, 

And sede, * que« so dere 

Wyn nelle ihc muche ne lite 

Bute of cuppe white. 

pu wenest i beo a beggere, 11 45 

And ihc am a fissere, 

Wei feor icome bi este 

For [to] fissen at )>i feste: 

Mi net lijj her-bi-honde, 

Bi a wel fair stronde^ 1150 

Hit ha)> ileie }>ere 

Fulle seue jere. 

Ihc am icome to loke 

Ef eni fiss hit toke. 

Ihc am icome to fisse: 1155 

Driwk to me of disse, 

Drink to horn of home 

Feor ihc habbe' iorne/ 

Rymewhild \{\m gan bihelde, 

Hire heorte bigan to chelde, 11 60 

Ne kneu heo no3t his fissing, 

Ne horn hymselue no)>ing: 

Ac wuwder hire gan jjinke, 

Whi he bad to horn drinke. 

Heo fulde hire horn wi)) wyn, H65 

And dronk to )>e pilegrym; 

Heo sede, *dri«k J)i fulle, 

^ ? drink. * L. has * ponde.' » MS. • am.' 


274 ^^^* JSr/xVG HORN. 

And sup))e j>u me telle, 
If ))U eure ise3e^ 

Horn under wude lejeV 1170 

Horn dro«k of horn a stiwide 
And ))reu hys* ring to gni»de. 
[He seyde, *quen, nou seche 
What is in \>\ drenche/] 
pe quen jede to bure 11 75 

Wi)) hire maidenes foure. 
po fo«d heo what heo wolde, 
A ring igrauen of golde 
pat horn of hure hadde ; 
[Wei] sore hure [of-]dradde 1180 

pat horn istorue* were 
For Jje riwg was j>ere. 
po sewte heo a damesele 
After ))e palmare ; 

' Palmare/ q«a)> heo, *trewe, 1185 

pe ri;^g jiat ))u [here] j>rewe, 
pu seie whar j>u hit nome, 
And whi ))u hider come.' 
He sede, *bi sei»t gile, 

Ihc habbe go mani mile, 1190 

Wei feor bi-jonde weste 
To seche my beste. 
^1 fond horn child stonde 
To schupeward in londe^ 
He sede he wolde agesse ^^195 

To ariue in west^rnesse. 
pe schip nam to j>e flode 
Wij) me and horn ))e gode ; 

» MS. • isije/ « MS. ' li3e.' » MS. * K* 

* MS. * istcue/ * L. has • on stronde.' 


Horn was sik and deide, 

And faire he me pmde; 1200 

* [To schupe] go wij) ))e ringe 
To Ryme«hild )>e ^onge.' 
Ofte he hit custe 

God 5eue his saule reste. 

Ryme^hild sede at ))e furste: 1205 

*Herte nu \>u berste, 

For horn nastu namore 

pat ))e ha)> pined so^ sore.' 

Heo feol on hire bedde, 

per heo knif[es] hudde, 12 10 

To sle wi)> [hure] ki«g lope 

And hure selue bofe, 

In )^at ulke nijte, 

If horn come ne mijte. 

To herte knif heo sette 12 15 

Ac horn anon hire lette*. 

[Hys schirt-lappe he gan take, 

And wipede awey \fat blake, 

pat was on his swere,]^ 

And sede, *Quen so dere* 1220 

Ihc am horn ]>m o^e, 

Ne canstu me nojt knowe? 

Ihc am horn of west^rnesse, 

In armes \>u me cusse/ ""^ 

Hi custe hem mid ywisse, 1225 

And makeden muche blisse. 

* Rymewhild/ he sede, ' y wende 
Adun to J)e wudes ende : 

' MS. * >e so.' ^ MS. • keptc' 

' The MS. has only one line for these three : — 
* He wipede J>at blake of his swere/ 
* MS. * so swete and dere.' 

T 2 


per bej) myne knijtes 

Redi to fijte, 1230 

larmed under clo))e; 

Hi schulle make wr^))e 

pe ki«g and his geste 

ptft come to the feste : 

Today i 'schal he/w teche 1235 

And sore hem areche.' 

Horn sprong ut of halle 

And let his sclauin falle. 

pe quen 3ede to bure 

And fond a))ulf in ture: 1240 

* Ajjulf/ heo sede, * be bli))e, 

And to horn ))u go wel swij)e: 

He is under wude boje 

And wij) him knijtes ino3e.' 

AJ)ulf bigan to sprmge 1245 

[Wel glad] for fe tifi^ge : 

Aft^r horn he arnde anon, 

Also ^at hors mi3te gon: 

He hxm ou^rtok ywis, 

Hi makede suijje muchel blis. 1250 

Horn tok his preie 

And dude \i\m in ))e weie. 

He com in wel sone 

pe jates were undone, 

larmed fui ))ikke 1255 

Yx2im fote to ))e nekke. 

Alle })flt were j)^nn 

Wi})ute his twelf ferin 

And ))e ki«g Aylmare 

He dude htm alle to kare, 1260 

pat at the feste were, 


Here lif hi lete Ipere. 

[And ))e kyng Mody 

Hym he made blody; 

And the king Aylmere 1265 

po hauede myche fere.] 

Horn ne dude no wu«der^ 

Of Fikewhildes false tu«ge. 

Hi sworew o))es holde, 

pat neure ne scholde 1270 

Horn neure bitr^ie, 

pe^ he at depe^ laie. 

Hi Tunge \>q belle 

pe wedlak for to felle; 

Horn him ^ede with his' 1275 

To jje kiwges palais 

per was bridale* suete, 

For riche men \er ete. 

Telle ne mijte [no] tu«ge 

p^t gle )>flt jj^r was suwge. 1280 

Horn sat on [his] chaere 

And bad htm alle ihere. 

* Ki«g/ he sede, * ))u luste 

A tale mid ))e beste, 

I ne seie hit for no blame: 1285 

Horn is mi name 

pu me to kni3t[e] houe 

And kni3thod haue [I] pruned: 

' L. has * Horn no wonder ne makede 
Of Fykenildes fal6[h]ede/ 
MS. • dij>e/ 

* L. has * Horn leddc hyre hom wit heyse, 

To hyre fader paleyse.* 

* MS. * brid and ale*: L. has * brydale.' 



To )>e, ki«g, men seide, 

p^/ i )>e bitraide, 12^ 

pu makedest me fleme, 
And ))i Io«d to reme; 
pu wewdest ^at i wrojte, 
' p^t y neure ne j>03te, 
Bi Rym^hild for to ligge; 1295 

And }pat i wijj-segge, 
Ne schal ihc hit bigwrne. 
Til i suddene wi»ne. 
pu kep hure a stunde, 

pe while J)<zt i funde 1300 

In to min heritage, 
And to mi baronage. 
p^t lond i schal ofreche, 
And do mi fader wreche. 
I schal beo ki;^g of tune, 1305 

And bere kiwges crune, 
pa«ne schal Rymewhilde, 
Ligge bi j)e kiwge.' 
Horn gan to schupe dra^e, 
WiJ) his yrisse felajes, 13 10 

A))ulf wi)> him his brother, 
Nolde he no« o))er; 
pat schup bigan to crude, 
pe wind hi;w bleu [wel] lude, 
Wijjiwne daies fine 1315 

pat schup gan ariue. 
Abute middelni3te 
Horn him jede wel rijte. 
He tok a))ulf bi howde 

And up he jede to lowde. 1320 

Hi fonde under schelde 


A knijt hewde^ in felde. 

[Op ))e scheld was drawe 

A crowch of Jesu cristes lawe] 

pe kni^t him aslepe lay 1325 

Al biside ))e way. 

Horn him gSM to take 

And sede : * knijt, awake. 

Seie what ))U kepest? 

And whi J)U her slepest? 1330 

Me ))ink)) bi fine crois li^te, 

pa/ ))u longest to ure drr^te, 

Bute bu wule me schewe, ^ ; 

I schal ))e to-hewe/ '■^•>';- 

pe gode kni^t up aros, 1335 

Of J)e wordes hi;« gros: 

He sede : * ihc haue a^enes my wille 

Payns [iserued] ful ylie, 

Ihc was cr/stene a while: 

po [were] icom[e] to )>is ile^ 1340 

Sarazins [lofe and] blake 

pa/ dude me [God] forsake: y'> 

On Crist ihc wolde bileue' ■^■~ 

On Yiim hi makede me reue, 

To kepe jjis passage 1345 

Yx2im horn \a\. is of age, 

pat wuniej) [al] bieste, 

[God] kni^t wi)) ))e beste; 

Hi sloje wi)> here howde, 

pe ki«g of )>is[e] lo«de, 1350 

* L. has * liggen.* 

2 MS. • ille.' 

' L. has, * Bi god on warn y leue 

po he makeden me reue.' 


And wij) him fele hundred, 

And \eroi is wtwder 

pflt he ne come}> to filter 

God se«de \i\m ))e rijte,- 

And wi«d hi;w hider driue, 1355 

To bridge [n] \\tm of Hue : 

Hi sloven kyng Murry, 

Homes fader king hendy, 

Horn hi ut of londe sente ; 

Tuelf felajes wi)> him wente, 1360 

Amo«g hem a))ulf J>e gode, 

Min ojene child, my leue fode : 

[He louede Horn wel derne 

And Horn hym also ^erne;] 

Ef horn child is hoi and sund, 1365 

And Ajjulf wij)ute wund, 

He luue)) \i\m so dere, 

And is him so stere, 

Mijte i seo« hew tueie. 

For ioie i scholde deie/ 1370 

* Knijt beo \2jtnt bli)>e, 

Mest of alle sij?e, 

Horn and Ajjulf his fere 

Bo))e hi be« here:' 

To horn he gan gon 1375 

And gr^tte \i\m anon. 

Muche ioie hi makede fere 

pe while hi togadere were. 

He sede wiJ) steuene ^are T* 

Childre, hu habbe ^e fare / ^ 1380 

* These two lines are from L. The MS. has 
* Childre he sede hu habbe 3e fare 
pat ihc 50U se3 hit is ful jare.' 


WuUe 56 ))is \onde winne 

And sle J)^t ))<?r is i«ne?' 

He sede : ' leue horn child 

5ut lyue}> ))i moder Godhild: 

Of ioie heo [ne] miste 1385 

If heo ))e aliue wiste/ 

Horn sede on his rime : 

* Iblessed beo j>e time, 

I com to Suddewne 

Wij> mine irisse mewne: 1390 

We schuUe )>e hundes teche 

To spekew ure speche. 

AUe we htm schnlle sle, 

And al c\uic hem fle/ 

Horn gan his horn to blowe, 1395 

His folk hit gan iknowe, 

Hi comew ut of st^re, 

Fram homes ban^re; 

Hi sloven and fu3te«, 

pe ni^t and ))e ujten; 1400 

[Myd speres ord hi stonge 

pe elde and eke |)e ^onge; 

pat lond hi J)oru soften, 

To de{)e hi jjus bro^ten] 

pe Saraziws ciwde; 1405 

Ne lefde ^er non in )>e«de. 

Horn let [sone] wurche 

Chapeles afid chirche. 

He let belles ringe 

And masses let singe. 1410 

He com to his mod^r halle 

In a roche walle. 

[Hi custen and hi clenten, 


And into halle wenten.] 

Crun he gan werie* 1415 

And makede feste merie. 

Marie lif he [|jer] wrojte. 

Rymewhild hit dere bojte. 

[Wile ))at Horn was oute, 

Fikenhild ferde aboute ;] 1420 

To wo3e he gan hure jerne, | - 

pe kyng ne dorste him werne, J 

Fikenhild was prut on herte, 

And ))at him dude smerte, 

^onge he ^af and elde i4*S 

Mid him for to helde. 

Ston he dude lede, 

per he hopede spede, 

Strong castel he let sette 

Mid see him biflette. 1430 

per ne mijte li^te 

Bute fo^el wi)) flijte. 

Bute whawne ))e se wij> droje 

Mijte come men ynoje. 

Fikenhild gan we«de 1435 

Rym^hild to schewde. 

[pe day by- gan to wexe, 

pat hem was by-twexe ;] 

Rymewhild was ful of mode. 

He wep teres of blode. 1440 

Fikenhild or ))e dai gan sprmge, 

Al rijt he ferde to )>e kinge, 

Aftfr Rymenhild ))e brijte, 

To wedden hire bi ni^te. 

* MS. has * Corn he let serie.* 

^ These lines come after 1. 1235 in MS. 


He ladde hure bi fe derke 1445 

Into his nywe werke, 

pe feste hi bigu«ne 

Er jj^t ros )>e suwne*. 

pat nijt horn gan swete 

And heuie for to mete 1450 

Of Rymenhild his make 

Into schupe was itake : • 

pe schup bigan to blenche 

His lewman scholde adrenche. 

Rymewhild wij) hire honde 1455 

Wolde up to londe. 

Fikenhild a^en hire pelte 

Wij> his swerdes hilte. 

Horn him wok of slape 

So a man ^at hadde rape. 1460 

* Aj)ulf/ he sede, * felaje 

To schupe we mote dra^e 

Fikenhild me ha)> idon under, 

And Rymenhild to do wunder ; 

Crist, for his wuwdes fiue, 1465 

To-ni3t me )>uder driue V 

Horn gan to schupe ride, 

His ferew him biside. 

Er )>ane horn hit wiste, 

To-fore \>e suwne upiriste, 1470 

His schup stod under ture 

At Rymenhilde bure. 

Rymenhild litel wene)) heo 

pat Horn ))a«ne aliue beo. 

[Ne wiste Horn on Hue 1475 

Whare he was aryue.] 

* Lines 1441-144S are wrongly transposed in the MS. 

284 ^^^' ^^^^ HORN. 

pe castel fei ne knewe, 

For he was so nywe. 

Horn fond sittinde Araoldin, 

pflt was 'A))ulfes cosin, 1480 

pat ^r was in j)tft tide, 

Horn for tabide. 

* Horn knijt/ he sede, * kinges sone, 

Wei beo ))U to londe icome. 

To-day haj> ywedde Fikenhild 1485 

pi swete lewman Rymenhild. 

Ne schal i )>e [not] lie, 

He ha}> giled ))e twie. 

pis tur he let make 

Al for j?ine [Rymenhilde] sake. 1490 

Ne mai )>^r come i«ne 

No ma« wij) none gi«ne. 

Horn nu crist )>e wisse 

Of R)mienhild ))at )>u. ne misse/ 

Horn cujje al J)e liste 1495 

pflt eni man of wiste. 

Harpe he gan schewe 

And tok felajes fewe, 

Of knijtes sui)>e^ snelle 

pat schrudde hew at wille. 1500 

[Wi)> swerdes he hem gyrte 

Anouen here schirte.] 

Hi jeden bi ))e grauel 

Toward ))e castel, 

Hi giwne mwrie singe 1505 

And makede here gleowinge. 

Rymenhild hit gan ihere 

And axede what hi were: 

Hi sede, hi weren harpurs. 


And sume were gigours. 15 lo 

He dude horn mn late 

Rijt at halle gate; 

He sette Mxm on ))e benche 

His harpe for to clenche. 

He makede Rymenhilde lay 15 15 

And heo makede walaway, 

Rymenhild feol yswoje. 

Ne was \er non \a\. louje. 

Hit smot to homes herte 

So bit^re ))at hit sm^rte. 1520 

He lokede on |je ringe 

And ))03te on Rymenhilde. 

He jede up to borde 

Wi)> gode suerdes orde. 

Fikewhildes cr«ne 1525 

p<?r [he] ifulde adune, 

And al his me« arowe 

Hi dude adun ))rowe. 

Whawne hi werew asla3e, 

Fikewhild hi dude to-dr^i^e. 1530 

Horn makede Arnoldin j?are 

Ki/^g, aft^ ki;/g Aylmare, 

Of al west^rnesse 

For his meoknesse. 

pe ki«g and his homage 1535 

3eue« Arnoldin tr^wage. 

Horn tok Rymenhild bi \t honde 

And ladde hure to ))e stronde. 

And ladde "^vi J) him A))elbrus, 

pe gode stuard of his hus. 1540 

pe se bigaw to flowe 

And horn gan to rowe. 


Hi giwne for [tjariue 

per king modi was sire. 

A\>e\bTus he makede ^er "kmg 1545 

For his gode techiwg: 

He 5af alle )>e kni3tes ore 

For horn kni3tes lore. 

Horn gBn for to ride, 

pe wi«d him bleu wel wide. 1550 

He ariuede in yrlowde 

per he wo fowdede, 

per he dude Ajjulf child 

Wedde« maide Reynild. 

Horn com to sudde«ne 1555 

Among \\ his kenne. 

Rym^whild he makede his quene 

So hit mijte wel beon. 

Al folk he^^ mi3te rewe 

pat louedew hem so tr^we. 1560 

Nu hen hi bo})e dede ; 

Crist to heuene he^^ lede. 

Her ende}) })e tale of horn, 

pa/ fair was and nojt unorn. 

Make we us glade eure among, 1565 

For Jjus him ende}) homes song. 

Jesus J)at is of heuene king 

3eue us alle his suete blessing! Amen* 



An Bispel (or Parable). 

Thb piece, as well as the other English ones in the Cotton MS, 
seems to have been written in the south-east of England, probably in 
Kent, judging from some occasional orthographical peculiarities in the 
vowels. Thus the older eo is represented by ?>, as in the Ayenbite of 
Inwit (in the Kentish dialect of the middle of the fourteenth century) : 
hierie = heortaf heart, nieci=neodt need, si =^seo, the (fem.); ea is replaced 
by ia, as tiar=Uar, niat—neat (cattle); e is used for i or y, z&fer^fir, 
fire, cen=cyn, kin, &c. The punctuation is that of the MS. 

Line i. See the parable in Matt. xxii. 1-14. 

An rice. The old form of the indefinite article is here retained 
before a consonant. 

2. Gilest^geleste, extended. The A.S. gel&stan also signifies to 
last t follow. 

Wide and side are adverbs formed from the adjectives wid (wide) 
and sid (long) by the suffix -e. They form a phrase, once in very com- 
mon use, which has been replaced by 'far and wide.' The use oiside = 
ample, long, as an adjective occurs in Gascoigne's Steel Glass (1576) — 

• They be no boyes, which weare such side long gowns.* 
(1. I57» on p. 334 of Skeat*s Specimens.) 

jfErfeH-telle, innumerable, difficult to be told ; the same as the older 
compound earfoS-rlme, difficult to be numbered ; A.S. earfodCt difficult, 
from earfdHi hardship, toil. Cf. Ger. arbeit. 

3. ^-whr^ge-hwcsry on every side, everywhere. The particle ge as 
a prefix adds an indefinite meaning to many pronouns and adverbs, as 
ge-hwd, every one, whoever ; ge-hwa^er, both, each, either ; ge-hwylc, 
each, -every one, all, whoever. Cf. cBg-whd = €k-ge-hwd, whoever, every* 
one; ^g-kwa-per=^jR-ge-hwaper, either. The dropping of the h in the 
combination hw is here rather common ; cf. wa = hwa, who, 1. 4. 

5. Hintt to him. Cf. 1. 4, him be/ill. We still keep the use of the 
old dative before a few impersonal verbs, as methinks, meseems, &c. 
See Historical Outlines of English Accidence, p. 117. 

Frendnsudifend&re plurals representing the oXdex frynd zxAfynd— 
friends and iietids, friends and enemies. 

• • •• •* 

• • • • • • , 

a88 NOTES. 

5. Hold Oder fd, friendly or unfriendly, well-disposed or hostile. Cf. 
*/io/d and trig,' faithfrd and true ; Orm. 6177. 

6. Niam him td rede, took to himself for (a) purpose, resolved. 
Heontf for them. 

Ana=anet ace fern, of an (one, a). See hte^ 1. 7, and anne, 1. 8. 
LciBienge, feast, properly invitation, assembly. See 1. 90, p. 4, where 
^tf/afft^ = invite, 

8. Berie (a gloss upon curt) = K.S, byrig^ dat. of burh, a city, borough 
(cf. bury in names of places), here means the royal city where the 
king's court was held. 

D^^e=da^=dage (dative). The ^ had probably become silent, 
hence dejie^deie, 

9. Bepe Idtstt by the latest, at the latest. See toJ>a kUst^ 1. 88, p. 4, 
and King Horn, L 616, p. 256. Latst is our last. In the oldest Engli^ 
laie (Jate) made comp. iator, superl. latost. In Ormulum we find Idte^ 
lattre, lattst. Some have supposed that at last is a corruption of on4dst, 
in a track, backwards, on laste, finally, because the oldest form of ' latest ' 
is IcBte-m-est ; but perhaps the forms quoted above tend to show that 
this view is untenable. Alast, lastly, occurs very late. 

ToJ>a de)ie=-to ]>an de^e^to pam dag-e, on that day. 

^er were, should be there. 

'^-sceod=ge-scedd==ge-scdd, difference, distinction : it also signifies 
discretion. Cf. to-)esceodeti = to-sceodeti, divideth, 1. 136, p. 6; ^scod^ 
discretion, 1. 85, p. 4. Cf. M.E. isceadwis, reasonable. 

10. pan hi come, when they should come. 
J/w//*V^=»?w-/rW, promiscuously, variously. 

11. Merman, one ; cf. Fr. on, Ger. man, 

1 3. It will be observed, through this piece, that w is written for tou 
initially. This can hardly be other than intentional, and probably has 
reference to the pronunciation of initial wu as u (Welsh w) ; just as, 
in the Shropshire and other dialects, people say ^ood^ ^ooman, for wood, 

1 3. Formemete (cf. morje-mete, 1. 1 39, p. 6), first meat, or morning meal. 
"pat him . . . inn-come, that it might not appear too long to him 
to wait until the Lord, at noon, should come in. 

on represents the oldest English (A pat, Lat. usque ad, 

15. Eter gat =et per gate, at the gate. In the oldest period ^a^, geat^ 
a gate, is of the neuter gender ; distinct from gdt=K she-goat. 

Code repples and stiarne swipen, good rods and stiflf (strong) 
whips (scourges). Cf. M.E. repylle-stok, a rod used for beating flax, 
Wright's Vocab. 795. 16, and repple, a Cheshire word for a long walking- 
staff (HalliweU). 

16. Stiarne hint besii, severely treat him, Besie—be-sien^besean, see - 
to, provide. 


19. ^rndraches = 6Brend'racanf messengers. This is an early instance 
of change of declension, the pi. -an becoming -es, 

Offifceden, from five regions or quarters ; literally kiths, 

20. Hwet bute \^fece], whereupon, so, without more delay. Hwcet is 
here used conjunctionally. 

CSfer . . . id^er; like M.E. rather and later =ea.T\ier (sooner) and 
later. Ca/or ^^= prompt, active, brisk. See co/e, quickly, 1. 31, p. 2. 

21. And was idon . . . isett was, and it was done by (unto) them as we 
previously said was appointed (settled). Cf. * Do as you would be done by* 

25. Scewie we, let us look at, or view. 

26. Uhco9e = um:ude, lit. unknown. Cud is the proper passive par- 
ticiple of the verb cunnen. 

27-29. Unwraste . . . )ebugon, Wretched men, what made you, in all 
my empire, to contend against me with hatred and hostility, and to 
submit to my foe (enemy). 

29. ^bugvn, lit. turn to, bozu to ; hence * be obedient to.* We have 
the same in buxom, buhsum in Ancren Riwle. 

Swd ibrtice ic mine rice, as (sure as) I enjoy my kingdom, as sure 
as I am a king. See 1. 206, p. 243. 

30. Scule pape, those shall who, &c. 

^2. pe hi sturfe hungre, whereby they died with hunger. The use of 
the instrumental is worthy of notice. 

34. Sandon = sandan = {sand-an), dishes, literally sendings. 
3^» 37- J^i't^g^^ and hlafordcn are dative plurals; -en—-um, 

38. md^i=mai^, may prevail. See Orm. i. p. 279. 

39. Him = bi him, concerning him. 

40. Tliis quotation is not from the Vulgate. But it resembles Isaiah 
xl. 1 2 : ' Quis mensus est pugillo aquas, et caelos palmo ponderauit ? 
quis appendit tribus digitis molem terrae, et librauit in pondere montes, 
et coUes in statera? * The passage in Job xxviii. 24, 25 also somewhat 
resembles it. 

40-42. Hlaford , . . hand. Lord of (all) might, who boldest the thrones 
of the heavens and beholdest the deep (abyss) which is under the earth ; 
the hills thou weighest out with thy hand. Belocest does not occur in 
the oldest period in the sense of ' beholdest,* but of belockest, enclosest. 
In De Initio Creaturae (^Ifric's Homilies, ed. Thorpe, pp. 8, 9) this 
quotation is thus givftn : * He hylt mid his mihte heofonas and eorSan, 
and ealle gesceafta butan geswince, and he besceawatJ \a. niwelnyssa J)e 
under })yssere eoriJan sind. He awecS ealle duna mid anre handa.' He 
holdeth with his might heavens and earth, and all creatures, without 
toil, and he beholdeth the depths which are under this earth. He 
weigheth all hills with one hand. 

43. For -pan pe^ for that that, because. 

46. For he, &c., because he, &c. 

VOL. I. U 

290 NOTES. 

47, 48. And us sawle \pn\ ableow, breathed souls into us. Cf. *and 
him on bleow gast* ( = and him on ableow gast), Old Eng. Horn. First 
Series, p. 221, and iElfric*s Hom. vol. i. p. 13. 

48. Scred=5cret=scryty clotheth. Scred-de = scrydde, clothed. 

50. And [vel as] =and or as. The scribe seems to have looked upon 
and as not quite accurate, and proposed as. 

55. Unitald fultume, untold (innumerable) helps, favours, blessings. 

56. Of warn we alle and us sielfe habbeSy from whom we all have also 
ourselves [i. e. our being]. Cf. Acts xvii, 28. 

SielpCf the MS. reading, would mean enjoyment, felicity, goods ; 
but see p. 4, note i ; p. 7, note 3. 

60. Don him slepe, cause him to sleep. 

63. Mihti efre lsi=mihte hi efre hi, were they always able to see. 

64. Nd )ew6ld ham selfe = ne jeiuolde hi ham selfct they would not 
control themselves. ' 

65. Hares wipaftceSf gen. absolute, against their will, they being un- 

66. A wunder warden, in wonderful words. See Isaiah xlix. 15. 
Bi pa = bi pan=^bi pam, by the. Cf. 'to ))a latst,* 1. 88. 

68. La lief = la leof O beloved, O friend. In the earlier periods it 
means O sir, O lord. 

68, 69. Wiman . . , his . . . did ... hi (she). Notice the confusion in 
gender. WifvfBS originally of the neuter gender, and so was kis, 

70. Nell ic = nelle ic, I will not. 

71. Bepampe, as concerning that that, lit. by that that. 

72. Quoted from Malachi i. 6. 

73. Manscipe, manship, hom-age. Sometimes man-rede is used in the 
same sense; cp. A.S. manroiden, Joshua ix. ii. 

73, 74. "^ific. hlaford, if I am Lord. 

74. G, m.=gode men^ good men. 

82. Si jSdnde Idge, the kindly (natural) law. 
85. ' Without this law is no rational being.' See note to 1. 9. 
89. Ne ne wurS, nor not shall be, i. e. nor shall be. 
\>at god fu send, but what God hath sent. 

92. Heretoche = heretoge, leader; properly army-leader, duke. 

93. His, her (i. e. law) ; a form very common in Southern dialects of 
the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. It does not occur in the oldest 

Wax bredene = wax-bred, waxboard, a writing-table, a table 
covered with wax to write upon. The phrase 'stanene wax-biedeoe' 
shows that the origin of the compound wax-bred was forgotten. 

And si, she, i. e. the law (fem.). Zi, she (A.S. sio) occurs in the 
Ayenbite of Inwyt (1340). It is properly the fem. of the demonstrative 
and relative pronoun se, the. 


99. Swa 5e=nua so = swa swa, so as, as far as. Cf. aise=-also = 
alswUf as. 

99, 100. Ures . . . crlsteSf the advent of our Lord the Saviour Jesus 
Christ, or, our Lord the Saviour Jesus Christ's coming. On this con- 
struction see Historical Outlines of English Accidence, p. 103. 

102. Stef-creftf book-learning, letter-craft ; stef{staf)^ a letter, character. 
Ci^run-stcsfj a runic (or mystical) letter ; boc-stceff a letter, alphabetical 
character. Staves ^ flat pieces of shaven wood, v^ere once used for writing 
upon, also strips of the beech tree. In A.S. the same word, bdc^ means 
both ' beech * and ' book.' 

103. Wer ladieres mochey were many inviters. 

Eft binefecej again within a while, after a time. 

104. Hur and hur {hiirUy htiru-/>inga)f especially, frequently. It 
sometimes signifies *at intervals.* See Owl and Nightingale, xvi. 
1. II, p. 172. 

106-7. Lof and w\ii]r[t']hmintCfi^r2iisQ2Ji(i honour. Wurth-minte — 
A.S. weord-mynd, weorti'mynt (Grein). 

109. Mid scnne begripe, taken with sin, defiled with sin. 

no. Diejies jnutSe, devil's mouth. Cf. helle maJd, hell's mouth, 1. 175, 
p. 7. Hell is represented in stained glass windows as having a real 
mouth, teeth, &c. 

IVam^hwafft, whom; here used relatively. 'Who* is used 
only as an interrogative in the first period. Of warn begins a new 

117. J?^r a^htf instead thereof, against that. 

119. Accnnende = acenningej birth, conception ; see 1. 115. The use of 
the participle for the verbal substantive is found in Lajamon s Brut, 
an hi^cnde for an hi^inge, in haste. The tendency at this period is 
to turn -etide into -inge, as we have done in all present participles. See 
Old Eng. Horn. Second Series, p. 177, 1. 23. 

120. Admodcd is for admode, the def. form of admod { = edd-m6d), 
humble, meek. But we have added a r/ to several words that were 
originally without it, as wicked^ wretched^ one-eyed. See Historical 
Outlines of English Accidence, p. 223. 

Fordedcj destroyed, prut an end to. Cf. our did for and undid. 

122. LeorningcnihteSf disciples, literally learning-attendants. A.S. 
leorning-cnihtasy the usual word for our Lord's disciples in the Gospels ; 
in the Heliand the Lat. discipulus is often rendered by thegan, thane. 

127. Tofreme, to advantage, profitably. 

134. Wat . . . wat^ both . . . and, what . . . and. 

135. "piece fringed i thickly throng on, press on in crowds. 

136. Eter gate me his scyft^ andperme hi to ^csceodeQ^ at the gate they 
are divided, and there they are discriminated. Me =^mani one; his^hi, 

U 2 


28. Crucet'hus seems to be, by the explanation given of it in the text, 
a kind of cell into which the prisoner was forced by being doubled up, 
as it were. It was the same sort of thing as the cell in the Tower of 
London called * Little Ease/ because too small to lie down in at length. 

29. Un-depy shallow, a word not found in A.S. 

30. "prengdef pressed. From A.S. pringatii from the pt. of which 
{prang) is derived E. throng, Hinif for him; hence him aile the 
limes =z]\ his limbs. 

31-2. Lof "] grin) the names of two instruments of torture. Grin 
means a snare, trap, shackles, but iof is quite a crux. Can it be an 
error for loc, bolt, bar, beam ? 

32. RachentegeSf bonds, chains (for the neck). Rachcn = rachenti 
A. S. racenta, chain ; tegj tie, band. 

35. NawiderwardeSy nowhere, lit. nowitherwards, 

41. Gai ides =gie Ides y tributes, from A.S, gi/dan, to ^2iy, yield. 
Aiure umwile, ever at times, always. 

42. Tenserie y -prohahly censerie. Low Latin r^«jmfl, ' rente seigneur- 
iale et fonciere, dont un heritage est charge envers le seigneur du fief 
d'oii il depend.* — Roquefort. T and e are constantly confused in MSS. 

44. A d(sis/arey a day's journey. Cf. wel-farey thorough-fare. 

47. Sume ieden on celmeSy some went unto alms, i. e. went a-begging. 

50. Ouer sithon might mean ever afterwards, but perhaps we should 
read o-wer sitheny everywhere subsequently ; see 1. 55. 

51. Cyrce-icerdy church-yard. The oldest expression for church-yard 
is ciric-tiin. Tun (town) and icerd (yard) both mean ani enclosure. 

54. Rceuedeny spoiled, hQ-reaved. Cf. rceuereSy robbers, 1. 57. 

^ cBuric man other, Ac, and every man [spoiled the] other who 
anywhere was able. 

57. Lered meny the lettered men, the clergy. 

58. Oc...par-ofy but it was nothing to them thereof, i.e. they ac- 
counted it nothing, took no heed of the cursing or excommunication. 

62. So also, in Piers Plowman, C. xii. 61, we are told that 'God is 
def now a da> es.* A still stronger expression occurs in a curious lament 
printed in Political Songs, ed. Wright, p. 256, 1. 9, where we are even 
told that ' God is ded.* See Mr. Wright's note upon the line. 

halechen = hale^eny saints, holy ones. 

63. poienden=poledeny suffered. 

64. Alartin, abbot of Peterborough in 11 32, was fonnerly a prior of 
St. Neot's. He died 11 54. 

Abbot-rice, abbacy, like bishop-rick. 

65. Fandy piovided, found. 

66. Carited, charity. This form of the word shows that it is bor- 
rowed directly from the French, viz. O. F. caritet^hat ace. caritatem. 

67. }pop-wethere =^ thoh-whethercy nevertheless, h ox gh passed some- 

392 ^^OTES, 

141. Uuatttntce=^wantriicCj failure. Cf. ivantrokiynge ia ^^zimtVL^ 
Pt. II. 1. 59, p. TOO. 

143. Ipcr—in per, in the; pine being a feminine substantive. 
Mid cdelice Ictte^ with a slight delay or hindrance. 

145. Merc hcst owe ^ boundary place, place of separation; but perhaps 
we ought to read merthcsttnue, a place of mirth. 

148-9. Sicernesse of ecer blisse, the assurance of eternal bliss. 

1 50- 1. God . . .fandie. May God, through his mercy, let us never 
have experience of it. Letes=^lete hiSf his being the genitive governed 

152. Anii = anum, at once. 

^rMle^ ready, prepared. In Piers Plowman we find aredy, B. iv. 
192 ; arcadiness occurs in Bacon's Advancement of Learning, and in our 
English Bible, 2 Cor. x. 6. 

1 54. 3^///t'/, shall find, meet with ; the present tense, as in the older 
period, is used with a future sense. 

157. Hi . . . ^elestCf and they shall have for their reward the home 
that long shall last. 

161. '^fered=ge-fer-r(kdenf company. 

Anglenc had^ orders of angels. See VII. 99 (below), and Piers 
Plowman (Clarendon Press Series^ p. 104, note to i. 105, where it is 
explained that there were supposed to be nifte orders of angels, the two 
highest orders being those of the Cherubim and Seraphim; see sect. 
V. 1. 1050 below. Had is identical with the suffix head or hood in man- 
hood^ godheady &c. 

163. Hdgefcuieren = hedh-fadertttHy patriarch, high-father. In the first 
period hedh, high, is sometimes used as equivalent to the prefix arch : 
fudh-bisceop, archbishop ; hedhboda^ archangel. 

164-5. Mid al pan pe . . . ab^c, with all those that for his love (sake) 
put aside the world. 

165-6. Wic )eie=^hwilc ege, what awe (fear, terror). 

169. J?^ wolcne to-ga8j the welkin shall part in sunder. To-gan= to 
go asunder, to go away. 

Si hali rode tacne. Hampole, in the Fifth Book of his Pricke of 
Conscience, mentions the 'token of the cross* as appearing with Christ 
at the day of Doom : — 

* He sal J>an at his doun commyng 
pe taken of the croys wyth hym bring. 

Yhit som trowes, and swa may wel be, 
J?at Jje taken of ))e spere men sal ))an se 

And of J^e nayles.* — p. 143. 
172. p^ . . . bechece^ whom none may contradict. 

296 NOTES. 

times into/; hence we find /</= though, and M«^= through. Cf. 
enough and ccnigh. 

68. Coded, endowed (with goods). 

Lest it re/en. Prof. Skeat translates this by ' caused it to be 
roofed ; ' where refen = /ire/en, A. S. ArJfan, formed from hrS/, roof, by 
the ordinary vowel-change. This is an easy solution of the difficulty. 
The word re/en, if put for A.S. riafian, as proposed by some, would 
mean to bereave^ or strip of all hangings, not to adorn, ox furnish with 
hangings (Earle). See 1. 54 above. 

69. S* Petres masse dai, St. Peter's day, June 29. 

72. Fram is oyxr from, but has here its old sense of ^. 

Eugenie. Eugenius III did not reign until 1 145, and Innocent II 
died 1144. 

74. pe , . . circe-wican, which belong to the office of sacrist. See 
Earle's note on this passage. The latter part of circe-wican is the same 
word as is seen in baili-wick. 

74-5. ^ gif &c., And, if he might live longer, he meant to do the 
same with respect to the office of treasurer. 

75-6. Aftd . . . strengthen And he gained (property) in lands that 
powerful men held by force or violence. 

77-79. Rogingham (Rockingham), Cotingham^ Estun i^Es&XxxL)^ Hyrt- 
lingburch (Irlingborough\ Stanewig\^X.'axiYf'\cV),Aldewi7Jgle (Oldwinkle), 
are all in Northamptonshire. 

81. IVende, turned, changed. 

84. Wat . . . time, what befell in King Stephen's time. 

85. The day of St. William of Norwich is March 24 ; see the account 
in Alban Butler's Lives of the Saints. At a later date, the Jews were 
accused of a similar murder of the boy-martyr named St. Hugh of 
Lincoln. See Chaucer, Cant. Tales, Group B. 1. 1874, ^^^ Skeat's note ; 
also Tyrwhitt's note upon the Prioresses Tale, quoted in Skeat's preface 
to his edition of the Prioresses Tale, &c. 

87. Lang fridcei. Long Friday, Good Friday ; a Scandinavian name, 
probably suggested by the length of the church-services. 

88^. Wenden . . . martyr. They thought that it would be concealed, 
but our Lord showed that he was (a) holy martyr. 

90. Heglice, sumptuously, splendidly. 

93. Mid ormete fcerd, with an immense army. 

94. And him com togcenes^ and there came against him. 

95. \>e , .. Euorwic, to whom the King had entrusted York. 

96. ^uez = auets=cBuest, trusty. The Norman z was sounded as 
ts. Cf. F. avez = avets = lijait. habetis. 

97. yfeV te Standard, at the battle of the Standard. 'A rhetorical 
monograph of this battle was written by a cotemporary, Ethelred [al. 
Ailred, Aldred], Abbot of Rievaulx. It is printed in Twysden, X Scrip- 


reprint of the Monk of Evesh'am, especially capp. xvi, xvii. So also 
Dante was conducted by Virgil. In Beda's Ecclesiastical History, 
bk. iii. c. 19, we find a somewhat similar account of the visions of 
St. Fursey. 

The notion of the repose of condemned souls upon a certain day 
must be extremely old. The reader will find a singular illustration of 
this in the notes to Southey's Thalaba the Destroyer, bk. ix. stanzas 
37~39* The first of these stanzas may be quoted. 

* Nay, Sorceress, not to-night ! ' the spirit cried, 

* The flesh in which I sinned may rest to-night 
From suffering J all things, even I, to-night. 

Even the damn'd, repose ! * 
Line i . Leofemeftf dear men. Cf. ' beloved brethren.' 

willelichey willingly. In the first period we find willice and 
willendlice, willingly. 

2. Suteliche seggen^ plainly speak. 
Of pa = of pan. Cf. to pan deie. 
4. ^es lauerdes dei^ the Lord's day; a translation of the Lat. dies 
Dominica (F. Dimanche) occurring in St. Augustine and Tertullian, and 
in the Vulgate version of Rev. i. 10. 

Blisse and lisse, bliss and ease. Bliss is from blithe, just as lisse is 
from lit5e\ bless has nothing to do with bliss— A.S. bletsian, to conse- 
crate, from blSt, a sacrifice. Cf iblissieti =Tt]o\cQ (1. 6). • 

6. -fi'rw/;?^, wretched, miserable; properly a substantive from ^dt^/w-Zaw, 
to grieve ; earm, miserable, poor. 

7. Gif hwa wule wit en ^ \i any one will learn. 

7, 8. \>am wrecche saule, for the wretched souls. The demonstrative 
keeps its inflection, while adjective and substantive represent the older 
dative plur. suffix -um by -e. 
to-sope = ior a truth, truly. 

14. Eisliche — egesUce, horribly. Cf. Aisliche in Glossary to Skeat's 
Specimens, "^te^geatu^ gates. 

15, 16. Bipafety &c. Fet seems to be in the ace. plural : the dative 
would h^fote ioxfotum. Tunge is dat. fem. as well as heorte, yet the 
demonstrative has lost it* case-suffix in the first example. 

18. Ouen is masculine, hence it is followed by the pronoun he, 

19. Uwi lean = iwi lean, a softening oi gehwilc an. 
Eateliche = atelice, horrible. 

21, »SVzw/^ = souls. The nom. plural is marked by e, representing an 
older a, Satilen (ace. pi.) occurs in 1. 25. 

23. i^m/^ t/(f<?/7^«, master-devils, chief-devils. Qi. masterpiece. Many 
old compounds, as 'master-street,* chief street, highway, have disap- 
peared from the modem language. See Chaucer, Squieres Tale, and 
Skeat's note. 

300 NOTES, 

24. SwilCj as if: alse replaces swiic with the sense Qi as if\ and as is 
so used in Elizabethan writers. 

Ha^ = they, is one of those provincial forms very common in the 
South of England after the Norman Conquest. It is also used for 
/tCf she. 

26. Efter potty after that, afterwards. See Ayenbite of Inwyt. 

30. Fid stunchy foul stink : stenc {stinc) was originally masc. and not 
fern, as here used. 

Efrenii ever-any ; just as reasonable a compound as every ^eyet' 
each, or ever-ciper (Pecock, in Skeat's Specimens, p. 55, 1. 103). 

3 1 . Un-aiuomned= un-ge-nemnod, unmentionable on account of their 

Deor^ wild beasts. See 1. 37, where swa deor lude rented = as wild 
beasts roar loudly. 

32. Fcdcr-foted=fyder-f6teffyder-fitefiovir-iooied. A.S.fytier=Goih, 
Jidwor, Lat. quatuor. 

Butefet, without feet. In Scotland but is still used in this sense. 

33. 34. Heore epem . . ,pwire, their breath shone as doth the lightning 
among thunder. 

34. \>as ilkCf these same. 

35. \>a ilea, those same. 

36. Hare serif t enden nalden, would not complete their shrift. 
41-2. pat . . . pinan, &c., that one would protect them from those 

evil pains. 

43. This quotation is not from the Psalms, as suggested ; nor elsewhere 
in the Bible. 

46. Inne-midde-warde^ in the midst of, corresponding to the later 
amidward. See Hampole's Pricke of Conscience, p. 174, 11. 6447, 6450. 

48. Ufele brede, noxious vapour (breath). 

49. He him sceawede gan on aid mon^ he shewed him an old man 
going about. 

50. Hwet pe aide mon were, who the old man might be. 

52-3. Ofter , . . dringariy more often would he wrongfully cite his 
subjects before his court, and long oppress them. Dringan seems to be for 
dringan, to oppress. 

55. Staide unbisor^eliche, very remorselessly, very unrelentingly. 

59. Elmes^eorrty desirous of giving alms, charitable. 

64. On ptinres liche^ in the form of thunder; perhaps we should read 
071 wunres {wuttdrcs) liche^ in a form of wonder, in a glorious form. 
A pet = dd Hat, to that, until. 

*ji. ]>e weren efterward^ who were after, who were seeking. 

78. 'pes pe 7'edper pety so much the rather that, the more so because. 
Cf. pas pe md, so much the more. 

82. A paif) cuine monedeis lihting, until Monday's dawn come. 


85. Mucheles pe mare^ much the more. Mucheles is the genitive and 
abverbial form of the adjective tnuchel. 

90. Chirche bisocnie^ to go to church. Cf. the oldest English cyrice- 
socHy church-going; see chirch-socne, 1. 3, p. 26, of this volume. 

103. \>reo wurdliche mihte, three precious properties (virtues). 

109. Hwa efre penne ilokie tuelf whoever then may (i. e. will) observe 

III. Beo heo^ let him be, i. e. he shall be. For heo read he. 
Dal-neominde, partaking, participating, hence a partaker. 

(B) Hie dicendum est de Propheta. 

See Jeremiah xxxviii. 6-13. 

Line 7. Andpet^ and (also); pet hardly seems wanted. 

12, 13. For to bi-wmden . . . wursien, to wind round (envelop) the 
ropes, so that his body, which was feeble, should not become worse (i. e. 
receive further injury). 

14. Weordy words, neuter plural. QL dear, Sao,. \ the more modem 
plural weordes occurs in 1. 1 6. 

15. Muchele bi-tacnunge, important meaning. 

16. Hiheren — i-heren=geherenf hear. 
18. See Luke xi. 28. 

23. The quotations here and below are not from the Bible. They 
probably belong to the Latin original (here attributed to St. Gregory) 
from which the Homily is more or less closely translated. Compare 
2 Peter ii. 21. 

30, 31 . Unwuf^e gode, displeasing to God. 

32, 33. Deopnesse of sunne^ for sunne deopnesse. An early use of the 
preposition ^to express the genitive case. 

33. Heued sunnetiy cardinal sins, especially the seven deadly sins. 
36. Manadas, perjury. Cf. manswortiy perjured. 

45. Cf. Ps. Ixix. 15 (or Ixviii. 16 in the Vulgate); 'neque urgeat 
super me puteus os suum.' The words quoted are probably a gloss 
upon this verse. 

50. "pe sweore, his neck. This use of the definite article is hardly 
out of use. 

5 1 . per neuer eft ne cumed of bote =per-of neuer eft ne cumed bote^ 
therefrom never again cometh help (boot), succour, deliverance. 

58. Dede wel endinge = 'wel dede endingef completion or performance 
of good works : dede is feminine. 

Cordis contritione^ &c. So in Piers Plowman, B. xiv. 91, we find 
' per confessionem peccata occiduntur.' Contrition was divided into three 
parts or acts, viz. contrition of heart, confession of mouth, and satisfaction 
of deed, &c.; note to Piers Plowman, B. xiv. 16, ed. Skeat, where 

30a NOTES. 

references are given to the first part of Chaucer's Persones Tale ; Polit. 
Religious, and Love Poems, ed. Fumivall, p. 218; Peter Cantor, ed. 
Mignc, vol. 205 of the Cursus Patrologicus , col. 342; Ancren Riwle, 
p. 229; Barclay's Ship of P'ools, i. igCy, &c. 

81. /;; alcsttcsse of alia { = a//e) stpt/ul/e, unto or for the forgiveness of 
all sinners. 

84. pef often means 7ii/iaf, but probably is here an error for wet, what. 

90. An viancrc offissce. The Romance tnancre seems to have replaced 
the native word nin or cin ; hence it mostly occurs without a following 
off as a lie mancre men = alles cunnes men, men of every kind. This cun 
or cin, = kind, was originally placed after the substantive as a suffix. Cf. 
man-kin-d, dier-chlni).. 2, p. 3) = deer-kind,yfj'-ry«« (1. 3, p. 3) = fish-kind. 

91. Euerse, ever so, used before comparatives, like/^ (instnimental/f). 

92. 7o sivimminde = io swimmene, the use of the present participle 
for the gcrundial or dative infinitive. This corruption is found in the 
earliest period. 

T06. pos blaca taddcn^ these black toads. Blaca — blace — blacen^ 
hlacan^ the pi. of the dcf. form of the adj. pos=/>as, these, has not as 
yet got its modem usage. 

^'3-^7' P^^^ ' ' • ouerliggetS, this same wealth which these (persons) 
thus overlie. 

115. peos . . . hclftcr. Some words have evidently been omitted after 
clapes. The meaning seems to be as follows : — These yellow clothes 
[betoken women who go gaudily attired to render themselves objects of 
attraction], for the yellow cloth is the devil's halter. 

123. Blanchetf a kind of whcaten powder used by ladies as a cosmetic. 

*With blaunchette and othe^ flour 
To make thaim qwyther [whiter] of colour.* 

R. de Brunne, MS. Bowes, in HalUwell, p. 20. 

124. "^ohtwe clape^ clothes stained with saffron. 'Hire wimpel 
[maked] wit d^ox maked gelcu mid saffran.' (Homilies in Trinity 
College, Cambridge, B 14. 52. See Old Eng. Homilies, First Series, 
p. 311.) 

125. ScawerCy mirror, looking-glass. See Piers Plowman, B. xii. 153. 
128. MusestocA = muse-sloc = mouse stock, mousetrap. The oldest 

word for this was vitis-feallc. 



(A) Dominica Palmarutn. 

See Matt. xxi. 9, &c., &c. 

Line 8. \>o pe com, when that [he] came. • Swo hatte pe prop, so 
is called the village. 
16. From Matt. xi. 29. 

1 8. Sanderbodes, like sandcs-mcfi = messengers, ambassadors : sander- 
w<2w = messenger, Orm. 322. 

22. Hihteft, adorned, decorated. Cp. M. E. hi^te, to adorn, Trevisa's 
Higden, i. 41, 235; 2. 313, 363. 

32. Silof, let there be praise. Cf. heil seo pu, hail be thou, La5amon, 
vol. iii. p. 162. This is the only instance of the old form of the sub- 
junctive to be met with in the Trinity MS. 

35. See John xii. 13. The Vulgate version has: 'acceperunt ramos 
palmarum, et processerunt obviam ei,' &c. 

38. heg settle^ high seat, throne. A settle still signifies a seat. 

44. Bethphage has been explained as * domus oris vallium,' as in the 
tables given in some editions of the Vulgate. The same lists give: 
'Jerusalem, visio pacis, visio perfecta.' Bethphage means in Hebrew 
* house of figs' (hard figs) ; see Cheyne, Aids to the Student (Proper 
Names), Smith's Diet, of the Bible (s. v. Jerusalem), and Trench, The 
Parables, p. 315. 

49. here mtides wike, the offices of their mouth. 

55. Sad of sahtnesse is an error for siht of sahtnesse, vision of peace. 

58. And pefolc setit, and disraisseth the people. 

80. And sinne . . . bctSy To them it is hateful to forsake sin, and they 
are imwilling to make amendment. 

81. Codes . . . semedf God's behests weigh heavily, i. e. are a great 

82. Ftil don, do fully, perform effectually. 

84. ]>e ech . . . ?ninegcdy which each church commemorates to-day. 
88. Secula, for secla, as the luie is a perfect hexameter. 

(B) In Die Pasche. 
See Matt. xxii. 4, Ps. cxviii. 24. 

Line 9. From i Cor. xi. 28. 

19. Eten and drinken are simple infinitives (rightly used without the 
sign to') employed as substantives. 

21. See Piers Plowman, B. xviii. 428. 

22. See Brand's Popular Antiquities (ed. Ellis), i. 158. * 

304 NOTES. 

25. Tweire kmnc, of two kinds: -re is the sign of gen. pi. Cf. beire, 
of both ; alre^ of all, &c. 

34. Here vestis innocentie is explained to signify the chrism-cloth (also 
spelt chrisome-cioth). * Chrisome signifies properly the white cloth 
which is set by the Minister of Baptism upon the head of a Child newly 
anointed with Chrism [holy oil] after his Baptism : now, it is vulgarly 
taken for the white cloth put about or upon a child newly Christened, 
in token of his Baptism ; wherewith the women use to shroud the child, 
if dying within the month.* — Blount's Glossographia, ed. 1681. 

44. 'Miserere animae tuae placens Deo, et contine;' Ecclesiasticus 
XXX. 24 (Vulg.). The A. V. merely has: 'Love thine own soul;* 
verse 23. 

51. eiHer, one (of these garments). 

55. Matt. xxii. 12. 

57,63. Ps. cxvii. 24 (Vulg.) ; cxviii. 24 (A.V.). 

61. dSer inker f otherwise, the comparative oi overlie he (otherlike). 

66. estrone dai, that is, aristes dai. The writer here attempts a little 
popular et}Tnology, by connecting easter with the verb arise. In this 
homily he also connects it with esterif dainties : Estre dai pat is estene 
dai, Easter Day, that is, the day of dainties (or eatings). And te est is 
hiisel^ and no man 7ie tnai seiert hu selwu god it is, and the dainty is the 
hotiscl, and no man may say how seely it is. ^wj^/^ consecrated bread ; 
hu set=how good. 

73. The writer seems to have mixed up verses 26, 27, 28 of Matt. xxvi. 
* Accipite et commedite, hoc est corpus meum . . . Bibite ex hoc omnes: 
hie est enim sanguis meus novi testament!,' &c. e. r. s, m. n, in the text 
may stand for enim calix sanguinis mei ftovi. See i Cor. xi. 24. 

76, 78. John vi. 55 ; vi. 53. 

77. Wis=i-wis, truly, verily, indeed. 

88, 9. More mihte . . . cu7tde, Greater might doth our Saviour than the 
holy words which he spake by his (the priest's) mouth, when he giveth 
mankind [his flesh and blood]. 

100. Ps. Ixvii. 24, 25 (Vulg.) ; Ixviii. 24, 25 (A. V.). 

104. MannS . . . tis^ Manna signifies * what is this? * Exod. xvi. 15. 

108. Manne, to the man. 

109. And , . . soule, and the bitterest of all bitters to every man's 

III. John vi. 56. 
114. Ure ech, each of us. 

116. To holi axen ...procession, to holy ashes (on Ash Wednesday), 
to procession on Palm Sunday. 


(C) Dominica i. post Pascha, 

See Luke xxiv. 36. 

Lines 13, 14. Swiede, was still ; swidages^ still days, the three days 
before Easter Day. Cp. G. der stille Freiiag^ Good Friday, die stilie 
JVoche, Holy Week. 

17. Fridy peace, freedom ; which the writer connects with^^. 

26. Sume ze/^, some of us: the partitive use oisome came up in the 
twelfth century.. 

28. Alse wat se, as soon as ; wat—hwat, quickly, soon. 

31. Forfi J>at, until. Cf. for to, for te, which replace the older 

32. The prophet here alluded to is David. See Ps. cxxvi. 2 (Vulg.) : 
' Surgite postquam sederitis, qui manducatis panem doloris ; * cxxvii. 2 
(A. v.). 

35. Ps. cxxxviii. 2 (Vulg.) ; cxxxix. 2 (A.V.). 

37. Ps. iii. 7. 

58. Nemnedf named. We ought perhaps to read euened, compared, as 
in 1. 60. To c^er dai^ the second day. There is evidently an omission 
here. The words/M he do edie dede concern ih& first day's work ; but 
J>e is nemned to oder dai refer to the second day. The meaning intended 
is : ' until on the third day, that his heart may be light [i. e. illumined] ; 
for, though he do a good deed, which belongs to the first day, yet he must 
also speak aright, which is the thing allotted to the second day ; and 
both these help him little or not at all, unless he have a good thought 
[intent], which is likened to the third day.' The omitted clause is the 
one here printed in italics. 

(D) Dominica iv, post Pascha, 

Line i. See James i. 17. 
3. Sette to lorpeawe^ appointed for, ^;r as a teacher. 
13. "pese lit word, these few (little) words. 
15. Neden uppard^xr^yizidi from below. 
t6. Swo ne lete, do not so look upon or regard it. 

20. Sheppendes, creators, connected of course with shop (1. 20) and 
shapen (1. 21). 

21. Ne was me no bet shapen, it was no better destined (ordered) for 
me ; it was my fate. 

22. Hwate^ witchcraft. It originally signified augury, soothsaying, 
divination. Cp. the phrase ' I was bewitched.' 

Nahte (^ = ne ahte) . . . wate, I had no better luck. 
25. Mai no man neden, is not able to force any man (to sin). 
28. See Luke xxiv. 38. 

VOL. I. X 

306 NOTES. 

30. Be swo it beOy be whatever it may be. 

32. SUht off sleight of, artifice of. 

37, 38. Sam . , . sam, whether ... or. Sam is of course connected 
with same. 

47. Fiffolde mihtCf five-fold power, i. e. five senses, five wits. 

49. His lichame al mid tofriSende, the surface of his body to protect 
all with. 

67-69. Ure ihesu . . . man, And illumineth our Lord Jesus Christ, 
the very sun, who illumineth all other things and man also (i. e. the 
Father illumines the Son and then the Son illumines everything else). 


For some excellent remarks on the grammar and spelling of the 
Ormulum, see Sweet's Middle-English Primer (Clarendon Press). 

Line 964. Jtidisskenn, Jewish ; the « is a relic of the n in the definite 
form of the adjective. Cf. * in the olden time.* 

965. \>att . . . cweme^ that was very acceptable to the Lord. 

967. To laredd t to lawedd, to learned and unlearned, to clergy and 
laity. LcBweddy like many other words, is now used in a bad sense in 
the form le^ud. Cf. cunning, silly, knave. 

969. To manne, as man. 

970. Ge))ne/>/>—geyneth, gaineth, availeth. 
Itt refers to lac or offerings of the Jews. 

972. Te)), they; in the East-Midland dialect he=hi is also used for 

974. Onn)aness, against, displeasing to. 

976-7. Forrpi . . . moderr, because they neither take thought of Christ 
nor of Christ's mother. Noff= ne off, nor of. 

979. pe))re=J>eyre, their. 

984-5. JIu . . . pcewess, how it behoveth Christ's servant to offer gifts 
to Christ, spiritually, in good practices. 

988. See Numbers vi, vii ; &c. 

994. See Numbers vi. 15 ; Levit. ii. 5-13 ; &c. 

996. Operr stund, other times ; O.E. stundmele, at intervals. 

997. Allpeorrf, all unfermented, without leaven, sweet. Qi^perf-cake 
in Specimens, Part II. xv. vii. 269. Barm or yeast is not the same as 
leaven, which is sour dough (as Wiclif rightly has it). Ci.perrflinng 
in 1. 1590, and unn-berrmedd, unleavened, 1. 1591. 

1002. J a)) . . . lac, and ever was salt with every offering. 
1006. Swillc *] swillc, such and such, \.^. so like this and that which 
has been described. 

V. ORMULUM. 307 

1008. Uss iss, there is to us. 
1014. See Exod. xxvL 33. 

10 1 7. Innresst — innerest, inmost. Cf. overeste in Chaucer, Prologue, 
1. 292. 

1022. Wipputenn pattf except that the bishop himself. 

1024. pi ^er, in the year, a-year. Cf. aness ope ^er, once a year. 

1025. Allhimm dney all by himself, all alone. Cf. t a)) himmsdlf 
himm ane (1. 1079, p. 43), and always himself by himself 

1028. Mani)-whatty many things; see Specimens of Eng. Part II. 
sect. V. 5589 ; Morris, Hist. Outlines of Eng. Accidence, p. 137, 
sect. 213. Cf. somewhat. The earliest compound of this kind is 
anhwat, one thing, evidently a corruption of ahwat, anything. There 
seems to have been a confusion between hwcet and uuuht=wihtf thing. 

1 03 1. Hali^otnesSy relics. See note on II. 143, p. 297. 

1036. In Exod. XXV. 17 the Vulg. has Propitiatorium for mercy-seat, 

1 04 1. Millcenn, "j shawenn are, to be gracious and to show mercy. 
This line is a good example of infinitives without the preposition to, 
which in the oldest period belonged only to the genmdial or dative 

1042. Whase = wha-swa, whosoever. 
1046. See Exod. xxv. 18. 

T051. . . .peode, into people {or orders) of nine kinds. See note 
on I. 161, p. 292. 

1054. A lire nest, next or nearest of all to the Lord. 
1059. Abufenn &c., built above the ark. 

1065. To scan this line, note that A-d-rones contains four syllables, 
and is accented on the first and third. 

Chilldre, children. The oldest form was cildru; childre be- 
came childer as well as childre-n in later periods. 

1066. See Exod. xxvii. i. 

1069. To lake, for an offering, as an offering. 

107 1. Swa summ^so as, just as. This use of sum is due to Norse 

1 105. Anan — an on, in one state, continually; it also signifies at once, 

1 1 29. Hemm wrap, angry with them. 

1 1 36. See Levit. iii, iv. 

1 141. Drihhtin &c., for the praise and honour of the Lord. 

1 142. Mildkerrtle))c, mercy, mild-heartedness. -le))c = 'leyCf the Norse 
form {leikr) of the English -lac, -lock (cf. wedlock, knowledge). 

1 145. "prinne, three ; another proof of Norse influence. Twinne also 
occurs for two. 

1 1 59. Off alle kinne gillte—of alles kinnes gillte, from guilt of every 
kind. See note on 1. 90, III. B, p. 302. 

X 2 

308 NOTES. 

1 162. Drihhtin . . ./a, well pleasing to the Lord in all those, &c. 
1177. Stille der -\ lipCf quiet animal and gentle. 
1 1 80-1. Lit. *Nor even where one killeth it, 
It offers not much opposition.* 
1 182. Latin hoc, the Latin version of the Holy Scriptures. 

1 1 86. Toe /fildtli), took (endured) patiently. 

1 187. WiJ>J> wo^he = mid wo)e (cp. 1. 164, p. 1 76), with wrong, wrong- 
fully, unjustly. 

1 194. A)) = ay, ever, always. See 1. 12 16, where a)) occ a^^ = ever 
and ever, always. Occ^ and, is of Norse origin. 

1206. Effnedd wipPf compared to. Cf. euened, 1. 60, p. 35. 

1209-10. Shadenft . . . shced. See note on 1. 9, sect. I. p. 288. 

1 2 12-15. 'And hast yet, though thou be young, the behaviour 
of a senior, and conductest thyself properly and becomingly and 

1228-29. *And (the) ox walketh becomingly, quietly, and behaveth 
sedately* (i. e. has the manner of a grave old man). 

1260. "^fedepp. See Bestiary, in Old English Miscellany, p. 25, and 
Old English Homilies, Second Series, p. 49. 

1274. Charijy sorrowful, full oicare. Careful m older writers means 

1275. To sopi=for truth f truly. Cf. 1. 1358, p. 52, where tofulle sop 
= truly ; to-sope, indeed, truly. The agglutination or collocation is so 
loose in some adverbial expressions that qualifying words may be 
infixed. Cf. in sooth and in good sooth ; in faith and in good faith ; 
of late and of late times. 

1276. Frapatt, from the time that. 

1277. yio ; another form oi heOy she. 
1324. Levit. xvi. 7. 

1337. Ut inntillf out into j tillf to, is of Norse origin. 
1364. All cwiccj all alive. 

1394. An allusion to the fall of Lucifer and his angels; Jade 6; 
Isaiah xiv. 13. See P. Plowman, B. i. 105, and the editor's note. 

1395. Wipp rihhtej with justice, deservedly. 

1410. Twe)jennforrme menn^ two first persons (Adam and Eve), 
1428. "3 ^ff patt iss patty if that it is that, if that. 
1465. 'The vengeance of true justice,* i. e. retribution. 
1535. SammtaUf agreed, of one tale or speech. In the Cursor Mondi 
we find this altered to samer-tale. 

1538. To ben ummbenn pott an, to be about that one, i. e. that alone. 

1574. Whisrsitt^whcer-se-itt^ where-so-(ever; it. 

1602. Findi)y firm. This word occurs in O. E. Horn. ii. pp. 117, 119. 

16 1 7. * With prayers and vigils.* 

1626. "pweorrt-dt forrse, thoroughly avoid. 

VI. LA^AMOlfS BRUT. 309 

1635. * From tnithful love of Christ.* 

1642. lVip/> skill, with discrimination, wisely, discreetly. See 1. 1651, 
p. 61. 

1686. LiitIar=Httlar, a little before. 

1715. Uferr mar, ovtr vaoi^ moreover, Ci. furthermore. 

1718-19. 'And wherewith it may, confirm you in your right belief or 

[A denotes MS. Cott. Calig. ; B MS. Otho.] 

Compare the A.S. Chronicle, an. 449. Beda has an outline of the 
story in his Eccles. History, bk. i. c. 15. A few notes are given below 
from Sir F. Madden's edition. 

Line 4. SelcuSe, seldom ktunun, rare, wonderful ; seliiche in B means 
marvellous. For cuSe of. tin-couth^ literally unknown. 

Gumen, men. This word originally formed its plural in -an ; in 
.text B it has conformed to plurals in -s. 

9. Cnihten for cnihtey gen. plural, after hundred. The number of 
knights is not mentioned elsewhere ; but the number of ships is given by 
Beda as three. The A.S. Chronicle, following Beda, calls them three 

10. * As if they were kings * (A) ; * As if they were warriors' (B). 

11. JVid-ulen, besides, in addition to; governs the dative. 
16. pa=pa=pe or ])/, the ablative of the definite article. 
18. * And asked how they were disposed or affected.* 

20. * And cared for his friendship.' 

22. 'As they well knew how.' 

25. 'And willingly or joyfully serve him.' 

26. * And hold him for their lord.* 

31-2. * Where he with his court nobly disported or diverted them- 

37-56. ' Wace only says, the king looked at the two brothers, who 
were taller and fairer than the rest, and inquired from what land they 
came.' — Madden . 

38, B. Sarut, serve : borrowed verbs mostly make their infinitives in 
'ie ( = -ten). 

40. Rihten = rihtet rightly. Lajamon was very fond of nunnation, 
that is, of adding an inorganic « to a final e. 

42. * Of every harm he was aware.' 

43. Iliue, life (dative). As there was a verb iliuien we also expect a 
substantive ilif. 

310 NOTES, 

45. No—ne^ nor. 

49-50. 'And your will I will perform, by my quick (living) life.* 
This last expression seems to be equivalent to * as sure as I am alive.' 

52. Sc^en eouwer=e(niwer soSen, your true (worship, honour). 

53. Seen = O. E. syn, may be (pres. subj.). Seo9 is a mere variaticm of 
the same, and is used subjunctively. 

63. * I am called Hengest.' 

66-7. ' Noblest of all lands, of that same quarter (end).' 

70. * Wonderful customs ' (A) ; * Wonderful things going (on) ' (B). 
See p. 83, 1. 541, where tWende = wane = custom, 

71 . * Every fifteen years.' ' The lines which follow seem to have been 
erroneously translated. . . . Wace does not say, that the youths were 
assembled at periods of fifteen years, but that all those of fifteen years of 
age and upwards were collected, and the strongest among them chosen 
to settle elsewhere.' — Madden. 

73. Allure iledenefolc^ all the people of our fellow-countrymen. 

74, B. Londes^ i. e. foreign lands. 

75. Vppenpan /^, upon whom that, "pan is a true relative in the 
oldest period ; wan — hwam (dative of hwa, who) was originally interro- 
gative only. 

76, B. * He must needs go.* 

85, B. Forpe wifues for the women. 

89. * So that there be many among us ' (A) ; * That lot fell on us' (B). 
94. FoTf for fear of 

96. Notice that text B has a new form — \arforey for that (reason), 
instead oifor-pi in A. Setperfore in text A, 1. 172, p. 71. 

104. Sdt-riht, truly. Cf. up-right^ down-right. 

105. Ileuen {Pi) — biliue (B), belief. *In Wace, Hengist says that 
they have come to Britain under guidance of their god Mercury ; on 
hearing which, the king inquires respecting their faith.' — Madden. 

107-8. 'And your dear god whom ye bow to (worship).' 
III. Kine-londf royal-land, kingdom. 
113. Codes gode, ^OQ^ godA, 

115. *To whom we have hope,' or * in whom we trust.' 
120. Weoli means rich. It was a word probably unknown to the 
transcriber of text B, so he altered it to tnihti (powerfiil). 

124. Hahste, highest; pronounced hexte. B's hehest is simply the 
modem uncontracted form. Cf. next and nighest, 

125. 'Geoffrey only name Satumusy Jupiter, Mercuritis, and Frea , 
to which Wace adds Phebus. Both notice that Mercurius was the 
same with Woden : a circumstance which Layamon has overlooked. . . . 
The additional names in the English version, of Appollin and Teroaganty 
were in all probability borrowed from the Anglo-Noiman writers of the 
1 2th century.* — Madden. 


127. Tervagant ='Diansi Trivia, the sister of Apollo. See Skeat*s 
Chaucer, note to Sir Thopas, 1. 2000. Hence E. termagant. 

129. Anne = am ; anne is properly masculine. Text B employs the 
uninflected form. 

132. Hired-men, men of the court, courtiers. 

134. * Well she treateth them.' 

135-7. 'But before all our dear gods, whom we must obey, Woden 
possessed the highest law (or authority).' 

136, B (142, A). * We work (do) worship (or honour).' 

142. JIeom = heo-\-himf they (to) him. 

145. * Lines 145, 146, and 149-152 are not in Wace.' — Madden. 

151. Monenen for monen^ to the moon. 

157-8. LeofBXidi laSe govern the daiive case. 

161. A pene wurse, on the devil ; see 1. 581. 

163-4. * Your gods are of nought, in hell they lie low.' 

1 73-4. * And if ye will avenge me and procure me their heads (A) ; 
* And if ye will avenge me of their hostile deeds ' (B). 

177-182. *Not in Wace/ — Madden. 

180. * It shall all be so (thus).' 

187-232. ' The first portion of this passage is comprised by Wace in 
two lines : 

Sempres fu la curt re»pleine 
De mut grant bachelerie — 
[i.e. The court was always filled with a great number of young warriors]. 
He then proceeds to state, that the Picts soon after passed the H umber 
with a great force, and burnt and destroyed the country. The king 
was informed of it, and marches against them with the Saxons and 
Britons.' — M. 

201. Swaine for swatneSf servants. Cf boai-swain, 

202. "pein and f«/>%/ = thane (servant) and knight. 

204. * Held for contemptible.' Madden and Matzner take hehne to be 
another form of heane or hceney poor, base. See 1. 408. 
209. Cnihtes sunen tiiue^ five sons of a knight. 

218. IucEld=iucBt8y fell, or cause to fall. 

219. * Hereof thou must advise thee.' 
221, B. *The King sent his messenger.* 

223. Innen (A) = inne (B, 222), lodging, quarters; whence our inn, 
which is a good instance of a substantive formed from a preposition. 

234. ^ pas hcelf pere Humbre, on this side of the Humber (A) ; 
on this side Humber (B). Cf. *on this side the grave,' where we also 
drop the preposition. Hcelfm text A is feminine, hence/aj (accus. fem.) 
is rightly used. La3amon often uses/<w ioipeos (nom.), , 

244. An Oder (A), in other (wise) = operweies (B), otherways, otherwise. 

253. * Fiercely (literally fiend-like, devilishly) they fought.* 

31 a NOTES. 

255-264; and 267-276. *Not in Wace.' — M. 
263. * And ever were fast by {or near) to him.* 
268. 'Abundant treasures.* 

271-2. 'And it for a good while stood ((?r continued) in the same 

276, B. 'And put (done) out of live-days,' i.e. killed. 

281. 'On a high-day' {or festival). 

291. Dremden, revelled, enjoyed themselves. 

296. 'Secret discourses.' 

299. ' And hold not in wrath,' take not angrily, take not in dudgeon. 

307-8. * And been thy faithful man in thy rich court.* 

312. 'Anxious whisperings.* Ronenen^runen or ronettf as in 1. 296, 

P- 75. 

315-6. 'Unto the bare death, if they durst show it.* 

321-340; 359-362; 405-410. 'NotinWace.' — M. 

340. ' Secretly condenm thee.' 

342. ' Of thy great need.' 

349. * I am hated for {or on account of) thee.' 

351-4. * Go where I ever may go, I am never withoiit sorrow, unless 
I lie fast enclosed in a castle.* 

361. Mir^t dat. fem. In B mi is uninflected. 

364. 'And my kinsmen.' The first syllable in wine-mates means 
a man, also a friend. 

367. Hiren (A), serve; cweme (B), please. 

368. "Attest {K) = wolt granti (B), wilt grant. 

378-80. • Thou shalt have riches to feed them sumptuously and to 
clothe (them) worthily.* 

404. niches weies (A), every way ; in grene (B), on a green. 

407-10. ' Then may blame thee neither the poor nor the rich, that 
thou any high (noble) borough to a heathen man hast given.' 

41 7-446. ' Wace has only four lines on the subject.' — M. 

420. Feire hude, fair hide ; but did La3amon write fere hude = bole 
hude'i^hvXX hide. O. E./^ar=a bull. 

426. ' Which was a wonderftiUy strong (one).* 

429-33. 'He took this hide and on (a) board laid (it), and whetted 
his shears as if he would shear (it), from the hide he cut a thong.' 

439-40. * About he encompassed a great deal of land.* 

441, B. * He made (them) then dig.' 

452. Supposed to be Tong, near Milton, in Kent. See Lambarde's 
Kenty 1596, p. 243; Hasted's JCent^ ii. 601. 

468. * Eighteen great ships.' Wace has dixhuit nSs cargies. 

473. ' It was after a while.' 

478-80. 'And invited him to a banquet and said that (he) had a 
lodging prepared for him.* 

VI. la^amon's brut. 313 

495-498; 555-558. 'Notin Wace.'— M. 

498-9. * Games men did proclaim, tables they bade be spread.' 

502. * Joy was in town.' 

504. * Then was the better befallen them.' 

507-12. * He caused her to be clad with measureless splendour. All 
the clothes she had on were very well adorned ; they were amongst the 
best, rough with gold.' 

525. JVas hcHly be hale; which, as text B shows, is our wassail. 
Was is the imperative of the verb wesan^ to be. 

526. ' For thy coming I am glad' (A) ; ' For thy coming is happiness 
to me ' (B). 

531. * What that speech might be.' Weoren — weorCt another instance 
of nunnation. 

533. * Wace borrowed the name of the interpreter from the text of 
Nennius.' — M. 

534. * A very excellent {or admirable) knight.' 

535. Latimer f an interpreter ; another form of Latiner^ literally one 
knowing Latin, hence a linguist, interpreter. Hence Latimer as a proper 
name. For the form cp. Eng. lorimer^O. F. lorinier. 

551. 'A second full (cup) one brings (is brought) thither.' 
553-4' * When the full (cup) is come, then kiss they thrice.' 
568, B. ' And he tossed {or drank) it up.' 
572. Compare Rob. of Gloucester, ed. Heame, p. 118 : — 

* He askede wat heo seide ? 
Men, that knew the langage, seide wat was wassayl. 
And that he scholde that brojte [brijte ?] onswere drynkhayl. 
" Drinkhayl^^ quoth this kyng ajen, and bed hire drihke anon . . . 
And that was, lo I in this lond the firste vassayl 
As in langage of Saxonie, that me myjte euer y-wyte ;' &c. 
'It appears that was-haile and drink-heil were the usual phrases of 
quaffing among the English. . . . But I rather conjecture it an usual 
ceremony among the Saxons before Hengist, as a note of health- 
wishing.' — Selden, notes to Drayton's Polyolbion, song 9. 
579. * All his mind (mood) and might.' 

581-2. 'The devil was there full nigh, who in eveiy sport is full 
crael.' \:e wurse^^* diables ' in Wace. 

584. 'He disturbed (confounded) the king's mind.* Maingde and 
fueynde^xmn^td.) pas and pes are the genitives singular of the 

595. Fundi is not an error iorfand, but a genuine form found in the 
oldest period. 
599. ' To the king it was acceptable (pleasing).' 

314 NOTES. 


The punctuation is that of the MS. Compare Specimens of English, 
pt. II. sect. IX. 

Line i. See Matt. xxiv. 43. 

4. JVttff against, from. Cf. A.S. wttS^r, against; wid in with- 
stand, &c. 

6, 7. Ifts . . . Atrg, House was originally neuter, not feminine. 

8. Seolfpe mon inwid, the man himself within. 

8, 9. \>e monnes wit I pis hus &c., the man's wit (conscience) in this 
house is the house-lord {or master of the house). 

10. Ha diht hit al to wundre, she sets it all wrong. 

16. Fifwittes, five wits, i. e. five senses. Cf. Piers Plowman, B. ix. 
T-24 ; and Bunyan's Holy War. 

19. Hare nan, none of them. 

23-6. pah . . . betere, Though we hear it not, we may feel their mur- 
muring and their untoward noise until Wit comes forth and both by 
fear and by love discipline them the better. For hit in the text we 
should perhaps read Wit, 

28-9. Let ham iwurHen, let them be (alone). See Piers Plowman, 
ed. Skeat, B. prol. 1. 187 ; or note on p. 199 in Clarendon Press edition. 

30. X^at . . .fore, for which God gave himself. 

34-7. Ant ajein . . .prinne, and against each good virtue that guard- 
eth God's dear castle in this house under Wit's direction, who is the 
master of the house, there is ever her (opposite) vice (ready) to seek 
entrance about the walls to murder her (the soul) therein, 

37. Meistred, heads, leads. 

38. Keis, stewards, those who have the keys. 

40. Heaued-peawes, head-thews, cardinal virtues : viz. Prudence, For- 
titude, Temperance, and Justice, here severally described. Cf. Piers 
Plovmian, B. prol. 103 (and note) ; B. xix. 269-305. 

45. Offeor, afar. Cf. of -long, of -new, offresh, &c. 

47. Ei—eni, any. 

Warschipes vn-ponkes, in spite of Prudence. 

48. Wami sirengSe fore, she may warn Strength before. 
51. Twa utules, two evil things, two extremes. 

51-2. For . . . halden, for in every place it is a virtue to obaenre 
moderation {or discipline). Ant before tuht seems superfluous. 

52-4. Ant hated . . . ouer mete, and commanded them all that none 
of them go against her (disobey her) anywhere through excess or in- 

57. Nimed . , ,to tuitene. This household each member, according 
as he is warder, proceedeth to guard. 


58. HarCf theirs, i. e. their duties as custodian. 

Then follows a horrible description of Hell (for which see Specimens, 
Part 11. p. 100). 

65-6. Sumdel drupnin &c., somewhat cast down from what Fear told 
you of death and of hell. 

70. Ant is al-wealdent &c., and he is the Almighty {pr all-ruling one) 
that hath you in keeping. 

73. 3^ ise(^ {i soC), yea in sooth, tnily. 

73-4. Ltues luue ; MurHes sonde. Love of Life, the messenger of 

74-5. Nawt tah alswa as he is, yet not such as he is. 

80. Unto-dealetf indivisible, not to be dealt in two. 

85. Ful(,=fuli), satiated, tired. 

86. Etscene—etisene = ep-ge-synef easily to be seen, plainly. 
90. Alle heouenliche weordesj all heavenly hosts. 

99. A unwer^etSf ever unweariedly ; unwer)et5 = unwer)ede. 
Nihe wordes, nine hosts or orders ; see note to I. 161. 
loi. Meoster, service, business. Cf. 'misterie plays,* so called because 
performed by the guilds or associations of craftsmen. 

105. IgreitSetf prepared for. The MS. has igrety but as greten^ to 
weep, is a strong verb, it cannot have a past participle igret, so I have 
taken the reading of the Royal MS. A. 17. 

106. Isc^etf verified, become true. 

114. A lies cunnes nemvcinSf harms of every kind. Notice that s is 
dropped in alle cunnes ledenes^ 1. 112. Neowcin is the same word as 
nowcin, which appears thrice in The Legend of St. Katherine, with the 
apparent meaning of * misery.' Professor Zupitza explains it from the 
Icel. nautSsyn, necessity, impediment, hindrance, business ; so that it 
might here mean * trials.' If so, the c is soft, and written for s, 

115. A^eineSf in comparison with, as compared with. 

117. Ant haliche deiden^ and died holily. 

118, 119. See Isaiah xxxiii. 17; Rev. vii. 17. 
120-21. Ilikest towart engles, most like to angels. 

121-24. 'pe , . , blisse, who (while) living in the flesh conquer the law 
of the flesh and overcome nature (the natural lusts); who lead a 
heavenly life while they live upon earth ; their joy and tlieir felicity, &c. 
no man can tell. 

125. See Rev. xiv. 3. 

129-30. For . . . iheretiy for at their entreaties God himself ariscth, 
who heareth all the other saints as he sits. 

131. Liked us pat tu seist, what thou sayest pleaseth us. 

132. Ofeuch . . . sunder-lepesy of each regulated order of the blessed 

133. Alle iliche meane, common to all alike. 

3l6 NOTES. 

1 41. Buten euch swine, without any toil. 

149. Nebbe to nebbe, face to face. The preposition usually employed 
is witff towards. 

155-56. Hwet . . . ^eldettf how they ought to requite his precious 

159. Spealie, discourse, or spell. 

161-67. \>at . . . o6res, that each one hath, severally, as many jo)rs as 
they are all many (in number) ; and each of the same joys is to every 
one severally as great a joy as his own : yet above all this, since each 
one loveth God more than himself and than all the others, the more he 
rejoices, beyond all estimation, in God than in his own felicity and in 
that of all the others. 

167-72. NeomeU . . . iewemetf Now take heed then, if no one's heart is 
able to contain in her her own bliss (as severally said), so extraordinarily 
great is each single joy, that nevertheless she taketh within her thus 
many and great (joys)* The writer then goes on to say that the heart 
cannot eontain within it all heavenly blessings, but enters into the joy 
of the Lord. See Matt. xxv. 21. 

1 76. ' Beati, qui habitant in domo tua, Domine ; in ssecula sseculonim 
laudabunt te ; * Ps. Ixxxiii. 5 (Vulgate) ; Ixxxiv. 4 (A. V.). 

184. \>ullt for thullieh, the like, the same. Stt pulliehe, plur., 1. 223 
infra. Chaucer has thilke. 

186. Lutlin ne wursin^ to be diminished or impaired. 

190. Trof=throf=theroff thereof. 

194. As=/>er aSf where that; see 1. 203 infra. 

196. Hwen hit swa is, since it is so. 

197. See Romans viii. 35. 

198. Ne wunne nau^er^ nor weal neither. The addition of noivder is 
merely a strengthener of the preceding negative ne ; c^er (or) is some- 
times strengthened by (m^er (either). 

206-7. Nes na lessere^ it was not more untrue. 

208. Eider of ow, each of you. 

209. Incker noCres tale, the tale of neither of you (two). The dual of 
the personal pronouns seems to have wholly disappeared before 1300. 

218-22. LustnetS . . . treowlichef they listen now to his lore, and 
through these two messengers whom they have heard and what the 
four sisters have also taught them, each one endeavours, according as 
befalls him, to keep guard and to guard truly against the entrance of 
every vice. 

223. 'iemeles =gemelest, negligence, carelessness; see p. iii, I. 13. 
Adjectives in -les {-leas) became substantives by the addition of -t^^th), 

224. Efier peos twa sonden, according to these messengers. 

227-30. Nawt efter . . . donne, not according as Will, thfe untoward 
mistress, and his (own) lust teacheth, but as Wit, who is the house-lord, 


will discipline and instruct, so that Wit should ever go before and 
teach Will to (follow) after him in all that he ordereth and decideth 
to do. 

248. This line is remarkable as being, probably, the earliest instance 
of a perfect * heroic * line of five accents in the language. 


St. Juliana, virgin and martyr, was the daughter of heathen parents, 
who betrothed her to the prefect (Eleusius) of Nicomedia. Because she 
was resolved not to marry a heathen she was beheaded at Nicomedia, 
under Galerius Maximianus, about A.D. 309. Her head is said to be 
at Hal in the Tyrol, but the chief portion of her relics may be seen at 
Brussels, in the church of Notre Dame de Sablon. The Latin Church 
commemorates her on Feb. 16 ; the Greek Church on Dec. 21. 

Page 96, line 3. 0//>e hetiene mest peo pat^ of the heathen most of 
them that. Cf. alkpeope (1. 10), all those that. 

4. Drohf drew, put. 

4, 5. As peo pat, as she that, as one that. See 1. 32, p. 98, as pepat, 
as he that. 

5. Leafde al hire aldrene lahen, left all her ancestors* laws (religion). 

8. Redegunge, the reading, the Latin book from which the life of 
St. Juliana was compiled. 

9. Heinde ant heriende, extolling (literally highin^ and praising. 
Mawmezy idols, mawmets. In the middle ages Mahometans were 

looked upon as idolaters. Cockayne regards the 2 as a double letter = /j. 
See note to II. 96 (above), and Specimens II. sect. vii. 1. 378. 

10. Unduhti duheUe, unworthy body of retainers. 
12. Riche of rente, rich in revenue. 

P. 97, 1. I. ^at ich ofmunne, I make mention of. 

3, 4. ^e heande <Sr» heascede mest, who oppressed and insulted most 
(very much). 

5, 6. Ah , , , ileuet. But she, as one to whom the high heavenly father 
had granted his love. Cockayne translates it thus : — * But she, as one 
that had lent her love to the high heavenly father.* For ileuet read ilenet, 
granted ; see p. 102, 1. 82. 

P. 98, 11. 14, 15. Utnume feir, exceptionally fair, extraordinarily 
beautiful. Ui-nume literally means out-taken. 

16. Lechnunge of hire \luue\, the medicine of her love. 

18. Ihondsald, hanselled, pledged, betrothed, i.e. hy ^t giving of the 
hand in token of betrothal. Cf. A.S. hattd-fcestan, to pledge one's hand. 
In A.S. sellan {syllan) means to give. 

31 8 NOTES. 

i8, 19. Alhire unwilleSf wholly against her will. See note on J>ankes, 
1. 155, sect. II, p. 298. 

20. Euch dels deif at each day's dawn. 

24. Summes weisy in some way, by some means. 

Sende htm to seggen, (she) sent to him to say. 
27. Heh reuCy high-reeve, that is prime minister. 

Bi-)et et te ketser, procured from the emperor. 
29. As vie pa luuede, as one then loved (to have it). 

29, 30. Te riche riden in, ride into his province or kingdom. 

30. 5^?«/ te tun, through the town. 

34> 35* <Sr* heo schulde his wurchen, and she ought to work (or do) his 

P. 100, 1, 38. Wei ireadi, full readily, full surely. 

WraSdi so Jm wraSHi, be as wroth as thou mayest. WraJS9i is 
in the subj. 

39. Nulich = ne wule ich, I will not. 

40. Listf liest, in text B liuest, 

41. No, not. This is the true adverbial negative. Not=nawiht was 
originally an indefinite pronoun = nought, nothing. 

42. Wundi of, quit of. Text B has windi, 

44. Feng on=on'fengy began. Cf. the vulgar expression *took on.* 
47-8. To wrader heale, to evil fortune. For instances of this phrase 
see Skeat's Notes to Piers the Plowman, p. 325. 

53. Awakenin ant waxen of pi wedlac, arise and grow out of thy 

54. Inoh lauerd, lord enough. Cf. inoh-rc^e^ speedily enough, 1. 57. 
P. 101, 11. 49-50. For nawtpu hauest iswechte, for nought hast thou 


53. Folkene froure, folks* comfort, consolation. 

64-5. Feng on earstfeire on to lokin, began first fairly (kindly) to look 
upon her. 

P. 102, 1. 66. Limel= lim-mel, limb- meal, limb by limb. 

67. Heronont, here anent, as regards this. 

68. Eisweis = eanis weis (B), any ways, in any wise. 

68-71. <Sr* seide . . . wenden, and said to her pleasantly that she should 
not easily desire any pleasure that she should not obtain, provided she 
would alter her resolution. 

71-3. Nai . . . ende. Nay, said the maiden, should I join myself to 
him who is given up to all devils and doomed to eternal death, to 
perish with him (Eleusius) world without end. 

76. To halden, hold to. 

76-7. JViduten les, without falsehood. 

8i . Me hwet is he pes were, But who is he, this husband. A. S. wer 
=^man, husband, Wtfand were, man and wife. 


82-4. /ufr hwam . . . icnawen, for whom {or whose sake) thou carest 
little for him that thou oughtest to love ; nor was I ever, that I know, 
acquainted with him. 

86-7. Ipe . . , rode, who to redeem mankind that must have been 
(otherwise) lost, gave up his precious life on the cross. 

88. Ichim = ich him, I him. 

89. On lauerdet as (the) Lord. 

Ne . . .frontf nor shall any one remove me from him, neither 
devil nor man. 

90. For mi lif^ by my life. 

91-2. "pat tu . , , iTtmrtfen, that thou wert a woman shall turn thee to 
sorrow, that is, thou shalt rue the day thou wast bom. 
P. 103, 1. 83. Lim <Sr» liS, limb and joint. 

84. lUitituU hie = in Uitinde leie, in glowing flame. 

85. Buhe ne beien^ bow nor bend. 

86. Tofondin ongon^ began to attempt. 

89. WiSpereanpat—wih'patpere-an^ provided therein (thereby). 

98. WontreaSe = wand-rede f misery, trouble. IceL vand-rc^i^ difii- 
culty, from vandrj difiicult. 

P. 104, 11. 95-6. Beten . . . oblode, beat her so badly that her lovely 
body should lather all in blood. 

98. Beliales budeles, ministers of Belial. 

100. Leowinde = /eovinde, living, 

loi. Mix mawmex^mix maumez, dung(hill) idols. 

102-3. \>es feondes fetles, the receptacles {or abodes) of the fiend 

103. Timbrin, to make, contrive ; literally to timber. 

105. IromCf in Rome. Es, his. 

no. Fehere, fairer, brighter. 

111. Sofie me, soft to me. 

112. Hwen, since; literally ze;^^«. Willes, willingly. 

113. Ne )eue ich for inc nowtfer, nor care I for you two neither, i.e. 
nor care I for either of you. Cf. incker nc^res, p. 94, 1. 200. 

117. Awei {wei, B), alas. Cf. A. S. wdidzod, corrupted into wellaway, 
welladay. WurHes, fates, destinies. 

118. To wraXier-heale, to (your) misery; ow yourselves seems to be 
redundant here. 

P. 105, 1. 138. A-)efme, give me (to Eleusius). 

1 39-40. \>et . . . here, that (since) ye are able only to torment me here. 

140. HeuetS up, raiseth, exalteth. 

P. 106, 1. 121. A portion of the story is here omitted. It is to the 
effect that, as Eleusius beholds her, he is smitten with love for her, 
and tries to move her by fair words. She refuses to forsake Christ. 
He loses patience, and conomands her to be severely beaten by six 

3^0 NOTES. 

tormentors. She defies her persecntors, and prays to God for strength 
and aid. 

1 24. Brum of wallinde breaSy burning {or fire) of boiling brass. Per- 
haps we should read brum wallinde breas, L e. boiling brass, a-buming. 

130. As ha prinne wes in peostemesse, as (when) she was therein, in 

136. Nest'falde cun, nearest-fold kin. 

138. Mine hinen me bedd mest heanen. The text is probably corrupt. 
Perhaps bedd is redundant, and we should render, * Those of my own 
household oppress me most.* See note to p. 107, 1. 171. 

Habbich = habbe ich, if I have. 

]>in anes help^ the help of thee alone. 

139. Wil-cwemey content; lit. satisfied as to my will or pleasure. 
142-3. Swa . . . sunney so do thou protect and preserve me, to shield 

me from sin. For witen, ? read wer4, guard. 

143-4. Lead . . . heakj lead me to lasting (life), to the haven of 

F. 107, 1. 149. As . . . domes, and as he sat and adjudged the high 
borough-dooms. Demde domes is an instance of the cognate accusative. 
In burh domes we have an instance of flat adjection, see Earle, £ng. 
Philol. p. 400. 

153. Wal-hat, boiling-hot. See Orm. vol. ii. p. 139, 'wi])J) wall hat 
hertess lufe,' with boiling-hot hearts* love. 

156-7. Ipe , , . in^ in the vat {or vessel) of boiling oil wherein he 
was put. 

163. Hire ane, by herself, all alone. 

167. Riht has almost the same sense as steor, direct, guide. 

171. Inhinenj iiidoor members of a household. Stratmann questions 
this word, but it was suggested by Lat. domestici as it occurs in Matt. x. 
36 : — *■ et inimici hominis domestici eius.' Cf. A.S. inhiwan^ domestici 

1 74. Ilatet se lutfere, visaged so horribly. 

178. Witere, to make secure, preserve. Stratmann has witer only as 
an adjective. If it were not for the conjunction we might take witere 
as an adverb = securely, qualifying wile and were, 

1 79. Lauerd Hues lattow, O Lord, guide of life. 

P. 108, 1. 145. Semhtest — asenchtest (B, 1. 182), didst sink, is a causa 
derivative of the verb sinken. 

T46. Afaly cause to fall, fell. 

148. Lefme, grant me, permit me. 

P. 109, 1. 190. Crechen, to scratch. The word crokes has two senses, 
(i) deceits, tricks, (2) claws. Cockayne wrongly renders crechen by 
* to catch^ See Piers Plowman, B. prol. 1. 186. 

192-3. In eche, eternally. 


192. The story continues thus. A devil named Belial, sent by his 
master Beelzebub, appears to Juliana in the form of an angel ; but' 
she compels him to disclose who he is, and to confess some of his 
temptations. She then seizes a chain, binds him with it, and compels 
him to continue his confession. When Juliana again appears before 
the reeve, she drags Belial with her, still bound by the chain, but finally 
flings him away. The reeve has a wheel made, covered with spikes, 
and Juliana is bound to it, and torn to pieces ; but an angel destroys 
the wheel, and makes her whole again. The executioners are converted, 
and are martyred. Eleusius prepares a great fire, into which Juliana 
is thrust ; but an angel quenches it. She is then thrown into boiling 
pitch, but it immediately becomes cold. Finally, sh§ is beheaded, and 
angels bear away her soul to heaven. Her body is sent by boat to 
Campania, and there buried. Eleusius takes ship to pursue the boat, 
but suffers shipwreck, and is drowned. 


Line i. Ase )e gvd inne, in which ye journey. 

3. The expression *such beasts and reptiles' refers to the Seven. 
Animals previously described, as representing the Seven Deadly Sins, 
Their names, with those of the sins they represent, are as follows. The 
Lion, of Pride ; the Serpent, of Envy ; the Unicom, of Wrath ; the Bear, 
of Sloth ; the Fox, of Avarice ; the Swine, of Gluttony ; and the 
Scorpion, of Lechery. These sins are further discussed below; viz. 
Pride, 11. 5-10; Sloth, 10-12 ; Envy, 12 ; Avarice, 13-16 ; Sloth again, 
16-23 ; Wrath and Lechery, 23-26. The Lion, Serpent, and Unicom, 
are mentioned in 11. 34, 35, 37. Once more, Pride is further spoken of 
at 1. 41 ; Envy, at 1. 54; Wrath, at 1. 74; Sloth, at 1. 83; Avarice, at 
1. 93 ; Gluttony, at 1. no. This is the key to the whole passage. 

3-5. JVe . . . sireoneSj nor do I know any sin that may not be lead 
(traced) to one of those seven or to their progeny. 

6. Sigaldren, enchantments, see Halliwell (s. v. sigaldry). Cp. Icel. 
seiH galdr, from seitiry magic, and galdrj an incantation. For an account 
of both terms see Grimm, Teutonic Mythology, pp. 1 035 -i 043. 

7. Teolunges, practices in magic. Cp. Trevisa's Higden, 3. 265, where 
telynges = ' carmina * (Higden). 

9. "pe specCf species, kind. 

12. ]>e/>etf he that, whoever. 

13. Slouh, slow, slothful. Attri onde, venomous or malignant, envy. 

14. Mis'itec^eget . . . lone, being mis-tithed, a bequest withheld, or a 
finding or loan. 

VOL. I. Y 

^22 NOTES. 

15. Etholden . . . terme^ to retain {or retaining) another's hire {or 
wages) beyond his right time. 

16-18. Otier . . . ouhf or if any one keeps anything lent or entrusted 
(to his care) worse than he thinks it ought to be kept. 

19, 20. Also . . . schrifte^ also is foolish command, or foolishly 
plighted troth, and too long remaining unconfirmed, and going falsely 
(insincerely) to shrift. 

30. Nomeliche^ in particular, namely. 

Of pen tike imene, of the same general or common (heads). 

32. Sireones, offspring. It has been previously explained (in a former 
part of the treatise) that each ' beast ' above-named (see note to 1. 3) has 
its own offspring. Thus, the Lion (of Pride) has many whelps, such 
as Vain Glory, Indignation, Hypocrisy, Presumption, Disobedience, Lo- 
quacity, Blasphemy, Impatience, and Contumacy ; and so of the rest 

Of onliche Hue, of a solitary life. 

Is iseid hiderto, has been told thus far. 

33. ]>et alle pe uorSfarinde uonded to uordonne^ that endeavour to undo 
all tiie travellers. 'pet refers to bestes (1. 31). 

34-5. Alle pe prude . . . iheorted^ all the proud ones, and all those 
that are elated, and too high-hearted {or lofty-minded). 

35-7. f><? attri . . . c^ere, the venomous serpent [slayeth] all those who 
are envious and all those who are malevolent, that is, those who are 
malicious and evil towards others. 

37-8. <Sr* also ofpe oSre areawe, and also of the others in successioii. 

38. Ase to God, with respect to God. 

40. Of pet niester, &c., of that office that falleth or appertaineth 
to him. 

42. Idel )elpe^ vain boasting: literally, idle yelping, 

43. Lud dream ^ a loud strain or note. 

47. Translated from the Latin in 1. 90 below ; see note to that line. 

50. Dimluker bemen^ blow more softly. 
- 51. 'Onager assuetus in solitudine, in desiderio animse suae attraxit 
uentum amoris sui ; ' Jerem. ii. 24. 

54-6. Summe . . . eien, there are some jesters that cannot practise any 
other mirth, but to make wry faces, and distort their mouth and scowl 
with their eyes. 

55. J/ji'= amiss. See 1. 64. 

56. Of pis mestere seruetS, &c., this art practiseth, &c. 

60. OHere half, on the other side, in another direction. 
luft <Sr» asquint^ on the left [hand] and obliquely. 

61. Out = ouht, ought, aught, anything. 

Oder loken lodlich, or to look at loathingly. 

62. Either eien, both eyes. 

\>et^od, the good (things), i. e. anything that is good. 


65-6. <5r» )if. . . to wurse, and if there is something wrong, through 
greater detraction, they turn it to the worse. 

69. Hu . . . grennen, how they themselves shall grin^ i. e. gnash their 

70. Ntuelen,'^mye\, snort. Morton explains it by 'beat their breasts.* 
Cp. Piers Plowman B. v. 135. 

71-3. Auh, &c., but they are therefore the less to be pitied, because 
they beforehand learn their trade of making grim cheer. 

77. Frommard=fromwardf iz.T 2^^B.y iiOTa. Out /reward Te'presents 
M. 'E./raward, a Northern form of K.^. 'frontward. 

80. Dvsten ase enne pilcheclut, and toss them like a pilch-clout. Cp. 
•hare dustlunges, as ]jah hit were a pilche clut,' their (devils') tossings {or 
buffettings) as though it were a pilch-clout. 

81. A/ snesien hampuruhutj strike them all throughout. For al snesen 
perhaps we should read asnesen. Cf. 'J^ene horn ])et he asnesed mide alle 
))eo ])et he areacheS* (Ancren Riwle, p. 200). 

83. ]>e slowe, the slothful or sluggard. 

85. For so it is indeed with every one who is unoccupied in good 

89. Grimliche abreiden, be fearfully startled. 

90. <Sr» ine helle wondrede (C. wandretie), &c., and in hell shall awake 
in horrible misery. For wandreUe cp. • OSerwile wanne hie segen men 
wandred ))olien,* sometimes when they saw men suffer affliction, O. Eng. 
Homilies, Second Series, p. 147. The quotation is from St. Jerome ; 
see Specimens of English, III. note to 1. 5604, sect. XXII. on this passage. 

93. AskebaSiey ash-bather, one who lay and warmed himself in the 
ashes by the fireside. Morton renders it ' ash-gatherer.' 

94-7. &^faretS . . . rikenen^ and goeth about the ashes, and busily bestirs 
himself to heap up much, and to rake many together, and bloweth 
therein and blindeth himself, pottereth and maketh therein figures of 
arithmetic as those accountants do who have much to reckon up. 

96. PaderetS or paSeretS seems to be the older form of our pother or 

102. Boluweti (C. has bole)ed\ prides, exults. There is a slight play- 
ing upon the word bloaweti. Morton renders boluwetf as * disquieteth.' 

108. Quoted from Isaiah xiv. 11. The Vulgate has *erunt uermes' 
for vermis, which agrees with the English translation. 

110-16. The greedy glutton is the devil's manciple {or purveyor); 
for he ever sticks in the cellar or in the kitchen. His heart is in the 
dishes ; his thought is all in the cup ; his life in the tun ; his soul in the 
crock or pitcher. He cometh forth before his master, besmutted and 
besmeared, a dish in his one hand and a bowl in the other. He utters 
his words amiss (i. e. talks incoherently) and staggers like a drunken 
man that hath a disposition to falL 

y » 

324 NOTES. 

1 1 8. From Isaiah Ixv. 13. 

1 20. From Rev. xviii. 7 ; the Vulgate has (/ate illi tormentum et 

122. 'In poculo quo miscuit, miscete illi duplum ;* Rev. xviii. 6. 

123. Gulchecuppe, a toss-pot, swill-cup. There is a verb gulchetty to 
gulp, to swallow greedily. See Halliwell (s. v. gulch). 

1 24. "pet he asxvelte witiinnen, that he may die inwardly. 
A)ean one, 1. e. for one, instead of one. 

127. There were but three sisters in the society, with their servants; 
see Morton's preface, p. xi. 

Bute kat one, but a cat alone. 

128. punched bet husewif, appeareth rather a housewife. 

129. Ne none wise, in no wise. 

131. Heorde-monne huire, the herdsman's wages. 

132-3. Oluhnen . . . hermes, flatter the hay ward, beware when one 
impounds her (i. e. the cow), and, moreover, pay the damages. 

132. Heiward. 'The heyward was the keeper of cattle in a common 
field, who prevented trespass on the cultivated ground. Acco^xiing to 
the Anglo-Saxon law the ha)-weard was to have his reward from the 
part of the crop nearest to the pastures, or, if land were allotted, it was 
to be adjacent to the same.' The heyward of the lord of the manor or 
religious house 'was regularly sworn at the court, took care of the 
tillage, paid the labourers, and looked after trespasses and encroach- 
ments.' — Way, in Prompt. Parv. p. 234. See Schmid, 383 ; Wright's 
Vocab. (s. V. hayward). 

133' ^^t Crist, 'Christ knows,' used as a mild oath. Cf. witi Crist 
in O. Eng. Homilies, First Series, p. 27; wite Crist, ib. p. 29. 

134. Mone in tune of ancre eihte, complaint of anchoresses' cattle in 
an enclosure. 

135. Loke . . . hermie, see that she neither annoy nor injure any person. 
T37. "pet drawe utwardhire heorte, that may draw her heart outward; 

i. e. that may lead her thoughts to dwell upon temporal matters. 

138. None cheffare ne driue )e, carry on no traffic. 

Cheapild, a dealer, or, as defined by the words in brackets from 
MS. C, one who buys to sell again for profit ; -ild is an adjectival suffix 
which Mr. Sweet suggests may be due to the A.S. -hild, which 
is not uncommon as the latter part of a fem. name. 

139. Cheapen, sells, chops. The word cheap, A.S. dap, had formerly 
a variety of meanings— /r^V^, bargain, business, cattle. It still exists in 
chaffer, chapman, dog-cheap, &c. 

140-2. ping^ . . . wordes, things, nevertheless, that she makes, she may 
well, under her mistress's advice, sell for her needs, yet as secretly as 
she is able, for fear of various persons' remarks. 

142. Ne wite^t nout, do not take charge of. 


145. Neod oiSer strenclfe, necessity or force; makte = csxLse. 
148. Makeii brekettf causes to be used : breken is another form oibrukerit 
to use, enjoy ; see 1. 149. 

152. Wei met \je\ don of ower clones, ye may do well enough for your 
clothing ; or, perhaps — they may do well enough, as for your clothes. 
Cf. 1. 184, p. 116, where a similar phrase occurs, *wel mei duhen ancre 
of oSer wimplimge.* Here don— duhen = K. S. dugan, valere. 

Beon heOf &c., whether they be white or whether they be black ; 
be they white or black. The verb beon is in the subjunctive mood. 

153. Unome, See Havelok, 1. 9. 

157. Whoso will, may have a stamin, i. e. a shirt made of wool and 
linen. See Ducange (s. v. stamined). 

159. In on heater, and i-gurd, in one garment and (that) girt. 

160. Here, hair cloth. Ilespiles felles, skins of hedgehogs. Morton 
shews, by a quotation from Ducange, s. v. hericius, that the skins of 
hedgehogs were actually used for purposes of discipline. 

1 60- 1. Mid schurge-i-letSered ne i-leaded, nor with scourge of leather 
(thongs) nor leaded, i. e. weighted with lead. 

162. Ne ne biblodge, nor let her beblood herself, i. e. cover herself 
with blood. 

163. Beon, let be; pi. subj. 

165. And hosen = and weren hosen, and wear hosen. 

Uaumpez, vamps, feet of hose or stockings : * Vampe of an hoose, 
pedana* (Prompt. Parv.) Other forms of the word vamp are wampay, 
vampey, vampett. 

166. Inouh-reatiej well enough. Cf. p. 100, 1. 57. 

167. Brech of hear e, hair drawers. 

Strapeles, a kind of braces or straps for the nether garments. Cf. 
* Straple of a hxtcht, femorale.^ (Prompt. Parv.) Probably the ' strap- 
pies' or little straps were thin pieces of leather or ribbon wound cross- 
wise round and round the legs, as seen, not unfrequently, in old drawings 
in MSS. They were, in fact, a sort of long garters. 

174, 180. See I Cor. xi. 6, lo. 

177-8. <Sr* naut drah . . , prude, and not draw (turn) the covering to 
finery and pride. 

179, 1 80. Bet . , ,on sihde, lest evil thoughts should arise from her 
appearance (exposure). 

182. To-)einespepe isist men , against thee who dost see men. Morton 
incorrectly translates * take heed. Thou seest men.* 

184. ItSi par lures purl, in thy parlour- window. 

188. I-membred, ornamented by particolours. 

189. 'pet ou ne deihforto habben, that is not befitting for you to have. 
1 90-1. For . . ,of for they are all of the external rule, which is of 

little consequence. 

326 NOTES. 

193-4. 09er eni skile hit asked j or any reason demands it. 

194-5. Efter . . . riwlet according as she, as handmaid, may best serve 
the lady's rule. 

196. Euer . . . werkeSf I am always the more gratified when you do 
the coarser work. 

198. Blodbendes^ blood-bandages, i.e. bandages to bind up with in 
blood-letting. Cf. P. Plowman, B. vi. 10-12. 

202. So uortS sOj as far as, as far forth as. 

208. I-hwulen uorto hercnen, be at leisure {or have time) to listen. 

210. See similar quotations in P. PI. B. xiv. 75. Cf. Ezek. xvi. 49. 

211-13. Iren . . . stinketS, iron that lies still soon gathers rust, and 
water that is not repeatedly stirred stinks or becomes putrid. 

213-14. Forwurtien scolmeistre, sink and become a schoolmistress. 
We naturally expect wurSen and noX forwurtien here : the latter signifies 
* to come to nothing.* The writer seems to have added the prefix for 
to mark his own sense of the degradation of the nun's office by- turning 

215-16. \>et were dute of forto leorften among gromes, of whom there 
might be a doubt as to her learning among boys. 

220. I-dodded, cut, shorn. See Wicliffe, Levit. xix. 27. Cf. *doddydy 
wythe-owte homysse, decor nutus ;^ * doddyn trees, or herbys, and oJ)ei: 
lyke, decomatus^ (Prompt. Parv.) 

221. Otier )ef , . . i-eveset^ or if ye will (be) shaved, let whoso will be 
polled. leveset—i-evesedy trimmed, clipped. Cf. 'ase ofte ase me evesedt 
him me solde his evesunge^ as often as he (Absalom) was polled, the 
clippings were sold; Ancren Riwle, ed. Morton, p. 398. See P. PL 
B. xvii. 227. 

224. And if any one may be without that (i. e. may dispense with it) 
I may well permit it. 
.227. And. . . to^gedereSf and with moral tales amuse yourselves together. 
Schurted seems to mean to shorten the time, to pass away the 
time. Cf. our pastime. 

231. \>e monluker, the manlier, the more vigorously. 
232-34. Vor . . . tweolue, for great folly it is to lose entirely, for (the 
sake of) one day, ten or twelve. 

236. Beod bisie^ let there be employed. 

238. And peo beo ful un^me, and let her be full old: peo—ihaX 
(woman), she. 

239. Offeir elde, oifair age, i. e. mature age, not young and giddy. 

246. Dame^ the lady superior. 

Bute ine sunne one, except in sin alone. 

247. Nute=ne wute, be not aware of, know not of. 
250. Siker uere, a trusty companion. 

Ne ne ligge iite, nor let her lodge (lie) out. 


251. "^fheo ne con boke, 8cc.t if she cannot read in a book, let her 
say her hours by Paternosters and Aves, &c. 

252. IVurche, &c., and do what she is bidden without grumbling. 
260. Eitier ligge one^ let each (of the two) sleep alone. 

261-64. No mon . . . habben^ let no man see them unveiled nor with 
uncovered head. Within the dwellings they may wear scapularies when 
a mantle .oppresses them ; outside, let them go mantled and the head 
hooded. Let them have low looks. 

269, 70. Hwarto heo beoH i-iumde, to what they are turned (dedicated). 

273. Makien hore ueniCy to make their petition for pardon. 

284. Some, concord. T. h&s somentale =sam-tale {sttW , 1. 1535, and 
note on the same, p. 308). In LaBamon, 1. 9883, some is used as an adj. 
=at one. Cf. i-ueied somed=\m\itA together, 1. 296. 

285. To arearen sume wredtie^ to stir up some strife, to raise a 

2^1, Nouhtunge^ setting at nought, contemptuous remark. 

292. Hwar puruh . . . o^er, whereby they drive away each from the 

295. And ne beo ham nout ofhwonpe ueond blowe, and be not away 
from them when the fiend may blow. Here ham refers to the two 

305, 6. <Sr* for^elde alle pet us god ddS, and reward all who do us 

307, 8. Bitweonen . . . dderhwat, between meals munch neither fruit nor 
any other thing. 

309, JO. Auh ., . sunne, but let the leave be easy [to obtain] in all 
those things wherein there is no sin. 

315. Vlutten biy live by : bijiutten occurs in the Ancren Riwle, p. 202, 
in the same sense : yf«//««^^ = subsistence, is in St. Marherete, pp. 22, 34. 
(E.E.T*S., No. 13.) 

Non god, no good thing. 

317. Also ase heo owen, just as they ought. 

323. Uort pet heo hit kunnen^ until they know it. 

330. LitSeliche pauh, dr» luuelichey yet gently and kindly. 
Wummone lore, the instruction of "vvomen. 

331. Seldhwonne stumey seldom stern. 

335. eoli and winy oil and wine. See Luke x. 34. 

340. See note to Piers Plowman (Clar. Press), Pass. i. 1. 20. 

342. "pe neruwure, the narrower, the more niggardly. 

346. And nout one to ower onesy and not only to (the salvation) of 

349. Hwon )e bed^ eise, when ye be at ease or leisure. 

352, 3. And elks . . . hwule, and else had I badly employed much of 
my time. 

328 NOTES. 

353. ^on me touward Rome^ i. e. make a pilgrimage all the way to 

356, 7. And bedS . , . mihte^ and be busy thereabout so that ye keep 
it the better, according to your ability. 

Bec^ umbcy merely signifies * be about,' hence, be busy about. 

365. Him pet makede^ him that composed, referring to the author. 
Him pet hire wrot, him that wrote it out, referring to the scribe. 

366, 7. Inouh, See, moderate enough am I who ask so little. 



Line 2. Westi, destitute : originally w^stig=vfaste, desert. Cf. A.S. 
whtnes, desolation. 

4. Hus-lewe ^hoMse-lee, house -shelter. We still pronounce leeward 
as leward (riming with steward). 

7. Dennet, housed : the p. p. of a denominative verb from denne^ a den, 
cave, place of rest. See XII. 36. It is not found in the oldest period, 

7, 8. Szva before comparatives is instrumental, and is frequently used 
for pe, OT pi. 

10. Fuhel2xAfisch are governed by the werhfedes (1. 11). 

11. Fedes.poledes, &c. The West-Midland dropped /in the 2nd pers. 
sing. pres. and past indie, of both strong and weak verbs. In the 
Northumbrian dialect the 2nd pers. past indie, dropped all hiflexion. 

12. Hat hungre^ sharp (attack of) hunger. 

14. pin ahen^ of thy own. 

15, 16. Bote . . . banes, but both young and older, thou hadst always 
something wherewith thou mightest cover thy bones : — a reference to the 
seamless coat of which the Saviour was deprived at the crucifixion.. 

29, 30. Mon^ one : indefinite, like me. Passages in which this occurs 
may be translated as if the chief verb were in the passive voice : thus 
for hu mon, &c. = for how often shameful words and hateful scofiings 
were spoken to thee. 

34. Bote of mon-kin, the Redeemer of mankind. 

35. Te monquellerey the man-killer (murderer), i. e. Barabbas. 

36. O wode wulues wise^ after the manner of savage wolves. 
Heng, hang, crucify. Cf. A. S. hdh, ahdh. 

40. /// neb, in thy face. Cf. nebbe to nebbe = face to face. 

41. For schendlac, in contumely, in scorn. 

43. Andalpe menskepuhte, and all [that] appeared [an] honour to thee. 

47. From Ps. Ixviii. 8 (Vulg.) ; Ps. lix. 7 (A.V.) 

52. WiC-ute pine Gulte, without any guilt of thine own. 

54. As hwa ie seie, as one may say. 


57. Ofalle bales bote^ remedy of all bales (sorrows, evils) : cf. ball (from 
htalu\ 1. 75, used as an adjective = deadly, severe. 

61. Tat kidde keiser, that renowned emperor (Christ). 

67. A ! deore cheapo Ah ! a dear bargain. Cf. chepet, purchased, 1. 68. 

76. Niminge, capture, taking. 

85. On a girre blod=on a gore blod, in a stream of gory blood. Cf. 
Rom. and Juliet, iii. 2. 56. See blode^ St. Juliana, p. 105, 1. 119. 

93-95. Lef , . . doffif O would that those blows had struck me with 
which they batter thee, and thrust thee forward quickly to thy doom : 
/^= grant, permit. 

107. Bale drinch, deadly drinks. Cf. bait duntes^ 1. 75. 

112, 13. Andtu . . . lahter, and thou, before whom all the world might 
dread and tremble, wast to the wicked folk of the world for a scornful 

1 16. Sendes his sawle, gives up the ghost. 

118. Longisy Longius, the centurion who pierced the side of the 
Saviour, according to the Golden Legend. Cp. Piers Plowman, B. xviii. 
79. The name was no doubt invented with reference to the ^6yxv* or 
lanee, which the centurion used. 

1 30. pe blod pat bohtCi the blood that ransomed. 


Line 3. Buwe . . . bete, bow . . . bend. See 1. 18. 

5. Mire soule is feminine : mire = minre, gen. sing. 

6. Mid iwisse, truly , indeed : literally, with certainty. 

7. Ick ouh Tvutdie Ce, I ought to honour thee, i.e. I owe it [to thee as 
a duty] to honour thee. See 11. 17, 18. 

9. A ueole kunne wise, in wise of many a kind, i.e. in many kinds of ways. 
15, 16. Deqflene . . . englene, genitives plural. 

20. Gode leof, dear to God. 

21. * All the companies of maidens honour thee alone.* 

23. * There is no woman alive (born) that may be alike to thee.' 

25-26. Mary is exalted above Cherubim and Seraphim, the two 
highest of the nine orders of angels. Kine-stol^ royal seat, throne ; cp. 
kine-dom (replaced by the later compound kingdom), and kinescrud, 1- 34' 

27. Dreamed, make pleasant sounds, make melody. Dreamen {drhnan, 
dryman) = to play on an instrument, jubilare : dream = music, a joyful 
sound. Cf. belles drem = sound of a bell. Bestiary, 1. 665 ; Owl and Nightin- 
gale, 1. 21, p. 172. Onsene { = and'Syn, on-sien^^ face, countenance. 

34. beies\ cp. bei) in Piers Plowman, (B.) Prol. 165. 

45, 46. * Then they shall be perfumed with the golden incense-vessel ; 
and eternal life with angels* joy shall be poiured out for them.* 

330 NOTES. 

51. Ciclatune^ a rich stuff used for garments. 

53. So . . sOj SiS . . as. 

56. * And they do all that pleases them, so that nothing thwarts them.* 

61. ^eo?u and treie ; see Will, of Paleme, note to 1. 2073. 

62. ' Harps and abundance of games, life's pleasure, and everlasting 
play.* Perhaps the copyist read by mistake gleo-beames for gleo-dreames, 
delights of music, cp. Beowulf, 3022. 

64. Vort= forte =^forto, until, i. e. forth to the time that. 

69. Of alle lastCy of all vice. 

88. Note, advantage, profit. Cf. G. nutzen. 

93, 94. 'The loathsome devil and error of every kind. 

Banish from me far away with their foul filth.' 
96. ' For my life and also my salvation is all along of thee,' i.e. all 
depends on thee. See Bosworth Diet. (s. v. gelang), 
99. "pet me leof was = ih.z.t was dear to me. 


Besides the Physiologus of Thetbaldus and Philippe de Thaun's 
Bestiaire, mentioned at p. 133, we may also note *Le Bestiaire Divin de 
Guillaume, clerc de Normandie,' edited by M. C. Hippeau. The last, 
like the Old English text, treats separately of the lion's * three natures.* 
The first of these is thus described. 

La premiere est que il habite 

Ez granz montaignes par nature; 

Quant il avient par aventure 

Que chaciez est de venoor [huntsman] 

De son espie a grant poor [fear] 

Le tant est que a lui ataigne. 

De mult loinz sent en la montaigne 

L'oudor del veneor qui chace; 

De sa coue covre sa trace, 

Qu'il ne sache trover n'ataindre 

Les convers [retreats'] ou il deit remaindre. 
The old Bestiaries repeat many of the traditional tales about animals 
with but little variation, and without any suspicion that they are untrue. 
Moreover, every habit of each animal was supposed to have some moral 
significance ; see the 'significacio ' in 1. 27, and again in 11. 40, 88, 273. 
Line 2'-4. * If he hear a man hunting. 

Or through the smell of his nose 

Get scent that he is approaching.' 
5. Bi wile weie so, by whatsoever way. 


10. stepped. Read \dun\ stepped = dovm steps. See 1. 35. 

12. Zr, = them, refers to fet-steppes in 1. 7. 

19. sinen = shinen, shone. 

22. 'With the scream that he makes.' Lat. text, 'dans rugitum.* 

2.?. lag^i custom, law. 

31, 33. *How, when it pleased him to alight here on earth.* 

34. Deme hunte^ a secret (cunnmg) hunter. Cf. A. S. webba^ a weaver. 

39. To manne frame, for men's advantage. 

46. to belongs to /z/and not to holden. 

49, 50. Sep, silden, sheep, shield. We have this use of s for sc or sh 
in the Trinity Coll. Camb. Homil. B. 14. 52 : in Text B of La5amon's 
Brut, and in Genesis and Exodus ; the Ayenbite has ss. 

54. boke, in book; i. e. in the Physiologus, 1. 25. 

55. * How he renews his youthfulness.* 

57. Unwelde, unwieldy, i.e. not able to be wielded, managed, or 
employed. We have lost the useful term wieldy^ manageable. 

58. * Since his beak is altogether awry.* 

64. Up he tetS, up he mounts. Lat. text, * it . . caelo.' 

6%. * As well as he is able.' 

69. hovedj abideth. Cp. koved in Piers Plowman, B. xviii. 80. 

70. *The sun scorches all his [means of] flight' (i. e. his wings). 
73. /w/^<? = with, therewith also. 

77. 'Were his beak not misshapen.' Lat. text, 'rostrum . . retortum.' 

78. ' His beak is still twisted awry in front.' 

79. senden, are ; cf. Ger. sind, Lat sunt, Sansk. santi, 

80. He may (is not able) to procure food for himself. 
83. billed J pecketh. 

86. rigte bille, undistorted bill. 

93. nimed, betaketh himself. Cf. 'to take oneself off.' 

102, 3. * From his eyes he keeps off the mist while he tarries there.' 

112. 'His mouth is as yet quite unacquainted.* 

248-50. * Carries off to her hole what afterwards will help her, where 
she will be towards winter.' 

257. so it her telled, as it is here related. 

262, 3. *She biteth not the barley to bear it about.' 

264. sakedford cannot ht forsakes, but, as Matzner suggests, is shakes 
forth, shakes out. She neglects the barley for wheat. See 1. 291. 

269. Get=ge hit, she it. Lat. text, 'granum . . bipartit.' 

275. liueno^e, sustenance, provision. 

299, 300. 'It offers us earthly biddings, and promises us heavenly 
ones.* For bekued Matzner reads bekncd = * monstrat * in the Lat. text. 

302. 'But not equally, but not alike.' Geuelike, like, occurs in 
Genesis and Exodus, 1. 282, p. 9. Cf. A. S. ge-ef enlacing, an imitation; 
ge-efenlScan, to be like. 

33^ I^OTES. 


The two Sermons here printed are on the Gospels for the days named. 

Line 5. St sterre, the star : si {=sto, seo) is the feminine of the defi- 
nite article, the masculine being se^ as in 1. 13. 

6. J>rie kinges, the three magi. See P. Plowm. B. xix. 71-81. 

7. To-janes po sunne risindde^ towards the sun rising, the east. 
9. anuri=onuri=Jionourif to honour. See 1. 80. 

26. "po—peOj the, a later form than seo^ the (fem.). 

27. Al-waiy until; cp. wat nu, until now, 1. 114. In M. E. what 
sometimes means until \ see Halliwell (s. v. what). 

po huse: house is neuter, therefore po=pa=^pam, the dative of 
the definite article. 

31. Ine metinge, in a dream. 

34. Seywinge of ure lordes beringe^ manifestation (showing) of our 
Lord's birth. 

40. See Specimens of Eng., Pt. II. Sect. VII. 11. 121-138. 

41. Be pet y so that, because. 
50. Licht, is light. 

56. Ido into pe uerii^ put into the fire : ueree = vere =^fere, fire. 

61. \>et no werm nel comme i-hende^ that no worm will come near. 
See 1. 67. 

78. Has^^ha-^es^ht them. This kind of agglutination is common 
in the East-Midland dialect. See Moral Ode, 1. 55, p. 199. 

91. ac. To^ac to, but to : see 1. 115. 

93. So iuel auenturey as chance befell. 

100. Folvellet^ fill full : see ««/«^/(f^« = filled full, 1. 104. 

102. vi Ydres of stone. The Vulgate hdiS, lapidece hydricesexy Johnii.6. 

107. Sepet, he that. Architriclin\ cp. the Vulgate, which has Archi" 

112. Dopforp, puts forth. 

116. Ine sigge =^I ne sigge = I do not say. 

126. Signefed = signefieti : the d stands for 8f, the crossed d, Cf. 
liesedQ.. 127), drinked^ be-tohied, bied (1. 129). 


Line i. Seaford is on the S. coast of Sussex, to the W. of Eastboame. 
4. * And many book-learned men.* 
6. * Knights every one.* 


7. Alurich — Alvricht i. e. ^Ifric. So Alured—ISXix^^. 

32. Here wrpsipes may be an intentional spelling; see note to 
sect. I, 1. 12. So also wrpie in 1. 60, wrt in 1. 168. 

48. Glednesse is probably an error for gleawnesse, wisdom. 

51, 2. * Men's mildest master.* 

57, 8. *That to him shall not be wanting anything of his will, 
whereby he intends to honour himself here in this world.' 

84, 5. * Every man's doom turns to his own door.' Just as we say 
* A man's actions come home to him.' See Galatians vi. 7. 

160-63. *Many a man has expectation of what he need not expect — > 
of long life ; but the trick deceives him.' These lines are found in Old 
Kentish Sermons (p. 36 in *An Old English Miscellany'), Owl and 
Nightingale, Ayenbite of Inwyt. See Specimens, Pt. II, p. 42, 1. 304. 

170, I. ' That ever may, of him [who is] fated to die, the life uphold.* 
Yorfurp upholde the Trin. MS. reads /^ lifuphelde. 

177. Dowe pes louerd, the Lord of Hosts (Sabaoth). Cp. Dryhten 
dugeda Waldend^ in Judith ; see Sweet, A. S. Reader, 155-61. 

228. ArewCj caitiff, treacherous foe. See erewe, XVII (Jes.), 1. 20. 
See Specimens, Pt. II, p. 38, 1. 93. 

229. 'Tell it to thy saddle-bow (only) ; ' i. e. keep it to yourself. 
231-33. 'Then will he suppose who knows not thy condition that to 

thee thy state is well pleasing.' 

236. menep, bewails (it). 

239-241. 'That full well grants it to thee (i.e. is willing that such 
should be thy condition) without any pity — he would that thou hadst 
much more.' See note to XV. 2249, p. 339. 

411. Schotte probably = scholte or scholde, shouldest. ' Thou shouldest 
not boast.* 

414. dwaieSf fools; cf. Piers Plowman, C-text, xxiii. 379. 

419, 20. 'With few words a wise man can well include much.' 

421. * A fool's bolt is soon shot.' See Specimens, Part II, p. 37, 1. 85, 
and note. Jscohte, miswritten for ischotCj shot. 

425, 26. See Specimens, Part II, p. 39, 1. 144. 

430. Jbidestf hast to do with. Cf. A.S. gebidan, to wait for, meet 
with, experience. 

437. Lest, lettest, permittest. 

438. The sense is, ' but if thou lettest him exercise his own will, on 
all occasions, whilst he is growing up in the world, thou wilt not be 
able,' &c. 

439. ' Loudly and silently,* i. e. publicly and privately, on all oc- 
casions ; a proverbial expression. 

445. * Disregardeth thy command.' See Specimens, Pt. II, p. 37, 

1. 31- 

454. Areche^ reach after, get at, i. e. control ; A. S. arScan. 

334 NOTES. 


Line 1907. Ger^yer, year. In 'this poem an initial g often stands 
iox yh oryy sometimes represented in Old English writers by the Saxon 
character 5. Cf. gunkeste, youngest, 1. 1909. g (final) =^A or y- 
(Modem English w), as sag=^sagh=say, saw. g before t—'i=ghf as 
rigt, right, 1. 1919 ; dhogte^ thought; nogt = nought, not ; sogt, sought; 
lurogtt wrought, 11. 1928, 1933, 1934, 1940. ^before -en answers to the 
modem w, as ogen = o)en, own ; dragen, drawn. In some few cases ag 
before -en answers to modern a?, as A. S. slagen, M. E. slawen, E. slain; 
cp. A.S. hagely E. haiL 

1908. Quane = whanne, when (see 1. 1918). The Southern dialect 
never represents the A. S. hw (E. E. ^«, Mod. E. wh) by qu or qw. It 
is exceedingly common in the Northumbrian dialect, and is often to be 
met with in the East and West Midland dialects. 

191 o. Brictest of ivastme, brightest of form ; waspene is an error of 
the scribe (who probably wrote from dictation) for wasteme, A. S. wJkstm, 
(i) growth, increase, fruit ; (2) form, stature, capacity. 

Of witter wune^ of good ability. Witter ^ wise, skilful ; related 
to witj witty y to wit, wist. The A. S. word answering to witter was 
witol, wise, knowing. IVufu — K.^. wune, gewuna, practice, custom, 
use ; cp. wont. 

191 1. Bredere = dreSerthrethTen. In M. E. we find defter, daughters, 
Aendy hands. 

191 2. * To his father he did discover and lay bare.' 

Gan, whence the compound bi-gan (began), is often used as a 
preterite auxiliary = did, as gan love^ did love. 

1913-14. *He would (desired) that they should x^ conduct themselves 
that they should be well-behaved.* 

1 91 3. He sulde^ they should; sulde = shulde, should, In this poem 
an initial s (properly ss)=shy as soren=shoren, shorn, 1. 1919- 

Hem, themselves. The personal pronoims are used reflexively 
by early writers. 

1 91 4. Wei tSewed, well-behaved, virtuous. Dewed \s from A. S.^gaw, 
peauy a manner, habit, irompeSn, to thrive, flourish. 

19 1 5. Wexem wid [Aim] gret nitS, great envy against him increased in 
them. Wexem — wex hem. 

1917. NitSful, envious; bold, bad. Cf the modem use of the Word 

1 919. Soren, shom, cut, reaped. Shear has often the sense of to cut 
or reap, in early writers. 

1920. 'And theirs (i. e. their sheaves) lay all before him.' 
Here, theirs ; it, here used pleonastically. 


192 1. Xte. stands for tnluue, eleven. 

1922. Frigti luue, reverence. 

1927. Chidden^ chided, chode, pret. pi. It is here a weak verb. 

1928. iSogCy though, nevertheless. Sit5e=sitien, afterwards. 

1930. Hirdnesse^ herds, flocks. The abstract noun is here used col- 

1931. To dalen ebron, to the vale of Hebron. 

1934. Sogt, come, arrived, the pp. of sechetiy agreeing with hem, 

1935. Fro feren kumen^ coming from afar (at a distance). Fro — 
Icel. frdf from, is still found in froward (M. Y.. fraward), frowardness. 
Fromward in A. S. has often the same signification. 

1936. Hem on ros, arose in them. InL 1937 the preposition is placed 
after the verb .for the sake of the rhyme. Hem is in the dat. and not 
accus. case. 

Numen = nomen, taken. The A. S. niman, to take/ seize (pret. 
nam, M. E. nom), still exists in numb, benumb^ nimble, A. S. be-niman^ to 
take, take away, deprive. Qi. North. Pro v. Eng. nim^ to steal, take up 
hastily. In M. E. nomyn = numen, numbed, taken with the palsy. * I 
benome, I make lame or take away the use of ones lymmes. Je perclos^ 
(Palsgrave). * Benomme or benombe of ones lymbes, perclus"* (lb.), 
'This man is taken or benomed"* (Horman). See Promp. Parv. p. 358. 
Nimble = A. S. numol, handy or skilful in taking, and hence quick of 
limb, active. 

1938. * They all counselled to slay him.* 

1 941. * Whatsoever he dreamed whilst he slept.' 

D^r quileSf there-whilst, whilst. 
1943. 'Yet shall he be cast, naked and cold.' 

IVurd, shall be, is from A. S. weortSan, to be, to become. This 
verb is still familiar from the poetical phrases ' Wo worth the day !' ' Wo 
worth the hour !' See P. Plowm. C. xiv. i. 

J 944. ' What-so-^w^r his dreams have in meaning.' 
Ow-en — og-en (pl.)> have, possess. 
A-woldf m force, meaning. See wold, 1. 1958. 

1945. Herte spr, pain of heart. This refers of course to Reuben 

1946. Drechen, to delay ; from A. S. dreccan, to vex, trouble ; and 
hence to hinder, delay, dretch. 

1947. Gede=yede, went. The A. S. verb gangan, gan, to go, had for 
its usual preterite edde, from root i, to go. The form gede {ox yede) is 
probably due to the A. S. ge-edde. 

1948. * He placed his cattle in better pasture.' 

Erue « A. S. yrfe, erfe, cattle, animals ; also wealth, inheritance. 
Lewse, pasture, still called leasowe (pronounced lezzur) in 

^^6 NOTES. 

1949. 'Judas meanwhile gave them advice.' ^ed, advice, counsel. 
See note to 1. 1938. 

1950. Fulfilt of deme sped^ fulfilled in secret (wicked) haste (speed, 

1952. »S]^?V^j7c;a!r(f, spicery. Cf. wo/^rxw^r^, collection of waters. The 
A. S. warily warcj merchandise, is used as an affix in hard-ware, 
iron-ware. Cf. windes-ware. Specimens, II. 2. xvii. 30. 

1953. Gunne (pl.)» did. See note to 1. 191 3. 
Ten J to go. See note to 1. 191 3. 

1957. Waste — was + /, was it. 

1958. Storue, should die. The A. S. steorfan is the original of the 
Eng. starve, starvation. As early as 1340 sterue was used in the same 
sense as the modem verb *to starve.' 

Woldf power. See note to 1. 1944. 

1 96 1. ahogte swem, esteemed it a grievous affliction. 

1962. * He thought him slain [and] set up a cry.* 

1963. ' He will not cease, such sorrow cleaveth to him.* 
1963,64. C/iued and lined =cliue9 ( = cleaves, adheres) and liueti. 
1967. Wenten, pret. pi. turned. A. S. wend, a turn, change ; wendan, 

to go, proceed (pret. wende, Eng. went) ; whence A. S. went, a turning, 
course, way, road, still used in Kent. 

1969. * They laid it upon messengers.' 

1 971. Boden him sen, and bade him see. 

1973. * They sent him word they found it.' 

1974. Sori writ, sorrowful message (letter). 

1975' Gret, cried ; see 1. 1984. North. Prov. Ysl^. greet, to cry out, 
weep, used by Spenser. Cf. grot, weeping, 1. 1978. 

1976. 'Have my son swallowed (devoured) here.' 

1977. Haigre, haircloth, sackcloth. Cf. heyre in P. Plowm., B. 
V. 66. 

1980. Hertedin, consoled ; literally, encouraged. Cf. herting, con- 
solation, encouragement, 1. 1982. 

1982. Wrogt= wrought J worked. 

1983. Ligten = alight, descend. Cf. to light upon a thmg. 
1985-6. 'There was in hell a separate place where the good folk 

did rest.' 

1987. Stunden, abode, passed the time. Cf. I-hwulen in Ancren 
Riwle, 1. 208, and note on p. 326. 

1988. An allusion to the so-called Harrowing of Hell, when Christ 
took thence the souls of the patriarchs. 

1989. 'The merchants hastened their journey.* 

1990. Ware, purchase, property, goods. See note to 1. 1952. 
1992. 'They made a very advantageous agreement {or bargain).* 
1994. Him seems to refer to Joseph. 


2037-8. *Potiphar believes his wife's story, and hath cbndemned 
Joseph to punishment.' Wiwes = wmcs, wife's. 

2039-40. * He bade him be fastened down securely, and held straitly 
in prison.' 

2042. Prisunery the one who has the care of the prison, the gaoler. 

2043. * And assigned to him the prison.' 

2044. Prisutusy prisoners. 

In hagt—in agt^ in care. 
2046. Woren = waren = wereny were. 

2049. Boden onigtf both at night. Onigt = on nigty a-night. The 
form on {p before a consonant) is preferred by Northern writers to 
an or «, the corresponding Southern preposition. 0-frigt= of right y 
frightened, in the next \va&y—of-f right y very much frightened, affrighted. 

2050. ' And they became very sore afraid.' 

2051. On sely one time. 

2053. *H^ heard them mourn, he enquired wherefore.' 

2054. Ogen awold Hat, have that in their power, i. e. have caused that. 
2058. * The interpretation will depend on God.' Bi-long-ony along of^ 

on accovmt of. 

2060. Waxen buges, full-grown boughs. 

2061-2. * First it bloomed (flowered), and afterwards it bore the 
ripe berries (grapes), I became aware {or perceived).' 

2064. me dhugte = t5o)te, me thought. See note on 1. 1961. 

Wrong, wrung, squeezed ; the pret. of wringen, to wring, squeeze. 

2068. Heilnessey health, wholeness. The Eng. whole, formerly written 
hal or hol^ has no right to the w ; wholesome, hale, heal, healthy y are 
related to one another. 

2073. 'Present my petition to Pharaoh.' Herdnc = ertidey errand, 
message ; A. S. cerend, cerende, message, news. 

2074. Wurde don, may be taken. Do is often used by early writers in 
the following senses : (1) to cause, make; (2) to place, put. 

2075. Kinde lond, native land, the land of one's kin. A. S. cyftde, 
natural ; cynd, nature ; from cyn = kin, race. Cf. kindred, kind, akin ; 
the * kindly (natural) fruits of the earth.' The M. E. unkind often 
signifies unnatural, ungrateful. 

. 2076. Wrigteleslike = wrigte-les-like, guiltlGSsly, iimocently. Cf. A. S. 
wrShty an accusation, blame, fault ; allied to wregan, to accuse. 
In bond, in prison. 

2077. Bred'Wrigte = bread-wright,\iXQ.2A-r£i.2ys.T,h2ik&x. Wrigte(Eag. 
wright) is a workman, artificer ; from A. S. wyrcan (pret. worhte, Eng. 
wrought), to work, still existing in wheelwright, &c. 

2078. Bread'lepes, bread-baskets. Cf. Prov. Eng. leep, a basket. Cp. 
Piers Plowman, B. footnote to Pass. vi. 1. 63. 

2081. ' And fowls thereof have seized.' 

VOL. 1. Z 

338 NOTES. 

2083. ' For I was not able to defend m)rself.' 

2084. Beren, bear or carry away. 

2085. ' It were /tever to me/ I had rather. 

2086. * Of pleasant (lucky) dreams to tell the meaning (^7^ to interpret).' 

2088. * Be put (hung) on the cross^ alas !' fVet/a-wei « A. S. wd-id-wd, 
well-a-way ! well-a-day ! IVd = woe, sorrow, grief. 

2089. ' And fowls shall tear thy flesh in pieces.* 

2090. * From that shall no care be able to defend thee.' 

2091. * That became true (was fulfilled) as Joseph had said. 
2094. Wid-uten erd, away from native land. 

2097. 'Thence came out seven beasts.* Neet—neat ; A. S. niatf 
also nyteUy niten, cattle, beast ; whence neat-herd, 

2098. • Every one very fat and large (great).' 

2100. * Who made the fat (ones) woe.' 

2 10 1. ' The lean ones have eaten the fat ones.' 

2105. * Ears rank (strong) and well-grown.' Rank (full, mature) and 
tidi refer to the ears of com. Tidy is used by Shakespeare in the sense 
of * in good condition,' plump. 

2107. 'Withered (faded) and small, and drought-seized (struck).' 
2109-10. *To-gether they smote, and in a stound (short time) 

The fat ones thrust themselves*( — are thrust) to the ground/ 

2 1 1 1 . * The king arose suddenly and awoke in care.' f>hogt = thought, 
anxiety, care. Cf. the phrase ' take no thought* 

21 12. • This dream's meaning he knew not.' 

21 14. ' Who could explain the meaning of the dreams.' 

2128. 'In all abimdance shall they be passed.' For this use of //, 
cf. 2109. 

2130. 'Sorrowful and necessitous (poor) men shall see them.* Is = his, 
them. This pronoun is used by Robert of Gloucester and Dan Michel 
of Kent. 

2132. Rospen dr» raken, rasp and scrape, i.e. diminish. 

2133-36. ' I advise the king now here-before (the femine) 
To make bams and gather com, 
That thy folk be not surprised (taken unawares) 
When the famine years are forth come' (come to piaas). 

2138. 'That became to him afterwards good fortune.' 

2139-48. 'He gave Joseph his ring. And his collar of gold for 
honour, And bade him all his land mle. And under him highest to be ; 
And bade him wield in his hand His folk, and wealth, and all his land. 
There was under him Potiphar, And his wife, that them so parted. 
Joseph to wife his daughter took, Otherwise is he now become than he 
previously was.' 

2152. He geld it hem, he requited it to them. 

3153. Fulsum^ ful-some, plenteous. Seel. 2128. - 


2154. * Joseph could (knew how to) secure for himself beforehand.' 

2158. For-tSatif for- that (reason), therefore. 

2 161. 'The ten came, by necessity arrived.* See 1. 2165. 

2163. 'And nevertheless they timidly did obeisance to him.* 

2167. 'Joseph them knew perfectly in his mind.* 

2168. * Also he pretended he knew them not.' 
2176. 'For hunger compels them to come hither.* 
2178. Gure bering, your bearing, behaviour. 

2 1 79-80. ^ How should any man poor, forgotten. Such and so many 
sons beget? For seldom it betides (befalls) any king himself Such 
men to see of his offspring.* 

2187. 'Now by the faith I owe to king Pharaoh.' 

2 19 1, 2. • For then was Joseph sore afraid 

That he also might be by them betrayed.' 

3196. the touy that one, the first, &c. So the tother =tlia.t other, the 

2198. To wedde^ for security, as hostage. 

2199. On'0n = anon, in one (instant), immediately, at once. 
2202. Bi-ment hem, bemoaned, bewailed themselves. 
2204. Wrigtfulj guilty. See note on 1. 2076. 

3205. •' We sinned some time previously.* 

2208. 'Now suffer we sorrow all for that.' 

3209. * Knew none of them in his mind.' 

2214. * And into each one the silver cast.' 

2216. "Qor bi-foreUf there as before. See 1. 2245. 

2224. Do agteSf the moneys. 

2227. * Very great sorrow is to me become * (befallen). 

2232. * Death and sorrow fall upon me.' 

2235, 6. *Then said Judas, It shall be hard for us 

If we do not keep our covenant with him.' 
2237. ^^^ derUe, famine (dearth) came. 

2241. QuanJt is ned, since it is necessary. 

2242. 'And [I] know no better plan.' Can, know ; A. S. cunnan, 
2244. 'That to them thereof there lack none.' Wante in O. E. often 

signifies ' to lack,' as in the modem phrase ' it wants so many to make 
up the number.' 

2 247. OfderepriSf of great price, of precious value. See note on 1. 2237. 

2249. 'God grant him well disposed to be.' Hunne = unne, grant, 
give. This verb still exists in the phrases 'he owned to having done 
it ' ; 'I have owned to it.* Ox:/t has here nothing to do with the verb 
owe, but signifies 'grant,' or 'concede.' See 1. 1739, p. 191. 
E9e-moded, easy-minded, well-disposed, kind. 

2251,3. * Then took they forth the way right, . 
Till they are come, into Egypt alighted.* 

Z 2 

340 NOTES. 

2254. * Natural thought in his heart was still.* 

2257. Jiiri, a court; literally, a borough. See the first piece in this 
volume, 1. II, p. 2. 

2258. * None of them had then cheerful countenances/ 

2262. Ur non, none of us; cf. her non, none of them. See 1. 2258. 
2264. *For I now have my condition (agreement)'; i.e. that Benja- 
min should be brought to him. 

2266. On and on ^ one by one. 

2267, 8. ' Very glad he was of their coming. 

For he was kept there as hostage.* 

To nomCy as a pledge, or security. 

2269. V7idren = K. S. under^t^ the third hour of the day, that is, nine 
o'clock in the morning ; extending also to the sixth hour in the morn- 
ing. It literally signifies the intervening period, which accounts for its 
sometimes denoting a part of the forenoon, or a meal taken at that time, 
and sometimes a period between noon and sunset. 

The word in various forms is still used in the North of Eng- 

2275. 'And he kindly received it.' 

2276. Of kinde blod, of kindred blood. 
2278. Here is an imperfect rhyme. 

2280. 'I know no one there that does not tremble.* This is a remark 
by the author, introduced parenthetically. But 11. 2279 and 2280 should 
be transposed. 

2285. • His heart overpower*d him at once.' 

2286. 'Natural love did overcome him.* 

2288. * That all his face became wet with (01) tears.' 

2289. * After that weeping he washed his face.' 

2291. ' He caused them to wash, and (come) before him.' 

2297. ' In abundance (of food) they became joyous (glad).' 

2 298-2304. * Joseph thought thereof no harm. 

But it pleased him exceedingly well. 
And he them instructed and taught well. 
And how they should best conduct themselves 
When they came into foreign lands. 
And all the better shall ye speed 
If ye will with truth conduct yourselves,' 
i.e. act faithfully, honestly. 

2306. Or or^ first ere. See Dan. vi. 24 ; Ps. xc. 2. 

2309. * And the sack that Benjamin owned.' 

2313-14. *This messenger overtaketh them quickly. 

And accuses (calls after) them of injury and loss.* 

^315-18. 'Unhappy (wretched) men, what have ye done? 
Great misfortune is come upon you, 


For it is not hidden from my lord 

That one of you hath his cup stolen.' 
2320-22. 'Upon whom thou findest it indeed, 

Let him be slain and let us again be driven 

Into thraldom (slavery) evermore to live.' 
2328. Reweli lote, sorrowful cheer. See 11. 1968, 2258. 
2330. O wol {^wel) witter tiogty of very wise thought, of very keen 
perception, *i. e. very discerning. Seel. 2320. 

2335. ' Provided that thou spare Benjamin.' 

2336. On trewthe miny upon my promise (pledged troth). 

2340. the to^ere, the others, pi. of the td6er=tiat oSerf that other, the 

2341. E gret—he grety he wept. See 1. 1975. 

2344. * For your safety first hither brought.' 

2345. 'There are now two years since the famine has come.* 

2346. * Yet shall five fully be passed.' 

2350. 'And say (tell) him what (how great) are my pleasures 

2356. lie here, each of them. See 11. 2258, 2318. 

2357. ^^^> made known. 

2362. ' He bade them take carts and wagons (wains).' 
2366, 7. * More and better than they could ask. 

Joseph gave each of them two changes of raiment.* 
2368. He made prud, he adorned. 
2371. * Also many others thereto.' 
2376. 'And bad them hasten home quickly.' 
2380. Quat he woven, who they were. 
2384. 'All Egypt unto his will cleaves.* Cf. 1. 1963. 
2387. Wei me: me is the dative after the interjection wel. Cf. the 
use of the dative in the phrase * woe is me.' See Ps. cxxviii. 2 (Prayer 

2388-90. 'That I have thus awaited such time! (i.e. that I have lived 

to see this day) 

And I shall to my son go, 

And see [him] ere I from [this] world depart,' 
2400. * How many years be (are) on thee ? ' 
2401-10. 'An hundred years and thirty more 

Have I suffered here in [this] world's woe, 

Yet [there] appears to me few of them, 

Though I have passed them in woe. 

Since I began in world t6 be, 

Here away from home among mankind. 

So thinketh every wise man 

Who knoweth whereof mankind began, 

342 NOTES. 

And who of Adam's guilt is mindftil. 
That he here away from home dwelleth.' 
2409. A/uned, is mindful of, remembers. It is still retained in the 
expression * min{d) what you are about.' See 1. 2422. 

241 1. IVurOen wel, fare well. A.S. weordan, to become. 

2412. Sell mel, good sustenance (meal). 

2422. Mune, remember. See note on 1. 2409. 

2423. • That when it should be done with him' ; i.e. when He was dead. 
2425. 'And truly he hath said (tdld) it to him.' 

2427. * So was [it] pleasing to him to be laid.' Lif^lef=^lief^ pleas- 
ing, dear. 

2429. *To him and his elders long previously before.' 
2431. Gratiefij buried. Ci.owi grave, 

2435. Or Gan, ere that, before that. 
Offwerlde^ from the world. 

2436. Hise kindcj his family kin. 

2440. * So he left this world's strife (trouble).' 

2441. 'Joseph caused his body to be honourably prepared' (for 

2442. *To be washed and richly anointed.' SmereUf to anoint, smear, 

2443. 'And spice-like (with spices) sweet to be scented.' 

2444. * And Egypt's folk (to) keep a vigil for him.' Bi-waken is in 
the infin. mood, after dede, 

2447. 'Such were Egypt's customs.' 

Wis of hereriy wise, skilful in armed expeditions (skilful in con- 
ducting expeditions). 

2481, 82. » That bier is led, this folk is quick, 

They went about (along) by Adad (i. e. Atad).' Gen. 1. 10. 
2484. • And make lamentation for Jacob.' 
2488. ' There is that corpse put into the tomb.' 
2494-98. * Us he this message bade say, 

Our sin thou for him (for his sake) forgive. 
Provided that we under thee live. 

They all fell there at his feet (literally to the feet to htm\ 
To beg (entreat) mercy and offer [the] oath (of fealty).* 
2503. Sibbe, kin, kindred, relations. A. S. sib, peace, kindred ; whence 
gossip ( = God-sib), which originally signified a godfather or godmother, 
i.e. one related in God by the sacrament of baptism. 
2508. 'Hence to that promised land.' 
2510, II. * Perform it (my prayer) then, and promise it now, 

That my petition be not forlorn (lost sight of)-* 
2514. • May God impart to the soul blissful succour.* See 1. 2138. 
2521. To ful in wis =■ to ful iwis, very completely in sooth (indeed), 
i. e. fully. 


2524, Lefful soules ned, the need of believing (faithful) souls. 
2526. On Engel tale^ in English speech. 

2528. 'May God help him (richly) effectually.' 

2529. * And preserve his soul from sorrow and tears.* See 1. 1978. 

2530. cold <Sr* hot^ the two extreme pimishments in hell. Those in 
eternal perdition had to endure alternately icy coldness and fiery. heat. 
See Measure for Measure iii. i. 122. 

2532. * God grant them in His bliss to play (live joyfully).' 


This poem is of the character which may be described as *a fliting,' 
or scolding-match ; compare the poem entitled * The Fliting of Dunbar 
and Kennedy,* in which those poets abuse each other in no measured 
terms.- The poem called the Cuckoo and the Nightingale, often falsely 
attributed to Chaucer, is a poor imitation of the older one here printed. 

Lines 1-4. ' I was in a certain vale. 
In a very secret recess. 
I heard hold great talk 
An owl and a nightingale,' 
6. Lud amongy loud at intervals. 

7-10. * And each against [the] other swelled (out with wrath, anger), 
And let out all that evil mood (mind). 
And each said of other's habits 
The worst of all they knew.' 

14. ' In a comer of a valley' : bcsche occurs in Lajamon's Brut, 1. 5644. 
Cf. baches, P. Plowman, C. viii. 159. 

15. Up = upe, upon. 

16. Blosme i-no)e, enough (abundance of) blossoms (flowers). 

17. Hegge is here treated as fern.; ore = anre^ one, as in 1. 1750. 

18. 'Mixed with spires and green sedge.' • 

19-22. * She was the more joyful on account of (for) the branch, 

And sang in modes of many kinds 

It better seemed that it were the noise 

Of harp and pipe than that it were not so.' 
He refers to drem^ which is masc. 

23, 24. * It seemed better (rather) that it were shot from harp,' &c. 

26. * Where the owl sang at her times (intervals).' 

27. Bi-grawe = bigrowen, overgrown. 

28. 'It was the dwelling-place of the owl.* 
29-32. * The nightingale saw her, 

And beheld her and despised her. 

344 NOTES, 

And thought very contemptibly of the owl, 

For one holdeth her loathsome and foul.* 
34. Here wrs is written for ivurs. See note to sect. I, 1. 12. 
34-40. * It is the worse for nie that I see thee ; 

Truly for thy ill looks 

Very often I leave off my song ; 

My heart takes flight, and my tongue falters, 

When thou hast neared me ; 

It were better for me to be sick than to sing. 

On account of thy foul guggling noise.* 
39. Me lu5te = listCy it were pleasing to me. Cf. Me is the wers^ 1. 34. 

41. Abod forty waited until : fort=fortc=fortOy for to that time, until. 

42. BilevCy remain (silent). 

43. Grety big, swollen with anger. 

44. 'That wellnigh her breath shot away*; i.e. was all spent. 

45. Warpy uttered ; literally, threw out. Cf. mould-warpy a mole (i.e. 
a caster up of mould or earth \ warpedy &c. 

"par-after longey long after that. 

46. Hu pincpc = hu pincp /^, how seems it to thee ? what do you 
think ? 

47. 'Thinkest thou I know not how to sing?* 
48." Writelingey 'singing in shakes and flourishes.' 
49. * Often thou causest me offence (indignation).* 
51-54. * If I held thee in my foot. 

So betide it that I might ! 
An (if) thou wert out of thy branch. 
Thou shouldest sing in another (different) manner.' 
51. The Cotton MS. has note or note ; read uote\ for the Jesus MS. 
has votey foot, claw. 

56. Lokiy enclose, guard. The M. E. loke, lokiy signifies (i) to keep 
close, guard ; (2) to conclude, decide. Cp. M. E. lokingey custody, care. 

60. Segge (subj.), may say. 

61, 62. 'I know that thou art cruel (unmild, savage, fierce) 

With those that may not from thee shield (themselves).' 
63-65. ' And thou dost wreak vengeance cruelly and ill, 

When thou art able, upon small birds ; 

Wherefore thou art hateful to all bird-kind.' 
65. Fu^el-kunne (dat. after lop) fowl-kind, birds. 

67. Bi-schrichep, shriek or scream at. Schirchep =shriekethy screechcth ; 
schirche is a softened form of skrike. 

68. * And pursue thee very closely.' 

70. Hire ponkes (gen. absolute), with her will, willingly. 
75~78' * Thine eyes are coal-black and broad. 

Right as if they were painted with woad ; 


Thou starest as if thou wishest to bite 
All that thou mayest with claws smite.' 

80. 'Just as an awl (hook) that is crooked.* The Jesus MS. has ^?> 
ax on cwel, &c. 

81. Clackest oft and longe. The Jesus MS. has clechest everamong. 

82. * And that is one of thy sotags.' 

86. ' That sitteth at the mill under the cog.' 

87. Fule wi)ie, foul creatures. 

89. Sitiest is to be pronounced sitst. 

94. * Thou feedest them on a very foul food/ \,^.on goes '^\\}a.fedest. 
We should read heom on. 

139. X^es word, these words. Word in A.S. is plural as well as 
smgidar, being a neuter noun. 

140. Tale, argument, being feminine, requires pare, the fern, of the 
definite article. 

142. ' Right as [if] one were twanging a shrill harp.* 

144. 'And held her eyes downward.' 

145. To-swolle = to-swol^e, exceedingly swollen, enraged. 
I-bol)e, puffed up, swollen with rage. 

148. A bisemar, in scorn, mockery. 

1 50. Whi neltu = whi ne wilt thou, why wilt thou not ? why don't you ? 
So nile )e often means * don't you,' do not. /)e bare, the open. 

151, 2. * And see which of us two be 

Of brighter hue, of fairer colour (complexion).* 

153. *No, thou hast very sharp claws; I do not care that thou 
shouldst claw me.' So replies the Nightingale to the Owl's invitation 
to come out into the open. 

154. N'e kepich = Ne kepe ich, I care not, I like not (Stratmann) ; 
hepen, keep guard, take care, take note of. As a noun, kep = csixt, in 
phriase * take kep,^ to take care. 

155-166. 'Thou hast claws very strong, 

Thou twingest therewith as doth a [pair of] tongs. 

Thou thoughtest, as do those like thee, 

With fair words to betray me ; 

I would not do what thou advisedst me, 

I knew well that thou misadvisedst me ; 

Shame on thee for thy treacherous advice 

Revealed is thy treachery ; 

Shield thy treachery from the light. 

And hide the wrong among the right. 

When thou wilt thy wickedness expend. 

Look that it be not seen.' 
162. Un-wro^en : the Jesus MS. has unwryen, revealed, manifested. 
168. Ope, apparent and perceived. 

34^ NOTES. 

169. SpeddestUt didst speed. The Jesus MS. has spedesiu^ dost speed. 

170. BlencJuy to avoid, flinch. Hamlety ii. 2. 626 : *If he but blench, 
I know my course.' 

171. To priste, very bold. 

172. Mid list e, v^ith craft. 

1 76. * Well fights that well flees, says the wise.* This is one of the 
* Proverbs of Alfred,* and of Hending, Spec. Eng. II. p. 37. 

1 77. ' But let us away with this debate.' 
1 80. Mid isome, peaceably. 

184. Plaidi midfo^e, plead (debate) with (mutual) consent. Yor fo^e 
Jesus MS. has sope (truth). 

185. Ure eiper^ each of us. 

187. Wo schal us seme^ who shall arbitrate for us, that can and will 
decide equitably between us. 

190. * There need thereof be no question.' 
193, 4. 'He is very skilful in giving decision. 

And every vice is hateful to him.' 
197. Schede, distinguish, separate. 

199. One wile = one while, a while. Cf. 1. 202, where wile = formerly, 

200. After pan, after that. 

203. * And dear to him was the nightingale.' 

204. Gente and smale, gentle and small. 

205. Swipe acoled, very much cooled down. For swipe the Jesus MS. 
has nupe (now). 

206. * He is not for thee befooled.' 
208. Legge (subj.), should lay. 
212, 13. Lust him^ pleaseth him. 

214. * He will go in (the) right way.* 

215. "^are, ready. The Jesus MS. has ware, 

216. Aiware = i'hware (Jesus MS.), everywhere. 
223. Schirchest {scrichest in Jesus MS.), shriekest. 

225. * It seems to both wise and foolish.* l^t^A pincheth, 
232. To his dede, for his deeds. 

266. Nich ne ftai, a strong expression of denial. 

267. Lu^t ich telle — \ am pleased to telle. 

272. Wufte, custom, wont. The Jesus MS. hsisynne, 

277. J^'o^le, birds ; the dative after the adj. lop, hateful, 

281. Me is leof, it is pleasant to me, I like. 

308. Lat hem : the Jesus MS. has let hi. 

311. 'But [that] all my singing is howling.* 

318. I/eo refers to ste/ne in 1. 317. 

324. JVon = hwon = hwan, when. 

327. Veorre, afar. See Genesis and Exodus, 1. 1935. 


328. Dai-rim, break of day. The Jesus MS. has dayrewe. 

33a. Fort, unliL The Jesus MS. has pat. 

338. pflj- monnes earen, the ears of the man. 

340. Me ne telp, one esteemeth. 

342. 'That she {mur)pe is fern.) shall please very badly.* 

346. \>inche wel un-murie, appear doleful (unmerry, unpleasant). See 
March., of Venice, v. i. 104. 

347. Over un-wille, beyond what is desirable, or wished for. 

351. Godhede =^ good- head, goodness. 

352. 6^«/w^^^, want of moderation. Over'dede = excess. 
394. Alegge, set aside, confute ; see Skeat, s. v. allay, p. 777, 
398. Sofeor-vorp i-ladde, led so far, i.e. carried so far. 

403. ' Against his foe beareth (putteth on) a bold face.' 

406. 'That will flee if thou ceasest not.' Niswicst=ne + iswicst. 

408. He wile of bore wurthen bare), He will from a boar become a 
banow-pig. For bare) the Jesus MS. has barek. 

413. * Thou singest as doth a hen in the snow.' 

427,428. 'He cared {recked) not though companies were mingled 
(huddled together) by heads and by hair,' i. e. were fighting and pulling 
one another by the hair. 

434-36. ' Every creature is glad for my sake. 

And blesses itself when I come, 
And rejoices at my coming.' 

435. For blissep the Jesus MS. has blessep, blesses; but blissep^^is glad, 

440. patpu hit witet that thou may know it. 

550. 'Thou hast urged thy plaint, as thou didst ask (to be allowed to 

552, * But ere we go to our doom.' Unker is dual = of us two. See 
1. 151. 

558. 'Thou twittest me as to my meat (food).* 

600. ' But spiders and nasty flies.' 

602. 'Among (in) the crevices of the hard bark.' 

603-6. * Yet I can do many good services, 

For I can guard men's dwellings ; 
And my oflices are very good, 
For I help for men's food.* 

610. 'To cleanse it from foul mice.' 

611, 12. * There shall never come thereto 

Foul creature, if I may catch it.' 
614. Wright's edition has yemen instead of wernen, which gives a 
better sense. It would then mean : • and if it pleases me, in my amuse- 
ment, to long for another dwelling.' If we keep wernen, the sense is 
* to refuse any other dwelling.' 

348 NOTES. 

6 1 6. Hoping blete^ not at all despicable. 

6 1 8. 'That ever contiriueth (standeth) alike blooming (flourishing).* 

619. * And its (the ivy's) colour never loses (fades).* 

620. When it snoweth nor when it freezeth.* For snittp the Jesus 
MS. has snywcy the subjunctive mood. 

660. * Was wellnigh out of patience become,' i.e. had nearly lost all 
command of herself. 

709. In sume tide, sometimes. 

714. 'Than all that ever thy kin (species) could (were able to do).* 

716, 717. ' Knowest thou to what man was bom ? 
To the bliss of heaven's kingdom.' 

727. Nime )eme, may take heed, attend to. 

732. Ofpe. Jesus MS. has ofpon. 

735. Wat Imai, is our phrase what I can, what I am able to do. 

738. Raddere, the readier, the more disposed. 

742. "pat ever is eche, that is everlasting. 

746. "pe sulve pope, the very pope, the pope himself. 

748. I-here an oper wes can only mean * hear in another wise* (manner), 
or * hear another wise ' (strain) ; the Jesus MS. has abyde on oper bles, 
abide another blast. 

838. * Thou goest (farest) wholly with deceit.* gest to, goest on, pro- 
ceedest ; so Matzner. 

840. "pincp sop, appeareth true. 

841. I-s liked, made sleek {slick), or smooth, feigned, deceitful. 

842. Bi-liked, made pleasing. 

843. 844. ' That all those that hear (take in) them (i. e. thy words), 

They ween that thou speakest the truth.' 
845-8. * Stop 1 Stop ! one shall show thee. 

How it shall be well seen 

That thou hast greatly lied, 

When thy leasing (lying) is made manifest (bewrayed).' 
846. Wu = h'wu, how. The Jesus MS. has Nu, now. 
850. Fundiep heonne, go hence. See 1. 719. 
852. Aire wunder mest, most wonderful of all. 
905. An oper peode, in another land. 

909. Hwi nultu, why will you not ? why don't you? See 1. 150. 

910. Singen men, sing to men. 

914. Heom or hom, them, is required after teche. 

917. Ydel wel, useless (worthless) well. On-idel (1. 920) =xin vain. 

919. For-dru^e —for-drugen, dry up. 

1636. Blowe = blowen, blown, blooming. 

1638. Beo nu wear, be now aware (sure). 

1640. Alist, missest, 

1641. Manne lop, hateful to men. 


1643. Ever-euch wihty every creature. 

1643. * And mid howling (yelling) and crying/ 

1644. Wanst^ weenest. The Jesus MS. \\.2i% pinchst , 

1648. Schawles, scarecrow, literally spectacle. The Jesus MS. has 

1651. Me gest an honde, goest into my hands, playest into my hands. 

1656. Brihte = bri)te, clearly. 

1661-3. 'Because it appeared to them that she had 

The owl overcome, wherefore they shouted (applause) 
. And sang also in many wise.' 

1664. And. The Jesus MS. has \>at. 

1665. Gret pe manne a schamej cryeth shame upon the man. 

1666. *That playeth at dice (tables) and loseth the game.' 
1668. J-banned ferde^ levied (thine) army. 

1699. Fiht'lac, fighting, -lac occurs as an affix in wedlock. 

1709. * Gone after her army.' 

1715-6. * Through big words, and with (bold) coimtenance, 
Causes his foe for fear to sweat.' 

1722. 'And sang willingly (with pleasure) to many men.' 

1733. *To us (two) shall betide harm and disgrace.' 

^734- For ^e, the Jesus MS. has we. 

Dop grip-bruche, commit a breach of the peace. 

1 741. Ah do, but I do grant it. Ah = aCy but. 

1747. For schulde, the Jesus MS. has schulle. 

1 750* ^^ ore lindct in a linden tree. The Jesus MS. has hore. 

1752. Portes-honif Portisham, S. W. of Dorchester, It is here de- 
scribed as being 'beside [i.e. near] the sea, on an out-let.' It is 
now about 3 miles inland. 

1 761. 'That is to the bishops* great shame.' 

1764. *Why will they not betake themselves to counsel?' i.e. why 
will they not take thought together ? 

1767. * And pay him tithe in many places.' 

1776. Litle childre^ to little children, i. e. to very young persons. 

1778. 'That ever abideth (endureth), master Nichol.' 

1 779* Ute we pah to hiinfare^ let us nevertheless go to him. 

1 78 1. DowCf do we, let us do. 

1785. Ende of orde = dX\ the end from the beginning. 

1790-91. ' All without army and without troops 
Until they reached Portisham.' 

350 NOTES. 


The reader should consult an excellent article upon this poem by 
Prof. Zupitza, which appeared in the publication called Anglia, vol. i. 
p. 5 (1878). Zupitza shews that there are six copies of the poem, which 
can be arranged in two groups. To the former belong the copies in the 
Trinity MS. and in MS. Digby A. 4; whilst to the latter belong the 
copies in the Jesus MS., MS. Lambeth 487, and MS. Egerton 613. The 
last-mentioned MS. contains two copies, viz. one at foil. 7-12, printed 
by Furnivall, and another at foil. 64-70, the various readings of which 
were given by Furnivall in footnotes. Zupitza prints MS. Digby A. 4 
(foil. 97-1 10) in full, investigates the relationship to each other of the 
six copies, shews that Morris is mistaken in supposing these copies to be 
derived from some earlier version (as suggested at p. 195), and that the 
probable date of the poem cannot be before 1 1 70. In fact, the word 
bikeihte in 1. 322 on p. 215 is of French origin, whilst it is at the same 
time necessary to the rime, and therefore original ; though miswritten by- 
J>ouhte in 1. 316 on p. 214. So also the riming words ermine^ sabeline 
(11. 365, 366, p. 219) are French; yet they are essential to the rime and 

Page 194, line 2. Auhte, ought ; past tense in form, present in mean- 
ing ; oh in the Trinity MS. being the correct form. 

5. Vhne9 It/^unnet lif^ useless life. 

P. 196, 1. 14, J>^, he who. 

20. ' Slow we are to do good, to evil all too bold.' 

21. ' More fear stands to man of man, than to him of Christ.' 

For J?a« him to cryste^ read J?fl« him dotS ofcryste, as in Digby MS. 

23. * When all men shall reap what they ere sowed.* 

24. Dod to gode^ do for God. 

25. A^ lipne no mon to muchelt let no man trust too much. 
27. On vuele stude^ in [an] evil place. 

30. *Let not thy kinsman or kinswoman be dearer to thee than 

35. \>efremede andpe sibbe^ the stranger and the kinsman. 

36. "pe wel nule do hwile he may^ he who will not do well while he is 

37. ' Many a man's sore toil often hath ungracious ones,' i. e. a man 
often receives no return for his hard work. 

38. Don a virst, put in delay, put off. 

41. Hit refers to blisse in 1. 40. The Trinity MS. has hes, her; blissc 
being originally a feminine noun. 

P. 198, 1. 43. ' But they put their wealth in a secure place, who send 
it to heaven's kingdom.' 



44. parf, need. This verb has given place to need, which originally 
meant to compel, force. 

46. Ofyefte ne ofyelde, of gift nor of reward. For yefie the Trinity 
MS. has herCf praise. The Digby MS. has ^ieue. 

47. Seolfberepy and ourselves carry. 
53. buten ende, ever without end. 

56. Him refers to ayhte^ which is treated as masculine. It was origi- 
nally feminine, and is so treated in the Trinity copy. 
58. Tylehpe = tiWe, tilth, produce, earnings. 

Is iwuned to swynde, is wont to dwindle. 
60. Vn-bouhtf unbought, i. e. unatoned for. 

. Vfi'Vor-gulde = un/or^lden, unrequited, unrewarded. 
63. \ie pat = sepet he who. 

Tepe—pepe, he who [does]. The Digby MS. has sepet. 

To lope = to lothe, for evil. 
65. Vre swynkes lean = ure werkes lean^ reward of our works. 

69. "pe wunderlicheste warCj the most wonderful chaffer. 

70. ' And often God is more grateful to him who gives him less.* 

P. 199, 11. 69, 70. * And he who may not do more may do [it] with 
his good intention. As well as he who hath of gold many a mank.* 
Mank — mancusy usually a silver piece of thirty pennies (peningas), 
sometimes used to denote a gold coin. 

P. 200, 1. 72. 'A little offering is acceptable to God, that comes 
from a good will.* 

73. * And he little esteems much offered wrongfully where the heart 
is evil.* The reading of the Trinity MS. is better : ' And lightly esteemed 
are great gifts when his heart is evil.' 

75. Ayeyn his lyhie, in comparison with his light. 

78. A lie quyke wyhte^ all living things. 

79. Such = switch, so like, such as. 

83. * He guards and rules all things, and created all creatures.' 
Wald — wait = wealded, wields. 

85. Ewiche = cehwilc = cs-g-hwylc, each, every. 
Wende hwer pu wende^ go wherever thou go. 

87. Ichwer is the same as Xhty where of ever-y where ; but aihware = 
ai'hware = aye-where. 

89. Wy hwat schal vs to rede, why, what must be to us for counsel ? 
why, what must we do ? 

93. Demep for denUy judge. The arrangement of the Trinity MS. 
gives better sense. 

96. Mid hwan, with what. 

97, 98. 'There shall be so many devils that will accuse or bewray 
us, They have forgotten nought of anything that they have seen.* 

P. 202, 1. 104. < Very many are called, and few are chosen/ 

^^2 NOTES. 

105. JVay, alas ! Ci. A. S. wd in wd Id wdj wellaway! 

112. * He that knows least often says most, and he that knows all is 

114. For hivat read wot hwai. *For, as one says, he that is ill 
himself [knows] what pains him.' The Trinity MS. is slightly different : 
* Whoso says that he is whole, he himself best knows his pain.' This 
is evidently a proverb, like ours that every one knows best where the 
shoe pinches him. 

117. Com to monnCi became a man. 

118. Het schal him pinche Penney it shall then appear to him. 

121. God yef vs god endcy good [is it] if to us the end [be] good. 
We ought to read god yef god is ende, as in the Egerton MS. 613. 

122. * God grant to us that our end be good, whither he may cause us 
to arrive.' For hwider the Digby, Lambeth, and Egerton MSS. read and 
wite, * and wite )>at he us lende,' and that he may preserve what he has 
given us. 

124. ]>at is perhaps an error ior pan, when. 

125, 1 26. ' That he is unable to pray for mercy, for that often happens. 
Wherefore he is wise that beseeches mercy, and makes amendment 
before the Doom.' 

129. 'Renounce sin whilst thou art able, and do according to God's 

133. * Either sooner or later he shall find mercy.' 

P. 203, 1. 102. HeSf them. niseien = ne-iseien, see not. 

103. "pes ivichen ; cp. J)^ swiken of the Jesus MS. Digby MS., "pa swikelt. 

122. And )ieue pat he us lende. Perhaps wite should be read for 
^eue ; see note to p. 202, 1. 122. 

128. LateS = letethy forsakes, leaves off. 

129. 'Sin leaves thee, and thou hast it not when thou art not able to 
do it any more.' See the last line in Chaucer's Doctoures Tale. 

P. 204, 11. 135, 136. 'Many a man says "Who cares for the pain 
that shall have an end ? May I not better pray to be delivered from 
bonds on Doomsday?"' 

138. Hwich hete is par pe souk wunep, what the heat is like where 
the soul dwells. Here hwilch has its original meaning of what like, 
what sort of. 

139. Oper vnnepe one tyde, or scarcely one hour. 

143. 'I have never gone to hell, nor do I care to go there.' 

146. 'There shall be seven years' sorrow for a se'ennight's (week's) 

148-50. 'Better is a drink of turbid water, than poison mixed with 
wine. Roast of swine is sweet ; so is that of the wild deer (animal). 
But all too dearly he buys it, who gives his neck for it.* 

153. ' Had he experienced it some time he would say quite otherwise.' 


155. O^erlukeris the comparative oi operHchej otherwise. 

157. bonen = prayers ; the Trinity copy reads wo = woe. 

159. And lete sker, and leave freely. 

P. 205, 1. 156. \>is — pe tSf which is. Ci.pit ^peitt who it, 1. 141. 

P. 206, 1. T70. 'No one shall there complain of violence or of 
wrong.* Menen kim, bemoan himself. 

178. Helle grunde, hell's abyss, the pit of hell. 

181. Nys no seoilich, it's no wonder. 

183. There is in this line a reference to the * Harrowing of Hell.' 

185. The scribe of the Jesus MS. has taken a great liberty with his 
original ; he has altered mo^e, kinswoman, to no nion, and has turned 
fnai, kinsman, into me. 

189. *And we scarcely will give a piece of our bread' (for his 

P. 208, 1. 192. 'Because our elders misdid, we have sorely on our 
hands,' i.e. we suffer for our first parent's guilt. 

195. ' We all atone for our first father's (forefather's) guilt.' 

197. * ache and' ; we must read and ac/ie = and each (every). See p. 
^09, 1. 226, p. 211, 1. 235. 

205. 'When God took so much vengeance for one misdeed.' This 
refers to the sin of Adam and Eve. 

207. Ju>r ore bare sunne^ for one single sin. 

212. ' His mercy is not less, but all according to one weight' (measure 
or standard), i. e. his mercy is as weighty as his power. 

213, 214. 'He may forgive to one more than all folk can sin. 
Moreover the devil himself might have had mercy had he begun (i.e. 
sought) it.' 

P. 209, 1. 219. Hes^ her, refers to milche, 

223, 224. 'Worse he does to his good friends than to his enemies. 
God shield all God's friends from such evil friends.' 

226. 'Though I might there fetch (bring away) the wealth of every 

P. 210, 1. 223. 'Attend to me now, rich men and poor.' 
225. Vuele tweye ivere, two evils together. 

227. After vlche strete, along every street, i.e. in every direction. 
The Lambeth MS. has streche, stretch. 

229. Lysse^ in the Trinity MS. blisses pleasure, joy, 

230. Myssey the want of. The verb misse in the fourteenth century 
often means to lack, be in want of. 

237. This line is evidently corrupt. Perhaps we ought to read \>is 
beop pe. pat weren her hwom me ne heold fesiey or me heold vnfeste. 
These were they that were here whom one esteemed unsteadfast. 

238. * And those who promised well to God, and would not carry it 

VOL. I. A a 

354 NOTES. 

-241. pet ich pychf perhaps an error for J>er is pych, so in the 
Trinity MS. 

244. Ne auene strSm ne siure, neither the river Avon nor the Stour. 
This mention of the rivers Avon and Stour is interesting as affording 
a possible indication of the locality of the poem. There are several 
rivers of these names, but only in two cases are they found in conjunction. 
A Stour runs into an Avon near Stratford-on-Avon, Warwickshire; 
whilst another Avon and Stour join at Christchurch, Hampshire. The 
poem being in a Southern dialect, the latter is more probable; there 
was a monastery at Christchurch, at an early period, which was con- 
verted into a priory of St. Austin's Canons in 11 50. This locality 
would suit very well. 

F. 211, 1. 246. Ilaste ; read nilaste, did not perform. 

259. Mes = me-\-eSt one (Ger. man) + thtm, Cf. 1. 251, p. 210, 

F. 212, 1. 252. Med-yome = med-)iemet bribe-greedy, desirous of 
bribes or meed. 

253. 'Those to whom was dear another man's wife, and their own 
they neglected.' 

255. Wrecche men^ poor men, wretched men. 

256. *And thought little of God's command (message), and of God's 

258. This line has been needlessly introduced by the scribe of the 
Jesus MS. See next note. 

259. "par he sat at his borde^ where he sat at his table. The Lambeth 
MS. has^enne he hit herde bode^ when he heard it (message) proclaimed. 
The Egerton MS. has per he sette his beode, where he appointed his 
prayers. The original reading was not borde, but bede or biede ; the 
latter of these forms occurs both in the Trinity and Digby MSS. Bordt 
is a mere gloss upon bede^ which also means * a table,* and answers to 
A. S. biodej dat. of biod^ a, table. If the scribe had retained this word, 
he need not have introduced the superfluous line numbered 258. 

262. patf to which. See 1. 253, p. 212. Or read pan, the dat. case. 

264. This line is not wanted. ¥orJ>e read in/>e. 
Ueondes onwolde, the devil's power. 

265. Gaderares, amassers, gatherers. Egerton MS. has gyscertSy 
covetous. Lambeth MS. reads pa pe weren eure abuten pisse worldes 

266. Tycede, enticed, instigated. The original reading was tihte^ 
which had a similar meaning. 

272. per terep. Probably pet or pe should be read : that tear, &c. 
pat vtule spekep, those that speak ill. The Egerton MS. has 
pe uuele speken^ the evil speakers, or, those who spake ill (of others). 
The Trinity MS. has, probably the original reading, pa etiek siviken, 
the wicked deceivers. 


274. ' There is much of God's heat (anger), and much of God*s wrath.' 

280. Bi sihtes^bi sihte^ with their eyes open, wittingly. 

P. 213, 1. 290. Senden = beop^ are. 

P. 214, 11. 286-8. 'AH that one may suffer here is but game and glee 
(i. e. in comparison with hell-pains), And yet nothing causes them such 
woe in the loathsome bonds As to know that their torment shall have 
no end.' 

289. Lawe-Use^ without law, law-less. 

290. * To whom God's prohibitions and behests were of no account.' 

291. Beop per heorure nere is evidently corrupt, for which read heo 
beop per heore iuere^ they are there their fellows. 

293. Anyper helle grunde, in hell's abyss below. The Egerton MS. 
has on pere helle grunde^ in the abyss of hell. 

296. Noper . . ,ne, neither . . . nor, nor . . . nor. 

297. Wippe ilkepyne^ from that same pain (torment). 

298. Wamyvichf let each warn ; vich=vchy each. The Egerton MS. 
has ac=alc, each. 

300. * I know how to be both, if I must, body's and soul's physician.* 

30 T. *Let us forsake what God has forbidden to all mankind.' 

306. * It all hangs and holds by these two words,' i.e. love to God 
and to man. See 1. 308. 

310. 'It is hard to stand long, and easy it is to fall.' 

317. EarmyngeSt poor (mortal) men. 

P. 215, 1. 314. Hesy them, refers to luues. 

P. 216, 1. 319. 'They are unable to protect themselves from cold or 
from hunger. * 

322. \>er-of=ofpere, of that (world, i.e. heaven). 

324. To hwariy to what; of hwan^ from what. 

326. 'And according to what is good to work well, then need we 
care not.' 

331. Vie we vs wericy let us defend (keep) ourselves. 

342. Schedep, separate; the correct reading is probably scheldep, 
shield ; see the Trinity text. 

P. 217, 1. 342. 'That leadeth the ninth part of men to hell, one may 

347. Mid pare nitier heldey along the downward slope. 

P. 218, 1. 349. 'He who shall have least, he shall have so much he 
shall ask no more.' 

350. Hwo so Teplsices pe pat, the older sepe. 

352. And oper vnyliche, and unlike each other. 

359. 'There shall not be indeed, nor ought of world's weal.* 

360. Al hit is god one, it is all God himself. 

363. * He is full of every good thing, there is nothing that he is 

A a 2 



367. Notice wiP'Vte replaces buten or bute. 

370. For vnhelpe read vniselpe^ as in the Digby MS. 

371. * Afterwards one shall see the Lord as he truly is/ 

376. Lytus beCf the book of life ; bee is the old dative singular of 
boc, book. Lambeth MS. has hali boc hi senile iseon alpeU hi her nusten. 

377. J-ftcuh to alle derlinges^ sufficient for all his darlings. 

P. 219, 1. 366. Afethesehele = martres cheole, marten's skin; the latter 
is the reading of both copies in the Egerton MS. 

P. 221, 1. 392. Nan seed, no satiety, no weariness. 

399. ' Christ grant us to lead here such a life and to have here such 
an end (death).' 


The French lay entitled ' Le Lai d'Havelok le Danois * was printed 
by Mr. T. Wright as an Appendix to his edition of Gaimar's Chronicle 
(Caxton Society, 1850). Some notes upon the English version, by 
Prof. Zupitza, will be found in Anglia, vol. i. p. 468. 

Line 354. Than^ when. 

Wolde, would, is often written wulde^ 

355. Fulde, completed, numbered. 

360. Bethe^ both ; the same partial rime recurs at 1. 694. 

362. Hoslen, to administer the sacrament, to housel. See 1. 364. 

365, Quisle, bequest. See Owl and Nightingale, 1. 685. 

374. Zupitza remarks that this line gives no sense, and that we must 
read as for Ihal, It means : ' and chose soon a rich man, who was the 
truest under the moon, as he [wrongly] imagined,* &c. 

380. ' And in his hand bear a strong spear.' 

387. JIelde = eld, age. 

389. Messe-gere, mass-gear, apparatus of the mass. 

404. Mirke niet^ dark night. 

418. Feblelike, feebly, badly, scantily. 

419. 'He gave not [the consideration of] a nut for his oaths.' 
425. * Withuten on^ except one. 

453. What is yow ? What is (there) to you? what is the matter with 
you ? 

460. ' Half part (half as much) as we may (can) eat.' 

Moun, pi. pres. of mowen, be able. 
462. Nis it no, is not there no ? is there no ? 
472. * And afterwards hacked them all to pieces.* 


474. Bi the wawcy by the wall. To lie by the wall = to be dead, but 
nnboried. From A.S. wahy a wall ; Cf. E. wain-scot ^ borrowed from 

484. Manrede, homage. The -rede (A S. rckden) is an affix common 
to many A. S. words, and still exists in kin-d-red, hat-red. 

486. To that forward y on that condition (promise). 

495. ' Never yet begat me.* 

509. Lines, alive. Chaucer frequently uses the gen. form in this sense. 

513. Brouct of Hue, brought from life, put to death. 

544. Hauelok is in the vocative case; for wreken read wreke. It 
means : * May Jesus Christ, who made the halt to walk and the dumb 
to speak, avenge thee, Havelok, upon Godard ! ' 

546. Zupitza thinks a couple of lines must have dropped out between 
11. 546 and 547. It is difficult to see what governs the word keuel. But 
we may take keuel as in apposition with cloth^ and explain the whole 
thus : * When Grim had fast bound him, and afterwards wound [him] in 
an old cloth, [viz. in] a gag made of clouts, very dirty, so that he could 
neither speak nor breathe, wherever he should bear or drag him ; when (I 
say) he had done that deed,' &c. (see below). The * winding ' of Havelok 
may refer to his head only, for which a small cloth would suffice. 
Zupitza shews that the former ne inl. 548, which is not in the MS., need 
not have been supplied, as it is occasionally omitted in such a construction. 

547. Keuel of clutes, a gag made of rags. Ful, very. 

551. This is a difficult passage. The MS. really has: 'Hwa« \t 
swike him hauede hethede.' Zupitza proposes to retain hauede hethede, 
and to take hethede as written for ethed ; for there are numerous 
examples in Havelok in which h is wrongly prefixed to a word beginning 
with a vowel. Ethed will then be the pp. of M.E. ethen ( = A. S. atian = 
ddian). This A. S. word does not occur, but is regularly formed as a 
causal verb from dd, an oath ; so that ethen means * to make to take an 
oath,' in which sense it indubitably occurs in Sir Gawain and the Grene 
Knight, 11. 379, 2467. There is an objection to this, in the fact that the 
pp. ethed cannot rime with bede ; we must retain the final -e, in which 
case ethede is a past tense, and hauede is superfluous. The best sense is 
got by omitting hauede, and writing That for Hwan (MS.). We must 
also consider 1. 554 as parenthetical, as Zupitza rightly says, and change 
the full stop at the end of that line to a comma. We then get this sense 
(continued from the last note) ; * when he had done that deed, which the 
deceiver bad him [do], viz. that he should lead him forth and drown him 
in the sea (for that covenant they made), soon he cast him upon his back 
[enclosed] in a foul and black bag,* &c. 

567-8. These lines do not rime, perhaps they ran originally : 
*And caste the knaue so harde adoun. 
That ther he crakede hise croim.' 

358 NOTES. 

597. The MS. has Sir up, which is clearly an error, though a strange 
one, for I^ts up, rise up ; which exactly suits the context. 

745. Zupitza reads: *So >at Grimesbi [hit] calle,* which gives excel- 
lent sense. It is clear that alle is needlessly repeated ; and when it has 
been struck out of 1. 745, we must also alter calleth to calle. 


For a critical edition of King Horn, with Introduction, Text and 
variants. Notes, and^ Glossary, by Dr. Theodor Wissmann, see * Quellen 
and Forsschungen zur Sprach- und Culturgeschichte,' xvi. and xlv. 

Line i. he = heo=hi^ they. 

2. Laud MS. 108 has \>at to me wilen lipe. 

6. Wei (while) /fl!/ hise dayes lesten. (Laud MS.) 

9. Kere sone hauede to name horn, (Laud MS.) 

II. Birine, may rain. Laud MS. has reyne. 

14, 15. . Brict so euere any glas, 

Whit so afty lili flour. (Laud MS.) 

16. After this line Laud MS. introduces the following lines : — 

He was fay r and eke bold 
And offiftene winter hold. 

18. His iliche, his equal. See 11. 289, 340 of this poem. Laud MS. 
has himylichey like him. 

20. Wip. Laud MS. has mid. 

25. "pat on was hoten Ayol child. (Laud MS.) 

25, 26. 'pat on . . ,pat oper = the tofte . . , the tot her, the first and the 

32. Rod on his pleing, rode a-playing. The introduction of his shows 
that pleing is a verbal noun, and not a participle. See Historical 
Outlines of English Accidence, p. 1 79. 

34. • As he was wont to ride.* Laud MS. has per he was woned to 

39. Iso)te may be for hi so)te. 

43. Londfolk, folk of the land, natives. 

47. Ali)te of, alighted off. Laud MS. has licte adoun. 

51, 52. * Swords they did grasp And together smote.' Notice the use 
of the auxiliary ^««^ = did, in 1. 51. 

54. Sume hit yfelde, * it (i.e. the sword) felled some.' The former 
e in yfelde should be short to rime with schelde. But perhaps yfelde — 
yfelden, we must then render: *Some felt it,' Some of hem he felde^ 

(Laud MS.) ' 

55. .^//^y^w^, much too few. • * 

56. * Against so many shrews ' (villains). 


57, 58. * So many might easily Bring those three to death.' 

60. Neme^ took. Laud MS. has nomen, 

63-^6. ' There might not live The stranger nor the kinsman. Except 
they forsook their own law, And took to theii^s.* 

65. Asoke = Of-soke, IjaiXsAW^.hs&forsoken. 

68. 'panne. Laud MS. reads onnCt i.e. one, alone. 

74. Liuede. Laud MS. reads wonede^ dwelt. 

76. * Against the pagan*s prohibition.' 

80. Him beo myld, should be merciful to him. Laud MS. has him 
were mild, 

83. 'Great was his y^/r-^^^^* (beauty). 

87. * If his fairness (beauty) existed not,' i.e. were it not for his beauty. 

94. Laud MS. reads pou art eueneliche long. 

Euene long, of full size, not undergrown, Cp. A. S. emlang (B.T.). 

96. In pis fif yere pe nexte, (Laud MS.) 

97, 71? Hue gOf go away alive, be allowed to live. 
loi. To stere, to use the helm, steer. 

103. *To ship ye shall go.' 

104. To pe grundey to the bottom. 

106. ' It shall not repent us,' we shall not be sorry for it. 

no. 'And thy father's death atone for.' 

113. Inta schupes borde, aboard the ship. 

121. JVel y-wisse (Laud MS.). The Cambridge MS. has to-wisse. 

122. To misse^ to \ost, 

126. Inpe londe, unto the land. A-lond (Laud MS ). 
128. TipiHge = tidinge (Laud MS.), tidings, news. 
141, 142. Laud MS. reads — 

Softe mote pou stirie 

No water pe derie. 
149. Z?b/a«</y^r, whole and sound. 
151. Fonde, experience, feel. 
154. Cf. *by hill and dale.,' 

161, 162. Gumes . . . icum^. The Laud MS. h's&grome ; the original 
reading was perhaps ^»?^ ( = the older gumen=guman), men. 

165. God him yeue god timinge. (Laud MS. ) 

166. * A such fair company ' = J«r^ a fair company. 
180. 'And did them from life,' i.e. put them to death. 

187. 'One day is gone and a second.' Cf. 'the other day,' two (or 
more) days ago. 

204. * King, well may it betide thee ' 

206. ' Well answer to thy name (of Horn).' For neueninghavid. MS. 
reads naming, 

207-10. Horn him goth snille (quickly) 

Bi dales an bi hulle 

360 NOTES. 

And poruuth eche toune 
Horn him shillep soune, (Laud MS.) 
207. Schulle^schille^ shrill. See Owl and Nightingale, 1. 142. 

229. *Of thy craft.' Cf. *a god mester^ Prologue to Canterbury 
Tales, 1. 613. 

230. OfriuerCf of rivers. Laud MS. has offelde, 
235, 236. * And teach him of all the crafts 

That thou ever wist (knew) of.' 
237. WisCj instruct. Laud MS. has Hisferen deuise. 
243. * And Horn in heart took.' Cf. 'took to heart.' 
246. Ellesy elsewhere. 

249, 50. Dorter . . .po)te. The final e must have been very strongly 
sounded mpou)te. 

278. Himpujte, appeared to him. 

281. Upon his mode, in his mind. 

287. Stille^ secretly. See 1. 310. 

291. 'Sorely I fear me.* 

304. * Thou shalt never more be dear to me.' 

307. To spuse, for a spouse (wife). 

308. Wolde^welde, wield, possess. 

315. Bi one ribbe. Laud has honder (under) ribbe 

325. Went—wendy go, depart. 

331. * Horn is fairer than he (Athulf) may be.' 

335. * Ah lady, mine own 1 ' 

336, 7. ' Listen to me a little while ; 

Listen why I feared, &c.' 

342. * Put him in my keeping,* placed him under my care. 

344. ' Very sorely I fear me.' 

352. 'Whoever recks/ lit. to whomsoever it may be a matter 
of care. 

354. Lynne^ cease. Laud MS. has leyhe^ laugh. 

356. * Well was it with her at that timer' 

366. What me telle { = wat men telle, Laud MS.), what one may say. 

378. • It shall never repent thee.' 

385. Ofhisfeire si^te. Laud has, Ofpatfayre wihcte (person). 

416. Wher he beo, wherever he may be. 

421, 2. 'It becomes thee not of kind (properly, naturally) 
That thou should be botmd to me as a wife.' 
Laud has, Jch am nawt ofkende, 

pe to spouse welde. 

424. /^ing, as not unfrequently in Early English, is of the common 

425. Mislyke, to dislike, to be displeased. In King Leaf we find 
mislike not dislike, which latter is a hybrid word. 


439, 40. * Then is my servitude turned into knighthood.' 

448. 'Ere a se'nnight come.* 

452. * And see that he keep his agreement/ 

460. ' It shall be well requited him.' 

461, 2. * Christ grant him [good] speed. 

Thy message to present.* 

469. * And told him of his need.' 

477. Is. Laud MS. has wor/>e, shall be. 

482. He schal ^elde. Laud MS. reads, He schal ben helde 

486. * It beseems him to be a good knight.* 

498. Sume hi, some [of] them. This was the ordinary construction 
in Anglo-Saxon. 

503. A litel wi)tf a little whit. Cf. no whit, any whit, aught ^ &c. 

527. Go onCf go alone. 

528. His mone, his mate, companion. See 1. 842. 
530. * Horn's coming seemed good to her.* 

533. Time is here a dissyllable. 

537, 8. Dedes . . . sedes, originally dede . . . sede. 

547. Khi)tes )onge, i. e. newly made knights. 

554. * Therefore to me stands the greater haste ;* it is incumbent upon 
me to make greater haste (to prove myself a valiant knight). 

564. * Good to it (the ring) is the decoration, ornamenting.' 

571. Grace, virtue, power. 

579. 'Horn, I commend thee to God.* Lumby's text has ' Horn, I 
beseech (God) for thee.* 

591, 2. ' The foal shook the armour 

That all the court did din* (resound). 

624. 'At the point above.' 

627. Weljm sitte = wel mote pou sitte (Laud MS.) 

628. Mitte = mid te = mid the, with thee. 
631, 2. I say a schip rowe. 

Mid watere al byflowe, (Laud MS.). 
634. Londisse men, men of the country. 
640. In one lite stounde, in a little tii^e (Laud MS.). 
646. After this line Laud MS. has. 

To ivode he gan wende. 

For to latchenpe heynde. 

647-9. ^y^ ^y^ ^^^ Fokenild, 

pat a/per werste moder child. 

And Horn wente into boure, (Laud MS.) 
651-63. ' He saw Rymenhild sit 

As if she were out of her wits : 

S|ie sat in the sun.' 

36a NOTES. 

Laud MS. reads as follows : 

He fond Reymild sittende 
Sore wepende, 
Whit so eny sonne. 
Note that Heo=^IIe, he ; but he = heo, she ; by confusion. 
658, 9. Mefoute in my metynge (dream) 

"pat ich rod on Jlsc hinge. (Laud MS.) 
660. Haste, to last ; but Laud MS. reads lache, take. 
665, 6. God and seynte steuene 

Qwad horn, teme pi sweuene, (Laud MS.) 

670. Laud MS. reads To habben and to howe (possess). 
To knowe, to be acknowledged. 

671. * Before every other person.' 

674. "pare, dat. fem. of the definite article. Laud MS. reads here, their. 

675. Weop ilUt wept badly or sorely. 

676. 'And Horn let the tears drop.* Laud MS. reads spille for 
stille ; both verbs mean the same. 

685. Bi sture, along the river Stour. Laud MS. reads The King rod 
bi his toure. 

704. Wei mumey very moumingly, very sorrowfully. 

705. '^me=erne, run, hasten. 

710. 'Thou shalt nevermore be dear to me.* 
713. Bute pu ftitte, except thou flit. 
718. * With arms he did invest himself.* 
722. Nabod=ne abod, he delayed not. 
751. 'Thou hast never forsaken me.* 
761. * The wind did delay him.* 
763. To londe he ganflette. (Laud MS.) 

780. * With me thou remain awhile.* 

781. 'As sure as I shall die.* Laud MS. reads, So ich ne mote sterue, 
783. Mylyue = on lyue (Laud MS.), in my life. 

787. 'He sat (placed) himself a kneeling,* he went on his knees. 

799. To wo)e. Laud MS. reads awowen, to woo. 

801. ' Purposed thou hast to marry.* 

821, 2. Ure . . . ^ure, ours . . . yours. 

825. Be=schal be (Laud MS.). 

842. * Without more companions.* 

877, 8. * Horn began to be alarmed, 

And his blood (began) to rise.* See 11* 1334, 5. 
880. \>at, those that. 
881-86. Ant hys fader aquelde^ 

He smot hym honder schelde, . ' 

He lokede on hys gode ringe, 

Andpoute on reymyld pe )onge, • . . 


Mid gode dunt atefurste 

He smot hym tofe herte, (Laud MS.) 

901. In bare =^ on here (Laud MS.), on bier. 

907, 8. Dede bep tnyn heyresy 

Andpoupe boneyres, (Laud MS.) 

914. pat syt in boure softe. (Laud MS.) 
Onpe lofie, aloft, on high. 

915. Wip wronger wrongfully. 

917, 18. 'Should I receive your daughter, whom you offer me, in 
Older (for me) to govern your realm.* 

1022. Posse, Ci,possede in P. Plow. B. prol. 151. 

1047. 'She could not hold out, so that she wept not,* i.e. she could 
not help weeping. 

1062. Deokf dole, grief: qy. deore, harm, pity. 

1074. To-wrong, distorted. See sect. xii. 1. 58, p. 135. Laud MS. 
reads gan wringe. 

1075. A ful chere^ an ugly (foul) face. 
1080. Hard, sternly, in harsh terms. 

1 122. * As was the custom of the country.' 

1 1 26. No money no share. Cf. ymbne in 1. 842. 

11 27. Horn sits on the floor, the place for beggars, «Scc. See P. 
Plow. B. xii. 198-200. 

1 134. Of a brun, from a brown Qar). 

1 1 60. To chelde = to kalde (Laud MS.), to grow cold. 

1 163. * But it appeared wonderful to her.* 

1 164. Wy he hyre bed dynke. (Laud MS.) 
1 195. Wolde agesse, would purpose (guess). 
1 2T I. * To slay her hateful lord with.' 

1274. To felle — to fullen (Laud MS.), to complete. 
1304. * And avenge my father.* 

1 331. Crois li^te: Laud MS. has crowches for crois. 

1332. pat pou leuest on Cryste, (Laud MS.) 
1337. He seyde : hy serue ylle 

Paynyns ajen my wille. (Laud MS.) 
1340. And po were come into pis yle, (Laud MS.) 
1406. pe leuede on thefende, who believed in the devil. (Laud MS.) 
1463,4. Fykenyld hauep gon onder, 

And don Reymyld som wonder. (Laud MS.) 
1470. pe sunne upriste^ the sun's uprising. 
1488. ' He hath beguiled thee twice.* 
1492. Wip none ginne, by no contrivance or art. 
1552, ' Where he experienced sorrow.' 



1. Anglo-Saxon Gospels, in A. S. and Northumbrian Versions, ed. Kemblc 

and Skeat, 1858-78. 

2. Anglo-Saxon Old Testament, Pentateuch, &c., ed. Grein, 1872. 

3. Bartsch : Chrestomathie de Tancien fran9ais (glossaire), 1880. 

4. Beowulf: ed. Heyne, 1873, 

5. Bosworth : Anglo-Saxon Dictionary, 1838. 

6. B. T. : Bosworth-Toller A. S. Diet, [to Hwistlian]. 

7. Brachet: French Diet., Clarendon Press, 1882. 

8. Chaucer : ed. Morris, 1880 (glossary). 

9. Chaucer I : ed. Morris, Prologue, &c. 1 

10. Chaucer 2 : ed. Skeat, Prioresses Tale, «&c. > glossaries. 

11. Chaucer 3: ed. Skeat, Man of La we, &c. ) 

12. Chron. : Two Saxon Chronicles, edi Earle, 1865. 

13. Christ. Antiq. : Dictionary of Christian Antiquities, Murray, 1875. 

14. Corpus Poeticum Boreale, by Vigfusson and F. York Powell, 1883. 

15. Cotgrave: French and English Diet., 161 1. 

16. Diez: Etymologisches Worterbuch, 1878. 

17. Ducange: Lexicon Manuale, ed. Maigne D* Amis, 1866. 

18. Fick : Worterbuch der Indogermanischen Sprachen, 1874. 

19. Graff: Althochdeutscher Sprachschatz, 1834-42. 

20. Grein: Glossary to Anglo-Saxon Poetry, 1861. 

21. Grimm: Teutonic Mythology, ed. Stallybrass, 1883. 

22. Halliwell : Dictionary of Archaic and Provincial Words, 1874. 

23. Heliand: ed. Heyne, 1873 (glossary). 

24. Icel. Diet.: Icelandic Dictionary, Cleasby and Vigfusson, 1874. 

25. Jamieson: Scottish Dictionary, 1867. 

16, Kluge: Etymologisches Worterbuch der deutschen Sprache, 1883. 

27. Layamon : Brut, ed. Madden, 1847. 

28. Leo: Angelsachsisches Glossar, i877» 

29. Matzner: Altenglische Sprachproben, 1869. 

30. M. Miiller, Lectures : on the Science of Language, 1875. 

31. Nares : Glossary, 1876. 

32. N. E. D. : New English Dictionary, ed. Murray, 1884 [to Ant.]. 

33. Otfrid: Evangelienbuch, glossar, ed. Piper, 1884. 

34. Oudemans: Old Dutch Dictionary (to end of T). 

35. Piers Plowman-: Notes by Skeat, E.E.T.S., 1877. 



36. Prompt. Parv. : Promptorium Parvulorum, ed. Way, 1865. 

37. Psalms (O. F.): Lothringischer Psalter, ed. Apfelstedt, 1881. 

38. Roland : Chanson de Boland, ed. Gautier, 1881. 

39. Schmid : Gesetze dor Angelsachsen (glossar), 1858. 

40. Skeat : Etymological Diet, of Eng. Lang., 1884. 

41. Skeat, English Words in Norman French, Philolog. Soc, 1882. 

42. Spec. E. E. 2.: Specimens of Early English, ed. Morris and Skeat 

(glossary), 1873. 

43. Stratmann: Diet, of the Old Eng. Lang., 1873. 

44. Sweet : A. S. Reader, 1884. 

45. Tatian : Evangelienbuch, ed. Sievers, 1872. 

40. Trevisa: version of Higden, Rolls Series, No. 41. 

47. Vulg. : the Vulgate version of the Bible. 

48. Weigand: Deutsches Worterbuch, 1878. 

49. Windisch: Old Irish Texts and glossary, 1882. 

50. Wright's Vocab. : Wright's A. S. and O.E. Vocabularies, ed. Wiilcker, 



A. S. = Anglo-Saxon (as in 6, 20, 44, 

50, and as cited). 
Dan. = Danish, 40. 
Du. = Dutch, 34, 40. 
M. E. = Middle English, 40, 43, 50. 
Northern E. = Northern English, 25. 
Norm. F. = Norman or Anglo-French, 

O. F. = 01d French, 3, 37, 38. 
M.H.G. = Middle High German, 48. 
O. H. G. = 01d High German, 33, 45, 

Gk. = Greek. 

Goth. = Gothic, 18, 40. 

Heb. = Hebrew. 

Icel. = Icelandic, 24. 

O. Ir. = Old Irish, 49. 

Church Lat. =: Ecclesiastical Latin, 

Late Lat. = Post-classical Latin, of 

Latin origin, 17. . 
Low Lat. = Latin derived from 

French, German, &c., 17. 
O.Northumb = Old Northumbrian, 1. 
O. S. = Old Saxon, 23. 
SW. = Swedish, 40. 


Such abbreviations as sh. substantive, adj. adjective, and the like, will be 
readily understood. The following may be mentioned : — pr. p. present par- 
ticiple ; pp. past participle ; v. verb infinitive ; ger. gerund ; pr, «., pt, s. the 
third person singular of the present or past tense ; pr. pi.., pt. pi. the third 
person plural of those tenses, except when i or 2 is added ; imp. imperative ; 
m. masculine ; /. feminine ; s, singular. 

Symbols used before forms of words. The semicolon ; used im- 
mediately before a form means * directly derived from * or * borrowed from.* 
The colon : introduces a more archaic form (often O. S.). The abbreviatioti 
' cp.* introduces other cognate forms, having no part in the direct history of 
the word. 



The asterisk * at the end of a word denotes a hypothetical form. exx.= 
examples, s. v. = sub verbo, i. e. under the word in question. ' See * refers 
to a primary or normal form in the Word-List. • Cf.* = confer, i. e. compare, 
refers to subsidiary and derivative forms in the Word-List. 


A, adv. ever, 36. 131; 5. 1614; 

7. 89. A. S. d. Cf. Aa, O. 
A, conj. until, 3 a. 69. A. S. 6d. See 

A, interj. ah ! 3. 64; 7« 7^* 
A,/>r«/>. in, 1.4,66; 4.3; on, 1. 158; 

at, 6. 430; 16.1722. Itissome- 

times joined to words beginning 

with a consonant, as ahoc^ in book. 

See On. 
Aa, adv. ever, 7. 128, 244 ; 8 6. 7. 
Abac, adv. backwards, 3 h. 93. A.S. 

onbcec. Cf. Abec. 
Abbot, sb. Abbot, 2. 64. A. S. 

abbod; Church Lat. abbatem, 

father ; Syriac, abba, 
Abbotrice, sb, abbacy, 2. 64, 73. 

A. S. abbodrice, the rule of an 

abbot, abbacy, Chron. ann. 656. 
Abec, adv. aback, 1. 165. See Abac. 
Abeh, pt. s. bowed, 3 a. 73. A. S. 

dbedh, pt. s. of dbugan, to bend 

(M. E. abu^en). 
Abeie, v. to atone for, 19. no. 

See Abugge. 
AberntJ, />r. s. burns, i. 166. A.S. 

Abiden, v. to abide, remain, await, 

endure, I. 13 ; 176.140; Abide, 

19. 862, 1035; to delay, 9. 21 ; 

19. 732 ; pr.s. Abit, delays, 176. 

130 ; Abid, endures, 16. 1778 ; 2 

pr. pi. Abide]), await, 16. 1702 ; 

pt. s. Abod, remained silent, 16. 

41 ; imp. s, Abid, stop, 16. 747> 

837. A. S. dbidan. Cf. Tabide. 
Abisne = a bisne, 7. 3. See Bisne. 
Abiten, t;. to bite, 16. 77. A, S. 

Ablent, pr. s. blinds, 9. 95 ; pr, pi, 

blind, 9. lOi. A, S. dblendan. 

Ableow, pt. s, blew, breathed into, 

I. 48. A. S. dbldwan. 
Ablisse, in bliss, 17 6. 202. 
Abec, in book, 176. 118. 
Abod. See Abiden. 
Abonhte, pt. s. redeemed, 17 a. 

184. Pk.^, dbohte. See Abugge. 
Aboute, adv. about, 6. 439. See 

Abraid, pt. s. started up, 15. 21 11, 

2385. A.S. dbr<Bd,dbr<Bgd, See 

Abrea^, pt, s. fell away, i. 96. A.S. 

dbredd, pt. s. of dbreddan, 
Abreiden, v. to start up, 9. 89. 

A. S. dbregdan. Cf Abraid. 
.Abroden, pp. thrust out, i. 156, 

182. A.S. dbrogden, pp. o( dbreg- 
Abruden. pp. thrust out, i. 31. A 

form of Abroden. See above. 
Absolucion, j&. absolution, 46. 21, 

117. Church Lat. absolutionem. 
Abufenn, prep, above, 5, 1059, 

1 694. A. S. dbufan =■ on-be-ufan, 
Abuget^, pr. pi. atone for, 176. 

197. See below. 
Abugge, v. to atone for, 19. 1087. 

A. S. dbycgan, to buy, pay for. 

Cf. Abeie, Abouhte. 
Abui}), pr. s. pays for, 176. 146. 

See Abugge. 
Abute, prep, about, 7. 36 ; 16. 1 1 ; 

19. 279; without, 176. 370, 373. 
Abuten, prep, without, 8 a. 73 ; 

176. 52 ; adv. about, 3 «. 49; 6. 

439 J 9' 80. A. S. dbutan = on- 

Abuton, prep, about, 2, 26, 
Abuuten, prep, about, i. 175. 
Ac, conj. but, I. 9 ; 2. 54 ; 16. 599. 

A. S. a(r, ah. 



Aoo» conj. but, 5. 70. 

Aooenned, pp. born, i. 108. A. S. 
dcennedf pp. of dcennan, to bring 
forth, to beget. Cf. Akennet. 

Accidie, s6. sloth, indolence, 9. 11. 
Church Lat. accidia j Gr. oncridiaf 
AK-qbeia, freedom from care, torpor. 

Acende, pp. born, i. 117. See 

Acennende, sb. generation, nativ- 
ity, I. 119. 

Acennengy sb. birth, i. 115. 

Ache, adj. each, 17 a. 197; I'jb. 
235; Achen,rfa/. 17 6. 350 ; Aches, 
gen. s. 176. 226, 371. See ^Ic. 

Aooledf pp. cooled down, 16. 205. 

Acolede, pt. s. became cool, 1. 104. 
A.S. dcdlian, to wax cold. 

Acorde, sb. accord, agreement, 16. 
181. From O, F. acorder, to 
agree ; Late Lat. accordare^ from 
ac- = ad+ cord- in agreement with 
the heart. 

Aoqueme, s&. squirrel, I'j a. 358. 
A. S. dcwern. Cp. O. H. G. etc- 
korne (Weigand). Cf Aqueme. 

Acursi, V. to accurse, 16. 1704. 

AcwenohetJj/r. s. quenches, 9. 293. 
A. S. dcwencan. 

Acxen» sb. pi. ashes, 46. 16. See 

Adad, sb. Atad, 15. 2482. Heb. 
Atad (Gen. I. 10, 11); lit. buck- 

Adai, adv. by day, 16. 89, 219. 

Adde, pt. s. had, 15. 1918, 2212. 
See HaBfde. 

Addledd, pp. earned, 5. 1504. 
M. E. addlenn^ to gain, acquire ; 
Icel. bdla^ refl. odla-sk, to acquire 
for oneself property, from ddal, 

Adiligde, pt. s. became lost, i . 90. 
See below. 

Adili^ede, pt. s. was destroyed, 1. 
96. A. S. ddilegian, ddilgian, to 
blot out, abolish. 

Adi^te, I pr. s. order, 16, 326. 
A. S. ddihian, to dictate. 

Admirald, sb. a commander of 

Saracens, 19. 89. O. F. admiral, 

amiral ; Arab. amir-aUipahr), 

commander of the sea. See N.E.D. 

(s. V. admiral). 
Admod, adj. humble, 4 a. 18. 

A. S. eddmdd, eddmdd, humble, 

lit. happy-minded. 
Admoded, adj. gentle, 1. 120. See 

Adxnodnesse, sb, humility. 4 a. 15. 

A. S. eddmddnis, eddmodnes. 
Adoxnes-dei,on Domesday, 1. 147. 

See Doxnesdai. 
Adoun, adv. down, 18. 567. See 

Adrade, v. to fear, 17 6. 124, 165 ; 

I pr, s, 1 7 6. 6. A. S. ddradan = 

and + dradan, to fear greatly. 
Adrede, v. to fear, dre^d, 1 7 a. 1 24, 

206 ; Adredety, pr. pi. shall be 

afraid, i. 171; Adred, pr. pi. 

subj. 14. 41 ; pp. afraid, i'j a. 44, 

282. See above. 
Adrenche, v. to be drowned, 19. 

1454. A. S. ddrencan, to sub- 
merge, drown. 
Adrent,/>p. drowned, 19. 989. A.S. 

Adreje, v. to endure, bear. A. S. 

Adrinke, v, to be drowned, 19.983. 
Adun, adv. down, 8 a. 96 ; 16. 

208; 19. 1 133. A.S. 0/ dvuu, 

off the mc;unt. Cf. Adonn, 

Adune, adv. downwards, 16. 920; 

19. 1526. 
Adunest, 2 pr. s. dinnest, 16. 336. 

From A. S. dynnan, to make a 

loud sound. 
Adwole, in error, 16. 1777. A. S. 

dwola, error; cp. Goth, dwals, 

^c, conj. also, 6. 56. See Bo. 
.^ddmodnesse, sb. humility, 5. 

1 5 1 5 . See AdmodneBse* 
.^die, adj. blessed, 36. 19. See 




^dmodli^, adv, graciously, 5. 

1108,1582. See Admod. 
jSifne, adv. even, 6. 140, 592. See 

^fre, adv. ever, 2. no; 5. 1658. 

A. S. (kfre. Cf. Afre, Auer, 

Eauer, Efer, Efre, Euere, 

^fremo, adv. evermore, 176. 106, 

202. A. S. dfre + md. Cf. 

^fter, prep, after, 2. 174 ; 6. 372. 

A. S. (Bfter. Cf. After, Efter. 
.^htene, adj. pi. good, strong (of 

ships), 6. 468. A. S. oA/, brave. 

See Oht. 
jEi, ac?/. any, 6. 409. See Ani. 
.MlQ, adj. each, i. 77, 105. A. S. 

<bIc. Cf. Ache, Eoh, Elc, Elch, 

Elhc, Ilo, Iloh, lUo, nkines. 
^Iche, adj. each, 6. 258, 582 ; 

-lichen, 6. 370 ; -Miches, 6. 404. 

See above. 
^Ideren, sb. gen. pi. of elders, 6. 

386 ; -ffilderne, 6 a. 138. See 

^lle, adj. all, 2. 10. See Eall. 
.^Imes, sb. s. alms, 2. 47. A. S. 

almysse ; Church Lat. alimosina * 

(cf. O. F. almosne) ; eleemosyna 

(Tertullian) ; Gr, kXtrjfioffvvrf, 

compassionateness. Cf. Almes. 
^xn, I pr. s. am, 6. 47, 526. See 

jSln, adj. one, 6. 421 ; ^nne, a, i. 

8 ; 6. 418, 427. See An. 
^nde, sb. district; 6. 67, 217. See 

^ness, adv. at once, 5. 1078. 

A. S. dnes^ gen. of dn, one. 
Angles, s6. />/. angels, 176. 94; 

gen. s. I. 193. See Engel. 
^nglisc, adj. English, 6. 562. 

A. S. Mnglisc^ in Chron. ann. 

1016. Cf. Englisse. 
.^orl, sb. earl, 2. 114. SeeEorl. 
.^oure, pron. your, 6. 105. See 

SiVf adv. before, l. 21; prep. i. 

VOL. I. B b 

115 ; A.S. <ir, soon, before. Cf. 

Ar, Are, Ear, Er, Her, Here, 

.^rcebiscop, sb. archbishop, 2. 

105. A.S. arcebiscop (in Bede). 

Cf. Arohebisoopes. 
.^rd, sb. abode, 5. 1394. See 

jSSre, sb. ear, i. 193. See Eare. 
.^rest, adv. erst, first, 6. 523. A.S. 

(krest. Cf. Earst, Erest, Erst, 

Or est. 
.^rfelS-telle, adj. difficult to tell, 

innumerable, 1.2. A. S. ear/ode, 

difficult ; cp. earfoC-reccet difficult 

to tell. 
^rlen, sb. pi, dat. earls, i. 23. 

See Eorl. 
.^mdraoes, sb. pi. messengers, 

apostles, I. 80, 86, 122; ^Ern- 

draches, I. 19. A.S. (krend-raca, 

errand-teller, messenger. 
^melS, pr, pi. run, 6, 215. See 

^rst, adv. erst, i. 80. See ^rest. 
JSity prep, at, 2. 8, 97. A. S. <et. 

Cf. At, Ed, Et. 
jSiten, v. to eat, 2. 103 ; ate, 

6. 501. See Eten. 
.^uere, adv. ever, 6. 263. See 

^ueralche, adj. every, 6. 87. 

A. S. (k/re, ever + <b/c, each. Cf. 

^ueric, Eaueriche, Euerilo, 

Afri, Afrio, Eurech, Aue- 

.^uerio, adj. every, 2. 15, 54. See 

jSiuerte, adv. ever as yet, 2. 182. 
.^uez, adj. pious, 2. 96. A. S. 

dfest, fast in the law. 
.^ure, adv. ever, 2. 40. S^e 

Afal, imp. s. fell, cause to fall, 8 a. 

146. M. E. afallenl a variant of 

the causal A. S., dfellan, to lay 

prostrate. Cf. Aual. 
Afeoh, «m^. s. receive, 6. 376. See 




Afere, v. to terrify, i6.. 2 2 1 . A. S. 

Afered, pp, afraid, frightened, 3 b. 

112 ; Aferd, 17 a. 163. 
Affeare, 2 pr, s. subj, terrify, 8 a. 

AfCter patt, conj. according as, 5. 

Afoled, pp. befooled, 1 6. 206. O. F. 

affoler, to befool (Cotgrave). See 

Halliweli (s.v. a/oiled), and Bartsch 

(s. V. afoler). % 
Afon, V. to receive, 6. 356. A. S. 

dtfdn, Cf. Afeoh, Avo]). 
Afre, adv, ever, 176. 86, 153. See 

Afrio, adj. every, 176. 32; Afri, 

1 7 6. 1 1 7. See ^ueralche. 
After, prep, according to, 4 a. 63 ; 

6.601. See ^fter. 
AgaBnes, prep, against, 2. 15, iii. 

See OnnjaBness. 
Agen, pr. pi. are obliged to, 4 6. 95. 

A. S. dgan^ to have, possess. See 

Agen, adv, again, back, 4 a. 41 ; 

15. 1959, 2250; prep, towards, 

4 a. 8; 12. 250. See Onn^sD- 

Agen, adj. own, 4 ^. 26 ; Agene, 

4 (/. 32. A. S. dgen. Cf. Alien, 

A^en, A^henn, Ogen, Oune, 

Owen, Owere, Owune, O^en. 
Agenes, prep, against, 2. 116. See 

Agesse, v. to reckon on, calculate, 

19. 1 195. Cp. Du. gissen, Sw. 

gissa^ to guess. 
Agesten, v. to terrify, 9. 68. M. £. 

agasten ; A. S. d (=Goth. us) + 

g<istan, to terrify. 
AjgeyHy prep, towards, 18. 451. See 

Agon, adv. back, again, 15. 2238, 

2243. See above. 
Agrise, v. to be afraid, 19. 877. 

A. S. dgrisah. See Skeat (s. v, 

^ns/y, p. 809). 
Agte, sb. care, 15. 2090. A. S. 

faA/,<eA/, deliberation ; cp. O.H.G. 

ahta (Otfrid). Cf. Hagt. 
Agte, sb. wealth, possessions, 15. 

2090, 2144; Agtes, pi, moneys, 

15. 2224. See Ahhte. 
Agte, pt. s, owned, 15. 2309. See 

Agulte, V. to sin, 17 a. 213.; 

Agulte)), I pr. pi. 17 a. 309; 

Agult, pp. 9, 283 ; II. 82 ; 17 a. 

II. A. S. dgyltan. Cf. A^ultelBL 
Ah, conj. but, 3. 58. See Ao. 
Ah, pr. s. owes (as a duty), I. 50 ; 

4 c. 49 ; 7. 222. See Ahen. 
Ahct, aught, I. 56. See Aht. 
Ahen« pr. pi. are obliged, 7. 3, 155. 

A. S. dgan. See Ajbn. 
Ahen, c^j. own, 10. 14 ; Ahne, 7* 

161, 233 ; 8 a. 49. See Agen. 
Ahhte, sb. possessions, 5. 1609. 

A.S. Jeht. Cf. Agte, Aihte, 

Ayhte, Eohte, Ehte, Eihte, 

Ahonge, pp. hanged, 3. 15. A. S. 

dhangen^ pp. of dh6n. 
Aht, aught ; Ahte, i. 142. A. S. 

dht, dwiht, Cf. Ahct, Ohht, 

Ouct, Out, O^t. 
Ahte, pt. s, ought, 2. 212. See 

Ai, adv. ever, 12. 62; 15. 21233. 

Icel. «. Cf. Ay, A53. 
A-iauen, pt. pi, gave back, 2. 156. 

A. S. dgifan. 
Aihte, 56. property, 176. 4a, 55, 

246, 263, 271. See Ahhte. 
Aihware, adv. everywhere, 176. 

88. A. S. dg-hwar. Cf. Ai^ 

Ailbrus, s6, ■& A])elbrus, 19. 241. 
AisiUe, sb. vinegar, 10. 106. O. F. 

aissil. Cp. eyselly Shakespere, 

Hamlet, v. I. 299 (Schmidt). 
Aiper, adj. either, 176. 7, 306. 

See EiSer. 
Aiwttre, adv, everywhere, 16. 216. 

See Aihware. 
Akelp, />r. s. cools, 13. lai. A.S. 

dcelan, to become cold. 



Akennet, pp, bom, Sb. 3. A.S. 

dcenned. See Accenned. 
Akneon, on knees, 9. 273. See 

Aknewelyng, a-kneeling, 19, 787. 

See Cnelinng. 
Al, adj. all, I. 55; 3 b, 42 ; 12. 

260; AUe, 2. 31,38. See EaJl. 
Al, adv. quite, 7. 215; Al abute, 

19. 748. 
Alaxnanie, sb. Germany, 2. 121 ; 

Aleniaine, 6 6. 65. Late Lat. Ale- 

manniaj the country of the Ale- 

manni, a Teutonic tribe. . 
Albamar, sb. Albemarle, a town in 

Normandy, called now Aumale, 

Alo» adj, each ; Ale an, each one, 

6 a. 102. See ^Ic. 
Alchen, adj. dat. each, 6 a. 560. 

See .^Ic. 
Aid, adj. old, 3. 49 ; Aldene, pi, 6. 

196 ; Aldeste, oldest, 6. 58. See 

Aldelike, adv. old-like, 5. 1229. 
Aldewingle, sb. Old winkle, 2. 79. 
Aldren, sb. pi. dat, princes, i. 23 ; 

Aldrene, sb. gen. /)/. elders, 8 a. 5. 

See Ealdror. 
Alegge, V. to put down, confute, 16. 

394. A. S. dlecgan. 
Alemaine. See Alamanie. 
Alemet^, pr. s, illumines, 4 </. 68 ; 

Aleomed, 4 (/. 69. A. S. ledma, 

a ray of light. Cf. Alixue'S. 
Alesen, v. to release, deliver, 7' 88 ; 

Alesde, pt. s. 4 c. 21; Alesed, pp. 

II. 15; 176.136. A.S. dlesan, 

dlysan, to loosen. 
Alesnesse, sb, redemption, 3 &. 81 ; 

7. 147. A. S. dUsnis. 
Ali, adj. holy, 15. 2428, 2439. See 

AlimelS, pr.s, illumines, 4</. '47. 

See AlemelS. 
Ali^te, pt. s, alighted, 19. 47. 

A.S. dlihtan^ to jump lightly down 

from a horse. Cf. Iiihten. 
All, adj^ * all ^iure drihte,' the lorcT 


of you all, 1.60; Alia, 36. 81 ; 

AUe, I. 4, 38, 56; Alles, 'alles 

cunnes ' of every kind. See Sail. 
Allegate, adv. always, 10. 15. Lit. 

alle gate = every way. 
Allmahhti^at;^'. almighty, 5. 1536. 

See Almlchti. 
AUre, adj. gen, pi. of all, 5. 1054. 

See Eal. 
Alls, conj. as, 5. 1261. See below. 
Allswa, adv. also, 5. 1290. A. S. 

eal swd (Alswa). 
Allterr, sb. altar, 5. 1016. ' Lat. 

altare, lit. a high place. Cf. 

AUunge, adv, altogether^ 9. 278. 

A. S. eallunge, 
Almes, sb. alms, 17 a. 29 ; Almesse, 

176. 28. See jEilmes. 
Almichti, adj, almighty, 13. 4, 52. 

A. S. ealmihtig. (Jf. Allmahtis. 
Almihti, adj, almighty, i. 36; Al- 

mihtin, 176. 337. See above. 
Alonde, on land, 17 6. 82. 
Alra, adj. gen. pi. of all, 3 6. 49 ; 

Aire, 4 a. 13. See Eal. 
Alremest, adv.most of all, 3 b. 37. 
Als, adv, also, 15. 2168. A. S. 

eal swd, 
Alse, conj. as, I. 49, 153; Alsse, 

so, 176. 215; Also, as, 12.41. 

A. S. eal swd. 
Alsuic, adj. all such, 2. 3. 
Alswa, conj. as, I. 21, 126; adv, 

also, I. 95 ; Alswa ^Ise, just as, 

I. 197. Cf. Allswa. 
Altegaedere, adv. altogether, 2. 


Alther-beste, best of all, 18. 720. 
See Hailiwell (s.y.). Alther = alder 
waller = aire, of all. See Alra. 

Al-to, adv. entirely, 16. 838. See 
Hailiwell (s. v. all-to). 

Alwat, conj, until, 13. 27. Alwat 
'^ all -^ what t and means all the 
while, till. The form alhuet, until, 
is found in Ayenbite, 26, 52. Cp. 

Alwealdenti adj, all wielding, aU 



mighty, 7. 70, 84. A. S, alwal- 

Am, I pr. s. am, 19. 149. O. 
Northumb. am (Lindisfanie) ; cpi 
A. S. eom. Cf. ^Slxn, Haan, 
Nam, Na&Hi. 

Amad, pp, distracted, 19. 574. A.S. 
gemcsd, Cp. leel. meidat to hurt. 
See N. E. D. 

Amang, prep, among, 5. 1674 ; 6. 
502. A. S. onmang. Cf. Among. 

Amansed, pp. accursed, 3 a. 95. 
A. S. dmdnsodt excommunicated. 

AmendelS, imp. pi. mend, 9. 199. 
Lat. emendare, to free from fault. 

Amidden, prep, amid, 6 a. 406. 
A. S. on middan, 

Amonestement, sh. admonish- 
ment, 13. 69. O. F. amoneste- 
ment (Bartsch). 

Among, adv. at intervals, 16. 6; 
Eure among, every novir and then, 

'9- ^S^S* See Amang. 
Amore3e, adv. on the morrow, 16. 

432; 19. 645, 845. SeeMorwen. 
Ampres, sores, i. 114. A.S. 

ampre, a swelling vein, a tumour. 

Amper is still used in Essex for a 

Amuntet, />r. s. mounteth, 13. 57. 

Q. F. amonier, to go uphill. 
Amur1$rin, v. to murder, 7. 36. 

A. S. dmyrdrian (Schmid). 
An, conj. and, 15. 2068. See And. 
An, prtp. on, at, i. 97; in, i. 4, 

178; among, i. 77. A.S. an^on. 

Cf. On. 
An, num. one, *j. 184, 203; iWtf/'. 

art. a, an, I. i ; 2. 29. A.S. an. 

Cf. On, O, Ore, En, Enne. 
An, I pr. s. own, grant, allow, 16. 

1739. See IJnnen. 
Anae, art. ace. fern, a, I. 6. See 

Anan, a</v. immediately, 5. 1105; 

8a. 123; 16. 1658. A.S- on 

an, lit. in one moment. Cf. 

Anan-riht, adv. immediate!}', 7. 

181. See N. E. D. (s. v. anon): 

Cf. Anonrihtes. 
Anore, sb. a nun, 9. 128^134: 

Ancren, pi. 9. 170, 322. A.S. 

anera, an anchorite, a hermit, a 

monk ; Church Lat. anachoreta ; 

Gr. dvax^P'i'T'ffSt a recluse, h't. one 

who has retired from the world. 

See N. E. D. (s. v. anchor). 
And, conj. if, 12. 2. Icel. enda. 

Cf. An, Ant. 
Andsware, sb, answer, 16. 149. 

A.S. andswaru. Cf. Anffware» 

Ondswere, Onswere. 
Andflwarien, v. to answer ; And- 

swarede,^ pt. s, 6 a. 109 ; Andswer- 

ede, 6a. 533. A.S. andswarian, 

andswerian. Cf. Answareder, 

OndswerelS, Onswerede, Ont- 

Ane, * hire ane,* by herself, 8 a. 

131; *all ane,' alone, 5. 1615; 

'all himm ane,* aH by himself, 5. 

1025 ; Anes, * ])in anes,' of thee 

alone, 8 a. 138. 
Anfald, adj, simple, 5. 1537. A.S-. 

Anglene, sh. of angels, i. 

161 ; Angles, angels, I. 170 ; 176. 

284. See Engel. 
Angles, 56. Angles, English, 6 a. 

68. A. S. Angle, pi. the English 

Angoise, sb. anguish, 9. 70. O. F. 

angoisse ; Lat. angusHa, nar- 
Angou> sb. Anjou, 2. 121 ; Angsen, 

2. 155, 167. Low Lat. Aride- 

gavia, from Andegavi, a Gallic 

tribe (Caesar). 
Angun, 56. beginning, 4<f. 37. 

A. S. onginn, anginn. Cf. Ongon. 
Anheet, pp. heated, enkindled, 13. 

130; Anhet, heats-, 13. 129. A J. 

Anhitte> v. to strike, 19. 714. 

From Icel. hitta, to hit upon. 
Anhonge, u to be hanged, 19. 

328 ; Anho'5, pr, pi. hang up^' 



1 6. 1646. A. S. ^nh6n, to hang 

. up. 

Ani, adj. any, 176. 68. A.S. Jknig, 

Cf. ^i, Eani, Eni, Eny. 
Aniwise, adv, anywise, 176. 273. 
Ani^t, adv, by night, 16. 89, 219. 

See Onigt. 
Anker, sh. anchor, 18. 7-60; 19. 

1026. O. F. aTicre ; Lat. ancora ; 

Gr. ay«vpa, 
Anlepi, adj. single, 7. 170. A.S. 

dnlepig, and dnlipigj in Chron, 

ann. 871. See -lepi, Onlepi. 
Ann, num, one, 5. 1025, 1699. 

See An. 
Anon, adv. in one instant, immedi- 
ately, I. 14. See Anan. 
An-onder, prep, under, 19. 567. 

Cf. An-under. 
Anonrihtes, adv. right anon, im- 
mediately, 9. 204. See Anan- 
. riht. 
Anouen, adv. above, 19. 624, 

1502. A.S. on ufan. 
Answare, sb. answer, 16. 55. See 

Answarede, pt. s, answered, 6 a. 

301; Answerede, 6 6. 301. See 

Ant, conj. and, .7. 12. See And. 
Anti, adv. at once, i. 152. A.S. 

dnunit dat. of an, one. 
AxLVLdypp. annoyed, 13. 15. O.F. 

anuyer. See Enuye. 
An-under, prep, under, 11. 32. 

Cf. An-onder. 
An-uppen, prep, upon, 4 d. 39 ; 

An-uppon, 3 a. 52. Cf. Onuppe. 
Anuri, v. to honour, 13. 9 ; Anu- 

rede,, 13. 29; Anured, pp. 

13. 80; Anuret, imp. pi, 13. 23. 

O. F. onurer. See Onuri. 
Anwald, sb. power ; Anwalde, An-- 

wolde, dat, 6a,b. 166. A.S. dn- 

wald. Cf. On-walde. 
Anyper, in nether, lower, 17 a. 

293 ; Anither, 1 7 6. 299. See 

Aparailed, pp, prepared, made 

ready, 13. ii^ O.F. uparailler^ 
to dress, from par-ail, paretic 
Aperede, pt, s, appeared, 13. 30. 

0. F. aparoir ; Lat. -apparere, 
Apostel, sb, apostle, 46. in; 

Apostlen, dat. pi. i, 162. Lat. 
. apostolus ; Gr« dv6aTo\os, 
Appollin, sfr. Apollo, 6. 125. O.F. 

Apollin ; Lat. Apollinem. 
Aquerne, sb. squirrel, 176. 366. 

See Aequeme. 
At, con/, before, 16. 552 ; adv. 176. 

22. See .Air. 
Archangel, sb. 3 a. 9 ; Archangles, 

pi. 7. 97. Lat. archangelus ; Gr. 

Arehebiscopes, archbishops, 

1 . 128. Cf. .^reebisoop. 
Archiitriolin, sb. the ruler of the 

feast (John ii. 8), 13. 107. Lat, 

architriclinus ; Gr. dpxiTpl«\ivo5. 
Are, conj. before, 176. 124. See^r. 
Are, sb. kindness, mercy, 5. 1041. 

A.S. dr. Cf. Arenn, Ore. 
Arearen, v, to raise, 9. 285 ; 

Arerde, pt. s, 17 a, 172; Arerd, 

pt, s, I. Ill ; Arerdon, pt, pi. i. 
. 97. From A.S. rdran^ to rear. 
Areawe, adv. in row, in order, 9. 
. 38. A.S.r<en/&, arow. Cf.Arowe. 
Areche, 1;. to reach, hit, 19. 1236; 

to control, 14. 454. A.S. dracanf 

to reach after. 
Areohen, v. to relate, express, 11. 

47« A.S. dreccan. 
ArefetS-heald, adj. difficult to hold, 

1 7 6. 3 1 5. A, S. ear/ode J difficult, 
Arefull, adj. kind, merciful, 5. 

1460. A. S. drful. See Are. 
Aren, are, 7. 104; 15. 2228 ; 

18, 464. O. Northumb. aron (for 

Arenn, v, to show mercy to, 5. 

1462. A. S. drian. 
Arewe, sb, a caitiff, villain, 14. 228. 

See below. 
Are3, adj. bad, cowardly, 16. 407. 

A. S. earg^ earh, C(. i&rewe. 



Axe^pe, sb. dat. cowardice, i6. 404, 

1715. k.S,yrh6o. 
Aris, imp, s. arise, 3 a. 80 ; 4 e. 38 ; 

Arist, pr. s. 4 c. 67 ; Aros, pt. s, 

46. 62. A. S. drisan. 
Ariste, £6. resurrection, 3 a. 98 ; 

46. 122 ; Aristes, ^^n. s. 46.67. 

A.S. derist {^drist^ from Hsan). 
Ariue, v. to arrive, 19. 179, 933; 

Aiyue, pp. 19. 1476. O.F. ariver ; 

Late Lat. adripare^ to come to 

the shore. See Byue, Tariue. 
Arixlye, v. to rule, 14. 453. 

From M. E. rixlien, to rule 

Ariste, adv. aright, in the right 

>vay, 16. 323. See Orfgt. 
Arme, adj. poor, 17/1. 223. A. S. 

earm. Cf. Enne. 
Arm-heorted, adj. tender-hearted, 

merciful, 46. 42. A.S. eami' 

heart (B. T.). 
Arm-hertnesse, sb. tenderhearted^ 

ness, 46. 42. 
Arnde, pt. s. ran, 19. 1247. See 

Arode = on rode, 176. 189. See 

Arowe, adv. in row, 19. 1527. 

See Areawe. 
Arrke, sb. ark (of the covenant), 5. 

1032 ; Lat. area, a box. 
As, conj. 7. 157; Ase, 7. 156; 

Aseto, prep, as to, 9, 38. A. S. 

eal swd. See Alswa. 
As, rel. pron. to which, in which, 

7. 194, 203. 
Asenchtest, a pt. s. didst make to 

sink, Sb. 182. A.S. sencan^ to 

cause to sink, causal form of sin- 

caftf to sink. See Senohtest. 
Asetnesse, sb, appointed order, 7. 

132. A. S. dsetnys^ an institute. 

The form setnesse occurs in the 

Ormuluni, 16837. 
Aske-balSie, sb. ash-basker, a basker 

in the ashes on the hearth, 9. 93. 

Cp. axewaddle in Halliweirs Diet., 

a Devonshire word applied to 

those who remain indolently at 

home by the fireside. See Prompt. 

Parv. (s. V. askefise^ ciniflo). 
Asken, sb, pi. ashes, 9. 93, loi. 

A.S. ascan, pi. of asce, cinis. Cf. 

Aozen, Asskess, Axen. 
Asket^, pr. s. requires, 9. 194. A.S. 

dscian. See Azen. 
Asla3e, pp. slain, 19. 88 ; Aslajen, 

19. 907. A.S. o/sledn, to slay. 
Aslepe, adv. asleep, 19. 658, 1325. 

A slepe = on sleep, 
AaoJuBtpt. s, forsook, 19. 65. A.S. 

ofsacan, to deny. 
AspiUe, V. to ruin, 16. 348. A. S. 

Asquint, adv, askew, 9. 61. 
AssaiUe, v. to assail, 19. 637, 864. 

O. F. assailler, asaillir. 
Asskess, sb, pi, ashes, 5. looi. 

See Asken. 
Astah, pt. s, descended, i. 189. 

See below. 
Astigh'8, pr. s. ascends, j^d. 29. 

A. "S. dstigan, to proceed. 
Asumere, adv. in summer, 16, 

416, 622. See Sumer. 
Aswelte, pr. s, subj. die, 9. 124. 

A. S. dsweltan. 
At, prep, with, 17 a. 258; Ate, at 

the, 1 7 6. 92; Atte, 10. 16. 

See ^t. 
Ate, sb. eating, 176. 262. A.S. «/, 

Ateliche, adj. horrible, 46. 53; 9. 

68, 82 ; 17 a. 279 ; adv. horribly, 

9. 90. A. S. atelic, from atqi, 

Atend, pr, s, kindleth, 4<f. 66. 

A.S. ontendan. See Ontenden. 
Atflip, pr. s. flies away, 16. 37. 

A.S. cBtfledn, 
Ath, sb, oath; Athas, ^/. 2. 1 26; 

Athes, 2. 13. A.S. 4^. Cf. Ot, 

Op, ManalSas. 
At-haelde, v, to retain, 6. 165 ; 

At-halden, 36. 17; 6. 40; At- 

holde, 6. 155; IT a. 308; At- 

heold, pt. s. 16. 392 ; Atholde, 



pp, 17 a. 390. A. S. (Bt + 

kealdan, to hold. Cf. Et- 

Atiffe, pr. s. subj. adorn, 9. 186. 

O.F. atiffer, to trim, adorn. 
At-on, at one, of one mind, 19. 

At-8ohet» pt. s. shot away, 16. 44. 

A. S. <Et -h scedtarit to shoot. 
At-stonde, v. toj withstand, 16. 

750; pp, settled, 6. 366. A.S. 

Atte, at the. See At. 
Atter, sb, poison, 36. 89; 17 a. 

148. A. S. dttor, dtter, 
Atter-ooppe, sb. pi. spiders, 16. 

600. A. S. dttorcoppe, a spider. 
Attrann, pt. s. ran away, escaped, 

5. 1434. AS. <Bt -^ rennan, to 

Attri, adj. venomous, 9. 13, 35. 

A. S. Jetren. 
Atum« sb. dress, 9. 269. O.F. 

atom, preparation, hence mod. F. 

atour, ornament, see Diez, 322. 
At-wite, V. to reproach, to twit, 6. 

407 ; Atwitest, 2 pr. s. 16. 597. 

A. S. aiwUan, 
Atywede, pt. s, showed, 2. 89. 

A. S. <Bl-e6wian^ to show. 
ASele, adj. noble, 6. 192. A.S. 

adele^ of noble birth or nature ; 

cp. Icel. adalf inborn quality. Cf. 

ApestrelS, pr.s. darkens, i. 168. 

See peostre. 
Apet, eonj. until, 3 a. 69 ; 6. 457 ; 

9. 311. A.S. 66 dat. 
Aual, imp. s. fell, cause to fall, 8 b. 

183. See Afal. 
Aucte, sb. possession, wealth, 18. 

531. See Ahhte. 
Aucte, ^/. s. owned, 18. 743- See 

Aue, I pr. s. have, 15. 2388; 

Auety, pr. s. has, 15. 2425. See 

Auene, sb. Avon, 17 a, b. 244, 


Auentore, sb. adventure, chance* 
13' 93 J 19.650. O.F.aventure, 
Lat. adveniurat a thing about to- 

Aueole, 11. 9. See Veole. 

Auer, adv. ever, 6. 351 ; Auere, 6^ 
14. See 2B&e. 

Aueriohe, adj. every, 13. 77. Sec- 

AueB, sb. pi. aves to the Virgin, 9. 
251. Lat. av«, hail t 

Augrim, sb. the Arabic or decimal 
system of numeration, * figures of 
augrim,' the Arabic or Indian nu« 
merals, 9. 96. O. F. augarime^ 
algorisme ; from Arab. aP^howeh- 
razmU the surname of an Arabian 
mathematician. See further in 
N. E. D. (s. V. Algorism). 

Auh, conj. but, 9. 28. See Ao. 

Auhte, pt. s. ought, 17 a. 2. See 

Aul, sb. awl; Aules. pi. 9. 79. 
A. S. i/, 61, awel. Cf. Owel. 

Aulem, imp. s. banish, 11. 94. 
A. S. djldman, dfliman, to put to 

Avop, pr. pi. receive, 16. 842. 
A. S. df6n. See Afon. 

Auter, sb. altar, 18. 389. O.F. 
auter^ alter \ Lat. a/tare. See 

Awakenen, v. to arise, 8 6. 68 ; 
Awakenin, 8 a. 53 ; Awakenef^, 
pr. s. arises, 9. 209 ; Awakened, 
Pit. produced, 9. 26. A. S. dwac- 
nattf dwaenian, 

Awakien, v. to awake, 9. 90. 
A. S. dwacian, 

Awariede, pt. s. cursed, 6. 162. 
See Awerien. 

Awatere, in water, 17 6. 82. 

Awei, adv. away, 16. 33 ; 19. 709. 
A.S. onweg, dweg. Cf Awe)). 

Awei, interj. alast, 8 a. 1 17. Cp. 
A. S. wd Id wd s woe I lo 1 woe ! 

Awelde, v. to hold in hand, 14. 
442. A. S. gewealdan, to wield, 
to rule. 



Awente* pt. s. turned, i. io6. 

A.S. dwendan. 
Awerien, v. to curse ; Aweriede, pp. 

accursed, 3 h. 30. A.S. dwergian. 

Cf. Awariede. 
AweB3, adv, away, 5. 1364. See 

Awintere, in winter, 16. 415. 
AwitShst, 2 pr.s. wcighcst out, i. 

42. A. S. dwegan. 
A- wold, in meaning, 15. 1 944, 

2054. See Wold. 
Awreke, pp. avenged, 16. 262. 

A. S. dwreceny pp. of dwrecan, to 

Awwnenn, v. to show, 5. 979. 

A. S. edwarit to show, with n 

formative, cp. G. («r) dugnen^ to 

appear. Cf. Tawnen. 
Awynne, v. to win, 19. 1083. 

A. S. dwinnan. 
Axon, V. to ask, 2. 109 ; Axestu, 

2 pr. s. askest thou, 16. 711; 

Axede, pt. s. 6. 18. A. S. axian. 

Cf. Aske9, Hazede, Easkede, 

Axon, sh, pi, ashes, 46. 115. See 

Ay, adv. ever, 18. 747. See Ai. 
Ayen, adv. back, 13. 32 ; prep. 

against, 17 a. 343. See Onn- 


Ayen-wende, v. to return, 13. 32. 
Ayeyn, prep, in comparison with, 

17 a. 78. See Ayen. 
Ayhte, 56. wealth, possession, 17 a. 

43f 56, 265. See Ahhte. 
Ajaf, pt. 5. gave back, 16. 139. 

See Ajef. 
A^ain, prep, towards, 9. 36. See 

A^ean, prep, against, 9. 5 ; instead 

of, 9. 124; toward, 9. 63. See 

A^ef, imp. s. give up, 8 6. 138. 

A.S. dgtfan, to give up. Cf. 

A^af, A^eoue. 
A^eie, sh. awe, .1. 74. Icel. agi, 

terror ; cp. Goth. agis. 

A^ein, prep, against, 7. 22; 16. 
1788.; at, 7. 129. See Ayen. 

ABeine8, prep, against, 7. 38, 182. 
See above. 

Ajen, V. to possess, to owe, to be 
obliged ; i pr. pi, are obliged, 3 a. 
1 01. A.S. a^on, to have, possess, 
I and 3^r. s. dh^ 2 pr. s. dhst.pL 
dgon, dgan ; pt. dhte. Cf. Agen, 
Ahen, Ahte, Auhte, Auote, 
Og, Ouh, Owen, 0)dS, Nah. 

A^en, adj. own, i. loi ; Ajene, 3a. 
25. See Agen. 

Ajen, prep, against, 16. 7: ^^v- 
back, 6 b. 262. See Ayen. 

A3ene8, prep, against, i. 28 ; 19. 

I^i 1337' ^c Onn)8Dne88. 
A^eo, adv. again, 6. 551. See Ayen. 
A^eoue, v. to give up, 86. 138. 

See A^ef. 
Ajhenn, adj. own, 5. 1261. See 

A^ien, prep, against, 176. 351. 

See Ayen. 
A^ulteV, pr. s, sins, 7. 55. See 

ASB* t^v. ever, 5. 1002 ; a); occ 

a3B> ever and aye, 5. 12 16. See Ai. 


Ba, adj. both, 7. 211 ; conj, 7. 35. 

A. S. 6a,/. and n., both. 
Bao, sh. back, 18. 556. A.S. 

Bad, pt, s. prayed, 19. 7^ ; invited, 

6. 478, 481 ; 19. 1079. A, S. 

bad, pt. s. of biddan, to beg. See 

Bidden ( I ). 
Bak-bitere8, s6. ^/. backbiters, 13. 

Bakenn, pp. baked, 5. 41, 993, 

998. A. S. bacen, pp. of bacon, 

to bake. 
Balde, pt, s. encouraged, 8 a. 37. 

A. S. bealdode, pt. s. of bealdian. 
Bale, sb, death, 15. 1984; sorrow^ 

15. 2525 ; Bales, ^/. sorrows, mis* 



fortunes, lo. 57. A. S. bealu, in- 
jury, evil ; cp. O. H. G. balo (Ot- 

'Baledrinoh, sb, a deadly drink, 10. 

Bali, adj, grievous, JO. 75. A. S. 

bealu, balu, baleful. 
Ban, s6. bone, 10. 102 ; Banes, pi, 

10. 16. A. S. ban ; cp. O. S. ben, 

O. H. G. bein (Otfrid). Cf. Bon. 
Band, pL s, bound, 5. 1 187. A. S. 

band. See Binden. 
Banere, 56. banner, 19. 1398. O.F. 

baniere ; Low Lat. banderia. 
Bar, pt. s, bare, 2. 60 ; 6. 513 ; 12. 

39) 18. 557; bar an honde, 19. 

II 21. A. S. 6<er. See Beren. 
Bare, sb, bier, 19. 901 . A. S. b<kr : 

O. H. G. bdra (Otfrid). 
Bare, adj, simple, single, i^ a. 107 ; 

176. 139; sheer, 6. 315. A. S. 

Bare, sb, the open country, 16. 56, 

1 50. See above. 
Baren, v, to hiy bare, 15. 191 2. 

A. S. barian. 
Bare), sb. a barrow-pig, 16. 408. 

A. S. beargt beark. 
Barlio, sb. barley, 12. 262. A. S. 

Barme, sb. bosom; dat, 19. 708. 

A. S. bearm: O. S. barm; cp. 

Icel. barmr, Cf. Berme. 
Bam, sb. a child, i. 69. See Beam. 
Bamende, adj, burning, 176. 222. 

See below. 
BamdS, pr. s. burneth, 176. 253 ; 

Bam]>, 17 a. 245. A. S. barnan, 

to. bum. See JBemen. 
Baronage, sb. the men, vassals of 

a feudal chief, 19. 1302. O.F. 

bamage (Bartsch), from baron, 

ace. of bers, a man, vassal ; cp. 

Sp. vardn, a man. 
Barr, pt, s. bare, 5. 1372. 6ee 

Baruot, adv. barefoot, 9. 165. 
BataiUe, sb, battle, 19. 863. O. F. 


Bap, 56. bath, 17 a. 215. A. S. bad. 
Ba]>e, adj. both, 17 q. 63; conj. 

Bathe, 2. 20. Icel. bdbi, neut. 

dual, bdbir, m. Cp. Goth, ba- 

joihs. Cf. BeolSe, Bethe, Bope. 
Bapieres, s6. water-pots ( = hydrisB, 

John ii. 6. Vulg.), 13. 102. 
Be, prep, at, i. 80 ; by, 2, 20. See 

Bead, pt. s. commanded, 15. 2494. 

A. S. bead. See Bede (2). 
Beade, pt. s. asked, 6. 596. A. S. 

bad. See Bidden (i). 
Beam, sb. bairn, i. 51; Bearnes, 

pi, 10. 77 ; Bearnen, pi. dat. 1, 

185. A. S. beam, Cf. Bam, 

Bearnep, ^r. ^/. bum, 6. 216. See 

Beast, adv. best, 7* 192. 
Beastes, sb, gen. s, bea$t*s, 10. 7. 

See Best. 
Beate, beat, 9. 160 ; Beaten, 

2 pr. pi. svbj. Ba, 98. A.S. bedtan. 
Be-bedde, v. to supply with bed- 
ding, 18. 421. 
Be-byried, pp, buried, 2. 185 ; Be- 

byrieden, pt. pi. 2, go, 
Beo, sb. beak, 12. 58. O.F. bee 

(Bartsch) ; of Celtic origin, see 

Diez, p. 47. 
Beo, sb. the Abbey of Bee, 2. 107. 
Beohe, sb. valley, 16. 14. M. £. 

bachf a valley in La)amon*s Brut, 

see Stratmann. 
Be-chece, v. to gainsay, i. 172. 

A. S. {jge)cigan, to call. 
Bed, pt, s. commanded, 4 a. 1 1 ; 

8 a. 124; offered, 15. 2047 ; imp. 

s. offer, 15. 2073. See Bede (2). 
Bedde, sb. dat. bed, 9. 155* A. S. 

bed, bedd : Goth. badi. 
Bedden, v. to offer, 15. 2498. See 

Bede (2). 
Bede (i) sb, prayer, 5. 1156; Be- 

dess, pi. 5. 1 149, 161 7. A. S. 

{ge) bed. Cf. Beode, Ibede. 
Bede (2), v. to command, 18. 551 ; 
• to present, 19. 462 ; 2 pt, subj. s. 



commandedst, i8. 668. A. S. 

beddan, tp command, to offer, pt, 

bedd^ pp. boden, Cf. Bed, Bed- 
den, Beot, Bet, Bidden (2), 

Bedeles, sb. pi. messengers, 1. 128, 

131. O.F. bedel; O. H. G. 6i//j7, 

see Weigand (s. v. bUUel) ; cp. A.S. 

bydeL See Budeles. 
Beden,/>/>. begged, 15. 2212. A.S. 

beden. See Bidden (i). 
Bedesang, sb, the singing of the 

prayers, 5. 1450. 
Beelzebub, sb. 17 a. 281. Cp. 

Beforen, prep, before, 2. 86, 191. 

A. S. be/oran, 
Bege, sb. collar, 15. 2140. A. S. 

bedg, bedh, a ring (used as orna* 

ment and as money). Cf. Beies. 
Be-geBt, pt. s. obtained, 2. 72, 75. 

A. S. begcet. See Bi-geten. 
Beggeres, sb. pi. 19. 1132. From 

M. E. beggen, to beg ; A. S. be- 

Be-gniteypp, seized, i. 109. A. S. 

Be-gfunnon, pp. begun, 2. 204. 

See Bi-ginnen. 
Be-hote, pp. promised, 13. 19. See 

Be-houed, ^/. s. was needful, 2. 66. 

See Bi-houes. 
Beien, adj. both, 2. 166.' See 

Beien, v. to bend, 8 b. 85 ; 11. 18 ; 

Beie, ipr. s. bend, 1 1. 3. A.S. 

bigan. Cf. Bugen. 
Beies, circlets of metal, 11. 

34. See Bege. 
Be-ionde, prep, beyond, 2. 188. 

See Bi-^onde. 
Beknet$, pr. s, shows, 12. 300. 

A. S. bedcnian^ to signify by a sign. 

MS. has bekued. See note. 
Be-lamp, pt. s. befell, 2. 84. See 

Belaue, sb. belief, 13. 75. See 

Bileue (i). 

Belde, adj. big, blustering, 1 6. 1 715 ; 

19. 602. A. S. beald. Cf. Bold. 
Beleaue, sfr. belief, 13. 49, 54. See 

Bileue (i). 
Beleue, itnp. pi. let (us) believe, 13. 

52. See Bileue (2). 
Be-limpen, v. to belong to, to hap- 
pen ; BelimpS, pr. s. happens, I . 

149. A. S. be-limpan, to appertain 

to, to happen. Cf. Belamp, Bi- 

limpeV, Tobilimmpep]>. 
Belle, sb. bell, 19. 1028 ; Belles, pi. 

18.390; 19.1409. A. S. belle. 
Be-locen, pp. imprisoned, i. 18. 

A.S. beloceUj pp. of belueant to 

lock up. Cf. Biluken. 
Be-locest, 2 pr. s. regardest, i. 42. 

From A. S. Idcian, to look. 
Belzebub, s6. 176. 287. See 

Bemare, sb. trumpeter, 9. 43 ; Be- 

mares, pi. 9. 41, 44. A.S. by- 
Bemen, sb. pi. trumpets, 6. 497; 

9. 45. A. S. byme^ bimey a trum- 
Bemen, v. to sound a trumpet, 9. 

50. A. S. byrhian. 
Ben, V. to be, 2. 3; 4a. 86; 12. 

99. A. S. bedn^ to be. See Beon. 
Ben, pr. pi. are, 4 a. 70 ; 15. 2165. 
• A. S. bedn. 
Ben, pp. been, 2. 120. 
Be-nam, pt. s. deprived of, 2. 112. 

See Bi-nime. 
Benche, sb. bench, 19. 1513. A. S. 

Bende, sb. bond, imprisonment, 17 a. 

136, 180, 386 ; 17 6. 398. Bendes, 

pi. j^b. 21. A. S. bend. 
Bene, adj. easy, good, 176. 341. 

See Haliiwell. 
Bene, sb. a prayer, request, 5. 1459 ; 

II. 84; 19. 508. A. S. 6^. Cf. 

Beo (i), V. to be, 8 6. 170 ; 10. 23 ; 

16. 1699. See Beon. 
Beo (2), subj. s. be, 19. 1 145 ; 164 

171 ; 6. 81 ; 7. 153 ; subj.pli 19. 



131 ; imp, s. 16. 1638 ; 19. 796. 

A. S. bedf subj. s. ; bedn, subj. pi. ; 

be6^ imp, s. Cf. Bi. 
Beode, v. to pray, 3 a. 91. See 

Bidden (i). 
Beode, sb. prayer, 170. 295; Be- 

oden, pi. 36. 30; 9. 240, 345; 

17 ^- 333* See Bede (i). 
Beom, sb. beam, 2. 34. A. S. beam, 

a tree ; cp. O. H.G. bourn (Otfrid). 
Boon, V. to be, 3 6. 53 ; 6. 55, 350 ; 

pr. pi. subj. 3 6. 129; 6. 54; 19. 

I ; 16. 181. A.S. bedn^ inf. and 

subj, pi. Cf. Bien. 
Beonne, ger. inf. to be, 8 a. 28 ; 

II. 29. Cf. Bienne. 
BeoTe, pt. pi. bore, 6.186. A.S. 

hkron^ See Beren. 
BeoretS, pr, pi. bear, 3 ft. 88. A. S. 

berad. See above. 
Beominde, pr. part, burning, 3 a, 

14. See Berne. 
Beot, pr. s. commands, 3 a. 1 10 ; 

oflfers, 9. 205. See Bede (2). 
Beojt, pr. s. is, 4 rf. 31 ; 5. 1620 ; 

pr, pi, are, I. 125 ; 6. 61 ; 16. 75 ; 

imp. pi. be ye, 16. 1735. A. S. 

bid, pr, s. ; bedS^ pr. pi. and imp, 

pl.oibedn. Cf. BiS, BiriS. 
Beope, conj, both, 16. 438. See 

Ber, sb, beer, 19. 11 24. A. S. bedr ; 

cp. O. H. G. biory see Kluge, (s. v. 

Berd, sb. beard, 18. 701. A. S. 

beard', cp. Du. board. 
Bere, sb. noise, 7. 25. A. S. {ge)- 

bckre, gesture, cry, from beran, to 

bear. See Tbere. 
Beren, v. to bear, 12. 263; 15. 

2084 ; Bere, 19. 475 ; imp. pi, 

bear, 9. 159; Beren, bore, 

4 a. 25 ; BerefS, 6. 88 ; 17a. 

47 > '^P' P^' ^3* ^07* A* S. beran, 
pt. bar, pp, boren. Cf. Bar, 
Beore, Boren, Iboren. 
Bergen, v. to preserve, 12. 14; 
Berege, 4c. 47; BeregeS, 
pr, s, 46. 37. A. S. beorgan, pt. 

bearh,pp. borgen. Cf. BerrBhenn, 

Berwen, rbore^e, Iborhen, 

Iboruwen, Ibure^e. 
Berie, sb. court, city, i. 8,11, 128. 

See Burh. 
Berien, sb. dat, tomb, 1. 198. A. S. 

Beries, sb. pi. berries (grapes), 15. 

2062. A. S. berige. 
Beringe, sb, birth, 13. 6; bearing, 

behaviour, 15. 2178. 
Berme, sb. yeast, barm, 5. 997. 

A. S. beorma, 
Berme, sb. dat. bosom, lap, 9. 83 ; 

Bermes, gen. s. 9. 88. A. S. 

bearm. See Barme. 
Bern, sb, a bairn, child, 14. 430 ; 

18. 571. See Bearn. 
Berne, sb. a barn, 16. 607. A. S. 

Berne, v. to bum, 19. 690 ; Bernet$, 

pr, pi, burn, 6. 216; Beminde, 

pr. p. 3 a. 18, 23, 39. A. S. beor- 

nan. Cf. BamefS, Bime. 
Berr^henn, y. to preserve, 5. 1559. 

See Bergen. 
Berate, imp. s. burst, 19. 1206. 

A. S. berstan, 
BerTven, v, to preserve, 18. 697. 

See Bergen. 
Be-seBt, pt. s. besieged, 2. 130, 151. 

A. S. besiitan^ pt. bescet. 
Be-seBtte, for Bescet, 2. 112. 
Be-sech, imp. s, beseech, 13. 140. 

Cf. Bi-seche. 
Be-sekeV, pr, s, asks for, 13. 77. 
Be-sie, v. to look to, i. 16. See 

Besmes, sb. pi, rods, 8 a. 91 ; Bes- 

men, pi, dat. 8 6. 113. A. S. bes- 

ma, a besom, an instrument of 

punishment made of twigs. 
Best, sb. beast, 9. 127: Bestes, pi. 

9. 3. O. F. beste; Lat. bestia. 

Cf. Beastes. 
Beste, sb. advantage, 19. 776. 1 192. 
Be-suiken, v. to betray, 2. 140. 

See Be-swice. 
Be-swapen, pp, convicted, 1. 176. 



A. S. besu/dpen, pp. of beswdpan, 

to cover over. 
Be-swice, v. to betray, 1. 1 73. A. S. 

Bet, adv. better, i. 139; ^d. 21 ; 

6. 367. A. S. bet. 
Bet, ^. s. offers, 46. 74; 12. 299. 

See Bede (2). 
Bet, see Betan (2). 
Be-teht, pp. entrusted, 2. 95. See 

Beten (i), v. to beat, 8 a. 95 ; pt, 

pi. 10. 81. A. S. bedtan, pt. bedt, 

pp. beaten. 
Beten (2), v. to amend, 46. 121 ; 

176.242; Bete, 4a. 81; 4<r. 43; 

17 a. 134; Bet, pr. s. 46. 43; 

17 a. 126 ; 17 6. 126, 166 ; imp. s. 

4c. 66; pp. 4b. in; BcteS, pr. s. 

12. 107. A. S. bdtafif pt. bette; 

pp. b^ted. Cf. Ibete. 
Betere, adj, better, 46. 98 ; adv. 

2. 81; 36. 16; Betre, 36. 25; 

14. 209; Bettre, adj. 5. 1625. 

A. S. betf adv. ; beterq, adj. 
Be-toke, i pt. s. gave op to, 6. 386. 

See Bi-take. 
Be-tokned (for BetokneS), pr. s. 

betokeneth, 13. 129. See Bi- 

Be-tuene^ prep, among, 13. 9. See 

Be-twenen, prep, between, 1. 197. 

A. S. be-twednan, be-twe6num. Cf. 

Bi-tweone. • 
Be-twyx, prep, betwixt, 2 . 1 35, 1 76 ; 

Betwux, 2. 173. A. S. betweox. 

Cf. Bi-twizen. 
Bep, pr. s. is, shall be, 4 c. 43; 

176. 19; 19. S^4; 4a. 56; 

17*- 75; imp. pi, I $. 2263. A.S. 

bidf pr. s. ; beod^ pr. pi. ; be^id, 

imp, pi. See Beon. 
Be pam "pe, conj, since that, i. 

Bethe, adj. both, 18. 360, 694. See 


BeVen, v. to beg for, 15. 2498. See 

Bidden (i). 

Be pet, conj. because, 13. 41. 
Beuer, sb. a beaver, 17 &. 366; 

Beuveyr, 17a. 35^. A.S. befer; 

cp. hzX,. fiber. 
Be-winden, v. to enwrap, cover, 

36. 12; Bewunden, pp. 36. 85. 

A. S. bewindan. Cf. BiwindeV. 
Beyne, adj. both, 6. 336. A. S. 

begen, m. Cf. Beien. 
Bezste, adj. best, 6. 400. A. S. 

betst. (Pronounce z as ts here.) 
Bi, /(rtfp. by, at, i. 7; unto, i. 21 ; 

according to, 4 6. 120. A. S. 

H. Cf. Be, Bie. 
Bi, V. to be, 13. 79. Sec Beon. 
Bi, pr. s. subj. 4 a, 63. See Beo (2). 
Bi-eallefS, pr. s. accuses, 15. 2314. 

M. £. Bicallen is formed from Icel. 

kalla, to call. The equivalent A. S. 

word is beclipian {cleopian), ac- 

Bi-oharre, v. to mislead, betray, 

4d. 24 ; BicherreS, pr, s, entices, 

36. 121; Bicherd, />p. deceived, 

170. 316; 176. 322. A.S. be- 

cerran^ becyrran, to turn, pervert, 

Bi-ohermet (for BichermeS), 

scream at, 16. 279. A.S. cirman, 

cerman, to cry out. 
Bi-clarted, pp. defiled, 10. 44. 

See Halliwell (s. v. beclarted). 
Bi-oleopien, v. to accuse, 17 a. 107 ; 

Biclepien, 176. 107 ; Bicleoped, 

pp. 9. 327; 16. 550. A.S. be- 

Bi-dused, pp^ enclosed, 6. 354. 

A. S. beclysan. 
Bi-colwede, pt. s. blackened with 

soot, 19. 1076. See Colwie. 
Bi-oom, pt. s. became, 3 6. 8 ; 10. 

2. A. S. becdm. See Bioumen. 
Bi-cumelich, adj. comely, becom- 

ing, 4 6. 12, 57 ; Bicumeliche, adv. 

becomingly, 46. 122. 
Bi-cumen, v. to come, 8 a. 116; 

to suit, 8 a. 17; pp. befallen, 15^ 

2227; Bicume]}, pr. s, becomes, 

12. 91 ; is fit,. 3 a, 84; 16. a/i. 



A. S. hecuman. Cf. Bi-com, By- 
. come. 

Bidden (i), v. to beg, pray, ask, 
. 46. 121; 8fr. 164; 12. 116; pr. 

pi. beseech, 4 a. 50 ; Biddet^, imp. 

pi. pray, 7. 238; 9. 356; Bide, 

imp. s. 4 c. 66 ; Biddinde, /'r./>ar/. 

8 b. 3a. A. S. hiddatif to beg, 

ask, />/. 6<c(/, />p. beden. Cf. Bad, 

Beade, Beden, Beode, BelSen, 

Bit, Ibeden. 
Bidden (2), v, to command, 18. 

529; Biddi, I pr. s. I offer, 18. 

484. See Bede (2). 
Biddinge, sb. prayer, 13. 57. 
Bidene,a^t/. together, 18. 730. See 

Stratmann, SuppU 1881, s. v. bid. 
Bie, prep, by, 13. 105. See Bi. 
Bied, pr. pi. are, 13. 1 29. See Biep. 
Biede, sb. dat. table, 176. 266. 

A. S. bedd; cp, Goth, biuds, altar, 

Bien, v. to be, 176. 389; pr. pi. 

are, 4 a. 67; 46. 27, 76; Bieno, 

I. 156. See Beon. • 

Bienne, ger. to be, i. 50. See 

Bi-este, adv, eastward, 19. H47, 

1347. A. S. east. 
Bie J?, pr. pi. are, i. 63, 75 ; 13. 66 ; 

17 *• 331' A. S. bedd. See 

Bi-falle, ^r. subj. befall, 19. 99; 

/•/>. befallen, 19. 420. A. S. be- 
feallan. Cf. Bi-ful, Biualle. 
Bi-flen, v. to fly from, 176. 154. 

A. S. bifledn, ^ 

Bi-flette, pi. s. surrounded with 

water, 19. 1430. A. S. Jleotan, to 

float, pt. flotte. 
Bi-foren, ^rep. before, 3 a. 46 ; 36. 

99 ; 15. 2103 ; Bi-forn, 15. 2272 ; 

19.532; Bi-for, 18. 482 ; Bi-fore, 

10. 80. A. S. beforan. Cf. Be- 

foren, Biuoren, By-fore, By- 

Bi-ful, pt. s. befell, 6. 244, 279. 

A. S. befedll. See Bi-faUe. 
Bi-g8Bt. See Bi-geten. 

Bi-gan, pt. s. began, 4<f. 5. See 

Bi-gat, pt, s. begot, 15. 2258. See 

Bigen, v. to buy, 15. 2166, 2246. 

See Biggenn. 
Bigetel, adj. profitable, 15. 1992. 

Cp. M. E. bi^ete^ bi-gete, gain 

(Stratmann). See Bi^ete. 
Bi-geten, v. to obtain, i. 64; to 

beget, 15. 2180 ; Bigset, pt. s. ob- 
tained, 2. 75 ; Bi-gotten, pp. pos- 
sessed, 7. 1 74. A. S. begitan, pt. 

begeat, pp. begeten. Cf. Beg89t. 

Bi-gat, Bi-^eten. 
Biggen, v. to buy, 5. 161 1. A. S. 

bycgan. Cf. Buggen. 
Bl-g^e, V. to beguile, 19. 320. 

From O. F. guiler, to deceive, 

from guiUt deceit. 
Bi-ginnen, v. to begin, 9. 354; 

Biginne, 19. 1297; Bi-gon, pt. s. 

3 a. 61 ; 3 6. 96 ; 6. 441 ; 8 a. 6 ; 

14. 13 ; Bi-gunne, pt. pi, 19. 1447 ; 

Bigunnen,i76. 247 ; //>. 46. iii. 

A. S. beginnan {ohener onginnan), 

Cf. Begunnon, Bygynne. 
Bi-ginninge, sb, dat. beginning, 

17 b. 119. 
Bi-god, interj, by God I 19. 165. 
Bi-gjrede]7, pr, pi. cry out at, 16. 

279 ; Bi-gredet, 16. 67. From A. S. 

gr<kdan, to cry out. 
Bi-growe, pp. overgrown, 16. 27, 

Bi-hat, pr. s. promises, 17 a. 360 ; 

176. 368. A. S. behdte/>. See 

Bi-healde, v. to behold, 176. 288 ; 

Bi-halden, 7. 77, 82 ; Bi-halde, 7. 

45 ; Bi-halt, pr. s. 9. 98 ; Bi-heold, 
pt. s. 6. 491 ; Biheolt, 7. 112. A. S. 

behealdan^ pt. behedld. Cf. Bi- 

Bi-hengen, pt. pi. hung about, 4 a, 

23. A. S. behengoftf pt, pi, of 

behduy to hang round. 
Bi-hese, s&. ^/. promises, 4 J. 55. 

A. S. behkst a vow, promise. 



Bi-heste, sb. promise, 9. 19. See 

Bi-heten, v. to promise, 176. 246; 

Bi-hoteS, pr. pi. 9. 339 ; Bi-het, 

pt. s. 19. 470; Bi-hetet (bihete + 

it), didst promise it, 18. 677 ; Bi- 

hoten, pp. 18. 564. A. S. hehdtan^ 

pt. hehit, pp. behdten. Cf. Bihat, 

Bi-heue, adj. profitable, 46. 40; 

9.351. A.S. hehefe^ necessary. 

Cf. Un-bihefre. 
Bi-heyhte, pt. s. promised, vowed, 

170.238. K.S.beheht. See Bi- 

Bi-hinde, prep, behind, 170. 86. 

A. S. hehindan. 
Bi-holde, v. to behold, 6. 418. See 

Bi-hoten, BihotefS, see Biheten. 
Bihoue]?, pr. s. -behoveth, 19. 478 ; 

Bi-houes, 18. 582. A.S. hihofian^ 

to need. 
Bi-keihte, pt. s. ensnared, 17 6. 

322; M. £. hicachen, see Strat- 

mann ; from M. E. cachen {catch) ; 

O. F. cachier (now chasser) ; Late 

Lat. captiare. 
Bi-knewe, pt. pi. knew, 13. 8. 
Bi-l8Bde, pt. s. enclosed, 6. 439. 
• A. S. biUcgan, to cover. 
Bi-l8Buen, v. to remain, 6. 77; 

Bilaeue, 6. 91 ; Bileaue, pr, s. 

subj. 9. 237. A. S. beldtfan, to 

be left, to remain. Cf. Bi*lef, 

Bi-lefue, Bi-leuelS. 
Bile, sb. bill, beak, 12. 86; 16. 

1675. A.S. bile. 
Bi-leande, ger. to reprove, 4 d. 39. 

A. S. beledn, to hinder, blame. 
Bi-leaue. See Bi-laouen. 
Bi-leaue, sb. belief, 8 a. 99. A. S. 

{ge)ledfa. Cf. Bileue (i). 
Bi-ledet (for Bi-lede|)), pr, pi. pur- 
sue, 16. 68. A. S, beladan. 
Bi-lef, imp. s. renounce, 1 7 a. 1 29. 

From A. S. l<k/an, to leave. 
Bi-lef, pt. s. remained, 15. 2197. 

See Bi-laeuen. 

Bi-lefden, pi. pi. believed, 8 a. 11 ; 

Bi-lefetS, pr. pi. believe, 6. 106, 

Sec Bi-leue (2). 
Bi-lefftQle, adj. believing, 4 a. 56. 

Cf. Un-bilefftiUe. 
Bi-lefue, v. to remain, 6. 48, 91. 

See Bi-lsduen. 
Bi-lefiies, sb. pi. beliefs, 6. 158. 

See Bi-leue (i). 
Bi-leist, 2 pr. s. coverest, 16. 839. 

A. S. bilecgan, to lay upon, cover. 

See Iieist. 
Bi-leue (i), sb, belief, 4 c. 49; 6. 

105. A.S.{ge)ledfa. Cf.Bi-leaue, 

Be-laue, Be-leaue, Bi-liaue. 
Bi-leue (2), v. to believe, 13. 83; 

19. 1343 ; imp. 13. 84; Bileuen, 

pr. pi. 10. 79. A. S. (geM^an, to 

believe. Cf. Bi-lefden, BiUueS. 
Bi-leue (3), sb. food, sustenance, 

4 6. 76. A. S. bigleo/a. 
Bi-leuetS, pr. s, remains, 4^. 86. 

See BiLsuen. 
Bi-lewen, v. to remain, 15. 2233. 

*See BileBuen. 
Bi-liaue, sb. belief, 13. 44, 117, 

See Beleue (i). 
Bi-lien, ^r. pi. belong to, 46. 17. 

A. S. bilicgan, to lie round. 
Bi-liked, pp. made pleasing, 16. 

842. A. S. {ge)l%cian, to please. 
Bi-liinpet$, pr. s. belongs, 3 b, 76. 

See Be-limpen. 
Bi-liue, adv. quickly, 6. 3 10; 8 6. 

152. M. £. bi Hue, be life, by 

life, lively. Cf. BUue. 
Bi-liuen, v. to live by, 46. 102; 

12. 254. A.S. bilibban, 
Bi-liue^, I pr. pi, believe, 6. 182. 

See Bi-leue (2). 
BillefS, pr. s. pecks with bill, 12. 

83. See Bile. 
Bi-loken, pp. enclosed, 17 a. 80; 

176. 81 ; Bilokene, 9. 29. A.S. 
• belocen. See Bi-luken. 
Bi-long (on), prep, pertaining to, 

dependent on, 15. 2058. Cf. M.E. 

6«/on^en, to pertain to. See iKmg- 




Bi-luken, v, to include, 14. 420. 

A. S. belucan. Cf. Bi-loken. 
Bi-menefS, pr. 5. bemoaneth, 15'. 

2226 ; Bimcnt^ pp. bemoaned, 15. 

2202. A.S. bitTKknan, 
Bi-menJng, sb. bemoaning, 15. 

Bi-xnong, prep, among, 8 a. 140. 

A. S. {ge)mang, {ge)mong. 
Bi-xnurnelSj/v*. s. bemourneth, 4 b. 

15. A.S. bimurnan, 
Binden, v. to bind, 176. 220; 

Bindenn, 5. 1179; Binde, 19, 
"191. A.S. bindan, pt. band^ pp. 

bunden. Cf. Bounden, Bun- 

den, Ibunde. 
Bine, prep, within, i. 103. See 

Bi-neome, pr. s. subj. deprire, 7* 

II. See Bi-nime. 
Bi-neotSe, prep, beneath, 16. 912. 

See below. 
Bi-nepen, adv, beneath^ 17 a. 86 ; 

17 6. 87. AS. beneodan, 
Bi-nime, v. to take from, ijb. 

44, 48, 50. A. S. beniman. Cf. 

Bi-neome, Benam, By-ny- 

men, Ximen. 
Binne, adv. within, 18. 584. A. S. 

binnan (beinnan), Cf. Bine. 
"Bi-reued, pp. bereft, 19.622. A.S. 

biredfian^ to deprive of. 
Bi-reuse, imp. s. lament, 4 c. 66; 

Bi-reused, pp. 4c. 28. A.S. beh- 

redwsian, to feel remorse. 
Bi-reusunge, sb, contrition, 3 6. 57. 

A.S. behreowsungj^ 
Biri, sb. dot. residence, 15. 2257. 

A. S. byrigj byrg, dat. of burk, a 

fortress. See Burh. 
Birine, pr. subj. may rain, 19. 11. 

M.E. bi-reinen (Stratmann). 
Birkabeyn, sb, name of a king of 

Denmark, 18. 4 ; Bircabein, 18. 

494. Icel. Birkibeirif Birchleg. 

Cp. Corpus Poeticum Boreale 

II. 279. 
Bime, v. to burn, I. 179. A.S. 

byrnan. See Beme. 

Birrp, pr, s. is due, 5. 984 ; Birrde, , 

pt. s. 5. 1325. A. S. (jge)byrian, 

to be due. 
Bi-runne, pp. bedewed with tears, 

19* ^54* A.S. birinnan, to run 

as a liquid, pp. birunnen. 
Bisohopen, sb. dot. pi. bishops, 16. 

1 76 1. See Biscop. 
Bi-schriche]7, pr. pi. shriek at, 16. 

67. From Icel, skroekja. 
Biscop, sb. bishop, 2. 8, 124; Bis- 

copes, gen. s. 2. 53; pi. i. 129, 

178; 14.3. L&t. episcopus ; Gr. 

kvicKoiros, Cf. Bischopen, Bis- 

Bise, sb, the north wind, 18. 724. 

O. F. bise ; cp. It. bigio^ gr*y» 
Bi-seche, l pr. s. beseech, 11. 87 ; 

19- 453 J Bi-secheJ>, pr. s. 7. 89 ; 

pr. pi. 2, a. 41 ; 7. 128. Cf. 

Besech, Bi-sohte, Sechen. 
Bi-seh, pt. s. looked, 7. 96. A. S. 

biseah. See Bi-sen. 
Bisemar, sb. scorn, 16. 148. See 

Bi-semep, pr. s. * him bi-semej>,' he 

appears, 19. 486; Bisemedi, pp. 

made seemly, plausible. A. S. 

sernaftt to make the same^ to con- 

oiliate, to suit, to appear. 
Bi-sen, v, to oversee, rule, 15. 

2 1 41. A. S. bisedn^ to look about, 

to visit. Cf. Besie, Biseh, 

Bisi, adj. busy, 9. 207 ; Bisie, 9. 

236. A. S. bysig ; cp. Du. be- 

Bi-side, prep, beside, 19. 861, 

1326; adv, 16. 25; Bi-sides, 

prep, by the side of, 4 a. 9, 75. 

A. S. be sidan. 
Bisiliche, adv. busily, 9. 94. See 

Bi-siV, pr. s. ; bisiS him, looks, takes 

forethought, 7. 191. A. S. bisikiS. 

See Bi-sen. 
Bi-smeoruwed, pp. besmeared, 9. 

114. A.S. besmyred. 
Bismer, sb, scorn, 10. 109 ; Bis- 



mere, 10. 49. A. S. bismer, insult. 

Cf. Bisexnar. 
Bi-smitted, pp. dirtied, 9. 113. 

A. S. besmitan, pp. besmiten. 
Bisne, sb. example, parable, 5. 1230; 

7. 3. A. S. 6ys», an example : 

O. S. busan (in am-busan, com- 
mand) ; cp. Goth. busnSf (in ana- 

Bi-socnen, sb. pi. dot. petitions, 7. 

Bi-socnie, v. to visit, 3 «. 90. A.S. 

sdcn, an enquiry. 
Bi-sohte, pt. s. besought, 8 6. 24. 

See Bi-seche. 
Bi-speke, pp. promised, 16. 1738. 

A. S. besprecen^ spoken to. 
Bi-spel, s6. parable, i. 35. A.S. 

bigspell, example, proverb, parable. 
Bisscopp, sb. the Jewish high- 
priest, 5. 1022, 1027. See Biscop. 
Bista^et, pp. situated, circum- 
stanced, 8 a. 133 ; BisteaSet, 8 b. 

166. Cp. Dan. bestedt. See Skeat 

(s. V. bestead). 
Bi-steken, pp. shut out, 7. 46. 

M. E. steken^ to fasten ; cp. O. S. 

stehan^ to pierce. 
Bi-stod, pt. s. stood by, 18. 476, 

507. A.S. bestdd^pt. of bestan- 

dan, to stand by, surround. 
Bi-stonden, />p. surrounded, 8 a. 

133. A.S. beslanden. See above. 
Bi-stride, v. to bestride, 19. 753. 

From A. S. stridan, to strive. 
Bi-8unien, v. to shun, 17 6. 154. 

From A. S. scunian. 
Bi-STvike, v. to betray, deceive, 

16. 158; 19. 290; I pr. s. 19. 

687. A. S. bisiuican. Cf. Be- 

Bit, pr. s. asks, prays, 46. 44 ; 7. 

93; II. 80; 17a. 127; invites, 

46. 70; 15. 2238; 16.441. See 

Bit, pr. s. bites, seizes with the beak, 

12. 262. A.S. bitan. 
Bi-tache, imp. s. assign, 6. 345. 

See Bi-techen. 

Bi-tacnen, v. to betoken ; Bi-tac- 

ntfS, pr. s. 3 6. 32, 78 ; Bitacnedd, 

pp. 5. 986, 1125. A.S. {ge)tdc' 

nian,to betoken. Cf. Be-tokned, 

Bi'teBlht^pp. given, 6. 410 ; Bitaht, 

entrusted, 7. 201 ; 8 a. 72 ; Bi- 

teiht, 9. 17; Bitagt, 15. 2043'. 

A. S. betaht, pp. of bet<kcan. Cf. 

Bi-t8Bhten (for Bitaehte),^/. s. gave, 

6 a. 567 ; Bitahte, 6 b. 567 ;: 8 a. 

119 ; Bitagte, delivered, 15. 2139 ; 

Bitaucte, 18. 558. A.S. bet(khte, 

pt. s. of bet<kcan, to commit, put in 

trust. See Bi-techen. 
Bi-take, v. to commit, entrust, 6 h 

382 ; Bi-takest, 2 pr. s. 6. 410; 

Bi-tak, imp. s. 6. 345 ; 19. 791. 

See Taken. 
Bi-tauote. See Bi-tcehten. 
Bi-teohen, v. to entrust, give up, 

6 a. 382; Biteche, 18. 395; Bt- 

teache, 2 pr. s. subj, 8 a. 11 a. 

A.S. betican. 
Bi-teiht. See Bi-teBhten. 
Bi-teUe, v. to clear, justify, 16. 

263. A.S. betellan, to answei^ 

Biter, a(§. bitter, 13. 44, 60 ; 17 6. 

138; Bitere, pi. 19. 7^93; adv. 

19. 1520; Biterest, superl. 46. 

109. A. S. biter. Cf. Blttre. 
Bitemesse, sb. bitterness, 13. 60. 

A. S. bitemis. 
Bi-tide, v. to betide, 19. 543 ; Bi- 

tid, pr. S.IS.21S1; pp. 1$. 1978. 

From A. Si /irf, a time, tide, Cf. 

Bi-tild, pp. covered, 8 a. 31. A. S. 

Bi-time, adv. betimes, 19. 987. 

A. S."6<? tima^ in (good) time. 
Bitinde, adj. biting, bitter, 9. 335. 

A.S. bitan, pr, p. bitende, 
Bi-tocknetS, pr. s. betokeneth, 4 a. 

41, 43 ; Bi-tockued, 13. 119. See 

Bi-towen, pp. employed, 9. 352. 



A. S. hetogetiy pp. of be'teon, to 
draw round. (M. E. be-ten, to 
Bi-traie, v. to betray, 19. 12 71; 
Bi-traide, pt. s. 19. 1290. From 
O. F. trair ; Lat. trader e, to give 
Bitterliche, adv, bitterly, 8 h, 147. 

A. S. biter lice. 
Bittre, adj. bitter, 8 a. 119; 8 6. 
113 ; adv. 8 a. 61 ; Bittrest, super L 
10. 106. See Biter. 
Bituhhe, prep, between, 7. 78 ; 
10.53. ^..S.betuh. Cf.Bi-twex. 
Bi-tweonen, prep, between, 9. 
255 ; Bi-twenen, 4c. 12 ; Bi-twe- 
nenn, 5. 1 316, 161 1 ; Bi-twen, 15. 
2203; Bi-tuene,l8. 749; Bi-twine, 
6. 334 ; A. S. beiwednum, betwed- 
natif betwinan. 
Bi-lrwex, prep, betwixt, 19. 346 ; 
Bitwexe, 19. 424. A. S. betwix, 
betwux, betweoh. Cf. Bituhhe. 
Bi-tydefS, pr. s, betides, 14. 429. 

See Bi-tide. 
BiU, pr. s. is, 3 a. 61; 36. 63; 
shall be, 8a. no. A.S. bid. Cp. 
Bi-tSenken, v. to bethink, 12. 94; 
Bi])enchen, 176. 329; Bi-])enche, 
17 a. 323; Bi-))ohte,/>/. s. 6. 221, 
283; Bi-i5hogte, 15. 2115 ; Bi- 
])o^te, 16. 199; 19. 264, 411; 
Bi-])ouhte, 170.156; Bi^oht, pp. 
repented, 176. 8; Bi-])ouht, 17 a. 

8. A. S. be-^encattf pt. -^oAte, pp. 

Bi-t5er, by the, 176. 216, 
Bi-ualle, v. to befall, 19. 172; 

pp. 176. 198. See Bi-falle. 
BiuefS, pr. s. trembles, 15. 2280. 

A. S. bifian (beofian). 
Bi-uoren, prep, before, 6. 519; 

Biuore, 7. 98; il. 90; 19. 233. 

See Bi-foren. 
Bi-uorenhond, adv. beforehand, 

9. 72. 

Bi-wente, pt. s. turned round, 19. 
321. A.S. bewendan. 

VOL. I. C 

Bi-wepe, I pr, s. beweep, 3 a. 65. 

A. S. bewdpan. 
Bi-werien, i pr. pi. defend, 176. 

337. A. S. bewerian, 
Bi-weste, adv. westward, 19. 5, 

775. From A. S. west. 
Bi-winde)V, pr. s. winds about, 4 b. 

35. A. S. bewindan. 
Bi-witen, v. to guard, 7. 4; Si- 
wile's, pr. s. 7. 34 ; Bi-wisten, pt. 
pi. 3a. 23. A.S. bewitatit to 
watch over. Cf.. By-wite. 
Bi-won, pt. s. obtained, 3 a. 7, 84. 
M . E. bewinnen ; A. S. (ge)winnan, 
to win. 
Bi-wreie, t>. to reveal, disclose, 19. 

Bi-^ete, sb. profit, 9. 139. Cf. 

BiBeten, v. to obtain, procure, 6 a. 
174 ; Bi5ete, pr. s. subj. 6 b. 343; 
Bi^ite, 6 a. 343 ; Bi^etenn, pp. 5. 
1645, acquired ; Bi-^oten, pos- 
sessed, 7. 109 ; Bi-yete, begotten, 
17 a. 105 ; Bijute, 176. 105 ; Bi- 
jite, obtained, 6 a. 424. See Bi- 
Bi-30iide, ^rf/>. beyond, 19. 1191. 
A. S. begeondan. Cf. Be-ionde. 
Blao,afl{^'. black, 18. 555; Blaca,^/. 
36.106; Blake, 9. 152; 19.1341. 
A. S. blac. 
BlflBtenn, pr. pi. bleat, 5. 1317 ; 
Blaete))J>, pr, s. 5. 1315; A. S. 
Blake, sb. sm\it, black, 19. 121 7. 

See Blao. 
Blanohet, sb. a white powder used 
as a cosmetic, 36. 123. O. F. 
blancket, something white (Cot- 
BlAsie, pr. s. subj. blaze, 9. 289. 

Cf. A. S. blase^ a flame. 
Blawe, V. to blow, 18. 587. A. S. 
bldwan. Cf. Bleowen, Bloa- 
werS, Blou. 
Bleike, adj. pale, 18. 470. A.S. 
6/ac, shining. See Skeat (s. v. 



Blenohe, v. to turn aside, i6. 1 70 ; 

19. 1453. See Skeat (s. v.). 
Bleo, sb. complexion, 16. 152. A.S. 

bleoht bleo, hue. 
Bleowen, pt. pi. blew, 6. 497 ; 

Bleouw (MS. bleowu), pt. s. i. 

195; Bleu, 19. 1314, 1550. See 

Blesse, v. to bless, 19. 584; Blesced, 

pp, 4 a. 33 ; Bletcaed, consecrated, 

2. 190. A.S. bletsian, bledsian 

{=bl6dis6n), to sprinkle with 

blood (bldd). Cf. I-blesoede. 
Blete, adj. bleak, exposed, 16. 616 ; 

sb. 16. 57. 
Blinnen, v. to cease, 15. 1963. 

A. S. blinnan (be + linnan). 
Blis, sb. bliss, 19. 1250; Blisse, i. 

145 ; Blisce, 13. 78. A. S. bliss 

( B blibs) , from bli9e. Cf. Blysse. 
Blisfol, a<^'. blissful, 11. 19; Blis- 

fule, 8 a. 36. 
Blissen, v, to gladden, 46. 2 

Blissin, 7. 121 ; BlissiS, pr. s. I. 

58 ; Blisse'S, i. 61. A. S. blissian^ 

to be glad, to gladden. 
BliSe, adj. joyful, 16. 418. A. S. 

Hide. Cf. Blis. 
BlJtSeliohe, adv. gladly, 7. 95, 213 ; 

176. 258 ; BliJ)eli5, 5. 1328. A.S. 

Bliue, adv. quickly, 6. 395; 19. 

723. See Bi-liue. 
BloaweV, pr. s. bloweth, 9. 102. 

See Blawe. 
Blod, sb. blood, ^a. 29 ; 4 a. 52 ; 

9. 223. A.S.bl6d. Cf. Blesse. 
Blod-bendes, sb. pi. blood-bands, 

9. 198. 
Blodi, adj, bloody, 10. 18; Blody, 

19. 1264. A.S. bl6dig, 
Blod-letunge, sb. dot. bloodletting, 

9. 230 ; Blodieting, sb. 10. 107. 
Bloiuede, pt. s. bare blossoms, 15. 

2061. M. £. blomierif to bloom ; 

from Icel. bldm, a blossom. 
Blostme, sb. blossom, 11. 22; pi. 

4 a. 25 ; 4^.45 ; 16. 437; Blosme, 

16. 16. A.S. bldstma. 

BldSeliche, adv. joyfully, 6 b. 5^4. 
Cf. BlulSeUohe. 

Blou, imp. s. blow, 18. 585. See 

Blowe, pp. blossomed, 16. 1636. 
A. S. bl6tuan^ to bloom. 

BliilSeliche, adv. blithely, 6 a. 564 ; 
17 a. 250. See BlitSeliohe. 

Blysse, sb. bliss, 17 a. 146. See 

Boo, sb. book, 3 fr. 6; 7. 239; 9. 
349; *]>e holie boc,' the Bible, 
4 a. 26. A. S. bde. Cf. Bok. 

Bode, sb. message, 17 a. 256 ; 176. 
264, 296 ; 15. 1973 ; Bodes, com- 
mands, 12. 299. A. S. (ge)bod, a 

Bode, sb. body, 46. 122. See 

Boden, pt. pi. commanded, 15. 
1971. A.S. budon. See Bede 


Bode- word, sb. command, 15. 

BodielS, pr. pi, announce, 9. 6 7 ; 

Bodeden, pt. pi.l.^. A.S. bodian. 
Bodi5, sb. body, 5. 1555; Bodie, 

19. 910 ; Bodi, 7. 181 ; 16. 73. 

A. S. bodig. 
Boh, sb. bough, 4 a. 26 ; Boges,^/. 

4 a. 37. A. S. b6h, bdg. Cf. 

Bo^e, Buges. 
Bohte, pt. s. bought, 7. 32 ; Bohtoa, 

pt. pi. 2. 85 ; Bo^te, 19. 894 ; 

Bouhte, pt. s. 17 a. 188 ; Bohte, 

pp. 17 b. 186 ; 10. 120; Bo5t, 15. 

1994. See Buggen. 
Bok, sb. 17. 391 ; Boke, dai, 9. 

251 ; 12. 54. See Boo. 
Bok-ilered, adj. book-learned, 14. 

Bold, adj. fierce, 15. 191 7. A. S. 

beald. Cf. Belde. 
Boldeliohe, adv. boldly, 16. 401. 

A.S. bealdlice. 
Bole, sb. gen. bull's, 6. 403, Icel. 

boli. Cf. Bule^ 
Bolle, sb. bowl, 6. 514; 19. 1135. * 

A. S. bdla. 



Bolt, sb, arrow, 14. 421. A. S. bolt, 

a catapult. 
BoluweV, pT^ s» puffs up, 9. 102. 

A. S. belgan, pp. gtbolgen, Cf. 

Bon, s6. pi, bones, 14. 425. See 

Bond, sh, imprisonment, 15. 2076, 

2197; Bondes,//. bonds, 15.2230. 

A. S. hendf band. 
Bone, sb. prayers, petition, 8 a. 131 ; 

8 6. 28 ; 12. 116; Bonen,/)/, 17 a. 

157. Icel. b6n\ cp. A. S. ben. 

Cf. Bene. 
Bord, sb. board, table, 6. 430; 

Borde, i . 199 ; 4 1. 6 ; 17 a. 259, 

305 ; Bordes, pi, 6. 499. A. S. 

bord, a plank. 
Bore, sb. boar, 16. 408. A. S. bdr. 
Boren, pp. born, 15. 2160; Bo- 

renn, 5. 969. See Beren. 
Borh, sb. fort, 6 b. 447. See 

Bosiun, s6. bosom, 8 6. 114. A. S. 

Bote, sb. remedy, succour, 10. 34, 

57; amendment, 36.51 ; 4c. 48; 

9- 339; 17«-312; 176.318. A.S. 

bot. Cf. Sinbote. 
Bote, sb. boat, 19. 202, 774. A. S. 

Bote, conj. but, 10. 7 ; except, 6. 

3.S3 ; o"^y» 18. 721. See Bute. 
BoVen, adj. both, 15. 2049; 18. 

471 ; Bot^e, conj. 4 c. 59, See 

Bouhte. See Bohte. 
Bounden, pp. bound, 18. 545. 

A. S. bunden. See Binden. 
Bonre, sb. lady's chamber, 19. 705. 

See But. 
Boute, prep, without, 6. 352. See 

Boye, sb. man-servant, 19. 1087. 

Cp. O. Du. boef, a boy ; G. bube ; 

borrowed from Lat. pupus. 
Bo^e, sb. bough, 19. 1243 ; dat. s, 

16. 15 ; dat. pi, 16. 616. See 


Bo^te. See Bohte. 

Brao, pt. s. broke, 17 6. 185 ; Brak, 

19. 681. See Breke. 
Brace, s6. outcry, 5. 11 78. Icel. 

brak ; cp. A. S. (ge)brcec. 
Brade, adj. broad, 10. 119. A.S. 

brdd. Cf. BrsBd, Brod. 
Brade, sb. roast flesh, 176. 145. 

A. S. brcede. Cf. Brede. 
Brsecon, pt, pi. broke, 2. 31. See 

BrsBd, sb, bread, 5. 993 ; Brad, i. 

34,186. See Bred. 
Brappe, sb. violence, 5. 1233. Icel. 

brdd, haste. 
Bread-lepes, sb. pi. bread-baskets, 

15. 2078. A. S. /ffdp, basket ; cp. 

Icel. laupr. 
Breas, sb. brass, 8 a. 124. See 

Brech, sh. pi. breeches, drawers, 

9. 167. A.S. briCf breeches, 

pi. of brdci cp. Icel. brdh, pi, 

Breeds, /r. s. breaks, 176. 182. See 

Bred, sb. bread, 46. 6; 15. 2048; 

Breade, dat. 1. 195. A. S. bredd. 

Cf. Breed. 
Bred. See "Waxbred. 
Bred-ale, sb. bridal, wedding-feast, 

13. 89. See Brud-ale. 
Brede, s6. roast flesh, 17 a. 149. 

See Brade. 
Brede, sb, breadth, t6. 174. A. S. 

Breden, v. to spread, 6. 499. A. S. 

Bred-gume, sb. bridegroom, 13. 

III. A.S. brydguma, bredguma. 
Bred-wrigte, sb. baker, 15. 2077. 

A. S. wyrhta, a worker. 
Breke, v. to brei<k, 16. 1693 ; 

Brek, pt. s. broke, 17 a. 183; 

Breken, pt. pi, 4 a. 37. A.S. bre- 

can, pt. brae, pp. gebrocen, Cf. 

Brae, BrsBOon, Brea1$. 
Breken, v, to use, 9. 148. See 


C C 2 



Breme, adj, fierce, angry, i6. 202. 

A. S. breme, famous, noble. 
Brende, pt. s. burnt, 5. 1702 ; 

Brendon, />/. pi. 2.43; 18. 594; 

Brend, />/). 5. 1000, 1620. M. E. 

brennen ; Icel. brenna, to burn. 
Breoken, v. to break into, 7. 7 ; 

Breoke, 7. 31. See Breke. 
Breres, sb. pi. briars, 9. 161. A. S. 

Bres, sb. brass, 8 6. 152. A.S. 6ra»5. 

Cf. Breas. 
Brety pr. s. roasts, 3 b. 119. M. E. 

breden ; A. S. brJedan. 
Bret$i^, sb. vapour, 3 a. 48. A. S. 

BretSere, brothers, 15. 191 1, 

2199; BreSre, 3 a. 83. A. S. 

brdbor, dat. bretfer^ pi. br69or^ 

brddru. Cf. BriUere, BroUere. 
Bricht, adj. bright, 13. 48 ; Brict, 

18. 589 ; Brictest,5tt/)er/. 15. igio. 

A. S. beorht. Cf. Briht, Brijt. 
Brichtnesse, sb. brightness, 1 3. 48 ; 

Brictnesse, 1. 168. A. S. beorhtnes. 

Cf. Brilitnesse. 
Bridd, sb. a young bird, 5. 1260. 

A. S. brid. 
Bridel, sb. bridle, 19. 778. A. S. 

Brigge, sb, bridge, 19. 1088. A. S. 

Briggeden, pt. pi. bridged, 4 a. 35, 

65. A. S. brycgian. 
Briht, adj. bright, 7. 91 ; it. 19 ; 

Brigt, 12. 71 ; Brihtre, comp. 7. 

140. See Bricht. 
Brilitnesse, sb. brightness, 7. 75. 

See Brichtnesse. 
Bringen, v. to bring, 4 a. 1 1; Brinn- 

genn, 5. 1327; Bringe,^. s. subj. 

bring, 4 b. 70. A. S. bringan, pt. 

brdhte, pp. gebrdht. Cf. Ibrooht. 
Brinke, sb. dat. shore, 19. 141. 

Dan. brinks edge, verge. 
BrinnetSf pr. s. burns, 4 a. 71. A.S. 

brinnan (in onbrinnan). 
Bristowe, sb. Bristol, 2. 117. A. S. 


BriSere, brothers, 15. 2271. 

See BrefSere. 
Bri^t, adj. bright, 16. 168 1 ; 18. 

589 ; Bri^ter, eomp. 16. 152. See 

Broohe, sb, brooch, 9. 261. O. F. 

broche, a pin, a spit. 
Broohte, pt. s, brought, i. 116. 

See Brohte. 
Brod, adj. broad, 6 b. 435. See 

Brode, sb. dat. brood, 16.93. Cp. 

Du. broed, and M. H. G. bruot, 

Brohte, pt, s. brought, 3. 68; 

Bronte, 19. 40, III; Brouhte, 

1 7 a. 183 ; Brohten, pt, pi, 2. 149; 

Brohhtenn, 5. 1330. See Brin- 
Brondes, sb, pi, brands, 9. 287. 

A. S. brand. 
BrdSere, sb. pi, brothers, 6. 335. 

See BrerSere. 
Bruo, imp. s, use, 19. 206. 3ee 

Brud, sb, .bride, Sb. 158. A. S. 

bryd. Cf. Burde. 
Brudale, sb, bridal, 19. 1044. A. S. 

bryd-ealo, a bride-ale. Cf. Bred- 
Bruken, v. to eat, enjoy, 46. 24, 

123; BrukeC, imp. pi. eat, 4 b. 73. 

A. S. brucan, to use, enjoy. Cf. 

Breken, Ibroken. 
Brun, sb. a brown jug, 19. 11 34. 

A. S. brun, brown. 
Brune, sb. burning, 8 a. 124. A. S. 

Brunie, sb, a corslet, coat of mail, 

19. 591, 719. Icel. brynja; cp. 

A.S. byme (Sweet). Cf. Bry- 

Bruttes, sb. pi. Britons, 6 a, b, 205. 
Bruttiso, adj. British, 6 a. 450, 

561 ; Bruttesse, 6 b. 450, 561. 
Brynune, sb, dat. shore, margin, 

19. 190. A. S. brimt surge. 
Bryniges, corslets, 3. 35. See 




Buckess, sb.pL bucks, 5. 990. A.S. 

hucca, Cf. Bukkess. 
Budeles, sb. pi. beadles, ofEcers, 

8 a. 98. A. S. hydelj lit. one who 

proclaims, from beddan. Cf. Be- 

Buffeted, pL pi, struck, 10. 80; 

Buffetet, pp. 10. 88. O. F. bu/e- 

ter, to cuff. 
Baffetes, sb, pi. blows on the cheek, 

lo. 75. O.F. bufet. 
Bufon, a(/v. above, i. 174. A.S. 

bufan ( = 6« ufan). Cf. Buuen. 
Bugen, V. to approach, 46. 24 ; pr. 

pL go, 4 6. 122. A. S. bugan, to 

bow, yield, flee. Cf. Buhen, 

Buwe, Bu^en, ^ebugon. 
Buges, £&./>/. boughs, 15. 2060. See 

Buggen, V. to buy, 10. 26 ; Bugge, 

170.66; 176.65. A.S. bycgoHf 

pt. bohte^ pp. geboht. Cf. Bigen, 

Biggen, Bup, Bohte. 
Buhen, v. to bow, 8 a. 67 ; Buhe, 

8 b. 85. See Bugen. 
Buhsum, adj. obedient, 7. 88. 

From A. S. bugan, to bend. 
Bukkess, sb. pi. bucks, 5. 1526. 

See Buckess. 
Bule, sb. bull, 5. 990; gen, s. 6. 

403. See Bole. 
Bultedd, pp. boulted, sifted, 5. 992. 

O.F. butter f bvleter { = bureter)t 

to sift through brownish stuff 

Bunden, pt. pi. bound, 10. 78 ; 15. 

2216 ; pp. 46. 52; Bunde, 19. 

422. A. S. bundon^ pt. pi,, bunden^ 

pp. See Binden. 
Bur, sb. dot, bower, women's 

chamber, 19. 325; Bure, 19. 269, 

372. A.S. bur. Cf. Boure. 
Burch, s6. city, 2. 150. See Burh. 
Burch, sb. Peterborough, 2. 193, 

201. A.S. Burh. 
Burde, sb. bride, 8 a. 18. See 

Burden,/)^, pi, buried, 19. 902. See 


Burdon, sb. pilgrim's staff, 19.1073. 

O. F. bourdon ; Low Lat. burdo^ 

nem ; cp. It. bordone (Dante). 
Burh, sb. city, i. 194; 6. 346; 

Bureh, 4 a. 11 ; Burhjen, dat, 6. 

502 ; Burhene, gen. pi. Sb. 70. 

A. S. burh ; cp. O. H. G. burg 

(Otfrid). Cf, Burch, Borh, 

Berie, Biri. 
Burh-folc, sb. borough-folk, . 4 a. 

Bume, sb. dat. a spring of water, 

16. 918. A. S. buma ; cp. O. H. G. 

brunno (Otfrid). 
BurtS-tid, sb. birth-time, 10. 4. A.S. 

Busk, sb. the head or tuft of a stalk 

of wheat, 15. 2105. Dan.iusJ^, a 

bush. Cp. Halliwell (s. v. busk (3)). 
Butere, sb. butter, 2. 46 ; 18. 643. 

Lat. butyrum ; Gr. fiovrvpov. 
Butler, sb. 15. 2055. Norm. F. 

butuiller^ from butuille, a bottle ; 

see Skeat (s. v.). 
Buton, conj. except, i. 43, 1 10; 

Buten, 6. 353 ; prep, without, 7. 

237 » Bute, conj, except, 3 6. 47 ; 

46. 29 ; prep, without, 1 . 20 ; 6. 

352. A. S. buton {=^bedton). Cf. 

Butt, conj. unless, 5. 1662. 
BuV, pr. s. is, 9. 139; are, 

19. 815. A. S. bid, 3 pr. s., bedd, 

pr. pi. See BeoV. 
Bup, pr. s. buys, 17 a. 150. See 

Buueu, prep, above, 7. 97, 100; 

14. 436 ; Buve, adv. 16. 208. 

See Bufon. 
Bujen, V. to depart, 6. 489 ; Bu^e, 

to bend, 19. 427 ; Buwe, i pr. s. 

bow, 1 1 . 3 ; Bujhesst, 2 pr. s, art 

obedient, 5. 1303. See Bugen. 
By-come, pr. s. subj. become, hap- 
pen, 14. 209. See Bi-cumen. 
By-fore, adv. before, 14. 236. See 

By-gynne, imp. s, begin, 14. 415. 

See Bi-ginnen. 



By-hud, imp. s. hide, 14. 242. 
By-hynde, adv. behind, 14. 237. 

See Bi-hinde. 
Bynde, v. to bind, 17 a. 216. See 

By-nymen, v. to take from, 17 a. 

49 ; Bynyme, 17 a. 45, 51. See 

Byrieden, pt. pi. buried, 2. 88, 

197. A. S. byrigan, to bury, 

closely related to beorgan, to pro- 
tect. Cf. Burden. 
Byp, pr. s. is, 170. 84, 348 ; 176. 

87. A. S. bid. Sec BedS. 
By-uoren, ^rtf^. before, 176. 346. 

See Bi-foren. 
By-wite, />r. s. may guard, 14. 245. 

See Biwiten. 


Csese, sb. cheese, 2. 45. Lzt.caseus. 
Cf. Chese. 

Cesste, sb. chest, 2. 29. Lat. cista. 

Csestre, sb. Chester, 2. 109. Lat. 
cnstra, a camp. 

Caliz, sb. chalice, 9. 144 ; Calice, 
dot. 4 a. 57. Lat. calix. 

Callen, v. to call, 18. 747. A.S. 
callinn {ceallian). 

Cam, pt. s. came, 15. 2103, 2339 ; 
became, 176. 117. See Comen, 

Can, I pr. s. can, 2. 38; Canstu, 2 
pr. s. canst thou, 19. 1222 ; Can 
J>anc, pr. s. thanks, 17 6. 71. A. S. 
cann. See Con, Cunnen. 

Canceler, sb. chancellor, 2. 9. O.F. 
canceller ; Late Lat. cancellarius. 

Candelmasse, sb. dat. Candlemass, 
2. 116. A. S. candel masse, the 
feast of the purification, called in 
Church Latin, candelaria (Du- 

Canges, sb. gen. fool's, 9. 98. Cp. 
prov. Sw. kdngt giddy, frolic- 
some (Rietz). See Stratmann. 

Cantuarie-buri, sb. dat. Canter- 
bury, 6. 30. See below. 

Oantwaraburoh, sb. Canterbury, 

2. 105. A.S. Cantwaraburh, the 

fortress of the men of Kent. 
Care, sb. grief, 6. 352; 176. 45. 

A.S. caru ; O. S. cara ; cp. O. H. G. 

char a (Weigand). . 
Carited, sb. charity, 2. 66. O. F. 

caritet, caritad ; Lat caritatem. 
Carl-men, sb. pi. men, 2. 20. Cp. 

Icel. harl-madr^ a man, male. 
Cartes, carts, 15. 2362. 
Castel, sb. village, 2. 163 ; castle, 

6. 445 ; 18. 412. Late Lat. ros- 

tellum, village (Vulgate) ; Lat. 

a fortress. 
Castel-weorces, sb. pL castle for- 
tifications, 2. 17. 
Casten, 1;. to cast, 18. 519; Caste, 

19. 849. Icel. hasta^ to throw. 

Cf. I-cast. 
Celere, sb. cellar, 9. iii. O. F. 

celier ; Lat. cellar turn. 
Cendal, sb, a silk stuff, Sb. 44. 

O. F. cendal ; Low Lat. eendalum, 

sandalum. See Nares (s.v. sen- 

Cerges, sb. pi. wax tapers, 18. 594. 

O. F. cierge ; Lat. cereus, from 

cera^ wax. 
Certes, adv. certainly, 16. 1769. 

O. F. certea, in Roland, 255 ; Lat. 

certas, pl.f. of certus. 
CelSen, sb. pi. dat. countries, native 

places, I. 19, 131. A. 8. cyddu, 

native land, home. See CudSen, 

Chaere, s6. chair, 19. 1281. O. F. 

cha'ere (now chaire, chaise); Lat. 

cathedra, a seat ; Gr. Ka0idpa. 
Chafare, 56. merchandise, 15. 195 1. 

M. £. ehapfare, trade business ; 

A. S. cedp, a bargain +/arti, a 

journey, business. Cf. Che£BEure. 
Chald, adj. cold, 13. t20. See 

Chanounds, canons, 18. 360. 

O. F. chanoine, canoine. See 

Chapeles, sb. pi. chapels, 19. 1408. 



O. F. chapehf capele ; Church Lat. 

capella, a sanctuary (Ducange). 
Chapmen, sh. pi. merchants, 15. 

1956. A. S. cedpman. Cf. Chep- 

Charen, v. to turn, go, 15. 2436 ; 

Chare, i pr. s. depart, 15. 2390. 

A. S. cerratiy cirran, Cf. Chearre, 

Cherde, Churre]?. 
Chari^, adj. full of care, sad, 5. 

1274. A. S. cearigf from cearu 

{caru\ care. See Care. 
Chartre, sh. prison, 15. 2043. O. F. 

chartre (Bartsch) ; Lat. carcerem. 
Chartre, sh. charter, 18. 676. O. F. 

chartrey cartre; Lat. chartula. 
Chasti, />r. s. suhj. chastise, 7. 11. 

O. F. chastier, castier ; Lat. cos- 

Chaterest, 2 pr. s. chatterest, 16. 

Chateringe, sh. chattering, 16. 

Chaiingi, v. to change, 19. 1064. 

O. F. changier ; Low Lat. cam- 

biare, to barter (in the Lex Salica). 

Cf. lohanget. 
Cheap, sh, bargain, 10. 67. A. S. 

cedpf a word borrowed from the 

Latin, cp. Lat. caupo, a huckster. 

Cf. Kepen. 
CheapelS, pr. s. sells, 9. 139. A. S. 

cedpian^ to bargain. Cf. Chepet. 
Cheapild, sh, a dealer, 9. 138. See 

Chearre, v. to turn, 86. 175. See 

Cheas, pt. s. chose, 10. 20. See 

Cheffare, sb. traffic, 9. 138. See 

Chelde, v. to turn cold, 19. 1160. 

A. S. cealdian. 
Cheldren, children, 6. 319. 

See Childre* 
ChSle, sb. chill, 5. 161 5 ; 17 6. 199. 

A. S. ciUf cyUt cp. c6lian, to grow 

Chele. See Methesohele. 

Chelle, sb. bowl, 11. 45. A. S. 

Cheose, v. to choose, 19. 664. A. S. 

cetsatiy pt. ceds, pp. coren, Cf. 

Cheas, Chesesst, Cosan, Cu- 

san, I-ooren, 3ecas. 
Chepet, pp, bought, 10. 68. See 

Chepmon, sh. merchant, 9. 140. 

See Chapmen. 
Cherde, pt, pi, turned, 16. 1658. 

See Charen. 
Chere, sb. a time, 8 6. 19. A. S. 

cerr, cyrr, a turn, a space of time. 

Cf. S\imohere. 
Chere, sh. face, 9. 73 ; Cheres, pi. 

wry faces, 9. 55. Norm. F. chere ; 

Low Lat. carOt the face. 
CherelS, pr. s, cheers, i. 58. O. F. 

ckerer (Cotgrave), 
Cherl, s6. peasant, 18. 682, 684 

Cherles, />/. 18. 620. A.S. ceorl, 

a man, a husband. Cf. Carl- 
Chesesst, 2 pr. s, choosest, 5. 1282. 

See Cheose. 
Cheste, 56. jangling, 16. 177, 183. 

A. S. cedstt strife. 
Che1$en, sb. //.countries, i. 81. 

See CelSen. 
CheiTtrwenn, v. to chew, 5. 1241. 

A. S. ce(huan. 
Chid, imp. s, chide, 14. 412; Chid- 
den, pt. pi, disputed, 15. 1927. 

A. S. cidan, to brawl. 
Chiloe, sb. childishness, 17 a. 7. 

From child. See Cil<i,- 
Child, sb. a youth trained to arms, 

a young ^ight, 19. 25. A. S. 

cildt the child of a noble house, 

also, used as a title in A. S. 

Cbron. an. 1074. Cp. the use 

of en/ant in Roland, 3197. See 

Ghildhad, sb. childhood, 10. 8. 

A. S. cildhdd. 
Childre, sh. pi. children, 15. 2228, 

2363 ; Chilldre, 5. 1065 ; Childer, 

15. 2149; Childrene, gen. pi. 9. 



314; 18. 499; Ohildre, dot, fd. 

16.1776. A. S. cild, pi, cildrUf 

-ra, -rum. Cf. Cheldren, Cyld- 

Chirolie, sb. church, 3 a. 90; 19. 

1408 ; Chirchen, dot. pi. 4 d. 10. 

See Cyrce. 
Chirolisocney sb. an independent 

church, congregation, 4 a. 3. A. S. 

ciric-sdcn^ ecclesiae immunitas 

Chinne, sb. noise of birds, 16. 305. 

A. S. cimif cyrm. 
Chold, adj, cold, 13. 139. See 

Christen, adj. Christian, 2. 85. See 

Christen-inan, sh. Christian man, 

13- 78; Christeneman, 13. 120. 

See Cristene-men. 
Chule, * ich chule,* I will, 8 6. 54 ; 

ChuUe, * ich chulle,' 8 6. 94. See 

Churohen, sb. pi. churches, 19. 62. 

See Cyroe. 
ChurreJ?, pr. s. turns, 14. 85. See 

Ciclatiin, sb. a costly silk texture, 

8 a. 32; II. 51; Ciclatuns, ph 

8 b. 43. O. F. ciclatun in Roland, 

846. See Chaucer 2, p. 153, and 

Skeat (s. v. scarlet). 
Cild, sb, child, i. 69 ; 2. 86. A. S. 

eild. Cf. Child, Cheldren, 

Ciroe, sb, church, 2. 51. See 

Ciroe-wioan, sb. the office of sa- 
crist, 2. 74* See Chron. p. 370. 
Cistemesse, sb. dat. cistern, Joseph's 

pit, 15. 1942, i960. Cp. Lat. 

cisterna, used of Joseph's pit, Gen. 

xxxvii (Vulg.). 
Cite, sb. city, 13. 5, 90. O. F. cile ; 

Late Lat. citaiem (for civitatem) 

a community of citizens. Cf. 

Clsennessess, sb. gen. of purity, 5. 

1 194. A. S. cliknnis. 

Clansi, v. to cleanse, 16. 610. A. S. 

{ge)cl<knsian. Cf, denesse, 

ClsX, sb. cloth, 36. 116; 9. 184; 

ClaCes, pi. clothes, 3 b, 40, 78 ; 

8 a. 32. A. S. clA6, Cf. Clc«. 
Cla]7en, v, to clothe ; Cla])e^, pr. 

pi. 36. 123. Cf. Clopede. 
Clawwess, sb. pi. hoofs, 5. 1225. 

A. S. cldwUf pi. cldwe, 
Clenohe, v. to twang the harp, 19. 

Clene, adj. pure, i. 117; 4 a. 75; 

15- 2439; adv. wholly, i. 18. 

A. S. cl<hne. 
denesse, sb, purity, 3 a. 58, 102 ; 

purifying, 13. 103. See disn- 

Clenliche, adv. in purity, 4 a. 77 ; 

Clennlike, 5. 1644 ; Clenli, purely, 

10.21. A. S, clanlice, 
Clennsenn, v. to cleanse, 5. 11 26 ; 

Clensede, pt. s. 1. 1 19; Clensed, 

pp, 4 b. 108. See Clansi. 
Clensinge, sb. purifying, 46. 119. 

A. S. chknsung. 
Clenten, embraced, 19. 141 3. 

See Skeat (s. v. clinch), 
Cleo, (for Cleof),s6. cliff, 17 a. 343. 

A. S. cleof, clif, Cf. dine, 
deopien, v, to call, 6. 498 ; Cle- 

pien,i . 7 ; Clepeien, 1.57; CleopeW, 

pr, s. 7. 43 ; ClepeC, ipr. pi. j^d. 

65 ; Cleopede, pt. s. 9. 9 ; pt, pi. 6. 

460 ; Clepede, pp. 4 6, 30. A. S. 

cleopian (clypian). Cf. dupede» 

Clerc, sb, scholar, a. 196 ; Clerekes, 

pi. clergymen, 2. 54 ; Clerkes, 16. 

722. O. F. clerc; Church Lat. 

clericus (Ducange) ; Gr. Kkijpiic^s 

from fcXrjpoSt a lot, in eccl. writers, 

the clergy. 
Cleue, sb, cottage, 18. 557, 596. 

A. S. cled/a^ a chamber. 
Cieu.ea,pr. s. splits asunder, 10. II9. 

A. S. cleS/an. Cf. dofenn. 
Clinge, V. to wither, shrivel up, 16. 

743. A. S. clingan. 



Clippe]7]>, pr. s. clip^th, 5. 1189. 

Icel. klippa, 
Ciiue, sh. clifF, 176. 351. A. S. 

clif. Cf. Cleo. 
Cllue'5, pr, s. adheres, abides,* 15. 

2384 ; Cliued, pt. s. cleaved, ad- 
hered, 15. 1963, A. S. clifian, 

pt. clifode, pp. clifod. 
Clivers, sh. pi. claws of a bird, 16. 

155, 270; Clivres, 16. 84, 1676. 

A. S. cltfer (B. T.). 
Clofenn, />p. cloven, 5.1224. A. S. 

clofen^pp.oicledfan. SeeCleues. 
Clof8, sh. clothing, 9. 314; Clo])e, 

dat, 19. 1231; Clo])es, pi, 19. 

1065. See ClatS. 
Clopede, pt, s, clothed, 18. 420. 

See Clape]7. 
Clupede, pt, s, called, 19. 225. See 

Cluppen, V. to embrace, 9. 266; 

Clupte,p/. s. 6, 578. A.S. clyppan. 
Clusterlokan, sh, pi. enclosures, 

barriers, 3 a. 47. A. S. clustorloc 

(B. T.). 
Clutes, sh. clouts, rags, 10. 6 ; 18. 

547. A. S. clut ; cp. Wei. clwt. 

Cf. Pilcheclut. 
Cnawen, v. to know, 7. 146 ; Cna- 

wenn, 5. 13 14. A. S. cndwan, 

Cf. CnowefS, BJiewen, 3©- 

Cnawleohunge, sh. knowledge, 7. 

145. From M. E. cnawleche; 

leche = leke = Icel. leikr, leihi^ a 

common Scandinavian suffix. See 

Cnedesst, 2 pr. s. kneadest, 5. 

i486. A. S. cnedan, 
Cnelinns:, sh. kneeling, 5. 1451. 

Cp. Dan. kncele, to kneel. Cf. 

Cneow, sh. knee ; Cneowe, dot. 6 a. 

521; Cnouwe, 66. 521. A.S, 

cnedw, cned. Cf. ]^ne, A-Kaeon. 
Cniht, sh. knight, 6. 103, 185; 

Cnihten, pi. 6 a, 9, 53; Cnihtes, 

6 h. 9, 53, 202 ; Cnihtene, gen, 

pi. 6 a. 1 10. A. S. cniht, a boy, a 

servant, in the Chronicle used of 

armed retainers, soldiers, knights, 

see Chron. (Index). Cf. Kniot. 
Cnotted, pp. knotted, 2. 25. From 

A. S. cnottOf a knot. Cf. I-knot- 

Cnotti, adj, knotty, 10. 83. 
Cnouwe. See Cneow. 
CnowelS, pr. s. knoweth, 176. no. 

See Cnawen. 
Coo, sb. cock, 16. 1679. ^' S* ^o^» 
Cofe, adv. quickly, i. 31 ; Cofer, 

comp. earlier, i. 20. A.S. cafe, 

Cogge, sb. dot. cog, a tooth on the 

rim of a wheel, 16. 86. Cp. O. F. 

cocke^ the notch of an arrow. 
Cole, 56. charcoal, 19. 590. A. S. 

Colur, sh, colour, 19. 16. O. F. 

colur ; Lat. colorem, 
Colwie, adj. grimy, 19. 1094. From 

cole (see above). Cp. Prompt. 

Parv, p. 88 (s. v. colwid). 
Come, 56. coming, 5. 1109; 15. 

2267; 19. 530; Comes, pi, 6. 

526. See Cume. 
Comen, v, to come, 18. 413 ; Com- 

me, 12. 16; Come©, pr. pi. 6, 

377 ; Com, pt, s. came, i. 22, 97 ; 

16. 1 718 ; Come, 2pt. s, 4 6. 56 ; 

19. 1188; pt, pi. 176. 141 ; 19. 

59 ; Coman, 2. 55 ; Comenn, 5. 

1026. See Cumen. Cf. Cam, 

Comp, sh, contest, 6. 240. A. S. 

camp ; Lat. campus, a field, esp. a 

field of battle. 
Compaynye, s6, company, 19. 889. 

O. F. companie; Late Lat. com- 

paniem, a taking of bread together, 

from Lat. panis, bread. 
Con, I pr. s. know, 16. 1786, can, 

7. 188; Cone, 2 pr. s, suhj, 18. 

623 ; Con {)onk, pr, s, thanks, 

17 a. 70. See Can. 
Confessoren, sh. pi. dat, confessors, 

1. 164. Lat. confessor. Cf. Cun- 




Conseil, sb. counsel, 13. 8. O. F. 

conseil; Lat. consilium. 
Contrarie, sb, the contrary, 13. 1 13. 

O. F. contraire ; Lat. contrarius, 
Coren, sb. com, grain, 4^. 45 ; 15. 

2104; Com, 1. 192. A. S. com; 

cp. Du. koren. 
Cors, sb. body, 13. 60. O. F.cors, 

corps ; Lat. corpus. 
Cos, sb. kiss, 4 a. 58. A. S. coss. 
Cosan, pt. pi, chose, 2. 198. See 

Cosin, sb. cousin, 19. 1480. O. F. 

cosin ; Late Lat. cosinus (Brachet); 

Lat. consobrinus. 
Cote, sb, cottage, 18. 737. A. S. 

Couerture, sb. bed-clothes, 19. 696. 

O. F. coverture. Cf. Kuuertur. 
Couthe, />/. s. could, 18. 652. See 

Crabbe, sb. crab, 36. 90. A. S. 

Craftes, sb. pi. crafts, 16. 711 ; 

Craften, pi. dot. 6. 428. A. S. 

Crakede, pt. s, cracked, 18. 568. 

A. S. cearcian. 
Crauen, v. to beg eamestly, 15. 

2366; Crauede, pt, s. 18. 633. 

A. S. crajian. 
Crechen, v. to scratch, 8 6. 190. 

M. E. cracchin (Stratmann). 
Credo, sb. the Creed, 9. 21 ; Credo 

moare, the greater Creed, 9. 302 ; 

Crede, 12. 113. Lat. credo^ I 

Crefti, adj. crafty, 8 a. 151. A. S. 

crceftigt powerful. 
Crei, sb. cry, 16. 335. O. F. cri. 
Crempe, v. to restrain, 16. 1788. 

Cp. O. H. G. chramphan^ to bend 

Crepen, v. to creep, 12.251; Crepe, 

46. 21. A. S. credpan. 
Oribbe, sb. crib, 10. 7. A. S. cryb. 
Crieden, cried, 10. 36. O. F. 

crier ; cp. It. gridare. 
Crisme-doU, sb. the Chrisom, the 

white cloth tied round the head of 

one newly baptized, after the unc- 
tion with chrism, 46. 34. A.S. 

crisme ; Church Lat. pannus arts- 

matist vestis chrismalis, chrismalis 

Cristei^, sb. Christian, 12. 91 ; pi. 

Christians, 10. 41 ; Cristene, 36. 

104; adj. 6 b. 588; 19. 177; 

Cristine, 6 a, 588. K.^.cristen; 

Lat. chfistianus. ' Cf. Christen. 
Cristendom, sb. Christianity, 17 a. 

292 ; 1.7 b. 298 ; Crisstenndom, 

5.1520. A. S. cristenddm. 
Cristene-men, sb, pi. Christian 

men, 17 a. 291; Criste-man, sb. 

Christian man, 46. 107. Cf. 

Crooke, sb. crock, pitcher, 9. 113. 

A.S. crocca, 
Crois, sb. cross, 19. 1331. O. F. 

crois; Lat. crucem. 
Crokes, sb. pi. crooked ways, 8 a. 

151. Cp. O. Du. crohe, a bend. 
Croos, vessels for water, 13. 

1 01. A. S. crog, 
Croune, sb. crown, 18. 568. O.F. 

corone ; Lat. corona, Cf. Crun, 

Crowch, sb, cross, 19. 1324. See 

Crucet huB, sh, house of torment, 

2. 28. From Lat. cruciare, to 

Cruohe, 56. the cross, 46. 21, Cp. 

O. H. G. cruet (Tatian); Lat. 

crucem. See Stratmann (s. v.). 
Crude, v. to press forward, 19, 131 3. 

A.S. creddan. 
Crunmiess, sb. pi. crumbs, 5. 

1475. A. S. cruma. 
Crune, sb. crown, 19. 1306; Crun, 

19. 141 5. See Croune. 
Cruned, pp, crowned, 10. 61. Cf. 

Cudde, pt. s. made known, 17 a. 

191 ; Cudden, pt. pi, 4' a. 19. 

See Cu'Sen. 
Ciide, sb, cud, 5. 1237. 



CudSen, sb. country, 6. 196. See 

Cuen, sb. queen, 2. 129. See Cwen. 
Cullfre, sb. dove, 5. 989 ; CuUfres, 

gen. s. 5. 1260. A.S. cul/re. 
Cume, sb. coming, 6. 236 ; Cumen, 

6. 47. A.S. cyme, Cf. Come, 
Kime, Kmne. 

Cumen, v. to come, 2. 128; 6. 

327; 15. 2069; Curaenn, 5. 

1024; Cume, 176. 156, 176; 

Cumene, 7. 116. A.S. cuman. 

Cf. Kumen, Comen, I-kumen. 
Cominde, sb. pi. comers, 7. 45. 
Cumplie, sb. the last church service 

of the day, compline, 9. 311. 

O. F. compile ; Church Lat. com- 

pleta (Jiora). 
Cun, sb. kin, 8 a. 2, 136 ; Cunnes, 

gen. s, kind, 3 6. 86 ; 7. 112 ; 8 6. 

54; 14. 413; Cunne, dat. kin, 

family, 6 b. 362, 375 ; nature, 16. 

271. A. S. cynn, kin, race, kind : 

O.S. kunni : Goth. hmi. Cf. Kin, 

Kyn, Kenne, Kunne. 
Ciinde, sb. ace. kind, race, nature, 

19. 1405 ; dat. 3 6. 91 ; 4 6. 89 ; 

7. 122 ; 16. 88, 273. A.S. {ge)' 
cynd. Cf. Kinde. 

Cundeliche, adv. naturally, 9. 172. 

A. S. cyndelice. Cf. Eindelike. 
Cunesmon, sb. kinsman, 9. 265. 

Cf. Kiinesmen. 
Ciinestable, sb. constable, 7. 43. 

O. F. conestable ; Late Lat. comes 

siabuli, count of the stable, a title 

of the Roman empire. 
Cunfessurs, sb. pi. confessors, 7* 

116. See Oonfessoren. 
Cunin, sb. cony, rabbit, 176. 365. 

O. F. connin, connil ; Lat. cuni- 

culus. Cf. Konyng. 
Cunne. See Cun. 
Cunnen, v. to know, 176. 336 ; 

Cunne, 17 a. 330 ; Cunnen, 

can, 2. 62. A.S. cunnan, to know, 

know how, be able. Cf. Can, 

Kan, Con, Kon, Kunnen, 

CvXe, IJnou'5, IJnku'5. 

Cunreadnes, sb. kindreds, 7. iii. 
M.E. cunreden ; A.S. cynraden*. 
See Skeat (s. v. kindred), Cf. 

Cuntesse, sb. countess, 2. 121. 
O. F. contesscy f. of conte^ comte ; 
Late Lat. comitem, an officer of 
state, courtier ; in Lat. a com- 

Cuppe, sb, cup, 15. 2310 ; Cupe, 
19. 234. A. S. cuppe ; Lat. cupa. 
Cf. Kuppe. 

Cure, sb. chariot, 8 6. 41, 42. Lat.' 
currus, the Roman triumphal car. 

Cursede, /)/. s. cursed, 2. 127 ; pt. 
/>/. 2. 57. A. S. cvrsian. 

Curt, sb. court, i. 8; 2. 192; 19. 
245, 592. O. F. curt ; Late Lat. 
cortis. For history of the word 
see M. Miiller, Lect. ii. 276. Cf. 

Cusan, chose, 2. 195. A. S. 
curon. See Cheose. 

Cussen, v. to kiss, 8. 264 ; CusseS, 
pr. pi. 6. 554 ; Custe, pt. s. 6. 
568; 19. 225, 743; pt. pi. 19. 
1225; Custen, 19. 141 3; cusse, imp. 
5. 19. 1224. A. S. cyssan, from 
coss. Cf. Kesse, Kiste, Kussen. 

Custe, sb. dat. character, 16. 9. 
A. S. cyst^ choice, the best of any- 
thing, moral excellence, from 
cedsan, to choose. 

Custume, sb. custom, 4 a. 3 ; Cus- 
tome, 13. 103. O. F. custume, 
costume ; Lat. comuetudinem. 

CulSe, pt. s. knew, 19. 1495 ; knew 
how, 15. 2154; 16.1717; could, 
2. 109; )>e wel cuSe a, who was 
well versed in, 6. 428 ; CuSen, 6. 22. A. S. elide, pt. of 
cunnan^ to know. Cf. Couthe, 
Kupe, Kouthen, Kude. 

Cu1$en, V. to make known, 6. 60, 

538; 7.87; Cu^.pp* 17^. »6i, 
A. S. {ge)cyOan : O. S. kuOian : 
O. H. G. kundjan (kunden in Ot- 
frid). Cf. Cudde, Kedde, 
Kidde, KilSen, Ikud. 



CaSmon, sb. kinsman, 9. 265. 

A. S. cudman. 
CvtSfSe, sb. kith, acquaintance, 9. 

265. A. S. cu^a. 
Cuuenable, adj. proper, fit, 13. 40. 

0. F. cuvenable ; Late Lat. conve- 

Cwakien, v, to quake, 7. 183; 

CwaciaC, pr. pi, i. 170. A. S. 

Cwalm-stowe, sb, dat. place of 

execution, 10. 92. A. S. ctuecdm- 

stdtu (Schmid) ; cwealm, a violent 

death, stdwt a place. 
Cwap, pt. s. quoth, 16. 1729. See 

Cweadschipe, sb. wickedness, 9. 

211. O. Fris. quddf bad, in Du. 

kwaad. Cp. A. S. cwead, dung, 

filth, and O. H. G. ckdt. See Wei- 

gand (s. V. koth), Cf. Quead- 

Cwellen, v. to kill ; Cwelle)>, pr. s. 

5. 1 1 80; Cwelled, pp, 10. 39. 

A. S. cwellan. Cf. Quelle. 
Cwexne, adj. agreeable, 5. 965, 

1 162. A. S. {ge)cw6me. Cf. 

Queme, Tocwexne, "Wil- 

Cwemen, v. to please, 7. 22 ; Cwe- 

menn, 5. 1217; Cweme, 6. 367; 

Cwemde, pt. s. 6. 278; Cwemm- 

denn, />/. />/. 5. 1503, A. S. cwi- 

man. Cf. Quemen. 
Cwen, sb. queen ; Cwene, dat. 6 6. 

600. A. S. cwen. Cf. Quen, 

Cwemikenii, v. to quench, 5. 1191. 

A. S. cwencan. Cf. Quenohe. 
CweUen, v. to speak ; CweS, pr. s. 

1. 195; pt. s, I. 24, 27 ; CweCe, 
pt. pi. 1. 21. A. S. cwedafif pt. 
cwceS, pi. cwJkdotif pp. {ge)cweden, 
Cf. Cwap, Quap, Que1$, Quod, 
"Wat, I-cwede. 

Cwic, adj. alive, 8 6. 83 ; Cwike, 
5. 1386. A.S. civic. Cf. Cwuoe. 
Quio, Quyke. 

CwilSe, sb. bequest, 9. 14. A. S. 

ewidet a saying, last will. Cf) 

Cwuoe, adj. quick, living, i. 189. 

A. S. cue {eucu). See Cwio. 
Cyldren, sb. pi. children, i. 49. 

See Childre. • 
Cyne-rioe, sb. rule, sway, i. 3. 

A.S. cyne-rice, royal government. 

See Kyne and Bioe. 
Cyrce, sb. dat. church, i. 125; 

Circe, 2. 67. A. S. cyrce (cirice), 

circe ; Gr. icvpiate6v^ a church, 

from KvpLoSy the Lord. Cf. Curce, 

Kirke, Chirche, Churchen. 
CyToe-iserd, sb. churchyard, 2. 51. 

M. £. IcBrd ; A. S. geard, enclo- 



Dade, sb, deed, 176, 3, 100. See 

Dsed, adj. dead, 6. 350 : Dseden, 6. 

220. See Deade. 
Dsede, sb. pi. deeds, 6. 393. A. S. 

d<Bd^ a deed. Cf. Dade. 
Dsei, sb. day, 2. 69, 191 ; 6. 143 ; 

Daeies, gen, s, 2. 44, 103; be 

daeies, by day, 2. 20 ; Daeie, dat. s. 

6. 45 ; Daeis, pi. 2. 195. A. S. 

d<Eg. Cf. Dai, Dei, DsB^e, Dage, 

Dai^e, Da^), Dawes, Dahene. 
Dsere, adj. dear, 2. 45. See Deore. 
DflBp, sb. death, 5., 1384; DacJ^css, 

gen, s. 5. 1374. See DeaS. 
DsB^e, sb. pi. days, 6. 386 ; Dasjen, 

dat. pi. 6. 138, 602. See Dasi. 
DafEtelike, adv. fittingly, 5. 1215. 

A. S. {ge)d<Bftliee. See Skeat 

(s. V. de/t, p. 799). See Defte. 
Das:e, sb. pi. days, 4 c. 13. A.S. 

dagas. See Dei. 
"D&ge^, pr. s, dawneth, 4 c, 60. A.S. 

Dahene, sb. pi. dat, days, do ut of 

dahene, put out of days, kill, 8 a. 

123. A.S. dagum. See Dasi, 

DaheVes, sb. gen. s. day*s, 86. 31. 

A. S. dages. See DabI. 



Dai, sb, day, 4 a. 3; 16.336 ; Daie, 

dat, s. II. 8; 19. 259. See 

Dai-lijt, sb. day-light, 16. 332 ; 

19. 124. 
Dai-rim, sb. day-rim, the edge of 

dawn, 16. 328. A. S. dmg-rima. 
Dai-sterre, sb. day-star, 16. 328. 

A. S. dceg'Sieorra, the morning . 

Dai^e, sb. pi. dat. days, 6. 602. Cf. 

Dal, sb. share, portion, 3a. iii. 

A.S. dal; cp. O. H.G. deil (Ot- 

frid). Cf. Del. 
Dale, sb. valley, 15. 1983 ; Dalen, 

dat. 15. 1931. Icel. dalr; cp. 

O. H. G. dal. (Otfrid). 
Dal-neominde, sb. partaker, sharer, 

3 a. 1 1 1. A. S. dcel-nimendf part- 
Dame, sb. lady, 9. 246 ; dame, 19. 

558. O.F, dame; Lzi. domina. 
Damesele, sb. damsel, 19. 1183. 

O. F. damoisele ; Late Lat. domini- 

Dan, conj. than, 15, 1958. See 

Dare, adj. dark, 8 a. 129. A. S. 

deorc. See Doro. 
Darst, 2 pr. s. darest, 16. 853, 

1695. A. S. ic dear, I dare, pu 

dearst, thou darest. Cf.Duren, 

Durre, Durste. 
Dat, adj. ihzt, 15. 1974. A.S.dat. 

See pat. 
Daw, sb. dew, i. 154. A.S. dedw, 

Cf. Deu. 
Dawes, sb, pi. days, 9. 226 ; Dayes, 

15. 2445; 18. 355; Dajes, 3 a. 

no ; 36. 48. See Dei. 
Da55, sb, day, 5. 972 ; bi dajjes, by 

day, 5. 1449. See Deei. 
De, art. def. the, 12.262. See pe. 
Dead, s6. death, 15. 2232. A 

Scand. form, cp. Dan. dod. See 

Deade,, dead, 1. 133 ; 6. 220. 

A. S! de64, Cf. DsDd, Ded. 

DeaS, pr, s, doth, 36. 62. See 

Don, DO'S. 
DeaS, sb. death ; Deade, dat. 4 b. 

62; 176. 115. A.S, dedd. Cf. 

Deep, Dead, De1$, Dede, Diath. 
Deoiples, sb. pi. disciples, 13. 93, 

116. See Dioiples. 
Ded, adj. dead, 2. 165; 12. 40; 

16.1732; 19. 671; Dede, 17a. 

190. See Deade. 
Dede, sb. death, 12. 45. See 

Dede, sb. deed, ^d. 17; 12. 97; 

15. 2218; pi. 16. 1763; 17 a. 

88; Dedes, 19. 537. See Deede. 
Dede, pt. s. caused, 13. 17; 15, 

2193, 2438; placed, 15. 1948; 

Deden, did, 15. 22 il. A.S. 

dyde, pt. of d6n. See Don. 
Deflen, sb. pi. devils, 176. 197; 

Defies, ^c«.s. 176. 258. See Deo- 

Defte, adj. deft, gentle, 12. 37. 

A.S. {ge)d€efte (Matt. xxi. 5). 

Cf. Dafftelike. 
Dehtren, sb. pi. dat. daughters, 7. 

40. A. S. ddhtrum. See Dohter. 
Dei, sb. day, 3 a. 86 ; dawn, 8 a. 

20; by day, 3a. 34; 11. 50; 

Deies, gen. s. 9. 150. See Daei. 
Deien, v. to die, 10. 91 ; Deie, 19. 

109, 332 ; Deide, pt. s. 18. 402 ; 

19. 1199. Icel. deyja; cp. Dan. 

doe : O. S. ddian. 
De'ih, pr. s. behoves, profits, 9. 

189. A. S. dedh, dedg, pr. s, 

of dugan^ to be worth. Seie 

Deihwamliohe, adv. daily, 3 6. 44. 

A. S. dcBg-kwdmlice. 
Del, sb. portion ; muche del, a great 

deal, 6. 440. See Dal. 
Dele, sb. dale, 12. 6. See Dale. 
Deluen, v, to delve, dig, 6 a, 441 ; 

Delue, 6 b. 441 ; DelueC, pr. pi. 

3 b. 43, 48. A. S. del/an. Cf. 

Doluen, I-doluen. 
Demare, sb. a judge, 9. 327. See 




Deme, &h, a judge, i. 172 ; 7. 55 ; 

16. 1783; 176.96. Pi.S.dhna, 
Demon, v. to judge, 7. no; 14. 

79 ; Deme]), pr. s. decrees, 7. 

230 ; judgcth, 7. 56 ; Deme)> dom, 

gives judgment, i6, i755 J Dem)>, 

pr. pi. 16. 1777; Demde, p/. 5. 

8 6. 149; Demet, pp. 10. 33; 

Dempt, condemned, 15. 2038. 

A. S. dSman : O. S. (Limian, from 

rfdm, judgment. Cf. I-demed, 

Demere, sb. a judge, 10. 33. A. S. 

Den, sb. cave, 12. 11. A. S. denn. 

Cf. Dennede. 
Denie, v. to din, 19. 592. A. S. 

dynian ; cp. Icel. dynja. 
Dennede, />/. s. dwelt, 12. 36. 

From A. S. denn. See Den. 
Densce, adj. Danish, 6. 457. A. S. 

Dent, s6. blow, 19. 152, 867; pi. 

19. 865, 872. A. S. dynt. See 

Deofell, sb. devil, 5. 1503; Deoflen, 

pl' 3«- 23; Defless, 5. 1403; 

Dcoflene, gen. pl. Ii. 15. A. S. 

ded/ol; Lsit.diabolus; Gr.did$o\os. 

Cf. Deouele, Deuel, Diuel, 

Deflen, Diefles, Dieule. 
Deol, sb, grief, 19. 1060; Deole, 

19. 1062. O. F. deol, in Roland, 

929, doel, 2082 (mod. F. deuU), 

verbal sb. from doloir, to grieve ; 

Lat. dolere. 
Deop, adj. deep ; Deopre, comp, 7. 

151. k.S. de6p. Cf. Dep. 
Deope, adv, deeply, 8 a. 118: 

Deoppre, eomp. 3 6. 44. A. S. 

dedpe, comp. dedpor, 
Deopliche, adv. deeply, 8 6. 76. 

A. S. dedplice. 
Deopnesse, sb. deepness, 36. 32, 

54. A. S. dedpnes. 
Deor, sb. wild animal, 3 a. 31 ; 5. 

1201 ; Deore, deer, 17 a. 149. 

A. S. dedr, Cf. Der, Diere. 
Deore, adj. dear, 6. 135; 8 a. 60; 

10. 115; Deore cheap, a dear 

bargain, 10. 67; adv. 17 a. 150, 

184. A. S. de6rey dyrei O. S. 

diuri. Cf. Dere, Diere. 
Deorewurt$e,a<^'. precious, beloved, 

7.94; 8 a. 32, 40; 86.53. A. S. 

dedrweorh, Cf. Derewtix1$e, 

Deorling, sb. darling, 9. 84. A. S. 

dedrling. Cf. Derling, Dur- 

Deome, adj. secret, 6. 296. See 

Deouele, 56. devil, 17 a. 267 ; 

Deoules, pl. devilish men, 3. 18 ; 

17 a. 250. See Deofell. 
Dep, adj. deep, 15. 1942. See 

Der, sb. creature (the ant), 12. 283. 

See Deor. 
Dere, v. to harm, 18. 490, 574. 

See Derie. 
Dere, adv, there, 12. 388. See 

Dere, adj. dear, 15. 2399 ; 19. 433; 

Derepris, precious value, 15. 2247* 

See Deore. 
DerewurVe, adj. beloved, precious, 

I. 161. See Deorewui1$e. 
DerewuifSlioe, adv, respectfully, i. 

Derf, sb. affliction, hardship, 8 a. 1 1 1 . 

A. S. {ge)deorf, 
Derfliohe, adv. cmelly, severely, 

8 a. 4. See below. 
Derfre, adj. comp, more severe, 8 6. 

116. Icel. 4^'ai3/V, improbus. Cf. 

Derie, v. to harm, 19. 792 ; Deren^ 

15* 2348t 2480; Derye, pr. s. 

subj. 17 a. 332. A. S. derian, 

Cf. Dere. 
Derke, adj, dark, 19. 1445. See 

Derling, sb, darling, 19. 488; 

Derlinges, pl. 176. 389. See 

Derne, adj. secret, dark, 7. 150; 

12. 34, 90; 15. 1950; 16,608; 



adv. 19. 1363. A.S. derne, dyrne: 

0. S. derni. Cf. Deome. 
Dei1$e, sb. dearth, famine, 15. 2237, 

2345. From A. S. dedre^ dear, 

with suffix -/A. 
Derue, adj, bold, without fear, 12. 

284 ; Derure, comp, more severe, 

8 a. 93. See Derfre. 
Denied, pr. s, afflicts, 8 a. 147. See 

Dest, 2 pr. s. makest, 16. 49, 321. 

A. S. ddst. See Don. 
DeU, pr. s. doth, i. 57; 14. 443 ; 

maketh, 16. 1716. A.S. ded. See 

Don, Deals, DietS. 
De1$, s6. death, 4 a. 6; 17 a. 124, 

182; DeSes, ^e«. s. 10. 35; 19. 

640 ; DeSe, tfa/. 3 a. 98. See Defl^. 
Deu, sb. dew, 12. 11. See Daw. 
Deuel, sb. devil, 40.23; 1 7 6. 2 18 ; 

Deueles, ^««. s. 4 c. i8, 70 ; 176. 

1 79. See Deofell. 
Deuise, v. to compose a letter, 19. 

940. O. F. deviser, to arrange. 
Diadlich, adj. liable to death, 

mortal, 13. 45. A. S. deddlic. 
Diath, sb. death, 13. 45. See 

Die, sb. dike, ditch, 6. 442. A. S. 

Diohe, sb. pi. ditches, 17 a. 42 ; 

Dichen, 176. 41. See above. 
Diciples, sb. pi. disciples, 4 a. 10 ; 

46. 14. Lat. discipuluSf sl learner. 

Cf. Deciples. 
Dide, pi. s. caused, 2. 128 ; did, 2. 

5; put, 18. 709; Dides, 2 pt. s. 

didst, 10. 32. A. S. dyde, Cf. 

Dede, Dude, Dyden. 
Diefles, sb. gen, s. devil's, i. no. 

See Deofell. 
Dier-chin, sb. beasts, lit. deer-kind, 

1. 52. See Deor and Cun. 
Diere, sb. wild animal, 176. 145. 

See Deor. 
Diere, adv. dear, 176. 146, 186. 

See Deore. 
Diere wurp, adj. beloved, i. 23. 

See DeorewuxtSe. 

Die1$, pr. s. puts, i. 59. A. S. ded. 

See De1$. 
Dieule, sb. dat. devil, 13. 69. See 

DihtetS, pr. s. orders, 7. 230 ; rules, 

6. 134 ; Diht, orders, i. 46 ; 7.10 ; 

Dihte, pt. s, I. 45. A. S. dihtan; 

Lat. dictare. 
Dimluker, adv. comp. more softly 

(of a trumpet), 9. 50. A. S. dim- 

licor, comp. of dimlice, dimly, 
Dinune, adj. pi. dim, 12. 60. A. S. 

Dingle, sb. a depth, hollow, 7. 75 1. 

From A. S. ding, a dark prison ; 

cp. O. H. G. tunc, an underground 

cave. See Skeat (s. v. p. 800). 
Dintede, pt. pi. struck, 10. 79. 

Icel. dynta, to dint ; cp. Sw. dial. 

dunia, to strike. 
Dintes, blows, 46. 19. See 

Disceplines, sb. pi. flagellations, 

9. 163. O. F. discipline; Church 

Lat. disciplina, see Cotgrave and 

Disoh, sb. dish, 9. 114; Disse, 19. 

1 1 56. A.S. disc, Lat. discus; 

Gr. SiffHOS, a quoit. 
Diuel, sb. devil, 12. 33. See Deo- 

Diuere, v. to tremble, 10. 112. 

The M. E. form div-er-en is fre- 
quentative ; the original word is 

probably to be found in Icel. dyja, 

to shake. See Fick, vii. 148. 
Di^ele, adj. secret, 16. 2. A.S. 

Do» v. to make, cause, i. 12; to 

put, 1. 16. See Don. 
Dohter, sb. daughter, 2. 120; 6. 

361. k.S.d6hior. Cp. Dowter, 

Dorter, Dehtren, Douhtres, 

Doluen, pp. buried, 12. 41. A. S. 

dolfen. See Deluen. 
Dom, sb. doom, judgment, sentence, 

40.88; 5.1472; 7.56; 12.285; 

16. 1692. A. S. d6m. 



Domes-dai* sb, day of doom, 

doomsday, 4a. 87; 176. 136; 

Domes day, 17 a. 136; Domesdei, 

I. 158; 9. 88; Domes d^eie, i. 

79. A. S. ddmes dag, ddmdag. 
Domes-men, sb, pi. judges, 17 a. 

252 ; 176. 260. 
Don (i), v. to do, 16. 159 ; to pat, 

I. 155; 15. 2231 ; Donne, ger, 

todo, 1. 177; 9. 354; 17a. 38; 

DO'S, imp. pi. cause, 15. 2351. 

A. S. ddn. Cf. Do, Dest, DelS, 

Dot$, Dide, I-don. 
Don (2), to be fitting, to get 011 

well, 9. 152. M. £. du^n ; A. S. 

dug an, valere. See Dulien. 
Dorc, adj. dark, dusk, 8 6. 162. 

A. S. deorc. Cf. Dare, Derke. 
Dor-quiles, adv. meanwhile, 15. 

1949. See por-quiles. 
Dorste, pt. s. durst, 19. 388, 938 ; 

pt. pi. 6. 273; 13. 97. A. S. 

dorste, pt. of ic dear {dearr), I 

dare. Cf. Durste. 
Dose, adj. dark, dusk, 7. 76. Cp. 

A. S. deorc. See Dore. 
Dotayin, sb. Dothan, 15. 1934. 

Lat. Dotkain (Vulg.) ; Heb. D6- 

thdyirif double fountain. 
Dote, sb. a fool, 14. 422. Cp. M. £. 

dotard, Chaucer, C.T. 5913 (Strat- 

Do)>, pr. s, does, 4 a. 16 ; 5. 1042 ; 

16. 156 ; pi, put, 17 a. 43. A. S. 

pr. s, did, pr, pi, d66. See 

Doucte, pt, s, had value, 18. 703. 

A. S. dohte, pt. of dugan, to be 

worth. See Duhen. 
Doulitres, sb, pi. daughters, 18. 350. 

A. S. ddhtor, ddhiru, pi, of ddhtor. 

See Dohter. 
Doumbe, ac^. dumb, 18. 543. A.S. 

Doutede, pt. s. feared, 18. 708. 

O. F. douter, doubter; Lat. dubi- 

tare, Cf. Dute. 
Doutres, sb. pi. daughters, 18. 717. 
See Doulitres. 

Dowepes, 56. pi. hosts, 14. 177. 
A. S. dugud, worth, help, retainers, 
hosts, see Notes. See I>iilie!8e. 
Dowter, s6. daughter, 15. 2147. 

See Dohter. 
Do3ter, sb. daughter, 19. 390, 697. 

See Dohter. 
Dradde, pt. pi, feared, 19. 120. 

A. S. dredoH, pt, pi. See Dre- 

Dreem, sb, joy, 6. 502. See Dream. 
Dragen, v, to draw ; Draget^, pr, s. 

12. 9; Dragen, pp. 15. 2046. 

A. S. dragan, pt. drdh, pp. dragen. 

Cf. Drawen, Dragen, Dreihen, 

Droh, Dro^ 
Drah, imp, s. draw, 9. 177. See 

Drah, pi. s, endured, 5. 1442. A. S. 

dredh. See Dregen. 
Drahen, pp. drawn, 10. loi. See 

Drapen, pt, pi, slew, 2. 28. A. S. 

drckpon, pi. pi, of drepan. See 

Drawen, v. to draw, 17 a. 48, 50; 

Drawe, pp, 19. 1 323. See Dra- 
Dragen, v, to draw, 36. 10,126; 

Dra^e, 19. 1309. 1462. See Dra- 
gen, To'draBen. 
Dreaien, v. to draw, 8 b, 161. See 

Dream, sb. sound, music, 9. 43; 

Dreame, dot, s. 9. 89. A. S. dredtn, 

Cf. DrsBm. 
Dreamen, v. to sound like music, 

9. 346 ; Dreame^, pr, pi, make a 

joyful sound, II. 27. A.S. rfr^- 

man : O, S. drihnian. Cf. Drem- 

Dreohen, v. to tarry, 15. 1946; 

DrecchcS, pr, s. 1 2. 103, A. S. 

dreeean, to vex. For change of 

sense, cp. M. E. terieit, to ?ex, 

also, to tarry. 
Dred, sb, dread, 7. 56 (M. S. diet) ; 

Drede, dat, s, 9. 333. 
Dreden, v. to dread, 7. 69; Die- 



denn, 5. 1218; Drede, 10. 112; 
Dred, imp. s. 10. 51 ; 18. 661 ; 
DredeS, imp. pi. 15. 2343. A. S. 
{pn)dr<kdati. Cf. Dradde. 
Dredfule, adj. dreadful, 9. 89. 
Drednesse, sh. dread, i. 50, 76. 
Dregen, v. to endure ; Drege, i pr, 
pi. suffer, 1 5. 2208. A. S. dredgan 
(pt. dredh, pp. drogen), to do, 
perform, to suffer, endure. Cf. 
Drah, I5reye, Drejlieiin, Drie, 
DrelLen, v. to endure, suffer, 7. 

245 ; 8 a. no. See above. 
Dreilien, v. to draw, 8 a. 129. See 

Dragen. ' 
Dreinchen, v. to drown, 176. 506. 

See Drenchen. 
Drem, s6. dream, 15. 2056, 2095; 
Dremes,/)/. 15. 1918. O.S. rfrdm, 
joy, also, dream ; cp. Icel. draumr, 
dream. The cognate A. S. dream 
is only used in the sense of a 
joyful sound, mirth. Cf. Dream. 
Dremden, pe. pi. were joyous, 6. 

291, See Dreamen. 
Dreme, sb. dai. joyous sound, 16. 

314. See Dream. 
Dremen, v. to dream, 15, 2067; 
Drempte, pi. s. 15. 1941, 2116, 
2123. See Drem. 
Drench, sb. drink, i. 53; 6. 544; 
19. 1 1 74. A. S. drenc. Cf. 
Drinch, Drinnch, Drunc. 
Drenchen, v. to drown, 176. 334 ; 
18. 583. A.S, drencan. Cf. 
Dreinchen, Drinchen. 
Drepen, v. to slay, 10. 94 ; Drepe, 
18. 506. A. S. drepatt, to strike ; 
cp. Icel. drepOj to slay. Cf. 
Dreye, v. to suffer, 17 a. 286. Sec 

Dre5henn, v. to suffer, 5. 1505, 

1599. See Dregen. 
Drie, v. to suffer, 176. 292 ; DrieC, 

2 g. T,6o. See Dregen. 
Drigten, sb. Lord, 12. 40; Drigtin, 
dat. 12. 119. See below. 

VOL. I. 1 

Drihten, sb. Lord, i. 70 ; 2. 87 ; 
Drihhtin, 5. 965; Drihte, i. 60. 
See Dryhten. 
Driht-fule, adj. noble, 8 6. 76. See 

Drinch, sb. drink, 10. 106. 
Drinc-hail, inter;, drink, hale !, 
drink, and good luck be with you, 
6. 548 ; Drinc-haeil, 6. 571 ; 
Dringhail, 6 6. 548,571; Dring- 
hayl, 6 6. 571. Drinc hckl in the 
Northumbrian dialect would be in 
A. S. drinc hdl. The form heel 
corresponds to Icel. heill (mod. E. 
hale). See Skeat (s. v. wassail). 
Drinchares, sb. pi. drinkers, 9. 

126. A. S. drincere. 
Drinchen, v. to drown, 18. 553. 

See Drenchen, 
Dring, imp. s, drink, 6 6. 564. 
Dring, s6. soldier, 6 a. 593 ; Dring- 
ches, pi. 6 a. 187. A. S. dreng^ 
youth, warrior ; Icel. drengr, a 
bachelor, a brave man. 
Dringan (for Dringen), v, to op- 
press, 3 a. 53. See pringen. 
Dring-hail. See Drinc-hail. 
Drinken, v. to drink, 15. 2065 ; 
Drincken, 9. 123; Drinked ( = 
DrinketJ), pr. s. 13. 129; Dranc, 
pt. s. I. 33. A. S. drincan. Cf. 
Dring, Drone, I-drunke. 
Drinnch, s6. drink, 5. 1374. See 

Drit-cherl, sb. dirt-churl, 18. 682. 
Cp. Icel. drit-menni, a dirty person, 
from dritf excrement. 
Driuen, v. to drive ; DriueS, pr. s. 
rushes, 12. 13; Driuen, pr. pi. 
drive, 10. 99; 19. 880; 
Driue, imp. pi. carry on, 9. 138. 
A. S. drifan, pt. drdf, pp. {ge)- 
drifen. Cf. Drof, Dryuen. 
Driven, v. to perform, 6. 49, 392. 

See Dregen. 
Drihte, sb. Lord, 19. 1332. See 

Drof, pt. s. drove, 4^. 23; 18. 
725 ; 19. 119, 762. See Driuen. 




Droh, pt. s, drew, 8 a. 44. See 

Drono, pt. s. drank, 6. 565 ; 9. 23 ; 

Droiik, 19. 1 1 66; Drongken, />/. 

pi. 6. 501. See Drlnken. 
Dropes, sb. pi. drops, 10. 73. A.S. 

Drou, pi. 5. drew, 18. 179. See 

Dro5, />/. s. drew, 19. 882 ; Drojen, 

pt. pi. 6. 186; Droje, 19. 1018. 

See Dragen. 
Dmgte, sb. drought, 15. 2107, 

2348. A. S. drugode. 
Dnii-fot, adv. with dry feet, 8 a. 

145; Dm fot, 86. 182. A.S. 

drygum fdtum. 
Drunc, sb. drink, draught, 17 a. 

148; Drunch, 9. 23, 340. See 

Drunken, sb. drinking, 17 a. 249, 

254; 176. 257, 262. A.S. drun- 

cen, drunkenness. 
Drunken, pt. pi. drank, 6. 291. 

A. S. druncon. See Drinken. 
Drupnin, pp. to be cast down, 7. 

66. Icel. drupOt to droop, with 

n formative: drup-n-ien, as in to 
fasten. On verbs with suffix -nen, 

Goth, -nan^ see Skeat (s. v. 

Dryhten, sb. Lord, 2. 87 ; Dryhtin, 

2. 89; Dryhte, 17a. 79. A.S. 

drykten: O.S. drohtin: cp. O.H.G. 

truhtin (Otfrid), and Icel. drdttinn, 

the Lord, used for God and Christ. 

The word properly means lord of 

retainers, men, warriors, being a 

derivative from A. S. dryht : O.S. 

druht ; cp. O. H. G. truht^ and 

Icel. drdtt^ retainers, the *comi- 

tatus * of Tacitus, Germ. 13. Cf. 

Drihten, Drigten, Dri^te. 
Dryuen, v. to pass, go, 14, 202. 

See Driuen. 
Dubbe, V. to dub a knight, 19. 

458 ; Dubbed, pp. 19. 447. A. S. 

dubban, in Chron. ann. 1085; cp. 

O. F. adubeKj to strike a knight 

with the flat of the sword, also, to 

arm, Roland, 3139 ; Icel. dubba, 

to arm. 
Dubbing, sb. the conferring of 

knighthood, 19. 438, 487, 629. 
Dubbing, sb. decoration, ornament, 

19. 564. Cp. Halliwell (s. v. 

Dude, pt. s. did, 6. 233 ; 8 a. 195 ; 

16. 1637; caused, 19. 1424; pt. 

pi. did, 19. 1528 ; Duden, 6. 142, 

233 ; Duden of lyue, put from 

Hfe, killed, 19. 180. See Dide. 
Duelle, V. to stay, 19. 374. Icel. 

dveljat to tarry. 
Duhen, v. to get on ; wel mei 

duhen ancre of oSer wimplunge, 

the nun may get on well without 

another wimpling, 9. 184. A.S. 

dugan, valere. Cf. Don (2), 

Deih, Doucte. 
DuhefSe, sb, body of retainers, 8 a. 

10. A. S. dugud, worth, help, 

body of retainers, from dugan, to 

avail. Cf. Dowep^s, Du^elSe. 
Dun, adv. down, 2. 152 ; 5. 1398; 

6. 492. For a-dun. See Adun. 
Dunchen, pr. pi. batter, 10. 94. 

Dan. dunke. See Stratmanu. 
Dunt, sb. blow, 19. 609 ; Duntes, 

pi. 10. 75, 83; 19. 573. A.S. 

dynt. Cf. Dent, Dint. 
Dun-ward, adv. downward, ^d, 

15. See Dun. 

Dure, sb. door, 14. 85 ; 176. 124. 

A. S. duru. 
Duren, pt. pi. dared, 15. 2239. 

A. S. durron^ pt. pi. of ic dear, I 

dare. See Darst. 
Dure-pin, sb. door-pin, 19. 985. 
Dure-wart, sb. door-ward. 7. 44. 

A. S. duruweard. 
Durlyng, sb. darling, 14. 11. See 

Durre, pr. pi. subj. dare, 15. 2239; 

16. 1706. K.S. durre. See Darst. 
Durste, pt. s. durst, 2. 188 ; 

6. 273. A. S. dorste, pt. s. dorslon, 
pt. pi. See Dorste. 



Dual, adj. foolish, 9. 19; Dusye, 

17 a. 267. A. S. dysig. 
Dvsten, v. to toss, 9. 80. Icel. 

dusta, to dust. Cp. Icel. dust, a 

tilt, Dan. dyst, combat, joust. 
Dute, sb. fear, 9. 215. O.F. dute, 

double. See below. 
Dute, I pr. s. fear, 19, 344. See 

DuBeVe, sb, pi. nobles, 6 a. 339; 

pu5e5en, 6 a. 331; adj. valiant, 

'6 a. 282. See Duh.e'Se. 
Dwales, sb. pi. fools, 14. 414. See 

Skeat (s. v. dwell). 
DweoluliSe, sb. error, 11. 93. 

From A. S. dwelian, to err, to 

lead astray. 
Dwilde, sb. dat. pi, errors, heresies, 

5. 1499. A. S. dwild. 
Dyden, did, 2.27. See Dide. 


E, pron. he, 15. 2341. See He. 

Eadi, adj. blessed, 7. 90 ; rich, 176. 
231 ; Eadie, blessed, 8 a. 55. A.S. 
eddig, rich, happy, blessed, from 
edd, riches, prosperity : O. S. drf, an 
estate. Cf. .^die, Edie, Edye. 

Eadwiten, v. to blame, 9. 61. See 

Eald, adj. old; Ealde, 176. 195, 
287. h.^. eald {aid), Cf. Aid, 
E^iaiOld, Hold, Heoldre. 

EalEe, sfc. old age, 14. 441 ; 17 a. 
369. See Elde. 

Ealdor, sb. an elder ; Ealdrene, gen. 

\ pi. ancestors', 8 b. 6. A.S. ealdor , 
aldor, an elder, parent, a prince. 
Cf. Alderen, Aldren, Eldere. 

Eall, adj. all ; Ealre, gen. pi. of all, 
8 6. 1 1 2 . A.S. eall. Cf. ^Ue, 
Al, All, Hall. 

Eani, adj. any, 3 a. 20, 54 ; 8 6. 
65. See Ani. 

Eanis-weis, adv. in any way, any- 
wise, 8 6. 87. See Eisweis, "Weg. 

Ear, adv. before, 7. 50 ; 10. 89 ; 
16. 1637. See ^r.' 


Earding-stowe, sb. dwelling-place, 

16.28. A.S. ear dungstdw. A.S. 

Eardung is from eardian, to dwell. 

See Erthe. 
Eare, sb. ear; Earen, pi. 4a. 48 ; 

7. 58 ; 9. 63. A. S. edran, pi. of 

edrey an ear. Cf. .^re. Ere. 
Earmes, sb. pi. arms, 10. no. 

A. S. earfn. 
Earmynges, sb. pi. poor persons, 

^7 ^* 3^7* A. S. earmingf a poor 

wretch. Cf. Erming. 
Eamynge, sb. earning, 17 a. 65. 

A. S. earnungy merit, from ear- 

ntatty to earn, deserve; cp. O.H.G. 

arnon, to reap (Tatian). 
Earst, adj. first, 10. 76 ; adv. 8 b. 

64; Earste, 7.41. Securest. 
Easkede, pt. s. asked, Sb. no. 

See Axen. 
Eateliche, adj. horrible, 3 a. 19. 

See Ateliche. 
Es^, adj. easy, 10. 28. A.S. ede 

(Grein), edde, pi. 
EaVe, adv. easily, 176. 210, 288, 

376. A. S. edde. Cf. Epe. 
Eauer, adv. ever, 7. 36, 98 ; 8 b. 

114. See ^fre. 
Eauereuchan, every one, 7. 163. 

See .^fre and Euchan. 
Eaueriche, adj. every, 10. 86. 

See ^ueralche. 
Ebrisse, adj. Hebrew, 15. 2186. 

A. S. ebreisc, 
Ebron, sb. Hebron, 15. 1931. 
Ec, conj. also, 3 a. 4, 77 ; 176. 132. 

A. S. 4cy edc : O. S. 6k. Cf. -ffic, 

Ece, adj. eternal, 1. 181 ; Ecer, dat. 

/. I. 149. A. S. ece. Cf. Eclie. 
Ecenisse, sb. dat. eternity, i. 179 ; 

Ecenesse, i. 178; Ecchenesse, 9. 

362. A.S. ecnis. 
Ech, adj. each, 4 a. 3; 4 b. 114; 

Eche, 6. 42 ; Eches, gen. s. 4 b. 

106 ; Echere, dat.f. any, 14. 240, 

See .^Ic. 
Eche, adj. eternal, 36. 106 ; 4 6. 

50; 16.742; T7 a. 356; in eche, 




in aeternum, eternally, 8 6. 193. 

See Eoe. 
Scheliche, adv. everlastingly, 10. 

21. A.S. ecelice. 
Schere. See Ech. 
Sclite, sb. possession, wealth, i. 64. 

See Ahhte. 
Ed (for Et), prep, at ; bijet ed te 

Keiser, got from the Caesar, 8 b. 

39, see B. T. (s. v. at). See .Sit. 
Edie, adj. blessed, 4 c. 58 ; Eddi, 

happy, 15. 2086. See Eadi. 
Edmodnesse, s6. humility, 11. 79. 

A. S. eddmddnis. 
Edwiten, v. to blame ; Edwite, pr, 

s. subj. 9. 270. A.S. edwltan : 

Goth, idweitjan. See Skeat (s. v. 

twit). See Eadwiten. 
Edy, adj. blessed, 17 a. 347 ; Edye, 

rich, IT a. 223. See Eadi. 
Ef, conj. if, 19. 537. Icel. ef\ cp. 

O. S. ef, of 
Efenn, sb. evening, 5. 1105. A.S. 

efen. Cf. Euen. 
Efer, adv. ever, i . 117; Efre, i . 63 ; 

3 a. 79. See .^fre. 
Effnenn, v. to make equal or even, 

5. 1396; Effnedd, pp. compared, 

5. 1206. From A.S. efen^ even; 

cf. IctX.jafna, to make equal, from 

jafn — efen. Cp. Euened. 
Efne, adv. even, 16. 313. A.S. 

efne. Cf. .^fne. 
Efne-heorte, sb. equanimity, 7. 

Efning, sb. equal, 11. 24; Efninges, 

pi. equals, i*jb. 164. Icel. 7a/- 

ningit from jafn^ equal. Cf. 

Efre. See Efer. 
Efreni, adj. ever any, 3 a. 30. See 

.^fre and Ani. 
Eft, adv. again, i. 103 ; 4a. 62; 

8 6. 86 ; 15. 2238 ; afterwards, 14. 

243. A.S. eft. 
Eft-agen, adv. back again, 4 a. 

Efter, prep, after, 46. 84; 7. 10; 

II. 76 ; for the sake of, 2. 21 ; 9. 

139; according to, 7. 56; adv, 

afterwards, 1. 144. See .ZElfber. 
Efterward, prep, in pursuit of, 3 a. 

71. A.S. cefterweard, 
Eftsone, adv. soon after, 9. 277; 

again, ^d. 53; Eftsones, soon 

after, 2. 142. A. S. eft-sdna. 
Egen, sb. pi. eyes, 4 £f. 47 ; 12. 26. 

A.S. edgan^ pi. of edge. Cf. 

E^e, Eyen, Eien, Ehe. 
Egleche, adj. war-like, 14. 6. A.S. 

aglaca, warrior (Grein). 
Ehe, sb. eye, 9. 82 ; Ehne, pi. 10. 

90; Ehnen, 7. 58, 79. See 

Ehelid, sb. eye-lid, 7. 180. 
EhsihtSe, sb. the sight of the eye, 

presence, Sb. 161; EhsiSe, 8a. 

129. See Egen and Sihte. 
Elite, sb. wealth, property, 3 b. 108. 

See Ahhte. 
Ei, adj. any, 8 6. 93 ; 9. 58 ; Eie, 9. 

319. See Ani. 
Eie^6. awe, 2. 189 ; 7. 25 ; 9. 145. 
'A. S. w. Cf. Eye, ^eie, Iiuue- 

Eien, sb. pi. eyes, 9. 186; 176. 

381. See Egen. 
Elite, sb. property, 9. loi ; 

176. 321; cattle, 9. 1 28. See 

Eilin, V. to trouble, afflict, 7. 144 ; 

Eilie, pr. s. subj. 9. 135. A.S. 

eglan : Goth, agljan. 
Eir, sb. heir, i8. 606. O. F. eir, 

heirs, in Roland, 504 ; Lat. heres. 

See Heiris. 
Eise, sb. ease, 9. 320 ; adj. easy, at 

leisure, 9. 349. O. F. eise, cdse, 

pleasure, also, adj. glad. 
Eiseliche, adj. horrible, 176. 285. 

A. S. egeslic, fearful, from egesa, 

egsa, fear. 
Eisliche, adv. horribly, 3 a. 14. 

A. S. egeslice. 
Eisweis, adv. in any way, anywise, 

8 a. 68. See Eanisweis. 
EiSer, adj. either, each, 4 6. 51 ; 7« 

208 ; 9. 260 ; both, 2. 62. A. S. 



€B-g-hw<B6er. Cf. Ai]7er, 08er, 

Er, Or. 
Ek, conj. also, 14. 9; 16.93; Eke, 

II. 91. See Ec. 
Eken, pr. pi. add, 10. 109. A. S. 

edcan, to add. 
Elc, adj. each, 1. 130; Elce, 1. 134 ; 

Elces, gen. s. i. 137 ; Elch, 176. 

107; Elches^ gen. s. 17 fc. 90. See 

Elde, adj. pi. old, 19. 1402 ; Eldre, 

comp. 10. 15; Eldure, pi. l*j a. 

320; Elder, 176. 326. See 

Elde, s6, old age, 7. 247 ; 12. 56 ; 

176.16. A.S.yldo. Cf. Ealde, 

Eldere, sb. pi. elders, 15. 2429, 

2506; Elderne, 17 a. 192; 176. 

194. See Ealdor. 
Elderman, sb. a senior, a noble- 
man ; Elldernemanness, gen. s. 5. 

1213, 1235. A. S. ealdorman. 
^lesffiw, sb. oil, 5. 994, 1470. A. S. 

ele sedw, oil-juice, olei succus, see 

Grein (s. v. sedw). 
Elhc (for Elch), adj. each, 4a. 40. 

See Elch. 
Elles, adv. else, otherwise, 16. 662 ; 

17 a. 199; 19. 246. A. S. elles, 

else, gen. s. of el : Goth, alls, 

other ; cp. Lat. alius. 
EUes-hware, adv. elsewhere, 17 a. 

325; 176. 331; Elleswher, 19. 

318. A. S. elleshwar^ elles- 

Elles-hwider, adv. else whither, 7. 

103. A. S. elleshwider. 
Elmes-Beorn, adj. charitable, 3 a. 

59. See ^Imes and ^dom. 
Embe, prep, about, 46. 41. A. S. 

embe, ymbe, around : O. S. umbi ; 

cp. Lat. ambi-, Gr. dfupl, O. Ir. 

imb (Windisch). 
Em-cristen, sb. fellow-Christian, 

176. 310. A. S. em-cristen^ emne' 

cristen ; emn {efen), even, equal. 

Cf. Euen-cristen. 
Emperice, sb. empress, 2. 120, 

134. Norm. F. emperyce; Lat. 

imperatricem. ' Cf. pemperioe. 
En, adj. num. one, Sb. 19. A. S. 

Jenne^ ace. m. of an, one. See 

An, Enne. 
Ende, sb. district, 6. 217 ; 18. 734 ; 

end of life, 14. 174; 17 a. 121 ; 

on ende, lastly, 9. 281. A. S. 

ende, end, limit, district : Goth. 

andeis. Cf. .ZElnde, Hende, 

Ende-dei, sb. day of death, 1. 137. 

A. S. endedcEg. 
Endelease, adj. endless, 176. 143 ; 

Endelese, 4 a. 83 ; 8 a. 116 ; 10. 

21. A. S. endeleds. 
Endelong, prep, along, 8 a. 125; 

Enddelong, 8 b. 153. A. S. and- 

lang. A. S. prefix and- (found in 

A. S. andswarian, to answer) ; cp. 

Gr. dvTt. See Skeat (s. v. 

Enden, v. to end, 3 a. 36. A. S. 

Ending, sb. death, 10. 70. A. S. 

endung, an ending. 
Ene, art. indef. a, 36. 48 ; adj. 

num. one, I. 7. A. S. <knne. See 

An, En. 
Enes, adv. once, 9. 323 ; 17 a. 183 ; 

et enes, at once, 9. 163. A. S. 

dnes^ once, prop. gen. of dn, one. 

Cf. Ones. 
Engel, sb. angel, i. 47; Engeles,p/. 

I. 200; Enngless, 5. 1026; En- 

glene, pi. gen. 46. 103 ; 9. 45 ; 

Englen, pi. dat. 4 d. 71. A. S. 

engel; Church Lat.a«^e/tts(Vulg.); 

Gr. a77€Xos. 
Engel, adj. English, 15. 2576. A.S. 

Angel- f English (in compounds). 
Engleland, s6. England, 2. 7, 118, 

170, 176. 
Englene-londe, sb. dat. England, 

the land of the English, 14. 12, 24. 

M.E. Englene ; A.S. Englena^ gen. 

of Englan^ the Angles, English. 
Englis, sb. pi, English, 6 b. 68. In 

6 a. 68 Angles, 



Snglisse, adj. English, 4 a. 48. 

A. S. englisc. 
Eni, adj. any, 6. 409 ; 7. 151 ; 8 a. 

74; Eny, 17 a. 16; 19. 590. See 

Sniie, adj. num. one, 17 a. 139; 

art. indef. a, 6. 421, 433. A. S. 

csntie^ ace. s. of an. See An. 
lEnngle-peod, sb. angelic host, 5. 

1050. See Engel and peod. 
Ensample, sb. example, 13. 38. 

O. F. ensample, for essemple ; Lat. 

Enuye, sb. annoyance, 19. 687. 

O. F. enui ; from the Lat. phrase 

in odio esse. Cf. Anud. 
Eode, pt. s. went, 6. 287 ; Eoden, 

pt. pi. 3 a. 9. A. S. eode : Goth. 

iddja. Cf. GsBde, Gede, IsBde, 

leden, Yede, Bede. 
Eoli, sb. oil, 8 6. 156; 9. 334; 

Eolie, 9. 335. A.S. ele ; Lat. oleum. 
Eom, sb. uncle, 2. 3. A. S. edm ; 

cp. O. H. G. oheim (Weigand). 
Eorl, sh. earl, 2. 95 ; Eorles, gen. s. 

2- 135 ; pl- 17 «. 318. A. S. eorl ; 

Icel. yar/. Cf. ^rl, ^orl, Erl, 

Eomen, v. to run, 5. 1236; Eom, 

pt. pl. ran, 10. 73. A. S. irnan^ 

to run, pt. s. am, pt. pl. urnon^ 

pp. urnen. Cf. Ernen, TTme, 

lorne, Bennet$. 
Eorre, sb. anger, 17 a. 274. A. S. 

eorre, irre. Cf. Urre, Oerre. 
EortJe, sb. earth, i. 42, 167 ; 14. 

436 ; 1 7 a. 74, 80. A. S. eorde. 

Cf. Er«e. 
EortJlich, at^'. earthly, 7. 92 ; Eor?J- 

liche, 4 a. 38, 80, 86. A. S. eordlic. 

Cf. Er«liche. 
Eoten, V. to eat, 3 a. 91 ; />/. pl. 

ate, 6. 501. A. S. etan^ to eat, j5>^. 

/>/. (Eton. See Eten. 
Eow, /)ron. pl. dat. to you, 3 a. 2 ; 

176. 291 ; Eou, 6. 51; flcc. 6. 

165. A.S. tf(J?/;, /»/. dat. and ace. Cf. 

Eu, Ou, Ow, Yow, 5eu, Jew, 

5iu, Giu, Gu, 3ou, Juw. 

Eower, poss. pron. your ; Eouwer, 

6. 47 ; Eoure, 6. 107. A. S. 

«(JK/er. Cf. ^oure, Jeur, Our, 

Euro, Jiure, Joure, Bure, Our, 

Er, arfv. before, 1. 136, 146. SeeiEr. 
Er, conj. or, 12. 114. ForM.E.exx. 

see Stratmann, p. 13. SeeEiSer. 
Erd, sb. native land, home, 15. 

2094, 2406. A. S. eard : O. S. 

ard. Cf. PFirdf Herdee. 
Ere, sb. dat. ear, 19. 309 ; Eren,^/. 

36. 28; Eres, 19. 971. See Ear. 
Erende, sb. message, 19. 462. A.S. 

ckrendcy 2i message, related to dr, 

a messenger; cp. O. H. G. dnmti 

(Otfrid). Cf. Herdne. 
Erest, a4j. first, 17 a. 84 ; adv, ^h. 

14. See .threat. 
Erewe, sb. caitiff, 14. 235; adj. 

slow, fearfiil, timid, 17 a. 20. See 

Erl, sb. earl, 18. 681. See EorL 

Erme, adj. poor, wretched, 11. 64. 
See Arme. 

Ermine, sb. ermine, 176. 365. See 

Erming, adj. wretched, 3 a. 6, 
108 ; sb. pl. poor persons, 176. 
323. See Earmynges. 

Ern, sb. eagle, 12. 88; 18. 572; 
Ernes, gen. s. 12. 53. A. S. earn, 

Ernen, v. to run ; EmeJ), pr, pl. 6. 
215. See Eomen. 

Emesse, sb. dat.; on ernesse, for 
an earnest, Sb. 112 ; M. E.emes, 
a pledge; O. F. erre ; Lat. arrha ; 
Gr. appa^ijv ; Heb. erdbdn. Gen. 
xxxviii. 17. 

Errfe, sb. cattle, 5. 1068. A. S. yrfe 
( = er^), cattle, in Chron. ann. 910, 
1010 (where or/ appears in one 
MS.) : O. S. erbi, inheritance : 
Goth, arbi ; cp. 'O. H. G. erbi 
(Tatian, Otfrid), and O. Ir. orfc* 
(Windisch). Cf. Erue, Orfl 

Erst, adv. first, 9. 177. See 

Ert, 2 pr. s. art, 11. 5 ; 19. iiiQi 



A.S.(Wessex) eart ; O. Northumb. 

ard. The final -d stands for dii, 

£ii1$e, sb. earth, 2. 60 ; I2. 32 ; i8. 

424. See £jOi1$e. 
Erthe, v. to dwell, 18. 739. A. S. 

eardian. Cf. Earding-stowe. 
ErUliche, adj. earthly, 12. 299. See 

Erue, sb. cattle, 15. 1948. See 

EruT, adv. formerly, 16. 1738. A.S. 

<Bror, comp. of cer. See ^t. 
Es, pron. his, 8a. 105. A.S. his. 

See His. 
Es, pr. s. is, 12. 247. See Is. 
Escade, pt. s. asked, 3 a. 50. See 

Est, s6. East, 7. 179. A.S. edst: 

O. S. ost (in 6stan). 
Este, sb. delicacy, dainty, 46. 96, 

108; 9. 321; Esten, /)/. I. 185. 

Estene, gen. pi. 4 b. 96. A. S. 

6st, favour, bounty, pi. estas^ 

Ester, sb. Easter, 46. 22; Estren, 

pi. dat. Easter, 2. 86. A. S. edster^ 

pi. n. edstroy gen. edstrena^ dat. 

edstran (for edstrum). 
Estrene-dai, sb. Easter day, 46. 

66. See above. 
Estun, sb. Easton, 2. 78. 
"E^t.prep. at, i. 88; 9. 237 ; il. 90. 

See JEt. 
Eten, V. to eat, 36. 109; 15.2080; 

Ett, pr. s. I. 190 ; Et,/>/. s. i. 33 ; 

18. 653, 656; Eten; pt. pi. 46. 

103; Eten, pp. 18. 657; Etc, 

imp. s, 9. 243. A. S. etan, pt. s. 

cet, pt. pi. cBton^ pp. eten. Cf. 

Eoten, Hete, I^eten., 
Eter, at the, i. 15, 136. A.S. cet 

dckre (dat./.). 
Etforen, prep, before, 3 a. 14. A.S. 

Et-halden, v. to hold back, retain, 

36. 16. 21 ; Etholden, 9. 14; Et- 

halt, pr. s. 9. 104. See At- 


Etlunge» sb. calculation, 7. 166. 

Cp. Icel. atla, also eda, to think, 

to calculate, whence North. E. 

Et-scene, adj. easily seen, 7. 86. 

See EtS-sene. 
Et-stonden, v. to withstand, 7. 

182. A. S. atstandan, to standstill. 
Ette, at the, 9. 310. A. S. at dam 

(dat. m.), 
m-oene, adj. easily seen, 9. 269. 

See Et$-sene. 
E3e, adv. easily, 17 a. 368 ; 19. 57, 

843. See Ea^e. 
EKelich, adj. slight, 8 6. 69 ; E^e- 

lice, dat. 1. 144; ECeliche, brief, 

4 c, 6. A. S. eddeliCf easy. 
Epelyng, sb. noble, 14. 74. A. S. 

cedelingy from cedele, noble. See 

mem, sb. breath, 3 a. 33. A. S. 

ediUy ddm : O. S. adorn ; cp. Du. 

adem, and G. athem. 
me-moded, adj. gentle, well-dis- 
posed, 15. 2249. Cf. Ad-moded. 
ESen, adv.. hence, 15. 2188. Icel. 

hedan. See Hethen. 
EtS-late, adj. lightly esteemed, 176. 

74, 150, 155, 204. Icel. aud- 

Idtinny cp. the compound vel- 

Idtinn, highly esteemed. See Icel. 

Diet. (s.v. lata, c. ii. 2). 
Et$-sene, adj. easily seen, 17 a. 338. 

A. S. edde^ easily + sewen, seen. 

Cf. EScene, Etscene. 
Eu, pron. you, 16. 1792 ; 17 a. 285. 

See Eow. 
Eu-bruche, sb. adultery, 3 b. 36. 

A. S. cew-bryce ; ckwe, marriage + 

bryce, breach, breaking. 
Euoh, adj. each, 7. 17, 143 ; 8 a. 

Ill; Euches, gen. s. 8 b. 54. See 

Euohanes, gen. s. of each one, 7. 

loi. Euch + dnes. See An. 
Eue, sb. evening, 16. 41. See 

Eue, gen. of Eve, wife of Adam, 4c. 




Suel, adj. evil, 176. 26, 172 ; adv. 

badly, 176. 172; liuele, 176. 

298. A. S. y/el : O. S. ubil. See 

Euel, sb. evil, i. 47. See TTfel. 
Eue-lyche, at/v. evenly, 14. 79. 
Euen, s6. evening, 46. 22, 117. 

A. S. f/g/i, «/*«. Cf. Eue. 
lEuen-cristen, sb. fellow Christian, 

17 a. 304 ; Euene-cristene, pi. 3 b. 

99. A. S. efen-cristen ; cp. Icel. 

jafn-Kristinn. Cf. Sm-cristeii. 
Suened, />/>. compared, 4 c. 60. See 

Huene-long, of proper height, 19. 

94. Cf. Icel. jq/n- in compounds. 
liUeiiyiiges, sb. pi, equals, 17 a. 

168. See Efning. 
Euere, adv. ever, 6 6. 351. See 

Ever-euoh, adj. every, 16. 1642. 

See ^uer-alche. 
Euerichon, every one, 9. 40. See 

JEueralche and An. 
Euer-ilc, adj, every, every one, 15. 

2098, 2355; Euereche, 66. 87; 

Euerich, 9. 99 ; Eueriche, 9. 323 ; 

Eueruyches, gen, s. 14. 84 ; 

Euerichne, ace. m. 9. loi. See 

Euer-mo, a//i;. evermore, 17 a. 152, 

2CX) ; Euermor, 15. 2322. See 

Eueten, sb. pi. newts, 176. 277. 

A. S. efeta^ a newt, an eft. 
Euorwic, sb. York, 2. 96. 
Enre, adv. ever, 19. 79. See ^fre. 
Eure, poss. pron. your, 14. 28. See 

Eurech, adj. every, 19. 671 ; Eu- 

reche, 19. 609. See .ffiuer- 

Evrich, adj. every, 16. 194, 426. 
Ewanigeliste, sb. evangelist, 8 b. 

156. Lat. evangelista (Vulg.) ; 

Gr. ivayy€\i(TTrjs. 
Ewiche, adj. every, 17 a. 85. A.S. 

ck-g-hwilcj each ; cp. O. H. G. io- 

gi'uuelih, every (Tatian). 

Eye, s6. aj9ce, 17 a. 21, 275. See 

Eyen, sb. pi. eyes, 17 a. 74; 18. 

680. See Egen. 
Eyhte, sb. wealth, possessions, 17 a. 

255,315- See Ahhte. 
Eyper, adj. either, 17 a. 63, 231, 

300. See EiSer. 
Eje, sb. eye, 16. 426 ; Ejen, f^. 3 a. 

17, 32.' See Egen. 


Fa, adj. hostile, 1.5. A. S.fdg. Cf. 

Po, Pan, Van. 
Fader, s6. father, i. 46; 2. 175; 

4c. 22 ; gen. s. 14. 428; Faderes, 

15- 2175, 2372. A.S. /aider 

(prop, invariable in the sing.). Cf. 

Feader, Peder. 
PeBger, adj. fair. A. S.fager, Cf. 


Faireste, Payr,Fa55re, Feyre, 

PeBhte, sb. fight, 6. 309. A. S. 

feoht. Cf. Pi3te, TTihte. 
FsBie, adj. dead, 6 a. 254. A. S. 

fdge, dead, doomed, feeble. See 

FsBire, adv. courteously, kindly, 6. 

36,277,288. A.S. f<Egere,f<Bgre. 

See P»ger. 
Pceirest, adj. stiperl. fairest, 6 a. 

no, 304. See above. 
FsBireste, adj. superl. fairest, 66. 

13; 19* 1 73- See FsBger. 
FsBrd, s6. army, 2. 94, 170. See 

FsBTen, V. to go, 6 a. 90. See 

PsBTeste, adj. superl. fairest, 6 a, 

13. See P»ger. 
PsBstned, pp. fastened, 2. 33. A. S. 

fcestnian, to make fast. Cf. Fest- 

FsBSton, pt. pi. confirmed, 2. 139. 

A. S. fcBslan^ to make fost : 

O.H. G./astjan. 



PsBU, adj. few, 2. 96. See Feaw. 
Fagen, adj. glad, fain, 15. 2267, 

2359. A.S.fcBgen: O.S./agan. 

Cf. UsBin. 
Faille, v. to fail, 19. 638 ; Failede, 

pt. s, 13. 93. O. Y.failltr; Lat. 

fallere (changed to the 4th conj.), 
Faire, adj. fair, noble, 19. 22, 161. 

See FsBger. 
Faire, adv. well, 2. 204 ; cour- 
teously, 6 6. 288; 15. 2393; 19. 

1040. See Ffisire. 
Fairhede, sb. beauty, fairness, 19, 

83, 803. See Stratmann. 
Fairnesse, ib. beauty, 19. 87, 213. 

A. S. fcBgernis, 
Fallen, v. to fall ; Falle, 17 a. 310 ; 

19. 786, 1238; FalleS, pr. pi. i. 

167; 36. 114; Fallen, 12. 72. 

A. S. feallan, pt. feoll ( =fe-fall\ 

pp. gefeallen. Cf. Uallen, Felle, 

Feol, Feolle, Fel, Pul, I-falle. 
Failed, />r. pi. cause to fall, 6. 218. 

A. S. fellan, to fell. See Felle. 
Fals, adj. false, i6. 210; False, pi. 

1. 105. O. F./als ; Lat. falsus. 
Falsliche, adv. falsely, 9. 20. 
Fait, pr. s. falters, 16. 37. Cp. 

O. F./alte {now faute), a fault. 
Fa-men, sb. pi. foemen, 80.146. 

A. S./dhman. Cf. Va-men. 
Fan, sb. pi. foes, 8 a. 145 ; 10. 62. 

A. S. /an, pi. of fdh (weak de- 
clension). See Fa. 
Fand, />/. s. found, provided for, 2. 

65, 143. See Finden. 
Fandie, v. to prove, try, i. 151, 

A. S. fandian. Cf. Fonde, 

Uonde'S, I-fonded. 
Fant, pt. s. found, 10. 4. See 

Fant-ston, sb. font-stone, 46. 22. 

A. S. fant, font ; Church Lat. fon- 

tern, font (in Lat. a spring). Cf. 

Fare, sb. journey, 2. 44; 15. 1989. 

A. S.faru. 
Faren (1), v. to go, fare, 2. 44, 

193; 66. 90; Fare, 16. 909; 

Farst, 2 pr. s. 18. 799 » FareS, 

pr. s, 9. 94 ; pr. pi. 6 a. 85 ; 

Faren, 15. 2153; Fare, pp. 18. 

1380. A. S. faran, pt. fdr, pp. 

faren. Cf. Fesren, For, Foren, 

Varen, Ifaren. 
Faren (2), v. to behave. Farest, 

2/>r.s. i6. 421, 917. Cf. FearetJ. 
Faren (3), v. to bring ; Fare's, pr. 

pi. 6 a. 551. A. S. ferian, to 

make to come, to carry. Cf. Ifare. 
Farlao, sb. fear, 7. 202. See Fear- 

Fasstinng, s6. fasting, 5. 1450. 
Faste, adv. firmly, 4c. 45; se 

curely, 6. 353. A. S.fcBste. 
Fasten, sb. fasting, 176. 147, 339 

A.S.fcBsien. Cf. Festen. 
Fastlice, adv. continuously, i. 132 

A. S. fcBstlice. 
Fastrede, adj. steadfast, 16. 211 

A. S.fcBstriEd. 
Fat, sb. vessel, 12.108; Faten, ^/ 

13.101. A. S. feet, pL fatuy fata 

Cf. Veat. 
Fauresfeld, sh. Faversham in Kent, 

2. 186. 
Fawe, adj, few, 17 a. 341. See 

Fayr, adj. lovely, fair, 17 a. 380; 

Fayre, 18. 351. See FeBger. 
Fa3e, adj. spotted, 36. 88. A. S. 

fdgyfdh, variegated. Cf. Foa3e, 

Foh, Fou. 
Fa55re, adj. fair, 5. 1215. See 

Fe, s6. property, 18. 386 ; money, 

1 5* 1 99 3* A' S. feoh, cattle, 

money, property : O. S. fehu ; cp. 

Feader, sb. father, 8 6. 3, 59, no. 

See Fader. 
Fearet5,/>r. s. fares, behaves, 7. 19. 

See Faren. 
Fearlac, sb. fear, 7. 66. A. S. 

fckr, sudden danger + /tie, an ab- 
stract suffix found in wedlac (q. v.). 

Cf. Farlao. 
Feaw, adj. few; Feawe, i. no; 



176.349,354. A.S.fedw. Cf. 

F8BU, Pawe, Fewe. 
Feble, adj. feeble, 36. 9, 11. O.F. 

feble, Ps. cii. 14 ; Lat. Jlehilis, 

Feblelike, adv. in sorry fashion, 

18. 418. 
Fece, sb. time, while, i. 7, 103. 

A. S.fceCf period of time. 
Feohen, v. to fetch, 4 J. 8; 15. 

2363; Fecche, 19. 351. From 

A .S./ecce, pr. s. olfeccan =fetian^ 

see Skeat (s. v.fetch^ p. 804). Cf. 

Feden, v. to feed, 9. 203 ; Fedenn, 

5. 1558; F6de, 6. 379. A. S. 

fedan : O. S. fddian. Cf. Fet, 

Fett, TTeden, lueedde. 
Feder, sb. father, i. 48; 8 a. 13 ; 

7. 85. See Fader. 
Feier, adj. fair, 7. 85. SeeFeeger. 
Feierlec, sb. beauty, 7. 124. A. S. 

fcBger^ fair + lac (an abstract suffix, 

cf. fearlac). 
Feir, adj. fair, S a. 15 ; Feire, 8 6. 

20; lo. 103; of feir elde, of ma- 
ture age, 9. 239. See FsBger. 
Feire, adv. kindly, 8 a. 50. See 

Feiren, v. to make fair, 3 b. 126. 
Feiren, companions, 19. 237. 

See Fere. 
FeiK, sb. faith, 15. 2187. O. F. 

feid; hzl.fidem. 
Fel, pi. s. fell, 19. 505 ; Fellen, pt. 

pi. 15. 2272. See Feol. 
Fela"we, sb. fellow, companion, 19. 

iioi. See below. 
Fela^e, sb. companion, 19. 1008, 

1461 ; Fela5es,/>/. 19. 1 310, 1360. 

Icel.felagi, a partner in common 

property {fS). Cf. Feolahes. 
Feld, sb. field, 19. 514; Felde, 6. 

406; 16.1714. A. S. feld. Cf. 

Ualde, Velde. 
Felde, pt. s. felt, 8 a. 15 ; 86. 160. 

See Felen. 
Fele, adj. many, i . 95, 103 ; 4 d. 

51 ; 176. 9, 70; to fele, too 

much, 14. 196 ; fele kinnes, of 

many a kind, 46. 27. A. S.fela : 

O. S.Jilu ; cp. O. Ir. il and Gr. 

rroKvs. Cf. Feole, Vele, Veole, 

Veale, Vale. 
Fele-folde, adj. manifold, 4 b. 94. 

A. S.felafeald. 
Felen, v. to feel ; FeletJ, pr. s. 4 b. 

10. A.S.felan: O.U.G.fdljan, 

(novrfdhlen). Cf. Felde, Yfelde. 
"Felevrep, pr. s. follows, 17 a. 340. 

See Folgen. 
Felle, V. to fell, 19. 62. A. S. fel- 

Ian, (Jot fallian) causal of fallan 

(feallan). Cf. Fall^, I-falde. 
Felle, pt. pi. fell, 19. 866 ; Fellenn, 

5. 1398; Fellen, 15. 2497. See 

Felle, V. to complete, 19. 1274. 

See Fulle. 
Felles, sb. pi. skins, 9. 160. A, S. 

fell; cp. Lat. pellis, Gr. viXka. 

Cf. Uelles. 
Felony, sb. base wickedness, 18. 

444. O. F. felonie, felunie, in 

Roland, 2600, base treachery, 

from felt base, cruel, treacherous, as 

sb. a traitor, in ace. felon (felun). 
Felunge, sb. feeling, 7. 18. 
Fend, sb. enemy, fiend, devil, I. 5; 

18. 506 ; pi. 10. 96; Fendes, i. 

54. See Feond. 
Feng on, pt. s. took on, began, 

8 a. 44, 67. See Fon. 
Feol, pt. s. fell, 19. 428, 1147. 

A. S.fedll. See Fallen. 
Feolahes, sb. pi. fellows, com- 
panions, 8 a. 13. See Felawe. 
Feolahscipe, 56. fellowship, 86. 16. 
Feole, adj. many, 3 a. 21; 6. 89, 

238; 7.102; 14.4; 16.1772. 

See Fele. 
Feolle, pt, s. subj. should fall, 19. 

421. See Fallen. 
Feolohliikest, adv. superl. most 

intimately, 7. 121. See Felawe. 
Feond, s6, an enemy ; Feondes, pi. 

fiends, 8 a. loi ; 9. 93. A. S. 

fedndt pr. part, of fe6n, to hale. 



Cf. Fend, Peont, Fiend, 

Feondliohe, adv. fiercely, 6. 253. 

A. S.fedndlice. 
Feont, sb. the enemy, the fiend, 7. 

37. See Feond. 
Feor, adv. far, 6. 320; 16. 710, 

1657; 19. 775; of feor, afar, 7. 

45. A. S. feorr : Goth, fairra. 

Cf*. Far, Ferr, For, Veor. 
Feord, sb. army, 2. 151. See 

Feor den, pt. pi. fared, 2. 134. 

A.S./erdon. See Ferde. 
FeortJe, num. ord. fourth, 3 a. 29 ; 

6. 121 ; 7. 42 ; feortJe siSes, 

fourthly, lit. of the fourth time, 

46.20. A.S. fedrda. Cf. Fiert$e, 

Feop-vorJ), adv. far (far-forth), 16. 

Feower, num. four, 3 6. 48. A. S. 

fedwer: Goth. Jidwor; cp. Wei. 

pedwar, Gr. iriavpes, O. Ir. cethiry 

Lat. quatuor^ Skt. chatvar. Cf. 

Fower, Vour, Fe'Ser-foted. 
Far, arfv. far, 15. 2429; 18. 359. 

See Feor. 
Far, sb. fire, i. 53, 166; 13. 125. 

See Fir. 
Far, adj. well, sound, 19. 149. Icel. 

fcarr, able, strong. 
Ferd, &b. army ; Ferde, pi. armies, 

hosts, 6 a. 170; 16. i668, 1672. 

k.'^.firdyfyrdjerd. Cf. Feerd, 

Feord, Uerden. 
Ferde, pt. s. fared, went, 2. 114, 

154; 18.447; 19-755; Fcrden. 

pt. pi. 2. 172 ; 16. 1789. A. S. 

feran, pt. ferde. Cf. Feorden, 

Fere, sb. companion, i6. 223; 19. 

747; Feren, pi. 19. 19; Feres, 

15. 2478. A. S. {ge)fera. Cf. 

Ferin, Vere, 3©feren. 
Fere, sb. power, ability, 5. 1 251. 

Icel./cBn, means, ability. 
Fere, sb. fear, 19. 1266. A. S. 

f^Ty sudden danger. 

Feren, adv. from far, 15. 1935. 

A. ^. feorr an. 
Ferin, s6. />/. companions, 19. 1258. 

See Fere. 
Ferliche, adj. fearful, dreadful, 8 a. 

142. A. S. fcerliCf sudden. 
Ferliche, adv. dreadfully, 86. 100. 

A. S.fckrltcey suddenly. 
Ferr, adv. far, 5. 1265. See 

Ferreden, sb. company, 7. 120. 

A.S. (^^)/'^rr<Brfe«, companionship, 

from gefera, companion + rceden^ 

law, condition, used as a suffix, as 

in *h2iXred* * kindreJ.* Cf. 5e- 

fered, Verade. 
Ferst, adv. first, 13. 107. See 

Fest, adj. (bound) fast, 15. 2373. 

Cf. M, E. festyn^ to bind together, 

ligo^ in Prompt, Parv. 
Feste, sb. feast, 19. 477, 1416. 

O.Y.feste\ Lzt. festa. 
Feste, adv. fast, 17a. 237. A.S. 

fceste, fast, £rmly, Cf, ITeste, 
Festen, sb. fasting, 17 a. 151, See 

Festnen, v. to fasten, confirm, 8 a. 

122; Festnin, 8 6. 150 ; Fesstnenn, 

5. 178. See FsBstned, I-uest- 

Fet, sb. pi. feet, 2. 23; 18. 616. 

A. S, fet, pi. offdt. See Fot, 
Fet, adj. fat, 15. 2098 ; Fette, pi. 

fat ones, 15. 2100. A. S.fcett. 
Fet, pr. s. feeds, 12. 301. See 

Fete, V. to fetch, 18. 642. A. S. 

fetian. Cf. Fette. 
Feteres, fetters, 2. 118. See 

Fetles, sb. pi. vessels, 8 a. 102. 

A. S.fcBtelSf SL vessel. 
Fet-steppes, footsteps, 1 2. 7. 
Fett,/>r. s, feeds,i.48. See Feden. 
Fett, sb. pi. feet, i. 16. See Fet. 
Fette, pt. s. fetched, 4 b. 67. A. S. 

fette, pt. o( fetian. See Fete. 
FefSer-foted, adj, four-footed, 3 a. 




32. A. S. fider-fete. With A. S. 

Jider^ four, cp. Go\h.Jidwor. See 

FetSres, sh. pi. feathers, 12. 72. 

A. S. /tf^tfr. 
Fewe, adj. few, 4 a. 5; 17 a. 104. 

See Feaw. 
Feye, adj. fated to die, 14. 170. 

Icel. feigr (see account of this 

word in the Icel. Diet.) : O. S. 

fegi \ cp. O. H. G. feigi^ base, 

low (Otfrid), whence G. feig^ 

coward. Cf. Feeie. 
Feyre, adj. fair, good, 17 a. 346. 

See FeBger. 
Feyre, adv. kindly, 18. 452. See 

Fiendes, sb. pi. foes, 176. 223. See 

Fiei^e, num. ord. fourth, i. 121. 

See Feor^e. 
Fif, mtm. five, i. 19, 15. 2369; 

Fife, 5. 1443. A. S. fif: Goth. 

fimf'j cp. Wei. pump, Gr. vifxve, 

Lat. quinque, O. Ir, coic. Cf. 

Fif-folde, adj. fivefold, 4 a. 47. 
Fifte, num. ord. fifth, i. 127 ; 

3 a. 29; Fif))e, 6. 123. A. S. 

Fifte-sit$e, adv. fifthly, 46. 21. 

See SitSe. 
Fihtlao, s6. fighting, 16. 1699. ^'^' 

feohtldc (Schmid). 
Filstnede, pL s. aided, 12. 44. 

From A. S. fylstan, to help, with 

-n-formative, see Skeat (s. v. 

qtdicken); and Stratmann {s.y. ful). 
Filt, />/>. filled, 15. 2213, 2307. See 

Fin, adj. fine, 15. 2370. O. F.Jin, 

in Roland, 65 2, 1 540, used of gold ; 

so Late Lat.^wMS, pure (of metals); 

derived by Brachet and Diez from 

\jZX.finituSf finished. 
Finden, v. to find, i. 201 ; 2. 44 ; 

Findenn, 5. 1573; Finde, 13. 26; 

Findes, 2 pr. s. 15. 2320; Finde)), 

I pr. pi. 176. 332. A. S. findan^ 

pt. s.fand,pt. pl./undoUf pp. fun- 
den. Cf. Vinde, Funde, I- 
founde, Hi-funde. 

Findi^, adj. heavy, firm, compact, 
5. 1602. A. S.jindig (B. T.). 

Fine, v. to end, 19. 262. O.F. 
Jiner, in Roland ; Lit. finire, 

Fingres, sb. pi. fingers, 19. 992. 
A. S.Jinger. 

"Fint, 2 pr. pi. find, 12. 292. See 

Fir, sb. fire, 5. 1529; 18. 585, 
587. A. S. fyr. Cf. Fer, Fur, 

Firrpresst, 2 pr. s. succourest, 5. 

1250. A. S. fyrpran, to further, 

support, from furdor, further. 
Firsin, v. to remove, S a. 89 ; Fir- 
sen, 8 b. 109. A. S./yrsiofif firom 

feor^ far. 
Fisch, sb. fish, 10. ii ; Fis, 3 6. 91 ; 

Fiss, 19. 661, 664; Fisses, />/. 3 6. 

94; 17 6. 83, A. S. fisc. Cf. 

Fis-cynn, sb. fish-kind, i. 53. 

A. S. Jisc-cynn. 
Fissen, v. to fish, 19. 1148 ; Fisse, 

19. 1 1 55. A.S.Jiscian. 
Fissere, s&. fisher, 19. 11 46; Fish- 

ere, 18.524. A. S. fiscere. 
Fissing, sb. fishing, 19. 1.161. 
Fi3te, V. to fight, 16. 1669; 19. 

514. A.S,feohtan. Cf. Fi^ten, 

Fijte, sb. fighting. 16. 183. A.S. 

feohte. Cf. Vihte. 
Fijtinge, sb. fighting, 19. 825. 

Man, sb. dat. s. arrow, 8 6. 21. 

A, S.Jldn, obj, c, of Jld, zlsojldn ; 

cp. Icel.Jleinn. 
Flaunes, sb. pi. a kind of custard, 

18. 644. O. F. Jlaon ; Low Lat. 
flatonem, fladonem, a flat cake; 

cp. O. H. G. flado. 
Fie. See Fleon. 
Fie. See Flen. 
Fleget$, pr. s. flies, 12. 64. A.S. 

fledged. See Fleon. 



Fleh, pt, s. escaped, 2. 122. A. S. 

Jledh. See Fleon. 
Fleis, sb. flesh, 46. 71 ; 15. 2089. 

See Flesc. 
Flemden, pt. pi. put to flight, 2. 

97. A. S. flemen, flyman. 
Fleme, sb. a fugitive, 19. 1291. 

A. ^.flema^flyma (Schmid). 
Flen, V. to flay, 19. 86 ; Fie, 19. 

1394. A. S. fledn ; Icel. fld^ pt. 

fl6. Cf. Flo. 
Fleon, V. to fly, escape from, 7.' 

234; 16. 150; Fleo, i6. 442, 

1700; Fie, 18.492,696; Fleo'S, 

pr. pi. 1 6. 278. A.S. Jleogan, 

fiedkan, fle6n. Cf. Flege'S, Fleh, 

Flep, Fli3t, Flugen. 
Fleso, sb. flesh, 2. 45 ; Fles, 4 a. 

50; Flesce, dat. 13. 63; Flessce, 

13. 66; Flesshes, gen. 9. 209. 

X.S.flcBsc. Cf. Fleis. 
Fleschliche, adj. dat. according to 

the flesh, 8 fl. 2 ; Fleshliche, 8 b. 

3. A. S.Jlcksclic, 
Flesliche, adv. materially, in re- 
ality, 13. 47. A.S. Jl(Esclice. 
Flete, ^pr. s, subj. float, 18. 522. 

A. S.Jledtan, 
Flep, pr. s. flieth, 5. 1322. See 

Fle55l, sb. flail, 5. 1500. O.Y.flael; 

Lsit.Jlagelliim, a scourge. 
Fligt, sb. flight, 12. 59; Flijte, 

dat. s. 19. 1432. A. S.Jlyhi. 
Flijt, pr. s. flies, 1 6. 1 76, 308 ; 

Fli3st, 2 pr. s. 16. 227, 405. 

A. S.flyhst, 2 pr. s.,flyp, pr. s. of 
Jleon. See Fleon. 
Flo, V. to flay, 18. 612. See Flen. 
Flockes, flocks of birds, 16. 

280, 427. A. S.flocc. 
Flod, sb. flood, sea, 10. ii ; i8. 

669 ; Flode, dat. s, 19. 139, 

1 197; Flodes, gen. s. 15. 2096. 

A.S. flud; Icd.Jlod. 
Flohp, pr. s. floweth, 16. 920. 

See Flowen. 
Flore, sb. floor, 19. 529. A.S.fldr. 
Flote, sb. company, 18. 738. O, F, 

flote^ a mnltitiide (^flotte in Cot- 
grave) ; Liit. Jluctus, See Diez. 
Flowen, v. to flow, 10. 90 ; Flowe, 

19. 117, 632, 1 107. A.S. fldwan, 

Cf. FlohJ). 
' Flugen, pt, pi. flew, escaped, 2. 

131 ; Flugaen, 2. 56, 1 17. See 

Fluht. See Ofluht. 
Flum, sb. stream, 15. 2486. Norm. 

Y,flum\ h^X.Jlumen. 
Flur, sb. flower, 19. 15. Norm. F. 

flur ; Lat. Jlorem. 
Flute, imp. s. depart, 7. 211. Icel. 

flytja^ to carry, flytjask (reflexive), 

to flit, remove. Cf. Vlutten. 
Fnast, sb. breath, 16. 44. A. S. 

Fnaste, v. to breathe, 18. 548. 
Fo, adj. few, 15. 2403. See 

Fo, sb. pi. foes, I. 181. A.S. fa, 

pi. o^fdh. See Fa. 
Fo (on), I pr. pi. subj. begin, 16. 

179. See Stratmann (s. v. an). 

A. S. onfon^ pr. pi. subj. of on/dn^ 

to take up. Cf. OnnfoJ). 
FoaBe, adj. spotted, 3 b. 129. See 

Foddre, sb. fodder, 9. 131. A.S. 

F ode, sb. food, 9. 120; 12. 80, 

118; 16. 94. A.S. fdda. Cf. 

Fode, sb. a child, alumnus, 19. 

1362. See Spec. E. E. 2 (Glos- 
Foh, adj. spotted, variegated (fur), 

17 *• 365. See Fa5e. 
Fol, adj. foul, 7. 20; 17 a. 15. 

See Ful. 
Folc, sb, people, i. 2; 8 a. 144; 

15.2135. A.S. folc. Cf. Volk, 

Folc-kinge, sb. dat. the king of the 

people, 6. 34, 94. A. S. folc* 

Folcninge, sb. dat. baptism, 46. 

34. See Fuloning. 



Fole, sb, foal, 4 a. 2 ; 19. 589, 591. 

A. S./o/fl. 
Folgen, V, to follow, 4 a. 85 ; Fol- 

hin, 7. 12, 96 ; FoUjhenn, 5. 

1009, ^^95» 1283; Folje'S, ^r. s^ 

176. 14; FolheS, 7. i27;'Tonie? 

10. 95 ; Foll3he}^)), 5- 1323, 157^ ? 

Folewej?, 17 a. 14 ; Fol5e)),/>r. pi. 

176. 346 ; Folgeden, pt. pi. 4 c. 

11; Folecheden, 2. 132. A. S. 

fylgian : O. S.folgdn ; cp. O, Fris. 

folgia. Cf. Felewep, ^efolged. 

Folies, sfc. />/, follies, 13. 135. 

Norm. F.folie. Cf. Folye. 
Foliwis, adv. fully, 6 b. 449. See 

Folkene, sb. gen. pi. peoples', 8 b. 

53. See Folc. 
Folliohe, adv. fully, 6 b. 366. See 

Folliche, adv. foolishly, 9. 19. 
Fol-velletr imp. pi. fill full, 13. 

100. A. S.fulfyllarif to fill up. 
Folye, sb. folly, 19. 688. See 

Fon, v. to receive, 4 a. 83. A. S. 

fdn, pr. f6 (fange) ; pt. feng, pp. 

fangen, Cf. Underfon, Feng. 
Fond, pt. s. found, 15. 1934, 2224 ; 

19- 35 ; Fonden, 19. 1321 ; 

Fonde = fond + he, he found, 15. 

I933* See Finden. 
Fonde, v, to experience, 19. 151, 

734 ; Fondin, 7. 68 ; to try, at- 
tempt, 86. 86; to tempt, 8 a. 51 ; 

Fonded, pp. experienced, 176. 

149. See Fandie. 
Fonde, v. to go, 19. 840. See 

Fondunge, sb. temptation, 9. 209. 

A.S. faTidung. 
Fonge, V. to receive, 19. 327, 721. 

A. S. fangan*y whence fon. See 

For, adv. far, 6 b. 405. See Feor. 
For, pt. s. went, 2. 71. See Fareu. 
For, prep, on account of, 2. 56 ; 

6 b. 349 ; by (in asseverations), 

8a. 84, 90; 8 6. 76. A.S. for; 

cp. Lat. prOf Gr. irp6. Cf. Porr, 

For, conj. for, 2. 3. A causal conj. 

is often formed by the prep, for 

used with the demonstrative. See 

Forpan, ForiJi. 
For-b8Bmen, v. to bum up, 6 a. 

329 ; For-bearne, 6 6. 329 ; For- 

bernest, 2 pr. s. 16. 419. A, S. 

For-beden, v. to forbid ; ForbedetJ, 

pr. s. 12. 298 ; Forbet, 176.. 307 ; 

Forbed, 17 a. 301 ; Forbude, pt. 

s. subj. 7. 13; Forbodc, pp. 19. 

76. A. S. forbeddan^ pt. s. bedd, 

pi. budoTif pp. boden. 
Fop-bere, v. to forbear, 18. 352 ; 

Forbaren, pt. pi. 2. 51. A.S. 

forberan^ pt. s. beer, pi. b<kron, pp. 

boren. Cf. Uorberen. 
For-bisne, sb. example, 4 a. 15, 71. 

See Bisne. 
For-bod, sb. prohibition ; Forbode, 

dat. I'ja. 290; For-bot, s6. 9. 

190. A. S.forbod. 
For-ouTseed, pp. utterly accursed, 

2. 58. 
For-cwiddares, sb. pi. foretellers 

(a gloss on * prophetes *), 9. 67. 

For fore-cwiddares ; cp, A. S. 

fore'cwedan, to foretell. 
Fop-dede, pt. s. destroyed, i. 120. 

A. S.for-dyde. See For-don. 
For-demde, pt. s. condenmed, 8 a, 

10; 17 a. 268; Fov'demet, pp. 

8 6. 92. A. S./ordeman. 
For-don, v. to destroy; FordoC, 

pr. s. 3 6. 87 ; FoT-don, pp. 2. 61 ; 

17a. 268; 176. 274. A.S. 

forddn, v. and pp. Cf. UoP- 

donne, Fordede. 
For-dred, />/>. afraid, 15. 2191. So 

in Ormulum. From A.S. dr^dan, 

to dread, pp. dr<kden. See 

For-drenohe, v. to make drunk, 

17 a. 328. A.S.fordrencan. 
For-druje, v. to dry up, 16. 919. 

A. S.fordrugian. 



"FoTe^prep. before, 7. 30, 48; 10. 
112; for, 7. 128. A. S. fore. 

Foremes, num. ord. gen. first, 176. 
197. See Forme. 

"FoTQUf prep, before, 36. 95. A. S. 
for an. 

Foreward, sb. agreement, 16. 
1692; 19. 452; Forward, 15. 
1992; 18.486. K.%. foreweard. 

For-geten, v. to forget, 15. 2102; 
For- gat, pt. s. 15. 2092 ; For- 
geten, 15. 2179. k.St. forgitan. 
Cf. For-yeten, For-jeten, Vor- 

For-gifen, v. to forgive ; ForgifS, 
pr. s. 4<f. 73 ; For-gaf, pt. s. 15. 
2499. A. S.forgifan. Cf. Forr- 
^ifenn, For3ieue, UorjiuetJ. 

For-got5, />r. s. forgoeth, 176. 358. 
A. S. forgdn. 

For-gnilt, pp. become guilty, 3 a 
25; For-gulte, guilty, 3 a. 84 
M. E.forgilien, to become guilty 
Cf. ForrgiUtedd. 

For-holen, pp. hidden, 176. 76 
For-hole, 17 a. 76. A.S.forhelan] 

For-ho5ie, pr, s. subj. neglect, des- 
pise, 3 b. 26. A. S» forhogian. 

For-leaf, imp. s. abandon, leave, 
8 6. 173. M.E. forlcBven. See 

Forleosen, v. to lose wholly ; For- 
leost, 2 pr.s. 16. 1649; Foriese)), 
pr. s. 14. 208 ; For-les, pt. s. 2. 
123. A. S. forledsan, pt. forleds, 
pp. forloren. Cf. Forloren, 
Forrlorenn, Vorleosen. 

For-leten, v. to leave off, 4 c. 31 ; 
Forlete, to forsake, 19. 218; For- 
let, /)/. s. 15. 2440; Forleten, pp. 
46.110. A.S.forlihtan. 

Forloren, />/). lost, ruined, 2. 15 ; 
8 a. 86 ; 12. 85 ; 15. 2511 ; For- 
lorene, pi. 176. 106. See For- 

Forme, num. ord. first, i. 82, 88 ; 
3fl. 28, 104; 17 a. 195. A. S. 
forma. Cf. Foremes, Forrme. 

Forme-fader, sb. ancestor, first- 
father, 4 c. 20. 
Forme-mete, sb. first meat, morn- 
ing meal, I. 13. 
Formest, adj. superl. first, i. 58. 

M.E. formest = A. S. fyrmest, a 

double superl. from A. S. forma. 

See Forme. 
For-numen, pp. bereft, 15. 2228. 

A. S. fornumen^ pp. of forniman^ 

to take away. 
For-quat, for what, 15. 2053. See 

Forr, prep, for, 5. 1299. See For. 
For-reden, v. to wrong, hurt, 8 a. 

105; Forreaden, 8 6. 128; For- 

readeiS, pr, s. deceives, 8 a. 100 ; 

For-red, />/>. 15. 2192. A.S./or- 

r<kdant to betray. 
Forr-gilltedd, pp. held guilty, 5. 

1463. See For-gult. 
Forr-langedd, pp. seized with a 

longing, 5. 1280. A. S. langian, 

to lengthen, to long after. See 

Skeat (s. v. long 2). 
Forr-lorenn, pp. lost, 5. 1395. 

A. S. forloren. See Forleosen. 
Forr-lurenn, />/. />/. lost, 5. 141 2. 

A. S. forluron. See Forleosen. 
Forrme, num. ord. first, 5. 1480. 

See Forme. ^ 

Forr-se, 2 pr. s. subj. despise, 5. 

1626; For-sest, 2 pr. s. 5. 1304. 

A. S, for-sedn. 
Forr-Jjenn, adv. even, 5. 11 80. 

A. S.furdum (furdon). 
Forr-J)i, conj. because, 5. 1182. 

See For-J)i. 
Forr-werrpenn, v. to cast aside, 

renounce, 5. 1320, 1544 ; Forr- 

wurpenn, pt. pi. 5. 1401 ; Forr- 

worrpenn, pp. 5. 1393, I419. 

A. S.forweorpan, pt. s. wearp, pt. 

pi. wurpon, pp. -worpen. 
Forr-jifenesse, sb. forgiveness, 5. 

1477. Cf. For-yeuenesse. 
Forr-jifenn, v. to forgive, 5. 1464. 

See For-gifen. 
For-saken, v. to forsake ; Forsaket, 



pr. s, 12. 96; Forsake, 2 pt. s. 

19- 751* A. S. forsacan, to re- 
nounce. Cf. IJorsaken. 
Forsinegede, pp. sinful, 4 a. 79. 

A.S. forsyngad, pp. of forsyngian, 

to sin greatly. 
Porst, flfl?!/. first, 6. 51. See 

For-stod, pt. s. availed, 2. 140. 

A. S. forstandartf to avail, help. 
For-swelten, V. to die, 86. 129; 

to destroy, 8 a. 105. A. S. for- 

siueltan, to die away. 
Forsworen, pp. forsworn, 2. 14. 

59; Forsworene, pi. 17 a. 103; 

176. 103. A.S. forsworen f pp. 

of for siver tan y to swear falsely. 
Fort, conj. until, i6. 41. Cf. 

Forte, for to (before infin.), i. 90, 

159 »• 7- 7- Cf. Uorte. 
Forte pat, conj. until that, 4 c. 20, 

57; 6.457. 
For-tihting, sb. seduction = Lat. 

suggestio, ^d. 34 ; Fortuhting, 

4 d. 38. A. S.foriyhtan, to draw 

Fortuht, pp. lead astray, ^d. 31. 

A. S.foriyhted, pp. o( forty htan. 
Forp, af/v. forth, 14. 230. Cf. 

For-pan, con;, for that, because, i. 

39, 43 ; For))an pe, because that, 

I. 81. A.S. forddm-de^ because. 
Cf. Forpon. 

For-pat, conj, for that, because, 4 a, 
17; 7. 154; For J)at pe, because 
that, 4 c. 21. 

FortJ-clepien, v. to call forth, i. 

II. A.S. fordclypian. 
For-pe, conj. for that cause, 16.69. 

Forpedd, pp. performed, 5. 1663. 

A. S.forJ.ian. 
Forpet, conj. for that (reason), 13, 

Foi'S-faret$, pr. pi. go forth, 17 a. 

338, 341 ; 17 ^- 344. 349- A. S. 

ForiJ-feorde, pt. s. departed, died, 

2.105. A. S. fordfercui, 
For-pi, conj. for that reason, 2. 2, 

109; 15.2208. A.S.fordy. Cf. 

Forr-pi, Vor-pi. 
For-J)on, conj. because, 3 a. 44 ; 

36.1 20. See For pan. 
Foi1$-rihtes, adv. immediately, 6. 

213. So in Ormulum forrfjrihht, 

straightway, A. S. forpriht, right 

ForiJ-teh, /»/. s. brought up, i. 49. 

A. S. fordtedn, pt. fordtedh. 
For8-to, prep, until, 3 a. 82. 
For-punchet5, pr. s. repents, 8 a, 

88 ; 176. 344. A. S. forpencan, 

to misthink. 
FortSward, adv. forward, 36. 94 ; 

18. 731. M.E. forthward, a 

common form for A. S. foreweard. 
Foppwipp, adv. forthwith, 5. 

Forward. See Foreward. 
For-wreien, v. to accuse, 176. 

97; For-wreye, 17a. 97, A.S. 

For-wuitJan, v. to perish, come to 

nothing, degenerate, 9. 2 1 3 ; For- 

wurtJe, 8 6. 92 ; />r. s. snhj. 12. 

270. A. S. forweordan. Ci.^xa- 

wurtJen, Uor-wturtJen. 
For-yemep, pr. s. neglects, 14. 

207. A. S.forgyman. 
For-yeten, v. to forget ; For-yctej), 

pr. s. 14. 208 ; For-yet, 17 a. 26, 

350 ; For-yete, pp. i*j a, 98. See 

For-yeuenesse, sh. forgiveness, 

17 a. 2()6. Cf. ForrBifenesse. 
For-jelde, pr. s. subj. reward, 9. 

305. A. S. forgildan. 
Fop-5eteii, v. to forget, i. 68 ; For- 

5ete, I. 70 ; ForjieteS, pr^s. 1 7 6. 

38; Forjiet, 1.70; 176. 25; 

Forjet, 7. 28, 224 ; For-jietcn, 

pp. 176. 98. See For-geten. 
For-5ieue, v. to forgive, 176. 217 ; 

Forjef, imp. s. 1 9. 349. See For- 




For-^ieuenesse, sb, forgiveness, 

176. 302. Cf. Foryeuenesse. 
Fosstrenn, v. to foster, 5. 1558. 

A. S./dsiriatif see Skeat (s.v.). 
Fot, sb. foot, 19. 134, 764; on 

fote, on foot, 2. 153. A. S. fdt. 

Cf. Fet, TTet, TTote. 
Fou, adj. coloured, variegated (fur), 

17^- 357- See Fa3e. 
Fower, num. four, 3 b. 86. See 

Fo^e, sb, dot. mutual consent, 16. 

184. A. S. fdg, gefdg, a joining. 
Fo3el, s6. fowl, bird, 16. 277; 19. 

1432; Fo5eles,/>/. 19. 129. A. S. 

fugol. See Fugel. 
Fra, prep, from, 2. 155, 168; fra 

l)att, from that time, 5. 1 276. 

Icel./m. Cf. Fro. 
Fram,/>r6'/>. from, i. 43, 87, 156; 

6. 405. A. S. frarriy from. Cf. 

Frame, sb. benefit, advantage, 12I 

39. A. ^.fremu, 
Fre, adj. free, 4 c. 18; 19. 530, 

562. A.S.^e'o. 
Frea, sb. one of the forms of the 

liame of the Teutonic goddess 

Freyja, 6 b. 143; Freon, dat. 

6 a. 147. She is here confused 

with the goddess Frigg, See 

Fredom, sb. freedom, 18. 631 ; 

Fredome, dat. s. 3 a. 2. A. S. 
Freinede, pt. s. asked, 8 a. 80 ; 

Freinde, 15. 2053. A.S.frignan; 

cp. Lat. prec-arif to pray. 
Freman, sb. freeman, 18. 628 ; Fre- 

mannes, gen. s. 14. 417. A. S. 
Freme, v. to accomplish, 18. 441. 

A.S./remmanf to advance a thing, 

to perform. 
Freinede, sb. pi. strangers, 17 a. 

35; Fremde, 176. 34; 19. 64; 

Fremmde, adj. pi. foreign, 5. 

1250. A. S. fremede, 
Frend, sb. friend, I. 5 ; Frende, 

18. 375; Frenden^/)/. dat. 1. 33, 

183. See Freond. 
Frend-scMpe^ sb. friendship, 10. 

66. See Freond-scipe. 
Freo-iboren, adj. freeborn, 8 b. 

Freoliohe, adj. noble, gracious, 

8 a. 15 ; 10. 103. A. S./redlic. 

Freon. See Frea. 

Freond, s6. friend, 17 a. 31, 183, 
298 ; />/. 2. 135; 14. 38. A.S. 
frednd, sb. s. and pi. Cf. Frend. 
Friend, ITreond. 

Freond-soipe, sb. friendship, 6. 20 ; 
Freontschipe, 8 a. 13. A. S. 
fredndscipe. Cf. Frend-schipe. 

Freost, pr. s. freezeth, 16. 620. 
A. S.fredsan, to freeze. 

Freten, v. to eat ; Frete^, pr. pi. 
17 a. 272; 176. 278; Freten, 
^. 15. 2101. A.S. fretan (for 

FreuretJ, pr. s. consoles, 46. 48. 
See Frofrenn. 

Fridsei, sb. Friday, 2. 87 ; 6 a. 148 ; 
Friday, 6 b. 143. A. S. Frtge-d^ceg, 
the day sacred to Frigg, a Teu- 
tonic goddess, wife of Woden. 
In the two texts of La^amon her 
name is confused with that of 
Freyja (Frea), quite a distinct 
goddess. See Grimm, p. 301. 

Fried, pp. freed, 4 c. 69. A. S. 
freddy pp. oifredn {fredgan). 

Frigti, adj. timid, 15. 2271 ; frigti 
luue, reverence, 15. 1922. From 
A. S. fryhtUf fy'rhto, fear, fright. 

Frigtihed, sb. alarm, fear, 15. 

Frigtilike, adv. timidly, 15. 2163. 

FriB, sb. peace, 4 c, 68. A. S.frid : 
O. S. fridu ; cp. O. H. G. fridu 
(Otfrid). See Skeat (s.v. frithy 
p. 806). 

Frit$ie, v. to spare, keep from harm, 
10. 118; Fri»e, 15. 2335; Fri- 
Cende, ger. inf. 4 d. 49. A. S. 
fribian^ to protect. 

Fro, prep, from, 4 a. 39; 12. 45 ; 

VOL. I. 

£ e 



fro feren, from afar, 15. 1935. 

See Fra. 
' Fro&enn, v. to comfoi;t, 5. 1029 ; 

Froure, pr. s, subj. 9. 35Q. A. S. 

frdfrian, frefrian, Cf. FreuretJ. 
Frogge, sh, frog, 16. 146; Froggen, 

pi. 3 h. 89. A. S. frocga, 
Frommard, ^rep. from, 9. 77. Cp. 

K.S. fromweardj adj. fromward, 

aversus. Cf. IJroxninard. 
Frouer, sb. comfort, consolation, 

14. 26 ; Froure, daf. 8 6. 53. A. S. 
frdfor : O. S. frdfra ; cp. O. H. G. 
Jluohara (Tatian). 

Fniden, s6. />/. frogs, 17 a. 271; 

176. 277. Icel. fraudvy a frog ; 

cp. O. Sw. frauds Dan. /r«, see 

Corpus Poeticum Boreale, 2. 607. 
Fniit, sh. fruit, 15. 2247 ; Frut, 9. 

308. O. F. frut, fruit', Lat. 

FrumtJe, sb. beginning, 9. 192. 

A. S.frym<)u. 
Fugel, sb. fowl, bird ; Fngelcs, pi. 

15. 2081 ; Fuhel, s. 10. 10; Fu- 
heles, pi. 8 a. 63 ; 16. 660 ; 
Fuelcs, 176. 83. A. S.fugol. Cf. 
Fojel, Fuwel. 

Fuhten, pt. pi. fought, 2. 96, 115 ; 

6 a. 253; Fuhtten, 2. 172. A. S. 

fuhtottf pt. pi. of feohtan. See 

Ful (I ), pt. s. fell, 6. 89. See Feol. 
Fill (2), adj. full, 7. 85 ; 17 a. 151 ; 

176. 147. See Full. 
Ful (3), adj. foul, I. 115 ; 2. 23 ; 

16. 94; 18. 555; Fule, 19. 323; 
adv. foully, 19. 322. A. S. ful. 
Cf. Fol. 

Fulcning, sb. baptism, 4 ^. 51 ; 
Fulcriinge, dat. 4 6. 36 ; Folcninge, 
4 b. 34. Fulcning a derivative 
of M. E.fulktnien. See Fullht- 

Fulde, pt. s. filled, 19. 1 134, 1 165 ; 
pp. i8. 355. See FuUe. 

Ful-don, V. to do fully, accom- 
plish, 4 a. 82. A. S.fulddn. 

Ful-endin, v. to bring to an end, 

176. 247; Ful-endy, 17 a. 339. 

A. S. fullendian. 
Fule^S, pr. pi. foul, 3&. 127. A. S. 

fulian. to become foul. 
Ful-fellJ), pr. s. perfects, i. 131. 

A.S./ullfyllan. Cf. Uolueldan. 
Ful-fori5ie, v. to perform, i. 113. 

From A. S. fordian. Soe For]>- 

Ful-itohe, at^. badly disciplined, 

7. 9; Fulitohen, 7. 217. See 

Ful (3) and Itohe. 
Ful-iwis, adv. full assuredly, 36. 

17 ; Fuliwiss, 5. 1356; cp. to ful 

in wis, 15. 2521. Cf. Foliwis. 
Full, adj. fiill; FuUe, 16. 314; 

perfect, 5. 1347 ; ^i- 65, A.S. 

full. Cp. Ful (2). 
Fulle, adv. fiiUy, 15. 2346; 19^ 

736. A.S. full, 
Fulle, 56. fiJI, 36. 113; 19.403, 

1 167. A.S.fyllo. 
Fulle, V. to fill, complete, 17 a. 344; 

17*- 352. A. S. fyllan: O. S. 

fullian. Cf. FeUe, Filt. Fulde, 

Fylden, Ifullet, luulled, Hi- 

Full-fremedd,/;^. perfect, 5. 1576. 

A. S. fullfremmany to do ftUly, 

to perfect. See Freme. 
Fullhtnesst, 2 pr. s. baptizest, 5. 

1550. See Fulluht. 
Fulliche, adv. fully, 6. 366 ; la 

66. A.S.fulUce. 
Fulluht, sb. baptism, 4 <;. 61. A.S. 

fulluht; O. Northumb. fulunkt 

(Luke iii. 3 ; vii. 39), from fuU 

and wihofiy to consecrate. Cf. 

Fulflt, sb. help, 7. 69. A. S.fyUt : 

Fulste, v. to help ; pr. s. suhj. 4 a. 

85. A. S.fylstan : O. S.fullestian. 
Fulsum, adj. plenteous, 15. 2153. 

Ful (full) + suffix -sum. 
Fulsumhed, sb. abundance, 15. 

2128, 3297. 
Fultume, sb, help, i. 55. A. S. 



FuMe, sb. filth, 11. 94. A. S.fylduy 

from/il/, foul. 
Punde, V. to go, 19. 103, 133; 

Funded, pr. s. 1 6. 719. A. S. 

fundian. Cf. Fonde. 
Funde, pU pi. found, 19. 892 ; 

Funden, 18. 602 ; 19. 859. A. S. 

fundojiy pt. pi. of findan. See 

Fundles, sh. a finding, 9. 14. 

A. S. suffix -elst as in hirgelsy 

burial. See Halliwell (s. v. ftmd- 

Fundling, sb. foundling, 1 9. 420 ; 

Fundlyng, 19. 220, 228. M.E. 

fundeling, see Skeat (s. v.). 
Funt-fat, sb. font vessel, 12. 108. 

See Fant-ston. 
Fur, sb. fire, 3 a. 23 ; 9. 286 ; 

Fure, dot. 3 a. 18: 17 a. 43. 

See Fir. 
Furneise, sb, furnace, 8 a. 142. 

O. F. fornaise ; Lat. fornacem. . 
Furst, sb. delay, 176. 37. A. S. 

fyrsty a space of time, respite. C£ 

Furst, adj. superl. first ; Furste, 19^ 

114 ; at the furste, 19. 661. A. S. 

fyrst, Cf. Ferst, Forst. 
Furp, sb. life, 14. 171 (see Notes). 

A.S.ferp, feorp, the soul, life, a 

deriv. from feork, life ; cp. Goth. 

fairhwusy the world. 
Fui^ren, v. to further, aid ; Furr|>- 

renn, 5. 1350; FurSreS, pr. s, 

4 d. 54. A. S. fyrtSran ; cp. G. 
fordern (Weigand). 
Fur-WTiiiSen, v. to perish, 8 a. 73. 

See For-wur^en. 
Fuwel, sb. fowl, bird : Fuweles, pi, 

ly a. 82 ; Fujele, dat. pi. 16. 64 ; 

Fu5eles, gen. pi. 16. 343. See 

Fu3el-kunne, sb. dat. fowl-kind, 

16.65. A..S.fugol-cyn. 
Fu5ten, pi. pi. fought, 19. 1399. 

See Fuhten. 
Fylden, pt. pi. filled, 2. 16. Sec 


Fynden, v, to find, 17 a. 375. See 

Fysses, s6./7. fishes, 17 a. 82. See 



Ga, imp. s. go, 7. 172. See Gan. 
Gabb.e, imp. s. scofl?", 14. 411. Icel. 

Gaderares, sb. pi. gatherers, 17 a. 

Gaderen, v. to gather, 15. 2134; 

Gaddre^,^r. s. 12. 244; Gadered, 

pt. s. 2. 5. A.S. gcedrian, gade- 

rian. Cf. Gederetl, Begfl'dered. 
Gadering, sb. gathering, 2. 8. 

A. S. gadervng, 
Gsede, pt. s. went, 2. 26. A. S. ge- 

eode. See lEode. 
GsBlldes, sb. pi. tributes, 2. 41. 

See Gilde. 
Geer, sb. year, 2. 65 ; Gaere, dat. 2. 

1. A. S. gedr. See Ger. 
GsBrsume, sb. pi. treasures, 6 a. 

378. A. S. gcBTsum^ in Chron. 

ann. 1070 (Laud. MS.) ; cp. Icel. 

gersemi, a costly tfting, jewel. 

Gersemi {Gersimi) was the name 

of a Teutonic goddess, a daughter 

of Freyja. See Grimm, p. 886. 

Cf. Gdrisome. 
G8Bt, conj. yet, 2. 49. See Get. 
GsBt, goats, 5. 1 206. A.S. 

gcBty pi. See Gat. 
Gaf, pt. s. gave, 4 a. 15 ; 15. 1949; 

1 8. 4 1 8. A.S. geaf, pt. of gifan. 

Cf. Yaf, 3af, laf, 38Bf, 5iaf. 
Gal, adj, lascivious, 5. 1201. A. S. 

gdl, proud, wanton. 
Gale-gale, sb, a sing-song fellow, 

16. 256. From A. S. galan, to sing. 
Galeie, sb. galley, 19. 185, 1020. 

O. F. galie, galea, in Roland, 

2625, 2729; Low Lat. galea, 
Galle, sb. gall, bitterness, 5. 1253 ; 

10. io6. A. S. gealla. 
Galnesses, sb. gen. of lascivious- 

ness, 5. 1 192. A.S. gdlnes, Cf. 





Galaes, sh. pi. gallows, i8. 687. 

A. S. gealga, 
Galun, sb. gallon, 19. 11 35. O. F. 

Galwe-tre, sh. gallows tree, 18. 

695. A. S. gecdg-treow. 
Game, sb. pleasure, sport, 6. 569 ; 

16. 1649. Cf. Gome. 
Gamen, sh. sport, 17 6. 292; 18. 

468. A. S. gamen f gomen ; cp. 

O. S. gaman. Cf. Gomen. 
Gan, V. to go, 3 a. 48 ; 7. 23 ; 18. 

3. A. S. gdn (for gangan). Cf. 

Gon, Go, G08, Ga, Gest, Gap, 

Gan, pt. s. began, 3 a. 74; 15. 

2405; 18. 551. See Gin- 

Gaxiipt. s. (used as an auxiliary) did, 

6 h. 184; 15. 1912, 2286; 19. 

241. See Ginnen. 
Gangen, v. to go, 18. 370 ; Gann- 

genn, 5. 1076. A. S. gangan ; 

O. S. gangan. Cf. Gonge. 
Garisome, sh. pi. treasures, 6 b. 

378. Sec GsBrsume. 
Gast, sb. spirit, ghost. 3 a. 99 ; 

15. 2428, 2438 ; Gasttes, pi. 7. 

33. A. S. gdst. Cf. Gost. 
Gastelich, adj. spiritual, 7. 42 ; 

Gastlike, 5. 1492. A.S. gdstlic. 

Cf. Gostliche. 
Gastlike, adv. spiritually, 5. 985. 

A. S. gdstlice. Cf. Gostliche. 
Gat, sh. goal, 5. 988 ; Gate, pi. 

18. 701. A. S. gdt. Cf. G8Bt. 
Gat, sb. gate, i. 15; Gate, dot. i. 

136. A.S. geat. Cf. Giate, 

Beate, Bates. 
Gat, pt. s. got, 18. 730; begat, 18. 

Gate-ward, sb. gate-keeper, 19. 

1079. ^' S* gecLtweard. 

Gatte, pt. s. granted, 15. 2477 ; 

Gatten, />/. 15. 2513. A,S. geatte. 

in Chron. ann. 1066, geatton, pi, 

in Chron. ann. ^6^tpt. oi gedtan ; 

cp. \ct\.jdta, to say yes, confess, 


Ga]>, pr. s. goeth, 5. 1224. A.S^ 
g<k6. See Gan. 

Ge-. An extremely common prefix 
in A. S. both in sbs. and in vbs. ; 
in sbs. ge- had often the meaning 
of companionship, partnership, as 
in gefira^ companion, lit. fellow- 
traveller, from firan^ to travel ; 
before vbs. it often denotes com- 
pletion, attainment, and hence 
success, as ge-winnan, to win, 
from winnaUf to fight It was 
generally prefixed to pps, (as in 
Mod. Germ.) where it originally 
gave the meaning of completion. 
A. S. ge; O. S. gi; O. H. G. gi; 
Goth. ga. Cf. I-, Y-, Be-, Hi-. 

Ge, pron. ye, 46. 80; 15. 2169, 
2329. A.S. g6. Cf. 3o, Boo, 

Ge, pron. she, 12. 250, 251, 255. 
A. S. he6. See Heo. 

G^aunt, sh. giant, 19. 810, 860. 
Norm. F. geant ; Lat. giganttm, 

Gede, pt. s. went, 15. 1947, 2287. 
See Eode. 

GedererS, pr. s. gathers, 9. 104, 
212. See Gkideren. 

Gees, sb. pi. geese, 18. 702. A. S. 
ges^ pi. of gdSt a goose. 

Gef, conj. if, 7. 13. A.S. g^. 
See Gif. 

Qrefy pt, s. gave, 46. 102. Sec 

Gehaten, pp. nominated, 2. 195. 
A. S. gehdtan, to name. 

Geinet$, pr. s. avails, 9. 290. See 

G^la^ie, v. to invite, i. 20. A.S. 
geladian, Cf. BelaiSie. 

Geld, pt. s. requited, 15. 2152. 
A. S. geald, pt. of gddan, to pay, 
pp. golden, Cf. Isolde. 

G^leste, pt. s. extended; G^lest, 
1.2. A. S. gelikstan, to fulfil, 
to continue, last. Cf. Haste, 
Ileste, ^oleste. 

Gelty, adj. guilty, i. 178. A.S. 




Qexne, sh. heed, 4a. 62 ; 4b, 114. 

A. S. gyme: O.S. g6ma, Cf. 

Q-enge, sb. army, 2. 98. A. S. 

genge, company, followers, in 

Chron. ann. 1070. 
Gente, adj, gentle, 16. 204. O. F. 

gent, gracious, beautiful ; Lat. 

genituSf bom, well-born. 
Ger, sb. a. year; Ger, pL years, 15. 

1907, 2127, 2400; Geres, 15. 

2153- A. S. gedr, s, and />/., also 

^e'r, s. and pi, Cf. Qmr, Yer, 

Geren, v. to prepare (for burial), 

15. 2441. A. S. gearwiafit to 

prepare, from gearo^ ready. 
Gerken, v. to prepare, 15. 2255. 

See Giarkien. 
Gest, 2 pr, s. goest, 16. 837, 1651. 

A. S. g(ist. See Gan. 
Geste, sb. pL guest, 19. 478, 1233 ; 

Gestes, />/. 2.66; 19. 522. A. S. 

gCB^^ pi. gcBstas, 
Gestninge, sb. feast, banquet, 4 b, 

13. Cf. Gistninge, Gystninge. 
Get, conj. yet, 2.3; 4 rf. 4 ; 12. 78, 

266; 15.2127,2183. k.S. get, 

git (gita). Cf. GsBt, Giet, Yete, 

3et, 3iet, ^eiet, But. 
Get, (ge + it), she it, 12. 269. See 

Gef8, pr. s. goeth, i. 182 ; 9. 239. 

A. S. ^<^rf. See Gan. 
Geuelike, adj. equal, o geuelike, 

on equal terms, alike, 12. 302. 

A. S. ge'efenlic. 
Geuen, v. to give, 15. 2398; pp, 

3 6. 53, 1 10. See Gifen. 
Geus, sb. pU Jews,.J3. 15. Norm. 

F. Geu, Jew : O. F. Jueu, Judeu ; 

Lat. JudiBiim. Cf. Gins, Gyus. 
Ge55nepp, pr. s. avails, 5. 970. 

Icel. gegna, to suit. Cf. Gained. 
Giarkien, v. to prepare ; Giarked, 

pp. 4 b. 3. A. S. gearcian, from 

gearCy ready. Cf. Gerkon, ^arr- 

kenn, ^earceon, Bdi^^^st, 

38Barced, I-garcket^ I-3arked. 

Giate, sb. dot. gate, 4.C. 72 ; />/. 
4 c. 23. See Gat. 

Gief, conj. if, 1. 14. See Gif. 

Gief, sb. gift, i. 1 13. See Gife. 

Giet, conj. yet, i. 62. See Get. 

Gif, cofi;. if, 1. 73; 2.74; 3 a. 7. 
A. S. ^(/: Cf. Gef, Gief, Yef, 
Yif , Yf, 3ef, 3if, 3ief, Biff. 

Gife, sb. gift, grace, i. 98. A.S. 
gifu. Cf. Gief, Giue, Gyue, 
Bieue, 3ife. 

Gifen, v. to give ; GifS, pr. s. 4 b. 
65. A.S. gif an y pt. s. geaf, pi. 
gedjbny pp. gifen. Cf. Geuen, 
Gjruen, Befen, Beouen, Beuen, 
Bieuen, ^ifemif Yif, Yuep, 
Biuen, Yeuen, Yefe, B^^i^^) 
Biefe, Gaf, linen, Isine. 

Gigonrs, sb. pi. musicians, 19. 
1 5 10. O. F. gigueor (Bartsch), 
(lom gigue, a stringed instrument ; 
cp. It. giga (Dante) ; M. H. G. 
gige (mod. geige)^ a violin, see 
Kluge ; cp. ^-jigy a lively tune or 

Gilde, sb, a payment; Glides, pi. 
tributes, 2. 162. A. S. gild, a 
payment, from gildan, to pay, 
yield. Cf. Geeildes, Bielde. 

Gile, sb. St. Giles, 19. 1 189. O. F. 
Gilles ; from Lat. JEgidillus, a 
dimin. form of Mgidius ; Gr. 

Giled,/>/>. beguiled, 19. 1488. O.F. 
giler, guilery from gtle, guile] 
cp. A. S. wile^ 2l wile. See Wile. 

Gilt, sb. guilt, 4^. 18; Gillt, 5. 
1412,2262. A.S. gylt, a crime, 
lit. a payment. Cf. Gult. 

Gilten, v. to sin ; G\he, pt. s. sinned, 
4 c. 20. A. S. gyltan, to commit 
guilt. Cf. Gulte, I-gult. 

Giltlese, adj. guiltless, ^d. 26. 

Ginne, sb. dat. artiBce, 19. 1492. 
From Icel. ginna, to deceive. See 
Skeat (s. v. gin). 

Ginnen, v. to begin ; Ginne, i pr. 
s. 19. 546 ; Ginne]), pi. 16. 722, 
1700. A. S. 'ginnan (in com- 



pounds), pt. s. gatiy pi. gunnon, 

pp. gunnen. Cf. Gynnep, Gan, 

Qon, Gunne. 
Gistninge, s6. a banquet, 6 a. 478. 

See Gestninge. 
Giu, pron. ace. pi. you, 46. 74, 75 ; 

rfa/. 4 6. 80. See Eow. 
Giu9, *6. gift, 4^. 14; Giues, />/. 

4 rf. 64. See Gife. 
Giuenisse, ib. forgiveness, ^d. 60. 

A. S. gifnesy grace. 
Gius, sb. Jews, 13. 102. O. F. G/m, 

a Jew (see Stratraaun). See Geus. 
Glad, adj. glad, 16. 424; Gladur, 

comp. 16. 19. A. S. glcBd. Cf. 

Gla1$e, Gleade, Gled. 
Gladien, v. to make glad, 46.2; 

Gladenn, to appease, 5. 1 128; 

Gladiety, pr. pi. make merry, 6. 

544. A. S. gladian, to be glad, 

to make glad. Cf. Gleadien, 

Glareth,/>r.s. shines brightly, 13. 48. 
Glas, sb. glass, 19. 14. A. S. gl<Bs. 
GlalSe (for Glade), adj. glad, 15. 

2297. See Glad. 
Gle, sb. music, 19. 1280. See Gleo. 
Gleadien, v. to gladden, 7. 67 ; to 

be glad, 7. 121. See Gladien. 
Gleadschipes, sb. pi. joys, 7. 162. 

A. S. glcBdscipe. Cf. Gledsohipe. 
Gleadunge, sb. gladness, 7. 135, 

Gleam, sb. light, 7. 76, 179. A. S. 

Gleaw, adj. wise. 14. 47. A. S. 

gledw. See Gleu. 
Gled, adj. glad, 1 1 . 54. See Glad. 
Glede, sb. glowing coal, 17 a. 218 ; 

176. 222; Gleden, />/. 3 a. 39; 

Gledess, 5. 1067. A. S. gUd: 

O. S. gl6d\ cp. Icel. gl66 {pi. 

glddir) and O. H. G. ^/«o/ (Ta- 

Gledien, v. to gladden ; Gledie,/>r. 

*. s«6;. 9. 359 : Gledede,/)/. s. 46. 

64. See Gladien. 
Gledliche, adv. gladly, 9. 319. 

A. S. glcedlice. 

Glednesse, sb. gladness, 14. 48. 

A. S. glcBdnes. See Notes. 
Gledsohipe, sb. gladness, ii. 65, 

'114; Gledscipe, 3 a. 92. See 

Gleo, sb. music, 17 a. 286. A. S. 

gled. Cf. Gle, GUe. 
Gleo-beames, sb,pl. haips, li. 62 

(see Notes). A. S. gledbedniy 

musicum lignum, a harp (Beowulf). 
Gleo-dreames, £&./>/. joys of music, 

II. 62 (see Notes). A. S. gli6- 

dredm (Beowulf). 
GleoTvinge, sb. music, 19. 1506. 

From A. S. gledunan, to play on 

an instrument, to act as gleeman. 
Gleu, adj. prudent, wise, 16. 193. 

See Gleaw. 
Glide, V. to depart, 19. 1059 ; 

Glidende, pr. part, gliding, 3 a. 

40. A. S. glidan, to glide. 
Glie, sb. music, 176. 292. See 

Glorious, adj. glorious, 13. 34. 

Norm. F. glorius ; O.F. in Roland, 

2196; Lzt. gloriosus. 
Glotoun, tb. glutton, 19. 1 136. 

O. F. glouton. See Glnton. 
Glouen, sb. pi. gloves, 9. 188. 

A. S. gldf. 
Glowennde, adj. glowing, 5. 1067. 

A. S. glowatif to glow. 
Glutenerie, sb. gluttony, 36. 36. 

O. F. gloutonnerie. 
Gluton, sb. glutton, 9. 1 10. Norm. 

F. glutun ; O. F. in Roland, 121a ; 

Lat. glutonem. Cf. Glotoun. 
Gne^eV, pr. pi. gnaw, 3 a. 38. A. S. 

Gnyde, v. to rub, 14. 201. A.S. 

Go. V. to go, 18. 542 ; pp. 19. 1 190. 

A. S. gdfiy to go ; pp. gegdn. Sec 

God (i), adj. good, 2. 82 ; Godne, 

ace. s. m. 6. 98 ; Godere, dat.f. 

9- 335; Gode, ^/. I. 15. A.S. 

God (2), sb. good, I. 47; Godes, 



gen. of goodness, 176. 372 ; pi. 

goods, 13. 72. 
God (3), sb. God, 18. 432 ; Godd, 

8 a. 132; 8 6. 164; Gode, dat. 

II. 10; Godes, gen. s. I. 106; 

pi. 6 b. 135; Godcn, 6 a. 135. 

A. S. God. 
God-chalde, sb. dat. godchild, 9. 

2 1 . Cp. A. f). god-beam. 
God-cunnesse, sb. dat. divine 

nature, 176. 393; Godd-cunnd- 

nesse, 5. 1357, 1420. A. S. god- 

Godd-ciindleB3C, sb. divinity, 5. 

1388. See -lejjc. 
Godd-feader, God the Father, 8 b. 

52 ; Godd-feder, 8 a. 40. 
Goddot, God knows, 18. 606 ; 

Goddoth, 18. 642. See "Wot. 
Goded, pt. s. endowed, 2, 68. A. S. 

gddian. Cf. I -goded. 
Godelease, adj. without good, 176. 

348. A. S. gddleds. 
Godere. See God ( i ). 
Gode ward, towards God, 12. 104. 
Godlec, sb. goodness, 7. 155. Icel. 

godleikiy bonitas. For the suffix 

see -le550. 
Godnesse, sb. dat. goodness, 14. 

46 ; Godnisse, ace. 1. iii. A. S. 

Godspel, sb. gospel, i. 188 ; 7. 3 ; 

10. 12; Godspelle, dat. i. 192; 

13- 36; Godespel, n. 13. 35; 

Godespelle, dat. 13.4. A. S. god- 
Godspel-boo, sb. gospel book, 4 c, 

5 ; Goddspell-bokess, sb, gen, 5. 

1207. A. S. godspellbdc, z copy 

of the gospels. 
Gol, sb. gold, 18. 357. Icel. gull. 
Gold, sb. gold ; Goldes, gen. s.i'jb. 

70. A. S. gold. 
Golnesse, sb. dat. lasciviousness, q. 

26. A. S. gdlnes. See Gal- 

Gome, sb. game, 6. 455; 1 1. 62; 

17 a. 286. See Gume, 
Gomcn, sb. game, 6. 461, 498 ; 9. 

98 ; Gomene, dat. 6. 582. See 

Gomes, sb. pi. men/_6 6. 4 ; 19. 22. 

See G^une. 
Gk>ii, V. to go, 46. 22; 15. 2184, 

2340; 19. 46 ; Gone, 19. 611 ; 

Gonde, pr. part. 6. 70. A. S. 

gdn (foT gangan), pr. part; gdnde. 

See Gan. 
Gon, pt. s, (an auxiliary) did, 6 a. 

184; Gonne, />/. 6. 489 ; 19.637. 

See Ginnen. 
Gonge, 2 pr. s. subj. go, 18. 690. 

A. S. gangan (usually contracted 

into gdn). See Gangen. 
Gore-blod, s6. filthy blood, 10.^5. 

A. S. gor, fimus (Exodus xxix. 

14) ; Icel. gor, in gor-mdnudr, 

gore-month, Oct. 15-Nov. 15, so 

called from the slaughtering of 

beasts for winter store, see Diet. 
Gost, sb. spirit, 12. 301 ; 17 a. 266. 

See Gast. 
Gostliohe, adj, spiritual, 46. 25. 

See Gastelioli. 
Gostliohe, adv. spiritually, 13. 47, 

74. See Gastlike. 
Gc«, pr. s. goeth, 13. 56 ; 16. 305 ; 

pi. 6 6. 85 ; imp. />/. 13. 21. A. S. 

g(kd, pr, s., gddf pi., gdpy imp. pi. 

See Gan. 
Goulen, pr. pi. yell, 18. 454. Icel. 

gaula, to bellow. 
Grace, sb. God's favour, 9. 352 ; 

excellent quality, virtue, 19. 571 ; 

mete graces, graces at meals, 9. 

301. O. F. grace ; Lat. gratia, 
Gradde, pt. s. cried, screamed, 16. 

1662. See Grede. 
Gradi, adv. greedy, 176. 268. A.S. 

grddig. Cf. Gredi. 
Grai, sb. grey fur, prob. badger's. 

(See Halliwell), 176. 365. A.S. 

gr<kg. Cf. Grey. 
Grame, s6. vexation, anger, 6. 173; 

16. 49 ; 176. 168. A. S. grama. 

Cf. Grome. 
Grame'S, pr. s. vexes, 176, 167. 

See Gremien. 



Grammound, adj. angry, 5. 1545. 

A. S. gramcund, gram + cund (cp. 

cynn\ an adjectival suffix. Cp. 

A. S. godcundf divine, dedfolcund, 

Graninde,/>r./>ar/. groaning, 3. 37, 

A. S. grdfiian, to groan. 
Granti, v. to grant, 6 b. 368 ; 

Grante, imp. s. 19. 508 ; Graunti, 

I pr. s. 16. 745 ; Graunte, pr. s. 

subj. 15.2536. Norm. F.grdanter, 

so in Roland, 3805 ; O.F. creanter; 

late Lat. ereantare (for creden- 

tare), a deriv. of Lat. credere. 
Gras, sb. grass, 19. 130. A. S. gr<Bs : 

Goth. gras. Cf. Gres. 
Grate, adj. great, i . 6. See Great. 
Graue, v. to bury, 18. 613; Gra- 

uen, pp. buried, 15. 2431. A. S. 

grafan, to dig, pp. grafen. Cf. 

Grauel,£6. pebbly beach, 19. 1503. 

Norm. F. gravele. 
Graunti. See Granti. 
Great, adj. big, coarse ; Greate, 9. 

157. A. S. gredt: O. S. gr6t. 

Cf. Grate, Gret, Gretture. 
Grede, v. to cry out, 16. 308, 

1698; Grede]>, pr. s. 16. 1671. 

A.S. gr<kdan, pt. grckdde. Cf. 

Gradde, I-grede. 
Gredi, adj. greedy, 17 a. 261. See 

Gremien, v. to vex, anger, 8 a. 

47 ; Greme, 18. 442. A. S. gre- 

mian ; Goth, gramjan. Cf. Gra- 

meV, Bs-gremed. 
Grene, adj. green, 16. 18, 617; 

I7«. 335; 17^- 343; 18. 470. 

A. S. grene : O. S. grdni ; cp. 

O. H. G. gruani (Otfrid). 
Grene, sb. a green expanse, 6 b. 

404; 19. 859. 
Grennen, v. to grin, show the 

teeth (as a dog), 9. 69. A. S. 

GrennTinge,s6.c/a/. grinning, show- 
ing ttie teeth, 9. 69. A. S. grett' 


Gres, sb. grass, 1 2. 246. See Gras. 

Gret, o^'. great, big, 6. 126; 15. 
2098, 2316; 16. 43; 18. 569. 
19. 93. See Great. 

Grete, v. to weep, 19. 899 ; Gret, 
pr. s. 16. 1665 ; pt. s. 15. 1975, 
2287; 18. 615. A.S. gr<kUm^ 
gretan : O. S. grdtan ; cp. Goth. 
gretan. Cf. Groten. 

Greten, v. to greet, salute, 6 a. 288 ; 
Gret, imp. s. 19. 144, 145 ; Gre- 
tetS,/«/.9. 364; 15.2382; Grettc, 
pt. s. 6 b. 288. A. S. grdtan, to 
approach (J>t. grette) : O. S. grd- 
tian ; cp. O. H. G. gruazen (Ot- 
frid). Cf. I-greetten. 

Gretliohe, adv. greatly, 4 c. 40; 
Gretluker, comp. 9. 282. 

Gretture, adj. comp. coarser, 9. 
196. See Great. 

Gretunge, sb. dat. salutation, greet- 
ing, II. 85. A.S. grdting. 

Grepped, pp. prepared, 5. 1579. 
M. £. greipen, to prepare (see 
Stratmann) ; Icel. greida. Cf. 

Greue, pr. subj. may grieve, 9. 226. 
Norm. F.grever, to burden, afflict; 
Lat. gravare. 

Grey, sb. grey fur, 17 a. 357. Sec 

Greythede,//. s. prepared, 18.706 ; 
Greythed, />p. 18. 714; Gre33^edd, 
5. 1093. See Gre)>]>edd. 

Grim, adj. fierce, 18. 680 ; Grimme, 
pi. horrible, 5. 1 443; 9. 69. 
A. S. grimm, fierce, cruel. 

Grimlioh, adj. horrible ; Grimlych, 
17 a. 141. A. S. grimmlic, 

Grimliohe, adv. terribly, 9. 89. 
A. S. grimmiice. 

Grin, sb. shackle, 2. 32. A. S. 
grin, gryn, a noose, snare ; M. E. 
^rc«tf (Wright's Voc.) ; conn, with 
A.S. gearn, yarn (Leo). Sec 
Skeat (s.v. yarn). 

Grip, sb. vulture, 18. 57a. Cp. 
Trevisa, 3. 57 (Harleian MS.).' See 
Halliwell (s.v. gripe). Icel. gripr. 



Gripe, v. to grip, 19. 51, 605. 

A. S. gripan. 
Grislio, at^'. horrible, 1. 116 ; Gris- 

lich, 16. 224, 312, 315. See 

Grisliohe, adv. horribly, 9. 46, 

A. S. gryslice. 
GriU, 56. peace, 3 a. 93 ; 6. 19 ; 

18. 511; Gri^e, dot. 3 a. 91. 

A. S. grid, prop, a Norse word ; 

Icel. gridf 2l domicile, a sanctuary, 

place of safety (asylum), truce, 

GriU-bruohe, sb. breach of the 

peace, 16. 1734. A. S. gridbryce, 

pacis infractio (Schmid). 
GriS-fuIiiesse, sb. c/a/.peacefglness, 

9. 130. 
Groxne, sb. anger, 6 a. 1 73 ; 8 a. 

48. See Grame. 
Gromes, sb. pi. boys, 9. 216 ; 16. 

1645. M. E. grome, Trevisa, i. 

359. O. Du. gronty children 

(Oudemans) ; cp. Hexham, * grom, 

2l stripling or a groom.* 
Gros, pt. s. him gros, was afraid, 19. 

1336. A. S. grds^ pt. of grisan, 

to shudder, used commonly as a 

compound, see N, E. D, (s. v. 

Grot, sb. weeping, 15. 1978, 2289. 

Icel. grdtr. 
Groten, v. to bewail, 15. 1984. 

Cf. Grete. 
Grotes, sb. pi. atoms, 18. 472. 

A. S. grotf particle. 
Gruoohing, sb. grudging, grumb- 

Hng, 16. 423 ; Grucchunge, dat. 

9. 252. O. F. groucher, to mur- 
mur, see Skeat (s.v. grudge). 
Gnilde, pt. s. subj. were twanging, 

16. 142. A. S. grillan^ provo- 

Grund, sb, ground, 15. 3 no; 

bottom (of a well), 12. 74. A. S. 

Gmndlike, adv. ravenously, 18. 

65 1 . From A. S. grunden, pp. of 

grindarif to grind. 

Gnireful, adj. awful, 9. 46. From 

A. S. gryre, horror. 
Gruselie, imp. pi. munch, 9. 308. 

See Skeat (s.v. gristle)^ 
Grysliohe, a<^". horrible, 17 a. 279. 

A. S. gryslicy also gryrelicy from 

gryre, horror. Cf. d-rislio. 
Gu, pron. you, 15. 231 6. 2507. 

A. S. e6w, dat. and ace. of ge, ye. 

See Eow. 
Gulohe-ouppe, sb. a toss-cup, 9. 

123. See Notes. 
Guldene, adj. golden, 6 a. 514; 

II. 45. A.S. gylden. 
Gult, sb. guilt, 9. 276: Gulte, dat. 

10. 52 ; Gultes, pi, faults, 9. 298. 

See Gilt. 
Gulte, V. to sin, 1 7 6. 21 7 ; Gulte55, 

pr. s, 7. 20; 17 a. 90. See 

Gmne, sb, a man; Gumen, pi. 

6 a. 4. A. S. guma. Cf. Gomes. 
Gung, adj. young; .Gunge, 15. 

2281 ; Gungest, super l. 15. 2160, 

2185; Gunkeste, 15. 1909. A.S. 
. geongf comp. gingra, superl. 

gingst. Cf. lunge, ITonge, 

Yunge, Beunge, ^ong, ^ung. 
Guune, />/. ^/. did, 15.1953; 19. 

51,611; Gunnen, 15. 2378, 2492 ; 

19. 858, 890. A. S. gunnon.. See 

Gut, poss. pron. your, 15. 2260; 

Gure, 15. 2178, 2190, 2318. 

See Eower. 
Gurdel, sb. girdle, 9. 188. A. S. 

Gutniede, sb. youth, 12. 55. A.S. 

gedguphdd (Ps. Ixx. 16). 
Gynnep, pr. s. begins, 19. 729. 

See Ginnen. 
Gyrte, pt. s. girt, 19. 1501. A. S, 

gyrdan, to gird. Cf. I-gurd. 
Gysles, sb. pi. hostages, 2. 143. 

A. S. gisel^ Icel. gisl ; cp. O. Ir. 

Gystninge, sb. dat, banquet, 6 b. 

478. See Gestninge. 
Gyue, sb. gift, 18. 357. See Gife. 



Gynen, v. to give, 2. 42 ; pp. 18. 

365. See GKfen. 
Gyua, sb. pi. Jews, 13. 13. See 

Geus, Judeus. 


Ha, pron. he, 13. 21, 69, 141. See 

Ha, pron. she, 8 a. 45 ; 7. 10 ; 10. 

56. See Heo. 
Ha, pron. they, 3 a. 24 ; 7. 99 ; 

86.189. See Hi. 
Habben, v. to have, i. 186 ; 6 a. 

586 ; 8 fl. 45 ; 8 6. 59 ; Habbe, 

6 b. 586 ; 16. 281 ; Haben, 176. 

53; Habe, I. 187; Habbe)), pr. 

pi. 16. 431 ; Habe 5, 176. 179; 

Habbet, 2 pr. pi. 13. 70; Hab- 

bich (for Habbe ich, 8 6. 172), 8 a. 

1 38. A. S. hahhan. pt. hafde, pp. 

geh€efd. Cf. Hauen, Heefde, 

Hac, conj. but, 13. 97. See Ac. 
Had, sb. person (of Christ), 5. 1361 ; 

pi. ranks, orders (of angels), I. 

161. A. S. hiid, person (in 

theology), rank, order, nature ; cp. 

O. H. G. heit, persona (Tatian). 
Hssfde, pt. s. had ; Haefden, 6. 427 ; 

pt. pi. 2. 157; Hafde, pt. s. 6. 

423; 10. 39; Haffde, 5. 1093; 

Hafdes, 2 pt. s. lo. 8 ; Hafden,/>/. 

6. 210; HafFdenn. 5. 1047, 1393 ; 

Hade.s. I. 154; Hadde, i. 10; 2. 

3; 15. 2428; pi. 19. 468; Had- 

den, 2. 12, 32 ; 4 c. 19 ; Adde, s. 

15. 1918, 2212. A. S. hcBfde, 

pi. hafdon, pt. of habban. See 

Hsefedd, sb. head, 5. 1285 ; Haefden, 

pi. 6. 174. See Hafed. 
Hsefst, 2 pr. s. hast; Haefuest, 6. 

99; Hafst, 14, 198; Hafesst, 5. 

1212. Hest, 13. 113. A. S. hafst, 

from habban. See Habben. 
Heeh, adj. high, 6 a. 128; Haehne, 

ace. m. 6 a. 409 ; Haehst^ superL 

6 a. 310; Haehste, 6 a. 124, 137. 

See Heh. 
HsBhliolie, adv, splendidly, 6 a. 32 ; 

sumptuously, 6 a. 379. See Heh- 

HsBhte, pt. s. called, 6 a. 449; 

Haehten, pL 6 a, 460. See Hsten. 
Hffihte, pt. s. was called, 6 a. 117, 

321, 323. See Haten. 
HsBil, adj. hale, of good health; 6 a. 

525; Hail, 6 a. 547. O. Northumb. 

hail; Icel. AW//, hale; cp. A. S. 

hdl, whole. Cf. Heil. 
Hffilden, v. to hold, 6 a. 26. See 

HsBlf, sb. side, 6 a. 234. See Half. 
Hssndeliohe, adv. courteously^ 6 a, 

198. See Hendeliohe. 
Hssndest, adj. superl. nearest, 6 a. 

190. See Hende. 
Heene, adj. poor, 6 a. 408. A.S. 

hedn, mean, despised; cp. Goth. 

hauns. Cf. Hehne. 
TiedTy'adv. here, 2. 145. See Her. 
HsBrone, imp. s. hearken, 6 a. 294. 

See Hercne. 
H86ren, v. to obey, 6 a, 38, 136. 

See Heren. 
HaBim, s6. harm, 6 a. 16 ; Haerme, 

dat. 6 a. 590. See Heazm. 
HsBmes, s6. pi. brains, 2. 26. led. 

hjamiy the brain, Goth, hwaimd ; 

cp. Gr. Kpa-viov. 
HsBrre, s6. dat. lord, 6 a. 26. A. S. 

hearra : O. S. h^rro, 
HsBr^ietS, pr. pi. harry, rarage, 6 fl. 

216. 'A. S. hergian. 
HsBte, sb. heat, 5. 1487, i^'. 

A. S. hdtUf hkte. Cf. Hate, 

Heat, Hete. 
HselSendom, sb. heathendom, 5. 

HsBtSene, adj. heathen, 5. 1305; 

6 a. 602. A. S. hSdm. Cf. 

HaiSen, HealSene, HclSen. 
H86ued, sb. head, 2. 26. See HalML 
HsB^e, adv. high, 6 a. 517. See 

H8B3e-d89ie, sb. high-da j, 6 a. a8i. 



Cp. A. S. hedhtid, Icel. hd-tld, a 

festival. See Skeat (s. v. hey- 

day (2)). 
Hafde. See Hasfde. 
HsBfed, 56. head, i. 59. A. S. 

hedfod. Cf. Hssfedd, Heeued, 

Heauet, Heaued, Hefed, 

Heued, Heuet. 
Hafed-men, pi. prelates, head- 
men, I. 124, A. S. hedfod-mann, 
Hafe1$, pr, s. hath, i. 175; Haft$, 

1.65. A.S.k<Bf6, SeeHabben. 
Hafst. See HsBfst. 
Hage-faderen, sb. pi. dai. patri- 
archs, I. 163. A. S. hedh-f(Bder. 
Hagt, ib. care, 15. 2044, 2082. 

See Agte. 
Hahes, adj. gen. s. high, i. 199. 

See Heh. 
Haigre, sh. hair-cloth, 15. 1977. 

M. E. hayre^ cilicium, Wright's 

Vocab.; A. S. hcBre\ O. H. G. 

hara (Tatian). 
Hail, sb. good luck, happiness, 6 b. 

526. Icel. heill. 
Hail. See HsbH. 
Hal, adj. whole, 8 6. 157. A. S. 

hdl. Cf. Hoi. 
Halde, pt. s. inclined, 6 a. 580. 

A. S. kylde, pt. of hyldan^ heldan. 

See Helden. 
Halden, v. to hold, keep, 2. 177; 

7. 52. See Healde. 
Hale, sb. dat. a secret place, 16. 2. 

A. S. hal (from the Tentonic 

base HAL, to hide, whence A. S. 

Hale, sb. health, 176. 377. A. S. 

h(Ble, h(Blu. Cf. Heale, Hele. 
Halechezi, sb. pL saints, 2. 62. 

See below. 
Halege, sb, saint, i. 146. A. S. 

hdlga. Cf. HaleBen, Hallies. 
Halen, pp. hid, 176. 161. See 

Halende, sb. Saviour, i. 108. A.S. 

HSend. Cf. Helende. 
Hale1$, pr. s. hales, drags, 1 2. 248. 

O. F. haler ; Icel. hala. 

Hale^en, sb. pi. dat. saints, 3 •a. 77. 

See Hfdege. 
Half, sb. side, 4 a. 75 ; 7. 83 ; 9. 

60. A.S.healf. Cf. H»lf, Hallf, 

Halhes, sb. pi. saints, 10. 79 ; Hal- 
hen, 7. 130. See Halege. 
Hall, adj. holy, i. 119; Halie, I. 

97. 98 ; 15. 2438. See Hali^ 
HaHche, adv. in a holy manner, 7. 

117. A. S. hdlige. - 
Halidom, sb. holy relics, 2. 143. 

A. S. Adlig-ddm^ holiness, holy 

things ; Icel. helgir dotnar, relics. 

See Diet. (s. v. ddmr), Cf. Halia- 

Hali-gast, sb. Holy Ghost, 3 a. 99 ; 

Halie-gaste, dat. 36. 131. A.S. 

Hdlig gdst. 
Hali-write, sb. holy writ, i. 184;. 

9- 173- 
Halij, adj. holy, 5. 1 490 ; Hali5e, 

I. 118. A. S. hdlig. Cf. HaU, 

Halite, H«aU,.HoU, All. 
Hali^domess, sb. pi. holy things, 

5. 1 03 1, 1689. See Halidom. 
Hali^en, v. -to hallow, .3 a. 85. 

A. S. hdlgian. 
Halke, sb. dat. comer, 19. 1099. 

Cp. A. S./^o/c(B. T.). 
Halle, adj. all, 15. 2340. See Ball. 
Halle, sb. dat. hall, 6 6. 518 ; 19. 

71 ; Hallen, 6 a. 518. A. S. heall. 
Hallfe, sb. o Godess hallfe, on 

God's behalf, 5. 1028. See Half. 
Hall^he, adj. holy, 5. 1096. See 

Hals, sb. neck, 2. 35; 18. 521, 

670. A. S. heals : Goth. hals. 
Halst, 2 pr. s. boldest, i. 41 ; 

Halt, pr. s, ^c. 45; 7. 216; 

Hallt, 5. 1299. See Healden. 
Halue, sb. side, 6 a. 258 ; pi. 9. 45. 

See Half. 
Haluendely s6. half, 18.430. A.S. 

healfdcel, half part. 
Ham, I pr. s. am, 11. 98. O. 

Northumb. am. See Am. 
Ham, pron. dat. them, i. 21, 27, 



65; II. 26; ace. 1. 126; II. 15. 

A. S. A/m, pi. dat.t hi, pi. ace. 

See Hi. 
Ham, 56. home, i. 157; 2. 200; 

5. 1608 ; Hamcs, pi. 3 b, 39. 

A. S. hdm. Cf. Horn, Om. 
Hamtun, sb. Southampton, 2. 

Hand, sb. pi, hands, 1. 16 ; Handes, 

18. 383. A.S. hand, hond, a 

hand. Cf.. Hend, Hond. 
Handftd, s6. sheaf, 15. 1919. A.S. 

Handlen, v. to handle, 18. 347; 

Handel, 18. 586. A.S. handlian. 
Hangen, v. to hang (active), 18. 

61 2, 695. A. S. hangan (usually 

contracted to h6n)f to hang. Cf. 

Hanged, pr. s. hangeth (neuter), 

176. 312. A.S. hangian; cp. 

O. S. hangdn. See Henge. 
Hard, adj. severe, 176. 159,17^? 

Hardne, acc.s. m. hard, 17 a. 171 ; 

Harde clones, sackcloth. A. S. 

heard. Cf. Herde. 
Harde, adv. severely, 12. 286. 

A. S. hearde. 
Hardeliche, adv. bravely, j6. 402. 

A. S. heardlice. 
Hardi, adj, hardy, 15. 2121. O.F. 

hardi, bold. 
Hardilike, adv. boldly, 12. 239. 
Hare, />ro«. their, i. 98, 157; sa. 

36; of them, 7. 19; hares un- 

]7ances, against their will, I. 65. 

See Heore. 
Harm, sb. injury ; Harem, 1 7 6. 198; 

Harme, dal. 4 6. 50. See Hearm. 
Harmen, v. to harm, 8 a. 113. 

A. S. kearmian, Cf. Hearmin. 
Harpe, v. to harp, 19. 231. A.S. 

Harpurs, sb. pi. harpers, 19. 

1 509. A. S. hearpere. 
Harrdenesst, 2 pr. s. hardenest, 5. 

1487. M. E. hardnetij an exten- 
sion of the more usual harden ; 

A. S. heardian. 

(He hes), he them, 13. 78. 

See Hes. 
Has, sb. command, 176.91, 349. 

A.S. h^s. Cf. Hes, Hease* 

Hesne, Hest. 
Hasteliohe, adv. quickly, 13. 105. 

Cf. O. Fris. ha&t, speed, and hastig, 

Hat, adj. hot, 5. 1 564; Hate, 5. 

1203; Hatere, comp. 176. 251; 

Hatture, 17 a. 243. A. S. hat. 
Hate, sb. dat. heat, 176. 236. See 

Haten, v, to bid; Hate9, pr. s. 

bids, 7. 52; Hat, 9. 252; 17a. 

302; 176. 308. 1q A.S. there 

were two verbs hdtan, which are 

confused together in M. £. A. S. 

hdtan (i), to order, promise, call, 

pt. hektf pp. hdten, and A. S. 

hfUan (2), to be called, pr, and 

pt. hdtte, pi. h&tton. Cf. Hsehte, 

Hatte, Helite,Het, Hoot, Hot, 

Ihaten, Ihote, Y-oten. 
Hatien, v. to hate ; Hatedh, pr, s, 

13.82; Hatiet, 16. 230 ; Hatie'5. 

pi, 6. 314; Hatien, 9. 259. A.S. 

Hatrede, sb. dat. hatred, i. 28. 

The suffix is the A.S. -rikden, 

meaning * law,* * mode,' or * con- 
dition.' See Ferreden. 
Hatte, I pr. s. am called, 6 a, 6. 

63 ; pr. s. 4 a. 8 ; Hattest, 2 pr. 

s. 16. 255 ; Hatte, pt. s, 2. 92 ;- 

6 6. 119, 321. A.S, hdtle, pass, 

pr. and pt. See Haten. 
Hatte, pt. s, became hot, 19. 608. 

A. S. hdtian, pt. hdtode, 
Hatterliohe, adv. savagely, 8 a, 

94. A. S. hetelice, fiercely. Cf. 

HatSene, adj, heathen, 6 a. 589; 

176.295. See HselSen. 
Haveo, sb, hawk, 16. 303, 307; 

Havekes, gen, s. 16. 271. A.S. 

hafoe. Cf. Heanekes. 
Hauen, v. to have, 2. 112; 19. 

365 ; 4 a. 79; lo. 59; 13. 



237; Haues, 2 pr, s. 18. 688; 

Hauest, 3 a. 81 ; 19. 8ol ; Hauestu, 

hast thou, 19. 726 ; HaueC, pr. s. 

36.49; 12.251 ; Hauet, 18. 564-, 

Haued, 2.204; ^5* 2038; Hauede, 

pt. s. 18. 348,437 ; Hauedet, had 

it, 18. 714; Haueden, ^/. 18. 

439. See Habben. 
Hauene, sb. haven, 8 a. 144; 19. 

755. A. S. hcBfene ; cp. Icel. ho/n. 
Haxede, pt. s, asked, 6 b. 530. See 

Hasheli^, adv. becomingly, 5. 1228, 

Ha^helike, 5. 1231 ; Ha^herrlike, 

5. 1 2 14. Icel. hagliga, suitably, 

meetly, from hagr^ skilful, handy. 
He, pron. he, 5. 1236. A. S. he. 

Cf. Ha, Hie, Heo, Hi. 
He, pron. she, 8 a. 70; 19. 292, 

297, 300, 743. See Heo. 
He, pron. they, 15. 2152; 17 a. 

181, 210; 176. 269, 383; 18. 

415. See Hi. 
Healde, v. to hold, observe, 176. 

314. A.S. healdan. Cf. Halden, 

Hselden, Helde, Halst, Hiel- 

den, Heold, Hold, Ihalden. 
Healden, v. to pour, 8 a. 1 24. See 

Heale, 56. salvation, 7. 8q, 224 ; 8 a. 

144 ; 1 1. 6, 96. See Hale. 
Healen, sb. pi. dot. heels, 8 6. 154. 

See Helen. 
Healent, sb. Saviour, 8 a. 126. 

See Halende. 
Heali, adj. holy, 10. 87. See 

Heanen, v. to oppress; Heane'S, 

8 a. 136 ; Heande, pt. s. 8 6. 3 ; 

Heaned, pp. afflicted, 10. 29. 

A. S. hynan, to hiimble, from hedn^ 

poor, despised. 
Heanen, 8 a. 138. Text probably 

corrupt. See Notes. 
Heare, s6. hair-cloth, 9. 167, A. S. 

h<kre. Cf. Here. 
Hearm, sb. harm, 8 6. 105. A. S. 

hearm. Cf. Harm, H»rm, 


Hearmin, v. to harm, 7, 143; 
. Hearmet$, pr. s. 8 6. 140. A. S. 

hearmian, Cf. Harmen, Her- 

Heasoede, pt. s. insulted, 8 6. 4. 

A. S. hyscan^ from Awsc, scoffing ; 

see B. T. (s. v. husc) : O. S. hose. 
Hease, 56. dat, command, 176. 

296. See Hes. 
Heat, sb. heat, anger, 16. 167. 

See Haste. 
Heater, sb. clothing, 9. 159. A. S. 

hcBteru. For several exx. of this 

word in M. E. see Stratmann (s.v. 

hatre)t and Piers Plowman, p. 319. 
Heatterliche, adv. savagely, 8 6. 

117. See Hatterliche. 
Hea^ene, adj. heathen, 10. 33. 

See Hauene. 
Heaued; sb. head, captain, 7. 37; 

9.221. See Hafed. 
Heaued-Bunne, sb. a capital sin, 

deadly sin, 9. 8 ; Heaued sunnen, 

pi. dat. 9, 23. Cp. A.S. ke&fod- 

gylt, hedfod-leahter, deadly sin. 

Cf. Hefed-sunnen, Heued- 

Heauekes, sb. pi. hawks, 3 6. 40. 

See Haveo. 
Heauet, sb. head, 8 a. 125; 9. 

175. See Hafed. 
Hedde, pt. s. had, 13. 44; 17 a. 

I39» 153; Hedden, pi. 13. 11, 

116. See Habben. 
Heden, v. to heed, 8 a. 33. A. S. 

heden : O. S. hddian ; cp. O. H. G. 

huaten (Otfrid). 
Hefde, pt. s. had, 2. 1 20 ; 7. 702 ; 

Hefede, 36. 8 ; Hefden,/>/. 2. 19, 

76 ; 7. 105. See Habben. 
Hefed, sb. head, 2. 24. See Hafed. 
Hefed-snnnen, 56. pi. capital sins, 

deadly sins, 3 6. 74. See Heaued- 

Hefene, sb. (fa/, heaven, i. 189; 

3 a. 93; Hefenen, ^/. i. 41. See 

HefL^, adj. heavy, 5. I442. A. S. 

kejig, Cf. Heuie. 



Heg, adj, high, 4 a. 38; ai. 27 ; 

Hege, 4 a. 23 ; Hcgest, superl. 15. 

2142. See Heh. 
Hegge, s6. hedge, 16. 17, 59. A. S. 

hecg. See Skeat ^^s. v. hedge, p. 

Heglice, adv. sumptuously, 2. 90. 

See Hehlioe. 
Heg-settle, sb. dot. high seat, 

throne, 4 a. 38. See Hehseotel. 
Heh, adj. high, 3 a. 79 ; Hehe, 8 b. 

56, 149 ; on heh, on high, 7. 69. 

A. S. A«^A, comp. h^rra, superl. 

lUhst. Cf. Hnh, Heg, Hei, 

HeilL, Halies, Heye, He^e, 

Hi^e, Herre, Heh^esst. 
Hehde (for hefde), pt, s. had, 6 a. 

137. See Hefde. 
Hehe, adv» high, 8 6. 153. A. S. 

hedh. Cf. Heie, Heye, Hse^e, 

Heh-engel, sh. archangel, 3 a. 51. 

A. S. hedhengel. 
Hehlioe, adv. sumptuously, 2. 197. 

A. S. hedhlice, hedlice. Cf. Hseh- 

liche, Heglice. 
Hehne, adj. contemptible, 6 a. 204. 

See HsBxie. 
Heh-reue, sb. high reeve, 8 a. 27. 

A. S. Af dA gerefa^ a royal officer of 

high rank, see B. T. (s. v.) 
Heh-seotel, sb, high seat, throne, 

8 a. 121. A. S. hedhsed. Cf. 

Hehte, pt. s. ordered, 8 6. 161 ; 

called, 6 6. 449. See Haten. 
Hehte, />/. s. was called, 8 6. 3. See 

Heh^e, adv. high, 66. 517. See 

Heh^hesBt, adj. superl. highest, 5. 

1055. ^^^ Heh. 
Hei, pron. they,. 19. 151. See Hi. 
Hei, adj. high, 11. 70 ; Heie, 9. 34; 

16. 1646. See Heh. 
Heie, adv. high, 9. 260. See 

Heien, v. to extol, 8 a. 102; Hel- 
en de, pr, part. 8 6. 11; Heinde, 

8 a. 9. A. S. hedn, to heighten : 

Goth, kauhjan, Cf. I-heied, 

Heih, adj. high, 11. 25. See Heh. 
Heil, adj. hale, 12. 75. Icel. heill. 

Cf. HsBil. 
Heiris, s6. pL heirs, 19. 907 ; O. F. 

heirs^ an heir; Lat. keres. Cf. Bir. 
Hei-ward, s6. hay- ward, 9. 132. 

A. S. kcBg-weard, from Aeigro* an 

enclosure. See Notes. 
Helde, sb. age, 18. 387. See 

Helde, 56. a slope, 176. 347. Cp. 

A. S. heldan^ hyldan, to inclioe, 

bend ; see Stratmann (s.f. held) ; 

cp. O. H. G. hdlda, a slope, G. 

Halde (Weigand). Cf. Helden. 
Helde, v. to hold, 19. 912 ; pt. s. 

2. 175; Helden, />/. 2. 146; 

Heldemi, 5. 1 1 63. See Healda 
Helden, v. to incline the vessel and 

so pour out the contents, 9. 334. 

A. S. heldan, hyldan, to tilt, in- 
cline. See Skeat (s.v. keel,. 2). 

Cf. Halde, Healden. 
Heie, s6. health, 17 a. 369 ; salva- 
tion, 46. 29 ; safety, 6 a. 245. 

See Hale. 
Helen, sb. pi. dot. heels, S tu 126, 

A. S. hdla, a heel. Cf. Healea, 
Helen, v. to conceal, 17 a. 166; 

Helet^, pr. s. i. 59. A.S. hsloH. 

Cf. Halen, Heolen, Hvile^ 

Helende, sb. Saviour, i. 189; 

Helendes, gen. s. I. 123 ; 4a. 63. 

See Halende. 
HelelSes, warriors, heroes, 6 a, 

496. A. S. h<Bledf a man, hero : 

O. S. helm ; cp. O. H. G. kiUd 

(G. held). 
Helfter, s6. noose, snar^, 36. Ii7> 

124. A.S. kalftre (Wright's 

Helle-fur, s6. hell fire, 17 a. 156, 

158. A. S. hellefyr ; HMe, gm, 

of Hei : Goth, halja ; cp. OMLQ. 

hella-Jiur (Tatian). 



Helle-mu'S, sb, hell mouth, i. 

Helm, sb. helmet, 18.624. A.S. 

helm ; Icel. hjdlmr. 
Help, sb. help, 4 c. 37 ; Helpe, 4 c. 

34. A. S. A«//> : O. S. helpa ; cp. 

Icel. ^dlp. 
Helpen, v. to help, 18.648; Hell- 

penn, 5. 1 1 74; Helpe, 16. 1719. 

A. S. helpan ; cp. O. H. G. helfan 

Helpleses, adj. gen, s. of the 

helpless, 8 b. 190. 
HelSe, sb. dot. health, safety, 15^ 

2344. k.S.h<kl6. 
Hem, pron. dot. them, 4 b. 102 ; 

15.2152; 176.6a. SeeHeom. 
Hemiself, pron. reflex, themselves, 

176.229. See Heomseslf. 
Hend, sb. pi. hands, 18. 505. See 

Hende, sb. dot. district, 6b. 67. 

See Snde. 
Hende, adj. near at hand, handy, 

18. 359; near to help, kind, 

courteous, 6 a. 573; 8 a. 126; 

19* 37i» 1 1 29; Hendest, superl. 

most courteous, 6 a. 154. A. S, 

gehende^ near, handy, vicinus. 

Cf. HaBndest, Hiende. 
Hendeliche, adv. courteously, 6 b. 

277. See Hsandeliohe. 
Henge, v. to hang, to be suspended, 

10. 63; Henges, 2 pr. s. 10. 

Ill ; ^r. s. 10. 55; Hengedes, 2 

pe. s. 10. 17; Henged, pp. 10. 

53. A. S. hangian. Cf. HangelS, 

Hengen, />^. />/. hanged (active), 2. 

25,87. See Hangen. 
Hen[ne], sb. hen, 16. 413 ; Hennes, 

gen. s. 18. 'J02, A. S. A^-n, 

Hennen, adv. ' hence, 6 a. 320 ; 
Henne, 176. 400; 19. 46, 319: 
Hennes, 19. 323. See Heonne. 

Heo, pron. she, 3 a. 30 ; 6 a. 131 ; 
8 6. 64; her, 30. 56; 6a. 577, 
578 ; Heo-seolf, she herself, 14. 

426- A. S. hed, she, hi^ her (ace). 
Cf. Ha, He, Hes, Hi, Hye, Qe, 

Heo, /»ron. he, 3 a. 1 11 ; 6 a. 146. 

See He. 
Heo, />ron. they, 3 a. 67; 6. 15; 

II. 30; 16. 1661, 1662; 17 a. 

102. See Hi. 
Heofene, sb. dat. heaven, i. iqg ; 

3 a. 5; Heoffne, 5. 1055, 1267 ; 

Heoffness, ^c«. 5. 5, 1394. A. S. 

keo/on. Cf. He£ene, Heuene, 

Heofene-riohe, sb. the kingdom of 

heaven, 3 a. iii. A. S. heofon- 

rice, Cf. Heuenriche, Heo- 

Heold, pe,s. held, 2. 64, iii ; 17 a. 

237; Heoldon, />/.^. 127; Heol- 

den, 2. 14, 16 ; 17 a. 292 ; Heolde, 

16.12; 17 a. 172. A. S. hedld, 

pt. s. ; kedldon, pt. pi. of hecUdan. 

See Healde. 
Heoldre, adj. comp. older, 6 6. 3^74. 

See Bald. 
Heolen, v, to conceal, 8 a, 39. See 

Heom, pron. dat, them, i. 6; 2. 

56; aec. 2. 21. A. S. him, heom^ 

dat. pi. Cf. Hom, Hem, Em 

in "Wexem. 
Heonne, adv. hence,^ 14. 173: 16. 

850, 1673; 17 a. 388. A. S. 

heonan (Jiinan). Cf. Hennen. 
Heorde-monne, sb. gen. pi. of the 

herdsmen, 9. 131. A. S. heord, 

(l) care, (2) herd, flock, (3) fam- 
ily ; see Skeat (s. v. herd 1 ). 
Heorden, sb. pi. hards of flax, 9. 

157. A. S. heordan. Cf. Herde. 
Heore, pron. their, 2. 116; 16. 

305, 740. A. S. heora. See 

HeorefK, i pr, pi. obey, 6 a, 116. 

See Heren. 
Heorte, sb. heart, i. 83; 19. 263. 

A. S. heorte. Cf. Herte, Hierte. 
Heou, sb. colour, 16. 619. See 




Heouene, sb. heaven, 17 a. 80; 

ace. 7. 183; 17 a. 75; dot. 3fl. 

106 ; 16. 728. See Heofene. 
Heouenlich, adj. heavenly, 7. 123 ; 

Heouenliche, 7* 9^. A. S. heo* 

Heovene-riche, sb. the kingdom 

of heaven, 16. 7^75 17a. 351; 

Heouericbe, 17 a. 66, 1 76. See 

Heowe, sh. dat. hue, colour, 3 a. 

19; 16. 29, 152. See Hiu. 
Her, adv. before, i. 186; 2. 182 ; 

176. 161. See^r. 
Her, p-on. of them, their, 2. 25, 

139; 15-2258. A. S. Aira. See 

Her, adv. here, i. 144; 3 a. 36. 

A. S. her. Cf. Heer. 
Her, adv. (in compounds) ; Her- 

abuten, hereabout, about this, 9. 

366. Her-among, in this place, 

in our midst, 16. 744 J Her- 

bihonde, here at hand, 19. 1149 ' 

Her-biforen, before this, 15. 2133 ; 

Her-efter, hereafter, 3 a. 54 ; Her- 

inne, herein, 19. 312; Her- to, . 

hereto, 9. 6. 
Herberwe, sb. dat. camp, 6 a. 262 ; 

Herboru, lodging, 18. 742. Ice). 

herbergi, lit. an army-shelter ; 

cp. O. F. Aerbergey an encamp- 
ment, in Roland, 2488. 
Herborwed, pp. lodged, 18. 742. 

Icel. kerbergja^ to shelter, harbour. 
Heronen, v. to hearken, 9. 208; 

Hercni, 7. 211; HercniC, pr. pi. 

7. 61. M. E. herknen (Chaucer) ; 

A. S. hyrcnian. Cf. Hssrone, 

Herkne, Herronesst. 
Herde, pt. s. heard, 2. 151 ; 18. 

465; 19.41. A. S. hyrde,pt.o{ 

hyran, heran^ to hear. See Heren. 
Herde, sb. pi. hards, hurds, tow, 

9. 157. A. S. heordan, sec B. T. 

See Heorden. 
Herde, adj. hard, 36. 55 ; Her- 

dure, comp. more severe, more 

strict, 9. 342. See Hard. 

Herdes, sb, pi, lands, 13. a. See 

Herdne, sb. errand, message, 15. 

2073. See Erende. 
Herdnesse, sb. hardness, 36. 11, 

73. A. S. heardnes. 
Here, sb. praise, 17 b. 45. A. S. 

here^ dignity {herenis, praise) ; cp. 

herian, to praise, and O. S. A^, 

Here, sb. army, host, 16. 1702, 

1709. 1790; 176. 45; 18. 346, 

379 ; Heren, 15. 2079. A. S. here. 
Here, sb. hair, 16. 428. A. S. htkry 

ker: O. S. hdr. 
Here, sb. hair-cloth, 9. 160. O. F, 

here (Bartsch). Cf. 

Here, adv. before, 2. 182. See. 
Here, pron. their, of them, 2. 14 ; 

4 a. 21; 46. 29, 47; 13. 31; 

15. 1920; 2209; 19. 66. See 

Hered-men, sb. pi. retainers, 6 6. 

134. See Hiredmen. 
Heren, v. to hear, obey, 36. 15 ; 

6 a. 25 ; HereS, imp. pi. la. 61. 

A. S. heran, hyran : O.S. h6rian ; 

cp. O. H. G. hdren (Otfrid). Cf. 

Hiren, Heorel$, Herde, Hi- 

Heretoche, sb. leader, (Moses), i. 

92. A.S. heretoga; O.S. ieri' 

togo (Pilate); cp. O. H. Q. keri' 

zoho (Otfrid), G. herzog. 
Here-word, sb, praise, 9. 42; 

Hereworde, 4 a, 76. A. S. hirt- 

Here-wuiUe, adj, praiseworthy, 

8 b. 192. 
Herien, v. to praise, 7. 177; 8 a. 

102 ; Herie'S, pr, pi. 7. 175 ; 

Herien, 4 a. 51 ; Heriende, pr. 

part, 8 a. 19. A.S. hirian, Cf. 

Heritage, 5ft. 19. 1301. O.F. he- 
Herkne, imp, s, hearken, 19. 814. 

See Heronen. 



Hermes, sb. pi. damages, 9. 133. 

See Hearxn. 
Hermie, pr. s. suhj. harm, 9. 135. 

See Hearmin. 
Henuites, ib. pi. hermits, 18. 430. 

O. F. hermite ; Lat. heremita ; 

Gk. iprj/juTriSf a dweller in a solitude. 
Hermyne, sb. ermine, 17 a. 357. 

O.F. hermine; M. H. G. hermin ; 

0. H. G. harmin^ ermine fur, 
from harmo, an ermine ; cp. A. S. 
kearma (Wright's Vocab.). Cf. 

Her-onont, as regards this, 8 a. 

67. See Onont. 
Herronesst, 2 pr. s. hearknest, 5. 

1 30 1 . See Hercnen. 
Herre, adj. comp. higher, 16. 1637. 

See Heh. 
Herte, sb. heart, 176. 74, 204; 

Hertes, pi. 13. 81 ; 15. 1927. 

See Heorte. 
Hertedin, pi. pi. cheered, put in 

good heart, 15. 1 980. See Halli- 

well (s. V. herie). 
Herteliohe, adv. heartily, 10. 48. 
Herting, sb. cheering, heartening, 

15. 1982. 
Heruest, sb. harvest, 12. 238. A.S. 

Herunge, si. hearing, 7. 17. 
HeB^pron.f. aec. her, it, 176. 219. 

The normal A. S. form is hi. Cf. 

Hies, His. 
Hes, pron. pi. them, 176. 186, 314. 

The usual A. S. forms are M, hig. 

Cf. His, Is, Mes. 
Hes, (he + hes), he + her (it), 176. 

40> 56. 
Hes, sb. command, 1 7 a. 90 ; Hese, 
pi. 4 a. 81; 170. 290; Hesne, 

1. 113. See Has. 

Hesmel, sb. collar, 9. 260. Perhaps 
a corrupt form of A. S. healsmyne : 
O. S. halstneni; cp. Icel. hdlsmen. 
For the change from n to / cp. 
O.H.G. A/»M7(mod. himmel), and 
Goth, kimins, 

Hest, sb. command, 9. 190; Heste. 

VOL. I. F 

4 6. 94 ; Hestene, gen. pi. 4 6. 94 ; 

Hestes, pi. 17 a. 344. See Has. 
Hest, 2 pr. s. hast, 13. 113. See 

Het, pt. s. commanded, ordered, 30. 

10 ; 8 a. 94; 13. 31 ; promised, 
. 15-2365; Hetten, />/. 8 a. 94. 

See Haten. 
Het, pt. s. was called, 19. 7, 767. 

See Haten. 
Hete, sb. heat, 4 d. 72 ; 5. 1404 ; 

12. 72 ; 17 a. 138, 197, 228. See 

Hete, sb. hate, 16. 167. A.S. hete^ 

cp. O. S. heti : Goth, hatis. 
Hete, V. to eat, 1 8. 45 7. See Eten. 
Hetelifaste, adv. cruelly, 10. 78, 

From A^.S. hetol, hetel, full of 

hate, malignant. 
Hethen, adv. hence, 15. 2508 ; 18. 

683, 690. Icel. hdiSan. Cf ESen. 
Hethen, adj. heathen, 2. 50 ; He- 

pene, 6&. 15; 8a. 2. SeeHae^ene. 
Hepenesse, sb. dat. heathendom, 

13. 7» 38. A. S. h(kdennes. 
Heued, sb. head, 4 6. 16 ; 18. 379 ; 

19. 610. See Hafed. 
Heued-olo^S, sb, head-cloth, 9. 259. 

A. S. hedfod clap. 
Heuede, pt. s. had ; 9. 352 ; 17 a. 

16. See Habben. 
Heued-Bunnen, sb. pi. capital sins, 

deadly sins, 3 b. 34, 74. See 

Heaued-sunne . 
HeuegelS, pr. s. bears heavy on, 

9. 263. A. S. hefigian. 
Heuen, v. to heave, raise; HeueC,/>r. 

s. 86. 140. A.S.Atf66an. Cf.Houe. 
Heuene, sb. dat. heaven, i. 123 ; 

Heuen kinge, dat. king of heaven. 

See Heofene. 
Heuenliohe, adj. 4c. 22. A.S. 

Heuen-riohe, sb. the kingdom of 

heaven, 12. 28; Heuene-riche, 3 a. 

63. See Heofene-riohe. 
Heueriche, sb. the kingdom of 

heaven, 13. 85; 176. 42, 65. 

See above. 



Heuet, sb. head, 9. 173. See 

Heuie, adj. heavy, 36. 7 1; 9. 228 ; 

19. 1450. See HefiB- 
Hew, sb, colour, complexion, 46. 

87. See Hiu. 
Heye, adj. high, 17 a. 278, 343;. 

Heye se, the high sea, 18. 719. 

See Heh. 
Heye, adj. high, 18. 695. See 

He^e, adj. high, 30. 13. See Heh. 
Hi, />ro«. they, 1.8; 36. 100 ; 1 7 a. 

379 ; 17 *• 382 ; them, 16. 854. 

A. S. hU higy nom. and ace. pi, 

Cf. Hy, Ha, He, Hie, Hii, Hei, 

I, Heo, Ho, Hes. 
Hi, pron. she, I. 58; 13. 97, See 

Hi, pron. he, it, 13. 27. See He. 
Hie, pron. I, 13. 23, 74. See Ic. 
Hidenn, v. to hide, 5. 1019, 

1678; Hidd,/)/». 5. 1704. A.S. 

hidan, hydan. Cf. Huide, Hude. 

Hider-to, adv. hither-to, 9. 33. 

A. S. hider : Goth, hidre ; cp. Lat. 

Hiderward, adv. hitherward, 16. 

Hie, />ro«. be, 176. 114. See He. 
Hie, pron. they, ^a. 7,'j \ 176. 22, 

98, 241, 376; them, 16. 854. 

See Hi. 
Hielden, pt. pi. held, 176. 172; 

observed, 176. 298. See Healde. 
Hierte, sb. heart, 176. 113. See 

Hies, pron. her, it, 176. 243. See 

Hi-fulled, pp. filled, 6 6. 515. See 

Fulle and Ge-. 
Hi-funde, />p. found, 13. 22. See 

Finden and Ge-. 
Hi-heren, v. to hear, 36. 16. See 

Heren and Ge-. 
Hihten, pt. pi. adorned, 4 a. 22. 

Cp. M. E. hi^te, to adorn, Trevisa, 

I. 41, 235; 2. 363. 

Hii, pron. they, 6 5. 15. Sec 
HU, sb. hill, 12. 27; Hille. dai. 

1 2. I. A. S. hyll ; cp. Lat. collis, 

Cf. Hulle. 
Hilede, pt. s. covered, 10. 50. ee 

Hi-makede, pp. made, 66. 480. 

See Macien and Ge-. 
Himselfen, pron. reflex, himself, 

176. 107 ; Himsulf, 9. 348 ; Him- 

seolue, 17a. 184. A.S. he sdf, 

ace. hine selfne ; but himsyl/y in 

Chron. ann. 1087. 
Hin, sb. dwelling, camp, 66. 262. 

See Inne. 
Hin, prep, in, i. 26. See In. 
Hin, pron. him, 13. 29. See Hine. 
Hindene, sb. a snare (?), 3 b. 125. 

Perhaps hindene is a scribe's error 

for A. S. hindere, a snare ; cp. 

hinderhoCf a snare, in B. T. 
Hine, pron. ace. him, i. 11, 33; 

16. 1749; 176. 385, 391. A.'S. 

hine. Cf. Hin, Hyne. 
Hine, sb. pi. domestics, 18. 620 ; 

Hinen, 7. 14, 226 ; 8 a, 138. 

M. £. kine ; A. S. hina, a gen. {d. 

in the term hina feeder^ paterfii- 

milias. See B. T. (s. v.), and 

Skeat (s. v. hind), Cf. TtjTijtiati. 
Hird, sb, company, 7. 116; 11. 

51; household, 7. 12; retainers 

at court, 8 a. 10 ; Hirde, £2(i/. 9. 

39. See Hired. 
Hirde, sb, shepherd, 12. 48, 49. 

A. S. hirde^ heorde, from hmrd, 

herd, flock ; cp. Goth. hairdeiSf 

from hairdo^ a herd. Cf. Hnrde. 
Hirdnesse, 56. flocks of sheep under 

a shepherd's care, 15. 1930. A.S. 

hirdnes, care, custody. Cf. Heor- 

Hire, pron. poss, her, i. 58. A. S. 

hire. Cf. Hure. 
Hire, pron, ace. her, 2. 123. A.S. 

hire—aiiTqv in Chron. ann. 1 127. 
Hire, pron, pass, their, 6 6. 73 ; 13. 

33; 18. 393. A.S. hira, kioni. 

Cf. Heore, Hare, Herd. 



Hired, s&. body of retainers, 6 a. 

203 ; Hirede, court, 6 a. 308. 

A.S. hired^ a family,^ household, 

followers of a lord ; cp. for form 

M. H. G. hirdt (mod. G. heirath), 

marriage, see Weigand. 
Hired-men, sb. pi. retainers, 6 a. 

132 ; Hiredmonnen, dat. 6 a. 313. 

A. S. kiredmann. Cf. Hered- 

Hiren, v. to obey, 6 a. 367. See 

Hime, sh. corner, 5. 1677. A. S, 

hyrne, from kom. Cf. Hume. 
His, pron. f. her, it, I. 93 ; i*j b. 

263. See Hes. 
His, pron. them, i. 24, 34, 136. 

See Hes. 
His, />ron. />oss. his, i. 118 ; Hise, 

pi. 2. 9; 18. 368. A.S. his. Cf. 

Hyse, Es, Is. 
His, pr. s. is, i. 183; 66. 126. 

See Is. 
Hit, pron. it, i. i; 11. ll; 16. 

272 ; expletive, i. 32. A. S. hit. 

Cf. It. 
Hit, sb. heat, 176. 138. Icel. hi 

heat. Cf. Hsete. 
Hiu, sb. colour, 4 b. 86. A.S. hiw^ 

hue, colour ; cp. Goth. hiwi. form, 

show, appearance. Cf. Heou, 

Heowe, Hew. 
Hi^e, adj. high, 19. 327. See Heh. 
Hisede, pt. s. hied, hastened, 19. 

980. A. S. higian, to hasten. 
Histe, sb. delight, joy, 16. 272. 

A. S. hyhtf hope, joy. 
Hi^tep, pr. s. rejoices, is glad, 16. 

436. A. S. hyhtan^ to be glad. 
Hlaford, s6. lord, 1 . 2 2 ; Hlafordes, 

gen. s. I. 100, 199; Hlaforden, />/, 

dat. I. 37. A.S. hldford. Cf. 

Laford, Laferrd, Lauerd, 

Louerd, Lowerd, Lord. 
Hleste, sb. desire, 176. 387. See 

Hlesten, v. to listen, 176. 230. 

A. S. hlystan ;'cp. Icel. hlusta. Cf. 

Ijusten, Listen, Leste. 


Ho, pron. they, 170. 179, 228. 

See Hi. 
Hohfulle, adj. anxious, 6 a. 312. 

A.S. hohful, full of care, from 

hogu^ care. 
Hokere, sb. dat. scorn, 10. 109 ; 

Hokeres, pi. scoffs, 10. 30. A- S. 

hdcor, insult, derision. 
Hoker-lahter, sb. the laughter of 

scorn, 10. 113. 
Hokerliohe, adv. scornfully, 8 a. 

20; 10. 96. 
Hokerringe, sb. dat. scorn, con-* 

tempt, 10. 89. 
Hoi, adj, whole, 15. 2243 ; 19. 

149,1365. A.S. M/. See Hal. 
Hold, adj. old, 18. 417. See Eald. 
Hold, adj. friendly, faithful, I. 5; 

Holde, 6 a. 307; 19. 1269. A.S. 

holdt gracious, from heald^ in- 

cUned. See Helden. 
Holden, v. to hold, keep, 6 a. 286 ; 

9. 329 ; 19. 670 ; Holde, 6 b. 

286; 16. 1680, 1691 ; Holden, 

pp. 15. 2040, 2076. SeeHealde. 
H.olUadj. 16. 721 ; 18. 431 ; Holie, 

4 a. 21. See HaliB. 
Holie, sb. holly, 9. 161. A.S. 

holen; cp. Ir. cuileann. 
Holsum, adj. wholesome, 4 c. 51. 

M.E. holsum (Prompt. Parv.) ; 

cp, Icel. heilsamr, 
Holsumliohe, adv. wholesomely, 

4 d. 64. 
Horn, pron. dat. 7. 54 ; 16. 735. 

See Heom. 
Horn, sb. home, 9. 242 ; 18. 557, 

682, 1751 ; 19. 219. See Ham. 
Homage, sb. men, retainers, vas- 
salage, 19. 1535. O. F. homage, 

feudal service (Brachet). 
Homward, adv. homeward, 15. 

2376. A. S. hdmweard. 
Hond, sb. hand, 4a. 77 ; 6. 402 ; 

9. 114; Honde, dat. 16. 1651 ; 

pi. 4 a. 25; 19. 60, 112, 192; 

Honden, 46. 53 ; 10. 104; Hon- 

don, 7. 58 ; Hondes, 10. 103 ; 

18. 636. See Hand. 

f 2 



HongefS,/>r. s. hangs, depends, 17 a. 

306. See Henge. 
Hoot, pr. s. bids, 13. 84. See Haten. 
Hopien, v. to hope; Hopie, i pr. 

*• 9- 350 ; Hopede, pt. s. 19. 

1428. A. S. hopian ; cp. M. Du. 

hopen and G. hoffen (Weigand). 
Horde, sb. hoard, 17 a. 255. A. S. 

hard: Goth. huzd. 
Horder-wycan, sh. the office of 

treasurer, 2. 75. A.S. horderey 

a treasurer, and wtca, an office, 

function. See Chron., p. 370. 
Hordom, sb, whoredom, 17 a. 249. 

Icel. hdrddmr. 
Hore, pron. gen. pi. of them, their, 

9. 247; II. 22; 19. 862. See 

Horlinges, sh. pi. fornicators, 1 7 a, &. 

103. Cp. A. S. horing. 
Horn, sb. a drinking horn, 19. 1 165; 

Home, dat. 19. 1157 ; a horn 

(wind instrument), 16. 318. A.S. 

Hors, sb. horse, 19. 1248 ; pi. 3 b. 

40 ; 18. 701. A.S. hors, s. zn6pl. 
Hosen, sb. pi. hosen (pi. of hose), 

coverings for the legs, 9. 165. A.S. 

hosa, ocrea (Wright's Vocab.). 
Hoslen, t;. to administer the Eucha- 
rist, 18. 362 ; Hosled, pp. 18. 

364. See Huslien. 
Hot, pr. s. bids, 13. 99 ; Mote's, promise, 15. 2510; Hoten, 

pp. called, 15. 2522; 16. 256; Ho- 

tene, promised, 15. 2508. See 

Hote, I pr. s. am called, 19. 773. 

See Haten. 
Hone, 2 pt. s. didst raise, 19. 1287. 

A.S. hSfe, 2 pt, s. of kebban. See 

HouetJ, />r. s. remains, 12. 69. For 

exx. of M. £. houen (Jioven) see 

Skeat (s. v. hover). 
Hu, adv. how, 6 a, 18; 19. 468. 

A. S. hu, Cf. Hw, Hwu, "Wu. 
Hude, I pr. s. hide, 16. 265 ; Hud, 

imp, s. 16. 164 ; Hudden, pt, pi. 

176. 162; Uudde^pp, 19. 1 210; 

See Hidenn. 
Hade, sb. hide, 6 a, b. 403. A. S. 

hyd ; cp. O. H. G. hut (Otfrid), 

and Lat. cutis, Gr. teiuros : axdros. 
Hiiide, V, to hide, 10. 18. See 

Huire, sb. hire, 9. 131, 314. A. S. 

hyr. See Hure. 
Hule, sb. owl, 12. 253. A. S. uU. 
Hole, V, to cover, 10. 18. See 

HuUe, sb. dat. hill, 17 a. 343 ; 17ft. 

351 ; pi. 19. 208. See HU. 
Hund, sb. hound, 19. 601 ; Honde, 

dat. 19. 839 ; Hundes, ^. 3&. 40 ; 

i<>-35; 19.611,891. AS.kimd; 

cp. Goth, hunds. 
Hundredfeald, hundredfold, 17 6. 

251; Hundredfealde, 176. 54; 

Hundredfolde, 17 a. 55, 243. led. 

hundrafi ; cp. O. H. G. huiUerit, 

see Skeat (s. v. hundred). 
Hundret-si^e, a hundred times, 7. 

Hunger, sb. hunger, famine, 15. 

2150; Hungaer, dat. 2. 37, 47; 

Hungre, i. 32 ; aec. 10. 12. A.S. 

Hungren, v. to hunger, 9. 119; 

us hungreS, pr. s. impers, it hun- 
gers us, we are hungry, 18. 455; 

Hungrede, pt, s. was hungry, 18. 

654. A.S. hyngran, to be hungry. 
Hiingri, adj. hungry, 15. 2136. 

A.S. hungrig. 
Hiinne, pr. s. subj. grant, 15. 2249. 

See IJnne. 
Hunte, sb. hunter, 12. 34. A.S. 

Hunte, V. to hunt, T2. 2. A. S. 

Huntinge, sb. dat,; an huntiage, 

i. e. on hunting, a-hunting, 19. 

Huppen, to hop ; Hupte, pt, s, 16. 

1636. A. S. hoppian. 
Hur, pron, poss. our, i. 75; Hoie, 

15* 2495. See TJro. 



Hut, adv. hur and hur, frequently, 
I. 104 ; hure and hure, at inter- 
vals, 16. 1 1. A. S. hum, at least, 
at any rate. 

Hurde, sb. keeper, guardian, 14.10. 
See Hirde. 

Hure, pron. poss. her, 19. 288, 
290. See Hire. 

Hure, pron. dot. her, 19. 277. 
A. S. hire. 

Hure, sb. hire, 9. 15, 318. A. S. 
hyr ; cp. Du. huur. Cf. Huire. 

Hurede, pi. s. hired, 19. 756. A. S. 

Hume, sb. corner, 16. 14. See 

Hus, sb. house, 7. 6 ; 16. 623 ; 18. 
740; Huse, dot. 13. 27; 19. 1006; 
Huses, pi. 3 b. 39. A. S. hus ; cp. 
O. H. G. hus (Otfrid). 

Hus-bemers,/>/. house-burners, 1 3. 

Husbonde, sb. the master or 'good- 
man* of a house, 7. 43; Huse- 
bonde, 7. 38, 216; Husband, 19. 
739' 105 !• Icel. husbondi for 
husbuandi; buandi, dwelling, in- 
habiting, pres. pt. of bua, to 

Husel, sb. the sacrifice of the Eucha- 
rist, 4a. 5a; 9. 8. A. S. husl\ 
Goth, hunsl, a sacrifice (Mt. ix.13). 

Huse-lauerd, sb. lord of the house, 
7. 9, 35. A. S. hus hldford^ Lk. 
xxii. II. See Hus and Hla- 

Huse-wif, sb. house-wife, 7. 22; 
9. 129. 

Hus-lewe, sb. house-shelter, 10. 4. 
A. S. hus-hle6w. 

Huslien, v. to administer the sacra- 
ment ; Huseled, pp. houseled, 
having communicated, 4 c. 28. 
A.S. huslian. Cf. Hoslen. 

Huych, adj. each, 17 a. 88. 107. 
See Hwilc. 

Hw, adv. how, 14. 15; 17 a. 138, 
325, See Hu. 

Hwa, pron. who, i. 77J 3^* 7> 

13. 40; anyone, 3a. 109. A.S. 

hmd. Cf. Hwo, "Wa, "Wo. 
Hwam, pron. rel. dat. whom, 7. 

44 ; 8 a. 82 ; Hwan, what, 17 a. 

96,324; 176. 95,330; to hwan, 

for what reason, 176. 105. A.S. 

hwdtHt dat. ; hwane (Jiwone). ace. 

of hwd. Cf. Hwom, Warn, 

'Wan, Wham, "Wlion, Quam. 
Hwanne, conj. when, 14. 173, 441 ; 

Hwan, 18. 358, 474. A. S. 

hwanne. Cf. Hwenne, Hwoiiy 

Quan, Queue, Quuan, Wan, 

"Wane, "Wanne, "Whane, 

Wlianne, "Won, "Wone, 

Hwar, adv. where, 16. 1727. A.S. 

hw<Br. Cf. Hwer, Wher, 

Quuor, "War, "Wer. 
Hwar-se, adv. wheresoever, 9. 

234. A. S. h'W(kr swd. Cf. 

"Ware-se, "Warsfle. 
Hwa-se, pron. whoso, 7. 240 ; 9. 

221. A. S. hwd stvd. Cf. Hwo- 

se, "Wo-so. 
Hwa,t, pron. what, i. 57; 36. 84; 

10. 56; 17a. 78, 114. A.S. 

hwat. Cf. Hwet, "Wheat, 

"Whatt, "Wat, "Wet, Quat. 
Hwat, interj. what!, 16. 1730. 

A. S. hwcet ! (Beowulf). 
Hwat . . . wat, conj. both . . . and, 

18. 635. Cf. "Wat. 
Hwate, sb. chance, luck, 4^. 22. 

A. S. hwate, augury (Leo). Cf. 

Hwatliche, o^v. quickly, 16. 1708. 

A. S. hwcellice. Cf. "Wat. 
Hwenne, conj. when, 14. 175 ; 

17 a. 229 ; Hwen, 8 a. 112. See 

Hweoles, sb. pi. wheels, 8 6. 41. 

A. S. hwedl. 
Hwer, adv. where, i. 201 ; 17 a. 

85. See Hwar. 
Hwere, conj. whether, 18. 549. 

See HwetJer. 
Hwer-fore, con/, wherefore, 8 a. 51. 

Cf. "Ware-vore, "Were-fore. 



Hwer-se, a v. wheresoever, 7. 19 ; 

9. 193. A. S. swd hw<kr swd» 

Cf. Wheer-swa. 
Hwer-se-eauer, adv. wheresoever, 

7. 180. 
Hwet, pron. what, 3. 50 ; 8 h. 75. 

See Hwat. 
Hwet, conj. wherefore, i. 20. A.S. 

Hwete, ib, wheat, i. 191. A. S. 

hw^te. Cf. "Wete. 
HwetJer, pron, whether of the two, 

17a. 232; 176. 240. A.S. 

hwceder. Cf. Hwere, Whar, 

Hwi, adv. why, 3 a. 56 ; 4 c. 65. 

A. S. hwit inst. case of hwd, who. 

Cf. Whi, Wi, "Wy. 
Hwich, adj. what, 17 a. 138. See 

Hwider, adv. whither, 17 a. 122. 

A. S. hwider. Cf. "Wider. 
Hwider-se, adv. whithersoever, 7. 

127. A.S. hu ider + swd. 
Hwil, conj. while, 7. 211; 17 a. 

129 ; 18. 363. From A. S. hwU, 

a time, space, cp. dne hwile, for a 

while (Beowulf, 1763). Cf. 

Hwile, Hwils, Hwule, Hwy- 

len, Quile, "While, "Wile, por- 

Hwilc, pron, which, 36. 22; 

Hwilch, adj. what, 176. 138. 

A.S. hwilc { = hwi'lic). Cf. 

Hwich, Huyoh, Hwuch, 

Quilo, "Wulche, "Woche, 

Whillc, "Whulche, "Wio. 
Hwile, sb. while, space of time, 7. 

102; 17 a. 234; ane hwile, a 

while, 18. 722 ; j)e hwile, while, 

30.67; 14.431; 170.24. See 

Hwilem, adv. whilom, formerly, 

13. 19. A.S. hwiluntf 

of hwil, meaning * at times.' Cf. 

Hwylem, "Wylem, Quilum. 
Hwils, conj. whilst, 10. 67. M.E. 

hwilSf formed from analogy of 

A. S. adverbs in -es, this termina- 

tion bei 

mental gi 

89, and 

Hwit, adj, 

9. 152; I 

Cf. Whit, 
Hwo, pron. 

366 ; 18. 3' 
Hwom, pron 

337. SecH ' 
Hwon, adv, 

Hwo-se, prtM. \ 

114; Hwoso, _ 

See Hwa-se. ' 
Hwu, adv . bow, 

17*- 138, 39<5. 
Hwuoh, pron, ^ 

133; «^'- whtt 

1674. Sec Hwt 
Hwiile, sb. space c 

])e hwule ]>et, the 

148; II. 12.. See 
Hwure. See I«a hn 
Hwyoh-so, pron. wh 

82. A.S, kwilc-¥» 
Hwylem, adv. whila 

See Hwilem. 
Hy, pron. they, 16. 53. 
Hye, pron. she, 13. 97. 
Hyne, pron. ace. him, l^ 

379. See Hine. 
Hyrtlingburoh, sh, 

borough, Northamptonsh 
Hyse, pron. poss. his, 18. 3 


I-. See G-e-. 

I, pron. they, 6 b. 243. See % 
I, prep, in, 5. 985; 6. 308; 

105; 86. 52. See In. 
I89de, pt. s. went, 2. 15; 

laf, pt, s, gave, 2. lOQ. * 
I-arm.ed» pp, arop 




lauen, gave, 2. 150; lafen, 

2. 10. See Gifen. 
I-bannedy pp, summoned, 16. 

1668. A. S. gebannerit pp. of 

bannan ; cp. Icel. banna, to forbid. 
I-be, pp. been, 17 a. 3. See I-ben. 
I-beaten, pp. beaten, 8 a. 91. 
I-bede, sb, prayer, 176. 301 ; Ibe- 

den, pi. i*j b. 339. A. S. gebed. 

See Bede (i). 
I-beden, />/>. prayed, 3 a. 81. See 

Bidden (I). 
I-ben, pp. been, 176. 3 ; Ibeon, 6. 

307 ; Ibeo, 7. 190. Cf. I-be, 

I-beo'S (for hi beo'S), they are, i. 81. 
I-bere, sb. noise, 16. 222. A. S. 

gebare^ gesture, cry, in Chron. 

ann. 755 : O.S. gibdri, demeanour, 

bearing. Cf. Bere. 
I-bete, V. to amend, 17 a. 234; 

Ibet, pp. 36. 67 ; 17 a. 100, 134; 

ly b. 100, 134. A. S. gebetan. 

See Beten (2). 
I-bi, />/>. been, I. 158. See I-ben. 
I-bidest, 2 pr. s. hast to do with, 

14. 430. A. S. gebidan. 
I-bie, (for I hie), I be, 1 7 b. 4. M.E. 

Bie ; A. S. bed, subj. of be6n. 
I-bite, V. to bite, taste, eat, i. 30. 

O. Northumb, gebiiatit to bite, 

Mk. ix. 18. 
I-blescede, pp. blessed, 7. 65, 98 ; 

Iblessed, 19. 1388. A. S. ge^ 

bletsod. See Blesse. 
I-blessieV, pr. pi. rejoice, 3 a. 6. 

A. S. geblissiatif to be glad, to 

make glad. 
I-blowe, pp. blown, bloomed, 16. 

618. A. S. gebldwen^ pp. of ge- 

I-bod, sb. command, 14. 445. A.S. 

IbolBe, pp. puffed up, 16. 145. 

A. S. gebolgedj swoln, indignant, 

also gebolgen (in Mt. ii. 16), pp. 

of gebelgariy to swell, be angry. 
I-bon, adj. prepared, adorned, 6 a. 

510. Matzner takes ibon to be 

connected with M. E. boun ; Icel. 

b&inn, pp. of bua, to prepare. 
I-boren, pp. bom, 11. 23; 14. 

210, 448 ; 19. 510 ; Iborene, 17 a. 

105 ; Iborenne, 6 a. 517 ; Iborn, 

19. 138, 876; Ibore, 66. 517; 

II. 13 ; 16. 716. See Beren. 
I-bore^e, pp. saved, 176. 167; 

Iboruwen, 9. 48 ; Iborhen, 7. 

129. See Bergen. 
I-bred, pp. bred, 16. 1724. A.S. 

bredan, to nourish, from brod^ 2l 

brood, see Skeat (s. v. breed, 

p. 787). 
I-brocht, /ip. brought, i. 170; 13. 

1 10; Ibroht, I. 199. A.S. ge- 

broht, weak form of gebrungen. 

See Bringen. 
I-broken, pp. used, 9. 149. A. S. 

gebrocen. See below. 
I-brucen, v. to enjoy ; Ibruce, i 

pr. s. subj. I. 29. A.S. gebrucan, 

to enjoy, eat. See Bruken. 
I-brusted, pp. bristled, rough, 6 a. 

512. From A.S. byrst, bristle; 

cp. Lat. expression, horrens auro. 
I'hxmde, pp. bound, 19. 11 28. See 

I-bureJ), pr, s. (it) behoves, 14. 75. 

A. S. gebyriatiy to belong, to be 

fitting, to behove. Cf. Birr)). 
I-bure3e, pt. s. subj. would pre- 
serve, 3 a. 41. See Bergen. 
Ic, pron. I, I. 29; 15. 2133; Ice, 

5. 962 ; Ich, 17 b. 157, 161. 

A. S. ic. Cf. Ich, Ih, Ihc, Hie, 

Y, Nich. 
I-cast, pp. cast, 36. 73. See 

loh. See lo. 
Ich, 17 a. 241. See Notes. 
I-changet, pp. changed, 9. 193. 

See Chaungi. 
Ichim, (for Ich him), I him, 8 a. 88; 
IchuUe, (for Ich wule), 1 will, 8 a. 

41* 75 ; Ich chule, 8 b. 5,4. 
Ichwer, adv. everywhere, 17 a. 

87. A corrupt form of A.S. 

Jeghwart everywhere. 



I-cleopet, pp. called, 8 6. 64 ; Iclep- 

ed, 3 a. 86; 13.90; 170.104; 

Iclepede, 3 6. 1 18 ; 13. 102 ; Iclep- 

elJ, 3 a. 3. See Cleopien. 
I-cnowen, v. to know, 176. 163, 

386 ; Icnawe, pr. s, subj. 36. 26 ; 

Icnawen, pp. acquainted, 8 a. 84. 

A. S. gecndwan. Cf. I-knawe, 

I-come, pt. pi. came, i. 20; pp. 

come, I. 134; 6 6. 3; 19. 1147, 

1340 ; Icome of, descended from, 

19. 419; Icomea, 19. 20. See 

I-coren, /»/>. chosen, 11.67; Icorene, 

3 a. 77 ; 17 a. 104. A. S. gecoren, 

pp. of cedsan. See Cheose. 
I-oroked, adj. crooked, 16. 1676. 

Cf. Crokes. 
I-cumen, pp. come, 6 a. 3, 54 ; 

Icume, 19. 162. A. S. gecumen, 

pp. of gecuman, pt. gecom. Cf. 

I-cundur, adj. comp. more akin, 16. 

85. A. S. gecynde^ natural. 
Icwede,/>/>. spoken, 16. 1653. A.S. 

gecweden, in Chron. ann, 456. pp 

ofgecwedatit to speak. Cf. Owe- 

I-cweme, adj. pleasing, 7. 208. 

A. S. gecwime^ agreeable. Cf. 

I-cweme, v. to please, 16. 1784; 

Icwemet, pp. 7. 172. A. S. ge- 

cweman. Cf. I-queme. 
I-cwiddet, />/>. spoken, 7. 107. A.S. 

gecwidod, pp. of cwidian^ cwydian^ 

to speak. 
Idel, adj. idle, 4 a. 15 ; 9. 42, 86 ; 

17 a. 9 ; Idele, pi. 9. 86, 255 ; on 

idel, in vain, 16. 920. A. S. idel, 

empty, useless, on idel, in vain ; 

cp. O. S. idaU empty, and G. eitel, 

worthless. Cf. Ydel. 
Idelnesse, sh. idleness, 9. 211 ; 

17 a. 6. 7« A. S. idelnis. 
I-demed, pp. judged, 9. 48 ; 17 a. 

106; Idemd, 176. 106, 173. See 


I-dodded. pp. cropped, 9. 220. See 

Halliwell (s. v. dod). 
I-doluen, pp. digged, 3 h. 49. A. S. 

gedolfen. See Delaen. 
I-don,/>^.done,i. 198 ; 36.65; 176. 

15; disposed (in mind), 6 a. 18; wel 

idon, well disposed, 6 a. 1 26, 360 ; 

Idon under, got the better of, de- 
ceived, 19. 1463; Idone, done, 

19. 446 ; Ido, put, 13. 56. See 

Don (i). 
I-dreaued, pp. troubled, 11. 58, 82. 

A.S. gedrefed, pp. of gedrifan, to 

trouble, afflict : O. S. gi-drdbian; 

cp. O. H. G. druaben (Otfrid), G. 

Idrunke, />/». drunk, 13. 108. See 

Idude (for I dude), I did, 176. 2. 

See Dude, 
leden, pt. pi. went, 2. 47. See 

I-eveset, pp. trimmed, clipped, 9, 

222. A.S. ge-efesod, pp. of efesian 

(B. T.) ; see Skeat (s.v. eaves). 
I-falle, pp. fallen, 170. 196. A. S. 

gefeallen. See Fallen. 
I-fare, pp. conveyed, 16. 400. See 

Faren (3). 
I-faren, pp. fared, gone. 6 a. 210 ; 

Ifare, 16. 1709; 19. 468. See 

Faren (i). 
I-fere, sb. companion, 17 a. 102 ; 

19. 102 ; 221, 1 141 ; Iferen, pi. 

176. 102, 297. Cf. 

Y-fere, I-uere, 3e-feren. 
T-feren, adv. together, 176. 233. 

A.S. on gefS^e, in company = in 

comitatu, Lu. ii. 44. Cf. I-nere. 
I-finden, find, 7. 68, 196 ; 176. 

243. A. S. gefindan. 
I-flod (for In flod), in flood, 10. 11. 

See Flod. 
Ifol (for In fol), 7. 20. See Fol. 
I-fonded, pp. experienced, 17 a. 

153. See Fandie. 
I-fo'B, pr. pi. take, 16. 1645. A. S, 

gefdpf pr. pi, of gef6n, to take. 

Cf. I-vo. 



I-founde, pp. found, 19. 779. A.S. 

gefunden. See Finden. 
T-fvl^Qypt. s, felled, knocked down, 

19. 1526. A.S. gefelde, pt. of 

gefellan, to cause to fall, kill. See 

I-fullet, pp. filled, 7. 109. A. S. 

gefylled, pp. of gefyllan, to fill. 

See Fullen. 
I-fiinde, />/>. found, 17 a. 69, 177; 

17 b. 179; 19. 967. A.S. ge- 

f widen. See Finden. 
I-garcket, pp. prepared, 7. 199, 

A. S. gegearcod, pp. oi gegearcian, 

to prepare. See Giarkien. 
I-goded, pp. benefited, 9. 325. 

A.S. gegodod, pp. of gddian. See 

I-gon, V. to go, 9. 20; pp. 19. 187. 

A. S. gegdn, to go. 
I-grseten, /»/. pi. greeted, 6 a. 36. 

A. S. gegretteriy pt. pi. of gegritan, 

to greet. See Greten. 
I-grauen, pp. graven, engraved, 19. 

1 1 78; Igraue, 19. 506. A.S, 

gegrafen, pp. of grafan, to dig, 

to grave, engrave, carve. See 

I-grede, sh. shouting, clamour, 16. 

1643. From A. S. grddan, to 

cry out. See Grede. 
I-grei15et,/>/'. prepared, 7. 105. See 

I-gret, pp. magnified, shown to be 

great. A.S. gegredtod, pp. of 

gredtian, to become great. 
I-gult, pp. sinned, 176. 11. A. S. 

g^gy^'i PP' oigyUan. See Gilten. 
I-gurd, pp. girded, 9. 159. A. S. 

gegyrded, pp. of gyrdan. See 

Ih, pron. I, 7. 197. See lo. 
I-haerde, pt. s. heard, 6 a. 527. 

See I-heren. 
I-hae^ed, pp. exalted, 6 a. 306. A. S. 

gehedd, pp. of hedn, to heighten. 

See Helen. 
Ihalden, pp. held, 6 a. 204, 558. 

See Healde. 

I-haten, pp. called, named, 3 a. 4 ; 

3 6. 56 ; 6 a. 68 ; 7. 10 ; Ihate, 

6 a. 133. A. S. gehdten. See 

Iho, pron. I, 19. 304, 664. See lo. 
I-healden, v. to hold, 176. 56. 

A. S. gehealdan. Cf. I-holde. 
I-hende, adv. near, 1 3. 61, 67. A.S. 

ge hende. Cf. Hende. 
I-heorted, adj. hearted, 9. 35. See 

I-heren, v. to hear, 3 a. 74, 103 ; 

36. 29; Ihere, 16. 224; 19. 

1282; Ihere'5, pr. s. 7. 13d; pi. 

36.19; 9.62; 16.222; Itierde, 

/)/. s. 8 a. 27; 16. 22, 1657; 19. 

971; There's, Ihere)), /m/>. />/. 13. 

119; lherd,/>/>. 3 a. 83; 60.99; 

8 a. 85 ; 16. 1 763. A. S. gekeran, 

pt. gehirde, pp. gehered. Cf. 

Ihure, Iheerde, IDbiorde. 
l-heret, pp. praised, 8a. 152. A.S. 

gehered, pp. of hdrian. See 

I-hialde, pp. 13. 113. A.S. ge- 

healden. See Healde. 
I-hoked, adj. hooked, 16. 1675. 

From A. S. Adc, a hook. 
I-hold, s6. fortress, hold, 16. 621. 

A. S. geheald, a holding. 
I-holde, V. to keep, 17 a. 57 ; />/>. 

held, 16. 1723. See I-hesJden. 
I-hondsald, pp. betrothed, lit. 

made over after a giving of the 

hand, 8 a. 18. Icel. handsala, to 

stipulate, from kandsal, a hand- 
I-horde, pt. s. heard, 6 6. 527, 559. 

See I-heren. 
I'Jiote, pp. bidden, 19. 1053. See 

I-hote, pp. called, named, 6 b. 68, 

133; 19.201. See Haten. 
I-hud, pp. hid, 17 a. 76. See 

I-hudeket, pp. hooded, 9. 264. 

From A. S, kdd, a hood. 
I-hnre, v. to hear, 6 b. 298 ; 14. 

14. See I-heren. 



I-hwulen, v. to be at leisure, 9. 

208. See Hwil. 
I-iuen, t/. to give, 2. 128, 144. See 

I-kindled, pp. whelped (of the 

lioness), 12. 16. See Stratmann 

I-knawe, v. to know, 17 a. 167. 

See I-cnowen. 
I-knotted, pp. knitted, 9. 167. 

See Cnotted. 
I-koruen, pp. cut (of hair), 9. 259. 

A. S. gecorfen, pp. of ceorfan. See 

I-kruned, pp. crowned, 11. 52. 

See Cruned. 
I-kud, pp. made known, 17 a. 165. 

See Ci:^en. 
I-kumen, pp. come, 9. 146. A. S. 

gecumefij pp. of cuman. See 

I-laoed, pp. laced, 9. 168. Cp. 

Norm. F. lace^ a cord, noose; 

O. F. laqs ; Lat. laqueus. 
I-lad, pp. led, 17 a. 5 ; 176. 5 ; 

brought, 16. 398. A. S. geldided, 

pp. of l<kdan. See Iieden. 
I-laste, pt. pi. performed, 176. 246 ; 

Read Nilasie, did not perform. 

A. S. gel<kste, pt. of gel^stan, to 

perform, carry out. See Geleste. 
I-latet, adj. visaged, 8 6. 1 74. See 

Iiate, Iiaten. 
He, adj. each, 15. 2355. See ^lo. 
Hoe, adj. dat. same, 2. 86. 193 ; 

Ilea, dat. pi. 3 a. 35. A. S. ilea, 

the same (always with the def. 

art.). Cf. nke, "Dike, Ilek. 
nch, adj. each, 11. 81. See JElo. 
He, sb. isle, 19. 1340. Norm. F. 

tile ; O. F. isle ; Lat. insula. 
I-leaded, adj. fitted with lead, 9. 

161. From A. S. lead; cp. Du. 

lood, and M. H. G. I6t (Weigand). 
I-leaned, pp. lent, 9. 17. A. S. 

gel<Bnedf pp. of Icenan. See 

I-led, pp. led, 9. 4. See I-lad. 
I-ledene, sb. gen. pi. of compatriots. 

6 a. 73. A. S. 

of geledd, compatriota, conter- 

I-lef, imp. s. believe, trust, 14. 196, 

A.S. geUfan, gelyfan. Seel-leue. 
I-leid, pp. laid, 17 6. 12. A. S. 

gelegd, pp. of lecgan. See Leg- 
I-leie, />/>. lien, lain, 19. 1151. A.S. 

gelegen, pp. of licgan. See Iiig- 

I-leitinde. See Iieitinde. 
Ilek, Ileke, 13. 81, 82 (MS.) for 

like, adj. same. See Iloe. 
I-lenet, pp. given, bestowed, 8 a. 

82. See I-leaned. 
I-leomed, pp. learned, 16. 216. 

A. S. geleornedf pp. of leornian. 

See Iieomen. 
I-le8ed,/>p. set loose, released, 17 a. 

1 36. A. S. lised (with prefix), pp. 

of lesan, li4san, to release. See 

Ilespiles, sb,pl. hedgehogs, 9. 160. 

In Trevisa, i. 339, Uspiles = 

* hericii ' (Higden) ; Lat. ericii, 

hedgehogs. The word properly 

means the * quills of the hedge- 
hog,' being from A. S. t/, also igel 

(cp. Icel. igull) +pil, a dart ; Lat. 

I-leste, V. to perform, 17 a. 238; 

to last, continue, 17 a. 313; 16. 

341 ; Ilest,/»r.s. 16. 851 ; Ileste]), 

16. 347. See Ge-leste. 
I-lete, sb. face, demeanour, 16. 403, 

1715. Cp. Du. gelaatj face, 

countenance. See Xiate. 
l-leten, pp. let flow, 9. 225. A. S. 

gel^ten^pp. oiUtan, to allow. See 

I-l^ered, adj. made of leather, 9. 

161. A. S. leder, leather. 
I-leued, pp. lived, 6 b. 44. A. S. 

gelifod, pp. oilifian. See Iiiuien. 
I-leuen, v. to beligve, 17 a. 251 ; 

176. 49; Ileue, I7«. 50, 1^4; 

IleuetS, I pr. pi. 17 a. 131 ; 176. 

1 76. A. S. gelefan. Cf. I-lef. 



I-leaen, sb, pi. beliefs, 6 a. 105, 

159. A. S.geledfa, belief. 
I-leyd, pp. laid, 17 a. 12. See 

I-liohy adj. like, 7. 148; 16. 316, 

318; 19. 1078; Iliche, II. 23; 

19. 184, 313, 340; Ilik, 19. 502 ; 

Ilikest, superl. 7. 120. A. S. 

I-liohe, adv. alike, 7. 133; 16. 

718. \.S. gelice. See je-lice. 
I-Uohe, sb. like, equal, 19. 18 ; 

Hike, pi. equals, 16. 157. A. S. 

I-like, sb. likeness, 19. 289. For 

A. S. gelicnes. 
like, adj. same, 3 a. 31, 34; 13. 

65 ; 19. 476 ; liken, 6 a. 67 ; 

Hike, 5. 1092. See Uce. 
nkenes, adj. of every,- 12. 244. 

See .^Ic. 
lUo, adj. each, 5. 1561. See .^lo. 
Hie, adj. bad, 17 a. 73 ; 176. 204 ; 

pi. the bad, 15. 1916. Icel. 


Ille, adv. badly, 19. 675. Cf. 

nie* sb. ^ ille, the evil one, the 

devil, 16. 421. 
Iloken, tf. to observe, 3 a. 96 ; 

Ilokie, ^. s. ^bj. 3 a. 109. A.S. 

I-lome, adv. often, 7. 20 ; 16. 1765, 

1768; 176. 125. A.S. geldmey 

usual, frequent, cp.geldma, utensil, 

loom. Cf. Iiome. 
I-lomp, pt. s. happened, 6 a. 279. 

A. S. gelampy pt. of gelimpan. 

See Iiimpen. 
I-long, adv. along, 11. 96. A. S. 

I-loten,/»/>. befallen, 6 a. 504. A. S. 

gehloten, appointed by lot, pp. of 

gehledtan, from hlot. See IiOt. 
I-loBe, pp. lied, 16. 847. A. S. 

gelogen, pp. of ledgan. See 

naued, pp. lived, 6 a. 44. See 


I-lyche, adv. alike, 14. 81; 17 a. 
67. See I-liche. 

I-maoed,/>/i. made,i. 191 ; Imaked, 
13. 89. A.S. gemacod, pp. of 
macian. See Maoien. 

I-mantlet, adj. mantled, 9. 263. 
From O. F. manteU a cloak ; Late 
Lat. mantellum; Lat. mantelum 
(in Plautus). 

Ime = I + me, 17 6. 6. 

I-meind, pp. mingled, 16. 18, 428. 
See Imengd. 

I-melen, v. to utter, speak, 11. 48. 
A. S. genuklan. 

I>membred, pp. parti-coloured, 9. 
188. O. F. ntembre, membered 
(in Blason), see Cotgrave. * Mem- 
bered ' is a technical term in 
heraldry, used in blazoning a bird 
with different tinctures. Cp. Du- 
cange (s. v. membrare). 

I-mene, adj. common, general 
(heads), 9. 31. A.S. gemSie, 

I-mengd, pp. mixed, 176. 144, 
A. S. gemenged, pp. of mengan. 
See Mengen. 

I-ment, pp. intended, 19. 801. 
A. S. gemynt, pp. of gemynian, 
myntan, to determine, resolve. 
See Minten. 

I-meten, v. to find, 17 6. 241; 
Imete, 17 a. 233; 19.950; Imet- 
ten, pt. pi. 6a. 35. A.S. ge- 
mitaUf pt. pi. gemetton. Cf. 

I-middes,/r£;^. in the midst of, 10. 
6. Cp. M. E. on midden ; A. S. 
on tniddan, in the middle. The 
suffix -s, properly the sign of a gen. 
case, is commonly used to form 
adverbs. See Skeat (s.v. amidst). 
Cf. Amidden. 

I-mint, pp. purposed, 4 c. 30. See 

I-mong, prep, among, 6 a. 282. 
A. S. getnang. 

I-munt, pp. intended, 9. 1 16. See 

I I I 


In, sb. abode, 8 6. i8. A. S. inn, 
dwelling, house. See Inne. 

In, prep, into, 36. 81; on, 6 b. 
404. A. S. in. Cf. I, Hin. 

Ine, prep, in, 3 6. 36 ; 9. 102 ; 16. 

Ine (I + ne), I not, 13. 116; 176. 

16, 225. 
In-hinen, sb. pi. domestics,8 6. 1 71. 

See Notes. 
Innan, prep, in, 3 a. 27. A. S. 

innan. Cf. Innen. 
Inn-come, pt. s. subj. should come 

in, I, 14. 
Inne, prep, into, i. 194; in, 3 a. 

Inne, adv. in, 2. 28 ; 176. 249. 
Inne, sb. dot. abode, 6 a, b. 505 ; 

Innen, 6 a. 223. See In. 
Inne-midde-warde, in the midst 

of, 3 a. 46. A. S. middeweardj 

Innen, prep, within, 2. 194. See 

Inn oh, enough, i. 177. See Inoh. 
Inno'S, sb. womb, i. 69. A. S. 

Innresst, adj. superl. inmost, 5. 

1017. A. S. inner a^ inner, in- 

nemesty inmost. 
Innwarrd, adj. sincere, 5. 1562. 

A. S. inneweard. 
InnwarrdliB* adv. sincerely, 5. 

1346. A. S. inweardlice. 
In-obedience, sb. disobedience, 9. 

6. Lat. inobedientia. 
Inoh, enough, 5. 1442 ; 8 6. 73 ; 

10.64; 17 ^•391- A. S. ^cndA; 

Goth, ganbhs ; cp. G. genug. Cf. 

Innoh, Tnouh, Onoh. 
I-nouh, enough, 17 a. 377; 9. 

I-nowe, abundant, 14. 199; Inow, 

enough, 18. 706. 
Ino3e, enough, 16. 16 ; 19. 182, 

865, 1017, 1244; Inojhj 176. 

Inre, adj. comp. inner, 9. 192. A. S. 


Insist, sb. insight, 16. 195. O. 

Northumb. insiht = argumentum, 

see Skeat (s. v. insight). 
Tntil, prep, into, 18. 438, 725. See 

Into, prep, unto, 3 6. 9 ; 18. 535. 
In-wi8, prep, within, 7. 8; 9. 

I-o£C^ed, pp. offered, 13. 72. See 

loie, sb. joy, 18. 662 ; 19. 1377, 

1385. O. F. joiey goie ; Lat. 

gaudiOj pi. of gaudium, joy. Cf. 

I-ordret, pp. ranked, 7. 100. From 

O. F. ordre, or dene ; Lat. ordi- 

nenif ace. of ordo, order. 
I-ome, pp. run, 19. 1158. A. S. 

ge-urnen, pp. of ge-iernan, to run. 

See £jomen. 
Joye, sb. joy, 19. 414. See loie. 
I-pined, pp. tormented, 176. 189 ; 

Ipyned, 17 a. 187. See Pinen. 
I-pluht, /)/>. plighted, 9. 19. See 

I-queme, v. to please, 176. 95; 

Iqueme^, pr. s. 19. 485 ; Iquemde, 

pt. pi. i*j b. 273; Iquemd, />p. 

176. 174. See I-cweme. 
I-rattes (for In rattes), in rags, 10. 

6. See Battes. • 
I-readi, adv. readily, 8 a. 38. A.S. 

gerdde, ready. 
Irelonde, sb. Ireland, 19. 762. 

A. S. irlandy iraland, land of the 

Iren, sb. iron, 9. 159. A.S. iren, 

isen : O. H. G. isarn. 
I-reste, sb. rest, 3 a. 88, 108. A.S. 

Irisse, adj. Irish, 19. 1016, 1390 ; 

Irish, 16. 322. A. S. irisc. Cf. 

Imene, adj. pi. of iron, 10. 102. 

A. S. irenena, gen. pi. of iren, adj. 
I-runge, pp. rung, 19. 1028. See 

Is, pr. s. is, I. 35. A. S. (West 

Saxon and O. Northumb.) fs: Goth. 



ist ;■ q). Lat. esi, Gr. Ict^, Skt. 

asti. See Skeat (s.v. are). Cf. 

Es, His. 
Is, pron. his, 15. 2356. See His. 
Is, pron. them, 12. 12 ; 15. 2130, 

2404. See Hes. 
I-seeh, pt. s. saw, 6 a. 231. See 

I*said, //). said, 176. 141. A. S. 

ges€Bgd, pp. of secgan. See Seg- 

I-sal (for I sal), I must, 176. 141. 

See Sal. 
I-sceawed, pp. showed, 36. 52. 

A. S. gesceawod, pp. of sceawian. 

See Soeawen. 
I-schaven, /ip. shaven, 9. 221. 

A. S. gescafen^pp. oisceafan. Cf. 

I-schawed, />/». showed, 7. 107. 

See I-sceawed. 
I-sohed, pp. shed, 11. 88. See 

I-schrud, pp, clothed, 1 1. 51. A. S. 

gescryd, pp. of gescrydan. See 

I-soilde, pr. s. subj. shield, 36. 131. 

A. S. gescyldan, to shield. See 

I-soote, pp. shot, 14. 421. A. S. 

gescoten, pp. of sceotan. See 

I-sorad, pp. clothed, 6 b. 199. See 

I-8eo£^, pr. s. confesses, i. 172. 

A. S. gisecgdy pr. s. of gesecgauy 

to declare. 
I-segd, pp. said, i. 31 ; Iseid, 36. 

14; 7. 190; 9. 28; Iseide, men- 
tioned, 7. 169; Ised, 16. 395. 

A. S. gesagd, pp. of secgan. See 

Iseh, pt. s. saw, 3 a. 54 ; 7. 65, 

103; 8a. 122 ; Isehen, />/>. seen, 

7. 64. See I-seon. 
I-seih, pt. s.saw, 176. 265 ; Iseien, 

pt. pi. 176. 99, 102 ; Iseie, pt. s. 

subj. 9. 257; 176. 118; Iseien, 

pp. 9. 185. See i-seon. 

Iseldt ^e, sb. happiness, 176. 15. 

A. a. gesdlp. See SelSe. 
I-send, pp. sent, 3 6. 42 ; Isende, 3 b. 

78; Isent, I. 80; 19.990.' 

sendedy pp. oUendan. See Senden. 
I-sene, v. to see, 16. 275, 624, 846 ; 

19. 92 ; pp. 16. 116; 176. 344; 

19. 684. See I-seon. 
I-seon, V. to see, 8 a. 148; 17 a. 

280, 373, 376; Iseonne, ger. 11. 

30; Iseo, I pr. s. 3 a. 66; 16. 

327 ; Iseojj, pr. s. 16. 424; Iseo'S, 

P^' 7' 73* ^•^' g6se6n,pt. geseah, pi, 

gesdgon (gesdwon), pp. gesegen 

{gesewen) Cf. I-sseli, I-seh, I- 

seih, I-sene, I-seyh, I-se^'S, 

I-senied, pp. served, 13. 107; 19. 

1338. See Seruin. 
Iset, pp. set, 3 a. 93 ; Isett," i. 10, 

22 ; Isette, 7. 100; 9. 314. See 

I-seyh, pt. s. saw, 17 a. 257; 

Iseyen, pt. pi. 17 a. 98 ; Iseye, pt. 

s. subj. I J a. 218. See I-seon. 
I-s^^'S, pr. s. sees, I. 174; Isej, pt. 

s. 16. 29. I-seje, pi. 19. 760. 

See I-seon. 
I-shote, pp. shot, poured, 16. 23. 

See I-8cote. 
I-sien, V. to see, 16. 385 ; 17 6. 18, 

160, 286 ; Isi, I. 63, 159 ; Isist, 2 

pr. s. 9. 182 ; IsihS,/>r. 5. 9. 151 ; 

Isi]>, 16. 407. See I-seon. 
I-siht$e, sb. dat. sight, 6 a. 206. 

A. S. gesthd. 
I-sleiene, pp. pi. slain, 9. 38. A. S. 

geslagen (geslagen), pp. of sledn. 

See Slean. 
Isliked, pp. made sleek, smooth, 

16. 841. See Stratmann (s.v. 

slikien) : ' he can so wel his wordes 

sliJie^ (Gower). 
I-slit, pp. slit, 6 a. 437. A. S. ge- 

sliten, pp. of slitan. 
I-some, adj. in harmony, 16. 1 735 ; 

peaceable, 16. 180. A. S. gesdm. 
I'Somiied, pp. assembled, 6 a, b. 72. 

A. S. gesomnod, pp. of gesomnian. 



I-BoVet, pp. verified, 7. 106. A. S. 

gesddod^ pp. of gesohian, to prove 

the truth of. 
I-so5te, />/./>/. sought, 19. 39. A.S. 

gesdhtorif pt, pi. of gesecan. See 

I-speken, pp. spoken, 36. 83 ; 7. 

195; 176. 9; Ispeke, 17 a. 9. 

A. S. gesprecen, pp. of sprecan. 

See Specen. 
I-spend, />p. spent, 17 a, 6. 12. 

From A. S. spendan. See Spene. 
I-sprunge, />/>. sprung, 19. 548. 

A. S. gesprungefif pp. of springan. 

See Springen. 
I-spused, pp. espoused, 19. 1050. 

From O. F. espouser. 
Israelisse, adj. Israeiitish, 4 b. 105. 
T-stihd, pp. stitched, 9. 260. A. S. 

gesticodt pp. of stician, to prick, 

I-stirret, />/». starred, 7. 92. Cp. 

* })e stirrede bur,' S. Marh., 22. 

SeeStratmann (s.v. steorre). From 

A. S. steorrOj a star. 
I-stonde, />/>. stood, 3 6. 8. A. S. 

gestanden, pp. of standan. See 

I-storue, pp. dead, 19. 1181. A. S. 

gestorfetif pp. of steorfan, to die. 

See Sterfen. 
I-strengped, />/>. strengthened, 13. 

118. See Strengthen. 
I-streoned, />/>. procreated, 9. 25 ; 

Istriened, descended, I. 11 1. A.S. 

gestreonedf pp. of gestrednan. See 

I-sturbed, pp. disturbed, 9. 313. 

From Lat. turba. 
I-sundred, pp. scattered, 9. 294. 

A. S. gesundrodt pp. ofgesundriarit 

to separate. See Sundren. 
I-suneged, pp. sinned, 36. 61. 

A. S. gesyngod, pp. of gesyngian. 

See Sinegen. 
I-swechte, pp. tormented, 8 b. 50. 

A.S. geswenct, pp. of geswencan, 

to afflict,trouble,causal oisiuincan^ 

to toil, labour. See Swenchen. 

I-swino sb. toil; Iswinch, 17a. 
• 196. A. S. geswinc, Cf. I-swynk. 
I-swink (for In swink), in toil, 10. 

69. See Swino. 
I-swol5e, pp. swallowed, 16. 146. 

A. S. gestuolgen, pp. of swelgan. 

See Swolgen. 
1-swo^e, pp. swooned, 19. 428, 866. 

A. S. geswdgertf pp. of swdgan, to 

sough, to sigh. Cf. Swooning, 

I-swynk, sb. toil, 17 a. 37. See 

It, pron. used pleonastically, 15. 

1920, 2109; 18. 591, 664. See 

I-take, pp. taken, 19. 1452* See 

I-tauwed, pp. dressed, 9. 154. 

A. S. getawodf pp. of getawian, 

parare, reducere ad; cp. Goth. 

taujaftj to do, make. 
I-tide, V. to betide, 16. 1733. A. S. 

getidan. Cf. Itit, Ityt. 
I-timien, v. to happen, 3 b. 109, 

112. A.S. getimian. 
I -tit, pr. s. happens, 176. 125. 

See I-tide. 
I-tohen, pp. drawn, 8 6. 43 ; Itohe, 

trained ; ful itohe, badly trained, 

undisciplined. See I-to^en. 
I-told, pp. told, 13. 75. A.S. 

geteald, pp. of tellan. See Tellen. 
I-t03en, pp. brought up, 16. 1725. 

A. S. geiogen, pp. of tedn. See 

I-tumd, pp. turned, 3 b. 100 ; 

Iturnde, 9. 270. See Tumen. 
I-tyt, pr. s. happens, 17 a. 125. See 

I-panke, sb. dot. intention, 1 7 &. 69. 
I))e = In the, 5. 1709. 
I-]>ench.e, pr. s, subj. think, 16. 

723. A. S. gepencan. 
I-per (for In per), in the, I. 143. 

See In and paere. 
I-]>oliten (for Hi J)ohten), they 

thought, 6 6. 423. See Hi and 




I-polien, V. to endure, 3 a. 45 ; 

l]K>lie, 36. II. A. S. gepolian. 

See polien. 
I-]>oncked, cm//' minded, 9. 36. 

From A. S. gepanc, a thought. 
I-prunge, pp. pressed near, 16. 38. 

A. S. geprungen, pp. of pringan. 

See pringen. 
I-ueadde, pp. fed, 6 a. 200. A.S.^«- 

fided^ pp. oifidan. See Feden. 
I-uffild (for IusbIS), pr. pi. lay low, 

strike down, 6 a. 218. A. S. ge- 

I-iiald, pp. hated, 6 a. 349. From 

A. S. gefedgan, to hate. For 

forms of the pp. of M. E. ifeo^eitf 

odisse : iuceidy iueied, ifcBied, see 

Jubiter, sh. Jupiter, 6 6. 121. Cp. 

Wright's Vocab. 801, * jubiter, a 

day sterre.' 
ludas, sb. Judah, 15. 1054. ^^t- 

ludas (Vulg.) ; Gr. 'lovSos ; Heb. 

Judeus, sb, pi. Jews, 2. 85. Lai. 

yudcBus, a Jew. Cf. Geus. 
Judewisshe, of^'. Jewish, 5. 11 20, 

II 68. See below. 
Judisskenn, adj. Jewish, 5. 964, 

1 107. A.S.yudeisc. 
I-ved, pp. fed, 6 b. 200. See 

I-ueied, pp. united, 9. 296. A. S. 

gefiged, pp. of gefegan. 
I-veiped, pp. treated with enmity, 

6 6. 349. From A.S./cBkd, enmity. 
luel, adj. evil, 4 rf. 15. A. S. yfel : 

O. S. iibil. See Ufel. 
luel, sb. evil, 176. 19. A. S. yfel. 

See Ufel. 
I-uel, />/. s. befell, 13. 93. A. S. 

ge/edll, pt. of gefeallan. 
I-uele'S, pr. pi. feel, 9. 232. A. S. * 

I-uere, adv. together, 16. 1716. 

See I-feren. 
I-uere, 56. pi. companions, 6 6, 466, 

552; lueren, 6 a. 465, 552. See 


I-uestned, pp. fastened, 9. 136. 

See Festnen. 
luglurs, sb. pi. jesters, 9. 54 ; 

Norm. F. jugl'eor; Lat. jocula- 

luhan, sb. John, 8 6. 155. Lat. 

Ivi, s6. ivy, 16. 27, 617. A. S. 

I-uinde'S, pr. pi. find, 9. 355. A. S. 

lunge, adj. young, 2. 169. See 

lunglenges, disciples, 1. 124. 

A. S. geongling, a youngling. 
I-unne, pp. granted, 8 6. 16. A. S. 

geunnen^ pp. of geunnan, to grant. 

See Unnen. 
I-vo, V. to catch, 16. 612. A. S. 

gefdn. Cf. IfotJ. 
I-vo, sb. foe, 16. 1 716. A. S. gefd. 
lurdon, sb. the river Jordan, 15. 

I-ureden, v. to feel, experience, 11. 

38. A. S. gefredan j frod^ wise, 
lustise, 56. justice, 2. 12, 184. 

Norm. Y. justice ; Lsit.justitia. 
I-uulled, /ip. filled, 6 a. 515. See 

I-vynde. v. to find, 17 a. 59. A. S. 

gejindan. See I-uinde^. 
I- war, adj. aware, 16. 147 ; wary, 

17 a. 328; 176. 334. A.S. 

I-weddet, pp. wedded, 8 a. 76. O. 

Northumb. geiveddod^ pp. of ge- 

weddian, to betroth, Luke i. 27. 

Cf. Ywedde. 
I-went, pp. turned, 13. 105 ; gone, 

19.440; Iwente, 19. 923. A.S. 

gewendedf pp. of gewendan^ to 

turn, go. 
I-whillc/ron. every,5. 1002. A.S. 

I-wil, s6. will, 6 a. 391 ; 176. 14. 

346,352. A. S. s^ewill. 
I-wimplet, pp. veiled, covered 

with a wimple, 9. 181. From A.S. 

winpel. See Skeat (s.v. wimple). 



I-wipet, pp. wiped, 7. 119. From 

A. S. wipian. 
I-wis, adv. indeed, 4 6. 78 ; 16. 35 ; 

19. 196 ; Iwiss, 1. 43 ; A. S. geuns^ 

certain ; see Skeat (s. v. ytvis). 

Cf. Y-wis. 
I-wisse, sb. certainty ; mid iwisse, 

with certainty, 17 a. 232. Cp. 

O. H. G. gi-wissi (Otfrid). C'". 

I-wist, pp. guarded, 7. 27. A. S. 

gewist,pp. of gewitan, to observe. 

See "Wite (2). 
I-wiste, pt, s. knew, 176. 17. 
I-witen, V. to know, 6 a. 5 1 ; to pro- 
tect, 6 a. 467. A. S. gewitan, pt. 

gewiste,pp. gewist. Cf. I-wyten. 
I-woned, pp. wont, accustomed, 6 b. 

241. Seel-wuned. 
I-worJ)e, V. tohappen, 66. 180 ; pp. 

become, 16. 660. See I-wuitJen. 
I-wraht, pp. wrought, 3 a. 90 ; 8 a. 

34. A. S. geworht,pp. of gewyr- 

can. See Wirchen. 
I- writen, />/>. written, 7. 176 ; Iwry- 

ten. 17 a. 118, 220 ; Iwrite, 176. 

118; Iwritene, /)/>. 9. 31. A. S. 

getvriten, pp. of gemritan. See 

I-wrouhte, pp. wrought, made, 9. 

1 53. See I-wraht. 
I-wundet, pp. wounded, 8 a. 15. 

A. S. gewundody pp. of getuundian. 
I-wune, sb. custom, wont, 6. 233. 

A. S. gevmna. 
I-wuned./>p.wont, accustomed, 17 a. 

58; dwelt, 17 a. 139. A. S. ^e- 

vmnod, pp. of getvunian, to dwell, 

abide, to be accustomed. Cf. 

I-wurden, v. to be, 7. 152. See 

I-wursed, pp. made worse, 9. 325. 

A. S. gewiersody pp. of wiersian. 

See "Wursien. 
I-wuiUen, V. to be, become, 8 a. 

92; 9. 105; IwurtJe, 6 a. 180; 

14. 435. A, S. gewurdan. Cf. 

I-wurden, I-wor))e. 

I-iRryten, v. to know, 17 a. 374. 

See I-witen. 
I-^arked, pp. prepared, 6 ab. 475. 

A.S. gegearcod, pp. of gegearcian. 

See G-iarkien. 
I-jeten, /»/». eaten, 6 a. 503. A. S. 

geeten^ pp. of «/an. See ilten. 
I-5ette, />/. s. granted, 6 a. 411.* 

From Icel. jdta^ to say yes. See 

I-jimd, pp. yearned, 8 a. 28. A. S. 

gegyrned, pp. of gyrnan. See 

I-5iue, pp. given, 16. 551. A.S. 

gegifen. See Gifen. 
I-Bolde, pp. requited, 19. 460, 643. 

See Geld. 


Kables, sb. pi. cables, 18. 710, 

O. F. cable; Late Lat. caelum. 

a halter. 
Kaerf, pt. s. cut, 6 a. 433. See 

Kalde. adj. cold, 10. 114. A.S. 

ceald. Cf. Chald, Chold, Kold. 
Kam, pt. s. came, 18. 451. See 

Kan, pr. s. can, 16. 730. See 

Kandel, sb. 18. 585. Lat. can- 

Kanunes, sb. pi. canons, 16. 729. 

O. F. canunie^ canons, in Roland, 

3637 ; Church Lat. canonicust a 

canon (of a church), lit. one on 

the church roll or list (Lat. canon), 

Cf. Chanounes 
Karf, pt, s. cut, 18. 471* A.S. 

ceatff pt. of ceorfan. See Keor- 

Karien, v, to care, be anxious about, 

II. 43; Kare, 17a. 326; 19. 

1260. A. S. cearian {carian), 

from caru, care. 
Kat, sb. cat, 9. 128. 
Kaysere, sb.^ emperor, 18. 353. 



A. S. cdsere ; Goth, kaisar, Caesar; 

Lat. Caesar. Cf. Keiser. 
Kedde, pt. s. shewed, 176. 193. 

A. S. cydde, pt, of cydan. See 

£eis, sh. pi. stewards, key-keepers, 

lit. keys, 7. 38. A. S. cceg^ a 

Keiser, &h. emperor, S a. 9 ; 8 6. 

II ; 10. 61 ; Keiseres, pi. 7. lii. 

See Kaysere. 
Kemben, v. to comb, 9. 222. A. S. 

Kempes, sh. pi. warriors, 6 6. 10. 

A. S. cempa, fighter", warrior, 

Eene, adj. bold, 9. 82 ; 16. 1705; 

19. 164. A. S. cene ; cp. O. H. G. 

kuani (Otfrid), G. kuhfi. 
Kenne, sb. dot. kin, kind, 176. 

340 ; 19. 144, 176, 997 ; Kennes, 

gen. s. 176. 363. See Cun. 
Keoruen, v. to cut; Keoruinde, 

pr. part. 9. 77. A. S. ceorfan. 

See Kerue, Karf, Kserf, I- 

Kepen, v. to keep ; Kepe, 19. 115 ; 

Kepest, 2pr.s. 19. 1329; Kepe])]), 

/>r. s. 5. 1277 ; Kep, imp. s. 19. 

750, 1299. A. S. cepan (cypan)^ 

to sell, to keep, from ceap^ price. 

See Cheap. 
Keppen, caps, 9. 169. A. S. 

cappe, a cape, cover. 
Kerue, v. to cut, 19. 233. See 

Kesse, v. to kiss, 19. 583; imp. s. 

19. 742. A. S. cyssatiy from coss, 

a kiss : O.S. kussian^ from kus. 

See Cussen. 
Keuel, sb. gag, 18. 547, 637. Icel. 

kejlit a piece of wood, whence 

kejla, to gag. 
Kidde, pt. s. shewed, 46. 61 ; pp. 

renowned, 10. 61 ; Kid, shown, 

^5- 2357. A. S. cydde, pt. s.; 

cydedypp. of cydan. See CulSen. 
Kides, sb. gen. s. kid's, 15. 1967. 

Cp. Dan. kid. 

VOL. I. G 

Kime, sb. coming, 6 a.. 5 26. A. S. 

cyme. See Cume. 
Kin, sb. race, family, 18. 393 ; fele 

kinnes, of many a kind, 46. 27 ; 

manie kinnes, of many a kind, 4 b. 

26: Kinne, gen. pi. 46. 25; 5. 

105 1, 1 145, II 59. See Cun. 
Kinde,56. natural characteristic, 12. 

15 ; family, 15. 2392, 2436. See 

Kinde, a^'. native, 15. 2075 ; kin- 
dred, proper to kinship, kind, 15. 

2254, 2276, 2286. A.S.cynde, 

Kindelike, adv. kindly, like a 

kinsman, 15. 2500. See Cunde- 

Kine, adj. royal (in compounds). 

See Kyne. 
Kine-bome, adj. of royal birth, 6 a. 

336. A. S. cyneboren. 
Kine-dom, sb. royal power ; Kine- 

dome, dat. 3 a. 75* A. S. cyne- 

Kine-lond, sb. kingdom, 6a. iii, 

E^ine-scrud, s6. royal robes, 11. 

34. See Scrud. 
Kine-stol, sb. royal throne, 11. 

25. A. S. cyne'Sidl. 
Kine-wui^e, adj. royal, 8 a. 60. 
King, sb. king, 6 «, 6. 235 ; Kinges, 

gen. s. 6 a, b. 584 ; Kinge, dat. 

6 «. 265 ; Kingen, dat. pi. i. 36. 

A. S. cyning, lit. belonging to the 

kin or tribe: O.S.kuning. Cf. 

King-riche, sb. kingdom, 13. 16; 

Kingeriche, dat. 19. 17* For 

A. S. cynerice. 
Kirke, s6. dat. church, 1 2. 93 ; 

Kirrke, 5. 1099. See Cyrce. 
Kiste, />/. s. kissed, 15. 2355. Sec 

Ki'Sen, v. to show, 12. 5;^; Ki])eJ?J), 

pr.s. 5. 1131. See Cut$3n. 
EInaue, s6. boy, 18. 409; 19. 950, 
. A. S. cnapa, cna/a. 
Kne, sb. knee, 19. 786 ; Kneon, />/, 




II. 3; Knes, 18. 451 ; 19. 805. 

See Cneow. 
Knelede, />/. s. kneeled, 18. 482. 

M.E. knelen (in Ormulum, 6138). 

Cp. Dan. knaUy to kneel. 
Knewelyng, sb. kneeling, 19. 787. 

See Cnelinng. 
Knewen, pt, pi. knew, 15. 1935, 

2162. A. S. cne6won, pt, pi. of 

cndwan. See Cnawen. 
Knict, sb. knight, 18. 343, 345 ; 

Knictes, pi. 18. 366, 371. See 

Knif, sb. knife, 9. 76 ; 18. 479, 

498 ; Kniue, dat. 19. 108. A. S. 

cni/ (Wright's Vocab."). 
Knif-worpare, sb. knife-thrower, 

9. 75. See "Worpen, 
Kni^t, sb. knight, 19.482 ; Knictes, 

gen. s. 19. 1548; Kni5tes, />/. 19. 

49, 1547. See Cniht. 
KniBten, v. to knight, 19. 490; 

Kni5te, 19. 435, 491 ; Kni3ti, 19. 

Kni^t-hod, sb. knighthood, 19. 

440, 545. A. S. cnihthddf youth, 

Knyht, s6. knight, 14. 78; Knyhtes, 

pi. 14. 6; 19. 520. See Cniht. 
Kold, adj. cold, 18. 416. SeeKalde. 
Kon, pr. s. can, 16. 708. A. S. 

cann. See Cunnen. 
Konyng, sb. cony, rabbit, 17 a. 357, 

O.F. coTmiitf connil ; Lai. cum- 

culus. See Cunin. 
Kope, sb. cope, 18. 429. h.S.cdp 

(Wright's Vocab.). 
Kouthen, pt. pi. could, 18. 369. 

See Cut$e. 
Krike, sb. creek, 18. 708. Icel. Jtrihit 

a nook ; Swed. dial, hrik^ creek, 

cove ; see Skeat (s. v. creek). 
Krune, sb. crown, 11. 52, 55. 

Icel. hruna ; Lat. corona. See 

Ku, sb, cow, 9. 135 ; Kues, gen. s. 

9. 131. A. S. cu. 
Kuchene, sb. dot. kitchen, 9. iii. 

A. S. cycen {cicen) ; Lat. coquina. 

Kude, pt, pi, could, 15. 2366. See 

Kume, sb. coming, 16. 436, 526. 

See Cume. 
Kumen, v. to come, 9. 208 ; 15. 

1952 ; pr. pi. subj. 1 1. 66 ; Kume, 

pr. s. subj. 9. 242. See Ciimen. 
Kunne, sb. dat. kin, kind, 6 a. 337 ; 

16.1674; 17 a. 202; 19. 875; 

Kunnes, gen. s. 11. 92; 17 a. 

355; Kunne,^««.//. II. 9. See 

Kunnen, v. to know; Kunne, />r. 

/>/. j6. 911 ; Kunnen, subj, 

9. 300 ; pr. pi. can, 9, 54; 17 a. 

299. See Cunnen. 
Kunrede, sb. dat. kindred, 16. 

1677. See Cunreadnes. 
Kiines-men, sb, pi. kinsmen, 17 a. 

257. See Cunes-mon. 
Kuppe, sb, cup, 15. 2047. See 

Kurt, sb. court, 9. 40. See Curt. 
Kurtel, sb. kirtle, 9. 107. A. S. 

cyrtelj palla (Wright's Vocab.). 
Kussen, v. to kiss, 9. 281. See 

KulS, sb. acquaintance, 9. 266. A. S. 

rtiSa, Ps. liv. 14. 
KutSe, pt. s. knew, could, 13. 17; 

16. 663, 714. See CuJSe. 
Kuuertur, sb. covering, 9. T07. 

See Couerture. 
Kwene, sb. queen, 11. 57. See 

Kyn, sb. kin, race, 18. 414; 19. 

633. See Cun. 
Kyne, adj. royal, 18. 604. A. S. 

cyne. Of. Kine. 
Kyng, sb. king; Kynge, dat. 19. 

212. See King. 


IjB,, inter j. lo! 1.68. A.S. /a. 

Lac, sb. gift, offering, 5, 964, iod2 ; 
17 6. 203; pi, 5. 1 144; Lakes, 
5.979; Lake, dat, s, 5. 1383; 



A. S. lac, play, fight, booty, gift, 

sacrifice : Goth, /af^s, sport, dance, 

from laikaUy to leap for joy. See 

Skeat (s. V. larh, 2). Cf. Loc, 

Iiacchen, v. to seize. A. S. (^0- 

Iceccan, pt. {ge)lcBhte, pp. {ge)lctht. 

Cf. Laucte, Iia^te, Iiagt. 
Iiace, V. to fasten, 19. 7^9 > ^^' 

cede, pt. s, 19. 850. O. F. 

lacier, from las. See !Laz. 
Xjache, sh. physician, 176. 306. 

A.S. Ickce: O.H. G. Idhhi (Ta- 

tian); cp. O. Ir. liaig (Windisch). 

Cf. Ijeclie. 
liaden, v. to lead, 176. 399 ; Lade, 

176. 123, 276; Lade's, pr. pi. 

176. 213, 250 ; Ladde, pt. s. 19. 

20, 1445, 1538 ; pt. pi' 6 6. 518 ; 

Ladden, 176. 93; Laedden, 6 a. 

518. A.S. l^dan, to lead, carry, 

lift, pt. ladde, pp. l(kded. Cf. 

lieden, iLeaden, Iised, Iiat, 

I-lad, I-led. 
Xjadlio, at//, hateful, 6 a. 587. AS. 

Iddlic. Cf. Ijoplich, Iiodlich. 
Iised, pt. s. led, 2. 1 1 7. See iLaden. 
Ij8Dfdi, sh. lady, 6a. 147. A.S. 

hl<kfdige. Cf. Leafdi, Lefdi, 

Iieuedis, Iiauedi, Iiseuedi. 
Ij8Dfe, sb. dot. belief, 5. 1407. See 

Iiaside, />/. s. laid, 2. 162 ; Laeiden, 

pi. 2. 41. A. S. legde, pt. oilec- 

gan, to lay. See Iieggen. 
Ij8Dn, sb. grant, 5. 1518. A.S. Icen, 

a loan ; cp. O. H. G. lehan. Cf. 

Iiasredd, adj. the learned, the clergy, 

5. 967. A. S. {ge)ldred, pp. of 

geldran, to teach. Cf. ILered- 

Xiset, pt. s. let, 2. 152 ; caused, 2. 

68. A. S. l^t, ledt, pt. of Idtan, 

leian. See ILeten (A). 
Iisete, V. to leave, 176. 345. A. S. 

Icktan, to let go, to permit. See 

iLeten (A). 
Iiseue, sb. farewell ; Nom laeue, 


took leave, 6a. 183, 413. See 

Iiseuedi, sb. lady, 6 a. 1 29. See 

Iisewedd, adj. the unlearned, the 

laity, 5. 967. A.S. {ge)l<kwed, 

enfeebled,/"/), of /owaw, to weaken, 

also, to betray ; cp. Iciwede man, 

laicus (Wright's Vocab.). See 

Skeat (s. v. lewd). 
Jjaf,sb. loaf, 5. 1470. A.S. hldf: 

Goth, hlaifs, hlaibs ; cp. O. H. G. 

leib (Otfrid, Tatian). Cf. Lof. 
Iiafe, sb. dat. belief, 5. 1537. A. S. 

{ge)ledfa. Cf. Lsefe. 
Iiaferrd, sb. Lord, 5. 968. See 

Iiaford, sb. Lord, i. 13. See 

Ijage, sb. law, i. 82; 12. 293; 

custom, 12. 23; Lagan,/)/, i. 81 ; 

Lages, 15. 2446. A.S. lagu ; O. S. 

lag (pi. lagu), a statute, decree ; 

Icel. log { = lagu, pi.), a law. Cf. 

Iia^e, Lawe, Iiahe, Iiaghe. 
Iiagelice, adv. lawfully, i. 165. 

A. S. lah-lice. Cf. Lawelyche. 
Laghe, sb. law, 13. 17. See Lage. 
Lagt, pp. seized, 15. 2081. A.S. 

(ge)l<Bht. See Iiacchen. 
Iiah, adj. low, 7. 108 ; Icel. Idgr. 

Cf. Iioge, IjOuIi, Iiowe. 
Iiahe, adv. low, 8 a. 25. Cf. 

Iiouwe, XjQ^e. 
Iiahe, sb. law, habit, 7* 122 ; Lahen, 

pi. laws, religion, 8 a. 39. See 

Iiahfulnesse, sb. dat. lawfulness, 

16. 1 741. 
Iiahhen, v. to laugh ; pr. pi. 10. 109. 

A.S. klehhan, pt. hldh. Cf. 

Iiauhwen, Iigubc. 
Iiahter, sb. laughter, 10. iii. A. S. 

kleahtor. Cf. Leihtre. 
Iia hwure, adv. at least, 3 a. 69. 

A. S. Id, lo + huru, at least. 
Lai, //. s. lay, 4 c. 12 ; 19. 272 f 

Laie, S74bj. 19. 1272. A. S. loeg, 

pt. of licgan, to lie. See Liggen. 




Lake. See Lao. 

Lakenn, v. to offer, 5. 973, 1331 ; 

Lakesst, 2 pr. s. 5. 1 172. From 

lac, a gift, offering. See Lao. 
Land, sb. laud, 2. 60; dat. 2. 49; 

Lande, 2. 48. A. S. land. Cf. 

Lend, Lont. 
Lang, adj. long, i.'i3; 6 6. 434; 

19. 494 ; Lange, adv. i. 95; 2. 

105; Lannge, 5. 1264. A. S. 

long, comp. lengra, superl. lengest. 

Cf. Long, Leng. 
Lang-fridsei, sb. dat. Long Friday, 

i.e. Good Friday, 2. 87; Lange- 

fridai, 46. 1 1 7. Icel. langi-frjd' 

dagr; langa-fasta, the long fast, 

Lappe, sb. lappet, 19. 1217. A. S. 

IcBppa^ a loosely hanging portion. 
Lare, ^6. lore, teaching, i. 10; 5. 

1 207 ; 6 a. 297. A. S. Idr. Cf. 

Large, adj. liberal, 9. 341 ; 13. 

1 35. O. F. large ; Lat. largvs. 
Lar-paw, sb. teacher ; Lar))awes, 

pi. I. 94. For M. E. foims see 

Stratmann. A. S. idr -i-peow ; cp. 

Idr ediv {Sweet). See Lare, peow, 

and Lor-peaw. 
Lasse, adj. comp. less, 17 a. 212, 

353 ; odv. 17 a. 61. A. S. lassa, 

adj. ; /<es, adv. Cf. Lease. 
Last, adj. superl. least, 176. 61, 

112, 357. A.S. Icest [liBsesi). 

Cf. Lest. 
Laste (i), sb. dat. ; at the laste, at 

last, 18. 637. Icel. a lesti «» a leisti, 

on the track ; cp. A. S. on laid : 

Goth, laists^ a track, footstep. 

See Skeat, p. 814. 
Laste (2), sb. dat. fault, 1 1. 69. Icel. 

lostr^ gen. lastar ; cp. O. S. lastar. 
•Lasten, v. to last ; Laste, 18. 538 ; 

Last, pr. s. 176. 169; Laste, />/. 

5. extended, 19. 6 ; Lastede, 2. 

39. A.S Idstan^ to last (Grein). 

Cf. Lesten, Lest, Leastinde. 
Lastung, sb. blame, detraction ; 

Lasiunge, dat, 9. 66. Cp. 

O. H. G. lastrdn, to blame (Ta- 
tian). See Laste (2). 
Lat, pr. s. leads, i. 144; 17 a. 

336; 176.342. A.S. l<Bt, See 

Late, adj. late, 18. 691 ; Later, 

comp. I. 20; adv. I'J a. 133; 

Latst, adj. superl. latest, last, i. 

9, 80. A.S. l<Btt slow, comp. 

IcBtra^ superl. latost. 
Late, 56. behaviour, 5. 1 213; Lates, 

pi. gestures, manners, 9. 270. 

Icel. Idtt behaviour, manners, cp. 

IcBti^ manner. See Lete, Lote, 

Laten (B). 
Laten (A), v. to let ; Late, in late, 

to let in, 19. 1058, 1511 ; Lat, 

pr. s. let, 10. 308 ; Late, 2 pr. s. 

subj. let, 18. 486; Lat. imp. s. 

16. 258, 260; Lztep, imp. pi. 16. 

1729, 1735. (2) Laten, to leave, 

forsake; Late?J,^.s. forsakes, 176. 

128; Late, I pr. pi. subj. let us 

leave, 17 6. 341. See Leten 

Laten (B), v. to behave; Late))]>, 

pr. s. 5. 1229. Icel. lata, to let, 

permit, leave, also, to behave one- 
self. Cf. Leten (B), Ilatet, 

Late (sb.). 
Laten (C), v. to delay, 17 6. 37. 

A. S. latian, cunctari (Grein) ; 

Goth, latjan. Cf. Leten (C). , 
Latimer, 56. interpreter, 6 a, b. 

535. O. F. latinier, interpreter, 

properly one knowing Latin ; s«e 

Notes. Cf. Ledenes. 
Latst. See Late, adj. 
Lattow, s6. guide, leader, 8 h. 179. 

A. S. lateotUy dux (Wright's 

Vocab.), better spelt Idtteow, lat- 

pedw (Grein) = Idd-pethoy cp. lad 

ieowaSf guides, in Chron. ann. 

1097 ; from /oJ, a way +pe6w, a 

JjBiSf sb. hatred, 8 a. 150. A.S. 

Id9f injury, enmity. 
Lat$, adj. loath, reluctant, 8 a. 47 ; 

LatSe, hateful, 6 a. 158 ; to laj^p. 



for evil, 170. 62. A. S. Id9, 
hateful, loathsome. Cf. Iiot$. 

IjfltSes, sb. pi. baras, 15. 2134. 
Icel. hlada, a store house, barn. 

Ijat$ftile, adj. hateful, loathsome, 
10. 30. 

IjaJSiensfe, sh. aec. invitation to a 
feast, 1.6. A. S. ladung^ invita- 
tion congregation. 

IialSieres, ib. pi. inviters, i. 103. 
From A. S. {ge)la9iant to sum- 
mon, invite. 

Ija^in, V. to loathe, hate, 8 a. 90. 
A. S. iddian, 

Iiauote, pi. s. took, 18. 744. A. S. 
{ge)l<skie. See Ijaoohen. 

Iiauedi, sb, lady, 13. 5. See 

Iiauerd, sb. Lord, 2. 116; 3 a, 
65, 75 ; Lord, 6 a. 59 ; LauerS, 
8 6. 188; Lauerdes, gen. s. 3 a. 

4> 73; 7- 173; Sa. III. See 

Ijanhwen, v. to laugh ; pr. pi. 
subj. 9, 257 ; Lauhwe'5, pr. s, 
9. 99, 1 1 7. See Iiahhen. 

Iiawe, sb. law, 17 a, 307 ; pi. 6 b. 
570 : Lawes, 6 6. 555. See Lage. 

Iiawelese, adj. lawless, 17 a. 289. 
See Iia^elease. 

Iiawelyohe, adj, lawful, 14. 77" 
See Iiagelice. 

Ijay, sb. song, 19. 1575. O. F. 
lai ; O. Ir. ided (Windisch). 

Iia^e, sb. law, religion, 3 6. 29 : 6a. 
137» 385; 19- "22; La^e, pi, 
30.67; 176. 172; La^en, laws, 
customs, 3 a. 52 ; 6 a. 570 ; plots, 
6 a. 326; Lajes, 176. 313; Lzy 
hess, 5. 1 163, 1 2 19. See Lage. 

IiaBelease, adj. lawless, 176. 295. 
Cf. Lawelese. 

La^te, pt. s, took, 19. 243. A. S. 
{ge)l<Ehte. See iLacchen. 

ILaz, s6. lace, 9. 199. Norm. F. 
laz ; O. F. las^ lags ; Lat. laqueus, 
a noose, snare. Cf. Lace. 

Iieaden, v. to lead, 7. 226; 8 a. 
29. See Iiaden. 

Iieafdi, sb. lady, 6 5. 1 29 ; 8 a. 55 ; 

9. 194. See Iisefdi. 
Iieafen, v. to leave, forsake ; Leafde, 

pt. s. 8 a. 5; Leaf, imp.s. 8 a. 

139. A.S. Id/an. Cf.Ijeaueii(2), 

Iieuen (3). 
Leahtriun, sb. pi. dat. vices, 1.91. 

A. S. leahtor, crime, from leahan 

(ledn), to blame (Leo) : O. &. 

lahan: cp. O. H.G. /aAan (Otfrid). 
Ijean, sb. reward, i. 157; 176. 

64. A. S. lean : O. S.ldn; O.H.G. 

idn (Tatian). 
Iiearen, v. to teach ; Leare, i pr, 

s. 6 a. 300; pr. s, subj. *j. 50; 

LeziefS, 7. 228. See Iieren. 
Xieas, adj. false, deceitful ; Lease, 

8 a. 143; 8 6. 180; 176. 259. 

A. S. ledsy false, (also) loose : O. S. 

I6sj loose ; cp. Goth, laus, vain. 

Cf. lies. 
Iieas, sb. falsehood, 8 6. 96. A. S. 

leds. See above. Cf. Les. 
Iieastinde, adj. (pr. p.) lasting, 8 6. 

180. See Iiasten. 
Iieasung, sb. leasing, falsehood ; 

Leasunge, dat. falseness, 11. 75; 

pi. falsehoods, 9. 258. A. S. leds- 

ungy from leds. See Xisas, 

Iieaue, sb. permission, 9. 309. 

A. S. ledf. Cf. Iiseue, Lefue, 

Xjeauen (i), v. to believe, 8 a. 100. 

A. S. {ge)lyfan : O. S. {gi)l6bian ; 

cp. O. H. G. '{gi)louben (Otfrid, 

Tatian), Goth. {ga)laubjan. Cf. 

Iieuen (2), Lefenn, Iieue. 
Iieauen, (2), v. to leave, 8 a. 39, 78. 

See Leafen. 
Xieche, s6. physician, 17 a. 300. 

See Iiache. 
Iiecherie, sb. lewdness, 13. 123. 

O. F. lechericy gluttony. See 

Xiechnunge, sb. daf. healing, 8 a. 

16. A. S. Idcnung (Leo), from 

Idcnian, to heal. 
Iiecliur, sb. a lewd person. 13. 134 I 



Lechurs, pi. 3 h. 126. O. F. 
lechiere, an epicure, from lecher, 
to lick ; O. H. G. lecchdn. 

Xjeden, v. to lead, 14. 76; 15. 
2193; I7«- 346; 18. 379; to 
behave, 15. 2301 ; Lcdenn, 5. 
161 2; Lede, 14. 16; 17 a. 123, 
270, 387 : 18. 49,686; to carry, 
19. 1427 ; Ledes, pr, s. 10. 92 ; 
Lede^S, pi. 6 a. 169; 17 a. 209, 
242; 16. 280; Leden, 4 a. 74, 
76 ; Ledde, pt. s. 3 a. 56 ; 15. 
2257, 2336; Ledden,/)/. 2. 133; 
4 a. 20; 10.79; 15.1990; Led- 
denn, 5. 1502. See Iiaden. 

Iiedenes, sb. pL languages, 7. 112. 
M. E. leden, language, speech, 
Trevisa, 2. 313; see also Strat- 
mann ; A. S. lyden, language, Ex. 
XV. 23, properly Latin, cp. Leden, 
John xix. 20. So Dante uses 
latino in the sense of language, 
see Tommaseo's Diet. s. v. See 
Chaucer 2 . p. 210. Cf. Ijatimer. 

Lef, adj. dear, 10. 28; 176. 73; 
18.440; 19.655; Lefe, I. III. 
See Iieof. 

Lef, imp. s. permit, grant, 8 a. 148 ; 
8 6. 185 ; 10. 93. See Iieuen (i). 

ILefde, pt. s. (there) remained, was 
left, 19. 1406; Lef, imp, s. re- 
main, 19. 780. See Iieuen (3). 

Iiefdi, sb. lady, 7. 218 ; 9. 364 ; 11. 

2, 17; i9-335»350- SeeLsBfdi. 
Iiefenn, v. to believe, 5. 1153, 

1349; ^^^* imp. s. 8 6. 80. See 

Ijeauen (i). 
Xjeffal, adj. believing, 15. 2524. 

See above. 
Iiefien, v. to live ; Lefie, i pr. s. 

I. 180; Lefede, />/. pi. i. 180. 

A. S. leofian. See Iiiuien. 
Iiefmon, sb. beloved one, 10. 19, 

91. See Iieofmon. 
Xjefue, sb. farewell ; Nam lefue, 6 6. 

^83,413. SeeLeaue. 
Iieggen, v. to lay, Legge, 19. 

1069; Leie, 19. 302; Legge'S, 

pr. pi. 8 6. 118; 17 a. 314; Le- 

ge^, 176. 320; Leide, pt. r. laid, 

6 a, 430; 19. 692; Leyde, 18. 

382 ; Leiden,^/. pU 4a. 21 ; 19. 

90; Leid, pp. 15. 2426. A.S. 

lecgan, pt. legde, lede, pp. gelegd, 

geled. Cf. Iieyn, Iieist, Iieyd, 

Iie^^esst, Liseide, I-leid, I-leyd. 
Iieie, sb. flame, 8 6. 84 ; 1 7 6. 2S2 ; 

Leies, />/. 3a. 19. A.S. leg, lig, 

(Beowulf) : Icel. logi ; cp. O. H.G. 

long (Tatian), and O. Ir. I6che, 

lightning. Cf. Iseye. 
Jjeigen, pt. pi. lay, 15. 1920. A.S. 

idgon, pt. pi. of licgan, to lie. 

See Iiiggen. 
Iieihtre, sb. dat. laughter, 9. 57 

See Lahter. 
Iieire* sb. dat, sick-bed, 4 c. 44. 

M. E. leir, cp. leirstowe, sepulchre; 

Lajamon, 22874. ^'^' ^^g^% ^ 

lair, couch, from licgan, to lie 

down. See Iiiggen. 
Iieirede, pp. laid on a sick-bed, 4 c. 

50 ; See above. 
Iieist, 2 pr. s. layest, 3 6. 64 ; Lei's, 

pr. s. lays, 36. 63; 9. 84, 275. 

See Iieggen. 
Leit, sb. lightning, 3 a. 34. A. S. 

liget (Grein), Icegt, in Chron. ann. 

Iieitinde, pr. p. flaming, 8 b. 84. 

From A. S. liget (see above) ; cp. 

Goth, lauhatjan, to shine as light. 

Lexnene, s6. gen. pi, of lights, 4 d. 

42. See Iieome. 
Iiemxnan, sb. beloved one, 19. 433, 

442. See Iieofmon. 
Iiende, v. to Jand, 18. 733. Icel. 

lenda, Cf. Iionde. 
Iiende, pr. s. subj. may cause (us) 

to arrive, may land us, 17 a. 122; 

17 6. 123. A. S. (jge)landian, to 

land (trans.), from landian, to 

land (Leo), cp. Icel. lenda, see 

above. See Notes. 
Lene, adj. lean, 15. 2106. A. S. 

hlane, used of Pharaoh's lean kine. 

Gen. xli. 3. 2'j, The original 



sense was probably leaning, stoop- 
ing, cp. the O. S. hlindriy to lean ; 
also A. S. klinian, to lean, hlanauy 
to make to lean. See Skeat (s. vv. 
lean (i), lean (2)). 

Iienen, v. to lend, grant ; Lene, pr. s. 
subj. give, 19. 461. A. S. liknaut 
to lend, grant, from Icen, Idn, a 
loan. C f. LienV, Ilenet, Ileaned. 

Iieng, adv, comp. longer, 2. 74 ; 19. 
732, 1115 ; Lengere, 7. 205 ; Len- 
gest, superl. 3 b. 49. A. S. leng, 
comp. ; lengesif superl. See ILang. 

Iiongre, adj. comp, longer, 7. 96 ; 
8 a. 39. A. S. lengra. See 

Iiengten, sb. spring, lent, 2. 102. 
A. S. lencten. Gen. xlviii. 7 ; cp. O. 
Du. lengizin (whence Du. lente), 
G. /tf«5, see Weigand. 

Lengpe, sb. dat. length, 19. 910. 
A. S. lengd, in Chron. ann. 11 22. 

Iieode; sb. pi, people, 14. 27 ; dat, 
5. 1 145, 1 155 ; 6 a. 79 ; Leoden, 
6 a. 569. A, S. ledda^pl. people ; 
O.S. liudUpl.; cp. O. H. G. Hut 
(Tatian, Otfrid), G. leute. 

Iieoem, sb, brightness, i. 53. See 

Leof, adj. dear, beloved, 6 a. 139 ; 
8a. 99; 10. 23; II. 20; 17a. 

253 ; 19- 324. 710 J Leofe, pi. 
3 a. 83. A. S. ledf: O. S. liof\ 
cp. O. H. G. liob (Tatian, Otfrid). 
Cf. Lief, Lif, Lef, Leue, 
Iiieue,Ijeoue, Iieofue,Ijeuere, 
Iieofliolie, adj. dear, precious, 8 a, 

96, 125; 8 6. 118, 154; adv. 
with pleasure, 6 a. 25. A. S. 
ledfliCf adj. (Beowulf); ledflicCj 
adv. (Grein). Cf. ILeuelike. 

Iieofliikest, adj. superl. dearest, 8 b, 

82. Sec above. 
Iieofmon, sb. dear man, beloved one, 

6 a. 81 ; 8 6. 48 ; Leofmones, gen. 

s. 8 b. 136 ; Leofemen, pi. 3 a. 

97. A. S. Ie6f+ man. Cf. Lef- 
mon, Leouemon, Lemman. 

lieofsum, adj. precious; Leof- 

sume, 8 b. 122. See Xjufsum. 
Iieoftede, pt, s. flattered, caressed, 

86.87. A.S./j^e«an (Leo). 
Leofue, adj. dear, 6 a. 107, 547 ; 

6 a, 6. 157. See Iieof. 
Iieome, sb. gleam, light, 4 <f . 66 ; 

7. 77; II. 2; Leomene, g'crt. ^/. 

4V. 65. A. S. ledma, Cf. Iieoem, 

Iieor, sb. face, *j, 75 ; 10. 42. A. S. 

A/edr, the cheek, also, the face: 

0. S. hlior, the cheek ; cp. Icel. 
hlyr. Cf. Lure. 

Leoren, v. to teach ; Leore, I pr. s. 

6 6. 300; Leorde, pt. s, 1. 126. 

See Leren. 
Leomin, v. to learn, 8 6. 31 ; 

Leornen,8 a. 21 ; Leorne)), 

9. 72. A, S. leornian, Cf. 

Leomin-chnihtes, sb. pi. disciples, 

1. 122. A. S. leoming'Cnihty Matt. 
V. I. See Leomin and Gnilit. 

Leosen, v. to lose, 16. 351 ; Leose, 

19. 663. A, S. leosan, as in for- 

ledsan^ Lu. xv. 4 ; cp. Goth, liusan. 

Cf. Liese. 
Leoten, v, to permit, let, cause, 8 a. 

62 ; Leote, 8 6. 78 ; pr, s. subj. 7. 

44. See Leten (A). 
LeotSre, adj. wicked, i. 196. See 

Leoue, adj. dear, 8 a. 64; 14. 38; 

17 a. 45, 389 ; Leouere, com/>. 8 a. 

93 ; 9. 196; 17 a. 30; Leouest, 

superl. 9. 284. See Leof. 
Leouemon, 56. a beloved one, 

lover, 8 a. 36. See Leofmon. 
Leoun, s6. lion, 18. 573. O. F. 

leon; Lat. leonem. Cf. Leun, 

Leowinde, pr. p. living, 8 a, 100. 

See Liuien. 
-lepi, affix in Anlepi; -lepes, affix 

in Sunderlepes. A. S. -Upe, 

•lepig, lypigt -lipigj -l^P^ (Grein). 
Lered-men, s6. learned men, the 

clergy, 2. 57. See Lsdred. 



Iieren, t/. to teach, 9. 218; Lere, 

14. 13; 18. 731; 19. 228, 241 ; 

Lcreii, pr. pi. 4 a. 72 ; Lere'S, 

4 a. 75 ; Ler, imp. s. 14. 432 ; 

Lerede, pi. s. 17 a. 304 ; Lerden, 

pi. 7. 220; (2) Leren, v. to learn, 

12. 115; LereC, pr. s. 12. loi. 

A.S. l<kran^ to teach; cp. Icel. 

l<jEra, to teach, also, to learn. Cf. 

Iiearen, Iieorin. 
Iieme'S, imp. pi. learn, 4 a. 17. 

See Iieornin. 
XjOs, adj. false; Lese, 17a. 251. See 

Ijeas, Iiessere. 
Les, sb. falsehood, 8 a. 77. See 

Xiesen, v. to set free, redeem, 4 6. 

74; 8 a. 86; 17 a. 180; 176. 

182 ; Lesenn, 5. 1158 ; Lesde,^/. 

5.4 c. 7 J Lese, imp. s. 10. 37; 

Lesed, pp. 10. 35. A. S. l^an, 

lysan (Grein) : O. S. Idsian ; cp. 

O. H. G. Idsen (Tatian, Otfrid). 

Cf. IlesecL 
Xjesing, sh. leasing, falsehood, 6 h. 

100; 16. 848. See Ijeasung. 
Xiesse, adj. less, 3 a. 26 ; adv. 4 h. 

19; 9. 71. See Iiasse. 
liossere, adj. comp. more false, 7, 

207. See lies. 
Xiest, adj. superl. least, 17 a. 349 ; 

Leste, 9. 242. See Last. 
Lest, pr. s. lasts, 17 a. 169. See 

Lest, 2 pr. s. permittest, 14. 437. 

See Leten (A). 
Leste, imp. s. listen, 19. 473. See 

Leste, pr. s. subj. (it) may please, 

19. 870. See Lusten. 
Leste, conj. lest, 36. 112. For A. S. 

pp IcBspe = for the reason less that, 

see Skeat (s. v. lest). 
Lesten, v. to last, 170.152; Les- 
te]?, pr. s. 16. 333; 17 a. 385; 

Leste?J. perform, 15. 2510; 

A. S. IcBsfan, to perform, last ; O.S. 

Ihtian. to follow out, peiform. See 


Lestinde, adj. lasting, 8 a. 144. 
See above. 

Let, pr, s. hinders, li. 56. See 

Lete, sb. behaviour, 16. 35. See 
Late (s6.). 

Leten (A), v. to let, cause, permit ; 
Let, pr. s. lets, 14. 453 ; 16. 919 ; 
pt. s. caused, 46. 102; 5. 1236; 
15- 2195; 19. 1407; Lette, 66. 
441 ; 8 a. 29, 120; Lete, imp, s. 
let, 17 a. 154; imp. pL 9. 147; 
Late)), 16. 1699. (2) Leten, to 
leave, forsake, neglect, 4 a. 80; 
14. 166 ; Lete, 13. 82 ; 17 a. 159, 
270* 339 ; LeteJ),^. s. 17 a. 128 ; 
Leten, pr./>/. 4 c. 31 ; Lete]>, neg- 
lect, 16. 1 771 ; Lete, pt. pi. left, 
19. 1262 ; Leten, 17 a. 153, 263; 
176. 270, 352; 19. 136; Lete, subj, 17 a. 301. (3) Leten, 
to let go, 2. 136 ; Lette, pt. s. 
gave up, 7. 32; 8fl. 87. Cfi 
Laten (A), Leoten, Lot, 

Leten (B), v. to pretend ; Let,^. s. 
15. 2168. (2) Leten, to esteem; 
Let, /)r.'s.. 1 7 a. 73 ; Letest, ipr.Si 
8 a. 82 ; Lete, 17 6. 264 ; 
pr. pi. subj. 4d. 16. Icel. Idta, 
to behave, pretend, value. See 
Laten (B). 

Leten (C), v. to delay (cunctari), 19. 
939. A.S. latian. See Laten (C). 

Lette, sb. delay, 1. 144. For exx. 
see Stratmann. See above. 

Letten, v. to hinder ; Lette, pt. s. 
19. 1 2 16. A.S. Uttan. Cf.Let. 

Lettunge, sb. dat. hindrance, 7. 
181. See above. 

Lettres, epistles, written mes- 
sages, 9. 219; 15. 2527. O. F. 
lettre^ letre ; Lat. litera, a written 
character (in the alphabet), litera, 
an epistle. 

Leue, adj. dear, 18. 431 ; 19. 951, 
1362. See Leof. 

Leue, sb. belief, 4 </. 54 ; dot,' 4 6. 
69. See Leauen(i). 



Leue, sb. farewell, leave, 15. 2200; 

19. 463. See Iieaue. 
Leuedis, sb, pi. ladies, 13. 3. See 

Iieuelike, adv. kindly, 15. 2275. 

See Iieofliohe. 
Jjeuen (i),v. to permit, allow, grant; 

Leue, pr. s. subj. 46. 71 ; 9. 305, 

347; 12.303.15.2532; 18.406; 

imp.s. 10. 26. A.S. lyfan (Grein). 

Cf. Lef. 
Ijeuen (2), v. to believe, 8 a. 40 ; 

8 6. 123; 19. 259; Leue, 19. 562; 

I pr. s. 8 a. 65, 88; LeueS, pr. 

pi. lyb. 131; 19. 44. See 

Ijeauen (i), Xieuunge. 
Iieuen (3), v. to be left, to remain, 7. 

205. See Stratmann (s. v. IcBven). 

A. S. Ickfan, to leave. Cf. Lefde. 
Iieuere, adj. comp. dearer, 170. 

260 : 176. 267. See Ijeof. 
Iieun, sb. lion, 12. i; Leuns, pi. 

8 a. 140. O. F. leon ; Lat leo- 

netn. See Iieoun. 
Leuunge, sb. believing, belief, 9. 7« 

See Iieuen (2). 
Iiewe,s&. shelter, 1 0.4. k.^.hleowj 

hied : O. S. hleo, protection, 

covering. See Skeat (s. v. lee). 
Iiewe, adj. warm, 18. 498. For 

M. E. exx. see Stratmann. Icel. 

hlcer, hlyr, warm ; see above. 
Iicwse, sb. pasture, 15. 1948, 2353. 

A. S, IcBsu, in Chron. ami. 777. 
Leyd, pp. laid, 1 8. 408. A. S. gelegd. 

See Ijeggen. 
Iicye, sb. flame, 17 a. 276. See 

Iieyen, pt. pi. lay, 18. 475. A. S. 

l<igon {logon). See Iiiggen. 
Ijeyke, v. to play, 18. 469. Icel. 

leika. See Xiao. 
Iieyn, v. to put, 18. 718; Ley)), 

pr. s. lays, 17 a. 255. See Leg- 
IjS3e, V. to lie, 19. 11 70. See 

Jje^'he'pp, pr. s. lies, tells falsehoods, 

5. 1 1 83. See Ligen. 

-le^^c (sufEx), in Ormclum. Icel. 
'leikr or letki, a Scandinavian 
suffix used for forming abstract 
nouns, much as -nes is used in 
A. S. ; cp. A. S. -Idc (E. -lock) as 
in wed-ldc (wedlock) ^ see Skeat 
(s. v. knowledge) . Cf. G-oddound- 
le^^c, Mennissole^^, Meoc- 
le^BC, Mildherrtle^^o, Modi- 
le^BO, Schendlao. 

IiejBesst, 2 pr. s. lay est, 5. 1302 ; 
Le55de, pt. s. laid, 5. 1334. See 

Ijibben, v. to live, 7. 1 28 ; 8 a. 
16 ; 14. 203 ; 17 a. 200 ; 17 6. 33 ; 
Libbe, 17 a. 34, 202; 19. 63; 
LibbeJ), pr. pi. I'j a. 204 ; Lib- 
binde, pr. p. 7. 122. A. S. libban : 

0. S. libbian. Cf. Iilnien. 
Iiicame, sb. a body, i. 147; dot. 

1. 148. See Ijic-hame. 
Ijiccness, sb, likeness, 5. 1047. 

A. S. {ge)licnis. 
Ijich, sb. a body, 8 a. 96 ; Liche, 

body, 15. 2488, 2515; form, 3 a. 

64 ; see Notes. 
Iiio-hame, sb. a body, i. 48; 46. 

50, 74 ; 4 <;. 45 ; Licham, 1 2. 

301 ; Lichames, gen. s. 46. 91 ; 

176. 306. A. S. lic-hama ; cp. 

O. S. llk-hamo, O.H.G. lih-hamo 

(Otfrid), Icel. likami. The word 

means properly ' body-covering.' 

Cf. Ijicame, Iiycome. 
Ijichamliche, adj. bodily, carnal, 

4 6. 25 ; 4 rf. 7 ; 176. 398 ; Lic- 

homliche, 17 a. 386. A. S. lie- 

Iiicht, sb. light, i. 61 ; 18. 534 ; 

Lict, 18. 576; Lichte, dat. 1, 59. 

See Iiiht. 
Ijicht, pr. s. lights, 13. 50; Lict, 

im/>. s. 18. 585. See Ijihten ( I ). 
Iiic-wuilSe, adj. pleasing, 7. 208. 

A. S. lic'wyrde (Grein). 
Jjidea, lids (ofthe eyes), 12. 26. 

A. S. hlidj a cover, Mt. xxvii. 60. 
Lief, a<^*. dear, i. 68; 176. 203, 

254, 256, 261. See Leof. 



Lien, v. to lie, 2. 35 ; pr. pi. belong, 

2. 74. See Iiiggen. 
Iiiese, t/. to lose, 13. 16; Liesed, 

/>r.s.loseth,i3. 127. Seelieosen. 
Iiieue, adj. friendly, 176. 44. See 

Lif, adj. dear, 15. 2427. See Leof. 
liif, sb. life, I. 53; 4 a. 74; 6a. 

140. A. S. /i/. Cf. Lifue, Lyf, 

Ijiue, Lyue. 
Lif-da^e, sb. dot. life-time, 6 b. 

276. A. S. lif-dcBgt dies vitae 

Iiif-lode, sb. mode of life, 46. 69. 

A. S. ///"+ /ftrf, a leading, a course. 
Lift, arf;. left (hand), 4 a. 77. A. S. 

lyft, worthless, weak; O. Du. 

luft. See Luft. 
Lifue, sb. life, 6 6. 43. See Lif. 
Ligen, v. to tell a lie ; Lige'S, pr. s. 

4rf. 23. A. S. ledgan, pt. ledg, 

pi. lugon, pp. logen. Cf. Lihen, 

Li^en, Lye, Le3hepp, Lu3eii, 

Lowen, Ilo^e. 
Liggen, v. to lie, 9. 159; Ligge, 

6 a. 347; 9. 165; 19.1295,1308; 

LiggeS, pr. pi. 3 b. 33, 35 ; 6 a, 

164; LigeS, 4c. 26; 176.283. 

A. S. licgan^ pt. IcBg^ pp. gelegen. 

Cf. Lien, Le^e, Leigen, Leyen, 

Lai, List, Lit$, Toli]), Ileie. 
Ligten, v. to alight, descend, 12. 

32; 15. 1983; Ligt,/»/>. 15. 2252. 

See Lihten. 
Lilien, v, to deceive, 8 a. 78. See 

Liht, sb. light, 4 c. 61 ; 7. 75; 11. 

5; 176. 282; Lihte, dat. 176. 

382. A. S. leoht. Cf. Licht, 

List, Lyht, Loht. 
Liht, adj. easy, light, 9. 309; 17 6. 

316; Lihte, 7. 178. A. S. //A/, 

leoht. Cf. Liate, Lyht. 
Lihten, v. to enlighten ; Lihtede, 

pt. s. 2. 103 ; Liht, pp. 4c. 58. 

A. S. lihtan. 
Lihten, v, to make lighter, less 

heavy, 9. 221. From A. S. leoht 

(liht), levis. See Liht (adj.). 

Lihten, v. to descend, alight, 8 a. 

25. Cp. A. S. dlihtatif to jump 

lightly down from a horse. Cf. 

Ligten, Listen. 
Lihtlich, adj. easy, light, 16. 

1759; Lihtliche, adv. lightly, 

easily, 3 6. 46 ; 7. 114; 8 a. 70 ; 

I7fl. 151; 176.347. A.S.leoht- 

lic, adj. ; leohtlice, adv. Cf. Li^t- 

Lihtsohipe, sb. swiftness, 7. 136. 
Likien, v. to please ; Liki, 16.342; 

Likeste = Likest ]>u, 46. 44; Like'S, 

pr. s. 4 c. 42; 7. 131; 8^.49; 

liketh, is pleased with, 46. 47; 

Likede, pt. s. pleased, 6 a, b. 493 ; 

12.31; 15. 2299. A. S. lician, 

to please. Cf. Lykyen. 
Likinge, sb. pleasure, 10. 27. See 

Lilie, sb. lily, 11. 53; 16. 439. 

A. S. lilie, Mt. vi. 28 ; Lat. lilium; 

Gr. Xelpiov. 
Lim, sb. limb, 8 6. 83 ; Limes, gen. 

s. 7. 18; Limen, pi. 7. 227; 

Limes, 2. 31; 10. 5; 12. 57. 

A. S. lim, pi. leomu ; cp. Icel. limr, 

pi. limir, ace. limu ; lim ; pi. 

limar, boughs. 
Limel, adv. limb-meal, limb by 

limb, 8 a. 66 ; M. £. lim mele, 

membratim, La^amon, 25618, 

lyme meele, Trevisa, 5. 281. A. S. 

lim m<klum (Leo), see Skeat (s.v. 

piece-meal) . 
Limpen, v. to happen ; Limped, 

pr. s. 9. 171 ; belongs to, 3 a. 3 ; 

7. 219. A. S. limpan, pt. lamp, 

pp. gelumpen. Cf. Ilomp. 
Linool, .< 6. Lincoln, 2.9. 11 1. A. S. 

Lindcylne ; Lat. Lindi colonia. 
Linde, sb. linden-tree, 16. 1750. 

A. S. lindj a lime tree, a shield. 
Line, sb. cord, 18. 539. A. S. line, 

a cord ; Lat. linea, a string of 

hemp or Hax, from linumt flax. 
Linene, adj. linen, 9. 156. A. S. 

linetif John xiii. 4, from /in, flax, 

linen ; Lat. linum, flax. 



Linnen, v. to cease ; Linne, 2 pr, 

s, subj. 19. 1004. A.S. linnan; 

cp. O. H. G. bi'linnan (Otfrid, 

Tatian). Cf. Ijyiine, Blinnen. 
LJTiTumge, sh. dat, ceasing, 7. 84. 

See above. 
Lipne, 2 pr. s, subj, trust, i^ a, 

25, 32. Cp. Northern E. lippen 

Lippe, sb. pi. lips, 19. 1074. A. S. 

lippe^ in Wright's Vocab. (the 

usual A. S. word for Lat. * labia ' 

was * weleras,* see Grein) ; cp. 

O. H. G. l^jfira (Tatian). 
Lisse, sb, ease, rest, 17 a. 231 ; 

176. 239 ; dat. 3 a, 4. A. S. liss, 

ease, pleasure, favour, softness, 

from llde, gentle. See Lit$e. 
liist, 2 pr, s, liest, 4 c. 64 ; 8 a. 

40. See Liggen. 
Ijiste, sb. craft, 19. 1495 ; dat» 

16. 172. A.S. list, art, skill; 

cp. O. H. G. list (Otfrid). 
Liste, pr. s. subj. (it) may please, 

19. '235. See Iiusten. 
Iijsten, V. to listen, 4 (/. 48 ; List- 

nede, /)/. s. 15. 2137, 2222. See 

Iiit, sb. stain, 15. 1968. Icel. litr, 

colour, countenance, complexion, 

dye: Goth. «////«, the countenance. 

See Wlite. 
Lit, adj. little, 4 rf. 13. See 


Lite, adv. little, 19. 942. 

Iiitel, adj. little, 2. 160, 164; 15. 

2041; 18.481; Litle, 16. 1776. 

See Ijutel. 
Iiitel, adv. little, 4.C. 59; Litl. i. 

Litle-hwile, adv. a little while, 17 6. 

331. See Iiutle-hwile. 
Littl-eer, adv. a little before, 5. 

LiU, sb. joint, 8 b. 83. A. S. h% 

limb ; O. S. lid ; Goth, lithus ; cp. 

O.H.G. lid (Tatian, Otfrid). 
Li8, pr, s. lies, 3 6. 71 ; 4 <r. 39 ; 5. 

1238 ; 8 a. 108 ; 16. 430 ; 19. 695. 

A.S. lid, pr. s. of licgan. See 

IiiSe, adj. gentle, mild, 5. 1177;^ 

9. 331. A.S. litSe'. Icel. linr-. 

O.H.G. /wrf (Otfrid). 
IiitSe, V. to listen ; LitJe, /m^. s. 19. 

336; Li?JeS, imp. pi. 25. 2077. 

See Ijy1$e. 
Ijit$eliche, arfv. gently, 9. 330. 

A. S. lidelice. 
IiitSen, V. to go, 6 a. 82 ; Lide, 6 a. 

78, 184; 6 6. 463. A.S. Man, 

Icel. liba; cp. Goth, leithan and 

O. H. G. Man, to go through, 

suffer (Otfrid). 
IiiVere, adj. bad, evil, vile, 9. 36. 

See linger. 
Lit$eri, pr. s. subj. lather, 8 a. 

96; 8 6. J 19. O. Northumb. 

le&rian, to anoint, John xi. 2, from 

lead or, lather ; cp. Icel. laudr, 

Ijj^ien, V. to relax ; Li'Se, pr. s. 

subj. ^b. 21. A.S. lldian {Leo), 

from I We, gentle. See IiiVe. 
Liue, sb. dat. life, 9. 32; 176. 115; 

Liuen, 6 a. 50 ; Liues, ^e«. s. 7. 

63 ; II. 62 ; arfv. alive, 18. 509. 

See Lif. 
I*iue-nol$e, sb. sustenance, 12. 275. 

Icel. lifnadr, mode of life : cp. 

also M. E. liuelode, lyflode, dona- 

tivum (Prompt. Parv.). 
Ijiuien, v. to live, 2. 74; 15. 

2044; 18. 355; Liue, 19. 97; 

Liuie, I pr. s. il. 12 ; Lined, pr. 

s. 15. 1964; Liuen, /)r. />/. 46. 

80; LiuieS, 36. 117; 7. 139; 

Liuiende, pr. />. 3 a. 47 ; 8 a. 25. 

A. S. lifian, also libban. Cf. Lib- 
ben, Lefien, Leowinde, Uu- 

Liuns, sb. pi. lions, 8 6. 1 74. See 

Li^en, v. to tell lies; Lije, 16. 

853; pr. s. subj. 16. 599. See 

Li3ere, s6. liar, 3 a. 60. A. S. led- 




Iji^t, sh. light, 16. 198, 230; 19. 493 ; 

Lijte, dat. 16. 163, 198. See 

Iji^te, adj. light, active, 19. 1015. 

See Liht. 
Xji^te, V. to become bright, 19. 386. 
Iji^ten,!/. to alight ; Li3te, 19. 519, 

1 43 1. See Iiihten. 
Iii^tliche, adv. easily, lightly, 16. 

854. See Iiihtlich. 
Loc, sh. gift, offering, 4 a. 59; 

176. 73. See Lac. 
Xiocan, V. to look; Locan on, to 

observe, 3 a. 102 ; Loc, imp. s, 5. 

1573- A* S. I6cian. See Lo- 

Iiodlesnesse, sh. dat. innocence, 

46.119. See Ijo^esnesse. 
Ijodlich, at(/. hateful, 9. 61, 133; 

16.91 ; Lodliche, 17 a. 277. See 

Lof, sb. loaf, 18. 653. See Laf, 
liOf, sb. (?) 2. 31. 
Iiof, sb. praise, I. 106; Lofe, 5. 

1141, 1621. A. S. lof; O.S. 

lof; cp. O. H. G. loh (Tatian, Ot- 

frid). Cf. Silof. 
Iiofenn, v. to praise, 5. 1269. A. S. 

lofian ; cp. O. S. lohdn ; O. H. G. 

lobon (Tatian, Otfrid). 
Iiof-song, sh. song of praise, 11. 8 ; 

Loft song, 7. 136 ; Loftsonges, />/. 

7.176. A. S. lof-sang. 
Xioft, sh. praise. See above. 
Ijofte, sh. on pe lofte, in the sky, 

aloft, 176. 83; 19. 914. Icel. 

lopt. See Luft. 
Iiofuiep, pr. pi. love, 66. 572. See 

Iioge, adj. low, 4 c. 29. See Lah. 
Iioht, s6. light, I. 52. See Xjiht. 
Xiok, sh. gift, 17 a. 72. See Lac. 
Loken, pp. fastened, locked, 18. 

429 ; Lokenn, 5. 1091. See 

Lokien, v. to look, observe, 3 a. 

10, 52; Lokin, to look, 7. 103; 

8 6. 65 ; Loki, to protect, 16. 

604 ; to take heed, 7. 44 ; Loken, 

to look, 9. 59, 267 ; to regard, 

9. 61 ; Loke, to guard, 8 6. 188 ; 

18.376; 19.1112; Loket, ^. s. 

13. 67 ; LokietJ, pr. pi. look, 3 6. 

125; Lokede, pt, s, 6 a, 6. 494 ; 

18. 679; 19. 883, 1093. A.S. 

l6cian, to look ; cp. O. H. G. 

luagen (Otfrid). 
Lokunge, sh. looking, 9. 264 ; Lo- 

kyng, dat. custody, 19. 342. 
Lome, adv. frequently, 17a. il. 

See Iloine. 
Lon, sh. land, 18. 340. See below. 
Lond, sb. land, 6 a. 1 75 ; 6 6. 82 ; 

9. 2 ; Londes, gen. s. 19. 190; 

Londe, dat. 6 a, 6. 69, 365 ; Londes, 

P^' ^Z' 33 J Londe, gen. pi. 6 a. 

66. See Land. 

Londe, v. to land, 19. 757. Cf. 

Londfolk, sb. countryfolk, 19. 43. 

A. S. land/olc, in Chron. ann. 

Londisse, adj. native, 19. 634. 966. 

A. S. lendisCf see Skeat (s. v. out- 
Lone, sh. loan, 9. 14. See Xi8Bn. 
Long, adj. long, 6 a. 434 ; tall, 19. 

94; Longes, gen. s. 14. 162; 

Longe, adv. 1. 180. See Lang. 
Longen, v. to belong ; Longest, 2 

pr.s. 19. 1332 ; Longes, pr. s, 18. 

396. Cf. Bilong. 
Longenge, sh. longing, ^d. 55. 

A.S. langung {Leo), from langian, 

to yearn for, see Skeat (s. v. long 2). 
Longis, sh. Longinus, IQ. 118. 
Lont, sb. land, 7. 105. See Land. 
Lord, sh. husband, 19, 308 ; Lordes, 

gen. s. lord's, 13. 34. SeeHla- 

Lordinges, s6. pi. sirs, masters, 13. 

33. See Louerdinges. 
Lore, s6. teaching, 4 a. 68 ; 9. 5 ; 

12.101; 16.640; 19.442. See 

Lbr-])eawe, s6. dat. s. teacher, 4 d. 

3 ; Lor ))eawes, pi. teachers, 4 a. 

67. See Lar-paw. 



Lot, sb. lot, 6 6. 75 ; Loten, pi. 6 a. 
74; Lotes, 6 b. 73. A. S. A/o/, 
Mt. xxvii. 35, pi. hlotUy Lu. xxiii. 
34 ; also A/y/ (Grein) : Icel. kluti^ 
a share, also hlutr^ a lot ; cp. O. S. 
hl6t, and O. H. G. I6z (Tatian, 

Lo1»e, dat, s, face, look, 15. 2328 ; 
Loten, pi, gestures, 6 a. 546 ; 
looks, 15. 2258. See Late. 

LolS, o^/* hateful, disagreeable, hos- 
tile, 4a. 80; 17 a. 339; 18.440; 
Lo'5e, 6 b. 158 ; 1 1. 93 ; 19. 1341 ; 
Lo'Sere, comp. 46. 39; Lot$est, 
superl. 9. 284. See Lat$. 

liOtTLesnesse, sb, innocence, 4 6. 31. 
Cf. Lodlesnesse. 

Loinich, cuij. hateful, 66. 587 ; 16. 
32. See Ladlic. 

Loueliche, adj, pleasant, lovely, 

19- 454» 580. 
Louerd, sb, lord, 3a. 68 ; 15. 2259 ; 

l*jab, 79; Louerdis, gen. s. 15. 

2272; Louerde, rfa/. 13. 106; 14. 

28; Louerdes, gen. pi, 4 a. 13. 

See Hiaford. 
Louerdinges, sb. pi. sirs, masters, 

18. 515. Cf. Lordinges. 
Louest, adj. superl, most pleas- 
ing. See Leof. 
Louta., adj. low, 9. 264. See 

Louien, v. to love ; Louie?J, pr. pi. 

6 6. 114, 134; Louede, pt. s, 18. 

349; 19. 248; Loueden, pi. 19. 

1 560. See Luuien. 
Louwe, adv, low, 9. 275. See 

Lou3e,/>/.s. 51^6;. laughed, 19. 1518. 

See Lahhen. 
Lowe, adj. low, 17 a. 168 ; 19. 41 7. 

See Lali. 
Lowen, pp. concealed by lying, 17 a. 

165. A. S. logen. See Ligen. 
Lowerd, sb, lord, 18. 621. See 

Lo^e, adv. low, 19. 1091. See 

Lud, adj. loud, 9. 43 ; 16. 6 ; Lude, 

4 a. 31; 16. 314; adv. 3 a. 37; 

14. 439 ; 16. 141 ; 19. 209, 1314. 

A.S. hlud\ O. H. G. lut (Otfrid). 
Liife, sh. dat. love, i. 31, 165 ; 3 6. 

128; 5. 1563. A.S. lufu; cp. 

O. H. G. lioh (Otfrid). Cf. Luue. 
Lufenn, v, to love, 5. 12 18; Lufet$, 

pr. s. I. 77. See Luuien. 
Lufsum, adj, loveable, pleasant, 

8 at. 6, 99; LufFsumm, 5. 1547, 

1643 ; Lufsume, 8 6. 137 ; 10. 42 ; 

Lufsumere, comp. 9. 187 ; Luf- 

sumest, superl. 8 6. 83 ; A. S. luf- 
sum (Grein). Cf. Leofsuxn. 
Lufsuxnliche, adv. pleasantly, 8 a. 

69 ; Luffsummlike, 5. 1663. A. S. 

Luft, adj. left (hand), 9. 60. A. S. 

lyft, worthless, weak : O. Du. luft^ 

laevus. In A. S. the word * wins- 

ter * was used to express * Isevus.* 

See Skeat (s.v. left). Cf. Lift. . 
Luft, sh. air, sky ; Lufte, dat. 6 a. 

97; 8 a. 63; 17 a. 82. A. S. 

lift : O. S. luft ; cp. O. H. G. luft 

(Otfrid). Cf. Lofte. 
Liiken, v, to close, 12. 25. A.S. 

laicanj (pt. ledc, pp. locen. Cf. 

Lunden, sb. London ; dat. Lun- 

dene, 2. 122, 179. 
Lundenissce, adj. of London, 2. 

122. , 

Lure, sb. loss, 9. 12. A.S. lyre. . 
Lure, V. to lour, look sullen, 19. 

270. From M. E. lure^ the cheek ; 

A. S. hledr. See Leor. 
Luring, 56. looking sullen, 16. 423. 

See above. 
Lust, ib, desire ; Lusst, 5. 1628 ; 

Luste, dai, s. ^d. 32; Lusstess, 

pi. 5. 1 193, 1633. A.S. lust\ 

cp. O. H. G. lust (Tatian, Otfrid). 

Cf. Hleste. 
Lust, sb. the sense of hearing, 9. 

63. A. S. hlyst : Icel. hlust, the 

Lusten, v. to desire; Luste, 17^- 

375 ; Lust, pr, s, lust him (used 



impersonally) it pleases him, 16. 

212; Luste, pt, s. hire luste, it 

pleased her ; Luste, imp. s. desire, 

19. 1283. A. S. lystan. Cf. 

Iieste, Ijiste. 
Ijusten, V. to give ear, 3 a. i ; 6 a. 

298; 14. 28; 16.1729; 17a. 

222 ; Luste, pt. s. 16. 143 ; Lust, 

imp. s. 16. 263, 267, 715; 19. 

337; Luste)}, imp. pi. 16. 1729. 

See Hlesten. 
Iiusti, adj. joyful, 7. 175. From 

A. S. lust; cp. O. H. G. lustig 

(Tatian). See Iiust. 
Ijustiiet$» imp. pi. listen, 7. 218. 

M. E. lustnen, from lusten^ to 

hearken. For the insertion of n, 

see Skeat (s. v. listen). 
liUt, adj. little, 9. 310; Lute, 9. 

1 91. A. S. lyt, a little : O. S. lut. 

Cf. Lit. 
Iiutel, adj. little, 6 &. 41 2 ; 8 a. 82 ; 

9. 215; adv. l*j a. 47. A. S. 

lytel: O. S. luttil; cp. O. H. G. 

luzil (Tatian, Otfrid). Cf. LiteL 
Xiuten, V. to stoop, bow down, 15. 

1926; Lutenn, 5. 1269; LuteS, 

pr. pi. 6 a. 108 ; Lutten, pt. pi. 

15. 2163; Lutende, />r. />. 9. 275. 

A. S. lutan^ pt. ledt, pp. loten. 
Lutle-hwile, adv. a little while, 

7. 80; 17 a. 325. Cf. Ijitle- 

Iiutlin, V. to diminish, 7. 186 ; 8 6. 

122; Lutlen, 8 a. 99. A. S. lytlian^ 

to lessen. 
IivfSer, adj. bad, evil, vile, 9. 291 ; 

LuSere, 8 a. 120; 9. 25S; 10. 

Ill; 19. 498 ; adv. 8 a. 95 ; 86. 

1 74 ; 9. 36, A. S. lySre ; cp. Icel. 

Ijdtr, ugly, bad. Cf. IieoVre, 

ZjulSerliche, adv. vilely, 86 118. 

A. S. lydrelice. 
Xiuue, sb. love, 19. 750 J dat. 4 c. 

62 ; 4^/. 72 ; 15. 3361 ; 16. 207 ; 

19- 557; Luuen, pi. 17 a. 308; 

Luues, 17 6. 314. See Iiufe. 
liuuien, v. to love, 8 a. 6 ; 86. 36, 

72, 175; II. 17; Luuen, 15. 

2042 ; Luuie'S, 6 a. 114, 

132; 7* ^53 J Luuede, pt. s. 2. 

183; Luueden, pt. pi. 15. 2152; 

Luuiende, pr.p. 8 6. 173 I Luued, 

pp. 3. 196 ; 19. 304. A. S.lujian. 

Cf. Xjouien, Iiufenn, Ijofiiiep. 
liuue-eie, s6. fear arising from 

love, reverence, 9. 337. A. S. 

/w/«, love + ege, fear. See Eie. 
Iiuuelioh, adj, lovely, loving, 9. 

331; Luueliche, 10. 84, no; 

Luuelike, 10. 113; Luueli, 10. 

104. A. S. luflic. 
Iiuueliche, adv. lovingly, kindly, 

8 6. 87 ; Q. 87. A. S. lufiice. 
Luue-WTuUe, adj. loveworthy, 8 6. 

IjU^en, pt. pi. concealed by lying, 

1 7 6. 1 61 . A. S. lugon, pt. pi. of 

ledgan. See Ligen. 
Iiycome, s6. body, 17 a. 3CX>. See 

Lye, V. to tell a lie, 17 a. 385; 

Lye]>, pr. s. deceives, 14. 162. 

See Ligen. 
Lyf, s6. life, 14. 44; 17 a. 167, 

242. See Lif. 
Lyht, sb. light, 17 a. 2 76 ; Lyhte, 

dat. 17 a. 75. See Liht. 
Lyht, adj. easy, 17 a. 310. See 

. Lykyen, v. to please, 14. 43 ; 

Lyke, pr. s. subj. 14. 233. See 

Lyne, 56. net, 19. 681. Cp. Lat. 

linea, a thread, a net. 
Lynne, imp. s, cease, 19. 311. See 

Lyase, sb. 17 a. 229 (probably a 

mistake for * Blysse,' see text b.) 
Ly]), pr, s. lies, 17 a. 277.' A.S. 

litf. See Liggen. 
Ly)?e, V. to listen ; Ly'^e^ pr.pL 19. 

2. Icel. hlyda, Cp. Lipe. 
Lyue» 56. dat. life, 19. 180,559; 

on lyue, alive, 19. 131 ; Lyues, 

gen. s. 14. 162; 17 a. 376. See 





Ma, adv. more, 2. 126. A.S. md. 
Cf. Mo. 

Macien, v. to make ; Macod, pi, s, 
2. 7 ; Machede, 1. 147 ; Maced, 
PP' ^' 33» -A.' S. macian^ pt. s. 
macodey pp. macod. Cf. Makien, 
Maden, I-maked. 

Maden, pt. pi. made, 13. 70; 15. 
1992 ; Mad, pp: 15. 2415 ; Ma- 
dim (mad+him)^ made for him, 
15. 1966. See above. 

Madmes, sb. pi, treasures, 6 a. 
268 ; 14. 198. A. S. rndduniy pi. 
md9mas. O. S. miSom, pi. meS- 
mos : Goth, maithmsy Corban ; 
cp. Icel. meiSmaTt pi. gifts, and 
M. H. G. meiSeme, a gift, fixed tax, 
G. meiden, a horse, see Weigand. 

Meshti, a^'. mighty, 6 a. 130. A.S. 
meahtig (Grein). Cf. Magti, 
Mihti, Michti. 

MsBi, />r. s. may, 6 a. 146. A.S. 
m€£gy I and 3 /)r. s. ; m/^/, 2 />r. 
s. ; magoriy pi. ; meahle, nUhte^ 
pt, s.\ mage, mage, suhj. Cf. 
Maht,Mai,Maig,Mai3, Mawe, 
Ma^ie, Mei, Michte, Miote, 
Migte, Mi^t, Mo, Moucte, 
Moun, Mowen, Muee, Mugen, 
Muwen, Mu^en, Mwue, Myht. 

Msei, s6. kinsman, 176. 29. A.S. 
mdg, pi. mdgas : O. H. G. mdg 
(Tatian, Otfrid). Cf. Mai, Mey, 

Mseiden, sb. maiden, 6 a. 586 ; 
Mseidene, dat. 6 a. 580. A. S. 
mcBgden (Grein). Cf. Maidenes, 
Maydnes, Maide, Meide, 

Mseingde, pt. s. confused, muddled, 
6 a. 584. See Mengen. 

Msen, pi. men, i. 26; Maenn, i. 
89. A. S. mcen, men^ menn (Grein), 
pi. of man. See Man. 

Meere, adj. comp. more, 6 a. 84. See 

Madsse, sb. mass, the celebration of 

the Eucharist, also, a church fes- 
tival, 2.69. A. S. m<ess«, the mass, 

a festival; Lat. missa, the mass. 

Cf. Messe. 
Maesse-dssi, sb. dat. mass day, 

festival, 2. 69. A.S. mcBssedcBg. 
Magti, adj. mighty, 12. 234. See 

Maht, 2 pr, s. mayest, 8 a. 54 ; 

Mahht, 5. 1488 ; Mahen, pi. may, 

7. 24 ; 8 a. 79 ; 8 6. 99 ; Mahe, 

7. 126 ; 8 a. 98 ; Mzhe, pr. s. subj. 

7. 143 ; Mahte,/>/. 5. might, 7. 77, 

81 ; 8 6. 65. See Msei. 
Mai, pr. s. may, 2. 38 ; 10. 56 ; 16. 

735 ; 19- 5<^2, 954. See Msei. 
Mai, sb. kinsman, 176. 187. See 

Maide, sb. dat. maid, 19. 1046. 

From A. S. mcegden, 
Maidenes, sb. pi. 19. 72, 391, 

1 176. See Mseiden. 
Maig, pr. s. may, 12. 80, See Msei. 
Main, sb, strength, 6 a. 579. A. S. 

mcBgen ; cp. Icel. megin, 
Maister, sb, master, 16. 1746; 

Maisteres, gen, s. 19. 621. O. F. 

maistre; Lat. magistrum, Cf. 

Mayster, Meister. 
Mai5, pr. s. may, 1.38; 176. 88, 

124, 217. See Msei. 
Make, sb. mate, 5. 1276; spouse, 19. 

1451. A. S. {ge)maca ; cp. O. S. 

(gi)makOj O. H. G. {gi)mahhd, 

uxor (Tatian), and Icel. maki. 
Makien, v. to make, 9. 43, 280 ; 

Makie, 7. 183; 86.129; 13.37; 

Maken, 4 a. 87; 5. 1480; 15. 

2134; 18. 463; MakieS, pr. pi, 

7. 104; MakeS, 4 a. 69; 16. 

1648 ; Maken, 15. 21 31 ; Makede, 

pt. s. 4 a. 5; 9. 365; 13. 132; 

18. 542; Makeden, pt. pi. 18. 

554; Makede, pi. 19. 1250; 

Maket, pt. s. 2. 91; 13. 136; 

Maked, pp. 4 a. 60 ; 18. 365; 

Makie, imp. pi. 9. 196. A.S. 

macian. See Macien. 
Malisun, sb. malediction, 18. 426. 



O. F. malison^ maldeceon (Roque- 
fort) ; Lat. maledictionem. 

Man, sh. man, 1 8. 344 ; one, any- 
one, 2. 44; 12. 267; pi. I. 87. 
A. S. man. Cf. Maen, Mon, 
Mann, Me, Men, Mannes, 

Man-a)Sas, sh. pi. perjuries, false 
oaths, 3 b. 36. A. S. mdn-d6 ; cp. 
O. S. men-e(), and O. H. G. inein- 
eid, juramentum (Tatian). A. S. 
mdn, evil, wicked, also, wickedness. 
See Mone and Ath. 

Manciple, sh. purveyor, 9. no. 
O. F. mancipe ; cp. O. It. man- 
cipiot slave, vassal, manciple, 
bailiff; Lat. mancipium^ a slave, 
orig. possession, property. 

Man-C3rn, sh. mankind, i. 115; 
Mancinn, l . 200. A. S. mancyn. 
Cf. Man-ken, Man-kin, Mon- 
kin, Mon-cun. 

Manere, sh. a kind, sort, 3 h. 90 ; 
manner, custom, 19. 550. Norm. 
F. manere ; Late Lat. maneria, 
species, kind, see Brachet. 

Manig, adj. many; Manige, 15. 
2180, 2278 ; Manije, i. 63, 127 ; 
Manie, 2. 80 ; nianie a man, 15. 
2392; Mani, 2. 31 ; 16. 1756; 
19. 1082 ; Manyes, gen. s. 14. 
413. A. S. manig. Cf. Moni, 

Manige-fold, adj. manifold, 15. 
2502 ; Manifeald, i. 53 ; Mani- 
fald, I. 91 ; Manifaeldlice, pi. 2. 
92. A. S. manigfeald. Cf. Moni- 

Mani^-whatt, sh. many a subject, 
5. 1028. 

Manke, sh. a mancus, l*jh. 70. 
See Notes. 

Man-ken, sh. mankind, 13. 45 ; 
Mankenne, dat. 176. 307, 340. 
See Man-C3rn. 

Man-kin, sh. mankind, 46. 61; 
4 c. 22; 15.2406; Mannkinne, 
gen. s. 5. 1437 ; Mankunne, dat, 
16. 849. See Man-cyn. 

Mann, sh. anyone, 5. 1 1 79 ; Mannes, 

gen. s, man's, i. 83; 19. 21; 

Manne, dat. 5. 1457 ; pi. gen. 

12. 39; 16. 604; Mannen, i. 

185; dat. I. 178; ^d. 5, 56; 

Manne, 16. 1641. See Man. 
Manne, sb. manna, 4 h. 99. 
Manrede, sh. homage, 18. 484 ; 

Manred, 2. 13. 180. A. S. man- 

r^den^ in Chron. ann. 1 115. 
Manscipe, sh. homage, honour, i. 

73. Cf. Monscipe. 
Man-slechtes,s6.^/. homicides, 13. 

123. A. S. mansleht, in Chron. 

ann. 793. Cf. Mon-sleiht. 
Mantel, sh. mantle, 9. 263. O. F. 

mantel, in Roland, 462. 
Mare, adj. comp. more, 2. 49, 62 ; 

adv. 3 a. 85; Mar, 2. 119; 5. 

1 71 5; Mast, adj. superl. most, 

17 h. 112 ; adv, 17 h. 7, 61. A. S. 

mdra, mast. Cf. MaDre, More, 

Moare, Meast, Mest, Moste. 
Mare, adj. famous, 6 a, 446. A. S. 

mxre. See Mere. 
Marke, sh. dat. a mark, the name 

of a coin, 17 a. 294. A. S. marc. 
Maste, sh. mast, 19. 1025. A. S. 

Mat$elerS, pr. s. talks, 9. 86, 115. 

A.S. madelian, to harangue (from 

m<s9el, a council, meeting) ; cp. 

O. S. mahlian ; also Icel. mdU 

speech in public ; whence Low 

Lat. mallum, parliament. 
Maumez, sh. pi. idols, Sh. 1 1 , 1 24 ; 

Mawmez, 8 a. 9 ; Mawmex, 8 a. 

loi. M. E. maumet; O. F. ma- 

kumetf Mohammed, the prophet of 

Islam, also, an idol. 
Mawe, pr. pi. may, 14. 14; 17 a, 

181. A.S. magon. See Maei. 
Mayet, 2 pr. s. mayest, 18. 64I. 

A. S. miht. See MaDi. 
Maydnes, fh. pi. maidens, 18. 467. 

See Maeiden. 
Mayster, sh. master, 14. 52. See. 

Ma3ie, pr, s, may, i. 68 ; Maj), ^. 



1040; Majen, pi. 3 a. 45, 74. 

See Mfloi. 
Me, one, people, men, 1. 11,. 14 ; 2. 

25 ; 7' 51 ; 16. 32. See Men. 
Me, conj. but, 8 a. 81. Cp. Dan. 

and Swed. men, but. 
Meane, adj, common, 7. 133. A. S. 

(ge)mdne ; cp. O. H. G. {giy 

meini (Otfrid). 
Mearr^, pr, pL mar, 86. 134. 

See Merrien. 
Meast, adj, greatest, 8 6. 171; 

Measte, 10. 60 ; Meast, adv. 8 b. 

26. See Mare. 
MeaS, sb. moderation, 7. 42. A. S. 

nudd, fitness. Cf. MeV. 
Mede, 56. maiden, i. 108, 117. See 

Mede, sb. a mead, meadow, 16. 

438. A. S. mdd. 
Mede, sb. reward, 4 a. 83 ; 8 a. 

108; 12.99; 18. 685; 19.470. 

A. S. med: O. Northumb. meordt 

John iv. 36 (Rushworth) : Goth. 

Med-^ieme, adj. venal, lit. yearn- 
ing for reward, 17^. 260 ; Med- 

yorne, 17 a. 252. See ^ieme. 
Mei, pr. s. may, 8 a. 57 ; 8 6. 73. 

See Masi. 
Meide, s6. maid, virgin, i. 162 ; 

Meiden, dat. pi, i, 164. See 

Meiden, sb. maiden, virgin, 3 a. 55 ; 

7. 90; 9. 215; a chaste person 

(St. John), 8 6. 157; Meideiies, 

gen. 5. 1. 193 ; 8 a. 13 ; /»/. 9. 226 ; 

Meidnes, 7. 1 20 ; Meidene, gen. 

pi. II. 2 J. See Mseiden. 
Meinfule, adj. powerful, 8 6. 186. 

See Main. 
Meister, s6. master, 10. 55 ; Meis- 

tres, gen. s. 9. 217 ; ^/. 3 a. 26. 

See Maister. 
Meister, adj. chief, 3 a. 23. 
Meister, sb. business, 9. 72. O. F. 

mestier^ a trade, occupation ; Lat. 

ministerium. See Master. 
Meistre, sb. mistress, 7. 49. O. F. 

VOL. I. H 

meistre, maistre (Bartsch); Lat. 

magistra. Cf. Scoi-meistre. 
MeistreV,^r. 5. is master of, 7. 37. 
MeitS-liatS, s6. virginity, 8 6. 33 ; 

Meit$hades, gen. s. 8 a. 108 ; 8 6. 

133. A.S. magpkdd. 
Mel, s6. meal, food, 15.2052, 2412 ; 

Mele, pi. meal times, 9. 308. A. S. 

malf a stated time ; cp. Icel. mdl. 
Mele, sb. meal, ground grain, 5. 

1552. A. S. melu; cp. Icel. mjiil 

(fnel)f and O. H. G. melo, farina 

(Tatian, Otfrid). 
Mel-stanent, sb. mill-stones, 

1. 197. A.S. myln, a mill; Lat. 

molina. See Notes. 
Men, men, 4 a. 10 ; 18. 647. 

See Man. 
Menen, v. to complain, lament, 9. 

71; 17 a. i7o;Mene, 176. 170; 

MeneJ), pr. s. bemoans, 14. 236. 

A. S. m^nan, to lament, bemoan, 

from mdn,. evil, see Skeat (s. v. 

moan). See Man-alSas. 
Menes,/)r. s. means, 18. 597. A. S. 

manan ; cp. O.S. menian, O. H. G. 

Mengen, v. to mix; Menged, pp. 

10. 106. A. S. mengan : O. S. 

mengian ; cp. Icel. menga. Cf. 

Mseingde, Meynde, Imengd, 

Menne, sb. dat, pi. men, 19. 1390 ; 

Mennes,^cn./>/.5.i4o6. See Man. 
Mennisscle^3C, 56. humanity, 5. 

1380. See -le55C. 
Mennisscnesse, 56. humanity, 5. 

1373 ; do^' 5. 1185, 1359- A. S. 

menniscnesy Bede (Bosworth), from 

mennisCy human. 
Menske, sb. honour, 8 a. 109 ; 10. 

27. Icel. mennska, humanity, 

from mennsJtr, human. See above. 
Menskin, v. to honour, 8 6. 25 ; 

Mensken, 10. 62 ; Menske, 10. 58. 

See above. 
Meoc, adj. meek, 5. 1252. Icel. 

mjukr, soft ; cp. Goth, muhs (iu 

muka-modei, gentleness). 




Meocle^^e, s&. meekness, 5. 11 70, 
1546. Icel. mjukleikr^ nimbleiiess. 

Meocli), adv. meekly, 5. 1189. 
Icel. mjukliga. 

Meocnesse, sb. meekness, 5. 1637 ; 
Meoknesse, dat. 19. 1534. 

Meoster, sb. service, business, 7. 
loi. See Mester. 

Meosure, sb. measure, 7- S^* O. F. 
mesure ; Lat. mensura. 

Merche-stowe, sb. boundary-place, 
1. 145. A. S. mearCf a march, 
boundary + sWtt/, place. But see 
Notes. See Merk. 

Merci, sb. mercy, 3 a. 44; 15. 
2183 ; 18. 483, 491. O. F. merci, 
mercid (Bartsch) ; Late Lat. vier- 
cedem (ace. of msrces), a gratuity, 
pity, mercy ; in Lat. pay, reward. 

Mere, adj. glorious, 176. 393. A. S. 
mJerf^ mere : O. S. mdri ; cp. 
O.H.G. mdri (Tatian, Otfrid). 
Cf. Mare. 

M9rie,afl5/. merry, 19. 1416. A. S. 
fiirrg (Grein), also mirige. Gen. 
xiii. 10; probably of Celtic origin, 
cp. O. Ir. mw, quick, merry ; mer- 
ais^e^ a fool (Windisch). Cf. 
Miri, Muri. 

Merk, sb. a mark, sign, 18. 604. 
A.S. mearc. 

Merrien, v. to mar ; MerriS, pr. pi. 
8 a. 109. A. S. merran (in com- 
pounds) : O. S. merrian, to hinder; 
cp. O. H. G. merren (Tatian, Ot- 
frid\ also marrjan. Cf. MearreV. 

Mershe, sb. marsh, 16. 304. A. S. 

Mes (Me + hes"), one + them, 176. 
259. See Me and Hes. 

Mes-aise, sb. discomfort, 10. 22. 
O. F. mesaise, mes = Lat. minus + 
aise, ease. 

Mesauentur, s6. misadventure, 19. 
7,26. O. F. mesaveniure, mes = 
Lat. minus + aventure. See Auen- 

M^she, V. to mash, beat into a con- 
fused mass, 16. 84. 

MesBe, sb. the cdebntion of the 
Eucharist, also, a church-festival. 
See MaBSse. 

Messe-bok, sb. mass-book, 18. 

Messe-oos, sb. mass-kiss, the pax, 

4 a. 58. 
Messe-gere, sb. mass-gear, the 

sacred vessels, &c., 18. 389. 
Mest, adj. superl. most, 8 a. 3; 

greatest, 16. 852; a</v. most, 4 6. 

106; 17a. 62, 217. See Mare. 
Mester, sb. business, art, 9. 40 ; 

Mestere, dat. 9. 56; 19. 229, 

549. O. F. mestier, au occupation; 

Lat. ministerium. Cf. Meoster, 

Met, sb. measure, 7. 135; Mete, 

dat. 7. 54 ; moderation, 7. 51. 

A. S. {ge)met. 
Mete, sb. food, 9. 314; 12^ 87; 

15. 2294; 18. 459; 19. 373; 

feast, I. 25; Meten,^. 15. 2079, 

2255. A. S^ jrute : O. S. mat ; 

cp. O. H. G. maz (Otfrid). 
Mete-graoes, graces tt meat, 

9- 301. 

Meten (i), v. to dream ; Mete, 19. 
1 450. A. S. {ge)mdtaH (Grein). 

Meten (2), v. to paint ; Metedd, pp. 
5. 1047. A. S. gemetan^ to paint, 
in Chron. ann. 1 1 04, and m^ng, 
a painting, ^Ifric's Horn. 1. 186. 

Mete-niSinges, sb. pi. meat-nig- 
gards, 176. 234 ; Mete ny^nnges, 
17 a. 226. See NiSing. 

Metinge, sb. dat. dream, 13. 31. 
A. S. meeting. See Meten (i). 

Mette,/>r.s. met, 19.1039; Metten, 
/)/. 19. 155. A. S. mette^ pt. s. 
mitton^ pi. of mStan, to meet. 

MelS, sb. moderation, 7. 2,^2 ; MeOCf 
dat. 15. 2498. See Mea^. 

Methes-ohele, sb. marten's skin, 
1 76. 366. M.E. Methes for meritn, 
gen. s. of merd ; A. S. meard, a 
marten. CAeie ; A. S. ee<de, the 
throat ; cp. G. kehle, see Stxat- 
mann (s. v. cheole). 



MelSfal, adj, moderate, 9. 366. 

See MeK. 
Mey, sb. kinsman, 17 a. 30: See 

Meynde, pt, s. confused, 6 b. 584 ; 

Meynd, pp.i'j a. 148. See Men- 
Mi, proH. poss, my, 46. 5 ; 8 a. 51. 

A. S. tnin. See Min. 
Mioel, adj. great, much, 2. 70, 98 ; 

adv, much, 2. 4, 171. A. S. micel. 

Cf. Mikel, Mycel,Mukel, Mu- 

oheV Michel, Muoele, Mo- 

Michel, adj. great, 15. 2227; 18. 

510, 729; adv. much, 13. 15. 

See above. 
Miohte^ />/. 5. might, 13. 25 ; Micte, 

18. 346; Micten, pL 18. 516. 

See Masi. 
Michti, adj. mighty, i. 37. See 

Mid, prep, with, i. 15 ; 15. 2423 ; 

Mide, 36.85; 4^.35; 12. 73; 

15. 2478 ; 16. 1768, A. S. mid; 
O. S. mid; cp. O. H. G. mit. Cf. 
Myd, Mit. 

Mid-al, adv. withal, 8 b. 95 ; Mid- 

alle, altogether, 16. 666. 
Middel, s6. middle, 7. 51. A. S. 

Middel-eard, sb. the world, abode 

of men, 11. 78; Middelerd, ^d. 

67; 17 a. 140, 193, See Mid- 

Middel-ni^te, sb. dot. midnight, 

16. 325, 731; 19- 1317- 
Midden-ear d, sb. the world, abode 

of men, 176. 140, 200 ; Midden- 

aerd, 176. 195; Midden-ard, 1.44; 

Midden-ardes, gen. s. i. 133; 

Miden-arde, dat. I. 164. A. S. 

middan-eard^ the middle abode, 

the earth (Grein), more usually 

middan-geardy middle garth, i. e. 

the earth, a mythological word 

common to all ancient Teutonic 

languages ; Goth, midjungards, 

kel. miHgardr ; cp. O. S. middil 


gard, O. H. G. nuttila gart (Ta- 
tian), Northern E. medlert (Jamie- 
son); see Icel. Diet. (s. v.). and 
Grimm, p. 794. Cf. Middel- 
eard, Midel-erd, Myddel-erd. 

Midel-erd, &b. earth, 36. 87. See 

Miden-arde, sb. dat. See Mid- 
den- eard. 

Mid-iwisse, adv. certainly, 11. 6; 

, 176. 40, 141, 379. (Mid-ywisse, 

. Myd-iwisse). 

Mid-morwen, sb. dat. midmorning, 
mid-day, 9. 312. See Morwen. 

Midwinter-dffii, sb. dat. Christmas 
day, 2. 191. Cp. midwinter day 
= dies natalis Domini, Trevisa, 
5. 19, 41, 409. 

Mid-ywisse, adv. certainly, 19. 
432. See Mid-iwisse. 

Migt, sb. might, 15. 2184. See 

Migte, pt. s, might, 12. 33, See 

Miht, 56. might, i . 1 1 2 ; Mihte, dat. 
1.40; 9-357; 17*- 76, 215;/)/. 
virtues, 3 a. 103. A. S. miht. Cf. 
Migt. Mi^te, Myhte. 

Miht, 2 pr. s. mayest, 176. 129; 
Mihht, 5. 121 7; Mihte, pt. s. 
might, 1. 103, 139 ; Mihtes, 2pt. s. 
10. 14 ; Mihten, />/. i. 99 ; 176. 
324; Mihhtcnn, 5. 1126; Mihte, 
17 a. 318. See Masi. 

Mihti (for Mihte + hi), might they, 

Mihti, adj. mighty, i. 43. See 

Mikel, adj. great, 18. 478, 646 ; 
adv. much, 12. 235. See Mycel. 

Miloe, sb, mercy, 1. 1 18, 150 ; 3 a. 
72; 46. 44; II. 79; 176. 8, 
72, 214; Milche, 176. 219. A. S. 
milts (for milds). Cf. Mylce. 

Milcien, v. to shew mercy, 3 a. 71 ; 
Millcenn, 5. 1041 ; Milcie, pr. s. 
subj. 3 a. 78 ; 9. 306. A. S. 
miltsian. See Milsien. 

Milde, adj. merciful, gentle, 2. 11 ; 




4fl. 18; Mild, 17 fl. 27; Mildre, 

comp. 16. 1 775 ; Mildere, 3 a. 80. 

A. S. mildei O. S. mildi; cp. 

O. H. G. milti (Tatian). Cf. 

Mildeliche, adv. gently, humbly, 

3 a. 68; Mildelike, 15. 2164, 

2499. A. S. mildelice. 
Mild-heorted, adj. merciful, 4 b. 

46. A. S. rmldheort. 
Mild>lieortnesse, sb. dat. mercy, 

II. 78; Mild-hermesse, sb. 4 b. 41. 

A. S. mild'keortnes. 
Mild-herrtleB30, sb. compassion, 

mild-heartedness, 5. 1142, 1476. 

See -16330. 
Mile, sb. pi. miles, 19. 319. A. S. 

mil ; Lat. nUllia^ a Roman mile, 

properly * thousands.* 
Milloenn. See Milcien. 
Milsien, v. to show mercy on; 

Milsi, I. 69. A. S. miltsian. Cf. 

Min, pron. poss. my, ii.4;i5. 2264; 

16. 37 ; Mines, gen. s.ii. 2 ; Mine, 

dat. I. 29, 181 ; 16. 46. A. S. 

min. Cf. Myn, Mi, Mire. 
MinegeV, pr. s. commemorates, 4 a. 

57 ; admonishes, 4 c. 32. A. S. 

myngian, (ge)mynegian (Grein). 
Minstre, sb. minster, 2. 91 ; 4^. 

1 1 ; Minnstre, the temple at Jeru- 
salem, 5. 1017, X060. See Myn- 

Minten, v. to purpose ; Mint, pt. s, 

2. 75. A. S. mynta