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Clswntara f ras jurats 















A. D. 1150 A.D. 1300 

Second Edition, carefully Revised 


[ All rights reserved] 





Preface to the First Edition . . . . vii 

Preface to the Present Edition xvi 

Introduction xix 


An Bispel (A Parable) i 


The State of England in Stephen's reign (A.D. 

1137-1154) 9- 


(\J^ (A) In Diebus Dominicis : Sunday the Day of Rest 17 

V (B) Hie dicendum est de Propheta: The Prophet 

Jeremiah (Jer. xxxviii. 6-12) . . . .21 


'"(A) Dominica Palmarum. " (Matt. xxi. 1-9) . . 26 

J.J(B) In die Paschae. (Ps. cxvii [cxviii]. 24) . . 29 

frtyw (c) Dominica i. post Pascha. (Luke xxiv. 36) . 33 

' (D) Dominica iv. post Pascha. (James i. 17). . 36 


Jewish and Christian Offerings . . 39 


|\LX r Hengest and Horsa ...... 64 


Sermon on Matt. xxv. 43 87 

Description of Heaven 89 



VIII. THE LIFE OF ST. JULIANA. (Two Texts) . 96 

The Seven Deadly Sins no 

Directions how a Nun should live . . . 115 

X. THE WOOING OF OUR LORD '. . . .124 


Nature of the Lion 1 3 3 

Nature of the Eagle 135 

Nature of the Ant ^ i3 8 


Sermo in die Epiphaniae. (Matt. ii. i) .141 
Dominica Secunda post Octavam Epiphaniae. 

(John ii. i) . . , . . . . 144 

XIV. PROVERBS OF ALFRED. (Sections i, 2, 4, 10, 12, 

14, 22, 23) 146 


Passages in the Life of Joseph . . 153 

The Owl and the Nightingale . . . .171 


( TRIN. MS 195 


Notes 287 

Glossarial Index 365 



A FEW words of explanation are necessary to explain how 
this volume came to take its present shape, and why this 
Preface is not written by the author. 

In 1867 a volume was published in the Clarendon Press 
Series with the title ' Specimens of Early English, selected 
from the chief English Authors, A.D. 1250 A.D. 1400, with 
Grammatical Introduction, Notes, and Glossary, by R. Morris, 
Esq.' This book soon ran out of print, and it was decided, 
several years ago, not to re- issue it in its first form, but to 
replace it by tivo volumes, or ' parts,' which should be still 
better calculated to meet the wants of the increasing class of 
students who care to have some accurate knowledge about 
our early literature and the gradual formation of our lan- 
guage. The weakest point of the work, in its first form, was 
that the literature of the thirteenth century was but imper- 
fectly represented, whilst that of the twelfth century was not 
represented at all. 

In attempting to carry out the proposed alteration, it was 
soon found that the preparation of the second part was the 


easier of the two, as requiring but little new material. I was 
asked to assist in preparing it, and, in the end, the greater 
part of the work of preparation passed through my hands. 
The edition of 1867 contained 25 extracts, counting both 
extracts from Robert of Gloucester as one. It was divided 
very unequally, by taking the beginning of the fourteenth 
century as the point of division ; with the result that the 
former portion, containing only four extracts, was left for 
Dr. Morris to deal with himself, whilst the latter portion, 
containing the remaining 21 extracts, all relating to the 
fourteenth century, was left to me. I made two alterations 
in the extracts, substituting a passage from Barbour's Bruce 
for one from Sir Gawayn and the Grene Knight, and 
Chaucer's Man of Lawes Tale for the Pardoner's and 
Prioress's Tales. I then revised the Notes, and rewrote 
the Glossary, in order to insert the references, which, in the 
first edition, were but seldom given. The latter work was 
rather heavy, but with some efficient aid from Mr. Brock, it 
was at last completed, and the whole volume was revised by 
Dr. Morris. It was published in 1872, with the title 
1 Specimens of Early English, &c., by the Rev. R. Morris 
and the Rev. W. \V. Skeat. Part II: from Robert of 
Gloucester to Gower, A.D. 1298 1393.' My name was 
added to the title-page in consideration of the part which 
I had taken in the revision. The volume was so well 
received that a new edition of it, practically the third, was 
published in 1873. Previously to the above alterations, I 
had already written a volume of Specimens of English Lite- 
rature, from A.D. 13941597, by way of supplementing Dr. 
Morris's work. This appeared in 1871 (second edition, 


1879); and may now be considered as forming Part III 
of the series of Specimens. 

Meanwhile, the task of providing the extracts for Part I 
fell upon Dr. Morris, who had before him the more serious 
task of first providing his material. This was no easy matter, 
as, for a good deal of it, he was dependent upon the Early 
English Text Society's publications, and was only at the 
beginning of some of the most important part of his work 
for that Society. He had, in fact, to edit his texts before he 
could satisfactorily make extracts from them ; and the second 
Series of his Old English Homilies did not appear till 1873. 
Since that time, the continual preparation of such important 
texts as the Blickling Homilies and the Cursor Mundi (the 
latter containing more than 30,000 lines printed four times 
over from different MSS.), has left him but little leisure. 
The Glossarial Index, in particular, required a long time for 
its compilation, as shewn by the fact that it contains nearly 
50 pages more than that to Part II. It will readily be 
understood that the language of the twelfth and thirteenth 
centuries requires more frequent explanation than that of the 
fourteenth century, and is at the same time more difficult to 
explain. It has thus come to pass, that the present part has 
been in course of preparation for some years, whilst Dr. 
Morris's opportunities of leisure were few and decreasing, so 
that the end of 1881 saw the work still unfinished. At that 
time, I had just completed my Etymological Dictionary, and, 
being informed of all the circumstances, was asked to assist. 
When the work came into my hands, I found it in a very 
forward state. The whole was finally revised as far as the 
word Harmes in the Glossary, and the rest of the Glossary 


was mostly in type, with the exception of a small portion 
which was already written, though not quite ready for press. 
My portion of the work has been, accordingly, to revise the 
latter part of the Glossary, and to compile the Grammatical 
Introduction. I have taken the opportunity of verifying 
several of the references in the Glossary, including all words 
beginning with U, V, Y, 3, and all such words from Harpe 
to \)werrl-uf, or beginning with W, as are not of com- 
mon occurrence, considering these to be the most/ im- 

In compiling the Grammatical Introduction, I have kept 
before me the original Introduction to the first edition of 
1867, from which I have borrowed largely, so that the 
main part of it is given in the author's own words. I 
have, however, made various additions and alterations, 
particularly in the table of the principal parts of the 
Strong Verbs, which are now numbered and indexed for 
the convenience of ready reference, a large number of 
them being still in use in modern English. A few pages 
are repeated, almost without alteration, from the Introduc- 
tion to Part II, for the sake of completeness. Section 5, 
on the Metre, for which I am responsible, is new. I have 
also inserted a passage on the pronunciation of Early 
English, copied (by permission) almost verbatim from Ellis's 
Early English Pronunciation ; and an account of the written 
symbols, copied, with some re-arrangement and slight modi- 
fications, from an important paper by Dr. F. H. Stratmann, 
which appeared in the Philological Society's Transactions 
for 1867. 

In the Preface to the Specimens of English, Part II, 


already published, it has been explained that the object 
of printing these Selections from Early English writers is 
to render the study of Early English more easy for those 
\vho have not the means or the opportunity of consulting 
the books containing the complete texts. 

The remarks made in that Preface have a still stronger 
significance when applied to the literature of the twelfth 
and thirteenth centuries. It is just for this important trans- 
ition-period, when a considerable simplification of our gram- 
mar was taking place, that the grammars and histories of 
literature are most meagre and least accurate, so that it is 
highly desirable that the student should be able to test for 
himself the statements which they contain. The best guides 
to the vocabulary of this period are Stratmann's Old English 
Dictionary and the Old English Dictionary by Matzner. 
The latter of these is, unfortunately, still unfinished, only 
a few parts having appeared. An excellent text-book, for 
those who are acquainted with German, is Matzner's ' Alten- 
glische Sprachproben.' 

Many of the texts from which extracts are here given 
have only recently been printed. The pieces marked I, 
III, IV, VII, VIII, X-XV inclusive, and XVP-XVIII [now 
marked XVII-XIX] inclusive, are all taken from various 
works published for the Early English Text Society, and of 
these all but VIII, XVII [now XVIII], and XVIII [now 
XIX] are from texts edited by Dr. Morris. For the con- 
venience of readers, a list of the Early English Text Society's 
books quoted in the present volume is here subjoined : 

No. y. Genesis and Exodus, ed. Morris, 1865. (Ex- 
tract XV.) ' 


No. 14. King Horn, &c., ed. Lumby, 1866. (Extract 

XVIII [now XIX].) 1 
No. 29. Old English Homilies, Series I, Part I; ed. 

Morris, 1867. (Extract III.) 
No. 34. Old English Homilies, Series I, Part II, 1868. 

(Extracts I, VII, X, XI.) 
No. 49. An Old English Miscellany, ed. Morris, 1872. 

(Extracts XII, XIII, XIV, XVI* [now XVII; 

Jes. Coll. MS.].) 
No. 51 The Life of St. Juliana, ed. Cockayne and Brock, 

1872. (Extract VIII.) 
No. 53. Old English Homilies, Series II, 1873. (Extracts 

IV and XVI* [now XVIII ; Trin. Coll. MS.].) 
No. IV (Extra Series.) Havelok the Dane, ed. Skeat, 

1868. (Extract XVII [now XVIII.]) 

Other volumes quoted are these following : 
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, ed. Thorpe, 1861 ; ed. Earle, 

1867; and other editions. (Extract II.) 
The Ormulum, ed. White, 1852 ; of which a new edition, 

ed. Holt, appeared in 1878. (Extract V.) 
Layamon's Brut, ed. Madden, 1847. (Extract VI.) 
Ancren Riwle, ed. Morton, 1853. (Extract IX.) 
The Owl and the Nightingale, ed. Stevenson, 1838; ed. 

Wright, 1843; ed - Stratmann, 1868. (Extract XVI.) 

Most of these volumes are more fully described in the 
short headings which precede each extract. 

1 The Extract gives the whole of King Horn; but Dr. Lumby's 
book also contains Floriz and Blancheflur, and the Assumption of the 
Virgin. ' 


The ' Specimens * are chronologically arranged, and well 
illustrate the numerous changes whereby the later Anglo- 
Saxon of the twelfth century gradually gave place to the 
English of the fourteenth century, as exemplified in Part II. 
The gradual introduction of Anglo-Norman words into our 
literature is a most interesting phenomenon of this period, 
and it is very instructive to observe how slowly these words, 
now so numerous, found their way into general use at the 
time when they were first introduced. The whole number 
of French words occurring in Layamon's Brut, a poem 
containing more that 32,000 (short) lines, does not exceed 
1 70, and even of these a few took no root in our speech, 
and were soon disused J . Or, to take an instance which the 
reader may test for himself, the part of the poem entitled On 
God Ureisun of Ure Lefdi (A Good Orison of Our Lady) 2 , 
printed at p. 129, contains 99 rather long lines. The only 
foreign words in it are the proper names Cristes (whence 
Cristene), Marie, Gabriel, Jhesu ; the words offrie (line 4), 
deoflene (15), deouel (g$\ engkne (16, 46, 70, 71), engles (27), 
rose, lilie (53), $im (55), previously borrowed from Latin 
during the Anglo-Saxon period; the Bible-words paradise 
(10, 49), cherubine (25), and seraphim (26); and finally, no 
more than five Anglo-Norman words, viz. ciclatune (51), 
/rone (22), seruise (50), i-kruned (52), and krune (52). Of 
these, the first appears in Chaucer (see the explanation in 
the Glossary to my edition of the Prioress's Tale, and in 
my note on the line in which it occurs), but is now obsolete ; 

1 See the list of Anglo-Norman words in Layamon, in Morris's 
Historical Outlines of English Accidence, p. 338. 

2 I.e. to our Lady; called 'our Lady's' because it could be suitably 
addressed to her. The whole poem contains 171 lines. 


for the costly material which it denoted is no longer in use. 
But the words throne, service, crowned, and crown, as we 
should now spell them, are still in common use, and it is 
highly interesting to observe that, even in this early poem, 
they are introduced as easily and as naturally as if they 
formed a true part and parcel of the language. The word 
krune, crown, has here a corresponding verb formed on a 
genuine English model, and is duly furnished with the Eng- 
lish pp. suffix -^and prefix i- ( in the true native 
manner ; thus shewing, that the admixture of the languages 
was one of vocabulary only, the English simply annexing such 
Anglo-Norman words as seemed likely to prove useful, and 
treating them grammatically after its own fashion. Students 
who will observe the manner in which foreign words were 
thus adopted and treated in the twelfth and thirteenth cen- 
turies, will gain a much clearer idea of the origin of modern 
English than can otherwise be obtained. 

It is observed in the Preface to Part II that no previous 
knowledge of oldest English (Anglo-Saxon) is required 
before commencing the study of the extracts contained in 
it; but to the present volume the remark hardly applies. A 
frequent reference to the Grammar in Sweet's Anglo-Saxon 
Reader will often prove of considerable advantage; and 
those who are best acquainted with that work will make the 
quickest progress with the present one. At the same time, 
the very full Glossarial Index, with its thousands of refer- 
ences, occupying as it does no less than 178 [now 190] 
pages of the book, when used in conjunction with the 
Grammatical Introduction, ought to suffice for the com- 
prehension of all the pieces here printed; and Dr. Morris, 


by this work of great labour, has laid all students of the 
subject under considerable obligation. Besides these helps, 
it will be found that the Notes deal with the principal diffi- 
culties of construction, and explain or illustrate most of the 
rarer words and forms. 

The series of Specimens of English, as exhibited in the 
three parts now completed (Part I being the last to appear), 
exhibits Extracts from sixty-six different works, ranging in 
date from A.D. 1150 to 1579, or from the reign of Stephen 
to Elizabeth. If to these we add the twenty-six extracts in 
Sweet's Anglo-Saxon Reader, we have specimens of as 
many as ninety-two different works, each in the spelling of 
the period to -which it belongs or of a few years later, and 
ranging in date over seven centuries, from Alfred to Spenser; 
after which we have still a noble and unequalled literature 
for three centuries more. Perhaps there are many who 
have never realised that there are but few languages whose 
records are so ample as to admit of this ; and surely every 
Englishman who wishes to study, step by step, the develop- 
ment of a language and of a literature, and to watch the 
progress of human thought and expression throughout a 
whole millennium, had better begin at home, with the study 


IN preparing a new Edition of this work, advantage has 
been taken of the opportunity for making such improvements 
and corrections as could best be made, under the circum- 
stances. Dr. Morris's engagements leaving him but little 
opportunity for the work, nearly all the alterations now 
found in it have been made by Mr. Mayhew and Professor 
Skeat, the former taking much the larger share in the work. 
Professor Skeat has supplied a few corrections in the text, 
added many notes, and revised the Introduction ; but Mr. 
Mayhew has carefully revised the whole work, the most 
laborious part of his contribution being the Glossarial Index, 
the whole of which he has recast and rewritten from begin- 
ning to end, verifying the references, adding new words, 
introducing hundreds of cognate forms, and bringing .into 
harmony the explanations in the Notes and Glossary, which 
in the former edition were, in several instances, at variance, 
generally because the statements in the Notes had often been 
afterwards corrected in the Glossary. We hope that the 
result of this considerable labour will be found to increase 
considerably the accuracy and usefulness of the work. In a 
review of the book which appeared in the American Journal 


of Philology, iv. 334, and written by Professor James M. 
Garnett, several inaccuracies were pointed out. A similarly 
useful review, written by Professor E. Kolbing, appeared in 
Englische Studien, vi. 92 ; but some of the suggestions there 
made, recommending considerable alterations in the text, 
could not conveniently be carried out. Due regard has, in 
other respects, been paid to the corrections contained in 
these reviews, and we here record our thanks for them. 
Professor Garnett's review concluded with the remark that 
'teachers will be grateful for the book, hoping that the 
Second Edition will shew a decided improvement.' To 
what extent this hope has been realised, we must leave it 
to readers to judge. 


VOL. I. 



[The reader may compare these with the remarks in the 
Prefaces to the Second and Third Volumes of Specimens 
of English. The occasional repetition of the same state- 
ments, almost in the same words, is, from the nature of the 
case, inevitable.] 

i. The Alphabet. The symbols which require some ex- 
planation are the following. The additional symbols not 
now in use are ]>, <5, and 3 ; the capitals of which are p, D, 
and 3- Both f> and t$ are used to represent th t with its 
two sounds, (i) that of th in thin, and (2) that of Ih in 
thine. Even in A.S. the use of these symbols is uncertain, 
and in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries no clear distinc- 
tion can be made between them, though some scribes use 
them with more or less uniformity. In Section IV, for 
example, the scribe writes ]> at the beginning of words, 
and tS in the middle or at the end. This is rather a graphic 
than a phonetic distinction. In Section XVI, only "5 is used, 
and J> does not appear. 

The character 3 ( = A. S. g) has various powers. At the 
"ginning of a word it is to be sounded asj', so that y is our 
odernj/<?; in the middle of a word it had a guttural sound 
ow lost, but still represented in our spelling by gh, as in li^t 



for light \ at the end of a word it either had the same sound, 
or (rarely) stood for z. The last use is French, and is 
hardly to be found before the fourteenth century. 

The characters u and v are frequently interchanged, as 
noticed in the Glossarial Index. It may, however, be re- 
marked that v is almost always written as u between two 
vowels, as in haue for have, diners for divers. In the 
Southern dialect we find v for f, as in vader father, vamen 
foemen. In some words, the most complete confusion pre- 
vails, as in vuel = uvel, evil ; uueles = uveles, evils ; ure or lire, 
our ; ute or vie, out ; &c. We also find uu for initial w, as 
in uuan = wan ; and vv for the same, as in we = we. V for 
u is most common initially, as in the prefix vn- = un-, vre 
= ure, vie = ute (let us), &c. 

The letter j does not occur at all in the pieces here 
printed, and only a few words (all French) occur, which 
would now be spelt with that letter l . We may notice ioie 
joy, iuglurs jugglers. In some words initial i had the sound 
of y, as in fade =ycede, went; iaf^yaf, gave; ieden-yeden, 
went ; iiuen =yiven, to give ; z'unge ^yunge, young. / also 
represents the A.S. prefix ge-, in which case it is a short 
unaccented vowel, as in ivynde, to find, w6, foe. 

Besides the above, the symbol 3 was employed, in the 
twelfth century, to represent and, as at p. 10, 1. 2 ; and 
the symbol S sometimes occurs as an abbreviation for tfa/, 
that, as in 1. 1 1 on the same page. So also f for }>#/, as at 
P. 65, 1. 3. 

2. Abbreviation. The most usual marks of contraction 
employed in Early English MSS. are few, and may soon 

1 On p. II, line 37 begins with/, but this is only a way of denoting 
that the capital 7 extends below the line. In fact, the letter j is 
nothing but a particular form of j, which came at last to have a 
distinct value. 


be learnt. The commonest are these following, their ' ex- 
pansions ' being denoted throughout this volume by the use 
of italic letters. 

A stroke over a vowel signifies m or n ; as in sit, hi, houd, 
meaning sum, him, hou;zd. 

An upward curl, above the line, signifies er ; as in ??ian^ y 
s^ue, for man*/-, serue (serve). But if this symbol follows 
the letter p, it means re ; as in p^che for prcche. It arose 
from a roughly written e, the letter r being understood. 

A small undotted i above the line means ri, the letter / 
being understood, as before; hence p l nce t c*st, for prmce, 
crzst (Christ). 

A roughly written a (a) in like manner stands for ra ; as 
in g*ce t py, for grace, pray. 

A curl, of a form which arose from a roughly written v 
(for u\ signifies ur ; as in 7ne t "o, for turne, our. 

The reason for the upward curl after p being used for re, 
arose from the fact that there was already a way of writing 
per, viz. by drawing a stroke through the tail of the p : as in 
ft'l, for peril. Sometimes this sign stood for par ; as in ty 
for party. 

A similar stroke, but curling, enabled the scribe to abbre- 
viate pro. Thus we \&\t ! fit,ue, for profit, proue (prove). 

At the end of a word, the mark _p signifies es or zi? ; and 
the mark 9 signifies z ; as in word^ for wordw or \vordzj, and 
J> 9 for ])us. 

A rare mark of contraction is o, for com or w ; as in 
&-fort, -seil, for comfort, conseil (counsel). 

Other examples of contraction are q or qd for quod or 
qwod, i. e. quoth; J>* for J?flt; p u for fou; 3 for and 1 ; tS for 
tSa/; and f for J>a/. Also ihc, itim, for i^//j, i^m (Jesus, 

1 Sometimes ant, according to the dialect. 


Jesum), where the /; came from the Greek H (long e), and 
the c from the Greek C (2, j). 

Sometimes a word is merely indicated by its initial letter 
or by a few letters. Examples may be found on p. 10, 
where k is for king, Steph for Stephne, b for biscop ; and 
again, on p. 13, Will, Willm, for WiMw, WilWm. 

On p. 96, the symbol & occurs, which arose out of a 
peculiar way of writing the Latin word ef, as may easily be 
seen in any very early MS., such as the Lindisfarne MS. of 
the Gospels in the British Museum. This was transplanted 
into English, to denote and, as having the same sense. The 
original use is preserved to this day in the contraction &c., 
to be read as etc. = et cetera. 

The above remarks will enable any one, after a short 
practice, to read early English in the original MSS. ; par- 
ticularly if the student will at first take care to select a piece 
of which a printed copy can be obtained, and will compare 
the MS. with the print. Latin MSS. are far more difficult, 
and abound in contractions, the words being much abbre- 
viated. Take, for example, the word fce = fac/e, p. 144, 
1. 87 ; and the sentence Qod uobis p. d. p. for Qwod uobis 
^restore dignetur per, in 1. 85 on the same page. 

Sometimes the scribe omits to mark a contraction, in 
which case the missing letters are supplied within square 
brackets. Thus she[n]de stands for shewde, which should 
have been written shede; but the mark over the e is omitted; 
see p. 116, 1. 177. In other cases, letters have been sup- 
plied, within square brackets, for grammatical reasons. Thus 
at p. 182,1. 413, the proper form is henne, but the scribe 
wrote hen. It is easy to tell why he did so, viz. because the 
final e is elided in the scansion of the line. 

3. Pronunciation. On this difficult subject the student 


may consult Mr. Ellis's work on Early English Pronuncia- 
tion, and Mr. Sweet's History of English Sounds. Owing 
to the great changes that have taken place in our pronuncia- 
tion, it is not easy for the reader to gain any clear ideas as to 
how Early English sounded when spoken, unless he will take 
some pains to examine the matter for himself, first putting 
.aside all preconceived notions evolved out of his inevitable 
ignorance. The pronunciation of Anglo-Saxon, as carefully 
explained in Mr. Sweet's Anglo-Saxon Reader, is here of 
great assistance, as the pronunciation of English in the twelfth 
and thirteenth centuries was very similar to it, with certain 
modifications, for which see Sweet's Middle English Primer. 
The best general rule that can be given for approximating to 
the sounds of Early English vowels, is to give to a, e, z', o, u 
their present continental values ; i. e. to pronounce them as 
in German or Italian, carefully avoiding being misled by the 
peculiar sounds which occur in our familiar modern English. 

An account of the pronunciation of English in the time 
of Chaucer, and in the dialect used by him, will be found 
in the Preface to the edition of the poet's ' Man of Lawes 
Tale,' printed for the Clarendon Press. In Chapter V of 
Early English Pronunciations, by A. J. Ellis, p. 417, we find 
the following important remarks upon the ' Rhymed Poems 
of the Thirteenth Century and Earlier.' 

* In approaching these earlier poems we stand already 
upon very secure ground. The values of a, az\ au> e^ ei, eu, 
i^ ie, 0, oi\ ou as (aa or a, ai, au, ee or e, ei or ai, eu, ii or i, ee, 
oo v0r o, ui, oou or ou) * have every appearance of being the 

1 Mr. Ellis denotes sounds by his paloeotype alphabet, founded on. 
the continental values of the letters, and always writes palseotype letters 
between marks of parenthesis, as here and further on. He defines (a, 
e, i, o) as having respectively the sounds of a in Ital. matto; e in 
Eng. met ; the initial e in Eng, event ; and o in .Fr. homme (Ital. o 
aperto). Next (aa, ee, ii, oo) are the same sounds lengthened, as in 


most ancient possible, and the only doubtful points turn on 
[certain] fine distinctions. . . . There was no longer a 
common or recognised superior dialect, for the English 
language had long ceased to be that of the nobility. From 
the Anglo-Saxon Charters of the Conqueror down to the 
memorable [English] proclamation issued by Henry III, and 
for a century afterwards, the English language was ignored 
by the authorities, and was only used by or for " lewd men." 
But there was a certain amount of education among the 
priests, who were the chief writers, and who saved the 
dialect from falling into the helplessness of the peasant 

' The chief points of difficulty are the use of [written] ou 
for (uu, u), the use of uu for (yy, y) and even (*, e), and 
of eu for (yy) 1 . The meaning of ea, eo, oa, practically unused 
in the fourteenth century,, has also to be determined . . . 
It will be found that ou was not used at all for (uu, u) till 
near the close of the thirteenth century, when the growing 
use of u for (yy) or (i, e), rendered the meaning of u un- 
certain. But in the pure thirteenth-century writings u only 
is employed for (uu), and becomes a test orthography. The 
combination eu or ew does not seem to have been used 
except as (eu). The combinations ea, eo, so frequently 
rhyme with *-, and interchange with it orthographically, that 

Eng. father, mare, eve, and the former o of Ital. uomo. (U) has the 
sound of ou in English Louisa. The diphthongs (ai, ei, au, eu, ui, ou) 
are compounded of (a) and (i), &c., and resemble ai in Ger. hain ; 
Port, ei; au in Ger. haus; eu in Ital. Europa', French out; ou in 
Dutch ou, not far from Eng. ou in house, especially as sounded in 
provincial English. 

1 (U) has been denned, in the last note, as having the sound of on in 
Lottisa; (uu) is the same sound prolonged. By (y) is meant the 
ordinary German dotted u, as in liicke\ (yy) being the same sound 
prolonged, as in Ger. gemiith. By (i) is meant the sound of * in 
or river. 


their meaning was probably intentionally (ea, eo), with the 
stress on the first element, and the second element obscure, 
so that the result scarcely differed from (ee') or even (ee) J . 
The combination oa was either (aa) or (aa) 2 . The conso- 
nants seem to have been the same as in the fourteenth 
century, although 5 may possibly have retained more of the 
(g\i) than the (j) character V 


The following is a scheme of the most usual etymological 
ilues of the E. E. 4 vowels, chiefly according to Dr. Strat- 

mn. The examples are all to be found in the Glossary, 
/hich gives both the meaning of the word and at least one 
iference to some passage where it occurs. 

As the relations of the E. E. to the A.S. vowels are some- 
what complex, the scheme is given in two forms. The 
)rmer shews the historical descent from Anglo-Saxon down- 
wards, whilst the latter shews, conversely, how to refer the 

E. vowels to their A.S. originals. Both schemes deal with 
le symbols only, without consideration of pronunciation. 

(A) Scheme of the A.S. vowels, with their E. E. 
equivalents. ^ 

Short Vowels, a. The A.S. a was commonly retained, 
especially before a consonant followed by e. Before m and n 

1 By the (') following (ee) is meant simple voice, as in the slight 
sound of e in English open. The reader may simply pronounce Early 
English ea and eo as (ee), i. e. as Eng. a in mare. 

2 By (aa) is meant Ger. ah in mahnen ; hardly differing from (aa), 
but a little deeper, approaching a in all. 

3 By (^h) i s meant the guttural g in Ger. ivicge ; by (j) is meant the 
sound of y in Eng. yet. 

* E. E. = Early English, is here used to denote the language of the 
extracts in this volume (A.D. 1150-1300). M. E. = Middle English, 
conveniently denotes the language from A.D. 1300-1485 (accession of 
Henry VII). In the Glossary the symbol M. E. is used in a wider 
sense, so as to include E. E. also. 


il was at first retained, but was afterwards frequently (though 
not universally) changed into o. Examples : (i) name, far en, 
sake; cam, fram; can, man; samnest; hand, lang. Also 
(2) from ; mon ; hond, long. 

83. The A.S. a was at first retained, but after awhile dis- 

i appeared altogether. In its place we find E. E. a, <?, and ea, 

the last of which is hardly ever found in the M. E. period. 

Examples: (i) dai (from dag), m<zi (from mag); masse, 

fastnen. (2) bac, da]), fader, smaL (3) et (at), fist, gres. 

(4) Ipear, wear, wealer. 

ea. The A.S. ea was sometimes retained, but not for long. 
Most commonly it became a, but <z and e are also found for it. 
In the M. E. period it appears only as a (or o) and e, the 
former being much the commoner. Examples: (i) learn, 
eald (old), earm. (2) barn, cwalm, haldcn. (3) csrd, ccrfeS, 
barn. (4) eld (old), erd, erm. 

eo. The A.S. eo was at first retained, or occasionally re- 

] placed by le. But its usual representative was e,. as in M. E. 

Examples : (i) eorl, eore, heorte. (2) hicrte. (3) erl, ere, herte. 

e. The A.S. e was almost always retained. It was very 
seldom written eo. The usual M. E. symbol was also e. 
Examples: (i)*sende, telle, ^enche. (2) beore (for dere^S), 

i. The A.S. / was retained ; as bidde, binde, binne, in. 

u. The A.S. u was retained; as (i) grund, under, wulfes, 
ivnnd. In M. E. we usually find ground, wound. But o 
also appears, chiefly before liquids; as (2) comen, onder ; 
wode, note (nut). 

y. The A.S. y was changed into u. In the M. E. period it 
was (in general) further changed into i, as in modern Eng- 
lish. Examples : cussen, dude,fulde,fulle, verb. 

Long Vowels, a. The A.S. a was commonly retained 
sit first, but in M. E. is seldom to be found except in the 
Northern dialect, in which it is extremely common. It 


usually gave place to o (long), which in M. E. was frequently 
written oo. The symbols ce and ea are also found, but were 
not of long continuance. Examples : (i) ba,fay, gal, gasf, 
halt. (2) fo, sb. ^\.,foh,gost', written oo in hoot = hot, bids, 
from A.S. hdtan ; written oa in boa = bo = K.S. Id. (3) cen, 
gcef, sb. pi., seen'. (4) heali (for half). 

se. The A.S. d was at first retained, but soon disappeared. 
Its usual representatives were a and e, as in M. E. ; but ea is 
also found. Examples: (i) ar, hafcene, reed, rceden. (2) late, 
verb, rade, verb and sb., slope. (3) dfl t leren, mel, se. (4) 
heale, leaden, meane, meast. 

ea. The A.S. ea * was at first retained, though usually re- 
placed by e (long), which in M. E. was frequently written ee, 
except in some words (as heh). The symbol <B is tolerably 
raimon in Layamon and the Ormulum. A very curious 
substitution is z'(also written^ in M. E.), which occurs also 
modern English. The Kentish has ia. Examples : (i) 
ieade, dream, lean, leas. (2) bred, drem, de, sb., heh. (3) 
tfS, hceh, Ian. (4) hi} ; mod. E. high. (5) diath. 
eo. The A.S. e'o x was at first retained, but usually gave way 
long e, frequently written ee in M. E. Occasional varieties 
ire i (still found), ie and u. Examples : (i) deope, deore, leode, 
eof. (2) dep, der, lef, sek. (3) liht, sb., mod. E. light, from 
L.S. le'oht. (4) bien, dier, lief; pieite, dat. of pief. (5) btfiS, 
ire ; from A.S. bfdft. 

e. The A.S. /was retained. In modern English it com- 
lonly appears as ee, though the pronunciation has changed. 
Examples': demen, grene, greten, seche. 

i. The A.S. i was retained. It still appears as /" in modern 
English, though the pronunciation has become diphthongal, 
samples : lif^ sb., likien, min, tSi. 

1 Usually printed ed, e6, as in the Glossary. 


o. The A.S. 6 was retained. In modern English it is 
usually written oo, though the sound has changed. Examples : 
dom, don, god adj., mom. 

u. The A.S. u was retained. In M.E. it frequently ap- 
pears as on, though without a change in the pronunciation. 
Modern English has commonly retained ou (or ow\ but has 
changed the sound. Examples : buhe, bur, toun, out. 

y. The A.S./ became u; but M. E. and modern English 
commonly employ the symbol i in corresponding words. 
Examples : fur, huredt, tune. Occasionally ui appears, as 
in huide, to hide. 

(B) Scheme of the E. E. vowels, with their A.S. 

Short Vowels. 

a (i) = A.S. a] chiefly before final m or n, or before m 
or n followed by another consonant : as cam, from ; can, 
man; samnest; hand, lang. Also before a consonant fol- 
lowed by e : as name, far en, sake. See also o (2). 

a (2) = A.S. a] as bac, bap, fader, smal. 

a (3) = A.S. ea ; as barn, cwalm, halden. 

<z (i) = A.S. & ; as da>i (A.S. dag), meet (A.S. mag), masse, 

& (2) = A.S. ea ; as cerd, cerfe, btzrn. 

e (i) = A.S. e ; as sende, telle, penche. 

e (a) = A.S. CR ; as et, at (A.S. a>t\fest, gres. 

e (3) = A.S. ea ; as eld, adj., erd, erm. 

e (4) = A.S. eo ; as erl, erfte, herte. See eo (i). 

ea (i) = A.S. ea ; as ozr, w/^, adj., earm. 

ea (2) = A.S. a', as pear, wear, weater* 

eo (i) = A.S. eo ; as ?r/, ^r<S^, ^^rA?. 

tfo (2) = A.S. e\ as beoreft. Not very common. 

z (i) = A.S. /; as ^/aa?, 3w^, ^';^, /. 

ilf (i) = A.S. eo j as hierte. Not very common. 


o (i) = A.S. o; as lord, for, prep., sorge, word. 

o (2) = A.S. a (being put for E. E. a) ; as from (mfrom- 

ird)', mon\ hond, long. See a (i). 

(3) = A.S. u, chiefly before liquids; as in comen, onder; 
also in iv ode, note (nut). 

u (i) = A.S. u; zsgrund 1 , under, wulues, wund 1 . 
u (2) = A.S.jy ; as cussen, dude, fulde, fulle verb. 

Long Vowels. 

a (4) = A.S. a ; as ba,fay, gal, gasf, halt, 
a (5) = A.S. ce ; as late, verb, rfl^fc, verb and sb., slape. 
CB (3) = A.S. ce ; as &r, hce^ene, reed, rczden. 
ce. (4) = A.S. d\ as CEH, gcct sb. pi., sceri. 
ce (5) = A.S. /#, especially in Layamon ; as daft, hceh, Icrn. 
e (5) = A.S. /; as demen, grene, greten, seche. 
e (6) = A.S. &\ as del, leren, mel, se. 
e (7) = A.S. e'a] as bred, drem, de^> sb., heh. 
e(S) = A.S. eo ; as dep, der, lef, sck. 
.ea (3) = A.S. e'a ; as deade, dream, lean, leas, 
ea (4) = A.S. d ; as heali. Not very common. 
ea (5) = A.S. (. ; as heale, leaden, meane, meast. 
eo (3) = A.S. /0; as deope, deor, leode, leof. 

1 (2) = A.S. z ; as /?/*sb., likien, mm, cV#. 

i(3) = A.S. / or /6?; as ^3 (A.S. y^/^); /^/ sb. (A.S. 

ze (2) = A.S. eo', as 3z'^, ^r, /?>/" (A.S. be'on, deor, le'of}; 
pieue, dat. of J>t'ef(A.S. fie'of). So also occasional w=.A.S. 
/a; as <#a/fc (A.S. A&8). 

^? (4) = A.S. 6 ; as dom, don, god adj., ;^w<?. 

o (5) = A.S. <2 ; a.s/0 sb. ^\.,foh, gosf. Cf. 00 in hoot = hoi. 
bids, from A.S. M/tfw ; 00 in boa = bo = A.S. bd. 

u (3) = A.S. u\ as <5w^, <5z/r, tun, ut. At a later period, ou 
is more usual, as in lour, toun, out. 

1 At a later period written ground, wound 


u (4) = A.S.y; as/r, hurcde, tunc. Also written m\ as 
in huide, to hide. 

u (5) = A.S. e'o; as <focs are (A.S. M>($). 
Some scribes affect peculiar modes of spelling, so that 
each piece is, in some degree, spelt in a way of its own; 
but the above values are the most usual. As instances of 
variation we may note Iraed for brad, broad; cEorl for 
eorl, earl; cclen for eten, to eat. The vowel i is also used 
in place of 3, as in dcei=d(E^, A.S. dccg\ and the vowel u 
in place of w, as in duelle, to dwell, suor, swore. 

As regards the consonants, we may briefly remark that 
the A.S.y is written as u ( = v) in E. E. in the middle of a 
word, between two vowels ; as leuen, to believe, A.S. led/an, &c. 

The A.S. c becomes ch before e and /; as chald, chapmen, 
chcas. cheose\ chid, child, chirm, riche. We even find lick 
from A.S. lie. 

The A.S. g becomes y, 3, $h, z', h, w, in certain positions ; 
as yeme, ymen. berr^hen, d&i, folhin, sorewe. Hence such 
varieties as fokwen, folgen, folhin, folfyhen, folyn ; sorewe, 
sorewe, sorge, son'y. The A.S. h at the end of a word or before 
/ passes into a guttural sound represented by a similar variety 
of spellings; as heye^ hey, heh, hei (high); hi^te, Ipo^e, Ipouh/, &c. 

Some scribes, especially the one who wrote out the piece 
whence Section XV is taken, use g for 3 initially ; as get, ger 
for yf, yr. 

In Section I we find wr& for wurd^ wrld for wurld; it is 
not unlikely that the scribe, in pronunciation, really dropped 
the initial w, and put w for u to mark this. The habit is 
very common, as in Shropshire, where wood, wool, and 
woman, are 'ood, 'ool, 'ooman. So also wrst, 17 (Jes.j 217; 
wrj>, id. 355. Note also that, after w, the A.S. i may become 
o or u, as in wole, wuk, for A.S. wih\ wusie for A.S. wis/e. 

It will be observed, from the above list, that the short 



and long vowels are not distinguished in writing. Almost 
the only general rule for discriminating them is that a vowel 
followed by a doubled consonant or by two consonants is 
short, as in hand, telle, under, &c. Modern English is of 
some assistance here ; thus ful = full, has the u short, but 
ful = foul, has the u long. But modern English occasionally 
shortens a vowel ; thus A.S. rtad is now red, and the words 
bread, dead, in which the spelling intimates that the vowel 
was originally long, as was the case, are now pronounced 
like bred and ded. 

The following etymological table of equivalent vowels in 
Anglo-Saxon, Old Saxon, Icelandic, Gothic, and Old High 
German may prove useful : 





0. H. G. 

a, ce, ea 





e, eo 


e, ja 

a, i, ai 


i, eo 








u, au 

0, U 

li > y 


u y 

u, au 

u, o 

a (x} 


a, &, ei 


e, ei 



a, x f 




6, a 

se, ey, a 

o, e, au 

uo, ou, a, 6 











u > y 


u, y 






ou, 6 



j> J u 


io, ie 

In treating of the consonants, we may range A.S., O.S., 
Icel. and Goth, all under one category, which we may call 
Low-German ; and the table is as follows : 

Low. G. 






k or'c 
ch, c 









ph, f 

b 1 



At the end of a word, or in the middle ; not initially. 


One example of the use of the above table may suffice. 
The mod. E. long o answers to A.S. d\ so that a stone is 
A.S. stdn. For A.S. stdn we find O. Saxon sfe'n, Icel. 
steinn, Gothic stains, O.H. German stein, in accordance with 
the table. The interchange of vowels in the older forms of 
these languages is far more regular than might be supposed. 

4. Punctuation. Marks of punctuation occur in some of 
the MSS., but are much less exact in value than those in 
present use. The punctuation of the MSS. is adhered to 
in sections I-IV, VI-XI, XIII, XIV, and XVII. In the 
poetical pieces this punctuation commonly has a metrical, 
not a grammatical value, so that the punctuation of the prose 
and poetical pieces must be considered separately. 

Prose. In the prose MSS. a dot () is very common, and is 
used with variable value, but usually marks some break in the 
sense, such as would now be represented by a comma, semi- 
colon, or full stop. The beginning of a new sentence is 
usually denoted by the employment of a capital letter, but 
not invariably. Sometimes we must insert a stop where the 
MS. has none, and neglect the stop in the MS. Thus, at 
p. 7, 1. 177, 'fan seiecS haw god Je gelty, mannen 56 sene- 
3eden an jeur e'cenesse ' means ' then saith God to them, viz 
to the guilty men, Ye sinned in your eternity/ 

Besides the dot, the scribes also employ a mark resembling 
an inverted semi-colon (5). See p. 18, 1. 25. This is usually 
a somewhat long pause, answering to a semi-colon or full 
stop. Sometimes it answers to a note of interrogation ; see 
p. 19, 1. 67. At p. 1 8, 1. 13, the dot between square brackets 
is inserted by the editor to mark a pause. A comma never 
occurs; the comma in 1. 14 (B), p. 21, should have been 
printed as a full stop. The commas in Section IX are in- 
serted to assist the reader. 

METRE. . XXXlli 

Poetry. In the Ormulum (Sect. V), the punctuation is the 
editor's, on the modern system; so also in sections XII, 
XVIII, and XIX. In section VI, the stops () and (!) are 
purely metrical, the latter usually denoting the lighter pause 
at the end of a ' section ' or half-time, and the former the 
longer pause, at the end of a completed line. In section XI, 
there is a metrical stop () at the end of every line, but the 
end of the half-line is rarely marked; see, however, lines 28, 
3 6 , 37, 38, 39, 56, 76. In Section XIV, there is a stop (with 
few exceptions) at the end of each l half-line,' and the lines, 
as printed, are to be read by pairs. In Section XV, the 
punctuation is the editor's, but there are a few exceptions in 
this instance. The MS. has, in fact, a few dots occurring 
in the middle of a line, which is shewn by retaining them 
within marks of parenthesis ; see 1. 2429. These dots mark 
the caesural pause. In the Owl and the Nightingale, the 
punctuation is the editor's ; but in the Moral Ode, the stops 
are those of the MS., and have a metrical value, as explained 

5. Metre. It is remarkable that the favourite Anglo- 
Saxon alliterative metre, examples of which may be seen 
in Sweet's Anglo-Saxon Reader, is not exactly represented 
by any piece in the present selection. Those which most 
nearly approach it are the extracts from Layamon, the 
Bestiary, and the Proverbs of Alfred (Sections VI, XII, 
and XIV). In these poems, examples of alliteration are 
common, as in the following l : 

And leofliche him /zeren, 

and Aselden hine for /zserre; (vi. 25.) 

Welle >$eg is tat Ail 

Sat is /#euen-riche ; (xii. 27.) 

1 Observe that a pair of short lines is here taken to form one com- 
plete line of alliterative verse. 

VOL. I. C 


He is one wonne 
wildest 7#ayster; (xiv. 51.) 

If we examine the metre of Anglo-Saxon poetry, or of 
the alliterative poetry of the fourteenth century (such as 
William of Palerne and Piers Plowman), we shall observe 
that the alliteration generally falls in such a way that two 
of the rime-letters (as they are called) come in the former 
half of the verse, and one in the latter; whereas, in the 
above examples, this arrangement is precisely reversed, as 
is very commonly the case. On the other hand, the old 
arrangement occurs in such lines as the following: 

Ich 7*atte ^engist 

#brs is mi broker; (vi. 63.) 
He ou wolde wyssye 

wisliche Jringes; (xiv. 29.) 
J/ildeliche ich wunye 

J/yne leoue freond; (xiv. 37.) 

In general, the poets of this period were quite satisfied 
with obtaining only two rime-letters. 

Ut of >an /code 

to uncufte /onde; (vi. 79.) 
J)at beo'S an us /eole, 

J^at we /seren scolden ; (vi. 89.} 

But the most remarkable point is the frequent introduction 
of rimes, so that the whole line is cut up into a pair of 
sections of variable length, each containing sometimes four, 
but most commonly three accented syllables. In the fol- 
lowing examples, the accented syllables are marked by an 
accent over the vowel-sound in each. The rimes are com- 
monly double, as mfather, rather, and are denoted by italics. 
In some cases we have both rime and alliteration, the 
alliteration being likewise denoted by italic initial letters : 

J>at ouer sic weoren icifmen 

jelcufte %iimcn\ (vi. 3.) 


freo scfpen %>6de 

comen mid j>an.fW^; (vi. 7.) 

5if heo grift sohten, 

and of his freond-scipe rohten; (vi. 19.) 

Vlany of the rimes are imperfect, being mere assonances, 
i. e. only alike in the vowel-sound. Such as these : 

Bilseuen jcullen ]>a fz'ue 

pa jexte seal forS l/$e; (vi. 77.) 

J)er wes moni cniht str^wg 

heo drojen heore scipen vppe ]>e land; (vi. 185.) 

Owing to the variable lengths of the sections or half-lines, 
which are sometimes treated (as shewn above) as if they 
were complete lines, duly furnished with rimes, the metre 
of Layamon's Brut admits of many variations, which it is 
not necessary here further to particularise. Sometimes the 
number of accents in the section of a poem of this character 
is reduced to two, and the number of accents in the complete 
line (or couplet) to four, of which there are several ex- 
amples in the Bestiary and in the Proverbs of Alfred. A 
good example of a rimed couplet, with four accents, is the 
following : 

lude and st///* 

his owene Vfille ; (xiv. 439.) 

Or the couplet may contain/^ accents : 

2?etere J>e were 

i^oren ]>at he nere ; (xiv. 447.) 

This variation of the number of accents in a line shews 
that the laws of metre were but imperfectly understood, as 
it introduces an irregularity which would now hardly be 

There are two forms of the section or half-line that 

f serve particular notice. These are (i) the regular section 
three accents, with an accent on the penultimate syllable; 


and (2) the regular section of four accents, with an accent 
on the ultimate syllable. Examples are these : 

(1) And seiden J>at heo walden; (vi. 23.) 
De leun stant on hille; (xii. i.) 

Ne gabbe Jm ne schotte; (xiv. 411.) 

(2) Ah hit ilomp an 6'Ser J>a; (vi. 244.) 
Se sunne swideS al his fligt; (xii. 70.) 
For ofte tiinge brekej> bon ; (xiv. 425.) 

If we prefix a section of the latter form to one of the former, 
we have the metre of the Ormulum (Section V) : 

And nu ice wile shsewenn BUW 
summ-del wij>)> Godess hellpe; (v. 962.) 

The great peculiarity of this poem is its remarkable 
regularity, to which the poet adheres throughout with the 
utmost care, so that we are able to gather from it many 
valuable hints as to accent and pronunciation. The long 
line thus obtained is good and forcible, but in a poem of 
so great a length is felt to be almost mercilessly monotonous. 
The author does not allow his lines to rime, but the addition 
of a rime gives us an excellent form of metre, of which 
several examples occur in the Bestiary, though the first 
unaccented syllable of the section is often dropped, as in 
the fourth below: 

His hope is al to godeward 

And of his luue he lereS ; 
Sat is te sunne sikerlike, 

Sus his sigte he beteff ; (xii. 104.) 

A reference to p. 137 will shew that lereS and beteS are 
considered as forming a rime, though it is really but an 
assonance. At pp. 136, 137, we see the variations that 
can easily be introduced into this form of metre. Thus 
we may drop the initial unaccented syllables of each section, 
and introduce rimes at the end of every section ; with a very 
pleasing result: 


Al is man so is tis trn 

wiilde ge nu \lsten 
Old in hise sinnes Aern 

or he bicumeS Glisten. 

Excellent examples of Orm's line, but with the addition of 
rime, may be found in Praed's poems : 

Twelve years ago I made a mock 

Of filthy trades and traffics ; 
I wondered what they meant by stock; 

I wrote delightful sapphics. 

The metre of the Moral Ode (pp. 194-221) is practically 
just the same, the difference being one to the eye only. 
The two sections are, in fact, united in one long line, a 
perfect example being seen in 1. 40, p. 196: 

fe mon fat wile syker beo 
to habbe godes blysse. 

Many of the lines are, however, more or less imperfect, 
owing to the frequent dropping of an unaccented syllable, 
especially at the beginning of a line. One thing the student 
should, however, particularly remark, viz. that the last accent 
in every line is invariably 1 on the penultimate syllable, so 
that we obtain from it many important data for determining 
the use of the final -e in Chaucer. The only endings that 
occur throughout are the unaccented syllables -e, -ep, -en, 
-em, -ye, -er, -es, the first of these being by far the most 
common. Whoever, having a good ear, will ponder upon 
this matter, will be led to see clearly, for himself, that the 
full sounding of the final -e, on which it is so necessary 
for a teacher of Early English to dwell, is a real 'thing, and 
not a mere fiction of grammarians. The same conclusion 
may be drawn from the metre of the Ormulum. 

Reverting once more to the section marked (i) on p. xxxvi., 

1 In 1. 125 (p. 202), the form Horn is, of course, an error of the^ scribe 
for Home ; see 1. 90, p. 200, and 1. 323, p. 216. 

X x X viii 1NTR OD UC TION. 

we may observe that, with the addition of rime, it is the 
favourite metre of the author of King Horn, as in these 
examples : 

fat folc hi giinne qu///<? 

And churchen for to ielle; (xix. 61.) 

To schupe schulle 5e iiinde, 

And sinke to )>e gninde ; (xix. 103.) 

But the poet constantly drops the initial unaccented syl- 
lable, as in 

Into schupes \>6rde 

At fe furste v6rde\ (xix. 113.) 

He also allows himself numerous licenses, frequently drop- 
ping unaccented syllables in various parts of the line, 
alteripg the number of accents, and putting single rimes 
for double ones. The general effect is good, and the lines 
vigorous, but modern metre would not approve of the 
bringing of two accented syllables into close juxtaposition. 
Examples are : 

Bi >e se-side ; (xix. 135 ; cf. 203.) 

Bi pe se-brinke; (141.) 

And ]>i fair-nesse; (213.) 

Ne nojt in J>e halle; (255.) 

f>e king sede sone; (483.) 

f>at his blod hatte; (608.) 

Lastly, the section marked (2) on p. xxxvi., with the ad- 
dition of rime, occurs both in King Horn and in Havelok ; 
as in the examples : 

'Al Denenjark, and al mi f/ 

Til that mi son' of helde b/; (xviii. 386.) 

pe stuard was in herte wJ, 

For he nuste what to do; (xix. 275.) 

And ladde wij) him AJ>elbi7/j, 

\>e gode stuard of his hus; (xix. 1539.) 

It is not particularly common, because both authors greatly 
preferred the double rime. The chief difference between 



poems is in the normal length of the sections; In 
torn the accents are commonly three, but in Havelok 
)mmonly _/0#r. The use of four accents, with the embel- 
lishment of a double rime, gives us section (2) with the 
fMition of an unaccented syllable; which is the normal 
e in Havelok : 

And leue that it mighte wone 
In he'uene-riche with godes sone ; 

(xviii. 406.) 

When the rime is only single, we have the familiar metre 
so common in Scott's ' Marmion/ as well as in the fourteenth 
century. Poems in a similar metre are Barbour's 'Bruce/ 
the ' Cursor Mundi/ Hampole's ' Pricke of" Conscience/ 
Chaucer's ' House, of Fame/ &c. 

The loss of final e reduced the double rimes of such 
poems as the Moral Ode to single rimes; this gave us 
the familiar hymn-metre known as the common measure. 
Cowper's John Gilpin is also a good example of it. Both 
in Havelok and Horn some of the double rimes are im- 
perfect. Examples in the former are : bothe, rode, blode, 
unless a line riming with lothe has been lost (430) ; harde, 
crakede 1 (567); rede, bethe* (694); alle repeated (745). Ex- 
amples in the latter are much commoner, such as biwesle, 
laste (5); sones, gomes (21); leste, wersle (27); gripe, smite 
(51): more, yre (95); adrenche, of-pmche (105); ymge, 
tfyinge (127); Suddene, kenne (143) j Westernesse, blisse (157); 
gumes, i-cume (161); &c., &c. 

For further remarks upon Metre, see Specimens, Part II, 
p. xvi, and the Introductions to the Selections from Chaucer 
in the Clarendon Press- Series; also Dr. Guest's History 

1 Dr. Morris ingeniously corrects these lines thus : 

And caste the knaue so harde adoun[e] 
That he crakede ther hise croune. 

2 Unless we read bede, i.e. bid, which makes good sense. 


of English Rhythms, and Dr. Schipper's Englische Metrik, 
which is the latest work upon this subject. 


From historical testimony, and an examination of the, 
literary records of the thirteenth arid fourteenth centuries, 
we learn that the English speech was represented by three 
principal dialects. 1 

1. The Northern dialect, spoken throughout the Lowlands 
of Scotland, Northumberland, Durham, and nearly the whole 
of Yorkshire. Roughly speaking, the Humber and Ouse 
formed the southern boundary of this area, while the Pennine 
Chain determined its limits to the west. 

2. The Midland dialect, spoken in the counties to the west 
of the Pennine Chain, in the East-Anglian counties, and in 
the whole of the Midland district. The Thames formed 
the southern boundary of this region. 

3. The Southern dialect, spoken in all the counties south 
of the Thames ; in Somersetshire, Gloucestershire, and por- 
tions of Herefordshire and Worcestershire. 

There is no doubt that the Midland dialect exercised an 
influence upon the Southern dialect wherever it happened 
to be geographically connected with it, just as the Northum- 
brian acted upon the adjacent Midland dialects; and this 
enables us to understand that admixture of grammatical 
'forms which is to be found in some of our early English 

7. These dialects 2 are distinguished from each other by 
the uniform employment of certain grammatical inflexions. 

L See Higden's account of these dialects ; Specimens, part ii, p. 240. 
2 The Northern, Midland, and Southern dialects are sometimes desig- 
nated as Northumbrian, Mercian, and West-Saxon. 


A convenient test is to be found in the inflexion of the 
plural number, ptmxit tense, indicative mood. 

The Northern dialect commonly employs -es (dropped 
when we, ye, or thai actually precedes), the Midland -en, and 
the Southern -eth, as the inflexion for all persons of the 
, plural present indicative. 1 


ist pers. hop-es, 2 hop-*, 3 hop-elk, we hope. 
2nd hop-es, hop-en, hop-eth, ye hope. 
3rd hop-es, hop-en, hop-eth, they hope. 
The inflexions of the singular number, though no absolute 
test of dialect, are of value in enabling us to separate the 
West-Midland from the East-Midland. 

The West-Midland conjugated its verb in the singular 
number and present tense almost like the Northern dialect. 


ist pers. hop-e, hop-*j. 

2nd hop-es, hop-es. 

3rd hop-^r, hop-es. 

The West-Midland of Shropshire seems to have employed 
the Southern inflexion -est and -eth, as well as -es, in the 2nd 
and 3rd persons singular indicative. 

The East-Midland dialect, 4 like the Southern, conjugated 
its verb in the sing. pres. indie, as follows : 
ist pers. hop-*, 
2nd hop-es f, 
3rd hop-eth. 

Some of the East-Midland dialects geographically con- 
cted with the Northern seem to have occasionally employed 

1 Observe the double use; (i)jgj&^j(2)^&^j^.r. 

2 This -es occurs also in the 2nd pi. imperative instead of ~eth. 

3 The -n is frequently dropped in all persons. 

4 For its two chief subdivisions and their characteristics, see Prefaces 
'Genesis and Exodus,' and 'An Old English Miscellany.' 



the inflexion -es in the 2nd and 3rd pers. as well as -est and 
-eth. It is mostly found in poetical writers, who used it for 
the sake of obtaining an extra syllable riming with nouns pi. 
and adverbs in -es. 

The West-Midland is further distinguished from the East- 
Midland dialect in employing the inflexion -es for -est in the 
2nd pers. sing, preterite of weak verbs. We also find, in the 
West-Midland, the terminations -us, -ud, in place of -es, -ed. 

8. The following differences between the Northern and 
Southern dialects are worth noticing. 



-eth in the same. 


-es in all persons of the 
pi. pres. indie. 1 and 
-es in all persons of the -e } -est, -eth (-th) in the same. 

sing. pres. indie. 2 

3. No inflexion of person 
in the sing, or pi. of the 
preterite indie, of regular 
verbs -ed\ as ist loved, 
2nd loved, 3rd loved (sing. 
and plural). 

4. Dropping of final e in the 
pt. t. 2nd person of strong 
verbs, as spak, spakest; 
segh, sawest. 

5. Infinitives drop the final 
-en (-e\ as sing, to sing. 

Retention of the inflexions 
-ede, -edest, -ede, sing.; as 
ist lovede, 2nd lovedest, 3rd 
lovede\ -en (pi.), as ist, 
2nd, 3rd loveden. 

2nd person, pt. t., of strong 
verbs ends in -e, as spek-e, 
spakest -j se$-e t sawest. 

Infinitives retain the final -en 
or -<?, as sing-en, sing-e t to 

1 The - is dropped when the pronoun we, ye, or thai immediately 
precedes. Dropped when / or he immediately precedes. 




6. At for to, as sign of the 
infinitive, e. g. at fight, 
to fight. 

7. .?/, J//A/, shall, should. 

8. Present or imperfect par- 
ticiples end in -and (or 

9. Omission of the prefixjy- 
or i- in past participles, 
e. g. broken. 

10. The final -en in past par- 
ticiples is never dropped. 

11. No infinitives in -i, -ie, 
-jr, or -j^. 

12. No plurals in -<?#, -n, 
except eghen, hosen, oxen, 
schoon,fan (foes). 

13. The plurals br ether, chil- 
der, kuy (ky, cows), hend 

1 4. 1 The genitive of nouns 
(feminine ends in -es. 

15. No genitive plural in 

i6J Adjectives drop all inflex- 
lions of number and case, 
Jexcept alter, alther, alder, 
|of all ; bather, of both. 

17. Definite article 


At as a sign of the infinitive 
is wholly unknown in this 
dialect. <s^< 

Schal, scholde (schulde). 

Present or imperfect parti- 
ciples end in -inde (-ing). 

Retention of y- or i- in past 

participles, e.g. y-broke, 

y-broken (i-broke, i-broken}. 

The final -en is often repre- 
sented by -<?, e. g. y-broke 
= y-broken ; i-fare = z- 
faren (gone). 

Numerous infinitives in -/, 
-t'e, -y, or -ye, as hatie, 
lovie, \onky, &c. 

A large number of nouns 
form their plurals in -en. 

The plurals children, brethren 
(brothren], ken (kuri), hond- 
en (honde). 

The genitive of nouns femi- 
rtine ends in -e. 

Genitive plural in -<#& re- 
tained as late as A.D. 1387. 

Adjectives retain many in- 
flexions of number and 

unin- Definite article inflected : \at 




fleeted: pat a. demonstra- 
tive adjective. 

1 8. per, }>ir (these). 

19. Ic,ik,2(l). 

20. Sco, sho (she). 

21. Th at, thair (thar), thaim 
(//mm) = they, their, them. 

22. Urs, 'yurcs (yhoures), 
hirs, thairs = ours, yours, 
hers, theirs. 

23. Absence of the pronouns 
ha or a = he; hine = him 
(ace.); wan = whom,which 
(;fa's(fa'se,t's) = them; 
his (is) = her, it. 

24. Use of he then = hence ; 
ihdhen = thence ; whether* 

= whence. 

25. Sum = 3.5. 

26. At = to ; fra = from ; til 
= to. 

27. Conj. a/ = that. 


(/<?/) the */<fr of the de- 
finite article, and not a 
demonstrative adjective. 

pise, pes. 

Ich (uch\ 

Heo (hi, hue, ho). 

Hit (hi, heo, hue), here (hire, 
heore), hem (heom, huevi). 

Ure, eowere ($oure, ore, or), 
hire, here (heore). 

Use of the pronouns ha (a), 
hine, wan, his (is), his (is). 

Unknown in Southern dialect. 

Unknown in Southern dialect. 
Unknown in Southern dialect 

(but til is in Chaucer). 
Unknown in Southern dialect. 



1. a; as in ban (bone), laf o\ as in bon, lof, loof. 

2. jf; as in kin, 7;/7(hill), pit. jg; 
3.^; as in bink\ so also 

cloke (clutch). 

1 Here u = A.S.y, pronounced as German u. The Kentish dialect 
substitutes e for u, as ken (kin), hel (hill), pet (pit). 

as in fam, 1 hul, put. 
as in bench ; so also 




kirke (church). 

croke (cross). 

rike (kingdom). 

skrike (screech, shriek). 

sek (sack). 

sk -, as in aske (to ask). 

4. Absence of compound 

5. qu (qw, quK) ; as in quat 

6. f] as in fel (fell), fa v ; as in vel, DO? 

See also chap, iv of Morris's Historical Outlines of English 





schriche (schirche). 

zcch (seek). 

ss ; as in esse (to ask). 
Use of the compound vowels 

ea, eo (ie, ue). 1 
hw (wk) ; as in hwat. 



Gender. The genders of Old English nouns are three, 
Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter, agreeing in general with 
the Anglo-Saxon or oldest English forms. 

Neut. wyf, child. A. S. wif, did, woman, child. 

Fern, soul, sawel, heorte (herle). A. S. sdwol, heorte, soul, heart. 
Masc. drem. . A.S. drfam, song. 

1 The Southern dialect of Kent seems to have pronounced ea as y, as 
we find east, eald (old), written yeast, yeald. 

2 The Kentish dialect of the fourteenth century, like the modern pro- 
vincial dialects of the South of England, has s for s, as zinge, to sing ; 
zay, say; zede, said. 

3 These Outlines are based upon the Southern dialect. 


After A;D. 1350 we find a tendency to limit the use of the 
neuter gender, as in the modern stage of the language. 

'The gender (says Mr. Sweet) is partly natural, partly 
grammatical. By the natural gender names of men are 
masculine, of women feminine. Names of things have a 
grammatical gender, which is not determined by meaning, 
but by form. By the natural gender, children and the young 
of animals are regarded as neuter, because undeveloped. On 
the same principle diminutives are neuter, such as/#/ magden 
(maiden). The word wif (woman) is neuter.' 

Declension. Substantives are of two kinds, strong and 
weak. Weak substantives are those which form the plural 
in -en, originally in -an ; these will be considered last. 1 All 
other substantives are strong. 

Strong substantives may be considered under three divi- 
sions, according as they were (originally) masculine, feminine, 
or neuter. 


Class I (fj-plurals). Substantives (originally masculine) 
ending in a consonant, and forming the plural in -es (A.S. 


(a) Nom. Ace. ston (stone). Nom. Ace. ston-es. 
Gen. ston-es. Gen. ston-ene. 

Dat. ston-e. Dat. ston-es. 

So also are declined day, del (deal, part), engel (angel), 
/eld (field), muth (mouth), king, wey (way). 

Fader (father) drops the -es in the genitive case; see 
Sweet, A.S. Grammar (Masculines, Class V). Winter has 

1 The arrangement closely follows that in Sweet's Anglo-Saxon 
Reader, which should be carefully compared with the declensions here 
given. Much fuller details of the declensions, &c. will be found in the 
Introduction to Old English Homilies, ed. Morris, First Series. 


the pi. winter and winters. Brother, moder, dorter, suster 
are indeclinable in the singular, but make the plural in -en, 
as brothr-en (also brether-eri), modr-en, do^tr-en, sustr-en ; in 
which respect they resemble the substantives in Class III 
below. Moder, dorter, suster are, of course, feminine. 

Fend (fiend, enemy), frend,freond (friend), are also used 
as plurals ; see Sweet (Masculines, Class VI). 

* Class II (mutation-plurals). 


Norn. Ace. fot (foot). Nom. Ace. fet. 

Gen. fot-es. Gen. fot-e. 

Dat. fot-e. Dat. fot-e (fet-e). 

So also /0S, pi. te ; man, pi. men, which also has the dat. 
sing, men, formed by vowel-change, as in A. S., and the gen. 
and dat. pi. menne as well as manne. Got, gayt (goat), makes 
the pi. geet, Northern gayi\ cf. Icel. geit (goat), pi. gei'tr. 

Class III (w-nouns). Substantives (originally masculine) 
ending in a vowel, and forming the plural in -en (originally 
in -a). 


Nom. and Ace. son-e, sun-e (son}. 
Gen. son-e, sun-e, sun-es. 
Dat. son-e, sun-e. 


( son-en, sun-en, 
Nom. { 

1 sun-e, sun-es. 

Gen. son-ene, sun-ene. 
Dat. son-en, sun-en. 

f son-e, sun-e, 
Ace. < 

{ sun-es. 


In this case, the gen. sing, stm-es, nom. and ace. pi. 
sun-es, are due to making the declension conform to Class I 
above. The proper forms are gen. sing, sun-e (A. S. suti-a), 
nom. and ace. pi. sun-e (A. S. sun-a) ; the nom. pi. form 
sun-en being due to confusion with the weak declension. 
So also wude> wode (wood) ; but the. words of this class are 
very rare. 

Dialectal varieties. The Northumbrian dialect em- 
ploys Ir ether, Ir ether e (brethren), and the West-Midland Ms 
the curious pi. defter (daughters). The Northumb. gayt 
(goats) has already been noticed. The plural ending -es is 
often employed, in the Northern dialects, for substantives be- 
longing to nearly all other declensions, as well as for strong 
. masculines ; it is also written -is or -ys. 

The suffix -us is a West-Midland variety of -es. 

I Words of Romance origin form their plurals in -es, -s (or 
z) ; as if belonging to the same declension as ston. 


Class I (<?-genitives). Substantives (originally feminine) 
ending in a consonant and forming the plural in -en (originally 
in -a). Here belong the substantives in Sweet, A. S. Gram- 
mar, Class I (5) and (c). 

Moreover, substantives ending in a vowel may be con- 
sidered as belonging to the same class, as the only difference 
pf declension is in the nominative case singular. Here 
belong the substantives in Sweet, Class I (a), and Class V. 


Nom. sawel (soul) ; dor-e (door). 
Gen. sowl-e ; dor-e. 
Dai. Ace. sowl-e ; dor-e. 



Nom. sowl-en; dor-en. 
Gen. sowl-ene; dor-ene. 
Dat. Ace. sowl-en ; dor-en. 

Like sawel are declined ben (prayer), . pi. len-en ; edder 
(adder), pi. eddr-en; syn (sin), pi. synn-en, sunn-en] tide 
(A. S. fid), pi. fid-en. Also all nouns ending in -ing, -ung, 
and -ness. 

Like dore are declined denne (den), gife (gift), lay (law). 
World often forms the gen. sing, in.-es. If and, syn, form 
the pi. also in -e, as honde (hands), synne (sins). 

Ni^t (night), witf (wight), remain unchanged in the 
plural ; see Sweet, fern, sbs., Class III. Compare the com- 
pounds se'ennight, fortnight. For moder (mother), &c., see 
p. xlvii. 

It may be observed, further, that the final n of the plural 
inflexion sometimes drops off, as in ben-e = ben-en (prayers). 

Class II (mutation-plurals). Some substantives which 

form the plural by vowel-change are of the feminine gender ; 

j. see Masculines, Class. II. An example is mous, a mouse, pi. 

\ mys, mice ; dat. pi. mus-e. So also gos, goos (goose), pi. ges, 

gees. To this declension belonged originally cu, cou 9 a cow, 

I pi. kun, ken, kine. The Northern dialect prefers the pi. ky t 

'. kye (A. S. cy]. 

(Genitive of Feminine Nouns. It thus appears that 
the gen. sing, of fern, nouns is denoted by the vowel -e, not 
by -es. Chaucer has herie Hod, heart's blood ; widewe sone, 
widow's son;' The Prioresse. Tale, the Tale of the Prioress; 
The Nonne Prestes Tale, The Tale of the Nun's Priest. 
This rule is well illustrated in the modern terms Lord's day 
and Lady day, the day of our Lady, the Virgin Mary. 1 

1 Yet this is really the result of confusion. The word lefdye or lady 
is a weak substantive, and the genitive form properly, answers to A. S. 

VOL. I. d 


Dialectal Varieties. As early as the latter part of the 
twelfth century we find a tendency in Northern writers to 
adopt -es as the genitive inflexion of feminine as well as of 
masculine nouns. See p. xlviii. 

Plurals in -en. We often find the same words forming 
their plurals in -es and -en (or -e), even in Southern writers. 1 


Class I (f-plurals). These answer to the A. S. ^-plurals, 
i. e. Class I of Neuter Nouns in Sweet, A. S. Reader. 



Norn. Ace. schip (ship). Nom. Ace. schip-en. 

Gen. schip-es. Gen. schip-ene. 

Dat. schip-e. Dat. schip-en. 

So also treo (tree), of which the pi. treow-en also occurs in 
the contracted form treon, tren ; deouel (devil) \ fat (vat) ; 
heued, heaued (head) ; Urn (limb) ; riche (kingdom) ; token ; 

Calf, child, ey (egg), lamb, form their plurals in -ren, 
originally -ru see Sweet, A. S. Reader, Class II (rw-plurals). 
Hence the forms caluren, children or childern, eyren, lambren 
(A. S. ceal/ru, cildru, cegru, lambrti). 

Dialectal varieties. The Northern dialect avoids the 
use of these plurals in -ren\ all except child (pi. childer) 
form their plurals in -es, as calues, egges, lambcs. 

Class II (plural unchanged). See Neuters, Class III, in 

hl&fdigan, which became lefdyen, ladye, lady. It was then naturally 
referred to the feminine declension of strong substantives, which opposed 
the addition of final -es. 
1 See Preface to ' O. Eng. Homilies,' 2nd Series. 



Norn. Acc. hors Nom. Ace. hors 

Gen. hors-es Gen. hors-e 

Dat. hors-e Dat. hors-e. 

So also barn, bern (child) ; der (deer) ; folk ; hus (house) ; 
pund (pound); schep (sheep); ping; wif (wife, woman); 
weorc (work); word; yr (year). Hence wilde der, wild 
animals; horse knattes, horse-servants, grooms. In modern 
English, deer, sheep, sivine, have a collective sense, and remain 
unchanged in the plural. Cf. also the expressions five-pound- 
note, two-year-old. Shakespeare has * the neighs of horse ' ; 
Ant. and Cleop. iii. 6. 45. 


In the singular, the A. S. endings -a, -e, and -an are all 
represented by final -e in Early English, so that the sub- 
stantives sterr-e (star), masculine, tung-e (tongue), feminine, 
and e^-e (eye), neuter, are all declined alike throughout, after 
the following scheme : 


N. G.D. A. sterr-e. N. D. A. sterr-en. 

Gen. sterr-ene. 

In like manner are declined bee, pi. been ; chirch-e, pi. chirch- 
en\ ear-e, er-e (ear), pi. ear-en, er-en\ flo (arrow), pl.JZo-n; 
fo (foe), pi. fo-n ; gom-e, gum-e (man), pi. gom-en, gum-en ; 
to (toe), pi. to-n, too-n; wis-e (wise, manner), pi. wis-en; 
wok-e, wuk-e (week), pi. wok-en, wuk-en. The final n of the 
plural sometimes drops off, as in rnyl-e = myl-en, miles. 
Lefdy-e (lady), wright-e, wright, workman, tim-e, time, eorfi-e, 
earth although belonging to this declension generally form 
the plural in -es. It may be noticed that, with the exception 
of monosyllabic words ending in a long vowel, weak sub- 


stantives consist of two syllables at least, owing to the use 
of final -e in the nominative case. 

General Remarks on the Declensions. 

Case-endings. a. The dative singular of all the declen- 
sions is denoted by a final -e. 

b. In the Northern dialect the genitive ~es is often omitted, 
as man sone (son of man) ; hefd haire (hair of the head). 

c. No trace of the genitive plural -ene or -en is to be found 
in the Northern dialects. The genitive in -ene (-en, -yri), in 
the other dialects, is often superseded by the dative with the 
preposition of. 

d. The A. S. dative pi. -urn, in some few cases, is denoted 
by -e; in the majority of instances it is the same as the 

Plurals in -en. a. The plurals son-en (sons), dor-en 
(doors), schip-en (ships), show a tendency to change the 
A. S. suffixes -#, -u, first to -*, and afterwards to -en. 

b. The Northern dialect seems to avoid the use of this 
inflexion, and the only instances that occur are eghen (eyes), 
oxen, hosen, shoon (shoes), andyfc? (foes). 

c . Brether (brothers), childer (children), hend (hands), hern 
(brains), fy (cows) are properly Northern plurals, but are 
occasionally found in Midland dialects having Northern 


Adjectives have a Definite (or Weak) and an Indefinite (or 
Sirong) form ; the former is used when the adjective is 
preceded by the definite article, a demonstrative or a pos- 
sessive pronoun ; the latter in all other cases. 


Examples : pe god-e (the good) ; god (good). 


Nom. god-e (of all genders), 
f god-en (of all genders). 
' \ god-e (later form). 


( god-en (masculine only). 
\ god-e (of all genders). 


Nom. Dat. ( god-en (of all genders). 
Ace. \ god-e (later form). 


1 gUU-CllC \lilL A. U. JL^UUy. 

( god-e (later form). 










All genders. 





















Remarks on the Declension of the Adjective. 

a. The vocative of adjectives takes the definite inflexion of 
the strong declension, and terminates in -e ; as, ' O stronge. 
god/ ' O ynge (young) Hughe.' 

b. The genitive singular of the indefinite declension is 
more often expressed by the dative form with the prepo- 
sition ^fthan by the inflexion -es. 

Such forms as alleskynnes (of every kind), noskynnes (of no 
kind), are instances of the genitives alles (of all) and nos=. 
nones (of none). 


The Northern dialect frequently employs the contracted 
forms alkin, nankin or nakin, ilkin (of each kind), sumkin, 

c. The genitive plural -re is retained in but few cases ; leye 
(both) makes gen. pi. lei-re (Northern lather) \ the latest 
example is al-re (of all), later all-er, afd-er, alth-er. 

d. Adjectives of Romance origin form their plural in -es 
or -s, as wateres principales (chief rivers) ; thinges espiritiieles 
(spiritual things) ; lettres capitals (capital letters). 


The comparative and superlative of adjectives are regularly 
formed by adding -ere, -re, -er, and -este, est to the indefinite 
form. The Southern dialect often employs -ore, -or, and 
-osie, -ost; and the Northern -are, -ar, and -as/e, -as/, instead 
of -ere and -este. 

Adjectives and adverbs ending in -tich, -liche, have -laker 
or -loker in the comparative, and -lakest or -lokest in the 
superlative; which became -Iyer, -lyest in the fourteenth 
century. Adjectives and adverbs in the Northern dialect end 
in -lie, -like, or -ly, instead of -lich, -liche. 

The following adjectives are irregularly compared : 


aid, old (old). aldre, eldre. eldest. 

t bad. / badder. werst. 

< ille (ill). 1 wers, wors. worst. 

I uvel (evil). I werre, warre, 1 war. 1 
f er, ere, erur. erst, 

I ar, or (early). arst, orest. 

1 Warre, war, are not found in the Southern dialect. 





fer (far). ferre, fer. 


god (good). betre, bet. 
heh, he} (high}. herre, hirre. 

best. [best, 
hesest, hext, 

, / 7 \ f lender, leng, 
lang, long (long). | len * re ; 


lyte (little). lasse, lesse, les. 


j mikel,michel,muchel, mor, mo. 
( miche,moche,muche. 
neh, ne} (nigh}. nerre, ner. 

most, mest. 
newest, next, 

sare, sore (sore). sarre, sorre. 

sarrest, sorest. 

strangj strong. strengre, strenger. 


Eldre, Icngre, strengre have vowel-change as well as the in- 
flexion of comparison ; later forms are older, longer, stronger. 

Corresponding with the above comparative forms, we 
have the adverbial forms wers or wurs (worse) ; fer, some- 
times ferre (farther); bet (better); leng (longer) : Y^r (less) ; 
mo (more); ner, neor (nearer). The usual adverbial com- 
parative suffix is -er. The superlative forms can be declined 
both as definite and indefinite; as pe eldesl-e (the eldest), 
eldest (eldest). The adverbial form ends in -est. Com- 
parative forms in A. S. follow the definite declension only, 
to which they properly belong. 



on, oon. 
twa, tweie. 
freo, }>ri. 
foure, fewer, 
fif, fife, 
sexe, sixe. 


>e forme, f>e fyrste. 

f e ofer, fat of er. 

f e (or fat) f ridde. 

f e ferfe. 

f e fifte. 

f e sexte, sixte. 

f e seuef e, seofef e. 



ehte, eihte. f e eijtej^e. 

nijen. J?e niefe, nipe. 

ten, tene. f e teope, tej?e, tif e. 

The forms pe ton, pe toper, stand for pet on, pet oper, 
where pet is a weakened form of -pat. The E. E. oper 
went out of use as an ordinal, its place being supplied by 
the French word second. The E. E. tipe (tenth) gives us 
Mod. E. tithe. 

Dialectal Varieties. Twin (two), thrin (three), are 
Northern forms. Cf. Northern /one, few *. 

The Southern numerals answering to seventh, eighth, &c. 
end in -pe, -the', the corresponding Northern numerals end 
in -end (or -and), as sevend, aghtend (or achtand), neghend, 
/end, and are due to Norse influence. The Kentish dialect 
prefers -ende to -pe, agreeing with the Old Frisian forms 
in -nd. Many Midland works have examples of forms in 



The personal pronouns are ich, I ; pu, thou ; he, he ; hco, 
she ; hit, it. There are also some traces of dual forms, as 
itnk t us two ; unker, of us two ; inc, you two : see the Glos- 


Nom. ich, uch. we. 

(Northern ik, ic, I). 

Gen. min. ure, ur, our. 

Dat. Ace. me. us, ous. 

1 The forms twin and thrin were originally distributive. The form 
fon (or fone] however, as shewn by the Northern texts of the Cursor 
Mundi, is a variant of quon or quone = hwon, produced by Celtic influ- 
ence (cf. the use of/for wh in Aberdeen) ; A.S. hw5n, hw&ne, a little. 




Norn. J?u, foil. 
Gen. fin. 
Dat. Ace. fe. 

Norn, he, ha, a, 

Gen. his, 
Dat. him, 
Ace. hine, him, 


;e, she, ge, ye. 

cower, sure. 

eo\v, ow, ou, sou, yow. 

Fern. Neut. 

heo, hi, hue, ho, he, ge, hit, it. 
(Northern scho, sco, Midi, sche.) 
hire, hir, his, hit. 

hire, hir, him, hit. 

hi, hire ; hes, his, es, is, hit, it. 


Nom. hi, heo, hue ; Northern \ ai ; Midland fei. 
Gen. hire, here, heore, hare, hir. 
Dat. heom, huem, ham, hem, horn ; faim, fam, peim. 
Ace. hi, heo, hue; also as dat.\ also hes, his, is. 

Min, pin, his, are sometimes used as genitives, but in 
most instances they are merely possessive pronouns. Ure, 
eower, hire are genitives when used with an indefinite pro- 
noun ; as ure non, none of us. The personal pronouns are 
often used reflexively, as ich me reste, I rest myself. 

Dialectal varieties. Ich, uch, are Southern forms ; uch, 
Midland; ik, ic, I, Northern. / is used in the Southern 
dialect before n, as / nere = / ne were, I were not 

Ha, a, he, is peculiar to the Southern dialect. 

His (is) them, her (sometimes it), occurs in Southern 
writers, but is unknown to the Northern dialect. JEs (is) = 
them, &c., is found in Genesis and Exodus (East-Midland), 
where it coalesces with verbs and pronouns ; as caldes = calde 
s, called them ; dedis = dcde is, did (placed) them ; hes = he+ 
is, he them; wes = we+t's, we them. In the Moral Ode, 
hes = he + is, he it; see the Glossarial Index. 

Hit or /'/ similarly coalesces with verbs and pronouns in 


the same dialect ; as sagt = sag it, saw it ; wast = was it, it 
was; get = ge + it, she it. 

Hine, him, is not found in the Northern dialect. 

Scho, sco, she ; pai, they ; paim, pam, them, are Northern 
forms only ; sche, pet, are Midland varieties. 

Ho, hit (gen.) are West-Midland forms. 

The above list of variant forms must not be considered as 
an exhaustive one. 

The pronouns are often agglutinated to verbs ; as ichot = 
ich wot, I know ; icham, I am ; icholle = ich wolle, I will. 
Nuly = ne wule y, I will not. Mosli - moste i, I must. 


The reflexive use of the personal pronouns has been 
noticed above ; p. Ivii. Self is added to the personal pro- 
nouns (i) in the nominative, as ich self,pou self', (2) in the 
dative, as ich me self, pou pe self, he him self. But the 
genitive often replaces the dative; as / mi self, we lire 
self, &c. 

Self, when used as a demonstrative, signifies 'same/ or 
' very/ 


The possessive pronouns were originally identical in form 
with the gen. case of the personal pronouns, as min, 1pm, his, 
hire, his (its), ure, ytre, hire. Min, pin are commonly 
shortened to mi and//; the rest appear in several varieties 
of form. Hise appears as the plural of his. The Northern 
forms for our, your, their, are urs,.yures, thairs\ in some 
Midland dialects we find ouren, yuren, heren. 


The definite article pe, originally a demonstrative pronoun, 
was at first fully declined. 


Fern. Neut. Plural. 

fa, f eo, f o, fat, f et, fa, f o. 

fare, fere, f es, fare, fere. 

fare (far), fere, fan, fan. 

The following is the declension of f zj, this. 

, . f f eos, f ues, f es, 

Norn, f is, f es, f eos, f ues, f is, j j^ ^ 

(zf. f ises, f isse, f ises, f isse, f ise. 

Tto/. f isen, f ise, f isse, f ise, f isen, f ise. 

^4<rr. f isne, f os, fas, f ise, f is, as nom. 

Dialectal Varieties. In the Northern dialect the def. 
article is indeclinable in the singular number. The plural 
is pa. 

In the Southern dialect f at (f et) is the neut. article ; in the 
Northern it is used as a demonstrative pronoun, with the pi. 
rtj = those. 

pisser (see Glossary) occurs as the dat. fern. sing, in the 
Kentish dialect. 

for, these, swilc (sltke, sic), such, ilka, each, are Northern 
forms ; pulli, folke, are Southern. 


Masc. and Fern. Neut. 

Nom. hua, huo, huat, huet, wat. 

Gen. huas, huos, wos, . same as masc. 

Dat. huam, hwom, worn, same as masc. 
Ace. huan, wan, huam, huat, huet, wat. 

Dialectal varieties. The Northern forms are wha, qua, 
gu/ia, who ; gen. quas, quhas ; dat. quam, quham ; ace. quaj?i, 
quha?n, quhat. 


of two ; Northern quhctlier. 
While, which, wich = which ; Northern quhilk. 


The ordinary relatives are tfc, oV, indeclinable. The 
genitive, dative, and accusative of who are used as relatives, 
but not the nominative. 


1. Sum, sow, some; sum sum, the one the other; pi. 
sume, some. 

2. Ouht, ouct, 03/, aught; nouht, noirtf, nonet, now/, nahl, 
naught, nought. 

3. Man, men, usually shortened to me = one, used with a 
singular verb ; as me seith, one says. See Me in the Glos- 
sarial Index. 

4. Wha, one, any one ; ivha-so, whosoever ; eifter, either ; 
naSer, noer, neither. 

5. Ech, uche, ulche, each; euerech, euerich, euerilc, every, 

13. VERBS. 

There are two classes of verbs, strong and weak. The 
conjugation of strong verbs is effected by vowel-gradation ; 
the past tense of weak verbs is formed by adding -ede (-de, -/<?) 
to the root-syllable, the passive participle being formed by 
adding -ed (-d, -/). Some weak verbs exhibit vowel-change, 
frut they must be carefully distinguished from strong verbs. 
Thus the mod. E. hold, pt. t. held, is a strong verb ; but the 
mod. E. tell, pt. t. tol-d, is a weak one, as shewn at once by 
the added -d. Some verbs which are now w r eak, were once 
strong; and the verb to wear, now strong, was formerly 

Moods. There are four moods ; Indicative, Subjunctive, 


Imperative, and Infinitive. The infinitive ends in -en or -ten. 
There is also a gerund, used with to or for to, and expressive 
of purpose; but the distinction between the infinitive and 
gerund is not always observed. 

Tenses. Only two tenses are formed by inflexion, the 
Present and the Past. The Present is often used as a 

Participles. The present participle ends in -inde (also 
-t'nge, Northern -and). The past participle often has the 
prefix i- or^y-, as i-seid, said ; except in the Northern dialect. 
The same prefix i- (A. S. ge-) appears also occasionally (as 
in A. S.) in any part of the verb; as z-scilde, may shield ; i-seh y 
saw ; i-seon, to see ; z-sihft, he sees. 


Weak verbs may be divided into three classes, of which 
love, hear, and tett may be taken as the types. 
(a) ' Love '-class (-ten verbs). 

The original ending of the infinitive mood was -ien (A. S. 
-iari), also appearing as -ie, -en, -e. 

INFINITIVE, lov-ien, 1 lov-ie, lov-en, lov-e. 
GERUND. to lov-ienne, to lov-ene. 
PRES. PART, lov-inde (Northern luf-and). 
PAST PART, i-lov-ed, y-lov-ed. 


Singular. Plural. 

1. lov-ie; lov-e. lov-ieth, lov-eth ; lov-en; lov-es. 2 

2. lov-est; lov-es. lov-ieth, lov-eth ; lov-en ; lov-es. 

3. lov-eth; lov-es. lov-ieth, lov-eth ; lov-en; lov-es. 

1 Almost always written louien, with u, not v ; but v is used, for 
clearness, throughout this account .of the verbs. 

2 Also lov-e (with we, ye, thai}. See remarks on the Dialects ; p. xli. 



Singular. Plural. 

1. lov-ede; lov-ed. lov-eden; lov-ede; lov-ed. 

2. lov-edest; lov-ed. lov-eden; lov-ede; lov-ed. 

3. lov-ede; lov-ed. lov-eden; lov-ede; lov-ed. 


Sing, lov-ie ; lov-e. Plural, lov-ien ; lov-en. 


Sing, lov-ede. Plural, lov-eden. 


Sing. lov-e. 

(a. lov-iejj; lov-e]?. 

\ b. lov-ie ; lov-e (when followed by the pronoun). 
So also clep-ien, to call ; her-ien^ to praise; hop-ien^ to hope ; 
mat-ten, to make ; schun-ien, to shun ; pol-ien^ to suffer. The 
f is often dropped. 

(d) ' Hear '-class (-en verbs). 
INFINITIVE, her-en; her-e. 
GERUND. to her-enne, to her-en. 
PRES. PART, her-inde. 
PAST PART, i-her-d, y-her-d. 



(For various dialectal forms compare lov-ien above.) 
Sing, her-e, her-est (her-st), her-eth (her-th). Plural, her-eth. 


Sing, her-de, herd-est, her-de. ' Plural, her-den, her-de. 


3JUNCTIVE. Pres. Sing, her-e. Plural, her-en. 
Past Sing, her-de. Plural, her-den. 

/ a. her-eth. 
IMPERATIVE. Sing. her. Plural. < , ^ 

The third person singular of the present tense is frequently 
itracted to a monosyllabic form. Ex. : gret for gred-e$ 
(cries) ; hit = hidecS (hides) ; let = lettecS (hinders) ; let = ledecS 
(leads); sent = send-etS (sends); ;<?/ = wendetS (wends, turns). 

(c) ' Tell '- class (with vowel-change). 

INFINITIVE, tell-en, tell-e. 
GERUND. to tell-enne, to tell-en. 


PRES. PART, tell-inde. PAST PART. < . 



(For various dialectal forms, compare lov-ien above.) 
Sing, tell-e, tell-est (tel-st), tell-eth (tel-th). Plur. tell-eth. 


. ( teal-de, teal-dest, teal-de. ( teal-den. 

)mg ' \ tol-de, tol-dest, tol-de. Plur ' \ tol-den. 

Pres. Sing, tell-e. Plur. tell-en. 

( teal-de. ( teal-den. 

Past Sing. { . , Plur. ( . , , 

I tol-de. ( tol-den. 


Sing, tell-e. Plur. tell-eth. 

If the base of the verb ends in a double consonant, the 


2nd pers. sing, imperative ends in -<?, as sull-cn, to sell, imp. 
sull-e. Otherwise, the final -e is here dropped. 
To this class belong the following verbs. 


begg-en, bigg-en (buy), bo3~te, i-boj-t. 

bring-en (bring), bro3-te, i-broj-t. 

rech-en (reck), roj-te, i-ro3-t. 

sech-en, (seek), soj-te, i-soj-t. 

fseal-de, i-seal-d. 

sull-en, sell-en (sell), ^^ ._ sd _ d 

fench-en (think), J^o^-te, i-fo^-t. 

finch-en (seem), fuh-te, i-fuh-t. 

werch-en, worch-en (work), wroj-te, i-wroj-t. 

Seggen, seien (say), makes the ' 2nd and 3rd pers. sing, 
indie, sei-st, set'-ft; pt. t. sei-de. Leggen (lay), makes the 
pt. t. lei-de. Will-en (will), makes the pres. tense will-e 
(wil-e, wol-e, wul-e)', 2 p. wil-t (wol-t, wul-t}] 3 p. will-e 
(wil-e, wol-e, wul-e) ; pi. will-e (woll-e%, wull-e$}. Past 
tense wol-de, wul-de. Pres. subj. wil-e t pi. will-en. Similarly 
nyll-en (will not, Lat. nolle) ; pt. t. nol-de. 

On the Formation of the Past Tense of Weak 
Verbs. Properly speaking, the preterite is formed only by 
the suffix -de, e in -e-de being due to a suffix (often causal) 
added to the base. The pp. suffix is -d. 

i. In verbs with a long radical vowel or base ending in a 
double consonant this -e- disappears, and -de only is added 
to the base. Moreover, -de becomes -te after a ' voiceless ' con- 
sonant, or (frequently) after /. Examples are the following. 


a. call-en (call), cal-de, i-cal-d. 

dem-en (judge), dem-de, i-dem-d. 

gred-en (cry), gred-de, i-gred. 



hid-en, hud-en (hide), hid-de, hud-de, i-hud. 

ler-en (teach), ler-de, i-ler-d. 

met-en (meet), met-te, i-met. 

schrud-en (clothe), schrud-de, i-schrud. 

I. dipp-en (dip), dip-te, i-dip-t. 

kep-en (keep), kep-te, i-kep-t. 

2. When the base ends in Id, nd, rt, st, 7z/, //, &c., then 
-de or -te stands for d-de or f-te, as in the following : 


c. buld-en (build, bul-de, i-buld. 

lend-en (lend), len-de, i-lend, i-lent. 

lett-en (hinder), let-te, i-let. 

send-en (send), sen-de, i-send, i-sent. 

rest-en (rest), res-te, i-rest. 

In kyth-en (shew), the pt. t. kyth-de becomes kyd-de (also 
kud-de), pp. i-kyd f i-kid, i-kud. Some few verbs have double 
forms in the pt. t. and pp., a being put for e, as del-en (deal), 
pt. t. del-te, dal-te, pp. del-t, dal-t. So also led-en (lead); 
leu-en (leave, pt. t. lef-te, Iaf-fe)', red-en (advise); spred-en 
(spread) ; swelt-en (die) ; swett-en (sweat) ; thrett-en (threat). 
Clofhen, clethen (clothe), has pt. t. cled-de, clad-de. 

Cacch-en (catch), lacch-en (seize), tech-en (teach) have the 
past tenses ca^-te, la$-/e t ta^-te, also spelt cau^-te, lauyte, 

Drench-en (make drink), has the past tense dreyn-fe. 

Meng-en (mingle) has the past tense meyn-te. 

Habb-en (have) is thus conjugated 
Indie. Pres. Sing, habb-e (hav-e), haf-st (ha-st), haf-th 

(hav-eth, ha-th). Plur. habb-eth (hav-eth). 
Indie. Past. Sing, haf-de (hav-ede, had-de) ; &c. 

VOL. i. e 



Strong verbs make the pt. t. by vowel-change, without the 
addition of the suffix -de -(/<?). This distinguishes them from 
verbs such as tell, discussed in the conjugation last given. 
The characteristic ending of the pp. is -en, sometimes short- 
ened to -e. The tense-endings will be sufficiently clear from 
the following paradigm of the .verb bind-en, to bind. 
INFINITIVE, bind-en, bind-e. 
GERUND, to bind-enne, to bind-en. 
PRES. PART, bind-inde. PAST PART, i-bund-en. 


Sing, bind-e, bind-est, bint (bind-etS). Plur. bind-et>. 


Sing, band (bond) ; bund-e (bond-e) ; band (bond). 
Plur. bund-en. 

SUBJUNCTIVE. Pres. Sing, bind-e. Plur. bind-en. 
Past Sing, bund-e. Plur. bund-en. 

( bind-eth, 
IMPERATIVE. Sing', bind. Plur. \ , . , 

( bind-e. 

Observe that, in this verb, the characteristic vowel of the 
past tense plural appears also in the 2nd pers. sing, of the 
same tense, and in the whole of the pt. t. subjunctive ; and 
that this rule is invariable. The vowel of the pp. happens, 
in this verb, to be the same, but in many verbs is different ; 
and again, some words preserve the same vowel throughout 
the past tenses indicative and subjunctive. In order to con- 
jugate a strong verb, we must know the characteristic vowels 
(i) of the infinitive, (2) of the ist and 3rd person of the past 
tense singular, (3) of the past tense plural (including also 



2nd person singular), and (4) of the pp. Strong verbs 
if we follow the arrangement in Sweet's A. S. Grammar a ) 

17 be divided into seven conjugations according to their 
characteristic vowels. As exemplifying the various conjuga- 
ions, the following verbs may be chosen, viz. /all, shake, 
ear, give, drink, drive, choose? 

In the following list, the forms given are the most regular, 
generally the earliest forms ; they should be compared with 
the A. S. forms throughout. Owing to occasional confusion, 
and from other causes (chiefly phonetic), the regular forms 
are sometimes supplanted by others. In some cases dots 
are used to signify that there is no authority, in Early English, 
for the form to be used ; but it can generally be inferred. 

Strong verbs can be divided into two sets ; those which, 
like/a// and shake, keep the same vowel throughout the past 
tense, and those which, like the other five verbs, have a 
different vowel in the 2nd pers. sing, and in the plural. 

The following paradigm exhibits the vowel-changes in 
these conjugations. 

1. fall. Present : a (or e, or o). Past : e. Past part.: a 

(or e, or o). 

2. shake. Present : a. Past : 6? Past part. : a. 

3. bear. Present : e (or *). Past sing. : a ; pi. e (or o). 

Past part. : o (or u). 

1 Except in the mere order of the conjugations, which are somewhat 
shifted for convenience, as explained below. 

2 These may be remembered by help of the following doggerel couplet 

If e'er thou fall, the shake with patience bear; 
Give-, seldom drink ; drive slowly; choose with care. 
The order of weak verbs, viz. love, hear, tell, may be similarly remem- 
bered by the lines 

. Of Lovers soft spell 
Hear poets tell. 

* The mark over the o denotes that the vowel is essentially long. 

e 2 


4. give. Present : * (or e). Past sing. : a; pi. /. Past 

part. : i (or e). 

5. drink. Present: z (or e). Past sing.: #; pi. u. Past 

part. : u (or 0). 

6. <7ra*. Present: t. Past: <f (or 0); pi. f. Past part.: z'. 

7. choose. Present: ? = ^ (or w); Past: ea = e; pi. &. 

Past part. : 0. 

Many of the above vowel-changes may be remembered by 
help of modern English. Trie following notes will be of use 
in this respect. 

1. fall, fell, fallen. The pt. t. vowel is e\ the pp. vowel is 
that of the infinitive. 

2. shake t shook, shaken. The pt. t. vowel is 6 ( = oo); the 
pp. vowel is that of the infinitive. 

3. dear, dare, borne. The pt. t. vowel is a [plural e] ; the 
pp. vowel is commonly o. 

4. give, gave, given. The pt. t. vowel is a [plural /, as in 3]; 
the pp. vowel is that of the infinitive. 

Here belongs get, gat, gotten ; where the pt. t. vowel is a 
[plural e, as before] ; and the pp. vowel is, properly, that of 
the infinitive, the E. E. pp. being geten. 

5. drink, drank, drunk. Vowels i, a, u ; but the -vowel 
is used in the pt. t. plural as well as in the pp. Here belongs 
the E. E. delven, pt. t. dalf, pi. dulven, pp. dolven ; see p. Ixxvi. 

6. drive, drove, driven. The long o represents an original 
a, later o. The short i of the pp. is used also in the pt. t. 
plural. Cf. conj. 5. 

7. choose, chose, chosen. E. E. cheosen ( = chesefi) ; pt. t. 
cheas ( = ches), pi. curon ; pp. coren. 

The following is a list of the principal strong verbs oc- 
curring in Early English. 

I. * Fall '-conjugation. 



I. behald-en, behold-en beheld, beheold behald-en, 


2. f aid-en, fold-en (fold] 

3. fall-en (fall) 

feng (veng) 

4. fang-en, fong-en 

(take) -, contracted 
form ion. 

5. hald-en, hold-en held, heold 


6. hang-en, hong-en heng (hing) 


7. \vald-en, wold-en, weld (wield), 

weld-en (wield) 

8. walk-en (walk) welk 

9. wall-en (well, boil) wel, weol 


10. bet-en (beat) 

11. gret-en (weep) 

12. hew-en (hew) 

13. let-en (let, cause) 

14. slep-en (sleep) slep (sleep) 


15. bihot-eii (promise) bihet, 

1 6. blow-en (blow, as the blew (bleu) 

wind), blaw-en 

17. blow-en (blow, as a bleou . 


1 8. crow-en (crow) crew, creu 

behold-en 1 

fel, feol, (fil, vil, fall-en 




bet, beot (beet) bet-en 
gret gret-en 

hew, heow (heu) hew-en 
let (leet) let-en 




1 The prefix /- orjy- is omitted in this list throughout, though in com- 
mon use in the Southern dialect, especially in the pp. 



19. flow-en (flow) flew, fleaw flow-en 

20. grow-en (grow) grew grow-en 

21. hot-en (command) het (heet) hot-en, 


22. know-en, knaw-en knew (kneow) know-en, 

(know), knaw-en 

23. mow-en (mow) mew mow-en 

24. row-en (row) rew (reu) ..... 

25. sow-en, saw-en (sow) sew (seow), so\v-en, 


26. swop-en (sweep) swep swop-en 

27. prow-en, praw-en- J>rew (freu) frow-en 

In the two verbs following, the pp. has no longer the 
same vowel as the present tense, as was the case in the 
earliest period. 

28. lep-en (leap) lep (leep, leop) lop-en 

29. wep-en (weep) wep (weep, weop) wop-en 

To the same class belongs gan or gangen, to go, the pt. t. 
of which is borrowed from another root. 

30. gang-en, gong-en [code, jede] gan, gon 

(go)} contracted 
forms gan, gon 

The verb. Men, to sacrifice,, originally strong, is weak in 
E. E. and M. E. 

II. 'Shake '-conjugation. 

31. ak-en (ache) ok (ook) ..... 

32. awak-en (awake) awok awak-en 

33. bak-en (bake) bok (book) bak-en 

34. draj-en, draw-en droh, dro3 (drou^, draw-en 

(draw) . dreuj, drew) 




35. far-en (fare, go) 

36. forsak-en (forsake) 

37. gnaw-en (gnaw) 

38. grav-en (bury) 

39. lad-en (lade) 

40. lagh-en (laugh), 

41. schak-en (shake) 

42. schav-en (shave) 
stand-en (stand) 
stap-en * (step, go) 
tak-en (take) 

46. wad-en (wade) 

47. wak-en (wake) 

48. wasch-en 

49. wax-en, 








gnow (gnew) 






loh, logh 


schok, schook 


schof, schoof 


stod, stood 




tok, took 




wosch (wesch) 


weox 2 (\vex) 


Some verbs belonging to this conjugation have a weak 
form for the infinitive ; thus hebben, to heave, stands for an 
original haf-ian *, base haf-\ scheppen, to shape, create, stands 
for schap-ian*; swen'en, to swear, is from the base swar-. 
Sltn, sleen, sle, to slay, is a contracted form from a base slah- 
or slag-. Thus we may add to the above the following. 

50. hebb-en (heave) 

51. schepp-en (create) 

52. sleen, slen (slay) 

53. swer-ien (sivear) 

hof, heof (haf) 
schop, schoop 
sloh (slou) 

swor, swoor 

hov-en 3 


1 The weak form steppan is more common. 

2 Originally w6x t which became weox even in A.S. 
8 A.S. haf-en. 

* Put for swar-en, by the influence of ihe preceding w. 



III. ' Bear - conjugation, 
(e.) ' 


54. ber-en (bear) bar (ber) ber-en 1 bor-en 

55. brek-en 


56. cwel-en (die) 

57. hel-en (hide) 

58. scher-en 


59. stel-en(^/m/) 

60. ter-en (tear) 

To this conjugation belongs nim-en, to take, with a similar 
pt. t. singular ; thus : 


















6 1. nim-en 




So also cum-en, to come, of which the original form was 
cwim-an ; as thus : 


62. cum-en cam (com) com-en cum-en 


Spek-en, to speak, at first made the pp. spek-en, for which 
spok-en was afterwards substituted, by analogy with verbs of 
this conjugation. See spek-en in Conjugation IV. The same 
remark applies to tred-en (tread), wev-en (weave). 

1 The vowel was not originally the same as that of the infinitive 
mood, being essentially long. Ber-en (infin.) = A. S. ber-an ; but ber-en y 
pt. t. pi. = A. S. brd-on. The compound/<w-&r<? is similarly conjugated. 


IV. ' Give '-conjugation. 




63. 3iv-en 


jaf jev-en 


jiv-en (5ev-en, 


In other verbs the infinitive has e, including get-en (to get), 
of which the A. S. form was^'to; so &\so forge/en. 


64. drep-en 







65. et-en (eat) 

at (et) 

et-en * 


66. forget-en 





67. fret-en 

frat (fret) 




68. get-en (get) 




69. kned-en 



70. met-en 





71. queS-en 





(quoo 1 ) 

72. spek-en 






73. stek-en (j//<r, 






74. tred-en 






75. wev-en 






1 The vowel was not originally the same as that of the infinitive 
mood, being essentially long. Et-en (infin.) = A.S. et-an: but et-en, pt. 
pl. = A.S. (Eton. 

Most commonly spok-en ; see remark upon the preceding conjuga- 
tion. So also troden, woven. 



76. we3~en way wey-en 

(weigh) (wey) 

77. wrek-en \vrak wrek-en wrek-en 

(wreak) (wrok-en) 

The following verbs have a weak form in the present 
tense. Otherwise, they agree with the verbs above. 

78. bidd-en bad (bed) bed-en bed-en 


79. ligg-en (lie ai (lei) lej-en lej-en (lein) 


80. sitt-en (sit) sat set-en set-en 

The infinitive seen, sen (to see), is a contracted form, from 
an original sehw-an. The verb belongs to this conjugation. 

( sah, sag 
< sau, sei: 
( sei, sej ' 

8 1 seen sen f sah ' sag ' Se 3' en Se 3' en > 

' sei 3 , sei-en, sein, 


V. 'Drink'- conjugation. 

82. biginn-en 

\ bigon 


bigonn-en 1 

83. bind-en 








84. climb-en 








85. cling-en 





86. ding-en 








1 Both a and u frequently become o before a following n. Hence the 
forms bi^an, bignnnen frequently appear as bigoti, bigonncn. 







87. drink-en 








88. find-en 








89. ginn-en 

(gan 1 







90. grind-en 






or. limp-en 




02. linn-en 



93. ring-en 





( rong-en 

94. rinn-en ) 




(run) \ 

irn-en J 




o 1 ^. scrirink-en 




96. sing-en 







97. sink-en 








98. sling-en 








99. spinn-en 





100. spring-en 








101. sting-en 








1 02. stink-en 








1 Can, pi. gunmn, is often used as an auxiliary verb, like mod. E. 







103. swimm-en 





104. swing-en 






swong-en , 


105. swink-en 








1 06. J^ring-en 




107. wind-en 








1 08. winn-en 








109. wring-en 










no. bern-en 





in. berst-en 







112. ber^-en 






113. breid-en 





114. delv-en (<//) 




115. feht-en ) 




(fight) \ 


. fiht-en j 

1 1 6. help-en 




117. kerv-en 







1 1 8. melt-en 










119. sterv-en 


( sturv-en 




( storv-en 

1 20. swell-en 




121. s welt-en 




122. swels-en 




123. }?resch-en 



124. werp-en 






125. wurtS-en 1 \ 




(become] V 
worcS-en ) 


126. jeld-en 




( 3ull-en 

127. 3ell-en (_jW/) 

5 al 



'Drive 3 


128. abid-en 2 


abid-en 2 

abid-en 2 


Jabod 3 

129. aris-en 






130. bid-en 

bad, bod 



1 Put for wer^-en = A.S. weor'San, e turning into u or o by the 
influence of the preceding w. 

2 In the pt. pi. and pp. the vowel i is short, but in the infinitive it is 
long', see next note. 

3 In abad, abod, both a and o are long, so that we also find abood. 
Comparing the note above, we see that the verb is alid-en, pt. S. abdd, 
abod, pt. pi. and pp. abid-en (abid-en) ; compare mod. E. drive, drove, 
driven ; ride, rode, ridden, &c. 




131. biliv-en 





132. biswik-en 



133. bit-en (bi/e) 
134. driv-en 
135. flit-en 
136. glid-en 
J 37- grip-en 
138. li$-en 

bat, bot 
draf, drof 

glad, glod 







139. rid-en (ride) 
140. rin-en 

rad, rod 



141. ris-en (rise) 
142. riv-en (/Yw) 
143. schin-en 
144. schriv-en 
145. sih-en 

ras, ros 
raf, rof 
( schan, 





146. sij-en (fall) 



147. slid-en 
148. slit-en (slit) 

slad, slod 



149. smit-en 
150. snitS-en (rw/) 




151. stij-en 

stah, stej 






. strik-en 



In Chaucer we find strof&s the pt. t. of s/riv-en, to strive; 
but the verb was originally weak, pt. t. striv-ede. 

In Sect. I. 1. 196, we find the pt. pi. repen, as if from an 
infinitive ripen (A. S. ripan\ to reap; cf. p. 197, 1. 22. 


i ^2. strid-en 




153. strik-en 

i ^4. swik-en 

oui vi, 



i r( briv-en 

OO* Y WA4 

1 56. wrih-en l 


157. writ-en 
158. writS-en 

wrat, wrot 



VII. ' Choose '-conjugation. 

(eo, 6.) 

150. beod-en ) 




(offer) V 
bed-en j 


1 60. breow-en ) 


brow-en z 


(brew) > 
brew-en j 

1 6 1. cheos-en \ 


cur-en s 

cor-en 3 

(choose) > 




ches-en j 

1 Another form is wreon see Conj. VII. 

a Brow-en is for bruw-cn, by the influence of the w. 

8 The A.S. forms are cur-on, cor-cn, with r for s. 




162. cleov-en ) clef clov-en 

(cleave, sli/) V cleef) 

clev-en J 

163. creop-en ) creap ' crup-en crop-en 

(creep) V 
crep-en J crep crop-en 

164. dreo:j-en drej druh-en drog-en 


165. fleo-n(/^)7 fleh fluw-en flog-en 1 
fle-n J flew flow-en 

1 6 6. fleot-en flset flut-en flot-en 

(swim) flet flot-en 

167. fleo}-en \ fleh fluw-en flow-en 1 

(fly) I flej flow-en 

fle^-en I 
fleen J 
1 6 8. freos-en fres ...... fror-en 2 

(freeze) (frees) 


169. leos-en leas lur-en 8 lor-en 3 

(lose) les (lees) lor-en 

170. leoj-en (/*'<?)) laeh luj-en low-en 
Ie5~en ) leh low-en 

171. reos-en 1 reas rur-on 4 

(fall down)] res (rees) 

172. reow-en rsew 

(rue) rew 


1 These two verbs are hardly distinguishable ; see Stratmann, s. v. 
flco$en, fleon, xn.&fle6gan ) fle6han in Sweet, Conj. VII. 

2 A.S.froren; Milton has frore ; cf. Prov. HL.frorn. 

3 A. S. luron, lorcn, in the compound verb for-U6san ; with r for s. 
Hence Mod. E. forlorn. The M. HL.forleosen is conjugated like leosen. 

* A.S. hniron, pt. pi. of hredsan ', with r for s. 







173. scheot-en 




174. seoS-en 




176. tSeon 2 

teah, teh 






177. wreon 3 



W ro 3 -en 


178. buj-en (30z#) 

beah, beh 
desef, def 



1 80. luk-en (lock) 
181. lut-en (bow 





182. schuv-en 

( schef 




( schof 


183. suk-en(j'w^) 




The past tense and past participle of bruken (A. S. brtican}, 
to use, enjoy, nowhere occur in E. E. or M. E. 

[In the case of uncontracted verbs, the final -en is denoted 
by a hyphen only. The numbers refer to the list above.] 
abid-, 128. awalc-, 32, beod-, 159. berst-, in. 

ak-, 31. bale-, 33. ber-, 54. berj-, 112. 

aris-, 129. behald-, I. bern-, no. bet-, 10. 

1 A. S. tedn, contracted form from tihan. 

2 A. S. ^>e6n y contracted form from ^Slhan. 

3 A. S. iure6n, contracted form from wrihan ; see ivrihen above, in 
Conj. VI, no. 156. 

VOL. I. f 



bid-, 130. 

forleos-, 169. 

rid-, 139. 

strik-, 153. 

bidd-, 78. 

forsak-, 36. 

rin-, 140. 

suk-, 183. 

biginn-, 82. 

freos-, 168. 

ring-. 93- 

swell-, 1 20. 

bihot-, 15. 

fret-, 67. 

rinn-, 94. 

swelt-, 121. 

biliv-, 131. 

gang-, 30. 

ris-, 141. 

sweb-, 122. 

bind-, 83. 

get-, 68. 

riv-, 142. 

swer-, 53. 

biswik-, 132. 

ginn-, 89. 

row-, 24. 

swik-, 154. 

bit-, 133- 

glid-, 136. 

schak-, 41. 

swimm-, 103. 

blow-, 1 6, 17. 

gnaw-, 37. 

schav-, 42. 

swing-, 104. 

breid-, 113. 

grav-, 38. 

scheot-, 173. 

swink-, 105. 

brek-, 55. 

gret-, n. 

schepp-, 51. 

swop-, 26. 

breow-, 160. 

grind-, 90. 

scher-, 58. 

tak-, 45. 

bu3-, 178. 

grip-, 137. 

schin-, 143. 

teon, 175. 

cheos-, 161. 

grow-, 20. 

schrink-, 95. 

ter-, 60. 

cleov-, 162. 

hald-, 5. 

1 schriv-, 144. 

tred-, 74. 

climb-, 84. 

hang-, 6. 

schuv-, 182. 

Seon, 176. 

cling-, 85. 

hebb-, 50. 

seen, 81. 

J>resch-, 123. 

creop-, 163. 

hel-, 57- 

seoo 1 -, 174. 

Jjring-, 1 06 

crow-, 1 8. 

help-, 1 1 6. 

sih-, 145. 

]>riv-, 155. 

cum-, 62. 

hew-, 12. 

sing-, 96. 

]>row-, 27. 

cwel-, 56. 

hot-, 21. 

sink-, 97. 

wad-, 46. 

delv-, 114. 

kerv-, 117. 

sitt-, 80. 

wak-, 47. 

ding-, 86. 

kned-, 69. 

513-, 146. 

wald-, 7. 

dra3-, 34- 

know-, 22. 

sleen, 52. 

walk-, 8. 

dreo3-, 164. 

lad-, 39. 

slep-, 14. 

wall-, 9. 

drep-, 64. 

lagh-, 40. 

slid-, 147. 

wasch-, 48. 

drink-, 87. 

leos-, 169. 

sling-, 98. 

wax-, 49. 

driv-, 134. 

Ieo3-, 170. 

slit-, 148. 

wep-, 29. 

duv-, 179. 

lep-, 28. 

smit-, 149. 

werp-, 124. 

et-, 65. 

let-, 13. 

sniS-, 150. 

wev-, 75. 

fald-, 2. 

Kgg-j 79- 

sow-, 24. 

WC3-, 76. 

fall-, 3. 

limp-, 91. 

spek-, 72. 

wind-, 107. 

fang-, 4. 

linn-, 92. 

spinn-, 99. 

winn-, 1 08. 

far-, 35- 

lit?-, 138. 

spring-, 100. 

wrek-, 77. 

feht-, 115. 

luk-, 1 80. 

stand-, 43. 

wreon, 177. 

find-, 88. 

lut-, 181. 

stap-, 44. 

wrih-, 156. 

fleon-, 165. 

melt-, 1 1 8. 

stek-, 73. 

wring-, 109. 

fleot-, 1 66. 

met-, 70. 

stel-, 59. 

writ-, 157. 

fleo3-, 167. 

mow-, 23. 

sterv-, 119. 

wri<5-, 158. 

flit-, 135- 

nim-, 61. 

sting-, 101. 

wurS-, 125. 

flow-, 19. 

queS-, 71. 

stink-, 102. 

Seld-, 126. 

forber-, 54. 

reos-, 171. 

sti3-, 151. 

Sell-, 127. 

forget-, 66. 

reow-, 172. 

strid-, 152. 

3iv-, 63. 



General Remarks on the Strong Conjugations. 

1. If the base of a verb ends in -e or -eo, the -e or -eo is 
-e of the inflexions in the present indicative and impera- 
tive, 2&fle}> = flees ; se}> = sees. 

2. Verbs having -d or -/ as the final letter of the root- 
syllable, take -/ instead of -de& or -te& as the inflexion of 
the 3 pers. pres. sing., as bint = bindeth, binds ; et = eateth, 

its; grint = grindeth, grinds; halt = holdeth, holds; rtf = 
rideth, rides ; j/0/, $/<?/ = standeth, stands. 

3. The 2nd and 3rd pers. are frequently contracted 
thus: / = eatest; &j/ = bindest; drinkp = drinks; drifj> = 


4. Verbs whose base originally terminated in g often re- 
tain it under the - form 5 in the 2nd and 3rd pers. sing, 
indie. : as drawen, to draw, dra^st, drawest, drayth t draws ; 
fleon, to fly, fltyt, fliest, fli^f*, flies ; wn'en, to cover, writf, 

5. In some verbs the vowel is changed in the 3rd sing, 
pres. indie., as hoten, to command, hat, commands ; sianden, 
to stand, stent, stands. 


Some verbs originally strong sometimes follow the weak 
conjugation : 

Uten, to let, pt. t. letle (for le/). 

grzpen, to seize, grapte (for grap or grop). 
slepen, to sleep, slepte (for slep). 
treden^ to tread, trodde (for trad). 
i. A$en, awen, oyn, owen, to own; ist and 3rd sing. pres. 
indie, ah (agh, auh, awh, ^5, ouh, og, ow); 2nd, awe (owe), 
pi. ayn (o$en, ogen t owen, owe)', pt. t. dhte (aghte, auhfe, a^te, 
ogte, oughie), 



2. Am is the ist pers. sing, of the old infinitive wesan, to 
be. The other persons are as follows: 2nd pers. pres. 
indie, ert, art', 3rd, is; pt. t. ist, ivas, wes; 2nd, were; pi. 
weren, were} 

For an, see unnen, to grant; no. 13, p. Ixxxv. 

3. Beon, ben, to be; ger. beonne, byenne. ist pers. pres. 
indie, be, bi, beo; 2nd, bist, best', 3rd, bith, beth, beeth, beoth, 
buth; ist, 2nd and 3rd pers. pi. beth, beoth, buth\ imp. pi. 
beth, buth. 

4. Cunnen, to be able, to know; ist sing. pres. indie, can, 
con', 2nd, cunne, const, canst', 3rd, can, con] pi. cunnen, 
connen', pt. t. cuihe, couthe, coude (Eng. could); pp. cuth> 
couth, known. 

5. Dar, I dare, ist sing. pres. indie, dar, der', 2nd 
darst, derst', 3rd, dar', pi. durren, dorr en, dorre; pt. /. dorste, 

6. Don, to do; ger. donne, doenne, done. ist. sing. pres. 
indie, do; 2nd, dest, dost; 3rd, <//$; pi. doth', pt. t. <&<&, 
dide, dede\ imp. pi. ^/^. 

7. Dityn, dowen, dozve, to be good, to be worth; ist and 
3rd pres. dow; pi. d?zw;/, rfiw^. Z>^ (properly a present) is 
sometimes used for dohte, doughte (pt. tense). 

8. Gon, to go; ger. gonne, gone, ist sing. pres. indie, go; 
2nd, W/, W/; 3rd, geth; pi. ^//5; pt. t. eode, yode, yde, 

yode ; imp. pi. goth ; pp. igon. 

9. Mugen, mogen, moyn, mowen, to be able, may; ist 
sing. pres. indie, may, mat, mey; 2nd, mi^t, migt; 3rd, may, 
mat; pi. muwen, moiven, mouen; pt. t. mi^te, mighte, moghte, 

TO. Mot. ist sing. pres. indie, mot*, may, must; 2nd, 
; 3rd, mot, mul; pi. w^;z; pt. t. moste, mus/e 2 . 

1 Sindorsinden (are) occasionally occurs, but is-not used after 12^ 

2 Cp. Ger. muss, musste* 



11. SchaL ist sing. pres. indie, schal (sset), shall; 2nd 
schalt (sself) ; 3rd, schal (ssel) ; pi. schukn (ssolhn, ssolle, ssule, 
su/e) ; pt. t. schulde, scholde (ssolde). 

12. \)arf. ist and 3rd sing. pres. indie. parf(therf, par, 
ther\ need; 2nd, thurfe\ pi. thurfen', pt. t. purfte, therfie 

13. Unnen, to grant, ist sing, an, on', pi. unnen. We 
also find i st sing, unne ; pt. t. oV ; pp. unnen. 

14. Witen, to know, ist sing. pres. indie. wat(woot, wot); 
2nd, wost; 3rd, wal (woo/, wot)] pi. witeth (jwteti); pt. t. 
z;/j/(e, wus/e; imp. sing. zc;/V(?, pi. witeth. 

15. Wtllen, to wish, ist sing. pres. indie. ze;/7/<? (wolle, 
wtille, wile, wok, wule); 2nd, wilt, wolt, wult; 3rd, wflle, 
wile, wole, wule', pi. willeth, wolleth, wulleth. Pt. t. wolde, 
ivulde. See p. Ixiv. 

Negative Forms. Am, have, wille, ivilen (know), take 
negative forms, as nam ( = ne am\ am not ; nis, is not ; nas, 
was not ; nadde, had not ; nile, will not ; not ( = ne ivot\ knows 
not ; nuste, knew not. 

Dialectal Varieties. 

Weak Verbs. 

a. Present Tense, (i) For the inflexions of the Northern 
and Midland dialects in the indie, pres. tense, see 7, 
p. xli. (2) The East-Midland dialect has a tendency to omit 
-/ in the 2nd pers. sing., z&findes - findest. 

b. Past Tense, (i) The Northern dialect drops all the 
inflexions of persons in the sing, and pi. of weak (and 
strong) verbs, as ist, 2nd, 3rd sing, loved, spak', ist, 2nd, 

1 Thurste is sometimes written for durste, taking the signification 
belonging tofurfte. 


3rd pi. loved, spak. (2) The West-Midland dialect has -es 
(also -3 = -es) as the inflexion of the 2nd pers. pt. tense of 
weak verbs, as lovedes = lovedest. 

The Southern and Midland dialects frequently drop the -n 
in all persons of the plural, as lovede = loveden, loved. 

The Northern dialect prefers the forms ledde, lefte, redde, 
to ladde, lafte. radde (see p. Ixv). 

Strong Verbs. 

r. The Northern dialect employs the past tenses bar, brak, 
gaf y spak, instead of ber, brek, gef ($ef\ spek. 

2. The Northern dialect retains the a in the pt. t. of verbs 
conjugated like drink and drive. 


band, bond, 

fand, fond, 

stang, stong. 


glad, glod. 

ras, ros (roos). 

smat, smot (smoot). 


The Northern and West-Midland dialects (and occa- 
sionally the East-Midland) employ -es instead of -eth in the 
2nd pers. pi. imperative of weak and strong verbs, e.g. loves, 
love ye. 


1. The Northern dialect drops the infinitive ending -en 
or -e, as well as the gerundial -enne 1 . 

2. The Southern dialect abounds in infinitives in -z<? 2 

1 The gerundial inflection is often corrupted by Southern and Midland 
writers into -inge, as to sellinge to sellenne, to sell. As early as the 
twelfth century we find such forms as to doende = to doenne, to do; to 
delcnde = to delenne, to divide. 

2 The dialects of the Southern counties still retain some of these 
infinitives, as sowy, to sow; milky t to inilk. 


(-ye, -y), remnants of older forms in -tan, as hah'e, to hate 
(A.S. hat-i-an', herye, to praise (A.S. her-i-ati); makie, to 
make (A.S. mac-i-an). These forms are never, employed by 
my Northern writers. 


a. The pres. participle in the Southern dialect ends in 
-inde, in the Northern in -and, and in the Midland in -ende 

b. The passive participle of strong verbs ends in -en, but 
the n is often dropped in the Southern and Midland dialects 
(never in the Northern), as ibroke = ibroken ; icorve = icorven 

The Northern dialect always omits the prefix i- (jy-\ as 
bunden for ibunden, corven for icorven. 

Anomalous Verbs. 
The Northern dialect has the following peculiar forms : 

1. Sal ( = Southern schal, ssal), shall, takes no inflexion of 
person in the indie, mood, e. g. present tense, ist, 2nd, 
3rd, sing, sal, pi. sal', past tense, ist, 2nd, 3rd, sing, 
suld, mlde ( = Southern schulde, scholde, ssolde), should. 

2. Wil (pt. t. wald, walde) - will, follows the same rule. 

3. The verb to be is thus conjugated: ist sing. pres. 
indie, is, es; 2nd, zV (occasionally erf}', 3rd, is, es ; pi. 
ist, 2nd, 3rd, ar, er (occasionally es)', pt. t. sing, ist, 
2nd, 3rd, was (occasionally war) ; pi. ware (war). 

4. The following contracted forms are of frequent occur- 
rence : bus = behoves ; bud = behoved ; ha = to have ; 
ma = to make ; mas, mase = makes ; ta = to take ; tas, 
tase = takes ; tan = taken ; slan = slain. 

5. Mun, mon, shall, never occurs in any Southern dialect. 

1 Present participles in -inge {-ing} are not uncommon in the Southern 
dialect, and the corruption commenced before A.D. 1300. 


II. The West-Midland dialect contracts schullen or schuln 
(the pi. of schaf] into schin (schyn} or schun, e. g. pay schin 
knaive = they shall know. 



Adverbs are compared by the affixes -er (positive) and -esf 
(superlative). Adverbs ending in -liche often form the com- 
parative in -luker (-loker), and the superlative in -lukest 

See also the table of Irregular Comparison of Adjectives. 


Some adverbs have the prefix an ( = an, on, prep, on), 
written a- (before a consonant), an- (before a vowel) ; as 
ayn, again ; anihte, by night ; ayr, yearly ; anende, lastly ; 
anunder, under. 

Occasionally we find of instead of a, as of-buve, above ; 
of-newe, newly ; adown = of dune, downwards (lit. off the 

The prepositions bi, be (by),/br, in, on, to, umbe (about), 
also occur as adverbial prefixes. 


1. Adverbs that now end in -ly formerly ended in -liche. 
(The adjectival affix sing, is -Itch.} 

2. Adverbs are formed from adjectives by adding a final -e. 
Thus soth, sooth, true ; sothe, soothe, truly. 1 

3. Other adverbial suffixes are : -es (genitive). Hence 
all-es, altogether, of necessity, needs; a^en-es, against; 
amidd-es, amidst; among-es, amongst; bisid-es, besides; 

1 The loss of the final -e explains the modern use of adjectives for 
adverbs, as right = rightly; long=\Qug (time). 



".alh-es, at death, dead ; da^-es, by day ; liv-es, alive ; ned-es, 
>f necessity; new-es, anew; ni^t-es, by night; togeder-es> 
)gether. En-es, on-es, once, he?in-es, hence, neod-es, needs, 
i-es, twice, thri-es, thrice, are later forms for en-e, henn-e 
lenn-en, heon-an\ neod-e, iwi-e (A.S. twiwa), thri-e (A.S. 

4. -en (-e); as about-en, about; lefor-en, befor-n, before; 
*)-en, buv-e, above; linn-en, binn-e> within; with-out-en, 


5. -linge\ as all-mge, altogether; hed-linge, headlong; 
grov-h'nge t on the face, prone; trif-linge, playfully. Cf. 
Mod. E. dark-ling, in the dark. 

6. -der, motion to ; as ht-der, thi-der, whz-der, hither, thither, 

7. -en (-e), motion from ; as henn-en, henn-e, hence ; thenn- 
en, thenn-e, thence ; whenn-en, whenn-e, whence, which gave 
rise to later forms with genitive affix -es, as henn-es, thenn-es^ 
ivhenn-es (Mod. E. hence, thence, whence]. 

8. -urn, -om (dat. pi.); as whil-om, seld-um. 

Dialectal Varieties. The Scandinavian forms hethen, 
hence, quethen (whethen), whence, thethen, thence, sum, as, 
are not used in the Southern dialect. 

The Northern dialect prefers the prefix on- (o-) to a- ; as 
on-slepe, asleep ; o-bak, aback ; on-rounde, around. 

In the West-Midland dialect we find m- as an adverbial 
prefix, as in-llande, together, mixedly; in-lyche, alike; in- 
mydde, amidst; in-monge, amongst. 1 Chaucer uses in-fere, 

The Southern suffix -linge becomes -linges (Sc. -h'ns) in the 
Northern dialect ; as grove-linges, on the face, prone ; hand- 
linges, hand to hand ; hed-linges, headlong. 

1 Alike, along (on account of), among, are corruptions of A. S. gcllce, 
gelong, gcinang. Cp. enough = A. S. gendh. 


The Northern dialect employs -gate or -gat (way) as a 
suffix ; as al-gate, always ; how-gate, how-so ; thus-gate, thus- 
wise ; swa-gate, so-wise, in such a manner. 

In-with, within, ut-with, without, forwit, before are 
peculiar to the Northern dialect. 


The Northern dialect employs fra for the Southern fram 
(vrani], Midland/h?, from ; at, til, for the Southern to ; amel, 
erne!, for the Southern amiddes, amid. Mide, mid, with, toppe, 
above ( = at oppe = at uppe, lit. at up), are unknown to the 
Northern dialect. 


If takes a negative form in the West-Midland dialect, as 
nif= if not. 

No-lut occurs in the Midland dialect for only. 

Warn, warm = unless, thofquether = nevertheless, are un- 
known in the Southern dialect. 

Ac, but, is not found in the Northern dialect. 


Quine, quin ( = whi-ne, why not) occurs in the Northern 
dialect for that! 




I. Plurals in -e (for -en); -en; -es (for -en). 

par were abute blosme i-no}e ; 16. 16. 

pe5 crowe bi-grede him bi f>e mershe; 16. 304. 

Horn let [sone] wurche 

Chapeles and chirche; 19. 1408. 

pat folc hi gunne quelle, 

And churchen for to felle; 19. 62. 

pah we hit nusten, heo weren vre i-fere ; 1 7 (Jes.) 102. 
(Here the Trinity MS. has iferen). 

Tvtelf faren he hadde; 19. 19. 

And bad him nimen him feres mide ; 15. 2478. 
(a). Genitives feminine in -e ; strong declension. 

pu ert mire souk liht; n. 5. 

Ne brekef) nouht Crist eft helle dure ; 17 (Jes.) 180. 

Ah helle kyng is oreles ; 1 7 (Jes.) 216. 

pe word bigan to springe 

Of Rymenhilde weddinge ; 19. 1029. 
(b\ Genitives in -e ; weak declension (usually feminine). 

Al min heorte blod to tSe ich offrie; n. 4. 

And nime 3eme of chirche stevene; 16. 727. 

pereuore ich Se bidde holi heouene kwene ; n. 83. 
, Genitives plural in -ene (-en) ; -e ; -es. 

In jEnglene londe; 6. 524. 

Cnihttne alre fseirest; 6. no. 

Cnihten alre hendest ; 6. 154. 

Vor Su ham hauest alesed of deoflene honde; n. 15. 


To englene londe ; n. 16; in englene reste ; u. 70. 

De him bar to manne frame; 12. 39. 

>e moyses, ourg godes red, 

Wrot for lefful soules ned ; 15. 2523. 

4. Neuters plural : (a) unchanged ; ({>) in -en ; (c) in -es. 

po heo hadde f>eos word i-cwede ; 16. 1653. 
Vmbe fiftene yr ; 6. 71. 
Heo dro}en heore scipen uppe J?e lond ; 6. 186. 
Alle }?ine wordes beoj? i-sliked; 16. 841. 

5. Various cases of the definite article. 

Comen to pan kinge; 6. 208. 

And Hengest swi(5e faeire 

Herede pane king ; 6. 277. 

Summe bi pa honden ; summe bi pe tunge ; 

. . . summe bifar heorte ; 3 a. 16. 

])e forme was sna\v,^/ocSer is, pet fridde fur; 3 a. 28. 

Biforen pam ilke stude ; 3 a. 46. 

God sescopyfo niht; r. 62. 

\)a engles of heofene; 3 a. 5. 

We eow wulletS seggen of pa fredome ; 3 a. 2. 

pe ancre/^^ ilke gult ne upbreide hire ; 9. 276. 

Hit \vasfiare ule earding-stowe ; 16. 28. 

A ]?as hself pere Humbre ; 6. 234. 

Si sterre yede to-for hem ; 13.11. 

6. Adjectives : (a) definite ; (<^) indefinite. 

pis weoren ^fccreste men; 6. 13. 

Swa }>e deor wilde', 6. 86. 

Hire flcschliche feder ; 8 # . 2. 

To luuien \ ene liuiende lauerd ; 8 rt. 6. 


Mine leoue sustren; 9. i. 

HelpetS mid ower owune swinke ; 9. 201. 

To sechen lond zn&godne lauerd; 6. 98. 

Cnihtene alrefeirest\ 6. 178. 

An rice king wes, strang and mihti; 1. 1. 

He wolde ^earceon anae grate laSienge; i. 6. 

And itt bitacneff) dene lif 

And alle dene paewess; 5. 1592. 
Seofe leies [seven flames] of seolcu&re heowe, ]>e alle 

weren eateliche to bihaldene and muchele strengre 

fen eani J>ing to folien ; 3 a. 1 9. 
7. Pronouns : personal, possessive, relative, indefinite. 
Eouwer wille ich wulle driven; 6. 49. 
He heom wes leof 
JEfne al swa heore lif; 6. 139. 
Heh //#? is and hali, 
Hired-men ^ luuieo' for-fi; 6. 131. 
3<?o his i-hote Frea; 

Heredmen hire louiecS; 6. 133 (later text). 
Ah war mihte we him fmde ? 16. 1749. 
per-efter arerde god \as lage, . . . and wrate his fa'm- 

se/fin. stanene wax-bredene; 1.91. 
pefie go'des milche sectS, iwis he mai hes [it] finden; 

i7(Tr.)2i 9 . 

Se \e aihte wile holde wel f e hwile hes mu^e wealden, 
3ieue hes for Codes luue, f anne do^ hes wel ihealden; a 


1 Hes = \\.; also hes = he hes, he it. 'He who desires to keep his 
roperty well whilst he may use it, let him give it away for the love of 
lod, then doth he well keep zV.' So also w = them; 15. 2130, 2404. 


Ah hit was unker voreward; 16. 1689 

Unk schal i-tide harm and schonde; 16. 1733. 

Ne jeue /^ for inc nowSer, ]?at 3^ me mahen harmen ; 

8 a. 113. 
^Erndraces of fiisser lage were Abel, Seth, Enoc, 

Noe; i. 85. 

pu ert mire soule liht, and mine heorte blisse; n. 5. 
Of celchen vfel he wass wser; 6. 156. 
Nu z# sculen eow sceawen hwilc hit is heom for to 

heren and nawiht for to ethalden [i. e. to retain 

or remember them]; 3 b. 22. 
pat ha leare ^tf#z mete [moderation], fiat me meosure 

hat ; 7. 50. (Me hat = one calls, is called.) 
Wostu to wan man was i-bore? 16. 716. 
Hwet is he pes were fat / art to iweddet,/^/ /# hauest 

wiS-uten me pine luue ilenet, for hwam pu letest 

lutel oifiat tu schuldest luuien? 8 a. 81. 
De corn *$at ge to caue berec^, 
Al get bit otwinne ; 12. 268. 
(Ge- she ; get =ge if, she it; bit, biteth.) 

8. Weak verbs. 

(a) Like love. 

pu makedest me fleme; 19. 1291. 

Alle fat pouerte wilfulliche /<?/?<? ; 10. 22. 

Ich hopie Jet hit schal beon ou swufte biheue ; 9. 350. 

(b) Like hear. 

Nouhwuder elles ne go heo, bute fider ase me sent 

hire; 9. 243. (Pres. s. indie.) 
Hi ledden him to Rouecestre; 2. 133. 


panne is mi J?ralhod 

Iwent in-to knijthod; 19. 439. 

(f ) Like tell. 

Clones warme and wel i-wrouhte\ 9. 153. 
Ne ratfe he, (he would not reck); 16. 427. 
He wel trowede }?at he seyde, 
And on Godard handes leyde; 18. 382. 

9. Strong verbs. 

(a) Like/a//. 

He/eng on to tellen him ; 8 at. 44. 

Ic am . . M^fcw in bond; 15. 2076. 

Here lif hi lete fere; 19. 1262. 

Heo tweien eoden . . into helle, alswa heom drihten 

het\ 3 a. 9. 
All men sulle ripen J?at hie ar sewen ; 17 (Tr.) 22. 

(b) Like shake. 

Bulted brsed 

patt bakenn wass inn ofne; 5. 992. 
To him his swerd he dro$' t 19. 882. 
He wit and wald alle Jing, and schop alle schafte ; 
17 (Jes.) 83. 

(c) Like ^^r. 

Al schal beon fer J?eonne ikud, >at er f^r^] men 

lowen and stelen ; 17 (Jes.) 165. 
Hi nomen conseil betuene hem; 13. 8. 

(d) "Like give. 

De lene hauen <Se fe\.\&freten\ 15. 2101. 
Al f>is ]?at tu hauest ispeken of; 7. 194. 
He sag hise bretfere misfaren; 15. 1911. 


Ich wille speke toward fe 

Also fu speke toward me; 16. 553. 

(e) Like drink. 

"Ki gonne me assaile ; 19. 637. 

Heo swunken sore; 17 (Jes.) 354; he swanc sore; 
i 7 (Tr.) 3 62. 

Wilde der 

Hauen min sune swolgen her; 15. 1975. 
Elewsius war's wod ut of his witte ; 8 a. 127. 

(/) Like drive. 

Hi strike (pt. pi.) seil and maste; 19. 1025. 
I smot hem alle to grunde; 19. 639. 
pe sarazins he smat [miswritten smatte~\ ; 19. 607. 

(g) Like choose. 

Ic fe bidde . . for fine icorene\ 3 a. 77. 
Scse [she]/^ m& forks far micel; 2. 122. 
Al schal beon fer f eonne ikud, fat er men lowen and 

stelen; 17 (Jes.) 165. 
Prest [priest] with token kope; 18. 429. 
10. Anomalous Verbs. 

pus ah mon te fenchen; 7. 222. 
He binam him al Sat he ahte to hauen; 2. 112. 
Cristus him unne gode endinge ; 2. 204. 
He iaf him al tSat he cuthe axen him; 2. 109. 
Vor nis of ow non so kene 
pat durre abide mine onsene; 16. 1705. 
Nabbe je no swuch f ing f et ou ne deih forto habben ; 
9. 189. 

He mot mid me holde mid ri3te; 16. 1680. 


per ne parf he beon adred of fure ne of }>eue ; 1 7 

(Jes.) 44. 

Whi nellu fleon into f>e bare? 16. 150. 
ii. Adverbs. 

He haf giled fe twie\ 19. 1488. 

Do hit [let her do it] allunge ut of hire heorte ; 9. 


For further examples of the use of adverbs, see, in the 
Glossary, cer, among > ay en, eft, dles^faste, henne, heonene, hwer, 
hwi, hwu, hwykm, ichwer, iliche, Home, mow, iwt's, ma, mid- 
twt'sse, misliche, muchel, na, nafre, nede, ofte, cfterluker, seld, 
sone, summesweis, swi<Se, pankes, par, parfore, parm, paron, 
bar to, paruore, parwffi, penne.per-on^peruppe^pider, unpances, 
whane, whanene, whar, ivilles^ &c. 

vor.. i. 


ACCESSION OF STEPHEN (Dec. 26) . ... . . . 1135 

Stephen passes over to Normandy 1137 

Battle of the Standard (Aug. 2 2) 1138 

Stephen taken prisoner at Lincoln (Feb. 2) . . . .1141 
The Empress Maud escapes from Oxford (Dec. 20) . . .1142 
History of British Kings ; by Geoffrey of Monmouth . . .1147 

I. Old English Homilies (MS. Cotton, Vesp. A. 22) . . before 1150 

The Earl of Chester is imprisoned 1151 

Henry, son of Maud, lands in England 1152 


II. A Saxon Chronicle (1137 1154) .... after 1154 

The Brat (in French) ; by Wace 1155 

Romance of the Holy Graal ; by Robert de Borron . . about 1 1 70 
Romance of Merlin ; by Robert de Borron .... about 1 1 70 


Romances of Lancelot, Quest of the Holy Graal, and Mort 

Artus ; by Walter Map before 1196 


III. Old English Homilies (MS. Lambeth 487) . . before 1200 
XVII. A Moral Ode (earlier version) .... before 1 200 

IV. Old English Homilies (MS. Trin. Coll. Cam.) . . before 1200 

V. The Ormulum about 1200 

VI. Lay amorfs translation of Wace's Brut . . . about 1205 

VII. Soul's Ward about 1210 

VIII. Life of Saint Juliana about 1210 

IX. The Ancren Riwle about 1210 

X. Wooing of our Lord about 1210 

XI. An Orison of our Lady about 1210 

Life of St. Margaret (ed. Cockayne) about 1210 

Life of St. Katharine (ed. Morton) about 1210 


Cuckoo Song (ed. Ellis) before 1240 

XII. A Bestiary before 1250 

Miscellaneous Poems in Jesus Coll. MS., Oxford (in Old 

Eng. Miscellany, ed. Morris) before 1250 



XIII. Old Kentish Sermons before 1250 

XIV. Proverbs of Alfred . 1246-1250 

XV. English Version of Genesis and Exodus . . . about 1250 

XVI. The Owl and the Nightingale 1246-1250 

XVII. A Moral Ode (Jesus Coll. MS.) . . . . about 1250 
Chastel d' Amour ; by Robert Grosseteste . . . . before 1253 
Only English Proclamation of Henry III (Oct. 18) . . . 1258 

Song against the King of Almaigne 1 264 

Birth of Dante . 1265 


Prisoner's Prayer (ed. Ellis) before 1274 

Debate of the Body and the Soul, Land of Cockaygne, and 

other pieces before 1300 

XVIII. Havelok the Dane before 1300 

XIX. King Horn before 1300 


THE following extract, in one of the dialects of the south-east 
of England, is taken from the Cotton MS. Vespasian, A 22, which 
contains also a twelfth-century transcript of JElfric's Homily 
entitled ' Sermo de Initio Creaturae, ad populum, quando volu- 
eris/ together with a fragment of another of JElfric's discourses 
by an unknown transcriber. These pieces are printed in ' Old 
English Homilies and Homiletic Treatises' (pp. 216-245), edited 
by Dr. Morris for the Early English Text Society, 1867-1868. 

An Bispel (or Parable), 
kh/ [Dr. Morris's Old English Homilies, pp. 230-241.] 

[H]ix 3elamp \at an rice king wes. strang and mihti. his 

land gelest wide and side, his folc was swrSe serfe^-telle. 

his under-]?eoden jewer on his cyne-rice wuneden. pa be- 

fel hit swa \at hi#z a J>ance befell to unde^eite wa an alle 

his cyne-rice hitfz were frend o^er fend, hold o^er fa. and he 5 

(nam hi;;z to rede) \at heow wolde 5earceon anas grate la^ienge. 

and ]>ider 5eclepien all his underj?eod. \at hi bi ene fece to 

his curt [berie] come sceolde and sette senne de^ie 1 . \at hi 

alle be J>e latst to ]>a d^ie 1 . ]?er were. Ac ]?is ^esceod he 

\ hadde isett bi-tweone frend and fend. \at |?an hi come 10 

1 Read 'dcje' or'deie.' 


mistlice to berie. jef he frend were, me hine sceolde dere- 
w[u]r[]lice forS-clepien. and do hine wasse. and 3iefe him his 
formemete. \at him to lawg ne Jmhte to abiden 0$ se 1 laford 
to }>e none inn-come. Gief he fend were, me sceolden anon 

15 eter gat jemete mid gode repples and stiarne swepen. and 
stiarne hine besie. tf^binde him hand and felt, and do hine 
into )>iesternesse. and ]>er abide o^ 2 all[e] his 5eferen were 
;egadered. \at hi alle clene 3 . sTmle belocen were, pa sende 

"* se king his serndraches of fif ce^en to alle his under]?eoden. to 

20 jela^ie }>is folc. hwet bute [fece] icome sum cofer sum later sum 
frend sum fend, and was idon bi haw al swa aer cwe^e [we] 
\at isett was. pa hit ]>er-to com. \at se hlaford into ]>ar halle 
come, mid his dierewurS 4 jeferede. mid serlen and aldren. 
mid cnihten mid j>emen. ]?a cwe^ se hlafor[d] to his. ^Eer 

25 }>ane we mid ure frienden toe mete go. scewie 5 we j?es 
unco^e maen ur jefo. })a hi to -for him come. }>a wente he hin 
to haw and }>us cwe^S. Unwraste man wat macede 6 5eu an 
alle mire rice ]?at jie hatrede and wid^rwardnesse a^enes me 
je-win[ne] sceolde. and to mine fa jebugon. Swa ibriice ic 

30 mine rice ne scule 516 mine mete ibite. ac scule ]>a J?e hit mid 
mire lufe jearnede. pa J?is was isegd. |>a were cofe abruden into 
J>est<?messe. ]>e hi sturfe hungre. and se hlaford nam hit him 
to [h]is frenden and et and dranc and macede hine wel blre 
mid his and J>er hi hadden brad and win. and vii. sandon. 

35 [N]u gode menn understande^ )>is bispel. pes king is ure 
hlaford almihti god ]>e is king ofer alle kingen. and hlaford 
ofer alle hlafordew. S[t]rang he is 7 and michti. for he 
jesceop alle J)ing of nahte. and na ]?ing ne m^i 8 a5enes his 
wille. ne him wi^stande. for-j^an him seigd se wit^e. Qui 

40 celorum confines tronos et cetera. \at is. hlaford of mihte J?e 

1 MS. of fe.' 2 MS. ' of.' MS. clone.' * MS. ' dierewurd.' 
5 MS. ' scepie.' 6 MS. ' lacede.' 7 MS. ' his.' 8 Read ' mais' or ' mai.' 


list 1 hefenen jjriwsettles. and tho 2 neowelnesse ]>e under 
>re is be-locest. J>e dunan 3 j?u awrShst mid 4 |>ina hand; 
is iwiss mihti for-]>an ]?e non mihte nis butow fra;# 
His land is all )>es middenard. for he alle ;esceop. and 
life] dihte wrS-ute swince. He us is. king, and sceppend. 45 
id fader, and hlaford. King for he mid rihtwisnesse diht 
in and engel god and euel. sceppende. for he us machede 
:hame and sawle ableow. feder for he us fett and scred. and 
al-se [h]is cyldren. hlaford for-]>a ]>e [h]is 3eie 5 and 
rednesse is ofer us r> . and [ve\ as] ah to biewne. He is ure 7 50 
fad^r. he len^ us his eorSe to tolie. his 8 corn to sawe. his 
eorSe us werp'S corn and westm. matt, and dierchin. his loht 
leoem and lif. his water drench and fiscynn. his fer manifeald 
Jjenlnge. his sonne. mone. sterren. rien. daw. wind. wude. 
unitald fultume al \at we habbe'S of ])ese feder we nabbed. 55 
of waw we alle and us sielfe 9 habbe^. ^ Mu^e we ahct 
clepeien hine moder wene we. 316 mu^e we. hwat de^ si ; 
moder hire beam. formes[t] hi hit chere^ 10 and blissrS be |>e 
; lichte. and se]?e hi die^ und^r hire arme o^er his hafed heleS 
I to don him slepe. and reste. pis de'S all 3iure drihte. he 60 
blisseS us 6 mid djeies licht. h[e] sweue^ us 6 mid jjiestre 
nicht. Giet for an o^re ]>ing god 3escop ]?a niht. He wat 
wel \at mantle men bie^ sa ful of ^escung. mihti efre ISL 
Na 3ewold haw selfe. to bigeten w[u]rldlic echte. ])er-for god 
hafS n jescepe haw reste. sume wile hares usances, jeiet he 65 
cwe^ a wunder worden 12 to )>ar sawle bi J>a witie ysaiaw. 
Numquid potest mulier obliuisci infaniem suum ut non 
miscreatur filit uteri sui. \at is la lief majte wimarc for3ete;? 
his oge cild. \at hi ne milsi. hire barn of hire ogen inno^. 

1 MS. ' alste.' 2 MS. to.' 3 MS. has ' inpon >e dunan.' 

4 MS. ' eor-Se belucst mid.' . 5 Read ' eje' or ' eie.' 6 MS. ' bus.' 

7 MS. hure.' 8 MS. he.' 9 MS. ' sielfe.' 10 MS. ' chetetJ.' 

u MS. hafd.' u MS. worder.' 

B 2 


70 and 3ief hi forjiet Jjah-hwe^er nell ic fo^ete ]>e cwe^ driht6w. 
be ]>aw ]>e he fader is 0;*^ laford he him self cwe^ 1 be )>e 
witie. *SV ^ /fl&r ubtest honor mcus. si dominus ubi est timor 
meus. \at is. gif ic fader am 2 . wer is 3 mi mawscipe. 3if ic. 
hlaford wer is 3 mine a^eie? J?er-fore. G. m. ure king, we 056^ 

75 w[u]r[t]hmint. hur sceappend al ]>at we bie^. ure fader so^e 
lufe. ur hlaford drednesse. And J>is is se 4 king ]>e wile wite 
an alle his und^r]?eode wa hine lufeS and hwa hine hate^. hwa 
\i\rn is frend o^er fend. And ]>er-for he ha^ 5ela^ed alle 
fol[c]. to ane d3eie. \at is domes djeie. \at hi alle j?er beon 

80 be }>e latst. we 5 seden serst \at J>es aerndraces wer isent of fif 
che^en. swa ibeo^. ]>as fif che^en beo^ fif lagan. for-]?an J>e 
god is jjurh Jjesen 3ecn6we. Si forme lage \at is si 3ecende 
lage. )>e god sett formest an ]>es mawnes heorte. \at is ]?at 
non man ne don o^ere. buton \at ]>e he wolde \at me ded[e] 

85 him. WrS-ute ]?eser lage nis man ]>e 3escod habbe. ^3rn- 
draces of Jnsser lage wer[en] abel. Seth. enoc. Noe. and swice 
gode man. \ See )>es mid^nard was 3esta]>eled fram ]?a 
forme man to ]?a latst ]>e w[u]r^ et ]?es w[u]rldes ende. nas 
tid ne tyme ne ne wfujr^. \at god ne send gode msenn his 

90 folc forte 3ela^ie to his rice. Ac si lage sone adiligde. ]?urh 
unwreaste leahtruw and manifald senne. per-efter arerde god 
]>as lage J>urh moysew J>e heretoche of his folce ]?e he J?a 3ecas. 
and wrate his him self in stanene wax bredene. and si 3eleste 
sume wile, and |?er-of were lar]>awes and 3ela^ieres Moises 

95 and aaro/z. and samuel. and fele o^re. , Swa lage \at si alswa 
swi^fe] abrea^. and adili3ede. J>urh unhersawnesse. wat hit 
com to }>a time J?e god sende ]>e halie witige. and hi ]>a arerd- 
on mid hare write )mrh ]>es halie gastes gife ]?a god lage. 
and rihtleceden \at folc swa se hi mihtew. and bodeden ures 
100 hlafordes to-cyme ]?es 6 helendes ihmi cnstes. J^e sceolde his 

l 'MS. sel> cwed.' 2 MS. hzm.' s MS. ' his.' 

* MS. 'seo.' MS. 'hwe.' 6 MS. 'ses.' 

7. A PARABLE. 5 

a^en wille. jmrh his gastes 3ife in ure heorte write., and don " 
us mid his mihte \at stef-creft ne mihte. and an Jiesser laje 
of }>Q witjin. wer la&eres moche; Eft bine fece #;?</ ]>es lare 
and lage swre acolede ]mrh manifea[l]d senne 1 . fl?z^ hur and 
hur Jmrh false godes ]>e selc }?iode hazra selfe macede. sume of 105 
golde. sum of silure. of treowe. of stane. cw^/awente godes lof 
and w[u]r[t]hminte fra/# ]>e sceappende to ]>are 5esceafte. swa 
\al ]?a ure halende wes accenned of J>a;# unweflzmede mede 
sante Marie, al se midde^nard was mid senne begripe. and 
al folc jede i-to )>es diefles mu^e.^butow \vel feawe of vram no 
his lefe moder wes istriened. he j?a arexd alle godnisse. and 
sette his halie lage. and j?at ]>e more is. 5iaf miht and 
strec]?e jjurh 2 ]?e gief of his gaste his hesne to fulforSie. \at 
non o^re laje ne mihte. and understande'S hwu. pri ampres 
were an mancyn ser his to-cyme. Ure acenneng wes ful. 115 
ur 3 lif unvvreast. ur dea^ grislic. he com fl^brochte J>ri J[g] 
Jj^r-ajen. he wes acende of ]?e clene mede. ])e efer ]?urh-lefede 
mede. his lif was halite, his dea^ ful of milce. his clene 
acennende cle^sede ure fule acenne/zde. his hali lif rihtlecede 
ure unwreaste lif. his admoded deaS ofer-cow. and fordede 120 
ure sor^e and 3elice dea'S. J>is is si fierce lage. An ]?isser were 
serndraces and 3ela : Sieres ]?a ap&r/les and^Q Ieorni7/ch[n]ihtes. 
]>er-efter ures helendes upstije to heuene. [comen] Jja ap^/les 
and hare mnglenges |>e[r] efter come halie men and ]?e hafed- 
men ]?e nu beo^ in halie cyrce. and w[u]re^ o^ 4 domes deje. 125 
J>urh ]>es hali gastes jife. and al-swa ure helende haw leorde 
[and] man^e |?ing [tjehten ]>a folce to freme. and J>is is si fifte 
lage. An ]>isser beo^ bedeles and la^ieres to b<?rie archebi- 
scopes. and biscopw. prestes. and hare jegeng. Ac Jah we fif 
nsewmie. alle hit [is] on godes wille. and elc of haw 3estreri3 130 
and fulfell]? o^re. Of peses fif ce]?en and of hare bedeles we 

1 MS. manifead f-inne.' 2 MS. J?url.' 3 MS. 'un.' 

* MS. 'of.' 


habbe'S jeu jesed. Of fa folce we sigge'S \at hit cum}> fast- 
lice, fram middenardes anginn alse fele alse deade becrS 
alse fele beo^ to berie icome. wat frend. wat fa. and elce 

i3S dejie ]>!cce fringes. Ac jief 36 habbeS und^rstande \at we 
3iu er sede. eter gate me his scyft. and far me hi to 3esceode : S. 
Si gate \at is elces mannes endedeie. \at he step^ ut of }>ese 
life into fan o^re. Ac we sede jew 1 . \at jief he frend were 
me sceolde 3ief him his mor^e mete \at he fa bet mihte abide 

140 fane more mete. Swa hit is here. \at se gode man fa godes 
lufe ha^ jefolged to [h]is ende cum]>. witerlice 2 wrS-ut uuan- 
truce 3 j^er cume^ ]?e hali engles him to. and ^ef [he] ha'S ahte 
uniwasse oer hit w[u]r6 3ewasse ij>er pine of )>e dea^e ]?e he 
her ]?ale^. oer efter mid e^elice lette. and \an lat me j?a sawle 

1 45 to merchestowe. ]><z/is 4 se mor^emete si blisse }>e he ha^ an 
|>ar sawle. ]>at wite je wel. nan halege na^ his fulle blisse er 
he underfo adomes deTe his licame. \at w[u]r^ se fulle mete. 
fan se mann mid sawle and mid licame und^rfangS sicer- 
nesse of ecer blisse. And wat beli/wp^ hit jief he fend is* fa 

150 to ]>are gate cuw|>? God |?urh his mucele milce ne letes us 
nefer fandie. Ac na|>eles jief he fend is * an unwreast mann 
|>er beo^ anu jeredie. fa weregede gastes fa hine uniredlice 
und^rfange^ mid stiarne swupen. Alse fele unj^eawes alse [he] 
hade upe him and sennenn. al swa fendes he far 3emet. hine 

155 to underfo. and to don hine into j>iesternesse. o^ 5 a domes 
djei alle godes fend simle fraw his 3esecSe abroden bienn 
and hi [habbeS] to hare lean haz fa lange seel jeleste. pus 
hit ha^ ibi and is. and w[u]r5 o^ 5 domesdei. Ac fanne hit 
|)er-to cum)? \at se hlaford a fa mucele deie. cumj? forte isi and 

i Go frend a^fend. farm cum]) all his und^rjjiede him to-fore. J>er 
he sit mid his derew[u]r];e 3efered mid ni3en anglene had. 

MS. ' 3ehw.' 2 MS. witetlice.' * Looks at first like ' miantruce ' in MS. 
* MS. 'his/ 6 MS. 'oft.' 


mid Jjer unwemmed meide his moder. mid his apar/len. mid 
]?a hagefad^ren. and )>o hal^e wTtien. mid martiren. mi[d] hali 
c0wfessore# mid halie meiden. mid al |>an ]?e )>er midenarde 
for his lufe werpe'S abec. and lagelice her him ]?enr$. wic 165 
jeie. wic drednesse wur$ )>er. \an J?at fer to-for him abernS 
\at middenard. \an si eore alle cwace^ 1 J>an )>e sterren failed, 
si sunne and se mone ajjestre^ for godes brictnesse. J>e 
\v[o]lcne to ga^. and si hali rode tacne mid ]>e spere and mid 
J>e neiles Jmrh angles beo^ for$ ibrocht. )>anw<? ]>e angles cwa- 1 7-0 
cia^. and t[h]6 richtwise haw adredeS. wat sceol se senfulle 
don. \>Q isecg^ ]>er his richtwise deme. ]>e non nc maie bechece. 
non beswice. he is 2 him self 3 witnisse and deme. Wat sceol 
se wrecce don. )>e bufon isefS his hlaford )>e he 3egremed 
[hJafe'S. under him helle mu^ open, abuuten him all folc. him 175 
selfe bi s[c]a;zdlice senne beswapen. J>er ne mai now frend 
o^re helpe. selc had innoh to do;me aw him selfe. pan seie^ 4 
haw god ]?e gelty mawnew 56 sene3eden. an 3eur ecenesse. and 
je scule birne an mire ecenisse. 3 e sene^den alse lange alse 
36 lefede and 36 scule birne alse lowge as ic lefie. Wite^ 1 80 
into ece fer. J>e is 33earced mine fo and his 3egen[g] Son[e] hi 
wfujr^e^ abroden of his 3esec)>e. And\w\ sone ge$ se hlaford 
mid his frenden to his mete. \at his to [h]is esten. )?e serS an 
J>an hali write Delicie mee sunt esse cum filiis hominum. ]?at 
is. Mine esten beo^ wunian mid mannen bearnen. Ac we 185 
[habbeS 36-] sed $m litl her \at hi sceoldew [h]abbew god brad 
and uuin 5 . and vii. sonden. hi sculen habe \at brad J?e sei^ 
ij?e godspel. Ego sum pants uiuus qui de celo descendit. pet is. 
Ic am cwuce bread ]>e astah fram hefene. se%6 ure helende. 
)>e of )>ese brad ett. ne sterfeS he nefer. pis bread was 190 
aced of ane hwete corne. al-swa se he cwe^ rSe 6 god- 

> MS. ' cwaced.' 2 MS. ' his.' s MS. ' selj>.' 

* MS. seied.' 6 MS. uin.' MS. ' 3 eGe.' 


spelle. Nisi granum frumenti. et cetera. J>is corn was 
jesawen Jmrh J?es sengles mu$ into es meidenes sere Marie. 
in J>are burh of nazareth. Jns corn com ferst ine bethleew. 

'95 \at cweS us Q breade. hit wex and bleowu 1 . in iudea. hit 
ripede in ierusalem. ludas and ]>at leo^re folc hit repen. and 
deden hit an ]?ar rode alswa alse betwenen melstanent. 
Se$e 2 hit was idon into J>er berien. alswa into ofne 3 . J>anen 
hit was ibroht up into heofene to J>es hahes hlafordes borde. 

200 J>er hit fet. and engles. and mancinn in ecenisse. and J>is is 
hare bread, hwer scule we win finden ? Al swa se he 
Ego sum uitis uera. et cetera. 

1 Read bleouw.' 2 MS. 'Sede.' 8 MS. 'h6fne.' 


A.D. 1137-1154. 

THE Old English Chronicle, sometimes called the Anglo- 
Saxon Chronicle, contains the history of Britain from the time of 
Caesar's invasion to the reign of Henry II, 1154. Some suppose, 
without much probability, that the establishment of this early 
national record is due to Alfred the Great. There are several 
MSS. of the Chronicle ; the earliest of which ends with the year 
891, and is in the handwriting of the ninth century. It was first 
edited, with a Latin translation, by Abraham Wheloc, and pub- 
lished at Cambridge in 1644. It was next edited in 1692, at 
Oxford, by Edmund Gibson, with a new Latin translation. In 
1823 it was edited by the Rev. James Ingram, with an English 
translation. An edition containing the texts of all the MSS. was 
edited, with an English translation, in 1861, by Benjamin Thorpe, 
in the series * Rerum Britannicarum Medii Aevi Scriptores, or 
Chronicles and Memorials of Great Britain and Ireland during 
the Middle Ages,' published under the direction of the Master 
of the Rolls. A further edition was published in 1867 by Mr. 
Earle, the Professor of Anglo-Saxon at Oxford, accompanied 
by a very full Glossary, but without a translation. An edition 
of the Chronicle, down to the Norman Conquest, with an 
English translation by Mr. Richard Price, was published in 1848 
among the 'Monumenta Historica Britannica.' 

The following extract from the Chronicle illustrates the 
changes that took place in our language during the first half of 
the twelfth century. It has some Midland peculiarities of dialect, 
and is supposed to have been written in the neighbourhood of 


The State of England in Stephens Reign. 
[Mr. Earle's edition, pp. 261-266; Thorpe's, pp. 382-385.] 

1137. Dis gaere for be \ing Steph# ofer sse to Nor- 
mandi j ther \ves under-fangen for-bi & 1 hi uuenden 2 ?> 
he sculde ben alsuic alse the eo/# wes. 3 for he hadde get 
his tresor. ac he to-deld it 3 scatered sotlice. Micel hadde 
5 Henri kmg gadered gold j syluer. ] na god ne dide me for 
his saule thar-of. 

pa be king Stephne to lLng\e\and com ba mapd he his 
gadering set Oxeneford. 3 bar he naw be biscop Roger of 
Sereb<?ri 3 Alex. biscop of Lincol j te Canceler Roger hise 

o neues. 3 dide aelle in pr/sun. til hi iafen up here castles, pa 
the suikes under-gseton $ he milde man was j softe ^j god. 
^ na justise ne dide. J?a didefn] hi alle wunder. Hi had- 
den him manred maked 3 athes suoren. ac hi nan treuthe 
ne heolden. alle he waeron for-sworen and here treothes 

15 for-loren. for seuric rice man his castles makede 3 agaenes 
\\\m heolden. ^ fylden J?e land ful of castles. Hi suencten 
suy^e ]?e uurecce men of )>e land mid castel weorces. j^a 
}>e castles uuaren maked j?a fylden hi mid deoules 3 yuele 
men. pa namen hi J>a men fce hi wenden ^ ani god hefden. 

20 bathe be nihtes n be daeies. carl-men and wiwmen. T diden 

heo^z in pr/sun eft<rrgold ^ syluer. ^ pined heom untellend->: 

lice pining, for ne uuaeren nseure nan martyrs swa pined alse 
hi waeron. Me henged up bi the fet ~] smoked heo/fl mid ful 
smoke. Me henged bi the Jmwbes. other bi the hefed. 
25 3 hengen bryniges on [her] fet. Me dide cnotted strenges 
abuton here haeued. ] uurythen to $ it gaede to }>e haernes. 

1 tf = "Saet = that. 2 In this and other words uu = w. 


Hi dyden heo;;j in quarterne ]?ar nadres 3 snakes 3 pades 
waeron inne. 3 drapen heom swa. Sume hi diden in crucet- 
hus $ is in an caeste ]>at was scort 3 nareu. 3 un-dep. 3 dide 
scaerpe stanes ]?er-mne. 3 jjrengde J?e man J>aer-inne. him 30 
braecon alle }>e limes. In mani of j>e castles waeron lof 3 
grin & waeron rachenteges > twa oj>er thre men hadden 
onoh to baeron onne. J>at was sua maced. is faestned to an 
beom. 3 diden an scaerp iren abuton ]>a mannes throte and 
his hals. he ne myhte nowiderwardes. ne sitten ne lien 35 
ne slepen. oc baeron al > iren. Mani ]>usen[de] hi drapen 
mid hungaer. 

J ne can ne i ne mai tellen alle pe wunder ne alle J>e 
pines $ hi diden wrecce men on j)is land, i % lastede J>a xix 
wintre wile Stephne was king 3 aeure it was uuerse 3 uuerse. 40 
Hi laeiden gaeildes o[n] the tunes aeure uwwile 3 clepeden it 
tenserie. ]>a ]?e uurecce men ne hadden naw more to gyuen. 
J>a raeueden hi ] brendon alle the tunes. wel jm myhtes 
faren all a daeis fare sculdest thu neure finden man in tune 
sittende. ne land tiled, pa was corn daere. 3 fle[s]c 3 cje&e 3 45 
butere. for nan ne waes o ]>e land. Wrecce men sturuen of *f , 
hungaer. sume ieden on aelmes J>e waren sum wile rice men. 
sume flugen ut of lande. 

Wes naeure gaet mare wrecce-hed on land, ne naeure 
hethen men werse ne diden J>an hi diden. for ouer 1 sithon 50 
ne for-baren [hi] nouther circe ne cyrce-iaerd. oc nam^ al 
])e god $ ]>ar-inne was. 3 brenden sythen ]>e cyrce 3 al te 
gaedere. Ne hi ne for-baren \)iscopes land ne abbotes ne 
preostes. ac raeueden munekes 3 clerekes. 3 seuric man other 
J>e ouer 1 myhte. Gif twa men o)>er iii coman ridend to an 55 
tun. al ]?e tunscipe flugaen for heom. ^venden ^ hi waeron 
rseueres. pe biscopes and lered men heow cursede aeure. 

1 ? ouuer = owher. 


oc was heom naht j>ar-of. for hi uueron al for-curssed 3 for- 
suoren 3 for-loren. 

60 War-sae me tilede. }>G erthe ne bar nan corn, for ]?e land 
was al for-don. mid suilce dsedes. ] hi sseden openlice 
Christ slep. 3 his halechen. Suilc 3 mare J>anne we cunnen 
saein. we |?olenden xix wintre for ure sinnes. 

On al ]>is yuele time heold Martin abbot his abbot-rice 

65 xx wintry 3 half gaer 3 viii daeis. mid micel suinc, 3 fand )>e 
munekes 3 te gestes al fat heom be-houed 3 heold mycel carited 
in the hus. 3 }>o]>-wethere wrohte on ]?e circe -j sette }>ar-to 
landes 3 rentes. 3 goded it suythe 3 Iset it refen 3 brohte 
heom into )>e neuuse mynstfY? on S' PETRES maesse daei mid 

70 micel wurtscipe.i ^ was anno ab iwaxnatione Dom. Mcxl. a 
cowbustioe loci xxiii.j And he for to Rome. 3 J>aer waes wael 
under-fangen fraw J?e pape Eugenie, and be-gaet thare przui- 
legies. an of alle J?e landes of J>abbot-rice. 3 an o]?er of J>e 
landes J>e lien to j>e circe-wican. 3 gif he leng moste liuen 

75 alse he mint to-don of ]?e horder-wycan. And he begaet in 

landes J>at rice men hefden mid strengthe. of Wilk/m Mal- 

duit J?e heold Roginghaw }>2e castel. he wan Cotingha/tf 3 

^, Estun. and of Hugo of Walteuile he uuan Hyrtlingbz/r^. 

and Stanewig. 3 Ix sol. of Aldewingie [selc gser]. And he 

80 makede manie munek^r 3 plantede winiserd. 3 makede mani 
weorkes. 3 wende }>e tun betere J>an it ser waes. 3 wses 
god munec 3 god man. 3 for]?i hiw luueden God 3 gode 

Nu we willen saegen sum del wat belamp on Steph kinges 

85 time. On his time }>e Judeus of Noruuic bohton an Christen 
cild beforen Estren 3 pineden him alle ]?e ilce pining =S ure 
Drihten was pined. 3 on lang fridaei him on rode hengen for 
ure Drihtines luue. 3 sythen byrieden him. Wenden ^ it sculde 
ben for-holen. oc ure Dryhtin atywede % he was hali marfyi. 3 

90 t[h]o munekes him namen. and bebyried[en] Him heglice in 



J>e minstr*?. and he maket ]>ur[h] ure Drihtin wunderlice 3 
manifseldlice miracles. 3 hatte he Sanct Willelm. 

1138. On ]?is gser com Dauid king of Scotland mid ormete 
fserd to }>is land, wolde winnan ]>is lande. and him com to- 
gsenes WilWm eorl of Albamar ]?e |>e king [h]adde beteht 95 
Euorwic 3 tP other seuez men mid fseu men and fuhten wid 
heom. 3 flewden ]>e king set te Standard. 3 sloghen suithe 
micel of his genge. 

1140. On j?is gser wolde ]>e king Stephne tsecen Rodb^rt 
eorl of Gloucestre }>e kinges sune Henries, ac he ne myhte 100 
for he wart it war. 

per-efter in ]?e lengten ]?estrede ]>e sunne 3 te daei. abuton 
non tid dseies. )?a men eten. me lihtede candles to seten bi. 
and ]?at was xiii kalend. Aprzl wseron men suythe of-wundred. 

per-efter fordfeorde Willelm &Tcebz'scop of Cantwarbwr^. 105 
3 te king makede Teodbald Kicobiscop ]>e was abbot in 
the Bee. . 

per-efter wsex suythe micel uuerre betuyx J>e king j Randolf 
eorl of Caestre noht for-]>i ^ he ne iaf him al he cuthe axen 
him. alse he dide alle othre. oc sefre J>e mare he iaf heom. J>e no 
wserse hi wseron hizra. pe eorl heold Lincol agsenes |>e king. 
3 benaw him al ^ he ahte to hauen. 3 te king for jnder 3 be- 
saette him 3 his brother Wilk/m de R[om]are in |?e castel. 
3 te 33orl stsel ut 3 ferde efter Rodb^rt eorl of Gloucestre. 
3 brohte hi2 jjider mid micel ferd. 3 fuhten suythe on 115 
Candel masse dsei agenes heore lauerd. 3 namen him for 
his men him suyken 3 flugsen. 3 laed him to Bristowe 3 diden 
}>ar in prz'sun. 3 [in _/]teres. pa was al Engldand styred 
mar ]?an ser wses. 3 al yuel wses in lande. 

per-efter com jje king^r doht^r Henries ]?e hefde ben Em- 120 
perice in Alamanie. 3 nu wses cuntesse in Angou. 3 com to 
Lundene 3 te Lundenissce folc hire wolde tsecen. 3 scse fleh 

forles par micel. 


per-efter }>e biscop of Wincestre Henri J>e kinges brother 

125 Stephw^ spac wid Rodb^rt eorl 3 wyd pewperice 3 suor heow 
athas > he neure ma mid te king his brother wolde halden. 
3 cursede alle ] e men |?e mid him heoldon. 3 ssede heow he 
uuolde iiuen heow up Wincestre. 3 dide heow cumen J>ider. 
pa hi ]>aer-inne wseren. J>a cow }?e king^r cuen [mid al] hire 

130 strengthe. 3 besset heom. $ J?er waes inne micel hungaer. pa 
hi ne leng ne muhten |>olen |>a stalfen] 1 hi ut 3 flugen. 3 hi 
wurthen war widuten 3 folecheden heow. 3 namen Rodb^rt 
eorl of G\o\ices/re. 3 ledden hiw to Rouecestre. 3 diden him 
|>are in pnsun. 3 te emperice fleh into an minstre. pa feorden 

135 |>e wise men be-twyx J?e kinges freond 3 te eorles freond. 3 
sahtlede sua me sculde leten ut ]?e king of pr*sun for |>e 
eorl. 3 te eorl for ]>e king. 3 sua diden. 

Sithen ]>er-efter sahtleden ]?e king 3 Randolf eorl at Stan- 
ford. 3 athes suoren 3 treuthes faeston her nou]>er sculde 

140 be-suiken other. 3 it ne for-stod naht. for ]?e king him sithen 
naw in Hawtun. Jmrch wicce 2 rsed. 3 dide him in pr/sun. 3 
ef[t] sones he let him ut Jmrch 3 wserse red. to ^ forewarde $ 
he suor on halidow 3 gysles fand. J?at he alle his castles 
sculde iiuen up. Sume he iaf up 3 sume ne iaf he noht. 

145 3 dide }>anne wserse ]>anne he haer sculde. 

pa was Engle land suythe to-deled, sume helden mid te 
king. 3 sume mid )>ewperice. for J>a ]?e king was in pnsun ]>a 
wenden ]>e eorles 3 te rice men J>at he neure mare sculde 
cum#2 ut. 3 ssehtleden wyd ]>e;perice. 3 brohten hire into 

150 Oxen-ford. 3 iauen hire J?e burch. pa ]?e king was ute |>a 
herde ^ saegen v< 3 toe his feord 3 be-saet hire in )>e tur. 
3 me Iset hire dun on niht of }>e tur mid rapes. 3 stal ut. 
3 scae fleh 3 iaede on fote to Walingford. . 

pser-efter scse ferde ouer sae. 3 hi of Normandi wenden alle 

1 MS. ' stali.' a MS. ' Jmrhc wicci.' 3 MS. ' J^urhc.' 


fra ]>e king, to ]>e eorl of Angaeu. sume here |>ankes 3 sume 155 
here un-J^ankes. for he be-saet heo?n til hi a-iauen up here 
castles. 3 hi nan helpe ne haefden of ]>e \inge. 

pa ferde Eustace ]>e kingw sune to France 3 na/ra ]>e king^r 
suster of France to wife, wende to bigaeton Normandi ]>aer- 
|>urh. oc he spedde litel. 3 be gode rihte for he was an yuel 160 

in. for ware-se he [com he] dide mare yuel }>anne god. 
he reuede ]>e landes 3 laeide mic[ele gilde]s on. he brohte 

his wif to Engleland. 3 dide hire in ]?e castef/ of] 

teb. . . . cod wiwman scae waes. oc scae hedde litel blisse mid 
him. 3 Christ ne wolde *6 he sculde lange rixan. 3 wserd ded 165 
3 his moder beien. 

3 te eorl of Angaeu waerd ded. 3 his sune Henri toe to 
}je rice. 3 te cuen of France to-daelde fra ]>e king, 3 scae com 
to )>e iunge eorl Henri. 3 he toe hire to wiue. 3 al Peitou 
mid hire, pa ferde he mid micel fserd into Engleland. } 170 
wan castles. 3 te king ferde agenes him mid micel mare ferd. 
3 }>o]>w33there fuhtten hi noht. oc ferden )>e aercebw^ 3 te 
wise me[n] betwux heo;^. 3 makede ^ sahte te king sculde 
ben lauerd 3 king wile he liuede. 3 aefter his daei ware Henri 
king. 3 he helde him for fader 3 he him for sune. 3 sib 3 saehte 175 
sculde ben betwyx heom. 3 on al Engleland. pis 3 te othre 
iforuuardes )>et hi makeden. suoren to halden )>e king 3 te 
eorl 3 te biscopes & te eorles 3 rice men alle. pa was J?e 
eorl under-fangen aet Wincestre 3 aet Lundene mid micel 
wurtscipe. 3 alle diden him man-red. 3 suoren J>e pais to 180 
halden, 3 hit ward sone suythe god pais. sua neure was 
here, pa was j>e king strengere )>anne he aeuert[e] her was. 
3 te eorl ferde ouer sae. 3 al folc him luuede for he dide god 
iustise 3 makede pais. 

1154. On ]?is gaer waerd J>e king Stephw ded 3 bebyried 185 
}>er his wif 3 his sune waeron bebyried aet Fauresfeld. ]>aet 
minstre hi makeden. pa j?e king was ded. J>a was J?e eorl 


beionde sae. 3 ne durste nan man don oj>er bute god for }>e 
micel eie of him. pa he to Engle land com. J>a was he under- 

190 fangen mid micel wurtscipe. and to king bletcaed in Lun- 
dene on J>e Sunnen daei be-foren midwinter daei. and held J>aer 
micel curt. 

pat ilce dsei }>at Martm abb0/ of Burch sculde J>ider faren. 
)>a saeclede he 3 ward ded iv xon. Jaii. 3 te munek^r innen 

195 daeis cusenoj>er of heom saelf. Will^/m de Walteuile is geha- 
ten. god clerc 3 god man. 3 wael luued of ]>e kmge 3 of alle 
gode men. and o[n cyricjen byrieden j>abbo/ hehlice 3 sone 
)>e cosan ab<5d?/ ferde 3 te muneces [mid him to] Oxen ford to 
Jje king [and he] iaf him ]>at abb0/-rice. j he ferde him sone 

200 [to Linc]ol 3 was ]><zr lletcad to abbot aer he ham ' come. 
3 sithen was under fangen mid micel wurtscipe at Burch. mid 
micel pr0cessiun. 3 sua he was alsua at Ramesaeie. 3 at 
Torn^y. 3 at ... 3 SpaMflg- 3 at S. I. bares. 3 ... 3 [he] 
flw w abbot. 3 faire haued begunnon. Chrisfas him unne 

205 [gode endinge]. / 




THE two Homilies entitled 'In Diebus Dominicis' and 'Hie 
dicendum est de Propheta' are part of an incomplete series of 
discourses for the Christian year, contained in the Lambeth MS. 
487. They have all been edited by Dr. Morris in < Old English 
Homilies' (pp. 1-182). The compiler of this collection is un- 
known ; he was probably the author of the first six discourses in 
the series, and translated and modernised the remainder from 
older English Homilies of the eleventh century. Those num- 
bered nine and ten in Dr. Morris's edition were written by 
jElfric, and bear the titles he gave them. The dialect is that 
of the south of England, in which many provincial elements 
now make their first appearance in the (written language. 


(A) In Diebus Dominicis. 
[Dr. Morris's Old English Homilies, First Series, pp. 40-53.] 

[L]EOFEMEN jef je lusten wule^. and $e willeliche hit un- 
derstonden we eow wulleS suteliche seggen of ]?a fredome 
\>Q limped to }>an deie J>e is iclepe'S sunedei. Sunedei is 
ihaten ]>es lauerdes dei and ec }>e dei of blisse and of lisse / 
and of alle irest. On J>on deie ]?a engles of heofene ham 5 
iblissiefc. forol }>e ]>a ermiwg saulen habbeS rest of heore 
pine. Gif hwa wule witen hwa erest bi-won reste ]>am 
\vrecche saule to-so]>e ic eow segge. J>et wes sancfe paul 
J>e apostel and mihhal |>e archangel heo tweien eoden et 
sume time in-to helle alswa heow drihten het for to lokien 10 

VOL. i. c 


hu hit per ferde. Mihhal code bi-foren and paul com efter 
and pa scawede mihhal to sancfe paul pa wrecche sunfulle pe 
per were wuniendef.] per-efter he him sceawede he3e treon 
eisliche beorninde et-foren helle jete. and uppon pan treon 
15 he him sceawede pe wrecche saulen a-honge. Summe bi pa 
fet. suwme bi pa honden. suwme bi pe tunge. suwme bi pe 
ejen. suwme bi pe hefede. swrcme bi J>er heorte. Seod^an 
he him sceaude an ouen on berniwde fure he warp ut of him 
seofe leies uwil[c]an of seolcirSre heowe pe alle weren eateliche 
20 to bihaldene and muchele strengre pen eani ping 1 to polien. . 
and per wrS-ircnen weren swie feole saule a-honge. 5ette he 
him sceawede ane welle of fure and alle hire stremes urnen 
fur berniwde. and pa welle bi-wisten .xii. meister deoflen 
swilc ha weren kinges to pinen J>er-wrSinnen J>a earmiwg 
25 saulen ]>e for-gult weren f and heore a^ene pine neure nere 
J>e lesse ]?ah heo meistres weren. Efter J?on he him sceaw- 
ede }>e sea of helle and iwnan ]?an sea weren .vii. bittere 
ujje. ]?e forme was snaw 2 . ]>at o^er is. )>et ]>ridde fur. pet 
feorSe blod. ]?e fifte neddren. J?e siste smor^er. the seofefje 
30 ful stunch. heo wes wurse to Jjolien J>enne efreni of alle |>a 
o^re pine. Innan ]>an ilke sea weren un-aneowned deor 
su^/me feSer-foted 3 . Su^me al bute fet, and heore 65611 
weren al swilc swa fur. and heore e]?em scean swa de$ pe 
leit a-monge Jnmre. J>as ilke nefre ne swiken ne dei ne niht 
35 to brekene ]>a ermi^g licome of }>a ilca men f>e on |>isse Hue 
her hare scrz'ft enden nalden. Suwme of ]?an mo;zne sare 
wepe^. Supine swa deor lude reme^. su#zme |?er gr^ninde 
sike^. suwme per reowliche gne^ his a3ene tunge. Suwme 
per wepe^. and alle heore teres beo^ bernide gleden gli- 
40 dede ouer heore ajene nebbe. and swi^e reowliche ilome 
and jeorne bisecheS pat me ham ibure3e. froz pam 

1 MS. ' Jjurg/ 2 MS. swnan.' 5 MS. ' fotctd.' 


iele pinanf.] of ]?as pinan speked dauid )>e halie wite}e. and 
Jms serS. Miserere nostri domine quia penas inferni sustinere 
non possumus. Lauerd haue merci of us forSon ]?a pinen of 
helle we ham ne ma}en iSolien. Seo^an he him sceawede 45 
ane 1 stude iwne-midde-warde 2 helle. and bi-foren ]>am ilke 
stude were# seofen clusterlokan ]?ar neh ne mihte nan liui- 
ende mon gan for ]?an ufele breSe and ]?er wrS-i#na he him 
sceawede gan on aid mon \et .iiii. deoflen ledden abuten. J?a 
escade paul to mihhal hwet J>e aide mow were. J>a cwe^ mih- 50 
hal heh-engel he wes an biscop on oftre 3 Hue J?e nefre nalde & 
crz'stes Ia3en lokien ne halden. ofter he walde anuppon his 
underlinges mid wohe motien and longe dringan ]?enne he 
walde salmes singen o$er eani oer god don. Herefter iseh 
paul hwer .iii. deoflen ledden an meiden swrSe unbiso^e- 55 
liche f 3eorne escade to mihhal hwi me heo swa ledde. ]?a 
cwe^ mihhal. heo wes an meiden on o'Ser Hue \et wel wiste 
hire licome in alle clenesse. ah heo nalde nefre nan o^er 
god don. Elmes5eorn nes heo nefre. ah prud heo wes swrSe 
and modi, and lijere and swikel. and wre^ful and ontful. a^ 60 
forSi heo bi^ wuniende inne ]?isse pine. Nu bi-gon paul to 
wepen wunderliche. and mihhal heh-engel J>er weop for^ 
mid him. a com ure drihten of heueneriche to heo;# on 
jnmres 4 liche and Jus cwe^. A hwi wepest J>u paul. paul him 
onswerde. Lauerd 5 ic biwepe ]?as monifolde pine Se ic her 65 
in helle iseo. ]?a cweS ure lauerd. A hwi nalden heo witen 
mine Ia5e ]>e hwile heo weren on 6 eorSe f J>a seide paul him 
mildeliche to-^eines. Louerd nu ic bidde ]>e ^ef ])in wille is 
]>t Ju heom 5efe rest la hwure ]>en suwne-dei a }>et cume 
domes-dei. ]?a cwe'5 drihten to him. paul wel ic wat hwer ic 70 
sceal milcien. Ic heom wulle milcien ]?e weren efterward 

1 MS, ' and.' 
* MS. ' wunres.' 

2 MS. ' -warfte.' 

5 MS. 'LauerS.' 

C 2 

*. MS. eotfre.' 
6 MS. en.' 


mine mike J?a hwile heo on Hue weren. ]?a wes sancfe paid 
swrSe \va. and abeh him redliche to his lauerdes fet and on- 
halsien hine gon mid ]>as ilke weord J?e 36 ma;en iheren. 

75 Lauerd he cweS )>a. Nu ic J?e bidde for j>ine kinedome and 

for j>ine engles. tf#tf? for Jnne muchele milce. and for alle ]>ine 

\veorkes. <z^ for alle J>ine hale3en. ;';</ ec ]?ine icorene. j?at 

, ]?u heom milcie ]>es J>e redder Jj^/ ic to heom com tfflfi? reste 

3efe ]>en sunne-dei a J>*/ cume fin heh domes dei. J>a on- 

80 swerede him drihten mildere steuene. u-Aris nu paul aris. 
Ic ha; 3eue reste alswa J>u ibeden hauest from non on 
saterdei a ]>a[t] cume monedeis lihting. \d [brS] efre for5 to 
domes dei. Nu leofe breSre 36 habbed iherd 1 hwa erest 
biwon reste \z.m forgulte saule. Nu bi-cumeS hit ]?erfore to 

85 uwilche cr/stene monne mucheles ]?e mare to ha^en and to 
wur&en ]>ene dei }>e is icleped sunne-dei. for of )>am deie 
ure lauerd seolf sei^. Dies do?ninicus est dies leticie & requiei. 
Sunne-dei is dei of blisse and of alle ireste. Nonfacietur in 
ea aliquid nisi deum orare ??ianducare & bibere cum pace et leit- 

90 da. , Ne beo in hire naming iwra[h]t bute chirche bisocnie and 
beode to criste and eoten and driwken mid grrSe and mid 
gledscipe. Sicul dicitur. pax in terra, pax in celo. pax inter 
homines, for swa is iset. grrS on eorcSe. and grrS on hefene. 
and gri^ bitwenen uwilc cnstene mowne. eft ure lauerd seolf 

95 seit. (s-Maledictus homo qui non custodit sabatum. Amansed 
beo ]>e mon )?e sunne-dei nulle iloken. And for-)?i leofe- 
men uwilc sunne-dei is to locan alswa ester-dei for heo is 
mune3ing of his halie ariste from dee to Hue. fl</mune3eing 
of ])am hali gast J>e he sende in his apostles on J>ou dei )>e is 
ioo icleped wit-sunne-dei. ec we understondeS }>et on sunne-dei 
drihten cume^ to demene al mon-cun; we a3en J?ene sunne- 
dei swij>eliche wel to wurj>ien. and on alle clenesse to locan. 

1 MS. 


for heo hafS mid hire j>reo wurdliche mihte ]>e 36 iheren 
majen. fcet forme mihte is \et heo on eorSe jeueS rqste 
to alle eorSe J>relles wepmen and \vifmen of heore J>rel- 105 
weorkes^Jjet o^er mihte is on heouene. for-Jn ]>a engles heow 
rested 1 mare jje/m on sum oer dei. \et }>ridde mihte is \et }>a 
ermiwg saule habbe^ ireste i^ne helle of heore muchele pine. 
Hwa efre J>enne ilokie wel J>ene sunne-dei. o^er J>a oSre halie 
da3es }>e mon beot in chirche to lokien swa }>e sunne-dei. no 
beo heo dal-neominde of heofene riches blisse 5 mid J>an > 
feder 2 . and mid j>an sunne. and mid ]>an halie gast abuten 
ende. amen. Quod ipse prestare dignetur qui uiuit & regnal 
deus. per omnia secula secidorwn. Amen. 

(B) Hie dicendum est de Propheta. 

\M~\issus est ieremias in puteum et stetit ibi usque ad os. Qui 
cum aliquandiu ibi stetisset / debilitatum est corpus eius. & tan- 
dem dimissis funibus subtractus est. Et cum eorum duriciam. 
quia debilis erat sustinere non posset, allati sunt panni de domo 
regia et circumpositi sunt funibus ne \e\orum duricia lederetur* 5 
Leofemen we uinde^ in halie boc. \et ieremie J>e prophefe 
stod in ane putte. and \et in ]>e uenne up to his mu^e and 
]>a he hefede ]>er ane hwile istonde. ]>a bi-com his licome 
swi^e feble. and me nom rapes and caste in to him for 3 to 
drajen hine ut of ]>isse putte. Ah his licome wes se swiSe 10 
feble f \et he ne mihte noht i]?olie ]?e herdnesse of ]>e rapes. 
]>a sende me elates ut of |>es kinges huse for to bi-winden }?e 
rapes. \et his licome J)e feble wes ne sceolde noht wursien. 
Leofemen j)eos ilke weord ]?e ic habbe her iseid 4 , habbe^ 
muchele bi-tacnu#ge and god ha beo^ to heren and muchele 15 
betere to et-halden. Is hit god for to hiheren godes weordes 

1 MS. ' hem heom rested.' 3 MS. ' ferde. 1 

8 MS. 'fro.' MS. 'iseit/ 


and heom athalden f 56 fuliwis. for ure lauerd godalmihtin 
sei$ in J?an halie godspelle. Bcati qui audiunt uerbum & 
cusiodiunt illud. ^Edie and blessede beon alle ]>eo ]?e ihereS 

20 godes weordes and heom athalde^. Nu 50 habbe'S iherd 
wulc hit is for to iheren godes weordes and heom ethalden. 
Nu we sculen eow 1 sceawen hwilc hit- is heow for to heren 
and nawiht for to ethalden. for seint gregori serS. Melius 
est mam ueritatis non agnoscere / quam post agnitam retroire. 

25 Betre hit is \et mon ne iknawe noht ]?e wei to godalmihtin 
]?e he hine icnawe and seod^e hine for-hojie ; and on o^er 
stude he seit>. Qui obturat aures suas ne audiat legem dei! 
oratio eius erit execrabilis. pe mon ]?e tune^ his eren in halie 
chirche to^eines godes \X$Q and mile noht iheren J>e weordes 

30 ]>e of him beo^. his beoden beo^ aweriede and unwurSe 
gode. Puteus est peccati profunditas. quia quam diu stas in 
luto / tarn diu iaces in mortali peccato. pes put bitacne^ deop- 
nesse of sunne. for alse longe alse we liggeS in heued 2 
sunnen i al J>a hwile we stofnjde^ in the putte. and \et in ]>e 

35 uenne up to J>e mu^e alse ]?eos men do^ }>e liggeS inne 
eubruche and ine glutenerie and ine mana^as. and ine prude. 
and ine o^re fule sunnen. and \et beo^ riche men alremest 
]>e habbe^ }>es muchele prude in J>is worlde. }>e habbe^ feire 
huses. and feire hames. feire wifes. and feire children, feire 

40 hors and feire cla]?es. heauekes and hundes. castles and 
tunes, her-uppon heo jjenche^ muchele mare J?en uppow 
godalmihtin )>e al }>is heom haueft isend J)a }>e ligge^ ine 
swilc sunne. and ne Jjenche'S noht for to arisen f heo delueS 
deihwamliche heore put deoppre and deoppre. vnde propheta. 

45 Non claudit super te puteus os suum nisi clauseris os tuum. ]?e 
prophete sei^. \et \>e put ne tuneS noht lihtliche his nurS ouer 
us bute we tunen ure rmrS. ah }if we tune6 ure muS '. 

1 MS. heo\v.' a MS. 'heueS.' 


do we 1 alse ]?e mon ]?e delue^ ene put feower dases oer fiue 
and J>enne he haue^ hine alra lewgest idoluen '. )>enne ualleS he 
]>er-inne. \et him brekeS J?e sweore. \et. is \et he ualleS in to 5 
helle pine ]>er neuer eft ne cumeS of bote. Ah leofemen 
godalmihtin haueS isceawed 2 us wel muchele grace. }>enne 
he haueS geuen us to beon imrS 3 freo. \et we ma3ew mid ure 
mue bringen us ut of }>isse putte .' }>e bitacneS ]?eo deop- 
nesse of sunne. and \et J>urh J>reo herde weies }>e ]?us beot5 55 
ihaten. Cordis contricione. Oris confessione. Open's satis- 
factione. ]>ur3 heorte bireusunge 4 . jmrh muSes openunge. 
Jjurh dede wel endinge. Cordis contritione moritur peccalum. 
oris confessione defertur ad tumulum. operis satisfactione tumu- 
latur in perpetuum. |>e[nne] we beo6 sari in ure heorte \et we 60 
isuneged habbeS j?enne slage we ure sunne '. j?ene we to sun- 
bote cume^. j^enne do we bi ure sunne al swa me deaS bi ]>e 
deade. for efterjjan \et ]?e mon bi^ dead me Iei5 ]>ene licome 
in ]?ere ]?ruh. Al swa J>u leist ]?ine sunne in ]>are ]>ruh 5 
hwenne ]>u scrift underuongest of }:e sunnen ]>e }m idon 65 
hauest to-geines godes wille. ]?enne J>u hauest ]?ine sunnen 
ibet f efter ))ines scriftes wissunge. jjenne buriest ]>u |>ine 
suwnen and bringest heom ut of }>ine on-walde. Per iere- 
miam notatur quilibet peccator qui in suo peccato moram facit. 
Bi ieremie J?e prophefe we a3en to understo^den ulcne mon 70 
sunfulle. \et li^ \n heuie sunne and }mrh so^e scr/ft his sun- 
bendes nule slakien. funiculi amaritudines penitencie signifi- 
cant, pe rapes J?e weren icast to him f bitacne^ ]>Q herdnesse 
of scrifte. for nis nan of us se strong J?e hefde idon J>re hef [ed] 
sunnen \et his licome nere swrSe feble er he hefde idresen 75 
]>et scrz'ft ]>e ]?er to bilimpeS. panni circumpositifunibust eccksie 
sacramenta significant quibus penitencie d^^ric^a mitigatur. ]>as 


MS. ' J>e.' 2 MS. isceawe/ 3 MS. mud.' 

* MS. bireusunke/ 


kinges bus bitacne^ ball chircb[e. pa] elates \et weren isende 
ut of p[es kinges huse] for to binden pe rapes mid i bitacnet 
80 pe halie ureisuns }>e me singed in halie chirche. and ]>e balie 
sacr^me/zs pe me sacred in alesnesse of aila sunfulle. Leofe- 
men nu 56 nabbed iherd 1 of pis putte pe bitacniwge pe ic 
habbe embe ispeken. and pe bitacninge of pe prophefe. and 
\et pe rapes bitacnet. and hwat ]>a elates bi-tacneS pe pe 
85 rapes weren mide biwuwden. IhereS nu^e whulche pinges 
wunie^ in pisse putte. per wunie'S fower cunnes wurmes 
inne. pet fordoft nu^e al j?eos midelerd. ]>er wunie^ in-ne 
fa3e neddren. and beore^ atter uwder heore tunge. Blake 
tadden and nabbed atter uppon heore heorte. jeluwe frog- 
90 gen. and crabben. Crabbe is an manere of fissce in |?ere 
sea. ]>is fis is of swulc cunde. \et. euer se he mare streng^e^ 2 
him to sw[i]mminde mid ]?e watere f se he mare swi#zme5 
abac, and |>e aide crabbe seide to J>e 5Uge. hwi ne swiwmest 
]>u forSward 3 in ]>ere sea alse o^er fisses do& and heo seide. 
95 Leofe moder swim pujoren me and tech me hu ic seal 
swi^men forward and [heo] bi-gon to switfzmen forward 
mid J>e streme. and swam hire ]?er-a3en. J?as fa3e neddre 
bitacneS Jns faje folc ]?e wune^ in J>isse weorlde. ]?e speket 
alse feire bi-foren heore euewcr/stene alse heo heom walde 

ioo in to heore bourne puten. and swa sone se hi beo^ iturnd 
awey from heom f heo#z to-twicche^ and to-dra^e^ mid ufele 
weordes. HU eciam sunt dodores & fahi christiani. pos 
men ]>e j?us to-drs.^^ heore euencrzstene bi-hinden heo hab- 
be^ \>e nome of cnstene ah ]>ah heo beo^ cr/stes unwines 

105 and beoS monslajen for heo slaje^ heore ajene saule. and 
bringeS heom 5 in to pare eche pine of helle. pos blaca tadden 
jx?/ habbe^ \et atter uppon heore heorte. bi-tacne^ pes riche 

1 MS. 'iherS.' a MS. streng?Sde. f s MS. forSwar'5/ 

* MS. 'dra3ed.' 5 MS. *heon. f 


men j?e habbe'S ]?es mucheles \veorldes ehte and na 
noht itimien J>ar-of to eten ne to drinken ne na god don J>er- 
of for }>e luue of godalmihtin J>e haueS hit heom al geuen. ah 
ligge'S ]>er-uppon alse )>e tadde de^ in ]>ere eore \et neure 
ne mei itimien to eten hire fulle 5 swa heo is afered leste ]>eo 
eorSe hire trukie. J?eos ilke ehte j>e j^eos jms ouerligge^ heom 
turned to swart atter for heo failed J>er-J>urh in to ]>er stronge 
pine ]?et na mon ne mei tellen. peos ^eolewe elates, [bi- 
tacne^ J>o J?et feire'S heom seoluen.] for ]?e 5eolewe cla5 is 
]>es deofles helfter 1 . ]>eos wiwmen ]>e \>us liuie^ 2 beo^ ]>es 
deofles musestoch iclepede. for ]?enne )>e mon wule tilden 
his musestoch he binde^ uppon ]?a swike chese and bret 
hine for J>on \et he scolde swote smelle. and ]?urh \Q 
sweote smel of ]>e chese '. he bicherreS monie mus to |>e 
stoke. Alswa do^ monie of J>as wiwmen heo smurie'S 
heom mid blanchet \et is |>es deofles sape and cla^e^ heom 
mid jeoluwe cla|>e \et is ]?es deofles helfter 1 . and seod^an 
heo lokie^ in J>e scawere. \et is ])es deofles hindene. pus 
heo do$ for to feiren heom seoluen. and to dra;en lechurs I25 
to ham. ah heo filled heom soluen {>er-mide. Nu leofemen 
for godes lufe wite'S eow 3 wftS }>es deofles musestoch and 
wite^ eow J>et 56 ne beo noht ]>e foa^e neddre. ne ]>e blake 
tadde. ne ])e 5olewe frogge. }>Q feder. and ]>e sune. and j?e 
halie gast. iscilde us Jjer-wrS. and wrS alle sunnen a buten 
ewde. per omnia secula seculorum. Amen. 


1 So in MS. 

MS. luuiefl.' 

3 MS. how.' 




THE following Homilies are from a tolerably complete collec- 
tion by an unknown compiler, contained in the Trinity College 
Cambridge MS. marked B 14. 52. None of them, as far as I have 
been able to ascertain, appear to be later transcripts of ^Ifric's 
Homilies. Four discourses are copies of older English versions, 
and others are probably free l translations from Latin originals. 
The whole of this series has been edited by Dr. Morris for 
the Early English Text Society, under the title 'Old English 
Homilies, Second Series.' Tlie dialect in which they are 
written is Southern, with an East-Midland element closely 
resembling that found in the 'Story of Genesis and Exodus.' 
To the locality where these Homilies were written, and not to 
their date, must be ascribed the remarkable simplicity of their 
grammatical forms and syntactical structure. 

(A) Dominica Palmarum. 
[Dr. Morris's Old English Homilies, Second Series, pp. 89-109.] 

Turbe que precedebant dominum. et que sequebanlur clama- 
lant dicentes. osanna filio dauidf benedidus qui uenit in nomine 
domint. It is custume \at ech chirchsocne gob* ]?is dai a 
precession, and )>is wune haiie^ be biginni[n]gge of ]?e holie 

1 Some of the Homilies in this collection contain a play upon native 
words that could scarcely be suggested by the Latin Homilies. 


precession ]>e me helende makede toward te stede ]?er he 5 
wolde de^ }>olen. Et cum uenisset bethfage ad montem oliua- 
rum. Mittens [duos] de disdpulis iussit adduci asinam et sedit 
super earn, po \>e com to bethfage Swo hatte ]>e )>rop ]?e 
pr^ste one wunien. bi-sides ierusalem on ]?e fot of }>e dune 
]?e men clepen muwt oliuete.j?o sende tweien of hise diciples 10 
into J?e bureh of ieiusalem. and bed hem bringen a wig one 
te riden. noSer stede. ne palefrei. ne fair mule, ac |>eh he [were] 
alre lou^rdes lou<?rd. and alre kingene ki[n]g. na]?eles he 
sende after j>e alre unwurjjeste wig one to riden. and ^at is 
asse. and gaf us forbisne of admodnesse on his dede. alse 15 
he doS on oftre stede on his speche ]ms quefcinde. Discite 
a me f qttia mitis sum et humilis corde. lerne^ of me for \at 
ich am milde and admod on herte. andlpo tweien sanderbodes 
ferden ;z^cudden in J>e bureh. \at\t helende was ]>iderward. 
and funden an asse mid fole. andledden hit to-genes him. and 20 
J?e holie apostles leiden here clones ]?eruppe and ure helende 
rod ]?erone i into ]?e holie burh. and \at burh folc hihten ]>e 
hege strete and bihewgen it mid palmes. and mid o'Sre riche 
wedes. ]>er he wolde jmrh-faren to ]?e holi temple, and wen- 
den ut togenes him. and beren on here honde blostme sum 25 
palm twig, and sum boh of oliue alse ]>e holie boc serS. 
Occurrunt turbe cum floribus et palmis redemtori o\b\uiam. et 
cetera. ^Det folc com togenes him. mid blostmen. and mid 
palmes. and understoden him mid procession, swo me 
ki[n]g shal. and ]?o ]?e ferden biforen him. and o ]?e after 30 
him comen. remden lude stefne )ms qw^Sinde. ^\O\sanna 
filio dauid benedtc'lus qui uenit in nomine domini. Silof daui^es 
bern blesced bie he ]?e curne^ a godes name, and J?o children 
)>e were biforen diden alse ]?e godspel sei^. Pueri hebre- 
orum viam pro et cetera, pe children briggeden )?e wei bJ- 35 
foren ure drihten. sume mid here clones, and sume mid 
boges ]?e hie breken of j>e trewes and swo him brohten into 


\>e holie temple, alse in his eorSliche 1 heg settle, pus 
makede ure helende his holie precession, fro betfage to 

40 ierusalem. and elhc cristene man make]) Sis dai precession 
fro chirche to chirche. and eft agen. andbitocne> ]?e holie pre- 
cession ]?e he makede j?is dai. and \at mai ech man under- 
stonden. ]>e wot wat bitocne^ ]?ese tweie names, betfage. and 
ierusalem. ^"Be/fage interpretatur domus bucce. uel buccarum 

45 siue maxillarum. et significat ecclesiam in qua bucce funguntur 
officio suo peccata confitendo ueniam postulando. deum laudando. 
Carnem christi manducando. et sanguinem eius bibendo. gr alias 
agenda. Betfage is cleped on englisse muSene hus. and 
bitocneS holie chirche. \at men noten inne here mirSes wike. 

50 |>anne hie seien here sinnes. and forgiuenesse bidden. / and 
ure loufrd ih*m christ herien. and bruken his fles and his 
blod. \at is 2 ]>e holi husel. and him }>anken. Ierusalem in- 
terpretatur uisio pads et item significat ecclesiam in qua pax 
uera uidetur dum passio christi recolitur. et pads osculum 

55 da fur. leTusalem is cleped so^ of sahtnesse. and bitocne^ 
holie chirche ]?er bileffulle men inne be3 sehte. ]?enne pr^st L 
cristes J>roweinge minege^. and of ]>e calice understonde^ 
tocne of sehtnesse. \at is messe cos. and ]?e folc sent, and 
rmide bitocne^ \at ure drihten is jmreh ]>e holie loc wP5 

60 bileffulle men maked sehte. and J>erfore chirche haue^ ]>e 
tocninge of bethphage ]?enne J>e precession ut go^ of ierw- 
sa\em. and eft ]>enne it in cume^. Nime we ]>enne geme gif 
ure precession bi maked after ure helendes precession. On 
his precession ferde sume biforen him and makede his weie 

65 toward ieiusalem. and sume briggeden ]>e asse mid here 
clones, and sume mid boges ]>e hie breken of }>e trewes. Do 
}>e ]>e weie makeden biforen him. bien folkes lor])eawes. 
bisshopes and prates. J>e mid here wise lore rideS. and 

1 MS. heofBliche/ a MS. his/ 


makeS 1 godes weie in to marines heorte. Do ]>e briggeden 
}>e asse mid here clones, ben ]>o |>e wisse$ ]>e folc mid faire 70 
forbisne of here weldede. Do )>e briggeden }>e asse mid ]>e 
brokene boges. berffb ]>e leren ]>e folc to understonden god 
noht mid weldede. ac mid wise speche. ]>o ]>e afar him 
comen ben J>o ]>e here lif [leden] alse here lorSeawes hem 
lere. ]>o ]>e bisides weren on his riht half, ben ]>o ]>e clene 75 
lif leden to quemende gode f noht for hereworde. }>o j>e on 
his. lift hond comen ben J>o ])e clenliche liuen noht forto 
qw^mende gode f ac for hereword to hauew. De asse \>e ure 
helende uppe set. ben J>o forsinegede )>e hauen al here |>onc 
uppen eor^liche richeise. and sinne hem is lo^ to leten. and 80 
unwill[i]che to bete, for hem ]>inche8 \at godes hese heuie- 
liche seined, and na^eles gif hie(ful don hie shulen on 
heuene endelese mede fon. Ure louerd. ihesu christ |?e 
makede into ierusalem )>is dai his holie precession. |?e ech 
chirche to-dai minege^. wisse and fulste us swo to folgen his 85 
holi eor[]>]liche precession \at we mo ben on ]>Q holie pre- 
cession ]?e he wile maken a domes dai mid hise chosenef 
fro }?e dome in to heuene. Quod nobis presiet qiti secula per 
omnia regnaL 


(B) In Die Pasche. 

Hec est dies quam fecit dominus exultemus et le femur in ea. 
pis dai haue'S ure drihten maked to gladien. and to blissen 
us J/onked wurSe him. and giarked \at holie gestniwge. pe he 
offe spec^ ]?us que%inde. Ecce prandium meum paratum. 
Mi bord is maked. and us bidde^ 2 alle ]?erto ]?us seggende. 5 
Venite prandium Cume^ to borde and understonde^ bred, ac 
er ]?enne we 3 holie bord bugen. and \at bred understonde do 

1 MS. ' maked.' 2 MS. bidded.' 3 MS. >e. f 


we alse J>e 'xpostel bad. seiende ]ms. Probet autem se ipsum 
homo, et sic de pane illo edat et de calice bibat. Pr0ue ech man 

10 him seluen. and gif he fele^ \at he is wurSe ]?er-to f J^enne 
understonde he \at husel. and drinke of J>e calice. )?e man 
hit understowde^ wurSliche J?e cume^ jjerto on bicumeliche 
wise, and mid bicumeliche wede. and -on bicumeliche time. 
On bicumeliche wise cumeS ]>e man ]>e Erest shewed pr^ste 

15 his sinnes and forlete'S and bimwrne'S and nime^ ]?erof god 
wissinge. and o^er sfSe ]?e holie acxen uppen his heued.-tf^ 
]>e six pinen )>e Jjerto bilien. scilicet vigilias. labores. saccum. 
inedia. sitim. \at is wecche and swinch. harde clones, smerte 
dintes. selde eten and lesse drinken. pridde sre palm 

20 sunedeies precession. feorSe srSes shere^uresdaies absolu- 
cio[w] J>e li^e }>e sinne bendes. ]>e fifte si^e crepe to cruche 
on lange fridai sixte si^e on ester euen gon abuten ]?e fant- 
ston. |>e bitocneS }>e holie sepulcre. and J>e seue^e si^e \at 
holie bord bugen and \at bred bruken. bicumeliche wede 

25 ben tweire kinne. lichamliche and gostliche. ]>e lichamliche 
wedes ben manie kinnes. ac of hem ne speke ich noht ac do 
of ]>e gostliche. ]>e ben ec fele kinnes. and alle hie bien faire 
him ]>e ]?e husel underfo^. ac two J?eroffe ben swiche \at no 
man ne mai underfo. him seluew to hele bute he haue here 

30 o^er on him. jje ben ]?us clepede. Vestis innocencie. Vestis 
misericordie. an is lo^lesnesse o^er sinbote. Vestis inno- 
cencie restiluitur in baptismo dicente sacerdote Accipe uestem 
candidam et mmaculatam. lo^lesnesse understonde^ J>e man 
at his folcniwge. and \at bitocne^ ]>Q crisme clo^. |?e }>e prest 

35 biwinde^ \at child mide. and j?us serS. Underfo shrud wit 
and clene. ]>is shrud haue^ ech man on him after his fulc- 
niwge. alle |?e wile J>e he Mini berege^ ^at he ne do ne ne 
que%Q. ne ne Senche no ]?ing for ]>at he bie unwurere gode f 
ne lo^ere men l . ]>e iuele is soule f pis wede is wel bicume- 

40 liche and biheue ech man to hauen J?enne he husel underfo^. 


Det o^er gostliche shrud ich embe spece f is mildhertnesse. 
|?e is nemed ec armhertnesse f armheorted is J>e man. j>e 
swi^ere reoweS his sinne. and he hew forlet and bet. w^ 
milce bit. alse ure drihtew bad seien ]ms. Miserere anime 
tue placens deo. haue reo^e of ]nn ogen sovle. j?enne likeste 45 
gode. Mildheorted be^ )>e man ]?e reou^ his nehgebures 
unseKe. and liketS here alre sePSe and ofJnnfcjS sore wrecche 
mannes wanrede. and freure^ hem mid his weldede. No 
ma;z ]?e sineged haue^ ne maiwrSuten ])ese 1 wedes holi husel 
urcderfon f bute to eche harme his soule and lichame and 50 
ech maw }>e hit uderfaS wiSuten erSer J^ese wedes shal ben 
shameliche driuen ut of ]>is holi gestnige. and burden toge- 
dere his honden. and his fet. and worpen \n to J?e ateliche 
pit of helle bi ure drihtenes word }>e serS to swiche men. 
Amice quomodo hue intrasti non habens uestem nupcialem et 55 
cetera hwu come ]?u [hjider in mid uwbicumliche weden. ]>is 
dai is bicumelich time husel to uwderfon. Quia hec dies quam 
fecit dominus. non quod magi's hanc quam alias, sed quia 
maiora quam in aliis d morte resurgendo. et nos d morte resus- 
citando. for \at )>is makede ure drihte ]?e makede alle o^re. 60 
ac he kidde o^erluker his mihte. and makin more milce 
dide on jjis dai f ]?anne on ani ore. Do he aros of dea^e 
\and\ rerde us mid him. Vnde exultemus et le femur in ea, he 
us fette ut of helle wowe. and ]?ermide us gledede. and gif we 
hiw folgie^ he gifS us heuene wele and Jjermide us blisse^ to 65 
dai Bonked, wui^e hiw. for]>i ]?is dai is cleped estrene dai. 
\at is aristes dai. for \at ]?e he J?is dai aros of dea^e. and we 
alle don f ]?anne we holi husel undernimen. gif we ben J)e[r] 
togenes on clene liflode. and on rihte leue. and wr3 alle men 
sehte. Ure lou^rd }>Q us bit to |>is gestniwge. and bridge us 70 
to his holi fleis and to hig holi blod and leue us horn to 

1 MS. 'Jms.' 


bruken. and jms queZ'mde. Accipite et commedite ex hoc omnes 
hie est e. c. s. m. n. et cetera. Understonde^ J;is and brukeft 
it alle. for it is mi lichame }>e giu shal alle lesen. he bet us 

75 ec his holi blod }>e shal ben shad giu to lesende and serS \at 
j>ese two ]?ing bien ure bileue. Caro mea uere est cibus et 
sanguis metis uere esl potus. Mi fleis is wis mete, and mi 
blod iwis drike and Sifter \at he seiS. Nisi manducaucritis 
carnem filii hominis et biberitis eius sanguinem non habebitis 

80 uitam in uobis. Ne muge hauew no lif on giu bute ge liuew 
bi mi fleis and bi mi blod. \ai husel J>e ge understonden f is 
his holi fleis and his blod. Erest it be^ ouelete and win. and 
jmreh |)e holi word ]>e ure helende him self seide mid his holi 
mu^ i and efter him pr<?st hem serS atte swimesse turned ]>e 

85 bred to fleis and ]>e win to blod. Set in carne remand forma 
color et sapor, ac on ]>e holi fleis bileue^ ]>e shap and hiu. 
and smul of ouelete. and on ]?e holi blod hew and smul of 
win. More mihte do^ ure helende ]>enne ]>e holi word ]>e 
he )>urh his muS spec. ]>anne he giueth manes cunde 1 

90 [his flesc and blod] and Na]>eles fanne man ete^ and 
drinke^ Jmreh ]>e lichames cunde \at bred wurS to fleis. 
and ]>e drinke to blod. for-)?i mai godes word twrnen )>e 
ouelete to fleis. and \at win to blod. and swo do^. and \at 
is |>e felefolde heste. ]?e is alre hestene heste \at alle 

95 cristene men agen to dai to notew. for \at jjis dai is cleped 
estre dai \at is estene da[i]. and te este is husel. and no 
man ne mai seien husel '. wu god . it is. Quia est precium 
mundi. for it is wur$ al }>e wereld. and bet^re ]?ene al ]?e 
wereld. |>is is }>e holi mann^ J?e ure drihtew sende alse snow 

100 sle^rende alse J>e prophete serS. Pluit ille manna ad man- 
ducandum et panem celi dedit eis. Panem angelorum mandu- 
cauit homo, he let hew reine mawne' to bi-liue. and gef hew 

1 MS. cuinde.* 


bred of heuene. and men etew englene [bred]. Manna 
inter pretatur. quid est hoc ? Mannd bitocne^ wat is tis ' #?w? 
]>o ure drihtew sende j?is mete fro heuene )>e israelisse folke f 105 
it warS on eches rmrS wat mete se he mest luuede. and 
bitocne^ holi husel i ]>e ech cristeman understont nirSe. J>e 
is ]>e mane hegeste sweteste este j?e is of sinne clensed. 
o^er bigunne to clensende. and alre bitere biterest eches 
mannes soule j?e ne haueS alle michele sinnes forleten. and no 
bet. o^er bigunnen alse ^e 1 apo^/ sei^. Qui manducat cor- 
pus domini et bibit et cetera. Ech ]>e understande^ \at holi 
husel unwurSliche he understant him seluen eche pine, and 
endelese wowe. Nime we nu geme ure ech agen him seluen. 
gif we bien cumen on bicumeliche wise. \at is to so^ shrifte. 115 
to holi axen a palm sunedai i to precession, a shere^ursdai 
to absoluciun. a langefridai to holi cruche. an ester euen to 
procession [abuten ]>e fanstone]. and gif we ben cumene 
mid bicumeliche wede. of lodlesnesse \at is clensinge. swo 
\at we hauen ure sinnes forleten. and bi shriftes wissenge 120 
bet. oer biguwnen to beten. and milce bidden. ]>anne muge 
we bicumeliche to godes bord '. bugen. and his bode wur- 
liche bruken. and )>ureh ]>e holi este cumen to Ariste. Quod 
nobis prestet qui hodie surrexit et uiuit cum deo patre in imitate 
spiritus sancti. 

(C) [Dominica i. post Pasc/ia.] 

Stetit ihesus in media "discipulorum suorum & dixit eis. pax 
uobis. legitur in ewangelio quod dominus ante passionem sedit 
dum discipulos docuit inter passionem et resurrectionem iacuit 
et quieuit. post passionem uero stetit. pacem eis opt\a\uit. we 
reden on J?e holi godspel boc. \at ure helende ]>rowede on 5 
]>e holi rode, and dea^ j^olede. and mid his e^eliche dea^e 

MS. 'K 



lesde us of eche dea^e. and on ]>e jjridde dai aros of dea^e. 
a?id arerde us mid him. and bihet us eche lif on blisse. gif 
we lede ure lif nu swo he us wisseS. We nime geme of 

10 ]>re }>i;*g on ]>is tale, on is \at biforen his J?roweunge he sat 
ofte and tahte wisdo/w ]?an ]>e him folgeden. oer is \at 
bitwenen his ]?rowenge and his ariste he lai on his sepulcre 
and swiede. and for \at ben J>e J?re dage biforen estre cleped 
swidages. De ]>ridde is \at he stod among hise diciples. 

15 and bed hem frr$ alse seint lucas serS on his godspelle Jnis 
que&inde 1 . \S\tetit ihesus et cetera. Ure louerd stod among 
his diciples i and bed hem frrS. and sehtnesse. FrrS f for 
}jfl/he hadde maked hem fref of ]?e deules J>ralsipe. )>e hie 
hadden and al ofspri[n]g one wuned. fro \>e time ]>e adam 

20 ure forme fader gilte forte \at ure helende mid his dea^e 
hem alesde. Sehtnesse i for \at ]>e he makede sehte ]>e 
heuenliche fader wi^ ma[n]kin. ##</opene[de] togenes hem 
j?e giate of paradis. ]>e j^urh cue gilte wfS hem was er tined. 
His tribus modi's ponimur in huius exilii miseria quod alii 

25 sedent. alii iacent. alii slant. On ]>ese J>re wise We wuneden 
on ]>is wreche wereld. sume sitte$. and sume lige^. and sume 
we stonde^. Danne we hauen ure sinnes forleten. and 
bireused. and bet. and ben huseled. we ben hege. ac alse wat 
se we sinegen. we ben fro hege to loge. and ]?eh us ure 

30 sinnes rewe. and imint hauen \at we hem wile forleten. 
na^eles we sittefc forS \at we hem forleten. and beten alse 
ure drihten us minege^ bi )>e jprophefe ]?us que^inde. 
Surgite postquam sedistis q. m. p. d. AriseS ]?anne ge hauen 
seten. ac we ne mugen \at don f wi^uten his [h]elpe. seie we 

35 ]>anne to him. Donrine tu cognouisti sessionem meant et resur- 

rectionem meant, lou^rd ]>u wost wu ich habbe seten. and \at 

ich ne mai wrS-uten J?in [hjelp risen. Eocurge domine adiuua 

me. id estfac me exurgere. aris lou^rd f and [h]elp me up. Dus 

1 MS. ' qwedinde.' 


sit man on his sinne swo ich seid haue. and ]>us IrS swo ich mi 
seie wile. Danne man sinege^ gretliche. and \i\rn jjinche^ ])e 40 
sinne swete. and ne wile noht forletew hit. for \at it \i\rn on 
sume wise likeS. and J>eh \>Q hew forlete ne wile noht bi 
shriftes wissinge bete, he be^ ne^er ]?anne he er was. alse 
fro sete to leire and demd to dea^e. and J>erto bunden. swo 
is }>e maan J?e halt faste his sinne. he is demd fro heuene 45 
to helle. fro ure lou^rd ihesu ehrist to alle deules. fro eche 
iue f to eche pine, bute 1 he ]>e bendes breke. and berege 
him mid bote. and alle ]>e wile J>e he Jms Ir3 on his sinne 5 
]>e rihte bileue and ]>e soe luue. \>e he ah 2 to hauen to 
gode '. ben leirede. and slaine on his heorte and J>er-]nirh 50 
he swike to undernimende alle holsum lore. Et sic ihesus 
iacet in sepulcro cordis illius. et quiescit aput ilium a doctrina 
usque in diem tercium scilicet mentis illuminacionem. Primus 
enim dies est lux boni open's. Secundus clarificacio sermonis. 
Tercius illuminacio mentis, and on \al wise IrS ure helende on 55 
his heorte. alse on sepulcre. and swige'S of holsumnesse lore 
togenes him f forte \at on |?en Jjridde dai i \at [h]is heorte 
be liht for Jeh he do edie dede. ]?e is nemned to o^er dai. 
bo^e \i\rn helped litel o^er noht. bute he haue god ]>onk J?e 
is euened to J>e J?ridde dai. ac alse wat swo J>e pridde dage'S. 60 
^at be^ ]?anne his heorte understant ]>e liht of rihte bileue. 
and of so^e luue. }>enne rise^ ure helend on his heorte. and 
teche^ him holsuw lore, and ]?us sei^. Cur iaces pronus in 
terra / Surge. Wi list ]>u turnd on ]?e eor^Se f aris. \ai is to 
seien hwi luuest ]m ]?ine fule sunnes. forlet hem. and 65 
bireuse hem. and bet hem. and bide milce f J>erof and gif he 
j?is lore understonde^ f he arist and stant. and ure helende 
stant on [h]is heorte. andbede> him )>anne fri^. ^/sehtnesse 
and {PUS que. Pax uobz's. frK f for \at he ben J>anne fried 
of |?e deueles J>ralshipe f alse ich er seide. Sehtnesse f for 70 
1 MS. ' bote,' a MS. ' hah.' 

D 2 


\at hie ben )>enne sahtnede wrS ]?e heuenliche fader, and is 
pe giate of paradis opened to-genes hem. Per quam nos 
introducat. Qui viuit et regnat per omnia secula seculorum 

(D) [Dominica iv< post Pascha.~\ 

Omne datum optimum et omne donum perfectum desursum 
est. f descendens a patre luminum. Seint iacob J>e holie 
apo-r/^/. |>e ure drihtew sette to lor]?eawe. ]>e folc of \ziusa\em. 
he nam geme of )>e wune .' J>e weren ]?o .' and get bien mid 

5 mannen i fewe gode 5 ##</ fele iuele. 0fi? bigan to tarnen ]>e 
iuele to gode. mid his wise wordes. ]>e he wrS hem spec nuiS 
wiS imrSe. )>e hwile he wunede lichamliche among hem. and 
agen )>e time j?e ure drihten wolde him fechen fro )>is wreche 
woreld to his blisfulle riche f ))O sette he on write ]>e wise 

10 word ]?e he spec, and \at writ sende into chirchen. and hit is 
cumen into )>is holi minstr^ to dai. ##</ biforen giu rad ]>eh 
ge it ne understonden. ac we wilen bi godes wissinge and bi 
his helpe. )>erof cujjen giu ]>ese lit word. Omne datum 
optimum et cetera. Ech god giue and ful giue cume^ of 

15 heuene dunward. and ech idel. and unnit. and iuelf ne^en 
uppard. J?eh ]?e unbileffulle swo ne lete. ac 1 J?anne he 
haue^ sineged. on Jjonke o^er on speche. o^er on dede. 
Werpe^ \at gilt uppen ure drihtew. and sei^. gif god hit 
ne wolde f swo hit ne were, and o^er while werpeS it uppen 

20 sheppendes ]>e none ben. bute god self J>e alle Jnng shop f 
ahd serS. ne was me no bet shapen. and o^er hwile uppen 
hwate. and ser. nahte ich no betere wate. tz^/ wile uppe ]>e 
deuel ' and serS. he me drof ]?erto J?e ne sholde. a^/ lige^ 
eches wordes. for ]?eh J>e deuel muge man bi-charre i he ne 

* MS. ' ac lat.' 


mai no man neden. and on J>is wise werpe^ ]>e unbileffulle 25 
man his agen gilt uppe J>e giltlese. Omnis autem praua 
cogitacio in corde ascendit, tarn innala quam illata vnde dicitur 
in ewangelio. Ut quid ascendunt cogitaciones in cordibus uestris. 
ech unnit speche and ]>onc astigrrS \n |>e manes heorte. 
be swo it beo. alse }>is writ serS. Unus quisque tra]\i\itur a 30 
concupiscencia sua. abstractus. et illectus. ech man beo^ [for- 
tuht] bi sleht of his agene lichames luste alse ]>e boc ser$. 
\D\iabolus per sugestionem inmittet homini malam cogitacionem. 
J>e deuel mid his for-tihting 1 briwgeS uhnut J>onc on mannes 
heorte. and te% him swo to iuele speche and to werse dede. 35 
and on J?is wis cumeS ech iuel ]>onc. and speche. and dede. 
ne^en uppard. sam it haue angun of ]?e mannes lichames wille 
sam it haue ]?e biginning of the denies fortuhting. and for to 
bileande \at no maw werpe )>e gilt -of his sinne anuppen god 5 
and J>erfore serS 2 seint iacob ]?os word. Omne datum optimum 40 
et cetera, ech god giue '. and ful giue f cume^ of heuene send 
of lemene fader. Datum aliud est bonum ut quodfouet corpus 
Aliud est melius ut quod ornat cor. Aliud esi optimum ut quod 
sanctificai hominem. fat godes giue is god J>e fet and shrut 
]>e lichame alse J>e blostme ]>e cume'S of coren of eorSe. and 45 
of treuwe. J?e ben cleped werldes winne. and \at godes giue 
is betere. J>e alime^ ]?e man of fiffolde mihte. his egen to sen 
his earen to listen his nose to smellen. his mu^ to runien. 
and his lichame al mid to frrende and \at godes giue is 
best. J?e clense^ )?e man. of alle sinnes. and leseS of helle f 50 
and to -genes \i\m opened heuene and \at is fulcning erest 
and srSen husel. Bonum autem aliud incoatumut fides. Aliud 
prouectum ut spes. Aliud perfectum ut caritas. Eft-sone sum 
godes giue is bigunnen alse rihte leue. and furSre'S alse 
trust, and longenge to godes bihese and sum mid alle ful 55 

1 MS. ' tihtingt.' 3 MS. seid.' 


alse scvS luue to gode and to mannen. and swiche ben ]>e 
seuene. ]>e ben cleped Carismatum dona, scilicet sapiencie et 
intellecius et cetera. Item remissio peccatorum que datur in 
baptismo est datum optimum. Bonum uite etcrne est donum 

60 perfectum. Eftsone )>e giuenesse of sinne is J>e beste giue. 
and j)ie giue he giue^ ech man in }>e fulluht. ]?e giue of eche 
[lif] on blisse. is te fulle giue. and ]>eo giue he giue^ mid J>e 
holi husel. J?anne man it understowde'S rihtliche. and 
holsuflzliche. Swiche giues. and none iuele sendeS lemene 

65 fader mankin. Leomene fader we cleped ure drihtera 
for j?an J>e he sunne atend )>e steores of hire leome. and te 
mone of hire leome. and al J?is middelerd 1 alemeS. and ure 
ihesu christi aleme^ J>e selue sunne i }>e alle o^re ]?ing 
aleome^. and ec }>e man. Lumine intelkctus et fidei aleme^ 

7 of understondi[ng]nesse. and of rihte bileue. Angelorum 
autem et omnium mortalium and brinfne^] on englen and on 
mannen ]>e hete of so^e luve to him seluen. He send us 
}>e gode giue J>e alle sinnes forgif'S. and ]>e fulle giue ]>e 
giue^ ech lif on blisse. Qui viuit et regnat per omnia \secula 

75 seculorum]. 

1 MS. ' middelherd.' 




ABOUT A.D. 1200, 

THE Ormulum consists of an imperfect series of Homilies, in 
alternate verses of eight and seven syllables, or in iambic verse of 
fifteen syllables, with a metrical point in the MS. after the eighth. 
It is wanting in alliteration and rhyme, and was probably written 
in imitation of some mediaeval Latin poems with which the writer 
was acquainted. The author was Orm, or Ormin, a canon regu- 
lar of the Order of St. Augustine, and he called the poem after 
his own name, as he himself tells us in the opening 
* piss boc iss nemmnedd Orrmulum, 
Fprrjn J>att Orrm itt wrohhte.' 

Orm was a purist in orthography, and for the right pronuncia- 
tion of his vowels he adopts a method of his own, and directs his 
readers to observe that the consonant is always doubled after a 
short vowel, and there only. In some few cases a semicircular 
mark over the vowel denotes its quantity. Other marks are used 
to denote contraction. 

The date of the Ormulum is not quite fixed. By most 
writers it is ascribed to a later date than La3amon's Brut. From 
the absence of Norman- French words, it seems to be much 
earlier. The simplicity of its language, almost as flexionless as 
Chaucer's, is due to its locality, being probably written in the 
neighbourhood of Lincoln, where the East-Midland dialect was 
spoken, with a tolerably strong infusion of the Danish element. 

The Ormulum was edited in 1852 by Dr. White, from the 
original MS. (Junius i) in the Bodleian Library. The extract 
here given is from this edition, corrected by the manuscript. 


Jewish and Christian Offerings. 
[White's edition, pp. 31-57.] 

3 nu ice Wile shaewenn $uw 

summ-del wi]>J? Godess hellpe 
Off ]?att Judisskenn follkess lac 

]?att Drihhtin wass full cweme, 965 

3 mikell hellpe to J>e follc, 

to laeredd 3 to laewedd, 
Biforenn ]?att te Laferrd Crist 

was borenn her to manne. 
Ace nu ne ge3}ne)>}> itt hemm nohht 970 

to winnenn eche blisse 
pohh J?att te33 standenn da53 3 nihht 

to ]?eowwtenn Godd 3 lakenn ; 
Forr all itt iss onnsaeness Godd 

jjohh J>att te}} swa ne wenenn, 975 

Forrj>i J?att te# ne kepenn nohht 

noff Crist, noff Cristess modern 
3 tohh-swa-]>ehh nu wile ice juw 

off J>e33re lakess awwnenn, 
Hu mikell god te}} tacnenn uss 980 

off ure sawle nede; 
Forr all )>att lac wass sett Jmrrh Godd, 

forr }>att itt shollde tacnenn 
Hu Cristess }>eoww birr|> lakenn Crist 

gastlike i gode j?3ewess, 985 

Wij?j> all |>att tatt bitacnedd wass 

Jmrrh alle J^re lakess. 

patt follkes lac wass shep, 3 gat, 

3 oxe, 3 cullfre, and turrtle, 
"3 te33re lac wass bule, 3 lamb, 990 

3 buckess twa togeddre, 


"2 recles smec, 3 bulltedd brsed 

Jjatt bakenn wass inn ofne, 
3 smeredd wel wij?]> elesaew 

3 makedd fatt 3 nesshe; 
3 o)>err stund tatt lac wass brad 

all ]>eorrf wij?]?utenn berrme ; v J 
3 o]>err stund itt bakenn wass 

full hand 3 starrc inn ofne; 
3 o]>err stund tatt lac wass brennd 

3 turrnedd all till asskess. 
3 aj} wass sallt wij>]> iwhillc lac 

biforenn Drihhtin offredd; 
3 tatt wass don, ]>att witt tu wel, 

forr mikell J>ing to tacnenn. 
All l^re lac wass swillc ^ swillc, 

forr o]>err ]?ing to tacnenn, 
patt uss iss swi]?e mikell ned 

to folljhenn ^ to trowwenn; 
Forr uss birrj) nu biforenn Godd 

ofFrenn ]>a lakess alle 
Rihht o ]?att wise ]>att uss iss 

bitacnedd }nirrh ]>a lakess; 
3 witt tu }>att an wa3herifft 

wass spredd fra wah to wa3he, 
Biforenn an allterr ]?att wass 

innresst i j^ej^re minnstre. 
patt wa^herifft wass henngedd taer 

forr jjatt itt hidenn shollde 
All J>att tatt tser wi))]?innenn wass 

fra laeredd follc } laewedd, 
Wi]>]>utenn ]>att te bisscopp sellf 

wi]?]> blod ^j ec wij>|? recless 
pser shollde cumenn o ]>e 3er 








ann stye, 3 all himm ane. 1025 

3 enngless comenn ofFte j>aer 

3 wij)J> )>e bisscopp spaekenn 
O Godess hallfe off mani^-whatt, 

himm 3 hiss folk to frofrenn. 
3 bi ]>att allterr stodenn 333 1030 

]>att follkess ha^domess, 
patt waerenn inn an arrke ]>a2r 

wel 3 wurr]?like semmde. 
^J tser oferr ]?att arrke wass 

an oferrwerrc wel tiirimbredd, 1035 

patt wass Propitiatoriumm 

O Latin spseche nemmnedd, 
Off j?att word tatt o Latin iss 

nemmnedd Propitiari, 
patt ma33 onn Ennglissh nemmnedd ben 1040 

millcenn, 3 shsewenn are, 
^ Forr whase doj> hiss are o ]>e 

tibi propitiatur, 
AfFterr j?att itt ma33 wel inch 

ben se33d o Latin spseche. 1045 

3 tser uppo J>att oferrwerrc 1 

]>e33 haffdenn liccness metedd 
Off Cherubyn, ^ haffdenn itt 

o twe33enn stokess metedd. 
All ennglej?eod to-daeledd iss 1050 

o ni3henn kinne |>eode; i o 
3 Cherubyn 3 Seraphyn 

sinndenn ]?a twej3enn |?eode 
patt sinndenn Drihhtin allre nest 

"^ heh3hesst upp inn heoffne. 1055 

^ off J>att an, off Cherubyn 

haffdenn liccness metedd 

1 MS. ' oflerrwerrc. 1 


Uppo ]?att oferrwerrc j>att wass 

abufenn ]?arrke timmbredd. 
3 att te minnstre-dure wass 1060 

an allterr ]?aer wij>]?-utenn j 
3 bi J>att allterr wass }>c lac 

o fele wise jarrkedd 
purrh preostess, alls uss 8653)) so]> boc, 

off Aaroness chilldre. 1065 

3 o }>att allterr haffdenn jje^j 

glowennde gledess jajrkedd. 
3 off j?att errfe ]?att tser wass 

Drihhtin to lake jarrkedd, 
Himm toe ]?e bisscopp off J?e blod, 1070 

swa summ hiss boc himm tahhte. 
j gledess inn hiss reclefatt 

he toe J>aer o allterr, 
j dide recless inn inoh 

Drihhtin ]?3erwi])]) to J)eow[w]tcnn, 1075 

AJJ whann he shollde ganngenn inn 

upp to ]?att o]?err allterr, 
patt was's a}} seness o j?e jer, 

j a^3 himm sellf himm ane, 
Forr mikell |?ing to tacnenn uss 1080 

J>att uss birrj) alle trowwenn. 
He toe )>e recless ^ te blod 

j 3ede upp to J>att allterr 
patt wass wij>]>innenn wa^herifft, 

swa summ ice habbe shsewedd, 1085 

3 tanne brennde he recless }>3er, 

to ]?eowwtenn Godd tocweme, 
Swa-J>att tser wass swa mikell smec 

off recless att tatt allterr 
patt all he wass himm-sellf ]>aer hidd 1090 


1 lokenn ]>aer-wij>}nnnenn ; 
3 toe himm J?a J;att illke blod 

]?att he J?aer hafFde gre33J?edd, 
patt blod tatt he ]>aer haffde brohht, 

3 warrp itt tser wij>)> strenncless, 1095 

Ejjwhaer uppo ]?att halljhe bord, 

3 e33whser o J>att allterr. 
3 si]>]jenn 3ede he )>ej)enn ut 

to strennkenn i ]?e kirrke 
WiJ>j)Utenn J^re wa3herifft, noo 

swa summ hiss boc himm tahhte. 
j si)>]>enn comm he till )>e follc 

y wessh himm hise claj?ess, 
Ace J>ohh-swa-]?ehh he wass all daj3 

unnclene anan till efenn. 1105 

Nu habbe ice shsewedd 3uw summ-del 

off ]?a Judisskenn lakess 
patt Drihhtin toe full sedmodli3 

biforenn Cristess come, 
] off J>att preost tatt tanne wass, mo 

3 off ]?att bisscopp ba]?e. 
3 ec ice habbe shsewedd juw 

summ del off ^63316 wikenn. 
3 nu ice wile shaewenn 3uw 

all }>att whatt itt bitacnej;]), 1115 

3 hu itt ma33 3uw turrnenn all 

till 3ure sawless hellpe, 
^ hu 36 mu3henn lakenn Godd 

gastlike i gode Jjsewess 
Wi]?}> all ]?att Judewisshe lac 1120 

]?att ice 3uw habbe shaewedd; 
Forr 3uw birrj> nu biforenn Godd 

offrenn ]>a lakess alle, 


All o ]?att wise J>att ;uw iss 

bitacnedd jmrrh }>a lakess. 1125 

pa lakess mihhtenn clennsenn hemm 

off sakess 3 off sinness, 
3 gladenn Godd, 3iff ]>att he wass 

hemm wra)> forr heore gillte. 
3 witt tu wel ]>att Latin boc 1130 

full witerrlike uss ki]?e}>]> 
Whillc lac wass offredd forr ]>e preost, 

whillc forr ]?e bisscopp offredd, 
3 whillc wass offredd forr ]>e follc, 

to clennsenn hemm off sinne. 1135 

pe ramm wass offredd forr J>e preost 

to clennsenn himm off sinne, 
3 forr ]>e bisscopp wass ]>e calif 

offredd o J^ijre wise, 
3 forr )>e follc wass offredd bucc, 1140 

Drihhtin to lofe 3 wurr]?e, 
patt he J'e33m jmrrh hiss mildherrtle33C 

forr38efe }>e#re gilltess. 
Her habbe ice shsewedd }>rinne lac 

forr ]>rmne kinne leode, 1145 

Forr bisscopp ^ forr unnderrpreost, 

3 forr }>e follkess nede. 
3 ure Laferrd Jesu Crist 

badd hise bedess j>ri3ess, }>-' 
Biforenn J?att he taj&nn wass 1150 

3 na33ledd uppo rode. 
3 tser he badd forr alle }>a 

)>att onn himm sholldenn lefenn, 
Forr bisscopp 3 forr unnderrpreost, 

j ec forr Isewedd leode; 1155 


j mare wass hiss bede wurrj> 

}>ann alle J^e^^re lakess, 
To lesenn 3 to clennsenn menn 

off alle kinne gillte, 
3 tohh-swa-j>ehh wass fe^re lac 1160 

biforenn Cristess come 
Drihhtin full cweme inn alle |>a 

patt Godess lajhess heldenn. 
3 nu ice wile shsewenn 3uw 

wij>]> min Drihhtiness hellpe 1165 

All hu 36 mu3henn lakenn Godd 

gastlike i gode }>aewess 
Wi]>J> all ]?att Judewisshe lac 

)>att juw her uppe iss shsevvedd; 
3iff j>att tu folljhesst so|> mec)cle33c 1170 

1 so]> unnska^nesse 1 , 
pa lakesst tu Drihhtin wi]>j> shep 

gastlike i ]?ine }>sewess, 
Swa ]>att itt ma33 wel hellpenn J>e 

to winnenn Godess are; 1175 

Forr shep iss all unnska)>efull 

3 s-tille der ^ lij>e, 
3 make]))) itt nan mikell brace 

3iff mann itt wile bindenn, 
Ne forrj>enn |>ser mann cwelleJ>J> itt 1180 

ne wij?]>re]>j> itt nohht swi]?e. \^,i*~ 
1 forr])i 8633]) ]>att Latin boc, 

J>att ]>werrt-ut nohht ne Ie3hej>j>, 
patt ure Laferrd Jesu Crist 

inn ure mennisscnesse 1185 

Toe ]>ildili3 wi]?jnitenn brace 

J?att mann himm band wi|>|> W03he, 
Rihht all swa summ ]?e shep onnfo]> 

1 MS. ' unnsha})i3nesse.' 


Meocli3 J)att mann itt c]ippe]>}>;* 
3 jiff ]?u cwennkesst i }>e sellf, 1190 

j Iseresst me to cwennkenn 
Inn me galnessess fule stinnch 

3 hire fule lusstess, 
3 folljhesst ajj ckennessess sloj?, 

3 laeresst me to fol^henn, 1195 

pa lakesst tu Drihhtin wij?]> gat 

gastlike i ]>me ]?aewess, 
Swa-|>att itt ma^j wel hellpenn J?e 

to winnenn Godess are; 
Forr gat iss, ]>att witt tu full wel, 1200 

gal deor, ^ stinnke]?]> fule 
j forr]?i tacne}>]? itt full wel 

galnessess hate stinnchess. 
3 forrjn sinndenn alle |>a 

}>att shulenn inntill helle 1205 

Effnedd wij?j? gSt 3 nemmnedd gSt, 

o Goddspellbokess lare, 
ForrJ)i ]?att sinness fule stinnch 

shall shaedenn hemm fra Criste. 
3 jiff ]m folljhesst skill 3 shaed 1210 

3 witt i gode ]>aewess, 
^ hafesst get, tohh ]?u be Jung, 

elldernemanness late, 
^ hajherrlike ledesst te 

3 dafftelike ^j fajjre, 1215 

3 ummbejjennkesst ajj occ ajj 

hu J)U mihht Drihhtin cwemenn, 
j lufenn himm 3 dredenn himm 

3 hise lajhess haldenn, 

oxe lakesst tu Drihhtin 1220 

gastlike i Jnne Jewess, 


S\va-]>att itt ma}} wel hellpenn )>e 

to winnenn Godess are. 
Forr oxe ga)> o clofenn fot 

3 shsede]>]> hise clawwess, 1225 

purrh whatt he tacnej>]> skill 3 shsed 

3 witt i gode J>aewess. 
3 oxe gannge]>]j hajhelij 

3 aldelike lateJ>J>, 
3 }ife]?}> bisne off ]>att te birrf 1230 

all ha^helike 3 fa}3re 
3 dafftelike ledenn pe, 

wi])])Utenn brace 3 bra]>])e, 
3 shaewenn jet, tohh ]>u be }ung, 

elldernemanness late. 1235 

j oxe chewwe]>j> ]?3er he ga]> 

hiss cude, ^ tser he stannde]?]), 
3 chewwej?]? forrj>enn ]>3er he li]>, 

forr ]>e to }ifenn bisne, 
patt te birr}) ummbe{?ennkenn a}j 1240 

^j chewwenn i )>in heorrte 
Hu ])U mihht cwemenn ]>in Drihhtin, 

3 winnenn eche blisse. 
puss Ipu mihht lakenn Drihhtin Godd 

wiJ>J> oxe i gode j>aewess, 1245 

3iff jm ]>e ledesst all wi)>J) skill, 

3 hajhelike ^ fa35re, 
3 ummbejjennkesst nihht 3 da}5 

hu )>u mihht Drihhtin cwemenn. 
3 jiff ]?u firr]?resst fremmde menn 1250 

a}} affterr J?ine fere, 
3 arrt te sellf a}} milde ^ meoc, 

3 all wij>)mtenn galle, 
Wi>J) cullfre lakesst tu Drihhtin 


gastlike i jnne J>aewess, 1255 

Svva J>att itt ma^ wel hellpenn j>e 

to winnenn Godess are. 
Forr cullfre iss milde, 3 meoc, 3 swet, 

] all wi]?]nitenn galle, 
] fede})]> oj^err cullfress bridd 1260 

all alls itt waere hire ashenn. 
3 jiff ]>u ledesst clene lif, 

3 murrcnesst i J>in heorrte 
patt tu swa lannge dwellesst her 

swa ferr fra Godess riche, 1265 

1 jeornesst tatt tu mote sket 

uppcumenn inntill heoffne, 
Upp till J>i Laferrd Jesu Crist, 

to lofenn himm 3 lutenn, 
Wi}>}) turrtle lakesst tu J>in Godd 1270 

gastlike i ]?ine |>sewess, 
Swa }>att itt ma# wel hellpenn J?e 

to winnenn Godess are. 
Forr turrtle ledej?]> chari^ lif, 

]?att witt tu wel to soj?e, 1275 

Forr fra ]>att hire make iss deed 

ne kepe)>]> jho nan o]>err, 
Ace serr3hej>j> 33$ forr]>i ]?att ;ho 

ne ma^ himm nowwhar findenn. 
j jiff j?att tu forrlangedd arrt 1280 

to cumenn upp till Criste, 
3 nohht ne chesesst operr Godd 

to folljhenn ne to feowwtenn, 
Wi]?|)Utenn Crist tatt wass 3 iss 

}>'m Drihhtin 3 tin hsefedd, 1285 

pa lakesst tu gastlike Godd 

wib]> turrtle i J>ine ]?2ewess. 

VOL. I. E 


3 5iff Jm cwennkesst i )>e sellf 

all ]nverrt-ut modijnesse, 
3 laerest oj>re all-swa to don 1290 

}>tirrh lare 3 ec Jmrrh bisne, 
Wi]>}> bule lakesst tu ]?in Godd 

gastlike i J?ine ]>aewess, 
Swa jjatt itt ma53 well hellpenn ]>e 

to winnenn Godess are. 1295 

Forr bule late}>J> modili^, 

3 berej>]> upp hiss haefedd, 
3 drife|))> o]?re nowwt himm fra 

3 hallt himm all forr laferrd. 
3 3iff ]>u cnawesst rihht tin Godd 1300 

3 herrcnesst hise spelless, 
j lej^esst all J?in herrte onn himm, 

^j fol^hesst himm j bu^hesst, 
] forr ]>e lufe off himm forrsest 

hse]>ene Goddess alle, 1305 

3 arrt te sellf a$j milde ] meoc, 

3 soffte, 3 stille, 3 li]>e, 
Wij)|> lamb ]>u lakesst tin Drihhtin 

gastlike i jnne ]>aewess, 
Swa ]?att itt ma33 wel hellpenn fe 1310 

to winnenn Godess are. 
Forr lamb is soffte 3 stille deor, 

3 meoc, 3 milde, 3 lijje, 
3 itt cann cnawenn swi)>e wel 

hiss moderr jjaer jho blaete]>j> 1315 

Bitwenenn an J)usennde shep, 

])ohh J?att tej^ blaetenn alle. 
3 all swa birr]) )>e cnawenn wel 

Jnn Godd 3 all hiss lare, 
3 all forrwerrpenn ri3e]?enndom 1320 


3 o]?re Goddess alle, 
Swa summ |>e lamb fle]> oj>re shep, 
3 foll3he]>]> a53 hiss moderr. 

Judewisshe follkess boc 
hemm: se3}de, j?att hemm birrde 1325 

Twa bukkess samenn to ]?e preost 

att kirrkedure brinngenn; 
3 te^j }>a didenn bltyeli}, 

swa summ J>e boc hemm tahhte, 
3 brohhtenn twe53enn bukkess |?3er 1330 

Drihhtin J>serwi];|) to lakenn. 
3 att te kirrkedure toe 

\>Q preost ta twe33enn bukkess, 
3 o J>att an he lejjde |?3er 

all J^ejjre sake 3 sinne, 1335 

3 let itt eornenn for]>wi|>]) all 

ut inntill wilde wesste; 
^j toe 3 sna}> ])att o]?err bucc 

Drihhtin ]?3erwi])]) to lakenn. 
All ]>iss wass don forr here ned, 1340 

3 ec forr ure nede; 
Forr hemm itt hallp biforenn Godd 

to clennsenn hemm off sinne, 
^ all swa ma^j itt hellpenn J>e, 

jiff ]>att tu willt [itt] folljhenn. 1345 

3 iff }>att tu willt full innwarrdlij 

wij>]> fulle trowwj>e lefenn 
All J>att tatt wass bitacnedd tser, 

to lefenn 3 to trowwenn. 
pa ma33 ]>att trowwfe furr^renn 1 ]>e 1350 

' MS. frirrjrenn/ 


to winnenn Godess are. 
pa twe3;enn bukkess tacnenn uss 

an Godd off twinne kinde, 
patt iss }>e Laferrd Jesu Crist, 

J>att iss off twinne kinde. 1355 

Forr Jesu Crist iss ful iwiss . 

so]) Godd i Goddcunndnesse, 
3 he iss ec to fulle soj> 

so]) mann i mennnisscnesse 1 ; ^ 

Forr Crist iss baj)e Godd 3 mann, tlA 1360 

an had off twinne kinde, 
3 tiss birr]) trowwenn iwhillc mann 

]?att jeorne])}) Godess are. 
An bucc rann J>aer awe^ all i f^ 1 

wi])]) all ]>e follkess sinne, 1365 

3 Cristess Goddcunndnesse wass 

all cwicc 3 all unnpinedd 
poer Crist wass uppo rodetreo 

naj^ledd forr ure nede. 
3 Cristess Goddcunndnesse all cwicO 1370 

3 all wi}>]>utenn pine 
Barr ure sinnes }?ser awe35 

}>ser Cristess mennisscnesse 
Drannc dae])ess drinnch o rodctre 

forr ure wo$he dedess. 1375 

^j all swa summ })att o]?err bucc 

toe J>ser wi])]) dse])ess pine, 
To wurr]?enn }>asr Drihhtin to lac 

forr all }>e follkess sinne, 
All swa toe Cristess mennissclej^c 1380 

wi})]) dse})ess pine o rode, 

1 MS. ' men-nisscnesse.* 


Forr j>att he wollde wurr]?enn J^ser 

offredd Drihhtin to lake, 
Forr uss to clennsenn jmrrh hiss dsej) 

off sinness unnclaennesse. 1385 

3 all swa summ ]?att cwike bucc 

comm inntill wilde wesste, 
All swa comm Cristess Goddcunndle^c 

all cwicc upp inntill heoffne 
patt wass biforenn Cristess dae]> 1390 

swa summ itt wesste waere, 
Forr]>i ]?att ba]?e enngless 3 menu 

itt haffdenn ser forrworrpenn. 
Forr enngless haffdenn heoffness serd 

forrlorenn all wij>J> rihhte; 1395 

Forr ]>att te# wolldenn effnenn hemm 

jsen Godd Jmrrh modi3nesse; 
Forr whatt te}} fellenn sone dun 

off heoffne 3 inntill helle 
Till eche wa, forrj>i fatt tejj 1400 

forrwurrpenn eche blisse. 
3 alle ]>a |>att fellenn swa 

j)C35 sinndenn la]?e deofless, 
3 stanndenn inn J?urrh hete 3 ni|> ' 

to scrennkenn menness sawless. 1405 

Ace ]>u mihht werenn J>e fra |?e33m 

)mrrh rihhte laefe o Criste, 
3 j?urrh J)att weorrc )>att tser tolij) 

wi}>j> Jesu Cristess hellpe. 
j ure twe^jenn forrme menn 1410 

)?att Drihhtin shop off eorj)e 
Forrlurenn ec forr heore gillt 

wij>j> rihht dom heoffness blisse, 
purrh J>att te3j forr J>e deofless raj? 


Drihhtiness raj> forrwurrpenn ; 1415 

3 all forrj)i wass heoffness serd 

swa summ itt wesste waere, 
ForrJ>i Jjatt ba}>e enngless 3 menn 

itt haffdenn eer forrworrpenn. 
3 Cristess Goddcunndnesse comm 1420 

cwicc inntill heoffness wesste 
WiJ>]> lire sinne i J>att tatt Crist 

toe dsej) forr ure sinne, 
All all swa summ J>att bucc attrann 

ut inntill wilde wesste 1425 

All cwicc, j barr awe^ wij?J> himm 

)>e follkess sake 3 sinne. 
3 jiff j?att iss ]>att tu willt nu 

wij>|> fulle troww)>e lefenn 
patt Crist iss ba)>e Godd j mann, 1430 

an had off twinne kinde; 
3 jiff ]>att iss ]?att tu willt nu 

wi}>j> fulle troww]>e lefenn 
patt Cristess Goddcunndnese wass 

all cwicc 3 all unnpinedd 1435 

paer Crist wass daed o rodetre 

forr all mannkinne nede; 
3 jiff ]>att iss ]>att tu willt nu 

wij)]> fulle tro\vwj>e lefenn 
patt Crist, taer he wass o J?e treo 1440 

najjledd forr ure nede, 
Drah harrd 3 hefij pine inoh 

Jjurrh fife grimme wundess, 
pa mihht tu lakenn J>in Drihhtin 

gastlike i sojjfasst Isefe, 1445 

l||WijiJ> all J>att te to trowwenn wass 

Jmrrh J?a twa bukkess tacnedd. 


j 3iff )>u cwemesst tin Drihhtin 

bi da^ess, ^ bi nihhtess, 
Wi]>)> fasstinng, 3 wij>)> bedesang, 1450 

wij>]> cnelinng, 3 wi]>j> wecche, 
pa lakesst tu wij>]> recless swa 

)>in Godd i }>ine j?3ewess, 
Swa )?att itt ma}} wel hellpenn J>e 

to winnenn Godess are. 1455 

Forr all^all swa summ recless smec 

iss swet biforenn manne, 
All all se iss swet biforenn Godd 

]?e gode manness bene. 
3 jiff J)in herrte iss arefull, 1460 

^j milde, 3 soffte, *j nesshe, 
Swa J>att tu mihht wel arenn himm 

J>att iss jaen ]>e forrgilltedd, 
3 all forrjifenn himm full neh 

]>e rihhte domess wrsecKe, v^- 1465 

A^3 whannse ]?u forr^ifesst tuss 

}>in wraj>]>e ^ ec ]>in wraeche, 
A# ]?anne lakesst tu J>in Godd 

gastlike i jnne )>aewess, 
Wi]>}> laf J>att iss wi|>]) elesseW 1470 

all smeredd wel 3 nesshedd. 
pe rihhte dom iss starrc 3 harrd 

j all }>e rihhte wrseche, 
Swa summ itt waere scorrcnedd laf 

J>att iss wij?|jutenn crummess. 1475 

3 are 3 millce 3 mildherrtle33C 

j rihht forrjifenesse, . 
patt iss ]?att laf ]?att smeredd iss 

wij?]> elessew ^ nesshedd. 
^ jiff ]>att tu willt makenn laf, 1480 


}>u J^resshesst tine shsefess, 
3 sij?j>enn winndwesst tu jrin corn, 

3 fra }>e chaff itt shsedesst, 
3 gaddresst swa )>e clene corn, 

all fra }>Q chaff togeddre, 1485 

3 grindesst itt, j cnedesst itt, 

3 harrdnesst itt wiJ>J> hsete ; 
3 tanne mahht tu \>m Drihhtin 

lakenn j>aerwi]j}> tocweme, 
3iff ]>att tu ledesst hali3 lif 1490 

I ]>ohht, i word, i dede. ^^ 

3 tu mihht ec gastlike laf 

onn oj>err wise jarrkenn, 
3 lakenn ]>in Drihhtin ]>serwij?j> 
X well swij?e wel tocweme. 1495 

3iff ]?att iss J>att tu |>urrh J)in spell 

till rihhte Isefe turrnesst 
patt flocc ]?att wass toske33redd ser 

Jmrrh fele kinne dwilde, 
pa ])resshesst tu |>in corn wi]?]) flejjl, 1500 

I }>att tatt tu J?e33m shsewesst 
Hu sinnfull lif ^633 leddenn ^r, 

3 hu J>ej3 cwemmdenn deofell, 
3 hu ]?e33 haffdenn addledd wel 

to dre3henn eche pine, 1505 

3 hu Jjejjm haffde Drihhtin all 

forr heore woh forrworrpenn ; 

swillc ]>u ]>resshesst wel }>e follc, 

jiff ]?att tu fuss hemm toelesst; 
Forr jiff }>u shsewesst me min woh 1510 

3 tselesst mine weorrkess, 
3 seggesst swillc 3 swillc wass ]m, 

)m J?resshesst me wi|>|> wordess. 


3 jiff ]>u shaewesst hemm off Godd 

3 off hiss seddrnodnesse, 1515 

Hu wel he takej?]> ajj wi]>J> ]>a 

j?att sekenn Godess are, 
3 jiff jm shsewesst hemm whatt Isen 

iss jarrkedd hemm inn heoffne, 
3iff J?att tej3 takenn Crisstenndom 1520 

j Cristess lajhess haldenn, 
3 spedesst wi]>]? Jnn spell swa wel 

|?att tejj itt unnderrfanngenn, 
3 turrnenn till J>e Crisstenndom 

3 till J?e rihhte laefe, 1525 

3 shaedenn fra ]>att hse]?enn follc 

]>att Godd iss all unncweme, 
Forr J>att itt iss ]?att illke chaff 

jjatt helle fir shall bsernenn, 
pa winndwesst tu \m ]>rosshenn corn, 153 

3 fra ]>e chaff itt shsedesst, 
3 gaddresst swa ]?e clene corn 

all fra J>e chaff togeddre. 
Forr Jrnrrh J>att tatt tu laeresst hemm 

to ben sammtale 3 sahhte 15 35 

To J>eowwtenn an Allmahhtij Godd 

wi])|) anfald rihhte lafe, 
3 ajj to ben ummbenn ]>att an 

to winnenn eche blisse, 
purrh ]?att tu sammnesst hemm i Godd, 1540 

]m gaddresst corn togeddre. 
Annd jnrrrh ]?att tu primmsejjnesst hemm, 

3 spellesst hemm, ^j Iseresst 
All to forrwerrpenn modijle^c, 

3 harrd ^ grammcund herrte, 1545 

3 ajj to folljhenn so]) meoclejjc 


wijj}? luffsumm aeddmodnesse, 
peer Jmrrh ]?att tu brekesst wel |>in corn, 

3 grindesst itt 3 nesshesst. 
3 Jmrrh )>att tatt tu fullhtnesst hemm 1550 

3 unnderr waterr dippesst, 
pu sammnesst all J>in mele inn an 

3 cnedesst itt togeddre, 
Swa J?att te33 shulenn alle ben 

an bodi} 3 an sawle. 1555 

3 Jesu Crist himm sellf shall ben 

uppo ]>att bodi} haefedd, 
To fedenn 3 to fosstrenn hemm, 

to steorenn 3 to berr^henn. 
3 Jmrrh j>att tatt tu laeresst hemm 1560 

to Jjolenn illc unnseltye 
WiJ>J> innwarrd heorrte 3 so)>fasst ]>ild, 

all forr ]>e lufe off Criste, 
All forr J>att lufe ]?att iss hat 

I Cristess |>eowwess heorrte, 1565 

paer ]>urrh ]?att tu bakesst Godess laf 

3 harrdnesst itt Jmrrh haete, 
purrh ]?att tu harrdnesst hemm wi]>]) spell 

to J>olenn illc unnseoll|>e 
Wij?J) sopfasst |)ild, all forr )?att fir 1570 

Jjatt so}>fasst lufe fol^he])]?. 
Forr sojjfasst lufe baernej>]> a.%, 

loc jiff put mihht ohht findenn, 
3 whsersitt iss itt harrdne]>J> all 

}>e gode manness heorrte, 1575 

To J>olenn wi]?j? fullfremedd ]>ild 

all j>att tatt iss unnselljje. 
3 sone summ ]>m laf be]> wel 

all gre)>])edd tuss 3 3arrkedd, 


pa mahht tu lakenn Godd wij>}> all 1580 

gastlike wel tocweme. 
Forr Drihhtin takej>)> sedmodlis 

Wij>J> ]>a ]?att till himm turrnenn. 
3 3iff }>u ledesst clene lif 

onn alle kinne wise, 1585 

pa lakesst tu Sin Drihhtin swa 

gastlike i J>ine j?aewess, 
Wij>J> Jjerrrflinng 1 brsed swa ]>att tu mihht 

Drihhtiness are winnenn. 
Forr J>errflinng brsed iss clene braed, 1590 

Forr J>att itt iss unnberrmedd, 
3 itt bitacne]>J> clene lif, 

3 alle clene psewess, 
3 clene jjohht, 3 clene word, 

3 alle clene dedess. 1595 

3 3iff ]>m heorrte iss hand 3 starrc, 

3 stSdefasst o Criste 
To ]>olenn forr ]>e lufe off himm 

all ]>att tatt is to drejhenn, 
pa lakesst tu J>in Drihhtin swa 1600 

gastlike i J)ine ]?3ewess, 
Wi]>]) fasst ^ findi3 laf 3 harrd 

wijjjjinnenn ^j wtyjmtenn, 
Swa J>att itt ma3; wel hellpenn ]?e 

to winnenn Godess are. 1605 

3 3iff Jju mihht forrwerrpenn her v 

}>i faderr, ^j ti moderr, 
3 wif, ^j child, 3 hus, 3 ham, 

3 freond, 3 land, 3 ahhte, 
3 all forrwerrpenn her J>werrt-ut 1610 

1 MS.'J>errfling.' 


bitwenenn menn to biggenn, 
3 ledenn harrd 3 hali3 lif 

all ane i wilde wesste, 
3 pinenn j>ser J>i bodi} a 

wij>j> chele 3 j?risst 3 hunngerr, 1615 

WiJ>]> fasstinng, 3 wij>|> swinnc j swat, 

\vij?|> bedess, 3 wiJ?J? wecchess, 
pa mihht tu lakenn swa J?in Godd 

gastlike i jnne J>sewess 
Wi])J) lac, }>att all ])werrt-ut beo]> brennd 1620 

Drihhtin to lofe 3 wurrj?e, 
Swa ]>att itt beo)> J>e rihht inoh 

to winnenn Godess are. -- 
Forr ]?u ne mihht nohht ledenn her 

na bettre lif onn eor]?e 1625 

pann iss ]>att tu ]>weorrt-ut forrse 

3 all })werrt-ut forrwerrpe 
All weorelldlike lif 3 lusst, 

3 fie fra menn till wesste, 
3 tser wi]?]> harrd ^j hali^ lif 1630 

beo 3eorrnfull Crist to cwemenn. 
Forr swillc lif iss all }>werrt-iit deed 

Fra weorelldshipess lusstess, 
3 itt iss turrnedd all J?urrh fir 

off so]?fasst lufe o Criste 1635 

Till dusst, forrjn ]?att swillke menn 

so)>fasst meocnesse fol^henn. 
3 a35 wass sallt wi|>|) iwhillc lac, 

Forr J>att itt shollde tacnenn 
patt all j?att tu willt offrenn Godd, 1640 

jiff }itt itt shall himm cwemenn, 
All birr]? itt offredd ben 

3 all wi])j> luffsumm heorrte, 


Swa ]>att itt be clennlike don, 

off rihht-bijetenn ahhte, 1645 

Swa )>att te Laferrd Jesu Crist 

swetlike itt unnderrfannge. 
piss wass bitacnedd )mrrri ]>e sallt 

]?att ure mSte swetejjj), 
3ifF J>att iss ]?att mann wile itt don 1650 

wij>}> witt 3 skill jjaerinne. 
Forr witt y skill iss wel inoh 

Jmrrh salltess smacc bitacnedd, 
3 tatt forrjn ]>att witt 3 skill 

iss god inn alle ]?inge, 1655 

All swa summ sallt iss swij?e god 

}>3er j?3er itt tobilimmpe]?]? ; 
j all forrjn wass sefre sallt 

wij>]> alle lakess offredd, 
Forr]>i )>att nohht ne ma^ ben don 1660 

allmahhti3 Godd tocweme, 
But iff itt be wi]>}> witt 3 skill 

3 luffsummlike forj^edd. fc*^f 
All jjuss ]?u mahht nu lakenn Godd 

gastlike i j?ine ]>3ewess, 1665 

WiJ>]> all J>att lac ]?att offredd wass 

biforenn Cristess come. 

Ice se33de guw nu littlser her 

biforenn o ]>iss lare 
Summ del off J>att an wa3herifft 1670 

was spredd fra wah to wajhe, 
Biforenn an allterr ]?att wass 

innresst i J>e3}re minnstre, 
Amang }>Q Judewisshe follc, 

biforenn Cristess come; 1675 


3 ec ice se^jde ]?att itt wass 

j>ser henngedd i J>att hirne, ^^ 
Forr J>att itt hidenn shollde j?ser 

all ]>att tser wass wi]>]?innenn 
Fra loeredd 3 fra Isewedd follc, 1680 

annd all fra J^re sihhj>e, 
Wi]>)>utenn J>att te bisscopp sellf 

wij>]> blod 3 ec wi]>]> recless 
pser shollde |>eowwtenn o j>e ^er 

ann si)>e ^j all himm ane ; 1685 

"3 ec ice se^de littlser her 

biforenn o |>iss lare, 
patt bi |>att allterr stodenn a 

J?att follkess hali3domess, 
patt wserenn inn an arrke }>3er 1690 

wel 3 wurr]>like 5emedd; 
y tatt taer wass an oferrwerrc 

oferr }>att arrke timmbredd; 
3 tatt te53 ec abufenn J?att 

hemm haffdenn liccness metedd 1695 

Off Cherubyn 3 Seraphyn, 

off twe33enn enngle]>eode ; 
^ tatt te bisscopp o j?e jer 

ann si)>e 3 all himm ane 
Comm J)iderr inn to }>eowwtenn Godd 1700 

wi]jj> blod j ec wij>)> recless; 
3 tatt he brennde recless }>ser 

swa mikell att tatt allterr, 
patt all he wass hidd wij?]> ]>e smec, 

forr mikell J>ing to tacnenn; 1705 

3 tatt he warrp sij?J>enn }>e blod 

wij>]> strenncless o J>att allterr, 
3 o ]>att bord, 3 si]>j>enn J?ser 


wijjjmtenn ij>e minnstre; 
3 tatt he comm himm si)>]?enn ut 1710 

3 wessh himm hise cla)>ess; 
3 tatt he wass unnclene }>ohh 

J>att da}} anan till efenn ; 
All J>iss ice se^jde 3uw littlaer 

,*/4ws-t her uferrjnar a litell; Ov^ 1715 

3 tiss me birr]) nu shsewenn juw 

whatt itt 3uw ma3; bitacnenn, 
3 whaerwi]))) itt ma^3 fesstnenn ^uw 

inn ^ure rihhte Isefe. 



f** ^.K' 

'^. <*i>uat 

w^4 ^ ^ >y*~^ 

Z*JA>' ^Ux*At/ J| 4)0 ( <>JLL ^) ^-- - 

^Vmy. i?u O^AX, Ox^ A -^i 'x )*w- JCux^t A*. ' ux tu^i ctuje <**** *~*A *^^** 

^ fe ^LA3AMON J S BRUT. 

ABOUT A.D. 1205. 

THE 'Brut' is a versified chronicle of the legendary history of 
Britain. It begins with the destruction of Troy and the flight of 
JEneas, from whom came Brut, or Brutus, who laid the foun- 
dation of the British monarchy, and goes down to the reign of 

The author of this Chronicle is La^amon, or Laweman, a 
priest residing at Ernely (now called Areley), on the Severn, near 
Redstone in Worcestershire. His authorities, as he himself tells 
us, were three : * The English book that St. Bede made ' (that 
is, Bede's Ecclesiastical History) ; a Latin work by St. Albin 
and Austin, of whose historical writings nothing is known ; and 
a ( book that a Frence clerk hight Wace made.* 

Wace's Brut is in Norman-French, and was translated in 1155 
from Geoffrey of Monmouth's Latin History of the Britons. It 
contains 15,300 lines, which Lajamon has expanded into 32,250. 

The Englishman's additions are, says Mr. Marsh, * the finest 
parts of the work, almost the only parts, in fact, which can be 
held to possess any poetical merit.' 

Lajamon preserves the old unrhymed alliterative versification, 
falling occasionally into the use of rhyme, which is, of course, 
due to Norman-French influence. 

There are two manuscripts of La^amon's Brut, the one written 
early in the thirteenth century, the other about half a century 
later. The earlier version is in the Southern dialect, while the 
later has many Midland peculiarities. Both texts were edited 
by Sir Frederick Madden in 1847, from the Gottonian MSS., 
for the Society of Antiquaries, under the title of * Lajamons 


Brut, or Chronicle of Britain ; a Poetical Semi-Saxon Paraphrase 
of the Brut of Wace.' 

The following extract from this edition has been collated with 
the MSS., and all contractions have been expanded. 

Hengest and Horsa. 

l [Verses 13,785 to 14,387.] 


MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

Vnder pan comen trSende. 

to Vortiger pan kinge. 

p ouer sae weoren icumenf 

swrSe selcu^e gumen. 
5 inne pere Temese f 

to londe heo weorew icuwmen. 

preo scipen gode '. 

comen mid pan flode. 

preo hundred cnihtenf 
ic alse hit weoren kinges. 

wrS-uten pan scipen-mownen f 

pe weoren per wrS-inne/z. 

pis weoren pa fsereste menf 

pat auere her comen. 

ah heo weore hse'Senef 

f wes hserm pa mare. 

Uortiger heom sende to f 

and axede hu heo weoren 

MS. Otho, C. xiii. 
Vnder pan com tydinge. 
to Vortiger pan kinge. 
pat ouer s6 weren icome f 
swipe selliche gomes. 

]>reo sipes gode f 
i-come were mid J?an flode. 
]>ar-on preo hundred cnihtes 
alse ljj| were kempes. \ A^ 

pes weren pe faireste men I 
J>at euere come here, 
ac hii weren he]?enef 
pat was har[m] \>Q more. 

jif heo grrS sohten '. 
20 & of his freond-scipe rohtefl. 
Heo wisliche andswerdenf 
swa heo wel cu^en. 
& seiden ^ heo walden f 
speken wi^ ]?an kinge. 

VOL. I. F 



25 & leofliche him heren i 

& haelden hine for haerre. 

and swaheo gunnenwendenf 

forS to ]?an kinge. 

pa wes Uortigerne ]>a kiwgf 
30 in Cantuarie-buri. 

Jjer he mid his hirede f 

haehliche spilede. 

J>er }>as cnihtes comewf 

bi-forew )>an folc-kinge. 
35 Sone swa heo hine imettenf 

faeire heo hine igrsetten. 

& seiden J>at heo him woldenf 

hseren i J>isse londe. 

jif he heom wolde f 
40 mid rihten at-halden. 

pa andswerede Vortiger f 

of elchen vuele he wes war. 

An alle mine iliuef 

]>e ich iluued habbe. 
45 bi dseie no bi nihtes f 

ne sseh ich nauere ser swulche 

for eouwer cumew ich sem 

& mid me 36 scullew bilasfu- 

& eouwer wille ich wulle 

dri;en i 
,50 bi mine quicke liuen. 

Ah of eou ich wulle iwiten 5 
Jmrh soSen eouwer wur- 


peos comen to J>an king^ i 

and faire hine grette. 

and seide |?at hii wolde f 

him sarui in his lowde. 

jif vs })ou wolle i 

mid rihte at-holde. 

po answerede Vortigerf 

]>at of eche vuele he was war. 

In al mine lifuef 

}>at ich ileued habbe i 

bi dai no bi nihte f 

ne seh ich soche cnihtes. 

for 3ou ich am blifef 

and mid me je solle biiefue. 

Ac forst ich wolle wite f 
for }oure mochele worsipe. 


6 7 

whset 1 cnihtew 36 seon f 

& whaennenen 36 icumen 

55 &whar 3ewullen beon treowef 

aide & sec neowe. 

pa answerede }>e oer '. 

J?at wes |>e aldeste broker. 

Lust me nu lauerd king'. 
60 & ich ]>e wullen cu^en. 

what cnihtes we beo^ I 

& whanene we icumen secrS. 

Ich hatte Heges[t] i 

Hors is mi broker. 
65 we beo^ of Alemai;me '. 

a^elest alre londe. 

of ]>at ilken sende f 

}>e Angles is ihaten. 
in ure londe' 

7 o selorSe ti^ende. 
vmbe fiftene 3er f 
J>at folc is 2 isomned. 
al ure iledene folc .' 
& heore loten werpe^. 

75 vppen ]?an J>e hit failed 3 i 
he seal uaren of londe. 
bilseuen scullen ]>a fiuef 
|>a sexte seal for^ li^e. 
ut of )>an leode f 

80 to u[n]are londe. 
i ne beo he na swa leof mon i 
uorS he seal Iften. 

wat cnihtes beo 3e 
and wanene 360 


po answerede ]>e o}>er f 
}>at was J?e elder broker. 

Ich hatte Hengeft i 
Hors hatte min broker, 
we beoj) of Alemaine '. 
of one riche londe. 
of }>an ilke hende i 
|>at Englis his ihote. 
Beo}> in vre londe i 
wonder J?enges gonde. 
bi eche fiftene jer; 
J>at folk his i-somned. 
and werpe]> ]?are hire lotesf 
fo[r] to londes seche i 
vp 4 wan |>at lot fallej)! 
he mot neod wende. 

ne beo. he noht so riche i 
he mot lond seche. 

1 MS. 'whahset.' 2 MS. 'him.' 3 MS. 'faled.' 

MS. ' vt. 




For fer is folc swie muchelf 

maere fene heo walden. 
85 fa wif fareS mid childe '. 

swa fe deor wilde. 

seueralche ^ere 5 

heo bere^ child fere. 

f beo^ an us feole 5 
90 ]>at we faeren scolden. 

ne mihte we bilaeue i 

for Hue ne for dae^e. 

ne for nauer nane fingei 

for fan folc-kinge. 
95 pus we uerden fere f 

& for-fi beoS nu here. 

to sechen vnder lufte 1 ! 

lond and godne lauerd. 

Nu fu haefuest iherd lauerd 

100 soS of us furh alle fi[n]g. 

pa awswaerede Vortigerf 

of ale an vfele he wes war. 

Ich ileue f e cniht f 

f fu me sugge so^-riht. 
105 & wulche beo^ aeoure i- 
leuen '. 

f 36 on ileue^. 

& eoure leofue goddf 

fe 36 to luteS 2 . 

pa andswarede Hsenges[t]f 
j I0 cnihtene alre faeirest. 

nis in al f is kine-lond i 

1 MS. Mufte.' 

Forjje wifues gof fare mid 
alse fe deor wilde. [childe f 
bi euereche 3ere ' 
hii gof mid childe fere, 
pat lot on vs ful; 
fat we faren solde. 
ne moste we bi-lefue i 
for life ne for deafe. 

pus hit faref fere f 
far-fore we beof nou here. 

Nou f ou hauest ihord louerd 


sof of vs and no lesing. 
po saide Vortigerf 
fat was wis and swife war. 

And woche beof joure bi- 

leue 5 
fat 3eo an bi-ldfef. 

MS. ' luted.' 


6 9 

cniht swa muchel ne swa 

We habbeS godes gode; 

J>e we luuie^ an ure mode. 

j?a we nabbed hope tof 

& heore'S heom mid 1 mihte. 
an hsehte Phebusf 
o^er Saturn#.r. 
]>ridde haehte Wodewf 
120 -f is an weoli godd. 

J>e feorSe hsehfte] Jupiter i 

of alle J)ige he is war 2 . 

J)e fifte hsehte Mercuric 5 

]?at is 3 ]?e hsehste ouer us. 
125 ]>3e ssexte hsehte Appollin f 

f is a godd wel idon. 

]?e seouee 4 hatte Teruagant i 

an hseh godd in ure lon[d]. 

3et we habbe^ anne Iseuedif 
130 J>e hseh is & maehti. 

heh heo is & hali f 

hired-men heo luuieS for-]?i. 

heo is ihate Fraea '. 

wel heo heom dihte^. 
135 Ah for alle ure goden deore 5 

]>a we scullen hseren. 

Woden hehde ]>a haehste Ia3ef 

an ure selderne dae^en. 

he heom wes leoff 
140 aafne al swa heore lif. 

he wes heore walden f 

We habbe]> godes godef 
j?at we louie^ in mode. 

pe on hatte Phebus '. 
}>e oper Saturnus. 
]>e ]?ri[d]de hatte Woden f 
J>at was a mihti ]?ing. 
J>e feor]?e hatte Jubiterf 
of alle Jnnges he his war. 
J?e fif ]?e hatte Merchuri^ f 
J?at his ]>e hehest ouer vs. 
]>e sixte hatte Appolin f 
]>at his a god of gret win. 
]>e soue]?e hatte Teruagant f 
an heh god in vre lond. 
3et we habbej? an leafdi f 
)>at heh his and mihti. 

360 his i-hote Frea '. 
heredmen hire louiej). 
To alle J>eos godes; 
we worsipe werche]?. 
and for hire loue f 
J>eos da3es we heom ;efue. 
Mone we 3efue moneday i 
Tydea we jefue tisdei. 
Woden we jefue wendesdei f 

1 MS. ' mid mid.' 

2 MS. ' whar.' 
* MS. seo$ueffe.' 

MS. 'us. 1 


and heom wurftscipe duden. 
)?ene feorSe daei i J>ere wike f 
heo 3ifuen him to wurftscipe. 
M5 pa punre heo jiuen ]?ures 

daei f 
for-]?i ]>at heo heom helpen 


Freon heore laefdi '. 
heo 3iuen hire fridaei. 
Saturnus heo 3iuen ssetter- 

150 J>ene Sunne heo jiuen sone- 

Monenen heo 3ifuenen mo- 

nedaei i 

Tidea heo ^euen tisdaei. 
pus seide Hae[n]gest i 
cnihten alre hendest. 
155 pa answerede Voitiger i 
of aelchen vfel he waes waer. 
Cnihtes je beo^ me leofue f 
ah }?as ti^ende me beo^ 


eouwer ileuen beo^ vnwrastef 
1 60 36 ne ileoue^ noht an criste 1 . 
ah 36 ileoueS a )?ene wursef 
]>e godd seolf awariede. 
eoure godes ne beo^ nohtes f 
ia helle heo ni^er ligge^. 
165 Ah neoSeles ich wulle eou 

at-hselde i 

pane |>onre we 3efue Jjorisdai. 
Frea ]?ane fridayf 
Saturnus J?an sateresdai. 

pus saide Hengestf 
cniht alre hendest. 
po answerede Vortigerf 
of alle harme he was war. 
Cnihtes 360 beoj) me leofue f 
ac 3oure bilefues me beoj> 

Ac ich wolle ou at-holde i 

1 MS. ' cristre.' 


an mine anwalde. 

for norS beo^ J>a Peohtes i 

swrSe ohte cnihtes. 

]>e ofte ledeS in mine londe i 

ferde swre stronge. OA/WV-A-* 

& ofte do^ 1 me muchele 

scome i 
h & J>erjore ich habbe grome. 

& 3if 36 me wiille^ wrseken i 

& heore hsefden me bi3eten. 
175 ich eou wullen 3euen lond '. 

muchel seoluer & gold. 

pa andswerede Hxngest f 

cnihtene alre feirest. 

3if hit wulle Saturnus f 
180 al hit seal iwure Jms. 

& Woden ure lauerdf 

J?e we on bi-liue. 

Hengest nom laeue f 

& to scipen gon IrSe. 
j8 5 J>er wes moni cniht strong f 

heo dro3en heore scipew 
uppe ]>e lond. 

For^ wenden dringches ; 

to Vortigerne J>an kenge. 

biuoren wende Hengest f 
190 & Hors him alre hsendest. 

seo^en ]?a Alemainiscemenf 

|?a a^ele weorew an deden. 

& seo&5en heo senden him 

in min anwolde. 

for nor]? beo]> ]?e Peutes* 

swij?e ohte cnihtes. 

J>at ofte doj) me same i 

and ]>ar-ypre ich habbe grame. . 
And 3ef 36 \vollej> me wreke i 
of [hire] wi)>ere dedes. 
ich 3011 wolle 3eue i 
3eftes swij>e deore. 
po saide Hengest f 

al hit sal iworj^e J>us. 

Hengest nam lefuel 
and to sipe gan wende. 
and al hire godesf 
hii beore to londe. 

For]) hii wende alle i 
to Vortiger his halle. 

1 MS. ' dod; 


heore Ssexisce cnihtes wel 

i95 Hengestes cunnesmen i 

of his aldene cud^ew. 

Heo comen in to halle f 

hsendeliche alle. 
J^gt 1 weoren iscrudde i 
200 & bet 2 weoren iusedde. 

Hsengest swaine i 

bene Vortigernes beines. 

pa wes Vortigernes hired f 

for hehne ihalden. 
205 Bruttes weoren saeri 5 

for swulchere isilrSe. 

Nes hit nawiht longe f 

bat ne comen to ban kinge. 

cnihtes sunen uiue i 
210 J>a ifaren hafden biliue. Q.^ 

heo sseiden to ban kinge f 

neowe ti^ewden. 

Nu forS-rihtes f 

icumew beo^ J?a Peohtes. 
215 Jmrh J>i lond heo serne^f 

& hserjieS & berne^. 

& al }>ene nor^ sende f 

iuseld to |>aw gruwde. 

her-of )>u most raedenf 
220 o^er alle we beoS daeden. 

pe king hine bi-J>ohte i 

whaet he don mihte. 

he sende to }>an innen f 

bet 2 weren i-scrud! 
and bet weren ived. 
Hengestes sweines i 
]?ane Vortiger his cnihtes. 

Bruttes weren sorif 
for J>an ilke sihte. . 
Nas noht longe f 
]?at ne come tydinge. 

j>at ])0 forj>-rihtes f 
icomen were ])e Peutes. 
Oueral j?in lond hii erne]) 5 
and slea)> J?in folk and bearnej?. 
and alle ]?ane nor]> ende f 
hii fallej) to }>an gruwde. 
her-of |jou most reade f 
oj^er alle we beo|? deade. 
pe king sende his sonde f 
to |?eos cnihtes inne 3 . 
j?at hii swi]>e sone 5 

MS. bett. f 

MS. bed.' 

MS. hinne.' 


after al his monnen. 
225 per com Hengest j>er com 

J>er com mani 1 mon ful oht. 

}>er corner ]>a Saxisce men.' 

Hengestes cunnes-men. 

& J>a Alemainisce cnihtes i 
230 |?e beo^ gode to fihte. 

)>is isseh ]?e king Vortiger 5 

blrSe wes he fca 2 frer. ? 

pa Peohtes duden heore 
iwune ; fc-v6>n. 

a ]?as haelf ]>ere Humbre 

heo weoren icume. 
235 & J>e king Vortiger i 

of heore cume wes ful war. 

to-gadere heo comen f 

& feole ]>er of-slo^en. 

]?er wes feht swi^e 3 strong i 
240 comp swrSe sturne. 

pe Peohtes weoren ofte 
iwuned f 

Vortigerne to ou^r-cumen. 

& ]>a heo J>ohten a[l]swaf 

ah hit ilomp an o^er ]>a. 
245 for hit wes heom al hele f 

j>at Hsengest wes jjere. 
& J>a cnihtes strongef 
)>e comen of Saxelo;/de. 
& J>a ohte Alemanisce '. 
250 Jje ]?ider comen mid Horse. 

1 MS. 'mini/ 


to him seolue come. 

par com Hengest and his 

broker f 
and manian o]>er. 

|?at ]>e king Vortiger f 

bli]?e was ]?o ]?er. 

pe Peutes dude hire wone i 

a j>is half Vmbre hii were 


And |>e king Vortiger f 
of hire come was war. 
to-gadere hii comen f 
and manie ]?ar of-slojen. 

pe Peutes weren ofte i- 

woned i 

Vortiger to ouercome. 
and )>o i]?ohten al so f 
ac hit bi-ful oj?erweies J?o. v*- 
for hii hadde mochel caref 
for Hengest was J?are. 

MS. J>a 

8 MS. swide.' 



swie monie Peohtes f 

heo slo3en i j>an fehte. 

feondliche heo fuhten i 

feollen ]?a faeie. 
2 55 pa j;e non wes icumen ; 

J?a weoren Peohtes ouer- 

& swu^e heo awsei flo;en f 

an seiche halue 1 heo for$ 

& alle dai heo flujenf 
260 monie & vnnifc>3e. 

pe king Vortigernef 

wende to herbep^e^i^^rJUA* 

& seuere him weorew on- 

Hors & Haengest. 
265 Hsengest wes |>an 
I ' leoff 

& him Liodesa^e 3ef. 

'and he joef^Jlorse' 

madmes ino^e. 

& alle heore cnihtesf 
270 he swrSe wel dihte. 

& hit gode stuwdef 

stod a ]>an like. 

Ne durste nauere Peohtes 2 .' 

cumen i ])an londes. 
275 no rseueres no utla^en f 

^ heo neoren sone of-slaejen. 

& Haengest swrSe faeire i 


for swi|?e manie Peutes f. 
hii slo3en in ])an fihte. 

po ]>at non was icome f 
}?o were. Peutes ouer-come. 

and swtye hii awey flojef 
on euereche side. 

And Vortiger ]?e king f 
wende aen to his hin. 

and to Hengest an[d] his 

cnihtes i 
he ;ef riche jeftes. 

Ne dorste neuere Peutes f 

come in J>isse londe. 

]?at hii nere sone of-sla3ef 

and idon of Hfda3e. 

and Hengest swi})e hendelichef 

MS. helue.' 

2 MS. 'Peohtestes.' 



herede ]>ane king. 

pa ilomp hit in ane time f 
280 -p jje king \ves swKe blie. 

an ane haeje dseie '. 

imong his du^je'Se monnen. 

Hengest hine bi-]?ohte f 

what he don mihte. 
285 for he wolde wiS ]?an ki/zge f 

holder runi;/ge. 

J>an kinge he code to-foren f 

& fseire hine gon greten. 

pe king sone up stod i 
290 & ssette hine bi him seoluen. 

heo drunken heo dremden '. 

blisse wes among heom. 

pa que'S Hengest to }>an 

kinge f 

y Lauerd haercne ti^ende. 
295 & ich ]>e wulle rsecchen f 

deorne runen. 

jif ]?u mine lare i 

wel wult lusten. 

& noht halden to wra&e ' 
300 ]>at ich wel leare. 

pe king answarede i 

swa Henges[t] hit wolde. 

pa sseide Hsengesti 

cnihten alre faeirest. 

Lauerd ich habbe moni a 

J?ine monscipe ihae^ed. 

& }>in holde mon ibeow f 

i richen Jnne hirede. 

cwemde j?an kinge. 

po hit bi-ful in on time f 

}>at ]>e king was swi]?e blij>e. 

Hengest wolde wij? J>an kinge f 
holde rou[n]ing. 
]?ane kinge he come bi-vore i 
and faire hine grette. 

po saide Hengest- to fan 

kinge i 

Louerd hercne tydinge. 
and ich J>e wolle tellef 
of deorne rouniwges. 
3ef |?ou mine lore i 
wel wolt i-hure. 
and noht holde to wra)>J>e i 
jef ich ]>e wel leore. 
And ]>e king answerede i 
alse Hengest hit wolde. 


in seiche fsehte f 
310 hsehst of jjine cnihtew. 

& ich habbe ofte ihserdf 

hohfulle ronenen. 

imong ]?ine hired-monnen f 

heo hatieS ]?e swrSe. 
315 in to ]?an bare dae^e f 

3if heo hit dursten cirSe. 

Ofte heo stilleliche 1 spsekeS f 

& spilie^S mid runen. 

of twam juTzge monnen f 
320 }>at feor wunie^ hennen. 

]>e an hsehte Vther i 

J>e o^er Ambrosie. 

\>e Jjridde haehte Co[n]stance i 

]?es wes-king i )>isse lond. 
325 & he her wes of-sla3en i 

}>urh swicfulle lajen.^oU 

Nu wulle^ cume ]>a o^ere .' 

& wrseken heore broker. 

al forbsernen ]>i londi 
330 & slaen ]?ine leoden. 

]>e seoluen & ]?ine duse^en i 

driuen ut of londe. 

& jjus sugge^ j?ine men i 

]>er heo somned sitteS. 
335 for ]?a twene bro^ere i 

beo^ beyne kine-borne. 

of Androeinnes kunne i 

Jjas a^ele Bruttes. 

& ]?us J?ine di^e'Sef 

Louerd ofte ich habbe ihord : 

among ]>ine cnihtes. 
J>at hii J>e hatie]? swi|?e f 
into ]?are bare deathe. 

Ofte hii stille speke}>. 
of tvro jonge cheldrew. 

]?e on hatte Vther 5 

J?e ojjer Aurelie. 

J>e fridde hehte Constance f 

}>at }>ou dedest to dea}>e. 

Nou wolle)> come ]>e oj>erf 
and wreken hire broker. 
al for-bearne ]>i lond .' 
and slean ]?ine leode. 

and Jnis seggej? ]?ine menf 
stille bi-t\vine heom. 

1 MS. ' stilledliche.' 



340 stille pe fordeme^ 1 . 

Ah ich pe wulle raedef 

of muchele pire neode. 

f pu bisite cnihtes 2 i 

pa gode beo^ to fihte. 
345 & bi-tache me senne castel '. 

oer ane kineliche burh. J 

pat ich mai inne ligge i 

pa while pa ich libbe. 

Ic am uor pe iuaidf 
35 peer- fore ic wene beon daed. 

fare per ic auer fare 5 

nsem ich naeuere bute care. 

buten ich ligge faste i 

biclused inne castle. 
355 3if pu pis me wult don 5 

ich hit wulle mid luue a-fon. 

& ich wulle 

senden after mine wiue. 

J?at is a Sexisc wimmonf 
360 of wisdome wel idon. 

& after Rou\ve;me i mire 
dohter f 

J5e me is swrSe deore. 

penne ich habbe mi wiff 

& mine wine-maies. 
365 & ich beo i ]>ine londe i 

fulliche at-stonde. 

pa bet ich wullen hiren p>e '. 

jif pu ]?is jettest me. 

pa answerede Vortiger i 

Ac ich pe wolle reade f 
of mochele pine neode. 
pat pou bi-^ete cnihtes 5 
pat gode beon to fihte f 
and bi-tak me one castel 5 

pat ich mai on wonie. 

For ich ham for pe i-veiped i 
pat ich wene beo dead. 
pare ware ich euere varef 
nam ich neuere boute care. 
bote ihc ligge faste '. 
bi-clused in on castle. 
3ef pou pis woldes don f 


1 MS. ' fordemed.' 

mi wif solde come sone. 

and mi dohter Rowennei 
and moche of mine cunne. 

Wan we pos beop in londe '. 
folliche at-stonde. 
pe bet we wollep cweme pe f 
5ef pou pis wolt grand me. 
po answerede Vortiger 5 

2 MS. ' cnihtest.' 



370 of selchen vuele he wes war. 

Nim cnihtes biliue' 

& send setter ]>ine wiue. 

& sefter ]>ine children! 

J>an 3u#gen & ]?an olden. 
375 & sefter ]>ine cunnen f 

& afeoh heom mid wunne. 

]>enne heo to J?e cume^ f 

Jm sca[l]t habben gsersume. 

hsehliche heom to uedew f 
380 & wur5liche scruden. 

Ah nulle ich castel na burh f 

nane )>e bi-techen. / 

for men me wolden scenden f 

i mine kine-lond 1 . 
385 for 56 haldeS )>a hse^ene 

]>at stod on eoure selderen 

& we haldeS cristes la^e i 

& wiilleS auere an ure dseje. 

pa 5et spaec Haengestf 
390 cnihten alre hendest. 

Lauerd ich wulle |?in iwilf 

dri3e her & ouer-al. 

& don al mine dsedef 

sefter )>ine rsede. 
395 Nu ic wulle biliue f 

sende after mine wiue. 

& sefter mire dohteri 

]>e me is swa deore. 

|>at of ech vuele was war. 
Nim cnihtes swij?e f 
and send after J>ine wifue. 
and after ]>ine children' 
\>Q 5ong and J?e heoldre. 
and after J>ine cunne 5 [ne. 
and onderfang heom mid win- 
wane hii to }>e comej? ' 
\>ou salt habbe garisome. 
hehliche heom to fede f 
and worjiliche to scrude. 
Ac nelle ich castel ne borh '. 
nanne J^ bi-ta^e. 
for men me wolde sende f 
in mine kinelonde. 
3ef ich he]?ene men f 

londes bi-toke. 

pe 3et spac Hengest i 
cniht alre hendest. 
Louerd nou ich wolle f 
don al J>ine wille. 

Nou ich wolle bliue f 
sende after mine wifue. 

1 MS. ' kinc kine-load.' 



& setter ohte mownen f 
400 }>a bezste of mine cimm 
and ]>u $if me swa muchel 

lond f 
to stonden a mire ajere 


swa wule anes bule hude i 
seiches weies ouer-spraeden. 
05 feor from seiche castle i 
amidden ane ualde. 
penwe ne mai |>e atwite i 
}>Q haene ne j?e riche. 
jj jm sei hsehne burhje f 
410 hse^ene monne habbe bi- 


pe king him i3ettef 
swa Hengest jirnde. 
Hengest nom Iseuef 
& for^ he gon lre. 
415 & sefter his wiue sende 

sonde 5 

to his a^ene lowde. 
& he seolf wende jeond j?is 

to sechen senne brse[d]ne 


]>er he mihte wel sproedef 
420 on his feire hude. 

He com sen enne endef 
in enne faeire uelde. 
he hafde ane hudef 
bijite to his neode. 
125 o ane wilde bule f 

and ]?ou ;ef me so mochel 

to stonde on min owe hond. 

ase wole a bole hude f 
in grene ouer-sprede. 
for fram eche castle f 
a-midde one felde. 
panne ne mai ]>e atwite i 
]?e pore no ]>e riche. 
J>at J)ou eni heh borh i 
he]?ene man bi-takest. 

And ]>e king him 3aff 
J>at lutel ]?at he jornde. 
Hengest nam lefue i 
and for]> he gan \vende. 
and after his wifue he sende 

sonde f 

to his owene londe. 
and him seolf wende f 

oueral to bi-holde. 

ware he mihte wel sprede f 
his bole hude. 



pe wes wunder ane strong. 

He haefden senne wisne 

pe wel cue a craften. 

pe nom pas hude 5 
430 & a bord leide. 

and whaette his saeresf 

alse he schaeren wolde. 

Of pere hude he kaerf enne 
J>wong '. 

swiSe smal 1 & swie long. 
435 nes pe pwong noht swrSe 

buten swulc a twines praed. 

pa al islit wes pe ]>ongf 

he wes wunder ane long. 

a-buten he bilsede i 
440 muche del of londe. 

He bigon to deluenf 

die swrSe muchele. 

]?er-uppe stenene waif 

]?e wes strong ouer al. 
445 ane burh he arerde f 

muchele & mare. 

pa pe burh wes 2 al 5arel 

pa scop he hire nome. 

he hsehte heo ful iwis '. 
450 Kaer-Carrai an Bruttisc. 

& ^Englisce cnihtesf 

heo cleopeden pwong-Chas- 



1 MS. swal.' 

Hengest hadde one wisne 

man .' 

J>at wel coupe of crafte. 
he nam peos bole hude.' 
and a-borde laide. 

par- of he makede ane pwang i 

swipe smal and swipe lang, 
nas pe pwang noht brodf 

bote ase hit were a twined 

a-boute par-mid he leide 5 
moche deal of londe. 
He lette po deluef 
on euerech halue. 
par vppe stonene waif 
swipe strong oueral. 
ane castel he arerde f 
fair to bi-holde. 
po pe borh was al 3aruf 
po sette he hire name, 
he hehte hire foliwis f 
Cayr-Karri in Bruttesse. 
and Englisse cnihtesf 

2 MS. 'weL ? 



nu and auere mare ' 
]>e nome sto[n]de^ ]>ere. 

455 & for nan o^ere 1 gome f 
nseueden J>ae burh ]?ene nome, 
a ]>et come Densce men i 
and driuen ut J>a Bruttes. 
]?ene j^ridde nome heo ]>er 
saette f 

460 & Lane-castel hine haehten. 
& for swulche gomenf 
J>x tun hafde }>as ]>reo no- 

Vnderjan com lien hider 5 
Hengesteswif mid hire scipen. 

465 heo hsefde to iueren f 
fiftene hundred 2 rider[e]n. 
mid hire comew to iwiten i 
muchele sehtene scipen. 
J>er comen inne f 

470 muchel of Hengestes cunne. 
& Rouwew his dohterf 
Jje him wes swi^e 3 deore. 
Hit wes umbe-while i 
'{Lcojca J>e like time., [ 

ff i5arked wes J>a burlii/ 
mid ]?an alre bezste. 
He^gest com to )>an kinge f 
& bad him gistninge. 
& seide he hafde an in '. 
480 ijarked to-^eines him. 

& bad |>at he come J>er-to! 

nou and euere more f 
J>e name stondej) ]>are. 

forte }?at Den[s]ce men J 
driuen vt ]>e cnihtes. 
}>ane j?ridde name ]?ar sette 5 
and Leane-castel hine cleop- 

Vnder ]>an com lijje hider f 
Hengestes wif mid hire sipes. 

jeo hadde to ivere f 
fiftene hundred rideres. 

**$" < ' * / 

and Rowen his dohter f 
jjat was him swij>e deore. 
Hit was bi on wile i 
Jat com J>e ilke time. 
}>at i-jarked was J>e borhf 
mid ]>an alre beste. [kingei 
and Hengest wende to jjan 
and bad hine to gystniwge. 
and seide J>at he hadde on inJ 
hj-makede to-jenes him. 

1 MS. ' odcre.' 
VOL. I. 
lv * -^-- j\ JL\ ^ 'L 


he scolde beon faeire 

& ]>e king him 5ette f 

swa Hengest hit wolde. 
485 Hit com to )>an time f 

f J>e king gon for$ lie. 

mid J>an deoreste monnen i 

of alle his d^e^e. 

forS he gon bu^en i 
490 f he to burh com. 

he bi-heold ]>ene waif 

up and dun ouer-al. 

al him wel likede f 

f he on lokede. 
495 He wende in to halle f 

& his hele^es mid him alle. 

bemen heo bleowen i 

gome men gunnen cleopien. 

bord heo hetten bredenf 
500 cnihtes setten ]?er to. 

heo seten heo drunken i 

draem wes i burhjen, 

]?a j^e di^e'Se hafde ijeten f 

]?a wes heom ]>a bet iloten. 
55 Haengest code in to J?ari 

jjer wunede Rouwenne. 
he heo lette scrudenf 
mid vnimete prude, 
al f scrud J>e heo hafde on i 
510 heo weoren swrSe wel ibon. 

And ]>e king him grantedef 
alse Hengest wolde. 

For]) hii gonne wende f 
]>at hii come to ]?an ende. 
J?e king bi-heold J>ane waif 
vp and dun oueral. 
al him wel likede 5 
]?at he on lokede. 
He wende in to halle f 
and his cnihtes mid him alle. 

bordes hii lette spre4ei 
cnihtes J?ar to sete. 
hii eoten hii drongken f 
blisse was a-mang heom. 

Hengest wede to ]?e inwef 

]?ar Rowenne was inne 1 . 
he hire lette scrude .< 
mid onimete prude. 

1 MS. 'hinne.' 


heo weoren mid ]?an bezste' 

ibrusted mid golde. 

Heo bar an hire hondef 

ane guldene bolle. 
515 i-uulled mid wine f 

]>e wes wunder ane god. 

Hseje ibore;me meni 

heo Isedden to hallen. 

biuoren ]>an kinge f 
520 fairest 1 alre ]>inge. \ 

Reowen saet a cneowef 

& cleopede to ]>an kinge. 

& ]>us serest sseide i 

in ^Englene londe. 
525 Lauerd king wses hseil f 

for ]>ine kime ich sem uaein. 

pe king ]>is ihserdef 

& nuste what heo seide. 

]?e king Vortigerne i 
530 fraeinede his cnihtes sone. 

what weoren J?at spechef 

J?e f maide spilede. 

pa andswerede Keredicf 

a cniht swrSe sellic. 
535 he wes }>e bezste latimer i 

]>at ser com her. 

Lust me nu lauerd kingf 

& ich )>e wulle cu^en. 

whset serS Rouwenne5 
540 feeirest wimmonnen. 

Hit beo$ ti^ende f 

5eo bar in hire hondf 
ane goldene bolle. 
hi- fulled mid wine i 
ne mihte non be richere. 
Hehje ibore mew f 
hire ladde in to halle. 
bi-vore ]?an kinge f 
fairest alle J>ing. v. 
Rowenne sat a cnouwe '. 
and seide to J>a kinge. 
})us erest 360 spac ' 
in Englene lond. 
Louerd king wassayl f 
for ]nne comes me beo]> hail. 
pe king hit ihordef 
and nuste wat 360 saide. 
jje king Vortigerne f 
haxede his cnihtes. 
wat were ]>e spechef 
J>at )>e maide speke. 
po answerede KeJ)erehf 
cniht mid ]>e wisest. 
he was ]?e beste latimer i 
j?at euere wone[de] her. 
Lust nou mi louerd king f 
and ich J>e wolle cuSen. 
wat sei]> Rowenne f 
fairest of al wommanne. 
Hit is 2 ]?e wonef 

1 MS. < farrest.' 

2 MS. his. 

G 2 

8 4 


inne Saexe-londe. 

whser swa sei 

gladie^of drenche. " 
545 ]>at freond ssefee to freonde? 

mid faeire loten hende. 

Leofue freond waes hailf 

}>e oer sserS drinc hail. 

pe ilke ]>at halt pene napi 
550 he hine drinke^ up. 

o^er 3 uul me }?ider fate^f 

& bi-teche^ 4 his iuere;/. 

penne j?at uul beoS icumenl 

)>enne cusseo^ heo preoien. 
555 pis beo^ sele lajen i 

inne Saxe-londe. 

& inne Alemainef 

heo beo^ ihalden aele. 

pis iherde Uortigerf 
560 of alchen 5 uuele he wes war. 

& seide hit an Bruttisc i 

ne cue he nan ^Englisc. 

Maiden Rouwenne i 

drinc blu^eliche ]?enne. 
565 pat maide drone up |>at winf 

& lette don oer j?er-in. 

& bi-taehten ]?an kinge i 

& prien hine custe. 

& ]>urh ]>a ilke leode;/ ! 
570 ]?a lajen comen to ]?issen 

ine Saxe-londe. 

j>at freond sai}> to his freond f 
wane he sal drinke 1 . 
Leofue- freond wassail i 
]>e o|>er saij) dringhail. 
pe ilke |>at halt |>ane nap 1 
J>ane drinke drink)? 2 vp. 
and a3eo me hine ful)> i 
and take]) his ivere. 

pis beo]> )>e lawesf 
ine Saxlonde. 

pis ihorde Vortiger i 
of eche vuele he was war. 
and saide hit on Bruttesse f 
ne cou]?e he noht on Englisse. 
Mayde Rowenne f 
dring blo]?eliche fanne. 
pat maide dronk 6 vt J>at win f 
and lette don o]?er j?ar-in. 
and bi-tahte j?an kinge i 
and he hit vp swipte. 
And ]?orh }>isne ilke game .' 
]?e lawe come to londe. 

1 MS. ' dringe.' 
MS. ' bi-thecheS.' 

2 MS. ' dringe drmg>.' 
5 MS. 'alchel.' 

3 MS. ' oder/ 
6 MS. 'drong. 


wses-hail & drinc-hxilf 

moni mon per-of is fain. 

Rouwenne pe hende 5 

sat bi pan kinge. 
575 pe king heo jeorne biheold f 

heo was him an heorte leof. 

ofte he heo custef 

ofte he heo clupte. 

al his mod & his mainf 
580 halde to pan masidene. 

pe wurse wes per ful neh f 

pe in seiche gomene is ful 

pe wurse ne dude nxuere 

he mseingde pas kinges 

585 he murnede ful swie f 

to habben pat maeidew to 

pat wes swie 2 ladlic ]^ing i 

|>at ]?e cristine king. 

luuede ]>at ha^ene maide i 
590 leoden to hserme. 

f maiden wes J?an kinge 

eefne alse his a;ene lif. 

he bad Hengest his dring '. 

3iuen him ]>at maide-child.' 
595 Hewgest funde an his raed i 

to don f pe king him bed; 

wassayl and drink'-haylf 
j?at mani men lofuiej?. 
pe faire Rowennei 
sat bi pan kinge. 
]?e king hire 5eorne bi-heold f 
jeo was him leof on heorte. 
ofte he hire custe f 
and ofte he hire clupte. 

pe worse was pare wel neh 5 
pat to soche game his wel 

pe worse pat neuere ne dop 

he meynde pare pes kinges 


pe king mornede swipe f 
for habbe hire to wifue. 

pat was swipe loplich pingf 
pat pe cristene king, 
louede pat maide heapene i 
folk to harme. 

To Hengest bad pe kingf 
pat he pat maide ;efue him. 
Hengest funde on his reade i 
don pat pe king him beade. 

1 MS. ' dring-hayl. 

MS. 'swide. 5 

86 vi. LA^AMON'S BRUT. 

he jef him Rouwenne 5 he jef him Rowenne f 

wimmon swrSe hende. womman swife hende. 

pan kinge hit was [icweme] i pane king hit was icweme i 

600 he makede heo to quene. he makede hire to cwene. 

al after J>an lajen i al 'after \>Q lawes i 

)>e stoden an hse^efne] daejen. ]?at stode in heaj>ene dai5e. 

~ A' 
$^> *j\**z. " 

/ ^r t^rs^J^ 

r Xii <v^ v fvs j^ tcJ^ L/v* 


: ^Tff' v ~7 *7J **+* 






ABOUT 1 2 10. 

* SAWLES WARDE' is the title of a Homiletic treatise contained 
in several MSS. (Bodleian 34; Royal 17 A 27; Titus D. 18). 
It has been ascribed to the authpr of the ' Ancren Riwle,' ' Hali 
Meidenhad' (Bodleian MS. 34; Cott. MS. Titus D. 18), ' pe 
Wohunge of Ure Lauerd' (Cott. MS. Titus D. 18); and the 
Lives of St. Juliana, St. Marharete, and St. Katherine (Bodl. MS. 
34; Royal MS. 17 A 27). 

The author of all these productions, which belong to a 
period not much later than La^amon's Brut, is unknown. The 
dialect is Southern, with a slight admixture of Midland forms!**** 

For a fourteenth-century version of this piece by Dan Michel 
of Canterbury, see * Specimens of Early English,' Part II. p. 98. 

The following extract is taken from * Old English Homilies,' 
First Series, pp. 245 to 249, 1. 3 ; and p. 259, 1. 2, to p. 267. 


Si sciret paterfamilias qua horafur ueniurus esset / vigilaret 
niiqiie et non sineret perfodi domum suam. 7re lau^rd i ]?e 
godspel teache'S us J>urh abisne. hu we ahen wearliche to 
biwiten us seoluen wrS ]>e unwiht of helle. ant wrS his 
wrenches 1 . $ef ]?es lauml 2 wiste he serS hwenne ant hwuch 5 
time. )>e ]?eof walde cume to his bus f he walde wakien. ne 
he nawt J?olien pe ]?eof forte breoken hire, pis hus ]?e 

MS. ' wernches.' a Royal and T. ' J;e husebonde.' 

88 vii. SOUL'S WARD. 

ure lau^rd 1 speke^ off is seolf |>e mon inwrS ]>e monnes wit. 
I j)is bus. is J>e huse lau^rd. ant te fulitohe wif '. mei beon wil 

10 ibaten. \at ga ]?e bus efter bire f ha diht hit al to wundre. 
bute wit ase lau<?rd cbasti hire }>e betere. ant bi-neome hire 
muchel of 2 \ai ha walde. ant tah walde al hire bird folhin 
hire ouer-alf gef wit ne forbude barn, for alle hit 3 beo^ 
untohene. ant rechelese hinen f bute jef he ham rihte. Ant' 

15 hwucche beo^ ]>eos hinen; Suwme beo^ wi^-vten. ant 
suwme wi^-in-nen. )>eo 4 wrS-vten beo^. ]?e monnes fif wittes. 
Sih^e. ant heruge. smechunge. ant smeallunge. ant euch 
limes felunge. ]?eos beoS hinen vnder wit. as under huse 
lau^rd. ant hwer-se he is jemeles i nis hare nan ]?e ne feared 

20 ofte untoheliche. aw/gulteS ilome. o^er ifol semblantf o^er 5 
in vuel dede. In-wrS beo^ his hinen. in se moni mislich 
]?onc to cwemen wel }>e husewiff ajein godes wille. ant 
swerie^ somet rea^liche. \at eft^r hire hit schal gan. |>ah we 
hit ne here nawt f we mahen ifelen hare nurrrS. ant hare 

25 untohe bere. a-}>et 6 hit cume forS. ant ba wrS eie. ant wi^S 
luue tuhte ham J>e bet^re. Ne br neau<?r his bus for ]?eos o 1 
hinen wel iwist. for hwon \at he slepe. o$er ohwider [fare] 7 
from hame. \at is hwen mon forjet his wit. ant let ham 
iwurSen. ah ne bihaue^ hit nawt. \at tis bus beo irobbet. for 

30 ]>er is inne ]?e tre[sur] \at godd 3ef him seolf fore. \at is 
monnes sawle. forte breoke ]>is bus efer |?is tresor. \at godd 
bohte mid his deaS. ant lette lif o rode f is moni ]>eof a-buten 
ba bi dei ant bi niht. vnseheliche gasttes wiS alle unwreaste 
Jjeawes. ant ajein euch god ]>eaw. J)e biwiteS ij?is bus godes 

35 deore castel 8 . vnder wittes wissunge \at is huse lau^rd. is 
eau^r hire unj?eaw forte sechen in-jong abute ]^e wahes to a- 
mur^rin hire ]jrinne. \at heaued ]?rof is }>G feont. ]?e meistre^ 

1 MS. lauerS.' 2 R. ' ofte of.' 3 R. ' ha.' 

* R. ' }>eos.' 5 MS. oder.' 6 Titus ' til J>at.' 

7 From R. and T. 8 R. * chatel.' 


ham alle a5eines him ant his keis. \z husebonde \at is wit. 
warned his hus ]>us. vre lau^rd haue^ ileanett him fowre 1 
of his dehtren. \at becrS to vnderstonden ]?e fowr heaued 40 
peawes. ]?e earste is warschipe icleopet. ant te o]>er is ihaten 
gastelich streng^e. anfte ]>ridde is mea^. rihlwisnesse j^e feore. & - 
Wit J^e husbonde godes cunestable cleopeS war-schipe forS. 
ant makrS hire durewart. ])e warliche loki hwam ha leote in 
ant ut. ant of feor bihalde alle ]>e cuminde. hwuch beo wure 45 
injong to habben f oer beon bistekew j?rute. Streng^e 
stont nest hire. \at jef ei wule in f warschipes vn-ponkes. 
\varni streng^e fore. \at is hire suster f ant heo hit ut warpe. 
\Q j^ridde suster \at is mea^. hire he make^ meistre ouer 
his wfllesfule hirde 2 \at we ear of speken. \at ha leare harp 50 ,; 
mete. \at me meosure hat. }>e middel of twa uueles 3 . for \at \fr^ 
is )?eaw in euch stude ant tuht forte halden. ant hate^ ham k&^\ 
alle \at nan of ham a^ein hire i nohwer wi^ vnineo^ f ne ga 
ouer mete. ]>e feor^e suster rihtwisnesse. sit horn nest 4 as 
deme. ant beate^ J>eo ]>e ajulte^. ant crunch J?eo |?e wel do^. 55 
ant deme'S euchan his dom efter his rihte. for dred 6 of hire 
nime^ j)is 6 hirde 7 euch efter \at he is warde to witene. J>e 
n_hare. |?e mu^ his. ]>e earen hare. j>e hondon hare, ant 
euch alswa of j>e o]?re wit[es] 8 \at onont him ne schal nan 
un-J?eaw cumen in. . . . 60 

Description of Heaven. 

^fercnig nu }>enne he sei^. ant 3eornliche understondeS. 
[I]ch am mur^es sonde. ant munegunge of eche lif. ant 
Hues luue i-haten ant cume riht from heouene \at ich habbe 
isehen nu ant ofte ear ]?e blisse \at na monnes tunge ne mei 

1 MS. ' froure.' 2 MS. ' hirS." 3 R. ' Jing.' 

* MS. 'on best'; T. 'horn nest.' 5 MS.' dret.' 

6 MS. ' his' ; R. ' >is.' 7 MS. ' hirS.' 

6 MS. ' wit* ; T. ' wites* ; R. ' wift \>at wit.' 

90 vn. SOUL'S WARD. 

6.5 of tellen. ]?e iblescede godd iseh ow offruhte. ant sumdel 

ndrupnin 1 of \at fearlac talde of dea^. ant of helle. ant sende 
me to gleadien ow. nawt for-]n \at hit ne beo al so^ \at he 
seide. ant ]>at schulen alle uuele fondin. ant ifinden. Ah 56 
wrS ]>e fulst of godd ne jmrue na J>ig dreden for he sit on 

7 heh \at is ow on helpe. ant is al-wealdent \at haue^ ow to 

witene. A ser$ warschipe welcume Hues. luue. ant for ]>e 

luue of godd seolf jef ]>u eauer sehe him I tele us sumhwet 

, yuof him. ant of his eche blisse. 36 iseo'S quod liues luuef 

MurSdes 2 sonde. Ich habbe isehen him ofte nawt tah alswa 

75 as he is f for ^em J>e brihtnesse ant te liht of his leor. ]>e 
sunne gleam is dose, ant JmncheS a schadewe. ant for-]n ne 
mahte ich nawt a3ein ]>e leome of his wlite lokin ne bihalden i 
bute Jmrh a schene schawere 3 bituhhe me ant him \at schilde 
mine ehnen. Swa ich habbe ofte isehen J>e hali j?ru;messe. 

80 feader ant sune. a/hali gast. J>reo an[t] unto-dealet. ah lutle 
hwile ich mahte ]?olie ]>e leome. ah suwmes weis ich mahte 
bihalden ure lau^rd ih^u cnst godes sune \at bohte us o 
rode. Hu he sit blisful on his feader riht half \ai is al- 
wealdent rixle'S i \at eche lif bute linnunge. se unimete 

85 feier i \at te engles ne beoS neau^r ful on him to bihalden. 
ant jet ich iseh etscene 4 }>e studen of his wunden. ant hu he 
schawe^ ham his feader to orSen hu he luuede us ant\m. 
he wes buhsum to him ]?e sende him swa to alesen us ant 
biseche^ him a for mowcu;mes heale. Efter him ich iseh on 

90 heh o\ier alle heouenliche [weordes] 5 ]?e eadi meiden his 
moder marie i-nowgnet sitten in a trone se swrSe briht wi^ 6 ~) 
jimmes i-stirret. ant hire wlite ^se weoleful. 7 ]>a/euch eorSlich ^ 
liht f is ]?eoster ]>e[r]-o-3eines. ]?ear ich iseh as ha bit hire 
deore-wurSe sune se jeornliche. ant se inwardliche for ]?eo \at 

1 R. 'durcnin.' 2 MS. 'Murhdes.' s R. ' schadewe.' 

* R. ' e'Bsene.' 5 From T. 6 MS. ' wid.' 7 R. meinful.' 


hire serurS. ant he hire setteS. blrSeliche l al \at ha bi-secheS. 95 
pet liht fa ich ne mahte lengre folien f Ich biseh to fe engles 
ant to fe archangles and to the o^re f }>e beo^ buuen ham. 
iblescede gastes f e beo'S a biuore godd ant serurS him eau<?r. 
ant singed a unwerjeS. Nihe wprdes fer beo^. ah hu ha 
beo^ i-ordret ant sunderliche isette. f e an buue fe o^re. ant 100 
euchanes meoster were long to tellen. Se muche murh'Se 
ich hefde oft hare of? sihrSe i \at ne mahte ich longe hwile 
clles hwider lokin. Efter ham ich iseh towart te pa/riarches 
ant te prophefes J?e makie^ 2 swuch murrrSe \at ha aren/iiirSe 
i \at ilke lont of blisse \at ha hefden of feor igre[rSe]t ear 105 
on eore ant seo^ mi al \at iso^et. \at ha hefden longe ear 
icwiddet of ure lau^rd as he hefde ischawed haw i gastelich 
sih'tie. Ich iseh ])e apostles [fat weren] poure. ant lah on 
eorSe. ifullet ant bi3Oten al of unimete blisse sitten i trones. 
ant al under hare uet \at heh is i ]?e worlde. jarowe forte de- no 
men i ]>e dei of dome kinges ant keiseres. ant alle cunreadnes 
of alle cunnes ledenes. Ich biheolt te Martyrs, ant hare uni- 
mete murlrSe J>e foleden her pinen. ant dea^ for ure lau^rd. 
ant lihtliche talden to alles cunnes neowcins. ant eor^liche 
tintreohen ajeines J>e blisse \at godd in hare heorte schawede 115 
ham to cumene. Efter ham ich biheolt ]>e cunfessurs hird 
]>e liueden igod lif. ant haliche deiden. J>e schine^ as do^ 
steorren ife eche blissen. ant seoS godd in his wlite \at 
haue^ alle teares iwipet of hare ehnen. Ich iseh \at schene. 
ant \at brihte ferreden of \>e eadi meidnes ilikest towart 120 
engles. ant feolohlukest wr5 ham blissin ant gleadien. j>e 
libbinde iflesche ou^rga^ flesches lahe ant ou^rcume^ cunde 
fe leaded heouenlich lif in eorSe as ha wuniefc hare murh^e. 
ant hare blisse. ]?e feierlec of hare wlite. fe swetnesse of 
hare songf ne mei na tunge tellen. Alle ha singed ]>e fer 125 

1 MS. 'blideliche/ 2 MS. makied.' 


becxS. Ah hare song ne mahe nane buten heo singen. Se 

swote smul ham folhe^ hwider se ha wended. \at me mahte 

? libben aa bi J?e swotnesse. hwam se heo biseche^ fore .' is 

J sikerliche iborhen. for a3ein hare bisocnen i godd him seolf 

i 30 arise'S \at alle be o^re halhen sittende ihere^. Swre wel 
qud$ warschipe likeS us \at tu seist. Ah nu J>u hauest se wel 
iseid l of euch a setnesse i of be seli sunder-lepes sumhwet 
sei us nu hwuch blisse is to alle iliche meane i ant Hues luue 
hire ondswerefc. pe imeane blisse is seouenfald. leng^e of lif. 

'35 wit. ant luue. ant of be luue a gleadunge. wrS-ute met murie. JJ 

loft-song, ant lihtschipe. ant sikernesse. is be seoue^e. bah 

ich ]>is serS warschipe sumdel understonde ' |m most unwreo 

J?is witerluker ant openin to ]?eos o^re. ant hit schal beon 

/sei^ Hues luue warschipe as ]?u wilnesty Ha liuie^ a in 

140 a wlite. \at is brihtre seoueualde. ant schenre ]>en ]?e sunne. 
ant eau^r in a streng^e to don buten euch swine al \at ha 
wulle^. ant eau^r mare in a steal in al \at eauer god is wi- 
ute wonunge. wi^-uten euch J)ing ]?^/ mahe hearmin o^er 
eilin. in al \at eawr is. softe o^er swote. ant hare lif is godes f+ 

145 sih^e. ant godes cnawlechunge as ure lau^rd seide. \at 
is qwod he eche lif to seon ant cnawen so^ 2 godd. ant 
him \at he sende ihwu crist ure lau^rd to ure alesnesse ant 
beo^ for-])i ilich him i]>e ilke wlite ]?a/ he is. for ha seo$ him 
as he is. nebbe to nebbe. Ha beo^ se wise \at ha witen 

150 alle godes reades. his runes ant his domes pe derne beo^. 
ant deopre J>en eni sea dingle, ha seo^ i godd alle jnng. ant 
witen of al \at is ant wes ant eau^r schal iwurden. hwet 
hit beo. hwi. ant hwerto ant hwer of hit bigunne 3 . Ha luuieS 
god wr-ute met. for \at ha understonde^ hu he haue^ bi 

155 ham idon ]>urh his muchele godlec ant hwet ha ahen his 
deorewure 4 milce to 5elden. ant euch an luue^ oer ase 

1 MS. iseiS.* 2 MS. * sod.' s R. biginnc.* 

* MS. ' deorewurdc.' 


muchel as him seoluen. Se gleade ha beo^ of godd i \at 
al is hare blisse. se muchel \at ne mei hit munne na rmr$. 
ne spealie na speche for-bi \at euchan luue^ oer as him 
seoluen. Euchan haue^ of o^res 1 god ase muche murrrSe 160 
as of his ahne. bi bis je mahen seon ant witen. \at euchan 
haueS sunderlepes ase feole gleadschipes '. as ha beo^ 2 monie 
alle. ant euch of be ilke gleadschipes is to eau^r-euch-an ase 
muche gleadunge i as his ahne sunderliche. 3et ouer al bis. 
hwen euchan luue^ godd mare ben him seoluen. ant ben 165 
alle be o'Sre 3 '. mare he gleade^ of godd wrS-uten ei etlunge 
ben of his ahne gleadunge. ant of alle be o^res. ^ Neome'S 
i nu benne jejne jef nearar anes heorte ne mei in hire und- 
eruon hire ahne gleadunge sunderliche iseide. so unimete 
' muchel is be[n]* anlepi blisse. \at ha mmeS in hire ]ms 170 
I monie. ant jms muchele. for-])i seide ure lau^rd to |>eo ]?e him 
j hefden icwemet. Intra in gaudiuw. et cetera. Ga qucfe he 
' in-to }>i lau^rdes blisse 5 . ]?u most al gan j?rin. ant al beon 
' bigotten J^rin for in ]?e ne mei hit nanesweis neomen in. her- 
of ha herieS godd ant singed a un-werget eau^r iliche lusti 175 
in ]>is loft-so nges. as hit iwriten is. Beatiqui habitant, et cetera. 
Eadi beo^ ]>eo lau^rd. ]>e ij>in hus wunie^S ha schulen herien 
j?e from worlde into worlde. Ha beoS alle ase lihte ant 
as swifte as )>e sunne gleam ]?e scheot from est into west, 
ase J)in ehe-lid tune^ ant opened for hwer-se-eau^r ]?e gast 180 
wule }>e bodi is anan-riht wrS-ute lettunge. for ne mei ham 
na J>ing a3eines etstonden. for euch an is al 6 mihti to don al 
\at he wule. je makie to cwakien heouene ba ant eor^e wi^ ( 
his an finger. Sikere ha beo^ of al jns of J>ulli lif. of jmlli 
rit. of J)ulli luue an/ 7 gleadunge ]?rof. ant of Jmlli blisse. \at 185 
lit ne mei 8 neauer mare lutlin ne wursin. ne neome nan 

1 MS. 'odres.' 2 MS. ' beod.' 3 MS. ' odre.* 

* MS. ' }:e' ; R. ' >en.' 5 R. bus.' R. as/ 

7 R. a.' 8 MS. me.* 

94 vn. SOUL'S WARD. 

ende. ]>ls lutle ich habbe iseid of \at ich iseh in heouene ah 
novver neh ne seh 1 ich al. ne \at $et \at ich iseh. ne ne con 
ich half tellen. Witerliche quo'S warschipe. wel we under- 

190 stonde'S \at tu hauest ibeo ]?ear ant so^ hauest iseid trof. 

efter }>i sirre. ant wel is him \at is war. ant bisrS him hu he 

mahe beast halden his hus \at godes tresor is in ajeines 

godes unwine J?e weorre'S }>er towart a wr3 un];eawes. for ]?et. 

" ( schal bringen him )>ider^as he schal. al ]?is \at tu hauest 

195 ispeken of an[t] hundret srSe mare of blisse buten'euch bale 2 
folhin ant ifinden. Qud% streng^e hwen hit swa is 5 hwet 

JL- mei tweamen us from godd ant halden us J?eonne. ih am 
siker ine godd. \at ne schal lif ne de'S f ne wa ne wunne 
now^er to_dealen us ant his luue. ah al ])is us haue^ igarck- 

200 et 5ef we as treowe tresures wite'S wel his tresor \at is 
bitaht us to halden. as we schulen ful wel under his wengen. 
WarpeS ut quo$ warschipe f farlac ure fa. nis nawt riht \at 
an hus halde |?eos tweien. for ]>er as murSes sonde is f ant 
so% luue of eche lif. farlac is fleme. nu ut quo^ stren^e farlac 

205 ne schaltu na leng^re leuen in ure ende. nu quo> [farlac] ich 
seide for god al \at ich seide. ant J>ah hit muri nere nes na 
lessere)mi tale ]>en wes murhSes sondes ne unbihefre to ow. 
]>ah hit ne beo so licwurSe ne icweme.^ ErSer of ow haueS 
his stunde to speokene. ne nis incker no^res tale t^ schunien 

2iJin his time. J>u warnest of wa. he telleS of wunne. muche neody^ 
is \at me ow ba jeornliche hercni. Flute nu farlac ]>ah. hwil 
Hues luue is herinne. ant pole wrS efne heorte J>e dom of 
rihtwisnesse. for ]>u schal [t], ful blreliche beon under- fon in 
as ofte as liues luue stinted 3 forto spekene. Nv is wil \a\. 

215 husewif al stille. \at er wes so willesful. Al ituht efter 
wittes wissunge \at is husebonde. ant Al \at hird halt him 
stille. \at wes i-wunet to beon fulitohen ant don efter wil hare 

1 MS. neh.' 2 R. 'balesiS.' 3 MS. 'stutteS.' 

vii. SOUL'S WARD. 95 

lefdi. Ant nawt efter wit ' lustne^ nu his lare. ant fonde^ 
euer euchan efter \at him limped to. \urh J?eos twa sonden. 
\at ha i-herd nabbed, ant }><2/fowr sustren lerden Jjruppe for 220 
euch unjjeawes ir^ong his warde te witene. ant te warden 
treowliche. pvs ar^mon te J^enchen ofte ant Home. Ant wift 
jmlliche ]?ohtes awecchen his heorte. J>e i slep of 3emeles 
for-jet hire sawle heale. efter ]>eos twa sonden. From helle &^c( 
sihe biseon f to ]>e blisse of heouene. To habben farlac of 225 
\at an 5 luue toward \at o^er. ant leaden him ant hinen. \at 
beo^ his limen alle. nawt efter wil |>e untohe lefdi aw/ his 
lust leare^. ah efter \at wit wule \at is husebonde tuhten ant 
teachen \at wit ga euer biuore ant teache wil efter him. 
to al \at he dihte'S ant deme^ to donne. ant wrS ]?e fowr 230 
sustren 5 J>er fore ]>e fowr heued Jjeawes. Warschipe. Strence 
in godd. ant Me^. ant Rihtwisnesse. witen godes treosor 
\at is his ahne sawle. i]?e hus of fe bodi ( . from J>e ]>eof of 
helle. J)ulli ]?oht make^ mon te fleon alle un]?eawes ant , 
ontent his heorte toward ]?e blisse of heouene. \at ure lauerd 235 
3eue us \urh his hali milce \at wi^ j>e feder. ant [t]e sune 
at [t]e hali gast rixle^ in ]?reo had a buten ende. AMEN. 

Par seinte charite bidde'S a pater noster for iohan \at ]?eos 
1 boc wrat. 

Hwa se ]>is writ haue^ ired. 240 

Ant crist him haueS swa isped. 

Ich bidde par seinte charite. 

pet 36 bidden ofte for me. 

Aa patei nosfer. ant aue marie. 

pet ich mote \at lif her drehen. 245 

Ant ure lauerd wel icwemen. 

I mi 3uhe : e ant in min elde. 

pet ich mot ihwu crist mi sawle 3elden. 





ABOUT A.D. 1210. 

Two versions of this saint's life have been carefully edited 
for the Early English Text Society (1872) by the Rev. Oswald 
Cockayne and Mr. E. Brock, from whose edition the following 
extract is taken (pp. 4 to 21, 1. 9 ; p. 30, 1. i to p. 35, 1. 9). 

The Latin story of St. Juliana may be read in the Acta Sanc- 
torum, Feb. 1 6. There is a very early English metrical version 
in the Codex Exoniensis (ed. Thorpe), p. 242. 

Text A. 
[Royal MS. 17 A. 27.] 

peo meiden. ant tis martir. wes iuliane ine?#pnet. in 
nichomedes burh. & of he^ene cun icumew. ant hire flesch- 
liche feder wes affrican ihaten. of ]>e heene mest J>eo \at 
cristene weren : derfliche droh ham to deae. ah heo as j?eo 

5 \at te heouenlich feder luuede. leafde al hire aldrene lahen. 
& bigon to luuien ]?ene liuiende lauerd ]>e lufsum godd. \at 
wisseS ant welded al \at is on worlde : & al \at iwraht is. 
])a wes bijjon time as redegunge telle'S. Maximian ]>e modi 
keiser ine rome heinde ant heriende he^ene mawmez. w& 

10 unmeS muchel bird & unduhti duhe^e. & fordemde alle ]>eo : 
j^e on drihtin bilefden. }>es Maximian luuede an heh mon of 
cunne ant eke riche of rente elewsius wes ihaten. ant weren 
as feolahes \urh muche freontschipe. J?is meidenes feder & 



ABOUT A.D. 1 2 10. 

Text B. 
[Bodl. MS. 34.] 

peos meiden & teos martyr \at ich of munne ; wes Juliene 
inempnet^ i Nichomedese burh. Al of hea^ene cun icumen 
& akennet. & hire fleshliche feader affrican hehte. ]?e heande 
& heascede mest men ]>e weren cristene. & droh ha;;z Jnirh 
derue pinen to dea^e. Ah heo as }>eo \at te hehe heouen- 5 
liche lawrd hefde his luue ilenet. leafde hire ealdrene lahen 
& bigon to luuien j?en aa liuiende go^ ]?e lufsume lauerd. \at 
schupte alle schaftes & wealde^ & wisse^ efter J?et his wil is. 
al \at ischeapen is. 

Wes i]>on time as J?e redunge tellers. ]?e modi Maximien 10 
keiser irome. heriende. & heiende hea^ene maumez. wfS 
unimea^ muchel hird. and wrS heh duhe^e. & fordemde alle 
J>eo }>Q o drihtin bilefden. pes mihti maximien luuede an 
eleusium biuoren monie of his men. Akennet of heh cun. 
& swfe riche of rente. & 3ung mon of jeres. J>es 3unge mon 15 

VOL. i. H 


he. weren swrSe wel togederes. as he sumchere iseh hire ut- 

15 nume feir. ant freoliche. he felde him iwundet. \at wr3-uten 
lechnunge of hire libben he ne mahtc. Affrican wiste wel 
\at he wes freo boren. & \at him walde bicumen a freo boren 
burde. ant jettede \\\m his dohter. & wes sone ihondsald al 
hire unwilles. ah heo truste on him ]?at ne trukeneS namon : 

20 \at trusted treowliche on him. ant euch deis dei code to 
chirche to leornen godes lare. 3eornliche to witen hu ha 

mahte best witen hire unweommet 

ah as ha wende hire 

summes weis to witene. sende him to seggen. \at nalde 

25 ha lihten swa lahe ne nehlechen him for nan liuiende 
mon. er ]?en he were under Maximian hehest in rome \at 
is heh reue. Sone so he iherde ]>is. he bi-jet et te keiser 
\at he jettede him reue to beonne as \at he i^irnd hefde. 
ant he as me ]>a luuede. lette leaden him into cure 1 . & te 

30 riche riden in. & tuhen him jont te tun : from strete to. 
strete. ant al )>e tur wes bitild. \at he wes in. wrS purpre 
wrS pal. & wrS ciclatun. deorewurSe elates, as ]>e ^at heh 
l?ing hefde to heden. ant J>a he hefde }>is idon : he sende hire 
to seggen. \at he hefde hire wil iwraht. & heo schulde his 

35 wurchen. 

luliane }>e edie ihesu cristes leouemon of his blisfule luue 
balde hire seoluen. sende him to onswere. bi an of hire son- 

1 MS. ' ture.' 


eleusmj. \at \us wes wel wrS J>e king, hefde iunne 1 feolah- 
schipe to affrican. & wes iwunet ofte to cumen wrS him to 
his in. & iseon his dohter. 

As he hefde en chere bihalden swrSe 3eorne hire utnumne 
feire. & freoliche 3uhe^e ; felde him iwundet in-wrS in his 20 
heorte wrS J>e flan J>e of luue flecS. swa \at him jmhte J>et ne 
mahte he nanes weis wrS-ute J?e lechnunge of hire luue libben. 
Ant efter lutle stounde wrS-ute long steuene. wes him seolf 
sonde to Affrican hire feader. & bisohte him 3eorne \at he 
hire 3eue him. & he hire walde menskin wrS al \at he mahte. 25 
As ]?e ]?iflg i J>e world \at he meast luuede. Affrican wiste \at 
he wes swie freo iboren. Ant walde wel bicumen him a 
freo iboren burde. & ^etede him his bone. Ha wes him 
sone ihondsald ]>ah hit hire unwil were. AH ha truste upon 
him \at ne truked na mon. ha trewliche him truste on. 30 
& code to chirche euche dahe^es dei. to leornin godes lare. 
biddinde ;eorne wrS reowfule reames. \at he wissede hire o 
hwuche wise ha mahte witen hire merha : S 

Ah heo forte werien hire wrS him summe hwile : sende 35 
him to seggen. \at nalde ha nawt lihten se lahe to luuien. 
Ne nalde ha neolechin him for na liuiende mon. ear ]>en he 
were under Maximien. hehest i Rome. \al is heh reue. He 
ase timliche as he hefde iherd J)is. bijet ed te Reiser ]>et he 
jette him al \at he walde. & lette as me luuede J?a leaden 40 
him i cure up of fowr hweoles. & teon him jeon te tun 
]>ron from strete to strete. Al ]?e cure ou^rtild \at he wes 
itohen on : wfS purpres & pelles. wrS ciclatuns & cendals 
& deorewure elates. As ]?e \at se heh ]?ing hefde to heden. 
ant se riche refschipe to rihten & to readen. |>a he hefde Jms 45 
idon. sende hire \us to seggen hire wil he hefde iwraht 
Nu his ha schulde wurchen. Juliene ]?e eadie ih^u cristes 
leofmon of his blisfule luue balde hire seoluew, & sende him 

1 MS. ' intme. 1 
H 2 


den. Elewsius wite jm hit wel ireadi. wra^i so }m 

no lengre nulich hit heolen J>e, ^ef J?u wult leauen j?e lahen 

40 \at tu list in. ant leuen in godd feder. & in his deorewure 
sune. & i]?e hali gast. ichulle wel neomen J?e. }ef }m nult no : 
]?u art wundi of me. & o^er luue sech J>e. pa ]>e reue iherde 
]>is : he him swie. & hire feder cleopede, ant 
feng on to tellen him. hu his dohter droh him from deie to 

45 deie. ant efter \at he wende to habben his iwil so ha him J)is 
word sulliche sende. Bi \at ilke godd qucfe hire feder \at 
me is la^ to gremien beo hit so^ \at tu seist to wra^er heale 
seide ha hit. ant nu ichulle o great grome al biteachen hire 
}>e. to wurchen J>i wil. & al \at te wel likeS as mit tin ahne. 

50 & me cleopede hire forS biuoren hire feder. & he feng feire 
to fondin his dohter Mi deorewurSe dohter hwer-fore uor- 
sakestu J>i sy. ant ti selrrSe. ]?e weolen ant te wuwnen \at 
walden awakenin ant waxen of \\ wedlac. \at ich ]?e to reade. 
for he is inoh lauerd elewsius ine rome. & tu maht beon 

55 leafdi dohter 3ef Jni wel wult. luliane ]>e eadie onswerede him 
& seide as ]?eo ]>at ine godd hire hope hefde. ;ef he wule 
leuen an god al mihti. ]?enne mei he speoken ]?rof & inoh-ra^e 
speden. ant $ef \at he nule nawt. ne schal wiuen on me. 
wiue )>er his wil is. )>a hire feder iherde ]?is : ]>a feng he to 

60 swerien. Bi mi kinewur^e lauerd apollo. ant bi mi deore leafdi 
diane. \at ich muche luuie. 3ef J?u haldest heron, ichulle 
leoten deor to-teorew ant to-luken ]?e. & 3eouen ]n flesch : 
[to] fuheles of )>e lufte. luliane him onswerede & softeliche 
seide. ne wen }>u nawiht leoue feder. \at tu affeare me swa. 

65 for ihwu crist godes sune \at ich on leue & luuie as lauerd 


al openliche bi sonde to seggen. jns word ha send te for 
nawt ]m hauest iswechte. wrea^e se ]?u wrea^e. Do \at tu 50 
do wult nule ich ne ne mei ich lengre heolen hit te 3ef ]m 
wult leauen. ]>e lahen ]?et tu liuest in ant leuen i godd feader. 
& in his deorwurSe sune. & i }>e hali gast folkene froure. an 
godd \at is igret wrS euches cunnes gode : Ich chule wel 
neome ]?e. & jef \at tu nult no : Jm art windi of me : & 55 
o^er luue sech )>e. pa }>e hehe reue iherde ]?is ondswere : 
bigon to wre^en swrSe : & cleopede hire feder for& & feng 
on to tellen. hwuch word ha sende him. Efter \at he wende 
forte habben idon al \at he wilnede. Affrican hire feader 
wundrede him swi^e. & bigon to swerien. bi ]?e like godes 60 
\at me is laS to gremien. beo hit so^ \at tu seiist : to wra^er 
heale. ha serrS hit. ant ich wulle o great grome al biteachen 
hire ]>e : & tu do hire, al \at tu wult. He ]?onkede him. & 
heo wes icleopet forS. & Affrican hire feader feng on earst 
feire on ; to lokin 3ef he mahte wi^ eani luue speden. Juli- 65 
ene qu&& he mi deorewur^e dohter. sei me hwi ]>u forsakest. 
j)i sy & ti selh^e : ]>Q weolew & te wunnen. }>e walden awak- 
enen. & waxen of ]?e wedlac \at ich reade ]>e to : hit nis 
nan e^elich ]>ing. }>e refschipe of rome. ant tu maht 3ef ]?u 
wult. beon burhene leafdi. & of alle ]?e londes ]?e ]>erto ligge^. 70 
Juliene ]>e eadie ontswerede him & seide. [as ]?eo ]?at ine 
Id hire hope hefde.] 3ef he wule luuien. & leuen godd. al 
iti ; ]?enne mei he [speoken] )>rof. & speden inoh rea^e. 
for jef he \at nule no ; ich segge ]?e \at so^ is. ne schal he 

iuen on me. Sei nu hwet ti wil is. affrican wrea^ede & 75 
swor swrSe deopliche. for ]>e drihtfule godd apollo mi lau^rd. 
& mi deore leafdi ]>e deorewur^e- diane \at ich muche luuie. 
3ef J5U haldest her-on ; ich schal leote wilde deor to-luken & 
to-teore ]>e & ^eoue }>i flesch fode to fuheles of ]?e lufte. 
Juliene "him ondswerede. & softeliche seide. Ne lef ]m nawt 80 
leoue feader \at tu ofTeare me svva ; ich swerie a3ein. ]?e ihesu 


lufsumest on Hue. ]>ah ich beo forbernd. & to-loken limel. 
nulich heronont buhen ]>e nawiht pa feng eft hire [feder] on 
wrS olhnuftge to fondiw 5ef he mahte eisweis wenden hire 
heorte. & seide hire lufsumliche. \at ne schulde ha nane 

70 wunne lihtliche wilnin : \at he ne schulde welden. wrS \at ha 
walde hire ]>onc wenden Nai quo^ \at meiden schuldich don 
me to him \at is alle deoulen bitaht. & to eche de$ idemet. 
to furwuren wrS him world abuten ende. for his wedlakes 
weole oSer for eni wunne. for so^ ich hit segge unwurS is hit 

75 me. ichulle \at he hit wite wel. ant tu eke mid him \at ich 
am iweddet to an \al ichulle treowliche to halden ant wrS- 
uten les luuien. ]>e is unlich him. & alle worldlich men. ne 
nullich him nower leauen. ne lihen for weole ne for wunne. 
for wa. ne for wunne ]?et 56 mahen don me. ]>a feng hire 

80 feder te wre^Sen swrSe ferlich & swie hokerliche freinede. 
Me hwet is he J>es were \at tu art to iweddet. \at tu hauest 
wrS-uten me ]>ine luue ilene[t] for hwam Jm letest lutel of \al 
tu schuldest luuiew. ne ich neuer \at ich wite nes wrS him 
icnawen. For gode qu<?6 ]?et maiden ])in harm is }>e mare 

85 nawt forj)i J>et tu nauest ofte iherd of him jare. \at is iesu 
godes sune. pe forto lesen moncun \at forloren schulden 
beon : lette his deorwurSe lif on rode, ne ich ne seh him 
neuer \at me sare forjmncheS. ah ichim luuie ant leue as 
on lauerde. ne schal me firsin him from : now^er deouel ne 

90 mon. For mi lif quo^ hire feder }>e schal lain his luue for 
Jm schalt beon ibeaten. mid besmes swa bittre \at tu wum- 
mon were schal to wra^er heale iwur^en. Swa muche 


crist godes sune. \at ich on leue. & luuie as leoflukest. & 
lufsumest lau^rd. |>at ich cwic beo forbearnd bae lim & li$ 
ileitinde leie. Nulle ich ]>e her onont Create se })U Create 
buhe ne beien. 85 

Affrican feng eft on. & to fondin ongon 5ef he mahte 
eanis weis olhnunge wenden hire heorte : & leoftede luue- 
liche. & seide hire sikerliche. fat ne schulde ha lihtliche 
wilni na wunne ; \at ha ne schulde wealden. wi )><?rean \at 
ha walde hire \vil wenden. Nai qucfe ha \at nis nawt. schulde 90 
ich do me to him. \al alle deoflen is bitaht. & to eche dca^ 
fordemet. to forwure wrS him \vorlt buten ende tye putte of 
helle : for his wedlackes weole oer for ei wunne. To so^e 
ich hit segge J>e. VnwurS hit is me. Ich chulle \at he wite 
hit ful wel. & tu eke mid al ; ich am to an iweddet \at ich 95 
chulle treowliche wiute leas luuien. \at is unlich him & 
alle worltliche men. ne nulle ich neauer mare him lihen ne 
leauen. for weole ne for wunne. for wa ne for wontrca^e \at 
36 me mahen wurchen. 

Hire feader feng on to wrea^in swrSe ferliche & easkede 100 
hire hokerliche. Ant hwet is he j?es were \at tu art to iwed- 
det. \at tu hauest wrS-ute me se forS }>i luue ilenet. 1 \at tu 
letest lutel. of al \at tu schuldest luuien. Ne ich nes neauer 
\at ich wite 3et. wi^ him icnawen. for gode qucfe J?e meiden 
J>in hearm is }>e mare. Nawt for-)>i \at tu nauest iherd of 105 
him 3are. fat is \\\esvi godes sune. \at forte alesen moncun 
\at schulde beon forloren al ; lette lif o rode. Ich ne seh 
him neauer & \at me of J)unche. Ah ich him luuie & wulle 
don. & leue on as o lau<?rd. Ne schal me firsen him from. 
Now^er deouel ne mon. for mi lif qu(r6 hire feader }>e schal 1 10 
la^in his luue. for )>u schalt habbe J>rof hearm & scheome 
ba^e & nu )m schalt on alre earst. as on ernesse swa beon 
ibeaten wrS bittere besmen. \at tu were wummon of wu;/7- 
mone bosum to wra^erheale eau^r iboren i|>e worlde. 
1 MS. ' ileuet.' 


ha ich iwure him j>e leouere: So ich derure ]>ing for his 
luue drehe. \at ti wil is : wurch nu. & he het hatterliche 

95 strupen hire steortnaket. & beten hire swa hrSere \at hire 
leofliche lich: lieri al oblode. & swa ha duden so hrSere 
\at te blod jet adun of \e jerden. &, heo bigon to jeien. 
Beaten so 36 beaten 36 beliales budeles. ne mahe 36 now^er 
mi luue ne min bileaue lutlen toward him mi lufsum leof mi 

ioo leowinde lauerd ne nullich leauen ower read \at forreade^ 
ow seoluen. ne ower mix mawmex \at beo^ ]?es feondes 
fetles heien ne herien. for teone ne for tintreow \at 36 mahen 
timbrin. Na quo'S he is hit swa hit schal sutelin sone. for 
ichulle biteachen mislich ]>i bodi to elewsium \>Q riche reue 

I0 5 irome ant he schal forswelten ant forreden ]?e efter es wille 
wrS alles cunnes pinen. je quo'S pis meiden \at mei crist 
welden. for ne mahe je nawt don me bute hwet he wule J>eauien 
ow to muchelin mi mede & te murSe \at li^ to mefthades 
menske for euer so je mare merri^ me her: so mi crune 

110 br$ brihtre & fehere. for ichulle blrSeliche drehen euereuch 
derf for mi deore lauerdes luue. ant softe me brS euch derf 
hwen ich him serui ]>ah ]>u me to elewsium willes biteache : 
ne jeue ich for inc now^er. \at je me mahen harmen. for so 
je mare me her harmed, so mare je me helped seoueuald to 

IT 5 heouene. & 3ef je me do^ to deae hit bK me deorewure 
ant ich schal \vc-\urh blrSe bicumen into endelese blissen ant 
36 schulen wrecches awei ower wurSes \at je iboren weren 
sinken to wra^er heale ow to J>e bale bitter deope into helle. 
Hire feder affrican \urh J>is bittre teone bitahte hire to elew- 


Swa muche quo$ \at meiden ich beo him J>e leou^re. se 115 
' ich derfre jnng for his lime drehe. [wurch] ]?u \at ti wil is. 
3e quffS he blrSeliche. ant swie heatterliche. strupen hire 
steort naket. & legged se lu^erliche on hire leofliche lich : 
[}>at] hit IrSeri o blode. Me nom hire & dude swa \at hit 
jeat adun of |>e 3erden. ant heo bigon to jeien. Beaten se 120 
56 beaten je beliales budeles. ne mahe 56 nowfcer mi luue ne 
mi bileaue lutlin towart te liuiende godd mi leofsume leof- 
mon. ]>e luuewurSe lau^rd. ne nulle ich leuen ower read ]>e 
forreade^ ow seolf. ne J>e mix maumez ]>e beoS ]?es feondes 
fetles ; heien ne herien. for teone ne for tintreohe \at je me 125 
mahe timbrin. Na milt tu qucfe affrican. hit schal sone sutel- 
in. for ich chulle sende ]?e nu & biteache ]>i bodi to eleusiuw 
}>e riche \at reue is ou<?r rome. ant he schal ]>e forreaden. & 
makie to forswelten. as his ahne wil is Jmrh al ]?et eauer 
sar is. 130 

3e qucfe ]?is meiden \at mei godd welden. ne mahe 36 nawt 
do me bute J?et he mile peauien & ]?olien ow to donne to 
mucli mi mede & te murlrSe \at IrS to mei^hades menske. for 
eauer se 36 nu her mearre^ me mare : se mi crune schal 
beon brihttre ba & fehere. for-]>i ich chulle blrSeliche & wrS 135 
blrSe heorte drehen eauer euch derf. for mi leofmones luue 
]>e lufsume lau^rd & softe me brS euch sar in his seruise. Jm 
wult ]m seist a3eoue me to eleusium ]?e lu^ere. a-^ef me for 
nawiht ne :jeoue ich for inc now^er. pet je mahen ane pine 
me here. Ah hit ne hearme^ me nawt ah helped & heue'S 140 
up & make^ mine murh^es monifalde in heouene. ant 3ef ;e 
do^ me to dea^. hit biS deore to godd. & ich schal blrSe 
bicumen to endelese blissen. ant 36 schulen wrecches wei 
ower wur^es. \at 36 weren i j>e worlt iboren & i-broht forS 
se wra^er heale 36 schule sinken adun to sar & to eche sorhe 145 
to bitternesse ant to bale deope into helle. 

AfFrican hire feader bitterliche iteonet bitahtte hire eleu- 


120 slum ]>e lirSere reue. ant he lette bringen hire biuoren him to 

his heh seotel as he set in dome as reue of ]>e burhe . . . 

Pa elewsius iseh )>is ]?<?/ ha Jms feng on to festnen hire 

seoluen }>ohte \at he walde anan don hire ut of dahene & 

bed swie bringen hire brtme of wallinde breas ant healden 

125 on hire heauet \at hit urne endelong hire leofliche bodi dun 
to )>e helen ant swa me dude sone. ah hire hende healent 
wiste hire unweommet. elewsius warS wod ut of his witte. 
ant nuste hwet seggen & het swrSe don hire ut of his 
ehsih^e. & dreihen hire into dare hus & prisunes pine, ant 

13 he duden sone. Heo as ha ]>rinne wes in j>eosternesse hire 
ane feng te cleopien to crist ant bidden J?eos bone. 

Lauerd godd al mihti. mi murh^e ant mi mede mi sy ant 
mi selrre }m isist hu ich am bista^et ant bistonden festne 
mi bileaue steor me ant streng me. for al mi strencSe is 

135 uppon J>e. mi feder. & mi moder for ich nulle forsaken j>e : 
habbe^ forsaken me & al mi nest-falde cun me heane^ )>et 
schulden mine freond beon : beoS me mest feondes ant 
mine hinen me beo^ mest heanen ah habbich }nn anes help 
ich am wil cweme ne leaf )m me neuer liuiende lauerd as )>u 

4 wistest daniel bimong }>e wode leuns ant te J>reo children 
ananie zacharie misael inempnet. biwistest unweowmet from 
)>e ferliche fur of J>e furneise swa J?u wite ant witen me to 
witen me from sunne. lauerd Jmrh )>is lease lif : lead me to 
lestinde to )>e hauene of heale as ]>u leddest israeles folc Jmrh 


sium J>e Inhere reue of rome & lette bringen hire biuoren his 
ehsih^e. as he set & demde. J>e hehe burh domes 

pa eleusius seh \at ha \us feng on to festnin hire seoluen 150 
iso^e bileaue ; J>ohte he walde don hire anan ut of dahene : 
& bed biliue bringen forS brune wallinde bres. & healden 
hit se wal hat hehe up on hire heaued. \at hit urne endde- 
long hire leofliche lich adun to hire healen. Me dude al as 
he het. Ah J?e worldes wealdent \at wiste sein iuhan his 155 
ewanigeliste unhurt i]?e ueat of wallinde eoli ]>er he wes idon 
in. \ai ase hal com up Jrof ; as he wes hal meiden. ]>e ilke 
Hues lau^rd. wiste him unwemmet. his brud of J>e bres \at 
wes wallinde. swa \at ne ]>uhte hit hire buten ase wlech 
weater al \at ha felde. Eleusius wod ]>a nuste hwet segen. 160 
Ah hehte swrSe don hire ut of his ehsih^e. & dreaien in to 
dorc hus to prisunes pine ant swa ha wes idon sone. 

Heo as ha ]?rinne wes i peosternesse hire ane. feng to 
cleopien to crz'st & bidde ]>eos bone, lawrd godd almihti mi 
murrrfce & mi mede. mi sy & al J?e selhe. \at ich efter 165 
seche J>u sist al hu ich am bistea^et & bistonden. festne mi 
bileaue. Riht me & read me. for al mi trust is on }>e. Steor 
me & streng me for al mi streng^e is of J>e. mi feader & 
mi moder for-)n \at ich nule )>e forsaken ; habbe forsake me. 
& al mi nestfalde cun. \at schulde beo me best freond; beo$ 170 
me meast feondes. & mine inhinen ; alre meast hea[r]men. 
herewure healent. habbe ich }nn anes help, ich am wilcweme 
ne forleaf )>u me" nawt luuiende lau^rd. as ]?u biwistest daniel 
bimong ]>e wode Huns ilatet se lu^ere. & te J>reo children J>e 
chearre nalden from \z lahen \at ha schulden luuien. Ana- 175 
nie & A^arie & Misahel inempnet. Al |?u al wealdent bi- 
wistest ha#z unwemmet. wrS 1 \at fcrliche fur i ]?e furneise. 
swa J)U wunne of ]>e work wite me & were & witere. & wisse 
Jmrh ]>i wisdom to wite me wrS sunne. lau^rd Hues lattow. 
1 MS. wid.' 


145 j>e reade sea buten schip druifot ant hare fan senchtest \at 
ham efter sohten afal ]m mine famen ant to-drif drihtin ])en 
deouel \at me denied, for ne mei na mon wrS-uten J>i 
strencSe stonden him ajeines lef me \at ich mote iseon him 
jet schent: \at wene'S me to schrenchen ant schunchen of 

150 ]>e weie : \at leaded to eche lif. wite me from his laS ant wrS 
his crefti crokes. wite me wrS mine unwines \at tu beo euer 
iheret ante iheiet in heouene ant in eorSe beo \>u aa iblescet 
as Jju were ant art. ant euer schalt beon in eche blisse. 


lead me Jmrh ]?is lease. Jns lutle leastinde lif ; to ]?e hauene 180 
of heale. As ]>u leaddest isr^les leode of egipte bute schip 
dru fot Jmrh J>e reade sea. & asenchtest hare uan }>e ferden 
ham efter. & tu folkes feader. aual mine vamen. & tu 
drihtin to-drif }>e deouel \at me denied, for ne mei na mon- 
nes streng^e wrSuten J>in stonden him to jeines. lef me \at 185 
ich mote mihti meinfule godd iseon him ischeomet 3et J>e 
wene^ me to schrenchen. & schunchen of J>e nearowe wei 
\at leaded to eche lif. loke me from his la^ liuiende lauerS. 
Make me war & wite me wrS his crefti crokes. \at ha me ne 
crechen. were me swa wrS )>en vnwine. helpleses heale. ^at 190 
tu beo iheiet & iheret eaure in eor^e. as in heouene. Beo 
])U aa iblescet lau<?rd as )>u were ant art & schalt beon in 



ABOUT A.D. 1 2 10. 

THE 'Ancren Riwle/ or Rule of Nuns, was written for a 
society of three pious anchoresses at Tarente (Tarrant-Kaines, 
or Kingston, near Crayford Bridge) in Dorsetshire. 

Richard Poor, a native of Tarente, and successively bishop of 
Chichester, Salisbury, and Durham, rebuilt or enlarged the little 
monastery of nuns founded by Ralph de Kahaines (a son of one 
of the first William's Norman barons), and died at Tarente in 
1237. Mr. Morton, the editor of the Ancren Riwle, thinks it 
probable that Poor was the author of this Rule of Nuns ; but this 
is mere conjecture. 

The following selection is from Morton's edition of the Ancren 
Riwle (pp. 208-216 ; 416-430), published for the Camden Society, 
1853, collated with MS. Nero A. xiv., Gleop. G. vi., Titus D. xviii. 

pus, mine leoue sustren, re wildernesse ase $e gcrS inne, 
mid Codes folke, toward lerusalemes lond, ]?et is, ]>e riche of 
heouene, beoS swuche bestes, $ swuche wurmes f ne not ich 
none sunne J?et ne mei beon iled to one of ham seouene, 
5 oer to hore streones. Vnsta^eluest bileaue ajean holi lore, 
nis hit of prude? Inobedience her-to ualle. Sigaldren 1 , 
6f false teolungesf leuunge on ore $ o swefnesf <$ alle wichche- 
creftes '. niminge of husel ine [ani] heaued sunne, o^er ei 

1 T. ' Sigaldrie.' 


oer sacrament, nis hit |>e spece of prude ]?et ich cleopede 
presumciun, :jif me wot hwuch sunne hit is c . $ jif me not 10 
nout, ]>eonne is hit 5emeleste, under accidie, ]>et ich cleopede 
slourre ; pe ]>et ne warned o^er of his vuel, o^er of his lure, 
nis hit slouh semeleste, oer attri onde ? Mis-iteo^eget, 
etholden cwide, o^Ser fundles, o^er lone, nis hit ^isqimge < 
o^er )>eofte ? Etholden o^res hure, ouer his rihte terme, 15 
nis hit strong reflac ? pet is under siscunge. O^er ;if me 
jeme'S wurse ei J>ing ileaned oer biteih[t] to witene, J?en he 
wene ]?et hit ouh, nis hit tricherie, o^er semeleaste of slourrfce ? 
also is dusi biheste, o^er folliche ipluht troupe J $ longe 
beon unbishped f $ falsliche igon to schrifte I oer to longe 20 
abiden uorte techen godchilde pater noster Sf credo ? peos 
<$C alle swuche, beo 1 ^ iled to sloulrSe f ]?et is ]?e ueor^e moder lfl* 
of J>e seouen heaued sunnen. (J)eo J>et drone eni drunch, ^ 
o^er ei ]>ing dude hwar^uruh no childe ne schulde beon of 
hire istreoned i o^er J>et istreoned schulde uorwur^en, nis 25 
J>is strong monsleiht, of golnesse awakened?) Alle sunnen 
sunderliche, bi hore owune nomeliche nomen, ne muhte no 
mon rikenen f auh ine j>eos ]?et ich habbe iseid, alle ]?e o^re 
beo^ bilokene f $ nis, ich wene, no mon ]>et ne mei under- 
stonden him of his sunnen nomeliche, under summe of J?en 30 
like imene, J>et beo^ her iwritene. Of }>eos seoue bestes, 
fy of hore streones i^e wildernesse, $ of onliche Hue, is iseid 
hiderto, J>et alle J>e uor^farinde uonde^ to uordonne. pe 
Liun of Prude slea^ alle ]?e prude, $ alle ]?eo }iet beo^ heie, 
$ ouer heie iheorted. pe attri neddre alle peo ontfule, $ 35 
alle ]>eo luSere roncked. [pa/ beon malicius lrere ajain 
o^ere 1 .] pe vnicorne alle ]?eo wre^fule ; $ al-so of ]>e o^re 
areawe. Ase to God heo beo$ isleiene 2 i auh heo libbe^ to 
J?e ueonde, $ beo^ alle ine his hirde, Sf serue^ him ine his 
kurt, euerichon, of J^et mester, j?et him to ualleS. 4 

1 From C. 2 MS. ' isseine.' 

1 1 3 ^ IX. THE ANCREN R1WLE. 

pe prude becyS his bemares, drawees wind inward of world- 
lich[e] hereword, $ eft, mid idel 3elpe, puffed hit utward, ase 
pe bemare de^, uorte makien noise [and] lud dre^im to scheau- 
wen hgre orhel 1 . Auh jif heo wel pouhten of Codes bemares, 

45 $ of pe englene bemen of heouene, pet schulen a uour 2 halue 
pe worlde, biuoren pe grureful[e] 3 dome grisliche bloawen, 
Arise'S, deade, arisen ! cume^ to Drihtenes dome, uorte 
beon idemed ( per no prud bemare ne mei beon iboruwen. 
3if heo ]>ouhten pis wel, heo wolden inouh-rea^e ie deofles 

5 seruise dimluker bemen. Of peos bemares serS [Seint] 
Jeremie, Onager solitarius, in desiderio anime sue, altraxit 
ventum amoris. Of peo pet drawe^ wind inward, uor luue 
of hereword, serS Jeremie, ase ich er seide 4 . 

Summe iuglurs beoS }>et ne kunnen seruen of non o^er 
- 55 gleo, buten makien cheres, $ wrenchen mis hore mu^, 
schulen mid hore eien. Of pis mestere serue^ J?eo uniselie 
ontfule ie deofles kurt, to bringen o leihtre hore ontfule 
louerd. - Uor 5if ei sei^ wel o^er de^ wel, nonesweis ne 
muwen heo loken ]?iderward mid riht eie of gode heortef 

60 auh wincke^ o^ere half, < biholde^ o luft fy asquint : $ jif 
J?er is out to eadwiten, o^er [loken] lodlich, piderward heo 
schule^ 5 mid ei^er eien; 6f hwon heo ihere^ pet god, heo 
skated adun boa two hore earen f auh pet lust a^ean pet vuel 
is euer wid open, peonne heo wrenched hore mu^ mis, 

65 hwon heo turned god to vuel '. $ 3if hit is sumdel vuel 
puruh more lastunge heo wrenched hit to wurse. peos beo'S 6 
hore owune prophetes forcwiddares. peos bodied biuoren 
hwu pe ateliche 7 deouel schal $et agesten 8 ham mid his 

1 MS. 'horel'; T. 'orhel'; C. 'orejel/ 

2 Morton wrongly has ' an our.' 3 R. ' grimfule.' 

4 For 'Of seide,' C. has ' Of J>e prud drahinge in for luue of here- 

ward sei$ (Jeremie) as ich seide.' 5 T. 'scule^.' 

6 T. has ' J>ase arn.' 7 T. ' atterluche.' 8 T. ' glopnen.' 


grimme grennunge, $ hu heo schulen ham sulf grennen $ 
niuelen, $ makien sur semblaunt uor be muchele angoise, 70 
ie pine of helle. Auh for-bui heo beo^ be lesse te menen, 
bet heo biuorenhond leorne'S hoje meister to makien grimme ^ 

pe wre^fule biuoren J>e ueonde skirmeS mid kniues, $ he 
is his knif-worpare *, $ pleie'S mid sweordes, <$f bere^ ham bi 75 ; 
be scherpe orde uppen his tunge. Sweord $ knif erSer beoS 
scherpe $ keoruinde wordes bet he worpe'S frommard him, 

skirme'S touward ore. Auh heo bodied hwu be deoflen 
schulen pleien mid ham, mid hore scherpe aules, $ skirmen 

lid ham abuten, fy dvsten ase enne pilcheclut, euchon 80 
touward o^er, fy mid helle sweordes al snesien 2 ham buruhut, 
bet beo^ kene <$f keoruinde, &f ateliche pinen. 

pe slowe IrS <$f slepe^ rSe deofles .berme, ase his deore 
deorlingf <$ te deouel leiS his tutel adun to his earen, $ 
tutele'S him al bet he euer wule. Uor, so hit is sikerliche to 85 
hwamso is idel of god i be ueond ma^ele^ 3eorne, <J- te idele 
underuo^ luueliche his lore, pe bet is idel <$ jemeleas, he is 
[wel] bes deofles bermes slep : auh he schal a domesdei 
grimliche abreiden mid te dredfule dreame of be englene ^ 
bemen I $ ine helle wondrede 3 ateliche 4 awakien. Surgite, 90 
mortui qui jacetis in sepulchris : surgite, et venite ad judicium 
y pe jiscare is bes feondes askeba^ie 5 , <$f li^ euer ien asken, 

fare^ abuten asken <J- bisiliche sture^ him uorte rukelen 
muchele $ monie ruken togedere, 6f blowe^S berinne, ^* ablent 95 
him sulf .' padereS 6 make^ berinne figures of augrim, ase 

)s rikenares doS f habbe"6 muchel uorto rikenen. pis is 
al bes canges 7 blisse, $ te ueond bihalt al bis gomen, # 

1 T. 'castere.' 2 C. 'snesen'; T. 'sneasin.' 3 C. * wandre'Se.' 

4 C. echeliche.' 5 C. askebath.' 

6 C. ' patJere'S ' ; T. ' pu^Sercs.' 7 C. ' askeba^es.' 

VOL. I. I 


lauhweS )?et he to-berste2. Wei understand euerich wis mon 

ioo [<J* wummon] J?is i' ]>et gold $ seoluer boe, $ euerich 
eorSlich eihte, nis buten eore $ asken, }>et ablent euerichne 
mon J?et bloawe^ in ham f ]>et is, }>et boluweS him ine 
ham i Jmruh ham ine heorte prude i Sf al )?et he rukele^ 
$ gedereS togedere, $ ethalt of eni ]?inge )?et nis buten 

105 asken, more J?en hit beo neod, al schal ine helle iwurSen 

" A-, to him tadden 9- neddren, <J- bo^e, ase Isaie seiS, schulen 

beon of wurmes his kurtel l $ his kuuertur, ]>et nolde her 

]>e neodfule ueden ne schruden. Subter te sternetur tinea, et 

operimentum iuum vermis. 

no pe 5iure glutun is j>es feondes manciple. Uor he stike^ 
euer rSe celere, o^er re kuchene. His heorte is rSe disches f 
his ])ouht is al i^e neppe i his lif ie tunne i his soule rSe 
crocke. Kume'S for^ biuoren his louerde bismitted <$f bi- 
smeoruwed, a disch 2 ine his one hond, $ a scoale 3 in his 

115 o'Ser.' ma^ele^ mis 4 wordes, $ wigele^ ase uordrunken mon 
]>et haue^ imunt to uallenf bihalt his greate wombe, $ te 
ueond lauhwe^ ]>et he to-berste^. God J^reate^ J>eos ]?us ]?uruh 
Isaie. Servi mei comedent, et vos esurietis, &c. i l Mine men,' he 
ser, ' Schulen eten, $ ou schal euer hungren i' ^-36 schulen 

1 20 beon ueondes fode, world a buten ende!' Quantum glori- 
ficavit se et in deliciis fuit, tantum date ei luctum et tormentum. 
In Apocalipsi : Contra unum poculum quod miscuit, miscete ei 

^) duo. 3if fe gulchecuppe 5 weallinde brgs to drincken, $ jeot 
in his wide J>rote J>et he aswelte wi^innen 6 . A3ean one, 3if 

125 him two. Lo ! swuch is Godes dom a3ean }>e 3iure 7 , <$f a3ean 
J>e drinckares 8 ie Apocalipse 

C. and T. hwitel.' 2 MS. ' dischs.' 

T. skale ' ; C. schale.' * MS. mid ' ; T. and C. 

T. ' kelchecuppe ' ; C. ' keachecuppe.' 

T. ' inewitS ' ; C. inwi'S.' 7 C. ' glutuns.' 

C. ' druncwile ' ; T. ' drunkensome.' 


[pp. 416-430.] 

3e, mine leoue sustren, ne schulen habben no best, bute 
kat one. Ancre J>et haue'S eihte Jmnche'S bet husewif, ase 
Marthe was, Jjen ancre f ne none wise ne mei heo beon 
Marie, mid grrSfulnesse of heorte. Vor ]?eonne mot heo I30 
Jjenchen of ]?e kues foddre, and of heorde-monne huire, 
oluhnen )>ene heiward, warien hwon me punt hire, ^ 3elden, 
}>auh, J>e hermes. Wat Crist, ]>is is lodlich J>ing hwon me 
make^ mone in tune of ancre eihte. pauh, 3if eni mot nede 
habben ku 1 , loke ]>et heo none monne ne eilie, ne ne hermie I 135 
ne ]?et hire J>ouht ne beo nout J>eron i-uestned. Ancre ne 
ouh nout to harSben no J?ing }>et drawe utward hire heorte. 
None chefTare ne driue 36. Ancre }>et is cheapild [J?e 
buS for te sullen efter bi3ete], heo cheape^ hire soule j>e 
chepmon of helle. [ping, j?auh, \at ha wurche^ ha mei wel, 140 
]>urh hire meistres read, for hire neod sullen, J?ah swa dern- 
liche as ha mei, for misliche monne wordes.] Ne wite 36 nout 
in oure huse of oer monnes Binges, ne eihte, ne clones f ne 
nout ne underuo 36 ]>e chirche uestimenz, ne j?ene caliz, bute" 
3if [neod o^er] strenc^e hit makie, oer muchel eie i vor of 145 
swuche witunge is i-kumen muchel vuel oftesrSen. Wi^innen 
ower woanes 2 ne lete 36 nenne mon slepen. }if muchel 
i neode mid alle make^breken ower hus, ]?e hwule ]?et hit 
euer is i-broken, loke ]?et 36 habben jjerinne mid ou one 
wummon of clene Hue deies $ nihtes. Igo 

UorSi ]?et no mon ne i-sifrS ou, ne 36 i-seo'S nenne mon, 
wel mei don 3 of ower clones, beon heo hwite, beon heo blakef 
bute )>et heo beon unorne <$ warme, <Sf wel i-wrouhte uelles 
wel i-tauwed; $ habbe^ ase monie ase ou to needed, to 
bedde and eke to rugge. I5S 

1 C. hit.' 2 T. wahes ' ; C. wanes.' 

2 T. ' duhen ' ; C. * don.' 

I 2 




Nexst fleshe ne schal mon werien no linene clo^, bute ^\i 
hit beo of herde and of greate heorden. Stamin habbe ; ' 
hwose wule; and hwose wule mei beon buten. $e schulen 
liggen in on heater, and i-gurd. Ne bere 36 non iren, ne 

1 60 here, ne ilespiles ll fellesi ne ne beate ou J>er mide, ne mid 
schurge i-leSered ne i-leadedf ne mid holie 2 , ne mid breres 
ne ne biblodge 3 hire sulf wruten schriftes leaue i ne ne 
nime, et enes, te ueole disceplines. Ower schone beon 
greate and warme. Ine sumer 36 habbe^ leaue uorto gon 

165 and sitten baruotf and hosen wrSuten uaumpez i and ligge 
ine ham hwoso like'S 4 . Sum vvummon inouh rea^e wereS j?e 
brech of heare ful wel i-knotted, and J>e strapeles adun to 
hire uet, i-laced ful ueste. }\t 36 muwen beon wimpel-leas, 
beo^ bi warme keppen and J>eruppon [oer hwite o'Ser] blake 

i703ueiles. [Ancren sume sungrS in hare wimlunge na lesse 
J>ene lefdi. Sum serS \at hit limped to ei wummon cunde- 
liche forte weri[en] wimpel. Nai f wimpel ne hef [de] nouSer 
ne nemne'S hali write i ah wriheles of heuet. Ad Corinth. 
Mutter uelet caput suum. Wummon sei^ ]>e apostel schal 

175 wrihen hire heauet. Wrihen, he sei^. naut wimplin. wrihen 
ha schal hire scheome, as sunfule Eue dohter f i mungunge 
of ]>e sunne \at shefnjde us erst alle .' ^ naut drah \at 
wriheles te tiffung <$f te prude. Eft wule Seinte Pauel \at 
wummon wreo i chirche hire neb jette, leste vuel |>oht arise 

180 jmrh hire on-sihe, ^ hoc est propter angelos. Hwi, ]?enne, )>u 
chirche ancren, al beo ]>u iwimplet, openest ]?ah |>i neb to 
weopmones ehe ? To^eines )>e. ]?e isist men, speke'S Seinte 
Pauel. Ah jef ei |>ing wrihe^ \\ neb from monnes ehe 
beo hit wah, beo hit cla^ ri parlures Jmrl, wel mei duhen ancre 

185 of o^er wimplunge 5 .] Hwose wule beon i-seien, ]>auh heo 

1 MS. 'irspiles'; T. ' yleslipes ' ; C. ' ylespilles.' 

3 T. holin ' j C. ' holine.' s T. blodeke ' ; C. bibloffgi.' 

* C. wule.' 5 MS. ' wimlumpe,' 


atiffe l hire nis nout muchel wunder f auh to Codes eien heo 
is lufsumere, bet is, uor be luue of him, untiffed wruten. 
Ring, ne broche nabbe 36 '. ne gurdel i-membred 2 , ne glouen, 
ne no swuch bing bet ou ne deih 5 forto habben. [Under- 
stondeS \at of alle beose Binges nis nan hest ne forbot f for 19 
alle ha beoS of be uttere riwle, \at is lute strenc^e of. For 
hwon \at te inre beo wel iwist, as ic seide ie frum^e, $ 
mei beon i-changet hwerse-euer ei neod beo^ oer eni skile 
hit askeS, efter \at ha mei, ase Jmften, best serum be leafdi 
riwle.] I, fat ^<r v- '95 

Euer me is leouere so 36 don gretture werkes. Ne makie 
none purses, uorte ureonden ou mide [bute te_j>eo \at ower 
meistre jeueS ow his leaue] f ne blodbendes* of seolke [ne 
laz bute leaue] '. auh schepieS, and seouwe, and amende^ 
chirche clones, and poure monne clones 5 . No J?ing 6 ne 200 
schule 36 3iuen wrSuten schriftes leaue. Helped mid ower 
owune swinke, so uorS so 36 muwen, to schruden ou suluen 
and [feden jef neod is] j>eo j?et ou serue^, ase Seint Jerome 
lere^. Ne beo 36 neuer 7 idel f uor anonrihtes ]?e ueond 
beot 8 hire his were ^et ine Codes werke ne wurche^ 9 f and 205 
he tutele'S anonrihtes touward hire. Uor, J>eo hwule ]>et he 
isih^S hire bisi, [he] ^encheS }>us: vor nout ich schulde nu 
kumen neih hire '. ne mei heo nout i-hwulen 10 uorto hercnen 11 
mine lore. Of idelnesse awakened muchel flesshes fondunge, 
Iniquilas Sodome saluritas panis et ocium: J>et is, al Sodomes 210 
cweadschipe com of idelnesse <J of ful wombe. Iren )?et li^ 
stille gedereS sone 12 rust^ and water ]>et ne sture^ nout 
readliche 13 stinke^. Ancre ne schal nout forwurSen scol- 

1 T. atiffen ' ; C. ' atifi.' 2 MS. ' i menbred ' ; C. ' ' membret.' 

8 T. 'deah'; C. i-buri$'. * C. blod-binden.' 5 C. 'hettren.' 
6 C. ' nan swuc |>ing.' 7 C. * allunge.' 8 T. ' bedes.' 

9 T. ' swinkes.' 10 C. 4 jemen ' ; T. * seme.' u C. ' lustni.* 
13 C. muche. 1 13 T. ' ra'Sliche ' ; C. ' readiliche.' 


meistre, ne turnen hire ancre bus to childrene scole. Hire 

215 meiden mei, pauh, techen 1 sum lutel meiden, J>et were dute 
of forto leornen among 2 gromes f auh ancre ne ouh 3 forto 
3emen bute God one. [pah, bi hire meistres read ha mei 
sum rihten ad helpe te leren.J 

3e ne schulen senden lettres, ne underuon lettres, ne writen 

220 buten leaue. 3 e schulen beon i-dodded four srSen re 3ere, 
uorto lihten ower heaued [o^er 3ef 56 wulle^ i-schauen hwase 
wule ieyeset. Ah ha mot oftere weschen & kemben hire 
heauet] f and ase ofte i-leten blod '. and oftere }if neod is i 
and hwoso mei beon per wrSuten, ich hit mei wel i-^plien. 

225 Hwon 56 beoS i-leten blod, }e ne schulen don no ping, peo 

)>reo dawes, pet ou greue i auh talked mid ouer meidenes 

!*.(& and mid peaufule talen schurte^ ou to-gederes. 3 e niuwen 

don so ofte hwon ou punched heuie, o^er beo^ uor sume 

worldliche )>inge sorie o^er seke. So wisliche witeS ou 

230 in our blod-letunge f and holde^ ou ine swuche reste pet 
36 longe perefter muwen ine Codes seruise pe monluker 
swinken 4 5 and also hwon 36 i-uele^ eni secnesse f vor 
muchel sotschipe hit is uorto uorleosen, uor one deie, tene 
o^er tweolue. Wasche^ ou hwarse 36 nabbed neode, ase 

235 ofte ase 36 wullefc. 

Ancre pet naue^ nout neih hond hire uode, beo^ bisie two 
wummen i one pet bileaue euer et horn, on o^er pet wende 
ut hwon hit is neod .' and peo beo ful unorne [o^er a lute 
puhten] , oer of feir elde 5 and bi pe weie ase heo geS go 

240 singinde 5 hire beoden f ne ne holde heo nout none tale mid 
mon ne mid wummon f ne ne sitte ne ne stonde, bute pet 
leste pet heo mei, er pen heo kume horn. Nouhwuder elles 
ne go heo bute pider ase me sent hire. WrSute leaue ne ete 

1 C. learen.' 2 C. ' bimong.' s For ' ne ouh ' C. has ' nach.' 

* C. * wurchen.' 6 C. ' scgginde.' 


heo ne ne drinke ute. pe o^er beo euer inne, ne \viute }>e 
^eate ne go heo wrSute leaue. Bo^e beon obedient to hore 
dame in alle Binges, bute ine sunne one. No ]?ing nabben 
heo ]>et hore dame hit mite '. ne ne underuon no ]>ing, ne 
ne 3iuen wiSuten hire leaue. Nenne mon ne leten heo in f 
ne ]>e 5imgre ne speke mid none monne bute leaue '. ne ne 
go nout ut of tune wi^uten siker uere '. ne ne ligge ute. 
3if heo ne con o boke, sigge bi Paternostres and bi auez hire 
vres f and wurche }>et me ha.t hire wiuten grucchunge. 
Habbe euer hire earen opene touward hire dame. Nouer 
of }>e wummen ne beren urom hore dame, ne ne bringen to 
hire none idele talen, ne neowe trSinges f ne bitweonen 
hamsulf ne singen f ne ne speken none worldliche spechen i 
ne lauhwen, ne ne pleien so J)et ei mon ]?et hit iseie muhte 
hit to vuel turnen. Ouer alle Jnng leasunge and hfSere 1 
wordes hatien. Hore her beo i-koruen i hore heued clo^ 
sitte lo_we. ErSer ligge one. Hore hesmel 2 beo heie istihd f 
al wrSute broche. No mon ne i-seo ham unweawed 3 , ne 
open heaued. [InwrS }>e wanes ha muhe werie scapeloris 
hwen mantel ham heuege^, ute gan i-mantlet f ]?e heaued 
i-hudeket.] Louh lokunge habben. Heo ne schulen cussen 
nenne mon, [ne cu^mon ne cunes mon ne for nan cuS^e 
cluppen,] ne uor luue cluppen ne kuS ne unku'S i ne wasshen 
hore heaued f ne loken ueste o none monne f ne toggen* 
mid him, ne pleien. Hore weaden beon of swuche scheape, 
$ alle hore aturn swuch J>et hit beo eocene hwarto heo 
beo^ i-turnde. Hore lates loken warliche, J>et non ne edwite 
ham ne ine huse, ne ut of huse. .On alle wise uorberen to 
wre&ien hore dame f and ase ofte ase heo hit do^, er heo 
drinken o^er eten, makien hore uenie akneon adun to ]>er 





, . 


270 . 

1 C. ' uuele.' 
8 C. ' unlepped.' 

2 C. ' Hare cop beo hec3e isticched.' 
* T. 'toggle'; C. 'toggi.' 


eore biuoren hire, $ sigge Mea culpaf and underuon }>e 

275 penitence J>et heo lei^ upon hire, lutende hire louwe. pe 
ancre neuer more J>er efter J>ene ilke gult ne upbreide hire, 
uor none wre^e, bute ;if heo eft sone ualle iet ilke i auh 
do hit allunge ut of hire heorte. And 3if eni strif ariseS 
bitweonen )>e wummen, J>e ancre makie eiSer of ham to 

280 makien oer venie akneon to )>er eore, and eier rihte up 
o^er, $ kussen ham on ende i and ]?e ancre legge on 
e&er sum penitence i more upon }>e ilke }>et gretluker 
haueS agult. pis is o }>ing, wute 36 wel to soS, J>et is 
God leouest seih[t]nesse $ some 1 Sf j>e ueonde lowest i 

285 and fori he is euer umbe to arearen sume wre&>e 2 . Nu 
isih^ J>e deouel 3 wel ]?et hwon )?et fur is wel o brune, $ 
me wule )>et hit go ut, me sundre^ J>e brondes f and he de^ 
al so onond 4 J?et ilke. Luue is Jesu Cristes fur J>et he wule 
j>et blasie in vre heorte f and ]>e deouel blowe^ forto puffen 

290 hit ut i and hwon his blowinge ne geineS nout, J>eonne 
bringeS he up sum luer word, o^er sum [o^er] nouhtunge 
hwar ]?uruh heo to-hurre^ 5 ei^er urommard oer '. and J>e 
Holi Gostes fur acwenche^ hwon ]?e brondes, )?unih wre&Je, 
beo^ i-sundred. And for^i, holden ham ine luue ueste to- 

295 gederes, and ne beo ham nout pf hwon j>e ueond blowe; 
and nomeliche, jif monie beoS i-ueied somed 6 , and wel mid 
luue ontende. *** ^ ^W-^ 

pauh }>e ancre on hire meidenes uor openliche gultes legge 
penitence, neuer-J)e-later 7 to J>e preoste schriuen ham ofte f 

300 auh euer Jjauh mid leaue. And 3if heo ne kunnen nout j>e 
mete graces, siggen in hore stude Pater noster < Aue Maria 
biuoren mete, and efter mete also, $ Credo moare f and 

1 T. ' somentale/ 2 T. and C. lae. f 

3 C. ' sweoke ' ; T. swikc.' * T. ' he dos bond to Jjet ilke.' 

5 MS. ' hurteS ' ; C. and T. hurren.' 

6 T. ' i fest togcdere.' 7 C. ' noftelatere.' 


siggen bus on ende, "Veder $ Sune <^ Holi Gost $ on 
Almihti God, he 3iue ure dame his grace, so lengre so more '. 
leue hire ^ us boe nimen god endinge f $ for3elde alle 305 
bet us god do^, ^ milce hore soulen bet us god i-don nabbed 
hore soulen < alle cristene soulen. Amen." Bitweonen 
;le ne gruselie l 36 nout nouer frut, ne o^erhwat i ne ne 
drinken wrSuten leaue ' auh be leaue beo liht in alle beo 
binges ber nis sunne. Ette mete no word, oer lut, <$ beo 310 
beon stille. Al so efter be ancre cumplie [afcet prime] uort 
mid-morwen ne don no bing, ne ne siggen, hware buruh hire ^-ALM 
silence muwe beon i-sturbed. Non ancre seruant ne ouhte, 
mid rihte, uorto asken i-sette huire, bute mete 6c clo'S bet 
heo mei vlutten bi, $ Codes milce. Ne misleue non god, 315 
hwat so bitide, of be ancre, bet he hire trukie 2 . pe meidenes ^ 
wiuten, 3if heo senieS be ancre al so ase heo owen, hore 
hure schal beon be eche blisse of heouene. Hwoso haue^ 
eie hope touward so heie hure, gledliche wule heo seruen, 
$ lihtliche alle wo and alle teone bolien. Mid eise ne mid 320 
este ne kume^ me nout to ber heouene 3 . 

3e ancren owen bis lutle laste stucchen reden to our 
wummen eueriche wike enes, uort bet heo hit kunnen. And 
muche neod is ou beoe bet 36 nimen to ham gode 3eme ; 
vor 36 muwen muchel buruh ham beon i-goded, and i-wursed 4 325 
on oer halue. 3if heo sunegeS buruh ower 3emeleaste, 36 *'' 
schulen beon bicleoped berof biuoren be heie demare 5 i and 
for^i, ase ou is muche neod, $ ham is 3ete more, 3eorneliche 
techeS ham to holden hore riulen, bo^e uor ou <$ for ham 
suluen i li^eliche bauh, $ luueliche f uor swuch ouh wum- 330 
mone lore to beon luuelich lre, and seldhwonne 6 sturne. 

1 T. ' gruse ' ; C. ' gruuesi.' 2 ' truckle ' with ' faile ' as gloss. 

3 T. ' ne bue'S mon nawt blisse ' ; C. ' ne butJ me naut blisse.' 
* T. * wursnet.' 6 T. ' deme ' ; C. < dom.' 

6 C. ' selthwenne.' 


Boe hit is riht ]>et heo ou dreden ^- luuien '. auh ]?er beo 
more euer of luue ]>en of drede. peonne schal hit wel uaren. 
Me schal helden eoli and win beo^e ine wunden, eftere 

335 godere v lore i auh more of ]?e softe eolie ]>en of ]>e bitinde 
wine ; J?et is, more of IrSe wordes ]?en of suinde l i vor j>erof 
kume'S J>inge best Jjet is luue-eie. Lihtliche <$ sweteliche 
uoqiue'S ham hore gultes hwon heo ham i-knowe^ and bi- 
hoteS bote. . c fat 

340 Se uorS ase 36 muwen of drunch and of mete and t>f clo^, 
and of oer ]?inges J>et neode of flesche aske, beo^ large 
touward ham, ]>auh 36 ]>e neruwure beon and te herdure to 
ou suluen i vor so de'S he ]>e wel blowe^ went J?e neruwe 
ende of ]>e home to his owune mu^e, $ utward J>ene wide. 

345 And 36 don al so, ase 36 wulleS ]?et ower beoden bemen $ 
dreamen wel ine Drihtenes earen ; and nout one to ower 
ones 2 , auh to alle uolkes heale i ase ure Louerd leue, J>uruh 
J>e grace of himsulf, J>et hit so mote beon. Amen ! 

O j>isse boc rede^ eueriche deie hwon 36 beoS eise 

35 eueriche deie lesse o^er more. Uor ich hopie J>et hit schal 
beon ou, 3if se 36 redeS ofte, swue biheue )>uruh Codes 
grace f and elles ich heuede vuele bitowen muchel of mine 
hwule. God hit wot 3 , me were leouere uorto don me touward 
Rome )>en uorto biginnen hit eft forto donne. And 3if 36 
f 355 minded )>et 36 doS al so ase 36 redeS, ^onke^ God 3eorne i 
and 3if 36 ne do^ nout, bidde^ Godes ore, and beo^ umbe 
J>er abuten J?et 36 hit bet hoi holden, efter ower mihte. Veder 
and Sune and Holi Gost, and on Almihti God, he wite ou 
in his warde! He gledie ou, and froure ou, mine leoue 

360 sustren 1 and, for al ]?et 36 uor him drie^ and suffre^, he ne 
ou neuer lesse huire J>en al-togedere him suluen ! He 

1 C. * sturne ' ; T. ' suhiende.' 2 T. * anres.' 

3 C. and T. ' Deu le set.' 



beo euer i-heied from worlde to worlde, euer on ecchenesse ! / 

Ase ofte ase 30 reade out * o J>isse boc, grete^ J>e lefdi 
mid one Aue Marie, uor him J>et maked[e] Jjeos riwle, and for 365 
him )>et hire wrot and swonc her abuten. Inouh me^ful ich y^,^^- 

i, fet bidde so lutel. 

1 T. ' oht ' ; C. eawet/ 

^w^^^^ ^ 



ABOUT A.D. 12 10. 

THE 'Wooing of Our Lord* is a lengthy paraphrase of a 
portion of the seventh part of the Ancren Riwle (pp. 397-401). 
See 'A Lime Ron' in 'An Old English Miscellany' (ed. Morris), 
for a poetical version of the * Wooing.' 

The selection here given, for the sake of the West Midland 
peculiarities introduced by a later transcriber, is taken from Old 
English Homilies, First Series, pp. 277-283. 

Ihesu mi liues luue riche ar-tu as lau<?rd in heuene and in 
eore. and tab poure Jm bicom for me. westi and wrecched. 
Poure Jm born was of ]>e meidew ]>i moder. for J>e;me ij>i 
burS tid in al |>e burn of belleem ne fant tu bus lewe J?er J>ine 

5 nescbe childes limes ine mihte reste. Bot in a waheles bus 
imiddes J>e strete. Poure Jm wundew was irattes and i clutes 
and caldeliche dennet in a beastes cribbe. Bote swa Jm 
eldere wex i swa Jm pourere was. For i ]>i cbildhad hafdes 
tu J>e pappe to ]>i fode. and ti moder readi hwew Jm pappe 

10 ^erndes. Bote hwew Jm eldere was. }>u \at fuhel ofluht. 
fisch iflod folc on eore fedesf jjoledes for wone of mete 
moni hat hungre as clerkes wit<?rliche in godspel reden. and 
tu \at heuene and eorSe and al }>is werld wrahtes. nauedes 
in al }>is werld hwer ]>u o ]>in ahen ]>i heaued mihtes reste. 

*5 Bote ba^e 3ung and eldre alle-gate l>u hafdes hwer ]>u mihtes 


wrihe ]>me banes. Ah atte laste of )>i lif hwen Jm for me 
swa rewliche hengedes on rode, ne hafdes in al }>is world 
hwer-wrS \at blisfule blodi bodi J>u mihtes hule and huide. 
and swa mi swete lefmon poure j>u }?e self was. and te poure 
]>u ra^este cheas. pou^rte )>u luuedes. pou^rte |>u tahtes. 0</ 20 
3iuen Jm haues echeliche ]nn endelese blisse. til alle \at clenli 
for j?i luue mesaise and pou^rte wilfulliche }>olien. A hu 
schulde i beo riche. and tu mi leof swa poure f for-]>i swete 
u crist wile i beo poure for J?e ; as tu was for ]>e luue of 
e. for to beo riche wrS )>e i ]nn eche blisse. for wrS pou^rte 25 
</wrS wa schal mon wele buggen. A ih^ra swete ihesu leue 
[luue of j?e beo al mi likinge]. Bote pou^rte wi^ menske 
ea^ for to ]>olien. Ah J>u mi lef for mi luue wrS al j?i pou^rte 
s schomeliche heaned. for hu mon J>e ofte seide schome- 
:he wordes and \3%{u\Q l hokeres. long weren hit al to teller. 30 
ote muche scheme }m }>oledes. hwew J>u \at neau<?r suwne 
ides f was taken as untreowe. Broht biforen sinfule men 
hea^ene hundes of ha^z to beo demet. \at demere art of 
erlde. per ]m bote of mon-kin schomeliche was demed. 
[ and te monquellere fra de^es dom was lesed. For as i J>e 35 
godspel is writen. alle }>ai crieden o wode wulues wise Heng 
heng \at treitur ihesus on rode. Heng him o rode, and lese 
us Baraban. was tat barabas a ]>eof \at wrS tresun i ]?e burh 
hafde a mon cwelled. bote mare schome Jm ]?oledes hwe \at 
te sunefule men i ]>i neb spitted. A ih^u hwa mihte mare 40 
polen cristen o^er heaven f J>en mon him for schendlac i J>e 
beard spitted. And tu i ]n welefulle wlite. i \at lufsume leor 
swuche schome ]>oledes. And al \Q menske Jmhte for }>e luue 
of me. \at tu mihtes wi^ \at spatel \at swa biclarted ti leor 
wasche mi sawle. and make hit hwit and schene and semlike 45 
i bi sihte. and for-]n )>u biddes me her-up-on j>enche. Scito t 

riam propkr te sustinui oprobrium operuit confusio faciem 
1 MS. 'haSfuIe.' 


meant. Vnderstond )>u seist and herteliche J>enke J>at i for 
J>e luue of }>e Jjolede scheme and bismere. and schomeliche 

50 spateliwg of unwurSi ribauz j>a hea^ene hundes hilede mi neb 
for j?e. As tah he seide. ne dred tu nawt for ]>e of me to 
J?ole schome of worlde wr3-ute J>ine Gulte. Bote scheme ouer 
schemes J>oledes tu hwew J>u wes henged bituhhe twa Jjeofes. 
As hwa se seie. He J>is is mare J>en ]>eof. And for-)>i as hare 

55 meister he henges ham bituhhen. A ihesu mi Hues luue 
hwat herte ne mai to-breke hwe ha herof Benches hu ]>u \at 
menske art of al mon-kin. of alle bales bote. mow for to 
menske swuch schome ]?oledes. Mon spekes ofte of wundres 
and of selorSes \at misliche and monifald haue bifallew. 

60 bote ]?is was te measte wunder \al eauer bifel on eorSe. ;a 
wund^r ouer wundres \at tat kidde keiser cruned in heuene. 
schuppere of alle schaftes. for to mensken hise fan. walde 
hege bituhhe twa )>eoues. A ihesu swete ihesu Jjat tu wes 
schewt for mi luue leue \at te luue of )?e &c. Inoh were 

65 pou^rte and schome wr6-ute o^re pines bote ne |?uhte 
]>e neau^r mi Hues luue. \at tu mihtes fulliche mi frend- 
schipe buggen hwils J>e lif )>e lasted A. deore cheap hefdes 
tu on me. ne was neau^r unwurSi Jnwg chepet swa deore. 
Al ]>i lif on eor^e wes iswink for me swa lengre swa mare. 

70 Ah bifore j?in ending swa unimeteliche }>u swanc and swa 
sare \at reade blod }>u swattes for as. seznt luk sei^ i ]?e 
godspel. J>u was i swa strang a swine 1 \at te swat as blodes 
dropes corn dune to ]?e eorSe. Bute hwat tunge mai hit 
telle. hwat heorte mai hit J?enche for sorhe and for reow^e 

75 of alle ]>a buffetes and ta bali duntes \at tu }?oledest i ]?in 
earst niminge hwew \at iudas scharioth brohte ]>a helle 
bearnes ]?e to taken and bringen biforew hare princes, hu ha 
J>e bundew swa hetelifaste \at te blod wrang ut at tine finger 
neiles as halhes bileuen and bundew ledden rewli and dintede 

* MS. ( swing.' 



irideli o rug and o schuldres. and bifore ]?e princes buffeted 80 
id beten. SrSen bifore pilat hu J>u was naket bundew faste 
]>e piler. \at tu ne mihtes nowhwider wrenche fra ]?a 
luntes. ]?er ]m wes for mi luue wrS cnotti swepes swungew 
swa ]>at ti luueliche lich mihte beo to-torn and to-rent, and 
al )>i blisfule bodi streamed on a gore 1 blod. SrSen o J>in 85 
heaued wes set te crune of scharpe ]?ornes. \at wrS eauriche 
)>orn wrawg ut te reade blod of J>in heali heaued. SrSen 3ette 
buffetet and to-dunet i ]>e heaued wi^ )>e red 5erde \at te was 
ear in honde 3iuen J?e on hokerringe. A hwat schal i nu 
don ? Nu min herte mai to-breke. min ehne flowen al o 90 
water. A nu is mi lefmow demd for to deien. A nu mow 
ledes him forS to munte caluarie to J?e cwalm-stowe. A lo 
he beres his rode up on his bare schuldres. and lef J>a duntes 
drepew me \at tai J?e dunchen and ]>rasten ]>e forward swi^e 
toward ti dom. A lefmow hu mo folhes te. ]>me frend 95 
sariliche wrS reming and sorhe. jnne fend hokerliche to 
scheme and wundre# up o ]?e. A nu haue ]?ai broht him 
]>ider. A nu raise ]?ai up ]?e rode. Setis up J?e warh-treo. A 
nu nacnes mow mi lef. A. nu driuen ha him up wrS swepes 
and wr$ schurges. A hu Hue i for reow^e ]>#/ seo mi 100 
lefmow up o rode, and swa to-drahen hise limes \at i mai in 
lis bodi euch ban teller. A hu \ai ha nu driue/z irnene neiles 
jnirh ]>ine feire hondes in to hard rode ]>urh ]>ine freoliche fet. 
nu of j>a hondew and of ]?a fet swa luueli. streames te blod 
swa rewli. A nu bedew ha mi leof \at serS \at him ]>ristes i 105 
lisille surest alre drinch menged wi^ galle \at is |>ing bittrest. 
a bale drinch i bio dieting swa sur and swa bittre. bote 
drinkes he hit noht. A nu swete ih^u. 5et up on al ])i 
wa ha eken schome and bismer. lahhen J>e to hokere ]?er |m 
o rode hengest. ]>u mi luueliche lef ]?er ]>u wi^ strahte earmes no 
henges o rode i was reow^e to rihtwise. lahter to j>e UrSere. 

1 MS. Girre.' 


And tu \at al J>e world fore mihte drede and diueref was 
unwreste folk of world to hoker lahter. A \at luuelike bodi 
\at henges swa rewli swa blodi and swa kalde. A hu schal 

115 i nu Hue for nu deies mi lef for me up o ]?e deore rode? 
Henges dun his heaued and sendes his sawle. Bote ne 
Jnnche haw nawt }et \at he is ful pinet, ne \at rewfule deade 
bodi nulen ha nawt frifcie. Bringen forS longis wi$ \at 
brade scharpe spere. He Jmrles his side cleues tat herte. 

120 and cumes flowinde ut of \at wide wunde. )>e blod \at bohte. 
>e water \at te world wesch of sake and of sunne. 



ABOUT A.D. 1 2 10. 

THE 'Orison of our Lady' is a short rhyming poem of 171 
lines, which the writer speaks of as an ' English lay.' It is pro- 
bably a translation of a Latin poem by a monk named John. 
See Preface to ' Old English Homilies,' First Series, p. ix. 

The whole poem is printed in ' Old English Homilies,' First 
Series, from Cott. MS. Nero A ix. (pp. 191-199). 

CBISTES milde moder seynte marie. 

Mines Hues leome mi leoue lefdi. 

To }>e ich buwe and mine kneon ich beie. 

And al min heorte blod to e ich offrie. 

pu ert mire soule liht. and mine heorte blisse. 5 

Mi lif and mi tohope min heale mid iwisse. 

Ich ouh wurSie e mid alle mine mihte. 

And singge ]?e lofsong bi daie and bi nihte. 

Vor )>u me hauest iholpen aueole kunne wise. 

And ibrouht [me] of belle in-to paradise. I0 

Ich hit Jjonkie e mi leoue lefdi. 

And ]>onkie wulle ]?e hwule et ich liuie. 

Alle cristene men owen don ^e wurschipe. 

And singen ^e lofsong mid swu^e muchele gledschipe. 

Vor ^u ham hauest alesed of deoflene honde. 35 

And i-send mid blisse to englene londe. 

Wei owe[n] we ]>e luuien mi swete lefdi. 

Wei owen we uor )>ine luue ure beorte beien. 

VOL. I. K 


pu ert briht and blisful ouer alle wu^men. 

And god 11 ert and gode leof ouer alle wepmen. 20 

Alle meidene were wur$e$ ]>e one. 

Vor J>u ert hore blostme biuoren godes trone. 

Nis no wuwmon iboren J>et e beo iliche. 

Ne non ]>er nis ]>m efning \vr6-\nne heoueriche. 

Heih is J>i kinestol onuppe cherubine. 25 

Biuoren 'Sine leoue sune wrS-inen seraphine. 

Murie dreamed engles biuoren J>in onsene. 

PleieS. andswQieZ. and singed, bitweonen. 

SwuSe wel ham like^ biuoren J?e to beonne. 

Vor heo neuer ne beo^ sead j>i ueir to iseonne. 30 

pine blisse ne mei nowiht understonden. 

Vor al is godes riche an-under j;ine honden. 

Alle J)ine ureondes J>u makest riche kinges. 

pu ham 3iuest kinescrud beies and gold ringes. 

pu shiest eche reste ful of swete blisse. 35 

per e neure dea'S ne com f ne herm ne sorinesse 

per blowe^ iwne blisse blostmen. hwite and reade, 

per ham neu^r ne mei. snou. ne uorst iureden. 

per ne mei non ualuwen. uor ]?er is eche sumer. 

Ne non liuiinde }>ing woe ]?er nis ne jeomer. 40 

per heo schulen resten )>e her ^e do^ wurschipe. 

3if heo jeme^ hore lif cleane urom alle queadschipe. 

per ne schulen heo neu^r karien ne swinken. 

Ne weopen ne murnen ne helle stenches stinken. 

per me schal ham steoren mid guldene chelle. 45 

And schenchen ham eche lif mid englene wille. 

Ne mei non heorte }>enchen ne nowiht arechen. 

Ne no rmrS imelen ne no tunge techen 1 . 

Hu muchel god ^u jeirkest wrS-inne paradise. 

Ham J>et swinkeS dei and niht iine seruise. 50 

1 MS. ' tegen.' 


Al })in bird is i-schrud mid hwite ciclatune. 

And alle heo beo^ ikruned mid guldene krune. 

Heo beo^ so read so rose so hwit so ]>e lilie. 

And euer more heo beoS gled and singed ]>uruhut murie. 

Mid brihte 3imstones hore krune is al biset. 55 

And al heo do^ |>et ham like^. so J>et no ]>ing hazra ne let. 

pi leoue sune is hore king and Jni ert hore kwene. 

Ne beo^ heo neuer i-dreaued mid winde ne mid reine. 

Mid ham is euer more dei wi^-ute nihte. 

Song wrS-ute seoruwe and sib wrS-ute uihte. 60 

Mid ham is mururrSe moniuold wrS-ute teone and treie. 

Gleobeames and gome inouh Hues wil and eche pleie. 

pereuore leoue lefdi long hit j/uncheS us wrecchen. 

Vort Jrti of Jnsse erme hue to ^e suluen us fecche. 

We ne muwen neuer habben fulle gledschipe. 65 

Er we to ]>e suluen kumen to ]>ine heie wurschipe. 

Swete Codes moder softe meiden and wel icoren. 

pin iliche neuer nes ne neu^rmore ne wurS iboren. 

Moder jni ert and meiden cleane of alle laste. 

puruhtut hei and holi in englene reste. 70 

Al englene were and alle holie J>ing. 

Sigge^ and singed J>et tu ert Hues welsprung. 

nd heo sigge^ alle ]>et e ne wonted neu<?r ore. 
Ne no mon J?et ^e wur^e^ ne mei neuer beon uorloren. 
pu ert mire soule [leome] wrS-ute leasunge. 75 

Efter }>ine leoue sune '. leouest alre finge. 
Al is ]?e heouene ful of ]?ine blisse. 
And so is al ]>es middeleard of J?ine mildheortnesse 
So muchel is }>i milce and }>in' edmodnesse. 
pet no mon ]>et ^e jeorne bit of helpe ne mei missen. 80 
Ilch mon ]>et to J>e bisih^ )>u jiuest milce and ore. 
pauh he ^e habbe swu^e agult and i-dreaued sore, 
pereuore ich ^e bidde holi heouene kwene. 

K 2 


pet tu }if Jn wille is iher mine bene. 

Ich ^e bidde lefdi uor Jjere gretunge. 85 

pet Gabriel ^e brouhte urom ure heouen kinge. 

And ek ich e biseche uor ihesu cristes blode. 

pet for ure note was i-sched o^ere rode. 

Vor e muchele seoruwe et was o^ine mode. 

po Jm et e dea^e him bi-uore stode. 90 

pet }>u me makie cleane wr$-uten and eke wr-i;men. 

So }>et me ne schende none kunnes sunne. 

pene lo^e deouel and alle kunnes dweoluh^e. 

Aulem urom me ueor awei mid hore fule fuFSe. 

Mi leoue lif urom J>ine luue ne schal me no J>ing to-dealen. 

Vor oe is al ilong mi lif and eke min heale. 96 

Vor jnne luue i swinke and sike wel ilome. 

Vor }>ine luue ich ham ibrouht in to jjeoudome. 

Vor j>ine luue ich uorsoc al J?et me leof was. 


BEFORE A.D. 1250. 

THE Old English Bestiary is a free translation of the Physi- 
ologus of Thetbaldus, in Latin verse. (See Old English Miscel- 
lany, p. 201.) 

It has been frequently printed : twice by Mr. Thomas Wright, 
in (i) ' Altdeutsche Blatter/ vol.ii. Leipzig, 1837 ; (2) in < Reli- 
quiae Antique,' vol. i. p. 208 ; by Matzner, in his ' Altenglische 
Sprachproben' ; and by myself in * An Old English Miscellany/ 
p. i, from the Arundel MS. 292. 

In the Codex Exoniensis (ed. Thorpe) there are two very 
curious descriptions of the panther (p. 355), and of the whale 
(p. 360), which may have formed part of an Old English poetical 
Bestiary. Mr. Wright has printed Philippe de Thaun's ' Livres 
des Creatures ' and ' Le Bestiaire ' in his ' Popular Treatises on 
Science written during the Middle Ages' (1841). 

The dialect in the Old English Bestiary is East-Midland. 

Natura leonis / a . 

De leun stant on hille, 

and he man hunten here, 

OSer ^urg his nese smel 

Smake 'Sat he negge, 

Bi wile weie so he wile 5 

To dele nier wenden, 

Alle hise fet -steppes 


After him he filled, 

Drage^ dust wrS his stert 

er he [dun] stepped, 10 

Oer dust oer deu, 

'Sat he ne cunne is finden, 

driue^ dun to his den 

v$ar he him bergen wille. 

An o^er kinde he haue^; 15 

wanne he is ikindled, 

Stffle li* *e leun, 

ne stire'S he nout of slepe 

Til e sunne haue^ sinen 

ries him abuten, 20 

Sanne reise^ his fader him 

mit te rem at he 


De ^ridde lage haue'S e leun; 

anne he lie^ to slepen, 

Sal he neure luken 25 

e lides of hise egen. 

Significacio prime nature, 

Welle heg is tat hil, 

at is heuen-riche, 

vre louerd is te leun, 

e liue^ er abuuen ; 30 

wu o him likede 

to ligten her on ere, 



Migte neure diuel witen, 

og he be derne hunte, 

hu he dun come, 

Ne \vu he dennede him 

in Sat defte meiden, 

Marie bi name, 

e him bar to manne frame. 

z/ a ei ti)\. 

Do ure drigten ded was, 

and doluen, also his wille was, 

In a ston stille he lai 

til it kam e Sridde 1 dai, 

His fader him nlstnede swo 

at he ros fro dede o, 

vs to lif holden, 

wake^S so his wille is, 

So hirde for his folde; 

He is hirde, we ben sep; 

Silden he us wille, 

If we heren to his word 

at we ne gon nowor wille. 

Nalura aquile. 

KrSen i wille e ernes kinde, 
Also ic it o boke rede, 
wu he neweS his gu^hede, 
hu he cume^ ut of elde, 
SrSen hise limes arn unwelde, 
Si^en his bee is al to-wrong,, 
Sien his fligt is al unstrong, 
x MS. 'dridde.' 






and his egen dimme ; 60 

Here^ wu he newe'S him. 

A welle he sekeS at springe^ ai 

bo^e bi nigt and bi dai, 

er-ouer he flegeS, and up he teS, 

til at he e heuene se^, 65 

urg skies sexe and seuene 

til he cumeS to heuene; 

So rigt so he cunne 

he houe'S in e sunne; 

^e sunne swide'S al his fligt, 70 

and oc it makeS his egen brigt, 

Hise feres fallen for e hete, 

and he dun mide to ^e wete 

Failed in ^at welle grund, 

^er he wurdeS heil and sund, 75 

and cume^ ut al nevve, 

Ne were his bee untrewe. 

His bee is get biforn wrowg, 

og hise limes senden strong, 

Ne maig he tilen him now fode 80 

him self to none gode, 

anne go^ he to a ston, 

and he billed ^er-on, 

Billed til his bee biforn 

haue^ ^e wreng^e forloren, 85 

SrSen wi^ his rigte bile 

take^ mete at he wile. 


Al is man so is tis ern, 
wulde ge nu listen, 


Old in hise sinnes dern, 9 

Or he bicume'S cristen; 
and tus he newe'S him 'Sis man, 

awne he mine's to kirke, 
Or he it brSenken can, 

hise egen weren mirke; 95 

Forsaket Sore satanas, 

and ilk sinful dede; 
Take^ him to ihmi crist, 

for he sal ben his mede ; 
Leue'S on ure loue[r]d crist, too 

and tare's prestes lore ; 
Of hise egen were'S e mist, 

\viles he dree Che's 'Sore, 
his hope is al to gode-ward, 

and of his luue he tare's, 105 

'Sat is te sunne sikerlike, 

=Sus his sigte he beteS; 
Naked failed in ^e funt-fat, 

and ciime^ ut al newe, 
buten a litel; wat is tat? no 

his mil's is get untrewe ; 
his mil's is get wel unkirS 

wi^ pater noster and crede ; 
Fare he norS, er fare he siiS, 

leren he sal his nede; 115 

bidden bone to gode, 

and tus his mu'S rigten ; 
tilen him so 'Se sowles fode, 

'Surg gr^ce off ure drigtin. 


Natura formice. 

De mire is magti, 

mikel ge swinkeS 235 

In sum<?r and in softe weder, 

So we ofte sen hauen; 

In e heruest 

hardilike ganged, 

and rennet rapelike, 240 

and rested hire seldum, 

and feche'S hire fode 

er ge it mai finden, 

gaddreS ilkines sed 

boen of wude and of wed, 245 

Of corn and of gres, 

at [h]ire to hauen es, 

haleS to hire hole, 

at sien hire helped 

ar ge wile ben winter agen; 2^0 

caue ge haue^ to crepen in, 

*Sat winter hire ne derie; 

Mete in hire hule Sat 

at ge muge biliuen, 

us ge tile^ $ar, 255 

wiles ge time haue, 

so it her tellers; 

oc finde ge e wete, 

corn at hire qweme^, 

Al ge forlete^ ^is o^er se^ 260 

at ic her seide ; 

Ne bit ge nowt Se 1 barlic 

beren abuten; 

1 MS. ' de.' 


oc sune^ it and sake^ forS, 

so it same were. 

get is wuncbr of is wirm 

more ^anne man wene^, 

e corn at ge to caue bercrS 

al get bit otwinne, 

at it ne forwurSe 

ne waxe hire fro, 

er ge it eten wille. 





De mire muneS us 

mete to tilen, 

Long liueno^e, 

is little wile 

e we on is werld wunen: 

for anne we of wen den, 

^anne is ure winter ; 

we sulen hunger hauen 

and harde sures, 

buten we ben war here. 

do we forSi so do^ is der, 

anne be we derue 
On ^at dai 'Sat dom sal ben, 
at it ne us harde rewe : 
Seke we ure liues fod, 

^at we ben siker fcere 1 , 
So 'Sis wirm in winter is, 

an ge ne tile^ nuwmore. 
e mire sune^ e barlic, 

'Sanne ge fint te wete; 
1 MS. dere.' 




140 M". ^ BESTIARY. 

Se olde lage we ogen to sunen, 

e newe we hauen moten. 
e corn at ge to caue bereS, 295 

all ge it bit otwinne, 
e lage us lereS to don god, 

and forbedeS us sinne., 
It bet us erSliche bodes, 

and bekue^ 1 [hjeuelike; 300 

It fet $e licham and te gost 

oc nowt o geuelike; 
vre louerd crist it leue us 

Sat his lage us fede, 
nu and o domesdei, 305 

and tanne we hauen nede. 

1 MS. ' bekued." 



BEFORE A.D. 1250. 

M. PAUL MEYER found five short sermons in the Kentish 
dialect in Laud MS. 471 (Bodleian Library), along with their 
original in French, by Maurice de Sully. 

These five sermons are printed in * An Old English Miscellany,' 
pp. 26-36. 

Sermo in Die Epiphanie. 

CVM natus esset ihesus in betleem iude in diebus herodis 
regis ecce magi ab oriente ueneruwt ierosolimazra dicentes. 
Vbi e^/ qui natus est rex iudeoTum. IF We redeth i ]?o holi 
godespelle of te dai ase lire louerd god almichti i-bore was 
of ure lauedi seite Marie i ]>e cite of bethleem. J)et si sterre 5 
was seauinge of his beringe. swo apierede te }>o ]>rie kinges 
of he}>enesse. to-janes J>o sunne risindde. And al swo hi 
bi-knewe his beringe bi J>o sterre. swo hi nomen conseil 
be-tuene hem J?et hi wolden gon for to hyne an-uri. and J?et 
hi wolden offri him. gold, and stor. and Mirre. And al swo 10 
hi hedden aparailed here offrendes swo kam si sterre J>et 
yede to-for hem in-to ierusalem. pere hi spekew to herodes 
and hym askede. wer was se king of gyus )>et was i-bore. 
And herodes i-herde ]>et o king was i-bore J?et solde bi king 
of geus. swo was michel amid, and alle hise men. for J>et 15 
he was of-dred for to liese his king-riche of ierusalem. J)o 
dede he somoni alle ]>o wyse clerekes ]?et ku]?e ]>e laghe and 


hem askede wer crist solde bien i-bore. Hi answerden }>et 
ine icTusalem. for hit was swo i-seid and be-hote hwilew bi 

20 \>o profetes. And al-swo herodes i-herde )>is. swo spac te 
}>o J>rie kinges. and hem seide. Go]? ha seide into bethleem 
and seche)> ]>et child, and wanne ye hit habbeth hi-funde swo 
an-uret hit. and efter J>et cometh to -me. and hie wille go 
and an-uri hit. pet ne seide he nocht herodes for J>et he hit 

25 wolde on-uri f ac for J>et he hit wolde slon. yef he hit michte 
finde. po kinges hem wenten and hi seghen ]>o sterre )>et 
yede bi-fore hem. al-wat hi kam over }>o huse. war ure 
louerd was. and al swo hi hedden i-fonden ure louerd i swo 
hin an-urede. and him offrede hire offrendes. Gold. and. 

30 stor. and Mirre. po nicht efter ]>et aperede an ongel of 
heuene in here slepe ine metinge and hem seide and het. 
f>et hi ne solde a-yen wende be herodes. ac be an o]>er weye 
wende into hire londes. IF Lordinges and leuedis J>is is si 
glorius miracle, and si gbrius seywinge of ure lordes beringe. 

35 J>et us telj) J>et holi godespel of te day. and ye muee wel 
under-stonde be J>o speche of }>e godspelle j>et me sal to dai 
mor makie offrinke fan an oj>ren dai. and ]>er-of us yeft 
ensample J>o }>rie kinges of he]?enesse. ]?et comen fram ver- 
rene londes ure louerd to seche. and him makie offrinke. 

4 And be j?et hi offrede gold. J?et is cuuenable yeftte to kinge : 
seawede J?et he was sothfast king 1 , and be J>et hi offrede Stor. 
J>et me offrede wylem be J?o ialde laghe to here godes sacre- 
fisei seawede J>e[t] he was verray prest. And be J?et hi 
offrede Mirre. )>et is biter J>ing. signefieth J>et hi hedde bi- 

45 liaue ]?et he was diadlich. J>et diath solde suffri for man-ken. 
Nu i-hiereth wet signefieth J>et Gold. }>et. Stor. }>et Mirre. 
And offre we Gostliche to ure lorde. )>et [h]i offrede fles- 
liche. pet Gold J>et is bricht and glareth ine }>o brichtnesse 
of \>o sunne. signefieth the gode beleaue. J>et is bricht ine ]>e 

1 MS. 'kink.' 



ode cristenemannes herte. Si gode beleaue licht and is 5 
debt ine J?o herte of )>o gode Ma;me ase gold. Offre we 
J>anne god almichti god gold. Be-leue we stede-fast-liche. 
j?et he is fader and sune. and holy gost. is on-lepi god. 
Wo so hath beleaue ine gode swo offreth him god gold. J>et 
Stor signefied gode werkes. for ase se smech of ]>e store 55 
wanne hit is i-do into J>e uered and goth upward to )>o heuene 
and to gode ward swo amuntet si gode biddinge to gode of 
J>o herte of }>o gode cristenemawne. Swo we mowe sigge 
)>et stor signefieth J>e herte. and se smech luue of gode. Bi l 
]?et Mirre J>at is biter. ad be J>o biternesse defendet )?et Cors 60 
J?et is mide i-smered. J?et no werm nel co;;zme i-hende i sig- 
nefiet }>o gode werkes }>et is biter to J>o yemernesse of ure 
flesce. Si Mirre signefiet uastinge. for j?o luue of gode 
wakie. go ine pelrimage. uisiti }>e poure. and to sike. and 
to do alle J>e gode )>et he may do for godes luue. j>o ilke 65 
Jnnges so bieth bitere to }>o wrichede flessce. Ac al-so si 
mirre loket ]>et bodi }>et no werm ne may )>er i-hende come i 
so us defewdet }>o ilke Binges fram senne. and fram }>e amon- 
estemewt of j>o dieule ]>et ha ne may us mis-do. Lordinges 
nu ye habbet i-herd J>o signefiawce of ]>o oifringes Jjet maden 70 
]>o ]>rie kinges of he]?enesse to gode. ye 2 habbet to gode 
i-offred of yure selure. and of yure erj?liche godes. Ne ne 
offreth him nacht on-lepiliche to day. ac alle ]>o daies i ]>o 
yere gostliche. Gold, and Stor. and Mirre. ase hie habbe 
i-told. Gold ' fore Gode belaue. Stor i for holy urisun. 75 
Mirre. for gode werkes. ]>et bieth ]?o offringes. j>et ure 
louerd be-sekej> aueriche daye ]?o cristenemawne. and were- 
fore se ^ristewmaw yef has de]> i of-seruet \>o blisce of heuene. 
And ihu crist ]>et for us wolde an erfe bi [i]-bore. ad 
anured of J?o ]?rie kinges of painime i he yeu[e] us his grace 80 
of J)0 holi gost in ure hertes wer-bi we moue hatie }>o ileke 

1 MS. Li.' 2 MS. f hye. J 


]>inges )>et he hatedh. and lete ]>o ilke * Binges |>at he for-biet. 
and luuie }>o ilke Binges 2 j?at he luued. and do ]>o ilke 3 Binges 
|?at he h<5<5t. ine him so bileue and bidde ad serui. ]>et we 
85 mowe habbe \>o blisce of heueriche. Qaod uobis prestare 
&ignelur per. [&c.] 

Domini\cd\ secunda post octavam epiphanie. Sermo Euan. 

Nuptie fac/e sut in chana galilde. et erat mater ihmi ibi. 
Vocatus est aufem \\iesus ad nuptias et discipuli eius. H pet 
holi godspel of to day us tel]?. ]>et a bredale was i-maked ine 

90 ]>o londe of ierusalem. in ane cite J>at was i-cleped Cane in 
]>a time J?at godes sune yede in er]?e fles[ch]liche ac. To ])a 
bredale was ure leuedi seiwte Marie, and ure louerd ihesus 
crist and hise deciples. so iuel auenture ]>et wyn failede. at 
]>ise bredale. ]>o seide ure leuedi seinte Marie, to here sune. 

95 hi ne habbet no wyn. And ure louerd answerde and sede to 
hire. Wat be-longeth hit to me o]>er to )>e wyman. Nu ne 
dorste hi namore sigge. ure lauedi. Hac hye spac to ]>o 
serganz ]?et seruede of ]?o wyne. and hem seyde. al ]>et he 
hot yu do i so do}>. And ure louerd clepede J>e serganz awd 

ioo seyde to him. Fol-vellet ha seyde. j>os Ydres. )?et is to 
sigge j>os Crdds. ojjer fos fate of watere. for )>er were, 
vi. Ydres of stone. j>et ware i-clepede bajneres wer J?o gi#.r 
hem wesse for clenesse. and for religiun. Ase J>e custome 
was ine J?o time. \o sergawz uuluelden \o faten of watere 

105 and hasteliche was i-went into wyne. bie J>o wille of ure 
louerde. ]>o seide ure lord, to J>o serganz. Moveth to-gid^re 
and bereth to Architriclin. )>at was se j?et ferst was i-serued. 
And al-so hedde i-drunke of ]?ise wyne )>et ure louerd hedde 
i-maked of J>e watere : ha niste nocht fe miracle, ac J)O 

no serganz wel hit wiste. ]?et hedde J>et water i-brocht. )>o seide 
1 MS. 'ileke.' * MS. 'ilek >inkes.' 8 MS. ' ilek.' 



irchitriclin to po bredgume. Oper men seyde he dop for]> 
;t beste wyn pet hi habbep ferst at here bredale. and pu 
st ido pe contr0rie }>et pu hest i-hialde pet beste wyn wat 
m f pis was pe cowmewc^mewt of po miracles of ure louerde 
jt he made flesliche in er)>e, and po beleuede on himf his 115 
leciples, Ine sigge nacht pet hi ne hedden per before ine 
lim beliaue i ac fore pe miracle pet hi seghe i was here 
iliaue pe more i-stre/zgped, Nu. ye habbej) i-herd j>e Mira- 
ge, nu i-here|> pe signefiance. pet water bitockned se euele 

enemaw. for al-so pet water is natureliche chald and 120 
i-kelp alle )>o pet hit drinkep.' so is se euele f^risteman 
chald of po luue of Code, for ]>o euele werkes pet hi dop. 
Ase so is Lecherie. spusbreche. Roberie. Manslechtes. Hus- 
berners. Bakbiteres. and alle opre euele deden. Jmrch wyche 
pinkes man ofserueth )>et fer of helle. Ase godes oghe 125 
mudh hit seid. and alle J>o signefied pet water! pet purch. 
jemere werkes. oper purch yemer i-wil liesed po blisce of 
heuene. pet wyn pat is naturelliche hot ine him-selue i and 
i-het alle po pet hit drinked.' be-tokned alle po pet bied 
i-hdet of pe luue of ure lorde. Nu lordinges ure lord god 130 
Imichti. pat hwylem in one stede. and ine one time flesliche 
lakede of watere wyn f yet habbep manitime maked of 
tere wyn i gostliche. wanne purch his grace maked of po 
lele manne good man. of pe orgeilus umble. of pe lechur 
:haste. of pe nipinge large, and of alle opre folies f so ha 135 
maket of po watere wyn. pis his si signefiance of pe miracle. 
lu loke euerich man toward him-seluen. yef he is win i pet 
to siggen yef he is an-heet of po luue of gode. oper yef he 
water, pet is yef pu art chold of godes luue. yef pu art 
lei man f besech ure lorde pet he do ine pe his uertu. pet 140 

pe wende of euele into gode. and pet he do pe do swiche 
rerkes pet pu mote habbe po blisce of heuene. Quod uobis. 
esiare digmtur [<Jv.] 

VOL, I. L 

XIV. , 


A.D. 1246-1250. 

THE poem containing the Proverbs of Alfred was once very 
popular in England. It professes to contain the wise sayings 
delivered by Alfred to his Witenagemot at Seaford. Allu- 
sions are made to these Proverbs in the poem of the Owl and 

There is a MS. of this poem in Jesus College, Oxford (29), 
and another in Lincoln College, Oxford. There were copies 
in Trinity College, Cambridge, and Cotton Collection, Galba 
A xix, which are now lost. 

The present selection, in the Southern dialect, is taken from 
' An Old English Miscellany ' (edited for the Early English Text 
Society by Dr. Morris, 1872), pp. 102-130. 

Incipiunt documenta Regis Aluredi. 


AT Seuorde 

se*te J>eynes monye. 

fele Biscopes. 

and feole bok-ilered. 

Eorles prute. $ 

knyhtes egleche. 


j>ar wes ]>e eorl Alurich. 

of ]>are lawe swij>e wis. 

And ek Ealured 

englene hurde. 

Englene durlyng f 

on englene londe he wes kyng. 

Heom he bi-gon lere. 

so ye mawe i-hure. 

hw hi. heore lit" 

lede scholden. 

Alured. he wes in englene lond. 

and king, wel swij>e strong. 

He wes king, and he wes clerek. 

wel he luuede godes werk. 

He wes wis on his word. 

and war. on his werke. 

he wes J>e wysuste mow f 

j>at wes engle-londe on. 




pvs quej> Alured 
englene frouer. 
wolde ye, mi, leode 
lusten e'ure lou^rde. 
he 6u wolde wyssye. 
wisliche Jnnges. 
hw ye myhte worldes. 
w[u]r]?sipes welde. 
and ek cure saule. 
somnen to criste. 
wyse were ]?e wordes. 
)>e seyde ]>e king Alured. 
L 2 



Mildeliche ich Munye. 

myne leoue freond. 

poure and riche. 

leode myne 

J>at ye alle a-drede. 

vre dryhten crist. 

luuyen hine and lykyen. 

for he is louerd of lyf. 

He is one. god.' 

oner alle godnesse. 

He is one gleaw. 

ouer alle glednesse. 

He is one. blisse. 

ouer alle blissen. 

He is one monne. 

Mildest mayster. 

He is one. folkes fader. 

and frouer. 

He is one. rihtwis. -- 

and so riche king. 

J>at him ne schal beo wone. 

nouht of his wille. 

fe 1 hine her on worlde. 

\v[u]r))ie )>enchej>. ... &> 


pus que)> Alured. 

pe eorl and J>e ejjelyng. 

ibure]) vnder godne king. 75 

J>at lond to leden. 

myd lawelyche deden. 

1 MS. 'we.' 


And ]>e clerek and ]>e knyht. 

he schulle d^men euelyche riht. 

\>e poure. and j>e ryche. 80 

demen ilyche. 

Hwych so )>e mon sowej) i 

al swuch he schal mowe. 

And eiwuyches monnes dom, 

to his owere dure churrej?. . . . 


]>us que]> Alured. 

Monymon \vene)> 160 

]>at he wene ne J>arf. 
longes lyues, 
ac him lyej) J>e wrench, 
for J>anne his lyues 

alre best luuede. 165 

]>enne ha schal le*ten i 
lyf his owe. 

for nys no w[u]rt wexynde 1 
a wude. ne a velde. 

]?at euer mvwe ]>as feye 170 

fur)> vp-holde. 
Not no mon ]>ene tyme. 
hwanne he' schal. heonne turne. 
Ne nomon ]>ene ende. 
hwenne he schal heonne wende. 175 

Dryhten hit one wot. 
dowe]>es louerd, 
hwanne vre lif 
leten schule. . . . 

1 MS, ' uexynde.' 



Jms quep Alured. 195 

Ne ilef j>u nouht to fele. 

uppe pe $66 pat fiowej>. 

If pu hafst madmes 

monye and inowe. 

gold and seoluer. 200 

hit schal gnyde to nouht. 

to duste hit schal dryuen. 

Dryhten schal libben euere. 

Monymon for his gold. 

haue]> godes vrre. 205 

And for his seoluer. 

hym seolue for-yeme]>. 

for-yete]) and forlesep. 

Betere him by-come 

iboren pat he neVe. ... 210 


Jnis quep Alured. 

If )>u hauest seorewe. 

ne seye pu hit nouht pan arewe. 

seye hit pine sadelbowe. 

and ryd }>e singinde forp. 230 

penne wile wene. 

pet pine wise ne con f 

pat pe pine wise wel lyke. 

serewe if pu hauest. 

and pe erewe hit wotf 235 

by-fore, he pe nienepi 

by-hynde he pe telep. 


Jm hit myht segge swyhc mo/z. 

J>at J?e ful wel on. 

\vy])-vte echere ore. 

he on J>e Muchele more. 

By-hud hit on Jnre heorte f 

J>at }>e eft ne smeorte. 

Ne let Jm hyne wite. 

al pat Jnn heorte by-wite. . 

I -V 




Jms que}> Alured. 410 

NE gabbe Jm ne schotte. 

ne chid Jm wyj) none sotte. 

ne myd manyes cunnes tales. 

ne chid Jm wij> nenne dwales. 

Ne neuer Jm ne bi-gynne. 415 

to telle }>ine ty}>inges. 

At nones fremannes borde. 

ne haue Jm to vale worde. 

Mid fewe worde. wismon 

fele biluken wel con. 420 

And sottes bolt is sone i-scohte. 

for-J)i ich holde hine for [a] dote. 

fat say}) al his wille. 

J>anne he scholde beon stille. 

For ofte tunge brekej) bon 5 425 

J>eyh heo seolf nabbe non. 

2 3- 

pus que]) Alured. 

Wis child is fader blisse. 

If hit so bi-tydej) 


J>at J)U bern ibidest. 430 

J>e hwile hit is lutel. 

ler him mon-J?ewes. 

Jeanne hit is wexyndef 

hit schal wende ]?ar-to. 

J>e betere hit schal i\vurj>e 435 

euer buuen eor)>e. 

Ac if J>u him lest welde. 

werende^n worlde. 

lude and stille. 

his owene wille. 440 

hwanne cumej) ealde. 

ne myht jm hyne awelde. 

J>anne dej> hit sone. 

J>at J>e bi]> vnyqueme. 

Ofer-howe]) J)in ibod. 445 

and make]) J>e ofte sory-mod. 

Betere J>e were. 

iboren )>at he nere. 

for betere is child vnbore. 

}>ane vnbuhsum. 450 

]>e mon j>e sparej) yeorde. 

and yonge childe. 

and let hit arixlye. 

J>at he hit areche ne may. 

J>at him schal on ealde i 455 

sore reowe. Amen. 

Explidunt dicta Regis AluredL 
1 Read wexende ; see 1. 433. 



ABOUT A.D. 1250. 

THE following passages in the life of Joseph are taken from 
' The Story of Genesis and Exodus,' an Early English song, edited 
for the Early English Text Society by R. Morris, 1865. 

Nothing is known of the author of this interesting version ; the 
MS. from which it is edited was written shortly before A.D. 1300, 
and the dialect is most probably the East-Midland of South 

FOr sextene ger Joseph was old, 
Qwane he was in-to egipte sold; 
He was iacobes gunkeste sune, 
Brictest of wastme 1 , and of witter wime, 1910 

If he sag hise bre^ere mis-faren, 
His fader he it gan vn-hillen & baren; 
He wulde at he sulde hem ten 
'Sat he wel ewed sulde ben; 

for-^i wexem wr3 [him] gret nrS 1915 

And hate, for it in ille 1&. 
o wex her hertes ni^ful & bold 
Qwanne he hem adde is dremes told, 
at his handful stod rigt up soren, 
And here it leigen alle hem bi-foren; 1920 

1 MS. ' waspene.' 


And sunne, & mone, & sterres .xi e . 

wurSeden \\i?n wr8 frigti luue; 

o seide his fader, 'hu mai 'Sis sen 

at $11 salt us wured ben, 

at 'Sine bre^ere, and ic, and she 1925 

Sat e bar, sulen luten e?' , 

fcus'he chidden hem bi-twen, 

$oge hogte iacob sie it sulde ben. 

Hise bre^ere kepten at sichem 

Hirdnesse, & iacob to sen hem 1930 

sente ioseph to dalen ebron ; 

And he was redi his wil to don. 

In sichem feld ne fonde hem nogt, 

In dotayin he fond hew sogt; 

He knewen him fro feren kumen, 1935 

Hate hem on ros, in herte numen; 

Swilc nrS & hate ros hem on, 

He redden alle him for to slon. 

'Nai/ qad ruben, 'slo we \\\m nogt, 

OSer sinne may ben wrogt, 1940 

Qwat-so him drempte or qwiles he slep, 

In is cisternesse *, old and dep, 

Get wur^ [h]e worpen naked and cold, 

Qwat-so his dremes owen a-wold/ 

^is dede was don wid herte sor, 1945 

Ne wulde ruben nogt drechen or; 

He gede and sogte an oer stede, 

His erue in bettre lewse he dede; 

Vdas dor qwiles gaf hem red, 

at was fulfilt of derne sped; 1950 

fro galaad men wrS chafare 

1 MS. ' 'Sisternesse.' 


Sag he %or kumen vvid spices ware; 

To-warde egipte he gunne ten. 

ludas tagte hu it sulde ben, 

Joseph solde ^e bre^ere ten, 1955 

for .xxx. plates to ^e chapmen; 

Get wast bettre he ^us was sold, 

dan he or storue in here wold. 

T~\an r#ben cam ^ider a-gen, 

t/ to at cistemesse he ran to sen; 1960 

He missed Joseph and ^hogte swem, 

wende him slagen, set up an rem; 

Nile he blinnen, swilc sorwe him 1 cliued, 

Til him he sweren %at he liued. 

o nomen he >e childes srud, 1965 

e iacob hadde madim in prud; 

In kides blod he wenten it, 

o was or-on an rewli lit. 

Sondere men he it leiden on, 

And senten it iacob i-to ebron, 1970 

And shewed it hi;#, and boden hi;/z sen 

If his childes wede it migte ben; 

Senten him bode he funden it. 

o iacob sag dat sori writ, 

He gret, and seide at 'wilde der 1975 

Hauen min sune swolgen her/ 

His clones rent, in haigre srid, 

Long grot and sorge is him bi-tid. 

His sunes comen him to sen, 

And hertedin him if it migte ben; 1980 

*Nai! nai!' qat he, 'helped it nogt, 

Mai non hertiwg on me ben wrogt 

1 MS. he.' 


ic sal ligten till helle dale, 

And groten or min sunes bale/ 

(or was in helle a sundri stede, 1985 

wor e seli folc reste dede; 

or he stunden til helpe cam, 

Til ihmi crist fro 'Se'Sen hem l nam.) 

^e chapmen skinden 2 here fare, 

In-to egipte ledden $at ware; 1990 

wiS putifar $e kinges stiward, 

He maden swrSe bigetel forward, 

So michel fe or is hem told, 

He hauen him bogt, he hauen sold. 

Pvtifar trewrS hise wivves tale, 
And haued dempt iosep to bale; 
He bad [him] ben sperd fast[e] dun, 
And holden harde \n prisun. 2040 

An litel stund, qwile he was er, 
So gan him luuen e pr/suner, 
And him de chartre haue'S bi-tagt, 
wrS o pr/sunes to liuen in hagt. 
Or for misdede, or for on-sagen, 2045 

or woren to at pr/sun dragen, 
On ^at e kinges kuppe bed, 
And on e made ^e kinges bred; 
Hem drempte dremes bo^en onigt, 
And he wurSen swi^e sore o-frigt; 2050 

Joseph hem seruede or on sel, 
At here drink and at here mel, 
He herde hem mwrnen, he hem freinde for-qwat; 
Harde dremes ogen awold at. 

1 MS. ' Sedcn he.' 2 MS. skiuden.' 


o seide he to e butuler, 2055 

'Tel me ^in drem, mi broker her. 
Qwe^er-so it \vure softe or strong, 
e reching \vurS on god bi-long.' 
'Ti/re drempte, ic stod at a win-trc, 
_LYJL at adde waxen buges re, 2060 

Orest it blomede, anJ srSen bar 
e beries ripe, wurS ic war; 
e kinges [kuppe] ic hadde on hond, 
^e beries 'Sor-inne me ^hugte ic wrong, 
And bar it drinken to pharaon, 2065 

Me drempte, als ic was wune to don.' 

ood is/ qua% Joseph, ' to dremen of win, 

heilnesse an blisse is er-in; 
^re daies ben get for to cumen, 
u salt ben lit of pnsun numen, 2070 

And on 'Sin offiz set agen ; 
Of me $u Shenke an it sal ben, 
Bed min herdne to pharaon, 
: Sa[t] ic ut of pnsun wur^e don, 
for ic am stolen of kinde lond, 2075 

and her wrigteleslike holden in bond/ 

Qua'S &S bred-wrigte, MrSeS nu me, 
me drempte ic bar bread-lepes re, 
And or-in bread and o^er meten, 
Qwilke ben wune e kinges to eten; 2080 

And fugeles hauen or-on lagt, 
or-fore ic am in sorge and hagt, 
for ic ne migte me nogt weren, 
Ne at mete fro hem beren/ 

'"jl/Te wore leuere,' qwad loseph, 2085 

1VJL 'Of eddi dremes rechen swep; 
^u salt, after ^e ^ridde dei, 


ben do on rode, weila-wei! 
And fugeles sulen i fleis to-teren, 
'Sat sal non agte mugen e weren/ 2090 

SoS wurS so ioseph seide at, 
'Sis buteler Ioseph sone for-gat. 
Two ger srSen was Ioseph sperd 
or in przsun wrS-uten erd; 

T\o drempte pharaon king a drem, 2095 

TJ at he stod bi $e flodes strem, 
And eden ut-comen .vii. neet, 
Eufrilc wel swrSe fet and gret, 
And '.vii." lene after 0, 

'Se deden ^e .vii. fette wo, 2100 

e lene hauen ^e fette freten; 
is drem ne mai e king for-geten. 
An o^er drem cam him bi-foren, 
.vii. eares wexen fette of coren, 
On an busk, ranc and wel tidi, 2105 

And .vii. lene rigt $or-bi, 
welkede, and smale, and drugte numen, 
e ranc he hauen o ou^r-cumen, 
To-samen it smiten and, on a stund, 
^e fette rist hem to ^o grund. 2110 

^e king abraid and woe in Shogt, 
es dremes swep ne wot he nogt, 
Ne was non so wis man in al his lond, 
e kude vn-don is dremes bond ; 
o him bi-^hogte 'Sat buteler 2115 

Of 'Sat him drempte in przsun ^er, 
And of ioseph in ^e prisun, 
And he it tolde e king pharaun. 
Ioseph was sone in prisun o sogt 1 , 
1 MS. 'hogt.' 


And shauen, & clad, & to him brogt; 2120 

e king }\\m bad ben hardi & bold, 

If he can reehen is dremes wold; 

He told him qwat him drempte o nigt, 

And iosep rechede his drem wel rigt. 

'Sis two dremes boen ben on, 2125 

God wile e tawnen, king pharaon; 

o .vij. ger ben get to cumen, 

In al fulsum-hed sulen it ben numen, 

And .vij. o^ere sulen after ben, 

Sori and nedful men sulen is sen; 2130 

Al at ise first .vii. maken, 

Sulen is o^ere vii. rospen & raken; 

Ic rede e king, nu her bi-foren, 

To maken laSes and gaderew coren, 

'Sat in folc ne wurS vnder-numen, 2135 

Qwan o hungri gere ben forS-cumen.' 

King pharaon listnede hise red, 

at wur'S him si^en seli sped. 

He bi-tagte iosep his ring, 

And his bege of gold for wur&ng, 2140 

And bad him al his lond bi-sen, 

And under him hegest for to ben, 

And bad him welden in his hond 

His folc, and agte, & al his lond; 

o was vnder him ^anne putifar, 2145 

And his wif at hem 1 so to-bar. 

Iosep to wiue his dowter nam, 

O^er is nu an 2 ear bi-cam; 

And ghe er him two childer bar, 

Or men wurS of %at hunger war, 2150 

first manassen and effraym; 

"' MS. ' him. a MS. ' qwan. f 


He luueden god, he geld it hem. 

e .vii. fulsuw geres faren, 

losep cue him bi-foren waren; 

an coren wantede in cxSer lond, 2155 

o ynug [was] vnder his hond. 

Hvnger wex in lond chanaan, 
And his .x. sunes iacob for-^an 
Sente in to egipt to bringen coren; 
He bilef at horn e was gungest boren. 2160 

e .x. comen, for nede sogt, 
To losep, and he ne knewen him nogt; 
And og he lutten him frigtilike, 
AT\% seiden to him mildelike, 
'.We ben sondes for nede driuen 2165 

To bigen coren or-bi to liuen.' 
(losep hem knew al in his hogt 
Als he let he knew hem nogt.) 
'It semet wel $at ge spies ben, 
And in to ^is lond cumen to sen, 2170 

And cume ge for non oer 'Sing, 
but for to spien ur lord >e king/ 
'Nai/ he seiden eumlc on, 
'Spies were we neuer non, 

Oc alle we ben on faderes sunen, 2175 

For hunger does hider cumen/ 
'Oc nu ic wot ge spies ben, 
for bi gure bering men mai it sen; 
Hu sulde oni man, poure for-geten, 
swilke and so manige sunes bigeten? 2180 

for selduw bi-tid self ani king 
swilc men to sen of hise ofspring/ 
' A louerd, merci! get is or on, 
il. migt he nogt fro his fader gon; 


He is gungest, hoten beniamin, 2185 

for we ben alle of ebrisse kin/ 
*Nu, bi e ferS ic og to king pharaon, 
sule ge nogt alle een gon, 
Til ge me bringen beniamin, 

a[t], gungeste broker of gure kin.' 2190 

For o was losep sore for-dred 
at he wore oc 'Shurg hem for-red; 
He dede hem binden, and leden dun, 
And speren faste in his prisun ; 
$e ridde dai he let hem gon, 2195 

Al but e ton broker symeon; 
is symeon bi-lef ^or in bond, 
To wedde under losepes hond. 
^es oere bre^ere, sone on-on, 
Token leue and wenten horn; 2200 

And sone he weren eden went, 
Wei sore he hauen hem bi-ment, 
And seiden hem 'San or bi-twen, 
Wrigtful we in sorwe ben, 

for we sinigeden quilum or 2205 

On hure broker michil mor, 
for we werneden him merci, 
Nu drege we sorge al for-^i/ 
Wende here non it on his mod, 
Oc losep al it under-stod. 2210 

"osepes men ^or qwiles deden 

Al-so losep hem adde beden; 
o breSere seckes hauen he nit, 
And in eu^rilc $e siluer pilt 

^at or was paid for e coren, 2215 

And bunden e mu^es ^or bi-foren; 
Oc ^e bre^ere rie wiste it nogt 
VOL, i. M 



Hu is dede \vure wrogt; 

Oc alle he weren oufr-^ogt, 

And hauen it so to iacob brogt, 2220 

And tolden him so of here sped, 

And al he it listnede in frigtihed ; 

And q#an men seckes or un-bond, 

And in e coren o agtes fond, 

Alle he woren Sanne sori ofrigt. 2225 

Iacob ^us him bi-mene^ o-rigt, 

*Wel michel sorge is me bi-cumen, 

'Sat min two childre aren me for-numew; 

Of losep wot ic ending non, 

And bondes ben leid on symeon; 2230 

If ge beniamin fro me don, 

Dead and sorge me sege^ on; 

Ai sal beniamin wrS me bi-lewen 

or q&iles ic sal on werlde liuen/ 

o quz% iudas, 'us sal ben hard, 2235 

If we no holden him non forward.' 

Wex dere, is coren is gon, 
Iacob eft bit hem faren agon, 
Oc he ne duren e weie cumen in, 
'but ge wi$ us senden beniamin;' 2240 

80 q/va^ he, 'qwan it is ned, 
And [I] ne can no bettre red, 
BereS dat silver hoi agon, 
at hem or-of ne wante non, 
And oer siluer ^or bi-foren, 2245 

for to bigen wrS o^er coren; 
fruit and spices of dere pris, 
Bere'S 'Sat man at is so wis; 
God hunne him eSemoded 1 ben, 

1 MS. ' eSimodes.' 


And sende me min childre agen/ 2250 

So nomen he forS weie rigt, 

Til he ben cumen in-to egypte ligt ; 

And qwanne losep hem alle sag, 

1 Kinde Sogt in his herte was. 

He bad his stiward gerken is meten, 2255 

He seide he sulden wiS him alle eten ; 

He ledde hem alle to losepes biri, 

Her non hadden So loten miri. 

' Lou^rd/ he seiden So eu^rilc on, 

'Gur silu*r is gu brogt a-gon, 2260 

It was in tire seckes don, 

Ne wiste ur non gilt Sor-on.' 

<BeS nu stille,' qwad stiward, 

'for ic nu haue min forward.' 

Sor cam Sat broker symeon 2265 

And kiste is bre^ere on and on; 

Wei fagen he was of here come, 

for he was numen or to nome. 

It was vndren time or more, 

Om cam Sat riche loumi ore; 2270 

And al ^o bri^ere, of frigti mod, 

fellen bi-forn ^at lou^rd-is fot, 

And bedden him riche present 

Sat here fader hi[m] adde sent; 

And he leuelike it urider-stod, 2275 

for alle he weren of kinde blod. 

/ qwad he, 'Sat fader get, 

Sat Sus manige sunes bi-gat?' 
'\ouerd' he seiden, 'get he liueS': 
Wot ic Sor non Sat he ne biueS: 2280 

'And Sis is gunge beniamin, 

1 ? Kind ftogt was in his hcrte "Sag. 
M 2 


Hider brogt after bode-word fcin/ 

o losep sag him ^or bi-foren, 

Bi fader & moder broker boren, 

Him ou^r-wente his herte on-on, 2285 

Kinde luue gan him owr-gon ; 

Sone he gede ut and stille he gret, 

'Sat al his wlite wur$ teres wet. 

After at grot, he weis is wliten, 

And cam 'San in and bad hew eten; 2290 

He dede frem wassen and him bt-foren, 

And sette hem as he weren boren; 

Get he ^hogte of his faderes wunes 

Hu he sette at ^e mete hise sunes; 

Of euerilc sonde, of eumlc win, 2295 

most and best he gaf beniamin. 

In fulsuw-hed he wurSen gla^e, 

losep ne 'Soht or-of no sca^e, 

Oc it him likede swi^e wel, 

And hem lerede and tagte wel, 2300 

And hu he sulden hem best leden, 

Qz^ne he comen in vnkinde eden; 

* And al ^e bettre sule ge speden, 

If ge wilen gu wrS trewere leden.' 

Eft on morwen qwan it was dai, 2305 

Or or ^e bre^ere ferden a-wei, 

Here seckes woren alle filt wi^ coren, 

And e siluer ^or-in bi-foren; 

And e seek at agte beniamin 

losepes cuppe hid was ^or-in; 2310 

And quan he weren ut tune went, 

losep haue^ hem after sent. 

&S sonde hem ou^rtake^ ra^e, 

And bi-calle^ of harme and sca^e; 


*Vn-seli men, ,q#at haue ge don? 2315 

Gret vn-selehe is gu cumen on, 

for is it nogt min lord for-holen, 

a[t] gure on haueS is cuppe stolen.' 

%[o] seiden ^e bre^ere sikerlike, 

<Vp qwam u it findes witterlike, 2320 

He [be] slagen and we agen driuen 

In-to ^raldom, euermor to liuen/ 

He gan hem ransaken on and on, 

And fond it ^or sone a-non, 

And nam bre^ere eumlk on, 2325 

And ledde hem sorful a-gon, 

And brogte hem bi-for iosep 

Wid reweli lote, and sorwe, and wep. 

o qwat iosep, 'ne wiste ge nogt 

'Sat ic am o wol witter ^ogt ? 2330 

Mai nogt longe me ben for-holen 

Qwat-so-eu^re on londe wurS stolen/ 

*Lou^rd!! q#ad ludas, 'do wi^ me 

Qwat-so 'Si wille on werlde be, 

WrS-'San-'Sat ^u fri^e beniamin; 233^ 

ic ledde [him] ut on trewthe min, 

at he sulde ef[t] cumen a-gen 

to hise fader, and wr3 him ben/ 

o cam iosep swilc rew^e up-on, 

he dede halle ut e to^ere gon, 2340 

And spac un-ees, so e gret> 

at alle hise wlite wur^ teres wet. 

'Ic am iosep, dredeS gu nogt, 

for gure heKe or hider brogt; 

To ger ben nu 'Sat derSe is cumen, 2345 

Get sulen .v. fulle ben numen, 

at men ne sulen sowen ne sheren, . 


So sal drugte e feldes deren. 

RapeS gu to min fader a-gen, 

And serS him qmike min blisses ben, 2350 

And do^ him to me cumen hider, 

And ge and gure orf al to-gider; 

Of lewse god in lond gersen 

sulen ge sundri riche ben/ 

Eu<?rilc he kiste, on ilc he gret, 2355 

lie here was of is teres wet. 

Sone it was king pharaon kid 
Hu ^is newe tiding wurS bi-tid; 
And he was bli^e, in herte fagen, 
at losep wulde him ^ider dragen, 2360 

for luue of losep migte he timen. 
He bad cartes and waines nimen, 
And fechen wiues, and childre, and men, 
And gaf hem or al lond gersen, 
And het hem at he sulden hauen 2365 

More and bet an he kude crauen.. 
losep gaf ilc here twinne srud, 
Beniamin most he made prud; 
fif weden best bar beniamin, 

^re hundred plates of silu<?r fin, 2370 

Al-so fele o^re or-til, 
He bad ben in is faderes wil, 
And .x. asses wrS semes fest; 
Of alle egiptes welShe best 

Gaf he is bre^ere, wrS herte bli^e, 2375 

And bad hem rapen hem homward swre; 
And he so deden wftS herte fagen. 
Toward here fader he gunen dragen, 
And qwane he comen him bi-foren, 
Ne wiste he nogt qwat he woren. 2380 


he seiden, 'Israel, 
losep in sune grete'S e wel, 
And sendeS e bode 'Sat he liueth, 
Al egipte in his wil cliue^.' 

lacob a-braid, and trewed it nogt, 2385 

Til he sag al at wePSe brogt. 
'Wel me/ qua^ he, 'wel is me wel, 
at ic aue abiden ^us swilfc] sell 
And ic sal to min sune fare 

And sen [him], or ic of werlde chare.' 2390 

Acob 1 wente ut of lond chanaan, 
And of is kinde wel manie a man ; 
losep wel faire him vnder-stod, 
And pharaon ogte it ful good ; 
for at he weren hirde-men, 2395 

He bad hem ben in lond gersen. 
lacob was brogt bi-foren e king 
for to geuen him his bliscing. 
'fader dere,' qz/aS pharaon, 

'hu fele ger be >e on?' 2400 

'An hundred ger and .xxx. mo 
Haue ic her drogen in werlde wo y 

^inke^ me ^or-oifen fo, 

ic is haue drogen in wo, 
sften ic gan on werlde ben, 2405 

Her vten erd, man-kin bi-twen; 
So linked eu^rilc wis[e] man, 
^e wot qor-of man-kin bi-gan, 
And $e of adames gilte mune^, 
^5at he her uten herdes wuneS.' 2410 

Pharaon bad him wurSen wel 
in softe reste and seli mel; 
Him 2 and hise sunes in reste dede 
* Read Jacob. * MS. 'he.' 


In lond gersen, on sundri stede; 
Sien or was mad on sate*, 2415 

Se was y-oten Rames. 
Jacob on Hue wunede or 
. In reste fulle .xiiij. ger; 

And god him let bi-foren sen 

Qwilc time hise ending sulde ben; 2420 

He bad iosep his leue sune 

On Shing at [he] offe wel mune, 

Sat qwan it wurS mid him don, 

He sulde him birien in ebron; 

And witterlike he it aue$ him seid, 2425 

e stede Sor abraham was leid ; 

So was him lif to wurSen leid, 

Quuor ali gast stille hadde seid 

Him and hise eldere(.) fer ear bi-foren, 

Qmior iesu crist wulde ben boren, 2430 

And quuor ben dead, and qwuor ben grauen; 

He ogt wi^ hem reste to hauen. 

Iosep swor him al-so he bad, 

And he or-of wur$ bli^e & glad. 

Or ^an he wiste off werlde faren, 2435 

He bade hise kinde to him charen, 

And seide q#at of hem sulde ben, 

Hali gast dede it him seen; 

In clene ending and ali lif, 

So he for-let Sis werldes strif. 3440 

Osep 1 dede hise lich faire geren, 

Wassen, and riche-like smeren, 

And spice-like swete smaken; 

And egipte folc him bi-waken 

si. nigtes and ,xl. daiges, 2445 

swilc woren egipte lages 

1 Read Josep. 


And pharaon king cam bode bi-foren, 2475 

at losep haueS his fader sworen; 

And he it him .gatte Sor he wel dede, 

And bad h\m nimen him feres mide, 

Wel wopnede men and wis of here[n], 

dat noman hem bi weie deren ; 2480 

'Sat bere is led, is folc is rad, 

he foren a-buten bi adad; 

ful seuene nigt he er abiden, 

And bi-meni;zg for iacob deden; 

So longe he hauen Se'Sen numen, : . 2485 

To flaw iurdon 'Sat he ben cumen, 

And ouer pharan til ebron; 

or is 'Sat liche in biriele don, 

And losep in to egipte went, 

Wid al is folc ut wrS him [sjent. 2490 

Hise bre^ere comen him Sarnie to, 
And gunnen him bi-seken alle so; 
'Vre fader/ he seiden, 'or he was dead, 
Vs he is bodewurd seigen bead, 
Hure sinne u him for-giue, 2495 

WrS-'Sanne-Sat we vnder >Q liuen.' 
Alle he fellen him ^or to fot, 
To be^en me^e and bedden ot 1 ; 
And he it for-gaf hem mildelike, 
And luuede hem alle kinde-like. : 2500 

Osep an hundred ger was hold, 
And his kin wexen manige-fold; 
He bad sibbe cumen him bi-foren, 
Or he was ut of werlde boren; 
'It sal/ qwa'S he,, 'ben so^, bi-foren 2505 

at god ha'S ure eldere sworen; 
1 MS. 'oc.' 


He sal gu Icden in his bond 
Heen to at hotene lond; 
for godes lime get bid ic gu, 

Leste'S 1 it ^anne, hote^ it mi, 2510 

'Sat mine bene ne be for-loren, 
wi$ gu ben mine bones boren/ 
He it him gatten and wur5 he dead, 
God do $e soule seli red! 

Hise liche was spice-like maked, 2515 

And longe egipte-like waked, 
And o biried hem bi-foren, 
And siSen late of londe boren. 
Hise o^re bre^ere, on and on, 
Woren ybiried at ebron. 2520 

An her endede, to ful in wis, 
e boc e is hoten genesis, 
$e moyses, urg godes red, 
Wrot for lefful soules ned. 

God schilde hise sowle fro helle bale, 2525 

e made it ^us on engel tale I 
And he Sat ise lettres wrot, 
God him helpe weli mot, 
And berge is sowle fro sorge & grot 
Of helle pine, cold & hot ! 2530 

And alle men, e it heren wilen, 
God leue hem in his blisse spilen 
Among engeles & seli men, 
Wruten ende in reste ben, 

And luue & pais us bi-twen, 2535 

And god so graunte, amen, amen! 
1 MS. Lested.' 


A.D. 1246-1250. 

THE poem entitled 'The Owl and the Nightingale' (edited 
for the Roxburghe Society by the Rev. J. Stevenson, 1838 ; for 
the Percy Society by Thomas Wright, M.A., F.S.A., 1843; 
and by Francis Henry Stratmann, of Krefeld, 1868) is attri- 
buted to Nicholas de Guildford, who is mentioned in the poem 
itself as living at Portesham in Dorsetshire. 

The precise date of the piece is a matter of dispute, some 
critics ascribing it to the reign of Henry III, and others to 
that of Edward I, but it is certainly not later than the time of 
Henry III. For proofs of date see ' An Old English Miscellany,' 
Preface, p, xi. 

The poem is written in the dialect of the south of England, 
but is free from any of those broad provincialisms which cha- 
racterise a particular county. 

The Owl and the Nightingale. 

[Collated with Cotton MS. Calig. A. ix, and Jesus College MS., 
Oxford, 29.] 

ICH was in one sumere dale, 
In one swi]?e disele hale, 
I-herde ich holde grete tale 
An tile and one nijtingale. 

Line 2 C. su>e'; J. ' swi>e.' 4 C. 'hulc'; J. ' ule.' 


pat plait was stif and stare and strong, 5 

Sum wile softe, and lud among; 

An[d] aiber a^en o]>er swal, 

And let ]?at vule mod ut al. 

And eiber seide of ojjeres custe 

pat alre-worste J>at hi wuste.; 10 

And hure and hure of o]?ere[s] songe 

Hi heolde plaiding swij?e stronge. 

pe ni3tingale bi-gon ]>e speche, 
In one hurne of one beche ; 
And sat up one vaire bo3e, 15 

par were abute blosme i-noje, 
In ore waste ]>icke hegge, 
I-meind mid spire and grene segge. 
Heo was J>e gladur vor ]>e rise, 
And song a vele cunne wise : 20 

Bet Jnrjte J>e drem bat he were 
Of harpe and pipe, ban he nere, 
Bet bu3te bat he were i-shote 
Of harpe and pipe )>an of ]?rote. 

po stod on old- stoc bar bi-side, 25 

par ])0 ule song hire tide, 
And was mid ivi al bi-growe, 
Hit was J>are ule earding-stowe. 

pe ni^tingale hi i-sej, 

And hi bi-heold and over-se3, 30 

And J)U3te wel vule of )>are ule, 
For me hi halt lo})lich and fule : 
* Unwi3t,' heo sede, ' awei J>u fleo I 

7 J. 'ey])er.' C. 'sual'; J. *swal.' 8 C. * wole.' 12 C. 'holde'; 

C. ' suj>e.' 14 C. ' breche'; J. ' beche.' 19 C. ' Ho.' J. gladdr*.' 

20 J. veole.' 21 C. 'Het.' 30 C. ' bi-hold.' 31 C. ' wl.' 

33 C. 'ho'; C. 'flo.' 


Me is the \v[e]rs J>at ich j>e seo; 

I-wis for }>ine vule lete 35 

Wei oft ich mine song for-lete ; 

Min heorte at-fli]>, and fait mi tunge, 

Wonne'Jm art to me i-}?runge. 

Me luste bet speten, J>ane singe 

Of ]>ine fule jojelinge/ 40 

peos ule abod fort hit was eve, 
Heo ne mijte no leng bileve, 
Vor hire heorte was so gret, 
pat wel ne; hire fnast at-schet; 
And warp a word ]>ar-after longe: 45 

' Hu J>inc]?e nu bi mine songe ? 
We[n]st )>u ))at ich ne cunne singe, 
pe; ich ne cunne of writelinge ? 
I-lome J>u dest me grame, 

And seist me boj>e teone and schame; 50 

3if ich )>e heolde on mine uote, 
So hit bi-tide }>at ich mote! 
And ]>u were ut of ]>ine rise, 
pu scholdest singe an oj>er wise.' 

pe ni^tingale ;af answare : 55 

' 3if ich me loki wit }>e bare, 
And me schilde wij> J>e blete, 
Ne recche ich nojt of J)ine J>rete; 
Jif ich me holde in mine hegge, 
Ne recche ich never what )m segge. 60 

Ich wot ]>at |)U art un-milde 
Wi]? heom J)at ne muje from fe schilde; 

34 C. so'; J. iseo.' 35 C. wle.' 370, 'horte/ C. tonge.' 
41 C. Jsos hule. 1 42 C. Ho.' 43 C. ' horte.' 50 C. 'tone.' 

5 1 C. 'holde/ 57 C.' wit.' 62 C. ' horn.' C. 'se/ 


And Jm tukest \vro)>e and uvele 

Whar bu mi5t over smale firjele; 

Vor-)>i bu art lo)> al fi^el-kunne, 65 

And alle heo be drive]? heonne, 

And )>e bi-schrichej> and bi-gredet, 

And wel narewe be bi-ledet; 

And ek forbe be sulve mose 

Hire bonkes wolde be to-tose. 70 

pu art lodlich to bi-holde, 

And bu art lob in monie volde ; 

pi bodi is short, bi sweore is smal, 

Grettere is bin heved ban Jm al ; 

pin e$en beob col-blake and brode, 75 

Rijt swo heo weren i-peint mid wode ; 

pu starest so }>u. \ville abiten 

Al ]>at J)U mijt mid clivre smiten; 

pi bile is stif and scharp and hoked, 

Rijt so an owel }>at is croked, 80 

par-mid }>u clackes[t] oft and longe, 

And ]?at is on of }>ine songe, 

Ac J)U pretest to mine fleshe, 

Mid )>ine clivres woldest me meshe; 

pe were i-cundur to one frogge, 85 

[pat sit at mulne under cogge], 

Snailes, mus, and fule wijte, 

Beo]> J>ine cunde and }>ine rijte. 

pu sittest adai, and flijst ani^t, 

pu cutest ]>at )>u art on un-wijt ; 90 

pu art lodlich and un-clene, 

Bi jnne neste ich hit mene, 

65 C. ' fucl-kunne.' 66 C. ' ho.' C. honne/ 73 O. ' swore.' 

75 .C. *'boj>.' 78 C. 'mist.' 86 From J. 


And ek bi )>ine fule brode, 

pu fedest on heom a wel ful fode.' 

peos word a$af }>e nijtingale, 
And after .J>are longe tale 140 

Heo song so hide and so scharpe, 
Rijt so me grulde schille harpe. 
peos ule luste )>ider-ward, 
And heold hire eje neoj>er-ward, 
And sat to-swolle and i-bo^e, 145 

Also heo hadde on frogge i-swol^e. 
For heo wel wiste and was i-war 
pat heo song hire a bisemar; 
And no]>eles heo jaf andsware, 
' Whi neltu fleon into }>e bare, 150 

And schewi wheber linker beo 
Of brijter heovve, of vairur bleo?* 
'No, j?u havest wel scharpe clawe, 
Ne kepich nojt )>at ])U me clawe, 
pu havest clivers swtye stronge, 155 

pu twengst |>ar-mid so do}> a tonge. 
pu J^test, so do|> j)in i-like, 
Mid faire worde me bi-swike ; 
Ich nolde don ]>at )m me raddest 
Ich wiste wel J>at )>u me misraddcst; iCo 

Schamie J>e for ]>in un-rede ! 
Un-wro5en is ]?i swikel-hede ; 

94 C. 'horn/ I39C. 'pos.' 141 C. He.' 143 C. ' pos hule.' 
[44 C. 'hold.' C. ' no])erwad.' 145 C. ' i-suolle.' 146-151 

ho.' 146 C. ^i-suo^e.' 148 C. ' andsuare.' 150 C. ' flon.' 

C. 'Sewi'; J. 'schewi.' 1520. 'howe.' C. ' bio.' 

155 C. f suje.' 156 C. 'tuengst.' 162 C. ' suikel-hede.' 


Schild )>ine swikeldom vram be li^te, 

And hud bat woje amon[g] be ri^te. 

pane J>u wilt ]?in un-rijt spene, 165 

Loke }>at hit ne beo i-sene; 

Vor swikedom haveb scheme and hete, 

3if hit is ope and under^ele. 

Ne speddestu nojt mid }>ine un-wrenche, 

For ich am war, and can wel blenche; 170 

Ne help)) no}t )>at Jm beo to ]?riste; 

Ich wolde vi}te bet mid liste, 

pan Jm mid al J>ine strengj>e; 

Ich habbe on brede, and ek on leng)>e 

Castel god on mine rise ; 1 75 

" Wel fijt bat wel flijt," seib be wise. 

Ac lete we awei beos cheste, 

Vor swiche wordes beoj> un-wreste ; 

And fo we on mid rijte dome, 

Mid faire worde and mid isome. 180 

pe$ we ne beon at one acorde, 

We muje bet mid fayre worde, 

Wit-ute cheste, and bute fijte, 

Plaidi mid foje and mid ri^te; 

And mai ure eifer wat he wile 185 

Mid ri3te segge and mid skile/ 

po qua]> ]>e ule, ' wo schal us seme, 
pat kunne and wille ri^t us deme/ 
' Ich wot wel/ quaj> J>e ni^tingale, 
* Ne J>arf farof beo no tale. 190 

Maister Nichole of Guldeforde, 

163 C. suikeldom.' 166, 181, 190 C. 'bo.' 167 C. 'haved.* 

1740. ech.' 178 C, 'suiche.' C. 'boj>.' 180 C. ' wsdome,' 

185 C. hure.' C. hi.' 187 C. 'hule. ? C. ' fu.' 


He is wis and war of worde ; 
He is of dome swij>e gleu, 
And him is loj> evrich unj^eu; 
He wot insi3t in eche songe, 
Wo singet wel, wo singet wronge; 
And he can schede vrom ]?e ri3te 
pat wo3e, J?at Jmster from }>e li}te/ 

po ule one wile hi bi-]>o3te, 
And after J>an )>is word up-bro^tcr 
1 Ich granti wel J?at he us deme, 
Vor jjej he were wile breme, 
And leof him were m^tingale, 
And o]>er wijte, gente and smale, 
Ich wot he is nu swi]>e acoled, 
Nis he vor J>e no3t afoled, 
pat he for J>ine olde luve 
Me adun legge and )>e buve ; 
Ne schaltu nevre so him queme, 
pat he for J>e fals dom deme. 
He is nu ripe and fastrede, 
Ne lust him nu to none un-rede ; 
Nu him ne lust na more pleie, 
He wile gon a rijte weie.' 

pe ni^tingale was al jare 
Heo hadde i-leorned wel aiware: 
' Ule/ heo sede, * seie me so]?, 
Wi dostu ]>at un-wijtes do|> ? 
pu singest anijt, and no3t adai, 
And al ]>i song is wailawai; 
pu mi3t mid Jrine songe afere 







3-205 C. su>e.' 199 C. 'hule. T 

216 C'Ho.* C. 'ilorned.' 
VOL. I. N 

203 C.'-lof.' 211 C.him: 
217 C. 'Hule.* C.'ho.' 


Alle }>at inhere)) J>ine i-bere ; 

pu schirchest and 5ollest to J>ine fere, 

pat hit is:, grislich to i-here, 

Hit Jnnchest bobe wise and snepe 22? 

No3t}>at }>u singe, ac }>at bu wepe. 

pu fli^st ani}t, and no3t adai; 

parof, ich w[u]ndri, and wel mai : 

Vor evrich )>ing J>at schuniet rijt, 

Hit luvej) Jmster and hatiet li$t ; 230 

And evrich J>ing ]>at luveb misdede, 

Hit luve]> Duster to his dede.' 

peos hule luste swij>e longe, 
And was of-feoned swij^e stronge; 
Heo qua)>, ' pji hattest nijtingale, 255 

pu mijtest bet hoteh galegale, 
Vor J>u, havest to monie tale^ 
Lat J>ine iunge habbe spale ! 
pu wenest J>at J>es dai beo j?in oje: 
Lat me nu habbe mine Jroje; 260 

Beo nu : stille, and lat me speke, 
Ich wille beon of )>e a-wreke, 
And lust hu ich con me bi-telle. 
Mid r^te so)>e wi})-ute spelle. 
pu seist J>at ich me hude adai, 265 

par-to ne segge ich nich ne nai; 
And lust ich telle J>e ware-vore 
Al wi hit is and ware-vore ; 
Ich habbe bile stif and stronge, 

223 J. 'scrichest.' 231 C. 'is lof.' 253 C. ' pos.' C. 'snj>e.' 
254 C. ' of-toned su>e.' 255' C. 'Ho/ r 259, 261 C.''b<?.' 
262 C, ' bon.' 264 C. wit-ute.' 266 J. ' nik no,' 


And gode clivers scharp[e] and longe, 270 

So hit bi-cume]) to havekes cunne ; 

Hit is mia hijte, hit is mi wune, 

pat ich me dra^e to mine cunde, 

Ne : mai noman J>are-vore [me] schende ; 

On me hit is [ful] wel i-sene, . 275 

Vor ri^te cunde ich am so kene, 

Vor-]>i ich am lo]> smale fc^le, 

pat fleo]> bi grunde and bi Jmvele, 

Hi me bi-chermet and bi-gredej>, 

And heore flockes to me ledej>; 280 

Me is leof to habbe reste, 

And sitte stille in mine neste. 

Wenestu ]>at havec beo J>e worse, 

pe} crowe bi-grede him bi ]>e mershe, 

And goj> to him mid heore chirme,', 305 

Rijt so hi wille wi]j him schirme? 

pe havec foLje]? gode rede, 

He m'3t his wei, and lat hem grede. 

3et )>u me seist of o]>er J>inge, 
And telst )>at ich ne can no^t singe,. 310 

Ac al mi reorde is woning, 
And to i-here grislich J>ing. 
pat nis nojt soj>, ich singe efne j 

Mid fulle dreme and hide stefne. 
pu wenist ]>at ech song beo grislich 315 

pat J>ine pipinge nis i-lich : 
Mi stefne is bold and nojt un-orne, 

278C. 'floK 280, 305 G. hore.' , 281 C, Mof. 1 

3^3, 315 C, 'bo^ 308" G. 'And,' 3!! C."rorde.' 

312 C. 'i-hire.' ". 

N 2 


Ileo is i-lich one grete home, 
. And ]?in is i-lich one pipe 
Of one smale weode un-ripe, 320 

Ich singe bet )>an ]>u dest: 
pii chaterest so do]) on Irish prcst ; 
Ich singe an eve aristfe] time, 
And seo)>)>e won hit is bed-time, 
pe J>ridde sij>e at middelnijte, 325 

And so ich mine song adi;te 
Wone ich i-sqo arise veorre 
Oj>er dai-rim o]?er dai-sterre, 
Ich do god mid mine J>rote, 
And warni men to heore note. 330 

Ac Jm singest alle longe nijt, 
From eve fort hit is dai-^t, 
And evre leste]> )>in o song 
So longe so J>e nj}t is long, 
And evre crowe]> )>i wrecche crei, 335 

pat he ne swikej) nijt ne dai; 
Mid ])ine pipinge ]>u adunest 
pas monnes earen }?ar )?u wuriest, 
And makest j>ine song so un-wi3t 
pat me ne tel}> of )>e nowijt. 340 

Evrich mur3))e mai so longe i-leste, 
pat heo shal liki wel un-wreste; 
Vor harpe and pipe and fi^eles songe 
Mislike]?, 3if hit is to longe, 
Ne beo ]>e song never so murie, 345 

pat he ne shal J)inche wel un-muric, 

318, 342 C. 'ho.' 322 C. 'preost.' 324 C. ' soMx:.* 

325 'ad.' 327 C. 'i-so'; vorre.' 330 C. 'here.' 

333 C. seist.' 339 C, ' un-wr]>.' 340 C. J>ar nojt wrj).* 

345 C.'bo.' 


3ef he i-leste]> over un-wille; 

So bu mijt bine song aspille. 

Vor hit is sob, Alvred hit seide, 

And me hit mai in boke rede, 

" Evrich bing mai leosen his godhede 

Mid unme]>e and mid over-dede."' 


pe ni^tingale in hire J>o3te 
At-heold al bis, and longe )>03te 
Wat heo bar-after mijte segge ; 
Vor heo nee mi^te no3t alegge 
pat be ule hadde hire i-sed ; 
Vor heo spac bobe ri3t an[d] red. 
An[d] hire of-J>u3te J>at heo hadde 
pe speche so feor-vor]> i-ladde, 
An[d] was oferd bat hire answare 
Ne \v[u]rj>e m>3t ari3t i-fare. 
Ac no)>eles heo spac boldeliche, 
Vor he is wis )?at hardeliche 
Wi]> his vo berj> grete i-lete, 
pat he vor are3)>e hit ne for-lete; 
Vor swich worj> bold ^if ]?u fli^st, 
pat wile fleo ^if J>u niswicst. 
3if he isi]> ]?at j>u nart are^, 
He wile of bore w[u]rthen bare3 
And for]>i |?e3 }>e ni3tingale 
Were aferd, heo spac bolde tale. 





$50 C. ' inc.' 351 C. ' losen.' 392 C. ' At-holde.' 

394 397 4 J o c - ' ho -' 395 C. 'hule.' 396 C. 'he/ 

C. ' for.' 401 C. he.' 405 C. ' suich.' 
C. wle flo* ; ' isiiicst.' 


' Ule,' heo seide, ' wi dbstu so ? 
pu singest awinter wolawo ; 
pu singest so dob heri[ne] a snowe, 
Al J>at heo singe]) hit is for wowe ; 
Awintere bu singest wrobe and 3omere, 415 

An[d].evre bu art dumb .asumere-; 
Hit is for, bine fule nibe, j 
pat bu ne mi3t mid us beo blibe, 
Vor bu forbernest wel ne} for onde 
Wane ure blisse cumeb to londe. 420 

pu farest so do}> be ille, 
Evrich blisse him is un-wille; 
Grucching and luring him beo]> rade, 
3if he i-seoj> ]?at men beo> glade ; 
He wolde ]>at he i-se3e 425 

Teres in evrich monnes e$e : 
Ne rdjte he Jje} flockes were 
I-meind bi toppes and bi here. 
Al-so }>u dost on J>ire side; 
Vor wanne snou li)> J)icke and wide, 430 

And alle wi^tes habbe]> sorje, 
pu singest from eve fort amorje. 
Ac ich alle blisse mid me bringe; 
Ech wi3t is glad for mine Jnnge, 
And blisse]) hit wanne ich cume, 435 

And hi^tej) a3en mine kume. 
pe blostme ginnej) springe and sprede 
BeoJ)e ine treo and ek on mede; 
pe lilie mid hire fair-e wlite 
Wol-cumeJ) me, }>at fu hit w[i]te, 440 

412 C. 'Hule ho.' 414 C. 'ho.' 418 C. 'bo.' 

423 C. bo>.' 424 C. bo>'; iso]>.' 438 C. 'tro.' 


Bit me mid hire faire bleo 

pat ich schulle to hire fleo; 

pe rose also mid hire rude, 

pat cume]> ut of J>e J?orne wude, 

Bit me J>at ich shulle singe 445 

Vor hire luve one skentinge/ 

}>e ule sede, 

'pu havest bi-cleoped, also bu bede, 550 

An[d] ich J>e habbe i-}ive answare; 

Ac ar we to linker dome fare 

Ich wille speke toward J>e, 

Al-so bu speke toward me, 

An[d] }>u me answere jif }>u mijt.' 555 

. . . J>u atwitest me mine mete, 
And seist )>at ich fule wi3tes ete: 
Ac wat etestu, ]>at J>u ne lije, 
Bute attercoppe and fule vlije? 
And wormes, jif ]>u mi3t finde 
Among ]>e volde of harde rinde ? 
3et ich can do wel gode wike, 
Vor ich can loki manne wike; 
And mine wike beoj> wel gode, 
Vor ich helpe to manne vode ; 
Ich can nimen mus at berne, 
And ek at chirche in J?e derne; 



441 C. ' Bid' ; ' bio.' 
445 C. 'Bid.' 
551 C. * ansuare.' 
60 1 J. 'myht.' , 

442 C. ' flo.' 
549 C. ' hule.' 
597 C. atuitest/ 
605 C. ' An' ; ' boj>/ 

444 C. ' wode/ 
550 C. '-eloped.' 
598,601 C. >An.' 
608 C. 'An'; 'inc. 1 


Vor me is leof to Cristes huse, 

To clansi hit wi]> fule muse ; 610 

Ne schal J>ar nevre come to 

Ful wi}t, jif ich hit mai i-vo. 

And }if me lust on mi skentinge 

To wernen o)>er \v[u]nienge, 

Ich habbe at wude treon wel grete, 615 

Mit Jncke boje noting blete, 

Mid ivi grene al bi-growe, 

pat evre stont i-liche i-blowe, 

And his heou never ne vor-leost, 

Wan hit sniuj> ne wan hit freost ; 620 

par-in ich habbe god i-hold, 

Awintre warm, asumere cold. 

Wane min hus stont bri^t and grene, 

Of Jnne m's no]?ing i-sene/ 

pe ni^tingale at J>isse worde 
Was wel nej ut of rede i-worj>e, 660 

And Jjojte jeorne on hire mode, 
3if heo ojt elles understode, 
5if heo ku)>e ojt bute singe, 
pat mi^te helpe to o]>er J>inge, 
Her-to heo moste andswere vinde, 665 

Oj?er mid alle beon bi-hinde. 
And hit is su))e strong to 
A^en so]) and ajen rrjte. 

6090. 'lof.' 6130. 'An'; 'on.' 615 C. 'Iron.* 
619 C. 'hou'; '-lost.' 620 C. 'frost.' 661 . 'An'; 
662, 663, 665 C. ' ho.' ' 666 C. 'bon.' 6670." An.' 


* Ule, Jni axest me/ heo selde, 
4 5if ich kon eni o]?er decle, 
Bute singen in sume tide, 

And bringe blisse feor and wide. 710 

Wi axestu of craftes mine? 
Betere is min on j>an alle |>ine ; 
Betere is o song of mine mujie, 
pan al J>at evre Jn kun ku]>e. 
And lust, ich telle }>e ware-vore : 715 

Wostu to wan man was i-bore ? 
To J>ar.e blisse of heoveneriche, 
par ever is song and mur^e i-liche. 
pider funde]> evrich man 

pat ending of gode kan. 720 

Vor-J>i me sing]? in holi chirche, 
And clerkes ginnej> songes wirche, 
pat man i-J>enche bi }>e songe 
Wider he shal, and }>ar beon longe.; 
pat he ]>e mur3}>e ne vor-jete, 725 

Ac ]>ar-of ]>enche and bi-jete, 
And nime jeme of chirche stevene, 
Hu murie is J>e blisse of heovene. 
Clerkes, munekes, and kanunes, 
])ar beo]> ]>eos gode wike-tunes, 730 

Arise]> up to middelni^te, 
And singe]? of ]?e heovene lijtc; 
And preostes upe londe singe)>, 
Wane ]>e li^t of daie springe]?; 
An ich horn helpe wat I mai, 735 

707 C. 'Hule'; 'ho.' 710 C. 'An*; 'for.' 

715, 722, 727 C. 'An.' . 717 C. ' hoveneriche.' 

730 C. 'boj> J>os'; 'wicke/ 728, 732 C. 'hovenc.' 

732 C. 'An.' 733 C. ' An prostes.' 


Ich singe mid horn nijt and dai; 

An[d] heo beob alle for me J>e gladdere, 

An[d] to )>e songe beob be raddere. 

Ich warni men to heore gode, 

pat hi beon blife on heore mode, 740 

And bidde }>at hi moten i-seche 

pan ilke song J>at ever is eche. 

Nu ]>u mi3t, ule, sitte and clinge; 

Her among nis no chateringe. 

Ich graunti fat we go to dome 745 

To-fore J>e sulve pope of Rome. 

Ac abid 5ete nobeles, 

pu shalt i-here an ober wes; 

Ne shaltu for [al] Engelonde 

At bisse worde me at-stonde/ 750 

'Abid! abid!' J>e ule seide, 
1 pu gest al to mid swikelede ; 
Alle bine Avordes ]?u bi-leist, 
pat hit bincb so]? al bat )>u seist; 840 

Alle J>ine wordes beo]> i-sliked, 
And so bi-semed and bi-liked, 
pat alle J>eo J>at hi avoj?, 
Hi wenej) )>at )>u segge soth. 
Abid ! abid ! me schal )>e jene, 845 

\Vu hit shal w[u]r]?e wel i-sene, 
pat jm havest muchel i-loje 
Wone j>i lesing bo)> unwroje. 
pu seist fat fu singist mankunne, 
And techest heom ]?at hi fundiej) heonne 850 

737 C. 'ho boj>.' 738, 841 C. ' bo>.' 740 C. ' bon'; ' hore.' 
743 C. hule.' 842 C. ' An.' . 843 C. ' J>o.* 
850 C. 'horn'; 'honne.' 


i8 7 

Up to }>e songe J>at evre i-lest : 
Ac hit is alre w[u]nder mest, 
pat J>u darst lije so opeliche. 
Wenest }m hi bririge so li^tliche 
To Codes riche al singinde? 


Wi nultu singe an o]>er J>eode, 
War hit is muchele more neode? 
pu neaver ne singst in Irlonde, 
Ne }m ne cumest no}t in Scotlonde 
Hwi nultu fare to Noreweie? 
And singen men of Galeweie? 
par beo^ men }>at lutel kunne 
Of songe J>at is bineo^e ]>e sunne ; 
Wi nultu )>are preoste singe. 
And teche of Jnre writelinge ? 
And wisi heom mid J>ire stevene, 
Hu engeles singe]) in heovene? 
pu farest so do^ an ydel wel, 
pat springe]) bi burne ]?at is snel, 
And let for-druje }>e dune, 
And floh}) on idel }>ar a-dune. 




pe nihtegale i-h[e]rde this, 
And hupte uppon on blowe ris, 
And herre sat })an heo dude ear 
, ' Ule,' heo seide, ' beo nu wear, 
Nulle ich wij> fe plaidi na more, 

910 C. 'singinge.' 
918 C. '>ar.' 
1636, 7 C. 'An.' 

915 C. 'horn.' 
919 C. '-druc.' 
1638 C.'Hak/ 


916 C. 
920 C. 




For her J?u mist ]>i rihte lore; 1640 

pu jelpest ]>at Jm art manne lo]>. 

And ever-euch wiht is wrS }>e wro}>; 

And mid ^ollinge and mid i-grede, 

pu wanst wel }>at }m art un-lede. 

pu seist J>at gromes J?e i-foS, , 1645 

And heie on rodde ]>e an-hoS, 

And )>e to-twichet and to-schake^, 

And summe of }>e schawles make^; 

Me Jmnch]> J>at jju for-leost }>at game, 

pu 3elpest of J>ire 036 schame ; 1650 

Me Jninchj? )>at |>u me gest an honde, 

pu jelpest of ]?ire O3ene schonde/ 

po heo hadde )>eos word i-cwede, 

Heo sat in one faire stede, 

And J>ar-after hire stevene dihte, 1655 

And song so schille and so brihte, 

pat feor and ner me hit i-herde. 

par-vore anan to hire cherde 

prusche, and Jjrostle, and wudewale. 

And fuheles boj>e grete and smale ; 1660 

For-]>an heom Jmhte ]>at heo hadde 

pe ule over-come, vor-j>an heo gradde 

And sungen alswa veale wise, 

And blisse was among J>e rise; 

Rijt swa me gret J>e manne a schame, 1665 

pat tavelej) and for-leost J>at game. 

1640 C. *>e.' 1641 C. ' seilpest.' l6|2 C. *An'; '\vorj>.' 

1643 C. 'An'; 'juHnge.' 1646, 7, 8 C. 'An.' 

1648 J. 'scheules.' 1649, 51 C. 'Jninch.' 1650, 2 C. * 3\ilpest.' 

1654 C. ' stude.* 1656, 60, 63 C. ' An.' 1662 C. ' houle.' 

1663 C. 'vale.' 1664 'An'; ? ' pat.' 1665 C. 'gred.' 

1666 C. 'gome.' 


peos ule |>o heo )>is i-herde, 
' Havestu/ heo seide, ' i-banned ferde ? 
An wultu, wrecche, wi$ me fijte? 
Nai, nai, navestu none mijte. 1670 

Hwat gredej> ]>eo )>at hider come? 
Me }>uncj) ]m ledest ferde to me. 
3e schule wite ar 36 fleo heonne, 
Hwuch is ]>e stren]>e of mine kunne ; 
For }>eo )>e havej> bile i-hoked, 1675 

And clivres scharpe and wel i-croked, 
Alle heo beoj> of mine kunrede, 
And walde come, ;if ich bede ; 
pe seolfe coc, }>at \vel can fi3te, 
He mot mid me holde mid ri^te, iC3o 

For boj>e we habbej) stevene bri3te, 
And sittejj under weolcne bi nijte.' 

' Ah hit was unker voreward, 

po we come[n] hider- ward, 1690 

pat we j>ar-to holde scholde, 

par rihtfne] dom us jive wolde. 

Wultu nu breke foreward? 

Ich wene dom )>e j?ink]> to hard; 

For ]m ne darst domes abide, 1695 

pu wult nu, wreche, fi^te and chide. 

3et ich ow alle wolde rede, 

Ar ihc utheste uppon ow grede, 

pat [36] o)>er fiht-lac letej> beo, 

And ginnej) ra]>e awei fleo. 1700 

1667 C. hule.' 1676 C. 'An'; 'charpe.' 1678 C. 'An'; 'come/ 
1692 Readlpal. 1694 C. '^ing.' 1699 Read ower. 


For, bi }>e clivres J>at ich bere, 

3ef 36 abide]? mine here, 

3e schule on o]>er wise singe, 

And acursi. alle fijtinge; 

Vor riis of ow non so kene, 1705 

pat durre abide mine onsene.' 

peos uje spac wel baldeliche; 

For }>ah heo nadde swo hwatliche 

I-fare after hire here, 

H0o walde no]>eles jefe answere 1710 

pe ni3te,gale mid swucche worde. 

For moni man mid speres orde, 

Have]> lutle strenc]>e, and mid his schelde, 

Ah noj>eles in one felde 

purh belde worde and mid i-lete, 1715 

De}> his i-vQ for archie swete. 

pe wranne, for heo cu]?e singe, 

par com in ]>are mo^ening, 

To helpe Jjare nijtegale: 

For }>ah heo. hadde stevene smale, 1720 

Heo hadde gode ]?rote and schille, 

And feale manne song a wille ; 

pe wranne was wel wis i-holde, 

Vor J>e,3 heo nere i-bred a wolde, 

Heo was i-tO5en among monne, 1725 

And 'hire wisdom brohte J>onne ; 

Heo mijte speke hwar heo walde, 

To-vore }>e king ]^ah heo scholde. 

*Luste]),',heo cwa]?, *latej) me speke: 

1 704 J. cursi.' 1707 C. 'hule.' 1713 C. ' chelde.' 

1710, 1714 C. *neo>eles.' 1718 C. ' morejennge.' 1721 C. * ]?orte.' 

1722 C. ''An fale.' ' I 7 2 5 C. ' inannehne'; J. ' mankunrie/ 
1726 C. ')>enne.' 


Hwat! wuHe 36 ])is pes to-breke, 1730 

And do J>an kinge swuche schame ? 

3et nis he nou]>er ded ne lame, 

Unk schal i-tide harm and schonde, 

3ef je do]> gri])-bruche on his londe. 

Late]? beo, and beoj) i-some, 1735 

An[d] fare]) riht to ower dome, 

An[d] late]) dom })is plaid to-breke. 

Al-swo hit was erur bi-speke.' 

' Ich an wel/ cwa}) ]>e ni3tegale ; 
'Ah, wranne, nawt for }>ire tale, 1740 

Ah do for mire lahfulnesse: 
Ich nolde ]>at un-rihtfulnesse 
Me at ]>en ende over-kome; 
Ich nam of-drad of none dome. 
Bi-hote ich habbe, so}) hit is, 1745 

pat maister Nichole, })at is wis, 
Bi-twixen us deme schulde ; 
And jet ich wene })at he wule, 
Ah war mihte we hine finde?' 
pe wranrie sat in ore linde, 1750 

'Hwat, nute je,' cwa}) heo, 'his horn? 
He wune]) at Portes-hom, 
At one tune ine Dorsete, 
Bi })are see in ore ut-lete ; 

par he deme}) manie ri3te -dom, 1755 

And diht and writ mani wisdom, 
And ]mrh his mu}>e and }mrh his honde 
Hit is ]>Q betere into Scotlonde. 
To seche hine is lihtlich ])ing, 

1731 C. 'An do J>anne swuch.' 1732 C. '36*; J. 'yet.' 

1*733 C. 'Hunke.' 1747 C. 'Bi-tuxen? '" ' 

1748 C. 'Ansef; J. 'yet.' 1751 C. ' nujte.' 1756,7 G. 'An,' 


He nave)) bute one woning : 1760 

pat is bischopen muchel schame ; 

And alle ]>an J?at of his nome 

Habbe]> i-herd and of his dede, 

Hwi nulle]) hi nimen heom to rede, 

pat he were mid heom i-lome 1765 

For [to] teche heom of his wisdome, 

And jive him rente a veale stude, 

pat he mi3te heom i-lome be mide?' 

' Certes/ cwaj> }>e ule, ' ]?at is so$ : 
peos riche men wel muche mis-do^, 1770 

pat lete)? }>ane gode mon, 
pat of so feole J>inge con, 
And jive]? rente wel mis-liche r 
And of him letej> wel lihtliche; 
WrS heore cunne heo beo}> mildre, 1775 

And jeve]> rente litle childre, 
Swo heore wit hi demj> adwole, 
pat ever abid maister Nichole. 
Ah ute we J?ah to him fare, 
For ]>ar is unker dom al jare.' 1780 

,*Do we/ the nijtegale seide: 
'Ah wa schal unker speche rede, 
And telle to-vore unker deme?' 

' par-of ich schal J>e wel i-cweme/ 
CwaJ) J>e ule, 'for al ende of orde, 1785 

Telle ich con word after worde ; 
And jef J>e ]>iricj> ]>at ich mis-rempe, 
pu stond ajein and do me crempe.' 
]\lid J)isse worde forj> hi ferden, 

1761 C. 'his/ 1763 C. 'ihert.' 1767 C. 'An'; vale.' 

1769 C. 'hule.' 1773, 4, 6 C. ' An.* 1785 C. ' houle.' 


Al bute here and bute verdefn], 
To Portesham ]>at heo bi-come ; 
Ah hu heo spedde of heore dome 
Ne can ich eu namore telle ; 
Her nis na more of )>is[se] spelle. 

1793 C. 'chan.' 


VOL. I. 



A. D. 1250. 

THE oldest version of the * Moral Ode ' is found in the Lam- 
beth MS. 487, from which it was printed by the present editor 
in 'Old English Homilies/ First Series. This poem was first 
printed by Hickes in his * Thesaurus/ vol. i. p. 222, from one of 
the Digby MSS. ; it was afterwards edited by Mr. Furnivall in 
1858 from the Egerton MS. 613, for the Philological Society. 
I have added another and later version from a Jesus MS. in 
* An Old English Miscellany' (Early English Text Society, 1872). 
These are all in the Southern dialect; but an early copy with 


Text A. 

[Jesus MS.] 
ch am eldre J>an ich wes a winter and ek on lore. 

Ich welde more J?an ich dude, my wyt auhte beo more. 
Wei longe ich habbe child ibeo. a werke and eke on dede. 
pah ich beo of wynter old. to yong ich am on rede. 
Vnne'S lif ich habbe ilad. and yet me }>mk]> ich lede. 5 
Hwenne ich me bi)>enche. ful sore ich me adrede, 
Mest al ]>at ich habbe idon. is idelnesse and chilce. 
Wei late ich habbe me bi-J>ouht. bute god do me mylce. 
Veole idel word ich habbe ispeke. seoj>}>e ich speke cu]>e. 
And feole yonge deden ido. ]>at me of-j>inchej> nuj>e. 10 
5 MS. Unned/ 

or t 





East Midland varieties is printed in my Second Series of Old 
nglish Homilies, from the Trinity College MS. B 14. 52. 
The poem in its present form seems to have been copied 
and modernized from a version much older than the later half 
of the twelfth century. 

For the sake of comparing the language at two different 
iods and in two different dialects, the whole poem is given 
from the Jesus MS. (as printed in * An Old English Miscellany,' 
p. 58) and from the Trinity MS. B. 14. 52 ('Old English Homi- 
lies,' Second Series, p. 220). 

Text B. 
^Trinity MS.] 

Ich am nu elder ]?an ich was a wintre and a lore. 
Ich wealde more j>an idude mi wit oh to be more 
To longe ich habbe child iben a worde and a dade. 
peih ibie a winter eald to jung ich am on rade. 
Vnnet lif ich habbe ilad. and jiet me J>inche3 ilade. 3 
pan ibrSenche me ]?ar-on wel sore ime adrade. 
Mast al ich habbe idon is idelnesse and chilce. 
Wel late ich habbe me btyoht bute me God do milce. 
Fele idel word ich habbe ispeken se^en ich speken cire. 
And fele seunge dade idon ]>e me pfSinkeS nirSe. 

O 2 


Al to 16me ich habbe agult. on werke and on worde. 
Al to muchel ich habbe impend, to lutel i-leyd an horde. 
Best al )>at me likede er. nv hit me mys-lyke]). 
pe muchel folewej? his wil. him seolue he bi-swike]>, 
Mon let J)i fol lust ouer-go, and eft hit j>e like]). 15 

Ich myhte habbe bet i-do. heuede' ich eny selh]>e. 
Nv ich wolde and i ne may. for elde. ne for vnhelhfe. 
Elde is me bi-stolen on. er pan ich hit wiste. 
Ne may ich bi-seo me bi-fore. for smoke ne for myste. 
Erewe we beoj> to donne g6d. vuel al to friste, 20 

More eye stonde}) mon of mon. )>an him to cryste. 
pe wel ne doj) hwile he may. hit schal him sore reowe. 
Hwenne alle men repen schule. ]>at heo ear seowe. 
Do$ to gode ]>at ye muwen. ]?e hwile ye beo]> alyue. 
Ne lipne no mon to muchel. to childe. ne to wyue. 25 
pe him seolue for-yet. for wiue. oj>er for childe. 
He schal cumen on vuele stude. bute god him beo milde. 
Sende vch sum god bivoren him. ]>e hwile he may to heouene. 
Betere is on almes bi-uoren. J>ane beo}) after seouene. 
Ne beo J>e leouere ]>an ]>i seolf. fi mey ne J>i mowe. 30 
Sot is J>at is oj>er mannes freond. more fan his owe. 
Ne lipne no wif to hire were, ne were to his wyue. 
Beo vor him seolue vych mon. ]?e hwile he beo]> alyue. 
Wis is J>at him seolue bij>enkj>. J>e hwile he mot libbe. 
Vor sone willej> him for-yete ]>e fremede and ]>e sibbe. 35 
pe wel nule do hwile he may. ne schal he hwenne he wolde, 
Mony monnes sore iswynk. ofte habbe]) vnholde. 
Ne scholde nomon don a virst. ne slakien wel to donne. 
Vor mony mon bihotej) wel. ]>at hit for-yete]) sone. 
pe mon J>at wile syker beo. to habbe godes blysse. 40 
Do wel him seolf J)e hwile he may. J)enne haue]) he hit myd 

24 MS. 'Dod.' 34 MS. 'pis/ 


Alto lome ich habbe igult a werke and a worde. 
Alto muchel ic habbe ispend to litel ileid on horde. 
Mast al fat me likede ar nu hit me mislicaS. 
pe muchel fo^e^ his iwil him selfen he biswica^. 

Ich mihte habben bet idon. hadde ich fo isel^e. 15 

Nu ich wolde ac ine mai for elde and for unhaFe 
Elde me is bistolen on ar ich hit iwiste. 
Ne mai ich isien bifore me for smeche ne for miste 
Ar}e we be$ to don god to juel al to friste 
More eie stondeS man of. man fan him do of criste. 20 
pe wel ne deS f e hwile he mai wel ofte hit sal him rewen. 
pan alle men sulle ripen fat hie ar sewen. 
Do al to gode J>at he mu^e ech fe hwile he be^ aliue. 
Ne lipne noman to muchel to childe ne to wiue. 
pe fe him selfe forjiet for wiue o$er for childe 25 

He sal cumen on euel stede bute him God be milde. 
Sende god biforen him man fe hwile he mai to heuene 
For betre is on almesse biforen fan ben after seuene. 
Ne bie fe leuere fan fe self ne fi maei ne fi mowe 
Sot is fe is o$er mannes frend betere fan his owen. 30 
Ne hopie wif to hire were ne were to his wiue 
Be for him self afric man fe hwile he beS aliue. 
Wis [is] fe him selue brSencheft f e hwile he mot libben 
For sone willed him forjiete f e fremda and \Q sibbe. 
pe wel ne do^ fe hwile he mai ne sal he fan he wolde. 
For mani mannes sore iswinc habbeS ofte unholde. 36 
Ne solde noman don a furst ne laten wel to done 
For mani man bihoteS wel fat hi forjiete'S sone. 
pe man fe wile siker ben to habben .godes blisse. , 
Do wel him self f e hwile he . mai f anne haue'S hes, mid 
iwisse. 40 

24 MS. 'Nu.' 


peos riche men wene]> to beon syker. J?urh walles and )>urh 
diche. [heoue-riche. 

Ah heo doj> heore ayhte in siker stude. j>at sendej> hit to 
Vor }>er ne )>arf. he beon adred. of fure ne of J>eue. 
par ne may hit bynyme. ]>e loj>e ne )>e leoue. 45 

per ne ]?arf he beon of-dred. of yefte. ne of yelde. 
pider we sendej> and seolf berej>. to lutel and to selde. 
pider we schulde drawen and don. wel ofte and Home. 
Ne may ]>er non hit vs bynymen. myd wrongwise dome, 
pider we schulden drawen and don. wolde ye me ileue. 50 
Vor J>er ne may hit vs by-nyme. J>e king, ne j>e schirre'ue. 
Al ]?e beste J>at we habbejj. J>ider we schulde sende. 
Vor j>er we hit myhte vinden eft. and habben .o. buten ende 
He J>at her doj> eny god. to habbe godes ore. 
Al he schal vynde J>er. an hundred folde more. 55 

pe J>at ayhte wile holde wel. J>e hwile he may him wolde. 
Yeue hit for godes luue. J>enne doj> he hit wel iholde. 
Vre swynk and vre tyleh)>e. is iwuned to swynde. 
Ah heo ]>at hit yeuej) for godes luue. eft hit mowen ivynde. 
Ne schal non vuel beon vn-bouht. ne no god vn-vor-gulde. 
Vuel we do]> al to muchel. god i lasse ]>ane we scholde. 
pe }>at mest doj> nv to g6de. and te J>e leste to la]?e. 
Ey]>er to lutel and to muchel. schal Jmnchen heom ef[t] ba]>e. 
per me schal vre werkes weyen by-vore heouene kinge. 
And yeuen vs vre swynkes lean, after vre earnynge. 65 
Everuych mon myd J>at he haue]>. may bugge heoueriche. 
pe riche and )>e poure boj>e. ah nouht alle ilyche. 
pe poure. myd his penye. j>e riche myd his punde. 
pat is jje wunderlicheste ware. J>at euer was ifunde. 

And ofte god con more J>onk. |>e ]?at yue}> him lasse. 70 
Alle his werkes. and his yeftes. is in ryhtwisnesse. 
63 MS. ' ef to baj>e.' 


pe riche men wene^ siker ben Jmrch wallen and thurh 


He de'S his aihte an siker stede ]>e hit sent to heueriche. 
For )>arf he ben of-drad of fure ne of ]>ieue. 
par ne mai hit him binime )>e lo^e ne ]>e lieue. 
par ne J>arf he habben care of here ne of sielde. 45 

pider we sendeS and ec bere'S to litel and to selde. 
pider we solden drawen and don wel ofte and ilome. 
For J?ar ne sal me us naht binime mid wrongwise dome, 
pider we solde jierne drawen wolde jie me ileuen. 
For ne mai hit us binime no king ne no syrreue. 50 

Al ]>at beste }?at we habbe'S her Jnder we solde sende. 
For j?ar we mihte finden eft. and habben abuten ende. 
Se ]>e her do^ ani god forto haben godes ore. 
Al he hit sal eft finde ]?ar and hundredfealde more. 
Se J?e aihte wile holde wel ]?e hwile hes mu^e wealden. 55 
3ieue hes for godes luue ]?anne doS hes wel ihealden. 
For ure swinch and ure tile is ofte wuned to swinde 
Ac al ]?at we sieueS for godes luue al we hit sulen eft finden. 
Ne sal ]>ar non euel ben unboht ne god unforjolden. 
Euel we do^ al to muchel and god lasse ]?an we solden. 60 
Se )>e mast do$ nu to gode and se last to lothe. 
Eier to litel and to muchel hem sal ]?unche boe. 
par me sal ure werkes wei^en bifore fan heuen kinge 
And jieuen us ure werkes lean after ure erniwge. 
Africh man mid ]?at he haue mai bugge heueriche. 65 
pe ]>e more hane^ and J>e J?e lasse bo^e iliche, 
Alse on mid his peni se o^er mid his punde. 
pis is )>et wunderlukeste ware ]?at ani man funde. 
And se }>e more ne mai don mid his gode ij>anke. 
Alse wel se ]?e J>e haue^ goldes fele manke. 70 

And ofte god can more ]>anc J?an ]?e him 3ieue : S lasse, 
Al his werkes and his weies is milce and rihtwi[s]nesse, 
70 MS. haued.' 


Lvtel lok is gode leof. }>at cume]> of gode wille. 

And lutel he let on muchel wowe. ]>er ]>e heorte is ille. 

Heouene and eorj>e he ouer-syh]?. his eyen beoj> so brihte. 

Sunne. andmone. heuene. and fur. beo]> J>eostre. ayeynhislyhte. 

Nis him for-hole nowiht. ne ihud. so muchele beo]? his myhte. 

Nis no so derne dede idon. in so feostre nyhte. 

He wot hwat }>enchej>. and hwat doj>. alle quyke wyhte. 

Nis no loii^rd such is crist. ne king, such vre dryhte. 79 

Heouene and eorj>e. and al ]?at is. biloken is. in his honde. 
He do)> al }>at his wille is. a watere. and eke on londe. 
He makede fysses in ]>e sea. and fuweles in the lufte. 
He wit and wald alle }>ing. and schop alle schafte. 
He wes erest of alle J>ing. and euer byj> buten ende. 
He is on ewiche stude. wende hwer Jm wende. 85 

He is buuen and bi-ne]>en. bi-voren vs and bi-hinde. 
pe )>at godes wille do]>. ichwer may him fynde. 
Hvych rune he iherj>. }>e wot alle dede. 
He j>urh-syh}>. vych monnes J?onk. wy hwat schal vs to rede, 
pe J?at brekej> godes hes. and gultej? so il<5me. 90 

Hwat schulle we seggen o]>er don. at J>e muchele dome. 
pe j?at luuej) vnryht. and heore lif. vuele lede)>. 
We ]>at neu^r god ne duden. J>en heueneliche deme)>. 
Hwat schulle seggen o]>er don. ]?er engles heom drede. 
Crist for his muchele myhte. us helpe ]?enne and rede. 
Hwat schulle we beren vs bi-voren. mid hwan schulle we 


pe[r] schule beon deoulen so veole. J>at wulle]> vs forwreye. 
Nabbe]> heo nowiht for-yete. of al J>at heo iseyen. 
Al J>at we mysduden here, heo hit wullej) cu]>e J>ere. 
Bute we habben hit ibet. J>e hwile we her were. 100 

M heo habbej> in heore wryte. J>at we mysduden here. 

95 MS. ' hus.' 


Litel loc is gode lef J>e cume^ of gode wille. 
And e^late muchel 3ieue ]?an his herte is ille. 
Heuene and ere he ouer sifrS his eien be^S ful brihte. 75 

Nis him no ]>ing forholen swo muchel is his mihte 
Fe bie hit no swo derne idon ne on swo Jmster nihte. 
te wot hwat Jjenche^ and hwat do^ alle quike wihte 
lis louerd swilch is crist ne king swilch lire drihte. 
Bo^e jieme'S J?e his bien bi daie and bi nihte. 80 

Heuene and ere and al ]>at is biloken is in his honden 
He do^ al ]?at his wille is awatere and alonde 
He makeS ]?e fisses in J>e sa )>e fueles on ]?e lofte. 
He wit and wealde^ alle ]>ing and he sop alle safte. 
He is ord abuten ord and ende abuten ende. 85 

He is one afre on eche stede wende ]>ar )>u wende. 
He is buuen us and bine^en biforen and bihinde 
pe godes wille do^ aihware he mai3 him finde 
Elche rune he hereS and he wot alle dade 
He Jmrh-silrS elches mannes J>anc wi hwat sal us to rade. 
We }>e breke'S godes has and gulteS swo ilome 91 

Hwat sulle we seggen oSer don ate muchele dome 
We ]?e luueden unriht and euel lif ladden. 

Hwat sulle we seggen o^er don ]?ar sengles be^ ofdradde. 

Hwat sulle we beren us biforen mid hwan sulle we iqweme 

We ]>e nafre god ne duden t>an heuenliche deme. 96 

par sulle ben deflen swo fele ]>at willed us forwreien. 

Nabbe^ hie no ]?mg for3ieten of ]?at hie her iseien. 

Al ]?at hie iseien her hie willed cu^en }>are 

Bute we haben hit ibet ]?e hwile we here waren. 100 

Al hie habbe^ on here write ]?at we misduden here. 


pah we hit nusten, heo weren vre i-fere. 
Hwat schullej) horlinges don. \>e swiken. and the forsworene. 
Swi]>e veole beoj> icleped, and fewe beoj? icorene. 
Way hwi were heo bi-yete. hwi weren heo iborene. 105 
pat schulle beo to dej)e idemed. and euer-more forlorene. 
Huych mon him seolue schal her. bi-cleopien. and ek deme. 
His owene werkes and his J>ouht. to witnesse hit schal teme. 
Ne may him nomon deme so vvel. iwis. ne al so ryhte. 
For non ne knowe]? so wel his ]>onk. bute vre dryhte. no 
Vych mon wot him seolue best, his werkes and his wille. 
pat lest wot he seyj> ofte mest. and he J>at al wot is stille. 
Nis no witnesse al so muchel. so mo;mes owe heorte. 
For so sey]> J?at vnhol is him seolue hwat him smeorte]>. 
Vych mon schal him seolue deme. to de]>e o]?er to lyue. 
pe witnesse of his owe werk. ]>er-to him schal dryue. 116 
And al ]?at euer mon haf]> idon. sej>j?en heo com to monne. 
Al so he hit iseye on boke iwryten. hit schal him }>inche 


Ne schal nomon beon ydemed. after his bigynnynge. 
Ah dom schal J>olyen vych mon. after his endinge 120 
If )>e ende is vuel al hit is vuel. god yef vs god ende. 
God yef vs vre ende gdd. hwider J>at he vs lende. 
pe mon \at neuer nule do god. ne neuer god lif lede. 
pat dej> cume to his dure. he may sore a-drede. 
pat he ne muwe bidden ore. for J>at i-tyt ilom. 125 

Vor-]?i is wis ]>at bit ore. and bet. bi-vore j>e dome. 
Hwenne de]> is at \>e dure. wel late he bit ore. 
Wel late he letej) ]>at vuel. }>enne he ne may do na more. 
Bilef sunne hwil jm myht. and do bi godes lore. 
And do to gode hwat }>u myht. if )>u wilt habben ore. 130 
For we hit ileue]> wel. and dryhten seolf hit seyde. 
On hwiche tyme so euer )>e mon. of-}>inche]> his mysdede. 
Oj>er ra]>er oj>er later, milce he schal y-mete. 


peih we hes ne niseien hie waren ure iferen. 

Hwat sullen horlinges don J>es wichen and ]?e forsworene 

Wi swo fele be^ icleped swo fewe betS icorene 

Wi hwi waren hie bijiete to hwan waren hie iborene. 105 

pe sulle ben to dea^e idemd and afremo forlorene 

Elch man sal ]>ar biclepien himselfen and ec demen. 

His O5en were and his ]?anc to witnesse he sal temen. 

Ne mai him noman alse wel demen ne alse rihte 

For non ne cnowe^ hine alse wel buten one drihte., no 

Man wot him self best his werkes and his wille, 

Se J>e last wot he serS ofte mast se ]>it al wot is stille 

Nis no witnesse alse muchel se mannes o^en hierte 

Hwo se serS ]>at hi*e be^ hoi him self wot his smierte. 

Elch man sal him selfen demen to deae o^er to Hue. 

pe witnesse of his o^en were to o^er ]>an hine sal driue. 116 

Al J>at afri man haueS idon seen he cam to manne 

Swo he hit iseie aboc iwrite he sal hit }>enche |>anne 

Ac drihte ne denied noman after his biginninge 

Ac al his lif sal ben teald after his endinge 120 

3ief ]>e endinge is god al hit is god and euel 3ief euel is 

]?e ende. 

God 3ieue J>at ure ende be god and jteue ]>at he us lende. 
Se man )>e nafre nele don god ne nafre god lif lade. 
Are deaS and dom cumeS to his dure he mai} him sore adrade 
pat he ne mu3e ]?anne bidden ore for ]>at itit ilome 125 
For-J>i he wis J?e bit and bi3iet and bet bifore dome 
panne J>e dea'S is ate dure wel late he biddeS ore 
Wel late he lateS euel were ]>an he hit ne mai don no more. 
Senne lat ]>e and ]>u nah him ]?an }>u hit ne miht do no more ; 
For-]>i he is sot ]>e swo abit to habben godes ore. 130 
peih hwe^ere we hit leue^ wel for drihte self hit sade. 
Elche time sal J>e man of-]nmche his misdade 
O^er ra^er o^er later milce he sal imete. 
loS MS. ' Hie.' 


Ah he J>at nouht nauej> ibdt. muchel he hauejj to bete. 
Mony mon sey]> hwo rek]> of pyne. J)at schal habben ende. 
Ne bidde ich no bet. bute ich beo. ilesed a domes day 
.of bende. 136 

Lutel wot he hwat is pyne. and lutel he hit iknowej*. 
Hwich hete is ]?ar ]>e soule wune]?. hw bitter wynd \er blowej?. 
Hedde he iwuned j?er enne day. o]?er vnne]?e one tyde. 
Nolde he for al J?e middelerd. an o]?er J>er abyde. 140. 
Swi]>e grimlych stench J>er is. and wur]? \vyj>-vten ende 
And hwo J>e enes cumej> j>er, vt may he neuer ]?enne wende. 
Neu<?r ich in helle ne com. ne )>er to cume ne recche. 
pah ich al J>es worldes weole. ]>er wende to vecche. 
pat seyden ]>eo ]>at weren J>er. heo hifc wisten myd iwisse. 
per wurS seorewe of seoue yer. for souenyhtes blysse. 146 
And for J>e blysse j?at ende hauej? i endeles is ]?e pyne. 
Beter is worie wateres drunc. }>ane atter meynd myd wyne. 
Swynes brede is swete. so is of J?e wilde deore. 
Al to deore he hit bu)>. ]>at yeuej) )>ar-vore his sweore. 150 
Ful wombe may lihtliche speken. of hunger and of festen. 
So may of pyne. ]>at not hwat hit is. J>at eu^r-mo schal lesten. 
Hedde he ifonded suwme stunde. he wolde seggen al o]>er. 
nd\ete for crist. beb wit and child, fader, suster. and broker. 
Al he wolde ojjer don. and oj>erluker jjenche. 155 

Hwenne he bi]?ouhte on helle fur. J>at noting ne may quenche. 
Eure he wolde in bonen beon. and in godnesse wunye. 
Wi]> }>at he myhte helle fur. euer fleon and schonye. 
And lete sker al )>es worldes weole. and )>es worldes blysse. 
WiJ> )>at he myhte to heouene cumen. and beo J>er myd iwisse. 
Ich wile eu seggen of ]>e dome, as ich eu er seyde. 161 
On J>e day and on J>e dome, vs helpe cryst and rede. 
fer we muwen beon aferd. and sore vs of-drede. 
per vych schal seon him bi-fore. his word and ek his dede. 

146 MS. ' f>urh,' * sonenyhtes.' 148 MS. ' drung.' 

. * 


c ]>e J>e her naue'S ibet muchel he haueS to bete 

ani man serS hwo reche pine ]?e sal habben ende 135 

Ne bidde ich no bet bie ich alesed a domesdai of 

Litel w,ot he hwat is pine and litel he cnowe'S 
wilch hit is J>ar sowle wunieS hwu biter wind J>ar blowe'S. 
adde Jie ben . }>ar on oer two bare tiden. f 
olde he for al midden-eard }>e J>ridde far abiden. 140 

fL/H& U 





pat habbe'S isaid J?e come ]?anne J>it wiste mid iwisse. 
po wu-rSe sore5e seue 3ier for seue nihte blisse. 
And ure blisse pe ende haue^ for ende-lease pine i 

is wori water ]?an atter imengd mid wine, 
wines brade is wel swete swo is of wilde diere. ,145 
Ac alto diere he hit abur8 ]>e jief^ )>ar-fore his swiere. 
Ful wombe mai lihtliche speken of hunger and of fasten 
Swo mai of pine ]>e not hwat is pine J>e sal ilasten. 
Hadde [he] fonded sume Stunde he wolde seggen o^er 
Elate him ware wif and child suster and fader and broken 
Al he wolde o^erluker don and o^erluker ]>enche 151 
pan he bi^ohte an helle fur ]>at nowiht ne mai queriche 
Afre he wolde her in wo and in wane wunien 
WrS-])an he mihte helle fur biflen and bisunien. 
E^late him ware al wele and ereliche blisse 155 

or to ]?e muchele blisse cume ]>is murie mid iwisse. 

ch wulle nu cumen eft to ]>e dome ]>Q ich eow ar of sade. 

n ]>Q daie and on )>e dome us helpe crist and rade 
par we mu^en ben sore offerd arid harde us ofdrade. 159 
par elch sal al isien him biforen his word and ec his' dade. 
134 MS. 'hailed.' 142 MS. *Wo.' 


Al schal beon J>er )>eonne ikud. J>at er men lowen and steleh. 
Al schal beon )>er )>eonne vnwrien. Jw/men her wrien andhelen. 
Vve schulle]) alre monne lyf. iknowe al so vre owe. 167 
per schulle beon euenynges. j>e riche and ek ]>e lowe. 

pe dom schal beon sone idon, no lest he nowhit longe. 
Ne schal him nomon menen J>er. of strengj>e. ne of wronge. 
peo schullen habbe harde dom. J>at er weren harde. 171 
peo J>at vuele heolde wrecche men. and vuele lawe arerde. 

Alle j>eo fat beoj> icumen. of adam and of eve. 
Alle heo schule }>ider cumen. and so we owen hit ileue. 
peo )>at habbej) wel idon. after heore mihte. 175 

To heoueriche heo schulle vare. for)? myd him vre dryhte. 
peo \at habbef feondes werk idon. and }>er-in beo)> ifunde. 
Heo schulle fare for]) myd himf in-to helle grunde. 
per ho schulle wunyen .o. buten ore and ende. 179 

Ne brekej) nouht crist eft helle dure. to lesen heom of bende. 
Nys no seollich ]>eh heom beo wo. he mawe wunye ej>e. 
Nul neuer eft crist folye de]). to lesen heom of de]>e. 
Enes drihte helle brek. his freond he vt brouhte. 
Him seolue he ]?olede de}) for vs. wel deore he vs abouhte. 
Nolde hit nomon do for me. ne suster for broker. 185 
Nolde hit sone do for vader. ne nomon for oj>er. 
Vre alre loumi for vs ^relies, ipyned wes on rode. 
Vre bendes he vnbond. and bouhte vs myd his blode. 
And we yeuej) vnnej>e. a stucche of vre brede. []?e dede. 
We ne )>enche]) nouht J>at he schal deme. J?e quyke and ek 
Muchel luue ,he vs cudde. wolde we hit vnderstonde. 191 


Al sal ]>ar ben ]?anne cirS ]?at men lu}en her and halen. 
Al sal ]?ar ben )>anne unwrien J?at men her hudden and stalen. 
We sullen alre manne lif icnowen alse ure ojen 
par sullen efninges ben to ]>e heie and to J>e loje. 
Ne sal ]?eih no man sarnie )>iar ne J?arf he him adrade. 
3ief him her ofjnnche'S his gult and bet his misdade. 166 
For hem ne sameS ne ne grameS J>e sulle ben ibore^e 
Ac jjo^re habbe'S same and grame and oer fele sore^e. 
pe dom sal ben sone idon ne last hit nowiht longe 
Ne sal .him noman mene ]>ar-of strenpSe ne pf wronge 
po sulle habben hardae dom j?e here waren hardde . 171 
po ]>e euel hielden wreche men and euel la^e arerde. 
Elch after j)at he haue^ idon sal ]>ar ben ]?anne idemd 
BlrSe mai he Jxanne ben ]?e god haue^ wel iquemd. 
Alle ])0 ]>Q sprunge be^ of adaw and of eue 175 

Alle hie sulle ]?ider cume for so^e we hit ileue^. 
po }>e habbe^ wel idon after here mihte 
To heueriche hie sulle fare forS mid ure drihte. 
po ]?e deueles werkes habe^ idon and }>ar-inne be^ ifunde 
Hie sulle fare forS mid hem into helle grunde. 180 

par hie sulle wunien abuten ore and ende. 
BrecrS nafre eft crist helle dure for [to] lesen hem of bende j 
Nis no sellich ]?eih hem be wo and |>eih hem be unease 
Ne sal nafre eft crist ]?olien deat5 for [to] lesen hem of deaSe. 
^Enes drihten helle .brae his frend he ut brohte 185 

Him self he jjolede dea'S for hem wel diere he hes bohte. 
Nolde hit mo3e don for mai ne suster [for] broker 
Nolde sune don for fader ne no man for oer. 
Vre alre louerd for his Jjralles ipined he was arode 
Ure bendes he unbond and bohte us mid his blode. 190 
We 3ieue : S unease for his luue a steche of ure breade 
Ne ]>enche we naht ]?ar )>at sal (Jeme ]>e q^ica and }>e deade. 
Muchel luue he us kedde wolde we hit understonde. 
169 MS. '}>al.' 173 MS. 'idemff.' 176 MS. 'ileued/ 


pat vre elderne mys-duden. we habbej) harde on honde. 

Dej? com i J>is middelerd. jnirh J>e deofles onde. [londe. 

And sunne. and sorewe. and muchel swynk. a watere. and a 

Vre forme faderes gult. we abuggej) alle. 195 

Al his ofsprung after him. in harme is ifalle. 

purst and hunger, chele. and hete.' and ache 1 vnhelj>e. 

purh him com in J>is myddelerd. and oj>e vnyselyh]>e. 

Nere nomon elles ded ne sek. ne non vnhele. 

Ah myhten libben euer-mo. myd blysse and myd wele. 

Lutel hit J>incheJ> monymon. ah muchel wes ]>e sunne. 201 
For whon alle )>olie)> dej>. ]>at comen of heore kunne. 
Vre sunne and vre sor. vs may sore of-jmnche. 
In sunnen we libbej) alle. and score we. and in swynke. 
Hwenne god nom so muche wreche. for one mys-dede. 
We ]?at ofte mys-doj>. we mowen vs sore adrede. 206 

Adam and his ofsprung. for ore bare sunne. 
Weren feole hundred wynter in pyne. and on vnwunne. 
And )>eo J>at ledej) heore lif. myd vnriht and myd wronge. 
Bute hit godes my Ice beo. he beo]> }>ar wel longe. 210 
Codes wisdom is wel muchel. and al so is his myhte. 
Nis his mylce nowiht lasse. ah al by one wyhte. 
More he one may for-yeue. ]>an al volk agulte kunne. 
peyh seolf deouel myhte habbe mylce. if he hit bigunne. 
pe J>at godes mylce sekj>. iwis he hit may fynde. 215 

Ah helle kyng. is ore-les. wi]> ]>on J>at he may bynde. 
pe }>at do]> his wille mest. he schal habbe wrst mede. 
His baj> schal beo wallynde pich. his bed bernynde glede. 

1 MS. ache and.' 


pat ure elderne misduden we habe^ euel an honde. 

Dea cam in ]?is middenserd J>urh ealde deueles onde 195 

And senne and soreje and iswinch awatere and [ajlonde. 

Vre foremes faderes gult we abugeS alle 

Al his ofsprung after him in harem is biualle 

purst and hunger, chele and hete and alle unhal^e 

purh dea'S cam in )>is middeneard and o^er unisaPSe. 200 

Nare noman elles dead ne sic ne [non] unsele 

Ac mihte libbe afremo ablisse and an hale. 

Litel lac is gode lief ]>e cumeS of gode wille 

And e^late muchel jieue ]>an his herte is ille 

Litel hit Jnmche'S maniman ac muchel was J>e senne 205 

For hwan alle JjolieS dea$ ]>e comen of here kenne 

Here senne and ec ure ojen us muje sore ofjnmche 

For senne we libe^ alle her in soreje and in swunche. 

Se^en god nazrc swo mukel wrache for one misdede 

We ]>e swo ofte misdo^ we mu3en us eae ofdrade. 210 

Adam and al his ofspreng for one bare senne. 

Was fele hundred wintre an helle a pine and unwenne. 

po |>e lade^ here lif mid unrihte and mid wronge 

Bute hit godes milce do hie sulle wunie J>ar longe. 

Codes wisdom is wel muchel and alsse is his mihte 215 

Ac nis his mihte nowiht lasse ac brSer ilke wihte. 

More he one maij forjieue ]>an alle folc gulte cunne 

Self deuel mihte habben milce 5ief he hit bigunne. 

pe]>e godes milche secS iwis he mai hes finden 

Ac helle king is ore-leas wvS ]?o J>e he mai binden. 220 

Se deS his wille mast he sal habbe werest mede 

His baS sal be wallinde pich his bed barnende glede. 

Werse he do^ his gode wines J>an his fiendes 

God silde alle godes friend wrS swo euele friende. 

Nafre an helle ine cam ne cumen ich ]>ar ne reche 225 

peih ich aches woreldes wele )>are mihte feche. 

215 MS. 'mulchel.' 


Also ich hit telle as wyse men vs seyden. 
And on heore boke. hit iwryten is. fat me may hit reden. 
Ich hit segge for heom. ]?at er ]>is hit nusten. 221 

And warny heom wi]> harme. if heo me wulle)> lusten. 
Vnderstonde]) nv to me. edye men and arme. 
Ich wille ou telle of helle pyne. and warny of harme. 
par is hunger and J>urst. vuele tweye ivere. 225 

peos pyne J>olieJ> J>er. J>at were mete-nyfinges here. 
par is wonyng and wop. after vlche s'trete. 
Ho vare]> from hete to chele. from chele to )>ar hete. 
Hwenne heo cume]> in hete. J>e chele heom j?inche]> lysse. 
penne heo cumej> eft to chele. of hete heo habbej> mysse 
Eyfer heom do)> wo y-nouh. nabbe)> heo none lisse. 231 
Heo nuten hwe]?er heom do]> wurse, myd never none iwisse. 
Heo walkej> euer and seche}> reste. ah heo hit ne muwe ime'te. 
For heo nolde hwile heo myhten. heore sunnen ibete. 
Heo schechej? reste J>er non nys, for-J>i ne muwen hi finde 
Ah walkej) J>ar bofe vp and dun. so water do]> myd winde. 
pis beo)> )>e. fat weren her mid hwom me heold feste. 
And feo ]>at gode bi-heyhte wel. and nolden hit ileste. 
And feo fat god were by-gunne and ful-endy hit nolden. 
Nv were her. nv were fer. heo nuste hwat heo wolden. 240 
pet ich pych. fat ever walle)>. \at heo schulle habbe fere. 
peo \at lede]> heore lyf vnwreste. and eke false were. 
par is fur an hundred-folde. hatture J?ane be vre. 
Ne may hit quenche no salt auene stre'm. ne sture. 
pat is }>et fur |?at euer barn]?, ne may hit nomon quenche. 245 
par-inne beo]> ]>eo. J>at her wes leof. poure men to swenche. 
peo ]>at were swikelemen. and ful of vuele wrenche. 
And )>eo ]?at ne myhte vuele do. and was hit leof to J>enche. 
peo J?at luued reving. and stale, and hordom. and drunken 
And on deoueles werke. blujjeliche swunken. 250 

peo fat were so lese. ]>at me heom ne myhte ilduen. 


peih ich wille seggen eow ]?at wise men us saden 
And [a] boc hit is write ]>ar me hit mai rade. 
Ic wille seggen hit J>o J>e hit hem self nesten 229 

x4#^warnin hem wrS here unfreme 3ief hie me willed hlesten. 
Vnderstonde'S nu to meward eadi men and arme 
Ich wille tellen eow of helle pine and warnin eow wrS harme. 
An helle hunger and jmrst euel two iferen. 
pos pine JjolieS J>o J?e ware metenrSinges here. 
par is woning and wop after ache strate 235 

Hie fare's fram hate [to] chele fraw chele to hate, 
pan hie beS in ]?e hate chele hem jmnche'S blisse 
pan hie cume^ eft to chele of hate hie habbe'S misse. 
ErSer do^ hem wo inch nabbed [hie] none lisse. 
Niten hwe'Ser hem do^ wers to nafre none wisse. 240 
Hie walked afre and scene's reste ac hie hes ne mu^en imeten. 
For-J>i ]>e hie nolde J?e hwile hie mihten here senne beten. 
Hie scene's reste ]>ar non nis ac hie hies ne mu3en ifinden. 
Ac walked weri up and dun se water do's mid winde 
pat he^ J>o )>e waren her an J?anc unstedefaste 245 

And J>o ]>e gode biheten aihte and hit him ilaste. 
And J>o }>e god were bigunnen and ful endin hit nolden. 
Nu waren her and nu J?ar and nesten hwat he wolden 
par is pich J>at afre wallet J?ar sulle wunien inne 
po ]?e lade^ here lif on werre and an unwinne. 250 

par is fur Jns hundredfeald hatere J>an be ure. 
Ne mai hit quenche salt water ne auene stream ne sture. 
pis is J?at fur ]>at afre barne'S [hit] ne mai no wiht quenche. 
par-inne be^ J>e was to lef wreche men to swenche. 
po ]>e [waren] swikele men and ful of euele wrenchen 255 
And ]>o ]?e mihten euel don and lief hit was to J>enchen. 
pe luueden rauing and stale hordom and dru[n]ken 
And an defies werkes blrSeliche swunken. 
po Je waren swo lease men J?at mes ne mihte leuen 

p 2 


Med-yofne domes men. and wrongwise reuen. 

pe ]>at wes - leof o]>er mannes wif. and his owe. leten. 

And j?e )>at sunege]> ofte. on drunken, and on me'te. 254 

peo ]>at wrecche men bynymej?. his eyhte. and hit ley)) an horde, 

And lutel let on godes bode, and of godes worde. 

peo }>at almes nolde yeue J>ere he -iseyh ]>e neode. 

Ne his poure kunesmen. at him ne myhte nouht spede. 

pe J>at nolde here godes sonde. }>ar he sat. at his borde. 

And was leof o]?er mannes J>ing. leuere ]>an beon schulde. 260 

And weren al to grddi. of seoluer. and of golde. 

And luueden vntrewnesse. ]?at heo schulden beon hdlde. 

A nd Id ten ]>at hi scolden do. and duden J?at heo ne scholden 

Heo schulle|> wunyen in helle. J?e ueondes onwolde. 

pe )>at were gaderares. of )>isse worldes ayhte. 265 

And duden ]>at }>e lo]>e gost heom tycede and tahte. 

And alle )?eo ]>e myd dusye wise, deouele her iqueme]?. 

peo beo]> nv in helle wi]> him. fordon. and for-de'mde. 

Bute J?eo J?at of-]>inchej) her. sore heore mysdede. 

And heore gultes gunnen lete. and betere lif to lede. 270 

per beoj) neddren. and snaken. euethen and fruden. 

per terej) and fretej?. |wz/vuele speke]>. ]?e nyj)fule and}>e prude. 

Neuer sunne ]>er ne schine]). ne mdne. ne steorre. 

per is muchel godes he'te. and muchel godes eorre. 

Euer J?ar is muchel smech. }>eosternesse and eye. 275 

Nis J>er neuer o)>er lyht. bute )>e swarte leye. 

per ly]> ]?e lodliche ueond. in stronge rake-teye. 

p^/ is ]>Q )>at was myd god. in heouene swij>e heye. 

per beoj) ateliche ueondes. and grysliche wyhtes. 

per schule J>e wrecche soulen iseon. \at sunegeden bi sihtes. 

per is }>e lo}>e sathanas. and beelzebub )>e olde. 281 

Ej>e heo mwue beon adred. )>at heom schulde biholde. 

Ne may non heorte hit J>enche. ne no tunge telle. 

Hw muche pyne. hw ueole ueondes. beoj> in ]>eostre helle. 


Medjierne domes men and wrongwise reuen. 260 

po ]?e o^er mannes wif was lief her ojen e^late 

And ]>o ]?e sunegeden muchel on dru[n]ken and on ate. 

pe wreche men binomen here aihte and leide his on horde. 

pe litel lete of godes bode and of godes worde. 

And J>e his .ojen nolde jieue ]?ar he iseih J?e niede 265 

Ne nolde ihere godes men ]?an he sat at his biede, 
po ]>e was o^er mannes }>ing leuere )>an hit solde 
And waren al to gradi of siluer and of golde. 
po ]>e untrewnesse deden |>an ]?e he solden ben holde. 
And leten al )>at hie solden don and deden Jjat hie wolden. 

po ]>e waren jietceres of J>is wereldes aihte 271 

And dude al ]?at ]?e lo^e gost hem tihte to and taihte. 
And al ]>o }>e ani-wise deuel iquemde 
po be^ mid him in helle fordon and demde. 
Bute }>o ]>e oPSuhte sore [her] here misdade 275 

And gunne here gultes bete and betere lif lade. 
par be^ naddren and snaken eueten and fruden 
pe tere'S and frete'S )>o euele swiken }>e nrSfule and J?e prude 
Nafre sunne |>ar ne sine^ ne mone ne storre. 
par is muchel godes hete and muchel godes oerre. 280 
Afre J>ar is euel smech Jnesternesse and eie 
Nis ]>ar nafre o^er liht |>an ]>e swarte leie. 
par lige^ ateliche fiend in . stronge raketeie 
pat be^ \Q ]?e waren mid. god angles swre heie. 
pat be^ ateliche fiend and eiseliche wihten 285 

pp sulle ]>e wreche sowle isien \>e sinegeden J?urh sihte 
par is se lo^e sathanas and belzebub se ealde 
Ea^e he mu^en ben sore ofdrad ]?e sullen hes bihealde. 
Ne mai non herte hit }>enche ne tunge hit ne mai telle 
Hwu muchele ,pine ne hwu fele senden in helle 290 

274 MS. 'hem.' 282 MS. 'oder.' 


For al }>e pyne J>at her is. nulle ich eu nouht lye. 285 
Nis hit bute gome and gleo. al ]>at mow may her dreye. 
And yet ne doj> heom noting so wo. in ]>e lo]>e bende. 
Ase \at witen heore pyne. ne schal habbe non ende. 
par beo]> }>e he}>ene men. ]>at were lawe-lese. 
pet nes nouht of godes forbode. ne of godes -hese. 290 
Vuele cristenemen. beoj) )>er heorure uere. 
peo J>at heore cristendom. vuele heolden here. 
Yet heo beo]> a wrse stude. any]?e[r] helle grunde. 
Ne schullen heo never cumen up '. for marke. ne for punde. 
Ne may helpe ]>er. nouj?er beode ne almesse. 295 

For nys noj>er in helle. ore ne [forjyeuenesse. 
Nu schilde him vych mon hwrle he may. wi|> ]>G ilke pyne. 
And warny vich his freond. so ich habbe myne. 
peo \at schilde heom ne kunnen. ich heom wille teche. 
Ich con beon ey]?er if ich schal. lycome and soule leche. 300 
Lete we j>at god forbed. alle mon-kunne. 
And do we J>at he vs hat. and schilde we vs wi]? sunne. 
Luuye we god myd vre heorte. and myd alle vre myhte. 
Vre euen-cristen. as vs seolf. for so vs lerede dryhte. 
Al }>at me redej> and syngej). bi-voren godes borde. 305 
Al hit hongej) and hald. bi J>isse twam worde. 
Alle godes lawe he fullej?. ]>e newe. and ek ]>e olde. 
pat hauej> J>eos ilke two luuen. and wel heom wile atholde. 
Ah soj> ich hit eu segge. ofte we agultejj alle. 
For strong hit is to stonde longe. and lyht hit is to falle. 310 
Ah dryhten crist vs yeue streng]>e. stonde }>at we mote. 
And of alle vre sunnen. vs lete cume to bote. 
Vve wilnej) after worldes ayhte. J>at longe ne may ileste. 
And mest leggej> vre swynk. on J>ing vnstudeueste. 
If ]>at we swunken for gode. half. J>at we doj> for eyhte. 315 
Nere we nouht so ofte bi-cherd. ne so vuele by-keihte. 
Yef we seruede god. so we do]? earmynges. 
316 MS. <by-J>ouhte. s 


Of JJQ pine ]>e ]?ar bie% nelle ich eow naht lie 
Nis hit bute gamen and glie of J>at man mai here drie. ' 
And }iet ne doS hem naht alse wo in j?e loe bende 
Swo Jjat he witen J>at here pine sal nafre habben ende 
par beS ]?e ha^ene men ]>e waren laje-lease 295 

pe [hem] nes naht of godes bode ne of godes hease. 
lele cristene men hie beS here iferen 

]>e here cristendom euele hielden here. 
And jiet he beS a werse stede aniSer helle grunde 
Ne sullen [hie] nafre cumen tit for peni ne for punde. 300 
Ne mai hem no^er helpe ]>ar ibede ne almesse 
For naht solden bidde J?ar ore ne forjieuenesse. 
Silde him elch man ]?e hwile he mai wrS }>os helle pine. 
And warnie his frend ]>ar-wrS swo ich habbe ido mine. 
po ]>e silde hem ne cunnen ich hem wille tache 305 

Ich can ben arSer jief isal lichame and sowle lache. 
Late we J>at god forbet alle mankenne 
And do we ]>at he us hat and silde we us wi$ senne. 
Luue we god mid ure herte and mid al ure mihte 
And ure emcristen alse us self swo us tacheS drihte. 310 
Al J>at me rade'S and singed 3 bifore godes borde 
Al hit hanged and halt bi }>ese twam worde 
Alle godes lajes hie fulled }>e newe and J>e ealde 
pe J>e ])os two luues halt and wile hes wel healde. 
Ac hie bie^ wel arefe^-heald swo ofte we gulte^ alle 315 
For hit is strong te stonde longe and liht hit is to falle. 
Ac drihte crist 3eue us streng^e stonde ]>at we moten 
And of alle ure gultes 5ieue us cume bote. 
We wilnie'S after wereldes wele J?e longe ne mai ilaste 
And lege'S mast al ure swine on |>ing unstedefaste. 320 
Swunke [we] for godes luue half J^at we do for eihte. 
Nare we naht swo ofte bicherd ne swo euele bikeihte 
3ief we serueden god half ]>at we do^ for erminges 

308 MS. 'wid.' 310 MS. 'tached.' 311 MS. 'singed.' 313 MS. * godel.' 


We mihte habbe more of heouene. )>an eorles oj>er kynges. 
Ne mowe nouht weryen heom. wi]> chele ne wij> hunger. 
Ne wij> elde ne \vij> dej>e. ]?e eldure ne J>e yongefr], 320 
Ah ])er nys hunger nor )?urst ne dej>, ne vnhetye ne elde. 
Of })is world we J>enche]> ofte; and ]>er-of al to selde. 
Vve schulde vs bi- |>enche. wel ofte and wel ildme. 
Hwat we beoj). to hwan we schulen. and of hwan we comen. 
Hw lutle hwile we beoj> here, hw longe elles-hware. 325 
And after gode wel wurche. J>enne ne J>uruue noht kare. 
If we were wyse men. jms we schulde ]>enche. 
Bute we wurj>e vs iwar. J>es world vs wile for-drenche. 
Mest alle men he yeue}> drynke. of one deofles [schenche.] 
He schal him cunne schilde wel. yef he him. [wole bi-J>enche.] 
Mid almyhtyes godes luue. vte we vs werie. 331 

WiJ) j>eos wrecche worldes luue. ]>e heo vs ne derye. 
Mid festen. and almesse and beoden. were we vs wi)> sunne. 
Mid ]>e wepnen ]?at god haue]) yeuen. to alle monkunne. 
Lete we j?eo brode stret. and ]>ene wey grene. 335 

pat lat J>e nye]>e to helle. of folke. and mo ich wene. 
Go we ]>ene narewe wey. J>ene wey so schene. 
per for]> fare)) lutel folk, and J>at is wel e]>-sene. 
pe brode stret is vre wil. ]>at is vs loj> to lete. 
pe ]>at al felewej) his wil. he fare)> \>Q brode strete. 340 

pe narewe way is godes heste. ]>at forj> fare]) wel fawe. 
pat beo]) J>eo. J>e heom schedej) wel. wij> vych vn)>ewe. 
peos go|) vnne])e ayeyn j)e cleo. ayeyn ]>e heye hulle. 
peos lete]) awei al heore wil. for godes hestes to fulle. 
Go we alle ])ene wei. for he vs wile brynge. 345 

Mid }>e fewe feyre men by-uoren heouene kinge. 
per is alre mureh}>e mest. myd englene songe. 
Wel edy wur]) Jnlke mon. }>at fer by]) vnderuonge. 




We mihten habben more an heuene |>a[n] jierles and kinges 
Ne muje we werien na^er ne wrS jnirst ne wr3 hunger 325 
Ne wrS elde ne wrS deaS }?e elder ne ]?e seunger 
Ac ]>ar nis hunger ne Jmrst. dea^ ne unhal^e ne elde. 
Of }>esse riche we JjencheS to ofte of ]?are alto selde. 
e solden btyenchen us wel ofte and ilome 
wat we be^ to hwan we sullen and of hwan we come, 
wu litle hwile we bie^ her hwu longe elles hware 331 
wat we mujen habben her and hwat we finde'S J>are. 
ief [we] waren wise men ]>us we solden }>enchen 
ut we wuren us iwar J?is wereld us wile drenchen 

it alle men hit jieue^ drinken of on euele senche. 335 
He sal him cunnen silde wel jief hit him nele screnche 
Mid al-mihtin godes luue ute we us biwerien 
WrS ]?esses wreches woreldes luue )>at hit ne muje us derien 
id almesse. mid fasten and mid ibeden werie we us wrS 
id )>o wapne J?e god haue'S 3ieue alle man-kenne. [senne. 
Late we ]?e brode strate and ]?ane weg bene 341 

pe lat ]>e nie^e dal to helle of manne me mai wene. 
Go we ]>ane narewe pa^ and ]>ene wei grene 
par for^ fare^ wel litel folc and eche is fair and isene 
pe brode strate is ure wil. ]>e is loS te Isete 345 

pa )>e folje^ here iwil hie fare^ bi ]?are strate. 
Hie mujen lihtliche' cumen mid J>are ni^er helde 
purh one godelease wude to one bare felde 
pa[t] narewe pa^ is godes has. ]>ar for^ fare^ wel feawe 
pat be^ ]?o )>e hem sildeS 3ierne wrS achen un^eawe. 350 
pos go^ unea^ a3ien, -]>e cliue and ajien J>e heie huHe 
pos leten al here iwil for godes luue to fulle. 
Go we alle jjane wei for he us wile bringe 
Mid J>o feawe faire men bifore }>e heuen kinge 
par is alre blisse mast mid angles songe. 355 

e is a jmsend wintre ]?ar ne J>unche^ hit him naht longe. 

325,339 MS. 'wid.' 340 MS. 'haued.' 


pe lest haue]> mureh]>e. he hauej? so muche. ne bit he namore' 
Hwo so J>eo blisse for ]>isse foryet. hit may him rewe sore. 
Ne may no pyne ne no wone beon in heouene riche. 351 
pah J>er beon wonynges feole. and oj>er vnyliche. 
Summe habbej) lasse murehj>e. and summe habbe]> more. 
Vych after J>at he dude her. and after \at heo swunken sore. 
Ne wr]> J)er bred ne wyn. ne nones kunnes este. 355 

God one schal beon eche lif. and blisse [and] eche reste. 
per nys nou]?er fou ne grey, ne konyng. ne hermyne. 
Ne oter. ne acquerne. beuveyr ne sablyne. 
Ne }>er ne wur]> ful iwis. worldes wele none. 
Al }>e mureh)>e ]>at me vs bihatf al hit is god one. 360 
Nis ]>er no murehj>e so muchel. so is godes syhte. 
He is so]? sunne. and briht. and day bute nyhte. 
He is vyche godes ful. nys him nowiht wty-vte. 
Nis heom nones godes wonef J>at wune]> hym abute. 
per is weole bute wone. and reste bute swynke. 365 

Hwo may jnder cume and nule. hit schal hym sore of-}>inche. 
per is blysse bute teone. and lif wi]>-vte de]>e. 
peo ]>at schulle wunye }>er. bli]>e mvwen heo beon e]>e. 
per is yonghede buten ealde. and hele buten vnhetye. 
per nys seorewe ne no sor. neu^r non vnhetye. 370 

SeoJ>}>e me dryhten iseo. so he is myd iwisse. 
He one may beon and schal. englene* and monne blisse. 

peo schulen of him more iseon. }>at her him luuede more. 
And more iseon and iwyten. his milce and his ore. 
On him heo schullen fynden. al J>at mon may luste. 375 
And on lyues bee iseon. al ]>at heo her nusten. 
Crist seolf one schal beon. i-nouh to alle derlinges. 
370 Re ad vnselj?e. 


pe last haueS blisse he haueS swo muchel J>at he ne bit no 

pe }>at blisse forgot hit sal him rewen sore. [more 

Ne mai non euel ne non wane ben in godes riche 

peih J>ar ben wuniinges fele elch oer uniliche 360 

Sume J>ar habbeS lasse blisse and sume J>ar habbeS more 

Elch after J>at he dude her after )>ane ]>e he swanc sore 

Ne sal J>ar ben bread ne win ne o^er kennes este 

God one sal ben ache lif and blisse and ache reste. 

Ne sal )>ar ben foh ne grai ne cunin ne ermine 365 

Ne aquerne ne metheschele ne beuer ne sabeline. 

Ne sal ]>er ben na^er scat ne srud ne wereldes wele none. 

Al J>e blisse J>e me us bihat al hit sal ben god one 

Ne mai no blisse ben alse muchel se is godes sihte. 

He is so^ sunne and briht and dai abute nihte. 370 

He is aches godes ful nis him no wiht uten 

Nones godes hem nis wane J?e wunie^ him abuten. 

par is wele abuten wane and reste abuten swunche. 

pe mu3en and nelle^ pider cume hit hem mai ofjnmche. 

par is blisse abuten trei3e and\\i abuten dea^e 375 

po ]>e afre sulle wunie }>ar blrSe hie muge ben ea^e. 

par is 3ieu : 5 abuten elde and hale abuten unhaKe 

Nis J?ar sareje ne sor non ne nafre unisalSe. 

par me drihte self isien swo se is mid iwisse 

He one mai and sal al ben angles and manne blisse. 380 

And J>eih ne be$ here eien naht alle iliche brihte 

Hi nabbed naht iliche muchel alle of godes lihte 

On J>esse Hue he naren naht alle of ore mihte 

Ne }>ar ne sullen habben god alle bi one wihte. 

po sullen more of him isien J>e luueden hine more 385 

And more icnowen and ec witen his mihte and his ore 

On him hie sulle finden al ]>at man mai to hleste 

On him he sullen ec isien al J?at hie ar nesten. 

Crist sal one bien inojh alle his derlinges. 

357 MS. 'sswo.' 381 MS. 'bed; 


He one is more and betere. )>an alle wordliche Jnnges. 

Inouh hi habbej) ]>at hyne habbej). ]?at alle Binges welde]?. 

Him to seonne murie hit is. so fayr he is to biholde. 380 

God is so swete and so muchel. in his godnesse. 

Al ]?at wes and is. is wel wurse and lasse. 

Ne may nomo# hit segge. ne wyten myd iwisse. 

Hu muchele murehjje habbe]> heo. ]?at beo)> in heuene blisse 

To }>are blisse bringe vs god. J>at lestej? buten ende. 385 

Hwenne he vre saule vn-bind. of lichomliche bende. 

Crist vs lete such lif lede. and habbe her such ende. 

pat we mote to him cume. hwenne we heonne wendej>. Amen. 

Bidde we nu leoue freond. yonge and ek olde. 

pat he ]?at )>is wryt wrot. his saule beo |>er atholde. Amen. 390 


pe one is muche more and betere ban alle oer jnnges. 390 
Inoh he haue^ be hine haue^ be alle bing wealde'S 
Of him to isiene nis non ssed swo fair he is to bihelden 
God is swo mere and swo muchel in his godcunnesse 
pat al bat elles was and is is fele werse and lasse. 
Ne mai hit nafre noman oer seggen mid iwisse 395 

Hwu muchele murilrSe habbe^ J>o J?e be^ in godes blisse 
To ]>are blisse us bringe god J>e rixle^ abuten ende. 
pane he ure sowle unbint of lichamliche bende 
Crist 5ieue us laden her swilch lif andhabben her swilch ende. 
pat we moten J>ider cumen jjane we henne wende. 400 


392 Lambeth MS. reads ' Wei hem is he hine bi-healdeft for swo, ; &c. 



THE Lay of Havelok the Dane, an Anglo-Danish story, which 
contains the legend of the origin of the English town of Grimsby, 
is in its present form a translation from a French romance en- 
titled 'Le Lai de Aveloc,' written in the first half of the twelfth 
century, and probably founded upon an Anglo-Saxon original. 
Of the English translator, who wrote in an East-Midland dialect, 
we know nothing. 

The following extract, shewing how Grim saved the life of 
Havelok, and became the founder of Grimsby, is taken from 
'The Ancient English Romance of Havelok the Dane,' edited 
by Sir F. Madden for the Roxburghe Club (London, 1828), and 
re-edited for the Early English Text Society by the Rev. W. W. 
Skeat (London, 1868). 

IN that time [Athelwold's], so it bifelle, 

Was in the Ion of Denemark 340 

A riche king, and swythe stark. 

The name of him was Birkabeyn, 

He hauede mani knict and sueyn, 

He was a fayr man, and [a] wict, 

Of bodi he was the best knict, 345 

344 MS. wicth.' 345 MS. ' knicth.' 


That evere micte leden ut here, 

Or stede onne ride, or handlen spere. 

Thre children he hauede bi his wif, 

He hem louede so his lif. 

He hauede a sone [and] douhtres two, 350 

Swithe fayre, as fel it so, 

He that wile non forbere 

Riche ne poure, king ne kaysere, 

Deth him tok than he bes[t] wolde 

Liuen, but hyse dayes were fulde ; 355 

That he ne moucte no more Hue, 

For gol ne siluer, ne for no gyue. 

Hwan he that wiste, rathe he sende 
After prestes, fer an[d] hende, 
Ctianounes gode, and monkes bethe, 360 

Him for to wisse and [for] to rede ; 
Him for to hoslen and to shriue, 
Hwil [that] his bodi were on Hue. 

Hwan he was hosled and shriuen, 
His quiste maked and for him gyuen, 365 
His knictes dede he alle site, 
For thorw hem he wolde wite 
Hwo micte yeme hise children yunge, 
Til that he kouthen speken wit tunge ; 
Speken and gangen, on horse riden, 370 

Knictes an[d] sweynes bi here siden. 
He spoken theroffe and chosen sone 
A riche man, that under mone 
Was the trewest that he wende, 
Godard, the kinges oune frende; 375 

And seyden, he moucte hem best loke 

346 MS. ' uth.' 362 MS. hoslon' ; ' an for to/ 

373 MS. 'was. 1 376 MS. 'moucthe.' 


Yif that he hem undertake, 

Til hise sone- moucte bere 

Helm on heued, and leden ut here ; 

In his hand a spere stark, 380 

And king ben maked of Denemark. 

He wel trowede that he seyde 

And on Godard handes leyde ; 

And seyde, 'Here biteche I the 

Mine children alle thre, 385 

Al denemark, and al mi fe, 

Til that mi sone of helde be ; 

But that ich wille, that thou suere 

On auter, and on messe-gere, 

On the belles that men ringes, 390 

On messe bok the prest on singes, 

That thou mine children shalt wel yeme, 

That hire kin be ful wel queme, 

Til mi sone mowe ben knict, 

Thanne biteche him tho his rict, 395 

Denemark, and that thertil longes, 

Casteles and tunes, wodes and wonges/ 

Godard stirt up, an[d] swor al that 
The king him bad, and sithen sat 
13y the knictes, that ther ware, 400 

That wepen alle swithe sare 
For the king that deide sone; 
Ihesu Crist, that makede mone, 
On the mirke nict to shine, 

Wite his soule fro helle pine; 405 

And leue that it mote wone 
In hevene-riche with godes sone ! 

378 MS. ' mouthe.' 388 MS. ' tho. f 392 MS. 'we.' 

394 MS. 'knicth.' ^395 MS. ' ricth/ 404 MS. 'nith.' 



'wan Birkabeyn was leyd in graue, 

The erl dede sone take the knaue, 
Hauelok, that was the eir, 410 

Swanborow his sister, Helfled, the tother, 
And in the castel dede he hem do, 
Ther non ne micte hem comen to 
Of here kyn, ther thei sperd wore ; 
Ther he greten ofte sore, 415 

Bothe for hunger and for kold, 
Or he weren thre winter hold. 
Feblelike he gaf hem clothes, 
He ne yaf a note of his othes ; 
He hem [ne] clothede rict, ne fedde, 420 

Ne hem ne dede richelike be-bedde. 
Thanne Godard was sikerlike 
Under God the iwoste swike, 
That cure in erthe shaped was, 
Withuten on, the wike Judas. 425 

Have Tie the malisun to day 
Of alle that eure speken may! 
Of patriarck, and [ek] of pope I 
And of prest with loken kope ! 
Of monekes and hermites bothe ! 430 

And of the leue holi rode, 
That God him selue ran, on blode ! 
Crist warie him with his mouth ! 
Waried w[o]rthe he of north and suth ! 
Offe alle men that speken kunne ! 435 

Of Crist, that made mone and sunne! 
Thanne he hauede of al the lond 
Al the folk tilled intil his hond, 

411 ? the fair; see 1. 605. 414 MS. 'were.' 419 MS. ' rith.' 
436 MS. ' maude.' 

VOL. I. Q 


And alle haueden sworen him oth, 

Riche and poure, lef and loth, 440 

That he sholden hise wille freme, 

And that he shulde him nouct greme, 

He thoucte a ful strong trechery, 

A trayson, and a felony, 

Of the children for to make : 445 

The deuel of helle him sone take ! 

Hwan that was thouct, onon he ferde 
To the tour ther he woren sperde, 
Ther he greten for hunger and cold; 
The knaue that was sumdel bold, 450 

Kam him ageyn, on knes him sette, 
And Godard ful feyre he ther grette, 
And Godard seyde, 'What is yow? 
Hwi grete ye and goulen nou ? ' 
* For us hungreth swithe sore :' 455 

Seyden [that] he wolden more, 
'We ne haue to hete, ne we ne haue 
Her-inne neyther knict ne knaue 
That yeueth us drinken, ne no mete, 
Haluendel that we moun ete. 460 

Wo is us that we weren born ! 
Weilawei! nis it no korn 
That men micte maken of bred ? 
Us hungreth, we aren ney ded.' 

Godard herde [tho] here wa, 465 

Ther-offe yaf he nouct a stra, 
Bot tok the maydnes bothe samen, 
Also it were up on his gamen, 

442 MS. ' nouth.' 443 MS. ' thouthe.' 447 MS. ' thouth.' 
453 MS. ' yw.' 458 MS. ' knith.' 464 MS. ths.' 
466 MS. ' nouth.' 468 MS. hiis.' 


Also he wolde with hem leyke, 

That weren for hunger grene and bleike. 470 

Of bothen he karf on-two here throtes, 

And sithen [karf] hem al to grotes. 

Ther was sorwe, wo-so it sawe ! 

Hwan the children bi the wawe 

Leyen and sprauleden in the blod; 475 

Hauelok it saw, and the[r] bistod. 

Ful sori was that seli knaue, 

Mikel dred he moucte haue, 

For at hise herte he saw a knif, 

For to reuen him hise lyf. 480 

But the knaue that litel was 

He knelede bifor that Judas, 

And seyde, * louerd merci nou ! 

Manrede, louerd biddi you! 

Al Denemark I wile you yeue, 485 

To that forward thu late me Hue. 

Here I wile on boke swere, 

That neure more ne shal I bere 

Ayen the, louerd, shel ne spere, 

Ne other wepne bere, that may you dere. 490 

Louerd haue merci of me ! 

To-day I wile fro Denemark fle, 

Ne neuere more comen ageyn; 

Sweren Y wole that Bircabein 

Neuere yete me ne gat :' 495 

Hwan the deuel herde that, 

Sumdel bigan him for to rewe ; 

Withdrew the knif, that was [ful] lewe, 

Of the seli children blod; 

474 MS. ' bith.' 478 MS. 4 mouthe.' 481 MS. 'kaue.' 

487 MS. 'hi.' 

Q 2 


Ther was miracle fair and god ! 500 

That he the knaue nouct ne slou 

But for rewnesse him with-drow. 

Of Auelok rewede him ful sore 

And thoucte he wolde that he ded wore, 

Buton that he moucte wit his hend 505 

Ne drepe him nouct, that fule fend! 

Thoucte he, als he him bistod, 

Starinde als he were wod ; 

1 Yif Y late him Hues go, 

He micte me wirchen michel wo, 510 

Grith ne get Y neuere mo, 

He may [me] waiten for to slo; 

And yf he were brouct of Hue, 

And mine children wolden thriue 

Louerdinges after me, 515 

Of al Denemark micten he be. 

God it wite, he shal ben ded, 

Wile I taken non other red; 

I shal do casten him in the se 

Ther I wile that he drenchfed] be, 520 

Abouten his hals an anker god, 

That he ne flete in the flod." 

Ther anon he dede sende 

After a fishere that he wende, 

That wolde al his wille do, 525 

And sone anon he seyde him to: 

'Grim, thou wost thu art my thral, 

Wilte don mi wille al, 

That I wile bidden the, 

To morwen [I] shal maken the fre, 530 

501 MS. nouth.' 502 MS. ' fo ' ; thit.' 

505, 6 MS. 'nouth.' 519 MS. 'she.' 


And aucte the yeuen, and riche make, 

With-than [that] thu wilt this child take, 

And leden him with the to-nicht, 

Than thou sest the mone licht, 

Into the se, and don him ther-inne 535 

Al wile [I] taken on me the sinne/ 

Grim tok the child and bond him faste, 

Hwil the bondes micte laste, 

That weren of ful strong[e] line: 

Tho was Hauelok in ful strong pine, 540 

Wiste he neuere er wat was wo: 

Ihesu Crist, that makede to go 

The halte, and the doumbe speken, 

Hauelok, the of Godard wreken ! 

Hwan Grim him hauede faste bounden, 545 

And sithen in an eld cloth w0#nden, 
A keuel of clutes, ful unwraste, 
That he [ne] moucte speke ne fnaste, 
Hwere he wolde him bere or lede; 
Hwan he hauede don that dede, 550 

Than the swike him gan bede, 
That he shulde him forth [lede], 
And him drinchen in the se, 
That forwarde makeden he. 

In a poke, ful and blac, 555 

Sone he caste him on his bac, 
Ant bar him horn to hise cleue, 
And bitaucte him Dame Leue, 
And seyde, 'Wite thou this knaue, 
Also thou wilt my lif haue ; 560 

I shal dreinchen him in the se, 

534 MS. 'selith.' 540 MS. 'her.' 548. MS. 'mouthe.' 

551 Hwan .... MS. 'hauede hethede.' See line 2396. 560 MS. 'with.' 

For him shole we ben maked fre. 

Gold hauen ynou and other fe, 

That hauet mi louerd bihoten me/ 

Hwan Dame [Leue] herde that, 565 

Up she stirte, and nouct ne sat, 

And caste the knaue adoun sp harde, 

That hise croune he ther crakede 

Ageyn a gret ston, ther it lay. 

Tho Hauelok micte sei, 'Weilawei! 570 

That euere was I kinges bern !' 

That him ne hauede grip or ern, 

Leoun or wlf, wluine or bere, 

Or other best, that wolde him dere. 

So lay that child to middel nict 575 

That Grim bad Leue bringen lict, 

For to don on [him] his clothes: 

' Ne thenkeste nowt of mine othes 

That ich haue mi louerd sworen? 

Ne wile I nouth be forloren. 580 

I shal beren him to the se, 

(Thou wost that bi-houes me;) 

And I shal drenchen him ther-inne; 

Ris up swithe, and go thu binne, 

And blou the fir, and lict a kandel/ 585 

Als she shulde his clothes handel 

On for to don, and blawe the fir, 

She saw ther-inne a lict ful shir, 

Also brict so it were day, 

Aboute the knaue ther he lay. 590 

Of hise mouth it stod a stem, 

566 MS. ' nouth.' 575 MS. 'nicth. 1 582 MS. 'houes. 

585, 88 MS.'lith.' 587 MS. ' ther/ 589 MS. ' brith.' 


Als it were a sunne-bem ; 
Also lict was it ther-inne, 
So ther brenden cerges [thr]inne: 
'Ihesu Crist T wat dame Leue, 595 

' Hwat is that lict in ure cleue ! 
Ris up Grim, and loke wat it menes, 
Hwat is the lict as thou wenes.' 
He stirten bothe up to the knaue, 
For [him] man shal god wille haue, 600 

Vnkeueleden him, and swithe unbounden ; 
And sone anon [upon] him funden, 
Als he tirneden of his serk, 
On his rict shuldre a kyne merk, 
A swithe brict, a swithe fair: 605 

'Goddot!' quath Grim, * this [is] ure eir 
That shal [ben] louerd of Denemark, 
He shal ben king strong and stark; 
He shal hauen in his hand 

Al Denemark and Engeland; 610 

He shal do Godard ful wo, 
. He shal him hangen or quik flo ; 
Or he shal him al quic graue, 
Of him shal he no merci haue/ 
Thus seide Grim, and sore gret, 615 

And sone fel him to the fet, 
And seide, * Louerd, have merci 
Of me, and Leue that is me bi! 
Louerd we aren bothe thine, 

Thine cherles, thine hine. 620 

Lowerd, we sholen the wel fede, 
Til that thu cone riden on stede, 

593, 6, 8 MS. ' lith.' 597 MS. < Sir ' (for Ris). 604 MS. nth.' 

605 MS. brith.' 


Til that thu cone ful \vel here 

Helm on heiied, sheld and spere. 

He ne shal neuere wite, sikerlike, 625 

Godard, that fule swike. 

Thoru other man, louerd, than thoru the, 

Sal I neuere freman be. 

Thou shalt me, louerd, fre maken, 

For I shal yemen the and waken ; 630 

Thoru the wile I fredom haue :' 

Tho was Haueloc a blithe knaue. 

He sat him up, and crauede bred, 

And seide, 'Ich am [wel] ney dedc, 

Hwat for hunger, wat for bondes, 635 

That thu leidest on min hondes; 

And for [be] keuel at the laste 

That in mi mouth was thristfe] faste. 

Y was with ther so harde prangled, 

That I was ther with ney strangled/ 640 

' Wel is me that thu mayct ete/ 

'Goddoth!' quath Leue, 'Y shal the fete 

Bred an[d] chese, butere and milk, 

Pastees and flaunes, al with suilk 

Shole we sone the wel fede, 645 

Louerd, in this mikel nede. 

Soth it is, that men seyt and suereth: 

" Ther God wile helpen, nouct no dercth :" ' 

Thanne sho hauede brouct the mete, 
Haueloc anon bigan to ete 650 

Grundlike, and was [tho] ful blithe; 
Couthe he nouct his hunger mithe. 

626 ? Godard that is fule swike. 639, 40 MS. ' the.' 

641 MS. mayth hete.' 648,52 MS. 'nouth.' 

6., 9 MS. 'brouth.' 


A lof he et, Y wot, and more, 

For him hungrede swithe sore. 

Thre dayes ther biforn, I wene, 655 

Et he no mete, that was wel sene. 

Hwan he hauede eten and was fed, 

Grim dede maken a ml fayr bed; 

Vnclothede him, and dede him ther-inne, 

And seyde, ' Slep sone, with muchel winne ; 660 

Slep wel faste, and dred the nouct, 

Fro sorwe to ioie art thu brouct.' 

Sone so it was lict of day, 

Grim it undertok the wey 

To the wicke traitour Godard, 665 

That was Denemarkes a stiward, 

And seyde, * Louerd, don ich haue 

That thou me bede of the knaue ; 

He is drenched in the flod, 

Abouten his hals an anker god; 670 

He is witerlike ded, 

Eteth he neure more bred ; 

He lith drenched in the se ! 

Yif me gold, [and] other fe, 

That Y mowe riche be, 675 

And with thi chartre make fre, 

For thu ful wel bihetet me, 

Thanne I last[e] spak with the.' 

Godard stod, and lokede on him 

Thoruch-like, with eyen grim, 680 

And seyde, 'Wiltu [nou] ben erl? 

Go horn swithe fule drit-cherl; 

653 MS. 'het, woth.' 661 MS. 'nouth/ 662 MS. 'brouth.* 

663 MS. 'lith.' 666 MS. Menemak.' 

6So MS. 'thoruth-like.' 


Go hethen, and be euere more 

Thral and cherl, als thou er wore. 

Shal [thou] haue non other mede, 685 

For litel, I [shal] do the lede 

To the galues, so God me rede ! 

For thou haues don a tvicke dede: 

Thou maict stonden her to longe, 

Bute thou swithe [hjethen gonge.' 690 

Grim thoucte to late that he ran 
Fro that traytour that wicke man; 
And thoucte, ' Wat shal me to rede ? 
Wite he him on Hue, he wile bethe 
Heye hangen on gahve tre : 695 

Betere us is of londe to fle, 
And berwen bothen ure Hues, 
And mine children, and mine wiues." 
Grim solde sone al his corn, 

Shep wit wolle, net wit horn, 700 

Hors, and swin [and gate] wit berd, 
The gees, the hennes of the yerd ; 
Al he solde, that ouct doucte, 
That he cure selle moucte, 

And al he to the peni drou: 705 

Hise ship he greythede wel inow, 
He dede it tere, an[d] ful wel pike, 
That it ne doutede sond ne krike ; 
Ther-inne dide a ful god mast, 
Stronge kables, and ful fast. 710 

Ores god, an[d] ful god seyl, 
Ther-inne wantede nouct a nayl, 
That euere he sholde ther-inne do : 

686 MS. ig.' 689 MS. 'mait.' 692 MS. tha.' 
700 MS. neth.' 703 MS. 'outh douthe.' 712 MS. 'nouth.' 


Hwan he hauedet greythed so, 

Hauelok the yunge he dide ther-inne, 715 

Him and his wif, hise sones thrinne, 

And hise two doutres, that faire wore, 

And sone dede he leyn in an ore, 

And drou him to the heye se, 

Ther he mict alther-best[e] fle: 720 

Fro lond woren he bote a mile, 

Ne were neuere but ane hwile, 

That it ne bigan a wind to rise 

Out of the north, men calleth 'bise/ 

And drof hem intil Engelond, 725 

That al was sithen in his hond, 

His, that Hauelok was the name; 

But or he hauede michel shame, 

Michel sorwe and michel tene, 

And thrie he gat it al bidene, 730 

Als ye shulen nou forthwarfd] lere 

Yf that ye wilen ther-to here. 

In Humber Grim bigan to lende, 
In Lindeseye, rict at the north ende, 
Ther sat [h]is ship up on the sond,. 735 

But Grim it drou up to the lond. 
And there he made a litel cote, 
To him and to hise flote. 
Bigan he there for to erthe 

A litel hus to maken of erthe. 740 

So that he wel thore were 
Of here herboru herborwed there, 
And for that Grim that place aucte, 
The stede of Grim the name laucte, 

720 MS. 'mith.' 734 MS. 'rith.' 

743 MS. aute.' 744 MS. ' laute.' 


So that [hit] Grimesbi calleth alle 745 

That ther-ofFe speken alle, 
And so shulen men callen it ay, 
Bituene this and domesday. 

745. 6 Qy. read 

So that he Grimesbi hit calle 
That theroffe speken alle. 



BEFORE A.D. 1300. 

THE ' Geste of Kyng Horn* is probably a translation of the 
French romance of Horn and Rimenhild, written in the thir- 
teenth century ; but the first conception of the poem is probably 
of a much earlier date. M. Francisque Michel believes that this 
romance had its origin on English soil, and was recomposed by 
the Norman poets after the Conquest. 

'King Horn' has been printed at various times (i) in 1802 by 
Ritson, from the Harl. MS. 2253 ; (2) by Francisque Michel, 
from Camb. MS. Gg. 4, 27, 2, for the Bannatyne Club, 1854; 
(3) by Lumby, for the Early English Text Society, 1867 ; (4) by 
Matzner in his ' Altenglische Sprachproben,' 1869; (5) by Horst- 
mann, from Laud MS. 108, in 'Archivfiir das Studium der neueren 
Sprachen und Literaturen,' .1872. 

Alle beon he bltye 

J>at to my songe ly)>e: 

A sang ihc schal jou singe 

Of Murry ]?e kinge. 

King he was biweste 5 

So longe so hit laste. 

Godhild het his quen, 

Faire[r] ne mtyQ 1 non ben. 

He hadde a sone \at het horn. 

Fairer ne mi3te non beo born. 10 

Ne no rein upon birine, 

Ne sun/ze upon bischine. 

1 MS. 'miste.' 


Fairer nis now ]>ane he was, 

He was brijt so J>e glas, 

He was whit so j>e flur, 

Rose red was his colur. 

In none kinge-riche 

Nas now his iliche. 

Twelf feren he hadde 

pat alle [he] wij> him ladde. 20 

Alle riche manwes sones, 

And alle hi were faire gomes, 

Wi)> him for to pleie, 

And mest he luuede tweie 

pat on him het hajmlf child, 25 

And ]>tft Q\er Fikenild. 

Ajmlf was J>e beste, 

And fikenylde ]?e werste. 

Hit was upon a som<?res day, 

Also ihc 3011 telle may, 30 

Murri J>e gode king 

Rod on his pleing 

Bi ]>e se side, 

Ase he was woned ride, 

He fond bi J>e str^nde, 35 

Ariued on his lowde, 

Schipes fiftene 

Wi]> sarazins kene : 

He axede what [hi] isojte, 

Q]>er to londe brojte, 40 

A Payn hit of herde 

And hym wel sone answarede: 

'pi lond folk we schulle slon, 

And alle ]>at Crist leuej) 1 upon 

* MS. lue>.' 


And ]>e selue ri$t anon, 45 

Ne schaltu to-dai henne gon.' 

pe kyng alijte of his stede, 

For J>o he hauede nede, 

And his gode fortes two; 

Al to fewe he hadde }>o. 50 

Swerd hi gune grzpe 

And to-gadere smite. 

Hy smyten under schelde 

pat sume hit yfelde: 

pe king hadde al to fewe 55 

Irenes so vele schrewe: 

So fele mijten e^e 1 

Bringe hem ]>re to de]>e 2 . 

pe pains come to londe 

And neme hit in here honde : 60 

p<zt folc hi gune quelle, 

And churchen for to felle : 

per ne moste libbe 

pe fremde ne ]>e sibbe, 

Bute hi here la:je asoke, 65 

And to here toke. 

Of alle wymmanne 

Wurst was Godhild ]>anne ; 

For Murri heo weop sore 

And for Horn 3ute more. 70 

He wenten ut of halle 

Fram hire maidenes alle 

Under a roche of stone, 

per heo liuede alone, 

per heo s^ruede gode 75 

A3enes J>e paynes forbode : 

MS.'y^e.' 2 MS. 


per he seruede cn'ste 

ptft no payn hit ne wiste: 

Eure heo bad for horn child 

])at Jesu crist him beo myld. So 

Horn was in paynes honde 

Wi]> his feren of )>e londe. 

Muchel was his fairhede 

For ihmi crist \\irn makede. 

Payns him wolde slen, 85 

O]>er al quic [wolde] flen, 

3ef his fairnesse nere : 

pe children alle asla}e were. 

pane spak on Admira[l]d 

Of wordes he was bald, 90 

* Horn ]>u art wel kene, 

And \a\. is wel isene; 

pu art gret and string, 

Fair and euene long, 

pu schalt waxe more 95 

Bi fulle seue 3ere : 

3ef ]>u mote to liue go 

And J?ine feren also, 

3ef hit so bi-falle 

3e scholde slen us alle: 100 

paruore ]?u most to stere, 

pu and ]>ine ifere, 

To schupe schulle 36 funde, 

And sinke to J>e grunde, 

pe se 3ou schal adrenche, 105 

Ne schal hit us no^t of-J>inche ; 

For if ]?u were aliue, 

WiJ> swerd o]>er wi]> kniue, 

We scholden alle deie 

And ]>i fader de|> abeie/ 110 


pe children hi bro}te to straide, 
Wringinde here honde, 
Into schupes borde 
At ]>e furste worde. 

Ofte hadde horn beo wo 115 

Ac neure wurs }>an him was ]>o. 
pe se bigan to flowe, 
And horn child to rowe, 
pe se \a\. schup so faste drof 
pe children dradde }>erof. 120 

Hi wenden wel y-wisse 1 
Of here lif to misse, 
Al ]>e day and al j>e nijt 
Til hit sprang [}>e] dai li^t, 
Til Horn saj on )>e stronde 125 

Men gon in J>e londe. 
' Feren' qua\ he ' ^owge, 
Ihc telle ^ou ti]>inge, 
Ihc here fojeles .singe 

And [se] \a\. gras him springe. 130 

Bli]>e beo we on lyue, 
Ure schup is on ryue/ 
Of schup hi gunwe funde, 
And setten fot 2 to grunde, 
Bi J)e se side 135 

Hi letew ]>at schup ride : 
panne spak him child horn, 
In suddene he was iborn. 
* Schup, bi )>e se flode 
Daies haue )>u gode : 140 

Bi J>e se brinke 
No water ]>e nadnhke: 
1 MS. ^to-wisse.' a MS. Tout.' 

VOL. I. R 


3ef )>u cume to Suddene 

Gret j>u wel al 1 myne kene, 

Gret J>u wel my moder, 145 

Godhild quen J>e gode, 

And seie )>e paene kyng, 

Jesu cristes wi)>er[l]ing, 

pat ich am hoi and fer 

On ]>is lond ariued her : 150 

And seie Jwt hei schal fonde 

pe dent of myne honde/ 

pe children 5ede to Tune, 

Bi dales and bi dune. 

Hy metten wi]> ailmar king, 155 

Crist 3eue# him his blessing, 

King of Westernesse, 

Crist jiue him muchel blisse, 

He him spac to horn child 

Wordes J>at were mild: 160 

'Whannes beo 56, faire gumes, 

pat her to londe beoj> icume, 

Alle ]>r[e]ottene 

Of bodie swife kene. 

Bigod Jj^t me makede, 165 

A swihc fair uerade 

Ne sau; ihc in none stunde, 

Bi westernesse 2 londe : 

Seie me wat 56 seche.' 

Horn spak here speche, 170 

He spak for hem alle, 

Uor so hit nioste biualle 

He was ]?e faireste 

And of wit J>e beste. 

1 MS. 'of.' 2 MS. 'westene.' 


'We beo]> of Suddenne, 175 

Icome of gode kenne, 

Of Cristene blode, 

And kynges swtye 1 gode. 

Payns ]>er gun#e ariue 

And duden hem of lyue. 180 

Hi slo3en and todrose 

Cristene men ino3e. 

So crist me mote rede, 

Us he dude lede 

Into a galeie, 185 

WiJ) j?e se to pleie, 

Dai hit is igon and oj>er, 

Wijmte sail and ro}>er. 

Ure schip bigan to swymme 

To Jjis londes brymme. 190 

Nu J>u mi:jt us slen and binde 

Ure 2 honde [us] bihynde, 

Bute 3ef hit beo jn wille 

Helpe [us] \at we ne spille.' 

panne spak ]>e gode kyng. 195 

I-wis he nas no Nijnng. 

* Seie me, child, what is }>i name, 
Ne schaltu haue bute game.' 

pe child him answerde 

Sone so he hit herde : 200 

' Horn ihc am ihote, 

Icomen ut of J>e bote, 

Fram j?e se side 

Kyng wel mote ]?e tide.' 

panne hym spak ]>e gode king 205 

* Wel bruc J>u J?i neueniwg 

1 MS. ' sujje/ 2 MS. ' Ore.' 

R 2 


Horn J>u go wel schulle 

Bi dales and bi hulle 

Horn Jm lude sune 

Bi dales and bi dune 210 

So schal J>i name springe 

From kynge to kynge, 

And ]>i fairnesse 

Abute Westernesse, 

pe streng]>e of Jnne honde 215 

Into eurech londe. 

Horn, jm art so swete 

Ne may ihc ]>e forlete.' 

Horn rod Aylmar ]>e kyng 

And mid him his fund[l]yng 220 

And alle his ifere 

P<zt were him so dere. 

pe kyng com in to halle 

Among his knifes alle: 

For)) he clupede ajjelbrus, 225 

pat was stiward of his hus. 

* Stiwarde, tak nu here 

Mi fundlyng for to lere 

Of Jnne mesterc, 

Of wude and of riuere, 230 

And tech him to harpe 

WiJ> his nayles scharpe, 

Biuore me to kerue 

And of ]>e cupe serue ; 

pu tech him of alle J>e liste 235 

pat }m cure of wiste, 

And 1 his feiren ]>ou Avise 

Into ofere s^ruise: 

1 MS. 'In.* 


Horn }>u underuonge 

Tech 1 him of harpe and songe/ 240 

[And] Ailbrus gan lere 
Horn and his yfere : 
Horn in herte lajte 
Al ]>at he him ta;te. 

In )>e curt and ute, 245 

And elles al abute, 
Luuede men horn child, 
And mest him louede Rymenhild, 
pe kynges ojene do3ter 2 , 
He was mest in Jjojte, 250 

Heo louede so horn child 
pat ne$ heo gan wexe wild: 
For heo ne mijte at borde 
Wij> him speke no worde, 
Ne nojt in J>e halle 255 

Among J>e knrjtes alle, 
Ne nowhar in non ojwe stede: 
Of folk heo hadde drede : 
Bi daie ne bi ni3te 

Wij> him speke ne mi3te ; 260 

Hire sorese ne hire pine 
Ne mijte neure fine. 
In heorte heo hadde wo, 
And jnis [heo] hire bi]?03te J>o, 
Heo sende hire sonde 265 

AJ>elbrus to honde 
p^zt he come hire to, 
And also scholde horn do 
Al in to bure, 

For heo gaw to lure. 270 

1 MS. And tech.* 2 MS. doster.' 


And J>e sonde seide 
fat sik lai Jxzt maide 
And bad him come swi]?e, 
For heo nas noting bli)>e. 
pe stuard was in herte wo, 275 

For he nuste what to (Jo, 
Wat Rymenhild hure Jjojte 
Gret wunder him J>u3te, 
Abute horn ]>e jonge 

To bure for to bringe, 280 

He Jjo^te upon his mode 
Hit nas for none gode: 
He tok [wi]>] him ano]>er, 
Aj>ulf, homes broker. 

'AJmlf/ he sede, '^t anon 285 

pu schalt wi)> me to bure gon 
To speke wi]> Rymenhild stille 
And witen [al] hure wille. 
In homes ilike 

pu schalt hure biswike : 290 

Sore ihc me ofdrede 
He wolde horn mis-rede/ 
A]>elbrus gan Ajmlf lede 
And into bure wij> him 3ede. 
Anon upon Ajmlf child 295 

Rymenhild gan wexe wild : 
He wewde \a\. horn hit were 
ptft heo hauede J?ere: 
Heo sette him on bedde ; 
Wi)> A]?ulf child he wedde, 300 

On hire armes tweie 
Ajmlf heo gan leie. 
' Horn,' qwizj) heo, ' wel longe 


Ihc habbe }>e luued strange. 
pu schalt }>i trewjje pli^te 305 

On myn bond her ri^te 
Me to spuse holde, 
And ihc )>e lord to wolde/ 
A]?ulf sede on hire ere 1 

So stille so hit were : 310 

1 pi tale nu J>u lynne, 
For horn nis no3t herin/ze, 
Ne beo we nojt iliche : 
Horn is fair 2 and riche, 

Fairer bi one ribbe 315 

pane eni man }>at libbe : 
pe3 horn were under molde 
Qfyer elles wher he wolde 
Ojjer henne a Jmsewd mile, 
Ihc nolde him ne J?e bigile/ 320 

Rymenhild hire biwente 
And Aj>elbrus fule heo schente. 
' Henwes J>u go, J>u fule ])eof, 
Ne wurstu me neure more leof, 
Went ut of my bur, 325 

WiJ> muchel mesauentur. 
Schame mote ]m fonge 
And on hi3e rode anhonge. 
Ne spek ihc no3t wi]> horn 
Nis he no3t so unorn; 330 

Hor[n] is fairer J>ane beo he : 
Wij> muchel schame mote j?u deie.' 
A)>elbrus in a stunde 
Fel anon to grunde. 

' [A !] Lefdi min 036 ' 335 

1 MS. ' ire.' 2 MS. ' fairer.' 

2 4 8 


Li]>e me a lite! J>ro:je. 
Lust whi ihc wonde 
Bringe J>e horn to honde. 
For horn is fair and riche, 
Nis no whar his iliche. 340 

Aylmar ]?e gode kyng 
Dude him on mi lokyng; 
3ef horn were her abute, 
[Wei] sore y me dute 

WiJ> him 36 wolden pleie 345 

Bitwex 3011 seltie tweie r 
pane scholde wijmten oj>e 
pe kyng maken us wro)?e. 
Rymenhild, for3ef me J>i tene, 
[My] Lefdi, [and] my quene, 350 

And horn ihc serial }>e fecche 
Wham so hit [euere] recche.' 
Rymenhild 3ef he cu)>e 
Gan lynne wij> hire mu))e : 
Heo makede hire wel blij>e, 355 

Wei was hire \a\. sij>e, 
4 Go nu/ qua\ heo ' sone 
And send l him aft^r none, 
Whane )>e kyng arise 

On a squieres wise 360 

To wude for to pleie 
Nis now ]>at him biwreie. 
He schal wij> me bileue 
Til hit beo ner 2 cue, 

To hauen of him mi wille 365 

After ne recche i 3 what me telle/ 
Aylbrus wende hire fro 
1 ? read bring.' 2 MS. ' nir.' 3 MS. ' recchecche.' 


Horn in halle fond he J>o 
Bifore ]>e kyng on benche 
[Red] wyn for to schenche. 370 

' Horn/ <\ua\ he, ' so hende 
To bure nu Jm wende, 
After mete stille 
Wi]> Rymenhild to duelle; 
Wordes swtye 1 bolde 375 

In herte J>u hem holde. 
Horn beo me wel trewe 
Ne schal hit J>e neure rewe.' 
Horn in herte leide 

Al Jwt he him seide ; 380 

He jeode in wel rijte 
To Rymenhild ]>e brijte, 
On knes he him sette 
And sweteliche hure grette. 
Of his feire sijte 385 

Al )>e bur. gan lijte. 
He spac faire speche, 
Ne dor[s]te him noman teche. 
* Wel Jm sitte and softe, 

Rymenhild Kinges dorter 2 , 390 

Wij) J)ine Maidenes sixe 
pat j?e sitte)) nixte. 
Kinges stuard [and] ure 
Sende me in to bure 

WiJ> j>e speke ihc scholde: 395 

Seie me what ]>u woldest 
Seie and ich schal here 
What Jn wille were/ 
Rymenhild up gan stonde 
1 MS. suj>e/ 2 MS. ' >e brijte.' 


And tok him bi ]>e honde: 400 

Heo sette him on pelle 

Of wyn to drinke his fulle : 

Heo makede him faire chere 

And tok him abute J>e swere. 

Ofte heo him custe 405 

So wel so hire luste. 

* Horn/ heo sede, * wijnite strif 

pu schalt haue me to ]n wif 

Horn, haue of me rewj?e 

And plijt 1 me \\ trewj>e/ 410 

Horn ]>o him bi^ojte 

What he speke mijte. 

1 Crist/ qua]> he, ' ]>e wisse 

And jiue J>e joye and blisse 2 

Of J>ine husebonde 415 

Wher he beo in londe. 

Ihc am ibore to lowe 

Such wimmw to knowe 3 . 

Ihc am icome of J>ralle 

And fundling [am] bifalle. 420 

Ne feolle hit ]>e of cuwde 

To spuse beo me bunde: 

Hit nere no fair wedding 

Bitwexe a J>ral and a king.' 

po gan Rymenhild mislyke 425 

And sore gan to sike : 

Armes heo gan bu3e 

Adun he feol iswoje. 

Horn in herte was fuf wo, 

And tok hire on his armes two, 430 

1 MS. plist.' 2 MS. ' )>e heuene blisse.' 

3 ? ' such a wyf to owe.' 


He gan hire for to kesse 
Wei ofte mid ywisse. 
' Lemwan ' he sede ' dere, 
pin herte nu ]m stere. 

Help []m] me to knijte 435 

Bi al Jnne mi^te, 
To my lord J>e kiwg, 
ptft he me ^iue dubbing: 
panwe is mi J>ralhod 

Iwewt in to kni^thod, 440 

And i schal wexe more 
And do, lemman, J>i lore/ 
Rymenhild, \>at swete ]>ing, 
Wakede of hire swosning. 
' Horn/ qua]? heo, * wel l sone 445 

pat schal beon idone : 
pu schalt beo dubbed knrjt 
Are [hit] come seue 11131. 
Haue [jm] her ]>is cuppe 
And }>is Ring J?er-uppe 450 

To Aylbrus lire 2 stuard, 
And se he holde foreward : 
Seie ich him biseche 
WiJ) loueliche speche 

fat he adutf falle 455 

Bifore ]?e kiwg in halle, 
And bidde J>e king ari^te 
Dubbe ]?e to knijte. 
Wi|> seluer and wij> golde 
Hit wurj) him wel rjolde. 460 

Crist him lene spede 
pin erende to bede.' 
1 MS. 'uel.' 2 MS. 'and.' 


Horn tok his leue 
For hit was ne$ cue. 

Ajjelbrwj he sojte 465 

And }af him ]>at he bro;te ; 
And tolde him ful 3are 
Hu he hadde ifare ; 
And sede him [of] his nede 
And bihet him his mede. 470 

Ajjelbrus also swij>e 
Wete to halle bltye 1 
1 Kyng/ he sede, ' J>u leste 
A tale mid J>e beste; 

pu schalt bere crwne 475 

In ]>is ilke tune 2 ; 
Tomore5e is J>i feste : 
tyr bihoue|> geste. 
Hit nere nojt for-loren 

For to kni3ti child horn, 480 

pine armes for to welde, 
God kni^t he schal jelde/ 
pe king sede sone, 
' P^t is- wel idone. 

Horn me wel iq#<?me]>, 485 

God kni3t him bisemej>. 
He schal haue mi dubbing 
And afterward [be] mi derling. 
And alle his feren twelf 

He schal knijten him self: 490 

Alle he schal hem knijte 
Bifore me }>is nijte.' 
Til ]>Q \i$t of day sprang 
Ailmar him Jiu^te lawg. 
1 MS. bliue.' 2 MS. ' Tomoreje in >is tune.' 


pe day bigan to spriwge, 495 

Horn com biuore )>e kiwge, 
Mid his twelf yfere, 
Sume hi were lujwe; 
Horn he dubbede to kr^te 
Wib swerd and spures briste, 500 

He sette him on a stede whit: 
per nas no knijt hym ilik. 
He smot him a litel wi3t 
And bed him beon a god kni}t. 
Ajnilf fel a knes ]>ar 505 

Biuore the ki#g Aylmar. 
* King/ he sede, ' so kene 
Grante me a bene: 
Nu is kni3[t] sire horn 

p<zt in suddenwe was iboren: 510 

Lord he is of lowde 
Ouer us J>0t bi him stonde; 
pin armes he haj> and scheld 
To fijte wi]> upon |>e feld: 
Let him us alle kni3te 515 

For \a\. is ure 1 rijte/ 
Aylmar sede sone ywis: 
'Do nu J>at ]>i wille is/ 
Horn adun [gan] lijte 

And makede hew alle knijtes. 520 

M#rie was J>e feste 
Al of faire gestes : 
Ac Rymenhild nas nojt |;er 
And, ]>at hire }>u$\.e seue 3er. 
Afur horn heo sente 525 

And he to bure wewte, 
Nolde he no}t go one 
1 1 his/ 

254 .'-XIX. KING HORN. 

A|>ulf was his mone. 

Rymenhild on flore stod, 

Homes come hire Jmjte god: 530 

And sede 'Welcome, sire horn 

And A)>ulf kni}t J>e biforn. 

Knijt, nu is J>i time 

For to sitte bi me; 

Do nu J>at Jm er of spake, 535 

To j>i wif Jm me take. 

Ef Jm art trewe of dedes 

Do nu ase Jm sedes. 

Nu Jm hast wille J>ine 

Unbind me of my pine/ 540 

* Rymenhild ' qua]) he ' beo stille : 

Ihc wulle don al J>i wille. 

Also hit mot bitide 

Mid sperQ ischal furst ride, 

And mi knijthod proue, 545 

Ar ihc J?e ginne to woje. 

We bej> knistes 5Oge 

Of o dai al isprwnge, 

And of ure mestere 

So is )>e manure 550 

Wi]> sume oj>ere knijte 

Wei for his lemman f^te 

Or he eni wif take : 

For-]>i me stonde]? ]>e more rape. 

Today, so crist me blesse, 555 

Ihc wulle do pruesse, 

For J?i luue, in ]>e felde 

Mid spere and mid schelde. 

If ihc come to lyue 

Ihc schal J>e take to wyue/ 560 


'Knijt,' qua)? heo, 'trewe, 
Ihc wene ihc mai J>e leue : 
Tak nu her ]?is gold -ring, 
God him is J>e dubbing; 
per is upon ]>e ringe 565 

Igr^ue Rymenhild }>e 3onge : 
per nis now betere anonder sunwe 
p#t eni man of telle cunwe ; 
For my luue Jju hit were 
And on J>i finger )>u him bere : 570 

pe stones beo}> of suche gr^ce 
p<2t ]>u ne schalt in none place 
Of none duwtes beon ofdrad, 
Ne on bataille beon am ad, 
Ef }>u loke J^ran 575 

And pewke upow J>i lewman. 
And sire A]>ulf, J>i broker, 
He schal haue ano]?er. 
Horn [God] ihc )>e biteche 1 , 
Wi]> loueliche speche, 580 

Crist 3eue god erndinge 
pe ajen to bringe/ 
pe kni3t hire gan kesse, 
And heo him to blesse, 

Leue at hire he nam, 585 

And in to halle cam: 
pe knijtes jeden to table, 
And home jede to stable, 
par he tok his god fole 
Also blak so eny cole; 590 

pe fole schok ]>e brunie 
pat al ]>e curt gan denie, 
1 MS. * biseche.' 


pe fole bigan to springe 

And horn murie to singe. 

Horn rod in -a while 595 

More J>an a myle. 

He fond o schup stonde 

Wij> he)>ene honde : 

He axede what hi sojte 

Q]>er to londe bro3te. 600 

An hutfd him gan bihelde, 

fat spac wordes belde 

*pis lond we wulle)) 1 wynne 

And sle ]>at \er is inne.' 

Horn gan his swerd gripe, 605 

And on his arme [hit] wype : 

))e sarazins he smatte 

pat his blod hatte: 

At eureche dunte 

pe heued of -wente; 610 

po gune J>e huwdes gone 

Abute horn al one: 

He lokede on J>e ringe, 

And ]>O3te on rimenilde, 

He sloj |>er on haste 615 

On hundred bi }>e laste. 

Ne mi3te no man tel'le 

pflt folc \>at he gan quelle. 

Of alle ]>at were aliue 

Ne mijte J>er non }>riue. 620 

Horn tok J>e maiskres heued, 

p^t he hadde him bireued, 

And sette hit on his swerde, 

1 MS. wullej.' 


Anouen at )>an orde. 

He uerde horn in to halle, 625 

Among )>e knijtes alle, 

' Kyng,' he sede, ' wel jm sitte 

And alle )>ine kni3tes mitte; 

To day, after mi dubbing, 

So i rod on mi ple[y]ing, 630 

I fond o schup rowe 

po hit gan to flowe, 

Al wi]> sarazines kyn, 

And none londisse men, 

To dai for to pine 635 

pe and alle J>ine. 

Hi gonne me assaille, 

Mi swerd me nolde faille, 

I smot hem alle to grunde, 

O]>er jaf hem dejies 1 wunde. 640 

p<2t heued i J>e bridge 

Of ]>e maister kinge. 

Nu is )>i wile i3olde, 

King, }>at J>u me kni3ti wolde 2 .' 

Amore3e J)O )>e day gan spnhge 645 

pe king him rod an huwtinge, \ 

At horn lefte Fikenhild, 

pat was ]>e wurste moder child. 

Heo ferde in to bure 

To sen auewtwre: 650 

Heo sa3 Rymenild sitte 

Also he were of witte : 

Heo sat on ]>e sunne, 

Wij? teres 8 al biruwne. 

Horn sede 'lef, J>in ore! 655 

1 MS. ' dtyes.' 2 MS. ' woldest.' 3 MS. ' tires.' 

VOL, I. ^ S 


Wi wepestu so sore?' 

Heo sede 'ncxjt i ne wepe, 

Bute ase i lay aslepe 

To J>.e se my net i caste, 

And hit nolde no}t ilaste, 660 

A gret fiss at the furste 

Mi net he gan to berste. 

Ihc wene \al ihc schal leose 

pe fiss \a\. ihc wolde cheose/ 

* Crist' qua\ horn f and seint steuene 5 665 
Turne ]?ine sweuene. 

Ne schal i J>e biswike, 

Ne do \a\. J>e mislike. 

I schal me make ]>in owe 

To holden and to knowe 670 

For eurech o]>ere wijte, 

And j?arto mi treu)>e i 1 plijte.' 

Muchel was )>e ru]>e 

tyat was at }>are tru)?e: 

For Rymenhild weop ille: 675 

And horn let ]?e teres 2 stille. 

* Lemma.n' qua}> he ' dere, 
pu schalt more ihere 

pi sweuen [ich] schal wende 

Oj^r sum man schal us schende. 680 

pe fiss ]>tft brak |>e lyne, 

Ywis, he doj? us pine: 

ptft schal don us [some] tene, 

And wurj? wel sone isene.' 

Aylmar rod bi sture, 685 

And horn lai in []>e] bure. 

Fykenhild hadde enuye 

1 MS. ' ij>e. f ;3 MS. tires.' 

, XIX. KING HORN. 259 

And sede ]>es folye : 

'Aylmar ihc J>e warne, 

Horn ]?e wule berne: 690 

Ihc herde \vhar he sede, 

And his swerd forj) leide, 

To bringe |>e of lyue, 

And take Rymenhild to '\vyue. 

He lij> [nu] in bure, 695 

Under couerture, 

By Rym^whild ]>i dojter, 

And so he doj> wel ofte; 

And J>ider ]m go al ri$t, 

per }>u him fmde mi3t ; 700 

pu do him lit of Jonde, 

Q\>er he do]> ]>e schonde.' . . 

Aylmar a3en gan turne 

Wel modi and wel murne: 

[To boure he gan 3erne 705 

Durste hym no, man werne] 

He fond horn in arme 

On Rymewhilde barme. 

*A\vei ut/ he sede, Vfule J>eofl 

'Ne wurstu me neuremore leof. 710 

Wend ut of my bure 

WiJ> muchel messauentwre. 

Wel sone, bute ]ni flitte, 

Wij) swerde ihc 'j?e anhitte. 

Wend ut of my londe 715 

O]>er ])u schalt haue schonde.* 

Horn sadelede his stede 

armps he hym gan schrede 1 : 

1 MS. ' And his armes he gan sprede.' See line 848. 
S 2 


His brunie he gan lace, 

So he scholde in to place ; 720 

His swerd he gan fonge, 

Nabod he nost to longe. 

He 5ede for]) bliue 

To Rymewhild his wyue. 

He sede, 'Legman derling, 725 

Nu hauestu ]>i sweuenirig. 

pe fiss Jwrt ]>i net rente, 

Fram j>e he me sente 

[}>e king gynnej? wij> me striue, 

Awey he wole me driue.] 730 

Rymenhild, haue wel godne day, 

No leng abiden i ne may. 

In to uncuj>e londe, 

Wel more for to fonde, 

I schal wune J?ere 735 

Fulle seue 3ere. 

At seue jeres ende, 

3ef i ne come ne sende, , 

Tak J>e huseborcde, 

For me J>u ne wode; 740 

In armes J>u me fonge, 

And kesse l me wel longe/ 

He custe him wel a stu/zde, 

And Rymenhild feol to grunde. 

Horn tok his leue, 745 

Ne mi3te he no leng bileue; 

He tok Ajmlf, his fere, 

Al abute j>e swere, 

And sede 'kni}! so trewe, 

Kep wel mi hme newe. 750 

MS. kes/ 


pu neure me ne forsoke : 

Rymenhild }m kep and loke/ 

His stede he gan bistn'de 

And for]? he ga ride: 

To |>e hauene he ferde, 755 

And .a god schup he hurede, 

pat him scholde lowde 

In westene lo^de. 

Ajmlf weop wi|> 36 *, 

And al j>at him iseje 2 . 760 

[pe wynd him gan stonde, 

And. drof tyl Irelonde.] 

To lod he him sette 

And fot on .stirop sette. 

He fond bi |>e weie 765 

Kynges sones tweie, 

pat on v hi;w het harild, 

And \a\. olper berild. 

Berild gan him preie, 

pat he scholde him seie, 770 

What his name were 

And what he wolde ]>ere. 

' Outbid,' Ije sede, ' ihc hote, 

Icomew ut of: |>e bote, 

Wei feor fram biweste 775 

To seche mine beste/ 

Berild gan him nier ride . 

And tok him bi ]?e bridel, 

*Wel beo jju.knijt ifounde 

Wij? me ]?u lef a stunde; ^80 

Also mote i sterue 

pe kiwg J)U schalt seniQ ; 

1 MS. 'i 3 e.' .-..;.' MS. 'isije.' 


Ne sa} i neure my lyue 

So fair kni3t aryue' 

Cuiberd heo ladde in to halle 785 

And he a kne gan falle : 

He sette him a knewelyng 

And grette wel J?e gode . kyng. 

pawne sede Berild sone: 

* Sire king, of him jm hast to done, 790 

Bitak him |>i Ibnd to werie 

Ne schal hit.noman derie; 

For he is J>e faireste man 

pat eure 3ut on \\ londe cam.* 

pane sede j?e kwg so dere ; 795 

1 Welcome beo \>u here. 

Go nu Berild swtye, 

And make him ful blij>e; 

And whan ]m farst to woje, 

Tak him jnne gloue: SDO 

Ime;*t ])U hauest to wyue, 

Awai he schal J?e dryue. 

For Cutberdes fairhede 

Ne schal J>e neure wel spede/ 

Hit was at Cristesmasse r 805 

Nei|>er more ne lasse: 

[pe king hym makede a feste, 

Wij? his knijtes beste.] 

fer cam in at none 

A geauwt swi^e 1 sone, 810 

larmed fram paynyme, 

And seide |>es ryme. 

*Site stille, sire kyng, 

And herkne J?is tyj>yng: 

MS. ' suR' 



Her bu}> paews ariued 815 

Wei mo )?ane fiue. 

Her beoj? on )>e sowde, 

Kiflg, upo# j)i londe, 

On of heff* wile frjte 

Aje;* [|)i] J>re knijtes : 820 

3ef o]>er l )>re slen ure, 

Al |>is lod beo 3oure : 

3ef ure on ouercome}> 3our |>reo, 

Al |)is lod schal ure beo. 

Tomoreje be ]?e fi3tige, 825 

Whane ]>e Ii3t of daye sprmge.* 

pane sede J?e kyng jjurston, 

' Cutb^rd schal beo ]>at on, 

Berild schal beo ]>at o]?er, 

pe J)ridde Harild 2 his broker. 8.^0 

For hi beoj) J>e strengeste 

And of armes ]>e beste. 

Bute what schal us to rede, 

Ihc wene we be]> alle dede/ 

Cutberd sat at borde 835 

' And sede J>es wordes 8 : 

1 Sire kiwg, hit nis no ri3te 

On wi[> \re to fi3te, 

A3en one huwde 

pre crzstew men to fonde. 840 

Sire i schal al one, 

Wijmte more ymone, 

WiJ> mi swerd, wel ej>e, 

Bringe hem J>re to dej>e.' 

pe kyng aros amore3e 8 45 

p^t hadde muchel sor3e 
? joure. 2 MS. ' Alrid.' a ? J>i s worde. 


And Cutb^rd ros of bedde, 
Wij> armes he him schredde : 
Horn his brume gan on caste, 
And lacede hit wel faste, 850 

And cam to ]>e kiwge 
At his uprisinge. 
Kig,' he sede, ' cum to fel[de] 
For to bihelde 

Hu we fi3te schulle, 855 

And toga[de]re go wulle.' 
Ri3t at prmie tide 
Hi guwnew [hem] ut ride, 
And fuwdew on a graie 

A geaut swi]?e l kene. 860 

His fere him biside 
Hore. dej> to abide. 
pe ilke bataille 
Cuiberd gan assaille : 

He 3af dewtes ino3e, 865 

pe knijtes felle iswo3e, 
His dent he gan wtydrase, 
For hi were ne} asla3e: 
And sede 'kni3tes nu 36 reste 
One while ef 3011 leste/ 870 

Hi sede hi neuere nadde 
Of kni3te denies so harde, 
[Bute of |?e king Mory 
pat was so swy)>e stordy ;] 
He was of homes kuwne, 875 

Iborn in Suddenne. 
H Horn hi^ gaw to agnse, 
And his blod arise. 

1 MS. ' su>e.' 



Biuo[r] him sa3 he storade, 
pat driue# him of lowde, 
-<4</ )>flt his fader slo3 ; 
To him his swerd he dro3, 
He lokede on his rynge, 
And jjojte on Rymenhilde, 
Ho smot him Jjurej J>e herte, 
pat sore him gan to smerte; 
pe paens \>at er were so sturne, 
Hi guwne awei urne; 
Horn and his compaynye, 
Guwne after hem wel svvi]?e hi3e, 
And sloven alle J>e hundes, 
Er hi here schipes funde: 
To de]>e he hem alle brojte, 
His fader de)> wel dere hi bo3te: 
Of alle ]?e kynges knijtes, 
Ne scapede ]>er no wi5te, 
Bute his sones tweie 
Bifore him he sa3 deie. 
pe kiwg bigaw to grete 
And teres for to lete, 
Me[n] leide;/ hem in bare 
And bur dew hem ful 3 are ; 
pe kiwg com in to halle 
Amowg his kni3tes alle. 
' Horn,' he sede, * i seie J?e 
Do as i schal rede J>e. 
Asla3era be]? mine heir[i]s, 
And Jm art kni3t of muchel pris, 
And of grete str^ngj>e, 
And fair o bodie lengj?e; 
Mi rewgne ]?u schalt welde, 








And to spuse helde 

Reynild mi dorter, 

fat sitte)> on ]>e lofte/ 

4 O sire kig, wty wrowge 915 

Scholte ihc hit unckrfowge 

pi do3ter, jwt 56 me bede, 

Ower rewgne for to lede. 

Wei more ihc schal ]>e serue, 

Sire kyng, or jm sterue. 920 

pi sorwe schal wende 

Or seue seres ende : 

Wanne hit is [i-]wente, 

Sire ki;zg, jef me mi rente: 

Whawne i Jn dojter ^erne 925 

Ne schaltu me hire werne:' 

Cutberd wonede J>ere 

Fulle seue 3ere, 

p^t to Rymenild he ne sente 

Ne him self ne wente. 930 

Rymenild was in Westernesse 

Wij) wel muchel sorinesse, 

A king \er gan ariue 

p^t wolde hire haue to wyue, 

Aton he was wij )>e king 935 

Of ]>at ilke weddiwg : 

pe daies were schorte, 

pat Rim^hild ne dorste 

Letew in none wise; 

A writ he dude deuise, 940 

AJmlf hit dude write 

fat horn ne luuede no3t lite. 

Heo sewde hire sowde 

To eu<?reche londe, 


To seche horn ]?e kni^t 945 

per me hi;# fiwde mi3te ; 
Horn no}t \er of ne herde, 
Til o dai ]>at he ferde 
To wude for to schete, 

A knaue he ga;z imete. 950 

Horn sede, 'Leue fere, 
Wat sechestu here?' 
'Kni^t, if beo )?i wille 
I mai |>e sone telle. 

I seche fra/# biweste 955 

Horn of Westernesse : 
For a maiden Rymenhild. 
p0t for him gan wexe wild. 
A kiwg hire wile wedde 

And bridge to his bedde: 960 

Kig Modi of Reynes, 
On of homes enemis; 
Ihc habbe walke wide, 
Bi |>e se side, 

[Ich neuere myjt of reche 965 

Wi]> no londisse speche,] 
Nis he no-war ifuwde ; 
Walawai ]>e stuwde ! 
Wailaway J>e while ! 

Nu wur]> Rymenild bigiled/ 970 

Horn iherde wij> his eres 1 , 
And spak wij> bitere teres 2 : 
1 Knaue wel ]>e bitide, 
Horn stowdej> J)e biside, 

A^ew to hure }>u turne 975 

A?id seie )>at heo ne murne, 
MS. ires/ 2 MS, tires.' 



For i schal beo \er bitime, 
A soneday bi pryme.' 
pe knaue was wel bltye 
And hi3ede a3en bliue. 
pe se bigan to jjroje 
Under hire woje. 
pe knaue ]>er gan adrinke: 
Rymewhild hit mijte of-]?ike: 
Rymenhild undude J>e dure-pin 
Of J>e hus \er -heo was in, 
To loke wij> hire eje 1 , 
If heo 03t of horn iseje 2 : 
po fo#d heo J>e knaue adrent, 
p#t he hadde for horn isewt, 
And \a\, scholde horn bringe. 
Hire fingres he gan wriwge. 
Horn cam to Jmrston )>e kyng, 
And tolde him ]>is tiding; 
po he was iknowe 
fa/ Rlmerihi'Id was his 03 e, 
Of his gode ke/me, 
pe kiwg of Suddenne, 
And hu he slo} in felde 
fat his fader qz^lde : 
And seide, 'kiwg J>e wise, 
3eld me mi sunrise 
Rymewhild help me wiwne 
pat }>u no^t ne li;me: 
And i schal do to spuse 
pi flo^ter wel to huse : 
Heo schal to spuse haue 3 
AJmlf mi gode fela3e, 

1 MS. ' 130.' 2 MS. ' isije.' 3 Originally, perhaps, 








God knijt mid ]>e beste 
And [on] J>e tmveste.' 
pe kiflg sede so stille, 
' Horn haue nu Jn wille.' 
He dude writes sewde 
Into yrlonde 
After knijtes lijte 1 , 
Irisse men to fi^te. 
To horn come inoje, 
pat to schupe dro^e. 
Horn dude him in J>e weie 
On a god galeie. 
pe [wynd] him gan to blowe 
In a litel Jjrbje. 
pe se bigan to posse 
Ri3t in to Westernesse. 
Hi str/ke seil and maste 
And ankere guwne caste. 
Or eny day was spruwge 
O]>er belle irii ngQ 
pe word bigan to springe 
Of Rymewhilde weddiwge. 
Horn was in ]>e wat^re, 
Ne mi^te he come no latere. 
He let his schup stowde, 
And 5ede (him up] to londe. 
His folk he dude abide 
Under wude side. 
Hor[n] him jede alone, 
Also he spruwge of stone. 
A palm<?re he ]?ar mette, 
And faire hine grette; 
1 ? wijte. 









*PaWre )>u schalt me telle 
Al of )>ine spelle.' 
He sede upon his tale: 
'I come fram o brudale; 
Ihc was at o weddiwg 1045 

Of a maide Rymewhild: 
Ne mtye heo adreje 1 , 
p<2t heo ne weop wij> eje 2 ; 
Heo sede ]>at heo nolde 
Ben ispused \vi}> golde, 1050 

Heo hadde on husebonde 
pe3 he were ut of lode. 
Modi ihote hadde ) 3 

To bure \a\. me hire ladde : I 
And in[-to a] string halle, 1055 

Wijnnne castel walle, 
fer i was atte 3ate, 
Nolde hi me in late. 
Awai i gan glide, 

fat deol 4 i nolde abide. 1060 

pe bride wepej) sore 
v And J>0t is much deole/ 
Qua]) horn, * So Cr/st me rede 
We schulle chaungi wede : 
Haue her clones myne 1065 

And tak me J>i sclauyne. 
Today i schal J>er drinke 
P<2t some hit schulle of-J>inke/ 
His sclauyn he gan 5 dun legge, 
And Horn hit dude 6 on rigge, 1070 

1 MS. adriBe.' 2 MS. ' 136.' 

" 3 These two lines come after 1058 in the MS. 
* ? de>e. 6 MS. ' dude.' .MS. ' And tok hit on his rigge.' 




He tok horn his clones, 
ptft nere him no^t lo)>e. 
Horn tok burdon and scrippe, 
And [to-]wrog his lippe. 
He makede him a ful chere 1075 

And al bicolwede his swere. 
He makede him unbicomelich, 
As 1 he nas neuremore ilich, 
He com to ]?e gateward 

pat him answerede hard: 1080 

Horn bad undo softe 
Mani tyme and ofte ; 
Ne mi3te he awynne 
pat he come Jwinne. 

Horn gan to }>e 5ate turne 1085 

And \a\. wiket unspurne ; 
pe boye hit scholde abugge, 
Horn J>reu him ouer ]>e brigge. 
pat his ribbes him to-brake : 
And suj>)>e [Horn] com in atte gate 2 , 1090 
He sette him wel 1036, 
In begg^res rowe ; 
He lokede him abute 
Wi}> his colwie smite; 

He se; Rymewhild sitte 1095 

Ase heo were of witte 
Sore wepinge and 3erne : 
Ne mijte hure noman wurne. 
He lokede in eche halke, 
Ne sej he nowhar walke noo 

Apulf his felawe, 
p<2t he cu]>e knowe. 
Hes.' L. has ' And Horn gan into halle rake.' 


AJmlf was in ]>e ture 

Abute for to pure 

After his corny nge, 1105 

3ef schup him w'olde bridge. 

He 863 ]?e se flowe 

And horn nowar rowe. . 

He sede upon his songe: 

'Horn nu J>u ert wel longe mo 

Rymewhild Jm me toke 

fat i [hire] scholde loke; 

Ihc habbe itept hure eure 

Com nu oj>er neure. 

I ne may no lewg hure kepe, 1115 

For sorese nu y wepe/ 

Rymenhild ros of benche 

Wyn for to schenche : 

After mete in sale, 

Boj>e wyn and ale. 1120 

On horn he bar an honde, 

So la^e was in londe, 

Knifes and squier 

Alle dionken of J>e ber. 

Bute horn alone 1125 

Nadde Jwof no mone. 

Horn sat upo fe grwnde, 

In fujte he was ibuwde. 

He sede, * Quen so hede, 

To meward J>u wewde, 1130 

pu jef us wi]> J?e furste 

pe beggeres beo]> of-Jmrste.> 

Hure horn heo leide adun, 

And fulde him of a brun, 

His bolle of a galuh, 1135 


For heo wende he were a glotoun. 

He seide, 'Haue J>is cuppe, 

And ]>\s fing 1 \er uppe: 

Ne saj ihc neure, so ihc wene, 

Beggere J>at were so kene/ 1140 

Horn tok it his ifere, 

And sede, f que so dere 

Wyn nelle ihc muche ne lite 

Bute of cuppe white. 

pu wenest i beo a beggere, 1145 

And ihc am a fissere, 

Wei feor icome bi este 

For [to] fissen at \\ feste : 

Mi net li]> her-bi-honde, 

Bi a wel fair stronde 2 , 1150 

Hit haj> ileie )>ere 

Fulle seue 5ere. 

Ihc am icome to loke 

Ef eni fiss hit toke. 

Ihc am icome to fisse: 1155 

Dri#k to me of disse, 

Drink to horn of home 

Feor ihc habbe 3 iorne/ 

Rymewhild him gan bihelde. 

Hire heorte bigan to chelde, 1160 

Ne kneu heo no3t his fissing, 

INe horn hymselue noting : 
Ac wuwder hire gan J>inke, 
Whi he bad to horn drinke. 
Heo fulde hire horn wij> wyn, 1165 

And dronk to ]>e pilegrym ; 
Heo sede, 'drkk |>i fulle, 

1 ? drink. 2 L. has * ponde.' 3 MS. ' am,' 

VOL. I. T 



And suJ>J>e Jm me telle, 

If Jm cure ise^e 1 

Horn under wude lejeV 1170 

Horn droflk of horn a stujzde 

And J>reu hys 3 ring to gru/zde. 

[He seyde, 'quen, nou.seche 

What is in Jn drenche/] 

pe quen sede to bure 1175 

WiJ> hire maidenes foure. 

po fo;/d heo what heo wolde, 

A ri;zg igrauen of golde 

fat horn of hure hadde ; 

[Wei] sore hure [of-]dr#dde 1180 

pat horn istorue 4 were 

For \>Q ring was J>ere. 

po sete heo a damesele 

After }>e palm^re ; 

* Palnwe/ qua}> heo, 'trewe, 1185 

pe ling Ipat J>u [here] }>rewe, 

pu seie whar J>u hit nome, 

And whi Jm hider come/ 

He sede, *bi seiflt gile, 

Ihc habbe go mani mile, 1190 

Wei feor bi^onde weste 

To seche my beste. 

I fond horn child stonde 

To schupeward in londe 5 . 

He sede he wolde agesse 1195 

To ariue in westernesse. 

pe schip nam to pe flode 

WiJ> me and horn J>e gode ; 

1 MS. IsiBe.' 2 MS. ' lije.' 5 MS. ' }e/ 

* MS. * istene.' 6 L. has ' on stronde.' 

:"XJX. KING HORN. 275 

Horn was sik and deide, 

And faire he me prade ; 1200 

* [To schupe] go wij> ]>e ringe 

To Rymewhild J>e sowge/ 

Ofte he hit custe 

God 3eue hife saule reste. 

Rymewhild sede at J>e furste: 1205 

'Herte nu }>u berste, 

For horn nastu namore 

ptft ]>e ha]>- pined so 1 sore/ 

Heo feol on hire bedde, 

per heo knif[es] hudde, 1210 

To sle wi]> [hure] king loj?e 

And hure selue bo]?e, 

In Jjtft ulke ni3te, 

If horn come ne mijte. 

To herte knif heo sette 1215 

Ac horn anoa hire lette 2 . 

[Hys schirt-lappe he gan take, 

And wipede avvey \>at blake, 

pat was on his swere,] 3 

And sede, *Quen so dere* 1220 

Ihc am horn J>in 036, 

Ne canstu me no3t knowe? 

Ihc am horn of westernesse, 

In armes Jm me cusse/ 

Hi custe hem mid ywisse, 1225 

And makeden muche blisse. 

' Rymewhild/ he sede, ' y wende 

Adun to J>e wudes ende : 

1 MS. ]>e so.' 2 MS. < kepte.' 

8 The MS. has only, one line for these three : 
' He wipede \>at blake of his swere/ 
4 MS. ' so swete and dere.' 

T 9. 


per be]> myne knijtes 

Redi to fi^te, 1230 

larmed under clo)>e; 

Hi schulle make wn?]>e 

pe "king and his geste 

pt come to the feste : 

Today i schal hew teche 1235 

And sore he; areche/ 

Horn sprong ut of halle 

And let his sclauin falle. 

pe quen 5ede to bure 

And fond ajmlf in ture: 1240 

*AJmlf/.-heo sede, 'be bli]>e, 

And to horn jm go wel swi)>e : 

He is under wude boje 

And wij> him knijtes inoje/ 

AJ>ulf bigan to spr/nge 1245 

[Wel glad] for }>e ti]>iwge : 

Aft^r horn he arnde anon, 

Also \>at hors mi3te gon: 

He him ou<?rtok ywis, 

Hi makede suij?e muchel blis.: 1250 

Horn tok his preie 

And dude him in J>e weie. 

He com in wel sone 

pe 5ates were undone, 

larmed ful J>ikke 1255 

Fra/ fote to ]>e nekke. 

Alle jjat were }>er'm 

Wijmte his twelf ferin 

And ]>Q kiwg Aylmare 

He dude hem alle to kare, 1260 

pat at the feste were, 


Here lif hi lete |>ere. 

[And J>e kyng Mody 

Hym he made blody; 

And the king Aylmere 1265 

po hauede myche fere.] 

Horn ne dude no wuder l 

Of Fikewhildes false tuwge. 

Hi swore ojjes holde, 

pat neure ne scholde 1270 

Horn neure bitnrie, 

pe^ he at de}>e 2 laie. 

Hi ruwge J>e belle 

pe wedlak for io felle ; 

Horn him jede with his 3 1275 

To j>e kiwges palais 

per was bridale 4 suete, 

For riche mew \er etc. 

Telle ne mijte [no] tuwge 

pat gle }>at \er was suwge. 1280 

Horn sat on [his] chaere 

And bad hew alle ihere. 

* Kiwg/ he sede, ' |>u luste 

A tale mid )>e beste, 

I ne seie hit for no blame: 1285 

Horn is mi name 

pu me to knijtfe] houe 

And kni3thod haue [I] praued: 

1 L. has ' Horn no wonder ne makede 

Of Fykenildes fals[h]ede.' 

2 MS. ' di>e.' 

3 L. has * Horn ledde hyre horn wit heyse, 

To hyre fader paleyse.* 

4 MS. brid and ale',: L. has < brydale.' 


To )>e, ki;zg, men seide, 

pa/ i J>e bitraide, 1290 

pu makedest me fleme, 

^4(/ ]>i lo#d to reme; 

pu wewdest }>at i wrojte, 

pat y rieure ne J>03te, 

Bi RymifTzhild for to ligge; 1295 

And J>at i wi}>-segge, 

Ne schal ihc hit bigiwne, 

Til i suddene wine. 

pu kep hure a stunde, 

pe while \a\. i funde 1300 

In to min heritage, 

And to mi baronage. 

fat lond i schal ofreche, 

And do mi fader wreche. 

I schal beo. king of tune, 1305 

And bere ki/zges crune, ; 

pawne schal Rymewhilde, 

Ligge bi ]>e kiwge.' 

Horn gan to schupe dra^e, 

Wi]> his yrisse felajes, 1310 

AJmlf wij) him his brother, 

Nolde he non o]>er ; 

p^t schup bigan to crude, . 

pe wind him bleu [wel] hide, 

WiJ>ine daies fiue 1315 

pat schup gan ariue. 

Abute middelni3te 

Horn him jede wel ri3te. 

He tok aj)ulf bi hode- 

And up he jede to lode. 1320 

Hi fonde under schelde 


A kni^t hewde 1 in felde. 

[Op }>e scheld was drawe 

A crowch of Jesu cristes lawe] 

pe kni^t him aslepe lay 1325 

Al biside J>e way. 

Horn him ga to take 

And sede : f kni^t, awake. 

Seie what J>u kepest? 

And whi Jm her slepest ? 1330 

Me j>ink]> bi jnne crois \i$te, 

p<z/ ]m longest to ure dr^te. 

Bute J?u wule me schewe, 

I schal )>e to-hewe/ 

pe gode knijt up aros, 1335 

Of J>e wordes him gros : 

He sede : . ' ihc haue aijenes my wille 

Payns [iserued] ful ylle, 

Ihc was crzstene a while: 

po [were] icom[e] to J>is ile 2 1340 

Sarazins [lo]>e and] blake 

p#/ dude me [God] forsake : 

On Crzst ihc wolde bileue 3 

On him hi makede me reue, 

To kepe )>is passage 1345 

Fra/0 horn \a\. is of age, 

p^t wuniej) [al] bieste, 

[God] knijt wi]? J>e beste; 

Hi slo^e wij> here ho^de, 

pe king of J>is[e] lowde, 1350 

1 L. has ' Hggen.' 

2 MS. ' ille.' 

3 L. has, ' Bi god on warn y leue 

J?o he makeden me reue.* 


And wij> him fele hundred, 

And \>erot is wurcder 

prtt'he ne comej> to fijte : 

God sewde him j>e ri^te, 

^4;j</ wid him hider driue, 1355 

To bridge [n] hew of Hue : 

Hi slojen kyng Murry, ; 

Homes fader king hendy, 

Horn hi lit of londe sente ; 

Tuelf felajes wi)> him wente, 1360 

Amowg hem a]mlf J>e gode, 

Min 03ene child, my leue fode : 

[He louede Horn wel derne 

And Horn hym also jerne;] 

Ef horn child is hoi and sund, 1365 

And Ajmlf wijmte wund, 

He luuej) him so dere, 

And is him so stere, 

Mi^te i seo# hem tueie, 

For ioie i scholde deie.' 1370 

4 Knijt beo ]>ane bli]?e, 

Mest of alle si)>e, 

Horn and Ajmlf his fere 

Bo)>e hi be here:' 

To horn he gan gon 1375 

And gr?tte him anon. 

Muche ioie hi makede fere 

pe while hi togadere were. 

He sede wij> steuene jare "1 l 

Childre, hu habbe je fare / , 1380 

1 These two lines are from L. The MS. has 
'Childre he sede hu habbe je fare 
pat ihc jou sej hit is ful 3are.' 


Wulle 56 J>is lowde wi;zne 

And sle \a\, \er is i;me?' 

He sede : "' leue horn child 

3ut lyue)) Jn moder Godhild : 

Of ioie heo [ne] miste 1385 

If heo ]>e aliue wiste.' 

Horn sede on his rime,: 

4 Iblessed beo }>e time, 

I com to Suddewne 

Wij> mine irisse mewne: 1390 

We schulle ]>e hundes teche 

To speke ure speche. 

Alle we hew; schulle sle, 

And al qut'c hem fle/ 

Horn gan his horn to blowe, 1395 

His folk ;hit gan iknowe, 

Hi cornea lit" of st^re, 

Fram homes ban^re ; 

Hi slo3en and.'fuyten, 

pe nijt and )>e u;ten; 1400 

[Myd speres ord hi stonge 

pe elde and eke \>e 5onge; 

pat lond hi.|?oru so3ten, 

To de]?e hi J>us brojten] 

pe Saraziws cuwde; 1405 

Ne lefde tyr now i )?ede. 

Horn let [sone] wurche 

Chapeles and chirche. 

He let belles ringe 

And masses let singe. 1410 

He com to his mod^r halle 

In a roche walle. 

[Hi custen and hi clenten. . - 


And into halle wenten.] 

Crun he gan werie 1 1415 

And makede feste merie. 

Murle lif he [j?er] wro3te. 

Ryme^hild hit dere bojte. 

[Wile )>at Horn was oute, 

Fikenhild ferde aboute ;] 1420 

To W03e he gan hure jerne, ^ 2 

pe kyng ne dorste him werne, J 

Fikenhild was prut on herte, 

And j>at him dude smerte. 

30#ge he jaf and elde 1425 

Mid him for to helde. 

Ston he dude lede, 

per he hopede spede, 

Strong castel he let sette 

Mid see hi;/z biflette. 1430 

per ne mi^te li^te 

Bute fo^el wij> fhye. 

Bute whawne j>e se wij dro^e 

Mi^te come men ynoje. 

Fikenhild gan wewde 1435 

Rym^hild to schewde. 

[pe day by-gan to wexe, 

pat hem was by-twexe ;] 

Rymewhild was ful of mode, 

He wep teres of blode. 1440 

Fikenhild or ' )>e dai gan sprmge, 

Al rijt he ferde to )>e kinge, 

After Rymenhild J>e bri^te, 

To wedden hire bi nijte. 

1 MS. has ' Corn he let serie.' 

9 These lines come after 1. 1 235 in MS. 


He ladde hure bi )>e derke 1445 

Into his nywe werke, 
pe feste hi biguwne 
Er \al ros }>e suwne 1 . 
])at ni^t horn gan swete 

And heuie for to .mete 1450 

Of Rymenhild his make 
Into schupe was itake : 
pe schup bigan to blenche 
His lewman scholde adrenche. 
Rymeflhild wij> hire honde 1455 

Wolde up to londe. 
Fikenhild ajen hire pelte 
Wijj his swerdes hike. 
Horn him wok of slape 

So a man Jxzt hadde rape. 1460 

' Ajmlf/ he sede, ''felaje 
To schupe we mote dra^e 
Fikenhild me ha)> idon under, 
And Rymenhild to do wunder; 
Crist, for his wuwdes fme, 1465 

To-ni3t me J>uder driue I* 
Horn gan to schupe ride, 
His ferew him biside. 
Er ]>ane horn hit wiste, 

To-fore J>e suwne upriste, 1470 

His schup stod under ture 
At Rymenhilde bure. 
Rymenhild litel wene]> heo 
pflt Horn J>ane aliue beo. 
[Ne wiste Horn on Hue 1475 

Whare he was aryue.] 
1 Lines 1441-1448 are wrongly transposed in the MS. 


pe castel }>ei ne knewe, 

For he was so riywe. 

Horn fond sittinde Arnoldin, 

p#t was Ajmlfes cosin, 

pat \er was in \a\, tide, 

Horn for tabide. 

* Horn knijt/ he sede, ' kinges sone, 

Wei beo J>u to londe icome. 

To-day haj> ywedde Fikenhild 1485 

pi swete legman Rymenhild. 

Ne schal i }>e [not] lie, 

He haj> giled ]?e twie. 

pis tur he let make 

Al for June .[Rymenhilde] sake. 1490 

Ne mai \er come i;me 

No maw wi]> none gi/me. 

Horn nu crist )>e wisse 

Of Rymenhild \a\. }>u ne misse/ 

Horn cu]?e al J>e liste 1495 

pt eni man of wiste. 

Harpe he gan schewe 

And tok fela^es fewe, 

Of kni^tes suijje 1 snelle 

p^zt schrudde hew at wille. 1500 

[WiJ> swerdes he hem gyrte 

Anouen here schirte.] 

Hi 3eden bi )>e grauel 

Toward J>e castel, 

Hi guwne mwrie singe 1505 

And miakede here gleowinge. 

Rymenhild hit gan ihere 

And axede what hi were: 

Hi sede, hi weren harpurs, 


And sume were gigours. 1510 

He dude horn inn late 

Rijt at halle gate; 

He sette him : on }>e benche 

His harpe for to clenche. 

He makede Rymenhilde lay 1515 

And heo makede walaway, 

Rymenhild feol yswoje. 

Ne was \er non }>at louje. 

Hit smot to homes herte 

So biter e J>at hit sm^rte. 1520 

He lokede on }>e ringe 

And J>03te on Rymewhilde. 

He jede up to borde 

WiJ> gode suerdes orde. 

Fikewhildes crne 1525 

per [he] ifulde adune, 

And al his mew arowe 

Hi dude adun J>rowe. 

Whawne hi were# asla^e, 

Fike/zhild hi dude to-dr^e. 1530 

Horn makede Arnoldin ]?are 

Kig, aft^r kig Aylmare, 

Of al westernesse 

For his meoknesse. 

pe kiwg and his homage 1535 

3eue Arnoldin trnvage. 

Horn tok Rymenhild bi j>e honde 

And ladde hure to j>e stronde. 

And ladde wi)> him A]>elbrus, 

pe gode stuard of his hus. 1540 

pe se bigaw to flowe 

And horn gan to rowe. 

286 . XIX. KING HORN. 

Hi gune for [tfjariue 

])er king modi was sire. 

Ajjelbrw he makede \er king 1545 

For his gode techiwg : 

He $af alle )>e kni3tes"ore 

For horn kni}tes lore. 

Horn ga# for to ride, 

pe wiwd him bleu wel wide. 1550 

He ariuede in yrlowde 

])er he wo fodede, 

fer he dude Ajnilf child 

Wedde maide Reynild. 

Horn com to sudde;me 1555 

Amowg al his kenne. 

Rym^whild he makede his quene 

So hit mijte wel beon. 

Al folk hew mi^te re we 

pat louedew hem so tmve. 1560 

Nu ben hi bo]>e dede ; 

Crist to heuene hem lede. 

Her endej> )>e tale of horn, 

p<2/ fair was and nojt unorn, 

Make we. us glade eure among, 1565 

For jms him endej> homes song. 

Jesus jjtft is of heuene king 

3eue us alle his suete blessiwgf Amen. 



An Bispel (or Parable). 

This piece, as well as the other English ones in the Cotton MS., 
seems to have been written in the south-east of England, probably in 
Kent, judging from some occasional orthographical peculiarities in the 
vowels. Thus the older eo is represented by ie, as in the Ayenbite of 
Inwit (in the Kentish dialect of the middle of the fourteenth century) : 
hierte heorta, heart, nted=neod t need,si=se0, the (fern.); ea is replaced 
by ia, as tiar = tear, niat=neat (cattle); e is used for i or y, as fer =fir t 
fire, cen cyn t kin, &c. The punctuation is that of the MS. 

Line i. See the parable in Matt. xxii. 1-14. 

An rice. The old form of the indefinite article is here retained 
before a consonant. 

2. Gelest=geleste, extended. The A.S. gd&stan also signifies to 
last, follow. 

Wide and side are adverbs formed from the adjectives wid (wide) 
and sid (long) by the suffix -e. They form a phrase, once in very com- 
mon use, which has been replaced by 'far and wide.' The use of side 
ample, long, as an adjective occurs in Gascoigne's Steel Glass (1576) 

' They be no boyes, which weare such side long gowns.' 
157, on p. 324 of Skeat's Specimens.) 

jrfe9-telle, innumerable, difficult to be told ; the same as the older 
mpound earfoft-rime, difficult to be numbered ; A.S. earfoQc, difficult, 
om earfod, hardship, toil. Cf. Ger. arbeit. 

3. %e-iver=ge-k'W(Kr t on every side, everywhere. The particle ge as 
prefix adds an indefinite meaning to many pronouns and adverbs, as 
'-hwd, every one, whoever ; ge*kwa/ter, both, each, either ; ge-hwylc, 

;h, every one, all, whoever. Cf. <Eg-whd = <E-ge-hwd, whoever, every 
e; ceg-kwa-per(E-ge-hwcefer, either. The dropping of the h in the 

combination hw is here rather common ; cf. wa = hwa, who, 1. 4. 

5. Him, to him. Cf. 1. 4, him befell. We still keep the use of the 

old dative before a few impersonal verbs, as methinks, meseems, &c. 

See Historical Outlines of English Accidence, p. 117. 

Frend and fend are plurals representing the older frynd and fynd= 

friends and fiends, friends and enemies. v : -, . 

288 NOTES. 

5. Hold cfier fti, friendly or unfriendly, well-disposed or hostile. Cf. 
* hold wad. trig,' faithful and true; Orm. 6177. 

G. Nam him t6 rede, took to himself for (a) purpose, resolved. 
Jicom, for them. 

An<z = ane, ace. fem. of an (one, a). See hie, 1. 7, and cznnc, 1. 8. 
LatSienge, feast, properly invitation, assembly. See 1. 90, p. 4, where 
$ela$ic = invite. 

8. j^tovV (a gloss upon rr/) = A.S. byrig, dat. of burh, a city, borough 
(cf. bury in names of places), here means the royal city where the 
king's court was held. , 

De$ie = d<z}e = d(rge (dative). The g had probably become silent, 
hence dejie = deie. 

9. Bepe tdtst, by the latest, at the latest. See topa latst, \. 88, p. 4, 
and King Horn, 1. 616, p. 256. Latst is our last. In the oldest English 
late (late) made comp. lator, superl. latost. In Ormulum we find Idte, 
lattre, lattst. Some have supposed that at last is a corruption of on-last, 
in a track, backwards, on laste, finally, because the oldest form of * latest ' 
is l<zte-m-est\ but perhaps the -forms quoted above tend to show that 
this view is untenable. Alast, lastly, occurs very late. 

To fa de}ie = to pan de$ie = to pamdccg-e, on that day. 

per were, should be there. 

3e : sccod=ge-scedd=ge-scdit, difference, distinction : it also signifies 
discretion. Cf. to-)esceode'S = to-sceocleb, divideth, 1. 136, p. 6; jescod, 
discretion, 1. 85, p. 4. Cf. M.E. isceadwis, reasonable. 

10. pan hi come, when they should come. 
Mistlice = mis-lice, promiscuously, variously. 

1 1 . Me man, one ; cf. Fr. on, Ger. man. 

12. It will be observed, through this piece, that iv is written for wu 
initially. This can hardly be other than intentional, and probably has 
reference to the pronunciation of initial ivu as u (Welsh iv) ; just as, 
in the Shropshire and other dialects, people say 'ood, 'ooman, for wood, 

1 3. Formemete (cf. mor$e-mete, 1. 1 39, p. 6), first meat, or morning meal. 
]>at him . . . inn-come, that it might not appear too long to him 

to wait until the Lord, at noon, should come in. 

OS represents the oldest English 08 fat, Lat. usque ad. 

15. Eter gat = et per gate,, at the gate. In the oldest period gat, geat t 
a gate, is of the neuter gender ; distinct from gdt^. she-goat. 

Code repples and stiarne swepen, good rods and stiff (strong), 
whips (scourges). Cf. M.E. repylle-stok, a rod used for beating flax, 
Wright's Vocab. 795. 16, and repple, a Cheshire word for a long walking- 
staff (Halliwell). 

1 6. Stiarne hlne besle, severely treat him, B,&*u=>-bt>suiir**b$e<w> see 
to, provide. 


19. ALrndr aches = <zrend-racan, messengers. This is ah early instance 
of change of declension, the pi. -an becoming -es. 

Offifceften, from five regions or quarters ; literally kiths. 

20. Hwet bute [fece], whereupon, so, without more delay. Hw<zt is 
here used conjunctionally. 

Cofer . . . later ; like M.E. rather and later = earlier (sooner) and 
later. Cafor cof= prompt, active, brisk. See cofe, quickly, 1. 31, -p. 2. 

21. And was idon . . . isett was, and it was done by (unto) them as we 
previously said was appointed (settled). Cf. ' Do as you would be done by? 

25. Scewie we, let us .look at, or view. 

26. Unco<5e = uncude,\it. unknown. Cud is the proper passive par- 
ticiple of the verb cunnen. 

27-29. Unwraste . . . $ebugon, Wretched men, what made you, in all 
my empire, to contend against me with hatred and hostility, and to 
submit to my foe (enemy). 

29. ^ebiigon, lit. turn to, bow to; hence 'be obedient to.' We have 
the same in buxom, buhsum in Ancren Riwle. 

Swd ibruce ic mine rice, as (sure as) I enjoy my kingdom, as sure 
as I am a king. See 1. 206, p. 243. 

30. Scule J>afe, those shall who, &c. 

32. J><? hi shtrfe httngre, whereby they died with hunger. The use of 
the instrumental is worthy of notice. 

34. Sandon = sandan = (sand-ari), dishes, literally sendings. 
36, 37. Kingen and hlaforden are dative plurals; -en -um. 

38. mdji=ttiai}, may prevail. See Orm. i. p. 279. 

39. Him = bi him, concerning him. 

40. This quotation is not from the Vulgate. But it resembles Isaiah 
xl. 12: 'Quis mensus est pugillo aquas, et caelos palmo ponderauit? 
quis appendit tribus digitis molem terrae, et librauit in pondere montes, 
et colles in statera? ' The passage in Job xxviii. 24, 25 also somewhat 
resembles it. 

40-42. Hlaford . . . hand, Lord of (all) might, who boldest the thrones 
of the heavens and beholdest the deep (abyss) which is under the earth ; 
the hills thou weighest out with thy hand. Belocest does not occur in 
the oldest period in the sense of * beholdest,' but of belockest, enclosest. 
In De Initio Creaturae (yElfric's Homilies, ed. Thorpe, pp. 8, 9) this 
quotation is thus given : ' He hylt mid his mihte heofonas and.eorSan, 
and ealle gesceafta butan geswince, and he besceawaS J)a niwelnyssa fe 
under jjyssere eorSan sind. He awecS ealle duna mid anre handa.' He 
holdeth with his might heavens and earth, and all creatures, without 
toil, and he beholdeth the depths which are under this earth. He 
weigheth all hills with one hand. 

43. For-pan pe= for that that, because. 

46. For he, &c., because he, &c. 

VOL. I. U 


47, 48. And us sawle \pii\ ableow, breathed souls into us. Cf. ' and 
him on bleow gast' ( = and him on ableow gast), Old Eng. Horn. First 
Series, p. 221, and ^Elfric's Horn. vol. i. p. 13. 

48. Scred=scret = scryt, clotheth. Scred-de = scrydde, clothed. 

50. And \vel as] = and or as. The scribe seems to have looked upon 
and as not quite accurate, and proposed as. 

55. Unitaldftilhimc, untold (innumerable) helps, favours, blessings. 

56. Of warn we alle and us sielfe /tabbed, -from whom we all have also 
ourselves [i. e. our being]. Cf. Acts xvii. 28. 

Sielpe, the MS. reading, would mean enjoyment, felicity, goods ; 
but see p. 4, note i ; p. 7, note 3. 

60. Don him slepe, cause him to sleep. 

63. Mihti efre isi=mihte hi efre isi, were they always able to see. 

64. Nd jewtild ham selfe = ne jeivolde hi ham selfe, they would not 
control themselves. 

65. Hares tmfances, gen. absolute, against their will, they being un- 

66. A wunder warden, in wonderful words. See Isaiah xlix. 15. 
Bipa = bipan = bipam, by the. Cf. 'to J>a latst,' 1. 88. 

68. La lief = la leof, O beloved, O friend. In the earlier periods it 
means O sir, O lord. 

68, 69. Wiman . . . his . . . did . ,. hi (she). Notice the confusion in 
gender. ?F//*was originally of the neuter gender, and-gp was his. 

70. NeHic = nelie ic, I will not. 

71. Be pam pe, as concerning that that, lit. by that that. 

72. Quoted from Malachi i. 6. 

73. Manscipe, manship, horn-age. Sometimes man-rede is used in the 
same sense ; cp. A.S. manraden, Joshua ix. n. 

73> 74- tyfic- hlaford, if I am Lord. 

74. G. m. =gode men, good men. 

82. Si }ecende Idge, the kindly (natural) law. 
85. ' Without this law is no rational being.' See note to 1. 9. 
89. Ne ne tvufd, nor not shall be, i. e. nor shall be. 
]>at god ne send, but what God hath sent. 

92. Heretoche = heretoge, leader; properly army-leader, duke. 

93. His,, her (i.e. law) ; a form very common in Southern dialects of 
the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. It docs not occQr in the oldest 

Wax bredene wax-bred, waxboard, a writing-table, a table 
covered with wax to write upon. The phrase 'stanene wax-bredene* 
shows that the origin of the compound wax-bred was forgotten. 

And si, she, i. e. the law (fern.). Zi, she (A.S. sto) occurs in the 
Ayenbite of Inwyt (1340). It is properly the fern, of the demonstrative 
and relative pronoun se, the. 





swa, so as, as far as. Cf. 

99, 100. Ures . . . cristes, the advent of our Lord the Saviour Jesus 
rist, or, our Lord the Saviour Jesus Christ's coming. On this con- 
struction see Historical Outlines of English Accidence, p. 103. 

102. Stef-creft, book-learning, letter-craft ; stcf(stcef}, a letter, character. 
Cf. run-staf, a runic (or mystical) letter ; boc-stcef, a letter, alphabetical 
character. Staves, flat pieces of shaven wood, were once used for writing 
upon, also strips of the beech tree. In A.S. the same word, boc, means 
both ' beech ' and ' book.' 

103. Wer laQicres moche, were many inviters. 

Eft binefece, again within a while, after a time. 

104. Htir and hur (Aunt, hiirtt-finga), especially, frequently. It 
sometimes signifies 'at intervals.' See Owl and Nightingale, xvi. 
1. u, p. 172. 

106-7. Lofand w\u\r\f\hminte, praise and honour. Wurth-minte 
A.S. ivcorft-mynd, weorft-mynt (Grein). 

109. Mid scnne begripe, taken with sin, defiled with sin. 

no. Diefles nmfte, devil's mouth. Cf. helk mud, hell's mouth, 1. 175, 
p. 7. Hell is represented in stained glass windows as having a real 
mouth, teeth, &c. 

Warn = hwam, whom ; here used relatively. ' Who ' is used 
only as an interrogative in the first period. Of warn begins a new 

117. }>er a)en, instead thereof, against that. 

119. Acennende^acenninge, birth, conception ; see 1. 115. The use of 
the participle for the verbal substantive is found in Lajamon's Brut, 
an hi$ende for an hi$inge, in haste. The tendency at this period is 
to turn -ende into -inge, as we have done in .all present participles. See 
Old Eng. Horn. Second Series, p. 177, 1. 23. 

1 20. Admoded is for admode, the def. form of admod ( = edd-m6d}, 
humble, meek. But we have added a d to several words that were 
originally without it, as wicked^ wretched, one-eyed. See Historical 
Outlines of English Accidence, p. 223. 

Fordcdc', destroyed, put an end to. Cf. our did for and undid. 
122. Leorning-cnihtes, disciples, literally learning-attendants. A.S. 
leorning-cnihtas, the usual word for our Lord's disciples in the Gospels ; 
in the Heliand the Lat. discipulus is often rendered by thegan, thane. 
127. Tofreme, to advantage, profitably,. 

134. Wat . . . wat, both . . . and, what ... and. 

135. \>icce pringeQ, thickly throng on, press on in crowds. 

136. Eter gate ?ne his scyft, and per me hi to jesceodcd, at the gate they 
are divided, and there they are discriminated. Me = man, one ; his = hi^ 

U 2 

292 NOTES. 

141. Utiantruce = wantrtice, failure. Cf. wantrokiynge in Specimens, 
Pt. II. 1. 59, p. 100. 

143. Iper=in per, in the; pine being a feminine substantive. 
Mid cfielice lette, with a slight delay or hindrance. 

145. Merchcstowe, boundary place, place of separation ; but perhaps 
\ve ought to read merthestowe, a place of mirth. 

148-9. Sicern&sse of ccer blisse, the assurance of eternal bliss. 

150-1. God . . .fandie, May God, through his mercy, let us never 
have experience of it. Letes = lete his, his being the genitive governed 

152. Anii=anum ) at once. 

^crcdie, ready, prepared. In Piers Plowman we find aredy, B. iv. 
192 ; areadiness occurs in Bacon's Advancement of Learning, and in our 
English Bible, 2 Cor. x. 6. 

1 54. fymet, shall find, meet with ; the present tense, as in the elder 
period, is used with a future sense. 

157. Hi . . . Celeste, and they shall have for their reward the home 
that long shall last. 

161. *$efered=ge-fer-r<den, company. 

Anglene had, orders of angels. See VII. 99 (below), and Piers 
Plowman (Clarendon Press Series), p. 104, note to i. 105; where it is 
explained that there were supposed to be nine orders of angels, the two 
highest orders being those of the Cherubim and Seraphim ; see sect. 
V. 1. 1050 below. Had is identical with the suffix head or hood in man- 
hood, godhead, &c. 

163. Hagefaderen = heah-faderum, patriarch, high-father. In the first 
period hedh, high, is sometimes used as equivalent to the prefix arch : 
hcdh-bisceop, archbishop ; hedh-boda, archangel. 

164-5. Mid al panpe . . . abec, with all those that for his love (sake) 
put aside the world. 

165-6. Wic $eie = hwilc ege, what awe (fear, terror). 

169. ]>e wolcne to-gad, the welkin shall part in sunder. To-gan \.Q 
go asunder, to go away. 

Si hali rode tacne. Hampole, in the Fifth Book of his Pricke of 
Conscience, mentions the 'token of the cross' as appearing with Christ 
at the day of Doom : 

' He sal ]>an at his doun commyng 
J?e taken of the croys wyth hym bring, 

Yhit som trowes, and swa may wel be, 
pat pe taken of J>e spere men sal J)an se 

And of p.e nayles.' p. 143. 
172. pe . . . bcchece, whom none may contradict. 


1 76. Bi s[c\andlice senne besivapen, convicted of shameful sins. See 
Introd. xlix. d. for dat. pi. in -c. 

177-9. V an fanisse. Then shall God say to them, the sinful men, 
ye sinned in your eternity and ye must burn in my eternity. 

181-2. Son[e}\ . . }esccpe, immediately they shall be thrust out from 
his sight. 

184. Quoted from Prov. viii. 31. 

1 88. See John vi. 51. 

189. Cimice bread, the living bread. Cf. 'the quick and the dead.' 
192. See John xii. 24. 

195. pajf.fwcS us of breade, which speaketh to us by bread. 

197. Mclstancnt (so in MS.) = melstanen, mill-stones. 

198. Setie=seden t afterwards. 

Idon into per berien, put into the tomb. In berien the dative 
suffix is dropped ; the demonstrative shows that the word is feminine. 
202. See John xvi. I. 


See the notes to Prof. Earle's edition of the A. S. Chronicle, pp. 369- 

Line 2. Under fangen, received, i.e. in a friendly manner. Earle's 
text has uenden, for tizienden in the MS. 

3. Alsuic alse, all such as. Suic=suilc, such. Alse, also, is a new 
form replacing the older swylc. 

4. To-deld . ..sotlice, distributed and squandered (scattered) it fool- 
ishly. Notice in the verbs the dropping of the final e in the past tense ; 
see 1. 7. 

5. Me ( = men = man), one, was unknown in the first period. 
Gadering, assembly, parliament. 

9. Sereberi=Searbyrig, Salisbury. Roger of Salisbury was Regent of 
gland in 1123. 

Hise. The e probably marks the plural ; in the first period his was 
eclinable as a possessive pronoun. 

10. Neties, nephews. Neues is wrongly translated 'strum nepotem' 
Gibson, whom others follow. See Earle's note. Neve or nefe is 

t of Norman-French origin, but represents the older nefa, a nephew, 
which the feminine was nefe, a niece. This old nefa is of course 
>gnate with Lat. nepos. 

Til, till. This is a new form unknown to the oldest period ; it is 
of Norse origin and was first used as a preposition = to. It here replaces 
o$-p<zt ; see p. 2, 1. 17, and p. 5, 1. 125. Od = A.S.J8 = on9 is of the same 
gin as the tin in until = tint-til: see Skeat's Diet. s. v. tinto. 


294 NOTES. 

12. Wimder, mischief, wrong. The original meaning is wonder + 
awe, lit. that which is turned from. 

1 3. Man-red, horn-age. The suffix -ra/still exists in kin-d-red, hat-red. 
13, 14. Ac ... heolden, but they (kept) observed no truth, i. e. did not 

keep faith. 

13. Treuthe~trcowthe, pledged word, faith. Treothes = treowthes 
(1. 14). 

15. For-loren, forfeited; the past plural of M. E. for-Ieosen, to lo-e 
entirely. The r=s still survives in the participle for-lorn. Cf. M. E. 
icoren, chosen. 

1 6. Suencten, oppressed, afflicted. The verb swenken is the causal of 
M. E. swinken, to labour, toil. 

1 7. Utirecce, poor, wretched men. 

Wcorces ; a new plural. It was originally an old neuter, and like 
swine, sheep, &c., underwent no change for the plural. 

19. God, possessions, goods. 

20. Bjtihe \ a new form, of Norse origin. Bath . . . and replaces 
O. E. agtierge . . . ge. 

Be nihtes 7 be dceies, by night and by day/ The introduction of 
be is quite recent ; the oldest expression was dceges and nihtes. 

Carl-men. Carl means a man, and exists in the proper name 
Charles (Carol-us). Cf. Prov. Eng. carl-cat, a male cat. 

21. 22. Pined . . .pining. Here we have an instance of the cognate 
accusative, like dreamt a dream, &c. 

Untellendlice, unutterable, untellingly. 

22. Nan, not one, is here used with a plural noun. 

23. Me henged, &c., one hanged (them) up ; some were hanged up. 

25. Hengen is the past plur. of a strong verb hangen, while hanged is 
the past tense of a weak verb hangien, to hang. 

Bryniges = brynies, coats of mail, which would be very heavy to 
bear. Thorpe takes it to be bryninges, i. e. fires. 

26. Uurythen, twisted, writhed. The word me, being a weakened 
form of man, can only be properly used with a singular verb. Here, 
however, we have the pi. tturythen. But we may suppose the word 
thci to be understood. Such a change of construction is common. 

To S=to Sa>f, until that. 

Gadeto fe luzrnes, went to (their) brains. Gade=ycde. Zupitza, 
in his Notes to Guy of Warwick, 1. 60, shews that yedege-eode, rather 
than code, as some have supposed. 

27. Quarterne cwearterne,-pnzon. A.S. cweartcrn in the Bible oft en 
renders the Vulgate career. Fades, toads, which were supposed to be 

28. Drapen ; a Northern form ; from drap, pt. t. of Icel. drepa, to 
!,, i-;n 




28. Crucet-hus seems to be, by the explanation given of it in the text, 
a kind of cell into which the prisoner was forced by being doubled up, 
as it were. It was the same sort of thing as the cell in the Tower of 
London called * Little Ease/ because too small to lie down in at length. 

29. Un-dep, shallow, a word not found in A.S. 

30. Iprengde, pressed. From A.S. fringan, from the pt. of which 
(}rang) is derived E. throng. Him, for him; hence him alle the 
limes = all his limbs. 

31-2. Ii0f,~y grin ', the names of two instruments of torture. Grin 
means a snare, trap, shackles, but lof is quite a crux. Can it be an 
error for loc, bolt, bar, beam ? 

32. Rachtnteges, bonds, chains (for the neck). Rachcn^rachcnt, 
A. S. racenta, chain ; teg, tie, band. 

35. JMnutaenvardes, nowhere, lit. nowithcrwards. 

41. Gaildes=gielde$, tributes, from A,S. gildan, to pay, yield. 
jKure umwile, ever at times, always. 

42. Tenserie, probably censerie. Low Latin censeria, * rente seigneur- 
iale et fonciere, dont un heritage est charge envers le seigneur du fief 
d'oii il depend.' Roquefort. T and c are constantly confused in MS$. 

44. A dais fare, a day's journey. Cf. wel-fare, thorough-fare. 

47. Sume ieden on almes, some went unto alms, i. e. went a-begging. 

50. Oner sithon might mean ever afterwards, but perhaps we should 
read o--wer sithen, everywhere subsequently ; see 1. 55. 

51. Cyrce-icerd, church-yard. The oldest expression for church-yard 
jg ciric-ti'm. Tun (town) and i<zrd (yard) both mean an enclosure. 

54. Rceueden, spoiled, \)Q-reaved. Cf. rczucres, robbers, 1. 57. 

3 auric man other, &c., and every man [spoiled the] other who 
anywhere was able. 

57. Lcred men, the lettered men, the clergy. 

58. Oc ...par-of, but it was nothing to them thereof, i.e. they ac- 
counted it nothing, took no heed of the cursing or excommunication. 

62. So also, in Piers Plowman, C. xii. 61, we are told that ' God is 
def now a dayes.' A still stronger expression occurs in a curious lament 
printed in Political Songs, ed. Wright, p. 256, 1. 9, where we are even 
told that ' God is ded.' See Mr. Wright's note upon the line. 

halechen hale^en, saints, holy ones. 

63. Ipolendenpokdcn, suffered. 

64. Martin, abbot of Peterborough in 1132, was formerly a prior of 
St. Neot's. He died 1154. 

Abbot-rice, abbacy, like bishop-rick. 

65. Fand, provided, found. 

66. Carited, charity. This form of the word shows that it is bor- 
rowed directly from the French, viz. O. F. caritet = ~L&\.. ace. caritatem. 

67. ^of-'wethere^thoh-whethere, nevertheless, h or gh passed some- 

296 NOTES. 

times into /"; hence we find ]>of though, and tliurf through. Cf. 
enough and cotigh. 

68. Coded, endowed (with goods). 

Lat it refen. Prof. Skeat translates this by 'caused it to be 
roofed ;' where refen = href en, A. S. hrefan, formed from hrof, roof, by 
the ordinary vowel-change. This is an easy solution of the difficulty. 
The word refen, if put for A.S. reaftan, as proposed by some, would 
mean to bereave, or strip of all hangings, not -to adorn, or furnish with 
hangings (Earle). See 1. 54 above. 

69. S' Petres masse d<zi, St. Peter's day, June 29. 

72. Fram is OUT from, but has here its old sense of by. 

Eugenie. Eugenius III did not reign until 1145, and Innocent II 
died 1144. 

74. \>e . . . circe-wican, which belong to the office of sacrist. See 
Earle's note on this passage. The latter part of circe-wican is the same 
word as is seen in baili-wick. 

74~5- 3 gtf* & c -> And, if he might live longer, he meant to do the 
same with respect to the office of treasurer. 

75-6. And . . . strengthe, And he gained (property) in lands that 
powerful men held by force or violence. 

77-79. Rogingham (Rockingham), Cotingham, Estun (Easton), Hyrt- 
lingburch (Irlingborough), Staneivig (Stan wick), Aldewingle (Oldwinkle), 
are all in Northamptonshire. 

8 1. Wende, turned, changed. 

84. Wat . . . time, what befell in King Stephen's time. 

85. The day of St. William of Norwich is March 24 ; see the account 
in Alban Butler's Lives of the Saints. At a later date, the Jews were 
accused of a similar murder of the boy-martyr named St. Hugh of 
Lincoln. See Chaucer, Cant. Tales, Group B. 1. 1874, an< ^ Skeat's note ; 
also Tyrwhitt's note upon the Prioresses Tale, quoted in Skeat's preface 
to his edition of the Prioresses Tale, &c. 

87. Langjridai, Long Friday, Good P'riday; a Scandinavian name, 
probably suggested by the length of the church-services. 

88-9. Wenden . . . martyr, They thought that it would be concealed, 
but our Lord showed that he was (a) holy martyr. 

90. Heglice, sumptuously, splendidly. 

93. Mid ormete fczrd, with an immense army. 

94. And him com togancs, and there came against him. 

95. pc . . . Euonvic, to whom the King had entrusted York. 

96. j*Euez = wiets (Euest ) trusty. The Norman z was sounded as 
is. Cf. F. av ez avets = Lat. habetis. 

97. &t te Standard, at the battle of the Standard. *A rhetorical 
monograph of this battle was written by a cotemporary, Ethelred \aL 
Ailred, Aldred], Abbot of Rievaulx. It is printed in Twysden, X Scrip- 



tores. . . A representation of the Standard is given in Twysden, appa- 
rently from an ancient drawing.' Earle. 

100. \>e hinges sum Henries, i. e. King Henry's son ; see 11. 120, 124. 

101. He wart ( = ward} itivar, he became aware of it ; see 1. 132, p. 14. 

102. In fie lengten, in the Lenten season. 

104. xiii kalend. April, March 20. 

105. ' Mr. Hartshorne has vindicated for Archbp. William de Cor- 
uil, the glory of being the founder of the celebrated " Gundulf s " 

Tower at Rochester; Archaeological Journal, Sept. 1863, p. 210. He 
quotes Gervase (apud Decem Scriptores, p. 1664).' Earle. 

Suythe of-wtindred, much astonished. 

107. Bee, the abbey of Bee in Normandy, whence came Lanfranc 
and Anselm, Archbishops of Canterbury. 

116. Candel masse dcei, Candlemas day, Feb. 2, the feast of Purifica- 
tion, celebrated with many lighted candles. 

117. Bristoive, Bristol. 

1 1 8. Feteres. Thorpe and Earle leave tcres without any attempt to 
explain it. Probably jfe should be supplied, so that we g&tfeteres 
fetters, chains for the feet. See Stratmann, s. v. Feter. 

121. Alamanie, Germany. The reference is to the empress Maud. 

122. L^lndenissce folc, the people of London, the Londonish folk. 
Sc&, she ; an East-Midland variety of the Northumbrian sco, she. 

128. Ihten=yiuen, give. 

1 29. Mid al hire strengthe, with all her power or forces. In Shake- 
speare's King Lear we find power = forces, armies. 

130. Micel hungcer, a great famine. 

132. Folecheden=fole$eden, followed. 

133. Roueceslre, Rochester. 

134. Minstre, monastery; cp. E. minster (in Westminster, York 

135. Freondfrynd is here plural. 

139. Tretithes fasten, plighted their troths. 

Her nouper, &c., neither of them should deceive the other. 

140. It nefor-stod naht, it (the pledges taken) availed nothing. 

141. Hamtun, Southampton. So also in Specimens, II. sect. xi. 
(A). 59- 

Wicce reed, a wicked contrivance, i. e. treachery. 

142. To d forewarde, upon the condition. 

143. Halidoni, relics ; it sometimes signifies the consecrated host, 
see Bosworth's Diet. s. v. h&ligdom. 

Gysles fand, provided hostages., 

150-1. }>a . . . S scsgen, When the King was out [of prison] then he 
heard [them] say that. 

155. Fra, from, is a new form due to Norse influence. 

2ij8 NOTES. 

155. Sume here fiankes *j sttme. here im-pankes, some willingly and 
others unwillingly. \>ankes and unj>ankes are adverbial genitives, like 
needs, eftsoons, &c. 

165-6. Christ . . . &?/V, Christ would not that he should reign long, 
and both he and his mother died. Ward ded=wcsrQ ded, became dead, 
died; beien begen, both. 

167. Toe to pe rice, began to reign, lit. took to the kingdom, 
Rice, kingdom, is connected with rixian (1. 1,65), to rule. 

173. Makede & sahte, made the peace, came to terms or settlement. 
Ci.sahte in 1. 175. 

1 74. Ware, should be. 

i So. \!c pais to.haldcn^ to keep the peace; here the French pais 
/replaces the older grith. 

182. AL tterte euer-to, as yet. This form occurs in the Ayenbite of 

1 86. Faurcsfeld, Faversham, Kent. 
'/ 189. Eie, fear. AwtisJ&x!3$jy^i<x^ 

190. Bletcad^bletsad, consecrated; lit. blessed. 

193. Bttrch, Peterborough. Burch Btirh, borough, the new name 
given to Medesham stede, which was the original name of Peterborough. 
SeeEarle, pp. 123, 372. 

194. iv non. Jan., the fourth Nones of January, i.e. Jan. 2. 

Innen dais. It is clear that some number is omitted before the 
word dais ; but there is no number in the MS. It was probably left for 
insertion at a later period, and then forgotten. 

195. Cusen . . . salf, chose another from (among) themselves. 

196. God clerc, a good scholar. In M. E. clergy often signifies learning. 
198. \>e cosan abbot, the abbot-elect. 

200, 20 1. ]>a;r bletcad and sit hen, mid mice I wurtscipe, and other 
italicised words, are very faint in the MS., and have been copied by 
Mr. Earle with some difficulty and consequently some uncertainty. 

202, 203. Ramesaie (Ramsey), Torney (Thorney), Spallding, are all in 

204-5. ~}faire .... endinge, and hath well (fairly) begun ; Christ grant 
him a good ending. We still preserve tmne in the phrase 'I own I have 
done wrong.' 

(A) In Diebus Dominicis. 

There are metrical versions of what St. Paul saw in hell in An Old 
English Miscellany, p. 147. There is also an allusion to it in the 
Blickling Homilies (ed. Morris), p. 42. In like manner, the 'monk of 
Evesham' was led by St. Nicholas through purgatory; see Arber's 


reprint of the Monk of Evesham, especially capp. xvi, xvii. So also 
Dante was conducted by Virgil. In Beda's Ecclesiastical History, 
bk. iii. c. 19, we find a somewhat similar account of the visions of 
St. Fursey. 

The notion of the repose of condemned souls upon a certain day 
must be extremely old. The reader will find a singular illustration of 
this in the notes to Southey's Thalaba the Destroyer, bk. ix. stanzas 
37-39. The first of these stanzas may be quoted. 

' Nay, Sorceress, not to-night ! ' the spirit cried, 

' The flesh in which I sinned may rest to-night 

From suffering ; all things, even I, to-night, 

Even the damn'd, repose ! ' 
Line I. Leofemen, dear men. Cf. 'beloved brethren.' 

willeliche, willingly. In the first period we find willice and 
ivillendlice, willingly. 

2. Suteliche scggen, plainly speak. 
Of pa of pan, Cf. to pan deie. 

4. \>es lauerdes del, the Lord's day ; a translation of the Lat. dies 
Dominica (F. Dimanche) occurring in St. Augustine and Tertullian, and 
in the Vulgate version of Rev. i. 10. 

Blisse and lisse, bliss and ease. Bliss is from blithe, just as lisse is 
from tide', bless has nothing to do with l>tiss = A.S. bletsian, to conse- 
crate, from blot, a sacrifice. Cf. iblissieQ rejoice (1. 6). 

6. Erming, wretched, miserable; properly a substantive from earm-ian f 
to grieve ; earm, miserable, poor. 

7. Gif hiua wule ivilen, if any one will learn. 

7, 8., wrccche saule, for the wretched souls. The demonstrative 
keeps its inflection, while adjective and substantive represent the older 
dative plur. suffix -uni by-. 
to-sope = for a truth, truly. 

14. Eisliche egeslice t horribly. Cf. Aisliche in Glossary to Skeat's 
Specimens. '$ete=geatu, gates. 

15, 16. Bipafet, &c. Fet seems to be in the ace. plural : the dative 
would \>zfoie foi fotum. Tunge is dat. fern, as well as heorte, yet the 
demonstrative has lost its case-suffix in the first example. 

18. Otien is masculine, hence it is followed by the pronoun he, 

19. Uwilcan = iwilcan, a softening of gehivik an. 
Eateliche = atelice, horrible. 

21. Saule souls. The nom. plural is marked by e, representing an 
older a. Saulcn (ace. pi.) occurs in 1. 25. 

23. Meister deoflen, master-devils, chief-devils. Cf. masterpiece. Many 
old compounds, as 'master-street,' chief street, highway, have disap- 
peared from the modem language. . See Chaucer, Squieres Tale, and 
Skeat's note. 

300 NOTES. 

24. Swilc, as if: alse replaces swilc with the sense of as if\ and as is 
so used in Elizabethan writers. 

Ha, = they, is one of those provincial forms very common in the 
South of England after the Norman Conquest. It is also used for 
he, she. 

26. Efter pon, after that, afterwards. See Ayenbite of Inwyt. 

30. Ful stunch, foul stink : stenc (stinc) was originally masc. and not 
fern, as here used. 

Efreni, ever-any ; just as reasonable a compound as every = ever- 
each, or ever-eiper (Pecock, in Skeat's Specimens, p. 55, 1. 102). 

31. Un-aneomned=un-ge-nemnod, unmentionable on account of their 

Deor, wild beasts. See 1. 37, where swa dear lude remeQ = 2& wild 
beasts roar loudly. 

32. Fe$er-foted=fy$er-f6te,fy$er-fete, four-footed. A.S. J ^^r=Goth. 
fidwor, Lat. quatztor. 

Butefet, without feet. In Scotland but is still used in this sense. 

33. 34. Heore c]>em . . . punre, their breath shone as doth the lightning 
among thunder. 

34. pas ilke, these same. 

35. ]>a ilca, those same. 

36. Hare scrift enden naldcn, would not complete their shrift. 
41-2. pat . . . pinan, &c., that one would protect them from those 

evil pains. 

43. This quotation is not from the Psalms, as suggested ; nor elsewhere 
in the Bible. 

46. Inne-midde-warde, in the midst of, corresponding to the later 
amidward. See Hampole's Pricke of Conscience, p. 174, 11. 6447, 6450. 

48. Ufele brcQe, noxious vapour (breath). 

49. He him sceawede gan on aid man, he shewed him an old man 
going about. 

50. Hwetpe aide mon were, who the old man might be. 

52-3. Ofter . . . dringan, more often would he wrongfully cite his 
subjects before his court, and long oppress them. Dringan seems to be for 
dringan, to oppress. 

55. Swide unbisor Cliche, very remorselessly, very unrelentingly. 

59. Elmesjeorn, desirous of giving alms, charitable. 

64. OnJ)itnres liche, in the form of thunder; perhaps we should read 
on wunres (wundres) liche, in a form of wonder, in a glorious form. 
Apet^oWcct, to that, until. 

71. \>c iveren eftenuard, who were after, who were seeking. 

78. \>es pe rcdper pet, so much the rather that, the more so because. 
Cf. fees pe md, so much the more. . 

82. A fa(f) cinne monedds lihting, until Monday's dawn come. 


85. Mucheksfe mare, much the more. Mucheks is the genitive and 
abverbial form of the adjective muchel. 

90. Chirche bisocnie, to go to church. Cf. the oldest English cyrice- 
socn, church-going; see chirch-socne, 1. 3, p. 26, of this volume. 

103. \>reo wurdliche mihte, three precious properties (virtues). 

109. Hwa efrefenne ilokie ivel, whoever then may (i. e. will) observe 

in. Bco heo, let him be, i.e. he shall be. For hco read he. 
Dal-neominde, partaking, participating, hence a partaker. 

(B) Hie dicendum est de Propheta. 

See Jeremiah xxxviii. 6-13. 

Line 7. And pet, and (also); J>et hardly seems wanted. 

12, 13. For to bi-winden . . . wursien, to wind round (envelop) the 
ropes, so that his body, which was feeble, should not become worse (i. e. 
receive further injury). 

14. Weord, words, neuter plural. Cf. deor, &c. ; the more modem 
plural weordes occurs in 1. 16. 

15. MucHele bi-tacminge, important meaning. 

1 6. Hiheren = i-herengeheren t hear. 
1 8. See Luke xi. 28. 

23. The quotations here and below are not from the Bible. They 
probably belong to the Latin original (here attributed to St. Gregory) 
from which the Homily is more or less closely translated. Compare 
2 Peter ii. 21. 

30, 31. Univtirde gode, displeasing to God. 

32, 33. Deopnesse of sunne , for sunne dcopnesse. An early use of the 
preposition of to express the genitive case. 

33. Heued sunnen, cardinal sins, especially the seven deadly sins. 
36. Manaftas, perjury. Cf. mansworn, perjured. 

45. Cf. Ps. Ixix. 15 (or Ixviii. 1 6 in the Vulgate): 'neque urgeat 
super me puteus os suuni.' The words quoted are probably a gloss 
upon this verse. 

50. \>e siveore, his neck. This use of the definite article is hardly 
out of use. 

51. ]>er neuer eft ne ctimefi of bote=J>er-of neuer eft ne aimed bote t 
therefrom never again cometh help (boot), succour, deliverance. 

58. Dede wel endinge = wel dede endinge, completion or performance 
of good works : dede is feminine. 

Cordis contritione, &c. So in Piers Plowman, B. xiv. 91, we find 
' per confessionem peccata occiduntur.' Contrition was divided into three 
parts or acts, viz. contrition of heart, confession of mouth, and satisfaction 
of deed, &c.j note to Piers Plowman, B. xiv. 16, ed. Skeat, where 

302 NOTES. 

references are given to the first part of Chaucer's Persones Talc ; Polit. 
Religious, and Love Poems, ed. P'urnivall, p. 218; Peter Cantor, ed. 
Migne, vol. 205 of the Cursus Patrologicus , col. 342; Ancren Riwle, 
p. 229; Barclay's Ship of Fools, i. 196, &c. 

81. In alesnesse of alia (=-alle) sunfullc, unto or for the forgiveness of 
all sinners. 

84. \>et often means what, but probably is here an error for wet, what. 

90. An manere offissce. The Romance manere seems to have replaced 
the native word cttti or cin ; hence it mostly occurs without a following 
of, as alle manere menallescunnes men, men of every kind. This cun 
or cin, = kind, was originally placed after the substantive as a suffix. Cf. 
man-kin-d, dier-chin (1. 2, p. 3) = decr-kind^s-rynn (1. 3, p. 3) = fish-kind. 

91. Euerse, ever so, used before comparatives, like^r (instrumental^). 

92. To swimminde = to swimmene, the use of the present participle 
for the gerundial or dative infinitive. This corruption is found in the 
earliest period. 

106. pos blaca tadden, these black toads. Blaca = blace = blacen 
blacan, the pi. of the def. form of the adj. \>os pas, these, has not as 
yet got its modern usage. 

II 3~ T 7 V eos ouerligged, this same wealth which these (persons) 
thus overlie. 

115. peos . . . helftcr. Some words have evidently been omitted after 
clapes. The meaning seems to be as follows : These yellow clothes 
[betoken women who go gaudily attired to render themselves objects of 
attraction], for the yellow cloth is the devil's halter. 

123. Blanchet, a kind of wheaten powder used by ladies as a cosmetic. 

'With blaunchette and other flour 
To make thaim qwyther [whiter] of colour.' 

R. de Brunne, MS. Bowes, in Halliwell, p. 20. 

124. ^eoluwe dope, clothes stained with saffron. 'Hire wimpel 
[maked] wit oSer maked geleu mid ?aflran.' (Homilies in Trinity 
College, Cambridge, B 14. 52. See Old Eng. Homilies, First Series, 
p. 311.) 

125. Scawere, mirror, looking-glass. See Piers Plowman, B. xii. 153. 
128. Musest0c/i = muse-st0c = mousQ stock, mousetrap. The oldest 

word for this was miis-fealle. 



(A) Dominica Palmarum. 
See Matt. xxi. 9, &c., &c. 

Line 8. \>o fe com, when that [he] came. Swo hglfafa^ft'Op, so 
is called the village. 
16. From Matt. xi. 29. 

1 8. Sanderbodes, like sandes-men=- messengers, ambassadors: sander- 
man = messenger, Orm. 322. 

22. Hihten, adorned, decorated. Cp. M. E. hijtc, to adorn, Trevisa's 
Higden, i. 41, 235; 2. 313, 363. 

32. Silof, let there be praise. Cf. heil seo fit, hail be thou, Lasamon, 
vol. iii. p. 162. This is the only instance of the old form of the sub- 
junctive to be met with in the Trinity MS. 

35. See John xii. 13. The Vulgate version has: 'acceperunt ramos 
palmarum, et processerunt obviam ei,' &c. 

38. heg settle, high seat, throne. A settle still signifies a seat. 

44. Bethphage has been explained as * domus oris vallium,' as in the 
tables given in some editions of the Vulgate. The same lists give: 
'Jerusalem, visio pacis, visio perfecta.' Bethphage means in Hebrew 
'house of figs' (hard figs) ; see Cheyne, Aids to the Student (Proper 
Names), Smith's Diet, of the Bible (s. v. Jerusalem), and Trench, The 
Parables, p. 315. 

49. here mudes wike, the offices of their mouth. 

55. _SoS ofsahtnesse is an error for siht of sahtnesse, vision of peace. 

58. Andpefolc sent, and dismisseth the people. 

80. And sinne . . . bete, To them it is hateful to forsake sin, and they 
are unwilling to make amendment. 

8 1. Codes . . . semed, God's behests weigh heavily, i. e. are a great 

82. Fid don, do fully, perform effectually. 

84. }>e ech . . . minegcft, which each church commemorates to-day. 
88. Secula, for secla, as the line is a perfect hexameter. 

(B) In Die Pasche. 
See Matt. xxii. 4, Ps. cxviii. 24. 
Line 9. From i Cor. xi. 28. 

19. Eten and drinken are simple infinitives (rightly used without the 
sign to) employed as substantives. 

21. See Piers Plowman, B. xviii. 428. 

22. See Brand's Popular Antiquities (ed. Ellis), i. 158. 

304 NOTES. 

25. Tiveire kinne, of two kinds: -re is the sign of gen. pi. Cf. beire, 
of both ; alre, of all, &c. 

34. Here -uestis innocentie is explained to signify the chrism-doth (also 
spelt chrisome-cloth}. ' Chrisome signifies properly the white cloth 
which is set by the Minister of Baptism upon the head of a Child newly 
anointed with Chrism [holy oil] after his Baptism : now, it is vulgarly 
taken for the white cloth put about or upon a child newly Christened, 
in token of his Baptism ; wherewith the women use to shroud the child, 
if dying within the month.' Blount's Glossographia, ed. 1681. 

44. * Miserere animae tuae placens Deo, et contine;' Ecclesiasticus 
xxx. 24 (Vulg.). The A. V. merely has: 'Love thine own soul;' 
verse 23. 

51. eider, one (of these garments). 

55. Matt. xxii. 12. 

57,63. Ps. cxvii. 24 (Vulg.) ; cxviii. 24 (A.V.). 

61. oQerluker, otherwise, the comparative of cfterKche (otherlike). 

66. estrene dai, that is, aristes dai. The writer here attempts a little 
popular etymology, by connecting easier with the verb arise. In this 
homily he also connects it with esten, dainties : Estre dai pat is estene 
dai, Easter Day, that is, the day of dainties (or eatings). And te estis 
husel, and no man ne mat seien hu selwu god it is, and the dainty is the 
housel, and no man may say how seely it is. Husel = consecrated bread; 
hu j/=how good. 

73. The writer seems to have mixed up verses 26, 27, 28 of Matt xxvi. 
'Accipite et commedite, hoc est corpus meum . . . Bibite ex hoc omnes: 
hie est enim sanguis metis novi testamenti,' &c. e. c. s. in. n. in the text 
may stand for enim calix sanguinis met novi. See i Cor. xi. 24. 

76, 78. John vi. 55 ; vi. 53. 

77. Wis = i-wis, truly, verily, indeed. 

88, 9. More mihte . . . cunde, Greater might doth our Saviour than the 
holy words which he spake by his (the priest's) mouth, when he giveth 
mankind [his flesh and blood], 

loo. Ps. Ixvii. 24, 25 (Vulg.) ; Ixviii. 24, 25 (A. V.). 

104. Manne . . . tis, Manna signifies 'what is this?' Exod. xvi. 15. 

1 08. Manne, to the man. 

109. And . . . soule, and the bitterest of all bitters to every man's 

in. John vi. 56. 
114, Ure ech, each of us. 

u 6. To holi axen ...procession, to holy ashes (on Ash Wednesday), 
to procession on Palm Sunday. 


(C) Dominica i,post Pascha. 

See Luke xxiv. 36. 

Lines 13, 14. Swiede, was still; swidagcs, still days, the three days 
before Easter Day. Cp. G. der stille Freitag, Good Friday, die stille 
Woche, Holy Week. 

17. FriQ, peace, freedom ; which the writer connects wither. 

26. Sume we, some of us : the partitive use of some came up in the 
twelfth century. 

28. Alse wat se, as soon as; ivat hwat, quickly, soon. 

31. ForQ fat t until. Cf. for to, for te, which replace the older 

32. The prophet here alluded to is David. See Ps. cxxvi. 2 (Vulg.) : 
' Surgite postquam sederitis, qui manducatis panem doloris ; ' cxxvii. 2 
(A. V.). 

35. Ps. cxxxviii. 2 (Vulg.); cxxxix. 2 (A.V.). 

37. Ps. iii. 7. 

58. Nemncd, named. We ought perhaps to read ettened, compared, as 
in 1. 60. To offer dai, the second day. There is evidently an omission 
here. The words/*?/* he do edie dede concern \hejirst day's work ; but 
J>e is nemned to oQer dai refer to the second day. The meaning intended 
is : ' until on the third day, that his heart may be light [i. e. illumined] ; 
for, though he do a good deed, which belongs to the first day, yet he must 
also speak aright, which is the thing allotted to the second day ; and 
both these help him little or not at all, unless he have a good thought 
[intent], which is likened to the third day.' The omitted clause is the 
one here printed in italics. 

(D) Dominica iv. post Fascha. 

Line T. See James i. 17. 

3. Sette to lorfieawe, appointed for, or as a teacher. 
13. \>ese lit word, these few (little) words. 

15. Net en #//an/=tipward from below. 

16. Swo ne lete, do not so look upon or regard it. 

20. Sheppendes, creators, connected of course with shop (1. 20) and 
'tapen (1. 21). 

21. Ne was me no bet shapen, it was no better destined (ordered) for 
it was my fate. 

22. Hwate, witchcraft. It originally signified augury, soothsaying, 
livination. Cp. the phrase ' I was bewitched.' 

Nahte ( = ne ahte) . . . ivate, I had no better luck. 
25. Mai no man neden, is not able to force any man (to sin). 
28. See Luke xxiv. 38. 
VOL. I. X 

306 NOTES. 

30. Be swo it beo, be whatever it may be. 

32. Sleht of, sleight of, artifice of. 

37, 38. Sam . . . sam, whether ... or. Sam is of course connected 
with same. 

47. Fiffolde mihte, five-fold power, i.e. five senses, five wits. 

49. His lichame al mid tofridende, the surface of his body to protect 
all with. 

67-69. Ure ihesu . . . man, .And illumineth our Lord Jesus Christ, 
the very sun, who illumineth all other things and man also (i. e. the 
Father illumines the Son and then the Son illumines everything else). 


For some excellent remarks on the grammar and spelling of the 
Ormulum, see Sweet's Middle-English Primer (Clarendon Press). 

Line 964. Judisskenn, Jewish ; the n is a relic of the n in the definite 
form of the adjective. Cf. ' in the olden time.' 

965. ]>att . . . cweme, that was very acceptable to the Lord. 

967. To laredd ~] to lawedd, to learned and unlearned, to clergy and 
laity. Lawedd, like many other words, is now used in a bad sense in 
the form lewd. Cf. cunning, silly, knave. 

969. To manne, as man. 

970. Ge$%nepp=geyncth, gaineth, availeth. 
Itt refers to lac or offerings of the Jews. 

972. Tej), they; in the East-Midland dialect he = hi is also used for 

974. Onn^aness, against, displeasing to. 

976-7. Forrpi . . . moderr, because they neither take thought of Christ 
nor of Christ's mother. Noff=ne off, nor of. 

979- ^e^e=peyre, their. 

984-5. Hu . . .Jxzwtss, how it behoveth Christ's servant to offer gifts 
to Christ, spiritually, in good practices. 

988. See Numbers vi, vii ; &c. 

994. See Numbers vi. 15; Levit. ii. 5-13; &c. 

996. Operr stund, other times ; O.E. stundmcle, at intervals. 

997. Allpeorrf, all unfermented, without leaven, sweet, d.perf-cake 
in Specimens, Part II. xv. vii. 269. Barm or yeast is not the same as 
leaven, which is sour dough (as Wiclif rightly has it). Ql.perrflinng 
in 1. 1590, and unn-bcrrmedd, unleavened, 1. 1591. 

1002. "J aft . . . lac, and ever was salt with every offering. 
1006. S'willc ~j swillc, such and such, i.e. so like this and that which 
has been described. 

V. ORMULUM. 307 

1 008. Uss iss, there is to us. 
1014. See Exod. xxvi. 33. 

1017. Innresst=innerest, inmost. Cf. overeste in Chaucer, Prologue, 
1. 292. 

1 02 2. Wippntenn patt, except that the bishop himself. 

1024. PC jer, in the year, a-ycar. Cf. aness ope $er, once a year. 

1025. All himm dne, all by himself, all alone. Cf. *j a)) himmsellf 
himm ane (1. 1079, p. 43), and always himself by himself. 

1028. Mani$-whatt, many things ; see Specimens of Eng. Part II. 
sect. V. 5589; Morris, Hist. Outlines of Eng. Accidence, p. 137, 
sect. 213. Cf. somewhat. The earliest compound of this kind is 
anhivat, one thing, evidently a corruption of aJizvcet, anything. There 
seems to have been a confusion between hwcet and wuht wiht, thing. 

1031. Hali$domess, relics. See note on II. 143, p. 297. 

1036. In Exod. xxv. 17 the Vulg. has Propitiatoritim for mercy -scat. 

1041. Millcenn, ~) shawenn are, to be gracious and to show mercy. 
This line is a good example of infinitives without the preposition to, 
which in the oldest period belonged only to the gerundial or dative 

1042. Whase wha-swa, whosoever. 
1046. See Exod. xxv. 18. 

1051. . . .peode, into people (or orders) of nine kinds. See note 
on I. 161, p. 292. 

1054. Allre nest, next or nearest of all to the Lord. 
1059. Abufenn &c., built above the ark. 

1065. To scan this line, note that A-d-rones contains four syllables, 
is accented on the first and third. 

Chilldre, children. The. oldest form was cildru; childre be- 
came childer as well as childrc-n in later periods. 

1066. See Exod. xxvii. i. 

1069. To lake, for an offering, as an offering. 

1071. Swa summ=-so adjust as. This use of sum is due to Norse 

1105. Anan an on, in one state, continually; it also signifies at once, 

1129. Hemm ivrap, angry with them. 

11136. See Levit. iii, iv. 
1141. Drihhtin &c., for the praise and honour of the Lord. 
1142. Mildherrtktfc, mercy, mild-heartedness. -letfc = -leyc, the Norse 
"orm (leikr) of the English -lac, -lock (cf. wedlock, knowledge}. 
1145. Tprinne, three; another proof of Norse influence. Twinne also 
occurs for two. 
1159. Off alle kinne gillte = of alles kinnes gillte, from guilt of every 
and. See note on 1. 90, III. B, p. 302. 
* 2 

30 8 NOTES. 

1162. Drihhtin . . .J>a, well pleasing to the Lord in all those, &cv 
1177. Stille der -) life, quiet animal and gentle. 
1180-1. Lit. 'Nor even where one killeth it, 
It offers not much opposition.' 
1182. Latin boc, the Latin version of the Holy Scriptures. 

1 1 86. Tocpildili}, took (endured) patiently. 

1187. Wipp ivojhe = mid woje (cp. 1. 164, p. 176), with wrong, wrong- 
fully, unjustly. 

1194. Aj) = ay, ever, always. See 1. 1216, where a)) ccc o# = ever 
and ever, always. Occ, and, is of Norse origin. 

1206. Effnedd tvt/fl, compared to. Cf. euened, 1. 60, p. 35. 

1209-10. Shadenn . . . shad. See note on 1. 9, sect. I. p. 288. 

1212-15. 'And hast yet, though thou be young, the behaviour 
of a senior, and conductest thyself properly and becomingly and 

1228-29. 'And (the) ox walketh becomingly, quietly, and behaveth 
sedately' (i. e. has the manner of a grave old man). 

1260. ~}fedepp. See Bestiary, in Old English Miscellany, p. 25, and 
Old English Homilies, Second Series, p. 49. 

1 2 74. Chari), sorrowful, full of c are. Careful in older writers means 

1275. To sope= for truth, truly. Cf. 1. 1358, p. 52, where toftille sop 
= truly ; to-sope, indeed, truly. The agglutination or collocation is so- 
loose in some adverbial expressions that qualifying words may be 
infixed. Cf. in sooth and in good sooth; in faith and in good faith ; 
of late and of late times. 

1276. Frapatt, from the time that. 

1277. %ho; another form of heo, she. 
1324. Levit. xvi. 7. 

1337. Ut inntill, out into ; /*"//, to, is of Norse origin. 

1364. All ciuicc, all alive. 

1394. An allusion to the fall of Lucifer and his angels; Jude 6; 
Isaiah xiv. 13. See P. Plowman, B. i. 105, and the editor's note. 

1 395 Wipp rihhte, with justice, deservedly. 

1410. Tweftenn forrme menu, two first persons (Adam and Eve). 

1428. } }iff patt isspatt, if that it is that, if that. 

1465. 'The vengeance of true justice,' i. e. retribution. 

1535- Sammtale, agreed, of one tale or speech. In the Cursor Mundi 
we find this altered to samer-tale. 

1538. To ben ummbennpatt an, to be about that one, i. e. that alone. 

1574. Wharsitt=-ivhar-se-itt, where-so-(ever) it. 

1602. Findiji firm. This word occurs in O. E. Horn. ii. pp. 117, 119. 

1617. ' With prayers and vigils.' 

1626. Ipweorrt-fit forrse, thoroughly avoid. 



1635. ' From truthful love of Christ.' 

1642. Wipp skill, with discrimination, wisely, discreetly. See 1. 1651, 
p. 61. 

1686. Littlar=:Kttlar, a little before. 

1715. Uferr mar, over more, moreover, ^{.furthermore. 

1718-19. 'And wherewith it may confirm you in your right belief or 

[A denotes MS. Cott. Calig. ; B MS. Otho.] 

Compare the A.S. Chronicle, an. 449. Beda has an outline of the 
story in his Eccles. History, bk. i. c. 15. A few notes are given below 
from Sir F. Madden's edition. 

Line 4. Selcttfe, seldom known, rare, wonderful ; seHiche in B means 
marvellous. For cufo cf. un-cottth> literally unknown. 

Gttmen, men. This word originally formed its plural in -an ; in 
text B it has conformed to plurals in -s. 

9. Cnihten for cnihte, gen. plural, after hundred. The number of 
knights is not mentioned elsewhere ; but the number of ships is given by 
Beda as three. The A.S. Chronicle, following Beda, calls them three 

10. 'As if they were kings' (A) ; 'As if they were warriors' (B). 

11. WiQ-uten, besides, in addition to; governs the dative. 
1 6. J># =/#=/ or J)/, the ablative of the definite article. 

1 8. * And asked how they were disposed or affected, 1 
20. 'And cared for his friendship.' 
22. 'As they well knew how.' 

25. 'And willingly or joyfully serve him.' 

26. ' And hold him for their lord.' 

31-2. ' Where he with his court nobly disported or diverted them- 

37-56. ' Wace only says, the king looked at the two brothers, who 
were taller and fairer than the rest, and inquired from what land they 
came.' Madden. 

38, B. Sarui, serve : borrowed verbs mostly make their infinitives in 
-ie ( = -ten). 

40. Rihten = rihtc, rightly. Lajamon was rery fond of nunnation, 
that is, of adding an inorganic n to a final e. 

42. ' Of every harm he was aware.' 

43. Iliue, life (dative). As there was a verb iliuien we also expect a 
^substantive ilif. 

310 NOTES. 

45. No = ne, nor. 

49-50. 'And your will I will perform, by my quick (living) life.' 
This last expression seems to be equivalent to ' as sure as I am alive.' 

52. SoQen eouwer = eoiiiver soQen, your true (worship, honour). 

53. Seon = Q. E. syn, may be (pres. subj.). Seed is a mere variation of 
the same, and is used subjunctively. 

63. ' I am called Hengest.' 

66-7. 'Noblest of all lands, of that same quarter (end).' 

70. ' Wonderful customs ' (A) ; ' Wonderful things going (on) ' (B). 
See p. 83, 1. 541, where tiende = f wone=- custom. 

71. 'Every fifteen years.' ' The lines which follow seem to have been 
erroneously translated. . . . Wace does not say, that the youths were 
assembled at periods of fifteen years, but that all those of fifteen years of 
age and upwards were collected, and the strongest among them chosen 
to settle elsewhere.' Madden. 

73. All Ttre iledenefolc, all the people of our fellow-countrymen. 

74, T&rLondes, i. e. foreign lands. 

75. Vppenfan fie, upon whom that. ]>an is a true relative in the 
oldest period; ivan hwam (dative of /iwa, who) was originally interro- 
gative only. 

76, B. ' He must needs go.* 

85, B. Forpe wifues for the women. 

89. 'So that there be many among us ' (A) ; ' That lot fell on us' (B). 
94. For, for fear of. 

96. Notice that text B has a new form ]>ar-fore, for that (reason), 
instead oifor-pi in A. Seeder/ore in text A, 1. 172, p. 71. 

104. SoQ-riht, truly. Cf. up-right, down-right. 

105. Ileuen (&) = bileue (B), belief. 'In Wace, Hengist says that 
they have come to Britain under guidance of their god Mercury ; on 
hearing which, the king inquires respecting their faith.' Madden. 

107-8. 'And your dear god whom ye bow to (worship).' 
in. Kine-lond, royal-land, kingdom. 
113. Codes gode, good gods. 

115. 'To whom we have hope,' or ' in whom we trust.' 
1 20. Weoli means rich. It was a word probably unknown to the 
transcriber of text B, so he altered it to mihti (powerful). 

124. Hcehste, highest; pronounced hexte. B's hehest is simply the 
modern uncontracted form. Cf. next and nighest. 

125. 'Geoffrey only name Saturmis, Jupiter, Mercurius, and Frea ; 
to which Wace adds Phebus. Both notice that Mercurius was the 
same with Woden : a circumstance which Layamon has overlooked. ... 
The additional names in the English version, of Appollin and Tervagant, 
were in all probability borrowed from the Anglo-Norman writers of the 
1 2th century.' Madden. 

vi. LA^AMON'S BRUT. 311 

127. Tervagan(^"DwoA Trivia, the sister of Apollo. See Skeat's 
Chaucer, note to Sir Thopas, 1. 2000. Hence E. termagant. 

129. Anne = ane; anne .is properly masculine. Text B employs the 
uninflected form. 

132. Hired-men^ men of the court, courtiers. 

134. 'Well she treateth them.' 

135-7. 'But before all our dear gods, whom we must obey, Woden 
possessed the highest law (or authority).' 

136, B (142, A). * We work (do) worship (or honour).' 

142. Heom = heo + him, they (to) him. 

145. ' Lines 145, 146, and 149-152 are not in Wace.' Madden. . 

151. Monenen for monen, to the moon. 

157-8. Z,e0fand lade govern the dative case. 

161. A pene wurse, on the devil ; see 1. 581. 

163-4. 'Your gods are of nought, in hell they lie low.' 

173-4. ' And if ye will avenge me and procure me their heads (A) ; 
' And if ye will avenge me of their hostile deeds ' (B). 

177-182. 'Not in Wace.' Madden. 

180. 'It shall all be so (thus).' 

187-232. 'The first portion of this passage is comprised by Wace in 
two lines : 

Sempres fu la curt respleine 
De mut grant bachelerie 

[i.e. The court was always filled with a great number of young warriors]. 
He then proceeds to state, that the Picts soon after passed the Humber 
with a great force, and burnt and destroyed the country. The king 
was informed of it, and marches against them with the Saxons and 
Britons.' M. 

201. Swaine for szuaines, servants. Cf. boat-swain. 

202. \>ein and cniht= thane (servant) and knight. 

204. ' Held for contemptible.' Madden and Matzner take hekne to be 
another form of heane or hcene, poor, base. See 1. 408. 
209. Cnihtcs sunen uiue, five sons of a knight. 

218. Iu(zld=iucel$, fell, or cause to fall. 

219. * Hereof thou must advise thee.' 
221, B. 'The King sent his messenger.' 

223. Innen (A) = inne (B, 222), lodging, quarters; whence our inn, 
which is a gobcT instance of a substantive formed from a preposition. 

234. A pas half pcre Humbre, on this side of the Humber (A) ; 
on this side Humber (B). Cf. ' on this side the grave,' where we also 
drop the preposition. Half in. text A is feminine, hence/aj (accus. fern.) 
is rightly used. Lasamon often uses/aj for pcos (nom.). 

244. An o&er (A), in other (wise) = operweies (B), otherways, otherwise. 

253. ' Fiercely (literally fiend-like, devilishly) they fought.' 

312 NOTES. 

255-264; and 267-276. 'Not in Wace.' M. 
26.?. 'And ever were fast by (or near) to him.' 
268. ' Abundant treasures.' 

271-2. 'And it for a good while stood (or continued) in the same 

276, B. 'And put (done) out of live-days,' i.e. killed. 

281. ' On a high-day ' (or festival). 

291. Dremden, revelled, enjoyed themselves. 

296. 'Secret discourses.' 

299. ' And hold not in wrath,' take not angrily, take not in dudgeon. 

307-8. ' And been thy faithful man in thy rich court.' 

312. 'Anxious whisperings.' Ronenen = runen or ronen, as in 1. 296, 


315-6. 'Unto the bare death, if they durst show it.' 

321-340; 359-362 ; 405-410. 'Not in Wace.' M. 

340. ' Secretly condemn thee.' 

342. 'Of thy great need.' 

349. 'I am hated for (or on account of) thee.' 

351-4. ' Go where I ever may go, I am never without sorrow, unless 
I lie fast enclosed in a castle.' 

361. Mire, dat. fern. In 13 mi is uninflected. 

364. 'And my kinsmen.' The first syllable in 'wing-Micti&s means 
a man, also a friend. 

367. Hiren (A), serve ; cweme (B), please. 

368. Attest ( A) = -wolf grand (E\ wilt grant. 

378-80. * Thou shalt have riches to feed them sumptuously and to 
clothe (them) worthily.' 

404. JElches weies (A), every way ; in grene (B), on a green. 

407-10. ' Then may blame thee neither the poor nor the rich, that 
thou any high (noble) borough to a heathen man hast given.' 

41 7-446. ' Wace has only four lines on the subject.' M. 

420. Feire hude, fair hide ; but did La3amon write fere hude = boh 
hude 1 = bull hide. 0>."E~ yo= a bull. 

426. 'Which was a wonderfully strong (one).' 

429-33. 'He took this hide and on (a) board laid (it), and whetted 
his shears as if he would shear (it). From the hide he cut a thong.' 

439~4 ' About he encompassed a great deal of land.' 

441, B. 'He made (them) then dig.' 

452. Supposed to be Tong, near Milton, in Kent. See Lambarde's 
Kent, 1596, p. 243; Hasted's Kent, ii. 601. 

468. Eighteen great ships.' Wace has dixhuit ncs cargies. 

473. ' It was after a while.' 

478-80. 'And invited him to a banquet and said that (he) had a 
lodging prepared for him.' 

vi. LA^AMON'S BRUT. 313 

49S-49 8 ; 555-558. 'Not in Wace.' M. 

498-9. ' Games men did proclaim, tables they bade be spread.' 

502. 'Joy was in town.' 

504. ' Then was the better befallen them.* 

507-12. ' He caused her to be clad with measureless splendour. All 
the clothes she had on were very well adorned ; they were amongst the 
best, rough with gold.' 

525. Was hail, be hale; which, as text B shows, is our wassail. 
Was is the imperative of the verb ivesan, to be. 

526. ' For thy coming I am glad' (A) ; ' For thy coming is happiness 
tome' (B). 

531. ' What that speech might be.' Weoren = iveore, another instance 
of nunnation. 

533. ' Wace borrowed the name of the interpreter from the text of 
Nennius.' M. 

534. 'A very excellent (or admirable) knight.' 

535. Latimer, an interpreter; another form of Latiner, literally one 
knowing Latin, hence a linguist, interpreter. Hence Lat inter as a pi oper 
name. For the form cp. Eng. lorimer=O. F. lorinier. 

551. 'A second full (cup) one brings (is brought) thither.' 
553-4. 'When the full (cup) is come, then kiss they thrice. 1 
568, B. 'And he tossed (or drank) it up.' 
572. Compare Rob. of Gloucester, ed. Hearne, p. 118 : 

' He askede wat heo seide ? 

Men, that knew the langage, seide wat was ivassayl, 
And that he scholde that brojte [brijte ?] onswere drynkhayl. 
" Drinkhayl" quoth this kyng ajen, and bed hire drinke anon . . . 
And that was, lo ! in this lond the firste vassayl 
As in langage of Saxonie, that me myjte euer y-wyte ;' &c. 
'It appears that -was-haile and drink-heil were the usual phrases of 
quaffing among the English^ . . . But I rather conjecture it an usual 
ceremony among the Saxons before Hengist, as a note of health- 

Kihing.' Selden, notes to Drayton's Polyolbion, song 9. 
579. 'All his mind (mood) and might.' 
581-2. 'The devil was there full nigh, who in every sport is full 
el.' JV w tirse = ' diables ' in Wace. 
^84. ' He disturbed (confounded) the king's mind.' Maingde and 
tneynde = mingled ; fas and J>es are the genitives singular of the 

595. Funde is not an error forfand, but a genuine form found in the 
est period. 
199. ' To the king it was acceptable (pleasing).* 

314 NOTES. 


The punctuation is that of the MS. Compare Specimens of English, 
pt. II. sect. IX. 

Line i. See Matt. xxiv. 43. 

4. Wi&, against, from. Cf. A.S. wider, against; -wid in with' 
stand, fec. 

6, 7. His . . . hire. House was originally neuter, not feminine. 

8. Seolfpe mon inwid, the man himself within. 

8, 9. \>e monnes -wit I pis hus &c., the man's wit (conscience) in this 
house is the house-lord (or master of the house). 

10. Ha diht hit al to ivtmdre, she sets it all wrong. 

16. Fifwittes, five wits, i. e. five senses. Cf. Piers Plowman, B. ix. 
1-24; and Bunyan's Holy War. 

19. Hare nan, none of them. 

23-6. \>ah . . . betere, Though we hear it not, we may feel their mur- 
muring and their untoward noise until Wit comes forth and both by 
fear and by love discipline them the better. For hit in the text we 
should perhaps read Wit. 

28-9. Let ham iwurften, let them be (alone). See Piers Plowman, 
ed. Skeat, B. prol. 1. 187 ; or note on p. 199 in Clarendon Press edition. 

30. pat . . .fore, for which God gave himself. 

34-7. Ant a$ein . . .prinne, and against each good virtue that guard- 
eth God's dear castle in this house under Wit's direction, who is the 
master of the house, there is ever her (opposite) vice (ready) to seek 
entrance about the walls to murder her (the soul) therein. 

37. Meistreti, heads, leads. 

38. Kris, stewards, those who have the keys. 

40. Heaued-Jjeawes, head-thews, cardinal virtues : viz. Prudence, For- 
titude, Temperance, and Justice, here severally described. Cf. Piers 
Plowman, B. prol. 103 (and note) ; B. xix. 269-305. 

45- Offeor, afar. Cf. of -long, of -new, of-fresh, &c. 

47. Eieni, any. 

Warschipes vn-fonkes, in spite of Prudence. 

48. Warni strengfte fore, she may warn Strength before. 
51. Twa uueles, two evil things, two extremes. 

51-2. For . . . halden t for in every place it is a virtue to observe 
moderation (or discipline). Ant before tttht seems superfluous. 

52-4. Ant hated . . . ouer mete, and commanded them all that none 
of them go against her (disobey her) anywhere through excess or in- 

57. Nimcd . . . to ivitene. This household each member, according 
as he is warder, proceedeth to guard. 

vii. SOUL'S- WARD. 315 

58. Hare, theirs, i. e. their duties as custodian. 

Then follows a horrible description of Hell (for which see Specimens, 
Tart II. p. 100). 

65-6. Sumdel drupnin &c., somewhat cast down from what Fear told 
you of death and of hell. 

70. Ant is al-wealdent &c., and he is the Almighty (or all-ruling one) 
that hath you in keeping. 

73. ^e iseoti (i sod}, yea in sooth, truly. 

73-4. Lines lune ; MurQes sonde, Love of Life, the messenger of 

74-5. Na-wt tah alsiva as he is, yet not such as he is. 

So. Unto-deakt, indivisible, not to be dealt in two. 

85. Ful(=ful), satiated, tired. 

86. Etscene = e$sene = e])-ge-syne, easily to be seen, plainly. 
90. Alle heouenliche iveordes, all heavenly hosts. 

99. A umverjcft, ever unweariedly ; unwer}cd = unwer}cde. 
Nihe wordes, nine hosts or orders ; see note to I. 161. 
TOI. Mcostcr y service, business. Cf. 'misterie plays/ so called because 
performed by the guilds or associations of craftsmen. 

105. IgreiQety prepared for. The MS. has igret, but as greten, to 
weep, is a strong verb, it cannot have a past participle igret t so I have 
taken the reading of the Royal MS. A. 17. 

106. IsoQet, verified, become true. 

114. Alles cunnes neowcins, harms of every kind. Notice that J is 
dropped in alle cunnes ledenes, 1. 112. Neowcin is the same word as 
nowcin, which appears thrice in The Legend of St. Katherine, with the \ 
apparent meaning of ' misery.' Professor Zupitza explains it from the \ 
Icel. naufisyn, necessity, impediment, hindrance, business ; so that it i 

ht here mean ' trials.' If so, the c is soft, and written for s. 

115. Amines, in comparison with, as compared with. 
117- Ant haliche deiden, and died holily. 

1 1 8, 119. See Isaiah xxxiii. 17; Rev. vii. 17. 

120-21. Ilikest towart engles, most like to angels. 

121-24. ipe . . . blisse, who (while) living in the flesh conquer the law 

the flesh and overcome nature (the natural lusts) ; who lead a 
heavenly life while they live upon earth ; their joy and their felicity, &c. 

man can tell. 
125. See Rev. xiv. 3. 
129-30. For . . . ihered, for at their entreaties God himself ariseth, 

o heareth all the other saints as he sits. 

131. Liked us fat tu scist, what thou sayest pleaseth us. 

132. Ofeuch . . . sunder-lepes, of each regulated order of the blessed 

133- Alle iliche meane, common to all alike. - 

316 NOTES. 

141. Butcn euch swine, without any toil. 

149. Nebbe to nebbe, face to face. The preposition usually employed 
is wtd, towards. 

1 SS-S 6 ' Hwet . . . jelden, how they ought to requite his precious 

159. Spealie, discourse, or spell. 

161-67. \?at . . . odrcs, that each one hath, severally, as many joys as 
they are all many (in number) ; and each of the same joys is to every 
one severally as great a joy as his own : yet above all this, since each 
one loveth God more than himself and than all the others, the more he 
rejoices, beyond all estimation, in God than in his own felicity and in 
that of all the others. 

167-72. Neometi . . . icwemet, Now take heed then, if no one's heart is 
able to contain in her her own bliss (as severally said), so extraordinarily 
great is each single joy, that nevertheless she taketh within her thus 
many and great (jy s )- The writer then goes on to say that the heart 
cannot contain within it all heavenly blessings, but enters into the joy 
of the Lord. See Matt. xxv. 21. 

176. ' Beati, qui habitant in domo tua, Domine ; in soecula sceculorum 
laudabunt te ; ' Ps. Ixxxiii. 5 (Vulgate) ; Ixxxiv. 4 (A. V.). 

184. f>/// for thttllich, the like, the same. See pulliche, plur., 1. 223 
infra. Chaucer has thilke. 

186. Lutlin ne wursin, to be diminished or impaired. 

190. Trof=throf=therof, thereof. 

194. As per as, where that: see 1. 203 infra. 

196. Hiven hit swa is, since it is so. 

197. See Romans viii. 35. 

198. Ne ivunne noutier, nor weal neither. The addition of nowtier is 
merely a strengthener of the preceding negative nc ; cQcr (or) is some- 
times strengthened by owQer (either). 

206-7. Nes na lessere, it was not more untrue. 

208. Eider of ow, each of you. 

209. Incker noSres tale, the tale of neither of you (two). The dual of 
the personal pronouns seems to have wholly disappeared before 1 300. 

218-22. Lustneft . . . trcowliche, they listen now to his lore, and 

; through these two messengers whom they have heard and what the 

four sisters have also taught them, each one endeavours, according as 

befalls him, to keep guard and to guard truly against the entrance of 

every vice. 

223. ^emeles = gemelest , negligence, carelessness; see p. in, 1. 13. 
Adjectives in -les (-leas) became substantives by the addition of -/( = ///). 

2 24. Efter peos twa sonden, according to these messengers. 

227-30. Nawt efter . . . donne, not according as Will, the untoward 
mistress, and his (own) lust teachelh, but as Wit, who is the house-loid, 


will discipline and instruct, so that Wit should ever go before and 
teach Will to (follow) after him in all that he ordereth and decideth 
to do. 

248. This line is remarkable as being, probably, the earliest instance 
of a perfect ' heroic ' line of five accents in the language. 


St. Juliana, virgin and martyr, was the daughter of heathen parents, 
who betrothed her to the prefect (Eleusius) of Nicomedia. Because she 
was resolved not to marry a heathen she was beheaded at Nicomedia, 
under Galerius Maximiantis, about A.D. 309. Her head is said to be 
at Hal in the Tyrol, but the chief portion of her relics may be seen at 
Brussels, in the church of Notre Dame de Sablon. The Latin Church 
commemorates her on Feb. 16; the Greek Church on Dec. 21. 

Page 96, line 3. Of fe heQene mest feo J>at t of the heathen most of 
them that. Cf. alle peo pe (1. 10), all those that. 

4. Droh, drew, put. 

4, 5. Aspeopat, as she that, as one that. See 1. 32, p. 98, asfefat, 
as he that. 

5. Leafde al hire aldrene lahen, left all her ancestors' laws (religion). 
8. Redegunge, the reading, the Latin book from which the life of 

Juliana was compiled. 

Heinde ant heriende, extolling (literally highing) and praising. 
Mawmez, idols, mawmets. In the middle ages Mahometans -were 
looked upon as idolaters. Cockayne regards the z as a double letter = &_ 
See note to II. 96 (above), and Specimens II. sect. vii. 1. 378. 
10. Unduhti duhetie, unworthy body of retainers. 
12. Riche of rente, rich in revenue. 
P. 97, 1. i. ]>at ich ofmunne, I make mention of. 
3, 4. pe hcande & hcascede mest t who oppressed and insulted most 


5, 6. Ah . . . ilettet, But she, as one to whom the high heavenly father 
had granted his love. Cockayne translates it thus : ' But she, as one 
that had lent her love to the high heavenly father.' For z'&w^read ilenet, 
granted ; see p. 102, 1. 82. 

P. 98, 11. ,14, 15. Utnume feir, exceptionally fair, extraordinarily 
beautiful. Ut-nume literally means out-taken. 

16. Lechnunge of hire [luue], the medicine of her love. 
18. Ihondsald t hanselled, pledged, betrothed, i.e. \>y\h.z giving of the 
hand in token of betrothal. Cf. A.S. hand-fcsstan t to pledge one's hand. 
In A.S. sellan (syllan} means 

3.1 8 NOTES. 

iS, 19. Alhire umvilles, wholly against her will. See 
L 155, sect. II, p. 298. 

20. Euch dels del, at each day's dawn. 

24. Stimmes weis, in some way, by some means. 

Sende him to seggen, (she) sent to him to say. 
27. Heh reue, high-reeve, that is prime minister. 

Bi-$et et te keiser, procured from the emperor. 
29. As me fa hmede, as one then loved (to have it). 

29, 30. Te riche riden in, ride into his province or kingdom. 

30. fynt te tun, through the town. 

34> 35- & heo schulde his ivurchen, and she ought to work (or do) his 

P. 100, 1. 38. Wei ireadi, full readily, full surely. 

WraWi so fu wrattdi, be as wroth as thou mayest. WraSQi is 
in the subj. 

39. Nulich = ne wule ich, I will not. 

40. List, liest, in text B liuest. 

41. No, not. This is the true adverbial negative. Not=-nawiht was 
originally an indefinite pronoun = nought, nothing. 

42. Wundi of, quit of. Text B has windi. 

44. Feng on = on-feng, began. Cf. the vulgar expression 'took on.' 
47-8. To ivrafier heale, to evil fortune. For instances of this phrase 
see Skeat's Notes to Piers the Plowman, p. 325. 

53. Awakenin ant waxen of J>i wedlac, arise and grow out of thy 

54. Inoh laucrd, lord enough. Cf. inoh-rade, speedily enough, 1. 57. 
P. 101, 11. 49-50. For nawtfti hauest iswechte, for nought hast thou 


53. Folkenefroure, folks' comfort, consolation. 

64-5. Feng on earst feire on to lokin, began first fairly (kindly) to look 
upon her. 

P. 102, 1. 66. Limel= lim-mel, limb-meal, limb by limb. 

67. Heronont, here anent, as regards this. 

68. Eisweis = eanis tveis (B), any ways, in any wise. 

68-71. &= seide . . . wenden, and said to her pleasantly that she should 
not easily desire any pleasure that she should not obtain, provided she 
would alter her resolution. 

71-3. Nai . . . ende, Nay, said the maiden, should I join myself to 
him who is given up to all devils and doomed to eternal death, to 
perish with him (Eleusius) world without end. 

76. To halden, hold, to. 

76-7. Witiutm les, without falsehood. 

81. Me hwet is he J>es were, But who is he, this husband. A. S. wer 
*=-man, husband. Wif and were, man and wife. 


82-4. For hivam . . . icnaiven, for whom (or whose sake) thou carest 
little for him that thou oughtest to love ; nor was I ever, that I know, 
acquainted with him. 

86-7. pe . . . rode, who to redeem mankind that must have been 
(otherwise) lost, gave up his precious life on the cross. 

88. Ichim = ich him, I him. 

89. On lauerde, as (the) Lord. 

Ne . . .from, nor shall any one remove me from him, neither 
devil nor man. 

90. For mi lif, by my life. 

91-2. \>at tii . . . iwtirden, that thou wert a woman shall turn thee to 
sorrow, that is, thou shalt rue the day thou wast born. 
P. 103, 1. 83. Lim & Iff, limb and joint. 

84. Ileitinde leie = in kitinde leie, in glowing flame. 

85. Biihe ne beien, bow nor bend. 

86. To fondin ongon, began to attempt. 

89. Wi8 pereanpat = wiQ-])at}>ere-an, provided therein (thereby). 

98. WontreaSe = wand-rede, misery, trouble. Icel. vand-rafii, diffi- 
culty, from vandr, difficult. 

P. 104, 11. 95-6. Beten . . . ollode, beat her so badly that her lovely 
body should lather all in blood. 

98. Beliales budeles, ministers of Belial. 

100. Leowinde = leovinde, living. 

101. Mix mawmex = mix maumez, dung(hill) idols. 

102-3. pes feondes fetles, the receptacles (or abodes) of the fiend 

103. Timbrin, to make, contrive ; literally to timber. 
105. Irome, in Rome. Es, his. 

no. Fehere, fairer, brighter, 
in. Softe me, soft to me. 

112. Hwen, since; literally when. Willes, willingly. 

113. Ne $eue ichfor inc nowder, nor care I for you two neither, i.e. 
care I for either of you. Cf. incker notires, p. 94, 1. 200. 

117. Awei (wei, B), alas. Cf. A.S. ivdldwd, corrupted 'mioivellazvay, 
'lladay. WurQes, fates, destinies. 

1 1 8. To ivrafier-heale, to (your) misery; oiv yourselves seems to be 
undant here. 

P. 105, 1. 138. A-^efme, give me (to Eleusius). 

139-40. Tpet . . . here, that (since) ye are able only to torment me here. 

140. Hezteft up, raiseth, exalteth. 

P. 106, 1. 121. A portion of the story is here omitted. It is to the 
effect that, as Eleusius beholds her, he is smitten with love for her, 
and tries to move her by fair words. She refuses to forsake Christ. 

e loses patience, and commands her to be severely beaten by six 

320 XOTES* 

tormentors. She defies her persecutors, and prays to God for strength 
and aid. 

124. Brune of wallinde breas, burning (or fire) of boiling brass. Per- 
haps we should read o brune wallinde breas, i. e. boiling brass, a-burning. 

1 30. As ha frinne iocs in feosternesse, as (when) she was therein, in 

136. Nest-falde cun, nearest-fold kin. 

138. Mine hinen me beoti mest heanen. The text is probably corrupt. 
Perhaps beoft is redundant, and we should render, ' Those of my own 
household oppress me most.' See note to p. 107, 1. 171. 

Habbich = habbe ich, if I have. 

pin ones help, the help of thee alone. 

139. Wil-cweme, content; lit. satisfied as to my will or pleasure. 
142-3. Siva . . . stinne, so do thou protect and preserve me, to shield 

me from sin. For witen, ? read were, guard. 

143-4. Lead . . . heale, lead me to lasting (life), to the haven of 

P. 107, 1. 149. As . . . domes, and as he sat and adjudged the high 
borough-dooms. Demde domes is an instance of the cognate accusative. 
In burh domes we have an instance of flat adjection, see Earle, Eng. 
Philol. p. 400. 

153. Wai-hat, boiling-hot. See Orm. vol. ii. p. 139, 'wij;J? wall hat 
hertess lufe,' with boiling-hot hearts' love. 

156-7. Ipe . . . in, in the vat (or vessel) of boiling oil wherein he 
was put. 

163. Hire ane, by herself, all alone. 

167. Riht has almost the same sense as steor, direct, guide. 

171. Jnhinen, indoor members of a household. Stratmann questions 
this y word, but it was suggested by Lat. domestici as it occurs in Matt. x. 
36 : ' et inimici hominis domestic! eius.' Cf. A.S. inhhvan, domestici 

1 74. Ilatet se Inhere, visaged so horribly. 

178. Witere, to make secure, preserve. Stratmann has iviter only as- 
an adjective. If it were not for the conjunction we might take witere 
as an adverb = securely, qualifying ivite and were. 

1 79. Lauerd Hues lattow, O Lord, guide of life. 

P. 108, 1. 145. Senchtest = asenchtest (B, 1. 182), didst sink, is a causal 
derivative of the verb sinken. 

146. Afal, cause to fall, fell. 

148. Lef me, grant me, permit me. 

P. 109, 1. 190. Crechen, to scratch. The word crakes has two senses, 
(i) deceits, tricks, (2) claws. Cockayne wrongly renders crechen 
'to catch! See Piers Plowman, B. prol. 1. 186. 

192-3. In eche t eternally, 



192. The story continues thus. A devil named Belial, sent by his 
master Beelzebub, appears to Juliana in the form of an angel ; but 
she compels him to disclose who he is, and to confess some of his 
temptations. She then seizes a chain, binds him with it, and compels 
him to continue his confession. When Juliana again appears before 
the reeve, she drags Belial with her, still bound by the chain, but finally 
flings him away. The reeve has a wheel made, covered with spikes, 
and Juliana is bound to it, and torn to pieces ; but an angel destroys 
the wheel, and makes her whole again. The executioners are converted, 
and are martyred. Eleusius prepares a great fire, into which Juliana 
is thrust ; but an angel quenches it. She is then thrown into boiling 
pitch, but it immediately becomes cold. Finally, she is beheaded, and 
angels bear away her soul to heaven. Her body is sent by boat to 
Campania, and there buried. Eleusius takes ship to pursue the boat, 
but suffers shipwreck, and is drowned. 


Line i. Ase )e gofi inne, in which ye journey. 

3. The expression 'such beasts and reptiles ' refers to the Seven 
inimals previously described, as representing the Seven Deadly Sins. 
Their names, with those of the sins they represent, are as follows. The 
ion, of Pride ; the Serpent, of Envy ; the Unicorn, of Wrath ; the Bear, 
Sloth ; the Fox, of Avarice ; the Swine, of Gluttony ; and the 
)rpion, of Lechery. These sins are further discussed below ; viz. 
ride, 11. 5-10; Sloth, 10-12 ; Envy, 12 ; Avarice, 13-16 ; Sloth again, 
[6-23 ; Wrath and Lechery, 23-26. The Lion, Serpent, and Unicorn, 
mentioned in 11. 34, 35, 37. Once more, Pride is further spoken of 
it 1. 41 ; Envy, at 1. 54 ; Wrath, at 1. 74 ; Sloth, at 1. 83 ; Avarice, at 
93 ; Gluttony, at 1. no. This is the key to the whole passage. 
3-5. Ne . . . strcones, nor do I know any sin that may not be lead 
(traced) to one of those seven or to their progeny. 

6. Sigaldren, enchantments, see Halliwell (s. v. sigald>y). Cp. Icel. 
:/<)' galdr, from scidr, magic, and galdr, an incantation. For an account 

'both terms sec Grimm, Teutonic~Mythology, pp. 1035-1043. 

7. Tcolungcs, practices in magic. Cp. Trevisa's Higden, 3. 265, where 
clynges=' carmina'' (Higden). 

9. ]>e spece, species, kind. 

12. Ji^^he that, whoever. 

13. Slouh, slow, slothful. Atiri ondc, venomous or malignant, envy. 

14. Mis-iteo^eget . , . lotie> being mis-tithed, a bequest withheld, or a 
iding or loan. 

VOL, I. Y 

322 NOTES. 

15. EthoLlen . . . terme, to retain (or retaining) another's hire {or 
wages) beyond his right time. 

1 6-1 8. Oder . . . ouh, or if any one keeps anything lent or entrusted 
(to his care) worse than he thinks it ought to be kept. 

19, 20. Also . . . schrifte, also is foolish command, or foolishly 
plighted troth, and too long remaining unconfirmed, and going falsely 
(insincerely) to shrift. 

30. Nomeliche, in particular, namely. 

Of pen ilkc imene, of the same general or common (heads). 

32. Streams, offspring. It has been previously explained (in a former 
part of the treatise) that each ' beast ' above-named (see note to 1. 3) has 
its own offspring. Thus, the Lion (of Pride) has many whelps, such 
as Vain Glory, Indignation, Hypocrisy, Presumption, Disobedience, Lo- 
quacity, Blasphemy, Impatience, and Contumacy ; and so of the rest. 

Of onliche Hue, of a solitary life. 

Is iseid hiderto, has been told thus far. 

33. \>et alle pe uorftfarinde uondeQ to uordonne, that endeavour to undo 
all the travellers. \>et refers to bestes (1. 31). 

34-5. Alle pe prude . . . i hearted, all the proud ones, and all those 
that are elated, and too high-hearted (or lofty-minded). 

35-7. pe attri . . . odere, the venomous serpent [slayeth] all those who 
are envious and all those who are malevolent, that is, those who are 
malicious and evil towards others. 

37-8. & al-so ofpe odre areaive, and also of the others in succession. 

38. Ase to God, with respect to God. 

40. Of pet mester, &c., of that office that falleth or appertaineth 
to him. 

42. Idel jelpe, vain boasting: literally, idle yelping. 

43. Lud dream, a loud strain or note. 

47. Translated from the Latin in 1. 90 below ; see note to that line. 

50. Dimluker bemen, blow more softly. 

51. 'Onager assuetus in solitudine, in desiderio animae suse attraxit 
uentum amoris sui ; ' Jerem. ii. 24. 

54-6. Summe . . . eien, there are some jesters that cannot practise any 
other mirth, but to make wry faces, and distort their mouth and scowl 
with their eyes. 

55. Mis = amiss. See 1. 64. 

56. Of pis mestere serueft, &c., this art practiseth, &c. 

60. OQere half, on the other side, in another direction. 
O luft &> asquint, on the left [hand] and obliquely. 

61. Out ouht, ought, aught, anything. 

OSer loken lodlich, or to look at loathingly. 

62. Either eicn, both eyes. 

\>et god, the good (things), i. e. anything that is good. 


65-6. dr* )if. . . to wurse, and if there is something wrong, through 
greater detraction, they turn it to the worse. 

69. Hu . . . grennen, how they themselves shall grin, i. e. gnash their 

70. Niuelen, snivel, snort. Morton explains it by 'beat their breasts.' 
Cp. Piers Plowman B. v. 135. 

71-3. Auh, &c., but they are therefore the less to be pitied, because 
they beforehand learn their trade of making grim cheer. 

77. Frommard= frontward, far away from. Q\U /reward represents 
M. JL.fraward, a Northern form of A..S. frontward. 

80. Dvsten ase enne pilchechit, and toss them like a pilch-clout. Cp. 
' hare dustlunges, as J;ah hit were a pilche clut,' their (devils') tossings (or 
bufferings) as though it were a pilch-clout. 

8 1. Al snesien hamfiuruhut, strike them all throughout. For alsnesen 
perhaps we should read asnesen. Cf. 'pene horn )>et he asnesed micle alle 
)>eo ]>et he areacheS' (Ancren Riwle, p. 200). 

83. }>e slowe, the slothful or sluggard. 

85. For so it is indeed with every one who is unoccupied in good 

89. Grimliche abreiden, be fearfully startled. 

90. & ine helle ivondrede (C. wandrefte), &c., and in hell shall awake 
in horrible misery. For wandrefte cp. ' OSerwile wanne hie segen men 
ivandred jjolien,' sometimes when they saw men suffer affliction, O. Eng. 
Homilies, Second Series, p. 147. .The quotation is from St. Jerome; 
see Specimens of English, III. note to 1. 5604, sect. XXII. on this passage. 

93. Askebaftie, ash-bather, one who lay and warmed himself in the 
ashes by the fireside. Morton renders it * ash-gatherer.' 

94-7. &> fared . . . rikenen, and goeth about the ashes, and busily bestirs 
himself to heap up much, and to rake many together, and bloweth 
therein and blindeth himself, pottereth and maketh therein figures of 
arithmetic as those accountants do who have much to reckon up. 

96. PadereQ or paQereQ seems to be the older form of our pother or 

102. BoluiveQ (C. has bole)&), prides, exults. There is a slight play- 
ing upon the word bloawefi. Morton renders bolmveft as ' disquieteth.' 

1 08. Quoted from Isaiah xiv. u. The Vulgate has 'erunt uermes' 
for vermis, which agrees with the English translation. 

110-16. The greedy glutton is the devil's manciple (or purveyor); 
for he ever sticks in the cellar or in the kitchen. His heart is in the 
dishes ; his thought is all in the cup ; his life in the tun ; his soul in the 
crock or pitcher. He cometh forth before his master, besmutted and 
besmeared, a dish in his one hand and a bowl in the other. He utters 
his words amiss (i. e. talks incoherently) and staggers like a drunken 
man that hath a disposition to fall. 

Y 2 

324 NOTES. 

1 1 8. From Isaiah Ixv. 13. 

1 20. From Rev. xviii. 7; the Vulgate has date Hit tormentum et 
hi c turn. 

122. 'In poculo quo miscuit, rniscete illi duplum ;' Rev. xviii. 6. 

123. Gulchecuppe, a toss-pot, swill-cup. There is a verb gtilchen, to 
gulp, to swallow greedily. See Halliwell (s. v. gulcJi], 

1 24. pet he aswelte iviQinnen, that he may die inwardly. 
A$ean one, i. e. for one, instead of one. 

127. There were but three sisters in the society, with their servants ; 
see Morton's preface, p. xi. 

Bute kat one, but a cat alone. 

128. Ipuncheft bet husewif, appeareth rather a housewife. 

129. Ne none wise, in no wise. 

131. Heorde-monne huire, the herdsman's wages. 

132-3. Oluhnen . . . hermes, flatter the hay ward, beware when one 
impounds her (i. e. the cow), and, moreover, pay the damages. 

132. Heiward. 'The hey ward was the keeper of cattle in a common 
field, who prevented trespass on the cultivated ground. According to 
the Anglo-Saxon law the hce^-iveard was to have his reward from the 
part of the crop nearest to the pastures, or, if land were allotted, it was 
to be adjacent to the same.' The hey ward of the lord of the manor or 
religious house 'was regularly sworn at the court, took care of the 
tillage, paid the labourers, and looked after trespasses and encroach- 
ments.' Way, in Prompt. Parv. p. 234. See Schmid, 383 ; Wright's 
Vocab. (s. v. hay ward}. 

133. Wat Crist, 'Christ knows,' used as a mild oath. Cf. witi Crist 
in O. Eng. Homilies, First Series, p. 27; ivite Crist, ib. p. 29. 

134. Mone in tune of ancre eihte, complaint of anchoresses' cattle in 
an enclosure. 

1 35. Loke . . . hermie, see that she neither annoy nor injure any person. 

137. }>et drawe utwardhire heorte, that may draw her heart outward ; 
i. e. that may lead her thoughts to dwell upon temporal matters. 

138. None cheffare ne driue $e, carry on no traffic. 

Cheapild, a dealer, or, as defined by the words in brackets from 
MS. C., one who buys to sell again for profit ; -ild is an adjectival suffix 
which Mr. Sweet suggests may be due to the A.S. -hild, which 
is not uncommon as the latter part of a fem. name. 

139. C heaped, sells, chops. The word cheap, A.S. ccap, had formerly 
a variety of meanings /m^, bargain, business, cattle. It still exists in 
chaffer, chapman, &og-cheap, &c. 

140-2. \>ing . . . ivordes, things, nevertheless, that she makes, she may 
veil, under her mistress's advice, sell for her needs, yet as secretly as 
she is able, for fear of various persons' remarks. 

142. Ne ivite }e nout, do not take charge of. 


145. Neod oder strencQe, necessity or force; makie = cause. 
148. Make breken, causes to be used : breken is another form otbrukcn, 
to use, enjoy ; see 1. 149. 

152. Wei mei \je\ don of ower defies, ye may do well enough for your 
clothing ; or, perhaps they may do well enough, as for your clothes. 
Cf. 1. 184, p. 1 1 6, where a similar phrase occurs, 'wel mei duhen ancre 
of ofter wimplunge.' Here don duhen = A. S. dugan, valere. 

Beon heo, c., whether they be white or whether they be black ; 
be they white or black. The verb beon is in the subjunctive mood. 

153. Unorne. See Havelok, 1. 9. 

I 57- Whoso will, may have a stamin, i. e. a shirt made of wool and 
linen. See Ducange (s. v. stamined). 

159. In on heater, and i-gurd, in one garment and (that) girt. 

1 60. Here, hair cloth. Ilespiles fellcs, skins of hedgehogs. Morton 
shews, by a quotation from Ducange, s. v. hcricitis, that the skins of 
hedgehogs were actually used for purposes of discipline. 

160-1. Mid schurge-i-lcQered ne i-leaded, nor with scourge of leather 
(thongs) nor leaded, i. e. weighted with lead. 

162. Ne ne biblodge, nor let her beblood herself, i. e. cover herself 
with blood. 

163. Beon, let be; pi. subj. 

165. And hosen = and iveren hosen, and wear hosen. 

Uaumpez, vamps, feet of hose or stockings : ' Vainpe of an hoose, 
pedana! (Prompt. Parv.) Other forms of the word vamp are ivampay, 
vampey, vampett. 

j66. Inouh-reade, well enough. Cf. p. 100, 1. 57, 

167. Brech of hear e, hair drawers. 

Strapeles, a kind of braces or straps for the nether garments. Cf. 
' Slraple of a breche, femorale? (Prompt. Parv.) Probably the ' strap- 
pies' or little straps were thin pieces of leather or ribbon wound cross- 
wise round and round the legs, as seen, not unfrequently, in old drawings 
in MSS. They were, in fact, a sort of long garters. 

174, 1 80. See i Cor. xi. 6, 10. 

177-8. &> nattt drah . . .prude, and not draw (turn) the covering to 
finery and pride. 

179, 1 80. Bet . . . on si/ide, lest evil thoughts should arise from her 
appearance (exposure). 

182. To-$eines fie f>e isist men, against thee who dost see men. Morton 
incorrectly translates * take heed. Thou seest men.' 

184. IS i par hires furl, in thy parlour- window. 

1 88. I-membred, ornamented by particolours. 

189. \>et ou ne dcih forto Jiabbcn, that is not befitting for you to have. 
190-1. For ...of, for they are all of the external rule, which is of 

little consequence. 

326 NOTES. 

193-4. Oder eni skile hit askeft, or any reason demands it. 

194-5. Efter . . . riwle, according as she, as handmaid, may best serve 
the lady's rule. 

196. Euer . . . iverkes, I am always the more gratified when you do 
the coarser work. 

198. B lodbendes, blood-bandages, i.e. bandages to bind up with in 
blood-letting. Cf. P. Plowman, B. vi. 10-12. 

202. So uorfS so, as far as, as far forth as. 

208. I-hwulen uorto hercnen, be at leisure (or have time) to listen. 

210. See similar quotations in P. PI. B. xiv. 75. Cf. Ezek. xvi. 49. 

211-13. Iren . . . stinketi, iron that lies still soon gathers rust, and 
water that is not repeatedly stirred stinks or becomes putrid. 

213-14. Forwurften scolmeistre, sink and become a schoolmistress. 
We naturally expect wurtien and notfonvur'den here : the latter signifies 
' to come to nothing.' The writer seems to have added the prefix for 
to mark his own sense of the degradation of the nun's ofifice by turning 

215-16. pet were dute of for to leornen among gromes, of whom there 
might be a doubt as to her learning among boys. 

220. I-dodded, cut, shorn. See Wicliffe, Levit. xix. 27. Cf. 'doddyd, 
wythe-owte hornysse, decor nutus ;' ' doddyn trees, or hevbys, and ofer 
lyke, decornatus? (Prompt. Parv.) 

221. OSer $ef . . . i-eveset, or if ye will (be) shaved* let whoso will be 
polled. Ieveset=i-evesed, trimmed, clipped. Cf. 'ase ofte ase me evesede 
him me solde his evesunge* as often as he (Absalom) was polled, the 
clippings were sold; Ancren Riwle, ed. Morton, p. 398. See P. PI. 
B. xvii. 227. 

224. And if any one may be without that (i. e. may dispense with it) 
I may well permit it. 

227., and with moral tales amuse yourselves together. 
Schurteft seems to mean to shorten the time, to pass away the 
time. Cf. onr pastime. 

231. \>e monluker, the manlier, the more vigorously. 

232-34. Vor . . . tweolue, for great folly it is to lose entirely, for (the 
sake of) one day, ten or twelve. 

236. BeoQ bisie, let there be employed. 

238. And feo beo ful unorne, and let her be full old: /<?0 = that 
(woman), she. 

239. Offeir elde, of fair age, i. e. mature age, not young and giddy. 

246. Dame, the lady superior. 

Bitte ine sunne one, except in sin alone. 

247. Nute = ne tvute, be not aware of, know not of. 
250. Siker uere, a trusty companion. 

Ne ne ligge ^lte, nor let her lodge (lie) out 


251. 3?/ heo ne con o bokc, &c., if she cannot read in a book, let her 
say her hours by Paternosters and Aves, &c. 

252. IVtirche, &c., and do what she is bidden without grumbling. 
260. JEtder ligge one, let each (of the two) sleep alone. 

261-64. No mon . . . habben, let no man see them unveiled nor with 
uncovered head. Within the dwellings they may wear scapularies when 
a mantle oppresses them ; outside, let them go mantled and the head 
hooded. Let them have low looks. 

269, 70. Hwarto heo beoQ i-turnde, to what they are turned (dedicated). 

273. Makien hore ucnie, to make their petition for pardon. 

284. Some, concord. T. \&?>somenta!e = sam-tale(sQz'V, 1. 1535, and 
note on the same, p. 308). In Lasamon, 1. 9883, some is used as an adj. 
= at one. Cf. i-ucied somed= united together, 1. 296. 

285. To arearen sume wreftde, to stir up some strife, to raise a 

291. Nouhtunge, setting at nought, contemptuous remark. 

292. Hwar ]>urtih . . . oSer, whereby they drive away each from the 

295. And ne beo ham nout of hwon pe ueond blowe, and be not away 
from them when the fiend may blow. Here ham refers to the two 

305, 6. &> for^elde alle pet us god deft, and reward all who do us 

307, 8. Bitivconen . . . oQcrhwat, between meals munch neither fruit nor 
any other thing. 

309, 10. Auh . . . sunne, but let the leave be easy [to obtain] in all 
those things wherein there is no sin. 

315. Vlutten bi, live by : bifluttcn occurs in the Ancren Riwle, p. 202, 
in the same sense : fiuttunge subsistence, is in St. Marherete, pp. 22, 34. 
(E.E.T.S., No. 13.) 

Non god, no good thing. 

317. Also ase heo owen, just as they ought. 

323. Uort pet heo hit kunnen, until they know it. 

330. LiOeliche J>auh, 6 luueliche, yet gently and kindly. 
Wummone lore, the instruction of women. 

331. Seldhwonne sturne, seldom stern. 

335. eoli and win, oil and wine. See Luke x. 34. 

340. See note to Piers Plowman (Clar. Press), Pass. i. 1. 20. 

342. \>e neruivure, the narrower, the more niggardly. 

346. And nout one to ower ones, and not only to (the salvation) of 

349. Hwon )e beo$ else, when ye be at ease or leisure. 

35 2 > 3- And elles . . . hwule, and else had I badly employed much of 
my time. 

328 NOTES. 

353. Den me tomvard Rome, i. e. make a pilgrimage all the way to 

356, 7. And bead . . . mihte, and be busy thereabout so that ye keep 
it the better, according to your ability. 

Bcoft umbe, merely signifies ' be about,' hence, be busy about. 

365. Him pet makede, him that composed, referring to the author. 
Him pet hire wrot, him that wrote it out, referring to the scribe. 

366, 7. Inouh, &c., moderate enough am I who ask so little. 


Line 2. Westi, destitute : originally wcstig=- waste, desert. Cf. A. S. 
whines, desolation. 

4. Hus-lewe = house-lee, house -shelter. We still pronounce leeward 
as leward (riming with steward}. 

7. Dennet, housed : the p. p. of a denominative verb from dcnne, a den, 
cave, place of rest. See XII. 36. It is not found in the oldest period. 

7, 8. Swa before comparatives is instrumental, and is frequently used 
for/^, or/?. 

10. Fuhel m&fisch are governed by the vvfofedes (1. n). 

11. Fedes,poledes, &c. The West-Midland dropped t in the 2nd pers. 
sing. pres. and past indie, of both strong and weak verbs. In the 
Northumbrian dialect the 2nd pers. past indie, dropped all inflexion. 

12. Hat hungre, sharp (attack of) hunger. 

14. pin alien, of thy own. 

15, 16. Bate . . . lanes, but both young and older, thou hadst always 
something wherewith thou mightest cover thy bones : a reference to the 
seamless coat of which the Saviour was deprived at the crucifixion. 

29, 30. Mon, one : indefinite, like me. Passages in which this occurs 
may be translated as if the chief verb were in the passive voice : thus 
for hu mon, &c. = for how often shameful words and hateful sccffings 
were spoken to thee. 

34. Bote of mon-kin, the Redeemer of mankind. 

35. Te monqucllerc, the man-killer (murderer), i. e. Barabbas. 

36. O wode wulues wise, after the manner of savage wolves. 
Heng, hang, crucify. Cf. A. S. hoh, ah6h. 

40. I pi neb, in thy face. Cf. nebbe to ncbbe = face to face. 

41. For schendlac, in contumely, in scorn. 

43. Andalpe mcnskeptthte, and all [that] appeared [an] honour to thee. 

47. From Ps. Ixviii. 8 (Vulg.) ; Ps. lix/7 (A.V.) 

52. WiQ-ute pine Gultc, without any guilt of thine own. 

54. As hwa se seic, as one may say. 


57. Of alk bales botc, remedy of all bales (sorro\vs, evils) : cf. I all (from 
bcahi), 1. 75, used as an adjective = deadly, severe. 

61. Tat kidde keiser, that renowned emperor (Christ). 

67. A ! deore cheap, Ah ! a dear bargain. Cf. chepet, purchased, 1. 68. 

76. Niminge, capture, taking. 

* 85. On a girre blodon a gore blod, in a stream of gory blood. Cf. 
Rom. and Juliet, iii. 2. 56. See o blode, St. Juliana, p. 105, 1. 119. 

93-95. Lef '. . . dom, O, would that those blows ha'd struck me with 
which they batter thee, and thrust thee forward quickly to thy doom : 
lef= grant, permit. 

107. Bale drinch, deadly drinks. Cf. ball duntes, 1. 75. 

112, 13. Andtu . . . lahter, and thou, before whom all the world might 
dread and tremble, wast to the wicked folk of the world for a scornful 

1 1 6. Sendes his saivle, gives up the ghost. 

1 1 8. Longis, Longius, the centurion who pierced the side of the 
Saviour, according to the Golden Legend. Cp. Piers Plowman, B. xviii. 
79. The name was no doubt invented with reference to the Ac/yx*/, or 
lance, which the centurion used. 

1 20. Ipe blod fat bohte, the blood that ransomed. 


Line 3. Buwe . . . bete, bow . . . bend. See 1. 18. 

5. Mire souk is feminine: mire = minre, gen. sing. 

6. Mid iivisse, truly, indeed: literally, with certainty. 

7. Ich ouh wtirftie $e, I ought to honour thee, i.e. I owe it [to thee as 
duty] to honour thee. See 11. 17, 18. 

9. A ueole kunne wise, in wise of many a kind, i.e. in many kinds of ways. 

15, 1 6. Deojlene . . . englene, genitives plural. 

20. Code leof, dear to God. 

2T. 'All the companies of maidens honour thee alone.' 

23. 'There is no woman alive (born) that may be alike to thee.' 

25-26. Mary is exalted above Cherubim and Seraphim, the two 
ighest of the nine orders of angels. Kine-stol, royal seat, throne ; cp. 
' te-dom (replaced by the later compound kingdom}, and kinescrtid, 1. 34. 

27. Dreamed, make pleasant sounds, make melody. Drcamen (dreman, 
ymau] to play on an instrument, jubilare : dream = music, a joyful 
id. Cf. belles drem = sound of a bell, Bestiary, 1. 665 ; Owl and Nightin- 
ile, 1. 21, p. 172. Onsene (=and-syn, on-sieri), face, countenance. 

34. beies\ cp. bet) in Piers Plowman, (B.) Prol. 165. 

45, 46. 'Then they shall be perfumed" with the golden incense-vessel ; 
id eternal life with angels' joy shall be poured out lor them.' 

330 NOTES. 

51. Ciclattme, a rich stuff used for garments. 

53. So . . so, as . . as. 

56. ' And they do all that pleases them, so that nothing thwarts them.' 

61. teone and treie ; see Will, of Palerne, note to 1. 20/3. 

62. * Harps and abundance of games, life's pleasure, and everlasting 
play.' Perhaps the copyist read by mistake gleo-bcames for glco-dreames, 
delights of music, cp. Beowulf, 3022. 

64. Vort= forte =forto, until, i. e. forth to, the time that. 

69. Of alle laste, of all vice. 

88. Note, advantage, profit. Cf. G. nutzen. 

93> 94. 'The loathsome devil and error of every kind. 

Banish from me far away with their foul filth.* 

96. ' For my life and also my salvation is all along of thee/ i.e. all 
depends on thee. See Bosworth Diet. (s. v. gelang)* 
99. J?/ me leofwas = \ho.\. was dear to me. 


Besides the Physiologus of Thetbaldus and Philippe de Thaun's 
Bestiaire, mentioned at p. 133, we may also note 'Le Bestiaire Divin de 
Guillaume, clerc de Normandie,' edited by M. C. Hippeau. The last, 
like the Old English text, treats separately of the lion's ' three natures.* 
The first of these is thus described. 

La premiere est que il habite 

Ez granz montaignes par nature; 

Quant il avient par aventure 

Que chaciez est de venoor \]iuntsman\ 

De son espie a grant poor [fear] 

Le tant est que a lui ataigne. 

De mult loinz sent en la montaigne 

L'oudor del veneor qui chace; 

De sa coue covre sa trace, 

Qu'il ne sache trover n'ataindre 

Les convers \retreats\ ou il deit remaindre. 

The old Bestiaries repeat many of the traditional tales about animals 
with but little variation, and without any suspicion that they are untrue. 
Moreover, every habit of each animal was supposed to have some moral 
significance; see the ' significacio ' in 1. 27, and again in 11. 40, 88, 273. 
Line 24. ' If he hear a man hunting, 

Or through the smell of his nose 

Get scent that he is approaching.* 
5. Bi wile weie so, by whatsoever way. 


10. stepped. Read \_dun~\ stepped ** Aovm steps. See 1. 35. 
12. /$-, = them, refers to fet-steppes in 1. 7. 
19. sinen = shinen, shone. 

22. 'With the scream that he makes/ Lat. text, 'dans rugitum/ 

23. lagCy custom, law. 

. 31, 32. 'How, when it pleased him to alight here on earth/ 

34. Derne httnte, a secret (cunning) hunter. Cf. A. S. webba, a weaver. 

39. To manne frame, for men's advantage. 

46. to belongs to ///"and not to holden. 

49, 50. Sep, sildcn, sheep, shield. \Ve have this use of s for sc or sh 
in the Trinity Coll. Camb. Homil. B. 14. 52 : in Text B of Lajamon's 
Brut, and in Genesis and Exodus ; the Ayenbite has ss. 

54. o boke, in book; i.e. in the Physiologus, 1. 25. 

55. ' How he renews his youthfulness/ 

57. Unwclde, unwieldy, i.e. not able to be wielded, managed, or 
employed. We have lost the useful term wieldy, manageable. 

58. ' Since his beak is altogether awry/ 

64. Up he ted, up he mounts. Lat. text, ' it . . caelo/ 

68. ' As well as he is able/ 

69. hoveft, abideth. Cp. hoved in Piers Plowman, B. xviii. 80. 

' The sun scorches all his [means ofj flight ' (i. e. his wings). 
0&*with, therewith also. 

7. 'Were his beak not misshapen/ Lat. text,' 'rostrum . . retortum/ 

8. ' His beak is still twisted awry in front/ 
sendeity are ; cf. Ger. sind, Lat. sunt, Sansk. santi. 
He may (is not able) to procure food for himself. 

3. billet, pecketh. 

rigte bille, undistorted bill. 

3. nimet, betaketh himself. Cf. 'to take oneself off/ 
02, 3. ' From his eyes he keeps off the mist while he tarries there/ 
12. 'His mouth is as yet quite unacquainted/ 

48-50. ' Carries off to her hole what afterwards will help her, where 
will be towards winter/ 
7. so it her felled, as it is here related. 
2, 3. 'She biteth not the barley to bear it about/ 
264. saket ford cannot \>efor-sakes, but, as Matzner suggests, is shakes 
r orth, shakes out. She neglects the barley for wheat. See 1. 291. 

Get=ge hit, she it. Lat. text, 'granum . . bipartit/ 
75. liuenoQe, sustenance, provision. 
299, 300. 'It offers us earthly biddings, and promises us heavenly 
ones/ For bekued Matzner reads beknet = ' monstrat ' in the Lat. text. 
302. 'But not equally, but not alike/ Geuelike, like, occurs in 
Genesis and Exodus, 1. 282, p. 9. Cf. A. S. ge-efenlacing, an imitation; 
ge-efenliican, to be like. 

332 NOTES. 


The two Sermons here printed are on the Gospels for the days named. 

Line 5. Si sterre, the star : si ( = sio, seo) is the feminine of the deft 

nite article, the masculine being se, as in 1. 13. 

6. J>rie kinges, the three magi. See P. Plowm. B. xix. 71-81. 

7. To-jams fo sunne risindde, towards the sun rising, the east. 
9. amtri=onuri=honouri, to honour. See 1. 80. 

26. ]>o=J>eo, the, a later form than seo, the (fern.). 

27. Al-wat, until; cp. wat nu, until now, 1. 114. In M. E. who, 
sometimes means until; see Halliwell (s. v. what). 

}>o huse: house is neuter, therefore po=pa=fam t the dative o 
the definite article. 

31. Ine metinge, in a dream. 

34. Seyzvinge of ure lordes beringe, manifestation (showing) of our 
Lord's birth. 

40. See Specimens of Eng., Ft. II. Sect. VII. 11. 121-138. 

41. Befieti so that, because. 
50. Licht, is light. 

56. I-do into pe ueree, put into the fire : ^leree=vere=ferc, fire. 

61. Ipet no iverni net comme i-hende, that no worm will come near 
See 1. 67. 

78. Has = ha + es, he them. This kind of, agglutination is common 
in the East-Midland dialect. See Moral Ode, 1. 55, p. 199. 

91. etc. To^ac to, but to : see 1. 115. 

93. So iuel aucnture, as chance befell. 

loo. Folvellet, fill full : see ^mZ^teZden = fi\\e& full, 1. 104. 

102. vi Ydrcs of stone. The Vulgate has lapidea hydricesex, Johnii.6. 

107. Sepet, he that. Architridin; cp. the Vulgate, which has Arc hi- 

112. DoJ> forp, puts forth. 

1 1 6. Ine sigge Ine sigge=?\ do not say. 

126. Signeficd=^signcfie$\ the d stands for S, the crossed d. Cf. 
liesedQ. 127), drinked, be-tokmd, bied (1. 129). 


Line i. Seaford is on the S. coast of Sussex, to the W. of Eastbourne. 
4. ' And many book-learned men.' 
6. ' Knights every one.' 


7. A Zurich = Alvrich, i.e. JElfnc. So A/ured=JE\fre<\. 

32. Here wrpsipes may be an intentional spelling; see note to 
sect. I, 1. 12. So also ivrfie in 1. 60, -wrt in i. 168. 

48. Glednesse is probably an error for gkawnesse, wisdom. 

51, 2. ' Men's mildest master.' 

57, 8. 'That to him shall not be wanting anything of his will, 
whereby he intends to honour himself here in this world.' 

84, 5. ' Every man's doom turns to his own door.' Just as we say 
A man's actions come home to him.' See Galatians vi. 7. 

160-63. 'Many a man has expectation of what he need not expect 
of long life ; but the trick deceives him.' These lines are found in Old 
Kentish Sermons (p. 36 in 'An Old English Miscellany'), Owl and 
Nightingale, Ayenbite of Inwyt. See Specimens, Ft. II, p. 42, 1. 304. 

170, i. 'That ever may, of him [who is] fated to die, the life uphold.' 
Forfurfi upholde the Trin. MS. reads fe lifuphelde, 

177. Dowe pes Zouerd, the Lord of Hosts (Sabaoth). Cp. Dryhtcn 
dugefta Waldend, in Judith; see Sweet, A. S. Reader, 155-61. 

228. Arewe, caitiff, treacherous foe. See ereive, XVII (Jes.), 1. 20. 
See Specimens, Pt. II, p. 38, 1. 93. 

229. 'Tell it to thy saddle-bow (only) ; ' i. e. keep it to yourself. 
-231-33. 'Then will he suppose who knows not thy condition that to 

thee thy state is well pleasing.' 

236. menef, bewails (it). 

239-241. 'That full well grants it to thee (i.e. is willing that such 
should be thy condition) without any pity he would that thou hadst 
much more.' See note to XV. 2249, p. 339. 

411. Schotte probably = scholte or scholde, shouldest. ' Thou shouldest 
not boast.' 

414. dwaZes, fools; cf. Piers Plowman, C-text, xxiii. 379. 

419, 20. 'With few words a wise man can well include much.' 

421. 'A fool's bolt is soon shot.' See Specimens, Part II, p. 37, 1. 85, 
note. Iscohte, miswritten for ischote, shot. 

425, 26. See Specimens, Part II, p. 39, 1. 144. 

430. Ibidest, hast to do with. Cf. A. S. geblda?i, to wait for, meet 

th, experience. 

437. Lest, lettest, permittest. 

438. The sense is, 'but if thou lettest him exercise his own will, on 
all occasions, whilst he is growing up in the world, thou wilt not be 
able,' &c. 

439. ' Loudly and silently,' i. e. publicly and privately, on all oc- 
casions ; a proverbial expression. 

445. ' Disregardeth thy command.' See Specimens, Pt. II, p. 37, 


454. Arechc, reach after, get at, i.e. control; A. S. aracan. 

334 NOTES. 


Line 1907. Geryer, year. In this poem an initial g often stands 
for yh or/, sometimes represented in Old English writers by the Saxon 
character 3. Cf. gunkeste, youngest, 1. 1909. g (final) -gh or y 
(Modern English iu), as sag=sagh = say, saw. g before t ^=gh, as 
rigt, right, 1. 1919 ; fthogte, thought; nogf nought, not; sogt, sought; 
wrogt, wrought, 11. 1928, 1933, 1934, 1940. before -en answers to the 
modern w, as ogen = o$en, own ; dragen, drawn. In some few cases ag 
before -en answers to modern a/, as A. S. slagen, M. E. slawen, E. slain ; 
cp. A. S. hagel, E. hail. 

1908. Quane = whanne, when (see 1. 1918). The Southern dialect 
never represents the A. S. hw (E. E. hu, Mod. E. ivJi) by qu or qw. It 
is exceedingly common in the Northumbrian dialect, and is often to be 
met with in the East and West Midland dialects. 

1910. Brictest of -wastme, brightest of form ; waspene is an error of 
the scribe (who probably wrote from dictation) for wasteme, A. S. wastni, 
(i) growth, increase, fruit ; (2) form, stature, capacity. 

Of witter ivune, of good ability. Witter, wise, skilful ; related 
to wit, 'witty, to wit, wist. The A. S. word answering to witter was 
witol, wise, knowing. Wune = A..S. wune, gewuna, practice, custom, 
use; cp. wont. 

1911. jBreti ere = bred er, brethren. In M. E. we find dejter, daughters, 
hend, hands. 

1912. 'To his father he did discover and lay bare.' 

Can, whence the compound bi-gan (began), is often used as a 
preterite auxiliary = did, asgan love, did love. 

1913-14. 'He would (desired) that they should so conduct themselves 
that they should be well-behaved.' 

1913. He sulde, they should; sulde = shulde, should. In this poem 
an initial s (properly ss") =sh, as soren = shoren, shorn, 1. 1919. 

Hem, themselves. The personal pronouns are used reflexively 
by early writers. 

1914. Wei dewed, well-behaved, virtuous, toewedis from A. S. feaw, 
]>cau, a manner, habit, tr<ya\J>c6n, to thrive, flourish. 

1915. Wexem wiQ {him} gret nid, great envy against him increased in 
them. Wexem = wex hem. 

1917. NiQful, envious; bold, bad. Cf. the modem use of the word 

1919. Soren, shorn, cut, reaped. Shear has often the sense of to cut 
or reap, in early writers. 

1920. 'And theirs (i.e. their sheaves) lay all before him.' 
Here, theirs ; it, here used pleonastically. 



1921. Xie. stands for enluue, eleven. 

1922. Frigti luue, reveren ce . 

1927. Chidden, chided, chode, pret. pi. It is here a weak verb. 

1928. doge, though, nevertheless. SiQe^siSen, afterwards. 

1930. Hirdnesse, herds, flocks. The abstract noun is here used col- 

1931. To dalen ebron, to the vale of Hebron. 

1934. Sogt, come, arrived, the pp. of see/ten, agreeing with hem. 

1935. Fro feren ktimen, coming from afar (at a distance). Fro = 
Icel. frd, from, is still found in froward (M. Y..fraward} t frowardness. 
Frontward in A. S. has often the same signification. 

1936. Hem on ros, arose in them. In 1. 1937 the preposition is placed 
after the verb for the sake of the rhyme. Hem is in the dat. and not 
accus. case. 

Numen = nomen, taken. The A. S. niman, to take, seize (pret. 
nam, M. E. nom\ still exists in numb, bemimb, nimble. A. S. be-niman, to 
take, take away, deprive. Cf. North. Prov. Eng. nim, to steal, take up 
hastily. In M. E. nomyn = numen, numbed, taken with the palsy. * I 
benome, I make lame or take away the use of ones lymmes. Je perclos* 
(Palsgrave). * Benomme or benombe of ones lymbes, perclus* (Ib.). 
'This man is taken or benomed" (Herman). See Promp. Parv. p. 358. 
Nimble = A. S. numol, handy or skilful in taking^ and hence quick of 
limb, active. 

1938. ' They all counselled to slay him.' 

1941. ' Whatsoever he dreamed whilst he slept.* 
f)or qiiiles, there-whilst, whilst. 

1943. 'Yet shall he be cast, naked and cold.' 

Wurft, shall be, is from A. S. weordan, to be, to become. This 
verb is still familiar from the poetical phrases ' Wo worth the day !' ' Wo 
worth the hour !' See P. Plowm. C. xiv. i. 

1944. ' What-so-^zw his dreams have in meaning.' 
Ow-en = og-en (pi.), have, possess. 

A-wold, in force, meaning. See wold, 1. 1958. 

1945.- Herte sor, pain of heart. This refers of course to Reuben 

1946. Drechen, to delay ; from A. S. dreccan, to vex, trouble ; and 
hence to hinder, delay, dretch. 

1947. Gede=yede, went. The A. S. verb gangan, gan, to go, had for 
its usual preterite eode, from root i, to go. The form gcde (QT yede) is 
probably due to the A. S. ge-eode. 

1948. ' He placed his cattle in better pasture.' 

Erue = A. S. yrfe, erfe, cattle, animals ; also wealth, inheritance. 
Lewse, pasture, still called Icasowe (pronounced kzzur) in 

336 NOTES. 

1949. * Judas meanwhile gave them advice.' Red, advice, counsel. 
See note to 1. 1938. 

1950. Fulfilt of derm sped, fulfilled in secret (wicked) haste (speed, 

1952. Spices ware, spicery. Cf. waters ware, collection of waters. The 
A. S. waru t ware, merchandise, is used as an affix in hard-ware, 
iron-ware. Cf. windes-ware, Specimens, II. 2. xvii. 30. 

1953. Gtinne (pi.), did. See note to 1. 1912. 
Ten, to go. See note to 1. 1913. 

1957. Waste = was + 1, was it. 

1958. Storue, should die. The A. S. stcorfan is the original of the 
Eng. starve, starvation. As early as 1340 stcrue was used in the same 
sense as the modern verb 'to starve.' 

Wold, power. See note to 1. 1 944. 

1961. tShogte swem, esteemed it a grievous affliction. 

1962. .' He thought him slain [and] set up a cry/ 

1963. 'He will not cease, such sorrow cleaveth to him.' 

1963,64. Cliued and Ku4d**eUue9 ( = cleaves, adheres) and titled. 

1967. Wenten, pret. pi. turned. A. S. wend, a turn, change ; wcndan, 
to go, proceed (pret. wende, Eng. went} ; whence A. S. went, a turning, 
course, way, road, still used in Kent. 

1969. ' They laid it upon messengers.' 

1971. Boden him sen, and bade him see. 

1973. 'They sent him word they found it.' 

1974. Sori writ, sorrowful message (letter). 

1975. Gret, cried ; see 1. 1984. North. Prov. Eng. greet, to cry out, 
weep, used by Spenser. Cf. grot, weeping, 1. 1.978. 

1976. ' Have my son swallowed (devoured) here.' 

1977. Haigre, haircloth, sackcloth. Cf. heyre in P. Plowm., B. 

1980. Hertedin, consoled; literally, encouraged. Cf. herting, con- 
solation, encouragement, 1. 1982. 

1982. Wrogt= wrought, worked. 

1983. Ligten = alight, descend. Cf. to light upon a thing. 
1985-6. 'There was in hell a separate place where the good folk 

did rest.' 

1987. Stunden, abode, passed the time. Cf. I-hwulen in Ancren 
Riwle, 1. 208, and note on p. 326. 

1988. An allusion to the so-called Harrowing of Hell, when Christ 
took thence the souls of the patriarchs. 

1989. 'The merchants hastened their journey/ 

1990. Ware, purchase, property, goods. See note to 1. 1952. 
1992. 'They made a very advantageous agreement (or bargain)/ 
1994. Him seems to refer to Joseph. 


2037-8. 'Potiphar believes his wife's story, and hath condemned 
Joseph to punishment.' Wiwes = iuiues, wife's. 

2039-40. ' He bade him be fastened down securely, and held straitly 
in prison.' 

2042. Prisnner, the one who has the care of the prison, the gaoler. 

2043. ' And assigned to him the prison.' 

2044. Prisunes, prisoners. 

In hagt = in agt, in care. 
2046. Woren = warcn = weren, were. 

2049. Bolt en onigt, both at night. Onigt~on nlgt, a-night. The 
form on (p before a consonant) is preferred by Northern writers to 
an or a, the corresponding Southern preposition. 0-frigt= a/right, 
frightened, in the next line, = of-f right, very much frightened, affrighted. 

2050. 'And they became very sore afraid.' 

2051. On sel, one time. 

2053. 'He heard them mourn, he enquired wherefore.* 

2054. Ogen awold Saf, have that in their power, i. e. have caused that. 
2058. ' The interpretation will depend on God.' Bi-long-on, along of, 

on account of. 

2060. Waxen buges, full-grown boughs. 

2061-2. 'First it bloomed (flowered), and afterwards it bore the 
ripe berries (grapes), I became aware (or perceived).' 

2064. me $htigte = $o$te, me thought. See note on 1. 1961. 

Wrong, wrung, squeezed ; the pret. of wringen, to wring, squeeze. 

2068. Heilnesse, health, wholeness. The Eng. whole, formerly written 
hal or hoi, has no right to the w ; wholesome, hale, heal, healthy, are 
related to one another. 

2073. 'Present my petition to Pharaoh.' Herdne = ernde, errand, 
message ; A. S. cerend, cerende, message, news. 

2074. WurQe don, may be taken. Do is often used by early writers in 
ic following senses : (i) to cause, make; (2) to place, put. 

2075. Kinde land, native land, the land of one's kin. A. S. cynde, 
itural ; cynd, nature ; from cyn = kin, race. Cf. kindred, kind, akin ; 
ic 'kindly (natural) fruits of the earth.' The M. E. unkind often 

signifies unnatural, ungrateful. 

2076. Wrigteleslike = wrigte-les-like, guiltlessly, innocently. Cf. A. S. 
6ht, an accusation, blame, fault ; allied to wregan, to accuse. 

In bond, in prison. 

2077. Bred-ivrigte = brcad-wright, bread-maker, baker. WrigfefEng. 
wight] is a workman, artificer ; from A. S. ivyrcan (pret. worhte, Eng. 

roughf), to work, still existing in wheelwright, &c. 

2078. Bread-lcpcs, bread-baskets. Cf. Prov. Eng. lee, a basket. Cp. 
'iers Plowman, B. footnote to Pass. vi. 1. 63, 

2081. 'And fowls thereof have seized.' 


538 NOTES. 

2083. 'For I was not able to defend myself.* 

2084. Bercn, bear or carry away. 

2085. * Jt were lievcr to me,' I had rather. 

2086. ' Of pleasant (lucky) dreams to tell the meaning (or to interpret).' 

2088. * Be put (hung) on the cross, alas !' Weifa-wei = A.S. wd-ld-iva, 
\vell-a-way! well-a-day ! Wd = woe, sorrow, grief. 

2089. * And fowls shall tear thy flesh in pieces.' 

2090. * From that shall no care be able to defend thee.' 

2091. 'That became true (was fulfilled) as Joseph had said. 
2094. WiQ-utcn erd, away from native land. 

2097. 'Thence came out seven beasts.' Neet = neat ; A. S. neat, 
also nyten, niten, cattle, beast ; whence neat-herd. 

2098. ' Every one very fat and large (great).' 

2100. 'Who made the fat (ones) woe.' 

2101. 'The lean ones have eaten the fat ones.* 

2105. ' Ears rank (strong) and well-grown.' Rank (full, mature) and 
tidi refer to the ears of corn. Tidy is used by Shakespeare in the sense 
of ' in good condition,' plump. 

2107. 'Withered (faded) and small, and drought-seized (struck).' 
2109-10. 'To-gether they smote, and in a stound (short time) 

The fat ones thrust themselves ( = are thrust) to the ground.' 

2 1 1 1. ' The king arose suddenly and awoke in care.' Vhogt=- thought, 
anxiety, care. Cf. the phrase ' take no thought! 

21 1 2. ' This dream's meaning he knew not.' 

2114. ' Who could explain the meaning of the dreams.' 

2128. 'In all abundance shall they be passed.' For this use of it, 
cf. 2109. 

2130. 'Sorrowful and necessitous (poor) men shall see them.' Is = his, 
them. This pronoun is used by Robert of Gloucester and Dan Michel 
of Kent. 

2132. Rospen <S rakcn, rasp and scrape, i.e. diminish. 

2133-36, ' I advise the king now here-before (the famine) 
To make barns and gather corn, 
That thy folk be not surprised (taken unawares) 
When the famine years are forth come' (come to pass). 

2138. ' That became to him afterwards good fortune.' 

2139-48. 'He gave Joseph his ring, And his collar of gold for 
honour, And bade him all his land rule, And under him highest to be ; 
And bade him wield in his hand His folk, and wealth, and all his land. 
There was under him Potiphar, And his wife, that them so parted. 
Joseph to wife his daughter took, Otherwise is he now become than he 
previously was.' 

2152. He geld It hem, he requited it to them. 

2153. Fulsum, ful-some, plenteous. See 1. 2128. 


2154. 'Joseph could (knew how to) secure for himself beforehand.' 

2158, For-Qan, for-that (reason), therefore. 

2161. 'The ten came, by necessity arrived/ See 1. 2165. 

2163. * And nevertheless they timidly did obeisance to him.' 

2167. 'Joseph them knew perfectly in his mind.' 

2168. ' Also he pretended he knew them not.' 
2176. 'For hunger compels them to come hither.' 
2178. Cure bering, your bearing, behaviour. 

2179-80. ' How should any man poor, forgotten, Such and so many 
sons beget? For seldom it betides (befalls) any king himself Such 
men to see of his offspring.' 

2187. 'Now by the faith I owe to king Pharaoh.' 

2191,2. ' For then was Joseph sore afraid 

That he also might be by them betrayed.' 

2196. the ton, that one, the first, &c. So the ta//w=that other, the 

2198. To ivedde, for security, as hostage. 

2199. On-on = anon, in one (instant), immediately, at once. 
2202. Bi-ment hem, bemoaned, bewailed themselves. 

2204. Wrigtful, guilty. See note on 1. 2076. 

2205. ' We sinned some time previously.' 

2208. 'Now suffer we sorrow all for that.' 

2209. ' Knew none of them in his mind.' 
2214. ' And into each one the silver cast.' 

2216. Dor bi-foren, there as before. See 1. 2245. 

2224. Do agtes, the moneys. 

2227. 'Very great sorrow is to me become ' (befallen). 

2232. * Death and sorrow fall upon me/ 

2235, 6. 'Then said Judas, It shall be hard for us 

If we do not keep our covenant with him/ 
2237. Wex defQe, famine (dearth) came. 

2241. Quan it is ned, since it is necessary. 

2242. 'And [I] know no better plan/ Can, know ; A. S. cunnan. 
2244. 'That to them thereof there lack none/ Wante in O. E. often 

signifies 'to lack,' as in the modern phrase 'it wants so many to make 
up the number/ 

2247. Ofderepris, of great price, of precious value. See note on 1. 2237. 

2249. 'God grant him well disposed to be/ Hunne = unnc, grant, 
give. This verb still exists in the phrases ' he owned to having done 
it ' ; 'I have owned to it/ Own has here nothing to do with the verb 

e, but signifies 'grant/ or ' concede/ See 1. 1739, p. 191. 
Efte-moded, easy-minded, well-disposed, kind. 

2251, 2. 'Then took they forth the way right, 

Till they are come, into Egypt alighted/ 

Z 2 

34 NOTES. 

2254. ' Natural thought in his heart was still.' 

2257. Biri, a court; literally, a borough. See the first piece in this 
volume, 1. u, p. 2. 

2258. ' None of them had then cheerful countenances.' 

2262. Ur non, none of us; cf. her non, none of them. See 1. 2258. 
2264. 'For I now have my condition (agreement)'; i.e. that Benja- 
min should be brought to him. 

2266. On and on, one by one. 

2267, 8. ' Very glad he was of their coming, 

For he was kept there as hostage.' 

To nome, as a pledge, or security. 

2269. Vndren = K.-S. undent, the third hour of the day, that is, nine 
o'clock in the morning ; extending also to the sixth hour in the morn- 
ing. It literally signifies the intervening period, which accounts for its 
sometimes denoting a part of the forenoon, or a meal taken at that time, 
and sometimes a period between noon and sunset. 

The word in various forms is still used in the North of Eng- 

2275. 'And he kindly received it.' 

2276. Of kinde blod, of kindred blood. 
2278. Here is an imperfect rhyme. 

2280. 'I know no one there that does not tremble/ This is a remark 
by the author, introduced parenthetically. But 11. 2279 and 2280 should 
be transposed. 

2285. ' His heart overpower'd him at once.' 

2286. 'Natural love did overcome him.' 

2288. ' That all his face became wet with (01) tears.' 

2289. ' After that weeping he washed his face.' ' 

2291. * He caused them to wash, and (come) before him/ 

2297. ' In abundance (of food) they became joyous (glad).' 

2298-2304. 'Joseph thought thereof no harm, 

But it pleased him exceedingly well, 
And he them instructed and taught well, 
And how they should best conduct themselves 
When they came into foreign lands. 
And all the better shall ye speed 
If ye will with truth conduct yourselves,' 
i. e. act faithfully, honestly. 

2306. Or or, first ere. See Dan. vi. 24 ; Ps. xc. 2. 

2309. * And the sack that Benjamin owned.' 

2313-14. 'This messenger overtaketh them quickly. 

And accuses (calls after) them of injury and loss.' 

2315-18. 'Unhappy (wretched) men, what have ye done? 
Great misfortune is come upon you, 


For it is not hidden from my lord 

That one of you hath his cup stolen.' 
2320-22. 'Upon whom thou findest it indeed, 

Let him be slain and let us again be driven 

Into thraldom (slavery) evermore to live.' 
2328. Rciudi lote, sorrowful cheer. See 11. 1968, 2258. 
2330. O ivol ( = zw/) witter fiogt, of very wise thought, of very keen 
perception, i.e. very discerning. See 1. 2320. 
2 33.v 'Provided that thou spare Benjamin.' 
2336. On trewthe min, upon my promise (pledged troth). 

2340. the tofiere, the others, pi. of the toQer=$at o$er t that other, the 

2341. E gret-he gret, he wept. See 1. 1975. 

2344. Tor your safety first hither brought.' 

2345. 'There are now two years since the famine has come.' 

2346. 'Yet shall five fully be passed.' 

2350. 'And say (tell) hini what (how great) are my pleasures 

2356. lie here, each of them. See 11. 2258, 2318. ' 

2357. Kid, made known. 

2362. 'He bade them take carts and wagons (wains).' 
2366, 7. 'More and better than they could ask. 

Joseph gave each of them two changes of raiment.* 
2368. He made prtid, he adorned. 
2371. 'Also many others thereto.' 
2376. 'And bad them hasten home quickly.* 
2380. Ojiat he ivoren, who they were. 
2384. 'All Egypt unto his will cleaves.' Cf. 1. 1963. 
2387. Wei me : me is the dative after the interjection wet. Cf. the 
use of the dative in the phrase 'woe is me.' See Ps. cxxviii. 2 (Prayer 

2388 -90. 'That I have thus awaited such time ! (i. e. that I have lived 
to see this day) 

And I shall to my son go, 

And see [him] ere I from [this] world depart.' 
2400. ' How many years be (are) on thee ? ' 
2401-10. 'An hundred years and thirty more 

Have I suffered here in [this] world's woe, 

Yet [there] appears to me few of them, 

Though I have passed them in woe, 

Since I began in world to be, 

Here away from home among mankind. 

So thinketh every wise man 

Who knoweth whereof mankind began, 

342 NOTES. 

And who of Adam's guilt is mindful, 
That he here away from home dwelleth.' 

2409. Muned, is mindful of, remembers. It is still retained in the 
expression ' min(d) what you are about.' See 1. 2422. 

2411. WiirQen wel, fare well. A. S. weordan, to become. 

2412. Sell mel, good sustenance (meal). 

2422. Mune, remember. See note on 1. 2409. 

2423. ' That when it should be done with him ' ; i.e. when he was dead. 
2425. 'And truly he hath said (told) it to him.' 

2427. ' So was [it] pleasing to him to be laid.' Liflef=lief^ pleas- 
ing, dear. 

2429. ' To him and his elders long previously before.' 
2431. Grauen, buried. Cf. cro.r grave. 
2 435 Or (San, ere that, before that. 

Offiverlde^ from the world. 
2436. Hise kinde, his family kin. 

2440. ' So he left this world's strife (trouble).' 

2441. 'Joseph caused his body to be honourably prepared' (for 

2442. 'To be washed and richly anointed.' Smeren, to anoint, smear. 

2443. * And spice-like (with spices) sweet to be scented.' 

2444. * And Egypt's folk (to) keep a vigil for him.' Si-waken is in 
the infin. mood, after dede. 

2447. ' Such were Egypt's customs. ' 

Wisofheren, wise, skilful in armed expeditions (skilful in con- 
ducting expeditions). 

2481, 82. That bier is led, this folk is quick, 

They went about (along) by Adad (i. e. Atad).' Gen. 1. 10 
2484. ' And make lamentation for Jacob.' 
2488. ' There is that corpse put into the tomb.' 
2494-98. ' Us he this message bade say, 

Our sin thou for him (for his sake) forgive, 
Provided that we under thee live. 

They all fell there at his feet (literally to the feet to Mm), 
To beg (entreat) mercy and offer [the] oath (of fealty).' 
2503. Sibbe, kin, kindred, relations. A. S. sib, peace, kindred ; whence 
gossip ( = God-sib), which originally signified a godfather or godmother, 
i.e. one related in God by the sacrament of baptism. 
2508. ' Hence to that promised land.' 
2510, II. ' Perform it (my prayer) then, and promise it now, 

That my petition be not forlorn (lost sight of).' 
2514. ' May God impart to the soul blissful succour.' See 1. 2138. 
2521. Tofulin wis = to ful iwis, very completely in sooth (indeed), 
i.e. fully. 


2524. Lcjful souks ncd, the need of believing (faithful) souls. 
2526. On Engel tale, in English speech. 

2528. 'May God help him (richly) effectually.' 

2529. ' And preserve his soul from sorrow and tears.' See 1. 1978. 

2530. cold &> hot, the two extreme punishments in hell. Those in 
eternal perdition had to endure alternately icy coldness and fiery heat. 
See Measure for Measure, iii. i. 122. . 

2 532. ' God grant them in His bliss to play (live joyfully)/ 


This poem is of the character which may be described as 'a fliting,* 
or scolding-match ; compare the poem entitled The Fliting of Dunbar 
and Kennedy,' in which those poets abuse each other in no measured 
terms. The poem called the Cuckoo and the Nightingale, often falsely 
attributed to Chaucer, is a poor imitation of the older one here printed. 

Lines 1-4. 'I was in a certain vale, 
In a very secret recess. 
I heard hold great talk 
An owl and a nightingale.* 
6. Lud among, loud at intervals. 

7-10. ' And each against [the] other swelled (out with wrath, anger), 
And let out all that evil mood (mind). 
And each said of other's habits 
The worst of all they knew.' 

14. ' In a corner of a valley' : bceche occurs in Lajamon's Brut, 1. 5644. 
Cf. baches, P. Plowman, C. viii. 159. 

15. Up = upe, upon. 

16. Blosme i-noje, enough (abundance of) blossoms (flowers). 

17. Hegge is here treated as fern.; ore = anre, one, as in 1. 1750. 

1 8. 'Mixed with spires and green sedge.' 

19-22. ' She was the more joyful on account of (for) the branch, 

And sang in modes of many kinds 

It better seemed that it were the noise 

Of harp and pipe than that it were not so.' 
He refers to drem, which is masc. 

23, 24. It seemed better (rather) that it were shot from harp,' &c. 

26. ' Where the owl sang at her times (intervals).' 

27. Bi-growe = bigrowcn, overgrown. 

28. ' It was the dwelling-place of the owl.' 
29-32. 'The nightingale saw her, 

And beheld her and despised her, 

344 NOTES. 

And thought very contemptibly of the owl, 

For one holdeth her loathsome and foul.' 
34. Here ivrs is written for ivurs. See note to sect. I, 1. 12, 
34 -40. ' It is the worse for me that I see thee ; 

Truly for thy ill looks 

Very often I leave off my song ; 
. My heart takes flight, and my tongue falters, 

When thou hast neared me ; 

It were better for me to be sick than to sing, 

On account of thy foul guggling noise.' 
39. Me htste liste, it were pleasing to me. Cf. Me is the ivcrs, 1. 34. 

41. Abodfort, waited until: fort=forte=forto, for to that time, until. 

42. Bileve, remain (silent). 

43. Gret, big, swollen with anger. 

44. 'That wellnigh her breath shot away'; i.e. was all spent. 

45. Warp, uttered ; literally, threw out. Cf. mould-warp, a mole (i.e. 
a caster up of mould or earth \ warped, &c. 

\>ar-after longe, long after that. 

46. Hit pincj>& = hu pincp fie, how seems it to thee? what do you 

47. 'Thinkest thou I know not how to sing?* 

48. Writelinge, ' singing in shakes and flourishes.* 

49. * Often thou causest me offence (indignation).' 
51-54. 'If I held thee in my foot, 

So betide it that I might ! 
An (if) thou wert out of thy branch, 
Thou shouldest sing in another (different) manner.' 
51. The Cotton MS. has note or uote\ read uote\ for the Jesus MS. 
has vote, foot, claw. 

56. Loki, enclose, guard. The M. E. lake, loki, signifies (i) to keep 
close, guard; (2) to conclude, decide. Cp. M. E. lokinge, custody, care. 

60. Segge (subj.), may say. 

61, 62. 'I know that thou art cruel (unmild, savage, fierce) 

With those that may not from thee shield (themselves)/ 
63-65. ' And thou dost wreak vengeance cruelly and ill, 

When thou art able, upon small birds ; 

Wherefore thou art hateful to all bird-kind.' 
65. Fujel-kunne (dat. after lofi) fowl-kind, birds. 

67. Bi-schrichep, shriek or scream at. Schitchep = shrieketh,screecheth ; 
schirche is a softened form of shrike. 

68. ' And pursue thee very closely.* 

70. Hire ponkes (gen. absolute), with her will, willingly. 
75-78. ' Thine eyes are coal-black and broad, 

Right as if they were painted with woad ; 


Thou starest as if thou wishcst to bite 
All that thou mayest with claws smite.' 

80. 'Just as an awl (hook) that is crooked.' The Jesus MS. has Rig 
as on ewel, &c. 

8 1 . Clackest oft and longe. The Jesus MS. has dechest evcrawong. 

82. ' And that is one of thy songs.' 

86. ' That sitteth at the mill under the cog/ 

87. Fuh wijte, foul creatures. 

89. Sittest is to be pronounced sifst. 

94. ' Thou feedest them on a very foul food,' i. e. on goes vfiihfeJest. 
We should read heom on. 

1 39. ifes word, these words. IVonl in A. S. is plural as well as 
singular, being a neuter noun. 

140. Tale, argument, being feminine, requires fare, the fern, of the 
definite article. 

142. 'Right as [if] one were twanging a shrill harp.' 

144. ' And held her eyes downward.' 

145. To-swolle^to-siuolje, exceedingly swollen, enraged. 
I-bolje, puffed up, swollen with rage. 

148. A bisemar, in scorn, mockery. 

1 50. Whi neltu = whi ne wilt thou, why wilt thou not ? why don't you ? 
So nile $e often means ' don't you,' do not. J>e bare, the open. 

151, 2. ' And see which of us two be 

Of brighter hue, of fairer colour (complexion).' 

153. 'No, thou hast very sharp claws; I do not care that thou 
shouldst claw me.* So replies the Nightingale to the Owl's invitation 
to come out into the open. 

154. Ne kepich = Ne kcpe ich, I care not, I like not (Stratmann) ; 
kepen, keep guard, take care, take note of. As a noun, /Cv/ = care, in 
phrase ' take kep? to take care. 

*55~*66. 'Thou hast claws very strong, 

Thou tvvingest therewith as doth a [pair of] tongs. 

Thou thoughtest, as do those like thee, 

With fair words to betray me ; 

I would not do what thou advisedst me, 

I knew well that thou misadvisedst me ; 

Shame on thee for thy treacherous advice 

Revealed is thy treachery ; 

Shield thy treachery from the ligh% 

And hide the wrong among the right. 

When thou wilt thy wickedness expend, 

Look that it be not seen.' 

162. Un-wrojen : the Jesus MS. has umvryen, revealed, manifested. 
1 68. Ope, apparent and perceived. 

346 NOTES. 

169. Speddestu, didst speed. The Jesus MS. has spcdcstu, dost speed. 

170. Blenche, to avoid, flinch. Hamlet, ii. 2. 626 : 'If he but blench, 
I know my course.' 

171. To priste, very bold. 
1.72. Mid liste, with craft. 

1 76. ' Well fights that well flees, says the wise.' This is one of the 
' Proverbs of Alfred,' and of Hending, Spec. Eng. II. p. 3,7. 

177. ' But let us away with this debate.' 
1 80. Midi-some, peaceably. 

1 84. Plaidi midfoje, plead (debate) with (mutual) consent. For/2y* 
Jesus MS. has sofie (truth). 

185. Ure cipcr, each of us. 

187. Wo schal us seme, who shall arbitrate for us, that can and will 
decide equitably between us. 

190. ' There need thereof be no question.* 
193, 4. * Pie is very skilful in giving decision, 

And every vice is hateful to him.' 
197. Sclicde, distinguish, separate. 

199. One wile=one while, a while. Cf.l. 202, where wile = formerly, 

200. After pan, after that. 

203. 'And dear to him was the nightingale.' 

204. Gente and smale, gentle and small. 

205. Swipe acoled, very much cooled down. For swipe the Jesus MS. 
has nupe (now). 

206. ' He is not for thee befooled/ 
208. Legge (subj.), should lay. 
212, 13. Lust him, pleaseth him. 

214. ' He will go in (the) right way.' 

215. ^are, ready. The Jesus MS. has ware. 

216. Aiware = i-hware (Jesus MS.), everywhere. 
223. Schirckest (scrichest in Jesus MS.), shriekest. 

225. ' It seems to both wise and foolish.' Read pincheth. 

232. To his dede, for his deeds. 

266. Nich ne nai, a strong expression of denial. 

267. Lust ich telle \ am pleased to telle. 

272. Wune, custom, wont. The JQSUS MS. "husynne. 

2/7. Fo^le, birds ; the dative after the adj. lop t hateful. 

281. Me is leof, it is pleasant to me, I like. 

308. Lat hem : the Jesus MS. has let hi. 

311. 'But [that] all my singing is howling.' 

318. Heo refers to stcfne in 1. 317. 

324. Won = htvon = hwan, when. 

327. Veorrc, afar. See Genesis and Exodus, 1. 1935. 


328. Dai-rim, break of day. The Jesus MS. has day reive. 

332. Fort, until. The Jesus MS. has/>dtf. 

338. ftaj monnes earen, the ears of the man. 

340. Me ne telp, one esteemeth. 

342. 'That she (inur)pe is fern.) shall please very badly.' 

346. ipinche wel un-murie, appear doleful (unmerry, unpleasant). See 
Merch. of Venice, v. I. 104. 

347. Over un-wille, beyond what is desirable, or wished for. 

351. Godhede= good-head, goodness. 

352. Unmetei want of moderation. Over-dede ^yx,^,. 
394. Alegge, set aside, confute; see Skeat, s. v. allay , p. 777. 
398. So fcor-vorp i-ladde, led so far, i.e. carried so far. 
403. ' Against his foe beareth (putteth on) a bold face.' 

406. ' That will flee if thou ceasest not.' Niswi<;st = ne + iswicsf. 
408. He wile of bore wurthcn bare), He will from a boar become a 
barrow-pig. For bare) the Jesus MS. has barek. 
413. 'Thou singest as doth a hen in the snow.' 

427,428. 'He cared (recked] not though companies were mingled 
(huddled together) by heads and by hair,' i. e. were fighting and pulling 
one another by the hair. 

434~3^ 'Every creature is glad for my'sake, 

And blesses itself when I come, 
And rejoices at my coming.' 

435. For blissej) the Jesus MS. has blessej), blesses ; but blissep = is glad, 

440. Ipatfu hit wife, that thou may know it. 

550. * Thou hast urged thy plaint, as thou didst ask (to be allowed to 

552. But ere we go to our doom.' Unker is dual ~ of us two. See 
I.i 5 i. 

558. 'Thou twittest me as to my meat (food).' 
600. But spiders and nasty flies.' 
602. Among (in) the crevices of the hard bark.' 
603-6. ' Yet I can do many good services, 

For I can guard men's dwellings ; 
And my offices are very good, 
For I help for men's food.' 
610. 'To cleanse it from foul mice.' 
6u, 12. 'There shall never come thereto 
Foul creature, if I may catch it.' 

614. Wright's edition has yernen instead of ivernen, which gives a 
itter sense. It would then mean : ' and if it pleases me, in my amuse- 
?nt, to long for another dwelling.' If we keep -werneri, the sense is 
refuse any other dwelling.' 

348 NOTES. 

6 1 6. Nopingblete, not at all despicable 

618. 'That ever continueth (standeth) alike blooming (flourishing).' 

619. 'And its (the ivy's) colour never loses (lades).' 

620. When it snoweth nor when it freezeth.' For snitif the Jesus 
MS. has snywe, the subjunctive mood. 

66o ' Was wellnigh out of patience v become/ i.e. had nearly lost all 
command of herself. 

709. In sume tide, sometimes. 

714. 'Than all that ever thy kin (species) could (were able to do).' 

716, 717. * Knowest thou to what man was bora ? 
To the bliss of heaven's kingdom.' 

727. Nime }eme, may take heed, attend to. 

732. Ofpe. Jesus MS. has ofpon. 

735. Wat I mai, is our phrase what I can, what I am able to do. 

738. Raddere, the readier, the more disposed. 

742. }>at ever is eche, that is everlasting. 

746. pe sulve pope, the very pope, the pope himself. 

748. I-here an oper wes can only mean ' hear in another wise' (manner), 
or ' hear another wise ' (strain) ; the Jesus MS. has abyde on oper bles, 
abide another blast. 

838. ' Thou goest (farest) wholly with deceit.' gest to, goest on, pro- 
ceedest; so Matzner. 

840. Tpincp sop, appeareth true. 

841. I-sliked, made sleek (slick\ or smooth, feigned, deceitful, 

842. Bi-liked, made pleasing. 

843. 844. 'That all those that hear (take in) them (i.e. thy words), 

They ween that thou speakest the truth.' 
8-15-8. 'Stop! Stop! one shall show thee, 

How it shall be well seen 

That thou hast greatly lied, 

When thy leasing (lying) is made manifest (bewrayed).* 
846. Wu = hwti, how. The Jesus MS. has Nu, now. 
850. Fundiep heonne, go hence. See 1. 719. 
852. Alre "wunder mest, most wonderful of all. 
905. An oper peode, in another land. 

909. Hivi nultu, why will you not ? why don't you? See 1. 150. 

910. Singen men, sing to men. 

914. Heom or horn, them, is required after tecJie. 

917. Ydel ivel, useless (worthless) well. On-idel (1. 920) =in vain. 

919. Fordni$efor-drugen, dry up. 

1636. Blowe = blowen, blown, blooming. 

1638. Beo nu wear, be now aware (sure). 

1640. Mist, missest. 

1641. Manne lop, hateful to men. 


1642. Evcr-cuch wiht, every creature. 

1643. 'And mid howling (yelling) and crying/ 

1644. Wanst, weenest. The Jesus MS. has pinchst. 

1648. Schawles, scarecrow, literally spectacle. The Jesus MS. has 

1651. Me gest an honde, goest into my hands, playest into my hands. 

1656. Brihte=bri$te t clearly. 

1661-3. 'Because it appeared to them that she had 

The owl overcome, wherefore they shouted (applause) 
And sang also in many wise.' 

1664. And. The Jesus MS. has \>at. 

1665. Gret pe manne a schame, cryeth shame upon the man. 

1666. 'That playeth at dice (tables) and loseth the game.' 
1668. I-banned ferde, levied (thine) army. 

1699. Fiht-laCy fighting, -lac occurs as an affix in wedlock. 

1709. 'Gone after her army.' 

1715-6. ' Through big words, and with (bold) countenance, 
Causes his foe for fear to sweat.' 

1722. 'And sang willingly (with pleasure) to many men.' 

J 733- 'To us (two) shall betide harm and disgrace.' 

J 734- F r ^ the Jesus MS. has -we. 

Dop grip-bruche, commit a breach of the peace. 

1/41. Ah do, but I do grant it. Ah = ac, but. 

1 747. For schttlde, the Jesus MS. has schulle, 

1 750. In ore linde, in a linden tree. The Jesus MS. has hore. 

1752. Portes-hom, Portisham, S. W. of Dorchester. It is here de- 
scribed as being 'beside [i.e. near] the sea, on an out-let.' It is 
now about 3 miles inland. 

1761. 'That is to the bishops' great shame.' 

1764. 'Why will they not betake themselves to counsel ?' i. e. why 
,'ill they not take thought together ? 

1767. 'And pay him tithe in many places.' 

1776. Litle childre, to little children, i. e. to very young persons. 

1778. 'That ever abideth (endureth), master Nichol.' 

1779. Ute we pah to him fare, let us nevertheless go to him. 
1781. Do we, do we, let us do. 

1785. Ende of orde = a\\ the end from the beginning. 
170,0-91. ' All without army and without troops 
Until they reached Portisham.' 

350 NOTES. 


The reader should consult an excellent article upon this poem by 
Prof. "Zupitza, which appeared in the publication called Anglia, vol. i. 
p. 5 (1878). Zupitza shews that there are six copies of the poem, which 
can be arranged in two groups. To the former belong the copies in the 
Trinity MS. and in MS. Digby A. 4 ; whilst to the latter belong the 
copies in the Jesus MS., MS. Lambeth 487, and MS. Egerton 613. The 
last-mentioned MS. contains two copies, viz. one at foil. 7-12, printed 
by Furnivall, and another at foil. 64-70, the various readings of which 
were given by Furnivall in footnotes. Zupitza prints MS. Digby A. 4 
(foil. 97-110) in full, investigates the relationship to each other of the 
six copies, shews that Morris is mistaken in supposing these copies to be 
derived from some earlier version (as suggested at p. 195), and that the 
probable date of the poem cannot be before 1170. In fact, the word 
bikeihte in 1. 322 on p. 215 is of French origin, whilst it is at the same 
time necessary to the rime, and therefore original ; though miswritten by- 
}>ouhte in 1. 316 on p. 214. So also the riming words ermine, sabeline 
(11. 365, 366, p. 219) are French; yet they are essential to the rime and 

Page 194, line 2. Auhte, ought ; past tense in form, present in mean- 
ing; oh in the Trinity MS. being the correct form. 

5. Vnneft lif=unnet lif, useless life. 

P. 196, 1. 14. pe, he who. 

20. ' Slow we are to do good, to evil all too bold.' 

21. 'More fear stands to man of man, than to him of Christ.* 

For pan him to cryste, read pan him doS of cryste^ as in Digby MS. 

23. ' When all men shall reap what they ere sowed.' 

24. Dod to gode, do for God. 

35. Ne lipne no mon to muchel, let no man trust too much. 
27. On vuele stude, in [an] evil place. 

30. 'Let not thy kinsman or kinswoman be dearer to thee than 

35. pefretnede and J>e sibbc, the stranger and the kinsman. 

36. pe -wel mile do hivile he may, he who will not do well while he is 

37. ' Many a man's sore toil often hath ungracious ones/ i. e. a man 
often receives no return for his hard work. 

38. Don a virst, put in delay, put off. 

41 . Hit refers to blisse in 1. 40. The Trinity MS. has hes, her ; blisse 
being originally a feminine noun. 

P. 198, 1. 43. ' But they put their wealth in a secure place, who send 
it to heaven's kingdom.' 


352 MOTES. 

105. Way, alas ! Cf. A. S. wd in wd Id wd, wellaway! 

112. ' He that knows least often says most, and he that knows all is 

114. For hwat read wot hwat. Tor, as one says, he that is ill 
himself [knows] what pains him.' The Trinity MS. is slightly different : 
* Whoso says that he is whole, he himself best knows his pain.' This 
is evidently a proverb, like ours that every one knows best where the 
shoe pinches him. 

117. Com to monne, became a man. 

1 1 8. Het schal him pinche fienne, it shall then appear to him. 

121. God yef vs god ende, good [is it] if to us the end [be] good. 
"We ought to read god yef god is ende, as in the Egerton MS. 613. 

122. 'God grant to us that our end be good, whither he may cause us 
to arrive.' For hwider the Digby, Lambeth, and Egerton MSS. read and 
ivite, ' and wite J>at he us lende,' and that he may preserve what he has 
given us. 

124. \>at is perhaps an error for/#;z, when. 

125, 126. ' That he is unable to pray for mercy, for that often happens. 
Wherefore he is wise that beseeches mercy, and makes amendment 
before the Doom.' 

129. 'Renounce sin whilst thcu art able, and do according to God's 
; 133. ' Either sooner or later he shall find mercy.' 

P. 203, 1. 102. Hes, them. niseien = ne-iseicn, see not. 

103. \>eswichen; cp. \>e swikcn of the Jesus MS. Digby MS., \>oswikele. 

122. And jieue fat he us lende. Peihaps wite should be read for 
}ieue ; see note to p. 202, 1. 122. 

128. Late$ = leteth, forsakes, leaves off. 

129. 'Sin leaves thee, and thou hast it not when thou art not able to 
do it any more.' See the last line in Chaucer's Doctoures Tale. 

P. 204, 11. 135, 136. 'Many a man says "Who cares for the pain 
that shall have an end? May I not better pray to be delivered from 
bonds on Doomsday?'" 

138. Hwich hete is far fie soule wunefi, what the heat is like where 
the soul dwells. Here hwilch has its original meaning of what like, 
what sort of. 

139. Oper vnnefe one tyde, or scarcely one hour. 

143. 'I have never gone to hell, nor do I care to go there.' 

146. 'There shall be seven years' sorrow for a se'ennight's (week's) 

148-50. 'Better is a drink of turbid water, than poison mixed with 
wine. Roast of swine is sweet ; so is that of the wild deer (animal). 
Lut all too dearly he buys it, who gives his neck for it.' 

153. 'Had he experienced it some time he would say quite otherwise.' 


354 NOTES. 

241. pet ich pych, perhaps an error for per is pych, so in the 
Trinity MS. 

244. Ne auene strem ne strire, neither the river Avon nor the Stour. 
This mention of the rivers Avon and Stour is interesting as affording 
a possible indication of the locality of the poem. There are several 
rivers of these names, but only in two cases are they found in conjunction. 
A Stour runs into an Avon near Stratford-on-Avon, Warwickshire; 
whilst another Avon and Stour join at Christchurch, Hampshire. The 
poem being in a Southern dialect, the latter is more probable ; there 
was a monastery at Christchurch, at an early period, which was con- 
verted into a priory of St. Austin's Canons in 1150. This locality 
would suit very well. 

P. 211, 1. 246. Haste ; read nilaste, did not perform. 

259. Mes^me + es, one (Ger. #*##) + them. Cf. 1. 251, p. 210. 
- P. 212, 1. 252. Med-yorne=med-jierne, bribe-greedy, desirous of 
bribes or meed. 

253. 'Those to whom was dear another man's wife, and their own 
they neglected.' 

255. Wrecche men, poor men, -wretched men. 

256. 'And thought little of God's command (message), and of God's 

258. This line has been needlessly introduced by the scribe of the 
Jesus MS. See next note. 

259. par he sat at his borde, where he sat at his table. The Lambeth 
MS. \&&penne he hit herde bode, when he heard it (message) proclaimed. 
The Egerton MS. has per he sette his beode, where he appointed his 
prayers. The original reading was not borde, but bede or biede ; the 
latter of these forms occurs both in the Trinity and Digby MSS. Borde 
is a mere gloss upon bede, which also means 'a table/ and answers to 
A. S. beode, dat. of bead, a table. If the scribe had retained this word, 
he need not have introduced the superfluous line numbered 258. 

262. pat, to which. See 1. 253, p. 212. Or read pan, the dat. case. 

264. This line is not wanted. For/ read in pe. 
Ueondes onwolde, the devil's power. 

265. Gaderares, amassers, gatherers. Egerton MS. has gysceres, 
covetous. Lambeth MS. reads pa pe weren eure abuten pisse worldes 

266. Tycede, enticed, instigated. The original reading was tihte t 
which had a similar meaning. 

272. per terep. Probably petorpe should be read : that tear, &c. 

pat vuele spekep, those that speak ill. The Egerton MS. has 
pe uuele speken, the evil speakers, or, those who spake ill (of others). 
"The Trinity MS. has, probably the original reading, pa euele swiken t 
the wicked deceivers. 


274. 'There is much of God's heat (anger), and much of God's wrath.' 

280. Bi sihtes = bi sihte, with their eyes open, wittingly. 

P. 213, 1. 290. Senden beop t are. 

P. 214, 11. 286-8. 'All that one may suffer here is but game and glee 
(i. e. in comparison with hell-pains), And yet nothing causes them such 
woe in the loathsome bonds As to know that their torment shall have 
no end.' 

289. Lawe-lese, without law, law-less. 

290. ' To whom God's prohibitions and behests were of no account.* 

291. Beop per heorure nere is evidently corrupt, for which read heo 
>opper heore mere, they are there their fellows. 

293. Anyper helle grunde, in hell's abyss below. The Egerton MS. 
s on pere helle grunde, in the abyss of hell. 

296. Noper . . . ne, neither . . . nor, nor . . . nor. 

297. Wippe ilkepyne, from that same pain (torment). 

298. Warnyvich, let each warn ; vich = vch, each. The Egerton MS. 
has esc = ale, each. 

300. ' I know how to be both, if I must, body's and soul's physician.' 

301. 'Let us forsake what God has forbidden to all mankind.' 

306. 'It all hangs and holds by these two words,' i.e. love to God 
and to man. See 1. 308. 

310. 'It is hard to stand long, and easy it is to fall.* 

317. Earmynges, poor (mortal) men. 

P. 215, 1. 314. Hes, them, refers to luues. 

P. 210, 1. 319. 'They are unable to protect themselves from cold or 

m hunger.' 

322. \>er-of=ofpere, of that (world, i.e. heaven). 

324. To hwan, to what; of hwan, from what. 

326. 'And according to what is good to work well, then need we 
care not.' 

331. Vie we vs werie, let us defend (keep) ourselves. 

342. Schedep, separate; the correct reading is probably scheldep, 

ield ; see the Trinity text. 

P. 217, 1. 342. ' That leadeth the ninth part of men to hell, one may 


347. Mid pare nffier helde, along the downward slope. 

P. 218, 1. 349. ' He who shall have least, he shall have so much he 
shall ask no more.' 

350. Hwo so replaces pepat, the older sepe. 

352. And oper vnyliche, and unlike each other. 

359. 'There shall not be indeed, nor ought of world's weal.' 

360. Al hit is god one, it is all God himself. 

363. ' He is full of every good thing, there is nothing that he is 

A a 2 

356 NOTES. 

367. Notice ivip-vte replaces buten or lute. 

370. For vnhelj>e read vnisetye, as in the Digby MS. 

371. ' Afterwards one shall see the Lord as he truly is.' 

376. Lyues bee, the book of life ; bee is the old dative singular of 
loc, book. Lambeth MS. has kali boc hi sculle iseon alfat hi her nusten. 

377. I-nouh to alle derlinges, sufficient for all his darlings. 

P. 219, 1. 366. Metheschele martres cheole, marten's skin; the latter 
is the reading of both copies in the Egerton MS. 

P. 221, 1. 392. Non seed, no satiety, no weariness. 

399. ' Christ grant us to lead here such a life and to have here such 
an end (death).' 


The French lay entitled ' Le Lai d'Havelok le Danois ' was printed 
by Mr. T. Wright as an Appendix to his edition of Gaimar's Chronicle 
(Caxton Society, 1850). Some notes upon the English version, by 
Prof. Zupitza, will be found in Anglia, vol. i. p. 468. 

Line 354. Than, when. 

Wolde, would, is often written tvulde* 

355. Fulde, completed, numbered. 

360. Bethe, both ; the same partial rime recurs at 1. 694. 

362. Hoshn, to administer the sacrament, to housel. See 1. 364. 

365. Quiste, bequest. See Owl and Nightingale, 1. 685. 

374. Zupitza remarks that this line gives no sense, and that we must 
read as for that. It means : ' and chose soon a rich man, who was the 
truest under the moon, as he [wrongly] imagined,' &c. 

380. ' And in his hand bear a strong spear.' 

387. Hdde = eld, age. 

389. Messe-gere, mass-gear, apparatus of the mass. 

404. Mirke nict, -dark night. 

418. Febldike, feebly, badly, scantily. 

419. 'He gave not [the consideration of] a nut for his oaths.' 
425. ' Withuten on, except one. 

453. What isyow? What is (there) to you? what is the matter with 

460. ' Half part (half as much) as we may (can) eat.' 

Moun, pi. pres. of mowen, be able. 
462. Nis it no, is not there no ? is there no ? 
472. ' And afterwards hacked them all to pieces.' 


: 474. Bi the -waive, by the wall. To lie by the wall = to be dead, but 

unburied. From A.S. wah, a wall ; Cf. E. -wain-scot, borrowed from 


. 484. Manrede, homage. The -rede (A.S. r&deri) is an affix common 

to many A.S. words, and still exists in kin-d-red t hat-red* 

486. To that forward, on that condition (promise). 

495. ' Never yet begat me.' 

509. Lines, alive. Chaucer frequently uses the gen. form in this sense. 

513. Brouct of Hue, brought from life, put to death. 

544. Hauelok is in the vocative case ; for -wreken read wreke. It 
means : ' May Jesus Christ, who made the halt to walk and the dumb 
to speak, avenge thee, Havelok, upon Godard ! ' 

546. Zupitza thinks a couple of lines must have dropped out between 
11. 546 and 547. It is difficult to see what governs the word keuel. But 
we may take keuel as in apposition with cloth, and explain the whole 
thus : ' When Grim had fast bound him, and afterwards wound [him] in 
an old cloth, [viz. in] a gag made of clouts, very dirty, so that he could 
neither speak nor breathe, wherever he should bear or drag him ; when (I 
say) he had done that deed,' &c. (see below). The 'winding ' of Havelok 
may refer to his head only, for which a small cloth would suffice. 

ipitza shews that the former ne in 1. 548, which is not in the MS., need 
lot have been supplied, as it is occasionally omitted in such a construction. 

547. Keuel of clutes, a gag made of rags. Ful,\ery. 

551. This is a difficult passage. The MS. really has: 'Hwaw >e 
swike him hauede hethede.' Zupitza proposes to retain hauede hethede, 
and to take hethede as written for ethed ; for there are numerous 
examples in Havelok in which h is wrongly prefixed to a word beginning 
with a vowel. Ethed will then be the pp. of M.E. ethen ( = A. S. &Qan = 
'ddiati). This A. S. word does not occur, but is regularly formed as a 
causal verb from d$, an oath ; so that ethen means ' to make to take an 
oath/ in which sense it indubitably occurs in Sir Gawain and the Grene 
Knight, 11. 379, 2467. There is an objection to this, in the fact that the 
ethed cannot rime with bede ; we must retain the final -e, in which 
ethede is a past tense, and hauede is superfluous. The best sense is 

)t by omitting hauede, and writing That for Hwan (MS.). We must 
ilso consider 1. 554 as parenthetical, as Zupitza rightly says, and change 
the full stop at the end of that line to a comma. We then get this sense 
(continued from the last note) ; * when he had done that deed, which the 
deceiver bad him [do], viz. that he should lead him forth and drown him 
in the sea (for that covenant they made), soon he cast him upon his back 
[enclosed] in a foul and black bag,' &c. 

567-8. These lines do not rime, perhaps they ran originally; 
'And caste the knaue so harde adoun, 
That ther he crakede croun.' 

35 8 NOTES. 

597. The MS. has Sir up, which is clearly an error, though a strange 
one, for Ris up, rise up ; which exactly suits the context. 

745. Zupitza reads: 'So }at Grimesbi [hit] calle,' which gives excel- 
lent sense. It is clear that alk is needlessly repeated ; and when it has 
been struck out of 1. 745, we must also alter calleth to calk. 


For a critical edition of King Horn, with Introduction, Text and 
variants, Notes, and g Glossary, by Dr. Theodor Wissmann, see ' Quellen 
and Forsschungen zur Sprach- und Culturgeschichte,' xvi. and xlv. 

Line i. he = heo = hi, they. 

2. Laud MS. 1 08 has Tpat to me ivilen life. 

6. Wei (while) J>at hise dayes lesten. (Laud MS.) 

9. Here sone hauede to name horn. (Laud MS.) 

ii. Birine, may rain. Laud MS. has reyne. 

14, 15. Brict so euere any glas. 

Whit so any lili flour. (Laud MS.) 

1 6. After this line Laud MS. introduces the following lines: 
He u< as fay r and eke bold 
And offiftene -winter hold. 

18. His iliche, his equal. See 11. 289, 340 of this poem. Laud MS. 
has himyliche, like him. 

20. Wip. Laud MS. has mid. 

25. Ipat on was hoten Ayol child. (Laud MS.) 

25, 26. \>at on . . .pat oper = the tone . . .the tother, the first and the 

32. Rod on his pleing, rode a-playing. The introduction of his shows 
that pleing is a verbal noun, and not a participle. See Historical 
Outlines of English Accidence, p. 179. 

34. ' As he was wont to ride.' Laud MS. has Iper he was ivoned to 

39. Isojte may be for hi sojte. 

43. Land folk, folk of the land, natives. 

47. Ali$te of, alighted off. Laud MS. has licte adoun. 

51, 52. ' Swords they did grasp And together smote.' Notice the use 
of the auxiliary gunne = did, in 1. 51. 

54. Sume hit yfelde, * it (i.e. the sword) felled some.' The former 
e in yfelde should be short to rime with schelde. But perhaps yfelde 
yfelden, we must then render : ' Some felt it.' Some of hem he felde* 
(Laud MS.) 

55. Al to f ewe, much too few. 

56. ' Against so many shrews ' (villains). 


57, 58. ' So many might easily Bring those three to death.' 

60. Neme, took. Laud MS. has nomen, 

63-66. ' There might not live The stranger nor the kinsman, Except 
they forsook their own law, And took to theirs.' 

65. Asoke=0f-soke. Laud MS. \&s forsaken. 

68* panne. Laud MS. reads onne, i.e. one, alone. 

74. Liuede. Laud MS. reads ivonede, dwelt. 

76. 'Against the pagan's prohibition.' 

80. Him beo myld, should be merciful to him. Laud MS. has him 
were mild. 

83. * Great was \i\sfair-hood' (beauty). 

87. 'If his fairness (beauty) existed not,' i.e. were it not for his beauty. 

94. Laud MS. reads ]>ou art eueneliche long. 

Euene long, of full size, not undergrown. Cp. A. S. emlang (B.T.). 

96. In ]>is ff yere ]>e nexte. (Laud MS.) 

97. To Hue go, go away alive, be allowed to live. 
101. To stere, to use the helm, steer. 

103. 'To ship ye shall go.' 

104. To J>e grunde, to the bottom. 

1 06. 'It shall not repent us,' we shall not be sorry for it, 

no. 'And thy father's death atone for.' 

113. Into schupes borde, aboard the ship. 

121. Wely-ivisse (Laud MS.). The Cambridge MS. has to-wisse. 

122. To mtsse, to lose. 

126. In fe londe, unto the land. A-lond (Laud MS ). 
128. Tifinge = tidinge (Laud MS.), tidings, news. 
141, 142. Laud MS. reads 

Softe motefou stirit 

No "water J>e derie. 
149. Holandfer, whole and sound. 
151. Fonde, experience, feel. 
154. Cf. 'by hill and dale.' 

161, 162. Gumes . . . icume. The Laud MS. \xs&grome; the original 
reading was perhaps giime ( = the older gumen=guman) t men. 

165. God hi m yeue god timings. (Laud MS.) 

166. ' A such fair company '= such a fair company. 
180. 'And did them from life,' i.e. put them to death. 

187. 'One day is gone and a second.' Cf. 'the other day,* two (or 
more) days ago. 

204. ' King, well may it betide' 

206. 'Well answer to thy name (of Horn).' For newning'LaxA. MS. 
reads naming. 

207-10, Horn him goth snille (quickly) 

Bi dales an bi hulls 

360 NOTES. 

And poruuth eche tonne 
Horn him shilkp soune. (Laud MS.) 
207. Schulle = schilk, shrill. See Owl and Nightingale, 1. 142. 

229. 'Of thy craft.' Cf. 'a god mester? Prologue to Canterbury 
Tales, 1. 613. 

230. Ofriuere, of rivers. Laud MS. has offelde. 
235, 236. And teach him of all the crafts 

That thou ever wist (knew) of.' 

237. Wise, instruct. Laud MS. has His feren deriise. 
243. ' And Horn in heart took.' Cf. ' took to heart.' 
246. Elks, elsewhere. 

249, 50. Dorter . . .potfe. The final e must have been very strongly 
sounded mfioujte. 

278. HimJ>u$te, appeared to him. 

281. Upon his mode, in his mind. 

287. Stilk, secretly. See 1. 310. 

291. 'Sorely I fear me.' 

304. ' Thou shalt never more be dear to me.' 

307. To spuse, for a spouse (wife) . 

308. Wolde welde, wield, possess. 

315. Bi one ribbe. Laud has honder (under) ribbc. 

325. Went = wend, go, depart. 

331. 'Horn is fairer than he (Athulf) may be.' 

335. 'Ah lady, mine own !' 

336, 7. 'Listen to me a little while ; 

Listen why I feared, &c.' 

342. 'Put him in my keeping,' placed him under my care. 

344. ' Very sorely I fear me.' ; 

352. 'Whoever recks/ lit. to whomsoever it may be a matter 
of care. 

354. Lynne, cease. Laud MS. has leyhe, laugh. 

356. ' Well was it with her at that time.' 
1 366. What me telle ( = wat men telle, Laud MS.), what one may say. 

378. ' It shall never repent thee.' 

385. Ofhisfeire si$te. Laud has, Ofpatfayre ivihcte (person). 

416. Wher he beo, wherever he may be. 

421, 2. 'It becomes thee not of kind (properly, naturally) 

That thou should be bound to me as a wife.' 
Laud has, Ich am nawt of kende, 

\>e to spouse welde. 

424. King, as not unfrequently in Early English, is of the common 

425. Mislyke, to dislike, to be displeased. In King Lear we fmd 
mislike not dislike, which latter is a hybrid word. 


439, 40. 'Then is my servitude turned into knighthood/ 

448. 'Ere a se'nnight come.' 

452. 'And see that he keep his agreement.' 

460. ' It shall be well requited him.' 

461, 2. ' Christ grant him [good] speed, 

Thy message to present.' 

469. 'And told him of his need.' 

477. Is. Laud MS. has worfe, shall be. 

482. He schal )clde. Laud MS. reads, He schal ben held* 

486. ' It beseems him to be a good knight.' 

498. Sume hi, some [of] them. This was the ordinary construction 
in Anglo-Saxon. 
. 503. A litel wi)t, a little whit. Cf. no whit, any whit, aught, &c. 

527. Go one, go alone. 

528. His mone, his mate, companion. See 1. 842. 
530. ' Horn's coming seemed good to her.' 

533. Time is here a dissyllable. 

537, 8. Dedes . . . sedes, originally dede . . . sede. 

547. Knijtes $onge, i. e. newly made knights. 

554. ' Therefore to me stands the greater haste ;' it is incumbent upon 
me to make greater haste (to prove myself a valiant knight). 

564. 'Good to it (the ring) is the decoration, ornamenting.' 

571. Grace, virtue, power. 

579. 'Horn, I commend thee to God/ Lumby's text has ' Horn, I 
beseech (God) for thee.' 

591, 2. ' The foal shook the armour 

That all the court did din' (resound). 

624. 'At the point above.' 

627. Welpu sitte = wel motefiou sitte (Laud MS.) 

628. Mitte = mid te = mid the, with thee. 
631, 2. I say a schip rowe, 

Mid watere al byflowe. (Laud MS.). 
634. Londisse men, men of the country. 
640. In one lite stounde, in a. little time (Laud MS.). 
646. After this line Laud MS. has, 

To wode he gan 'wende, - t ' v. 

For to latchenfie heyndc. 
647-9. Wy* h m rod Fokenild, 

\>at atyer werste moder child. 

And Horn wente into boure. (Laud MS.). 
651-63. ' He saw Rymenhild sit 

As if she were out of her wits : 

She sat in the sun.' 


Laud MS. reads as follows : 

He fond Reymild sittende 
Sore "wepende. 
Whit so eny sonne. 

Note that Heo=Hc, he ; but he = heo, she ; by confusion. 
658, 9. Me J>oute in my metynge (dream) 

\>at ich rod onfischinge. (Laud MS.) 
660. Haste, to last ; but Laud MS. reads lache, take. 
665, 6. God and seynte steuene 

Qwad horn, feme pi sweuene. (Laud MS.) 

670. Laud MS. reads To habben and to howe (possess). 
7'o knowe, to be acknowledged. 

671. ' Before every other person.' 

674. \>are, dat. fern, of the definite article. Laud MS. reads here, their. 

675. Weop ille, wept badly or sorely. 

676. 'And Horn let the tears drop.' Laud MS. reads spille for 
stille ; both verbs mean the same. 

685. Bi sture, along the river Stour. Laud MS. reads The King rod 
bi his toure. 

704. Wei mtirne, very mourningly, very sorrowfully. 

705. '$erne = erne, run, hasten. 

710. 'Thou shalt nevermore be dear to me.' 
713. Butepuflitte, except thou flit. 
718. 'With arms he did invest himself.* 
722. Nabod=ne abod, he delayed not. 
751. 'Thou hast never forsaken me.' 
761. ' The wind did delay him.' 
763. To londe he ganflette. (Laud MS.) 

780. ' With me thou remain awhile.' 

781. * As sure as I shall die.' Laud MS. reads, So ich ne mote sterue. 
783. Mylyue = on lyue (Laud MS.), in my life. 

787. 'He sat (placed) himself a kneeling,' he went on his knees. 

799. To ivoje. Laud MS. reads awowen, to woo. 

801. 'Purposed thou hast to marry.' 

821, 2. Ure . . . joure, ours . . . yours. 

825. Be = schalbe (Laud MS.). 

842. ' Without more companions.' 

877, 8. 'Horn began to be alarmed, 

And his blood (began) to rise.' See 11. 1334, 5. 
80. \>at, those that. 
881-86. Ant hys fader aquclde, 

He smot hym honder schelde y 

He lokede on hys gode ringe, 

And pout e on reymyld fe jonge, 


Mid gode dunt atefurste 

He smot hym to pe herte. (Laud MS.) 

901. In bare = on bere (Laud MS.), on bier. 

907, 8. Dcde bep myn hey res, 

Andpoupe boneyres. (Laud MS.) 

914. pat syt in boure softs. (Laud MS.) 
Onpe lofte, aloft, on high. 

915. Wip wronge, wrongfully. 

917, 1 8. 'Should I receive your daughter, whom you offer me, in 
order (for me) to govern your realm.' 

1022. Posse. CLpossede in P. Plow. B. prol. 151. 

1047. 'She could not hold out, so that she wept not/ i. e. she could 
not help weeping. 

1062. Deole, dole, grief: qy. deore, harm, pity. 

1074. To-wrong, distorted. See sect. xn. 1. 58, p. 135. Laud MS. 
reads gan wrings. 

1075. Afulchere, an ugly (foul) face. 
1080. Hard, sternly, in harsh terms. 

1 122. 'As was the custom of the country/ 

1126. No mone, no share. Cf. ymone in 1. 842. 

1127. Horn sits on the floor, the place for beggars, &c. See P. 
Plow. B. xii. 198-200. 

1134. Of a brun, from a brown (jar). 

1 1 60. To chelde = to kaldc (Laud MS.), to grow cold. 

1 163. ' But it appeared wonderful to her.' 

1164. Wy he hyre bed dynke. (Laud MS.) 
1195. Wolde agesse, would purpose (guess). 
1 21 1. * To slay her hateful lord with.' 

1274. Tofelle = tofullen (Laud MS.), to complete. 
1304. ' And avenge my father.' 

1331. Crois li$te: Laud MS. has crowches for crois. 

1332. pat pou leucst on Cryste. (Laud MS.) 
1337. He seyde : hy serue ylle 

Paynyns ajen my -wille. (Laud MS.) 
1340. And po were come into pis yle. (Laud MS.) 
1406. \>e leuede on thefende, who believed in the devil. (Laud MS.) 
1463, 4. Fykenyld hauep gon onder, 

And don Reymyld som -wonder. (Laud MS.) 
1470. \>e sunne upriste, the sun's uprising. 
1488. ' He hath beguiled thee twice.' 
1492. Wip none ginne, by no contrivance or art. 
1552. 'Where he experienced sorrow.' 



1. Anglo-Saxon Gospels, in A. S. and Northumbrian Versions, ed. Kemble 

and Skeat, 1858-78. 

2. Anglo-Saxon Old Testament, Pentateuch, &c., ed. Greiu, 1872. 

3. Bartsch: Chrestomathie de 1'ancien frangais (glossaire), 1880. 

4. Beowulf: ed. Heyne, 1873. 

5. Bosworth : Anglo-Saxon Dictionary, 1838. 

6. B. T. : Bosworth-Toller A. S. Diet, [to Hwistlian]. 

7. Brachet: French Diet., Clarendon Press, 1882. 

8. Chaucer: ed. Morris, 1880 (glossary). 

9. Chaucer I : ed. Morris, Prologue, &c. 1 

10. Chaucer 2 : ed. Skeat, Prioresses Tale, &c. > glossaries. 

11. Chaucer 3: ed. Skeat, Man of La we, &c. ) 

12. Chron.: Two Saxon Chronicles, ed. Earle, 1865. 

13. Christ. Antiq. : Dictionary of Christian Antiquities, Murray, 1875. 

14. Corpus Poeticum Boreale, by Vigfusson and F. York Powell, 1883. 

15. Cotgrave: French and English Diet., 1 61 1. 

16. Diez: Etymologisches Worterbuch, 1878. 

17. Ducange: Lexicon Manuale, ed. Maigne D'Arnis, 1866. 

1 8. Pick : Worterbuch der Indogermanischen Sprachen, 1874. 

19. Graff: Althochdeutscher Sprachschatz, 1834-42. 

20. Grein: Glossary to Anglo-Saxon Poetry, 1861. 

21. Grimm: Teutonic Mythology, ed. Stallybrass, 1883. 

22. Halliwell : Dictionary of Archaic and Provincial Words, 1874. 

23. Heliand: ed. Heyne, 1873 (glossary). 

24. Icel. Diet.: Icelandic Dictionary, Cleasby and Vigfussoa, 1874. 

25. Jamieson: Scottish Dictionary, 1867. 

26. Kluge: Etymologisches Worterbuch der deutschen Sprache, 1883. 

27. Layamon : Brut, ed. Madden, 1847. 

28. Leo: Angelsachsisches Glossar, 1877. 

29. Miitzner: Altenglische Sprachproben, 1869. 

30. M. Miiller, Lectures : on the Science of Language, 1875. 

31. Nares : Glossary, 1876. 

32. N. E. D. : New English Dictionary, ed. Murray, 1884 [to Ant.]. 

33. Otfrid: Evangelienbuch, glossar, ed. Piper, 1884. 

34. Oudemans : Old Dutch Dictionary (to end of T). 

35. Piers Plowman: Notes by Skeat, E.E.T.S., 1877. 

3 66 


36. Prompt. Parv. : Promptorium Parvulorum, ed. Way, 1865. 

37. Psalms (O.F.): Lothringischer Psalter, ed. Apfelstedt, 1881. 

38. Roland : Chanson de Roland, ed. Gautier, 1881. 

39. Schmid: Gesetze der Angelsachsen (glossar), 1858. 

40. Skeat : Etymological Diet, of Eng. Lang., 1884. 

41. Skeat, English Words in Norman French, Philolog. Soc., 1882. 

42. Spec. E. E. 2.: Specimens of Early English, ed. Morris and Skeat 

(glossary), 1873. 

43. Stratmann: Diet, of the Old Eng. Lang.j 1873. 

44. Sweet: A.S. Reader, 1884. 

45. Tatian: Evangelienbuch, ed. Sievers, 1872. 

46. Trevisa : version of Higden, Rolls Series, No. 41. 

47. Vulg. : the Vulgate version of the Bible. 

48. Weigand: Deutsches Worterbuch, 1878. 

49. Windisch: Old Irish Texts and glossary, 1882. 

50. Wright's Vocab. : Wright's A. S. and O.E. Vocabularies, ed. Wulcker, 



A. S. = Anglo-Saxon (as in 6, 20, 44, Goth. = Gothic, 18, 40. 

50, and as cited). Heb. = Hebrew. 

Dan. = Danish, 40. Icel. = Icelandic, 24. 

Du. = Dutch, 34, 40. O. Ir. = Old Irish. 49. 

M. E. = Middle English, 40, 43, 50. Church Lat. = Ecclesiastical Latin, 
Northern E. = Northern English, 25. 13, 17. 

Norm. F. = Norman or Anglo-French, Late Lat. = Post-classical Latin, of 

41. Latin origin, 17. 

O. F. = Old French, 3, 37, 38. Low Lat. = Latin derived from 
M. H. G. = Middle High German, 48. French, German, &c., 1 7. 

O.H.G. = Old High German, 33,45, O.Northumb. = Old Northumbrian,!. 

48. O. S. = Old Saxon, 23. 

Gk. = Greek. Sw. = Swedish, 40. 


Such abbreviations as s6. substantive, adj. adjective, and the like, will be 
readily understood. The following may be mentioned : pr. p. present par- 
ticiple ; pp. past participle ; v . verb infinitive ; ger. gerund ; pr. s., /-/. s. the 
third person singular of the present or past tense;, pt. pi. the third 
person plural of those tenses, except when I or 2 is added ; imp. imperative ; 
m. masculine ; f. feminine ; s. singular. 

SYMBOLS USED BEFORE FORMS OF WORDS. The semicolon ; used im- 
mediately before a form means ' directly derived from ' or ' borrowed from.' 
The colon : introduces a more archaic form (often O. S.). The abbreviation 
' cp.' introduces other cognate forms, having no part in the direct history of 
the word. 


The asterisk * at the end of a word denotes a hypothetical form. exx.= 
examples, s. v. = sub verbo, i. e. under the word in question. ' See ' refers 
to a primary or normal form in the Word-List. ' Cf.' = confer, i. e. compare, 
refers to subsidiary and derivative forms in the Word-List.. 


A, adv. ever, 36. 131; 5. 1614; 

7. 89. A. S. d. Cf. Aa, O. 
A, conj. until, 3 a. 69. A. S. 66. See 


A,interj. ah! 3. 64; 7. 71. 
A,, 1.4,66; 4.3; on, 1.158; 

at, 6. 430; 16.1722. Itissome- 

times joined to words beginning 

with a consonant, as abac, in book. 

See On. 

A a, adv. ever, 7. 128, 244 ; 8 b. 7. 
Abac, adv. backwards, 3 6. 93. A.S. 

onbac. Cf. Abec. 
AbBSt, sb. Abbot, 2. 64. A. S. 

abbod ; Church Lat. abbatein, 

father ; Syriac, abba. 
Abbotrice, sb. abbacy, 2. 64, 73. 

A. S. abbodrice, the rule of an 

abbot, abbacy, Chron. ann. 656. 
Abec, adv. aback, 1. 165. See Abac. 
Aben, pt. s. bowed, 3 a. 73. A. S. 

dbedh, pi. s. of dbugan, to bend 

(M. E. abu^en). 
Abeie, v. to atone for, 19. no. 

See Abugge. 
Abernfl, pr. s. burns, I. 166. A. S. 

Abiden, v. to abide, remain, await, 

endure, i. 13; 176.140; Abide, 

19. 862, 1035; to delay, 9. 21 ; 

J 9- 73 2 > pr- s - Abit, delays, 176. 

130 ; Abid, endures, 16. 1778 ; 2 

pr. pi. Abideb, await, 16. 1702; 

pt. s. Abod, remained silent, 16. 

41 ; imp. s. Abid, stop, 16. 747, 

837. A. S. dbidan. Cf. Tabide. 
Abisne = a bisne, 7. 3. See Bisne. 
Abiten, v. to bite, 16. 77. A. S. 

Ablent, pr. s. blinds, 9. 95 ; pr. pi. 

blind, 9. 101. A. S. dblendan. 

Ableow, pt. s. blew, breathed into, 

i. 48. A. S. (iblfyyan. 
Ablisse, in bliss, 176. 202. 
Aboc, in book, 176. 118. 
Abod. See Abiden. 
Abouhte, pt. s. redeemed, 17 or. 

184. A.S.dbokte. See Abugge. 
Aboute, adv. about, 6. 439. See 

Abraid, pt. s. started up, 15. 21 ir, 

2385. A.S.dbr<zd,dbrcegd. See 

AbreaS, pt. s. fell away, i. 96. A.S. 

dbredd, pt. s. of dbreddan. 
Abreiden, v. to start up, 9. 89. 

A. S. dbregdan. Cf. Abraid. 
Abroden, pp. thrust out, i. 156, 

182. A.S. dbrogden, pp. of dbreg- 
Abruden, pp. thrust out, 1.31. A 

form of Abroden. See above. 
Absolucion, *6. absolution, 46. 21, 

1 1 7 Church Lat. absolutionem. 
Abufenn, prep, above, 5. 1059, 

1694. A. S. dbufan *= on-be-ufan. 
Abugeft, pr. pi. alone for, 176. 

197. See below. 
Abugge v. to atone for, 19. 1087. 

A. S. dbycgan, to buy, pay for. 

Cf. Abeie, Abouhte. 
Abuib, pr. s. pays for, 176. 146. 

See Abugge. 
Abute, prep, about, 7. 36 ; 16. 1 1 ; 

19. 279; without, 176.370, 373. 
Abuten, prep, without, 8 a. 73 ; 

176. 52 ; adv. about, 3 a. 49 ; 6. 

439; 9. 80. A.S. dbutan = on- 


Abuton, prep, about, 2. 26. 
Abuuten, prep, about, i. 175. 
Ac, conj. but, I. 9 ; 2. 54 ; 16. 599. 

A. S. ac, ah. 

3 68 


Ace, conj. but, 5. 70. 

Accenned, pp. born, i. 10$. A. S. 
dcenned, pp. of dcennan, to bring 
forth, to beget. Cf. Akennet. 

Accidie, sb. sloth, indolence, 9. n. 
Church Lat. accidia; Gr. aKrjUa, 
aKrjScia, freedom from care, torpor. 

Acende, pp. born, i. 117. See 
above. < 

Acennende, sb. generation, nativ- 
ity, i. 119. 

Acenneng, sb. birth, I. 115. 

Ache, adj. each, 170. 197; 176. 
235; Achen,rfaM7&. 350; Aches, 
gen. s. 176. 226, 371. See ^Jlc. 

Acoled, pp. cooled down, 16. 205. 

Acolede, pt. s. became cool, 1. 104. 
A. S. dcdlian, to wax cold. 

Acorde, sb. accord, agreement, 16. 
181. From O. F. acorder, to 
agree ; Late Lat. accordare, from 
(ic- = ad + cord- in agreement with 
the heart. 

Acquerne, sb. squirrel, if a. 358. 
A. S. dcwern. Cp. O. H. G. eic- 
horne (Weigand). Cf. Aquerne. 

Acursi, v. to accurse, 16. 1704. 

Acwenche^/r. s. quenches, 9. 293. 
A. S. dcwencan. 

Acxen, sb. pi. ashes, 46. 1 6. See 

Adad, sb. Atad, 15. 2482. Heb. 
Atad (Gen. 1. 10, n); lit. buck- 

Adai, adv. by day, 16. 89, 219. 

Adde, pt. s. had, 15. 1918, 2212, 
See Heefde. 

Addledd, pp. earned, 5. 1504. 
M. E. addlenn, to gain, acquire ; 
IceL adld, refl. iidla-sk, to acquire 
for dneTsfcif property, from 6dal t 

Adiligde, pt. s. became lost, i. 90. 
See below. 

Adilisede, pt. s. was destroyed, i. 
96. A. S. ddilegian, ddilgian, to 
blot out, abolish. 

Adijte, i pr. s. order, 1 6. 326. 
A. S. ddihtan, to dictate. 

Admirald, sb. a commander of 

Saracens, 19. 89. O. F. admiral, 

amiral ; Arab. amir-al-(bahr), 

commander of the sea. See N.E.D. 

(s. v. admiral). 
Admod, adj. humble, 40. 18. 

A. S. eddmdd, eddmod, humble, 

lit. happy-minded. 
Admoded, adj. gentle, 1. 120. See 

Admodnesse, sb. humility, 4 a. 15. 

A. S. eddmddnis, eddmodnes. 
Adomes-dei, on Domesday, 1. 147. 

See Domesdai. 
Adoun, adv. down, 18. 567. See 

Adrade, v. to fear, 176. 124, 165 ; 

I pr. s. 1 7 b. 6. A. S. ddr&dan 

and + dr&dan, to fear greatly, 
Adrede, v. to fear, dread, 1 7 a. 1 24, 

206; Adrede??, pr. pi. shall be 

afraid, I. 171 ; Adred, pr. pi. 

subj. 14.41 ; pp. afraid, 17 a. 44, 

282. See above. 
Adrenche, v. to be drowned, 19. 

1454. A. S. ddrencan, to sub- 
merge, drown. 
jLdrent,pp. drowned, 19. 989. A.S. 

Adrese, v. to endure, bear. A. S. 


Adrinke, v. to be drowned, 19. 983. 
Adun, adv. down, S a. 96; 16. 

208; 19.' 1133. A - s - of dune, 

off the mount. Cf. Adoun, 

Adune, adv. downwards, 16. 920; 

19. 1526. 
Adunest, 2 pr. s. dinnest, 16. 336. 

From A. S. dynnan, to make a 

loud sound. 
Adwole, in error, 1 6. 1777. A.S. 

dwola, error; cp. Goth, dwals, 


JEc, conj. also, 6. 56. See EC. 
JEddmodnesse, sb. .humility, 5. 

1515. See Admodnesse. 
.ZEdie, adj. blessed, 36. 19. See 




B, adv. graciously, 5. 

1108, 1582. See Admod. 

, adv. even, 6. 140, 592. See 

.ZEfre, adv. ever, 2. no; 5. 1658. 

A. S. <efre. Cf. Afre, Auer, 

Eauer, Efer, Efre, Euere, 

jEfremo, a dv. evermore, 1J b. 106, 

202. A. S. <sfre + md. Cf. 

lifter, prep, after, i. 174 ; 6. 372. 

A. S. after. Cf. After, Efter. 
JEhtene, adj. pi. good, strong (of 

ships), 6. 468. A. S. dht, brave. 

See Oht. 

JEi, adj. any, 6. 409. See Ani. 
./Elc, adj. each, I. 77, 105. A. S. 

<zlc. Cf. Ache, Ech, Elc, Elch, 

Elbe, lie, Ilch, Illc, Ilkines. 
JElche, adj. each, 6. 258, 582 ; 

Jlchen, 6. 370 ; Miches, 6. 404. 

See above. 
JElderen, sb. gen. pi. of elders, 6. 

386; JElderne, 6 a. 138. See 


JElle, adj. all, 2. 10. See Eall. 
JElmes, sb. s. alms, 2. 47. A.S. 

celmysse ; Church Lat. alimosina * 

(cf. O. F. almosne) ; eleemosyna 

(Tertullian) ; Gr. (Xtrjpoavvri, 

compassionateness. Cf. Almes. 
JEm, i pr. s. am, 6. 47, 526. See 

JEn, adj. one, 6. 421 ; ^Enne, a, I. 

8; 6. 418, 427. See An. 
JEnde, sb. district 6.67,217. See 

JEness, adv. at once, 5. 1078. 

A. S. dries, gen. of dn, one. 
Angles, angels, 176. 94; 

gen. s. i. 193. See Engel. 
JEnglisc, adj. English, 6. 562. 

A. S. JEnglisc, in Chron. ami. 

1016. Cf. Englisse. 
JEorl, sb. earl, 2. 114. SeeEorl. 
JEoure, pron. your, 6. 105. See 

2Er, adv. before, I. 21 ; prep. I. 

VOL. I. B b 

115 ; A. S. <cr, soon, before. Cf. 

Ar, Are, Ear, Er, Her, Here, 

JErcebiscop, sb. archbishop, 2. 

105. A.S. (Ercebiscop (in Bede). 

Cf. Archebiscopes. 
^3rd, tb. abode, 5. 1394. See 


./Ere, sb. ear, I. 193. See Eare. 
JErest t adv. erst, first, 6. 523. A.S. 

<zrest. Cf. Earst, Erest ; Erst, 

JErfetJ-telle, adj. difficult to tell, 

innumerable, 1.2. A. S. ear/ode, 

difficult ; cp. earfod-recce, difficult 

to tell. 
.ffirlen, sb. pi. dot. earls, I. 23. 

See Eorl. 
JErndraces, sb. pi. messengers, 

apostles, i. 80, 86, 122; ^Ern- 

draches, I. 19. A.S.<zrend-raca t 

errand-teller, messenger. 
JErnefl, pr. pi. run, 6. 215. See 


.ffirst, adv. erst, I. 80. See JErest. 
^t, prep, at, 2. 8, 97. A. S. at. 

Cf. At, Ed, Et. 
.Eten, v. to eat, 2. 103 ; ate, 

6. 501. See Eten. 
JEuere, adv. ever, 6. 263. See 

JEueralche, adj. every, 6. 87. 

A. S. a/re, ever + <elc, each. Cf. 

JEueric, Eatieriche, Euerilc, 

Afri, Afric, Eurech, Aue- 

-ffiueric, adj. every, 2. 15, 54. See 


JEuerte, adv. ever as yet, 2. 182. 
JEuez, adj. pious, 2. 96. A. S. 
fast in the law. 
crfw. ever, 2. 40. See 

Afal, imp. s. fell, cause to fall, 8 a. 

146. M. E. afallen, a variant of 

the causal A. S. dfellan, to lay 

prostrate. Cf. Aual. 
Afeoh, imp. s. rQceiye, 6. 376. See 




Afere, v. to terrify, 16. 221. A.S. 

Afered, pp. afraid, frightened, 3 b. 

112 ; Aferd, 170. 163. 
Affeare, 2 pr. s. subj. terrify, 8 a. 

Affter patt, conj. according as, 5. 

Afoled, pp. befooled, 16. 206. O.K. 

affbler, to befool (Cotgrave). See 

Halliwell (s.v. afoiled},znd Bartsch 

(s. v. afoler). 
Afon, v. to receive, 6. 356. A. S. 

dfon. Cf. Afeoh, Avo>. 
Afre, adv. ever, 176. 86, 153. See 

Afric, adj. every, if b. 32; Afri, 

1 7 b. 1 1 7. See JEueralche. 
After, ^r*p. according to, 4 a. 63 ; 

6.601. See lifter. 
Agsenes, prep, against, 2. 15, ill. 

See Onnjeeness. 
Agen, pr. pi. are obliged to, 4 b. 95. 

A. S. dgan, to have, possess. See 

Agen, adv. again, back, 40. 41 ; 

15. 1959, 2250 ; prep, towards, 

4 a. 8; 12, 250. See Onnjee- 

Agen, adj. own, 4 <f. 26 ; Agene, 

4 c?. 32. A. S. ag-tfw. Cf. Ahen, 

Ajen, A}henn, Ogen, Oune, 

Owen, Owere, Owune, Osen. 
Agenes, prep, against, 2. 116. See 

Agesse, v. to reckon on, calculate, 

19. 1195. Cp. Du. gissen, Sw. 

gissa, to guess. 
Agesten, v. to terrify, 9. 68. M. E. 

agaslen ; A. S. d ( = Goth. us) H- 

gastan, to terrify. 
Ageyn, prep, towards, 18. 451. See 

Agon, adv. back, again, 15. 2238, 

2243. See above. 
Agrise, v. to be afraid, 19. 877. 

A. S. dgrisan. See Skeat (s. v. 

grisly, p. 809). 
Agte, sb. care, 15. 2090. A.S. 

eaJif,<zhf, deliberation ; cp. O.H.G. 

ahta (Otfrid). Cf. Hagt. 
Agte, sb. wealth, possessions, 15. 

2090, 2144; Agtes, pi. moneys, 

15. 2224. See Ahhte. 
Agte, pt. s. owned, 15. 2309. See 

Agulte, v. to sin, 17 a. 213; 

Agulte>, I pr. pi. 17 a. 309; 

Agult, pp. 9, 283 ; ii. 82 ; 17 a. 

ii. A.S.dgyltan. Cf. A$ultdS. 
Ah, conj. but, 3. 58. See Ac. 
Ah, pr. s. owes (as a duty), i. 50 ; 

4^.49; 7.222. See Ahen. 
Ahct, aught, I. 56. See Aht. 
Ahen, pr. pi. are obliged, 7. 3, 155. 

A. S. dgan. See Ajen. 
Ahen, adj. own, 10. 14; Ahne, 7. 

161, 233 ; 8 a. 49. See Agen. 
Ahhte, sb. possessions, 5. 1609. 

A.S. &ht. Cf. Agte, Aihte, 

Ayhte, Echte, Ehte, Eihte, 

Ahonge, pp. hanged, 3. 15. A. S. 

dhangen, pp. of dhoti. 
Aht, aught ; Ahte, i. 142. A. S. 

dht.-dwibt. Cf. Ahct, Ohht, 

Ouct, Out, Ojt. 
Ahte, pt. s. ought, 2. 212. See 

Ai, adv. ever, 12. 62; 15. 2233. 

Icel. ei. Cf. Ay, ABB. 
A-iauen, pt. pi. gave back, 2. 156. 

A. S. dgifan. 
Aihte, sb. property, 176. 42, 55, 

246, 263, 271. See Ahhte. 
Aihware, adv. everywhere, 1 7 b. 

88. A. S. ceg-hwar. Cf. Ai- 


Ailbrus, sb. = AJ>elbrus, 19. 241. 
Aisille, sb. vinegar, 10. 106. O. F. 

aissil. Cp. eysell, Shakespere, 

Hamlet, v. I. 299 (Schmidt). 
Aiper, adj. either, 176. 7, 306. 

See Eifler. 
Aiware, adv. everywhere, 1 6. 216. 

See Aihware. 
Akelp, pr. s. cools, 13. 121. A.S. 

dcelan, to become cold. 



Akennet, pp. born, 86. 3. A.S. 

dcenned. See Accenned. 
Akneon, on knees, 9. 273. See 

Aknewelyng, a-kneeling, 19. 787. 

See Cnelinng. 

Al, adj. all, i. 55; 36. 42; 12. 
. 260; Alle, 2. 31, 38. See Ball. 
Al, adv. quite, 7. 215; Al abute, 

19. 748. 

Alamanie, sb. Germany, 2. 121 ; 
. Alemaine, 6b. 65. Late Lat. Ale- 

mannia, the country of the Ale- 

manni, a Teutonic tribe. 
Albamar, sb. Albemarle, a town in 

Normandy, called now Aumale, 

Ale, adj. each ; Ale an, each one, 

6 a. 102. See JElc. 
Alchen, adj. dat. each, 6 a. 560. 

See JElc. 
Aid, a$. old, 3. 49 ; Aldene, pi. 6. 

196 ; Aldeste, oldest, 6. 58. See 


Aldelike, adv. old-like, 5. 1229. 
Aldewingle, sb. Oldwinkle, 2. 79. 
Aldren, sb. pi. dot. princes, I. 23 ; 

Aldrene, sb. gen. pi. elders, 8 a. 5. 

See Ealdror. 
Alegge, v. to put down, confute, 16. 

394. A. S. dlecgan. 
Alemaine. See Alamanie. 
Alemeft, pr. s. illumines, 4 d. 68 ; 

AleomeQ, ^d. 69. A.S. ledma, 

a ray of light. Cf. Alime'S. 
Alesen, v. to release, deliver, 7. 88 ; 

Alesde, pt. s. 4 c. 21; Alesed, pp. 

11.15; 1 7 b - 1 36. A-S^l^cin, 

dlysan, to loosen. 
Alesnesse, sb. redemption, 3 6. 81 ; 

7. 147. A. S. dlesnis. 
Ali, adj. holy, 15. 2428, 2439. See 

AlimeU, pr. s. illumines, 4 d. 47. 

See Aleme'o". 
Alijte, pi. s. alighted, 19. 47. 

A.S. dlihtan, to jump lightly down 

from a horse. Cf. Lihten. 
All, adj y ' all jiure drihte, 5 the lord 

of you all, i. 60; Alia, 36. 8i; 

Alle, I. 4, 38, 56; Alles, ' alles 

cunnes ' of every kind. See Eall. 
Allegate, adv. always, 10. 15. Lit. 

alle gate = every way. 
Allmahliti3,aa?;. almighty, 5. 1536. 

See Almichti. 
Allre, adj. gen. pi. of all, 5. 1054. 

See Eal. 

Alls, conj. as, 5. 1261. See below. 
Allswa, adv. also, 5. 1290. A. S. 

eal swd (Alswa). 
Allterr, sb. altar, 5. 1016. Lat. 

altare, lit. a high place. Cf. 

Allunge, adv. altogether, 9. 278. 

A. S. eallunge. 
Almes, sb. alms, 17 a. 29 ; Almesse, 

176. 28. See JElmes. 
Almichti, adj. almighty, 13. 4, 52. 

A. S. ealmihtig. Cf. Allmahtis. 
Almihti, adj. almighty, I. 36 ; Al- 

mihtin, 176. 337. See above. 
Alonde, on land, 176. 82. 
Alra, adj. gen. pi. of all, 3 b. 49 ; 

Alre, 40. 13. See Eal. 
Alremest, adv. most of all, 36. 37. 
Als, adv. also, 15. 2168. A.S. 

eal swd. 
Alse, conj. as, I. 49, 153 ; Alsse, 

so, 176. 215; Also, as, 12.41. 

A. S. eal^swfa. 
Alsuic, "adj. all such, 2.3. 
Alswa, conj. as, i. 21, 126; adv. 

also, I. 95 ; Alswa alse, just as, 

i. 197. Cf. Allswa. 
Altegsedere, adv. altogether, 2, 

Alther-beste, best of all, 18. 720. 

See Halliwell (s.v.). Alther= alder 

= aller = alre, of all. See Alra. 
Al-to, adv. entirely, 16. 838. See 

Halliwell (s. v. ail-to}. 
Alwat, conj. until, 13. 27. Alwat 

= all + what, and means all the 

while, till. The form alhuet, until, 

is found in Ayenbite, 26, 52. Cp. 

Alwealdent, adj. all wielding, al- 

B b 2 



mighty, 7. 70, 84. A. S. alwal- 

Am, i pr. s. am, 19. 149. O. 

Northumb. am (Lindisfarne) ; cp. 

A. S. com. Cf. JEm, Ham, 

Nam, Neem. 
Amad, pp. distracted, 19. 574. A.S. 

gemaed. Cp. Icel. meida, to hurt. 

Amang, prep, among, 5. 1674 ; 6. 

502. A. S. onmang. Cf. Among. 
Amansed, pp. accursed, 30. 95. 

A. S. dmdnsod, excommunicated. 
Amende'fr', mend, 9. 199. 

Lat. emendare, to free from fault. 
Amidden, prep, amid, 6 a. 406. 

A. S. on middan. 

Amonestement, sb. admonish- 
ment, 13. 69. O. F. amoneste- 

ment (Bartsch). 
Among, adv. at intervals, 16. 6; 

Eure among, every now and then, 

19. 1565. See Amang. 
Amorese, adv. on the morrow, 16. 

432; 19.645,845. See Morwen. 
Ampres, sores, I. 114. A.S. 

ampre, a swelling vein, a tumour. 

Amper is still used in Essex for a 

Amuntet, pr. s. mounteth, 13. 57. 

O. F. amonter, to go uphill. 
Amur$rin, v. to murder, 7. 36. 

A.S. dmyrdrian (Schmid). 
An, conj. and, 15. 2068. See And. 
An, prep, on, at, i. 97; in, i. 4, 

178; among, i. 77. A.S. an, on. 

Cf. On. 
An, num. one, 7. 184, 203; indef. 

art. a, an, I. i ; 2. 29. A.S. an. 

Cf. On, O, Ore, En, Enne. 
An, I pr. s. own, grant, allow, 1 6. 

1739. See TJnnen. 
An, art. ace. fern, a, I. 6. See 

Anan, adv. immediately, 5. 1105; 

8 a. 123; 16. 1658. A.S. o 

an, lit. in one moment. Cf. 

Anan-riht, adv. immediately, 7. 

181. See N. E. D. (s. v. anon'). 

Cf. Anonrihtes. 
Ancre, sb. a nun, 9. 128, 134; 

Ancren, pi. 9. 170, 322. A.S. 

ancra, an anchorite, a hermit, a 

monk ; Church Lat. anachoreta ; 

Gr.'xwprjTTjs, a recluse, lit. one 

who has- retired from the world. 

See N. E. D. (s. v. anchor}. 
And, conj. if, 12. 2. Icel. enda. 

Cf. An, Ant. 
Andsware, sb. answer, 16. 149. 

A. S. andswaru. Cf. Answare, 

Ondswere, Onswere. 
Andswarien, v. to answer ; And- 

swarede, pt. s. 6 a. 109 ; Andswer- 

ede, 6 a. 533. A.S. andswarian, 

andswerian. Cf. Answarede, 

Ondswereft, Onswerede, Orit- 

Ane, ' hire ane,' by herself, 8 a. 

131; 'all ane,' alone, 5. 1613; 

'all himm ane,' all by himself, 5. 

1025 ; Anes, ' bin anes,' of thee 

alone, 8 a. 138. 
Anfald, adj. simple, 5. 1537. A.S. 

AngTene, sb. of angels, i. 

161 ; Angles, angels, 1. 170 ; 176. 

284. See Engel. 
Angles, sb. Angles, English, 6 a. 

68. A. S. Angle, pi. the English 

Angoise, sb. anguish, 9. 70. O. F. 

angoisse ; Lat. angustia, nar- 
Angou, s&. Anjou, 2. 121 ; Angaeu, 

2. 155, 167. Low Lat. Ande- 

gavia, from Andegavi, a Gallic 

tribe (Caesar). 
Angun, sb. beginning, 4<f. 37. 

A. S. onginn, anginn. Cf. Ongon. 
Anheet, pp. heated, enkindled, 13. 

130 ; Anhet, heats, 13. 129. A.S. 

Anhitte, v. to strike, 19. 714. 

From Icel. hitta, to hit upon. 
Anhonge, v. to be hanged, 19. 

328 ; Anho^5, pr. pi. hang up, 



l. 1646. A.S. onhdn, to hang 

Ani, adj. any, 1 7 b. 68. A.S. <Etiig. 

Cf. Ji, Eani, Eni, Eny. 
Aniwise, adv. anywise, i*]b. 273* 
Anijt, adv. by night, 16. 89, 219. 

See Onigt. 
Anker, sb. anchor, 18. 760; 19. 

1026. O. F. ancre ; Lat. ancora ; 

Gr. ayitvpa. 
Anlepi, adj. single, 7. 170. A.S. 

dnlepig, and dnlipig, in Chron. 

ann. 871. See -lepi, Onlepi. 
Ann, num. one, 5. 1025, 1699. 

See An. 
Anon, adv. in one instant, immedi- 

ately, i. 14. See Anan. 
An-onder, prep, under, -19. 567. 

Cf. An-under. 
Anonrihtes, adv. right anon, im- 

mediately, 9. 204. See Anan- 

Anouen, adv. above, 19. 624, 

1502. A.S. on nfan. 
Answare, sb. answer, 16. 55. See 

Answarede, pt. s. answered, 6 a. 

301 ; Answerede, 6 b. 301. See 


Ant, conj. and, 7. 12. See And. 
Ami, adv. at once, I. 152. A.S. 

dnum, dat. of an, one. 
Anud, pp. annoyed, 13. 15. O. F. 

amiyer. See Enuye. 
An-under, prep, under, n. 32. 

Cf. An-onder. 
An-uppen, prep, upon, 4 d . 39 ; 

An-uppon, 30. 52. Cf. Onuppe. 
Anuri, v. to honour, 13. 9 ; Anu- 

redc, 13. 29; Anured, pp. 

13. 80; Anuret, imp. pi. 13. 23. 

O. F. onurer. See Onuri. 
Anwald, sb. power ; Anwalde, Ah- 

wolde, dat. 6a,b. 166. A.S. an- 

wald. Cf. On-walde. 
Ariyper, in nether, lower, 1 7 a. 

293; Anither, 176. 299. See 

ready, 13.11. O. F. aparailler* 

to dress, from parail y pareil, 

Aperede, pt. s. appeared, 13. 30. 

O. F. aparoir ; Lat. apparere. 
Apostel, sb. apostle, 46. I r I ; 

Apostlen, dat. pi. i. 162. Lat. 

apostolus ; Gr. atrocrroXos. 
Appollin, sb. Apollo, 6. 125. O.F. 

Apollin ; Lat. Apollinem. 
Aquerne, sb. squirrel, 176. 366. 

See Acquerne. 
Ar, conj. before, 16. 552 ; adv. 176. 

22. SeeJEr. 
Archangel, sb. 3 a. 9 ; Archangles, 

pi. 7.97. Lat. archangelus ; Gr. 

Aparailed, pp. prepared, made 

Archebiscopes, sb. pi. archbishops, 

i. 128. Cf. .ZErcebiscop. 
Architriclin, sb. the ruler of the 

feast (John ii. 8), 13. 107. Lat. 

arckitricliniu ; Gr. 
Are, conj. before, 176. 124. 
Are, sb. kindness, mercy, 5. 1041. 

A.S. dr. Cf. Arenn, Ore. 
Arearen, v. to raise, 9. 285 ; 

Arerde, pt. s. if a. 172 ; Arerd, 

pt. s. I. in ; Arerdon, pt. pi. I. 

97. From A.S. rceraw, to rear. 
i'Areawe, adv. in row, in order, 9. 

38. A.S.rczwe, a row. Cf.Arowe. 
Areche, v. to reach, hit, 19. 1236; 

to control, 14. 454. A.S. dr&can, 

to reach after. 
Arechen, v. to relate, express, u. 

47. A.S. dreccan. 
Arefett-heald, adj. difficult to hold, 

17 b. 315. A. S. earfode, difficult. 
Arefull, adj. kind, merciful, 5. 

1460. A. S. drful. See Are. 
Aren, are, 7. 104; 15. 2228 ; 

1 8. 464. O. Northumb. aron (for 

Arenn, v. to show mercy to, 5. 

1462. A. S. drian. 
f Arewe, sb. a caitiff, villain, 14. 228. 

See below. 
Are?, adj. bad, cowardly, 16. 407. 

A. S. earg, earh. Cf. Erewe. 



Are3j>e, sb. dat. cowardice, 16.404, 

1715. A.S.yrhdo. 
Aris, imp. s. arise, 3 a. So ; 4 c. 38 ; 

Arist, pr. s. 40. 67 ; Aros, pt. s. 

46. 62. A. S. drisan. 
Ariste, sb. resurrection, 3 a. 98 ; 

46. 122 ; Aristes, gen. s. 4 6. 67. 

A.S. csrist ( = drist, from risan). 
Ariue, v. to arrive, 19. 179, 933 ; 

Aryue,pp. 19. 1476. O.F. ariver ; 

Late Lat. adripare, to come to 

the shore. See Kyue, Tariue. 
Arixlye, v. to rule, 14. 453. 

From M. E. rixlien, to rule 

Ariste, aofy. aright, in the right 

way, 1 6. 323. See Origt. 
Arme, adj. poor, ija. 223. A. S. 

earm. Cf. Erme. 
Arm-heorted, a<#. tender-hearted, 

merciful, 46. 42. A.S. earm- 

heort (B. T.). 

Arm-hertnesse, sb. tenderhearted- 
ness, 46. 42. 
Arnde, pt. s. ran, 19. 1247. See 

Arode = on rode, 176. 189. See 

Arowe, adv. in row, 19. 1527. 

See Areawe. 
Arrke, sb. ark (of the covenant), 5. 

1032 ; Lat. area, a box. 
As, conj. 7. 157; Ase, 7. 156; 

Aseto, prep, as to, 9. 38. A. S. 

eal swd. See Alswa. 
As, rel. pron. to which, in which, 
. 7. 194, 203. 
Asenchtest, 2 pt. s. didst make to 

sink, 86. 182. A.S. sencan, to 

cause to sink, causal form of sin- 
can, to sink. See Senchtest. 
Asetnesse, sb. appointed, order, 7. 

132. A.S. dsetnys, an institute. 

The form setnesse occurs in the 

Ormulum, 16837. 
Aske-baflie, sb. ash-basker, a basker 

in the ashes on the hearth, 9.' 93. 

Cp. axewaddle in Halliwell's Diet., 

a Devonshire word applied to 

those who remain indolently at 

home by the fireside. See Prompt. 

Parv. (s. v. askefise, ciniflo). 
Asken, ashes, 9. 93, 101. 

A.S, ascan, pi. of asce, cinis. Cf. 

Acxen, Asskess, Axen. 
Aske'S, pr. s. requires, 9. 194. A.S. 

dscian. See Axen. 
Aslase, pp. slain, 19. 88 ; Asla$en, 

19. 907. A.S. ofsledn, to slay. 
Aslepe, adv. asleep, 19.^658, 1325. 

Aslepe on sleep. 
Asoke, pt. s. forsook, 19. 65. A.S. 

ofsacan, to deny. 
Aspille, v. to ruin, 16. 348. A.S. 


Asquint, adv. askew, 9. 61. 
Assaille, v. to assail, 19. 637, 864. 

O. F. assailler, asaillir. 
Asskess, sb. pi. ashes, 5. 1001. 

See Asken. 
Astah, pt. s. descended, I. 189. 

See below. 
Astigh'S, pr. s. ascends, 4 d. 29. 

A. S. dstigan, to proceed. 
Asumere, adv. in summer, 16, 

416, 622. See Sumer. 
Aswelte, pr. s. subj. die, 9. 124. 

A. S. dsweltan. 
At, prep, with, 170. 258; Ate, at 

the, 176. 92; Atte, 10. 16. 

Ate, sb. eating, 1 7 b.i6 2. A.S. at, 

Ateliche, adj. horrible, 46. 53; 9. 

68,82; 17 a. 279; adv. horribly, 

9. 90. A. S. atelic, from atol, 

Atend, pr. s. kindleth, ^d. 66. 

A.S. ontendan. See Ontenden. 
Atfli}?, />r. s. flies away, 16. 37. 

A.S. atfleon. 
Ath, sb. oath; Athas, pi. 2. 126; 

Athes, 2. 13. A.S. dp. Cf. Ot, 

Op, Manaflas.! de, v. to retain, 6. 165 ; 

At-halden, 36. 17; 6. 40 ; At- 

holde, 6. 155; 1 7 a. 308; At- 

heold, pt. s. 16. 392 ; Atholde, 



pp. 17 a. 390. A. S. <zt + 

healdan, to hold. Cf. Et- 

Atiffe, pr. s. subj. adorn, 9. 1 86. 

O.F. atiffer, to trim, adorn. 
At-on, at one, of one mind, 19. 

At-schet, pt. s. shot away, 16. 44. 

A. S. fEt + sceotan, to shoot. 
At-stonde, v. to withstand, 16. 

750; pp. settled, 6. 366. A.S. 


AtteT'at flie. See At. 
Atter, s&. poison, 36. 89; 170. 

148. A. S. dttor, after. 
Atter-coppe, s&. pi. spiders, 16. 

600. A. S. dttorcoppe, a spider. 
Attrann, pt. s. ran away, escaped, 

5. 1424. A.S. <Et +rennan, to 

| Attri, adj. venomous, 9. 13, 35. 

A. S. atren. 

Aturn, sb. dress, 9. 269. O.F. 
atom, preparation, hence mod. F. 

atour, ornament, see Diez, 322. 
At-wite, v. to reproach, to twit, 6. 
; 407 ; Atwitest, 2 pr. s. 1 6. 597. 

A. S. atwitan. 
Atywede, pt. s. showed, 2. 89. 

A. S. <Et-eowian, to show. 
ASele, adj. noble, 6. 192. A.S. 

fsdele, of noble birth or nature ; 

cp. Icel. adal } inborn quality. Cf. 

.ApestreS, pr. s. darkens, i. 168. 

See peostre. 
Aj)3t, con/, until, 3 a. 69 ; 6. 457 ; 

9. 311. A. S. o'd #/. 
Aual, zm/>. s. fell, cause to fall, 8 b. 

183. See Afal. 
Aucte, sb. possession, wealth, 1 8. 

531. See Ahhte. 
Aucte, pt. s. owned, 18. 743. See 

Aue, i pr. s. have, 15. 2388 ; 

AueS, pr. s. has, 15. 2425. See 

Auene, sb. Avon, 17 a, b. 244, 


Auenture, sb. adventure, chance, 
I 3-93> 19.650. O.F.aventure, 
Lat. adventura, a thing about to 

Aueole, n. 9. See Veole. 

Auer, adv. ever, 6. 351 ; Auere," 6. 
14. See JEfre. 

Auericlie, adj. every, 13. 77. See 

Aues, sb. pi. aves to the Virgin, 9. 
251. Lat. ave, hail! 

Augrim, sb. the Arabic or decimal 
system of numeration, ' figures of 
augrim,' the Arabic or Indian nu- 
merals, 9. 96. O. F. augorime, 
algorisme ; from Arab, al-khowa- 
razmi, the surname of an Arabian 
mathematician. See further in 
N.E. D. (s. v. Algorism). 

Auh, conj. but, 9. 28. See Ac. 

Auhte, pt. s. ought, 17 a. 2. See 

Aul, sb. awl; Aules, pi. 9. 79. 
A. S. </, dl, awel. Cf. Owel. 

Aulem, imp, s. banish, n. 94. 
A. S. afleman, dfliman, to put to 

AvoJ), pr. pi. receive, 16. 842. 
A. S. dfdn. See Afon. 

Auter, sb. altar, 18. 389. O.F. 
auter, alter; Lat. altar e. See 

Awakenen, v. to arise, 8 b. 68 ; 
Awakenin, 8 a. 53 ; AwakeneS, 
pr. s. arises, 9. 209 ; Awakened, 
pp. produced, 9. 26. A. S. dwad- 
nan, dwacnian. 

Awakien, v. to awake, 9. 90. 
A. S. dwacian. 

Awariede, pt. s. cursed, 6. 162. 
See Awerien. 

Awatere, in water, 17 b. 82. 

Avrei, adv. away, 16. 33 ; 19. 709. 
A.S. onweg, dweg. Cf Awe33. 

Awei, interj. alas!, 8 a. 117. Cp. 
A. S. wd Id wd = woe ! lo ! woe ! 

Awelde, v. to hold in hand, 14. 
442. A. S. gewealdan, to wield, 
to rule. 



Awente, pt. s. turned, I. 106. 

A.S. dwendan. 
Awerien, v. to curse ; Aweriede, pp. 

accursed, 3 6. 30. A.S.dwergian. 

Cf. Awariede. 
Awe33, adv. away, 5. 1364. See 


Awintere, in winter, 16. 415. 
AwitJhst, 2pr. s. weighest out, I. 

42. A. S. dwegan. 

A-wold, in meaning, 15. 1944, 

2054. See "Wold. 
Awreke, pp. avenged, 16. 262. 

A. S. dwrecen, pp. of dwrecan, to 

Awwnenn, v. to show, 5. 979. 

A. S. edu'an, to show, with n 

formative, cp. G. (er} augnen, to 

appear. Cf. Tawnen. 
Awynne, v. to win, 19. 1083. 

A. S. dwinnan. 
Axen, v. to ask, 2. 109 ; Axestu, 

2 pr. s. askest thou, 16. 711; 

Axede, pt. s. 6. 18. A.S. axian. 

Cf. Askeo*, Haxede, Easkede, 

Axen, sb. pi. ashes, 46. 115. See 


Ay, adv. ever, 18. 747. See Ai. 
Ayen, adv. back, 13. 32 ; prep. 

against, if a. 343. See Onn- 


Ayen-wende, v. to return, 13. 32. 
Ayeyn, prep, in comparison with, 

170. 78. See Ayen. 
Ayhte, sb. wealth, possession, 170. 

43, 5 6. 265. See Ahhte. 
Ajaf, pt. s. gave back, 16. 139. 

See Ajef. 
Ajain, prep, towards, 9. 36. See 

Ajean, prep, against, 9. 5 ; instead 

of, 9. 124; toward, 9. 63. See 

Asef, imp. s. give up, 86. 138. 

A.S. dgifan, to give up. Cf. 

Ajaf, Ajeoue. 
Ajeie, sb. awe, I. 74. IceL qsj, 

terror ; cp. Goth. agis. 

Ajein, prep, against, 7. 22 ; 16. 

1788; at, 7. 129. See Ayen. 
Ajeines, prep, against, 7. 38, 182. 

See above. 
Ajen, v. to possess, to owe, to be 

obliged ; i pr. pi. are obliged, 3 a. 

IOI. A.S. dgan, to have, possess, 

I and 3 pr. s. dk, 2 pr. s. dhst,pl. 

agon, dgan ; pt. dhte. Cf. Agen, 

Ahen, Ahte, Auhte, Aucte, 

Og, Ouh, Owen, OsdJ, Nah. 
A$en, adj. own, 1. 101 ; A3ene, 3^. 

25. See Agen. 
Ajen, prep, against, 16. 7; adv. 

back, 6 6. 262. See Ayen. 
Ajenes, prep, against, i. 28 ; 19. 

7 6 > 1337. See Onnseeness. 
Ajeo, adv. again, 6. 551. See Ayen. 
Ajeoue, v. to give up, 86. 138. 

See A3ef. 
Ashenn, adj. own, 5. 1261. See 

Ajien, prep, against, 176. 351. 

See Ayen. 
AjultetJ, pr. s. sins, 7. 55. See 

A33, adv. ever, 5. 1002 ; 353 occ 

333, ever and aye, 5. 1 216. SeeAi. 

Ba, adj. both, 7. 211 ; conj. 7. 25. 

A.S. bd,f. and ., both. 
33ac, sb. back, 18. 556. A.S. 

Bad, //. s. prayed, 19. 78 ; invited, 

6. 478, 481 ; 19. 1079. A - s - 

&CEC?, pt. s. of biddan y to beg. See 

Bidden (i). 
Bak-bite'res, s&. pi. backbiters, 13. 

Bakenn, pp. baked, 5. 41, 993, 

998. A. S. bacen, pp. of bacan, 

to bake. 
Balde, pt. s. encouraged, 8 a. 37. 

A. S. bealdode, pt. s. of bealdian. 
Bale, sb. death, 15. 1984; sorrow, 

I 5- 2 5 2 5 ; Bales,//, sorrows, mis- 



fortunes, 10. 57. A. S. bealu, in- 
jury, evil ; cp. O. H. G. bah (Ot- 
Baledrinch, sb. a deadly drink, 10. 

Bali, adj. grievous, 10. 75. A. S. 

bealu, balu, baleful. 
Ban, sb. bone, 10. 102 ; Banes, pi. 

10. 1 6. A. S. ban ; cp. O. S. ben, 

O. H. G. bein (Otfrid). Cf. Bon. 
Band, pt. s. bound, $. 1 187. A. S. 

ta/za?. See Binden. 
Banere, s6. banner, 19. 1398. O.F. 

banlere ; Low Lat. banderia. 
Bar, pt. s. bare, 2. 60 ; 6. 513 ; 12. 

39J J 8- 557* bar an honde, 19. 

ii 21. A. S. beer. See Beren. 
Bare, sb. bier, 19. 901. A. S. b<zr : 

O.U.G.bdra (Otfrid). 
Bare, ad)', simple, single, 170. 207 ; 

176. 139; sheer, 6. 315. A. S. 

Bare, sb. the open country, 16. 56, 

150. See above. 
Baren, v. to lay bare, 15. 1912. 

A. S. barian. 
Barej, sb. a barrow-pig, 1 6. 408. 

A. S. bearg, beark. 
Barlic, sb. barley, 12. 262. A. S. 

Barme, sb. bosom; dat. 19. 708. 

A. S. bearm: O. S. barm; cp. 

Icel. bartnr. Cf. Berme. 
Barn, sb. a child, i. 69. See Beam. 
Barnende, adj. burning, 176. 222. 

See below. 
BarneU, pr. s. burneth, 176. 253 ; 

Barn]), 17 a. 245. A. S. banian, 

to burn. See Bernen. 
Baronage, sb. the men, vassals of 

a feudal chief, 19. 1302. O.F. 

barnage (Bartsch), from baron, 

ace. of bers. a man, vassal ; cp. 

Sp. varoti, a man. 
Barr, pt. s. bare, 5. 1372. See 


Baruot, adv. barefoot, 9. 165. 
Bataille, sb. battle, 19. 863. O. F. 


BaJ>, s&.bath, 17 a. 215. A. S. bad. 
Bape, adj. both, if a. 63; conj. 

Bathe, 2. 20. Icel. bdbi, neut. 

dual, 6a'3/r, m. Cp. Goth, ba- 

joths. Cf. BeoSe, Bethe, Bope. 
Bapieres, sb. water-pots (=hydrise, 

John ii. 6. Vulg.), 13. 102. 
Be, prep, at, i. So; by, 2. 20. See 

Bead, pt. s. commanded, 15. 2494. 

A. S. bead. SeeBede(2). 
Beade, pt. s. asked, 6. 596. A. S. 

bad. See Bidden (i). 
Beam, sb. bairn, I. 51; Bearnes, 

pi. 10. 77 ; Bearnen, pi. dat. i. 

185. A. S. beam. Cf. Barn, 

BearneJ), pr. pi. burn, 6. 216. See 


Beast, adv. best, 7. 192. 
Beastes, sb. gen. s. beast's, 10. 7. 

See Best. 
Beate, beat, 9. 160 ; Beaten, 

2 pr. pi. subj. 8 a. 98. A.S. bedtan. 
Be-bedde, v. to supply with bed- 
ding, 1 8. 421. 
Be-byried, pp. buried, 2. 185 ; Be- 

byrieden, pt. pi. 2. 90. 
Bee, sb. beak, 12. 58. O.F. bee 

(Bartsch) ; of Celtic origin, see 

Diez, p. 47. 

Bee, sb. the Abbey of Bee, 2. 107. 
Beche, sb. valley, 16. 14. M. E. 

beech, a valley in Lajamon's Brut, 

see Stratmann. 
Be-chece, v. to gainsay, I. 172. 

A. S. (ge}cigan, to call. 
Bed, pt. s. commanded, 40. II ; 

8 a. 124 ; offered, 15. 2047 ; imp. 

s. offer, 15. 2073. See Bede (2). 
Bedde, sb. dat. bed, 9. 155. A. S. 

bed, bedd : Goth. badi. 
Bedden, v. to offer, 15. 2498. See 

Bede (2). 
Bede (i) sb. prayer, 5. 1156 ; Be- 

dess, pi. 5. 1149, 1617. A. S. 

(ge) bed. Cf. Beode, Ibede. 
Bede (2), v. to command, 18. 551 ; 

to present, 19. 462 ; 2 pt. subj. s. 



commandedst, 1 8. 668. A. S. 

beodan, to command, to offer, pt. 

bead, pp. boden. Cf. Bed, Bed- 
den, Beot, Bet, Bidden (2), 

Bedeles, sb. pi. messengers, i. 128, 

131. O. F. bedel; O.H.G.buttl, 

see Weigand (s. v. buttel) ; cp. A.S. 

bydel. See Budeles. 
Beden,/>/>. begged, 15. 2212. A.S. 

beden. See Bidden (i). 
Bedesang, sb. the singing of the 

prayers, 5. 1450. 
Beelzebub, s6. 170. 281. Cp. 

Beforen, prep, before, 2. 86, 191. 

A. S. beforan. 
Bege, sb. collar, 15. 2140. A. S. 

bedg, bedh, a ring (used as orna- 
ment and as money). Cf. Beies. 
Be-gset, pt. s. obtained, 2. 72, 75. 

A. S. begat. See Bi-geten. 
Beggeres, sb. pi. 19. 1132. From 

M.E. beggen, to beg; A.S. be- 

Be-gripe, pp. seized, I. 109. A. S. 

Be-gunnon, pp. begun, 2. 204. 

See Bi-ginnen. 
Be-hote, />/>. promised, 13. 19. See 

Be-houed,/tf.s. was needful, 2. 66. 

See Bi-houes. 
Beien, adj. both, 2. 166. See 

Beien, v. to bend, 8 6. 85 ; 11.18; 

Beie, I pr. s. bend, 1 1. 3. A.S. 

began. Cf. Bugen. 
Beies, circlets of metal, II. 

34. See Bege. 
Be-ionde, prep, beyond, 2. 188. 

See Bi-sonde. 
Beknefl, pr. s. shows, 12. 300. 

A. S. bedcnian, to signify by a sign. 

MS. has bekued. See note. 
Be-lamp, pt. s. befell, 2. 84. See 

Belaue, sb. belief, 13. 75. See 

Bileue (i). 

Belde, adj. big, blustering, 1 6. 1 71 5 ; 

19.602. k.S.beald. Cf. Bold. 
Beleaue, sb. belief, 13. 49, 54. See 

Bileue (i). 
Beleue, imp. pi. let (us) believe, 13. 

52. See Bileue (2). 
Be-limpen, v. to belong to, to hap- 
pen; BelimpS, pr. s. happens, i. 

149. A. S. be-limpan, to appertain 

to, to happen. Cf. Belamp, Bi- 

limpe'5, TobilimmpepJ). 
Belle, sb. bell, 19. 1028 ; Belles, pi. 

18. 390; 19. 1409. A.S. belle. 
Be-locen, pp. imprisoned, i. 18. 

A. S. belocen, pp. of belucan, to 

lock up. Cf. Biluken. 
Be-locest, 2 pr. s. regardest, I. 42. 

From A.S. ^fcfajg^ to look. 
Belzebub, 'sfor^tjb. 287. See 

Bemare, sb. trumpeter, 9. 43 ; Be- 

mares, pi. 9. 41, 44. A.S. by- 
Bemen, sb. pi. trumpets, 6. 497 ; 

9. 45. A. S. byme, beme, a trum- 
pet. - 
Bemen, v. to sound a trumpet, 9. 

50. A. S. bymian. 
Ben, v. to be, 2. 3; 40. 86; 12. 

99. A. S. beon, to be. See Beon. 
'Ben, are, 40. 70; 15.2165. 

A. S. beon. 

"Ben, pp. been, 2. 120. 
Be-nam, pt. s. deprived of, 2. 112. 

See Bi-nime. 
Benche, sb. bench, 19. 1513. A. S. 

Bende, sb. bond, imprisonment, 1 7 a. 

136,180, 386; 17 6. 398. Bendes, 

pi. 46. 21. A.S. bend. 
Bene, adj. easy, good, 17 b. 341. 

See Halliwell. 
Bene, sb. a prayer, request, 5. 1459 ; 

11.84; 19-508. A. S. ben. Cfc 

Beo (i), v. to be, 8 b. 170 ; 10. 23 ; 

16. 1699. See Beon. 
Beo (2), subj. s. be, 19. 1145 ; 16. 

171; 6.81; 7.153; 19. 



131; imp. s. 16. 1638; 19. 796. 

A. S. bed, subj. s. ; beon, snbj. pi. ; 

bed, imp. s. Cf. Bi. 
Beode, v. to pray, 30. 91. See 

Bidden (i). 
/- Beode, sb. prayer, 170. 295; Be- 

oden, pi. 36. 30 ; 9. 240, 345 ; 

170.333. SeeBede(i). 
Beom, sb. beam, 2. 34. A. S. beam, 

a tree ; cp. O. H.G. bourn (Otfrid). 
Beon, v. to be, 3 b. 53 ; 6. 55, 350 ; 

pr. pi. subj. 3 b. 129 ; 6. 54 ; 19. 

I ; 1 6. 181. A.S. beon, inf. and 

subj. pi. Cf. Bien. 
Beonne, ger. inf. to be, 8 a. 28 ; 

ii. 29. Cf. Bienne. 
Beore, pt. pi. bore, 6. 186. A. S. 

b&ron, pt. pi. See Beren. 
Beorett, pr. pi. bear, 3 b. 88. A. S. 

berad. See above. 
Beorninde, pr. part, burning, 3 a. 

14. See Berne. 
' Beot, ! pr. s. commands, 30.110; 

offers, 9. 205. See Bede (2). 
Beop, pr. s. is, 4 d. 31 ; 5. 1620 ; 

pr. pi. are, 1. 125 ; 6. 61 ; 16. 75 ; 

imp. pi. be ye, 16. 1735. A.S. 

bid, pr. s. ; beoff, pr. pi. and imp. 

pi. of beon. Cf. BiB, But5. 
Beope, cow/, both, 16. 438. See 

Ber, sb. beer, 19. 1124. A. S. beor ; 

cp. O. H. G. bior, see Kluge, (s. v. 

Berd, sb. beard, 18. 701. A. S. 

beard', cp. Du. baard. 
Bere, sb. noise, 7. 25. A.S. (g"e)- 

j?cErtf, gesture, cry, from beran, to 

oear. See Ibere. 
Beren, v. to bear, 12. 263; 15. 

2084; Bere, 19. 475; imp. pi. 

bear, 9. 159 ; Beren, pt. pi. bore, 

4 a. 25 ; Rereft, 6. 88 ; 170. 

47 > " ^- J 3- IO 7- A. S. 6mm, 

/>/. 6cer, pp. boren. Cf. Bar, 

Beore, Boren, Iboren. 
Bergen, v. to preserve, 12. 14; 

Berege,/> 4 C - 47 5 BeregeS, 

f>r. s. 46. 37. A, S. beorgan, pt. 

bearh,pp.borgen. Cf.Berrshenn, 

Berwen, Iborese, Iborhen, 

Iboruwen, Iburese. 
Berie, sb. court, city, I. 8, II, 128. 

See Burh. 
Berien, sb. dot. tomb, 1. 198. A. S. 

by r gen. 
Beries, sb. pi. berries (grapes), 15. 

2062. A. S. berige. 
Beringe, sb. birth, 13. 6; bearing, 

behaviour, 15. 2178. 
Berme, sb. yeast, barm, 5. 997. 

A. S. beorma. 
Berme, sb. dot. bosom, lap, 9. 83; 

Bermes, gen. s. 9. 88. A. S. 

bearm. See Barme. 
Bern, sb. a bairn, child, 14. 430; 

1 8. 571. See Beam. 
Berne, sb. a barn, 16. 607. A. S. 

Berne, v. to burn, 19. 690 ; Berneft, 

pr. pi. burn, 6. 216; Berninde, 

pr.p. 3 a. 18, 23, 39. A. S. bear- 
nan. Cf. BarnetJ, Birne. 
Berrjhenn, v. to preserve, 5. 1559. 

See Bergen. 
Berste, imp. s. burst, 19. 1206. 

A. S. berstan. 
Berwen, v. to preserve, 18. 697. 

See Bergen. 
Be-sset, pt. s. besieged, 2. 130, 151. 

A. S. besittan, pt. besat. 
Be-saette, for Bescet, 2.112. 
Be-sech, imp. s. beseech, 13. 140. 

Cf. Bi-seche. 

Be-seketJ, pr. s. asks for, 13. 77. 
Be-sie, v. to look to, I. 16. See 

Besmes, sb. pi. rods, 8 a. 91 ; Bes- 

men, pi. dat. 8 b. 113. A. S. bes- 

ma, a besom, an instrument of 

punishment made of twigs. 
Best, sb. beast, 9. 127; Bestes, pi. 

9. 3. O. F. beste; Lat. bestia. 

Cf. Beastes. 

Beste, s6. advantage, 19. 776, 1192. 
Be-suiken, v. to betray, 2. 140. 

See Be-swice. 
Be-swapen, pp. convicted, 1. 176. 

3 8o 


A. S. besivdpen, pp. of beswdpan, 

to cover over. 
Be-swice, v. to betray, 1. 173. A.S. 

Bet, m/v. better, I. 139; ^d. 21 ; 

6. 367. A. S. bet. 
Bet, pr. s. offers, 46. 74; 12. -299. 

See Bede (2). 
Bet, see Betan (2). 
Be-teht, pp. entrusted, 2. 95. See 

Beten (i), v. to beat, 8 a. 95 ; pt. 

pi. 10. 81. A. S. bedtan, pt. beot, 

pp. beaten. 
Beten (2), v. to amend, 46. 121 ; 

176.742; Bete, 40. 81; 40. 43; 

170. 134; Bet, pr. s. 46. 43; 

17 a. 126; 176. 126, 166 ; imp.s. 

4 c. 66 \ pp. 4 6. 1 1 1 ; Beteft, />r. s. 

12. 107. A.S. fie'/an, />/. bette; 

pp. btted. Cf. Ibete. 
Betere, adj. better, 4 6. 98 ; adv. 

2. 81; 36. 16; Betre, 36. 25; 

14. 209; Bettre, adj. 5. 1625. 

A. S. fof, a</v. ; betera, adj. 
Be-toke, I pt. s. gave up to, 6. 386. 

See Bi-take. 
Be-tokned (for Betokneft), pr. s. 

betokeneth, 13. 129. See Bi- 

Be-tuene, prep, among, 13. 9. See 

Be-twenen, prep, between, 1. 197. 

A. S. be-tweonan, be-twe6num. Cf. 

Be-twyx, />;*/>. betwixt, 2.135, 1 7^ : 

Betwux, 2. 173. A.S. beiweox. 

Cf. Bi-twixen. 
Bep, pr. s. is, shall be, 40. 43; 

176.19; 19. 834; 4*1.56; 

176. 75; 15. 2263. A.S. 

6i'0 r pr. s. ; &0'<), pr. pi. ; foo'cl, 

im^. />/. See Been. 
Be pam pe, conj. since that, I. 

7 1 - 
Bethe, adj. both, 18. 360, 694. See 

BeUen, v. to beg for, 15. 2498. See 

Bidden (i ). 

Be pet, conj. because, 13. 41. 
Beuer, sb. a beaver, 176. 366; 

Beuveyr, 170. 358. A.S. befer; 

cp. Lat. fiber. 
Be-winden, v. to enwrap, cover, 

36. 12; Bewunden, pp. 36. 85. 

A. S. bewindan. Cf. Biwinde'o*. 
Beyne, adj. both, 6. 336. A. S. 

begeni m. Cf. Beien. 
Bezste, adj. best, 6. 400. A. S. 

betst. (Pronounce z as ts here.) 
Bi, prep, by, at, I. 7 ; unto, i. 21 ; 

according to, 4 b. 120. A. S. 

bi. Cf. Be, Bie. 
Bi, v. to be, 13. 79. See Beon. 
Bi, pr. s. subj. 4 a. 63. See Beo (2). 
Bi-calle1S, pr. s. accuses, 15. 2314. 

M. E. Bicallen is formed from Icel. 

Italia, to call. The equivalent A. S. 

word is bedipian (cleopian) t ac- 

Bi-charre, v. to mislead, betray, 

4d. 24; BicherreS, pr. s. entices, 

36. 121 ; Bicherd, pp. deceived, 

170. 316; 176. 322. A.S. be- 

cerran, becyrran, to turn, pervert, 

Bi-ehermet (for BichermeS), pr. pi. 

scream at, 16. 279. A.S. cirmati, 

cerman, to cry out. 
Bi-clarted, pp. defiled, 10. 44. 

See Halliwell (s. v. beclarted). 
Bi-cleopien, v. to accuse, 1 7 a. 107 ; 

Biclepien, 176. 107; Bicleoped, 

PP- 9- 327; 16. 550. A.S. be- 

Bi-clused, pp. enclosed, 6. 354. 

A. S. beclysan. 
Bi-colwede, pt. s. blackened with 

soot, 19. 1076. See Colwie. 
Bi-com, pt. s. became, 3 6. 8 ; 10. 

2. A. S. becdm. See Bicumen. 
Bi-cumelich, adj. comely, becom- 
ing, 4 b. 12, 57 ; Bicumeliche, adv. 

becomingly, 46. 122. 
Bi-cumen, v. to come, 8 a. 116; 

to suit, 8 a. 17; pp. befallen, 15. 

2227; Bicumej?, pr. s. becomes, 

12. 91; is fit, 3 a. 84; 16. 271. 


3 8. 

A. S. becuman. Cf. Bi-com, By- 
Bidden (i), v. to beg, pray, ask, 

46. 121 ; 86. 164; 12. 116; pr. 

pi. beseech, 40. 50 ; BiddeS, imp. 

pi. pray, 7. 238; 9. 356; Bide, 

imp. s. 4 c. 66 ; Biddinde,/>r./>ar/. 

8 6. 32. A. S. biddan, to beg, 

ask, /tf. SCEC?, />/>. beden. Cf. Bad, 

Beade, Beden, Beode, BetSen, 

Bit, Ibeden. 
Bidden (2), v. to command, 18. 

529; Biddi, I pr. s. I offer, 1 8. 

484. See Bede (2). 
Biddinge, sb. prayer, 13. 57. 
Bidene, adv. together, 18. 730. See 

Stratmann, Suppl. 1881, s. v. bid. 
Bie, prep, by, 13. 105. See Bi. 
Bied, pr. pi. are, 13. 129. SeeBiep. 
Biede, sb. dot. table, 176. 266. 

A. S. beod; cp. Goth, biuds, altar, 

Bien, v. to be, 176. 389; pr. pi. 

are, 40. 67; 46. 27, 76; Bienn, 

1. 156. See Beon. 
Bienne, ger. to be, i. 50. See 

Bi-este, adv. eastward, 19. 1147* 

1347. A.S. east. 
Biep, pr. pi. are, i. 63, 75 ; 13. 66 ; 

17 b. 331. A. S. beod. See 

Bi-falle, pr. snbj. befall, 19. 99; 

pp. befallen, 19. 420. A. S. be- 

feallan. Cf. Bi-ful, Biualle. 
Bi-flen, v. to fly from, 176. 154. 

A. S. bifleon. 
Bi-flette, pt. s. surrounded with 

water, 19. 1430. A. S.fledtan, to 

float, pt. flotte. 
Bi-foren, rep. before, 3 a. 46 ; 36. 

99515.2103; Bi-forn, 15. 2272; 

19. 532 ; Bi-for, 18. 482 ; Bi-fore, 

10. 80. A. S. beforan. Cf. Be- 

foren, Biuoren, By-fore, By- 

Bi-ful, pt. s. befell, 6. 244, 279. 

A. S. befeoll. See Bi-falle. 
Bi-geet. See Bi-geten. 

Bi-gan, pt. s. began, 4^. 5. See 

Bi-gat, pt. s. begot, 15. 22 ;8. See 

Bigen, v. to buy, 15. 2166, 2246. 

See Biggenn. 
Bigetel, adj. profitable, 15. 1992. 

Cp. M. E. bijete, bi-gete, gain 

(Stratmann). See Bijete. 
Bi-geten, v. to obtain, i. 64; ta 

beget, 15. 2180 ; Bigaer, pt. s. ob- 
tained, 2. 75 ; Bi-gotten, pp. pos- 
sessed, 7. 174. A. S. begitan, pt. 

begeat, pp. begeten. Cf. Begset. 

Bi-gat, Bi-3eten. 
Biggen, v. to buy, 5. 1611. A. S. 

bycgan. Cf. Buggen. 
Bi-gile, v. to beguile, 19. 320. 

From O. F. guiler, to deceive, 

from guile, deceit. 
Bi-ginnen, v. to begin, 9. 354; 

Biginne, 19. 1297; Bi-gon, pt. s. 

3 a. 61 ; 3 b. 96 ; 6. 441 ; 8 a. 6 ; 

14.13 ; Bi-gunne, />*./>/. 19. 1447; 

Bigunnen, 176. 247 ; pp. 46. in. 

A. S. beginnan (oftener onginnati). 

Cf. Begunnon, Bygynne. 
Bi-ginninge, sb. dot. beginning, 

176. 119. 

Bi-god, interj. by God ! 19. 165. 
Bi-grede]?, pr. pi. cry out at, 16. 

279 ; Bi-gredet, 16. 67. From A. S. 

gr&dan, to cry out. 
Bi-growe, pp. overgrown, 16. 27, 

Bi-hat, pr. s. promises, 170. 360; 

176. 368. A.S. behdtep. See 

Bi-healde, v. to behold, 176. 288 ; 

B5-halden, 7. 77, 82 ; Bi-halde, 7. 

45 ; Bi-halt,/>r. s. 9. 98 j Bi-heold, 

pt. s. 6. 491 ; Biheolt, 7. 112. A.S. 

behealdan, pt. behetid. Cf. Bi- 

Bi-hengen, pt. pi. hung about, 4 a. 

23. A. S. behengou, pt. pi. of 

behon, to hang round. 
Bi-hese, sb. pi. promises, 4 d. 55.. 

A. S. beh<es, a vow, promise. 


Bi-heste, sb. promise, 9. 19. See 

Bi-heten, v. to promise, 17 b. 246; 
Bi-hote$, pr. pi. 9. 339 ; Bi-het, 
pt. s. 19. 470; Bi-hetet (bihete* 
it), didst promise it, 1 8. 677 ; Bi- 
hoten, pp. 1 8. 564. A. S. behdtan, 
pt. behet, pp. behdten. Cf. Bihat, 

Bi-heue, adj. profitable, 46. 40 ; 
9. 351. A. S. behefe, necessary. 
Cf. TJn-bihefre. 

Bi-heyh.te, pt. s. promised, vowed, 
170.238. A.S.bekeht. See Bi- 

Bi-hinde, prep, behind, 170. 86. 
A. S. behindan. 

Bi-holde, v. to behold, 6. 418. See 

Bi-hoten, Bihoteft, see Biheten. 

Bihouep, pr. s. behoveth, 19. 478 ; 
Bi-houes, 18. 582. A. S. bihofian, 
to need. 

Bi-keihte, pt. s. ensnared, 17 b. 
322; M. E. bicachen y see Strat- 
mann ; from M. E. cachen (catch) ; 
O. F. cachier (now chasser) ; Late 
Lat. captiare. 

Bi-knewe, pt. pi. knew, 13. 8. 

Bi-leede, pt. s. enclosed, 6. 439. 
A. S. bilgnggn, to cover. 

Bi-leeuen, v. to remain, 6. 77 ; 
Bilaeue, 6. 91 ; Bileaue, pr. s, 
subj. 9. 237. A. S. belaifan, to 
be left, to remain. Cf. Bi-lef, 
Bi-lefue, BMeuefl. 

Bile, sb. bill, beak, 12. 86; 16. 
1675. A. S. bile. 

Bi-leande, ger. to reprove, 4 d. 39. 
A. S. beledn, to hinder, blame. 

Bi-leaue. See Bi-lseuen. 

Bi-leaue, sb. belief, 8 a. 99. A. S. 
(ge)ledfa. Cf. Bileue (i). 

Bi-ledet (for Bi-ledeJ?), pr. pi. pur- 
sue, 1 6. 68. A.S.belfEdan. 

Bi-lef, imp. s. renounce, 1 7 a. 1 29. 
From A. S. lafan, to leave. 

Bi-lef, pt. s. remained, 15. 2197. 
See Bi-leeuen. 

Bi-lef den, pt. pi. believed, 8 a. II ; 

Bi-lefetS, pr. pi. believe, 6. 1 06. 

See Bi-leue (2). 
Bi-leffulle, adj. believing, 4 a. 56. 

Cf. Un-bileffulle. 
Bi-lefue, v. to remain, 6. 48, 91. 

See Bi-lseuen. 
Bi-lefues, sb. pi. beliefs, 6. 158. 

See Bi-leue (i). 
Bi-leist, i pr. s. coverest, 16. 839. 

A. S. bilecgan, to lay upon, cover. 

See Leist. 
Bi-leue (i), sb, belief, 40. 49; 6. 

105. A.S.(ge)ledfa. Cf.Bi-leaue, 

Be-laue, Be-leaue, Bi-liaue. 
Bi-leue (2), v. to believe, 13. 83; 

19. 1343 ; imp. 13, 84 ; Bileuen, 

pr. pi. IO. 79. A. S. (ge)lefan, to 

believe. Cf. Bi-lefden, Biliueff. 
Bi-leue (3), sb. food, sustenance, 

4 b. 76. A. S. bigleofa. 
Bi-leuefl, pr. s. remains, 46. 86. 

See Bilseuen. 
Bi-lewen, v. to remain, 15. 2233. 

See Bilseuen. 
Bi-liaue, sb. belief, 13. 44, 117. 

See Beleue (i). 
Bi-lien, pr. pi. belong to, 46. 17. 

A. S. bilicgan, to lie round. 
Bi-liked, pp. made pleasing, 16. 

842. A. S. (geyician, to please. 
Bi-limpe'S, pr. s. belongs, 3 b. 76. 

See Be-limpen. 
Bi-liue, adv. quickly, 6. 210; 8 b. 

152. M. E. bi Hue, be life, by 

life, lively. Cf. Bliue. 
Bi-liuen, v. to live by, 46. 102; 

12. 254. A. S. bilibban. 
Bi-liuetJ, I pr. pi. believe, 6. 182. 

See Bi-leue (2). 
BilleS, pr. s. pecks with bill, 12. 

83. See Bile. 
Bi-loken, pp. enclosed, 1701. 80; 

17 b. 8l ; Bilokene, 9. -29. A. S. 

behcen* See Bi-luken. 
Bi-long (on), prep, pertaining to, 

dependent on, 15. 2058. Cf. M.E. 

belongen, to pertain to. See Long- 



Bi-luken, v. to include, 14. 420. 

A. S. belucan. Cf. Bi-loken. 
Bi-menetJ, pr. s. bemoaneth, 15. 

2226 ; Biment, pp. bemoaned, 15. 

2202. A.S. binuznan. 
Bi-mening, sb. bemoaning, 15. 

Bi-mong, prep, among, 8 a. 140. 

A. S. (ge)mang, (ge}mong. 
Bi-murne'S, pr. s. bemourneth, 4 b. 

15. A.S. bimurnan. 
Binden, v. to bind, 176. 220; 

Bindenn, 5. 1179; Binde, 19. 

191. A. S. bindati, pt. band, pp. 

bunden. Cf. Bounden, Bun- 
den, Ibunde. 
Bine, prep, within, I. 103. See 

Bi-neome, pr. s. subj. deprive, 7. 

ii. See Bi-nime. 
Bi-neo"Ke, prep, beneath, 16. 912. 

See below. 
Bi-neJ>en, adv. beneath, 170. 86 ; 

176.87. A. S. beneodan. 
Bi-nime, v. to take from, 1 7 b. 

44, 48, 50. A. S. beniman. Cf. 

Bi-neome, Benam, By-ny- 

men, Nlmen. 
Binne, adv. within, 18. 584. A. S. 

binnan (beinnan). Cf. Bine. 
Bi-reued, pp. bereft, 19.622. A.S. 

biredfian, to deprive of. 
Bi-reuse, imp. s. lament, 4^. 66; 

Bi-reused, pp. 4 c. 28. A. S. beh- 

reowstan, to feel remorse. 
Bi-reusunge, sb. contrition, 3 b. 57. 

A.S. behreowsung. 
Biri, sb. dat. residence, 15. 2257. 

A. S. byrig, byrg, dat. of burh, a 

fortress. See Burh. 
Birine, pr. subj. may rain, 19. 11. 

M.E. bi-reinen (Stratmann). 
Birkabeyn, sb. name of a king of 

Denmark, 1 8. 4 ; Bircabein, 18. 

494. Icel. Birkibein, Birchleg. 

Cp. Corpus Poeticum Boreale 

II. 279. 
Birne, v. to burn, i. 179. A.S. 

byrnan. See Berne. 

BirrJ), pr. s. is due, 5. 984; Birrde, 

pt. s. 5. 1325. A. S. (ge^byrian, 

to be due. 
Bi-runne, pp. bedewed with tears, 

19. 654. A.S. birinnan, to run 

as a liquid, pp. Urunnen. 
Bischopen, sb. dat. pi. bishops, 16. 

1761. See Biscop. 
Bi-schricheJ), pr. pi. shriek at, 16. 

67. From Icel. skrcekja. 
Biscop, sb. bishop, 2. 8, 124; Bis- 

copes, gen. s. 2. 53; pi. I. 129, 

1 78 ,-14. 3. Lat. episcopus; Gr. 

tniffKoiros. Cf. Bisehopen, Bis- 

Bise, sb. the north wind, 18. 724. 

O. F. bise ; cp. It. bigio, gray. 
Bi-seche, I pr. s. beseech, II. 87; 

19. 453 ; Bi-secheb, pr. s. 7. 89 ; 

pr. pi. 3 a. 41 ; 7. 128. Cf. 

Besech, Bi-sohte, Sechen. 
Bi-seh, pt. s. looked, 7. 96. A. S. 

biseah. See Bi-sen. 
Bisemar, sb. scorn, 16. 148. See 

Bi-semep, pr. s. ' him bi-seme]),' he 

appears, 19. 486 ; Bisemed, pp. 

made seemly, plausible. A. S. 

seman, to make the same, to con- 
ciliate, to suit, to appear. 
Bi-sen, v. to oversee, rule, 15. 

2141. A. S. biseon, to look about, 

to visit. Cf. Besie, Biseli, 

Bisi, adj. busy, 9. 207 ; Bisie, 9. 

236. A. S. bysig ; cp. Du. be- 

Bi-side, prep, beside, 19. 861, 

1326; adv. 16. 25; Bi-sides, 

prep, by the side of, 4 a. 9, 75. 

A. S. be sidan. 
Bisiliche, adv. busily, 9. 94. See 

Bi-silS, pr. s. ; bisiS him, looks, takes 

forethought, 7. 191. A. S. bisih'S. 

See Bi-sen. 
Bi-smeoruwed, pp. besmeared, 9. 

114. A.S. besmyred. 
Bismer, sb. scorn, 10. 109 ; Bis- 

3 8 4 


mere, 10. 49. A. S. bismer, insult. 

Cf. Bisemar. 
Bi-smitted, pp. dirtied, 9. 113. 

A. S. besmitan, pp. besmiten. 
Bisne, sb. example, parable, 5. 1230; 

7. 3. A. S. bysn, an example : 

O. S. busan (in am-busan, com- 
mand) ; cp. Goth, busns, (in ana- 

Bi-socnen, sb. pi. dot. petitions, 7. 

Bi-socnie, v. to visit, 3 a. go. A.S. 

so'cw, an enquiry. 
Bi-sohte, pt. s. besought, 8 b. 24. 

See Bi-seche. 
Bi-speke, pp. promised, 16. 1738. 

A. S. besprecen, spoken to. 
Bi-spel, sb. parable, I. 35. A.S. 

bigspell, example, proverb, parable. 
Bisscopp, sb. the Jewish high- 
priest, 5. 1022,1027. SeeBiscop. 
Bistaftet, pp. situated, circum- 
stanced, 8 a. 133 ; BisteaSet, 8 b. 

1 66. Cp. Dan. bestedt. See Skeat 

(s. v. bestead). 
Bi-steken, pp. shut out, 7. 46. 

M. E. steken, to fasten ; cp. O. S. 

stekan, to pierce. 
Bi-stod, pt. s. stood by, 18. 476, 

507. A.S. bes(6d,pt. of bestan- 

dan, to stand by, surround. 
Bi-stonden, pp. surrounded, 8 a. 

133. A.S. bestanden. See above. 
Bi-stride, v. to bestride, 19. 753. 

From A. S. stridan, to strive. 
Bi-sunien, v. to shun, 176. 154. 

From A. S. scunian. 
Bi-swike, v. to betray, deceive, 

16. 158; 19. 290; I pr. s. 19. 

687. A. S. biswican. Cf. Be- 

Bit, pr. s. asks, prays, 46. 44; 7. 

93; ii. 80; 170. 127; invites, 

46. 70; 15. 2238; 16.441. See 

Bit, pr. s. bites, seizes with the beak, 

12. 262. A.S.bitan. 
Bi-tache, imp. s. assign, 6. 345. 

See Bi-techen. 

Bi-tacnen, v. to betoken ; Bi-tao 

neS,/>r. s. 3 b. 32, 78 ; Bitacnedd, 

pp. 5. 986, 1125. A.S. (ge)tdc- 

nian,\.o betoken. Cf. Be-tokned, 

Bi-t8eht,/>/>. given, 6. 410; Bitaht, 

entrusted, 7. 201 ; 8 a. 72 ; Bi- 

teiht, 9. 17; Bitagt, 15. 2043. 

A. S. tetaht, pp. of betacan. Cf. 

Bi-teehten (for Bitaehte),/>/. s. gave, 

6 a. 567; Bitahte, 6b. 567; 8 a. 

119 ; Bitagte, delivered, 15. 2139 ; 

Bitaucte, 18. 558. A.S. betahte, 

pt. s. of betcecan, to commit, put in 

trust. See Bi-techen. 
Bi-take, v. to commit, entrust, 6 b. 

382 ; Bi-takest, 2 pr. s. 6. 410; 

Bi-tak, imp. s. 6. 345 ; 19. 791, 

See Taken. 

Bi-taucte. See Bi-teehten. 
Bi-techen, v. to entrust, give up, 

6 a. 382; Biteche, 18. 395; Bi- 

teache, 2 pr. s. subj. S a. 1 1 2. 

A. S. bet&can. 

Bi-teiht. See Bi-teehten. 
Bi-telle, v. to clear, justify, 16. 

263. A.S. betellan, to answer, 

Biter, adj. bitter, 13. 44, 60 ; 17 b. 

138 ; Bitere, pi. 19. 792 ; adv. 

19. 1520; Biterest, super!. 46. 

109. A. S. biter. Cf. Bittre. 
Biternesse, sb. bitterness, 13. 60. 

A. S. biternis. 
Bi-tide, v. to betide, 19. 543; Bi- 

tid,pr. s. 15.2181 ; 1978. 

From A. S. (id, a time, tide. Cf. 

Bi-tild, pp. covered, 8 a. 31. A. S. 

Bi-time, adv. betimes, 19. 987. 

A. S. be tima, in (good) time. 
Bitinde, adj. biting, bitter, 9. 335. 

A. S. bitan, pr. p. bitende. 
Bi-tocknett, pr. s. betokeneth, 4 a. 

41,43; Bi-tockned, 13. 119. See 

Bi-towen, pp. employed, 9. 352. 



A. S. betogen, pp. of be-teon, to 

draw round. (M. E. be-teti, to 

Bi-traie, v. to betray, 19. 1271; 

Bi-traide, pt. s. 19. 1290. From 

O. F. tra'ir ; Lat. tradere, to give 

Bitterliche, adv. bitterly, 8 b. 147. 

A. S. biter lice. 
Bittre, adj. bitter, 8 a. 119; Sb. 

113 ; adv. Set. 6 1 ; Bittrest, super I. 

10. 106. See Biter. 
Bituhhe, prep, between, 7. 78 ; 

IO-53- AJSJg&i. Cf.Bi-twex. 
Bi-tweonen, /-/>. between, 9. 

255 ; Bi-twenen, 4^. 12 ; Bi-twe- 

nenn, 5. 1316, 1611 ; Bi-twen, 15. 

2203; Bi-tuene,i8. 749; Bi-twine, 

6. 334 ; A. S. belweonum, betwe6- 

nan, betwinan. 
Bi-twex, prep, betwixt, 19. 346 ; 

Bitwexe, 19. 424. A. S. betwix, 

betwttx, betweoh. Cf. Bituhhe. 
l-Ji-tydet?, pr. s. betides, 14. 429. 

See Bi-tide. 
Bi$, pr. s. is, 3 a. 61 ; 36. 63 ; 

shall be, 8 a. no. A.S. 6/0. Cp. 

Bi-ftenken, v. to bethink. 12. 94; 

BiJ)enchen, 176. 329; Bi-]>enche, 

I7a*323; Bi-bohte,/tf. s. 6. 221, 

283; Bi-Shogte, 15. 2115; Bi- 

Jjojte, 16. 199; 19. 264, 411; 

Bi-J)ouhte, 17 a. 156 ; Bi])oht, />/>. 

repented, 17 6. 8 ; Bi-]x>uht, 17 a. 

8. A. S. be-fencan, pt. -fohte, pp. 

Bi-fter, by the, 176. 216. 
Bi-ualle, v. to befall, 19. 172; 

pp. 176. 198. See Bi-falle. 
BiuetS, pr. s. trembles, 15. 2280. 

A. S. bifian (beofian). 
Bi-uoren, prep, before, 6. 519; 

Biuore, 7. 98; II. 90; 19. 233. 

See Bi-foren. 
Bi-uorenhond, adv. beforehand, 

9. 72. 

Bi-wente, pt. s. turned round, 19. 
321. A.S. bewendan. 

VOL. I. C 

Bi-wepe, I pr. s. beweep, 30. 65. 

A. S. bewepan. 
Bi-werien, I pr. pi. defend, 176. 

337. A. S. bewerian. 
Bi-weste, adv. westward, 19. 5, 

775. From A. S. west. 
Bi- winded, pr. s. winds about, 4 b. 

35. A. S. bewtndan. 
Bi-witen, v. to guard, 7. 4; Bi- 

witeft, pr. s. 7. 34 ; Bi-wisten, pt. 

pi. 30. 23. A.S. bewitan, to 

watch over. Cf. By-wite. 
Bi-won, pt. s. obtained, 3 a. 7, 84. 

M. E. bewinnen; A. S. (ge)winnan, 

to win. 
Bi-wreie, v. to reveal, disclose, 19. 

Bi-sete, sb. profit, 9. 139. Cf. 

Bijeten, v. to obtain, procure, 6 a. 

174 ; Bijete, pr. s. subj. 6 b. 343; 

BL^ite, 6 a. 343; Bi?etenn, pp. 5. 

1645, acquired ; Bi-$oten, pos- 
sessed, 7. 109 ; Bi-yete, begotten, 

1 7 a. 105 ; Bijute, 176. 105 ; Bi- 

3ite, obtained, 6 a. 424. See Bi- 

Bi-jonde, prep, beyond, 19. 1191. 

A. S. begeondan. Cf. Be-ionde.^black, 18.555; Blaca,/>/. 

3&.io6;Blake,.9. 152; 19.1341. 

A. S. blac. 
Blsetenn, pr. pi. bleat, 5. 1317 ; 

B!aete, pr. s. 5. 1315; A. S. 

Blake, sb. smut, black, 19. 1217. 

See Blac. 
Blanchet, sb. a white powder used 

as a cosmetic, 36. 123. O. F. 

blancket, something white (Cot 7 

Blasie, pr. s. subj. blaze, 9. 289. 

Cf. A. S. blcese, a flame. 
Blawe, v. to blow, 18. 587. A. S. 

bldwan. Cf. Bleowen, Bloa- 

weft, Blou. 
Bleike, adj. pale, 18. 470. A.S. 

bide, shining. See Skeat (s. v. 


3 86 


Blenche, v. to turn aside, 16. 170; 

19. 1453. See Skeat (s. v.). 
Bleo, sb. complexion, 16. 152. A.S. 

bleoh, bleo, hue. 
Bleowen, ft. pi. blew, 6. 497 ; 

Bleouw (MS. bleowu), pt. s. I. 

195; Bleu, 19. 1314, 1550. See 

Blesse, v. to bless, 19. 584; Blesced, 

pp. 40. 33 ; Bletcaed, consecrated, 

2. 190. A.S. blctsian, bledsian 

( = blodison}, to sprinkle with 

blood (blod). Cf. I-blescede. 
Blete, adj. bleak, exposed, 16. 616 ; 

sb. 16. 57. 
Blinnen, v. to cease, 15. 1963. 

A. S. blinnan (be + Hunan). 
Blis, sb. bliss, 19. 1250; Blisse, I. 

145; Blisce, 13. 78. A. S. bliss 

( = 6/i<5s),from blfSs. Cf. Blysse. 
Blisful, adj. blissful, n. 19; Blis- 

fule, 8 a. 36. 
Blissen, v. to gladden, 46. 2 ; 

Blissin, 7. 121 ; BlissiS, pr. s. I. 

58} BlisseS, I. 61. A. S. blissian, 

to b*e glad, to gladden. 
BliUe, adj. joyful, 16. 418. A.S. 

bllde. Cf. Blis. 
BlitJeliche, adv. gladly, 7. 95, 213 ; 

176. 258; Blibeli3, 5. 1328. A.S. 

Bliue, adv. quickly, 6. 395 ; 19. 

723. See Bi-liue. 
BloawetJ, pr. s. bloweth, 9. 102. 

See Blawe. 
Blod, sb. blood, 3 a. 29 ; 40. 52 ; 

9.223. A.S.blod. Cf. Blesse. 
Blod-bendes, sb. pi. blood-bands, 

9. 198. 
Blodi, adj. bloody, 10. iS; Blody, 

19. 1264. A.S. blodig. 
Blod-letunge, sb. dot. bloodletting, 

9. 230 ; Blodleting, sb. lo. 107. 
Blomede, pt. s. bare blossoms, 15. 

2061. M. E. blomien, to bloom ; 

from Icel. blom, a blossom. 
Blostme, sb. blossom, n. 22; pi. 

4 rt. 25; 4^.45; 16.437; Biosme, 

16. 16. A. S. blos'ma. 

Blofteliche, adv. joyfully, 6 b. 564. 

Cf. BlutSeliche. 
Blou, imp. s. blow, 18. 585. See 

Blowe, pp. blossomed, 16. 1636. 

A.S. blowan, to bloom. 
Blufleliche, adv. blithely, 6 a. 564 ; 

170. ,250. See Blifteliche. 
Blysse, sb. bliss, 170. 146. See 

Boc, sb. book, 36. 6; 7. 239; 9. 

349 ; be holie boc,' the Bible, 

4 a. 26. A. S. boc. Cf. Bok. 
Bode, sb. message, 17 a. 256; Ifb. 

264, 296 ; 15. 1973 ; Bodes, com- 
mands, 12. 299. A. S. (ge)bod, a 

Bode, sb. body, 46. 122. See 

Boden, //. pi. commanded, 15. 

1971. A.S. budon. See Bede 

Bode- word, sb. command, 15. 

BodieS, pr. pi. announce, 9.. 67; 

Bodeden, I. 99. A.S.bodian. 
Bodi3, sb. body, 5. 1555; Bodie*, 

19. 910 ; Bodi, 7. 181 ; 16. 73. 

A. S. bodig. 
Boh, sb. bough, 40. 26 ; Boges, pi. 

4 a. 37. A. S. boh, b6g. Cf. 

Bose, Buges. 
Bohte, pt. s. bought, 7. 32; Bohton, 

pt. pi. 2. 85; BoBte, 19. 894; 

Bouhte, pt. s. i 1 ] a. 188 ; Bohte, 

pp. 17 b. 186 ; 10. 120; Bojt, 15. 

1994. See Buggen. 
Bok, sb. 17. 391 ; Bake, dot. 9. 

251; 12. 54. See Boc. 
Bok-ilered, adj. book-learned, 14. 

Bold, adj. fierce, 15. 1917. A.S. 

beald. Cf. Belde. 
Boldeliche, adv. boldly, 16. 401. 

A.S. bealdlice. 
Bole, sb. gen. bull's, 6. 403. Ice!. 

bolt. Cf. Bule. 
Bolle, sb. bowl, 6. 514; 19. 1135. 

A. S. bolla. 


Bolt, s&. arrow, 14. 421. A. S. bolt, 

a catapult. 
Boluwefl, pr. s. puffs up, 9. 102. 

A. S. belgan, pp. gebolgen. Cf. 


Bon, sb. pi. bones, 14. 425. See 


Bond, sb. imprisonment, 15. 2076, 
2197; Bondes,/)/. bonds, 15.2230. 
A. S. bend, band. 

Bone, sb. prayers, petition, 8 a. 131 ; 
86. 28; 12. 116; Bonen,/>/. 170. 
157. Icel. bon; cp. A. S. btn. 
Cf. Bene. 

Bord, sb. board, table, 6. 430; 
Borde, 1.199; 46.6; 170.259, 
305 ; Bordes, pi. 6. 499. A. S. 
bord, a plank. 

Bore, sb. boar, 16. 408. A.S.bdr. 
Boren, pp. botn, 15. 2160; Bo- 

renn, 5. 969. See Beren. 
Borh, sb. fort, 6 b. 447. See 

Bosum, sb. bosom, 86. 114. A. S. 


Bote, sb. remedy, succour, 10. 34, 

57 ; amendment, 3 b. 51 ; 4 c. 48 ; 

9-339; 170.312; 17*6.318. A.S. 

hot. Cf. Sinbote. 

Bote, s6. boat, 19. 202, 774. A. S. 


Bote, conj. but, 10. 7 ; except, 6. 

3535 only, 18. 721. See Bute. 

Bo'Ben, adj. both, 15. 2049; 18. 

471; BoSe, conj. 4 <:. 59. See 


Bouhte. See Bohte. 
Bounden, pp. bound, 18. 545. 

A. S. bunden. See Binden. 
Boure, s6. lady's chamber, 19. 75- 

See Bur. 
Boute, prep, without, 6. 352. See 


Boye, sb. man-servant, 19. 1087. 
Cp. O. Du. boef, a boy ; G. bnbe ; 
borrowed from Lat. pupus. 
Boje, j&. bough, 19. 1243 ; dot. s. 
16. 15 ; dot. pi. 16. 616. See 

Bo5te. See Bohte. 

Brae, pt. s. broke, 17 6. 185 ; Brak, 

19. 681. See Breke. 
Brace, sb. outcry, 5. 1178. Icel. 

brctk ; cp. A. S. (ge)brcEc. 
Brade, adj. broad, 10. IIQ. A. S. 

brdd. Cf. Breed, Brod. 
Brade, s6. roast flesh, 176. 145. 

A. S. brcede. Cf. Brede. 
Breecon, pt. pi. broke, 2. 31. See 

Breed, s6. bread, 5. 993 ; Brad, I. 

34, 1 86. See Bred. 
BraJ?pe, s6. violence, 5. 1233. Icel. 

brad, haste. 

Bread-lepes, .<;6. pi. bread-baskets, 
15. 2078. A. S. leap, basket ; cp. 
Icel. laupr. 
Breas, s6. brass, 8 a. 124. See 


Brech, s6. pi. breeches, drawers, 

p. 167. A.S; brec, breeches, 

pi. of broc; cp. Icel. brdk, pi. 


BrecIS, pr. s. breaks, 176. 182. See 


Bred, sb. bread, 46. 6; 15. 2048 ; 
Breade, dot. I. 195. A. S. bread. 
Cf. Breed. 

Bred. See Waxbred. 
Bred-ale, s6. bridal, wedding-feast, 

13. 89. See Brud-ale. 
Brede, s6. roast flesh, 170. 149. 

See Brade. 
Brede, s6. breadth, 16. 174. A. S. 

Breden, v . to spread, 6. 499. A. S. 


Bred-gume, sb. bridegroom, 13. 

III. A. S. brydguma, bredguma. 

Bred-wrigte, sb. baker, 15. 2077. 

A. S. wyrhta, a worker. 
Breke, v. to break, 16. 1693 
Brek, pt. s. broke, 170. 183; 
Breken, pt. pi. 4 a. 37. A.S. bre~ 
can, pt. brcec, pp. gebrocen. Cf. 
Brae, Breecon, Breaft. 
Breken, v. to use, 9. 148. See 

C C 2 

3 88 


Breme, adj. fierce, angry, 16. 202. 

A. S. breme, famous, noble. 
Brende, pt. s. burnt, 5. 1702; 

Brendon, pt. pi. 2.43; 18. 594; 

Brend,/>/>. 5. 1000, 1620. M. E. 

brennen ; Icel. brenna, to burn. 
Breoken, v. to break into, 7. 7 ; 

Breoke, 7. 31. See Breke. 
Breres, sb. pi. briars, 9. 161. A. S. 

Bres, fb. brass, 8&. 152. A.S. brces. 

Cf. Breas. 
Bret, pr. s. roasts, 3 5. 119. M. E. 

breden ; A. S. bradan. 
BreUe, sb. vapour, 3 a. 48. A. S. 

BreSere., $&./>/. brothers, 15. 1911, 

2199; BreSre, 30. 83. A.S. 

brdbor, dot. bretier, pi. brffior, 

brodru. Cf. BriSere, Brottere. 
Bricht, adj. bright, 13. 48 ; Brict, 

18. 589 ; Brictest,sw/>r/. 15. 1910. 

A. S. beorkt. Cf. Briht, Brijt. 
Brichtnesse, sb. brightness, 1 3. 48 ; 

Brictnesse, 1. 168. A.S. beorhtnes. 

Cf. Brihtnesse. 
Bridd, sb. a young bird, 5. 1260. 

A. S. brid. 
Bridel, sb. bridle, 19. 778. A. S. 

Brigge, sb. bridge, 19. 1088. A. S. 

Briggeden, pt. pi. .bridged, 40. 35, 

65. A. S. brycgian. 
Briht, adj. 0RgOTf< 9 1 J " 19 J 

Brigt, 12. 71 ; Brihtre, com 7. 

140. See Bricht. 
Brihtnesse, sb. brightness, 7. 75. 

See Brichtnesse. 
Bringen, v. to bring, 4 a. u; Brinn- 

genn, 5. 1327; Bringe,/>r. s. swfy. 

bring, 4 6. 70. A. S. bringan, pt. 

brdhte, pp. gebrdht. Cf. Ibrocht. 
Brinke, sb. dat. shore, 19. 141. 

Dan. brink, edge, verge. 
Brinneft, pr. s. burns, 4 a. 71. A.S. 

brinnan (in onbrinnari). 
Bristowe, sb. Bristol, 2. 117. A. S. 


Bri'Kere, brothers, 15. 2271. 

See Breflere. 
Brijt, adj. bright, 16. 1681 ; 1 8. 

589 ; Brijter, comp. 16. 152. See 

Broche, sb. brooch, 9. 261. O. F. 

broche, a pin, a spit. 
Brochte, pt. s. brought, I. 116. 

See Brohte. 
Brod, adj. broad, 6b. 435. See 

Erode, sb. dat. brood, 16. 93. Cp. 

Du. broed, and M. H.G. bruot, 

Brohte, pt. s. brought, 2. 68; 

Bronte, 19. 40, Hi; Brouhte, 

170.183; Brohten, 2. 149; 

Brohhtenn, 5. 1330. See Brin- 
Brondes, sb. pi. brands, 9. 287. 

A. S. brand. 
BroUere, sb. pi. brothers, 6. 335. 

See Brettere. 
Bruc, imp. s. use, 19. 206. See 

Brud, sb. bride, 86. 158. A.S. 

bryd. Cf. Burde. 
Brudale, sb. bridal, 19. 1044. A. S. 

bryd-ealo, a bride-ale. Cf. Bred- 
Bruken, v. to eat, enjoy, 46. 24, 

123 ; Brukeft, imp. pi. eat, 4 b. 73. 

A. S. brucan, to use, enjoy. Cf. 

Breken, Ibroken. 
Brun, sb. a brown jug, 19. 1134. 

A. S. brun, brown. 
Brune, sb. burning, 8 a. 1 24. A. S. 

Brunie, sb. a corslet, coat of mail, 

19. 591, 719. Icel. brynja; cp. 

A.S. byrne (Sweet). Cf. Bry- 


Bruttes, sb. pi. Britons, 6 a, b. 205. 
Bruttisc, adj. British, 6 a. 450, 

561 ; Bruttesse, 6 b. 450, 561. 
Brymme, sb. dat. shore, margin, 

19. 190. A. S. brim, surge. 
Bryniges, sb. pi. corslets, 2. 25. See 




Buckess, bucks, 5. 990. A.S. 

bucca. Cf. Bukkess. 
Budeles, sb. pi. beadles, officers, 

8 a. 98. A. S. bydel, lit. one who 

proclaims, from beddan. Cf. Be- 

Buffeted, pt. pi. struck, 10. 80; 

Buffetet, pp. 10. 88. O. F. bufe- 

ter, to cuff. 
Buffetes, sb. pi. blows on the cheek, 

10. 75. O.F. bufet. 
Bufon, adv. above, I. 174. A.S. 

bufaii ( = be ufan}. Cf. Buuen. 
Bugen, v. to approach, 46. 24 ; pr. 

pi. go, 4 b. 122. A. S. bugan, to 

bow, yield, flee. Cf. Buhen, 

Buwe, Bujen, Jebugon. 
Buges, boughs, 15. 2060. See 

Buggen, v. to buy, 10. 26 ; Bugge, 

170. 66 ; 176. 65. A. S. bycgan, 

pt. bohte, pp. geboht. Cf. Bigen, 

Biggen, Bup, Bohte. 
Buhen, v. to bow, 8 a. 67; Buhe, 

8 6. 85. See Bugen. 
Buhsum, adj. obedient, 7. 88. 

From A. S. bugan, to bend. 
Bukkess, sb. pi. bucks, 5. 1326. 

See Buckess. 
Bule, sb. bull, 5. 990 ; gen. s. 6. 

403. See Bole. 
Bultedd, pp. boulted, sifted, 5. 992. 

O.F. bulter, buleter ( = bureter}> 

to sift through brownish stuff" 

Bunden, pt. pi. bound, 10. 78 ; 15. 

2216 ; pp. 4&. 52; Bunde, 19. 

422. A. S. bundon,pt. pi., bunden, 

pp. See Binden. 
Bur, sb. 'dot. bower, women's 

chamber, 19. 325; Bure, 19. 269, 

372. A. S. bur. Cf. Boure. 
Burch, sb. city, 2. 150. See Burh. 
Burch, sb. Peterborough, 2. 193, 

201. A.S. Burh. 
Burde, sb. bride, 8 a. 18. See 

Burden,//, pi. buried, 19. 902. See 


Burdon, sb. pilgrim's staff, 19.1073. 

O. F. bourdon ; Low Lat. burdo- 

nem ; cp. It. bordone (Dante). 
Burh, sb. city, i. 194; 6. 346; 

Bureh, 40. II ; Burhjen, dat.6. 

502; Burhene, gen. pi. Sb. 70. 

A. S^burh; cp. O. H. G. burg 

(OtfrTd'yi Cf. Burch, Borh, 

Berie, Biri. 
Burh-folc, sb. borough-folk, 4 a. 

Burne, sb. dat. a spring of water, 

16. 918. A. S. burna ; cp. O. H.G. 

brunno (Otfrid). 
Burfl-tid, sb. birth-time, 10. 4. A.S. 

Busk, sb. the head or tuft of a stalk 

of wheat, 15. 2105. Dun. busk, a 

bush. Cp. Halliwell (s. v. busk (3)). 
Butere, sb. butter, 2. 46 ; 18. 643. 

Lat. butyrum ; Gr. fiovrvpov. 
Butler, sb. 15. 2055. Norm. F. 

butuiller, from butuille, a bottle j 

see Skeat (s. v.). 
Buton, conj. except, I. 43, no; 

Buten, 6. 353 ; prep, without, 7. 

237; Bute, conj. except, 36. 47 ; 

46. 29; prep, without, I. 20 ; 6. 

352. A. S. buton ( = beuton}. Cf. 


Butt, conj. unless, 5. 1662. 
BuS, pr. s. is, 9. 139; are, 

19. 815. A. S. bid, 3 pr. s., bedd, SeeBeoU. 
BuJ>, pr. s. buys, 170. 150. See 

Buuen, prep, above, 7. 97, 100; 

14. 436; Buve,' "adv. 16. 208. 

See Bufon. 
Bujen, v. to depart, 6. 489 ; Buje, 

to bend, 19. 427 ; Buwe, I pr. s. 

bow, ii. 3 ; Bujhesst, 2 pr. s. art 

obedient, 5. 1303. See Bugen. 
By-come, pr. s. subj. become, hap- 
pen, 14. 209. See Bi-cumen. 
By-fore, adv. before, 14. 236. See 

By-gynne, imp. s. begin, 14. 415. 

See Bi-ginnen. 



By-hud, Imp. s. hide, 14. 242. 
By-hynde, adv. behind, 14. 237. 

See Bi-hinde. 
Bynde, v. to bind, 170. 216. See 

By-nymen, v. to take from, if a. 

49; Bynyme, 170.45,51. See 

Byrieden, pt. pi. buried, 2. 88, 

197. A. S. byrigan, to bury, 

closely related to beorgan, to pro- 
tect. Cf. Burden. 
Byp, pr. s. is, 170. 84, 348 ; 176. 

87. A.S. bid. SeeBeofl. 
By-uoren, prep, before, 176. 346. 

See Bi-foren. 
By wite./r. s. may guard, 14. 245. 

See Biwiten. 


Csese, sb. cheese, 2. 45. Lat. caseus. 
Cf. Chese. 

Cseste, sb. chest, 2. 29. Lat. chta. 

Ceestre, sb. Chester, 2. 109. Lat. 
castra, a camp. 

Caliz, sb. chalice, 9. 144 ; Calice, 
dat. 40. 57. Lat. calix. 

Callen, v. to call, 18. 747. A.S. 
callinn (ceallian}, 

Cam, pt. s. came, 15. 2103, 2339 ; 
became, 176. 117. See Comen, 

Can, i pr. s. can, 2. 38; Canstu, 2 
pr. s. canst thou, 19. 1222 ; Can 
Jjanc, pr. s. thanks, 17 b. 71. A. S. 
cann. See Con, Cunnen. 

Canceler, sb. chancellor, 2. 9. O.F. 
cancelier ; Late Lat. cancellariiis. 

Candelmasse, sb. dat. Candlemass, 
2. 116. A. S. candel masse, the 
feast of the purification, called in 
Church Latin, candelaria (Du- 

Ganges, sb. gen. fool's, 9. 98. Cp. 
prov. Sw. bang, giddy, frolic- 
some (Rietz). See Stratmann. 

Cantuarie-buri, sb. dat. Canter- 
bury, 6. 30. See below. 

Cantwaraburch, sb. Canterbury, 

2. 105. A.S. Cantwaraburh, the 

fortress of the men of Kent. 
Care, sb. grief, 6. 352; 176. 45. 

A.S. cant; O.S.cara ; cp. O.H.G. 

char a (Weigand). 
Carited, sb. charity, 2. 66. O. F. 

caritet, caritad ; Lat. caritatem. 
Carl-men, sb. pi. men, 2. 20. Cp. 

Icel. karl-madr, a man, male. 
Cartes, carts, 15. 2362. 
Castel, sb. village, 2. 163; castb, 

6. 445 ; 1 8. 41 2. Late Lat. cos- 

tellum, village (Vulgate) ; Lat. 

a fortress. 

Castel-weorces, sb. pi. castle for- 
tifications, 2. 17. 
Casten, v. to cast, 18. 519; Caste, 

19. 849. Icel. kasta, to throw. 

Cf. I-cast. 
Celere, sb. cellar, 9. in. O. F. 

celier ; Lat. cellar ium. 
Cendal, sb. a silk stuff, Sb. 44. 

O. F. cendal ; Low Lat. ceridalum, 

sandalum. See Nares (s.v. sen- 
do!) . 
Cerges, sb. pi. wax tapers, 18. 594. 

O. F. cierge ; Lat. cereus, from 

cera, wax. 
Certes, adv. certainly, 16. 1769. 

O. F. eerie*, in Roland, 255; Lat. 

certas, pl.f. of certus. 
Ceften, sb. pi. dat. countries, native 

places, I. 19, 131. A.S. cyddu, 

native land, home. See CudSen, 

Chaere, sb. chair, 19. 1281. O. F. 

chaere (now chatre, chaise} ; Lat. 

cathedra, a seat ; Gr. KaOtSpa. 
Chafare, sb. merchandise, 15. 1951. 

M. E. chap/are, trade business ; 

A. S. cedp, a bargain +faru, a 

journey, business. Cf. Cheffare. 
Chald, adj. cold, 13. 120. See 

Chanounes, canons, 18. 360. 

O. F. chanoine, canoine. See 

Chapeles, s6. pi. chapels, 19. 1408. 



O. F. chapele, capele ; Church Lat. 

capella, a sanctuary (Ducange). 
Chapmen, sb. pi. merchants, 15. 

1956. A.S. cedpman. Cf. Chep- 

Charen, v. to turn, go, 15. 2436 ; 

Chare, I pr. s. depart, 15. 2390. 

A. S. cerran, cirran. Cf. Chearre, 

Cherde, Churre]?. 
Charij, adj. full of care, sad, 5. 

1274. A. S. cearig, from cearu 

(cam}, care. See Care. 
Chartre, sb. prison, 15. 2043. O. F. 

chartre (Bartsch) ; Lat. carcerem. 
Chartre, sb. charter, 18. 676. O. F. 

chartre, cartre ; Lat. chartnla. 
Chasti, pr. s. subj. chastise, 7. 1 1. 

O. F. chastier, castier; Lat. cas- 

Chaterest, 2 pr. s. chatterest, 16. 

Chateringe, sb. chattering, 16. 

Chaungi, v. to change, 19. 1064. 

O. F. changier ; Low Lat. cam- 

biare, to barter (in the Lex Salica). 

Cf. Ichanget. 
Cheap, ib. bargain, 10. 67. A. S. 

cedp, a word borrowed from the 

Latin, cp. Lat. caupo, a huckster. 

Cf. Kepen. 
Cheapett, pr. s. sells, 9. 139. A. S. 

cedpian, to bargain. Cf. Chepet. 
Cheapild, sb. a dealer, 9. 138. See 

Chearre, v. to turn, 86. 175. See 

Cheas, pt. s. chose, 10. 20. See 

Cheffare, sb. traffic, 9. 138. See 

Chelde, v. to turn cold, 19. 1160. 

A. S. cealdian. 
Cheldren, sb. pi. children, 6. 319. 

See Childre. 
Chele, sb. chill, 5. 1615; 176.199. 

A. S. cele, cyle, cp. colian, to grow 

Chele. See Metheschele. 

Chelle, sb. bowl, n. 45. A. S. 

Cheose, v. to choose, 19. 664. A. S. 

ceosan, pt. ceds, pp. coren. Cf. 

Cheas, Chesesst, Cosan, Cu- 

san, I-coren, 3ecas. 
Chepet, pp. bought, 10. 68. See 

Chepmon, sb. merchant, 9. 140. 

See Chapmen. 
Cherde, pt. pi. turned, 16. 1658. 

See Charen. 
Chere, sb. a time, Sb. 19. A.S. 

cerr, cyrr, a turn, a space of time. 

Cf. Sumchere. 
Chere, sb. face, 9. 73 ; Cheres, pi. 

wry faces, 9. 55. Norm.F. chere; 

Low Lat. cara, the face. 
ChereS, pr. s. cheets, i. 58. O. F. 

cherer (Cotgrave). 
Cherl, sb. peasant, 18. 682, 684 

Cherles, pi. 18. 620. A.S. ceorl, 

a man, a husband. Cf. Carl- 
Chesesst, 2 pr. s. choosest, 5. 1282. 

See Cheose. 
Cheste, sb. jangling, 16. 177, 183. 

A. S. cedst, strife. 
Che'Sen, sb. pi. countries, i. 81. 

See CetSen. 
Chewwenn, v. to chew, 5. 1241. 

A. S. cetiwan. 

Chid, imp. s. chide, 14. 412; Chid- 
den, pt. pi. disputed, 15. 1927. 

A. S. cldan, to brawl. 
Chilce, sb. childishness, 170. 7. 

From child. See Cild. 
Child, sb. a youth trained to arms, 

a young knight, 19. 25. A. S. 

did, the child of a noble house, 

also, used as a title in A. S. 

Chron. an. 1074. Cp. the use 

of enfant in Roland, 3197. See 

Childhad, sb. childhood, 10. 8. 

A.S. cildhdd. 
Childre, sb. pi. children, 15. 2228, 

2363 ; Chilldre, p. 1065 ; Childer, 

15. 2149; Childrene, gen. pi. 9. 



214; 18. 499; Childre, dat. pi. 

16.1776. A. S. did, pi. cildru, 

-ra, -rum. Cf. Cheldren, Cyld- 

Chirche, sb. church, 3 a. 90; 19. 

1408 ; Chirchen, dat. pi. 4 d. 10. 

See Cyrce. 
Chirchsocne, sb. an independent 

church, congregation, 4 a. 3. A. S. 

ciric-s6cn t ecclesiae immunitas 

Chirme, sb. noise of birds, 16. 305. 

A. S. cirm, cyrm. 
Chold, adj. cold, 13. 139. See 

Christen, adj. Christian, 2. 85. See 

Christen-man, sb. Christian man, 

J 3' 78; Christeneman, 13. 120. 

See Cristene-men. 
Chule, 'ich chule/ I will, Sb. 54; 

Chulle, ich chulle,' 8 b. 94. See 

Churchen, sb. pi. churches, 19. 62. 

See Cyrce. 
Churre]?, pr. s. turns, 14. 85. See 

Ciclatun, sb. a costly silk texture, 

8 a. 32; II. 51; Ciclatuns, pi. 

8 b. 43. O. F. ciclattm in Roland, 

846. See Chaucer 2, p. 153, and 

Skeat (s. v. scarlet). 
Cild, s6. child, 1.69; 2.86. A. S. 

did. Cf. Child, Cheldren, 

Circe, sb. church, 2. 51. See 


Circe-wican, sb. the office of sa- 
crist, 2. 74. See Chron. p. 370. 
Cisternesse, sb. dat. cistern, Joseph's 

pit, 15. 1942, 1960. Cp. Lat. 

cisterna, used of Joseph's pit, Gen. 

xxxvii (Vulg.). 
Cite, sb. city, 13. 5, 90. O. F. cite ; 

Late Lat. citatem (for civitatem) 

a community of citizens. Cf. 

Clsennessess, sb. gen. of purity, 5. 

1194. A. S. cl&nnis. 

Clansi, v. to cleanse, 16. 610. A. S. 

(ge)cl<znsian. Cf. Clenesse, 

daft, sb. cloth, 36. 116; 9. 184; 

Claftes, pi. clothes, 3 b. 40, 78 ; 

8 a. 32. A. S. clad. Cf. Clo. 
Clapen, v. to clothe ; Cla]>e)>, pr. 

/>/. 36. 123. Cf. Clopede. 
Clawwess, sb. pi. hoofs, 5. 1225. 

A. S. cldwu, pi. cldwe. 
Clenche, v. to twang the harp, 19. 

Clene, adj. pure, i. 117; 40. 75; 

15. 2439; adv. wholly, I. 18. 

Clenesse, sb. purity, 3 a. 58, 102; 
purifying, 13. 103. See Cleen- 

Clenliche, adv. in purity, 40. 77 ; 

Clennlike, 5. 1644 ; Clenli, purely, 

IO. 21. A. S. cl&nlice. 
Clennsenn, v. to cleanse, 5. 1126; 

Clensede, pt. s. I. 119; Clensed, 

pp. 4 b. 108. See Clansi. 
Clensinge, sb. purifying, 46. 119. 

A. S. clcensung. 
Clenten, embraced, 19. 1413. 

See Skeat (s. v. clinch). 
Cleo, (for Cleof),5&. cliff, 170. 343. 

A. S. cleof, clif. Cf. Cliue. 
Cleopien, v. to call, 6. 498; Cle- 

pien,i.7;Clepeien,i.57; Cleopeft, 

pr. s. 7. 43 ; ClepetJ, ipr. pi. ^d. 

65 ; Cleopede, pt. s. 9. 9 ; pt. pi. 6. 

460 ; Clepede, pp. 4 b. 30. A. S. 

cleopian (clypian). Cf. Clupede, 

Clerc, sb. scholar, 2. 196 ; Clerekes, 

pi. clergymen, 2. 54; Clerkes, 16. 

722. O. F. clerc' t Church Lat. 

clericiis (Ducange) ; Gr. K\r)pife6s 

from KXrjpos, a lot, in eccl. writers, 

the clergy. 
Cleue, sb. cottage, 18. 557, 596. 

A. S. cledfa, a chamber. 
Cleues,/>r. s. splits asunder, 10. 119. 

A. S. cleofan. Cf. Clofenn. 
Clinge, v. to wither, shrivel up, 1 6. 

743. A. S. clingan. 



ClippepJ), pr. s. clippeth, 5.1189. 

Icel. klippa. 
Cliue, sb. cliff, 176. 351. A. S. 

clif. Cf. Cleo. 
Cliue'o", pr. s. adheres, abides, 15. 

2384 ; Cliued, pt. s. cleaved, ad- 

hered, 15. 1963. A. S. clifian, 

pt. clifode, pp. clifod. 
Clivers, claws of a bird, 16. 

I55 270; Clivres, 16. 84, 1676. 

A. S. cttfer (B. T.). 
Clofenn,/^. cloven, 5.1224. A. S. 

clofett, pp. ofcletifan. See Cleues. 
Clotf, sb. clothing, 9. 314; CloJ>e, 

dat. 19. 1231; Clones, />/. 19. 

1065. See ClatS. 
Clopede, pt. s. clothed, 18. 420. 

See Clapej). 
Clupede, pt. s. called, 19. 225. See 

Cluppen, v. to embrace, 9. 266 ; 

Clupte,/)/. s. 6. 578. A.S. clyppan. 
Clusterlokan, s6. pi. enclosures, 

barriers, 3 a. 47. A. S. clustorloc 

Clutes, s6. clouts, rags, 10. 6 ; 18. 

547. A. S. dut ; cp. Wei. clwt. 

Cf. Pileheclut. 
Cnawen, v. to know, 7. 146 ; Cna- 

wenn, 5. 1314. A. S. cndwan. 

Cf. CnowelS, Knewen, 3e- 

Cnawlechunge, sb. knowledge, 7. 

145. From M. E. cnawleche ; 

leche = lel<e = \ce\. leikr, leiki, a 

common Scandinavian suffix. See 

Cnedesst, 2 />r. s. kneadest, 5. 

1486. A. S. cnedan. 
Cnelinng, sb. kneeling, 5. 1451. 

Cp. Dan. ktuele, to kneel. Cf. 

Cneow, sb. knee ; Cneowe, dat. 6 a. 

521; Cnouwe, 66. 521. A.S. 

cneou 1 , cned. Cf. Kne, A-Kneon. 
Cniht, sb. knight, 6. 103, 185; 

Cnihten, pi. 6 a. 9, 53; Cnihtes, 

6 b. 9, 53, 202 ; Cnihtene, gen. 

pi. 6 a. no. A. S. cniht, a boy, a 

servant, in the Chronicle used of 

armed retainers, soldiers, knights, 

see Chron. (Index). Cf. Knict. 
Cnotted, pp. knotted, 2. 25. From 

A. S. cnotta, a knot. Cf. I-knot- 


Cnotti, adj. knotty, 10. 83. 
Cnouwe. See Cneow. 
CnoweS, pr. s. knoweth, 176. no. 

See Cnawen. 

Coc, sb. cock, 16. 1679. A. S. coc. 
Cofe, adv. quickly, i. 31 ; Gofer, 

comp. earlier, I. 20. A..S. cdfe t 

Cogge, sb. dat. cog, a tooth on the 

rim of a wheel, 16. 86. Cp. O. F. 

coche, the notch of an arrow. 
Cole, sb. charcoal, 19. 590. A. S. 

Colur, sb. colour, 19. 16. O. F. 

colur\ Lat. colorem. 
Colwie,ac?/. grimy, 19. 1094. From 

cole (see above). Cp. Prompt. 

Parv. p. 88 (s. v. colwid). 
Come, sb. coming, 5. 1109; 15. 

2267; 19. 530; Comes, pi. 6. 

526. See Cume. 
Comen, v. to come, 18. 413 ; Com- 

me, 12. 16; Comeo 1 , pr. pi. 6. 

377 ; Com, pt. s. came, i. 22, 97 ; 

16. 1718 ; Come, 2pt. s. 46. 56 ; 

19. 1188; pt. pi. 176. 141 ; 19. 

59 ; Coman, 2.55; Comenn, 5. 

1026. See Cumen. Cf. Cam, 

Comp, sb. contest, 6. 240. A. S. 

camp ; LajL-caoj$#s, a field, esp. a 

field of battle. 
Compaynye, sb. company, 19. 889. 

O. F. companies Late Lat. com- 

paniem, a taking of bread together, 

from Lat. panis, bread. 
Con, i pr. s. know, 16. 1786, can, 

7. 188; Cone,. 2 pr. s. snbj. 18. 

623 ; Con ponk, pr. s. thanks, 

1 7 a. 70. See Can. 
Confessoren, sb. pi. dat. confessors, 

1. 164. Lat. confessor. Cf. Cun- 




Conseil, sb. counsel, 13. 8. O. F. 

conseil ; Lat. consilium. 
Contrarie, sb. the contrary, 13.113. 

O. F. contraire ; Lat. contrarius. 
Coren, sb. corn, grain, 4 d. 45 ; 15. 

2104; Corn, 1.192. A. S. corn \ 

cp. Du. Jeoren. 
Cors, kb. body, 13. 60. O. F.cors, 

corps ; Lat. corpus. 
Cos, 56. kiss, 40. 58. A. S. coss. 
Cosan, pt. pi. chose, 2. 198. See 

Cosin, sb. cousin, 19. 1480. O. F. 

cosin; Late Lat. cosmws(Brachet); 

Lat. consobrinus. 
Cote, sb. cottage, 18. 737. A. S. 

Couerture, sb. bed-clothes, 19. 696. 

O. F. coverture. Cf. Kuuertur. 
Couthe, pt. s. could, 18. 652. See 

Crabbe, sb. crab, 3 b. 90. A. S. 

Craftes, sb. pi. crafts, 16. 711 ; 

Craften, pi. dat. 6. 428. A. S. 

Crakede, pt. s. cracked, 18. 568. 

A. S. cearcian. 
Crauen, v. to beg earnestly, 15. 

2366; Crauede, pt. s. 18. 633. 

A. S. crqfian. 
Crechen, v. to scratch, 8 b. 190. 

M. E. cracchin (Stratmann). 
Credo, sb. the Creed, 9. 21 ; Credo 

moare, the greater Creed, 9. 302 ; 

Crede, 12. 113. Lat. credo, I 

Crefti, m#. crafty, 8 a. 151. A. S. 

craftig, powerful. 
Crei, sb. cry, 16. 335. O. F. cri. 
Crempe, v. to restrain, 16. 1788. 

Cp. O. H. G. chramphan, to bend 

Crepen,v. to creep, 12. 251 ; Crepe, 

46. 21. A.S. cre6pan. 
Cribbe, sb. crib, 10. 7. A. S. cryb. 
Crieden, cried, 10. 36. O. F. 

crier; cp. It. gridare. 
Crisme-clotJ, sb. the Chrisom, the 

white cloth tied round the head of 

one newly baptized, after the unc- 
tion with chrism, 4 b. 34. A.S. 

crisme ; Church Lat. pannns cris- 

matis, vestis chrismalis, chrismalis 

Cristen, sb. Christian, 12. 91 ; //. 

Christians, 10. 41 ; Cristene, 3 b. 

104 r adj. 66. 588; 19. 177; 

Cristine, 6 a. 588. A.S. cristen ; 

Lat. christianm. Cf. Christen. 
Cristendom, sb. Christianity, 170. 

292; 176. 298; Crisstenndom, 

5.1520. A. S. cristendom. 
Cristene-men, s6. pi. Christian 

men, 17 a. 291; Criste-man, sb. 

Christian man, 46. 107. Cf. 

Crocke, sb. crock, pitcher, 9. 113. 

A.S. crocca. 
Crois, sb. cross, 19. 1331. O. F. 

crois; Lat. crucem. 
Crokes, sb. pi. crooked ways, 8 a. 

151. Cp. O. Du. croke, a bend. 
Croos, sb. pi. vessels for water, 1 3. 

101. A. S. crog. 
Croune, sb. crown, 18. 568. O. F. 

corotie ; Lat. corona. Cf. Crun, 

Crowch, sb. cross, 19. 1324. See 

Crucet hus, sb. house of torment, 

2. 28. From Lat. cruciare, to 

Cruche, sb. the cross, 46. 11. Cp. 

O. H. G. cruci (Tatian) ; Lat. 

crucem. See Stratmann (s. v.). 
Crude, v. to press forward, 19. 1313. 

A. S. creodait. 
Crummess, sb. pi. crumbs, 5. 

1475- A. S. cruma. 
Crune, sb. crown, 19. 1306; Crun, 

19. 1415. See Croune. 
Cruned, pp. crowned, 10. 61. Cf. 

Cudde, pt. s. made known, 170. 

191 ; Gulden, pt. pi. 4 a. 19. 

See Cutten. 
Cade, s6. cud, 5. 1237. 



Cud'o'en, sb. country, 6. 196. See 


Cuen, sb. queen, 2. 129. See Owen. 
Cullfre, sb. dove, 5. 989 ; Cullfres, 

gen. s. 5. 1260. A. S. culfre. 
Cume, sb. coming, 6. 236 ; Cumen, 

6. 47. A. S. cyme. Cf. Come, 
Kime, Kume. 

Cumen, v. to come, 2. 128; 6. 

327; 15. 2069; Cumenn, 5. 

1024; Cume, 176. 156, 176; 

Cumene, 7. 116. A. S. cuman. 

Cf. Kumen, Comen, I-kumSh. 
Cuminde, sb. pi. comers, 7- 45- 
Cumplie, sb. the last church service 

of the day, compline, 9. 311. 

O. F. compile ; Church Lat. com- 

pleta (hora). 
Cun, sb. kin, 8 a. 2, 136 ; Cunnes, 

gen. s. kind, 3 b. 86 ; 7. 112 ; 8 b. 

54; 14. 413; Cunne, dat. kin, 

family, 6 6. 362, 375 ; nature, 16. 

271. A. S. cynn, kin, race, kind : 

O.S. kiinni : Goth. lain*. Cf. Kin, 

Kyn, Kenne, Kunne. 
Cunde, sb. ace. kind, race, nature, 

19. 1405 ; dat. 3 b. 91 ; 4 b. 89 ; 

7. 122 ; 16. 88, 273. A.S. (ge)- 
cynd. Cf. Kinde. 

Cundeliche, adv. naturally, 9. 172. 

A. S. cyndelice. Cf. Kindelike. 
Cunesmon, sb. kinsman, 9. 265. 

Cf. Kunesmen. 
Cunestable, sb. constable, 7. 43. 

O. F. conestable ; Late Lat. comes 

stabuli, count of the stable, a title 

of the Roman empire. 
Cunfessurs, sb. pi. confessors, 7. 

116. See Confessoren. 
Cunin, sb. cony, rabbit, 176. 365. 

O. F. connin, connil ; Lat. cuni- 

culus. Cf. Konyng. 
Cunne. See Cun. 
Cunnen, v. to know, 176. 336; 

Cunne, 17 a. 330 ; Cunnen, 

can, 2. 62. A.S. cunnan, to know, 

know how, be able. Cf. Can, 

Kan, Con, Kon, Kunnen, 

CutSe, UncuU, Unkufl. 

Cunreadnes, sb. kindreds, 7. in. 
M.E.cuttreden; A.S. cynraden*. 
See Skeat (s. v. kindred}. Cf. 

Cuntesse, sb. countess, 2. 121. 
O. F. contesse, f. of conte, comte ; 
Late Lat. comitem, an officer of 
state, courtier ; in Lat. a com- 

Cuppe, sb. cup, 15. 2310; Cupe, 
19.234. A. S. cuppe ; Lat. cupa. 
Cf. Kuppe. 

Cure, sb. chariot, 8 b. 41, 42. Lat. 
currus, the Roman triumphal car. 

Carsede, pt. s. cursed, 2. 127 ; pt. 
pi. 2.57. A. S. cursian. 

Curt, sb. court, i. 8 ; 2. 192; 19. 
245, 592. O. F. curt ; Late Lat. 
cortis. For history of the word 
see M. Muller, Lect. ii. 276. Cf. 

Cusan, pt. pi. chose, 2. 195. A. S. 
curon. See Cheose. 

Cussen, v. to kiss, 8. 264 ; CusseS, 
pr. pi. 6. 554 ; Custe, pt. s. 6. 
568; 19. 225, 743; pt. pi. 19. 
!225;Custen, 19.1413; cusse, imp. 
s. 19. 1224. A.S. cyssan, from 
eoss. Cf. Kesse, Kiste, Kussen. 

Custe, sb. dat. character, 1 6. 9. 
A. S. cyst, choice, the best of any- 
thing, moral excellence, from 
cedsan, to choose. 

Custume, sb. custom, 4 a. 3 ; Cus- 
tome, 13. 103. O. F. custume, 
costume ; Lat. consvetudinem. 

CuSe, pt. s. knew, 19. 1495 ; knew 
how, 15. 2154; 16.1717; could, 
2. 109; }>e wel cu'Se a, who was 
well versed in, 6. 428 ; CuSen, 6. 22. A.S. cude, pt. of 
cunnan, to know. Cf. Couthe, 
Ku)>e, Kouthen, Kude. 

Cuflen, v. to make known, 6. 60, 
538; 7.87; CuS, pp. 176.161. 
A.S. (ge)cySan: O.S. ktitiian: 
O. H. G. knndjan (knnden in Ot- 
frid). Cf. Cudde, Kedde, 
Kidde, Kiflen, Ikud. 

39 6 


Cuo*mon, sb. kinsman, 9. 265. 

A. S. cudman. 
CtfffBe, sb. kith, acquaintance, 9. 

265. A. S. cuda. 
Cuuenable, adj. proper, fit, 13. 40. 

0. F. cuvenable ; Late Lat. conve- 

Cwakien, v. to quake, 7. 183; 

Cwaciaft, pr. pi. I. 170. A. S. 

Cwalm-stowe, sb. dat. place of 

execution, 10. 92. A. S. cwealm~ 

stow (Schmid) ; cwealm, a violent 

death, stow, a place. 
CwaJ>, pt. s. quoth, 16. 1729. See 

Cweadschipe, sb. wickedness, 9. 

211. O. Fris. qudd, bad, in Du. 

liwaad. Cp. A. S. cwead, dung, 

filth, and O. H. G. cUt. See Wei- 

gand (s. v. both). Cf. Quead- 

Cwellen, v. to kill ; Cwelle>, pr. s. 

5. 1180; Cwelled, pp. 10. 39. 

A. S. cwellan. Cf. Quelle. 
Cweme, adj. agreeable, 5. 965, 

1162. A. S. (gi)cweme. Cf. 

Queme, Tocweme, Wil- 

Cwemen, v. to please, 7. 22 ; Cwe- 

menn, 5. 1217; Cweme, 6. 367; 

Cwemde, pt. s. 6. 278; Cwemm- 

denn, pt. pi. 5. 1503. A. S. cue- 
man. Cf. Quemen. 
Cwen, sb. queen ; Cwene, dat. 6 b. 

600. A. S. cwen. Cf. Quen, 

Cwennkenn, v. to quench, 5. 1191. 

A. S. cwencan. Cf. Quenche. 
Cwetten, v. to speak ; CweS,/>r. s. 

1. 195 ; pt. s. I. 24, 27 ; Cwefte, 
pt. pi. I. 21. A. S. cwedan, pt. 
cw<%8, pi. cwadon, pp. (ge)cweden. 
Cf. Cwap, Q,uaJ, QuelS, Quod, 
"Wat, I-cwede. 

Cwic, adj. alive, 8 b. 83 ; Cwike, 
5. 1386. A.S. cwic. Cf. Cwuce. 
Quic, Quyke. 

CwilSe, sb. bequest, 9. 14. A.S. 

avide, a saying, last will. Cf. 

Cwuce, adj. quick, living, i. 189. 
A. S. cue (cucu}. See Cwic. 

Cyldren, sb. pi. children, i. 49. 
See Childre. 

Cyne-rice, sb. rule, sway, i. 3. 
A. S. cyne-rice, royal government. 
See Kyne and Eice. 

Cyrce, sb. dat. church, i. 125; 

Circe, 2. 67. A. S. cyrce (cirice), 

circe ; Gr. Kvptaiebv, a church, 

from Kuptoy, the Lord. Cf. Circe, 

1 Kirke, Chirche, Churchen. 

Cyrce-ieerd, sb. churchyard, 2. 51. 
M. E. I<zrd; A.S. geard, enclo- 


Bade, sb. deed, 17^. 3, 100. See 

Deed, adj. dead, 6. 350 : Daeden, 6. 

220. See Deade. 
Dsede, sb. pi. deeds, 6. 393. A. S. 

deed, a deed. Cf. Bade. 
Dsei, sb. day, 2. 69, 191 ; 6. 143 ; 

Daeies, gen. s. 2. 44, 103; be 

daeies, by day, 2. 20 ; Daeie, dat. s. 

6. 45; Dseis, pi. 2. 195. A.S. 

dceg. Cf. Dai, Dei, Dsese, Dage, 

Daije, Dajj, Dawes, Dahene. 
Dsere, adj. dear, 2. 45. See Deore. 
Dsejj, sb. death, 5. 1384; Dae]>ess, 

gen. s. 5. 1374. See Dea. 
Deeje, sb. pi. days, 6. 386 ; D^3en, 

dot. pi. 6. 138, 602. See Dsei. 
Dafftelike, adv. fittingly, 5. 1215. 

A. S. (ge)d(zftlice. See Skeat 

(s.v. deft, p. 799). See Defte. 
Dage, sb. pi. days, 40. 13. A.S. 

dagas. See Deei. 
Dageft, pr. s. dawneth, 4 c. Co. A.S. 

Dahene, sb. pi. dat. days, do ut of 

dahene, put out of days, kill, 8 a. 

123. A.S. dagum. See Dsei, 

DahelSes, sb. gen. s. day's, 8 b. 31. 

A. S. dteges. See Deei. 



Dai, sb. day, 40. 3; 16.336; Dale, 

dat. s. II. 8; 19. 259. See 

Dai-li$t, s&. day-light, 16. 332; 

19. 124. 
Dai-rim, sb. day-rim, the edge of 

dawn, 1 6. 328. A. S. d&g-rima. 
Dai-sterre, sb. day-star, 16. 328. 

A. S. dceg-steorra, the morning 

Daije, sb. pi. dat. days, 6. 602. Cf. 

Dal, sb. share, portion, 30. ill. 

A. S. dcel; cp. O. H. G. deil (Ot- 

frid). Cf. Del. 
Dale, sb. valley, 15. 1983 ; Dalen, 

dat. 15. 1931. Icel. dalr; cp. 

O. H. G. dal. (Otfrid). 
Dal-neominde, sb. partaker, sharer, 

3 a. 1 1 1. A. S. dcBl-nimend, part- 
Dame, sb. lady, 9. 246; dame, 19. 

558. O.F. dame; Lat. domina. 
Damesele, sb. damsel, 19. 1183. 

O.F. damoisele; Late Lat. domini- 
. cella. 
Dan, conj. than, 15. 1958. See 

Dare, adj. dark, Sa. 129. A. S. 

deorc. See Dorc. 
Darst, 2 pr. s. darest, 16. 853, 

1695. A. S. ic dear, I dare, jf> 

dearst, thou darest. Cf. Duren, 

Durre, Durste. 
Dat, adj. that, 15. 1974. A.S. dat. 

See pat. 
Daw, sb. dew, i. 154. A.S. dedw. 

Cf. Deu. 
Dawes, sb. pi. days, 9. 226 ; Dayes, 

15. 2445; 18. 355; D*3es, 30. 

no; 3&. 48. See Deei. 
Da53, sb. day, 5. 972 ; bi dajjes, by 

day, 5. 1449. See Deei. 
De, art. def. the, 12. 262. See pe. 
Dead, sb. death, 15. 2232. A 

Scand. form, cp. Dan. dod. See 

Deade, ac//./>7. dead, 1. 133 ; 6. 220. 

A. S. dedd. Cf. Deed, Ded. 

Deatt, pr. s. doth, 36. 62. See 

Don, De$. 
DealS, sb. death ; Deade, dat. 4 b. 

62; 176. 115. A.S. cfcai). Cf. 

D83j>, Dead, Deft, Dede, Diath. 
Deciples, sb. pi. disciples, 13. 93, 

1 1 6. See Diciples. 
Ded, adj. dead, 2. 165; 12. 40; 

16.1732; 19. 671; Dede, 170. 

190. See Deade. 
Dede, sb. death, 12. 45. See 

Dede, sb. deed, ^d. 17; 12. 97; 

15. 2218; pi. 16. 1763; 170. 

88; Dedes, 19. 537. See Dsede. 
Dede, pt. s. caused, 13. 17; 15, 

2193, 2438; placed, 15. 1948; 

Deden, pt. pi. did, 15. 2211. A.S. of ddn. See Don. 
Deflen, sb. pi. devils, 176. 197; 

Defies, gen. s. 176. 258. See Deo- 

Defte, adj. deft, gentle, 12. 37. 

A.S. (ge}d<Efte (Matt. xxi. 5). 

Cf. Dafftelike. 
Dektren, sb. pi. dat. daughters, 7. 

40. A. S. ddhtrum. See Dohter. 
Dei, sb. day, 30. 86 ; dawn, 8 a. 

20; by day, 33. 34; n. 50; 

Deies, gen. s. 9. 150. See Deei. 
Deien, v. to die, 10. 91 ; Deie, 19. 

109, 332 ; Deide, pt. s. 18. 402 ; 

19. 1199. Icel. deyja; cp. Dan. 

doe : O. S. ddian. 
Deih, pr. s. behoves, profits, 9. 

189. A. S. dedk, dedg, pr. s. 

of dugan, to be worth. See 

Deihwamliehe, adv. daily, 3 b. 44. 

A. S. dceg-kivdmlice. 
Del, sb. portion ; muche del, a great 

deal, 6. 440. See Dal. 
Dele, sb. dale, 12. 6. See Dale. 
Deluen, v. to delve, dig, 6 a. 441 ; 

Delue, 6 b. 441 ; DelueS, pr. pi. 

3 b. 43, 48. A. S. del/an. Cf. 

Doluen, I-doluen. 
Demare, sb. a judge, 9. 327. See 




Deme, sb. a judge, I. 172 ; 7. 55 ; 

16.1783; 176.96. A. S. dana. 
Demen, v. to judge, 7. no; 14. 

79 ; Deme]), pr. s. decrees, 7. 

230 ; judgeth, 7. 56 ; Deme]) dom, 

gives judgment, 16, 1755 ; Dem}), 

pr. pi. 1 6. 1777; Demde, pt. s. 

86. 149; Demet, pp. 10. 33; 

Dempt, condemned, 15- 2038. 

A. S. deman : O. S. ddmian, from 

cfcfrn, judgment. Cf. I-demed, 

Demere, sb. a judge, 10. 33. A. S. 

Den, sb. cave, 12. II. A. S. o*e/z. 

Cf. Dennede. 
Denie, v. to din, 19. 592. A. S. 

dynian ; cp. Icel. dynja. 
Dennede, pt. s. dwelt, 12. 36. 

From A. S. denn. See Den. 
Densee, adj. Danish, 6. 457. A. S. 

Dent, sb. blow, 19. 152, 867; pi. 

19. 865, 872. A. S. dynt. See 

Deofell, sb. devil, 5. 1503; Deoflen, 

pi. 30. 23; Defless, 5. 1403; 

Deoflene, gen. pi. n. 15. A. S. 

deofol; Lzt.diabolns',Gr.8ial3o\Gs. 

Cf. Deouele, Deuel, Diuel, 

Deflen, Diefles, Dieule. 
Deol, sb. grief, 19. 1060; Deole, 

19. 1062. O. F. deol, in Roland, 

929, doel, 2082 (mod. F. deuiT], 

verbal sb. from doloir, to grieve ; 

Lat. dolere. 
Deop, adj. deep ; Deopre, comp. 7. 

151. A.S. dedp. Cf. Dep. 
Deope, adv. deeply, S a. 118: 

Deoppre, comp. 3 b. 44. A. S. 

dedpe, comp. deopor. 
Deopliche, adv. deeply, 86. 76. 

A. S. dedplice. 
Deopnesse, sb. deepness, 36. 32, 

54. A. S. dedpnes. 
Deor, sb. wild animal, 30. 31 ; 5. 

1 201; Deore, deer, 1 7 a. 149. 

A. S. de6r. Cf. Der, Diere. 
Deore, adj. dear, 6. 135; 8 a. 60; 

lo. 115; Deore cheap, a dear 

bargain, 10. 67; adv. 170. 150, 

184. A.S. dedre, dyre: O. S. 

diuri. Cf. Dere, Diere. 
Deore"wnr'o > e,Gc^'. precious, beloved, 

7.94; 80.32,40; 86.53. A - S. 

deonveord. Cf. Derewur'Se, 

Deorling, s6. darling, 9. 84. A. S. 

dedrling. Cf. Derling, Dur- 

Deorne, adj. secret, 6. 296. See 

Deouele, s6. devil, 170. 267; 

Deoules, pi. devilish men, 2. 18 ; 

170.250. See Deofell. 
Dep, adj. deep, 15. 1942. See 

Der, s6. creature (the ant), 12. 283. 

See Deor. 
Dere, v. to harm, 18. 490, 574. 

See Derie. 
Dere, adv. there, 12. 288. See 

Dere, adj. dear, 15. 2399 ; 19. 433; 

Dere pris, precious value, 15. 2247. 

See Deore. 
Derewurtte, adj. beloved, precious, 

i. 161. See Deorewur'Se. 
Derewux'Slice, adv. respectfully, I. 

Derf, sb. affliction, hardship, 8 a. 1 1 1. 

A. S. (ge)deorf. 
Derflicne, adv. cruelly, severely, 

8 a. 4. See below. 
Derfre, adj. comp. more severe, 8 6. 

116. Icel. djarfr, improbus. Cf 

Derie, v. to harm, 19. 792 ; Deren, 

15. 2348, 248o;'Derye, pr. s. 

stibj. 170. 332. A. S. derian. 

Cf. Dere. 
Derke, adj. dark, 19. 1445. See 

Derling, s6. darling, 19. 488; 

Derlinges, pi. 176. 389. See 

Derne, adj. secret, dark, 7. 150; 

12. 34, 90; 15. 1950; 16. 6oS; 



adv. 19. 1363. A.S. derne, dyrne'. 

O. S. derni. Cf/Debrne. 
Dertte, sb. dearth, famine, 15. 2237, 

2345. From A. S. deore, dear, 

with suffix -th. 
Dsrue, adj. bold, without fear, 12. 

284; Derure, comp. more severe, 

8 a. 93. See Derfre. 
DemeS, pr. s. afflicts, 8 a. 147. See 

Best, 2 />r. s. makest, 1 6. 49, 321. 

A. S. dest. See Don. 
De$, pr. s. doth, i. 57; 14. 443 ; 

maketh, 16. 1716. A. S. ddd. See 

Don, DeatS, DietS. 
DetS, s6. death, 40. 6; 170. 124, 

182; Deftes, gen. s. 10. 35; 19. 

640 ; DeSe, dat. 30. 98. See Dea"S. 
Deu, sb. dew, 12. 1 1. See Daw. 
Deuel, sb. devil, 40. 23; 176.218; 

Deueles, gen. s. 40. 18, 70 ; 176. 

179. SeeDeofell. 
Deuise, v. to compose a letter, 19. 

940. O. F. deviser, to arrange. 
Diadlich, adj. liable to death, 

mortal, 13. 45. A. S. deddlic. 
Diath, sb. death, 13. 45. See 

Die, s6. dike, ditch, 6. 442. A. S. 

Diche, sb. pi. ditches, 170. 42; 

Dichen, 176. 41. See above. 
Diciples, sb. pi. disciples, 40. 10 ; 

4 b. 14. Lat. discipulus, a learner. 

Cf. Deciples. 
Dide, pt. s. caused, 2. 128 ; did, 2. 

5; put, 1 8. 709; Dides, 2 pt. s. 

didst, 10. 32. A.S. dyde. Cf. 

Dede, Dude, Dyden. 
Diefles, sb. gen. s. devil's, I. no. 

See Deofell. 
Dier-chin, sb. beasts, lit. deer-kind, 

I. 52. See Deor and Cun. 
Diere, sb. wild animal, 176. 145. 

See Deor. 
Diere, adv. dear, 176. 146, 186. 

See Deore. 
Dierewurp, adj. beloved, I. 23. 

See Deorewurfte. 

DietJ, pr. s. puts, I. 59. A. S. ded. 
See Deft. 

Dieule, sb. dat. devil, 13. 69. See 

DinteS, pr. s. orders, 7. 230 ; rules, 
6.134; Diht, orders, 1.46; 7.10; 
Dihte, pt. s. I. 45. A. S. dihtan ; 
Lat. dictare. 

Dimluker, adv. comp. more softly 
(of a trumpet), 9. 50. A. S. dim- 
licor, comp. of dimlice, dimly. 

Dimme, adj. pi. dim, 12. 60. A. S. 

Dingle, sb. a depth, hollow, 7. 751. 
From A. S. ding, a dark prison ; 
cp. O. H. G. tune, an underground 
cave. See Skeat (s. v. p. 800). 

Dintede, pt. pi. struck, 10. 79. 
Icel. dynta, to dint ; cp. Sw. dial. 
dunta, to strike. 

Dintes, sb. pi. blows, 46. 19. See 

Disceplines, sb. pi. flagellations, 
9. 163. O. F. discipline; Church 
Lat. disciplina, see Cotgrave and 

Disch, sb. dish, 9. 114; Disse, 19. 
1156. A.S. disc ; Lat. discus; 
Gr. 8t<ro?, a quoit. 

Diuel, sb. devil, 12. 33. SeeDeo- 

Diuere, v. to tremble, 10. 112. 
The M. E. form div-er-en is fre- 
quentative ; the original word is 
probably to be found in Icel. dyja, 
to shake. See Fick, vii. 148. 

Dijele, adj. secret, 16. 2. A.S. 

Do, v. to make, cause, I. 12; to 
put, I. 16. See Don. 

Dohter, sb. daughter, i. 120; 6. 
361. A.S.dohtor. Cp. Dowter, 
Dojter, Dehtren, Douhtres, 

Doluen, pp. buried, 12. 41. A. S. 
dolfen. See Deluen. 

Dom, sb. doom, judgment, sentence, 
40.88; 5.1472; 7.56; 12.285; 
16. 1692. A. S. dom. 



Domes-dai, sb. day of doom, 

doomsday, 40. 87; 176. 136; 

Domes day, 170. 136; Domesdei, 

I. 158; 9. 88; Domes djeie, I. 

79. A. S. ddmes dag, domdceg. 
Domes-men, sb. pi. judges, 17 a. 

252 ; 176. 260. 
Don (i), v. to do, 16. 159 ; to put, 

I. 155; 15. 2231; Donne, ger. 

to do, 1.177; 9. 354; 170. 38; 

Do$, imp. pi. cause, 15. 2351. 

A. S. d6n. Cf. Do, Dest, Deft, 

DoS, Dide, I-don. 
Don (2), to be fitting, to get on 

well, 9. 152. M. E. dujen ; A. S. 

dngan, valere. See Duhen. 
Dorc, adj. dark, dusk, 86. 162. 

A. S. deorc. Cf. Dare, tferke. 
Dor-quiles, adv. meanwhile, 15. 

1949. See por-quiles. 
Dorste, pt. s. durst, 19. 388, 938 ; 

pt. pi. 6. 273; 13. 97. A. S. 

dorste, pt. of ic dear (dearr), I 

dare. Cf. Durste. 
Dose, adj. dark, dusk, 7. 76. Cp. 

A. S. deorc. See Dorc. 
Dotayin, sb. Dothan, 15. 1934. 

Lat. DotJiain (Vulg.) ; Heb. D6- 

thdyin, double fountain. 
Dote, sb. a fool, 14. 422. Cp. M. E. 

dotard, Chaucer, C.T. 5913 (Strat- 

DoJ>, pr. s. does, 4 a. 16 ; 5. 1042 ; 

16. 156 ; pi. put, 17 a. 43. A. S. 

pr. s. dtd, pr. pi. d6d. See 

Doucte, pt. s. had value, 18. 703. 

A. S. dohte, pt. of dugan, to be 

worth. See Duhen. 
Douhtres, sb. pi. daughters, 1 8. 350. 

A. S. dohtor, dtjhtru, pi. of ddhtor. 

See Dohter. 
Doumbe, adj. dumb, 18. 543. A.S. 

Doiitede, pt. s. feared, 1 8. 708. 

O. F. douter, doubter', Lat. dubi- 

tare. Cf. Dute. 
Doutres, sb. pi. daughters, 18. 717. 

See Douhtres, 

Dowepes, sb. pi. hosts, 14. 177. 

A. S. dugud, worth, help, retainers, 

hosts, see Notes. See Duhette. 
Dowter, sb. daughter, 15. 2147. 

See Dohter. 
Do3ter, sb. daughter, 19. 390, 697. 

See Dohter. 
Dradde, pt. pi. feared, 19. 120. 

A. S.' dredon, pt. pi. See Dre- 


Drsem, sb. joy, 6. 502. See Dream. 
Dragen, v. to draw ; Drageo 1 , pr. s. 

12. 9; Dragen, pp. 15. 2046. 

A. S. dragon, pt. droh, pp. dragen. 

Cf. Drawen, Drasen, Dreihen, 

Droh, Dro5. 
Drah, imp. s. draw, 9. 177. See 

Drah, pt. s. endured, 5. 1442. A.S. 

dredh. See Dregen. 
Drahen, pp. drawn, 10. 101. See 

Drapen, pt. pi. slew, 2.28. A. S. 

dr<Bpon, pt. pi. of drepan. See 

Drawen, v. to draw, 170. 48, 50 ; 

Drawe, pp. 19. 1323. See Dra- 
Drajen, v. to draw, 36. 10, 126; 

Draje, 19. 1309, 1462. See Dra- 
gen, To-drajen. 
Dreaien, v. to draw, 8 6. 161. See 

* Dream, sb. sound, music, 9. 43; 

Dreame, dat. s. 9. 89. A. S. dream. 

Cf. Drsem. 
Dreamen, v. to sound like music, 

9. 346 ; Dreame]), pr. pi. make a 

joyful sound, II. 27. A.S. dre- 

man : O. S. dr6mian. Cf. Drem- 

Drechen, v. to tarry, 15. 1946; 

Dreccheft, pr. s. 12. 103. A. S. 

dreccan, to vex. For change of 

sense, cp. M. E. terien, to vex, 

also, to tarry. 
Dred, sb. dread, 7. 56 (M. S. dret) ; 

Drede, dat. s. 9. 333. 
Dreden, v. to dread, 7. 69; Dre- 



denn, 5. 1218; Drede, lo. 112; 

Dred, imp. s. 10. 51; 18. 661 ; 

DredeS, imp. pi. 15. 2343. A.S. 

(on}drcedan. Cf. Dradde. 
Dredfule, adj. dreadful, 9. 89. 
Drednesse, sb. dread, i. 50, 76. 
Dregen, v. to endure ; Drege, I pr. 

pi. suffer, 1 5. 2208. A^dredg^an 

(pt. dredh, pp. drogen), to" do, 

perform, to suffer, endure. Cf. 

Drab, Dreye, Dreshenn, Drie, 

Drehen, v. to endure, suffer, 7, 

245; 8 a. no. See above. 
Dreihen, v. to draw, 8 a. 129. See 

Dreinchen, v. to drown, 176. 506. 

See Drenchen. 
Drem, sb. dream, 15. 2056, 2095 ; 

Dremes,/7. 15. 1918. O.S.drom, 

joy, also, dream ; cp. Icel. draumr, 

dream. The cognate A. S. dream 

is only used in the sense of a 

joyful sound, mirth. Cf. Dream. 
Dremden, pt. pi. were joyous, 6. 

291. See Dreamen. 
Dreme, sb. dot. joyous sound, 16. 

314. See Dream. 
Dremen, v. to dream, 15. 2067; 

Drempte, pt. s. 15. 1941, 2116, 

2123. See Drem. 
Drench, sb. drink, i. 53; 6. 544; 

19. 1174. A. S. drcnc. Cf. 

Drinch, Drinnch, Drunc. 
Drenchen, v. to drown, 176. 334 ; 

18. 583. A.S. drencan. Cf. 

Dreinchen, Drinchen. 
Drepen, v. to slay, 10. 94 ; Drepe, 

18. 506. A. S. drepcin, lo strike ; 

cp. Icel. drepa, to slay. Cf. 

Dreye, v. to suffer, 170. 286. See 

Drejhenn, v. to suffer, 5. 1505, 

1599. See Dregen. 
Drie, v. to suffer, 176. 292 ; Drieft, 

2 pr. pi. 9. 360. See Dregen. 
Drigten, sb. Lord, 12. 40 ; Drigtin, 

dot. 12. 119. See below. 

Drihten, sb. Lord, i. 70; 2. 87; 
Drihhtin, 5. 965 ; Drihte, I. 60. 
See Dryhten. 

Driht-fule, adj. noble, 8 b. 76. See 

Drinch, sb. drink, 10. 106. 

Drinc-hail, inter/, drink, hale I, 
drink, and good luck be with you, 
6. 548 ; Drinc-haeil, 6. 571 ; 
Dringhail, 66. 548,571; Bring- 
hayl, 66. 571. Drine heel in the 
Northumbrian dialect would be in 
A.S. drinc Ml. The form hal 
corresponds to Icel. heill (mod. E. 
hale}. See Skeat (s. v. wassail). 

Drinchares, sb. pi. drinkers, 9. 
126. A. S. drincere. 

Drinchen, v. to drown, 18. 553, 
See Drenchen, 

Dring, imp. s. drink, 6 b. 564. 

Dring, sb. soldier, 6 a. 593 ; Dr.'ng- 
ches, pi. 6 a. 187. A.S. dreng, 
youth, warrior ; Icel. drengr, a 
bachelor, a brave man. 

Dringan (for Dringen), v. to op- 
press, 3 a. 53. See pringen. 

Dring-hail. See Drinc-hail. 

Drinken, v. to drink, 15. 2065 ; 
Drincken, 9. 123; Drinked ( = 
DrinkeS), pr. s. 13. 129; Dranc, 
pt. s. I. 33. A.S. drincan. Cf. 
Dring, Drone, I-drunke. 

Drinnch, sb. drink, 5. 1374. See 

Drit-cherl, sb. dirt-churl, 18. 682. 
Cp. Icel. drit-menni, a dirty person, 
from drit t excrement. 

Driuen, v. to drive ; DriueS, pr. s. 
rushes, 12. 13 ; Driuen, pr. pL 
drive, lo. 99; 19. 880; 
Driue, imp. pi. carry on, 9. 138. 
A.S. drifan, pt. drdf, pp. (ge)- 
drifen. Cf, Drof, Dryuen. 

Drisen, v. to perform, 6. 49, 392. 
See Dregen. 

Drijte, sb. Lord, 19. 1332. See 

Drof, pt. s. drove, 4^. 23; 18. 
725; 19. 119, 762. See Driuen. 





Droll, pt. s. drew, 8 a. 44. See 

Drone, pt. s. drank, 6. 565 ; 9. 23 ; 

Dronk, 19. 1166; Drongken, pt. 

pi. 6. 501. See Drinken. 
Dropes, sb. pi. drops, 10. 73. A.S. 

Drou, pt. s. drew, 18. 179. See 

Dro3,/tf. s. drew, 19. 882 ; Drojen, 

pt. pi. 6. 186; Droje, 19. 1018. 

See Dragen. 
Drugte, sb. drought, 15. 2107, 

2348. A. S. drugode. 
Drui-fot, crr/v. with dry feet, 8 a. 

145; Dru fot, 86. 182. A.S. 

drygum fotum. 
Drunc, sb. drink, draught, 170. 

148; Drunch, 9. 23, 340. See 

Drunken, sb. drinking, 170. 249, 

254; 176. 257, 262. A.S. drun- 

cen, drunkenness. 
Drunken, pt. pi. drank, 6. 291. 

A. S. druncon. See Drinken. 
Drupnin, pp. to be cast down, 7. 

66. Icel. drupa, to droop, with 

n formative : drup-n-ien, as in to 

fasten. On verbs with suffix -nen, 

Goth, -nan, see Skeat (s. v. 

Dryhten, sb. Lord, 2. 87 ; Dryhtin, 

2. 89; Dryhte, 170. 79. A.S. 

dryhten: O,S. drohtin: cp. O.H.G. 

truhtin (Otfrid), and Icel. drdttinn, 

the Lord, used for God and Christ. 

The word properly means lord of 

retainers, men, warriors, being a 
. derivative from A. S. dryht : O.S. 

druht ; cp. O. H. G. truht, and 

Icel. drdtt, retainers, the 'comi- 

tatus ' of Tacitus, Germ. 13. Cf. 

Drihten, Drigten, Driste. 
Dryuen, v. to pass, go, 14. 202. 

See Driuen. 
Dubbe, v. to dub a knight, 19. 

458; Dubbed, pp. 19. 447. A.S. 

dnbban, in Chron. aim. 1085 ; cp. 

O. F. aduber, to strike a knight 

with the flat of the sword, also, to 

arm, Roland, 3139 ; Icel. dubba, 

to arm. 
Dubbing, sb. the conferring of 

knighthood, 19. 438, 487, 629. 
Dubbing, sb. decoration, ornament, 

19. 564. Cp. Halliwell (s. v. 

Dudei pt. s. did, 6. 233 ; 8 a. 195 ; 

16. 1637; caused, 19. 1424; pt. 

pi. did, 19. 1528 ; Duden, 6. 142, 

233 ; Duden of lyue, put from 

life, killed, 19. 1 80. See Dide. 
Duelle, v. to stay, 19. 374. Icel. 

dvelja, to tarry. 

Duhen, v. to get on ; wel mei 
\duhen ancre of oSer wimplunge, 
fthe nun may get on well without 
|another wimpling, 9. 184. A. S. 
\dugan, valere. Cf. Don (2), 

Deih, Doucte. 
Duhette, sb. body of retainers, 8 a. 

10. A. S. dugud, worth, help, 

body of retainers, from dngan, to 

avail. Cf. DoweJ>s, Dujefle. 
Dun, adv. down, 2. 152; 5. 1398; 

6. 492. For a-dun. See Adun. 
Dunchen, pr. pi. batter, 10. 94. 

Dan. dunke. See Stratmann. 
Dunt, sb. blow, 19. 609 ; Duntes, 

pi. 10. 75, 83 ; 19. 573. A. S. 

dynt. Cf. Dent, Dint. 
Dun-ward, adv. downward, 4 d. 

15. See Dun. 
Dure, sb. door, 14. 85 ; 176. 124, 

A. S. dtiru. 
Duren, pt. pi. dared, 15. 2239. 

A. S. durron, pt. pi. of ic dear, I 

dare. See Darst. 
Dure-pin, sb. door-pin, 19. 985. 
Dure-wart, sb. door-ward. 7. 44. 

A. S. duruweard. 
Durlyng, sb. darling, 14. II. See 

Durre, pr. pi. subj. dare, 15. 2239; 

16.1706. A.S.durre. See Darst. 
Durste, pt. s. durst, 2. iSS ; 

6. 273. A. S. dorste, pt. s. (torsion, 

pt. pi. See Dorste. 



?Dusi, adj. foolish, 9. 19 ; Dusye, 

170. 267. A. S. dysig. 
Dvsten, v. to toss, 9. 80. Icel. 

dusta, to dust. Cp. Icel. dust, a 

tilt, Dan. dyst, combat, joust. 
- Bute, sb. fear, 9. 215. O.F. dute, 

doiibte. See below. 
Dute, i pr. s. fear, 19. 344. See 

DuBefle, sb. pi. nobles, 6 a. 339; 

DujeSen, 6 a. 331; adj. valiant, 

60.282. See DuhetJe. 
Dwales, sb. pi. fools, 14. 414. See 

Skeat (s. v. dwell). 
DweoluhUe, sb. error, ir. 93. 

From A. S. dwelian, to err, to 

lead astray. 
Dwilde, sb. dat. pi. errors, heresies, 

5. 1499. A..,S../fr///fcl 
Dyden, did, 2.27. See Dide. 


E, pron. he, 15. 2341. See He. 

Eadi, adj. blessed, 7. 90; rich, 176. 
231 ; Eadie, blessed, 8 a. 55. A.S. 
eddig, rich, happy, blessed, from 
edd, riches, prosperity : O. S. 6d, an 
estate. Cf. JEdie, Edie, Edye. 

Eadwiten, v. to blame, 9. 61. See 

Eald, adj. old; Ealde, 176. 195, 
287. A. S. eald (aid}. Cf. Aid, 
Elde, Old, Hold, Heoldre. 

Ealde, sb. old age, 14. 441 ; 170. 
369. See Elde. 

Ealdor, sb. an elder ; Ealdrene, gen. 
pi. ancestors', 8 6. 6. A.S. ealdor, 
aldor, an elder, parent, a prince. 
Cf. Alderen, Aldren, Eldere, 

Eall, adj. all ; Ealre, gen. pi. of all 
86. 112. A.S. call. Cf.^lle, 
Al, All, Hall. 

Eani, adj. any, 3 a. 20, 54; 86. 
65. See Ani. 

Eanis-weis, adv. in any way, any- 
wise, 86.87. See Eisweis, Weg. 

Ear, adv. before, 7. 50 ; 10. 89 ; 
16. 1637. See JEr. 

Earding-stowe, s6. dwelling-place, 

16.28. A. S. eardungstow. A.S. 

Eardung is from eardian, to dwell. 

See Erthe. 
Eare, sb. ear ; Earen, pi. 4 a. 48 ; 

7. 58 ; 9. 63. A. S. edran, pi. of 

edre, an ear. Cf. JEre, Ere. 
Earmes, s6. pi. arms, 10. no. 

A. S. earm. 
Earmynges, sb. pi. poor persons, 

*7 a - 3 : 7' A. S. earming, a poor 

wretch. Cf. Erming. 
Earnynge, s6. earning, 170. 65. 

A. S. earnung, merit, from ear- 

nian, to earn, deserve; cp. O.H.G. 

arnon, to reap (Tatian). 
Earst, adj. first, 10. 76 ; adv. 8 b. 

64 ; Earste, 7. 41. See .^rest. 
Easkede, />/. s. asked, 86. no. 

See Axen. 
Eateliche, adj. horrible, 30. 19. 

See Ateliche. 
EatS, adj. easy, 10. 28. A.S. ed 

(Grein), e&de, pi. 
Eatfe, adv. easily, 176. 210, 28$ 

376. A. S. edtie. Cf. Epe. 
Eauer, adv. ever, 7. 36, 98 ; 8 6. 

114. See JEfre. 
Eauereuclian, every one, 7. 163. 

See JEfre and Euclian. 
Eaueriche, adj. every, 10. 86. 

See ^Jueralche. 
Ebrisse, adj. Hebrew, 15. 2186. 

A. S. ebreisc, 

Ebron, s6. Hebron, 15. 1931. 
EC, conj. also, 3 a. 4, 77 ; 176. 132. 

A. S. ec, edc : O. S. &k. Cf. ^c, 

Ece, adj. eternal, i. 181 ; Ecer, dat. 

f. I. 149. A.S. ece. Cf. Eche. 
Ecenisse, sb. dat. eternity, I. 179 ; 

Ecenesse, i. 178; Ecchenesse, 9. 

362. A.S. ecnis. 
Ech, adj. each, 40. 3 ; 46. 114; 

Eche, 6. 42 ; Eches, gen. s. 4 6. 

106 ; Echere, dat.f. any, 14. 240. 

Eche, adj. eternal, 3 6. 106 ; 4 6. 
50; 16.742; Tja. 356; ineche, 

D d 2 



in aeternum, eternally, 8b. 193. 

See Ece. 
Echeliche, adv. everlastingly, 10. 

21. A..S.ecelice. 
Echere. See Ech. 
Echte, sb. possession, wealth, I. 64. 

See Ahhte. 
Ed (for Et), prep, at ; bijet ed te 

Keiser, got from the Caesar, 8 b. 

39, see B. T. (s. v. <*) See .^Jt. 
Edie, adj. blessed, 4 c. 58 ; Eddi, 

happy, 15. 2086. See Eadi. 
Edmodnesse, *6. humility, n. 79. 

A. S. eddmddnis. 
Edwiten, v. to blame ; Edwite, pr. 

s. subj. g. 270. A. S. edwitan : 

Goth, idweitjctn. See Skeat (s. v. 

twit). See Eadwiten. 
Edy, adj. blessed, 170. 347 ; EJye, 

rich, IT a. 223. See Eadi. 
Ef, conj. if, 19. 537. Icel. ef ; cp. 

Efenn, s&. evening, 5. 1105. A. S. 

</<?. Cf. Euen. 
Efer, adv. ever, 1.117; Efre, I. 63 ; 

3 a. 79. See JEfre. 
Effnenn, v. to make equal or even, 

5. 1396; Effnedd, pp. compared, 

5. 1206. From A. S. efen, even ; 

cf. Icel.jqfna, to make equal, from 

jafn = efen. Cp. Euened. 
Efne, adv. even, 16. 313. A. S. 

efne. Cf. -ffifne. 
Efne-heorte, s6. equanimity, 7. 

Efning, sb. equal, n. 24; Efninges, 

pl. equals, 176. 164. Icel. jaf- 

ningi, from jafn, equal. Cf. 

Efre. See Efer. 
Efreni, adj. ever any, 3 a. 30. See 

-ffifre and Ani. 
. Eft, adv. again, I. 103; 40. 62; 

86.86; 15. 2238; afterwards, 14, 

243- A..S^g//. 
Eft-agen, ac/v. bac again, 4 a. 

Efter, prep, after, 46. 84; 7. 10; 

n. 76 ; for the sake of, 2. 21 ; 9. 

139; according to, 7. 56: adv. 

afterwards, I. 144. See JEfter. 
Efterward, prep, in pursuit of, 3 a. 

71. A. S. (Efterweard. 
Eftsone, adv. soon after, 9. 277; 

again, \d. 53; Eftsones, soon 

after, 2. 142. A. S. eft-sdna. 
Egen, sb. pl. eyes, 4 d. 47 ; 12.26. 

A.S. edgan, pl. of ea^*. Cf. 

Eje, Eyen, Eien, Ehe. 
Egleche, adj. war-like, 14. 6. A.S. 

aglaca, warrior (Grein). 
Ehe, sb. eye, 9. 82 ; Ehne, pl. Id. 

90; Ehnen, 7. 58, 79. See 


Ehe-lid, sb. eye-lid, 7. 180. 
Eh.sih.Se, sb. the sight of the eye, 

presence, 86. 161 ; EhsiSe, 8 id. 

129. See Egen and Sihte. 
Ehte, sb. wealth, property, 3 6. 108. 

See Ahhte. 
Ei, adj. any, 8 b. 93 ; 9. 58 ; Eie, 9. 

319. See Ani. 
Eie, sb. awe, 2. 189 ; 7. 25 ; 9. 145. 

A. S. ege. Cf. Eye, 3eie, Luue- 

Eien, sb. pl. eyes, 9. 186 ; 176. 

381. See Egen. 
Eihte, sb. properly, 9. 101 ; 

176. 321; cattle, 9. 128. See 

Eilin, v. to trouble, afflict, 7. 144; 

Eilie, pr. s. subj. 9. 135. A.S. 

eglan : Goth, agljan. 
.Eir, sb. heir, 18. 606. O. F. eir, 

heirs, in Roland, 504 ; Lat. heres. 

See Heiris. 
Eise, sb. ease, 9. 320 ; adj. easy, at 

leisure, 9. 349. O. F. else, aise, 

pleasure, also, adj. glad. 
Eiseliche, adj. horrible, 176. 28$. 

A. S. egeslic, fearful, from egesa, 

egsa, fear. 
Eisliche, adv. horribly, 30. 14. 

A. S. egeslice. 
Eisweis, adv. in any way, anywise, 

8 a. 68. See Eanisweis. 
EiSer, adj. either, each, 4 b. 51 ; 7. 

208; 9. 260; both, 2.62. A.S. 



. Cf. AiJ>3r , Cfler, 
Er, Or. 

Ek, conj. also, 14. 9; 16.93; Eke, 

II. 91. See EC. 
Eken, pr. pi. add, 10. 109. A. S. 

edcan, to add. 
Elc, adj. each, 1. 130; EJce, 1. 134 ; 

Elces, gen. s. I. 137 ; Elch, 176. 

107; Elches,g-6. s. 176. 90. See 

Elde, adj. pi. old, 19. 1402 ; Eldre, 

cotnp. 10. .15; Eldure, pi. 17 fl. 

320; Elder, 176. 326. See 

Elde, sb, old age, 7. 247 ; 12. 56 ; 

176.16. A.S.yldo. Cf. Ealde, 

Eldere, sb. pi. elders, 15. 2429, 

2506; Elderne, 170. 192; 176. 

194. See Ealdor. 
Elderman, sb. a senior, a noble- 
man; Elldernemanness, gen. s. 5. 

1213, 1235. A. S. ealdorman. 
Eleseew, sb. oil, 5. 994, 14/0. A. S. 

cle sediv, oil-juice, olei succus, see 

Grein (s. v. sedw}. 
Elhc (for Elch), adj. each, 40. 40. 

See Elch. 
Elles, adv. else, otherwise, 16. 662 ; 

170. 199; 19. 246. A. S. ellef, 

else, gen. s. of el : Goth, alii; 

other ; cp. Lat. alius. 
Elles-hware, adv. elsewhere, 170. 

325; 17 6 - 33 1 ; Elleswher, 19. 

318. A. S. elleshw&r, elles- 

Elles-hwider, adv. else whither, 7. 

103. A. S. elleshiuider. 
Elmes-Seorn, adj. charitable, 3 a. 

59. See JElmes and Jsorn. 
Embe, prep, about, 46. 41. A. S. 

etnbe, ymbe, around : O. S. iimbt ; 

cp. Lat. ambi-, Gr. d/*(/>t, O. Ir. 

imb (Windisch). 
Em-cristen, sb. fellow-Christian, 

176. 310. A. S. etn-crisfsn, emne- 

cristen ; emn (efeii), even, equal. 

Cf. Euen-criston. 
Emperice, sb. empress, 2. 120, 

134. Norm. F. emperyce; Lat. 

imperatricem. Cf. pemperice. 
En, adj. num. one, 86. 19. A. S. 

tenne, ace. m. of an, one. See 

An, Enne. 
Ende, sb. district, 6. 217; 18. 734; 

end of life, 14. 174; 170. 121 ; 

on ende, lastly, 9. 281. A. S. 

ende, end, limit, district : Goth. 

andeis. Cf. JEnde, Hende, 

Ende-dei, sb. day of death, 1. 137. 

A. S. endedceg. 
Endelease, adj. endless, 176. 143; 

Endelese, 40. 83; 8 a. 116; 10. 

21. A. S. endeleds. 
Endelong, prep, along, Sa. 125; 

Enddelong, 8 b. 153. A. S. and- 

lang. A. S. prefix and- (found in 

A. S. andswarian, to answer) ; cp. 

Gr. avrL See Skeat (s. v. 

Enden, v. to end, 3 a. 36. A. S. 

Ending, sb. death, 10. 70. A. S. 

endung, an ending. 
Ene, art. indef. a, 36. 48 ; adj. 

num. one, I. 7. A. S. cenne. See 

An, En. 
Enes, adv. once, 9. 323 ; 17 a. 183 ; 

et enes, at once, 9. 163. A. S. 

dues, once, prop. gen. of dn, one. 

Cf. Ones. 
Engel, sb. angel, I. 47; Engeles, pi. 

I. 200; Enngless, 5. 1026; En- 

glene, pi. gen. 46. 103 59. 45 ; 

Englen, pi. dat. 4 d. 71. A. S. 

engel; Church Lrt.angeliis (Vulg.); 

Gr. dyye\os. 
Engel, adj. English, 15. 2526. A.S. 

Angel-, English (in compounds). 
Engleland, sb. England, 2. 7, 118, 

170, 176. 
Englene-londe, sb. dat. England, 

the land of the English, 14. 1 2, 24. 

M.E. Englene ; A.S. Englena, gn. 

of Englan, the Angles, English. 
Englis, sb. pi. English, 6 b. 08. In 

6 a. 68 Angles. 

40 6 


Englisse, adj. English, 40. 48. 

A. S. englisc. 
Eni, adj. any, 6. 409 ; 7. 151 ; S a. 

74; Eny, i;a. 16; 19. 590. See 

Enne, adj. num. one, 17 ft. *39J 

art. indef. a, 6. 421, 433. A. S. 

cenne, ace. s. of an. See An. 
Enngle-peod, sb. angelic host, 5. 

1050. See Engel and peod. 
Ensample, sb. example, 13. 38. 

O. F. ensample, for essemple ; Lat. 

Enuye, sb. annoyance, 19. 687. 

O. F. enui ; from the Lat. phrase 

in odio esse. Cf. Anud. 
Eode, pt. s. went, 6. 287 ; Eoden, 

pt. pi. 3 a. 9. A. S. code : Goth. 

iddja. Cf. Geede, Gede, Is3de, 

leden, Yede, 3ede. 
Eoli, sb. oil, 86. 156; 9. 334; 

Eolie, 9. 335. A.S. ele ; Lat. oleum. 
Eom, sb. uncle, 2. 3. A. S. earn; 

cp. O. H. G. oheim (Weigand). 
Eorl, sb. earl, 2. 95 ; Eorles, gen. s. 

2. 135;^. 170.318. A. S. eor/; 

Icel. jar/. Cf. -33rl, -2Eorl, Erl, 

Eornen, v. to run, 5. 1236; Eorn, 

pt. pi. ran, 10. 73. A.S. irnan, 

to run, pt. s. am, pt. pi. urnon, 

pp. vrnen. Cf. Ernen, Urne, 

lorne, Rennet?. 
Eorre, sb. anger, 17 a. 274. A. S. 

eorre, irre. Cf. TJrre, Oerre. 
EortSe, sb. earth, i. 42, 167 ; 14. 

436 5170. 74, 80. A. S. eorS*. 

Cf. ErtSe. 
Eoiftlich, ao}'. earthly, 7. 92; Eorft- 

Hche, 4 a. 38, 80, 86. A. S. eordto. 

Cf. ErSliche. 
Eoten, v. to eat, 3 a. 91 ; />/. p/. 

ate, 6. 501. A. S. etan, to eat, pt. 

pi. <Eton. See Eten. 
Eow, pron. pi. dat. to you, 3 a. 2 ; 

176. 291; Eou, 6. 51; ace. 6. 

165. A.S. <?o'tp, />/. rfa/. and ace. Cf. 

Eu, Ou, Ow, Yow, 3eu, ;ew, 

3iu, Giu, Gu, 3ou, 3uw. 

Eower, poss. pron. your ; Eouwer, 

6. 47 ; Eoure, 6. 107. A. S. 

eower. Cf. JEoure, ^eur, Gur, 

Eure, 3iure, 3oure, 3u-re, Our, 


Er, adv. before, 1. 136, 146. SeeJEr. 
Er, conj. or, 12. 114. For M.E.exx. 

see Stratmann, p. 13. SeeEitSer. 
Erd, sb. native land, home, 15. 

2094, 2406. A. S. eard : O. S. 

aro*. Cf. JErd, Herdes. 
Ere, sb. dat. ear, 19. 309 ; Eren,/>/. 

36. 28; Ercs, 19. 971. See Ear. 
Erende, sb. message, 19. 462. A.S. 

arende, a message, related to dr, 

a messenger ; cp. O. H. G. drunti 

(Otfrid). Cf. Herdne. 
Erest, adj. first, 17 a. 84; adv. 46. 

14. See JSErest. 
Erewe, sb. caitiff, 14. 235 ; adj. 

slow, fearful, timid, 170. 20. ee 


Erl, s6. earl, 18. 68 1. See Eorl. 
Ernie, adj. poor, wretched, n. 64. 

See Arme. 
Ermine, sb. ermine, 176. 365. See 

Erming, adj. wretched, 3 a. 6, 

108; sb. pi. poor persons, 176. 

323. See Earmynges. 
Ern, sb. eagle, 12. 88 ; 18. 572 ; 

Ernes, gen. s. 12. 53. A. S. earn. 
Ernen, v. to run ; Erne]j, pr. pi. 6. 

215. See Eornen. 
Ernesse, sb. dat.; on ernesse, for 

an earnest, 8b. 112; M. E. ernes, 

a pledge; O. F. erre; Lat. arrha ; 

Gr. dppaftwv ; Heb. erdbdn. Gen. 

xxxviii. 17. 
Errfe, sb. cattle, 5. 1068. AJ3. yrfe 

( = erfe), cattle, in Chron.ann. 910, 

loio (where or/ appears in one 

MS.): O. S. erbi, inheritance: 

Goth, arbi ; cp. O. H. G. erbi 

(Tatian, Otfrid), and O. Ir. orbe 

(Windisch). Cf. Erue, Orf. 
Erst, adv. first, 9. 177. See 

Ert, 2 pr. s. art, II. 5 ; 19. mo. 



A.S.(Wessex) eart ; O. Northumb. 

ard. The final -d stands for 6u, 

Erfle, sb. earth, i. 60 ; 12. 32 ; 18. 

424. See Eor'Se. 
Erthe, v. to dwell, 18. 739. A. S. 

eardian. Cf. Earding-stowe. 
ErfSliche, adj. earthly, 12. 299. See 

Erue, sb. cattle, 15. 1948. See 

Erur, adv. formerly, 16. 1738. A.S. 

csror, comp. of <zr. See JEr. 
Es, pron. his, 8 a. 105. A.S. his. 

See His. 

Es, />r. s. is, 12. 247. See Is. 
Escade, /tf. s. asked, 3 a. 50. See 

Est, s&. East, 7. 179. A.S. eds/: 

O. S. ds/ (in fatati). 
Este, sb. delicacy, dainty, 4 5. 96, 

108; 9. 321; Esten, pi. I. 185. 

Estene, gen. pi. 46. 96. A.S. 

<&,. favour, bounty, />/. e's/as, 
Ester, s&. Easter, 46. 22; Estren, 

pi. dat. Easter, 2. 86. A. S. easier, 

pi. n. edstro, gen. edstrena, dat. 

edstran (for edslnim). 
Estrene-dai, sb. Easter day, 46. 

66. See above. 
Estun, sb. Easton, 2. 78. 
"Et,prep. at, I. 88 ; 9. 237 ; II. 90. 

See JEt. 
Eten, v. to eat, 3 6. 109; 15.2080; 

Ett, pr. s. i. 190 ; Et, />/. s. i. 33 ; 

1 8. 653, 656; Eten, pt. pi. 46. 

103; Eten, pp. 18. 657; Etc, 

imp. s. 9. 243. A. S. etan, pt. s. 

<st, pt. pi. <zton, pp. eten. Cf. 

Eoten, Hete, Ijeten. 
Efcer, at the, I. 15, 136. A.S. at 

dcere (dat. f.). 

Efcforen, prep, before, 3 a. 14. A.S. 
/Et-halden, v. to hold back, retain, 

3&. 16. 21 ; Etholden, 9. 14; Et- 

halt, pr. s. 9. 104. See At- 


Etlunge, sb. calculation, 7. 166. 

Cp. Icel. (Bfla, also etla, to think, 

to calculate, whence North. E. 

Et-scene, adj. easily seen, 7. 86. 

See Eft-sene. 
Et-stonden, v. to withstand, 7. 

182. A. S. cetstandan, to standstill. 
Ette, at the, 9. 310. A. S. 

EiS-cene, o^/. easily seen, 9. 269. 

See Eft-sene. 
E3e, adv. easily, 170. 368 ; 19. 57 

843. See EaSe. 
ESelich, adj. slight, 86. 69 ; E'Se- 

lice, dat. I. 144; ESeliche, brief, 

4c. 6. A. S. eddelic, easy. 
Epelyng, s&. noble, 14. 74. A. S. 

cedeling, from <edele, noble. See 

E^Sem, s6. breath, 3 a. 33. A. S. 

<?'<?;, <zdm : O. S. a5om j cp. Du. 

adem, and G. athent. 
E'5e-moded, ac?/. gentle, well-dis- 

posed, 15. 2249. Cf. Ad-moded. 
E'Ssn, adv. hence, 15. 2188. Icel. 

kedan. See Hethen. 
Et5-late, adj. lightly esteemed, 176. 

74, 150, 155, 204. Icel. aud- 

Idtinn^ cp. the compound vel 

Idlinn, highly esteemed. See Icel. 

Diet. (s.v. /a/a, c. ii. 2). 
EU-sene, adj. easily seen, 170. 338. 

A. S. edde, easily -f sewen, seen. 

Cf. Eocene, Etscene. 
"En, pron. you, 16.1792; 170.285. 

See Eow. 
Eu-bruche, sb. adultery, 3 b. 36. 

A. S. cew-bryce ; ceive, marriage -f 

bryce, breach, breaking. 
Euch, adj. each, 7. 17, 143 ; S a. 

in ; Euches,g-ett. s. 8 b. 54. See 

Euchanes, gen. s. of each one, 7. 

IOI. Euch + dues. See An. 
Eue, sb. evening, 16. 41. See 

Euo, gen. of Eve, wife of Adam, 40. 




Euel, adj. evil, 17 b. 26, 172 ; adv. 

badly, 176. 172; Eue'e, 176. 

298. A. S. yfel : O. S. ubil. See 


Euel, sb. evil, i. 47. See Ufel. 
Eiie-lyche, adv. evenly, 14. 79. 
Euen, sb. evening, 46. 22, 117. 

A. S. f/i?, <z/. Cf. Eue. 
Euen-cristen, sb. fellow Christian, 

170. 304 ; Euene-cristene, pi. 3 b. 

99. A. S. efen-cristen ; cp. led. 

jafn-Kristinn. Cf. Em-cristen. 
Euened,/>/>. compared, 4 c. 60. See 

Euene-long, of proper height, 19. 

94. Cf. lce\.jafn- in compounds. 
Euenynges, sb. pi. equals, 170. 

1 68. See Efning. 
Euere, adv. ever, 66. 351. See 

Ever-eucli, adj. every, 16. 1642. 

See .ZEuer-alche. 
Euerichon, every one, 9. 40. See 

.^Eueralche and An. 
Euer-ilc, adj. every, every one, 15. 

2098, 2355; Euereche, 66. 87; 

Euerich, 9. 99 ; Eueriche, 9. 323 ; 

Eueruyches, gen. s. 14. 84 ; 

Euerichne, ace. m. 9. 101. See 

Euer-mo, adv . evermore, 170. 152, 

200 Euermor, 15. 2322. See 

Eueten, sb. pi. newts, 176. 277. 

A. S. efeta, a newt, an eft, 
Euorwic, sb. York, 2. 96. 
Eure, adv. ever, 19. 79. 
Eure, poss. pron. your, 14. 28. See 

Eurech, adj. every, 19. 671 ; Eu- 

reche, 19. 609. See JEuer- 


Evrich, adj. every, 16. 194, 426. 
Ewanigeliste, sb. evangelist, 8 b. 

156. Lat. evangelista (Vulg.) ; 

Gr. eucryyeAtoT'/'S. 
Ewiche, adj. every, 170. 85. A.S. 

(S-g-hwilc, each ; cp. O. H. G. io- 

gi-uuelih, every (Tatian). 

Eye, sb. awe, 170. 21, 275. See 

Eyen, sb. pi. eyes, 170. 74; 18. 

680. See Egen. 
Eyhte, sb. wealth, possessions, 17 a. 

255, 3I5- See Ahhte. 
Eyper, adj. either, 170. 63, 231, 

300. See EiBer. 
Ese, s6/eye, 16. 426 ; Ejen, pi. 3 a. 

17, 32. See Egen. 


Fa, adj. hostile, 1.5. A. S./a'g% Cf. 

Fo, Fan, Van. 
Fader, sb. father, i. 46; 2. 175; 

40. 22 ; gen. s. 14. 428; Faderes, 

J 5- 2I 75> 2372. A.S. fader 

{prop, invariable in the sing.). Cf. 

Feader, Feder. 
Feeger, adj. fair. A.S.f&ger. Cf. 


Faireste, Fayr,Fa33re, Feyre, 

Fsehte, sb. fight, 6. 309. A. S. 

feoht. Cf. Fijte, Uihte. 
Feeie, adj. dead, 6 a. 254. A. S. 

fcege, dead, doomed, feeble. See 

Feeire, adv. courteously, kindly, 6. 

36, 277, 288. A.S. feeder?, fcegre. 

See Fseger. 
Feeirest, adj. superl. fairest, 6 a. 

no, 304. See above. 
Feeireste, adj. superl. fairest, 66. 

J 3 5 I 9-i73- See Feeger. 
Fserd, sb. army, 2. 94, 170. See 

Feeren, v. to go, 6 a. 90. See 

Feereste, adj. snperl. fairest, 6 a. 

13. See Faeger. 
Faestned, pp. fastened, 2. 33. A.S. 

fast/lion, to make fast. Cf. Fest- 

Fseston, pt. pi. confirmed, 2. 139. 

A. S. fcestan, to make fast : 

O. H. G. Jastjan. 



Feeu, adj. few, 2. 96. See Feaw. 
Fagen, adj. glad, fain, 15. 2267, 

23^9. A.S.fcegen: O.S.fagan. 

Faille, v. to fail, 19. 638 ; Failede, 

pt. s. 13. 93. O. Y.faillir; Lat. 

fallere (changed to the 4th conj.). 
Faire, adj. fair, noble, 19. 22, 161. 

See Feoger. 

Faire, adv. well, 2. 204 ; cour- 
teously, 66. 288; 15. 2393; 19. 

1040. See Feeire. 
Fairhede, sb. beauty, fairness, 19. 

83, 803. See Stratmann. 
Fairnesse, sb. beauty, 19. 87, 213. 

A. S.fcegernis. 
Fallen, v. to fall ; Falle, 17 a. 310 ; 

19. 786, 1238; FalleW, pr. pi. I. 

167; 36. 114; Fallen, 12. 72. 

A. S. feallan, pt.feoll (=fe-fall\ 

pp. gefeallen. Cf. Uallen, Felle, 

Feol,Feolle,Fel, Ful, I-falle. 
Failed, pr. pi. cause to fall, 6. 218. 

A. S. fellan, to fell. See Felle. 
Fals, adj. false, 16. 210; False, fl. 

1.105. O. Y.fals ; Lzt.falsus. 
Falsliche, adv. falsely, 9. 20. 
Fait, pr. s. falters, 1 6. 37. Cp. 

O. Y.falte (now/awte), a fault. 
Fa-men, sb. pi. foemen, 8 a. 146. 

A.S.fdhman. Cf. Va-men. 
Fan, sb. pi. foes, 8 a. 145 ; 10. 62. 

A. S. fan, pi. of fdh (weak de- 
clension). See Fa. 
Fand, pt. s. found, provided for, 2. 

65, 143. See Finden. 
Fandie, v. to prove, try, i. 151. 

A. S. fandian. Of. Fonde, 

UondeU/ I-fonded. 
Fant, pt. s. found, 10. 4. See 

Fant-ston, sb. fon -stone, 4 b. 22. 

A. S. f ant, font ; Church Lat. fon- 

tern, font (in Lat. a spring). Cf. 

Fare, sb. journey, 2. 44; 15. 1989. 

Faren (i), v. to go, fare, 2. 44, 

193; 66. 90; Fare, 16. 909; 

Farst, 2 pr. s. 1 8. 799; Fareft, 
pr. s. 9. 94; /r. //. 60. 85; 
Faren, 15. 2153; Fare, pp. 18.' 
1380. A. S. /aran, p/. for, pp. 
faren. Cf. Fseren, For, Foren, 
Varen, Ifaren. 1 

Faren (2), v. to behave. Farest, 
2/>r.s. 16. 421, 917. Cf.Fearett. 

Faren (3), v. to bring; Fareft, pr. 
pi. 6 a. 551. A. S. ferian, to 
make to come, to carry. Cf. Ifare. 

Farlac, sb. fear, 7. 202. See Fear- 

Fasstinng, sb. fasting, 5. 1450. 

Faste, adv. firmly, 4^. 45; se- 
curely, 6. 353. A. S.faste. 

Fasten, sb. fasting, 176. 147, 339. 
A. S. fasten. Cf. Festen. 

Fastlice, adv. continuously, I. 132. 

Fastrede, adj. steadfast, 16. 21 1. 
A. S.fcestrad. 

Fat, sb. vessel, 12.108; Faten, pi. 
1 3. loi . A. S. feet, pi. fatv, fata. 
Cf. Veat. 

Fauresfeld, sb. Faversham in Kent, 
2. 186. 

Fawe, adj. few, 170. 341. See 

Fayr, adj. lovely, fair, 17 a. 380; 
Fay re, 18. 351. See Fseger. 

Faje, adj. spotted, 3 b. 88. A. S. 
fdgffdh, variegated. Cf. Foase, 
Foh, Fou. 

Fa53re, adj. fair, 5. 1215. See 

Fe, sb'. property, 1 8. 386; money, 
J 5- I 993- A. S. feoh, cattle, 
money, property : O. S. fehu ; cp. 

Feader, sb. father, 86. 3, 59, no. 
See Fader. 

FearetJ, pr. s. fares, behives, 7. 19. 
See Faren. 

Fearlac, s6. fear, 7. 66. A. S. 
fcer, sudden danger + lac, an ab- 
stract suffix found in wedlac (q. v.). 
Cf. Farlac. 

Feaw, adj. few; Feawe, i. no; 



17^349.354- A.S.fedw. Cf. 

Feeu, Fawe, Fewe. 
Feble, adj. feeble, 36. 9, 1 1. O.F. 

feble, Ps. cii. 14 ; Lat. flebilis, 

Feblelike, adv. in sorry fashion, 

18. 418. 
Fece, sb. time, while, I. 7, 103. 

A. S..f<ec, period of time. 
Fechen, t/. to fetch, ^d. 8; 15. 

2363; Fecche, 19. 351. From 

A .S.fecce, pr. s. offeccan =fetian, 

see Skeat (s. v. fetch, p. 804). Cf. 

Feden, v. to feed, 9. 203 ; Fedenn, 

5. 1558; Fede, 6. 379. A. S. 

/o&ra : O. S. fddian. Cf. Fet, 

Fett, Ueden, lueedde. 
Feder, sb. father, i. 48 ; 8 a. 13 ; 

7. 85. See Fader. 
Feier, adj. fair, 7. 85. SeeFeeger. 
Feierlec, sb. beauty, 7. 124. A.S. 

fager, fair -f /a'c (an abstract suffix, 

cf. fearlac). 
Feir, adj. fair, 8 a. 15 ; Feire, 8b. 

20; 10. 103 ; of feir elde, of ma- 
ture age, 9. 239. See Feeger. 
Feire, adv. kindly, 8 a. 50. See 


Feiren, v. to make fair, 3 b. 126. 
Feiren, sb. pi. companions, 19. 237. 

See Fere. 
FetiJ, sb. faith, 15. 2187. O. F. 

feid; Lzt.Jidein. 
Fel,/tf. s. fell, 19. 505 ; Fellen,^. 

pi. 15. 2272. See Feol. 
Felawe, sb. fellow, companion, 19. 

1 101. See below. 
Felaje, sb. companion, 19. 1008, 

1461 ; Felajes,/)/. 19.1310, 1360. 

Icel.felagi, a partner in common 

property (ft). Cf. Feolahes. 
Feld, sb. field, 19. 514; Felde, 6. 

406; 16.1714. A.S.feld. Cf. 

Ualde, Velde. 
Felde, pt. s. felt, 8 a. 15 ; Sb. 160. 

See Felen. 
Fele, adj. many, i. 95, 103; ^d. 

51 j 176. 9, 70; to fele, too 

much, 14. 196 ; fele kinnes, of 

many a kind, 46. 27. A. S.fela : 

O. S.//// ; cp. O. Ir. il and Gr. 

TTO\VS. Cf. Feole, Vele, Veole, 

Veale, Vale. 
Fele-folde, adj. manifold, 4 6. 94. 

Felen, v. to feel ; Fele^, pr. s. 46. 

10. A. S. fclan : O. H. G. foljan, 

(nowfuhlen). Cf. Felde, Yf elde. 
Felewep, pr. s. follows, 170. 340. 

See Folgen. 
Felle, v. to fell, 19. 62. A. S. fel- 

lan, (forfalltan} causal of fall an 

(feallan). Cf. Failed, I-fulde. 
Felle, pt. pi. fell, 19. 866 ; Fellenn, 

5. 1398; Fellen, 15. 2497. See 

Felle, v. to complete, 19. 1274. 

See Fulle. 
Felles, sb. pi. skins, 9. 160. A. S. 

fell ; cp. Lat. pellis, Gr. -nt\\a. 

Cf. Uelles. 
Felony, sb. base wickedness, 18. 

444. O. F. felonie, felunie, in 

Roland, 2600, base treachery, 

fromfel, base, cruel, treacherous, as 

sb. a traitor, in ace. felon (feluti). 
Felunge, sb. feeling, 7. 18. 
Fend, s6. enemy, fiend, devil, i. 5; 

18.506; pi. 10. 96; Fendes, I. 

54. See Feond. 
Feng on, pt. s. took on, began, 

8 a. 44, 67. See Fon. 
Feol, pt. s. fell, 19. 428, 1147. 

A.S.fedll. See Fallen. 
Feolahes, sb. pi. fellows, com- 
panions, S a. 13. See Felawe. 
Feolahscipe, sb. fellowship, Sb. 16. 
Feole, adj. many, 3 a. 21 ; 6. 89, 

238; 7. 102; 14.4; 16. 1772. 

See Fele. 
Feolle, pt. s. subj. should fall, 19. 

421. See Fallen. 
Feolohlukest, adv. snperl. nio^J 

intimately, 7. 121. See Felawe. 
Feond, sb, an enemy ; Feondes, pi. 

fiends, 8 a. 101 ; 9. 93. A. S. 

fefoid, pr. part, of feon, to hate. 


Cf. Fend, Feont, Fiend, 

Feondliche, adv. fiercely, 6. 253. 

Feont, sb. the enemy, the fiend, 7. 

37. See Feond. 
Feor, adv. far, 6. 320; 16. 710, 

1657; 19. 775; of feor, afar, 7. 

45. A. S. feorr : Goth, fairra. 

Cf. Fer, Ferr, For, Veor. 
Feord, sb. army, 2. 151. See 

Feorden, pt. pL fared, 2. 134. 

A. S. ferdon. See Ferde. 
Feortte, num. ord. fourth, 3 cr. 29 ; 

6. 121 ; 7. 42 ; feorSe siftes, 

fourthly, lit. of the fourth time, 

46.20. A.S.fedrda. Cf. Fiertte, 

Feor-vor]?, adv. far (far-forth), 16. 

Feower, num. four, 3 6. 48. A. S. 

feower: Goth, fidwor ; cp. Wei. 

pediuar, Gr. iriavpes, O. Ir. cethir, 

Lat. quatHor, Skt. chatvar. Cf. 

Fower, Vour, Fetter-feted. 
Fer, crafo. far, 15. 2429; 18. 359. 

See Feor. 
Fer, s6. fire, i. 53, 166; 13. 125. 

See Fir. 
Fer, #q?/. well, sound, 19. 149. Icel. 

fcerr, able, strong. 
Ferd, sb. army ; Ferde, pi. armies, 

hosts, 6 a. 170; 16. 1668, 1672. 

A.S.jird,fyrd,ferd. Cf. Feerd, 

Feord, Uerden. 
Ferde, pt. s. fared, went, 2. 114, 

154; 18.447; 19.755; Ferden, 

pt. pi. 2. 172 ; 16. 1789. A. S. 

feran, pt. fcrde. Cf. Feorden, 

Fere, sb. companion, 16. 223; 19. 

747; Feren, pi. 19. 19; Feres, 

15. 2478. A. S. (ge)fera. Cf. 

Ferin, Vere, 3eferen.AJUA4 
Fere, sb. power, ability, 5. 1251. 

Ice], J^Cf, means, ability. 
Fere, sb. fear, 19. 1266. A. S. 

/<er, sudden danger. 

Feren, cwfo. from far, 15. 1935. 

A. S.feorran. 
Ferin, sb. pi. companions, 19. 1258. 

See Fere. 
Ferliche, adj. fearful, dreadful, 8 a. 

142. A. S.f&rlic, sudden. 
Ferliche, adv. dreadfully, 8 b. loo. 

A. S.fcerlice, suddenly. 
Ferr, adv. far, 5. 1265. See 

Ferreden, sb. company, 7. 120. 

A.S. (ge^ferr&den, companionship, 

from gefera, companion + rceden, 

law, condition, used as a suffix, as 

in 'hatra/,' kindra/.' Cf. 3 9 ~ 

fered, Verade. 
Ferst, adv. first, 13. 107. See 

Fest, adj. (bound) fast, 15. 2373. 

Cf. M. E. festyn, to bind together, 

ligo, in Prompt. Parv. 
Feste, sb. feast, 19. 477, 1416. 

O.F.feste; Lat.festa. 
Feste, adv. fast, 170. 237. A'. S. 

faste, fast, firmly. Cf. Ueste. 
Festen, sb. fasting, 170. 151. See 

Festnen, v. to fasten, confirm, 8 a. 

122; Festnin, 86.150; Fesstnenn, 

5.178. See Feestned, I-uest- 

Fet, sb. pi. feet, 2. 23; 18. 616. 

A. S. fet, pi. offdt. See Fot. 
Fet, adj. fat, 15. 2098 ; Fette, pi. 

fat ones, 15. 2100. A. S.fatt. 
Fet, pr. s. feeds, 12. 301. See 

Fete, v. to fetch, 18. 642. A. S. 

fetian. Cf. Fette. 
Feteres, fetters, 2. 118. See 

Fetles, sb. pi. vessels, 8 a. 102. 

A. S.fcetels, a vessel. 
Fet-steppes, footsteps, 1 2. 7. 
Fetter, s. feeds, i. 48. See Feden. 
Fett, sb. pi. feet, 1. 16. See Fet. 
Fette, pt. s. fetched, 4 b. 67. A. S. 

fette, pt. of fetian. See Fete. 
Fetter-feted, adj. four-footed, 3 a. 



32. A. S, filer-fete. With A. S. 
fider, four, cp. Goth.^/Wwor. See 

Feflres, s&. />/. feathers, 12. 72. 

Fewe, orf/. few, 40. 5; 170. 104. 

See Feaw. 
Feye, adj. fated to die, 14. 170. 

Icel. feigr (see account of this 

word in the Icel. Diet.): O.S. 

fegi ; cp. O. H. G. feigi, base, 

low (Otfrid), whence G. feig, 

coward. Cf. Feeie. 
Feyre, adj. fair, good, 170. 346. 

See Fseger. 
Feyre, adv. kindly, 18. 452. See 

Fiendes, sb. pi. foes, 1 7 b. 223. See 

FiertSe, num. ord. fourth, i. 121. 

See Feoitta. 
Fif, num. five, r. 19, 15. 2369; 

Fife, 5. 1443. A. S. fif: Goth. 
fimf; cp. Wei. pump, Gr. Tre'/xrrc, 

Lat. quinque, O. Ir. cole. Cf. 


Fif-folde, adj. fivefold, 4 a. 47. 
Fifte, num. ord. fifth, i. 127; 

3 a. 29; FifJ>e, 6. 123. A. S. 

Fifte-sitSe, adv. fifthly, 46. 21. 

See Si*e. 
Fihtlao, sb. fighting, 16. 1699. A.S. 

feohtldc (Schmid). 
Filstnede, pt. s. aided, 12. 44. 

From A. S. fylstan, to help, with 

-n-formative, see Skeat (s. v. 

quicken); and Stratmann (s.v./W). 
Filt, pp. filled, 15. 2213, 2307. See 

Fin, adj. fine, 15. 2370. O. Y.fin, 

in Roland, 652, 1540, used of gold ; 

so Late Lat.jfw/s, pure (of metals); 

derived by Brachet and Diez from 

"Lut.finitus, finished. 
Finden, v. to find, i. 201 ; 2. 44 ; 

Findenn, 5. 1573; Finde, 13. 26; 

Findes, 2 pr. s. 15. 2320 ; Finde J>, 

I pr. pi. 1 7 6. 332. A. S. findan, 

pt. s. pl.fnndon, pp. fnn~ 

den. Cf. Vinde, Funde, I- 

founde, Hi-funde. 
Findis, adj. heavy, firm, compact, 

5.1602. A..S. .faidig (B. T.). 
Fine, v. to end, 19. 262. O.F. 

finer, in Roland ; Lat. finire. 
Fingres, sb. pi. fingers, 19. 992. 

" find, 12. 292. See 

Fir, sb. fire, 5. 1529; 18. 585, 

587. A.S.fyr. Cf. Fer, Fur, 

Firrpresst, 2 pr. s. succourest, 5. 

1250. A. S. fyrl>ran, to further, 

support, from/7/rdor, further. 
Firsin, v. to remove, 8 a. 89 ; Fir- 

sen, 8 b. 109. A. S.fyrsian, from 

feor, far. 
Fisch, sb. fish, 10. II ; Fis, 3 b. 91 ; 

Fiss, 19. 661, 664; Fisscs, pi. 3 b. 

94; 17 6. 83. A.S. fisc. Cf. 

Fis-cynn, sb. fish-kind, I. 53. 

A. S.fisc-cynn. 
Fissen, v. to fish, 19. 1148 ; Fisse, 

19. 1155. A.S.jfiscian. 
Fissere, sb. fisher, 19. 1146; Fish- 

ere, 18. 524. A.S.jfiscere. 
Fissing, sb. fishing, 19. 1161. 
Fiste, v. to fight, 16. 1669; 19. 

514. AS.feoMtan. Cf. Fuhten, 

Fiste, sb. fighting, 16. 183. A.S. 

feohle. Cf. Vihte. 
Fijtinge, sb. fighting, 19. 825. 

Flan, sb. dat. s. arrow, 8 b. 21. 

A. S.fidn, obj. c. of fid, also flan ; 

cp. \ce\.fleinn. 
Flaunes, sb. pi. a kind of custard, 

1 8. 644. O. F. fiaon ; Low Lat. 

flalonem, fladonem, a fiat cake ; 

cp. O. H.G.flado. 
Fie. See Fleon. 
Fie. See Flen. 
Flegefl, pr. s. flies, 12. 64. A.S. 

fleued. See Fleon. 



Fleh, pt. s. escaped, 2. 122. A. S. 

fledh. See Fleon. 
Fleis, sb. flesh, 46. 71 ; 15. 2089. 

See Flesc. 
Flemden, pt. pi. put to flight, 2. 

97. A. S.flemen, flyman. 
Fleme, sb. a fugitive, 19. 129!. 

A. S. fltma, flyma (Schmid). 
Flen, v. to flay, 19. 86; Fie, 19. 

1394. A. S. /ed ; Icel. fid, pt. 

flu. Cf. Flo. 
Fleon, v. to fly, escape from, 7. 

234; 16. i5o;.Fleo, 16. 442, 

1700; Fie, 18. 492, 696 ; Fleo^, 

pr. pi. 1 6. 278. A.S. fleogan, 

fie6han,fle6n. Cf. Flegeft, Fleh, 

Fie]?, Flijt, Flugen. 
Flesc, sb. flesh, 2. 45 ; Fles, 4 a. 

50; Flesce, c/a/. 13. 63; Flessce, 

13. 66; Flesshes, gen. 9. 209. 

A. S.fitesc. Cf. Fleis. 
Flescnliche, adj. dat. according to 

the flesh, 8 a. 2 ; Fleshliche, 8 b. 

3. A.S.fasclic. 

Flesliche, adv. materially, in re- 
ality, 13. 47. A. S.fasclice. 
Flete, 3/>r. s. subj. float, 18. 522. 

A. S.fiefoax. 
Fie)?, pr. s. flleth, 5. 1322. See 

Fle$3l,s&. flail, 5. 1500. O.V.fiael; 

Lat. flagellum, a scourge. 
Fligt, sb. 'flight, 12. 59; Flijte, 

dat. s. 19. 1432. A. S.jiyht. 
Flijt, pr. s. flies, 1 6. 176, 308; 

Fli$st, 2 pr. s. 1 6. 227, 405. 

A. S. fiyh&t, 2 pr. s.,fiyj>, pr. s. of 
fleon. See Fleon. 
Flo, v. to flay, 18. 612. SeeFlen. 
Flockes, flocks of birds, 16. 

280,427. A.S.jlocc. 
Flod, sb. flood, sea, 10. II ; 18. 

669 ; Flode, dat. s. 19. 139, 

1197; Flodes, gen. s. 15. 2096. 

A.S./oW; IceLftod. 
FlohJ), pr. s. floweth, 16. 920. 

See Flowen. 

Flore, sb. floor, 19. 529. A.S.^fo'r. 
Flote, sb. company, 18. 738. O. F. 

flote, a multitude (fiotte in Cot- 
grave) ; Lrt.fluctus. See Diez. 
Flowen, v. to flow, 10. 90 ; Flowe, 

19. 117, 632, 1107. A.S.Jldwan. 

Cf. Floh]>. 
Flugen, pt. pi. flew, escaped, 2. 

131; Flugsen, 2. 56, 117. See 


Fluht. See Ofluht. 
Flum, sb. stream, 15. 2486. Norm. 

Y.flum', Lzt.JIumen. 
Flur, sb. flower, 19. 15. Norm. F. 

flur ; Lsit.fiorem. 
Flute, imp. s. depart, 7. 2 1 1. Icel. 

Jlytja, to carry, flytjaslt (reflexive), 

to flit, remove. Cf. Vlutten. 
Fnast, sb. breath, 16. 44. A.S. 


Fnaste, v. to breathe, 18. 548. 
Fo, adj. few, 15. 2403. See 

Fo, foes, i. 181. A. S. /a, 

pi. offdh. See Fa. 
Fo (on), i pr. pi. subj. begin, 16. 

1 79 See Stratmann (s. v. an). 

A. S. onfon, pr. pi. subj. of <w/d, 

to take up. Cf. OnnfoJ). 
Foase, adj. spotted, 36. 129. See 

Foddre, &b. fodder, 9. 131. A.S. 

Fode, sb. food, 9. 120; 12. 80, 

118; 1 6. 94. A.S. f6da. Cf. 

Fode, sb. a child, alumnus, 19. 

1362. See Spec. E. E. 2 (Glos- 
Fob, adj. spotted, variegated (fur), 

J 7 & 3^5. See Faje. 
Fol, #. foul, 7. 20; 170. 15. 

See Ful. 
Folc, sb. people, I. 2; S a. 144; 

15.2135. A.S./0/c. Cf. Volk, 

Folc-kinge, s6. da/, the king of the 

people, 6. 34, 94. A. S. /o/c- 

Folcninge, s5. dat. baptism, 46. 

34. See Fulcning. 


Fole; sb. foal, 40. 2; 19. 589, 591. 

A. S./o/a. 
Folgen, v. to follow, 4 or. 85 ; Fol- 

hin, 7. 12, 96; Foll3henn, 5. 

1009, 1195, 1283 ; Folsefl, pr. s. 

176. 14; Folhe'S, 7. 127; Folhes, 

10. 95 ; Foll3hej>J>, 5. 1323, 1571 ; 

Foleweji, 17 a. 14 ; Fol3eJ>, />r. />/. 

176. 346; Folgeden, pt. pi. ^c. 

II ; Folecheden, 2. 132. A. S 
fylgian : O. S.folg6n ; cp. O. Fris 

/o/g-za. Cf. Felewep, 3efolged 
Folies, sb. pi. follies, 13. 135. 

Norm. Y.folie. Cf. Folye. 
Foliwis, adv. fully, 6 6. 449. See 

Folkene, sb. gen. pi. peoples', 8 6. 

53. SeeFolc. 
Folliche, adv. fully, 6 6. 366. See 


Folliche, arfv. foolishly, 9. 19. 
Fol-vellet, *m/>. />/. fill full, 13. 

100. A. S.fulfyllan, to fill up. 
Folye, sb. folly, 19. 688. See 

Fon, v. to receive, 40. 83. A. S. 

ffa, Pr. f6 (fange) ; pt. feng, pp. 

fangen. Cf. Underfon, Feng. 
Fond, pt. s. found, 15. 1934, 2224 ; 

19. 35 ; Fonden, 19. 1321 ; 

Fonde = fond + he, he found, 15. 

1933. See Finden. 
Fonde, v. to experience, 19. 151, 

734 ; Fondjn, 7. 68 ; to try, at- 
tempt, 86. 86; to tempt, 8 a. 51 ; 

Fonded, pp. experienced, 176. 

149. See Fandie. 
Fonde, v. to go, 19. 840. See 

Fondunge, sb. temptation, 9. 209. 

Fonge, v. to receive, 19. 327, 721. 

A. S. fangan*, whence fon. See 


For, adv. far, 6 b. 405. See Feor. 
For, pt. s. went, 2. 71. See Faren. 
For, prep, on account of, 2. 56; 

6 6. 349 ; by (in asseverations), 

8 a. 84, 90; 86. 76. A.S./or; 

cp. Lat. pro, Gr. irp6. Cf. Forr, 

For, conj. for, 2. 3. A causal conj. 

is often formed by the prep, for 

used with the demonstrative. See 

Forpan, Forfli. 
For-bsernen, v. to burn up, 6 a. 

329; For-bearne, 6b. 329; For- 

bernest, 2 pr. s. 16. 419. A. S. 

For-beden, v. to forbid ; Forbedeft, 

pr. s. 1 2. 298 ; Forbet, 176. 307 ; 

Forbed, 170. 301 ; Forbude, pt. 

s. subj. 7. 13; Forbode, pp. 19. 

76. A. S. forbeddan, pt. s. bead, 

pi. bndon, pp. boden. 
For-bere, v. to forbear, 18. 352 ; 

Forbaren, pt. pi. 2. 51. A. S. 
forberan, pt. s. beer, pi. b&rofi, pp. 

boren. Cf. Uorberen. 
For-bisne, sb. example, 4 a. 15, 71. 

See Bisne. 
For-bod, sb. prohibition ; Forbode, 

dot. 17 a. 290; For-bot, sb. 9. 

190. A. S.forbod. 
For-curssed, pp. utterly accursed, 

For-cwiddares, sb. pi. foretellers 

(a gloss on ' prophetes '), 9. 67. 

For fore-cwiddares ; cp. A. S. 

fore-civedan, to foretell. 
For-dede, pt. s. destroyed, i. 120. 

A. S.for-dyde. See For-don. 
For-demde, pt. s. condemned, 8 a. 

10 ; 17 a. 268; For-demet, pp. 

8 b. 92. A. S. fordemati, 
For-don, v. to destroy ; Fordoff, 

pr. s. 3 b. 87 ; For-don, pp. 2. 61 ; 

170. 268; 176. 274. A. S. 

forddn, v. and pp. Cf. TTor- 

donne, Fordede. 
For-dred, pp. afraid, 15. 2191. So 

in Ormulum. From A.S. dradan, 

to dread, pp. dr&den. See 

For-drenche, v. to make drunk, 

170.328. A.S.fordrencan. 
For-druje, v. to dry up, 16. 919. 

A. S.fordntgian. 



Pore, prep, before, 7- 3> 4 J 10. 
112; for, 7. 128. A.S.fore. 

Foremes, num. ord. gen. first, 176. 
197. See Forme. 

Foren, prep, before, 36. 95. A. S. 

Fore ward, sb. agreement, 16. 
1692 ; 19. 452 ; Forward, 15. 
1992; 18.486. A.S.foreweard. 

For-geten, v. to forget, 15. 2102; 
For-gat, pt. s. 15. 2092 ; For- 
geten, 15. 2179. A. S. forgitan. 
Of. For-yeten, For-jeten, Vor- 

For-gifen, v. to forgive ; ForgifS, 
pr. s. 46?. 73 ; For-gaf, pt. s. 15. 
2499. A. S.forgifan. Cf. Forr- 
Sifenn, Forjieue, Uo^iue'S. 

For-goS, ^>r. s. forgoeth, 176. 358. 
A. S. forgdn. 

For-gult, pp. become guilty, 3 a. 
25; For-gulte, guilty, 30. 84. 
M. T,.forgilten, to become guilty. 
Cf. Forrgilltedd. 

For-holen, pp. hidden, 176. 76; 
For-hole, 170. 76. A. S. for -he Ian, 
pp. forholen. 

For-hojie, pr. s. sub], neglect, des- 
pise, 3 b. 26. A. S. forhogian. 

For-leaf, imp. s. abandon, leave, 
86.173. M. E. forlceven. See 

Forleosen, v. to lose wholly ; For- 
leost, 2 pr. s. 1 6. 1649 '> Forlesej), 
pr. s. 14. 208 ; For-les, pt. s. i. 
123. A. S. forleosan, pt. forleds, 
pp. forloren. Cf. Forloren, 
Forrlorenn, Vorleosen. 

For-leten, v. to leave off, 4?. 31 ; 
Forlete, to forsake, 19. 218; For- 
let, pt. s. 15. 2440; Forleten, pp. 
46.110. A.S.forlatan. 

Forloren, pp. lost, ruined, 2. 15 ; 
8 a. 86 ; 12. 85 ; 15. 2511 ; For- 
lorene, pi. 176. 106. See For- 

Forme, num. ord. first, i. 82, 88 ; 
30. 28, 104; 170. 195. A. S. 
forma. Cf. Foremes, Forrme. 

Forme-fader, sb. ancestor, first- 
father, 4c. 20. 

Forme-mete, sb. first meat, morn- 
ing meal, I. 13. 
Formest, adj. superl. first, I. 58. 

M.E. formest = A. S. fyrmest, a 

double superl. from A. S. forma. 

See Forme. 
For-numen, pp. bereft, 15. 2228. 

A. S. fornumen, pp. of forniman, 

to take away. 
For-quat, for what, 15. 2053. See 


Forr, prep, for, 5. 1299. See For. 
For-reden, v. to wrong, hurt, 8 a. 

105; Forreaden, 86. 128; For- 

reade"5, pr. s. deceives, 8 a. 100 ; 

For-red, />/>. 15. 2192. A.S./or- 

r<zdan, to betray. 
Forr-gilltedd, pp. held guilty, 5, 

1463. See For-gult. 
Forr-langedd, pp. seized with a 

longing, 5. 1280. A. S. langian, 

to lengthen, to long after. See 

Skeat (s. v. long 2). 
Forr-lorenn, pp. lost, 5. 1395. 

A. S. forloren. See Forleosen. 
Forr-lurenn, pt. pi. lost, 5. 1412. 

A. S. forluron. See Forleosen. 
Forrme, num. ord. first, 5. 1480. 

See Forme. 
Forr-se, 2 pr. s. subj. despise, 5. 

1626; For-sest, 2 pr. s. 5. 1304. 

A. S.for-sedn. 
Forr-J>enn, adv. even, 5. 1180. 

A. S.furdttm (furdon). 
Forr-pi, con], because, 5. 1182. 

See For-pi. 
Forr-werrpenn, v. to cast aside, 

renounce, 5. 1320, 1544 ; Forr- 

wurpenn, pt. pi. 5. 1401 ; Forr- 

worrpenn, pp. 5. 1393, 1419. 

A. S.forweorpan, pt. s. wearp, pt. 

pi. witrpon, pp. -worpen. 
Forr-5ifenesse, sb. forgiveness, 5. 

1477. Cf. For-yeuenesse. 
Forr-aifenn, v. to forgive, 5. 1464. 

See For-gifen. 
For-saken, v. to forsake; Forsaket, 



pr. s. 12. 96; Forsake, 2 />/. s. 

19. 751. A. S. forsacan, to re- 
nounce. Cf. Uorsaken. 
Forsinegede, pp. sinful, 40. 79. 

A.S. forsyngad, pp. of forsyngian, 

to sin greatly. 
Forst, adv. first, 6. 51. See 

For-stod, pt. s. availed, 2. 140. 

A. S. forstandan, to avail, help. 
For-swelten, v. to die, 86. 129; 

to destroy, 8 a. 105. A. S. for- 

sweltan, to die away. 
Forsworen, pp. forsworn, 2. 14. 

59; Forsworene, pi. 170. 103; 

176. 103. A.S. forsworen, pp. 

offorswerian, to swear falsely. 
Fort, conj. until, 1 6. 41. Cf. 

.Forte, for to (before infin.), I. 90, 

J 59; 7- 7- 9 f - Uorte. 
Forte pat, co/. until that, 4 c. 20, 

57 ; 6 - 457- 
For-tihting, sb. seduction = Lat. 

suggestio, 4 rf. 34 ; Fortuhting, 

4 c/. 38. A.S.fortyhtan, to draw 

Fortutit, />/>. lead astray, 4<f. 31. 

A. S.fortyhted, pp. offortyhtan. 
Forp, acfo. forth, 14. 230. Cf. 

For-pan, conj. for that, because, I. 

39, 43 ; Forfan ]>e, because that, 

i . 8 1 . A. S. forodm-de, because. 

Cf. Forpon. 
For-pat, conj. for that, because, 4 a. 

17; 7. 154; For J>at >e, because 

that, 40. 21. 
Forft clepien, v. to call forth, i. 

II. A.S. fordclypian. 
For-pe, conj. fortliat cause, 16.69. 


Forpedd, /)/>. performed, 5. 1663. 

A. S. forjjian. 
Forpat, conj. for that (reason), 13. 

Foi'K-fare'S, pr. pi. go forth, 170. 

338,34!; 1 7 * 344.349- A - s - 

ForU-feorde, /M. s. departed, died 1 , 

2.105. A. S. fordferan. 
For-pi, co;i/. for that reason, 2. 2, 

109; 15.2208. A.S./ordy. Cf. 

Forr-pi, Vor-pi. 
For-pon, conj. because, 30. 44 ; 

3 b. 1 20. See For pan. 
Forft-rihtes, adv. immediately, 6. 

213. So in Ormulum forrjjrihht, 

straightway. A.S.forpriht, right 

ForE-teh, pt. s. brought up, i. 49. 

A. S.j^rdteon^pt.fordtedh. 
For8-to, prepTuntil, 30. 82. 
For-punchetJ, pr. s. repents, 8 a. 

88; 176. 344. A.S. forpencan, 

to misthink. 
FortJward, adv. forward, 36. 94 ; 

18. 731. M.E. forthward, a 

common form for A. S. forcweard. 
Forpwipp, adv. forthwith, 5. 


Forward. See Foreward. 
For-wreien, v. to accuse, 176. 

97; For-wreye, 170. 97. A.S. 

For-wux'Sen, v . to perish, come to 

nothing, degenerate, 9.213; For- 

wurSe, 86. 92 ; pr. s. snbj. 12. 

270. A. S.forweordan. Cf. Fur- 

wui'Sen, Uor-wurtSen. 
For-yemep, pr. s. neglects, 14. 

207. A. S.forgyman. 
For-yeten, v. to forget ; For-yeteJ>, 

pr. s. 14. 208 ; For-yet, 17 a. 26, 

350 ; For-yete, pp. 1 7 a. 98. See 

For-yeuenesse, sb. forgiveness, 

170. 296. Cf. Forrjifenesse. 
For-3elde, pr. s. subj. reward, 9. 

305. A. S. forgildan. 
For-seten, v. to forget, i. 68 ; For- 

3ete, I. 70 ; For3ieteS,/>r. s. 176. 

38; Foxier, 1.70; 176. 25; 

Forjet, 7. 28, 224; For-jieten, 

pp. 176. 98. See For-geten. 
For-jieue, v. to forgive, 176. 217 ; 

Forjef, imp. s. 19. 349. Sec For- 




For-sieuenesse, sb. forgiveness, 

176. 302. Cf. Foryeuenesse. 
Fosstrenn, v. to foster, 5. 1558. 

A. S.fostrian, see Skeat (s.v.). 
Fot, sb. foot, 19. 134, 764; on 

fote, on foot, 2. 153. A. S. f6t. 
. Cf. Fet, TTet, Uote. 
Fou, adj. coloured, variegated (fur), 

I 7-357. SeeFa3e. 
Fower, num. four, 3 b. 86. See 

Foje, sb. dat. mutual consent, 16. 

184. A. S.fdg, gefog, a joining. 
Fojel, sb. fowl, bird, 16. 277; 19. 

1432; Fojeles,/)/. 19. 129. A. S. 

fttgol. See Fugel. 
Fra, prep, from, 2. 155, 168; fra 

J?att, from that time, 5. 1276. 

Icel.^4. Cf. Fro. 
Fram,/>r/>. from, i. 43, 87, 156; 

6. 405. A. S. /ram, from. Cf. 

Frame, sb. benefit, advantage, 12. 

39. A.S.fremn. 
Fre, arf/. free, 40. 18 ; 19. 530, 

562. A.S./reo. 
Frea, s&. one of the forms of the 

name of the Teutonic goddess 

Freyja, 6 b. 143; Freon, dat. 

6 a. 147. She is here confused 

with the goddess Frigg. See 

Fredom, sb. freedom, 18. 631 ; 

Fredome, dat. s. 3 a. 2. A. S. 

Freinede, ft. s. asked, 8 a. 80; 

Freinde, 15. 2053. A. S.frignan; 
cp. Lat. prec-ari, to pray. 
Freman, sb. freeman, 18. 628 ; Fre- 

mannes, gen. s. 14. 417. A. S. 

Freme, v. to accomplish, 18. 441. 

A.S.fremman, to advance a thing, 

to perform. 
Fremede, sb. pi. strangers, 170. 

35; Fremde, 176. 34; 19. 64; 

Fremmde, adj. pi. foreign, 5. 

1250. A.S.fremede. 
Frend, sb. friend, I. 5 ; Frende, 

18. 375; Frenden,//. dat. i. 33, 
183. See Freond. 

Frend-schipe, sb. friendship, 10. 
66. See Freond-scipe. 

Freo-iboren, adj. freeborn, 8 b. 

Freoliche, adj. noble, gracious, 
8 a. 15 ; 10. 103. A. S.freolic. 

Freon. See Frea. 

Freond, sb. friend, 17 cr. 31, 183, 
2985/7. 2. 135; 14. 38. A.S. 
freond, sb. s. and pi. Cf. Frend, 
Friend, Ureond. 

Freond-scipe, sb. friendship, 6. 20 ; 
Freontschipe, 8 a. 13. A. S. 
fredndscipe. Cf. Frend-schipe. 

Freest, pr. s. freezeth, 16. 620. 
A. S.fredsan, to freeze. 

Freten, v. to eat ; Frete'S, pr. pi. 
17 a. 272; 176. 278; Freten, 
pp. 15. 2101. A. S. fretan (for 

FreureV, pr. s. consoles, 4 b. 48. 
See Frofrenn. 

Fridsei, sb. Friday, 2.87; 6 a. 148 ; 
Friday, 6 b. 143. A. S. Frige-dag, 
the day sacred to Frigg, a Teu- 
tonic goddess, wife of Woden. 
In the two texts of Lasamon her 
name is confused with that of 
Freyja (Frea), quite a distinct 
goddess. See Grimm, p. 301. 

Fried, pp. freed, 4 c. 69. A. S. 
freod, pp. of jf red ) i (freogati). 

Frigti, adj. timid, 15. 2271 ; frigti 
luue, reverence, 15. 1922. From 
A. S. fryhtu, fyrhto, fear, fright. 

Frigtihed, sb. alarm, fear, 15. 

Frigtilike, adv. timidly, 15. 2163. 

Frr5, sb. peace, 4 c. 68. A. S.jfrid : 
O. S. fridu ; cp. O. H. G. fridu 
(Otfrid). See Skeat (s.v. frith, 
p. 806). ( 

FriSie, v. to spare, keep from harm, 
10. 118; FriSe, 15. 2335; Fri- 
8ende, ger. inf. 4 d. 49. A. S. 
fridian, to protect. 

Fro, prep, from, 4 a. 39; 12. 45 ; 

VOL. I. 

E C 



fro ftren, from afar, 15. 1935. 

See Fra. 
;Frofrenn, v. to comfort, 5. 1029 ; 

Froure, pr. ?. snbj. 9. 359. A. S. 

fr6frian,frcfrian. Cf. FreuretS. 
Frogge, sb. frog, 16. 146; Froggen, 

pi. 3 b. 89. A. S.'frocga. 
Frommard, prep, from, 9. 77. Cp. 

A. S. fromweard, adj. fromward, 

aversus. Cf. Urommard. 
Frouer, sb. comfort, consolation, 

14. 26 ; Froure, dat. 8 b. 53. A. S. 
/rd/or : O. S. frqfra ; cp. O. H. G. 
fluobara (Tatian). 

Fruden, sb. pi. frogs, 170. 271; 

176. 277. Icel. fraitdr, a frog ; 

cp. O. Sw. fraud, Dan. fro, see 

Corpus Poeticum Boreale, 2. 607. 
Fruit, sb. fruit, 15. 2247 ; Frut, 9. 

308. O. F. fntt, fruit i Lat. 
Frumfte, sb. beginning, 9. 192. 

A. S.frymdu. 
Fugel, sb. fowl, bird ; Fugeles, pi. 

15. 2081 ; Fuhel, 5. 10. 10; Fu- 
heles, pi. 8 a. 63; 16. 660; 
Fueles, 176. 83. A. S. fiigol. Cf. 
Fojel, Fuwel. 

Fuhten, pt. pi. fought, 2. 96, 115 ; 
6 a. 253; Fuhtten, 2. 172. A. S. 
fuhton, pt. pi. of feohtan. See 
Fi 5 te. 

Ful (i ), pt. s. fell, 6. 89. See Feol. 

Ful (2), adj. full, 7. 85 ; 17 a. 151 ; 
176. 147. See Full. 

Ful (3), adj. foul, i. 115 ; 2. 23 ; 
16.94; 18. 555; Fule, 19. 323; 
adv. foully, 19. 322. A. S. fid. 
Cf. Pol. " 

-Fulcning, sb. baptism, \d. 51; 
Fulcninge, dat. 46. 36; Folcninge, 
4 b. 34. Fulcning a derivative 
of M. E. fulhtnien. See Fullht- 

Pulde, pt. s. filled, 19. 1134, 1165 ; 
PP- J 8. 355- See Fulle. 

JPul-don, v. to do fully, accom- 
plish, 4 a. 82. A. S.fttldon. 

.Ful-endin, i/. to bring to an end, 

176. 247; Ful-endy, 17 a. 239. 

A. S.fitllendian. 
Fulefl, pr. pi. foul, 36. 127. A. S. 

fulian, to become foul. 
Ful-fell)?, /r. s. perfects, i. 131. 

^.JtjllJjlUg&JZi. Ualuelden. 
Ful-for^Ie, v. to perform, i. 113. 

From A. S. fordian. See Forp- 

Ful-itohe, adj. badly disciplined, 

7. 9; Fulitohcn, 7. 217. See 

Ful (3) and ItoLe. 
Ful-iwis, adv. full assuredly, 3 b. 

17; Fuliwiss, 5. 1356; cp. to ful 

in wis, 15. 2521. Cf. Foliwis. 
Full, adj. full; Fulle, 16. 314; 

perfect, 5. 1347; " 6 5- A -S. 

full. Cp. Ful (2). 
Fulle, adv. fully, 15. 2346; 19. 

736. A. S. full. 
Fulle, sb. fill, 36. 112; 19.402, 

1167. A.S.fyllo. 
Fulle, v. to fill, complete, 170. 344; 

176. 352. A.S. fyllan: O. S. 
fullian. Cf. Felle, Filt, Fulde, 

Fylden, Ifullet, luulled, Hi- 
FuU-fremedd,/>/>. perfect, 5. 1576. 

A. S. full-fremman, to do fully, 

to perfect. See Freme. 
Fullhtnesst, 2 pr. s. baptizeji, 5. 

1550. See Fulluht. 
Fulliche, adv. fully, 6. 366 ; 10! 

66. A.S.JyUtif. 

Fulluht, s6. baptism, 4 d. 61. A. S. 
fulhtht; O. Northumb. fulwihl 

(Luke iii. 3 ; vii. 29), from /// 

and wihati, to consecrate. Cf. 

Fulst, sb. help, 7. 69. A. S.j^/s/ : 

Fulste, v. to help ; pr. s. snbj. 4 a. 

85. A. S.Jylstau*: O. S.fullestian. 
Fulsum, or//, plenteous, 15. 2153. 

Ful (full) + suffix -sum. 
Fulsumhed, sb. abundance, 15. 


Fultume, sb. help, I. 55. A. S. 



PulSe, sb. filth, ii. 94. A.S.fyldn, 

from fill, foul. 
Punde, v. to go, 19. 103, 133; 

Funded, pr. s. 1 6. 719. A. S. 

fnndian. Cf. Fonde. 
'unde, pt. pi. found, 19. 892 ; 

Funden, 18. 602 ; 19. 859. A. S. 

fnndon, pt. pi. of findan. See 


indies, sb. a finding, 9. 14. 

A. S. suffix -els, as in birgels, 

burial. See Halliwell (s. v. fund- 

Fundling, sb. foundling, 19. 420; 

Fundlyng, 19. 220, 228. M.E. 

fundeling, see Skeat (s. v.). 
Funt-fat, Kb. font vessel, 12. 108. 

See Fant-ston. 
Pur, sb. fire, 30. 23; 9. 286; 

Fure, dat. 30. 18 ; 170. 43. 

See Fir. 
Furneise, sb. furnace, 8 a. 142. 

O. F. fornaise ; Lat. fornacem. 
Purst, sb. delay, 176. 37. A. S. 

fyrst, a space of time, respite. Cf. 

Purst, adj. superl. first ; Furste, 19. 

114 ; at the furste, 19. 661. A. S. 

fyrst. Cf. Ferst, Forst. 
Purjj, sb. life, 14. 171 (see Notes). 

A. S. ferp, feorp, the soul, life, a 

deriv. from feorh, life ; cp. Goth. 

fairhwus, the world. 
Furftren, v. to further, aid ; Furrji- 

renn, 5. 1350; FurSreS, pr. s. 

4 d. 54. A. S. fyrtiran ; cp. G. 

fordern (Weigand). 
Fur-wur'o'en, v. to perish, 8 a. 73. 

See For-wurften. 
Puwel, sb. fowl, bird : Fuweles, pi. 

17 a. 82 ; Fujele, dat. pi. 1 6. 64 ; 

Fujeles, gen. pi. 16. 343. See 

Pusel-kunne, sb. dat. fowl-kind, 

16.65. A.S.fugol-cyn. 
Fusten, pt. pi. fought, 19. 1399. 

See Fuhten. 
Pylden, pt. pi. filled, 2. 16. See 


Pynden, v. to find, if a. 375. See 

Fysses, fishes, 170. 82. See 



Ga, imp. s. go, 7. 172. See Gan. 
Gabbe, imp. s. scoff, 14. 411. Icel. 
. gabba. 
Gaderares, gatherers, 170. 

Gaderen, v. to gather, 15. 2134; 

GaddreS,/T. s. 12. 244; Gadered, 

pt. s. 2. 5. A.S. gcedrian, gade- 

rlan. Cf. Gedere'S, 5egadered. 
Gadering, sb. gathering, 2. 8. 

A. S. gadening. 
Geede, pt. s. went, 2. 26. A. S. ge- 

eode. See Eode. 
Gaeildes, sb. pi. tributes, 2. 41. 

See Gilde. 
Gser, sb. year, 2. 65 ; Caere, dat. 2. 

i. A. S. gear. See Ger. 
Gsersume, sb. pL treasures, 6 a. 

378. A. S. g&rsutn, in Chron. 

ann. 1070 (Latf< MS.) ; cp. Icel. 

gersemi, a costly thing, jewel. 

Gersemi (Gersimi) was the name 

of a Teutonic goddess, a daughter 

of Freyja. See Grimm, p. 886. 

Cf. Garisome. 

Geet, conj. yet, 2. 49. See Get. 
Gset, goats, 5. 1206. A.S. 

gat, pi. See Gat. 
Gaf,/^. s. gave, 40.15; 15.1949; 

18.418. A. S. geqf, pt. of gifan. 

Cf. Yaf, 3af, laf, 3sef, 3iaf. 
Gal, adj. lascivious, 5. 1201. A. S. 

gal, proud, wanton. 
Gale-gale, sb. a sing-song fellow, 

16. 256. From A. S. galan, to sing. 
Galeie, s6. galley, 19. 185, 1020. 

O. F. galie, galee, in Roland, 

2625, 2729 ; Low Lat. galea. 
Galle, sb. gall, bitterness, 5. 1253; 

10. 1 06. A. S. gealla. 
Galnesses, sb. gen. of lascivious- 
ness, 5. 1192. A.S.gdlnes. Cf. 


E e 2 



Galues, sb. pi. gallows, 18. 687. 

A. S. gealga. 
Galun, sb. gallon, 19. 1135. O. F. 

Galwe-tre, sb. gallows tree, 18. 

695. A. S. gealg-treoiv. 
Game, sb. pleasure, sport, 6. 569 ; 

1 6. 1649. Cf. Gome. 
Gamen, sb. sport, 176. 292; 18. 

468. A. S. gamen, gomen ; cp. 

O. S. gaman. Cf. Gomen. 
Gan, v. to go, 30. 48 ; 7'. 23 ; 18. 

3. A. S. gdn (for gangan). Cf. 

Gon, Go, Go, Ga, Gest, Gap, 

Gan, pt. s. began, 30. 74; 15. 

2405; 18. 551. See Gin- 

Gan,/>/. s. (used as an auxiliary) did, 

66. 184; 15. 1912, 2286; 19. 

241. See Ginnen. 
Gangen, v. to go, 18. 370 ; Gann- 

genn, 5. 1076. A. S. gangan ; 

O. S. gangan. Cf. Gonge. 
Garisome, sb. pi. treasures, 6 b. 

378. See Geersume. 
Gast, sb. spirit, ghost, 30. 99 ; 

15. 2428, 2438 ; Gasttes, pi. 7. 

33. A. S. gdst. Cf. Gost. 
Gastelich, a3/. spiritual, 7. 42 ; 

Gastlike, 5. 1492. A. S. gdstlic. 

Cf. Gostliche. 
Gastlike, adv. spiritually, 5. 985. 

A. S. gdstlice. Cf. Gostliche. 
Gat, sb. goat, 5. 988; Gate, pi. 

18. 701. A. S. gdt. Cf. Gset. 
Gat, sb. gate, I. 15; Gate, dot. i. 

136. A.S. geat. Cf. Giate, 

3eate, 3ates. 
Gat, pt. s. got, 18. 730; begat, 18. 

Gate-ward, sb. gate-keeper, 19. 

1079. A. S. geatweard. 
Gatte, pt. s. granted, 15. 2477; 

Gatten,/>/. 15. 2513. A.S.geatte. 

in Chron. ann. 1066, geatton, pi. 

in Chron. ann. 963, pi. of gedtan ; 

cp. Icel.jd/a, to say yes. confess, 


GaJ>, pr. s. goeth, 5. 1224. A.S. 
g<xd. See Gan. 

Ge-. An extremely common prefix 
in A. S. both in sbs. and in vbs. ; 
in sbs. ge- had often the meaning 
of companionship, partnership, as 
in gefera, companion, lit. fellow- 
traveller, from feran, to travel ; 
before vbs. it often denotes com- 
pletion, attainment, and hence 
success, as ge-winnan, to win, 
from winnan, to fight- It was 
generally prefixed to pps. (as in 
Mod. Germ.) where it originally 
gave the meaning of completion.; O.S. gi; O. H. G. gi; 
Goth. ga. Cf. I-, T-, 3e-, Hi-. 

Ge, pron. ye, 46. 80; 15. 2169, 
2329. A.S. gt. Cf. 3e, 3eo, 

Ge, pron. she, 12. 250, 251, 255. 
A. S. heo. See Heo. 

Geaunt, sb. giant, 19. 810, 860. 
Norm. F. geant; Lat. gigantem. 

Gede, pt. s. went, 15. 1947, 2287. 
See Eode. 

Gedere"o*, pr. s. gathers, 9. 104, 
212. See Gaderen. 

Gees, geese, 18. 702. A. S. 
ges, pi. of gds, a goose. 

Gef, conj. if, 7. 13. A.S. gef. 
See Gif. 

Gef, pt. s. gave, 46. 102. See 

Gehaten, pp. nominated, 2. 195. 
A. S. gehdtan, to name. 

pr. s. avails, 9. 290. See 

Gelaftie, v. to invite, I. 20. A. S. 

geladian. Cf. 3sla^ie. 
Geld, pt. s. requited, 15. 2152. 

A. S. geald, pt. of geldan, to pay, 

pp. golden. Cf. Isolde. 
Geleste, pt. s. extended; Gelest, 

I. 2. A.S. gel&stan, to fulfil, 

to continue, fast. Cf. Ilaste, 

Ileste, 3eleste. 
Gelty, adj. guilty, I. 178. A.S. 



3me, si. heed, 40. 62 ; 46. 114. 

AJL~&y'wie: O.S. goma. Cf. 

3 erne. 

3nge, sb. army, 2. 98. A. S. 

genge, company, followers, in 

Chron. ann. 1070. 
Gente, adj. gentle, 16. 204. O. F. 

gent, gracious, beautiful ; Lat. 

genitus, born, well-born. 
Ger, sb. a year; Ger. pi. years, 15. 

1907, 2127, 2400; Geres, 15. 

2153. A. S. gear, s. and/-/., also 

ger, s. and pi. Cf. Geer, Yer, 

Geren, v. to prepare (for burial), 

15. 2441. A. S. gearwian, to 

prepare, from gearo, ready. 
Gerken, v. to prepare, 15. 2255. 

See Giarkien. 
Gest, 2 pr. s. goest, 16. 837, 1651. 

A. S. gast. See Gan. 
Geste, sb. pi. guest, 19. 478, 1233 ; 

Gestes, pi. 2. 66; 19. 522. A. S. 

gast, pi. gcBstas. 
Gestninge, sb. feast, banquet, 4 b. 

13. Cf. Gistninge, Gystninge. 
Get, cow/, yet, 2. 3 ; 4 rf. 4 ; 12. 78, 

266; 15. 2127, 2183. A.S. get, 

git (gita). Cf. Gset, Giet, Yete, 

Jet, Jiet, Jeiet, But. 
Get, (ge + it), she it, 12. 269. See 

GetS, pr. s. goeth, i. 182 ; 9. 239. 

A. S. gad. See Gan. 
Geuelike, adj. equal, o geuelike, 

on equal terms, alike, 12. 302. 

A. S. ge-efenlic. 
Geuen, v. to give, 15. 2398; pp. 

36.53, no. See Gifen. 
Geus, sb. pi. Jews, 13. 15. Norm. 

F. Geii, Jew : O. F. Jueu, Judeu ; 

Lat. Judaiim. Cf. Gius, Gyus. 
Gessnep]?, pr. s. avails, 5. 970. 

Icel. gegna, to suit. Cf. GeineU. 
Giarkien,"z>. to prepare ; Giarked, 

pp. 4 b. 3. A. S. gearcian, from 

gearc, ready. Cf. Gerken, Jarr- 

kenn, 3 earceon > Jeirkest, 

Jsearced, I-garcket, I-jarked. 

Giate, sb. dat. gate, 4^. 725/7. 
4c. 23. See Gat. 

Gief, conj. if, 1. 14. See Gif. 

Gief, sb. gift, 1.113. See Gife. 

Giet, conj. yet, I. 62. See Get. 

Gif, conj. if, i. 73; 2.74; 30. 7. 
A. S. i/. Cf. Gef, Gief, Yef, 
Yif , Yf,. 3ef, 3if, Jief, Jiff. 

Gife, sb. gift, grace, i. 98. A.S. 
gifu. Cf. Gief, Giue, Gyue, 
3ieue, Jife. 

Gifen, v. to give ; GiftS, pr. s. 4 b. 
65. A. S. gifan, pt. s. geaf, pi. 
gedfon, pp. gifen. Cf. Geuen, 
Gyuen, Jefen, 3eouen, 3euen, 
Jieuen, Jifenn, Yif, Yuep, 
3iuen, Yeuen, Yefe, %efMe, 
Jiefe, Gaf, liuen, Ijiue. 

Gigours, sb. pi. musicians, 19. 
1510. O. F. gigueor (Bartsch), 
fromgigue, a stringed instrument ; 
cp. It. giga (Dante) ; M. H. G. 
gige (mod. geige), a violin, see 
Kluge ; cp. E.jig, a lively tune or 

Gilde, sb. a payment ; Glides, pi. 

. tributes, 2. 162. A. S. gild, a 
payment, from gildan, to pay, 
yield. Cf. Geeildes, Jielde. 

Gile, sb. St. Giles, 1 9. 1 1 89. O. F. 
Gilles from Lat. JEgidilZns, a 
dimin. form of &gidius j Gr. 

Giled,pp. beguiled, 19. 1488. O.F. 
giler, guiler, from gile, guile ; 
cp. A. S. wile, a wile. See "Wile. 

Gilt, sb. guilt, 4</. 18 ; Gillt, 5. 
1412, 2262. A. S. gylt, a crime, 
lit. a payment. Cf. Gult. 

Gilten, v. to sin ; Gi\te,pt. s. sinned, 
4 c. 20. A. S. gyltan, to commit 
guilt. Cf. Gulte, I-gult. 

Giltlese, adj. guiltless, 4 d. 26. 

Ginne, sb. dat. artifice, 19. 1492. 
From Icel. ginna, to deceive. See 

. Skeat (s. v. gin}. 

Ginnen, v. to begin ; Ginne, I pr. 
s. 19. 546; Ginneb, pi. 16. 722, 
1700. A. S. -ginnan (in com- 



pounds), pt. s. gan, pi. gtmnon, 

pp. gunnen. Cf. Gynnep, Gan, 

Gon, Gunne. 
Gistninge, sb. a banquet, 6 a. 478. 

See Gestninge. 
Giu, pron. ace. pi. you, 46. 74, 75 ; 

dot. 4 b. So. See Eow. 
Giue, sb. gift, 40?. 14; Glues, pi. 

4 </. 64. See Gife. 
Giuenisse, sb. forgiveness, \d. 60. 

A. S. gifnes, grace. 
Gius, sb. Jews, 13. 102. O. F. Gin, 

a Jew (see Stratmann). See Geus. 
Glad, adj. glad, 16. 424; Gladur, 

comp. 16. 19. A. S. g/ceJ. Cf. 

Glae, Gleade, Gled. 
Gladien, v. to make glad, 4-6. 2 ; 

Gladenn, to appease, 5. 1128; 

GladieS, pr. pi. make merry, 6. 

544. A. S. gladlan, to be glad, 

to make glad. Cf. Gleadien, 


Glareth,/>r.s. shines brightly, 13.48. 
Glas, sb. glass, 19. 14. A. S. gl&s. 
Glafle (for Glade), arf;. glad, 1$. 

2297. See Glad. 
Gle, sb. 'music, 19. 1280. See Gleo. 
Gleadien, v. to gladden, 7. 67 ; to 

be glad, 7. 1 2 1. See Gladien. 
Glsadschipes, sb. pi. joys, 7. 162. 

A. S. gladscipe. Cf Gledschipe. 
Gleadunge, s&. gladness, 7. 135, 

Gleam, s&. light, 7. 76, 179. A. S. 

Gleaw, mf/. wise, 14. 47. A. S. 

gledw. See Gleu. 
Gled, adj. glad, n. 54. See Glad. 
Glede, sb. glowing coal, 170. 218 ; 

17 b. 222; Gleden, pi. 30. 39; 

Gledess, 5. 1067. A. S. ..ia/.: 

O.S. gl6d-, cp. Icel. #/o<3 (/>/. 

gl66ir) and O. H. G. gluot (Ta- 


Gledien, v. to gladden ; Gledie,/>r. 

s. sw6/'. 9. 359 5 Gledede, />/. s. 46. 

64. See Gladien. 
Gledliche, adv. gladly, 9. 319. 

A. S. glcedlice. 

Glednesse, sb. gladness, 14. 4$. 

A. S. glcednes. See Notes. 
Gledschipe, sb. gladness, u. 65, 

114; Gledscipe, 3 a. 92. See 

Gleo, sb. music, 1 7 a. 286. A. S. 

gled. Cf. Gle, Glie. 
Gleo-beames, harps, IT. 62 

(see" Notes). A. S. gledbedm, 

musicum lignum, a harp (Beowulf). 
Gleo-dreames,s6./>/. joys of music, 

ii. 62 (see Notes). A. S. gleo- 

dredtn (Beowulf). 
Gleowinge, sb. music, 19. 1506. 

From A. S. gle6wian t to play on 

an instrument, to act as gleeman. 
Gleu, adj. prudent, wise, 16. 193. 

See Gleaw. 
Glide, v. to depart, 19. 1059 ; 

Glidende, pr. part, gliding, 30. 

40. A. S. glidan, to glide. 
Glie, sb. music, 176. 292. See 

Glorious, adj. glorious, 13. 34. 

Norm. F. glorius ; O.F. in Roland, 

2196; Lat. glorlosus. 
Glotoun, sb. glutton, 19. 1136. 

O. F. glouton. See Gluton. 
Glouen, sb. pi. gloves, 9. 188. 

Glowennde, adj. glowing, 5. 1067. 

A. S. gldivan, to glow. 
Glutenerie, sb. gluttony, 36. 36. 

O. F. gloutonnerie. 
Gluton, sb. glutton, 9. 1 10. Norm. 

F. glutun ; O. F. in Roland, 1212 ; 

Lat. glutonem. Cf. Glotoun. 
GnesetS, pr. pi. gnaw, 3 a. 38. A. S. 

Gnyde, v. to rub, 14. 201. A. S, 

Go, v. to go, 1 8. 542; pp. 19. 1190. 

A. S. gan, to go ; pp. gegdn. See 

God (i), adj. good, 2. 82 ; Godne, 

ace. s. m. 6. 98 ; Godere, dot. f. 

9. 335; Gode, f/. I. 15- A.S. 

God (2), s&. good, I. 47 ; Codes, 



gen. of goodness, 176. 372; pi. 

goods, 13. 72. 
God (3), sb. God, 1 8. 432 ; Godd, 

8^7.132; 8&. 164; Code, dat. 

II. 20; Godes, gen. s. I. 106 ; 

pi. 66. 135; Goden, 6 a. 135. 

A. S. God. 
God-childe, sb. dat. godchild, 9. 

21. Cp. A. S. god-bearn. 
God-cunnesse, sb. dat. divine 

nature, 176. 393; Godd-cunnd- 

nesse, 5. 1357. f 420. A. S. god- 

Godd-cundle$3C, sb. divinity, 5. 

1388. See -leS5G. 
Godd-feader, God the Father, 8 b. 

52 ; Godd-feder, 8 a. 40. 
Goddot, God knows, 18. 606; 

Goddoth, 18. 642. See Wot. 
Goded, pt. s. endowed, 2. 68. A. S. 

godian. Cf. I-goded. 
Godelease, adj. without good, 176. 

348. A. S. gddleds. 
Godere. See God (i). 
Godeward, towards God, 12. 104. 
Godlec, sb. goodness, 7. 155. Icel. 

godleiki, bonitas. For the suffix 

see -lejje. 
Godnesse, sb. dat. goodness, 14. 

46; Godnisse, ace. I. in. A. S. 

Godspel, sb. gospel, i. 188 ; 7. 3 ; 

10. 12; Godspelle, dat. I. 192; 

13. 36; Godespel, . 13. 35; 

Godespelle, dat. 13.4. A. S. god- 

Godspel-boc, sb. gospel book, 4 c. 

5 ; Goddspell-bokess, sb. gen. 5. 

1207. A. S. godspellboc, a copy 

of the gospels. 

Gol, sb. gold, 1 8. 357. Icel. gull. 
Gold, sb. gold ; Goldes, gen. s. 1 7 b. 

70. A. S. gold. . 
Golnesse, sb. dat. lasciviousness, 9. 

26. A. S. gdlnes. See Gal- 

Gome, sb. game, 6. 455; II. 62; 

1 7 a. 286. See Game. 
Gomen, sb. game, 6. 461, 498 ; 9. 

98; Gomene, dat. 6. 582. See 

Gomes, sb. pi. men, 6 b. 4 ; 19. 22. 

See Gume. 
Gon, v. to go, 4 b. 22; 15. 2184, 

2340 ; 19. 46 ; Gone, 19. 611 ; 

Gonde, pr. part. 6. 7- A. S. 

gdn (for gangati),pr. part, gdnde. 

See Gan. 
Gon, pt. s. (an auxiliary) did, 6 a. 

1 84 ; Gonne, pi. 6. 489 ; 1 9. 63 7. 

See Ginnen. 
Gonge, 2 pr. s. snbj. go, 18. 690. 

A. S. gangan (usually contracted 

into gdn}. See Gangen. 
Gore-blod, sb. filthy blood, 10. 85. 

A. S. gor, fimus (Exodus xxix. 

14") ; Icel. gor, in gor-mdnudr, 

gore-month, Oct. 15-Nov. 15, so 

called from the slaughtering of 

beasts for winter store, see Diet. 
Gost, sb. spirit, 12. 301 ; 170. 266. 

See Gast. 
Gostliche, adj. spiritual, 46. 25. 

See Gastelich. 
Gostliche, adv. spiritually, 13. 47, 

74. See Gastlike. 
GO'S, pr. s. goeth, 13. 56 ; 16. 305 ; 

pi. 6b. 85 ; 13. 21. A. S. 

gd, pr. s. } gad, pi., gap, imp. pi. 

See Gan. 
Goulen, pr. pi. yell, 18. 454. Icel. 

ganla, to bellow. 
Grace, sb. God's favour, 9. 352 ; 

excellent quality, virtue, 19. 571 ; 

mete graces, graces at meals, 9. 

301. O. F. grace ; Lat. gratia. 
Gradde, pt. s. cried, screamed, 16. 

1662. See Grede. 
Gradi, adv. greedy, 176. 268. A.S. 

gratdig. Cf. Gredi. 
Grai, sb. grey fur, prob. badger's. 

(See Halliwell), 176. 365. A.S. 

gratg. Cf. Grey. 
Grame, sb. vexation, anger, 6. 173; 

1 6. 49 ; 1 7 6. 1 68. A. S. grama. 

Cf. Grome. 
GrameS, pr. s. vexes, 176. 167. 

See Gremien. 



Gramracund, adj. angry, 5. 1545. 

A. S. gramcund, gram + cund (cp. 

cynri), an adjectival suffix. Cp. 

A. S. godcund, divine, deofolcund, 

Graninde,/>r./>ar/. groaning, 3. 37. 

A. S. grdntan, to groan. 
Granti, v. to grant, 6 b. 368 ; 
- Grante, imp. s. 19. 508 ; Graunti, 

I pr. s. 1 6. 745 ; Graunte, pr. s. 

sttbj. 15. 2536. Norm. F.grtianter, 

so in Roland, 3805 ; O.F. creanier; 

late Lat. creantare (for creden- 

tare\ a deriv. of Lat. credere. 
Gras, sb. grass, 19. 130. A. S. gras : 

Goth. gras. Cf. Gres. 
Grate, adj. great, i . 6. See Great. 
Graue, v. to bury, 18. 613; Gra- 

uen, pp. buried, 15. 2431. A. S. 

grafan, to dig, pp. grafen. Cf. 

Grauel, sb. pebbly beach, 19. 1503. 

Norm. F. gravele. 
Graunti. See Granti. 
Great, adj. big, coarse ; Greate, 9. 

157. A. S. great; O. S. grot. 

Cf. Grate, Gret, Gretture. 
Grede, v. to cry out, 16. 308, 

1698; Grede)>, pr. s. 16. 1671. 

A.S. grcedan, pt. grcedde. Cf. 

Gradde, I-grede. 
Gredi, adj. greedy, 170. 261. See 

Gremien, v. to vex, anger, 8 a. 

47 ; Greme, 1 8. 442. A. S. gre- 

tnian : Goth, gramjan. Cf. Gra- 

metS, 3s-gremed. 
Grene, adj. green, 16. 18, 617; 

1 7 3355 I7&- 343J 1 8. 470. 

A. S. grene : O. S. grdni ; cp. 

O. H. G. gruani (Otfrid). 
Grene, sb. a green expanse, 66. 

. 404; J9- 8 59- 

Grennen, v. to grin, show the 
teeth (as a dog), 9. 69. A. S. 


Grennunge,s&.<fctf. grinning, show- 
ing the teeth, 9. 69. A. S. gre?i- 


Gres, sb. grass, T 2. 246. See Gras. 

Gret, adj. great, big, 6. 126; 15. 
2098, 2316; 16. 43; 18. 569. 
19. 93. See Great. 

Grete, v. to weep, 19. 899 ; Gret, 
pr.s. 16. 1665; pt.s. 15. 1975, 
2287; 18. 615. A.S. gr&tan, 
gretan : O. S. grdtan ; cp. Goth. 
gfetan. Cf. Groten. 

Greten, v. to greet, salute, 6 a. 288 ; 
Gret, zwzp. s. 19. 144, 145 ; Gre- 
teft,pl.<). 364; 15. 2382 ; Grette, 
pt. s. 6 b. 288. A. S. gretan, to 
approach (pt. grelte) : O. S. gr6- 
tian ; cp. O. H. G. gruazen (Ot- 
frid). Cf. I-graetten. 

Gretliche, adv. greatly, 4 c. 40 ; 
Gretluker, comp. 9. 282. 

Gretture, adj. comp. coarser, 9. 
196. See Great. 

Gretunge, sb. dat. salutation, greet- 
ing, II. 85. A. S. greting. 

GreJ?J?ed, pp. prepared, 5. 1579. 
M. E. greipen, to prepare (see 
Stratmann) ; Icel. greida. Cf. 

Greue, pr. subj. may grieve, 9. 226. 
Norm. F.grever, to burden, afflict; 
Lat. gravare. 

Grey, sb. grey fur, I'ja. 357. See 

Greythede, pt. s. prepared, 18.706 ; 
Greythed, />p. 18.714; Gre33j>edd, 
5. 1093. See Gre}?J>edd. 

Grim, adj. fierce, 18. 680 ; Grimme, 
pi. horrible, 5. 1443 ; 9. 69. 
A. S. grimm, fierce, cruel. 

Grimlich, adj. horrible ; Grimlych, 
170.141. A. S. grimmlic. 

Grimliche, adv. terribly, 9. 89. 
A. S. grimmlice. 

Grin, sb. shackle, 2. 32. A.S. 
grin, gryn, a noose, snare ; M. E. 
gT-ewe^Wright's Voc.) ; conn, with 
A.S. gearn, yarn (Leo). See 
Skeat (s.v. yarn}. 

Grip, sb. vulture, 18. 572. Cp. 
Trevisa, 3. 57 (Harleian MS.). See 
Halliwell (s.v. gripe}. Icel. gripr. 



Gripe, v. to grip, 19. 51, 605. 

A. S. grifan. 
Grislic, adj. horrible, 1. 116 ; Gris- 

lich, 16. 224, 312, 315. See 

Grisliche, adv. horribly, 9. 46. 

A.S. gry slice. 
Grift, sb. peace, 30. 93 ; 6. 19 ; 

18. 511; Gri-Se, dat. 30. 91. 
A. S. grid, prop, a Norse word ; 
Icel. grid, a domicile, a sanctuary, 
place of safety (asylum), truce, 

Grifl-bruche, sb. breach of the 
peace, 1 6. 1734. A. S. gridbryce, 
pacis infractio (Schmid). 
Grifl-fulnesse, sb. cfa/.peacefulness, 

9- 130. 
Grome, sb. anger, 6 a. 173; 8 a. 

48. See Grame. 
Gromes, sb. pi. boys, 9. 216; 16. 

1645. M. E. grome, Trevisa, I. 

359. O. Du. grom, children 
. (Oudemans) ; cp. Hexham, ' grom, 

a stripling or a groom.' 
Gros, pt. s. him gros,was afraid, 19. 

1336. A. S. grds, pt. of gri&an, 

to shudder, used commonly as a 

compound, see N. E. D. (s. v. 

Grot, sb. weeping, 15. 1978, 2289. 

Icel. grdtr. 
Groten, v. to bewail, I*. 1984. 

Cf. Grete. 

Grotes, sb. pi. atoms, 18. 472. 
. A. S. grot, particle., sb. grudging, grumb- 
ling, 16. 423; Grucchunge, dat. 
f 9. 252. O. F. groucher, to mur- 
mur, see Skeat (s.v. grudge). 
Grulde, pt. s. snbj. were twanging, 

16. 142. A. S. grillan, provo- 

Grand, s&. ground, 15. 2110; 

bottom (of a well), 12. 74. A. S. 

Grundlike, adv. ravenously, 18. 

651. From A. S. grunden, pp. of 

grindan, to grind. 

Grureful, adj. awful, 9. 46. From 

A. S. gryre, horror. 
Gruselie, imp. pi. munch, 9. 308. 

See Skeat (s.v. gristle), 
Grysliche, adj. horrible, ija. 279. 
A. S. gryslic, also gryrelic, from 
gryre, horror. Cf. Grislic. 
Gu, pron. you, 15. 2316. ,2507. 
A. S. e6w, dat. and ace. of ge, ye. 

See Eow. 
Gulche-cuppe, s&. a toss-cup, 9. 

123. See Notes. 
Guldene, adj. golden, 6 a. 514; 

II. 45. A.S. gylden. 
Gult, sb. guilt, 9. 276 : Gulte, dat. 

10. 52 ; Gultes, pi. faults, 9. 298. 

See Gilt. 

Gulte, v. to sin, 17 b. 217 ; Gulteff, 
pr. s. 7. 20; 170. 90. See 

Gume, sb. a man ; Gumen, pi. 

6 a. 4. A. S. ginna. Cf. Gomes. 
Gung, adj. young; Gunge, 15. 

2281; Gungest, super I. 15. 2160, 

2185; Gunkeste, 15. 1909. A.S. 

geong, comp. gingra, superl. 

gingst. Cf. lunge, Yonge, 

Yunge, Beunge, ,!}ong, 5ung. 
Gunne, did, 15.1953; 19. 

51,611; Gunnen,i5. 2378, 2492; 

19. 858, 890. A. S. gunnon. See 

Gur, poss. pron. your, 15. 2260; 

Cure, 15. 2178, 2190, 2318. 

See Eower. 
Gurdel, sb. girdle, 9. 188. A. S. 

Gufthede, sb. youth, 12. 55. A.S. 

geoguphdd (Ps. Ixx. 16). 
Gynnep, pr. s. begins, 19. 729. 

See Ginnen. 
Gyrte, pt. s. girt, 19. 1501. A. S. 

gyrdan, to gird. Cf. I-gurd. 
Gysles, sb. pi. hostages, 2. 143. 

A. S. gisel, Icel. gisl ; cp. O. Ir. 

Gystninge, sb. dat. banquet, 6 b. 

478. See Gestninge. 
Gyue, sb. gift, 18. 357. See Gife. 



Gyuen, v. to give, 2. 42 \ pp. 18. 

365. See Gifen. 
Gyus, sb. pi. Jews, 13. 13. See 

Geus, Judeus. 


Ha, pron. he, 13. 21, 69, 141. See 

Ha, pron. she, 8 a. 45 ; 7. 10 ; 10. 

56. See Heo. 
Ha, pron. they, 3 a. 24 ; 7. 99 ; 

86.189. See Hi. 
Habben, v. to have, i. 186; 6 a. 

586; 8 a. 45; 86. 59; Habbe, 

6b. 586 ; 16. 281 ; Haben, 176. 

53; Habe, I. 187; Habbe>, pr. 

pi. 16. 431; Habeft, 176. 179; 

Habbet, 2 pr. pi. 13. 70 ; Hab- 

bich (for Habbe ich, 8 b. 172), 8 a. 

138. A. S. habban, pt. htefde, pp. 

gehafd. Cf. Hauen, Heefde, 

Hac, conj. but, 13. 97. See Ac. 
Had, sb. person (of Christ), 5. 1361 ; 

pi. ranks, orders (of angels), I. 

161. A...S. had, person (in 

theology), rank, order, nature ; cp. 

O. H. G. heit, persona (Tatian). 
Heefde, pt. s. had ; Haefden.6.427; 

pt. pi. 2. 157; Hafde, pt. s. 6. 

4 2 3; 10- 39 1 Haffde, 5. 1093; 

Hafdes, 2 pt. s. 10. 8 ; Hafden,^/. 

6. 210; Haffdenn, 5. 1047, 1393 ; 

Hade, s. I. 154 ; Hadde, I. 10; 2. 

3; 15. 2428; pi. 19. 468; Had- 

den, 2. 1 2, 32 ; 4 c. 19 ; Adde, 5. 

15. 1918, 2212. A. S. h&fde, 

pi. hafdon, pt. of habban. See 

Heefedd, sb. head, 5. 1285; Haefden, 

pi. 6. 174. See Hafed. 
HsDfst, 2 pr. s. hast; Haefuest, 6. 

99 ; Hafst, 14. 198 ; Hafesst, 5. 

121 2. Hest, 13. 113. A. S. hafst, 

from habban. See Habben. 
Heeh, adj. high, 6 a. 128 ; Haehne, 

ace. m. 6 a. 409 ; Haehst, superl. 

6 a. 310; Haehste, 6 a. 124, 137. 

See Heh. 
Hsehliche, adv. splendidly, 6 a. 32 ; 

sumptuously, 6 a. 379. See Heh- 

Hoehte, pt. s. called, 6 a. 449; 

Haehten, pi. 6 a. 460. See Haten. 
Heehte, pt. s. was called, 6 a. 1 1 7, 

321, -323. See Haten. 
Hceil, adj. hale, of good health, 6 a. 

525; Hail, 6 a. 547. O. Northumb. 

hal; Icel. heill, hale ; cp. A. S. 

hdl, whole. Cf. Heil. 
Hselden, v. to hold, 6 a. 26. See 


Hself, s6. side, 6 cr. 234. See Half. 
Heendeliche, adv. courteously, 6 a. 

198. See Hendeliche. 
Heendest, adj. superl. nearest, 6 a. 

190. See Hende. 
Heene, adj. poor, 6 a. 408. A. S. 

hedn, mean, despised ; cp. Goth. 

hanns. Cf. Heine. 
Hser, aJi>. here, 2. 145. See Her. 
Hsercne, imp. s. hearken, 6 a. 294. 

See Hercne. 
Hseren, v. to obey, 6 a. 38, 136. 

See Keren. 
Hcerm, sb. harm, 6 a. 16 ; Haerme, 

dot. 6 a. 590. See Hearm. 
Heernes, sb. pi. brains, 2. 26. Icel. 

hjarni, the brain, Goth, hwairnei ; 

cp. Gr. Kpa-viov. 
Hserre, s6. dat. lord, 6 a. 26. A. S. 

hearra : O. S. herro. 
HeerjietS, />r. />/. harry, ravage, 6 a. 

216. A. S. hergian. 
Hsete, sb. heat, 5. 1487, 1567. 

A. S. hditu, hate. Cf. Hate, 

Heat, Hete. 
Hseflendom, sb. heathendom, 5. 

HsetSene, adj. heathen, 5. 1305; 

6 a. 602. A. S. &<#?. Cf.. 

HaUen, Heaftene. He'Sen. 
Hseued, sb. head, 2. 26. See Hafed. 
Heeje, adv. high, 6 a. 517. See 

Heeje-doeie, sb. high-day, 6 a. 281. 



Halejen, sb. pi. dot. saints, 3 a. 77. 

See Halege. 
Half, s6. side, 4 a. 75 ; 7.83; 9. 

60. A. S. healf. Cf. Heelf, Hallf, 

Halue., sb. pi. saints, 10. 79 ; Hal- 
hen, 7. 1 30. See Halege. 
Hali, adj. holy, I. 119; Halie, I. 

97, 98 ; 15. 2438. See Halij. 
Haliche, adv. in a holy manner, 7. 

117. A.S. kdlige. 
Halidom, sb. holy relics, 2. 143. 

A. S. hdlig-d6m t holiness, holy 

things ; Icel. helgtr domar, relics. 

See Diet. (s. v. domr). Cf. Halij- 

Hali-gast, sb. Holy Ghost, 3 a. 99; 

Halie-gaste, dat. 36. 131. A.S. 

Hdlig gdst. 
Hali-write, sb. holy writ, i. 184; 

9- 173. 
Halis, adj. holy, 5. 1490 ; Halije, 

I. 118. A. S. hdlig. Cf. Hali, 

Hallshe, Heali, Holi, All. 
Halisdomess, s6. pi. holy things, 

5. 1031, 1689. See Halidom. 
Halijen, v. to hallow, 30. 85. 

A. S. hdlgian. 
Halke, sb. dat. corner, 19. 1099. 

Cp. A. S. hole (B. T.). 
Halle, adj. all, 15. 2340. SeeEall. 
Halle, sb. dat. hall, 6 6. 518 ; 19. 

71 ; Hallen, 6 a. 518. A.S.heall. 
Hallfe, sb. o Godess hallfe, oa 

God's behalf, 5. 1028. See Half. 
Hall3h.e, adj. holy, 5. 1096. See 

Hals, sb. neck, 2. 35; 18. 521, 

670. A..S. /teals : Goth. hals. 
Halst, 2 pr. s. holdest, I. 41 ; 

Halt, pr. s. 40. 45; 7. 216; 

Hallt, 5. 1299. See Healden. 
Halue, sb. side, 6 a. 258 ; pi. 9. 45. 

See Half. 
Haluendel, sb. half, 18. 430. A. S. 

healf d<zl, half part. 
Ham, i pr. s. am, n. 98. O. 

Northumb. am. See Am. 
Ham, pron. dat. them, i. 21, 27, 



65; ii. 26; ace.' I. 126; II. 15. 

A. S. him, pi. dat., hi, pi. ace. 

See Hi. 
Ham, sb. home, I. 157; 2. 200; 

5. 1608; Harries, pi. 3 b. 39. 

A. S. Mm. Cf. Horn, Om. 
Ham tun, sb. Southampton, 2. 

Hand, sb. pi. hands, 1. 16 ; Handes, 

18. 383. A.S. hand, hand, a 

hand. Cf. Heiid, Hond. 
Handful, sb. sheaf, 15. 1919. A.S. 

Handlen, v. to handle, 18. 347 ; 

Handel, 18. 586. A.S. handlian. 
Hangen, v. to hang (active), 18. 

612,695. A. S. haugan (usually 

contracted to h6>t), to hang. Cf. 

Hangeft, pr. s. hangeth (neuter), 

176. 312. A.S. hangian; cp. 

O. S. hangdn. See Henge. 
Hard, adj. severe, 176. 159, 171 ; 

Hardne, ace. s. m. hard, 170. 171 ; 

Harde clones, sackcloth. A. S. 

heard. Cf. Herde. 
Harde, adv. severely, 12. 286. 

A. S. hearde. 
Hardeliche, adv. bravely, 16. 402. 

A. S. htordlice. 
Hardi, adj. hardy, 15. 2121. O.F. 

hardi, bold. 

Hardilike, adv. boldly, 12. 239. 
Hare, pron. their, I. 98, 157; 30. 

36; of them, 7. 19; hares un- 

fances, against their will, I. 65. 

See Heore. 
Harm, sb. injury ; Harem, 17 b. 198; 

Harme, dat. 4 b. 50. See Hearm. 
Harmen, v. to harm, 8 a. 113. 

A. S. hearmian. Cf. Hearmin. 
Harpe, v. to harp, 19. 231. A.S. 

Harpurs, sb. pi. harpers, 19. 

1 509. A. S. hearpere. 
Harrdenesst, i pr. s. hardenest, 5. 
. 1487. M. E. hardnen, an exten- 
sion of the more usual harden ; 

A. S. heardian. 

Has (He hes), he them, 13. 78. 

See Hes. 
Has, sb. command, 176.91, 349. 

A*S. has. Cf. Hes, Hease, 

Hesne, Hest. 
Hasteliche, adv. quickly, 13. 105. 

Cf. O. Fris. hast, speed, and hastig, 

Hat, -adj. hot, 5. 1564; Hate, 5. 

1203; Hatere, comp. ijb. 251; 

Hatture, 17 a. 243. A.S. hat. 
Hate, sb. dat. heat, 176. 236. See 

Haten, v. to bid; Hate8, pr. s. 

bids, 7. 52; Hat, 9. 252; 17 a. 

302; 176. 308. In A.S. there 

were two verbs hdtan, which are 

confused together in M. E. A. S. 

hdtan (i), to order, promise, call, 

pt. heht, pp. hdten, and A. S. 

hdtan (2), to be called, pr. and 

pt. hdtte, pi. hutton. Cf. Haehte, 

Hatte, Hehte,Het, Hoot, Hot, 

Ihaten, Ihote, Y-oten. 
Hatien, v. to hate ; Hatedh, pr. s. 

13.82; Hatiet, 16. 230; Hatie'S. 

pi. 6. 314; Hatien, 9. 259. A. S. 
i-' kalian.* 
Hatrede, sb. dat. hatred, I. 28. 

The suffix is the A.S. -rceden, 

meaning ' law,' ' mode,' or ' con- 
dition.' See ITerreden. 
Hatte, I pr. s. am called, 6 a, b. 

63 ; pr. s. 4 a. 8 ; Hattest, 2 pr. 

s. 16. 255 ; Hatte, pt. s. 2. 92 ; 

6 b. 119, 321. A. S. hdtle, pass. 

pr. and pt. See Haten. 
Hatte, pt. s. became hot, 19. 608. 

A. S. hutian, pt. hdtode. 
Hatterliche, adv. savagely, 8 a. 

94. A. S. hetelice, fiercely. Cf. 

HatSene, adj. heathen, 6 a. 589; 

176.295. See Hseften. 
Havec, sb. hawk, 16. 303, 307 ; 

Havekes, gen. s. 16. 271. A.S. 

hafoc. Cf. Heauekes. 
Hauen, v. to have, 2. 112; 19. 

365;; 10.59; I2 - 



237; Haues, 2 pr. s. 18. 688; 

Hauest, 30.81; 19.801; Hauestu, 

hast thou, 19. 726 ; Haueft, pr. s. 

3 b. 49 ; 12. 251 ; Hauet, 18. 564 ; 

Haued, 2.204; J 5' 2O 3; Hauede, 

pt. s. 18. 348,437 ; Hauedet, had 

it, 18. 714; Haueden, pi. 18. 

439. See Habben. 
Hauene, sb. haven, 8 a. 144 ; 19. 

755. A.S. hcefene ; cp. Icel. Jiofn. 
Haxede, pt. s. asked, 66. 530. See 

HasheliB, adv. becomingly,^. 1228, 

Hajhelike, 5. 1231 ; Hajherrlike, 

5. 1214. Icel. hagliga, suitably, 

meetly, from hagr, skilful, handy. 
He, pron. he, 5. 1236. A. S. he. 

Cf. Ha, Hie, Heo, Hi. 
He, prpn. she, 8 a. 70; 19. 292, 

2 97 3 743- Se e Heo. 
He, pron. they, 15. 2152; 170. 

181, 210; 176. 269, 383; 18, 

415. See Hi. 
Healde, v. to hold, observe, 176. 

314. A.S. healdan. Cf. Halden, 

Heelden, Helde, Halst, Hiel- 

den, Heold, Hold, Ihalden. 
Healden, v. to pour, 8 a. 124. See 

Heale, sb. salvation, 7. 89, 224; 8 a. 

144 ; ii. 6, 96. See Hale. 
Healen, sb. pi. dat. heels, 86. 154. 

See Helen. 
Healent, s6. Saviour, 8 a. 126. 

See Halende. 
Heali, adj. holy, 10. 87. See 

Heanen, v. to oppress; Heane'S, 

8 a. 136; Heande, pt. s. 8 b. 3 ; 

Heaned, pp. afflicted, 10. 29. 

A. S. hynan, to humble, from hedn, 

poor, despised. 
Eeanen, 8 a. 138. Text probably 

corrupt. See Notes. 
Heare, sb. hair-cloth, 9. 167. A. S. 

hare. Cf. Here. 
Hearm, sb. harm, 8 6. 105. A. S. 

hearm. Cf. Harm, Hserm, 


Hearmin, v. to harm, 7, 143 ; 

HearmetS, pr. s. 8 b. 140. A. S. 

hearmian. Cf. Harmen, Her- 

Heascede, pt. s. insulted, 8 b. 4. 

A. S. hyscan, from husc, scoffing ; 

see B. T. (s. v. husc\: O. S. hose. 
Hease, sb. dat. command, 176. 

296. See Hes. 
Heat, sb. heat, anger, 16. 167. 

See Hsete. 
Heater, sb. clothing, 9. 159. A. S. 

hceteru. For several exx. of this 

word in M. E. see Stratmann (s.v. 

hatre), and Piers Plowman, p. 319. 
Heatterliche, adv. savagely, 8 6. 

1 1 7. See Hatterliche. 
Hea'Sene, adj. heathen, 10. 33. 

See Hee-Sene. 
Heaued, sb. head, captain, 7. 37; 

9.221. See Hafed. 
Heaued-sunne, sb. a capital sin, 

deadly sin, 9. 8 ; Heaued sunnen, 

pi. dat. 9. 23. Cp. A. S. heafod~ 

gylt, hedfod-leahter, deadly sin. 

Cf. Hefed-sunnen, Heued- 

Heauekes, sb. pi. hawks, 3 b. 40. 

See Havec. 
Heauet, sb. head, 8 a. 125; 9. 

175. See Hafed. 
Hedde, pt. s. had, 13. 44; if a. 

J39J J 53; Hedden, pi. 13. u, 

1 1 6. See Habben. 
Heden, v. to heed, 8 a. 33. A. S. 

heden : O. S. hodian ; cp. O. H. G. 

huaten (Otfrid). 
Hefde, pt. s. had, 2. 120 ; 7. 702 ; 

Hefede, 3 6. 8 ; Hefden,^/. 2. 19, 

76 ; 7. 105. See Habben. 
Hefed, sb. head, 2. 24. See Hafed. 
Hefed-sunnen, sb. pi. capital sins, 

deadly sins, 36. 74. See Heaued- 
Hefene, sb. dat. heaven, I. 189; 

3 a. 93; Hefenen, pi. i. 41. See 

Hefij, adj. heavy, 5. 1442. A. S 

hefig. Cf. Heuie. 



Heg, adj. high, 40. 38; 21. 27; 

Hege, 40. 23 ; Hegest, snperl. 15. 

2142. See Heh. 
Hegge, sb. hedge, 16. 17, 59. A. S. 

Aecg-. See Skeat (s. v. hedge, p. 

8 10). 
Heglice, adv. sumptuously, 2. 90. 

See Hehlice. 
Heg-settle, sb. dat. high seat, 

throne, 4 a. 38. See Hehseotel. 
Heh, adj. high, 3 at. 79 ; Hehe, 8 b. 

56, 149 ; on heh, on high, 7. 69. 

A. S. AA, com/>. #e>r<7, snperl. 

hehst. Cf. Heeh, Heg, Hei, 

Heih,, Heye, He3e, 

Hije, Herre, Heh.3b.esst. 
Hebde (for hefde), pt. s. had, 6 a. 

137. See Hefde. 
Hebe, adv. high, 8 b. 153. A. S. 

AraA. Cf. Heie, Heye, Heeje, 

Heb-engel, sb. archangel, 3 a. 51. 

A. S. hedhengel. 
Heblice, adv. sumptuously, 2. 197. 

A. S. hedhlice, hedlice. Cf. Hseh- 

liche, Heglice. 
Hehne, adj. contemptible, 6 a. 204. 

See Heene. 
Heh-reue, sb. high reeve, 8 a. 27. 

A. S. hedh gerefa, a royal officer of 

high rank, see B.T. (s.v.) 
Heh-seotel, sb. high seat, throne, 

8 a. 121. A.S. hedhsetl. Cf. 

Hebte, pt. s. ordered, Sb. 161 ; 

called, 6 b. 449. See Haten. 
Hehte,/>/. s. was called, 8 b. 3. See 

Hehse, adv. high, 66. 517. See 

Hehjhesst, adj. superl. highest, 5. 

1055. See Heh. 

Hei, pron. they, 19. 151. See Hi. 
Hei, adj. high, n. 70 ; Heie, 9. 34; 

16. 1646. See Heh. 
Heie, adv. high, 9. 260. See 

Heieu, v. to extol, 8 a. 102; Hei- 

ende, pr. part. 86. 11; Heinde, 

8 a. 9. A. S. hedn, to heighten : 

Goth, hanhjan. Cf. I-heied, 


Heih, adj. high, II. 25. See Heh. 
Heil, adj. hale, 12. 75. Icel. heill. 

Cf. Hseil. 
Heiris, sb. pi. heirs, 19. 907 ; O. F. 

heirs, an heir; Lat. heres. Cf. Eir. 
Hei-ward, sb. hay-ward, 9. 132. 

A. S. h(Eg-iveard, from haga, an 

enclosure. See Notes. 
Helde, sb. age, 18. 387. See 

Helde, sb. a slope, 176. 347. Cp. 

A. S. keldan, hyldan, to incline, 

bend ; see Stratmann (s.v. held) ; 

cp. O. H. G. hdlda, a slope, G. 

Halde (Weigand). Cf. Helden. 
Helde, v. to hold, 19. 912 ; pt. s. 

2. 175; Helden, pi. 2. 146; 

Heldenn, 5. 1163. See Healde. 
Helden, v . to incline the vessel and 

so pour out the contents, 9. 334. 

A. S. heldan, hyldan, to tilt, in- 
cline. See Skeat (s.v. heel, 2). 

Cf. Halde, Healden. 
Heie, sb. health, 170. 369; salva- 
tion, 46. 29; safety, 6 a. 245. 

See Hale. 
Helen, sb. pi. dat. heels, 8 a. 126. 

A. S. hela, a heel. Cf. Healen, 
Helen, v. to conceal, 170. 166; 

HeleS, pr. s. I. 59. A.S. Man. 

Cf. Halen, Heolen, Hule, 

Helende, sb. Saviour, i. 189; 

Helendes, gen. s. I. 123; 40.63. 

See Halende. 
HeleUes, sb. pi. warriors, heroes, 6 a. 

496. A. S. heeled, a man, hero : 

O. S. hem ; cp. O. H. G. Mid 

(G. held). 
Helfter, sb. noose, snare, 36. 1 1 7, 

124. A.S. hcelftre (Wright's 

Helle-fur, sb. hell fire, 17 a. 156, 

158. A. S. hellefyr ; Helle, gen. 

of Hei : Goth, halja ; cp. O.H.G. 

hella-fiur (Tatian). 



Helle-nra'o*, sb. hell mouth, I. 

Helm, sb. helmet, 18.624. A. S. 

helm ; Icel. Jijdlmr. 
Help, sb. help, 4 c. 37 ; Helpe, 40. 

34. A. S. help : O. S. fo/fa ; cp. 

Icel. hjdlp. 

(elpen, v. to help, 18. 648; Hell- 
penri, 5. 1174; Helpe, 16. 1719. 
A. S. helpan ; cp. O. H. G. helfan 
elpleses, adj. gen. s. of the 
helpless, 8 6. 190. 
HelSe, sb. dat. health, safety, 15. 

2344. A.S. h<eld. 
Hem, pron. dat. them, 4 b. 102 ; 

15.2152; 176.62. SeeHeom. 
Hemself, pron. refle$. themselves, 

176. 229. See Heomseelf. 
Hend, sb. pi. hands, 18. 05. See 

Hende, sb. dat, district, 6b. 67. 

See Ende. 
Hende, adj. near at hand, handy, 

*S' 359; near to help, kind, 

courteous, 6 a. 5 73 }' "8 a. 126; 

19. 371, 1129; Hendest, sitperl. 

most courteous, 6 a. 154. A.S. 

gehende, near, handy, vicinus. 

Cf. Heendest, Ihende. 
Hendeliche, adv. courteously, 6 b. 

277. See Hsendeliche. 
Henge, v. to hang, to be suspended, 

IO. 63; Henges, 2 pr. s. 10. 

in ; pr. s. 10. 55; Hengedes, 2 

pt. s. 10. 17; Henged, pp. 10. 

53. A.S.hangian. Cf. HangeS, 

Hengen, hanged (active), 2. 

25,87. See Hangen. 
Hen[ne], sb. hen, 16. 413 ; Hennes, 

gen. s. 18. 702. A. S. hen, 

Hennen, adv. hence, 6 a. 320 ; 

Henne, 176. 400; 19. 46, 319: 

Hennes, 19. 323. See Heonne. 
Heo, pron. she, 30. 30; 6 a. 131; 

8 b. 64; her, 30. 56; 6 a. 577, 

578; Heo-seolf, she herself, 14. 

426. A. S. hed, she, H, her (ace.). 

Cf. Ha, He, Hes, Hi, Hye, Ge, 

3eo, 3ho. 
Heo, pron. he, 3 a. in ; 6 a. 146. 

See He. 
Heo, pron. they, 3 a. 67; 6. 15; 

ii. 30; 16. 1661, 1662; 170. 

102. See Hi. 
Heofene,*s&. dat. heaven, I. 199; 

30. 5; Heoffne, 5. 1055, 1267 ; 

Heoffness, gen. s. 5. 1394. A.S. 

heofon. Cf. Hefene, Heuene, 

Heofene-riche, sb. the kingdom of 

heaven, 30. in. A.S. heofon- 

rice. Cf. Heuenriche, Heo- 

Heold, />/. s. held, 2. 64, in ; 17 a. 

237; Heoldon, />/. 2. 127; Heol- 

den, 2. 14, 1 6 ; 170. 292 ; Heolde, 

16.12; 170. 172. A.S. hedld, 

pt. s. ; hedldon, pi. pi. of healdan. 

See Healde. 
Heoldre, adj. comp. older, 6b. 374. 

See Eald. 
Heolen, . to conceal, 8 a. 39. See 

Heom, pron. dat. them, i. 6; 2. 

56; ace. 2. 21. A.S. him, heo?n, 

dat. pi. Cf. Horn, Hem, Em 

in Wexem. 
Heonne, adv. hence, 14. 173; 16. 

850, 1673; 1 7 a. 388. A.S. 

heonan (hinaii). Cf. Hennen. 
Heorde-monne, s6. gen. pi. of the 

herdsmen, 9. 131. A. S. heord t 

(l) care, (2) herd, flock, (3) fam- 
ily ; see Skeat (s. v. herd i). 
Heorden, sb. pi. hards of flax, 9. 

157. A. S. heordan. Cf.Herde. 
Heore, pron. their, 2. 116; 16. 

35 74 A.S. heora. See 

Heoreft, i pr. pi. obey, 6 a. 116. 

See Heren. 
Heorte, sb. heart, i. 83; 19. 263. 

A. S. heorle. Cf. Herte, Hierto. 
Heou, sb. colour, 16. 619. See 




Heouene, sb. heaven, 170. 80 ; 

ace. 7. 183; 170. 75; dot. 30. 

106 ; 16. 728. See Heofene. 
Heouenlich, adj. heavenly, 7. 1 23 ; 

Heouenliche, 7. 90. A. S. Aeo- 
Heovene-riche, sb. the kingdom 

of heaven, 16. 717; 17 a. 351; 

Heoueriche, 170. 66, 176. See 

Heowe, sb. dat. hue, colour, 3 a. 

19; 16. 29, 152. See Hiu. 
Her, af/v. before, i. 186; 2. 182; 

176. 1 61. See^Jr. 
Her, />row. of them, their, 2. 25, 

139; 15.2258. A.S. fora. See 

Her, adv. here, I. 144; 3 a. 36. 

A. S. her. Cf. Heer. 
Her, acfo. (in compounds) ; Her- 

abuten, hereabout, about this, 9. 

366. Her-among, in this place, 

in our midst, 16. 744 Her- 

bihonde, here at hand, 19. 1149 : 

Her-biforen, before this, 15. 2133 ; 

Her-efter, hereafter, 3 a. 54 ; Her- 

inne, herein, 19. 312; Her-to, 

hereto, 9. 6. 
Herberwe, sb. dat. camp, 6 a. 262 ; 

Herboru, lodging, 18. 742. Icel. 

herbergi, lit. an army-shelter ; 

cp. O. F. herberge, an encamp- 
ment, in Roland, 2488. 
Herborwed, pp. lodged, 18. 742. 

Icel. herbergja, to shelter, harbour. 
Hercnen, v. to hearken, 9. 208 ; 

Hercni, 7. 21 1 ; HercniS, 

7. 61. M. E. herknen (Chaucer) ; 

A. S. hyrcnian. Cf. Heercne, 

Herkne, Herrcnesst. 
Herde, pt. s. heard, 2. 151 ; 18. 

465 ; 19. 41. A. S. hyrde, pt. of 

hyran, heran, to hear. See Heren. 
Herde, sb. pi. hards, hurds, tow, 

9. 157. A. S. heordan, see B. T. 

See Heorden. 
Herde, adj. hard, 36. 55 ; Her- 

dure, comp. more severe, more 

strict, 9. 342. See Hard. 

Herdes, sb. pi. lands, 13. 2. See 

Herdne, sb. errand, message, 15. 

2073. See Erende. 
Herdnesse, sb. hardness, 36. II, 

73. A.S. heardnes. 
Here, sb. praise, 17 b. 45. A.S. 

here, dignity (hcrenis, praise) ; cp. 

herian, to praise, and O. S. Atr, 

Here, sb. army, host, 16. 1702, 

1709,1790; 176. 45; 1 8. 346, 

379 ; Heren, 15. 2079. A, S. here. 
Here, sb. hair, 16. 428. A. S. h&r > 

her: O.S.Mr. 
Here, sb. hair-cloth, 9. 160. O. F. 

here (Bartsch). Cf. Heare, 


Here, adv. before, 2. 182. SeeJEr. 
Here, pron. their, of them, 2. 14 ; 

4 a. 21 ; 46. 29, 47; 13. 31 ; 

15. 1920; 2209; 19. 66. See 

Hered-men, sb. pi. retainers, 6. 

134. See Hiredmen. 
Heren, v. to hear, obey, 36. 15 ; 

6 a. 25 ; HereS, imp. pi. 12. 61. 

A. S. hcran, hyran : O.S. horian 

cp. O. H. G. hdren (Otfrid). Cf. 

Hiren, Heoreft, Herde, ^Hi- 

j Heretoche, sb. leader, (Moses), I. 

92. A.S. heretoga', O.S. heri- 

togo (Pilate) ; cp. O. H. G. heri- 

zoho (Otfrid), G. herzog. 
Here-word, sb. praise, 9. 42 ; 

Hereworde, 4 a. 76. A. S. litre - 

Here-wur'Se, adj. praiseworthy, 

8 b. 192. 
Herien, v. to praise, 7. 177; 8 a. 

102 ; Herieft, pr. pi. 7. 175 ; 

Herien, 40. 51 ; Heriende, pr. 

part. 8 a. 19. A. S. herian. Cf. 


Heritage, sb. 19. 1301. O. F. he- 

Herkne, imp. s. hearken, 19. 814. 
. See Hercnen. 



Hermes, s&. pi. damages, 9. 133. 

See Hearm. 
Hermie, pr. s. sitbj. harm, 9. 135. 

See Hearmin. 
Hermites, ib. pi. hermits, 18. 430. 

O. F. hermite ; Lat. heremita ; 

Hermyne, sb. ermine, 170. 357. 

O.F. hermine ; M. H. G. hermin ; 

O. H. G. harmin, ermine fur, 

from harmo, an ermine ; cp. A. S. 

hearma (Wright's Vocab.). Cf. 

Her-onont, as regards this, 8 a. 

67. See Onont. 
Herrcnesst, 2 pr. s. hearknest, 5. 

1301. See Hercnen. 
Herre, adj. comp. higher, 16. 1637. 

See. Hen. 
Herte, sb. heart, 176. 74, 204; 

Hertes, pi. 13. 81 ; 15. 1927. 

See Heorte. 
Hertedin, pt. pi. cheered, put in 

good heart, 15. 1980. See Halli- 

well (s. v. herte). 

Herteliche, adv. heartily, 10. 48. 
Herting, sb. cheering, heartening, 

15. 1982. 
Heruest, sb. harvest, 12. 238. A.S. 


Herunge, sb. hearing, 7. 17. 
Hes, pron.f. ace. her, it, 176. 219. 

The normal A. S. form is hi. Cf. 

Hies, His. 
Hes, pron. pi. them, 176. 186, 314. 

The usual A. S. forms are hi, hig. 

Cf. His, Is, Mes. 
Hes, (he + hes), he + her (it), 176. 

40, 56. 
Hes, sb. command, 17 a. 90 ; Hese, 

pi. 4 a. Si; 170. 290; Hesne, 

1.113. See Has. 
Hesmel, s&. collar, 9. 260. Perhaps 

a corrupt form of A. S. heahmyne : 

O. S. halsmeni ; cp. Icel. hdlsmen. 

For the change from n to / cp. 

O.H.G. hitnil (mod. himmel), and 

Goth, himins. 

Hest, sb. command, 9. 190; Heste, 
VOL. I. F 

4 b. 94 ; He?tene, gen. pi. 4 b. 94 ; 

Hestes, pi. 1 7 a. 344. See Has. 
Hest, 2 pr. s. hast, 13. 113. See 

Het, pt. s. commanded, ordered, 30. 

10 ; 80.94; 13. 31; promised, 

15. 2365; Hetten, pi. 8 a. 94. 
See Haten. 

Het, pt. s. was called, 19. 7, 767. 

See Haten. 
Hete, sb. heat, 4 d. 72 ; 5. 1404; 

12. 72 ; 17 a. 138, 197, 228. See 

Hete, sb. hate, 16. 167. A.S. hete, 

cp. O. S. heti : Goth, hatis. 
Hete, v. to eat, 18.457. SeeEten. 
Hetelifaste, adv. cruelly, 10. 78. 

From A.S. hetol, hetel, full of 

hate, malignant. 
Hethen, adv. hence, 15. 2508 ; 18. 

683, 690. Icel. heSan. Cf. Etfen. 
Hethen, adj. heathen, 2. 50 ; He 

Jyene, 66. 15; 8a. 2. SeeHeetJene. 
Hepenesse, sb. dot. heathendom, 

I 3- 7> 3**' A.S. hcedentifs. 
Heued, i&. head, 4 b. 16; 18. 379; 

19. 610. See Hafed. 
I-Ieued-clcft, sb. head-cloth, 9. 259. 

A. S. hedfod chip. 
Heuede, pt. s. had ; 9. 352 ; 17 or. 

1 6. See Habben. 
Heued-suiinen, sb. pi. capital sins, 

deadly sins, 3 b. 34, 74. See 

Ileuegefl, pr. s. bears heavy on, 

9. 263. A. S. hefigian. 
Heuen.t;. to heave, raise; Heue8,/r. 

5.86.140. A.S. hebban. Cf.Houe. 
Heuene, sb. dot. heaven, i. 123; 

Heuen kinge, dat. king of heaven. 

See Heofene. 
Heuenlicne, adj. 4 c. 22. A.S. 

Heuen-ricne, sb. the kingdom of 

heaven, 12. 28; Heuene-riche, 3 a. 

63. See Heofene-riche. 
Heueriche, sb. the kingdom of 

heaven, 13. 85; 176. 42, 65. 

See above. 



Heuet, sb. head, 9. 173. See 

Heuie, adj. heavy, 36. 71; 9. 228 ; 

19. 1450. See Hefi3. 
Hew, sb. colour, complexion, 4 6. 

87. See Hiu. 
Heye, adj. high, 170. 278, 343; 

Heye se, the high sea, 18. 719. 

Heye, adj. high, 18. 695. See 


Hese, adj. high, 30. 13. SeeHeh. 
Hi, pron. they, 1.8; 3 b. 100 ; 17 a. 

3795 !?& 3 82 j them, 16. 854. 

A. S. Ju, fog-, worn, and ace. pi. 

Cf. Hy, Ha, He, Hie, Hii, Hei, 

I, Heo, Ho, Hes. 
Hi, pron. she, i. 58 ; 13. 97. See 


Hi, pron. he, it, 13. 27. See He. 
Hie, pron. I, 13. 23, 74. See Ic. 
Hidenn, v. to hide, 5. 1019, 

1678; Hidd, pp. 5. 1704. A.S. 

hidan, hydan. Cf. Huide, Hude. 

Hider-to, adv. hither-to, 9. 33. 

A. S. hider : Goth, hidre ; cp. Lat. 

Hiderward, adv. hitherward, 16. 


Hie, pron. he, 176. 114. See He. 
Hie, pron. they, 40. 37; 176. 22, 

98, 241, 376; them, 16. 854. 

See Hi. 
Hielden, pt. pi. held, 176. 172; 

observed, 176. 298. See Healde. 
Hierte, sb. heart, 176. 113. See 

Hies, pron. her, it, 176. 243. See 

Hi-fulled, pp. filled, 6 b. 515. See 

Pulle and Ge-. 
Hi-funde, pp. found, 13. 22. See 

Finden and Ge-. 
Hi-heren, v. to hear, 36. 16. See 

Keren and Ge-. 
Hihten, pt. pi. adorned, 40. 22. 

Cp. M. E. ki$te, to adorn, Trevisa, 

1.41,235; 2.363. 

Hii, pron. they, 6 b, 15. See Hi. 
Hil, sb. hill, 12. 27; Hille. rfaf. 

12.1. A. S. Ay// ; cp. Lat. collis, 

Cf. Hulle. 
Hilede, pt. s. covered, 10. 50. ee 

Hi-makede, pp. made, 66. 480. 

See Macien and Ge-. 
Hiinselfen, pron. reflex, himself, 

176. 107 ; Himsulf, 9. 348 ; Him- 

seolue, 170. 184. A.S. he self, 

ace. hine selfne ; but himsylf, in 

Chron. ann. 1087. 
Hin, sb. dwelling, camp, 66. 262. 

See Inne. 

Hin, prep, in, I. 26. See In. 
Hin, pron. him, 13. 29. See Hine. 
Hindene, sb. a snare (?), 3 b. 125. 

Perhaps hindene is a scribe's error 

for A. S. hinders, a snare ; cp. 

hinderhoc, a snare, in B. T. 
Hine, pron. ace. him, i. n, 33; 

16. 1749; 176. 385, 391. A.S. 

hine. Cf. Hin, Hyne. 
Hine, sb. />/. domestics, iS. 620; 

Hinen, 7. 14, 226; 8 a. 138. 

M. E. hine ; A. S. hina, a gen. pi. 

in the term hina faeder, paterfa- 
milias. See B. T. (s. v.), and 

Skeat (s. v. hind}. Cf. Inhinen. 
Hird, sb. company, 7. 116; n. 

51; household, 7. 12; retainers 

at court, 8 a. 10 ; Hirde, dat. 9. 

39. See Hired. 
Hirde, sb. shepherd, 12. 48, 49. 

A. S. hirde, heorde, from heord f 

herd, flock ; cp. Goth, hairdeis, 

from hairdo, a herd. Cf. Hurde. 
Hirdnesse, sb. flocks of sheep under 

a shepherd's care, 15. 1930. A.S. 

hirdnes, care, custody. Cf. Heor- 

Hire, pron. poss. her, i. 58. A.S. 

hire. Cf. Hure. 
Hire, pron. ace. her, 2. 122. A.S. 

kire = avrr]V in Chron. ann. 1127. 
Hire, pron. poss. their, 66. 73 ; 13. 

33J 18-393- A.S. hira, heara. 

Cf. Heore, Hare, Hore. 



Hired, sb. body of retainers, 6 a. 

203 ; Hirede, court, 6 a. 308. 
. A.S. hired, a family, household, 

followers of a lord ; cp. for form 

M. H. G. hirdt (mod. G.heirath), 

marriage, see Weigand. 
Hired-men, sb. pi. retainers, 6 a. 

132 ; Hiredmonnen, dat. 6 a. 313. 
L. S. hlredmann. Cf. Hered- 

m, v. to obey, 6 a. 367. See 

irne, sb. corner, 5. 1677. A. S. 

Jiyrne, from horn. Cf. Hume. 
His, pron. f. Tier, it, I. 93; 17 6. 

263. See Hes. 
His, pron. them, I. 24, 34, 136. 

See Hes. 
His, pron. poss. his, I. 118 ; Hise,. 

pi. 2. 9; 1 8. 368. A.S. his. Cf. 

Hyse, Es, Is. 
His, pr. s. is, i. 183; 66. 126. 

See Is. 
Hit, pron. it, I. i; n. n; 16. 

272 ; expletive, i. 32. A. S. A//. 

Cf. It. 
Hit, s6. heat, 176. 138. Icel. hiti, 

heat. Cf. Hsete. 
Hiu, sb. colour, 4 b. 86. A.S. hiw, 

hue, colour ; cp. Goth, Jiiwi, form, 

show, appearance. Cf. Heou, 

Heowe, Hew. 

adj. high, 19. 327. See Heh. 
e, pt. s. hied, hastened, 19. 
. 980. A. S. higian, to hasten. 
Hi3te, sb. delight, joy, 16. 272. 

A. S. ^y^f/, hope, joy. 
Hijte)?, />r. s. rejoices, is glad, 16. 

436. A. S. hyhtan, to be glad. 
Hlaford, sb. lord, 1.22; Hlafordes, 

gen. s. I. 100, 199; Hlaforden,/)/. 

efatf. I. 37. A.S. hldford. Cf. 

Laford, Laferrd, Lauerd, 

Louerd, Lowerd, Lord. 
Hleste, sb. desire, 176. 387. See 


Hlesten, v. to listen, 17 5. 230. 
. A. S. hlystan ; cp. Icel. hlustci. Cf. 

Lusten, Listen, Leste. 


Ho, pron. they, 17 cr. 179, 228. 

See Hi. 
Hohfulle, adj. anxious, 60.312. 

A.S. kokfiil, full of care, from 

hogu, care. 
Hokere, sb. dat. scorn, 10. 109; 

Hokeres, pi. scoffs, 10. 30. A. S. 

hdcor, insult, derision. 
Hoker-lahter, sb. the laughter of 

scorn, 10. 113. 
Hokerliche, adv. scornfully, 8 a. 

20; 10. 96. 

Hokerringe, sb. dat. scorn, con- 
tempt, 10. 89. 
Hoi, adj. whole, 15. 2243; 19. 

149,1365. A.S. hdl. See Hal. 
Hold, adj. old, 1 8. 41 7. See Eald. 
Hold, adj. friendly, faithful, I. 5; 

Holde, 6 a. 307; 19. 1269. A.S. 

bold, gracious, from heald, in- 
clined. See Helden. 
Holden, v. to hold, keep, 6 a. 286 ; 

9. 329; 19. 670; Holde, 66. 

286; 1 6. 1680, 1691; Holden, 

pp. 15. 2040, 2076. See Healde. 
Holi, adj. 1 6. 721 ; 18. 431 ; Holie, 

40. 21. See Halij. 
Holie, sb. holly, 9. 161. A.S. 

holen', cp. Ir. cuileann. 
Holsum, adj. wholesome, 4r. 51. 

M.E. holsum (Prompt. Parv.) ; 

cp. Icel. keilsamr. 
Holsumliche, adv. wholesomely, 

4 d. 64. 
Horn, pron. dat. 7. 54 ; 16. 735. 

See Heom. 
Horn, sb. home, 9. 242 ; 18. 557, 

682, 1751 ; 19. 219. See Ham. 
Homage, sb. men, retainers, vas- 
salage, 19. 1535. O.F. homage, 

feudal service (Brachet). 
Honrward, adv. homeward, 15. 

2376. A. S. hdmweard. 
Hond, sb. hand, 40. 77 ; 6. 402 ; 

9. 114; Honde, dat. 16. 1651; 
pi. 40. 25; 19. 60, 112, 192; 

Honden, 46. 53 ; 10. 104; Hon- 

don, 7. 58 ; Hondes, 10. 103 ; 

18. 636. See Hand, 
f 2 

43 6 


. s. hangs, depends, if a. 

306. See Henge. 
Hoot, />r. s. bids, 13.84. SeeHaten. 
Hopien, v. to hope ; Hopie, I pr. 

s ' 9- 35 Hopede, pt. s. 19. 

1428. A. S. hopian ; cp. M. Du. 

hopen and G. hoffen (Weigand). 
Horde, sb. hoard, 170. 255. A. S. 

hord: Goth. huzd. 
Horder-wycan, sb. the office of 

treasurer, 2. 75. A.S. kordere, 

a treasurer, and wica, an office, 

function. See Chron., p. 370. 
Hordom, sb. whoredom, 170. 249. 

Icel. h6rd6mr. 
Hore, pron. gen. pi. of them, their, 

9. 247; ii. 22; 19. 862. See 


Horlinges,s6./>/.fornicators, 170,5. 
103. Cp. A. S. boring. 
Horn, sb. a drinking horn, 19.1165; 

Home, dot. 19. 1157; a horn 

(wind instrument), 1 6. 318. A.S. 

Hors, sb. horse, 19. 1248 ; pi. 3 b. 

40; 18. 701. A.S. /tors, s. and/)/. 
Hosen, sb. pi. hosen (pi. of hose), 

coverings for the legs, 9. 165. A.S. 
/ hosa, ocrea (Wright's Voeab.). 
Hoslen, v. to administer the Eucha- 
rist, 18. 362; Hosled, pp. 18. 

364. See Huslien. 
Hot, pr. s. bids, 13. 99 ; HoteS, promise, 15. 2510; Hoten, 

pp. called, 15. 2522; 1 6. 256; Ho- 

tene, promised, 15. 2508. See 

Hote, i pr. s. am called, 19. 773. 

See Haten. 
Houe, 2 pt. s. didst raise, 19. 1287. 

A.S. ho/e, 2 pt. s. of hebban. See 

HoueU./r. s. remains, 12. 69. For 

exx. of M. E. hotten (haven) see 

Skeat (s. v. hover). 
Hu, adv. how, 6 a. 18; 19. 468. 

A. S. hu. Cf. Hw, Hwu, Wu. 
Hude, I pr. s.hide, 16. 265 ; Hud, 

imp. s. 1 6. 164 ; Hudden, pt. pi. 

175.162; Hudde, pp. 19. 1210; 

See Hidenn. 
Hude, sb. hide, 6 a, b. 403. A. S. 

hyd ; cp. O.H. G. hut (Otfrid), 

and Lat. cults, Gr. KVTOS : (JKVTOS. 
Huide, v. to hide, 10. 18. See 

Huire, sb. hire, 9. 131, 314. A. S. 

hyr. See Hure. 

Hule, sb. owl, 12. 253. A. S. ule. 
Hule, v. to cover, 10. 18. See 

Hulle, sb. dat. hill, 170. 343 ; 176. 

351 ; pi. 19. 208. See Hil. 
Hund, sb. hound, 19. 60 1 ; Hunde, 

dat. 19. 839 ; Hundes, pi. 3 b. 40 ; 

IO 33J 19.611,891. A.S.hund; 

cp. Goth, bunds. 
Hundredfeald, hundredfold, i*]b, 

251; Hundredfealde, 176. 54; 

Hundredfolde, 170. 55, 243. Icel. 

hundraft ; cp. O. H. G. hunterit r 

see Skeat (s. v. hundred). 
Hundret-sitSe, a hundred times, 7. 

Hunger, sb. hunger, famine, 15. 

2150; Hungaer, dat. 2. 37, 47; 

Hungre, 1.32 ; ace. 10. 12. A.S. 

Hungren, v. to hunger, 9. 119; 

us hungreS, pr. s. impers. it hun- 
gers us, we are hungry, 18. 455 ; 

Hungrede, pt. s. was hungry, 18. 

654. A.S. hyngran, to be hungry. 
Hungri, adj. hungry, 15. 2136. 

A.S. hungrig. 
Hunne, pr. s. subj. grant, 15. 2249. 

See Unne. 
Hunte, sb. hunter, 12. 34. A.S. 

Hunte, v. to hunt, 12. 2. A.S. 

Huntinge, sb. dat.; an huntinge, 

i. e. on hunting, a-hunting, 19. 

Huppen, to hop ; Hupte, pt. s. 16. 

1636. A. S. hoppian. 
Hur, pron. poss. our, 1.75; Hure, 

J 5- 2 495- See ^re- 



Hur, adv. hur and hur, frequently, 
I. 104 ; hure and hure, at inter- 
vals, 1 6. 1 1. A. S. huru, at least, 
at any rate. 

Hurde, sb. keeper, guardian, 14.10. 
See Hirde. 

Hure, pron. poss. her, 19. 288, 
290. See Hire. 

Hure, pron. dot. her, 19. 277. 

A. S. hire. 

iHure, sb. hire, 9. 15, 318. A. S. 
hyr ; cp. Du. huur. Cf. Huire. 

Hurede, pt. s. hired, 19. 756. A. S. 

Hurne, sb. corner, 16. 14. See 

Hus, sb. house, 7. 6; 16. 623 ; 18. 
740; Huse, dot. 13. 27; 19. 1006; 
Huses, pi. 3 b. 39. A. S. hus ; cp. 
O. H. G. hus (Otfrid). 

Hus-berners,/>Z. house-burners, 13. 

Husbonde, sb. the master or 'good- 
man' of a house, 7. 43; Huse- 
bonde, 7. 38, 216; Husband, 19. 
739, 1051. Icel. husbondi for 
husbuandi ; biiandi, dwelling, in- 
habiting, pres. pt. of bua, to 

pusel, sb. the sacrifice of the Eucha- 
rist, 40. 52; 9. 8. A. S. hiisl; 
Goth, hunsl, a sacrifice (Mt. ix.ip,). 

Huse-lauerd, sb. lord of the house, 
7. 9, 35. A. S. hus hldford, Lk. 
xxii. II. See Hus and Hla- 

Huse-wif, sb. house-wife, 7. 22; 
9. 129. 

Hus-lewe, sb. house-shelter, 10. 4. 
A. S. hus-hledw. 

Huslien, v. to administer the sacra- 
ment ; Huseled, pp. houseled, 
having communicated, 4 c. 28. 
A.S. huslian. Cf. Hoslen. 

Huych, adj. each, 170. 88. 107. 
See Hwilc. 

Hw, adv. how, 14. 15; 170. 138, 
325. See Hu. 

Hwa, pron. who, I. 77; 30. 7; 

13. 40 ; any one, 3 a. 109. A.S. 

kwd. Cf. Hwo, Wa, Wo. 
Hwam, pron. rel. dot. whom, 7. 

44580.82; Hwan, what, 17 a. 

96,324; 176. 95,330; to hwan, 

for what reason, 176. 105. A.S. 

hwdm, dat. ; hwane (hiuone), ace. 

of hwd. Cf. Hwom, "Warn, 

"Wan, "Wham, Whon, Quam. 
Hwanne, conj. when, 14. 173, 441 ; 

Hwan, 1 8. 358, 474. A. S. 

hwanne. Cf. Hwenne, Hwon, 

Quan, Quene, Quuan, Wan, 

W^ane, Wanne, W^hane, 

Whanne, Won, Wone, 

Hwar, adv. where, 1 6. 1727. A.S. 

hwcer. Cf. Hwer, Wher, 

Quuor, War, Wer. 
Hwar-se, adv. wheresoever, 9. 

234. A. S. hwcer swd. Cf. 

Ware-se, Warsee. 
Hwa-se, pron. whoso, 7. 240; 9. 

221. A. S. hwd swd. Cf. Hwo- 

se, Wo-so. 
Hwat, pron. what, 1.57; 3 b. 84 ; 

10. 56; 17 a. 78, 114. A.S. 

Await. Cf. Hwet, WheDt, 

Whatt, Wat, Wet, Quat. 
Hwat, interj. what!, 16. 1/30. 

A. S.hwcet! (Beowulf). 
Hwat . . . wat, conj. both . . . and, 

18. 635. Cf. Wat. 
Hwate, sb. chance, luck, ^d. 22. 

A. S. hwate, augury (Leo). Cf. 

Hwatliche, adv. quickly, 1 6. 1708. 

A. S. hwcellice. Cf. Wat. 
Hwenne, conj. when, 14. 175; 

170. 229 ; Hwen, 8 a. 112. See 

Hweoles, sb. pi. wheels, Sb. 41. 

A. S. hivedl. 
Hwer, adv. where, i. 201 ; 17 a. 

85. See Hwar. 
Hwere, conj. whether, 18. 549. 

See Hwetter. 
Hwer-f ore, conj. where fore, 8 a. 51. 

Cf. Ware-vore, Were-fore. 



Hwer-se, alv. wheresoever, 7. 19 ; 

9. 193. A. S. stt/a Awcer swd. 

Cf. Wheer-swa. 
Hwer-se-eauer, adv. wheresoever, 

7. i So. 
Hwet, pron. what, 3. 50 ; 8 b. 75. 

See Hwat. 
Hwet, conj. wherefore, I. 20. A.S. 

Hwete, sb. wheat, I. 191. A.S. 

hwcete. Cf. Wete. 
HwetSer, pron. whether of the two, 

17 a. 232; 176. 240. A.S. 

hwceder. Cf. Hwere, Whar, 

Hwi, adv. why, 30. 56 ; 4 c. 65. 

A. S. AK/, ms. case of hwd, who. 

Cf. Whi, Wi, Wy. 
Hwich, adj. what, 170. 138. See 

Hwider, adv. whither, 170. 122. 

A. S. hwider. Cf. Wider. 
Hwider-se, adv. whithersoever, 7. 

127. A.S. hwider + swd. 
Hwil, conj. while, 7. 211; 17 a. 

1 29 ; 1 8. 363. From A. S. kwil, 

a time, space, cp. due hwile, for a 

while (Beowulf, 1763). Cf. 

Hwile, Hwils, Hwule, Hwy- 

len, Quile, While, Wile, por- 

Hwilc, pron. which, 3 &. 22; 

Hwilch, adj. what, 176. 138. 

A. S. hwilc ( = hwi-lic). Cf. 

Hwich, Huych, Hwuch, 

Quilc, Wulche, Woclie, 

"Whillc, Whulche, Wic. 
Hwile, sb. while, space of time, 7. 

102; 17 a. 234; ane hwile, a 

while, 1 8. 722; J>e hwile, while, 

30. 67; 14.431; 170. 24. See 

Hwilem, adv. whilom, formerly, 

13. 19. A.S. hwilutn, 

of hwil, meaning ' at times.' Cf. 

Hwylem, Wylem, Quilum. 
Hwils, conj. whilst, 10. 67. M.E. 

hwils, formed from analogy of 

A. S. adverbs iu -es, this termina- 

tion being originally an instru- 
mental genitive; see Sweet, Introd. 

89, and Skeat (s. v. while). Cf. 

Hwit, adj. white, 10. 45 ; Hwite, 

9. 152 ; II. 51, 53. 

Cf. Whit, Wit. 
Hwo, pron. who, 170. 135, 142, 

366; 18. 368, See Hwa. 
Hwom, pron. dat. whom, 170. 

237. See Hwam. 
Hwon, adv. when, 9. 62. See 

Hwo-se, pron. whoso, 9. 158 ; 176. 

114; Hwoso, 9.166.; 170. 350. 

See Hwa-se. 
Hwu, adv . how, i. 114; 9. 68; 

I76- 138, 396. SeeHu. 
Hwuch, prou. which, 7. 5, 45, 

133 ; odj. what, 86. 58 ; 16. 

1674. See Hwilc. 
Hwule, sb. space of time, 9. 353 ; 

)>e hwule J>et, the while that, 9.: 

148; II. 12. See Hwil. 
Hwure. See La hwure. 
Hwych-so, pron. whichsoever, 14. 

82. A. S. hwilc + swd. 
Hwylem, adv. whilom, 13. 131. 

See Hwilem. 

Hy,pron. they, 16. 53. See Hi. 
Hye, pron. she, 13. 97. See Heo. 
Hyne, pron. ace. him, 13. 9 ; 170. 

379. See Hine. 
Hyrtlingburch, sb. Irthling- 

borough, Northamptonshire, 2. 78. 
Hyse, pron. poss. his, 18. 355. 


I-. See Ge-. 

I, pron. they, 6 b. 243. See Hi. 
I, prep, in, 5. 985 ; 6. 308 ; 8 a. 

105 ; 8 6. 52. See In. 
leede, pt. s. went, 2. 153. See 


laf, pt. s. gave, 2. 109. See Gifen. 
I-armed, pp. armed, 19. Sn, 1231, 




lauen, gave, 2. 150; lafen, 

2. 10. See Gifen. 
J-banned, pp. summoned, 16. 

1668. A. S. gebannen, pp. of 

batman ; cp. Icel. banna, to forbid. 
I-be, pp. been, 1 7 a. 3. Seel-ben. 
I-beaten, />/>. beaten, 8 a. 91. 
I-bede, s6. prayer, 176. 301 ; Ibe- 

~:n, pi. 176. 339. A. S. gebed. 

See Bede (i). 

5den, pp. prayed, 30. Si. See 
m, pp. been, 176. 3 ; Ibeon, 6. 

307 ; Ibeo, 7. 190. Cf. I-be, 


I-beofl (for hi beoft), they are, I. 81. 
I-bere, sb. noise, 16. 222. A. S. 

geb&re, gesture, cry, in Chron. 

ann. 755 : O.S.gibdri, demeanour, 

bearing. Cf. Bere. 
I-bete, v. to amend, 170. 234; 

Ibet, pp. 3 b. 67 ; 170. 100, 134 ; 

176. 100, 134. A. S. gebetan. 

See Beten (2). 

I-bi, pp. been, I. 158. See I-ben. 
I-bidest, 2 pr. s. hast to do with, 

14.430. A.S. gebidan. 
I-bie, (for I bie), I be, 17 b. 4. M.E. 

Bie ; A. S. bed, subj. of beon. 
I-bite, v. to bite, taste, eat, I. 30. 

O. Northumb, gebitan, to bite, 

Mk. ix. 1 8. 
I-blescede, pp. blessed, 7. 65, 98 ; 

Iblessed, 19. 1388. A.S. ge- 

fifc&JWt. See Blesse. 
I-blessiett, pr. pi. rejoice, 3 a. 6. 

A. S. geblisstan, to be glad, to 

make glad. 
I-blowe, pp. blown, bloomed, 16. 

6 1 8. A. S. geblowen, pp. of ge- 

I-bod, s6. command, 14. 445. A.S. 

Ibolje, pp. puffed up, 16. 145. 

A. S. gebolged, swoln, indignant, 

also gebolgen (in Mt. ii. 16), pp. 

of gebelgan, to swell, be angry. 
I-bon. adj. prepared, adorned, 6 a. 

510. Matzner takes ibon to be 

connected with M. E. boun ; Icel, ./' 

bfiinn, pp. of bua t to pfBpTffeT 
I-boren, #>. born, n. 23; 14. 

210, 448 ; 19. 510 ; Iborene, 170. 

105 ; Iborenne, 6 a. 517 ; Iborn, 

19. 138, 876; Ibore, 66, 517; 

ii. 13; 16. 716. See Beren. 
I-boreje, pp. saved, 176. 167; 

Iboruwen, 9. 48 ; Iborhen, 7. 

129. See Bergen. 
I-bred, pp. bred, 16. 1724. A.S. 

bredan, to nourish, from brod, a 

brood, see Skeat (s. v. breed, 

p. 787). 
I-brocht, pp. brought, I. 170; 13. 

no; Ibroht, i. 199. A.S. ge- 

brQ&t., weak form of gebnmgen. 

See Bringen. 
I-broken, pp. used, 9. 149. A.S. 

gebrocen. See below. 
I-brucen, v. to enjoy ; Ibruce, I 

pr. s. stibj. i. 29. A.S. gebriican, 

to enjoy, eat. See Bruken. 
I-brusted, pp. bristled, rough, 6 a. 

512. From A.S. ftyrs/, bristle; 

cp. Lat. expression, horrens atiro. 
I-bunde, pp. bound, 19.1128. See 

I-bureJ), pr. s. (it) behoves, 14. 75. 

A. S. gebyrian, to belong, to be 

fitting, to behove. Cf. Birr]?. 
I-bureje, pt. s. subj. would pre- 
serve, 3 a. 41. See Bergen. 
Ic, pron. I, i. 29; 15. 2133; Ice, 

5. 962 ; Ich, 17 6. 157, 161. 

A. S. fc. Cf. Ich, Ih, Ihc, Hie, 

Y, Nich. 
I-cast, pp. cast, 36. 73. See 

Ich. See Ic. 
Ich, 170. 241. Notes. 
I-changet, pp. changed, 9. 193. 

See Chaungi. 

Ichim, (for Ich him), I him, 8 a. 88. 
Ichulle, (for Ich wule), I will, 8 a. 

41, 75 ; Ich chule, 8 6. 54. 
Ichwer, adv. everywhere, 17 a. 

87. A corrupt form of A.S. 

ceghiu&r, everywhere. 



I-cleopet, pp. called, 8 b. 64 ; Iclep- 

ed, 30. 86; 13.90; 170.104; 

Iclepede, 36. i iS ; 13. 102 ; Iclep- 

e'S, 3 a. 3. See Cleopien. 
I-cnowen, v. to know, 176. 163, 

386 ; Icnawe, pr. s. subj. 36. 26 ; 

Icnawen, pp. acquainted, 8 a. 84. 

A. S. gecndwan* Cf. I-knawe, 

I-come, pt. //. came, i. so; pp. 

come, i. 134; 6b. 3; 19. 1147, 

1340 ; Icome of, descended from, 

19. 419; Icomen, 19. 20. See 

I-coren, pp. chosen, 11.67; Icorene, 

3 a. 77 ; 1 7 a. 104. A. S. gecoren, 

pp. of cedsan. See Cheose. 
I-croked, adj. crooked, 16. 1676. 

Cf. Crokes. 
I-cumen, pp. come, 6 a. 3, 54 ; 

Icume, 19. 162. A. S. gecumen, 

pp. of gecuman, pt. gecom. Cf. 

I-cundur, adj. comp. more akin, 16. 

85. A. S. gecynde, natural. 
Icwedo,pp. spoken, 16. 1653. A.S. 

gecweden, in Chron. ann. 456, pp. 

ofgecivedan, to speak. Cf. Cwe- 

I-cweme, adj. pleasing, 7. 208. 

A. S. gecweme, agreeable. Cf: 

I-cweme, v. to please, 16. 1784; 

Icwemet, pp. 7. 172. A. S. ge~ 

civeman. Cf. I-queme. 
I-cwiddet, pp. spoken, 7. 107. A.S. 

gecwidod, pp. of cwidian, cwydian, 

to speak. 
Idel, adj. idle, 40. 15 ; 9. 42, 86 ; 

17 a. 9 ; Idele, pi. 9. 86, 255 ; on 

idel, in vain, j6. 920. A. S. Idel, 

empty, useless, on idel, in vain ; 

cp. O. S. idal, empty, and G. eitel, 

worthless. Cf. Ydel. 
Idelnesse, sb. idleness, 9. 211 ; 

170. 6. 7. A.S. idelnis. 
I-demed, pp. judged, 9. 48 ; 17*1. 

106; Idemd, 176. 106, 173. See 


I-dodded, pp. cropped, 9. 220. See 

Halliwell (s. v. dod). 
I-doluen, pp. digged, 3 b. 49. A. S. 

gedolfen. See Deluen. 
I-don,/>/>. done, 1. 198 ; 36.65; 176. 

15; disposed (in mind), 6 a. 1 8 ; wel 

idon, well disposed, 6 a. 1 26, 360 ; 

Idon under, got the better of, de- 
ceived, 19. 1463 ; Idone, done, 

19. 446 ; Ida, put, 13. 56. See 

Don (i). 
I-dreaued, pp. troubled, n. 58, 82. 

A . S. gedrefed, pp. of gedrefan, to 

trouble, afflict : O. S. gi-drobictn ; 

cp. O. H. G. dniaben (Otfrid), G. 

Idrunke, pp. drunk, 13. 108. See 

Idude (for I dude), I did, 176. 2. 

See Dude, 
leden, pt. pi. went, 2. 47. See 

.I-eveset, pp. trimmed, clipped, 9. 

222. A.S. ge-efesod, pp. of efesiati 

(B. T.) ; see Skeat (s.v. eaves}. 
I-falle, pp. fallen, 170. 196. A. S. 

gefeallen. See Fallen, 
I-fare, pp. conveyed, 16. 400. See 

Faren (3). 
I-faren, pp. fared, gone. 6 a. 210 ; 

Ifare, 16. 1709; 19. 468. See 

Faren (i). 
I-fere, sb. companion, ij a. 102; 

19. 102 ; 221, 1141 ; Iferen, pi. 

176.102,297. A.S.gefera. Cf. 

Y-fere, I-uere, 3e-feren. 
I-feren, adv. together, 176. 233.- 

A. S. on geftre, in company = iu 

comitatu, Lu. ii. 44. Cf. I-uere. 
I-finden, find, 7.68, 196 ; 176. 

243. A. S. g.$,'ldan. 
I-flod (for In flod), in flood, 10. II. 

See Flod. 

Ifol (for In fol), 7. 20. See Fol.. 
I-fonded, pp. experienced, 1 7 a. 

153. See Fandie. 
I-foU, pr. pi. take, 16. 1645. A. S. 

gefop, pr. pi. of gefon, to take. 

Cf. I-vo. 




I-founde, pp. found, 19. 779. A.S. 

gefunden. See Finden. 
I-fulde, />/. s. felled, knocked down, 

19. 1526. A.S. gefelde, pt. of 

gefellan, to cause to fall, kill. See 

I-fullet, pp. filled, 7. 109. A. S. 

gefylled, pp. of gefyllan, to lill. 

See Fullen. 
I-funde, pp. found, 170. 69, 177 ; 

17 b. 179; 19. 967. A.S. ge- 

f widen. See Finden. 
I-garcket, pp. prepared, 7. 199, 

A. S. gegearcod,pp. ofgegearcian, 

to prepare. See Giarkien. 
I-goded, pp. benefited, 9. 325. 

A.S. gegodod, pp. of gtidian. See 

I-gon, v. to go, 9. 20; pp. 19. 187. 

A. S. gegdn, to go. 
JC-grseten, pt. pi. greeted, 6 a. 36. 

A. S. gegretten, pt. pi. of gegrelan, 

to greet. See Greten. 
J-grauen, pp. graven, engraved, 19. 

1178; Igraue, 19. 566. A.S. 

gegrafen, pp. of grafan, to dig, 

to grave, engrave, carve. See 

I-grede, sb. shouting, clamour, 16. 

1643. From A.S. grcedan, to 

cry out. See Grede. 
J-grei'Set, pp. prepared, 7. 105. See 

I-gret, pp. magnified, shown to be 

great. A. S. gegredtod, pp. of 

gredtian, to become great. 
I-gult, pp. sinned, 1 7 b. 1 1. A. S. 

g e gylt} PP- ofgyltan. See Gilten. 
I-gurd, pp. girded, 9. 159. A.S. 

gegyrded, pp. of gyrdan. See 


Ih, pron. I, 7. 197. See Ic. 
I-hserde, pt. s. heard, 6 a. 527. 

See I-heren. 
I-hsejed, pp. exalted, 6 a. 306. A. S. 

gehedd, pp. of hedn, to heighten. 
' SeeHeien. 
,1-halden, pp. held, 6 a. 204, 558. 

See Healde. 

I-haten, pp. called, named, 3 a. 4; 

3 6. 56 ; 6 a. 68 ; 7. 10 ; lhate, 

6 a. 133. A. S. gehdten. See 


Ihc, />ron. I, 19. 304, 664. See Ic. 
I-healden, v. to hold, 176. 56. 

A. S. gehealdan. Cf. I-holde. 
I-hende, adv. near, 13. 61,67. A.S. 

gehende. Cf. Hende. 
I-heorted, adj. hearted, 9. 35. See 

I-heren, v. to hear, 3 a. 74, 103; 

36. 29; Ihere, 16. 224; 19. 

1282; Ihereft, pr. s. 7. 130; pi. 

36. 19 ; 9. 62 ; 16. 222 ; Iherde, 

pt. 5.80.27; 16.22,1657; 19. 

971 ; Ihereft, Ihere]), imp. pi. 13. 

119; lherd,/>/>. 3 a. 83; 60.99; 

80.85:16.1763. A.S. geherartj 

pt. geherde, pp. gehered. Cf. 

Inure, Iheerde, Ihorde. 
I-heret,/>j>. praised, 80. 152. A. ' 

gehered, pp. of kerian. See 

I hialde, pp. 13. 113. A.S. ge- 

healden. See Healde. 
I-hoked, adj. hooked, 16. 1675. 

From A. S. hoc, a hook. 
I-hold, sb. fortress, hold, 16. 621. 

A. S. geheald, a holding. 
I-holde, i/. to keep, 170. 57 ; pp. 

held, 16. 1723. See I-healden, 
I-hondsald, pp. betrothed, lit. 

made over after a giving of the 

hand, 80. 18. Icel. handsala, to 

stipulate, from handsal, a hand- 
I-horde, pt. s. heard, 6 b. 527, 559. 

See I-heren. 
I-hote, pp. bidden, 19. 1053. See 

I-hote, pp. called, named, 6 b. 68., 

J33; 19.201. See Haten. 
I-hud, pp. hid, 170. 76. See 

I-hudeket, pp. hooded, 9. 264. 

From A. S, hdd, a hood. 
I-hure, v. to hear, 6 b. 298 ; 14. 

14. See I-heren. 



I-hwulen, v. to be at leisure, 9. 

208. See Hwil. 
I-iuen, v. to give, 2. 128, 144. See 

I-kindled, pp. whelped (of the 

lioness), 12. 16. See Stratmann 

I-knawe, v. to know, 170. 167. 

See I-cnowen. 
xl-knotted, pp. knitted, 9. 167. 

. See Cnotted. 
I-koruen, pp. cut (of hair), 9. 259. 

A. S. ge:orfen } pp. of ceorfan. See 

I-kruned, pp. crowned, n. 52. 

See Cruned. 
I-kud, pp. made known, 17 a. 165. 

See CutSen. 
I-kumen, pp. come, 9. 146. A. S. 

gecumen, pp. of cnman. See 

I-laced, pp. laced, 9. 168. Cp. 

Norm. F. lace, a cord, noose ; 

O. F. laqs ; Lat. laqneus. 
I-lad, pp. led, 170. 5; 176. 5; 

brought, 16. 398. A. S. geladed, 

pp. of l<zdan. See Leden. 
I-laste, performed, 176. 246 ; 

Read Nilasle, did not perform. 

A. S. gelaste, pt. of gelastan, to 

perform, carry out. See Geleste. 
I-latet, adj. visaged, 8 b. 1 74. See 

Late, Laten. 

lie, adj. each, 15. 2355. See JElc. 
lice, adj. dat. same, 2. 86. 193 ; 

Ilca, dat. pi. 3 a. 35. A. S. ilca, 

the same (always with the def. 

art.). Cf. like, Hike, Ilek. 
Ilch, adj. each, II. 8 1. See JElc. 
lie, sb. isle, 19. 1340. Norm. F. 

ille ; O. F. isle ; Lat. insula. 
I-leaded, adj. fitted with lead, 9. 

161. From A. S. lead', cp. Du. 

lood, and M. H. G. I6t (Weigand). 
I-leaned, pp. lent, 9. 17. A. S. 

gelaned, pp. of lanan. See 


I-led. pp. led, 9. 4. See I-lad. 
I-ledene, sb. gen. pi. of compatriots, 

60.73. A. S. gele6dena, 

of geleqdj compatriota, conter- 

I-lef, imp. s. believe, trust, 14. 196, 

A.S. gelefan, gelyfan. Seel-leue. 
I-leid, pp. laid, 176. 12. A.S. 

gelegd, pp. of lecgan. See Leg- 
I-leie, pp. lien, lain, 19. 1151. A.S. 

gelegen, pp. of licgan. See Lig- 


I-leitinde. See Leitinde. 
Ilek, Ileke, 13. 81, 82 (MS.) for 

like, adj. same. See lice. 
I-lenet, pp. given, bestowed, 8 a. 

82. See I-leaned. 
I-leorned, pp. learned, 16. 216. 

A. S. geleorned f pp. of leornian. 

See Leornen. 
J.-lesed,pp. set loose, released, 17 a. 

136. A. S. Used (with prefix), pp. 

of lesan, liesan, to release. See 

Ilespiles, hedgehogs, 9. 160, 

In Trevisa, I. 339, ilspiles 

' hericii ' (Higden) ; Lat. ericii, 

hedgehogs. The word properly 

means the ' quills of the hedge- 
hog,' being from A. S. il, also igel 

(cp. Icel. ignll) +pil, a dart ; Lat. 

I-leste, v. to perform, 17 a. 238; 

to last, continue, 170. 313; 16. 

341 ; l\est,pr.s. 16. 851 ; IlesteJ), 

1 6. 347. See Ge-leste. 
I-lete, sb. face, demeanour, 16. 403, 

1715. Cp. Du. gelaat, face, 

countenance. See Late. 
I-leten, pp. let flow, 9. 225. A. S. 

gel<zten,pp. ofletan, to allow. See 

I-letJered, adj. made of leather, 9. 

161. A. S. leder, leather. 
I-leued, pp. lived, 6 6. 44. A. S. 

gelifod, pp. oU/Jian. See Liuien. 
I-leuen, v. to believe, 170. 251; 

176. 49; Ileue, 170. 50, 174; 

Ileueft, I pr. pi. 170. 131 ; 176. 

176. A. S. gelefan. Cf. I-lef. 

ft 1 J.J 



I-leuen, sb. pi. beliefs, 6 a. 105, 

159. A. S. geledfa, belief. 
I-leyd, pp. laid, 170. 12. See 

I-lich, adj. like, 7. 148; 16. 316, 

318; 19. 1078; Iliche, II. 23; 

19.184,313,340; Ilik, 19.502; 

Ilikest, superl. 7. 120. A. S. 

gel tc. 
I-liche, adv. alike, 7. 133 ; 16. 

718. A. S. gelice. See ;c-lice. 
I-liche, sb. like, equal, 19. 18 ; 

Hike, pi. equals, 16. 157. A. S. 

I -like, sb. likeness, 19. 289. For 

A. S. gelicnes. 
like, adj. same, 30. 31, 34; 13. 

65; 19. 476; liken. 6 a. 67; 

Hike, 5. 1092. See lice. 
Ilkenes, adj. of every, 12, 244. 

Illc, adj. each, 5. 1561. See JElc. 
Ille, adj. bad, 17 a. 73; 176. 204; 

pi. the bad, 15. 1916. Icel. 

Ille, adv. badly, 19. 675. Cf. 

Ille, sb. J?e ille, the evil one, the 

(ievil, 16. 421. 
Iloken, v. to observe, 30. 96 ; 

Ilokie, pr. s. subj. 3 a. 109. A. S. 


I-lome, adv. often, 7. 20 ; 16. 1765, 
. 1768; 176. 125. A..S. geltime, 

usual, frequent, cp.gelojna, utensil, 

loom. Cf. Lome. 
I-lomp, pt. s. happened, 6 a. 279. 

A. S. gelamp, pt. of gelimpan. 

See Limpen. 
I-long, adv. along, II. 96. A. S. 

I-loten, pp. befallen, 6 a. 504. A. S. 

gehloten, appointed by lot, pp. of 

gehleotan, fzfitioJtlnt, See Lot. 
I-lose, pp. lied, 16. 847. A. S. 

gelogen, pp. of Icogan. See 

Iluued, pp. lived, 6 a. 44. See 


I-lyche, adv. alike, 14. Si ; 170. 
67. See I-liche. 

I-maced,/>/>. made, 1. 191 ; Imaked, 
13. 89. A. S. gemacod, pp. of 
macian. See Macien. 

I-mantlet, adj. mantled, 9. 263. 
From O. F. mantel, a cloak ; Late 
Lat. mantellum; Lat. mantelum 
(in Plautus). 

Ime = I + me, 17 b. 6. 

I-meind, pp. mingled, 16. 18, 428. 
See Imengd. 

I-rnelen, v. to utter, speak, n. 48. 
A. S. gemcelan. 

I-membred, pp. parti-coloured, 9. 
1 88. O. F. membre, membered 
(in Blason), see Cotgrave. ' Mem- 
bered ' is a technical term in 
heraldry, used in blazoning a bird 
with different tinctures. Cp. Du- 
cange (s. v. membrare). 
I-mene, adj. common, general 
(heads), 9. 31. A.S. gemcene, 

I-mengd, pp. mixed, 176. 144. 
A. S. gemenged, pp. of mengan. 
See Mengen. 

I-ment, pp. intended, 19. 80 1. 
A. S. gemynt, pp. of gemyntan, 
myntan, to determine, resolve. 
See Minten. 

I-meten, v. to find, 176. 241 ; 
Imete, 170. 233 ; 19.950; Imet- 
ten, pt. pi. 6 a. 35. A.S. ge- 
metan, pt. pi. gemetlon. Cf. 

I-imddes,^>r/>. in the midst of, 10. 
6. Cp. M. E. on midden ; A. S. 
on middan, in the middle. The 
suffix -s, properly the sign of a gen. 
case, is commonly used to form 
adverbs. See Skeat (s.v. amidst). 
Cf. Amidden. 

I-mint, pp. purposed, 4 c. 30. See 

I-mong, prep, among, 6 a. 282. 
A. S. getnang. 

I-munt, pp. intended, 9. 1 16. See 



In, sb. abode, 8 6. 18. A. S. inn, 
dwelling, house. See Inne. 

In, prep, into, 36. Si; on, 66. 
404. A. S. in. Cf. I, Hin. 

Ine, prep, in, 3 6. 36 ; 9. 102 ; 16. 

Ine(I + ne), I 1101,13. 116; 176. 

16, 225. 
In-hinen, s6./>/. domestics,S 6. 171. 

See Notes. 
Innan, prep, in, 30. 27. A. S. 

innan. Cf. Innen. 
Inn-come, ^tf. s. subj. should come 

in, j. 14. 
Inne, prep, into, I. 194; in, 30. 


Inne, adv. in, 2. 28 ; 176. 249. 
Inne, sb. dat. abode, 6 a, b. 505 ; 

Innen, 6 a. 223. See In. 
Inne -midde- war de, in the midst 

of, 3 a. 46. A. S. middeweard, 

Innen, prep, within, 2. 194. See 


Innoh, enough, i. 177. See Inch. 
InnoU, sb. womb, i. 69. A. S. 

Innresst, adj. superl. inmost, 5. 

1017. A. S. inner a t inner, in- 

nemest, inmost. 
Imrwarrd, adj. sincere, 5. 1562. 

A. S. inneweard. 
Innwarrdlij, adv. sincerely, 5. 

1346. A. S. inweardlice. 
pin-obedience, sb. disobedience, 9. 

6. Lat. inobedientia. 
Inch, enough, 5. 1442; Sb. 73; 

10. 64 ; 176. 391. A. S. genoh ; 

Goth, ganoks ; cp. G. genii g. *Cf. 
> Innoh, Ynouh, Onoh. 
I-nouh, enough, 170. 377; 9. 

I-nowe, abundant, 14. 199; Inow, 

enough, 18. 706. 
Inoje, enough, 16. 16; 19. 182, 

865, 1017, 1244; Inojh, 176. 


Inre, adj. conip. inner, 9. 192. A. S. 
inner a. 

Insist, sb. insight, 16. M)5- O. 

Northumb. insiht argumentum, 

see Skeat (s. v. insight}. 
Intil, prep, into, 18. 438, 725. See 


Into, prep, unto, 3 b. 9 ; 18. 535. 
In-witJ, prep, within, 7. 8 ; 9. 

I-offred, pp. offered, 13. 72. See 

loie, sb. joy, 18. 662 ; 19. 1377, 

1385. O. F. joie, goie ; Lat. 

gaudia, pi. of gaudium, joy. Cf. 

I-ordret, pp. ranked, 7. 100. From 

O. F. ordre, ordene ; Lat. ordi- 

nenij ace. of ordo, order. 
I-orne, pp. run, 19. 1158. A. S. 

ge-urnen,pp. of ge-iernan, to run. 

See Eornen. 

Joye, sb. joy, 19. 414. See loie. 
I-pined, pp. tormented, 17 b. 189; 

Ipyned, 17 a. 187. See Pinen. 
I-pluht, pp. plighted, 9. 19. See 

I-queme, v. to please, 176. 95; 

IquemeJ), pr. s. 19. 485 ; Iquemde, 

pt. pi. 176. 273; Iquemd, pp. 

17 b. 174. See I-cweme. 
I-rattes (for In rattes), in rag?, 10. 

6. See Rattes. 
I-readi, adv. readily, 8 a. 38. A.S. 

gercede, ready. 
Irelonde, sb. Ireland, 19. 762. 

A. S. irlandf iraland, land of the 

Iren, ib. iron, 9. 159. A.S. iren t 

{sen : O. H. G. isarn. 
I-reste, sb. rest, 30. 88, icS. A.S. 

Irisse, adj. Irih, 19. 1016, 1390; 

Irish, 16. 322. A. S. iri&c. Cf. 

Irnene, adj. pi. of iron, 10. 102. 

A. S. irenena, of iren, adj. 
I-runge, pp. rung, 19. 1028. See 

Is, pr. s. is, I. 35. A. S. (West 

Saxon and O.Nortlmmb.)/s: Goth. 



ts/; cp. Lat. est, Gr. lari, Skt. 

asti. See Skeat (s.v. are). Cf. 

Es, His. 

Is, /-OH. his, 15. 2356. See His. 
Is, pron. thenvi2. 12 ; 15. 2130, 

2404. See Hes. 
I-sseh, pt. s. saw, 6 a. 231. See 

I-said, pp. said, 176. 141. A. S. 

gesagd, pp. of secgan. See Seg- 

I-sal (for I sal), I must, 176. 141. 

See Sal. 
I-sceawed, pp. showed, 36. 52. 

A. S. gesceawod, pp. of sceawian. 

See Sceawen. 
I-schaven, pp. shaven, 9. 221. 

A.S.gescaferiypp.ofsceafan. Cf. 

I-schawed, pp. showed, 7. 107. 

See I-sceawed. 
I-sched, pp. shed, n. 88. See 

I-schrud, pp. clothed, 11.51. A. S. 

gescryd, pp. of gescrydan. See 


I-scilde, pr. s. subj. shield, 36. 131. 
A.S. gescyldan } to shield. See 

I-scote, pp. shot, 14. 421. A.S. 

gescoten, pp. of sceotan. See 

I-scrud, pp. clothed, 6 b. 199. See 

I-secgft, pr. s. confesses, I. 172. 

A. S. gtsecgd, pr. s. of gesecgan, 

to declare. 
I-segd, pp. said, I. 31 ; Iseid, 36. 

14; 7. 190; 9. 28; Iseide, men- 
tioned, 7. 169; Ised, 16. 395. 

A. S. gescegd, pp. of secgan. See 

Iseh, pt. s. saw, 30. 54 ; 7. 65, 

103; 8 a. 122; Isehen, pp. seen, 

7. 64. See I-seon. 
I-seih, pt. s.saw, 176. 265 ; Iseien, 

/>/. />/. 176. 99, 102 ; Iseie, pt. s. 

subj. 9. 257; 176. 118; Iseien, 

pp. 9. 185. See I-seon. 

IseldSe, ?5. happiness, 176. 15. 

A. S. gesdlp. See SelSe. 
I-send,/>/. sent, 3 b. 42 ; Isende, 3 b. 

78 ; Isent, i. 80; 19. 990. 

sended, pp. ofsendan. See Seiiden. 
I-sene, v. to see, 16. 275,624,846; 

19. 92 ; pp. 16. 116; 176. 344; 

19. 684. See I-seon. 
I-seon, v. to see, 8 a. 148; 17 a. 

2 S> 373, 376; Iseonne, ger. II. 

30; Iseo, i pr. s. 30. 66; 16. 

327 ; Iseo)?, pr. s. 16. 424; Iseo'S, 

pi. 7.73. A.S.geseQn,pt.geseah,pl. 

gescegon (gesdwon}, pp. gesegen 

(gescweti) Cf. I-seeh, I-seh, I- 

seih, I-sene, I-seyh, I-se^, 

I-serued, pp. served, 13. 107; 19. 

1338. See Serum. 
Iset, pp. set, 3 a. 93 ; Isett, I. 10, 

22 ; Isette, 7. 100; 9. 314. See 

I-seyh, />/. s. saw, 170. 257; 

Iseyen, pt. pi. 1 7 a. 98 ; Iseye, pt. 

s. subj. I'j a. 218. See I-seon. 
I-se's'B, pr. s. sees, i. 174; Ise3, pt. 

s. 16. 29. I-seje, pi. 19. 760. 

See I-seon. 
I-shote, pp. shot, poured, 16. 23. 

See I-scote. 
I-sien, v. to see, 16. 385 ; 17 b. 18, 

160, 286 ; Isi, i. 63, 159 ; Isist, 2 

pr. s. 9. 182 ; IsihS, pr. s. 9. 151 ; 

Isty, 16. 407. See I-seon. 
1-sih.tJe, sb. dot. sight, 6 a. 206. 

A. S. gesihd. 
I-sleiene, pp. pi. slain, 9. 38. A. S. 

geslagen (geslageti}, pp. of sledn t 

See Slean. 
Isliked, pp. made sleek, smooth, 

16. 841. See Stratmann (s.v. 

slikieii) : ( he can so wel his wordes 

slike' (Gower). 
I-slit, pp. slit, 6 ct. 437. . A. S. ge- 

sliten, pp. of si i tan. 
I-some, adj. in harmony, 16. 1735 ; 

peaceable, 16. 1 80. A. S. gesdm. 
I-somned,/)/>. assembled, 6 a, b. 72. 

A. S. gesomnod, pp. of gesomnian. 


I-soflet, pp. verified, 7. 106. A. S. 

gesodod, pp. of gesobian, to prove 

the truth of. 
I-soste, pt. pi. sought, 19. 39. A.S. 

ges6hton, pt. pi. of gesecan. See 

I-speken, pp. spoken, 36. 83 ; 7. 

195; 176. 9; Ispeke, 170. 9. 

A. S. gesprecen, pp. of sprecan. 

See Specen. 
I-spend, />/>. spent, 17 a, 6. 12. 

From A. S. spendan. See Spene. 
I-sprunge, />/>. sprung, 19. 548. 

A. S. gesprungen, pp. of springan. 

See Springen. 
I-spused, $p. espoused, 19. 1050. 

From O. F. espouser. 
Isreelisse, adj. Israelitish, 46. 105. 
I-stihd, /#. stitched, 9. 260. A. S. 

gesticod, pp. of stician, to prick, 

I-stirret, /^. starred, 7. 92. Cp. 

' J>e stirrede bur,' S. Marh., 22. 

SeeStratmann (s.v. steorre). From 

A. S. steorra, a star. 
I-stonde, />/>. stood, 3 &. 8. A. S. 

gestanden, pp. of standan. See 

I-storue, />/>. dead, 19. 1181. A. S. 

festorfen, pp. of steorfan, to die. 
ee Sterfen. 
I-strengped, />/>. strengthened, 13. 

1 1 8. See Strengflen. 
I-streoned, pp. procreated, 9. 25 ; 

Istriened, descended, i. in. A. S. 

gestreoned, pp. of gestrednan. See 

I-sturbed, pp. disturbed, 9. 313. 

From Lat. turba. 

I-sundred, pp. scattered, 9. 294. 
A. S. gesundrod, pp. of gesundrian, 

to separate. See Sundren. 
I-suneged, pp. sinned, 36. 6l. 

A. S. gesyngod, pp. of gesyngian. 

See Sinegen. 
I-swechte, pp. tormented, 8 b. 50. 

A.S. geswenct, pp. of geswencan, 

to afflict,trouble,causal ofswincan, 

to toil, labour. See Swenchen. 

l-swinc sb. toil; Iswinch, 170. 

196. A. S. geswinc. Cf. I-swynk. 
I-swink (for In swink), in toil, lo. 

69. See Swine. 
I-swolse, pp. swallowed, 1 6. 1^6. 

A. S. geszvolgen, pp. of swelgan. 

See Swolgen. 
T.-8wo$e,pp. swooned, 19. 428, 866. 

A. S. geswdgen, pp. of swogau, to 

sough, to sigh. Cf. Swojning, 

I-swynk, s&. toil, 170. 37. See 

It, pron. used pleonastically, 15. 

1920, 2109; 18. 591,664. See 

I-take, pp. taken, 19. 1452. See 

I-tauwed, pp. dressed, 9. 154. 

A. S. getawod, pp. of getawian, 

parare, reducere ad; cp. Goth. 

taujan, to do, make. 
I-tide, v. to betide, 16. 1733. A. S. 

getidan. Cf. Bit, Ityt. 
I-timien, v. to happen, 3 &. 109, 

112. A. S. getlmian. 
I -tit, pr. s. happens, if b. 125. 

See I-tide. 
I-tohen, pp. drawn, 8 b. 43 ; Itohe, 

trained ; ful itohe, badly trained, 

undisciplined. See I-tosen. 
I-told, pp. told, 13. 75. A.S. 

ge(eald,pp. oftellan. See Tellen. 
I-tO3en, pp. brought up, 16. 1/25. 

A. S. gelogen, pp. of teon. See 

I-turnd, pp. turned, 36. TOO; 

Iturnde, 9. 270. See Turnen. 
I-tyt, pr. s. happens, If a. 125. See 


I-J>anke, sb. dat. intention, 176. 69. 
IJ?e = In the, 5. 1709. 
I-Jjenche, pr. s. subj. think, 16. 

723. A. S. gepencan. 
I-per (for In ^er), in the, I. 143. 

See In and psere. 
I-pohten (for Hi Jjohten), they 

thought, 66. 423. See Hi and 




I-J>olien, v. to endure, 3 a. 45 ; 

I]x>lie, 36. ii. A. S. gel.olian. 

See pollen, 
fl-poncked, adj. minded, 9. 36. 

From A. S. gepanc, a thought. 
I-prunge, />/>. pressed near, 16. 38. 

A. S. geprungen, pp. of pringan. 

See J)ringen. 
I-ueedde, #p. fed, 6 a. 200. 

feded, pp. offedan. See Feden. 
I-useld (for lucelft), pr. pi. lay low, 

strike down, 6 a. 2 18. A. S. ge- 

I-uaid, pp. hated, 6 a. 349. From 

A. S. gefeogan, to hate. For 

forms of the pp. of M. E. ifeo^en, 

odisse : inceid, iueied, ifceied, see 

Jubiter, sb. Jupiter, 6 b. 1 21. Cp. 

Wright's Vocab. 801, ' jubiter, a 

day sterre.' 
ludas, sb. Judah, 15. 1054. Lat. 

ludas (Vulg.) ; Gr. 'louSas ; Heb. 

Judeus, sb. pi. Jews, 2. 85. Lat. 

Judceus, a Jew. Cf. Geus. 
Judewisshe, adj. Jewish, 5. 1120, 

1168. See below. 
Judisskenn, adj. Jewish, 5. 964, 

1107. A. S. Jiideisc. 
I-ved, pp. fed, 6 b. 200. See 

I-ueied, />/>. united, 9. 296. A. S. 

gefeged, pp. of gefcgan. 
I-veiped, />/>. treated with enmity, 
. 6 6. 349. From A.S.jtehd, enmity. 
luel, adj. evil, 4 c?. I Ars. yfel : 

O. S. 6z7. See Ufel. 
Iviel, sb. evil, 176. 19. A. S. yfel. 

See Ufel. 
I-uel, pt. s. befell, 13. 93. A. S. 

gefeoll, pt. of gefeallan. 
^ I-uele'S, pr. pi. feel, 9. 232. A. S. 
, gefelau. 
I-uere, adv. together, 16. 1716. 

See I-feren. 
I-uere, *&. pi. companions, 6 b. 466, 

552; lueren, 6 a. 465,552. See 


I-uestned, pp. fastened, 9. 136. 

See Festnen. 
luglurs, sb. pi. jesters, 9. 54 ; 

Norm. F. jugleor; Lat. jocula- 

Itihan, sb. John, 86. 155. Lat. 

Ivi, sb. ivy, 16. 27, 617. A. S. 

I-uindetS, pr. pi. find, 9. 355. A. S. 

lunge, adj. young, 2. 169. See 

lunglenges, disciples, 1. 124. 

A. S. geongling, a youngling. 
I-unne, pp. granted, 8 b. 16. A. S. 

geunnen,pp. of geunnan, to grant. 

See Unnen. 
I-vo, v. to catch, 16. 612. A. S. 

gefdn. Cf. IfoS. 

I-vo, sb. foe, 16. 1716. A. S. gefd. 
lurdon, sb. the river Jordan, 15. 

I-ureden, v. to feel, experience, n. 

38. A. S. gef redan frod, wise, 
lustise, sb. justice, 2. 12, 184. 

Norm. J?. justice ; Lat. jmtitia. 
I-uulled, pp. filled, 6 a. 515. See 

I-vynde, v. to find, 17 a. 59. A.S. 

gefindan. See I-uindetS. 
I-war, ac5/. aware, 16. 147 ; wary, 

17 a. 328; 176. 334. A.S. 

I-weddet, pp. wedded, 8 a. 76. 0. 

Northumb. geweddod, pp. of ge- 

ueddian, to betroth, Luke i. 27. 

Cf. Ywedde. 
I-went, pp. turned, 13. 105 ; gone, 

19. 440; Iwente, 19. 923. A.S. 

gewended, pp. of geweudan, to 

turn, go. 
I-whille, /ro/z. every, 5. 1002. A.S. 

I-wil, sb. will, 6 a. 391 ; 176. 14. 

346, 352. A.S.gewill. 
I-wimplet, pp. veiled, covered 

with a wimple, 9. 181. From A.S. 

winpel. See Skeat (s.v. wimple}. 

44 8 


I-wipet, pp. wiped, 7.119. From 

A. S. wipian. 
I-wis, adv. indeed, 4 b. 78 ; 1 6. 35 ; 

19. 196 ; Iwiss, I. 43 j A. S. gewis, 

certain ; see Skeat (s. v. ywis). 

Cf. Y-wis. 
I-wisse, sb. certainty ; mid iwisse, 

with certainty, 17 a. 232. Cp. 

O. H. G. gi-wissi (Otfrid). Cf. 

I- wist, pp. guarded, 7. 27. A. S. 

gewist,pp. of gewitan, to observe. 

See Wite (2). 

I-wiste, pi. s. knew, 176. 17. 
I-witen, v. to know, 6 0.51; to pro- 
tect, 60.467. A. S. gewitan, pf. 

gewhte, pp. gewist. Cf. I-wyten. 
I-woned, pp. wont, accustomed, 6 b. 

241. See I-wuned. 
I-worpe, v. tohappen, 6b. 180 ; pp. 

become, 16.660. See I-wurflen. 
I-wraht, pp. wrought, 3 a. 90 ; 8 a. 

34. -A. S. gervorht, pp. of gewyr- 

can. See Wirchen. 
I- writen,pp. written, 7. 176 ; Iwry- 

ten, 170. 118, 220; Iwrite, 176. 

118; Iwritene, pp. 9. 31. A. S. 

gewriten, pp. of gewrilan. See 

I-wrouhte, pp. wrought, made, 9. 

153. See I-wraht. 
I-wundet, pp. wounded, 8ct. 15. 

A. S. gewundod, pp. of gewundian. 
I-wune, sb. custom, wont, 6. 233. 

\A. S. gewnna. 
I-wuned./>/>.wont, accustomed, 170. 

58; dwelt, 170. 139. A.S. ge- 

witnod, pp. of gewunian, to dwell, 

abide, to be accustomed. Cf. 

I-wurden, v. to be, 7. 152. See 

I-wursed, pp. made worse, 9. 325. 

A. S. gewiersod, pp. of wiersian. 

See Wursien. 
I-wurtten, v. to be, become, 8 a. 

92; 9. 105; IwurSe, 6 a. 180; 

14. 435. A.S. gciviirtian. Cf. 

I-wurden. I-worpe. 

I-wyten, v. to know, 17 a. 374. 

See I-witen. 
I-3arked, pp. prepared, 6 ab. 475. 

A.S. gegearcod,pp. of gegearciaii* 

See G-iarkien. 
I-3eten, pp. eaten, 6 a. 503. A. S. 

geeten, pp. of^fffji, See Eten. 
I-3ette, pt. s. granted, 6 a. 411. 

From Icel. jdta, to say yes. See 

I-3irnd, pp. yearned, 8 a. 28. A.S. 

gegyrned, pp. of gyrnan. See 

I-3iue, pp. given, 16. 551. A.S. 

gegifen. See Gifen. 
Isolde, pp. requited, 19. 460,643. 

See Geld. 


Kables, sb. pi. cables, 18. 710, 

O. F. cable; Late Lat. capidum. 

a halter. 
Kserf, */. s. cut, 6 a. 433. See 

Kalde, adj. cold, 10. 114. A. S^ 

ceald. Cf. Chald, Chold, Kold. 
Kam, pt. s. came, 18. 451. See 

Kan, pr. s. can, 16. 720. See 

Kandel, &b. 18. 585. Lat. can- 

Kanunes, sb. pi. canons, 16. 729. 

O. F. cammie, canons, in Roland, 

3637 ; Church Lat. canonicus, a 

canon (of a church), lit. one on 

the church roll or list (Lat. canon}. 

Cf. Chanounes. 
Karf, pt. s. cut, 18. 471. A.S. 

cearf, pt. of ceorfan. See Keor- 

Karien, v. to care, be anxious about, 

II. 43; Kare, 170. 326; 19. 

1260. A. S. cearian (carian), 

from cam, care. 
Kat, sb. cat, 9. 128. 
Kaysere, sb. emperor, 18. 35.3. 



A. S. cdsere ; Goth. Zaisar, Caesar; 

Lat. Caesar. Cf. Keiser. 
Kedde, ft. s. shewed, 176. 193. 

A. S. cyffde, pt. of cydan. See 

Keis, s6. pi. stewards, key-keepers, 

lit. keys, 7. 38. A. S. ccsg-, a 


jiser, s6. emperor, S a. 9 ; 8 &. 

ii ; 10. 61 ; Keiseres, pi. 7. in. 

;e Kaysere. 
[emben, v. to comb, 9. 222. A.S. 

Kempes, sb. pi. warriors, 6 &. 10. 

A. S. cempa, fighter, warrior, 

Kene, adj. bold, 9. 82 ; 16. 1705 ; 

19. 164. A. S. cene ; cp. O. H. G. 

liuani (Otfrid), G. kuhn. 
Kenne, sb. dat. kin, kind, 176. 

340; 19. 144, 176, 997; Kennes, 

gen. s. 176. 363. See Gun. 
Keoruen, v. to cut ; Keoruinde, 

pr. part. 9. 77. A.S. ceorfan. 

See Kerue, Karf, Kserf, I- 

Kepen, v. to keep ; Kepe, 19. 115 ; 

Kepest, 2 pr. s. 19. 1329; Kepe]>J), 

pr. s. 5. 1277 ; Kep, imp. s. 19. 

750, 1299. A. S. cepan (cypan\ 

to sell, to keep, from ceap, price. 

See Cheap. 
Keppen, caps, 9. 169. A.S. 

cceppe, a cape, cover. 
Kerue, v. to cut, 19. 233. See 


se, v. to kiss, 19. 583; imp. s. 

19. 742. A.S. cyssan, from coss, 

a kiss : O. S. Russian, from ws. 

See Cussen. 
Keuel, s&. gag, 18. 547, 637. Icel. 

keflt, a piece of wood, whence 

Itefla, to gag. 
Kidde,^. s. shewed, 46. 61 ; pp. 

renowned, 10. 61 ; Kid, shown, 

15. 2357. A - s - o#<fe. ^- s -; 

cyfied, pp. of cydan. See Cu'Sen. 
Kides, s6. ^. s. kid's, 15. 1967. 
Cp. Dan. kid. 


Kime, sb. coming, 6 a. 526. A.S. 

cyme. See Cume. 
Kin, s6. race, family, 18. 393 ; fele 

kinnes, of many a kind, 46. 27; 

manie kinnes, of many a kind, 4 b. 

26: Kinne, g". />/. 46. 25; 5. 

1051, 1145, 1159. See Gun. 
Kinde, sb. natural characteristic, 12. 

15 ; family, 15. 2392, 2436. See 


Kinde, adj. native, 15. 2075; kin- 
dred, proper to kinship, kind, 15. 

2254, 2276, 2286. A. S. cynde, 

Kindelike, adv. kindly, like a 

kinsman, 15. 2500. See Cunde- 

Kine, adj. royal (in compounds). 

See Kyne. 
Kine-borne, adj. of royal birth, 6 a. 

336. A. S. cyneboren. 
Kine-dom, sb. royal power ; Kine- 

dome, dat. 3 a. 75. A.S. cyn^ 

Kine-lond, sb. kingdom, 6 a. in, 

Kine-scrud, sb. royal robes, u. 

34. See Scrud. 
Kine-stol, sb. royal throne, u. 

25. A. S. cyne-stol. 
Kine-wurfte, adj. royal, 8 a. 60. 
King, sb. king, 6 a, b. 235 ; Kinges, 

fen. s. 6a,b. 584; Kinge, dat. 
a. 265 ; Kingen, dat. pi. I. 36. 

A. S. cyning, lit. belonging to the 

kin or tribe : O. S. kuning. Cf. 

King-riche, sb. kingdom, 13. 16; 

Kingeriche, dat. 19. 17. For 

A. S. cynerice. 
Kirke, sb. dat. church, 12. 93; 

Kirrke, 5. 1099. See Cyrce. 
Kiste,/tf. s. kissed, 15. 2355. See 

Ki8en, v. to show, 12. 53; Kibe})J>, 

pr.s. 5.1131. See Cu'Sen. 
Knaue, sb. boy, 18. 409; 19. 950. 

A. S. cnapa, cnafa. 
Kne, sb. knee, 19. 786 ; Kneon. pL 




ii. 3; Knes, 18. 451 ; 19. 805. 

See Cneow. 
Knelede, pt. s. kneeled, 18. 482. 

M.E. knelen (in Ormulum, 6138). 

Cp. Dan. knccle, to kneel. 
Knewelyng, sb. kneeling, 19. 787. 

See Cnelinng. 
Knewen, pt. pi. knew, 15. 1935, 

2162. A. S. cneowon, pt. pi. of 

end-wan. See Cnawen. 
JKnict, sb. knight, 18. 343, 345 ; 

Knictes, pi. 1 8. 366, 371. See 

Knif, sb. knife, 9. 76; 18. 479, 

498 ; Kniue, dat. 19. 1 08. A. S. 

cnif (Wright's Vocab.). 
Knif-worpare, tb. knife-thrower, 

9. 75. See Worpen, 
Knijt, sb. knight, 19.482 ; Knijtes, 

gen. s. 19. 1548; Knijtes, pi. 19. 

49, 1547. See Cniht. 
Knijten, v. to knight, 19. 490; 

Knijte, 19. 435, 491 ; Kni3ti, 19. 

Kni3t-hod, sb. knighthood, 19. 

440, 545. A. S. cnihthdd, youth, 

Knyht, sb. knight, 14. 78; Knyhtes, 

pi. 14. 6; 19. 520. See Cniht. 
Kold, adj. cold, 1 8. 416. SeeKalde. 
Kon, pr. s. can, 16. 708. A.S. 

cann. See Cunnen. 
Konyng, *6. cony, rabbit, 170. 357, 

O.F. connin, connil ; Lat. cvni- 

culns. See Cunin. 
Kope, sb. cope, 1 8. 429. A. S. cop 

(Wright's Vocab.). 
Kouthen, pt. pi. could, 18. 369. 

See Cutte. 
Krike, sb. creek, 18. 708. Icel. Jtriki, 

a nook ; Swed. dial, krik, creek, 

cove ; see Skeat (s. v. creek). 
Krune, sb. crown, n. 52, 55. 

Icel. kruna j Lat. corona. See 

Ku, sb. cow, 9. 135 ; Kues, gen. s. 

9. 131. A.S. cu. 
Kuchene, sb. dat. kitchen, 9. in. 

A.S. cycen (cicen) ; Lat. coyuina. 

Kude, pt. pi. could, 15. 2366. See 

Kume, sb. coming, 16. 436, 526. 

See Cume. 
Kumen, v. to come, 9. 208; 15. 

1952 ; pr. pi. siibj. 1 1. 66 ; Kume., 

pr. s. stibj. 9. 242. See Cumen. 
Kunne, sb. dat. kin, kind, 6 a. 337 ; 

16.1674; 170. 202; 19. 8755 

Kunnes, gen. s. II. 92; 17 a. 

355; Kunne, gen. pi. n. 9. See 

Kunnen, v. to know ; Kunne, pr. 

pi. 16. 911 ; Kunnen, snbj.. 

9.300; c*v, 9,54; I7<i. 

299. See Cunnen. 
Kunrede, sb. dat. kindred, 16. 

1677. See Cunreadnes. 
Kanes-men, sb. pi. kinsmen, 17 a. 

257. See Cunes-mon. 
Kuppe, s6. cup, 15. 2047. See 


(Kurt, sb. court, 9. 40. See Curt.; 
Kurtel, f.b. kirtle, 9. 107. A.S. 

cyrtel, palla (Wright's Vocab.). 
Kussen, v. to kiss, 9. 281. See 

Ku'S, sb. acquaintance, 9. 266. A. S. 

cfiiSa, Ps. liv. 14. 
Ku'Se, pt. s. knew, could, 13. 17; 

1 6. 663, 714. See Cu-Se. 
Kuuertur, sb. covering, 9. 107. 

See Couerture. 
Kwene, sb. queen, 11. 57. See 

Kyn, sb. kin, race, 1 8. 414; 19. 

633. See Cun. 
Kyne, adj. royal, 18. 604. A. S. 

cyne. Cf. Kine. 
Kyng, sb. king ; Kynge, dat. 19. 

212. See King. 


La, inter] . lo! 1.68. A.S. Id. 

Lac, sb. gift, offering, 5, 964, 1002 ; 
17 b. 203; pi. 5. 1144; Lakes, 
5. 979; Lake, dat. s. 5. 1383; 



A. S. lac, play, fight, booty, gift, 

sacrifice : Goth, laiks, sport, dance, 

from laikati, to leap for joy. See 

Skeat (s. v. lark, 2). Cf. Loc, 

Lacchen, v. to seize. A.S. (ge)- 

loeccan, pt. (ge)l(Bhte, pp. (ge)l<ekt. 

Cf. Laucte, La$te, Lagt. 
Lace, v. to fasten, 19. 719 ; La- 
cede, pi. s. 19. 850. O. F. 

lacier, from las. See Laz. 
Ladie, sb. physician, 176. 306. 

A.S. Icece: O. H. G. Idhhi (Ta- 

tian); cp. O. Ir. liaig (Windisch). 

Cf. Leche. 
Laden, v. to lead, 176. 399 ; Lade, 

I7&. 123, 276; LadeS, pr. pi. 

176.213,250; Ladde, pt. s. 19. 

20, 1445, J538; 518; 

Ladden, 176. 93; Laedden, 6 a. 

518. A. S. l&dan, to lead, carry, 

lift, pt. ladde, pp. laded. Cf. 

Leden, Leaden, Lsed, Lat, 

I-lad, I-led. 
Ladlic, adj. hateful, 6 a. 587. A.S. 

ludlic. Cf. Loplich, Lodlich. 
Lood, ft.s. led, 2. 117. See Laden. 
Lsofdi, sb. lady, 6 a. 147. A.S. 

Mcefdige. Cf. Leafdi, Lefdi, 

Leuedis, Lauedi,,L8euedi. 
Lsefe. ib. dot. belief, 5. 1407. See 

Leoide, pt. s. laid, 2. 162 ; Lseiden, 

//. 2. 41. A. S. legde,pt. oUec- 

gan. to lay. See Leggen. 
Lam, s6. grant, 5. 1518. A. SJtcit, 

a loan ; cp. O. H. G. Ulian. Cf. 

Leeredd, ac//. the learned, the clergy, 

5. 967. A. S. (ge)lttred, pp. of 

gel&nin, to teach. Cf. Lered- 

Lset, pt. s. let, 2. 152 ; caused, 2. 

68. A. S. /eV, ledt, pt. of l^/a/i, 

/e7a>*. See Leten (A). 
Lsete, v. to leave, 17 6. 345. A. S. 

/tE/a, to let go, to permit. See 

Leten (A). 
Lceue, sb. farewell ; Norn laeue, 

took leave, 6a. 183, 413. See 

Loeuedi, sb. lady, 6 a. 129. See 

Lsewedd, adj. the unlearned, the 

Jaity, 5. 967. A.S. (ge)l<kwsd, 

enfeebled, pp. of lanuan, to weaken, 

also, to betray ; cp. lozwede majL, 

laicus (Wright's Vocab.). See 

Skeat (s. v. lewd). 
Laf, sb. loaf, 5. 1470. A.S.hldf: 

Goth, jfc&n/s, hlaibs ; cp. O. H. G. 

leib (Otfrid, Tatian). Cf. Lof. 
Lafe, sb. dat. belief, 5. 1537. A. S. 

\ge)ledfa. Cf. Leefe. 
Laferrd, s6. Lord, 5. 968. See 

Laford, sb. Lord, I. 13. See 

Lage, sb. law, I. 82; 12. 293; 

custom, 12. 23; Lagan,/)/. I. 81 ; 

Lages, 15. 2446. A.S. lagu ; O. S. 

lag (pi. lagn], a statute, decree ; 

Icel. log (=lagu, pi.), a law. Cf. 

La5e, Lawe, Lahe, Laghe. 
Lagelice, adv. lawfully, I. 165. 

A. S. lah-lice. Cf. Lawelych.8. 
Laglie, sb. law, 13. 17. See Lage. 
Lagt, pp. seized, 15. 2081. A.S. 

(ge)l&hf. See Lacchen. 
Lah, adj. low, 7. 108 ; Icel. Idgr. 

Cf. Loge, Louh, Lowe. 
Lake, adv. low, 8 a. 25. Cf. 

Louwe, Lose. 
Lahe, sb. law, habit, 7. 122 ; Lahen, 

pi. laws, religion, 8 a. 39. See 

Lahfulnesse, sb. dat. lawfulness, 

16. 1741. 
Lahhen, v. to laugh ; pr. pi. 10. IOQ. 

A.S. hlehhan, pt. hloh. Cf. 

Lauhwen, Louse. 
Lahter, sb. laughter, 10. in. A. S. 

hleahtor. Cf. Leihtre. 
La hwure, adv. at least, 3 a. 69. 

A. S. Id, lo + huru, at least. 
Lai, pt. s. lay, 4 c. 12; 19. 272 ; 

Laie, snbj. 19. 1272. A.S. loeg, 

pt. of licgan, to. lie. See Liggen. 

Gg 2 



Lake. See Lac. 

Lakenn, v. to offer, 5. 973, I33 1 J 

Lakesst, 2 pr. s. 5. 1172. From 

lac, a gift, offering. See Lac. 
Land, sb. land, 2. 60; dat. 2. 49; 

Lande, 2. 48. A. S. land. Cf. 

Lond, Lont. 
Lang, adj. long, I. 13; 66. 434; 

19. 494; Lange, adv. i. 95; 2. 

165; Lannge, 5. 1264. A. S. 

lang, comp. lengra, superl. lengest. 

Cf. Long, Leng. 
Lang-fridsei, sb. dat. Long Friday, 

i.e. Good Friday, 2. 87; Lange- 

fridai, 46. 117. Icel. langi-frjd- 

dagr; langa-fasta, the long fast, 

Lappe, sb. lappet, 19. 1217. A. S. 

l<zppa, a loosely hanging portion. 
Lare, sb. lore, teaching, I. 10; 5. 

1207; 6 a. 297. A. S. lor. Cf. 

Large, adj. liberal, 9. 341 ; 13. 

135. O. F. large; Lat. largvs. 
Lar-paw, sb. teacher ; Larbawes, 

pi. I. 94. For M. E. forms see 

Stratmann. A. S. Idrjf^eow^i.cp. 

Idreow (Sweet). See Lare, peow, 

and Lor-peaw. 
Lasse, adj. comp. less, 17 a. 212, 

353 ; adv. 17 a. 61. A. S. l<zssa, 

adj. ; Zees, adv. Cf. Lesse. 
Last, adj. superl. least, 176. 61, 

112, 357. A.S. /<es* (/cs0- 

Cf. Lest. 
Laste (i), sb. dat. ; at the laste, at 

last, 1 8. 637. lcd.dlesti = dleisti, 

on the track ; cp. A. S. on lds$ : 

Goth, laists, a track, footstep. 

See Skeat, p. 814. 
Laste (2), sb. dat. fault, II. 69. Icel. 

lostr, gen. lastar ; cp. O. S. lastar. 
Lasten, v. to last ; Laste, 18. 538 ; 

Last, pr. s. 17 b. 169 ; Laste, pt. 

s. extended, 19. 6 ; Lastede, 2. 

39. A. S. lastan, to last (Grein). 

Cf. Lesten, Lest, Leastinde. 
Lastung, sb. blame, detraction ; 

Lastunge, dat. 9. 66. Cp. 

O. H. G. lastrdn, to blame (Ta- 

tian). See Laste (2). 
Lat, pr. s. leads, i. 144; 17 a. 

336; 17 6. 342. A.S. l(Et. See 

Late, adj. late, 18. 691 ; Later, 

comp. I. 20; adv. 17 a. 133; 

Latst, mf/. superl. latest, last, i. 

9, 80. A.S. /</, slow, comp. 

laetra, superl. latost. 
Late, sb. behaviour, 5. 1213; Lates, 
v pi. gestures, manners, 9. 270. 

Icel. Idt, behaviour, manners, cp. 

Iceti, manner. See Lete, Lote, 

Laten (B). 
Laten (A), v. to let ; Late, in late, 

to let in, 19. 1058, 1511 ; Lat, 

pr. s. let, 1 6. 308 ; Late, 2 pr. s. 

subj. let, 1 8. 486; Lat. imp. s. 

16. 258, 260; Late]), imp. pi. 16. 

1 729, 1 735- ( 2 ) Laten > to leave 
forsake; Late$,/>r.s. forsakes, 176. 
128; Late, I pr. pi. snbj. let us 
leave, 17 b. 341. See Leten 

Laten '(B), v. to behave; LateJ)>, 
pr. s. 5. 1229. Icel. Idta, to let, 
permit, leave, also, to behave one- 
self. Cf. Leten (B), Ilatet, 
Late (sb.)v 

Laten (C), v. to delay, 176. 37. 
A. S. latian, cunctari (Grein) ; 
Goth, latjan. Cf. Leten (C). 

Latimer, sb. interpreter, 6 a, b. 
535. O. F. latinier, interpreter, 
properly one knowing Latin ; see 
Notes. Cf. Ledenes. 

Latst. See Late, adj. 

Lattow, sb. guide, leader, 8 b. 1 79. 
A. S. lateow, dux (Wright's 
Vocab.), better spelt Idtteow, Idt- 
pedw (Grein) = Idd-peow, cp. Iced 
teowas, guides, in Chron. ann. 
1097 ; from lad, a vrzy+peow, a 

LaS, sb. hatred, 8 a. 150. A.S. 
ld&, injury, enmity. 

LaS, adj. loath, reluctant, 8 a. 47 ; 
Latfe, hateful, 6 a. 158 ; to laJJe, 



for evil, 170. 62. A. S. lad, 

hateful, loathsome. Cf. Loft. 
liases, sb. pi. barns, 15. 2134. 

Icel. klada, a store house, barn. 
Laftfule, adj. hateful, loathsome, 

10. 30. 
LaUienge, sb. ace. invitation to a 

feast, I. 6. A. S. ladimg, invita- 

tion congregation. 
Laftieres, sb. pi. inviters, i. 103. 

From A. S. (ge)la$ian, to sum- 

mon, invite. 
Laftin, v . to loathe, hate, 8 a. 90. 

A. S. Iddian. 
Laucte, pt. s. took, 18. 744. A. S. 

(ge)l<Ehte. See Lacchen. 
Lauedi, sb. lady, 13. 5. See 

Lauerd, sb. Lord, 2. 116 ; 3 a. 

65, 75 J Lord, 6 a. 59 ; LauerS, 

86. 188; Lauerdes, gen. s. 30. 

4. 735 7- 173; 8 a. in. See 

Lauhwen, v. to laugh ; pr. pi. 

subj. 9. 257; Lauhweft, pr. s. 

9. 99, 117. See Lahhen. 
Lawe, sb. law, 170. 307 ; pi. 6 b. 

570 : Lawes, 6b. 555. See Lage. 
Lawelese, adj. lawless, 170. 289. 

See Lajelease. 
Lawelyche, adj. lawful, 14. 77. 

See Lagelice. 
Lay, sb. song, 19. 1575. O. F. 

lot ; O. Ir. Ided (Windisch). 
Laje, sb. law, religion, 3 b. 29 : 6a. 

3 a. 67 ; 17 &. 172 ; LaBen, laws, 
customs, 3 a. 52 ; 6 a. 570 ; plots, 
6 a. 326; Lajes, 176. 313; La3- 
hess, 5. 1163, 1219. See Lage. 

Lajelease, adj. lawless, 176. 295. 
Cf. Lawelese. 

Lajte, pt. s. took, 19. 243. A. S. 
(ge)l<zhte. See Lacchen. 

Laz, sb. lace, 9. 199. Norm. F. 
laz ; O. F. las, lags ; Lat. laquens, 
a noose, snare. Cf. Lace. 

Leaden, v. to lead, 7. 226; 8 a. 
29. See Laden. 

Leafdi, sb. lady, 6 b. 129 ; 8 a. 55 ; 

9. 194. See Lsefdi. 
Leafen, v. to leave, forsake; Leafde, 

pt. s. Sa. 5 ; Leaf, imp. s. 8 a. 

139. A.S.l<E/an. Cf.Leauen(2), 

Leuen (3). 
Leahtrum, sb. pi. dat. vices, 1. 91. 

A. S. leahtor, crime, from lea/tan 

(ledn\ to blame (Leo) : O. S. 

lahan: cp. O. H.G. /a^a(Otfrid). 
Lean, sb. reward, i., 157 ; 176. 

64. A. S. lean;. O. S. /o'; O.H.G. 

/dtt (Tatian). 
Icearen, v. to teach ; Leare, I pr. 

s. 6 a. 300 ; pr. s. subj. 7. 50 ; 

Leareft, 7. 228. See Leren. 
Leas, adj. false, deceitful ; Lease, 

8 a. 143; 8b. 1 80; 176. 259. 

A. S. leas, false, (also) loose : O. S. 

7ds, loose ; cp. Goth, latis, vain. 

Cf. Les. 
Leas, sb. falsehood, 8 b. 96. A. S. 

7s. See above. Cf. Les. 
Leastinde, adj. (pr. />.) lasting, 8 b. 

1 80. SeeLasten. 
Leasung, sb. leasing, falsehood ; 

Leasunge, dat. falseness, II. 75; 

pi. falsehoods, 9. 258. A. S. leds- 

ung, from leas. See Leas, 

Leaue, sb.' permission, 9. 309. 

A.S. leaf. Cf. Lseue, Lefue, 

Leauen (i), v. to believe, 8 a. 100. 

A. S. (ge)lyfan : O. S. (gi)l6bian ; 

cp. O. H. G. (gi}lonben (Otfrid, 

Tatian), Goth. (ga)laubjan. Cf. 

Leuen (2), Lefenn, Leue. 
Leauen, (2), v. to leave, 8 a. 39, 78. 

See Leafen. 
Leche, sb. physician, 170. 300. 

See Lache. 
Lecherie, sb. lewdness, 13. 123. 

O. F. lecherie, gluttony. See 

Lechnunge, sb. dat. healing, 8 a. 

16. A. S. Idcnung (Leo), from 

Idcnian, to heal. 
Lechur, sb. a lewd person. 13. 134 ; 



Lechurs, pi. 3 b. 126. O. F. 
lechiere, an epicure, from lecher, 
to lick; O.K.G.leccMn. 

Leden, v. to lead, 14. 76; 15. 
2193; 170. 346; 18. 379; to 
behave, 15. 2301 ; Ledenn, 5. 
1612; Lede, 14. 16; 170. 123, 
270, 387 : 18. 49, 686 ; to carry, 
19. 1427 ; Ledes, pr. s. 10. 92 ; 
Lede'S, pi. 6 a. 169; 17 a. 209, 
242; 16. 280; Leden, 4 a. 74, 
76; Ledde, pt. s. 30. 56; 15. 
2257, 2336; Ledden,^/. 2. 133; 
40.20; 10.79; I 5- 1 99> Led- 
denn, 5. 1502. See Laden. 

Ledenes, sb. pi. languages, 7. 112. 
M. E. leden, language, speech, 
Trevisa, 2. 313; see also Strat- 
mann ; A. S. lyden, language, Ex. 
xv. 23, prope'rly Latin, cp. Leden, 
John xix. 20. So Dante uses 
latino in the sense of language, 
see Tommaseo's Diet. s. v. See 
Chaucer 2 . p. 2 1 o. Cf. Latimer. 

Lef, adj. dear, 10. 28; 176. 73; 
18.440; 19.655; Lefe, I. in. 
See Leof. 

Lef, imp. s. permit, grant, 8 a. 148 ; 
8 b. 185 ; 10. 93. See Leuen (i). 

Lefde, pt. s. (there) remained, was 
left, 19. 1406 ; Lef, imp. s. re- 
main, 19. 780. See Leuen (3). 

Lefdi, sb. lady, 7. 218 ; 9. 364 ; n. 
2 I 7; 19- 335 350- SeeLeefdi. 

Lefenn, v. to believe, 5. 1153, 
1 349 ; Lef, imp. s. 8 b. So. See 
Leauen (i). 

LefTul, adj. believing, 15. 2524. 
See above. 

Lefien, v. to live ; Lefie, i pr. s. 
I. 180; Lefede, pt. pi. i. 180. 
A. S. levjian. See Liuien. 

Lefrnon, sb. beloved one, 10. 19, 
91. See Leofmon. 

Lefu.9, sb. farewell ; Nam lefue, 6 b. 
183,413. SeeLeaue. 

Leggen, v. to lay, Legge, 19. 
1069; Leie, 19. 302; LeggetS, 86. 118; 170. 314; L*- 

ge"o, 176. 320; Leide, pt. s. laid, 

6 a. 430; 19. 692; Leyde, 18. 

382 ; Leiden,/)/, pi. 40. 21 ; 19. 

90; Leid, pp. 15. 2426. A.S. 

lecgan, pt. legde, lede, pp. gelegd, 

geled. Cf. Leyn, Leist, Leyd, 

Lesjesst, Lseide, I-leid, I-leyd. 
Leie,, sb. flame, 86.84; 176. 282; 

Leies, pi. 30. 19. A.S. leg, lig> 

(Beowulf) : Icel. logi ; cp. O. E.G. 

long (Tatian), and O. Ir. loche, 

lightning. Cf. Leye. 
Lsigen, lay, 15. 1920. A.S. 

Icegon, pt. pi. of licgan, to iie. 

See Liggen. 
,Leihtre, sb. dat. laughter, 9. 57 

See Latter. 
Leire, *6. dat. sick-bed, 4 c. 44. 

M. E. leir, cp. leirstoive, sepulchre; 

Lajamon, 22874. A.S. Icger, a 

lair, couch, from licgan, to lie 

down. See Liggen. 
Leirede, pp. laid on a sick-bed, 4 c 

50 ; See above. 
Leist, 2 pr. s. layest, 3 b. 64 ; Leib\ 

pr. s. lays, 36. 63; 9. 84, 275. 

See Leggen. 
Leit, sb. lightning, 3 a. 34. A. S. 

liget (Grein), l<zgt } in Chron. aim. 

Leitinde, pr. p. flaming, 8 b. 84. 

From A.S. liget (see above) ; cp. 

Goth, lauhatjan, to shine as light- 
Lemene, sb. gen. pi. of lights, 4 d. 

42. See Leome. 
Lemman, sb. beloved one, 19. 433, 

442. See Leofmon. 
Lende, v. to land, 18. 733. Icel. 

lenda. Cf. Londe. 
Lende, pr. s. &ubj. may cause (us) 

to arrive, may land us, 1 7 a. 122; 

17 b. 123. A. S. (ge}l<ndian, to 

land (trans.), from landian, to 

land (Leo), cp.. Icel. lenda, see 

above. See Notes. 
Lene, adj. lean, 15. 2106. A.S. 

hl(sne, used of Pharaoh's lean kine, 

Gen. xli. 3. 27. The original 



sense was probably leaning, stoop- 
ing, cp. the O. S. hlinon, to lean ; 
also A. S. klintan, to lean, hlanan, * 

1 to make to lean. See Skeat (s. vv. 
lean (i), lean (2)). 

Lenen, v. to lend, grant ; Lene, pr. s. 
subj. give, 19. 461. A. S. l&nan, 
to lend, grant, from l<kn, Idn, a 
loan. Cf.LenftjIlenetjIleaned. 

Leng, adv. comp. longer, 2. 74 i 19- 
732, 1115 ; Lengere, 7. 205 ; Len- 
gest, siiperl. 3 b. 49. A. S. leng, 
comp. ; lengest, superl. See Lang. 

Lengre, adj. comp. longer, 7. 96 ; 
8 a. 39. A. S. lengra. See 

Lengten, sb. spring, lent, 2. 102. 
A.S. lencten, Gen. xlviii. 7 ; cp. O. 
Du. lengizin (whence Du. lente), 
G. /3, see Weigand. 

Lengpe, sb. dat. length, 19. 910. 
A.S. lengd, in Chron. ann. 1122. 

Leode, sb. pi. people, 14. 27; dat. 
5. 1 145, I 155 ; 6 a. 79 ; Leoden, 
6 a. 569. A. S. leoda t pl. people ; 
O.S. liudi,pl.\ cp. O. H.G. Hut 
(Tatian, Otfrid), G. leute. 

Leoem, sb. brightness, 1.53. See 

Leof, adj. dear, beloved, 6 a. 139 ; 
8 a. 99; 10. 23; ii. 20; 170. 
253; 19- 324 7i; Leofe, pi. 
3 a. 83. A. S. leaf: O. S. liof; 
cp. O. H. G. Hob (Tatian, Otfrid). 
Cf. Lief, Lif, Lef, Leue, 
Lieue,Leoue ; Leofue ; Leuere, 

Leofliche, adj. desr, precious, 8 a. 

96, 125; 86. 118, 154; adv. 
with pleasure, 6 a. 25. A. S. 
leoflic, adj. (Beowulf); Ie6jtice t 
adv. (Grein). Cf. Leuelike. 

Leoflukest, adj. superl. dearest, 8 6. 

82. See above. 
Leofmon, sb. dear man, beloved one, 

6 a. 8 1 ; 8 b. 48 ; Leofmones, gen. 

s. 8 b. 136 ; Leofemen, pi. 3 a. 

97. A.S. leaf + man. Cf. Lef- 
mon, Leouemon, Leraman. 

Leofsum, adj. precious ; Leof- 

sume, 8 b. 122. See Lufsum. 
Leoftede, pt. s. flattered, caressed, 

8 b. 87. A.S. lyffettan (Leo). 
Leofue, adj. dear, 6 a. 107, 547 5 

6 a, 6. 157. See Leof. 
Lsome, sb. gleam, light, 4 d . 66 ; 

7. 77; 11.2; Leomene, 

4 G?. 65. A. S. ledma. Cf. Lsoem, 

Leor, &b. face, 7. 75 ; 10. 42. A. S. 

hledr, the cheek, also, the face: 

6. S. hlior, the cheek; cp. Icel. 

Jtlyr. Cf. Lure. 
Leoren, v. to teach ; Leore, I pr. s. 

66. 300; Leorde, pt. s. i. 126. 

See Leren. 
Leornin, v. to learn, 86. 31; 

Leornen,8 a. 21 ; Leorne]), pr. pi. 

9. 7 2 - A. S. leornian. Cf. 

Leornin-chnihtes, 56. />/. disciples, 

I. 122. A. S. leorning-cniht, Matt. 

v. i. See Leornin and Cniht. 
Leosen, v. to lose, 16. 351 ; Leos, 

19. 663. A. S. leosan, as in for- 

leosan, Lu. xv. 4 ; cp. Goth, liusan. 

Cf. Liese. 
Leoten, v. to permit, let, cause, 8 a. 

62 ; Leote, 8 b. 78 ; pr. s. subj. 7. 

44. See Leten (A). 
LeoUre, adj. wicked, i. 196. See 

Lsoue, <K#. dear, 8 a. 64; 14. 38; 

170. 45, 389 ; Leouere, comp. 8 a. 

93; 9. 196; 170. 30; Leouest, 

superl. 9. 284. See Leof. 
Loouemon, sb. a beloved one, 

lover, 8 a. 36. See Leofmon. 
Leoun, sb. lion, 18. 573. O. F. 

leon ; Lat. leonem. Cf. Leun, 

Leowinde, pr. p. living, 8 a. 100. 

See Liuien. 
-lepi, affix in Anlepi; -lepes, affix 

in Sunderlepes. A. S. -lepe, 

-lepig, -lypig, -Hpig, -lipe (Grein). 
Lered-men, sb. learned men, the 

clergy, 2. 5 7. See Leered. 


Leren, v. to teach. 9. 218; Lere 

14. 13; 18. 731; 19. 228, 241 

Leren, pr. pi. 40. 72; Leret) 

4 a. 75 ; Ler, imp. s. 14. 432 

Lerede, pt. s. 17 a. 304 ; Lerden, 

/>/. 7. 220; (2) Leren, v. to learn, 

12. 115; LereS, />r. s. 12. 101. 

A. S. Iceran, to teach; cp. Icel. 

tera, to teach, also, to learn. Cf. 

Learen, Leorin. 
LorneE, imp. pi. learn, 40. 17. 

See Leornin. 
Lea, adj. false; Lese, 17 a. 251. See 

Leas, Lessere. 
Les, sb. falsehood, 8 a. 77. See 

Lesen, v. to set free, redeem, 4 b. 

74; 8 a. 86; 17 a. 180; 176. 

182; Lesenn, 5. 1158; Lesde,/>/. 

s. 4<?. 7; Lese, imp. s. 10. 37; 

Lesed, pp. 10. 35. A. S. lesan, 

lysan (Grein) : O. S. losian ; cp. 

O. H. G. Idsen (Tatian, Otfrid). 

Cf. Ilesed. 
Lesing, sb. leasing, falsehood, 6 b. 

100 ; 16.848. See Leasung. 
Lesse, adj. less, 30. 26 ; adv. 4 6. 

19; 9. 71. See Lasse. 
Lessere, adj. comp. more false, 7. 

207. See Les. 
Lest, adj. superl. least, 170. 349 ; 

Leste, 9. 242. See Last. 
Lest, pr. s. lasts, 170. 169. See 

Lest, 2 pr. s. permittest, 14. 437. 

See Leten (A). 
Leste, imp. s. listen, 19. 473. See 

Leste, pr. s. subj. (it) may please, 

19. 870. See Lusten. 
Leste, conj. lest, 3 b. 1 1 2. For A. S. 

p$ l<espe = for the reason less that, 

see Skeat (s. v. lest). 
Lesten, v. to last, 170.152; Les- 

te)>, pr. s. 16. 333; 1 7 a. 385; 

LesteS, perform, 15. 2510; 

A. S.lcEstan,to perform, last; O.S. 

lestian, to follow out, peiform. See 


Lestinde, adj. lasting, 8 a. 144. 

See above. 
Let, pr. s. hinders, n. 56. See 

Lete, sb. behaviour, 16. 35. See 

Late (sb.). 
Leten (A), v. to let, cause, permit ; 

Let, /r. s. lets, 14. 453 ; 16. 919 ; 

pt'. s. caused, 46. 102; 5. 1236; 

15. 2195; 19. 1407; Lette, 66. 

441 ; 8 a. 29, 120; Lete, imp. s. 

le"fT'i7a. 154; imp. pi. 9. 147; 

Late]), 16. 1699. (2) Leten, to 

leave, forsake, neglect, 40. 80; 

14. 166 ; Lete, 13. 82 ; 17 a. 159, 

2 7 >3395 LeteJ), />r. s. 170. 128 ; 

Leten, 40. 31; Lete]), neg- 
lect, 1 6. 1771 ; Lete, pt. pi. left, 

19.1262; Leten, 170. 153, 263; 

17 & 270, 352; 19. 136; Lete, subj. 17 a. 301. (3) Leten, 

to let go, 2. 136; Lette, pt. s. 

gave up, 7. 32; 8 a. 87. Cf. 

Laten (A), Leoten, Lset, 

Leten (B),v. to pretend; Let,^/.s. 

15. 2168. (2) Leten, to esteem; 

Let, pr. s. 1 7 a. 73 ; Letest, 2 pr. s. 

8 a. 82 ; Lete, 17 b. 264 ; 

pr. pi. subj. 4</. 1 6. Icel. Idta, 

to behave, pretend, value. See 

Laten (B). 
Leten (C), v. to delay (cunctari), 19. 

939. A.S.latian. See Laten (C). 
Lette, sb. delay, 1. 144. For exx. 

see Stratmann. See above. 
Letten, v. to hinder ; Lette, pt. s- 

19. 1216. A. S. lettan. Cf. Let. 
Lettunge, sb. dat. hindrance, 7. 

181. See above. 

Lettres, epistles, written mes- 
sages, 9. 219; 15. 2527. O. F. 

lettre, letre Lat. litera, a written 

character (in the alphabet), literce, 

an epistle. 
Leue, adj. dear, 18. 431 ; 19. 951, 

1362. See Leof. 
Leue, sb. belief, 4 d. 54 ; dat. 4 b. 

69. See Leauen(i). 



Leue, sb. farewell, leave, 15. 2200; 

19. 463. See Leaue. 
Leuedis, sb. pi. ladies, 13. 3. See 

Leuelike, adv. kindly, 15. 2275. 

See Leoniche. 
Leuen (i ) , v. to permit, allow, grant ; 

Leue, pr. s. subj. 46. 71 ; 9. 305, 

347; 12.303,15.2532; 18.406; 

imp. s. 10. 26. A.S. lyfan (Grein). 

Cf. Lef. 
Leuen (2), v. to believe, 8 a. 40 ; 

86. 123; 19. 259; Leue, 19. 562 ; 

i pr. s. 8 a. 65, 88 ; LeueS, pr. 

pi. 176. 131; 19. 44. See 

Leauen (i), Leuunge. 
Leuen (3), v. to be left, to remain, 7. 

205. See Stratmann (s. v. Iceven). 

A. S. IfE/an, to leave. Cf. Lefde. 
Leuere, adj. comp. dearer, 170. 

260: 176.267. See Leof. 
Leun, sb. lion, 12. i; Leuns, pi. 

8 a. 140. O. F. Icon; Lat. leo- 

nem. See Leoun. 
Iieuunge, sb. believing, belief, 9. 7. 

See Leuen (2). 
Lewe, sb. shelter,io. 4. A.S.hleow, 

hied : O. S. hleo, protection, 

covering. See Skeat (s. v. lee). 
Lewe, adj. warm, 18. 498. For 

M. E. exx. see Stratmann. Icel. 

hlcer, hlyr, warm ; see above. 
Lewse, sb. pasture, 15. 1948, 2353. 

A. S. Icesu, in Chron. ami. 777. 
Leyd, pp. laid, 1 8. 408. A. S. gelegd. 

See Leggen. 
Leye, sb. flame, 17 a. 276. See 

Leyen, pt. pi. lay, 18. 475. A. S. 

lagon (Idgori). See Liggen. 
Leyke, v. to play, 18. 469. Icel. 

leika. See Lac. 
Leyn, v. to put, 18. 718; Ley]), 

pr. s. lays, 17 a. 255. See Leg- 
Le;e, v. to lie, 19. 1170. See 

Le3heJ?]?,^r. s. lies, tells falsehoods, 

5. 1183. See Ligen. 

-1633C (suffix), in Ormulum. Icel. 
-leikr or -le'iki, a Scandinavian 
suffix used for forming abstract 
nouns, much as -nes is used in 
A. S. ; cp. A. S. -lac (E. -lock} as 
in wed-ldc (wedlock), see Skeat 
(s. v. knowledge). Cf.Goddcund- 
lejjc, Mennisscle$3, Meoc- 
Ie33c, Mildherrtle33C, Modi- 
Ie33c, Schendlac. 

Le33esst, 2 pr. s. layest, 5. 1302 ; 
Le33de, pt. s. laid, 5. 1334. See 

Libben, v. to live, 7. 128; 8 a. 

16 ; 14. 203 ; 1 7 a. 200 ; 1 7 b. 33 ; 
Libbe, 170. 34, 202; 19. 63; 
Libbeb, pr. pi. 170. 204; Lib- 
b\nde,pr.p. 7. 122. A. S. libban : 

0. S. libbian. Cf. Liuien. 
Licame, sb. a body, i. 147; dat. 

1. 148. See Lie-name. 
Liccness, sb. likeness, 5. 1047. 

A. S. (ge)licnis. 
Lich, sb. a body, 8 a. 96 ; Liche, 

body, 15. 2488, 2515; form, 3 a. 

64 ; see Notes. 
Lic-hame, sb. a body, i. 48; 46. 

50, 74; ^d. 45; Licham, 12. 

301 ; Lichames, gen. s. 46. 91 ; 

17 b. 306. A. S. lic-hama; cp. 
O. S. lik-hamo, O.H.G. lih-hamo 
(Otfrid), Icel. likami. The word 
means properly ' body-covering.' 
Cf. Licame, Lycome. 

Lichamliche, adj. bodily, carnal, 

46. 25; ^d. 7; 176. 398; Lic- 

homliche, 170. 386. A. S. lie- 

Licht, sb. light, i. 61 ; 18. 534; 

Lict, 18. 576; Lichte, dat. i. 59. 

See Lint. 
Licht, pr. s. lights, 13. 50; Lict, 

imp. s. 1 8. 585. See Lihten (i). 
Lic-wurtSe, adj. pleasing, 7. 208. 

A. S. lic-wyrde (Grein). 
Lides, &./>/. lids (of the eyes), 1 2. 26. 

A. S. hlid, a cover, Mt. xxvii. 60. 
Lief, adj. dear, I. 68; 176. 203, 

254, 256, 261. See Leof. 



Lien, v. to lie, 2. 35 ; pr. pi. belong, 

2. 74. See Liggen. 
Liese, v . to lose, 13. 16; Liesed, 

/>r.s.loseth,i3. 127. See Loosen. 
Lieue, adj. friendly, 176. 44. See 


Lif, adj. dear, 15. 2427. See Leof. 
Lif, sb. life, i. 53; 4 <i. 74; 6 a. 

140. A. S. Uf. Cf. Lifue, Lyf, 

Liue, Lyue. 
Lif-daje, sb. dat. life-time, 6 b. 

276. A. S. lif-dceg, dies vitae 

Lif-lode, s6. mode of life, 46. 69. 

A. S. /'/+ /rt'c?, a leading, a course. 
Lift, arf/. left (hand), 4 a. 77. A. S. 

lyft, worthless, weak; O. Du. 

luft. See Luft. 

Lifue, sb. life, 6 b. 43. See Lif. 
Ligen, v. to tell a lie ; Ligeft, />r. 5. 

4<f. 23. A.S. leogan, pi. hag, 

pi. lugon, pp. logen. Cf. Lihen, 

Lisen, Lye, Le3he]?p, Lusen, 

Lowen, Iloje. 
Liggen, v. to lie, 9. 159; Ligge, 

6 a. 347 ; 9. 165 ; 19. 1295, 1308 ; 

LiggeS, pr. pi. 3 6. 33, 35 ; 6 a. 

164; LigeS, 4^.26; 176.283. 

A. S. licgan, pt. lag, pp. gelegen. 

Cf.Lien, Le;e, Leigen,Leyen, 

Lai, List, Lift, ToliJ>, Ileie. 
Ligten, v. to alight, descend, 12. 

32; 15. 1983; Ligt,//-. 15. 2252. 

See Lihten. 
Lihen, v. to deceive, 8 a. 78. See 

Lint, sb. light, 4 c. 61 ; 7. 75 ; n. 

5; 176. 282; Lihte, dat. 176. 

382. A. S. leoht. Cf. Licht, 

Li 3 t, Lyht, Loht. 
Lint, adj. easy, light, 9. 309 ; 17 b. 

316; Lihte, 7. 178. A, &. flfc/, 

leoht. Cf. Li 3 te, Lyht. 
Lihten, v. to enlighten ; Lihtede, 

pt. s. 2. 103 ; Liht, pp. 4c. 58. 

A. S. lihtan. 
Lihten, v. to make lighter, less 

heavy, 9. 221. From A.S. leoht 

(liht), levis. See Liht (adj.). 

Lihten, v. to descend, alight, 8 a. 

25. Cp. A.S. dlihtan, to jump 

lightly down from a horse. Cf. 

Ligten, Listen. 
Lihtlich, adj. easy, light, 16. 

1759; Lihtliche, adv. lightly, 

easily, 3 b. 46 ; 7. 114; 80.70; 

170.151; 176. 347. A.S. leoht- 

lici adj. ; leohllice, adv. Cf. Lijt- 


Lihtschipe, sb. swiftness, 7. 136. 
Likien, v. to please ; Liki, 16. 342 ; 

Likeste = Likest])u, 46.44; Likeft, 

pr.s. 4 c. 42; 7. 131 j 8 a. 49; 

liketh, is pleased with, 46. 47; 

Likede, pt. s. pleased, 6 o, b. 493 ; 

12.31; 15. 2299. A.S. liciati, 

to please. Cf. Lykyen. 
Likinge, sb. pleasure, 10. 27. See 
Liliej sb. lily, xi. 53; 16. 439. 

A. S. lilie, Mt. vi. 28 ; Lat. lilium; 

Gr. Xeipiov. 
Lim, sb. limb, 86. 83 ; Limes, gen. 

s. 7. 18; Limen. pi. 7. 227; 

Limes, 2. 31; IO. 5; T2. 57. 

A. S. Urn, pi. leomit ; cp. Irel. limr, 

pi. limir, ace. limn ; Urn ; />/. 

limar, boughs. 
Xiimel, adv. limb-meal, limb by 

limb, 8 a. 66 ; M. E. lim mele, 

membratim, Lajamon, 25618, 

lyme meele, Trevisa, 5. 281. A.S. 

lim madum (Leo), see Skeat (s.v. 

piece-meal} . 
Limpen, v. to happen ; LimpeU, 

pr. s. 9. 171 ; belongs to, 3 a. 3 ; 

7. 219. A.S. limpan, pt. lamp, 

pp. gelumpen. Cf. Ilomp. 
Lincol, .'6. Lincoln, 2.9. in. A.S. 

Lindcylne ; Lat. Lindi colonia. 
, Liiide, s6. linden-tree, 16. 1750. 

A. S. Itnd, a lime tree, a shield. 
Line, s6. cord, 18. 539. A. S. line, 

a cord ; Lat. lined, a string of 

hemp or flax, from limun, flax. 
Linene, adj. linen, 9. 156. A.S. 

linen, John xiii. 4, from lin, flax, 

linen; Lat. linum, flax. 



Linnen, v. to cease ; Linne, 2 pr. 

s. sub}. 19. 1004. A. S. linnan ; 

cp. O. H. G. bi-llnnan (Otfrid, 

Tatian). Cf. Lynne, Blinnen. 
Linnunge, sb. dat. ceasing, 7* 84. 

See above. 
Lipne, 2 pr. s. stibj. trust, 17^. 

25, 32. Cp. Northern E. ///>^e/t 

Xiippe, sb. pi. lips, 19. 1074. A.S. 

lippe, in Wright's Vocab. (the 

usual A. S. word for Lat. ' labia ' 

was ' weleras,' see Grein) ; cp. 

O. H. G.. leffura (Tatian). 
Lisse, sb. ease, rest, 170. 231; 

1 7 6. 239 ; dat. 3 a. 4. A. S. /I'M, 

ease, pleasure, favour, softness, 

from llde, gentle. See Lit$3. 
List, 2 pr. s. liest, 4 c. 64 ; 8 a. 

40. See Liggen. 
Iiiste, sb. craft, 19. 1495 ; dat. 

16. 172. A.S. list, art, skill; 

cp. O. H. G. list (Otfrid). 
Liste, pr. s. subj. (it) may please, 

19. 235. See Lusten. 
Listen, v. to listen, 4 d. 48 ; List- 

nede, pt. s. 15. 2137, 2222. See 

Lit, sb. stain, 15. 1968. Ice?. /i/r, 

colour, countenance, complexion, 

dye: Goth. wlits } the countenance. 

See Wlite. 
Lit, adj. little, 4 d. 13. See 


Lite, adv. little, 19. 942. 
Litel, adj. little, 2. 160, 164; 15. 

2041; 18.481; Litle, 16.1776. 

See Lutel. 
Litel, adv. little, 4^. 59 ; Litl. I. 

1 86. 

itle-hwile, adv. a little while, 17 6. 

331. See Lutle-hwile. 
Littl-eer, adv. a little before, 5. 

.18, s6. joint, 8 6. 83. A. S. JtfJ, 

limb ; O. S. US ; Goth, lithus ', cp. 

O.H.G. lid (Tatian, Otfrid). 

" /r.s. lies, 36.71; 4^.39; 5. 

1238 ; 8 a. 108 ; 16. 430 ; 19. 695. 

A.S. 118, pr. s. of licgan. See 


, adj. gentle, mild, 5. 1177; 

9. 331. A.S. lide: Icel. Unr : 

O.H.G. lind (Otfrid). 
LlSe, v. to listen ; Lifte, imp. s. 19. 

336 ; LiSeft, imp. pi. 25. 2077. 

See Lye. 
Li"5eliche, adv. gently, 9. 330. 

A. S. HSelice. 
LiCen, v. to go, 6 a. 82 ; LitJe, 6 a. 

78, 184; 66. 463. A.S. KSan, 

Icel. /^ffa; cp. Goth, leithan and 

O. H. G. Ma, to go through, 

suffer (Otfrid). 
Liftere, adj. bad, evil, vile, 9. 36. 

See LuUer. 
Li"5eri, pr. s. subj. lather, 8 a. 

96; 86. 119. O. Northumb. 

leSrian, to anoint, John xi. 2, from 

leddor, lather ; cp. Icel. lauftr, 

Li'Sien, v. to relax ; Lifle, pr. s. 

subj. 46. 21. A.S. US tan (Leo), 

from lide, gentle. See Lifte. 
Liue,s6. dat. life, 9. 32; 176.115; 

Liuen, 6 a. 50; Lines, gen. s. *] 

63 ; IT. 62 ; adv. alive, 18. 509. 

See Lif. 
Liue-notJe, s6. sustenance, 12. 275. 

Icel. lifnadr, mode of life : cp. 

also M. E. liuelode, lyflode, dona- 

tivum (Prompt. Parv.). 
Liiiien, v. to live, 2. 745 I 5* 

2044; 18. 355; Liue, 19. 97; 

Liuie, I pr. s. IT. 12 ; Liued, pr. 

s. 15. 1964; Liuen, pr. pi. 4 6. 

80; LiuieS, 36. 117; 7. 139; 

Liuiende, pr. p. 3 a. 47 ; 8 a. 25. 

A. S. lifian, also ft66a. Cf. Lib- 
ben, Lefien, Leowinde, Ilu- 

Liuns, s6. pi. lions, 8 6. 1 74. See 

Lisen, v. to tell lies; Li5e, 16. 

853; pr* s - subj. 16. 599. See 

Li3ere, sb. liar, 3 a. 60. A. S. led- 




Li3t, sb. light, 16. 198, 230; 19. 493 ; 

Lijte, dot. 16. 163, 198. See 

Lijte, adj. light, active, 19. 1015. 

See Liht. 

Lijte, v. to become bright, 19. 386. 
Li3ten,v. to alight ; Li3te, 19. 519, 

1431. See Lihten. 
Listliche, adv. easily, lightly, 16. 

854. See Lihtlich. 
Loc, sb. gift, offering, 40. 59; 

176. 73. See Lac. 
Locan, v. to look; Locan on, to 

observe, 3 a. 102 ; Loc, imp. s. 5. 

1573. A. S. Idcian. See Lo- 

kien. "- -- 
Lodlesnesse, sb. dat. innocence, 

46.119. See Lodlesnesse. 
Lodlich, adj. hateful, 9. 61, 133; 

16.91 ; Lodliche, 170. 277. See 


Lof, sb. loaf, 1 8. 653. See Laf. 
Lof, sb. (?) 2. 31. 
Lof, sb. praise, I. 1 06; Lofe, 5. 

1141, 1621. A. S. lof; O.S. 

lof; cp. O. H. G. lob (Tatian, Ot- 
frid). Cf. Silof. 
Lofenn, v. to praise, 5. 1269. A. S. 

lojian ; cp. O. S. lobon ; O. H. G. 

lobon (Tatian, Otfrid). 
Lof-song, sb. song of praise, u. 8 ; 

Loft song, 7. 136 ; Loftsonges, pi. 

7. 1 76. A. S. lof-sang. 
Loft, sb. praise. See above. 
Lofte, sb. on J>e lofte, in the sky, 

aloft, 17 b. 83; 19. 914. Icel. 

lopt. See Luft. 
Lofuie]?, pr. pi. love, 6 b. 572. See 


Loge, adj. low, \c. 29. See Lah. 
Loht, sb. light, I. 52. See Liht. 
Lok, sb. gift, 1 7 a. 72. See Lac. 
Loken, pp. fastened, locked, 18. 

429 ; Lokenn, 5. 1091. See 

Lokien, v. to look, observe, 3 a. 

10, 52; Lokin, to look, 7. 103 ; 

86. 65; Loki, to protect, 16. 

604 ; to take heed, 7. 44 ; Loken, 

to look, 9. 59, 267 ; to regard, 

9. 61 ; Loke, to guard, 8 b. 188 ; 

18.376; 19.1112; Loket, pr. s. 

13. 67 ; Lokie'5, pr. pi. look, 3 b. 

125; Lokede, pt. s. 60,6.494; 

IS. 679; 19. 883, 1093. A.S. 

locian, to look ; cp. O. H. G. 

luagen (Otfrid). 
Lokunge, sb. looking, 9. 264; Lo- 

kyng, dat. custody, 19. 342. 
Lome, adv. frequently, 17 a. 1 1. 

See Ilome. 

Lon, s6. land, 1 8. 340. See below. 
Lond, s6. land, 6 a. 175 ; 6 6. 82 ; 

9. 2; Londes, gen. s. 19. 190; 

Londe, dat. 6 a } b. 69, 365 ; Londes, 

pi. 13. 33; Londe, gen. pi. 6 a. 

66. See Land. 

Londe, v. to land, 19. 757. Cf. 

Londfolk, s6. countryfolk, 19. 43. 

A. S. landfolc, in Chron. ana. 

Londisse, adj. native, 19. 634. 966. 

A. S. lendisc, see Skeat (s. v. out- 


Lone, sb. loan, 9. 14. See Lsen. 
Long, adj. long, 6 a. 434 ; tall, 19. 

94; Longes, gen. s. 14. 162; 

Longe, adv. 1. 1 80. See Lang. 
Longen, v. to belong ; Longest, 2 

pr.s. 19. 1332 ; Longes, pr. s. 18. 

396. Cf. Bilong. 
Longenge, s6. longing, ^d. 55. 

A. S. langung (Leo), from langian, 

to yearn for, see Skeat (s. v. long 2). 
Longis, s6. Longinus, 10. 118. 
Lont, sb. land, 7. 105. See Land. 
Lord,s6. husband, 19, 308 ; Lordes, 

gen. s. lord's, 13. 34. See Hla- 

Lordinges, s6. pi. sirs, masters, 13. 

33. See Louerdinges. 
Lore, s6. teaching, 4 a. 68 ; 9. 5 ; 

12.101; 16.640; 19.442. See 

Lor-peawe, sb. dat. s. teacher, 4 d. 

3 ; Lor feawes, pi. teachers, 4 fl. 

67. Sec Lar-paw. 



Lot, sb. lot, 6 b. 75 ; Loten, pi. 6 a. 

74 ; Lotes, 6 b. 73. A. S. hlof, 

Mt. xxvii. 35, pi. hlotu, Lu. xxiii. 

34 ; also AZy# (Grein) : Icel. hluti, 

a share, also hlutr, a lot ; cp. O. S. 

hldt, and O. H. G. loz (Tatian, 

Lote, dat. s. face, look, 15. 2328 ; 

Loten, pi. gestures, 6 a. 546 ; 

looks, 15. 2258. See Late. 
Loft, adj. hateful, disagreeable, hos- 
tile, 43. 80; 170. 339; 18.440; 

Loe,66. 158; 11.93; 19-I34 1 ; 

Lofiere, comp. 46. 39 ; Lowest, 

superl. 9. 284. See La$. 
Lofllesnesse, sb. innocence, 4 b. 31. 

Cf. Lodlesnesse. 
Lo'Slich, adj. hateful, 6 b. 587 ; 16. 

32. See Ladlic. 
Loueliche, adj. pleasant, lovely, 

19. 454, 580. 
Louerd, sb. lord, 30. 6S ; 15.2259; 

ijab. 79; Louerdis, gen. s. 15. 

2272; Louerde, dat. 13. 106; 14. 

28; Louerdes, gen. pi. 40. 13. 

See Hlaford. 
Louerdinges, sb. pi. sirs, masters, 

1 8. 515. Cf. Lordinges. 
Louest, adj. superl. most pleas- 
ing. See Leof. 
Louh, adj. low, 9. 264. See 

Louien, v. to love; Louie ft, 

66. 114, 134; Louede, pt. s. 18. 

349; 19. 248; Loueden, pi. 19. 

1560. See Luuien. 
Louwe, adv. low, 9. 275. See 

Louse, /tf. s. sz/5;'. laughed, 19. 1518. 

See Lahhen. 
Lowe, adj. low, 173. 168; 19.417. 

See Lah. 
Lowen, pp. concealed by lying, 173. 

165. A. S. logen. See Ligen. 
Lowerd, sb. lord, 18. 621. See 


>?e, adv. low, 19. 1091. See 

md, adj. loud, 9. 43 j 1 6. 6 ; Lude, 

40. 31; 16. 314; adv. 3 a. 37; 

14. 439*; 16. 141 ; 19. 209, 1314. 

A.S. Mud; O. H. G. lut (Otfrid). 
Lufe, sb. dat. love, I. 31, 165 ; 3 b. 

128; 5. 1563. A.S. l-ufu ; cp. 

O. H. G. 7io6 (Otfrid). Cf. Luue. 
Lufenn, v. to love, 5. 1218; Lufeft, 

pr. s. i. 77. See Luuien. 
Lufsum, a<//. liveable, pleasant, 

8 a. 6, 99; Luffsumm, 5. 1547, 

1643 ; Lufsume, 8 b. 137 ; 10. 42 ; 

Lufsumere, comp. 9. 187; Luf- 

sumest, superl. 8 b. 83 ; A. S. Ivf- 

sum (Grein). Cf. Leofsum. 
Lufsumliche, adv. pleasantly, 8 a. 

69 ; Luffsummlike, 5. 1663. A. S. 

Luft, adj. left (hand), 9. 60. A. S. 

lyft, worthless, weak : O. Du. luff, 

laevus. In A. S. the word { wins- 

ter ' was used to express ' laevus.' 

See Skeat (s.v. left). Cf. Lifb. 
Luft, sb. air, sky ; Lufte, dat. 6 a. 

97; 8 a. 63; 17 a. 82. A. S. 

lyft : O. S. luft ; cp. O. H. G. luft 

(Otfrid). Cf. Lofte. 
Luken, v. to close, 12. 25. A.S. 

lucan, (pt. lead, pp. locen. Cf. 

Lunden, sb. London ; dat. Lun- 

dene, 2. 122, 179. 
Lundenissce, adj. of London, 2. 


Lure, sb. loss, 9. 12. A.S. lyre. 
Lure, v. to lour, look sullen, 19. 

2 70. From M. E. lure , the cheek ; 

A. S. hledr. See Leor. 
Luring, sb. looking sullen, 16. 423. 

See above. 
Lust, sb. desire; Lusst, 5. 1628; 

Luste, dat. s. ^d. 32; Lusstess, 

pi. 5. 1193, 1633. A. S. lust; 

cp. O. H. G. lust (Tatian, Otfrid). 

Cf. Hleste. 
Lust, sb. the sense of hearing, 9. 

63. A.S. ttysti Icel. hlust, the 

Lusten, v. to desire ; Luste, 1 7 Q- 

375; Lust, pr. s. lust him (used 



impersonally) it pleases him, 16. 
212; Luste, pt. s. hire luste, it 

pleased her ; Luste, imp. s. desire, 
19. 1283. A. S. lystan. Cf. 

Leste, Liste. 

Lusten, v. to give ear, 3 a. I ; 6 a. 
298; 14. 28; 16. 1729; 170. 
222 ; Luste, pt. s. 16. 143 ; Lust, 

imp. s. 16. 263, 267, 715 ; 19. 

337; Luste}>, imp. pi. 16. 1729. 

See Hlesten. 
Lusti, adj. joyful, 7. 175. From 

A. S. lusf, cp. O. H. G. lustig 

(Tatian). See Lust. 
Lustnefl, imp. pi. listen, 7. 218. 

M. E. lustnen, from lusten, to 

hearken. For the insertion of n, 

see Skeat (s. v. listen). 
Imt, adj. little, 9. 310; Lute, 9. 

191. A. S. lyt, a little : O. S. lut. 

Cf. Lit. 
Lutel, adj. little, 6 b. 412 ; 8 a. 82 ; 

9. 215; adv. if a. 47. A. S. 

lytel : O. S. luttil ; cp. O. H. G. 

luzil (Tatian, Otfrid). Cf. Litel. 
Luten, v. to stoop, bow down, 15. 

1926; Lutenn, 5. 1269; Lute'8, 6 a. 108 ; Lutten, pt. pi. 

15. 2163; Lutende,/>r./>. 9. 275. 

A. S. Wan, pt. ledt, pp. loten. 
Lutle-hwile, adv. a little while, 

7. 80; 1 7 a. 325. Cf. Litle- 

Lutlin, v. to diminish, 7. 186 ; 8 b. 

122 ; Lutlen, 8 a. 99. A. S. lytlian, 

to lessen. 
iLiiSer, adj. bad, evil, vile, 9. 291 ; 

LuSere, 8 a. 120; 9. 258; 10. 

Hi; 19.498; adv. 80.95; 86. 

1 74 J 9- 36. A. S. lySre ; cp. Icel. 

Ij6tr, ugly, bad. Cf. Leoflre, 

Lutferliche, acto. vilely, 8 b. 1 18. 

A. S. lydrelice. 
Luue, sb. love, 19. 750 ; 'dat. ^c. 

62 ; 4 d. 72 ; 15. 2361 ; 16. 207 ; 

T 9- 557; Luuen, />/. 170. 308; 

Luues, 176. 314. SeeLufe. 
Luuien, v. to love, 8 a. 6 ; 86. 36, 

72, 175; ii. 17; Luuen, 15. 

2042; Louie's, 6 a. 114, 

132; 7- 153; Luuede, pt. s. 2. 

183; Luueden, pt. pi. 15. 2152; 

Luuiende, pr.p. S b. 173 ; Luued, 

pp. 2. 196 ; 19. 304. A. S. lufian. 

Cf. Louien, Lufenn, Lofuie]?. 
Luvie-eie, sb. fear arising front 

love, reverence, 9. 337. A. S. 

htfu, love + ege, fear. See Eie. 
Luuelich, adj. lovely, loving, 9, 

331; Luueliche, 10. 84, no; 

Luuelike, 10. 113; Luueli, 10. 

104. A. S. liiflic. 
Luueliche, adv. lovingly, kindly, 

8 b. 87 ; 9. 87. A. S. luflice. 
Luue-wur'Se, adj. loveworthy, 8 b. 

Lujen, pt. pi. concealed by lying, 

17 b. 161. A. S. Itigoti, pt. pi. of 

ledgan. See Ligen. 
Lycome, sb. body, 170. 300. See 

Lye, v. to tell a lie, if a. 285; 

Lyejj, pr. s. deceives, 14. 162. 

See Ligen. 
Lyf, sb. life, 14. 44; if a. 167, 

242. See Lif. 
Lyht, sb. light, if a. 276; Lyhte, 

dat. if a. 75. See Liht. 
Lyht, adj. easy, 17 a. 310. See 

Lykyen, v. to please, 14. 43 ; 

Lyke, pr. s. subj. 14. 233. See 

Lyne, sb. net, 19. 68 r. Cp. Lat. 

linea, a thread, a net. 
Lynne, imp. s. cease, 19. 311. See 

Lysse", sb. if a. 229 (probably a 

mistake for ' Blysse,' see text b.) 

? pr. s. lies, 170. 277. A. S. 

lid. See Liggeu. 
Lype, v. to listen; Ly}>e, pr. pi. 19. 

2. Icel. hlySa. Cp. Lipe. 
Lyue, sb. dat. life, 19. 180,559; 

on lyue, alive, 19. 131; Lyuesi, 

gen. s. 14. 162; 170. 376. See 





Ma, adv. more, 2. 126. A.S. md. 
Cf. Mo. 

Macien, v. to make ; Macod, pt. s. 
2. 7 ; Machede, 1. 147 ; Maced, 
fp. 2. 33. A. S. macian, pt. s. 
macode, pp. macod. Cf. Makien, 
Maden, I-maked. 

Maden, pt. pi. made, 13. 70; 15. 
1992 ; Mad, pp. 15. 2415 ; Ma- 
dim (mad + him), made for him, 
15. 1966. See above. 

Madmes, sb. pi. treasures, 6 a. 
268 ; 14. 198. A. S. mdtfum, pi. 
tndfimas. O. S. mcQom, pi. mcfi- 
tnos : Goth, maithms, Corban ; 
cp. Icel. meifimar, pi. gifts, and 
M. H. G. mcdeme, a gift, fixed tax, 
G. meiden, a horse, see Weigand. 

Msehti, adj. mighty, 6 a. 130. A.S. 
meahtig (Grein). Cf. Magti, 
Mihti, Michti. 

Maei, pr. s. may, 6 a. 146. A.S. 
nuzg, I and 3 pr. s. ; wz/AJ, 2 pr. 
s. ; magon, pi. ; meahte, mi/it e, 
pt. s. ; mage, mcege, sitbj. Cf. 
Maht,Mai,Maig,Mai3, Mawe, 
Majie, Mei, Michte, Micte, 
Migte, Mist, Mo, Moucte, 
Muwen, Mujen, Mwue, Myht. 

Meei, sb. kinsman, 176. 29. A.S. 
mag, pi. mdgas : O. H. G. mdg 
(Tatian, Otfrid). Cf. Mai, Mey, 

Mseiden, sb. maiden, 6 a. 586 ; 
Mseidene, dat. 6 a. 580. A. S. 
mcegden (Grein). Cf. Maidenes, 
Maydnes, Maide, Meide, 

Meeingde, pt. s. confused, muddled, 
6 a. 584. See Mengen. 

Moen, pi. men, I. 26; Msenn, i. 
89. A. S. man, mettj menn (Grein), 
pi. of man. See Man. 

Msere, adj. comp. more, 6 a. 84. See 

3, sb. mass, the celebration of 

the Eucharist, also, a church fes- 
tival, 2. 69. A. S. masse, the mass, 

a festival ; Lat. inissa, the mass. 

Cf. Messe. 
Meesse-dsei, s&. eto/. mass day, 

festival, 2. 69. A.S. mcessed&g. 
Magti, adj. mighty, 12. 234. See 

Maht, 2 pr. s. mayest, 8 a. 54 ; 

Mahht, 5. 1488 ; Mahen, pi. may, 

7. 24 ; 8 a. 79 ; 8 b. 99 ; Mahe, 

7. 126 ; 8 a. 98 ; Mahe,/>r. s.subj. 

7. 143 ; Mahte, />/. s. might, 7. 77, 

8 1 ; 8 b. 65. See Msei. 
Mai, pr. s. may, 2. 38 ; 10.56; 16. 

735 ; 19- 562, 954. See Msei. 
Mai, sb. kinsman, 176. 187. See 

Maide, sb. dat. maid, 19. 1046. 

From A. S. mcegden. 
Maidenes, sb. pi. 19. 72, 391, 

1176. See Meeiden. 
Maig, pr. s. may, 12. So. See Msei. 
Main, sb. strength, 6 a. 579. A.S. 

mcegen; cp. Icel. megin. 
Maister, sb. master, 16. 1746; 

Maisteres, gen. s. 19. 621. O. R 

maislre; Lat. magistntm. Cf. 

Mayster, Meister. 
Mai3, pr. s. may, 1.38; 176. 88, 

124, 217. See Moei. 
Make,s&. mate, 5. 1276; spouse, 19. 

1451. A.S.(ge)maca',cp.O.S. 

(gi)mako, O. H. G. (gi)mahhd, 

uxor (Tatian), and Icel. mold. 
Makien, v. to make, 9. 43, 280; 

Makie, 7. 183; 86.129; 13.37; 

Maken, 40. 87; 5. 1480; 15. 

2134; 18. 463; Makie'd 1 , pr. pi. 

7. 104; Make'S, 4 . 69; 16. 

1648 ; Maken, 15. 2131; Makede, 

pt. s. 40. 5; 9. 365; 13. 132; 

18. 542; Makeden, pt. pi. 18. 

554; Makede, pi. 19. 1250; 

Maket, pt. s. 2. 91; 13. 136; 

Maked, pp. 4 a. do ; 18. 365;; 

Makie, imp. pi. 9. 196. A.S. 

macian. See Macien. 
Malisun, sb. malediction, 18.426. 



O. F. malison, maldeceon (Roque- 
fort) ; Lat. maledictionem. 
Man, sb. man, 18. 344; one, any- 
one, 2. 44; 12. 267; pi. I. 87. 

A. S. ma. Cf. M83n, Mon, 

Mann, Me, Men, Mannes, 

Man-a8as, sb. pi. perjuries, false 

oaths, 3 b. 36. A. S. mdn-dd ; cp. 

O. S. men-ed, and O. H. G. mein- 

eid, juramentum (Tatian). A. S. 

mdn, evil, wicked, also, wickedness. 

See Mone and Ath. 
Manciple, sb. purveyor, 9. no. 

O. F. mancipe j cp. O. It. man- 
ciple, slave, vassal, manciple, 

bailiff; Lat. mancipium, a slave, 

orig. possession, property. 
Man-cyn, sb. mankind, I. 115; 

Mancinn, I. 200. A.S. mancyn. 

Cf. Man-ken, Man-kin, Mon- 

kin, Mon-cun. 
Manere, sb. a kind, sort, 3 b. 90 ; 

manner, custom, 19. 550. Norm. 

F. manere ; Late Lat. maneria, 

species, kind, see Brachet. 
Manig, adj. many; Manige, 15. 

2180, 2278 ; Manije, I. 63, 127 ; 

Manie, 2. 80 ; manie a man, 15. 

2392; Mani, i. 31 ; 16. 1756; 

19. 1082 ; Manyes, gen. s. .14. 

413. A.S. manig. Cf. Moni, 

Manige-fold, adj. manifold, 15. 

2502 ; Manifeald, I. 53 ; Mani- 

fald, I. 91 ; Manifaeldlice, pi. 2. 

92. A. S. manig feald. Cf. Moni- 

Manis-whatt, sb. many a subject, 

5. 1028. 
Manke, sb. a mancus, ifb. 70. 

See Notes. 
Man-ken, sb. mankind, 13. 45 ; 

Mankenne, dat. 176. 307, 340. 

See Man-cyn. 
Man-kin, sb. mankind, 46. 6 1 ; 

4 c. 22 ; 15. 2406; Mannkinne, 

gen. s. 5. 1437 ; Mankunne, dat. 

1 6. 849. See Man-cyn. 

Mann, sb. anyone, 5. 1 1 79; Mannes, 

gen. s. man's, I. 83; 19. 21; 

Manne, dat. 5. 1457; pi. gen. 

12. 39; 16. 604; Mannen, I. 

185; dat. i. 178; 4d. 5, 5 (5; 

Manne, 16. 1641. See Man. 
Manne, sb. manna, 4 b. 99. 
Manrede, sb. homagp, 18. 484 ; 

Manred, 2. 13. 180. A. S. man- 

rxden, in Chron. ann. 1115. 
Manscipe, sb. homage, honour, i. 

73. Cf. Monscipe. 
Man-slechtes,s6.//. homicides, 13. 

123. A. S. mansleht, in Chron. 

ann. 793. Cf. Mon-sleiht. 
Mantel, sb. mantle, 9. 263. O. F. 

mantel, in Roland, 462. 
Mare, adj. comp. more, 2. 49, 62 ; 

adv. 30. 85; Mar, 2. 119; 5. 

1715; Mast, adj. sitperl. most, 

17 b. 112^; adv. 17 b. 7, 61. A. S. 

mdra, m<est. Cf. Msere, More, 

Moare, Meast, Mest, Moste. 
Mare, adj. famous, 6 a. 446. A. S. 

meere. See Mere. 
Marke, sb. dat. a mark, the name 

of a coin, 170. 294. A. S. marc. 
Maste, sb. mast, 19. 1025. A. S. 

Maftelefl, pr. s. talks, 9. 86, 115. 

A.S. maflelian, to harangue (from 

mcefiel, a council, meeting) ; cp. 

O. S. mahlian ; also Icel. mdl, 

speech in public ; whence Low 

Lat. mallum, parliament. 
Maumez, sb. pi. idols, 86. u, 124; 

Mawmez, 8 a. 9 ; Mawmex, 8 a. 

101. M. E. maumet; O. F. ma- 

humet, Mohammed, the prophet of 

Islam, also, an idol. 
Mawe, pr. pi. may, 14. 14 ; 17 a. 

181. A. S. magon. See Msei. 
Mayct, 2 pr. s. mayest, 1 8. 641. 

A. S. mint. See Msei. 
Maydnes, sb. pi. maidens, 1 8. 467. 

See Meeiden. 
Mayster, sb. master, 14. 52. See 

Majie, pr. s. may, i. 68 ; Mas$, 5. 


1040 ; Majen, pi 3 a. 45, 74. 
. SeeMsei. 
Me, one, people, men, I. II, 14 ; 2. 

25; 7. 51 ; 16. 32. See Men. 
Me, co/y. but, 8 a. Si. Cp. Dan. 

and Swed. men, but. 
Meane, adj. common, 7. 133. A.S. 

(ge)mcene; cp. O..H. G. (gi)- 

meini (Otfrid). 
MearretJ, pr. pi. mar, 86. 134. 

See Merrien. 
Meast, adj. greatest, 86. 171; 

Measte, 10. 60; Meast, adv. 8 b. 

26. See Mare. 
Mea$, sb. moderation, 7. 42.. A.S. 

mdd, fitness. Cf. Me$. 
Mede, sb. maiden, I. 108, 117. See 

Mede, sb. a mead, meadow, 16. 

438. A. S. mcid. 
Mede, sb. reward, 4 a. 83 ; 8 a. 

108; 12.99; J 8- 685; 19.470. 

A.^juedz O. Northumb. meord, 

John iv. 36 (Rushworth) : Goth. 


Med-3ierne, adj. venal, lit. yearn- 
ing for reward, 176. 260; Med- 

yorne, 17 a. 252. See 3ierne. 
Mei, pr. s. may, 8 a. 57; 86. 73. 

See Mffii. 
Meide, sb. maid, virgin, i. 162 ; 

Meiden, dat. pi. 1. 164. See 

Meiden, sb. maiden, virgin, 3 a. 55 ; 

7. 90; 9. 215; a chaste person 

(St. John), 8*6. 157; Meidenes, 

gen.s. 1. 193; 8 a. 13 ; pi. 9.226 ; 

Meidnes, 7. 120; Mei dene, gen. 

pi. ii. 21. See Meeiden. 
Meinfule, arf/. powerful, 86. 186. 

See Main. 
Meister, s6. master, 10. 55 ; Meis- 

tres, gen. s. 9. 217 ; //. 3 a. 26. 

See Maister. 

Meister, adj. chief, 3 a. 23. 
Meister, sb. business, 9. 72. O. F. 

mestier, a trade, occupation ; Lat. 

ministerium. See Mester. 
Meistre, sb. mistress, 7. 49. O. F. 

VOL. I. H 

tneistre, mahtre (Bartsch); Lat. 

magistra. Cf. Scol-meistre. 
Meistre'5, pr. s. is master of, 7. 37. 
MeiS-haft, s6. virginity, 86. 33 ; 

MeitJhades, gen. s. 8 a. 108 ; 86. 

133. A. S. mcegphdd. 
Mel, sb. meal, food, 15.2052, 2412 ; 

Mele, pi. meal times, 9. 308. A. S. 

mcel, a stated time ; cp. Icel. nidi. 
Mele, sb. meal, ground grain, 5. 

1552. A. S. melu\ cp. Icel. mjol 

(mel), and O. H. G. melo, farina 

(Tatian, Otfrid). 
Mel-stanent, s6. mill-stones, 

I. 197. A.S. myln, a mill; Lat, 

molina. See Notes. 
Men, men, 4 a. 10 ; 18. 647. 

_See Man. 
Menen, v. to complain, lament, 9. 

71; 1 7 a. 1 70 ; Mene, 176. 1 70 ; 

Mene]>, pr. s. bemoans, 14. 236. 

A. S. m<Enan t to lament, bemoan, 

from man, evil, see Skeat (s. v. 

moan). See Man-aftas. 
Menes,/T. s. means, 18. 597. A. S. 

mcenan ; cp. O.S. menian, O.H.G. 

Mengen, v. to mix; Menged, pp. 

10. 106. A. S. mengan : O. S. 
. mengian ; cp. Icel. menga. Cf, 

Meeingde, Meynde, Imengd, 

Menne, s6. dat. pi. men, 19. 1390 ; 

Mennes, #./>/. 5. 1 406. See Man. 
Mennissclesjc, s6. humanity, 5. 

1380. See -le$3c. 
Mennisscnesse, sb. humanity, 5. 

1373 5 dat. 5. 1185, 1359. A. S. 

menniscues, Bede (Bosworth), front 

mznnisc, human. 
Menske, s6. honour, 8 a. 109 ; 10. 

27. Icel. mennska, humanity, 

from menns&r, human. See above. 
Menskin, v. to honour, 86. 25 ; 

Mensken, 10. 62; Menske, 10. 58. 

See above. 
Meoc, adj. meek, 5. 1252. Icel. 

mjukr, soft ; cp. Goth, mnks (it* 

muka-modei, gentleness). 



Meocle35C, sb. meekness, 5. 1170, 
1546. Icel. mjukleikr, nimbleness. 

MeocliB, adv. meekly, 5. 1189. 
Icel. mjuMiga. 

Meocnesse, sb. meekness, 5. 1637 
Meoknesse, dot. 19. 1534. 

Meoster, sb. service, business, 7. 
1 01. See Mester. 

Meosure, sb. measure, 7. 51. O. F. 
mesnre ; Lat. mensura. 

Merche-stowe, sb. boundary-place, 
I. 145. A. S. tnearc, a march, 
boundary + stow, place. But see 
Notes. See Merk. 

Merci, sb. mercy, 30. 44 ; 15. 
2183; 18.483,491. O.f.merci, 
tnercid (Bartsch) ; Late Lat. mer- 
cedem (ace. of merces), a gratuity, 
pity, mercy ; in Lat. pay, reward. 

Mere, adj. glorious, 176. 393. A. S. 
mare, mere : O. S. mdri ; cp. 
O.H.G. mdri (Tatian, Otfrid). 
Cf. Mare. 

Merie, a<//. merry, 19. 1416. A. S. 
mcrg (Grein), also mirige, Gen. 
xiii. 10 ; probably of Celtic origin, 
cp. O. Ir. mer, quick, merry ; mer- 
aige, a fool (Windisch). Cf. 
Miri, Muri. 

Merk, sb. a mark, sign, 18. 604. 
A. S. mearc. 

Merrien, v. to mar ; MerriS, pr. pi. 
8 a. 109. A. S. merran (in com- 
pounds) : O. S. merrian, to hinder; 
cp. O. H. G. merren (Tatian, Ot- 
frid), also marrjan. Cf. MearreS. 

Mershe, sb. marsh, 16. 304. A. S. 

Mes (Me + hes), one + them, 176. 
259. See Me and Hes. 

Mes-aise, sb. discomfort, 10. 22. 
O. F. mesaise, mes = Lat. minus + 
aise, ease. 

Mes-auentur, sb. misadventure, 19. 
326. O. F. mesaventure, mes = 
Lat. minus + aventure. See Auen- 

Meshe, v. to mash, beat into a con- 
fused mass, 1 6. 84. 

Messe, sb. the celebration of the 
Eucharist, also, a church-f